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^-;>-^ix?^ W 




Twentieth Century History 


Cass County, Michigan, 


Secretary Cass County Pioneers' Association, 






The History of Cass County has been completed after more than 
a year of unremitting effort on the part of the pubhshers and the editor 
and his staff. That the work will bear the critical inspection of the 
many persons into whose hands it will come, and that it measures up to 
the highest standards of modern book-making, the Publishers con- 
fidently believe. Also, through the diligent co-operation of Mr. Glover, 
the editor, the history has become a record of enduring value and 

It is not the purpose of the Publishers to delay the readers with 
a long preface. It is sufficient to acknowledge their indebtedness to 
many who have contributed of personal knowledge, of time and patience 
in their cordial endeavors to preserve and extend the fund of historical 
knowledge concerning Cass County. It would be impossible to mention 
the names of all who have thus assisted in making this work. Yet 
we cannot omit mention of the assistance rendered by the county of- 
ficials, especially County Clerk Rinehart, Judge Des Voignes, Register 
of Deeds Jones, County Treasurer Card, County Commissioner of 
Schools Hale. Naturally the newspapers of the county have been drawn 
upon, and Mr. Allison of the National Democrat^ Mr. Berkey of the 
Vigilant, Mr. Moon of the Herald, have never failed to supply us with 
exact information or further our quest in some helpful way. These and 
many others have helped to compile a trustworthy history of Cass 




Description ,. . . i 

Origfinal Inhabitants . . . . . . 14 

The County's Southern Boundary 22 

Early Settlement ..... . . . 37 

"Pioneers of Cass County" 53 

Organization 91 

Growth and Development ., loi 

Centers of Population , .1. ,. . 119 

Cassopolis . .,. . . . . .1. . . . . ., ,. .,. . . ... . . . . ... .......... 142 

City of Dowagiac ,. .1. . . .... 154 

Communication and Transportation . . . , 163 

Industries and Finance 1. .,. ., 180 

Agriculture ,. • • ■ •. . 198 


Court House and Other County Institutions , , 207 

Education in State and County ., ,. . ,. ... . . 215 

City and Village Schools , ,. . . .,. .,. . . .,. ...... . 228 

Libraries ,..,.., . . . ... . . . 244 

The Cass County Press ... ... ... . . . . .1 ,. ... . . ... . 249 

Medicine and Surgery 257 

Cass County Bar . ..... 270 

Cass County the Home of the Races ,. 284 

Military Records ....... 297 

Military Organizations . . . ., . ... ... .. ., ., 329 

Social Organization .1. . . . . .. 334 

Cass County Pioneer Society .,. 349 

Religion and the Churches 371 

Oiificial Lists 389 


Abolitionists. — 54, 112, 290. 

Adams, Sterling. — 124. 

Adamsport. — (See Adamsville.) 

Adamsville. — 109, 124, 125, 165, 186, 258. 

Agnew, Hugh E.— 253, 750. 

Agriculture. — 8, 198-206. 

Agricultural Implements. — no, iii, 190 et 

seq. ; 198 et seq. 
Agricultural Society, Cass County. — ^205, 

Aikin, Charles C. — 442. 
Air Line Rail Road. — 129, 131, 136, 175 et 

Akin, Perry. — 448. 
Aldrich, Levi. — 262. 
Allen, Green. — 291. 
Allen, Reuben. — 109. 
Allison, C. C— 250, 251, 255, 765. 
Amber Club. — ^339. 
Amsden, Charles T. — 674. 
Anderson, T. W. — 265. 
Andrus, Henry. — 255, 503. 
Ann Arbor Convention. — 35, 36. 
Anti-Horse Thief Society. — ^2oi5. 
Argus, The.— 254, 255. 
Armstrong, A. N. — ^454. 
Arnold, William.— 614. 
Atkinson, John. — 655. 
Attorneys — (see Lawyers) prosecuting, 391. 
Atwell,'F. J.— 276. 
Atwood, Frank. — 197, 729. 
Atwood, James. — 756. 
Atwood, W. H. — 159. 
Austin, Edwin N. — 594. 
Austin, Jesse H. — 522. 

Bacon, Cyrus. — 93. 

Bacon, Nathaniel. — 17. 

Bailey, Arthur E.— 565. 

Bair, John. — 97, 116. 

Baker, F. H.— 193. 

Baker, Nathan. — 129. 

Balch, A. C— 158. 

Bald Hill.— 10. 

Baldwin, John. — 50, 126. 

Baldwin, William. — 135. 

Baldwin's Prairie. — 7, 125. 

Ball, C. P.— 131. 

Banks. — 194-197. 

Banks, Charles G. — 772. 

Baptist Churches. — 146, 378, 379, 380. 

Bar Association. — 283. 

Bar, Cass County. — 270-283. 

Barney, John G. A. — 372. 

Barnhart, Andrew. — 661. 

Barnhart, Peter. — 337. 

Barnum, Edwin. — 139. 

Barren Lake Station. — 131. 

Beardsley, Elam. — 116, 126; Darius, 116. 

Beardsley, Ezra. — 45, 49, 93, 109, 121. 

Beardsley, Othni. — 95, 126, 186. 

Beardsley's Prairie. — 7, 114, 115, 121, 374, 

Beckwith, E. W.— ^7. 
Beckwith Memorial Theatre. — ^247, 248. 
Beckwith, Philo D. — 161, 190 et seq. ; 245, 

Becraft, Julius O.— 159, 191, 253, 745. 
Beebe, Bruce. — 583. 
Beeman, Alonzo P. — 136, 476. 
Beeson, Jacob. — 155, 156, 162. 
Beeson, Jesse G. — 108, 197. 
Bennett, William P. — 273. 
Benson, Henry C. — 599. 
Berkey, W. H.— 252. 
Berrien County, Attached to Cass. — 94. 
Bigelow, Hervey. — 134. 
Big Four R. R.— 177. 
Bilderback, John.— 666. 
Birch Lake.— 386. 
Bishop, George E. — 746. 
Black Hawk War.— 102, 107, 166, 170, 297. 
Blackman, Daniel.— 146, 148, 274. 
Blacksmiths. — 184 et passim. 
Blakeley, T. L.— 265. 
Blood, J. v.— 415. 
Bly, Kenyon. — 760. 
Bogue, Stephen.— 48, 49, I3i» 289. 
Bogue, William E. — 709. 
Bonine, E. J.— 259. 
Bonine, James E.— 195, 386. 
Bonine, Lot. — 510. 
Boundaries. — 22 et seq. ; of Cass county, 

92; of townships, 93 et seq. 
Bowen, Henry H. — 566. 
Boyd, James. — 184. 
Brady.— 141. 
Brick.— 13, no. 
Bridge, Leander.— 564. 
Brown, David and William.— 128. 
Brown, Jonathan. — 135. 
Brownsville.— 8, 128, 187. 
Buell, B. G.— 206. 
Bugbee, Israel G.— 262. 
Bulhand, Dr.— 261. 
Bunn, C. W.— 291. 



Burney, Thomas. — 137. 

Bushman, Alexander. — 286. 

Business. — (See under village names.) 

Byrd, Turner. — ^291. 

Byrnes, Daniel K., 464. 

Calvin Township. — 50, 96, 112, 113, 223, 

287-296; 2^77, 2>9^' 
Campbell, Malcom A. — y22. 
Canals.— 121, 172. 
Carey Mission. — 11, 16-19, 40, 165, 185, 

Carnegie Library. — 246. 
Carr,J. R.— 278. 
Carr, L. J.— 332. 

Cass County Advocate. — 249, 250. 
Cass County. — Formed, 92; boundaries, 
92; named, 92; civil organization, 92. 
Cass, Gen. Lewis. — 29, 92. 
Cassopolis.— 99, 103, 108; 142-153; ^77, 

183, 184, 189, 228-231 ; 244, 374, 

375, 379, 382, 401, 402, 403- 
Cassopolis Milling Co. — 189. 
Cassopolis Woman's Club. — 338, 339. 
Catholic Church.— 285, 371, 372, 2>72>' 
Caul, Andrew F. — ^455. 
Cavanaugh, Lawrence. — ^47. 
Centers, of Population.— 119 et seq. ; in 

Volinia township, 138. 
Chain Lakes. — 8. 
Chapman, Franklin. — ^479. 
Chapman, H. Sylvester. — 592. 
Chapman, J. B. — 153^ 
Charles, Jacob.— 126, 138. 
Charleston.— 138, 337. 
"Charter Citizens," of Cassopolis. — 150. 
Cheesebrough, Nicholas. — 155- 
Chicago Road.— 8, 119, 120, 121, 124, 137, 

164, 166, 167. 
Chicago Trail. — 164. 
Chicago Treaty. — 19, 166. 
Chipman, John S. — 272. 
Chipman, Joseph N. — 272. 
Choate, N. F.— 193, 196. 
Christiann Creek.— 7, 124, 128, 131, 132, 

186, 187. 
Christiann Drainage Basin. — 8. 
Churches.— 123, 125. (See under names 

of villages), 371-388. 
Circuit Court. — 391. 
Circuit Court Commissioners. — ^391. 
(Tircuit Judges. — 390. 
Civil War. — 297 et seq. 
Clark, Geo. Rogers. — 22. 
Clark, Walter.— 540. 
Clarke, J. B.— 275. 
Clarke, W. E.— 263. 
Clendenen, John.— 692. 
Clerks, County. — 391. 
aisbee, C. W.— 275. 
Clothing, of Early Days.— 181 et seq. 
Clubs.— 338 et seq. 
Clyborn, Archibald. — ^45. 

Coates, James R. — 108. 

Colby, H. F.— 154, 161, 193; Colby Mills, 
154, 193; G. A., 193. 

Collins, John R. — 613. 

Commissioners, County Seat. — 98, 99, 143, 
144, 146, 147. 

Communication. — 100, 120, 121 ; 163-179. 

Condon, John. — 9. 

Cone, C E.— 278, 554. 

Congregational Churches. — 383. 

Conklin, Abram. — 725. 

Conklin, E. S. — 458. 

Cortklin, Gilbert.— 681. 

Conklin, Simeon. — 719. 

Conkling, W. E. — 233. 

Coolidge, H. H.— 121, 123, 27:^. 

Cooper, Alexander. — ^445. 

Cooper, Benj. — 160. 

Corey, 136. 

Coulter, John F. — 443. 

Coulter, William H. — 62,6. 

Counties, Erection of. — 91. 

County Normal. — 223, 224, 232. 

County Officers. — 390-393- 

County Seat, Location of. — 98 et seq. ; 108, 
129, 132, 142, 143, 144, 145. 

Court House. — (See County Seat.) 146, 
147, 151, 187, 207-212. 

Court House Company. — 147, 207, 208. 

Courts, Established. — 93; county, 93; Cir- 
cuit, 93 ; 207, 271, 279. 

Craine, Orlando. — 154. 

Crawford, George. — 45. 

Crego, H. A.— 678. 

Criswell, M. H.— 265, 509. 

Crosby, Nelson J. — 646. 

Curry, Joseph Q. — 460. 

Curtis, C J.— 263. 

Curtis, Jotham. — 96, 116. 

Curtis, Solomon. — 707. 

Gushing Corners. — 139. 

Gushing, Dexter.— 139, 687. 

Gushing, William. — 139- 

Customs, Early.— 334 et seq. 

Dailey.— 128, 129. 

Dana, Charles. — 272. 

Davis, Alex.— 134. 

Davis, C. A.— 6. 

Davis, C E.— 267. 

Davis, H. C— 526. 

Davis, Job.~i33» 186. 

Denike, G. H.— 624. 

Denman, H. B.— 195. 

Dennis, Cassius M. — 439- 

Dentists.— 268. 

Des Voignes, L. B.— 278, 294, 769. 

Dewey, Burgette L.— 161, 3^^, 712. 

Diamond Lake.— 2, 8, 39, 49, 98, 103, 129, 

Diamond Lake Park. — 140. 
Disbrow, Henry. — 99. 
Disciples Churches.— 383, 384- 



Distillery.— 183, 184; et passim; 187. 

Doane, William H. — 113. 

Donnell's Lake. — 13. 

Dool, Robert. — 516. 

Dowagiac— 97, 132, 151; 154-162; 177, 

188, 189 et seq. ; 231 et seq. : 245, 

375, 400, 401, 404, 405, 406. 
Dowagiac Creek. — 10, 11, 132, 134, 154. 
Dowagiac Manufacturing Co.— 161, 188, 

192, 193- 
Dowagiac Swamp. — 10. 
Drainage. — 2, 7, 8; 9-10; commissioners, 9. 
Drift, Covering Cass Co. — 3; distribution 

of, 5. 
Driskel, Daniel. — 117. 
Dunn, Frank. — 136, 465. 

Eagle Lake. — 141. 

East, Settlement. — 112; family, 112. 

Easton, Edd W. — 669. 

Easton, W. W.— 266. 

Eby, Daniel. — 765. 

Eby, Gabriel. — 127, 620. 

Eby, Peter. — 537. 

Eby, Ulysses S. — 279, 536. 

Eby, William. — 127. 

Education. — (See Schools.) 120, 215-243, 

Edwards, Alexander H. — 121. 
Edwards, J. R. — 279. 
Edwards, Lewis. — ^44. 
Edwards, Thomas H. — 46, 49, 121. 
Edwardsburg. — ^45, 120, 121, 122, 143, 151, 

167, 169, 170, 172, 184, 196, 237, 258, 

374, 378, 380, 381, 382. 
Electric Railroads. — 177. 
Elevation of Surface. — 4. 
Emerson, J. Fred. — 588. 
Emmons, George. — 438. 
Emmons, James M. — 561. 
Engle, Frank. — 573. 
Erie Canal. — 54, 121. 
Evangelical Churches. — 387. 

Factories. — 187 et seq. (See Mills, Man- 
Fairs. — 205, 206. 

Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance Co. — 197. 
Farming. (See Agriculture.) 
Farr, Willis M. — 161, 194, 332, 724. 
Fields, George M. — 279, 629. 
Fiero, Byron. — 577. 
Fiero, John P. — 187, 710. 
Finance. — 194-197. 
Fish, A. M.— 758. 
Fish Lake. — 141. 
Flax.— 181. 

Fletcher, Don A. — 542. 
Follett, Henry.— 258. 
Forest Hall Park. — 140. 
Fosdick, John. — 95; George, 131. 
Fowie, Charles. — 193. 
Fowler, H. H.— 98, 129, 130, 143, 257. 

Frakes, Joseph.— 48. 
Fraternal Orders.— 123, 348. 
French, D. L. — 153. 
French, Explorers. — 2;]. 
French, Henry J.— 585. 
Friends, Settlement.— 48; societies, ^8;. 
386. ^ ^' 

Frost of 1835.— 103. 
Frost, William M.— 716. 
Fruit Culture. — 203. 
Fulton, Alex, and David. — 138. 
Funk, C. H. — 654. 

Gage, John S. — 190. 

Gage, Justus. — 205. 

Gard, Edgar J.— 484. 

Gard, George W. — 206, 210, 513. 

Gard, L N. — 206. 

Gard, Jonathan. — 51, 206. 

Gard, Josephus. — 95. 

Gard, M. J.— 206. 

Card's Prairie. — 52. 

Gardner, A. B. — 191. 

Gardner, S. C. — 116. 

Garrett, Hugh P.— 648. 

Garver. — ^46. 

Garvey, M. T. — 129, 159. 

Garwood, Alonzo. — 260. 

Garwood, Benjamin F. — 535. 

Garwood, Levi. — 128, 137. 

Garwood, William H. — 425. 

Gas.— 13, 158. 

Geneva Village. — 98, 129, 143, 184, 257. 

Gibson, J. E. — 210 et seq. 

Gilbert, Eugene B. — 738. 

Gilbert, Samuel H. — 6or. 

Glaciers, Action of. — 2 et seq. 

Glenwood. — 139. 

Glover, L. H. — 279, 781. 

Goble, Elijah.— 51, 138, ZZI- 

Goff, Frederick. — 117. 

Goodwin, Fairfield. — 265. 

Goodwin House. — 145. 

Graduates, from Schools. — 224, 229, 230, 

234, 240, 242. 
Graham, Sidney J. — 618. 
Grain, Planting and Harvesting. — 201, 202, 

Grand Army Posts. — 329, 330, 331, 332. 
Grand Trunk R. R. — 2; 7, 12-2, 130, 136, 

137, 152, 176, 177. 
Grange, The. — 204, 205. 
Griffin, Robert S. — 262. 
Grindstone, First in County. — 47. 
Grubb, Pleasant. — 128. 

Hadden, George M.— 587. 

Hadden, M. O.— 75i- 

Hadden, Samuel B. — 541. 

Haight, Joseph. — 117. 

Hale, William H. C— ^15 et seq.; 642. 

Halligan, Raymond S. — 572. 

Hamilton, Patrick.— 155, 156. 


Hampton, Thaddeus. — 139; stock farm, 

Hannan, Peter. — 'J2']. 
liardy, Alonzo J. — 085. 
Hardy, George W. — 481. 
Harmon, Charles O. — ^280, 294, 515. John 

B., 280. 
Harper, Joseph. — 148, 207, 562. 
Harrington, S. S. — 153. 
Harris Line. — 28. 
Harter, Joseph.— ^113. 
Hartman, Kleckner W. — ^456. 
Hartsell, Frank L. — 744. 
Harvey, Dan M.— 581. 
Hatch, Junius H. — 134. 
Hatch, OHver W.— 261, 
Hayden, Asa K.— 281. 
Hayden, B. W,— 435- 
Hayden, James G.— 664. 
Hayden, W. B.— 153. 
Hawks, Samuel. — ^291. 
Henderson, Ira B. — 149. 
Hendricks, Line. — 32. 
Hendryx, Coy W. — 774, 280. 
Herald, The. — ^254. 
Herkimer, George R. — ^266. 
Hess, Joseph. — 628. 
Hicks, Henry B.— 517. 
Hicks, Orren V., 478. 
Higgins, Cornelius. — 96. 
Higgins, Thomas T. — 409. 
High Schools. — ^222, 229, 234. 
Highland Beach. — 141. 
Hinkley, Rodney. — ^48. 
H irons, Edward. — 123. 
Hirsh, Jacob. — 160. 
Hitchcox, James. — 126. 
Holland, Marion. — ^265. 
Hollister, Noel B.— 159, 160, 2^^- 
Hopkins, David. — 138, .207. 
Hopkins, W. D.— 189. 
Hotels. (See Taverns.) 
Household Utensils. — 181 et seq.; see 

Houses, Pioneer.— 42, 43, 104, 105, 114, 

181 et seq. 
Howard Township.— 12, 95, 113, 114, 223, 

337, 399. 
Howard, William G. — ^276. 
Howardville. — 131 . 
Howell, David M.— 195, 251; M. L., 195, 

Howser, S. M.— 447. 
Hoyt, W. F.— 193. 
Huff, John.— 486. 
Huff, Otis.— 699. 
Hughes, G. A.— 266. 
Hunter, George W. — 703. 
Huntley, G. G. — 9. 
Hutchings, Nelson A. — ^468. 
Hux, Chris A.— 196, 660. 

Ice and Water, Influence on Surface. — 2. 

Immigration, Sources of. — 53, 54; direc- 
tion of, 94, 103. 

Indians. — 14-21; school, 18; in Silver 
Creek, 20; 102, 103; 284-287; 372 

Indian Trails.— 8, 102, 163, 164, 165. 

Industries. — 180-197. (See Manufacture 
ing. Mills.) 

Jail.— 146, 147, 212, 213. 

James, Isaac P. — 130; Parker, 130. 

Jamestown. — 7, 130, 177, 184. 

Jarvis, Frank P. — 775. 

Jarvis, William. — 705. 

Jarvis, Zadok. — 64.0. 

Jefferson Township. — 12, 49, 95, no; early 

settlers, in; 22}^, 398. 
Jenkins, Baldwin. — ^41, z[2, 43. 
Jewell, Elbridge. — 610. 
Jewell, Hiram. — 108; family, 142, 144. 
Johnson, Joseph H. — 534. 
Johnson, Oliver. — 142, 145. 
Jones, E. H. — 136. 
Jones, George D. — 48, 160, 694. 
Jones, George W. — 137, 412. 
Jones, Gilman C. — 159, 161. 
Jones, Henry. — 207. 
Jones, Horace. — 161. 
Jones, J. H. — 266. 
Jones, Nathan. — 529. 
Jones, Village. — 136, 265. 
Jones, Warner D. — 453. 
Judd, Mark.— 161, 663. 
judges. Lists of. — 390. 

Kelsey, Abner. — 129. 

Kelsey, Wm. J.— 261 ; J. H., 261, 266. 

Kentucky Raid.— in, 112, 289. 

Kessington. — 125. 

Kester, Clinton L. — ^459. 

Ketcham, Clyde W.— 280, 332, 718. 

Ketcham, W. J.— 266. 

Kimmerle, Catherine. — 108. 

Kimmerle, Charles H.— 208, 212, 432. 

Kimmerle, Henry. — 778. 

Kingsbury, Allen M.— 643. 

Kingsbury, Asa.— 131, 146, 147, 148, I94» 

195, 207, 213, 644. 
Kingsbury, Charles. — 194. 
Kingsbury, David L. — 195, 452. 
Kingsbury, George M.— 153, 209, 551. 
Kinnane, James H. — 281, 743. 
Kirby, W. R.— 485. 
Kirk, William.— 42, ii3- 
Knapp, Amos. — 192, 702. 
Kyle, Joseph C. — 422. 

L'Allegro Qub.— 343. 

La Grange Prairie. — 11, 12, 46. 

La Grange Township.— ii, 46 et seq.; 94, 

107, 108, 175, 186, 223, 375, 397. 
La Grange Village.— 131, 132, I33, i34. 

Lake Alone. — 131. 



Lake, J. M.— 421. 

Lake View Park. — 141. 

Lakes.— 5, 6; Lilly lake, 7; 136; 139. 

Land Sales. — 106. 

Lawrence, Levi. — 109, 138. 

Lawrence, L. L. — 734. 

Lawson, William. — 291 ; Cornelius, 293. 

La wy er s . — 270-283 . 

Leach, James H., 418. 

Lee Brothers. — 196. 

Lee, P>ed E.— 191, 196. 

Lee, Ishm.ael. — iii. 

Lee, Joseph W. — 109. 

Letters.— 178. 

Lewis, E., F. — 498. 

Lewis, Roland. — 762. 

Libraries. — 244-247. 

Lilley, Thomas J. — 532. 

Lincoln, Samuel J. — 544. 

Lindsley, John A.— 161, y2(). 

Link, Donald A.— 267, 770. 

Little Prairie Ronde.— 7, 11, 19, 5i ; post- 

office, 138. 
Little Rocky River.— 10. 
Lockwood, Henry. — 258. 
Lofland, Joshua.— 159, 213. 
Longsduff, George. — 488. 
Longsduff, John. — 632. 
Loupee, John. — 603. 
Loux, Abraham. — ^47. 
Lover idge, Henry L. — 463. 
Lumber.— 12, 161. (See under Mills, Man- 
Lutheran Church. — 387. 
Lybrook, John.— 47 ; Isaac, 47; Henley C, 

Lybrook, Joseph. — 428. 
Lyle, C. M.— 281. 
Lyle, Daniel.— 133, I95» 196. 
Lyle,F. W.— 193, 196; C. E., 193. 

Madrey, J. W.— 291. 
Magician Beach. — 141. 
Magician Lake. — 140, 141. 
Manufacturing.— (See Mills.) 121, 133, 

134, 161, 180-194. 
Maple Island Resort. — 141. 
Marcellus Township.— 10, 97, io7> ii7, 

223, 394. 
Marcellus Village.— 137, 138, 239, 240, 254, 

406, 407. 
Marckle, John. — 492. 
Markham, Israel.— 41, 184. 
Marl Beds. — 13; lime, 13. 
Marsh, A. C— 121. 
Mason, Governor. — 33, 100. 
Mason Township.— 96, 115, 223, 397- 
Masons. — 348. 
Mater, John.— 683. 
Matthew Artis Post.— 293. 
May, Russel D— 440. 
McAllister, James. — 418. 

McCleary, Ephraim. — 142, 145. 
.McCleary, William.— 48. 
McCoy, C. Delivan. — 426. 

McCoy, Isaac. — 16, 17. 

McCoy, Richard.— 431. 
jNlcCoy, William H. — 431. 

McCutcheon, William C. — 266, 268, 647. 

McDaniel, James, — 96, 115, 116. 

McGill, William.— 612. 

Mcintosh, Daniel.— 187. 

Mcintosh, Jacob.— 548. 

Mclntyre, Fred. — 451. 

McKenney, Thomas. — 47. 

McKessick, Moses. — 125. 

McKinney's Prairie. — 11. 

McMaster, Hamilton S.— 266, 713. 

McNeil, Marion. — 617. 

McOmber, Jay W.— 156. 

Meacham, George.— 45, no; Sylvester, 45. 

Mechanicsbnrg. — 134. 

Mechling, John VV.— 59i- 

Medical Society, Cass County.— 268. 

Medicine and Surgery. — 257-269. 

Merchants.— 46, 155; in Edwardsburg, 
123; of Marcellus, 138; Cassop- 
olis, 148 et seq. (See under village 
names) ; 159. 

Merritt, Wm. R.— 127 ; J. Fred., 128. 

Methodism.— 114, 132: churches, 373-378. 

Michigan Central R. R.— 122, 132, 138, I39, 
151. 155, 161, 173, 174. 

Michigan Southern R. R.— 174, et passim. 

Michigan Territory.— 27 ; history to ad- 
mission to Union, 22-36. 

Military Annals.— 103. 

Military Organizations.— 329-333- 

Military Records.— 297-328. 

Miller, Ezra.— 109. 

Miller, George.— 276. 

Miller, O. P.— 645- 

Mills —At Carey Mission, 18; 105, no; 
113, ns, 122, 124, 128, 129, 130, 133, 
134, 135, 137, 154, 183 et seq. 

Milton Township.— 12, 97, lU, 223, 37o, 

Minnich, James J.— 568. 

Mint Culture.— 203. 

Model City.— 139. 

Monday Evening Club.— 346. 

Monroe Land Office.— 106. 

Moon, Abner M.— 154, i59, 253, 254, 695- 

Moraines.— 4; Lake Michigan moraine, 4, 

Moreland, Jacob.— 138. 

Morgan, C. A.— 267. 

Morse, C. W.— 263. 

Mosher, Francis J.— 160; Ira D., 160. 

Mosher, H. L.— 191. 

Motley, Edward T.— 576. 

Myers, C. M.— 267. 

National Democrat.— 251. 
Negro, Colony.— 287-296. 



Nelson, C. Carroll. — 294, 608. 

Newberg Township. — 10, 97, 107, 116, 117, 

^^2>. 394. 
Newberg Village. — 136. 
New Buffalo. — 174. 
New Century Club. — 345. 
Newell House. — 106, 146, 149. 
News, The. — 254. 
Newspapers. — 249-256. 
Newton, James. — 109; George, 109. 
Nichols, Jonathan. — 138. 
Nicholson, Spencer. — 136. 
Nicholsville. — 139. 
Niles. — 42; see Carey Mission; 103, 122, 

174, 249. 
Nineteenth Century Club. — 340. 
Northwest Territory. — 2'^ et seq. 
Norton, Levi D. — 112. 
Norton, Nathan. — ^49. 
Norton, Pleasant. — iii, 213. 

Oak Beach. — 141. 

Odd Fellows.— 348. 

O'Dell, James. — 185, 393. 

O'Dell, John.— 604. 

Official Lists, County, Township, Village 

Officers. — 389-409. 
O'Keefe, George A. — 99. 
"Old Fort."— 146, 208. 
Olds, May A.— 466. 
Olmsted, J. C— 237, 380, 381, 382. 
Ontwa Township. — 45 et seq. ; 94, 107, 108, 

2.22,, 398. 
Ordinance Line. — 24, 27. 
Ordinance of 1787. — 23 et seq. 
Organic Act. — 92. 

Organization, History of. — 91 et seq. 
O'Rourke, Jerry. — 'j^^, 
Osborn, Family. — 112; Charles, 112; Jo- 

siah, 112, 289. 
Osborn, Leander. — 264. 
Ouderkirk, Charles.— -623. 

Pardee, Elias. — ^yj- 

Parker, John. — 149. 

Parker, W. E.— 267. 

Parsons, William E. — 495. 

Pattison, Laurence B. — 733. 

Peninsula R. R. — 175. (See Grand 

Penn Township. — ^48 et seq. ; 94, 97, 108, 

'^^z. 38—, 396. 

Penn Village. (See Jamestown.) 

Petticrew, John. — 134. 

Pettigrew, John. — 186. 

Phillips, H. H.— 259, 266. 

Phillips, John H. — 560. 

Physicians. — 257-269. 

Pioneer Society. — 212. 

Pioneer Society, Cass County. — 349-370; 
officers, 349, 350; annual speakers, 
350, 351 ; members record, 351-370. 

Pioneers. — Alphabetical record of, 53-90; 
see Settlement ; Homes of, 104 et 
seq.; of Penn, 108; of Howard, 114; 
of Silver Creek, 115; manufactur- 
ing, 180 et seq. ; farming, 198 et 
seq. ; social customs, 334 et seq. 
a tragedy, 116; of Newberg, 117; of 
Marcellus, 117. 

Planck, E. A.— 265, 268, 622. 

Plank Roads. — 169. 

Pleasant Lake. — ^45. 

Poe, Charles W. — ^474. 

Pokagon, Chief. — 16, 19, 20, 42, 285, 372. 

Pokagon Creek. — 11, 134. 

Pokagon Prairie. — 11, 40, 44, 184, 375. 

Pokagon Township. — (See Pokagon Prai- 
rie.) 93, 107, 223, 399. 

Pokagon Village. — 134, 135, 264. 

Poor Farm, Cass County. — 213, 214. 

Population. — 107, 108 et seq. ; 122, 127, 
129, 130, 134, 135, 136, 151, 157, 2^\ 

Porter Township.— 50, 51, 95, 97, 107, no, 
186, 22Z, 395- 

Post Roads. — 165, 166. 

Postal Service.— 178, 179. 

Postoffices. — 119, 120 (See Rural Free 
Delivery); 126; 129, 130, 136, 137, 
138, 139, 149, 158, 178, 179. 

Pottawottomies. — 14 et seq.; 42, 102, 115, 

Pound, Isaac S. — 652. 

Prairies. — 5, 6, 7, 11. 

Presbyterian Churches. — 380-383. 

Press, Cass County. — 249-256. 

Price, John. — 48. 

Prindle, C. P.— 263. 

Probate Judges. — 390. 

Products, Natural. — 12. 

Prosecuting Attorneys. — 391. 

Protestant Episcopal Church. — 388. 

Public Square. — 129, 143, 145 et seq. 

Putnam, Uzziel, Sr. — 40 et seq.; 202; Ira, 
44; Uzziel, Jr., 44. 

Puterbaugh, William F. — 630. 

Quakers.— 48; 112, 287, 385, 386. 

Railroads.— 122, 132, 135, 151, 155, 167, 
171 et seq.; electric lines, 177; un- 
derground, 287. 

Railroad Era. — 171 et seq. 

Read, S. T.— 176, 195. 

Reames, Moses and William. — 49; Moses, 

Redfield, Alex. H. — 143, 144 et seq. ; 148, 

149, 207, 212, 270, 271. 
Redfield, George H.— 505. 
Redfield's Mills.— 129. 
Reed, John. — 48, 49, 96. 
Registers of Deeds. — 392. 
Religion. — 371 et seq. (See Churches.) 
Renniston, William.— 108. 154, 186, 193. 
Representatives, State. — 389. 



Republican, The. — 253. 

Reshore, Frank. — 281. 

Re Shore, Grace. — 245, 247. 

Resorts. (^See Summer Resorts.) 

Reuch, Jonathan H. — 639. 

Reynolds, Levi J. — 546. 

Richardson, Norris. — 731. 

Rickert. Charles C. — 420. 

Rinehart, Carleton W. — 590. 

Rinehart, Family. — no, 186. 

Rinehart, John. — 48. 

Rinehart, S. M. — 126, 127, 

Ritter, Charles A. — 195, 625. 

Ritter, John J. — 197, 735. 

Roads. — (See under Communication, Rail- 
roads.) 163, 164 et seq. 

Robbins, George W. — 472. 

Robertson, Alexander. — ^426. 

Robertson, George W. — ^472. 

Robertson, John. — 264. 

Robinson, C. S. — z^^y. 

Rockwell, John D. — 597. 

Rodgers, Alexander. — ^45. 

Roebeck, John L. — 491. 

Root, Eber. — 146. 

Rosewarne, Henry G. — 720. 

Ross, F. H. — &J2>- 

Ross, Jasper J. — 558. 

Round Oak Stove Works.— (See P. D. 
Beckwith.) — 188, 190-192. 

Rouse, Daniel G. — 97. 

Rowland, Thomas. — 99. 

Rudd, Barak L. — 140, dzZ- 

Rudd, Orson. — 137. 

Rural Free Delivery. — 120, 125, 128, 132, 
T79, 204. 

Russey, E. J. — 650. 

Sage, Chester. — 45, 126. 

Sage, Family. — 124, 196; Moses, 124, 125, 
186; Martin G., Norman, 124. 

Sailor. — (See Kessington.) 

Salisbury, William. — 519. 

Sandy Beach. — 140. 

School Funds. — 222. 

Schools — T20, 132. (See under names of 
villages, 215-243.) Cassopolis, 228- 
231: Dowagiac, 231-237; Edwards- 
burg, 237-239; Vandalia, 241-243; 
Marcellus, 239-241. 

School Officers. — 393 ; 22^^-227. 

Senators. — 389. 

Settlement. Affected by Natural Condi- 
tions. — I ; early, 37 et seq. ; date of 
first, 42; 102, 106; T07 et seq. 

Shaffer, Daniel.— 48. 

Shaffer. David.— tti ; Peter, tit; 187; 
George T., in. 

Shakespeare. — 135. 

Shanahan, Clifford. — 273. 

Shannon. Albert J. — 482. 

Sharp, Craigie. — 139. 

Shavehead. — 19; trail, 164, 165. 

Shaw, Darius. — 148, 207. 

Shaw, James. — 114. 

Sliaw, John.~io9, ^Z^. 

Shaw, Richard.— 109. 

Shcpard, James M.— 252, 556 

Sheriffs. — ^392. 

Sherman, Elias B.-135, 138. 143, 144 et 

seq ; 195, 271, 336. 
Sherwood C. L.~i59, 160, 679. 
Shields, Martm.— 48. 
Shillito, Ernest.— 571. 
Shockley, Alfred.— 507. 
Shoemakers, Pioneer.— 182. 
Shore Acres. — 130. 
Shugart, Zachariah.— 289. 
Shurte, Isaac. — 47, 103. 
Sibley, Col. E. S.— 98^ 129. 
Silo Plants.— 203. 

Silver Creek Township. — 11, 20, 96 115 
^., '^2Z, 285, yjl. 399. 
Silver, Jacob and Abiel.— T2i ; George F.. 

123; Orrin, 124, 149; Jacob, 207,' 

Skinner, Samuel F. — 574. 

Smith, Amos. — 522. 

Smith, A. J.— 123, 131, 274. 

Smith. Cannon. — 114, ^i^y^y. 

Smith, Daniel. — 704. 

Smith, Ezekiel C. — 114. 

Smith, Ezekiel S.— 159, 255, 272-, Joel H 

Smith, George W. — 494. 

Smith, Harsen D.— 195, 282, 657. 

Smith, Hiram. — 538. 

Smith, Joseph. — 187, 208, 251. 

Snyder, Robert. — ^436. 

Social Organizations. — 334-348. 

Soil. — 12. 

Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument Associa- 
tion.— 332, zzz- 

Soldiers of Cass County in Civil War — 

Spalding, Erastus H.— 133, 154, 156, 160,. 
193; Lyman, 154. 

Spencer, James M. — 275. 

Spinning Wheel. — 181. 

Squatters* Unions. — 107. 

Stage Coaches. — T2t, 123, 126, 169, 170. 

Standerline George. — ^470. 

Standerline, William. — 471. 

Stapleton, James S. — 261. 

Stark, Myron. — t6t, 194, 741. 

Starrett. Charles. — 700. 

State Officials from Cass County. — 390. 

Stebbins, E. S. — 264. 

Stewart, Hart L. — 98, 129, 143 ; A. C, 129.. 

St. Joseph Township. — 91. 

Stone Lake. — 99. 142, 145, 149, 152. 

Stretch, William Y{.—(^26. 

Subscriptions, to Railroads. — 175. 

Sullivan, Tames. — 2^2. 

Sumner, Isaac. — 134. 

Summer Resorts, — 139, 140, 141. 



Snmnerville. — 43, 134. 
Supervisors, Township. — 393-401. 
Surveyors. — 392. 
Sweet, Charles E. — ^282, 753. 
Sweetland, John B. — 255, 262. 
Swisher, John F. — 659. 

Talbot, John A. — 276. 

Talladay, Alamandel J. — 524. 

Taverns.— 43, 46, 50, 115, 116, 121, 123, 
126, 138, 146, 149, 156, 159, 337. 

Taylor, Albon C— 682. 

Taylor, Alexander. — 414. 

Taylor, Clifford L. — 430. 

Taylor, James D. — 264. 

Teachers. — 216; certificates, 219, 220, 22;^. 

Telephones. — 127, 179. 

Territorial Road (see Chicago Road).— 

Tharp, Abner. — ^49, 50. 

Thatcher, Nelson E.— 528. 

Thickstun, David C— 638. 

Thomas, S. B. — 152. 

Thomas, Silas H. — 578. 

Thompson, Allison D. — 502. 

Thompson, Merritt A. — 277. 

Thompson, Squire. — 44. 

Thomson, Samuel C. — 450. 

Thorp, A. L. — 264. 

Tibbits, Nathan and William. — 126. 

Tietsort, Abram. — 103, 142, 145, 150, 183. 

lletsort's Sidetrack. — 139. 

Times, The. — 253, 254. 

Tolbert, George H. — 596. 

Toledo War.— 22, 2>?>, 34, 35- 

Tompkins, L. D. — 260. 

Toiiey, James. — 51. 

Topography. — i et seq. ; striking features 
. of, 5- 

I ourists' Club. — 341. 

Townsend, Abram. — 41, 46, 202, 255; 

Ephraim, 41 ; Gamaliel. 44, 103. 
Township Officers. — 393-401. 

Townships, Formation of. — 93 et seq. 

Trades. (See Manufacturing, Industries, 

Transportation. (See under Communica- 
tion, Railroads. X 

Treasurers, County. — 392. 
Tribune, 1lie. — 252. 

1>uitt, James M. — 771. 
ITuitt, Peter.— 97, 114. 

Truitt Station. — 177. 

Turner, George B. — 39, 205, 251, 273. 

Turner, Virgil. — yjy. 

Tuttle, William.— 192. 

Underground Railroad. — 2^y et seq. 
Union. — 125, 126, 165, 2>7^. 

Union Hotel. — 146. 

United Brethren Churches.— 387. 

Universalist Church. — 387. 

Vail, Levi M. — 129. 

Van Antwerp, Lewis C. — 497. 

Van Buren County, Attached to Cass.— 94. 

Vandalia.— 8, 49, 130, 131, 185, 241, 242, 
408, 409. 

Van Riper, Abram, and Sons.— 133. 

Van Riper, J. J.— 276. 

Venice. — 154. 

Vigilant, The. — 251, 252. 

Volinia Farmers' Club.— 205, 206. 

Volinia Township. — 11, 19, 51, 52, 95, 103, 
109, 222,, 395- 

Volinia Village. — 138. 

Volinia and Wayne Anti-Horsethief So- 
ciety. — 206. 

Voorhis, C. E. — 152, 434. 

Wakelee. — T36, 137. 

Walker, Henry C. — 635. 

War, Toledo.- 22; Sac or Black Hawk, 
102; Civil, 297-328; Spanish, 297. 

Warner, J. P. — 193. 

Washington, Booker T. — 292. 

Water Works. — 152, 189. 

Watson, John H. — 779. 

Wayne Co. — 24, 25, 26, 91. 

Wayne Township. — 96, 223, 397. 

Wee saw. — 19. 

Wells, C. P.— 264.- 

Wells, Henry B.— 671. 

Wells, Isaac, Sr. — 696. 

Wells, Leslie C. — 423. 

Wells. Willard.— 748! 

Wheeler. J. PI. — 264. 

White, Gilbert. — 531. 

White, Milton P. — 233, 267, jGy. 

White Pigeon Land Office. — 106. 

Whitman, Martin C. — 98, 133. 

Whitmanville. — 133. (See La Grange Vil- 

Wilber, Theodore F. — 676. 

Wiley, Robert H.— 763. 

Williams, Josiah. — 127. 

Williamsvilk. — 127, 128. 

Witherell, Duane. — 416. 

Women's Clubs. — 338-348. 

Wooden, Zaccheus. — 38. 

Wooster, John. — 282. 

Wright, Elijah W.— g6. 

Wright, Job. — 38-40, 140, 334. 

Wright, William R. — 47. 

Young, John H. — 496. 
V^oung's Prairie. — 7, 374, 376. 

MAP of 

R.16 IV 


Scale: 4 ^nles to 1 Inch 

11.15 W. 11.14 W. 


History of Cass County. 


Cass county, topographically considered, is much the same now 
as before the first settlement. The three generations of white men have 
cleared the forest coverings, have drained the swamps, have changed 
some of the water courses; have overwhelmed the wilderness and con- 
verted the soil to areas productive of useful fruitage; have net-worked 
the country wath highways and roads of steel ; have quarried Ijeneath 
the surface and clustered structures of brick and stone and wood into 
hamlets and villages, and from the other results of human activity 
have quite transformed the superficial aspects of our county. But the 
greater and more basal configurations of nature endure through all 
the assaults of human energ}^ The eternal hills still stand as the sym- 
bol of permanence and strength; the lake basins, though their water 
area is becoming gradually reduced, still dot the expanse of the couirty 
to form the same charming contrast of sparkling waters and green for- 
est and prairie which the original settlers looked upon. The slopes of 
drainage, the varieties of soil, the general geology of Cass county con- 
tinue with little change. 

To describe the county as nature made it seems a fit introduction 
to the history of man's occupation which forms the bulk of this volume. 
The development of a people depends on environment in the first stages 
at least, until the powers of civilization assert their sway over the in- 
ertia of nature. Succeeding pages prove this fact over and over and 
indicate how natural conditions afifected the settlement and growth of 
the county. The conspicuous natural features of the county, both as 
related to the pioneer settlement and as they can be noted now, deserve 
description. Nature is not only useful but beautiful, and both attributes 
are known and valued in any proper history of a county and its people. 

It is not an impertinent query why the surface configuration of 
the county is as it is. Why the county is traversed, roughly in the di- 


rection of the Grand Trunk R. R. line, by the well defined range of hills 
constituting the axis of drainage for all the surface water of the county, 
so that the overflow from Diamond lake passes south, while the "waters 
collected two miles west of the county seat flow west into Dowagiac 
creek? Also, what is the origin of the many lakes on the surface of the 
county ? Why were the hills piled up in such irregular confusion in 
some places, and in others the surface becomes almost a level plain? 
Whence come the rounded boulders of granite which are found every- 
where, yet quite detached from any original matrix rock, as though 
strewn about in some Titan conflict of ages past? These and many 
other questions come to the mind of one who travels over the county, 
endeavoring, with the help of modern science, to 

"Find tongues in trees, books in running brooks, 
Sermons in stones, and good in everything." 

The key to the understanding of Cass county's topography is found 
in the action of ice and water during the glacial age. The surface of 
all the region about the Great Lakes is radically different from what 
it was when this part of the continent first rose from the sea and be- 
came a habitable portion of the earth's crust. Perhaps thousands of 
years passed after the sea separated from the land and many forms of 
vegetable and animal life flourished on the soil. Then came the ice 
age. A period of intense cold, with the intermittent warm seasons so 
brief that the rigors of winter were never entirely relaxed, covered all 
the north temperate zone with an ocean of ice and snow, which, radi- 
ating from a probable center near Hudson's bay, extended its glacial 
flow southward as far as the Ohio and Missouri rivers, which spread 
like embracing arms around the southern borders of the ice area. Geol- 
ogists have estimated the thickness of these ice fields to vary from a few 
hundred to thousands of feet, in some places a mass of glaciated material 
over a mile high. 

Had these great ice ar^as been stationary, they would have had 
little effect in reconstructing the earth's surface. But the mass was 
characterized by a ponderous, , irresistible motion, sometimes but a few 
feet in a year^ and now advancing and again retreating; b^ut prolonged 
over an era of years such as humap minds can hardly conceive, its e^ffect 
was more tremendous in the aggregate than'those of any natural, phe- 
nomena dteervable in historic times, surpassing even the earthquake 
and volcano. 


As the ice sheet passed over the surface, down the mountain val- 
leys and over the plains, individual glaciers uniting with others or from 
elevation or depression being cast upon or under a larger sheet, every- 
where the motion of the mass being marked by terrific rending, plough- 
ing and friction, it was inevitable that the earth's surface woukf l)e 
greatly changed. The ice mass acted in some places as a mighty broom, 
sweeping the loose material down to the bare rock and carrying the 
mingled soil and broken rock buried in the ice. Again it plowed up and 
moved away entire hills. And the friction of such a mass througli the 
ages of its movement wore off even the hardest rock and bore the re- 
sulting sand and boulders to remote distances. Thus it came about that 
the ice sheet had not moved far from its source before it liecame a car- 
rier of a vast weight of rock and soil material transported on the sur- 
face, embedded in the center. and rolled and pushed along underneath. 
As mentioned, the motion of the ice fields was not constant. Event- 
ually its southern extremes reached as far south as indicated, 1)ut there 
were many stages of advance and retreat, and it seems that at one ])c- 
riod the ice was driven far back to the north and then came south again, 
so that for a portion of the United States there were two periods of 
glaciation, separated by an interval when the ice siege was raised. 

While the ice field was advancing it was continually receiving new 
accessions of solid material in the manners described above. But when 
the cold relaxed to the point where melting was greater than freezing, 
the edge of the field, decaying under the heat, began to retire. As soon 
as the ice relaxed its grasp, the imbedded and surface load of solid ma- 
terial was dropped and deposited in irregular heaps, according as the 
mass carried was great or small. • , 

This material gathered by the glacier in its progress and deposited 
in its retreat is the ''drift" which throughout Cass county covers the 
original surface to varying depths, ^ and from which the ''soil" of the 
county has been formed. The .composition of this drift is readily rec- 
ognized by any observer. Varying iri thickness throughout the south- 
ern half of the- state from a few. feet to- several hundred feet, in the case 
of a well bored at Dowagiac a few years, ago the drill having to pene- 
trate 202 feet of drift before reaching the,, regular strata, of slate and 
shale, this mass. of, sand, gravel, clay, with large. -bqulders of granite, is 
the material from which all the superficial area an^.surf^pe /^gotiguratipn 
of the county have been, derived. Ip qtja^r^^rds., thp ,f^ and 

villages,.of Cass county rest atop^^ ?P;JgiR9J§S?^iF^^r^^'^^'?b^J?^-" 


ground and pulverized and heaped together by the action of ice and wa- 
ter ages before Columbus discovered America. 

Whenever the edge of the ice field remained stationary, because the 
advance of the glacier was offset by the melting away of the forward end, 
there resulted a deposit of glacial material heaped together along the 
entire border of the ice and much greater in bulk and height than the 
drift left behind when the field was steadily withdrawing. These ridges 
of drift, brought about by a pause in the retreat of the ice mass, are 
called ''moraines." 

Cass county is crossed by one of the longest and best defined of 
these moraines. The ice fields which covered the lower peninsula of 
Michigan had three distinct divisions, considered with respect to the 
source and direction of the movement. The Lake Michigan glacier, 
whose north and south axis centered in Lake Michigan, was the west- 
ern of these fields or glacial ''lobes.'' On the east was the "Maumee 
glacier," advancing from the northeast across Lakes Huron and Erie, 
the western edge of which has been traced in Hillsdale county. Be- 
tween these tw^o the "Saginaw glacier" protruded itself from Saginaw 
bay, and its southern advance is marked by a "frontal moraine" extend- 
ing east from Cassopolis through south St. Joseph and Branch coun- 
ties to a junction in Hillsdale county with the Maumee glacier. The 
moraine of the Lake Michigan glacier, marking the final pause of the 
ice before it withdrew from this region, is a clearly defined ridge circling 
around Lake Michigan, at varying distances from the present shore of 
the lake, being from 15 to 20 miles distant on the south, with Valpa- 
raiso, Ind., lying upon it. It passes into Michigan in the southeast cor- 
ner of Berrien county, being observable from the railroad train west of 
Niles as far as Dayton. Thence it passes obliquely across Cass county — 
Cassopolis lying upm it — and crosses northwestern Kalamazoo county. 
Valparaiso is 100 feet above the level of Lake Michigan; La Porte, 234 
feet; and as the moraine enters Michigan it rises somewhat and corre- 
six)ndingly develops strength. Passing over the low swell in southwest 
Michigan, it is depressed somewhat in crossing the low belt of country 
which stretches from Saginaw bay to Lake Michigan, its base being 
less than 100 feet above these bodies of water. 

From the south line of Michigan the moraine is more sandy than 
the corresponding arm on the opposite side of the lake, is less sharply 
and characteristically developed, more indefinitely graduated into the 
adjacent drift, and more extensivdy flanked by drifts of assorted material. 


The superficial aspect of the formation, as ol^servahle in Cass county, 
is that of an irregular, intricate series of drift ridges and hills of rap- 
idly but often very gracefully undulating contour, consisting of rounded 
domes, conical peaks, winding ridges, short, sharp spurs, mounds, knolls 
and hummocks, promiscuously arranged. The elevations are accompa- 
nied by corresponding depressions. These are variously known as ''])^^{- 
ash kettles," ''pot holes," ''pots and kettles," and "sinks.'' Those that 
have most arrested popular attention are circular in outline and symmet- 
rical in form, not unlike the homely utensils that have given them names. 
It is not to be understood that the deposits from the glaciers re- 
mained where or in the form in which they were left l)y the withdrawing 
ice. From the margin of the ice flowed great volumes of water, in 
broad, rapid rivers rushing from beneath the glacier, and in dashing, 
powerful cataracts plunging from the surface to the drift jjelow. 1die 
power of this flowing water in redistributing the loose drift may he 
comprehended by comparing its action with a spring freshet in the rivers 
of today, although the forest and vegetation that now cover the soil 
serve as a protection against the floods, so that the glacial waters were 
many times more effective in their violence. The glacial streams, liber- 
ated from their confined channels under the ice, tossed and scattered 
and re-collected the deposited drift with the same effect that a stream 
from a garden hose will dissipate the dry dust in the road. The w ater's 
power was sufficient to gutter out deep valleys and surround them with 
high hills of dislodged material. In other places, flowing with broader 
current, it leveled the drift into plains and wrought out the so-called 
"prairies" which are so conspicuous a feature of the county's topog- 
raphy. Not alone while the ice fields were here, but for a long period 
afterward, the surface of the county was wrought upon by the inunda- 
tion and flow of water. In fact, the numerous lakes are but the distant 
echoes, as it were, of the glacial age, indicating in whisjDers the time 
when the dominion of water was complete over all this country. When 
the ice departed and the water gradually passed off by drainage and 
evaporation, the drift ridges, the Ararats of this region, naturally ap- 
peared first, and the subsidence of water then brought the rest of the sur- 
face successively to view. But the depressions and basins, hollowed out 
by the ice and water, remained as lakes even into our times, al- 
though these bodies of water are but insignificant in comparison with 
their former size, and most of them are slowly decreasing in depth and 
area' even without the efforts of artificial drainage. Since the settlement 


of while men in the county many of the small lakes have 'Mried up," 
and their bottoms are now plowed over and their rich ''muck" soil pro- 
duces the heaviest of crops. 

Describing the lakes of tl\e Lower Peninsula, Prof. C. A. Davis 
says : 'The small lakes, particularly those of the Lower Peninsula, are 
commonly depressions in the drift, shallow and not of large extent, fre- 
quently partially filled in around the margin with the remains of former 
generations of plants, so that many of the typical features of the lakes 
of hilly or mountainous regions are partly suppressed or entirely want- 
ing. These lakes belong to recent geological time, and this undoubtedly 
accounts for some of their peculiarities. By far the larger number of 
them exhibit the following features : A small sheet of water, roughly 
elliptical in shape, bordered by marshy areas of varying width, or on 
two or more sides by low, abruptly sloping, sandy or gravelly hills. The 
marshy tract is frequently wider on the south than on the north side, 
and its character varies from a quaking bog at the inner margin, through 
a sphagnous zone into a marsh. Li the larger lakes the marshy border 
may not extend entirely around the margin, but it is usually noticeable 
along the south shore, where it may be of considerable extent while the 
rest of the shore is entirely without it." This description may be veri- 
fied in an examination of any of the lakes of this county. 

The hills and morainal ridges approach most nearly the composition 
and form in which the drift was deposited from the retreating glaciers. 
Here we see the least sorting of materials, the boulders being indiscrim- 
inately mixed with the finer sand and gravel. Hence the soil of the hills 
is generally lighter and less varied in its productiveness than the lower 

Those portions of the surface which were long inundated by the 
post-glacial waters naturally were subjected to many changes. The 
rough contour was worn off by the action of the water, and the bottoms 
of former vast lake areas became smoothed down so that when the wa- 
ter finally drained off they appeared as the^'prairies" of today. Further- 
more, the w^ater performed a sifting process, the constant wash causing 
the larger rocks to settle on the lowest level' aiid the sand and clay, as 
Hghter material, to remain on the surface.^ In some cases, where the 
water remained sufficiently long, decomposition of vegetable and or-' 
ganic matter resulted in the fonnation of muck— as seen in the lakes 
today — which mingled with the oth^r materials to form the rich loam 
«oil that can be found in some of the prairies." ' . 


Thus, all the prairies— Beardsley's prairie, Young's prairie, Bald- 
win's prairie, Little Prairie Ronde, and the numerous others that be- 
came the favorite sites for settlement in this county— were at one time 
covered with water, the action of which effected many of the features 
which characterize these level or gently undulating areas. 

From the prairie levels the waters, in their retreat, were collected in 
the yet lower depressions which are now the lakes of Cass county. Some- 
times the glacial ridges were piled up so as to completely surround these 
depressions, resulting in the ponds and sinks above described, and which 
could not be drained by artificial outlet except at such expense as to be 

Drainage, both natural and artificial, has been a matter of foremost 
importance from early settlement to the present time. The i)resence 
of so many lakes on the surface of the county indicates that natural 
drainage is defective. The glacial waters were drained off so gradually 
that they did not cut deep channels for their outlet, but must have flowed 
off' in broad, shallow courses, which gradually narrowed down to a 
stream little larger than a brook. Just east of the village of Jamestown, 
to mention a case in point, the road crosses two little water courses that 
later contribute their waters to the Christiann. The actual channels are 
mere brooks, but each is at the center of a uniform depression, some 
rods in breadth, which was clearly the bed of a once large but sluggisli 
river. The writer has observed but one of these old water courses which 
indicate that the current was swift enough to ''cut'' the banks. At the 
north end of Lilly lake in Newberg township is a ''narrows," through 
which the waters of the once larger lake extended north into what is 
now a recently drained and swampy flat. On the west side of this "nar- 
rows" the bank juts sharply down to the former lake l)ottom, indicating 
that the subsidence of the water caused a current through the neck suffi- 
cient to cut the bank at a sharp angle. 

As already mentioned, the glacial ridge, roughly paralleled by the 
Grand Trunk Railroad, is the watershed separating the county into two 
drainage divisions. Eventually all the surface waters of the county 
find their way into the St. Joseph river. But, recognizing the line of 
division just mentioned, the drainage of the south and eastern half is 
effected by two general outlets, and of the north and west half by one. 

Christiann creek, which reaches the St. Joseph at Elkhart, receives 
the drainage, in whole or part, of Ontwa, Mason, Jefferson, Calvin, Penn 
and Newberg townships. Its extreme sources may be traced to Mud and 


Wildcat lakes in north Penn. Several of the lakes in southwest New- 
berg drain into this creek, and the surplus waters from the Diamond 
lake basin pass into the little Ijranch that extends from the lake's south- 
ern extremity, through Brownsville, to a junction with the Christiann. 
A little further south Christiann creek receives accessions to its placid 
current from the ''chain lakes" of Calvin, and from various small 
tributaries in east Jefferson, and from the lakes of north Ontwa. From 
the earliest period of white settlement Christiann creek has furnished 
sites for mills, one of the first in the county being at Vandalia, where the 
water is still utilized for similar purposes, though its volume at this 
point is small. 

To the student of nature, especially with reference to the physical 
geography of this county, some of the facts derived from ol>servations 
of familiar scenes become as impressive as the grandeur and surpassing 
wonders that lie a thousand miles awa}^ Surely there is cause for con- 
templation and admiration in the knowledge that at one time the great 
area roughly defined by the Christiann and its tributaries w^as under the 
dominion of confused and dashing waters, under wdiose influence the 
land surface was moulded and shaped anew, and that when it finally 
emerged, water-worn, to the light of the sun its surface was the more 
fit for the uses of man. From total inundation the waters withdrew 
by stages until they are now confined to the diminishing lakes and the 
narrow streams. 

The entire Christiann basin is, in turn, tributary to the St. Joseph 
valley, whose irregular shore line is clearly and sometimes abruptly de- 
fined along the southern border of Cass county. The old Indian trail 
and Chicago road often follows close on the edge of this river bluff, 
now descending to the old stream level and now winding along on the 

We have described with some particularity the Christiann drain- 
age area, because its features are quite typical of the other similar areas 
in the county. And before speaking of these other drainage divisions, 
it is necessary to state the part played by artificial drainage in the county. 

