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Full text of "Areopagitica. <24 November> 1644"

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JOHN MILTON. 

AREOPAGITICA. 

[24 November] 1644. 
PRECEDED BY ILLUSTRATIVE DOCUMENTS. 



CAREFULLY EDITED BY 

EDWARD A R B K R, 

AsMcciatt, King's College, London, F.R.G.S., &»c. 



LONDON : 

5 QUEKN SQUARE, lU.UOMSHUKV, W.C. 
£mt. S/mi, H*m i March 1869. {AU rights reserved, 

lAJl 






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617397 '^'^^,^t^,ii 

CONTENTS. 



Introduction, 
II July 1637. 
29 Januaiy 1643. 
9 March 1643. 
14 June 1643. 



Star-Chamber Decree, • 

Order of the Houfe of Commons, 
Order of the Houfe of Commons, 
Order of the Lords and Commons, 



3 

7 

24 
24 
25 
29 

31 
35 

36 
42 

49 



AREOPAGITICA. 
Argument. Introduaion, 
What books are ? • 

1. The origin, inventors and objedl of Book licen< 

cing, ..... 

2. What is to be thought in general of reading books, 

3. The Order [of 14 June 1643] conduces nothing 

to the end for which it was framed, 

4. The manifeft hurt it caufes :— 
(i) It is the greateft difcouragement and affront 

that can be offered to learning and to learned 
men, ...... 

(2) It is an tmdenraluing and yilifying of the 
whole nation ..... 

, (3) It brings difrepute upon the Minifters, 

ProoC — The fervile condition of learning in Italy, 
the home of licencing, .... 

5. It may prove a nuriing mother to fe^ . • 

6. It will be the ftep-dame to Truth :— 
(i) By difenabling us in the maintenance of what 

is already known, .... 

(2) By the incredible lofs it entails in hindering 
the fearch after new Truth, • • 

Defcription of the Engliih nation, . 
The power of Truth, . . . • 

An appeal for toleration, fpiritoal unity and peace^ 



55 

85 
59 

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61 



62 

66 
68 
74 
75 




• • • 



• • • • 



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AREOPAGITICA.* 

♦ 

INTRODUCTION. 

|HAT half-living thing — a book : may be re- 
garded in many ways. It may be confidered 
in conne6lion with the circuniflances which 
led to its conception and creation ; and in 
the midfl of which it appeared. It may be fludied, 
as exhibiting the moral intent, the mental power of 
its author. Its contents may be analyfed as to their 
intrinfic truthfulnefs or falfity. We may trace and 
identify its influence upon its own age and on fucceed- 
ing generationa. This is an apprehenilon of the mind 
of a book. 

More than this. We may examine its (lyle, its 
power and manner of exprefling that mind. The 
ringing collocation of its words, the harmonious 
cadence of its fentences, the flafhing gem-like beauty 
of ifolated paflages, the jufl mapping out of the 
general argument, the due fubordination of its feveral 
parts, their final mweaving into one overpowering 
conclufion : thefe are the features, difcovering, illumi- 
nating, enforcing the mind of a book. 

Much of what is in books is falfe, much only half 
true, much true. It is impoflible to feparate the tares 
from the wheat Every one, therefore — of neceflity — 
mud read difcriminatively ; often fifting and fearching 
for firft principles, often telling the catenation of an 
argument, often treafuring up incidental truths for 
future ufe ; enjoying — as delights by the way — what- 
ever felicity of expreflTion, gorgeoufnefs of imagination, 
vividnefs of defcription, or aptnefs of illuflration may 
glance, like funfhine, athwart the path : the journey's 
end being Truth. 

The purpofe through thefe Englifli Reprints is to 
bring this modem age face to face with the works of 
our forefathers. The Editor and his clumfy framework 



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4 Introduction, 

are unimportant and may be forgotten ; if but that 
the attention may be riveted upon the picture. The 
thought of thefe Englifh Writers is not dead. It 
flumbers. Underftand and then fubtradl from it, the 
local colouring of time and circiunftance, and it is 
in(lin6l with life: either the noxious life of foul 
delufive error, or the ethereal life of Truth. We 
have not, as yet, in all things attained to the height 
of our Predeceflbrs' far-feeing conception : and even 
the juft meafuring of their many miflakes and errors 
may not be time and effort thrown away. 

While there is very much for us to learn from our 
Ancients, both in what they faid and their manner of 
laying it ; there bids fair to be an increafing number 
of learners among the Modems. England is on the 
eve of a great Education, in the which the unlettered 
will become readers, the readers (ludents, the (ludents 
fcholars. With this wider variety and increafed 
power of the Englifli mind, the diligent fludy of the 
national literature and Language can hardly fail 
both to fpread and to deepen. The number of fuch 
learners tends therefore to multiply, until it (hall be 
reputed a difgrace to be ignorant of our mother tongue 
and of that which it enfhrines. 

There is alfo no better or more effential preparative 
for the outcome of a glorious literature in the Future, 
than the careful fludy and accurate appreciation of 
the treafures of the Pad. The prefent Merchant- 
Adventurer wiU efleem the * Englifli Reprints ' to be 
crowned with a happy fuccefe; if— -bringing thofe 
treafures, as from afar, to every one's home, and there 
difplaying them to a more public gaze — they ftiall, in 
however inlignificant a degree, tend to that happy End. 

The Printing Prefs, among many advantages, brought 
to its early poffeffors one conflant perplexity, which, 
however, aflumed different forms to diflferent minds. 
The power of every man, of every educated man, was 
by it immenfely increafed for good or for evil The 



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Inirodu^ion. 5 

true-hearjted grieved over the facility the prefe gave 
to the fpread of error. The high-bred defpot clmfed 
at the new power ceafeleflly exercifed by the low-bred 
intelledl in queftioning and adjufling his prerogative, 
in dellroying his would-be almightinefe in the mind of 
the people, in bringing him under Law. The minifters 
of the religions then extant were alarmed at the ready 
promulgation of those reftlefs inquiries into the ulti- 
mate nature of all things, left they ihould undermine 
the foundations of civil fociety and ecclefiaftical poUty, 
and fo reduce the world to chaotic confufion. Thus 
fome from confcientious duty, others with a wicked 
fatisfadlion, all unitedly or in turn, joined in clogging 
the Prefs, in curtailing the new power that God in His 
Providence had beftowed upon mankind. 

Dr. Johnfon, in his Life of Milton — which, either 
for wilful mifreprefentation or crafs incapacity to ap- 
preciate his fubjedl, is to his perpetual difcredit — fairly 
reprefents the views of one fide on the Libert}' of the 
Prefs, and through that the boundlefs liberty of 
human thought 

" The danger of fuch unbounded liberty, and the danger ot 
bounding it, have produced a problem in the fcience of Govern- 
ment which human underllanding fcems hitherto unable to folve. 
If nothing may be publifhed but what civil authority (hall have 
previoufly approved, power muft always be the (landard of 
truth ; if every dreamer of innovations may propagate his pro« 
jedb, there can be no fettlement ; if every murmurer at govern- 
ment may diffufe difcontent, there can be no peace ; and if eveiy 
fceptick in theology may teach his follies, there can be no reli- 
gion. The remedy againfl thefe evils is to punifh the authors ; 
for it b yet allowed that every fociety may puni(h, though not 
prevent, the publication of opinions, which that fociety fliall 
think pernicious ; but this punifhment, though it may crufh the 
author, promotes the book ; and u feems not more reafonable to 
leave the right of printing unrefUained, becaufe writers mav be 
afterwards cenfured, than it would be to fleep with doors unbolted, 
becaufe by our laWs we can hang a thief." • 

Milton's anfwer to this had been already written : — 

"Give me the liberty to know, to utter, and to ojpie freclv 

according to confcience above all liberties, f . • . Though all 

* Live* 0/ English PotU^ I., 153, 154. London, 1781. t pi 75. 



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€ Introdu^lian. 

the windes oi docJlrin were let loofe to play upon the earth, 
fo Truth be in the field, we do injurioufly by licencing and pro- 
hibiting to mifdoubt her flrengh. Let her and Falfhood grapple; 
who ever knew Truth put to the wors, in a free and open en- 
counter. Her confuting is the bed and sureft fuprefling. .... 
Who knows not that Truth is ftrong next to the Almighty; (he 
needs no policies, no flratagems, no licencings to make her vic- 
torious, thofe are the fiiifts and the defences that error ufes 
againfl her power.'** 

As we learn from his Second Defence — ^written ten 
years after the prefent work — the fingularly conceptive 
mind of Milton had grouped into one cycle fubjedls 
of no apparent immediate conne6lion. Epifcopacy, 
Divorce, Education, Freedom of the Individual, Free- 
dom of the Prefs, had, to his mind, one point of iden- 
tity and conta6l, one connedling link, — Liberty. 
This, a cardinal thought of his entire life, feems to 
have aim oft overpowered him, as he faw the break-up 
of the fyftem of the Thorough^ the nation uprifmg againll 
the tyranny of a few, and laying — for all coming ages 
— the foundations of that religious, civil, and domeftic 
Liberty, which it is our happinefs to enjoy. 

Of that great cycle, the * Areopagitica ' occupies but 
a fubordinate part, Milton claflifying it under domeftic 
liberty with divorce and education. He there alfo 
tells us, his purpofe in writing it : — 

** I wrote my Areopagitica, in order to deliver the prefs from 
the reftraints with which it was encumbered ; that the power of 
determining what was true and what was falfe, what ought to be 
publilhed and what to be fuppreflfed, might no longer be en- 
trufted to a few illiterate and illiberal individuals, who refufed 
their fancflion to any work which contained views or fentiments 
at all above the level of the vulgar fuperflition."t 

The following Orders, &c., have been reprinted; 
partly to give the groundwork of fa6l to Milton's argu- 
ment ; partly to fliow the ftrong hand and the blunt 
mind of our Anceftors in refpedl to the Prefs ; and 
partly to aflift to a more perfedl realization of the an- 
tagoniftic ideas and circumftances, in the midft of 
which, Milton conceived the * Areopagitica,' and so to 
render more ^apparent its beauty and originality. 

• p. 74. t Prof€ WoHU, I., 9j9 : St. John's Ed., 184& 



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DECREE 



OF 



Starre-Chamber, 

CO NCERNI NG 

Printing, 



Made the eleuenth day of July 
laft pajl. 1637. 



^ Imprinted at London by Robert Barker 
Printer to the Kings mod Excellent 
Maieftie : And by the Allignes 
oi John Bill, 1637. 



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In Camera Stellata coram Con- 

cilio ibidem, vndecimo die 
lulij^ Anno decimo tertio 
Caroli Regis. 

His day Sir lohn Bankes Knighty His Ma- 
iejlies Attoumey Generally produced in Court 
a Decree drawn and penned by the aduice of 
the Right Honourable the\jox^ KQCipeTo/the 
great Scale of England ^ the mofl ReuerendFa- 
ther in God the Lord Arch-Bifliop of Canterbury his 
Grace, the Right Honorable and Right Reuerend Father 
in God the Lord '^i^o^ of London Lord high Treafurer 
of England, the Lord chiefe luflices, and the Lord chiefe 
Baron, touching the regulating of Printers and Founders 
of letters, whereof the Court hauingconfideration, the said 
Decree was dire fled and ordered to be here Recorded^ and 
to the end the fame may bepublique^ and that euery one 
whom it may conceme may take notice thereof. The Court 
hath now alfo ordered. That the said Decree Jhall fpeedily 
be Printed, and that the same be fent to His Maiefties 
Printer for that purpofe. Whereas the tJiree and twentieth 
day of June in the eight ana iweniieih yere of the re^ne 
of the late Queene EHzabeth, ana before, diuers Decrees 
and Ordinances haue beene made for iJu better gpuemment 
and regulating of Printer s ana Printing, which Orders 
and Decrees haue beene founa by experience to be defe6liue 
in fome particulars; Ana diuers abufes have fithence 
anfen, and beene praHifed by the craft and malice ^wicked 
arid euill difpofed perfons, to thepreiudice of the publike; 
And diuers libellous, seditious, and mutinous bookes haue 
beene vnduly printed, and other bookes and papers with- 
out licence, to t/ie disturbance of the peace of the Church and 
State: For prcuention whereof in time to come. It is rum 
Ordered and Decreed, That the fetid former Decrees and 
Ordinances Jhall fland in force with these Additions, £x- 
planationSf cmd Alterations foltowir^, viz. 



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In Camera Stellata coram Con- 

cilio ibidem, vndecimo die lulii, 
Anno decimo tertio Carou 
Regis. 

Mprimis^ That no perfon or perfons what- 
foeuer (hall prefume to print, or caufe to 
bee printed, either in the parts beyond 
the Seas, or in this Realme, or other his 
Maieflies Dominions, any feditious, fcifma- 
dcall, or ofienlive Bookes or Pamphlets, to the fcandall 
of Reh'gion, or the Church, or the Government, or 
Govemours of the Church or State, or Commonwealth, 
or of any Corporation, or particular perfon or perfons 
whatfoeuer, nor (hall import any fuch Booke or Bookes, 
nor fell or difpofe of them, or any of them, nor caufe 
any fuch to be bound, ditched, or fowed, vpon paine 
that he or they fo offending, (hall loofe all fuch Bookes 
and Pamphlets, and alfo haue, and fuffer fuch correction, 
and fevere punifhment, either by Fine, imprifonment, 
or other corporall puni(hment, or otherwife, as by this 
Court, or by His Maiedies Commifsioners for caufes 
Ecclefiadicall in the high CommiOsion Court, refpec- 
tiuely, as the feveral caufes (hall require, (hall be 
thought (it to be inflicted upon him, or them, for fuch 
their offence and contempt. 

II. Item^ That no perfon or perfons whatfoeuer, 
(hall at any time print or caufe to be imprinted, any 
Booke or Pamphlet whatfoever, vnleffe the (ame Booke 



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10 A Decree 

or Pamphlet, and alfo all and eueiy the Titles, Epi(llc% 
Prefaces, Proems, Preambles, Introdudlions, Tables, 
Dedications, and other matters and things whatfoeuer 
thereunto annexed, or therewith imprinted, (hall be 
firfl lawfully licenced and authorized onely by fuch 
perfon and perfons as are hereafter exprefled, and by 
no other, and (hall be also fird entred into the Regiders 
Booke of the Company of Stationers ; vpon paine that 
euery Printer offending therein, (hall be for euer here- 
after di(abled to ufe or exercife the Art or Myfterie of 
Printing, and receiue fuch further punifhment, as by this 
Court or the high Commifsion Court refpectiuely, as 
the feverall caufes (hall require, (hall be thought fitting 

III. Item^ That all Bookes concerning the common 
Lawes of this Realme (hall be printed by the efpeciall 
allowance of the Lords chiefe Indices, and the Lord 
chiefe Baron for the time being, or one or more of 
them, or by their appointment ; And that all Books of 
HKlory, belonging to this State, and prefent- times, or 
any other Booke of State affaires, (hall be licenced by 
the principall Secretaries of State, or one of them, or 
by their appointment ; And that all Bookes concerning 
Heraldry, Titles of Honour and Armes, or otherwife 
concerning the Office of Earle Marfhall, (hall be licen- 
ced by the Earle Mar(hall, or by his appointment; 
And further, that all other Books, whether of Diuinitie, 
Phi(icke, Philofophie, Poetry, or whatfoeuer, (hall be 
allowed by the Lord Arch-Bi(hop of Canterbury^ or 
Bi(hop of London for the time being, or by their appoint- 
ment, or the Chancellours, or Vice Chancellors of either 
of the Vinuerfities of this Realme for the time being. 

Alwayes prouided, that the Chancellour or Vice- 
Chancellour, of either of the Vniuerfities, (hall Licence 
onely fuch Booke or Bookes that are to be Printed 
within the limits of the Vniuerfities refpedliuely, but 
not in London^ or eHewhere, not medling either with 
Bookes of the common I^w, or matters of State. 

IV. Item^ That euery perfon and perfons, which by 
any Decree of this Court are, or (hall be appointed or 



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of Starre-Chamber. ii 

authorized to Licence Bookes, or giue Warrant for im- 
printing thereof, as is aforefaid, (hall haue two feuerall 
written Copies of the fame Booke or Bookes with the 
Titles, Epiflles, Prefaces, Proems, Preambles, Intro- 
dudlions. Tables, Dedications, and other things what- 
foeuer thereunto annexed. One of which (aid Copies 
(hall be kept in the publike Regiflries of the faid Lord 
Arch-Bi(hop, and Bi(hop of London refpedliuely, or 
in the Office of the Chancellour, or Vice-Chancellour 
of either of the Vniuerfities, or with the Earle Marlhall, 
or principall Secretaries of State, or with the Lords 
chiefe luRices, or chiefe Baron, of all fuch Bookes as 
(hall be licenfed by them refpedliuely, to the end that 
he or they may be fecure, that the Copy fo liccn(ed by 
him or them (hall not bee altered without his or their 
priuitie, and the other (hall remain with him whofe 
Copy it is, and vpon both the (aid Copies, he or they 
that (hall allow the (aid Booke, (hall tedifie vnder his 
or their hand or hands, that there is nothing in that 
Booke or Books contained, that is contrary to Chris- 
tian Faith, and the Do<5lrine and Difcipline of the 
Church of England^ nor againft the State or Gouem- 
ment, nor contrary to good life, or good manners, or 
otherwife, as the nature and fubiedl of the work (hall 
require, which licenfe or approbation (hall be im- 
printed in the beginning of the fame Booke, with the 
name, or names of him or them that (hall authorize or 
licenfe thefame,for a tedimonie of the allowance thereof. 
V. lUnty That every Merchant of bookes, and per- 
fon and perfons whatfoeuer, which doth, or hereafter 
(hall buy, or import, or bring any booke or bookes 
into this Realme, from any parts beyond the Seas, 
(hall before fuch time as the (ame book or books, or 
any of them be deliuered forth, or out of his, or their 
hand or hands, or expofed to (ale, giue, and prefent 
a true Catalogue in writing of all and euery fuch booke 
and bookes vnto the Lord Arch-Bi(hop of Canterbury^ 
or Lord Bi(hop of London for the time being, vpon 
paine to haue and fuffer fuch puni(hment for offending 



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19 A Decree 

herein, as by this Court, or by the laid high Com* 
mifsioQ Court refpe<5liuely, as the feueral caufes (hall 
require, fhall be thought Atting. 

VI. Item^ That no Merchant, or other perfon or 
perfons whatfoeuer, which fhall import or bring any 
book or books into the kingdome, from any parts 
beyond the Seas, (hall prefume to open any Dry-fats, 
Bales, Packs, Maunds, or other Fardals of books, or 
wherein books are ; nor (hall any Searcher, Wayter, or 
other Officer belonging to the Cuftome-houfe, vpon 
pain of loofmg his or their place or places, fuffer the 
lame to pa(re, or to be deliuered out of their hands or 
cuRody, before fuch time as the Lord Arch-Bifhop of 
Canterbury^ or Lord Bi(hop of London^ or one of them 
for the time being, haue appointed one of their Chap- 
lains, or fome other learned man, with the Mafler and 
Wardens* of the Company of Stationers, or one of 
them, and fuch others as they (hall call to their afsifl- 
ance, to be prefent at the opening thereof, and to view 
the fame: And if there (hall happen to be found 
any feditious, fchifmaticall or offenfiue booke or 
bookes, they (hall forthwith be brought vnto the (aid 
Lord Arch-bi(hop of Canterbury^ Lord Bi(hop oi London 
for the time being, or one of them, or to the High 
Commifsion Office, to the end that as well the offendor 
or offendors may be puni(hed by the Court of Star 
Chamber, or the high Commidsion Court refpedliuely, 
as the feuerall caufes (hall require, according to his or 
their demerit; as alfo that fuch further courfe and 
order may be taken concerning the (ame booke or 
bookes, as (hall bee thought fitting. 

VII. Item^ That no perfon or perfons (hall within 
this Kingdome, or elfewhere imprint, or caufe to be im- 
printed, nor (hall import or bring in, or caufe to be 
imported or brought into this Kingdome, from, or out 
of any other His Maiedies Dominions, nor from other, 
or any parts beyond the Seas, any Copy, book or 
books, or pare of any booke or bookes, printed beyond 
the feasy or elfewhere, which the (aid Company of 



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of StarrC'Chambcr. 13 

Stationers, or any other perfon or perfons haue, or 
(hall by any Letters Patents, Order, or Entrance in 
their Regifler book, or otherwife, haue the right, 
priuiledge, authoritie, or allowance foly to print, nor 
(hall bind, ditch, or put to fale, any fuch booke or 
bookes, vpon paine of lo(re and forfeiture of all the 
(aid bookes, and of fuch Fine, or other puni(hment, 
for euery booke or part of a booke fo imprinted or 
imported, bound, ftitched, or put to fale, to be leuyed 
of the party fo offending, as by the power of this 
Court, or the high Commifsion Court refpedliuely, as 
the feverall caufes (hall require, (hall be thought fit 

VIII. Item^ Euery perfon and perfons that (hall 
hereafter Print, or caufe to be Printed, any Bookes, 
Ballads, Charts, Portraiture, or any other thing or 
things whatfoeuer, (hall thereunto or thereon Print and 
fet his and their owne name or names, as alfo the 
name or names of the Author or Authors, Maker or 
Makers of the (ame, and by, or for whom any fuch 
booke, or other thing is, or (hall be printed, vpon pain 
of forhture of all fuch Books, Ballads, Chartes, Por- 
traitures, and other thing or things, printed contrary 
to this Article; And the pre(res, Letters and other 
indruments for Printing, wherewith fuch Books, bal- 
lads, Chartes, Portraitures, and other thing or thmgs 
(hall be printed, to be defaced and made vnferuiceable, 
and the party and parties fo offending, to be fined, 
imprifoned and haue fuch other corpordl puni(hment, 
of otherwife, as by this Honourable Court, or the (aid 
high Commifsion refpe<5liuely, as the feuerall caufes 
(hall require, (hall be thought fit 

IX. Iteniy That no perfon or perfons whatfoeuer, 
(hall hereafter print, or caufe to be printed, or (hall 
forge, put, or counterfeit in, or vpon any booke or 
books, the name, title, marke or vinnet of the Com- 
pany or Society of Stationers, or of any particular 
perfon or perfons, which hath or (hall haue lawful! 
priuiledge, authoritie, or allowance to print the fame, 
without the confent of the (aid Company, or party or 



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14 A Decree 

parties that are or fhall be fo priuiledged, authorized, 
or allowed to print the lame booke or books, thing or 
things, firll had and obtained, vpon paine that euery 
perfon or perfons fo offending, (hall not onely loofe all 
fuch books and other things, but (hall alfo haue, and 
fuffer fuch puni(hment, by imprifonment of his body, 
fine, or otherwife, as by this Honourable Court, or high 
Commifsion Court refpedliuely, as thefeuerallcaufes(hall 
require, it (hall be to him or them limited or adiudged. 

X. Item^ that no Haberdalher of fmall wares, 
Ironmonger, Chandler, Shop-keeper, or any other 
perfon or perfons whatsoeuer, not hauing beene feuen 
yeeres apprentice to the trade of a Book-feller, Printer, 
or Book-binder, (hall within the citie or fuburbs of 
London, or in any other Corporation, Markct-towne, 
or elfwhere, receive, take or buy, to barter, fell againe, 
change or do away any Bibles, Teflaments, Halm- 
books, Primers, Abcees, Almanackes, or other booke 
or books whatfoeuer, vpon pain of forfeiture of all fuch 
books fo receiued, bought or taken as aforefaid,and fuch 
other punilhment of the parties fo offending, as by this 
Court, or the (aid high Commifsion Court refpedliuely, 
as the feverall caufes (hall require, (hall be thought meet 

XI. Item^ for that Printing is, and for many yeers 
hath been an Art and manufacture of this kingdome, 
for the better incouraging of Printers in their honed, 
and iud endeauours in their profefsion, and preuention 
of diuers libels, pamplilets, and feditious books 
printed beyond the iieas in £ngli(h, and thence trans- 
ported hither; 

It is further Ordered and Decreed, that no Mer- 
chant, Bookfeller, or other perfon or perfons whatfoeuer, 
(hall imprint, or caufe to be imprinted, in the parts 
beyond the feas or elfwhere, nor (hall import or bring, 
nor willingly afsift or confent to the importation or 
bringing from beyond the feas into this Realme, any 
Engli(h bookes, or part of bookes, oi* bookes what- 
foeuer, which are or (hall be, or the greater or more 
part whereof is or (hall be Englifli, or of the Engli(h 



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of Siarre- Chamber, 



«5 



tODgue, whether the feme book or bookes haue been 
here formerly printed or not, vpon pain of the for- 
feiture of all fuch Englifli bookes fo imprinted or im- 
ported, and fuch further cenfure and puniihment, as 
by this Court, or the laid high Commifeion Court re- 
fpedtiuely, as the feuerall caufes fhall require, ihall be 
thought meet 

XII. Item^ That no (Iranger or forreigner whatfocuer, 
be fuffered to bring in, or vent here, any booke or 
bookes printed beyond the feas, in any language what- 
foeuer, either by themfelues or their fecret Factors, 
except fuch onely as bee free Stationers of London^ an'^ 
fuch as haue beene brought vp in that profefsion, and 
haue their whole meanes of fubfiilance, and liuelihood 
depending thereupon, vpon paine of confifcation of all 
fuch Books fo imported, and fuch further penalties, as 
by this Court, or the high Commifeion Court refpedl- 
iuely, as the feuerall caufes (hall require, (hall be 
thought fit to be impofed. 

XIII. Item, That no perfon or perfons within the 
Citie of Londoh^ or the hberties thereof, or elfewhere, 
fhall eredl or caufe to be eredled any Preffe or Print- 
ing-houfe, nor (hall demife, or let, or fuffer to be held 
or vfed, any houfe, vault, feller, or other roome what- 
foeuer, to, or by any perfon or perfons, for a Printing- 
houfe, or place to print in, vnlefse he or they which 
(hall fo demife or let the fame, or fuffer the fame to be 
fo vfed, fhall firfl giue notice to the faid Mafler and 
Wardens of the Company of Stationers for the time 
being, of fuch demife, or fuffering to worke or print 
there, vpon paine of imprifonment, and fuch other 
punifhment as by this Court, or the faid high Com- 
mifsion Court refpedliuely, as the feuerall Caufes fhall 
require, fhall bee thought fit 

XIV. Item, That no loyner, or Carpenter, or other 
perfon, fhall make any printing-Preffe, no Smith fhall 
forge any Iron- worke for a printing-Preffe, and no 
Founder fhall cafl any Letters for any perfon or per- 
fons whatfoeuer, neither fhall any perfon or perfons 
bring, or caufe to be brought in from any parts beyond 



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i6 A Decree 

the Seas, any Letters Founded or Caft, nor buy any 
fuch Letters for Printing, Vnlefle he or they refpedl- 
iuely (hall firft acquaint die faid Mailer and Wardens^ 
or fome of them, for whom the fame Prefle, Iron-works, 
or Letters, are to be made, forged, or caflt, vpon paine 
of fuch fine and punifhment, as this Cotut, or the high 
Commifsion Court refpedliuely, as the feuerall caufes 
(hall require, fhall thinke fit 

XV. Itepiy The Court doth declare, that as formerly, 
fo now, there (hall be but Twentie Mafler Printers 
allowed to haue the vfe of one Prefle or more, as is 
afler fpecified, and doth hereby nominate, allow, and 
admit thefe perfons whofe names hereafter follow, to 
the number of Twentie, to have the vfe of a Prefle, or 
Prefles and Printing-houfe, for the time being, viz. Felix 
Kingflone^ Adam ^ip, Thomas Purfoot, Miles Flejher^ 
Thomas Harper ^ John Beale^ John Legate Robert Youngs 
John Haviland^ George Miller^ Richard Badger^ Thomas 
Cotes ^ Bernard A If op ^ Richard Bijhop, Edward Griffin^ 
Thomas Purflo^v^ Richard Ho^kinfonney John Daw/on^ 
John Raworthy Marmaduke Parfons, And further, the 
Court doth order and decree. That it (hall be lawfull for 
the Lord Arch-Bifliop of Canterbury^ or the Lord 
Bifhop of London^ for the time being, taking to him or 
them fix other high CommiOsioners, to fupply the place 
or places of thofe which are now already Printers by this 
Court, as they (hall fall void by death, or Cenfure, or 
otherwife : Prouided that they exceed not the number 
of Twentie, befides His Maieflies Printers, and the 
Printers allowed for the Vniuerfities. 

XVI. Item^ That eueiy perfon or perfons, now al- 
lowed or admitted to have the vfe of a PrefTe, and 
Printing-houfe, (hall within Ten dayes after the date 
hereof, become bound with fureties to His Maieflie in 
the high Commifsion Court, in the fum of three hun- 
dred pounds, not to print or fufler to be printed in his 
houfe or Preffe, any booke, or bookes whatfoeuer, but 
fuch as (hall from time to time be lawfully licenfed, 
and that the like Bond fhall be entred into by all, and 
eueiy perfon and perfons, that hereafter (hall be admit- 



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of Starr e- Chamber, 1 7 

ted, or allowed to print, before he or they be fuffered 
to haue the vfe of a Preffe. 

XVII. lUm^ That no allowed Printer fhall keep aboue 
two Preffes, vnleffe he hath been Mafter or vpper War- 
den* of his Company, who are thereby allowed to keep 
three Preffes and no more, vnder paine of being dis- 
abled for euer after to keepe or vfe any Preffe at all, 
vnleffe for fome great and fpecial occafion for the pub- 
lique, he or they haue for a time leaue of the Lord Arch- 
Biihop of Canterbury ^ or Lord Bifliop oi London for the 
time being, to have or vfe one, or more aboue the fore- 
laid number, as their Lordfliips, or either of them fhall 
thinke fit And whereas there are fome Mafter Printers 
that haue at this prefent one, or more Preffes allowed 
them by this Decree, the Court doth further order and 
declare. That the Mafter and Wardens of the Company 
of Stationers, doe foorthwith certifie the Lord Arch- 
Biftiop of Canterbury^ or the Lord Bifliop of London^ 
what number of Preffes each Mafter Printer hath, that 
their Lordfliips or either of them, taking vnto them fix 
other high Commiffioners, may take fuch prefent order 
for the fupprefsing of the fupemumerarie Preffes, as 
to their Lordfhips, or to either of them fhall feem beft. 

XVIII. Item, That no perfon or perfons, do hereafter 
reprint, or caufe to be reprinted, any booke dr bookes 
whatfoeuer (though formerly printed with licence) with- 
out being reuiewed, and a new Licence obtained for 
the reprinting thereof. Alwayes provided, that the Sta- 
tioner or Printer be put to no other charge hereby, but 
the bringing and leauing of two printed copies of the 
book to be printed, as is before expreffed of written 
Copies, with all fuch additions as the Author hath made. 

XIX^ Itemy The Court doth declare, as formerly, fo 
now. That no Apprentices be taken into any printing- 
houfe, otherwife then according to this proportion fol- 
lowing, (z//>.)eueryMafter-Printer that is, or hath beene 
Mafler or vpper Warden of his Company, may haue 
three Apprentices at one time and no more, and euery 
Mafter-printer that is of the Liuerie of his Company; 

B 



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i8 A Decree 

may have two Apprentices at one time and no more, 
and euery Mafler-printer of the Yeomanry of the 
Company may haue one Apprentice at one time and 
no more, neither by Copartnerihip, binding at the 
Scriueners, nor any other way whatfoeuer; neither 
(hall it be lawfull for any Mailer-Printer when any 
Apprentice or Apprentices, (hall run or be put away, 
to take another Apprentice, or other Apprentices in 
his or their place or places, vnleffe the name or names 
of him or them fo gone away, be raced out of the Hall- 
booke, and never admitted again, vpon paine of be- 
ing for euer difabled of the vfe of a Prefle or printing- 
houfe, and of fuch further punilhment, as by this Court 
or the high Commission Court refpectiuely, as the feuerall 
caufes (hall require, fhall be thought fit to be impofed, 
XX. Jtem^ The Court doth hkewife declare, that 
becaufe a great part of the fecret printing in comers 
hath been caufed for want of orderly imployment for 
Journeymen printers, Therefore the Court doth hereby 
require the Mafler and Wardens of the Company of 
Stationers, to take efpeciall care that all loumeymen- 
printers, who are free of the Company of Stationers, 
(hall be fet to worke, and imployed within their owne 
Company of Stationers ; for which purpofe the Court 
doth alfo order and declare, that if any loumeyman- 
jJrinter, and free of the Company of Stationers, who is 
of honed, and good behauiour, and able in his trade, 
do want imployment, he (hall repaire to the Mader and 
Wardens of the Companie of Stationers, and they or 
one of them, taking with him or them one or two of 
the Mafler Printers, (hall go along with the (aid 
loumeyman-Printer, and (hall offer his feruice in the 
fird place to the Mader Printer vnder whom he 
ferued his Apprentifhip, if he be liuing, and do con- 
tinue an allowed Printer, or otherwife to any other 
Mader Printer, whom the Mader and Wardens of the 
faid Company (hall thinke fit And euery Mader Printer 
(hall bee bound to imploy one loumeyman, being fo 
offered to him, and more, if nc^ (hall fo require, 



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of Starre-Chambcr, 19 

and it (hall be fo adiudged to come to hfs (hare, ac- 
cording to the proportion of his Apprentices and im- 
ployments, by the Mafler and Wardens of the Company 
of Stationers, although he the faid Mafter Printer with 
his Apprentice or Apprentices be able without the helpe 
of the laid Journeyman or loumeymen to difcharge 
his owne worke, vpon paine of fuch punifliment, as by 
this Court, or the high Commifision Court refpectiuely, 
as the feuerall caufes ihall require, (hall be thought fit 

XXI. Item, The Court doth declare, That if the 
Mailer and Wardens of the Companie of Stationers, or 
any of them, Ihall refufe or negledl to go along with 
any honell and fufficient loumey-man Printer, fo 
deliring their alsillance, to finde him imployment, vpon 
complaint and proofe made thereof, he, or they fo 
offending, Ihall fuffer imprifonment, and fuch other 
punilhment, as by this court, or the high Commifsion 
Court refpectiuely, as the feuerall caufes Ihall require, 
(hall be thought fit to be impofed. But in cafe any 
Mailer Printer hath more imployment then he is able 
to difcharge with helpe of his Apprentice or Apprexk- 
tices, it (hall be lawful for him to require the helpe of 
any loumey-man or loumey-men-Printers, who are 
not imployed, and if the said Journeyman, or loumey- 
men-Printers so required, (hall refufe imployment, or 
negledl it when hee or they haue vndertaken it, he, or 
they (hall fuflfer imprifonment, and vndeigo fuch 
punilhment, as this Court Ihall thinke fit 

XXII. Item, The Court doth hereby declare, that 
it doth not hereby rellraine the Printers of either of 
the Vniuerfities from taking what number of Ap- 
prentices for their femice in printing there, they them- 
felues Ihall thinke fit Prouided alwayes, that the faid 
Printers in the Vniuerfities Ihall imploy all their owne 
loumey-men within themfelues, and not fuffer any of 
their (aid loumey-men to go abroad for imployment 
to the Printers of London (vnlefle vpon occafion fome 
Printers of London defire to imploy fome extraordinary 
Workman or Workmen amongH tiiem, without pre- 



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20 A Decree 

iudice to their owne lourneymen, who are Freemen) 
vpon fuch penalty as the Chancellor of either of the 
Vniuerfities for the time being, fhall thinke fit to inflict 
vpon the delinquents herein. 

XXIII. Item^ That no Mafler-printer fhall imploy 
cither to worke at the Cafe, or the Prefle, or otherwife 
about his printing, any other perfon or perfons, then 
fuch onely as are Free-men, or Apprentices to the 
Trade or myflery of Printing, vnder paine of being 
difabled for euer after to keep or vfe any Preffe 
or Printing houfe, and fuch further punifhment as by 
this Court, or the high Commifsion Court refpectiuely, 
as the feuerall caufes (hall require, (hall bee thought 
fit to be impofed. 

XXIV. Item, The Court doth hereby declare their 
firme refolution, that if any perfon or perfons, that is 
not allowed Printer, (hall hereafter prefimae to fet vp 
any Preflfe for printing, or (hall worke at any fuch 
Preflfe, or Set, or Compof^ any Letters to bee wrought 
by any fuch Preflfe; hee, or they fo offending, (hall from 
time to time, by the Order of this Court, bee fet in the 
Pillorie, and Whipt through the Citie of London, and 
fuflfer fuch other punifhment, as this Court (hall Order 
or thinke fit to inflict vpon them, vpon Complaint or 
proofe of fuch offence or offences, or fhalbe otherwife 
puniflied, as the Court of High Commifsion (hall thinke 
fit, and is agreeable to their Commifision. 

XXV. Item, That for the better difcouery of printing 
in Comers wiUiout licence ; The Mafler and Wardens 
of the Company of Stationers for the time being, 
or any two licenfed Mafler-Printers, which (hall be 
appointed by the Lord Arch-Bifliop of Canterbury, or 
Lord B. of London for the time being, (hall haue 
power and authority, to take vnto themfelues fuch 
afTiflance as they fhall think needfull, and to fearch 
what houfes and fhops (and at what time they fhall 
think fit) efpecially Printmg-houfes, and to view what 
is in printing, and to call for the licenfe to fee 
whether it be licenced or no, and if not, to feize vpon 



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of Siarre-Chamber. 2 1 

fo much as is printed, together with the feuerall 
offenders, and to bring them before the Lord Arch- 
Bifliop of Canterbury ^ or the Lord Bifliop of London for 
the time being, that they or either of them may take 
fuch further order therein as (hall appertaine to luflice. 

XXVI. Itemy The Court doth declare, that it fhall 
be lawful! alfo for the faid Searchers, if vpon fearch 
they find any book or bookes, or part of booke or 
books which they fuspedl to containe matter in it 
or them, contrary to the dodlrine and difcipline of the 
Church of England^ or againfl the State and Gouem- 
ment, vpon fuch fuspition to feize upon fuch book 
or books, or part of booke or books, and to bring it, 
or them, to the Lord Arch-Bifliop of Canterbury^ or 
the Lord Bilhop of London for the time being, who 
(hall take fuch further courfe therein, as to their Lord- 
(hips, or either of them fhall feeme fit 

XXVIL Item, The Court doth order and declare, 
that there fhall be foure Founders of letters for print- 
ing allowed, and no more, and doth hereby nominate, 
allow, and admit thefe perfons, whofe names here- 
after follow, to the number of foure, to be letter- 
Founders for the time being, (viz) John Grismand, 
Thomas Wright, Arthur Nichols, Alexander Fifeild, 
And further, the Court doth Order and Decree, that it 
fhall be lawfull for the Lord Arch-bifhop of Canter- 
bury, or the Lord Bifhop of London for the time being, 
taking unto him or them, fix other high Commifsioners, 
to fupply the place or places of thefe who are now 
allowed Foun4ers of letters by this Court, as they fhall 
fall void by death, cenfure, or otherwife. 

Prouided, that they exceede not the number of 
foure, fet downe by this Court And if any perfon or 
perfons, not being an allowed Founder, fhall notwith- 
flanding take vpon him, or them, to Found, or cafl 
letters for printing, vpon complaint and proofe made 
of such offence, or offences, he, or they fo ofiending, 
fhal fuffer fuch punifhment, as this Court, or the 
high Commifsion court respe^uely, as the feuerall 



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99 A Decree 

caufes (hall require, (hall think fit to inffidt vpon 
them. 

XXVIII. Item^ That no Mafter-Founder whatfoeuer 
(hall keepe aboue two Apprentices at one time, neither 
by Copartnerfhip, binding at the Scriueners, nor any 
other way whatfoeuer, neiSier (hall it be lawfull for any 
Mafler-Founder, when any Apprentice, or Apprentices 
(hall run, or be put away, to take another Apprentice, 
or other Apprentices in his, or their place or places, 
vnle(fe the name or names of him, or them fo gone 
dway, be rafed out of the Hall-booke of the Company, 
where of the Mafter-Founder is free, and never admitted 
again, vpon pain of fuch punilhment, as by this Court, 
or the high Commifsion refpedliuely, as the feuerall 
caufes (hall require, (hall be thought fit to bee impofed. 

XXIX Jtem^ That all loumey-men-Founders be 
imployed by the Mafter-Founders of the faid trade, 
and that idle loumey-men be compelled to worke after 

^ the fame manner, and vpon the fame penalties, as in 
cafe of the loumey men-Printers is before specified. 

XXX Item^ That no Mafter-Founder of letters, 
(hall imploy any other perfon or perfons in any worke 
belonging to the cafting or founding of letters, then 
fuch only as are freemen or apprentices to the trade of 
founding letters, faue onely in the pulling oflf the knots 
of mettle hanging at the ends of the letters when they 
are firft caft, in which work it (hall be lawfull for 
euery Mafter-Founder, to imploy one boy only that is 
not, nor hath beene bound to the trade of Founding 
letters, but not otherwife, upon pain of being for euer 
difabled to vfe or exercise that art, and fuch further 
punilhment, as by this Court, or the high Commifsion 
Court refpe<5liuely, as the feuerall caufes (hall require, 
be thought fit to be impofed. 

XXXI. Item^ That euery perfon or perfons what(o- 
euer, which (hall at any time or times hereafter, by his 
or their confedsion, or otherwife by proof be conuidled 
of any of the oflfences, by this, or any other Decree of 
thb Court made, (hal before fuch time as he or they 



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of StarrC'Chambcr, 23 

(hall be difcharged, and ouer and aboue their fine and 
punifliment, as aforefaid, be bound with good fureties, 
never after to tranfgrefle, or offend in that or the like 
kinde, for which he, or they fhalbe fo conuidled and 
puniflied, as aforefaid ; And that all and euery the 
forfeitures aforefaid (excepting all feditious fchifma- 
ticall Bookes, or Pamphlets, which this Court doth 
hereby Order to bee presently burnt) And except fuch 
Bookes, as the forfeitures are ahready granted by 
Letters Patents, fhall be diuided and difpofed of, as 
the high Commifeion Court fhall find 5t Alwaies 
prodding that one moitie be to the King. 

XXXII. Item^ That no Merchant, Mafler, or Owner 
of any Ship or Veffell, or any other perfon or perfons 
whatfoeuer fhall hereafter prefume to land, or put on 
fhore any Booke or Bookes, or the part of any Booke 
or Books, to be imported from beyond the feas, in any 
Port, Hauen, Creek, or other place whatfoeuer within 
the Realme of England, but only in the Port of the City 
of London, to the end the faid Bookes may there be 
viewed, as aforefaid : And the seuerall Officers of His 
Maieflies Ports are hereby required to take notice thereof 

XXXIII. Item, That whereas there is an agreement 
betwixt Sir Thomas Bodley Knight, Foundet of the 
Vniuerfity Library at Oxford, and the Mafler, Wardens, 
and Afisiflants of the Company of Stationers {viz.) That 
one Booke of euery fort that is new printed, or reprinted 
with additions, be fent to the Vniuerfitie of Oxford for 
the vfe of the publique Librarie there ; The Court doth 
hereby Order, and declare. That euery Printer fhall 
referue one Book new printed, or reprinted by him, with 
additions, and fhall before any publique venting of the 
faid book, bring it to the Common Hall of the Com- 
panie of Stationers, and deliuer it to the Officer thereof 
to be fent to the Librarie at Oxford accordingly, vpon 
paine of imprifonment, and fuch further Order and Di- 
re<5lion therein, as to this Court, or the high Commifsion 
Court refpedliuely, as the feuerall caufes fhall require, 
(hall be thought fit. 

FINIS. 



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Ad Order made by the Honourable Houfe of Commons. 
Die Sabbati^ 2%Januarii, 1641 [1642]. 

IT is ordered that the Mafter and Wardens of the Company 
of Stationers (hall be required to take efpeciall Order, that 
the Printers doe neither print, nor reprint any thing without the 
name and confent of the Author : And that if any Printer (hall 
notwithdanding print or reprint any thine without the confent 
and name of the Author, that he (hall then oe proceeded againft, 
as both Printer and Author thereof, and tneir names to be 
certified to this Houfe. H. Eirmge Cler, Pari, do. Com. 

Die lovis 9. Martii 1642 [1643]. 
An Order of the Commons afltembled in Par- 
liament For regulating Printing. 
IT is this day Ordered by the Commons Houfe of Parliament, 
That the Committee for Examinations, or any foure of them, 
have power to appoint fuch perfons as they thinke (it, to fearch 
in any houfe or place where there is iuft caule of sufpition. That 
Pre(res are kept and employed in the printing of fcandalous and 
lying Pamphlets, and that they do demolli(h and take away fuch 
Prefids and their materials, and the Printers Nutsand Spindles which 
they (ind fo employed, and bring the Mafter-Printers, and Work- 
men Printers before the (aid Committee ; and that the Conunittee 
or any four of them, have i>ower to commit to prifon any of the 
faid Printers, or any other perfons that do contrive, or publikely 
or privately vend fell, or publi(h any Pamphlet fcandalous to his 
Majedy or the proceedings of both or either Houfes of Parliament, 
or that (hall refufe to fuffer any Houfes or Shops to be fearched, 
where fuch preflfes or pamphlets as aforefaid arc kept : And that 
the perfons imployed by the faid Committee (hall have power to 
seize fuch fcandalous ana lying pamphlets as they find uppon fearch, 
to be in any (hopp or warhoufe, fold, or difperfed by any perfon 
whomfoever, and to bring the perfons (that fo kept publKhed, or 
fold the fame,) before the Committee ; And that fuch perfons as 
the Committee (hall commit ibr any o(fences aforefaid, (hall not 
be releafed till the parties imployed for the apprehending of the 
faid perfons, and feizing their pre(res and materialls, be fati8(ied 
for their paines and charges. And aU Indices of the Peace, Cap- 
tains, Officers, and Con(bibles, are required to be afifting in the 
apprehending of any the perfons aforefaid. And in fearcbing of 
their (hopps, Houfes, and Warehoufes ; And likewife all Iu(bces 
of peace. Officers, and Condables, are hereby required from time 
to time to apprehend fuch perfons as (haU publi(h, vend, or fell 
the faid pamphlets. And it is further ordered, Thiit this Order 
be forthwith printed and publi(hed, to the end that notice may be 
taken thereof, that the contemners of this Order may be left in- 
cxcufable for their offence. \A ColMion ofallthepublicke Ordert 
Ordinances and Deciarations, 6rv. dy Edward HUSBAND, p I • 
London. 1646. 



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AN 



ORDER 



OFTHB 



LORDS and COMMONS 

Affembled in Parliament. 

For the 

Regulating of Printing, 

And 

For fupprefling the great late abufes 

and frequent diforders in Printing many falfe, 

Scandalous, Seditious, Libellous, and unlicenfed 

Pamphlets, to the great defamation of 

Religion and Government 

Also, authorizing the Mafters & Wardens of 

the Company of Stationers to make dih'gent fearch, feize 

and carry away all fuch Books as they (hall finde Printed, or 

reprinted by any man having no lawfull intereft in 

them, being entred into the Hall Book to 

any other man as his proper Copies. 



Die Mercuril 14 June. 1643. 
t^Rdered by the Lords and Commons affembled in Parliament^ 
^^ that this Order Jhall be forthwith printed a$id published. 

J. Brown Cler. Parliamentonims 
Hen. Elsing Cler. D. Cool 



LONDON, Printed for /. Wright in the Old-baUy, Tune 16, 1643. 



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DU Mercurii^ i^JuniL 1643. 

HEREAS divers good Orders have bin 
lately made by both Houfes of Parlia- 
ment, for fupprelTmg the great late abufes 
and frequent diforders in Printing many, 
falfe forged, fcandalous, fedidous, libellous, 
and unlicenfed Papers, Pamphlets, and Books to th^ 
great defamation of Religion and government Which 
orders (notwithflanding 5ie diligence of the Company 
of Stationers^ to put them in full execution) have taken 
little or no efiedl : By reafon the bill in preparation, 
for redrelTe of die faid diforders, hath hitherto bin 
retarded through the prefent di(lra6lions, and very 
many, aswell Stationers and Printers^ as others of 
fundry other profelTions not free of the Stationers Com- 
pany, have taken upon them to fet up fundiy private 
Prindng PrefTes in comers, and to print, veni publilh 
and difperfe Books, pamphlets and papers, in fuch 
muldtudes, that no induR]^ could be sufficient to dif- 
cover or bring to punifhment, all the feverall abound- 
ing delinquents; And by reafon that divers of the 
Stationers Company and others being Delinquents 
(contrary to former orders and the conftant cuflome 
ufed among the laid Company) have taken liberty to 
Print, Vend and publifh, the mod profitable vendible 
Copies of Books, belonging to the Company and other 
Stationers^ efpecially of fucli Agents as are imployed in 
putting the laid Orders in Execudon, and that by way 
of revenge for giveing informadon againll them to the 
Houfes for their Delinquences in Printing, to the great 
prejudice of the faid Company of Stationers and 
Agents, and to their dUcouragement in this publik 
fervice. 

It is therefore Ordered by the Lords and Commons 
in Parliament^ That no Order or Declaradon of both, 
or either Houfe of Parliament Ihall be printed by any, 
but by order of one or both the laid Houfes : Nor 



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a? 

Qther Book, Pamphlet, paper, nor part of any fuch 
Book, Pamphlet, or paper, ihall from henceforth be 
printed, bound, ilitched or put to Mt by any perfon 
or perfons whatfoever, unlelTe the lame be fird ap- 
proved of and licenfed under the hands of fuch per- 
fon or perfons as both, or either of the laid Houfes 
Ihall appoint for the licenling of the lame, and entred 
in the RegiHer Book of the Company of Statiofurs^ 
according to Ancient cuHom, and the Printer thereof 
to put his name Uiereto. And that no perfon or per- 
fons Ihall hereafter print, or caufe to be reprinted any 
Book or Books, .or part of Book, or Books hereto- 
fore allowed of and granted to the laid Company of 
Stationers for their relief and maintenance of their 
poore, T^thout the licence or confent of the Mailer, 
Wardens and AlTillants of the laid Company ; Nor any 
Book or Books lawfully licenced and entred in the 
Regiller of the laid Company for any particular mem- 
ber tliereof, without the licenceand confent of the owner 
or owners thereof Nor yet import any such Book or 
Books, or part of Book or Books formerly Printed 
here, from beyond the Seas, upon paine of forfeiting 
the lame to the Owner, or Owners of the Copies of the 
laid Books, and fuch further punilhment as Ihall be 
thought fit 

And the Master and Wardens of the laid Company, 
the Gentleman Ulher of the Houfe of Peers^ the Ser- 
geant of the Commons Houfe and their deputies, 
together with the perfons formerly appointed by the 
Committee of the Houfe of Commons for Examina- 
tions, are hereby Authorized and required, from time 
to time, to make dihgent fearch in all places, where 
they IhaU think meete, for all unlicenfed Printing 
PrelTes, and all PrelTes any way imployed in the print- 
ing of fcandalous or unlicenfed Papers, Pamphlets, 
Books, or any Copies of Books belonging to the laid 
Company, or any member thereof, without their appro- 
bation and confents, and to feize and carry away fuch 
Printing PrelTes Letters, together with the Nut, Spindle, 



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t8 

and other materialls of every fuch irregular Printer, 
which they find fo mifimployed, unto the Common 
Hall of the laid Company, there to be defaced and 
made unferviceable according to Ancient Cuflom; 
And likewife to make diligent fearch in all fufpedted 
Printing-houfes, Ware-houfes, Shops and other places 
for fuch fcandalous and unlicenfed Books, papers. 
Pamphlets, and all other Books, not entred, nor figned 
with the Printers name as aforeiiadd, being printed, or 
reprinted by fuch as have no lawfiill intereft in them, 
or any way contrary to this Order, and the feme to 
seize and carry away to the feid common hall, there to 
remain till both or either Houfe of Parliament ihall 
difpofe thereof. And likewife to apprehend all Authors, 
Printers, and other perfons whatfoever imployed in 
compiling, printing, (litching, binding, publifhing and 
difperfing of the feid fcandalous, unlicenfed, and un- 
warrantable papers, books and pamphlets as aforefeid, 
and all thofe who (hall refid the feid Parties in fearch- 
ing after them, and to bring them afore either of the 
Houfes orthe Committee of Examinations, that fo they 
may receive fuch further punifhments, as their Offences 
(hall demerit, and not to be releafed untill they have 
given fetisfaction to the Parties imployed in their ap- 
prehenfion for their paines and charges, and given 
sufficient caution not to offend in like fort for the 
future. And all Juflices of the Peace, Captaines, Con- 
ilables and other officers, are hereby ordered and 
required to be aiding, and affifling to the forefeid per- 
fons in the due execution of all, and fingular the prem- 
iffes and in the apprehenfion of all Offenders againfl 
the feme. And in cafe of oppofi6on to break open 
Doores and Locks. 

And it is further ordered, that this Order be forth- 
with Printed and PubHlhfd, to the end that notice 
may be taken thereof and all Contemners of it left 
inexcufeble. 

FINIS. 



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AREOPAGITICA: 

A 

SPEECH 

OF 

M'- JOHN MILTON 

For the Liberty of Vnlicenc'd 

PRINTING, 

To the Parlament of ENGLAND. 



Zpi|v^ T< fiiX^mii «tr fidwov ^pttp, fx""' 

Euiipid. Hicetid. 



TTkit it tni0 Libtriy wkem/rtt bom mtn 
HaviMg to advifo tko pubhc nu^^/^eak/ree, 
Wkieh ho wMo ctm, mndtoill, do/or&s highprm{fo. 
Who noithor cmn nor will, may hold td* poact; 
What am boj^fUrinm Stmto thorn that 

Euripid. Hicadd. 



LONDON, 

Printed in the Yeare, 1644. 



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iTor tlie l^iiertg of unlicendi $rint{tm. 

THey who to States and Govemours of the 
Commonwealth dire^ their Speech, High 
Court of Parlament, or wanting fuch accefle 
in a private condition, write that which they 
forefee may advance the publick good ; I fuppofe them 
as at the beginning of no meane endeavour, not a little 
altefd and mov'd inwardly in their mindes: Some 
with doubt of what will be the fuccefTe, others with 
feare of what will be the cenfure ; fome with hope, 
others with confidence of what they have to fpeake. 
And me perhaps each of thefe difpofidons, as the fub- 
jedl was whereon I enter'd, may have at other times 
varioufly afifeifled ; and likely might in thefe foremod 
exprelTions now alfo dlfclofe which of them fwa/d mod, 
but that the very attempt of this addreffe thus made, 
and the thought of whom it hath recourfe to, hath got 
the power within me to a pafTion, farre more welcome 
then incidentall to a Pre^ce. Which though I flay 
not to confelTe ere any a(ke, I (hall be blamelelfe, 
if it be no other, then the joy and gratulation which 
it brings to all who wifh and promote their Countries 
liberty ; whereof this whole Difcourfe propofd will be 
a certaine teflimony, if not a Trophey. For this is not 
the liberty which wee c^ hope, that no grievance ever 
fliould arife in the Commonwealth, that let no man in 
this World expe<Sl ; but when complaints are freely heard, 
deeply confider'd, and fpeedily reform'd, then is the 
tttmofl bound of civill liberty attain'd, that wife men 



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3« AREOPAGJTICA. 

looke for. To which if I now xnanifed by the veiy found 
of this which 1 (hall utter, ths^t wee are already in good 
part arrived, and yet from fuch a (leepe diladvantage of 
tyranny^and fuperllition grounded into oiu* principles 
as was beyond the manhood of a Roman recovery, it 
will bee attributed firil, as is mod due, to the strong 
afliftance of God our deliverer, next to yoiu* faithfuU 
guidance and undaunted Wifdome, Lords and Commons 
of England. Neither is it in Gods elleeme the diminu- 
tion of his glory, when honourable things are fpoken of 
good men and worthy Magidrates ; which if I now fird 
diould begin to doe, after fo fair a progrelTe of your 
laudable deeds, and fuch a long obligement upon the 
whole Realme to your inde&tigable vertues, I might 
be judly reckn'd among the tardisd, and the imwilling- 
ed of them that praife yee. Nevertheleffe there being 
three principall things, without which all praifing is but 
Courtfhip and flattery, Fird, when that only is prais'd 
which is folidly worth praife : next, when greated like- 
lihoods are brought that fuch things are truly and really 
in thofe perfons to whom they are afcrib'd, the other, 
when he who praifes, by (hewing that fuch his adluall 
perfwafion is of whom he writes, can demondrate that 
he flatters not ; the former two of thefe I have hereto- 
fore endeavoured, refcuing the employment from him 
who went about to impaire your merits with a triviall and 
malignant Encomium; the latter as belonging chiefly to 
mine owne acquittall, that whom I fo extoll*d I did not 
flatter, hath been referv^d opportunely to this occafion. 
For he who freely magnifies what hath been nobly done, 
and fears not to declare as freely what might be done 
better, gives ye the bed covenant of his fideUty ; and 
that his loyaled afledlion and his hope waits on your 
proceedings. His highed praifing is not flattery, and 
his plained advice is a kinde of praifing ; for though I 
(hould aflirme and hold by argument, that it would fare 
better with truth, with learning, and the Commonwealth, 
if one of your publifht Orders which I (hould name, were 
call*d in, yet at the fame time it could not but much 



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AREOPAGITICA. 33 

redound to the ludre of your milde and equall Govern- 
ment, when as private perfons are hereby animated to 
thinke ye better pleas'd with publick advice, then other 
flatifts have been delighted heretofore with publicke 
flattery. And men will then fee what difference there 
is between the magnanimity of a trienniall Parlament, 
and that jealous hautineffe of Prelates and cabin Coun- 
fellours that ufurpt of late, when as they fliall obferve 
yee in the midd'A of your Vidlories and fucceffes more 
gently brooking writt'n exceptions againll a voted Order, 
then other Courts, which had produc't nothing worth 
memory but the weake often tation of wealth, would have 
endur*d the leaft fignifi'd diflike at any fudden Procla- 
mation. If I ftiould thus farre prefume upon the meek 
demeanour of your civill and gentle greatneife. Lords 
and Commons, as what your publiftit Order hathdiredlly 
laid, that to gainlay, I might defend my felfe with eafe, 
if any (hould accufe me of being new or infolent, did 
they but know how much better I find ye efteem it to 
imitate the old and elegant humanity of Greece, then 
the barbarick pride of a Hunnijh and Norwegian ftate- 
lines. And out of thofe ages, to whofe polite wifdom 
and letters we ow that we are not yet Goihes zxiA Jut- 
landers^ I could name him who from his private houfe 
wrote tfiat difcourfe to the Parlament of Athens^ that 
perfwades them to change the forme oi Democraiyv/hida 
was then eftabliftit Such honour was done in thofe 
dayes to men who profeft the ftudy of wifdome and elo- 
quence, not only in their own Country, but in other 
Lands, that Cities and Siniories heard them gladly, and 
with great refpecfl, if they had ought in publick to 
admonifh the State. Thus did Dion Prufoeus a stranger 
and a privat Orator counfell the Rhodians againft a 
former Ekiidl : and I abound with other like examples, 
which to fet heer would be fuperfluous. But if from 
the induftry of a life wholly dedicated to ft. idious labours, 
and thofe naturall endowments haply not the worft for 
two and fifty degrees of northern latitude, fo much muft 
be derogated, as to count me not equall to any of thofe 
c 



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34 AREOPAGITICA. 

who had this priviledge, I would obtain to be thought 
not fo inferior, as your felves are fuperior to the mod of 
them who received their coimfell : and how farre you 
excell them, be affur^d, Lords and Commons, there can 
no greater teflimony appear, then when your prudent 
fpirit acknowledges and obeyes the voice of reafon from 
what quarter foever it be heard fpeaking ; and renders 
ye as willing to repeal any A<51 of your own fetting forth, 
as any fet forth by your Predeceffors. 

If ye be thus refolv'd, as it were injury to thinke ye 
were not, I know not what (hould withhold me from 
prefenting ye with a fit inftance wherein to fliew both 
that love of truth which ye eminently profeffe, and that 
uprightneffe of your judgement which is not wont to be 
parliall to your felves ; by judging over again that Order 
which ye have ordain'd to regtdate Printing} That m 
Book^ pamphlet^ or paper Jhall be henceforth Printed^ un- 
leffe the fame befirfl approved and licendt byftuh^ or at 
lead one of fuch as (hall be thereto appointed. For that 
part which preferves juflly every mans Copy to himfelfe, 
or provides for the poor, I touch not, only wifh they be 
not made pretenfes to abufe and perfecute honed and 
painfull Men, who offend not in either of thefe particu- 
lars. But that other claufe of Licencing Books, which 
we thought had d/d with his brother quadragefimai znd, 
matrimonia/ when the Prelats expif d, I (hall now attend 
with fuch a Homily, as fhall lay before ye, fird the in- 
ventors of it to bee thofe whom ye will be loath to own ; 
next what is to be thought in generall of reading, what 
ever fort the Books be ; and that this Order avails no- 
thing to the fupprelTmg of fcandalous, feditious, and 
libellous Books, which were mainly intended to be fup- 
prefL Lad, that it will be primely to the difcourage- 
ment of all learning, and the dop of Truth, not only by 
thfe difexercifing and blunting our abilities in what we 
know already, but by hindring and cropping the dif- 
coveiy that might bee yet further made both in religious 
and civill Wifdome. 

I deny not, but that it is of greated concernment in 



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AREOPAGITICA. 35 

the Church and Commonwealth, to have a vigilant eye 
how Bookes demeane themfelves as well as men ; and 
thereafter to confine, imprifon, and do fharpefl juflicc 
on them as malefadlors : For Books are not abfolutely 
dead things, but doe contain a potencie of life in them 
to be as a<5live as that foule was whofe progeny they are ; 
nay they do preferve as in a vioU the pureft efficacie 
and extradlion of that living intelledl that bred them. 
I know they are as lively, and as vigoroufly productive, 
as thofe fabulous Dragons teeth ; and being fown up 
and down, may chance to fpring up armed men. And 
yet on the other hand unleffe warineiTe be us*d, as good 
almoll kill a Man as kill a good Book ; who kills a Man 
kills a reafonable creature, Gods Image ; but hee who 
deflroyes a good Booke, kills reafon it felfe, kills the 
Image of God, as it were in the eye. Many a man lives 
a burden to the Earth ; but a good Booke is the pretious 
life-blood of a mafler fpirit, imbahn'd and treafur*d up 
on purpofe to a life beyond life. Tis true, no age can 
reflore a life, whereof perhaps there is no great loffe ; 
and revolutions of ages doe not oft recover the loffe ol 
a rejedled truth, for the want of which whole Nations 
fare the worfe. We (hould be wary therefore what per- 
fecution we raife againft the living labours of pubUck 
men, how we fpill that feafon'd life of man preferv*d 
and florid up in Books ; fmce we fee a kinde of homicide 
may be thus committed, fometimes a martyrdome, and 
if it extend to the whole impreffion, a kinde of maffacre, 
whereof tne execution ends not in the flaying of an ele- 
mentall life, but ftrikes at that ethereall and fift effence, 
the breath of reafon it felfe, flaies an immortality rather 
then a life. But left I ftiould be condemn'd of intro* 
lucing licence, while I oppofe Licencing, I refufe not 
the paines to be fo much Hiftoricall, as will ferve to 
Ihew what hath been done by ancient and famous Com- 
monwealths, againft this diforder, till the very time that 
this proje<5t of Ucencing crept out of the InquiMon^ was 
catcht up by our Prelates, and hath caught fome of our 
Prefbyters. 



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36 AREOPAGTTICA, 

In Athens where Books and Wits were ever biiiier 
then in any other part of Greece, I find but only two 
sorts of writings which the Magiflrate car'd to take no- 
tice of; thofe either blafphemous and Atheiflicall, or 
Libellous. Thus the Books oi Protagoras were by the 
Judges oi Areopagus commanded to be burnt, and him- 
felfe baniiht the territory for a difcourfe begun with his 
confefling not to know whether there were gods, or 
whether not : And againfl defaming, it was decreed that 
none (hould be traduc'd by name, as was the manner 
of Vetus Comauiia, whereby we may gueffe how they 
cenfur*d libelling : And this courfe was quick enough, 
as Cicero writes, to quell both the defperate wits of 
other Atheifls, and the open way of defaming, as the 
event (hew'd. Of other fedls and opinions though 
tending to voluptuoufoeffe, afad the denying of divine 
providence they tooke no heed. Therefore we do not 
read that either EpicuruSy or that libertine fchool of 
CyrenCy or what the Cynick impudence utter'd, was ever 
queflion'd by the Laws. Neither is it recorded that the 
writings of thofe old Comedians were fupprell, though 
the adling of them were forbid ; and that Plato com- 
mended the reading oi Arijlophanes the loofefl of them 
all, to his royall fchoUer Dionyfius, is commonly known, 
and may be excus'd, if holy Chrysojlome, as is reported, 
nightly (ludied fo much the fame Author and had the 
art to cleanfe a fcurrilous vehemence into the flill of a 
roufing Sermon. That other leading City of Greece, 
Lacedcemon, confidering that Lycurgus their Law-giver 
was fo addi<5led to elegant learning, as to have been 
the firft that brought out of Imia the fcatter*d workes 
of Homer, and fent the Poet Thales from Greet to pre- 
pare and mollifie the Spartan furlineffe with his fmooth 
fongs and odes, the better to plant among them law 
and civility, it is to be wonder'd how mufelefs and un- 
bookifh they were, minding nought but the feats of 
Warre. There needed no licencing of Books among 
them for they di(lik*d all, but ihtM ovmt Lcuonick Apo- 
thegms, and took a flight occaiion to chafe Archilochus 



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AREOPAGJTICA, 37 

out of their City, perhaps for compering in a higher 
(Iraine then their owne souldierly ballats and roundels 
could reach to : Or if it were for his broad verfes, they 
were not therein fo cautious, but they were as diffolute 
in their promifcuous converfing; whence Euripides 
affirmes in Andromache^ that their women were all un- 
chafle. Thus much may give us light after what fort 
Bookes were prohibited among the Greeks. The Ro- 
mans alfo for many ages trained up only to a military 
roughnes, refembling mofl of the Lacedamonian guife, 
knew of learning little but what their twelve Tables, 
and the Pon/ifiek College with their Augurs and Flamins 
taught them in Religion and Law, fo unacquainted with 
other learning, that when Cameades zxxd CritolauSy with 
the Stoick Diogenes comming Embafladors to Rome, 
tooke thereby occafion to give the City a tail of their 
Philofophy, they were fufpedled for feducers by no leffe 
a man then Cato the Cenfor, who mov'd it in the Senat 
to difraiffe them fpeedily, and to banifli all fuch Attick 
bablers out of Italy, But Scipio and others of the 
noblefl Senators withflood him and his old Sahin auf- 
terity ; honour'd and admir'd the men ; and the Cenfor 
himfelf at last in his old age fell to the ftudy of that 
whereof before hee was fo fcrupulous. And yet at the 
fame time Noevius and Plautus the firft Latine come- 
dians had fiird the City with all the borrowed Scenes of 
Menanderzxi^ Philemon, Then began to be confidef d 
there alfo what was to be don to libellous books and 
Authors ; for Naevius was quickly cafl into prifon for 
his unbridl'd pen, and released by the Tribunes upon his 
recantation : We read alfo that libels were burnt, and 
the makers puniflit by AuguQus, The like severity no 
doubt was us'd if ought were impioufly writt'n againfl 
their elleemed gods. Except in thefe two points, how 
the world went in Books, the Magiflrat kept no reck- 
ning. And therefore Lucretius without impeachment 
verfifies his Epicurifm to Memmius^ and had the honour 
to be fet forth the fecond time by Cicero fo great a father 
of the Commonwealth; although himfelfe difputes 



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38 AREOPAGITICA, 

againfl that opinion in his own writings. Nor was the 
Satyricall (harpneffe, or naked plainnes of Luciiius, or 
CatuliuSy or FiaccuSy by any order prohibited. And for 
matters of State, the (lory of Titius Livius^ though it 
extoird that part which -fl^w/^rj' held, was not therefore 
fupprefl by OHavius CcBsar of the other Fadlion. But 
that Na/o was by him baniflit in his old age, for the 
wanton Poems of his youth, was but a meer covert of 
State over fome fecret caufe : and befides, the Books 
were neither banifht nor call'd in. From hence we ihall 
meet with little elfe but tyranny in the Roman Empire, 
that we may not marvell, if not fo often bad, as good 
Books were filenc't. I (hall therefore deem to have 
bin large anough in producing what among the ancients 
was punifhable to write, fave only which, ail other argu- 
ments were free to treat on. 

By this time the Emperours were become Chriftians, 
whofe difcipline in this point I doe not finde to have 
bin more fevere then what was formerly in pradlice. 
The Books of thofe whom they took to be grand He- 
reticks were examined, refuted, and condemned in the 
generall Councels ; and not till then were prohibited, 
or burnt by autority of the Emperor. As for the 
writings of Heathen authors, unleffe they were plaine 
invectives againft Chriflianity, as thofe of Porphyrins 
and ProcluSy they met with no interdidl that can be 
cited, till about the year 400, in a Carthagtman Councels 
wherein Bifhops themfelves were forbid to read the 
Books of Gentiles, but Herefies they might read : while 
others long before them on the contrary fcruprd more 
the Books of Hereticks, then of Gentiles. And that 
the primitive Councels and Bifhops were wont only to 
declare what Books were not commendable, paffing no 
furder, but leaving it to each ones confcience to read 
or to lay by, till after the year 800 is obferv*d already by 
Padre Paolo the great unmaflcer of the TretUine Councel. 
After which time the Popes of Rome engroffing what 
they pleas'd of Politicall rule into their owne hands, 
extended their dominion over mens eyes, as they had 



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AREOPAGJTICA. 39 

before over their judgements, burning and prohibiting 
to be read, what they fanfied not ; yet fparing in their 
cenfures, and the Books not many which they fo dealt 
with : till Martin the 5. by his Bull not only prohibited, 
but was the firfl that excommunicated the reading of 
hereticall Books ; for about that time Wicklef and 
Huffe growing terrible, were they who firfl drove the 
Papall Court to a flridler policy of prohibiting. Which 
cours Leo the 10, and his fucceffors followed, untill the 
Councell of Trent, and the Spanifh Inquifition engen- 
dring together brought forth, or perfeted thofe Catar 
logues, and expurging Indexes that rake through the 
entrails of many an old good Author, with a violation 
wors then any could be offer'd to his tomb. Nor did 
they (lay in matters Hereticall, but any fubjedl that was 
not to their palat, they either condemned in a prohibi- 
tion, or had it (Irait into the new Purgatory of an Index. 
To fill up the meafure of encroachment, their lall inven- 
tion was to ordain that no Book, pamphlet, or paper 
(hould be Printed (as if S. Peter had bequeathed them 
the keys of the Preffe alfo out of Paradife) unleffe it 
were approved and licenc't under the hands of 2 or 3 
glutton Friers. For example : 

Let the Chancellor Cini be pleas'd to fee if in this 
prefent work be contained ought that may withfland the 
Printing, 

Vincent Rabatta Vicar of Florence. 

I have feen this prefect work, and finde nothing 
athwart the Catholick faith and good manners: In 
witnefle whereof I have given, &c. 

Nicold Cini^ Chancellor of Florence, _ 

Attending the precedent relation, it is allowed that 
this prefent work oi DavcmzcUi^ may be Printed, 

Vincent Rabatta^ &c. 

It may be Printed, /w/y 15. 

Friar Simon Mompei d* Amelia Chancellor of 
the holy office in Florence, 

Sure they have a conceit, if he of the bottomlefle 



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40 AREOPAGITICA. 

pit had not long fince broke prifon, that this quadruple 
exorcifm would barre him down. I feare their next 
defigne will be to get into their cuflody the licencing of 
that which they fay * Claudius intended, . ^^ vemam 
but went not through with. Voutfafe to fee daret flamm cre- 
another of their forms the Roman ftamp : K'SU*^ 

Imprimatur y If it feem good to the reve- ^cikudio"*'**^ 
rend Mafler of the holy Palace, 

Belcastro^ Vicegerent 

Imprimatur^ 

Friar Nicolb Rodolphi Mafler of the holy Palace. 
Sometimes g Imprimaturs are feen together dialogue- 
wife in the Piatza of one Title page, complementing 
and ducking each to other with their shav'n reverences, 
whether the Author, who (lands by in perplexity at the 
foot of his Epiftle, (hall to the PreflTe or to the fpunge. 
Thefe are the prety refponfories, thefe are the deaw 
Antiphonies that fo bewitcht of late our Prelats, and 
their Chaplaines with the goodly Eccho they made ; 
and befotted us to the gay imitation of a lordly Impri- 
matur y one from Lambeth houfe, another from the Wed 
end oi Pauls ; fo api(hly Romanizing, that the word of 
command (lill was fet downe in Latine; as if the 
learned Grammaticall pen that wrote it, would ca(l no 
ink without Latine ; or perhaps, as they thought, be- 
caufe no vulgar tongue was worthy to expre(re the pure 
conceit of an Imprimatur ; but rather, as I hope, for 
that our Engli(h, the language of men ever famous, and 
formoft in the achievements of liberty, will not eadly 
finde fervile letters anow to fpell fuch a dictatorie pre- 
fumption Engli(h. And thus ye have the Inventors 
and the originall of Book-licencing ript up, and drawn as 
lineally as any pedigree. We have it not, that can be 
heard of, from any ancient State, or politic, or Church, 
nor by any Statute left us by our Anceftors, elder or 
later ; nor from the modeme cuftom of any reformed 
Citty, or Church abroad; but from the mo(l Antichris- 
tian Councel, and the mod tyrannous Inquifition that 



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AREOPAGITICA. 41 

ever inquired. Till then Books were ever as freely ad- 
mitted into the World as any other birth; the iffue of 
the brain was no more (lifl*d then the iffue of the womb: 
no envious Juno sate crofs-leg*d over the nativity of any 
mans intelle<5lual off spring ; but if it proved a Monfter, 
who denies, but that it was juftly burnt, or funk in the 
Sea. But tliat a Book in wors condition then a peccant 
foul, fhould be to (land before a Jury ere it be borne 
to the World, and undeiigo yet in darkneffe the judge- 
ment oiRadamanth and his Colleagues, ere it can paffe 
the ferry backward into light, was never heard before, 
till that myflerious iniquity provokt and troubled at the 
firft entrance of Reformation, fought out new limbo's 
and new hells wherein they might include our Books 
alfo within the number of their damned. And this was 
the rare morfell fo officioufly fnatcht up, and fo ilfa- 
vourdly imitated by our inquifiturient Bifhops, and the 
attendant minorites their Chaplains. That ye like not 
now thefe mod certain Authors of this licencing order, 
and that all sinifler intention was farre diffant from 
your thoughts, when ye were importun'd the paffing it, 
all men who know the integrity of your actions, and 
how ye honour Truth, will clear yee readily. 

But (bme will fay, what though the Inventors were 
bad, the thing for all that may be good ? It may fo : 
yet if that thing be no fuch deep invention, but obvious, 
and eaiie for any man to light on, and yet bed and 
wifeff Commonwealths through all ages, and occaiions 
have forborne to ufe it, and falfefl feducers, and op- 
preffors of men were the firff who tooke it up, and to 
no other purpofe but to ob(lru<5l and hinder the firft 
approach of Reformation ; I am of thofe who beleeve, 
it will be a harder alchymy then Lullius ever knew, 
to sublimat any good ufe out of fuch an invention. 
Yet this only is what I requeft to gain from this reafon, 
that it may be held a dangerous and fufpicious fruit, 
as certainly it deferves, for the tree that bore it, untill 
I can diffect one by one the properties it has. But I 
have firft to finifh, as was propounded, what is to be 



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42 AREOPAGITICA. 

thought in generall of reading Books, what ever fort 
they be, and whether be more the benefit, or the harm 
that thence proceeds ? 

Not to infifl upon the examples of MofeSy Daniel 
and Faui^ who were flcilfuU in all the learning of the 
^Egyptians, Caldeans, and Greeks, which could not 
probably be without reading their Books of all forts, in 
Paul efpecially, who thought it no defilement to infert 
into holy Scripture the fentences of three Greek Poets, 
and one of them a Tragedian, the queftion was, 
notwithflanding fometimes controverted among the 
Primitive Do<5lors, but with great odds on that fide 
which affirmed it both lawful! and profitable, as was 
then evidently perceiv'd, when /u/ian the Apo(lat,and 
futtleft enemy to our faith, made a decree forbidding 
Chriflians the ftudy of heathen learning : for, laid he, 
they wound us with our own weapons, and with our 
owne arts and fciences they overcome us. And indeed 
the Chriflians were put fo to their fhifts by this crafty 
means, and fo much in danger to decline into all igno- 
rance, that the two ApollinariiwtTe fain as a man may 
fay, to coin all the feven liberall Sciences out of the 
Bible, reducing it into divers forms of Orations, Poems, 
Dialogues, ev*n to the calculating of a new Chriflian 
Grammar. But faith the Hiflorian Socrates^ The provi- 
dence of God provided better then the induflry of 
ApoUinarius and his fon, by taking away that illiterat 
law with the life of him who devis'd it So great an in- 
jury they then held it to be deprived of HdUnick learn- 
ing ; and thought it a perfecution more undermining, 
and fecretly decaying the Church then the open 
cruelty of Decius or Diockfian. And perhaps it was 
the fame politick drift that the Divell whipt St Jerom 
in a lenten dream, for reading Cicero ; or elfe it was a 
fantafm bred by the feaver which had then feis*d hinL 
For had an Angel bin his difcipliner, unlefTe it were 
for dwelling too much upon Ciceronianifms, and had 
chatiz'd the reading, not the vanity, it had bin plainly 
partial] ; firfl to correct him for grave Cicero^ and not 



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AREOPA GITICA. 43 

for fcurrill Flautus whom he confeffes to have bin 
reading not long before; next to corredl him only, 
and let fo many more ancient Fathers wax old in thofe 
pleafant and florid iludies without the ladi of fuch a 
tutoring apparition ; infomuch that Baftl teaches how 
fome good ufe may be made of Margites a fportfiill 
Poem, not now extant, writ by Homer; and why not 
then of Morgante an Italian Romanze much to the 
lame purpofe. But if it be agreed we (hall be try*d by 
vifions, there is a vifion recoiled hyEufebius far anci- 
enter then this tale oi Jerom to the nun Eujlochium^ 
and befides has nothing of a feavor in it Dionyfius 
AUxandrinus was about the year 240, a perfon of great 
name in the Church for piety and learning, who had 
wont to avail himfelf much againft hereticks by being 
converiant in their Books ; untill a certain Presbyter 
laid it fcrupuloufly to his confcience, how he durfl 
venture himfelfe among thofe defiling volumes. The 
worthy man loath to give offence fell into a new de- 
bate with himfelfe what was to be thought ; when fud- 
denly a vifion fent from God, it is his own Epiille 
that fo averrs it, confirmed him in thefe words : kead 
any books what ever come to thy hands, for thou art 
fufficient both to judge aright, and to examine each 
matter. To this revelation he aflented the fooner, as 
he confeffes, becaufe it was anfwerable to that of the 
Apoftle to the Theffalonians, Prove all things, hold 
fail that which is good. And he might have added 
another remarkable faying of the lame Author ; To the 
pure all things are pure, not only meats and drinks, but 
all kinde of knowledge whether of good or evill; the 
knowledge cannot defile, nor confequently the books, 
if the will and confcience be not defil'd. For books 
are as meats and viands are, fome of good, fome of 
evill fubftance; and yet God in that unapocryphall 
vifion, faid without exception, Rife Peter^ kill and eat, 
leaving the choice to each mans difcretion. Whole- 
fome meats to a vitiated (lomack differ little or nothing 
firom unwholefome ; and bed books to a naughty mind 



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44 AREOPAGITICA. 

are not unappliable to occafions of evill. Bad meats 
will fcarce breed good nourifhment in the healthiefl 
condb<5lion ; but herein the difference is of bad books, 
that they to a difcreet and judicious Reader ferve in 
many refpects to difcover, to confute, to forewarn, and 
to illuilrate. Whereof what better witnes can ye expe<5l 
I (hould produce, then one of your own now fitting in 
Parlament, the chief of learned men reputed in this 
Land, Mr. Selden^ whofe volume of naturall and 
national laws proves, not only by great autorities 
brought together, but by exquifite reafons and theorems 
almod mathematically demonflrative, that all opinions, 
yea errors, known, read, and collated, are of main fer- 
vice and affiflance toward the fpeedy attainment of 
what is truefl. I conceive therefore, that when God 
did enlarge the univerfall diet of mans body, faving 
ever the rules of temperance, he then alfo, as before, 
left arbitrary the dyeting and repafling of our minds ; 
as wherein every mature man might have to exerdfe his 
owne leading capacity. How great a vertue is tem- 
perance, how much of moment through the whole life 
of man ? yet God committs the managing fo great a 
truft, without particular Law or prefcription, wholly to 
the demeanour of every grown man. And therefore 
when he himfelf tabl'd the Jews from heaven, that 
Omer which was every mans daily portion of Manna, is 
computed to have bin more then might have well fuffic'd 
the heartiefl feeder thrice as many meals. For thofe 
actions which enter into a man, rather then iffue out 
of him, and therefore defile not, God ufes not to cap- 
tivat under a perpetuall childhood of prefcription, but 
trufls him with the gift of reafon to be his own choofer ; 
there were but little work left for preaching, if law and 
compulfion (how grow fo fad upon those things which 
hertofore were governed only by exhortation. Salo- 
mon informs us that much reading is a wearines to the 
flefh ; but neither he, nor other infpifd author tells us 
that fuch, or fuch reading is unlawfuU : yet certainly had 
God thought good to limit us herein, it had bin much 



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AREOPAGITfCA. 41 

more expedient to have told us what was unlawful], 
then what was wearifome. As for the burning of thofr 
Ephellan books by St Pauls converts, tis reply'd the 
books were magick, the Syriack fo renders them. It 
was a privat a<5l, a voluntary adt, and leaves us to 
a voluntary imitation : the men in remorfe burnt thofe 
books which were their own ; the Magiflrat by this ex- 
ample b not appointed : thefe men practiz*d the books, 
another might perhaps have read them in fome fort ufe- 
fully. Good and evill we know in the field of this World 
grow up together almodinfeparably; and the knowledge 
of good is fo involv'd and interwoven with the know- 
ledge of evill, and in fo many cunning refemblances 
hardly to be difcem*d, that thofe confiifed feeds which 
were impos'd on Pfyche as an incellant labour to cull 
out, and fort afunder, were not more intermixt It 
was from out the rinde of one apple tailed, that the 
knowledge of good and evill as two twins cleaving to- 
gether leapt forth into the World. And perhaps this is 
that doom which Adam fell into of knowing good and 
evill, that is to fay of knowing good by evill. As 
therefore the flate of man now is ; what wifdome can 
there be to choofe, what continence to forbeare with- 
out the knowledge of evill ? He that can apprehend 
and confider vice with all her baits and seeming plea- 
fures, and yet abilain, and yet diflinguiih, and yet pre- 
fer that which is truly better, he is the true warfaring 
Chriflian. I cannot praife a fugitive and cloider'd 
vertue, unexercised and unbreath'd, that never fallies 
out and fees her adverfary, but flinks out of the race, 
where that immortall garland is to be run for, not 
without duft and heat AiTuredly we bring not inno- 
cence into the world, we bring impurity much rather : 
that which purifies us is triall, and triall is by what is 
contrary. That vertue therefore which is but a young- 
ting in the contemplation of evill, and knows not the 
atmod that vice promifes to her followers, and rejects 
it, b but a blank vertue, not a pure ; her whiteneife is 
but an excrementall whiteneffe ; Which was the reafon 



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46 AREOPAGITICA. 

why our fage and ferious Poet Spencer^ whom I dare 
be known to think a better teacher then Scotus or 
Aquinas^ defcdbing true temperance under the perfon 
of Guicfiy brings hun in with his pahner through the 
cave of Mammon, and the bowr of earthly blilTe that 
he might fee and know, and yet abflain. Since there- 
fore the knowledge and furvay of vice is in this world 
fo neceflary to the conftituting of human vertue, and 
the fcanning of error to the confirmation of truth, how 
can we more fafely, and with leffe danger fcout into 
the regions of fm and falfity then by reading all man- 
ner of tractats, and hearing all manner of reafon ? And 
this is the benefit which may be had of books promif- 
cuoufly read. But of the harm that may refult hence 
three kinds are ufually reckn'd. Firil, is fear*d the 
infection that may fpread ; but then all human learning 
and controverfie in religious points must remove out 
of the world, yea the Bible it felfe ; for that oftimes 
relates blafphemy not nicely, it defcribes the camall 
fenfe of wicked men not unelegantly, it brings in 
holied men paffionately murmuring againft providence 
through all the arguments oi Epicurus: in other great 
difputes it anfwers dubioufly and darkly to the com- 
mon reader: And a(k a Talmudefl what ails the 
modefly of his marginall Keri, that Mofcs and all the 
Prophets cannot perfwade him to pronounce the tex- 
tual! Chetiv. For thefe caufes we all know the Bible 
it felfe put by the Papifl into the firil rank of prohi- 
bited books. The ancientell Fathers mud be next 
remov'd, as Clement of Alexandriay and that Eufehian 
book of Evangelick preparation, tranfmitting our ears 
through a hoard of heathenifli obfcenities to receive 
the GofpeL Who finds not that IreruBus, EpiphaniuSy 
Jeroniy and others difcover more herefies then they 
well confute, and that oft for herefie which is the truer 
opinion. Nor boots it to fay for thefe, and all the 
heathen Writers of greateil infection, if it mud be 
thought fo, with whom is bound up the life of human 
learning, that they writ in an unknown tongue, fo long 



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AREOPAGITICA, 47 

as we are fure thofe languages are known as well 
to the word of men, who are both mod able, 
and mod diligent to inftill the poifon they fuck, 
firll into the Courts of Princes, acquainting them with 
the choiceft delights, and criticifms of fin. As perhaps 
did that Pdronius whom Nero caird his Arbitery the 
Mafter of his revels; and that notorious ribald of 
ArezzOy dreaded, and yet dear to the Italian Courtiers. 
I name not him for poflerities fake, whom Harry the 
8. nam'd in merriment his Vicar of hell. By which 
compendious way all the contagion that foreine books 
can infufe, will finde a paffage to the people farre 
eafier and (horter then an Indian voyage, though it 
could be faird either by the North of Cataio Eaflward, 
or of Canada Weftward, while our Spanifh licencing 
gags the Englifh preffe never fo feverely. But on t^e 
other fide that infection which is from books of coa- 
troverfie in Religion, is more doubtfiiU and dangerous 
to the learned, then to the ignorant ; and yet thofe 
books mud be permitted untoucht by the licencer. It 
will be hard to inflance where any ignorant man hath 
bin ever feduc't by Papidicall book in Englifh, unlefie 
it were commended and expounded to him by fome of 
that Clergy: and indeed all fuch tractats whether 
falfe or true are as the Prophefie of Ifaiah was to the 
Eunuchy not to be underjlood without a guide. But of 
our Prieds and Doctors how many have bin corrupted 
by dudying the comments of Jefuits and SorboniJlSy 
and how fad they could transfufe that corruption into 
the people, our experience is both late and fad. It is 
not forgot, fince the acute and didinct Arminius was 
perverted meerly by the perufing of a namelefle dif- 
cours written at Deify which at fird he took in hand to 
confute. Seeing therefore that thofe books, and thofe 
in great abundance which are likelied to taint both 
life and doctrine, cannot be suppred without the fall 
of learning, and of all ability in difputation, and that 
thefe books of either fort are mod and fooned catch- 
ing to the learned, from whom to the common people 



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48 AREOPAGITICA. 

what ever is hereticall or dUTolute may quickly be con- 
vey'd, and that evill manners are as perfedlly learnt 
without books a thoufand other ways which cannot be 
(lopt, and evill do6lrine not with books can propagate, 
except a teacher guide, which he might alfo doe with- 
out writing, and fo beyond prohibiting, I am not able 
to unfold, how this cautelous enterprife of licencing 
can be exempted from the number of vain and impos- 
(ible attempts. And he who were pleafantly difpos'd, 
could not well avoid to lik*n it to the exploit of that 
gallant man who thought to pound up the crows by 
(hutting his Parkgate. Befides another inconvenience, 
if learned men be the firft receivers out of books and 
difpredders both of vice and error, how (hall the 
licencers themfelves be confided in, unleffe we can 
conferr upon them, or they affume to themfelves above 
all others in the Land, the grace of infallibility, and un* 
corruptedneffe 1 And again if it be true, that a wife man 
like a good refiner can gather gold out of the drofliefl vo- 
lume, and that a fool will be a fool with the bed book, 
yea or without book, there is no reafon that we fliould 
deprive a wife man of any advantage to his wifdome, 
while we feek to reflrain from a fool, that which being 
reflrain'd will be no hindrance to his folly. For if 
there (hould be fo much exactneffe always us'd to 
keep that from him which is unfit for his reading, we 
(hould in the judgement of Aristotle not only, but of 
Salomon^ and of our Saviour, not voutfafe him good 
precepts, and by confequence not willingly admit him 
to good books, as being certain that a wile man will 
make better ufe of an idle pamphlet, then a fool will 
do of (acred Scripture. Tis next alleged we mu(l not 
expofe our felves to temptations without neceflTity, and 
next to that, not imploy our time in vain things. 
To both thefe obje<5lions one anfwer will ferve, out 
of the grounds already laid, that to all men fuch books 
are not temptations, nor vanities ; but ufefull drugs and 
materialls wherewith to temper and compoie effective 
and (Irong med'cins, which mans life cannot want The 



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AREOPAGITICA. 49 

reft, as children and childifh men, who have not the art 
to qualifie and prepare thefe working mineralls, well 
may be exhorted to forbear, but hindered forcibly they 
cannot be by all the licencing that Sainted Inquifition 
could ever yet contrive ; which is what I promised to 
deliver next, That this order of licencing conduces 
nothing to the end for which it was framed ; and hath 
almoft prevented me by being clear already while thus 
much hath bin explaining. See the ingenuity of Truth, 
who when fhe gets a free and willing hand, opens her 
felf fafter, then the pace of method and difcours can 
overtake her. It was the talk which I began with, To 
fhew that no Nation, or well inftituted State, if they 
valu'd books at all, did ever ufe this way of licencing ; 
and it might be anfwefd, that this is a piece of pru- 
dence lately difcover'd. To which I return, that as it was 
a thing flight and obvious to think on, for if it had bin 
difficult to finde out, there wanted not among them long 
fince, who fuggefted fuch a cours ; which they not fol- 
lowing, leave us a pattern of their judgement, that it 
was not the not knowing, but the not approving, which 
was the caufe of their not ufing it. Plato^ a man of 
high autority indeed, but leaft of all for his Common- 
wealth, in the book of his laws, which no City ever yet 
receiv'd, fed his fancie with making many edidts to his 
ayrie Burgomafters, which they who otherwife admire 
him, wifli had bin rather buried and excused in the 
genial cups of an Academick night-fitting. By which 
laws he feems to tolerat no kind of learning, but by 
unalterable decree, confifting moft of pra6licall tradi- 
tions, to the attainment whereof a Library of fmaller 
bulk' then his own dialogues would be abundant. And 
there alfo enads that no Poet Ihould fo much as read 
to any privat man, what he had written, untill the Judges 
and Law-keepers had feen it, and allowed it : But that 
Flaio meant this Law peculiarly to that Commonwealth 
which he had imagined, and to no other, is evident. 
Why was he not elfe a Law-giver to himfelf, but a 
tranfgreffor, and to be expell*d by his own Magiftrats 



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5© AREOPAGITICA. 

both for the wanton epigrams and dialogues which he 
made, and his perpetuall reading of Sophron Mimm^ 
and AriJlophaneSy books of groffell infamy, and alfo 
for commending the latter of them though he were 
the maHcious Kbeller of his chief friends, to be read 
by the Tyrant Dionyfius^ who had Httle need of fuch 
trafh to fpend his time on ? But that he knew this 
licencing of Poems had reference and dependence to 
many other provifo's there fet down in his fancied 
republic, which in this world could have no place : and 
fo neither he himfelf, nor any Magiflrat, or City ever 
imitated that cours, which tak'n apart from thofe 
other collaterall injun<5lions mud needs be vain and 
fruitleffe. For if they fell upon one kind of (Iridbiefre, 
unleffe their care were equall to regulat all other things 
of like aptnes to corrupt the mind, that fmgle endea- 
vour they knew would be but a fond labour ; to Ihut 
and fortifie one gate again ft corruption, and be necef- 
fitated to leave others round about wide open. If we 
think to regulat Printing, thereby to rectifie manners, 
we muft regulat all recreations and paftimes, all that is 
delightfull to man. No mufick muft be heard, no fong 
be fet or fung, but what is grave and Dorick. There 
muft be licencing dancers, that no gefture, motion, or 
deportment be taught our youth but what by their al- 
lowance (hall be thought honeft; for fuch Plato "w^s 
provided of; It will a(k more then the work of twenty 
licencers to examin all the lutes, the violins, and the 
ghittarrs in every houfe ; they muft not be fuffer'd to 
prattle as they doe, but muft be licenced what they may 
fay. And who fliall filence all the airs and madrigalls, 
that whifper foftnes in chambers ? The Windows alfo, 
and the Ba/con/s muft be thought on, there are ftirewd 
books, with dangerous Frontifpices fet to fale; who 
(hall prohibit them, ftiall twenty licencers ? The vil- 
lages alfo muft have their vifitors to enquire what lec- 
tures the bagpipe and the rebb^ck reaxls ev'n to the 
ballatry, and the gammuth of every municipal fidler, 
for thele are the Ccuntrymans Arcadids and his Monte 



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AREOPAGITICA, 51 

Mayors, Next, what more Nationall corruption, for 
which England hears ill abroad, then houfhold gluttony; 
who (hall be the redlors of our daily rioting ? and what 
(hall be done to inhibit the multitudes that frequent 
thofe houfes where drunk*nes is fold and harboured ? 
Our garments alfo (hould be referred to the hcencing of 
fome more fober work-maders to fee them cut into a 
le(re wanton garb. Who (hall regulat all the mixt con- 
verfation of our youth, male and female together, as is 
the falhion of this Country, who (hall dill appoint what 
(hall be difcours*d, what prefum'd, and no furder? 
Ladly, who (hall forbid and feparat all idle refort, all 
evill company ? Thefe things will be, and mud be ; 
but how they (hall be led hurtfbll, how led enticing, 
herein confids the grave and governing wifdom of a 
State. To fequeder out of the world into Atlantick and 
Eutopian poUties, which never can be drawn into ufe, 
will not mend our condition ; but to ordain wifely as 
in this world of evill, in the midd*d whereof God hath 
plac't us unavoidably. Noris '\\.Platds licencing of books 
will doe this, which neceflfarily pulls aloL'g with it fo 
many other kinds of licencing, as will make us all both 
ridiculous and weary, and yet fudrat ; but thofe unwrit- 
ten, or at lead uncondraining laws of vertuous education, 
religious and civill nurture, which Plato there mentions, 
as the bonds and ligaments of the Commonwealth, the 
pillars and the fudainers of every writt*n Statute ; thefe 
they be which will bear chief fway in fuch matters as 
thefe, when all licencing will be eafily eluded. Impu- 
nity and remiflfenes, for certain are the bane of a Com- 
monwealth, but here the great art lyes to difcem in what 
the law is to bid redraint and punidunent, and in what 
things perfwafion only is to work. If every adlion 
which is good, or evill in man at ripe years, were to be 
under pittance, and prefcription, and compulGon, what 
were vertue but a name, what praife could be then due 
to well-doing, what grammercy to be fober, jud, or 
continent? many there be that complain of divin 
Providence for fuflfering Adam to tranfgreflfe, foolifh 



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52 AREOPAGITICA. 

tongues ! when God g^ve him reafon, he gave him free- 
dom to choofe, for reafon is but choofing ; he had bin 
elfe a meer artificial! Adam^ fuch an Adam as he is in 
the motions. We our felves efleem not of that obedi» 
ence, or love, or gift, which is of force : God therefore 
left him free, fet before him a provoking obje<Sl, ever 
almoft in his eyes herein confided his merit, herein the 
right of his reward, the praife of his abftinence. Where- 
fore did he creat paffions within us, pleafures roUnd 
about us, but that thefe rightly tempered are the very 
ingredients of vertu ? They are not (kilfiill confiderers 
of human things, who imagin to remove fin by remov- 
ing the matter of fin ; for, befides that it is a huge heap 
increafing under the very a6l of diminifhing though 
fome part of it may for a time be withdrawn firom fome 
perfons, it cannot firom all, in fuch a univerfall thing as 
books are ; and when this is done, yet the fin remains 
entire. Though ye take from a covetous man all his 
treafure, he has yet one Jewell left, ye cannot bereave 
him of his covetoufneffe. Banifh all obje6ls of lull, 
fhut up all youth into the fevered difcipline that can 
be exercis'd in any hermitage, ye cannot make them 
chade, that came not thither fo ; fuch great care and 
wifdom is required to the right managing of this point. 
Suppofe we could expell fin by this means ; look how 
mudi we thus expell of fin, fo much we expell of ver- 
tue : for the matter of them both is the lame ; remove 
that, and ye remove them both alike. This judifies 
the high providence of God, who though he command 
us temperance, judice, continence, yet powrs out before 
us eVn to a profiifenes all defirable things, and gives 
us minds that can wander beyond all limit and fatiety. 
Why fhould we then aflfedl a rigor contrary to the man- 
ner of God and of nature, by abridging or fcanting 
thofe means, which books freely permitted are, both 
to the triall of vertue, and the exercife of trulii. It 
would be better done to learn that the law mud needs 
be fiivolous which goes to redrain things, uncertainly 
and yet equally working to good, and to evilL And 



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AREOPAGITICA. 53 

were I the choofer, a dram of well-doing (hould be pre- 
ferr'd before many times as much the forcible hindrance 
of evill-doing. For God fure efteems the growth and 
compleating of one vertuous perfon, more then the 
reftraint of ten vitious. And albeit what ever thing we 
hear or fee, fitting, walking, travelling, or converting 
may be fitly called our book, and is of the fame efife<5 
that writings are, yet grant the thing to be prohibited 
were only books, it appears that this order hitherto is 
far infufficient to the end which it intends. Do we not 
fee, not once or oftner, but weekly that continued Court- 
libell againll the Parlament and City, Printed, as the 
wet (beets can witnes, and difpers*t among us for all 
that licencing can doe ? yet this is the prime fervice a 
man would think, wherein this order fhould give proof 
of it felf. If it were executed, you*l lay. But certain, if 
execution be remiffe or blindfold now, and in this par- 
ticular, what will it be hereafter, and in other books. 
If then the order (hall not be vain and frudrat, behold 
a new labour, Ix)rds and Commons, ye mud repeal and 
profcribe all fcandalous and unhcenc't books already 
printed and divulged; after ye have drawn them up into 
a lid, that all may know which are condemned, and 
which not ; and ordain that no forrein books be deli- 
vered out of cudody, till they have bin read over. This 
office will require the whole time of not a few overfeers, 
JUid thofe no vulgar men. There be alfo books which 
are partly ufefull and excellent, partly culpable and 
-pernicious ; this work will a(k as many more officials 
to make expurgations and expun<5lions, that the Com- 
monwealth of learning be not damnify'd. In fine, when 
the multitude of books encreafe upon their hands, ye 
mud be fain to catalogue all thofe Printers who are 
found frequently offending, and forbidd the unportation 
of their whole fufpe<fted typography. In a word, that 
this your order may be exadl, and not deficient, ye mud 
reform it perfe6lly according to the model of Trent and 
Sevily which I know ye abhorre to doe- Yet though 
ye (hould condifcend to this, which God forbid, the 



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54 AREOFAGITICA. 

order Hill would be but fruitieffe and defeftive to 
that end whereto ye meant it If to prevent fe<5ls and 
fchifms, who is fo unread or fo uncatechis'd in (lory, 
that hath not heard of many fe<5ls refufing books as a 
hindrance, and preferving their dodlrine unmixt for 
many ages, only by unwritt'n traditions. The Chriflian 
faith, for that was once a fchifm, is not unknown to have 
fpread all ovtiAfia^ ere any Gofpel or Epillle was feen in 
writing. If the amendment of manners be aym*d at, look 
into Italy and Spain, whether thofe places be one fcruple 
the better, the honefter, the wifer,the cha(ler,(ince all the 
inquifitionall rigor that hath bin executed upon books. 
Another reafon, whereby to make it plain that this 
order will miffe the end it feeks, confider by the quality 
which ought to be in every licencer. It cannot be deny*d 
but that he who is made judge to fit upon the birth, or 
death of books whether they may be wafted into this 
world, or not, had need to be a man above the common 
meafure, both fludious, learned, and judicious ; there 
may be elfe no mean miftakes in the cenfure of what 
is paffable or not ; which is alfo no mean injury. If 
he be of fuch worth as behoovs him, there cannot be 
a more tedious and unpleafing journey-work, a greater 
loffe of time levied upon his head, then to be made the 
perpetuall reader of imchofen books and pamphlets, 
oftimes huge volumes. There is no book that is accept- 
able unleffe at certain feafons ; but to be enjoyn'd liie 
reading of that at all times, and in a hand fears legible, 
whereof three pages would not down at any time in the 
fairefl Print, is an impofition which I cannot beleeve 
how he that values time, and his own ftudies, or is but 
of a fenfible noftrill (hould be able to endure. In this 
one thing I crave leave of the prefent licencers to be 
pardon'd for fo thinking : who doubleffe took this office 
up, looking on it through their obedience to the Par- 
lament, whofe command perhaps made all things feem 
eafie and unlaborious to them ; but that this fhort triall 
hath wearied them out already, their own expreffions and 
excufes to them who make fo many journeys to follicit 



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AREOPAGITICA. 55 

their licence, are teftimony anough. Seeing tlierefore 
thofe who now poffeffe the imployment, by all evident 
figns wilh themfelvea wcli ridd of it, and that no man 
of worth, none that is not a plain unthrift of his own 
hours is ever likely to fucceed them, except he mean 
to put himfelf to the falary of a Prefle-corre<5lor, we may 
eafily forefee what kind of licencers we are to expe<5l 
hereafter, either ignorant, imperious, and remiffe, or 
bafely pecuniary. This is what I had to thew wherein 
this order cannot conduce to that end, whereof it bears 
the intention. 

Ilafllyproceedfrom the no good it can do, to the mani- 
feft hurt it caufes, in beingfiril the greateft difcouragement 
and affront that can be oflfer'd to learning and to learned 
men. It was the complaint and lamentation of Prelats, 
upon every leaft breath of a motion to remove pluralities, 
and diftribute more equally Church revennu's, that then 
all learning would be for ever dalht and difcourag'd. 
But as for that opinion, I never found caufe to think 
that the tenth part of learning Rood or fell with the 
Clergy : nor could I ever but hold it for a fordid and 
unworthy fpeech of any Churchman who had a com- 
petency left him. If therefore ye be loath to dilhearten 
utterly and difcontent, not the mercenary crew of falfe 
pretenders to learning, but the free and ingenuous fort 
of fuch as evidently were bom to ftudy, and love leming 
for it felf, not for lucre, or any other end, but the fervice 
of God and of truth, and perhaps that lading fame and 
perpetuity of praife which God and good men have con- 
sented Ihall be the reward of thofe whofe publifht labours 
advance the good of mankind, then know, that fo far 
to diftruft the judgement and tlie honefty of one who 
hath but a common repute in learning, and never yet 
oflfended, as not to count him fit to print his mind with- 
out a tutor and examiner, left he ihould drop a fcifm, 
or fomething of corruption, is the greateft difpleafure 
and indignity to a free and knowing fpirit that can be 
put upon him. What advantage is it to be a man over 
It is to be a boy at fchool, if we have only leapt the 



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$6 ARE0PAG2TICA, 

ferular, to come under the fefcu of an Imprimatur f if 
ferious and elaborat writings, as if they were no more 
then the theam of a Grammar lad under his Pedagogue 
mud not be utter'd without the curfory eyes of a tem- 
porizing and extemporizing licencer. He who is not 
tnifled with his own adlions, his drift not being known 
to be evill,and (landing to the hazard of law and penalty, 
has no great argument to think himfelf reputed in the 
Commonwealth wherein he was bom, for other then a 
fool or a foreiner. When a man writes to the world, 
he fummons up all his reafon and deliberation to aflill 
him ; he fearches, meditats, is induflrious, and likely 
confults and conferrs with his judicious friends ; after 
all which done he takes himfelf to be informed in what 
he writes, as well as any that writ before him ; if in this 
the moft confummat a6t of his fidelity and ripeneiTe, no 
years, no induftry, no former proof of his abilities can 
bring him to that ftate of maturity, as not to be ftill 
miftrufted and fufpe<5led, unleffe he carry all his con- 
fiderat diligence,all his midnightwatchings,and expence 
of Palladian oyl, to the hafty view of an unleafur'd 
licencer, perhaps much his younger, perhaps far his in- 
feriour in judgement, perhaps one who never knew the 
labour of book-writing, and if he be not repulft, or 
flighted, muft appear in Print like a punie with his 
guardian, and his cenfors hand on the back of his title 
to be his bayl and furety, that he is no idiot, or feducer, 
it cannot be but a difhonor and derogation to the author, 
to the book, to the priviledge and dignity of Learning. 
And what if the author (hall be one fo copious of fancie, 
as to have many things well worth the adding, come 
into his mind after licencing, while the book is yet under 
the Pre(re, which not feldom happ'ns to the beft and 
diligenteft writers ; and that perhaps a dozen times in 
one book. The Printer dares not go beyond his hcenc't 
copy ; fo often then muft the author trudge to his leav- 
giver, that thofe his new infertions may be viewd ; and 
many a jaunt will be made, ere that licencer, for it muft 
be the fame man, can either be found, or found at leifure ; 



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AREOPAGITICA. 57 

mean while either the Preffe mud (land (lill, which is 
no finall damage, or the author loofe his accurateft 
thoughts, and fend the book forth wors then he had 
made it, which to a diligent writer is the greateft melan- 
choly and vexation that can befall. And how can a 
man teach with autority, which is the life of teaching, 
how can he be a Dodlor in his book as he ought to be, 
or elfe had better be filent, whenas all he teaches, all he 
delivers, is but under the tuition, under the correction 
of his patriarchal licencer to blot or alter what precifely 
accords not with the hidebounc^ humor which he calls 
his judgement When every acute reader upon the firft 
fight of a pedantick licence, will be ready with thefe like 
words to ding the book a coits diflance from him, I hate 
a pupil teacher, I endure not an inllrudler that comes 
to me under the wardship of an overfeeing fid. I know 
nothing of the licencer, but that I have his own hand 
here for his arrogance ; who (hall warrant me his judge- 
ment? The State Sir, replies the Stationer, but has a 
quick return. The State (hall be my govemours, but not 
my criticks ; they may be midak'n in the choice of a 
licencer, as eafily as this licencer may be midak^n in an 
author : This is fome common (luflfe ; and he might 
adde (rom Sir Francis Bacon^ Th2Xfuch authorised books 
are but the language of the times. For though a licencer 
(hould happ*n to be judicious more then ordnaiy, which 
will be a great jeopardy of the next fucceflTion, yet his 
very o(iice, and his commiflTion enjoyns him to let pa(re 
nothing butwhat is vulgarly received already. Nay, which 
is more lamentable, if the work of any deceafed author, 
though never fo famous in his life time, and even to this 
day, come to their hands for licence to be Printed, or 
Reprinted, if there be found in his book one fentence 
of a ventrous edge, utter'd in the height of zeal, and who 
knows whether it might not be the didlat of a divine 
Spirit, yet not fuiting with every low decrepit humor of 
their own, though it were Knox himfelf, the Reformer 
of a Kingdom that fpake it, they will not pardon him their 
daih : the fenfe of that great man (hall to all poderity be 



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58 AREOPAGITICA. 

lofl, for the fearfulnelTe, or the prefumptuous ralhnefle 
of a perfundloiy licencer. And to what an author this 
violence hath bin lately done, and in what book of great- 
eft confequence to be faithfully publifht, I could now 
inftance, but (hall forbear till a more convenient feafon. 
Yet if thefe things be not refented serioufly and timely 
by them who have the remedy in their power, but that 
fuch iron moulds as thefe ihall have autority to knaw 
out the choifeft periods of exquifiteft books, and to com- 
mit fuch a treacherous fraud againft the orphan remain- 
ders of worthieft men after death, the more forrow will 
belong to that haples race of men, whofe misfortune it 
is to have underftanding. Henceforth let no man care 
to learn, or care to be more then worldly wife ; for cer- 
tainly in higher matters to be ignorant and flothfuU, to 
be a common ftedfaft dunce wUl be the only pleaiknt 
life, and only in requeft. 

And as it is a particular difefteem of every knowing 
perfon alive, and moft injurious to the written labours 
and monuments of the dead, fo to me it feems an un- 
dervaluing and vilifying of the whole Nation. I cannot 
fet fo hght by all the invention, the art, the wit, the 
grave and folid judgement which is in England, as that 
it can be comprehended in any twenty capacities how 
good foever, much leffe that it ftiould not paffe except 
5ieir fuperintendence be over it, except it be fifted and 
ftrain'd with their ftrainers, that it fhould be uncurrant 
without their manuall ftamp. Truth and underftanding 
are not fuch wares as to be monopolized and traded in 
by tickets and ftatutes, and ftandards. We muft not 
think to make a ftaple commodity of all the knowledge 
in the Land, to mark and licence it like our broad 
cloath, and our wool! packs. What is it but a fervi- 
tude like that imposed by the Philiftims, not to be 
allowed the ftiarpning of our own axes and coulters, 
but we muft repair from all quarters to twenty licencing 
forges. Had any one written and divulged erroneous 
things and fcandalous to honeft life, mifufing and for- 
feiting the efteem had of his reafon among men, if 



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AREOPAGITICA. 59 

after convidlion this only cenfure were adjudged him, 
that he Ihould never henceforth write, but what were 
firfl examined by an appointed officer, whofe hand 
ihould be annext to pafTe his credit for him, that now 
he might be fafely read, it could not be apprehend 
leffe then a difgracefull punilhment Whence to include 
the whole Nation, and thofe that never yet thus oflfended, 
under fuch a diffident and fufpedlfuU prohibition, may 
plainly be underftood what a difparagement it is. So 
much the more, when as dettors and delinquents may 
walk abroad without a keeper, but unoffenfive books 
mud not (lirre forth without a vifible jaylor in thir title. 
Nor is it to the common people leffe then a reproach ; 
for if we fo jealous over them, as that we dare not trull 
them with an Englifh pamphlet, what doe we but cen- 
fure them for a giddy, vitious, and ungrounded people ; 
in fuch a fick and weak eftate of faith and difcretion, as 
to be able to take nothing down but through the pipe 
of a licencer. That this is care or love of them, we 
cannot pretend, whenas in thofe Popiih places where 
the Laity are mod hated and defpis'd the lame Uridines 
is us*d over them. Wifdom we cannot call it, becaufe 
it Hops but one breach of licence, nor that neither ; 
whenas thofe corruptions which it feeks to prevent, 
break in faller at other dores which cannot be Ihut 

And in conclufion it refledls to the difrepute of our 
Minillers alfo, of whofe labours we Ihould hope better, 
and of the proficiencie which thir flock reaps by them, 
then that after all this light of the Gofpel which is, and 
is to be, and all this continuall preaching, they Ihould 
be llill frequented with fuch an unprincipled, unedi- 
fy^d, and laick rabble, as that the whiffe of every new 
pamphlet Ihould dagger them out of their catechifm, 
and Chrillian walking. This may have much reafon 
to difcourage the Minillers when fuch a low conceit is 
had of all their exhortations, and the benefiting of 
their hearers, as that they are not thought fit to be 
tum'd loofe to three Iheets of paper without a licencer, 
that all the Sermons, all the Lectures preacht, printed, 



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6o AREOPAGITICA. 

vented in fuch numbers, and fuch volumes, as have 
now wellnigh made all other books unlalable, Ihould 
not be armor anough againft one fmgle enchiridion^ 
without the caflle of St Angeio of an Imprimatur. 

And left fom ihould perfwade ye, Lords and Com- 
mons, that thefe arguments of lemed mens difcourage- 
ment at this your order, are meer flouriihes, and not 
reall, I could recount what I have feen and heard in 
other Countries, where this kind of inquifition tyran- 
nizes ; when I have fat among their lemed men, for 
that honor I had, and bin counted happy to be bom 
in fuch a place of Fhilofophicixttdom^ as they fuppos'd 
England was, while themfelvs did nothing but bemoan 
the fervil condition into which leraing amongft them 
was brought ; that this was it which had dampt the 
glory of Italian wits; that nothing had bin there writt'n 
now thefe many years but flattery and fuftian. There 
it was that I found and vifited the famous GcUiko 
grown old, a prifher to the Inquifition, for thinking in 
Aftronomy otherwife then the Francifcan and Domin- 
ican licencers thought And though I knew that 
England then was groaning loudeft under the Prelati- 
call yoak, neverthelefle I tooke it as a pledge of future 
happines, that other Nations were fo perfwaded of her 
liberty. Yet was it beyond my hope that thofe Worthies 
were then breathmg in her air, who ihould be her 
leaders to fuch a deliverance, as fhall never be forgotfn 
by any revolution of time that this world hath to finilh. 
When that was once begun, it was as little in my fear, 
that what words of complaint I heard among lemed 
men of other parts utter'd againft the Inquifition, the 
fame I ihould hear by as lemed men at home utterd 
in time of Parlament againft an order of licencing ; 
and that fo generally, that when I difclos*d my felf a 
companion of their difcontent, I might lay, if without 
envy, that he whom an honeft quajlorjhip had indeafd 
to the Sicilians^ was not more by them importun'd 
againft Verres^ then the favourable opinion which I 
had among many who honour ye, and are known and 



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AREOPAGITICA. 6i 

refpe<5led by ye, loaded me with entreaties and per- 
fwafions, that I would not defpair to lay together that 
which juft reafon (hould bring into my mind, toward 
the removal of an undeferved thraldom upon leming. 
That this is not therefore the disburdning of a partic- 
ular fancie, but the common grievance of all thofe 
who had prepared their minds and fludies above the 
vulgar pitch to advance truth in others, and from others 
to entertain it, thus much may fatisfie. And in their 
name I Ihall for neither friend nor foe conceal what 
the generall murmur is ; that if it come to inquifitioning 
again, and licencing, and that we are fo timorous of 
our felvs, and fo fufpicious of all men, as to fear each 
book, and the Ihaking of every leaf, before we know 
what the contents are, if fomc who but of late were 
little better then filenc't from preaching, Ihall come 
now to filence us from reading, except what they pleafe, 
it cannot be gueft what is intended by fom but a fecond 
tyranny over learning : and will foon put it out of con- 
troverfie that Biihops and Prefbyters are the lame to 
us both name and thing. That thofe evills of Prelaty 
which before from five or fix and twenty Sees were dif- 
tributivly charg'd upon the whole people, will now light 
wholly upon learning, is not obfcure to us: whenas 
now the Pallor of a fmall unlearned Parilh, on the fud- 
den Ihall be exalted Archbilhop over a large dioces of 
books, and yet not remove, but keep his other cure 
too, a myllicall pluralilL He who but of late ci/d 
down the fole ordination of every novice Batchelor of 
Art, and den)r*d fole jurifdidlion over th6 fimplell Pa- 
rilhioner, Ihall now at home in his privat chair alTume 
both thefe over worthiell and excellentell books and 
ablell authors that write them. This is not, Yee 
Covenants and Protellations that we have made, this 
is not to put down Prelaty, this is but to chop an 
Epifcopacy, this is but to tranllate the Palace Metro- 
politan from one kind of dominion into another, this 
is but an old cannonicall llight of commuting our 
penance. To llartle thus betimes at a meer unlicenc't 



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62 AREOPAGITICA. 

pamphlet will after a whUe be afraid of every conven- 
ticle, and a while after will make a conventicle of 
every Chriftian meeting. But I am certain that a State 
governed by the rules of juftice and fortitude, or a 
Church built and founded upon the rock of faith and 
true knowledge, cannot be fo pufillanimous. While 
things are yet not conftituted in Religion, that freedom 
of writing fhould be reftrain*d by a difcipline imitated 
from the Prelats, and learnt by diem from the Inquifi- 
tion to ihut us up all again into the breft of a licencer, 
muft needs give caufe of doubt and difcouragement to 
all learned and religious men. Who cannot but difcem 
the finenes of this politic drift, and who are the con- 
trivers ; that while Bflhops were to be baited down, then 
all Preffes might be open; it was the people's birthright 
and priviledge in time of Parlament, it was the breaking 
forth of light. But now the Bifhops abrogated and 
voided out of the Church, as if our Reformation fought 
no more, but to make room for others into their feats 
under another name, the Epifcopall arts begin to bud 
again, the crufe of truth mull run no more oyle, liberty 
of Printing muft be enthralled again under a Prelaticall 
commiflion of twenty, the privilege of the people nuUi- 
fy'd, and which is wors, the freedom of learning muft 
groan again, and to her old fetters ; all this the Parla- 
ment yet fitting. Although their own late arguments and 
defences againft the Prelats might remember them that 
this obfbrudling violence meets for the moft part with 
an event utterly oppofite to the end which it drives at : 
inftead offuppreffmg fedls and fchifms,itraifesthem and 
invefls them with a reputation : Thepunijhing of wits 
enhaunces their autority^ feith the Vicount St Albans^ 
and a forbidden writing is tAotdgAt to be a certain /park 
of truth that flies up in the faces of them who feeke to 
tread it out. This order therefore may prove a nurfing 
mother to fedls, but I fhall eafily fhew how it will be 
a ftep-dame to Truth : and firft by difinabling us to 
the maintenance of what is known already. 
Well knows he who ufes to confider, diat our faith 



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AREOPAGITICA. 



^l 



and knowledge thrives by exercife, as well as our limbs 
and complexion. Truth is compared in Scripture to a 
dreaming fountain ; if her waters flow not in a perpet- 
uall progreflion, they fick*n into a muddy pool of con- 
formity and tradition. A man may be a heretick in 
the truth ; and If he beleeve things only becaufe his 
Paflor fayes fo, or the AiTembly fo determins, without 
knowing other reafon, though his belief be true, yet the 
very truth he holds, becomes his herefie. There is not 
any burden that fom would gladier pod oflf to another, 
then the charge and care of their Religion. There be, 
whoknowsnotthat there beof Proteftants and profeflbrs 
who live and dye in as arrant an implicit faith, as any 
lay Papift of Loretto. A wealthy man addicted to his 
pleafure and to his profits, finds Religion to be a traffick 
fo entangUd, and of fo many piddling accounts, that of 
all myfteries he cannot fldll to keep a (lock going upon 
that trade. What (houlde he doe ? fain he would have 
the name to be religous, fain he would bear up with 
his neighbours in that What does he therefore, but 
refolvs to give over, toyling, and to find himfelf out 
fom factor, to whofe care and credit he may commit 
the whole managing of his religous affairs ; fom Divine 
of note and eftimation that mud be. To him he ad- 
heres, refigns the whole ware-houfe of his religion, with 
all the locks and keyes into his cudody ; and indeed 
makes the very perfon of that man his religion ; efleems 
his aifociating with him a fuflicient evidence and com- 
mendatory of his own piety. So that a man may fay 
his religion is now no more within himfelf, but is be- 
com a dividuall movable, and goes and comes neer 
him, according as that good man frequents the houfe. 
He entertains him, gives him gifts, feafls him, lodges 
him ; his religion comes home at night, praies, is libe- 
rally fupt, and fumptuoufly laid to ileep, rifes, is faluted, 
and after the malmfey, or fome well fpic't bruage, and 
better breakfafled then he whofe morning appetite 
would have gladly fed on green figs between Bethany 
and lerufaleniy his Religion walks abroad at eight, and 



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64 AREOPAGITICA 

leavs his kind entertainer in the (hop trading all day 
without his religion. 

Another fort there be who when they hear that all 
things ihall be ordered, all things regulated and fetl'd; 
nothing writt'n but what paffes through the cuftom- 
houfe of certain Publicans that have the tunaging and 
the poundaging of all free fpok*n truth, will fbait give 
themfelvs up into your hands, mak'em and cut'em out 
what religion ye pleafe; there be delights, there be 
recreations and jolly paftimes that will fetch the day 
about from fun to fun, and rock the tedious year as 
in a delightfull dream. What need they torture their 
heads with that which others have tak*n fo llrictly, and 
fo unalterably into their own pourveying. Thefe are 
the fruits which a dull eafe and ceffation of our know- 
ledge will bring forth among the people. How goodly, 
and how to be wifht were fuch an obedient unanimity 
as this, what a fine conformity would it ftarch us aU 
into? doubtles a ftanch and folid peece of frame- 
work, as any January could freeze together. 

Nor much better will be the confequence ev'n among 
the Clergy themfelvs; it is no new thing never heard 
of before, for a parochiall Minifter, who has his reward, 
and is at his Hercules pillars in a warm benefice, to be 
eafily inclinable, if he have nothing elfe that may roufe 
up his fludies, to finifli his circuit in an EngHfli con- 
cordance and a topic folioy the gatherings and favings 
of a fober graduatfhip, a Harmony and a Catena^ 
treading* the conflant round of certain common doc- 
trinall heads, attended with their ufes, motives, marks 
and means, out of which as out of an alphabet or fol 
fa by forming and transforming, joyning and dif- 
joyning varioufly a little book-craft, and two hours 
meditation might fiimilh him unspeakably to the per- 
formance of more then a weekly charge of fermoning : 
not to reck'n up the infinit helps of interlinearies, 
breviaries, fynopfes^ and other loitering gear. But as 
for the multitude of Sermons ready printed and pil'd 
up, on every text that is not difficult, our London 



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AREOPAGITICA. 65 

trading St Tkomas in his veflry, and adde to boot St 
Martin, and St Hugh, have not within their hallow'd 
limits more vendible ware of all forts ready made: 
lo that penury he never need fear of Pulpit pro 
vifion, having where fo plenteoufly to refrelh his ma* 
gazin. But if his rear and flanks be not impaPd, if 
his back dore be not secur'd by the rigid licencer, but 
that a bold book may now and then iflue forth, and 
give the aflault to fome of his old coUedions in their 
trenches, it vAYi concern him then to keep waking, to 
(land in watch, to fet good guards and fentinells about 
his received opinions, to walk the round and counter- 
round with his fellow infpedors, fearing left any of his 
flock be feduc't, who ahb then would be better in- 
ftrudled, better exercis'd and difciplin'd. And God 
fend that the fear of this diligence which muft then 
be us'd, doe not make us affect the lazines of a li- 
cencing Church. 

For if we be fure we are in the right, and doe not 
hold the truth guiltily, which becomes not, if we our- 
felves condemn not our own weak and frivolous teach- 
ing, and the people for an untaught and irreligious 
gadding rout, what can be more fait, then when a man 
judicious, learned, and of a confcience, for ought we 
know, as good as theirs that taught us what we know, 
fliall not privily from houfe to houfe, which is more 
dangerous, but openly by writing publifli to the world 
what his opinion is, what his reafons, and wherefore 
that which is now thought cannot be found. Chrift 
urg*d it as wherewith to juftifie himfelf, that he preacht 
in publick; yet writing is more publick then preaching; 
and more eafie to refutation, if need be, there being fo 
many whofe bufinefle and profeflion meerly it is, to be 
the champions of Truth ; which if they negleft, what 
can be imputed but their floth, or inabilty ? 

Thus much we are hinder'd and dif-inur'd bjr this 
cours of licencing towards the true knowledge of what 
we feem to know. For how much it hurts and hinders 
the licencers themfelves in the calling of their Min- 

E 



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66 AREOPAGITICA, 

iilery, more then any fecular employment, if they will 
difcharge that office as they ought, fo that of neceflity 
they mud negle<5l either tlie one duty or tlie other, I 
infill not, becaufe it is a particular, but leave it to their 
own conscience, how they will decide it there. 

There is yet behind of what I purposed to lay open, 
the incredible loiTe, and detriment that this plot of 
licencing puts us to, more then if fom enemy at fea 
(hould flop up all our hav*ns and ports, and creeks, it 
hinders and retards the importation of our richeft 
Marchandize, Truth ; nay it was firfl eftablifht and put 
in practice by Antichrillian malice and myllery on fet 
purpofe to extinguiih, if it were pofllble, the light of 
Reformation, and to fettle fahhood ; Uttle differing from 
that policie wherewith the Turk upholds his Alcoran^ 
by tlie prohibition of Printing. Tis not deny'd, but 
gladly confefl, we are to fend our thanks and vows to 
heav'n, louder then mod of Nations, for that great mea- 
fure of truth which we enjoy, efpecially in thofe main 
points between us and the Pope, with his appertinences 
the Prelats : but he who thinks we are to pitch our tent 
here, and have attained the utmoft prospect of reforma- 
tion, that the mortalle glafle wherein we contemplate, 
can (hew us, till we come to beatific vifion, that man by 
this very opinion declares, that he is yet farre (hort of 
Truth. 

Truth indeed came once into the world with her 
divine Mailer, and was a perfect (hape mod glorious 
to look on : but when he afcended, and his Apoftles 
after him were laid afleep, then (Irait arofe a wicked 
race of deceivers, who as that ftory goes of the /Egyptian 
Typhon with his confpirators, how they dealt with the 
good OfiriSy took the virgin Truth, hewd her lovely 
lorm into a thoufand peeces, and fcatter*d them to the 
four winds. From that time ever fmce, the fad friends 
of Truth, fuch as durll appear, imitating the carefull 
fearch that Jfis made for the mangl'd body of OfiriSy 
went up and down gathering up Umb by limb (lill as 
they could find tlicm. We have not yet found them 



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AREOPACITICA. 67 

an, Lords and Commons, nor ever Ihall doe, till her 
Mafters fecond comming ; he (hall bring together every 
joynt and member, and (hall mould them into an im- 
mortall feature of lovelinefs and perfedtion. Suffer not 
thefe licencing prohibitions to (land at every place of 
opportunity forbidding and difturbing them that con- 
tinue feeking, that continue to do our obfequies to 
the torn body of our martyr'd Saint We boad our 
light ; but if we look not wifely on the Sun it felf, it 
(mites us into darknes. Who can difcem thofe planets 
that are oft Combuft^ and thofe (lars of brighted mag- 
nitude that rife and fet with the Sun, untiU the oppofite 
motion of their orbs bring them to fuch a place in the 
firmament, where they may be feen evning or morning. 
The light which we have gain*d, was giv*n us, not to 
be ever flaring on, but by it to difcover onward things 
more remote from our knowledge. It is not the un- 
frocking of a Pried, the unmitring of a Bi(hop,and the re- 
moving him from off the Prefbyterian fhoulders that will 
make us a happy Nation, no, if other things as great in 
the Church, and in the rule of life both economical! 
and politicall be not lookt into and reformed, we have 
lookt fo long upon the blaze that Zuinglitis and Calvin 
hath beacon*d up to us, that we are dark blind. There 
be who perpetually complain of fchifms and feds, and 
make it fuch a calamity that any man diflents from their 
maxims. 'Tis their own pride and ignorance which 
caufes the didurbing, who neither will hear with meek- 
nes, nor can convince, yet all mud be fuppred which 
is not found in their Syntagma, They are the troublers, 
they are the dividers of unity, who negledl and permit 
not others to unite thofe diflever*d peeces which 
are yet wanting to the body of Truth. To be dill 
fearching what we know not, by what we know, dill 
clofmg up truth to truth as we find it (for all her body 
is homogenealy and proportionall) this is the golden rule 
in Theology as well as in Arithmetick, and makes up the 
bed harmony in a Church ; not the forc't and outward 
union of cold, and neutrally and inwardly divided minds. 



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68 AREOPAGITICA. 

Lords and Commons of England, confider what 
Nation it is wherof ye are, and wherof ye are the 
govemours : a Nation not flow and dull, but of a quick, 
ingenious, and piercing fpirit, acute to invent, futtle 
and fmewy to difcours, not beneath the reach of any 
point the higheft that human capacity can foar to. 
Therefore the (ludies of learning in her deeped Sci- 
ences have bin fo ancient, and fo eminent among us, 
that Writers of good antiquity, and ablefl judgement have 
bin perfwaded that ev*n the fchool of Fyt/iagoras, and 
the Perfian wifdom took beginning from the old Philo- 
fophy of this Hand. And that wife and civill Roman, 
Julius Agricolay who governed once here for Ca/ar^ pre- 
ferr'd the naturall wits of Britain, before the laboured 
iludies of the French. Nor is it for nothing that the 
grave and frugal Tranftlvanian fends out yearly from 
as farre as the mountanous borders of Rujfia^ and be- 
yond the Hercynian wildemes, not their youth, but 
their flay'd -men, to learn our language, and our the(h 
logic arts. Yet that which is above all this, the favour 
and the love of heav'n we have great argument to think 
in a peculiar manner propitious and propending towards 
us. Why elfe was this Nation chos*n before any other, 
that out of her as out of Sion (hould be proclam'd and 
founded forth the firfl tidings and trumpet of Reforma- 
tion to all Europ. And had it not bin the obftinat per- 
verfnes of our Prelats againll the divine and admirable 
fpirit of IVicklef^ to fupprefle him as a fchifmatic and 
innovator y perhaps neither the BohemianHuffe2Xii\JeroM^ 
no nor the name of Luther^ or of Calvin had bin ever 
known : the glory of reforming all our neighbours had bin 
compleatly ours. But now, as our obdurat Clergy have 
with violence demean'd the matter, we are become 
hitherto the latefl and the back wardefl. SchoUers, of whom 
God offered to have made us the teachers. Now once 
again by all concurrence of figns,and by the generall in- 
ftindlof holy and devout men,as they daily and folemnly 
cxpreiTe their thoughts, God is decreeing to begin fome 
new and great period in his Church, eVn to the reform- 



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AREOPAGITICA. 69 

ing of Refonnation it felf : what does he then but 
reveal Himfelf to his fervants, and as his manner is, 
firft to his EngHlh-men ; I fay as his manner is, firfl 
to us, though we mark not the method of his counfels, 
and are unworthy. Behold now this vafl City ; a City 
of refuge, the manfion houfe of liberty, encompafl and 
furrounded with his piotedlion ; the (hop of warre hath 
not there more anvils and hammers waking, to faihion 
out the plates and inllruments of armed Juftice in 
defence of beleaguer'd Truth, then there be pens and 
heads there, fitting by their fludious lamps, mufmg, 
fearching, revolving new notions and idea's wherewith 
to prefent, as with their homage and their fealty the 
approaching Reformation : others as fad reading, trying 
all things, affenting to the force of reafon and convince- 
ment. What could a man require more from a Nation 
fo pliant and fo prone to feek after knowledge. What 
wants there to fuch a towardly and pregnant foile, but 
wife and faith full labourers, to make a knowing people, 
a Nation of Prophets, of Sages, and of Worthies. We 
reck'n more then five months yet to harvell ; there need 
not be five weeks, had we but eyes to lift up, the fields 
are white already. Where there is much defire to learn, 
there of neceflity will be much arguing, much writing, 
many opinions ; for opinion in good men is but know- 
ledge in the making. Under thefe fantallic terrors of 
se<5l and fchifm, we wrong the earned and zealous third 
after knowledge and underdanding which God hath 
dirr'd up in this City. What fome lament of, we rather 
diould rejoyce at, fliould rather praife this pious for- 
wardnes among men, to reaffume the ill deputed care 
of their Religion into their own hands again. A little 
generous prudence, a little forbearance of one another, 
and fom grain of charity might win all thefe diligences 
to joyn, and unite in one generall and brotherly fearch 
after Truth ; could we but forgoe this Prelaticall tradi- 
tion of crowding free confciences and Chridian liberties 
into canons and precepts of men. I doubt not, if fome 
great and worthy dranger diould come among us, wife 



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TO AREOPAGITICA. 

to difcem the mould and temper of a people, and how 
to govern it, obferving the high hopes and aims, the 
diligent alacrity of our extended thoughts and reafon- 
ings in the purfuance of truth and freedom, but that he 
would cry out as Pirrhus did, admiring the Roman 
docility and courage, if fuch were my Epirots^ I would 
not defpair the greateft defign that could be attempted 
to make a Church or Kingdom happy. Yet thefe are 
the men cry*d out againfl for fchifmaticks and fedlaries; 
as if, while the Temple of the Lord was building, fome 
cutting, fome fquaring the marble, others hewing the 
cedars, there (hould be a fortof irrationall men who could 
not confider there mud be many fchifms and many dif- 
fe<5lions made in the quarry and in the timber, ere the 
houfe of God can be built And when every (lone is laid 
artfully together, it cannot be united into a continuity, it 
can but be contiguous in this world ; neither can every 
peece of the building be of one form ; nay rather the 
perfection confifls in this, that out of many moderat 
varieties and brotherly diflimilitudes that are not 
vaflly difproportionall arifes the goodly and the grace- 
full fymmetiy that commends the whole pile and (Iruc- 
ture. Let us therefore be more confiderat builders, 
more wife in fpirituall architedlure, when great refor- 
mation is expelled. For now the time feems come, 
wherein Mofes the great Prophet may fit in heav*n re- 
joycing to fee that memorable and glorious wilh of his 
fulfiird, when not only our fev*nty Elders, but all the 
Lords people are become Prophets. No marvell then 
though fome men, and fome good men too perhaps, 
but young in goodneffe, z%JoJhua then was, envy them. 
They fret, and out of their own weaknes are in agony, 
left thofe divifions and fubdivifions will undoe us. The 
adverfarie again applauds, and waits the hour, when 
they have brancht themfelves out, faith he, fmall anough 
into parties and partitions, then will be our time. Fool I 
he fees not the firm root, out of which we all grow, 
though into branches : nor will beware untill hee fee 
our (mall divided maniples cutting throughat every angle 



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AREOPAGITICA. 71 

of his ill united and unweildy brigade. And that we 
are to hope better of all thefefuppofed fe6ls and fchifras, 
and that we (hall not need that folicitude honed perhaps 
though over timorous of them that vex in his behalf, 
but (hall laugh in the end, at thofe malicious applauders 
of our dififerences, I have thefe reafons to peifwade me. 
Firft, when a City (hall be as it were befieg'd and 
blockt about, her navigable river infefled, inrodes and 
incurfions round, de(iance and battell oft rumor'd to 
be marching up ev*n to her walls, and fuburb trenches, 
that then the people, or the greater part, more then 
at other times, wholly tak*n up with the (ludy of 
highed and mod important matters to be reform'd, 
(hould be disputing, reafoning, reading, inventing, dif- 
courfing, ev'n to a rarity, and admiration, things not 
before difcourd or writt'n of, argues firil a Angular 
good will, contentedne(re and confidence in your pru- 
dent forefight, and fafe government. Lords and Com- 
mons; and from thence derives it felf to a gallant 
bravery and well grounded contempt of their enemies, 
as if there were no fmall number of as great fpirits 
among us, as his was, who when Rome was nigh be- 
fieg'd by Hanibaly being in the City, bought that peece 
of ground at no cheap rate, whereon Hanibal himfelf 
encampt his own regiment. Next it is a lively and 
cherfull prefage of ourliappy fucceffe and vidlory. 
For as in a. body, when the blood is frefh, the fpirits 
pure and vigorous, . not only to vital, but to rationall 
faculties, and thofe in the acuted, and the perted 
operations of wit and futtlety, it argues in what good 
plight and conditution the body is, fo when the cheer- 
fulnelTe of the people is fo fprightly up, as that it has, 
i^t only wherewith to guard well its own freedom and 
fafety, but to fpare, and to bedow upon the folided 
and fublimed points of controverfie, and new inven- 
tion, it betok'n us not degenerated, nor drooping to a 
fatall decay, but cading off the old and wrincl'd fkin 
of corruption to outlive thefe pangs and wax young 
again, entring the glorious waies of Truth and profpe- 



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7a AREOPAGITICA. 

rous vertue deilin'd to become great and honourable 
in thefe latter ages. Methinks I fee in my mind a 
noble and puiffant Nation roufing herfelf like a flrong 
man after deep, and fhaking her invincible locks: 
Methink*; I fee her as an Eagle muing her mighty 
youth, and kindling her undazPd eyes at the full mid- 
day beam; purging and unfcaling her long abufed 
fight at the fountain it felf of heav'nly radiance, while 
the whole noife of timorous and flocking birds, with 
thofe alfo that love the twilight, flutter about, amaz'd 
at what (he means, and in their envious gabble would 
prognofticat a year of fedls and fchifms. 

What (hould ye doe then, (hould ye fuppreffe all 
this flowry crop of knowledge and new light fprung up 
and yet fpringing daily in this City, (hould ye fet an 
Oligarchy of twenty ingroffers over it, to bring a famin 
upon our minds again, when we (hall know nothing 
but ^hat is meafur*d to us by their bu(hel ? Beleeve 
it, Lords and Commons, they who counfell ye to fuch 
a fuppreflfmg, doe as good as bid ye fupprefife your- 
felves ; and I will foon (hew how. If it be defir*d to 
know the immediat caufe of all this free writing and 
free fpeaking, there cannot be a(rign'd a truer then 
your own mild, and free, and human government ; it 
is the liberty. Lords and Commons, which your own 
valorous and happy counfels have purchad us, liberty 
which is the nurfe of all great wits ; this is that which 
hath rarify'd and enlightn*d our fpirits like the influence 
of heav'n ; this is that which hath enfranchised, enlarg'd 
and lifted up our apprehenfions degrees above them- 
felves. Ye cannot make us now leffe capable, le(re 
knowing, le(re eagarly purfuing of the truth, unle(re 
ye (ird make your felves, that made us fo, le(re the 
lovers, lelTe the founders of our true liberty. We can 
grow ignorant again, bruti(h, formall, and (lavi(h, as ye 
found us ; but you then mud firft become that which 
ye cannot be, oppre(rive, arbitrary, and tyrannous, as 
they were (rom whom ye have fi^e'd us. That our 
hearts are now more capacious, our thoughts more 



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AREOPAGITJCA. yj 

erected to the fearch and expedlation of greateft and 
exadleft things, is the iffue of your owne vertu propa- 
gated in us ; ye cannot fuppreffe that unleffe ye rein- 
force an abrogated and mercileffe law, that fathers may 
difpatch at will their own children. And who (hall then 
(licke clofefl to ye, and excite others ? not he who takes 
up armes for cote and condudl, and his four nobles of 
Danegelt Although I difpraife not the defence of juft 
immunities, yet love my peace better, if that were alL 
Give me the liberty to know, to utter, and to aigue 
freely according to confcience, above all liberties. 

What would be best advis'd then, if it be found fo 
hurtfuU and fo unequall to fuppreffe opinions for the 
newnes, or the unfutablenes to a cuflomary acceptance, 
will not be my taflc to fey ; I only (hall repeat what I 
have learnt from one of your own honourable number, 
a right noble and pious lord, who had he not fecrific'd 
his life and fortunes to the Church and Commonwealth, 
we had not now mi ft and bewayPd a worthy and un- 
doubted patron of this argument Ye know him I am 
fure ; yet I for honours (ake, and may it be etemall to 
him, (hall name him, the Lord Brook} He writing of 
Epifcopacy, and by the way treating of fe6ls and 
fchifms, left Ye his vote, or rather now the laft words 
of his dying charge, which I know will ever be of dear 
and honoured regard with Ye, fo full of meeknes and 
breathing charity, that next to his laft teftament, who 
bequeathed love and peace to his Difciples, I cannot 
call to mind where I have read or heard words more 
mild and peacefulL He there exhorts us to hear with 
patience and humility thofe, however they be mif- 
caird, that defire to live purely, in fuch a ufe of Gods 
Ordinances, as the beft guidance of their confcience 
gives them, and to tolerat them, though in fome dif- 
conformity to our felves. The book it felf will tell us 
more at large being publiftit to the world, and dedica* 
ted to the Parlament by him who both for his life and 
for his death deferves, that wliat advice he left be not 
laid by without perufall. 



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U AREOPAGITICA. 

And now the time in fpeciall is, by priviledge to 
wrtie and fpeak what may help to the furder difcus- 
fing of matters in agitation. The Temple oijantts with 
his two cottiroverfal faces might now not unfignifi- 
cantly be fet open. And though all the windes of 
do6lrin were let loofe to play upon the earth, fo Truth 
be in the field, we do injurioufly by licencing and 
prohibiting to mifdoubt her ftrength. Let her and 
Falfhood grapple ; who ever knew Truth put to the 
wors, in a free and open encounter. Her confuting 
is the bed and fureil fupprefllng. He who hears what 
praying there is for light and clearer knowledge to be 
fent down among us, would think of other matters to 
be conilituted beyond the difcipline of Geneva^ fram'd 
and fabric*t already to our hands. Yet when the new 
light which we beg for (hines in upon us, there be who 
envy, and oppofe, if it come not firfl in at their cafe- 
ments. What a collufion is this, whenas we are ex- 
horted by the wife man to ufe diligence, to feek for 
wifdom as for hiddn treafura early and late, tiiat 
another order (hall enjoyn us to know nothing but by 
(latute. When a man hath bin labouring the hardefl 
labour in the deep mines of knowledge, hath fumilht 
out his findings in all their equipage, drawn forth his 
reafons as it were a battell raung^d, fcatter'd and 
defeated all obje<5lions in his way, calls out his adver- 
fery into the plain, offers him the advantage of wind 
and fun, if he pleafe ; only that he may try the matter 
by dint of argument, for his opponents then to fculk, 
to lay ambulhments, to keep a narrow bridge of licen- 
cing where the challenger (hould paffe, though it be 
valour anough in ihouldierihip, is but weaknes and 
cowardife in the wars of Truth. For who knows not 
that Truth is flrong next to the Almighty ; (he needs 
no policies, no (Irategems, no licencings to make her 
victorious, thofe are the (hifts and the defences that 
error ufes againft her power : give her but room, and 
do not bind her when (he (leeps, for then (he fpeaks 
not true, as the old Prcteus did, who fpake oracles 



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APEOPAGJTICA. 



n 



only when he was caught and bound, but then rathet 
flie turns herfelf into all ftiapes, except her own, and 
perhaps tunes her voice according to the time, as 
Micaiah did before Ahab, untill (he be adjtir'd into 
her own likenes. Yet is it not impoflible that Ihe may 
have more (hapes then one. What elfe is all that rank 
of things indifferent, wherein Truth may be on this fide, 
or on the other, without being unlike her felf. What 
but a vain fliadow elfe is the abolition of t?u>fe ordi- 
nances^ that hand writing nayPd to the croffty what 
great purchafe is this Chriflian liberty which Paul fo 
often boafls of. His dodlrine is, that he who eats or 
eats not, regards a day, or regards it not, may doc 
either to the Lord. How many other things might be 
tolerated in peace, and left to confcience, had we but 
charity, and were it not the chiefflrong hold of our 
hypocrifie to be ever judging one another. I fear yet 
this iron yoke of outward conformity hath left a flavilh 
print upon our necks ; the ghoft of a linnen decency 
yet haunts us. We ftumble and are impatient at the 
leaft dividing of one vifible congregation from another, 
though it be not in fundamentals ; and through our 
forwardnes to fuppreffe, and our backwardnes to re- 
cover any enthrall'd peece of truth out of the gripe of 
cuftom, we care not to keep truth feparated from 
tnith, which is the fierceft rent and difunion of all. 
We doe not fee that while we ftill affect by all means 
a rigid extemall formality, we may as foon fall again 
into a grolfe conforming ftupidity, a ftark and dead 
congealment of wood and hay and Jlubble forc't and 
frozen together, which is more to the fudden degene- 
rating of a Church then many fubdichotomies of petty 
fchifms. Not that I can think well of every light repa- 
ration, or that all in a Church is to be expedled gold 
and filver and pretious ftoms : it is not poffible for man 
to fever the wheat from the tares, the good fifh from 
the other frie ; that muft be the Angels Miniftery at the 
end of mortall things. Yet if all cannot be of one mind, 
as who looks they (hould be ? this doubtles is more 



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76 AREOPAGITICA, 

wholfomey more prudent, and more Chriflian that 
many be tolerated, rather then all compelled. I mean 
not tolerated Popeiy, and open fuperllition, whicli as 
it extirpats all religions and civill fupremacies, fo it 
felf Ihould be extirpat, provided firft that all charitable 
and compafTionat means be us'd to win and regain 
the weak and mifled : that alfo which is impious or evil 
abfolutely either againil faith or maners no law can 
poflibly permit, that intends not to unlaw it felf : but 
thofe neighboring differences, or rather indifferences, 
are what I fpeak of, whether in fome point of dodlrine 
or of difcipline, which though they may be many, yet 
need not interrupt the unity of Spirit^ if we could but 
find among us the bond of peace. In the mean while if 
any one would write, and bring his helpfuU hand to 
the flow-moving Reformation we labour under, if 
Truth have fpok*n to him before others, or but feem'd 
at leafl to fpeak, who hath fo bejefuited us that we 
Ihould trouble that man with afking licence to doe fo 
worthy a deed ? and not confider this, that if it come 
to prohibiting, there is not ought more likely to be 
prohibited then truth it felf; whofe firfl appearance to 
our eyes blear'd and dimmed with prejudice and cuflom, 
is more unfightly and unplaufible then many errors, 
ev'n as the perfon is of many a great man flight and 
contemptible to fee to. And what doe they tell us 
vainly of new opinions, when this very opinion of 
theirs, that none muil be heard, but whom they like, 
is the worfl and newefl opinion of all others ; and 
is the chief cause why fedls and fchifms doe fo much 
abound, and true knowledge is kept at diftance from 
us ; befides yet a greater danger which is in it For 
when God fliakes a Kingdome with fl^rong and health- 
full commotions to a generall reforming, 'tis not untrue 
that many fectaries and falfe teachers are then bufieft 
in feducing; but yet more true it is, that God then 
raifes to his own work men of rare abilities, and more 
then common induflry not only to look back and revife 
what hath bm taught heretofore, but to gain furder and 



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ARJ^OPAGITICA, 77 

goe on, fome new enlightn'd Heps in the difcovery of 
truth. For fuch is the order of Gods enlightning his 
Church, to difpenfe and deal out by degrees his beam, 
fo as our earthly eyes may bed fuftain it Neither 
is God appointed and confin'd, where and out of what 
place thefe his chofen Ihall be firfl heard to fpeak ; for 
he fees not as man fees, choofes not as man choofes, 
left we (hould devote our felves again to fet places, and 
affembUes, and outward callings of men ; planting our 
faith one while in the old Convocation houfe, and 
another while in the Chappell at Weftminfter; when 
all the faith and religion that (hall be there canonized, 
is not fufficient without plain convincement, and the 
charity of patient inftrudion to fupple the leaft bruife 
of confcience, to edifie the meaneft Chriftian, who de- 
fires to walk in the Spirit, and not in the letter of 
human truft, for all the number of voices that can be 
there made, no though Harry the 7. himfelf there, 
with all his leige tombs about him, (hould lend 
them voices from the dead, to fwelt their number. 
And if the men be erroneous who appear to be 
the leading fchiimaticks, what witholds us but our 
floth, our felf-will, and diftruft in the right caufe, that 
we doe not give them gentte meetings and gentle dif- 
mi(rions, that we debate not and examin Uie matter 
throughly with liberall and frequent audience ; if not 
for their (akes, yet for our own ? feeing no man who 
hath tafted learning, but will confe(re the many waies of 
profiting by thofe who not contented with (lale receits 
are able to manage, and fet forth new pofitions to the 
world. And were they but as the duft and cinders of 
our feet, fo long as in that notion they may ferve to 
poli(h and brighten the armoury of Truth, eVn for that 
refpedl they were not utterly to be caft away. But if 
they be of thofe whom God hath fitted for the fpeciall 
ufe of thefe times with eminent and ample gifts, and 
thofe perhaps neither among the Priefts, nor among 
the Pharilees, and we in the haft of a precipitant zed 
(hall makenodiftin(5lion*but refolve to ftop their mouths. 



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78 AREOPAGJTICA. 

becauf(f we fear they come with new and dangerous 
opinions, as we commonly fore-judge them ere we un- 
derfland them, no lefle then woe to us, while thinking 
thus to defend the Gofpel, we are found the perfecutors. 

There have bin not a few fmce the beginning of this 
Parlament, both of the Prefbytery and others who by 
their unlicen*t books to the contempt of an Imprimatur 
firfl broke that triple ice clung about our hearts, and 
taught the people to fee day : I hope that none of thofe 
were the perfwaders to renew upon us this bondage which 
they themfelves have wrought fo much good by con- 
temning. But if neither the check that Mofes gave to 
yowngjojhtia^ nor the countermand which our Saviour 
gave to yoMng John y who was fo ready to prohibit thofe 
whom he thought unlicenc't, be not anough to admonilh 
our Elders how unacceptable to God their tefly mood 
of prohibiting is, if neither their own remembrance what 
evill hath abounded in the Church by this lett of licenc- 
ing, and what good they themfelves have begun by tranf* 
greffing it, be not anough, but that they will perfwade, 
and execute the mofl Dominican part of the Inquifition 
over us, and are already with one foot in the (limip fo 
adliva al lupprefling, it would be no unequall diftribu- 
tion in the tirll place to fuppreffe the fuppreffors them- 
felves ; whom the change of their condition hath puft 
up, more then their late experience of harder times hath 
made wife. 

And as for regulating the PrefTe, let no man think to 
have the honour of advifmg ye better then your felves 
have done in that Order publifht next before this, that 
no book be Printed, unleffe the Printers and the Authors 
name, or at lead the Printers be regifter'd.* Thofe which 
otherwife come forth, if they be found mifchievous and 
libellous, the fire and the executioner will be the time- 
liefland the mod effedluall remedy, that mans prevention 
can ufe. For this authentic Spanilh policy of licencing 
books, if I have faid ought, will prove the mofl unlicenc't 
book it felf within a (hort while ; and was the immediat 
image of a Star-chamber decree^ to that purpofe made 



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AREOPACITICA. 79 

in thofe very times when that Court did the reft of thofe 
her pious works, for which (he is now falFn from the 
Starres vnihLucifer. Whereby ye may gueffe what kinde 
of State prudence, what love of the people, what care 
of Religion, or good miinners there was at the contriv- 
ing, although with lingular hypocrifie it pretended to 
bind books to their good behaviour. And how it got 
the upper hand of your precedent Order fo well con- 
ilituted before, if we may beleeve thofe men whofe pro- 
fefTion gives them caufe to enquire mod, it may be 
doubted there was in it the fraud of fome old patentees 
and monopolizers in the trade of book-felling ; who under 
pretence of the poor in their Company not to be de- 
frauded, and the jufl retaining of each man his feverall 
copy, which God forbid Ihould be gainfaid, brought 
divers glofing colours to the Houfe, which were indeed 
but colours, and ferving to no end except it be to exer- 
cife a fuperiority over their neighbours, men who doe 
not therefore labour in an honefl profeflion to which 
learning is indetted, that they (hould be made other 
mens vaiTals. Another end is thought was aym'd at by 
fome of them in procuring by petition this Order, that 
having power in their hands, malignant books might the 
eafier fcape abroad, as the event (hews. But of thefe 
Sophifms and Elenchs of marchandize I (kill not : This 
I know, that errors in a good government and in a bad 
are equally almod incident ; for what Magiftrate may 
not be mif-informM, and much the fooner, if liberty of 
Printing be reduc't into the power of a few ; but to 
redre(re willingly and fpeedily what hath bin err*d, and 
in higheft autority to eileem a plain advertifement more 
then others have done a fumptuous bribe, is a vertue 
(honoured Lords and Commons) anfwerable to Your 
highed adlions, and whereof none can participat but 
greated and wifeft men.* 

The End 



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8o NOTES. 

I. Areopagitica— that which appertains to the Areopagnt. 
There is at Athens a hill, formerly called h^ApHo^ ""flyov. *the 
hill of Ares,' the ' Mar*s Hill* of Acts xvil 13, whereon ufed to 
afTemble a Council, called 'The Council of the Areiopagus.' 
Befides fupreme judicial authority m cafes of wilful munier, 
this Council poflelTed very la^e focial influence; having the 
general undefined fuperintcndence of religion, morals, education, 
and the like. It was held in veneration by the whole people. 
It appears to have been ftrongly confervative in tone, ana feems 
to have occupied a fomewhat fimilar pofition in the Athenian 
republic to that of the Houfe of Lords in the Britifh conflitution. 

3. There were two Wardens in the Stationers' Company. 

3. Reprinted at page 15. 

4. Bernardo Davanzati Bosttchi [b. 30 Augull 1599— d. 
20 March 1606]: A Florentine author of confiderable repute. 
He wrote feveral works. I have not, as yet, been able to 
identify the particular one referred to by Milton. 

5. Robert Grevil, Lord Brooke— The title of this book v^ 
A difccfvrje opening the nature of that EpifcopctcU^ which is 
exercifed in England, Wherein^ with all Humility^ are repre^ 
fented fonte Conliderations tending to t/te much-defired Peaee^ and 
long expected Reformation^ of This our Mother Church, By the 
Right Honourable Robert Lord Brooke.— London, Pnnted 
by R. C. for Samuel Cartwrighty and are to be fold at the figne of 
the Hand and Bible in Ducke-Lane 1641. This Lord Brooke was 
bom in 1607, and was the fon of the celebrated Fulk Grevil, Lord 
Brooke of Beauchamps-court, the friend of Sir Philip Sidney. He 
was killed on 2 March 1643, while commanding the parlia- 
mentary forces attackinc^ the Church-clofe at Litchfield. ' It fell 

• out, that he having planted his great guns againfl the South- 
' Eafl-gate of the Clofe, he was, tho* hameffed with plate-armour 
•cap-a-pe, fhot from the church in the eye by one Diot, a 
' Clergy-man's fon, (who could neither hear or fp^) as he flood 
' in a door (whither he came to fee the occaiion of a fudden 

* fhout made by the foldiers) of which he inflantly died.*— A. iU 
Wood. Atlunce Oxonienfes, ii. 433, £d: by Bliis, 181 5. 

6. Reprinted at page 24. 

7. Reprinted at page 7. 

8. Gilbert Mabbott, gentleman, was licenfer of pamphlets. 
He refigned on 22nd May, 1649, giving as his reafons aigu- 
ments fimilar to those in the * AreopagiOca,* 




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C^ngltsf) JSleptints* 



GEORGE V I L L I E R S. 

Second Duke of Buckingham* 

THE REHEARSAL. 

First acted 7 Dec. 1671. Published [? July] 1672. 
WITH ILLUSTRATIONS PROM PREVIOUS PLAYS, BTC. 



Edited by EDWARD ARRER, F.S.A., etc, 

LECTURER IN ENGLISH LITERATURE, ETC, 
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON. 



SOUTH GATE, LONDON, N. 
2 November, 1868. 

No. 10. 
{A U rights rtstrvtd^ 



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CONTENTS. 



Life and Times of George Villiers, Duke of Buck- 
ingham *. . . 3 

(i) Brian Fairfax's Memorials of him . . . . 3 ~ '^ 
(2) Other charadlers of him, by Lord Peterborough, Bp. 
Burnet, Count Grammont, S. Butler, and J. Dryden 10— I a 

Introduction, , 13 

Bibliography, * The Rehearial' 18 

Keys to ' The Rehearsal ' 19, 20, 26, 32, 36, 46, 48 
THE REHEARSAL . 

(1) Prologue. 23 

(2) The AdloTS 24 

(3) The Text, on odd numbered pages .... 

(4) The Illustrations, on even numbered pages, prin- 

cipally taken from the foUovring Plajrs : — 

Mrs. A. Behn, The Amorous Prince. 1671. 
Sir W. D*Avenant, Love and Honour, 1649. 
(Poet-laureate) Play Hou/e to be Ut. 

Siege 0/ Rhodes, Part I. 1656. 
J. Dryden, Conquejl of Granada^ Parts I. and IL 
167a. 
(Poet-laureate) The Indian Emperor, 1667. 
Marriage^'la-mode, 169 1. 
Secret Love, or TTko Maiden Queem 
1668. 

Tyrannic Love, 1670 and 1672. 
The Wiid Gallant, 1669. 
Sir R. Fanfhawe's tranflation (1654) of 
Don A. H. de Mendoza's Querer pro folo querer, 1623. 

(To love only for love's fake) 1671. 
CoL H. Howard, United Kingdoms, 
The Hon. J. Howard, Engli/h Monjieur, 1674. 

Sir W. Killigrew, Orma/des^ or Love and Friend/hip, 
1665. 
Pandora^ or The Converts, 1665. 
T. Porter, The ViUain, 1663. 
F. Quarles, The Virgin Widow. 1649. 
Sir R. Slapylton, The Slighted Maid 1663. 

(5) Epilogue 13^ 



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The Life and Tiifis 

of 

GEORGE VILLIERS. 

Second Duke of Bucldngham. 

Instkad of the otoal brief Chronicle, we shalJ on this oc ca Bi o a addact « 

•enes of testimonies that have come down to us from contemporaries, all 

intimately acquainted with Villiers. 

I. In the year 1758, was published in London, a 4to Catahgtu 0/ tki 
Cmrwus C0U*ctiom ^Pictures 0/ Gt^rpe ViUiers^ Duk* ^ BtKkimgkAtm, 
1 he Catalogue is prefaced by the following 

ADVERTI8BMBNT. 
Wb proceed to gratify the curiosity of the public with some other lisu ol 
«-aluabIe collections ; the ^incipal one belonged to that magnificent Csvourite, 
George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham ; and was onlvsuch part of his Museum 
as was presenred by an old servant of the family, Mr. Traylman, and by him 
sent to Antwerp to the young duke, to be sold vox his subsutence ; great part 
biviug been embosled, when the estate was sequestered by the parliament. 
Some of the pictures, on the a-aassination of the first duk& had been jMir- 
chiSed by the king, the eari of Northumberland, and Abbot Montagu. The 



urchased manv other capital ones for his grace. One may judgb a little 
now valuable the entire collection must have been, bv this list of what 
remained, where we find no fewer than nineteen by Titian, seventeen by 



Tintoret, twenty-one by Bassan. two by Tulio Romano, two by Giorgione, 
thirteen by Paul Veronese, eight by PaUna. three by Guido, thirteen by 
Rubens, three by Leonardo da Vinci, two by Corregio, and three by Raphael ; 



besides other esteemed and scarce masters. 

Mr. Duart of Antwerp bought some of them, but the greater part were 
purchased by the archduke Leopold, and added to his noble collection ta 
the castle of Prague. He bought the chief picture, the Ecce Homo by 
lltian, in which were introduced th^ portraits of die pope, the emperor 
Charles the Fifth, and Solyman the magnificent. It appoirs by a note of 
Mr. Vertue, in the original manuscript, that Thomas earl of Aruodel offered 
ibe fint duke the value of jC7>ooo m money or land for that single piece. 
I'here is a copy of it at Northumberland house. 

It may not be improper to mention in this place, that Villiers, when tene 
with the eari of Holland to the States, to no^ociate the restoration of the 
Palatinate, purchased a ctirious collection of AraUc manuscripts, collected 
by Erpinius, a fiunous linguist ; which, according to the duke's designa- 
tion of them, were after hu death, bestowed on the university of Cam- 
bridge, of wmch his grace had been chancellor. 

Embedded ia this Catalogue, at pp. 94—39, is the following Lift 0/6009^9 
^iliigrn, Dmke 0/ Buckingham, th* ctltbraUd P0et, Written br Brum Fair- 
fax R»q. and never be/ere ^Mblitked. This Li/e'n both able and graphic ; and 
apparently authentic As it will be new to most readers, we S[ive it entire. 

Brian Faikpax, Esq. was the second son of Rev. Heni^ Fairfax, rector of 
Bolton Percy, and cousin to Thomas, 4th Lord Fairfisx (the Parliamentary 
general), brother to Henrv, 5th Lord, and uncle of Thomas 6th Lord Fair- 
Ux. [See The Faitfax Cermpendence. Ed. by G. W. lohnsoa. i. cxx— 
cxxv. 1848.] lu 1590, he edited Shert MemeriaU of Tkomae Uth] Lord 
Faitfax. Wfiiten by kimutlf. The following gives the most uivourable 
account of Villiers ; and would seem to show that up to the Reftoratioo^ he 
was apparently no worse than his neighbours. 

The original fapert from vohenco thie numuseri^t 
isfaitkfidly toJten^ wen writ ton by Mr, 
Brian Fairfax, tmd in thefotteuion ^ 
the late bishop Atterbuiy. 
Memohrs of the Life of Gborgb Villibbs, 
Duke of Buckingham. 
^Mbob V.'lli<rs, duke of Buckingham, was the too of that ooWe (avourit: 



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4 Brian Fairfax's Memoirs of the Life of 

to two IdngB ; who, in the height of his fortune and flower of his age, eogafii 
hit estate and escposed his life, in the service of his Idngand country. 

The name of Viiliers is ancient and honourable in Trance and England 
Philip de VilUers L'isle Adam, was the last great master <d Rhodes^ and 
defended it six months against the Turkish emperor, Solyman. 

The duke's mother was the Lady Katherine Manners, sole daughter and 
heir of Francis earl of Rutland. 

He was bom at Wallingford house in Westminster^ Jan. 30, 1697. 

^?- _» j-_ 1 — !-__ ry%^.:^.^ j;_j — f-^-^ Ml .^ Mary 1 — 



His elder brother. Charles, died an in&nt. His sister Mary was dutchess 
of Richmond and Lennox. His brother Frauds was born at Chelsea, after 
his Other's death. 

The duke inherited from his lather the greatest title, and from his mother 
the greatest csute of any subject in England ; and from them both so graceful 
a body, as eave a lustre to the ornaments <^ has mind, and made him the glory 
of the Engush court at home and abroad. 

The first visit the king made to the dutchess after her husband's death, ho 
was pleased to say. He would be a husband to her, a father to her children ; 
and he performed nis promise. 

The dutchess was then great with child, and the king said. He would bo 
ffodfather: Francis earl of Rutland, the diild'sgrand&ther, was the other. 
They complimented who should give the name. Tne king named him Francis^ 
and the grandfather gave him his benediction, seven thousand pounds a year. 

The duke and his brother, Frands, were bred up by king Charles,* *S0tM ikg 
with his own children^e same tutors and governors. orig. 

Th^ were sent to Trinity CoUe^e in Cambridge, their names entered in 
the coUege-book the same year with prince Charles. 

Here the duke became acquainted with two excellent men, Mr. Ah. Cowley, 
and Mr. Martin Clifford, whom he loved ever after, and they as faithfully and 
affectionately served him. [To these two a third was added afterwards, who 
had an equal share with them in his affection, hb domestic chaplain ; and it 
«ras a good argument of his own wit and judgment, and good iln tht orig. 
nature, that he knew how to value a man who had all these tkit sentemct 
and other good qualities to recommend him.t] itinterUnid, 

From hence they went to the kinjs at Oxford, laying their lives and fortunes 
at his feet, as a testimony of their loyalty and gratitude, worthy to be im- 
printed in the memory of £be royal £unily. Thb they did, not in words and 
compliments ; for they lost their estates, and one of them, soon after, his life. 

At Oxford they chose two good tutors to enter them in the war, prince 
Rupert and my lord Gerard ; and went with them into very sharp service : 
the storming of the close at Litchfidd. 

At their return to Oxford, the dutchess, thdr mother, was very angry with 
my lord Gerard, for tempting her sons into such danger ; but he told ner, it 
was their own inclination, and the more danger the more honour. 

F<v this the parliament seised on their estatoi, but by a rare example of 
their compassion, restored it again in consideration of their nonage : but tho 
youngmen kept it nokmger than till the^ came to be at age to fondt it again. 

About this time their mother married the marquis of Antrim, and therdiy 
offended the king, and ruined herselfl 

They were now committed to the care of the earl of Nortiiumberland, and 
were sent to travd in France and Italy, where they lived in as great state as 
some of those sovereign princes. Florence and Rome were the pUoes of their 
residence, and they brought their religion home agaixi. wherein they had 
been educated under the eye of the most devout and Sest of kings. The 
duke did not, as his predecessor, in the title of Lord Ross, had done before 
him, who changed his religion at Rome, and left his tutor, Mr. Mole, m the 
inquisition, for having translated king James's book, his admonition to prince^ 
into ladn ; and Du Pleffis Momey's oook of tlie mass into english. 

Thetr return into England was in so critical a time, as u they had now 
chosen the last opportunity, as they had done the first, of venturing all in 
the lung's service. 

In the year 2648 the king was a prisoner in the isSe of Wight, and his firiends 
in several puts of England designing to rmiew the war ; duke Hamilton m 



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George Villi ers. Second Duke of Buckingham. 5 

Scotland, the earl of Holland and other* in Surry, Goring in Kent, many in 
London and Essex, and these were the last efforts of the dying cause. 

The duke and brother, my lord Francis, in the heat of their oonrage, 
engaged with the earl of Holland : and were the first that took the field about 
Rj^nte in Surry. 

The parUament, with dieir old army^ knew all these designs, and despised 
them : till they grew so numerous in Kent, that the generalhiraself was sent 
to suppress them, who fotud sharp service in storming of Maidstone^ and 
taking of Colchester. 

Some troops of horse were sent, under the command of cokmel Gibbons, to 
suppress them in Surry ; and thev drove my lord of Holland before them to 
Kugston, but engaged his party before they got thither, near Nonsuch, and 
defeated them. 

My kml Frands, at the head of his troop haying his horse slain under him, 
got to an oak tree m the high wav about two miles firom Kingston, yrhert he 
stood witfi his back against it, defending himself, scorning to ask quarter, 
and they barbarously refusing to give it ; dU, with nine wounds in his beau- 
tiful face and body, ne was slain. The oak tree is his monument, and has 
the two first letters of his name F. V. cut in it to this day. 

Thus died this noble, valiant, and beautiful youth, in the twentieth year of 
his age. A few davs before his death, when ho left London, he ordered his 
steward, Mr. John May, to bring him inalist of his debts, and he so charged his 
estate with diem, that the parliament, who seized on the estate, payed his debts. 

His body was brou^ firom Kingston by water to Yoric house in the 
Strand, and was there embalmed and deposited in his fiuher^s vault in Henr^ 
Vllth's diftpel. at the abbey of Westminster ; with this inscription, which il 
is a pity should be buried with him : 

Qui vicesimo aetatis anno 
Depositum Pro rege Carolo 

Illustrissimi domini Et patria 

Frandsd ViUiers Fortier pugnando 

Ineentis specie Juvenis Novem honestis vumeribus acccptis 

Fuii postbumi ueot]^i Obiit vii^ die Julii 

Duos Buddnghamii Anno Domino 1648. 

The body of the illustrious lord Francis Villiers, a most beantiful Touth, 
the posthimious son of George duke of Buckingham^ who, in the sotn year 
<^ ms a^. fighting valiantly for Idnc Charies and hi* ooontry, having nine 
honourable wounds, died the 7th of July, 1648. 

The duke, after the loss of his brother, hardly escaped with his life to 
St. Ncods, wluther also came the eari of Holland, who was there taken, and 
soon after beheaded. 

The duke, the next morning finding the house where he lay surrounded, 
and a troop of horse drawn up before the gate, had time with his servants to 
get to horse, and then causing the gate to oe opened, he charged the enemy, 
and killed the officer at the head ofthem, and made his esca^ to the sea-side, 
and to prince Charles who was in the Downs with those ships that had deserted 
the eari of Warwick. 

And now again the paHiament gave him forty days time to return to Eng- 
land, but he refused, and chose rather to stay with the prince, who was soon 
after king Oiaries ue Second, and to follow him in his exile. 

The parliament seised on his estate, the greatest of any subject in England, 
having now his brother^s estate fallen to him ; the yearly value was above 

It happened that the manor of Helmesly, which was his brother's, was given 
to my lord Fairfax, widi York-house in the Strand, for part of his arrean, 
and this fortunately came to him by his marrying my lord Fairfax's daughter. 

All that he had to live on beyond sea was the money he got at Antwerp 
for his pictures, which were part of that costly and curious collecdon his 
fsther got together from Italy, by the help of Sir Henry Wottnn and others, 
which adom«l York-house, to the admiration of all men of judgment in pic- 
tures : A note of their names and dimensions is all that is now left of them. 
ilM Ecce Hobo of Titian was valued at /Cy^oo being the figure of all the 



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6 Brian Fairfax's Memoirs of t^e Life of 

grmt persons in his time. The arch-<luke bought it, and it is now in th« 
ciiitle of Prague. These pictures were secured and sent to him by hit old 
trusty servant, Mr. John 1 rayleman, who lived in York-hous*. 

The king resolving to go into Scotland, the duke attended him, and nom 
a^ain the parliament offered him to compound for his estate for ;£ao,ooo, 
which was less than a year's value ; but he chose to run the king's fortune in 
Scotland, worse than exile, came with him out of Scotland into Engi.-tnd : 
and at Worcester his escape was almost as miraculous as the king's in the 
royal oak. He escaped again into France, and went a voluntier into the 
French army, and was much regarded by aJl the great officers, tignalixing 
his courage at the siege of Arras and Valenciennes. 

When he came to the English court, which was but seldom, the king was 
always glad to see him. He loved his person and his company ; but the 
great men about him desired rather his room than his company. 

There now happened a great turn in the course of his life.' My lord 
Fairfax had part of his estate, about ;^5ooo per ann. allotted him by the par- 
liament towards the payment of his arrears due to him as general, ana he 
remitted more than would have purchased a greater estate. They gpive him 
the niannor of Hclmesly, the seat of the noble family of Rutland m York- 
shire, as a salve for the wound he received there, being shot through the 
body. They eave him also York-house in London, which wsw also the duke's. 

llie duke neard how kind and generous my lord Fairfax was to the 
countess of Derby, in paying all the rents of the Isle of Man, which the par- 
liament had also assigned to him for his arrears, into her own hands, and she 
confessed it was more than all her servants before had done. 

The duke had reason to hope my lord had the same inclinations as to this 
estate of his, which he never accounted his own, and the duke wanted it at 
much as the countess. 

He was not deceived in his hopes, for my lord Fairfax wished onlv for an 
opportunity of doing it He lived in York-house, where every chamber was 
adorned with the arms of Villiera and Manners, lions and peacocks. Ut was 
descended from the same ancestors, earls of Rutland. Sir Guy Fairfax his two 
sons having married two of the daughters of the earl of Rutland ; which my 
lord took frequent occasion to remember. 

The duke resolved to try his fortune, which had hitherto been adverse 
enough, and he had some revenge on her, by his translation of the ode in 
Horace — ForitiHa savit Latta negotiu. Over he came into England, to make 
love to hb only daughter, a most virtuous and amiable lady. He found a 
friend to propose it, and I think it was Mr. Robert Harlow. 

The parents consented, and the young lady could not resist his charms, 
being tne most jgraceful and beautiful person that any court in Europe ever 
saw, &C. All his trouble in wooing was. He came, saw, and conquered. 

When he came into England he was not sure either of life or Uoerty. He 
was an outlaw, and had not made his peace with Cromwell, who would have 
forbid the banns i/^e had known of his coming over. He had a greater share 
of hu estate, had daughters to marry, and would not have liked such a con- 
junction of Mars and Mercury, as was in this alliance ; knowing my lord^ 
aflfectionx to the royal family, which did afterwards produce good effecu 
towards its restoration. 

They were married at Nun-Appletcm, six miles from York, Sept. 7, 16^7, 
a new and noble house built by my lord Fairfax, and where he kept as nob e 
hospitality. His friend, Ab. Cowley, wrote an epithalamium, now printed. 

When Cromwell heard of it, he rested not till he had him in the tower, and 
would have brought him to Tower-hill had he lived a fortnight longer. 

He had liberty given him to be at York-hoiLse with his Isuly ; but going to 
Cobhaui to see nis sister, he was uken, and sent to the tower. 

This so angered my lord Fairfax that he went to Whitehall to the protector, 
and expostulated the case so as it put him into great passion, turning abruptly 
from him in the gallery at Whitehall, cocking his hat, and iSointheorie 
throwing hb cloak under his arm. !| as he used to do when he ** 

was angry, llius I saw him take his la5t leave of his old acquaintance, 
i 'romwell, whose servants cxpcccd he would be sent to bear the duke company 
«l the tower the next morning, but the protector was wis^r in his passion. 



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Grorgb Villiers, Second Duke oi Buckingham. 7 

I carried the duke the news of the proteaor*s death, and he had then leave 
lu be a prisoner at Windsor castle* where his friend Ab. Cowley was his 
constant companion. Richard Cromwell scon after abdicated, and thea his 
liberty came of course. 

This was the happiest time of all the duke's Ufe^ when he went to his fiuher« 
tn-law's house at Appleton, and there lived orderly and decently with his own 
wife, where he neitner wanted, nor so abounded as to be tempted to any sort 
of extravagance, as he was after when he came to possess his whole estate. 
He now understood the meaning of that paradox, Dimidimm^ltu Ms, wtt.i 
which he used to pose young scholars ; and found by experience, that the 
half or third part 01 his own esute which he now enjoyed, was more than the 
whole which he had at the king and his restauration. 

Now he lived a most r^ular life, no courtships but to his own wif(^ not so 
much as to his after-beloved and costlv mistren, the philosopher's stone. 

My lord Fairfax was much pleasea with hb company, and to see him so 
conformaUe to the orders and good government of the family. If they had 
any plots together, they were to the best purposes, the restoration oi the 
I jyal family. 

Mv lord Fairfiuc's maxims in politicks was, that the old veteran army 
which he had commanded, was not to be beaten by any itew rais'd force^ in 
Ensland ; and that the king's friends shewed more affection than discreticm 
in Uieir plots, to restore them while they were united : and that this old army 
would never be beaten but by itself: as the event shewed, when Lambert and 
Monk divided them. But the most fatal influence of this opinion in my lord 
Fairfax was the night before the thirtieth of January, when some of his 
friends proposed to him to attempt the next day to rescue the king, telling 
him that twenty thousand men were ready to join with him : he sai^ he was 
ready to venture his own life, but not the lives of others against the army 
now united against them. 

The same appeared in the insurrection of sir George Booth, which Lambert 
with a bri^de of this old army, did so easily suppress ; the success whereof 
inspired him with the ambition of imiuting Cromwell, in dissolving the par« 
Uament. and making himself protector. 

The duke had given sufficient testimony of his loyalty, and my lord Fairfax 
of his aflection and desire to see the royal family restored ; and tiow was tbo 
time of doine it. 

General Monk in Scotland declared against Lambert, who marched against 
him with a strong body of horse. 

My lord Fairfax, and the duke with him, declared for Monk in Yorkshire ; 
but the duke was obliged to withdraw, because his presence gave a jealousy, 
that the design was to bring in the king, which was too soon to be owned. 

What the event was is well known. I shall only repeat the duke's word» 
in an expostulatorv letter to kin^ Charles some years alter. 

*' As to your majesty's return mto England, I may justly pretend to iOUi4 
share ; since without my lord Fairfax his engajdng in Yorkshire, Lambert's 
army had never quitted him, nor the duke of Albemarle marched out of 
Scotland. " 

The king's restoration, vohenJa dies en aituUt ultrv, restored the duke 
to his estate, but such a train of expence with it, as brought him acouainted 
with bankers and scriveners, that infested it vrith the gangreen of usury, 
whidi it never recovered. 

At the king's coronation no subject appeared in ereater splendor. None 
kept greater hospitality than he did at Wallingford-house, espedallv for the 
French nobility that came over. This engaged him in plav, which had ho 
contmued, his estate had not lasted so long ; but he resolved to give it over, 
and kept his resolution ever after. He was moderate in all his expences, his 
uble, stable, laboratory. All the kin^s favours to him were occasions of 
great expence. His lord lieutenancy m Yorkshire cost him more than it did 
all that succeeded him. The master of the horses cost him twenty thousand 
pounds to the duke of Albemarle. 

His embassies into France and Holland cost him more than a diamond riii); 
(VMild recompense: that into Holland (setting aside the politick part of it, 
Wing 1 consequence of that into France. 



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8 Brian Fairfax's Memoirs of the Life of 

We took btrse at Whitehall, June 1673, and lay that night on board Om 
English admtnQ at the^buoy in the Nore, the Idn^ and duke being there; 
llie next night we came to anchor b oar yacht tn the Dutch fleet on the 
coast of Holland. The next night we were entertained by the states in 
the Hague. The next nisht we snpp'd with the prince of Orange at 
his camp at Bod^jave. Next night with the king of France at Utrecht, 
where we staid two or three days, and then marched back with him at the 
head of his army to Amheim, where we visited the prince de Conde, who lay 
ill there of a woond in his arm, which he got passing the Rhine at Tolhua, 
and Marshal Turin. Thence we went with the king to NimegueUf Grav% 
Boxtell, and there we parted. The long went to i'aris, and we mto the 
Spanish dominton.s to Antwerp, Brussels. Bruges, Ghent, Dunkirk, and 
Calais ; where omr yachts stayed for us, and we came to Dover, Canterbury, 
L<mdon ; where we arrived the day month that we left it. 

He was sent ambassador into France, where he was highhr carressed by 
the king, and many of the nobility his old acquaintance. This was before 
the other into Holland. At his return he was chosen chancellor of the 
university of Cambridge, and entertained them nobly at York-house, where 
his father had done it on the same occasion forty years before. 

He now seemAl to be setting up for a favourite, but he wanted his father's 
diligence, whidi fitted him to stand before princes. 

He fell into a new way of expence in buiiaing, in that sort of architecture 
which Qcero calls, iHsama suAsfmctumrs ; aad himself, when his friends 
disniaded him from it, called it his folly. 

The worid has been severe in censuring his foibles, hot not so just b noting 
bis ffood qualities. 

For his person, he was the glory of the age and any court wherever he 
came. Of a most eraceful and charming mien and behaviour ; a strong, tall 
and active body, afi which gave a lustre to the ornaments of his mind ; of an 
admirable wit and excellent judgment : and had all other qualities of a gen- 
tleman. He was courteous and affiible to all ; of a compassionate nature : 
ready to forgive and forget bjuries. What was said of a great man m 
the court of queen Elizabeth, that he used to vent his discontents at court by 
writbg from comnany, and writing sonnetts, may be said oi him ; but when 
he was provoked by the malice of some and beratitude of others, he might 
shew that a good natured man might have an ul natured mnse. 

He gave a good instance of his readbess to forgive bjuries. When a oon- 
nderable man at court did him an bjury, which he was fearfiil he would re- 
sent, he denred a friend to mediate for him, and endeavour a reconciliatioa| 
which he undertook. The duke told him that he did not remember he had 
ever bjured him, if he had he freely forgave him. 

His charitable disposition he seemod to bherit from his grand&ther, 
Frands earl of Rutland, who used every (quarter day at London to send his 
steward with bass of money to several prisons to relieve prisoners and pay 
their debts, Indding them thank God, and pray for their bene&ctor, but not 
telling them who it was. 

He was a man of great counu^ and presence of mbd b danger. One b- 
stance of it was when a melancm>ly-mad servant assaulted him with a drawn 
sword b his hand when he was at suppo*, and he with a knife disarmed him. 
The man was afterwards hanged for saying he would do it to the kbg. 

The character which Sir Henry Wotton gives of his fiither might be said of 
Ura, vis. 

"Among all the fevotmtes which mine eyes have beheld b divers courts 
«nd times, I never saw before a strong heart and embent condition so 
clearly void of all pride and shocking arrogance cither b his face or b his 



It is to be wished the rest of his father's character had been as true of 
htm : his diligence and application to busbcas, and that he had left hu few 
honest servants b as good fortune as reputation, who never wronged him in 
kis estate, nor flattered him b his fatrt ts^ and thought they esca^>ed well in 
Jiot bebg oppressed under the ruins of his fortime. 

pVhen he first benn to settle his familyhe desired his old In tkt origin' 
rri*^da,A(b«aham] Cowley and M[artb]C(Uflbfd] to reconr mi ikis parm- 



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plur 
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George Villiers, Second Duke of Buckingham. 9 

mend to him a domestick chaplain. They knew hcpr hard graph u writ' 
it was to please him ; he must be a man of learning, wit, ttnona sidt oj 
good nature, good manners, a trraceful person and decent paptr. tacktd 
Vebaviour. They found one (T. Sprat, afterwards Bp. of to tht other 
Rochester. SeeiV.OidysMS.notetoG. Lang6ixitu]xx>ihtax by a wa/er^ 
own mind, and to his ; whom he valued as a friend, and attd is rtftrred 
loved as a companion : who lived to be an ornament to the to by a math. 
church among those of the highest order. He brought the *Tit vrritten 
duke acquainted with another excellent person, whose in the same 
friendship and conversation he much coveted, and wished hamd. 
he could have more of it, who attained afterwards to the 
highest dignity in the church, and with .1 lawyer as eminent in his pro. 
fession : so that his £ather was not more happy in the choice of a few 
friends and servants than he was, if he had followed their advice. He saw 
and araroved the best, but did too often dettriora sffui.] 

His mher had two crimes objected against him which he was not guilty of : 
^urality of offices, and preferring his relations. The faults objected against 
Jm were, that he loved women, and spent his estate. 

His estate was his own. He had often lost it for the king, and might now 
be allowed to enjoy it himself. If he ytz%fui pro/Mtus, he never was tUiem 
aPPetene. If he was extravagant in spending, he was just in paying his 
deots, and at hu death chargra his debts on nis estate, leaving mudi more 
than enough to pay them. " if he was a ^ievance, as he told the house of 
conmioos, be was the cheapest to the pubhc that ever was complained ofl" 

He had no children by his dutcbess, nor heirs capable of mheriting his 
estate or title. 

His amours were too notorious to be concealed, and too scandalous to be 
justified, b^ saying he was bred in the latitude of foreign climates, and now 
li^d in a vicious age and court : where his acctisers of this crime were as 
guilty as himself. He lay under so ill a name for this, that whenever he was 
snut up in his chamber, as he loved to be^ nescio qnid^ or in his laboratory, 
m editans purg a ru m j over the fumes of charcoal, it was said to be with 
women. When a dirty chymist, a foxhunter, a pretender to poetry or 
polidcks, a rehearsal should entertain him, when a messenger to summon 
him to council could not be admitted. 

This is true of him, that of all the noise made of his loving women, he 
never had so much as a bastard laid to his charge that he or any body else 
believed to be his own. Some pretended to love nis person, but it was his 
estate, whidi smarted for it It is bard to tell by his expenoe which was his 
fiivourite pleasure. I think, his chymistry at hom&^ and fox-hunting abroad. 

I will conclude his character with saying, that it human frailty will not ex* 
case these fiuilts, let christian charity oblige us to hope, that as God gave 
him time, he fcave him also the grace of true repentance. 

We are now come to the last scene of the tragi^»roedy of his life. At the 
death of king Charles he went into the country to his own manor of Helmedy, 
the seat of the earls of Rutland in Yorkshire. King Charles was his best 
friend, he loved him and excused his faultt. He was not so well assured of 
his successor. In the country he passed his time m hunting, and entertain* 
ing his friends : which he did a fortnight before his death as pleasantly and 
hoqntably as ever he did in his life. He took cold one day after fox-hunting, 
by sitting on the cold ground, which cast him into an ague and fever^ of 
which he died, after three days sickness, at a tenant's house, Kirby more side, 
a lordship of his own, near Helmesly, Ap. 16, 1688 ; aetat. 60. 

The day before his death he sent to his old servant Mr. Brian Fairfax, to 
denre him to provide him a bed at his house 9X. Bishop-hill at York, but the 
next morning the same man returned with the news that his life was des- 
paired ot Mr. Fairfax went post, but before he got to him he was speech- 
less. The eari of Arran, son to duke Hamilton, was with him ; who, hearing 
he was sick, visited him in his way to Scotland. 

When Mr. Fairfax came, the duke knew him, look'd earnestly at him, and 
held him by the hand, but could not speak. Mr. Fairfax ask'd a gentleman 
*Here present, a justice of peace, and a worthy discreet man in the neigh- 
b tirhood, what he had said or done before he became speechless. He told 



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10 Other Characters of 

roe u>mt questions had been asked him about his estate, to which he gave 
ao answer. Then he was admonished of the danger he was in, which he 
Mremed not to apprehend ; he was aslc'd, if he woxild have the minister of 
the parish sent for to pray withliim, to which he gave no answer ; which 
made another question be asked, If he would have a popish priest ; to 
which he answered with great vehemence, no, nol repeating the words. He 
would have nothing to do with them. Then the aforesaid gentleman, Mr. 
Gibson, ask'd him again if he would have the minuter sent for, and he 
calmly answered. Yes, pray send for him. This was the momins and he 
died that night The minister camCf and did the office required by the 
church ; the duke devoutly attending it, and received the sacrament, and an 
hour after became speediless : but appearing sensible, we had the prayers of 
the church repeatmi by his bed-side, recommending him to the mercy of 
God, through the merits of Jesus Christ. 

Thus he died quietly in his bed, the fate of few of his predecessors in the 
title of Buckingham. His body was embalmed and brougnt to WestmiitStcr- 
abbey, and there laid in the vault with his £aaher and brothen, in Hen. the 
VI Ith^s chapel. 

Mary dutchess of Buckingham was the only daughter of Thomas lord 
Fairfax, and Ann, the daughter of Horace Lord Vere. A most virtuous and 
pious lady, in a vitious age and court. If she had anv of the vanities, she 
had certamly none of the vices of it The duke and sne lived lovin^Iv and 
decently together ; she patiently bearing with those faults in him which she 
could not remedy. She survived him many years, and died near St James 
at Westminster, and was buried in the vault of the family of Villiers, in 
Hen. Vllth's chapel, anno 1705. aeut 66. 

9. The following, m grisly contrast to Fairfiu's account, comes from Lord 

PBTBaBOBOUGH. 

The witty Duke of Buckingham was an extreme bad man. His duel with 
Lord Shrewsbury was concerted between him and Lady Shrewsbury. All 
that morning she was trembling for her gallant, and tkishmv the death of her 
husband ; and, after his fall, 'us said the duke slept with her in his bloody 
shirt — Sptftret AnecdoteSy Afahne s Edition, i8ao,/ 164. 

^80. G. BURNBT^ b hw History 0/ my own Times, gives this character:— 
e had a great liveliness of wit, and a peculiar faculty of turning all 
things into ri«ucule with bold figures and natural descriptions. He had no 
sort of literature : Only he was drawn into chymistrv : And for some years 
he thought he was very near the finding the philosopher's fttone : which had 
the effect that attends on all such men as he was, when they are drawn in, to 
lay out for it. He had no principles of religion, vertue, or friendshm. 
P.easure, frolick. or extravagant diversion was aU that he laid to heart He 
was true to nothing, for he was not true to himself. He had no steadiness 
nor conduct He could keep no secret, nor execute any design without 
spciiling it. He could never fix his thoughts, nor govern his estate, tho* 
tnen the greatest in England. He was bred about the King : And for many 
voars he had a great ascendent over him : But he spake of him to all persons 
with that contempt, that at last he drew a lasting diujace ui>on himself. 
And he at length rumed both bodvand mind, fortune anareputation equally. 
I'he madness of vice appeared in his person in very eminent instances ; since 
at last he became contemptible and poor, sickly, and sunk in his puts, as 
well as in all other respects, so that his conversation was as much avoided as 
ever it had been courted. He found the King, when he came from his travels 
in the year 45, newly come to Paris, sent over by his father when his affairs 
declined : And finding the King enough inclined to receive ill impressions, 
he, who was then got into all the impieties and vices of the age, set himse!t 
to corrupt the Kins, in which he was too successful, being seconded in that 
wicked aesigp by the Lord Percy. And to compleat the matter. Nobis was 
brought to mm, under the pretence of instructing him in mathematicks : And 
he laid before him his schemes, both with relation to religion and politicks, 
which made deep and lastine impressions on the King's mind. So that the 
mntn blame of the King's ill principles, and bad morals, was owing to the 
V}\\Vc o{ Buckin^^m. 1. too. Ed. 17 u^ 
4. Count GxAStMONT, in his Memoirs, thus sketclies him about the year 1663. 



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George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham. u 

At this time the king|s attachment to Miss Stewart [aftenrards prirately 
married to the Duke orRichmond, which marriage was publicly declared in 
Apr. 1667] was so public, that every person perceived, that if she was but 
possessed of art, she might become as absolute a mistress over his conduct as 
she was over his heart. This was a fine opportunity for those who had expe- 
rience and ambition. The Duke of Buckii^ham formed the design of govern* 
ing her in order to ingratiate himself with the king ; God knows what a 
governor he would have been, and what a head he was possessed of, to guide 
another ; however, he was the properest man in the world to insinuate him- 
self with Miss Stewart ; she was childish in her behaviour, and laughed at 
every thing, and her taste for frivobus amusements, though unaffected, was 
only allowable in a girl about twelve or thirteen years old. A child, however, 
she was, in every other respect, except pbying with a doll ; blind-man's bun 
was her most favourite amusement ; she was building castles of cards, while 
the deepest play was ^oing on in her apartments, where you saw her sur- 
roimded by eager couruers, who handed ner the ouxls, or young architects, 
who endeavoured to imitate her. 

She bad, however, a passion for music, and had some taste for singing. 
The Duke of Buckingham, who built the finest towers of cards imaginable, 
had an agreeable voice : she had no aversion to scandal ; he made son^ and 
invented old women's stories with which she was delighted ; but hu par- 
ticular talent consisted in turning into ridicule whatever was ridictilous in 
other people, and in taking them off, even in their presence, without their 
perceiving it In short, he Icnew how to act all parts, with so much grace and 
pleasantry, that it was diffiailt to do without him, when he had a mind to 
make tmnself agreeable ; and he made himself so necessary to Miss Stewart's 
amusement, that she sent all over the town to seek for him, when he did 
not attend the king to her apartments. 

He was extremely handsome, and still thought himself modi BOt« so titan 
he really was ; although he had a great deal of discernment ; ^et his vanity 
■Mde him mittake some civilities as intended for his person, wmch were only 
bestowed on his wit and drollery. >^. i4i-«. Ed. 1846. 

5. Samuel BuTi^K,Authorof^/^M»i^nM,in a collection of CAAn*r/rrr chiefly 
written between 1667 and 1669, in Wales ; but first printed by R. Thyer, in 
Gtnmne Remains^ in 1750, has the foQowingone, entitled A Duke 0/ Bucks. 

Is one that has studied the whole Body of Vice. His Parts are dispropor- 
tionate to the whole, and like a Monster he has more of some, and less of 
others than he should have. He has pulled down all that Fabric that A«/«yv 
raised in him, and built himself up again after a Model of his own. He has 
dam'd up all those Lights, that Nature made into the noblest Proq>ects 
of the Worid, and opened other little blind Loopholes backward, by turning 
Day into Night, and Night into Day. His Appetite to his Pleasures is dis- 
eased and entry, like the Pica in a Woman, that longs to eat that, which was 
never made tor Food, or a Giri in the Green-sickness, that eats Chalk and 
Mortar. Perpetual Surfeits of Pleasure bive filled his Mind with bad and 
vicious Humours (as well as his Body with a Nursery of Diseases) which 
makes him affect new and extravagant Ways, as being sick and tired wTih 
the Old. Continual Wine, Women, and Music put fidse Values upon 
Things, which by Custom become habitual, and debauch his Understanding 
so, that he tetains no right Notion nor Sense of Things. And as the same 
Dose of the same Physic has no Operation on those, tlutt are much used to 
it : so his Pleasures require a lai^er Proportion of^ Excess and Variety, to 
render him sensible of them. He rises, eats, and goes to Bed by the Juuam 
Account, long after all others that so by the nrw StiU : and keeps the same 
Hours with Owls and the Antipodes. He is a great Observer of the Tar- 
tart Customs, and never eats, till the great Ckam having dined makes Pro- 
clamation, that all the World may go to Dinner. He does not dwell in his 
House, but haunt[s] it, like an evil Spirit, that walks all Night to disturb the 
Fimily, and never appears by Day. He lives perpetually benighted, runs 
oat of^nu Life, and loses his 'Time, as Men do their Ways b the Daric : and 
as blind Men are led by their Dogs, so is he governed by some mean Servant 
or other, that relates to his Pleasures. He is as inconstant as the Moon, 
which he lives under ; and altho' he does nothing but advise with his Pillow 



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12 Other Characters of G. Villirrs, Duke of Buckingham. 

all Day) he is as great a Stranger to himself, as he is to the rest of the World. 
His Mind entertains all Things very freely, that come and go; but, like 
Guests and Strangers they are not welcome, if they stay long— This lays 
him open to all Cheats, Quacks, and Impostors, who apply to crtry particn* 
lar Humour while it lasts^ and afterwanu vanish. Thus with St PamL tho* 
in a different sense, he dtts daily ^ and only lives in the Night He denmns 
Nature, while he intends to adoni her, like Indians^ that hang Jewels in their 
L^ and Noses. His Ears are perpetually drilled with a Flddlestidt He 
endures Pleasures with less Patience^ than other Men do their Pains. H, 7*— 5. 
6. Dkvdbn published anoojrmously, on 17th November^ 1681, the first part 
of Ahtaicm and Ackitoptul (which went through five editions in two years) 
in which he gives the foUowing character of Buckingham :— 

Such were the tools ; but a whole Hydn more 

Remains, of sprouting heads too long, to score. 

Some of their Chiefs were Princes ofthe Land X 

In the first Rank of these did Zimri stand : 

A man so various, that he seem'd to be 

Not one. but all Mankinds Epitome. 

Stiff in Opinions, always in the wrong ; 

V^as every thing by starts, and nothing long : 

But, in the course of one revolving Moon, 

Was Chvmist Fidler, Sutes-Man, and Buflfboa : 

Then all for Women, Paintinz, Rhiming, Drinking ; 

Besides ten thousand freaks uiat dy'd in thinking. 

Blest Madman, who coud every hour employ I 

With something New to wish, or to ^oy ! 

Rajding and praising were his usual Tluams : 

And both (to shew his Jud^ent) in Esctreams: 

So over Violent, or over Civil, 

That evenr man, with him, was God or Devil. 

I n squancuing Wealth was his peculiar Art : 

Nothing went unrewarded, but Desert 

Heggerd by Fools, whom still he found too late : 

Hehad his Jest, and they had his Estate. 

He laught himself from Court, then sought Relief 

By forming Parties, but coud ne're be Chief: 

For, spight of him, the weight of Business fell 

On Ahuihm and his wise Achito^lz 

Thus, wicked but in will, of means bereft. 

He left not Faction, but of that was left. 
Dryden, writing— after Buckingham was dead and buried— his Dedication 
[the subject of which is the Origin and Progress of Satire] to the SaHru «J 
jHVtnal, London, foL 1603, gives his own opinion of thb sketdi :— 

How easie it is to call Rogue and Villain, and that wittily? But how 
hard to fluke a Man appear a Fool, a Blockhead, or a Knave, without using 
any of those opprobrious terms? To spare the grossness ofthe Names, and 
to do the thing yet more severely. . . . This is the Mysterr of that Noble 
Trade ; which yet no Master can teadi to his .^prentice : He may give the 
Rules, but the Scholar is never the nearer in nis practice. Neither is it 
true, that this fineness of Raillery is offensive. A witty Man is dckl'd while 
he is hurt in this manner ; and a Fool feels it not. The occasion of an Offence 
may possibly be given, but he cannot take it ... I wish I oou'd apply it to 
mv self, if die Reuier wou'd be kind enough to think it bekmgs to me. The 
Character of Zimri in my Absaiom, is, in my Opinion. wo«th the whole 
Poem : Tis not bloody, but 'tis ridiculous enough. And he for whom it was 
intended, was too witty to resent it as an injury. If I had rail'd, I might 
h.ive suffer'd for it justly : But I manag'd my own Work more happily, per- 
h.ipe more dextrously. I avoided the mention of great Crimes, and i^jxply'd 
my self to the representing of Blind-sides, and little Extravagancies. To 
which, the wittier a Man u^ he is generally the more obnoxious. It suc- 
ceeded as I wish'd : the Jest went round, anid he was lau^ at in his tura 
vIm bc^Mi the Frolick >. xUL 



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THE REHEARSAL 




INTRODUCTION. 

|N the year 1708, was publifhed in London, 
Rofcius AnglicanuSy or an Hiflorical Re- 
view of the Stagey by John Downes. In a 
prefatory Addrefs *To the Reader,' he 
gives the following account of himfelf : — 
The Editor of the enfuing Relation, being long Conyerfant 
with the Plays and A<5lors of the Original Company, under the 
Patent of Sir WUliam Davenanty at his Theatre in LincolHs- 
Ittn-FUldSy OpenM there 1662. And as Book keeper and 
Prompter, continued fo, till O^ober 1706. He Writing out all 
the Parts in each Play ; and Attending every Morning the Adlors 
Kehearfals, and their Performances m Afternoons ; Emboldens 
him to affirm, he is not very Erronious in his Relation. But as 
to the A<5lors of Drury-Lane Company, under Mr. Thomas 
Killigrewy he having the Account from Mr. Charles Booth 
fometimes Book-keeper there ; If he a little Deviates, as to the 
Succeffive Order, and exa<5l time of their Plays Performances, 
He begs Pardon of the Reader, and Subfcribes himfelf. His 
very Humble Servant John Downes. 

He then proceeds to give an account of the two 
companies, their members, plays, &c, of which the 
following are fome of the more effential portions : — 

In the Reign of King Charles the Firil, there were Six Play 
Houfes allowed in Town : The Black-Fryars Company, His 
Maiefty*s Servants ; The Bull in St. JohtCs-Jireet ; another in 
Salisbury Court ; another call'd the Fortune ; another at the 
Globe ; and the Sixth at the Cock- Pit in Drury-Lane ; all which 
continued A<5ling till the beginning of the faid Civil Wars. The 
fcattered Remnant of feveral of thefe Houfes, upon King 
Charles's Redoration, Fram'd a Company who A<5ted again at 
the Bull, and Built them a new Houfe in Gibbon^ s Tennis Court 
in Clare-Marhet ; in which Two Places they continued AdHng 
all 1660, 1661, i66a and part of 1665. In this time they Built 
them a New Theatre in Drury Lane : Mr. Thomas Killigrew 
gaining a Patent from the King in order to Create them the 
King's Servants ; and from that time, they call'd themfelves his 
Majefty's Company of Comedians in Drury Lane, . . . The 
Company being thus Compleat, they open'd the New Theatre in 
Drury-Lxme^ on Thurfday in Eajler Week, being the 8th, Day 
of April 1663. With The Humorous LieuUnant. • 



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r4 Ifiirodttfihn. 

Many olliers [Le. Plays] were AAed by the Old Company 
at the Theatre Royal, from the time they begun, till the Patent 
defcended to Mr. Charles Kiili^rewt which in 1682, he joined it 
to Dr. Davenanfs Patent, whofe Company A<5ted then in Dorset 
Garden, which upon the Union, were Created the King's Com- 
pany : After which, Mr. Hart A<fled no more, having a Penfion 
to the Day of his Deatli, from the United Company.* 

Next follows an Account of the Rife and Progreflion, of the 
Dukes Servants ; under the Patent of Sir William Davmaut 
who upon the faid Jun(5lion in 1682, remov'd to the Theatre 
Koyal m Drury-Lane^ and Created the King's Company. 

In the Year 1659, O^XkcnX. Monk^ Marching then his Army 
out of Scotland to London* Mr. Rhodes a Bookfeller bein^ 
Wardrobe-Keeper formerly (as I am informed) to King Charles 
the Firfl's, Company of Comedians in Black-Friars ; getting a 
Licenfe from the then Governing State, fitted up a Houfe then 
for A<rkmg call'd the Cock Pit in Drury-Lane^ and ina (hort time 
Compleated his Company, t 

In this Interim, Sir IVilliam Davenani gain'd a Patent from 
the King, and Created Mr. Betterton and all the reft of Fho,lei% 
Company, the King's Servants ; who were Sworn by my ljoxi\ 
MancheJUr then Lord Chamberlain, to Serve his Royal Highnefs 
the Duke of York^ at the Theatre in LincoMs-Inn Fields, X . . . 

His Conapany being now Compleat, Sir William in order 
to prepare rlays to Open his Theatre, it being then a Building 
in LincoliC S'Jnn Fields^ His Company Rehears'd the Firft and 
Second Part of *The Siege of Rhodes' \ and *The Wits* at 
PothecarieS'Hall i And in Spring 1662, Open'd his Houfe with 
tlie faid Plays, having new Scenes and Decorations, being the 
firft that e're were Introduc'd in England* § . . . . 

Thefe being all the Principal, which we call'd Stock-Plays ; 
that were A^ed from the Time they Open'd the Theatre in 
1662, to the beginning of May 1665, at which time the Plagtu 
began to Rage : The Company ceas'd A^ingi till the Chrifl- 
mafivSdtx the Fire in i666.|| .... 

The new Theatre in Dor/et-Garden beine Finifli'd, and our 
Company after Sir William's [Davenant] Death, being under 
the Rule and Dominion of his Widow the Lady Davenant^ Mr 
Betterton^ and Mr Harris^ (Mr Charles Davcftant her Son Ading^ 
for her) they remov'd from Lineolns-Inn-Fields thither. And 
on the Ninth Day of November 1671, they open'd their new 
Theatre with Sir Martin Marral.S .... 

All the preceding Plays, being the cheife that were /^^«/ in 
Dor/et'Garden^ from November 167 1, to the Year 1682 ; at which 
lime the Patentees of each Company United Patents, and by fo In- 
corporating the Duke's Company were made the King's Company, 
and immediately remov'd to the Theatre Royal in Drury-Lane.** 
•p. 16. fp,i7 J p. 19. I p. JO. UP-a6. lp.31. ••m^ 



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Iniroduniotu 15 

Such IS the hiflory, by an eye-witnefs, of the London 
(lage foon after the Refloration. 

The then general (late of fociety and town life is 
defcribed in the third chapter of Lord Macaula/s 
Hiflory of England. At prefent we have only to deal 
with one particular falhion of dramatic compofition. 
— the new, grandiloquent, bombaftic, pfeudo-heroic 
plays, introduced by D*Avenant, and having for their 
mdler-writer Dryden. It is impoflible here to meafure 
the extravagance of thefe plays : fomewhat, however, may 
be gathered from the Illuftrations to the prefent work. 

Aflbciated with this was the inordinate ufe of rhym- 
ing verfe. Dryd.en in early life fought the battle of 
rhyme againft Sir Robert Howard; only afterwards 
publicly to abandon it, in his Lines to the Earl of 
Rofcommony in i68o. 

To ridicule thefe rhyming mouthing plays and with 
not a little perfonality — alter the common cuftom of 
that time — to attack their authors, were the chief 
obje<Sls of Villiers and his coadjutors in writing The 
RehearfaL Its merit however is as much in its con- 
ception as in its execution : in feeing that the popular 
rant was rant, and in determining to expofe it : as in 
writing the ftudied nonfenfe of which this play is fo 
largely compofed. Hence, the importance of The 
Rehearfal in our national literature, is not fo much 
from its intrinfic merits, moft laughable as are fome 
of the parodies; but from its marking — defpite a 
partial failure to influence at the time — a bend in the 
ftream of dramatic comp(^tion. 

Twofcholars, who have well ftudied this portion of our 
Kterary hiftory, give the following accounts of this play. 

Edmond Malone, in his Life of Dryden^ thus writes : 

The great fuccefs which had attended E)rydeii*s heroick plays, 
doubtlefs excited the jealoufy of the rival candidates for fame. 
In this clafs, however, we cannot place Villiers, Duke of Buck- 
ingham, who was fo far from exercifmg his pen iil any perform* 
ance of that kind, that he thought the loud applaufe which had 
been hcflownl for fome years on the rhyming tragedies produced 



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i6 IrUroduiHon. 

by lyAvcnant, Dryden, Stapylton, Howard, Killigrew, and 
others, much mifplaced, and refolved to correcfl the pablick 
taile by holding them up to ridicule. With this view, m con* 
iun<5Uon, it is faid, with Martin Clifford, Mailer of the Charter 
Houfe, Butler, Sprat, and others, he wrote the celebrated faror 
entitled The Rehearsal. Some of the contemporary writen 
have dated, that it took up as much time as the Siege of Troy ; 
and with juflice exprefs tneir furprife, that fuch a combination 
of wits, and a perioa of ten years, (hould have been requifi e foi 
a work, which apparently a lefs numerous band could have 
produced without mch mighty throws. In the Key to this piece, 
publifhed by a bookfeller in 1704, we are told, that it wa» 
written, and ready for reprefeutation, before the middle of the 
year 1665, and that Sir Robert Howard, under the nam oJ 
BHboa^ was then intended to have been the hero of the & x:e. 
That fome interlude of this kind might have been thus ejurly 
intended, is not improbable, but afluredly the original hero wa» 
not Howard, but D*Avenant ; not only on account of the name 
of Bilboa^ which alludes to his military charadler, (for he waf 
Lieutenant-General of the Ordnance under the Duke of New- 
caille, in the Civil Wars,) but from the circumftance of the patch 
that in the courfe of the drama he is obliged to wear on his nofe ; 
which can relate to none but D'Avenant. Befides, he was t 
much more diflinguiflied chara(5ler, not only as Poet Laureate, 
but as fuperintendant of the Duke of York's Company of Come- 
dians, and the introducer of heroick plays on the Englifh ftige. 
The allufions to Sir Robert Howard's tragedies arc To few and 
inconfiderable, that he never could have been the author's prin- 
cipal obje(5l. As foon as it was refolved that Dryden (hould 

be the hero, an abundant use was made of his Indian Empbrob 
and Conquest of Granada ; yet the author was unwilling to lofe 
any of the ftrokes which were peculiarly levelled at D'Avenant, 
and thus the piece became a kind of patchwork. 

This lively farce was firft performed on the 7th of Decemlien 
1671, and was publifhed in the following year. .... Mich 
of the luccefs, doubtlefs, was owing to the mimickry employed, 
Dryden's drefs, and manner, and ufual expreflions, were aU 
minutely copied, and the Duke of Buckingham took incredible 
pains in teaching Lacy, the original performer of Bayes, to fpeak 
ibme paflages of that part, in thefe he probably imitated Dryden's 
mode of recitation, which was by no means excellent * 

A more recent editor, Mr. Robert Bell in his Life 
of Dryden prefixed to his Poetical JVorks, gives this 
account of the prefent play. 

Davenant enjoys the credit of having introduced what were 
called heroic plays. Dryden eilablifhed them. They were 

• Cfituai amd Mi*. Pfu WoHu of J. Drydm, L 94— loe. Ed. xSm^ 



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IntrodulKon. r 7 

called heroic becaufe they were written in a language elevated 
above nature, and exhibit paflion in a flate of maniacal edlafy. 
Thefe pieces had now held poflcflion of the flage feme nine or 
ten years, when the Duke of Buckingham undertook to expofe 
their abfurdities in The Rehearfal^ produced in the winter of 
167 1. It is laid that he was aflifled in the defign by Butler, 
Sprat, Clifford, and others. This is probable enough, from the 
(lru<5bire of the ridicule, which refemblcs a piece of moiaic work. 
Davenant was originally meant for the hero, but his recent 
death feems to have led to the fubftitution of Di^deii, who was 
on other accounts a more con(picuous mark for this fort of (atire. 
Not latisfied with parodying lome of the mofl familiar paffages 
in Dryden's plays, the Duke of Buckingham took conuderable 
pain9 in teaching La<^, who perform^ Bayes^ to mimic his 
author in his manner of reciting them. Dryden was notorioufly 
a bad reader, and had a hefitating and tedious delivery, whicli, 
Ikilfully imitated in lines of furpifling fury and extravagance, 
mufl have produced an irrefiftible effe(5l upon the au£ence. 
The humour was enhanced by the drefs, gefliculations, and by- 
play of the adlor, which prefented a clofe imitation of his 
original. Dryden bore this unwarrantable attack in iilence; 
bemg fully conscious, no doubt, that fo far as it refledled upon 
his plays it was unanfwerable. But he afterwards fhowed that 
he had a keen fenfe of the obligations the duke had laid him 
ander on this occafion, and he difcharged them in full, with 
compound intereil, in his AbfcUom and AchitopheL 

The town was highly amuJed, although its taile was not in the 
leafl degree corre<Sed, by Tlu Refuarfal, Heroic plavs con- 
tinued to flourifh as long as Dryden continued to write them ; a 
drudgenr which his necef&ties impofed upon him for feveral 
years afterwards. ... 

Milton died on the 8th of November, 1674. , . .f 

Five editions of The RehcarfcU appeared in the 
Author's life time. Of the fecond and third I cannot 
learn even the dates. There is a copy of the fourth, 
1683, in the Bodleian. An examination of the fifth, 
1687, would feem to (how a general permanence of 
the text, but that, probably in each edition, there were 
here and there additions and alterations en bloc^ infli- 
gated by the appearance of frefh heroic plays : fome 
of thefe additions increafe, with the multiplying cor- 
ruption of the times, in perfonality and moral ofifenfive- 
nefe. For our literary hillory, the firll edition is fuflS- 
c:ent. That, the reader now has. 

Amtot. EeL qfEn£, Poets. % Dpyden, L 40—49- ^^ 1^54. 

B 



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i8 

Bibliography.— 'Thb Rbhearsal.* 

t Editions having the ' Key' either before or after tlM 
ttjct S haying the ^Key ' in footnotes. 

(•) imn (■ t^c att^r'8 liUtimt, 
I. A» a iterate ^lieatiom, 

1. 167s. London, i yoL 4to. Editioprinct^i see title at p. ts. 

2. Y Second tdiH0m» 
8. f ThirdetUtwH. 

4. *x683. Loodon. x yoL 4to. Fourth edition. There is a copy in Bod- 

leian Ldbrsuy* 

5. X687. London, i yoL Ato. Title as No. 1. 'The Fifth Edition with 

Amendments and lai^ge Additions by the Author.' 

(I) imn Bfiice t^c Stttofs tat). 

L An a tepiiraie publication. 

6. 1699. London, i yol. 4to. Title as No. L Tho Sixth Edition, 

7. X701. London. 1 yoL ito. Title as No. 1. The Seventh Edition. 
10. I7xa London, i yoL Svo. 'The Rehearsal'; a Comedy Written by 

his Grace, Gborgb late Dolce of Buckingham 

to expose some Pl^ then in vogue, and their 

Authors. With a Key and Renuuks, necessary 

to Illustrate thr^ most material passages of this 

piece, and to point out the authors ana Writings 

nere exposed. Never Printed with it bddre. 

Lcmdon Printed in the year 1710. 

IS. ttTSS. London, x yol. Svo. 'The Rehearsal '&c ThoThirtoenthEdition, 

IS* tx755. London, i vol. Svo. 'The Rehearsal 'ftc. The Fifteenth Edition, 

16> X768. London. xvoLSvo. 'The Rehearsal '&c The Seventeenth Edition, 

With the new occasional Prologue, written by 

Paul Whitbhbad Esq. on opening Covent 

Garden Theatre, Sept the X4th 1767. 

n. t Noy. x868. Loodoa x voL Svo. English Reprinit. See title at page x. 

n. With other Works. 

8. *X704. London, f vols. Svo. Worics. First edition. 

IL |i7zx-ii. London. A Collection 0/ the best EngOsh Plays. Chosen 

to vols. Svo. out 0/ all the best Authors. Printed for the 
Company of Booksellen. 'The Rehearsal' is 
in VoL II. 
18. fiyiS (x7M)> London. The Dramatidc worics of his Grace George 
a vols. Svo. Villien^ Late Duke of Buckingham. With his Mis- 
cellaneous Poems, Essays and Letters. Adorned 
with cuts. ' The Rehearsal ' u in Vol. 11. 
14. Sx754' Bdinbuzgh. The genuine Workkofhis Grace George Villien 

X vol. itma Duke of Buckingham. Cotnpleat. pp. 150-247. 

17. X787. London.* Theatrical Magaaine. 'The Renean»l.' A 

t X yoL Syoi Conedy as it is actmt at the Theatres Royal in 
Dnuy Lane and Cmivent Garden. 

18. X797. London. Belts British Theatre. 'The RebeatMl' is in 

34 vols. 8va VoL 39. 

19. ti76i-xCo8. An edition of '^Hlliers' Works: prepared by 

t vols. 8va Bishop Percy, but never published. It was 
nearly all de»)troyed by fire in zSoS. See pp. 
'The Rehearsal.' and iu ' Key,' are in VoL I. 
to. tiSxx. London. The Modem British Drwma. 'T1ieRebe«nl' 

5 vols. 8va is in VoL 4. 

.*. This list isimperfiecL 



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Hini.lOGRAPUY. KEYS TO *TIIE REHEARSAL.' I9 

Tuns is no authoritative explanation of the allusions and parodies in tha 
present play. All that can bie done is to summarize the successive attempts 
at its exposition. 

1. Twenty years after its appearance, but in Dmlen's lifetime ; Gerard 
Langbainb gives this aooouat of it, in his Eng. Drtum, PmU. Oxenibrd. 
/. 546. Ed, 1691. 

RtfuarxaL a Comed/ acted at the Theatre- Royal ; minted [4th Edit.] 
quarto Lmd. 1683. Thu Play is ascribed to the Latie Duke ol BuckUtgham^ 
and will ever be valued by Ingenious Men. There are some who pretend to 
furnish a CiavU to it ; mv Talent not lying to Politicks, I know no more of 
it, than that the Author lashes several Plays of Mr. Dryden ; As Ccmquett 
^/GruMadOf Tyrummck Love, Lovt m m Nunnery, and some passages of 
other Plays; as Th* SUg* •/ Rhodtt, VUgim, H^id^m, Sii^uidMatd, 
l^iUaim, English Monsuurt ^k. 

S. Dean Lockibr in Spence's Anbcdotbs, >. 63. Ed. 1890, remarks. 

The Rehearsal (one of the best pieces of criticism that ever ¥fas) and 
Butler's inimitable poem of Hudibras, must be quite lost to the readers in a 
century more, if not soon well commended. Tonson has a good Key to the 
fomier, but refuses to print it, because he had been so much obliged to 
Dryden. 

8. Only two Keys have ever been printed : tt may be well to consider their 
respective histories, before we take them in cozmection with the text. 

(a) In 1704, in the first edition of Villiers' works in 8vo, oi which I cannot 
leamof any copy anywhere, appeared— S. Briscob's Key, which has been 
vciA "'■'jn rj; r::;t:,d'; r.t f'lr t -,.-^^..:.i fr::!; ihc text in 1710^ next with it 
as foot notes : :>ee opposite page. 

(b) June 12, 1761. Bp. T. Percy entered into an agreement with Mess. Ton- 
son, to publish an edition of the Works of George Villiers, the ad Duke of 
Buckingham, for which he received 52 guineas. J. Nichols Lit. Amtc. 18/A 
Cent. ill. 758. Ed. iSiz. 

On 15 Jan. 1764, Bp. Percy thus writes to Dr. Birch. 

I ought to blush for having detained your book<; so kMig: but one work 
h.-is been delayed through the expectation of cnlarjiinithe stock of materials. 
The • Key to the Rehearsal ' has long been primed off, all but the last sheet. 
which we Sitill keep open to receive some additions that we take for^ granted 
will be picked up from a play of Edward Howard's, entitled * Six Days 
Adventure, or the New Utopia, 4to 1671/ if we can once be so ludcy as Xx» 
li ^ht upon it. This is the only play of that age which I have not seen. Mr. 
Garrick unluckily has not got it in his collection, and Mr. Tonson has adver> 
tiscd a small premium for it, hitherto without success. It is only scarce 
because it is worthless ; and therefore, if chance should throw it in your 
way, may I tntreat the favour of you to procure me a sight of it?— J. B. 
Nichols. ///. 0f Lit. Hist. vii. 572. Ed. 1848. 

Twenty-eight years later ; Bp, Percy, thus writes to Horace Walpole, Earl 
of Orford, under date 11 Aug. 179a. 

I have at length been able to collect for your Lordslup the sheets of Lord 
Surrey and the Duke of Buckingham. They have been printed off about 
95 years. Since the death of Jacob Tonson. at whose instance they were 
undertaken, and who ought to hav** n«^i.'n-'/i iK.-m to other persons^ they 
have been wholly discontinued. M liese pursuits dechning, 

1 laid both those works aside, till 1 ^ - to some younger editor 

than myself, who could with more propriety resume them. I have now an 
ingeniotis nephew, of both my names, who is a fellow of St. John's College 
in Oxford, and both able and desirous to complete them. To him I have 
given all the sheets so long sinoe printed off, and whatever |>apers I had 
upon the subject 

Of the ' Dtike of Buckmghara ' Tonson wished to have every thing collected 
which had ever been ascribed to him : but I believe I shall only recommend 
to my nephew to publish what is numbered vol. i. in the sheets now offered 
to your Lordship. Between the 'Rehearsal' and the *Key' were once 
printed the 'Chances' and the 'Restoration': but the intermediate she^u 
Lave been cancelled and consigned to the tnmk-makers. And the same fate 



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20 WBLIOGRAPHY. KEYS TO *THB REHEARSAL.* 

awaits the smaller pieces, collected into what is herewith mtmbered voL n. 
Ihey are only submitted to your Lordship in confidence, and I believe^ou will 
think them scarcely deserving republication.— J. B. Vicholi,Idem,vtu.p. 289. 

Mr. Nichols thus narrates the fate of this edition. 

Dr. Percy had, soon after the year 1760, proceeded very far at the mess 
with an admirable edition of ' Surrey's Poems,' and also with a good edition 
of the Works of Villiers Duke of Buckingham ; both which, from a variety 
of causes, remained many years unfinishMi in the warehouse of Mr. Tonson 
in the Savoy, but were resumed in 1795, and nearly brought to a condustcm ; 
when the wnole impression of both works was unfortunately consumed bv the 
fire in Red Lion Passage in x8o8. Lit. Anec, iBiA Cent. iti. x6x. Ed. rSxa. 

Of this edition there u a copy in 2 Vols, complete so far as prepared but 
ti-ithout a printed title page, in the British Musueum. [Press Mark, C. 39. £.] 
The MS. title-paee thus runs, 'An edition prepared by Bp. Percy. But 
never published. Nearly uniaue.' There is however under Press Mark, 643. 
e xa a fiagment of the first volume containing the Rehearsal and its Key. 

4. Prefaced to both these ' Keys ' is an introduction. I give first Bp. Pjckcv's, 
because though a century later in date, it describes that of X704. 

b. AD VER TISEMENT, 

THE former Kky hath long been complained of as inaccurate and 
defective : and yet has commonly past for the work of the Duke of 
Buckingham. That it is the former, and cannot be the latter, a slight perusal 
must convince every Reader. The Duke could not be ignorant of his own 
meaning, nor doubtnil about the aim of his own satire : yet many passages 
in that work display both ignorance and doubt That the Preface prefixed 
to it was written long after the death of our noble author, evidentlv appears 
from several passages : Thus the author quotes Collier's view of the stage, 
which was first published in 1698, whereas the Duke died in 1687. He also 
speaks of the Rehearsal as having flourished in print two and thirty years, ii^ch 
brings it down to the vear 1704, when the first edition of the Key was printed. 

W<t are not to wonder that an explanation of so popular a satire should be 
wanted at that time by the puUic, or that the boolciellers should be desirous 
of profiting by its impatience. Accordingly in the 7th Edition of the Rehearsal 
pnnted in 1701 4to, the title-page promises " Some explanatory notes;" but 
these upon examination appear to be only four slight marginal leferences, two 
rf w^cn are false, and a third superfluous. At length in the second volume 
of the Duke's works Svo. the larger attempt appeared under the following title 

A KEY TO TMB REHEARSAL or a critical view of thb AUTHORS 
AMD Their Writings, that are exposed in that celebrated Play : 

}Vrittm by his Grace GEORGE late Lhtke e/'Buckingham 
LONDON: Printed for S. Briscoe, 1701. 

Here b^ a little bookseller^s craft in making a break after the word play, 
the Key u represented as written by the Duke ; when prol»bly at first no 
more was meant than that the play was written by him. After all 'tis pos- 
sible, that the key may have been supplied in part from some of the Duke's 
papers, and then the errors and defects are to be charged on those whcfput 
them together and made additions to them. 

Erroneous and defective, as that attempt was, the public had little room 
to expect a better. It is near a centurv since the Rehearsal was first printed ; 
and who at this distance of time could hope to recover any considcrsible mat- 
ters of explanation, that had escaped former inquirers t. No such sanguine 
expectations had the present compiler. The dehciences of the former key 
led him sometimes to look into the plays referred to, but without any inten- 
tion of attempting a new one. He soon found however that some obvious 
improvements might still be made ; and the success of his researches en- 
Gotuaged him to extend them ; 'till at length he resolved by a professed pur- 
suit, to comoleat what he had begun by accidental snatches. "To this he was 
cnconra^ped by the free access, which Mr. Garrick in the politest maimer gave 
him to ms large collection of old plays : by far the compleatest ever made in 
these kingdoms. Here the editor fotmd almost every dramatic piece in our 
Cantinued ai pa^es 3(>, ja, j6, 46, 4S. 



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/ 

THE 



REHEARSAL, 



As it was A6led at the 



Theatre-Royal. 




LONDON, 



Printed for Thomas Dringy at the White-Lyon^ 
next Chancery-lane end in Fleet- 
street 1672. 



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ffS ILLUSTRATIONS, ^3^. 

' bryden, in his preatoiy Eflky Of Heroioue Plaj^X^ T%e Con^ 
quefl of Granada, Ed. 1672, thus gives tne origin of the new 
way of writing plays. 

'*For Heroick Plays, (in which onelr I have os'd it \u /., 
Rhyme] without the mixture of Profe) the firil light we had ol 
tlicm ou the Englifh Theatre was from the late Sir iViliiam 
D^Avenant : It 1>eing forbidden him in the Rebellious times to 
a(5l Tragedies and Comedies, becaufe they contained fome matter 
of Scandal to thofe good people, who could more eafily difpolfefs 
their lawful Sovereign then endure a wanton jeaft; he was forced 
to turn his thoughts another way; and to introduce the examples 
of moral rertue, writ in verfe, and performed in Recitative Muftque, 
The Original of this mufick and of the Scenes which adorn'd 
his work, he had from the Italian Operas : but he heightn'd his 
Chara<5lers (as I may probably imagine) from the example of 
CoinalU and fome French Poets, In this Condition did this 
part of Poetry remain at hb Majeflies return. When growing 
Dolder, as being now own'd by a publick Authority, he review'd 
his Siege of Rh d^s, and caus*d it to be a<5led as a juft Drama; 
but as few men have the happinefs to bqg;in and finifli anv new 
proje(5l, fo neither did he live to make his defign perfe<5i" 

• (a) Gerard Langbaine gives this account of Lacy : — 

A Comedian whofe Abiliries in Adlion were fufficiently known 
to all that frequented the King's Theatre, where he was for 
many years an A<5lor, and performed all Part:» that he under- 
took to a miracle ; infomuch that I am apt to believe, that as 
this Age never had, fo the next never will have his Eoual, at lead 
not his Superiour, He was fo well approVd of by King CharLs 
the Second, an undeniable Judge in Dramatick Arts, that he 
caus*d his Pidlure to be drawn, in three feveral Figures in the 
fame Table, vi*. That of Teague in the Committee, Mr. Scrtipie 
in The Cheats, and M. Galliard, in The Variety: which piece 
is ftiU in being in Windfor Cafile, Nor did his Talent wholly 
lye in Acfling, he knew both how to judge and write Plajrs : and 
if his Comedies are fomewbat allied to 1* rench Farce, 'tis out of 
choice, rather than want of Ability to write true Comedy. 

Account of Eng, Dram, Poets^ p. 317. Oxcnford, 1691. 

Lacy wrote four Comedies^ printed in the following years : — 
Dumb Lady, or The Farriar made Phyfitian, 1672, 4to. 
Old Troot, or Monfieur Ragou, 1672, 4to. 
Sawny tne Scot, or The Taming of a Shrew, 1677, 4ta 
Sir Hercules Buffoon, or The Poetical Squire, 1684, 4to. 

(b) Dean Lockier, in Spence's Anecdotes, p. 63, Ed. 1820^ 
fays :-— 

It is incredible what pains Buckingham took with ofte of the 
•<5lots, to teach him to fpeak feme paflioges in Bayes' part, ia 
The Rehearfal x\^\. 

This a<5lor was ljkcy,feep, 16. 



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*i 



'PROLOGUE 

|E might well call this (hort Mock-play of 
ours 
A Pofie made of Weeds milead of Flowers ; 
Yet fuch have been prefented to your nofes. 
And there are fuch, I fear, who thought *em Rofes. 
Would lome of *em were here, to fee, this night, 
What fluflf it is in which they took delight 
Here, brisk, infipid Blades, for wit, let fall 
Sometimes dull fence ; but oft'ner, none at all : 
There, (Irutting Heroes, with a grim-fac'd train. 
Shall brave the Gods, in King Cambyfes vain. 
For (changing Rules, of late, as if men writ 
In fpite of Reafon, Nature, Art, and Wit) 
Our Poets make us laugh at Tragoedy, 
And with their Comedies they make us cry. 
Now, Critiques, do your worfl, that here are met ; 
For, like a Rook, I have hedg'd in my Bet 
If you approve \ I (hall affume the (late 
Of thofe high-flyers whom I imitate : 
And judly too ; for I will (hew you more 
Than ever they vouchfafd to (hew before : 
I will both reprefent the feats they do, 
And give you all their reafons for *em toa 
Some honour to me will (rom this arife. 
But if, by my endeavours, you grow wife, 
And what was once fo prais'd you now defpife ; 
Then 1*1 cry out, fwelPd with Poetique rage, 
Tis \John Lacy* have reformed your Stage. 



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Efie a^ctors Names. 

BaVes. 

Johnson, 

Smith. 

Two Kings ^Brentford. 

Prince Pretty-man. 

Prince Volfcius. 

Gentleman Uflter, 

Phyfician, 

Drawcanfir. 

General 

Lieutenant General. 

Cordelio. 

Tom Thimble 

Fijhermofu 

Sun. 

Thunder. 

Players. 

Sauldiers. 

Two Heralds. 

Four Cardinalt. 

Mayor. 

Judges. 

Serjeants at Arms. 

QSoittnu 

Amaiyllis. 

Cloris. 

Parthenope. 

Pallas. 

Lightnif^. 

Moon. 

Earth. 

Attetidants of Men and Women. 

SCENE. Brentford. 



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THE 

REHEARSAL. 

ACTUS L SCiENA L 

Johnson and Smith. 

Johns. B^PC?^°^^ Frank/ Vm glad to fee thee 
with all my heart: how long 
haft thou been in Town ? 

Smi. Faith, not above an 
hour : and, if I had not met you 
here, I had gone to look you out ; for I long to talk 
with you freely, of all the ftrange new things we have 
heard in the Country. 

Johns. And, by my troth, I have long'd as much 
to laugh with you, at all the impertinent, dull, fantafti- 
cal things, we are tifd out with here. 

Smi. Dull and fantaftical 1 that's an excellent com- 
poiition. Pray, what are our men of bufinefs doing ? 

Johns. I ne'er enquire after *em. Thou knoVft 
my humour lyes anoUier way. I love to pleafe my 
feLfas much, and to trouble others as little as I can : 
and therefore do natiurally avoid the company of thofe 
folemn Fops ; who, being incapable of Reafon, and 
infeniible of Wit and Pleafure, are always looking 
grave, and troubling one another, in hopes to be 
thought men of Bufmefs. 