The pioneers found many portions of the county unfit for cultiva- 
tion and agricultural improvement. Marsh hay was the only product 
of value furnished by these areas, and to offset this the flats and marshes 
were the breeding grounds of chills and fevers and for many years a 
source of disease to all who lived here. Now these same places are the 
sites of some of the most productive, valuable and healthful farmsteads 


in the county. Not alone the system of ditching, under individual and 
county enterprise, has heen responsible for this. The clearing of the 
timber tracts and undergrowth and the loosening and upturning of the 
soil by the plow increased surface evaporation and sub-drainage, and 
these were the first important agencies in removing the excess moisture 
and making the land more habital)le as well as arable. 

The first acts of the legislature with reference to drainage were 
passed in 1846. For ten years all the public drainage undertaken was un- 
der the direction of township authorities. In 1857 the board of super- 
visors were given power to appoint three commissioners to construct 
and maintain drains. This act w^as amended at different times. In 188 1 
it was provided that one drain commissioner might be appointed in 
each county, to hold office two years, and in 1897 the office of drain 
commissioner was formally established in each county, to be filled by 
appointment of the board of supervisors for a term of two years, the 
first full term dating from January, 1898. In consideration of the vast 
benefit conferred upon the counties of Michigan by drainage works, it 
is noteworthy that the laws and court decisions expressly affirm that 
such construction and maintenance of drains can be undertaken only 
on the ground that they are ''conducive td the public health, convenience 
and w^elfare." In other words, the increased value of lands and the ben- 
efits to private individuals are only incidental. The present incumbent 
of the office is G. Gordon Huntley, and his predecessor in the office 
was John Condon. 

Public drains may now be found in all parts of the county. In 
some places the digging of a ditch through a natural barrier and the 
maintenance of a straight channel in place of a former tortuous and 
sluggish outlet, has effected the complete drainage of a lake basin, thus 
ending another dominion of the picturesque tamarack and marsh grass 
and making room for waving grain fields. As a result of drainage 
many of the lakes which the pioneers knew and which are designated 
on the county maps in use today, are now quite dry and cultivable, and 
in the course of another generation many more of these sheets of crys- 
tal water, reminiscent of geologic age and picturesque features of the 
landscape, will disappear because inconsistent with practical utility and 
the welfare of mankind. 

Another important phase of the drainage work is the deepening 
and straightening, by dredging, of the existing water courses. Per- 
haps the most notable instance is in Silver Creek and Pokagon town- 


ships, where the sinuous Dowagiac creek, for considerable portions of 
its course, has been removed, as it were, bodily from its former bed and 
placed in a new straight channel, where its current hastens along at a 
rate never attained by the old stream in times of freshet. By this means, 
the water being confined to a narrow channel and not allowed to wan- 
der at its sluggish will over the ancient bed, as though unwilling to for- 
get its former greatness, a large area of timber and swamp land has been 
rendered available for productive purposes. By clearing of the forests 
and by improvement of surface drainage, the "Dowagiac Swamp,'' so 
fearful to the early settlers as the haunt of pestilence and long deemed 
impossible of reclamation, has lost its evil reputation and is now not 
only traversed by solid highways as successors to the old corduroy or 
primitive ''rail road," but is cut up into fertile and valuable farms. 

Resuming the description of the remaining topographical divisions 
of the county, we find that besides the Christianu basin a large portion of 
Newberg and Marcellus townships sheds the surface water through the 
outlets afforded by Little Rocky river and its branches, which pass east 
to a junction with the St. Joseph in the county of the latter name. That 
portion of the county that forms the barrier of separation between the 
Chfistiann and the Little Rocky presents the most diverse and rugged 
surface to be found in the county. The south part of Newberg town- 
ship was at one time quite submerged, this conclusion being based on 
the numerous lake basins and plains to be found there. But north from 
Newberg town hall, which is situated on a delightfully level plain, where 
the loamy soil itself indicates a different origin from that found in the 
rougher areas, the level is abruptly broken and the road ascends to a 
series of morainal hills and ridges, forming a f-airly well defined group 
spreading over sections 8, 9, 10, 15, 16 and 17. Among these is ''Bald 
Hill,'' between sections g and 16, conceded to be the highest elevation 
not only of this group, but perhaps of the entire county. From these 
hills of heaped up gravel, sand and clay, with corresponding deep and 
irregular sinks and valleys, prospects are afforded on all sides. To the 
south the country appears to extend in level perspective until the hori- 
zon line is made by the hills in north Porter township. The view on the 
east is not interrupted short of the east line of the county, though all 
the intervening surface is extremely hilly and some of the most tortu- 
ous roads in the county are* in east Newberg: Northward from Bald 
Hill the descent into the: valley of the Little Rocky is such that here is 
seen the most' irhpress'ive panorama in Cass county. On a clear day. 


when the timbered areas have lost their fohage, the houses of Marcellus 
village, at the center of the next township, are visible. Between arc 
the succession of woodland and cultivated fields, dotted with farm- 
houses and all the evidences of prosperous agriculture. Some of the 
landscape vistas that stretch away in every direction from the hills of 
JNewberg, not to mention the hills themselves, are worthy the labors of 
a most critical painter. 

As soon as the Lake Michigan moraine north and west of Cas- 
sopolis is crossed an entirely different drainage area is reached. Here 
Dowagaic creek reaches out its numerous branches and increases its 
current from the drainage of practically half the county. Fish lake, in 
the northeast corner of the county, is the extreme source within the 
county. Thence the course lies westward through the Little Prairie 
Rondo, which attracted the Cards and Huffs and other well known 
early settlers to Volinia township. Further along, as the stream increased, 
it afforded power for mills, which all along its course have been im- 
portant factors in the industries of the county from the pioneer period. 
Wandering on in its course through Volinia and LaGrange, its drainage 
area has been marked by alternate forest, flat marsh-land, and beautiful, 
fertile prairies. Reaching northeast LaGrange, its valley expands into 
the broad LaGrange prairie, wliich the succeeding pages will describe 
as the site of one of the three earliest and largest Cass county settle- 
ments. The valley again contracting as it winds through the hills east 
of Dowagiac, the stream passes into the series of marsh flats which 
characterize the country surrounding Cass county's only city. As al- 
ready mentioned, the country between the two forks of the Dowagaic, 
comprising a large part of Silver Creek, as also of the adjoining town- 
ships, has been redeemed from the reign of swamp and water by man's 
enterprise. The north branch of the Dowagiac, with its source in Van- 
Buren county, is bordered by the flats of Wayne and Silver Creek, which 
ditching and clearing are making some of the most productive land in 
the county. 

Between the south branch of the Dowagiac and Pokagon creek, 
comprising much of the area of Pokagon and LaGrange townships, are 
located several of the gently undulating, thinly timbered areas to which 
the pioneers gave the name ''prairies.'' Of these, Pokagon prairie, by 
its native fertility and beauty, first attracted the homeseekers from the 
rendezvous at Cai-ey Mission (Niles). Also, McKinne/s prairie is a 
geographical name often repeated in these pages, designating a tract 


about and including Sections 20 and 21 of LaGrange. LaGrange prairie 
belongs to the same general description. All the area, included between 
the central morainal ridge and Dowagiac creek, was at one time, it must 
be remembered, the bottom of the immense water basin which contained 
the Hoods poured from the edge of the retreating glacier as it withdrew 
from the moraine, and the niundation which continued for a long time 
effected many changes in the surface and the arrangement of drift 

The southwest part of the county, much of it ridged and over- 
spread with the moraine, presents a topography similar to Newberg, 
though not so rugged. The numerous lakes and absence of any im- 
portemt streams, indicate the work of the ice fields in sculpturing the 
surface of Howard, Jefferson and Milton townships. Here are some ex- 
tensive flats which a complete system of drainage will in time make very 
valuable from an agricultural point of view. Howard especially was 
noted for its ''oak openings," and the loose sandy soil and presence of 
many gravel and boulder ridges militated against a very early occupa- 
tion by settlers, although the same land has long since been found well 
adapted to practical agriculture. 

Generally speaking, the soil throughout the county, in consequence 
of its origin in the composite glacial drift, is very deep and contains 
all the chemical constituent elements of good soil. The character of the 
soil depends upon the assortment of the drift material into clay, sand or 
gravel beds, as one or the other of these layers happens to occupy the 
surface position, or as they are mingled without regard to kind. 

A few words may be said, in conclusion, relative to what may be 
termed the ''natural products" of Cass county. At the time of settlement 
the greater part of the area was covered with forest growth in all its 
primeval magnificence and wildness. The clearing of these timber areas 
— for they are meager in comparison with their former area and mostly 
of second growth trees — effected the greatest changes in the landscape, 
as it has been modified under the influences of seventy-five years of civil- 
ization. Pioneers recall the heavy forest growths among which their 
first habitations were constructed. In those days no value was attached 
to timber that would now be bought at almost fabulous prices for lum- 
ber. Black walnut, measuring four or five feet in diameter, white, 
black and red oak, hickory, elm and beech, were all ruthlessly cut down 
and given prey to fire in order that space might be had for tillage. The 
timber tracts now to be found in the county, though in some cases mag- 


iiificent features of the landscape, are restricted and hardly adequate as 
a means by which the imagination can reconstruct the gloomy, intricate 
forest depths through which the pioneer forced his way to his wilderness 

Of coal and mineral deposits, Cass county has none. Borings for 
gas have not resulted successfully, although about twenty years ago a 
company at Dowagiac sunk a drill over nineteen hundred feet below the 
surface. From an early day the manufacture of brick has been carried 
on, but brick kilns have been numerous everyw^here and furnish no 
special point of distinction. 

The most important of nature's deposits are the marl beds. This 
peculiar form of carbonate of lime, now the basis of Michigan's great 
Portland cement industry, the total of the state's output being second 
only to that of New Jersey, was known and used in this county from 
an early day. The plaster used in the old court house was made of marl 
lime. Many a cabin was chinked with this material, and there were 
several kilns in an early day for the burning of marl. A state geolog- 
ical report states the existence of a large bed of marl at Donnell's lake 
east of Vandalia, Sections 31 and 32 of Newberg, the marl in places 
being over twenty-five feet in depth. Just north of Dowagiac, in the 
lowlands of the old glacial valley is said to be a deposit of bog lime over 
six hundred acres in extent and from eighteen to twenty-eight feet deep. 
Harwood lake, on the St. Joseph county line, is, it is claimed, surrounded 
by bog lime. About the lakes east of Edwardsburg are marl deposits 
whicli were utilized for plaster from an early day. But as yet these 
deposits have not been developed by the establishment of cement plants, 
and that branch of manufacture is a matter to be described by a future 



It IS asserted that when the first white men settled in Cass county, 
they liad as neighbors some four or five hundred Indians. So that, 
although we make the advent of the white man the starting point of our 
history, yet for hundreds and perhaps thousands of years there has been 
no break in the period when the region we now call Cass county has 
served as the abode of human beings. 

The lands which we now till, the country dotted over with our com- 
fortable dwellings, the localities now occupied by our populous towns 
and villages, were once the home of a people of a different genius, with 
dift'erent dwellings, different arts, different burial customs, and different 
ideas; but they were human beings, and the manner in which our interest 
goes out to them, and the peculiar inexpressible feelings which come 
to our hearts as we look back over the vista of ages and study the few 
relics they have left, are proof of the universal brotherhood of man and 
the universal fatherhood of God. 

Almost all of the Indians living here at the coming of the white 
settlers were members of the Pottawottomie tribe. And they were the 
successors of the powerful Miamis, who had occupied the tountry when 
the French missionaries and Explorers first made record of its inhab- 
itants. This shifting of population had probably gone on for ages, 
and many tribes, of varying degrees of barbarism, have in their time 
occupied the soil of Cass county. The Pottawottomies were destined to 
be the last actors on the scene, and with the entrance of the white man 
they soon passed out forever. 

But during the first three decades of the nineteenth century they 
were the possessors of this region. The ascending smoke from the wig- 
wam fires, the human voices by wood and stream, were theirs. They were 
the children of nature. The men were hunters, fishers, trappers and war- 
riors. Their braves were trained to the chase and to the battle. The 
w^omen cultivated the corn, tended the papooses and prepared the food. 

And yet these people had attained to a degree of approximate civil- 
ization. Though they wrote no history, and published no poems, there 


certainly were traditions among them, especially concerning the creation 
of the world. Though they erected no monuments, they had their 
dwellings, wigwams though they were. Their civilization was not com- 
plicated, and yet they lived in villages, graphic accounts of which have 
been given. In place of roads they had trails, some of them noted ones, 
which will be described later. They communicated with each other in 
writing by means of rude hieroglyphics. They had no schools, but their 
young were thoroughly trained and hardened to perform the duties ex- 
pected of them. 

The Indians had not carried agriculture to a high degree of per- 
fection, but they turned up the sod and planted garden vegetables and 
corn, of which latter they raised more than is generally supposed, though 
the women did most of the farm work. They were not given to com- 
merce, but tliey bartered goods with settlers and took their furs to the 
trading posts where they exchanged them for the white man's products. 
I'hey made their own clothes, their canoes, their paddles, their bows and 
arrows, and other weapons of war, and wove bark baskets of sufficient 
fineness to hold shelled corn. And another interesting fact concerning 
them, they also understood how to make maple sugar. The sugar groves 
of the county have given of their sweetness for more generations than 
we k-now of. 

Much of a specific nature has been written of the Indians of this* 
part of the country, much more than could be compressed within the space 
of this volume. We can only characterize them briefly. That they 
were in the main peacable is the testimony of all records. On the other 
hand they were by no means the ''noble red men" which the idealism 
of Cooper and I^ongfellow has painted them. Historical facts and the 
witness of those who have had the benefit of personal association with 
these unfortunate people lead one to belieVe that the Indian, as compared 
with our own ideals of life and conduct, was essentially and usually a 
sordid, shiftless, unimaginative, vulgar and brutish Creature, living from 
hand to mouth, and with no progressive standards of morality and char- 
acter. The Indians in this vicinity frequently came and camped around 
the settlers, begging corn and squashes and giving Venison in return. 
They supplemented this begging propensity by thievirig— usually in a 
petty degree— and it is said that they would steal ahy article they could 
put their hands;on and- escape observation. A sharp watch was kept on 
their movements when- tliey were known to be'in the rieighborhood:' 

The Indian^ witb whom the settlers of Cass county had' to deal had 


been influenced more or less by coming in contact with Christianity. At 
different times for a century French missionaries had penetrated this 
region. Father Marest is one of the first known as having worked in 
this field. The Pottawottomies yielded more readily than other tribes 
to the teachings of the missionaries. They were deeply impressed by 
the ritual of the Catholic church. The tenacity with which many of 
the converts clung to the faith is a remarkable tribute to the power of 
that church over a barbarous people. Old chief Pokagon, whose record 
has come down to us singidarly free from the usual stains of Indian 
weakness, was a lifelong adherent of the Catholic church, and he and his 
people formed the nucleus and chief support of a church in Silver Creek 

The natives had been subject not only to the influences of Catholi- 
cism but to those of Protestantism. This brings us to the consideration 
of one of the most remarkable institutions of a missionary character that 
the middle west ever knew. Not only the work of religion but many 
secular events and undertakings that concern the early history of north- 
ern Indiana and southwestern Michigan centered around the Baptist 
mission among the Pottawottomies, which w^as founded near the site 
of Niles in the year 1822. Here gathered the red men to receive re- 
ligious and secular instruction. The councils between the government 
authorities and the chief men of the tribe took place at the mission house. 
This was the destination to which the settler from the east would direct 
his course. After resting and refitting at this point and counseling 
wnth those who knew the country, the homeseekers would depart in dif- 
ferent directions to locate their pioneer abode. Thus the Carey Mission, 
as it was called, played a very conspicuous part in the history of this 
region. It served to connect the old with the new. It was founded pri- 
marily for the benefit of the Indians, it served their spiritual and often 
their physical needs, and its existence was no longer warranted after the 
Indians had departed. But the Mission was also a buffer to soften the 
impact of civilization upon the Indian regime. Its work in behalf of 
the Indians and settlers alike pushed forward the process of civilization 
and development in this region some years before it otherwise would 
have been attempted. 

The name of Rev, Isaac McCoy has become fixed in history as 
that of one of the most remarkable religious pioneers of the middle west. 
His influence and fame, while centering around the Carey Mission which 
he established, also spread to many parts of the west Bom in Pennsyl- 


vania in 1784, he was taken by his parents to the wilderness of Kentucky 
when six years old. There he met and married the gentle Christiana, a 
daughter of Captain Polk, and as faithful co-workers they devoted their 
efforts to a common cause. The people of Cass county have special 
reason to remember this pioneer missionary's wife, for her name is 
borne by the stream that runs south from the center of the county to a 
junction with the St. Joseph near Elkhart. For a number of years 
Rev. McCoy was pastor of a church in Indiana, and in 18 17 was ap- 
pointed a missionary and undertook his labors among the Indians of 
the western states and territories. 

The founding of the Carey Mission was, in the language of Judge 
Nathaniel Bacon in an address delivered at Niles in 1869, ''the pioneer 
step in the way of settlement. It was barely ten years since the massacre 
at Chicago, and about the same time after the memorable battle at Tip- 
pecanoe, and the disastrous defeat of our army at Brownstown, when 
this mission was established. Emigration had in a great measure stopped. 
Very few dared to venture beyond the older settlements, until McCoy bold- 
ly entered into the heart of the Indian country, and began his mission 
school among the Pottawottomies who dwelt on the river St. Joseph. 
The fact was soon made known throughout Indiana and Ohio, and at 
once adventurers began to prepare to follow the example of the mis- 
sionary, who had led the way." 

In the same address Judge Bacon quoted a report of mission made 
by Major Long of the United States army in 1823. It contained the 
following description of the mission establishment: 'The Carey Mis- 
sion house is situated about one mile from the river St. Joseph. The 
establishment was erected by the Baptist Missionary Society in Wash- 
ington, and is under the superintendence of the Rev. Mr. McCoy, a man 
whom, from the reports we have heard of him, we should consider as 
eminently qualified for the important trust committed to him. 

''The spot was covered with a very dense forest seven months be- 
fore the time we visited it, but by the great activity of the superin- 
tendent he has succeeded in the course of this short time in building six 
good log houses, four of which afford comfortable residences for the in- 
mates of the establishment; the fifth is used as a school room, and the 
sixth forms a commodious blacksmith shop. In addition to this they have 
cleared about fifty acres of land, which is nearly all enclosed by a sub- 
stantial fence. Forty acres have already been plowed and planted with 


maize, and every step has been taken to place the estabHshment on an 
independent footing. 

'The school consists of from forty to sixty children,and it is con- 
templated that it will soon be increased to one hundred. The plan adopted 
appears to be a very judicious one; it is to unite a practical and intel- 
lectual education. The boys are instructed in the English language — ^ 
reading, writing and arithmetic. They are made to attend to the usual 
occupations of a farm, and perform every operation connected with it, 
such as plowing, planting, harrowing, etc. In these pursuits they ap- 
pear to take great delight. The system being well regulated, they find 
time for everything. 

'The girls receive the same instruction as the boys, and in addition 
are taught spinning, knitting, weaving and sewing, both plain and orna- 
mental. They are also made to attend to the pursuits of the dairy, 
such as milking cows, making butter, etc. All appear to be very happy, 
and to make as rapid progress as white children of the same age would 
make. Their principal excellence rests in worksi of imitation. They 
write astonishingly well, and many display great natural taste fbr 

'The institution receives the countenance of the most respectable 
among the Indians. There are in the school two of the great-grandchil- 
dren of To-pen-ne-bee, the great hereditary chief of the Pottawottomies. 
The Indians visit the establishment occasionally and appear well pleased 
with it. They have a flock of one hundred sheep, and are daily ex- 
pecting two hundred head of cattle." 

From a later official report, made in 1826, it appears that the mis- 
sion "has become a familiar resort of the natives, and from the ben- 
efits derived from it in various shapes they begin to feel a dependence 
on and resource in it at all times, and especially in difficult and trying 
occasions. There are at present seventy scholars, in various stages of 
improvement. Two hundred and three acres are now enclosed by 
fences, of which fifteen are in wheat, fifty in Indian corn, eight in pota- 
toes and other vegetable products ; the residue is appropriated to pasture. 

'There have been added to the buildings since my last visit a 
house and a most excellent grist mill, worked by horse power. The use- 
fulness of this mill can scarcely be appreciated, as there is no other of 
any kind within one hundred miles at least of this establishment, and 
here as benevolence is the preponderating principle, all the surrounding 
lx>pulation is benefited.'^ In fact, there were few, if any, of the first 


white settlers of the surrounding country who did not resort to the Mis- 
sion mill to get their grist ground. 

Thus the Indian occupants of the territory of Cass county had 
been taught many of the arts of civilized life before the record of the 
first white settlement in the county is recorded. This dependence on the 
assistance of the white man, while it tended to ameliorate the naturally 
hostile feelings between the races, at the same time subjected the settlers 
to the burden of their improvident neighbors as long as they remained 
in the county. 

The Indians found in Cass county at the advent of the white set- 
tlers were in three bands. The chiefs of two of these — Pbkagon and 
Weesaw — were promiaent characters, reputable and representative men 
of their tribe, and the annals of the time contain frequent mention of 
their names. According to the History of 1882, Pokagon's band, num- 
bering over two hundred, occupied originally the prairie in the western 
part of the county which retains the chief's name. As the settlers came 
in and appropriated the land, the Indians moved from place to place 
in the county, the majority of them finally settling in Silver Creek town- 
ship. Weesaw and his followers had their home in the northeast por- 
tion of the county, on Little Prairie Ronde, in Volinia township. The 
third band of Cass county Indians had as their chief the notorious Shave- 
head — named so because he kept his hair closely cropped except a small 
spot on top of his head and behind. Pie was a morose, troublesome and 
renegade Indian, never became a party to any of the treaties between 
the whites and Indians and viewed with sullen hostility every advance 
of settlement. 

But long before this time the Indians had formally relinquished their 
claims to the region now occupied by Cass county. The Chicago treaty 
of i8'2i provided for the cession to the United States of all the territory 
lying west and north of the St. Joseph river claimed by the Pbttawot- 
tomie Indians. By the later treaty of 1828 all the possessions of the 
tribe within the territory of Michigan were transferred to the govern- 
ment, with the exception of a reservation of forty-nine square miles in 
Berrien county, .west of the St. Joseph and bordered by it. 

In 1833, at Chicago, a treaty was drawn up by the three commis- 
sioners of tjie United States and the chiefs of the Pottawottomies, among 
whom w^ere Pbkagon and Weesaw, by which it was provided that ''All 
the Indians residing on the said reservations (that in Berrien county 
being the principal one) -shall remove-therefrom within three years from 


this date, during which time they shall not be disturbed in their posses- 
sion, nor in hunting upon the lands as heretofore. In the meantime no 
interruption shall be offered to the survey and sale of the same by the 
United States government/' 

Pokagon and his followers would not sign this treaty until they 
were guaranteed exemption from the clause which concerned their re- 
moval. It was the cherished desire of Pokagon that his people should 
remain in ''the land of their fathers," and in accordance with this inten- 
tion he began to enter land in Silver Creek township in 1836, and in a 
year or so- had about nine hundred acres entered in his name, although 
others of the band had contributed money for its purchase. This was 
the origin of the Indian settlement in Silver Creek township, which, as 
it still continues, will be described elsewhere. 

According to the treaty, the date of removal of the Indians from 
their reservation was set for 1836. When the time came the Indians 
protested. There were many delays in executing the plan of the gov- 
ernment. Agents were busy for some time in collecting a census of the 
tribes. It was difficult to assemble the scattered bands preparatory to 
their exile. Many escaped from the surveillance of the officers and took 
to hiding until the exodus was accomplished. Some were assisted in 
secreting themselves by the white settlers, who felt sympathy for them. 
Such an emigration, imposed from without, must always excite com- 
miseration. History is full of similar instances, as witness the exile 
of the Acadians made famous in Longfellow's "Evangeline." 

Upon the day appointed for the exodus the Pbttawottomies ren- 
dezvoused at Niles, and under the escort of two companies of United 
States troops moved out on the Chicago road toward their future home 
in distant Kansas. It was a sad and mournful spectacle to witness these 
children of the forest slowly retiring from the homes of their childhood, 
that contained not only the graves of their revered ancestors, but also 
many endearing scenes to which their memories would ever recur along 
their pathway through the wilderness. They felt that they were bidding 
farewell to the hills, valleys and streams of their infancy; to the more 
exciting hunting grounds of their advanced youth, as well as the stern 
and bloody battlefields they had contended for in their manhood. All 
these they wer^ leaving behind them to be desecrated by the plowshare 
of the white man. . As they east mournful glances back toward these 
loved scenes that were fading in the distance, tears fell upon the cheek 
of the dowwast warrior, old men trembled, matrons wept, and sighs 


and half-suppressed sobs escaped from the motley groups as they passed 
along. Ever and again one of the party would break out of the train 
and flee to their old encampments on the St. Joseph. In the following 
year these and many of those who had avoided removal by hiding, were 
collected and taken to their brethren in Kansas. 

Thus departed, with few exceptions, all of the original inhabitants 
of Cass county. From the standpoint of humanity, their mode of exist- 
ence, their ascent in the scale of human development, and their pitiful 
decadence and defeat in the contest against a superior race, will always 
claim a full share of interest. But in the history which tells of progress, 
of building of great cities and empires, of a constantly broadening scope 
of human acivity, the story of the Indian has little place. He has left 
nothing that we have thought worthy of imitation, nothing of a funda- 
mental character on which we might continue to build. On the con- 
trary, in the history of America, the Indian seems almost without ex- 
ception to have been an adverse factor. He must be removed just as 
it has been deemed necessary to remove the forests in order that agri- 
culture might proceed. And fortunate were the settlers of such a region 
as Cass county that this removal was accomplished without a bitter and 
relentless warfare, such as was the inevitable accompaniment of every 
advance of white men in the far west. 



Being one of the southernmost tier of Michigan counties, any ques- 
tion that affected the southern boundary of the state is of direct interest 
to Cass county. The county was not organized till 1829 and its settlers 
were comparatively few at that date. But the pioneers of that period 
as well as those who settled here later from other parts of the state were 
well acquainted with the boundary dispute that continued through the 
existence of Michigan as a territory and which culminated in what has 
gone down in history and is still remembered by the oldest inhabitants 
by the name of ''the Toledo war.'' 

Perhaps no one still alive in Cass county can recall from personal 
knowledge any of the events of this very mteresting dispute. But in the 
early thirties the settlement of the southern boundary very nearly pre- 
cipitated a civil war and attracted national attention. Had government 
policies taken a little different turn, the southern line of Cass county 
might now embrace the great bend of the St. Joseph river that now 
sweeps through the northern half of Elkhart and St. Joseph counties of 
Indiana, and the boundary line between the two states of Michigan and 
Indiana would be ten miles south of its present direction. 

If any one will take a map covering the area of Indiana, Ohio and 
Michigan, he will see that the northern boundary of Ohio is not on a 
line with the northern boundary of Indiana. The northwest corner of 
Ohio does not join the corner of Indiana, but is further down and runs 
a little upward, or north of due east, and terminates at the most north- 
em cape of Maumee bay, leaving that bay within the bounds of Ohio. 
The question is. What has made this difference in the boundary lines? 
and the answer involves the history of three different boundary lines 
which have to do intimately with the area of Cass county, or more prop- 
erly speaking, that part of Michigan territory from which Cass county 
was made. 

In 1778-9 George Rogers Clark, a young Virginian of extraordinary 
character, who has well been called the Hannibal of the west, captured 
Kaskaskia and Vincennes, thus cutting off the supplies of the Indians. 


He had been sent out by the government of Virginia, and that state 
therefore laid claim to all the territory northwest of the Ohio river, 
which was the same territory ceded to Great Britain by France in the 
treaty of 1763. On March i, 1784, through her authorized delegates in 
Congress, Virginia ceded this territory to the United States. She stip- 
ulated that it be divided into states but specified no boundaries. By vir- 
tue of ancient royal charters, New York, Massachusetts and Connecti- 
cut also claimed large territories north of the Ohio river, but these 
claims were all transferred to the United States, Connecticut alone re- 
serving a tract which was called the Western Reserve until May 30, 
1800, when she surrendered her jurisdictional claim over this tract to 
the United States. Thus the general government obtained the juris- 
diction over the Northwest Territory, and of the lands, subject however 
to the proprietary rights of the* Indians. 

When Congress assumed the jurisdiction there was no established 
government anywhere in the territory. The French commandants of the 
posts had administered the laws dictated by France, the British succeeded 
them and proclaimed the common law of England to be in force, Vir- 
ginia also had extended her laws, but there were no courts to enforce 
any of them. The question of forming some kind of government for 
the newly acquired territory at once attracted the attention of Congress. 

At first a report was made providing for the formation of the ter- 
ritory into ten states with fanciful names, but nO' action was taken upon 
it. This was Thomas Jefferson's scheme. From the time of its ac- 
quirement by the government until 1787, there was no organized control 
over the Northwest Territory. The people who were settling in it were 
left to struggle along as best they could. But on April 23, 1787, a com- 
mittee consisting of Mr. Johnson of Connecticut, Mr. Pinckney of South 
Carolina, Mr. Smith of New York, Mr. Dane of Massachusetts, and 
Mr. Henry of Maryland, reported an ordinance for the government of 
the new territory. It was discussed from time to time and very greatly 
amended, and finally, on the 13th of July, it passed Congress. This is 
the celebrated Ordinance of 1787, a document which, next to the Con- 
stitution of the United States, perhaps has occasioned more discussion 
than any other, on account of its sound principles, statesmanlike qual- 
ities and wise provisions. 

It is Article 5 of this ordinance which has most intimately to do 
with our present subject. That article provided for the formation in 
the territory of not less than three nor more than five states, it fixed the 


western, the southern, and the eastern boundaries of what became lUi- 
nois, Indiana and Ohio, and then the ordinance said, 'Tf Congress shall 
find it hereafter expedient, they shall have authority to form one or two 
states in that part of the vSaid territory which lies north of an east and 
west line drawn through the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Mich- 
igan." We call special attention to this line, for it is the first boundary 
line with which we have to do, and has been of exceeding great import- 
ance in the so-called boundary line dispute. But for a strange combina- 
tion of circumstances and long continued strife, it would have been the 
southern boundary of Michigan. It is called the ^'ordinance line" because 
it was specified in the great Ordinance of 1787 for the government of 
the Northwest Territory. 

On May 7, 1800, Congress divided the Northwest Territory by a 
line running from the mouth of the Kentucky river to Fort Recovery^ 
and thence due north to the Canadian line. It will be seen that this 
line is not the same as that prescribed in the ordinance, which was a line 
from the mouth of the Miami river to Fort Recovery and thence due 
north, making the boundary line due north and south all the way, from 
Canada to the Ohio river where the Miami empties into it. The mouth 
of the Kentucky river is several miles west of the mouth of the Miami, 
and a line from the mouth of the Kentucky to Fort Recovery runs east 
of north. This threw a three-cornered piece of territory, shaped like a 
church spire with its base resting on the Ohio river, into Ohio, which, 
when the states were organized, was included in Indiana according to 
the ordinance, and afterwards Ohio from time to time set up claims to 
this tract. 

All the region east of this line was still to be Northwest Territory, 
and that on the west was erected into the Indiana Territory. It will be 
seen that this division threw about one-half of the Michigan country into 
Indiana and left the other half in the Northwest Territory. 

And now for the first time the ordinance line, the east and west 
line drawn through the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan, 
comes into prominence; for all that portion of the east Michigan country 
which lay north of this line was organized as Wayne County of the 
Northwest Territory, and its settlers supposed that their fortunes were 
thenceforth identified with those of Ohio. 

The Ordinance of 1787 had provided for the admission into the 
Union of the prospective states of the Northwest Territory as follows : 
''Whenever any of the said states shall have sixty thousand free inhab- 



itants therein, such states shall be admitted by its delegates into the Con- 
gress of the United States on an equal footing with the original states 
in all respects whatever, and shall be at liberty to form a permanent con- 
stitution and state government, provided the constitution and govern- 
ment so to be formed shall be republican and in conformity to the prin- 
ciples contained in these articles ; and so far as can be consistent with the 
general interests of the confederacy, such admission shall be allowed at 
an earlier period, and when there shall be a less number of free inhab- 
itants in the state than sixty thousand" (Article 5). 

The Northwest Territory was rapidly filling with settlers, and in 
accordance with the above provision the whole population, including 
Wayne county, were agitating the question of statehood. On April 30, 
1802, Congress passed an enabling act, the first of its kind, according 
to which Ohio might frame a constitution and establish a state govern- 
ment, if it was deemed expedient. In that act the old ordinance line 
running east and west ''through to the southerly extreme of Lake Mich- 
igan" was specified as her northern boundary. The Ordinance of 1787 
seemed to prescribe this as the dividing line between the three states 
south of it and the two which might be formed north, of it, and so it 
seems to have been regarded and accepted at the time. In harmony with 
the enabling act, a convention met at Chillicothe, Ohio, on November 
1st, to frame a constitution for the new state. It is related in the ''His- 
torical Transactions of Ohio" that while the convention was thus en- 
gaged an old hunter whose curiosity led him thither appeared on the 
scene, and, learning of the prescribed boundaries, informed the dele- 
gates that the southern extreme of Lake Michigan lay much farther 
south than they supposed, or than the maps in use indicated. This state- 
ment at once awakened great interest and was the subject of careful 
deliberation. The map used by Congress in prescribing the ordinance 
line of 1787, was the one made by Mitchell in 1755. 

This map had been accepted as accurate by the Ohio statemakers, 
until the statement of the old hunter caused them toi pause and consider. 
According to this map a line due east from the southern bend of Lake 
Michigan would strike the Detroit river a little south of Detroit; if, how- 
ever, the old hunter's statem.ent was true and the line was farther south, 
Ohio would be deprived of much of her territory. Accordingly, after 
much deliberation, the convention embodied in the constitution the 
boundaries prescribed in the enabling act, but with the following proviso: 
"If the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan should extend so 


far south that a Hue drawn due east from it should not intersect Lake 
Erie east of the Miami (now the Maumee) river of the lakes, then 
* '^ * with the assent of Congress of the United States, the northern 
boundary of this state shall be established by, and extend to a line run- 
ning from the southerly extremity of Lake Michigan to the most north- 
erly cape of the Miami (now the Maumee) bay, thence northeast, etc.," 
or straight on through Lake Erie and Ohio to Pennsylvania. With this 
proviso: the constitution was adopted on November 29th. 

The congressional committee on the admission of Ohio refused to 
consider this proviso, because, first, it depended on a fact not yet ascer- 
tained, and, second, it was not submitted as were other propositions of 
the constitutional convention. Congress, therefore, ignoring the proviso, 
received Ohio into the Union. 

The inhabitants of Wayne county were very indignant that Con- 
gress should specify the ordinance line as the northern boundary of the 
new state. More indignant still were they when Congress received Ohio 
into the Union and left Wayne county out in the cold. They contended 
that it was illegal to treat them thus, that the ordinance of 1787 forbade 
the further division of the Northwest Territory, until the northern part 
of it could be made a state, that to exclude the county from, Ohio would 
ruin it. But all their protests wer*" in vain. The reason was a political 
one. The Democrats, or, as they were then called, the Republicans, had 
just secured the presidency in the election of Thomas Jefferson. Ohio, 
as admitted into the Union, was on their side; but if Wayne county 
were a part of the state it might be thrown into the ranks of their op- 
ponents, the Federalists. Governor St. Clair declared that to win a 
Democratic state the people of Wayne county had been ^'bartered away 
like sheep in a market.'' 

The act enabling the people of Ohio to form a state provided that 
Wayne county might be attached to the new state if Congress saw fit. 
Congress did not see fit, but on the contrary attached it to Indiana Ter- 
ritory, and in 1803 Governor Harrison formed a new Wayne county 
which comprised almost all of what is now Michigan. North and east 
it was bounded by Canada, but on the other sides it was bounded by a 
"north and south line through the western extreme of Lake Michigan" 
and '*an east and west line through the southern extreme of the same." 
Here the same old ordinance line appears again, as the southern bound- 
ary of what is now Michigan. 

But the Michigan country thus united was too strong to remain 


long a part of a territory, and hence, on January ii, 1805, Michigan 
Territory was formed by act of Congress. It was bounded on the west 
by a Hne extending through the center of Lake Michigan, and on the 
south by a hne running east from the southern extreme of the same. 

It will be seen that even at this time Michigan was deprived of a 
strip of land on the west shore of Lake Michigan, which as Wayne 
county Congress had given, her. Had she contended for that as persist- 
ently as she did for the strip in Ohio, she would have sought some- 
thing more valuable, for Chicago is situated in that very strip. That 
spot was comparatively worthless then, and the future is hidden from 
states as from individuals. It is interesting, however, to think what 
would have been the result if Michigan had retained the boundary lines 
which she had as Wayne county. 

But the fact which concerns us here is, that the ordinance line ap- 
pears again. After January 11, 1805, and until 1816, Michigan Terri- 
tory's southern boundary was a line running due east and west from 
the southern extreme of Lake Michigan ; and though it had not yet been 
ascertained accurately just where that line would come out in Ohio, 
enoiigh was known about it to make not only Ohio but the people of 
Indiana object very strongly to the southern boundary of Michigan Ter- 
ritory, as public documents abundantly show. 

The. lx)undary dispute was now transferred to Ohio. No sooner 
had the Ohio congressmen taken their seats after her admission into the 
Union, than they began working to secure formal congressional assent 
to their proviso about the boundary line. Senator Worthington secured 
the chairmanship of a committee to consider the question, but to< no pur- 
pose; both houses of Congress were unmoved. The boundary of so 
distant a state was an unimportant matter. When the territory of Mich- 
igan was organized, effort to have the neglected proviso confirmed was 
again made, but in vain ; and the southern line of the territory was de- 
scribed precisely as Ohio' did not wish. The Ohio, in session after ses- 
sion of her legislature, instructed her congressmen to endeavor to secure 
the passage of a law defining the northern boundary line of their state. 
It was certainly quite necessary that this be done. The lands near the 
rapids of the Miami (now the Maumee) had recently been ceded to the 
government by the Indians and were rapidly filling with settlers. Mich- 
igan magistrates exercised authority over the district, while the presi- 
dent had appointed a collector to reside at the Rapids, describing the 
place as in Ohio. 


The appeals of Ohio' became so urgent that Congress was wilhng 
to consider the matter. Representative Morrow of Ohio proposed a bill 
confirming the northern boundary as specified in the constitution of his 
state, and was made chairman of a committee to consider the question. 
But the bill which passed provided for surveying the boundary as estab- 
lished by the enabling act of 1802, the ordinance line. Congress had not 
sufficient knowledge of the country to venture to change the line, and 
it is probable that the line prescribed in the ordinance of 1787 was re- 
garded as inviolable. The bill to survey the boundary was passed in 
1 812, when the government was engaged with hostile Indians and with 
the war against England, and hence nothing was done for three years, 
or until 1815, and even then but little was accomplished. Had the 
survey been made at once, before the disputed strip became more pop- 
ulous, the question might have been settled; but during the delay the 
tide of immigration was pouring into the Miami region, and the ques- 
tion of jurisdiction was becoming more and more important. Again the 
Ohio authorities urged the survey of the state line, and the president 
complied with the request and ordered it to be done according to the act 
of 1812. The survey was made in 1816. The surveyor general of 
Ohio employed a Mr. Harris to run the line; not, however, according 
to the president's direction but according to the proviso of the Ohio state 
constitution, from the southern extreme of Lake Michigan to the north- 
ernmost cape of Maumee bay. The Harris line is the second of the 
boundary lines that pertain to our present discussion. 

The third soon appeared. On April 19, 1816, Congress passed the 
enabling act for the admission of Indiana as a state, fixing the northern 
boundary by a line drawn due east and west '*ten miles north of the 
southern extreme of Lake Michigan.'' Indiana was required to ratify 
this boundary, which she did by a duly elected convention which sat 
at Corydon, June 10 to 19, 1816, and framed a constitution, and she was 
formally admitted into the Union on December nth. 

Moving the boundary to the north cut off from Michigan a strip 
ten miles wide and one hundred miles long, which she claimed had been 
guaranteed her by the ordinance of 1787, and by several other acts of 
Congress; but she allowed the act to pass unchallenged at the time, 
probably because she was engaged in her contention with Ohio, and be- 
cause the strip thus taken away from her was sparsely settled and little 
known. To justify depriving Michigan of her territory in this manner 
It was argued that the ordinance of 1787 expressly stipulated that the 


boundaries it laid down would be subject to changes which Conoress 
afterwards might make, and Michigan was <>nly a territory that Indi- 
ana needed not only river communication with the south but lake com- 
munication with the north — that this would facilitate and encourao-e the 
building of connecting canals and the influx of settlers by way of the 
lakes — that the ordinance line of 1787 would deprive Indiana of all 
this and give all the lake frontage to Michigan; and, moreover, that if 
shut out from northern waters, then, in case of national disruption, the 
interests of Indiana would be to join a western or southern confederacy. 

This ten-mile strip thus given to Indiana in no way affected the in- 
terests of Cass county, except from the standpoint of speculative history. 
When this boundary was decided on, there were no settlers in the region 
now called Cass county, and few, if any, in all the strip in question. 
But had Ohio's victory in the contention that the Harris line should 
form the inter-state boundary also prevailed to establish the northern 
line of Indiana, it is possible that Cass county might have embraced a 
quite dififerent area of country from what it does to-day. 

As soon as General Cass, governor Michigan Territory, heard that 
Ohio had surveyed the Harris line, he wrote to the surveyor general of 
that state, asking why the line was not run due east from the southern 
extreme of Lake Michigan, and saying that a disputed jurisdiction was 
one of the greatest of evils, and that the sooner the business was in- 
vestigated the better. To this General Tiffin of Ohio replied that Harris 
had found the southern extreme of Lake Michigan to be more than seven 
miles south of the northernmost cape of Miami (or Maumee) bay, and 
that he had run the line between the two points. He sent General Cass 
a map illustrating the two lines, saying that the proper authority should 
decide which should govern, but for his part he believed that the Harris 
line was the true one, because it was according to Ohio's proviso, and 
the state had been received into the Union with that proviso in her con- 

Hearing of this correspondence, the governor of Ohio sent to his 
next legislature a message urging that the matter be settled at once, 
and that body settled it as well as they could by passing a resolution to 
the effect that Congress had accepted the proviso in accepting the con- 
stitution of Ohio, and therefore that the northern boundary of the state 
was the Harris line. Hearing of this, acting Governor Woodbridge, 
in the absence of Governor Cass, wrote to the governor of Ohio, assur- 
ing him that the act was unconstitutional. He also wrote to John 


Onincy Adams, then secretary of state, and there was some very strong 
correspondence on the subject, too extensive to include here. 

Ilhnois Territory had been formed in iSog-, It included all the 
country north to the Canadian Hne; that is, what is now Wisconsin and 
a part of Minnesota. In 1818 the legislature of Illinois passed a reso- 
lution requiring Nathaniel Pope, the delegate in Congress, to present the 
petition for admission into the Union. The committee to which that pe- 
tition was referred instructed Pope to prepare a bill for the admission 
of the new state. On April i8th of the same year, Congress passed an 
enabling act and provided that Illinois might elect delegates to a conven- 
tion to frame a state constitution. Illinois elected her delegates in July 
and they w^ere authorized to meet in convention in August following ''and 
if deemed expedient to form a constitution and state government, the 
same to be republican in form and not repugnant to the ordinance of 
1787, excepting so much thereof as related to the boundaries of the 
states therein formed." This exception was very important. It seems 
that the bill for the admission of Illinois had specified the ordinance line 
*as the northern boundary, but this exception permitted Delegate Pope 
to amend the bill for admission, so that the northern boundary was 
moved up to where it is now. Thus was the ordinance line ignored 
against the contention of Michigan, and the northern boundary of Illi- 
nois moved about sixty miles to the north. This helped to keep the 
boundary dispute before the people. Michigan's constant contention had 
been that the ordinance line was the true one, that Congress had no 
right to change it, and that it should be the lower boundary of the 
northern tier of states west of Lake Michigan as well as east. 

In 1818 the governor and judges of Michigan Territory protested 
against Ohio's claims to the disputed strip, and also against the right 
of Congress to give to Indiana a strip lying further west. They knew 
it was too late to alter the northern boundary of the new state, but they 
said, "We take this away to preserve the just rights of the people of 
this territory - * * * that it may not hereafter be supposed that they 
have acquiesced in the changes which have been made." They left the 
final decision to the future, as they said, ''when the people of this country 
can be heard by their own representatives." 

The dispute with Ohio was another matter. There the contested 
strip lay in the most fertile region, near the center of population of 
Michigan, and the question of possession must continually arise. In 
1818 the authorities of Michigan Terrftoi-y sent to Congress a memorial 


stating that the Hne run by Harris was not the one which Congress had 
ordered marked, but another running several miles further north. They 
also sent a committee to Washington to press the claims of the terri- 
tory. In response, President Monroe, under the advice of a house com- 
mittee, directed that the northern boundary of Ohio be marked according 
to the provisions of the act of May 20, 1812. Mr. Harris declined to 
do the work; and so, in 1820, one Fulton was commissioned, who ran 
the line due east and west from the most southerly bend or extreme of 
Lake Michigan. The Fulton line was not a new one, but the old ordi- 
nance line correctly surveyed. Two years later the president notified 
Congress that the northern teundary of Ohio had been marked according 
to the law of 18 12. The Ohio members complained that the Fulton line 
had been run not by order of Congress but at the request of General 
Cass, and asked to have it re-marked according to the Harris survey. 
The house refused, but neglected to declare the line marked by Fulton 
to be the true boundary. Thus the matter apparently was as far from 
being settled as ever. 

In 182 1 the Ottawa, Chippewa and Pottawottomie Indians ceded 
to the United States their lands east of the south bend of the St. Joseph 
river and north of the ordinance or Fulton line, and in 1826 the Potta- 
w^ottomies ceded their lands west of the river and north of the same 
line. This use by the government of the ordinance line as a boundary 
encouraged Michigan to hope in its stability. 

In 1826 there was much excitement over the matter. The Ohio 
delegation tO' Congress secured the appointment of a committee to con- 
sider the expediency of marking the line dividing Ohio from Michigan 
Territory, this time not claiming that it be done according to their con- 
stitutional proviso. Probably they were becoming wary. The proposal 
was not considered, but Michigan was on the alert. In her next council 
she voted to instruct her delegate in Congress to prevent any change in 
the territorial boundary, and announced that she had ^'acquired absolute 
vested rights" by the Ordinance of 1787 and the Act of 1805. A little 
later, in 1827, Michigan organized the township of Port Lawrence in 
the very heart of the disputed tract without causing any protest from 
Ohio. The battle for the present was to be fought in Congress. 

In 1827 a bill was passed without difficulty providing for the mark- 
ing of the northern boundary of Indiana. This was the first time it 
had been surveyed. The line was runby E. P. Hendricks, under the 


authority of the surveyor general of the United States, and the work was 
begun in October, 1827. 

By 1 83 1 the boundary question began to assume a serious aspect. 
The Ohio legislature petitioned Congress for a speedy and permanent 
establishment of the dividing line between that state and the territory of 
Michigan. Governor Cass was anxious. He sent to the council of the 
territory a very serious message referring briefly to the attempt of certain 
counties to separate from the territory, and to the possession by Indiana 
of a portion of the territory. He advised against urging any claim 
to the latter, as Indiana was already in possession, and it was better to 
leave the tract unclaimed until Michigan too should be a member of the 
tribunal which must decide the question. But with regard to Ohio he 
urged sending to Congress a memorial which would state the rights 
and sentiments o"f the people of the territory. Before referring the 
matter to Congress, the legislative council authorized Governor Cass to 
negotiate with the governor of Ohio with a view to a compromise, 
which he did ; but as this was in vain, a memorial was sent to Congress. 
About the same time the legislature of Ohio memorialized Congress, 
and for the first time outlined their claims. The result was the passage 
of an act to provide for the determining of the latitude of the southern 
end of Lake Michigan and other points, preparatory to an adjustment 
of the Ohio and Michigan boundary. 

The year 1833 marked the beginning of the end, the contest was od 
and waxed warmer until the people of the two states faced each other 
in battle array, and both defied the central government as only the se- 
ceding states have ever dared to do. Both parties were active, there was 
a sharp and continued contest in Congress; there were memorials and 
counter memorials. 

On the nth of December, 1833, Michigan made her first formal 
petition for admission into the Union, which was refused. In 1835 she 
tried again with the same result. She had more than the requisite 
number of inhabitants, no one doubted that she should be admitted, but 
many doubted the right of admission with the boundaries which she so 
uncompromisingly claimed. 

Failing in the second attempt to obtain permission to form them- 
selves into a state, the people of Michigan determined to go on without 
permission. In January, 1835, the legislative council called a convention 
to meet the following May, to '^form^ for themselves a constitution and, 
state government,'' which they did. Meantime Congress was consider- 


ing the matter of the disputed Hne. The senate passed a bill according 
to the desire of Ohio-, Indiana and Illinois, which was killed in the 
house by John Quincy Adams. Indiana and Illinois had turned against 
Michigan, because her insistence that Congress had no right to disre- 
gard the fundamental provisions of the Ordinance of 1787 made them 
fear that their own northern lines might be in danger; since both had 
been run regardless of the ordinance. 

When the people of Michigan heard that the senate had passed a 
bill according to the views of Ohio, there were rumors of war. Mich- 
igan declared to Congress that she would submit the question to the 
supreme court, but until a decision was reached she would resist, "let 
the attempt be made by whom it may, all efforts to rob her of her soil 
and trample on her rights.'' She offered to negotiate with Ohio and 
Indiana regarding their conflicting claims. Indiana ignored it, and Ohio 
declined it; but instead the governor of Ohio advised that the counties 
of the state be extended to a line running from the southern extremity of 
Lake Michigan tO' the most northern cape of Maumee bay. The advice 
was promptly accepted, the legislature passed an act to that effect, and 
directed the governor to appoint three commissioners to survey and re- 
mark the Harris line. The people of the disputed tract desired it. They 
wished to come under the jurisdiction of Ohio. The Miami canal was 
in process of construction, from the mouth of the Maumee to Cincin- 
nati, and the settlers desired to secure the full benefit of it. 

Two weeks before this, the council of Michigan had passed an act 
to prevent the exercise of foreign jurisdiction within the limits of the 
territory of Michigan. Governor Lucas now sent to acting Governor 
Mason of Michigan a copy of his message to the Ohio- legislature, and the 
latter issued orders to Brigadier General Joseph W. Brown, of the Mich- 
igan militia, and prepared to resist Ohio- by force. The blood of each 
party was up, each claimed to be a sovereign state and each resented in- 
terference by the national government, though Michigan was willing to 
await a decision of the supreme court. On the first of April General 
Brown and a force of volunteers had already encamped at Monroe, 
just north of the contested strip, and he was now joined by Governor 
Mason. On April second Governor Lucas and staff, and the commis- 
sion to re-mark the Harris line, accompanied by General Bell and his 
troops, arrived at Perrysburg, just south of the contested strip. The 
election of officers in the disputed strip, under the auspices of Ohio, 
passed off quietly; the tu9' of war would come when th'^^'T officers at- 


tempted to exercise their functions; then Michigan would begin civil 
processes against them, and back it up if necessary by force of arms. 
The rival governors had received notice from President Jackson that 
he had sent peace commissioners who were on the way. Governor Mason 
now wrote to Governor Lucas asking him to desist from enforcing the 
Ohio law until the president's mediators appeared. Lucas did not deign 
to reply by writing, but sent an oral message saying he had already written 
to the president a letter which would prevent interference, and that Ohio 
did not desire the service of mediators. 

At this juncture the mediators appeared. Richard Rush, of Phil- 
adelphia, and Benjamin C. Howard, of Baltimore, had traveled night 
and day, which meant much in those days, and on April third they arrived 
in Toledo. They sought by diplomacy to appease the wrath of each gov- 
ernor, but failed. The men elected under the Ohio act were beginning 
to assume office, civil processes were issued against them under the Mich- 
igan act, and General Brown, with his forces, was ready to execute 

The people of the disputed strip were between two fires, and yet 
their fortunes were bound up with the government of Ohio. They 
begged the Ohio authorities to protect them. Tlie commission to survey 
the boundary line began to run the Harris line, and had proceeded as 
far west as Tecumseh, where Ohio people say they were attacked, Mich- 
igan people that they were arrested. Governor Lucas called an extra 
session of his legislature to increase his army. The peace commissioners 
proposed that Ohio run her line, and that there be concurrent jurisdic- 
tion until settlement by the federal judiciary. Lucas consented to both. 
Mason was willing to let the line be run, but spurned the idea of concur- 
rent jurisdiction. 

At length the Ohio legislature voted to abide by the proposals of 
the peace commissioners if the United States would compel Michigan 
to do so ; but as a safeguard Ohio passed an act against kidnappers, and 
appropriated v$300,ooo to carry out her plans. During the same time the 
Michigan constitutional convention was in session at Detroit, and de- 
clared that Ohio might run the line, but no authority on earth save that 
of the United States should be exercised in the disputed strip. Ohio be- 
gan to carry out the proposal of concurrent jurisdiction, resulting in 
renewed preparations for war. On the seventh of September, 1835, the 
Ohio judges went to hold court at Toledo. x\gain troops were mus- 
tered on both sides. But the court was held at midnight, and adjourned 


just as the Michigan forces came up. The troops were therefore dis- 
persed; the people on either side, from many considerations, were as 
wilHng to follow their leaders to peace as to war, the Toledo war, or 
the Governor Lucas war, was over, and the dispute was destined to be 
settled by politicians at Washington. 

President Jackson had submitted the boundary dispute to Attorney 
General Butler, who had decided that the disputed strip Monged to 
Michigan. John Quincy Adams also, then secretary of state, said, 
*'Nev^r in the course of my life have I known a controversy of which all 
the right was so clearly on one side and all the power so overwhelmingly 
on the other, where the temptation was so intense to take the strongest 
side, and the duty of taking the weakest was so thankless." 

But the president was in a difficulty. The following year a presi- 
dential election would occur, and he desired that Martin Van Buren be 
the successful candidate. Indiana and Illinois, each of which states of 
course preferred its more northern boundary, naturally sympathized with 
Ohio. These three states had a large number of votes. On the other 
hand Michigan, though having a state government, was only a terri- 
tory. Again, Arkansas as well as Michigan aspired to statehood, and 
the administration was anxious to have both admitted in time to vote 
at the next presidential election, as toth were supposed to he Democratic. 
Moreover, one was a slave state and the other a free state, and if only 
one were admitted the other would take offense. Clearly the only way 
to remove all difficulties was to settle the boundary dispute. The de- 
cision of the attorney general, though seeking to be just to Michigan, 
pointed out to the president that he might remove Governor Mason, and 
appoint for Michigan a governor who would not violate the law and yet 
who would not push matters to violence, until the question could be 
settled by Congress, an expedient to which the president finally resorted. 
This occasioned John Quincy Adams to say that the attorney general's 
decision 'Svas perfumed with the thirty-five electoral votes of Ohio, Indi- 
ana and Illinois." 

Acts for the admission of both states were approved June 15, 1836. 
Arkansas was admitted unconditionally, but Michigan on condition that 
she give the disputed strip to Ohio, and receive as compensation the 
upper peninsula. In a convention at Ann Arbor on the fourth Monday 
in September, Michigan rejected these conditions by a strong majority. 
But her senators and representatives were anxious to take their seats in 
the national Congress, men at Washington feared losing money on lands 


sold in Michigan, the' administration was anxious to have the state ratify 
the act for her admission, and all these interested parties brought pressure 
to bear. Arguments in favor of the state's yielding were put in circula- 
tion and after much shrewd management a popular convention was held 
at Ann Arbor on December 14th, which assented to the terms of the act 
of admission. This convention was not duly called, and it acted wholly 
without the proper authority; but strange to say, both houses of Con- 
gress by large majorities passed an act approved January 26, 1837, ^^" 
cepting this convention as meeting the requirements of the case, and so 
Michigan was admitted into the Union. 

But for some years Michigan did not relinquish her claims to her 
lost tracts of land. In 1838 and again in 1842, the question was brought 
up in the Michigan legislature, and eminent lawyers were consulted as 
to her right to the disputed tracts. And it is probable that she would 
have made a legal test of the question long ago but for the development 
of the immense wealth of her mines in the upper peninsula, which had 
been given her as a compensation for what she lost to Ohio. This de- 
velopment began about the year 1845, and soon convinced her that her 
lost strips bore no comparison in value to the rich mining region which 
she had acquired. 

Such are the three boundary lines; first, the ordinance line, the 
Fulton line, or, as it is also called, the old Indian boundary; second, the 
Harris line ; and third, the Hendricks' line, which is the present state line 
between Michigan and Indiana. From the foregoing we may see that 
the location of the line which now forms the south boundary of Cass 
county and of the state has been of exceeding great importance in the 
history of the Northwest, being the occasion of a dispute which lasted 
for forty-nine years, through twelve administrations, extending over the 
periods of seven presidents, and which occasioned great contention, em- 
ploying much of the best talent of the country, engaging many of our 
strongest characters, and very nearly resulting in a bloody war. 



In writing history the events and the personages of the past always 
fill more of the canvas than is given to the affairs and actors of the period 
within our ready remembrance. ''No one has written a true history of 
his own generation." Events that are near deceive us because of their 
very proximity. To obtain their true relation to each other, all objects, 
historical as well as material, must be viewed ''in perspective." We may 
chronicle events of a recent date, or place in some sort of statistical 
order the various activities and their representatives; but to do more is 
to incur the risk of having all such historical judgments set aside in 
the future. 