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26 BIBLIOGRAPHY. KEYS TO *THB REHEARSAU 

language, and had thereby an advantage, whidi perhaps no fcmner cotnpileff 
ever had, in having all his materials rndy collected to his hands. He had 
nothing to do. but sit down and examine : he accordingly read over everr 
play, which the Duke could be supposed to have in his eye ; chiefly all su<» 
as were either published or revived from the time of the Restoration till the 
publicadcm of the Rehearsal : for tho' the Duke's view was diiefly to satirise 
what was then called " the new way of writing," yet he often exposes abrardi- 
ties of longer standing, chiefly when the pla^ which oontaiiwd them, had 
been revived afresh, or still continued to captivate the publidc 

How fiu* the research upon the whole has been sucttssful the Reader will 
judge from the following pages. He will find manv obscurities removed ; 
and numerous references recovered: far more of both than could reascmabhr be 
expected, considering that no assistance cotild be had but what is fetched tnm 
books, and that all personal information has been lone since swallowed up in 
the gulph of time. It must however be adcnowtedged that our inquiries luve 
not always been successful : Some passages still remain, that evidently allude 
to absurdities then current tipon the stage, yet of which we could find no 



traces in anv play then published. But this is no more than might be ex- 
pectd : We have that one play,* which the Duke has professedly ridiculed, 
was damned in the representation and therefore never printed ; and the 
same might also be the case with others. Again the authors might remove 
the oflensive passages from such plays as they published, so that no appear- 
ance of them is now remaining. After all, we are not to suppose that so 
masterly a pencil, as the Duke's, when finishing sudi a character as that of 
Bayes, would be confined to a mere dead likeness : he would not fail to 
heighten the caricature with a thousand touches suj^lied from his own fancy, 
andbring in whatever served to render the pieoe compleat, whether it resem* 
bled the original or not. 

Altho' the former kevwas £uil^, it contained tome particnlars too valuable 
to be suppressed ; we have tberefofe inserted the several articles everywhere 
in our own, taking care to correct the mistakes, and distinguishing every 
sudi article by an asterisk (*). We have also retained the former preface ; 
an it pre serv ed the memory of certain facts necessary to the illustration of the 
Rehearsal, and not found anywhere else. 

We next give Bkiscok's address. 

a. Th^ Publijhtr to the Reader, 

THOU canst not be ignorant, that the town has had an vxgfit expectation 
of a Key to the Rbhbarsal ever since it first appear^ in print ; and 
none has more earnestly desired it than myself, tho' m vain : Tdl lately a 
gentleman of my acouamtance recommended me to a person, who he believed 
could give me a fturther light into this matter, than I had hitherto met with 
from any hand. 

In a snort time I traced him out ; and when I had found him, he appeared 
such a positive dogmatical sparic, that I began to repent of my trouble in 
searching after him. 

It was my misfortune over n pot of beer to begin a short discourse of the 
modem poets and actors : and unmediately he fell into a great passion, and 
swore, that there were very few persons now living, who deserved the name 
of a good dramatick ppet, or a natural actor ; and declaimed against the 
present practice of the English stage with much violence ; saying, he believed 
the two companies were joined in a confederacy against Smithfield, and re- 
solved to rum their fair, by out-doine them in their bombastick bills, and 
jidiculons representing their plays ; adding, that he hoped ere long M. Collier 
and others would write them down to the devil At the same time, he could not 
forbear to extol the excellent decorum and action of former years ; and mag- 
nified the poets of the last age. especially Johnson, Shakespear, and BeaumonL 

I bore all this with tolerable patience, loiowing it to be too common with 
old men to commend the past age, and rail at the present : and so took my 

* Tiu UmUd Kingdcmts, by Col. Henry Howard. See pp. 46 and 90.) 
Continued at p. 3s. 



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ACT. I THE REHEARSAL. 27 

Smi. Indeed, I have ever obferved, that your grave 
lookers are the dulleil of men. 

Johns. I, and of Birds, and Beads too : your gravefl 
Bird is an Owl, and jrour graved Bead is an Ais. 

Sml Well ; but how ddX thou pais thy time ? 

Johns. Why, as I ufe to do ; eat and drink as well 
as I can, have a She-friend to be private with in the 
afternoon, and fometimes fee a Play : where there are 
fuch tilings (Frank) such hideous, mondrous things, 
that it has almod made me forfwear the Stage, and 
refolve to apply my felf to the folid nonfence of your 
pretenders to Bufmefs, as the more ingenious padime. 

Smi. I have heard, indeed, you have had lately 
many new Plays, and our Country-wits commend 'em. 

Johns. I, fo do fome of our City-wits too ; but 
they are of the new kind of Wits. 

Smi. New kind? what kind is that? 

Johns. Why, your Blade, your frank Perfons, your 
Drolls : fellows that fcom to imitate Nature ; but are 
given altogether to elevate and furprife. 

Smi. Elevate, and furprife ? pr'ythee make me under- 
dand the meaning of that. 

Johns. Nay, by my troth, that's a hard matter : I 
don't underdand that my fel£ 'Tis a phrafe they have 
got among them, to exprefs their no-meaning by. I'l 
tell you, as well as I can, what it is. Let me fee ; 'tis 
Fighting, Loving, Sleeping, Rhyming, Dying, Dancing, 
Singing, Crying ; and every thing, but Thinking and 
Sence. 

Mr. B AYES paj/iu der the Stage. 

Bayes. Your mod obfequious, and mod obfervant, 
very fervant. Sir. 

Johns. Godfo, this is an Author : I'l fetch him to 
you. 

Smi. Nay, pr'ythee let him alone. 

Johns. Nay, by the Lord, PI have him. [Goes after 
him,^ Here he is. I have caught him. Pray, Sir, foi 
my iake, will you do a favour to this friend of mine ? 



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ILLUSTRATIONS, bx. 



'In fine, it fliall read, nnci write, and a£l, and plot, 
and (hew, ay, and pit, box, and gallery, I gad, with any 
Play in Europe. 

The ufoal language of the Honourable Edward If awards £fq. ; 
at the Rehearfafof nil Plays. • • • Key, 1704. 



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ACT. L TII£ REHEARSAL. S9 

Bayes. Sir, it is not within my fmall capacity to do 
favours, but receive 'em ; efpecially from a perfon that 
does wear the honourable Title you are pleas*d to 
impofe, Sir, upon this. Sweet Sir, your servant 

Smi. Your humble servant, Sir. 

Johns. But wilt thou do me a fevour, now ? 

Bayes. I, Sir: Whatis't? 

Johns. Why, to tell him the meaning of thy lad 
Play. 

Bayes. How, Sir, the meaning? do you mean the 
riot 

Johns. I, I ; any thing. 

Bayes. Faith, Shr, the Intrigo's now quite out of my 
head ; but I have a new one, in my pocket, that I may 
fay is a Virgin ; 't has never yet been blown upon. I 
mu(l tell you one thing, 'Tis all new Wit; and, though 
I (ay it, a better than my lafl : and you know well 
enough how that took. * In fine, it (hall read, and 
write, and a<fl, and plot, and (hew, ay, and pit, box 
and gallery, I gad, with any Play in Europe, This 
morning is its lafl Rehearial, in their habits, and all 
that, as it is to be adled ; and if you, and your friend 
will do it but the honour to fee it in its Virgin attire ; 
though, perhaps, it may blulh, I (hall not be adiam'd 

to difcover its nakednefs unto you. 1 think it is o* 

this (ide. \Put5 his hand in his pocket. 

Johns. Sir, I confefs I am not able to anfwer you 
in this new way ; but if you pleafe to lead, I (hall be 
glad to follow you ; and I hope my friend will do fo too. 

Smi. I, Sir, I have no bufmefs fo confiderable, as 
fhould keep me from your company. 

Bayes. Yes, here it is. No, cry you mercy : this is 
my book of Drama Common places \ the Mother of 
many other Plays. 

Johns. Drama Common places! pray what's that? 

Bayes. Why, Sir, fome certain helps, that we men 
of Art have found it convenient to make ufe of. 

Smi. How, Sir, help for Wit ? 

Bayes. I, Sir, thafs my pofition. And I do here 



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30 ILLUSTRATIONS, 6v. 

I. 

^He who writ this, not without pains and thought 
From French and Engli/h Theaters has brought 
Th* exadled Rules by which a Play is wrought 

II. 
The Unities of Action, Place, and Time ; 
The Scenes unbroken ; and a mingled chime 
Oi Johnfans humour, with Comeilks rhyme. 
J. Drydkn, Proicgue toSicntLove, or the Maiden Quern, Ed. i66^. 



In Dryden's lifetime, Gerard Langbainb, in his Account 
of Eng. Dram, Poets, Ed. 1691, /. 169, noticing Drvden*s 
Secret Love or The Maiden Queen^ sajrs : — I cannot pais by his 
making ufe of Bayei% Art of Tranfverfmg, as any One may obfenre 
by comparing the Fourth Stanza of his Firft Prologue, with the 
liOl Paragraph of the Preface o^ Ibrahim, 

The tiUe of this work, is as follows: *^ Ibrahim, Or the Uluf- 
triousBaffa, An excellent new Romance. The whole Work, in 
foure Parts. Written in French by Monfieur de Scudery, And 
now Engliihed by Henry Cogan, gent London 1652." The 
paragraph referred to, runs thus : — 

Behold, Reader, that which I had to fey to you, 

but what defence foever I have imployed, I know that 

it is of works of this nature, as of a place of war, 

where notwithflanding all the care the Engineer hath 

brought to fortifie it, there is alwayes fome weak 

part found, which he hath not dream'd of, and whereby 

it is aflaulted ; but this (hall not furprize me ; for as 

I have not forgot that I am a man, no more 

have I forgot that I am fubjedl to erre 

This is thus verfified in the fourth ilanza of the fame Prologue, 
IV. 
Plays are like Towns, which how e*re fortify*J 
By Engineers, have flill fome weaker fide 
By the o're-feen Defendant imefpy'd. 



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ACT. I. THE REHEARSAU 31 

averr, That no man yet the Sun e'er (hone upon, has 
parts fufficient to furnifh out a Stage, except it be with 
the help of thefe my Rules.* 

Johns. What are thofe Rules, I pray? 

Bayks. Why, Sir, my firft Rule is the Rule of Tranf- 
verfion," or Regula DupUx : changing Verfe into Profe, 
or Profe into verfe, alternative as you pleafe. 

Sml How's that, Sir, by a Rule, I pray? 

Bayes. Why, thus. Sir; nothing more eafie when 
underdood: I take a Book in my hand, either at 
home, or elfewhere, for that's all one, if there be any 
Wit in't, as there is no Book but has fome, I Tranf- 
verfe it \ that is, if it be Profe, put it into Verfe, Hjut 
that takes up fome time) if it be Verfe, put it mto 
Profe. 

Johns. Methinks, Mr. Bayes, that putting Verfe 
into Profe Ihould be calFd Tranfproiing. 

Bayes. By my troth, a very good Notion, and here- 
after it (hall be fo. 

Smi. Well, Sir, and what d'ye do with it then? 

Bayes. Make it my own. *Tis fo alter'd that no 
man can know it My next Rule is the Rule of 
Record, and by way of Table-Book. Pray obferve. 

Johns. Well, we hear you : go on. 

Bayes. As thus. I come into a Coffee-houfe, or 
fome other place where wittie men refort, I maJce as if 
I minded nothing ; (do you mark ?) but as foon as any 
one fpeaks, pop I flap it down, and make that, too, 
my own. 

Johns. But, Mr. Bayes^ are not you fometimes in 
danger of their making you redore, by force, what you 
have gotten thus by Art ? 

Bayes. No, Sir; the world's unmindful : they never 
take notice of thefe things. 

Smi. But pray, Mr. Bayes, among all your other 
Rules, have you no one Rule for Invention ? 

Bayes. Yes, Sir ; that's my third Rule that I have 
here in my pocket 

Sml What Rule can that be? 



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It BIBLIOGRAPHY. KEYS TO *THB REHEA&SAU* 

Con/tn Mtdfrom pagt a6. 
leave of him for that time, with an intent never to trouble him more, and 
without acquainting him with my business. 

When next I saw the gentleman mv fn<md, who recommended him to me, 
I told him how I was entertained by his cynical acouamtance. He laughed, 
but bid me not be discouraged ; 8a3ring, that fit of railing would soon have 
been over, and when his just indignation had spent itself, you might have im- 
parted your business to him, and received a more satisfactory account. How- 
ever, said he, jgo to him again from me, take him to the Tavern, and mollify 
his an)erity with a bottle ; thwart not his discourse, but give him his own way ; 
and ril warrant you, he'll open his budget, and satisfy your expectation. 

I followed my friend's directions, and found the event answerable to his 
prediction. 

Not lone after, I met him in Fleet Street, and carried him to the Old 
Devil ; and ere we had emptied one bottle. I found him of a quite different 
humour from what I left him in the time before : he appeared in his discourse 
to be a very honest true Englishman, a hearty lover of his country, and the 
government thereof, both in church and state, a loyal subject to his sovereijgn. 
an enemy to popery and tyranny, idolatry and superstition, antimonarchical 
government and confusion, irreligion and enthusiasm. In short, I found him 
a person of a competent knowledge in the affiur I went to him about, and one 
who understood the English Stage very well ; and tho' somewhat positive^ as 
I said before, yet I observed he always took care to have truth on his side, 
before he affirmed or denied anything with more than ordinary heat ; and 
when he was so guarded, he was immoveable. 

When I had discover cd thus much, and called for the second bottle, I told 
him from whom I came, and the cause of my addressing to him. He desired 
my patience till he stept to his lodgings, which were near the tavern ; and 
after a short space he returned, and Drought with him the papers, which con- 
tain the following notes. 

When he had read them to me, I liked them so well, that I desired the 
prindi^ of them, provided they were genuine. He assured me they were, 
and told me farther : 

That while this farce was composing and altering, he had frequent ocoi- 
sions of being with the author, of perusing his papers, and hearing him dis- 
course of the several plays he exposed, and their authors ; insomuch that 
few persons had the lixe opportumties of knowing hb true meaning, as he 
himself had. 

If any other persons had known the author^s mind so exactly, in all the 
several particulars, 'tis more than probable they would have been made 
publick before now : but nothing of this nature having appeared these two 
AND THIRTY VSARS; (for SO long has this farce flourishea m pruit) we may 
reasonably and safely conclude, that there is no other such like copy in 
being : and that these remarks are genuine, and taken from the great Person's 
own mouth and papers. 

I was very well satisfied with this account, and more de.^irous to print it 
than ever ; only I told him, I thought it would be sety advantageous to the 
sale of these /^notations, to have a Preface to them, under the Name of 
him, who was so well acquainted with the Author : but could not, by all 
the arguments I was master of, obtain hisConseut, tho' we debated the point 
a pretty while. 

He tuledg'd for his excuse, that such an undertaking would be very im- 
proper for him, because he should be forced to name several persons, and 
rome of great families, to whom he had been obliged ; and he was very un- 
willing to offend any person of quality, or run the hazard of making such who 
are, or may be his friends, become his enemies ; tho' he should only act the 
part of an historian, barely reciting the words he heard from our Author. 

However, said he, if you think a preface of such absolute necessity, you 
may easily reeoUect matter enough from the discourse which hath passed be- 
tween us, on this subject, to enable yourself, or any other for you, to wnt« 
one ; especially if you consider there arc but two topicks to be insisted on. 
CoHtintud a t fin^ 36. 



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kcr, L THE REHEARSAL. 33 

Bayes. Why, Sir, when I have any thing to invent, 
I never trouble my head about it, as other men do ; 
but prefently turn o'er this Book, and there I have, ai 
one view, all that Perfeus^ MontaignCy Sincca^s Trage- 
dieSyHorace^ ^uifenaly Claudian^ Pliny ^ PlatarcHs lives ^ 
and the reft, have ever thought, upon this fubjedl: 
and fo, in a trice, by leaving out a few words, or put- 
ting in others of my own, the bufmefs is done. 

Johns. Indeed, Mr. Bayes^ this is as fure, and com- 
pendious a way of Wit as ever I heard of. 

Bayes. I, Sirs, when you come to write your felves, 
o' my word you'l find it fo. But, Gentlemen, if you 
make the leaft fcruple of the efBcacie of thefe m}' 
Rules, do but come to the Play-houfe, and you (hall 
judge of *em by the effe<5ls. 

Smi. We*l follow you, Sir. \Exeunt. 

Enter three Players upon the Sta^. 

1 Play, Have you your part perfe<5l ? 

2 Play. Yes, I have it without book ; but I do not 
underftand how it is to be fpoken. 

3 Play, And mine is fuch a one, as I can't ghefs 
for my life what humour I'm to be in : whether angry, 
melancholy, merry, or in love. I don't know what to 
make on't 

1 \_Play,'\ Phoo ! the Author will be here prefently, 
and he'l tell us all. You muft know, this is the new 
way of writing; and thefe hard things pleafe forly 
times better than the old plain way. For, K)ok you, 
Sir, the grand defign upon the Stage is to keep the 
Auditors in fufpence; for to ghefs prefently at the 
plot, and the fence, tires 'em before the end of the firft 
A61 : now, here, every line furprifes you, and brings 
in new matter. And, then, for Scenes, Cloaths and 
Dancing, we put 'em quite down, all that ever went 
before us : and thefe are the things, you know, that 
are elTential to a Play. 

2 Play, Well, I am not of thy mind ; but, fo it gets 
vs money, 'tis no great matter. 

c 



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34 ILLUSTRA TIONS, CfH. 



' Tlie Pari of Amatyliis was adled by Mrs. Ann Reeves^ who. 
It that Time, was kept by Mr. Bayes, . . Key 1704. 

The llcentioujtness of Dnrden't plays admits of no palliatioii or defence. He 
wrote for a Ucentious stage in a profli^te age, and supplied, much to his own 
disgrace, Uie kind of material the vicious taste of his audiences demanded. 
Nor will it serve his reputation to contrast his productions in this way with 
those of others. Shadwell alone transcended him in depravity. But there is 
some compensation for all his grossness in turning from his plays to his life, 
and marking the contrast. The morality of his life — the practi^ test of his 
heart and his understanding— was unimpeachable. The ingenuity of slander 
was exhausted in assailing his principles, and exposing his person to obloquy 
—but ihc morality of his ufe comes pure out of the furnace. The only hint 
of personal indiscretion ascribed to him is that of having eaten tarts with Mrs. 
Reeve theactrcss, in the Mulberry garden, which, if true, amounts to nothing, 
but which, trivial as it is, must be regarded as apocryphal. To eat tarts with 
an actress did not necessarily involve any grave delinquency in a poet who was 
writing for the theatre ; yet upon this slight foundation, ior I have not been 
able to discover that it rests upon any other, a suspicion has been raised, that 
Mrs. Reeve was his mistre^. By way, however, of mitigating the odium 01' 
this unwarrantable imputation, it is pdded, that after his marriage Drydec 
renounced all such associations. But his relations with Mrs. Reeve, if he 
ever had any, must have been formed after his marriage, as a reference to 
dates will show, so that the suppositious scandal, as it has been transmitted 
to us, omveys its own refutation. 

R. Bbll. Lifeq/Drydcnt i. 91. Ed. 1854 



.. ' J7® ^^'"Ss o^ Brentford, fiippofed to be the two Brothers, 
the Kuig and tlie Duke. [See note at p. 90.] . . Key 1704. 



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ACT. L TIIK REHEARSAU 35 

Enter Bayes, Johnson and%^vn\. 

Bayes. Come, come in, Gentlemen. Vare ver}' 
welcome Mr. a Ha* you your Part ready? 

I Play, Yes, Sir. 

Bayes. But do you undeHland the true humour of it? 

I Play. I, Sir, pretty well. 

Bayes. And Amarillis^ how does (he* do ? Does 
not her Armor become her? 

3 Play, O, admirably ! 

Bayes. 1*1 teU you, now, a pretty conceipt. What 
do you think 1*1 make *em call her anon, in this Play ? 

Smi. What, I pray? 

Bayes. Why 1*1 make 'em call her Armarillis^ be- 
caufe of her Armor : ha, ha, ha. 

Johns. That will be very well, indeed. 

Bayes, I, it*s a pretty little rogue ; ihe is my Mif- 
trefs.* I knew her face would fet off Armor extreamly: 
and, to tell you true, I writ that Part only for her. 
Well, Gentlemen, I dare be bold to fay, without vanity, 
1*1 (hew you fomething, here, that's very ridiculous, 
I gad. \Exeunt Players. 

Johns. Sir, that we do not doubt of. 

Bayes. Pray, Sir, let*s fit down. Look you. Sir, the 
chief hindge of this Play, upon which the whole Plot 
moves and turns, and that caufes the variety of all the 
feveral accidents, which, you know, are the thing in 
Nature that make up the grand refinement of a Play, 
is, that I fuppofe two Kings* to be of the fame place : 
as, for example, at Brentford \ for I love to write 
ficmiiliarly. Now the people having the fame relations 
to 'em both, the lame affedlions, the fame duty, the 
dame obedience, and all that; are divided among 
themfelves in point of devoir and interefl, how to be- 
have themfelves equally between *em : thefe Kings 
differing fometimes in particular ; though, in the main, 
they agree. (I know not whether I make my felf 
well underllood) 



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36 BIBLIOGRAPHY.— KEYS TO THE REHRARS41L. 

Cmttmued/fom pmgt 5s. 

X. To give the reader ar account of the writer of this farce. 

2. The motives which induced him to compose it 

I am stay Md longer now, said he ; but if you desire any furthor dttcction 
in this matter, meet me here to-morrow night, and I will discourse more par* 
ticularly on those two heads, and then take my leave of you : wishing you 
good success with your preface, and that your Key may prove a Golden one. 

Now, kind reader, ha^ng received all the instructions I could gain from my 
resolute spark at our several meetings, I must stand on my own legs, and turn 
ritfacer^ tho* against my will. And thus I set out, 

I. To tell thee what all persons^ who are anything acquainted with the 
t'age, know already : viz. That this farce was wrote by the most noble Gkokck 
ViLLiERS, late Dukeof Buckingham, &c. aperson ofafn'catdeal of natural 
wit and ingenuity, and of excellent judgement, particularly in matters of this 
nature : his forward genius was improved by a liberal education, and the con- 
versation of the greatest persons in his time ; and all these cultivated and 
improved by study and travel. 

i5y the former, he became well acquainted with the writings of the most 
celebrated Poets of the late age ; viz. Snakespear, Beaumont, and Johnson, (the 
last ofwhom he knew personally, being thirteen years old when he died) 'as also 
w ith the famous company of actors at Black-Fryars, whom he always udmircd. 

He was likewise very intimate with the poets of his time : as Sir John 
Denham, Sir John Suckling, the Lord Falkland, Mr. Sidney Godolphm, (a 
near relation to the Lord Hich Treasurer of England that now is, the glory 
of that ancient family) Mr. Waller, and Mr. Cowley ; on the last of whom 
he bestowed a genteel Annuity during his life, and a noble monument in West- 
minster-Abbey after his decease. 

By travel ne had the opportunity of of »$erving the decorum of foreicn 
theatrei ; especially the French, under the regulation of Mon«iicur Comeillc, 
before it was so far Italianatcd. and over-run with opera an( farce, as now 
it is ; and before the venom thereof had crossed the nairow seas, and poi- 
soned the English stage ; We bemg naturally prone to imitate the French in 
their fashions, manners, and customs, let them be never so vicious, fantastick, 
or ridiculous. 

By what has b«en said on this head, I hope thou art fully satisfied who 
was the author of this piece, which the learned and judicious Dr. Burnet 
(Now Bishop of Sanmi) calls 'a correction,' and *an unmerciful exposing ;* 
and I believe thou hast as little cause to doubt of his being able to perform it 

Had this great person been endued with constancy and steadiness of mind, 
equal to his other abilities both nattual and acquired, he had been the most 
complete gentleman in his time. 

I shall proceed to shew, 

a. The motives which induced him to undertake it. 

The dvil wsu- silenced the stage for almost twenty years, tho' not nc;ur so 
lewd then, as it u since grown : and it had been happy for England, if this 
had been the worst effect of that war. The many changes of government, 
that succeeded the dissolution of the ancient constitution, made the people 
very uneasy, and unanimously desirous of iu restitution c which was efiected 
by a free Parliament, in the year 1660. 

This sudden revolution, which is best known by the name of The Resto- 
ration, brought with it many ill customs, from the several countries, to which 
the King and the cavaliers were retired, during their exile, which provetl very 
pernicious to our English constitution, by corrupting otu: morals ; and to 
which the reviving the stage, and bringing women on't, and encouraging and 
applauding the many lewd, senseless, and unnatural plays, that ensued upon 
this great change, did very much contribute. 

• This is a rnstake. The Duke of Buckingham was horn Jan. 30. 1G77 
B*it Johnson died Ang. 6, 1637. Bp. Percy. 

Continued at paf^t 46. 



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ACT. I. THE REHEARSAL* 37 

Johns. I did not obferve you. Sir : pray fay that 
again. 

Bayes. Why, look you, Sir, (nay, I befeech you, be 
a little curious in taking notice of this, or elfe you*l 
never underfl^^nd my notion of the thing) the people 
being embarrall by their equal tyes to both, and the 
Soveraigns concerned in a reciprocal regard, as well to 
their own intereft, as the good of the people ; may 

make a certain kind of a ^you underiland me 

^upon which, there does arife feveral difputes, 

turmoils, heart-burnings, and all that In fine, you'l 

apprehend it better when you fee it 

[Exi/^ to call the Playcfs. 

Smi. I find the Author will be very much oblig'd 
to the Players, if they can make any fence of this. 

Enter Bayes. 

Bayes. Now, Gentlemen, I would fain ask your 
opinion of one thing. I have made a Prologue and 
an Epilogue, which may both ferve for either: (do 
you mark ?) nay, they may both ferve too, I gad, for 
any other Play as well as this. 

Smi. Very well. That's, indeed, Artificial. 

Bayes. And I would fain ask your judgemeiits, 
now, which of them would do befl for the Prologue ? 
For, you mufl know, there is, in nature, but two ways 
of making very good Prologues. The one is by civihty, 

by infinuation, good language, and all that, to a 

in a manner. Heal your plaudit firom the courtefie 

of the Auditors : the other, by making ufe of fome 
certain perfonal things, which may keep a hank upon 
fuch cenfuring perfons, as cannot otherways, A gad, 
in nature, be hindred from being too fret with their 
tongues. To which end, my firft Prologue is, that I 
come out in a long black Veil, and a great huge 
Hang-man behind me, with a Furfd-cap, and his 
Sword drawn ; and there tell *em plainly, That if, out 
ot good nature, they will not like my Play, why I gad. 



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38 ILL USTRA TIONS. ^^e. 

* There were printed Papers given the Audience before tlie 
A(fling of the Indian Emperor, telling them, that it was the 
sequel of the Indian Queen, Part of which Play was written by 
Mr. Bayes^ &c. .... Key 1704. 

The text of these papers is prefixed to the Play It runs thus. 
Connexion of the Indian»Emperour^ to the Indian Queen, 

THE Conclusion of the Indian Queen^ (part of which Poem 
was writ by me) left little matter for another Story to be 
built on, there remaining but two of the considerable Chara(5lers 
alive, (viz,) Montezuma and Orazia ; thereupon the Author of 
this, thought it necessary to produce new perfons from the old 
ones ; and confidering the late Indian Queen, before (he lov'd 
Montezuma, liv'd in clandestine Marriage with her General 
Traxalla ; from thofe two, he has rais'd a Son and two Daugh- 
ters, fuppofed to be left young Orphans at their Death : On the 
other lide, he has given to Montezuma and Orazia, two Sons 
and a Daughter ; all now fuppofed to be grown up to Mens and 
Womens fitate ; and their Mother Orazia (for whom there was 
no further ufe in the ftory) lately dead. 

So that you are to imagine about Twenty years elapfed fince 
the Coronation of Montezuma ; who, in the Truth of the Hif- 
tory, was a great and glorious Prince ; and in whofe time hap- 
pened the Difcovery and Invafion of Mexico by the Spaniards ; 
under the condu(5l of Hernando Cortez, who, joyning with the 
Taxallan-Indians, the invetrate Enemies of Montezuma, wholly 
Subverted that flourilhing Empire ; the Conquest of which, is 
the Subjedl of this Dramatique Poem. 

I have neither wholly followed the (lorv nor varied from it; 
and, as near as I could, have traced the Native fimplicity and 
ignorance of the Indians, in relation to European Cuflomes : The 
Shipping, Armour, Horfes, Swords, and Guns of the Spaniards^ 
being as new to them as their Habits, and their Language. 

The difference of their Religion from ours, I have taken from 
the Story it felf ; and that which you find of it in the firft and 
fifth A<5ts, touching the fufferings and conftancy of Montezuma 
in his Opinions, I have only illuflrated, not alter'd from thofe 
who have written of it 

' "Perfons, egad, I vow to gad, and all that'* 
is the conflant flyle of Failer, in the Wild Gallant ; for which 
take this (hort speech, inflead of many. .... Key 1 704. 

Failer, Really Madam, I look upon you as a perfon 
of fuch worth and all that, that I Vow to gad I honour 
you of all perfons in the World ; and though I am a 
perfon that am inconfiderable in the World, and all 
that Madam, yet for a perfon of your worth and ex- 
cellency, I would 

J. Dr\I)EN. IVild Gallant, Act ii , Scene ii. p. 23. Ed. 1669. 



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ACT. L THE REHEARSAL. 39 

VI e*en kneel down, and he (hall cut my head off 
Whereupon they all clapping a 

Smi. But, fuppofe they do not. 

Bayes. Suppofe ! Sir, you may fuppofe what you 
pleafe, I have nothing to do with your fuppofe, Sir, 
nor am not at all mortifi'd at it ; not at all, Sir ; I gad, 
not one jot Suppofe quoth a ! [ Wia/ks away.] 

Johns. Phoo ! pr'ythee, Baycs^ don't mind what he 
lays : he's a fellow newly come out of the Country, 
he knows nothing of what's the reli(h,here, of the Town. 

Bayes. If I >vrit, Sir, to pleafe the Country, I fliould 
have followed the old plain way ; but I write for fome 
perfons of Quality, and peculiar friends of mine, that 
underlland what Flame and Power in writing is : and 
they do me the right, Sir, to approve of what I do. 

Johns. I, I, they will clap, I warrant you ; never 
fear it. 

Bayes. I'm fure the defign's good ; that cannot be 
deny'd. And then, for language, I gad, I defie 'em 
all, in nature, to mend it Befides, Sir, I have printed 
above a hundred (heets of papyr, to infmuate the Plot 
into the Boxes : * and withal, have appointed two or 
three dozen of my friends, to be readie in the Pit, 
who, I'm fure, will clap, and so the reft, you know, 
muft follow; and then pray, Sir, what becomes of 
your fuppofe ? ha, ha, ha. 

Johns. Nay, if the bufinefs be fo well laid, it cannot 
mifs. 

Bayes. I think fo. Sir : and therefore would chufe 
this for the Prologue. For if I could engage 'em to 
clap, before they fee the Play, you know 'twould be 
fo much the better ; becaufe then they were engag'd : 
for, let a man write never fo well, there are, now-a- 
days, a fort of perfons,' they call Critiques, that, I gad, 
have no more wit in 'em than fo many Hobby-horfes ; 
but they'l laugh you. Sir, and find fault, and cenfuie 
things that, A gad, I'm fure they are not able to do 
themfelves. A fort of envious perfons, that emulate 
the glories of perfons of parts, and think to build tlieir 



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40 ILLVSTRATIONS^ 6^ 



^ {a) He contnK^ed with the King's Company of A Aors, in the 
Year 1668, for a whole Share, to write them four Plays a 
Year Key 1704. 

{b) E. Malone^ Life of Drydett^ p. 72-74, Ed. 1800^ adduces 
evidence to (how that the number of plays was three a year, for 
which Dryden received li share in the King's Company, equal 
to about jC 300 or £400 a year. 



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ACT. I. THE REHEARSAU 41 

fame, by calumniating of perfons that, I gad, to my 
knowledge, of all perfons in the world are, in nature, 

the perfons that do as much defpife all that, as 

a In fine, 1*1 fay no more of *em. 

Johns. I, I, you have faid enough of *em in con- 
fcience: I*m lure more than they'l ever be able to 
anfwer. 

Bayes. Why, 1*1 tell you. Sir, fincerely, and bona 
fide ; were it not for the fake of fome ingenious per- 
fons, and choice female fpirits, that have a value for 
me, I would fee 'em all hang'd before I would e*er 
more fet pen to papyr ; but let *em live in ignorance 
like ingrates. 

Johns. I marry ! that were a way to be revenged 
of *em indeed : and, if I were in your place, now, I 
would do it. . 

Bayes. No, Sir ; there are certain tyes upon me,* 
that I cannot be difingag*d from ; otherwife, I would. 
But pray. Sir, how do you like my hang-man ? 

Smi. By my troth, Sir, I (hould like him very 
well 

Bayes. I, but how do you like it ? (for I fee you 
can judge) Would you have it for the Prologue, or 
the Epilogue ? 

Johns. Faith, Sir, it*s fo good, let it e*en ferve tor 
both. 

Bayes. No, no; that won't do. Befides, I have 
made another. 

Johns. What other. Sir? 

Bayes. Why, Sir, my other is Thunder and Ughi- 
ning, 

Johns. That's greater : I'd rather Hick to that. 

Bayes. Do you think fo ? I'l tell you then ; though 
there have been many wittie Prologues written of late, 
yet I think you'l fay this is a nonpareillo: I'm fure no 
body has hit upon it yet. For here. Sir, I make my 
Prologue to be Dialogue : and as, in my firfl, you fee 
I drive to oblige the Auditors by civility, by good na- 
ture, and all that ; fo, in this, by the other way, in 



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4a ILL UyfRA TIONS, ^c. 



^Almah. So, two kind Turtles, when a florin is nigli 
Look up, and fee it gath'ring in tlie Skie. 
Each calls his Mate to (helter in the Grove \, 
Leaving, in murmures, their unfinifli'd Loves. 
Perch'd on fome dropping Branch they fit alone, 
And Cooe, and hearken to each others moan. 

J. Dryden. Thi Conquejl of Granada, Tart ii., Act i. Sc 

il, p. 82. £d. 1672. 



•Song in Dialogue, 

Evening. I am an Evening dark as Nighty 

^zok-with-the'Lantern br'wg a Light, 
Jack. Whither, whither, whither % [Within. 

Evening. Hither, hither, hither. 

Jack. Thot4 art fome pratling Eccho, of my making. 
Evening. Thou art a FooUJIi Fire, by thy miflaking 
I am the Evening that creates thee, 

Y.wX^xyack in a black Suit border'd with Gloiv-worms, a 

Coronet of Shaded Beams on his head, over it a 

Paner Lantern with a Candle in't. 



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ACT. I. THE REHEARSAL. 43 

Terrorem, I chufe for the perfons Tliunder and Light- 
ning. Do you apprehend the conceipt? 

Johns. Phoo, pox ! then you have it cock-fure. 
They'l be hang'd, before they*l dare aftront an Author, 
that has *em at that lock. 

Bayes. I have made, too, one of the moll delicate, 
daintie Similes in the whole world, 1 gad, if I knew 
but how to applie it. 

Smi. Let*s hear it, I pray you. 

Bayes. 'Tis an allufion to love. 

* So Boar and Sow, when any (lorm is nigh. 
Snuff up, and Imell it gathering in the Skie : 
Boar beckons Sow to trot in Chefnunt Groves, 
And there confummate their unfinifh'd Loves. 
Penfive in mud they wallow all alone, 
And fnort, and gruntle to each others moan. 

How do you like it now, ha ? 

Johns. Faith, 'tis extraordinary fine : and very ap- 
plicable to Thunder and Lightningy methinks, becaufe 
It fpeaks of a Storm. 

Bayes. I gad, and fo it does, now I think on*t Mr. 
yohnfoHy I thank you : and I'l put it mprofe^lo. Come 
out, Thunder and Lightmng, 

* Enter Thunder and Lightning. 

Thun. I am the bold Thunder, 

Bayes. Mr. Cartwright^ pr'ythee fpeak a little 
louder, and with a hoarfer voice. I am the bold 
Thunder % Pfhaw ! fpeak it me in a voice that thun- 
ders it out indeed : I am the bold Thunder. 

Thun. I am the bold Thunder. 
' Light, The brisk Lightnings I. 

Bayes. Nay you mufl be quick and nimble. 
The brisk Lig/iining^ I. That's my meaning. 

Thun, I am the bravefl HeHor of the Skie. 
Light, And I, fair Helen^ that made HcHor die. 



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41 JLLUSTRA TIONS. &^. 

Jack. My Lantern and my Candle ivaits thee. 
Evening. Thofe Flajolets that we heard play ^ 

Are Reapers who have bjl their 7vay ; 
They Play^ tliey Sing^ they Dance a-Round^ 
Lead tlum up^ her£s Faery-ground, 

Chorus. 

Let the Men ware the Ditches; 
Maids ^ look to your Breeches^ 
w^lf cratch them with Briars and lliijlles : 
when the Flajolets cry^ 
we are a-dry; 
Fond-water Jhall wet their whijllcs, 

[Exawt Evening, \Vin»Js, vS^ Jack. 

Sir R. STAFkLTON. The Sll^hUd Maid. Act ill, pp 48, 49. 

ild. i66> 



' Abraham Ivory had formerly been a confiderablc Acflor of 
Womens Paris; but afterwards stupify'd himfelf fo far, with 
drinking ftrong Waters, that, before ihe fira Ading of this 
Farce, he was fit for nothing, but to go of Krrands ; for 
which, and mecr Charity, the Company allmv'd him a Weekly 
^allary AV>' 17C4. 



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ACT. L THE REHEARSAL. 45 

Thun, I (Irike men down. 

Light, I fire the Town. 

Thutu Let the Critiques take heed how they grumble, 

For then begin I for to rumble. 
Light, Let the Ladies allow us their graces, 
Or ri blafl all the paint on their faces, 
And dry up their Peter to foot 
Thun, Let the Critiques look to*t. 
Light, Let the Ladies look to*t. 
Thun, For Thunder will do't. 
Light, For Lightning will (hoot 
Thun, ri give you dafli for dafh. 
Light, V\ give you flafli for flafli. 

Gallants, I'l fmge your Feather. 
Thun, ri Thundcj- you together. 
Both, Look to't, look to*t ; we'l do't, we*l do't : look 
to't, we'l do't [Twice or thrice repeated, 

[Exeunt a mho, 
Bayes. That's all. Tis but a flafli of a Prologue : 
a Droll. 

Smi. Tis fliort, indeed ; but very terrible. 
Bayes. Ay, when the fimik is in, it will do to a 
Miracle, I gad. Come, come ; begin the Play. 
Enter firjl Player. 
I Play, Sir, Mr. Ivory is not come yet; but he'l be 
here prefently, he's but two doors ofll 

Bayes. Come then, Gentlemen, let's go out and 
lake a pipe of Tobacco. [ Bxaint, 

Finis Actus primi. 



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46 ILLUSTRATIONS, &*c. 

' (a) Drake Sen. Draw up our Men ; and in low Whifpcrs 
give our Orders out 

[Sir W. D'Avenant.] Play-Hottfe to be Lett, p. lOo. 

(Jb) See the Amorous Prince, pag. 20, 22, y^, 60, where you 
will find all the chief Commands, and Dire<ftions, are given in 
Whifpers. Key 1704. 

As I have been unable to fee a Copy of the firft of thefe Plays, 
I infert Gerard Langbaine's defcription of it 

Play-Houfe to be Let. I know not under what Species to place 
this Play, it confiding of feveral Pieces of different Kinds hand- 
fomely tackt together, feveral of which the Author writ in the 
times of Oliver, and were adled feparately by Health; as the 
Hiflory of ^x Francis Drake exprefl by Inftrumcntal, and Vocal 
Mufick, and by Art of Perfpe<5live in Scenes, ^c. The Cruelty 
of the Spaniards in Peru, Thefe two Pieces were fiiil printed 
in quarto. They make the third and fourth A(5ls of this Play. 
The fecond Act confifls of a French Farce, tranflated from 
Molieris Sganarclle, on Le Cocu Imaginaire, and purpofely 
by our Author put into a fort of Jargon common to French-men 
newly come over. The fifth A<51 confifts of Tra^edie travesties 
or the Acflions of defar Antony and Cleopatra m Verfe Bur- 
lefque. This Farce I have feen a<5led at the Theatre in Dorfet' 
garden fome Years ago, at the end of that excellent Tragedy of 
Pompey, tranflated by the incomparable Pen of the much 
admired OrrWtf. pp. 109 — no. Ed. 169 1. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. KEYS TO *THE REHEARSAL.' 
Continued /rom ^gt it. 

Then appear'd such plajrs as these ; The sikgb of Rhodes, Part 1. acted 
at the CocH-Mt, before the Restoration ; The Play-house to be Lett ; The 
Slighted Maid ; The United Kingdoms ; The Wild Gallant ; The 
English Monsieur ; The Viij,ain ; and the like. 

You Mali meet with several passages out of all these, except the United 
Kingdoms, (which was never printed) in the following notes ; as you will out 
of several other plays, which are here omitted. 

Our most noble author, to manifest his just indignation and hatred of this 
fulsome new way of writmg, used his utmost interest and endeavours to 
stifle it at its first appearing on the stage, by engaging all his friends to ex- 
plode, and run down these plajrs, especially the United Kingdoms ; which 
had like to have brought hb life into danger. 

The author of it being nobly bom, of an ancient and numerous family, had 
many of his relations and friends in the Cock-fiit, during the acting it ; some 
ol them perceiving his Grace to head a party, who were very active in damn- 
ing the play, by hissing and laughing immoderately at the strange conduct 
thereof, there were persons laid in wait for him as he came out : but there 
being a great tumult and uproar in the house and the passages near it, 
he escaped ; But he was threaten'd hard : however the business was com- 
posed in a short time, tho* by what means Ihave not been informed. 
Concluded at ^ag» 48. 



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\CT. II. sc. I. THE REHEAKSAU 47 ^ 

ACTUS II. SCiENA I. 
Bayes, Johnson and Smith. 

Bayes. iSr^SSSIO^) Sir, becaufe V\ do nothing 
here that ever was done be- 
fore \Spits, 

Smi. a very notable Jefign, 
for a Play, indeed. 
Bayes. Inftead of beginning with a Scene that dif- 
covers fomething of the Plot, I begin this with a 
whifper.* 
Smi. That's very new. 
Bayes. Come, take your feats. Begin Sirs. 

Enter Gentlemen- UJher and Phyfician. 

Phys, Sir, by your habit, I (hould ghefs you to be 
the Gentleman-Ufher of this fumptuous place. 

UJh, And, by your gait and fafliion, I (hould almofl 
fufpedl you rule the healths of both our noble Kings, 
under the notion of Phyfician. 

Phys, You hit my Fundlion right 

UJh, And you, mine. 

Phys. Then let's imbrace. 

UJh, Come then. 

Phys, Come. 

Johns. Pra}*, Sir, who are thofe two fo very civil 
perfons ? 

Bayes. Why, Sir, the Gentleman-Uiher, and Phy- 
ficians of the two Kings of Brentford, 

Johns. But how comes it to pafs, then, that they 
know one another no better ? 

Bayes. Phoo ! that's for the better carrying on of 
the Intrigue. 

Johns. Very well 



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48 BIBLIOGRAPHY. —KEYS TO THE REHEARSAU 

Concluded Jrom page 46. 

AAer this, our author endeavoured by writing to expose the follies of thesa 
new-fashioned plays in their proper colours, and to set them in so clear a 
light, that the people might be able to discover what trash it was, of which 
they were so fond, as he plainly hints in the prologue : and so set himself to 
the composing of this farce. 

When his Grace b^an it, I could never learn, nor is it very material. 

Thus much we may certainly gather from the editions of the plays reflected 
on in it, that it was before the end of 1663, and fini^hcd before the end of 1664 ; 
because it had been several times rehears'd, the players were perfect in their 
parts, and all things in readiness for its acting, before the great plague 
1665 ; and that then prevented it. 

But what was so ready for the stage, and so near being acted at the 
breaking out of that terrible sickness, was very different from what you have 
since seen in print. In that he called his poet Bii.doa ; by which name, the 
town generally understood Sib Robert Howard to be the Person pointed 
at.* Besides, there were very few of this new sort of plays then extant, ex- 
cept these before mentioned, at that time ; and more, than were in being, 
could not be ridiculed. 

The acting of this farce being thus hindered, it was laid by for several ye.urs, 
and came not on the public theatre, till the year 1671. 

During this interval, nuny great Plays came forth, writ in heroick rhyme ; 
and, on the death of Sir William D'Avenant, 1669, Mr. Drvdkn, a new 
laureat appeared on the st.igct, much admired, and highly applauded : which 
moved the Duke to change the name of his poet from Bilboa to Bayes, 
whose works you will find often mentioned in the following Key. 

Thus far, kind reader, I have followed the direction of my new acquaint* 
ance, to the utmost extent of my memory, without transgressing the hounds 
he assigned me, and I am free from any fear of having displeased him : I wish 
I could justly say as much, with relation to the offences I have committed 
against yourself, and all judicious persons who shall peruse this poor address. 

I have nothing to say m my own defence : I ple.id guilty, and throw my- 
self at your feet, and beg for mercy ; and not without hope, since what I 
have here writ did not proceed from the least malice in me, to any person or 
family in the world ; but from an honest design to enable the meanest readers 
to understand all the passages of this farce, that it may sell the better. 1 
am, with all submission. Your most obliged, humble Servant. 

6. A real Key should confine itself to the identical plays and dramatists 
satirized, nothing more nor less. Bp. Percj' searching through all the ante- 
cedent dramatic literature, may find, did find many parallel passages, but he 
could adduce nothing to prove these were in the minds of the authors in 
writing The Rehearsal. Indeed it is improbable that they had in view the 
40 or 50 plays to which he refers. His references but illustrate the extent of 
the mock heroic drama. 

In the Illustrations of the present work Langbaine and the first Key have 
betn principally followed ; it being noted that the Text is, as first acted on 
7 Dec. X671. Subsequent additions and their illustrations therefore, (such as 
ridicule Dryden's The Assignation^ or Love in a Nunnery^ produced in 
1672) are, with two exceptions, not found in it. At the same time, the vacant 
spaces on the alternate pages will enable enquirers to note the results of 
further researches. 

• Very small signs appear o/ihis at present : But when the Duke altered 
the name, he might also suppress the more offensive passages. Be/ore the 
Reltearsal was acted Sir Robert Howard was upon such good terttis with 
our noble author, thai he dedicated to him his Duel 0/ the Stags^ Lond. 



1688, Zio. Bp. Percy. 

•f Mr. Dryden became Poei-laurtat upon the Death of Sir William L 
mint; hut he had appeared a* a Dramatic H'riter b^ore. Bp. Percy. 



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ACT. n. <ic. 1. THE REHEARSAL <9 

F/iys, Sir, to conclude, 

Smi. What, before he begins? 

Bayes. No, Sir; you mull know they liad been 
talking of this a pretty while without 

Smi. Where ? In the Tyring-room ? 

Bayes. Why ay, Sir. He*s fo dull ! Come, fpeak 
again. 

PAys. Sir, to conclude, the place you fill, has more 
than amply exadled the Talents of a wary Pilot, and 
all thefe threatning dorms which, like impregnant 
Clouds, do hover o*er our heads, (when they once are 
grafp*d but by the eye of reafon) melt into fruitful 
fhowers of bleflfrngs on the people. 

Bayes. Pray mark that Allegory. Is not that 
good ? 

Johns. Yes ; that grafping of a florm with the 
eye is admirable. 

/%yj. But yet fome rumours great are flirring ; an«! 
if Loretizo fhould prove falfe, (as none but the 
great Gods can tell) you then perhaps would find, 
that S^Wfufpers. 

Bayes. Now they whifper. 

UJh, Alone, do you fiaiy? 

Fhys, No ; attended with the noble [ Whifpen 

UJh, Who, he in gray ? 

Phys, Yes ; and at the head of [ Whifpers. 

Bayes. Pray mark. 

UJh. Then, Sir, mofl certain, 'twill in time appear 
Thefe are the reafons that induc'd *em to't : 
1- irft, he [ Whifper s. 

Bayes. Now t'other whifpers. 

Ufh. Secondly, they \}Vhifpers. 

Bayes. He's at it ftill. 

UJh. Thirdly, and laflly, both he, and they 

[iVhiipm. 



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50 ILLUSTRATIONS, ^c. 



* Mi. Wilham IVintrr/futll was a mofl Excellent, JuJiciooj 
Aiflnr ; and the bcft Inftnic^or of others: He dy*d in Jti!v, 
1679 A't 170.1. 



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ACT. II. sa I. THE REHEARS A U 51 

Bayes. There they both whifper. 

[Exeunt Whijpaiug. 
Now, Gentlemen, pray tell me true, and without ^ttery, 
is not this a very odd beginning of a Play? 

Johns. In troth, I think it is. Sir. But why two 
Kings of the fame place ? 

Bayes. Why ? becaufe it's new ; and that's it I aim 
at I defpife your yohnfon^ and Beaumont^ that bor- 
rowed all they writ from Nature : I am for fetching it 
purely out of my own fancie, I. 

Smi. But what think you of Sir yohn Sucklings Sir? 

Bayes. By gad, I am a better Poet than he. 

Smi. Well, Sir ; but pray why all this whifpering? 

Bayes. Why, Sir, (befides that it is new, as I told 
you before) becaufe they are fuppos'd to be Politi- 
lians ; and matters of State ought not to be divulged. 

Smi. But then. Sir, why 

Bayes. Sir, if you'l but refpite your curiofity till the 
end of the fifth Act, you'l find it a piece of patience 
not ill recompenc'd. \Goes to the door. 

Johns. How doll thou like this, Frank} Is it not 
juHas I told thee? 

Smi. Why, I did never, before this, fee any thing in 
Nature, and all that, (as Mr. Bayes fays) fo foolifli, but 
I could give fome ghefs at what mov'd the Fop to do 
it ; but this, I confefs, does go beyond my reach. 

Johns. Why, 'tis all alike : Mr. WinterJIndP hasin- 
form'd me of this Play before. And I'l tell thee, 
Franks thou (halt not fee one Scene here, that either 
properly ought to come in, or is like any thing thou 
canft imagine has ever been the pra<5lice of the World. 
And then, when he comes to what he calls good lan- 
guage, it is, as I told thee, very fantaflical, mod 
abominably dull, and not one word to the purpofe. 

Smi. It does furprife me, I am fure, very much. 

Johns. I, but it won't do fo long : by that time 
thou haft feen a Play or two, that I'l (hew thee, thou 
wilt be pretty well acquainted with this new kind of 
I'^oppery. 



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52 Ti.LUSTRATIONS, c^'. 



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ACT. 11. sc. II. THE REHEARSAL, 53 

SCiENA II. 

Enter the two Kings ^ hand in hand, 

^^^^^- iSWHI^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ Kings of Brent- 
\ ford ; take notice of their (lile : 
'twas never yet upon the Stage ; 
but, if you like it, I could make 
a fhift, perhaps, to fliew you a 
whole Play, written all juft ta 

1 King, Did you obferve their whifper, brother King? 

2 King. I did ; and heard befides a grave Bird fmg 
That they intend, fweet-heart, to play us pranks. 

Baves. This, now, is familiar, becaufe they are both 
perfons of the lame Qualitie. 
Smi. 'Sdeath, this would make a man fpew. 

1 King, If that defign appears, 

I'l lug 'em by the ears 
Until I make 'em crack. 

2 Kit^, And fo will I, Tfack. 

1 King, You mud begin, Monfoy. 

2 King, Sweet Sir, Fardonnes moy. 

Bayes. Mark that : I Makes 'em both ipeak Freiuh^ 
to lliew then: breeding. 

Johns. O, 'tis extraordinary fine. 

2 KUig, Then, fpite of Fate, we'l thus combined 
(land; 
And, like true brothers, walk (lill hand in 
hand. [Exeunt K^es, 

Johns. This is a very Majeflick Scene indeed. 

Baves. Ay, 'tis a crufl, a lailing cruft for your Rogue 
Critiques, I gad : I would fain fee the proudeft of 'em 
all but dare to nibble at tliis; I gad, if they do, this (hall 
rub their gums for 'em, I promife you. It was I, you 
muil know, writ the Play I told you of, in this very Stile : 
and (hall I tell you a very good jed ? I gad, the 
Players would not adl it : ha, ha, ha. 



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54 ILL USTRA TIONS, ^e. 

* The Key 1704 refers Prince Pretty-man*s falling afleep in 
making love, to the play entitled The Loft Lady [by Sir W. 
BERKELEY] London, fol. 1639. In the fifth edition of The 
Rehearfal^ however there is the following addition to the text here. 
So; now Prince Pretty man comes in, falls afleep, 
making Love to his Miftrefs, which you know, was a 
grand Intrigue in a late Play, written by a very honed 
Gentleman : a Knight. 

Bp Percy ftates that this addition alludes to Querer pro folo 
querer (To Love only for Love Sake) : a Dramatick romance, 
written in Spanifh bv Don Antokio Hurtado de Mendoza in 
1623, and paraphrafed in Englifli, in 1654, by Sir R. Fanshawe, 
'during his Confinement to Tanker/ly Park in York-Jhire^ by 
Oliver^ after the Battail of IVorcefter, in which he was taken 
Prifoner, ferving His Majefty (whom God preferve) as Secretary 
ofState,^ Printed London 1 67 1. 4to. 

Bp. Percy thinks the palfage had in view is this, in Act i. p. 20. 

Felisbravo, the young King of Perfia, travelling in fearch of 

Zelidaura, Queen of Tartaria (whom, it feems, he had never feen) 

retires into a wood to (bun the noon-tide heat, and taking out 

his miflress's picfhire, thus rants. 

Pel, \ijleep invade me ftrongly, That may fever 

My life fome minutes from me, my lave never. 

But *tis impojftble \xtjleep (we know) 

Extended on the Rack : If that be fo. 

Takes out the Pinure 

Dumb, Lamm, come thou forth : Eloquent Mute^ 

For whom high Heav'n and Earth commence a Suit : 

Of Angel-woman, fair Hermaphrodite ! 

The Moon*s extinguiJJier \ the Moon-days night ! 

How could fo fmaJl a Sphear hold fo much day ? 

fleep I now, now, thou conquered me— But (lay: 
That part thou conquer' ft, I'l not own for mine. 
Temped I fcek, not calm : If the days thine, 
Thou quell'd my body, my Love dill is whole : 

1 give thee all of that which is not Soul. 

And, fmce in Lodgings from the Street Love lies. 
Do thou (and fpare not) quarter in my Eyes 
A while ; I harb'ring fo unwelcome Guest 
(As Men ol>ey thy Brother Death'' s arred) 

Not as a Lover^ but a Mortal 

Hefixlls aftecp with the Ptdure in his hatuL 
Rif. He's fain a fleep ; fo loon ? \^\i2X frailty is ? 
More like a Husband, then a Lover, this. 
If Lcrvers take fuch fleeps, what fliall I take, 
AVhom pangs of Love, nor Honour's Trumpets, *wake ? 

Rifoloro j^//r afleep. 



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Act. !t. sC. Hi. tHE REHEARSAL. 55 

Smi. That's impoflible. 

Bayes. I gad, they would not, Sir: ha, ha, ha 
They refused it, I gad, the filly Rogues : ha, ha, lia, 

Johns. Fie, that was rude. 

Bayes. Rude ! I gad, they are the nideft, uncivil- 
eft perfons, and all that, in the whole world : I gad, 
there's no living with 'em. I have written, Mr. yohn- 
fofty I do verily believe, a whole cart-load of things, 
every whit as good as this, and yet, I vow to gad, 
thefe infolent Raskals have tum'd 'em all back upon 
my hands again. 

Johns. Strange fellows indeed. 

Smi. But pray, Mr. Bayes^ how came thefe two 
Kings to know of this whiifper? for, as I remember, 
they were not prefent at it 

Bayes. No, but that's the Actors fault, and not mine ; 
for the Kings (hould (a pox take *em) have pop'd both 
their heads in at the door, juft as the other Went oflf. 

Smi. That, indeed, would ha' done it. 

Bayes. Done it ! Ay, I gad, thefe fellows are able 
to fpoil the beft things in Chriftendom. I'l tell you, 
Mr. yohnfon^ 1 vow to gad, I have been fo highly dif- 
oblig'd, by the peremptorinefs of thefe fellows, that I 
am refolv'd, hereafter, to bend all my thought's for the 
fervice of the Nurfery^ and mump your proud Players, 
I gad.- 

SC/!^:NA 111. 

Enter Prince Pretty-man. 

^''^' BTSPB^^^ ftrange a captive am I grown 
of late I 
Shall I accufe my I^ve, 01 blame 

my Fate ? 
My Love, I cannot ; that is too 
Divine; 
And agamft Fate what mortal dares repine ? 

Enter Cloris. 
But here (he comes. 
Sure 'tis fome blazing Comet, is it not ? \Ly(s dou*iu 




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56 ILL USTRA TIONS, 6fc. 

* See note on p, 54. 

• This rule is mod exacflly obferved in Dryden's Indian Emperof , 
Adl iv. Scene iv. Upon a fudden and unexpeded mifibrtunc, 
Almeria thus expreffes her furprife and concern. 

Aim. All hopes of fafety and of love are gone: 
As when fome dreadful Thunder-clap is mgh, 
The winged Fire (hoots fwiftly through the Skie, 
Strikes and Confumes e're fcarce it does appear, 
And by the fudden ill, prevents the fe?r: 
Such is my (late in this amazing wo ; 
It leaves no pow'r to think, much lels to do : 

J. Dryden. The Indian Emperour^ p- 50. Ed. 1667. 

Bp. Pcny. 

' Boabdel to Almahide. 
As fome fair tulip, by a florm opprell, 
Shrinks up, and folds its filken arms to reil; 
And, bending to the blaft, all pale and dead, 
Hears from within, the wind fing round its head : 
So, flirowded up your beauty difippears ; 
Unvail my Love ; and lay afide your fears. 

JOKN Dryden. The Conquejl of Granada^ Parti. Adlv. p. 61, 

Ed. 167a. 



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ACT. II. sa II L THE REHEARSAL. 57 

Bayes. Blazing Comet ! mark that I gad, very fite. 

Pret. But I am fo furpris'd with fleep, I cannot 
fpeak the reft/ \Jleep5. 

Bayes. Does not that, now, furprife you, to fall afleep 
juft in the nick ? His fpirits exhale with the heat of 
his paftion, and all that, and fwop falls afleep, as you 
fee. Now, here, ftie muft make z.fimile, 

Smi. Where's the neceflity of that, Mr. Bayes ? 

Bayes. Becaufe (he's furpris'd* That's a general 
Rule : you muft ever make a fimiU when you are fur- 
pris'd ; 'tis the new way of writing. 

^Cioris, As fome tall Pine, which we, on jEtna^ find 
Thave ftood the rage of many a boyft'rous wind. 
Feeling without, that flames within do play, 
\\^ch would confume his Root and Sap away ; 
He fpreads his worfted Arms unto the Skies, 
Silently grieves, all pale, repmes and dies : 
So, flirowded up, your bright eye dilappears. 
Break forth, bright fcorching Sun, and dry my tears. 

\ExiU 
Bayes. I am afraid. Gentlemen, this Scene has 
made you fad ; for I muft confefs, when I writ it, I 
wept my felf. 

Smi. No, truly, Sir, my fpirits are almoft exhal'd too, 
and I am likelier to fall afleep. 

Prince Fietty-msLn Jiafis up^ and fays — 
Pret, It is refolv'd. \ExiL 

Smi. Mr. Bayesy may one be fo bold as to ask you 
a queftion, now, and you not be angry ? 

Bayes. O Lord, Sir, you may ask me what 
you pleafe. I vow to gad, you do me a great 
deal of honour : you do not know me, if you fay 
that, Su-. 

Smi. Then, pray. Sir, what is it that this Prince 
here has refolv'd in his fleep ? 

Bayes. Why, I muft confefs, that queftion is well 
enough ask'd, for one that is not acquainted with this 



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58 //./ C'S 7RA 7 /<7. V.V, ^, 



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ACT. II. sc. IV. THE REHEARSAL. 59 

new way of writing. But you mud know, Sir, that, 
to out-do all my fellow-Writers, whereas they keep 
their Intrigo fecret till the very lad Scene before the 
Dance ; I now, Sir, do you mark me a 

Smi. Begin the Play, and end it, without ever open- 
ing the Plot at all ? 

Baves. I do fo, that's the very plain troth on*t: 
ha, ha, ha ; I do, I gad. If they cannot find it out 
themfelves, e'en let 'em alone for Baycs^ I warrant 
you. But here, now, is a Scene of bufinefs : pray ob- 
ferve it ; for I dare lay you'l think it no unwife dif- 
courfe this, nor ill argu'd. To tell you true, 'tis a 
Debate I over-heard once betwixt two grand, fober, 
governing perfons. 



SCiENA IV. 

Enter Gentleman^ UJher and Phyfidan. 

)me. Sir ; let's (late the matter of 
fa<5l, and lay our heads together. 

Phys. Right : lay our heads to- 
gether. I love to be merry fome- 
times ; but when a knotty point 
comes, I lay my head clofe to it, with a pipe of 
Tobacco in my mouth, and then I whew it away, 
i' faith. 

Bayes. I do juil fo, I gad, always. 
UJh, The grand queilion is, whether they heard us 
whifper ? which I divide thus : into when they heard, 
what they heard, and whether they heard or no. 
Johns. Mod admirably divided, I fwear. 
UJh, As to the when ; you fay juft now : fo that is 
anfwer'd. Then, for what; why, what anfwers it felf : 
for what could they hear, but what we talk'd of? So 
that, naturally, and of neceflity, we come to the lafl 
quedion, Viddket^ whether they heard or no ? 
Smi. This is a very wife Scene, Mr. Bayes. 




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6o ILLUSTRATIONS. &*e. 

* Such eafy Tunis of State are frequent in our Modern Plays \ 
where we fee Princes Delhron'd and Governments Chang'd, 
by very feeble Means, and on flight Occafions : Particularly, 
in Marriage-a-la-Mode ; a Play, writ fince the firfl Publica- 
tion of this Farce. Where (to pafs by the Dulnefs of the 
State-part, the Obfcurity of the Comic, the near Refemblance 
Lfonidas bears to our Prince Pretty-Man^ being fometimes a 
King's Son, fometimes a Shepherd's ; and net to queflion how 
Almalthea comes to be a Princefs, her Brother, the King's great 
Favourite, being but a Lord) 'tis worth our While to olifcrve, 
how eafdy the Fierce and Jealous Ufurper b Depos'd, and the 
Right Heir plac'd on the Throne ; as it is thus related by the 
Caid Imaginary Princefs. 

Enter Amalthea, running. 
AntaL Oh, Gentlemen, if you have Loyalty, 
Or Courage, (hew it now : Leonidas 
Broke on the fudden from his Guards, and fnatchinj 
A Sword from one, his back againfl the Scaffold, 
Bravely defends himfelf ; and owns aloud 
He is our long loft King, found for this moment 
But, if your Valours help not, loft for ever. 
Two of his Guards, mov d by the fenfe of Virtue, 
Are tum'd for him, and there they ftand at Bay 

Againft a Hoft of Foes 

[J. Dryden.] Marriage -a-la- Mode. Act v. So. i. p 6i. E.l. i6oi. 

This fliows Mr. Bayes to be a Man of Conftancy, and firm lo 

his Refolution, and not to be laugh'd out of his own Metliod : 

.Vgreeable to what he fays in the next Act • * As Jong as I know 

my Things are Good, what care Iwhat they fay ! * . . . Key 1 704. 

• p. 7T. 



' (fl) Onnafdes. I know not what to (ay, noi what to 

think ! 
I know not when I fleep, or when I wake. 

Sir W. KiLLIGREW. OrmajdeSy or Love and Friendjhip. 
A<51 V. p. 77. [Licenfed 22 Aug. 1664]. Ed. 1665. 

(b) Pandora. My doubts and fears, my reafon docs 

difinay, 
1 know not what to do nor what to fay \ 

Sir W. KiLLiGREW. Pandora, or The Converts 
h^v. p. 92. Ed. 1665. 



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KCT. 11. sc. TV. THE RKHEARSAL. 6i 

Bayes. Yes ; you have it right : they are both PoH- 
titians. I writ this Scene for a pattern, to (hew the 
world how men fhould talk of bufinefs. 
Johns. You have done it exceedingly well, indeed. 
Bayes. Yes, I think this will do. 
PAys, Well, if they heard us whifper, they'l turn us 
Crtit, and no bodie elfe will take us. 
t//h. No bodie elfe will take us. 
Smi. Not for PoUtitians, I dare anfwer for it 
jRAys. Let's then no more our felves in vain bemoan : 

We are not fafe until we them unthrone. 
C//7l Tis right: 

And, fmce occafion now feems debonair, 
ri feize on this, and you (hall take that chair. 
77^ draw their Swords^ and fit down in 
the two great chairs upon the Stage, 

Bayes. There's now an odd furprife \ the whole 
State's tum'd quite topfi-turvy,* witiiout any puther or 
(lir in the whole world, I gad. 

Johns. A very filent change of Government, truly, 
as ever I heard of. 

Bayes. It is fo. And yet you (hall fee me bring 
'em in again, by and by, in as odd a way every jot 

[ The Ufurpers march out flotiri/hing their /words. 

Enter Shirley. 

Shir, Hey ho, hey ho : what a change is here ! 
Hey day, hey day ! I know not what to do, nor what 
to fay.* lExit, 

Smi. But pray. Sir, how came they to depofe the 
Kings fo eafily ? 

Bayes. Why, Sir, you muft know, they long had a 
defign to do it before; but never could put it in 
pradtice till now: and, to tell you true, that's one 
reafon why I made *em whifper fo at (irfl. 

Smi. O, very well : now I'm fully fatisfi'd. 

Bayes. And then, to (hew you. Sir, it was not done 



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62 II-LUSTRA TIONS. <y^ 



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ACT. II. sc. V. THE REHEARS AK 63 

fo very eafily neither; in this next Scene you (hall fee 
fome fighting. 

Smi. O, ho : fo then you make the flruggle to be 
after the bufinefs is done? 

Bayes. Aye. 

Smi. O, I conceive you : that is very natural. 



SCiENA V. 

Enter four men at one door^ and four at another^ with 
their fivords drawn. 

I Soldier. BHBg MTand. Who goes there? 
2 Sol. A friend. 

1 Sol. What friend ? 

2 Sol. A friend to the Houfe. 
I Sol. Fall on. 

[ They all kill one another. Mufukflrikes. 

Baves. Hold, hold. \To the Mufuk. It ceafeth. 

Now here's an odd furprife : all thefe dead men you 
fliall fee rife up prefently, at a certain Note that I have 
made, in Effautflaty and fall a Dancing. Do you hear, 
dead men? remember your Note in Effaut flat. 
riay on. [ To the Mufuk. 

Now,now,now. I The Mufuk play his Note^and the dead 
OLord,OLord! | mm rife; but cannot f^et in order. 
Out, out, out ! Did ever men fpoil a good thing fo ? 
no figure, no ear, no time, no thing? you dance 
worfe than the Angels in Harry the Eight, or the fat 
Spirits in The Tempejl, I gad. 

I Sol Why, Sir, 'tis impoITible to do any thing in 
time, to this Tune. 

Bayes. O Lord, O Lord ! impolTible ? why, . Gen- 
tlemen, if there be any faith in a perfon that's a Chrif- 
tian, I late up two whole nights in compofmg this 
Air, and apring it for the bufinefs : for, if you obferve, 



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64 ILL USTRA TIONS. 6v. 



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ACT. 11. sc V. THE REHEARSAU 65 

there are two feveral Defigns in this Tune ; it begins 
fwift, and ends flow. You talk of time, and time ; 
you fliall fee me do't Look you now. Here I am 
dead. [Lyes doivnflat on his face 

Now mark my Note in Effautflat. Strike up Mufick. 
Now. \As?u rifes up hajlily^ ?u tumbles 

I and falls dawn again. 
Ah, gadfookers, I have broke my Nofe. 

Johns. By my troth, Mr. Bayes^ this is a very un- 
fortunate Note of yours, in Effautflat, 

Bayes. a plague of this danm'd Stage, with your 
nails, and your tenter-hooks, that a man cannot come 
to teach you to A<5t, but he mud break his nofe, and 
his face, and the divel and alL Pray, Sir, can you 
help me to a wet piece of brown papyr? 

Smi. No indeed, Sir; I don't ufually carry any 
about me. 

2 Sol. Sir, 1*1 go get you fome within prefently. 

Bayes. Go, go then ; 1*1 follow you. Pray dance 
out the Dance, and 1*1 be with you in a moment 
Remember you four that you dance like Horfemen. 

[iSJi^ Bayes. 

They dance the Dance^ but can make nothing of it. 

I Sol. A Devil ! lefs try this no more : play my 
Dance that Mr. Bayes found fault with. 

[Dance, and Exeunt. 

Smi. What can this fool be doing ill this while 
about his nofe ? 

Johns. Pr'ythee let's go fee. [Exeunt 

Finis Actus fecundi^ 



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6 5 IU.USTRA TIONS, 6^ 



^FaOer and BUfber his Taylor in The WUd Gullant Kif^ 



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ACT. iiL sa I, THE REHEARSAJU 6; 



ACTUS IIL SC.«NA I. . 

Bayes with apapyron hisNofe^ and the two Gentlemen. 

Bayes. BTCGBSOwy Sir, this I do, bccaufe my 
fancie in this Play is to end 
every Adl with a Dance. 

Smi. Faith, that fancie is very 
good, but I (hould hardly have 
broke my nofe for it, Aough. 
Johns. That fancie, I fuppofe, is new too. 
Bayes. Sir, all my fancies are fo. I tread upon no 
mans heels ; but make my flight upon my own wings, 
I aflure you. As, now, this next Scene fome perhaps 
will lay, It is not very neceffary to the Plot : I grant 
it ; what then ? I meant it fo. But then it's as full 
of Drollery as ever it can hold : 'tis like an Orange 
(luck with Cloves, as for conceipt. Come, where are 
you? This Scene will make you die with laughing, 
if it be well a<5led : it is a Scene of (heer Wit, without 
any mixture in the world, I gad. \Reads — 

Enter * Prince Pretty-man, and Tom Thimble }u$ 
Taylor. 

This, Sirs, might properly enough be call'd a prize of 
Wit ; for you fhall fee 'em come in upon one another 
fnip fiiap, hit for hit, as f^id as can be. Firfl one 
fpeaks, then prefently Mother's upon him flap, with a 
Repartee; then he at him again, daih with a new 
conceipt : and fo eternally, eternally, I gad, till they go 
quite off" the Stage. \Goes to call the Players, 

Smi. What a plague, does this Fop mean by his 
fnip fnap, hit for hit, and dafh? 

Johns, Mean ? why, he never meant any thing in's 
life : what dofl talk of meaning for? 



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68 ILLUSTRATIONS, c^. 



' Nay, if that be all, there's no fuch hafl : the Cour- 
tiers are not fo forward to pay their Debts. 

J. Dryden. TTie Wild Gallant. Adl L p. il. Ed. 1669. 



^Faih\ Then fay I: 

Take a little Bibber^ 

And throw him in the River, 

And if he will truft never, 

Then there let him lie ever. 
Bibber, Then lay I : 

Take a little Failer, 

And throw him to the Jaylour; 

And there let him lie 

Till he has paid his Taylor. 

Idem^ A<^ il Sc. fi. fi tfi 



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ACT. III. SC. L THE REHEARSAL. 69 

Enter Bayes, 
Bayes. Why don't you come in? 

Enter Prince Pretty-man and Tom Thimble. 

Fret. But pr'ythee, Tom Thimble^ why wilt thou 
needs marry? If nine Taylors make but one man; 
and one woman cannot be (atisfi'd with nine men : 
what work art thou cutting out here for thy felf, trow we? 

Bayes. Good. 

Thim, Why, an't pleafe your Highnefe, if I can*t 
make up all the work I cut out, I ftum't want Journey- 
men to help me, I warrant you. 

Bayes. Good again. 

Fret, I am afraid thy Journey-men, though, Tom^ 
won't work by the day, but by the night 

Bayes. Good Rill. 

Thim, However, if my wife fits but cro(s-leg*d, as 
I do, there will be no great danger : not half fo much 
as when I trulled you for your Coronation-fuit 

Bayes. Very good, Tfaith. 

Pret, Why, the times then liv'd upon trull; it was 
tlie falhion. You would not be out of time, at fuch a 
time as that, fure: A Taylor, you know, muft never 
be out of falhion. 

Bayes. Right 

Thim, I'm fure. Sir, I made your cloath in the 
Court-fafhion, for you never paid me yet» 

Bayes. There's a bob for the Court. 

Pret, Why, Tom^ thou art a (harp rogue when 
thou art angry, I fee : thou pay'ft me now, methinks. 

Thim. I, Sir, in your own coyn : you give me 
nothing but words.' 

Bayes. Admirable, before gad. 

Pret. Well, Tom^ I hope fhortly I (hall have 
another coyn for thee ; for now the Wars come on, I 
(hall grow to be a man of mettaL 



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70 ILL USTRA TIONS, 6v. 



* Ay, 'tis pretty well ; but he does not Top his Part 
A great Word with Mr. Edward Hcward, • • • Kty 1704. 



•^/.6a 



' M. Edward ffmartft Words. . • Key 1704. Siif, j& 



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ACT. III. SC I. THE REHEARSAL. 7« 

Bayes. O, you did not do that half enough. 
Johns. Methinks he does it admirably. 
Bayes. I, pretty well ; but he does not hit me in*t : 
he does not top his part' 

Thim. That's the way to be (lamp'd yourfelf, Sir. 
I (hall fee you come home, like an Angel for the 
Kings-evil, with a hole bor'd through you. [Exeunt. 

Bayes. That's very good, i'faith : ha, ha, ha. Ha, 
there he has hit it up to the hilts, I gad. How do 
do you like it now. Gentlemen? is not this pure Wit ? 

Smi. 'Tis fnip fhap, Sir, as you (ay; but, methinks, not 
pleafant,nortothe purpofe,for the Play does not go on. 

Bayes. Play does not go on ? I don't know what 
you mean : why, is not this part of the Play ? 

Smi. Yes, but the Plot (lands RilL 

Bayes. Plot (land Rill ! why, what a Devil is the 
Plot good for, but to bring in fine things ? 

Smi. O, I did not know that before. 

Bayes. No, I think you did not : nor many things 
more, that 1 am Ma(ler of. Now, Sir, I gad, this is 
the bane of all us Writers : let us foar never fo little 
above the common pitch,! gad, all's fpoil'd; for the 
vulgar never underfLand us, they can never conceive 
you. Sir, the excellencie of thefe things. 

Johns. 'Tis a fad fate, I mufl confefs: but you 
write on (lill? 

Bayes. Write on? I gad, I warrant you. Tis not 
their talk (hall (lop me : if Uiey catch me at that lock, 
V\ give 'em leave to hang me. As long as I know my 
things to be good, what care I what they (ay ?• What, 
they are gone, and forgot the Song 1 

Smi. They have done very well, methinks, here's 
no need of one. 

Bayes. Alack, Sir, you know nothing: you mu(l 
ever interlard your Plays with Songs, Ghofts and Idols, 
if you mean to a 

Johns. Pit, Box and Gallery,* Mr. Bayes. 

Bayes. I gad, Sir, and you have nick'd it. Hark you. 



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72 ILLUSTRATIONS.^^ 



^Alberto. CuriiuSy IVe fomething to deliver to your 
Ear. 

Curtius, Any thing from Alberto is welcora. 

Mn.A.BEHN. The Amorous Prince, Actiil Scii. p. 39 

Ed. 167 1. 



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ACT. ni. sa IX. THE REHEARSAL. 73 

Mr. yohnfon^ you know I don't flatter, a gad, you have 
a great deal of Wit 

Johns. O Lord, Sir, you do me too much honour. 

Bayes. Nay, nay, come, come, Mr. ^ohnfon^ Ifacks 
this mud not be fsud, amongd us that have it I know 
you have wit by the judgement you make of this 
Play ; for that's tiie meafure I go by : my Play is my 
Toudi-llone. When a man tells me fuch a one is a 
perfon of parts ; is he fo, fay I ? what do I do, but 
bring him prefently lo fee this Play : If he likes it, I 
know what to think of him ; if not, your mod humble 
Servant, Sir, 1*1 no more of him upon my word, I 
thank you. I am Clara voyant^ a gad. Now here we 
go on to our bufinefis. 



SCiENA 11. 
Enter the two Ufurpers^ hand in hand. 

|Ut what's become of Volfcius the 
great? 
His prefence has not grac'd our 

Court of late. 
Phys. I fear fome ill, from emular 
tion fprung, 
Has from us that lUudrious Hero wrung. 

Bayes. Is not that Majedical? 
Smi. Yes, but who a Devil is that Volfaus? 
Bayes. Why, that's a Prince I make in love with 
Parthenope, 

Smi. I thank you. Sir. 

Enter Cordelio. 

* Cor, lILy Leiges, news from Volfcius the Prince. 
UJh, His news is welcome, whatfoe'er it be. 

Smi. How, Sir, do you mean that? whether it be 
good or bad ? 




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ACT. Hi. sc a. THE REHEARSAL. 75 

Bayes. Nay, pray, Sir, have a little patience : God- 
fookers, you'l fpoil all my Play. Why, Sir, 'tis impoffi- 
ble to anfwer every impertinent quefUon you ask. 

Smi. Cry you mercie, Sir. 

Car. His Highnefis Sirs, commanded me to tell you, 
That the fisdr perfon whom you both do know, 
Defpairing of foigivenefe for her fault, 
In a deep forrow, twice (he did attempt 
Upon her precious life ; but, by the care 
Of (landers-by, prevented was. 

Smi. 'Sheart, what ftuflTs here ! 

Cor. Atlafl, 
Volfcius the great this dire refolve embracM : 
His fervants he into the Country fent, 
And he himfelf to PiccadilU went 
AVhere he*s informed, by Letters, that (he's dead ! 

UflL Dead! is that poflible? Deadl 

Phys. O ye Gods I [Exeu/ii. 

Bayes. There's a (mart exprefTion of a pa(rion ; O 
ye Gods 1 That's one of my bold (Irokes, a gad. 

Smi. Yes ; but who is the fair perfon that's dead? 

Bayes. That you (hall know anon. 

Smi. Nay, if we know it at all, 'tis well enough. 

Bayes. Perhaps you may find too, by and by, for 
all this, that (he's not dead neither. 

Smi. Marry, that's good news : I am glad of that 
with all my heart. 

Bayes. Now, here's the man brought in that is fup- 
pos'd to have kill'd her. \A great Jhout within. 

Enter Amarillis with a Book in her hand and Attendants. 

Ama. AVhat (nout Triumphanfs that? 

Enter a Souldier. 

Sol. Shie maid, upon the River brink, near TwicHnam 
Town, the afra(rinate is tane. 
Ama. Thanks to the Powers above, for this de- 
liverance-. 



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ILLUSTRATIONS, 5rv. 



^Decio. Now you (hall tell me, who play'd at Card? 
with you ? 

Pyramena, None but my Lord Iberio and I plai*d. 

Dec, Who waited ? 

Fy. No body. 

Dec. No Page ? 

Py. No Page. 

Du. No Groom ? 

/^. No Groom ; I tell you no body, 

Dec, What, not your Woman ? 

Py, Not my Woman, lack 
How your tongue runs ! 

Sir R. Stapvlton, The Slighted Maid. A<ft Hi. pp. 46—7. 

Ed. 1663. 



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ACT. IIL sc n. THE REHEARSAL. 77 

I hope its flow beginning will portend 
A forward Exit to all future end. 

Bayes. Pifli, there you are out ; to all future end ? 
No, no ; to all future end ; you mufl lay the accent 
upon end, or elfe you lofe the conceipt 

Johns. Indeed the alteration of that accent does a 
great deal, Mr. Bayes. 

Bayes. O, all in all, Sir: they are thefe little 
things that mar, or fet you off" a Play. 

Smi. I fee you are perfe<5l in thefe matters. 

Bayes. I, Sir; I have been long enough at it to 
know fomething. 

Enter Souldiers dragging in an old Fijherman, 

Ama. Villain, what Monfter did corrupt thy mind 
Tattaque the noblefl foul of humane kind? 
Tell me who fet thee on, 

Fijh, Prince Pretty-man. 

Ama. To kill whom ? 

Fiflu Prince Pretty-man, 

Ama, What, did Prince Pretty-man hire you to kill 
Prince Pretty-man'^ 

Fijk No; Prince Volfcius. 

Ama, To kill whom? 

Fijh, Prince Volfcius, 

Ama, What, did Prince Volfcius hire you to kill 
Prince Volfcius'^ 

Fifh, No ; Prince Pretty-man, 

Ama, So, drag him hence. 

Till torture of the Rack produce his fence. 

{Exeunt. 

Bayes. Mark how I make the horror of nis guilt 
confound his intelle<5ls; for that's the deflgn of this 
Scene. 

Smi. I see, Sir, you have a feveral defign for every 
Scene. 

Bayes. I ; that's my way of writing : and fo I can 
difpatch you. Sir, a whole Play, before another man, 
I gad, can mako an end of his Plot. So, now enter 



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ACT. IIL sc. 11. THE REHEARSAL. 79 

Prince Pretty-man in a rage. Where the Devil is he ? 
Vfhy Pretty-man'^ why when, I lay? O fie, fie, fie, 
fie ; all's marr'd, I vow to gad, quite marr'd. 
Enter Pretty-man. 

Phoo, pox ! you are come too late. Sir : now you may 

go out again, if you pleafe. I vow to gad Mr. a 

1 would not give a button for my Play, now you 

have done this. 

Pret, What, Sir? 

Bayes. What, Sir? *SHfe, Sir, you (hould have come 
out in choler, rous upon the Stage, juft as the other went 
off. Mufl a man be eternally telling you of thefe things ? 

Johns. Sure this mufl be fome very notable matter 
that he's fo angry at 

Smi. I am not of your opinion. 

Bayes. Pifli ! come, let's hear your Part, Sir. 

Pret, Bring in my Father, why d'ye keep himfix)mme? 
Although a Filherman, he is my Father, 
Was ever Son, yet, brought to this diftrefs, 
To be, for being a Son, made fatherlefs ? 
Oh, you jull Gods, rob me not of a Father. 
The being of a Son take firom me rather. [Exit. 

Smi. Well, Ned^ what think you now ? 

Johns. A Devil, this is word of all Pray, Mr. 
Bayes^ what's the meaning of this Scene? 

Bayes. O, cry you merde, Sir : I purteft I had for- 
got to tell you. Why, Sir, you mufl know, that, long 
before the beginning of this Play, this Prince was 
taken by a Fi^erman. 

Smi. How, Sir, taken Prifoner? 

Bayes. Taken Prifoner ! O Lord, what a queilion's 
there ! did ever any man ask fuch a queflion? Taken 
Prifoner ! Godfookers, he has put the Plot quite out 
of my head, with this damn'd queflion. What was I 
going to fay? 

Johns. Nay, the Lord knows : I cannot imagine. 

Bayes. Stay, let me fee ; taken : O 'tis true. Why, 
Sir, as I was going to fay, his Highnefs here^ the 



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ACT. IIL sc. IL THE REHEARSAL. 8i 

Prince, was taken in a Cradle by a Filherman, and 
brought up as his Child. 

Smi. Indeed? 

Bayes. Nay, pr'ythee hold thy peace. And fo. Sir, 
this murder being committed by the River-fide, the 
Fiiherman, upon fufpicion, was feiz'd ; and thereupon 
the Prince grew angry. 

Smi. So, fo ; now 'tis very plain. 

Johns. But, Mr. Bayes, is not that fome difparage- 
ment to a Prince, to pals for a Fifhermans Son? 
Have a care of tliat, I pray. 

Bayes. No, no, no ; not at all ; for 'tis but for a 
while: I (hall fetch him off again, prefently, you (hall fee 
Enter Pretty-man and Thimble. 

Fret. By all the Gods, I'l fet the world on fire 

Rather than let 'em ravi(h hence my Sire. 
Thim, Brave Pretty-man^ it is at length reveal'c^ 

That he is not thy Sire who thee conceal'd. 
Bayes. Lo' you now, there he's off again. 
Johns. Admirably done iYaith. 
Bayes. Ay, now the Plot thickens very much upon us. 
Fret, What Oracle this darknefs can evince ? 

Sometimes a Fi(hers Son, sometimes a Prince. 
It is a fecret, great as is the world ; 
In which, I, like the foul, am tois'd and hurFd. 
The blackeft Ink of Fate, fure, was my Lot 
And, when (he writ my name, (he made a blot. 

iExit. 
Bayes. There's a blud'ring verfe for you now. 
Smi. Yes, Sir; but pray, why is he fo mightily 
troubled to find he is not a Fi(hermans Son ? 

Bayes. Phoo ! that is not becaufe he has a mind 
to be his Son, but for fear he (hould be thought to be 
nobodies Son at alL 

Smi. I, that would trouble a man, indeed. 
Bayes. So, let me fee. Enter Prince Volfcius, going 
out of Town. 
Sml I thought he had been gone to FiccadiUi, 



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Si ILLUSTRATIONS, 6rY. 

In ridicule of A<51 iv. Sc. I of En^ijk Monfuur, by the 
Hon. J. Howard, oT which this is a portion. 

Enter Comely in a Riding Garb, with hisftrvant. 
Comely. Let my Horfes be brought ready to the 
door,for lie go out of Town this Evemng. \Exitfervant. 

Enter Welbred. 

Well, Why, how now Comely, booted and fpur'd ? 

Comely. Marry am I. 

Wei For how long? 

Comely. Why, for this feven years for ought I know, 
I am weary of this Town, and all that's in it, as for 
women I am in love with none, nor never (hal, I find I 
liave a pretty flrong defence about my heart againil that 
foUy. O here comes the Ladies veryopportunelyforme. 

Enter Lady Wealthy and two other Ladies. 
To take my leave of e'm. 

L. Weal, Mr. Comely your Servant — ^what in a 
Riding Garb. 

Comely. A drefe fitting for a Country Journey Madam. 

'Z. Weal, Why, can you ever leave this Town ? 

Comely. That I can truely madam, within this hour. 

L. Weal I oan't believe it 

Comely. So that for my fiiture health 

fie retire into the Coimtrey for Air, and there Hunt 
and Hawk, Eat and fleep fo found, that I will never 

dream of a woman, or any part about her This 

refolution of mine has made me turn Poet, and there- 
fore before I go, you (hall hear a Song called my fiu:e« 
well to London and women, boy fing the Song. 
Of which song the third and lail llanza runs thus : — 
Therefore this danger to prevent 

And dill to keep my hearts content: 
•Into the country Tie with fpeed. 

With Hounds and Hawks my fancy feed I . 
Both fafer pleafures to purfue. 
Than (laying to converfe with you. 



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ACT. m. sc. XL THE REHEARSAL. 85 

Bayes. Yes, he gave out fo ; but that was onely to 
cover his deiign. 

Johns. What deiign? 

Bayes. Why, to head the Army, that lies conceal'd 
for him in Knights-Mdge. 

Johns. I fee here is a great deal of Plot, Mr. Bayes. 

Bayes. Yes, now it begins to break ; but we (hall 
have a world of more bufine£s anon. 

' Enter Prime Volfcius, Cloris, AmarilKs, <md 
Harry with a Riding-Cloak and Boats. 

^Ama. Sir, you are cruel, thus to leave the Town, 
And to retire to Country folitude. 

Clo. We hop'd this Summer that we (hould at leaft 
Have held the honour of your company. 

Bayes. Held the honour of your Company ! prettily 
exprefl ! Held the honour of your company I God- 
fookerS|thefe feUows will never take notice of any thing. 

Johns. I aflure you, Sir, I admire it extreamly ; I 
don't know what he does. 

Bayes. I, I, he's a little envious ; but 'tis no great 
matter. Come. 

Ama. Pray let us two this iingle boon obtain, 

That you will here with poor us lUll remain. 
Before your Horfes come pronounce our fate, 
For then, alas, I fear 'twill be too late. 

Baybs. Sadl 

Vols, Harry y my Boots ; for II go rage among 
My Blades encamp'd, and quit this Urban throng. 

Smi. But pray, Mr. Bayes^ is not this a little diffi* 
cult, that you were laying e'en now, to keep an Army 
thus conceal'd in Knights-hridge. 

Bayes. In Knights-bridge T (lay. 

Johns. No, not if the Inn-keepers be his friends. 

Bates. His friends ! Ay, Sir, his intimate acquaint- 
ance ; or elfe, indeed, I grant it could not be. 

Sml Yes, £ut2i, fo it might be very eafily. 



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ILLUSTRATIONS. 6^ 



Comdy feet Elsba, a Country lafs, and falls fuddenly 
in love with her. 

^Comely, . . . fet up my Horfes. What fudden 
fate hath chang'd my mind ! I feel my heart fo rell- 
lefe now as if it n'ere knew reft, fure I'me in love ; 
The Hon. J. Howard. Engii/h Monfieur. A<51 iv^Sc. i p. 42. 

Ed. 1674 

* And what's this maid's name ? 

Idem^ Act iv. Sc i. p. 4a Ed. 1674. 



*AfuJiapha, I bring the Morning pidhir'd in a Cloud. 
Sir W. D'AVENANT, Sitgt of Rhodes. P. L *The Second Entry.' 

p. la Ed. 1656. 



*Mr. Comely in love J 

Engif^ Mof^ii9ir, Act h. Sc; H p. 45. Ed. 1674. 



V^^ Vlfi^'^Sf'^ n^"*^° ^ ^- Davbnant Knight. 



London, 1649, 4to. 



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4CT. III. sc. XL THE REHEARSAL* 85 

Bayes. Nay, if I do not make all things eafie, I gad, 
1*1 give you leave to hang me. Now you would think 
that he is going out of Town ; but you (hall fee how 
prettily I have contriv'd to flop him prefently. 

Smi. By my troth, Sir, you have lb amaz'd me, I 
know not what to think. 

Enter Parthenope. 

Vok. Blefs me I how frail are all my bell refolves I 
How, in a moment, is my purpofe chang'd P 
Too foon I thought my felf fecure from Love. 
Fair Madam, give me leave to ask her name 
Who does fo gently rob me of my fame ? 
For I (hould meet the Army out of Town, 
And, if I fail, mud hazard my renown. 

Par, My Mother, Sir, fells Ale by the Town-walls, 
And me her dear Parthenope (he calls. 

Vots, Can vulgar Veflments high-bom beauty fhrowd? 
•Thou bring'fl the Morning pidhir'd in a Cloud? 

Bayes. The Morning piftur'd in a Cloud 1 A, Gad- 
fookers, what a conceipt is there 1 

Par. Give you good Ev'n, Sir. \Eont, 

Vols. O inaufpicious Stars 1 that I was bom 

To fudden love, and to more fudden fcom 1 
Atna. CtoriSf How 1 * Prince Volfcius in love? Ha, 
ha, ha. [Exeunt laughing. 

Smi. Sure, Mr. Bayes^ we have loft fome jeft here, 
that they laugh at fo. 

Bayes. Why did you not obferve? He firft re- 
folves to go out of Town, and then, as he is pulling 
on his Boots, falls in love. Ha, ha, ha. 

Smi. O, I did not obferve : that, indeed, is a very 
good jeft. 

Bayes. Here, now, you (hall fee a combat betwixt 
Love and Honour. An ancient Author has made a 
whole Play on't* ; but I have difpatch'd it all in this 
Scene. 



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86 ILLUSTRATIONS, <Srv. 

* Ma^ this flip be accepted as evidence that this Act flood 
fecond in the original Play ? 

• (a) FeUfbravo. Love, and Honour, pull tivo ways ; 

And I iland doubtful which to take : 
To Arabia^ Honour lays> 
Love lays no ; thy llay here make. 
Sir R. FANSHAWB'stianflation of Querer pro foio Quertr, 
Act iil p. 14a Ed. 167 1. 

ip) Alphonfo, But Honour lays not fo. 

Siege of Rhodes^ Part L p. 19. 

{i) Ent, YdXlaLdxMsfoftfy reading 2, letters. 
Pall. I Hand betwixt two minds! what's bell to doe ? 
This bids me Hay ; This fpurs me on to goe. 
Once mcMre let our impartiall eyes perufe 
Both t'one and t'other : Both may not prevaile. 
MyLm^d, 

PRize not your hononr fo mndi as to difjprize her that ho- 
nours yon, in choofing rather to meet Death in the field, 
then Pulchrella in her deures. Give my affeiftion leave once 
more to diiTwade you from trying Conquefl with fo uneouall a 
Foe : Or if a Combate mud be tryed, xnake a Bed of Roles the 
Field, and me your Enemie. The Intereft I claim in you is fuffi- 
cient warrant to my defires, which according to the place they find 
in your Refoe<5b;, confirme me either the happied of all Ladies, or 
make me the moil unfortunate of all women. Pulchrella. 
A Charme too llrong for Honour to repreffe. 
Mus. A heart too poore for Honour to poffelTe. 
PalL Honour mull Hoop to Vows. But what laies 
this ? \Reads the other Letter. 

My Lard, 

THE hand that guides this Pen, being guided by the am* 
bition of your honour, and my owne afiecflion, prefents 
TOtt with the wifhes of a faithfuU fervant, who defires not to 
Duy you fafety with the haxard of your Reputation. Goe on with 
courage, and know, Panthea ftiall partake with you in either for- 
tune : If conquer*(l, my heart (hall be vour Monument, to pre- 
ferve and glorifie your honoured afhes ; If a Conqueror, my tongue 
(haU be your Herault to proclaime you the Champion of our 
Sex, and the Phoenix of your own, honoured by all, equalled by 
few, beloved by none more dearly then Your owne Panthea. 

I layle betwixt two Rocks ! What Ihall I doe ? 

What Marble melts not if Pulchrella wooe ? 



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ACT. in. sc. II. THE REHEARSAL. S7 

' Volfciusy7/j doutm. 

Vols. How has my paifion made me CupiiT^ fcoffi 
This haily Boot is on, the other off, 
And fuUen lyes, with amorous defign 
To quit loud fame, and make that &auty mine. 
My Legs, the Emblem of my various thought, 
Shew to what iad diflradlion I am brought. 
Sometimes, with flubbom Honour, like this Boot 
My mind is guarded, and refolv'd to do't : 
Sometimes, again, that very mind, by Love 
Difarmed, like this other Leg does prove. 

Johns. What pains Mr. Bayes takes to a6t this 
fpeech himfelf 1 

Smi. I, the fool, I fee, is mightily tranfported with it 

Vols, Shall I to Honour or to Love give way? 
Go on, cryes Honour ; tender Love lays, nay : 
Honour, aloud, commands, pluck both boots on ; 
But fofter Love does whifper, put on none. 
What (hall I do ? what condu<ft (hall I find 
To lead me through this twy-light of my mind ? 
For as bright Day with black approach of Night 
Contending, makes a doubtful puzzling light ; 
So does my Honour and my Love together 
Puzzle me fo, I can refolve for neither. 

[Exit with one Boot on, and the other off, 

Johns. By my troth. Sir, this is as difficult a Com- 
bat as ever I law, and as equal ; for 'tis determin'd on 
neither fide. 

Bayes. Ay, is't not, I gad, ha ? For, to go oflf hip 
hop, hip hop, upon this occafion, is a thou^nd times 
better than any condufion in the world, I gad. But, 
Sirs, you cannot make any judgement of this Play, 
becaufe we are come but to the end of the fecond* 
Act. Come, the Dance. {Dance. 

Well Gentlemen, you*l fee this Dance, if I am not 
miftaken, take very well upon the Stage, when they 
are perfe<ft in their motions, and all that 



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IS ILLUSTRATIONS, &»c. 

Or what hard-hearted eare can be fo dead, 
As to be deafe, if faire Panthea plead ? 
Whom (hall I pleafe ? Or which (hall I refufe? 
Pukhrella fues, and fair Panihea fues : 
Pukhreila melts me with her love-fick teares, 
But brave Panthea batters downe my eares 
With Love's Pettarre : Pulchrdlas bread endof es 
A foft Aflfedlion wrapt in Beds of Rofes. 
But in the rare Pantheas noble lines, 
True Worth and Honour, with Affe6lion jojoies. 
I fland even-balanc*d, doubtfully oppreft, 
Beneathe the burthen of a bivious bred. 
When I perufe my fweet Pulchrellas teares, 
My blood growes wanton, and I plunge in feares : 
But when I read divine Panthea* s chajmes, 
I tume all fierie, and I grafp for armes. 
Who ever faw, when a rude blafl out-braves, 
And thwarts the fwelling Tide, how the proud wavej 
Rock the drencht Pinace on the Sea-greene brefl 
Of frowning AmphitriUy who oppreil 
Betwixt two Lords, (not knowing which f obey) 
Remaines a Neuter in a doubtfuU way. 
So tod am I, bound to fuch drait confines. 
Betwixt PukhrdkCs and Panthea^ s lines. 
Both cannot fpeed : But one that mud prevaile. 
I dand even poys'd : an Atome tumes the fcale. 
F.QuARLES. ThtVir^nWidtw, A<5liii. Sc.lpF.41-43. £(Liri49. 



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ACT. III. sc. XL THE REHEARSAL. 89 

Smi. I don't know 'twill take, Sir ; but I am fure 
you fweat hard for't. 

Bayes. Ay, Sir, it cofls me more pains, and trouble, 
to do thefe things, than almoll the things are 
worth. 

Smi. By my troth, I think so, Sir. 

Bayes. Not for the things themfelves, for I could 
write you. Sir, forty of 'em in a day ; but, I gad, thefe 
Players are fuch dull perfons, that, iif a man be not by 
upon every point, and at every turn, I gad, they*l mif 
take you. Sir, and fpoil all. 

Enter a Flayer. 
What, is the Funeral ready ? 

Play. Yes, Sir. 

Bayes. And is the Lance fiU'd with Wine ? 

Play. Sir, 'tis juil now a doing. 

Bayes. Stay then ; 11 do it my fel£ 

Smi. Come, let's go with him. 

Bayes. A match. But, Mr. yoknfon^ I gad, I am 
not like other perfons ; they care not what becomes 
of their things, fo they can but get money for 'em : 
now, I gad, when I write, if it be not juft as it fhould 
be, in every circumflance, to every particular, I g^, I 
am not able to endure it, I am not my fel( I'm out of 
my wits, and all that, I'm the flrangeft perfon in the 
whole world. For what care I for my money ? I gad, 
I write for Fame and Reputation. \Eom$U. 



Finis Actus Tertii. 



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ILLUSTRATIONS. 6^ 



* Colonel Henry Howard^ Son of Thomas Earl of Berk/kin^ 
made a Play, calf d the United Kingdoms^ which bes^ with a 
Funeral ; and had alfo two Kings in it This fi;ave me Duke a 
iull occaiion to fet up two Kings in Brentford^ as *tis generally 
beUered ; tho* others are of Opinion, that his grace had our two 
Brothers in his thoughts. It was A<5led at the Coek-Pit in 
Drury'Lane. foon after the Reftoratum ; but mifcanying on the 
ilage, the Author had the Modefty not to Print it ; and there* 
fore, the Reader cannot reafonably expe^ any particular Paflages 
of it Others fay, that they are JBodbdelin and Abdaila^ the two 
contending Kings of Granada^ and Mr. Dryden has in mod 
of his ferious Plays two contending Kings of the fame 
Place. ATor, 1704. 



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ACT. nr. ta L THE REHEARSAU 9i 

ACTUS IV. SCiENA I. 
Bayes, and the two Gentlemen. 

Bayes. BSSSn^^^^^"^^*^* becaufe I would not 
have any two things alike in this 
Play, the lafl A61 banning with 
a witty Scene of muth, I make 
this to begin with a Funeral. 

Sml And is that all your reafon for it, Mr. Bayes f 

Bayes. No, Sir ; I have a precedent for it too. A 
perfon of Honour, and a Scholar, brought in his 
Funeral juft fo : and he was one (let me teU you) that 
knew as well what belonged to a Funeral, as any man 
in England^ I gad.' 

Johns. Nay, if that be fo, you are fietfe. 

Bayes. I gad, but I have another device, a frolick, 
which I thii& yet better than all this ; not for the Plot 
or Charafters, (for, in my Heroick Plays, I make no 
difference, as to thofe matters) but for another con- 
trivance. 

Smi. What is that, I pray? 

Bayes. Why, I have defign'd a Conqueft, that can- 
not poiTibly, I g^, be adled in lefs than a whole week : 
and I'l fpeak a bold word, it fhall Drum, Trumpet, 
Shout and Battel, I gad, with any the mod warlike 
Tragoedy we have, either ancient or modem. 

Johns. I marry. Sir ; there you lay fomethinjg. 

Smi. And pray, Sir, how have you ordered this lame 
frolick of yours ? 

Bayes. Faith, Sir, by the Rule of Romance. For 
example: they divide their things into three, four, five, 
fix, feven, eight, or as many Tomes as they pleafe : 
now, I would very fain know, what (hould hinder me, 
from doing the lame with my things, if I pleafe. 

Johns. Nay, if you fhould not be Mafler of your 
own works, 'tis very hard. 



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9» ILLUSTRATIONS. 6-ft 



« Bp. Percy fays : — 

This is intended to ridicule tbe abfurd cuflom of writing plays 
in feveral parts, as the Siege ofRhodes^ Parts L and il Kiili- 
grew's Beuamira I and IL Tnomafo I. and IL Cicilia and CUh 
rinda^ I. and ii. &c. ; but is principally levelled at the Conaueft 
of Granada in 2 Parts : which is properly but one play of ten 
a<5ls, neither the plot nor chandlers being compleat or intelligible 
in either without the other. 



* Bp. Percy confiders that this refers to Conqueft of Granada^ 
Part U. Adl iv, 



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ACT. IV. sa L THE REHEARSAL. 93 

Bayes. That is my fence. And therefore, Sir, 
whereas every one m^es five A6ls to one Play, what 
do me I, but make five Plays to one Plot : by which 
means the Auditors have every day a new thing. 

Johns. Mod admirably good, i' faith! and mull 
certainly take, becaufe it is not tedious. 

Bayes. I, Sir, I know that, there's the main point 
And then, upon Saturday^ to make a dofe of all, (for 
I ever b<^n upon a Monday) I make you, Sir, a fixth 
Play, that fums up the whole matter to 'em, and all 
tha^ for fear they fliould have forgot it.* 

Johns. That confideration, Mr. Bayes^ indeed, I 
think, will be very neceffary. 

Smi. And when comes in your (hare, pray Sir? 

Bayes. The third week. 

Johns. I vow, you'l get a world of money. 

Bayes. Why, faith, a man mud live : and if you 
don't, thus, pitch upon fome new device, I gad, you'l 
never do i^ for this Age (take it o' my word) is fome- 
what hard to pleafe. There is one prettie odd paf- 
iage, in the lad of thefe Plays, which may be executed 
to feveral ways, wherein I'ld have your opinion^ 
Gentlemen. 

Johns. Well, what is't ? 

Bayes. Why, Sir, I make a Male perfon to be in 
Love with a Female. 

Smi. Do you mean that, Mr. Bayes^ for a new 
thing? 

Bayes. Yes, sir, as I have order'd it You (hall 
hear. He having paffionately lov'd her through my 
five whole Pla)rs, finding at lid that fhe confents to 
his love, jud after that his Mother had appeared to 
him like a Ghod, he kills himfelf. That's one way. 
The other is, that fhe coming at lad to love him, with 
as violent a pafiion as he lov^d her, fhe kills her felf.' 
Now my quedion is, which of thefe two perfons fhould 
fufier upon this occafion ? 

Johns. By my troth, it is a very hard cafe to decide. 

Bayes. The harded in the world, I gad; and has 



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ILLUSTRATIONS^ Ar* 



' The Ghojl [of his mother] ames on^foftfy^ afier 
the Conjuration; and Ahnanzor retires to the middle 
of the Stage. 
GhoJl. I am die Ghod of her who gave thee birth: 
The Aiiy (hadow of her mouldring Earth. 
Love of thy Father me through Seas did guide ; 
Ob Sea's I bore thee, and on Sea's I d/d. 
I d/d ; and for my Winding-fheet, a Wave 
I had ; and all the Ocean for my Grave. 
J. Dryden. Conqu0Oj GraMada^V.i.K&,vr.^ijjxYjdui6T%. 
* Ahnanzor, in Cornqnefi 9/ Granada, 



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4cr. IV. sc. L THE REHEARSAL. 95 

puzzled this pate very much. What fay you, Mr. 
Smith f 

Smi. Why, truly, Mr. Bayes^ if it might (land with 
your jullice, I (hould now fpare 'em both. 

Bayes. I gad, and I think ha ^why then, Fl 

make him hinder her from killing her felf. Ay, it (hall 
be fo. Come, come, bring in the Funeral 
[Enter a Funeral^ with the two Ufurpers and Attendants^ 
Jjay it down there : no, here, Sir. So, now fpeak. 
JT. CT/h. Set down the Funeral Pile, and let our grief 

Receive, from its embraces, fome relief. 
K. Phys. Was't not unjuft to ravifli hence her breath, 
And, in life's (lead, to leave us nought but 

death? 
The world difcovers now its emptine(s. 
And, by her lofs, demondrates we have lefs. 
Saves. Is not that good language now ? is not that 
elevate ? If s my non ultroy I gad You muft know 
they were both in love with her. 
Smi. With her ? with whom ? 
Bayes. Why, this is LardeUd^ Funeral 
Sml Larddla / I, who is (he ? 
Bayes. Why, Sir, tlie Sifter of jDr^m/^a^/Jr. ALadie 
that was drown'd at Sea, and had a wave for her 
winding-(heet^ 

K. Ufh, Larddla^ O Lardella^ from above. 

Behold the Tragick iflue of our Love. 

Pitie us, (inking under grief and pain. 

For thy being caft away upon the Main. 

Bayes. Look you now, you fee I told you true. 

Smi. I, Sir, and I thank you for it, very kindly. 

Bayes. Ay, I gad, but you will not have patience ; 

honeft Mr. z. ^you will not have patience. 

Johns. Pray, Mr. Bayes ^ who is that Drawcanfirf^ 
Bayes. Why, Sir, a fierce jym?, that frights his Miftrifs, 
fiiubs up Kings, baffles Armies, and does what he will, 
without regard to good manners, juftice or numbers 
Johns. A veiy prettie Chara^er. 



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96 ILLUSTRATIONS^ <d*c. 

I have fonn*d a Heroe \ue. Almanzorl I confels ; not abfo* 
lutely pcrfecSl ; but of an exceffive and overboyliEJj courage, 
both Homer and 'i ajfo are my precedents. Both the Greek and 
the Italian Poet had well confider'd that a tame Heroe who 
never tranfgrefles the bounds of moral vertue, would (hine but 
dimly in an Epick poem. 

J. Drydkn. \>t^<isBAAOVL\o Conquest of Granada. 
See alfo on this fubjedl, the prefatory Kflay to the dune plajr^ 
tntitled OfHeroique Playts, 



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j^cr. IV. sc. L THE REHEARSAL. 97 

Smi. But, Mr. Bayes, I thought your Heroes had 
ever been men of great humanity and juftice. 

Bayes. Yes, they have been fo ; but, for my part, 
I prefer that one quality of fmgly beating of whole 
Armies, above all your moral vertues put together, 
I gad. You fhall fee him come in prefently. Zookers, 
why don*t you read the papyr ? [^To the Flayers. 

K. Phys. O, cry you mercie. {Goes to take the papyr. 

Bayes. Pi(h ! nay you are fuch a fumbler. Come, 
I'l read it my felf. [ Takes a papyr from off the coffin. 
Stay, it's an ill hand, I mud ufe my Spedlacles. This, 
now, is a Copie of Verfes, which I make Lardella 
compofe, juft as (he is dying, with defign to have it 
pin*d on her Coffin, and fo read by one of the Ufurpers, 
who is her Coufm. 

Smi. a very (hrewd defign that, upon my word, 
Mr. Bayes. 

Bayes. And what do you think I fancie her to make 
Love like, here, in the papyr ? 

Smi. Like a woman: what fhould (he make Love 
like? 

Bayes. O' my word you are out though, Sir; I gad 
you are. 

Smi. What then ? like a man ? 

Bayes. No, Sir ; like a Humble Bee. 

Smi. I confefs, that I Ihould not have fancy'd. 

Bayes. It may be fo. Sir. But it is, though, in order 
to the opinion of fome of your ancient Philofophers, 
who held the tranfmigration of the foul. 

Smi. Very fine. 

Bayes. Tl read the Title. TomydearCouZyKingVhys. 

Smi. That's a little too familiar with a King, though, 
Sir, by your favour, for a Humble Bee. 

Bayes. Mr. Smithy for other things, I grant your 
knowledge may be above me ; but, as for Poetry, give 
me leave to fay, 1 underfland that better : it has been 
longer my pradice ; it has indeed, Sir. 

Smi. Your fervant, Sir. 

Bayes. Pray mark it. [^Keads. 



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98 ILL USTRA TIONS, &-€. 

Bermice, My earthly part- 



Which is my Tyrants right, death will remove, 
rie come all Soul and Spirit to your Love. 
With filent (leps I'le follow you all day; 
Or elfe before you, in the Sun-beams, play, 
rie lead you thence to melancholy Groves, 
And there repeat the Scenes of our pad Loves. 

At night, I will within your Curtains peep ; 
With empty arms embrace you while you lleej*. 
In gentle dreams I often will be by ; 
And fweep along, before your clofmg eye. 



All dangers from your bed I will remove ; 
But giaard it mod from any future Love. 
And when at lafl, in pity, you will dye, 



rie watch your Birth of Immortality : 

Then, Turtle-like, I*le to my Mate repair; 

And teach you your firfl flight in open Air. 

John Dryden. Tyrannick Jjme, A<5liiu Sc. L p. 28. Ed. 167a 



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ACT. IV. sc I. THE REHEARSAL. 99 

Since death my eartlily part will thus remove 
1*1 come a Humble Bee to your chafte love. 
With filent wings V\\ follow you, dear Couz ; 
Or elfe, before you, in the Sun-beams buz. 
And when to Melancholy Groves you come, 
An Airy Ghoil, you'l know me by my Hum ; 
For found, being Air, a Ghofl does well become. 

Smi. (After a paufe). Admirable I 

Bayes. At night, into your bofom I will creep, 

And Buz but foftly if you chance to fleep : 
Yet, in your Dreams, I will pafs fwecping by. 
And then, both Hum and Buz before your eye. 

Johns. By my troth, that's a very great promife. 
Smi. Yes, and a mod extraordinary comfort to boot 

Bayes. Your bed of Love, from dangers I will free ; 
But mod, from love of any ftiture Bee. 
And when, with pitie, your heart-ftrings (hall 

crack. 
With emptie arms II bear you on my back. 

Smt. a pick-a-pack, a pick-a-pack. 
Bayes. Ay, I gad, but is not that fuanf now, ha ? is 
it not fuan/ f Here's the end. 

Then, at your birth of immortality, 
Like any winged Archer, hence I'l fly. 
And teach you your firll fluttering in the Sky. 

Johns. O rare ! it is the mod natural, refin'd fancie 
this, that ever I heard, I'l fwear. 

Bayes, Yes, I think, for a dead perfon, it is a good 
enough way of making love : for being diverted of her 
Terreflrial part, and all that, (he is only capable of thefe 
little, pretty, amorous defigns that are innocent, and 
yet pa(rionate. Come, draw your fwords. 

J^. Phys, Come fword, come (heath thy felf within 
this bread, 
That only in LardeUa'% Tomb can red. 



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roo ILL USTRA TIONS, 5-r. 

* See the Scene in the Villain : where the Hoft fiirniflies his 
guefls with a collation out of his Cloaths ; a Capon from his 
Helmet, a Tanfey out of the Lining of his Cap, Cream out of 
his ScLbbard, &c A>y 1704. 

The text of this Scene, which mud have depended much more 
upon the a<5ling than the fpeeches for its fuccefs, is as follows : 

Hofi. Tis the Sign of the Pig, and I*m the Mafter of the 
Cabaret, which fliall give you mod Excellent content 

Colig, Say'ft. thou so honed fellow ? faith thou art a very merr)- 
honed fellow ; Siders, I'l treat you, and thefe Gentlemen, at 
this Cabaret he talks of; Prethee honed Friend where is this 
Cabaret ? for I long to be in a Cabaret 

Hoft. Why here Sir, fit down at this Table, 
And call for what you will. 

Delpe, How*s this, how's this ? SMeath are you one of Urgatt' 
da^s Squiers ? pray friend whence Ihall the meat, and wine come ? 

Lamar. From Tripoli on a Broomdick. 

Hoft, Pray Gentlemen, hinder me not the Cudom of the 
young gallant ; Entreat but thefe Ladies to fit down, and break 
my head If you be not well treated, I'l defire no favour. 

Colig, Nor no money neither, I hope Sir. 

Hoft. Truly I won't ; if you be not pleaf 'd above expe^ation, 
Ne'r Trud one again of my profeflion. 

Delpe. Faith Lndies this may prove worth our Curiofity ; 
Come we will fit down. 

Maria, "What you pleafe Sir. 

Colig, That's my good Sider ; Come, come. La Convert, la 
Convert 

Lamar. This begins to look like fomthing, he's bravely dud 
I'l warrant you, he is fo well hung. 

Colig. Now Sir, a cold bred of your delicate white Veal. 

Hoft. Here you have it Sir. 

Colig. Nay, nay, and a fallet ? good Sir, a fallet ? 