There is another reason, not based on the historical difficulty just 
stated, why "first things" should receive a seemingly disproportionate 
share of our attention. It is to the pioneer generation of every locality 
that its present inhabitants. owe most of the advantages they enjoy. The 
American youth of to-day enters into the full use of a magnificent heritage 
that has been won only through the toil and struggle of others. He 
begins life among luxuries that hardly existed in the wildest dreams of 
his ancestors. AH the superstructure of civilization, its home and insti- 
tutional life, rests upon a foundation laid at the cost of tremendous self- 
sacrifice and effort by generations that have passed or are now passing. 

It is with this in mind that we should view the actors and events of 
the pioneer past. With them the history of Cass county began. The work 
they began and the . influences they set in motion have not ceased to 
be operative to the present time. Character is pervasive and continuous, 
and the character of our pioneers has not yet spent its force in Cass 

Of transient residents within the borders of the present Cass county 
there were many. Perhaps some of the followers of La Salle got this far 
in the closing years of the eighteenth century. French trappers and ex- 
plorers and missionaries certainly were birds of passage during the fol- 
lowing century. Then, after the country passed from French to English 
control in 1763, there must have been some under the protection of the 


Union Jack who ventured far from the strongholds of settlement into 
this then untamed wilderness. Adventurers of all nationalities explored 
the region. 

But the only person who would have penetrated this country for 
business reasons was the trapper and fur-gatherer. Several are named 
who pursued this vocation within the limits of Cass county. One Zac- 
cheus Wooden, who penetrated the lake region of southern Michigan and 
set his traps among the lakes of Cass county as early as 1814, was in the 
employ of John Jacob Astor, who at that time, in rivalry with the 
British fur companies on the north, was spreading his fur-gathering 
activity throughout the western territory of the United States. There 
were doubtless many engaged in similar pursuits with Wooden who 
likewise at different times had their headquarters in Cass county. But 
this class can hardly be called settlers, and it is only necessary to call 
attention to the fact that there w^ere such men. 

One other type of early resident may be mentio-ned before we pro- 
ceed to consider the "permanent settlers." There come down to us in 
the history of every community several instances of ''relapses" from 
civilization — men who, because of natural aversion to their fellow men, 
by reason of some sorrow or the commission of crime, turned their backs 
to the life in which they had been reared and severing all connection with 
social usages thenceforth chose to live apart from the world and bury 
their existence and their deeds in the depths of the wilderness. Of these 
restless wanderers, haunting the midshores between civilization and bar- 
barism, and making common cause with the Indians and other creatures 
of the wild, one example may be given. 

The story of the eccentric, misanthropic Job Wright is well told 
in the Cass county history of 1882. Born in North Carolina, he was 
the first settler of Greenfield, Ohio, in 1799. ^^^ t^uilt a log cabin there, 
and, like the literary Thoreau, satisfied his slender needs by making hair 
sieves. The wire sieve not yet having been introduced, he found a goocl 
market for his products in the households of the neighborhood. But it 
w^as contrary to his nature to follow this or any other pursuit on a per- 
manent business basis, and with enough ahead for his wants in the 
immediate future he turned to the more philosophic, if less profitable, 
occupation of fishing. According to the account, he ''followed it with a 
perseverance and patience worthy of his biblical protonym and with a 
degree of success of which even Isaak Walton might be proud." 

Job soon found that his happy environment was being taken away 


from him. The woods and meadows that had existed without change 
throughout the centuries were being occupied by an energetic people. 
Even the streams were being obstructed to furnish power to grind the 
settler's corn, and the fish felt their imprisonment and were leaving. The 
countrv^ was getting crowded. It was no place for a lover of nature in 
its first dress. The Indians had gone, the deer were leaving, and it was 
not long before civilization crowded Job farther west. 

Various corners of the world knew him after that, but the virgin 
wilderness was always his best loved home. Only the promptings of 
patriotism brought him forth to serve his country in the war of 1812. 
Then he returned to his wanderings. He is said to have made his ap- 
pearance in Cass county in 1829, very naturally selecting as his location 
the island in Diamond Lake. He built a small log cabin near the north 
end of the island, and for some time lived there as a ''squatter," but 
finally entered the land, when there appeared to be danger that it might 
pass intO' the hands of some one else. 

At his island home Job led, the greater part of the time, a hermit's 
life. During a portion of the time he spent upon his- little domain, 
however, his mother, son and son's wife, whom he brought from Ohio, 
lived with him. Job Wright wasi tall and gaunt, but powerful. His hair 
was red and lie wore a long beard. On one hand he had two thumbs, 
and claimed that this peculiar formation was the badge and token of 
the gift of prophecy and other endowments of occult power. By many 
persons he was said to have a knowledge of witchcraft, and they re- 
lated, with impressive confidence, how he could stop the flowing of blood 
by simply learning the name and age of the person whose life was en- 
dangered, and pronouncing a brief incantation. Most of his time was 
spent in hunting and fishing, but he cultivated a small part of the island, 
raising a little corn and a few vegetables for his own use. 

Despite his isolation in the center of the lake, he was very much 
disturbed by the rapid settlement of the surrounding country. He again 
set out on his wanderings. But the years had now laid their weight 
upon him and denied him^ the strength of middle age. He returned to 
his island refuge, where, amid the trees and in sight of the sparkling 
water, he soon passed away. 

The rest of the account reads as follows : "A few friends and ac- 
quaintances among the settlers of the neighborhood, not more that a 
dozen in all, followed the remains of the old recluse to the Cassopolis 
burying ground. George B. Turner, passing, and happening to notice 


the little knot of inen gathered about an open grave, was led by curios- 
ity to join them. There was no minister present. The preparations were 
all made, and the rude whitewood coffin was about to be lowered into 
llie ground when one of the men, a rough-spoken but tender-hearted 
and humane old farmer, uttered a suggestion to the effect that some re- 
marks ought to be made before the remains of a fellow mortal were 
laid away to rest. He called upon Mr. Turner, who, after a moment's 
hesitation, stepping upon the little mound of fresh earth at the side of 
the grave, delivered Job Wright's funeral sermon. 

''The secret of the cause which had driven the eccentric pioneer to 
this life of seclusion was buried with him." 

In discussing the first settlements of Cass county, the presence of 
the near-by Carey Mission must be constantly borne in mind. We 
have alluded to the importance of that establishment in rendering the 
surrounding country more available for settlement. The Mission was 
the radiating point for the streams of settlers. While prospecting for a 
suitable location, the homeseeker would make his headquarters at the 

It is due to this fact that the first settlements in Cass county were 
made on the western edge of the county. The pioneers entered the 
county from the west, not from the south or east, as might be supposed. 

The beautiful Pokagon prairie, in the township of the same name, 
was the spot selected by the first permanent settler of Cass county. The 
man who will always be honored as the first citizen of the county was 
Uzziel Putnam. Right worthy he was to bear this distinction. It would 
seem not to have been a futile chance that directed him toward this re- 
gion. The quality of his character had nothing in common with the 
restless Job Wright. A purpose supplemented by all the rugged vir- 
tues of the true pioneer directed him in the choice of a home in this then 

He came of a stock fit to furnish pathfinders and builders of a new 
country. Born in Wardsboro, Vermont, March 17, 1793, inheriting the 
peculiar strength and courage of the Green Mountain New Englander, 
when fourteen years old he moved with his parents to western New 
York. After serving a full apprentice period with a clothier, he proved 
his fitness for the hardships of a new country by making a journey of 
five hundred miles, most of the way on foot, to the home of his parents, 
who had located near Sandusky, Ohio. He experienced in youth all 
the disadvantages of poverty, but there is little account to be made of 


this, for in a new country a matlly strength and the homely virtue of 
patient industry were the best capital. While in Ohio he was a soldier 
in the war of 1812. In 1822 he married Ann Chapman, with whom he 
lived more than a half century, ^and their pioneer experiences were en- 
dured together. 

As early as. 182 1 the fame of the valley of the St. Joseph had been 
carried by Indians, trappers and traders to the frontier settlements in Ohio, 
and it excited in the minds of the many adventurous individuals a desire 
to explore the region and to substantiate the representations made of its 
beauty, fertility and natural resources. Among the number was Bald- 
win Jenkins, who, leaving Ohio in October, 1824, pursued his investi- 
gations in northern Indiana and about the St. Joseph in Cass and Ber- 
rien counties, after which he returned home. Another was Abram 
Townsend, who in the same year as Jenkins visited the valley of the 
St. Joseph, and on his return tO' his home in Sandusky county, Ohio, gave 
a most flattering account of what he had seen, and announced his inten- 
tion to remove with his family to Pokagon prairie. His praises of the 
region were echoed by an Indian trader named Andrus Parker, who 
had also explored along the course of the St. Joseph. 

Among those who listened with interest to the narratives of Town- 
send and others was Uzziel Putnam, then thirty-two years old and in 
the prime of his strength. He was foremost among the many who be- . 
came convinced that the fertile region about the Carey Mission held in 
waiting the opportunities that his ambition craved. And having made 
up his mind to emigrate to the Michigan country, he at once began t6 get 
ready for the long and difficult journey. 

He was not alone in this undertaking. When the eventful journey 
began on the 17th of May, 1825, the party consisted of Putnam with his 
wife and child, and Abram Townsend and son Ephraim, and Israel 
Markham. A most detailed description would not enable us to under- 
stand and appreciate the arduousness of such a journey. Their custom- 
made wagon, strong though it was, was hardly equal to the strain put 
upon it by its great load of domestic goods and by the roughness of the 
way. Three yoke of oxen furnished the traction, and between sunrise 
and sunset they had often advanced not more than seven or eight miles^ 
Rains constantly hindered them, the wagon mired down in the unbeaten 
way that they chose in lieu of anything like a modern highway, which, 
ot course, did not exist. The bad roads and the heavy pull caused the 
oxen to go lame, with consequent delays. And in the eqd it was found 


necessary to improvise a bark canoe and transport most of the goods by 
water to Fort Wayne. 

Through the gloom of rainy days, the vexatious delays caused by 
mud and accident, and the constant fatigue and exposure inseparable 
from such a journey, the courage of the pioneers was all the more lus- 
trous; their patient perseverance the more admirable; ^nd the more in- 
spiring is their success in overcoming all obstacles and finally making 
a home in the wilderness — not for themselves alone, but for all future 
generations. The journey of the Putnam party was typical. Thou- 
sands of pioneers, both before and after, had similar experiences, and 
we dwell somewhat at length on those of the first Cass county settler to 
illustrate some of the difficulties that were as a matter of course in the 
opening of a new country to civilization. 

But finally they reached the land- they sought. Crossing the St. 
Joseph at the mouth of the Elkhart, and following the track by way of 
Cobert's creek and Beardsley's prairie, they reached in safety the cabin 
of William Kirk, which then stood about sixty rods east of the present 
railroad depot at Niles. On the following day Baldwin Jenkins (who 
had already arrived on the scene) and Mr. Kirk piloted Putnam and 
Townsend through the woods to Pokagon prairie, a distance of six 
miles, where they examined the ground and selected places for farms. 
They found small bands of Pottawottomies living on the prairie, and 
when they explained to Chief Pokagon their wish to settle there and 
cultivate the land, the old Indian objected, saying that the Indians' corn 
would be destroyed by the settlers' cattle and that his people would 
move off in the fall to- their hunting grounds, after which the whites 
could come and build their houses. 

Mr. Putnam, having selected his location, now returned to Fort 
Wayne and in the last days of October brought his family and the rest 
of his goods to the new settlement, reaching Mr. Kirk's after a week's 

The 22nd day of November, 1825, is the date fixed for the first 
permanent settlement in Cass county. On that day Uzziel Putnam moved 
his family into his new home on Pokagon prairie, and from that time 
until his death on July 15, 1881, this pioneer had his residence on the 
beautiful prairie which it was his privilege to see become the home of 
many prosperous and happy people. His first house was a shanty twelve 
feet square, covered with bark and without floor or chimney, which Mr. 
Markham had put up for his convenience while cutting hay there during 


the previous summer. Poor as this shelter was they remained in it until 
Mr. Putnam had completed a new and more comfortable one. Even 
the new- one at first had neither floor, door nor windows. All the tim- 
bers had to be hewn into shape with an ax or cut with a hand saw, 
since there was no sawmill within a hundred miles. 

Six days after Mr. Putnam moved into this rough cabin on Poka- 
gon prairie, Baldwin Jenkins located in the same neighborhood, a short 
distance north of Sumnerville, where he is said to have utilized an 
Indian wigwam as a place of abode during the winter. As already men- 
tioned, he had arrived at the Mission some time before Mr. Putnam, 
and during the summer had succeeded in raising a small crop of com 
near by. In the fall he returned to Ohio^ and brought his family over- 
land to Pokagon, arriving just a little too late to be regarded as the 
first settler. 

At this time it is said there were but nine families in Cass and 
Berrien counties, excepting those at the Mission — two in. Cass and 
seven in Berrien. 

Before going further in the settlement of this region, a few words 
might be said concerning the life of the second settler of Cass county, 
Baldwin Jenkins. His was an unusual character, in an age and country 
that called for distinctive attributes of mind and body. Born in Greene 
county, Pennsylvania, October 4, 1783, he lived to he sixty-two years 
old. At the age of sixteen he accompanied the family to the timber re- 
gion of middle Tennessee, where he had the training and environment 
of a frontiersman. To avoid slavery the family later moved to Ohio, 
and from there Baldwin made his various journeys of investigation to 
the west, and eventually moved out to Michigan. He was one of the 
largest land owners among the early settlers. Possessed of that broad 
spirit of hospitality which was the noblest characteristic of new coun- 
tries, his home, situated on the direct line of emigration, became a noted 
stopping place for travelers and homeseekers, from, whom he would 
receive no compensation. He carried this hospitality tO' such an extent 
that the products of his farm and labor were largely consumed by the 
public. He possessed great confidence in his fellow settlers, loaning 
them money, selling them stock and farm products on time, without re- 
quiring vvritten obligations and charging no interest. He was a man 
of parts. In religion he was a devout member of the Baptist church. 
He had a remarkably retentive memory, and his mind was an encyclo- 
pedia of local knowledge, so that he could not only tell the names but 


also the ages of nearly all his neighbors. He was one of the first just- 
ices of the peace in western Michigan, having been , appointed by Gov- 
ernor- Cass for the township of St. Joseph,, which then comprised all 
the territory west of Lenawee county. He was the first road commis- 
sioner in Cass county, was one of the first associate judges appointed 
under the territorial government, and one of the delegates to the first 
constitutional convention of the state. 

The settlement on Pokagon prairie soon began to grow. In the 
summer of 1826 was added to the little community Squire Thompson. 
It is said that he and William Kirk were the first permanent settlers, 
under the influence of the Carey Mission, to cross the St. Joseph and 
make their homes on its north side in Berrien county. Mr. Thompson 
had visited the vicinity of the Mission in 1822, before the completion 
of the buildings, and in the spring of 1823 returned and made choice 
of a location and built a cabin on the banks of the river. He lived there 
without neighbors until the arrival of William Kirk in the following 
spring. On moving to Pokagon, he settled on section 20, and lived there 
until his departure for California during the height of the gold excite- 

Other arrivals were Abram Townsend, who, we have seen, ac- 
companied Uzziel Putnam hither, and who now returned as a settler; 
and Ganialiel Townsend and his family, together with the Markhams 
(Israel, Jr. and Sr., Samuel and Lane) and Ira Putnam. Gamaliel 
Townsend should be remembered as being the first postmaster in the 
township, receiving and distributing; the scanty mail at his father 
i\bram's house. 

Most important of all was the arrival, on August 12, i8'26, of Uz- 
ziel Putnam, Jr., who was bom on that day, and as nearly as can be 
ascertained in such uncertain problems as priority of birth or residence, 
he was the first white child born within the present limits of Cass county. 

Through the leafless forests and over the prairies swept by the 
wintry blasts there came in the early months of 1&27, from Warren coun- 
ty, Ohio, Lewis Edwards and his family. Their journey was replete 
with hardships, and it was with difficulty that Mrs. Edwards and her 
year-old baby kept from freezing to death. Lewis Edwards became the 
first collector and first justice in the county, and was one of the prom- 
inent pioneers. Of Welsh descent, he was born in Burlington county, 
New Jersey, in 1799, and at the age of twenty-one was adventuring in 
various enterprises in the Ohio valley. He had all the versatile genius 


of the typical frontiersman, and before moving out to Cass county had 
been employed several years in the carpenter's trade, so that he v^as 
probably the first regular carpenter to settle on Pokagon prairie. He 
brought along with him his set of tools, and while his family was shel- 
tered under the roof of Uzziel Putnam he was engaged in construct- 
ing a model home for those days. His cabin contained well made win- 
dows and doors, and his skill also improvised practically all the house- 
hold furniture. His interest in fruit culture is also noteworthy. He 
brought from his father's New Jersey orchard some fine apple grafts, 
and for some years he raised the best and greatest variety of apples in 
the county. As ^'Squire Edwards,'' he became one of the noted charac- 
ters of the vicinity, and numerous incidents connected with the transac- 
tion of oflicial business are associated with his name. 

Beginning with 1828, the settlers came in too- great numbers to 
receive individual mention. Alexander Rodgers and family of wife and 
eight children located in the township. He was the first supervisor 
elected after the organization of the county, although he did not serve 
on account of illness. From Giles county, Virginia, came the Burk 
family and also Archibald Clyborn (the family name also spelled Cly- 
bourne and Clyburn), who was a member of that noted family who 
were prominent in many communities of the middle west, furnishing at 
least one of the historic characters of early Chicago-. 


From Pokagon we turn to historic Ontwa, w^hich was settled al- 
most contemporaneously with Pokagon. In the western part of the 
township, near the beautiful sheet of water rightly named Pleasant lake, 
and on the broad prairie where now stands the town of Edwardsburg, 
Ezra Beardsley, who had come from Butler county, Ohio, unloaded his 
household goods in the spring of 1826 and became the pioneer of the 
locality which has since borne the name of Beardsley's prairie. In the 
previous . year he had prospected this site, decided upon it as his perma- 
nent home, and erected a rude cabin to shelter his family when they 
should arrive. During the first year his household was the only one on 
the prairie. But in the following spring the nucleus of a settlement was 
formed by the arrival of George and Sylvester MeacHam, George Craw* 
ford and Chester Sage. The latter two remained only' a year of so, 
when they moved to Indiana and took a prominent part iri the foutid- 
ing of the now city of Elkhart, Mr. Crawford surveying the first plaf 


and Cliester Sage's home serving as the first court house of Elkhart 

The Beardsley settlement became a favorite rendezvous for home- 
seekers passing through or preparing to locate in the vicinity, and to 
accommodate this stream of visitors Ezra Beardsley commenced keep- 
ing a tavern, which was the first in the county. When the Beardsley 
house was crowded to its limit, as was often the case, the overflow was 
sent to the Meacham cabin, otherwise known as ''bachelor's hall." Suf- 
ficient plain food and a shelter between their bodies and the sky were all 
that were asked by pioneer travelers, and this furnished they were con- 

The pioneer merchant of Ontwa, Tliomas H. Edwards, was also 
selling goods from a pole shanty on the south bank of Pleasant lake, 
and thus the central settlement of the township was somewhat distin- 
guished by its commercial character from the agricultural community 
which was growing on Pokagon prairie. 

According to the former Cass county history, Ontwa township at 
this time contained a resident whose peculiarities entitled him to a place 
with the hermit. Job Wright. This individual, whose name was Car- 
ver and who came from Virginia, is said to have lived in his log cabin 
for nearly a month without any roof, subject to the rain and inclemen- 
cies of the weather, waiting for the moon to be in the right position in 
the zodiac before shingling his cabin, so that the shakes would not warp 
up. A few years later he became so annoyed by the increasing num- 
ber of his neighbors, and especially by the surveying of a road past his 
dwelling, that he sold out and moved to a thick wood in Indiana, miles 
from any habitation. One house within five miles, and that a tavern, 
where whiskey could be obtained, constituted his idea of Paradise. 


Next to Pokagon, and excepting the small settlement in Ontwa, 
La Grange prairie attracted a small rivulet of that great stream of emi- 
gration which at this time was flowing with increasing volume from east 
to west. The first settler in La Grange township was that pioneer with 
whom we are already familiar, Abram Townsend, whose first home in 
this county was in Pokagon. He had followed the receding frontier 
for many years. Born in New York in 1771, he had moved to Upper 
Canada when young, in 1815 settled in Huron county, Ohio, thence to 
Sandusky county (where a township was named for him), and in 1825 


began the series of explorations which ended in his becoming a settler 
of Cass county. 

Mr. Townsend soon had as neighbors Lawrence Cavanaiigh and 
wife and son James; Abraham Loux, a son-in-law of Townsend; and 
Thomas McKenney and James Dickson, who located on section 17. In 
the autumn of this year, after a dreary drive from southwestern Ohio, 
the Wright family arrived. William R. Wright was one of the able 
pioneers of this vicinity, and the family connections and descendants 
have long been prominent in the county. 

Two other familiar names may be mentioned. Isaac Shurte, who 
came to the settlement in 1829, was born in New Jersey in 1796; moved 
to Butler county, Ohio, w^here he married Mary Wright, and from there 
came in 1828 to Niles and in the following year to his home in La 
Grange. It was in his house that the first election in the township was 
held, and his name often appears in the early accounts of the county. 

John Lybrook, who came to the township in 1828, was a member of 
the Virginia family of that name that sent numerous of its scions to this 
portion of the middle west, and most of them came in for prominent 
mention in connection with the early and formative history of their re- 
spective communities. John Lybrook had come to Michigan as early 
as 1823, assisting Squire Thompson to move his goods to Niles. Sev- 
eral years later he brought his parents and sisters to this locality, and 
lived there until his removal to La Grange. It is claimed that he sowed 
the first wheat in the St. Joseph country. He also^ imported the first 
grindstone seen in this region, carrying it on horseback from Detroit. 
So useful was this instrument that it became almost an institution, and 
many settlers came twenty, thirty and even forty miles for the purpose 
of sharpening their implements. 

At the time of this writing (May, 1906), there lives in Berrien 
township of Berrien county, some six or seven miles north of Niles, 
the venerable Isaac Lybrook, who is without doubt the oldest of Cass 
county's surviving pioneers. Born in 1825, he was a member of this 
well known Lybrook family, his father being a brother of John Lybrook, 
and his mother a sister of A. L. Burk, also a pioneer of Cass. Isaac was 
brought to Pokagon township by his mother in October, 1828, and lived 
there until he was fifteen years old. He went to Berrien county in 1840 
and has followed farming through his active career. 

Many other names might be added if it were our purpose to make 
a complete catalogue of those identified with the occupation of this town- 


ship. Many of these persons will be mentioned in the later history of 
the township, and as this account must stop short of being encyclopedic, 
some familiar names may be entirely passed over. Our purpose here 
is to indicate the most prominent of the ''first settlers" of the county, 
those upon whom devolved the labor of organizing and setting in mo- 
tion the civil machinery of the county and its divisions. Of pioneer 
history and the interesting stories told of men and events of the time, 
volumes could be written. Even so we could but feebly re-illumine 
the features and spirit of those times; for, truly, 

''Round about their cabin door the glory that blushed and bloomed 
Is but a dim-remembered story of old time entombed." 


Another locality that received immigration before the civil organ- 
ization of the county was Penn township. Here the matter of priority 
of settlement is uncertain. The finst settlers appear to have been of 
transient residence. During the years 1827 and 1828 Joseph Frakes, 
Rodney Hinkley, Daniel Shaffer, John Reed and others took claims here, 
but all except Shaffer left the following year. In 18*29 came George 
Jones and sons, from Butler county, Ohio. He was the largest land- 
holder in tlie township, according to the list of original entries. Other 
settlers of the same year were John Price, John Rinehart and sons, Ste- 
phen Bogue, William McCleary and Martin Shields. In the person of 
Martin Shields the township received a representative of the saddlers 
trade, although, like all followers of a trade in a new country, he based 
his occupation on land and agriculture. When the residents of the com- 
munity met to cast their first ballots in the new county, they found his 
house the most convenient polling place, and perhaps for that reason he 
was also the first postmaster of the town. He was evidently of a more 
visionary nature than most of the practical pioneers of this section, for 
at one time he felt called upon to preach the gospel, although when he 
opened his mouth to speak no words followed his inspiration and his 
spiritual leadership was short-lived. 

This township bears a name suggestive of the character of its early 
inhabitants. The- g6- religionists of William Penn settled in large num- 
bers not only in' the Quaker colony of 'Pennsylvania, but all along the 
Atlantic coast. But m the south, where slavery was the predominating 
feature of the economic systemj their fundamental principles of faith 
set the Friends at variance with the majority of their fellow citizens. 


Northwest Territory, with its basic principle of prohibition of slavery, 
attracted to its broad, new^ lands a great immigration of these simple 
people, and consequently there is hardly a county in the middle west 
that has not had a Quaker settlement. Penn township was the locality 
to which most of the Quaker immigration to Cass county directed its 
settlement, where they had their meeting house and where their sim- 
plicity of creed and manner and dress were for many a year the most 
marked characteristics of the township's population. 

To refer at this point to one such settler, who was not the less 
prominent in the general history of the county than as a member of his 
sect. Stephen Bogue was born in North Carolina in 1790; in 181 1, 
owing to their abhorrence of slavery, the family moved to Preble county, 
Ohio'. In 1829 he came to the St. Joseph country and entered for his 
prospective home a tract of land in Penn township, whither his sister, 
the wife of Charles Jones, had arrived in the preceding year. Mr. Bogue 
returned in 183 1 to a permanent residence in this township until his 
death in 1868. He comes down to us as one of the clearest figures of 
the pioneer times. His connection with the ^^mderground railroad" and 
the ''Kentucky raid" of ante-bellum days is elsewhere recorded. He 
took a foremost part in the organization of the Birch Lake Monthly 
Meeting of the Society of Friends. His name is also' mentioned in con- 
nection with the platting and establishment of the village of Vandalia. 


Pioneer settlers in the township of Jefferson were the four families 
whose heads were Nathan Norton, Abner Tharp, w^hose son Laban 
turned the first furrow in the township, and Moses and William Reames. 
These men had learned of the attractions of Cass county through John 
Reed (related by marriage to Tharp and Norton), who, we have seen, 
was one of the first settlers in Penn. In the fall of 1828 the four fam- 
ilies w^iose heads have been named left Logan county, Ohio, and after 
the usual hardships of primitive traveling arrived in Cass county. They 
passed through the site of Edwardsburg, where they were greeted by 
Mr. Beardsley and Thomas H. Edwards, and after spending a few days 
with John Reed on Young's prairie, they proceeded to the southwest 
shore of Diamond lake, and on section i they erected the first houses 
of white man in what is now Jefferson township. In the latter part of 
1829 John Reed joined these pioneers, and his date of settlement in the 
township is placed second to that of the Tharps, Nortons and Reameses. 



From this nucleus of settlers in Jefferson in the spring of 1829 de- 
parted Abner Tharp to a suitable spot in Calvin township, where he 
erected a log cabin, plowed ten acres on the opening, and by reason of 
these improvements and the crop of corn and potatoes which he raised 
that year is entitled to the place of first actual settler in that township. 
It is said that he was the sole occupant of the township throughout the 
first summer. He was not a permanent settler, however, for in 1830 
he returned to Jefferson, and in subsequent years lived in various parts 
of the west, only returning to pass his last years in Calvin township at 
the village of Brownsville. 


Only a few more names can be mentioned among those of the first 
comers to Cass county. In Porter township there located in 1828 a 
settler who varied considerably from the regular type of pioneer, both 
as to personal character and the events of his career. John Baldwin was 
a southerner; averse to hard labor; never made improvements on the 
tract which he took up as the first settler in Porter; but, for income, 
relied upon a tavern which he kept for the accommodation of the trav- 
elers through that section, and also' on his genius for traffic and dicker. 
He had hardly made settlement when his wife died, her death being 
the first in the township. It appears that Baldwin carried to extreme 
that unfortunate trade principle of giving the least possible for the 
largest value obtainable. In one such transaction with his neighbors the 
Indians, he bargained for the substantial possession of certain oxen by 
the offer of a definite volume of fire water. There were no internal 
revenue officers in those days tO' determine the grade and quality of fron- 
tier liquor, and the strength of the potation was regulated by individual 
taste or the exigencies of supply and demand. Certainly in this case 
the customers of Mr. Baldwin were somewhat exacting. Having con- 
sumed an amount of their favorite beverage sufficient, as they judged 
from former experiments, to transport them temporarily to the happy 
hunting grounds, and waiting a reasonable time for the desired effect 
with no results, they at once waited uiwn Mr. Baldwin with the laconic 
explanation that the liquor contained ''heap too much bish" (water). 
Evidently this deputation of protest proved ineffectual, for a few nights 
later the aggrieved former owners of the oxen repaired to the Baldwin 
tavern, and, arming themselves with shakes pulled from the door, forced 


an entrance, and, pulling the unfortunate landlord out of bed, proceeded 
to beat him about the head and shoulders in a most merciless manner, 
not leaving off their fearful punishment until they thought life was ex- 
tinct. Mr. Baldwin finally recovered, however, but not for a long time 
was he able to resume business. This event was the subject of much 
comment among the settlers for many years, and was one of the very 
few Indian atrocities to be found on the annals of the county. No ar- 
rests were made, but the Pottawottomie tribe paid dearly for the assault, 
for Mr. Baldwin filed a bill with the government, claiming and event- 
ually receiving several thousand dollars in damages, which was retained 
from the Indians' annuities. 

A number of settlers arrived in Porter in 1829, among them Will- 
iam Tibbetts, Daniel Shellhammer, Caleb Calkins (who was a carpen- 
ter and joiner by trade), Nathan G. O'Dell, George P. Schultz. With 
Mr. Schultz came his step-son, Samuel King, then fourteen years old, 
but who- became one of the most successful men in Porter township 
and at one time its largest land owner. 


The rather remarkable history of Volinia township had also begun 
previously to organization. During the twelvemonth of 1829 many 
people located in this portion of northern Cass county, among those 
named as first settlers being Samuel Morris, Sr., J. Morelan, H. D. 
Swift and Dolphin Morris. One does not go far in the history of this 
township, either in pioneer times or the present, without meeting the 
name Gard. With some special mention of the family of this name we 
shall close this chapter on early settlement. 

Jonathan Gard was born in New Jersey in 1799, was taken to Ohio 
in 1801, and spent his youth and early manhood in the vicinity of Cin- 
cinnati and in Union county, Indiana. He was well fitted by nature and 
training to be a pioneer, possessing the rugged qualities of mind and 
body that are needed to make a new civilization. While prospecting 
about southern Michigan in the fall of 1828, in search of a place for a 
new home, chance brought him together with a party who were bound 
on a like mission, consisting of Elijah Goble, Jesse and Nathaniel Win- 
chell and James Toney. They stopped a few days at the home of their 
old friend, Squire Thompson, on Pokagon prairie, and then proceeded 
to the region that is now comprised in Volinia township. Little Prairie 
Ronde was the spot that most attracted them, and there Mr. Goble and 


Mr. Gard selected farms, while Mr. Toney chose a tract on what later 
became known as Card's prairie. In the following spring Mr. Gard, 
Mr. Coble and Samuel Rich came to take possesion of their new homes. 
Because of the fact that Mr. Toney had been unable to leave his former 
home, Mr. Gard took the claimi that had been chosen by Mr. Toney, 
and thus it came about that he was the original settler on Card's prai- 
rie and gave it its name. Jonathan Gard spent the remainder of his 
life at this spot, until his death in 1854. He was the founder of the 
family which has included so many well known men of Cass county, 
a grandson of this pioneer being the present treasurer of Cass county. 

It is very remarkable that this beautiful region of country should 
remain absolutely unsettled until the late twenties, and that settlers from 
different parts of the United States, without any preconcerted action or 
communication with each other, should begin to pour in at just this 
time; but so it was. Here different families for the first time met each 
other, and here their lives were first united in the same community, and 
in many cases by marriage in the same home. 

None of those early settlers whom we have named remain. On the 
long and weary march they have been dropping out one by one until of 
the pioneer warfare not a veteran is left. Ic would be impossible, in a 
work like this, to trace the life history and describe the end of each 
one of them, and for this there would not be sufficient space. 



*'A11 members of the society who came into or resided in Cass 
county prior to 1840 shall be deemed Tioneers of Cass County.' " 

This extract from the constitution of the Pioneer Society has sug- 
gested an appropriate record of the pioneers, in such a form as to sup- 
plement the preceding pages and to add many details of personal chro- 
nology such as the narrative could not present. Therefore it has been 
determined to bring together, in alphabetical order, a very brief and 
matter-of-fact mention of the deceased pioneers, considering under that 
designation only those who became identified by birth or settlement with 
the county not later than the year 1840. 

Completeness of the record is quite beyond the limits of possibility 
and has not been attempted. Yet it is believed that the pioneers of the 
county are well represented here, and in a form for easy reference. 

Moreover, a study of the following records is extremely instructive, 
as documents on the early history of the county. Records of dates and 
localities though they are, they suggest entire stories of immigration 
and settlement. The sources of the county's early citizenship, and the 
character of the stocks which determined in large measure the institu- 
tions and social conditions in the county, are indicated in these annals 
almost at a glance. 

The first deduction to be drawn is the overwhelming preponderance 
of New York's quota among the pioneers. Some few well known fam- 
ilies, notably the Silvers from New Hampshire, were native to the strict- 
ly New England states. Delaware furnished several worthy families, 
Vermont is honorably represented, but either directly or as the original 
source New York state was the alma mater tO' more pioneers than any 
other state. New York was the recruiting ground, as is well known, for 
the western expansion which began early in the nineteenth century. 
That was true, in large measure, when the practicable route of that im- 
migration was through the gateway of the Alleghanies at Pittsburg 
and down the vallev of the Ohio. But New York did not reach its full 


pre-eminence in the westward movement until the opening" of the Erie 
canal in 1825, after which the full tide of homeseekers was rolled along 
that highway into the untried wilderness of the west. 

For a long time Ohio was an intermediate place of settlement be- 
tween the east and the far west. Also, it was a focal ground upon which 
lines of migration from New England, from the middle Atlantic and 
from southern states converged. Ohio occupies a position only second 
to New York in furnishing pioneers to Cass county. And of Ohio's 
counties, Logan, Butler and Preble seem foremost in this respect. Here 
the uncompromising abolitionists from North Carolina first settled be- 
fore Cass county became a goal for many. 

Carefully studied, these records tell many other things about the 
pioneer beginnings of Cass county. The stages by which many families 
gradually reached this point in their westward migration are marked 
by children's births at various intervening points. And sometimes the 
bonds of marriage united families from widely sundered localities^ the 
community of residence which brought this about being now in Ohio, 
now in Indiana, and perhaps more often here in Cass county. 

These are but a few of the inferences and conclusions that may be 
found in the annals which follow, and besides the historical value they 
thus possess, this is a means of preserving permanently many individ- 
ual records which have a personal interest to hundreds in Cass county. 

Ashley, Thompson — Born in Penn township in 183 1; in 1853 went 
to California, where he died June 8, 1906. 

Abbott, Josq)h H. — ^Born near Toronto, Canada, January 12, 1812; 
came to Howard township in 1834, where he died November i, 1878. 

Alexander, Ephraim; — ^Born in Pennsylvania November 6, 18 19; 
came to Cass county in 183 1 ; died in Dakota December 9, 1885. 

Allen, Mrs. Demarias — Born in 1799; came to Ontwa township 
in 1835; died in Jefferson township August 5, 1887. 

Arnold, Henry — Born in Sheffield, Massachusetts, July 25, 1807; 
came to Cass county in 1835; died August 25, 1889. 

Andrus, Mrs. Fanny — Born in Cayuga county. New York, No- 
vember 4, 1808; came to Ontwa township in 1835; died in Mason town- 
ship January 29, 1894. 

Andrus, Hazard — Born in New York in 1789; came to Ontwa in 
1834; died March 3, 1862. 

Anderson, Lemuel H.— Born in Warren county, Ohio, July 20, 
1829; came to Cass county in 1833; died in South Bend August 5, 


Anderson, Mrs. L. H. — Born in Erie county, New York, in 183 1; 
came to Cassopolis in 1833; died in South Bend May 2^, 1883. 

Ayers, David — Born in Wood county, New York, in 1829; came 
to Penn township in 1839, where he died October 30, 1895. 

Adams, Uriah M. — Bom in Sandusky county, Ohio, November 2, 
1832; came to Porter township in 1837; died July 5, 1900. 

Alexander, John — Born in Richmond, Indiana, December 22, 1824; 
came to Young's prairie in 1830; died at Michigan City, Indiana, No- 
vember 2^, 1900. 

Alexander, Leah E. — ^Born in Wayne county, Indiana, April 23, 
1818; came to Penn township in 1832; died in South Dakota January 
16, 1901, as Mrs. G. H. Jones. 

Aldrich, Henry — Born in Smithfield, Rhode Island, May 5, 1813; 
came to Milton township in 1837, where he died February 8, 1901. 

Atwood, Lafayette — Born in Cattaraugus county, New York, 
March 18, 1824; came to Wayne township in 1836; died at Dowagiac 
March 18, 1906. 

Aldrich, Dr. Levi — Bom in Erie county. New York, January 2y, 
1820; with his parents came to Milton in 1837; died at Edwardsburg 
December 16, 1892; his wife, Evaline A. Sweetland, born in Tompkins 
county. New York, September i, 1822; killed in railroad collision at 
Battle Creek, Michigan, October 20, 1893. 

Aldrich, Nathan^ — Born in Rhode Island January 24, 1816; came 
to Milton in 1837; died March 26, 1894; his wife, Harriet M. Dunning, 
born in New York July 21, 18 16; came to Ontwa in 1834; died Jan- 
uary 24, 1858'. 

Alexander, John — Born in North Carolina in 1791; came to Penn 
in 1831 ; died in 1850; Ruth, his wife, born in 1785; died in 1845. 

Anderson, Samuel F. — Born in Rutland county, Vennont, Feb- 
ruary 19, 1803; came to Cassopolis in 1835; died April 14, 1877; 
Mahala Phipps, his wife, born in New York July 10, 1807; died Jan- 
uary 21, 1877. 

Hannah Phelps, wife of John T. Adams, born in Norwich, Con- 
necticut, April 30, 1808; came to Edwardsburg in 1835 and there died 
June 20, 1838. 

Bement, David — Born at Hartford, Connecticut, October 17, 1813; 
came to Mason township in 1836; died in Ontwa township December 
18, 1879. 

Barnard, Dr. — Came to Cass .county in 1828; died in Berrien 
Springs April 6, i88j. 

Beckwith, Walter G. — Born in New York in 1810; came to this 
county in 1836; died in Massachusetts May 18, 1884. 


Beckwith, Mrs. Eliza A. — Born in Ontario county, New York, 
December 2, 181 1; came to Cassopolis in June, 1838; died in Jefferson 
township June 27, 1880. 

Brady, David — Born in Sussex county, New Jersey, in 1785; came 
to La Grange prairie in July, 1828; died in La Grange township July 12, 

Bates, John — Born in Chautauqua county, New York, July 7, 
1821; came to Summerville in 1839; died May 18, 1879. 

Barnhart, Mrs. Casander S. — Born in Frankhn county, Virginia; 
came to Cass county about 1828; died October 12, 1878. 

Bonine, Mrs. Elizabeth G. — Born in Fenn township in 1833; daugh- 
ter of Amos Green; died October 26, 1875. 

Bement, Mrs. Jane — Bom in Cayuga, New York, September 17, 
1824; came to Mason township in 1836, where she died April 2, 1887. 

Ball, Israel — Born in Butler county, Ohio, October 2, 1814; came 
to Cass county in 1830; died in Wisconsin April 30, 1887. 

Bosley, Hiram — Bom in Ohio in 1829; came to Cass county in 
1838; died in Iowa in 1889. 

Beeson, Jesse G. — Born in Wayne county, Indiana, December 10, 
1807; came to La Grange township in 1830, where he died February 
18, 1888. 

Bacon, Cyrus — Born in Saratoga county, New York, October 26, 
1796; came to Ontwa township in 1834; died October 4, 1873. 

Bacon, Mrs. Malinda — Born in Saratoga county, New York, March 
15, 1802; came to Ontwa township in 1834, where she died April 3, 

Bacon, David — Born in Saratoga county, New York, September 
9, 1827; came to Ontwa township in 1834; died at Niles, Michigan, 
July 25, 1899. 

Bacon, James G. — Born in Saratoga county. New York, November 
24, 1834; came to Ontwa township in 1834, w^here he died August 20, 

Barton, Martha A. — Born in Virginia September 16, 1822; came 
to Cassopolis in 1830; died September 8, 18891. 

Baldwin, William — ^Born in Warren county, Ohio, April 5, 182 1; 
came to Cass county in 1828 ; died in P'okagon township August 28, 
1904. His wife, who came to the county in 1835, died in Pokagon Jan- 
uary II, 1892, aged 70. 

Bigelow, Harvey — Born in New York July 4, 1816; came to La 
Grange township in 1837; died at Dowagiac November 3, 1893. 

Blish, Daniel — Born in Gilsun, New Hampshire, June 17, 1812: 
came to Silver Creek in 1840; died November 5, 1893. 

Breece, Jacob B. — Born in Columbia county, Pennsylvania, March 


26, 1816; came to Ontwa township in 1836; died in Jefferson January 
29, 1896; Sarah M. Wilson, his wife, born January 19, 1822; died 
May 5, 1885. 

Brady, James T. — Born in Ireland March i, 1802; came to Ontwa 
township in 1836; died at Elkhart December 19, 1881. 

Brady, Mary Ann Jones — Born in New Jersey June 13, 1809 > 
came to Ontwa in 1836; died June 12, 1895. 

Blair, William G. — Born in Middlefield, New York, May i, 1817; 
came to Edwardsburg in May, 1835, where he died July 17, 1895. 

Beeson, Benjamin F. — Born in Indiana in 1832; came to La 
Grange township in 1832; died in Calvin township August 31, 1896. 

Baker, Alfred — Born in 18 16; came to Geneva in 1829; died in 
Iowa February 10, 1898. 

Bump, Eli — Born in Urbana, Ohio, March 13, 1819; came to Jeff- 
erson township in 1837; died in Vandalia May 2;^, 1899. His wife, 
Naomi Reames, l^orn in Logan county, Ohio, September 22, 1822; 
came to Jefferson in 1834; died at Vandalia, March 2, 1904. 

Bonine, James B. — Born in Wayne county, Indiana, July 18, 1825; 
came to Penn township in 183 1 ; died November 28, 1900. 

Baldwin, Josephus^ — Born in New Jersey October 15, 18 12; came 
to Cass county in 1828; died in Indiana May 16, 1901. 

Brady, Noah S. — Born in Ontwa March 17, 1839; died July 5, 

Byrnes, Rev. John — Born in Ireland in 1815; came to Pokagon 
in 1837, where he died March 12, 1903. 

Bishop, Joseph C. — Born in New York in 1820; came to Ontwa 
township in 1832; died at Edwardsburg December 26, 1902. 

Beardsley, David — Born in Butler county, Ohio, March 31, 1824; 
came to Mason township in 1832 ; died December 28, 1903. 

Benson, Catherine Weed — Born in Steuben county. New York, 
September i, 1816; came to Porter township in 1836; died September 

3> 1903. 

Beardsley, Hall — Born in New York in 1830; came to Porter 
township in 1838, where he died December 7, 1905. 

Bogue, Elvira — ^Born in Penn township January 19, 1836; died at 
Vandalia April 12, 1906, as Mrs. Thomas. 

Bacon, William H. — Born in New York in 1809; came to Ontwa 
in 1834; died October 6, 1856; his wife, Elizabeth Van Name; born 
in 1820; died February 4, 1897, as Mrs. Starr. 

Bugbee, Dr. Israel G. — Bom in Vermont March 11, 1814; first 
came to Edwardsburg in 1835; died May 18, 1878; his wife, Eliza- 
beth Head, born in England September 12, 1817; died June 20, 1903. 


Bogue, Stephen — r-Born in North, CaroHna October 17, 1790; came 
to Penn township in 1829, where he died October 11, 1868. 

Bogue, Mrs. Hannah — Born in 1798; came to Penn township in 
1 83 1, where she died December 14, 1891, wife of Stephen Bogue. 

Bishop, Ehjah — Born at Saratoga Springs, New York, in 181 1: 
came to Mason township in 1838; died ~- . 

Barney, John — Born in Connecticut; came to Wayne in 1836; 
died in 1852. 

Barney, Henry, Sr. — ^Born in Connecticut; in 1763; came to Sil- 
ver Creek in 1838; died in 1850. 

Blackman, Wilson — Born in Connecticut in 1792; came to Ed- 
wardsburg in 1829; the county's first postmaster; died . 

Bishop, Calvin — Born in New York in 17.8a; came to Cass county 
in 1833; died in Ontwa February 12, 1867; his wife, Mary Ann, born 
in 1 791; died Febniary 26, 1861. 

Boyd, James — ^Bom in New York August 3, 1806; came to Ed- 
wardsburg in 183 1; died at Cassopolis September 9, , 1890; his wife, 
Mary, born in 1796; died 1877. 

Beckwith, Sylvanus — Born in New York in 1776; came to Cass- 
opolis in 1838; died February 24, 1859; Lydia, his wife, born in 
1785; died September 15, 1875. 

Bishop, Elijah — Bom in New York in 181 1; came to Mason in 
1838; died in 1851. 

Blackmar, Nathaniel Bowdish— Bom July 3, 181 7, in New York; 
came with father, Willson Blackmar, to Edwardsburg,' July 3, 1828, 
where he died May 24, 1878. His second wife, Sophronia Lee Quimby, 
born Strafford county, N. H., May 24, 1830, came to Edwardsburg Julv, 

Colyar, Mrs. Catherine^ — Born in Logan county, Ohio, April 27, 
1814; came to Jefferson township in 1832; died January 24, 1881. 

Curtis, Mrs. Deborah A. — Born in Madison, Ohio, July 13, 1822; 
came to Mason township in 1S32; died in 1880. 

Curry, Mrs. Elizabeth Card — Born in Union county, Indiana, De- 
cember 16, 181 1, daughter of Josephus Card; came to Volinia in 1830; 
died in Van Buren county, June 2.2, 1878. 

Cooper, Mrs. Nancy Brady— -Born in New Jersey, May 5, 1808; 
came to LaGrange Prairie in 1831 ; died in Dowagiac, July 30, 1878. 

Curtis, Jotham— Born in Genesee county, New York, February 24, 
1809; came to Mason township in 1842, where he died December 9, 


Curtis, Mrs. Elizabeth — Born in Albany, New York, February 7, 
1781 ; came to Mason township in 1832, where she died October 5, 1878, 
wife of Jotham Curtis. 


Condon, William — Born in Ireland, October 17, 1815; came to La- 
Grange township about iS39;di^d J^4^i:cl,x. 1,5, 1889; his wife, Rosanna 
Hain, born in Ohio, June 22, i827;!came to LaGrange township in 
1830; died in Jefferson township, July 28, 1882. 

Carmichael, Arthur C. — Born in Harrison county, Virginia, Jan- 
uary 23, 1825; came to Jefferson in 1836; died near Benton Harbor, 
August 28, 1885. 

Colyar, Jonathan — Born in North Carolina, September 13, 1810; 
came to Jefferson township in 1831, where he died January 14, 1887. 

Carpenter, Mrs. Eliza C. — ^Born in Sussex county, Delaware, Octo- 
ber 14, 1802; came to Cass county in 1837; died in Milton, June 15, 

Clendaniel, George — Born in Essex county, Delaware, January 15, 
1805; came to Milton township in 1836; died in Indiana, July 3, 1887. 

Cooper, Benjamin — Born in St. Lawrence county, New York, Au- 
gust, 1794; came to Cass county in 1833; ^^^^ ^^ Howard township, 
September 9, 1887. 

Clisbee, Charles W. — ^Born in Ohio, July 24, 1833; came to Cas- 
sopolis in 1838. where he died August 18, 1889; secretary and historian 
of the Pioneer Society. 

Copley, David B. — Born in Otsego county. New York, July 13, 
1817; came to Cass county in 1835; died August 25, 1889. 

Churchill, Rebecca Hebron — Born in Porter township, January 24, 
1835, where she died February 4, 1891. 

Copley, Jane Helen — ^Born in 1827 ; came to VoJinia township in 
1838; died September 20, 1890. 

Copley, Alexander B. — Born in Jefferson county, New York, March 
II, 1812; came to Volinia in 1833; died in Cuba, March 28, 1899. 

Curtis, Delanson — Born in Otsego county. New York, May 28, 
181 1 ; came to Pokagon in 1834, where he died June 10, 1893. 

Cooper, Lovina Bosley — Born in Lake county, Ohio, April 29, 1834; 
came to Jefferson township in 1839; died June 17, 1894. 

Carpenter, Messick — Born in Dela\vare in 1800; came to Milton 
township in 1837; died at Edwardsburg, March i, 1895. 

Colyar, William — Born in Ohio, 1807; came to Jefferson tow^nship 
in 183 1 ; died in Van Buren county, January 15, 1898. 

Copley, Ebenezer — Born in Otsego county, New York, May 30, 
1820; came to Cass county in 1834; died in Wayne township, Septem- 
ber 16, 1897. 

Cooper, Benjamin — Born in New York, September 19, 1820; came 
to Howard township in 1834; died in Dowagiac, June i, 1899. 

Clark, John C. — Born in Butler county, Ohio, August 25, 1814; 
came to Wayne township in 1836; died in LaGrange township, July 5, 


Chapin, Henry A. — Born in Leyden, Massachusetts, October 15, 
1813; came to Edwardsburg in 1836; died in Niles, December 17, 1898; 
his wife, Ruby N., who came to Edwardsburg in 1836, died in Chicago, 
October 30, 1902. 

Carpenter, James — Born in Delaware; came to Milton township in 
1837; died at Edwardsburg, February 28, 1899. 

Carlisle, Orville D. — ^Born at Ontario, New York, August 31, 1833; 
came to Edwardsburg in 1839; died in Alabama, June 29, 1900. 

Carpenter, Purnell W. — ^Born in Sussex county, Delaware, August 
28, 1825 ; came to Milton township in 1837, where he died April 2, 1901. 

Chapman, Emily S. Harper — Born in CassopoHs, March 30, 1838, 
where she died January 7, 1902. 

Coates, Jason B. — Born Ontario county. New York, November 11, 
1817; came to LaGrange township in 183 1, where he died February 23, 

Coats, Mrs. Jason B. — Born in Howard township. May 27, 1836, 
daughter of William Young; died in LaGrange township, January 20, 

Copley, Asel G. — Born in New York, July 23, 181 5 ; came to Volinia 
in 1835; died May 9, 1903. 

Cays, Abram H. — Born in Butler county, Ohio, April 30, 1827; 
came to Cass county in 1839; died in LaGrange township, August 31, 
1904; his wife, Margaret Foster, born in Holmes county, Ohio, in 1833; 
came to Jefiferson in 1839; died in Dowagiac, October 28, 1901. 

Coates, Laura — ^Born in Ontario county, New York, May 13, 1812; 
came to LaGrange in 1831 ; died at Cassopolis, March 17, 1902, as Mrs. 
William Arrison. 

Coulter, James. — Bom in Henrietta county, Ohio, May 17, 1808; 
came to Howard in 1834; died February 16, 1874; his wife, Ann Wil- 
son, born in Clinton county, Ohio, in 1809; died May 18, 1893. 

Crawford, Robert — Born in Ireland in 1782; came tO' Jefferson 
in 1836; died in 1858; his wife, Elizabeth, born in 1786; died in 1844. 

Coates, Jason R. — Born in New York in 1789; came to LaGrange 
in 183 1 ; died August 7, 1832; the first buried in Cassopolis cemetery; 
his wife, Jane, born in 1787; died October 26, 1844; their daughter, 
Jane Ann, born Februar}^ 29, 1823; died at Cassopolis January 24, 
1904, as Mrs. Allen. 

Deal, Owen — Born at Amsterdam, New York, July 2, 18 16; came 
to Diamond Lake, December 18, 1836; died at Constantine, Michigan, 
March 22, 1880. 

Deal, Angeline Nash — Wife of Owen Deal; bom in Chenango 
couty. New York, July 10, 1820; came to Geneva in 1830; died at 
Constantine July 3, 1884. 


Denton, Cornelius W. — Born in Amenia, New York, June i, 1800; 
came to Porter township in 1836, where he died November i, 1878. 

Davidson, Samuel — Born in Ohio in 1810; came to Porter township 
in 1828; died at Cassopolis November 17, 1882. 

Davis, Allen — Born July 12, 1817; came to Porter township in 
1833; died at Cassopolis April 29, 1883. 

Davis, Reuben B. — Born in Hanover county, Virginia, January i, 
1804; came to Jefferson township in 1840, where he died in 1884. 

Driskel, Daniel — Born in Pennsylvania in 1812; came to Newberg 
township in 1833, where he died September 29, 1885. 

Dcane, William H. — Born in Greene county, New York, in 1809; 
came to Howard township in 1835, where he died May 13, 1887. 

Dickson, Edwin T. — Born in 182 1 ; came to McKinney's Prairie 
in 1828; died in Berrien county in 1891. 

Dunning, Allen — Born in Albany, N. Y., July 27, 1796; came to 
Milton in 1836; there died December 10, 1869; his wife — 

Dunning, Minerva Reynolds — Born in Tompkins county. New 
York, January 12, 1824; came to Milton township in 1836, where she 
died March 31, 1892. 

Dickson, Austin M. — Born in LaGrange in 1832; died in Wis- 
consin, April 29, 1895. 

Dodge, Joseph — Born in Johnstown, New York, December 2, 1807; 
came to Cass county in 1839; died in Vandalia, September 2, 1895. 

Decker, Barney — Born in Ontario county. New York, September 
20, 1812; came to Cassopolis, in 1838; died in LaGrange township, Jan- 
uary 20, T900; his wife, Martha Wilson, born in Franklin county, 
Ohio', August 10, 1816, came to LaGrange Prairie in September, 1829; 
died October 19, 1905. 

Driskel, Dennis — Born in Tennessee; came tO' Porter township in 
1833, where he died June 16, 1901 ; his wife, Mary Bair, born in Ohio, 
February 19, 1828, came to Newberg in 1832; died in Idaho, June 24, 

Draper, John — Born in Syracuse, New York, July 17, 1836; came 
to Cass county in 1840; died at Jones, Michigan, October 17, 1905. 

Dunning, Horace B. — Born in Cayuga county. New York, Sep- 
tember 18, 1802; came to Edwardsburg in 1834 and to Cassopolis in 
1841 ; died May 30, 1868; his wife, Sarah A. Camp, born in 1807; 
died September 30, 1894. 

Davidson, Armstrong — Born in Virginia in 1784; came to Porter 
in 1829; died in 1850. 

Dickson, James^ — Born in Pennsylvania in 1794; came to La^ 
Grange in 1828; died September 16, 1866. 

Dennis, Nathaniel B. — Born in Sussex county, Delaware, March 


13, 1813; came to Michigan in 1833; ^^^^ i^ Milton February 6, 1899; 
his wife, Margaret McMichael, lx>rn in Pennsylvania July 19, 1819; 
died April 27, 1895. 

Drew, Albert L. — Born oh Beardsley's prairie July 5, 1834; died 
in Berrien county; first white child born on the Prairie; Helen Sher- 
rill, his wife; born in Jefferson February i, 1839; died December 28, 

Dunning, Dr. Isaac — Born in New York in 1772; came to Ed- 
wardsburg in 1834; died March i, 1849. 

Edwards, Lewis, Sr. — Born in Lamberton, New York, May 29, 
1799; came to Pokagon Prairie in 1826, where he died June 24, 1878. 

Edwards, Mrs. Ellen Collins — Born in Pokagon township January 
18, 1838; died January 28, 1879. 

East, James W. — ^Born in 1803 ; came to Calvin township Novem- 
ber, 1833, where he died April 19, 1887. 

East, Jacob Talbot — Came to Cass county in 1834; died in Volinia 
October 8, 1887. 

East, Emeline O'Dell — Born in Hyland county, Ohio, November 
6, 1813; came to Porter township in 1832; died February 2, 1899. 

East, John H. — Born in Indiana March 25, '1827; came to Calvin 
township in childhood; died at Cassopolis January 19, 1891. 

Everhart, Sarah — Born in Wayne county, Ohio; came to Porter 
township in 1830, where she died January 14, 1891. 

Eby, Mrs. Gabriel' — Born in Germany in 1826; came to Porter 
township in 1837, where she died November 7, 1891 ; maiden name 
Caroline Wagner. 

Emmons, John — Born in Giles county, Virginia, August 18, 1808; 
came to Pokagon township in 1834, where he died October i, 1893. 

East, James M. — Born in Wayne county, Indiana, April 7, 1825 ; 
came to Cass county in 1833; died in Vahdalia March 13, 1895. 

Eby, Mary Traverse — ^Born in West Morland, Pennsylvania, April 
5, 1813; came to this county in 1834; died June 26, 1895. 

East, Anna Jones — Born in Tennessee April 5, 1805 ; came to Cass 
county in 1833; died in Calvin township October 22, 1896. 

East, Emily J. — Born in Porter township July 26, 1834, where she 
died June 10, 1898, as Mrs. Hughes. 

East, Jesse S.— Born in Henry county, Indiana, June 2, 1829; came 
to Cass county in 1832; died at Buchanan July 29, 1904. 

East, Enos — Born in Calvin township October 24, 1839, where he 
died March 19, 1905. '] "' 

,East, Thomas J. — Born in Calvin township May 24, 1833; died 
at South Haven, Michigan, June 6, 1905. 


East, Calvin K.— Born in Calvin township October' 7, 1834; died 
at Vandalia April 17, i$o6. 

Emerson, Matthew H. — Born in Hopkinton December 11, 1808; 
came to Edwardsburg in 1839, where he died March 17, 1877. 

Follett, Mrs. Mary — Born in Canandaigua county, New York, Feb- 
ruary 16, 1798; came to Mason township in 1835; died November 30, 
1880, widow of Dr. Henry Follett, who died in Mason in 1849. 

Fredericks, Henry — Born in Pennsylvania; came to Porter town- 
ship in 1840, where he died August 10, 1885. 

Frakes, Mrs. Joseph — Born in Ohio in 1804; came to Cass county 
in 1829; died March 15, 1887. 

Fox, Mrs. Sarah C. — Born in Kent county, Delaware, February 27, 
1815; came to Howard township in 1839, where she died October 12, 

Fisher, Daniel — Born in Giles county, Virginia, in 1801 ; came to 
Howard township in 1830, where he died February 14, 1896. 

Foster, John McKinley — Born in Holmes county, Ohio, March 24, 
1835; came to Jefferson township in 1839; died at Edwardsburg Jan- 
uary 27, 1902. 

Foster, Andrew — Born in Pennsylvania in 1779; came to Beard- 
sley's prairie in 1833; died November 30, 1870; his wife, Rachel Mc- 
Michael, born in 1804; died April 26, 1884; his daughter, Margaret, 
born in 1833; was drowned at Picture Rock, Lake Superior, October 
29, 1856. 

Foster, James — Born in Pennsylvania in 1792; came to Cass 
county in 1839; died in Jefferson 1872; his wife, Ann McKinley, born 
in 1809; died in 184 1. 

Green, Mrs. Mary — ^Born in Volinia township June 13, 1832, daugh- 
ter of Jonathan Guard; died in Wexford county, Michigan, July 15, 

Grubb, Fanny — Born in Logan county, Ohio, January 21, 18 t6; 
came to Cass county with Father Andrew in 1830; died January 27, 

Goddard, Anson A.— Born in Canton, Connecticut, March 11, 1806; 
came to Mason township in 1836, where he died December 5, 1880. 

Goodspeed, William L. — ^Bom in Wyoming county. New York, 
August Q', 1829; came to Volinia in 1836, where he died February 26, 

Gawthrop, Minerva Jane— Born in LaGrang-e township May 12, 
1840; died in Dowagiac November 9, 1878. 

Garwood, Rachel P.-^Bom in Richmond, Indiana, in 1807; came 
to Cass county in 1832; died in Pokagon December 2% 1886. 


Griffith, Matthew — Born in Sussex county, Delaware, March lo, 
1811; came to Cass county in 1837; died in Milton township January 
28, 1879. 

Goodspeed, Mrs. Sarah D. — Born in the state of Massachusetts 
October 14, 1883; came to Volinia November, 1836, whiire she died 
November 12, 1878. 

Givens, John — Born in Virginia about 1803; came to LaGrange 
township in 1835, where he died January 4, 1879; his wife, Elizabeth 
P., died October 15, 1878', aged 66'. 

Grennell, Jeremiah S. — Born in Onondaga county, New York, Sep- 
tember 30, 1824; came to Cass county in 1834; died in Newberg town- 
ship August 16, 1888. 

Gill, John — ^Born on the Isle of Man November 12, 1803; came to 
Cass county in 1835; died at Jones August 6, 1888. 

Gard, Mrs. Elizabeth Bishop — Born in Preble county, Ohio, Decem- 
ber 5, 1804; came to Volinia in 1829, where she died September 3, 1887. 

Goble, James — Born in Pokagon in 1836; died December 3, 1891. 

Green, Selina Henshaw — Born in Randolph county, North Caro- 
lina, November 12, 1819; came to Cass county in 183 1 ; died in Vandalia 
February i, 1896. 

Green, Mary Huff — Born in Preble county, Ohio, July 29, 181 5; 
came to Wayne township in 1833, where she died August 8, 1896. 

Gardner, Julius M. — Born in Cuyahoga county, Ohio, in 1823; 
came to Cass county in 1835; ^^cd in Mason township January 21, 1900. 

Gard, Milton J. — Born in Butler county, Indiana, March 11, 1824; 
came to Volinia in 1829; died July 19, 1900. 

Gard, Benjamin F. — Born in Butler county, Indiana, July 30, 1829; 
came to Volinia in 1829, where he died September 23, 1900. 

Gard, Isaac N. — Bern in Union county, Indiana, July 9, 1827; 
came to Volinia in 1829, where he died July 25, 1902. 

Gard, Reuben F. — Born in Union county, Indiana, August 6, 1825; 
came to Volinia in 1829; died at Pokagon April 2, 1905. 

Goodspeed, Marshall — Born in Cayuga county. New York, April 
I, 1830; came to Volinia in 1830, where he died September 3, 190O'. 

Goodenough, Edward B. — Born in Cayuga county. New York, in 
1835; came to Volinia in 1837; died October 15, 1900. 

Graham, Arthur — Born in Scotland in 181 2; came to Wayne town- 
ship in 1839; died at Dowagiac, April 23, 1901. 

Glenn, Thomas H. — Born in Milford, Delaware, in 1828; came 
to Milton township in 1834; died in Chicago July 21, 1901. 

Goodspeed, Edwin— Born in Cayuga county, New York, January 
15, 1835; came to Volinia same year; died April 5, 1903. 


Gardner, Rachel M. Roberts — Born in Erie county, New York, 
October 13, 1833; came to Milton township in 1839, where she died 
August 12, 1 901. 

Green, Eli — Born in Wayne township in 1835; <^lied i^ Mapleton, 
North Dakota, September 7, 1906; his wife, Esther Gard, born in 
Volinia in 1838, died October 8, 1902. 

Goodrich, Robert — Born in Butler county, Ohio, December 18, 
183 1 ; came to Jefferson township in 1835; died March 30, 1904. 

Gawthrop, David B. — Born in LaGrange township September 4, 
1833, where he died January 25, 1905. 

Gifford, H. Leroy — Born in Genesee county, New York, in 1825; 
came to Cass county in 1840; died at Dowagiac August 18, 1905. 

Garvey, Sarah Miller — Born in Franklin county, Ohio, July 21, 
1829; came to Jefferson township in 1832; died at Cassopolis July i, 

Gilbert, William — Born in Long Island, New York, September 6, 
1822; came to Indian Lake in 1839; died October 22, 1905. 

Glover, Orville B. — Born in Upton, Massachusetts, April 11, 1804; 
came to Edwardsburg in 1839, where he died March 19, 1852. 

Carr, Julia A. — Wife of O. B. Glover; born in Albion, N. Y.^ 
June 28, 1818; came to Edwardsburg in 1839; died at Buchanan, 1893, 
as Mrs. Hall. 

Glover, Harrison — Born in Orleans county, New York, February 
3, 1837; came to Edwardsburg in 1839; died at Buchanan in April, 
8, 1876. 

Glenn, James L. — Born in Pennsylvania ; came tO' Cass county about 
1835; ^li^^' January i, 1876. 

Gage, John S. — Born in New York; came to Wayne township Sep- 
tember, 1839; died 

Gage, Justus — Born in Madison coimty. New York, March 13, 
1805; came to Wayne in 1837; died January 21, 1875. 

Green, Amos — Born in Georgia December 10, 1794; came to 
Young's prairie in 1831; died August 6, 1854; his wife, Sarah, born 
in 1796; died December 13, 1863. 

Goodspeed, Joseph — Born in Massachusetts April i, 1797; came 
to Volinia in 1836; died April 30, 1850. 

Gilbert, Wm. J. — Born on Long Island, New York, in 1790; came 
to Silver Creek in 1839; died February 18, 1864. 

Goble, Elijah — ^Born in Ohio in 1805; came to Volinia in 1828; 
died . 

Hain, John — Born in Lincoln county, North Carolina, August 15, 
1799; came to LaGrange township in 1830, where he died July 8, 1879. 


Hardenbrook, Adolphus — Born in Baltimore county, Maryland, 
January i8, 1823; came to Cassopolis in 1836; died in Wayne township 
December 30, 1880. 

Huff, Mrs. Margaret Case — Born in Northum^berland county, Penn- 
sylvania, March i, 1804; came to Cass county in 1834; died in Volinia 
township in 1881. 

Hunt, Eleazur — Born in North Carolina, February 4, 1792; came 
to Calvin in 183 1, where he died August 4, 1878. 

Hunt, Mrs. Martha — Born in Knox county, Tennessee, October 25, 
1795; came to Cass county in 1831; died August 27, 1880. 

Hull, John F. — Born in Calvin township June 14, 1840; died in 
Iowa August 23, 1880. 

Hutchings, Hiram' — Born in New York May 2, 182 1; came to 
' Newberg township in 1836, where he died January 8, 1881. 

Henshaw, Abijah — Born in Randolph county, North Carolina, Jan- 
uary 3, 1812; came to Young's Prairie in 1830; died July 10, 1878. 

'Hutchings, Samuel — Born in Ulster county. New York, Septem- 
ber 14, 1796; came to Newberg township in 1836, where he died Au- 
gust I, 1876. 

Hain, David — Born in Lincoln county. North Carolina, March 25, 
1805; ^^1^^ to LaGrange township in November, 183 1, where he died 
October 26, 1878. 

Hutchinson, Jesse — Born in Vermont in 1809; came to Calvin 
township in 1834; died in Iowa January 19, 1879. 

Harper, Wilson — Born in Pennsylvania in 1809; came to Cas- 
sopolis in 1835; died in Berrien county August 12, 1883. 

Houghtaling, John — Born in New York June 8, 1832; came to 
Cass county in 1835; died in Newberg September 2y, 1885. 

Hain, Jacob — Born in Lincoln county North Carolina; came to La- 
Grange township in 183 1 ; died in Iowa in 1886. 

Hull, Isaac — Born in Pennsylvania July 3, 1807; came to Calvin in 
1837, where he died December 19, 1873. 

FIull, Mr§. Maria Grubb' — Born in Loudoun county, Virginia, Octo- 
ber, 1806; came to Cass county in 1837; died November 15, 1887. 

Hebron, Nancy L. — Born in New York city February 17, 1822; 
came to Porter township in 1836; died in Penn township, November 

28, 1893. 

Harper, Caroline Guilford — Born in Northampton, Massachusetts, 
September 4, 1816; came to Cassopolis in 1835, vvhere she died January 
29, 1902. 

Harper, Joseph — Born in Washington county, Pennsylvania, De- 
ctmhv 19, 1805; came to Cassopolis in February, 1835, where he died 
Au:f" d8, 1894. 


Huyck, Richard R. — Born in New York, February 21, 181 1 ; came 
to Little Prairie Ronde in 1832; died December 14, 1893. 

Hathaway, Benjamin — Born in New York in 1822; came to Cass 
in 1838; died in VoHnia March 21, 1896. 

Hebron, Gideon — Born in England in 1816; came to Porter town- 
ship in 1833, where he died January 25, 1897. 

Harrison, Jesse — Born in Richmond, Indiana, August 17, 1822; 
came to Calvin township in 1833; died at Cassopolis February 13, 1898. 

Hardenbrook, Adolphus T. — Born in Maryland in 1823; came to 
LaGrange township in 1832; died in Wayne in December, 1880. 

Hardenbrook, Margaret Shurte — Born in Marion county, Ohio, 
March 29, 1827; came to LaGrange about 1830; died in Wayne town- 
ship February 6, 1902. 

Hathaway, Orrin — Born in Stuben county. New York, May 20, 
1823; came to Penn township same year; died March 12, 1903. 

Hitchcox, James H. — Born in Erie county, New York, January 5, 
1826; came to Porter township in 183 1, where he died March 26, 1903. 

Haney, Charles — Born in Germany January 29, 1809-; came to 
Ontwa township in 1833 ; died January 8, 1892. 

Haney, Jane Smith — Born in Cumberland county, Pennsylvania, 
August 24, 181 7; came to Ontwa township in 1829; died August 14, 

Hunt, Eliza Worden — Born in Niagara county. New York, April 
9, 1832; came to Edwardsburg in 1833; ^^'^^l ^^ Browaisville August 26, 

Harwood, Nathan — Born in Bennington, Vermont, September 9, 
182 1 ; came to Newberg in 1837; died September 29, 1903. 

Harwood, Clarissa Easton — Born in Allegany county, New York, 
October 16, 1834; came to Newberg in 1834; died February 2, 1904, 
wife of William N. Harwood. 

Hanson, James — Born in Fulton county, New York, May 7, 183 1; 
came to Jefferson in 1835; ^'^^^' ^^^ Howard township May 7, 1904. 

Hurd, Rev. John — Born in England November 27, 1823; came to 
Newberg in 1836; died at Paw Paw, Michigan, April 22, 1905. 

Hatch, Jerome B. — Born in Medina county, Ohio, March 9, 1827; 
came to Mason township in 1837; died in Illinois April 9, 1905. 

Hitchcox, Thomas Addison — Born in Erie county, New York, 
June 22, 1829; came to Porter township in 183 1 ; died May 29, 1905. 

Hanson, William — Born in Montgomery county. New York, No- 
vember 14, 1824; came to Ontwa in 1835; died at Edwardsburg March 
16, 1905; his first wife, Elizabeth Crawford, born in 1822; died Septem- 
ber 7, 1865. 


Howard, I-everett C. — Born in Jefferson county, New York, No- 
vember 7, 1822; came to Cass county in 1834; died in Dowagiac Octo- 
ber 3, 1903. 

Harwood, Silas — Born in New York October 13, 1828; came to 
Newberg in 1836, where he died December 31, 1905. 

Harmon, EHza Grubb^ — Born in Calvin August 13, 1837; died at 
Cassopolis March 15, 1906. 

Hicks, Edward P. — ^Born in England February 15, 182 1; came to 
Ontwa in 1835; died in Milton township June i, 1906. 

Hicks, Richard V. — Born in England November 17, 1819; came to 
Ontwa in 1835; died in Milton township March i, 1906. 

Hathaway, Sarah E.- — Born in Cayuga county. New York, June 
16, 1830; came to Volinia in 1837, where she died in Copemish, Mich- 
igan, April 24, 1906, as Mrs. H. S. Rogers. 

Huff, Amos — Born in New Jersey January 30, 1799; came to 
Volinia township in 1834, where he died July 4, 1881. 

Huyck, John — Born in New York September 27, 1783; came to 
Nicholsville in 1836; died at Marcellus September 15, 1881. 

Huyck, Abijah — Born in Delaware county. New York, October 
18, 1818; came to Volinia township in 1836; died 

Hanson, Ephraim, Sr. — Born in New York in 1784; came to Cass 
county in 1835; ^^^^^ September 4, 1837; his wife, Alida, born in 1791; 
died September 5, 1882. 

Huntley, Ephraim — Born in Saratoga county September 10, 1798; 
came to Howard in 1833; died at Niles October i, 1881; his wife, Eli- 
za Ross, born 1800; died in Howard in 1856. 

. Howell, David M. — Born in Champaign county, Ohio, May 27, 
1817; came to Berrien county in 1834 and to Howard in 1840; died in 
Fenn December 12, 1883; his wife, Martha Anderson, born on March 
29, 1827; died January 11, 1869. 

Harper, Calista — Wife of Wilson Harper ; born in New York April 
II, 1819; died at Cassopolis November 24, 1843; Nancy Graves, second 
wife, torn May 2y, 1822; died in Berrien county April 25, 1904. 

Hopkins, David — Born in Washington county. New York, in 1794; 
came to Volinia in 1836; died April 7, 1880. 

Hitchcox, James — Born in Ontario county. New York, in 1795; 
came to Porter in 1830; died April 14, 1850. 

Hirous, Joseph H. — Born in Delaware in 1805; came to Milton in 
1833; died May 25, 1873; his wife, Eleanor Shanahan, born January 12, 
1808; died October 16, 1891. 

Jones, Albert — Born in Seneca county, New York, February 27, 
1828; came to this county in 1836; died in Penn township December 
26, 1880. 


Jarvis, Benjamin — ^Born in Wayne county, Indiana, May 4, 1824; 
came to Cass county in 1834; died at Pbkagon December 29, 1879. 

Jewell, Elias — Born in Monmouth county, New Jersey, in 181 1; 
came to McKinney's Prairie in 1830; died at Dowagiac January 21, 

Jewel], Hiram — ^Born in Monmouth county. New Jersey, in 1805; 
came to LaGrange township in 1830, where he died September 28, 

Jones, Mrs. Rebecca — Born in 1810; came to Cass county in 1837; 
died January 28, 1890. 

Jones, Stephen — Born in Ohio in 182 1 ; came to Cass county in 
1829; died January 12, 1891. 

Jones, Daniel S. — Born in Butler county, Ohio, May 2, 18 18; came 
to LaGrange township in 1833; died at Cassopolis July 28, 1893. 

Salina Miller — Wife of David S. Jones; born in New York May 5, 
1824; died at Cassopolis August 10, 1898. 

Jones, William' — Born in Preble county, Ohio, March 8, 1813; 
came to Penn township in 1829, where he died March 29, 1894. 

Jones, William G. — Born in Penn township July 16, 1836; died 
in California May 11, 1895. 

Jones, George W. — Born in Preble county, Ohio, April 3, 1824; 
came to Cass county in 1830; died April 29, 1896. 

Emma Sherman — Wife of George W. Jones; born in Cassopolis 
in 1836; died November 20, 1870. 

Jones, Jesse G. — Born in Penn township December 13, 1832, where 
he died March 16, 1884. 

Jones, Joseph — Born in Preble county, Ohio, in 1825; came to 
Cass county in 1829; died in Iowa February 16, 1897. 

Jones, Asa — Born in Erie county. New York, July 10, 1817; came 
to Cass county in 1835; died in Edwardsburg February 20, 1897; his 
wife, Nelly Massey, born in Sussex county, Delaware, October 15, 1823, 
came to Cass county in 1833; died in Edwardsburg April 30, 1899. 

Jones, George F. — ^Born in Seneca county, New York, August 11, 
1819, came to Newberg in 1837; died in Indiana August 22, 1898. 

Jones, Cordelia — Born in Newberg township in 1836 ; died at Van- 
dalia, November 14, 1900, as Mrs. Miller. 

Jones, Keziah — Born in Young's Prairie February 4, 183 1 ; died in 
Penn township July 2y, 1905, as Mrs. Brody. 

Jones, Nathan — Born in Preble county, Ohio, April 26, 1824 ; came 
to Young's Prairie in 1829, where he died December 8, 1905. 

Jarvis, Norman — Born in Rowan, North Carolina, April 14, 1820; 
came to LaGrange in 1834, where he died April 14, 1903. 


Jones, Finney H. — Born in Penn in December, 1830; died March 

5, 1903. 

Jones, Amos — Born in Preble county, Ohio, August 13, 1820; 
came to Cass county in 1830; died in LaGrange township April 20, 

Jarvis, Burton — Born in Rowan county. North Carolina, September 

6, 1816; came to LaGrange township in 1834; died in Berrien county, 
January 2, 1902. 

Jewell, Jonathan M. — Born in Butler county, Ohio, March 8, 1835; 
came to LaGrange in 1839; died in Wayne township December 20, 1905. 

Jenkins, William Baldwin — Bom in Green county, Pennsylvania, 
October 4, 1783; came to Pokagon in 1825; died June 16, 1845. 

Jones, Henry — Born in Randolph county. North Carolina, in 1790; 
came to Penn township in 1830, where he died in 1851. 

Jacks, Joseph L. — Born in Erie county, Pennsylvania, May 18, 
1804; arrived at Edwardsburg July 4, 1829; died January 7, 1885; 
Alvira Pennell, his wife, born October 17, 1824; died January 23, 1872. 

Jewell, James — Born in Ohio January 7, 1803; came to LaGrange 
in 1832; died April 23, 1877; his wife, Mary, born in 1806; died 
November 26, 1883. 

Keene, Leonard — Born in North Carolina January 13, 18 10; came 
to Cass county in 1831, where he died May 24, 1879. 

Keene, Mrs. Alcy — Born in Clark county, Ohio, in 1814; came to 
Calvin township in 1832; died in Jefferson township October 23, 1888. 

Kingsbury, Asa — Bom in Massachusetts May 28, 1806; came to 
Cassopolis in 1836; died March 10, 1883. 

Keeler, Lucius — Born in Onondaga county, New York, April 23, 
1816; came to Porter township in 1837, where he died September 26, 

Kelsey, James — ^Born in Haddam, Connecticut, November 3, 18 10; 
came to Wayne township in 1839; died in LaGrange township October 
5, 1883. 

Kelsey, Mary Compton — Born in Ontario county. New York, in 
1817; came to the county with her husband; died Februai^y 22, 1900. 

Kirkwood, Andrew^ — Born in Scotland July 17, 1808; came to 
Wayne township in 1836; died in California March 13, 1891. 

Kirkwood, Lieutenant Alexander — ^Born in Ohio September 27, 
1834; came to Wayne in 1836; died in Chicago March 27, 1891. 

Kirkwood, James — Born in Scotland April 12, 181 1 ; came to Wayne 
township in 1836, where he died April 20, 1892. 

King, Samuel — Born in Somerset county, Pennsylvania, in 1818; 
came to Porter township in 1828, where he died April 24, 1896. 


King, George — Born in Fairfield, Ohio; came to Porter township 
in 1828, where he died April 26, 1896. 

Kingsley, Charles R. — Born in Franklin, Massachusetts, May 21, 
183 1 ; came to Ontwa township in 1839; died January 2, 1902. 

Kinimerle, Henry — Born in Butler county, Ohio, June 17, 1830; 
came to Cassopolis in 1834; died -in La Grange township March 16, 

Kingsbury, Charles^ — Born in Massachusetts May 4, 1812; came to 
Cassopolis in 1835; died December 23, 1876. 

Kelsey, Dr. William J. — Born in New York August 20, 1839; 
came to LaGrange in 1839; died at Cassopolis November 29, 1893. 

Kingsley, Elijah — Born in Franklin county, Massachusetts, Octo- 
ber 5, 1796; came to Mason in 1839; died in Ontwa October 29, 1890. 

Lincoln, Bela — Born in Clinton county, New York, June ig, 1822; 
came to Young's Prairie in 1834; died February i, 1881, in Penn town- 

Lee, Ishmael — Born in Blount county, Tennessee, May 22, 181 5; 
came to Jefferson township in 1834; died in, Iowa April 22, 1879. 

Long, Mrs. Elizabeth — Born in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, in 
1788; came to Edwardsburg in 1835; died January 12, 1879. 

Lybrook, Henley C. — Born in Giles county, Virginia, November 28, 
1802; came to Pokagon May 15, 1830; died in Dowagiac July 6, 1882. 

Lybrook, Baltzer — Born in Giles county, Virginia, in 1824; came 
to Pokagon in 1828; died in Silver Creek, January i, 1886. 

La Porte, George — Born in Ohio in 1805 5 came to Cass county in 
1833; died in Wayne township June 11, 1886. 

La Porte, Mrs. Ann — Bom in Virginia August 25, 181 1; came to 
LaGrange township in 1834: died in LaGrange township July 2, 1887. 

Leach, Joshua — Born in Orleans county, Vermont, March 12, 1812; 
came to Young's Prairie in 1833, where he died April 4, 1890. 

Lilly, David — Born in Zanesville, Ohio, in 1814; came to LaGrange 
township in 1835, where he died March 18, 1894; his wife, Sarah Simp- 
son, born in 1823, came to LaGrange township in 1830, where she died 
April 3, 1902. 

Loomis, Nancy J. Peck — Born in Champaign county, Ohio, Decem- 
beri 14, 1828; came to Jefferson township in 1836, where she died Janu- 
ary 31, 1895. 

Lybrook, Mrs. Mary Hurd — Born in England February 9, 1821; 
came to Newberg in 1836; died in LaGrange January 26, 1903. 

Lindsley, Elizabeth — Born in Rutland county, Vermont, November 
5, 1830; came to Young's Prairie in 1839; died in Jefferson March 19, 


Lawrence, Levi B. — Born in Chautauqua county, New York, June 

12, 1819; came to Volinia in September, 1832, where he died August 

13, 1895; his wife, Esther Copley, born in Jefferson county. New York., 
MsLTch 26, 1824, came to Vohnia in 1833; died April 28, 1904. 

La Porte, Catherine Tietsort — Born in Ohio in 1830; came to 
Wayne township in 1834; died at Dowagiac January 21, 1902. 

Lee, Samuel H. — Born in Stafford county. New Hampshire, Au- 
gust 14, 1830; came to Edwardsburg in 1836; died September 17, 1904. 

Lofland, Joshua — Born in Milford, Delaware, September 8, 18 18; 
came to Cassopolis in 1836; died February 2^, 1862; his wife, Lucetta 
Silver, born in New Hampshire February 10, 1823; died at Ham- 
mond, Indiana, February 2, 1905. 

Lybrook, John — Born in Giles county, Virginia, in October, 1798; 
came to LaGrange prairie in 1828; died May 25, 188 1. 

Lockwood, Dr. Henry — Born in New York February 26, 1800; 
came to Edwardsburg in 1837; died at Dowagiac November 17, 1863; 
his wife, Sophia Peck, born in Connecticut October 9, 1809; died at 
Edwardsburg November 24, 1853. 

Lee, Mason — Born in Massachusetts in 1779; came to Jefferson 
in 1833; died September 8, 1858; his wife, Clarinda, born in 1796; 
died May 12, 1866. 

Lee, Joseph W. — Born in New Hampshire January 10, 1807; 
came tO' Ontwa in 1836; died August 24, 1874; his wife, Maria 
Hastings, born June 20, 1800; died February 2, 1875; his son, Abiel 
S., born in Ontwa April 4, 1838; died July 13, 1871; his mother, 
Elizabeth Lee, born in New Hampshire August 11, 1772; came to 
Edwardsburg in 1836; died March 12, 1852. 

IxDwery, William — Born in Delaware in 1822; came to Edwards- 
burg in 1836; died January 21, i860; his wife, Elizabeth Shanahan, 
born in 1817; died at Cassopolis February 21, 1874. 

Mead, Mrs. Clarissa Brown — Born in Otsego county. New York, 
December 11, 1805; came to Edwardsburg in 1834; died in Cassopolis 
July 28, 1879. 

McCleary, Ephraim — Born in Tuscarawas county, Ohio, March 31, 
1808; came to Cass county in 1829; died in Warsaw, Indiana, May 16, 

Mcpherson, Joseph — Born in Ohio August 16, 1800; came to 
LaGrange township in 1829; died in LaPorte county, Indiana, July 4, 


Mosher, Ira D.— Born October 26, 1802; came to Cass county 
February, 1838; died in Dowagiac November 2y, 1880. 

Mowry, Mrs. Jane — Born in Hamburg, New York, in 1792; came 
to Howard township in 1836; died in Dowagiac February 25, 1879. 


Miller, George S. — Born in Essex county, New Jersey, June i8, 
1817; came to Cass county in 1835; died Mason township January 24, 

Merritt, Mrs. Adelia T. — Bom in Onondaga county, New York, 
September 2, 1813; came to Baldwin's Prairie in 1836; died in Bristol, 
Indiana, January 10, 1881. 

Mcpherson, Sarah — Born in Virginia May 5, 1800; came to Cass 
county in 1829; died December 21, 1878. 

Marsh, Austin C. — Born in Litchfield county, Connecticut, July 
15, 1793; came to Edwardsburg in 1836, where he died June 3, 1886. 

Marsh, Mrs. Sarah Lofland — Born in Kent county, Delaware, Feb- 
ruary 6, 1812; came to Cass county in 1836; died January 6, 1879. 

Mcllvain, Moses — Born in Lexington, Kentucky, February i, 1802; 
came to Jefferson township in 1836; died at Cassopolis October 18, 1883. 

Charity, Carmichael, wife of Moses Mcllvain; came to Jeffer- 
son in 1836; died at Cassopolis May 12, 1871. 

Meacham, Mrs. Eliza — Born in Delaware June 22, 1812; died at 
Union September 21, 1885. 

Merritt, Martin — Born in 1814; came to Cass county in 1833; died 
in Sumnerville May 20, 1886. 

Messenger, Mrs. Angeline Youngs — Born in Rising Sun, Indiana, 
yVugust 16, 1821 ; came to Cass county in 1831 ; died in LaGrange town- 
ship March 18, 1887. 

McNeil, William B. — Born in Cayuga county. New York, Decem- 
ber 3, 1817; came to Mason township in 1835; died at Brownsville May 
II, 1887. 

Mcintosh, Duncan — Born in Baltimore, Maryland, May i, 1817; 
came to Penn township in 1829; died near Cassopolis May 29, 1887. 

Moore, James — Born in 1812; came to Cass county in 1838; died 
in Pokagon township January 28, 1892. 

Moore, Mrs. James — Came to Pokagon township in 1838, where she 
died April 21, 1889. 

McMullen, Eleanor — Born in Ohio September 15, 1820; came to 
Cass county in 1837; died in Jefferson township October i, 1888. 

Meacham, Hiram — Born in Ontwa township May 26, 1834; died 
in Porter township August 31, 1898. 

Mosher, Harry C. — Born in Saratoga county. New York, June 17, 
1833; came to Cass county in 1838; died in Iowa February 27, 1900. 

Mowry, L. C. — Born in Erie county, New York, February 22, 1826; 
came to Cass county in 1836; died in Iowa June 30, 1900. 

McCoy, Henry — Born in Ohio July 27, 1833; came to- Cass county 
in 1836; died at Marcellus February 10, 1901. 


Mead, Iliram B. — Born in Dutchess county, New York, February 
7, 1824; came to- Edwardsburg in 1834, where he died January 11, 
1 901. 

Merritt, Samuel K. — Born in Bertrand, Michigan, June 24, 1836; 
came to Porter township in same year, where he died February 16, 

Marshall, Joseph N. — ^Born in Stark county, Ohio, March 29, 1825 ; 
came to Jefferson township in 1836; died at Cassopolis August 17, 1904. 
Marshall, Mrs. Lovina — Born in Jefferson township in 1831; died 
July 5, 1889. 

Mcintosh, Mary — Born in Penn township in 1834; died at Cas- 
sopolis October 20, 1904, as Mrs. Mathews. 

Meacham, George— Born in Oneida county, New York, June 18, 
1799.; came to Beardsley's Prairie in April, 1827; died at Baldwin's 
Prairie January 2, 1888. 

Mcintosh, Daniel — Born March 13, 1805, in Alleghany county, 
Maryland; came to Cass county in 1831, where he died March 13, 

Morris, Samuel — Born in Ohio in 1824; came to Cass county in 
1828; died in Volinia April 19, 1895. 

Messenger, Carroll — Born in Litchfield, Connecticut, February 7, 
1809; came to Cass county in 1833; <^li^d ^^^ LaGrange June 21, 1896. 

McCallister, Mrs. Marian — Born in Scotland in 1807; came to 
Pokagon in 1836, where she died September 21, 1896. 

McOmber, Daniel — Born in New York in 1828; came to Wayne 
township in 1837; died in Dowagiac May 2, 1897. 

Manning, John — Born in New York ; came to Marcellus township 
in 1836, where he died March 11, 1898. 

McNeil, George B. — Born in Cayuga county, New York, May 12, 
1832; came to Mason township in 1835; died at Cassopolis May 8^, 1905. 
Miller, Jacob E. — Born in Ohio January i, 1824; came to Cass 
county in 1830; died in Buchanan, Michigan, March 14, 1905. 

Masten, John M. — ^Born in Kent county, Delaware, in 1829; came 
to Cass county in 183 1 ; died in Howard township April 27, 1906. 

McOmber, — Born in Berkley, Massachusetts, February 28, 
1801 ; came to Wayne township in 1835 ; died in 1848. 

Mcintosh, Daniel, Sr. — Born in Scotland in 1765; came to Penn 
in 1829; died July 2, 1851. 

McKenney, Thomas — Born in Washington county. New York, in 
1781; came to McKenney's prairie in 1827; died in Iowa in 1852. 

Mead, Barak — Born in Dutchess county. New York, in 1802 ; came 
to Edwardsburg in 1834; died at Cassopolis in 1874. 


Mansfield, William^ — Born in New York in 1811; came to Cass- 
opolis in, 1838; died in 1869; Margaret Bell, his wife, born in Ireland 
181 7; died April 18, 1896. 

Miller, Ezra — ^Born in Erie county, New York, July 6, 1808; 
came to Edwardsburg in 1835; died January 26, 1884; his wife, 
Maria Best, born in 1816; came to Edwardsburg in 1838; died Janu- 
ary 2, 1883. 

Morelan, Joseph — Born in Virginia September 11, 1797; came to 
Volinia in 1829; died February 16, 1854; his wife, Sarah Poe, born 
in Ohio August 15, 1805; died . 

May, Russell G. — Born in New York in 1804; came to Cass 
county in 1837; died in Ontwa October 8, 1886; his wife, Hannah, born 
in 1805; died March 20, 1871. 

Mead, Flenry^ — Born in New York in 1797; came to Edwards- 
burg in 1836; died July 17, 1842; his wife, Mary, died at Niles ; 

his daughter, Mary, bom in 1827; died July 24, 1850, as Mrs. P. A. 

Morris, Dolphin — Born in Ross county, Ohio, in 1798; came to 
Pokagon in 1828 and to Volinia in 1829, and here died January 7, 

Morris, Henry — And his wife, Esther Jones, son and daughter of 
pioneer parents, were murdered during the night of September 28, 
1879, at their farm home in VanBuren county, adjoining Volinia. 

Miller, John P. — Born in Pennsylvania February 18, 1809; came 
to Jefferson in 1830; died September 28, 1889. 

Nash, Ira — Born in Danbury, Connecticut, August 12, 1806; came 
to Diamond Lake in 18128; died January 26, 1881. 

Norton, Levi D. — Born in Ohio; came to Jefferson township in 
1828; died in Calvin township November 7, 1872. 

Norton, Martha Mcllvain — Born in Ohio November 26, 18 10; 
came to Calvin township in 1832, where she died January 10, 1883. 

Newton, George — Born in Preble county, Ohio, August 10, 1810; 
came to Penn township in 1831, to Volinia in 1832, where he died 
January 23, 1883. 

Nixon, Hannah — Born in Penn township August 6, 1835, where she 
died June 18, 1885. 

Norton, Pleasant — Born in Grayson county, Virginia, in 1806; 
came to Jefferson township in 1832, where he died in 1877. 

Norton, Mrs. Rachel Fukery — Born in Highland county, Ohio, 
May 28, 1808; came to Jefferson township in 1832, where she died 
March 17, 1887. 

Norton, Sampson — Born in 182 1; came to Cass county in 1829; 
died in Calvin township May 3, 1892. 


Newton, Hester Green — Born March 25, 1819; came to Cass county 
in 183 1 ; died in Volinia township April 21, 1892. 

Nixon, Esther Jones — Born in Preble county, Ohio, January 27, 
1814; came to Penn township in 1830; died November 10, 1894. 

Nicholson, John W. — Born in Champaign county, Ohio, in 183 1; 
came to Cass county in 1834; died in Iowa about 1895. 

Nothrup, Asahel D. — Born in Rutland county, Vermont, February 
13, 1822; came to Cass county in 1836; died in Calvin March 15, 1898. 

Norton, Jane — Born in Logan county, Ohio, December 5, 1807; 
came to Jefiferson township in 1829; died June i, 1898. 

Northrop, Spafford B. — Born in Vermont in 1828; came to Calvin 
township in 1836; died in Wexford county, Michigan, September 26, 

Nicholson, Ambrose — Born in Batavia, New York, July 3, 1834; 
came to Cass county in 1837; died at Kalamazoo July i, 1904. 

Neave, John — Born in England in 1780; came to Ontwa in 1836; 
died January 2;^, 1864; his wife, Mary Ann, born in 1805; died May 
II, 1862. 

Nixon, John — Born in North Carolina September 10, 1798; came 
tO' Penn in 1830; died June 10, 1882. 

O'Dell, Nathan — Born in Highland county, Ohio, September 8, 
1819; came to Cass county with his father, James O'Dell, in 1832; died 
in Penn township February 22, 1880. 

O'Dell, John — Born in Montgomery county. New York, February 
17, 1806; came to Mason township in 1835, where he died November 

15, 1878. 

Oxenford, Mrs. Sally Grennell — Born at Onondaga county. New 
York, Tuly 17, 1830; came to Cass county in 1834; died at Vandalia 
July 12, 1888. 

Oren, James — Born in Clinton county, Ohio, January 29, 1823 ; 
came to Calvin in 1838; died at Cassopolis February 22, 1891. 

O'Dell, Thomas — Born in Porter township in 183 1; died January 
30, 1882. 

Osborn, Ellison — Born in Wayne county, Indiana, in 1823; came 
to Calvin township in 1835; died in Arkansas March 10, 1897. 

Osborn, Ellen — Born in Wayne county, Indiana, in 1834; came to 
Calvin township in 1835 ; died in Elkhart, Indiana, as Mrs. Jackson, 
May 19, 1897. 

Olmstead, William — Born in Ohio, March 15, 1835; came to How- 
ard township in 1837, where he died March 10, 1898'. 

Osborn, Leander — Born in Economy, Indiana, December 27, 1825; 
came to Calvin township in 1835; died at Vandalia June 13, 1901. 


Osborn, Susannah East — Born in Wayne county, Indiana, October 
lO, 1829; came to Calvin township in 1833; died September 21, 1902. 

O'Dell, James S. — Born in Porter township January 10, 1830; 
died December 18, 1903. 

O'Dell, James: — Born in Virginia July 20, 1799; came to Penn 
in 1832; died . 

Osborn, Jefferson — Born in Wayne county, Indiana, January 2, 
1824; came to Calvin in 1835; died April 4, 1901. 

Olmstead, Sylvester — Born in Connecticut in 1780; came to Ed- 
wardsburg in 1836; died February 3, 1861 ; his wife, Polly, born in 
1775; died August 3, 1837. 

Olmsted, Samuel C. — Born in Connecticut July 10, i8o'i ; came 
to Ontwa in 1836; died — . 

Putnam, Mrs. Anna Chapman — Born in Kent, Connecticut, Janu- 
ary 19, 1792; came to Pokagon in No'vember, 1825; died in Pokagon 
Prairie, October 15, 18801; mother of first white child born in Cass 

Putnam, Uzziel, Jr. — Born in Pokagon Prairie August 12, 1826: 
died at Pokagon February 10, 1879. 

Peck, Rachel — Born in Harrison county, Virginia, October 29, 
1798; came to Jefferson township in 1836, where she died April 15, 
1884; wife of Marcus Peck. 

Peck, William W. — Born in Shelby county, Ohio', September 22, 
1830; came to Cass county with his father, Marcus Peck, in 1836; 
died in Cassopolis April 5, 1879. 

Putnam, James M. — ^Born in Jefferson township in 1838; died in 
Kansas February 15, 1879. 

Palmer, Joseph — Born in Saratoga county. New York, March 5, 
1817; came to Whitmanville in 1832; died at Dowagiac November 9, 

Palmer, Jared — Born in Saratoga county. New York, in 1809'; came 
to Whitmanville in 1832; died at Paw Paw January 18, 1879. 

Philbrick, Mrs. Eleanor Goodrich — Born in Meadowbrook, Con- 
necticut, in 1817; came to Cassopolis in 1838; died at Grand Rapids No- 
vember 9, 1885. 

P'oe. Charles R. — Born in Crawford county, Ohio, April 27, 1819; 
came to Poe's Corners in 1835, where he died May 19, 1888. 

Parker, John — Born in Ohio in 181 1; came to Calvin township in 
1831; died in Nebraska March 8, 1897. 

Pemberton, Reason S. — Bom in Wayne county, Indiana, March 
23, 1822; came to Penn township in 1836; died in Marcellus April 27, 


Pollock, William — Born in Preble county, Ohio, August 6, 1820; 
came to Cass county in 1830; died at Cassopolis June 3, 1894; his wife, 
Harriet C. Shanahan, born in Delaware June 25, 1833, came to Edwards- 
burg in 1834; died at Cassopolis June 18, 1902. 

Putnam, Orlean — Born in Jefferson county, New York, May 7, 
1809; came to Cass county in 1827; died in LaGrange township Jan- 
uary 19, 1886. 

Pitcher, Silas A. — Born in Logan county, Ohio; came to Wayne 
township in 1839; died September 7, 1897. 

Pollock, James — Born in Preble county, Ohio, February 19, 1822; 
came to LaGrange township in 1836; died in Penn October 16, 1898. 

Putnam, Ziltha — Born in Ohio in 1823; came to Pokagon in 1S25, 
where she died January 22, 1900, as Mrs. Jones. 

Pemberton, Eliphalet — Bom in Virginia in 1822; came to Penn 
township in 1836; died in Emmet county, Michigan, May 17, 1906. 

Palmer, William K. — Born in Livingston county. New York, in 
1825; came to Wayne township in 1837; died at Dowagiac March 21, 

Price, Rev. Jacob — Born in South Wales March 28, 1799; came 
to LaGrange in 1833; died August 8, 1871; Ann Price, an English 
lady, his wife, came with him and died October 9, 1833; his second 
wife, Sarah Bennett, born in Vermont 1810; died at Cassopolis in 1886. 

Rudd, Barker F. — Born in Vermont in 1800; came to Cass county 
in 1834; died in Newberg township February 22, 1880. 

Rinehart, Mrs. x'\nnie — Born in Ohio in 1812; died near Union 
June 7, 1889; wife of Lewis Rinehart. 

Rinehart, Lewis — Born in Virginia December 5, 1807; came to 
Cass county February 28, 1829; died at Baldwin's Prairie December 6,, 

Richmond, Mrs. Nancy — Born in Ohio February i, 181 5; came to 
Porter township about 1835; died July 11, 1879. 

Rinehart, John — Born in Rockingham county, Virginia, June 5, 
1814; came to Young's Prairie in February, 1829; died in Porter town- 
ship February 20, 1881. 

Runkle, Margaret Wilson — Born in Columbia county, Pennsylvania, 
December 9, 1818; came to Beardsley's Prairie in 1838; died May 24, 

Reames, Moses — Bom in Northampton county. North Carolina, 
May 2J, 1797; came to Jefferson township in 1828, where he died De- 
cember 6, 1878. 

Rinehart, Abram. — Born in Rockingham county, Virginia, Janu- 
ary 5, 1817; came to P'orter township in 1829, where he died September 
2, 1895. 


Reneston, William — Born in Mifflin county, Pennsylvania, March 
13, 1796; came to LaG range township in 1830; died August 5, 1882. 

Rosbrough, John^— Born in Ohio in 1812; came to X^fferson town- 
ship in 1833, where he died August 23, 1882. 

Reames, Mary Colyar — Born in North Carolina, November 15, 1812; 
camq to Cass county in 183 1; died in Jefferson township April i, 1884. 

Root Mrs. Jane — Born in Erie county Pennsylvania, July 2, 181 1; 
came to Cass county in 183 1 ; died at Dowagiac March 5, 1887. 

Redfield, George — Born in Connecticut October 6, 1796; came to 
Ontwa township in 1835, where he died October 29, 1887. 

Reames, W. D. — Born in 1820; came to Cass county in 1828; 
died in Cassopolis January 12, 18912; his wife, Rhoda Pearson, born in 
Logan county, Ohio, in 1822, came to Jefferson in 183 1; died at Cass- 
opolis August 26, 1902. 

Rudd, Harry L. — Born in Rutland county, Vermont, in January, 
182 1 ; came to Penn township in 1835; died in Oregon August 7, 1892. 

Reames, Levi — Born in Logan county, Ohio, November 13, 1824; 
came to Jefferson township in 1828, where he died April 2, 1894. 

Rinehart, John W. — Born in Porter township January 21, 1834; 
died in Penn July 17, 1893. 

Rodgers, John — Born in Preble county, Ohio, August 13, 1815; 
came to Cass county in 1828; died in Pokagon May 8, 1895. 

Rudd, Orson — Born in Vermont September i, 1827; came to Cass 
county in 1837; died in North Dakota September 2, 1896. 

Rinehart, Jacob — Born in Rockingham, Virginia, in June, 1804; 
came to Porter in 1829, where he died May 2, 1897. 

Read, Sylvador T. — Born in Tompkins county, New York, Janu- 
ary 12, 1822; came to the county in 183 1; died in Cassopolis January 
15, 1898. 

Reames, Nancy A. — Born in Logan county, Ohio, in 1826; came 
to Jefferson township in 1834; died in LaGrange township July i, 1898, 
as Mrs. Neff. 

Robbins, David H. — Born in Geauga county, Ohio, in 1828; came 
to Ontwa township in 1836, where he died April 29, 1899; his wife, 
Marien Grant, born in Indiana in ; died June 10, 1861. 

Rogers, Hiram — Born in Morris county. New Jersey, January 16, 
1802; came to Milton township in 1831, where he died April 17, 1889. 
Lory, his wife, born in 18 10; died April 29, 1868. 

Reames, Huldah Colyar — Born in Logan county, Ohio, April 25, 
181 5; came to Cass county in 1830; died September 2^, 1900. 

Ross, Richard C. — Born in Stark county, Ohio, March 20, 1814; 
came to Mason township in 1832, where he died April 22, 1901. 


Reames, Melissa — Born in Logan county, Ohio, May 24, 1827; 
came to Jefferson township in 1828, where she died March 13, 1900, 
as Mrs. J. L. Stephenson. 

Read, I^fayette R. — Born in Tompkins county, New York, August 
5, 1804; came to Calvin township in 1833; died in Cassopolis June 24, 

Rinehart, Christina — Born in Rockingham county, Virginia, July 
4, 18 19; came to Young's Prairie in 1829; died in Porter township July 

18, 1900, as Mrs. W. H. Stevens. 

Ro»6, Mahitable Bogart — Born in Genesee county, New York, April 
I, 1815; came to Edwardsburg in August, 1829; died in Mason town- 
ship January i, 1901. 

Reece, Rebecca A. — Born in Chenango county. New York, Feb- 
ruary 22, 1828; came to Cass county in 1836; died in Newberg Decem- 
ber 17, 1900. 

Reames, Jeremiah B. — Bom in Logan county, Ohio, in 1825; came 
to Jefferson township in 1831, where he died December 17, 1901. 

Reese, J. Raymond — Born in Tioga county. New York, March 29, 
1833; came to Ontwa township in 1835; died at Edwardsburg February 
22, 1902. 

Rogers, William A. — Born in Preble county, Ohio, October 2j, 
i82y; came to Pokagon in 1828; died October 6, 1902. 

Roberson, Lewis B. — Born in Cass county February 13, 1837; 
died in LaGrange November 17, 1902; his wife, Adaline Tarbos, born at 
McKinney's Prairie November 22, 1837, died May 21, 1905. 

Root, Fber — Born in 1799; came to Cassopolis in 1832; died June 

19, 1862; his wife, Eliza Wills, born in Green county, Ohio, October 
19, 1816, came to Edwardsburg in 183 1 ; died April 25, 1904. 

Richardson, Evaline Meacham — Born in Porter township October 
16, 183c; died March 3, 1905. 

Rodgers, Alexander — Born in Rockbridge county, Virginia; came 
to Pokagon township in 1828, where he died in 18&6. 

Reynolds, John — Born in Ohio in 1816; came to Cassopolis in 
1838; died September 24, 1874; his wife, Lucinda Fletcher, born in 
1818; died in 1873. 

Robbins, Harry J. — Born in New York, August 17, 1815; came to 
Cass coimty in 1832; died May 26, 1888; his wife, Rebecca, born in 
1818; died March 7, 1866. 

Rodgers, Alexander — Born in Virginia in 1788; came to Pokagon 
in 1828; died in 1867. 

Reading, Augustine — Born in New York September 11, 1802; 
came to Ontwa in 183 1; died in VanBuren county May 9, 1882; his 
wife, Catherine, born July 26, 1813; died December 2, 1885. 


Rich, Samuel — Born in North CaroHna in 1802; came to VoHnia 
in 1829; died February 20, 1873. 

Rich, John H. — Born in Vohnia October 21, 1829; first white 
child born in Volinia township. 

Robinson, Nathan — Born in New York November 15, 1820; came 
to Jefferson in 1840; died September 3, 1879; his wife, Margaret 
Hanson, born in New York; died June 16, 1891. 

Robbins, Milton B. — Born in Ohio in 1806; came to Cass county 
in 1836; died in Ontwa March 26, 1881 ; his wife, Sarah VanTuyle, 
born in 1804; died May 5, 1870. 

Ritter, John — Born in Virginia Marcli 31, 1793; came to- La- 
Grange prairie in 1829; killed by lightning August 31, 1829; his wife, 
Sarah Lybrook, born December 30, 1796; died January 23, 1834; his 
daughter, Miss Hannah, born May 24, 1818; died June 25, 1882, at 

Smith, George — Born in Sussex county, Delaw'are, September 22, 
1810; came to Edwardsburg in October, 1828; died in Milton towm- 
ship January 25, 1880. 

Smith, Major Joseph — Born in Botetourt county, Virginia, April 
II, 1809; came to Calvin township in 1831; died in Cassopolis April 
18, 1880. 

Silver, Rev. Abiel — Born in Hopkinton, New Hampshire, April 
30, 1797; came to Edwardsburg in 183 1; died at Boston March 27, 
1 881. 

Sears, Mrs. Margaret — Born in Springfield, Pennsylvania, February 
8, 1816; came to LaGrange township in 1840; died in LaGrange town- 
ship March 30, 1881. 

Spencer, Joseph — Born in Madison county. New York, in August, 
1813; came to Wayne township in 1835, where he died February 27, 
1 881. 

Scott, Greenlee — Born in Logan county, Ohio, in 1806; came to 
Cass county in 1830; he and wife, Mary Grubb Scott, died in April, 
1 88 1, in Iowa. 

Shaffer, Peter — Born in Rockingham, Virginia, January 10, 1791 ; 
came to Young's Prairie in 1828; died in Calvin July 13, 1880. 

Story, Mrs. Sophia Boots — Born in England August 20, 181 1; 
came to Porter township in 1836, with husband, Ozail; died November 
21, 1880. 

Springsteen, John — Born in Rockland county. New York, February 
16, 1802; came to LaGrange township in 1837, where he died October 
31, 1880. 

Springsteen, Romelia — Bom in New York August 2y, 1814; came 
to LaGrange in 1837, where she died May 8, 1891. 


Sullivan, James — Born in Exeter, New Hampshire, December 6. 
1811; came to Cassopolis in 1839; died in Dowagiac August 19, 1878. 

Smith, Ezekiel S. — Born in Oneida county. New York, in September, 
181 1 ; came to Cassopolis in 1S39; died in Chicago February 22, 1879. 

Squiers, Samuel — Born in Greene county, New York, June 4, 1801 ; 
came to Volinia township ni 1836, where he died December 9, 1882. 

Squiers, Elza — Born in Pennsylvania January 14, 1802; came to 
Cassopolis in 1831; died in Volinia township March 6, 1883. 

Smith, Mrs. Hannah Hay den — Born in Ohio in January, 1826; 
came to Cass county in 1834; died in Calvin December 14, 1885; ^if^ 
of Joseph G. Hayden. 

Stephenson, Ira — Born in Logan county, Ohio, February 24, 1827; 
came to Cass county in June, 1834; died in Jefferson township December 
26, 1886. 

Shanahan, Peter — Born in Delaware, 1797; came to Milton town- 
ship in 1834; died at Niles March 7, 1887. 

Shellhammer, Aaron — Born in 1817; came to Cass county in 1839; 
died at Union June 8, 1889. 

Shaw, Mrs. Eliza J. Smith — Born in Jefferson township in 1834; 
died March 18, 1888. 

Sherman, Elias B. — Born in Oneida county. New York; came to 
Cassopolis in 1829, where he died November 14, 1890. 

Stretch, John — Born in Wayne county, Indiana, December 25, 1825 ; 
came to Cass county in 1833; ^'^^^ April 30, 1892. 

Stevens, Andrew — Born in Ohio October 28, 1822 ; came to La- 
Grange in 1833, where he died August 23, 1892. 

Smith, Ezekiel C. — Born in Erie county, New York, June 6, 181 1; 
came to Howard township in 1835, where he died July 30, 1894. 

Stephenson, Samuel — Born in Logan county, Ohio, in 1819; came 
to Cass county in 1834.; died in Jefferson township April 10, 1895. 

Sammons, Andrew J. — Born in New York, December 26, 1834; 
came to Pbkagon in 1837; died in Illinois August 21, 1894. 

Shaffer, General George T. — ^Born in Ohio October 9, 1821; came 
to Calvin township in 1832, where he died July 24, 1895. 

Smith, William — Born in England Novemher 10, 18 14; came to 
Silver Creek in 1840, where he died January 22, 1896. 

Smith, Cannon — Born in Sussex county, Delaware; came to Mil- 
ton township in 1828, where he died February i, 1896. His wife, Sarah 
Dunning, born in Erie county, Pennsylvania, September 13, 1824; came 
to Milton township in 1836; died in Ontw^a November 17, 1904. 

Sherwood, George — Born in Dutchess county, New York, in 18 19; 
came to Edwardsburg in the '30s; died in Chicago April 18, 1896. 


Stevens, David R.-r-Born in Oneida county, New York, August i6, 
1822; came to Mason township in 1835, where he died June 4, 1896. 

Strickland, Mrs. Jane — Born in Butler county, Ohio, March 17, 
1826; came to LaGrange in 1831 ; died May 3, 1896. 

Shanafelt, Nehemiah — Born in Pickaway county, Ohio, in 1823; 
came to Cass county in 18-^5 ; died in LaGrange township February 2, 


Smith, Jemmima Lippincott — Born in Clark county, Ohio, in 181 1; 
came to Cass county in 1832; died in Cassopolis May 30, 1897. 

Stephenson, Eri — Born in Logan county, Ohio, in 1832; came 
to Cass county in 1834; died in Penn tow^nship September 20, 1896. 

Sheldon, William R. — Born in Connecticut in 1813; came to Ontwa 
township in 1835; died at Edwardsburg January 11, 1897. 

vSherman, Sarah Silver — Born in Hopkinton, New Hampshire, April 
I, 1807; came to Cassopolis in 1832; died in February, 1897. 

Smith, Andrew J. — Born in Ross county, Ohio, September 2, 1818; 
came to Edwardsburg in 1840; died at Cassopolis May 2, 1897. 

Shanahan, Mary Low^ery — Born in Milford, Delaw^are, May 27, 
1809; came to Cass county in 1834; died at Cassopolis February 23, 

Silver, Benjamin F. — Born in Hopkinton, New Hampshire, in 1808; 
came to Cass county in 183 1 ; died in Pokagon December 9, 1897. 

Sutton, Levi and Lucy — Bom, resj^^ctively, in 18 18 and 1822, in 
Ohio; came to Porter townshi]) in 1840; died in July and June, 1898. 

Shaffer, Abraham — Born in Clark county, Ohio, in 1828; came to 
Calvin township in 1832* died in California November 30, 1897. 

Sturr, Joseph W. — Born in Burgen county, New Jersey, November 
28, 1816; came to Wayne township in 1839, where he died February 12, 

Smith, Wesley — Born in Sussex, Delaware, in 182 1 ; came to Ed- 
w^ardsburg in 1828; died in Milton township February 18, 1899; his 
wife, Almeda, l>orn in Erie county, Pennsylvania, in 1826; died in 
Milton township June 18, 1892. 

Shaw, James — Born in Berlin, New York, February 28, 1813; came 
to Howard township in 1840', w^here he died December 11, 1898. 

Stretch, William — Born in Ohio in 1827; came tO' Cass county in 
1 83 1 ; died in Pokagon February 6, 1903. 

Smith, Henry W. — Born in Stark county, Ohio, April 12, 1818; 
came to, Cass county in 1832 ; died in Indiana April 4, 1904. 

Stephenson, Celia — Born in Logan county, Ohio, March 20, 1817^ 
came to Jefferson township about 183 1,. where she died March 14, 1903, 
as Mrs. Williams. 


Silver, Orrin — Born in Hopkinton, New Hampshire, December 12, 
1812; came to Edwardsburg in 1835, where he died March 27, 1899; 
his wife, Abigail Fifield, born in New Hampshire in 1815; died at Ed- 
wardsburg December 12, 1898'. 

Shanafelt, William H. — Born in Pickaway county, Ohio, Decem- 
ber 24, 1824; came to Cassopolis in 1835; died May 22, 1900. 

Silver, Mary — Born in Hopkinton, Nev/ Hampshire, September 20, 
1816; came to Ontwa in 1837; died at Cassopolis February 14, 1902. 

Sherwood, Charles — Born in Dutchess county, New York; came 
to Edwardsburg in 183 1 ; died in Mishawaka, Indiana, January 10, 

Shurte, William — Born in Cassopolis April 29, 1836; died in La- 
Grange November 12, 1903. 

Stephenson, John H. — Born in Logan county, Ohio, in 1821; came 
to Jefferson township in 1832; died December 31, 1904. 

Springsteen, Levi — Born in Ontario county. New York, March 10, 
1815; came to I^Grange township in 1836; died June 9, 1905. 

Shaw, James S.- — Born in Pickaway county, Ohio, in 1827; came 
to Penn township in 183 1; died in Volinia township January 18, 1905, 

Shanafelt, Rachael — Born in Pickaway county, Ohio, October 13, 
1824; came to Cassopolis in 1835; died in LaGrange November 10, 
1904, as Mrs. Umberfield. 

Simpson, Moses W. — Born in Pembroke, New Hampshire, May 
16, 1808; came to Pokagon in 1836, where he died June 16, 1849. 

Squier, Daniel C. — Born in Allegheny county, Pennsylvania, March 
2^, 1800; came to Cassopolis in 1831; died in Volinia township Tulv 28, 


Savage, John — Born at Salem, Massachusetts, June i, 1788; came 
to Marcellus township in 1840, where he died November, 1878. 

Shanahan, Judge Clifford — Born in Sussex county, Delaware, Feb- 
ruary 4, 1805; came to Edwardsburg in 1834 and to Cassopolis in 
1841; died August i, 1865; his wife, Mary Lowery, born in Delaware 
on May 27, 1809; died at Cassopolis February 23, 1898. 