Hojl, Well Sir, I mud untrufs a poynt 

Colig, How Sir, to give us a fallet ? why have you been at 
grafs? 

Delpe, Why d'yee want a boyl'd fallet Mounfieur T 

Lamar, Before St. Ltivis an Excellent Trimming, 
I'l ha' my next Suit, that I go into the Campaign with, 
trimm'd all with Safages. 

Maria, 'Twill make many a hungry Souldier aim at yotL 

Colig. Well thought on ifaith Sir. 
Come friend, a Dilh of Safages, a difli of Safages. 

Hoft, Why look you Sir, this Gentleman only midook th< 
placing, thefe do better in a belt 

Continitfd at pp. 104, 106. 



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ACT. IV. sc. I. THE REHEARSAL. loi 

K, UJh, Come,dagger, command penetrate this heart, 
Which cannot from Lardelld% Love depart 

Enter Pallas. 
Pal, Hold, (lop your murd'ring hands 
At Pallafes commands : 
For the fuppofed dead, O Kings, 
Forbear to a6l fuch deadly things. 
Larddla lives : I did but try 
If Princes for their Loves could dye. 
Such Coeleftial conftancie 
Shall, by the Gods, rewarded be : 
And from thefe Funeral obfequies 
A Nuptial Banquet (hall arife. 
\The Coffin opmsy and a Banquet is difcover^d, 

Baves. Now it's out This is the very Funeral of 
the fair perfon which Volfcius fent word was dead, and 
Pallas^ you fee, has turn'd it into a Banquet 

Johns. By my troth, now, that is new, and more 
than I expedled. 

Baves. Yes, I knew this would pleafe you : for the 
chief Art in Poetry is to elevate your expedtation, and 
then bring you off fome extraordinary way. 

K, UJk Refplendent Pallas^ we in thee do find 
The fierceft Beauty, and a fiercer mind : 
And fince to thee Lardeila's life we owe, 
We'l fupple Statues in thy Temple grow. 

A'. Phys, Well, fince alive Lardelia's founds 
Let, in full Boles, her health go round. 

[The two Ufurpers take each of them a Bole in their hands, 

K. U/h. But whereas the Wine? 
- Pal, That (hall be mine. 

Lo, from this conquering Lance, 

Does flow the pureft wine of Fratue : I ^}^** ^ 

And, to appeafe your hunger, I of bar " 

Have, in my Helmet, brought a Pye : ' ^^"' 

Ladly, to bear a part with thefe. 

Behold a Buckler made of Cheefe. [ yani/h Pallas. 



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102 ILLUSTRATIONS, b>c. 

^ Enter Almahide with a Taper. 
Almahide. My Light will fure difcover thofe who talk; 
Who dares to interrupt my private Walk ? 
Almanzor. He who dares love \ and for that love muft 

And, knowing this, dares yet love on, am I. 
J.Drydsn. Canquffto/Granada.V.u, AAiv.p.131. EsLi^ya. 



^ I will not now, if thou wouldft beg me, (lay ; 
But I will take my Almahide away. 

Idetfi^V.U Adv. p. 60. Ed. 1672. 



• Almanzor, Thou darfl not marry her while Fm in 

fight; 
With a bent brow thy Pried and thee Tie fright, 

And in that Scene 
Which all thy hopes and wifhes (hould content. 
The thought of me (hall make thee impotent 

He is led off by Guards, 
Idem, P. I. Aa v. p. 61. Ed. 1672. 

* Almanzor, Spight of my felf I*le Stay, Fight, Love, 

Despair, 
And I can do all this, becaufe I dare. 

Idem^ p. U. Ad il p. 99. Ed. 1672. 



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ACT. IV. SO. L THE REHEARSAL. 103 

Enter Drawcanfir. 

' K, Phys, Wh it man is this that dareS diflurbour feall? 
Draw, He th it dares drink, and for that drink dares die, 

And, knowing this, dares yet drink on, am I. 
Johns. That is as much as to fay, that though he 
would rather die than not drink, yet he would fain 
drink for all that too. 

Bayes. Right ; that's the conceipt on't. 

Johns. *Tis a marveilous good one ; I fwear. 

K, UJh, Sir, if you pleafe we fliould be glad to know 

How long you here will (lay, how foon you*l go. 
Bayes. Is not that now like a well-bred perfon, 
I gad ? So modefl, fo gent ! 
Smi. O, very like. 
' Draw, You fhall not know how long I here will (lay; 
But you fhall know 1*1 take my Boles away. 

I Snatches the Boies outoftfU Kings 
I hands y and drinks *em off. 
Smi. But, Mr. JBayes, is that (too) modell and gent ? 
Bayes. No, I gad. Sir, but it's great. 
K. UJh, Though, Brother, this grum (Iranger be a 
Clown, 
He'l leave us, fure, a little to gulp down. 
' Draw. Who e'er to gulp one drop of this dares think 
I'l flare away his very pow'r to drink. 

I The two Kings fneak off the Stage^ 
I with their Attendants. 
* I drink, I huff, I flrut, look big and flare ; 
And all this I can do, becaufe I dare. \Exit, 
Smi. I fuppofe, Mr. Bayes^ this is the fierce Hero 
you fpoke of. 

Bayes. Yes; but this is nothing: you fhall fee him, in 
the lafl A61, win above adozen battels, one afleranother, 
I gad, as fafl as they can pofGbly be reprefented. 
Johns. That will be a fight worth feeing, indeed. 
Smi. But pray, Mr. Bayes^ why do you make the 
Kings let him ufe 'em fo fcurvily ? 



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104 ILL USTRA TIONS, <Srv. 

Continued from ^. xoow 
Franc. A ftrange fellow this. 

Delpe, I, is it not ? come Sir, wine we see you have \ 
Prethee let's tafl the beft. 

Hoft. That vou (hall Sir ; 
If you'l hear Mufick, and a Song with*t, 
I'm ready : you (hall want nothing here. 
Sings. 
Yee may Tipple, and Tipple^ and Tipple all outy 
Tillyee baffle the Stars, and the Sun face about. 
Delpe, Away with your Drunken fongs, have you nothing 
fitter to please the Ladies ? 
ffq/l. Yes Sir. 
Delpe, Come away with it then. 

Hoa Sings, 
Colig, Moft Excellent ifaith! Here's to thee honed fellow 
with all my heart ; nay (lay a little, this is very good Wine ; 

here's to thee again heark you honed fellow, let me fpeak 

with you afide. D'ye Count here by pieces or d'ye treat by the 
head? 

Hojl. V\ treat by the head Sir, if you please ; a Crown a 
head, and you (hall have excellent cheer, VVine as much as you 
can drink. 

Colig, That's honedly faid ; you know my father friend, tis 
Mounueur Cortaux, 
Hoft, Yes Sir, the famous Scrivener here of Tours, 
Colig, Well, treat us very well, I'l fee thee pay'd. 
Hofi, Nay Sir, I'l fee myfelf pay'd, I'l warrant you, before you 
and I part 

Colig, I do mean it fo honed friend, but prethee fpeak not a 
word to the Gentlemen, for then you quite difgrace, Sir, your 
mod humble Servant 
Hoft, Mum, a word to the wife is enough. 
Colig, Come, come, Friend where's the Capon of Bruges you 
lad fpoke of? 

Hoft, Here at hand Sir, Wife undo my Helmet, this, Sir, 
IsmyCred. 
Delp, A very improper one for a marri'd man. 
Colig. Yes faith and troth, he (hould have had horns, ha, ha, ha, 
Here's to yee noble Captain ; a very good jed 
As I am a Gentleman : 
D^elp, I thank you Sir ! 
Colig, Methink's you are melancholly, Sir I 
LfCma, Not I Sir, I can alTure you : Lady's hoii 
like ye the fport, an odd Collation, but well 
Contnv'd. 
Fran, The contrivance is all in alL 

Concluded nt p. zo6. 



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ACT. IV. sc. iL THE REHEARSAU 105 

Bayes. Phoo! that is to raife the charadler of 
Drawcanfir, 

Johns. O' my word, that was well thought on. 

Bayes. Now, Sir, 1*1 (hew you a Scene indeed ; or 
rather, indeed, the Scene of Scenes. Tis an Heroick 
Scene. 

Smi. And pray, Sir, what is your defign in this Scene? 

Bayes. Why, Sir, my defign is Roman Cloaths, 
guilded Truncheons, forc'd conceipt, fmooth Verfe, 
and a Rant : In fine, if this Scene does not take, I gad, 

1*1 write no more. Come, come in, Mr. a 

nay, come in as many as you can. Gentlemen, I mud 
defire you to remove a little, for I mud fill the Stage. 

Smi. Why fill the Stage ? 

Bayes. O, Sir, becaufe your Heroick Verfe never 
foimds well, but when the Stage is fulL 

SCiENA IL 

Enter Prince Pretty-man, and Prince Volfcius. 

ly, hold, hold ; pray by your leave a little. 
Look you. Sir, the dnft of this Scene is 
fomewhat more than ordinary : for I make 
*em both fall out becaufe they are not in 
love with the fame woman. 
Smi. Not in love? you mean, I fuppofe, becaufe 
they are in love, Mr. Bayes ? 

Bayes. No, Sir ; I fay not in love : there's a new 
conceipt for you. Now, fpeak. 

Pret, Since fate, Prince Volfcius^ has found out the 
way 
For our fo long*d-for meeting here this day, 
Lend thy attention to my grand concern. 

Vols, I gladly would that ftory of thee learn ; 
But tliou to love dofl. Pretty-man, incline : 
Yet love in thy breafl is not love in mine. 

Bayes. Antithefisl thine and mine. 




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io6 ILLW^TRA TIONS, (d-c, 

Coruiudrd from p. 104. 

Maria, What makes my Brother kneel, look, look SiAtr. 

Colig, Here's a health to our noble Colonel, 
Gentlemen, ye fee 'tis a good one I 

lydp' Yes, and a large one, but if both drink it 
How mall we lead your Siflers home I 

Colig. No matter, Hem : here 'tis Gentlemen, super Naculum. 
Come, come a Tanfey Sinah quickly. 

Delp. Has pos'd ye there mine Hod. 

Hok That's as time (hall try, look ye here Sir. 
The lining of my Cap is good for something. 

La^mar. Faith this was unlook'd for. 

Lfelp. S'fifli I think all his apparel is made of commendable 
Stuff; has he not Ginger-bread- (noes on. 

Hoft, No truly Sir : 'tis feldom call'd for in a Tavern, 

Colig, Nay I've no need on't, faith thou art a brave 
Fellow : Here's mine Hod's health Gentlemen. 

D^elp, Could you procure thefe Ladies a di(h of Cream 
Sir, this will (hew your Mafter-piece ! 

Hojl. 'Tis the only weapon I fight at ; look ye 
Gentlemen the thunder has meltea my fword 
In the fcabbard. But 'tis good, tafle it. 

D'elp, Th' ad my Verdia to be the wonder of Hods, 
Shalt have a Patent for't if I have any 
Power at Court 

T. PORIEK. The Villain, Aa iii. Sc. i. pp. 47—50. Ed. 1663. 



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ACT. IV. sc. II. THE REHEARSAL, 107 

Pret, Since love it felfs the fame, why (hould it be 
DifiTring in you from what it is in me ? 

Bayes. Reafoning ; I gad, I love reafoning in verfe. 
Vols, Love takes, Camekon-X^^^ a various dye 
I'rom every Plant on which it felf does lye. 

Bayes. Simile \ 

Prd, Let not thy love the courfe of Nature fright : 
Nature does mod in harmony delight 

Vols, How weak a Deity would Nature prove 
Contending with the powerful God of Love ? 

Bayes. There's a great Verfe ! 

Vols. If Incenfe thou wilt offer at the Shrine 
Of mighty Love, bum it to none but mine. 
Her Rofie-lips external fweets exhale ; 
And her bright flames makeall flames elfe look pale. 

Bayes. I gad, that is right. 

Prd, Perhaps dull Incenfe may thy love fufiice ; 
But mine mud be adofd wiUi Sacrifice. 
All hearts turn afhes which her eyes controul 2 
The Body they confume as well as Soul. 

Vols. My love has yet a power more Divine ; 
ViiSlims her Altars bum not, but refine : 
Amid'd the flames they ne'er give up the Ghod, 
But, with her looks, revive dill as they road. 
In fpite of pain and death, they're kept alive : 
Her fiery eyes makes 'em in fire furvive. 

Bayes. That is as well as I can do. 

Vols, Let my Parthenope at length prevail 

Bayes. Civil, I gad. 

Pret, I'l fooner have a pafTion for a Whale : 

In whofe vad bulk, though dore of Oyl doth lye, 
We find more fhape more beauty in a Fly. 

Smi. That's uncivil, I gad. 

IJayes. Yes; but as far a fetch'd fancie, though, 
I ^ad, as ever you faw. 



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I08 ILL USTRA TIONS, ^c. 



^ Maximitu Thou ly*(l:— there's not a God inhabits 

there, 
But for this Chriftian would all Heav'n forfwear. 
Ev*n Jove would try more fhapes her Love to win ; 
And in new birds, and unknown beads would fin \ 
At lead, xijove could love like Maximin, 

J. Dryden, Tyrannick Lav€^ A<51 ii. p. 19. Ed. 1670 



^ 



^(a) Maximin, Stay ; if thou fpeak*(l that word, thou 

fpeak'ft thy laft : 
Some God now, if he dares, relate what's pad : 
Say but he*s dead, that God diall mortal be. 

Idem, A(Sl i. p. 7. Ed. 167a 
{b) Maximin. Provoke my rage no farther, led I be 
Reveng'd at once upon the Gods and thee. 

Id€m^ Ad i. p. 9w Ed. 167a 



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ACT. tv. sc If. THE REHEARSAL 109 

Vols, Soft, Pretty-man^ let not thy vain pretence 
Of perfe6t love, defame loves excellence. 
Parthenope is fure as far above 
All other loves, as above all is Love. 
Baves. Ah ! I gad, that (Irikes me. 
Pret, To blame my Claris^ Gods would not pretend. 
Bayes. Now mark. 
' Vols, Were all Gods joyn'd, they could not hope 
to mend 
My better choice : for fair Parthmope^ 
Gods would, themfelves, un-god themfelves to fee. 
Bayes. Now the Ranfs a coming. 
" Pret, Durft any of the Gods be fo uncivil, 
I'ld make that God fubfcribe himfelf a Devil. 
Bayes. Ah, Godfookers, that's well writ ! 
Vols, Could'ft thou that God from HeaVn to Earth 
tranflate, 
He could not fear to want a HeaVnly State. 
Parthenopey on Earth, can Heav*n create. 
Pret, Claris does Heav'n it felf fo far excel, 

She can tranfcend the joys of HeaVn in Hell. 
Bayes. There's a bold flight for you now ! 'Sdeath, 
I have loft my peruke. Well, Gentlemen, this is that 
I never yet (aw any one could write, but my felf. 
Here's true fpirit and flame all through, I gad So, 
So ; pray clear the Stage. [He puts 'em off the Stage, 
Johns. But, Mr. Bayes^ pray why is this Scene all 
in Verfe ? 

Bayes. O, Sir, the fubje6l is too great for Profe. 
Smi. Well faid, i* faith; I'l give thee a pot of Ale 
for that anfwer : 'tis well worth it. 
Bayes. Come, with all my heart. 

ri make that God fubfcribe himfelf a Devil. 
That fingle line, I gad, is worth all that my brother 
Poets ever writ. So, now let down the Curtain. 

[Exeunt, 

Finis Actus Quarti. 



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I lo ILL USTRA TIONS, i^^ 



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ACT.V. THE REHEARS AU iii 



ACTUS V. SCiENA 1. 
Bayes, and the two Gentlemen, 

^^^^* BffQS!l^^> Gentlemen, I will be bold 
to fay, 1*1 (hew you the greatefl 
Scene that ever England faw : I 
mean not for words, for thofe 
I do not value; but for flate, 
fliew, and magnificence. In fine, 1*1 juflifie it to be as 
grand to the eye every whit, I gad, as that great Scene 
in Harry the Eight, and grander too, I gad ; for, in- 
(lead of two Bifliops, I have brought in two other 
Cardmals. 

The Curtain is drawn up^ and the two nfurping 
Kings appear in State^ with the four Cardi- 
nals^ Prince Pretty- man. Prince Volscius, 
Amarillis, Cloris, Parthenope, &*c, before 
theniy Heralds and Serjeants at Arms with 
Maces, 
Smi. Mr. Bayes^ pray what is the reafon that two 
of the Cardinals are in Hats, and the other in Caps? 

Bayes. Why, Sir, becaufe By gad, I won't tell 

you. 

Smi. I ask your pardon, Sir. 

K, Ufh, Now, Sir, to the bufinefs of the day. 

Vols, Dread Soveraign Lords, my zeal to you, mud 
not invade my duty to your Son ; let me intreat that 
great Prince Pretty-man firft do fi)eak : whofe high 
preheminence, in all things that do bear the name of 
good, may juflly claim that priviledge. 

Pret, Royal Father, upon my knees I beg 

That the Hkarious Volfcius firR be heard. 

Bayes. Here it begins to unfold : you may perceive, 
now, that he is his Son 



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1 12 ILL i'STPA T/OXS, &^ 



1 In Sept. 1656, Sir W. D AVEXANT p::y;a:H * Tif S,\'^ y 
J^Aada, made a Kc^rd'cntatiun by the An of Hx>:'j>rctivc in 
Scenes, And the (lory fang is ReciUtivt Mufic. At the back of 
Jiuil4xnd-Ho^t in the upper end of Alderf^te-Sreet, Loni-m.' 
InAead of Acts there are five * Entries. * T'ois cocftitated Part 
L The fec^^r,d part was pablifhed in 1663. 

In •The first Entry,* 'i. 4- 

fcjiter Alphonjo. 

' Aiphon. \Vnat various Noifes do mine ears invade^ 
And have a Confort of confusion made? 



• Xakar and Damilcar defundin Clouds, andfi/ig. 

Nakar. Hark, my Damilcar, we are called below I 

Dam. \j^ us go, let us go ! 

Go to relieve the care 

or longing Ix)vers in defpair ! 

l^akar. Merr)', merry, merry, we (ail from the Eafl 

Half tippled at a Rain-bow Feaft. 

/^tfw. In the bright Moon-fhine while winds whillle 

Tivy, tivy, tivy, we mount and we fly, f loud, 

All racking along in a downy white Cloud : 

And lea our leap from the Skie fhould prove too far. 



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ACT.V. THE REHEARSAL. Ii.r 

Johns. Yes, Sir; and we are very much beholden 
to you for that difcoveiy. 

Vols. That preference is only due to AtnarilUsy Sir. 

Bayes. I'l make her fpeak very well, by and by, 
you Ihall fee. 

Ama. Invincible Soveraigns- \Soft MufUk. 

K. Ufk But flay, what foimd is this invades our ears? 

K. Phys. Sure 'tis the Mufick of the moving Spheres. 

Fret. Behold, with wonder, yonder comes from far 
A God-like-Cloud, and a triumphant Carr : 
In which, our two right Kings fit one by one, 
With Virgin Vefls, and Laurel Garlands on. 

JT. UJh. Then, Brother Phyi^ 'tis tune that we were 
gone. I ThetwoUJurpersJUalimtofthenrone^ 
I and go away. 

Bates. Look you now, did not I tell you that this 
would be as eafie a turn as the other ? 

Smi. Yes, feith, you did fo ; though I confefs, I could 
not believe you ; but you have brought it about, I fee. 

The two right Kings of Brentford defcend 
in the Clouds^ jfi^^ ^^ white gar- 
ments ; and three Ftdlers fitting before 
them^ in green. 
Bayes. Now, becaufe the two Right Kings defcend 
from above, I make 'em fing to the Time and Stile of 
our modem Spirits. 

I King. 'Hafle,brotherKing,we are fent from above, 
a King. Let us move, let us move : 

Move to remove the Fate 
Of Brentfords long united State. 
I King. Tara, tara, tara, full Eafl and by South, 
8 King. We fail with Thunder in our mouth. 
In torching noon-day, whiFfl the traveller flayes, 
Bufie, bufie, bufie, bufie, we buflle along. 
Mounted upon warm Phodms his Rayes, 
Through the Heavenly throng, 
Hafle to thofe 



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114 ILLUSTRATIONS,^. 

We Aide on the back of a new-falling Star. 

Nakar. And drop from above, 

]n a Gelly of Love! 

Dam, But now the Sun's down, and the Element's 

The Spirits of Fire againft us make head ! [red, 

Nakar, They mufler, they mufler, like Gnats in the 

Alas 1 I mud leave thee, my Fair ; [Air, 

And to my light Horfe-men repair. 

Dam, O llay, for you need not to fear 'em to night ; 

The wind is for us, and blows full in their fight : 

And o're the wide Ocean we fight ! 

Like leaves in the Autmnn our Foes will M down ; 

And hifs in the Water 

Ihth, And hifs in the Water and dro^Ti ! 

Nakar, But their men lye fecurely intrenched in a 

Cloud : 
And a Trumpeter-Hornet to battel founds loud. 



Dam. Now Mortals that fpie 
How we tilt in the (kie 
With wonder will gaze ; 

And fear fuch events as will ne're come to pafs ! 
Nakar. Stay you to perform what the man will have 

[done. 
Dam. Then caU me again when the Battel is won. 
Both. So ready and quic'c is a Spirit of Air 
To pity the Lover, and luccour the fair. 
That, filent and fwift, the little foft God 
Is here with a wifh, and is gone with a nod. 

\The Clauds part^ 'Sakaxjiies ufi, and DaxnilcsiT down. 
J.Drvden. Tyrannick Lave. AAiv. Sc.i.pp30-3I Ed. 167OW 



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ACT. V. THE REHEARSAL. 115 

Wl»o will feaft us, at night, with a Pigs 
Pretty-toes. 

1 King, And we'l fall with our pate 

In an OUio of hate. 

2 Ku^, But now fupper's done, the Servitors try, 
Like Souldiers, to (lorm a whole half-moon-pye. 

1 King. They gather, they ga.her hot Cuftard in 

fpoons, 
Alas, I mufl leave thefe half-moons, 
And repair to my tniily Dragoons. 

2 King. O Hay, for you need not as yet go aftray ; 
The Tyde, like a friend, has brought (hips in our 

way. 
And on their high ropes we will play. 
Like Maggots in Filberds, we'ldiug in our (hell, 
We*l frisk in our (hell, 
We'l firk in our (hell, 
And farewel 

1 King, But the Ladies have all inclination to dance, 
And the green Frogs croak out a Coranto oi France. 

Bayes. Is not that pretty, now ? The Fidlers are 
all in green. 

Smi. I, but they play no Coranto. 

Johns. No, but they play a Time, that's a great 
deal better. 

Bayes. No Coranto quoth a ! that's a good one, 
with all my heart Come, sing on. 

2 King. Now Mortals that hear 

How we Tilt and Carrier, 
With wonder will fear 
The event of fuch things as (hall never appear. 

1 Kin%. Stay you to fulfil what the Gods have decreed. 

2 King. Then call meto help you, if therefhall be need. 
I King. So firmly refolv*d is a true Brentford King 

To (ave the diflreffed, and help to 'em bring, 
That ere a Full-pot of good Ale you can fwallow, 
He's here with a whoop, and gone with a holla, 
f Baves phiUips his finger^ and fings after 'em. 



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1 16 ILLUSTRA TJONS. ^H. 



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•CT. T. THE REHEARSAL. 117 

Bayes. He's here with a whoop, and gone with a 
holla. This, Sir, you mull know, I thought once 
to have brought in with a Conjurer. 

Johns. I, that would have been better. 

Bayes. No, &ith, not when you coniider it : for 
thus 'tis more compendious, and does the thing eveiy 
whit as well 

Smi. Thmg! what thing? 

Bayes. Why, bring 'em down again into the Throne, 
Sir ; what thing would you have ? 

Smi. Well ; but, methinks, the Sence of this Song 
is not veiy plain. 

Baybs. Plain? why, did you ever hear any people 
in Clouds fpeak plain ? They mull be all for flight of 
fande, at its full range, without the leail check, or 
controul upon it When once you tye up fpirits, and 
people in Clouds to fpeak plain, you fpoil all 

Smi. Blefs me, what a Monfler's this ! 

I T^ two Kings light out qf the Clouds^ and 
I fl€f into the Throne. 

z King, Come, now to ferious counfel wel ad- 
vance. 

2 King. I do agree ; but firft, lefs have a Dance. 

Bayes. Right You did that very well, Mr. Cart- 
Wright. But firil, let's have a Dance. Pray remember 
that ; be fure you do it always jufl fo : for it mud be 
done as if it were the effed of thought, and premedita- 
tion. Butfiril, lefs have a Dance. Pray remember that 

Smi. Well, I can hold no longer, I mud gag this 
rogue ; there's no induring of him. 

Johns. No, pfythee make ufe of thy patience a 
little longer : lefs fee the end of him now. 

[Dance a grand Dance. 

Bayes. This, now, is an ancient Dance, of right 
belonging to the Kings of Brentford*, and lince de- 
riv'd, widi a little alteration, to the Inns of Court 

An Alarm. Enter two Heralds. 



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Ii8 ILLUSTRATIONS, 6^ 



' Enter Abdelmelech. 
Boabdelen. What new misfortune do thefe Cries pre&ge? 

John Dryden.— CVit^My/ of Granada, Part ii. Act l p. 78L 

Ed. 167a. 

■ Enter a Second Meffenger. 
Sec. Meff, Hade all you can their fury to aflwaga 
You are not fafe from their rebellious rage. 

Enter a Third Meffenger. 
TTurd Meff. This Minute if vou grant not their defire 
Theyll feize your Perfon and your Palace Fire. 

Idem, Part II, Act I p 8a Ed 1672. 



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ACT. V. THE REHEARSAL. 119 

1 King. What fawcie Groom molefls our privacies ? 

1 Her. The Army's at the door, and in difguife, 

Defires a word with both your Majeilies : 

2 Her. Having, from Knights-Bridge^ hither march'd 

by ilealth. 
2 King, Bid 'em attend a while, and drink our health. 

Smi. How, Mr. BayeSy the Army in difguife ? 
Bayes. Ay, Sir, for fear the Ufurpers might difcover 
them that went out but juil now. 

Smi. Why, what if they had difcover'd them ? 
Bayes. Why then they had broke this defign. 
Smi. That's true, indeed. I did not think of that 

1 King. Here,take five Guineys for thofewarlikemen. 

2 King. And here's five more ; that makes the fum 

juil ten. 
I Her. We have not feen fo much the Lord knows 
when. [Exeunt Heralds. 

1 Kif^. Speak on, brave AmarUlis. 

A ma. Invincible Soveraigns, blame not my modeily, 
If at this grand conjuncture 

SDrum beats behind the Stage. 
noife is this that comes and 
goes? 

Enter a Soldier with his Sword drawn. 
*Sold. Haile hence,great Sirs, your Royal perfonsfave. 
For the event of war no mortal knows : 
The Army, wrangling for the gold you gave, 
Firft fell to words, and then to handy-blows. 

\_Kxit. 

2 King. O dangerous eflate of Soveraign pow'r ! 

Obnoxious to the change of every hour. 
I King. Let us for Ihelter in our Cabinet (lay : 

Perhaps thefe threat'ning ilorms may pafs 
away. [Exeunt. 

Johns. But, Mr. Bayes^ did not you promife us, 
juil now, to make Amarillis fpeak very well? 

Bayes. Ay, and fo (he would have done, tut that 
they hinder'd her. 



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'2C' ILLUSTRA TIONS^ ^^ 



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ACT. T. THE REHEARSAL. lai 

Smi. How, Sir ? whether you would or no ? 

Bayes. Ay, Sir ; the Plot lay fo that, I vow to gad, 
it was not to be avoided. 

Smi. Marry, that was hard. 

Johns. BuI^ pray, who hinder'd her? 

Bayes. Why, the battel, Sir, that's juft coming in 
at door. And Fl teU you now a (Irange thing: 
though I don't pretend to do more than other men, 
I gad, 1*1 give you both a whole week to ghefe how I'l 
reprefent this Battel. 

Sml I had rather be bound to fight your Battel, Sir, 
I aflure yon. 

Bayes. Why, there's it now : fight a Battel ? there's 
the common error. I knew prefently where I fliould 
have you. Why, pray. Sir, do but tell me this one 
thing. Can you think it a decent thing, in a battel 
before Ladies, to have men run their Swords through 
one another, and all that? 

Johns. No, faith, 'tis not dviL 

Bayes. On the other fide ; to have a long relation 
of Squadrons here, and Squadrons there : whaX is that 
but a dull prolixity ? 

Johns. Excellently reafon'd, by my troth 1 

Bayes. Wherefore, Sir, to avoid both thofe Inde- 
corums, I fum up my whole battel in the reprefenta- 
tion of two perfons only, no more : and yet fo lively, 
that, I vow to gad, you would fwear ten thouiand 
men were at it, really engag'd. Do you mark me ? 

Smi. Yes, Sir; but I think I (hould hardly fwear, 
though, for all that 

Bayes. By my troth. Sir, but you would, though, 
when you fee it : for I make 'em both come out in 
Armor, Cap-Orpea^ with their Swords drawn, and hung, 
with a fcarlet Ribbon at their wrifls, (which, you 
know, reprefents fighting enough) each of 'em hokUng 
a Lute in his hand. 

Smi. How, Sir, inflead of a Buckler? 

Bayes. O Lord, O Lord! inflead of a Buckler? 
Pray, Sir, do you ask no more queftionp. I make 'em, 



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123 ILLUSTRATIONS, ^k. 



' (a) Arm, Arm, ViUmus^ Ann 1 
Sir W. D*AvENANT. Suge of Rhodes, < The first En^.* p. 3 

{b) •The Third Entry' thus b^s. 

Enter Solyman^ Pirrhus^ Mujlapha, 
Solym. Pirrhus, Draw up our Army wide ! 
Then, from theGrofs two ilrong Referves divide \ 
And fpread the wings ; 
As if we were to fight 
In the loft Rhodians light 
With all the Weftem Kings I 
Each Wing with yanizarus line ; 
The Right and Left io Hallfs Sons afligne ; 
The (rrcfs to 2^ngiban. 
The Main Artillery 
With Mujlapha fhall be : 
Bring thou tlie Rear^ We lead the Van. 

IdeMf p 14. 

(r) At the beginning of ' The fifth Entry ' is, 
Mujla, Point well the Cannon, and play faft ! 
Their fury is too hot to laft. 
That Rampire (hakes ! they fly into the Town I 
I^irrh, March up with thofe Referves to that Redout, 
Faint Slaves 1 the yanizaries reel ! 
They bend, they bend ! and feem to feel 
The terrors of a Rout. 
Mufia, Old Zanger halts, and reinforcement laclcs! 
Pirrh, March on 

Mufla. Advance thofe Pikes, and charge their Backs. 

Idtm^ p. 30 



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ACT. V. THE REHEARSAL. 123 

Sir, play the battel in BMtaiivo. And here's the 
conceipt Juil at the very fame inflant that one 
fings, tiie other, Sir, recovers you his Sword, and puts 
himfelf in a warlike poflure : fo that you have at once 
your ear entertain'd with Mufick, and good Language, 
and your eye fatisfi'd with the garb, and accoutrements 
of war. Is not that well ? 

Johns. I, what would you have more ? he were a 
Devil that would not be (atisfi'd with that. 

Smi. I confefs, Sir, you (lupifie me. 

Baves. You (hall fee. 

Johns. But, Mr. Bayes^ might not we have a little 
fighting for I love thofe Plays, where they cut and 
flafh one another, upon the Stage, for a whole hour 
together. 

Bayes. Why, then, to tell you true, I have con- 
trived it both ways. But you (hall have my RediaHvo 
firft. 

EftUr^ at feveral doors^ the General^ and Lieutenant 

General^ arnCd Cap-a-pea, with each of them a Lute 

in his fiandy and his fword drawn^ and 

hungy with afcarlet Ribbon at his wrifl, 

Lieut. Gen. Villain, thou lyeft. 
^Gen. Arm, arm, Gonfalvo^ arm ; what ho? 

The lye no fle(h can brook, I trow. 
Lieut. Gen. Advance, from Ailon^ with the Muf- 

quetiers. 
Gen. Draw down the Cheifey Curiafiers, 
Lieut. Gen. The Band you boast of, Cheifey Cuiiafiers^ 
Shall, in my Putney Pikes, now meet their Peers. 
Gen. Chifwickiansy aged, and renown'd in fight, 

Joyn with the Hammerfmith Brigade. 
Lieut. Gen. You'l find my Afortld^ Boys will do 
them right, 
Unlefs by Fulham numbers over-laid. 
Gen. Let the left-wing of ThvicHnam foot advance 
And line that Eadem hedge. 



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1^4 ILLUSTRA TIONS^ ^, 



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ACT. V. THE REHEARSAL. ^15 

Ueui. Gen. The Horfe I rais'd in Petty-France 
Shsdl try their chance. 
And fcowr the Medows, over-grown with Sedge. 
Gen. Stand : give the word. 
Ueut. Gen, Bright Sword. 
Gen. That may be thine. 

But 'tis not mine. 
Ueut. Gen. Give fire, give fire, at once give fire, 

And let thofe recreant Troops perceive mine ire. 
Gen. Purfue, purfue ; they fly 

That firfl did give the lye. [Exeunt. 

Bayks. This, now, is not improper, I think, becaufe 
the SpeAators know all thefe Towns, and may eafily 
conceive them to be within the Dominions of the two 
Kings of Brentford. 

Johns. Moll exceeding well defign'd ! 

Bavss. How do you £ink I have contriv'd to give 
a (lop to this battel ? 

Smi. How? 

Bayis. B^ an Eclipfe : Which, let me tell you, is a 
kind of fanae that was yet never fo much as thought 
of, but by my felf^ and one perfon more, that fliall be 
namelels. Com^ come in, Mr. a 

Enter Lieutenant GeneraL 

Ueut. Gen. What mid-night daikneis does invade 
the day. 
And fiiatch the ViAor from his conquer'd prey ? 
Is tiie Sun weary of his bloudy fight. 
And winks upon us widi his eye of light ? 
'Tis an Eclipfe. This was unkind, O Moon, 
To clap between me, and the Sun fo foon. 
Foolifh Eclipfe 1 thou this in vain haft done ; 
My brighter honour had Eclips'd the Sun. 
But now behold Eclipfes two in one. [Exit. 

Johns. Thig is an admirable reprefentation of a 
Battel, as ever I law. 



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126 ILLUSTRATIONS, &^ 

* Enter Amoni in a black ValbdTSB. 
Song in DiaUgne, 
Aur, Phoebus? 

PheA.ynio calls the Worid's great Light I 
Aur. AufvrUf that abhors the Night 
PAai, Whj does Aurora from her Clowd 

To drowfie Phadms cry fo loud ? 
Aur. Put on thy Beams ; rife, (no r^ard 
To a young Goddds, that lies hard 
In th old Man's bofome ?) rife for ihamc^ 
And (hine mj Clowd into a Flame, 
/'i^ff^. Oblige me not be3roDd my pow'r, 

I mm not rife before my boor. 
Aur, Before thy hour? look down, and fee. 
In Tain the Pcrfian kneels to thee. 
And I (mock*d by the glim'nng Shade) 
A (ad mistake in NapUs made ; 
UkeP/mr, I had loft my life. 
If I had been a Mortal Wife. 
PhaAJWkGQ. cam'ft too near the Burning Mount 

Vefuviof 
Aur. Upon thy account. 

For I took Clowds of Smoke and Fire, 
(which here from VuUan\ Court exptie) 
For Mondng-ftreaks, Blew, White, and Red, 
That Konfe me from cold Titkon's Bed. 

[Phoebus enitrs with his Beams m. 
i\'itih. Charge not upon me for a Crime, 

That I ftaid tK' utmoft point of time. 
Before I would put off my Bays, 
And on Napla died my Ravs, 
where fuch a mifchief they have done, 
As will make Venus hate the Sun, 
Difcovering to Vuleas^s eye 
Where She and Mars embracing lie; 
Aur. I'm forry Mars and Venus had 
Such pnvacy : but I am glad 
that Phcebus does at laft appear 
To iliine away Aurora^s Feat. 
r^r^.What frighted thee? 
Aur, I know not what : 

But thou know'st all ; what noife is that T 

[ Within Vulcan roars out. No work. Rogues f 
rheeb. Tis Fi^a;r, in a greater Heat 

Than th' Irons by his CycU^ beat : 
He makes the horrour of that noife. 
Teaching and Knocking his great Boys, 
(From hamm'ring out Jov^% Thunder) (cl 



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iCT V. THE REHEARSAL. 12; 

Bayes. I, Sir. But how would you fancie now to 
reprefent an Eclipfe ? 

Smi. Why, that's to be fuppos'd. 

Bayes. Supposed ! Ay, you are ever at your fuppofe : 
ha, ha, ha. Why, you may as well fuppofe the whole 
Play. No it mud come in upon the Stage, that's cer- 
tain ; but in fome odd way, that may delight, amufe, 
and all that I have a conceipt for't, that I am fure 
is new, and, I believe, to the purpofe. 

Johns. How's that ? 

Bayes. Why, the truth is, I took the firft hint of this 
out of a Dialogue, between Phasbus and Aurora^ in the 
Sighted Maid: * which, by my troth, was very pretty ; 
though, I think, you'l confefs this is a little better. 

Johns. No doubt on't, Mr. Bayes. 

Bay^. But, Sir, you have heard, I fuppofe, that 
your Eclipfe of the Moon, is nothing elfe, but an inter- 
pofition of the Earth, between the Sun and Moon: 
as likewife your Eclipfe of the Sun is caus'd by an 
interlocation of the Moon, betwixt the Earth and Sun ? 

Smi. I have heard fo, indeed. 

Bayes. Well, Sir ; what do me I, but make the Earth, 
Sun, and Moon, come out upon the Stage, and dance 
the Hey : hum ? And, of neceflity, by the very nature 
of this Dance, the Earth mud be fometimes between 
the Sun and the Moon, and the Moon between the 
Earth and Sun ; and there you have both yoiu: Eclipfes. 
That is new, I gad, ha ? 

Johns. That mull needs be very fine, truly. 

Bayes. Yes, there is fome fancie in't And then, 
Sir, that there may be fomething in it of a Joque, I 
make the Moon fell the Earth a Bargain. Come, 
come out Eclipfe, to the tune of Tom Tyler, 

Enter Luna. 

Luna. OrbiSy O Orbis^ 

Come to me thou little rogue Otbis. 
Enter the Earth. 
Orb, What calls Terra firma^ j^rsy? 



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laS ILLUSTRATIONS, 6v. 

To File and Polilh Videan't Net, 
Which hel catch Mars and Veftus in. 

Aur, What now? [Laughtti^ 

Phab, To laugh the Smiths b^: 
At forious Vulcan (halti^ off 
To meafure his wife's Bed) they fco(t 

Aur. II leave the place ; I can no more 
Endure the Laughter than the Roar. 

Phah, Heark, they record, they^ fing anon ; 
•Tis time for Pkabus to be gone ; 
For when fuch Lyrick Afles bray, 
The God of Mufique cannot (lay. 

\ExeufU Phoebus and AuionL 

Tlu Cyclops Song {juriUUn). 

Cry our Ware, (Sooty Fellows 
Of the Forge and the Bellows) 
Has ymft any Okes to rend? 
Has Ceres Sickles to mend T 
Wants Neptume a Water-Fork f 
All thefe are the Cyclops work ; 
But to Wire-draw Iron-rods, 
To File Nets to catch the Gods, 
What can make our 6ngers fo fine ! 
Drink, drink. Wine, L^pari-itvat^ 

ii IL Stapylton. Tht SUghUdMaid, pp. 80-83. ^^ l^i* 



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ACT. V. THE REHEARSAI^ 119 

Luna, Luna that ne'er (hines by day. 
Orb, What means Luna in a veil ? 
Luna, Luna means to (hew her tail 

Enter Sol. 
Sol, Fie, Siller, fie ; thou mak'ft me mufe, 
Dery, dery down. 
To fee thee Orb abufe. 
Luna, I hope his anger 'twill not move ; 
Since I did it out of love. 

Hey down, dery down. 
Orb. Where (hall I thy true love know, 

Thou pretty, pretty Moon? 
Ztfno. To morrow foon, ere it be noon, 

On Mount Vejuvio. [His. 

So/, Then I will (hine. 
Orb. And I will be fine. 

Luna. And we will drink nothing but Lipary wine. 
Omncs, Andwe, 6ir. 

Bayes. So, now, vani(h Eclipfe, and enter t'other 
Battel, and fight Here now, if I am not miftaken, 
you will fee fighting enough. 

A battd is fought between foot and great Hobby- 
horfes. At lafl^ Drawcanfir comes in^ and kUls 
^em all on both fides. All this while the Battel is 
fightingy Bayes is telling them when to/hout^ and 
Jhauts with ^em. 
Draw, Others may boafl a fingle man to kill ; 
But I, the bloud of thoulands, daily fpiU. 
Let petty. Kings the names of Parties know : 
Where e'er I come, I flay both fiiend and foe. 
The fwiftefl. Horfmen my fwift rage controuls. 
And firom their Bodies drives their trembling fouls. 
If they had wings, and to the Gods could Sie, 
I would purfue, and beat 'em, through the skie : 
And make proud yove^ with all his Thunder, fee. 
This fingle Arm more dreadful is, than he. {Eodt. 

Bayes. There's a brave fellow for you now. Sirs. I 
have read of your He^or^ your Achilles^ and a hundred 
I 



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130 ILLUSTRATIONS, &^ 



* Valeria, Danditer to Maximit^ baying kflTd her felf for 
fhe Lore of Porfhyrius, when (he was to be ctnyd off by the 
Bearers, ftrikes one of them a Box on the Ear, and fpeaks to him 
thus— 

Hold I are yon mad? von damn'd confomided Dog, 
I am to rife, and fpeak the Epilogue. 
£pilogat to ^t/econd edition of lyrannuk Levi, 1672. 



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ACT. ▼. THE REHEARSAL. 131 

more ; but I defie all your Hiflories, and your Ro- 
mances too, I gady to mew me one fuch Conqueror, 
as this Drawcanfir. 

Johns. I fwear, I think you may. 

Sbh. But, Mr. Bayes^ how (hall all thefe dead men 
go off? for I fee none alive to help *em. 

Bayes. Go off 1 why, as they came on; upon their 
1^ : how Ihould they go off? Why, do you think the 
people do not know they are not dead ? He is mighty 
ignorant, poor man ; your friend here is very fil y, 
Mr. yohnfon^ I gad, he is. Come, Sir, II (how you go 
off Rife, Sirs, and go about your bulinefs. There's 
go off for yoiL Hark you, Mr. Ivory. Gentlemen, Tl 
be with you prefently. \jExii. 

Johns. Will you fo ? then wel be gone. 

Smi. I, pr'ythee let's go, that we may preferve oiur 
hearing. One Battel more would take mine quite 
away. \Eoceunt. 

Enter Bayes and Players. 

Baves. Where are the Gentlemen? 

I Play, They are gone. Sir. 

Bayes. Gone ! 'Sdeath, this lafl A<5t is beft of alL 
1*1 go fetch *em again. * \ExU. 

3 Play, Stay, here's a foul piece of papyr of his. 
Let's fee what 'tis. 

\Reads. The Argument of the Fifth Ail, 

Claris^ at length, being fenfible of Prince Pretty^ 
man^s paflion, confents to marry him ; but, juil as they 
are gomg to Church, Prince Pretty-man meeting, by 
chance, with old ^oan the Chandlers widow, and 
remembring it was (he that brought him acquainted 
with Cloris : OMt of a high point of honour, break off 
his match with Claris^ and marries old yoan. Upon 
which, CloriSf in defpair, drowns her felf: and 
Prince Pretty-man^ difcontentedly, walks by the River 
fide. 

I Play. Pox on't, this will never do: 'tis juft like 
the reft. Come, let's be gone. \Exeunt. 



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t 



132 ILLUSTRATIONS, 



* Abont the time of the Reftoration and for fome years after 
the Cdhionable hour of dining was twelve o'clock, and the play 
began at three. Bp. Perey, 

At the end of Sir W. D'Avenant's " The Cruelty of the 
Spaniards in Peru, Expred bv Inflrumentall and Vocall Mufick, 
and by Art of Perfpe<5live in Scenes, &c. Reprefented daily at 
the Cothpit in Drury-Lane, At Three aftemoone punctually" 
London 1658 : is the following notice : 

• Notwithstanding the great expence necefTary to Scenes, and 
other ornaments in this Entertainment, there is a good provifion 
made of places for a (hilling. And it (hall begin certainly at 3 
after noon.' 

7^ Rehearsal is therefore fupposed to take place in tlu 
morning. 



\ 



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ACT. V. THE REHEARSAL. 133 

Enter Bayes 

Bayes. a plague on 'em both for me, they have 
made me fweat, to run after 'em. A couple of fence- 
leis rafcals, that had rather go to dinner, than fee this 
Play out, with a pox to 'em. What comfort has a man 

to write for fuch dull rogues ? Come Mr. a 

Where are you, Sir? come away quick, quick. 

Enter Players aqain. 

Play, Sir, they are gone to dinner. 

Bayes. Yes, I know the Gentlemen are gone ; but 
I ask for the Players. 

Play. Why, an't pleafe your worlhip, Sir, the Play- 
ers are gone to dinner too. 

Bayes. How! are the Players gone to Dinner? 
'Tis impolTible : the Players gone to dinner ! I gad, if 
they are, I'l make 'em know what it is to injure a 
perfon that does 'em the honour to write for 'em, and 
all that A company of proud, conceited, humorous, 
crofs-grain'd perfons, and aU that I gad, I'l make 'em 
the moil contemptible, defpicable, inconsiderable per- 
fons, and all that, in the whole world, for this trick. 
I gad, I'l be reveng'd on 'em ; I'l fell this Play to the 
odier Houfe. 

Play. Nay, good. Sir, don't take away the Book ; 
you'l diiappoint the Town, that comes to fee it adled 
here, this afternoon. 

Bayes. That's all one. I muft referve this comfort 
to my felf, my Book and I will go together, we will 
not part, indeed. Sir. The Town ! why, what care I 
for die Town? I gad, the Town has us'd me as fcurvily, 
as the Players have done : but 1*1 be reveng'd on them 
too : I will both Lampoon and print 'em too, I gad. 
Since they will not admit of my Plays, they (hall know 
what a Satyrift I am. And fo farewel to this Sta^e for 
ever, I gad. {Exit. 

\ Play. What (hall we do now ? 



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134 ILLUSTRATIONS. &€. 



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ACT. V. THE REHEARSAL. 135 

9 Play, Come then, let*s fet u^ Bills for another 
Play : We (hall lofe nothing by this, I warrant you. 

1 Play, I am of your opinion. But, before we go^ 
let* s fee Haynes^ and Shirl^ pradlife the lafl Dance ; 
for that may ferve for another Play. 

2 Play, ri call 'em : I think they are in the Tyring- 
xoom. 

The Dance done. 
t Play. Comei come ; lef s go away to dinner. 

\Exeisniomneu 



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EPILOGUE. 

|He Fay b JU an csi>l bat wbcres tibc P!cc? 
"nut ctnrtcnflisce ocr Poet /IrjCT ixsczot. 
Ar^.^. wt' CIS NM:il.:rx>Ci:h "^ * pIotrz^A^ 

I'Vy tfxc^ $s^rr^ w^,:5i x> sicsci « oc fb:r« 
TWl w'S> b«v>c;fi^.: 4Siy rs». w^ecc one wr^ 3icc^: 
H«l :^^ tsfv wj^T ot wu sX^«^ i." iirrrjif^ 

WVi^ >ii^ >^tx V^Ntr H^titv* K.*iLC0,. ICC ^ ^t^nm^r 



.^ 



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lEnglf# mri^tint^. 



JOHN SELDEN. 



TABLE-TALK. 

1689. 



wepi Tavrbs t^v {\ev0eptap 
(Above all things. Liberty.) 



CAREFULLY EDITED BY 

EDWARD ARE K R, 

Affociate, Kin^s College, London, F.S.A., F.R.G.S., &»c. 



Lakcb Paper Edition. 



LONDON : 

5 gUEEN SQUARE, BLOOMSHURY, W.C. 
Eni.Stai.Hnm I March, 1869. {AH Ri^s referved. 



1 / 



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CONTENTS. 



Chronicle of the Life, Works, and Times, of John Selden 9 

Introduction, 9 

Bibliography, 12 

table-talk: ... 13 

1. The Table 14 

2. Dedication to Selden's Trustees, by Rev. Richard 

Milward, sometime his amanuensis . • • 16 

3. Thb Discourses of John Selden, Esq. 9 • i; 




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CHRONICLE 

of 
fome of the principal events 
in the 

Life, Works, and Times 

of 

JOHN SELDEN. 

Andquary, Philologist, Heraldist, Linguist, Jurist, Statesman, Ac 

* Probable or approximate dates. 

A Life of Selden does not exist : to the great reproadi of tfat Lawyera 
All accounts of him are but sketches. 

Few of Selden's many works have been mentioned here, for want of roace. 
A list of them is given m Dr. Aikin's Life o/ Selden, pp. 197-9. ^<^' loia. 

1558. ^H. 17. SUr«(rt) (rgfns to rtfgn. 

' John Selden, the glory of the English nation, as 

Hugo Grotius worthily stiles him. son of John Selden, 
by Margaret his wife, the onlv daughter of Thomas 
Baker of Rushington, (descended from the knightly 
family of the Bakers in Kent) was bom in an obscure 
village called Salvington near to Tcrring a market town 
in Sussex. His father .... was a sufficient plebeian, 
and delighted much in music, by the exercising of which 
he obtained (as 'tis said) his wife, of whom our famous 

1584. Dec. 16. author Jo. Selden was bom on the i6th of Decemb. 1584. 
Wood, Atk. Oxon. iii. 366. Ed. 181 7. 

The birthplace of John Selden is Salvington, a hamlet 
of the parish of West Tarring, in the coimty of Sussex. 
Tarring is about two miles from Worthing. . . . TTic 
cottage in which he was bora still remains. It was then 
known as Lacies, being the residence attached to a farm 
of abput eighty-one acres. The date of 1601 is upon its 
front G. IV. yohnsoH. Memoirs of John Selden^ 
»• 33- 34. Ed, 1835. 
Dec aa * 1^84— John, the sonne of John Selden, the minstrell, 
was baptized the aoth day of EJNecember.' Parish Register 
o/West Tarring, 

Besides John there were two younger sons, who died 
infants^ and a daughter, who married to a John Bemard 
of Gonng in Sussex : by whom she had two sons and 
four daughters. They appear to have remained in humble 

V situations. JohnsoH, /. 36. 

He was ' insdructed in p^rammar learning in the Free 
School at Chichester, under Mr. Hugh Barker of New 
College [Oxford].' Wood, idem. 

On the inside of the jintel of his birthplace and home 

" is carved a Latin distich, said to have been composed 

i$9S. ;<at la by Selden when only ten years old. . . . The following 

literal copy made at the time of a personal inspection 

[in August 1834] is submitted to the reader's judgement 

GRATVS HOncSte^IH" NO cbVDaR INITO SEDEB* 
FVR ABEAS : NO SV FACTA SOLVTA TIBI. 

The last character of the first line is somewhat imperfect. 
It probably was intended as a contraction of ' que.* In 
this case the literal translation is ' Honest friend thou 
art welcome to me, I will not be closed, enter and be 
seated. Thief? begone, I am not open to thee"* 
Jofmson, idem. 



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4 CHRONICLE. 

''1600. Mich. tenn. By the care and advice of his sdioohnaster. Seldea 
let. ij. enters Hart Hall, Oxford : and is 'committed to the 
tuition of Mr. Anthony Barker, one of the Fellows,' 
•^ brother to his schoolmaster, by ' whom he was instructed 

^ in logic and philosophy for about three yean, which 

with great facility he conquered.' Wood. idem. 

* Sir Giles Mompessen told me, that he was then of 
that house, and that Selden was a long scabby-pord boj 
but a good student.' Aubrey MSS* qnoUd m Blinre 
Edition of Wood; uieupra. 
V^i6o8. set. 17. Becomes a member of Clifford's Inn. 

1603. |i«r. 24. Jsnus I. stumps to tte Gngllsft (rem. 
1604. May. ^ Removes to the Inner Temple. *' His chamber was 
set. 19- in the Paper buildings which looke towards the garden, 

staire-case, uppermost story, where he had a 

little gallery to walke in. He was qutckly taken notice 
of for his learning."— -«4ji*^nrv MSS., idem. 

After he had continued there a sedulous student for 
some time, he did by the help of a strong body and vast 
memory, not only run through the whole body of the 
law, but became a prodigy in most parts of leamins, 
especially in those which were not common, or UoJe 
frequented, or regarded by the generality of students 
of nis time. So that in few years his name was 
wonderfully advanced, not only at home, but in forretgn 
countries, and was usually stiled the great dictator <^ 
learning of the English nation. 

He seldom or never appeared publickly at the bar, 
(tho* a bencher) but gave sometimes chamber-counsel, 
and was good at conveyance. 

He had a very choice library of books, u well MSS. 
as printed, in the beginning 01 all or most of which he 
wrrote either in the title, or leaf before it, ir«pi martin TJpv 
k\**Stq{w. Above all, Libbrty; to shew, that he 
would examine things, and not take them upon trust. 
Wood. Idem. 

[Dr. Bliss, on this, says, I shall take leave to render 
the words Above etery thing, Liberty ! 
That is, liberty is dearer to me and more desirable than 
every other blessing ; even than life itself: a sentiment 
worthy not only of Sclden. but of every one who calls 
himself an Englishman."— If <w/. Jdem.'\ 

He was solicitor and steward for the Eairle of Kent.— 
Aubrey MSS. idem. 
^ 1607. M. aa. He publishes his first work i4i«aZrr^«^ii;r^2^^r(!AM««rtf»i. 
> i6f a. et. a7 He furnishes Drayton with notes to the first 18 Chi^ 
g I ters of his Polyolbion published the nejtt year. 

>> 1614. ttt.ap. "' "■ ' ' — '" '*■ • 

idem. 



I 



1614. ttt. 99. He publishes Titles of Hononr^ <his largest English, 
and in the opinion of Usher, his best woric'— ToAmmm, 
idem. 

161 y. Wi. 3a. He publishes De Diit Syris. Syntagmata dnc: a 
history of the Idol deities of the Old Testament 

i6ia St. 55. [Preface dated Apr. 4.] Selden publishes 7*4/ /^w/tfrw 
0/ Tithes, that is, The practice 0/ payment 0/ them. The 
positive laws made for them. The opinions touching 
the right o/them. Whereupon a needless ecclesiastical 
uproar arises. Selden tells us "Having at length . . . 
composed it, I committed it to the censure of one that 
had the powei of licensing it for the press. I left it with 
him, and to his own time, and without so much as any 
further request from me to him. He sent it to me i! 



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CHRONICLE. 5 

^th ita exit and subscription of kis namt. Then was 
it printed, and until it was wholly printed, I never had 
the least expression of any dislike to it from any man 
that had any authority ox power of command^ either in 
the state, or in the church. — Omna opera, iiu 1456. 
Doe* The king, who had no knowledge of Sclden but through 

the misrepresentations of his courtiers, summoned hun 
by his secretary, Sir Robert Naunton, to appear, with 
his work, at the Palace of Theobalds. * I,' says Seldcn, 
' being then entirely a stranger to the court, and known 



personally there to a very few, was unvrilling to go thither 
unaccomi>anied.' and conseauently he obtained the attend • 
ance of bis old friend and fclIow-tcmplar, Edward Hey- 



ward, of Reepham, in Norfolk, and of Ben Jonson^ 
'princeps poetanmi,' to introduce him to the king. . . . 
Selden nad two conferences with King James at Theo- 
bald's, and one at Whitehall^ and bears testimony in 
several parts of his after-wntings to the ability and 
courtesy of his Majesty. — 7ohMstm. pjx 64, 67. 
161^ Jan* 38. Selden however is cited before tne High Commission 
«t 34. Coiurt at Lambeth Palace. One of his opponents. Dr. 
Richard Tilleslcy, Archdeacon of Rochester, in his 
Animadversions upon Mr. Selden' s History 0/ Tyihes 
and his Revinv thereof, and Edition, i6ai, triumphantly 
quotes the following : — 

His submission because he denicth to haue beene in 
ike High Commission Court, and for that in my A nswere 
to his Famphlet it is not so perfitly related, may it please 
thee Reader, here to reade it whole out of the Registry 
of that Court. 

Vicesimo octauo die Mensis lanuarij. Anno Domini 
iuxtaComputationem Ecclesitr Anglicnnee 1618. Coram 
Reuerendissimo in Christo patre. Domino Georgio, pro- 
utdentia diuina Cantuariensi Archiepiscopo, totiits 
Angiia Primate et Metropolitano, lohanne London, 
Lancelot H^inton, et lohanne Reffen, eadem Prouidentia 
respectiu^ Episcopis : lohanne Bennet, Willielmo Bird 
et Georgia Newman, MUiiibus, in Manerio Archie- 
piscopali apud Lambehith in Comitatu Surrey, iudi- 
ciaitter seaentibus : prtesent* Thoma Mottershed. 

Officium Dominorum contra /ohannrm Selden de 
imteriori Tempto London, Armigerum. 

This dav appeared personally lohn Selden Esquire, 
•nd made nis submission all vnder his owne hand wntin;;, 
touching the publication of his Booke entituled The His- 
tory of nthes. Sub tenore verborum seqnente. 

"My good Ix>rds, I most humbly acknowledge mv 
errour, which I haue committed in publishing the flistory 
^ Tithes, waA especially, in that I have at all by shewing 
any interpretation of holy Scriptures, by medling with 
Councelsj Fathers, or Canons,^ or by what elsesocucr 
occurres m it, offered any occasion of Argument against 
any right of Maintenance /»r/ Diuino of the Ministers 
of the Gospell: Beseediing your Lordiihips to receiuc 
this ingenuous and humble acknowledgement, together 
with the vn feigned protestition of my griefe, for that 
dirough it I haue so incurred both his Majesties and 
your Lordtihips displeasure conceiued against mee in the 
behalfe of the Church of England.— /«»*» Selden.** 

The High Commission Court suppress his book. 

This ' usage sunk so deep into his stomach, that he did 



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CHRONICLE, 

never after affect the bishops and clergy, or cordially 
approve their calling, tho' many ways were tried to gain 
him to the church's interest.' — IVood^ idem. 
1619. Seldcn's father dies. 

About this time finishes his .work on the Soverei^ty 

of the sea, Mare Clausum, seu tU Dominio Marts in 

answer to Grotius' Mare liberum. Not published till 

1635. For history of this book, see Johnson, pp aoy-aia 

i6ai. Dr. Richard Mounta^ — afterwards Bp. in succession 

of Chichester and Norwich — publishes his Diairil^ v^on 

the Jirst part of the late History of Tythes. King 

James tells Selden ' If you or your friends write anything 

against his [Dr. M's] confutation, I will throw you into 

^ prison.' — Mare Clausum. See Opera Omnia, li. 1423. 

g^ji6a4. Feb. I a — King fames' last Parliament. Selden first appearance 

Maj 39. flBt. 39. in the House^ as M.P. for Lancaster. See John Forster's 

admirable Life of Sir John Eliot, London 1864, for the 

best account of Selden's early Parliamentary career. 

Trinity Selden is chosen Reader of Lyon's Inn. He refuses 

term the office thrice. 

Oct. 2 1 . The Benchers' di.spleasure is thus recorded in their 

Register. " The masters of the bench, taking into con- 
sideration his contempt and ofifcncc, and for that it is 
without precedent that any man elected to read in 
chancery has been discharged in the Uke case, much 
less has with such wilfulness tcfused to read the same, 
have ordered that he shall presently pay to the use of 
this hou.<w the sum of twenty pounds for his fine, and 
that he stand and be disabled ever to be called to the 
bench, or to be Reader of this house." — Johnson, p.m. 

1625. ifBar. 27- ifTtiarUs I. tcromrs king. 
i6a6. Feb.6-June King Charles* second Parliament. Selden is returned 
1$. act 41. for Great Bcdwin in Wilts. During the session is en- 
trusted with the 4th and 5th articles of the Impeachment 
of the Duke of Buckingham. 
i6a8. Mar. 17. King Charles' third Parliament. Selden is member 
for Ludgershal. I'akes part in the preparation of ' ITie 
Petition of Right.' 
^1639. Mar. 10. He and others are imprisoned for several months. 
163a. set. 47. The Benchers of Inner Temple rescind their order of 
( »624. 

I Michs. Term. Selden is elected a Bencher of then- Inn. 
' 1639. «t 54. The Earl [of Kent] died in 1639, without issue, and 
«2 from that time Selden appears to have made the family 

8 mansions at Wrest in Bedfordshire, and White Friars in 

S London, his places of residence. Aubrey says he mar- 

.§ ricd the Countess Dowager, and that *he never owned 

V the marriage with the Countess of Kent till after her 

g j death, upon some lawe account. He never kept any 

•^ I servant peculiar, but my ladie's were all of his command ; 

he lived with her in CEdibus CarmeUtids (White 
Fryers) which was, before the conflagration, a n«ble 
dwelling. He kept a plentifull table, and was never 
/ without learned company.' — Aubrey MSS. 

164a Nov. 3. The Ixjng Parlbmcnt assembles. Selden sits for 

Bt. ii Oxford University. For his share in public transactions, 
see John Forster s two works published in London i860. 
The Grafid Remonstrance and The A rrest of the Fivi 
Members. 
1643 May. The King being half-minded to dismiss the Lord 

aet. .<7. Kceocr Littleton, commands Hyde and I.ord Falkland 



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CHRONICLE, 7 

to report whether Selden should be offered the Great 
Seal. Their report wa« : " They did not doubt of Mr. 
SeUen'i Affection to the Kine, but withal they knew 
him so well, that they concluded, he would absolutely 
refuse the place, if it were offer'd to him. He was in 
years, and of a tender constitution ; he had for many 
years enjoyed his ease, which he loved ; was rich ; and 
would not have made a Journey to Vcrk^ or have layn 
out of his own bed, for any Preferment, which he had 
never affected."— C^/mu^it, Hist. 0/ the BebeUion. Bk, 
iv. 44^. Ed. 170a. 
1645. at 58. Whitelock in his MenwriaU^ tells us : "Divers Mem- 
bers of both Houses, whereof I was one, were Members 
of the Assembly of Divines, and had the same Liberty 
with the Divines to »t and debate, and give their Votes 
in any Matter which was in consideration amonsst 
them : In which Debates Mr. Selden spake admirably, 
and confuted divers of them in their own Learning. And 
sometimes when they had cited a Text of Scripture to 
prove their Assertion, he would tell them. Perhaps m 
your littU Pocket Bibles with gilt Leaves (which they 
would often pull out and read) the Translation may be 
thus, but the Greek or the Hebrew, signiHes thus and 
thus; and so would totally silence them.'^/. 71. Ed.i-iyt. 
1643. Dec. I a. On the presenution of Philip, Count of Pembroke : 
Selden's amanuensis. Rev. Richard Milward, becomes 
Rector of Great Braxted, in Essex. He holds this Uving 
until his death. Newcourt Re^frtorium^ ii. 9a, Ed. 17 10. 
1645. Apr. 0t 60. Is one of a joint commission of both houses to ad- 
minister the Admiralty. 
Aug. Is elected Master of Trinity Hall, Cambridge : but 

declines it 
1647. Jan. 11. The House of Commons votes those members im- 
prisoned in i6a8 ' for oppressing the illegalities of that 
time,' jCsoco each. Selden is believed to have only 
< accepted one-half. 

1631. Dec 3. The Countess Dowager of Kent dies in White Friars. 

Hev. y. Granger. Biogr. Hist. ii. ^75, Ed. 177 J. She 
appointed Selden her executor, and bequeathed to him 
the Friary House, in ^Vh^te Friars. Johnson^ idem. 
The opinion that he then and thus attained his chief 
riches is contradicted by the fact that he was reputed a 
rich man in 164a. 

He would tell his intimate friends. Sir Bennet 
Hoskyns, &c., that he had nobody to make his heire, 
except it were a milk-mayd, and that such people did 
not know what to doe with a great estate. A nhrey AfSS. 
1633. June II. Selden makes his will [printed in Omnia O/era, I. liii. 
«C68. Ed. 1736.1 He leaves the bulk of his property, esti- 
mated at ^40,000, to his four executors ; Exfward Hey- 
ward, Esq., Matthew Hale (afterwards Lord Chief 
Justice of the King's Bench), John Vaughan (afterwards 
Lord Chief Justice of the Common Picas), and Rowland 
Jewks the elder. Aubrey says : " He intended to haue 
given his owne library to the Vniversity of Oxford, but 
received disobligatinn from them, for that thev would 
not lend him some M SS. wherefore by his will he left it 
to the disposall of his executors, who gave it to the Bod- 
leian library at Oxon .... He would write some- 
times, when notions caine into his head, to preserve 
them, imder his barbe^'^ hands. When he dyed, his 
barbca' sayd he had a grea^ mind to know his will.' For,' 



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w3l' 



CHROmCLR. 
he* 'I nerer kneir a wise mm make a iHm 

i6^ Nor. 50. mt. 69. John Sdden dies atWbite Frian, of dropsr. 

. Dec 14. Is magnificently buried in the Tempk dum^ His 

eaecoton 'inrited all the naritamrnt men, aO the 

bendiers, and great oflicers. All the judges had mourn- 

as also an abundance of persons of qualitv.* Ardi- 

p Usher preached his funeral sennon. Wood^idmt, 

We mav adduce the testimony of three contemporaries >- 

I. G. Berkeley, Earl of Berkeley, in his HistoriaU AfpUcaHont tmdoect^ 
nonal Meditattotu uf^on several nthj'ect*. Written by a Persom <if Honour, 
London 1670, p. 12. gives us the following— 

Our Learned Selden^ before he dy«i, sent for the most Reverend Ardi-Bishop 
Viher, and the Rev. Dr. Langbatne, and discoursed to them of this purpose ; 
That he had snrtieyd most part of the LeamtHg that was among the Sons of 
Men ; that he had his Study full of Books and Papers o/mMtSnbjecU in the 
world : yet at that time he could not recollect anyfassagnt out ofinjinite Books 
and Manuscripts he was Master of wherein he could if est hu Soul, sieve out 
of the Holy Scriptures; wherein the most remarkable peuseigt that lay most 
upon his spirit was Titus iL 1 1, is, 13, 1 4. 

s. E.Hyde, Lord Clarendon, in his Autobiography, written aboutsoyearsafter 
Selden's death, gives the following character of mm, in which may be traced 
admiration for his character and abilities ; and r^ret. it may be sneering re> 
sentment, at his choosing the side of the Parliament in the Gvil War. 

'* Mr. Selden was a Person, whom no Character can flatter, or transnut 
in any Expressions equal to his Merit and Virtue ; He was of so stupendous 
Learning in all Kinds, and in all Languages (as may appear in his excellent 
and transcendent Writings) that a man would have thought He had been 
entirely conversant amongst Books, and had never spent an Hour but in 
Reading and Writing ; yet his Humanity, Courtesy, and Affiibility was such, 
that He would have been thought to have been bred in the best Courts, but 
that his good Nature, Charity, and Delight in doing good, and in communi- 
cating aH He knew, exceeded that Breeding : His Sule in all his Writings 
seems harsh and sometimes obscure : which is not wholly to be imputed to 
the abtruse Subjects of which He commonly treated, out of the Paths trod 
by other Men ; but to a little undervaluing the Beauty of a Stile, and too 
much Propensity to the Language of Antiquity ; but in his Conversation 
He was the most clear Discourser, and had the best Faculty in making hard 
Things easy, and presenting them to the Understanding, of any Man that 
hath been luiown. Mr. Hifde was wont to say, that He vsdued hunself upon 
nothing more than upon havine had Mr. Seldeii% Acquaintance from the 
Time He was very young ; and held it with ereat Delient as long as Thev 
were suffered to continue together in London; and lie was verv much 
troubled always when He hevd him blamed, censured, and reproached, fw 
staying in London, and in the Parliament, after They were in Rebellion, and 
in uie worst Times, which his Age obliged him to do ; and how wicked soever 
the Actions were, which were every Dav done. He was confident He had 
not given his Consent to them ; but would have hindered them if He could, 
with his own Safety, to which He was always enough indulgent. If He had 
some Infirmities with other Men, they were wdgheddown with wonderful and 
prodidous Abilities and Excellencies m the other ScUe." — Life^p. 16. Ed, 1 759. 

5. Rev. Richard Baxter, in his Additional Notes on the Lift attd Death of 
Sir Matthew Hale. Kt. London 1682. p. 40, dius writes :— 

**I know jrou are acquainted, how gseatly he [Sir M. Halej valued Mr. 
Selden, being one of his Executors; his Books and Picture being still near 
him. I think it meet therefore to remember, that because many Hobbists 
do report, that Mr. Selden was at the heart an Infidel, and inchned to the 
Opimons of Hobbs, I desired him [Sir M. Hale] to tell me Uie truth herein ; 
And he oft professed to me, that Mr. Selden was a resolved serious Christian ; 
and that he was a great adversary to Hobbs his errors ; and that he had seen 
him openly oppose him so earnestly, as either to depaut, ftom him, or drivt 
him out ol the Room." 



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THE 

TABLE-TALK of JOHN SELDEN. 




INTRODUCTION. 

BOOK of Apothegms is an armoury of 
thoughts more or lefs felicitoufly ex- 
preffed. Rightly read, it a6ls as a tonic 
on the mind. The subjedls are fo dil- 
conne<5led and follow the one the other fo 
rapidly : the opinions and arguments are fo incifively 
expreffed, and are often fo apparently contradi<5lory 
and paradoxical : that the whole work becomes hard to 
read, and flill harder te digefl. Rapid reading of fuch 
condenfed thought is unprodudlive ; careful (ludy, 
however, makes it both enjoyable and fruitful : and 
that in proportion to the adlivity of the reader's mind. 
It is clear, therefore, that Apothegms are rather fub- 
jedls for confideration than articles for belief. They 
mud be thoroughly examined. They mufl be, fo to 
fpeak, unravelled and unfolded, that their inwrapped 
principles may be underftood in their nature, applica- 
tions, and confequences ; in order that concinnated 
fpeech may not beguile us from truth, or aphorifms 
charm us into injuflice and error. 

It is further evident, that our final judgment of the 
opinions of the Author mud be fufpended until we 
thus poifefs his whole work. In particular, in the 
prefent inflance, we fhould not forget that we have 
but flray firagments of talk, feparated from the context 
of cafual and unreftrained converfations ; coUefted 
— probably without the Speaker's knowledge — one, two, 
or three at a time, over a period of twenty years ; and 
cla(rifiedlongafterwards,asfeemed bed to their Preferver. 



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30 IntroduSHoti, 

Thefe Sayings were publifhed thirty-five years after 
Selden's death, and nine years after their recorder — 
the Rev. Richard Milward, S.T.P., who died Canon of 
Windfor, Re<5tor of Great Braxted, and Vicar of Ifle- 
worth — ^had paffed away. While they are, therefore, 
thus doubly poflhumous in publication, they mufl be 
long antedated in utterance. Table- Talk belongs 
chiefly, if not entirely, to 1634 — 1654, and therefore 
appertains to the firll rather than the fecond half of 
the Seventeenth century. 

Thefe Difcourfes (how fomewhat of the mind, but 
not the whole mind of Selden, even in the fubjedls 
treated of. What mufl have been the fulnefs of infor- 
mation, the aptnefs of illuftration, the love of truth, 
the juflnefs of reafoning, when fuch fragments as thefe 
could be picked up by a cafual hearer? Bacon's 
Effays are mod carefully finifhed compofitions : 
Selden's Tahle-Talk is the fpontaneous incidental out- 
pouring of an overflowing mind ; and yet it may not 
unwor&ily compare with the former. 

Pafling by acute infigbt into human nature, and 
great antiquarian refearch, can we gather, however 
imperfe<5lly, from the prefent work, any idea as to 
what Selden's main opinions were ? We think we may. 

In this work, as elfewhere, John Selden is the 
Champion of Human Law. It fell to his lot to live in 
a time when the life of England was convulfed, for 
years together, beyond precedent ; when men fearched 
after the ultimate and eflential conditions and frames 
of human fociety ; when each ftrove fiercely for his 
nghis^ and then as dogmatically aflerted them. 

Amidft immenfe, prepofterous, and inflated aflunip- 
•ions ; through the horrid tyranny of the fyftem of the 
Ihorough; in the exciting debates of Parliament; in 
all the ftorm of the Civil War ; in the ftill fiercer 
jarring of religious fedls ; amidft all the phenomena of 
that age ; Selden clung to * the Law of the Kingdom.' 
* All is as the State pleafes.' He advocates the 



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Tntrodu6Hon, ii 

fupreniacy of Human Law againft the fo-called GCxSbine 
of Divine Right. He thrufts out the Civil Power 
againft all Ecclefiaftical pretenfions, and raifing it to 
be the higheft authority in the State, denies the exift- 
ence of any other co-ordinate power. So ftrongly does 
he affert the power of the Nation to do or not to do, 
that, for the purpofe of his argument, he reduces Re- 
ligion almoft to a habit of thought, to be affumed or 
caft oflf, like a fafhion in drefs, at will. * So Religion 
was brought into kingdoms, fo it has been continued, 
and fo it may be caft out, when the State pleafes.' ♦ 
* The Clergy tell the Prince they have Phyiick good 
for his Soul, and good for the Souls of his People, upon 
that he admits them: but when he finds by Experience 
they both trouble him and his People, he will have no 
more to do with them, what is that to them or any 
body elfe if a King will not go to Heaven *t 'The 
State ftill makes the Religion and receives into it, 
what will beft agree with it*§ 

Selden lodges the Civil Power of England, in the 
King and the Parliament He (hews that our Eng- 
lifti Conftitution is but one great Contradl between 
two equal Princes, the Sovereign and the People ; 
and that if that Contraft be broken, both parties are at 
parity again. That, by a like confent, the majority in 
Englanxi governs ; the minority affenting to the judge- 
ment of the majority, and being involved in their 
decifion. Finally, reducing all relationlhips to like 
mutual Agreements, he urges the keeping of Contracts, 
as the effential bond of Human fociety. * Keep your 
Faith,' 

The way thefe views are enforced, fully juftifies Lord 
Clarendon's opinion of him, that * in his Converlation 
He was the moft clear Difcourfer, and had the beft 
Faculty in making hard Things eafy, and prefenting 
them to the Unclerftanding, of any Man that hath 
been known.' J 

• p. »g. f p. 36. § p. f3a J p. 8. 



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BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

THE TABLE-TALK OF JOHN SBLDBKi 

* Editions not feen. 

(•) issitcs to i^t Snttf ('8 lifetime. 

None, 

(t) Bsoes since t^ author's Heitft. 

L As a feparaU publication. 

1. 1689. London. EdiHo princeps : fee title on oppofite 

I voL 4to. page. 

2. 1696. London. *The Second Edition' of No, L 

I vol. 8vo. Printed for Jacob Tonfon. 

8 * 1698. London. According to BriHJh Mufeum Caia* 

I vol 8va logue, 

4. 1 716. London. *The Third Edition' of Na 1. 

I voL I2ma Printed for Jacob Tonfon. 

6. •1786. London. With a life of the Author. Lowndes. 

I vol. i2mo. 

7. •1789, London. With a dedication to C. J., Efq., 

I vol. 24mo. printed in red letter. Lowndes, 

8. •1819. Edinburgh. With notes by David Irving, LUD. 

I voL I2ma 

9. 1847. London. The Table-Talk of John Selden 

I voL 8va Efqre., with a biographical preface and 
notes by S. W. Singer Efqre. 
la •1847. London. Table-Talk. Englijk Catalogue. 

I vol. 32ma 
11. 1854. Edinburgh. The Table Talk of John Selden : 
I vol 8vo. with notes b^ David Irving, LL,D. 
Another edition of No. 8. 
18. 1856. London. Library of Old Authors. Second 

I vol. 8vo. edition of No. 9. 
18. i860. London. Library of Old Authors. Third 

I vol 8vo. edition of No. 9. 
li. I June, 1868. London. Englijh Reprints: fee title on page i. 
I vol 8vo. 

IL With other works. 

0. 1726. Londini. Joannis Seldeni lurifconfulti opera 

3 vols. (6 parts) foL omnia, tarn edita quam inedita. Edited 

by Rev. David Wilkins, S. T. P. 

Archdeacon of Suffolk, &c 'Table 

Talk' occupies iiL 2000— 2C^Ba 

•#• It is (Irange, that but for the efforts of two gentlemen. 
Dr. Irving and Mr. Singer, only a fmgle edition of Ae * Table 
Talk * would have appeared this century. The neglect of our 
Engliih mallerpieces of thought b a thii^ incredible. 



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Table-Talk .- 



BEING THE 



DISCOURSES 

OF 

John Selden Efq.j 

OR HIS 

SENCE 

Of Various 

MATTERS 

OF 

Weight and High Consequence 

Relating efpecially to 

Religion and State. 

Dijlingue Tempora. 

LONDON, 
Printed for E. Smithy in the Year MDCLXXXIX. 



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THE TABLE. 



A.bbies, Priories, &c. 

Articles, Baptifm, . • • 

Baflard, Bible, Scripture, • • 

Bifliops before the Parliamenti • 

Bifhops in the Parliament, • • 

Bifliops out of the Parliament, • 

Books, Authors, • • • 

Cannon Law, Ceremony, • • 

Chancellor, Changing Sides, • 

Chrifbnas, ChriiUans, . • 

Church, . . . • 

Church of Rome^ Churches, • 

City, Clergy, 

High Conmiiflion, Houfe of Commoni| 

Confeflion, Competency, 

Great Conjun<5lion, Confcience, 

Confecrated Places, Contraifls, • 

Council, Convocation, 

Creed, Damnation, . • 

Devils, . • . • 

Self-Denyal, . • • 

Duell, .... 

Epitaph, Equity, . . • 

Evil-Speaking, Excommunication, • 

Faith and Works, Fafling-days, 

Fathers and Sons, Fines, Free-will, 

Fryers, Friends, Genealogy of Chrill, 

Gentlemen, Gold, . 

Hall, HeU, 

Holy-davs, Humility, Idolatry, Jews, 

Invincible Ignorance, Images, 

Imperial ConAitutions, Imprifonment, Incendiaries, 

Independency, Things Indifferent, Publick Intereft, 

Humane Invention, Judgements, 

Judge, Juggling, Jurifdiclion, 

Jus Dtvinum, King, • 

king of England, . 

The King . 



22 

23 
27 

30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 

!l 

39 
40 

41 
42 
43 
44 

% 

50 
51 

52 

53 
54 

li 

59 
60 
61 
63 



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THE TABLE. 

Knights-Senrice, Land, Language, » 

Law, . . . . » 

Law of Nature, Learnings . • , 

Le<fhurers, Libels, ...» 
Liturgy, Lords in the Parliament, . • 

Xx)rds before the Parliament, Marriage, 
Marriage of Coufm- Germans, Meafure of Things, 
Difference of Men, Miniiler Divine, 
Money, . . . • • 

Moral Honefty, Mortgage, Number, . 

Oaths, .*..•• 

Oracles, Opinion, .... 
Parity, Parliament, • • • 

Parfon, Patience, Peace, . • , 

Penance, People, Pleasure, • , 

Philofophy, . • • • > 

Poetry, . . • • • 

Pope, . • • • • 

Popery, Power, State^ • • . 

Prayer, • . • • • 

Preaching, . • • • • 

Predeftination, . • • • 

Preferment, . • • « 

Praemimire, Prerogative, . • , 

Presbytery, . . • • 

Priefts of Rome, Prophecies, . , 

Proverbs, Queftion, Keafon, 
Retaliation, Reverence, Non-Refidency, . 
Religion, . . • . • 

Sabboth, Sacrament, 
Salvation, Sute, Superftition, 
Subfidies, Simony, Ship-Money, Synod, AfTembly, 
Thankfgiving, Tythes, 
Trade, ..... 

Tradition, Tranfubftantiation, Traitor, Trinity, 
Truth, Trial, .... 

Univerfity, Vows, . . • . 

Ufury, Pious Ufes, War, . . • 

Witches, . . • • • 

"Wife, Wifedom, • • • • 

Wit, Women, • • • • 

Year, • • • • • 

Zelot^ • • • • • 



15 

64 
65 
66 
67 
68 

69 
70 
71 

7| 
76 

77 
79 
80 
82 

P 

86 
88 
90 
91 

96 

97 
98 

99 

IOC 
lOI 

102 
105 

106 

loy 

109 

no 
III 

112 

114 
116 
117 
118 
119 
120 



"^^'^SSSSR^ 



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To the Honourable 

Mr. Juftice Hales,' 

One of the JUDGES 

OF THE 

Common- Pleas ; 

And to the much Honoured 

EDWARD HEY WOO D,"^ lOHN 
VAUGHANzxiA ROWLAND 
JEWKS, Efquires. 

Moil worthy Gentlemen, 

W Ere you not Executors to that Perfon^ whd 
{while he lii/d) was the Glory of the No- 
tion; yet 1 am Confident any thing of his 
would find Acceptance with you, and truly the Senfe and 
Notion here is wholy his, and moft of the words. I had 
the opportunity to hear his Difcourfe twenty Years together^ 
and leafi all thofe Excellent things that ufucUly fell from 
him might be lofiy fome of them from time to time I faith- 
fully committed to Writing, where here digefled into this 
Method,! humbly prefent to your Hands; you will quickly 
perceive them to be his by the familiar Illufirations where- 
with they arefetoff, and in which way you know he was 
fo happy, that {with a marvelous delight to thofe that 
heard him) he would prefently convey the highefl Points of 
Religion, and the mofi important Affairs of State to an 
ordinary apprehenfion. 

In reading be pleased to diflinguifh Times ^ and in your 
Fancy carry along with you, the When and the Why, 
many of thefe things were spoken; this will give them 
the more Life, and the fmarter Relifh, * Tis poffible the 
Entertainment you find in them, may render you the more 
inclinable to' pardon the Prefumption of 

Your moft Obliged and 

moft Humble Servant, 

RI:MILWARD. 

* Misprints for Mr. Justice Hale and Edward Heyward : se« p. 7* 



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THE 

DISCOURSES 



OP 



John Selden, Efq; 



WAMf 9ri0rM» &c. 

I. •" I "HE unwillingnefs of the Monks to part with 
I their Land, will fall out to be jufl nothing, 
•*■ becaufe they were yielded up to the King 
by a Supream Hand (viz.) a Parliament If a King 
conquer another Country, the People are loth to 
Idofe their Lands, yet no Divine will deny, but the 
King may give them to whom he pleafe. If a Parlia- 
ment make a Law concerning Leather, or any other 
Conmiodity, you and I for Example are Parliament 
Men, perhaps in refpe<Sl to our own private Interefls, 
we are againll it, yet the Major part conclude it, we 
are then involv'd and the Law is good. 

2. When the Founder of Abbies laid a Curfe upon 
thofe that fhould take away thofe Lands, I would fain 
know what Power they had to curfe me ; Tis not the 
Curfes that come from the Poor, or from any body, 
that hurt me, becaufe they come from them, but 
becaufe I do fomething ill againfl them that deferves 
God Ihould curfe me for it On the other fide 'tis not 
a man's Blefllng me that makes me bleffed, he only 
declares me to be fo, and if I do well I (hall be 
bleffed, whether any blefs me or not 

3. At the time of Diffolution, they were tender in 
taking from the Abbots and Priors their Lands and 
their Houfes, till they furrendred them (as mod of 

B . 



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I8 TABLE-TALK. 

them did) indeed the Prior of St /ohn\ Sir Richard 
WeJloHy being a flout Man, got into France^ and (lood 
out a whole year, at lad fubmitted, and the King took 
in that Priory alfo, to which the Temple belonged, 
and many other Houfes in England^ they did not then 
cry no Abbots, no Priors, as we do now no Bilhops, 
no Bifhops. 

4. Henry the Fifth put away the Friars, Aliens, and 
feiz'd to himfelf 1 00000/. a year, and therefore they were 
not the Proteflants only that took away Church Lands. 

5. In Queen Elizabeths time, when all the Abbies 
were pulled down, all good Works defaced, then the 
Preachers mufl cry up Juflification by Faith, not by 
good Works. 

I. •" I " HE nine and thirty Articles are much another 
I thing in Latin, (in which Tongue they were 
•*• made) then they are tranflated into Englifli, 
they were made at three feveral Convocations, and 
confirmed by Act of Parliament fix or seven times 
after. There is a Secret concerning them: Of late 
Minifters have fubfcribed to all of them, but by A61 
of Parliament that confirmed them, they ought only 
to fubfcribe to thofe Articles which contain matter of 
Faith, and the Do6lrine of the Sacraments, as appears by 
the firll Subfcriptions. But Bilhop Bancroft (in the Con- 
vocation held in YMgJatnes'^ days) he began it, that 
Minifters ftiould fubfcribe to three things, to the Kings 
Supremacy, to the Common-prayer, and to the Thirty 
nine Articles ; many of them do not contain matter of 
Faith. Is it matter of Faith how the Church ftiould 
be govem'd ? Whether Infants ftiould be Baptized ? 
Whether we have any Property in our Goods ? &*€. 

Saptiijm. 
I. ''" I "Was a good way to perfwade men to be 
I chriftned, to tell them that they had a Foul- 
•*• nefs about them, viz. Original Sin, that could 
not be waftied away but by Baptifm. 

2. The Baptizing of Children with us, does only 



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TABLE-TALK. 19 

prepare a Child againfl he comes to be a Man, to 
underlland what Chriflianity means. In the Church 
oiRonie it hath this effedt, it frees Children from Hell. 
They lay they go into Limbus Infantum, It fucceeds 
Circumcifion, and we are fure the Child underftood 
nothing of that at eight days old ; why then may not 
we as reafonably baptife a Child at that Age? in 
England of late years I ever thought the Parfon 
baptiz'd his own Fingers rather than the Child. 

3. In the Primitive times they had God-fathers to 
fee the Children brought up in the Chriflian Religion, 
becaufe many times, when the Father was a Chriflian, 
the Mother was not, and fometimes when the Mother 
was a Chriflian, the Father was not, and therefore 
they made choice of two or more that were Chriflians, 
to fee their Children brought up in that Faith. 

JSaiStartr. 

I. '^np^IS faid the 23d. of Deuteron, 2. [^ Bajlard 
I Jhall not enter into the Congregation of the 
■*" Lord^ even to the tenth Generation^ Non 
ingredietur in Ecckfiam Domini^ he fhall not enter into 
the Church. The meaning of the Phrafe is, he fhall 
not marry a Jewifh Woman. But upon this grofly 
miflaken ; a Baftard at this day in the Church of 
Rome^ without a Difpenfation, cannot take Orders; 
the thing haply well enough, where 'tis fo fetled; but 
'tis upon a Miftake (the Place having no reference to 
the Church) appears plainly by what follows at the 
third Verfe \^An Ammonite or Moabiie fJiail not enter 
into the Congregation of the Lordy even to the tenth 
Generation,'] Now you know with the Jews an Am- 
monite, or a Moabite could never be a Pried, becaufe 
their Priefls were bom fo, not made. 

SSCBle, Scripture* 

I. " I ^IS a great queflion how we know Scripture 

I to be Scripture, whether by the Church, or 

-*- by Mans private Spirit. Let me ask you 

how I know any thing ? how 1 know this Carpet to be 

Green? Firfl, becaufe fomebody told me it was 



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90 table-talk. 

Green ; that you call the Church in your Way, Then 
after I have been told it is green, when I fee that 
Colour again, I know it to be Green, my own Eyes tell 
me it is Green, that you call the private Spirit 

2. The Englifh Tranflatiou of the Bible, is the bed 
Tranflation in the World, and renders the Senfe of the 
Original befl, taking in for the Englifh Tranflation, the 
Bifliops Bible, as well as King/ame/s. The Tranflar 
tion in Kiug/am^/s time took an excellent way. That 
i;art of the Bible was given to him who was moil 
excellent in fuch a Tongue (as the Apochrypha to 
Andrew Downs) and then they met together, and one 
read the Tranflation, the reft holding in their Hands 
fome Bible, either of the learned Tongues, or French^ 
Spanijh^ Italian^ &c. if they found any Fault they 
fpoke, if not, he read on. 

3. There is no Book fo tranflated as the Bible for 
the purpofe. If I tranflate a FrcTich Book into Englijhy 
I turn it into Englijh Phrafe, not into French Englijh 
\ n fait froid] I fay 'tis cold, not, it makes cold, but 
the Bible is rather tranflated into Englijh Words, than 
into Englijh Phrafe. The Hebraifms are kept^ and 
the Phrafe of that Language is kept ; As for Example 
[he uncovered her Shame] which is well enough, fo 
long as Scholars Jiave to do with it ; but when it comes 
among the Common People, Lord, what Gear do they 
make of it ! 

4. Scrutamini Scripturas. Thefe two Words have 
undone the World, becaufe Chrifl fpake it to his 
Difciples, therefore we mufl all. Men, Women and 
Children, read and interpret the Scripture. 

5. Henry the Eighth made a Law, that all Men 
might read the Scripture, except Servants, but no 
Woman, except Ladies and Gentlewomen, who had 
Leifure, and might ask fomebody the meaning. The 
Law was repealed in Edward the Sixth's days. 

6. Lay-men have bed interpreted the hard places in 
the Bible, fuch as Johannes Picus^ Scaliger^ Grotius^ 
Saltnanfius^ Heinfius^ &c. 

7. If you ask which of Erajmus^ Beza^ or Grotius 



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21 



did befl upon the New Teftament, 'tis an Idle queflion, 
for they dl did well in their way. Erafmus broke 
down the firfl Brick, Beza added many things, and 
Grotius added much to him, in whom we have either 
fomething new, or fomething heightned, that was laid 
before, and fo 'twas neceffary to have them all three. 

8. The Text ferves only to guefs by, we mufl fatisfie 
our felves fully out of the Authors that liv'd about 
thofe times. 

9. In interpreting the Scripture, many do, as if a 
man (hould fee one have ten pounds, which he 
reckoned by i. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. meaning four, 
was but four Unities, and five, five Unities, 6^r. and 
that he had in all but ten pounds ; the other that fees 
him, takes not the Figures together as he doth, but 
picks here and there, and thereupon reports, that he 
hath five pounds in one Bag, and fix pounds in 
another Ba^, and nine pounds in another Bag, 6-^. 
when as in truth he hath but ten pounds in all. So 
we pick out a Text here, and there to make it serve 
our turn; whereas, if we take it all together, and 
confider'd what went before, and what followed after, 
we fhould find it meant no fuch thing. 

10. Make no more Allegories in Scripture than 
needs mufl, the Fathers were too frequent in them, 
they indeed, before they fully underilood the litteral 
Sence, look'd out for an Allegory. The Folly whereof 
you may conceive thus ; here at the firfl fight appears 
to me in my Window, a Glafs and a Book, I take it for 
granted 'tis a Glafs and a Book, thereupon I go about 
to tell you what they fignifie ; afterwards, upon nearer 
view, they prove no fuch thing, one is a Box made 
like a Book, the other is a Picture made like a Glafs, 
Where's now my Allegory ? 

11. When Men meddle with the Litteral Text, the 
queflion is, where they fhould flop; in this cafe a 
Man might venture his Difcretion, and do his befl to 
iatisfie himfelf and others in thofe places where he 
doubts, for although we call the Scripture the Word of 
God (as it is) yet it was writ by a Man, a mercenary 



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22 table-talk. 

Man, whofe Copy, either might be falfe, or he might 
make it falfe: For Example, here were a thoufand 
Bibles printed in England vfiXh the Text thus, [^Thou 
JJialt commit Adultery] the Word [nofl left out ; might 
not this Text be mended ? 

12. The Scripture may have more Senfes befides 
the Literal, becaufe God underflands all things at 
once, but a Mans Writing has but one true Sence, 
which is that which the Author meant when he writ it. 

13. When you meet with feveral Readings of the 
Text, take heed you admit nothing againft the Tenets 
of your Church, but do as if you were going over a 
Bridge, be fure you hold fad by the Rail, and then 
you may dance here and there as you pleafe, be fure 
you keep to what is fetled, and then you may flourifh 
upon your various Ledlions. 

14. The Apochrypha is bound with the Bibles of all 
Churches that have been hitherta. Why fhould we 
leave it out ? the Church of Rome has her Apochrypha 
(vis.) Sufanna and Bell and the Dragon^ which she 
does not efleem equally with the refl of thofe Books 
that we call Apochrypha, 

3Bii{l)a]pii ^efare f^t Parlucment. 

I. A Bilhop as a Bifliop, had never any Eccle- 
/A fiallial Jurifdi6tion ; for as foon as he was 
•^ ^ Ele6lus ConfirmatuSy that is, after the three 
Proclamations in Bow-Churchy he might exercile 
Jurifdi6lion, before he was confecrated, not till then, 
he was no Bifliop, neither could he give Orders. 
Befides, Suffragans were Bifliops, and they never 
claimed any Jurifdi6tion. 

2. Antiently, the Noble Men lay within the City 
for Safety and Security. The Bilhops Houfes were by 
the Water-fide, becaufe they were held Sacred Perfons 
which no body would hurt 

3. There was fome Sence for Commenda^ms at firft, 
when there was a Living void, and never a Clerk to ferve 
it, the Bifliops was to keep it till they found a fit Man, 
but now 'tis a Trick for the Bifliop to keep it for himfelfl 



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TABLE-TALK. 23 

4. For a Bifhop to preach, 'tis to do other Folks 
Office, as if the Steward of the Houfe (hould execute 
the Porters or the Cooks place ; *tis his Bufinefs to fee 
that they and all other about the Houfe perform their 
Duties. 

5. That which is thought to have done the Bifliops 
hurt, is their going about to bring men to a blind 
Obedience, impofing things upon them [though perhaps 
fmall and well enough] without preparing them, and 
infmuating into their Reafons and Fancies, every man 
loves to know his Commander. I wear thofe Gloves, 
but perhaps if an Alderman (hould command me, I 
(hould think much to do it ; what has he to do with 
me ? Or if he has, peradventure I do not know it 
This jumping upon things at fird dafli will deftroy all; 
to keep up Friend(hip, there muft be little Addrelfes 
and Applications, whereas Bluntnefs fpoils it quickly: 
To keep up the Hierarchy, there mufl be little Appli- 
cations made to men, they mufl be brought on by little 
and little : So in the Primitive times the Power was 
gain'd, and fo it mufl be continued. Scaliger faid of 
Erafmus : Si minor effe voluity major fuiffet So we 
may lay of the Bifhops, Si minores effe voiuerint 
majores fuiffent 

6. The Bifhops were too hafly, elfe with a difcreet 
slownefs they might have had what they aim'd at.* 
The old Story of the Fellow, that told the Gentleman, 
that he might get to fuch a place, if he did not ride too 
fafl, would have fitted their turn. 

7. For a Bifhop to cite an old Cannon to flrengthen 
his new Articles, is as if a Lawyer (hould plead an old 
Statute that has been repealed God knows how long. 

3BU(t)0]ptf to ^t parliament 
I. Tn\ Ifhops have the same Right to fit in Parliament 
1^ as the befl Earls and Barons, that is, thofe 
^^ that were made by Writ : If you ask one of 
them \Arundely Oxford^ Northumberland] why they 
fit in the Houfe ? they can only fay, their Fathers fate 
there before them, and their Grand-father before him, 



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24 TABLE-TALK. 

6-r. And fo fays the Bifhops, he that was a Bifliop of 
this Place before me, fate in the Houfe, and he that 
was a Bifhop before him, 6r*c, Indeed your later Earls 
and Barons have it expreffed in their Patents, that 
they ihall be called to Parliament Objenion^ But the 
Lords fit there by Blood, the Bifliops not Anfwer^ 
'Tis true, they fit not there both the fame way, yet 
that takes not away the Bifliops Right : If I am a 
Parfon of a Parifli, I have as much Right to my Gleab 
and T>'th, as you have to your Land which your 
Anceftors have had in that Parifli eight hundred years. 

2. The Bifliops were not Barons, becaufe they had 
Baronies annext to their Bifliopricks (for few of them 
had fo, unlefs the old ones, Canterbury^ WinduJUry 
Durham^ &c. the new eredled we are fure had none, 
as Giocejlery Peterboroughy &c., befides, few of the 
Temporal Lords had any Baronies.) But they are 
Barons, becaufe they are called by Writ to the Parlia- 
ment, and Bifliops were in the Parliament ever fince 
there was any mention or fign of a Parliament in 
England, 

3. Bifliops may be judged by the Peers, though in 
time of Popery it never hapned, becaufe they pre- 
tended they were not obnoxious to a Secular Court, 
but their way was to cry. Ego fum Frater Domini 
Papcty I am Brother to my Lord the Pope, and there- 
fore take not my felf to be judged by you ; in this Cafe 
they impanelled a Middlefex Jury, and difpatcht the 
Bufinefs. 

4. Whether may Bifliops be prefent in cafes of 
Blood ? Anfw, That they had a Right to give Votes, 
appears by this, always when they did go out, they left 
a Proxy, and in the time of the Abbots, one man had 
10. 20. or 30. Voices. In Richard the Seconds time, 
there was a Proteflation againft. the Canons, by which 
they were forbidden to be prefent in cafe of Blood. 
The Statute of 25th of Henry the Eighth may go a 
great way in this Bufinefs. The Clergy were forbidden 
to ufe or cite any Cannon, ^c, but in the latter end of 
the Statute, there was a Claufe, that fuch Cannons 



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TABLE-TALK. 2$ 

that were in ufage in this Kingdom, fliould be in force 
till the thirty two CommifTioners appointed fhould 
make others, provided they were not contrary to the 
Kings Supremacy. Now the Queflion will be, whether 
thefe Cannons for Blood were in ufe in this Kingdom 
or no? the contrary whereof may appear by many 
Prefidents, in J^. 3. and I/. 7. and the beginning of 
JET, 8. in which time there were more attainted than 
fmce, or fcarce before : The Cannons of Irregularity 
of Blood were never received in England^ but upon 
pleafure. If a Lay Lord was attainted, the Biihops 
affented to his Condemning, and were always prefent 
at the pafling of the Bill of Attainder : But if a Spiritual 
Lord, they went out as if they cared not whofe Head 
was cut off, fo none of their own. In thofe days the 
Bifhops being of great Houfes, were often entangled 
with the Lords in Matters of Treafon. But when d*ye 
hear of a Bifliop a Traytor now ? 

5. You would not have Bifliops meddle with Tem- 
poral Affairs, think who you are that lay it If a 
Papifl, they do in your Church ; if an Englijh Proteft- 
ant, they do among you ; if a Presbiterian, where you 
have no Bifhops, you mean your Presbiterian Lay 
Elders ihould meddle with Temporal Affairs as well 
as Spiritual. Befides, all Jurifdi<5lion is Temporal, 
and in no Church, but they have fome Jurifdidlion or 
other. The Queflion then will be reduced to Magis 
and Minis ; they meddle more in one Church than in 
another. 

6. ObjeBion, Bifhops give not their Votes by Bl6od 
in Parliament, but by an Office annext to them, which 
being taken away, they ceafe to vote, therefore there 
is not the fame reafon for them as for Temporal Lords. 
Anfw, We do not pretend they have that Power the 
lame way, but they have a Right : He that has an 
Office in Wejlminjler-Hall for his Life, the Office is as 
much his, as his Land is his that hath Land by 
Inheritance. 

7. Whether had the inferior Clergy ever any thing 
to do in the Parliament ? Anfw, No, no otherwife 



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a6 TABLE-TALK. 

than thus, There were certain of the Clergy that ufed 
toaffemble near the Parliament, with whom the Bilhops, 
upon occafion might confult (but there were none of 
the Convocation, as *twas afterwards fetled, (viz,) the 
Dean, the Arch-Deacon, one for the Chapter, and two 
for the Diocefs) but it hapned by continuance of time 
(to fave Charges and Trouble) their Voices and the 
Confent of the whole Clergy were involved in the 
Bilhops, and at this day the Bifliops Writs run, to bring 
all thefe to the Parliament, but the Bifliops themfelves 
(land for all. 

8. Bifliops were formerly one of thefe two Condi- 
tions, either Men bred Canonifts and CiviHans, fent 
up and down Ambafladors to /^ome and other Paits, 
and fo by their Merit came to that Greatnefs, or elfe 
great Noble Mens Sons, Brothers, and Nephews, 
and fo bom to govern the State : Now they are of a 
low Condition, their Education nothing of that way ; 
he gets a Living, and then a greater Living, and then 
a greater then that, and fo comes to govern. 

9. Bifliops are now unfit to Govern becaufe of their 
Learning, they are bred up in another Law, they run 
to the Text for fomething done amongfl, the/at's that 
nothing concerns Englandy 'tis juft as if a Man would 
have a Kettle and he would not go to our BrazUr to 
have it made ; as they make Kettles, but he would have 
it made as Hiram made his Brafe work, who wrought 
in Soii^nons Temple. 

10. To take away Bifliops Votes, is but the begin- 
ning to take them away; for then they can be no 
longer ufeful to the King or State. Tis but like the 
little Wimble, to let in the greater Auger. Objedlion. 
But they are but for their Life, and that makes them 
always go for the King as he will have them. Anfwer. 
This is againfl, a double Charity, for you mud always 
fuppofe a bad King and bad Bifliops. Then again, 
whether will a Man be fooner content, himfelf fliould 
be made a Slave or his Son after him? [when we talk of 
our Children we mean our felves,] befides they that 
have pofl-erity are more obliged to the King, then 



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TABLE-TALK. 47 

they that are only for themfelves, in all the reafon in 
the World. 

11. How fhall the Clergy be in the Parliament if 
the Biihops are taken away ? Anfwer, By the Layety, 
becaufe the Bifliops in whom the reft of the Clergy 
are included, are fent to the taking away their own 
Votes, by being involved in the major part of the 
Houfe. This follows naturally. 

12. The Biihops being put out of the Houfe, whom 
will they lay the fault upon now ? When the Dog is 
beat out of the Room, where will they lay the ftink ? 

Siit^apii aut of Xk^t ^arKammt 

I. T N the beginning Biihops and Presbyters were 
I alike, like the Gentlemen in the Country, 
-■- whereof one is made Deputy Livetenant, an- 
other Juftice of Peace, fo one is made a Bifliop, an- 
other a Dean ; and that kind of Government by Arch- 
Biihops, and Biihops no doubt came in, in imitation 
of the Temporal Government, not Jure Divino, In 
time of the Roman Empire, where they had a Legatus, 
there they placed an Arch-Biihop, where they had a 
Rector there a Biihop, that every one might be in- 
ftru6led in Chriftianity, which now they had received 
into the Empire. 

2. They that fpeak ingeniouily of Biihops and Pres- 
bjrters, fay, that a Bifhop is a great Presbyter, and 
during the time of his being Biihop, above a Prefbyter: as 
your Prefident of the Colledge of Phifitians, is above the 
reft, yet he himfelf is no more than a Do6lor of Phyiick. 

3. The words [Biihop and Presbyter] are promis- 
cuouily ufed, that is confeiTed by all, and though the 
word [Biihop] be in Timothy and Titus^ yet that will 
not prove the Biihops ought to have a Jurifdidlion 
over the Presbyter, though Timothy and Titus had by 
the order that was given them : fome Body muft take 
care of the reft, and that Jurifdi6lion was but to Ex- 
communicate, and that was but to tell them they ihould 
come no more into their Company. Or grant they 
did make Canons one for another, before they came to 



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28 TABLE-TALK. 

be in the State, does it follow they mufl do fo when 
the State has receiv'd them into it ? What if Timothy 
had Power in Ephefus^ and Titus in Greet over the 
Presbyters} Does it follow therefore the Bifliop mud 
have the fame in England'^ Mufl we be governed 
like Ephefus and Greet "^ 

4. However fome of the Bifliops pretend to ht Jure 
Divinoy yet the Pra6lice of the Kingdom had ever 
been otherwife, for whatever Bifliops do otherwife 
then the Law permits, Wejlminjler-Hall can controul, 
or fend them to abfolve, 6f*c. 

5. He that goes about to prove Bifliops yi/r<f Diviiio^ 
does as a Man that having a Sword fliall flrike it 
againfl an Anvil, if he ft.rike it a while there, he may 
peradventure loofen it, though it be never fo well 
riveted, 'twill ferve to ft.rike another Sword (or cut 
Flefli) but not againfl. an Anvil. 

6. If you fliould fay you hold your Land by Mofes 
or Gods Law, and would try it by that, you may per- 
haps loofe, but by the Law of the Kingdom you are 
fure of it, fo may the Bifliops by this Plea oi Jure 
Divino loofe all ; The Pope had as good a Title by 
the Law of England as could be had, had he not left 
that, and claimed by Power from God. 

7. There is no Government enjoyn'd by Exaipple, 
but by Precept; it does not follow we mull have 
Bifliops (lill, becaufe we have had them fo long. They 
are equally mad who fay Bifliops are fo Jure Divino 
that they mufl, be continued, and they who fey they 
are fo Ajidchriflian, that they mufl be put away, all is 
as the State pleafes. 

8. To have no Miniflers, but Presbyters, 'tis as in 
the Temporal flate they fhould have no Officers but 
Conflables. Bifliops do befl fland with Monarchy, 
thus as amongfl the Laity, you have Dukes, Lords, 
Lieutenants, Judges, ^c, to fend down the Kings 
pleafure to his Subjedls; So you have Bifliops to 
govern the inferiour Clergy : Thefe upon occafion may 
addrefs themfelves to the King, otherwife every Parfon 
of the Parifh mufl come, and run up to the Court 



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TABLE-TALK. 29 

9. The Proteftants have no Bifliops in FrancCy 
becaufe they live in a Catholic Country, and they will 
not have Catholic Bilhops ; therefore they mud govern 
themfelves as well as they may. 

10. What is that to the purpofe, to what end 
Bilhops Lands were given to them at firfl? you 
mufl look to the Law and Cuflom of the place. A^^at 
is that to any Temporal Lords Eftate, how Lands 
were firft divided, or how in William the Conquerours 
days ? And if Men at firft were juggled out of their 
Eftates, yet they are rightly their Succeflburs. If my 
Father cheat a Man, and he confent to it, the Inherit- 
ance is rightly mine. 

11. If there be no Bifhops, there muft be some- 
thing elfe, which has the Power of Bilhops, though it 
be in many, and then had you not as good keep 
them ? If you will have no Half Crowns, but only 
fmgle Pence, yet Thirty single Pence are a Half- 
Oown ; and then had you not as good keep both ? 
liUt the Bilhops have done ill, 'twas the Men, not the 
Fundlion ; As if you Ihould fay, you would have no 
more Half Crowns, becaufe they were ftolen, when 
the truth is they were not ftolen becaufe they were 
Half-Crowns, but becaufe they were Money and light 
in a Thieves hand. 

12. They that would pull down the Bifhops and 
eredl a new way of Government, do as he that pulls 
down an old Houfe, and builds another, in another 
falhion, there's a great deal of- do, and a great deal of 
trouble, the old rubbilh muft be carryed away, and 
new materials muft be brought, Workmen muft be 
provided, and perhaps the old one would have ferv'd 
as well. 

13. If the Parliament and Presbyterian Party Ihould 
difpute who Ihould be Judge ? Indeed in the begin- 
ning of Queen Elizabeth, there was fuch a difference, 
between the Protejlants and Papijls^ and Sir Nicholas 
Bacon Lord Chancellor was appointed to be Judge, 
but the Conclufion was the ftronger Party carryed it : 
For fo Religion was brought into Kingdoms, fo it has 



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30 TABLE-TALK. 

been continued, and fo it may be cad out, when the 
State pleafes. 

14. 'Twill be a great difcouragement to Scholars 
that BiJIwps fliould be put down : For now the Father 
can lay to his Son, and the Tutor to his Pupil^ Study 
hard J andyoujhall have Vocem et Sedem in Parliammto \ 
then it mud be, Study hard, and youjiiall have a hundred 
a year if you pleafe your Parijh, Obj, But they that 
enter into the Miniflry for preferment, are like Judas 
that lookt after the Bag, Anf, It may be fo, if they 
turn Scholars dX Judas' s Age, but what Arguments wiU 
they ufe to perfwade them to follow their Books while 
they are young ? 

I. ' I ^ HE giving a Bookfeller his price for his Books 

I has this advantage, he that will do fo, (hall 

-** have the refufal of whatfoever comes to his 

hand, and fo by that means get many things, which 

otherwife he never (hould have feen. So *tis in giving 

a Bawd her price. 

2. In buying Books or other Commodities, 'tis not 
always the beil way to bid half fo much as the feller * 
asks : witnefs the Country fellow that went to buy two 
groat Shillings, they askt him three Shillings, and he bid 
them Eighteen Pence. 

3. They counted the price of the Books (A^s i9, 
19.) and found Fifty Thoufand pieces of Silver, that is 
fo many Sextertii, or fo many three half pence of our 
Money, about Three Hundred pound SterUng, 

4. Popifh Books teach and inform, what we know, 
we know much out of them. The Fathers, Church 
Story, Schoolmen, all may pafs for Popilh Books, and 
if you take away them, what Learning will you leave ? 
Befides who mud be Judge ? The Cuflomer or the 
Waiter ? If he difallows a Book it mud not be brought 
into the Kingdom, then Lord have mercy upon all 
Schollars. Thefe Puritan Preachers if they have any 
things good, they have it out of Popifh Books, though 
they will not acknowledg[e] it, for fear of difpleafing 



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TABLE-TALK. 31 

the people, he is a poor Divine that cannot fever the 
good from the bad. 

5. Tis good to have Tranflations, becaufe they 
ferve as a Comment, fo far as the Judgement of the 
Man goes. 

6. In Anfwering a Book, 'tis bed to be fhort, other- 
wife he that I write againft will fufpedt I intend to 
weary him, not to fatisfy him Befides in being long I 
fhall give my Adverfary a huge advantage, fomewhere 
or other he will pick a hole. 

7. In quoting of Books, quote fuch Authors as are 
ufually read, others you may read for your own Satis- 
faction, but not name them. 

8. Quoting of Authors is moll for matter of Fa6l, 
and then I write them as I would produce a Witnefs, 
fometimes for a free Expreflion, and then I give the 
Author his due, and gain my felf praife by reading him. 

9. To quote a modem Dutch Man where I may ufe 
a Claffic Author, is as if I were to juftify my Reputa- 
tion, and I negledt all Perfons of Note and Quality 
that know me, and bring the Teflimonial of the Scullion 
in the Kitchen. 

CAtinon IsfD* 

IF I would (ludy the Cannon-Law as it is ufed in 
England^ I muil (ludy the Heads here in ufe, 
then go to the Pra6licers in thofe Courts where 
that Law is pra6lifed, and know their Cufloms, fo for 
all the (ludy in the World. 

Cernnonc. 
I. •'"^ Eremony keeps up all things ; *Tis like a 
I Penny-Glafs to a rich Spirit, or fome Ex- 

^^ cellent Water, without it the water were 
fpilt, the Spirit lod. 

2. Of all people Ladies have no reafon to cry down 
Ceremonies, for they take themfelves (lighted without 
it And were they not ufed with Ceremony, with 
Complements and Addre(res, with Legs, and Ki(rmg 
of Hands, they were the pittyfullefl Creatures in the 
World, but yet methinks to kife their Hands after their 



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3a TABLE-TALK. 

Lips as fome do, is like little Boys, that after they eat 
the Apple, fall to the paring, out of a Love they have 
to the Apple. 

I. 'TpHE Bifliop is not to fit with the Chancellor 

I in his Court (as being a thing either beneath 

-** him, or befide him) no more then the King 

is to fit in the Kings-Bench yrh^n he has made a Lord- 

Chief-Juflice. 

2. The Chancellor govem'd in the Church, who was 
a Layman. And therefore 'tis falfe which they charge 
the Bifliops with, that they Challenge fole Jurifdidlion. 
For the Bifhop can no more put out the Chancellor 
than the Chancellor the Bifhop. They were many of 
them made Chancellors for their Lives, and he is the 
fitted Man to Govern, becaufe Divinity fo overwhelms 
the reft 

C^anjiinfl t^Jati. 

I, •'TpiS the Tiyal of a Man to fee if he will 
I Change his fide, and if he be fo weak as to 
-*- Change once, he will Change again. Your 
Country Fellows have a way to try if a Man be weak 
in the Hams, by coming behind him, and giving him 
a blow unawares, if he bend once, he will bend agaia 

2. The Lords that fall from the King after they have 
got Eftates, by bafe Flattery at Court, and now pre- 
tend Confcience, do as a Vintner, that when he firft 
fets up, you may bring your Wench to his Houfe, and 
do your things there, but when he grows Rich, he 
turns Confcientious, and will fell no Wine upon the 
Sabbath-day. 

3. Collonel Goring ferving firft the one fide and 
then the other, did like a good Miller that knows how 
to grind which way foever the Wind fits. 

4. After Luther had made a Combuftion in Germany 
about Religion, he was fent to by the Fope^ to be taken 
off, and offered any preferment in the Church, that he 
would make choice of, Luther anfwer'd, if he had 
offered half as much at firft, he would have accepted 



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TABLE-TALK. 



33 



C 



It, but now he had goife fo far, he could not come 
back, in Truth he had made himfelf a greater thing 
than they could make him, the German Princes Courted 
him, he was become the Authour of a Sedt ever after 
to be called Lutherans, So have our Preachers done 
that are againft the Bifliops, they have made them- 
felves greater with the People, than they can be made 
the other way, and therefore there is the lefe Charity 
probably in bringing them of. Charity to Strangers 
is injoyned in the Text, by Strangers is there under- 
flood thofe that are not of our own kin. Strangers to 
your Blood, not thofe you cannot tell whence they 
came, that is be Charitable to your Neighbours whom 
you know to be honed poor Peopfe. 