Scares, Richard — Born in Pennsylvania in 1771 ; came to Cassopo- 
lis in 1836; died September 26, 1838. 

Scares, Isaac — Born in Connecticut in 1795; came to LaGrange 
in 1836; died October 15, 1839; Mary, his wife, born in 1796; died 
April 24, 1870. 

Shanafelt, William — Born in Sandusky, Ohio, in 1794; came to 
Cassopolis in 1835; died March 28, 1864; his wife, Elizabeth Ernest, 
born in 1802; died December 24, 1862. 

Shellhammer, Daniel — Born in Germany in 1785; came to Porter 
in 1827; died in 1873. 


Shurte, Isaac — Born in New Jersey July ii, 1778; came to Cassop- 
olis in 1830; died in LaGrange March 2, 1886; his wife, Mary Wright, 
born in New Jersey June 11, 1801 ; died January '5, 1892. 

Suits, Jacob — Born in New York in 1798; came to Silver Creek 
in 1836; died . 

Shellhammer, John — Born in Pennsylvania September 11, 181 1; 
came to Porter in 1828; died . 

Silver, John — Born in New Hampshire in 1763; came to Edwards- 
burg in 1830; died in Indiana in 1843. 

Silver, Jacob — Born in New Hampshire in 1786; came to Ed- 
wardsburg in 1830 and tO' Cassopolis in 1832; died November 5, 1872; 
Abigail Piper, his wife, died in New Hampshire; second wife, Maria 
Goodrich, born in 1796; died at Cassopolis December 14, 1876. 

Silver, Jeremiah — Born in New Hampshire in 1790; came to Ed- 
wardsburg in 1836; died in Pbkagon April 19, 1876; he built the coun- 
ty's first poor house. 

Silver, Margaret — Born in New Hampshire in 1799; came to Ed- 
wardsburg in 1837; died in Indiana as Mrs. Seth Straw. 

Silver, Joan — Born in New Hampshire in 1802; came to Edwards- 
burg in 1837; died as Mrs. Timothy Straw. 

Silver, Josiah — Born in New Hampshire 1794; came to Edwards- 
burg in 1837; died in 1870. 

Shanahan, Edward — Born in Sussex county, Delaware, in 1806; 
came to Jefferson in 1832; died at Kilburn, Wisconsin, October 21, 
1891 ; his wife, Rebecca Kimmey, born July 30, 1810; died at Ed- 
wardsburg October 24, 1889. 

Scares, William — Born in Erie county, Pennsylvania, June 10, 
1817; came to Cassopolis in 1836; died March 18, 1894. 

Smith, Jacob — Born in Germany in 1778; came to Ontwa in 1830: 
died August 25, 1849; his wife, Elizabeth, born in 1790; died May 

24, 1864. 

Timjmons, John B. — Born in Butler county, Ohio, June 13, 1816; 
came to Cass countv in 1834; died in Howard township August 30, 

Thomas, J. Hubbard — Born in Salisbury, Vermont, September 8, 
1807; came to Mason township in May, 1839; died in Jefferson township 
May 3, 1884. 

Tharp, Mrs. Rebecca Hatfield — Born in Hardin county, Ohio, in 
1835; came to Cass countv in 1838; died at Jamestown December 11, 

Tinkler, Thomas M. — Born in Erie county, New York, May 6, 
181 1 ; came to Wayne township in April, 1839, where he died April 

25, 1887. 


Tharp, Lucinda Jane — Born in Kentucky in 1799; came to Calvin 
in 1839, where she died February 15, 1884. 

Tharp, Laban — Born in Logan county, Ohio, March 16, 18 16; 
came to Jefiferson township in 1828, w^here he died October 21, 1880. 

Townsend, Charlotte Hunter — ^Born in Champaign county, Ohio, 
July 12, 1821 ; came to Cass county in 1831 ; died in LaGrange Novem- 
ber 2, 1898. 

Thompson, Mrs. Harriet — Born in 181 4; came to Cass county in 
1837; died near Vandalia May 3, 1889. 

Townsend, Gamaliel — Born in York, Canada, January 20, 1802 ; 
came to LaGrange township in 1826, where he died August 23, 1889. 

Townsend, Charlotte Hunter — Born in Champaign county, Ohio, 
July 12, 182 T ; came to Cass county in 183 1; died in LaGrange Novem- 
ber 2, 1898. 

Tharp, Lydia O. — Born in Logan county, Ohio, January 10, 18 17; 
came to Cass county in 1827; died September 15, 1893. 

Tharp, Christena Maxson — Born in Logan county, Ohio, Septem- 
ber 17, 1827; came to Jefferson tow^nship in 1840, where she died Sep- 
tember II, 1890. 

Tietsort, Alamanza — Born in LaGrange township March 28, 1834; 
died in Jefiferson township December 8, 1890. 

Trattles, William — Born in England in 1814; came to Porter town- 
ship in 183,7, where he died February 21, 1891. 

Tomlinson, Dorcas L. — Bom in Delaware May 9., 1810; came to 
Cass county in 1835; ^^^^^ ^^ LaGrange township December 23, 1891. 

Tietsort, John — Born in Butler county, Ohio, November 22, 1826; 
came to Cassopolis in 1830, where he died April 29, 1893. 

Ellen S. Sherman, wife of John Tietsort, born in Cassopolis Octo- 
ber 21, 1833; died August 26, 1862. 

Tietsort, Peter — Born in Butler county, Ohio, January 28, 1808; 
came to Cass county in 1830; died in Illinois February 10, 1895; his 
wife, Nancy Wood, bom in Virginia in 1806, came to the county in 
1835; d^^^ ^^ Illinois August 31, 1898. 

Thompson, Henry — Born in Vermont in 1818; came to Cass county 
in 1838; died in Mason township March 26, 1895. 

Thorpe, Dr. A. L. — ^Born in Ohio November 9, 18126; came to 
Cass county in 1832; died in Mishawaka, Indiana, February 2y, 1895. 

Thomas, Eunice Townsend — Born in Brandon, Vermont, April 24, 
1812; came to Mason township in 1839, where she died July 29, 1896. 

Traverse, Aseneth E. Shivel — Born in Montgomery county, Ohio, 
October 10, 1827; came to Porter tow^nship in 1833 ; died at Cassopolis 
July 6, 1901. 


Tietsort, Elizabeth Waldron — ^Born in Butler county, Ohio, in 1813; 
came to LaGrange township in 1830; died April 17, 1897. 

Thompson, James — Born in Ohio in 1819; came to Penn township 
in 1829; died in Dowagiac June 9, 1898. 

Truitt, John M. — Born in Sussex! county, Delaware, in 1820; came 
to Milton township in 1831; died at Edwardsburg January 26, 1899. 

Tharp, William Z. — Born in Logan county, Ohio, February 7, 
1827; came to Jefferson township in 1830; died November 17, 1898. 

Tietsort, Sarah A. — Born in Darke county, Ohio, February 25, 
1832; came to Volinia in 1832; died June 2, 1901, as Mrs. Ferrell. 

Truitt, Henry P. — Born in Sussex county, Delaware, April 25, 
1824; came to Milton township in 1831 ; died April 23, 1902. 

Tharp, John L. — Born in Logan county, Ohio, February 28, 1828; 
came to Cass county in 1840; died at Brownsville April 25, 1902. 

Tietsort, Julia Fisher — ^Born in Richland county, Ohio, January 21, 
1831; came to LaGrange in 1835; ^^^^ July 29, 1902. 

Tietsort, Henry — Bom in Butler county, Ohio, January 26, 181 7; 
came to Cassopolis in 1829; died September 26, 1903. 

Turner, George B. — Born in Franklin county, New York, March 
I, 1822; came to Cassopolis in 1836; died April 15, 1903. 

Harriet Monroe, wife of George B. Turner; born in 1827; came 
to Cassopolis in 1835; died November 5, 1858; Charlotte Tytherleigh, 
second wife, born in England in 1819; died November 25, 1893. 

Tietsort, Ira — Born in Cassopolis September 16, 1835; died in 
Detroit November 12, 1903. 

Townsend, Eliza — Born in Canada July 6, 1814; came to Mc- 
Kinney's Prairie in 1827; died in lov/a March 22, 1906; wife of Michael 

Thomas, Harley — Born in Hartford, Connecticut, in 18 18; came to 
Cass county in 1838; died in Dowagiac in 1876. 

Truitt, Peter — Born in Sussex county, Delaware, February 7, 1801 ; 
came to Milton township in 183 1, where he died December 29, 1881. 

Turner, Sterling A. — Born in North Carolina in 1790; came to 
Cassopolis in 1835; died May 10, 1861 ; his wife, Mary, born in 1798; 
died September 12, 1847. 

Townsend, John — Born in Wayne county, Indiana, in 1804; came 
tQ , Young's prairie in 1829; there died. November 20, 1835. 

Tarbo®, William — -Born in Ohio in 1801.; came to LaGrange in 
18,33; died March 24, 1874; his wife, Mary Waldron, born in 1812; 
died April 10, 1864. . . : .. 

Tietsort, Abram H. — Bprn in New Jersey, February 6, 1777; 
came to Cassopolis in 1830; dii^d JJetiniavy. i, 1847; his wife, Marr 


garet Banta, born in Ohio January 6, 1785; died at Cassopolis Septem- 
ber 8, 1854. 

Tietsort, Abrani, Jr. — Born in Butler county, Ohio, July 16, 1805; 
came to Cassopolis in 1828; died May 31, 1842; his wife, Rachel 
Thompson, born July 17, 1807; died March 9, 1893. 

Tietsort, Levi — Born in Butler county, Ohio, January 12, 181 1; 
came to Cassopolis in 1830; died in LaGrange August 17, 1864; his 
wife, Elizabeth Waldron, born April 22, 181 3; died — . 

Tietsort, Cornelius B. — Born in Butler county, Ohio, January 24, 
1820; came to Cassopolis in 1829; died April 26, 1870; his wife, Eliza- 
beth Mclnterfer, born April 23, 1823; died April 21, 1890. 

Tietsort, Squire V. — Born in Butler county, Ohio, April 2, 1822; 
came to Cassopolis in 1829; died June 7, 1852; his wife, Catherine Cus- 
tard, born February 19, 1826; died — . 

Thompson, Squire — Born in Virginia in 1784; came tO' Pokagon 
in 1826; died in California in 1850. 

Truitt, Peter — Born in Sussex coimty, Delaware, February 7, 
t8oi ; came to Milton in 1831; died December 29, 1881. 

Townsend, Abram — ^Born in New York in 1771 ; came to- Town- 
send's prairie in 1826; died . 

Umberfield, Ebenezer — Born in Ohio in 1828; came tO' LaGrange 

in 1839; died ; his wife, Rachel Shanafelt, born in 1828; came 

to LaGrange in 1835; died November 10, 1904. 

Van Tuyl, Daniel — Born in New Jersey, March 13, 1796; came to 
Jefferson township in 1835; died January 20, 1880. 

Van Vlier, George — Born in Virginia in 1806; came to Pokagort 
in 1830, where he died August 28, 1886. 

Van Tuyl, John — Born in Jefferson township October i, 1838; died 
at Edwardsburg May 25, 1899. 

Vanderhoof, Dorcas Howard — Born in Canada November 11, 1826; 
came to Whitmanville in 1837; died in Iowa in July, 1902. 

Van Tuyl, Joseph M. — Born in Ohio October 19, 1833; came to 
Jefferson township in 1835, where he died June 20, 1905. 

Wilsey, Mrs. Nancy — Born in Galway, New York, December 13, 
1773; came to Cass coimty in 1835; ^^^^ i^ Howard township January 
7, 1881. 

Witherell, Oilman — Born in Concord, New Hampshire, in 1809; 
came to Pokagon in 1836, where he died November 24, 1878. 

Walters, David — Born in New York about 1818; came to Silver 
Creek township in 1839, where he died December 6, 1878. 

Williams, Mrs. Sarah — Born in 1806; came to Cass county in 
1830; died in Calvin township December 14, 1885. 


Williams, Mrs. Ann Parmer — Born in Kent county, Delaware, May 
4, 1801; came to Milton township in 1837; died in Howard township 
October 24, 1880. 

Warner, Hubbell — Born in New York in 1801 ; came to Volinia in 
1837, where he died January 22, 1888. 

Wood, Mrs. Sarah Hunter — Born in Otsegoi county, New York, 
July 4, 1818; came to Cass county in 1836; died August 31, 1887. 

Walton, Mrs. Jane B. — Born in Massachusetts February 19, 1809; 
came to Jefferson in 1838; died in Cassopolis August 26, 1890. 

Wright, James M. — Born in Butler county, Ohio, May 12, 182 1; 
came to Volinia in 183 1, where he died April 23, 1896. 

Warner, Eliza A. Fox — Born in Northumberland county, Pennsyl- 
vania, June 16, 1817; came to VoHnia township in 1830; died February 
7, 1896. 

White, Joel — Born in Pennsylvania in 1809; came to this county 
in 1830; died in Porter township March 21, 1897. 

Wright, Stephen D. — Born in Butler county, Ohio, April 4, 1816; 
came to LaGrange Prairie in 1828, where he died April 25, 1898. 

White, John^ — Bom in Ohio about 1822; came to Cass county in 
1830; died in Iowa February, 1898. 

Wilson, Daniel — Born in Franklin county, Ohio, in October, 1814; 
came to LaGrange township in 1829; died in Oregon January 15, 1898. 
Waterman, WilHam — Born in Norwalk, Ohio, May 20, 1812; came 
to site of Dowagiac in 1835, where he died March 12, 1902. 

Warner, Loomis H. — Born in Herkimer county, New York, Febru- 
ary 6, 1828; came to Volinia in 1835; died at Cassopolis April 14, 1904. 
White, Eli S. — Born in LaGrange April 29, 1836; died in Penn 
township December 7, 1903. 

Wells, Col. Samuel — Born in Little Prairie Ronde June 4, 1833; 
died in Indiana January 12, 1906. 

Warner, J. Harvey — Born in Herkimer county, New York, March 
23, 1832; came to Volinia in 1837; died March 24, 1906. 

Worthington, Rev. Henry — Born in Springfield, Massachusetts, 

March 12, iSi5> came to Cass county in ; died at Dowagiac 

August 9, 1875. 

Wilkinson, Harvey — Born in Chautauqua county. New York, in 
1795; came to Ontwa in T834; died January 23, 1870; his wife, Cath- 
erine M., born in 1804; died at Edwardsburg September 11, 1846. 

Wright, William R. — Born in New Jersey in 1779; came to La- 
Grange in 1828; died . 

Williams, Spencer — ^Born in Sussex county, Delaware, May 2, 
1807; came to Ontwa in 183 1; died in Milton May 2, 1877. 


Williams, Isaacs — Born in Virginia in 1800; came to Pokagon in 
1835; died November 22, .1874. 

Walton, Charles — Born in Delaware in 1800; came to Jefferson 
in 1836; died July 30, 1870; his wife, Sarah Primrose, born in 1800; 
died May 2, 1886. 

Walton, Henry — Born in New York in 1804; came to Jefferson 
in 1831; died at Cassopolis April 25, 1865; his wife, Jane B., born in 
Massachusetts in 1838; died at Cassopolis August 26, 1890. 

Young, William — Born in Rutland, Vermont, April 17, 1798; came 
to the county in 1831 ; murdered December 16, 1879. 

Youngblood, Peter — Born in Preble county, Ohio, in June, 1813; 
came to Pokagon in 1831; died in La Grange township December 20, 

Zimmerman, Jacob H. — Born in Georgia in February, 1800; came 
to Young's Prairie in 1832; died 

Zane, Isaac — Born in March, 1766; came to Jefferson township in 
1833; where he died February 19, 1839. 



Referring to the conditions in the large civil division of which 
Cass county was a part until the year 1829, the History of 1882 makes 
the following interesting statement: 'Tt does not appear that govern- 
ment had any other than a, merely nominal existence in St. Joseph town- 
ship, and it is probable, that no legal acts were performed in or by it." 
Although thus far we have mentioned the county townships of Cass 
as if they already existed at that early day, they did not; and as the 
quoted words indicate, there w^as no government machinery in operation 
during the period to which we have devoted the. chapter on "Early Set- 
tlement." During the years 1825 to 1829 many settlers had come, but 
they were a law unto themselves. And well was it that they possessed 
the Anglo-Saxon genius for law and order and ''the enjoyment of mine 
without injury to thine;" othen\dse there would have been anarchy. But 
though the early settlers in a sense were without law, they were not 
against law, and at the proper time steps were taken toward county 

We have already mentioned the county of. Wayne and other muta- 
tions of Michigan territorial boundaries during its early history. The 
various counties erected within the territory up to the time of our pres- 
ent discussion were: Monroe, in 1817; Mackinac, in 1818; Oakland, 
in 1820; Washtenaw, in 1826; Chippewa, in 1826; Lenawee, from Mon- 
roe, in 1826. To Lenawee county was attached all the territory (com- 
prising the greater part of southern Michigan) to which the Indian 
title had been extinguished by the Chicago treaty of 1821. In Septem- 
ber, 1828, this already vast domain was further increased by the addi- 
tion of all the lands to which the Indian title had been extinguished by 
the Carey Mission treaty of 1828. This entire area, comprising about 
ten thousand square miles, was constituted and organized as the town- 
ship of St. Joseph, being attached to Lenawee county. 

By an act approved October 29, 1829, twelve counties were carved 
from this immense township. Among other, sections of the act, one 
provided that: "So much of the country as lies west of the line be- 


tween ranges 12 and 13 west of the meridian and east of the hne be- 
tween ranges 16 and 17 west, and south of the Hne between townships 
4 and 5 south of the base Hne, and north of the boundary Hne between 
this Territory and the State of Indiana, be, and the same is hereby set 
off into a separate county and the name thereof shah be Cass." 

It was a fitting tribute to an American statesman and soldier that 
his name should be perepetuated in this beautiful county of southern 
Michigan. Lewis Cass was born in Exeter, New Hampshire, October 
9, 1782, and died at Detroit, Michigan, June 17, 1866. His career, 
while of national prominence, was peculiarly identified with Michigan. 
After a period of service in the second war with Great Britain, he was 
sent to the west as governor of the territory of Michigan, and held that 
office during the greater part of Michigan's territorial existence, from 
1813 to 183 1, being the incumbent of the office at the time Cass county 
w^as created. Thereafter he served as secretary of war, 1831-36; min- 
ister to France, 1836-42; United States senator, 1845-48; Democratic 
candidate for president, 1848; United States senator, 1849-57, and sec- 
retary of state, 1857-60. 

By the provisions of the section above quoted, Cass county was con- 
stituted entirely rectangular in outline, twenty-four miles from east to 
west, and from north to south twenty-one miles and a fraction. It is 
evident that the erection of the counties at this time was planned ac- 
cording to the lines of survey, without regard to geographical conven- 
iences; for no account was taken of the only irregular feature in the 
outside limits of the county, namely, the small corner cut off by the St. 
Joseph river. Until March 3, 183 1, the legal boundaries construed the 
small triangle of land (containing one whole section and fractions of 
four others) lying east of that river to belong to Cass county. But 
an act of that date changed the lines to conform with the natural bound- 
ary, giving the small portion thus detached to St. Joseph county. For 
seventy-five years Cass county has been bounded as at present, and, as 
we know, this is also practically the historical lifetime of the county. 

The next step was the establishment of civil government within 
the territory thus described, and this was provided by an act approved 
November 4, 1829, entitled ''An act to organize the counties of Cass 
and St. Joseph, and for establishing courts therein.'' The pertinent por- 
tions of this organic act are as follows: 

*'Be it enacted by the legislative council of the Territory of Mich- 
igan, That the counties of Cass and St. Joseph shall be organized from 


and after the taking effect of this act, and the inhabitants thereof en- 
titled to all the rights and privileges to which by law the inhabitants of 
the otlier counties of this territory are entitled. 

''Sec. 2. That there shall be a county court estal>lished in each of 
said counties; and the county court of the county of Cass shall be held 
on the last Tuesday of May and on the last Tuesday of November in 
each year. * * * 

''Sec. 4. That the counties of Van Buren and Berrien, and all 
the country lying north of the same to Lake Michigan, shall be attached 
to and compose a part of the county of Cass. 

''Sec. 8. That there shall be circuit courts, to be held, in the coun- 
ties of Cass and St. Joseph, and that the several acts concerning the 
supreme, circuit and county courts of the Territory of Michigan, de- 
fining their jurisdiction and powers, and directing the pleadings and 
practice therein in certain cases, be, and the same are hereby made ap- 
plicable to the circuit courts in said counties. 

"Sec. 9. That the said circuit courts shall be held at the respect- 
ive county seats in said counties, at the respective court houses or other 
usual places of holding courts therein; provided, that the first term of 
said court in the county of Cass shall be holden at the school house near 
the house of Ezra Beardsley, in said county/ * * * 

"Sec. 10. That the county of Cass shall be one circuit, and the 
court for the same shall be held hereafter on the second Tuesday of 
August in each year." 

It will be noticed that this act provided for a "county court," a 
judicial institution of which few citizens of the county at this date have 
any direct knowledge. The county court w^^s established in Michigan 
by a territorial act of 18-15, and the first session of the Cass county 
court was held also at the house of Ezra Beardsley, in November, 183 1. 
In April, 1833, the county court was abolished in the organized counties 
of the territory. The institution was revived in 1846, and continued 
until its final abolition in the constitution of the state adopted in 1850. 
The last term of county court held in Cass county commenced August 
5, 1 85 1, with Judge Cyrus Bacon on the bench. 


Following the act of organization of civil government came an 
act dividing the new county for political purposes. The original town- 
ships as defined by this act were four in number. Technically they 
were: Townships 5 and 6 and north half of township 7, in range 16 
west, to be a township by name of Pokagon. Townships 5 and 6 and 
north half of township 7 south, in range 15 west, to be a township by 

^The first term of circuit court in Cass county was opened at the house of Ezra 
Beardsley (instead of the school house), at Edwardsburg, and its business was com- 
pleted in two days. 


name of La Grange. Townships 5 and 6 and north half of township 7 
south, in ranges 13 and 14 west, to be a township by name of P'enn. 
All that part of Cass county known as south half of township 7 and frac- 
tional township 8 south, in ranges 13, 14, 15 and 16 west, to be a town- 
ship by the name of Ontwa. 

This division was no doubt influenced, in part, by the density of 
population in the various parts of the county. We have already stated 
that the county was settled by a wave of immigration directed from the 
west and south rather than from the east. There is proof of this in 
this formation of townships. On the west was the rectangular township, 
Pokagon, six miles wide by fifteen long, and including the present Sil- 
ver Creek, Pokagon and the north half of Howard. This was the old- 
est settled portion of the county, and at the date of organization Poka- 
gon prairie contained a large per cent of the entire population of the 

To the east of Pokagon was the township of La Grange, exactly 
parallel in extent and of the same width, comprising what are now 
Wayne, La Grange and the north half of Jefferson. This was also a 
comparatively well settled portion of the county. Each of these town- 
ships contained an area of ninety square miles. 

Alongside of La Grange on the east, and comprising a double width 
of townships, was Penn, embracing in its one hundred and eighty square 
miles of area the present townships of Penn, Volinia, Marcellus and 
Newberg, besides the north half of Calvin and north Porter. 

This left a strip across the entire southern side of the county, and 
in width a little more than six miles, to comprise the township of Ont- 
wa. Such were the four original political divisions of Cass county. It 
will be interesting to trace the process by which fifteen townships were 
carved from these four, that process illustrating very graphically the 
growth of the county from a sparsely settled region to a poulousness 
that made smaller political divisions both practicable and necessary. 

Before this, however, let us call attention to the fact that Cass 
county comprised at one time, as respects political and judicial func- 
tions, the two adjoining counties of Van Buren and Berrien, as pro- 
vided for in the organic act quoted above. So that at the period now 
under consideration, Berrien county was a part of Cass and was organ- 
ized as one township under the name of Niles. Van Buren county and 
the territory north to Lake Michigan remained a part of Cass county 
until 1835, and was originally a part of Penn township. 


Naturally, the rapid filling up of the countyi with settlers in a short 
time called for a subdivision by the legislature of the original town- 
ships. The first act for this purpose was dated March 29, 1833, and 
provided for three new townships, Porter, Jefiferson and Volinia. 

''All that part of the township of Ontwa, in Cass county, situated 
in ranges 13 and 14, west of the principal meridian, shall comprise a 
township by the name of Porter; and the first township meeting shall 
be held at the house of Othni Beardsley." 

This is not the Porter township as we know it today. It was, as 
technically defined, the east half of the original Ontwa. It contained 
all of the present Mason, a part of Calvin and all the present area of 
Porter except the three ndrth tiers of sections. For the act which gave 
it its present area, see forward, in connection with the township of New- 

In creating the township of Jefiferson, the same act further deprived 
Ontwa of considerable territory. 'That all that part of the county of 
Cass known and distinguished as township 7 south of the base line, and 
in range 15 west of the principal meridian, compose a township by the 
name of Jefiferson; and that the first township meeting be held at the 
house of Moses Reames in said township." Thus was constituted Jefif- 
erson township as we know it today. The north half was subtracted 
from original La Grange, and the south half from Ontwa. 

The third township created by the act of March, 1833, was Vo- 
linia. This name was given by Josephus Gard, the pioneer, after a 
Polish province named Volhynia, which was the original spelling. The 
act reads : "That all that part of the county of Cass known and dis- 
tinguished as township 5 south, in ranges 13 and 14, west of the prin- 
cipal meridian, compose a township by the name of Volinia: and that 
the first township meeting be held at the house of Josephus Gard in 
said township." Volinia, as thus formed, also contained the present 

No further changes occurred until March 7, 1834, when original 
Pokagon suflfered its first diminishment of territory. "All that part 
of the county of Cass comprised in surveyed township 7 south, in range 
16 west, shall be a township by the name of Howard; and the first town- 
ship meeting shall be held at the house of John Fosdick in said town- 
ship." This also took more territory from Ontwa, which was reduced 
to the two fractional townships in the southwest comer of the county. 

Before the passing of the territorial form of government, three 


other townships were created. The act of March 17, 1835, pi'ovides 
that ''all that part of the* coimty of Cass comprised in surveyed township 
7 south, range 14 west, be a township by the name of Calvin; and the 
first township meeting shall be held at the dwelling house of John Reed 
in said -township." Thus we see that all the new townships were being 
erected with the lines of the townships and ranges of the government 
survey, and at present these lines govern entirely with the one exception 
of Porter. 

By the provisions of an act also dated March 17, 1835, Wayne 
township came into existence. This, as we know, was a part of the 
original La Grange. But the settlers had come in fast in the last few 
years, the north half of the township had filled up with people who were 
soon demanding a separate organization. This demand was granted, 
and the name of the famous Revolutionary leader and Indian fighter 
was applied to the new township at the suggestion, it is said, of Corne- 
lius Higgins. The technical definition of the boundaries of the town- 
ship is ''that part of Cass county comprised in township 5 south, range 
15 west." The first township meeting was held at the house of Elijah 
W. Wright, April 6, 1835. 

An act approved March 23, 1836, constituted the first of the three 
fractional townships of Cass county. ''All that jxDrtion of Cass county 
designated by the United States survey as township 8 south, of range 
14 west, be, and the same is hereby set ofif and organized into a separate 
township by the name of Mason ; and the first township meeting therein 
shall be held at the dwelling house of Jotham Curtis in said township." 
Before the passage of this act, this fractional government township Avas 
a part of Porter township. 

With the admission of Michigan tO' statehood, the following town- 
ships of Cass county were constituted with boundaries as at present : 
Wayne, La Grange, Howard, Jefferson, Mason and Calvin. The re- 
maining townships, which have since been divided, were Pokagon, Vo- 
linia,, Penn, Porter and Ontwa. 

The state legislature, by an act approved March 20, 1837, provided 
"That all that part of the county of Cass, designated by the United 
States survey as township 5 soiith, range 16 west, be set off and organ- 
ized into a separate township by the name of Silver Creek ; and the first 
town meeting therein shall be held at the house of James McDaniel in 
said township." Thus Pbkagon was reduced to its present size, and 
the extreme northwest township acquired civil government. 


On March 6, 1838, the township of Newberg was erected, accord- 
ing to the provisions of the following: ''All that part of the county of 
Cass designated in the United States survey as township 6 south, of 
range 13 west, be, and the same is hereby set off and organized into 
a separate township by the name of Newberg; and the first township 
meeting therein shall be held at the house of John Bair in said town- 
ship." New'berg w^as carved from Penn township, which on this date 
was limited to its present boundaries. 

Also, at the session of 1838 an act w^as approved whereby all that part 
of the ''township of Penn in the county of Cass comprised in township 
7 south, range 13 west, shall be attached to and become part of the 
tow'Uship of Porter." 

Nine days after the establishment of Newberg the legislative act 
constituting Milton township was approved. "All that portion of Cass 
county designated in the United State survey as township 8 south, of 
range 16 w^est, be, and the same is hereby set off and organized into a 
separate township by the name of Milton; and the first township meet- 
ing therein shall be held at the house of Peter Truitt, Jr." This division 
brought Ontwa towaiship down to its present area. 

It was five years before the final political division was established 
in Cass county. The fifteenth township was Marcellus, which, the last 
to be organized, was also the last to be settled. The government town- 
ship known as township 5 south, of range 13 west, had hitherto been 
a part of Volinia tovmship, but in 1843 the people living within the 
area, feeling competent to manage their own affairs, petitioned the 
state legislature for a separate jurisdiction. The act organizing the 
township thus defined "by the name of Marcellus" was approved March 
9, 1843. The first township meeting, it w^as directed, should be held 
at the house of Daniel G. Rouse, who had; framed and circulated the pe- 
tition for organization. 

Such is a brief account of the evolution of Cass county from an 
unorganized region into its present shape and its present order and ar- 
rangement of townships. So far as is known, the divisions into the 
various townships were never animated by any serious disputes and 
discussions such as have sometimes occurred in the adjusting of such 
matters. As stated, the townships conform to the government surveys, 
and in making the political subdivisions according to this plan no con- 
siderable inconvenience or confusion has resulted. The city of Dowa- 
giac, it happens, is located on the corners of four township jurisdictions, 


but division of political interests that are naturally concentrated is ob- 
viated by the incorporation of Dowagiac with a city government, with 
its own political representation on the same plane wath the townships. 


One very important part of the organization of the county was the 
locating of the county seat. This is always a matter of supreme inter- 
est to the early inhabitants of a county, and a history of the "county 
seat wars" which have been waged in many states of the Union would 
fill volumes. These contests have been characterized by an infinite va- 
riety of details, ranging from pitched battle and effusion of blood to 
the harmless encounters of wordy protagonists. 

Cass county had her contest over three-quarters of a century ago, 
in the time of beginnings, so that no living witness can tell aught of 
its details. But as the records have been handed down, the location of 
the seat of government was attended with some features of more than 
common interest. 

By the provisions of an act of the territorial council July 31, 183O', 
the governor was authorized to appoint commissioners to locate the 
scats of justice in the several counties where they had not already been 
located; having located the seat of justice of any county, the commis- 
sioners should report their proceedings to the governor, who, if he ap- 
proved of the same, should issue a proclamation causing the establish- 
ment of a seat of justice agreeable to the report. 

Such were the directions. We will now see how they were carried 
out. Martin C. Whitman, Hart L. Stewart and Colonel Sibley were 
the commissioners appointed to locate the seat of justice in Cass county. 
These men, if the charges later preferred against them be true, evi- 
dently understood the importance of their decision as affecting the value 
of the site Ihey should select. In fact, it appears that the practice, now 
so much condemned, of private individuals opening their hands for the 
profits of a public trust, is not of modern origin. 

The enterprising commissioners, having kx^ked over the county and 
examined the eligibility of the various sites, chose to recommend the 
plat of the village of Geneva, laid out on the north bank of Diamond 
lake by Dr. H. H. Fowler, as the proper location. 

Before announcing their decision, however, two of the commis- 
sioners, with remarkal>le foresight, hastened to the land ofifice at White 
Pigeon and entered in their own names sundry tracts of land adjoining 


Geneva. Their deliberations completed and made the subject of re- 
port, the governor announced the location of the seat of justice at Gene- 
va in accordance with the instructions of the commissioners. 

Immediately there arose a storm of indignant protest over the de- 
cision. The intentions of the commissioners to turn their official acts 
into a source of private gain were set forth at length, among the many 
other causes of dissatisfaction v^ith the chosen site, in petitions that were 
sent to the legislature with the signatures of a large number of the voters 
of the county. 

The response to the petitioners came in an act of the legislative 
council, passed March 4, 1831, to amend the previous act under which 
the seat of justice was located at Geneva. By this act the decisions of 
the former commissioners were set aside. The governor was to ap- 
point, with the consent of the council, three commissioners to re-exam- 
ine the proceedings by which the seat of justice had first been estab- 
lished, and were empowered either to confirm the same or to make new 
locations, as the public interest might, in their opinion, rec[uire. They 
were authorized to accept any donations of land, money, labor or ma- 
terial that might be tendered them for the use of the county, thus per- 
mitting the usual opportunities for legitimate persuasion in such mat- 
ters. But the precaution was taken to insert a proviso that in case it 
was made to appear to the satisfaction of tlie governor that the com- 
missioners were guilty of any improper conduct, tending to impair the 
fairness of their decision, it should be his duty to suspend any further 

Thomas Rowland, Henry Disbrow and George A. O'Keefe were 
the commissioners appointed under this act to relocate the county seat, 
and in pursuance of instructions they were to meet in the county on the 
third Monday in May, 1831. As told in the history of Cassopolis on 
other pages, the advocates of the new site beside Stone lake entered 
into the contest with all the zeal and enthusiasm of those embarked on 
an enterprise in which they would never accept defeat. Besides the do- 
nation of one-half of all the lands on the village plat to the county, the 
subtler arts of diplomacy were also invoked in procuring a favorable 
decision. The proprietors of the village of Cassopolis, with frank con- 
fidence in the ultimate selection of that village as the county seat, an- 
nounced with effective ostentation the naming of three principal streets 
after the commissioners then engaged in the work of location. Whether 
the prospect of their name and fame being perpetuated in the thorough- 


fares of the seat of justice was especially inviting, and whether it was 
that the justice of Cassopolis' contention and the advantages offered by 
its citizens were the prevailing factor in their decision, it is not of any 
moment to this discussion to inquire. It is enough that the commis- 
sioners, waving aside the claims of Geneva, as well as those of several 
other proposed sites, fixed upon Cassopolis as the seat for the govern- 
ment machinery of the county, and there it has ever since remained.* 

Strictly speaking, the settlers of Cass county were not pioneers. The 
majority of them were people of more or less education and culture, 
trained and accustomed to the usages of civilization. In the settling of 
the country there was no interim between savagery and civilization. 
The pioneers did not come and build their cabins, and defend them with 
their rifles for some years until the civil officers, courts, schools and 
churches made their appearance. This was necessary in some settle- 
ments, but not here. In Cass county civil government sprang into be- 
ing almost at once. The settlers brought civilization with them. They 
brought the common law with them, and, in harmony with the legisla- 
tive statutes, they saw to it at once that the community should be gov- 
erned thereby. They provided for courts, for public buildings, for roads, 
and for every possible institution necessary to a civilized community. 
And the result was that Cass county soon became a populous link in 
the great chain of similar political communities stretching from the At- 
lantic beyond the Mississippi, maintaining without a break the institu- 
tions of civilization at the standards of older communities. 

*NoTE. — The following is the proclamation of Acting Governor Mason, issued De- 
cember 19, 1831 : 

Whereas, In pursuance of an act of the legislative council entitled "An act to 
amend an act entitled 'An act to provide for establishing seats of justice,'" Thomas 
Rowland, Henry Disbrow and George A. O'Keefe were appointed commissioners 
to re-examine the proceedings which had taken place in relation to the establishment 
of seats of justice of the counties of Branch, St. Joseph and Cass, and to confirm 
the same, and to make new locations, as the public's interest might, in their opinion, 
require ; 

And whereas. The said commissioners have proceeded to perform the said duty, 
and by a report signed by them, have located the seat of justice of the said county 
of Cass at a point on the southeast quarter of section 26, town 6, range 15 west, forty 
rods from the southeast corner of said section, on the line running west between 
sections 26 and 35 ; 

Now, therefore, By virtue of the authority in me vested by said act, and in 
conformity with said report, I do issue this proclamation, establishing the seat of 
justice of the said county of Cass at the said point described as aforesaid. 



In the preceding chapters we have endeavored to give an account 
of Cass county beginning with its state of nature, mentioning its orig- 
inal inhabitants, and continuing through the years of first settlement 
up to the completion of the organization of the county as a distinct po- 
litical division of the state. The establishment of civil government in 
a community is as necessary to its growth and welfare as the founda- 
tion of a building is needed to support the structure that will be reared 
upon it. Hence, having described the institution of organized govern- 
ment in Cass county, we may now continue the account of settlement 
and development until the various parts of the county assumed some- 
thing of the condition in which we find them at the present day. 

This country about us is not what it was in a state of nature; great 
improvement has been made. It is still beautiful, but its beauty is of a 
different kind. Then its voices sang of solitude, now they sing of use- 
fulness. Then it had a wild beauty, and its atmosphere was laden with 
the poetry of an imagined past, when it teemed with the civilization of 
the mound-builders, or when the red man roamed through its forests 
and over its prairies. But its beauty has been chastened by human 
touch, and now it tells us of happy homes, and of the triumphs of human 
life; saddened, of course, by the thought of the hardships and sorrows 
and final partings which its inhabitants have experienced. 

To enumerate all the factors which produced this transformation 
would be impossible in any work. For every individual whose life has 
been cast within the county has contributed either a forwarding or ad- 
verse influence to the development of the county. Manifestly, we can 
at best merely describe some of the general conditions and select from 
the great host of names of those whose lives have been identified with 
this county some few for special mention. 

In this age when the sources for obtaining information and the 
means of communication are almost illimitable, it is difficult to realize 
the primitive conditions in that respect as they affected the early set- 
tlers of such a region as Cass county. In this day of the telegraph and 


the daily newspaper a false report may reach us concerning some dis- 
tant situation, but the equally effective and rapid means of authentica- 
tion will enable us tO' quickly disprove the first news, and no serious 
harm is done. Not so seventy-five years ago. The report O'f unfavor- 
able conditions in the new Michigan country, of a serious failure of 
crops, of an Indian scare, would be a long time in reaching the east, 
its serious aspects would increase with the circulation, and once told its 
vicious and retarding influence would continue a long time before 
information of perhaps an opposite character would reach the intending 

It is not surprising, therefore, that the settlement of Cass county 
did not proceed uniformly or unbrokenly. The first of the adverse in- 
fluences which checked the current of immigration was. the Sac or Black 
Hawk war of 1832. The Sac Indians had never been friendly with the 
United States. In the war of 18 12 they joined sides with the British. 
As a recompense they were receiving an annuity in Canada, whither 
they went every year, and returned laden with arms and ammunition. 
They crossed the l^order at Detroit, and probably passed through Cass 
county by w^ay of the Indian trail along the southern border. Black 
Hawk, the powerful chief of the Sacs and Foxes, had conceived the idea 
that the several Indian tribes by combining might be powerful enough to 
resist the whites; though after l3eing captured and taken east tO' see the 
white man's populous towns and cities, he returned and told his braves 
that resistance was useless. 

Years before this the Sacs by treaty had ceded their lands east of 
the Mississippi to the United States, but had still remained upon them. 
When required to conform to their treaty they resisted. Early in 1832, 
in ugly mood, a large number of their braves went to Canada. This was 
their last annual expedition. When, returning, they reached Illinois, 
the fiends began their work of slaughter by murdering an old man, 
which was the first bloodshed in the memorable Sac and Fox war. 

When the news came that the Indians had commenced hostilities 
in Illinois, the settlers of southern Michigan feared that they would re- 
treat into Canada instead of going to their own lands beyond the Mis- 
sissippi. There was no telegraph to convey the news, and it came in the 
form' of vague rumors, and imagination pictured a hundred horrors for 
every one related. Besides the fear of an invasion by Black Hawk's 
warriors, there was anxiety lest the Pottawottomies still in the country 
would rise and join in the revolt. 


Although, as was afterwards found out, there was not a hostile Ind- 
ian within a hundred miles of southern Michigan, for some time the 
danger was felt to be very close and real, and the ''Black Hawk war" 
was an epoch in the pioneer memory. At the first information of hos- 
tilities the authorities at Chicago sent an appeal for militia to Michigan. 
General Joseph W. Brown commanded his brigade to take the field, ap- 
pointing Niles as the rendezvous. Cass county furnished as many men 
as her small population would allow. The news was brought to Cassop- 
olis by Colonel A. Houston and communicated to Abram Tietsort, Jr., 
whose duty it was, as sergeant of the local company, to notify the mem- 
bers of the order issued by their commander. Isaac Shurte was cap- 
tain, and Gamaliel Townsend one of the lieutenants. There was great 
agitation in the scattered prairie settlements of the county as the order 
to turn out was carried from house to house, and still greater when the 
men started away from their homes for what their wives and children 
supposed to be mortal combat with the ferocious Sacs and Foxes. 

An Indian scare has not been known in Cass county within the 
memory of but few if any now living. But to* some extent we may im- 
agine the trepidation and alarm of those composing the settlements at 
that time. No doubt some of the more timid packed their movaljles into 
a wagon and made post haste to leave the danger-ridden country. Dur- 
ing the short time the scare lasted hundreds of families from this part of 
the west stampeded as far east as Cincinnati, many of them never to re- 
turn to their forest homes. But the majority were of sterner stuff. They 
had endured the rigors of cold and fatigue, of hunger and l:iodily pri- 
vations, in establishing their homes on the frontier ; they would not easily 
be frightened away. Those settlers living in the central part of the 
county advised with one another as to the practicability of taking ref- 
uge on the island in Diamond lake and fortifying it against attack. 
This no doubt would have l:ieen done, had the alarm not subsided. It 
is said that the women of the Volinia settlement had begun the erec- 
tion of a fort when the message reached them that the war was over. 

Short as the Black Hawk war was, immigration to this portion of 
the west was almost completely checked. Not a few returned to the 
east, while those who were preparing to emigrate hither either aban- 
doned their plans altogether or delayed their execution for a year or so. 

While we are considering some of the retarding influences in the 
settlement of Cass county, it will be proper to mention the frost of 
June, 1835. That event lived long in the memory of old settlers. Cli- 


mate, as we know, has much to do in lending a country the charms 
which attract immigration. The beauties of the landscape, the fertility 
of the soil, the gentle warmth of summer, and the not too severe winter, 
were favorite themes of praise with those who described their Michigan 
home to eastern friends. 

But in climate as in human affairs, an abnormal event gains widest 
current in general knowledge. This unusual phenomenon of a heavy 
frost at the middle of June, causing an almost total ruin of the grow^- 
ing crops, altliough such a thing had never happened before, and so far 
as known has not been paralleled in subsequent history, at once counter- 
balanced all the good that had ever been said of Michigan's climate. 
Tlie seasons were never dependable, according to the report that passed 
tlirough tlie eastern states ; the latitude was unfavorable for the produc- 
tion of the crops suited to the temperate zone; the climate w^as com- 
parable to that of Labrador, and so on. This occurrence had an adverse 
effect on immigration perhaps only second to the Black Hawk war. 

It must not be supposed that nature yielded her empire at once and 
W'ithout a struggle. Indian scares and June frosts were the uncommon- 
est of events. But the daily, usual life was a constant exertion against 
the forces of wildness. requiring fortitude and strength of a kind that 
the modern life knows little. Improvement was in many respects very 
gradual. It was a toilsome and slow process to transplant civilization 
to the wilderness of Cass county. The contrasts between the present 
and the past of seventy-five years ago are striking and even wonderful ; 
none the less, w^e dare not suppose for that reason that the transforma- 
tion was of fairy-like swiftness and ease of accomplishment. 

The first thing, of course, after the newly arrived settler had made 
his family as comfortable as possible temporarily, was to build the tra- 
ditional log cabin. To the younger generation in Cass county, the 
^'creature com.forts" of that time seem primitive and meager indeed. 
In obtaming material for his house, the builder must select trees which 
were not toO' large, or they could not be handled conveniently; not too 
small, or the cabin would be a house of saplings. The process of fell- 
ing the trees, splitting the logs, hewing them so as to have flat walls in- 
side, notching them at the ends so as to let them down on each other, 
slanting the gables, riving out lapboards or shingles, putting on roof 
poles, binding the shingles to them, sawing out doors and windows, 
making the fireplace, and many other things necessary in building a log 
cabin — this process is yet familiar to many old settlers. 


After the settlers had housed their famihes the}^ made a sheUer for 
their stock, which was often done by setting poles in the groin:d, with 
crotches at the upper end; poles were laid from crotch to crotch, other 
poles laid across, and the roof covered with marsh hay until it was thick 
enough to shed water. Poles weiT slanted against the sides, and hay 
piled on them in the same manner. The door could be left open or 
closed by any means convenient. This made an exceedingly warm slael- 
ter, though it was so dark that the animal's eyes sometimes suffered 
from it. Swine and other stock could be left to shelter themselves, and 
they usually found some sheltered nook in the groves and forests, or 
among the thick grass, where they made themselves comfortable, though 
some of them ran w^ild. 

Of course, in a country Hke Cass, where it was possible, though 
difficult, to obtain from the centers of civilization the necessary articles, 
these primitive methods were greatly modified and improved upon from 
the very first. Shingle nails were often used instead of weight poles, 
window panes soon took the place of oiled paper or cloth, and so on. 
The first settlers brought with them the few tools necessary for their 
pioneer life, such as axes, adzes, iron wedges, hammers, saws, augers, 
gimlets, frows for shaving shingles, planes, chisels, etc., and the women 
brought needles, scissors, thimbles, pins, thread, yarn, spinning wheels, 
and some brought looms. And in the early settlement of the county, 
as we have seen, there came a few trained mechanics, a carpenter, sad- 
dler, and so on. 

After the primitive log cabin came the frame building. It was the 
sawmill which marked the first move away from pioneer life. For as 
soon as a sawmill was accessible to any community, frame buildings 
were practicable. The county was well wooded, and all that was neces- 
sary was to cut the logs, haul them to mill, pay the toll, in whatever 
form, and haul the lumber home again. And this was an economy of 
time very precious in those days of subduing the virgin soil and making 
a settled home. It was no easy matter to hew timber, and split out 
boards with wedges, and then smooth them by hand. Hence it was that 
sawmills were, along with grist mills, the first institutions' for manu- 
facturing in this section of country. And at once frame buildings — 
mills, and shops of dififerent kinds, stores, hotels, churches, schoolhouses 
and dwelling houses began to multiply, and the country put on the ap- 
pearance of advancing civilization. Some of those buildings are stand- 
ing to-day, though most of them have long since vanished, or given 


place to others. In various parts of the county may be found an occa- 
sional frame dwelling which was built in the thirties or forties, and 
many of those built at tliat time have since been remodeled and mod- 
ernized so that few traces of their original form remain. The front 
ixirtion of the Newell house, just west of the public square at Cas- 
sopolis, was constructed in 1832 or '33, so that it has survived the stress 
of W'Cather and time longer than anv native resident of the town. 

Slowly, as the years went by, improvements were made. Gradually 
new', more beautiful and commodious buildings were put up for both 
families and dumb anin]als, and more and more conveniences wxre intro- 
duced into the former ones, until to-day, as one rides through any part 
of the county, he sees not only highly improved and well stocked farms, 
but large, commodious and in many cases even artistic buildings, which 
bespeak the thrift of the ow^ners, and the vast progress which has been 
made since the first log buildings were made in Pokagon and Ontwa 
tow'Uships in 1826 and '27. 

In the meantime, the first small groups of settlers which we have 
seen planted in certain favored parts of the county have been rapidly 
growdng and advancing out into the yet virgin regions until in a few 
years there w^as hardly a section in any township that was availal)le for 

Of all the transactions witli which the early settlers w^ere concerned 
none were more important than the government land sales. The first 
public lands in Michigan disposed of under government regulations were 
sold at Detroit in 181.8. In 1823 the Detroit land office was divided, and 
a land office established at Monroe, at wdiich all entries of lands west 
of the principal meridian were made up to 183 t. It was at the land 
sale at Monroe in 1S29 that the first settlers of the county made formal 
entry of their lands. The United States law required that every piece 
of land should be put up at auction, after which, if not bid oflf, it w^as 
subject to private entry, at one dollar and a quarter per acre. It w^as 
an unwritten law among the settlers that each pre-emptor should have 
the privilege of making the only bid on his land. This right was uni- 
versally respected among the settlers, no one bidding on another's claim. 
It occasionally happened, however, that an eastern man, unaccustomed 
to the ways of the west, essayed to bid on the home of a settler, but w^as 
soon convinced, in frontier fashion, that such action was a distinct con- 
travention of w^estern custom. Such was the case with one young man 
at the sales at White Pigeon, where the land office for this district was 


located from 1831 to 1834. This individual insisted on the right to bid 
on any land offered for sale, but made only one bid when he was sud- 
denly felled to the floor, which instantly inspired him with respect for 
settlers' claims and usages of western society. The land speculator was 
persona non grata with the settlers, and in some parts of the country 
associations known as ''squatters' unions" were formed to protect the 
settler in his claims and when necessary to use force in compelling the 
speculator to desist from his sharp practices. It was owing to the fact 
that the public auction of land enabled the speculator to bid in as virgin 
soil and at the usual price of a dollar and a quarter an acre lands that 
had been settled and iriiproved by an industrious pioneer, that the system 
of public sales was finally abolished. After 1834 the Cass county set- 
tlers entered their lands at Kalamazoo, where the land office for this 
part of the state was continued until 1858. 

The process of settlement is graphically illustrated by the figures 
from several of the early censuses. These figures of course are quite 
likely to be inaccurate as exact units, but they convey in a general way 
the successive increases of population. From these statistical tables we 
see that in 1830 the county had something less than a thousand inhab- 
itants, meaning ]>y that white persons. This was the number with which 
the county began its organized existence. 

Despite the Black Hawk war that occurred in the meanwhile, by 
1834 the enumeration shows 3,280', an increase of over three hundred 
per cent in four years ; and three years later this number had nearly 
doubled. By 184O' Cass county was a comparatively well settled com- 
munity of nearly six thousand people, while in 1845, ^^ which date the 
townships had been formed as at present, the population was over eight 

Considering the population according to townships, we find that in 
1840, when all the townships had been formed except Marcellus, the 
most populous township was LaGrange, with 769 people. Then followed 
Porter, with 556; Ontwa, 543; Pokagon, 516; and thence on down to 
Newberg, with 175 persons. 

Of the older townships, whose early settlement has already been 
adverted to, the population soon became settled on a substantial basis. 
Practically all the lands of Pbkagon township had been entered as early 
as 1837, and the assessment roll of resident taxpayers in that town- 
ship for 1834 shows the names of fifty persons, indicating at least an 
approximate number of families. 



In LaGrange township, as shown in the above quoted figures, popu- 
lation increased more rapidly than elsewhere, owing doubtless to the es- 
tablishment of the seat of justice at Cassopolis. At the first township 
election, April, 1830, there were but eighteen voters, according to the 
history of 1882, whereas there were elected nineteen officials for the 
various civil positions, making it necessary in one or two cases that one 
man should hold several offices. But beginning with that year the set- 
tlement of the township increased rapidly. Among the early settlers not 
already mentioned were the McKenney and Dickson families; the Jewell 
family, whose first representative, Hiram Jewell, arrived in September, 
1830, and William Renniston, who came the same year; Henry Hass 
and sons; the Petticrew and Hain families; James R. Coates, whose 
death, in August, 183 1, as a result of his horse dashing him against the 
limb of a tree, furnished the first interment in the Cassopolis burying 
ground; Catherine Kimmerle, the first of that well known family, who 
brought her family of children here in 1832; and arbitrarily to end the 
list, Jesse G. Beeson, who came to settle here permanently in 1833. 
Many facts concerning the history of this township are detailed in the 
chapter on Cassopolis. In this township, too, the list of original land 
entries seldom shows a date later than 1837. 


In Penn township, the seat of the Quaker settlement, the first land 
entries were made in June, 1829, and the date of the last was May, 
1853. The assessment roll of 1837 of the township as then organized 
gives a good idea of the citizenship of the township at that date. It 
contains the following names : . Amos Green, John Price, John Donnel, 
Jacob T. East, Elizabeth Cox, John A. Ferguson, Hiram Cox, William 
Lindsley, Marvick Rudd, Ezra Hinshaw, Reuben Hinshaw, Abijah Hin- 
shaw, Mary Jones, Lydia Jones, Jesse Beeson, Joshua Leach, Nathan 
Jones, John Lamb, John Cays, John Nixon, Moses McLeary, Henry 
Jones, Ishmae] Lee, Christopher Brodie, Alpheus Ireland, Drury Jones, 
Samuel Thompson. 


Onlwa township, in which the second settlement was made, from 
the first received a good share of the immigration. The settlement was 
especially rapid from 1833 to 1838, and by the latter year there was 
little or no land left for entry. This township has produced an unusual 


number of prominent citizens, several of whom are mentioned under 
other appropriate headings. Edwardsburg was the natural center for 
the county, and around the history of that village much of the interest 
that belongs to the township gathers. Among the settlers during the 
thirties were, Ezra Miller, who turned away from Cassopolis to locate 
in Ontwa because the landlord of the hotel in the former place charged 
him six pence for a drink of water; Reuben Allen, who' brought his family 
from Vermont and located on the site of Adamsville, using for his tem- 
porary home a frame building in which had been a ''corncracker" mill; 
Joseph W. Lee, a New Hampshire Yankee, who for a dwelling moved 
to his claim the block house built by Ezra Beardsley and which had 
been used as a hotel and as the first court house in Cass county. These 
and many others were the builders wdiose industry was responsible for 
the subsequent prosperity of Ontwa. 


Volinia township from the earliest times has been a very interesting 
community. Many notable enterprises have originated and been fos- 
tered there, and in the character of the early settlers there was an in- 
dividuality that removes their history far from the monotony of 
mediocrity. To mention only a few besides the names already given, 
there was Col. James Newton, an Englishman by birth, who came to 
this country in youth, served under the American flag during the war 
of 1812, and camiC to Cass county about 1831. He was prominent 
politically, was a member of the convention that framed the state con- 
stitution, and also represented Cass and Van Buren counties in one of 
the first sessions of the state legislature. His son, George Newton, was 
also prominent in the township, served as supervisor and in the state 
legislature of 1858-59, just twenty years after his father's term. An- 
other early character was John Shaw, from Pickaway county, Ohio, who 
gained celebrity in the township as a justice of the peace as well as a man 
of afifairs generally. His motto was, "Equity first and legal technicalities 
afterward," and in forwarding the cause of justice he was wont to employ 
some verv^ unusual methods. In later years he became a victim of drink, 
lost all his possessions, and his sadly checkered career came to its end in 
the county infirmary. Early in the thirties Volinia received two settlers 
who were skilled in a trade. Richard Shaw, a shoemaker, although he 
engaged in agriculture mainly. Levi Lawrence, a genius as a blacksmith, 
and the scythes which he made were the most efifective implements of 


the kind until they were superseded by mowing machines. He did not 
remain long in the township. 


Settlement in Porter township progressed rapidly after county or- 
ganization. One of its early residents, whose career is historical, was 
George Meacham, whom we have already met as one of the coterie of 
pioneers in Ontwa. He moved into Porter township in 1836 and was a 
resident there nearly half a century. He constructed for his owai use 
what was claimed to be the first threshing machine used in this section 
of the country, it being in fact but one of the component parts of the 
modern grain separator, namely, the cylinder for beating out the grain. 
He was the first sheriff in the county, serving from 1830 to 1836. His 
jurisdiction was all the country west of St. Joseph county to the lake, 
and in empanelling a jury he summoned all but five of those qualified for 
this service in this great scope of territory. To serve on a jury at that 
time it w^as necessary that one had paid a minimum tax of fifty cents; 
this excluded the majority of the residents in this circuit. Mr. Meacham 
was also in the lower house of the legislature in: 1839, and twenty years 
later occupied a seat in the state senate. 

Then there was the remarkable family of Rinehart brothers, Lewis, 
Samuel, Jacob, John and Abram, whose interests and connections in 
Cass county might fill many pages were w^e to describe them in detail. 
John Rinehart, their father, born in 1779, came to Cass county in the 
spring of 1829, settling first in Penn and later in Porter township. The 
sons were farmers, mechanics, and Lewis, Samuel and Jacob owned and 
operated the first sawmill in Porter township. 

Among the arrivals during this decade was James Hitchcock, a stone 
and brick mason, wdio constructed the first brick house in Mason town- 
ship. Brick early became a favorite building material in this part of the 
country, and it was not many years after the county was settled before 
the primitive log house was used only during the short period while 
the settler was getting started in his work of improvement. 


In point of population, Jefferson township soon grew to about her 
present standard. From less than five hundred in 1840, to nine hun- 
dred in 1850, her enumeration in i860 was 1,071, with no marked 
change since that date. Besides the pioneers w^ho made the first set- 
tlement in the northeastern corner, there are named among the early 


land entries Stephen and Peter Marmon, Aaron Brown, David T. Nichol- 
son, Daniel Burnham, F. Smith, Richmond Marmon, John Pettigrew, 
Samuel Colyar, William Barton, William Mendenhall, Obediah Sawtell, 
Isaac Hultz, several of whom became closely identified with the affairs 
of the county and township. Richmond Marmon was an orthodox 
Quaker. In 1834 came Ishmael Lee, who in later years became, accord- 
ing to the record, ''one of the most faithful and successful conductors on 
tlie underground railroad, and many a wagonload of fugitive slaves 
have been piloted by him through the woods of Michigan on their way 
to Canada and freedom. He was a prominent actor in the well known 
Kentucky slave cases of 1848, and was one of those sued by the Ken- 
tuckians for the value of the escaped fugitives, and he paid a large sum 
of money to compromise the litigation." Other arrivals were Daniel 
Vantuyl, John Stephenson, Robert Painter, a justice of the peace, mer- 
chant and manufacturer, Horace Hunt, who was a wagonmaker and made 
some of the wooden plows used by the early settlers. Many citizens of 
this township remember Pleasant Norton, who lived here from 1832 to 
his death in 1877. He was a stanch Democrat politically, and his name 
is among those occurring most frequently in the early civil lists of the 
county. He was twice in the legislature, was supervisor of Jefferson nine 
times, was township treasurer four terms. At his death he left a large 
property. He was a man of native ability, of rugged personality, and 
unusual force of character, and it was these qualities for which his 
fellow citizens honored and respected him. 


Calvin township was estimated as having two hundred inhabitants 
by 1837. Among the earliest of these was the family of William Grubb, 
who came from Logan county, Ohio, in 1830. The same year came 
David Shaffer, a skilful hunter whose annual record gained in the wil- 
derness of this county was said to include as many as two hundred deer. 
In the southwestern portion of the township Peter Shaffer located in 
1832 and resided there until his death in 1880. His son, George T. 
Shaffer, was prominent locally, and as a military man his record is 
unique. He w^as a member of a militia company during the war of 
181 2, and half a century later entered the service of his country in the 
rebellion. He became successively first lieutenant, captain, major, lieu- 
tenant-colonel, and in March, 1865, was brevetted colonel and brigadier- 
general of volunteers. 


Another Calvin settler was Levi D. Norton, who located here from 
Jefferson. His name is found frequently in connection with the civil 
affairs of his township. It is also noteworthy that he was among those 
who turned the first furrows in Jefferson township and assisted in the 
production of the first crops. 

In 1833 t'^^ East settlement was established in the northeastern 
portion of this township. The family of this name and its numerous 
connections have left a distinct impress on the history of the county. 
William East and his wife Rachel, who were members of the Society 
of Friends, thus giving another touch of distinction to the ■ settlement, 
were the parents of the large family which formed the nucleus of this 
settlement. To mention the names of their sons will recall some of the 
early and prominent settlers of this township. They were, James M., 
Calvin K., Armstrong, John H., Jesse, Alfred J. and Joel. 

Another well known family of early date in Calvin, and also strict 
Quakers in faith, were the Osborns. Charles Osborn, the progenitor of 
the family and himself at one time a resident of Cass county, was a 
famous Quaker preacher and abolitionist, having traveled in the interests 
of his church pretty much over the civilized world. His later years 
were devoted almost entirely to anti-slavery agitation, and his position 
on this question was among the extreme radicals. William Lloyd Gar- 
rison called him "the father of all us abolitionists." His work gave 
him an international reputation among the advocates of emancipation. 
The first paper ever published which advocated the doctrine of imme- 
diate and unconditional emancipation was issued by Mr. Osborn at 
Mount Pleasant, Ohio, in 1816, entitled the Philanthropist. In order 
to attain to complete consistency with his views, he held that none of 
the products of slave labor should be used. He himself refused to wear 
any garments made of cotton, nor would he eat cane sugar, on the ground 
that slave labor was used in its manufacture. Singularly appropriate it 
is that the history of this opponent of slavery should be connected with 
the township which sheltered one of the first colonies of freedmen. 

Josiah Osborn, a son of the abolitionist, settled on Section 24 of 
Calvin township in 1835. His connection with the township is notable 
because he planted one of the first fruit orchards and nurseries in the 
county, clearing away the virgin forest to make place for his fruit trees. 
He also was one of those concerned in the Kentucky raid of 1848, and 
suffered such severe losses thereby that he is said to have been obliged to 
work ten years to pay off all the obligations incurred. 


The history of the colored settlement in Calvin, which has played 
such an important part in the annals of the township, will be considered 
on later pages. 


Turning now to some of the townships which were settled and or- 
ganized after the pioneer period, a few facts and names may be recalled 
that will complete this outline of early growth and development in the 

Howard township, although in the direct line of settlement, was 
passed by at first because of the prejudice against its numerous oak 
openmgs, or barrens, whose fertility and value had not yet been tested. 
But it was not long before the productiveness of its soils was established, 
and by the late thirties its population was up to the average of the newer 
townships. Long before the substantial settlement of this jXDrtion of the 
county had begun, there lived on Section i8, close to the western line 
of the county, one of the famous pioneer characters of the St. Joseph 
country. William Kirk, whom we have mentioned as an associate of 
Squire Thompson, and whose first home was in Berrien county, while 
hunting one day discovered a fine spring in Section i8 and at once moved 
his family and built his log cabin beside the bubbling water, although he 
thus became situated far from neighbors. In his entertainment of im- 
migrants and land lookers he united pioneer hospitality with his inherent 
southern lavishness, and thus dissipated the greater part of his posses- 
sions. He was fond of the solitudes, not because of any ascetic nature, 
but because hunting and fishing and the life of the wild woods attracted 
him more than the occupations and society of an advanced civilization. 
It is not surprising, therefore, after the advent of the railroad and the 
progress of settlement had practically destroyed his hunting grounds, 
to find him bidding farewell to Cass county scenes and moving to the 
far west. He died in Oregon, in 1881, at the age of eighty-nine years. 
We have mentioned how necessary to development was the sawmill. 
It is stated that the first water-power sawmill in Howard township was 
built about 1834 by Joseph Harter, who had located in the township in 
1830. In 1836 a carpenter and joiner arrived in the township in the 
person of William H. Doane, and he became well known in township 
affairs. He brought a stove into the township in 18137, and it was the 
attraction of the neighborhood for some time, being known as /'Doane's 


A man of mark in the township was Ezekiel C. Smith, w4io located 
here in 1835. Ahiiost at once he was elected justice of the peace, and 
during thirty-six years in that office he is said to have married four 
hundred couples. He also served as supervisor, and was sent to the state 
legislature in 1850. 

Another figure in the affairs of early Howard township was James 
Shaw, who located here in 1840, and served several times as supervisor, 
two terms in the legislature, and afterward was Democratic candidate 
for the senate. Other names that belong among the first settlers are 
found in the election polling list of 1837, which comprises: Ira Perkins, 
John W. Abbott, Jonathan Wells, O. D. S. Gallup, Zenos Smith, Henry 
Heath, J. V. R. Perkins, Amasa Smith, Ephraim Huntley, Joseph C. 
Teats, Ebner Emmons, Arthur C. Blue, Charles Stephenson, Zina 
Rhodes, Nathan Dumboltom, Eli Rice, Jr., Daniel Partridge, Gurdon 
B. Fitch, Sylvenon Dumboltom, Calvin Kinney, Nathan McCoy, Henry 
L. Gould, Jonathan E. Wells. 


Milton township, which till 1838 was the west half of Ontwa, had 
similarly attractive features with its neighbor and developed from the 
pioneer stage about the same time. This township also contains a por- 
tion of the famous Beardsley's prairie, where the pioneers were enabled 
to reap plenteous crops by the first year's effort and which consequently 
first attracted the attention of the settlers. 

The first names are those of John Hudson and J. Melville, neither of 
whom remained long. Cannon Smith and family, who made Edwards- 
burg their home from the fall of 1828 till the spring of 183 1, settled 
on section 14. Mr. Smith's house was a model pioneer dwelling such 
as the typical one described in the first part of this chapter. He did all 
the work himself, his only tools being an ax, draw-shave, hammer and 
auger. After the trees had been felled and split, and hewn out into 
siding as nearly as possible, the draw-shave w^as used for the finishing. 
The studding and braces were split out like fence rails, and then labor- 
iously smoothed on one side to an even surface. The frame was fast- 
ened together with wooden pins, and the roof consisted of ^'shakes" 
held down with poles. Mr. Smith was a good Methodist, and this 
humble house often sheltered his neighbors while listening to the words 
of the circuit rider of those days. 

Peter Truitt was the merchant and business man of early Milton. In 


his double log cabin, built in 183 1. he opened the first stock of goods 
in the township, and as his merchandise did not monopolize all the 
space in his house nor its disposal require all his time and attention, he 
also transformed his place into the ''White Oak Tree Tavern," at which 
for many years he welcomed the tarrying traveler through this region. 


Silver Creek, famed as the last retreat of the Pottawottomies who 
remained behind after the great exodus, had only about one hundred 
wdiite inhabitants in 1837. If there is any connection between the 
voting population and those who build the first homes, first plow the 
soil and fell the virgin forest, the burden of pioneer development in 
Silver Creek must largely have fallen on those who participated in 
the first election in the fall O'f 1838, whose names are recorded as fol- 
lows : E. Shaw, W. W. Barney, Joseph Spencer, John McDaniel, Henry 
Dewxy, John Barney, John Woolman, A. Barney, Samuel Stockwell, 
Jacob Suits, P. B. Dunning, William Brooks, James Allen, Timothy 
Treat, James Hall. 

The first entry of land in this town was made in section 12, by 
James McDaniel, December 16, 1834. When he located there in the 
following spring he erected the first house and plowed the first furrow, 
the initial events of development. He also began the construction of the 
sawmill wdiich subsequently was purchased and completed by John Bar- 
ney, who arrived in 1836, and whose connection wnth the early manu- 
facturing interests gives him a place in another chapter of this work. 

Jacob A. Suits came in September, 1836, and built the fifth house 
in the tOA\'nship. The next year there came Timothy Treat and family ; 
James Allen, Joseph and William Van Horn, Benj. B. Dunning, Eli W. 
Veach, Patrick Hamilton, Harwood Sellick, James McOmber, Jabes 
Cady, Israel Sallee, George McCreary, James Hall, William Brooks, 
and others. In the same year the township was cut off from Pokagon 
and organized. 


Once more directing our attention to the south side of the county, 
we will mention briefly some of those concerned in the development of 
the small township of Mason. The attractiveness of Breadsley's prairie 
caused the first tide of immigration tO' pass over Mason's fertile soil, 
and, as we know, it was not until 1836 that a sufficient population had 
come to justify organization into a separate township. 


The first settler was Elam Beardsley, who moved on his claim in 
section 12 in the early months of 1830. He erected the first cabin and 
set out the first apple trees. He was a member of the noted pioneer 
family of that name, and another was Darius Beardsley, who put up his 
cabin in 1832. The fate of Darius Beardsley illustrates another sad 
feature of life in a frontier country. One day in the winter of 1833 he 
started on foot for Edwardsburg, the nearest trading point, where he 
bought his household supplies. The snow was two feet deep and the 
entire distance was a trackless waste of white. He was detained in the 
village until well towards evening, and then set out alone in the gath- 
ering twilight toward his home. It was intensely cold, and as darkness 
came on he was unable to make out the road he had traveled in the 
morning. He was soon wandering about in the shelterless forest, and 
at last exhausted by the cold and the fatigue of struggling through the 
snow, he sat dow^n under a tree to rest. Here, within half a mile of 
home and family, his neighbors found him frozen to death and carried 
him home to his grief-stricken wife, who, unable to leave her small 
children, had been compelled to await the results of the search which 
after several days gave her the lifeless body of her husband. Such was 
a not uncommon tragedy enacted in m.any a frontier community. 

One of the well known personages during the early years of Mason 
was S. C. Gardner, who, in 1835, found a home in Section 13. Not 
long after, his house being located on the "territorial road/' an important 
artery of early immigration, he became a landlord and his house was 
filled almost nightly with the tired travelers w^ho in those days asked 
nothing better than the simplest victuals to eat and a roof to shelter 
them while they pillowed their heads on the hard floor. 

Others who were identified with the early development of this town- 
ship were Jotham Curtis, at whose house the first township election was 
held ; the Miller family, numbering all told twenty persons, who formed 
what was known as the Miller settlement ; Henry Thompson ; J. Hubbard 
Thomas; Elijah and Daniel Bishop, who came about 1838. 


The first land selected for settlement from the now well peopled 
Newberg township was in Section 34, where John Bair chose his home 
in October, 1832. Here he made the first improvements effected in 
the township, built a cabin in which he dispensed hospitality to all who 
came, whether they were ministers of the gospel, land viewers, hunters 


and trappers, white men or Indians ; and he himself divided his time be- 
tween the cultivation of a pioneer farm and the avocation of hunting 
and fishing, which he loved with a frontiersman's devotion. 

He soon had a neighbor in the person of Daniel Driskel, who lo- 
cated on Section 36 in the fall of 1834. In 1835 land was entered by 
George Poe, Marvick Rudd, Thomas Armstrong, Samuel Hutchings, 
Felix Girton, John Grennell, William D. Jones. These and such men 
as Barker F. Rudd, William D. Easton, Alexander Allen, Spencer 
Nicholson, Samuel Eberhard, Hiram Harwood, formed the nucleus 
around which larger settlements grew up, resulting in the separate or- 
ganization of the township in 1838. 


And finall}^ the course of development also included the extreme 
northeast corner of the county, where the dense forests and heavy timber, 
the marshes and malaria, had seemed uninviting to the early settlers. 
But by the middle thirties the tide of settlement was at the flood, and 
there was no considerable area of the county that was not overflowed by 
eager homeseekers. All the prairie lands had been occupied, and now 
the forests must also yield before the ax and be replaced with the wav- 
ing corn. 

Joseph Haight, from Orleans county, New York, was the first set- 
tler, arriving in the summer of 1836. In the following year he was 
joined by Frederick Goff and Joseph Bair. Gofif was a carpenter, and as 
it was possible by this time to get lumber at convenient distance, he 
built for himself, instead of the ordinary log cabin, a small frame house, 
which was the first in the township. 

Among other early settlers of Marcellus were G. R. Beebe, who 
came in 1838, Moses P. Blanchard, Daniel G. Rouse, who has already 
been mentioned as taking a leading part in township organization. These 
and others are named among those who voted at the first township 
meeting in 1843 and in the general election of the same year, that list 
being as follows: John Huyck, Daniel G. Rouse, Abijah Huyck, Will- 
iam Wolfe, Joseph Bair, Cyrus Goff, Nathan Udell, Andrew Scott, G. R. 
Beebe, Joseph Haight, Moses Blanchard, Philo McOmber, John Savage, 
E. Hyatt, Alfred Paine, Joseph P. Gilson, Lewis Thomas, Samuel Cory. 

In describing the period while civilization was getting a foothold 
in this county, while the wilderness was being deposed from its long 
reign and men's habitations and social institutions were springing up on 


nearly every section of land, a complete sketch would include the open- 
ing of roads, the building of schools, the establishment of postal facil- 
ities, and the many other matters that necessarily belong to an advancing 
community. But with the limits of this chapter already exceeded, sev- 
eral of these subjects will be reserved for later treatment under separate 
titles. In the following chapter we will consider that inevitable cen- 
tralization of society that results in the formation of village centers. 



The organization of the townships, which has l)een j^revioiislv de- 
scribed, was an artificial process, following the geometrical lines of 
government survey. But the grouping of population and the formation 
of village centers are the result of natural growth. In the following 
pages it is our purpose to continue the story of settlement and growth 
with special reference to the grouping of people into communities and 

It is easy to indicate in a general way the beginning of such a 
community. A fertile and arable region receives a large proportion of 
the immigration. Assuming that they are pioneers, it will he almost a 
necessity that most of them till the soil, even though comliining that with 
another occupation. But if the settlement was on a much-traveled thor- 
oughfare, such as the Chicago road on the south side of the county, 
one or ]>erhaps more of the pioneer houses would be opened for tlie en- 
tertainment of the transient public. On the banks of a stream some one 
constructs a saw or grist mill. At some convenient and central point 
a settler A\ith the commercial instincts opens a stock of goods sucli as 
will supply the needs of the other settlers and of the immigrants. A 
postoffice comes next, the postmaster very likely being either the mer- 
chant or the tavern-keeper. A physician, looking for a location, is 
pleased with the conditions and occupies a caloin near the store or inn. 
A carpenter or other mechanic is more accessible to his patronage if he 
lives near the postoffice or other common gathering point. If the school- 
house of the district has not already been built, it is probable that it 
will be placed at the increasingly central site, and the first church is a 
natural addition. Already this nucleus of settlement is a village in 
embryo, and in the natural course of development a variety of enterprises 
will center there, the mechanical, the manufacturing, the commercial and 
professional departments of human later will be grouped together for 
the purpose of efficiency and convenience. By such accretions of popu- 
lation, by diversification of industry, by natural advantages of location 
and the improvement of means of transportation, this, community in 


time becomes organized as a village and with continued prosperity, as 
a city. Sometimes the development is arrested at a particular stage. 
The village remains a village, the hamlet ceases to grow, and we have 
a center of population without special business, industrial or civic de- 
velopment. Then there are instances in this county of retrogression. A 
locality that could once be dignified with the name of village has dis 
integrated under stress of rivalry from other centers or other causes, 
and is now little more than a place and a name. 

Specific illustrations of all these processes are to^ be found in the 
history of the centers in Cass county. But in general it may be stated 
that during the early years, when communication was primitive and 
isolation quite complete even between localities separated by a few miles, 
the tendency was toward centralization in numerous small hamlets and 
villages. But in keeping with the economic development for which the 
past century was noted and especially because of the improvement of all 
forms of transportation, the barriers against easy communication with 
all parts of the county were thrown down and the best situated centers 
grew and flourished at the expense of the smaller centers, which grad- 
ually dwindled into comparative insignificance. Nothing has done more 
to accelerate movement than the establishment of rural free delivery. 
The postoffice was the central point of community life and remoteness 
from its privileges was a severe drawback. Rural delivery has made 
every house a iX)stoffice, puts each home in daily contact with the world, 
and while it is destroying provincialism and isolation, it is effecting a 
wholesome distribution of population rather than crowding into small 
villages. And the very recent introduction into Michigan of the sys- 
tem of public transportation of school children to and from school 
will remove another powerful incentive to village life. When 
weak districts may be consolidated and a large, well graded and modern 
union school be provided convenient and accessible to every child in the 
enlarged school area, families will no longer find it necessary ''to move 
to town in order to educate their children.'' 

These are the principal considerations that should be understood 
before we enter on the description of the. various centers which Cass 
county has produced in more than three quarters of a century of growth. 


Nowhere can the processes above described be better illustrated than 
along the meandering Chicago road that passes across the lowest tier 


of townships on the south. In the chapter on early settlement the be- 
ginning of community life on Beardsley's Prairie has already been 
sketched. It will be remembered that Ezra Beardsley, in order to ac- 
commodate the increasing host of immigrants, converted his home into 
a tavern, the nearby Meacham cabin being used as an annex. On the 
south side of the lake Thomas H. Edwards in 1828 began selling goods 
to the settlers, and thus early the community of Beardsley's Prairie had 
a center. 

With the Chicago road as the main axis of village life, a plat of 
a village site, named ''Edwardsburgh," was filed on record, August 12, 
1 83 1, by Alexander H. Edwards, who appeared before Justice of the 
Peace Ezra Beardsley and "acknowledged the within plat to be his free 
act and deed." The original site of the village comprised 44 lots, but 
Abiel Silver on June 2, 1834, laid out an addition of 86 lots and on 
March 25, 1836, a second addition. 

Jacob and Abiel Silver figure prominently in the early life of the 
village. They purchased in 183 1 the store of Thomas H. Edwards. 
Other early merchants were Henry Vanderhoof and successors Clifford 
Shaahan and Jesse Smith; the late H. H. Coolidge, who came here 
in 1835 toi take charge of a stock of goods opened here by a Niles mer- 
chant, and who later was engaged in business in partnership wath P. P. 
Willard. In 1839 A. C. Marsh established a foundry for the manufact- 
ure of plow castings and other iron work, and this was one of the indus- 
tries which gave Edwardsburg importance as a business center. 

During the thirties and early forties Edwardsburg bid fair to be- 
come the business metropolis of Cass county. It is easy to understand 
why its citizens had implicit faith in such a future. The Detroit-Chi- 
cago road, on which it was situated, was at the time the most traveled 
route between the east and the west. The hosts who were participating 
in the westward expansion movement of the period, traveling up the 
popular Erie Canal and thence to the west by way of Lake Erie and the 
Chicago road, all passed through Edwardsburg. The mail coaches, 
which primitively represented the mail trains of to-day, carried the mail 
bags through the village and lent the cluster of houses the prestige that 
comes from being a station on the transcontinental mail. Furthermore, 
the agitation for canals. which then disputed honors with railroads seemed 
to indicate Edwardsburg as a probable station on the canal from St. 
Joseph river to the lake. 

All conditions seemed favorable for the growth of a city on the 


south side of the county. But at the middle of the century the mighty 
rearrange!' of civihzation, the railroad, pushed its way through Mich- 
igan and northern Indiana. The villages touched by the railroad in its 
course flourished as though by magic. Those left to one side languished 
as if the stream of life, diverted, ceased to nourish their activities. The 
Chicago road was no longer the artery of commerce it had been. The 
stage coaches ceased their dailv visits. A few miles to the south the 
Michigan Southern, having left the route of original survey at White 
Pigeon, coursed through the villages and cities of northern Indiana, giv- 
ing new life to Bristol, Elkhart and South Bend, and depriving Edwards- 
burg of its equal chance in the struggle of existence. To the west Niles 
became a station on the Michigan Central and prospered accordingly, 
while Edwardsburg, thus placed between the tw^o great routes, suffered 
the barrenness of almost utter isolation. 

It is said that just before the period of decline began Edwardsburg 
had a population of three hundred, with churches, school and business 
houses. The permanent institutions of course remained although with 
little vitality, but the business decreased until but one store remained in 
185 1. For twenty years Edwardsburg had practically no business activ- 
ity, and was little more than a community center which was maintained 
by custom and because of the existence of its institutions of church, edu- 
cation and society. 

The same power that took aw^ay gave back again. The Grand 
Trunk Railroad was completed through Edwardsburg in 1871, and with 
the establishment of communication with the world and with facilities at 
hand for transportation there followed a revival of village life. Ten 
years later the population had increased from 297 to 500. There were 
about twenty stores and shops and a list of professional and business 

Since then Edw^ardsburg has held her own. There is good reason in 
the assertion that the village is the best grain market that the farmers 
of the south half of the county can find. The large grain elevator along- 
side the tracks is of the most modern type, replacing the one burnt down 
a few years ago, and a steam grist mill is a very popular institution 
among the farmers of this section. Edwardsburg has never organized 
as a village, and hence is still, from a civic point of view, a part of the 
township of Ontwa. The village improvements have been made in only 
a small degree. The bucket brigade still protects from fire, and the con- 


veniences and utilities which are only possible in an organized community 
are still absent. 

A review of the present status of the village would include men- 
tion of the Walter Brothers' store, the principal commercial enterprise 
of the village; half a dozen other stores and shops; and two physicians. 
The Methodist, Presbyterian and Baptist churches all have buildings, 
and the Methodists have a strong organization. It is a center of fraternal 
activity, the following orders being represented here : Masons, Odd 
Fellows, Knights of the Maccabees, Modern Woodmen of America, the 
Royal Neighbors, the Ancient Order of Gleaners, a farmers' organiza- 
tion, and the Patricians. 

It is always of interest to record the names of those who have been 
identified wnth a locality in the past or who are still living there but at 
the close of active service. One of the first old-timers to be mentioned 
is Eli Benjamin, wdio is eighty-two years old and one of the oldest resi- 
dents of Edwards1>urg. Edward Hirons, from whom many of these notes 
were obtained, was born in Milton township seventy years ago and has 
been in Edwardsburg thirty-seven years. John C. Carmichael and 
Cassius M. Dennis are other old-timers. Dr. Griffin, who died recently, 
w^as a physician practicing here for many years, and another doctor, John 
B. Sweetland, died only a few years ago. 

The Griffin House, on the north side of Main street, west of the 
alley, in which the postoftice was for so many years and at different 
times located, is said to be the oldest Iniilding in the village. When 
Edwardsburg was a flourishing station on the stage lines it supported 
two liotels, one situated on the south side of Main street on the site of 
R. J. Flicks' store, the other on the north side of Main street on the 
site of Dr. Criswell's residence. The vacant lot at the north end of 
Walter Brothers' store was the site of a hotel erected by John Earl, 
its first landlord, in 1856. Immediately preceding the building of the 
Grand Trunk the village was in communication with the world by a 
daily stage between Elkhart and Dowagiac. 

Edwardsburg has been the home of many prominent men in the 
county's life. Dr. Israel G. Bugbee is well entitled to a place among 
the leaders in county affairs. Judge A. J. Smith was an early resident 
of this place and taught school here, and Judge H. H. Coolidge, also 
teacher and lawyer, and his son, the present Judge Coolidge of Niles, 
was a boy among Edwardsburg boys before he ever dreamed of judicial 
honors. George F. Silver, who has lived here seventy years, is a son of 


Orrin Silver, a pioneer. Other names that readily occur are those of 
Dr. Henry Lockwood, Dr. Edgar Reading, Dr. Levi Aldrich, Dr. Daniel 
Thomas, J. L. Jacks, J. W. Lee, W. K. Hopkins, who served as super- 
visor several times, ''Squire" Dethic Hewitt, and his two sons, Daniel 
A. and John P., blacksmiths, H. B. Mead, J. W. Bean, J. H. Williams, 
J. D. Bean, postmaster, Jacob R. Reese, one of the biggest merchants of 
the village. William and Isaiah Walter have been longest in the mer- 
cantile business among the present merchants. 


Traveling east along the Chicago road, about five miles east of 
Edwardsburg one crosses the Christiann creek at the site of a once am- 
bitious village. A cluster of houses on either side of the road, most of 
them weatherbeaten and old, are almost the sole indication of village 
life. However, there are two grocery stores, and the last census gave 
the number of inhabitants on the village site as 207. 

Adamsville, or Adamsport, originated in the water power of Chris- 
tiann creek. A mill very often is the nucleus for population to concen- 
trate. ''The Sages made the town," was the statement of one who 
knew the past history of the place. The Sage family, of which Moses 
Sage was the first and principal member, with his sons, Martin G. and 
Norman, has for three-quarters of a century been prominent in manu- 
facturing, financial and business affairs of this part of the country, their 
interests being now centered in Elkhart, where Norman and other mem- 
bers of the family reside. The water power at Adamsville is now owned 
by Mr. H. E. Bucklen, formerly of FJkhart, now of Chicago, who bought 
it from the Sage estate and who owns all the water power on the Chris- 
tiann from Elkhart up. The grist mill is the only manufacturing concern 
now at Adamsville, though formerly there were a stave factory and a 

The first plat of Adamsport was filed for record March 21, 1833. 
"Appeared before Ezra Beardsley, justice of the peace. Sterling Adams, 
who acknowledged that he had laid out the within town of Adams Port 
and also acknowledged that the lots and streets are laid out as described." 
The platted ground was on the east side of the creek and was bisected 
by the Chicago road, the other streets being laid out at right angles to 
this main thoroughfare. On May 5, 1835, ^^^ P^^^ was received for 
record of the village of Christiann, laid out by Moses Sage on the op- 
posite side of the creek. Within a year plats of "Stevens' addition" 


and ''Johnson's addition'' were filed. It was evidently the purpose and 
the hope of the founders to make Adamsville, with manufacturing as a 
basis, the foremost center of south Cass county, rivahng Edwardsburg. 
Moses Sage built the first grist mill in 1835, and with the mill 
running night and day for several years, it is not surprising that a con- 
siderable community soon grew up at this point. But as soon as the 
railroads were built and established new relations between centers, 
Adamsville began to decline, although its manufacturing enterprise has 
always been valuable. A postoffice was established here in an early day 
and continued until rural free delivery made it no longer necessary. 
There is a United Brethren church in the village. 

In describing the centers of population in this chapter we make 
especial mention of the groups of population which take the forms 
of hamlets or villages. It is necessary to say that the institutions of edu- 
cation and religion are centralizing influences of great power, and a 
church or a schoolhouse is often the heart of the social community. But 
the consideration of churches and schools must be left to a later chapter, 
where it is our purpose to give an adequate account of these institu- 
tions in their relation to the county. 


Mason township has many churches and its proportionate share of 
schools, but of other centers it is practically destitute. In the register's 
office will be found a plat, recorded July 23, 1872, by Moses McKissick, 
of a village site in the northeast quarter of Section 14. To this he gave 
the name Kessington or Sailor. The plat comprised nineteen lots. Al- 
though one might drive over this site and notice nothing more remark- 
able at this country crossroads than a church and a school, at one time 
Mr. McKessick kept a general store and there was also a blacksmith 


One other center along the old Chicago road remains to be de- 
scribed. On the west side of south Porter township is beautiful Bald- 
win's prairie, one of the most delightful landscapes in Cass county and 
its citizenship among the most prosperous. Baldwin's prairie, ages be- 
fore the earliest fact of history recorded in this book, was the bed of 
some large lake, similar to many in this county. The processes of nature 
finally drained the waters off into the St. Joseph river; the swamp in time 
gave place to prairie, and as the Indians and the first settlers knew the 


locality tlie grass and wild flowers spread their carpet over its level 

A plain so beautiful, with fertility so deep and so prodigal of prod- 
ucts, did not escape the eye of the practical pioneer, and settlement and 
development were naturally followed by a concentration of population. 
Sections 7 and 8 of south Porter were among the first entered in this 
portion of the county, and such w^ell known pioneers as Elam Beardsley, 
James Hitchcox, Othni Beardsley, John Baldwin, Chester Sage, Jacob 
Charles, Nathan and William Tibbits had taken up land on this prairie, 
none later than 1831. 

John Baldwin kept tavern in his home for the accommodation of the 
travelers along the Chicago road, and Othni Beardsley w^as another 
pioneer nni-keeper. In 1831 Jacob Charles became the first postmaster 
for this vicinity, distributing the mail at his house. The Beardsley tav- 
ern, erected in 1833, was one of the regular stations on the stage line 
and hence an important point. This house was burned in 1836, and 
Jarius Hitchcox then opened up his house as a tavern and stage station. 
The Hitchcox house was on the north side of the road on the east side 
of Union village. The brick house now standing there, and the present 
residence of Mrs. Montgomery, w^as built over sixty years ago and was 
the tavern until the traffic of the road ceased with the beginning of the 
railroad era. This house is accordingly one of the most historic places 
in Cass county, having sheltered hundreds of emigrants during the 
pioneer period. When the stage station was located here extensive sheds 
in the rear accommodated the vehicles and horses of the stage company. 
Mr. S. M. Rinehart, whose pleasant home is just across the road, lived 
here wliile the stages were yet running and many a time heard with 
Ijoyish eagerness the blast of the horn which announced the arrival of 
the stage. 

The postoffice and stage station were the beginning of the village of 
Union. Union has never been incorporated, and its commercial import- 
ance is quite overshadowed by Bristol and Elkhart, and yet it has con- 
tinued from pioneer days as a focus for the interests of a large and pros- 
perous surrounding country. 

Situated on the northwestern edg^ of Baldwin's prairie, with its 
houses at the foot of the hills which encircle the plain on the west and 
north and from w^hich one overlooks the village and beyond to the blue 
haze of the range on the south side of the St. Joseph river. Union makes 
no claims to metropolitan features, yet is a supply center for a consid- 


erable area. Two stores, a blacksmith and repair shop and implement 
house comprise the business enterprise. The rural mail wagons bring 
the mail for the villagers, but, contrary to what we have seen happen in 
many such centers, the postofhce is still maintained in the village. The 
postmaster is William Eby, son of Gabriel Eby, who at the age of eighty- 
seven is the oldest man in Union and by reason of fifty years' residence 
one of the oldest citizens. Nelson Cleveland, of this neigh1>orhoo(l, is 
also about eighty-seven years old. 

Mr. S. M. Rinehart, who contributed much of the information con-, 
cerning Union, was born near the James E. Bonine place in Penn town- 
ship, near Vandalia, seventy-five years ago and has lived on the east side 
of Union village since he was twelve years old, so that he is the longest 
resident. He is at this time president of the Cass County Pioneer 

Union now has a population of about 150. Whether the future holds 
grow^th and development in store for this community, must be left to a 
later historian to record. But the citizens are sanguine over the pros- 
pects which the promised early completion of the South Bend-Kalamazoo 
electric road through the village unfolds. 


July 5, 1849, Josiah Williams, as proprietor, filed a plat of a village 
to be known as Williamsville, the site being in the southeast quarter of 
Section 7 in North Porter township. An addition was recorded to this 
plat September 14, 1850. Mr. Williams was also proprietor of the first 
store. The ''Williamsville neighborhood" has been a distinctive name 
for many years, and as the center of this locality Williamsville is worthy 
of a brief history. Its population has never reached much beyond the 
hundred mark. Twenty-five years ago it had tw^o stores, tw^o blacksmith 
shops, a grist mill and a sawmill, and one pliysician. At the present 
time its general activity consists of the following: A telephone ex- 
change of an independent company. It may be remarked that there are 
more telephones in use on the south side of the county than on the north 
side. Here in 1854 the late William R. Merritt engaged in the mercan- 
tile business and for twenty years kept one of the best stocked country 
stores to be found anyw^here, equaling, if not excelling, many general 
stocks kept by village merchants. His store was the trading place for 
miles around and many of his customers were found among those who 
bought on their promise to pay, not having any visible property to make 


the promise good. Few indeed were the people who could not obtain 
credit with him. After removing to Bristol, Indiana, the business was 
continued for a number of years by his son, J. Fred Merritt. 

It was in this little hamlet that Dr. Greenberry Cousins, on the 
1 6th day of August, 1870, came to his death at the hands of Andrew J. 
Burns, who, after being tried twice on the charge of murder, the jury 
each time failing to agree upon a verdict, was discharged and given his 
liberty after being confined in the county jail for about one year await- 
ing these trials. 


Calvin township has had numerous centers, such as churches, schools, 
mills, at different times and different situations. The hamlet of Browns- 
ville alone may be considered in this part of the history, since Calvin 
center will be mentioned in connection with the negro settlement. 

Christiann creek, flowing for a considerable part of its length across 
this township, early afforded the best mill sites in the south part of 
Cass county. A sawmill was built in section 19 about 1832 and in the 
following year a distillery at that point began the manufacture of pure 
whiskey which was sold at twenty-five cents a gallon. But before this, 
in 183 1, Pleasant Grubb had constructed a grist mill in section 9. This 
was one of the first flour mills in the county and its product was eagerly 
sought. David and William Brown, brothers who had come from Scot- 
land, soon purchased this mill, and the little community which grew up 
around the mill honored them by giving the name Brownsville to the 
place. No plat was ever made, but enough village activity has prevailed 
to distinguish the locality from the general rural district. When the 
former history of the county was published, twenty-five years ago, its 
enterprise consisted in a flour mill, a general store, two blacksmith shops, 
a cooper and a shoe shop, a millinery store, pump factory, harness shop, 
two carpenters and two physicians. At the present time there are the 
grist mill, run by water power, a steam sawmill, a blacksmith shop, and 
the postofiice has been discontinued since rural free delivery was estab- 
lished. The population has remained at about one hundred. Levi Gar- 
wood, Williams Adamson and James Hybert (colored) are named as 
the oldest residents of this community. 


Jefferson township, midway between the county seat and Edwards- 
burg, although traversed by two railroads, has never developed any 


important center. Redfield's mills on Christiann creek on the eastern 
edge of the township at one time had a store and postoffice, a sawmill 
and grist mill, the latter run now for grinding buckwheat and feed only. 
It still has a general store. The only other place that can be dignified 
by distinct reference in this chapter is Dailey, in section 6. The citi- 
zens of this locality, among whom was Israel A. Shingledecker, who 
proposed the name of Itasca, desired a station when the Air Line rail- 
road passed through that part of the township, and by donating three 
acres of land to the company secured a freight and passenger house. 
There being opposition to Itasca, the station was given the name of 
Dailey, in honor of A. H. Dailey, roadmaster of the railroad. A post- 
office was established in 1872, with M. T. Garvey as first postmaster, 
and two stores with a blacksmith shop soon supplemented the business 
activity of the place. In March, 1880, Levi M. Vail filed a plat of lots 
laid out on land just west of the depot site. A cornet band was at one 
time an institution of the place. The population at the last census was 
about a hundred. 

The progress of our narrative brings us now to the center of the 
county, but instead of describing the growth and present status of Cass- 
opolis it seems best to reserve the county seat village for a separate 
chapter, as also will be done in the case of the city of Dowagiac. 


In the story of the county seat contest the founding of the now ex- 
tinct village of Geneva has been described. Some additional facts are 
of interest in preserving to memory of future generations the site of 
what might have become the central city of the county. The plat of 
Geneva, which was recorded May i, 1832, shows that the village was 
laid out on the north side of Diamond lake. The owners of the site, 
whose signatures are affixed tO' the plat, were Colonel E. S. Sibley, H. L. 
and A. C. Stewart, H. H. Fowler and Abner Kelsey. With the proviso 
that Geneva be constituted the county seat, ''the public square is given 
to the county on which to erect county offices," besides certain other 
lots. The traveled road going east from Cassopolis passes along the 
main street of Geneva about where it reaches the north bank of Dia- 
mond lake. Geneva never had the institutions of school and church, 
but the business enterprise was considerable until Cassopolis absorbed 
it all. A store was established in 1830. Nathan Baker about the same 
time established a blacksmith shop, and several years later a furnace 


foir the manufacture of plow castings, this being the first industry of 
the kind in the county, and the ''Baker plow" gaining a reputation far 
beyond the limits of the county. H. H. Fowler, the principal promoter 
of the village, did not relax his efforts for building up the village even 
after the county seat had become permanent, as is evident from the fact 
that in October, 1836, he recorded the plat of an addition to the original 
site. Nothing now remains of Geneva, and only those who delve into 
matters of the past would know, as they passed over the site, how m-uch 
enthusiasm and efifort w^ere once expended toward making a village rise 
on the high shores of Diamond lake. The village site and vicinity are 
now known as "Shore Acres." 


In the register's office is a plat of the village of Jamestown, which 
was recorded by Isaac P. James, November 12, 1869. This site was 
located on the east side of section 16 in Penn township. On November 
25, 1884, Jesse Wright recorded an addition, taken from land that ad- 
joined in section 15. Jamestown is an imfamiliar name, and many per- 
sons would not recognize in it the name of the center of Penn township. 

The founder of the village bestowed upon it the name of Jamestown 
for himself, the same as he did on the village plat. The postoffice depart- 
ment refused to adopt that name for the proposed postoffice there, as 
there was at that time a Jamestown postoffice in Ottawa county, and es- 
tablished the office under the name of Penn, and gradually that name 
loecame the common designation for the hamlet. 

There were hopes in the minds of the founders that, with the com- 
pletion of the line of the Grand Trunk railroad through the site, a con- 
siderable village might rise at this point. Parker James, a son of Isaac 
P. James, established a store, and later a sawmill was built and one or 
two other shops opened. It now has a resident physician, two churches, 
a school house with two departments. Its principal enterprises are a 
sawmill, two general stores and a blacksmith shop. One of the stores, 
in addition to the stock usually kept in country stores, keeps on hand 
agricultural implements, coal, lime, etc. Penn had, according to the 
last census, a population of two hundred. 


A grist mill built on the banks of Christiann creek along the state 
road in section 27 of Penn township was the enterprise which served as 
the nucleus for the village of Vandalia. This mill was built in 1849 


by Stephen Bogue and C. P. Ball, both valiant Quakers and notable 
pioneers in Penn township. February 21, 1851, a plat of the village of 
Vandalia was filed by these two men, the land which they chose for the 
proposed village being on the east side of Christiann creek, and com])ris- 
ing a portion of the southeast quarter of section 2y. The original site 
has been expanded by eight additions, and the incorporated limits of the 
village now extend across the creek on the west side and the larger part 
of the plat lies in section 26. 

In the days of beginnings Abraham Sigerfoos was the village black- 
smith, Asa Kingsbtu'v of Cassopolis the first merchant, he having estab- 
lished a branch store there with the late Judge A. J. Smith as manager, 
and T. J. Wilcox the first postmaster. The principal impetus to growth 
was, of course, the Air Line railroad, which placed the village in connec- 
tion with the outside world in 1871. This was followed by incorporation 
in 1875, and Vandalia is now one of the three incorporated villages in 
Cass county. 


Few^ names are more completely lost to memory than the above. 
The proximity of Howard township to Niles, not to mention other 
causes, has never fostered the growth of villages in the township. But 
in the pioneer years, when immigration was setting in at full tide, 
George Fosdick, an enterprising settler, endeavored to found a village, 
to which he gave the name Howardville. The plat was recorded Octo- 
ber 8, 1835, the site being in section 21, on "the north bank of Lake 
Alone," the plat being two blocks wide and running north from the lake 
shore four blocks. To the present generation it is necessary to explain 
that Lake Alone is the familiar Barren lake. Its remoteness from any 
other body of water, and the absence of surface outlets, gave this lake 
its first name. Fosdick's village did not prosper, and in a short time the 
plow furrows passed without distinction over the platted as the unplat- 
ted land, and Howardville was forgotten. 

In more recent years, since the Air Line railroad was built, a sta- 
tion was established, called Barren Lake station. The town hall is 
near by, also a school. This is as far as the township of Howard has 
gone in the formation of a central community. 


The road leading north and west from Cassopolis toward Dowa- 
giac passes for the first few miles over som6 of the most rugged land- 


scape in Cass county. This is the highest point of the watershed which 
interposes a barrier-Hke group of hills between the courses of the Dowa- 
giac creek and Christiann creek. But on arriving at the crest of the 
last hill the broad valley of the D'owagiac creek seems, by reason of the 
contrast, as level as a chessboard and a scene of quiet and gentle beauty. 
One is not surprised that this fertile and reposeful plain was early sought 
as a habitation and place of activity by the pioneers. The beauty of the 
natural surroundings, the rich and productive soil, and the advantageous 
sites for mills and industries were recognized by the first settlers, and 
were the chief prerequisites for the development of a flourishing city. 
And yet the present aspect of LaGrange brings up the picture of 
the ^'Deserted Village." The main street leading north to the millpond 
is lined with weatherbeaten houses which bear every indication of iden- 
tity with the past. Some of these buildings have long been unoccupied, 
and, uncared for, have become prey to the wind and rain, *^^rrested 
development" seems to characterize the entire place. The last store 
building, from which the stock of goods was removed several years ago, 
is almost the only reminder of commercial activity. Rural free deliv- 
ery caused the disestablishment of the postoffice in February, 1901. 
The Methodist church is the only active religious organization. The 
two-story, brick district school, on the south edge of the village, shows 
that the decline of commercial prosperity has not affected the progress 
of education. The water power, on the opposite side of the village, 
which once turned grist mills and factories, now turns a turbine wheel 
of the plant that partly supplies Dowagiac with electric lights. 

This diversion of the only remaining permanent resource of La- 
Grange to the benefit and use of Dowagiac is the final fact of a series of 
similar events by which LaGrange has been reduced to its present status 
among the centers of the county. With all the natural advantages which 
gave promise of a thriving city, the course of events took other direc- 
tions. First, LaGrange, though an active competitor for the honor, failed 
to gain the county seat. Its business enterprise was at the time superior 
to that of Cassopolis or Geneva, but its location was not central enough 
to secure the decision of the commissioners. The loss of the county seat 
might not have prevented LaGrange becoming what its promoters ar- 
dently desired. But with the building of the Michigan Central rail- 
road four miles to the northwest, a powerful and resourceful rival came 
into action. With the railroad furnishing transportation as a basis for 
unlimited production and industry, Dowagiac rapidly became a center 


of business and manufacturing. LaGrange could not compete on equal 
terms, its manufactures dwindled and were moved to the rival town, 
and with the diverting of the water powder to supply Dowagiac with 
electric lighting, the last chapter has been written in the decadence of 
a village that has played a large part in early Cass county history. La- 
Grange might now well be considered a suburb of the city of Dowagiac. 

Such is a general outline of the rise and fall of this village. The 
details may be briefly recorded. The millsite had first been developed 
by Job Davis, who built a sawmill there in 1829. This mill was bought 
by Martin C. Whitman in 1831. In the following year he erected a 
grist mill at the same place, this being one of the first mills in the county 
for supplying the pioneers with flour. 

August 4, 1834, Mr. Whitman, as ''proprietor and owner," filed 
the first plat of the village of Whitmanville. The site was on the north 
side, about the center, of section 15. Erastus H. Spalding, who owned 
land adjoining, in the southwest quarter of section 10, platted an addi- 
tion April 16, 1836, to which he gave the name LaGrange. On July i, 
1836, Mr. Whitman platted a part of his land on the southeast quarter 
of section 10 as an addition to LaGrange, and in September following 
platted some land in section 15 as an addition to Whitmanville. It 
seems, therefore, that the site that lay in section 10 was originally des- 
ignated as LaGrange, and that in section 15 as Whitmanville. The lat- 
ter name was commonly used until the legislature, by an act approved 
February 12, 1838, formally changed the name Whitmanville to La- 

In the meantime E. H. Spalding had become proprietor of the grist 
mill, and the business activity of the place became considerable. There 
were four large stores in the place besides the mills. The large, shallow 
millpond, however, caused much malarial sickness, and this, with the 
loss of county seat prospects and the destruction of the grist mill by 
fire, caused a setback to the prosperity of the village. 

In 1856 there was a revival. Abram Van Riper and sons Charles 
and Garry bought the millsite, constructed a flour mill and also a woolen 
mill. The latter was an institution of great importance to the commu- 
nity. It furnished labor to many persons, both women and men, and 
also children, and thus attracted a considerable population to settle in 
the vicinity. Besides the Van Ripers, the late Daniel Lyle of Dowagiac 
was interested in the woolen mill. In 1878 a stock company, known as 
the LaGrange Knitting Mills Company, purchased the mill property 


and converted it into a knitting factory, principally for the manufacture 
of underwear. 

There were other manufactures. Hervey Bigelow had begun the 
manufacture of furniture here in 1836 and continued it until 185 1, 
when Dowagiac offered him better opportunities and he moved to that 
village. William Van Riper established a basket factory in 1868. There 
was a small foundry twenty-five years ago. All these industries have 
gone out of existence or been moved away. 


On the north side of the public road that passes along the south 
side of section 30 in LaGrange township, about where the school house 
stands and near the Pokagon creek, was once platted a village called 
Mechanicsburg. The plat of this village was filed March 29, 1837, by 
John Petticrew, the proprietor of the site. wSeveral years later he built 
a tannery there, but aside from that and a blacksmith shop, the village 
had nothing to justify its platting. 


These two little villages, a mile and a half apart, belong, the one 
to the pioneer period, the other to the railroad era. We have taken 
pains to show the various influences at work in the development of the 
county, how localities favored by nature have received the first impulse 
of settlement; and how' roads, streams, railroads, acts of the legislature, 
and personal enterprise have all been pivotal factors in the history of 
communities. The history of Sumnerviile and Pokagon is an excel- 
lent study in these shifting processes. 

Sumnerviile is located at the junction of the Pokagon creek with 
Dowagiac creek. The heavy timber growth in this locality favored the 
improvement of the water power at this point, and in 1835 Isaac Sumner 
built a sawmill here, and two' years later a grist mill. These two industries 
were all-important at that time, and were a substantial basis for a vil- 
lage. Mr. Sumner and Junius H. Hatch accordingly platted a village 
here in August, 1836, giving it the name of Sumnerviile. About the 
same time Alexander Davis became first merchant and Peabody Cook 
the proprietor of the first hotel. From this time forward the village 
increased slowly in population and business. Its population by the last 
census was about one hundred and fifty. In 1880, according tO' a gaz- 
etteer of that year, it had a population of 184, and its industries were a 
flouring mill and a woolen mill. 


Pokagon, on the other hand, akhough located on the prairie where 
the first settlement was made in Cass county, and where the first post- 
ofiice was established, was, as respects its business importance, the prod- 
uct of the railroad which was constructed through in 1846. William 
Baldwin, the noted pioneer whose death was chronicled in August, 1904, 
laid out this village June 15, 1858. The original site, to quote the rec- 
ord, was ''situated on the west side of the railroad, in the southwest 
quarter of section 28/' Three additions have since been made, expand- 
ing the village into section 33 and to 1x)th sides of the railroad. A grist 
mill had been built in 1856, and several stores and shops soon gave the 
business activity to the place which it has retained ever since. The 
population has been at a1>out two hundred for thirty years. 


Of all the forgotten village sites in Cass county that of Shake- 
speare has had most reason to be remembered. • Situated ''at the Long 
rapids of the Dowagiac river," as the record reads, Shakespeare was 
platted June 17, 1836, by Jonathan Brow^n and Elias B. Sherman, the 
latter the well known pioneer of Cass county, the former somewhat of 
an adventurer, to judge from this transaction. The site of the village 
was on the Dowagiac, including land in sections 8, 9 and 17 of Pokagon 
township. Sherman owned forty acres at this point and Brown a sim- 
ilar tract. They decided to plat and promote a village. The \vater powxr 
could be utilized to develop splendid industries, and the eyes of the pro- 
moters could see nothing but roseate prospects for a city at this location. 
A lithographed prospectus of the proposed village was got out illustra- 
ting in most attractive style all these and other advantages, and was cir- 
culated in distant cities. The prospectus and personal representations 
of Mr. Brown sold a number of village lots. Mr. Sherman w^ithdrew 
from the partnership as soon as he saw that the representations were 
overdraw'U, and the principal promoter soon left the country without 
ever having done anything to develop the enterprise. During the next 
few years -more than one sanguine investor in Shakespeare lots, after 
toiling through the woods and brush to the wilderness that covered the 
"city," was brought to realize the folly of speculation in unknow^n quan- 
tities. But now, outside of the office of register of deeds, where "Shake- 
speare" still presents tangles in the records, few know that such a vil- 
lage ever existed. 



Another village that was platted without substantial reason for an 
existence and which belongs in history because of the plat on file at the 
register's office, was Newberg. Spencer Nicholson, an early settler of 
Newberg township, was the proprietor, and the village plat was filed 
May 15, 1837. The site w^as on the south shore of Lilly lake, its ex- 
act location being the north end of the east half of the iiorthw^est quar- 
ter of section 1,2. 


Born of the Air Line railroad were the two villages above named. 
Jones, the main street of which is the section line between sections 34 
and 35 of Newberg township, at the present time has four general 
stores, one grocery, shoe store, two hardware stores, one saloon, har- 
ness and blacksmith shop, and a population approximating three hun- 
dred. The plat of the village w^as recorded October 19, 1897, by Alonzo 
P. Beeman, but the first business structure at this point of the newly 
built Air Line railroad was a store put up in 187 1 by H. Micksel. The 
p>ostoffice for this immediate vicinity had been established at the house 
of Mr. E. H. Jones, on section 34, in 1870. The first postoffice in the 
township w^as located at Lilly lake as early as 1838, and an office at 
different points in the township had existed and been kept in farmers' 
houses from that time, with different postmasters, until the founding 
of the village of Jones. Other early business men were David Fairfield, 
hotelkeeper and merchant; H. B. Doust, and A. L. Dunn. Mr. Frank 
Dunn, present supervisor from Newberg, has been in business at Jones 
since 1879. Ed H. Jones, founder of the village of Jones, is still liv- 
ing, and other old-timers of this vicinity are William Young, perhaps 
the oldest man in the town; William Harwood, Myron F. Burney, 
Alonzo P. Beeman, ex-supervisor and ex-county treasurer, and Nelson 

Corey, which is situated on the county line, in section 36 of New- 
berg tow^nship, was surveyed into a village site in April, 1872. Hazen 
W. Brown and C. R. Crawford were the first merchants. Its popula- 
tion is still less than a hundred, and its business interests necessarily 


In the south part of the county the building of the Grand Trunk 
railroad revived the decadent village of Edwardsburg and partly re- 


stored the commercial prestige which it had known in the days when the 
Chicago road was the great trunk hne of communication. In- the north- 
east corner of the county the same railroad caused the founding of two 

Wakelee, which is situated, like Dowagiac, on the corner of four 
townships, Marcellus, Volinia, Newberg and Penn, and being unincor- 
porated, divides its civic functions with the four townships, was named 
in honor of C. Wakelee, the first treasurer of the Peninsular or Grand 
Trunk railroad. The first plat of the village, which was recorded De- 
cember 12, 187 1, was made by Levi Garwood, on land in section 36 of 
Volinia township. April 10, 1873, George W. Jones and Orson Rudd 
platted an addition wdiich extended the site into the other townships. A 
steam sawmill at this point converted much of the lumber woods of 
this part of the county into merchantable lumber and the station be- 
came noted as a lumber-shipping point. 


While the Grand Trunk railroad no doubt had most to do with 
the founding of the village of Marcellus, now one of the three incor- 
porated villages of the county, one or two other influences working to 
that end should be noticed. Marcellus township, as will be remem- 
bered, was the last to be set off and last to be settled. Its inhabitants 
were long without communication, and did not have a postoffice until 
1857, when Harrison Dykeman began carrying the mail, at irregular 
intervals, from Lawton, on the main Hne of the Michigan railroad in 
Van Buren county, to his home on section 14. On the establishment of 
a regular mail route in i860, the postoffice was located in a residence 
on section 16, and was transferred from place to place until Thomas 
Burney built and opened the first store on the site of Marcellus village, 
the mail then teing distributed in his store. The first permanent post- 
office of the tow^nship was, therefore, one of the institutions that served 
as a basis for the village of Marcellus. 

To the private enterprise of George W. Jones is due in large meas- 
ure the honor of founding the village. In 1868, knowing that the rail- 
road would be completed through this point in a short time, and confi- 
dent of the prospects presented for village growth at this place, he bought 
over two hundred acres and prepared to lay out a village. The site in 
sections 15 and 22 w^as surveyed and the plat recorded by Mr. Jones 
April 23, 1870, he adoptin^^ the plan of Cassopolis as to blocks and 


ranges, getting the idea, no doubt, from his father-in-law, E. B. Sher- 
man, one of the founders of that village. Since that date the area of 
the village has been increased by six additions. The original name of 
the village was Marcellus Center. • 

Regular trains began running about the same time with the plat- 
ting of the village, and the business beginnings of the village were most 
auspicious. Some of the first merchants were Thomas Burney, already 
mentioned, John Manning, Daniel Morrison, Herman Chapman and 
Lewis Arnold. 

Within less than ten years from the founding of the village it was 
incorporated in 1879, ^^^^^ ^'^^ citizens who first took control of the village 
affairs were the following: David Snyder, president; Leander Bridge, 
Kenyon Bly, W. O. Matthews, Byron Beebe, Alexander Beebe, trus- 
tees; L. B. Des Voignes, clerk, now judge of the circuit court; Dr. E. 
C. Davis, treasurer; and W. R. Snyder, assesor. The list of subsequent 
officials will be found in the proper place on other pages. 


V\:>linia township has been as prolific of inland village sites as any 
other township. Charleston, an insignificant little place on the cross 
roads between sections 3 and 10, was laid out and the plat recorded 
June 25, 1836, the proprietors whose names are signed to the plat be- 
ing Jacob Moreland, Jacob Charles, Elijah Goble, Alexander Fulton 
and David Fulton, all pioneers of the township. The principal encour- 
agement to the founding of this village was the stage road from Niles 
to Kalamazoo that passed through this place, and Elijah Goble kept a 
tavern for the accommodation of passing travelers. After the build- 
ing of the Michigan Central in the forties the business enterprise of the 
village soon failed. Charleston is now the name of a community rather 
than of such organization as the word village implies. Perhaps time 
w^ill entirely obliterate the name, except as a historical record. 

Only two miles from Charleston, and also in the year 1836, Levi 
Lawrence, David Hopkins, Obed Bunker and John Shaw platted the 
village of Volinia on sections 11 and 12. The plat was recorded Sep- 
tember 20, 1836. Such is the record as it appears in the register's office. 
But this locality has had a variety of names. The name of the post- 
office as it appeared in the Postal Guide is Little Prairie Ronde, and 
under that title it was described in a gazetteer of 1880. Jonathan Nich- 
ols conducted the first hotel in this place, and from him the name Nich- 


olsville was given to the village. But the only plat recorded of a village 
at this site was the above, and under the name given. 


Glenwood, in section lo of Wayne township, was platted and re- 
corded in December, 1874, by Craigie Sharp, Jr., Thaddeus Hampton 
and Edwin Barnum. Glenwood's importance originated as a shipping- 
point, and that is its sole claim to prestige at the present time. The 
Hampton stock farm and the barrel-hoop industry are the principal in- 
dustries of the place. Several years after the building of the Michigan 
Central the railroad company constructed a sidetrack which was long 
known as Tietsort's Sidetrack. A steam sawmill was built there in 
1855, ^^'^^ ^o the postoffice that was soon after established in the hamlet 
was given the name Model City postoffice. Thus it remained until a 
village plat was made and the name changed to Glenwood. 


The Cushing family, among whom is Dexter Cushing (see sketch), 
came to Silver Creek township in the early fifties, and for many years 
have lived and l^een extensive land owners on the west side of the town, 
especially in sections 19 and 20. At the intersection of the east and west 
road through the center of these sections with the north and south high- 
v\^ay there has grown up a focus of a community known as Cushing 
Corners. There is a store, kept by William Cushing, son of Dexter 
Cushing. The school house is located at that point. A postoffice was 
esta]>lished there, but beyond these elemental institutions there is little 
to justify the place with the name of village. 


The many beautiful lakes of Cass county are each year attracting 
an increasing number of sum.mer visitors. Cottages are built around 
the shore, a hotel is perhaps the central structure, the social community 
peculiar to the summer resort is formed, and we have one form of cen- 
tralization, the more permanent and substantial examples of which have 
already been described. The summer resort is a development of the 
modern age, as characteristic of it as the log house was of the pioneer 
epoch. It marks the reaction from the extreme concentration of so- 
ciety which has produced the crowded cities; it is made possible by bet- 
ter facilities of transportation. Thus the same influence which in earlier 


years tended to concentrate population, now, in its higher development, 
diffuses society and enables it to enjoy the benefits of organization with- 
out the close crowding made necessary in the cities. 