C^riiitmur* 

^ Hrijlmas succeeds the Saiumalia, the feme 
time, the fame number of Holy days, then 
the Mader waited upon the Servant like 
the Lord of Mifrule, 

2. Our Meats and our Sports (much of them) have 
relation to Church-works, The Coffin of our Chrijlmas 
Pies in fhape long, is in imitation of the Cratch, our 
Choofmg Kings and Queens on Twelfth night, hath 
reference to the Three Kings. So likewife our eating 
of Fritters, whipping of Tops, Roafting of Herrings, 
Jack of Lents, 6-r. they were all in imitation of Church- 
works, Emblems of Martyrdom, Our Tanfies at 
Eajler have reference to the bitter Herbs : though 
at the fame time 'twas always the Falhion for a Man 
to have a Gammon of Bakon, to (how himfelf to be 
no Jew. 

C^riiftianiT. 

I. T N the High Church oijerufalem^ the Chriftians 
were but another Sedl oijews, that did believe 
the Meffias was come. To be called was 
nothing elfe, but to become a Chriftian, to have the 
Name of a Chriftian, it being their own Language, for 
amongft ihtJeufSy when they made a DocSlor of Law, 
'twas feid he was caHed. 



I 



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34 TABLE-TALK. 

2. The Turks tell their People of a Heaven where 
there is fenfible Pleafure, but of a Hell where they 
(hall fuffer they do not know what The Chriftians 
quite invert this order, they tell us of a Hell where 
we fhall feel fenfible Pain, but of a Heaven where we 
(hall enjoy we cannot tell what 

3. Why did the Heathens objedl to the Chriftians, 
that they Wodhip an Affes Head ? you muft know, 
that to a Heathen, a /nv and a Chriftian were all 
one, that they regarded him not, fo he was not one of 
them. Now that of the Affes Head might proceed 
from fuch a miftake as this, by the /ews Law all the 
Firftlings of Cattle were to be offered to God, except 
a Young Afs, which was to be redeemed, a Heathen 
being prefent, and feeing young Calves, and young 
Lambs killed at their Sacrifices, only young AiTes 
redeemed might very well think they had that filly 
Beaft in fome high Eftimation, and thence might 
imagine they worfhipt it as a God. 

I . TT Eretofore the Kingdom let the Church alone, 
I — I let them do what they would, becaufe they 
-^ -*- had fomething elfe to think of (viz.) Wars, 
but now in rime of peace, we begin to examine all 
things, will have nothing but what we like, grow dainty 
and wanton, juft as in a Family the Heir ufes to go a 
hunting, he never confiders how his Meal is dreft, 
takes a bit, and away, but when he ftays within, then 
he grows curious, he does not like this, nor he does 
not like that, he will have his Meat dreft his own way, 
or peradventiure he will drefs it himfelf. 

2. It hath ever been the gain of the Church when 
the King will let the Church have no Power to cry 
down the King and cry up the Church : but when the 
Church can make ufe of tjje Kings Power, then to 
bring all under the Kings Perogative, the Catholicks 
of England go one way, and the Court Clergy another. 

3. A glorious Church is like a Magnificent Feaft 
there is all the variety that may be, but every one 



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TABLE-TALK. 35 

choofes out a difh or two that he likes, and lets the 
reft alone, how Glorious foever the Church is, every 
one choofes out of it his own Religion, by which he 
governs himfelf and lets the red alone. 

4. The Laws of the Church are mod Favourable 
to the Church, becaufe they were the Churches own 
making, as the Heralds are the bed Gentlemen becaufe 
they make their own Pedigree. 

5. There is a Quedion about that Article, Concern- 
ing the Power of the Church, whether thefe words [of 
having Power in Controveifies of Faith] were not 
doln in, but *tis mod certain they were in the Book of 
Articles that was Confirmed, though in fome Editions 
they have been left out : But the Article before tellsyou, 
who the Church is, not the Clergy, but Catusjideiium. 

C^urcf) of 10^nmt. 
I. TT) Efore a Juglars Tricks are difcovered we 
1"^ admire him, and give him Money, but ader- 
-*-^ wards we care not for them, fo 'twas before 
the difcovery of the Jugling of the Church of Rome. 

2. Catholics fay, we out of our Charity, believe they 
of the Church of Rome may be faved : But they do 
not believe fo of us. Therefore their Church is better 
according to our felves ; fird, fome of them no doubt 
believe as well of us, as we do of them, but they mud 
not fay fo, befides is that an Argument their Church 
is better than Ours, becaufe it has lefs Charity ? 

3. One of the Church of Rome will not come to our 
Prayers, does that agree he doth not like them? I 
would fain fee a Catholic leave his Dinner, becaufe a 
Nobleman's Chaplain fays Grace, nor haply would he 
leave the Prayers of the Church, if going to Church 
were not made a mark of didindlion between a Fro- 
teflant and a Fapijl, 

I. 'nr^HE Way coming into our great Churches 
I was Antiently at the Wed door, that Men 
^ might fee the Altar, and all the Church be* 
fore them, the other Doors were but Podems. 



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36 TABLE-TALK. 

Cftj. 
I. T T 7 Hat makes a City? Whether a Bifhoprick 
\/\/ or ^^y of that nature? Anfwer, Tis 
^ ^ according to the firll Charter which made 
them a Corporation. If they are Incorporated by Name 
of Civitas they are a City, if by the name of Burgttm, 
then they are a Burrough. 

2. The Lord Mayor oi London by their firfl Charter 
was to be prefented to the King, in his abfence to the 
Lord Chief Judiciary of England^ afterwards to the 
Lord Chancellor, now to the Barons of the Exchequer, 
but flill there was a Refervation, that for their Honour 
they (hould come once a Year to the King, as they 
do ftill. 

Clrrgp. 

I. 'nr^ Hough a Clergy-Man have no Faults of his 

I own, yet the Faults of the whole Tribe Ihall 

^ be laid upon him, fo that he (hall be fure 

not to lack. 

2. The Clergy would have us believe them againfl 
our own Reafon, as the Woman would have her Hus- 
band againfl his own Eyes : What ! will you believe 
your own Eyes before your own fweet Wife ? 

3. The Condition of the Clergy towards their 
Prince, and the Condition of the Phyfitian is all one : 
the Phyfitians tell the Prince they have Agrick and 
Rubarb, good for him, and good for his Subjedls 
bodies, upon this he gives them leave to ufe it, but if 
it prove naught, then away with it, they (hall ufe it no 
more. So the Clergy tell the Prince they have Phyfick 
good for his Soul, and good for the Souls of his People, 
upon that he admits them: but when he finds by 
Experience they both trouble him and his People, he 
will have no more to do with them, what is that to 
them or any body elfe if a King will not go to Heaven. 

4. A Clergy Man goes not a dram further than this, 
you ought to obey your Prince in general [if he does 
he is led] how to obey him you mud be informed by 
thofe whofe profelTion it is to tell you. The Parfon 



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TABLE-TALK. 37 

of the Tower (a good difcreet Man) told Dr. Mofely 
(who was fent to me, and the reft of the Gentlemen 
Committed the 3. Caroli^ to perfwade Us to fubmit 
to the King) that they found no fuch words as [Parlia- 
ment, Habeas Corpus^ Return^ Tower^ &c.] Neither in 
the Fathers, nor the School-Men, nor in the Text, and 
therefore for his part he believed he underflood nothing 
of the bufmefs. A Satyr upon all thofe Clergy Men that 
meddle with Matters they do not underlland. 

All Confefs there never was a more Learned Clergy, 
no Man taxes them with Ignorance. But to talk of 
that, is like the Fellow that was a great Wentcher he 
wilht God would forgive him his Leachery, and lay 
Ufury to his Charge. The Clergy have worfe Faults. 

6. The Clergy and Laity together are never like to 
do well, 'tis as if a Man were to make an Excellent 
Feafl and (hould have his Apothecary and Phyfitian 
come into the Kitchen : The Cooks if they were let 
alone would make Excellent Meat, but then comes the 
Apothecaiy and he puts Rubarb into one Sauce, and 
Agrick into another Sauce. Chain up the Clergy on 
both fides. 

|gfg^ C0mmli^tfC0n. 

I. "\ yr EN cry out upon the High-Commifllon, as 
VI ^^ ^^ Clergy-men only had to do in it, 
-^ ^ -*• when I believe there are more Lay-men 
in Commiffion there, than Clergymen, if the Laymen 
will not come, whofe fault is that ? So of the Star- 
Chamber the People think the Bifliops only cenfur'd 
Prin^ Burton and Bajlwick^ when there were but two 
there, and one speak not in his own Caufe. 

^k^vAt 0f CommotU. 
r. '^ I "^Here be but two Erroneous Opinions in the 
I Houfe of Commons, That the Lords fit only 
-^ for themfelves, when the truth is, they fit as 
well for the Common-wealth. The Knights and 
Burgeffes fit for themfelves and others, fome for 
more, fome for fewer, and what is the reafon ? Be- 
caufe the Room will not hold all, the Lords being 



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38 TABLE-TALK. 

few, they all come, and imagine a Room able to hold 
all the Commons of England^ then the Lords and 
Burgeffes would fit no otherwife than the Lords do. 
The fecond Error is, that the Houfe of Commons are 
to begin to give Subfidies, yet if the lA)rds diffent 
they can give no Money. 

2. The Houfe of Commons is called the Lower 
Houfe in Twenty A<5ls of Parliament, but what are 
Twenty A6ls of Parliament amongfl Friends ? 

3. The Form of a Charge runs thus, / Accufe in tke 
Name of all the Commons of England, how then can 
any man be as a Witnefs, when every man is made the 
Accufer ? 

Confeiftfion. 

I. T N time of Parliament it ufed to be one of the 
I firft things the Houfe did, to petition the King 
-■" that his Confeffor might be removed, as fear- 
ing either his power with the King, or elfe, lead he 
ihould reveal to the Pope what the Houfe was in 
doing, as no doubt he did, when the Catholick Caufe 
was concerned. 

2. The difference between us and the Papifls is, we 
both allow Contrition, but the Papifls make ConfelTion 
a part of Contrition, they fay a Man is not fufficiently 
contrite, till he confefs his fins to a Pried. 

3. Why Ihould I think a Pried A^all not reveal Con- 
feflion, I am fure he will do anything that is forbidden 
him, haply not fo often as I, the utmod punilhment is 
Deprivation, and how can it be proved, that ever any 
man reveaFd Confeflion, when there is no Witnels? 
And no man can be Witnefs in his own caufe. A 
meer GuUery. There was a time when 'twas publick 
in the Church, and there is much againd their Auri- 
cular Confeflion. 

C0mpetnit|;. 

I. '' I ^Hat which is a Competency for one Man, is 

I not enough for another, no more than that 

^ which will keep one Man warm, will keep 

another Man warm ; one Man can go in Doublet and 



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TABLE-TALK. 39 

Hofe, when another Man cannot be without a Cloak, 
and yet have no more Cloaths than is neceffary for him. 

€rfat'Con{umti0n. 

THE greatell Conjundlion of Saturn 2Ln^ Jupi- 
ter^ happens but once in Eight Hundred 
Years, and therefore Aflrologers can make no 
Experiments of it, nor foretel what it means, (not 
but that the Stars may mean fomthing, but we can- 
not tell what) becaufe we cannot come at them. 
Suppofe a Planet were a Simple, or an Herb, How 
could a Phyfician tell the Vertue of that Simple, 
unlefs he could come at it, to apply it? 

CotUcCtnce. 

I. T X E that hath a Scrupulous Confcience, is like 
I — I a Horfe that is not well weigh'd, he ftarts 
-*--*- at every Bird that flies out of the Hedge. 

2. A knowing Man will do that, which a tender 
Confcience Man dares not do, by reafon of his Igno- 
rance, the other knows there is no hurt, as a Child is 
afraid to go into the dark, when a Man is not, becaufe 
he knows there is no danger. 

3. If we once come to leave that out-loofe, as to 
pretend Confcience againfl Law, who knows what in- 
convenience may follow? For thus, Suppofe an 
Anabaptijl comes and takes my Horfe, I Sue him, he 
tells me he did according to his Confcience, his Con- 
fcience tells him all things are common amongfl the 
Saints, what is mine is his, therefore you do ill to 
make fuch a Law, If any Man takes anothers Horfe 
he (hall be hang'd. What can I lay to this Man ? He 
does according to his Confcience. Why is not he as 
honeil a Man as he that pretends a Ceremony eflab- 
lilht by Law, is againfl his Confcience ? Generally 
to pretend Confcience againfl Law is dangerous, in 

, fome cafes haply we may. 

4. Some men make it a cafe of Confcience, whether 
a man may have a Pidgeon-houfe, becaufe his Pidgeons 
eat other Folks Com. But there is no fuch thmg as 



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40 TABLE-TALK. 

Confcience in the bufmefs, the matter is, whether he 
be a man of fuch Quality, that the State allows him 
to have a Dove-houfe, if fo there's an end of the bufi- 
nefs, his Pidgeons have a right to eat where they 
pleafe themfelves. 

Cotfilecnctelr ipuitti. 
I. '^ I "^ HE/^ws had a pecuUar way of Confecrating 
I things to God, which we have not 
-^ 2. Under the Law, God, who was Mailer 

of all, made choice of a Temple to Worlhip in, where 
he was more efpecially prefent : Jull as the Mafler of 
the Houfe, who ow[n]s all the Houfe, makes choice 
of one Chamber to lie in, which is called the Mailer's 
Chamber, but under the Gofpel there was no fuch 
thing, Temples and Churches are fet apart for the con- 
veniency of men to Worlhip in ; they cannot meet upon 
the point of a Needle, but God himfelf makes no choice. 

3. All things are Gods already, we can give him no 
right by confecrating any, that he had not before, only 
we fet it apart to his Service. Jull as a Gardiner 
brings his Lord and Mailer a Basket of Apricocks, 
and prefents them, his Lord thanks him, perhaps gives 
him fomething for his pains, and yet the Apricocks 
were as much his Lords before as now. 

4. What is Confecrated, is given to fome particular 
man, to do God Service, not given to God, but given 
to Man, to ferve God : And there's not any 3iing, 
Lands or Goods, but fome men or other have it in 
their power, to difpofe of as they pleafe. The faying 
things Confecrated cannot be taken away, makes men 
afraid of Confecration. 

5. Yet Confecration has this Power, when a Man 
has Confecrated any thing to God, he cannot of him- 
felf take it away. 

Contrsctir. 

I. T F our Fathers have loll their Liberty, why may 

I not we labour to regain it ? Anjw. We mull 

^ look to the Contra<5l, if that be rightly made 

we muH Hand to it, if we once grant we may recede 



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TABLE-TALK. 41 

from ContraiSs upon any inconveniency that may 
afterwards happen, we (hall have no Bargain kept. 
If I fell you a Horfe, and do not like my Bargain, I 
will have my Horfe again. 

2. Keep your Contracts, fo far a Divine goes, but 
how to make our Contracts is left to our felves, and 
as we agree upon the conveying of this Houfe, or that 
Land, fo it muft be, if you offer me a hundred pounds 
for my Glove. I tell you what my Glove is, a plain 
Glove, pretend no virtue in it, the Glove is my own, 
I profefs not to fell Gloves, and we agree for an 
hundred pounds. I do not know why I may not with 
a lafe Confcience take it. The want of that common 
Obvious Diftindlion oi Jus prctceptivum^ zxidjusper- 
miffum^ does much trouble men. 

3. Lady Kent Articled with Sir Edward Herbert^ 
that he (hould come to her when (he fent for him, and 
ftay with her as long as (he would have him, to which 
he fet his hand ; then he Articled with her, That he 
ihould go away when he pleas*d, and (lay away as long 
as he pleas*d, to which (he fet her hand. This is the 
Epitome of all the Contra6ls in the World, betwixt 
man and man, betwixt Prince and Subjedl, they keep 
them as long as they like them, and no longer. 

Council* 

I. 'TT^Hey talk (but blafphemoufly enough) that 
I the Holy Ghoft is Prefident of their General- 
-^ Councils, when the truth is, the odd man is 
ftill the Holy-Ghoft. 

C0n60CHti0n. 

I. T TC THen the King fends his Writ for a Parlia- 
\\ ment, he fends for two Knights for a 
^ ^ Shire, and two Burgeffes for a Corpora- 
tion : But when he fends for two Archbi(hops for a 
Convocation, he commands them to a(remble the 
whole Clergy, but they out of cuftome amongft them- 
felves fend to the Bi(hops of their Provinces to will 
them to bring two Clarks for a Diocefe, the Dean, one 



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49 table-talk. 

for the Chapter, and the Arch deacons, but to the 
King every Clergy-man is there prefent. 

2. We have nothing fo nearly expreffes the power 
of a Convocation, in refpedl of a Parliament, as a 
Court-Leet, where they have a power to make By- 
Laws, as they call them ; as that a man (hall put fo 
many Cows, or (heep in the Common, but they can 
make nothing that is contrary to the Laws of the 
Kingdom. 

I. A Thanafiu^s Creed is the fhorteft, take away 
/A the Preface, and the force, and the Con- 
•*• ^ clufion, which are not part of the Creed. 
In the Nicene Creed it is clc tKKKrittlav^ I believe 
in the Church, but now, as our Common-prayer has 
it, I believe one Catholick and Apoflolick Church; 
they like not Creeds, becaufe they would have no 
Forms of Faith, as they have none of Prayer, though 
there be more reafon for the one than for the other. 

Samnat(otf« 

I. T F the Phyfician fees you eat anything that is 

I not good for your Body, to keep you from it, 

^ he crys 'tis poyfon, if the Divine fees you do 

any thing that is hurtful for your Soul, to keep you 

from it, he crys out you are damn'd. 

2. To preach long, loud, and Damnation is the way 
to be cry'd up. We love a man that Damns us, and we 
run after him again to fave us. If a man had a fore Leg, 
and he Ihould go to an Honeft Judicious Chyrurgeon, 
and he ihould only bid him keep it warm, and anoint 
with fuch an Oyl (an Oyl well known) that would do 
the Cure, haply he would not much regard him, be- 
caufe he knows the Medecine before hand an ordinary 
Medecine. But if he Ihould go to a Surgeon that 
Ihould tell him, your Leg will Gangreen within three 
days, and it mufl be cut off, and you will die, unlefs you 
do fomething that I could tell you, what liflning there 
would be to this Man ? Oh for the Lord's fake, tell me 
what this is, I will give you any content for your pains. 



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TABLE-TALK. 43 

I. T T THY have we none poffed with Devils in 
\/\/ England'^ The old Anfwer is, the Pro- 
^ ^ tellants the Devil hath already, and the 
Papifls are fo Holy, he dares not meddle with them. 
Why, then beyond Seas where a Nun is poffeft, when 
a Hugonot comes into the Church, does not the Devil 
hunt them out ? The Priefl teaches him, you never 
faw the Devil throw up a Nuns Coats, mark that, the 
Priefl will not fuffer it, for then the People will fpit at 
him. 

2. Cafling out Devils is meer Juggling, they never 
call out any but what they firft cad in. They do 
it where for Reverence no Man (hall dare to Examine 
it, they do it in a Comer, in a Mortice-hole, not in the 
Market-place. They do nothing but what may be 
done by Art, they make the Devil fly out of the Win- 
dow in the likenefs of a Bat, or a Rat, why do they 
not hold him ? Why, in the likenefs of a Bat, or a 
Rat, or fome Creature ? That is why not in fome 
(hape we Paint him in, with Claws and Horns ? By 
this trick they gain much, gain upon Mens fancies, and 
fo are reverenced, and ciertainly if the Prieft deliver 
me from him, that is my moH deadly Enemy, I have 
all the Reafon in the World to Reverence him. 
Objedlion. But if this be Juggling, why do they punifli 
Impoflures? Anfwer, For great Reafon, becaufe 
they do not play their part well, and for fear others 
(hould difcover them, and fo all of them ought to be 
of the fame Trade. 

3. A Perfon of Quality came to my Chamber in the 
Temple, and told me he had two Devils in his head 
[I wondered what he meant] and jull at that time, one 
of them bid him kill me, {with that I begun to be 
afraid and thought he was mad] he faid he knew I 
could Cure him, and therefore intreated me to give 
him fomething, for he was refolv'd to go to no body 
else. I perceiving what an Opinion he had of me, and that 
'twas only Melancholy that troubl'd him, took him in 



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44 TABLE-TALK. 

hand, warranted him, if he would follow my diredlions, 
to Cure him in a (hort time. I defired him to let me 
be alone about an hour, and then to come again, 
which he was very willing to. In the mean time 
I got a Card, and lapt it up handfome in a piece 
of Taffata, and put firings to the Taffata, and when 
he came gave it to him, to hang about his Neck, 
withal charged him, that he (hould not diforder him- 
felf neither with eating or drinking, but eat very little 
of Supper, and fay his Prayers duly when he went to 
Bed, and I made no queflion but he would be well in 
three or four days. Within that time I went to Dinner 
to his Houfe and askt him how he did ? He (aid he 
was much better, but not perfedlly well, [f lor in truth he 
had not dealt clearly with me, he had four Devils 
in his head, and he perceiv'd two of them were gone, 
with that which I had given him, but the other two 
troubled him fliU. Well faid I, I am glad two of 
them are gone I make no doubt but to get away the 
other two likewife. So I gave him another thing to 
hang about his Neck, three days after he came to me 
to my Chamber and profeft he was now as well as 
ever he was in his life, and did extreamly thank me for 
the great care I had taken of him, I fearing leafl 
he might relapfe into the Uke Diflemper, told him 
that there was none but my felf, and one Phyfitian 
more in the whole Town that could Cure the Devils 
in the head, and that was Dr. Harvey Twhom I had 
prepared) and wiflit him if ever he found himfelf ill in 
my abfence to go to him, for he could Cure his Dif- 
esie, as well as my felf The Gentleman lived many 
Years and was never troubl'd afte^. 

tifXL SmsaL 

I. •'nr^IS much the Do<5trine of the times that Men 
I Ihould not pleafe themfelves, but deny 
-** themfelves every thing they take delight in, 
not look upon Beauty, wear no good Clothes, eat no 
good Meat, &*€, which feems the greatefl Acculation 
that can be upon the maker of sdl good things. If 



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TABLE-TALK. 45 

they be not to be us*d, why did God make them ? The 
truUi is, they that preach againll them, cannot make 
ufe of them their felves, and then again they get 
Elleem by feeming to contemn them. But mark it 
while you Hve, if they do not pleafe themfelves as 
much as they can, and we live more by Example than 
precept 

Su^IL 
I. A Duell may (lill be granted in fome Cafes 
l-\ by the Law of Engiarut, and only there. 

•^ ^ That the Church allowed it Antiently, ap- 
pears by this, in their publick Liturgies theie were 
Prayers appointed for the Duelifls to fay, the Judge, 
ufcd to bid them go to fuch a Church and pray, &»c. 
But whether is this Lawful ? If you grant any War 
Lawful, I make no doubt but to Convince it, War is 
Lawful, becaufe God is the only Judge between two, 
that is Supream. Now if a difference happen between 
two Subjects, and it cannot be decided by Human 
Teftimony, why may they not put it to God to Judge 
between them by the Permiflion of the Prince ? Nay 
what if we fhoxild bring it down for Arguments fake, to 
the Swordmen. One gives me the Lye, 'tis a great 
difgrace to take it, the Law has made no provifion to 
give Remedy for the Injury (if you can fuppofe any 
thing an Injury for which the Law gives no Remedy) 
why am not I in this cafe Supream, and may therefore 
right my felT. 

2. A Duke ought to fight with a Gentleman, the 
Reafon is this, the Gentleman will fay to the Duke *tis 
True, you hold a higher Place in the State than I, 
there's a great diflance between you and me, but your 
Dignity does not Priviledge you to do me an Injury, 
as foon as ever you do me an Injury, you make your 
felf my equal, and as you are my equal I Challenge 
you, and in fence the Duke is bound to Anfwer him. 
This will give you fome light to underfland the Quar- 
rel betwixt a Prince and his Subjedls, though there be 
a vafl diflance between him and them, and they are 
to obey him, according to their Contrad, yet he hath 



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46 TABLE-TALK. 

no power to do them an Injuiy, then they think them- 
felves as much bound to Vindicate their right, as 
they are to obey his Lawful Commands, nor is Uiere 
any other meafure of Jullice left upon Earth but 
Arms. 

I. A N Epitaph mud be made fit for the Perfon 
L\ for whom it is made, for a Man to fay all the 
-^ ^ Excellent things, that can be faid upon one, 
and call that his Epitaph, is as if a Painter (hould 
make the handfomefl piece he can poffibly make, and 
fay 'twas my Picture. It holds in a Funeral Sermon. 

I. "T? Quity in Law is the fame that the Spirit is 
|H in Religion, what every one pleafes to make 
-* — ' it, fometimes they go according to Con- 
fcience, fometimes according to Law, fometimes ac- 
cording to the Rule of Court. 

2. Equity is a Roguifh thing, for Law we have 
a meafure, know what to truft to, Equity is according 
to Confcience of him that is Chancellor, and as that is 
larger or narrower, fo is Equity. *Tis all one as if 
they (hould make the Standard for the meafure, we 
call a Chancellors Foot, what an uncertain meafure 
would this be? One Chancellor has a long Foot, 
another a fliort Foot, a third an indifferent Foot *Tis 
the fame thing in the Chancellors Confcience. 

3. That faying, do as you would be done to, is often 
mifunderftood, for 'tis not thus meant that 1 a private 
Man, (hould do to you a private Man, as I would 
have you to me, but do, as we have agreed to do one 
to another by publick Agreement, If the Prifoner 
(hould ask the Judge, whether he would be content to 
be hang'd, were he in his Cafe, he would anfwer no. 
Then fays the Prifoner, do as you would be done to, 
neither of them mud do as private Men, but the Judge 
mud do by him as they have publickly agreed, that is 
both Judge and Prifoner have confented to a Law 
that if either of them Steal, they (hall be hanged. 



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TABLE-TALK, 47 

I. TT E that fpeaks ill of another commonly 
I — I before he is aware, makes himfelf fuch 
^ -■--*- a one as he fpeaks againfl, for if he had 
the Civility or breeding he would forbear fuch kind of 
Language. 

2. A Gallant Man is above ill words : an Example 
we have in the old Lord of Salisbury (who was a 
great wife Man) Stone had caird fome Lord about 
Court, Fool, the Lord complains and has Stone whipt. 
Stone cries, I might have called my Lord of Salisbury 
Fool often enough, before he would have had me whipt 

3. Speak not ill of a great Enemy but rather give 
him good words, that he may ufe you the better, if 
you chance to fall into his Hands, the Spaniard did 
this when he was dying ; his ConfefTor told him (to 
work him to Repentance) how the Devil Tormented 
the wicked that went to Hell : the Spaniard replying, 
called the Devil my Lord. I hope my Lord the 
Devil is not fo Cruel, his ConfefTor reproved him. 
Excufe me faid the Don^ for calling hira fo, I know 
not into what hands I may fall, and if I happen into 
his, I hope he will ufe me the better for giving him 
good words. 

C^communfcotCoti. 

I. '^ I "^Hat place they bring for Excommunica,tion 
I [put away from among your felves that 
-^ wicked person, i Cor, 5. Cha: 13. verfe\ is 
corrupted in the Greek, for it fhould be ro vovripoy, 
put away that Evil from among you, not rdr iroytipovy 
that Evil Perfon, befides 6 wopfjpoQ is the Devil in 
Scripture, and it may be so taken there, and there is 
a new "Edition of Theoderet come out, that has it right 
TO iroyrjpoy, Tis true the Chrillians before the Civil 
State became Chriflian, did by Covenant and Agree- 
ment fet down how they fhould live ; and he that did not 
obferve what they agreed upon, fhould come no more 
amongfl them, that is, be Excommunicated. Such Men 
are fpoken of by the ApqftU [Romans i. 31.] who he 



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48 TABLE-TALK. 

calls iLtntrOirovc Kat &aw6vdovcy the Vulgar has it, Incom- 
pofUoSy etfinefcuUre, the lad word is pretty well, but the 
firil not at all, Or^en in his Book againft Celfus^ 
fpeaks of the Chriflians. trvvdiiKfi : the Tranflation 
renders it Conventus^ as it fignifies a Meeting, when it 
is plain it fignifies a Covenant, and the Englijh Bible 
turned the other word well, Covenant-breakers. Pliny 
tells us, the Chriflians took an Oath am'ongfl them- 
felves to live thus, and thus. 

a. The other place [Die Ecclefid\ tell the Church, is 
but a weak Ground to raife Excommunication upon, 
efpecially from the Sacrament, the lefTer Excommuni- 
cation, fince when that was fpoken, the Sacrament was 
inflituted. The Jews Eulefia was their Sanhedrim^ 
their Court : fo that the meaning is : if afler once or 
twice Admonition this Brother will not be reclaimed, 
bring him thither. 

3. The firfl Excommunication was 180. Years after 
Chrifl, and that by Vidlor, Bifhop of Rome, But that ' 
was no more than this, that they fhould Communicate 
and receive the Sacrament amongfl themfelves, not with 
thofe of the other Opinion : The Controverfie (as I 
take it) being about the Feafl of Eajkr, Men do not 
care for Excommunication becaufe they are fhut out of 
the Church, or delivered up to Sathan^ but becaufe 
the Law of the Kingdom takes hold of them, after fo 
many days a Man cannot Sue, no, not for his Wife, if 
you take her from him, and there may be as much 
Reafon, to grant it for a fmall Fault, if there be Con- 
tumacy, as for a great one, in Wcjlminfler-Hall you 
you may Out-law a Man for forty Shillings, which 
is their Excommunication, and you can do no more 
for forty Thoufand Pound. 

4. When Conftantine became Chriflian, he fo fell 
in love with the Clergy, that he let them be Judges of 
all things, but that continued not above three or four 
Years, by reafon they were to be Judges of matters 
they underflood not, and then they were allowed to 
meddle with nothing but Religion, all Jurifdi<5lion 
belonged to him, and he fcanted them out as much as 



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TABLE-TALK. 49 

he pleafed, and fo things have fince continued. They 
Excommunicate for three or four things, matters con- 
cerning Adultery, Tythes, Wills, &*€, which is the 
Civil Punilhment the State allows for fuch Faults. If 
a Bifhop Excommunicate a Man for what he ought 
not, the Judge has Power to abfolve, and punilh the 
Bilhop, lif they had that Jurifdi<5lion from God, why 
does not the Church Excommunicate for Murder, for 
Theft? If the Civil Power might take away all but 
three things, why may they not take them away too ? 
If this Excommunication were taken away, the Pres- 
byters would be quiet ; *tis that they have a mind to, 
'tis that they would fain be at, like the Wench that 
was to be Married ; fhe asked her Mother when 'twas 
done, if fhe fhould go to Bed prefently: no fays her 
Mother you mufl Dine firfl, and then to Bed Mother ? 
no you mufl Dance after Dinner, and then to Bed 
Mother, no you mufl go to Supper, and then to Bed 
Mother, dr^c. 

Sniffy an^ CC[0ri)f* 

I. ''^ I ^Was an unhappy Divifion that has been 
I made between Faith and Works ; though 
-*- in my Intellect I may divide them, jufl as 
in the Candle, I know there is both light and heat 
But yet put out the Candle, and they are both gone, 
one remains not without the other: So 'tis betwixt 
Faith and Works ; nay, in a right Conception Fid€s ejl 
opus, if I believe a thing becaule I am commanded, 
that is Opus. 

I. T T THat the Church debars us one day, (he 
VV gives us leave to take out in another. 
^ * Firft we Faft, and then we Feafl; firft 
there is a Carnival, and then a Lent. 

2. Whether do Human Laws bind the Confcience ? 
If they do, 'tis a way to enfnare : If we fay they do 
not, we open the door to difobedience. Anfw, In 
this Cafe we mufl look to the Juflice of the Law, and 
intention of the Law-giver. If there be no Juflice in 

D 



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so TABLE-TALK. 

the Law, 'tis not to be obeyed, if the intention of the 
Law-giver be abfolute, our obedience raufl be fo too. 
If the intention of the Law-giver enjoyn a Penalty as 
a Compenfation for the Breach of the Law, I fin not, 
if I fubmit to the Penalty, if it enjoyn a Penalty, as a 
further enforcement of Obedience to the Law, then 
ought I to obferve it, which may be known by the 
often repetition of the Law. The way of Falling is 
enjoyn'd unto them, who yet do not obferve it The 
Law enjoyns a Penalty as an enforcement to Obedience; 
which intention appears by the often calling upon us, 
to keep that Law by the King and the Difpenfation of 
the Church to fuch as are not able to keep it, as 
Young Children, Old Folks, Disfeas'd Men, 6-r. 

I. T T hath e^ er been the way for Fathers, to bind 

I their Sons, to (Irengthen this by the Law of 

-*- the Land, every one at Twelve Years of age, 

is to take the Oath of Allegiance in Court-Leets, 

whereby he fwears Obedience to the King. 

I. 'TT^HE old Law was, That when a Man was 
I Fin'd, he was to be Fin*d Sa/vo Conte- 
-^ nemento, fo as his Countenance might be 
fafe, taking Countenance in the fame fenfe as your 
Countryman does, when he fays, if you will come unto 
my Houfe, I will fhow you the bed Countenance I can, 
that is not the bed Face, but the befl Entertainment 
The meaning of the Law was, that fo much (hould be 
taken from a man, fuch a Gobbet diced off, that yet 
notwithdanding he might live in the lame Rank and 
Condition he lived in before ; but now they Fine men 
ten times more than they are worth. 

I. *" I ^HE Puritans who will allow no free-will at 
I all, but God does all, yet will allow the 
-^ Subje6t his Liberty to do, or not to do, not- 
withdanding die King, the God upon Earth. The 



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51 



ArminianSy who hold we have free-will, yet fay, when 
we come to the King, there mull be all Obedience, 
and no Liberty to be (lood for. 

I. *" I ^HE Fryers fay they poffefs nothing, whofe 
I then are the Lands they hold? not their 
•^ Superiour*s, he hath vow'd Poverty as well as 
they, whofe then ? To anfwer this, 'twas Decreed they 
(hould fay they were the Popes. And why mud the 
Fryers be more perfe<5l than the Pope himfelf ? 

2. If there had been no Fryers, Chriftcndomc might 
have continued quiet, and things remained at a flay. 

If there had been no Lecturers (which fucceed the 
Friers in their way) the Church of England might 
have flood, and flouiifht at this day. 

LD Friends are befL King /antes us*d to 
call for his Old Shoos, they were eafiefl for 
his Feet 

6nual0fls of €^xiit 

I, •^ I "*Hey that fay the reafon yi\iy JofepJC^ Pedi- 
I gree is fet down, and not Marfs, is, becaufe 
^ die defcent from the Mother is lofl, and 
fwallow'd up, fay fomething; but yet if a Jewijh 
Woman, manyd with a Geniily they only took notice of 
the Mother, not of the Father ; but they that fay they 
were both of a Tribe, fay nothing, for the Tribes might 
Marry one with another, and the Law againfl it was 
only Temporary, in the time -^MAtJoJhua was dividing 
the Land, lefl the being fo long about it, there might 
be a conAifion. 

2. That Chrifl was the Son oijofeph is mofl exadlly 
true. For though he was the Son of God, yet with 
theyif^x, if any man kept a Child, and brought him 
up, and calFd him Son, he was taken for his Son ; and 
his Land (if he had any) was to defcend upon him ; 
and therefore the Genealogy oijofeph is juflly fet down. 



O 



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52 table-talk. 

I. T T 7 Hat a Gentleman is, 'tis hard with ws to 
\/\/ define, in other Countries he is known by 
^ • his Privileges ; in WeJIminJier Hall he is 
one that is reputed one ; in the Court of Honour, he 
that hath Arms. The King cannot make a Gentleman 
of Blood [what have you faid] nor God Almighty, but 
he can make a Gentleman by Creation. If you ask 
which is the better of thefe two. Civilly, the Gentleman 
of Blood, Morally the Gentleman by Creation may be 
the better ; for the other may be a Debauched man, this 
a Perfon of worth. 

2. Gentlemen have ever been more Temperate in 
their Religion, than the, Common People, as having 
more Reafon, the others running in a hurry. In the 
beginning of Chriflianity, the Fathers writ Contra 
gmtesy and Contra Gentiles^ they were all one: But 
after all were Chriftians, the better fort of People dill 
retain'd the name of Gentiles, throughout the four 
Provinces of the Roman Empire; as GenHl-homme in 
French^ Gent it homo in Italian fientil huombre in Spqnijk^ 
and Gentil-man in Engiijhi And they, no queflion, 
being Perfons of Quality, kept up thofe Feafls which 
we borrow from the Gentils ; as ChriJlmaSy Candlemas, 
May day, &c continuing what was not directly againfl 
Chriflianity, which the Common people would never 
have endured. 

I. '^ I ^Here are two Reafons, why thefe words 
I (J^f^ autem tranfiens per medium eorum 
-*- (bat) were about our old Gold : the one is, 
because Ripley the Alchymifl, when he made Gold in 
the Totver, the firil time he found it, he fpoke thefe 
words \per medium eorum\ that is, per medium ignis^ et 
Sulphuris, The other, becaufe thefe words were 
thought to be a Charm, and that they did bind what- 
foever they were written upon, fo that a Man could 
not take it away. To this Reafon I rather incline. 



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TABLE-TALK. 53 

Ran. 

I. •^ I "* HE Hall was the place where the great Lord 
I us'd to eat, (wherefore elfe were the Halls 
^ made fo big?) Where he faw all his Servants 
and Tenants about him. He eat not in private, Except 
in time of ficknefe ; when once he became a thing 
Coopt up, all his greatnefs was fpoird. Nay the King 
himfelf ufed to eat in the Hall, and his Lords fate 
with him, and then he underllood Men. 

I. ^ I ^Here are two Texts for Chrifl's defcend- 
I ing into Hell: The ohq Pfalm. 16. The 
-*- other A^ the 2d, where the Bible that 
was in ufe when the thirty nine Articles were made has 
it {Hell.) But the Bible that was in Queen Elizabeth's 
time, when the Articles were confirmed, reads it 
{Grave^ and fo it continued till the New Tranflation 
in YJiwg James' % time, and then *tis -^r// again. But 
by this we may gather the Church of England declined 
as much as they could, the defcent, otherwife they 
never would have altered the Bible. 

2. (He dcfcended into Hell) this may be the Inter- 
pretation of it He may be dead and buried, then his 
Soul afcended into Heaven. Afterwards he defcended 
again into Hell^ that is, into the Grave, to fetch his 
Body, and to rife again. The ground of this Interpre- 
tation is taken from the Platonick Learning, who held 
a Metempfychofis, and when a Soul did defcend from 
Heaven to take another Body, they caird it Kara 
/3a(r«v €ic ^lt\v taking fto</c. for the lower World, 
the flate of Mortality: Now the firfl Chriftians 
many of them were Platonick Philofophers, and no 
question fpake fuch Language as then was under- 
llood amongfl them. To underfland by Hell the 
Grave is no Tautology, becaufe the Creed firfl tells 
what Chrift fuffer'd, he' was Crucified^ Dead^ and 
Buried ; then it tells us what he did, he defcended into 
Hell^ the third day he rofe again^ ht afcetidea^ &*c. 



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54 TABLE-TALK. 

I. •^ I "*Hey £ay the Church impofes Holy-days, 
I there's no fuch thing, though the number 
*- of Holy-days is fet down in fome of our 
Common-Prayer Books. Yet that has relation to an 
A61 of Parliament, which forbids the keeping of any 
Holy-Days in time of Popery, but thofe that are kept, 
are kept by the Cuflom of the Country, and I hope 
fou wUl not fay the Church impofes that 

I. T IT Umility is aVertue all preach, none praftife, 

I — I and yet every body is content to hear. 

-*- -■- The Mafler thinks it good Do6lrine for his 

Servant, the Laity for the Clergy, and the Cleigy for 

the Laity. 

2. There is Humilitas quadam in Vitio, If a man 
does not take. notice of that excellency and perfedlion 
that is in himfelf, how can he be thankful to God, 
who is the Author of all Excellency and Perfection ? 
Nay, if a Man hath too mean an Opinion of himfelf, 
'twill render him unferviceable both to God and Man. 

3. Pride may be allowed to this or that degree, elfe 
a man cannot keep up his Dignity. In Gluttons there 
mufl be Eating, in drunkennefs there mufl be drinking ; 
'tis not the eating, nor 'tis not the drinking that is to 
be blam'd, but the Excefs. So in Pride. 

iiralatq;, 

I. T Dolatiy is in a Man's own thought, not in the 
I Opinion of another. Put Cafe I bow to the 
-■- Altar, why am I guilty of Idolatry ? becaufe 

a (lander by thinks fo ? I am fure I do not believe 

the Altar to be God, and the God I worlhip may be 

bow'd to in all places, and at all times. 

I. /^^ OD at the firfl gave Laws to all Mankind, 
I jp but afterwards he gave peculiar Laws to the 
^■^ Jews, which they were only to obferve. Juft 



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TABLE-TALK. 55 

as we have the Qommon Law for all En^iandy and yet 
you have fome Corporations, that, befides that, have 
peculiar Laws and priviledges to themfelves. 

2. Talk what you will of the Jews, that they are 
Curfed, they thrive where e*re they come, they are able 
to oblige the Prince of then- Country by lending him 
money, none of them beg, they keep together, and for 
their being hated, my life for yours, ChriHians hate 
one another as much. 

inbCndile ignorance. 
I. ' 'npiS all one to me if I am told of ChriO, or 
I fome Myllery of Chriflianity, if I am not 
-^ capable of imderflanding, as if I am not 
told at all, my Ignorance is as invincible, and therefore 
'tis vain to call their Ignorance only invincible, who 
never were told of Chrift, The trick of it is to advance 
the Pried, whilfl the Church of Rome fays a Man mud 
be told of Chrifly by one thus and thus ordain'd. 

I. ^ I ^HE Papifls taking away the fecond [Com- 
I mandment], is not haply fo horrid a thing, 
-*- nor fo unreafonable amongll Chriftians as 
we make it. For the Jews could make no figure of 
God, but they mud commit Idolatry, becaufe he had 
taken no ihape, but fince the Affumption of our flefti, 
we know what (hape to pidlure God in. Nor do I 
know why we may not make his Image, provided we 
be fure what it is : as we lay Saint Luke took the 
pidlure ol the Virgin Mary^ and Saint Veronica of our 
Saviour. Otherwife it would be no honour to the 
King, to make a Pidlure, and call it the King's Pidure, 
when *tis nothing like him. 

2. Though the Learned Papids pray not to Images, 
yet 'tis to be feared the ignorant do ; as appears by 
that Story of St. Nicholas in Spain, A Countrey-man 
us'd to ofier daily to St. Nicholas's Image, at length by 
mifchance the Image was broken, and a new one made 
of his own Plumb-Tree ; after that the man forbore, 
being complained of to his Ordinary, he anfwer^d, 'tis 



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56 TABLE-TALK. 

true, he us'd to offer to the Old Image, but to the 
new he could not find in his heart, becaufe he knew 
'twas a piece of his own Plumb Tree. You fee what 
Opinion this man had of the Image, and to this tended 
the bowing of their Images, the twinkling of their 
Eyes, the Virgins Milk, 6-r. Had they only meant 
reprefentations, a Pi<5lure would have done as well as 
thefe tricks. It may be with us in England they do 
not worfliip images, becaufe living among Protellants, 
they are either laught out of it, or beaten out of it by 
fhock of Argument. 

3. Tis a difcreet way concerning Pictures in 
Churches, to let up no new, nor to puU down no old. 

imjperCal Comftttutianil. 

I. *" 1 ^Hey fay Imperial Conflitutions did only con- 
I firm the Canons of the Church, but that is 
-^ not fo, for they inflicted punifhment, when 
the Canons never did. {viz,) If a man Converted a 
Chriflian to be a Jew, he was to forfeit his Eflate, and 
lofe his Life. ' In Valentines Novels 'tis faid. Canjlat 
Epifcopus Forum Legibus non habere^ etjndicant tantum 
de Religione. 

imprt!f0nmmt, 
I. r^ IR Kenelme Digby was feveral times taken and 
^^ let go again, at lall Imprifon'd in Wifichefler- 
^^—^ Houfe, I can compare him to nothing but 
a great Fifli that we catch and let go again, but (lill 
he will come to the Bait, at lafl therefore we put him 
into fome great Pond for Store. 

incenHiarfciir. 
I. T~^ Ancy to your felf a Man fets the City on Fire 
1^ at Cripplcgate^ and that Fire continues by 
-■* means of others, 'till it come to White-Fryers^ 
and then he that began it would fain quench it, does 
not he deferve to be punilht mofl that firft fet the City 
on Fire ? So 'tis with the Incendiaries of the State. 
They that firfl fet it on fire [by Monopolizing, Forreft 
Bulinefs, Imprifoning Parliament Men, tertio Caroii^ 



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TABLE-TALK. 57 

&C.] are now become regenerate, and would fain 
quench the Fire ; Certainly they deferv'd mofl to be 
punifh'd, for being the firfl Caufe of our Dillradlions. 

Sntffpmtftnci^* 

I. T Ndependency is in ufe at Amjlerdam^ where 
I forty Churches or Congregations have nothing 
-*- to do one with another. And *tis no quellion 
agreeable to the Primitive times, before the Emperour 
became Chriflian. For either we mufl fay every 
Church govem'd it felf, or elfe we mull fall upon that 
old foolifli Rock, that St Peter and his Succeffours 
govem'd aU, but when the Civil State became Chris- 
tian, they appointed who (hould govern them, before 
they governed by agreement and confent ; if you will 
not do this, you (hall come no more amongfl us, but 
both the Independant man, and the Presbyterian man 
do equally exclude the Civil Power, though after a 
different manner. 

2. The Independant may as well plead, they (hould 
not be fubjecSl to temporal Things, not come before a 
Condable, or a Juflice of Peace, as they plead they 
(hould not be fubje6l in Spiritual things, becaufe SiPaul 
fays, Is itfoy that there is not a wife man amongfl you 1 

3. The Pope challenges all Churches to be under 
him, the King and the two Arch-Bi(hops challenge 
all the Church of England to be under them. The 
Presbyterian man divides the Kingdom into as many 
Churches as there be Presbyteries, and your Indepen- 
dant would have every Congregation a Church by it felf. 

Cf)ingi( intrU&rent 
!• T N a time of Parliament, when things are under 
I debate, they are indifferent, but in a Church 
-■- or State fetled, there's nothing left indifferent 

9uMidt intrrnK. 

!• A LL might go well in the Common-Wealth, if 

/-\ every one in the Parliament would lay down 

-^ ^ his own Interefl, and aim at the general 

good. If a man were fick, and the whole Colledge of 



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58 TABLE-TALK. 

Phyficians fliould come to him, and adminifter feverally, 
haply fo long as they obferv'd the Rules of Art he 
might recover, but if one of them had a great deal of 
Scainony by him, he mufl put off that, therefore he 
prefcribes Scamony. AnoUier had a great deal of 
Rubarb, and he mufl put off that, and therefore he 
preicrit^s Rubarb, dr'c, they would certainly kill the 
man. We dellroy the Common-wealth, while we pre- 
ferve our own private Interefls, and negle<Sb the 
Publick. 

ftununu inhtntiatu 

I. "XT^OU lay there mull be no Human Invention 
Y in the Church, nothing but the' pure word. 
-*• Anfwer. If 1 give any Expofition, but what is 
exprefs'd in the Text, that is my invention : if you give 
another Expofition, that is your invention, and both 
are Human. For Example, (uppole the word [Egg] 
were in the Text, I fay, 'tis meant an Henn-Egg, you 
iay a Goofe-Egg, neither of thefe are exprefl, therefore 
they are Humane Invention, and I am fure the newer 
the Invention the worfe, old Inventions are befl. 

2. If we mufl admit nothing, but what we read in 
the Bible, what will become of the Parliament ? for we 
do not read of that there. 

Slutrjimentir. 

I. T T TE cannot tell what is a Judgment of God, 
\\ 'tis prelumption to take upon us to know, 
■^ ' In time of Plague we know we want 
health, and therefore we pray to God to give us health ; 
in time of War we know we want peace, and therefore 
we pray to God to give us peace. Commonly we fay 
a Judgment lalls upon a man tor lomething in them 
we cannot abide. An Example we have in King 
JameSf concerning the death of Henry the Fourth of 
France ; one laid he was kilPd lor his Wenching, an- 
other laid he was kilPd for turning his Religion. No, 
lays King /ames (who could not abide fighting) he was 
kUl'd lor permitting Duels in his Kingdom. 



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TABLE-TALK. 59 

r. \ Tl 7E fee the Pageants in Cheapfide, the Lions, 

\/\/ and the Elephants, but we do not fee the 

^ ' menthatcarrythem; we fee the Judges look 

big, look like Lions, but we do not fee who moves them. 

2. Little things do great works, when great things 
will not If I fhould take a Pin from the ground, a 
little pair of Tongues will do it, when a great pair will 
not Go to a Judge to do a bufinefs for you, by no 
means he will not hear it ; but go to fome fmall Ser- 
vant about him, and he will dispatch it according to 
your hearts defire. 

3. There could be no mifchief done in the Common- 
wealth without a Judge. Though there be falfe Dice 
brought in at the Groom-Porters, and cheating offered, 
yet unlefs he allow the Cheating, and judge tiie Dice 
to be good, there may be hopes ot fair play. 

I. '*^ I ^IS not Juggling that is to be blam*d, but 

I much Juggling, for the World cannot be 

-*- Govem'd without it All your Rhetorick, 

and all your Elenchs in Logick come within the com- 

pals of Juggling. 

3urtftrCct(0n« 
I. *" I ^ Here's no fuch Thing as Spiritual Jurifdiftion, 
I all is Civil, the Churches is the fame with 
-^ the Lord Mayors ; fuppofe a Chriftian came 
into a Pagan Country, how can you fancy he (hall have 
any Power there ? he finds faults with the Gods of the 
Country, well, they will put him to Death for it, when 
he is a Martyr, what follows ? Does that argue he has 
any Spiritual Jurifdidion ? If the Clergy lay the 
Church ought to be govem'd thus, and thus, by the 
word of God, that is Doctrine all, that is not Difcipline. 
2. The Pope he challenges Jurifdidion over all, the 
Bilhops they pretend to it as well as he, the Presby- 
terians they would have it to themfelves, but over 
whom is all this ? the poor Laymen. 



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6o TABLE-TALK. 

9tu{ SibCnum. 

X. A LL things are held by Jus Divinum^ either 
/-\ immediately or mediately. 
-*• ^ 2. Nothing has lofl the Pope fo much 
in his Supremacy, as not acknowledging what Princes 
gave him. 'Tis a fcom upon the Civil Power, and an 
unthankfulnefs in the Priefl. But the Church runs to 
Jus Divinuniy lefl if they fhould acknowledge what 
they have they have by pofitive Law, it might be as 
weU taken from them as given to them, 

King. 

I. A King is a thing men have made for their own 
/-\ fakes, for quietnefs fake* Jufl as in a Family 
-*• ^ one Man is appointed to buy Meat ; if every 
man fhouldbuy,or if there were many buyers, they would 
never agree, one would buy what the other lik*d not, or 
what the other had bought before, fo there would be a 
confufion. But that Charge being committed to one, he 
according to his Difcretion pleafes all, if they have not 
what they would have one day, they (hall have it the 
next, or fomething as good. 

2. The word King direds our Eyes, fuppofe it had 
been Conful, or Di6lator, to think all Kings alike is 
the fame folly, as if a Conful of Aleppo or Smyrna^ 
Ihould claim to himfelf the fame power that a Conful 
at RonUy What, am not I a Conful? or a Duke of 
England^oxiXdi think himfelf like the Duke of Florence ; 
nor can it be imagined, that the word fiamXivQ did 
fignifie the fame in Greek, as the Hebrew word ^^3 
did with the Jews. Befides, let the Divines in their 
Pulpits fay what they will, they in their pradlice deny 
that all is the Kings : They fue him, and fo does all the 
Nation, whereof they are a part What matter is it then, 
what they Preach or Teach in the Schools ? 

3. Kings are all individual, this or that King, there 
is no Species of Kings. 

4. A King that claims Priviledges in his own Country, 
becaufe they have them in another, is jufl as a Cook, that 




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table-talk. 6i 

daims Fees in one Lords Houfe, becaufe they are 
allow'd in another. If the Mailer of the Houfe will 
yield them, well and good. 

5. The Text [rmdrr unto Ccefar the things that are 
C(Bfars\ makes as much againfl Kings, as for them, 
for it says plainly that fome things are not Ccefars. 
But Divines make choice of it, firfl in flattery, and then 
becaufe of the other part adjoined to it [render unto God 
tJu things that are Gods'] where they bring in the Church. 

6. A King outed of his Country, that takes as much 
upon him as he did at home, in his own Court, is as if 
a man on high, and I being upon the ground, us*d to 
lift up my voice to him, that he might hear me, at 
length (hould come down, and then expedls I fhould 
fpeak as loud to him as I did before. 

Ilfii0 af (IPnijlantr, 

I. *" I ^HE King can do no wrong, that is no Procefe 
I can be granted againfl him, what mud be 
-^ done then? Petition him, and the King 
\vrites upon the Petition foit droit fait^ and fends it to 
the Chancery, and then the bufmefs is heard. His 
ConfefTor will not tell him he can do no wrong. 

2. There^s a great deal of difference between Head 
of the Church, and Supream Govemour, as our 
Canons call the King. Conceive it thus, there is in 
the Kingdom of England a Colledge of Phificians, the 
King is Supream Govemour of thofe, but not Head of 
them, nor Prefident of the Colledge, not the befl Phifician. 

3. After the diffolution of Abbies, they did not 
much advance the King's Supremacy, for they only 
car'd to Exclude the Pope, hence have we had several 
Tranflations of the Bible put upon us. But now we 
mufl look to it, otherwife the King may put upon us 
what Religion he pleafes. 

4. Twas the old way when the King of England 
had his Houfe, there were Canons to ling Service in 
his Chappel ; fo at Wejlminjler in St Stephen's Chappel 
(where Uie Houfe of Commons fits) from which Canons 
the flreet call'd Canon-row has its name, becaufe they 



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62 TABLE-TALK. 

liv'd there, and he had alfo the Abbot and his Monks, 
and all thefe the King's Houfe. 

5. The Three Eftates are the Lords Temporal, the 
Bifhops are the Clergy, and the Commons, as fome 
would have it [take heed of that] for then if two agree 
the third is involved, but he is King of the Three 
Eftates. 

6. The King hath a Seal in every Court, and tho' 
the Great Seal be call'd Sigillum AngiicBy the Great Seal 
oi England^ yet 'tis not becaufe'tis the Kingdoms Seal, 
and not the Kings, but to diftinguifh it from Sigilium 
HibemicBy Sigilium Scotice, 

7. The Court of England is much altered. At a 
folemn Dancing, firft you had the grave Meafures, 
then the Corrantoes and the Galliards, and this is kept 
up with Ceremony, at length to Frmch-morty and the 
Culhion-Dance, and then all the Company Dance, 
Lord and Groom, Lady and Kitchm-Maid, no dis- 
tindlion. So in our Court in Queen Elizabeth's time 
Gravity and State were kept up. In King James's 
time things were pretty well. But in King Charleys 
time, there has been nothing but French-mort and the 
Culhion Dance, omnium gatherum^ tolly, poUy, hoite 
come toite. 

I , ' *^ I ^ IS hard to make an accommodation between 
I the King and the ParUament If you and 
-*- I fell out out about Money, you faid I ow'd 
you twenty Pounds, I faid I ow'd you but ten Pounds, it 
may be a third Party allowing me twenty Marks, 
might make us Friends. But if I feid I oVd you twenty 
Pounds in Silver, and you faid I ow'd you twenty 
pound of Diamonds, which is a fum innumerable, 'tis 
impoflible we fhould ever agree, this is the cafe. 

2. The King ufmg the Houfe of Commons, as'he 
did in Mr. Pymm and his Company, that is charging 
them with Treafon, becaufe they charg'd my Lord of 
Canterbury and Sir George Ratclij^^ it was juft with as 
much Logick as the Boy, that would have lain with his 



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TABLE-TALK. 63 

Grandmother, usM to his Father, you lay with my 
Mother, why (hould not I lye with yours ? 

3. There is not the fame reafon for the King's accus- 
ing Men of Treafon, and carrying them away, as there 
is for the Houfes themfelves, becaufe they accufe one 
of themfelves. For every one that is accufed, is either 
a Peer or a Commoner, and he that is accufed hath 
his Confent going along with him ; but if the King 
accufes, there is nothing of this in it 

4. The King is equally abus*d now as before, then 
they flatter'd him and made him do ill things, now 
ihey would force him againfl his Confcience. If a 
Phifician (hould tell me, every thing I had a mind to 
was good for me, tho' in truth 'twas Poifon, he abus'd 
me ; and he abufes me as much, that would force me to 
take fomething whether I will or no. 

5. The King fo long as he is our King, may do with 
his Officers what he pleafes, as the Mailer of the Houfe 
may turn away all his Servants, and take whom he pleafe. 

6. The King's Oath is not fecurity enough for our 
Property, for he fwears to Govern according to Law ; 
now the Judges they interpret the Law, and what 
Judges can be made to do we know. 

7. The King and the Parliament now falling out, 
are jufl as when there is foul Play offered amongfl 
Gameflers, one fnatches the others (lake, they feize 
what they can of one anothers. 'Tis not to be askt 
whether it belongs not to the King to do this or 
that; before when there was fair Play, it did. But 
now they will do what is mofl convenient for their 
own lafety. If two fall to fcuffling, one tears the others 
Band, the other tears his, when they were Friends they 
were quiet, and did no fuch thing, they let one an- 
others Bands alone. 

8. The King calling his Friends from the Parlia- 
ment, becaufe he had ufe of them at Ojxford^ is as if a 
man (hould have ufe of a little piece of wood, and he 
runs down into the Cellar, and takes the Spiggott, in 
the mean time all the Beer runs about the Houfe, 
when his Friends are abfent the King will be lo(L 



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64 TABLE-TALK. 

I. T >^ Nights-Service in earaell means nothing, foi 
rC the Lords are bound to wait upon the King 
■*■ ^ when he goes to War with a Foreign Enemy, 
with it may be One Man and One Horfe, and he that 
doth not, is to be rated fo much as fhall feem good to 
the next Parliament And what will that be ? So 
'tis for a private Man, that holds ot a Gentleman. 

I. T T THen men did let their Land underfoot, 
\/\/ the Tenants would fight for their I^nd- 
^ ^ lords, fo' that way they had their Retribu- 
tion, but now they will do nothing for them, may be 
the firft, if but a ConOable bid them, that (hall lay the 
Landlord by the heels, and therefore 'tis vanity and 
folly not to take the full value. 

2. Allodium is a Law-word contrary to Feudum, and 
it fignifies Land that holds of no body, we have no 
fuch Land in England, 'Tis a true Propofition, all 
the Land in England is held, either immediately, or 
mediately of the King. 

Eotijiuafle* 

I. 'TT^O a living Tongue new words may be added, 
I but not to a dead Tongue, as Latine, Greek, 
■*- Hebrew, 6f*c, 

2, Latimer is the Corruption of Latiner^ it fignifies 
he that interprets Latine, and though he interpreted 
French^ Spanijhy or Italian^ he was call'd the King*s 
Latiner^ that is, the King's Interpreter. 

3. If you look upon the Language fpoken in the 
Saxon time, and the Language fpoken now, you will 
find the difference to be juft, as if a man had a Cloak 
that he wore plain in Queen Elizabeth's days, and 
lince, here has put in a piece of Red, and there a piece 
of Blew, and here a piece of Green, and there a piece 
of Orange-tawny. We borow words from the French^ 
Italian^ Latine^ as every Pedantick Man pleafes. 



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TABLE-TAI.K. 6$ 

4. We have more words than Notions, half a dozen 
words for the fame thing. Sometime we put a new 
fignification to an old word, as when we call a Piece a 
Gun. The word Gun was in ufe in England iox zn 
Engine to cad a thing from a man, long before there 
was any Gun-powder found out. 

5. Words mud be fitted to a man's mouth ; 'twas 
well laid of the Fellow that was to make a Speech for 
my Lord Mayor, he defir'd to take meafure of his 
Lordlhips mouth. 

lato. 
I. A Man may plead not guilty, and yet tell no 
/-\ Lye, for by the Law no Man is bound to 
-*■ ^ acaife himfelf, fo that when I fay Not 
guilty, the meaning is, as if I (hould fay by way of 
Paraphrafe, I am Not fo guilty as to tell you ; if you 
will bring me to a Tryal, and have me punifht for this 
you lay to my Charge, prove it againfl me. 

2. Ignorance of the Law excufes no man, not that 
all Men know the Law, but becaufe *tis an excufe every 
man will plead, and no man can tell how to confute him. 

3. The King of Spain was out-la w*d in Wcjlminjler- 
Hally I being of Council againfl him. A Merchant 
had recovered Cofls againfl him in a Suit, which becaufe 
he could not get, we advis*d to have him Out-laVd for 
not appearing, and fo he was. As foon as Gondimer 
heard that, he prefently fent the money, by reafon, if 
his Mafler had been Out-law'd he could not have the 
benefit of the Law, which would have been very pre- 
judicial, there being then many fuits depending be- 
twixt the King of Spain and our Englifh Merchants. 

4. Every Law is a Contradl between the King and 
the People, and therefore to be kept An hundred 
men may owe me an hundred pounds, as well as any 
one man, and fhall they not pay me becaufe they are 
flronger than I ? Objed, Oh but they lofe all if they 
keep that Law. Anfw. Let them look to the making 
of their Bargain. If I fell my Lands, and when I 
have done, one comes and tells me I have nothing elfe 
to keep me. I and my Wife and Children mud flarve, 

s 



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66 TABLE-TALK. 

if I part with my Land. Mud I not therefore let them 
have my Land that have bought it and paid for it ? 

5. The Parliament may declare Law, as well as any 
other inferiour Court may, (viz.) the Kings Bench. In 
that or this particular Cafe the Kings Bench will 
declare unto you what the Law is, but that binds 
no body whom the Cafe concerns: So the highefl 
Court, the Parliament may doe, but not declare Law, 
that is, make Law that was never heard of before. 

ftatD 0f ^ure. 

I. T Cannot fancy to my felf what the Law of 
I Nature means, but the Law of God. How 
-*- fliould I know I ought not to fleal, I ought 
not to commit Adultery, unlefs fome body had told me 
fo? Surely 'tis becaufe I have been told fo? Tis 
not becaufe I think I ought not to do them, nor be- 
caufe you think I ought not ; if fo, our minds might 
change, whence then comes the reflraint? from a 
higher Power, nothing elfe can bind. I cannot bind 
my felf, for I may untye my felf again ; nor an equal 
cannot bind me, for we may untie one another. It 
mull be a fuperiour Power, even God Almighty. If 
two of us make a Bargain, why Ihould either of us (land 
to it ? What need you care what you fey, or what 
need I care what I fay ? Certainly becaufe there is 
fomething about me that tells me J*ulfs eft fervanda^ 
and if we after alter our minds, and make a new Bar- 
gain, there's Fides fervanda there too. 

I. TV T O man is the wifer for his Learning, it may 
I ^ Adminifler matter to work in, or Objedls to 
•^ ^ work upon, but Wit and Wifdom are bom 
with a Man. 

2. Mod mens Learning is nothing but Hillory duly 
taken up. If I quote Thomas Aquinus for fome Tenet 
and believe it, becaufe the Schoolmen fay fo, that is 
but Hillory. Few men make themfelves Maflers of 
the things they write or fpeak. 



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TABLE-TALK. 



67 



3. The Jefuits and the Lawyers of France^ and the 
Low-Country-men have engroffed all Learning. The 
refl of the world make nothing but Homilies. 

4. Tis obfervable, that in Athens where the Arts 
flourifht, they were govem'd by a Democrafie, Learn- 
ing made them think themfelves as wife as any body, 
and they would govern as well as others; and they 
fpake as it were by way of Contempt, that in the 
Eajl and in the North they had Kangs, and why? 
Becaufe the mod part of them followed their bufinefs, 
and if fome one man had made himfelf wifer than the 
reft, he govem'd them, and they willingly fubmilted 
themfelves to hinL AriJlotU makes the Obfervation. 
And as in Athens the Philofophers made the People 
knowing, and therefore they thought themfelves wife 
enough to govern, fo does preaching with us, and that 
makes us aflfedl a Democrafie: For upon thefe two 
grounds we all would be Govemours, either becaufe we 
think our felves as wife as the beft, or becaufe we think 
our felves the Eledl, and have the Spirit, and the reft a 
Company of Reprobates that belong to the Devil. 



Hecturerif. 



I. 



LEcturers do in a Parifh Church what the 
Fryers did heretofore, get away not only the 
Affedlions, but the Bounty, that (hould be 
beftow*d upon the Minifter. 

2. Ledturers get a great deal of money, becaufe they 
preach the People tame [as a man watches a Hawk] 
and then they do what they lift with them. 

3. The Ledtures in Black Fryers, performed by 
Officers of the Army, Trades-men, and Minifters, is as 
if a great Lord (hould make a Feaft, and he would 
have his Cook drefs one Difti, and his Coachman 
another, his Porter a third, 6f*c, 

I. 'TT^HO' fome make flight of Libels^ yet you may 

I fee by them how the wind fits : As take a 

■*• ftraw and throw it up into the Air, you 

(hall fee by that which way the Wind is, which you 



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68 TABLE-TALK. 

(hall not do by cading up a Stone. More folid thingi 
do not fhow the Complexion ot the times fo well, as 

Ballads and Libels. 

Sitttrsi^. 

X. '^ I "'Here is no Church without a Lituigy, nor 
I indeed can there be conveniently, as there 
-^ is no School without a Grammar. One 
Scholar may be taught otherwife upon the Stock ot 
his Acumen, but not a whole School. One or two 
that are pioufly difpos*d, may ferve themfelves their 
own way, but hardly a whole Nation. 

2. To know what was generally believ'd in all 
Ages, the way is to confult the Liturgies, not any 
I)rivate man's writing. As if you would know how 
ihe Church oi England {tiwts God. Go to the Common 
prayer-Book, confult not this nor that man. Befides 
Liturgies never Complement, nor ufe high ExprefEons. 
The Fathers oft-times fpeak Oratorioufly. 

MMttii in tf)e ^arliamtnt 

I. '^ I ^ HE Lords giving Protedlions is a fcom upon 

I them. A Prote^ion means nothing actively, 
-*- but paflively, he that is a Servant to a 
Parliament man is thereby Protedled. What a fcom 
is it to a perfon of Honour to put his hand to two 
Lyes at once, that fuch a man is my Servant, and 
imj)loyed by me, when haply he never faw the man 
in his life, nor before never heard of him. 

2. The Lords protefling is foolifti. To proteft is 
properly to fave to a man's felf fome right But to 
proteft as the Lords proteft, when they their felves 
are involved, 'tis no more than if I ftiould go into 
Smith fields and fell my Horfe, and take the money, 
and yet when I have your Money, and you my Horfe, 
I fliould proteft this Horfe is mine, becaufe I love 
the Horfe, or I do not know why I do proteft, becaufe 
my Opinion is contrary to the reft. Ridiculous, when 
they Hxy the Bifliops did antiently proteft, it was only 
dilTcuting, and that in the cafe of the Pope. 



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TABLE-TALK. 69 

%attsi httavt t^ ^atrllanmit 
1. /^^^ Reat Lords by reafon of their Flatterers, 
I y are the firfl that know their own Vertues, 
^^ and the la(l that know their own Vices ; 
Some of them are afliam'd upwards, becaufe their 
Ancellors were too great Others are alham'd down- 
wards, becaufe they were too little. 

2. The Priaur of St John of Jerufakm is laid to be 
Primus Baro Angiice, the firfl Baron of England^ 
becaufe being lafl of the Spiritual Barons, he chofe to 
be firfl of the Temporal. He was a kind of an Otter, 
a Knight half-Spiritual, and half-Temporal. 

3. Quefl, Whether is every Baron a Baron of some place? 
Af^w. Tis according to his Patent, of late years 

they have been made Baron of fome place, but 
antiently not, call'd only by their Sir-name, or the Sir- 
name of fome Family, into which they have been married. 

4. The making of new Lords lefTens all the refl. 
Tis in the bufinefe of Lords, as 'twas with St Nicholas's 
Image ; the Counfayman, you know, could not find in 
his heart to adore the new Image, made of his own 
Plimib-Tree, though he had formerly Worfhip'd the 
old one. The Lords that are antient we honour, 
becaufe we know not whence they come, but the new 
ones we flight, becaufe we know their beginning. 

5. For the Irijh Lords to take upon them here in 
England; is as if the Cook in the Fair fhould come to 
my Lady -^ifw/j kitchen, and take upon him to roafl the 
meat there, becaufe he is a Cook in another place. 

I. y^"^ F all Adlions of a man's life, his Marriage 
I I does leafl concern other people, yet of 
^^ all A6lions of our Life, 'tis mofl medled 

with by other people. 

2. Marriage is nothing but a Civil Contrail, 'tis true 
'tis an Ordinance of God : fo is every other Contrail, 
(jod commands me to keep it when I have made it. 

3. Marriage is a defperate thing, the Frogs in /Efop 
were extream wife, they had a great mind to fome 



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70 TABLE-TALK. 

water, but they would not leap into the Well, becaufe 
they could not get out again. 

4. We fingle out particulars, and apply Gods Pro- 
vidence to them, thus when two are marr/d and have 
undone one another, they cry it was God*s Providence 
we (hould come together, when God's Providence does 
equally concurr to every thing. 

^ Ome men forbear to Marry Coufin-Gennans 
out of this kind of fcruple of Confcience, 
becaufe it was unlawful before the Refor- 
mation, and is (lill in the Church of J^ofm, And fo 
by reafon their Grandfather, or their great Grand- 
father did not do it, upon that old Score they think 
they ought not to do it ; as fome men forbear flefti 
upon Friday y not reflecting upon the Statute, which 
with us makes it unlawful, but out of an old Score, 
becaufe the Church of Rome forbids it, and their 
Fore-fathers always forbore flefti upon that day. 
Others forbear it out of a Natural Confideration, be- 
caufe it is obferv'd (for Example) in Beads, if two 
couple of a near kind, the breed proves not fo good ; 
The fame obfervation they make in Plants and Trees, 
which degenerate being grafted upon the fame Stock. 
And 'tis alfo further obferv'd, thofe Matches between 
Coufm Germans feldom prove fortunate. But for the 
lawfulnefs there is no colour but Coufin-Germans in 
England may marry, both by the Law of God and man: 
for with us we have reduced all the degrees of Mar- 
riage to thofe in the Levitical Law, and 'tis plain there's 
nothing again (I it. As for that that is faid Coufm- 
Germans once remov'd may not Marry, and therefore 
being a further degree may not, 'tis prefumed a nearer 
fliould not, no man can tell what it means. 

^cajE^ure aC C^inflif. 

I. T Tl TE meafure from our felves, and as things 

\/\/ are for our ufe and purpofe, fo we ap- 

^ ^ prove them ; bring a Pear to the Table 

that is rotten, we cry it down, 'tis naught ; but bring 



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TABLf-TALK. 71 

a Medlar that is rotten, and 'tis a fine thing, and yet 
I'le warrant you the Pear thinks as well of it felf as 
the Medlar does. 

2. We meafure the Excellency of other men, by 
fome Excellency we conceive to be in our Iclves. 
Najh a Poet, poor enough (as Poets us'd to be^ feeing 
an Alderman with his Gold Chain, upon his great 
Horfe, by way of fcom faid to one of his Companions, 
do you fee yon fellow, how goodly, how big he looks, 
why that fellow cannot make a blank Verfe. 

3. Nay we meafure the goodnefs of God from our 
felves, we meafure his Goodnefs, his Juflice, his WiC- 
dom, by fomething we call juft, good, or wife in our 
felves ; and in fo doing we judge proportionably to 
the Country fellow in the Play, who laid if he were a 
King, he would live like a Lord, and have Peafe and 
Bacon every day, and a Whip that cr/d Slafh. 

Sifference of AS^n. 

I. •^ I ^HE difference of men is very great, you would 
I fcarce think them to be of the feme Spe- 
■*• cies, and yet it confifls more in the Affedtion 
than in the Intelle(^. For as in the (Irength of Body, 
two men (hall be of an equal (Irength, yet one (hall 
appear (Ironger than the other, because he exercifes, 
and puts out his (Irength, the other will not (lir nor 
(Indn himfelf. So 'tis in the (Irength of the Brain, 
the one endeavours, and drains, and labours, and 
(ludies, the other (its dill, and is idle, and takes no 
pains, and therefore he appears fo much the inferiour. 

iBMAizt StbCite. 

X. •" I ^HEimpofitionofhands upon the Minider when 
I all is done, will be nothing but a defignation 
■*- of a Perfon to this or that Office or ^ploy- 
ment in the Church. 'Tis a ridiculous Phrafe that of the 
Canonids [Conferre Ordines] 'Tis Coaptare aliquem in 
Ordineniy to make a man one of us, one of our Number, 
one of our Order. So Cicero would underdand what I 
laid, it being a Phrafe borrow'd from the Latines^ and 



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7a TABLE-TALK. 

to be underilood proportionably to what was amongft 
them. 

2. Thofe words you now ufe in making a Minifler 
[receive the Holy GhoJ{\ were us*d amongfl the Jews in 
making of a Lawyer, from thence we have them, which 
is a villanous key to fomething, as if you would have 
fome other kind of Praefeture, than a Mayoralty, and 
yet keep the fame Ceremony that was us'd in making 
the Mayor. 

3. A Priefl has no fuch thing as an indelible Cha- 
racter, what difference do you find betwixt him and 
another man after Ordination? only he is made a 
Priefl, (as I faid) by Defignation : as a Lawyer is 
caird to the Bar, then made a Serjeant ; all men that 
would get power over others, make themfelves as unlike 
them as they can, upon the fame ground the Priefls 
made themfelves unlike the Laity. 

4. A Minifler when he is made is Materia prima^ 
apt for any form the State will put upon him, but of 
himfelf he can do nothing. Like a Do<5lor of Law in 
the Univerfity, he hath a great deal of Law in him, 
but cannot ufe it till he be made fome bodies Chan- 
cellour ; or like a Phyfician, before he be received into 
a houfe, he can give no body Phyfick ; indeed after 
the Mafler of the houfe hath given him charge of his 
Servants, then he may. Or like a Suffragan, that could 
do nothing but give Orders, and yet he was no Bifhop. 

5. A Minifler fhould preach according to the Arti- 
cles of Religion Eflablifhed in the Church where he is. 
To be a Civil Lawyer let a man read Justinian^ and 
the Body of the Law, to confirm his Brain to that way, 
but when he comes to pradtice, he mufl make ufe of 
it fo far as it concerns the Law received in his own 
Country. To be a Phyfician let a Man read GalUn 
and Hypocrates; but when he pracSHces, he mufl apply 
his Medicins according to the Temper of thofe Mens 
Bodies with whom he lives, and have refpedl to the 
heat and cold of Climes, otherwife that which in Per- 
gamus (where Galkn liv'd) was Phyfick, in our cold 
Climate may be Poifon. So to be a Divine, let him 



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ta:ble.talk. 73 

read the whole Body of Divinity, the Fathers and the 
Schoolmen, but when he comes to pradtice, he mufl 
ufe it and apply it according to thofe Grounds and 
Articles of Religion that are e(labli(h*d in the Church, 
and this with fence. 

6. There be four things a Minider (hould be at, the 
Confcionary part, Ecclefiallical (lory, School Divinity, 
and the Cafuifts. 

1. In the Confcionary part he mud read all the 
Chief Fathers, both Latine and Greek wholly. St. 
Aujlin^ St Ambrofe^ St. Chryfojlome^ both the Grego- 
riesy &c. Tertullian^ Clemens^ AlexandrinuSy and Epi- 
phaniusy which lad have more Learning in them than 
all the reft, and writ freely. 

2. For Ecclefiaftical ftory let him read Baroniusy 
with the Magdeburgenfes, and be his own Judge, the 
one being extreamly for the Papifts, the other ex- 
treamly againft them. 

3. For School Divinity let him get Javellui^ Edi- 
tion of Scotus or May CO ^ where there be Quotations 
that diredl you to every Schoolman, where fuch and 
fuch queftions are handled. Without School-Divinity 
a Divine knows nothing Logically, nor will be able to 
fatisfie a rational man out of the Pulpit. 

4. The Study of the Cafuifts muft follow the Study 
of the School-men, becaufe the divifion of their Cafes 
is according to their Divinity, otherwife he that begins 
with them will know little. As he that begins with 
the ftudy of the Reports and Cafes in the Common 
Law, will thereby know little of the Law. Cafuifts 
may be of admirable ufe, if difcreetly dealt with, tho' 
among them you ftiall have many leaves together very 
impertinent A Cafe well decided would ftick by 
a man, they would remember it whether they will 
or no, whereas a quaint pofition dieth in the Birth. 
The main thing is to know where to fearch, for talk 
what they will of vaft memories, no man will prefume 
upon his own memory for any thing he means to write 
or fpeak in publick. 

7. \Go andtecuh ail Nations.'] This was faid to all 



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74 TABLE-TALK. 

ChriiUans that then were, before the diRindlion of 
Clergy and Laity ; there have been fmce Men defign*d 
to Preach only by the State, as fome Men are defign'd 
to lluddy the Law, others to (luddy Phyfick. When 
the Lord's Supper was inllituted, there were none 
prefent but the Difciples, (hall none then but Mmiflers 
receive? 

8. There is all the Reafon you (hould believe your 
Minifler, unlefs you have (luddied Divinity as well as 
he, or more than he. 

9. Tis a foolifh thing to fay MiniRers mud not 
meddle with Secular Matters, becaufe his own pro- 
feffion will take up the whole Man ; may he not eat, 
or drink, or walk, or learn to fmg ? the meaning of 
that is, he mu(l ferioufly attend his Calling. 

10. Minifters with the Papifls [that is their Priefts] 
have much refpedt, with the Puritans they have much, 
and that upon the fame ground, they pretend both of 
'em to come immediately from Chrifl; but with the 
Proteftants they have very little, the reafon whereof is, 
in the beginning of the Reformation they were glad to 
get fuch to take Livings as they could procure by any 
Invitations, things of pitiful condition. The Nobihty 
and Gentry would not fuflfer their Sons or Kindred to 
meddle with the Church, and therefore at this day, 
when they fee a Parfon, they think him to be fuch 
a thing ilill, and there they will keep him, and ufe him 
accorcBngly; if he be a Gentleman, that is fingled out, 
and he is us'd the more refpedtfully. 

11. The Proteftant Minifler is lead regarded, 
appears by the old (lory of the Keeper of the Clink. 
He had Priefls of feveral forts fent unto him, as they 
came in, he ask'd them who they were ; who are you 
to the firfl ? I am a Prieft of the Church of Rome ; you 
are welcome quoth the Keeper, there are thofe will 
take care of you. And who are you? A (ilens*d 
Minifler. You are welcome too, I fhall fare the better 
for you? And who are you? A Minifler of the 
Church of England, O God help me (quoth the 
Keeper) I ihall get nothing by you, I am fure you 



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TABLE-TALK. 7S 

may lye and (larve, and rot, before any body will look 
after you. 

12. Methinks 'tis an ignorant thing for a Church- 
man, to call himfelf the Minifter of Chrift, becaufe St 
Patd^ or the Apoflles call'd themfelves fo. If one 
of them had a Voice from HeaVn, as St. Paul had, 
I will grant he is a Minifler of Chrift, I will call him 
fo too. Mud they take upon them as the Apoftles 
did? Can they do as the Apoftles could? The 
Apoftles- had a Mark to be known by, fpake Tongues, 
Cufd Difeafes, trod upon Serpents, ht*c. Can they do 
chis ? If a Gentleman tells me, he will fend his Man 
to me, and I did not know his Man, but he gave me 
this Mark to know him by, he fhould bring in his hand 
a rich Jewel ; if a fellow came to me with a pebble- 
Stone, had I any reafon to believe he was the Gentle- 
man's man ? 

I. Ti ^ Oney makes a man laugh. A blind Fidler 
1^1 playing to a Company, and playing but 
'^^-*- fcurvily, the Company laught at him ; His 
Boy that led him, perceiving it, cry'd, Father let us be 
gone, they do nothing but laugh at you. Hold thy 
peace, Boy, faid the Fidler, we (hall have their money 
prefently, and then we will laugh at them. 

2. Euclide was beaten in BoccalirUy for teaching his 
Scholars a Mathematical Figure in his School, whereby 
he (hew'd, that all the Lives both of Princes and 
private Men tended to one Centre, Con Gentilizzd, 
handfomly to get money out of other mens pockets, 
and it into their own. 

3. The Pope us'd heretofore to fend tlie Princes of 
Chriftendom to fight againft the Turk, but Prince and 
Pope finely Juggl'd together, the Moneys were rais'd, 
and fome men went out to the Holy War, but com- 
monly after they had got the money, the Turk was 
pretty quiet, and the Prince and the Pope fliar'd it be* 
tween them. 

4. In all times the Princes in England have done 
fomething illegal, to get money. But then came 



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76 TABLE-TALK. 

a Parliament and all was well, the People and the 
Prince kid and were Friends, and fo things were quiet 
for a while ; afterwards there was another trick found 
out to get money, and after they had got it, another 
Parliament was called to fet all right, &'c. But now 
they have fo out-run the Conftable 

iff oral Sonetfts* 
X. ^ I ^Hey that cry down Moral-honefty, cry down 
I that which is a great part of Religion, my 
■*• Duty towards God, and my Duty towards 
man. What care I to fee a man run after a Sermon, 
if he Couzen and Cheats as foon as he comes 
home. On the other fide Morality muft not be 
without Religion, for if fo, it may change, as I 
fee convenience. Religion muft govern it He that 
has not Religion to govern his Morality, is not 
a Dram better than my Maftiff-Dogg; fo long as 
you ftroak him and pleafe him, and do not pinch 
him, he will play with you as finely as may be, he is a 
very good Moral-Maftiff, but if you hurt him, he will 
fly in your Face, and tear out your Throat 

I. TN Cafe I receive a thoufend pounds, and 
I Mortgage as much Land as is worth two thou- 
-*- land to you, if I do not pay the Money at fuch 
a day, I fail, wliether you may take my Land and keep 
it in point of Confcience ? Anfw, If you had my 
Lands as fecurity only for your Money, then you are 
not to keep it, but if we bargained fo, that if I did not 
repay your looo/. my Land ftiould go for it, be it what 
it will, no doubt you may with a fafe Confcience keep 
it; for in these things all die Obligation is Scrvare 
Fidem. 

I. A LL thofe mifterious things they obferve in num- 

/-\ bers, come to nothing, upon this very ground, 

-*• ^ becaufe number in it felf is nothing, has not 

to do with Nature, but is meerly of Human Loapofition, 



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TABLE-TALK. 77 

a meer found For Example, when I cry one a Clock, 
two a Clock, three a Clock, that is but Man's divilion of 
time, the time it felf goes on, and it had been all one 
in Nature if thofe Hours had been call'd nine, ten, 
and eleveiL So when they fay the Seventh Son is 
Fortunate, it means nothing ; for if you cotmt from the 
feventh back-wards, then the firll is the seventh, why 
is not he likewife Fortunate ? 

I. Cr^ Wearing was another thing with the Jinas than 
^^ with us, becaufe they might not pronounce 
^^ the Name of the Lord Jehovah. 

2. There is no Oath fcarcely, but we fwear to things 
we are ignorant of: For Example, the Oath of Supre- 
macy ; how many know how the King is King ? what 
are his Right and Prerogative ? So how many know 
what are the Priviledges of the Parliament, and the 
Liberty of the Subject, when they take the protellation? 
But the meaning is, they will defend them when they 
know them. As if I fliould fwear I would take part 
with all that wear Red Ribbons in their Hats, it may 
be I do not know which colour is Red ; but when I 
do know, and fee a Red Ribbon in a Man's Hat, then 
will I take his part 

3. I cannot conceive how an Oath is impofed, where 
there is a Parity {I'is.) in the Houfe of Commons, they 
are aXi pares inter fi^ only one brings Paper, and (hews 
it the reft, they look upon it, and in their own Sence 
take it : Now they are but/drr^x to me, who am none 
of the Houfe, for I do not acknowledge my felf their 
Subject, if I did, then no queftion, I was bound by an 
Oath of their impofing. Tis to me but reading a 
Paper in their own Sence. 

4. There is a great difference between an Affertory 
Oath and a Promiffary Oath. An Affertory Oath is 
made to a Man before God, and I muft fwear fo, as 
man may know what I mean : But a Promiflary Oath 
is made to God only, and I am fure he knows my 
meaning : So in the new Oath it runs [whereas I be- 



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y8 TABLE-TALK. 

lieve in my Confcience, 6*^. I will aflift thus and thus] 
that [whereas] gives me an Outloofe, for if I do not 
believe fo, for ought I know, I fwear not at all 

5. In a Promif^ry Oath, Uie mind I am in is a good 
Interpretation, for if there be enough hapned to 
change my mind, I do not know why I (hould not 
If I promife to go to Oxford to-morrow, and mean it 
when I lay it, and afterwards it appears to me, that 
'twill be my undoing, will you (iaiy I have broke my 
Promife if I flay at home ? certainly I mufl not go. 

6. The Jews had this way with them concerning a 
Promiffary Oath or Vow, if one of them had vow*d a 
vow, which afterwards appeared to him to be very pre- 
judicial by reafon of fomething he either did not forefee, 
or did not think of, when he made his Vow; if he made 
it known to three of his Country-men, they had power 
to abfolve him, though he could not abfolve himfelfi 
and that they pickt out of fome words in the Text : 
Perjury hath only to do with an Affertory Oath, and no 
man was punifht for Perjury by man's Law till Queen 
Elizabeth's time, 'twas left to God, as a fin againfl him, 
the Reafon was, becaufe 'twas fo hard a thing to prove 
a man perjur'd : I might mifunderfland him, and he 
fwears as he thought 

7. When men ask me whether they may take an Oath 
in their own Senfe, 'tis to me, as if they fhould ask 
whether they may go to fuch a place upon their own 
Legs, I would fain know how they can go otherwife. 

8. If the Miniflers that are in fequeflred Livings will 
not take the Engagement, threaten to turn them out 
and put in the old ones, and then I'le warrant you they 
will quietly take it A Gentleman having been ram- 
bling two or three days, at length came home, and 
being in Bed with his Wife, would fain have been at 
fomething, that fhe was unwilling to, and inftead of 
complying, fell to chiding him for his being abroad fo 
long : Well fays he, if you will not, call up Sue (his 
Wife's Chambermaid) upon that fhe yielded prefently. 

9. Now Oaths are fo frequent, they (hould be taken 
like Pills, fwalloVd whole : If you chew them you will 



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TABLE-TALK. 79 

find them bitter : If you think what you fwear 'twill 
hardly go down. 

I. /^^ Racles ceas'd prefently after Chrifl, as foon as 
I I nobody believ*d them. Jull as we have no 
^•*-^ Fortune-Tellers, nor Wife-Men, when no 

body cares for them. Sometime you have a Seafon 

for them, when People believe them, and neither of 

thefe, I conceive, wrought by the DeviL 

I. /^*X Pinion and Affedion extreamly differ ; I may 
I 1 affedl a Woman bed, but it does not follow 
^^ I mud think her the Handfomefl Woman 
in the World. I love Apples the bed of any Fruit, 
but it does not follow, I mud think Apples to be the 
bed Fruit Opinion is fomething wherein I go about 
to give Reafon why all the World fhould think as I 
think. Affedlion is a thing wherein I look after tlie 
pleafing of my felf. 

2. 'Twas a good Fancy of an old Platonick : The 
Gods which are above men, had fomething whereof 
Man did partake, [an Intelledl KnowledgeJ and the 
Gods kept on their courfe quietly. The Beads, which 
are below man, had fomething whereof Man did par- 
take, pence and Growth,] and the Beads liv'd quietly 
in their way. But Man had fomething in him, whereof 
neither Gods npr Beads did partake, which gave him 
all the Trouble, and made all the Confufion in the 
world, and that is Opinion. 

3. *Tis a foolilh thing for me to be brought off from 
an Opinion in a thing neither of us know, but are led 
only by fome Cobweb-stuff, as in fuch a cafe as this, 
Ufrum Ar^di in vicem coUoquanturl if I forfake my 
fide in fuch a cafe, I fhew my felf wonderful Ught, or 
infinitely complying, or flattering the other party. 
But if I be in a bufinefs of Nature, and hold an Opinion 
one way, and fome man's Experience has found out 
the contrary, I may with a fafe Reputation give up my 
fide. 



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8o TABLE-TALK. 

4, Tis a vain thing to talk of an Heretick, for a 
man for his heart can think no otherwife than he does 
thinL In the Primitive times there were many Opin- 
ions, nothing fcarce but fome or other held : One of 
thefe Opinions being embraced by fome Prince, and 
received into his Kingdom, the reft were Condenm'd as 
Hereiies, and his Religion which was but one of the 
feveral Opinions, firft is faid to be Orthodox, and fo have 
continued ever fince the Apoftles. 

SwCtjj. 
I. "^ I ^His is the juggling trick of the Parity, they 
I would have no body above them, but they 
•*- do not tell you they would have no body 
under them. 

9arl(amfttt 
I. A LL are involved in a Parliament There was 
l\ a time when all Men had their voice in 
-*• ^ choofmg Knights. About Henry the Sixth's 
time they found the inconvenience, fo one Parliament 
made a Law, that only he that had forty Shillings pet 
annum fhould give his voice, they under fhould be 
excluded. They made the Law who had the voice of 
all, as well under forty Shillings as above ; and thus it 
continues at this day. All confent civilly to a Parlia- 
ment, Women are involved in the Men, Children in 
thofe of perfedl age, thofe that are under forty Shillings 
a year, in thofe that have forty Shillings a year, thofe 
of forty Shillmgs in the Knights. 

2. All things are brought to the Parliament, little 
to the Courts of Juftice; juft as in a room where there 
is a Banquet presented, if there be Perfons of Quality 
there, the People muft expe6l, and ftay till the great 
ones have done. 

3. The Parliament flying upon feveral Men, and 
then letting them alone, does as a Hawk that flyes a 
Covey of Partridges, and when (he has flown them a 
great way, grows weary and takes a Tree ; then the 
Faulconer lures her down, and takes her to his ^^ : on 
they go again, ?ici rett^ up springs another Covey, away 



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TABLE-TALK. 8i 

goes the Hawk, and as (he did before, takes another 
Tree. <5^'^. 

4. Diflenters in Parliament may at length come to a 
good end, tho* firll there be a great deal of do, and a 
great deal of noife, which mad wild folks make ; jufl 
as in brewing of VVrefl-Beer, there's a great deal of 
bufmefs in grinding the Mault, and that fpoils any 
Mans cloaths that comes near it; then it mud be 
mafli'd, then comes a Fellow in and drinks of the 
Wort, and he's drunk, then they keep a huge quarter 
when they carry it into the Cellar, and a twelve month 
after 'tis delicate fine Beer. 

5. It mull neceffarily be that our Diftempers are 
worfe than they were in the beginning of the Parlia- 
ment If a Phifician comes to a fick Man, he lets 
him blood, it may be fcarifyes him, cups him, puts him 
into a great diforder, before he makes him well ; and 
if he be fent for to cure an Ague, and he finds his 
Patient hath many difeafes, a Dropfie, and a Palfie, he 
applies remedies to 'em all, which makes the cure the 
longer and the dearer : this is the cafe. 

6. The Parliament-men are as great Princes as any 
in the World, when whatfoever they pleafe is Priviledge 
of Parliament ; no man mud know the number of their 
Priviledges, and whatfoever they diflike is breach of 
Priviledge. The Duke of Venice is no more than 
Speaker of the Houfe of Commons ; but the Senate 
at Venice^ are not fo much as our Parliament-men, nor 
have they that power over the People, who yet exer- 
cife the greatefl Tyranny that is anywhere. In plain 
truth, breach of Priviledge is only the adual taking 
away of a Member of the Houfe, the reft are Offences 
againft the Houfe. For example, to take out Procefs 
againft a Parliament-man, or the like. 

7. The Parliament-party, if the Law be for them, 
they call for the Law ; if it be againft them, they will 
go to a Parliamentary way ; if no Law be for them, 
then for Law again : Like him that firft call'd for Sack 
to heat him, then fmall Drink to cool his Sack, then 
Sack again to heat his finall Drink, 6^r. 

F 



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83 TABLE-TALK. 

8. The Parliament-party do not play fair play, in 
fitting up till two of the Clock in the Morning, to vote 
fomething they have a mbd to. "Tis like a crafty 
Gamefler that makes the Company dnmk, then cheats 
them of their Money. Yomig men and infirm men go 
away ; befides, a man is not there to perfwade other 
men to be of his Mind, but to fpeak his own Heart, and 
if it be lik'd, fo, if not, there's an end. 

fPMaUttL 

I. 'Tr^ Hough we write [Parfon] differently, yet 'tis 
I but Perfon ; that is, the individual perfon 
•*" fet apart for the fervice of fuch a Church, 
and 'tis in Latin perfotuiy and Ferfonatus is a Perfonage. 
Indeed with the Canon Lawyers, Ferfonatus is any 
Dignity or Preferment in the Church. 

2. There never was a merry World fince the Faries 
left Dancing, and the Parson left Conjuring. The 
Opinion of the latter kept Thieves in awe, and did as 
much good in a Coimtry as a Juflice of Peace. 

^otimce. 

I Atience is the chiefefl hmt of Study, a man 
that drives to make himfelf a different thing 
fi-om other men by much reading, gains 
this chiefefl good, that in all Fortunes he luSi fome- 
thing to entertain and comfort himfelf withalL 

I. 'TT'lng fames vi2c& pictured going eafilydown a 
r^ pair of Stairs, and upon every (lep there 
X ^ ^^ writen, Peace, Peace, Peace ; iht 

wifefl way for men in thefe times is to fey nothing. 

2. When a Country-wench cannot get her Butter to 
come, (he fays, The Witch is in her Chum. We have 
been churning for Peace a great while, and 'twill not 
come, fure the Witch is in it. 

3. Though we had Peace, yet 'twill be a great while 
e're things be fettled : Tho' the Wind lye, yet after a 
Storm the Sea will work a great while. 



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TABLE-TALK. 83 

Penance. 
I. "T^Enaiice is only the Punifliment infli6bed, not 
wT^^ Penitence, which is the right word ; a man 
-*" comes not to do Penance, becaufe he 
repents him of his Sin, but becaufe he is corapeird to 
it ; he curfes him, and could kill him that fends him 
thither. The old Canons wifely enjoyn'd three years 
Penance, fometimes more, becaufe in that time a man 
got a habit of Vertue, and fo committed that fin no 
more, for which he did Penance. 

people. 

I. "^ I ^Here is not any thing in the Worid more 
I abus'd than this Sentence, Sa/us populi 
ftiprema Lex ejlo^ for we apply it, as if 
we ought to forfake the known Law, when it may be 
moll for the advantage of the people, when it means 
no fuch thing. For firfl, 'tis not Salus populi fuprema 
Lex ejly but eflo^ it being one of the Laws of the twelve 
Tables, and after divers Laws made, fome for Punifh- 
ment, fome for Reward, then follows this, Salus populi 
fuprema I.ex ejlo : that is, in all the Laws you make, 
have a fpecial eye to the good of the people, and then 
what does this concern the way they now go ? 

2. ObjeHion^ He that makes one, is greater than he 
that is made ; the People make the King, ergo^ &*€, 

Anfw, This does not hold, for if I have 1000/. 
per Annuniy and give it you and leave my felf ne're a 
penny, I made you, but when you have my Land, you 
are greater than I. The Parifli makes the Conflable, 
and when the Conflable is made, he governs the Parish. 
The anfwer to all thefe Doubts is, Have you agreed fo ? 
if you have, then it mufl remain till you have alter'd it. 

pieaiiure. 

I. 1 J Leafure is nothing elfe but the intermiflion 

r^^ of pain, the enjoying of fome thing I am in 

-*" great trouble for 'till I have it 

2. 'Tis a wrong way to proportion other mens plea- 

fures to ourfelves; 'tis like a Child's ufmg a little Bird 

[O poor Bird thou fhalt fleep with me] fo lays it in his 

Bofome, and (lifles it with his hot breath, the Bird had 



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84 table-talk- 

rather be in the cold Air : And yet too 'tis the moil 
pleafing flattery, to like what other men like. 

3. Tis moll undoubtedly true, that all men are 
equally given to their pleafure, only thus, one mans 
pleafure lyes one way, and anothers another. Plea- 
fures are all alike, fimply confidered in themfelves, he 
that hunts, or he that governs the Common-wealth, 
they both pleafe themfelves alike, only we commend 
that, whereby we our felves receive fome benefit As 
if a man place his delight in things that tend to the 
common good, he that takes pleafure to hear Sermons, 
enjoys himfelf as much as he that hears Plays, and 
could he that loves Plays endeavour to love Sermons, 
poflibly he might bring himfelf to it as well as to any 
other Pleafure. At firfl it may feem harfli and tedious, 
but afterwards 'twould be pleafing and delightful 
So it falls out in that, which is the great pleafure of 
fome men, Tobacco, at firfl they could not abide it, 
and now they cannot be without it. 

4. Whilfl you are upon Earth enjoy the good things 
that are here (to that end were they given) and be not 
melancholly, and wifli yourfelf in Heaven. If a King 
fliould give you the keeping of a Caflle, with all 
things belonging to it. Orchards, Gardens, 6-r., and 
bid you ufe them ; withal promife you that after twenty 
years to remove you to Court, and to make you a 
Privy Councellor. If you (hould negledl your Caflle, 
and refufe to eat of thofe fruits, and fit down, and 
whine, and wifh you were a Privy Councellor, do you 
think the King would be pleafed with you ? 

5. Pleafures of Meat, Drink, Cloaths, 6-^., are for- 
bidden thofe that know not how to ufe them, just as 
Nurfes cry pah ! when they fee a Knife in a Childs 
hand, they will never fay any thing to a man. 

X- T T THen Men comfort themfelves with Philofo- 

Y V P^^' *^^^ ^^* becaufe they have got two or 

^ ^ three Sentences, but becaufe they have di- 

fjefled thofe Sentences, and made them their own : So 

upon the matter, Philofophy is nothing but Difcretion. 



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TABLE-TALK. 85 

X. /^"^ Vid was not only a fine Poet, but [as a 

f I man may fpeak] a great Canon Lawyer, as 

^-^ appears in his Fa/ii, where we have more 

of the Fellivals of the Old Romans than any where 

else : 'tis pity the reft are loft. 

a. There is no reafon Plays fhould be in Verfe, 
either in Blank or Rhime, only the Poet has to fay for 
himfelf, that he makes fomething like that, which fome 
body made before him. The old Poets, had no other 
reafon but this, their Verfe was fung to Mufick, other- 
wife it had been a fenfelefs thing to have fetter'd up 
themfelves. 

3. I never Converted but two, the one was Mr. 
Crajham firom writing againft Plays, by telhng him a 
way how to underfUnd that place [of putting on 
Womens Apparel] which has nothing to do in the 
bufinefs [as neither has it, that the Fathers fpeak 
againft Plays in their time, with reafon enough, for 
they had real Idolatries mix'd with their Plays, having 
three Altars perpetually upon the Stage.] The other 
was a Do6lor of Divinity, from preaching againft 
Painting, which fimply in it felf is no more hurtful, 
than putting on my Cloaths, or doing any thing to 
make my felf like other folks, that I may not be odious 
nor oflfenfive to the Company. Indeed if I do it with 
an ill intention, it alters the Cafe, fo if I put on my 
Gloves with an intention to do a mifchief, I am a 
Villain. 

4. Tis a fine thing for Children to learn to make 
Verfe, but when they come to be men they muft fpeak 
like other men, or elfe they will be laught at. *Tis 
Ridiculous to fpeak, or write, or preach in Verfe. As 
'tis good to learn to dance, a man may learn his Leg, 
learn to go handfomly, but 'tis ridiculous for him to 
dance, when he ftiould go. 

5. 'Tis ridiculous for a Lord to Print Verfes, 'tis 
well enough to make them to pleafe himfelf, but to 
make them publick, is foolifli. If a man in his private 
Chamber twirls his Bandftrings, or plays with a Ru(h 



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86 TABLE-TALK. 

to pleafe himfelf, *tis well enough, but if he (hould go 
into Fleet Jlreet^ and fit upon a Stall, and twl a Band- 
firing, or play with a Rufli, then all the Boys in the 
Street would laugh at him. 

6. Verfe proves nothing but the quantity of Sylla- 
bles, they are not meant for Logick. 

pope. 

I. A Popes Bull and a Popes Brief differ very 
L\ much, as with us the great Seal and the 
-*• ^ Privy Seal. The Bull being the highefl 
Authority the Pope can give, the Brief is of lefs. The 
Bull has a Leaden Seal upon filk, hanging upon the 
Inflrument. The Brief has fuh Annulo Pifcatoris 
upon the fide. 

2. He was a wife Pope, that when one that ufed to 
be merry with him, before he was advanc't to the 
Popedom, refrain'd afterwards to come at him, (pre- 
fuming he was bufie in governing the Chriftian World) 
the Pope fends for him, bids him come again, and 
(fays he) we will be merry as we were before, for thou 
little thinkeft what a little Foolery governs the whole 
Worid. 

3. The Pope in fending Rellicks to Princes, does as 
Wenches do by their Waffals at New-years-tide^ they 
prefent you with a Cup, and you mufl drink of a flabby 
Huff; but the meaning is, that you mufl give them 
Moneys, ten times more than it is worth. 

4. The Pope is Infallible, where he hath power 
to command, that is where he mufl be obey'd, fo 
is every Supream Power and Prince. They that 
flretch his Infallibility further, do they know not what 

5. When a Proteflant and a Papifl Difpute, they 
talk like two Madmen, becaufe they do not agree upon 
their Principles, the one way is to deflroy the Popes 
Power, for if he hath Power to command me, 'tis not 
my alledging Reafons to the contrary can keep me 
from obeying : For Example, if a Conflable command 
me to wear a Green Suit to morrow, and has power to 
make me, *tis not my alledging a hundred Reafons of 
the Folly of it can excufe me from doing it 



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TABLE-TALK. 87 

6. There was a time when the Pope had Power 
here in England^ and there was excellent ufe made of 
it, for 'twas only to ferve turns, (as might be manifefled 
out of the Records of the Kingdom, which Divines 
know littie of.) If the King did not like what the 
Pope would have, he would forbid the Pope's Legate 
to land upon his ground.^ So that the Power was truly 
then in the King, though fuflfer'd in the Pope. But 
now the Temporal and the Spiritual Power (Spiritual 
fo call'd becaufe ordain'd to a Spiritual end) fpring both 
from one Fountain, they are like to twifl tiiaL 

7. The Proteflants in France bear Office in the 
State, becaufe though their Religion be different, yet 
they acknowledge no other King but the King of 
Frame, The Papifls in England they mud have a' 
King of their own, a Pope, that mufl do fomething in 
our Kingdom, therefore there is no reafon they (hould 
enjoy the fame Priviledges. 

8. Amjlerdam admits of all Religions but Papifls, 
and 'tis upon the fame Account The Papifls where 
e're they live, have another King at Rome \ all other 
Religions are fubje<5l to the prefent State, and have no 
Prince elfe-where. 

9. The Papifls call our Religion a Parliamentary 
Religion, but there was once, I am fure, a Parliament- 
ary Pope. Pope Urban was made Pope in England 
by A<51 of Parliament, againfl Pope Clement \ the A<51 
is not in the Book of Statutes, either becaufe he that 
compiled the Book, would not have the Name of the 
Pope there, or elfe he would not let it appear that they 
medled with any fuch thing, but 'tis upon the Rolls. 

10. When our Clergy preach againfl the Pope, and 
the Church of Rome^ they preach againfl themfelves, 
and crying down their Pride, their Power, and their 
Riches, have made themfelves poor and contemptible 
enough, they dedicate firfl to pleafe their Prince, not 
confidering what would follow. Jufl as if a man were 
to go a Journey, and feeing at his firfl fetting out the 
way clean and fair, ventures forth in his Slippers, not 
confidering the Dirt and the Sloughs are a little fur- 
ther off, or how fuddenly the Weather may change. 



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88 TABLE-TALK. 

I. 'TT^HE ilemanding a Noble, for a dead body 
I pafling through a Town, came from hence in 
-*■ time of Popery, they carr/d the dead body 
into the Church, where the Pried faid Dirgies, and 
twenty Dirgies at fourpence a piece comes to a Noble, 
but now 'tis forbidden by an Order from my Lord 
Marfhal, the Heralds carry his Warrant about them. 

2. We charge the Prelatical Clergy with Popery to 
make them odious, though we know they are guilty of 
no fuch thing : Juft as heretofore they caird Images 
Mammets, and the Adoration of Images Mammettry : 
that is, Mahomet and Mahometryy odious names, when 
all the World knows the Turks are forbidden Images 
by their Religion, 

90fDfr, Atate. 

I. 'TT^Here is no ftretching of Power, 'tis a good 
I rule, eat within your Stomack, a<5t within 
-*■ your Commiflion. 

2. They that govern mod make lead noife. You fee 
when they row in a Barge, they that do drudgery-work, 
llafli, and puff, and fwear, but he that governs, fits 
quietly at the Stem, and fcarce is feen to dir. 

3. Syllables govern the world. 

4. \All Power is of God\ means no more than Fides 
ejlfen^anda. When St. Paul faid this, the people had 
made Nero Emperour. They agree, he to command, 
they to obey. Then God comes in, and cads a hook 
upon them, keep your Faith, then comes in, all power 
is of God. Never King dropt out of the Clouds. God 
did not make a new Emperour, as the King makes a 
Judice of peace. 

5. Chrid himfelf was a great obferver of the Civil 
power, and did many things only judifiable, becaufe 
the State requir'd it, which were things meerly Tempo- 
rary for the time that State dood. But Divines make 
ufe of them to gain power to themfelves, (as for Ex- 
ample) that of Die Ecciefus, tell the Church ; there 
was then a Sanhedrim, a Court to tell it to, and there- 
fore they would have it fo now. 



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TABLE-TALK. 89 

6. Divines ought to do no more than what the 
State permits. Before the State became Chriflian, 
they made their own Laws, and thofe that did not 
obferve them, they Excommunicated, [nau§fAfy men\ 
they fuflfer'd them to come no more amongft them. 
But if they would come amongft them, how could they 
hinder them ? By what Law ? by what Power ? they 
were ftill fubje6t to the State, which was Heathen. 
Nothing better exprefles the condition of Chriftians in 
thofe times, than one of the Meetings you have in 
London, of men of the fame Countr)', of Suffex-m^xi, 
or Bedford/hire-vntr\, they appoint their meeting, and 
they agree, and make Laws amongft themfelves \ffe 
that is not there fiall pay double, &c.] and if any one 
misbehave himfelf, they (hut him out of their Com- 
pany; but can they recover a Forfeiture made con- 
cerning their meeting by any Law ? Have they any 
power to compel one to pay ? but afterwards when the 
State became Chriftian, all the power was in them, 
and they gave the Church as much, or as little as they 
pleas'd, and took away when they pleased, and added 
what they pleas'd. 

7. The Church is not only Subjeft to the Civil 
Power with us that are Proteftants, but alfo in Spain^ 
if the Church does Excommunicate a man for what it 
fhould not, the Civil Power will take him out of their 
hands. So in France, the Bifliop oi Anglers alter'd 
fomething in the Breviary, they complain*d to the 
Parliament at Paris, they made him alter it again, 
with a [conime abufe\, 

8. The Parliament of Bng/andhas no Arbitrary Power 
in point of Judicature, but in point of making Law only. 

9. If the Prince be fenms natura, of a fervile bafe 
Spirit, and the Subjects liberi. Free and Ingenuous, 
oft-times they depofe their Prince, and govern them- 
felves. On the contrary, if the people be Servi 
Natura, and fome one amongft them of a Free and 
Ingenuous Sphit, he makes himfelf King of the reft, 
and this is the Caufe of all Changes in State. Com- 
mon-wealths into Monarchies, and Monarchies into 
Common-wealths. 



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90 TABLE-TALK. 

lo. In a troubled State we mufl do as in foul 
Weather upon the Thames^ not think to cut diredlly 
through, fo the Boat may be quickly full of water, but rife 
and fall as the Waves do, give as much as conveniently 
we can. 

!• T F I were a Minifler, I fhould think my felf 
I mofl in my Office, Reading of Prayers, and 
•*• Difpenfmg the Sacraments ; and *tis ill done 
to put one to Officiate in the Church, whofe Perfon 
is contemptible out of it. Should a great Lady, that 
was invited to be a Goffip, in her place fend her 
Kitchen-Maid, 'twould be ill taken, yet ^ (he is a 
Woman as well as (he, let her fend her Woman at leaft. 

2. [ You Jhall prayj is the right way, becaufe accord- 
ing as the Church is fettled, no man may make a 
Prayer in Publick of his own head. 

3. Tis not the Original CommOn-Prayer-Book, 
why, (hew me an Original Bible, or an Original 
Magna Charta, 

4. Admit the Preacher prays by the Spirit, yet that 
very Prayer is Common-Prayer to the People ; they 
are t/d as much to his words, as in faying [Almighty 
and mojl merciful Father] is it then unlawful in the 
Minifler, but not unlawful in the People ? 

5. There are fome Mathematicians, that could with 
one fetch of their Pen make an exadl Circle, and 
with the next touch point out the Center, is it there- 
fore reafonable to bani(h all ufe of the Compaffes? 
Set Forms are a pair of Compaffes. 

6. [God hath given gifts unto men] General Texts 
prove nothing : let him (hew me John^ William or 
Thomas in the Text, and then I will believe him. If 
a man hath a voluble Tongue, we fay, He hath the 
gift of Prayer. His gift is to pray long, that I fee ; 
but does he pray better? 

7. We take care what we fpeak to men, but to God 
we may fay any thing. 

8. The People mufl not think a thought towards 
God, but as their Paflours will put it into their 
Mouths : they will make right Sheep of us. 



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TABLE-TALK. 91 

9. The EngUJh Priefts would do that in Englifli which 
i\itRomi/h do in Latin, keep the people in Ignorance; 
but fome of the people out-do them at their own Game. 

10. Prayer fhould be (hort, without giving God 
Almighty Reafons why he fliould grant this, or that, 
he knows befl what is good for us. If your Boy 
fhould ask you a Suit of Cloaths, and give you 
Reafons (otherwife he cannot wait upon you, he can- 
not go abroad but he (hall difcredit you) would you 
endure it ? you know it better than he, let him ask a 
Suit of Cloaths. 

11. If a Servant that has been fed with good Beef, 
goes into that part of England^ where Sahnon is 
plenty, at firfl he is pleas' d with his Salmon, and 
defpifes his Beef, but after he has been there a while, 
he grows weary of his Salmon, and wiflies for his 
good Beef again. We have a while been much taken 
with this praying by the Spirit, but in time we may 
grow weary of it, and wilh for our Common-Prayer. 

12. 'Tis hop*d we may be cur*d of our Extempory 
Prayers the fame way the Grocer's-Boy is cur'd of 
his eating Plumbs, when we have had our Belly full 
of them. 

^reatTitng. 
I. TV T Othing is more millaken than that Speech 
I ^1 [Preach the GofpU\ for 'tis not to make long 
^ ^ Harangues, as they do now a-days, but to 
tell the news of Chriils coming into the World, and 
when that is done, or where 'tis known already, the 
Preacher's work is done. 

2. Preaching in the firfl fence of the word ceas*d 
AS foon as ever the Gofpels were written. 

3. When the Preacher fays, this is the meaning of 
the Holy Ghofl in fuch a place, in fenfe he can mean 
no more than this, that is, I by fluddying of the 
place, by comparing one place with another, by 
weighing what goes before, and what comes afler, 
think this is the meaning of the Holy Ghofl, and for 
fhortnefs of Expreffion I lay, the Holy Ghofl fays 
thus, or this is the meaning of the Spirit of God. So 
the Judge fpeiks of the King's Proclamation, this is 



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92 TABLE-TALK. 

the intention of t!ie King, not that the King had 
declared his intention any other way to the Judge, 
but the Judge examining the Contents of the Procla- 
mation, gathers by the Purport of the words, the 
King's Intention, and then for fhortnefs of expreflion 
fays, this is the King's Intention. 

4. Nothing is Text but what was fpoken in the 
Bible, and meant there for Perfon and Place, the reft 
is Application, which a difcreet Man may do well; 
but 'tis his Scripture, not the Holy Ghoft. 

5. Preaching by the Spirit (as they call it) is moft 
efteem'd by the Common people, becaufe they can- 
not abide Art or Learning, which they have not been 
bred up in. Juft as in the bufinefs of Fencing ; if one 
Country-Fellow amongft the reft, has been at the 
School, the reft will undervalue his Skill, or tell him 
he wants Valour. You come with your SchooUTricks : 
TTier^s Dick Butcher fias ten times more Mettle in 
him : So they fay to the Preachers, Vou come with your 
School Learning: Theris fuch a one has the Spirit. 

6. The tone in Preaching does much in working 
upon the Peoples Affedlions. If a Man fhould make 
love in an ordinary Tone, his Miftrefs would not 
regard him ; and therefore he muft whine. If a Man 
ftiould cry Fire, or Murther in an ordinary Voice, no 
body would come out to help him. 