Several of the lake resorts in Cass county are well known to the 
inhabitants of the cities, Magician lake and Diamond lake, to mention 
no others, being familiar names to thousand of persons who have never 
been permanent residents of the county. Most of the resorts have been 
platted into regular village lots, and without noting any of the particular 
features of each place it will be proper in this historical volume to give 
the record of these plats as they are found in the register's books. 

The oldest and largest of these resorts is Diamond Lake Park, on 
the west side of Diamond lake, and half a mile from each railroad sta- 
tion in Cassopolis. The plat was filed May 8, 189 1, the signers being 
C. S. Jones, Henly Lamb, LeRoy Osborn, proprietors. Many cottages 
have been built on this plat, the northwest shore of the lake for the dis- 
tance of about half a mile presenting the appearance in summer of a 
well populated village. A number of the cottages are owned by local 
people, but the resorters from the cities and distant points are increas- 
ing every year, and during the summer season the presence of a large 
number of strangers gives the county seat village an air of gayety and 
stir that is not found in the quieter months of the year. 

Forest Hall Park, situated along the shore of the lake a little to 
the east of Diamond Lake Park, but still in section 36 of LaGrange 
township, was platted in June, 1898, by Barak L. Rudd, proprietor. The 
inception of this resort w^as due to H. E. Sargent, superintendent of the 
Michigan Central railroad; Nathan Corwith and J. P. Smith, business 
men of Chicago, who in 1872 erected a large club house on the high 
north shore of the lake and laid out the grounds with a design of mak- 
ing a resort for club purposes. This was the beginning of the now pop- 
ular resorts on the shores of the lake. 

The most recent addition to Diamond lake platted summer villages 
is Sandy Beach, on the north shore of the lake. The plat was recorded 
by Mary Shillaber January 30, 1906. These plats by no means define 
the limits of occupation . for resort purposes. The island in the center 
of the lake, where the eccentric Job Wright made his home and grudg- 
ingly watched the encroachment of the settlers on his wild abode, is 
now well filled with cottages. Other parts of the shore line are being 
taken, and the extension of this sort of settlement finds its best 'example 
about Diamond lake. 


Eagle lake, in Ontwa township a few miles east of Edwardsburg, 
has also become popular among sportsmen and summer residents. Lake 
View Park, on the northwest shore of the lake, has been frequented for a 
number of years. A plat of the site was filed February 24, 1899, by 
Cora M. Stryker. 

Oak Beach, in section 3 and near Lake View, was platted by Henry 
J. French April 7, 1906. 

On the south side of Eagle lake is ''Brady," located in section 2 
of Ontwa, the plat being filed by John M. Brady August 7, 1895. 

Magician lake, up in the northwest corner of the county, in Silver 
Creek township, though remote from railroad facilities, presents some 
of the best pleasure grounds to be found in the county. The first plat 
to be laid out was that made by the Maple Island Resort Association, 
the president of which was W. F. Hoyt, and the plat filed January 14, 
1896. Maple Island Resort is located on an island in Magician lake. 

Magician Beach, on the north side of the lake and in section 3, 
though used for resort purposes a good many years previous, was platted 
on November 5, 19011, the proprietors being Albert E. Gregory and wife. 

Highland Beach is a resort on the north end of Indian lake in Sil- 
ver Creek township. It was platted into lots and the plat recorded May 
29, 1905, Talmadge Tice, proprietor. 

Fish lake in Marcellus township and Barren lake in Howard town- 
ship are becoming popular resort places and are being utilized by city 
as well as by local residents. 



The genesis of every village should be an interesting story. How 
one section of an erstwhile wilderness is chosen, almost by natural laws, 
from all those adjoining and becomes the seat of population and indus- 
try and social institutions is a theme lacking none of the interest that 
attaches to the development of a great human character. A village is 
an achievement which the combination, of circumstances and human 
purpose has evolved, and to find out and state the principal steps of such 
accomplishment is a labor w^orthy of any historian. 

The description on the foregoing pages of the many village sites 
of the county is proof of liow easy a matter it was in pioneer times to 
found a village on paper, yet quite beyond the bounds of human fore- 
sight to know what the course of events would bring as destiny; Some 
village plats never had inhabitants and long since reverted to the 
sectional system of land demarcation. Others experienced early growth 
and later, through the shifts of events already described, stopped grow- 
ing and often began to decline. The fates of the various villages re- 
mind us of the parable of the seed that fell on different soils, some to 
be destroyed before germination had begun, others to wither after a 
brief time of growth, and a few to live and flourish and produce 

The early fortunes of Cassopolis undoubtedly hinged on the loca- 
tion of the county seat. The series of endeavors which were necessary 
to gain that point found some strong and enterprising men ready to 
carry them forward to success. On the east shore of Stone lake Abram 
Tietsort had built his cabin in 1829, and among the original land en- 
trants his name appears in the records of section 35 and several adjoin- 
ing ones. A little east of Tietsort's house, in section 36, was the home 
of the Jewell family, so conspicuous in the history of this part of the 
county from pioneer times to the present. Two others whose names 
deserve mention for their part in the founding of Cassopolis were 
Oliver Johnson in section 25 and Ephraim McCIeary in section 26. The 
most conspicuous workers in this little drama, however, were Elias B. 


Sherman, a lawyer settler of 1830, and Alexander H. Redfield, whose 
name belongs in the forefront of lawyers and public men of Cass county. 

It must be remembered that at the time of the events now narrated 
the county seat had already been located at Dr. Fowler's village site of 
Geneva. By fraud, so said many people, and the dissatisfaction with 
the commissioners' choice of location was strongly expressed. 

It seems necessary to refer to the exact chronology of the events 
comprising this initial episode of Cassopolis' history. The data not 
being complete to verify and classify every detail, it is i30ssible that the 
location' of the county seat and the founding of Cassopolis may have 
been brought about with some slight variation from the usually accepted 

Cass county was organized in November, 1829, but the act author- 
izing the location of a county seat w^as not passed until July, 1830. The 
citizens did not proceed immediately after organization to administer 
their civil functions, since the first courts were not held until the sum- 
mer of 183 1 and the first lx)ard of supervisors did not meet until Octo- 
ber, 1831, and the place of both official gatherings was at Edwardsburg, 
in acordance with legislative enactment. The first set of commission- 
ers probably located the court house site during the summer of 1830. 
As already related, it w^as located on the land of Dr. H. H. Fowler, on 
section 31 of Penn township, this land having been entered in May, 
1830. It cannot be stated with certainty that Dr. Fowler had already 
platted a village at this point which the commissioners chose. The 
plat of Geneva was filed May i, 1832, several m.onths after the county 
seat question had been permanently decided, and the further fact that 
the description states that "the public square is given to the county on 
which to erect a courthouse" provided the county seat w^as located there, 
makes it reasomably certain that the plat was made while the decision as 
to the county seat was still in the balance. Yet the plat must have been 
made after January, 1831, since Hart L. Stewart was one of the pro- 
prietors whose name is signed to the plat and who did not enter his land 
until January, 183 1. From these facts and figures it is deducible that 
Dr. Fowler's land had no special improvements or advantages to rec- 
ommend it as the location of the courthouse site in preference to the 
similar tracts of land ow^ned by a dozen other settlers in that immediate 
locality. And each settler w^as an active claimant for the honor of hav- 
ing the county seat located on his land, and no doubt in proportion with 
the degree of his previous desire was the strength of his disappoint- 


ment and dissatisfaction after the decision had been announced in favor 
of Dr. Fowler. The story o-f fraud in. connection with the act of loca- 
tio'n is aside from' our purpOvSe here except as it added strength to the ar- 
guments for change of the site. The essential fact is that each settler 
was on practically an equal basis with his neighbors in his contest for 
the site of the county seat, and that in due course of time a village 
would have been platted and \vould have spmng up wherever the com- 
missioners had ''stuck the stake'' for the county buildings. 

It is not known how the settlers individually stood with reference 
to the first location of the county seat. But, as elsewhere related, the 
legislature, in response to the request of what must have been an in- 
fluential proportion of the citizens, passed an act, approved March 4, 
1 83 1, for the relocation of the county seat. This restored the contest 
to its original status, and every group of settlers in the central part of 
the county urged the advantages of their favored locality upon the three 

The act provided that the commissioners should assemble in Cass- 
opolis the third Monday in May, 1831, to consider the respective claims, 
but as Governor Mason did not issue his proclamation declaring Cassopo- 
lis to have received the choice until December 19, 183 1, the matter must 
have been debated and undecided until the late fall of that year. This 
conclusion is forced upon us if we are to accept the usual account of the 
manner in which Cassopolis was brought into active competition for the 

In the list oif original land entries of section 26, LaGrange town- 
ship, are found the names of E. B. Sherman and A. H. Redfield WMth 
the date September 22, 183 1. The story of how these young lawyers 
came into possession of this land has often been told. Shermaai, having 
arrived in the midst of the excitement over the county seat affair, 
had decided that he too might enter the contest and in pursuance of his 
plans fixed upon the southeast corner of section 26 as the location which 
he would urge upon the attention of the commissioners. Before start- 
ing to the land office at White Pigeon he learned that the Jewells also 
were preparing to enter that particular land, and in consequence he 
miade all haste to anticipate his rivals. Arriving in Edwardsburg he 
admitted another young lawyer, A. H. Redfield, to a knowledge and co- 
operation in his plans, and by pooling their utmost cash resources and 
borrowing ten dollars they had enough to make the entry and purchase 
the desired land a few hours in advance of the Jewells, who arrived 


in White Pi§feon just as Sherman was leaving with the receipt for the 
land safely in his pocket. 

Sherman and Redfield, on their return to the banks of Stone lake, 
began an ag^gressive campaign. They knew the value of organization 
and harmony, and associated with themselves several of their neigh- 
bors, namely : Abram Tietsort, who gave to the village site forty acres 
on the banks of Stone lake in section 35; Oliver Johnson, who contrib- 
uted twenty acres from section 25 ; and Ephraim McCleary, twenty acres 
from section 36. These five men were the proprietors whose names 
are signed to the village plat, which vv^as recorded November 19, 1831. 
The village must have been platted and all the circumstances just re- 
lated must have taken place between September 22, the date of Sherman's 
entry oi the land, and November 19. In this interim the associates had 
prosecuted their case before the commissioners, naming three streets 
in their honor and presenting the other advantages of the site, and it 
was probably in the month of November that the decision was reached 
by the commissioners, for, as will be recalled from a ]M-evious chapter, 
the proclamation of the governor was made December 19th, by which 
Cassopolis was affirmed the county seat. 

Cassopolis w^as now secure in the possession of the seat of justice, 
and any further details with reference to this central institution must 
be found on other pages, wdiile here we proceed with the tracing of the 
development of the village as such. And here it may be mentioned in 
passing that the original spelling of the village name, as found on old 
letters and the first plat, was '^Cassapolis,'' and that the change from a 
to 0, which was clearly dictated by euphony, took place gradually in 
custom and was finally affirmed by the postoffice department. 

The history of the public square of Cassopolis is none the less im- 
portant because few people of this generation know that the village ever 
possessed such a locality. To picture early Cassopolis it is necessary to 
reconstruct mentally a public square, measuring twenty-six rods north 
and south and twenty rods east and west, .around which were grouped 
the early stores and taverns, and each side bisected by the wide streets 
of State and Broadway. To comprehend the appearance of the village 
as it would be had the original plans been carried out, w^e must clear 
away, in imagination, all the business buildings which front Broad- 
way on the west, from the Goodwin House on the north edge of the 
square, to the alley ten rods south of State street, and alsoi all the build- 
ings on the east side of Broadway north of the same alley. In other 


words, a person standing at the intersection of State and Broadway 
would be at the center of the old square, with a clear space on the east 
to the jail and Baptist church, on the west to the Newell House and the 
Moon supply house, both buildings that belong to an earlier period. 
All the buildings on the area of the old square are of comparatively re- 
cent date. With the exception of the old court house and jail on the 
northeast quarter of the sc|uare and the ^'Old Fort," containing county 
offices, on the northwest quarter, the square was unoccupied by per- 
ma:nent buildings up to forty years ago-, and around its four sides 
stood some of the structiuxs which were landmarks at that time and 
which have now nearly all disappeared from sight and memory. Among 
such buildings of that time we recall on the east side the old Cassopolis 
House, a wooden building oii the site of the present Baptist church, 
south of which was a blacksmith shop, and across State street, where 
the jail now stands, was a two-story frame building, the upper story 
being the Odd Fellows' hall. On the north side stood the brick store 
building, now the Shaw hotel, and on the west side O'f Broadway was 
the Union hotel, built by Eber Root. On the west side stood the first 
frame building built on the plat, elsewhere mentioned, and on, the 
south side of the street the old building above mentioned and then used 
as a tin shop; and south of this stood a frame building occupied by 
Daniel Blackman as a law office and by Asa Kingsbury as a banking 
house. The south side of the square was bordered by a frame build- 
ing still standing, then used as a store, and on the east side of Broad- 
way by the Eagle hotel. While these buildings at that time occupied 
the most eligible and conspicuous sites of the village, subsequent devel- 
opments have placed many of them on alleyways, and rows of brick 
business blocks have shut them from the main routes of business traffic. 

With this understanding of the situation forty years ago, we may 
properly introduce the story of how the public square became absorbed 
for business purposes and was lost to* the county. The history was 
given in detail in the decision of the supreme court in 1880, which 
permanently confirmed the defendants in the ownership of all the pub- 
lic square expect that ix)rtion covered by the court house. The deci- 
sion is interesting as the most authoritative resume of the circum- 
stances and events which j>ertain to the public square question. 

The history of the case as outlined in the opinion delivered bv 
Judge Cooley is as follows: When the three commissioners located 
the county seat at CassO'polis, the laying out of a village plat contain- 









ing a block of land marked ''Cassopolis public square," ''designed for 
buildings for public uses/' was a distinct offer on the part of the propri- 
etors to dedicate the whole of the public square for public buiklings. 
''The inference is very strong, if not concUisive, that if the county had 
proceeded to appropriate the wdiole square to its needs for county ])uild- 
ings this would have been a good acceptance of the offer and would 
have perfected the dedication.'' 

But the supervisors did not see fit to employ the square as the 
site of the first pubh'c buildings, the first jail, used till 1852, as 
also the first court house, used till 1841, being situated on lots 
not the public square. Furthermore, when the county commis- 
sioners, in 1839, pl^iined the erection of a new court house, they con- 
veyed to Asa Kingsbury and associates of the "Court House Com- 
pany" a deed to the public square and grounds, reserving only the 
pri^'ilege to erect a court house on the northeast quarter. This last 
reservation is the first and only distinct act of acceptance on the part 
of the county of the grounds originally dedicated for public purposes, 
and though the conveyance was made "with the privileges and appur- 
tenances for the uses and purposes for which said square and grounds 
were conveyed to said county," the court held that, as the conveyance 
was made by a deed which also conveyed a large number of village lots 
to the grantees for their own use and benefit, "it seems scarcely open 
to doubt that the intent was that all right of control on the part of 
the county w^as meant to be conveyed to the grantees." 

The proprietors of the village plat having made the broad oflfer to 
donate the square for public buildings generally and the county having 
accepted for its purposes a site for a court house and at the same time 
transferred to trustees any power of co<ntrol in respect toi the remainder, 
the dedication to the county "must be deemed to have been restricted 
to the actual acceptance of a court house site, as being adequate to the 
county wants, and the county could not, therefore, claim as of right 
any further land for its uses." 

After the erection of the court house in 1841, for the construction 
of which the Court House Company had accepted as part payment a deed 
to certain parcels of land, including presumptively all the public square 
not covered by the court house, the question of ownership of the vacant 
square rested until the county built a jail, in 1852, on the same corner 
with the court house. Kingsbury disputed the right to do this and the 
county subsequently purchased the land of him. Then, in i860, the 


county office building was erected on the northwest quarter, and this 
also was put up against the protest of Kingsbury and associates. 

The other two quarters of the square were not occupied by the 
county in any manner, and this land was claimed individually on the 
basis of the deed given by the county commissioners tO' the parties 
who had erected the court house. The history of the appropriation of 
this land for commercial purposes is thus given in the decision: 

In 1836 Kingsbury commenced business as a merchant in a store 
situated immediately south of the southwest quarter of the square and 
used in connection therewith a part of that quarter for the storage 
of lumber, shingles, barrels and boxes, and with a hitching rack for 
horses. In 1856 he built a new store, seventy-two feet in length, with 
stone foundation, one foot of which for the entire length was upon the 
square. The cellarways for the store wxre on the square. From^ 1858 
to 1869 a tenant had hay scales on the square, set over a walled pit, 
near the center of the quarter; he moved them in the year last men- 
tioned to another part of the same quarter, where he continued to use 

In 1865 Joseph Harper and Darius Shaw deeded their interest in 
the public square tO' Daniel Blackman. Redfield also deeded to Black- 
man in 1869. In 1870 Blackman deeded to Kingsbury; the heirs of 
Tietsort gave liim a deed in the same year and Silvers another in 
1873. Blackman, it seems, had set up some claims of title to the south- 
east quarter of the square in 1863; a building had been moved uj^on it, 
w^hich was occupied for a law office and millinery shop until 1878, when 
it was moved away and a brick store erected in its place. The south- 
east quarter is now (1880) built up and claimed by the applicants. In 
1868 Kingsbury platted the southwest quarter of the square into' six 
lots and sold five of them to persons who erected two-story brick stores 
thereon, which they now occup)^ and claim as o^wners. Kingsbury also 
erected a similar building for a banking house. The buildings were 
completed in 1869 and 1870; they have been taxed to* the occupants and 
the taxes paid ever since 1868. 

Such was the situation when, in March, 1879, the board of super- 
visors brought suit in the circuit court to eject the occupants from the 
public square, which they claimed to the county on the ground that 
the land had been dedicated by the original proprietors in 1831. Judge 
John B. Shipman of the St. Joseph circuit decided that the dedication 
had not been perfected, and the state supreme court, in October, 1880, 


affirmed this decision in an opinion the substance of which has been 
given above. This was tlie conclusion of a rather remarkable case, 
involving many facts of history that have become quite obscured in 
later years. 

The original plat of Cassopolis, copies of which are still extant, is 
a very interesting document, from which the subsequent history of the 
village may be computed. The platted land measured one hundred and 
nineteen and one-half by one hundred and ninety-one rods, the rectangle 
being broken on the southwest corner by the lake. The north and 
south streets named on the plat were : *^West," which has never been 
opened; ^'Disbroiw," ^^Broadway," ^^Rowland," "O'Keefe," ^Timber" 
and ''East." On the north side of the plat no street was designated 
and none has since been opened. The first east and west thoroughfare 
was ''York" street, and then came "State," "Jefferson," "Water" and 
"South" streets, from which familiar boundaries the limits of the orig- 
inal village may be easily recalled. Subsequent additions have expanded 
the village mainly to the south and east, toward the railroads, encircling 
the entire east side of Stone lake. The lake occupied the principal 
natural position in influencing the location of residence and business 
enterprises at the early period. But the keystone of the village was the 
public square, designedly the site of the county's business institutions, 
around which the first business houses were grouped. 

Around the public square the first business and residence houses 
of Cassopolis began building. On a lot facing east on the southwest 
comer of the square Ira B. Henderson erected a double log cabin, which 
became the first hotel or tavern, and near the southwest corner of the 
old square John Parker had his log house. As stated elsewhere, the 
oldest building that has been left from pioneer times is the east front 
portion of the Newell House, on the north side of State street, one 
hundred and fifteen feet west of Broadway. The original part of this 
building was put up in 1832 by Sherman and Redfield, the promoters 
of the village, and its first lawyers. This was the first frame dwelling 
house erected on the plat, and after several additions were made to it, 
became a village tavern. 

The "old red store," kept by the Silvers, was the principal mercan- 
tile institution of the pioneer village. It stood the first lot south of the 
southwest quarter of the square and now stands west on Disbrow street 
and is used as a dwelling house. In this store A. H. Redfield kept the 
postoffice. The postoffice was established in 1831, about coincident 



with the creation of the county seat. The office was first kept in a 
small building that stood where the Goodwin House kitchen now stands, 
at the northwest corner of the square. 

The distillery of the Silvers was on the shore of the lake, just 
west of Disbrow street, and Abram Tietsort's house was on the lake 
shore outside the old village plat. These business and private houses 
were the principal ones that formed the nucleus of Cassopolis village in 
its beginnings. A brief retrospective sketch will describe the import- 
ant improvements and events which have developed the village from 
that time to the present. The county buildings, the schools and churches 
belong to other chapters, but the main points, the ''high lights," can 
be detailed here. 

As a civil organization Cassopolis progressed slowly during the 
first forty years. The village was first incorporated by the board of 
supervisors October 14, 1863. The census taken at that time showed 
four hundred and seventy-five persons residing on the area of a mile 
square comprising the four cornering quarter sections of sections 25, 
26, 35 and 36. The heads of the families represented by the census 
and whose signatures appear on the petition to the board of super- 
visors may be called ''the charter citizens'' of the village of Cassopolis, 
and deserve naming in this chapter. They are: 

Joseph Smith, 
O. S. Custard, 
M. Graham, 
David Histed, 
A. Smith, 
L. H. Glover, 
Isaac Brown, 
Ira Brownell, 
H. K. McManus, 
Charles Hartfelter, 
Byron Bradley, 
Charles W. Brown, 
Charles W. Clisbee, 
Peter Sturr, 
A. Garw^ood, 
G. A. Ely, 
L. R. Read, 
James Norton, 
L. -D. Tompkins, 
J. B. Chapman, 

Jacob Silver, 
Isaiah Inman, 
Ethan Kelly, 
J. P. Osborn, 
Thomas Sta])leton, 

D. L. French, 
Lewis Clisbee 
Barak Mead, 

I. V. Sherman, 
M. J. Baldwin, 
A. E. Cleveland, 

E. B. Sherwood 
Jeft^erson Brown, 
J. K. Riter, 

W. K. Palmer, 
Geo. W. VanAntwerp, 
S. Playford, 
Henry Shafifer, 
Charles A. Hill, 
J. Tietsort, 

John McManus, 
M. B. Custard, 
Joseph Harper, 
John FI. Powers, 
Bartholomew Weaver, 

C. C. Allison, 
Heniy Walton, 
M. Baldwin, 
H. L. King, 

S. S. Chapman, 
Hiram Brown, 
San ford Ash croft, 

D. Blackman, 
S. T. Read. 
Daniel B. Smith, 
R. M. Wilson, 
D. S. Jones, 
Joseph Graham, 
James Boyd. 


Of this list of men, many of whom were identified in a prom- 
inent way with the history of the village, only a few are still living 
in the year of this writing. Those living and still residents of the 
village are: L. H. Glover, Charles Hartfelter, J. B. Chapman, D. L. 
French, Henry Shaffer, C. C. Allison, Daniel B. Smith ; others resid- 
ing elsewhere, Byron Bradley, Charles W. Brown, Isaiah Tnman, I. V. 

From a population of less than five hundred Cassopolis has in- 
creased to one thousand five hundred. Cassopolis was in a peculiarly 
adverse position during the early years of its history. It was the county 
seat, the official center of the coimty. But without that institution it is 
reasonable to believe that the village w^ould have experienced mutations 
of fortune like Edwardsburg and other centers of the county. Before 
the railroad era, Edwardsburg on the south held the commercial su- 
premacy because of its position on the Chicago road. Then in the 
forties the Michigan Central established the main transportation route 
in the northwest corner of the county and gave origin to' Dowagiac, 
\\diich at once became the shipping point for Cassopolis, together with 
the northwestern parts of the county. 

Between the establishment of the county seat in 183 1 and the 
building of the railroad in 1871, the years are marked by no event of 
pregnant meaning for the development of the village ; the community 
grew slowly, the various institutions were added in regular course, a 
few factories were established, civil organization followed when pop- 
ulation had reached the necessary limit, and at the close of the period 
just mentioned the county seat was the conspicuous pillar in the cor- 
porate existence of Cassopolis. 

In 1870-71 two railroads came to Cassopolis. Theretofore the 
merchants had hauled their goods from Dowagiac. The mail had come 
from Dowagiac. The telegraph was at Dowagiac. All the surplus pro- 
duction and market commodities that would naturally have been dis- 
posed of at Cassopolis were transported to the railroad for shipment. 
But with the building of these railroads the world was opened, as it 
were, to Cassopolis. The court house on the public square for the first 
time had a rival institution in the depot on the south line of the village. 
Since the railroad was built the principal growth of the village has taken 

In 1863 the population was less than five hundred. In 1870 it was 


728 and in 1880 it was 912; in 1890, 1,369; at the census of igoo it 
was 1,320, and according to the state census of 1904 it was 1,477. 

The first additions to tlie village site began to be platted about 
the same time as the railroads were built. An iron foundry, a na- 
tional bank, various business enterprises, one of the newspapers and other 
undertakings, whose inception dates from the first years of the rail- 
road period, indicate the advance along all lines made by Cassopolis 
at that time. 

In 1875, when the special charter was granted by the legislature, 
the limits of the village were extended north a quarter of a mile and 
the same distance south to the railroad. The village was governed by 
this charter for twenty years, and in 1895 the blanket charter provided 
for all the villages of Michigan became effective. 

In recent years Cassopolis has made commendable progress in mu- 
nicipal improvements. The old method of fighting fire with buckets has 
been superseded by a volunteer fire department, consisting of a chief and 
twenty members. The equipment of hose cart and hose, hook and lad- 
der truck and other apparatus are kept ready for immediate use at the 
city hall building, a brick two-story structure 011 North Broadway, a 
short distance from the square and north of the Goodwin House. The 
upper story of the house is used for council rooms. The city hall was 
erected in 1895. 

But as a precedent to this efficient fire protection and the most 
important of all the village improvements is the water-works system, 
which was established in 1891 at a cost of $10,000. The village was 
bonded for this debt, the first of the ten annual installments being paid 
in 1896. The water is pumped into the mains from the depths of Stone 
lake, where the water is crystal pure and ice cold, and free from lime, 
or "soft." The village has arrangements with the Cassopolis Mill- 
ing & Power Company for pumping the water through the mains, and 
the same company furnishes the Grand Trunk Railroad with water. 
The power company also light the village with electricity. 

Those who have been most prominently identified with the com- 
mercial activity of the village should receive mention. The dean of 
them all is Charles E. Voorhis, who began in the grocery business in 
1865, and has been in this exclusive line of trade for forty years. He 
was the first to embark in one line of trade as distinct from the ^'gen- 
eral store." The grocery firm of S. B. Thomas & Son stands second 
in point of time to Mr. Voorhis. S. B. Thomas began here in 1876. 


D. L. French, who went out of business in the late nineties, was the 
first to engage in the hardware business exclusively, beginning in March, 
1862. W. B. Hayden has been in the hardware business since 1884. 
The late George M. Kingsbury was closely interested in the business 
life of the community for a quarter of a century. Others whose names 
should be recorded are: S. S. Flarrington and G. L. Smith, who en- 
gaged in the mercantile business thirty years ago as partners and are 
now individually engaged in the same business; J. B. Chapman, who 
with Henry Shaffer began the manufacturing and sale of boots and shoes 
in 1858. After seven years with Mr. Shaffer, Mr. Chapman acquired his 
interest and continued the business with different partners until 1885, 
when he again became sole proprietor and continued the business for 
eleven years. 



During the decade of the thirties the few settlers who^ Hved in the 
vicinity of which the city of Dowagiac is now the center had to go to 
LaGrange or Cassopohs or Sumnerville for their mail and supplies. As 
related on a previous page, LaGrange was the manufacturing metropo- 
lis of the county during that decade and for some years afterward. The 
water power of Dowagiac creek in the neighborhood of the township 
corners where the city is now located early presented itself as an at- 
tractive site for industrial and village purposes, it is true. In the regis- 
ter's office is found a plat of the village of Venice, filed for record Aug- 
ust 6, 1836, by Orlando Craine. This site was laid out on the north 
side of Dowagiac creek, and in the southwest quarter of section 31 of 
Wayne township. Nothing came of this attempt toi boom the loca- 
tion; not a lot was sold, and Venice is in the same class of villages as 
Shakespeare and Mechanicsburg and some others described on previous 
pages. But it is of interest to know that all that part of the city of 
Dowagiac bounded on the south and west respectively by Division street 
and North Front street was' the site of Orlando' Craine's Venice. 

Among the original land entries of LaGrange township is that of 
Renniston and Hunt in section 6, dated in May, 1830. William Ren- 
niston in the same year built a carding mill on the creek just east of the 
Colby Milling Company's mill, where the road from Cassopolis crosses 
the stream. At the same site he built, a few years later, a grist mill. 
Successive owners of this property were Lyman Spalding, Jonathan 
Thorne and Erastus H. Spalding, from whom it passed into the hands 
of PI. F. Colby in 1868 and a part of the splendid manufacturing inter- 
ests now controlled under the Colby name. 

The Venice enterprise and the manufacturing interests show that 
this locality had some advantages as a village site even in the pioneer 
period. LaGrange, however, distant only a few miles, Avas still in the 
ascendant. The few citizens on the present site of Dowag^iac could have 
had no prevision of what the future would do' for the locality. On 
the authority of Mr. A. M. Moon of Dowagiac, the sole inhabitant of 


the site of Dowagiac in 1835 ^'^^^^ Patrick Hamilton, and of course 
some settlers were grouped about the mills. Certainly the prospects of 
this spot becoming the home of trade and industry had not appeared 
at that date. LaGrange, Edwardsburg, Cassopolis, Adamsville, or any 
of several other incipient villages would have been thought at that time 
to possess better outlook for the future than the wnlderness on the 
north side of Dowagiac creek where Orlando Craine had, w^ith the 
fatuity of visionary enterprise, platted a village that, except as a 
prophecy of the city of today, hardly deserves remembrance. 

But the railroad came, the new fulcrum of civilization, and changed 
and rearranged all former bases of industry and society. The seats of 
manufacturing at LaGrange were transferred to the mill sites, which 
had formerly been in the wilderness, but because of the presence of the 
iron road soon became the center of Cass county's manufacturing enter- 
prise. In 1847 Nicholas Cheesebrough was engaged in buying the right 
of way through Cass county for the Michigan Central railroad, the con- 
struction of which is described on other pages. The inception of the 
village of Dowagiac was due to him and Jacob Beeson of Niles. They 
bought of Patrick Hamilton eighty acres in the northeast corner of 
Pokagon township, and on this land was laid out the original plat of 
Dowagiac, which was recorded in the register's office February 16, 1848. 

Thus the original area of Dowagiac was all in Pbkagon township, 
diagonally across from the plat of Venice, which had been laid in Wayne 
township. And all of the plat was located on the north side of the 
railroad. At the time the plat was made, the railroad had not been 
completed for operation, but no doubt the grading was well under 
way, for trains began running into Niles the following October. " The 
original village was in the area that lies south of West Division street, 
and bounded on the east by the railroad to the point where the town- 
ship line intersects the same, extending w^est to the intersection of Alain 
with Division street, and south tO' Dowagiac creek. 

The railroad was responsible for the diagonal directions of the 
streets in tlie business portion of the city. In the w^ords of the plat, 
''Front street runs parallel to the track of the Michigan Central rail- 
road." The railroad runs at an angle of thirty-six degrees with the 
north and south line. Hence, to get north bearings w^hen standing on 
Front street it is necessary to face about twohfifths of a right angle. The 
calculation and sense of direction needed to perform' this feat properly 
are greater than most citizens wnll practice, and only the oldest residents 


can figure out the time of day by the position of the sun and reduce the 
bizarre directions to the four fundamentals of the sign post. 

At right angles with Front street the founders laid out Main street, 
one hundred and eight feet wide, wider than any other street on the 
plat, and designed as the business thoroughfare. But a village is not 
made according to plat, and when Dowagiac began to grow commer- 
cially the business men preferred to locate along Front street rather than 
on Main street, which today, without business houses except at the 
lower end, on account of its exceptional width seems incongruous and 
like a big hiatus separating the town. The other streets, as first laid out, 
were Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, New York and Pennsylvania, parallel 
with Front street, and Pine, Commercial, High and Chestnut streets 
parallel with Main street. In all there were one hundred and eighty- 
four lots and fractional lots in the original plat. 

Since the original plat was recorded the register of deeds at Cassopo- 
lis has received plats of forty additions, showing how the limits of the 
city have extended in all directions from the nucleus. Except along the 
line of railroad the rectangular system of platting has been followed 
in nearly all subsequent additions. The first addition to the village w^as 
made in April, 1849, by Patrick Hamilton, who laid out some of his 
land in the southeast corner of Silver Creek township, the area com- 
prising all the lots bounded by North Front, Spruce, Main and Division 
streets. The second addition was made by Jacob Beeson from land 
in Pokagon in March, 1850. In 185 1 Jay W. McOmber platted into 
lots a portion of land in the southwest corner of Wayne township, and 
in the same year Erastus H. Spalding added some land from^ northwest 
LaGrange, so that in three years' time Dowagiac had expanded its area 
into four townships, and the many additions since that time have mere*- 
ly increased this civic area, although LaGrange township has given less 
land to the city than any of the others, owing to the creek and mill' 
sites presenting obstructions to growth in this direction. 

The miunicipal growth and improvement of Dowagiac have kept 
pace widi the increase in its area and population. By i860, twelve years 
after the founding, the number of inhabitants was 1,181. Two years 
previously the village had been incorporated by the board of super- 
visors. The petition for incorporation was granted February i, 1858, 
and the first village election was held at Nicholas Bock's American 
House, now the Commercial House, on Division and Front streets. The 


officers chasen at this election and for the subsequent years will be 
found in the official lists. 

In 1870 population had increased to 1,932. During the next dec- 
ade, which witnessed the construction of two other raihx»ads through 
the county, the rate of increase was slower, the census for 1880 show- 
ing 2,102 inhabitants. In the meantime Dowagiac had become a citv. 
The last village election was held in March, 1877, and in the following 
April the first election of city officers took place. From 1877 to 1892 
the city was represented in the county board by one supervisor, and 
beginning with 1893 one supervisor has been chosen from each of the 
three wards. Thus in the civic organization of the county Dowagiac 
stands on a plane with the townships. The population has more than 
doubled since incorporation as a city. In 1890 the enumeration was 
2,806, and in 1900 it was 4,151. The state census of 1904 gave 4,404. 

Dowagiac is progressive as regards municipal improvements and * 
conveniences. Streets and sidewalks, lighting and fire protection are 
the first matters to receive the attention of a village community. As 
regards the first, Dowagiac was very deficient in the first years of its his- 
tory, and hence the more to be proud of at this time. Being built on the 
banks of the creek, the village was in places marshy, and it is said that 
in the months of high water the farmers of Silver Creek had to hitch 
their teams on the other side of Dowagiac swamp and come across as 
best they could on foot to do their trading. Furthermore, to quote the 
language of an early settler, ''there was not grass enough in the whole 
town to bleach a sheet on." Grace Greenwood, the well know^n writer 
and sister of Dr. W. E. Clarke, while visiting the latter in 1858, wrote 
a descriptive article tO' an eastern paper, in which she complained that 
the people did not plant shade trees in their door yards or in the streets, 
and that the burning sun shone down pitilessly on the grassless ground 
and unprotected dwellings. Of course these deficiencies have long since 
been relieved, not by organized effort so much as by the individual ac- 
tion of many citizens moved by the desire to beautify and adorn their 
own property. The paving of streets and laying oi substantial side- 
walks has been going on for years. Board walks are becoming more 
and more rare, brick and cement being the popular materials. A num- 
ber of streets are improved with gravel roadways, and in 1894 Front 
street through the business section was paved with brick, that being 
one of the best investments the city has made, since a paved street is at 


the very basis of a metropolitan appearance, which prepossesses the fa- 
vor of strangers and visitors. 

The majority of the citizens have personal recollections of the 
time w^hen all the streets were dully illuminated with kerosene lamps. 
In 1887 the Round Oak Gas & Fuel company drilled two thousand feet 
belO'W the surface in search for gas, but found none. The Dowagiac 
Gas & Fuel Company was estaljlished in 1892 and supplies light and 
fuel to a large number of patrons. 

Nearly every village and city has had its disastrous fires. The 
first one in Dowagiac occurred in January, 1864, wdien the business 
houses on Front street north of Commercial were burned. In January, 
1866, a $50,000 fire destroyed Front street south of Commercial, and 
in June, 1882, the block south of Beeson street was destroyed. In 1854, 
six years after the founding of the village, a meeting of the citizens was 
held to provide for fire protection, but it was not until 1858 that any 
important action w^as taken. A hand fire engine was purchased and 
other apparatus procured ; the engine continued in use for a quarter of 
a century. Hamilton Hose Co. No. i was also formed and is still 
in existence, having been reorganized in 1880. With the installation 
of water-works in 1887 the efficiency of the fire department was increased 
several fold. The pressure in the mains rendered the old hand engine 
unnecessary, and the placing of electric signal apparatus and other im- 
provements afford a fire protection which is equal to' that of any other 
city of the size in southern Michigan. The volunteer hose company 
and hook and ladder company of the city are reinforced in their work 
by the independent companies of the Round Oak Stove and the Dowa- 
giac Manufacturing companies' plants. 

Dowagiac's schools and churches and library, which are the cor- 
nerstones of its institutional life, its clubs and social and professional 
interests, and much other information bearing on the history oi the 
city wall be treated in other chapters, for w^hich the reader is referred to 
the index. In a resume of the main features of Dowagiac's growth, 
the railroad must, of course, be given first place as the originating cause. 
As soon as the trains began carrying the mail through this point in- 
stead of the stage coach or horseback carrier, a postoffice was estab- 
lished, in November, 1848. Arad C. Balch, who became the first post- 
miaster, at the time sold goods in the Cataract House, the name that had 
been given to a boarding house for the railroad workmen, which stood 
on the bluff east of the track. In naming the successive postmasters 


many of Dowagiac's prominent citizens are mentioned, for the suc- 
cessor of Mr. Balch was M. T. Garvey, whose long career in public 
affairs made him one of the best known men in Cass county ; following 
him have been Noel B. Hollister, James A. Lee, William H. Campbell, 
William M. Heazlitt, Henry B. Wells, David W. Clemmer, Clarence 
L. Sherw^ood, A. M. Moon, H. A. Burch and Julius O. Becraft. Mr. 
Becraft is serving his third, though not successive, term. In 1899 free 
city delivery was established, and this event is another milestone in 
Dowagiac's career. 

Dowagiac's business area is now quite solidly concentrated along 
Front street from Park Place to Division and for some distance up sev- 
eral of the intersecting streets. Going back half a century in our en- 
deavor to picture the commercial status of the young village, it is evi- 
dent that the business center at that time, while comparatively large 
and showing excellent growth since the founding of the village, was 
only a nucleus of wdiat it is now. There is at .hand a business direc- 
tory of Dow^agiac as it appears in the Cass Cotmty Advocate of January 
II, 185 1, that being the first paper established in Dowagiac, its founder 
being Ezekiel S. Smith, a brother of Captain Joel H. Smith, a long- 
time resident of Dowagiac. 

The Dowagiac House is first named in this directory. It stood 
on the corner of Main and Front streets, and is said to have been the 
first hotel built. A. J. Wares was the builder and was landlord at the 
date above given. The house received various additions, and was later 
known as the Continental. Bock's hotel, at Division and Front streets, 
has already been mentioned. The next advertiser is Livingstoni & 
Fargo's American Express, names very suggestive in express company 
history. William Bannard w^as local agent of the company. 

Under the head of ''dr>^ goods, groceries, etc.," are named four 
finns. The first is Lofland, Lybrook & Jones, whose large brick store 
was on the northwest side of Front street facing the depot. The firm 
consisted oif Joshua Lx»fland, Henley C. Lybrook and Gilman C. Jones. 
G. W. Clark, also in business at that time, had a store on the corner 
of Front and Commercial streets. 

W. H. Atwood was then in business in succession to the first im- 
portant mercantile enterprise of Dowagiac. Before the founding of 
Dowagiac Joel H. Smith and brother, Ezekiel S., had been in business 
at Cassopolis, but at the beginning oi 1848 they moved a stock of goods 
by team from Cassopolis, passing through LaGrange, then a thriving 


village and which to many seemed at the time a more favorable loca- 
tion for business than Dowagiac. The Smith brothers built their one- 
story fram.e store on the comer of Main and Front streets, it being the 
first building specially erected for mercantile purposes. It was a land- 
mark in Dowagiac, having stood at the corner for half a century, until 
it was moved out to Indian lake to be converted into a barn. The 
Smiths sold their business in about a year to Mr. Atwood, who, as we 
see, was proprietor in January, 185 1. 

E.. H. and B. F. Spalding were also proprietors of a general store 
at that time. Turner & Rogers dealt in groceries, drugs and med- 
icines, S. Sheridan in groceries and provisions, vS. Bowling in boots, leath- 
er, etc., J. C. and G. W. Andrews, who advertise stoves and tinware, 
were the pioneer hardware firm, G. W. Andrews continuing in business 
until 1877. Their first store was in the basement of Bock's hotel. 

Others w4io advertised in the Advocate were Parker B. Holmes, 
iron worker and general jobber; George Walker, draper and tailor; 
Henry Arnold, carpenter and joiner; J. H. Sharp, carriage and wagon 
maker; Thomas Brayton, physician and surgeon, and J. T. Keable, 
physician and surgeon. 

There were several other business concerns in the village be- 
sides those named in the advertising directory, but the only one calling 
for mention is the clothing house of Jacob Hirsh, who began business 
here in 1850, being the founder of the business which is still carried on 
by Hirsh & Fhillipson. 

Other business men whose long connection with commercial life 
makes them deserving of mention were Benjamin Cooper and Francis 
J. Mosher, the first exclusive grocery merchants. Mr. Mosher's father, 
Ira D., was a resident on the site of Dowagiac when the railroad came. 

C. L. Sherwood, who has been in the drug business longer than 
any of his competitors, came to Dowagiac in 1868 and purchased the 
stocks of Asa Huntington and N. B. Hollister, pioneers in the business, 
and also the store of Howard & Halleck. 

In the line of groceries George D. Jones, who has lived in the 
county since 1829 and in Dowagiac since 1864, has conducted his store 
on Commercial street for more than twenty-five years. 

F. H. Ross, who was in the hardware business fromi i860 to 1886 
and then a real estate dealer until his retirement in 1901, is another 
who contributed to the commercial enterprise of early Dowagiac. 

The proprietor of the Daylight Store on Front street is one of the 


oldest merchants still in active business. Burget L. Dewey came to 
Dowagiac in 1865 and began as a clerk, and since 1873 has been in the 
drygoods business, building up one of the leading mercantile concerns 
of the city. 

The manufacturing enterprises of Dowagiac have been at the core 
of her prosperity and the source of its wealth and reputation among the 
cities of Michigan. An account of these interests is reserved for the 
chapter on trades and manufacturing, but it is proper to mention the 
dates of the establishment of the different enterprises, each one of which 
marks another step in the city's progress, and also the men who have 
been foremost in this department of activity. The first of a long list 
of subsequent industrial enterprises was the basket factory established 
in 1857 by Horace and Oilman C. Jones. In a very small way, such 
as could hardly be dignified with the name of factory, P. D. Beckwith 
was already casting plows and doing general repair work, having come to 
the village in 1854, and soon laid the basis for the mammoth enter- 
prise with which his name will always be associated. In 1859 Mark 
Judd helped to establish the planing mill which was the nucleus for the 
Judd lumber and planing mill business, which is not least among Dowa- 
giac's large enterprises. It was in 1868 that H. F. Colby became iden- 
tified with the mill interests of Dowagiac, and although, as we know, 
milling was one of the first industries at this locality, the energy and ex- 
ecutive ability displayed by Mr. Colby in expanding and organizing the 
industry are reasons for considering the date of his comings to Dowagiac 
as marking an epoch of industry. And in the sixties also were made 
the beginnings of the manufacture which has since developed intO' the 
large Dowagiac Manufacturing Company's plant. Myron Stark, the 
veteran manufacturer and inventor, patented his sand band in 1876 and 
soon after made Dowagiac his permanent home. Willis M. Farr, the 
present manufacturer of the Common Sense sand bands, identified him- 
self with the manufacturing interests of the city in the seventies, at 
first as one of the partners in the drill works, and then joined with Myron 
Stark in perfecting and ]>utting on the market the latter's excellent in- 
vention. The Hedrick sawmill dates back to its foundation in i860, 
and the extensive lumber yard and planing mill of John A. Lindsley was 
established in 1885. This summary indicates the principal events in 
Dowagiac's industrial career. 

With the splendid transportation facilities afforded by the Michi- 
gan Central Railroad, with some of the most important manufacturing 


enterprises of Michigan, with good mercantile houses, with municipal 
improveinents in keeping with the size of the city, with excellent schools^ 
and churches and library, Dowagiac occupies a position of increasing 
influence among the cities of southwestern Michigan, and her devel- 
opment fully justifies the faith which Jacob Beeson evinced in this 
wilderness locality in 1848. 



Man cannot live alone; he must communicate with others. We 
are parts of a great organism. So it is with communities. The time 
came when the railroad and telegraph brought them in closer relations 
with each other. But even from the first there was communication 
with the outside world, for absolute isolation is impossible. At first 
there were no railroads leading out from the eastern cities across the 
great valley of the Mississippi. The mountain ranges and dense forests 
were great barriers between the east and Michigan territory. There 
was a canal from Troy to Buflfalo, there were a few steamers on the 
great lakes, and there was a short horse-car railroad running out of 
Toledo. There were no wagon roads, but in place of them were Indian 

In all lands, however primitive and barbarous, even in the dense 
forest fastnesses of Africa or South America, there are passages from 
one locality to another. The word l3est descriptive of such courses of 
early communication is ''trail." Before civilization introduced scientific 
road-making, wild animals were doubtless the markers and surveyors 
of roads. The narrow, deep-w^orn, and wavering path through the 
woods, indicating the route of the deer or bear between its lair and the 
spring where it quenched its thirst or the thicket where it sought its 
quarry, was the course which the Indian, and later the white man, took 
in going through the woods or across the prairie. Trails are easily 
made, as anyone may know who observes how quickly the turf of a park 
or meadow is worn down by the regular passage of human feet. And 
as the wild animal pushed its way through the brush and trees, pursuing 
the easiest and therefore a winding course to its goal, it left evidence 
of its progress in the broken twigs and bent bushes and trampled grass, 
so that the next creature bound in the same direction would pursue the 
same way and better define it, until a new trail was marked out. Thus 
the animals were the first road makers, and blazed the way for their 
immediate successors, the roving Indian. The latter would naturally 
extend and connect the trails of animals into certain long avenues of 


travel across the country, which they would follow in making their pil- 
grimages from one hunting ground to another or for their war expe- 

Thus it happened that when the white man first came to southern 
Michigan, as was also true of any other part of our country, he found 
certain courses of communication already marked out. These were 
used by the pioneers until better, broader, straighter and more direct 
roads could be made. Oftentimes these old trails formed the most prac- 
ticable and convenient route of travel, and were consequently the basis 
of a highway ordered and constructed by the state or county. 

A description of these primitive roads in Cass county, showing how 
useful they were to the early settlers, was furnished by Mr. Amos Smith, 
the county surveyor at the time, for the History of 1882, and being 
authoritative information, is quoted as follows : 

"I find that every township, in the olden time, had its highways 
and its byways. Some of these seem to have been of great importance, 
connecting localities widely separated from each other, w^iile others of 
less note served only neighboring settlements. 

^Tt is noticeable that the principal Indian trails, like our own main 
thoroughfares, ran east and west, while others tributary to these came 
in from the north and south. The Chicago trail, more important because 
more used than any of the others, coming from the east, entered the 
county near the half-mile post on the east side of section i in South 
Porter, and ran thence w^esterly, crossing sections i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 7, 
and 18 in South Porter; sections 13, 14, 15, 16, 21, 20, 17, 18, and 
7 in Mason; sections 12, 11, 10, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, in Ontwa; and 
sections 12, 11, 10^, 15, 16, 17, 18 in Milton. The Chicago road, as 
it is now^ traveled, varies but little from the trail as above descri])ed. 

''Near the corner of sections 4, 5, 8, 9, in South Porter, the Chi- 
cago trail was intersected 1)y thie Shavehead trail, a branch from the 
north. This trail or rather system of trails, as more than a dozen dif- 
ferent ones united to form it, had two main branches which came to- 
gether on section 29, in North Porter, near the lower end of Shavehead 
lake. The west branch, which commenced near the north line of Penn 
townshin, led southerly across Young's prairie, dividing on section 28 
in Penn. One trail continued south and east to the west, and 
south of Mud lake in Calvin, the other running between Donell and 
Mud lakes, the two uniting near Birch lake in Porter. The last men- 
tioned trail was of great service to the early white settlers in procuring 
supplies from the old distillery situated on the East Branch of Chris- 
tiann creek, a little south of Donell lake. The east branch, coming- from 
the direction of Pig Prairie Ronde, crossed the county line at the east 
line of section 12 in Newberg, just north of Long lake, and ran south- 


westerly across sections 12, 13, 2^, 26, 2y, 34, and ^^, in Newberg, 
and sections 4, 9, 8, 17,, and 20 in North Porter, and united with the 
west branch on section 29, as before stated. Another branch of the 
Shavehead trail, of less extent than either of those just described, com- 
menced at the Indian sugar works, near the half-mile post on the hne 
between sections 10 and 11, in North Porter, and ran thence south- 
westerly, crossing Shavehead prairie in its course, and uniting with the 
main branch on section 2^. 

''Besides the three principal branches of the Shavehead trail aljove 
mentioned, there were many others. In fact, the whole township of 
Porter was a perfect network of trails — a regular ''stamping ground" 
of the Inchans, so to speak, as the numerous sugar works, Indian fields 
and villages abundantly attest. 

"The second branch of the Cliicago trail commenced on section 
30, in Calvin, running thence southeasterly, crossing sections 2 and 12, 
in Mason, very nearly where the wagon road now runs, intersecting the 
Chicago trail at an Indian village a few rods west of the present village 
of Union. 

"The third branch commenced on section 3, in Mason, and ran 
southwesterly, entering the Chicago trail near what is now Adamsville. 

"The fourth and last branch of the Chicago trail, coming from 
Fort Wayne, Indiana, intersected the county and state line near . the 
southwest corner of section 20, in Ontwa, and running thence north- 
westerly, united with the main trail on section 16 in Milton. 

"The trail from tlie Carey Mission to Grand River Mission, some- 
times called the Grand River road, crossed the county line near the 
corner of sections 6 and 7, in Howard, and running thence angling 
across Howard, Pokagon, Silver Creek, Wayne and Volinia townships, 
left the county at the north line of section 2, in Volinia. It had 
no branches. The present angling road running through the greater 
part of Pokagon township, the northwest corner of Howard and a por- 
tion of Wayne, occupies very nearly the same position. In fact, we are 
indebted to the Indian, or it may be to his predecessor, for some of our 
best lines of communication, and as many of these old routes are traveled 
today, and probably will be for all time to come, where they were 
marked out hundreds and possibly thousands of years ago, it shows that 
remarkable skill must have been exercised in their location." 

Though the pioneers entered Cass county over the Indian trails, 
the settlement of the county had hardly progressed beyond the initial 
stages when there was agitation coupled with energetic efifort on the 
part of the settlers and government alike to improve these trails into 
highways and to open new courses of travel. 

The establishment of post-roads is a power granted to the general 
government by the Constitution. In pursuance of the plan of internal 


improvements thus provided for, the government undertook the laying 
out of such postal highways across Michigan territory long before Cass 
county w^as settled. As incidentally referred to in a previous chapter, 
the Chicago treaty with the Indians in 182 1 contained a clause espe- 
cially stipulating that the United States should have the privilege of 
making and using a road through the Indian country from Detroit and 
Fort Wayne, rCvSpectively, to Chicago. 

The nrst of the congressional acts which led toward the construc- 
tion of the Chicago road was passed in 1824. It authorized the presi- 
dent of the United States ''to cause the necessary surveys, plans and 
estimates to be made of the routes of such roads and canals as he may 
deem of national importance in a commercial or military point of view, 
or necessary for the transportation of the public mail." The sum of 
thirty thousand dollars was appropriated for the surveys and the presi- 
dent was authorized to appoint two competent engineers. 

The route from Detroit to Chicago was one of those which the 
executive ''deemed of national importance," and the sum of ten thou- 
sand dollars was set apart from the appropriation for the survey. In 
1825 work was commenced at the eastern end of the road. The sur- 
veyor began on the plan of running on nearly straight lines, but had 
progressed only a few miles when he came to the conclusion that if he 
carried out his original intention, the money apportioned for the work 
would be exhausted long before he could reach the western terminus. 
He then resolved to follow the old path of the Sacs and Foxes, and the 
road thus marked was never straightened. The trees were blazed fifty 
feet on each side of the trails,- the requirement being that the road 
should measure one hundred feet in width. 

The Chicago road was surveyed through Cass county in 1832, by 
Daniel G. Garnsey. The road was not worked through St. Joseph, 
Cass and Berrien counties by the government until after the Black Hawk 
war. Immigrants made such improvements as they found necessary, 
and the stage companies worked the road sufficiently to get their coaches 
through, and built some bridges. In 1833 the government made thor- 
ough work of building the road through Branch county, and in 1834 
through St. Joseph and Cass counties. It was grubbed out and leveled 
for a width of thirty feet, and the timber was cut away on each side. 
The first bridge over the St. Joseph was built in 1834, at Mottville, 
which crossing was designated as ''the Grand Traverse." 

The Chicago road, which follows approximately the Chicago Indian 


I rail already described, was the great thoroughfare from east to west 
until the advent of the railroad in the late forties. The present genera- 
tion has difficulty in understanding the vital relation in which such a 
road stood to the people of sixty or seventy-five years ago. In making 
the journey from Cass county to Chicago hardly any one would think 
of going any way than by train, and to drive the distance, even over 
modern roadbeds, would be considered almost foolhardy. 

Sixty years ago there was no other means of reaching any of the 
great centers, such as Chicago or Detroit, except by wagon road. It 
was a seven days' trip from Niles to Detroit, when now it can be made 
in as many hours. A traveler was fortunate if he could go from 
Edwardsburg to Chicago in two days. 

But slow and difficult though this route was, it was the only one — 
the only certain means of communication and travel that an inland 
country possessed. Then came the railroad. It was the successor, or 
rather superseded this long inter-county, inter-state dirt road, and, as 
the trend of public thought is. at last beginning to recognize, the rail- 
road is the national highway, the public thoroughfare, of the present, 
just as the Chicago road was the national postal and commercial route 
of the past. 

The Chicago road was also known as the ''Territorial road," and 
its course from east to west along the southern border of the county was 
as much of an impetus toward settlement and development of such 
centers as Edwardsburg during the early half of the century, as the 
Michigan Central proved a fostering cause in the founding and growth 
of Dowagiac in the latter half. 

The establishment of continuous and definite highways from place 
to place was also one of the most important functions of the early terri- 
torial and state government, and continued so until the railroad age 
changed all the methods and means of long-distance travel and trans- 
portation. In the early history of the state it was not to be expected 
that the various and often widely separated settlements could undertake 
any extensive and co-operative plan of road-making. The settlers, 
busied with the labor of clearing the forests, of making their first crops, 
and providing for immediate wants and creature comforts, had no time 
for road building, except so far as to construct a temporary way to the 
common trading point. Certainly without some larger supervision 
most of the roads would have served only local purposes and would have 
been short and disconnected, and many years would have been suffered 


to elapse 1)efore anything approaching a system of puhHc highways would 
have lieen estahlished. 

As we may infer from the foregoing, few of the early roads were 
laid out on the rectangular plan of section lines. And even the later 
introduction of this method did not cause the disuse and abandonment 
of the favorite old-time winding and diagonal routes that had been laid 
out Recording to the needs and conveniences of the pioneers. In the 
new prairie localities of the west, where no settlements were made until 
after the land had been blocked out into regular cjuadrangles by govern- 
ment engineers, the checker-board system of roads was adopted easily 
and naturall3\ But in such a country as Cass county, covered over at 
the time of settlement with forests and dotted with lakes and marshes, 
with all the conditions and appliances primitive and new, the settlers 
were very likely to disregard geometrical lines, even when made by gov- 
ernment officials, and choose the ''short cut" Iietween localities. 

During the thirties and forties the territorial council and the state 
legislature passed many acts ''authorizing the establishment" of high- 
ways within or entering Cass county. Some of these i^ecame practicable 
thoroughfares, others never were constructed except officially. 

An act of July 30, 1830, authorized the laying out of a road "com- 
mencing w^here the township road laid out 1)y the commissioners of 
Ontwa township, Cass county, from Pleasant lake in a direction to Pulaski 
(Elkhart), in Indiana, intersects the southern boundary line between 
the territory of Michigan and the state of Indiana; thence on the road 
laid out as aforesaid until it intersects the Chicago road a few rods west 
of the postoffice, near the house of Ezra Beardsley, running thence on 
the most eligible and practicable route to the entrance of the St. Joseph 
river into Lake Michigan." George Meacham, John Bogart and Squire 
Thompson were the commissioners appointed to lay out and establish 
this road. 

Similarly, another territorial road was authorized "commencing at 
the county seat of Branch county, running westerly on the most direct 
and eligible route through the seats of justice of St. Joseph and Cass 
counties to the mouth of the St. Joseph river. Another from White 
Pigeon by Prairie Ronde and Kalamazoo to Grand Rapids. "A road 
from Adamsville on the most direct and eligible route to the Paw Paw 
river at or near the center of Van Buren county," and many others. 

To open and improve these roads the territorial and later the state 
government made liberal appropriations from the reserve of internal im- 


provement lands. For example, the legislature in 1848 appropriated 
three thousand acres for the purpose of opening and improving a road 
(authorized in 1840), ''commencing at some point at or near the north 
bank of the river St. Joseph, in the vicinity of the village of St. Joseph, 
thence running in an easterly direction on the most eligible route to the 
village of La Grange, formerly called Whitmanville, in Cass county." 