7. Preachers will bring anything into the Text 
The Young Mafters of Arts preached againft Non- 
Refidency in the Univerfity, whereupon the Heads 
made an Order, That no Man fhould meddle with 
any thing but what was in the Text. The next Day 
one preach'd upon thefe Words, Abraham begat Ifaac\ 
when he had gone a good way, at laft he obferv'd, 
that Abraham was Refident, for if he had been Non- 
Refident, he could never have begat Ifcuic; and fo 
fell foul upon the Non-Refidents. 

8. I could never tell what often Preaching meant, 
after a Church is fetled, and we know what is to be 
done ; 'tis juft as if a Husbandman (hould once tell his 
Servants what they are to do, when to Sow, when to 
Reap, and afterwards one fhould come and tell them 



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TABLE-TALK. 93 

twice or thrice a Day what they know already. You 
mud Sow your Wheat in Oilober^ you mufl Reap your 
Wheat in Augujl^ ^c, 

9. The main Argument why they would have two 
Sermons a day, is, becaufe they have two Meals a 
Day ; the Soul mud be fed as well as the Body. But 
I may as well argue, I ought to have two Nofes, 
becaufe I have two Eyes, or two Mouths, becaufe I 
have two Ears. What have Meals and Sermons to do 
one with another? 

10. The Things between God and Man are but 
few, and thofe, forfooth, we mufl be told often of; 
but things between Man and Man are many ; thofe I 
hear not of above twice a Year, at the Aflizes, or once 
a Quarter at the Seflions ; but few come then ; nor 
does the Minifter exhort the People to go at thefe 
times to learn their Duty towards their Neighbour. 
Often Preaching is fure to keep the Minifter in Coun- 
tenance, that he may have fomething to do. 

11. In Preaching they lay more to raife men to love 
Vertue than men can poflibly perform, to make them 
do their beft ; as if you would teach a man to throw 
the Bar, or make him put out his Strength, you bid 
him throw further than it is pofllble for him, or any 
man elfe ? Throw over yonder Houfe. 

12. In Preaching they do by men as Writers of 
Romances do by their Chief Knights, bring them into 
many Dangers, but ftill fetch them off: So they put 
men m fear of Hell, but at laft they bring them to 
Heaven. 

13. Preachers fay. Do as I fay, not as I do. But if 
a Phyfician had the fame Difeafe upon him that I have, 
and he fhould bid me do one thing, and he do quite 
another, could I believe him ? 

14. Preaching the fame Sermon to all forts of People, 
is, as if a School-Mafter fhould read the fame Leflbn 
to his feveral Formes : If he reads AmOy amas, amavi^ 
the higheft Forms Laugh at him ; the younger Boys 
admire him : So 'tis in preaching to a mix*d Auditory. 
Obf, But it cannot be otherwife, the Parifh cannot 
be divided into several Formes: What muft the 



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94 TABLE-TALK. 

Preacher then'do in Difcretion ? Anfw, Why then let 
him life fome expreffions by which this or that condi- 
tion of people may know fuch Dodbine does more 
efpecially concern them, it being fo delivered that the 
wifeft may be content to hear. For if he delivers 
it all together, and leaves it to them to fingle out what 
belongs to themfelves (which is the ufual way) 'tis as 
if a man would beflow Gifts upon Children of feveral 
ages : Two years old, four years old, ten years old, 
6»^., and there he brings Tops, Pins, Points, Ribbands, 
and cads them all in a heap together upon a Table 
before them : though the Boy of ten years old knows 
how to chufe his Top, yet the Child of two years old, 
that Ihould have a Ribband, takes a Pin, and the 
Pin ere he be aware pricks his Fingers, and then all's 
out of order, &»c. Preachinge for tJie mod part is Ae 
glory of the preacher, to fliew himfelf a fine man. 
Catechifmg would do much better. 

15. Ufe the bed Arguments to perfwade, though 
but few underfland, for the ignorant will fooner beHeve 
the judicious of the Parifh, than the Preacher himfelf, 
and they teach when they diflipate what he has faid, 
and believe it the fooner confirm'd by men of their 
own fide. For betwixt the Laity and the Clergy, 
there is, as it were, a continual driving of a bargain ; 
fomething the Clergy would dill have us be at, and 
therefore many things are heard from the Preacher 
with fufpicion. They are affraid of fome ends, 
which are eafily aflented to, when they have it 
fi-om fome of themfelves. *Tis with a Sermon as 'tis 
with a Play ; many come to fee it, which do not un- 
derdand it ; and yet hearing it cry'd up by one, whofe 
judgment they cad themfelves upon, and of power with 
them, they fwear and will die in it, tiiat 'tis a very good 
Play, which they would not have done if the Pried 
himfelf had told them fo. As in a great School, 'tis 
the Mader that teaches all ; the Monitor does a great 
deal of work ; it may be the Boys are affraid to (ee the 
Mader : fo in a Parifli 'tis not the Minider does all ; 
the greater Neighbour teaches the leffer, the Mader of 
the houfe teaches his Servant, 6*^. 



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table-talk. 95 

1 6. Firfl in your Sermons ufe your Logick, and then 
your Rhetoricic. Rhetorick without Logick is like a 
Tree with Leaves and Bloffoms, but no Root ; yet I 
confefs more are taken with Rhetorick than Logick, 
becaufe they are catched with a free Expreflion, when 
they underlland not Reafon. Logick mu(l be natural, 
or it is worth nothing at all : Your Rhetorick figures 
may be leam*d ; That Rhetorick is bed which is mod 
feafonable and mod catching. An inflance we have 
in that old blunt Commander at Cadiz^ who fheVd 
himfelf a good Oratour, being to fay fomething to his 
Souldiers (which he was not us*d to do) he made them 
a Speech to this purpofe ; What ajlianu will it be, you 
Englijhmen, that feed upon good Beef and BrewefSy to let 
thofe Rafcally Spaniards beat you, that eat nothing but 
Orar^es and lAmons ? And fo put more Coiurage into 
his Men than he could have done with a more learned 
Oration. Rhetorick is very good, or dark naught: 
There*s no medium in Rhetorick. If I am not fuDy 
perfwaded I laugh at the Oratour. 

17. 'Tis good to preach the lame thing again, for 
that's the way to have it leam'd. You fee a Bird by 
often whidling to learn a tune, and a Month ader 
record it to her felf. 

18. Tis a hard cafe a Minider fhould be turned out 
of his Living for fomething they inform he fliould fay in 
his Pulpit We can no more know what a Minider 
faid in his Sermon by two or three words pickt out of 
it, than we can tell what Tune a Mufician pla/d lad 
upon the Lute, by two or three fingle Notes. 

9rrlrn{tCnat{0u. 

I. ' I ^Hey that talk nothing but Prededination, 

I and will not proceed in the way of Heaven 

-*" till they be fatisfied in that point, do, as a 

man that would not come to London, unlefs at his fird 

dep he might fet his foot upon the top of PauPs. 

2. For a young Divine to begin in his Pulpit with 
Prededination, is as if a man were coming into London 
and at his fird dep would think to fet his foot, 6*^. 

3. Prededination is a point inacceflible, out of our 



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95 TABLE-TALK. 

reach ; we can make no notion of it, 'tis fo full of 
intricacy, fo full of contradidlion : 'tis in good earaefl, 
as we flate it, half a dozen Bulls one upon another. 

4. Dodor Prideaux in his Lectures, feveral days 
us'd Arguments to prove Predeflination ; at lafl tells 
his Auditory they are damn'd that do not believe it ; 
doing herein jufl like School-boys, when one of them 
has got an Apple, or fomething the reft have a mind 
to, they ufe sdl the Arguments they can to get fome of 
it from them: I gave you fome father day: You JhaU have 
fome with me another time: when they cannot prevail, 
they tell him he's a Jackanapes, a Rogue and a Rafcal 

^refarnmit 

I. T T 7Hen you would have a Child go to fuch a 
\/\/ place, and you find him unwilling, you 
• ^ teD him he fhall ride a Cock-horfe, and 
then he will go prefently : So do thofe that govern the 
State, deal by men, to work them to their ends ; they 
tell them they fhall be advanced to fuch or fuch a place, 
and they will do anything they would have them. 

2. A great place ftrangely qualifies. John Read 
(was in the right) Groom of the Chamber to my Lord of 
Kent Attorney Noy being dead, fome were laying, 
How will the King do for a fit man ? why, Any man, 
{{zyzjohn Read) may execute the Place. I warrant 
(fays my Lord) thou thinkft thou underftand'ft enough 
to perform it Yes, quoth John^ Let the King make 
me Attorney, and I would fain fee that man, that durft 
tell me, there's any thing I underftand not 

3. When the Pageants are a coming there's a great 
thrufting and a riding upon one another's backs, to 
look out at the Window 3 ftay a little and they will 
come juft to you, you may fee them quietly. So 'tis 
when a new Statefman or Officer is chofen; there's 
great expe6lation and liftning who it (hould be ; ftay 
a while, and you mny know quietly. 

4. Miffing Prefci iiient makes the Presbyters fall foul 
upon the Bifliops : Men that are in hopes and in the 
way of rifing, keep in the Channel, but they that have 
none, feek new ways : 'Tis fo amongft the Lawyers : 



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TABLE-TALK. 97 

he that hath the Judges Ear, will be very obfervant of 
the way of the Court j but he that hath no regard will 
be flying out. 

5. My Lord Di^y having fpoken fomething in the 
Houfe of Commons, for which they would have 
queftion'd him, was prefently called to the Upper 
Houfe. He did by the Pariiament as an Ape when 
he hath done fome waggery ; his Mailer fpies him, and 
he looks for his Whip, but before he can come at him, 
whip fays he to the top of the houfe. 

6. Some of the Parliament were difcontented, that 
they wanted places at Court, which others had got ; but 
when they had them once, then they were quiet Juft 
as at a Chiiflning fome that get no Sugar Plums, when the 
reft have, mutter and grumble ; prefently the Wench 
comes again with her Basket of Sugar-Plums, and then 
they catch and fcramble and when they have got them, 
you hear no more of them. 

I. "^ 1 ^Herecanbeno/V(flW!f«/rw. A Prosmunire (fo 
I caird from the word Protmunire facias) was 
•^ when a man laid an Adlion in an Ecclefiaflical 
Court, for which he could have no remedy in any of the 
King's Courts ; that is in the Courts of Common Law, 
by reafon the Ecclefiaflical Courts before Henry the 
Eight were fubordinate to the Pope, and fo it was 
Contra coronam et digniiatem Regis; but now the 
Ecclefiaflical Courts are equally fubordinate to the 
King. Therefore it cannot be contra coronam et digni- 
tatem Pigis, and fo no Froemunire, 

$rtr0jiatibe. 

!• T^Rerogative is fomething that can be told 

Y^^ what it is, not fomething that has no 

■*- name. Jufl as you fee the Archbifhop has 

his Prerogative Court, but we know what is done 

in that Court. So the King's Prerogative is not his will; 

or what Divines make it, a Power to do what he lifts, 

2. The King's Prerogative, that is, the King's Law. 

G 



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98 TABLE-TALK. 

For example, if you ask whether a Patron may prefent 
to a Living after fix months by Law ? I anfwer na 
If you ask whether the King may ? I anfwer he may 
by his Prerogative, that is by the Law that concerns 
I urn in that case. 

I. ' I ^Hey that would bring in a new Government, 
I would very fain perfwade us, they meet it in 
-*" Antiquity; thus they interpret Presbyters, 
when they meet the word in the Fathers ; Other pro- 
felTions likewife pretend to Antiquity. The Alchymill 
will find his Art in VirgiPs Aureus ramusy and he that 
delights in Opticks will find them in Tacitus. When 
Cafar came into England they would perfwade us, 
they had perfpective-Glaffes, by which he could 
difcover what they were doing upon the Land, becaufe 
it is faid, Pofitio Speculis; the meaning is, His Watch, 
or his Sentinel difcover'd this, and this unto hint 

2. Presbyters have the greatell power of any Cleigy 
in the World, and gull the Laity mod ; for example ; 
Admit there be twelve Laymen to fix Presbyters, the 
fix fhall govern the reft as they pleafe. Firft becaufe 
they are conftant, and the others come in like Church- 
Wardens in their turns, which is an huge advantage. 
Men will give way to them who have been in place 
before them. Next the laymen have other profeflions 
to follow ; the Presbyters make it their fole bufinefs ; 
and befides too they learn and ftudy the Art of 
perfwading ; fome of Gemva have confeiis'd as much. 

3. The Presbyter with his Elders about him is like 
a young Tree fenced about with two or three or four 
Stakes ; the Stakes defend it, and hold it up ; but the 
Tree only profpers and flouriflies ; it may be some 
Willow flake may bear a Leaf or two, but it comes 
to nothing. Lay-Elders are Stakes, the Presbyter the 
Tree that flourifhes. 

4. When the Queries were fent to the Aflembly 
concerning the Jus Divinum of Presbytery; their 
asking time to Anfwer them, was a Satyr upon them- 
felves. For if it were to be feen in the Text, they 
might quickly turn to the place, and (hew us it Their 



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TABLE-TALK. 99 

delaying to Anfwer makes us think there's no fuch 
thing there. They do jufl as you have feen a fellow 
do at a Tavern Reckoning, when he fliould come to 
pay his Reckoning he puts his hands in his Pockets, 
and keeps a grabling and a fumbling, and fhaking, at 
lafl tells you he has left his Money at home ; when all 
the company knew at firfl, he had no Money there, for 
every man can quickly find his own Money. 

9xi(M of l^mt* 
I. ' I ^HE reafon of the Statute againfl Priefts, was 
I this ; In the beginning of Queen Elizabeth 
-*^ there was a Statute made, that he that drew 
men from their Civil obedience was a Traitor. It 
happened this was done in Privacies and Confeffions, 
when there could be no proof; therefore they made 
another Act, that for a Priefl to be in England^ was 
Treafon, becaufe they prefum'd that was his bufinefs 
to fetch men off fi'om their Obedience. 

2. When Queen Elizabeth d/d, and King James 
came in, an Irifh Pried does thus exprefs it ; Elizabetha 
in orcum detrufa^ fuccejfii Jacobus ^ alter Hxretiais, You 
will a(k why they did ufe fuch Language in their 
Church. Anfw. Why does the Nurfe tell the Child 
of Raw-head and Bloudy-bones, to keep it in awe? 

3. The Queen-Mother and Count Roffet^ are to the 
Priefls and Jefuits like the honey-pot to the Flies. 

4. The Priefls of Rome aim but at two things. To get 
power from the King, and Money from the Subjedt 

5. When the Priefls come into a Family, they do as 
a man that would fet fire on a houfe ; he does not put 
fire to the Brick-wall, but thrufls it into the Thatch. 
They work upon the women, and let the men alone. 

6. For a Priefl to turn a man when he lies a-dying, 
is jufl like one that hath a long time folicited a woman, 
and cannot obtain his end; at length makes her 
drunk, and fo lies with her. 

!• "T^ Reams and Prophecies do thus much good ; 

I I They make a man go on with boldnefs and 

-*-^ courage, upon a Danger or a Miflrefs ; if 



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100 TABLE-TALK. 

he obtains, he attributes much to ttiem ; if he mif- 
carries, he thinks no more of them, or is no more 
thought of himfelf. 

I. ^ I ^HE Proverbs of feveral Nations were much 
I fludied by Bifliop AndrewSy and the reafon 
-*- he gave, was, Becaufe by them he knew the 
minds of feveral Nations which is a brave thing ; as 
we count him a wife man, that knows the minds and 
infides of men, which is done by knowing what is 
habitual to them. Proverbs are habitual to a Nation, 
being tranfmitted from Father to Son. 

I. T T THen a doubt is propounded, you mud 
\\/ learn to diftinguilh, and fhow wherein a 
• ^ thing holds, and wherein it does not 
hold. Ay, or no, never anfwer'd any Queftion. The 
not diflinguifhing where things (hould be diftinguifh'd, 
and the not confounding, where things fhould be con- 
founded, is the caufe of all the miflakes in the World. 

I. T N giving Reafons, Men commonly do with 
I us as the Woman does with her Child ; when 
■*- fhe goes to Market about her bufiness, (he 
tells it (he goes to buy it a fine thing, to buy it a Cake 
or fome Plums. They give us fuch Reafons as they 
think we will be catched withal, but never let us know 
the Truth. 

2. When the School-men talk of Re^a Ratio in 
Morals, either they imderdand Reafon, as it is 
governed by a Command from above ; or elfe they fay 
no more than a Woman, when (he feys a thing is fo, 
becaufe it is fo ; that is her Reafon perfwades her 'tis 
fo. The other Acception has Sence in it As take a 
I^w of the Land, I mufl not depopulate, my Reafon tells 
me fo. Why ? Becaufe if I do, I incurr the detriment 

3. The Reafon of a Thing is not to be enquired 
after, till you are fure the Thing it felf be fo. We com- 
monly are at \lVhat^s the Reafon of it}"] before we are 
fure of the Thmg. Twas an excellent Queftion of my 



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TABLE-TALK. lor 

Lady Cotten^ when Sir Robert Gotten was magnifying of 
a Shooe, which was Mofes's or Noah's^ and wondnng 
at the (Irange Shape and Fafliion of it: But Mr. Gotten, 
lays fhe, areyoufure it is a Shooe. 

XletalfHticm. 

AN Eye for an Eye^ and a Tooth for a Toothy 
That does not mean, that if I put out another 
Man's Eye, therefore I mufl lofe one of my 
own, (for what is he the better for that ?) though this 
be commonly received ; but it means, I (hall give him 
what Satisfaction an Eye fhall be judged to be worth. 

Stebermcf. 

I. "TT^IS fometimes unreafonable to look after 
I Refpecfl and Reverence, either from a Man's 
"*" own Servant, or other Inferiours. A great 
Lord and a Gentleman talking together, there came a 
Boy by, leading a Galf with both his hands ; fays the 
Lord to the Gentleman, You shall fee me make the 
Boy let go his Calf; with that he came towards him, 
thinking the Boy would have put off his Hat, but the 
Boy took no Notice of him. The Lord feeing that, 
Sirrahy fays he. Do you not knew me that you ufe no 
Reverence? YeSy fays the Boy, if your Lord^ip will 
hold my Calf I will put ojff my Hat, 

I. *' 1 ^HE People thought they had a great Vi6lory 
I over the Clergy, when in Henry the Eighth's 
•*" time they got their Bill paiTed, That a 
Clergy-man fhould have but Two Livings ; before a 
Man might have Twenty or Thirty ; 'twas but getting 
a Difpenlation from the Pope's Limiter, or Gatherer of 
the Peter-Pence^ which was as eafily got, as now you 
may have a Licence to eat Flelh. 

2. As foon as a Minifter is made, he hath Power to 
Preach all over the World, but the Civil-Power reftrains 
him ; he cannot preach in this Parifli, or in that ; there 
is one already appointed. Now-if the State allows him 
Two Livings, then he hath Two Places where he may 
Exercife his Fun<5lion, and ic has the more Power 



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toa TABLE-TALK. 

to do his Office, which he might do every where if he 

were not rellrained. 

Stelfgimi. 

I. TT' Ing /am^ faid to the Fly, Have I Three 
rC Kingdoms, and thou mu(l needs fly into 
•^ ^ my Eye ? Is there not enough to meddle 

with upon the Stage, or in Love, or at the Table, but 

Religion ? 

2. Religion amongfl Men appears to me like the 
Learning they got at School. Some Men forget all 
they learned, others fpend upon the Stock, and fome 
improve it So fome Men forget all the Religion that 
*ras taught them when they were Young, others fpend 
upon that Stock, and fome improve it. 

3. Religion is like the Fafliion, one Man wears his 
Doublet flafli^d, another lac*d, another plain; but every 
Man has a Doublet : So every Man has his Religion 
We differ about Trimming. 

4. Men fay they are of the fame Religion for Quiet- 
nefs fake ; but if the matter were well Examined you 
would fcarce find Three any where of the fame Religion 
in all Points. 

5. Every Religion is a getting Religion ; for though 
I my felf get nothing, I am Subordinate to thofe that do. 
So you may find a Lawyer in the Temple that gets little 
for the prefent, but he is fitting himfelf to be in time 
one of thofe great Ones that do get. 

6. Alteration of Religion is dangerous, becaufe we 
know not where it will (lay ; 'tis like a Miljlone that 
lies upon the top of a pair of Stairs, 'tis hard to remove 
it, but if once it be thruft off the firft Stair, it never 
(lays till it comes to the bottom. 

7. QueJHon, Whether is the Church or the Scripture 
Judge of Religion ? Anfwer, In truth neither, but the 
State. I am troubled with a Boil; I call a Company 
of Chirurgeons about me ; one prefcribes one thing, 
another another; I fingle out fomething I like, and ask 
you that ftand by, and are no Chirurgeon, what you 
think of it : You like it too ; you and I are Judges of 
the Plafler, and we bid them prepare it, and there's an 
end. Thus 'tis in Religion ; the Proteftants lay they 



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TABLE-TALK. 103 

will be judged by the Scripture; the Papifls fay fo too; 
but- that cannot fpeak. A Judge is no Judge, except 
he can both fpeak and command Execution ; but the 
truth is they never intend to agree. No doubt the 
Pope where he is Supream, is to be Judge ; if he fay 
we in England ought to be fubjedl to him, then he 
mufl draw his Sword and make it good. 

8. By the Law was the Manual received into the 
Church before the Reformation, not by the Civil Law, 
that had nothing to do in it ; nor by the Canon Law, 
for that Manual that was here, was not in France^ nor 
in Spain ; but by Cuflom, which is the Common Law 
of England \ and Cuflom is but the Elder Brother to a 
Parliament : and fo it will fall out to be nothing that 
the Papifls fay. Ours is a Parliamentary Religion, by 
reafon the Service-Book was Eflablifhed by A6t of Par- 
liament, and never any Service-Book was fo before. 
That will be nothing that the Pope fent the Manual : 
*Twas ours, becaufe the State received it. The State 
fUll makes the Religion and receives into it, what will 
befl agree with it Why are the Venetians Roman 
Cathohcks ? Because the State likes the Religion : 
All the World knows they care not Three Pence for 
the Pope. The Council of Trent is not at this day 
admitted in France, 

9. Papifl. Where was your Religion before Luther^ 
an Hundred Years ago? Protejlant, Where was 
America an Hundred or Sixfcore years ago? Our 
Religion was where the refl of the Chriflian Church 
was. Papijl, Our Religion continued ever fince the 
Apoflles, and therefore 'tis better. Protejlant, So did 
ours. That there was an interruption of it, will fall 
out to be nothing, no more than if another Earl fhould 
tell me of the Earl of -^<?w/, faying. He is a better Earl 
than he, becaufe there was one or two of the Family 
of Kent did not take the Title upon them : yet all that 
while they were really Earis ; and afterwards a Great 
Prince declared them to be Earls of Kent^ as he that 
made the other Family an Earl, 

10. Difputes in Religion will never be ended, be- 
caufe there wants a Meafure by which the Bufinefs 



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104 TABLE-TALK. 

would be dedded : The Purdan would be judged by 
the Word of God : If he would fpeak clearly, he means 
himfelf, but he is afliamed to fay fo; and he would have 
me believe him before a whole Church, that has read 
the Word of God as well as he. One lays one thing, 
and another another ; and there is, I lay, no Meafure 
to end the Controverfie. Tis jufl as if Two men were 
at Bowls, and both judg'd by the Eye ; One lays 'tis 
his Cad, the other fays 'tis my Cad ; and having no 
Meafure, the Difference is Eternal. Ben Johnfon 
Satyrically exprefs*d the vain Difputes of Divines by //w^<? 
LanthomCy difputing with his Puppet in a Bartholomew 
Fair: Itisfo; It is not fo ; It is fo ; It is not fo, crying 
thus one to another a quarter of an Hour together. 

11. In Matters of Religion to be rul'd by one that 
writes againfl his Adverfary, and throws all the Dirt he 
can in his Face, is, as if in point of good Manners a 
Man fhould be governed by one whom he fees at Cuffs 
with another, and thereupon thinks himfelf bound to 
give the next Man he meets a Box on the Ear. 

12. 'Tis to no purpofe to labour to Reconcile Re- 
ligions, when the Interefl of Princes will not fuffer it 
'Tis well if they could be Reconciled fo far, that they 
(hould not cut one another's Throats. 

13. There's all the Reafon in the Worid Divines 
fhould not be fuffer'd to go a Hair beyond their Bounds, 
for fear of breeding Confufion, fince there now be fo 
many Religions on Foot The matter was not fo nar- 
rowly to be look'd after when there was but one Re- 
ligion inChriflendom; the refl would cry him down for 
an Heretick, and there was no Body to fide with him. 

14. We look after Religion as the Butcher did after 
his Knife, when he had it in his Mouth. 

15. Religion is made a Juggler's Paper ; now 'tis a 
Horfe, now 'tis a Lan thorn, now 'tis a Boar, now 'tis a 
Man. To ferve Ends Religion is tum'd into all Shapes. 

16. Pretending Religion and the Law of God, is to 
fet all things loofe : When a Man has no mind to do 
fomething he ought to do by his Contrail with Man, 
then he gets a Text, and Interprets it as he pleafes, 
and fo thinks to get loofe. 



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table-talk. ioS 

17. Some Mens pretending Religion, is like the 
Roaring Boys way of Challenges, \Their Reputation is 
dear. It does notjland with t/ie Honour of a Gentleman^ 
when, God knows, they have neither Honour nor Repu- 
tation about them. 

18. They talk much of fetling Religion ; Religion 
is well enough fetled already, if we would let it alone : 
Methinks we might look after, 6^c, 

19. If men would fay they took Arms for any thing 
but Religion, they might be beaten out of it by Reafon; 
out of that they never can, for they will not believe 
you whatever you fay. 

20. The very Arcanum of pretending Religion in all 
Wars is. That fomething may be found out in which 
all men may have intereft. In this the Groom has as 
much intereft as the Lord. Were it for Land, one has 
One Thoufand Acres, and the other but One; he 
would not venture fo far, as he that has a Thoufand. 
But Religion is equal to both. Had all men Land 
alike, by a Lex Agraria^ then all men would (ay they 
fought for Land. 

I. T T 7HY(hould I think all the Fourth Command- 
\\ nient belongs to me, when all the Fifth 
^ ^ does not? What Land will the Lord give 
me for honouring my Father ? It was fpoken to the 
Jews with reference to the Land of Canaan ; but the 
meaning is, If I honour my Parents, God will alfo blefs 
me. We read the Commandments in the Church- 
Service, as we do David^s Pfalms, not that all there 
concerns us, but a great deal of them does. 

iS^aaament. 
I. /^^^ Hrist iw^QXQd Judas to take the Communion. 
1^ Those Minifters that keep the Pariftioners 
^■^ from it, becaufe they will not do as they 
will have them, revenge rather than reform, 

2. No man can tell whether I am fit to receive the 
Sacrament; for though I were fit the day before, when 
he examined me ; at leaft appeared fo to him : yet how 
can he tell what fin I have committed that night, or 



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io6 TABLE-TALK. 

the next morning, or what impious Atheiflical thoughts 
I may have about me, when I am approaching to the 
very Table ? 

^MHiattan. 
I. T T 7E can bed underfland the meaning of 
\/\/ evTTipia^ Salvation, from the Jews, to 
• ^ whom the Saviour was promifed They 
held that themfelves ihould have the chief place of 
happinefs in the other world ; but the Geniiles that 
were good men, (hould likewife have their portion of 
Blifs there too. Now by Chrifl the Partition-Wall is 
broken down, and the Gentiles that believe in him, 
are admitted to the fame place of Blifs with the Jews ; 
and why then (hould not that portion of Happinefs flill 
remain to them, who do not believe in Chrift, fo they 
be morally good ? This is a charitable opinion. 

I, T N a troubled State fave as much for your own 
I as you can. A Dog had been at Market to 
-*- buy a Shoulder of Mutton ; coming home he 
met two Dogs by the way, that quarreird with him ; he 
laid down his Shoulder of Mutton, and fell to fighting 
with one of them; in the mean time the other Dog fell 
to eating his Mutton ; he feeing that, left the Dog he 
was fighting with, and fell upon him that was eating ; 
then the other Dog fell to eat ; when he perceived there 
was no remedy, but which of them foever he fought withal, 
his Mutton was in danger, he thought he would have 
as much of it as he could, and thereupon gave over 
fighting, and fell to eating himfel£ 

jhtpemtitiam 

I. ^ J ^Hey that are againll Superflition often-times 
I run into it of the wrong fide. If I will wear 
•*^ all colours but black, then am I Superllitious 

in not wearing black. 

2. They pretend not to adore the Crofs, becaufe 
'tis fuperilitious; for my part I will believe them, when 
I fee them throw their money out of their Pockets, and 
not till then. 

3. If ther^. be any Superflition truly and properly fo 



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table-talk. 107 

called, 'tis their obferving the Sabboth after the Jewifh 
manner. 

I. TT Eretofore the Parliament was wary what 

I I Subfidies they gave to the King, becaufe 

-*- -*• they had no account, but now they care not 

how much they give of the Subjedts money, becaufe they 

give it with one hand and receive it with the other; and 

fo upon the matter give it thcmfelves. In the mean time 

what a cafe the Subje6ls oi England diXQ in; if the men 

they have fent to the Parliament misbehave themfelves, 

they cannot help it, becaufe the Parliament is eternal. 

2. A Subfidy was counted the fifth part of a man's 

Ellate, and fo fifty Subfidies is five and forty times more 

than a man is worth. 

guimimj^. 

I. ^ I "*He name of Simony was begot in the Canon- 
I Law ; the firll Statute againfl it was in Queen 
-*- Elizabeth'% time. Since the Reformation 
Simony has been frequent : One reafon why it was not 
pradlifed in time of Popery, was the Pope's provifion; 
no man was fure to beflow his own Benefice. 

I. "ly yr R. Noy brought in Ship-money firfl for Mari- 
V I *^^^ Towns, but that was like putting in a 

^^ -^ little Augur, that afterwards you may put 
in a greater ; he that pulls down the firfl Brick, does the 
main work, afterwards 'tis eafie to pull down the Wall. 

2. They that at firll would not pay Ship-money, till 
'twas decided, did like brave men (though perhaps they 
did no good by the Trial), but they that Hand out fince, 
and fuffer thernfelves to be diflrain'd, never quellioning 
thofe that do it, do pitifully, for fo they only pay twice 
as much as they ihould. 

I, T T 7E have had no National Synod fince the 

\/\/ Kingdom hath been fettled, as now it is, 

^ ^ only Provincial ; and there will be this in- 

conveniency, to call fo many Divines together; 'twill be 

to put power in their hands, who are too apt to ufurp 



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io8 TABLE-TALK. 

it, as if the Laity were bound by their determination. 
No, let the Laity confult with Divines on all fides, hear 
what they fay, and make themfelves Mailers of their 
reafons ; as they do by any other profeffion, when they 
have a difference before them. For example Gold- 
finiths, they enquire of them, if fuch a Jewel be of fuch 
a value, and fuch a Stone of fuch a value, hear them, 
and then being rational men judge themfelves. 

2. Why fhould you have a Synod, when you have a 
Convocation abready, which is a Synod ? Would you 
have a fuperfetation of another S}Tiod ? The Clergy 
of England when they call off the Pope, fubmitted 
themfelves to the Civil Power, and fo have continued ; 
but thefe challenge to be Jure DivinOy and fo to be 
above the Civil Power ; thefe challenge power to call 
before their Presbyteries all perfons for all fins diredlly 
againft the Law of God, as proved to be fins by ne- 
ceffary confequence. If you would buy Gloves, fend 
for a Glover or two, not Glovers-hall; confult with 
fome Divines, not fend for ^ Body. 

3. There mud be fome laymen in the Synod, to 
overlook the Clergy, leafl they fpoil the CivU work j 
juft as when the good Woman puts a Cat into the 
Milk-houfe to kill a Moufe, fhe fends her Maid to look 
after the Cat, leafl the Cat Ihould eat up the Cream. 

4. In the Ordinance for the Affembly, the Lords 
and Commons go under the names of learned, godly, 
and judicious Divines ; there is no difference put be- 
twixt them, and the Miniflers in the Context 

5. Tis not unufual in the Affembly to revoke their 
Votes, by reafon they make fo much haft, but 'tis that 
will make them fcom*d. You never heard of a Coun- 
cil revok'd an Act of its own making, they have been 
wary in that, to keep up their Infallibility ; if they did 
anything they took away the whole Council, and yet 
we would be thought infallible as any body : 'tis not 
enough to fay, the Houfe of Commons revoke their 
Votes, for theirs are but Civil truths which they by 
agreement create, and uncreate, as they please : But 
the Truths the Synod deals in are Divine, and when 
they have voted a thing, if it be then true, 'twas true 



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TABLE-TALK. 109 

before, not true becaufe they voted it, nor does it 
ceafe to be true, becaufe they voted otherwife. 

6. Subfcribing in a Synod, or to the Articles of a 
S)mod, is no fuch terrible thing as they make it ; be- 
caufe, if I am of a Synod, 'tis agreed, either tacitely 
or exprefly. That which the Major part determines, 
the reft are involved in ; and therefore I fubfcribe, 
though my own private Opinion be otherwife ; and upon 
the fame Ground, I may without fcruple fubfcribe to 
what thofe have determm*d, whom I fent, though my 
private Opinion be otherwife, having refpedl to that 
which is the Ground of all AfTemblies, the major part 
carries it 

I. A T firft we gave Thanks for every Vidlory as 
l\ foon as ever 'twas obtained, but fince -we 
•^ ^ we have had many now we can ftay a good 
while. We are juft like a Child ; give him a Plum, 
he makes his Leg ; give him a fecond Plum, he makes 
another Leg ; At laft when his Belly is full, he forgets 
what he ought to do • then his Nurfe, or fome body 
elfe that ftands by him, puts him in mind of his Duty, 
Wher^s your Leg. 

I. '^ I ^ Ythes are more paid in kind in England^ than 
I in all Italy and France, In France they 
-■• have had Impropriations a long time ; we 
liad none in England till Henry the Eightfi. 

2. To make an Impropriation, there was to be the 
Confent of the Incumbent, the Patron, and the King; 
then 'twas confirmed by the Pope : Without all this 
the Pope could make no Impropriation. 

3. Or what if the Pope gave the lythes to any Man, 
must they therefore be taken away ? If the Pope gives 
me a Jewel, will you therefore take it away from me ? 

4. Abraham paid Tythes to Melchizedeck, what then? 
Twas very well done of him : It does not follow 
therefore that I muft pay Tythes, no more than I am 
bound to imitate any other Adion of Abraham^s. 

5. 'Tis ridiculous to fay the Tythes are God's part, 
and therefore the Clergy muft have them : Why, of 



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they are if the Layman has them. 'Tis as if one of 
my Lady Kmfs Maids fhould be fweeping this Room, 
and another of them ftiould come and take away the 
Broom, and tell for a Reafon, why (he (hould part 
with it : 'Tis my Lady*s Broom : As if it were not my 
Lady's Broom, which of them foever had it 

6. They Confulted in Oxford where they might 
find the bed Argument for their Tythes, fetting afide 
the Jus Divinum ; they were advis'd to my Hiflory of 
Tythes; a Book fo much cry*d down by them for- 
merly ; (in which, I dare boldly fay, there are more 
Arguments for them than are extant together any 
where:) Upon this, one writ me word. That my 
Hiflory of Tythes was now become like Peleui^ 
JIasta, to Wound and to Heal. I told him in my 
Anfwer, I thought I could fit him with a better 
inftance. Twas poflible it might undergo the fame 
Fate, that Ariflotky Avicen, and Averroes did in 
FrancCy some Five Hundred Years ago ; which were 
Excommunicated by Stephen Bifhop of Farts, [by 
that very name, Excommunicated^ becaufe that kind of 
Learning puzled and troubled their Divinity. But find- 
ing themfelves at a lofs, fome Forty Years after (which 
is much about the time fince I writ my Hiflory) they 
were called in again, and fo have continued ever fince. 

Cralre. 

I. ^ I "^Here is no Prince in Chriflendom but is 
I dire6lly a Tradefman, though in another 
-^ way than an ordinary Tradefman. For the 
purpofe, I have a Man, I bid him lay out Twenty 
Shillings in fuch Commodities, but I tell him for every 
Shilling he lays out I will have a Penny. I Trade 
iis well as he. This every Prince does in his 
Cufloms. 

2. That which a Man is bred up in, he thinks no 
Cheating ; as your Tradefman thinks not fo of his 
Profeflion, but calls it a Myflery. Whereas if you 
would teach a Mercer to make his Silks heavier, than 
what he has been ufed to, he would peradventure 
think that to be Cheating. 



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TABLE-TALK. in 

3. Every Tradefman profefles to cheat me, that 
asks for his Commodity twice as much as it is worth. 

I. (^ AY what you will againft Tradition ; we know 
^^ the Signification of Words by nothing but 
^^-^ Tradition. You will fay the Scripture was 
written by the Holy Spiri/, but do you understand 
that Language 'twas writ in it ? No. Then for Ex- 
ample, t^e thefe words, [In principio erat verlmm\ 
How do you know thofe words figpifie, [In the begins 
ning was the word^ but by Tradition, becaufe fome 
Body has told you 10 ? 

CnmiSulbieStantCatCan. 

I. '^ I ^HE Fathers ufing to fpeak Rhetorically 
I brought up Tranfubflantiation : As if be- 
-*• caufe it is commonly faid. Amicus eft alter 

ideniy One fhould go about to prove a Man and his 

Friend are all one. That Opinion is only Rhetorick 

tum*d into Logick. 

2. There is no greater Argument (though not us'd) 
againft Tranfubflantiation, than the Apoftles at their firft 
Council, forbidding Blood and Suffocation. Would they 
forbid Blood, and yet enjoin the eating of Blood too ? 

3. The beft way for a pious Man, is to addrefs 
himfelf to the Sacrament with that Reverence and 
Devotion, as if Chrift were really there prefent 

Craitor. 

I. 1*^ I ^IS not feafonable to call a Man Traitor that 
I has an Army at his Heels. - One with an 
^ Army is a Gallant man. My Lady Gotten 
was in the right, when (he laugh'd at the Dutchefs of 
Richmond for taking fuch State upon her, when (he could 
Command no Forces. [She a Dutchefs^ therms in Flan- 
ders a Dutchefs indeed ; ] meaning the Arch-Dutchefs. 

Crinttfi, 

I. '^ I ^HE Second Perfon is made of a piece of 
I Bread by the Papift, the Third Perfon is 
-*• made of his own Frenzy, Malice, Igno- 
rance and Folly, by the Roundhead [to all thefe the 



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iia TABLE-TALK. 

Spirit is intituled,] One the Baker makes, the other 
the Cobler ; and betwixt thofe Two, I think the Firll 
Perfon is fufficiently abufed. 

I. ^ I ^He Artftptdians fay, All Truth is contained 
I in AriJlotU in one place or another. Gali- 
•*• loo makes Simplidus fay fo, but (hows the 
abfurdity of that Speech, by anfwering, All Truth is 
contained in a lefTer Compafs ; viz. In the Alphabet 
AriJlotU is not blam'd for miflaking fometimes ; but 
i4r^(C7/<;//^«xformaintainingthofemi(lakes. Theylhould 
acknowledge the good they have from him, and leave 
him when he is in the wrong. There never breath'd 
that Perfon to whom Mankind was more beholden. 

2. The way to find out the Truth is by others mil- 
takings : For if I was to go to fuch a place, and one 
had gone before me on the Right-hand, and he was 
out ; another had gone on the Left-hand, and he was 
out ; this would direct me to keep the middle way, 
that peradventure would bring me to the place I de- 
fied to go. 

3. In troubled Water you can fcarce fee your Face ; 
or fee it very little, till the Water be quiet and (land 
flill. So in troubled times you can fee little Truth ; 
when times are quiet and fettled, then Truth appears. 

G^tiaL 
I. ^ I ^ Rials are by one of thefe three ways ; by 
I Confeflion, or by Demurrer, that is, Confeff- 
^ ing the Fadl, but denying it to be that, 
wherewith a Man is charged. For Example, Denying 
it to be Treason, if a Man be charged with Treafon ; 
or by a Jury. 

3. Ordalium was a Trial ; and was either by going 
over Nine red hot Plough-Shares, (as in the Case of 
Queen Emmay accused for lying with the Bifliop of 
WincheJleTy over which (he being led Blindfold ; and 
having pafs*d all her Irons, a(k'd when (he (hould come 
to her Trial ; ) or 'twas by taking a red hot Coulter in 
a Man's hand, and carrying it fo many Steps, and then 
calling it from him. As foon as this was done, the 



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TABLE-TALK. 



113 



Hands or the Feet were to be bound up, and certain 
Charms to be faid, and a day or two after to be 
open'd; and if the parts were whole, the Party was 
judged to be Innocent ; and fo on the contrary. 

3. The Rack is us*d no where as in England', In 
other Countries 'tis ufed in JudLaturCy when there is 
a SemipUna probation a half Proof againfl a Man ; 
then to fee if they can make it full, they Rack him if 
he will not Confefs. But here in England they take 
a Man and Rack him, I do not know why, nor when ; 
not in time oi Judicature ^ but when fome Body bids. 

4. Some Men before they come to their Trial, are 
cozen'd to Confefs upon Examination : Upon this 
Trick, they are made to believe fome Body has con- 
feifed before them ; and then they think it a piece of 
Honourtobeclearandingenious,and thatdeftroys them. 

fSniberjiCts. 
I. '^ I ^HE beft Argument why Oxford (hould have 
I precedence of Cambru^e is the A<Sl of Par- 
-*• liament, by which Oxford is made a Body ; 
made what it is ; and Cambridge is made what it is ; 
and in the A<51 it takes place. Befides Oxford has 
the beft Monuments to fliow. 

a. *Twas well laid of One, hearing of a Hiftory 
Le6lure to be founded in the Univeii&ty ; Would to 
God, lays he, they would diredl a Ledhire of Difcretion 
there, this would do more good there an hundred times. 

3. He that c©mes from the Univerfity f o govern the 
State, before he is acquainted with the Men and 
Manners of the Place, does juft as if he fliould come 
into the prefence Chamber all Dirty, with his Boots 
on, his riding Coat, and his Head all daub'd \ They 
may ferve him well enough in the way, but when he 
comes to Court, he muft conform to the Place. 

I. C^ Uppofe a man find by his own inclination he 
^^ has no mind to marry, may he not then Vow 
^^^ Chaftity? Anjw, If he does, what a fine 

thing hath he done? 'tis as if a man did not love 

H 



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114 TABLE-TAI.K. 

Cheefe, and then he would vow to God Almighty 
never to eat Cheefe. He that Vows can mean no more 
in fenfe, than this; To do his utmoft endeavour to 
keep his Vow. 

1. •^ I ^HE /fzifs were forbidden to take Ufe one 

* I of another ; but they were not forbidden to 

-■• take it of other Nations. That being fo, I 

fee no reafon, why I may not as well take Ufe for my 

Money as Rent for my Houfe. Tis a vain thing to 

fay, Money begets not Money ; for that no doubt it does. 

2. Would it not look odly to a Stranger, that ihould 

come into this Land, and hear in our Pulpits Ufury 

preach'd againft; and yet the Law allow it? Many 

men ufe it; perhaps fome Churchmen themfelves. 

No Bifliop nor Ecclefiaftical Judge, that pretends 

power to punilh other faults, dares punifh, or at leaft 

does punilh any man for doing it 

I. '^ I ^ HE ground of the Ordinary's taking part of a 
I Man's Eflate (who d/d without a Will) to 
-■* Pious Ufes, was this; To give it fome body 
to pray, that his foul might be delivered out of Purga- 
tory, now the pious Ufes come into his own Pocket 
Twas well expreft \yj John O Fowls in the Play, who 
adled the Pried; one that was to be hang'd, being 
brought to the Ladder, would fain have given fome- 
thing to the Poor ; he feels for his Purfe, (which John 
O Fowls had pickt out of his Pocket before) miffing 
it, crys out, He had lofl his Purfe ; now he intended 
to have given fomething to the Poor : John O Fowls 
bid him be pacified, for the Poor had it abready. 

I. 1 AO not under-value an Enemy by whom you 
I I have been worded. When our Country- 
-*— ^ men came home from fighting with the 
Saracmsy and were beaten by them, they pidlured 
them with huge, big, terrible Faces (as you dill fee the 
Sign of the Saracen^ S'Yitz,d. is) when in truth they were 



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TABLE-TALK. 115 

like other men. But this they did to (ave their own 
Credits. 

2. Martial-Law in general, means nothing but the 
Martial-Law of this, or that place; with us to be 
us*d in Fervore Belli, in the Face of the Enemy, not in 
time of Peace; there they can take away neither 
Limb nor Life. The Commanders need not complain 
for want of it, becaufe our Anceftors have done 
Gallant things without it. 

3. Qtujlion, Whether may Subje6ls take up Arms 
againft their Prince ? Anfw, Concieve it thus ; Here 
lies a Shilling betwixt you and me ; Ten Pence of the 
Shilling is yours, Two Pence is mine : By agreement, 
I am as much King of my Two Pence, as you of 
your Ten Pence : If you therefore go about to take 
away my Two Pence, I will defend it ; for there you 
and I are equal, both Princes. 

4. Or thus, Two fupream Powers meet ; one fays to 
the other, Give me your Land ; if you will not, I will 
take it from you : The other, becaufe he thinks him- 
felf too weak to refill him, tells him. Of Nine Parts I 
will give you Three, fo I may quietly enjoy the reft, 
and I will become your Tributary. Afterwards the 
Prince comes to exadl Six Parts, and leaves but Three ; 
the Contradl then is broken, and they are inParity again. 

5. To know what Obedience is due to the Prince, 
you muft look into the Contradl betwixt him and his 
People : as if you would know what Rent is due from 
the Tenant to the Landlord, you muft look into the 
Leafe. When the Contract is broken, and there is no 
third Perfon to judge, then the Decifion is by Arms. 
And this is the Cafe between the Prince and theSubjedl. 

6. Quejlion, What Law is there to take up Arms 
againft the Prince, in Cafe he break his Covenant? 
Anfw, Though there be no written Law for it, yet 
there is Cuftom ; which is the beft Law of the King- 
dom ; for in England they have always done it. There 
is nothing expreft between the King of England and 
the King of France; that if either Invades the other's 
Territory, the other (hall take up Arms againft him, 
and yet they do it upon fuch an Occafion. 



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ii6 TABLE-TALK. 

7. 'Tis all one to be plundered by a Troop of Horie, 
or to have a Man's Goods taken from him by an Order 
from the Council-Table. To him that dies, 'tis aU one 
whether it be by a Penny Halter, or a Silk Garter ; 
yet I confefs the Silk Garter pleafes more; and like 
Trouts we love to be tickled to Death. 

8. The Souldiers lay they Fight for Honom- ; when 
the truth is they have their Honour in their Pocket 
And they mean the lame thing that pretend to Fight 
for Religion. Jufl as a Parfon goes to Law with his 
Parilhioners ; he (ays, For the Good of his Succeflbrs, 
that the Church may not lofe its Bight; when the 
meaning is to get the Tythes into his own Pocket 

9. We Govern this War as an unfkilful Man does a 
Cafling-Net ; if he has not the right trick to call the Net 
ofif his Shoulder, the Leads will pull him into the River. 
I am afraid we (hall pull our felves into Deftrudlion. 

10. We look after the particulars of a Battle becaufe 
we live in the very time of War. Where as of Battles 
pail we hear nothing but the number llain. Jufl as 
for the Death of a Man ; When he is lick, we taJk how 
he llept this Night, and that Night ; what he eat, and what 
he drunk : But when he is dead, we only fay, He died 
of a Fever, or name his Difeafe ; and there's an end. 

11. Boccaline has this paffage of Souldiers, They 
came to Apollo to have their profeflion made the 
Eighth Liberal Science, which he granted. As foon 
as it was nois'd up and down, it came to the Butchers, 
and they defir'd their Profeflion might be made the 
Ninth : For fay they, the Souldiers have this Honour 
for the killing of Men ; now we kill as well as they ; 
but we kill Beads for the preferving of Men, and why 
Ihould not we have Honour likewife done to us? 
Apollo could not Anfwer their Reafons, fo he reversed 
his Sentence, and made the Souldiers Trade a Myllery, 
as the Butchers is. 

1. '^ I ^HE Law againll Witches does not prove there 

I be any ; but it punilhes the Malice of thofe 

-*• people, that ufe fuch means, to take away 

mens Lives. If one Ihould profefs that by turning 



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TABLE-TALK. I17 

his Hat thrice, and crying Buz ; he could take away a 
man's life (though in truth he could do no fuch thing) 
yet this were a juft Law made by the State, that who- 
foever (hould turn his Hat thrice, and cry Buz ; with an 
intention to take away a man's life, fhall be put to death. 

1. T_T E that hath a handfome Wife, by other men 
I — I is thought happy ; 'tis a pleafure to look . 
^ •*' upon her, and be in her company ; but the 

Husband is clo/d with her. We are never content 

with what we have. 

2. You (hall fee a Monkey fometime, that has been 
playing up and down the Garden, at length leap up 
to the top of the Wall, but his Clog hangs a great 
way below on this fide ; the Bifhop's Wife is like that 
Monkey's Clog, himfelf is got up very high, takes 
place of the Temporal Barons, but his wife comes a 
great way behind. 

3. 'Tis reafon a man that will have a Wife (hould 
be at the charge of her Trinkets, and pay all the fcores 
fhe fets on him. He that will keep a Monkey, 'tis fit 
he Ihould pay for the Glafles he breaks. 

I. A Wife Man (hould never refolve upon any 
l\ thing, at lead never let the World know his 
^ ^ Refolution, for if he cannot arrive at that, 
he is a(ham'd. How many things did the King refolve 
in his Declaration concerning Scotland^ never to do, 
and yet did 'em all ? A man mud do according to 
accidents and Emergencies. 

2. Never tell your Refolution before hand; but 
when the Caft is thrown, Play it as well as you can to 
win the Game you are at *Tis but folly to (ludy, how 
to Play Size-ace, when you know not whether you 
(hall throw it or no. 

3. Wife Men (ay nothing in dangerous times The 
Lion you know call'd the Sheep, to ask her if his 
breath fmelt ; (he faid, Ay ; he bit off her head for a 
fooL He oJl'd the Wolf and askt him : He (aid no ; 



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iiS TABLE TALK. 

he tore him in pieces for a Flatterer. At lail he called 
the Fox and afk'd him ; truly he had got a Cold and 
could not finelL King James was pi<5lu?d dr'c, 

I. "1 TK 7 IT and Wifedom differ ; Wit is upon the 
\/\/ fudden turn, Wifedom is in bringing 
• ^ about ends. 
a. Nature mud be the ground-work of Wit and Art ; 
othen^'ife whatever is done will prove but Jack- 
puddings work. 

3. Wit mud grow like Fingers ; if it be taken from 
others, 'tis like Plums (luck upon Black thomes ; there 
they are for a while but they come to nothing. 

4. He that will give himfelf to all manner of ways 
to get Money may be rich ; fo he that lets fly all he 
knows or thinks, may by chance be Satyrically witty. 
Honefty fometimes keeps a man from growing rich ; 
and Civility from being witty. 

5. Women ought not to know their own Wit, be- 
caufe they will flill be (hewing it, and fo fpoil it ; like a 
Child that will continually be (hewing its fine new Coat, 
till at length it all bedawbs it with its Pah-hands. 

6. Fine Wits dedroy themfelves with their own 
Plots, in meddling with great affairs of State. They 
commonly do as the Ape that faw the Gunner put Bullets 
in the Cannon, and was pleased with it, and he would 
be doing fo too ; at lad he puts himfelf into the Piece, 
and fo both Ape, and Bullet were (hot away together. 

I. T £T the Women have pouter of their heads^ 
I becaufe of the Angels, The reafon of the 
-■^— ' words, becaufe of the Angels^ is this ; The 
Greek Church held an Opinion that the Angels fell in Love 
with Women. This fancy Saint Paul difcreetly catches, 
and ufes it as an Argument to perfwade them to modefty. 
2. The Grant of a place, is not good by the Canon- 
Law before a man be dead; upon this groimd fome 
mifchief might be plotted againd him in prefcnt 
po(re(rion, by poifoning, or fome other way. Upon 



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TABLE-TALK. 119 

the lame reafon a Contradl made with a Woman during 
her husband's life, was not valid. 

3. Men are not troubled to hear a Man dil- 
praifed, becaufe they know, though he be naught, 
there's worth in others. But Women are mightily 
troubled to hear any of them spoken againfl as if the 
Sex it felf were guilty of fome unworthinefs. 

4. Women and Princes mud both trufl fomebody ; 
and they are happy, or unhappy according to the 
defert of thofe under whofe hands they fall. If a man 
knows how to manage the favour of a Lady, her 
Honour is fafe, and fo is a Princes. 

5. An Opinion grounded upon that, Genefis 6. The 
Sons of Godfawthe Daughters of Mmthatth^ were fair* 

Sean 

I. '^ I ^Was the manner of the Jews (if the Year 
I did not fall out right, but that it was dirty 
-*• for the people to come up to Jerufalem^ at 
the Feaft of the PafTover ; or that their Com was not 
ripe for their firfl Fruits) to intercalate a Month, and 
fo to have, as it were, two Februarys; thrufling up the 
Year flill higher, March into ApriPs place, April into 
Mays place, 6fc. Whereupon it is impoflible for us 
to know when our Saviour was bom, or when he 
d/d. 

2. The Year is either the year of the Moon, or the 
Year of the Sun ; there's not above Eleven days diflfer- 
ence. Our moveable Feafls are according to the Year 
of the Moon ; elfe they (hould be fixt 

3. Though they reckon Ten days fooner beyond 
Sea ; yet it does not follow their Spring is fooner than 
ours ; we keep the lame time in natural things, and 
their Ten days fooner, and our Ten days later in thofe 
things mean the felf fame time ; jull as Twelve Sous in 
French, are Ten Pence in Engliih. 

4. The lengthening of days is not fuddenly perceiv'd 
till they are grown a pretty deal longer, becaufe the 
Sun, though it be in a Circle, yet it feems for a while 
to go in a right Line. For take a Segment of a great 
Circle efpecially, and you Ihall doubt whether it be 



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(Iraight or no. But when that Sun is got pad that 
Line, then you prefently perceive the days are length- 
ened. Thuis it is in the Winter and Summer Solllice ; 
which is indeed the true reafon of them. 

5. The Eclipfe of the Sun is, when it is new Moon ;. 
the Eclipfe of the Moon when 'tis full They fay 
Dionyfius was converted by the Eclipfe that happened 
at our Saviour's Death, becaufe it was neither of thefe» 
and fo could not be natural 

I. /^^NE would wonder Chrifl fliould Whip the 
I I Buyers and Sellers out of the Temple, and 
^^-^ no Body offer to refill him (confidering what 
Opinion they had of him) But the reafon was, they 
had a Law, that whofoever fhould profane SanfHtatem 
Deiy aut Tcmpli; the Holinefe of (^d, or the Temple, 
before Ten pcrfons, 'twas lawful for any of them to 
kill him, or to do any thing this fide killing him ; as 
Whipping him, or the like. And hence it was, that 
when one (Iruck our Saviour before the Judge where 
it was not lawful to ilrike (as it is not with us at this 
day) he only replies ; If I have fpoken evil, bear wit- 
nefs of the Evil; but if well why finiteft thou me? 
He (ays nothing againil their finiting him, in cafe he 
had been guilty of fpeaking Evil, that is Blafphemy; 
and they could have prov'd it againfl him. They that 
put this law in Execution were called 2^1ots; but 
afterwards they committed many Villainies. 



FINIS 



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JOSEPH ADDISON. 
Criticism 

on 

MILTON'S 
Paradise Lost. 



From *The Spectator.* 
31 December, 171 1—3 May, 17 12. 



CAREFULLY EDITED BY 

EDWARD A R B E R, 

/iOAT. FELLOIV OF KI NG* S COLLEGE, LONDON: F.S.A., 

PRO.FESSOR OF ENGLISH LITERATURE, ETC., 

THE MASON SCIENCE COLLEGE, BIRMINGHAM. 



LONDON: 
36 CRAVEN PARK, '\YILLESDEN, X.W. 
EhL Stat HaU.\ I AuguR, 1868. \AU Rights nftrvtd. 



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CONTENTS, 



John Milton's public felf-dedication to the compofi- 

lion of a great English Epic, 3 

Introduction, . 5 

Bibliography, 8 

CRITICISM ON MIL TON'S PARADISE LOST 9 

[Note on the early iflues of The Spectator] . .10 

No. 262, Announcement of the Milton papers . 11 

I. A GENERAL IdEA OF THE GRACES AND IMPERFECTIONS 

OF * Paradise Lost.* 

Na 267. The Fable, pcrfeA or imperfe<5l according to the 

A<5lion, whicn mud be One, Entire, and Great • 15 

273. The Characters of Homer, Virgil, and Milton 
compared. Allegorical charadlcrs not proper to 
an Epic tl 

270. The Sentiments mull be both natural and fub- 

lime. The only piece of pleafantry in /'<ini</(/2rZ^ a6 

283. The Language fliould be both perfpicuous and 

fublime. How a fublime flyle may be formed . 32 

291. Qualities of true and ialfe Critics . • • 39 

207. The Defects. The Fable is unhappy, iu hero 
nnfuccelsful, and it has too many digreflions. 
The All^oriad perfons in the Charadlers. The 
Sentiments fometimes degenerate into puns ; have 
too frequent allufions to heathen fables as true; 
and very frequently difplay unneceffary oftentation 
of Learning. The Language is often too obfcure, 
jingling, and technical 43 

n. Beauties in the several Books. 

303. Book 1 50 

300. Book n 59 

315. Book HI 07 

32t. Book IV 75 

327. BookV 84 

333. Book VI 92 

330. Book VI I loi 

345. Book VIII 109 

351. Book IX 117 

357. BookX 126 

363. Book XL 136 

360. Book XII 145 



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John Milton's public self-dedication to the compose 

TION OF A great ENGLISH EPia 

About Feb. 1649, Milton, rt sa, in his third contribution to the Smec> 
tymnuut controversy, Thi Xeasam 0/ Cktnxh gvpemmtMi w^d mgumst 
Prflairy, to show how little delight he had in that which he bebeved * God 
by his Secretary conscience injcyned' upon him therein ; he thus magni- 
ficently announces his self-dedication to the magnificent purpose of writing 
a great Epic in his mother tongue- 

°' I should not chuse this mannerofwriting wherein knowing my self inferiorto 
my self, led by the genial power of nature to another task, I nave the use, as I 
mav account it, but of my left hand. And though I shall be foolish in saying more 
to tius purpose, yet since it will be such a folly as wisest men going abou t to com- 
mit, have onlv coofest and so committed, I may trust with more reason, because 
with more folly to have courteous pardon. For although a Poet soaring in the 
hig^ re^n 'of his fancies with nis garland and singing robes about him 
might without apology speadc more of himself then I mean to do, yet for 
me sitting here below in the cool element of prose, a mortall thing among 
many readers of no Empyreall conceit, to venture and divulge unusual thmgs 
of my selfe, I shall peuuon to the gentler sort, it may not be envy to me. 
I must say therefore that after 1 had from my first yeeres bjr the ceaselesse 
diligence and care of my father, whom God recompence, bin eaercis'd to 
the tongues, and some sciences, as my age would suffer, by sundry masters 
and teachers both at home and at the schools, it was found that whether 
ought was impos'd me by them that had the overlooking, or betak'n to of 
mine own choise in English, or other tonp;ue, prosing and veising, but 
chiefly this latter, the stile by certain vital stgnes it had, was likely to live. 
But much latelier in the privat Academies of Jtalvt whither I was favor'd to 
resort, perceiving that some trifles which I had in memory, compos'd at 
under twenty or thereabout (for the manner is that every one must give 
some proof of his wit and reading there) met with acceptamce above what 
was lookt for, and other things which I had shifted in scarsity of books and 
conveniences to patch up amongst them, were recciv'd with written Enco- 
miums, which the Italian is not forward to bestow on men of this side the 
Alp*, 1 began thus farre to assent both to them and divers of my fiiends 
here at home, and not lesse to an inward prompting which now grew daily 
upon me, that by labour and intent study (whicn I take to be my portion in 
tnis life) joyn'd with the strong propensity of nature, 1 might perhaps leave 
something so written to aftertimes, as tliey should not wiUincly let it die. 
lltese thoughts at once possest me, and these other. That if 7 were certain 
to write as men buy Leases, for three lives and downward, there ous[ht no 
regard be sooner had, then to Gods glory by the honour and instruction of 
my countrjr. For which cause, and not only for that I knew it would be 
h^ to arrive at the second rank among the Latines, / appl/d my selfe to 
that resolution which Arwio folluw'd against the perswasions of Bttnho, to 
fix all the industry and art I could unite to the adocningof my native tongue; 
not to make verbal curumties the end, that were a toylsom vanity, but to be 
an interpreter and relater of the best and sagest things among mine owa 
Citizens throughout this lUnd in the mother dialect. Tluit what the greatest 
and choycest wits di Atketu, Rome^ or modem Italy^ and those Hebrews ol 
old did lor thdr country, I in my proportion with this over and above of 
being a Christian, might doe for mine : not caring to be once nam'd abroad, 
though perhaps I could attaine to that, but content with these British Hands 
as my worid, whose fortune hath hitherto bin, that if the Athenians, as some 
say, made their small deeds great and renowned by their eloquent writeii, 
England hath had her noble atchievments made small by the unskilful I 
handling ^ monks and mecbanicks. 

Time servs not now, and perhaps I might seem too profuse to jgive any 
certain account of what the mind at home in the spacious drcmu of her 
musing hath liberty to propose to her self, though of highest hope, and hardest 
attempting, whether that Epick form whereof the two poems of HomtTt and 
those other two of Virgil and Tasso are a difliise, and the book of Icb a brief 
model : or whether the rules of ArisUtU herein are strictly to be kept, or 
nature to be foUow'd, which in them that know art, and use judgement is no 
transgression, but an inriching of art. And la^^tly what King or Kntg^it 
before the conquest might be chosen is whom to lay the pattern ojf a Chri^ 



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tutn Htr^e. And at Tasto c^ve to a Prince of lUly hit chob whether he 
would command hira to write of Ccdfrtyt expedition against the infidels, or 
Belitarius against the Gothes, or CMarUmam against the Lombards ; if to 
the instinct of nature and the imboldning of art ouriit may be trusted, and 
that there be nothing adrers in our cHmat, or the late of this age, it haply 
would be no rashnesse from an equal diligence and indinadoo to present the 
like offerin our ownandentstories. Or whether dioseDramatick constitutions, 
wherdn Sophocles and BurUidt* raigne shall be found more doctrinal and 
exemplary to a Nation, the Scriipture also affords us a divine pastoral Drama 
in the Song of Salomon consisting of two persons and a double Ckorutt as 
Origin rightly judges. And the Apocalyps of Saint lokn is the majestidc 
image of a high and stately Tragedy, uiutting up and intermingling her 
solemn Scenes and Acts with a sevenfold Ckorut of hallehija's and harping 
symphonies : and this my opinion the grave autority of Partm commenting 
that booke is suffident to confirm.^ Or if occasion shall lead to imiut those 
magnifick Odes and Hymns wherein Pitidarus and CaUhnackHt are in most 
things worthy, some others in their frame Judidous, in their matter most an end 
faulty: But those frequent songs throughout the law and prophets beyond all 
these, not in their divine argument alone, but in the very critical art o( compo- 
sition maybe easily made appear over all kinds of Lyrick poesy^ to beincomrar* 
able. These abilities, wheresoever they be found, are the inspired suift of Cod 
rardy bestow'd, but yet to some (though most abuse) m every Nation i and 
are of power b<»ide the office of a pulpit, to inbreea and cherish in a great 
people the seeds of vertu^ and puUidc aviUty, to allay the pertubations of the 
mind, and set the affections in right tune, to cdebrate in glorious and lofty 
Hymns the throne and equipage of Gods Almightinesse, and what he works, 
and what he suffers to be wrrought with high jvovidence in hb Churdi, to 
sing the victorious agonies of Martyrs and &unts, the deeds and trium|>hs of 
just and pious Nations doing valiantly through foith against the enemies of 
Christ, to deplore the general relapses of Kii^oms and Sutes from justice 
and Gods true worship. Lastly, whatsoever in religion is holy and sublime* 
in vertu aimable, or grave, whatsoever hath passion or admiration in all the 
changes of that which is call'd fortune from without, or the wily suttleties and 
refluxes of mans thoughts from within, all these thin^with a solid and treat- 
able smoothnes.^ to paint out and describe. Teaching over the whole book 
of sanctity and vertu through all the instances of example with such delight 
to those enjedally of soft and delicious temper who will not so much as look 
upon Truth herselfe, unlesse they see her d^antly drest, that whereas the 

Kths of honesty and good life appear now rugged and difficult, though they 
indeed easy and pleasant, they would then appeare to all men both ea^ and 
pleasant though th^ were rugged and difficult mdeed. . . . The thing which I 
had to say, anid those intentions which have liVd within me ever since I could 
conceiv my self any thing worth to my Countrie, I return to crave excuM 
that urgent reason hath pluckt from me by an abortive and foredated dis- 
covery. And the accomplishment of them lies not but in a power above mana 
to proouse ; but that none hath by more studious trvj% endeavoured, and with 
more unwearied n>irit that none shall, that I dare almost averre of my self, 
as farre as life and free leasure will extend, and that the Land had once infran- 
chis'd her self from thb impertinent yoke of prelatr^, under whose inc^uisi- 
torious and tyranmcal duncery no free and splendid wit can flourish. Neither 
doe I think it shame to covnant with any knowing reader, that for some few 
yeers yet I may go on trust with him toward the payment of what I am 
now indebted, as being a work not to be rays'd from the heat of youth, or 
the vapours of wine, like that which flows at wast from the pen of some 
vulgar Amoristj or the trencher friry of a riming parasite, not to be obcain'd 
by the invocation of Dame Memory and her Siren daughten, but by de- 
vout prayer to that etemall Smrit who can enrich with all utterance and 
knowledge, and sends out hb Seraphim with the hallow'd fire of hb Altar 
to touch and purify the lips of whom he pleases : to thb must be added in- 
dustrious and select reading, steddy observation, insight into all seemly and 
generous arts and affaires, tUl which in some measure be compast, at mine 
own peril and cost I refuse not to sustain Uib expectation from as many as 
are not loath to haiard so much credulity upon the best pledges that I caa 
pive them.— ». 37— 4>« -^^^ i64<' 



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Criticism on * Paradise Lost/ 



INTRODUCTION. 




|N the ordinary courfe of writing for The 
Spellator^ Addifon determined upon a fum- 
mary expofition oiParadife LoJl\ intending 
in fome four or half a dozen papers, * to 
give a general Idea of its Graces and Im- 
perfe6Hons.* Though his fubjedl was a recent mafler- 
work, it was then comparatively unknown and certainly 
inadequately appreciated. Addifon's purpofe was to 
make Milton's great Epic popular. His fenfe of the 
indifference and prejudices to be overcome, may be 
gathered, not only from his, at fird, guarded and argued 
praife of Milton; his large comparative criticifm of 
Homer and Virgil, as if to make Milton the more 
acceptable ; but alfo from his announcement, fee page 
as : where, under the cover of a Commentary on the 
great and acceptedly-great name of Ariflotle, he en- 
deavours to get a hearing for the unknown Milton. 

In accordance with this intention, at the clofe of his 
fixth paper,t Addifon announces the termination of the 
criticifin on the following Saturday. Theeffays, however, 
had met withan unexpedledfuccefs. So that their author 
— the fubjedl growing eafily under his hand — was in- 
duced, inflead of offering famples of the Beauties of the 
poem, in one effay, to give a feparate paper to thofe in 
each of the twelve books oiParadife Loft, His caution 
however prevented him even then, from announcing 
his frefh purpofe, until he was well on in his work ; 
entering upon the confideration of the Fourth Book.§ 

Thefe conditions of production not only fhow the 
tentativenefs of the criticifm, but account in part for 
the treatment of the fubje6l. In particular, for the 
repetition in expanded form in its later effays, of 
arguments, opinions, &c, epitomized in the earlier 

♦ P- 49- § P 7* 



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6 Introduclion. 

ones. As, for infUnce ; the impropriety of Allegory in 
Epic poetry. 

Before the appearanceof thelaft of the Milton papers, 
Volume IV. of the fecond (firft colledled) edition of 
The SpeHator^ which included the firll ten effays, had 
probably been delivered to its fubfcribers.. The text of 
this edition (hows confiderable additions and correction s. 
So that Addifon was revifmg the earlier, poflibly before 
he had written the later of thefe papers. The eight lad 
papers formed part of Volume V. of the fecond edition, 
which was publifhed in the following year, 17 13. 

Subfequently — in the Author's lifetime — at lead one 
important addition was made to the textf; but the 
fcarcity of early editions of The SpeHatorh^s prevented 
any further collation. In this way the growing text grew 
into final form : that in which it has come down to us. 

In the prefent work, the text is that of the original 
ifTue, in folio. The variations and additions of the 
fecond edition, in 8vo, are inferted between [ ]. Words 
in the firfl, omitted in the fecond edition are didin- 
guidied by having • affixed to them. Subfequent addi- 
tions are mferted between { }; which alfo contain the 
Englifh tranflations of the mottoes. Thefe have been 
verified with thofe in the earlied edition in which I 
have found them, that of 1744. The reader can there- 
fore watch not only the expanfion of the criticifin, but 
Addifon*s method of correaing his work. 

Thefe papers do not embody the writer's entire mind 
on the fubjedl. Limited as he was in time, to a week ; 
in fpace, to the three or four columns of the Saturday 
folio : he was dill more limited hy the capacity, tade, 
and patience of his readers. Addifon fliows not a little 
art in the way in which, meting out his thought with 
the meafure of his readers* minds, he endeavours rather 
to awaken them from indifference than to exprefs his 
complete obfcrvations. The whole four months' lefTon 

♦ pp. 14. H- 



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Introduilion, 7 

incriticifm muRbe apprehended, as much with reference 
to thofe he was teaching to difcriminate and appreciate, 
as to the fettered expreiTion of the critic's own opinion. 

The accepted flandards in Epic poetry were Homer 
and Vii]gil. All that Addifon tries to do is to per- 
fuade his countrymen to put Milton by their fide. 

Paganifm could not fttmifh out a real A(5lion for a Fable 

S eater than that of the Iliad or jEneid^ and therefore an 
eathen could not form a higher Noticm of a Poem than one 
of that kind, which they call an Heroic. Whether MilUnC% is 
not of a fubliroer Nature I will not prefume to determine, it is 
fuffident that I (hew there is in Paradi/e Loft all the Greatnefs 
of Plan, Regularity of Defign, and maiterly Beauties which we 
difcover in Homer and Virgil, f 

Poffibly it is owing to the then abfence of an equal 
acknowledgment in England of Dante, Addifon's con- 
fequent limitation of purpofe^and the conditions of the 
production of this criticifin, that there is no recogni- 
tion therein of the great Italian Epic poet. 

Thefe papers conflitute a Primer to Paradife Loft. 
Mod (kilfully conflrudled both to intereft and inftruft, 
but (lill a Primer. As the excellent fetting may the 
better difplay the gem of incalculable value : fo may 
Addifon's thought help us to underfland Milton's 
* greatnefs of Soul, which fumifhed him with fuch 
glorious Conceptions.' Let us not flop at the Primer, 
but pais on to a perfonal apprehenfion of the great 
Englifh Epic; in the perfuafion, that in no fpeech 
under heaven, is there a poem of more Sublimity, 
Delight, and Inilrudlion than that which Milton was 
maturing for a quarter of a century : and that there 
is nothing human more wonderful and at the fame 
time more true, than thofe vifions of *the whole 
System of the intelledhial World, the Chaos and the 
Creation ; Heaven, Earth, and Hell ' over which — in 
the deep darknefs of his blindnefs — Milton's ^irit 
fo long brooded, and which at length he revealed to 
Earth in his ailonifhing Poem. 



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BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

ADDISON'S CRITICISM ON MILTON'S 'PARADISE LOST.' 

* Editions not seen* 

The vuioui editioot of Tkt S^ctator are omiued, for want of space, 
because the scarcity of its early issues, prevents an exact list being gives. 
See note on the three earliest issues, at p. to. 

(1) Bsocf (B t^e Sott<r*8 Kfetfme. 

I. A* a serrate pMblicatioH, 

1710. London. Notes on the Twelve Books of Paradise Lost, Col- 

I voL lamo. lected from the Spectator. Written by Mr. Addison. 

(I) Issies 8(BCf t^c SotDsr's l(it|. 

L Ai a te^raU publicaiion. 

I Aug. London. English Reprmt* : see title at p. 1. 

i86». IV0I.8VO. 

II. With ethtr works. 

1 7ai. London. Addison's works [Ed : with Life by T. Tickbll.] The 

^ vols. 4I0. criticism occupies iii. a68-38a. 
17OX. Bmningham. Baskervili* edition, Addison's works. The criticism 

4 vols. 4to. occupies iii. a46-355. 
17M. London. A familiar Exposition of the Poetical Works of 

X vol. 8vo. Milton. To whioi is prefixed Mr. Addison's Criticism 
on ' Paradise Lost' With a preface by the Rev. Mr. 
DoDD. The criticism occupies pp. 1 — 144. 
*i790. Edinburgh. Papers in the Tatler, Spectator, Guardian, and Free- 

4 vols. 8vo. holder, together with his Treatise on the Christian Re- 
ligion, &c Watt. 
1801. London. The Poetical works of John Milton, Ed. by Rbv. 

6 vols. 8vo. H. I. Todd, M.A. ITie criticism occupies i. 34-194. 
1804. London. Selections from the Spectator, Tatler, Guardian, and 

3 vols 8vo. Freeholder. With a preliminary Essay by Anna 
^ , L.BTITIA Barbauld. The criticism occupies ii. 38— 1 70. 

1804. London. Addison's works. Collected by Mr. Tickbll. llie 

6 vols. 8vo. criticism occupies ii. 83-aai. 
181 1. London. Addison's works. With notes by Bp HtfRO. The 

6 vols. 8vo. criticism occupies iv. 78-208. 

1819. London. Second edition of No. 0. The criticism occupies i. 

7 vols. 8vo. 1-153. 

I8a0. London. Third edition of No. 6. The critidani, without quota- 

6 vols. 8vo. tions, occupies il vii.-xcviii. 
1849. London. A new edition of No. 7. The criticiMD occupies 

a vols. «vo. ii. 169—184. 
1856. New York. Addison's works. Ed. by G.W.Gribkb TbccntkiMa 
or _ * vols. 8vo. occupies vL 24-168. 
18 jO. London. Bohn's British Classics. Addison's woika. A new 

6 vsls. 8to. odition of No. 9. The criticism ocatpies Ui. 170-283. 




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Joseph Addison. 
CRITICISM 

ON 

Milton's 
PARADISE LOST. 

From *Tiie SrECTATOR.* 

Three Poets, in three dijlani Ages bortiy 
Greece, Italy, and England did adorn. 
The Firil in loftinejs of thought Surpafid^ 
The Next in Majejly; in both the Laft. 
The force of Nature cotid no farther goe : 
To make a Thvcdjhejoynd the former two. 

Dryden. Under Milton's pi<5lure in Tonfon's folio 
(the fourth) edition of Paradife Loft^ <Sr*r. 168S, 




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NOTE ON THE EARLY ISSUES OF * THE SPECFATOR.' 
' 1711. No. I of TA^ 5>rr/rti^r appears 'To be Continued every Dar/ 
Mar. X. It is a foolscap folio, printed in two columns on each of lU 
two pages ; advertisements occupying the greater part o( the 
fourth cohimn. The serial continues lor ninety-three weeks. 
\ June I. No. 80 appears. 
^ / Time a. No. 8( appears. 
^ vSepi. 1$. No. 169 appears. 

'Sept 14. No. 170 appears. 

Nor. so. No. 997 aaa the following announcement. "There is now 

Printing by Subscription two Volumes of the SPECTATORS 

2all 11. mi a large character in Octavo ; the Price of the two Vols, well 

Bound aud Gilt two Guineas. Those who are inclined to Subscribe, 

are desired to make their first Payments to Jacob Tonson, Book* 

seller in the Strand ; the Books being so near finished, that ther 

will be ready for the Subscribers ator before Christmas next.** 

VPec. 18. No. 951 appears. 

19. No. aja appears. 

31- No. a63. The pap 

1718. 

fan. <• No. a67. The first paper on Ptfnu/MT Zm/ appears. 

I. No. 869 has this announcement. "The First and Second 



e papers on Milton are announced. 



> 

I Ang.i. 



Volumes of the Spbctator in 8vo are now ready to be de- 

Soft Ct. hvered to the Subscribers, by J. Tonson at Shakespear's Head 
over-against Catherine^treet in the Strand.** 

Jan. I a. No. 373. The second Milton paper appearsL 

18. No. 978 advertises '* This Day is IHibUshed, A rtrj neat 
Pocket Edition of the Spectator, in a Vols. la*. Printed for 

3tl Bl. Sam. Buckley at the Dolphin in Little-Britain, and J. Tonson at 
Shakespear's Head over-against Catherine-street in the Strand.** 

^Jan. 19— Mar. 8. Eight more papers en Paradisg Lost appear. 

* There is no announcement in the Original issue, when Vols. 

Ill and IV were ready for delivery to the subscriben of the first 

2ll %i- two, of which they were issued, with an Index^ as a com- 
pletion. Vol. Ill contains a List of the subscribers to the 
second edition of these earlier numbers of Thg SpectaUr, The 
list contains 40a names, including a laij^e proportion of aristocratic 
titles; and among^er the names of Su- Isaac Newton, Sir Richard 

April f Blackmore, &c. Tlie probability b that as the subscribers would 
naturally complete theur sets, the reprinting would go ona little in 
arrear of the Ori^nal issue, and that these volumes were delivered 
some time in April. The 4 volumes apparently realized J^ificA, 

10. Annoe, c. 18 comes into force. It imposes a Stamp duty 
of an Halfpenny upon every Pamphlet or Paper contained in 
Half a Sheet, and One Shilling upon every printed advertise- 
ment —5'i^t/w/Srrix. 619. This stamp is still seen on many copes. 

Nov. It. No. $35 advertises ''This Day is Publish'd. A very neat 

J 3rK CI. Podcet edition of the 3d and 4th Volumes of the Spectator in la** 

To which is added a compleat Index to the whole4 Volumes. &c.** 

Dec 6. No 55j, Steele announcing, in his own name, the conclusion 
of the series, states, " I have nothins mxxt. to add, but having 
swelled this Work to iii Papers, tney will be disposed into 

2Ri B8> seven Volumes, four of which are already publish'd, and the 
three others in the Press. It will not be demanded of me why 
I now leave off, tho' I must own my self obliged to give an Account 
to the Town of my Time hereafter, since I retire when their Par- 
tiality to me is so great; that an Edition of the former Volumes of 
Spectators of above Nme thousand each Book is already sokl off, 
and the Tax on each half Sheet has brought into the Staro|>- 
Office one Week with another above ao/. a Week arising from this 
single Paper, notwithstanding it at first reduced it to less than 
half the number that was usually Printed before this Tax was 
laid.** He is evidently referring to the original daily issues. 

Two years later, 7VU Sptctator was revived for about six months 
Vni. 1714. June 18-Dec so. Nos 556-«35 are published. 

Six Hl'NDRKO AND THIRTY-PIVI PAPIKi CONSTITUTE 'ThI SpBCTATOS.* 



V 



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Numb. CCLXIL 

The SPECTATOR. 

Nulla venenato Littera miffa yoco eft. Ov. 

{ Satirical Reflexions I avoid. 

Another transladon. 

My paper floivs from nofatiric vein^ 

Contaim no poifon^ and conveys no pain. Adapted } 

Monday^ December 31. 17 11. 

I ThinkmyfelfhighlyobligedtothePublickfor 
their kind Acceptance of a Paper which vifits 
them every Morning, and has in it none of 
thofe Seafonings thatrecommend fo many of 
the Writings which are in vogue among us. 
As, on the one Side, my Paper has not in it a fmgle 
Word of News, a Refledlion in Politicks, nor a Stroke 
of Party ; fo, on the other, there are no fafliionable 
Touches of Infidelity, no obfcene Ideas, no Satyrs 
upon Prieflhood, Marriage, and the like popular 
Topicks of Ridicule; no private Scandal, nor any 
thing that may tend to the Defamation of particular 
Perfons, Families, or Societies. 

There is not one of thefe abovementioned Sub- 
jects that would not fell a very indifferent Paper, 
could I think of gratifying the Publick by fuch mean 
and bafe Methods: But notwithflanding I have re- 
jected every thing that favours of Party, every thing 
that is loofe and immoral, and every thing that might 
create Uneafinefs in the Minds of particular Perfons, 
I find that the Demand for my Papers has encreafed 
every Month fmce their firll Appearance in the World. 
This does not perhaps reflect fo much Honour upon 
my felf, as on my Readers, who give a much greater 
Attention to Difcourfes of Virtue and Morality, than 
ever I expedted, or indeed could hope. 



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12 THE SPECTATOR EXPRESSES HIS SATISFACTION 

When I broke loofe from that great Body of Writers 
who have employed their Wit and Parts in propagating 
Vice and Irreligion, I did not queftionbut I fhould be 
treated as an odd kind of Fellow that had a Mind to 
appear fingular in my Way of Writing : But the general 
Reception I have found, convinces me that the World 
is not fo corrupt as we are apt to imagine ; and that 
if thofe Men of Parts who have been employed in 
viciating the Age had endeavoured to redlify and 
amend it, they needed not to have facrificed their 
good Senfe and Virtue to their Fame and Reputation. 
No Man is fo funk in Vice and Ignorance, but there 
are (lill fome hidden Seeds of Goodnefs and Know- 
ledge in him ; which give him a Relifh of fuch Reflec- 
tions and Speculations as have an Aptnefs in* them* 
to improve the Mind and to make the Heart better. 

I have (hewn in a former Paper, with how much 
Care I have avoided all fuch Thoughts as are loofe, 
obfcene, or immoral ; and I believe my Reader would 
(lill think the better of me, if he knew the Pains I am 
at in qualifying what I write after fuch a Manner, that 
nothing may be interpreted as aimed at private Per- 
fons. For this Reafon when I draw any faulty 
Charadler, I confider all thofe Perfons to whom the 
Malice of the World may poflibly apply it, and take 
care to dafh it with fuch particular Circumllances as 
may prevent all fuch ill-natured Applications. If I 
write any thing on a black Man, I run over in my Mind 
all the eminent Perfons in the Nation who are of that 
Compledlion : When I place an imaginary Name at 
the Head of a Chara6ler, I examine every Syllable 
and Letter of it, that it may not bear any Refemblance 
to one that is real. I know very well the Value which 
every Man fets upon his Reputation, and how painful 
it is to be expofed to the Mirth and Derifion of the 
Publick, and fhould therefore fcom to divert my 
Reader at the Expence of any private Man. 

As I have been thus tender of every particular 
Perfon's Reputation, fo I have taken more than ordi- 



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AT THE RECEPTION OF HIS PAPERS. I3 

nary Care not to give Offence to thofe who appear in 
the higher Figures of Life, I would not make my felf 
merry even with a Piece of Pafteboard that is invefted 
with a publick Character; for which Reafon I have 
never glanced upon the late defigned Proceffion of his 
Holinefs and his Attendants, notwithilanding it might 
have afforded Matter to many ludicrous Speculations. 
Among thofe Advantages which the Publidc may reap 
from this Paper, it is not the leafl, that it draws Mens 
Minds off from the Bittemefs of Party, and fumifhes 
them with Subjedls of Difcourfe that may be treated 
without Warmth or Paffion. This is laid to have been 
the firft Defign of thofe Gentlemen who fet on Foot 
the Royal Sixiety; and had then a very good Effed, 
as it turned many of the greated Genius's of that Age 
to the Difquifitions of natural Knowledge, who, if they 
had engaged in Politicks with the fame Parts and 
Application, might have fet their Country in a Flame. 
The Air-Pump, the Barometer, the Quadrant, and the 
like Inventions, were thrown out to thofe bufy Spirits, 
as Tubs and Barrels are to a Whale, that he may let 
the Ship fail on without Diflurbance, while he diverts 
himfelf with thofe innocent Amufements. 

I have been fo very fcrupulous in this Particular of 
not hurting any Man's Reputation, that I have for- 
bom mentioning even fuch Authors as I could not 
name with Honour. This I mud confefs to have been 
a Piece of very great Self-denial : For as the Publick 
relifhes nothing better than the Ridicule which turns 
upon a Writer of any Eminence, fo there is nothing 
which a Man that has but a very ordinary Talent in 
Ridicule may execute with greater Eafe. One might 
raife Laughter for a Quarter of a Year together upon 
the Works of a Perfon who has publilhed but a very 
few Volumes. For which Reafons I am aflonilhed, 
that thofe who have appeared againd this Paper have 
made fo very little of it The Criticifms which I have 
hitherto publilhed, have been made with an Intention 
rather tc difcover Beauties and Excellencies in the 



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14 ANNOUNCEMENT OF PAPERS ON * PARADISE LOST.* 

Writers of my own Time, than to publifh any of their 
Faults and Imperfedlions. In the mean while I fhould 
take it for a very great Favour from fome of my under- 
hand Detractors, if they would break all Meafures 
with me fo far, as to give me a Pretence for examin- 
ing their Performances with an impartial Eye: Nor 
(hall I look upon it as any Breach of Charity 
to criticife the Author, fo long as I keep clear 
of the Perfon. 

In the mean while, till I am provoked to fuch 
Hoftilities, I fhall from Time to Time endeavour to do 
Juflice to thofe who have didinguifhed themfelves in 
the politer Parts of Learning, and to point out fuch 
Beauties in their Works as may have efcaped the Ob- 
fervation of others. 

As the firll Place among our Englijh Poets is due 
to Milton, and as I have diuwn more Quotations out 
of him than from any other, I fhall enter into a regular 
Criticifm upon his Paradife lofl^ which I (hall publifli 
every Saturday till I have given my Thoughts upon 
that Poem. I fhall not however prefume to impofe 
upon others my own particular Judgmenton this Author, 
but only deliver it as my private Opinion. Criticifm 
is of a very large Extent, and every particular Mafler 
in this Art has his favourite PaiTages in an Author, 
which do not equally flrike the befl Judges. It will 
be fufficient for me if I difcover many Beauties or 
Imperfedlions which others have not attended to, and 
I fhould be very glad to fee any of our eminent Writers 
publifh their Difcoveries on the fame Subje<5t. In 
fhort, I would always be underflood to write my 
Papers of Criticifm in the Spirit which Horace has 
cxpreffed in thofe two famous Lines, 

Si quid novijli re6Hu5 ijtis 

Candidus imperti^fi non his utere nucum. 

If you have made any better Remarks of your own, 
communicate them with Candour ; if not, make ufe 
of thefe I prefent you with. 



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Numb. CCLXVIt 

The SPECTATOR. 

Cedite Romani Scriptores^ cedite Graii, Propert 
{ Giveplace^ ye Roman, and ye Grecian Wits. } 



Saturday, January y 5. 1712. 




[HERE is nothing in Nature fo irkfom[e] 
as general Difcourfes, efpecially when 
they turn chiefly upon Words. For this 
Reafon I fhall wave the Difcuflion of that 
Point which was darted feme Years fince. 
Whether Milton's Faradife Lqfl may be called an 
Heroick Poem ? Thofe who will not give it that Title, 
may call it (if they pleafe) a Divine Poem. It will be 
fufficient to its Perfedlion, if it has in it all the Beau- 
ties of the higheft kind of Poetry ; and as for thofe 
who fay [alledge] it is not an Heroick Poem, they 
advance no more to the Diminution of it, than if they 
fhould (ay Adam is not jEneas^ nor Eve Helen. 

I (hall therefore examine it by the Rules of Epic 
Poetry, and fee whether it falls fhort of the liiad or 
yEneidy in the Beauties which are eflential to that 
kind of Writing. The firft Thing to be confidered 
in an Epic Poem, is the Fable, which is perfedl or 
imperfect, according as the Adlion which it relates 
is more or lefe fo. This A6tion Ihould have three 
Qualifications in it Firft, It ihould be but one 
Adlion. Secondly, It fhould be an entire Action; 
and Thirdly, It Ihould be a great Adlion. To con- 
fider the Adlion of the Iliad^ yEneid, and Faradife 
Loft in thefe three feveral Lights. Homer to pre- 
ferve the Unity of his Adlion haftens into themidft 
of things, as Horace has obferved : Had he gone up 



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I6 TilB FABLE PERFECT OR IMPERFECT AS IS THE ACTION. 

to Ledd^ Egg, or begun much later, even at the Rape 
of Heien^ or the Invefting of Troy^ it is manifeft that 
the Story of the Poem would have been a Series of 
feveral Adlions. He therefore opens his Poem with the 
Difcord of his Princes, and with great Art interweaves 
in the feveral fucceeding parts of it, an account of every 
thing [material] which relates to the Story [them], and 
had paffed before that fatal DiiTenfion. After the fame 
manner /Eneas makes his firfl appearance in the 
Tyrrhene Seas, and within fight of Itaiy^ becaufe the 
A<5lion propofed to be celebrated was that of his 
Settling himfelf in Laiium, But becaufe it was necef- 
fary for the Reader to know what had happened to 
him in the taking of Troy^ and in the preceding parts 
of his Voyage, Virgil makes his Hero relate it by 
way of £pif<xle in the fecond and third Books of the 
/Eneid. The Contents of both which Books come be- 
fore thofe of the firil Book in the Thread of the Story, 
tho* for preferving of this Unity of A<5lion, they follow 
them in the Difpofition of the Poem. Miiion^ in Imita- 
tion of thefe two great Poets, opens his Faradife Lojl 
with an Infernal Council plotting the Fall of Man, 
which is the Adtion he propofed to celebrate ; and as 
for thofe great Adlions, which preceded in point of 
time, the Battel of the Angels, and the Creation of 
the World, (which would have entirely deilroyed the 
Unity of his Principal Action, had he related them in 
the fame Order that they happened) he cafl them into 
the fifth, fixth and feventh Books, by way of Epifode 
to this noble Poem. 

AriJloiU himfelf allows, that Homer has nothing to 
boaR of as to the Unity of his Fable, tho* at the fame 
time that great Critick and Philofopher endeavours 
to palliate this Imperfedlion in the Greek Poet, by 
imputing it in fome Meafure to the very Nature of an 
Epic Poem. Some have been of Opinion, that the 
iEneid labours alfo in this particular, and has Epifodes 
which may be looked upon as Excrefcencies rather 
than as Parts of the Adion. On the contrary, the 



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THE ACTION MtTST M ONE, BNTHll, AWD OUAT. I7 

Poem which we have now under our Confideration, 
hath no other Epifodes than fuch as naturally arife 
from the Subjedt, and yet is filled with fuch a multi- 
tude of afloniftung Circumllances [Incidents], that it 
gives us at the Demae time a Pleafure of the greateil 
Variety, and of the greateft Simplicity, {uniform in its 
Nature, though diverfified in the Execution.} 

I mud obferve alfo, that as Virgil \n the Poem which 
was defigned to celebrate the Original of the Roman 
Ehnpire, has defcribed the Birth of its great Rival, the 
Carthaginian Commonwealth. Milton with the like 
Art in his Poem on the Fall of Man, has related the 
Fall of thofe Angels who are his profeffed Enemies. 
Befides the many other Beauties in fuch an Epifode, if s 
running Parallel with the great Action of the Poem, hin- 
ders it from breaking the Unity fo much as another Epi- 
fode would have done, that had not fo great an Affinity 
with the principal Subjeft. In fhort, this is the feme 
kind of Beauty which the Criticks admire in the Spanijh 
Fryar^ or the Double Difcovery^ where the two different 
Plots look like Counterparts and Copies of one another. 

The fecond Qualification required in the Adtion 
of an Epic Poem is, that it fhould be an entire 
Aftion : An A6lion is entire when it is compleat 
in all its Parts ; or as Arijhtle defcribes it, when it 
confUls of a Beginning, a Middle, and an End. 
Nothing fhould go before it, be intermix'd with it, 
or follow after it, that is not related to it As on 
the contrary, no fingle Step fhould be omitted in that 
juft and regular Progrefe [Procefs] which it mud be fup- 
pofed to take from its Original to its Confummation. 
Thus we fee the Anger of Achilles in its Birth, its 
Continuance and Effiedls; and jEneai% Settlement 
in Italy^ carried on through all the Oppofitions in 
his way to it both by Sea and Land. The AdUon 
in Milion excels (I think) both the former in 
this particular; we fee it contrived in Hell, exe- 
cuted upon Earth, and punilhed by Heaven. The 
parts of it are told in the moft diftindt manner, 

B 



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l8 THE ACTION MUST NOT ONLY BS OKEAT 

and grow out of one another in the moft natural 
Method. 

The third Qualification of an Epic Poem is its 
Greatnefs, The Anger of AchiUes was of fuch Con- 
sequence, that it embroiled the ELings of Greece^ de(> 
tro/d the Heroes of Troy^ and engaged all the Gods 
in Fadlions. jEne€Li% Settlanent in Italy produced 
the Cafarsy and gave Birth to the Roman Empire. 
Milton's Subjedl was Aill greater than either of the 
former; it does not determine the Fate of fingle 
Perfons or Nations, but of a whole Species. The 
united Powers of Hell are joyned together for the 
Defljudlion of Mankind, which they effeiSed in part, 
and would have completed, had not Omnipotence 
it felf interpofed. The principal Adlors are Man 
in his greatefl Perfections and Woman in her higheil 
Beauty. Their Ekiemies are the Men Angels : The 
Mefliah their Friend, jmd the Almighty their Prote^or. 
In fhort, every thing that is great in the whole Circle 
of Being, whether within the Verge of Nature, or out 
of it, has a proper Part afligned it in this noble Poem. 

In Poetiy, as in Archite<5lure, not only the whole, 
but the principal Members, and every part of them, 
fhould be Great I will not prefume to fay, that the 
Book of Games in the ^ndd^ or that in the Iliad^ are 
not of this nature, nor to reprehend VirgiFs Simile of 
a Top, and many other of the fame nature in the 
Iliady as liable to any Cenfure in this Particular ; but 
I think we may lay, without offence to [derogating 
from] thofe wonderful Performances, that there is an 
unqueftionable Magnificence in every Part of Para- 
dife Lojl^ and indeed a much greater than could have 
been formed upon any Pagan Syflem. 

But AriJlotUy by the Greatnefs of the AcSlion, does 
not only mean that it fhould be great in its Nature, 
but alfo in its Duration, or in other Words, that it 
fliould have a due length in it, as well as what we 
properly call Greatnefs. The jufl Meafure of this 
kind of Magnitude, he explains by the following 



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IN ITS NATURE, BUT IN ITS DURATION. 19 

Similitude. An Animal^ no bigger than a Mite, can- 
not appear perfedl to the Eye, becaufe the Sight takes 
it in at once, and has only a confufed Idea of the 
whole, and not a didindl Idea of all its Parts ; If on 
the. contrary you fhould fuppofe an Animal of ten 
thoufand Furlongs in length, the Eye would be fo 
filled with a fingle Part of it, that it could not give the 
Mind an Idea of the whole. What thefe Animals 
are to the Eye, a very fliort or a very long Action 
would be to the Memory. The firft would be, as it 
were, loft and fwallowed up by it, and the other 
difficult to be contained in it. Homer and Vit^l have 
(hewn their principal Art in this Particular; the A<5lton 
of the Iliad^ and that of the jEneid^ were in themfelves 
exceeding Ihort, but are fo beautifully extended and 
diverfified by thd Intervention [Invention] of Epifodes^ 
and the Machinery of Gods, with the like Poetical Orna- 
ments, that they make up an agreeable Story fufficient 
to employ the Memory without overcharging it Mil- 
ton's Action is enriched with fuch a variety of Cir- 
cumftanceSy that I have taken as much Pleafure in 
reading the Contents of his Books, as in the bed 
invented Story I ever met with. It is poffible, that 
the Traditions on which the liiad and ^Eneid were 
built, had more Circumflances in them than the 
Hiftory of the Fall of Man, as it is related in Scrij)- 
ture. Befides it was eafier for Homer and Virgil to 
dafli the Truth with Fi6lion, as they were in no 
danger of offending the Religion of their Country by 
it. But as for MUton, he had not only a very few 
Circumllances upon which to raife his Poem, but was 
alfo obliged to proceed with the greatefl Caution in 
every thing that he added out of his own Invention. 
And, indeed, notwithflanding all the Reflraints he was 
under, he has filled his Story with fo many furprifing 
Incidents, which bear fo clofe an Analogy with what 
is delivered in Holy Writ, that it is capable of pleafing 
the mod delicate Reader, without giving Oflence to 
the mod fcrupulous. 



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to THS ACTION NOT LIMITSD TO ANY PARTICULAR TIMS. 

The Modem Criticks have collefted from feveral 
Hints in the Iliad and jEneid the Space of Time, 
which is taken up by the Action of each of thofe 
Poems ; but as a great Part of MUtorfs Stoiy was 
traniadled in Regions that lie out of the reach of the 
Sun and the Sphere of Day, it is impolTible to gratifie 
the Reader with fuch a Calculation, which indeed 
would be more curious than inllrudlive ; none of the 
Criticks, either Ancient or Modem, having laid down 
Rules to drcumfcribe the Action of an Epic Poem 
with any determined number of Years, Days, or Hours, f 

This fiece of Critidfm on MiltonV Paradife I<oft| 
JhaU hi carried on infoilowing [Saturdays] Paparu 

tSMp.t||. 




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Numb. CCLXXIIL 

The SPECTATOR. 



'NotandifufU HH Mores. Hor. 



{Note well the Manners.} 



--Saturday^ January la. 1713. 




WING examined the Adlion of Paradife 
Lojl^ let us in the next place confider the 
Adlors. Thefe are what ^r^/i> means by 
[This is AriJlotUs Method of confidering ; 
nrfl] the Fable, and [fecondly] the Man- 
ners, or, as we generally call them in Et^lijh^ the 
Fable and the Charadlers. 

Honur has excelled all the Heroic Poets that evei 
wrote, in the multitude and variety of his Characters. 
Every God that is admitted into his Poem, adts a 
Part which would have been fuitable to no other 
Deity. His Princes are as much diflinguifhed by 
their Manners as by their Dominions \ and even thofe 
among them, whofe Chaiadlers feem wholly made up 
of Courage, differ from one another as to the particu- 
lar kmds of Courage in which they excelL In Ihort, 
there is fcarce a Speech or Action in the lUad^ which 
the Reader may not afcribe to the Perfon that fpeaks 
or a6ls, without feeing his Name at the Head of it 

Homer does not oiSy out-(hine all other Poets in the 
Variety, but alfo in tiie Novelty of his Charadlers. 
He has introduced among his Gradan Princes a Per- 
fon, who had lived thrice the Age of Man, and con- 
verfed with Thefeus^ Hercules^ Polyphemus^ and the fird 
Race of Heroes. His principal A6lor is the Off-fpring 
[Son] of a Goddefs, not to mention the Son [Ofif- 
ipring] oi Aurora [[other Deities], who has [have] like- 
wife a Place in his Poem, and the venerable Trojan 
Prince, who was the Father of fo many Kings and 
Heroes. There is in thefe feveral Characters of Homer » 



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22 CHARAC FERS OF ROMSR, VIRGII^ AND MILTON COMPARED. 

a certain Dignity as well as Novelty, which adapts them 
in a more pecuhar manner to the Nature of an Heroic 
Poem. Tho', at the fame time, to give them the greater 
variety, he has defcribed a Vulcan^ that is, a Buffoon 
among his Gods, and a TfierfiUs among his Mortals. 

Virgil falls infinitely fliort of Homer in the Cha- 
raders of his Poem, both as to their Variety and 
Novelty, j^neas is indeed a perfe6l Charadler, but 
as for Achates^ tho' he is filled the Hero's Friend, he 
does nothing in the whole Poem which may deferve 
that Title. Gyas^ Mtujleiis^ Sergejlus^ and Cloanthus^ are 
all of them Men of the fame Stamp and Character, 

Fortemque Gyan^fortemque Cloanthum [Viig.] 

There are indeed feveral very natural Incidents in 
the Part of A/canius ; as that of Dido cannot be fufli- 
ciently admired. I do not fee any thing new or 
particular in Ihmus, Pallas and Evander are [remote] 
Copies of Heilor and Priam^ as Laufus and Mezmtius 
are almofl Parallels to Pallas and Evander. The 
Chara6lers of Nifus and Eurialus are beautiful, but 
commoa [We mufl not forget the Parts of Sifwn^ 
Camillay and fome few others, which are beautiful 
Improvements on the Greek Poet] In fhort, there is 
neither that Variety nor Novelty in the Perfons of the 
^nddy which we meet with in thofe of the Iliad, 

If we look into the Chara6lers of Milton^ we fhall 
find that he has introduced all the Variety that his Poem 
was capable of receiving. The whole Species of 
Mankind was in two Perfons at the time to which 
the Subje<5l of his Poem is confined. We have, how- 
ever, four diflin<5lChara<flers in thefe two Perfons. We fee 
Man and Woman in the highefl Innocence and Perfec- 
tion, and in the mofl abjedl State of Guilt and Infirmity. 
The two lafl Chara6lers are, indeed, very common and 
obvious, but the two firfl are not only more magnificent, 
but more new than any Charadlers either in Virgil or 
Horner^ or indeed in the whole Circle of Nature. 

Milton was fo fenfible of this Defe<5l in the Subjed 
of his Poem, and of the few Charaders it would aflford 



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ALLEGORICAL CHARACTERS NOT PROPER TO AN EPIC 13 

him, that he has brought into it two A<5lors of a Shadowy 
and Fictitious Nature, in the Perfons of Sin and Death, 
by which means he has interwoven in the Body of his 
Fable a very beautiful and well invented Allegory. But 
notwithftanding the Finenefs of this Allegory may a- 
tone for it in fome meafure; I cannot think that Perfons 
of fuch a Chymerical Exiflence are proper A6lors in an 
Epic Poem ; becaufe there is not that meafure of Pro- 
bability annexed to them, which is requiiite in Writings 
of this kind, [as I ihall (hew more at laige hereafter.] 

Virgii has, indeed, admitted Fame as an A6trefs m 
the /Eneid^ but the Part ihe a<5ls is very ihort, and 
none of the mod admired Circumftances in that 
Divine Work. We find in Mock-Heroic Poems, par- 
ticularly in the Difpenfary and the Lutrin^ feveral 
Allegorical Perfons of this Nature, which are very 
beautifid in thofe Compofitions, and may, perhaps, be 
ufed as an Argument, that the Authors of them were 
of Opinion, that * fuch Charadlers might have a Place in 
an Epic Work. For my own part, I Ihould be glad the 
Reader would think fo, for the lake of the Poem I 
am now examining, and mufl further add, that if fuch 
empty unfubdantial Beings may be ever made ufe of 
on this occafion, there were never any more nicely 
imagined, and employed in more proper Actions, than 
thofe of which I am now fpeaking.f 

Another Principal Adlor in this Poem is the great 
Enemy of Mankind. The part of Ulyffes in Homer^s 
Odyffey is very much admired by AriJlotU^ as per- 
plexing that Fable with very agreeable Plots and In- 
tricacies, not only by the many Adventures in his 
Voyage, and the Subtilty of his Behaviour, but by the 
various Concealments and Difcoveries of his Perfon in 
feveral parts of that Poem. But the Crafty Being I 
have now mentioned, makes a much longer Voyage than 
Ulyffes^ puts in pra6tice many more Wiles and Strata- 
gems, and hides himfelf under a greater variety of 
Shapes and Appearances, all of which are feverally de- 
tected, to the great Delight and Surprize of the Reader. 



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24 THE PRINCIPAL ACTORS IN AN EPIC POEM SHOULD 

We may likewife obferve with how much Art the Poet 
has varied feveral Chara6lers of the Perfons that fpeak 
in his infernal Aflembly. On the contrary, how has he 
reprefented the whole Godhead exerting it felf towards 
Man in its full Benevolence under the Three-fold Dif- 
tindtion of a Creator, a Redeemer and a Comforter ! 

Nor mud we omit the Perfon of Raphael^ who 
amidll his Tendemefs and Friendihip for Man, fhews 
fuch a Dignity and Condefcention in all his Speech and 
Behaviour, as are fuitable to a Superior Nature. [The 
Angels are indeed as much diveriified in Milton^ and 
diilinguiihed by their proper Parts, as the Gods are in 
Homer or Virgil, TTie Reader will find nothing afcribed 
to Uriely Gabriel^ Michad^ or Raphael^ which is not in 
a particular manner fuitable to their refpedlive Cha- 
ra6lers.] 

There is another Circumilance in the principal Adlors 
of the Iliad and ^neid^ which gives a particular [pecu- 
liar] Beauty to thofe two Poems, and was therefore con- 
trived with very great Judgment I mean the Authors 
having chofen for their Heroes Perfons who were fo 
nearly related to the People for whom they wrote. 
Achilles was a Greeks and jEneas the remote Founder 
of Rome, By this means their Countrymen ^whom they 
principally propofed to themfelves for then: Readers) 
were particularly attentive to all the jjarts of their Story, 
and fympathized with their Heroes in all their Adven- 
tures. A Roman could not but rejoice in the Efcapes, 
Succeffes and Vi<5lories of jEneas^ and be grieved at any 
Defeats, Misfortunes, or Difappointments that befel 
him ; as a Grtek mud have had the fame regard for 
Achilles. And it b plain, that each of thofe Poems have 
lod this great Advantage, among thofe Readers to whom 
their Heroes are as Strangers, or indiflferent Perfons. 

Milton's Poem is admirable in this refpedl, fince it 
is impofiible for any of its Readers, whatever Nation, 
Country or People he may belong to, not to be re- 
lated to the Perfons who are the principal Adlors in 
it ; but what is dill infinitely more to its Advantage, 
the principal Adlors in this Poem are not only our 



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DB RELATED TO ITS INTENDED READERS. 2$ 

Progenitors, but our Reprefentatives. We have an 
actual Interefl in every thing they do, and no lels 
than our utmoll Happinefs or ♦Mifery* is concerned, 
and lies at Stake in all their Behaviour. 

I (hall fubjoyn as a Corollary to the foregoing Re- 
mark, an admirable Obfervation out of Arifiotle^ which 
hath been very much mifreprefented in the Quota- 
tions of fome Modem Criticks. * If a Man of perfedl 

* and confummate Virtue falls into a Misfortune, it 

* raifes our Pity, but not our Terror, becaufe we do 

* not fear that it may be our own Cafe, who do 

* not refemble the Suflfering Perfon. But as that great 
PhDofopher adds, * If we fee a Man of Virtues mixt 

* with Infirmities, fall into any Misfortune, it does not 

* only raife our Pity but our Terror; becaufewe are afraid 
' that the like Misfortunes may happen to our felves, 

* who refemble the Charadler of the Suflfering Perfon. 

I (ball take another Opportunity to obferve, that 
a Perfon of an abfolute and confummate Virtue fhould 
never be introduced in Tragedy, and (hall only remark 
in this Place,that this [the foregoing] Obfervation oiArif- 
tofleyHtio' it maybe true in other Occafions, does not hold 
in this; becaufe in the prefent Cafe, though the Perfons 
who fall into Misfortune are of the moil p^e<5l and con- 
fummate Virtue, it is not to be confidered as what may 
poflibly be, but what actually is our own Cafe; fince 
we are embark'd with them on the fame Bottom, and 
mud be Partakers of their Happinefs or Mifery. 

In this, and fome other very few Inflances, AriJlotU% 
Rules for Epic Poetry (which he had drawn fit)m his Re- 
flections upon Homer) cannot be fuppofed to quadrate 
exa6tly with the Heroic Poems which have been made 
fince his Time; as it is plain his Rules would have been 
ftill more perfe6t, cou*d he have perufed the jEneid 
which was made fome hundred Years after his Death. 

In my next IJhallgo through other parts of MiltonV 
Poem; and hope that what I Jhall there advance^ as well 
as what I have already written^ will not onlyferve as a 
Comment upon Milton^ hit upon Ariflotle. 



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Numb. CCLXXIX. 

The SPECTATOR. 

Reddere ptrfona fcit convmientia cuique. Hor 

{He knows what bejl befits each CharaHer.] * 

Saturday ^ January 19. 17 12. 



|£ have already taken a general Survey of 
the Fable and Charadlers in Milton's 
Paradife Lojl : The Parts which remain to 
be confider'd, according to Arijlotlis 
Method, are the Sentiments and the Lan- 
guage. Before I enter upon the firfl of thefe, I muft 
advertife my Reader, that it is my Defign as foon as I 
have finilhed my general Refle<5lions on thefe four 
feveral Heads, to give particular Inllances out of the 
Poem which is now before us of Beauties and Im- 
perfeftions which may be obferved under each of them, 
as aUb of fuch other Particulars as may not properly 
fall under any of them. This I thought fit to premife, 
that the Reader may not judge too haflily of this 
Piece of Criticifm, or look upon it as Imperfedl, 
before he has feen the whole Extent of it 

The Sentiments in an [all] Epic Poem are the 
Thoughts and Behaviour which the Author afcribes to 
the Perfons whom he introduces, and zxtjujl when 
they are conformable to the Chara<flers of the feveral 
Perfons. The Sentiments have likewife a relation to 
ITiings as well as Perfons^ and are then perfect when 
they are fuch as are adapted to the Subjedl. If in either 
of thefe Cafes the Poet argues, or explains, magnifies 
or diminiflies, raifes Love or Hatred, Pity or Terror, 
or any other Paflion, we ought to confider whether 
the Sentiments he makes ufe of are proper for thefe 
[their] Ends. Homer is cenfured by the Criticks foi 



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THE SENTIMENTS KlCST BE BOTH NATURAL AND SUBLIME. 2^ 

his Defedl as to this Particular in feveral parts of the 
Iliad and Odyffeyy tho* at the lame time thofe who 
have treated Uiis great Poet with Candour, have attr> 
buted this Defe£t to the Times in which he lived. It 
was the fault of the Age, and not of Horner^ if there 
wants that Delicacy in fome of his Sentiments, which 
appears in the Works of Men of a much inferior 
Genius. Befides, if there are £lemi(hes in any parti- 
cular Thoughts, there is an incite Beauty in the 
greateft part of them. In fhort, if there are many 
Poets who wou'd not have fallen into the mea[n]nefs of 
fome of his Sentiments, there are none who cou'd have 
iife[n] up to the Greatnefs of others. Virgil has ex- 
celled all others in the Propriety of his Sentiments. 
Milton ihines likewife very much in this Particular: 
Nor mufl we omit one Confideration which adds to 
his Honour and Reputation. Homer and Virgil intro- 
duced Perfons whofe Characters are commonly known 
among Men, and fuch as are to be met witii either 
in Hiflory, or in ordinary Converfation. Miltori^ Cha- 
radters, moil of them, fie out of Nature, and were to 
be formed purely by his own Invention. It (hews a 
greater Genius in Shakefpear to have drawn his Caly- 
ban^ than his Hotfpur or Julius Cafar : The one was 
to be fupplied out of his own Imagination, whereas 
the other might have been formed upon Tradition, 
Hillory and Obfervation. It was mudi eafier there- 
fore for Homer to find proper Sentiments for an Af- 
fembly of Grecian Generals, than for Milton to di- 
verfifie his Infernal Council with proper Chara6lers, 
and infpire them with a variety ol Sentiments. The 
Loves of Dido and ^neas are only Copies of what 
' has pafifed between other Perfons. Adam and Eve^ 
before the Fall, are a different Species from that of 
Mankind, who are defcended from them; and none 
but a Poet of the moil unbounded Invention, and the 
mofl exquifite Judgment, cou'd have filled their Con- 
verfation and Behaviour with fuch Beautiful Circimi* 
ftances during their State of Innocence. 



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28 APFSCTRD AND UNNATURAL, MEAN AND 

Nor is it fufficient for an Epic Poem to be filled 
ivith fuch Thoughts as are Natural^ unleis it abound 
alfo with fuch as are Sublime, VirgU in this Particular 
falls Ihort of Homer. He has not indeed fo many 
Thoughts that are Low and Vulgar ; but at the fame 
time has not fo many Thoughts that are Sublime and 
Noble. The truth of it is, Virgil feldom rifes into 
very allonilhing Sentiments, where he is not fired 
by the Iliad. He every where charms and pleafes us 
by the force of his own Genius ; but feldom elevates 
and tranfports us where he does not fetch his Hints 
from Homer. 

Miltoris chief Talent, and indeed his diflinguifhing 
Excellence, lies m the Sublimity of his Thoughts. 
There are others of the Modems who rival him in 
every other part of Poetry ; but in the greatnels of 
his Sentiments he triumphs over all the Poets both 
Modem and Ancient, Homer only excepted. It is im- 
poflible for the Imagination of Man to diflend it felf 
with greater Ideas, than thofe which he lias laid to- 
gether in his firft, [fecond,] and fixth* [tenth! Book[s]. 
The feventh, which defcribes the Creation of the World, 
is likewife wonderfully Sublime, tho' not fo apt to ftir 
up Emotion in the Mind of tne Reader, nor confe- 
quently fo perfedl in the Epic way of Writing, be- 
caufe it is filled with lefe Adlion. Let the Reader 
compare what Longinus has obferved on feveral Paf- 
fages of Homer, and he will find Parallels for mod of 
them in the Paradife Lojl, 

From what has been (laid we may infer, that as there 
are two kinds of Sentiments, the Natural and the 
Sublhne, which are always to be purfued in an Heroic 
Poem, there are alfo two kinds of Thoughts which 
are carefiiUy to be avoided. The firft are fuch as' are 
affedled and imnatural ; t^e fecond fuch as are mean 
and vulgar. As for the firll kind of Thoughts we 
meet with little or nothing that is like them in Virgil \ 
He has none of thofe little Points and Puerilities 
Uiat ara fo often to be met with in Ovid^ none of the 



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LOW THOUGHTS ARE TO BK AVOIDED. 89 

Epigiammatick Turns of Lucan^ none of thofe fwelling 
Sentiments which are fo frequentpy] in Statius and 
Claudiafty none of thofe mixed £mbelli(hments of 
Tqffb, Eveiything is jufl and natural His Sentiments 
(hew that he had a perfedl Infight into Human Natiure, 
and that he knew every thing which was the moil 
proper to affedl it ♦! remember but one Line in him 
which has been objeAed againfl, by the Criticks, as 
a point of Wit. It is in his ninth Book, where ^unc 
fpeaking of the Trcjans^ how they furvived the Ruins of 
their City, expreffes her felf in tie following Words ; 

Num capti potuere capi^ num incmfa cremcwufU 
Pergama 9 

IVere the Trojans taken even after they were Captives^ 
or did TVoy bum even when it was in JFIamesf 

Mr. Dryden has in fome Places, which I may here- 
after take notice of, mifreprefented VirgiPs way of 
thinking as to this Particular, in the Tranilation he 
has given us of the jEneid I do not remember that 
Homer any where falls into the Faults above men- 
tioned, which were indeed the falfe Refinements of 
later Ages. Milton^ it mull be confefl, has fometimes 
erred in this RefpeA, as I fhall fhew more at large in 
another Paper; tho' confidering how all the Poets of 
the Age in which he writ, were infeAed with this 
wrong way of thinking, he is rather to be admired 
that he did not give more into it, than that he did fome- 
times comply with that [the] vicious Tafle which pre- 
vails fo much among Modem Writers. 

But fince feveral Thoughts may be natural which 
are low and groveling, an Epic Poet fhould not only 
avoid fuch Sentiments as are unnatural or affe6ted, but 
•Ifo fuch as are low and vulgar. Homer has opened 
a great Field of Raillery to Men of more Delicacy 
than Greatnefs of Genius, by the Horaelinefs of fome 
of his Sentiments. But, as I have before faid, thefe 

* From ' I remember' to * Flamtsf omitted in second edition. 



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30 SENTIMENTS EXCITING LAUGHTER SHOULD BE EXCLUDED. 

are rather to be imputed to the Simplicity of the Age 
in which he lived, to whidi I may alfo add, of that 
which he defcribed, than to any Imperfection in that 
Divine Poet Zoilus^ among the Ancients, and Mon- 
fieur Pcrrault^ among the Modems, pufhed their Ridi- 
cule very far upon him, on account of fome fuch Senti- 
ments. There is no Blemiih to be obferved in Vir^ 
under this Head, and but very few in MUtotu 

I (hall give but one Inflance of this Impropriety of 
Sentiments in Horner^ and at the fame time compare it 
with an Inftance of the lame nature, both in Virgil 
and Milton, Sentiments which raife Laughter, can 
very feldom be admitted with any decency into an 
Heroic Poem, whofe Bufinefs it* is to excite Paffions of 
a much nobler Nature. Horner^ however, in his Cha- 
ra<5lers of Vulcan and Therfites^ in his Story of Mars 
and Venus^ in his Behaviour of Irus^ and in other Paf- 
fages, has been obferved to have lapfed into the Bur- 
lefque Chara<5ter, and to have departed from that 
ferious Air which feems elfential to the Magnificence 
of an Epic Poem. I remember but one Laugh in the 
whole ^neid, which rifes in the Fifth Book upon 
MonateSy where he is reprefented as thrown overboard, 
and drying himfelf upon a Rock. But this Piece of 
Mirth is fo well timed, that the feverefl Critick can 
have nothing to fay againfl it, for it is in the Book of 
Games and Diverfions, where the Reader's Mind may 
be fuppofed to be fufficiently relaxed for fuch an En- 
tertainment The only Piece of Pleafantry in Fara- 
dife Lojly is where the Evil Spirits are defcribed as 
rallying the Angels upon the Succefs of their new 
invented Artillery. This Paffage I look upon to be 
the filliefl [mofl exceptionable] in the whole Poem, 
as being nothing elfe but a firing of Punns, and thofe 
too very indiflferent ones. 

-Satan beheld their Paght^ 



And to his Mates thus in dcrifun* caird. 

O Friends^ why cofue not on theje Vigors proud/ 



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THS ONLY PIXCB OV PLSASANTRY IN 'PARADISE LOST.' $1 

Eer while theyfi^ce were comings and wheti we. 

To entertain than fair with open Front, 

And Breajl^ {what could we more) propounded terms 

Of Compofition,firaight they changed their Minds^ 

Flew oi^ and intofirange Vagaries fell^ 

4s they would dance^ yet for a Dance theyfeettCd 

Somewhat extravagant ^ and wild ^perhaps 

For Joy of offered Peace; but Ifuppofe 

If our Fropofals once again were heard, 

Wejhould compel them to a quick Refult 

To whom thus Belial in like gamefome mood. 
Leader^ the Terms wefent^ were Terms of weight, 
Cyhard Contents, and full of force urg'd home^ 
Such as we might perceive amus'd them all^ 
And Humbled many ; who receives them rights 
Had need^from Head to Footy well underftand ; 
Not undeillood, this Gift they have befides, 
Theyfhetv us when our Foes walk not upright 

Thus they among themfelves inpleafcmt vein 
Stood fcoffing 




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Numb. CCLXXXV. 

The SPECTATOR. 



Ne quicunque Deus^ quicunque adhibebitur heraSf 

Regali confpedlus in auro nuper &* ojlro^ 

Migrd in Obf euros hutnili fermone tabemas: 

Aut dum vitaf humum^ nubes &• inania captet. Hor. 

\But then they did not wrong themfelvesfo much^ 

To make a God^ a Hero^ or a King 

{Stript of his golden Crown^ and purple Robe) 

Defcend to a Mechanick DtaleSl; 

Nor {to avoid fuch Meannefs) f oaring high^ 

With empty Sounds and airy Notions^ fly, 

Rofcommon.) 

Saturday y January 26. 171a. 




I WING already treated of the Fable, the 
Charadlers, and Sentiments in the Paradife 
Lofls we Are in the lad place to confider 
the Language ; and as die learned World 
is very much divided upon Milton as to 
this Pointy I hope they will excufe me if I appear 
particular in any of my Opinions, and encline to thofe 
who judge the mod advantagioufly of the Author. 

It is requiiite that the Language of an Heroic 
Poem fhould be both Perfpicuous and Sublime. In 
proportion as either of thefe two Qualities are want- 
ing, the Language is imperfe<Si Perfpicuity Is the 
fiild and moil neceilary Qualification ; infomuch, that 
a good-natured Reader fometimes overlooks a little 
Slip even in the Gnunmar or Syntax, where it is im- 
polTible for him to miilake the Poet* s Secfe. Of this 
kind is that Palliaige in Milton^ wherein he fpe&ks 
of Satan. 



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TRB LANOUAOB mOUU) BB PERSPICUOUS AND SUBLIMB. 33 

God and his San exce^^ 

Created thing nought valiid hi narJhumCd. 

And that in which he defcribes Adam and Evt, 

Adam the goodlieft Man of Menftnce bom 
His Sons^ thefaireji of her Daughters Eve. 

It is plain, that in the fonner of thefe Paflages, ac- 
cording to the natural Syntax, the Divine Perfons 
mentioned in the fird Line are reprefented as created 
Beings ; and that in the other, Adam and Eve are con- 
founded with their Sons and Daughters. Such little 
Blemiihes as thefe, when the Thought is great and 
natural, we ihould, with Horace^ impute to a pardon- 
able Inadvertency, or to the Weaknefe of Human 
Nature, which cannot attend to each minute Parti- 
cular, and give the lad finifhing to every Circumftance 
in fo long a Work. The Ancient Criticks therefore, 
who were a£ted by a Spirit of Candour, rather than 
that of Cavilling, invented certain figures of Speech, 
on purpofe to palliate little Errors of this nature in 
the Writings of thofe Authors, who had fo many greater 
Beauties to atone for them. 

If Cleameis and Perfpicuity were only to be con- 
fulted, the Poet would have nothing elfe to do but to 
cloath his Thoughts in the moil plam and natural Ex- 
prelTions. But, fmce it often happens, that the mod 
obvious Phrafes, and thofe which are ufed in ordinary 
Converfation, become too familiar to the Ear, and 
contradl a kind of Meannefs by palling through the 
Mouths of the Vulgar, a Poet Ihould toke particular 
care to guard himfelf againil Idiomatick ways of 
fpeaking. Ovid and Lucan have many Poomefles of 
Expredion upon this account, as taking up with the 
firfl Phrafes that offered, without putting themfelves 
to the trouble of looking after fuch as would not only 
have been natural, but alfo elevated and fublime. 
Milton has but few Failings in this kind, of which, 
c 



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34 A SUBUMK STYLB MAY BE POKMED BY 

however, you may fee an Inftance or two [meet with 
fome Inflances, as] in the following PaiTages. 

Embrids and Idiots^ Eremites and Fryars 
White, Black, and Grey, with all their Trumpery, 

Here Pi^rims roam 

■ Awhile Difcourfe they hold^ 

No fear leR Dinner cool ; when thus b^an 

Our Author 

Who of all Ages tofucceed^ but feeling 
The Evil on him brought by me^ ivitt curfe 
My Heady ill fare our Anceflor impure^ 
For this we may thank Adam 

The great Maders in Compoiition know very well 
that many an elegant Fhrafe becomes improper for a 
Poet or an Orator, when it has been debafed by com- 
mon ufe. For this reafon the Works of Ancient 
Authors, which are written in dead Languages, have a 
great Advantage over thofe which are written in Lan- 
guages that are now fpoken. Were there any mean 
Phrafes or Idioms in Firgil and Homer^ they would not 
(hock the Ear of the mo^ delicate Modem Reader, fo 
much as they would have done that of an old Greek 
or I^oman, becaufe we never hear them pronounced 
in our Streets, or in ordinary Converlation. 

It is not therefore fufficient, that the Language of 
an Epic Poem be Perfpicuous, .unlefs it be alfo Sub- 
lime. To this end it ought to deviate from the com- 
mon Forms and ordinary Phrafes of Speech. The 
Judgment of a Poet very much difcovers it felf in 
fhunning the common Roads of Expreflion, without 
falling into fuch ways of Speech as may feem fUflf and 
unnatural ; he muft not fwell into a falfe Sublime, by 
endeavouring to avoid the other Extream. Among 
the Greeks^ Efchylus^ and fometimes Sophocles^ were 
guilty of this Fault ; among the Latins^ Claudian and 
Statius', and among our own Countrymen, Shakefpear 
and Lee, In thefe Authors the Aife6lation of Great- 
nefs often hurts the Perfpicuity of the Stile, as in 



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08TNG MKTAPHOHS, FOREIGN IDIOMS, ETC 35 

many others the Endeavour after Perfpicuity prejudices 
its Greatnefs. 

AriftotU has obferved, that the Idiomatick Stile may 
be avoided, and the Sublime formed, by the following 
Methods. Firfl, by the ufe of Metaphors, like thofe 
of Milton. 

Imparadis'd in one anothers Arms^ 

And in his Hand a Reed 

Stood waving tipt with Fire; 

Thegra^ Clods now calVd. 

In thefeandfeveral [innumerable] other Inftances, the 
Metaphors are very bold but beautiful ; I mud however 
obferve, that the Metaphors are not thick fown in Milton^ 
which alwa3rs favours too much of Wit; that they 
never clafh with one another, which as Arifiotle ol> 
ferves, turns a Sentence into a kind of an Enigma or 
Riddle; and that he feldom makes ufe of them 
where the proper and natural Words will do as well. 

Another way of raifing the Language, and giving it 
a Poetical Turn, is to make ufe of the Idioms of other 
Tongues. Virgil is foil of the Greek Forms of Speech, 
whidi the Criticks call Jlellenifms, as Horace in his 
Odes abounds with them much more than Virgil, I 
need not mention the feveral Dialc<5fa which Homer 
has made ufe of for this end. Milton^ in conformity 
with the Pra6lice of the Ancient Poets, and with 
AriftotU% Rule has infofed a great many Latinifms^ as 
well as Grcecifms^ [and fometimes Hebrai/ms^ into the 
language of his Poem; as towards the Beginning 
of it 

Nor did they not perceive the evil plight 

In which they were^ or the fierce Pains not feel. 

[Yet to their GerCral's Voice theyfinm obey'd!] 

WhoJhcUl tempt with wandring Feet 

The dark unbottom^d Infinite Abyfs, 

And through the palpable OhicMit find out his way^ 



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$6 A SUBUMB STYLE MAY BB FOBMBD BY INVBRTXNO 

His uncouth way^ orfpread his airy Flight 
Upborn with indefatigable Wings 
Over the vail Abrupt 1—^ 

-So both afcend 



\ 



'n the VifumsofGodr R 2.] 

Under this Head may be reckoned the placing the 
Adje^ve after the Subilantive, the tranfpofition of 
Words, the turning the Adje<Stive into a Subilantive, 
with feveral other Foreign Modes of Speech, which 
this Poet has naturalized to give his Verfe the greater 
Sound, and throw it out of Profe. 

ThethirdMethodmendonedby ^r^iC7/;iSf,isthat which 
[what] agrees with the Genius of the 6^r^ Language more 
thanwi^ that of any other Tongue, and is therefore more 
ufed b)r Homer than by any other Poet I mean the 
lengthning of a Phrafe by the Addition of Words, 
which may either be inferted or omitted, as alfo by 
the extending or contnuSling of particular Words by 
the Infertion or Omiflion of certain Syllables. Milton 
has put in pra6lice this Method of railing his Lan- 
guage, as far as the nature of our Tongue will permit, 
as in die Paffage above-mentioned. Eremite^ [for]^ what 
is Hermit[e], in common Difcourfe. If you obferve the 
Meafure of his Verfe, he has with great Judgment fup- 
prelTed a Syllable in feveral Words, and Ihortned 
thofe of two Syllables into one, by which Method, 
belides the abovementioned Advantage, he has given 
a greater Variety to his Numbers. But this Pra<Stice 
is more particularly remarkable in the Names of Per- 
fons and of Countries, as Beelzdmb,Hejffdfon^ and in many 
other Particulars, wherein he has either changed the 
Name, or made ufe of diat which is not the moll com- 
monly known, that he might the better deviate from the 
Language of the Vulgar. 

The lame Reafon recommended to him feveral old 
Words, which alfo makes his Poem appear the more 
venerable, and gives it a greater Air of Antiquity. 

I muR likewife take notice, that there are in Milton 



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OK LENGTHENING PHRASES. MILTON COINS WORDS. 37 

feveral Words of his own Coining, as Cerberean^ mif- 
created^ Hell-doonid^ Embryon Atoms, and many othersi 
If the Reader is offended at this Liberty in o\}xEngli/h 
Poet, I would recommend him to a DUcourfe in Flu- 
tarchf which (hews us how frequently Homer lazs made 
ufe of the fame Liberty. 

MUtm^ by the above-mentioned Helps, and by the 
choice of the nobleft Words and Phrafes which our 
Tongue wou'd afiford him, has carried our Language 
to a greater height than any of the Englijh Poets 
have ever done before or after him, and made the 
Sublimity of his Stile equal to that of his Sentiments. 

I have been the more particular in thefe Obferva- 
tions of Miiton^s Stile, becaufe it is that part of him 
in which he appears the mod fingular. llie Remarks 
I have here made upon the Practice of other Poets, 
with my Obfervations out of AriflotU^ will perhaps 
alleviate the Prejudice which fome have taken to his 
Poem upon this Account; Iho* after all, I mufl 
confefs, that I think his Stile, tho' admirable in 
general, is in fome places too much fliffened and ob- 
fcured by the frequent ufe of thofe Methods, which 
AriftotU has prefcribed for the raifing of it 

This Redundancy of thofe feveral ways of Speech 
which AriftotU caiX\s foreign Languagey and with which 
Milton has fo very much enriched, and in fome places 
darkned the Language of his Poem, is [was] the more 
proper for his ufe, becaufe his Poem b written in 
Bkmk Veife. Rhyme, without any other Afliflance, 
throws the Language off from Profe, and very often 
makes an indifferent Phrafe pals unregarded; but 
where the Verfe is not built upon Rhymes, there 
Pomp of Sound, and Energy of Expreflion, are indif- 
penlably neceffary to fupport the Stile, and keep it 
from falling into tiie Flatnefs of Profe. 

Thofe who have not a Tafle for this Elevation of 
Stile, and are apt to ridicule a Poet when he departs 
from the common Forms of Expreflion, would do wett 
to fee how Ar\flotU has treat^ an ancient Author, 



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38 MILTON*S VERSE. 

called Euclid, for his infipid Mirth upon this Occafion. 
Mr. Drydm ufed to call this fort of Men his Profe- 
Cridcks. 

I fhould, under this Head of the Language, con- 
fider Miltari^ Numbers, in which he has made ufe of 
feveral Elifions, that are* not cudomary among other 
Englijh Poets, as may be particularly obferved in his 
cutting oflf the Letter K, when it precedes a VoweL 
This, and fome other Innovations in the Meafure of 
his Verfe, has varied his Numbers in fuch a manner, 
as makes them incapable of fatiating the Ear and 
cloying the Reader, which the fame uniform Meafure 
would certainly have done, and which the perpetual 
Returns of Rhyme never fail to do in long Narrative 
Poems. I fhall clofe thefe Reflections upon the Lan- 
guage of Paradife Lojl^ with obferving that MiUan 
has copied after Horner^ rather than Fi/jp/, in the 
length of his Periods, the Copioufhefe of his Phrafes, 
and the running of his Verfes into one another. 




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Numb. CCXCI 

The SPECTATOR. 



Ubiplura nitent in carmine^ fion ego pauds 

Offmdor macuiisy quas aut Incuria fudity 

Aut Humana parum cavit Natura Hor. 

\ But in a Poem el^antly writ^ 

J will not quarrel with a flight Mijlake, 

Such as our Natures frailty may eoccufe, 

RofcommoD.i 

Saturday y February 2. 17 12. 



Have now confider'd Millon^s Faradife 
Lojl under thofe four great Heads of the 
Fable, the Characters, the Sentiments, and 
the Language; and have (hewn that he 
excels, in general, under each of thefe 
Heads. I hope that I have made fcveral Difcoveries 
that [which] may appear new, even to thofe who are 
verfea in Cntical Learning. Were I indeed to chufe my 
Readers, by whofe Judgment I would (land or (all, 
they (hould not be fuch as are acquainted only with 
iheFrench and//^ia/iCriticks,but aLTowith the Ancient 
and Modems who have written hi either of the learned 
Languages. Above all, I would have them well verfed 
in the Greek and Zatin Poets, without which a Man 
very often fancies that he underdands a Critick, when 
in reality he does not comprehend his Meaning. 

It is in Critici(m, as in all other Sciences and 
Speculations ; one who brings with him any implicit 
Notions and Obfervations which he has made in his 
reading of the Poets, will find his own Reflections 
methodized and explained, and perhaps feveral little 
Hints that had palTed in his Mind, perfected and im* 




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40 A Cf ITIC MUST HAVE A CLEAR ^ LOGICAL HEAD : <&• OUGHt 

proved in the Works of a good Critick ; whereas one 
who has not thefe previous Lights, is very often an 
utter Stranger to what he reads, and apt to put a 
wrong Interpretation upon it 

Nor is it fufficient, that a Man who fets up for a 
Judge in Criticifm, fhould have perufed the Authors 
above-mentioned, unlefs he has alfo a clear and 
Logical Head. Without this Talent he is perpetually 
puzzled and perplexed amidft his own Blunders, 
millakes the Senfe of thofe he would confute, or if 
he chances to think right, does not know how to convey 
his Thoughts to another with Cleamefs and Perfpicuity. 
Arijlotky who was the befl Critick, was alfo one of the 
beil Logicians that ever appeared in the World. 

Mr. Lock^ Eflay on Human Underflanding would 
be thought a very odd Book for a Man to make 
himfelf Mailer of, who would get a Reputation by 
Critical Writings ; though at the fame time it is very 
certain, that an Author who has not leam'd the Art 
of diflinguiihing between Words and Things, and of 
ranging his Thoughts, and fetting them in proper Lights, 
whatever Notions he may have, will lofe himfelf in Con- 
fufion and Obfcurity. I might further obferve, that 
there is nota Crr^^orZj/rVi Critick, who has not fhewh, 
even in the (lile of his Critidfms, that he was a Mafter 
of all the Elegance and Delicacy of his Native Tongue. 

The truth of it is, there is nothing more abfurd, 
tlian for a Man to fet up for a Critick, without a good 
Li(ight into all the Parts of Learning ; whereas many 
of thofe who have endeavoured to fignalize themfelves 
by Works of this Nature among our Englifli Writers, 
are not only defe^ive in the above-mentioned Parti- 
culars, but plainly difcover by the Phrafes which they 
make ufe of, and by their confufed way of thinking, 
that they are not acquainted with the mod common and 
ordinary Syftems of Arts and Sciences. A few general 
Rules extracted OMioi^t French Authors, with a certain 
Cant of Words, has fometimes fet up an Illiterate heavy 
Writer for a moft judicious and formidable CriticL 



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rO DWELL RATHER ON EXCELLENCIES THAN IMPERFECTIONS. 4I 

One great Mark, by which you may difcover a 
Critick who has neither Tafte nor Learning, is this, 
that he feldom ventures to praife any Pa£[ge in an 
Author which has not been before received and ap- 
plauded by the Publick, and that his Criticifin turns 
wholly upon litde Faults and Errors. This part of a 
Critick is fo very eafie to fucceed in, that we find every 
ordinary Reader, upon the publifliing of a new Poem, 
has Wit and Ill-nature enough to turn feveral Paffages 
of it into Ridicule, and very often in the right Place. 
This Mr. Drydm has very agreeably remarked in thofe 
two celebrated Lines, 

Errors^ like Straws^ upon the Surface flow; 
He who would fearch for Pearls mufl dive below. 

A true Critick ought to dwell rather upon Excel- 
lencies than Imperfections, to difcover the concealed 
Beauties of a Writer, and communicate to the World 
fuch things as are worth their Obfervation. The 
mod exquifite Words and fined Strokes of an Author 
are thofe which very often appear the moil doubtful 
and exceptionable, to a Man who wants a Relifh for po- 
lite Learning ; and they are thefe, which a fower [foure] 
undiflinguifhing Critick generally attacks with the 
greatefl Violence. TuUy obferves, that it is very 
eafie to brand or fix a Mark upon what he calls Verbum 
ardens^ or, as it may be rendered into Englijh^ 2. glow- 
ing bold Expreffion^ and to ttun it into Ridicule by a 
cold ill-natured Criticifin. A litde Wit is equally 
capable of expofing a Beauty, and of aggravating a 
Fault; and though fuch a Treatment of an Author 
naturally produces Indignation in the Mind of an 
underftanding Reader, it has however its efiedl among 
the generality of thofe whofe Hands it falls into, the 
Rabble of Mankind being very apt to think that every 
thing which is laughed at with any mixture of Wit, is 
ridiculous in it fel£ 

Such a Mirth as this, is always unfeafonable in a 
Critick, as it rather prejudices the Reader than con- 



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43 SIMPLE RIDICULE UNFAIR IN WORKS OF CRITICISM. 

vinces him, and is capable of making a Beauty, as 
well as a Blemifh, the Subject of Deniion. A Man, 
who cannot write with Wit on a proper Subject, is dull 
and Rupid, but one who (hews it in an improper place, 
is as impertinent and abfurd. BeHdes, a Man who 
has the Gift of Ridicule is very* apt to find Fault with 
any thing that gives him an Opportimity of exerting 
his beloved Talent, and very often cenfures a Paflage, 
not becaufe there is any Fault in it, but becaufe he 
can be merry upon it Such kinds of Pleafantry are 
veiy unfair and difingenuous in Works of Criticilm, in 
which the greateft Mafters, both Ancient and Modem, 
have always appeared with a ferious and inftrudlive Air. 

As I intend in my next Paper to (hew the Defe6ls 
in MUioris Paradife Lofty I thought fit to premife thefe 
few Particulars, to the End that the Reader may know 
I enter upon it, as on a very ungratefiil Work, and 
that I (hall juft point at the Imperfedlions, without en- 
deavouring to enflame them. with Ridicule. I muft alfo 
obferve with Longinus^ that the Produ6lions of a great 
Genius, with many Lapfes and Inadvertencies, are in- 
finitely preferable to the Works of an inferior kind of 
Author, which are fcrupuloudy exadt and conformable 
to all the Rules of corre<5l Writing. 

I (hall conclude my Paper with a Story out of Bocca- 
/im\ which fufficiently (hews us the Opinion that Judi- 
cious Author entertained of the fort of Criticks I have 
been here mentioning. A famous Critick, (ays he, 
having gathered together all the Faults of an Eminent 
Poet, made a Prefent of them to ApoUoy who received 
them very gracioufly, and refolved to make the Author 
a fuitable Return for the Trouble he had been at in 
colle<5ling them. In order to this, he fet before liim a 
Sack of Wheat, as it had been juft thre(hed out of the 
Sheaf. He then bid him pick out the Chaff from 
among the Com, and lay it afide by it felf. The Critick 
applied himfelf to the Task with great Induftry and 
Pleafure, and after having made the due Separation, 
was preiented by Apollo with the Chaff for his Pains. 



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Numb. CCXCVH 

The SPECTATOR. 



-velutfi 




Egregio infperfos reprmdas corpore msvos. Hor. 

\ Asperfe6l beautits often have a Mole. Creech. } 

Saturday^ February 9, 17 12. 



|FTER what I have laid in my laft Satur- 
day'% Paper, I (hall enter on the Subject 
of this without farther Preface, and remark 
the feveral Defedls which appear in the 
Fable, the ChanuSlers, the Sentiments, and 
the Language of Milton's Faradife Lofi \ not doubting 
but the Reader will pardon me, if I alledge at the 
fame time whatever may be laid for the Extenuation 
of fuch Defefts. The firfl Imperfection which I 
(hall obferve in the Fable is, that the Event of it is 
unhappy. 

The Fable of every Poem is according to AriftotU% 
Divifion either Simple or Implex. It is called Simple 
when there is no change of Fortune in it. Implex 
when the Fortune of the chief A6lor changes from 
Bad to Good, or from Good to Bad. The Implex 
Fable is thought the mod perfe<5l ; I fuppofe, becaufe 
it is mod proper to flir up the Paflions of the Reader, 
and to furprize him with a greater variety of Accidents. 
The Implex Fable is therefore of two kinds : In the 
firfl the chief A6lor makes his way through a long Series 
of Dangers and Difficulties, 'till he arrives at Honour 
and Profperity, as we fee in the Stories [Story] of Ulyffes 
zxA^yEneas.* In thefecond,the chiefA6lorinthePoem 
Ms fromfome eminent pitch of Honour and Profperity, 
into Mifery and Difgrace. Thus we fee Adam and Evt 
finkinff from a State of Innocence and Happine&i 
into we moil abje£i Condition of Sin and Sorrow. 



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44 DEFECTS. THE FABLE IS UNHAPPY, ITS HERO UN- 

The mod taking Tragedies among the Ancients 
were built on this lad fort of Implex Fable, particu- 
larly the Tragedy of OEdipuSy which proceeds upon 
a Story, if we may believe AriJlotU^ the mod proper 
for Tragedy that could be invented by the Wit of 
Man. I have taken fome pains in a former Paper to 
fhew, that this kind of Implex Fable, wherein the 
Event is unhappy, is more apt to affedl an Audience 
than that of the firfl kind ; notwithdanding many 
excellent Pieces among the Ancients, as well as mod 
of thofe which have been written of late Years in our 
own Country, are raifed upon contrary Plans. I mud 
however own, that I think this kind of Fable, which 
is the mod perfe<5l in Tragedy, is not fo proper for an 
Heroic Poem. 

Milton feems to have been fenfible of this Imper- 
fedlion in his Fable, and has therefore endeavoured 
to cure it by feveral Expedients ; particularly by the 
Mortification which the great Adverfary of Mankind 
meets with upon his return to the Affembly of Infernal 
Spirits, as it is defcribed in that [a] beautiful Pafla^e 
of the tenth Book ; and likewife by the Vifion, wherem 
Adam at the dole of the Poem fees his Off-fpring 
triumphing over his great Enemy, and himfelf redored 
to a happier Faradtfe than that from which he fell.t 

There is another Objedlion againd MiUofC% Fable, 
which is indeed almod the ^une with the former, 
tho' placed in a different Light, namely, That the 
Hero in the Faradtfe Lojl is unfuccefsful, and by no 
means a Match for his Enemies. This gave occafion 
to Mr. Drydm's Reflexion, Uiat the Devil was in 
reality Milton's Hero. I think I have obviated this 
Objedion in my fird Paper. The Faradife Lojl is an 
Epic, [or a] Narrative Poem, he that looks for an 
Hero m it, fearches for that which Milton never in- 
tended ; but if he will needs fix the Name of an Hero 
upon any Perfon in it, 'tis certainly the Meffiak who 

♦ 8m p.i4>. 



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SUCCBSSFULv AMD IT HAS TOO MANY DIGRESSIONS. 45 

18 the Hero, both in the Principal Adtion, and in the 
[chief] £pifode[s]. Paganifin could not fumifh out a 
real Adlion for a Fable greater than that of the Iliad 
or ^neid^ and therefore an Heathen could not form 
a higher Notion of a Poem than one of that kind, 
i/hich they call an Heroic Whether MUtotiz is not 
of a greater [fublimer] Nature I will not prefume to de- 
termine, it is fuffident that I (hew there is inthe/'^iro- 
difeLoJl all the Greatnefs of Plan, Regularity of Delign, 
and mafterly Beauties which we difcover in Homer 
and VirgU. 

I mufl in the next Place obferve, that MUton has 
interwoven in the Texture of his Fable fome Particu- 
lars which do not feem to have Probability enough 
for an Epic Poem, particularly in the Adlions which 
he afcribes to Sin and Deaths and the Pidlure which 
he draws of the Lymboof Vanity ^ with other Paflages 
in the fecond Book. Sudi All^ories rather favour 
of the Spirit of Spencer and Ariofto^ than of Homer 
and Virgil. 

In the Structure of his Poem he has Ukewife ad- 
mitted of too many Digreffions. It is finely obferved 
by AriftotUy that the Author of an Heroic Poem 
fliould feldom fpeak himfelf, but throw as much of his 
\Voik as he can into the Mouths of thofe who are 
his Principal Adlors. AriftotU has given no Reafon 
for this Precept ; but I prefume it is becaufe the Mind 
of the Reader is more awed and elevated when he 
hears jEneas or Achilles fpeak, than when Virgil or 
Homer talk in their own Perfons. Befides that aiTum- 
ing the Charadler of an eminent Man is apt to fire 
the Imagination, and ndfe the Ideas of the Author. 
TuUy teUs us, mentioning his Dialogue of Old Age, in 
which Cato is the chief Speaker, that upon a Review 
of it he was agreeably impofed upon, and fancied that 
it was , Cato^ and not he himfelf, who uttef d his 
Thoughts on that Subject 

If 3ie Reader would be at the pains to fee how the 
Story of the Hiad and the /Eneid is delivered by thofe 



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46 DEFECTS. Till SSNTIMSlfTS : PimS, TOO PREQUEXT At* 

Perfons who a6l in it, he will be furprized to find 
how little in either of thefe Poems proceeds from the 
Authors. Milton has, in the general difpofition of 
his Fable, very finely obferved this great Rule; info- 
much, that there is fcarce a third part of it which comes 
from the Poet ; the red is fpoken either by Adam and 
Eve^ or by fome Good or Evil Spirit who is engaged 
either in their Deftrudlion or Defence. 

From what has been here obferved it appears, that 
Digreflions are by no means to be allowed of in an 
Epic Poem. If the Poet, even in the ordinary courfe 
of his Narration, fhould fpeak as little as polfible, he 
(hould certainly never let his Narration fleep for the 
lake of any Refle<5lions of his own. I have often ob- 
ferved, with a fecret Admiration, that the longed Re- 
flexion in the yEncid is in that Paffage of the Tenth 
Book, where Tumus is reprefent[ed]asdreflinghimfelf 
in the Spoils of Pallas^ whom he iiad (lain. Virgil 
here lets his Fable (land ftill for the lake of the fol- 
lowing Remark. H(nv is the Mind of Man ignorant 
of Futurity^ and unable to bear profperous Fortune with 
Moderation ? The time will come when Tumus ,^// 
wijh that he had left the Body of Pallas untouched^ 
and curfe the Day on which he drejjfed himfelfin thefe 
Spoils, As the great Event of the /Eneid^ and the 
Death of Tumusy whom yEneas flew becaufe he faw 
him adorned with the Spoils of PcUlaSy turns upon this 
Incident, Virgil went out of his way to make this 
Refledion upon it, without which fo fmall a Circum- 
flance might poflibly have flipped out of his Reader's 
Memory. Lucan^ who was an Injudicious Poet, lets 
drop his Story very frequently for the lake of [his] 
imneceflary Digreflions or his Diverticula^ as Scaliger 
calls them. If he gives us an Account of the Pro- 
digies which preceded the Civil War, he declaims upon 
the Occafion, and (hews how much happier it would 
be for Man, if he did not feel his Evil Fortime before 
it comes to pafs, and fuffer not only by its real Weight. 
but by the Apprehenfion of it Miliori^ Complaint 



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LUSTCm TO HBATHEN FABTJCS, OSTENTATION OF LEARN INOv 47 

of his BlindndSy his Panegyrick on Marriage, his Re- 
fledtions on Adam Sind£v7s going naked, of the Angels 
eating, and feveral other Paffages in his Poem, are 
liable to the lame Exception, tho' I mufl confefs diere 
is fo great a Beauty in thefe very Digreffions, that 
I would not wifh them out of his Poem. 

I have, in a former Paper, fpoken of the Charailers 
of Miltoris Paradife Lojly and declared my Opinion, 
as to the Allegorical Perfons who are introduced in it 

If we look into the Sentiments^ I think they are 
fometimes defe<5live under the following Heads; Firfl, 
as there are fome [feveral] of them too much pointed, 
and fome that degenerate even into Punns. Of this lafl 
kind I am afraid is that in the Firfl Book, where, 
fpeaking of the Pigmies, he calls them. 

Thefmall Infantry 

Warred an by Cranes 

Another Blemifh that appears in fome of his 
Thoughts, is his- frequent AUufion to Heathen Fables, 
which are not certainly of a Piece with the Divine 
Subjedl, of which he treats. I do not find fault with 
thefe Allufions, where the Poet himfelf reprefents 
them as fabulous, as he does in fome Places, but 
where he mentions them as Truths and Matters of 
Fa6l. The Limits of my Paper will not give me leave 
to be particular in Inftances of this kind : The Reader 
will eafjly remark them in his Perufal of the Poem. 

A Third Fault in his Sentiments, is an unnecefiary 
Oflentation of Learning, which likewife occurs very 
frequently. It is certain that both Homer and Virgil 
were Matters of all the Learning of their Times, but it 
fhews it felf in their Works after an indiredl and con- 
cealed manner. Milton feems ambitious of letting us 
know, by his Excurfions on Free-will and Predeflina- 
tion, and his many Glances upon Hillory, Aflronomy, 
Geography and the like, as well as by the Terms 
and Phrafes he fometimes makes ufe of, that he was 
acquainted with tha whole Circle of Arts and Sciences. 



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48 vwncn, TRX lanouaob is often too 

I( in the laft place, we confider the Langtufge of 
this great Poet, we mufl allow what I have hinted in 
a former Paper, that it is [often! too much laboured, 
and fometimes obfcured by old Words, Tranfpofitions, 
and Foreign Idioms. Seneca's Obje^on to the Stile 
of a great Author, Riget ejus orotic^ nihil in ed placu 
dum^ nihil lene^ is what many Criticks make to Milton : 
as I cannot wholly refute it, fo I have already apolo- 
gized for it in another Paper ; to which I may further 
add, th2XMiUorls Sentiments and Ideas were fo won- 
derftilly Sublime, that it would have been impodible 
for him to have reprefented them in their full Strength 
and Beauty, without having recourfe to thcfe Foreign 
AlTiflances. Our Language funk under him, and was 
unequal to that greatnds of Soul, which furmfhed him 
with fuch glorious Conceptions. 

A fecond Fault, in his Language is, that he often af- 
fedls a kind of Jingle in his Words, as in the following 
Paflages, and many others : 

And brought into the World a World of woe. 

Begirt tK Almighty Throne 

Befeeching or befieging 

This tempted our attempt- 



At one Slight bound h^h overleapt all bound. 

I know there are Figures of this kind of Speech, 
(hat fome of the greatefl Ancients have been guilty of 
it, and that Arijhtle himfelf has given it a place in his 
Rhetorick among the Beauties of that Art But as it is 
in itsfelf poor and trifling, it is I think at prefent uni- 
verlally exploded by all Uie Mailers of polite Writing. 

The laft Fault which I (hall take notice of in Mil- 
toris Stile, is the frequent ufe of what the Learned 
call Technical Words, or Terms of Art. It is one of 
the great Beauties of Poetry, to make hard things in- 
telligible, and to deliver what is abftrufe of it felf in 
fuch eafy Language as may' be underflood by ordinary 
Readers: Befides that the Knowledge of a Poet 
(hould rather feem bom with him, or infpired, than 



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. OBSCUKS. JtNGLINO, AND TECHNICAL. 49 

drawn from Boc^ ^d Syftems. . I have pften won- 
dered how MxL J/ryitUn could tranflate a Paffage of 
Fitpl after the Tollowihg manner. 

Tack to the Larhoardy andjiand off to Sea^ 
Veer Star-board Sea and Land, 

Milton makes ufe of Larboard in the fame manner. 
When he is upon Building he mentions Doric Pillars^ 
Pilajlers^ Cornice^ Freeze^ Architrave, When he talks of 
Heavenly Bodies, you meet with Eccliptick^ and Eccen- 
triCy the trepidation ^ Stars dropping from the Zenith^ 
Rays culminating from the Equator. To which might 
be added. many Inflances of the like kind in feveral 
other Arts and Sciences. 

I (hall in my next Saturdays Paper [Papers] give an 
Account of the many particular Beauties in Milton^whicYi 
would have been too long to infert under thofe general 
Heads I have already treated of, and with which I 
intend to conclude this Piece of Cridciim. 




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KuMB. cccm. 

The SPECTATOR. 



--void hacfub luce videriy 




yudicis argutum qua nonfortnidat acumen. Hor. 

{ Some choofe the clearefl Lights 

And boldly chalUnge flu mojt piercing Eye, Rofcommon. } 

Saturday^ February i6. 1713. 

Have feen in the Works of a Modem 
Philofopher, a Map of the Spots in the 
Sun. My lail Paper of the Faults and 
Blemifhes in Miltoriz Paradife Zqfly may 
be confider'd as a Piece of the flame 
Nature. To purfue the Allufion : As it is obfery'd, 
that among the bright parts of the Luminous Body 
above-mentioned, there are fome which glow more 
intenfely, and dart a ftronger Light than others ; fo, 
notwithflanding I have already (hewn Milton^s Poem 
to be very beautiful in general, I (hall now proceed to 
take notice of fuch Beauties as appear to me more 
exquifite than the reft. Milton has propofed the 
Subjedt of his Poem in the following Verfes. 

OfMansfirJl difobedience^ and the fruit 
Of thcU forbidden tree^ whofe mortal tafU 
Brought Death into the World and aU our tooe. 
With lofs ^Eden, ^ till one greater Man 
Reflore us^ and regain the blifsful Seat, 
Sing Heojfnly Mufe 

Thefe Lines are perhaps as plsdn, (imple and un- 
adorned as any of the whole Poem, in which particu- 
lar the Author has conformed himfelf to the Ebcample 
of Hbmer^ and the Precept of Horace. 

His Invocation to a Work which turns in a great 



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CUTICI81I OF BOOK L 5I 

meafuie upon the Creation of the World, is very 
properly made to the Mufe who infpired Mofes in 
thofe Books from whence our Author drew his Sub- 
je<5t, and to the Holy Spirit who is therein reprefented 
as operating after a particular manner in the firft 
PtoduiStion of Nature. This whole Exordium rifes 
very happily into noble Language and Sentiment, as 
I tiiink the Tranfition to tfie Fable is exquifitely 
beautiful and natural 

The nine Days Aflonifhment, in which the Angels 
lay entranced after their dreadftQ Overthrow and Fall 
from Heaven, before they could recover either the 
ufe of Thought or Speech, is a noble Circumflance^ 
and very finely imagined. The Divifion of Hell into 
Seas of Fire, and into firm Ground impregnated witli 
the lame furious Element, with that particular Cir- 
cumftance of the exclufion of Hope from thofe Infer- 
nal Regions, are Inftances of the lame great and 
fruitfiil Invention. 

The Thoughts in the firft Speech and Defcription 
of Satan^ who is one of the principal A<5tors in this 
Poem, are wonderfiilly proper to give us a fiill Idea 
of him. His Pride, Envy and Revenge, Obftmacy, 
Defpair and Impenitence, are all of them very artfiilly 
interwoven. In ftiort, his firft Speech is a Complica- 
tion of all thofe Paffions which difcover themfelves 
feparately in feveral other of his Speeches in the 
Poem. The whole part of this great Enemy of Man- 
kind is filled with fuch Incidents as are very apt to 
raife and terrific the Reader's Imagination. Of this 
Nature, in the Book now before us, is his being the 
firft that awakens out of the general Trance, with his 
Pofture on the burning Lake, his rifing from it, and 
the Defcription of his Shield and Spear. 

Thus Satan talking to his marejl matey 
With head up-lift above the wavey and eyes 
Thatfparkling blazed^ his other parts befide 
Prone on the Floods extended iong andiargty 



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cmmciSM or bcx>k i. 



Layjlaaiing many a rood- 

Forthwith upright h€ rears from off the pool 
His mighty Stature; on each hand the flames 
Dridn Inukwardflqpe their pointing SpireSyOndrowfd 
In Billows^ leave f tK midfl a hmid vale. 
Then with expanded wif^ he fleers his flight 
Alofi^ incumbent on the dusky Air 

That felt unufiial weight- 

Hispondrous Shield 

Ethereal temper^ mqjffie^ large and round 
Behind him cafl\ the broad circumference 
Hung on his Shoulders like the Moon^ whofe orb 
Thrd Optick Glafs the Tufcan Ariifls view 
At Elf nir^ from the top ^Fefole, 
Or in Valdamo to defcry new Lands^ 
Rivers or Mountains on herfpotty Globe, 
His Spear to equal which the taUeflpine 
Hewn on Norwegian Hills to be the Mafl 
Of fome great Ammiral^ were but a wand 
He walkdwith tofupport uneafte Steps 
Otfer the bumifig Marl 

To which we may add his Call to the falXtn Angels 
that lay plunged and flupified in the Sea of Fire. 

He cairdfo '^d, that all the hollow deep 
Of Hell refounded 

But there is no iingle PalTage in the whole Poem 
worked up to a greater Sublimity, than that wherein 
his Perfon is defcnbed in thofe celebrated Lines : 

He^ above the refl 



Infhape and gefiure proudly eminent 
Stood like a Tower^ &c. 

His Sentiments are every way anfwerable to his Cha- 
ra(5ler, and are* fuitable to a created Being of the moA 
exalted and mod depraved Nature. Such is that in 
which he takes Poffeflion of his Place of Torments. 



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CRmCISM OF BOOK I. 53 

-Hail Horrors^ hail 



Infernal Worlds and thou profoutidejl Hdi 
Receive thy new Poffeffor^ one who britigs 
A mind not to be changed by plcue or time. 

And afterwards, 

Here at leajl 

Wejhallbefree; tK Almighty hath not buiU 
Here for his envy^ will not drive us hefue: 
Here we may reign fecure^ and in my ehoia 
To reign is worth ambition^ thd in Hell: 
Better to reign in Hell^ thanferve in Heaven, 

Amidfl thofe Impieties which this Enraged Spirit 
utters in other Places of the Poem, the Author has 
taken care to introduce none that is not big with 
abfurdity, and incapable of (hocking a Religious 
Reader; his Words, as the Poet himfelf defcribes Uiem, 
bearing only difemblance of Worthy not Subflance, He 
is likewife with great Art defcribed as owning his Ad ver- 
fary to be Almighty. Whatever perverfe Interpreta- 
tion he puts on the Juilice, Mercy, and other Attri- 
butes of the Supreme Being, he frequently confeffes 
his Omnipotence, that being the Perfedlion he was 
forced to allow him, and the only Conlideration which 
could fupport his Pride under the Shame of his Defeat 

Nor mud I here omit that beautiful Circumilance 
of his burding out in Tears, upon his Survey of thofe 
innumerable Spirits whom he had involved in the 
lame Guilt and Ruin with himfelf. 

He now prepared 

To f peak ; whereai their doubled ranks they bend 
From wing to wing^ and half endofe him round 
With all his Peers : Attention held them mute. 
Thrice he affa^d^ and thrice in fpite of Scorn 
Tears Jitch as Angels weep^ burft forth 

The Catalogue of Evil Spirits has a great deal [Abun- 
dance] of Leimiing in it, and a very agreeable turn of 



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$4 cmmasif of book i. 

Poetry, which rifes in a great meafure from his defcrib- 
ing the Places where they were worlhipped, by thofe 
beautiful marks of Rivers fo frequent among the 
Ancient Poets. The Author had doubtlefs in this 
place Hotner^s Catalogue of Ships, and VirgiP^ lift 
of Warriors in his view. The Charadlers of Moloch 
and Belial prepare the Reader's Mind for their re- 
fpedlive Speeches and Behaviour in the fecond and 
fixth Book. The Account of Thatnmuz is finely Ro- 
mantick, and fuitable to what we read among the 
Ancients of the Worfhip which was paid to that IdoL 

It ^Thammuz came next behind^ 

Whofe annual Woufid in Lebanon allut^d 
The Syrian Damfels to lament hisfate^ 
In anirous Ditties all a Summer's day^ 
While fmooth ki^oiix&from his native Rock 
Ran purple to the SeUyfuppoid with Blood 
Cy Thammuz yearly wounded: the Love-tcde 
Infe^d SionV Daughters with like Heaty 
Whofe wanton Paffions in the f acred Porch 
£zekiel>2mf, when by the Vifion led 
His Eye Jiirveyd the dark Idolatries 
0/ alienated ]\idah. 

The Reader will pardon me if I infert as a Note 
on this beautiful Ps^age, the Account given us by the 
late ingenious Mr. Afaundrell of this Antient Piece of 
Worfhip, and probably the firft Occafion of fuch a 
Superftition. * We came to a fair large River .... 

* doubtlefs the Antient River Adonis^ fo famous for the 

* Idolatrous Rites perform'd here in Lamentation of 

* Adonis. We had the Fortune to fee what may be 

* fuppofed to be the Occafion of that Opinion which 

* Lucian relates, concerning this River, viz. That this 

* Stream, at certain Seafons of the Year, efpedally about 

t This passage was added in the author's life-time, but subsequent to tlit * 
second edition. The earliest issue with it in that I have seen, is NoUt mpm 
i*u Timhft B^tk$ cf* Pnaditt Lott,* London 1919. p. 4j. 



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CRITICISM OF BOOK L 55 

' the Feafl of Adonis^ is of a bloody Colour; which the 
' Heathens looked upon as proceeding from a kind of 

* Sympathy in the River for the Death of Adonis^ who 

* was killed by a wild Boar in the Mountains, out of 

* which this Stream rifes. Something like this we law 

* adlually come to pafe ; for the Water was (lain'd to 

* a furpnidng redness; and, as we obferved in Travelling, 

* had difcolouf d the Sea a great way into a reddim 

* Hue, occalion'd doubtlefs by a fort of Minium, or 

* red Earth, wafhed into the River by the violence of 
' the Rain, and not by any (lain from Adonises Blood.'} 

The Paflage in the Catalogue, explaining the man- 
ner how Spirits transform themfdves by Contradlion, 
or Enlargement of their Dimenfions, is introduced with 
great Judgement, to make way for feveral furprizing 
Accidents in the Sequel of the Poem. There follows 
one, at the very End of the Firll Book, which is what 
the French Critics call Marvellous^ but at the fame 
time probable by reafon of the Paffage lafl mentioned. 
As foon as the Infernal Palace is finilhed, we are 
told the Multitude and Rabble of Spirits inunediately 
Ihrunk themfelves into a fmall Compafs, that there 
might be Room for fuch anumberlefs AfTembly in this 
capacious Hall But it is the Poet's Refinement upon 
this Thought, which I mod admire, and which is 
indeed very noble in its felf. For he tells us, that not- 
withflanding the vulgar, among the Men Spirits, con- 
tradled their Forms, thofe of the firfl Rank and Dignity 
dill preferved their natural Dimenfions. 

Thus incorporeal Spirits tofmaUeJl Forms 
Redu^d their Shapes immenfey and were at largi^ 
Though without Number Jlill amidfl the Hall 
Of that infernal Court. But far within^ 
And in their own Dimenfions Uke themfelves^ 
The Great Seraphick Lards and Cherubim^ 
In clofe recefs and Secret conclave fate^ 
A thoufand Demy Gods on Golden Seats ^ 
Frequent andfv fl 



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56 ckincisM or BoCfU t 

The CharaAer of Mammon, and the Defcription oi 
the Fandamoniumy are full of Beauties. 

There are feveral other Strokes in the Firll Book won- 
derfully poetical, and Inilances of that Sublime Genius 
fo peculiar to the Author. Such is the Defcription of 
Azazd*s Stature, and of the Infernal Standard, which he 
unfurls ; and [as alfo] of that ghaflly Light, by which the 
Fiends appear toone another in their Place of Torments. 
77ie Seat of Defolation, void of Light, 
Save what the glimmering of ihofe livid Flames 

Cafls pale and dreadful 

The Shout of the whole Hoil of fallen Angels when 
drawn up in Battle Array : 

The Univerfal Hofl upfent 

A Shout that tore Hells Concave, and beyond 
Frighted the reign of Chaos and old Night, 

The Review, which the Leader makes of his In- 
fernal Army : 

He thrd the armed files 

Darts his experiendd eye, andfoon traverfe 
The whole Battalion views^ their order due^ 
Their Vizages and Stature as of Gods, 
Their number lafl hefums. And now his Heart 
Diflends with Fride, and hardening in hisflrength 
Glories 

The Flaih of Light, which appeared upon the draw- 
ing of their Swords ; 

Hefpake: and to confirm his words out/lew 
Millions of flaming Swords, drawn from the Thighs 
Of mighty Cherubim/ thefudden blaze 
Far round illumirid Hell-- 

The fudden Produdlion of the FandcBfuonium ; 

Anon out of the Earth a Fabrick huge 
Rofe like an Exhalation, with the Sound 
Of dulcet Symphonies and Voices fweet. 
The Artificial Illtiminations made, in it. 



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CItlTICISlI OF BOOK I. {7 

— From the arched Roof 

Pendent byfubtle MagUk^ many a Row 
Of ^arry Lamps and blazing CrefceiSyfed 
With Naptha and Afphaltus yielded Light 
As from a Sky 

There are alfo feveral noble Similes and AUufiona 
in the firil Book of Paradife Lofl, And here I mud 
obferve, that when Milton alludes either to Things or 
Perfons, he never quits his Simile till it rifes to fome 
veiy great Idea, which is often foreign to the Occafion 
which [that] gave Birth to it. The Refemblance does 
not, perhaps, lad above a Line or two, but the Poet 
runs on with the Hint, till he has raifed Qut of it fome 
glorious Image or Sentiment, proper to inflame the 
Mind of the Reader, and to give it that fublime kind 
of Entertainment, which is fuitable to the Nature of 
an Heroic Poem. Thofe, who are acquainted with 
Homer's and VirgiTs way of. Writing, cannot but be 
pleafed with this kind of Strudlure in MiUoris Simili- 
tudes. I am the more particular on this Head, be- 
caufe ignorant Readers, who have formed their Tade 
upon the quaint Similis, and little Turns of Wit, 
which are fo much in Vogue among Modem Poets, 
cannot relidi thefe Beauties which are of a much higher 
nature, and are therefore apt to cenfure Miltoriz Com- 
parifons, in which they do not fee any furprizing Points 
of Likenefs. Monileur Perrault was a Man of this 
viciated Relidi, and forthat very Reafon has endeavoured 
to turn into Ridicule feveral of Homer's Similitudes, 
which he calls Comparaifons d tongue queue^ Long-taiPd 
Comparifons, I diall conclude this Paper on the Fird 
Book of Milton with the Anfwer which Monfieur 
BoiUau makes to Perrault on this Occadon ; * Com- 

* parifons, lays he, in Odes and Epic Poems are not 

* introduced only to illudrate and embellidi the Dii- 

* courfe, but to amufe and relax the Mind of th^ 
'Reader, by frequently difengaging him from too 

* painful an Attention to the Pnncipal Subjedl, and 



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^5' CRITICISM OP BOOK L 

' by leading him into otner agreeable images. Ho- 

* mefy (ays he, excelled in this Particular, whofe Com- 
' parijfons abound with fuch Images of Nature as are 

* proper to relieve and diverfifie his Sabjecls. He 
' continually in(lru6ls the Reader, and makes him 

* take notice, even in Objects which are every Day 
' before our Eyes, of fuch Circumflances as we Ihould 

* not otherwife have obferved. To this he adds, as a 

* Maxim univerliEdly acknowledged, that it is not necef- 
' fary in Poetry for the Points of the Comparifon to 

* correfpond with one another exactly, but that a 

* general Refemblaiice is fufficient, and that too much 

* nicety in this Particular favours of the Rhetorician 

* and EpigrammatifL' 

In fliort, if we look into the Condudl of Homery 
Virgil and Milton^ as the great Fable is the Soul of 
each Poem, fo to give their Works an agreeable 
Variety, their Epifodes are fo many (hort Fables, and 
their Simihs fo many (hort Epifodes; to which you 
may add, if you pleafe, that their Metaphors are fo 
many Ihort Similes. If the Reader conliders the 
Comparifons in the Firfl Book of Miltm^ of the Sun 
in an Eclipfe, of the Sleeping Leviathan^ of the Bees 
fwaxming about their Hive, of the Fairy Dance, in the 
view wherein I have here placed them, he will eaiily 
difcover the great Beauties that are in each of thole 
Pailiages. 




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Numb. CCCIX. 

The SPECTATOR. 

Di^ quilms imperium eftanitnarum^ umbraquefiUntts^ 
Et ChaoSy &» Phlegethotiy loca nohefUmtia late ; 
Sit miMjfas audita loqui : fit numine veftro 
Pandere res alia terra &* caligine merjas. Viig. 

\ Ye Realms y yet unreveaPd to human SjgAty 

Ye Gods who rule the Regions of the Nighty 

Ye gliding GhoJlSy permit me to relate 

Themyjlic Wonders of your filent State. Dryden.} 

Saturday ^ February 23. 17 12. 

Have before obferved in general, that the 
Perfons whom Milton introduces into his 
Poem always difcover fuch Sentiments and 
Behaviour, as are in a peculiar manner 
conformable to their refpedtive Charadlers. 
Every Circumilance in their Speeches and Adlions, 
is with great judnefs and delicacy adapted to the 
Perfons who fpeak and a6l. As the Poet very much 
excels in this Confidency of his Charadlers, I (hall 
beg leave to confider feveral PaiTages of the Second 
6(x>k in this Light That fuperior Greatnefs and 
Mock-Majeily, wWch is afcribed to the Prince of the 
fallen Angels, is admirably preferved in the beginning 
of this B(K>k. His opening and doling the Debate ; his 
taking on himfelf that great Enterprize at the Thought 
of which the whole Infernal Aflembly trembled ; his 
encountring the hideous Phantom who guarded the 
Gates of Hell, and appeared to him in all his Terrors, 
are Inilances of that proud and daring Mind which 
could not brook Submiflion even to Omnipotence. 

Satan was now at handy and from his Seat 
The Monfttr moving onward came asfafl 




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6o CRmasM of book ii. 

With horrid Jlrides^ Hell trembled as hejlrode^ 
TIC undaunted Fiend what this might be admif^d^ 
Admit' d^ not feat' d 

The fame Boldnefs and Intrepidity of Behaviour dif- 
covers it felf in the feveral Adventures which he meets 
with during his PafTage through the Regions of unform'd 
Matter, and particularly in his Addrefs to thofe tre- 
mendous Powers who are defcribed as prefiding over it 

The Part of Moloch is likewife in all its Circum- 
(lances full of that Fire and Fury, which diflinguifh 
this Spirit from the red of the fallen Angels. He 
is defcribed in the firfl Book as befmear'd with the 
Blood of Human Sacrifices, and delighted with the 
Tears of Parents, and the Cries of Children. In the 
fecond Book he is marked out as the fierceft Spirit 
that fought in Heaven ; and if we confider the Figure 
which he makes in the Sixth Book, where the Battel of 
the Angels is defcribed, we find it every way anfwer- 
able to the fame furious enraged Ghara6ler. 

Wherethe might ofOdhnA/ought^ 

And with fierce Enfigns pier(^d the deep array 
Of Moloc^ furious King^ who him defy'd^ 
And at his chariot whuls to drag him bound 
Threaten'dy nor from the Holy one ofHeat/n 
Erfrain'd his tongue blafphemous ; but anon 
Down cloven to the wqfle^ with Jhaiter'd arms 

And uncouth pain fled bellowing, 

It may be worth while to obferve, that Milton has 
reprefented this violent impetuous Spirit, who is 
hurried on by fuch precipitate Paifions, as the firjl 
that rifes in the AfTembly, to give Ms Opinion upon 
their prefent Poilure of Afifairs. Accordingly he de- 
clares himfelf abruptly for War, and appears incenfed 
at his Companions, for lofing fo much time as even 
to deliberate upon it. All his Sentiments are Rafh, 
Audacious and Defpenite. Such is that of arming 
themfelves with their Tortures, and turning their 
Punifhments upon him who infli£ted them. 



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CKiriaSM OF BOOK IL 



--No^ let us rather chu/e^ 



Arm^dwith Hell flames andfury^ all at onet 
Oer Heavens high iovfrs to force refifllefs way^ 
Turning our tortures into horrid arms 
Againfl the Torturer; when to meet the Noife 
Of Ids almighty Engine hefhall hear 
Infernal Thunder ^ and for Lightning fee 
Black fire and horror fhot unth equal rage 
Among his Angels; and his throne itfdf 
iVixt with Tartarean Sulphury atui flrange fire^ 
His 07vn invented Torments 

His preferring Annihilation to Shame or Mifeiy, ii 
alfo highly fuitable to his Charadler, as the Comfort 
he draws from their diftnrbing the Peace of Heaven, 
namely, that if it be not Vi<5lory it is Revenge, is a 
Sentiment truly Diabolical, and becoming the Bitter- 
nefs of this implacable Spirit. 

Belial is defcribed, in the Firfl Book, as the Idol of 
the Lewd and Luxurious. He is in the Second Book, 
purfuant to that Defcription, charadlerized as timorous 
and flothful ; and if we look into the Sixth Book, we 
find him celebrated in the Battel of Angels for nothing 
but that Scoffing Speech which he makes to Satcm^ 
on their fuppofed Advantage over the Enemy. As 
his Appearance is uniform, and of a Piece, in thefe 
three feveral Views, we find his Scc*uncnts in the 
Infernal Affembly every way conformable to his Cha- 
radter. Such are his Apprehenfions of a fecond Battel, 
his Horrors of Annihilation, his preferring to be 
miferable rather than not to be, I need not obferve, that 
the Contrail of Thought in this Speech, and that which 
precedes it, gives an agreeable Variety to the Debate. 

Mammon's Character is fo fully drawn in the Firfl 
Book, that the Poet adds nothing to it in the Second. 
We were before told, that he was the firfl who taught 
Mankind to ranfack the Earth for Gold and Silver, 
and that he was the Archite6l of Pandcemoniumy or 
the Infernal Palace, where the Evil Spirits were to 



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te otmcnii OF BOOK it 

meet in Council. His Speech in tliis Book is every 
way [where] fuitable to fo depraved a Chara6ler. How 
proper is that Refledlion, of their being unable to tafle 
the Happinefs of Heaven were they adhially there, 
in the Mouth of one, who while he was in Heaven, 
is (aid to have had his Mind dazled with the outward 
Pomps and Glories of the Place, and to have been 
more intent on the Riches of the Pavement, than on 
the Beatifick Viiion. I (hall alfo leave the Reader to 
judge how agreeable the following Sentiments are to 
the fame Charader. 



-This deep world 



OfDarknefs do we dreads How oft amidjl 
Thick cloud and dark doth Heenfns aU-ruUng Sire 
Chufe to refidcy his Glory unobfcuredy 
And with the Majefty ofdarknefs round 
Covers his Throne; from whence deep thunders roar 
Mujlring their rage^ andHea'dn refembles Hellt 
As he our darknefSy cannot we his light 
Imitate when we pleafe f This defart Soil 
Wants not her hidden lujlre^ Gems and Gold; 
Nor want we Skill or Art^from whence to raife 
Magnificence; and what ccm Heaifnjhew more f 

Beelzdfub, who is reckon'd the fecond in Dignity 
that feU, and is in the Firft Book, the fecond that 
awakens out of the Trance, and confers with Satan 
upon the fituation of their Affairs, maintains his Rank 
in the Book now before us. There is a wonderful 
Majeily defcribed in his riling up to fpeak. He a6ls 
asa kind of Moderator between the two oppoiite Parties, 
and propofes a third Undertaking, which the whole 
Aflembly ^ves into. The Motionhe makes of detaching 
one of theur Body in fearch of a new World is grounded 
upon a Projedl devifed by Satan^ and curforily pro- 
pofed by him in the followmg Lines of the firfl Book. 

Space may produce new Worlds^ whereof fo rife 
There went a fame in Heai/n^ that he ier long 



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CRITICISM OF BOOK II. 63 

Inti tided to crtaie^ and therein plant 
A generatum^ whom his choice r^cad 
Should favour equal to the Sons of Heaven • 
Thither, ifbuttopry.fhall be perhaps 
Ourfirft eruption^ thither or elftwhere : 
For this infernal PitfhaJl never hold 
Celeftial Spirits in bandage^ nor th' Abyfs 
Long under Darknefs cover. But thefe thoughts 
Full Counfel mufl mature : 

It is on this Projedl that Beilzebub grounds his Pro- 
pofal 

What if we find 

Some eqfier enterprise f There is a place 
{If ancient cmd prophetic fame in Heav'n 
Err not) another Worldy the happy Seat 
Offome new Race calFd Man, about this time 
To be created like to uSy though lefs 
In power and excellence^ but favoured more 
Of him who rules above; fo was his Will 
Pronoundd among the GodSy cmd by an oath^ 
Thatfhook Heavens whole circumference^ confirnCd, 

The Reader may obferve how jull it was, not to 
omit in the Firfl Book the Projeft upon which the 
whole Poem turns : As alfo that the Prince of the 
fall'n Angels was the only proper Perfon to give it 
Birth, and that the next to him in Dignity was the fit- 
ted to fecond and fupport it 

There is befides, I think, fomething wonderfully 
beautiful, and very apt to afifedl the Reader's Imagi- 
nation, in this ancient Prophecy or Report in Heaven, 
concerning the Creation of Man. Nothing could 
(hew more the Dignity of the Species, than this Tra- 
dition which ran of them before their Exiftence. They 
are reprefented to have been the Talk of Heaven, be- 
fore they were created. Virgil^ in compliment to the 
Roman Common-Wealth, makes the Heroes of it ap 
pear in their State of Pre-exi(lence ; But Mil/on does a 
far greater Honour to Mankind in general, as he gives 
us a Glimpfe of them even before they are in Being. 



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64 CAinCISM OP BOOK fl. 

ITie rifing of this great Aflembly is defcribed in a 
very Sublime and Poetical manner. 

Their rifing all at once was as the found 
Of Thunder heard remote 

The Diverfions of the fallen Angels, with the parti- 
cular Account of their Place of Habitation, are de- 
fcribed with great Pregnancy of Thought, and Copiouf- 
nefs of Invention. The Diverfions are every way fuit- 
able to Beings who had nothing left them but Strength 
and Knowledge mifapplied. Such , are their Conten- 
tions at the Race, and in Feats of Arms, with their En- 
tertainment in the following Lines. 

Others with vaft Typhaean rage more fell 
Rmd up both Rocks and Hills, and ride the Air 
In Whirlwind; Hellfcarce holds the wild uproar. 

Their Mufick is employed in celebrating their own 
criminal Exploits, and their Difcourfe in founding the 
unfathomable Depths of Fate, Free-will, and Fore- 
knowledge. 

The feveral Circumftances in the Defcription of Hell 
are very finely imagined ; as the four Rivers which difgorge 
themfelves into the Sea of Fire, the Extreams of Cold 
and Heat, and the River of Oblivion. The monllrous 
Animals produced in that infernal World are reprefented 
by a iingle Line, which gives us a more horrid Idea of 
them, than a much longer Defcription would have done. 

-Nature Ifreeds, 



Pen^erfe, all monfirouSy all prodigious things. 
Abominable, inutterable, and worfe 
Than Fables yet have feign'd, or fear conceiv'd, 
Gorgons, and Hydrds, and Chimerds dire. 

This Epifode of the fallen Spirits, and their Place of 
Habitation, comes in very happily to imhend tlie 
Mind of the Reader firom its Attention to the Debate. 
An ordinary Poet would indeed have fpun out fo many 



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CRITICISM OF BOOK II. 6$ 

Circumflances to a great Length, and by that means 
have weakned,in(lead of illu(lrated,the principal Fable. 

The Flight of Satan to the Gates of Hell is finely imaged. 

I have already declared ipy Opinion of the Allegory 
concerning Sin and Deaths which is however a very 
finilhed Piece in its kind, when it is not coniidered as 
a Part of an Epic Poem. The Genealogy of the 
feveral Perfons is contrived with great Delicacy. Sin 
is the Daughter of Satan ^ and Death the Offspring of 
Sin, The inceftuous Mixture between Sin and Death 
produces thofe Monllers and Hell-hounds which from 
time to time enter into their Mother, and tear the 
Bowels of her who gave them Birth. Thefe are the 
Terrors of an evil Confcience, and the proper Fruits 
of Sin^ which naturally rife from the Apprehenfions of 
Death, This lad beautiful Moral is, I think, clearly 
intimated in the Speech of Sin^ where complaining of 
this her dreadful Iflue, (he adds, 

Before mine eyes in oppofition fits, 
Grim Death thy Son and foe, who fets them on. 
And nu his Parent would full foon devour 
For want of other prey ^ but that he knows 
His end with mint involved 

I need not mention to the Reader the beautiful 
Circumftance in the lafl Part of this Quotation. He 
will likewife obferve how naturally the three Perfons 
concerned in this Allegory are tempted by one common 
Intereft to enter into a Confederacy together, and how 
properly Sin is made the Portrefs of Hell, and the only 
Being that can open the Gates to that World of Tortures. 

The defcriptive Part of this Allegory is likewife 
very flrong, and full of Sublime Ideas. The Figure 
of Death, [the Regal Crown upon his Head,] his Me- 
nace to Siatan, his advancing to the Combat, the Out- 
cry at his Birth, are Circumflances too noble to be 
pafl over in Silence, and extreamly fuitable to this 
Kir^ of Terrors, I need not mention the Juflnefs of 
Thought which is obferved in the Generation of thefe 
s 



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66 CRITICISM OF BOOK IL 

feveral Symbolical Perfons; that Sin was produced upon 
the firft Revolt of Satan, that Death appeared foon 
after he was call into Hell, and that the Terrors of 
Confcience were conceived at the Gate of this Place 
of Torments. The Defcription of the Gates is very 
poetical, as the openingof them is full oi Milton's Spirit. 

On afudden open fly 

With impetuous recoil and jarring found 
TK infernal doors ^ and on their hinges grate 
Harfh Thunder^ that the lowefl bottom Jfhook 
Of Erebus. She open'dy but tofhut 
ExcelPd her Power; the Gates wide open floods 
That with extended wings a banner' d Hofl 
Under fpread Enfigns marching might pafs through 
With Horfe and Chariots rat^d in loofe array; 
So wiile they flood, and like a furnace mouth 
Cafl forth redounding fmoak and ruddy flame. 

InSatan'sVoyeige through the Chaos there are feveral 
Imaginary Perfons defcribed,as refidinginthat iroroenfe 
Wafte Qf Matter. This may perhaps be conformable 
to the Tafte of thofe Criticks who are pleafed with 
nothing in a Poet which has not Life and Manners 
afcribed to it ; but for my own part, I am pleafed 
mod with thofe Paffages in this Defcription which 
carry in them a greater Meafure of Probability, and 
are fuch as might poflTibly have happened. Of this 
kind is his fiA mounting in the Smoak that rifes 
from the infernal Pit: his falling into a Cloud of 
Nitre, and the like combuftible Materials, that by 
their Explofion (lill hurried him forward in his 
Voyage; his fpringing upward like a Pyramid of 
Fire, with his laborious Paflage through that Con- 
fufion of Elements, which the Poet calls 

The Womb of Nature and perhaps her Graxte. 

The Glimmering Light which (hot into the Chaos 
from the utmoil Verge of the Creation, with the 
diftant Difcovery of the Earth that hung clofe by 
Uie Moon, are wonderfully beautiful and poetical. 



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NoMB. CCCXV. 

The SPECTATOR. 



Nee deus interfit^ nifi dignus vindiee nodus 

Ineiderit • Hon 

{Never prefume to make a God appear y 
Bui for a Bufinefs worthy of a God, Rofcommon.} 



Saturday^ March i, 171a. 



\ORACE advifes a Poet to confider tho- 
roughly the Nature and Force of his 
Genius. Milton feems to have known, 
perfedlly well, wherein his Strength lay, 
and has therefore chofen a Subje6t entirely 
conformable to thofe Talents, of which he was Mafler. 
As his Genius was wonderfully turned to the Sublime, 
his SubjecSl is the nobleft that could have entered into 
the Thoughts of Man. Every thing that is truly great 
and aflonilhing, has a place in it The Whole Syftem 
of the intelledlual World ; the Chaos^ and the Crea- 
tion ; Heaven, Earth and Hell ; enter into the Con- 
ilitution of his Poem. 

Having in the Firll and Second Book reprefented 
the Infernal World with all its Horrours, the Thread of 
bis Fable naturally leads him into the oppofite Regions 
of Blifs and Glory. 

If Milton^ s Majelly forfakes him any where, it is in 
thofe Parts of his Poem, where the Divine Perfons are 
introduced as Speakers. One may, I think, obferve 
that the Author proceeds with a kind of Fear and 
Trembling, whilft he dcfcribcs the Sentiments of the 
Almighty. He dares not give his Imagination its full 
Play, but chufes to confine himfelf to fuch Thoughts 
as are drawn from the Books of the moil Orthodox 
Divines, and to fuch ExprefTions as may be met with 



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6S CRITICISM OF BOOK 11!. 

in Scripture. The Beauties, therefore, which we are 
to look for in thefe Speeches, are not of a Poetical 
nature, or fo proper to fill the mind with Sentiments 
of Grandeur, as with Thoughts of Devotion. The 
Paffions, which they are defigned to raife, are a Divine 
Love and Religious Fear. The particular Beauty of 
the Speeches in the Third Book, confids in that 
Shortneds and Perfpicuity of Stile, in which the Poet 
has couched the greateft Myfleries of Chriilianity, and 
drawn together, in a regular Scheme, the whole Dif- 
penfation of Providence, with refpedl to Man. He 
has reprefented all the abftrufe Dodlrines of Predelli- 
nation, Free-will and Grace, as alfo the great Points of 
Incarnation and Redemption, (which naturally grow 
up in a Poem that treats of the Fall of Man,) with 
great Energy of Exprefllon, and in a clearer and 
(Ironger Light than I ever met with in any other 
Writer. As thefe Points are dry in themfelves to the 
generality of Readers, the concife and clear manner 
in which he has treated them, is very much to be 
admired, as is likewife that particular Art which he 
has made ufe of in the interfperfing of all thofe 
Graces of Poetry, which the Subjedl was capable of 
receiving. 

The Survey of the whole Creation, and of every 
thing that is tranfadled in it, is a Profpedl worthy of 
Omnifcience ; and as much above that, in which Virgil 
has drawn his Jupiter^ 2S the Chriflian Idea of the 
Supream Being is more rational and Sublime than 
that of tlie Heathens. The particular Objedls oa 
which he is defcribed to have cad his Eye, are repre- 
fented in the mod beautiful and lively manner. 

Now had tJC Almighty Father from above^ 

From the pure Empyrean where he fits 

High throfid above all height^ bent down his Eye^ 

His own Works and their Works at once to view. 

About him all the San^ities of Heaven 

Stood thick as Stars ^ and from his Sight recdtfd 



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CRITICISM OF BCM>K III. 69 

Beatitude pq/i utterance: On his right 
The radiant image of his Glory fat ^ 
His only Son; On earth hefirfl beheld 
Our twofirfl Parents^ yet the only two 
Of Mankind^ in the happy garden pla^dy 
Reaping immortal fruits of Joy and Love^ 
Uninterrupted joyy unrivoTd love^ 
In blifsful Solitude; he thenfurveyd 
Hell and the Gulf between^ and Satan there 
Coaflingthe Wall of Heat/ n on this fide nighi 
In the dun air fublimey and ready now 
Tofloop with wearied wings^ and willing feet 
On the bare outfide of this worlds thatfeem^d 
Firm land imbofomd without firmament ^ 
Uncertain whichy in Ocean or in Air. 
Him God beholding from his prof pe^ high^ 
Wherein pq/l^ prefent, future he beholds^ , 
Thus td his only Son forefeeing fpake, 

Satan's Approach to the Confines of the Creation, 
is finely imaged in the beginning of the Speech, 
which immediately follows. The Effedls of this Speech 
in the bleffed Spints, and in the Divine Perfon,to whom 
it was addreffed, cannot but fill the Mind of the Reader 
with a fecret Pleafure and Complacency. 

Thus while God fpake^ ambrofial fragrance filV d 
All Heai^n, and in the bleffed Spirits eUn 
Senje of new Joy ineffable diffused : 
Beyond compare the Son of Godwasfeen 
Mofi glorious^ in him all his Father fiwne 
Subfianticdly exprefid; and in his face 
Divine Compafflon vifibly appear* dy 
Love without end^ cmd without meafure Grace. 

I need not point out the Beauty of that Circumftance, 
wherein the whole Hod of Angels are reprefented as 
Aanding Mute ; nor (hew how proper the Occafion 
was to produce fuch a Silence in Heaven. The Clofe 
of this Divine Colloquy, with the Hymn of Angeig 



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90 CRITiriSM OV BOOR II f. 

that follows upon it, are fo wonderfully beautiful and 
poetical, that I (hould not forbear inferting the whole 
Paffage, if the bounds of my Paper would give me 
leave. 

Nofooner had W Almighty cea^d^ but all 
The multitude of Artels with ajhout 
Loud as from numbers without number ^ fweet 
As from blefl Voices^ uttering Joy, Heav'n rung 
With Jubilee, and loud Hofannds filVd 
TH eternal regions; &c. &c. 

Satan^s Walk upon the Outfide of the Univerfe, 
which, at a Diflance, appeared to him of a globular 
Form, but, upon his nearer Approach, looked like an 
unbounded Plain, is natural and noble : As his roam- 
ing upon the Frontiers of the Creation, between tl at 
Mafe of Matter, which was wrought into a World, and 
that Ihapelefs unformed Heap of Materials, which flill 
lay in Chaos and Confufion, flrikes the Imagination 
with fomething adonifhingly great and wild. I have 
before fpoken of the Limbo of Vanity, which the I*oet 
places upon this outermoft Surface of the Univerfe, 
and (hall here explain my felf more at large on that, 
and other Parts of the Poem, which are of the fame 
Shadowy nature. 

Ariflotle obferves, that the Fable of an Epic Poem 
(hould abound in Circumftances that are both credible 
and aflonilhing: or as the French Critics chufe to 
phrafe it, the Fable (hould be filled with the Proba'jie 
and the Marvellous. This Rule is as fine and jufl as 
any in Ariflotlis whole Art of Poetry. 

If the Fable is only probable, it differs nothing from 
a true Hiflory ; if it is only Marvellous, it is no better 
than a Romance. The great Secret therefore of 
Heroic Poetry is to relate fuch Circumftances, as may 
produce in the Reader at the fame time both Belief and 
Aftonifhment. This often happens [is brought to pafs] 
in a wellchofen Fable, by the Account of fuch things as 
have really happened, or at leaft of fuch things as have 



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CRITICISM OF BOOK IIT, 7 1 

liappen'd, according to the received Opinions of 
Mankind. Miitofi's Fable is a Mafler-piece of this 
Nature ; as the War in Heaven, the Condition of the 
fallen Angels, the State of Innocence, the Temptation 
of the Serpent, and the Fall of Man, though they are 
very allonilhing in themfelves, are not only credible, 
but a6lual Points of Faith. 

The next Method of reconciling Miracles with 
Credibility, is by a happy Invention of the Poet ; as 
in particular, when he introduces Agents of a fuperior 
Nature, who are capable of effedling what is wonderful, 
and what is not to be met with in the ordinary courfe 
of things. Ulyffe^% Ship being turned into a Rock, and 
^Ef^as's Fleet into a Shoal of Water Nymphs, though 
they are very furprizing Accidents, are neverthelefs 
probable, when we are told that they were the Gods 
who thus transformed them. It is this kind of 
Machinery which fills the Poems both of Homer and 
Virgil with fuch Circumllances as are wonderful, but 
not impoffible, and fo frequently produce in the 
Reader the mofl pleafing Paffion that can rife in the 
Mind of Man, which is Admiration. If there be any 
Inflance in the ^neid liable to Exception upon this 
Account, it is in the beginning of the third Book, 
where ^neas is reprefented as tearing up the Myrtle 
that dropped Blood. To qualifie this wonderful Cir- 
cumflance, Polydorus tells a Story from the Root of 
the M)rrtle, that the barbarous inhabitants of the 
Country having pierced him with Spears and Arrows, 
the Wood which was left in his Body took Root in 
his Wounds, and gave birth to that bleeding Tree. 
This Circumflance feems to have the Marvellous 
without the Probable, becaufe it is reprefented as pro- 
ceeding from Natural Caufes, without the Interpofition 
of any God, or rather Supernatural Power capable of 
producing it The Spears and Arrows grow of them- 
felves, without fo much as the Modem help of an 
Enchantment. If we look into the Fidtion of MiltofH 
Fable, though we find it full of furprizing Incidents, 



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72 CRITICTSM OF BOOK ITL 

they are generally fuited to our Notions of the Things 
and Perfons defcribed, and tempered with a due 
meafure of Probability. I mud only make an Excep 
tion to the Lymbo of Vanity, with his Epifode of Sin 
and Death, and fome of the imaginary Perfons in his 
Chaos, Thefe Paflages are aftoniihing, but not 
credible ; .the Reader cannot fo far impofe upon him- 
felf as to fee a PolTibility in them; they are the 
Defcription of Dreams and Shadows, not of Things or 
Perfons. I know that many Critics look upon the 
Stories of Circe^ Polyphemey the Sirens^ nay the whole 
Odyffey and IHad^ to be Allegories ; but allowing this 
to be true, they are Fables, which confidenng the 
Opinions of Mankind that prevailed in the Age of the 
Poet, might poflibly have been according to the Letter. 
The Perfons are fuch as might have adled what is 
afcribed to them, as the Circumftances in which they 
are reprefented, might poflibly have been Truths and 
Realities. This appearance of Probability is fo 
abfolutely requifite in the greater kinds of Poetry, 
that Ari/lotle obferves the Ancient Tragick Writers 
made ufe of the Names of fuch great Men as had ac- 
tually lived in the World, tho' the Tragedy proceeded 
upon fuch Adventures they were never engaged in, 
on purpofe to make the Subjedl more Credible. In a 
Word, befides the hidden Meaning of an EpicAUegory, 
the plain literal Senfe ought to appear probable. The 
Story (hould be fuch as an ordinary Reader may 
acquiefce in, whatever Natural Moral or Political 
Truth may be difcovered in it by Men of greater 
Penetration. 

Satan^ after having long wandered upon the Surface, 
or outmoil Wall of the Univerfe, difcovers at lad a 
wide Gap in it, which led into the Creation, and which* 
is defcribed as the Opening through which the Angels 
pafs to and fro into the lower World, upon their 
Errands to Mankind. His Sitting upon the brink of 
this Paffage, and taking a Survey of the whole Face of 
Nature that appeared to him new and frelh in all its 



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ClimCISM OF BOOK III. 73 

Beauties, with the Simile illuflrating this Circumftauce, 
fills the Mind of the Reader with as furprifing and 
glorious an Idea as any that arifes in the whole Poem. 
He looks down into that vafl hollow of the Univerfe 
with the Eye, or (as Milton calls it in his firil Book) 
with the Kenn of an Angel. He furveys all the Wonders 
in this immenfe Amphitheatre that lie between both 
the Poles of Heaven, and takes in at one View the 
whole Round of the Creation. 

His Flight between the feveral Worlds that (hined 
on every fide of him, with the particular Defcription 
of the Sun, are fet forth in all the wantonnefs of a 
luxuriant Imagination. His Shape, Speech and Beha- 
viour upon his transforming himfelf into an Angel of 
Light, are touched with exquifite Beauty. The Poet's 
Thought of diredling Satan to the Sun, which in the 
Vulgar Opinion of Mankind is the mofl confpicuous 
Part of the Creation, and the placing in it an Angel, is 
a Circumftance very finely contrived, and the more 
adjuiled to a Poetical Probability, as it was a received 
Dodlrine among the mod famous Philofophers, that 
every Orb had its Intelligence \ and as an Apoflle in 
Sacred Writ is faid to have feen fuch an Angel in the 
Sun. In the Anfwer which this Angel returns to the 
difguifed Evil Spirit, thejre is fuch a becoming Majefty 
as is altogether fuitable to a Superior Being. The part 
of it in wiiich he reprefents himfelf as prefent at (he 
Creation, is very noble in it felf, and not only proper 
where it is introduced, but requifite to prepare the 
Reader for what follows in the Seventh Book. 

I faw when at his word theformkfs Mafs^ 
This worlds material mouldy came to a heap : 
Confufion heard his voice^ and wild uproar 
Stood rttPdy flood vail infinitude confined; 
Till at his fecond bidding darknefsfled^ 
Light flton^ &C, 

In the following part of the Speech he points out 
the Earth with fuch Circumftances, that the Reader 



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74 citrncuic op book m. 

can fcarce forbear fimcying bimfdf employed on the 
lame diilant view of it 

Look downward on that Globe^ whofe hUherfidt 
WUh light from hena, thd Imt reflthid^ Jkines : 
That place is Earthy the Scat ofman^ thai light 
His day^ &c 

I mufl not conclude my Refle^ons upon this Third 
Book of Faradifc Lojl^ without taking notice of that 
celebrated Complaint of Milton with which it opens, 
and which certainly deferves all the Praifes that have 
been given it ; tho' as I have before hinted, it may 
rather be looked upon as an Excrefcence, than as an 
eifential Part of the Poem. The lame Obfervation 
might be applied to that beautiful Digreflion upon 
Hypocrifiey in the lame Book. 




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Numb. CCCXXI. 

The SPECTATOR. 

Nee fails ejl pulchra effe poemata^ dulciafunto. Hor, 

{*7If not enough a Poenis finely writ; 
It mujl affeH and captivate the SouL } 

Saturday^ March 8. 17 12. 



[HOSE, who know how many Volumes have 
been written on the Poems of Homer and 
Virgily will eafily pardon the Length of my 
Difcourfe upon Milton. The Paradife L<yl 
is look'd upon, by the bed Judges, as th6 
greateft Produdlion, or at leail the noblefl Work of 
Genius, in our Language, and therefore deferves to be 
fet before an Englijli Reader in its full Beauty. For 
this Reafon, tho' I have endeavoured to give a 
general Idea of its Graces and Imperfedlions in my Six 
Firil Papers, I thought my felf obliged to bellow one upon 
every Book in particular. The Three Firfl Books I have 
already difpatched, and am now entring upon the 
Fourth. I need not acquaint my Reader, that there are 
Multitudes of Beauties in this great Author, efpecially 
in the Defcriptive Parts of his Poem, which I have not 
touched upon, it being my Intention to point out thofe 
only, which appear to me the moil exquifite, or thofe 
which are not fo obvious to ordinary Readers. Every 
one that has read the Criticks, who have written upon the 
Odyffeyy the Iliad and the ^neid, knows very well, that 
though they agree in their Opinions of the great Beau- 
ties in thofe Poems, they have neverthelefs each of them 
difcovered feveral Mafler-Stroaks, which have efcaped 
the Obfervation of the reft. In the fame manner, I 
queftion not, but any Writer, who (hall treat of this 
Subje<5l after me, may find feveral Beauties in Milton^ 



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76 CRITICISM OF BOOK IV. 

which I have not taken notice of. I mud likewife ob- 
ferve, that as the greatefl Mailers of Critical Learning 
differ from one another, as to fome particular Points in 
an Epic Poem, I have not bound myfelf fcrupuloufly to 
the Rules, which any one of them has laid down upon 
that Art, but have taken the Liberty fometimes to join 
with one, and fometimes with another, and fometimes 
to differ from all of them, when I have thought that the 
Reafon of the thing was on my fide. 

We may confider the Beauties of the Fourth Book 
under three Heads. In the Firil are thofe Pidhires of 
Still-Life,which we meet with in theDefcriptionsof^/Zifyf, 
Paradifi^ Adam's Bower, &*c. In the next are the 
Machines, which comprehend the Speeches and Beha- 
viour of the good and bad Angels. In the lad is the 
Condudl oiAdam and^z^^ who are the principal Adlors 
in the Poem. 

In the Defcription oiParadife^ the Poet has obferved 
AriflotUs Ruleof lavifliing all the Ornaments of Di6lion 
on the weak unadlive Parts of the Fable, which are not 
fupported by the Beauty of Sentiments and Charadlers. 
Accordingly the Reader may obferve, that the Expref- 
fions are more florid and elaborate in thefe Defcriptions, 
than in mod other Parts of the Poem. I mud further 
add, that tho' the Drawings of Gardens, Rivers, 
Rainbows, and the like dead Pieces of Nature, are 
judly cenfured in an Heroic Poem, when they nm out 
into an imneceffary length ; the Defcription of Para* 
difc would have been faulty, had not the Poet been very 
particular in it, not only as it is the Scene of the prin- 
cipal Adlion, but as it is requifite to give us an Idea of 
that Happbefs from which our fird Parents fell The 
Plan of it is wonderfully beautiful, and formed upon the 
(hort Sketch which we have of it, in Holy Writ Miitoffs 
Exuberance of Itaagination, has pour'd forth fuch a 
redundancy of Ornaments on this Seat of Happinefs 
and Innocence, that it would be endlefis to point out 
each Particular. 

I mud not quit this Head, without further obferving, 



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CRITICISM or BOOK Vf. Jf 

Ihal there is fcarce a Speech of Adam or Eve in the 
whole Poem, wherein the Sentiments and Allufions 
are not taken from this their delightful Habitation. 
The Reader, during their whole Courfe of A6tion, 
always finds himfelf in the Walks oiParadiJt, In (hort, 
as the Criticks have remarked, that in thofe Poems, 
wherem Shepherds are A6lors, the Thoughts ought 
always to take a Tindure from the Woods, Fields, and 
Rivers ; fo we may obferve, that our firil Parents fel- 
dom lofe Sight of their happy Station in any thing 
they fpeak or do ; and, if the Reader will give me 
leave to ufe the Expreffion, that their Thoughts are 
alwap ParadifiacaL 

We are in fiie next place to confider the Machines 
of the Fourth Book. Satan being now within Prof- 
|)e<5l of Edetiy and looking round upon the Glories of 
the Creation, is filled with Sentiments different from 
thofe which he difcovered whilfl he was in HelL The 
Place infpires him with Thoughts more adapted to it : 
He refle<^s upon the happy Condition from whence he 
fell, and breaks forth into a Speech that is foftned 
with feveral tranfient Touches of Remorfe and Self- 
accufation : But at length he confirms himfelf in Im- 
penitence, and in his defign of drawing Man into his 
own State of Guilt and Mifery. This Conflicfl of 
Paffions is raifed with a great deal of Art, as the open- 
ing of his Speech to the Sun is very bold and noble. 

O thou thai with furpajfmg Glory crawrid 
Jj)okflfrofn thy Sole Dominion like the God 
Of this new Worlds at whofe Sight all the Stars 
Hide their diminiJKd heads ^ to thee I call 
But with no Friendly Voice^ and add thy name^ 

Suny to tell thee how I hate thy beams 

Thai bring to my remembrance from what State 

1 fell ^ how glorious once above thy Sphere, 

This Speech is, I think, the finefl that is afcribed 
to Saian in the whole Poem. The Evil Spirit after- 
wards proceeds to make his Difcoveries concerning 



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7^ CRITICISM OF BOOK IV. 

our firfl Parents, and to learn after what manner they 
may be bed attacked. His bounding over the Walls 
of Paradife \ his fitting in the Shape of a Cormorant 
upon the Tree of Life, which ilood in the Center of it, 
and overtopp'd all the other Trees of the Garden; his 
alighting among the Herd of Animals, which are fo 
beautifully reprefented as playing 2XiO\x\.Adam and Eve^ 
together with his transforming himfelf into different 
Shapes, in order to hear their Converfation ; arc Cir- 
cumftances that give an agreeable Surprize to the 
Reader, and are devifed with great Art, to connect that 
Series of Adventures in which the Poet has engaged 
this great Artificer of Fraud. 

[The Thought of Satan's Transformation into a Cor- 
morant, and placing himfelf on the Tree of Life, feems 
raifed upon that Paflage in the liiady where two Deities 
are defcribed, as perching on the Top of an Oak in 
the Shape of Vulturs.] 

His planting himfelf at the Ear of Eve in the (hape 
[under the Form] of a Toad, in order to produce vain 
Dreams and Imaginations, is a Circumdance of the 
fame Nature ; as his flarting up in his own Form is won- 
derfully fine, both in the Literal Defcription, and in the 
Moral which is concealed under it His Anfwer upon 
his being difcovered, and demanded to give an Account 
of himfelf, are [is] conformable to the Pride and Intre- 
pidity of his Charadler. 

Know ye not then, /aid Satan, yfi7*// with Scorn^ 
Know ye not mef ye knew me once no mate 
For yoUy fitting where you durjl not foare; 
Not to know me argues your-Jelves unknown^ 
The lowejl of your throng; 

Zephotis Rebuke,'with the Influence it had on Satan^ 
IS exqiiifitely Graceful and Moral. Satan is afterwards 
led away to Gabriel^ the chief of the Guardian Angels, 
who kept watch in Paradife, His difdainful Behaviour 
oa this.occafion is fo remarkable a Beauty, that the 
mod ordinary Reader cannot but take notice of it# 



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CRITICISM OP mx>K IV. 79 

GabrUfs difcovering his approach at adi(lance,isdrdwii 
ivith great (Irength and livelinels of Imagination. 

FriendSy I hear the tread of nimble Feet 
Haftening this way^ and now by glimps difcern 

. Ithuriel and Zephon through thejhade; 

And with them comes a third of Regal Port^ 
. But faded fplendor wan ; who by his gait 
. A ful fierce demeanour feems the Prince ofHell^ 

Not likely to part hence without contefl; 

Stand firm^ for in his look defiana lours. 

The Conference between Gabriel zxA Salon abounds 
vHth Sentiments proper for the Occafion, and fuitable 
to the Perfons of the two Speakers. Satan's cloathing 
himfelf with Terror when he prepares for the Combat 
i$ truly fublime, and at lead equal to Homer's Defcrip- 
tion of Difcord celebrated by LonginuSy or to that of 
Fame in Virgil^ who are botii reprefented with their 
Feet (landing upon the Earth, and their Heads reach- 
ing above the Clouds. 

While thus lu fpake^ M* Angelic Squadron briglit 
TurtCd fiery red, Jharpning in mooned Horns 
Their Phalanx^ and began to hem him round 
With ported Spears, &c. 

On tic other Side^ Satan alamid^ 

ColleHing all his might dilated fiood 

Like Teneriff or Atlas unremov'd. 

His Stature reached the Sky^ and on his Crefl 

Sat horrourplum'd; 

1 mud here take notice, that Milton is every where 
full of Hints, and fometimes literal Tranflations, taken 
from the greateft of the Greek and Latin Poets. But 
this I (hall [may] referve for a Difcourfe by it felf, be- 
caufe I would not break the Thread of thefe Specula- 
tions that are defigned for Englifh Readers, wiUi such 
Refiedlions as would be of no life but to the Learned. 

I mu(l however obferve in this Place, that the break- 
ing off the Combat between Gabriel ^nA Satan^ by the 



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8o CMTlCISir OF BOOR IV. 

hanging out of the Golden Scales in Heaven, is a Re- 
finement upon Jfonuf's Thought, who tells us, that 
before the Battel between Hc^r and AchilUs^ Jupiter 
weighed the Event of it in a pair of Scales. The 
Resuler may fee the whole Paffage in the 22d Iliad. 

Virgil^ before the lad decifive Combat, defcribes 
fupiUr in the fame manner, as weighing the Fates of 
Tumus and yEmas. Milton^ though he fetched this 
beautiful Circumftance from the Iliad and y£ndd^ 
does not only infert it as a Poetical Embellilhment, 
like the Authors above-mentioned; but makes an 
artful ufe of it for the proper carrying on of his Fable, 
and for the breaking off the Combat between the two 
Warriors, who were upon the point of engaging. [To 
this we may further add, that Milton is the more 
juflified in this Paflage, as we find the fame noble 
Allegory in Holy Writ, where a wicked Prince, {fome 
few Hours before he was affaulted and flain,} is diid to 
have been weighed in tht Scales and to have been found 
wantingl\ 

I muft here take Notice under the Head of the 
Machines, that Uriets gliding down to the Earth 
upon a Sun-beam, with the Poet's Device to make 
him defcendy as well in his return to the Sun, as in 
his coming from it, is a Prettinefs that might have 
been admired in a little fanciful Poet, but feems below 
the Genius of Milton. The Defcription of the Hofl 
of armed Angels walking their nightly Round ill 
Paradife^ is of another Spirit 

So faying^ on he led his radiant Jiles^ 
Dotting the Moon; 

As that Account of the Hynms which our firft Parents 
ufed to hear them Sing in thefe their Midnight Walks, 
is altogether Divine, and inexprefllbly amufing to the 
Imagination. 

We are, in the laft place, to confider the Parts 
which Adam and Eve a6t in the Fourth Book. The 
Defcription of them as ihey fir(l appeared to Satan^ is 



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CRITICISM OF BOOK m 8f 

exquifitely drawn, and fufBcient to make the fiallen 
Angel gaze upon them with all that ARonifhment, and 
thofe Emotions of Envy, in which he is reprefented. 

Two of far nobler Shape ereil and tall 
Godlike ere^ly with native honour clad 
In naked majefly feenCd lords ofall^ 
And worthy feenC dy for in their looks divine 
The image of their glorious Maker Jhon^ 
Truthy IVifdom^ SanHitude fevere and pure; 
Severe^but in true filial freedom pla^d: 
For contemplation he and vcdour formed ^ 
For seftnefsfhe andfweet attraflive Grace; 
. He for God only ^fhe for God in him : 
His fair large front, and eyefublime declared 
Abfolute ruUy and Hyacinthin Locks 
' Round from his parted forelock many hung 
^'-Cluflringy but not beneath his Shoulders broad: 
She as a Vail down to furflender wafle 
Her unadorned golden trejfes wore 
DiffhevePdy but in wanton ringlets wai/d. 
. Sopafid they naked on^ norfhutid the Siglii 
1' Of God or Angel, for they thought no ill: 
^ So hand in hand they pafid, the loveliefl pair 
^ .. That everfince in loves embraces met, 

..'There is a fine Spirit of Poetry in the Lines which 
fofiow, wherein they are defcrib'd as fitting on a Bed 
of Flowers by the side of a Fountain, amidft a mixed 
Aflembly of Animals. 

The Speeches of thefe two firfl Lovers flow equally 
from Paflion and Sincerity. The Profeflions they 
make to one another are full of Warmth ; but at the 
fame time founded on Truth. In a Word, they art 
uie Gallantries of Faradife. 

■ When Ad3im fr/t of Men 

Sole Fartner andfole part of all thefe joys ^ 

Dearer thy felf than all; 

But let us ever praife him, and extol 
His bounty, following our delightful tctsk^ 
r 



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H CftlTIdSJI OF BOOK If. 

Tif prune thofe gramng plants^ and tend Aefeficwef^ 
Which were it toilfome^ yet with thee werefweei. 
To whom thus Eve repWd: O thou for wham 
And from whom I wns fomCd^flefh ofthyfUfk^ 
And without whom am to no end^ my Gutde 
And head^ what thou hqflfaid isjufl and right 
For we to him indeed allprtufes owe^ 
And daily thanks ^ Ichi^y who enjoy 
So far the happier Lot^ enjoying thee 
Preeminent by fo much oddSy while thou 
Like confort to thy felfccmfl no where find^ &c. 
The remabing part ofEtt^s Speedi, in which (he 
gives an Account of her felf upon her firft Creation, 
and the manner in which (he was brought to Adam. 
is I think as beautiful a Paflage as any in Afiltony or 
perhaps in any other Poet whatfoever. Thefe Pa(rages 
are all work*d off with fo much Art, that they are 
capable of plea(ing the mo(l delicate Reader, without 
offending the moft. fevere. 

That day I oft remember ^ when from Sleeps &c. 

A Poet of lefs Judgment and Invention than this 
great Author, would have found it very difficult to have 
filled thofe [thefe] tender parts of the Poem with Senti- 
ments proper for a State of Innocence ; to have de- 
fcribed the warmth of Love, and the Profeflions of it^ 
without Artifice or Hyperbole ; to have made the Man 
fpeak the mod endearing things, without defcending 
from his natural Dignity, and the Woman receiving 
them without departing from the Modefty of her 
Charafter ; in a word, to adjufl the Prerogatives of 
Wifdom and Beauty, and make each appear to the 
other in its proper Force and Lovelineds. This mutual 
Subordination of the two Sexes is wonderfully kept- 
up in the whole Poem, as particularly in the Speech 
of Eve I have before-mentioned, and upon the Con- 
clufion of it in the following Lines : — 

So f pake our general Mother ^ and with eyes 

Of Conjugal attraHion unreprav'd^ 



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CRITiaSM Of BOOK IT. Sj 

And meek surrender^ half embracing learii 
On ourfirjlfathery half her JweiJing breafl 
Naked met his under the flawing Gold 
Of her loofe treffes hid; he in delight 
Both of her beauty and fubmiffive charms 
SnuPd with Superiotir Love^ 

ITie Poet adds, that the Devil tum*d away with 
Envy at the fight of fo much Happinefs. 

We have another View of our Firft Parents in their 
Evening Difcourfes, which is full of pleafing Images 
and Sentiments fuitable to their Condition and Cha- 
racters. The Speech of Eve^ in particular, is drefe'd 
up in such a foft and natural Turn of Words and 
Sentiments, as cannot be fufficiently admired. 

I (hall clofe my Reflections upon this Book, with 
obferving the Mafterly Tranfition which the Poet makes 
to their Evening Worfhip, in the foUowingLines : — 

Thus at their fhadie lodge arrit/dy bothflood^ 
Both turtCdy and under open Sky ador'd 
The God that made both Sky^ Air, Earth and Heaifn^ 
IVhich they beheld, the Moons refplendent GlobCy 
And Starry Pole: Thou alfo mad'a the night, 
Maker omnipotent and thou the Day, <&v. 

Mod of ihe Modem Heroic Poets have imitated the 
Ancients, in beginning a Speech without premifing, 
that the Perfon (aid thus or thus \ but as it is eafie to 
imitate the Ancients in the Omiflion of two or three 
Words, it requires Judgment to do it in fuch a man- 
ner as they (hall not be mifs*d, and that the Speech 
may begin natiurally without them. There is a fine 
Indance of this Kind out of Horner^ in the Twenty- 
Third Chapter of Lottginus. 



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KVmb. CCCXXVIL 

The SPECTATOR. 




major rerum tiiihi nafcitur ordo. Virg. 

{A larger Scene of Ailion is difplay'd. Diyden.} 

Saturday^ March 15, 17 12. 



|E were told in the foregoing Boole how the 
Evil Spirit pra<5lifed upon Eve as (he lay 
afleep, in order to infpire her with 
Thoughts of Vanity, Pride and Ambition. 
The Author, who (hews a wonderful Art 
throughout his whole Poem, in preparing the Reader 
for the feveral Occurrences that arife in it, founds 
upon the above-mentioned Circumdance the 6r(l 
pa^ of the Fidh Book. Adam upon his awaking, 
finds Eifc dill afleep, with an unufual Difcompofure 
in her Looks. The Podure in which he regards her, 
is defcHbed with a wonderful Tendemefs [not to be 
expre(red*]t,as the Whifperwith which he awakens her, 
is the fofted that ever was conveyed to a Lover's Ears 

His wonder was to find unwakerid Eve 
With Treffes difcompoid cmd glowing chetk 
As through unquiet rejl: he on his side 
. Leaning half rai^d^ with looks of cordial love . , 
Hung over her enamour'd^ and beheld 
Beauty^ which whether waking or afleep^ 
Shot forth peculiar Graces; then with voiu 
Mild^ as when Zephyrus or Flora breathes^ 
Her handfoft touching^ whifper^d thus. Awake 
Myfairefl^ my efpou/d^ my lateflfoundy 
Heai/ns lafl befl gift^ my ever new delight^ 
iwakcy the morning fhinesy and the frefh field 

f See Errmim, at the end of No. 369, in the original i« 



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CRITICISM OF BOOK T. 8|, 

Calis US, we lofi the primes to mark howfpriH^ 
Our tended plants^ how blows the Citron Grove^ 
What drops the Myrrhe^ and what the balmie Reed^ 
How Nature paints her colours^ how the Bee 
Sits on the bloom^ extroHing liquid fweet. 
Such whifpring wak'd her^ but withjlartled Eye^ 
On Adam, whom embracing thus Jhe fpake. 

O Sole in whom my thoughts find all repoje^ 
My Glory ^ my perfeilion^ glad I fee 
Thyface^ and mom returned 

I cannot but take notice that Milton^ in his Con- 
ferences between Adam and Eve^ had his Eye very 
frequently upon the Book of Canticles^ in which there 
is a noble Spirit of Eaftem Poetry, and very often 
not unlike what we meet with in Homer^ who is gene- 
rally placed near the Age of Solomon. I think there 
is no quellion but the Poet in the preceding Speech 
remembred thofe two Paflages which are fpoken on 
the iike occafion, and fiird with the fame pleating 
Images of Nature. 

My beloved fpake^ and f aid unto mCy Rife upy my love^ 
my fair one^ and come away; For lo^ the winter is pq/l^ 
the rain is over and gone; the Flowers appear on the 
earth; the time of the finging of birds is come^ and the 
Voice of the Turtle is heard in our Land. The Fig-tree 
putteth forth her green figs^ and the Vines with the tender 
%rape give a good fmeU. Arife^ my love^ my fair one^ 
and come away. 

Come^ my beloved^ let us go forth into the Field; 
let us get up early to the Vineyards^ let us fee if the 
Vine flourifh^ whether the tender Grape appear y and 
the Pomegranates bud forth. 

His preferring the Garden of Eden to that 

Where the Sapient King 

Held doLiance with his fair Egyptian Spoufe^ 

(hews that the Poet had this delightful Scene in hit 
Mind. 



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86 CtlTICISM OF BOOK V. 

Ev^% Dream is full of thofe high Cofueits engmdriti^ 
Friday which we are told Ihe Devil endeavoured lo 
inflil into her. Of this kin^ is that part of it where 
(he fancies her felf awaken'd by Adam in the follow- 
ing beautiful Lines. 

Whyfleefjl thouy Eve ? tunv is the pkafant tinu^ 
The cocl^ thefUenty fave when Jtlence yields 
To the night-warbling bird^ that now awake 
Tunes fweetejl his Love-labour'd song; now reigns 
Full orb^d the moon, and with morepleafing light 
Shadowy fets offthefaee of things; in vain 
If none regard; Jleat/n wakes with all his eyes. 
Whom to behold but thee. Natures defire. 
In whofe fight all things Joy, with ravifhment 
AttraHed by thy beauty flill to gaze. 

An injudicious Poet would have made Adam talk 
through the whole Work, in fuch Sentiments as this 
[thefej. But Flattery and FaKhood are not the Courtfhip 
of Milton's Adam, and cou'd not be heard by Eve in 
her State of Innocence, excepting only in a Dream 
produced on purpofe to taint her Imagination. Other 
vain Sentiments of the fame kind in this relation of 
her Dream, will be obvious to every Reader. Tho' 
the Catadrophe of the Poem is finely preiaged on 
this occafion, the Particulars of it are fo artfully 
(hadow'd, that they do not anticipate the Story which 
follows in the Ninth Book. I (hall only add, that 
tho* the Vifion it felf is founded upon Truth, the 
Circumflances of it are full of that Wildnels and In« 
confiflency which are natural to a Dream. Adam^ 
conlormable to his fuperior Chara<5ler for WifdoiPi 
indruds and comforts Eve upon this occafion. 

So cheated he his fair Spoufc, andfhe was cheated, 
Butfilently a gentle tear let fall 
From either eye, and wiped them with her hair; 
Two other precious drops that ready flood. 
Each in their chryflalfluice^ he ^er they fell 



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CtlTICrSM OF BOOK T. 87 

Kifs'd as the gracious Signs of f wed remorfe 
And pious awe^ thatfea?d to have offended. 

The Morning Hymn is written in Imitation of one 
of thofe Plalms, where, in the Overflowings of his Grati- 
tude and Praife, the Pfafmid calls not only upon the 
AngelSy but upon the mod confpicuous parts of the 
inanimate Creation, to join with him in extolling their 
Common Maker. Invocations of this Nature fill 
the Mind with glorious Ideas of God's Works, and 
awaken that Divine Enthuilafm, which is fo natural to 
Devotion. But if this calling upon the dead parts of 
Nature, is at all times a proper kind of Worlhip, 
it was in a particular manner fuitable to our firfl 
Parents, who had the Creation frelh upon their 
Minds, and had not feen the various Difpenlations 
^f Providence, nor confequently could be acquainted 
with thofe many Topicks of Praife which might afford 
matter to the Devotions of their Pofterity. I need 
not remark that* [the] beautiful Spirit of Poetry which 
runs through this whole Hymn, nor the Holine(s of 
that Refolution wim which it concludes. 

Having ah-eady mentioned thofe Speeches which are 
affigned to the Perfons in this Poem, I proceed to the 
Defcription which the Poet gives us* of Raphael, His 
Departure from before the Throne, and his Flight thro* 
the Quires [Choirs] of Angels, is finely imaged. As 
Milton every where fills his Poem with Circumdances 
that are marvellous and adonifhing, he defcribes the 
Gate of Heaven as framed after fuch a manner, that 
it open'd of it felf upon the approach of the Angel 
who was to pafs through it 

'till at the gate 

Of Heat' ft arrii/d^ the gale felf -open' d wide^ 
On golden Hinges turnings as by work 
Divine the Sovereign Archite^ had framed. 

The Poet here feems to have regarded two or three 
Pai&ges in the eighteenth Iliad^ as that in particu- 



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-H8 CRrncisM of book v. 

lar where, fpeaking of Vulcan^ Homer i^iys^ that he had 
made Twenty Tripodes^ running on Golden Wheels, 
which, upon Occafion, might go of themfelves to the 
Affembly of the Gods, and, when there was no more ufe 
for them, return again after the fame manner. Scali- 
ger has rallied Homer very feverely upon this Point, 
as Mon£ Daderhzs endeavoured to defend it I will 
not pretend to determine, whether in this Particular 
of Homer^ the Marvellous does not lofe sight of the 
Probable. As the miraculous Workmanlhip of Mil- 
ton's Gates is not fo extraordinary as this of the Tri- 
fodes^ fo I am perfwaded he would not have men- 
tioned it, had not he been fupported in it by a Paflage 
in the Scripture, which fpeaks of Wheels in Heaven 
that had Life in them, and moved of themfelves, or 
flood flill, in Conformity with the Cherubims, whom 
.they accompanied. 

There is no queftion but Milton had this Circum- 
(lance in his Thoughts, becaufe in the folloy\ring Book 
he defcribes the Chariot of the Meffiah with livit^ 
Wheels, according to the Plan in EzekiePs Vilion. 

Forth ruJHd with whirlwind found 

The Chariot of Paternal Deity, 

FlafMng thick flames, wheel within wheel undrawn^ 

ItfelfinflinawithSpint 

I queftion not but Bqffu^ and the two Daciers, who 
are for vindicating every thing that is cenfured in 
Homer^ by fomething Parallel in Holy Writ, would 
have been very well pleafed had they thought of con- 
frpnting Vulcan's Tripodes with EzekiePs Wheels. 

Raphael's Defcent to the Earth, with the Figure of 
his Perfon, is reprefented in very lively Colours. 
Several of the French, Italian^ and EngliOi Poets have 
given a loofe to their Imaginations in the Defcription 
of Angels : But I do not remember to have met witli 
any, fo finely drawn and fo conformable to the Notions 
which are given of them in Scripture, as this in Milton. 
After having fet him forth in all his Heavenly Plumage^ 



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and reprefeiited him as alighting upon the Earth, the 
Poet concludes his Defcription with a Circumllance, 
which is altogether new, and imagined with the great- 
eft Strength of Fancy. 

Like MaiaV Son hejlood^ 

Andjhook his plumes^ that Heat/ nfy fragrance fiiPd 

The Circuit wide — 

RaphaePs Reception by the Guardian Angels ; his 
palling through the Wildemefs of Sweets ; his diftant 
Appearance to Adam^ have all the Graces that Poetry 
is capable of beftowing. The Author afterwards gives 
tis a particular Defcription of Eve in her Domeftick 
Employments. 

Sofayingy with difpcUchful looks in hajle 

She turns y on ho f pit able thoughts intent ^ 

What choice to chufefor delicacy bejly 

What order y fo contrii/d as not to mix 

TaJleSy not welljoyn^d^ inel^anty but bring 

Tajle after Tafle^ upheld with kindliefl charge; 

Beflirs her then &c. 

Though in this, and other Parts of the lame Boo^, 
the Subjedl is only the Houfewifry of our Firft 
Parent, it is fet oft" with fo many pleafing Images 
an(^ ftxong Expreflions, as make it none of the leaft 
agreeable Parts in this Divine Work. 

The natural Majefty of Adam^ and at the lame 
time his fubmiflive Behaviour to the Superiour Being, 
who had vouchfafed to be his Gueft ; the folemn H^ 
which the Angel beftows on the Mother of Mankind, 
with the Figure of Eve miniftring at the Table, are 
Circumftances which deferve to be admir'd. 

RaphaeTs Behaviour is every way fuitable to the 
dignity of his Nature, and to that Chara<5ler of a 
sociable Spirit, with which the Author has fo judi- 
cioufly introduced him. He had received Inftrudlions 
to converfe with Adam^ as one Friend converfes with 
another, and to warn him of the Enemv, who was 
contriving his Deftruftion : Accordingly he w reprc- 



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^ CRITlCItU OP SOOK T. 

fented as fitting down at Table with Adam^ and 
eating of the Fruits of Paradife, The Occafion natu- 
rally leads him to his Difcourfe on the Food of 
Angels. After having thus entered into Converfation 
with Man upon more indifferent Subje^s, he warns 
him of his Obedience, and makes a natiual Tranfition 
to the Hiilory of that fallen Angel, who was employed 
in the Circumvention of our Firll Parents. 

Had I followed Monfieur £qffi/s Method in my 
Firll Paper on Milton^ I fhould have dated the Adlion 
of Paradife Lojl from the Beginning of PapkaePs 
Speech in this Book, as he fuppofes the AAion of the 
j£fuid to begin in the fecond Book of that Poem. I 
could alledge many Reafons for my drawing the Ac- 
tion of the ^neid^ rather fix>m its immediate Begin- 
ning in the firfl Book, than from its remote Ban- 
ning in the Second, and fhew why I have confidered 
the Sacking of Trvy as an Epifode^ according to the 
common Acceptation of that Word. But as this 
would be a dry un-entertaining Piece of Critidfrn, and 
perhaps unneceffaiy to thofe who have read my Firfl 
Paper, I fhall not enlarge upon it Which-ever of the 
Motions be true, the Unity of Milton's Adlion is pre^ 
ferved according to either of them ; whether we con- 
lider the Fall of Man in its immediate Begiiming, as 
proceeding from the Refolutions taken in the Infernal 
Council, or in its more remote Beginning, as proceed- 
ing from the Firfl Revolt of the Angels in Heaven. 
The Occafion which Milton affigns for this Revolt, as 
it is founded on Hints in Holy Writ, and on the 
Opinion of fome great Writers, fo it was the mod pro- 
per that the Poet could have made ufe oC 

The Revolt in Heaven is defcribed with great Force 
of Imagination [Indignation], and a fine Variety of 
Circumilances. The Learned Reader cannot but be 
pleafed with the Poet's Imitation of Homer in the lafl 
of the following Lines. 

At imgth into the limits of the North 
They came^ and Satan took his Royal Seat 



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CRITICISM OF BOOK T. 91 

High an a hilly far blazing^ as a mowU 
Rai^d on a Mount ^ with Pyramids and toufrs 
From Diamond quarria htwn^ and rocks of Gold 
The palace of great Lucifer (fo call 
Thatflru6lure in the Dialed of men 
Interpreted) 

Homer mentions Perfons and Things, which he tells 
us in the Language of the Gods are call'd by different 
Namesfrom thofe they go by in the I^anguage of Men. 
Milton has imitated him with his ufual Judgment in 
this particular place, wherein he has likewife the Autho- 
rity of Scripture to juftify him. The part of Abdiel^ 
who was the only Spirit that in this Infinite Hod of 
Angels preferved his Allegiance to his Maker, exhibits 
to us a noble Moral of religious Singukuity. The 
Zeal of the Seraphim breaks forth in a becoming 
Warmth of Sentiments and ExprelTions, as the Cha- 
radler which is given us of him denotes that generous 
Scorn and Intrepidi^ which attends Heroic Virtue. 
The Author, doubtle4, defigned it as a Pattern to thofe 
who live among Mankind in their prefent State of De- 
generacy and Corruption. 

Sofpake the Seraph KhditX faithful founds i 

Among the faithlefs^ faithful only he; 

Among innumerable falfe^ unmov'd^ 

Unfhaken^ unfedu^d^ unterrifyd; 

His Loyalty he kept^ his Zave^ his Zeal: 

Nor Number^ nor example with him wrought 

To fwervefrom truths or change his confhmt mind 

Though Single. From amidfl them forth hepafid^ 

Long way through hoflili Scom^ which hefufidifid 

Superior^nor of violence feared ought; 

And with retorted Scorn his back he turned 

On thofe proud Tou^rs tofwift Deflrudion doonfd. 



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Numb. CCCXXXUi. 

The SPECTATOR. 



'Vocat in Certamina Divos. Viig. 



{He calls embattled Deities to Arms,} 
Saturday y March 22, 1712. 



|E are now entering upon the Sixth Book 
of Paradife Lofl^ in which the Poet de- 
fcribes the Battel of Angels; having raifed 
his Reader's Expedlation, and prepared 
him for it by feveral Paflkges in the pre- 
ceding Books. I omitted quoting thefe PalTages in 
my Obfervations on the former Books, having pur- 
pofely referved them for the opening of this, the Sub- 
jedl of which gave occafion to them. The Author's 
Imagination was fo inflamed with this great Scene of 
Adtion, that wher-ever he fpeaks of it, he rifes, if pof- 
fible, above himfelf. Thus where he mentions Satan 
in the beginning of his Poem. 

-Him the Almighty Power 




HurPd hecullong flaming from iH Ethereal Skii^ 
With hideous ruin and combuflion down 
To bottomlefs perdition^ there to dwell 
Jn Adamantine Chains and penal fire^ 
Who durfl defie tfC Omnipotent to Arms. 

We have likewife feveral noble Hints of it in the In- 
fernal Conference. 

O Prince, O Chirf of many throned Powers 
That led tK imbatteVd Seraphim to War, 
Too weU Ijee and rue the dire event, 
That with fad overthrow and foul defeat 
Hath lod us Heav^h^ and all this mighty hofi 



t 
1 ^ 



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CRiTicrsii '^ feib6K vt 9] 

' In horrible cUflrtiilion laid thus latO, ^ .- • * - .. 

But fee the angry vUlor hath recaJfd 
His Minifters of Vengeance and purfuit 
Back to the Gates of Heai^n : 2 he Sulphurous hail^ 
Shot after us in Storm^ derblown hath laid 
The fiery Surge^ that from the precipice 
OfHeidn receii/d us fallings and the thunder 
Winged with red lightning and impetuous rage^ 
Perhaps hath fpent his Shafts ^ and ceafes now 
. 7b bdlaw through tlie vafl and boundUfs deep. 

There are feveral other very Sublime Images on the 
fame Subje<5l in the Firfl Book, as alfo in the Second 

What when we fled amain^ purfu'd andflrook 
With Headns affli^ng Thunder^ and befought 
Thedeeptofhelterus; this Hell then feem'd 
A rrfugefrom thofe wounds 

'I In (hort, the Poet never mentions any thing of thiai 
Battel but in fuch Images of Greatnefe and Terrour, a.^ 
are fuitable to the Subje<fl. Among feveral. others, -^ 
cannot forbear quoting that Paffage where the Pouter, 
who is defcriVd as prefiding over the Chaos, fpeajc^. 
in the Third Book. 

Thus Satan ; and him thus the Anarch old 

Withfaultringfpeech and vifage incompo^d^ 

Anfwer'd^ I know thee^ strangery who thou art^ 

That mighty leading Angela who of late 

Made head againfl Hecnfns King^ though overt/iroTim. 

I faw and heard^ for fuch a numerous hofl 

Hed not in Silence through the frighted deep 

With ruin upon ruin, rout on rout, 

Confufion worfe cofifounded\ and Hear/ ns Gat a 

Pouted out by Millions her viHorious bands 

Purfuing 

It required great Pregnancy of Invention, and 
StrengUi of Imagination, to fill this Battel with fuch 
Circumilances as fhould raife and aflonilh the Mind 
of the Reader ; and, at the fame time, an exa6lneff 



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f4 CRITICISM OP BOOK Vl. 

of Judgment to avoid every thing that might appear 
light or trivial Thofe, who look into Homer^ are iur- 
prifed to find his Battels fliU rifing one above another, 
and improving in Horrour, to the Conclufion of the 
Iliad, Milton's Fight of Angels is wrought up with 
the fame Beauty. It is ufhered in with fuch Signs 
of Wrath as are fuitable to Omnipotence incehfed. 
The Firil Engagement is carried on under a Cope of 
Fire, occafion*d by the Flights of innumerable burn- 
ing Darts and Arrows, which are difchaiged from 
either Hod. The fecond Onfet is dill more terrible, 
as it (s filled with thofe artificial Thunders, which feem 
X6 niake the Victory doubtful, and produce a kind of 
Conllerhation, even in the Good Angels. This is fol- 
lowed by the tearing up of Mountains and Promon- 
tories ; till, in the la(l place, the Mefiiah comes forth 
in the fulnefe of Majelly and Terrour. The Pomp of 
his Appearance, amidft the Roarings of his Thunders, 
tiie Flafhes of his Lightnings, and the Noife of his 
Chariot Wheels, is defcribed with the utmoil Flights 
of Human Imagination. 

There is nothing in the fird and lad Days Engage- 
ment, which does not appear natural and agreeable 
enough to the Ideas mod Readers would conceive of 
a Fight between two Armies of Angels. 

The Second Day's Engagement is apt to dartle an 
Imagination, which has not been raifed and qualified 
for fuch a Defcription, by the reading of the Ancient 
Poets, and of Homer in particular. It was certainly 
a very bold Thought in our Author, to afcribe the 
fird life of Artillery to the Rebel Angels. But as 
fuch a pernicious Invention may be well fuppofed to 
have proceeded from fuch Authors, fo it entered very 
properly into the Thoughts of that Being, who is all 
along defcribed as afpiring to the Majedy of his 
Maker.- Such Engines were the only Indruments he 
could have made ufe of to imitate thofe Thunders^ 
that in all Poetry, both Sacred and Prophane, are repre- 
fented as the Arms of the Almighty. The tearing u)» 



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curricisM op book n. 9s 

the Hills was not altogether fo daring a Thought as 
the former. We are, in fome roeafure, prepared for 
fuch an Incident by the Defcription of the Gyantt 
War, whick we meet with among the Ancient Poets. 
What dill made this Circumflance the more proper 
for the Poets ufe, is the Opinion of many learned 
Men, that the Fable of the Gyants War, which makes 
fo great a Noife in Antiquity, Fand gave Birth to the 
fublimeil Defcription in Hefioas Works,] was an Alle- 
gory founded upon this very Tradition of a Fight 
between the good and bad Angels. 

It may, perhaps, be worth while to confider with 
what Judgment Milton^ in this Narration, has avoided 
every thing that is mean and trivial in the Defcriptions 
of the LcUin and Greek Poets; and, at the fame time, 
improved every great Hint which he met with in their 
Works upon this Subje6l. Homer va that Paffage, which 
Longinus has celebrated for its Sublimenefs, and which 
Virgil zxA Ovid have copied after him, tells us, that 
the Gyants threw OJfa upon Olympus^ and Pelion upon 
Offa, He adds an Epithet to PeUon {ilvwfi^MWxiv) 
which very much fwells the Idea, by bringing up to 
the Reader's Imagination all the Woods that grew 
upon it There is further a great Beau^ in his fing- 
ling out by Name thefe three remarkable Mountains 
fo well known to the Greeks, This lafl is fuch a 
Beauty as the Scene oiMiltori^ War could not poflibly 
fumifh him with. Claudian in his Fragment upon 
the Gyants War, has given full Scope to that wildnefs 
of Imagination which was natural to him. He tells 
us, that the Gyants tore up whole Iflands by the 
Roots, and threw them at the Gods, He defcribes 
one of them in particular taking up Lemnos in his 
Arms, and whirling it to the Skies, with all Vukarii 
Shop in the midll of it. Another tears up Mount Ida^ 
with the River Enipeus which ran down the fides of 
it ; but the Poet, not content to defcribe him with 
this Mountain upon his Shoulders, tells us that the 
River Qowed down his Back, as he held it up in that 



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9<y CltmCISM OP BOOK. VC 

Poflure. It is vifible to every judicious Reader, 
that fuch Ideas Hsivour more of Burlefque thaaof the 
Sublime. They proceed from a Wantonnefs of Ima' 
gination, and rather divert the Mind than adonilh 
it MiUmhas taken every thing that is Sublime in 
thefe feveral Paflages, and compofes out of them the 
following great Image. ^ 

Fromthdr Foundations loofnit^ to and fro . ' : 

They plucked thefeated Hills with all thdr Ipad^ 
Rocks ^ Waters^ Woods ^ and by thejhaggy tops 
Up-lifting bore them in their Hands : 

t -We have the full Majefly of Homer in this fliort 
pefcription, improved by the Imagination of Claudian^ 
without its Puerilities. 

I need not point out the Defcription of the fallen 
Angels, feeing the Promontories hanging over their 
Heads in fuch a dreadful manner, with the other 
numberlefs Beauties in this Book, which are fo con- 
fpicuous, that they cannot efcape the Notice of the 
mbiR ordinary Reader. . '- 

/There are indeed fo many wonderful ftroaks of 
Poetry in this Book, and fuch a variety of Sublime 
Ideas, that it would have been impoflible to have 
giyen them a place within the bounds of this Paper. 
Beiides that, I find it in a great meafure done to my 
Hand, at the end of my Lord Rofcommoris Eflay Ott 
Tranflated Poetry. I (hall refer my Reader thither 
for fome of the Maller-Stroaks in the Sixth Book o£ 
Paradife Lofl^ tho* at the fame ttime there are many 
others which that noble Author has not taken notice of. 

Milton^ notwithilanding the Sublime Genius he was 
Mailer o^ bias in this Book drawn to his AfTiilance all 
the helps he could meet with among the Andent 
Poets. The Sword of Michael^ which makes fo great 
an havock among the bad Angels, was given him, we 
i^re told, out of the Armory of God. 

Si —But the Sword . 

= Cf M'tchzei from the Armory of God 



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otmasM OF BOOK Tx. 97 

Wasgh/n Aim temper'* dfo^ thai neither keen 
Nor folid m^ht rrfi/l that edge : it met 
The Sword of Satan with JUep for u tofmite 
Defcending^ and in half cut ^^^e^ 

This PaiTage is a Copy of that in Virgiiy wherein 
the Poet tells us, that the Sword of y£neas, which was 
given him by a Deity, broke into pieces the Sword of 
ThmuSf which came from a Mortal Foige: As the 
Moral in this place is Divine, fo by the way we may 
obferve, that the bellowing on a Man who is favoured 
by Heaven fuch an Allegorical Weapon, is very con- 
formable to the old Eallem way of Thinking. Not 
only Homer has made ufe of it, but we find ^tjewijh 
Hero in the Book of Maecabeesy who had fought the 
Battels of the chofen People with fo much Glory and 
Succefs, receiving in his Dream a Sword from the 
hand of the Prophet yjfr^»»y ^/eremiaX\. The follow- 
ing Pailage, wherein Satan is defcribed as wounded 
by the Sword oi Michael^ is in imitation oi Homer. 

The girding Sword with dif continuous wound 
Pafid through him^ but tH Ethereal fubflance dofed 
Not long diviftble^ and from thegajh 
A fir earn of Ne^larous humour iffuingflovfd 
Sangmn^fuch as celeflial Spirits may bleeds 
And all his Armour flaitid 

Homer tells us in the fame manner, that upon 
Diomedes wounding the Gods, there flow'd from the 
Wound an Ichor^ or pure kind of Blood, which was 
not bred from Mortal Viands ; -and that tho' the Pain 
was exquifitely great, the Wound foon clofed up and 
healed in thofe Beings who are veded with Immor- 
tality. 

I quellion not but Milton in his Defcription of his 
furious Moloch flying from the l^ttel, and bellowing 
with the Wound he had received, had his Eye yy^nMars 
in the Iliad^ who upon his being wounded, is repre- 
fenled as retiring out of the Fight, and making an 
Outcry louder than that of a whole Army when it 
o 



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q8 auneisM ov book vk 

begins the Charge. Homer adds, that the Greeks and 
Trojam^ who were engaged in a general Battel, were 
terrified oa each iide with the bellowing of this 
wounded Deity. The Reader will ealily obferve how 
Milton has kept all the horrour of this Image without 
running into the Ridicule of it 

Where the might of Q^^Afoi^ht^ 

And with fierce Enfigns pierdd the deep array 
Of '^oXoc furious King^ who him defy'd^ 
And at his Chariot wheels to drag him bound 
Threaten^ d^ nor from the Holy One of Heai/n 
RefrakCdhis tongue blafphemous ; but anon 
Down clov'n to the wafte^ withfhatter^d Arms 
And uncouth fain fled bellorving, 

Milton has likewife rais*d his Defcription in this 
Booli; with many Images taken out of the Poetical 
Parts of Scripture. The Mefliah's Chariot, as I have 
before taken notice, is formed upon a Vifion of 
Ezekid^ who, as Grotius obferves, has very much in 
him of Homer^^ Spirit in the Poetical Parts of his 
Prophecy. 

The following Lines in that glorious Commiffion 
which is given the Meffiah to extirpate the Hod of 
Rebel Angels, is drawn from a Sublime Paflage in the 
Pfalms. 

Go then thou mightie/l in thy Father^ s might 
A fiend my Chariot^ guide the rapid wheels 
Thatfhake Heav'ns bafis^ bring forth all my War 
My BoWy my thunder^ my almighty arms, 
Gird on thy fword on thy puijfant thigh. 

The Reader will eafily difcover many other Stroaks 
of the fame nature. 

There is no queftion but Milton had heated his 
Imagination with the Fight of the Gods in Homer, 
before he entered upon this Engagement of the 
Angels. Homer there gives us a Scene of Men, Heroes 
and Gods mixed together in Battel Mars animates 



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otmcitii or BOOK rt 99 

the contending Armies, and lifts up his Voice in fuch 
a manner, that it is heard diftin^tly amidfl all the 
Shouts and Confufion of the Fight. yupHer at the 
fame time Thunders over their Heads; while iV^/W«^ 
raifes fuch a Tempeft, that the whole Field of Battel 
and all the tops of the Mountains fhake about them. 
The Poet tells us, that Pluto himfelf, whofe Habita- 
tion was in the very Center of the Earth, was fo 
a[f]frighted at the fhock, that he leapt from his Throne. 
itomer afterwards defcribes Vulcan as pouring down 
a Storm of Fire upon the River XanthuSy and Minerva 
as throwing a Rock at Mars \ who, he tells us, covered 
feven Acres in his Fall. 

As Homer has introduced into his Battel of the 
Gods every thing that is great and terrible in Nature, 
Milton has filled his Fight of Good and Bad Angels 
with all the like Circumftances of Horrour. The 
Shout of Armies, the Rattling of Brazen Chariots, the 
Hurling of Rocks and Mountains, the Earthquake, 
the Fire, the Thunder, are all of them employed to 
lift up the Reader's Imagination, and give him a fuit- 
able Idea of fo great an Adtion. With what Art has 
the Poet reprefented the whole Body of the Earth 
trembling, even before it was created. 

All Heaven refounded^ and had Earth been then 
All Earth had to its Center Jhook 

In how fublime and juft a manner does he after- 
wards defcribe the whole Heaven Ihaking under the 
Wheels of the Mefliah*s Chariot, with that Exception to 
the Throne of God? 

-Under his burning Wheels 



Ihejleadfajl Empyrean >^^>& throughout^ 
All but the Throne ttfel/of God 



Notwithftanding the Meffiah appears cloathed with 
fo much Terrour and Majefty, the Poet has ftill 
found means to make his Readers conceive an Idea 
of him, beyond what he himfelf was able to defcribe. 



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100 citmasM of book tl 

Yet half his Jirength he put not forth, hd ehechi 
His thunder in mid voUey^far he meant 
Not to dejlroy, but root them out of Heaven. 

In a word, Milton^ s Genius which was fo great in 
it feU, and fo (Irengthened by all the helps of Learn- 
ing, appears in this Book every way Equal to his 
Subje<5t[sTjWhich was the mod Sublime that could enter 
into the Thoughts of a Poet As he knew all the 
Arts of aflfedting the Mind, had he not g^ven [he knew 
it was necelTary to give] it certain reiUng places and 
Opportunities of recovering it felf from time to time : 
He has [therefore] with great Addrefs interfperfed 
feveral Speeches, Refledtions, Similitudes, and the 
like Reliefs to cUverfifie his Narration, and eafe the 
Attention of his [the] Reader, that he might come frefti 
to his great Adtion, and by fuch a Contrad of Ideas, 
have a more lively tafle of the nobler parts of his 
Defcription. 



Addison corrected and re-corrected diis last sentence. The first and last 
readings, as in the original and second editions, are as above. The inter- 
mediate reading, accor£ng to the Errata in No. 3691 of the original issue, b 
as follows : 

As he knew all the Arts of affecting the Mind, he 
has given it certain reding places and Opportunities 
of recovering it felf from time to time : feveral Speeches, 
Reflections, Similitudes, and the like Reliefs being 
interfperfed, to diversifle his Narration, acd eafe the 
attention of his Reader. 




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NuiCB. CCCXXXIX. 

The SPECTATOR. 

Vt his exordia pritnis 

Omnia^ &* ipfe terur Mundi amcreverit orbis. 
Turn durarefoluMy &* difdudere Nerea panto 
Caperit^ &* rerum pauliatim fumereformas. Viigi 

{Hefung thefecrd Seeds of Natures Frame \ 
How Sms, and Earthy and Air, and aiUve Ftame^ 
Fellthrd the mighty Void, and in their Fail 
Were blindly gathered in this goodly Ball 
The tender Soil thenjliff^ning by degrees 
Shut from the bounded Earth the bounding Seas. 
Then Earth and Ocean various Forms difclofe^ 
And a new Sun to the new World arofe. Dryden.} 

Saturday y March 29. 17 12. 



\ONGINUS has obferved, that there may 
be a Loftinefs in Sentiments, where there 
is no Pailion, and brings Inflances out of 
Ancient Authors tofupport this his Opinion. 
The Pathetick, as that great Critick ob- 
ferves, may animate and inflame the Sublime, but is 
not elTential to it Accordingly, as he further remarks, 
we very often find that thofe, who excell moil in 
flirring up the Paffions, very often want the Talent of 
Writing in the Great and Sublime manner; and fo on 
the contrary. Milton has fhewn himfelf a Mailer in 
both thefe ways of Writing. The Seventh Book, 
which we are now entering upon, b an Inilance of 
that Sublime, which is not mixt and work'd up with 
PaiTion. The Author appears in a kind of compofed 
and fedate Majeily; and tho' the Sentiments do 
not give fo great [an] Emotion as thofe in the 
former Book, they abound with as magnificent Ideas. 




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lot C&mCISM OP BOOK VII. 

The Sixth Book, like a troubleii Ocean, reprefents 
Greatnefe in Confufion; the Seventh aflfe^ls the 
Imagination like the Ocean in a Calm, and fills the 
Mind of the Reader without producing in it any 
thing like Timiult or Agitation. 

The Critick abovementioned, among the Rules 
which he lays down for fucceeding in the Sublime 
way of Writing, propofes to his Reader, that he fhould 
imitate the moft celebrated Authors who have gone 
before him, and have been engaged in Works of the 
fame nature ; as in particular that if he writes on a 
Poetical Subje<5l, he fliould confider bow ffofrurwovHd 
have fpoken on fuch an Occaiion. By this means 
one great Genius often catches the Flame from 
another, and writes in his Spirit, without copying 
fervilely after him. There are a thoufand Shining 
PaiTages in Vtr^i/, which have been lighted up by 
Homer. 

Milton^ though his own natural Strength of Genius 
was capable of fumilhing out a perfe<5t Work, has 
doubtleis very much raifed and ennobled his Concep- 
tions, by fuch an Imitation as that which Longinus has 
recommended. 

In this Book, which gives us an Account of the Six 
Days Works, die Poet received but very few Aflifl- 
ances firom Heathen Writers, who were Strangers to 
the Wonders of Creation. But as there are many 
Glorious Stroaks of Poetry upon this Subject in Holy 
Writ, the Author has numberlefs Alluiions to them 
through the whole Courfe of this Book. The great 
Critick, I have before mentioned, tho' an Heathen, 
has taken notice of the Sublime manner in which the 
Law-giver of the yews has defcribed the Creation in 
the firil Chapter of Genefis ; and there are many other 
PaiTages in Scripture, which rife up to the feme 
Majelly, where this Subjedl is toucht upon. Milton 
has (hewn his Judgment very remarkably, in making 
ufe of fuch of thefe as were proper for his Poem, and 
in duly qualifying thofe high Strains of Eaftem Poetiyi 



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citiTiasM OP BOOK yn. i<>3 

which were fuited to Readers whofe Imaginations were 
fet to an higher pitch than thofe of colder Climates. 

Adam's Speech to the Angel, wherein he deiires an 
Account of what had pafled within the Regions of 
Nature befcM-e his [the] Creation, is very great and 
folemn. The following Lines, in which he tells him that 
the Day is not too far fpent for him to enter upon fuch 
a Subjedl, are exquifite in their kind. 

And the Great light of day yet wants to run 
Much of his race through fleepy fufpens in Heatfn 
Held by thy voice y thy potent voice he hears^ 
And longer will delay to hear thee tell 

His GmeraHon^ &c. 

The AngePs encouragingourfir(lParent[s] inamodefl 
purfuitafter Knowledge, with the Caufes which heaffigns 
for the Creation of the World, are very ju(l and beauti- 
ful The Mefliah, by whom, as we are told in Scrip- 
ture, the Heavens were made,goes [comes*] forth in the 
Power of his Father, furrounded with an Hoil of Angels, 
and cloathed withfuchaMajeAyas becomes his entering 
upon a Work, which, according to our Conceptions, 
looks like [appears] the utmoft exertion of Omnipo- 
tence. What a beautiful Defcription has our Author 
raifed upon that Hint in one of the Prophets. And 
behold there came four Chariots out from between two 
Mountains^andihe Mountains were Mountains ofBrafs. 
About his Chariot numberlefs tuere poured 
Cherub and Seraph, Potentates and Thrones^ 
And virtues^ winged Spirits^ and Chariots win^d^ 
From the Armoury cf God^ where fland of old 
Myriads between two brazen mountains lod^d 
Agamfl a folemn day^ hamefl at hand\ 
Cele/ital Equipage\ and now came forth 
SpontaneouSyfor within themfpirit Uv'd 
Attendant on their lord: Heai/n opened wide 
Her ever-during Gates^ Harmonious found 

On golden Hinges moving 

I have befot taken notice of tfaefe ChaxioCi of 



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104 CUTICI81C OP BOOK VII. 

Godj and of thefe Gates of Heaven, and (haU here 
only add, that Homer gives us the fame Idea of the 
latter as opening of tfiemfelves, tho' he afterwards 
takes oflf from it, by telling us, that the Hours firfl of 
all removed thofe prodigious heaps of Clouds which 
lay as a Barrier before them. 

I do not know any thing in the whole Poem more 
Sublime than the Defcription which follows, where tiie 
Mefliah is reprefented at the head of his Angels, as 
looking down into the ChaoSy calming its Confiifion, 
riding into the midfl of it, and drawing the firfl Out- 
line of the Creation. 

On Heai/nly ground they floods and from thejhne 
They vieitfd the vajl immeafurable Abyfs 
Outragious as a Sea^ dark^ wajlefuly wild^ 
Up from the bottom turrid by furious winds 
Andfurging waves ^ as Mountains to affauU 
Heai^ris height^ and with the Center mix the Pole. 

Silence, ye troubled waves y and thou Deep, Peare, 
Said then tN Omnific wordy your Difcord end: 

Norflaidy but on the wings of Cherubim 
Up-liftedy in Paternal Glory rode 
Far into Chaos, and the world unborn; 
For Chaos heard his voice: him all his train 
FolUmfd in bright Proceffion to behold 
Creationy and the wonders of his might, 
Thenflaid the fervid wheels y cmd in his hand 
He took the golden CompaffeSy prepared 
In Gods eternal Store, to circumfcribe 
This UniverfCy and (ill created things : 
One foot he Center' dy and the other turrCd^ 
Round through the vafl profundity obfcurCy 
Andfaidy thus far extendy thus far thy bounds^ 
This be thyjufl CircumferencCy O World. 

The Thought of the Golden Compaffes is conceived 
altogether in Homer's Spirit, and is a very noble Inci- 
dent in this wonderful Defcription. Homery when he 
fpeaks of the Gods, afcribes to them feveral Arms and 



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CRITICISM OF BOOK VII. 10$ 

Inflniments ^ith the fame greatnefs of Imagination. 
Let the Reader only penife the Defcription of Mincrvd% 
^£gis, or Buckler, in the Fifth Book, with her Spear, 
which could [would] overturn whole Stjuadrons, and her 
Helmet, that was mfficient to cover an Army, drawn 
out of an hundred Cities : The Golden Compaffes, in 
the above-mentioned PafTage appear a very natural 
Inilrument in the Hand of him, whom PMo fomewhere 
calls the Divine Geometrician. As Poetry delights in 
cloathing abiliadted Ideas in Allegories and fenfible 
Images, we find a magnificent Defcription of the 
Creation form'd after the fame manner in one of the 
Prophets, wherein he defcribes the Almighty Architeft 
as meafuring the Waters in the hollow of his Hand, 
meting out tiie Heavens with his Span, comprehending 
the Dufl of the Eaith in a Meafure, weighing the 
Mountains in Scales, and the Hills in a Ballance. 
Another of them defcribing the Supreme Being in 
this great Work of Creation, reprefents him as laying 
the Foundations of tiie Earth, and flretching a Line 
upon it And in another place as gamifhing the 
Heavens, flretching out the North over the empty 
place, and hanging the Earth upon nothing. This 
lail noble Thought MMm has exprefs*d in the fol- 
lowing Verfe : 

And Earth felf-balandd on her Center hung. 

The Beauties of Defcription in this Book lie fo very 
thick, that it is impofiible to enumerate them in this 
Paper. The Poet has employed on them the whole 
Energy of our Tongue. The feveral great Scenes of 
the Creation rife up to view one after another, in 
fuch a manner that the Reader feems prefent at this 
wonderfiil Work, and to afiifl among the Quires [Choirs] 
of Angels, who are the Spedlators of it How glorious 
is Uie Conclufion of the firfl Day. 

Thus was thefirft day Ei/n and Mom. 

Norpqft unceldfrated, nor unfung 

By the CeUJlial Quires, when Orient light 



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tm CRITICISM OF BOOK VII. 

Exhaling firjl from Darknefs they beheld 'y 
Birth-day of Heaven and Earth ; with joy ondflmA 
The hollow univerfal Orb theyfilPd. 

We have the Ikme elevation of Thought in the third 
Day ; when the Mountains were brought forth, and 
the Deep was made. 

Immediately the mountains huge appear 
Emergent^ and their broad bare backs up heave 
Into the Clouds y their tops afcend the Shy. 
So high as heaildthe tumid hills, fo low 
Down funk a hollow bottom broad and dopy 
Capacious bed of Waters 

We have alfo the rifing of the whole vegetable 
World defcribed in this Dajr^s Work, which is filled 
with all the Graces that other Poets have lavifhed on 
their Defcriptions of the Spring, and leads the 
Reader's Imagination into a Theatre equally fur- 
prizing and beautiful 

The feveral Glories of the Heav'ns make their 
appearance or the Fourth Day. 

Firfl in his Eafl the glorious lamp wasfeen 

Regent of day ^ and cUl tH Horizon round 

Invefledwith bright rays^jocond to run 

His Longitude through Heat/ns high rode : the Gray 

Dawn^ and the Pleiades before him daHced 

Shedding frveet influence: lefs bright the moon^ 

But oppofUe in levelfdWeft wasfet. 

His Mirror, with full face borrowing her light 

From him^for other light fhe needed none 

In that afpe^, and flill that diflance keep 

Till night] then in the Ectfi her turn fhe fhines 

Revohid oft Heai/ns great AoUt, and her reign 

With thoufand leffer lights dividual holds. 

With thoufand thoufand flars, that then appealed 

Spangling the Hemifphere 

One would wonder how the Poet could be fo con* 
dfe in his Defcription of the Six Days Work% as to 



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CRITICISM OP BOOK VII. I07 

comprehend them within the bounds of an Epifode, 
and at the lame time fo particular, as to give us a 
lively Idea of them. This is dill more remarkable in 
his Account of the Fifth and Sixth Dayfs], in which he 
has drawn out to our view the whole Animal Creation, 
from the Reptil to the Behemoth, ^s the Lion and 
the Leviathan are two of the noblell Produdlions in 
this World of living Creatures, the Reader will find a 
mod exquifite Spirit of Poetry, in the Account which 
our Author gives us of them. The Sixth Day con- 
cludes with the Formation of Man, upon which the 
Angel takes occafion, as he did after the Battel in 
Heaven, to remind Adam of his Obedience, which 
was the principal Defign of this his Vifit 

The Poet afterwards reprefents the Mefliah return- 
ing into Heaven, and taking a Survey of his great 
Work. There is fomething inexpreffibly Sublime in 
this Part of the Poem, where the Author defcribes 
that great Period of Time, fiU'd with fo many Glori- 
ous Circumflances ; when the Heavens and the Earth 
were finifhed; when the Mefliah afcended up in 
Triumph through the Everlafting Gates; when he 
look'd down with pleafure upon his new Creation; 
when every Part of Nature feemed to rejoice in its 
Exiilence ; when the Morning Stars fang t(^ether,and 
all the Sons of God Ihouted for Joy. 

So Effn and Mom acampUJHdthe Sixth day: 
Yd not till the Creator Jrom his Work 
Defijlingy thd unweariedy up retunid^ 
Up to the ffeaz/n of Hccn/ns his high abode^ 
Thence to behold this new created world 
77i addition of his empire; how itfhe^d 
In prof pe^ from his throne^ how good^ how fair 
Ayifwering his great Idea, Up he rode 
FoUoTi/d with exclamation and the Sound 
Symphonious often thoufand harps that tufid 
Af^dic Harmonies : the earthy the air 
R^oundedy (thou remember'^, for thou heard* fi) 



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I08 CRITICISM OF BOOK TU. 

The Heavens and all the Conjlellations ntf^^ 
The Planets in their Station lijl'nif^ floods 
While the bright pomp qfcended jubilant. 
Openy ye everlajling gates ^ theyfung^ 
Open^ ye Jfeat/nsy your living doors y let in 
The great Creatorfrom his work returtid 
Magnificent^ his fix days work^ a World. 

I cannot conclude this Book upon the Creation, 
without mentioning a Poem which has lately appeared 
under that Title. The Work was undertaken with fo 
good an Intention, and is executed with fo great a 
Madery, that it deferves to be looked upon as one 
of the mod ufeful and noble Productions in our 
Ef^lijh Verfe. The Reader cannot but be pleafed to 
find Uie Depths of Philofophy enlivened with all the 
Charms of Poetry, and to fee fo great a Strength of 
Reafon, amidd fo beautiful a Redundancy. of [thej Ima- 
gination. The Author has (hewn us that Defign in 
all the Works of Nature, which neceifarily leads us to 
the Knowledge of its fird Caufe. In diort, he has 
illudrated, by numberlefe and incontedable Indances, 
that Divine Wifdom, which the Son of Sirach has fo 
nobly afciibed to the Supreme Being in his Forma- 
tion of the World, when he teUs us, that He created 
hery andfaw her^ and numbered her^ and poured her out 
upon all his Worhs.f 

t In the advertiaeinents Immtdiatdf oadcr fhk pangnph in the Origunl 
itmie it the following ;— > 

Lately PublishM, 

Creation. A Philoaophical Poem. Demoostratinff the Existence and 
ftovidence of a God. In Seven Books. By Sir Richard Bbckmore,Knt., M.D.» 
■ad Fellow of the College of Physicians in London, ftcftc. 




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Numb. CCCXLV. 

The SPECTATOR. 

San^ius his animal^ mentifque capadus aUa 
Deer at adhuc^ et quod daminari in catera posset, 

Natus homo # Ov. Met 

{A Creature of a more exalted kind 
Was wanting yet^ and then was Man dejigf^d; 
Confcious of Thought^ of more capacious Breafl^ 
For Empire form' d^ and fit to rule the reft. Diyden. \ 

Saturday^ April ^^ 171a. 




|HE Accounts which Raphael gives of the 
Battel of Angels, and the Creation of the 
World, have in them thofe Qualifications 
which the Criticks judge requifite to an 
Epifode. They are nearly related to the 
principal Adlion, and have a jufl Connection with the 
Fable. 

The Eighth Book opens with a beautiful Defcription 
of the ImprelTion which this Difcourfe of the Arch- 
angel made on our firil Parent Adam afterwards, by 
a very natural Curiofity, enquires concerning the 
Motions of thofe CelefUal Bodies which make the 
moil glorious Appearance among the fix Days Works. 
The Poet here, with a great deal of Art, reprefents 
Eve as withdrawing firom tiiis part of their Converfation 
to Amufements that feem more fuitable to her Sex. 
He well knew, that the Epifode in this Book, which is 
filled with Aihm's Account of his Paffion and EAeem 
fi>r Eve^ would have been improper for her hearings 
and haus dierefore devifed very jufl and beautiful 
^cafons for her Retiring. 

Sofpake our Sire^ and by his Countenance feem' d 
Entring onfludious thoughts abflrufe: which Eve 
Perceiving where fhe fat retired in fight^ 
With iowiinefs Majeftick from her Seat 



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no C&ITICnM OP BOOK VIIL 

And Grace that won whofaw to wijh herjiay^ 

RofCy and went forth among her fruits andflowen 

To vifit how they proffer' d^ bud and bloom^ 

Her Nurfery; they at her coming fprung^ 

And toucht by her fair tendance giadlier grew. 

Yet wentfhe not^ as not with fuch difcourfe 

Delighted^ or not capable her ear 

Of what was high : Such pleafure fhe referv' d 

Adam relating^fhe fole Auditrefs ; 

Her Husband the relaterfheprefirt^d 

Before the Angela and of him to ask 

Chofe rather : he^fhe knew^ would intermix 

Grateful digreffions, andfolve high dif^e 

With conjugal Careffes : from Jus Lip 

Not words alone pleafed her. O when meet now 

Such pairs in Love^ and mutual honour join' df 

The Angel's returning a doubtful Anfwer to Adam\ 
Enquiries, was not only proper for the Moral Reafon 
which the Poet afligfis^ but becaufe it would have 
been highly abfurd to have given the Sandlion of an 
Archangel to any particular Syflem of Philofophy. 
The chief Points in the Ptolemaic and Copemican 
Hypothecs are defcribed with great Concifenefs and 
Peifpicuity, and at the fame time drefled in very pleaf- 
ing and Poetical Images. 

Adamy to detain the Angel, enters afterwards upon 
his own Hiflory, and relates to him the Circumftances 
in which he found himfelf upon his Creation ; as alfo 
his Converfation with his Maker, and his firfl Meeting 
with Eve. There is no part of tiie Poem more apt to 
raife the attention of the Reader, than this Difcourfe 
of our great Anceftor ; as nothing can be more fur- 
prizing and delightful to us, than to hear the Senti- 
ments that arofe in the firil Man while he was yet new 
and frefh from the hands of his Creator. The Poet 
has interwoven every thing which is delivered upon 
this Subjedl in Holy Writ with fo many beautiful 
Imaginations of his own, that nothing can be conceived 



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C&inCItlf OP BOOK VIII III 

more juA and natural than this whole Epifode. As 
our Author knew diis Subjedl could not but be agree- 
able to his Reader, he would not throw it into the 
relation of the fix Days Works, but refcrved it for a 
diflindt Epifode, that he might have an opportunity 
of expatiating upon it more at large. Before I enter 
on this part of the Poem, I cannot but take notice of 
two fhining Paffages in the Dialogue between Adam 
and the Angel. The firil is that wherein our Anceflor 
gives an Account of the Pleafure he took in converfing 
with him, which contains a very noble Moral 
For while I fit with t?tee^ Ifeem in Heai/n^ 
Andfweeter thy difcourfe is to my ear 
Than fruits of Palm-tree pleafanteft to thirfl 
And hunger both^from labour^ at the hour 
Of fweet repafl; they fatiate^ and foon filly 
Thd pleafanty but thy words with Grace divine 
Imbu'dy bring to their fweetnrfs nofatiety. 
The other I Ihall mention is that in which the 
Angel gives a reafon why he fhould be glad to hear 
the Story Adam was about to relate. 
For I that day was abfent^ as befell^ 
Bound on a Voyage uncouth and obfcure. 
Far on excurfion towards the Gates of Hell \ 
Squared in full Ligion (fuch command we had) 
To fee that none thence tjfued forth a Spy^ 
Or enemy J wlUle God was in his work^ 
Left he incenfl at fuch eruption bold^ 
DeftruiHon with Creation might have mioid. 
There is no queflion but our Poet drew the Image 
in what follows &om that in VirgiPs Sixth Book, where 
^fteas and the Sibyl (land before the Adamantine 
Gates which are there defcrib*d as (hut upon the place 
of Torments, and liflen to the Groans, the clank of 
Chains, and the noife of Iron Whips that were heard 
in tho(e Regions of Pain and Sorrow. 

Fafl we found, f aft fhut 

The difmal gates^ and barricadoed flrofig \ 



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i>* ctrncmf or BOOK Tm. 

But hfig ier our approaching heard withm 
Noife^ other than the found of Danee or Sang^ 
Tormenty and laud lament^ and/uriaus rage. 
Adam then proceeds to give an Account of hit 
Condition and Sentiments immediately after his Crea- 
tion. How agreeably does he reprefent the poilure 
in which he found himfel^ the beautiful Landdap that 
furrounded him, and the gladneis of Heart which grew 
up in him on that occafion. 

As new waked from foundefl fleep 
Soft on theflowry herb I found me laid 
In balmy fiveaty which with his beams the Sum 
Soon dried J and on the reekit^ moiflurefed. 
Streight toward ffeai/n my wondering eyes I turtid. 
Andga^d a while the ample Sky^ ^till rai^d 
By quick in/Unlive motion up IJprung 
As thitherward endeavourifigy and upright 
Stood on my feet; about me round Ifaw 
Billy DalCy andfhady woods and funny plains^ 
And liquid lapfe of murmuring flreams ; by thefe 
Creatures that lit/dj and nun^dy and waiXdy orflcw^ 
Birds on the branches warbling ; all things fmU^d: 
WithfragrancCy and with Joy my heart overflon^d. 

Adam is afterwards defcribed as fmpriz'd at his own 
Exiilence, and taking a Survey of himfelf, and of all 
the Works of Nature. He likewife is reprefented as 
difcovering by the Light of Reafon, that he and every 
thing about him muft have been the effedl of fome 
Being infinitely good and powerful, and that this Being 
had a Right to his Worfhip and Adoration. His firfl 
addrefs to the Sim, and to thofe parts of the Creation 
which made the mofl diflinguifhed Figiure, is veiy 
natural and amufing to the Imagination. 

Thou Sun, faid /, fair Light, 

And tliou enlighfnei earth/fo frefh and gay. 
Ye Hills and Dales, ye Rivers, Woods cmd Plains^ 
And ye that live and move, fair creatures tell. 
Tell if you f aw, how came I thus, how heref 



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otincitic or book vm. 113 

His next Sentiment, when upon his firft going toSleep 
he fancies himfelf lofing his Exiftence, and falling 
away into nothing, can never be fnfficiently admired. 
His Dream, in which he (lill preferves the Confciouf- 
nefs of his Exiflence, together with his removal into 
the Garden which was prepared for his Reception, are 
alfo Circumilances finely imagined, and grounded upon 
what is delivered in Sacred Story. 

Thefe and the like wonderful Incidents, in this Part 
of the Work, have in them all the Beauties of Novelty, 
at the fame time that they have all the Graces of Na- 
ture. They are fuch as none but a great Genius could 
have thought of, though, upon the perufsd of them, 
they feem to rife of themfelves from the Subject of 
which he treats. In a Word, though they are natural 
they are not obvious, which is the true Charadter of 
all fine Writing. 

The Impreffion which the InterdicSlion of the Tree 
of Life left in the Mind of our firfl Parent, is defcribed 
with great Strength and Judgment, as tiie Image of 
the feveral Beafls and Birds palling in review before 
him is very beautifiil and lively. 

Each Bird and Beq/l behold 

Approaching two and two^ thefe cowring low 
With blandijhment \ each bird Jloof don his Wing: 
I nam^d them as th^pafid 

Adam, in the next place, defcribes a Conference 
which he held with his Maker upon the Subje6l of Soli- 
tude. The Poet here reprefents the Supreme Being, 
as making an Eilay of his own Work, and putting to 
the tryal that reafoning Faculty, with which he had 
endued his Creature. Adam urges, in this divine Col- 
loquy, the Impoflibility of his being happy, tho' he 
was the Inhabitant oi FaradifCy and Lord of die whole 
Creation, without the Converfetion and Society of fome 
rational Creature, who fhould partake thofe Bleflings 
with him. This Dialogue, which is fupported chiefly 
by the Beauty of the Thoughts, without other Poetical 

H 



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114 cxmciM bt BoMt ttft 

Ornaments, is as fine a part as any in the whole 
Poem : The more the Reader examines the joflneft 
and delicacy of its Sentiments^ the more he vnH find , 
himfelf pleded with it The Poet has wonderfiiUy 
preferred the ChaxaAer of Majelly and Condefcention 
m the Creator, and at the fame time that of Humility 
and Adoration in the Creature, as particularly in thofe 
beautifiil Lines. 

Tkus I prefumptuous ; and the Vifion bright^ 
As with a ftnUe more hrightned^ thus reply tL &c. 

I with leave ofjpeech implored 

And humble deprecation thus reply dy 
Let not my Words offend thee^ Heaifnly power ^ 
My maker^ he propitious while I fpeak &c. 
Adam then proceeds to give an account of his 
fecond Sleep, and of the Dream in which he beheld the 
Formation ofJSve. The new Paffion that was awakened 
in him at the fight of her is touched very finely. 
Under his forming hands a Creature grew^ 
Manlike, but different Sex ; fo lovely fair ^ 
That what feemd fair in all the World feenCd now 
Mean^ or in herfumnCd up, in her contaifCdy 
And in her looks \ which from that time infiis^d 
Sweetnefs into my heart, unfelt before^ 
And into all thirds from her air infpit^d 
Thefpirit of Love and amorous delight, 
Adam's Diflrefs upon lofing fight of this beautifiil 
Phantom, with his Exclamations of Joy and Gratitude 
at the Difcovery of a real Creature, who refembled 
the Apparition which had been prefen^ed to him in 
his Dream ; the Approaches he makes to her, and his 
manner of CourtQiip, are all laid together in a mofl 
exquifite Propriety of Sentiments. 

Tho* this part of the Poem is work'd up with great 
Warmth and Spirit, the Love, which is defcribed in it, 
is every way fuitable to a State of Innocence. If the 
Reader compares the Defcription which Adam here 
gives of his leading Eve to die Nuptial Bower, with 



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CEincitM or BOOK Till. 115 

that which Mr. Dryden has made on the ikme Occa- 
fion in a Scene of his Fail o/Afan^ he will be fenfible 
of the great Care which Milton took to avoid all 
Thoughts on fo delicate a Subject, that might be 
ofi'enfive to Religion or Good-manners. The Senti- 
ments are chafle, but not cold, and convey to the 
Mind Ideas of the mofl tranfportin^ Paffion, and of 
the greatell Purity. What a noble Mixture of Rapture 
and Innocence has the Author joined together, in the 
Refle<5tion which Adam makes on the Pleafures of 
Love, compared to thofe of Senfe. 

Thus have I told thee all my State^ and brought 

My Story to the Sum of earthly blifs 

Which I enjoy ^ and mujl confefs to find 

In all things eife delighi indted^ butfuch 

As uidornoty works in themindno change^ 

Nor vehement defire \ thefe delicacies 

I mean of iafie^f^ht.fmell^ herbs^ fruits and flowers. 

Walks^ andtiu melody of Birds ; but here 

Far otherwife^ tranf ported I behold^ 

Trcmfported touch \ here paffum firfl I felt^ 

Commotion ftrange^ in all enjoyments elfe 

Superiour and unnunld^ here only weak 

Againft the Charm of beauties powerfull glance. 

Or nature fair d in me^ and left fome part 

Not proof enough fuch objefl to fufUdn^ 

Or from my Juicfubdu^ngy took perhaps 

More than enough ; at leafl on her beflotdd 

Too much of ornament^ in outward Jhew 

Elab orate y of inward lefs eoooEl. 

When I approach 

Her lovelinefsy fo dbfolutefhefeems 
Anddn herfelf compleatyfo well to know 
Her ouMy that whatfiie wills to do or fay ^ 
Seems wifefl^ virtuoufefl^ difcreetefty befl : 
All higher knowledge in her prefence falls 
Degraded: Wifdom in difcourfe with her 
Lqfes difcounienan^dy and like folly fhews : 



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ii6 Gunasii or book tol 

AtUhariiy and reafon an her waU^ 
As one intended firfi^ not after made 
OccafionaUy\ (md to canfummaie all, 
Greatnefs of mind and noblenefs their Seat 
Build in her lovdiefly and create an awe 
About her^ as a guard AngeUdt pla^d 

Thefe Sentiments of Love, in our firft Parent, gave 
die Angd fuch an Infight into Humane Nature, that he 
feems apprehenlive of the Evils which might befall the 
Species in general, as wdl as Adam in particular, from 
the Excefs of this Paflion. He therefore fortifies him 
againfl it by timely Admonitions ; which very artfiiUy 
prepare the Mind of the Reader for the Occurrences 
of die next Book, where the Weaknefs of which Adam 
here gives fuch diflant difcoveries, brings about that 
fetal Event which is the Subject of the Poem. His 
Difcourfe, which follows the gentle Rebuke he re- 
ceived from the Angel, (hews £at his Love, however 
violent it might appear, was lUll founded in Reafon, 
and confequently not improper for Faradife. 

Neither her outfide form fo fair^ nor ought 
In procreation common to allhhids 
{Though higher of the genial bed by far^ 
And with myflerious reverence I deem) 
So much delights me as ihofe graceful allsy 
Thofe thoufand decencies that daily flow 
From all her words and a^Hons mixt with love 
Andfweet compliance^ which declare unfdgrid 
Union of mind^ or in us both one Soul; 
Harmony to behold in wedded pair. 

Adam'% Speech, at parting with the Angel, has in it 
a Deference and Gratitude agreeable to an Inferior 
Nature, and at the fame time a certain Dignity and 
Greatnefs, fuitable to the Father of Mankind in his 
State of Innocence. 



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NuMt. CCCLL 

The SPECTATOR. 

— In U otnms domus indinaia recumbU. Vixg: 




{ On thee the Fortunes of our Houfe depend.^ 



Saturday^ April la. 17XJ. 



|F we look into the three great Heroic 
Poems which have appeared in the World, 
we may obferve that they are built upon 
very flight Foundations. Homer lived 
near 300 Years after the Trojan War, and, 
as the Writing of Hiflory was not then in ufe among 
the Greeks^ we may very well fuppofe, that the Tradi- 
tion of Achilles and Ulyffes had brought down but 
very few Particulars to his Knowledge, tho' there is 
no quefUon but he has wrought into his two Poems 
fuch of their remarkable Adventures as were (UU 
talked of among his Contemporaries. 

The Story of y£neas, on which K/Vj^ founded his 
Poem, was likewife very bare of Circumftances, and 
by that means afforded him an Opportunity of em- 
bellifliing it with Fidtion, and giving a full Range to 
his own Invention. We find, however, that he has 
interwoven, in the couife of his Fable, the principal 
Particulars, which were generally believed among the 
jRomans^ of jEneas his Voyage and Settlement in 
Italy, 

The Reader may find an Abridgment of the whole 
Story, as coUedted out of the Ancient Hiflorians, 
and as it was received among the Romans^ in Dumy* 
fius Halicamaffeus, 

Smce none of the Criticks have confidered Virgilt 
Fable, with relation to this HiAory of ^neas^ it may 



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IlS C&mCUlI OP BOOK IX. 

not, peifaaps, be amifs to examine it in this Light, £•) 
far as regards my prefent Purpofe. Whoever looks 
into the Abridgment abovementioned, will find that 
the Charadler of yEruas is filled with Piety to the 
Gods, and a fiiperflitious Obfervation of l^odigies, 
Oracles, and Predidlions. Virgii has not only pre- 
ferved this Chara6ler in the Peifon of ^neas, but has 
given a place in his Poem to thofe particular Prophe- 
cies which he found recorded of him in Hiftory and 
Tradition. The Poet took the matters of Fa<5l as 
they came down to him, and circumflanced them after 
his own manner, to make them appear the more 
natural, agreeable or furprifing. I believe very many 
Readers have been (hocked at that ludicrous Pro- 
phecy, which one of the Harpyes pronounces to the 
Trojans in the Third Book, namely, that before they 
had built their Intended City, they fliould be reduced 
by Hunger to eat their very Tables. But, when they 
heard that this was one of die Circumflances that had 
been tranfmitted to the Romans in the Hiftory of 
jEneaSy they will think the Poet did very well in 
taking notice of it The Hiftorian abovementioned, 
acquaints us that a Prophetefs had foretold yEneas^ that 
he (hould take his Voyage Weftward, till his Com- 
panions fhould eat their Tables, and that accordingly, 
upon his landing in Italy , as they were eating their Flelh 
upon Cakes of Bread, for want of other Conveniences, 
they afterwards fed on the Cakes themfelves, upon 
which one of the Company (aid merrily, * We are eating 
our Tables.* They immediately took the Hint, (ays 
the Hiftorian, and concluded the Prophecy to be ful- 
filled. As Virgil did not think it proper to omit fo 
material a Particular in the Hiftory of yEruaSy it may 
be worth while to confider with how much Judgment 
he has qualified it, and taken off every thing that 
might have appeared improper for a Paffage in an 
Heroic Poem. The Prophetefs who foretells it is an 
lungry Harpy ^ as the Perfon who difcovers it is young 
Afcaniui. 



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CRITICISM OP BOOK iX. ' II9 

Ifeiis etiam men/as confumimus inqmi luUus / 

Such an Obfervation, whi^h is beautiful in the 
mouth of a Boy, would have been ridiculous from any 
other of the Company. I am apt to think that the 
changing of the Trojan Fleet into Water-Nymphs, 
which is the moil violent Machine of the whole Endd^ 
and has given Oflfence to feveral Critics, may be ac- 
counted for the fame way. Virgil himfdf, before he 
begins that Relation, premifes that what he was going 
to tell appeared incredible, but that it was juflified by 
Tradition. What further confirms me that this change 
of the Fleet was a celebrated Circumflance in the 
HiAory of jEtuas^ is, that Ovid has given a place to 
the fame Metamorphofis in his account of the Heathen 
Mythology. 

None of the Criticks, I have met with, having con- 
fid ered the Fable of the yEndd in this Light, and taken 
notice how the Tradition, on which it was founded, 
authorizes thofe Parts in it which appear the mofl 
Exceptionable ; I hope the Length of this Refleffion 
will not make it unacceptable to the curious Part of 
my Readers. 

The Hiflory, which was the Bafis of ./l/iZftw's Poem, 
is flill fhorter than either that of the Hiad or jEneid. 
The Poet has likewife taken care to infert every Cir- 
cumftance of it in the Body of his Fable. The Ninth 
Book, which we are here to confider, is raifed upon 
that brief Account in Scripture, wherein we are told 
that the Serpent was more fubtile than any Beafl of 
the Field, that he tempted the Woman to eat of the 
Forbidden Fruit, that fhe was overcome by this 
Temptation, and that Adam followed her Example. 
From thefe few Particulars Milton has formed one of 
tlie mod Entertaining Fables that Invention ever 
produced. He has difpofed of thefe feveral Circum- 
flances among fo many beautiful and natural Fidlions 
of his own, that his whole Story looks only like a Com- 
ment upon lacred Writ, or rather feems to be a full 



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i«o otrricisif op book dl 

and compleat Relation of what the other is only an 
Epitome. I have infifled the longer on this Con- 
fideration, as I look upon the Difpofition and Contri- 
vance of the Fable to be the Principal Beauty of the 
Ninth Book, which has more Story in it, and is fuller 
of Incidents, than any other in the whole Poem« 
Satan's traverfmg the Globe, and flill keeping within 
the Shadow of the Night, as fearing to be difcovered 
by the Angel of the Sim, who had before dete<5led him, 
is one of thofe beautiful Imaginations {with] which 
[he] introduces this his fecond Series of Adventures. 
Having examined the Nature of every Creature, and 
found out one which was the mod proper for his Pur- 
pofe, he again returns to Paradife; and, to avoid 
Difcovery, fmks by Night with a River that ran under 
the Garden, and rifes up again through a Fountain 
that iiTued from it by the Tree of Life. The Poet, 
who, as we have before taken notice, fpeaks as little 
as poffible in his own Perfon, and, after the example 
of Homer ^ fills every Part of hb Work with Manners 
and Chara6lers, introduces a Soliloquy of this In- 
fernal Agent, who was thus refUefe in the Deflrudtion 
of Man. He is then defcrib'd as gliding through 
the Garden under the refemblance of a Mifl, in 
order to find out that Creature in which he defign'd 
to tempt our firfl Parents. This Defcription has 
fomething in it very Poetical and Surprizing. 

Sofayingy through each thicket Dank or Dry 
Like a i/adk Mift^ low creeping^ he held oh 
His Midnight Search^ where fooneft lie might find 
The Serpent: him fcLft fleeping fiwn he found 
In Labyrinth of many a round fdfroWd^ 
His hold the midfl^ well florid withfubtle wiles. 

The Author afterwards gives us a Defcription of 
the Morning, which is wonderfully fuitable to a Divine 
Poem, and peculiar to that firfl Seafon of Nature; 
he reprefents the Earth before it was curfl, as a great 
Altar breathing out its Incenfe from all parts, and 



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CRITICISM OP BOOK IX. 121 

fending up a pleafant Savour to the Noilrils of its 
Creator ; to which he adds a noble Idea of Atiam 
and Eve^ as offering their Morning Worlhip, and 
filling up the univerfal Confort of Praife and Adoration. 

Now when as f acred light began to dawn 
In Eden on the humid flowers^ that breatJud 
Their morning incenfe^ when all things that breath 
From t?i Earth^s great Altar fend up filent praife 
To the Creatoury and his noflrilsfill 
With grateful fmelly forth came the human pair 
Andjoyrid their vocal worfhip to the Choir 
Of Creatures wanting voic e 

The Difpute which follows between our two firft 
Parents is reprefented with great Art : It arifes [pro- 
ceeds] from a difference of Judgment, not of Paiiion, 
and is managed with Reafon, not with Heat ; it is fuch 
a Difpute as we may fuppofe might have happened in 
Paradifey had Man continued Happy and Innocent 
There is a great Delicacy in the Moralities which are 
interfperfed in Adani% Difcourfe, and which the mofl 
ordinary Reader cannot but taJce notice of. That 
force of Love which the Father of Mankind fo finely 
defcribes in the Eighth Book, and which I inferted in 
my lail Saturdays Paper, (hews it felf here in many 
beautiful Inflances : As in thofe fond Regards he cafls 
towards Eve at her parting firom him. 

Her long with ardent look his eyepurfued 
Delighted but defiring mare her flay. 
Oft he to her his charge of quick return 
Repeated^ fke to him as eft engaged 
Tb be returtid by noon amid the Boture. 

In his impatience and amufement during hei 
Abfence. 

Adam the while 

Waiting defirous her return^ had wove 
Of choicefl flowers a Garland to adorn 
Her Treffes^ a$id her rural labours crown^ 



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132 CRITICISM OF BO9K IZ. 

As Reapers oft are wont their Harveft Quern. 
Great Joy he promifed to his thanghts^ and new 
Solaa in her return^ fo long delafd] 

But particularly in that paffionate Speech, where 
feeing her irrecoverably loll, he refolves to periOi with 
her, rather than to live without her. 



-Some curfedfi'aud 



Or enemy hath beguiPd thee^ yet unknown^ 
And me with thee hath ruirCd\ for with thee 
Certain my refolution is to die \ 
How can 1 live without thee^ haw forego 
Thyfweet converfe and lovefo dearly joirid^ 
To live again in thefe wild woods forlorn f 
Should God create another Eve, cmd I 
Another rib afford, yet lofs of thee 
Would never from my heart; no, no, Tfed 
Tlie link of nature draw me: Flefh of Flefh, 
Bone of my bone thou art, and from thy State 
Mine never fhall be parted Blifs or Woe. 

The beginning of this Speech, and the Preparation 
to it, are animated with the fame Spirit as the Con- 
clufion, which I have here quoted. 

The feveral Wiles which are put in PnuSlice by the 
Tempter, when he found Eve feparated from her 
Husband, the many pleaUng Images of Nature, which 
are intermixt in this part of the Story, with its gradual 
and regular Progrefs to the fatal Cataflrophe, are fo 
very remarkable, that it would be fuperfluous to point 
out their feveral [refpe<5live] Beauties. 

I have avoided mentioning any particular Simili- 
tudes in my Remarks on this great Work, becaufe I 
have given a general account of them in my Paper on 
the Firll Book. There is one, however, in this part 
of the Poem which I (hall here quote, as it is not only 
very beautiful, but the clofefl of any in the whole 
Poem ; I mean that where the Serpent is defcrib'd as 
rolling forward in all his Pride, animated by the evil 



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CRITICISM OP BOOK IX. I23 

Spirit, aud concluding Eve to her Deftrudlion, while 
Adam was at too great a dillance from her, to give her 
his Affiflance. Thefe feveral Particulars are all of 
them wrought into the following Similitude. 

Hope elevates y and Joy 

Brighteris his Cre/l^ as when a wandering fire 
CotnpaSl ofunihious vapour^ which the night 
CondenfeSy and the cold invirons rounds 
Kindled through agitation to aflame^ 
( Which ofty they fay ^ fifme evilfpirit attends) 
Hovering and blazing with delufive light y 
Mifleads tK amcu^d Night-wanderer from his way 
To boggs and mires y and oft through pond or pool ^ 
There Jwallotild up and lofiy from fuccour far : 

That fecret Intoxication of Pleafure, with all thofe 
traniient flufhings of Guilt and Joy which the Poet 
reprefents in our firfl Parents upon their eating the for- 
bidden Fruit, to thofe flaggings of Spirit, damps of 
Sorrow and mutual Accufations which fucceed i^ are 
conceived with a wonderful Imagination, and defcribed 
in very natural Sentiments. 

When Dido in the Fourth y£neid yielded to that 
fatal Temptation which ruin'd her, Virgil tells us, the 
Earth trembled, the Heavens were filled with flalhes 
of Lightning, and the Nymphs howl'd upon the Moim- 
tain Tops. Milton^ in the fame Poetical Spirit, has 
defcrib*d all Nature as diflurbed upon Ewls eating 
the forbidden Fruit 

Sofayingy her rafh hand in evil hour 
Forth reaching to the Fruity fhe plucked^ fhe eat: 
Earth felt the wound^ a;..i mature from her Seat 
Sighing through all her works gavefigns of Woe 
That all was loft 

Upon AdanCs falling into the fame Guilt, the whole 
Creation appears a fecond time in Convulfions. 

HefcrupVd not to eat 

Againfl his better knowledge I not deceis^d. 



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124 CRITICISM or BOOK IS. 

But fondly overcome with Female charm. 
Earth trembled from her Entrails^ as agcUn 
In pangSy and nature gave a fecondgroan^ 
Sky knvredand muttering thunder^ fomefad drops 
Wept at compleating of the mortal Sin 

As all Nature fuflfer'd by the guilt of our firfl Pa- 
rents, thefe Symptoms of Trouble and Conftemation are 
wonderfully imagin'd, not only as Prodigies, but as 
Marks of her Sympathizing in the Fall of Man. 

Adam's Converfe with Eve^ after having eaten the 
forbidden Fruit, is an exadl Copy of that between 
fupiter andy^w, in the FourteenUi Iliad. Juno there 
approaches Jupiter with the Girdle which &e had re- 
ceived from Venus^ upon which he tells her, that (he 
appeared more charming and defirable than (he ever 
had done before, even when their Loves were at the 
higheft. The Poet afterwards defcribes them as repof- 
ing on a Summet of Mount Ida^ which produced under 
them a Bed of Flowers, the LotuSy the Crocus^ and the 
Hyacinth^ and concludes his Defcription with their 
falling a-lleep. 

Let the Reader compare this with the following 
Paflage in Milton^ which begins with Adam's Speech 
to Eve. 

For never did thy Beauty fince the Day 
If aw thee firfl and wedded thee^ adorn' d 
With all Perfections fo inflame my Senfe 
With ardor to enjoy thee, fairer now 
Than ever^ bounty of this virtuous Tree. 

Sofaid he, and forbore not glance or toy 
Of amorous intent, well underflood 
Of Eve, whofe Eye darted contagious fire. 
Her hand hefdfed, and to afhady bank 
Thick over-head with verdant roof embowt^d 
He led her nothing loth : Ftotdrs were the Couch, 
Panfies, and Violets, and Afphodel, 
And Hyacinth, Earth's frefheftft^efl lap. 
There they tkdrfUl ofLove^ and lives difjport 



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atmcitic OF BOOK ix. 195 

TaoA largely^ of their mutual guilt the Seal^ 
The Solace of their Sin, 'till dewyfleep 
Opprefid them 

As no Poet feems ever to have (ludied Homer more, 
or to have refembled him m the greatnefs of Genius 
than Milton^ I think I (hou'd have given but a very 
imperfedl Account of his Beauties, if I had not ob- 
ferved the mod remarkable PalTages which look like 
Parallels in thefe two great Authors. I might, in the 
Courfe of thefe Criticifms, have taken notice of many 
particular Lines and Expreffions which are tranflated 
from the Greek Poet, but as I thought this would have 
appeared too minute and over-curious, I have pur- 
pofely omitted them. The greater Incidents, how- 
ever, are not only fet oflf by being (hown in the fame 
Light, with feveral of the fame Nature in Homer, but 
by that means may be alfo guarded againfl the Cavils 
of the Taflelefs or Ignorant 




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Numb. CCCLVn. 

The SPECTATOR. 

^[Reddere perfona fcit convemenHa cuique. Hor. 

{He knows what befl befits each charaikr,\ 



fe 



•-qms talia fando 




Imperet dL iachymis t ^ig] 

{ Who can relate fuch Woes without a Tear?] 

Saturday^ April 19. 1712. 

|HE Tenth Book of Paradife Lqfl has a 
greater variety of Perfons in it than any 
other in the whole Poem. The Author 
upon the winding up of his AdUon intro- 
duces all thofe who had any Concern in 
it, and (hews with great Beauty the influence which it 
had upon each of them. It is like the lad A61 of a 
well written Tragedy, in which all who had a part in 
it are generally drawn up before the Audience, and re- 
prefented under thofe Circumftances in which the de- 
termination of the AAion places them. 

I (hall therefore conlider this Book under four 
Heads, in relation to the Celeflial, the Infernal, the 
Human, and the Imaginary Perfons, who have their 
refpedlive Parts allotted in it 

To begin with the Celeftial Perfons : The Guardian 
Angels (A Paradife zxt defcribed as returning to Heaven 
upon the Fallof Man,in order to approve their Vigilance ; 
their Arrival, their manner of Reception, with the Sor- 
row which appeared in themfelves, and in thofe Spirits 
who are laid to Rejoice at the'Converfion of a Sinner, 
are very finely laid together in the following Lines. 

Up into Hea^nfrom Paradife in hajle 
7W angelick guards afcended^ mute and fad 
For man, for ofhisflate by this they kntiv 
Much wondering how thefubtle Fiend hadfloln 

t Thb motto was changed in second edition for die one lelow it. 



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OtmCISlI OF BOOK X. ttj 

Entrance unfeen. Soon as tH unwelcome news 
From earth arrit/d at Heaven Gate^ difplea^d 
All were who heard^ dimfadnefs did notfpare 
That time CeleJHal vi/ages^ yet mixt 
With pity, violated not their blifs. 
About the neuhorrvdd^ in multttudes 
W jEthereal people ran^ to hearandknow 
How all befell: 7h^ Uyufrds the throne fupreame 
Accountable made hafte to make appear 
With righteous pleOy their utmojl vigilance^ 
Andeafily approtfd\ when the moft H^h 
Eternal father from hisfecret cloudy 
Amidfl in thunder uttered thus his voice. 

The fame Divine Perfon who in the foregoing parts 
of this Poem interceded for our firft Parents before 
their Fail, overthrew the rebel Angels, and created the 
World, is now reprefented as defcending to Paradifcy 
and pronouncing Sentence upon the three Offenders. 
The cool of the Evening, being a Circumflance with 
which Holy Writ introduces this great Scene, it is 
Poetically defcribed by our Author, who has alfo kept 
religioully to the form of Words, in which the three 
feveral Sentences were paiTed upon Adam, Eve, and 
the Serpent He has rather chofen to negle^ the 
numeroufnefs of his Verfe, than to deviate from thofe 
Speeches which are recorded on this great occafion. 
The Guilt and Confuiion of our fird Parents (landing 
naked before their Judge, is touched with great Beauty. 
Upon tfie Arrival of ^/>i and Death into the Works of 
the Creation, the Almighty is again introduced as 
fpeaking to his Angels that furrounded him. 

See with what lieat thefe Dogs of Hell advance 
To wafle and havock yonder world, which I 
So fair and good created, &c. 

The following Paflage is formed upon that glorious 
Image in Holy Writ which compares the Voice of an 
innumerable Hod of Angels, uttering Hallelujahs, to 
the Voice of mighty Thunderings, or of many Waters. 



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itt atmcmc of book x. 

He endedf and the Heaifnly Audience hud 
Sung HaUelujahy as the found of Seas, 
Through muUiiude thatfung: Juft are thy ways, 
J^ighieous are thy Decrees in all thy Works , 
Who can extenuate thee% 

Though the Author in the whole couife of his 
Poem, and partictilarly in the Book we are now 
examining, has infinite Allufions to places of Scripture, 
I have only taken notice in my Remarks of fuch as 
are of a Poetical Nature, and which are woven with 
great Beauty into the Body of his [this] Fable. Of 
this kind is that Paflage in the prefent Book, where 
defcribing Sin [and I)eatK\ as marchmg through the 
Works of Nature, he adds, 

--Behind her Death 



CiofefoUowing face for pace, not mounted yd 
On his pale horfe .— 

Which alludes to that Paflage in Scripting fo wonder- 
"fully Poetical, and terrifying to the Imagination. And 
I looked, and behold, a pale Horfe, and his Name thai fat 
on him was Death, (md Hell followed with him : and 
power was given unto them over the fourth part of the 
earth, to ktll with fword, and with hunger, and with 
fukrufs, and with Ou heafts of the earth. Under this 
firfl head of Celeilial Perfons we mud likewife take 
notice of the Command which the Angels received, 
to produce [the] feveral Changes in Nature, and fully 
the Beauty of the Creation. Accordingly they are 
reprefented as infe6ling the Stars and Planets with 
malignant Influences, weakning the Light of the Sun, 
bringing down the Winter into the milder Regions of 
Nature, planting Winds and Storms in feveral Quarters 
of the Sky, ftoring the Clouds with Thunder, and in 
fhort, perverting tibe whole frame of the Univerfe to 
tlie condition of its Criminal inhabitants. As this is 
a noble Incident in the Poem, the following Lines, in 
which we fee the Angels heaving up the Earth, and 



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CRITICISM OF BOOK X. 129 

placing it in a different poflure to the Sun from what it 
had before the Fall of Man, is conceived with that fublime 
Imagination which was fo peculiar to this great Author. 

Some fay he hid his angels turn afcanfe 
The Poles of earth twice ten degrees and more 
From the Sun's Axle; they with labour puflid 
Oblique the Cent rick Globe 

We are in the fecond place to confider the Infernal 
Agents under the View which Milton has given us of 
them in this Book. It is obferved by thofe who would 
fet forth the Greatnefe of VirgiTs Plan, that he con- 
ducts his Reader thro* all the Parts of the Earth 
which were difcover'd in his time. AJia^ Africk and 
Europe are the feveral Scenes of his Fable. The 
Plan of Milton's Poem is of an infinitely greater 
extent, and fills the Mind with many more allonilhing 
CircumAances. ScUan^ having furrounded the Earth 
feven times, departs at length from Faradife, We 
afterwards [then] fee him fteering his Courfe among the 
Conilellations, and after having traverfed the whole 
Creation, purfuing his Voyage through the Chcu^^ and 
entering into his own Infernal Dominions. 

His firft appearance in the Affembly of Fallen Angels 
is worked up with Circumftances which give a delight- 
ful Surprize to the Reader; but there is no Incident 
in Uie whole Poem which does this more than the 
Transformation of the whole Audience, that follows 
the account their Leader gives them of his Expedition. 
The gradual change oi Satan himfelf is defcribei after 
Ovid's manner, and may vie with any of thofe cele- 
brated Transformations which are looked upon as the 
mod beautiful parts in that Poet's Works. Milton 
never fails of improving his own Hints, and bellowing 
the lad finilhing Touches to every Incident which is 
admitted into his Poem. The unexpe<5led Hifs which 
rifes in this Epifode, the Dimenfions and Bulk of 
Satan fo much fuperior to thofe of the Infernal Spirits 
who lajr under the lame Transformation, with the 
I 



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130 CitmCISM OF BOOK X. 

annual Change which they arefuppofed to fuffer, are 
Indances of this kind. The Beauty of the Di<SUon is 
very remarkable in this whole Epifode, as I have 
obferved in the Sixth Paper of thefe my Remarks 
the great Judgment with which it was contrived. 

T^e Parts of Adam and Eve^ or the Humane 
Perfons, come next under our Confideration. MiUoffs 
Art is no where more fhewn than in his condu6ting 
the parts of thefe our firfl Parents. The Repre- 
fentation he gives of them, without falfifying the Story, 
is wonderfully contrived to influence the Reader with 
Pity and Compaflion towards them. Tho* Adam in- 
volves the whole Species in Mifery, his Crime proceeds 
from a Weaknefs which every Man is indin'd to 
pardon and commiferate, as it feems rather the frailty 
of Humane Nature, than of the Perfon who offended. 
Every one is apt to excufe a Fault which he himfelf 
might have fallen into. It was the Excels of Love for 
Eve that ruined Adam and his Pofterity. I need not 
add, that the Author is judified in this particular by 
many of the Fathers, and the mod Orthodox Writers. 
Milton has by this means filled a great part of his 
Poem with that kind of Writing which the French 
Criticks call the Tender^ and which is in a particular 
manner engaging to all forts of Readers. 

Adam and Eve^ in the Book we are now confider- 
ing, are likewife drawn with fuch Sentiments as do 
not only intered the Reader in their Afflidlions, but 
raife in him the mod. melting Padions of Humanity 
and Commiferation. When Adam fees the feveral 
Changes in Nature produced about him, he appears^ 
in a diforder of Mind fuitable to one who had forfeited 
both his Innocence and his Happinefs. He is filled 
with Horror, Remorfe, Defpair ; in the anguiih of his 
Heart he expodulates with his Creator forgiving [hav« 
iDg given] him an unasked Exidence. 

Did Irequeft thee^ Maker ^ from my Clay 
. To mould me Man^ did IfolicU thee 
From darknefs to f remote me^ or hereplaa 



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CRITICISM OF BOOK X. IJI 

In this ddicious Garden 7 as my will 
Concurred not to my beings *twere but righi 
And equal to reduce me to my dujl^ 
Defirous to refigny and render back 

All I recdi/d 

He immediately after recovers from his Prefump- 
tion, owns his Doom to be ju(l, and begs that the 
Death which is threatened him may be infli(5led on him. 

Why delays 

His hand to execute what his decree 
J*h^a on this day f Why do I overlive^ 
Why am I mockd with Deaths and lengtherid out 
To Deathlefs pain t how gladly would I meet 
Mortality my Sentence^ and be earth 
InfenfibUy how glad would lay me down 
As in my mothers lap ? there Jhould I re/l 
And Jleep fecure ; his dreadful voice no more 
Would thunder in my ears, no fear ofworfe 
To me and to my offfpring, would torment me 
With cruel expenation, ^ 

This whole Speech is full of the like Emotion, and 
varied with all thofe Sentiments which we mayfuppofe 
natural to a Mind fo broken and dillurb'd. I mud 
not omit that generous Concern which our firft Father 
fhows in it for his Poflerity, and which is fo proper to 
affe6t the Reader. 

Hide me from the f cue 

Of God y whom to behold was then my height 
Of Happinefs : yet well^ if here would eml 
The mifery, I defenfd it, and would bear 
My own defervings; but this will notfervt; 
All that I eatyOr drink^ orfhall beget. 
Is propagated Curfe. O voice once heard 
Delightfully, cncreafe and multiply, 
Now Death to hear ! 



-In me all 



Foflerity flands curfl : Fair Patrimony 
That I mufl leave you. Sons; O were I able 
To wafle it all my felf and leave you none ! 



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132 CftmCISM OP BOOK X. 

So difmherited haw would you bkfs 
Me now your curfe I Ah^ why piould ail Mankind 
For one Mans fault thus guUtleJs be condemned 
IfguiltUfs f But from me what can proceed 
But all corrupt 

Who can afterwards behold the Father of Mankind 
extended upon the Earth, uttering his Midnight Com- 
plaints, bewailing his Exillence, and wifhing for Death, 
without fympathizing with him in his Diflrefs ? 

Thus Adam to himfelf lamented loud 

Through thefliU nighty not noWy as ire man fell 

Wholefome and cool and mildy but with black Air 

Accompanied^ with damps and dreadful gloom 

Which to his evil Confcience reprefented 

All things with double terrour: on the Ground 

OuiftretcKd he lay, on the cold ground ^ and oft 

Cur^d his Creationy Death as oft accused 

Of tardy execution, 

The Part of Eve in this Book is no lefs paffionate, 
and apt to fway the Reader in her Favour. She is 
reprefented with great Tendemefe as approaching 
Adanty but is fpum*d from him with a Spirit of 
Upbraiding and Indignation conformable to the 
Nature of Man, whofe Paflions had now gained the 
Dominion over him. The following Paflage, wherein 
flie is defcribed as renewing her Addreffes to him, 
with the whole Speech that follows it, have fomething 
in them exquifitely moving and pathetick. 
Jft added noty and from her turtCd: but Eve 
Notfo repulfiy with tears that cea^d not flowing 
And treffes all diforder^dy at his Feet 
FeUhumbUy and embracing themy befoughl 
His peaccy and thus proceeding in her plaint, 

Forfake me not thus Adam, witnefs Heatfn 
What lovefincere and revrence in my heart 
I bear thety and unweeting have offendedy 
Unhappily deceii/d; thy Suppliant 
I begy and clafp thy knees; bereat'e me noty 
Whereon I livCy thy gentle looks ^ thy aid^ 



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CRITICISM OP BOOK X. I33 

Thy c&unfel in this utiermojl dijlrefs^ 
My mlyjirmgth and flay : Forlorn ofthu 
WhUherJhaU I betake me, where Jubffl f 
While yet we live fear u onejhort hour perhaps^ 
Between us two let there bepeace^ &c. 

Adam^s Reconcilement to her is worked up in the 
fame Spirit of Tendemefs. Eve afterwards propoles 
to her Hufband, in the Blindnefs of her Defpair, that 
to prevent their Guilt from defcending upon Pollerity 
they (hould refolve to live Childlefs ; or, if that could 
not be done, that they (hould feek their own Deaths 
by violent Methods. As thofe Sentiments naturally 
engage the Reader to regard the Mother of Mankind 
with more than ordinary Commiferation, they likewife 
contain a very fine Moral The Refolution of dying 
to end our Miferies does not fhew fuch a degree of 
Magnanimity as a Refolution to bear them, and fub- 
mit to the Difpenfations of Providence. Our Author 
has therefore, with great Delicacy, reprefented Eve as 
entertaining this Thought, and Adam as difap- 
proving it 

We are, in the lad place, to confider the Imaginary 
Perfons, or Sin and Death, who adl a large part in this 
Book. Such beautiful extended Allegories are cer- 
tainly fome of the fined Compofitions of Genius ; 
but, as I have before obferved, are not agreeable to 
the Nature of an Heroic Poem. This of Sin and Death 
is very exquifite in its kind, if not confidered as a 
Part of fuch a Work. The Truths contained in it are 
fo clear and open that I fhall not lofe time in explain- 
ing them, but (hall only obferve, that a Reader who 
knows the (Irength of the Englijh Tongue will be 
amazed to think how the Poet could find fuch apt 
Words and Phrafes to defcribe the A6lion[s] of thefe 
fthofe] two imaginary Perfons, and particularly in that 
Part where Death is exhibited as forming a Bridge over 
the Chaos : a Work fuitable to the Genius of Milton, 

Since the Subje6t I am upon gives me an Oppor- 
tunity of (peaking more at large of (uch Shadowy and 



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134 CElTiaSM OF BOOK x.> 

imaginary Perfons as may be introduced into Hdi-oic 
Poems, 1 (hall beg leave to explain my felf on [in] a Mat- 
ter which is curious in its kind, and which none of the 
Criticks have treated of. It is certain Homer and 
Virgil are full of imaginary Perfons, who are very 
beautiful in Poetry when they are jufl (hown, without 
being engaged in any Series of A<5lion. Homer in- 
deed represents Sleep as a Perfon, and afcribes a (hoft 
Part to him in his Iliad \ but we mud confider that 
tho' we now regard fuch a Perfon as entirely Shadowy 
and unfubilantial, the Heathens made Statues of him, 
placed him in their Temples, and looked upon him as 
a real Deity. When Homer makes ufe of other fuch 
Allegorical Perfons it is only in (hort Expreflions, 
which convey an ordinary Thought to the Mind in the 
rood pleafmg manner, and may rather be looked upon 
as Poetical Phrafes than allegorical Defcriptions. 
Inftead of telling us that Men naturally fly when they 
are terriiied, he introduces the Perfons of Flight and 
Feary who he tells us are infeparable Companions. 
Inftead of faying that the Time was come when 
Apollo ought to have received his Recompence, he 
tells us that the Hours brought hini his Reward. In- 
ftead of defcribing the Effedls which Minervdz ^gis 
produced in Battell, he tells us that the Brims of it ' 
were encompaffed by Terrour^ Routy Difcordy Fury^ 
Furfuit, Maffacre and Death. In the fame Figure of 
fpeaking he reprefents Viilory as following Diomedes ; 
Difcord as the Mother of Funerals and Mourning, 
Venus as drefled by the Graces^ Bellona as wearing 
Terrour and Conftemation like a Garment I might 
give feveral other Inftances out oi Horner^ as well as a 
great many out of Virgil Milton has likewife very 
often made ufe of the feme way of fpeaking, as where 
he tells us that ViHory fat on the right hand of the 
Meftiah, when he march'd forth againft the Rebel 
Angels ; that at the rifing of the Sun the Hours un- 
barr'd the Gates of Light; that Difcord was the 
Daughter of Sin, Of the fame nature are thofe £x- 
prefljons where defcribing the finging of the Nightin- 



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CRITICISM OF BOOK X. I35 

gale, he adds, Stience was pUafed\ and upon the 
Me(Iiah*s bidding Peace to the Chaos^ Confufion heard 
his voice. I might add innumerable other* Indances 
of oui Poet*s writing in this beautiful Figure. It 
is plain that thefe I have mentioned, in which 
Perfons of an imaginaiy Nature are introduced, 
are fuch fhort Allegories as are not deflgned to 
be taken in the literal Senfe, but only to convey 
particular Circumflances to the Reader after an 
unufual and entertaining Manner. But when fuch 
Perfons are introduced as principal Adlors, and en- 
gaged in a Series of Adventures, they take too much 
upon them, and are by no means proper for an Heroic 
Poem, which ought to appear credible in its principal 
Parts. I cannot forbear therefore thinking that Sin 
and Death are as improper Agents in a Work of this 
Nature, as Strength and Violence \NecJfity\ in one of 
the Tragedies of Efchylus^ who reprefented thofe two 
Perfons nailing down Prometheus to a Rock, for which 
he has been juftly cenfured by the greateft Criticks. I 
do not know any imaginary Perfon made ufe of in a 
more Sublime manner of thinking than that in one of 
the Prophets, who defcribing God as defcending from 
Heaven, and vifiting the Sins of Mankind, adds that 
dreadful Circumftance ; Before him went the Pejlilence. 
It is certain this imaginary Perfon might have been 
defcribed in all her purple Spots. The Fever might 
liave march'd before her. Pain might have (lood at her 
right Hand, Phrenzy on her left, and Death in her 
Rear. She might have been introduced as gliding 
down from the Tail of a Comet, or darted upon the 
Earth in a Flaih of Lightning: She might have 
tainted the Atmofphere with her Breath; the very 
glaring of her Eyes might have fcattered Infedlion. 
But I believe every Reader will think that in fuch 
Sublime Writings the mentioning of her as it is done 
in Scripture has fomething in it more juft, as well as 
great, than all that the mod faticiful Poet could have 
. bcdowed upon her in the Richneis of his Imagination. 



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Numb. CCCLXIII. 

The SPECTATOR. 



'CrudeUs ubique 




LuHus^ ubique pavor^ &*plurima Mortis Imago. Viig. 

{All Parts refoundwith Tumults^ Plaints^ and Fears^ 
Andgrifly Death infundry Shapes appears. 

Drydea) 

Saturday y April 26. 1 7 1 2. 



\TLTON\ia& (hewn a wonderful Art in de- 
fcribing that variety of Paflions which arife 
in our firfl Parents upon the breach of the 
Commandment that had been given them. 
We fee them gradually palTing from the 
triumph of their Guilt thro' Remorfe, Shame, Defpair, 
Contrition, Prayer, and Hope, to a perfe<5l and com- 
pleat Repentance. At the end of the Tenth Book 
they are reprefented as proftrating themfelves upon 
the Ground, and watering the Earth with their Tears^ : 
To which the Poet joins this beautiful Circumftance, 
that they offer'd up their Penitential Prayers on the 
very place where their Judge appeared to them when 
he pronounced their Sentence. 

They forthwith to the place 

Repairing^ where hejud^d them^ proJlratefeU 

Before him reverent^ and both confefid 

Humbly their faults ^ and pardon beg^d^ with tears 

Watring the Grouful 

[There is a Beauty of the lame kind in a tragedy of 
Sophocles^ where Oedipus, after having put out his own 
Eyes, inilead of breaking his Neck from the Palace 
Battlements (which fumifhes fo elegant an Entertain* 
nient for our Englifh Auciience) defires that he may be 
condu6led to Mount Cithceron, in order to end his 
life in that very Place where he was expoied in his 



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CftlTIClSM OF BOOK XT. I37 

Infancy, and where he (hould then have died, had the 
Will of his Parents been executed.] 

As the Author never fails to f^ve a Poetical turn to 
his Sentiments, he defcribes in the beginning of this 
Book the Acceptance which thefe their Prayers met 
with, in a (hort Allegory form'd upon that beautiful 
Paflkge in Holy Writ And another Angd came and 
flood at the Altar^ having a golden Cenfer; and there was 
given unto him much incenfe^ thai hefliould offer it with 
the prayers of all Saints upon the Golden Altar ^ which 
was before the throne: And the fmoak of the incenfe 
which came with the Prayers of the Saints^ afcended up 
before God, 

To Hectt/n their prayers 

J^lew upy nor mif^d the way^ by envious winds 
Blown vagabond or fruflrate: in they pafi'd 
Dimentionlefs through Heatlnly doors, then clad 
With incenfe^ where the Golden Altar fumed^ 
By their great interceffor^ came in fight 
Before the Father's throne 

We have the fame Thought exprefled a fecond time 
in the Interceffion of the MefTiah, which is conceived 
in very Emphatick Sentiments and ExprefTions. 

Among the Poetical parts of Scripture which Milton 
has fo finely wrought into this part of his Narration, I 
mufl not omit that wherein JSzekiel fpeaking of the 
Angels who appeared to him in a Vifion, adds that 
every one had four faces, and that their whole bodies, 
and their backs, and their hands, and their wings vtere 
full of eyes round about, 

The Cohort bright 

Of watchful Cherubim; four faces each 

Had, like a double Janus, cUl their fhape 

Spangled with eyes 

The afTembling of all the Angels of Heaven to hear 
the Solemn Decree paffed upon Man is reprefented in 
very lively Ideas. The Almighty is here defcrib'd as 
remembring Mercy in the midfl of Judgment, and 



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f3'8 CRITICISM OF COOK XI. 

commanding Michael to deliver his MeiTage in the 
mildefl terms, lead the Spirit of Man, which was al- 
ready broken with the Senfe of his Guilt and Mifeiy, 
fhould £aul before him. 

Yd leaft they faint 

At the fad Scnienee rigoroufiy ur^d^ 

For I behold them foftned and wUh tears 

Bewailing their excefs^ all terror hide. 

The Conference oiAdam and Eve is full of moving 
Sentiments. Upon their going Abroad after the 
melancholy Night which they had pafTed together, 
they difcover the Lion and the Eagle purfumg each 
of them their Prey towards the Eaftem Gates oiPara- 
dife. There is a double Beauty in this Incident, not 
only as it prefents great and juft Omens which are 
always agreeable in Poetry; but as it expreffes that 
Enmity which was now produced in the Animal Crea- 
tion.- The Poet, to Ihew the like changes in Nature, 
as well as to grace his Fable with a noble Prodigy, re- 
prefents the Sun in an Eclipfe. This particular Inci- 
dent has likewife a fine effe6l upon the Imagination of 
the Reader, in regard to what follows : For, at the lame 
time that the Sun is under an Eclipfe, a bright Cloud 
defcends in the Weilem quarter of the Heavens, filled 
with an Hod of Angels, and more luminous than the 
Sun it fel£ The whole Theatre of Nature is darkned, 
that this glorious Machine may appear in all its luflre 
and magnificence. 

Why in the Eafl 

Darknefs ere day's mid-courfe^ and momit^hgki 
More orient in that Weflem doudthat draws 
O'er the blue firmament a radiant white^ 
And flow defcends^ with fomething headnlyfroi^htt 
He err^d not; for by this the Hea^nly bcrnds 
, Down from a^ Sky ofjafper lighted now 
In Paradife^ and on a Hill made halt; 
A glorious apparitio n 

I need not obferve how properly this Author, who 
always fuits his Parts to the A6lors whom he intro- 



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ciiiTicisM or BOOK xr. • 13^ 

duces, has employed Michael in the Expuldon of our 
firil Parents from Faradife, The Arch-angel on this 
occalion neither appears in his proper Shape, nor in 
that familiar manner with which Raphael the fociable 
Spirit entertained the Father of Mankind before the 
Fall. His Perfon, his Port and Behaviour, are fuit- 
able to a Spirit of the highefl Rank, and exquifitely 
defcrib'd in the following Paflage. 

TIC Archangel foon drew nigh 

Not in hisjhape Cekfiial; but as man 
Clad to meet man ; over his lucid arms 
A military vejl of purple flonfd 
Livelier than Mehbaean, or the grain 
Of Sana, worn by Kings and Heroes old 
In time of truce; Iris had dipt the Wooff: 
Hisflarry helm^ unlmckled^fheu^d him prime 
In Manhood where Youth ended; by his fide 
As in a glifiring Zodiack hung the Swordy 
SatanV dire dread^ and in his hand the Spear. 
Adam bott/d low; he kingly from hisfiate 
Inclined noty but his coming thus declared. 

Ev^s Complaint upon hearing that (he was to be 
removed from the Garden of Paradife is wonderfully 
beautiftiL The Sentiments are not only proper to the 
Subjedl, but have fomething in them particularly foft 
and womanidc 

Mufl I then leave thee^ Paradife f thus leave 
Thee^ native Soil^ thefe happy walks andflmdes^ 
Fit haunt of Gods ? Where I had hoped to fpcnd 
Quiet though fad the refpite ofthcU day 
That mufl be mortal to us both, Oflov/rs 
That never will in other Climate grow^ 
My early vifitationy and my lafi 
At £ven, which I bred up with tender hand 
Prom thefirfl opening bud, and gave you names^ 
IVho now fhcUl rear you to the Sun^ or rank 
Vour tribes^ and water from th* ambrofial fount f 
THee laflly^ Nuptial bowre^ by me adorned 



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140 cRiTiasM or book xi. 

IVM what iojlght orfmell was fwed; from iha 
Hawjhall I party and whither wander dawn 
Into a lower worlds to this objcure 
And wild^ howJhaU we breath in other air 
Lefs pure^ accuJlonCd to immortal fruits f 

Adam*s Speech abounds with Thoughts which are 
equally moving, but of a more Mafculine and elevated 
Turn. Nothing can be conceived more Sublime and 
Poetical, than the following Pafliage in it : 

This mofi affliHs me^ that departing hence 

As from his face jjhail be hid^ dtprived 

His bleffed Count nance; here I could frequent. 

With worfhipy place by place where he wmchfafed 

Prefence divine^ and to my Sons relate; 

On this mount he appeared, under this tree 

Stood vifible^ among thefe Pines his voice 

I heardy here with him at this fountain talKd; 

So many grateful Altars I would rear 

Ofgraffu turf and pile up every Stone 

Of luflrefrom the brook^ in memory ^ 

Or monument to ageSy and thereon 

Offer fweet f melting Gums and fruits and flowers : 

Jn yonder nether world where fhall I feek 

His bright appeca^ances^ orfootfleps trace f 

For though I fled him angry ^ yet recalTd 

To life prolong d and promifed race, J now 

Gladly behold though but his utmofl Skirts 

Of Glory y and far off his Steps adore. 

The Angel afterwards leads Adam to the higheft 
Mount of FaradifCy and lays before him a whole He- 
mifphere, as a proper Stage for thofe Viiions which 
were to be reprefented on it I have before obferved 
how the Plan QiMiltori% Poem is in many Particulars 
greater than that of the Iliad ox y£neid, Virgil's Hero, 
in the lad of thefe Poems, is enteruined with a fight 
of all thofe who are to defcend from him ; but tho' 
that Epifode is juilly admired as one of the nobled 



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CRITICISM OF BOOK Xt. 141 

Defigns in the whole ^ndd^ vftiy one muil allow 
that this of Milton is of a much higher Nature. Adam's 
Vifion is not confined to any particular Tribe of Man- 
kind, but extends to the whole Species. 
, In this great Review, which Jidam takes of all his 
Sons and Daughters, the fird Obje<Sls he is prefented 
with exhibit to him the Story of Cain and Abel^ which 
is drawn together with much Clofenefs and Propriety 
of Expreffion. That Curiofity and natural Horror 
which arifes in Adam at the Sight of the fird dying 
Man is touched with great beauty. 

But have I now fern deaths is this the UHiy 
I mujl return to native dufl f O Sight 
Of terrour foul and ugly to behold^ 
Horrid to think^ how horrible to feel I 

The fecond Vifion fets before him the Image of 
Death in a great Variety of Appearances. The Angel, 
to ^ve him a General Idea of thofe Efifedls, which his 
Guilt had broXight upon his Poilerity, places before 
him a large Hofpital, or Lazar-houfe, filFd with Per- 
fons lying under all kinds of Mortal Difeafes. How 
finely has the Poet told us that the fick Perfons lan- 
guifhed under Lingring and Incurable Diflempers by 
an apt and Judicious ufe of fuch Imaginary Beings, at 
thofe I mentioned in my lafl Saturdays Paper. 

Dire was the toffing^ deep the Groans^ Defpair 
Tended the Sick^ bufiefrom Couch to Couch ; 
And over them triumphant Death his dart 
Shooky but delayed toflrike^ though oft invoked 
With vows as their chief good and final hope. 

The Paffion which likewife rifes in Adam on this 
Occafion is very natural 

Sight fo deform what Heart of rock could tong 
Dry-eyd behold f Adam could not^ but wept^ 
Thd not of Woman bom; Compqffion qudPd 
His be/l of Man^ and gave him up to tears* 



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14^ CRITICISM OP BOOK XL 

The Difcourfe between the Angel and AJam which 
follows, abounds with noble Morals. 

As there is nothing more delightful in Poetry, than 
a Contrad and Oppofition of Incidents, the Author, 
after this melancholy profpedt of Death and Sicknefs, 
raifes up a Scene of Mirth, Love and Jollity. The 
fecret Pleafure that Reals into Adam's Heart, as he is 
intent upon this Vifion, is imagined with great Deli- 
cacy. I mufl not omit the Defcription of the loofe 
Female troupe, who feduced the Sons of God as they 
are call'd in Scripture. 

/w- thai fair female troupe thoufaw'Jl that /am' d 

Of Goddeffes fo Blithe, fo Smooth, fo Gay^ 

Yet empty of all good wherein confifls 

Womans dome/lick honour and chief prafe; 

Bred only and compleated to the tafle 

Oflnflful appetence, tofing, to dance. 

To drefs, and troule the tongue, and roul the Eye. 
' To thefe that fober race of Men, wJwfe lives 

Religious titled them the Sons of God, 

Shall yield up all their vertue, all their fame 

Ignobly, to the trains and to thefmiles 

Ofthofefcdr Atheifls 

The next Vifion is of a quite contrary Nature, and 
filled with the Horrours of War. Adam^ at the fight 
of it, melts into Tears, and breaks out in tiiat pad*- 
fionate Speech ; 

' O what are thefe 

Deaths minifiers not Men^ who thus deal death 

Inhumanly to Men, and multiply 

Ten thoufandfold the Sin of him who flew 

His Brother : for of whom fuch Maffacre 
"■ Make they but of their BretJCren^ mat of men t 

Milton, to keep up an agreeable variety in his 
Vifions, after having raifed in the Mind of his Reader 
'the feveral Ideas of Terror which are conformable to 
the Defcription of War, palfes on to thofe fofter Images 
of Triumphs and Fellivals, in that Vifion of Lewdnefs 
and Luxury, which uHiers in the Flood. 



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CRITICISM OP BOOK XT. I43 

As it is vifible, that the Poet had his Eye upon Ovid% 
account of the univerfal Deluge, the Reader may ob- 
ferve with how much Judgment he has avoided every 
thing that is redundant or puerile in the Latin Poet 
We do not here fee the Wolf fwimming among the 
Sheep, nor any of thofe wanton Imaginations which 
Seneca has found fault with, as unbecoming this great 
Cataftrophe of Nature. If our Poet has imitated that 
Verfe in which Ovid tells us, that there was nothing 
but Sea, and that this Sea had no Shoar to it, he has 
not fet the Thought in fuch a light as to inciur the Cen- 
fure which Criticks have paffed upon it The latter 
part of that Verfe in Ovid is idle and fuperfluous ; but 
jufl and beautiful in Milton. 

Jamque mare 6* tdlus nullum dif crimen habebanty 
Nilnifi pontus erat^decrant quoque littoraponto, Ovid. 

Sea caver' d Sea, 

Sea without Shoar Milton, 

In Milton the former part of the Defcription does 
not foreflall the latter. How much more great and 
folemn on this occafion is that which follows in our 
Englijh Poet, 

And in their palaces 

Where luxury late reign'd, Sea Monjlers whelfd 
AndStabPd 

than that in Ovid, where we are told, that the Sea 
Calfs lay in thofe places where the Goats were ufed to 
browze ? The Reader may find feveral other Paralld 
Pafliaiges in the Latin and Englijh Defcription of the 
Deluge, wherein our Poet has vifibly the Advantage. 
The Sky's being over-chai^cd with Clouds, the dc- 
fcending of the Rains, the rifmg of the Seas, and the 
appearance of the Rainbow, are fuch Defcriptions as 
every one mud take notice of. The Circumftance 
relating to Paradife is fo finely imagined and fuitable 
to the Opinions of many learned Authors, that I can- 
not forbear giving it a place in thb Paper. 



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144 CRITiaSM OF BOOK Xt. 

71km Jhall this mottni 

Of Faradije by might of Waves be moved » 

Out qf his place^ puJKd by the homed floods 
With all his verdure fpoiPdy and trees a drift 
' Down the great river to the ofning Gulf 
And there take root an Iflandfalt and bare. 
The haunt of Seals and Ores, and Sea-Mews clang: 

. The Tranfition which the Poet makes from the Vifion 
of the Deluge, to the Concern it occafioned in Adam^ is 
exquifitely graceful, and copied after Virgil, tho' the firil 
Thought it introduces is rather in the Spirit of Ovid. 

How didfl thou grieve, then^ Adam, to behold 
The end of all thy Off-fpring, end fo fad. 
Depopulation; thee another floud. 
Of tears andforrow, a floud thee alfo drown^d^ 
And funk thee as thy Sons : diligently reared 
By tK Angel, on thy feet thoufloodfl at lafl. 
Though comfortlefs, as when a father mourns 
His Children, all in view deflroy'd at once. 

I have been the more particular in my Quotations 
Out of the Eleventh Book of Paradife Lofl, becaufe it 
is not generally reckoned among the mod (hining 
Books of this Poem. For which reafon, the Reader 
might be apt to overlook thofe many Paflages in it, 
which deferve our Admiration. The Eleventh and 
Twelfth are indeed built upon that fingle Circumftance 
of the Removal of our firil Parents from Paradife \ 
but tho' this is not in it felf fo great a Subjedl as that 
in mod of the foregoing Books, it is extended and 
diverfified with fo many furprizing Incidents and pleaf- 
ing Epifodes, that thefe two lafl Books can by no means 
be looked upon as unequal Parts of this divine Poem. 
I mufl further add, that had not Milton reprefented 
our firfl Parents as driven out of Paradife, his Fall of 
Man would not have been compleat, and confequently 
his Adlion would have been imperfedL 



L 



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Numb. CCCLXIX. 

THE SPECTATOR. 

Segniiis irritant animos demiffaper cures 

Quam qucBfurU oculis fuhje^fiddibus Hot, 

{ What we hear moves lefs than what we fee, 

Rofcommon.} 

Saturday^ May^ 3. 17 12. 




ILTONy after having reprefented in Vifion 
the Hidory of Mankind to the Firil great 
Period of Nature, difpatches the remain- 
ing Part of it in Narration. He has de- 
vifed a very handfome Reafon for the 
Angel's proceeding with Adam after thin manner; 
tho' doubtlefs, the true Reafon was the difficulty 
which the Poet would have found to have fhadowed 
out fo mixt and complicated a Story in vifible 
Objedls. I could wi(h, however, that the Author had 
done it, whatever Pains it might have coft him. To 
give my Opinion freely, I think that the exhibiting 
Part of the Hiftory of Mankind in Vifion, and part in 
Narrative, is as if an Hiftory Painter (hould put in 
Colours one half of his Subjedl, and write down the re- 
maining part of it. If Miltofi^ Poem flags any where, it 
is in this Narration, where in fome places the Author has 
been fo attentive to his Divinity, that he has neglected 
his Poetry. The Narration, however, rifes very happily 
on feveral Occafions, where the Subje6t is capable* of 
Poetical Ornaments, as particularly in the Conftifion 
which he defcribes among the Builders of Babel^ and 
in his (hort Sketch of the Plagues of Egypt. The 
Storm of Hail and Fire, with the Darknefs that over- 
fpread the Land for three Days, are defcribed with 
great Strength. The beautiful Paflage, which follows, 
is raifed upon noble Hints in Scripture. 

K 



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146 dUTiaSlf OP BOOK XII. 

TAtis with ten wounds 

The River-Dragon iairid at length fubmiU 
To let his Sojourners depart^ and oft 
Humbles hisjlubbom hearty butjlillas Ice 
More hardened after thaw, till in his rage 
Purfuing whom he late difmif^d^ the Sea 
Swallows him with his hofly but them lets pafs 
As on dry land between two Chryflal walls ^ 
Avfd by the rod of Mofes^J? tofland 
Divided 

'ITie River-Dragon is an Allufion to the Crocodile, 
which inhabits the Nile^ from whence £gypt derives 
her Plenty. This Allufion is taken from that Sublime 
Paffage in EzekieL Thus faith the Lord God, behold^ 1 
am againfl thee Pharaoh King of Egypt, the great 
Dragon that lieth in the midfi of his Rivers^ whieh hath 
faidy My River is mine own^ and I have made it for 
wyfelf Milton has given us another very noble and 
Poetical Image in the fame Defcription, which is copied 
almoft Word for Word out of the Hiftory of Mofes. 
All night he will purfue^ but his approach 
Darkfufs defends between till morning watch ; 
Then through the fiery pillar and the cloud 
God looking forth, will trouble all his hoafl. 
And craze their Chariot Wheels : when by command 
Mofes once more his potent Rod extends 
Over the Sea; the Sea his Rod obeys; 
On their Embatelled ranks the waves return 
And overwhelm their War: 

As the Principal Deiign of this Epifode was to give 
Adam an Idea of the Holy Perfon, who was to rein- 
ftate Human Nature in that HappineOs and Perfedtion 
from which it had fallen, the Poet confines himfelf to the 
Line of Abraham^ from whence the Meffiah was to De- 
fcend. The Angel is defcribed as feeing the Patriarch 
ajflually travelling towards the Land oiPromifCy which 
gives a particular Livelinefstothis part of the Narration. 

J fee him^ but thou canfl not^ with what faith 



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cftrricTSM OF boor xrt. 147 

He Uaves his Godsy his Friends^ and [his"] native Soil 

Ur 0/ Chaldaea, paffing nou* the Ford 

To Haran, after him a cumbrous train 

Of Herds and flocks ^ and numerous fervitude ; 

Not wafuT ring poor y but tru/ling all his wealth 

With Gody who calPd him^ in a Land unknown, 

Canaan he now attains; I fee his tents 

Pitch* t about Sechem, and the neighbouring plain 

Of Moreb, there by promife he receives 

Gift to his Progeny of all that Land \ 

From Hamath Northward to the Defart South ; 

(Things by their names I call ^ tlumgh yet unnamed,) 

As VirgiTs Vifion in the Sixth ^neid probably gave 
Milton the Hint of this whole Epifode^ the lad Line is 
a Tranflation of that Verfe, where Anchifes mentions 
the Names of Places, which they were to bear hereafter. 

Hcu turn nomina erunt^ nunc funt fine nomine terrce. 

The Poethas very finely reprefented the Joy and Glad- 
nefs of Heart, which rifes xnAdam upon his Difcovery of 
the MefTiah. As he fees his Day at a didance through 
Types and Shadows, he rejoicesin it; but when he finds 
the Redemption of Man compleated,and Paradife zi^in 
renewed, he breaks forth in Rapture and Tranfport, 

goodnefs infinite^ goodnefs immenfe ! 
That all this good of evil fhall produce, &c. 

1 have hinted, in my Sixth Paper on Milton^ that an 
Heroic Poem, according to the Opinion of the bed 
Criticks, ought to end happily, and leave the Mind of 
the Reader, after having conducted it through many 
Doubts and Fears, Sorrows and Difquietudes, in a 
flate of Tranquillity and Satisfaction. Milton's Fable, 
which had fo many other Qualifications to recommend 
it, was deficient in this Particular. It is here there- 
fore, that the Poet has (hewn a mod exquifite Judg- 
ment, as well as the fined Invention, by finding out a 
Method to fupply this Natural Defeat in his Subje<5t 
Accordingly he leaves the Adverfary of Mankind, in 



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14$ CEincisii OF Book xii; 

the laft. View which he gives us of him, under the 
lowell State of Mortification and Difappointment 
We fee him chewing Afhes, grovelling in the Dull, 
and loaden with Supernumerary Pains and Torments. 
On the contrary, our two firil Parents are comforted 
by Dreams and Vifions, cheared with Promifes of Sal- 
vation, and, in a manner, raifed to a greater Happi- 
ness than that which they had forfeited : In fhort. So/an 
is reprefented miferable in the height of his Triumphs, 
and A^iam triumphant in the height of Mifery. 

Miltoti% Poem ends very nobly. The lad Speeches 
of Adam and the Arch-angel are full of Moral and 
In(lru6live Sentiments. The Sleep that fell upon Ev€y 
and the effects it had in quieting the Diforders of her 
Mind, produces the fiame kind of Confolation in the 
Reader, who cannot perufe the lafl beautiful Speech 
which IS afcrib*d to the Mother of Mankind, without 
a fecret Pleafure and Satisfadlion. 

Whence thou rehirtCfl^ and whither wenffl^ I know \ 
For God is alfo in Sleepy and dreams advife^ 
Which he hath fent propitious^ fome great good 
Pre/agings Jince with Sorrow and Hearts dijlrefs 
Wearied I fell qfleep : but now lead on \ 
In nu is no delay : with thee to go 
Is to flay here; without thee here to flay 
Is to go hence unwilling; thou to me 
Art all things under Heai^n^ all places thou 
Who for my wilful crime art baniflfd hence. 
This further Confolation yet fecure 
I carry hence ; though all by me is lofl 
Suchfavoury I unworthy ^ am vouchfaf^d^ 
By me the promif'd SeedfluUl all reflore. 

The following Lines which conclude the Poem rife in 
a mofl glorious blaze of Poetical Imagesand ExprefTions. 

Hdiodorus in his yEthiopicks acquaints us that the 
Motion of the Gods differs from that of Mortals, as 
the former do not flir their Feet, nor proceed Step by 
Step, but Aide o*er the Surface of the Earth by an 



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CRITICISM OF BOOK XIT. t^^ 

uniform Swimming of the whole Body. The Reader 
may obferve with how Poetical a Defcription Milton 
has attributed the fame kind of Motion to the Angels 
who were to take Poffeffion of Faradije, 

So f pake our Mother Eve, and Adam heard 
Wellplea^dy but anjwer^d not; for now too nigh 
TIC Arch-angel Jloody and from the other hill 
To their fiyTdflatioUy all in bright array 
The Cherubim defcended; on the ground 
Gliding meteorous^ as evening mifl 
Riinfrom a River ^ der the marifh glides^ 
And gathers ground fafi at the laborers heel 
Homeward returning, High in Front advandd^ 
The brandifHd Sword of God before them blaz'd 
Fierce as a Comet 

The Author helped his Invention in the following 
Paflage, by refledling on the Behaviour of the Angel, 
who, in Holy Writ, has the Condu6t of Lot and his 
Family. The Circumftances drawn from that Relation 
are very gracefully made ufe of on this Occafion. 

In either hand the haflning Angel caught 
Our lingering Parents^ and to the Eaflem gate 
Led them direct ; and down the Cliff as fq/l 
To the fubfe^d plain; then difappear'd. 
They looking back &c. 

The Profpedt [Scene] which our firfl Parents are fur- 
prifed with upon their looking back on -Aira^/;^, wonder- 
fully flrikes the Reader's Imagination, as nothing can be 
more natural than the Tears theyfhedon thatOccalion. 

They looking back^ all tIC Eaflem fuU beheld 
Of Paradife, fo late their happy Seat, 
Watid over by that flaming brand, the gate 
With dreadful faces throned and fiery Arms : 
Some natural tears they dropped, but wiped them foon; 
The world was all before them, where to chufe 
Their place of refl^ and providence their Guide : 

If I might prefume to offer at the fmalleil Alteration 



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no citmcisM op book til 

in this Divine Work, I (hould think the Poem would 
end better with the Paflage here quoted, than with the 
two Verfes which follow. 

TA^y hand in hand with wandering JUps andflow^ 

Through Eden took their folUary way. 

Thefe two Verfes, though they have their Beauty, 
fell very much below the foregoing Paflage, and renew 
in the Mind of the Reader that Anguilh which was 
pretty well laid by that Conlideration, 

The World was all before them^ where to chufe 
Their place of refl^ and providence their Guide, 

The number of Books m Paradife Lofl is equal to 
Ihofe of the jEneid, Our Author in his Firfl Edition 
had divided his Poem into ten Books, but afterwards 
broke the Seventh and the Eleventh each of them into 
two different Books, by the help of fome (mall Addi- 
tions. This fecond Divifion was made with great 
Judgment, as any one may fee who will be at the 
pains of examining it It was not done for the fake 
of fuch a Chimerical Beauty as that of refembling 
Virgil in this particular, but for the more jufl and 
regular Difpofition of this great Work. 

Thofe who have read Bojfu^ and many of the 
Criticks who have written fmce his time, will not 
pardon me if I do not find out the particular Moral 
which is inculcated in Paradife Loft, Tho' I can by 
no means think with the lafl-mentioned French Author, 
that an Epic Writer firil of all pitches upon a certain 
Moral, as the Ground-work and Foundation of his 
Poem, and afterwards finds out a Story to it : I am, 
however, of Opinion, that no jufl Heroic Poem ever 
was, or can be made, from whence one great Moral 
may not be deduced. That which reigns in Milton is 
the mofl univerfal and mod ufefiil that can be 
imagined : it is in fhort this, thai Obedience to the Will 
of God makes Men happy y atid thai Difobedience makes 
them miferable. This is vifibly the Moral of the prin- 
cipal Fable which turns upon Adam and Eve^ who 



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THE Mural of 'paradise lost • 151 

continued in Paradife while they kept the Command 
that was given them, and were driven out of it as foon 
as they had tranfgreffed. This is hkewife the Moral 
of the principal Epifode, which (hews us how an innu- 
merable multitude of Angels fell from their State of 
Blifs, and were cafl into Hell upon their Difobedience. 
Befides this great Moral, which may be looked upon 
as the Soul of the Fable, there are an infinity of Under- 
Morals which are to be drawn from the feveral parts of 
the Poem, and which make this Work more ufeful and 
inilrudtive than any other Poem in any Language. 

Thofe who have criticifed on the Odyffey^ the Hiad^ 
and ^neid^ have taken a great deal of pains to fix the 
number of Months or Days contained in the Adlion of 
each of thofe Poems. If any one thinks it worth his while 
to examine this Particular in Milton^ he will find that 
from AdanC% fird Appearance in the Fourth Book, to his 
Expulfion from Paradife in the Twelfth, the Author 
reckons ten Days. As for that part of the A6lion which 
is defcribed in the three firfl Books, as it does not pafs 
within the Regions of Nature, I have before obferv'd 
that it is not fubje6t to any Calculations of Time. 

I have now finifh'd my Obfervations on a Work 
which does an Honour to the Engiijh Nation. I have 
taken a general View of it under thofe four Heads, the 
Fable, the Charadlers, the Sentiments and the Lan- 
guage, and made each of them the Subje6l of a par- 
ticular Paper. I have in the next place fpoken of the 
Cenfures which our Author may incur under each of 
thefe Heads, which? I have confined to two Papers, 
tho' I might have enlarged the number, if I had been 
difpofed to dwell on fo ungrateful a Subje6t. I be- 
lieve, however, that the feverefl Reader will not find 
any little fault in Heroic Poetry, which this Author 
has fallen into, that does not come under one of thofe 
Heads among which I have dillributed his feveral 
Blemiihes. After having thus treated at large of 
Paradife Lofl^ I could not think it fufficient to have 
celebrated this Poem in the whole, without defcend- 
ing to Particulars. I have therefore bellowed 1 



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15a CONCLUSIOlf. 

Paper upon each Book, and endeavo»;red not only to 
(hew [prove] that the Poem is beautiful in general, but 
to point out its particular Beauties, and to determine 
wherein they confifl, I have endeavoured to (hew 
how fome Paflages are beautiful by being Sublime, 
others by being Soft, others by being Natural ; which 
of them are recommended by the Paflion, which by 
the Moral, which by the Sentiment, and which by the 
Expreflion. I have [likewife] endeavoured to (hew 
how the Genius of the Poet (hines by a happy Inven- 
tion, a diflant Allufion, or a judicious Imitation ; how 
he has copied or improved Homer or Virgil^ and raifed 
his own Imaginations by the ufe which he has made of 
feveral Poetical PafTages in Scripture. I might haveln- 
ferted [alfo] feveral Paflages of Taffo^ which our Author 
has likewife* imitated; but as I do not look upon Taffo 
to be a fufficient Voucher, I would not perplex my 
Reader with fuch Quotations, as might do more 
Honour to the Italian than the Englijh Poet In 
(hort, I have endeavoured to particularize thofe innu- 
merable Kinds of Beauty, which it would be tedious to 
recapitulate, but which are eflential to Poetry, and which 
may be met with in the Works of this great Author. 
Fad I thought, at my firfl engaging in this Defign, that 
it would have led me to fo great a length, I believe I 
(hould never have entered upon it ; but the kind Re- 
ception which it has met with among thofe whofe Judg- 
ments I have a Value for, as well as the uncopimon 
Demands which my Bookfeller tells me has been made 
for thefe particular Difcourfes, give me no Reafon to 
repent of the Pains I have been at in compoUng thenL 




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*v^ 



Stanford UnJwiity Ubrariw 

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