In the late forties, at the beginning of the railroad era in this part 
of the west, the ''plank road" had a brief reign of favor as a means of 
internal communication. Many companies were incorporated by the 
state to construct such roads with the privilege of operating them as 
toll roads. The only one constructed for any distance in Cass county 
was planned to connect Niles and Mottville via Edwardsburg. The 
company was incorporated in 1849, with capital stock authorized at 
$100,000. Only five miles of the proposed road was built, between 
Niles and Edwardsburg. Such a road was a great improvement for the 
time. Much heavier loads could be hauled over the plank roads than 
over the soil roads, and they helped greatly in the development of the 
country. Had not the railroads at about the same time begun to net- 
w^ork the country, the plank road would have been no doubt adopted as 
a solution of the transportation problem. After the railroads came all 
was changed; old centers were abandoned, new centers were formed, 
the markets were brought nearer the farmer's home, distances were 
shortened, marketing made easier, and the development of the country 
was wonderfully accelerated. 

In a fair consideration of the means of communication which the 
county has employed, the stage coach must be included — the old "twice- 
a-week" stage coach. It was a slow mode of travel, but the passengers 
had a good time. The rate of speed in pleasant weather and with good 
roads was perhaps seven or eight miles an hour, and the average cost 
was perhaps five cents a mile. These vehicles have been forgotten as 
completely as the days they represented. When the steam horse which 
at first plowed the water took to land in the east, the finest of the stages 
were taken west, and some of them as far as the Rockies, where the stage 
coach is even yet not unknown. But the coach and the type of life it 
represented are gone forever from this part of the country. 

Sixty years ago, however, the residents of Edwardsburg and other 
points along the old Chicago road, on hearing the blast of the driver's 
horn as the stage topped the hill to the east of town, hailed the event 
as a break in pioneer monotony and with one accord assembled about 


the stage station to welcome the arrival. No one who ever witnessed 
such a scene would forget the excitement and the deep interest that 
attended every detail of this little drama. The stage brought the latest 
news from the outside world, brought the newspapers, brought the mails. 
The stage put the people in connection with the great world, and when, 
the horses having been changed and the passengers again embarked, it 
disappeared on the prairie and then in the woods to the west, the isola- 
tion of the community was again complete until the coach came again. 
All this gives us an idea of the life of those days, which hardly seems 
real to us now when we are in direct and constant communication with 
all parts of the world. 

This i^ the description of one of the old ^'Concord" stage coaches 
as described by a wTiter in the former history of Cass county : ''You 
can fancy this ancient vehicle — a black painted and deck-roofed hulk 
— starting out from Detroit, with its load of passengers, swinging on 
its thorough-braces attached to the fore and hind axles, and crowded 
to its fullest capacity. There w^as a boot projecting three or four feet 
behind for luggage; an iron railing ran around the top of the coach 
where extra baggage or passengers were stowed as occasion required. 
The driver occupied a high seat in front ; under his feet was a place for 
his traps and the mail; on each side of his seat was a lamp, firmly fixed, 
to light his way by night; inside of the coach were three seats which 
would accommodate nine passengers. You can imagine the stage coach, 
thus loaded, starting out at the 'get ape' of the driver, as he cracks his 
whip over the heads of the leaders, w4ien all four horses spring to their 
work, and away goes the lumbering vehicle, soon lost to sight in the 
woods, struggling along the road, lurching from side to side into deep 
ruts and often into deeper mud holes." ; . .. . 

Edwardsburg was a junction point on the Chicago road at which 
a branch line of stages went toward Niles. The first stage coaches in 
Cass county are said to have passed through in 1830 upon the Chicago 
road and this branch. At first two stages went over the road each week, 
but trips were being made tri-weekly before the Black Haw^k war sus- 
pended operations entirely in 1832. In 1833 a new linie of stages was 
established between Detroit and Chicago. The route was from Detroit 
via Ypsilanti, Jonesville, Coldwater river, White Pigeon^ Edwardsburg 
and Niles. Teams were changed about every twelve miles.. By subse- 
quent changes in ownership this line became the "Western Stage Com- 


In 1835, on account of the great increase in immigration and gen- 
eral travel, it was found necessary to put on daily stages. These were 
almost invariably crowded, and the company was compelled to put on 
a double line before the season was over. Even then the agents were 
sometimes obliged to hire extra teams and common wagons in which 
to convey passengers. The most desirable seats in the stages were fre- 
quently sold at a heavy premium by speculators. The stage companies 
upon this direct through line to Chicago were very liberally patronized 
and grew rich. They flourished until the railroad superseded the 


But the chief developer and re-arranger of civilization is the rail- 
road. At a time when the relations of the railroads to the individual 
citizen, the civic community and the country at large bulk so large in 
public attention and discussion, it is needless to describe the importance 
of the railroad as an institution of modern life. The coming of the rail- 
road to this part of the west marked the end of the period of pioneer 
development and the beginning of the era of material progress in which 
we are still living. 

When Cass county was first settled the pioneers had no intimation 
of the revolutionar}'- changes in transportation and consequently all 
departmeiints of industry and methods of living that would be effected 
by the railroad. It will be remembered that the first railroad in the 
United States — several miles in length only — was constructed in 
1826, almost coincidentally with the first settlement in Cass county. In 
1830, after the tide of immigration had resulted in the organization of 
the county, there were only twenty-three miles of railroad in operation 
in the United States. Hence, at that time the people of Cass county 
could hardly have looked forward to any time in the near future when 
they could anticipate using railroad transportation as a common facility. 

But by the year 1835 ^^^^ railroad age in the United States had 
been fairly inaugurated, with over a thousand miles in operation, and 
the lines increasing at a phenomenal rate. By this time the fever of 
railroad building had penetrated the middle west, and the subject was 
thenceforth one of increasing importance among all classes. 

It was a long while, however, before the railroad actually came 
this far west. In the meantime the demands of the people for improved 
trans^x^rtation resulted in the agitation of canal construction and the 


opening of the waterways of commerce. Canal building in the middle 
west reached its fullest extent during the late thirties and the forties, 
and for a time the canal and the railroad competed on even terms. 

The only convenient water way ever utilized by the people of Cass 
county for transportation was the St. Joseph river. The early settlers 
were compelled to haul in wagons their surplus wheat and corn and 
other products to some point on this stream, such as Niles, and thence 
''ark" them to Lake Michigan, for carriage by lake vessels to the mar- 
kets of the world. Several years before the advent of the railroad, 
the first steamboat began plying on the St. Joseph, as the forerunner 
of the considerable fleet which up to the present day has navigated on 
the low^er courses of that stream. 

The only serious plan for bringing this waterway into more useful 
relation to Cass county w^as that discussed at a meeting held in Ed- 
wardsburg, February, 1836, to consider the project of constructing a 
canal from Constantine to Niles. Such a canal would have crossed 
south central Cass county, and would have been a short cut across the 
great arc made by the river in its bend into Indiana. Had the railroad 
era not been so near, this canal w-ould doubtless have been constructed 
at some time, and would have been of inestimable advantage to the 
development of Cass county. 

But a majority of those present at the Edw^ardsburg meeting fav- 
ored, even then, the idea of a railroad rather than a canal. The result 
w'as that the friends of the enterprise secured the passage of an act 
by the legislature, March 26, 1836, incorporating the Constantine and 
Niles Canal or Railroad Company, with a capital stock fixed at $250,000. 
The company was empowered to construct either a canal or railroad 
betw^een the termini mentioned in its name and charter. The first di- 
rectors were William Meek, George W. Hoffman, Wells T. House, 
Watson Sumner, John G. Cathcart, Edward N. Bridge, J. C. Lanman, 
Jacob Beeson and Vincent L. Bradford. This enterprise ended in the 
storm of financial disaster that overtook the country in 1837, and it is 
not certain that even a survey of the route of the proposed canal or 
railroad was made. 

Such was the only canal building ever attempted in this county. 
xMready the attention of the people was directed to the advance of the 
railroads from the east. In 1832 the territorial council of Michigan 
had incorporated the Detroit and St. Joseph Railroad Company. The 
company was authoHzed to build a single or double track railroad from 


Detroit to St. Joseph by way of the village of Ypsilanti and the county 
seats of Washtenaw, Jackson, Calhoun and Kalamazooi counties, and 
to run cars on the same ''by the force of steam, of animals, of any 
mechanical or other force, or of any combination of these forces"; was 
bound to begin work within two years from the passage of the act, to 
build thirty miles of track within six years, to complete half of the road 
v/ithin fifteen years, and to finish the whole of it within thirty years, 
under penalty of the forfeiture of its franchises. 

The route was surveyed, work was begim at the eastern end, but 
before the set period of six years had expired Michigan had become 
a state. With its new dignity of statehood, Michigan was most zealous 
in fostering enterprises of internal improvement, not merely opening 
the way for the exertion of private or corporate effort, but even going 
to the extent of constructing under state auspices and appropriations 
from the public treasury the railroad and other highways and public 

March 20, 1837, an act of the legislature was approved that pro- 
vided for the construction of three railroads across the whole breadth 
of its territor)^, to be called the Northern, Central and Southern rail- 
roads. The Central was to run from Detroit to the mouth of the St. 
Joseph. The act also provided for the purchase of the rights and prop- 
erty of companies already established, and especially those of the Detroit 
and St. Joseph Company. The sum of $550,000 was appropriated for 
the survey and making of the three roads, $400,000 of which was set 
apart for the Central. The legislature also authorized a loan of five 
million dollars for railroad construction. 

The commissioners of Internal Improvements were thus provided 
with funds for the carrying out of this stupendous undertaking. But 
the buikling began in a period of industrial depression, unlooked for 
obstacles hindered the progress of the work, and when the year 1846 
came the Central had been completed only to Kalamazoo, while the 
Southern's western operating terminal still tarried at Hillsdale. Public 
opinion as to the feasibility of railroad construction by the state seems 
to have changed in the meanwhile, and by an act of the legislature in 
the early part of 1846 an entire change of policy was effected. 

By this act of 1846 the Michigan Central Railroad Company, com- 
posed of private individuals, was incorporated. At the same time a 
transfer of all the state's equity and control of the Central Railroad 
was made to the new corporation for the consideration of two miillion 


dollars. The charter required the new company to follow substantially 
the route originally decided upon, but instead of specifying that the 
mouth of the wSt. Joseph should be the western terminus, allowed the 
company to build from Kalamazoo "to some point in the state of Michi- 
gan on or near Lake Michigan which shall be accessible tO' steamboats 
on said lake, and thence to some point on the southern boundary line of 
Michigan" ; the men who composed the company insisting on the latter 
provision in order that they might have a choice of destination. 

The object of the company was to project their line across the 
northern portion of Indiana and plant its western terminus at Chicago. 
The story of the intense rivalry between the Michigan Central and the 
Michigan Southern in their stniggle to be the first to accomplish this 
end is not pertinent here. But the change of the objective point from 
St. Joseph to Chicago resulted in diverting the course of the line direct 
from Kalamazoo to New Buffalo (the terminus of the Michigan char- 
ter) and thus crossing the northwest corner of Cass county. Had the 
original plan been carried out, Cass county would have been without 
railroad connection for a number of years longer. 

But now, in the haste to construct the line, the new company, as 
soon as the transfer had been effected, surveyed a route to New Buffalo 
and at once pushed the work of construction as far as the Michigan 
charter would cRvry it. The road was completed through this county 
as far as Niles by October 7, 1848, and in the spring of the foillowing 
year New Buffalo was reached. The conflicting interests of the two 
rival railroads and the legislatures of the states through which the lines 
were to pass delayed the completion of the Michigan Central across 
Indiana. But the line was opened to Michigan City in the winter of 
1851-52, and in the following spring was completed to Chicago. 

Had the plans contemplated by the state been carried out, the 
Michigan Southern would have been constructed along the southern 
border of the state *and hence through Cass county. But it was seen fit 
to turn this line south from White Pigeon, and thence was constructed 
across Northern Indiana. 

The first constitution of Michigan had expressly affirmed the pro- 
priety of internal improvements being undertaken by the state and paid 
for out of the public funds or public lands. The unhappy results that 
followed the projection and partial construction of the Central and 
Southern railroads under state auspices worked a complete reversal of 
public opinion on this policy. Accordingly the constitution of 1850 


contained a provision prohibiting the state from contributing to or 
otherwise engaging in any such forms of internal improvements. 

Though the people as a state were thus forbidden to construct rail- 
roads, it was understood that smaller corporate units oif towns and cities 
were not afifected by the constitutional provisions. After the Civil war 
for several years, there passed over the country a wave of popular 
activity and participation in railroad construction. Towns, villages and 
counties, not to mention hundreds of private citizens, not only in this 
state but in many states of the mJddle west, voted generous subscrip- 
tions or ''bonuses" to railroad enterprises, many of which began and 
ended their existence in the fertile brains of the promoters. This move- 
ment had a vital connection with Cass county's welfare, and its ulti- 
mate results may be said to have given the county two of its railroad 

By the beginning of the seventies the towns and cities of the state 
had voted to various railroad companies subscriptions aggregating sev- 
eral millions of dollars. Individuals had given perhaps as much more. 
Now followed a decision of the state supreme court declaring that the 
act under which the voting had taken place was unconstitutional; hence 
these minor civil corporations could not obligate themselves by contri- 
butions to railroad construction any more than the state itself could. 
This was the final phase of internal improvements under public direc- 
tion or support. So much history of the matter is necessary to a proper 
understanding of the manner in which the ''Air Line" and the Penin- 
sular, now Grand Trunk, railroads were constructed through Cass county. 

LaGrange township alone, with the prospective benefits of two 
railroads before it, had voted thirty thousand dollars of bonds to the 
two projected roads. But fortunately these bonds, as was true of the 
bonds of other townships in the county, were still in the keeping of the 
state treasurer at the time the decision of the supreme court was given. 
Soon after the decision was made known a majority of the citizens of 
the various townships voted to recall the bonds and prevent their being 
surrendered to the railroad companies and hence to individual purchas- 
ers. The state treasurer, however, refused to return the bonds until 
the supreme court, in behalf of LaGrange township, issued a mandamus 
compelling the state treasurer to restore the bonds. In the case of some 
townships of the state, the bonds had already passed into the financial 
markets, and in such instances the townships were obliged to pay their 


The Air Line branch of the Michigan Central which now crosses 
Cass county nearly centrally from west to east was projected almost 
entirely by local capital and enterprise, the corporate name being the 
Michigan Air Line Railroad Company. The people of the counties of 
Cass, St. Joseph, Calhoun and Jackson were the ones most vitally in- 
terested. Jackson county subscribed nearly two hundred thousand dol- 
lars to the undertaking and the principal officers of the original organi- 
zation were citizens of Jackson. The line was opened to travel from 
Jackson to Homer in the summer of 1870, to Three Rivers in the autumn 
of the same year, and was completed to Niles in February, 1871. Almost 
coincident with the completion of the road it was leased to the Michigan 
Central Railroad Company, and soon became the property of that com- 
pany. The first regular passenger train over this road was run through 
Cass county on January 16, 1871. 

The late Mr. S. T. Read, of Cassopolis, has been given the credit 
for suggesting to the president of the Canadian Railroad the scheme 
for extending that line from its western Canadian terminus at Port 
Huron across the peninsula of Michigan to a terminal in the com- 
mercial metropolis of Chicago. The Grand Trunk Railroad was built, 
and due to the public-spirited and persistent efforts of Mr. Read the 
line passed through central Cass county and the county seat. The 
people of the county liberally supported the enterprise, contributing in 
cash subscriptions and donations of rights of way to the amount of 
one hundred thousand dollars. 

The track was completed to Cassopohs from the east on February 
9, 187 1, and in the course of the same year the line was extended to 
Valparaiso, Indiana, and subsequently to Chicago. 

The Grand Trunk Railroad in the United States is a patchwork of 
smaller lines and extensions of various date. The first line was con- 
structed under a charter given to the Port Huron and Lake Michigan 
Railroad Company in 1847. ^^^ 1^55 ^^^^ P^^^ Huron and Milwaukee 
Railroad Company was chartered, and not long afterward was amal- 
gamated with the first-named organization. October 3, 1865, the 
Peninsular Railroad Company was chartered to constiiict a railroad be- 
tween Lansing and Battle Creek. January 3, 1868, the Peninsular Rail- 
road Extension Company was chartered for the extension of a line from 
Battle Creek to the Indiana state line. These two companies were con- 
solidated as the Peninsular Railway Company. Numerous other con- 


soliclations and changes preceded the final organization, in April, 1880, 
of the Chicago and Grand Trunk Railway Company. 

In the early eighties the Cincinnati, Cleveland, Chicago & St. Louis, 
popularly known as the ''Big Four," was constructed between Niles and 
Elkhart. This route passed through the southwestern corner of Cass 
county, in Milton township, but as only a signal station called Truitt 
has been established on that section of the line, the "Big Four" is not a 
Cass county road in the same relation as the Michigan Central, with 
the Air Line branch and the Grand Trunk. 

Although at the date of this compilation Cass county's means of 
communication do not include electric lines, the course of development 
will soon reach this stage, and it is appropriate to describe the present 
status of this subject. 

About 1901 the "Eastern and Northwestern Raihx>ad Company" 
was formed by a group of capitalists with headquarters in Chicago. They 
proposed a railroad from Benton Harbor to Toledo," entering Cass county 
at the northwest and leaving it about the middle of Newberg township 
on the east, cuttmg the existing lines about at right angles. The line 
of original survey was run three miles to the north of Cassopolis. 

The citizens of that village, alive to the possible loss of another 
railroad, at once made efforts to bring the road through the county 
seat. The terms asked by the promoters were a right of way for the 
distance of two and a half miles and land for depot site. The Cass- 
opolis citizens complied, and the road was to be in operation as far as 
Dowagiac by May, 1902, and the entire line completed by July, 1903. 
A large part of the grading was done, indeed in this respect the line is 
practically complete to Jamestown in Penn township, Cass county, but 
the financial backing failed before the rest of the construction was 
finished, and the grades and cuts are all that Cass county so far has to 
show for the enterprise. 

But tentative negotiations are in progress, according to a plan to 
utilize this route for an electric road. The network of interurban elec- 
tric lines is certain to inclose Cass county within a few years. To the 
south there is a line of electric communication almost continuous be- 
tween Michigan City and Toledo. On the west a branch of the same 
system touches Niles, Berrien Springs and Benton Harbor, Berrien 
county. Kalamazoo is another center for the radiation of these roads. 
As this form of intercommunication in the middle west is the product 


of little more than a decade, it is not unreasonable to expect an equally 
phenomenal increase with the succeeding ten years. 


No phase of the general subject of communication is of more vital 
interest to the people than postal facilities. The desire to know^ what 
is going oh in the world outside the circle of immediate acquaintance is 
as deep-seated as it is wholesome, and the isolation from friends and 
relatives and the settled parts of the country was one of the severest 
privations connected with settlement on the frontier. In truth there was 
a time in most such communities when news — if such it could be called 
when it often was very old when it reached the hearers — had no reg- 
ular lines of dissemination and was carried only by the chance trav- 
eler. All pioneer communities have experienced such a situation in 
some degree, and the early settlers of Cass county had little definite 
connection with the outside world, although living in a comparatively 
modern age and only a few years before the invention of the telegraph. 

Accordingly one of the first improvements sought after actual home 
and shelter and means of subsistence were provided was a ]^x)stal serv- 
ice, such as all the settlers had been familiar with in their former homes 
in the more settled regions. We have seen how the government early 
made provision for the establishment of a great post road from the east 
to the west. But the actual transportation and distribution of mail was 
a very uncertain matter for many years, and depended largely on the 
provision that each community could make for that purpose. In the 
early days a mail route was established between Fort Wayne and Niles. 
The mail was at first carried once in four weeks, then once every two 
weeks. This mail was carried by a character known as ''Old Hall," 
who bestrode one horse while the mail bags were carried on a horse that 
he led. At Niles the mail for all the surrounding country was distrib- 
uted, the various communities in Cass county each receiving it by 
special carriers. Some convenient settler's cabin was selected as the 
postoffice, and there the neighbors would gather to receive a chance 
letter or hear the reading of a newspaper brought in by the last mail. 
The history of many of these early postoffices is told in the chapter on 
the centers of population. 

Letters were a luxury in pioneer times. They were written on 
foolscap paper and so folded that one side was left blank, so as to form 
its own envelope, it being sealed with wax or a wafer. This latter cus- 


torn was followed for many years, and some of these sheets folded ac- 
cording to the usual manner and with some of the wax of the seal still 
adhering to them, are still to be found in the county. 

It was perhaps well that the pioneer could not foresee the con- 
veniences that his twentieth century descendant enjoys in the way of 
postal facilities; he might have felt his deprivations more severely had 
he known that in 1906 the rural mail routes, radiating in every direction 
and approaching within convenient distance of every home in the county, 
would be delivering packages, letters and metropolitan dailies once each 
day and with greater regularity and punctuality than was the case in the 
large eastern towns of his time. 


To understand the development that has taken place in the means 
of communication it is not necessary to go back beyond the memory 
of the present generation. As the result of successful experiments Mr. 
Alex. Graham Bell exhibited at the Centennial exposition in Phil- 
adelphia in 1876 an invention which was described by a standard en- 
cyclopedia published in 1877 as an instrument for the ''telegraphic trans- 
mission of articulate sounds." The article further goes on to state as 
the climax of the wonderful discovery that 'Sve may confidently expect 
that Mr. Bell will give us the means of making voice and spoken words 
audible through the electric wire to an ear hundreds of miles distant." 
And In 1906 there is probably not a person in Cass county who does not 
at least know of the telephone, and in hundreds of rural homes and in 
nearly every city and village residence and business house will be found 
one of these instruments, so necessary to modern life. Various telephone 
and telegraph companies are now operating their lines in and through 
this county, and the news of the Russian crisis comes to every village as 
soon after the occurrence as in former days a report concerning a trial at 
Cassopolis would reach the outlying districts of the county. 

From the foregoing it appears that the world is coming to be all 
of a piece. Once every little community could live by itself, make its 
own clothes, wagons, tools, and all the articles necessary for its exist- 
ence. But this view of self-dependence and isolation either in man 
or in the community is now thoroughly discredited. With the coming 
of railroad, telegraph, telephone, etc., closer relations were established, 
and individuals, communities and states have become dependent on 
each other. 



That familiar hero of juvenile fiction, Robinson Crusoe, after being 
cast upon his desert island, was compelled to build his own shelter, to 
make his own clothes, to fashion many of his implements and his house- 
hold utensils, to cultivate the soil and raise 'and prepare all things need- 
ful for his bodily sustenance, to enact for his own guidance all his laws 
and rules of conduct, and to be his own army for protection against the 
cannibals. Such a type of all-around man, jack-of-all-trades, self-suffi- 
cient and prepared for all the uses and adversities of the world, was 
at one time considered the proper ideal by which each person should 
fashion his life. 

But such individualism is now seen to be exceedingly primitive, 
and instead of making man more independent really puts him more 
abjectly in dependence on all the humbler wants and necessities which 
are at the base of the higher life. Society as now organized, and in its 
general tendencies toward the working out of the prol:)lems of human 
destiny, divides into numerous occupations the work of the world, 
specializing it for each class of workers, and thereby leaves each of us 
the greater liberty to work out our individuality to its highest possi- 

The men and women who settled Cass county in the twenties and 
thirties of the last century were in a measure Crusoes, in that most of 
the necessities of life, whether for eating, wearing or for performing 
the work of the field and household, were home products. Planted in 
the depth of a great wilderness, remote from mills and often unattended 
by craftsmen, the men and women who laid here the foundations of 
civilized society were, of necessity, their own artisans to a very large 
extent, and every home was a factory. A^Iany a farmer or farmer's son, 
becoaning skilled in some particular trade, was enabled thereby to add 
substantially to the family income. 

The conversion of raw material into forms suitable for the uses 
of mankind was undertaken immediately upon the arrival of the first 


permanent white settlers, who, with few tools but an ax, hastily con- 
structed a rude cabin of logs and fashioned a few primitive articles for 
domestic use, such as tables, benches, beds, and other furnishings of 
immediate necessity. 

Next to shelter and foodstuffs clothing was the issue of paramount 
importance to the hardy pioneers, and in the division of labor this in- 
dustry was left to the women. P^very cabin was flanked by its patch of 
flax, and the planter who did not possess a few sheep had to trade witli 
his neighbor for wool. From these raw materials the old-fashioned 
housew^ife w^as expected to produce clothing for the family and linen for 
the bed and table. The full grown flax was pulled up and spread out on 
the ground to rot in the rain and dew, after which it was thoroughly 
broken, l)y the older boys, if there were any, with the vi.o'orous use of 
the flax-brake, then put through a softening process called ''scutching," 
and a separating process called ''hackling," which left ready for the 
spinstress tW'O fabrics, tow and thread fiber. 

By the use of the little spinning wheel, proficiency in the handling 
of which was for the girls a test of advancing womanhood, the fiber, 
or lint, was made into a fine, strong thread called warp, and the tow 
into a coarser thread used as filling. These w-ere woven together on a 
hand loom, and from the tow-linen produced was made the summer 
wear for the family, the females usuall}^ preferring to color theirs with 
home-made dyestuff to suit their taste, while the less pretentious men 
folks were satisfied to take it as it came from the loom. AVhen the 
wool was brought in, the good mother and her daughters, after thor- 
oughly cleansing or scouring it by washing, shaped it into convenient 
rolls by the aid of a pair of hand-cards provided for that purpose and 
spun on the big wheel into yarn filling (sometimes used for knitting 
stockings, mittens and comforters), wdiich, when woven with linen 
warp, made the "linsey-woolsey" of the good old days, or, if woven 
with cotton warp, resulted in the fabric known as "jeans." The former, 
suitably dyed, was in general use as a strong, warm and handsome text- 
ure for feminine apparel, and the latter, colored with butternut juice, 
was tailored by the women for the men's wear. 

As commerce with other parts of the United States increased, 
cotton became a more generally used material. But during the height 
of the abolition movement, which, as we know, had some very strong 
advocates in Cass county, a prejudice arose against the use of any 
material made by slave labor, although only two or three instances are 


recorded of persons who absolute!}^ refused to wear garments that 
contained any part cotton. 

For footwear the wandering cobbler, who traveled from house 
to house, was relied upon to fashion boots and shoes from the home- 
tanned hides, or moccasins were procured from the Indians. Occa- 
sionally the shoemakers would not get around until after snowfall, and 
many a venerable grandsire can tell of going barefooted to his chores 
with snow on the ground. A well prepared coonskin made a very 
warm and equally unsightly cap. Coonskins also formed a kind of 
currency of the w^oods, the pelt being considered as good as gold and 
accepted in exchange for all commodities. 

Properly selected rye straws were woven by the women into bon- 
nets for themselves and hats for their masters. The women also fash- 
ioned for themselves curiously wrought sunbonnets of brightly-colored 
goods shaped over pasteboard strips with fluted and ruffled capes falling 
behind over the shoulders. The manufacture of quilts gave oppor- 
tunity for social gatherings when there were neighbors close enough 
to get back home before chore time, and the quilting ranked along 
with the huskings, log-rollings and house-raisings among the primitive 
society functions of the early days. The industries of the homestead 
did not include the preservation of fruits and vegetables, save to a small 
extent by drying, but meats were preserved in various ways; lye hominy 
or hulled corn was a regular institution, and some other food articles 
were occasionally laid by for winter, thus forming the beginnings of 
the packing and canning industries of later times. 

Prior to the advent of cabinet makers the settlers, perforce, in- 
cluded that trade among their accomplishments, and made their own bed- 
steads, tables, cupboards and chairs. For bedsteads an oak butt, about 
eight feet long and of sufficient diameter, was split into rails and posts, 
a shorter log was split up for slats, and the pieces selected were dressed 
down with the drawknife and fitted together with the axe. Two rails 
were used for each side and three for each end, the rounded ends of 
the slats being driven into auger holes in the rails, and the four high 
corner-posts were tied together at the tops with strong cords, from 
which curtains might be suspended if desired. Even less pretentious 
forms have been described, and, of course, each article of furniture 
would be likely to- vary according to the ingenuity and skill of the 
maker. In the m.ore fortunate homes were bedsteads with turned posts, 
square rails and cords in place of slats, a feather bed surmounted the 


''straw tick/' and with plenty of ''kiver," such a lodgment was com- 
fortable on the coldest winter night. There was also the trundle bed, 
a low bed that could be pushed under the large bed, where it remained 
during the day, and was pulled out for the smaller children's use at 

With equal skill a table was constructed by pinning two thin oak 
clapboards, smoothed with a sharp ax on the upper side, to cross-pieces 
set on four strong legs, the surface of the table being about four feet 
by six. This type also varied. Three-legged stools were made in a 
similar simple manner. Pegs driven in auger holes in the logs of the 
wall supported shelves, and on others was hung the limited wardrobe 
of the family. A few other pegs, or, perhaps, a pair of deer horns 
formed a rack on which were suspended the rifle and powder horn, al- 
ways found in every pioneer cabin. 

Fortunately, among the early settlers there was here and there a 
craftsman who could be called upon by his neighbors to perform the 
special form of labor for which his skill fitted him. A number of such 
persons have been mentioned in former chapters. It was not usual 
during the first years of the county's history for an artisan to depend 
entirely on his trade. There was not sufficient demand for his services. 
He had his claim and cultivated the ground just as the other settlers, 
and during the winter season or the interims of farm labor, he was 
ready to ply his trade. 

As we have seen, certain forms of manufacturing, such as those 
represented in the sawmill and the grist mill, were introduced very soon 
after the settlement of the county began. These two particular institu- 
tions supplied the immediate necessities of life, and no community could 
progress very far without them. Other forms of manufacturing soon 
came in, and at an early date manufacturing interests formed a distinct 
part of the industrial affairs of the county. 

At Cassopolis, the name of Abram Tietsort, Jr., is first and most 
prominently associated with a trade. The log building in which he did 
cabinet making for the villagers was located on the banks of Stone 
lake, just out of the village site. He made various articles of furniture 
for the pioneer homes, and now and then was called upon to furnish a 
plain and simple coffin; for death was not an unknown visitor to the 
early community. 

An institution, of which there were several examples in early 
Cass county, was the distillery for the manufacture of the whiskey 


which, according to general knowledge, was a more universal beverage 
and consumed in more copious quantities in those days than at the 
present. In 1833 Jacob, Abiel and Benjamin F. Silvers put up a dis- 
tillery on the banks of Stone lake, the first manufacturing institution 
of Cassopolis. The frame was so large and made of such massive tim- 
ber that it required the efiforts of a great force of men to raise it. Nearly 
all the male population of the central portion of the county assisted in 
the work, which took three days' time. The distillery was run to its 
utmost capacity for a number of years, and the farmers in the surround- 
ing country received a great deal of money from its proprietors for 
their surplus corn. 

Each settler learned to be skilled in sharpening his own tools, and 
even fashioned out by homemade process some of the iron implements 
needed. But as soon as possible lie resorted for the more important 
work to a regular blacksmith, it often being necessary to go for that 
purpose many miles. For instance, it is related that a settler on Beards- 
ley's prairie had to take his plowshare to be sharpened 1>y Israel Mark- 
ham, who conducted the first blacksmith shop in the county on Pokagon 

Over near the present Jamestown, in Penn towaiship, a man by the 
name of Peck established a blacksmith shop about 1828, but did not 
remain long. 

The early advent of carpenters and joiners to the county has been 
spoken of in an earlier chapter. As soon as the people advanced beyond 
the log cabin stage it became quite necessary to procure the services 
of a skilled builder in the construction of the houses. 

With the art of clothes-making delegated so completely to the 
pioneer housewife, early Cass county would hardly seem a profitable 
location for a tailor. But there is record of one who located at Geneva 
about 1834, when that was still a village of some proportions. He 
was also employed in the same line for a time at Whitmanville. 

The business activity of Edwardsburg was increased, in 1837, by 
the arrival of a hat maker named James Boyd, who later moved to 
Cassopolis, where he died. The business of hat-making was a common 
pursuit in the east during that time, but few found their way to the 
sparsely settled west. Mr. Boyd, however, made hats in this county 
tor six years, as the only representative the county ever had in that in- 
dustry, and he sold his hats in all parts of the county. 

No one could forget the old-time sugar box. It was a necessary 


article in every liousehold, and, besides holding sugar, it often served 
other no less useful purposes. There are instances on record where 
the sugar box became the receptacle for the pioneer mail, where it was 
kept until the neighbors had time to call for it. Did the housewife 
need a sugar box, it was quite likely that she sent her husband to Ed- 
wardsburg. About 1837, a Mr. Keeler located in that village, and be- 
sides making these indispensable sugar boxes, he split out and softened 
and wove long strips of wood into baskets for the settlers' use. He 
was a character in the neighborhood, made verses as well as Ijaskets, 
and in peddling his wares about the county he drove to his cart, in 
lieu of a horse, a patient ox named ''Bright." 

Perhaps not a month passed that some one who claimed special 
skill in a particular craft or to be a jack-of-all-trades — a wandering 
tinker, a cobl)ler, a tinsmith, etc. — did not pass through or locate more or 
less permanently in early Cass county. Though no historical record is 
kept of such mechanics, they are worthy of our attention so far as show- 
ing how much of the work now^ done by a regular mechanic was attended 
to at that time 1>y the well known ''tinker" character. 

In pioneer days the same spreading tree that sheltered the village 
smithy usually cast its shade also upon the local wagon shop. The two 
industries were born tw^ins and did not drift apart until the era of great 
factories set in and made the manufacture of vehicles at the crossroads 
shop an economic impossibility. In the early years a wheelwright came 
to the county in the person of Benjamin Sweeney, who was located at 
Edwardsburg a number of years. He was also a civil engineer, and 
laid out many roads through the county. 

We have alluded to the existence at the Carey Mission of a grist 
mill as early as 1826. At that time there was not another within a 
hundred miles. Hither the first settlers brought their meager grist, if 
they did not pound or grind it with some rude contrivance at home. It 
is hardly possible to assign an exact date for the location of the first 
mill in Cass county. But the Carpenter mill, on Christiann creek, near 
the site of Vandalia, was probably built about 1828. All the burrs and 
other iron parts of the mill were brought from Ohio. 

A few years later this mill became the property of James O'Dell, 
a miller, who located in Penn township in 1832. Mr. O'Dell was 
prominent in public affairs as well, serving as supervisor, and in other 
township offices, in the state legislature, and was a member of the first 
constitutional convention in 1835. 


As population increased other grist mills were established. Moses 
Sage built one in Adamsville in 1835, and such was the demand for 
flour that he ran it night and day for several years. Grist mills, as 
well as saw mills, were at first necessarily located by convenient water 
power. After the introduction of steam power the flour mills, as a 
rule, were centered in the villages, and where the best transportation 
facilities were offered. 

Of sawmills there were a great number throughout the county. 
Job Davis had one in La Grange township in 1829, the first mechanical 
industry in the township. At the outlet of Jones lake, in the north- 
eastern part of the township, Henry Jones and Hardy Langston built 
a mill in 1830. Carding machinery was afterwards installed, this being 
one of the early attempts at the woolen industry in this county. 

On Dowagiac creek, on the north border of I^ Grange township, 
and near the site of present Dowagiac, William Renneston built, in 
1830, a woolen mill, bringing the machinery from southern Indiana. 
Three years later he built a grist mill at the same place. This was 
the l^eginning of the milling industry which has been carried on at that 
location to the present time. 

The first sawmill in Porter was commenced on section 32, by 
Othni Beardsley, and was completed in 183 1 by Lewis, Samuel and 
Jacob Rinehart, who ran the mill fifteen years. The lumber which 
was not bought and hauled from the mill by local purchasers was hauled 
to the St. Joseph river and thence rafted down to Mishawaka and South 
Bend, and much of it to St. Joseph. 

Another early mill, erected in the early thirties, was built on the 
south branch of Pokagon creek, in section 6 of Jefferson township, by 
John Pettigrew, Jr. This contained an old-fashioned upright saw. 
All the machinery had been brought by wagon from Ohio. Primitive 
as it was, this mill supplied material for building many of the houses 
of the surrounding country, and some of its product was sold in Niles, 
South Bend and Elkhart. 

Various sites along Christiann creek have contained mills at dif- 
ferent periods of history. The Shaft'er-Beardsley mill was an institu- 
tion known for a number of years, having been built in 1836. Near by 
was the grist mill of Robert Painter, built in 1840, close to Painter's 
lake. Here he later installed a sawmill and machinery for woolen 
manufacture, but the vicissitudes of manufacture finally overtook the 
enterprise with failure. 


On that part of Christiann creek which hes in section 19, of Cal- 
vin, Daniel Mcintosh and Samuel Crossen built the first sawmill in 
that township in 1832. It soon passed into the hands of Joseph Smith, 
who, in 1833, erected a distillery and manufactured and sold pure 
whiskey at 25 cents a gallon. In the fifties J. C. Fiero, a merchant at 
Edwardsburg, erected and operated a steam grist mill in that place, 
near the site of the present creamery. The mill was destroyed by fire 
in the spring of 1861. 

In Peter Shaffer's mill, near this location, was sawed the lumber 
for the first court house at Cassopolis. The year 183 1 is the date of the 
building of a grist mill near the present site of Brownsville. 

Several tanneries did business in the county during the early years. 
One of them was located at Brownsville. It is, thus seen that at various 
periods in her history Cass county has had a great many forms of man- 
ufacturing. As a country develops, certain forms of industry become 
profitable in certain stages of that development. A tannery could sup- 
ply a very evident need of the settlers, and might be operated profitably 
as a local institution for some years. But as soon as railroad transpor- 
tation become general and the centralization of manufacturing began, 
it would be necessary either that the tannery should enlarge tO' more than 
a local concern or go out of business entirely. The latter was more often 
the case. This process of industrial growth and decay is found every- 
where, and in itself illustrates the historical development of communi- 

The twenty-third annual report of the Michigan Bureau of Labor, 
giving the results of factory inspection made in Cass county in April, 
1905, names the following industries, with the year of establishment: 

At Cassopolis: 

C. W. Bunn, lumber, 1885. 

City Steam Laundry, 1900. 

Cassopolis Steam Laundry, 1902. 

Cassopolis Manufacturing Company, 1900. 

Cassopolis Creamery, 1902. 

Cassopolis Vigilant, 1872. 

Milling Power Company, 189 1. 

National Democrat, 1850. 

R. F. Peck, cigars, 1904. 

Rinehart & McCoy, cigars, 1897. 

At Dozvagiac: 

City Steam Laundry, 1903. 


Colby Milling Company, 1857. 

Creamery Package Mfg. Company, 1903. 

Dowagiac Gas & Fuel Company, 1892. 

Dowagiac City Water Works, 1887. 

Daily Nezt's, 1881. 

Dowagiac Manufacturing Company, 188 1. 

Geesey Brothers & Cable, hoops and staves, 1903. 

Wm. Hislop, lumber. 

Herald, 1892. 

J. A. Lindsley, lumber, 1885. 

Byron C. Lee, cigars, 1904. 

Round Oak Stove Works, 1873. 

Republican Printing Company, 1857. 

Standard Cabinet Company, 1899. 

S. F. Snell, cigars, 19011. 

At MarceUus: 

Simon Brady, cigars, 1894. 

H. S. Chapman, gasoline engines, 1888. 

H. J. Hoover, lumber, 1895. 

Willard McDonald, butter tubs, 1900. 

Marcellus Milling Company, 1891. 

Marcel lus Steam Laundry, 1903. 

Municipal Lighting Station, 1902. 

Morcellus Nen's, 1872. 

Reliance Cigar Company, 1905. 

At Glcmvood, the Hampton Stock Farm Company, staves and 
headings, established 1902, and at Pokagon, J. H. Phillips, lumber, estab- 
lished 1888. 

As will be seen, the inspection did not include the villages of Ed- 
wardsburg, Vandalia and Union, where factories of equal importance 
with some of those mentioned are to be found. But from the figures 
given some interesting summaries are drawn relative to the importance 
of manufacturing industries in the county. At Dowagiac sixteen fac- 
tories and workshops were inspected, eleven kinds of goods were made 
or handled. The whole number of employes found at the time of in- 
spection w\as 880, indicating that in a city of less than five thousand 
population, one person out of five depends on these industries for means 
of livelihood. Of course the Round Oak Stove Works, employing, at 
the date of inspection, 590, and the Dowagiac Manufacturing Com- 
pany, with 165 employes, are the major industries. Taking the thirty- 
seven industries named in the report, it is seen that the aggregate num- 
ber of employes is 994. This approximates five per cent of the popula- 


tion of Cass county depending on what are officially designated as "fac- 
tory" industries. Were the data at hand for all the handicrafts and 
manufactories of the county, the proportion of those engaged in indus- 
trial pursuits would be much larger, perhaps at least ten per cent of the 
entire population. 

With this general survey of the trades and factories of the pioneer 
times and the present, this chapter may appropriately be closed with some 
sketches of the largest and oldest of Cass county's manufactures. Many 
of the productive enterprises which have proved the industrial core of 
several communities in the county have been mentioned in connection 
with the history of such localities. 

Cassopolis has never been a center for manufactures. In 190O' a 
large plant was built near the Grand Trunk depot for the manufacture 
of grain drills, the concern being knowni as the Cassopolis Manufactur- 
ing Company. At this w-riting the works have been bought by the Kel- 
logg Switchboard & Supply Company, who propose the inauguration 
of an extensive industry, the village having lent its support to the prop- 
osition by voting a subsidy of $7,000, providing the company expends 
$150,000 in wages within a certain timie. The most substantial Cassopo- 
lis enterprise is the Power & Milling Company, which, as elsewhere 
stated, furnishes electricity and pumps water for the village and also 
converts large quantities of grain into flour and food products, thus 
making the village a good grain market. The plant of the Cassopolis 
Milling Company was built by J. Hopkins & Sons in 1882, and for a 
number of years the stone process of milling was used. W. D. Hop- 
kins & Company and W. D. Hopkins were successively proprietors, and 
in 1889, the plant having come into the hands of W. D. Hopkins and 
A. H. Van Riper, it was changed to the full roller system and incorpo- 
rated by the name Cassopolis Milling Company. The plant was en- 
larged when the city water works were established in 1891, and again 
enlarged and readapted when the electric light plant was installed in 
1895. The present proprietors are W. D. Hopkins, C. W. Daniels, 
Irving Paul. 

Dowagiac is pre-eminently the industrial center of the county, and 
because of their importance in the history of both city and county some 
special account should be made of the Round Oak Stove Works, the drill 
works, the Colby mills and several other factories. 



The late P. D. Beckwith came to Dowagiac in 1854 and built a 
small foundry and machine shop, 25x60 feet, on the east side of 
Front street near Park Place. The machinery was run by horse power, 
and he and one workman were then sufficient to do all the work. At 
first he made plow castings and did general repair work. The demand 
for plows was still light, despite the great improvement in agricultural 
methods since the pioneer period. In 1858 Mr. Beckwith bought a new 
site for his plant at the foot of Front street on the south side of the 
creek, where the drill works are now located. He improved the water 
power, and continued the manufacture of plows until the production was 
greater than the demand. 

In the meantime John S. Gage, of Wayne township, had designed 
and patented a rude form of the roller grain drill and succeeded in get- 
ting Mr. Beckwith to buy an interest in the patent and to begin the man- 
ufacture of a type of machine which has been developed into one of the 
most useful agricultural implements that the farmers of the country 
have adopted. 

In 1867 Mr. Beckwith made his first stove, fashioned on the prin- 
ciples of the present Round Oak, but crude in workmanship and style. 
One of these stoves was placed in the Michigan Central depot, and be- 
cause of its excellent heating qualities and durability the company had 
Mr. Beckwith make several others for their use. With the stove and the 
grain drill as articles for manufacture, Mr. Beckwith in 1868 trans- 
ferred his location to a plot of two acres just across the section line in 
La Grange township and near the depot grounds. The works have re- 
mained here ever since, although the grounds have been extended to 
the bank of the creek. Here he erected a brick factory and installed 
machinery for the manufacture of stoves and drills. He patented his 
Round Oak stove in 1870. During the seventies the business passed 
through its most critical period. During the general financial stagna- 
tion over the entire country he was compelled to resort to personal solic- 
itation to dispose of his product and in meeting his obligations his abil- 
ity as a financier was tested to the utmost. But in a few years the bus- 
iness was established on a substantial basis, and the Round Oak stove 
works is not only the largest industrial enterprise of Dowagiac, but has 
made the name of its founder and the name of the city household words 
from one end of the country to the other. The name ''Round Oak" 


can be found on stoves and ranges in the most remote localities, and 
the ''Round Oak" furnace has gained an enviable reputation, and Dowa- 
giac is associated with no other fact in thousands of minds that know 
nothing of the city or its history. 

From the first stages of the manufacture Mr. Beckwith built up his 
enterprise to splendid proportions, and since his death in 1889 the 
''Beckwith Estate" has controlled and managed the business with in- 
creasing success and growth. The present officers of the Round Oak 
Company are : Fred E. Lee, general manager ; A. B. Gardner, assistant 
general manager; J. O. Becraft, secretary; J. A. Howard, manager of 
sales; A. E. Rudolphi, assistant manager of sales; H. L. Mosher, man- 
ager of furnace and advertising departments; A. K. Beckwith, super- 
intendent; and O. G. Beach, chairman. 

As already mentioned, Mr. Beckwith began his Dowagiac career 
in manufacturing in a shop 25x60 feet. At the present time the 
floor space of the plant is 250,000 square feet and a new addition being 
constructed at this writing will bring that up to 300,000 square feet, or 
about fifteen acres of floor space. Mr. Beckwith began with one helper. 
At the time of his death about one hundred employes were needed to 
produce and sell the stoves, which by that time had become the sole line 
of manufacture. At this writing the force of employes is not far from 
eight hundred. And the managers are proud of the fact that the works 
are in operation practically all the time, the only shut-downs being at 
holidays for repairs. As is evident, such a force of employes in a city 
of five thousand forms the largest part of the population that could be 
classified in one group. Perhaps not far from half the population of 
Dowagiac depend on the Round Oak works for livelihood. Strikes and 
labor troubles have been unknown. It is estimated that sixty-five per 
cent of the employes have their own homes, and their character as cit- 
izens is much above that of the "factory average." 

A few other items as to the manufacture may prove pertinent to 
historical inquiry. Every day the process of manufacture requires six- 
ty-five tons of pig-iron melted in two cupolas. The incoming shipments 
of pig-iron, coal and coke for this one plant are as large as the freight 
shipments for the entire city twenty-five years ago. About twenty years 
ago the firm decided to bring out a furnace to supplement their line of 
stoves and ranges. It took ten years to bring this type of furnace to the 
degree of perfection wliich satisfied the Round Oak people. Every item 
of criticism or advice from the purchasers of these furnaces was care- 


fully considered and often became the ground for an improvement. 
When the furnace was first put on the market there was much to criticise ; 
after ten years customers entirely ceased to suggest improvements or to 
find defects, and therefore the company knew they had at last made a 
perfect furnace. The twO' points of superiority first produced by Mr. 
Beckwith in his original Round Oak, namely, economy in consumption of 
fuel and durability through all the tests of usage, have been maintained 
throughout the existence of the business. The latest product of this plant 
is the Round Oak Chief steel range, which was brought out three years 
ago, and the present addition to the plant is a building for the manu- 
facture of ranges. The steel range was a success from the start, has never 
once proved a failure, and remarkable sales indicate its popularity. At 
first only five or six were made each day ; now the number is eighty-five 
and soon it will be a hundred. In the conduct of the business the one-price 
principle has always been maintained; no jockeying in prices has been 
indulged in, all customers have been treated alike, and a solid and sub- 
stantial basis underlies the Round Oak works in factory and counting 
rooms. In conclusion, a word should be said of the artistic cata- 
logues and literature with which the company brings their goods to the 
attention of the world. The best in the art of chromatic engraving and 
printing has been employed to produce the various booklets. The adver- 
lising, of which Mr. H. L. Mosher has charge, is in keeping with the 
class of goods which are sold. 


According to the statement made on the first page of this company's 
catalogue for 1906, Dowagiac grain drills were first made in 1866 and 
have since been continuously made on part of the present site — ''the 
largest in the world devoted exclusively to the manufacture of grain-, 
seeding macliinery." The plant has grown from an eight-horse water- 
wheel plant to its present immense proportions. 

The prototype of the famous Dowagiac drill was a shoe drill first 
brotight into practical form by William Tuttle, a farmer of this section 
of Michigan. The first one made, in 1866, as stated, had wooden shoes 
covered with tin, and Philo D. Beckwith cast the first iron shoes. The 
mode of covering the grain by a chain, the second part of the invention, 
was the idea of Shepard H. Wheeler, a pioneer of Dowagiac. The first 
drill was put up and made ready for work in the wood-working and 
repair shop of John Crawford and Amos Knapp, and in February, 1867, 


the two inventors secured the first patent on the machine. A part of the 
present site of the plant — ^just south of Dowagiac creek on the west 
side of Front street — was purchased of Mr. Beckwith in 1868. The 
factory was burned down in 1872, but was soon rebuiU, and the plant 
has been increasing in size and amount of output ever since. The bus- 
iness was in the hands of various parties during the first few years. J. 
P. Warner, w^ho invented the spring-tooth harrow in 1880, was the 
principal partner during the seventies and for a long time the plant 
was known as the AVarner Drill Works. In November, 188 1, a stock 
company was formed under the name Dowagiac Manufacturing Com- 
pany. In i8go the stock was bought up by N. F. Choate, F. W. Lyle, 
C. E. Lyle, W. F. Hoyt and Charles Fowle. From the crude begin- 
nings of forty years ago the business has grown to what its owners 
claim it to be — the largest plant for the manufacture of seeding machin- 
ery in the world. At ihe date of the factory inspection of April, 1905, 
the number of employes given was 165, but the full force is l3etween 
300 and 350, the output naturally varying in different seasons of the 


As elsewhere stated, the milling interests are the oldest institutions 
of Dowagiac, William Renniston having built a carding mill in 1830, 
and a few years later a grist mill on the creek near the Colby Com- 
pany's present mill, on the northeast corner of section six in LaGrange 
township, where the Cassopolis and Dowagiac road crosses a branch of 
the Dowagiac creek on the mill dam. x\fter being owned by several 
parties, this property was sold by Erastus H. Spalding in 1868 to Mr. 
H. F. Colby and became the nucleus of the present mills. 

In 1857 G. A. Colby, a brother of H. F., had built a merchant mill 
at the head of Spalding street, and this was known as "the lower mill," 
to distinguish it from ''the upper mill," which was the original Rennis- 
ton mill, though rebuilt by H. F. Colby in 1868. H. F. Colby soon 
bought the lower mill, and the milling interests of Dowagiac have since 
then been largely identified with the Colby family. The Colby Milling 
Company was organized in 1891, its first members being H. F. Colby, 
F. L. Colby and F. H. Baker. It is a copartnership, and in 1900 Mr. 
F. L. Colby sold his interest in the business to F. W. Richey. The firm 
is now made up of H. F. Colby, F. H. Baker and F. W. Richey. The 
upper mill is known as the Crown Roller Mills and the lower mill as the 
State Roller Mills. 



The credit for producing this useful invention is due to Myron 
Stark, of Dowagiac, and WilHam M. Farr has been associated in its 
manufacture for thirty years and is now tlie sole proprietor of the plant. ' 
Sketches of both these men will be found elsewhere in this volume and 
it is sufficient to say here that the factory has grown to be one of those 
that increase the reputation of Dowagiac as a substantial manufactur- 
ing center and bring outside wealth to this point. 


Among the plants enumerated in the inspector's report, mention 
should also be made of the Standard Cabinet Company, which was estab- 
lislied in 1899 ^"^1 employs thirty or forty men. Its output is sold 
throughout the middle west. 

Banking and Finance. 

Cass county had none of the unfortunate experiences with ''wild- 
cat" finance which are part of the record of some Southern Michigan 
counties. Of course the financial panics and business depression of the 
thirties extended their baneful influence to the people of this county, but 
the frenzy of speculation and inflated currency were never localized here 
in a banking institution of the wild-cat type. 

Cassopolis has the honor of possessing the first banking institution. 
Asa and Charles Kingsbury, two names most prominent in the bank- 
ing history of. the county seat, began a private banking house in 1855. 
This was a quarter of a century after the settlement of the county and 
when we consider how important and necessary the bank is as an insti- 
tution in this age the question might naturally be asked, Where did the 
people put their money and transact their financial affairs during those 
years? In the first place, the amount of money in circulation was very 
small and the wealth of the people was quite fully represented in labor 
and tangible property. A place to keep the cash surplus was little needed. 
Then, the financial transactions of the time were not of every-day occur- 
rence, and the machinery of checks and drafts and organized finance 
was not so essential. So we see that banks were not so much needed in 
the early days as grocery stores and schools and churches, and were 
not established until the country reached a fair degree of development. 



The Kingsburys dissolved partnership in 1857, and diereafter Asa 
Kingsbury conducted the business until the organization of the First 
National Bank. Ihis well known institution has had an existence of 
thirty-five years. The personnel of its officials and stockholders has 
always l^een maintained at a high standard, and the organizers, in No- 
vember, 187c, were representative of the best business interests of the 
village and county at that time, as those now concerned in the man- 
agement are representative of the business ideals of this epoch. The 
incorporators and stockholders were: Asa Kingsbury, S. T. Read, Jo- 
seph K. Ritter, Isaac Z. Edwards, David M. Howell, Charles W. Clis- 
bee, Charles H. Kingsbury, Joel Cowgill, E. B. Sherman, Amanda F. 
Ritter, Daniel Wilson, all of Cassopolis; also David Lilly, of LaGrange 
township; James E. Bonine, of Penn township, and N. Boardman, E. 
M. Irvin, D. C. Read and Henry F. Kellogg, from outside the county. 

The first directors were: Asa Kingsbury, Joseph K. Ritter, David 
M. Howell, David Lilly, James E. Bonine and E. B. Sherman. The 
present directors are: M. L. Howell, C. A, Ritter, J. H. Johnson, H. 
D. Smith, A. M. Kingsbury, Ellen R. Funk, W. G. Bonine, all of 
Cassopolis excepting J. H. Johnson, a resident of Penn township. Asa 
Kingsbury was president from the date of the first charter until his 
death in 1883, when he was succeeded by David M. Howell, who first 
held the office of vice-president, and served until his death the same 
year. His successors have been Joseph K. Ritter, 1884-91 ; Sylvador T. 
Read, 1893-98; Marshal L. Howell, since 1898. The first cashier was 
Charles H. Kingsbury, who w^as succeeded by Charles A. Ritter, the 
present incumbent, in 1891, who then was assistant cashier and was 
succeeded by David L. Kingsbury, assistant at this time. The bank has 
a capital of $50,000; surplus and profits, $50,000. 


H. B. Denman w^as the first banker of Dowagiac, establishing a 
private bank in 1856, and w^as the leading spirit in organizing the First 
National Bank in 1865. This for six years was the only national bank 
in the county. Also in 1865 the late Daniel Lyle and Joseph Rogers 
established a private banking office. In 1869, Mr. Denman having re- 
linquished the controlling interest in First National stock and Mr. Lyle 
becoming the chief stockholder, the two institutions merged their inter- 


ests, with Mr. Lyle as president of the First National, while in the same 
year Nelson F. Choate became cashier. 

When the charter of the First National expired in 1883 it was 
not renewed, but the bank was reorganized as a private bank under the 
firm name of D. Lyle & Company, Bankers. On the death of Daniel 
Lyle — one of the foremost citizens, a man whose memory deserves per- 
manant record not only in financial affairs of his city, but in public- 
spirited citizenship — another reorganization was effected, this time a 
state charter being taken out, and at that date the City Bank of Dowa- 
giac was born. Then again, in 1904, the state bank organization was 
dissolved and since then the bank has been conducted by the firm of 
Lyle, Gage & Company, Bankers, under the old name. 

The first officers of the bank imder the state organization in 1887 
were: John Lyle, president; N. F. Choate, vice president; F. W. Lyle, 
cashier; I. B. Gage, assistant cashier. At the next change, in 1904, the 
officers became : F. W. Lyle, president ; N. F. Choate, vice president ; 
I. B. Gage, cashier; Leon R. Lyle, assistant cashier. In February, 1906, 
occurred the death of Nelson F. Choate, who had been identified with 
banking interests in the city nearly forty years. The official director- 
ate then became: F. W. Lyle, president; I. B. Gage, vice president; 
L. R. Lyle, cashier; F. J. Phillips, assistant cashier. The flourishing 
condition of the City Bank is shown in the statement of nearly $350,- 
000 deposits and surplus, indicating the creditable management since 
1865 and also the financial status of the city and country. 


This institution, whose offices are in the Beckwith Theatre block, 
had its origin in the brokerage business begun by C. T. Lee in 1867 
and the exchange bank established by him in 1875. The present firm 
was established in 1887, its personnel being C. T. Lee, Henry M. Lee 
and Fred E. Lee. C. A. Hux has held the office of cashier since 1896. 
This bank has deposits of over $300,000. 

The Sage brothers, Martin G. and Norman, w^hile engaged in the 
mercantile and milling business at Adamsville, received money and is- 
sued certificates of deposit and sold exchange on New York. 

About ten years ago a private banking concern, backed by Chicago 
capita], was started at Edwardsburg. A failure of the Chicago enter- 
prise resulted in closing the Edwardsburg branch. The citizens there- 


upon organized a ''Citizens' Bank," which did business for one year, 
when it also closed. 

farmers' mutual fire insurance company. 

This company has had a loneer continuous career than any other 
of the financial concerns of the county. It was organized May 8, 1863, 
its object being the insurance of farm buildings at a minimum cost 
and on the mutual plan. In the list of its officials during more than 
forty years' successful business have been numbered some of the most 
influential and substantial agriculturists of the county. Its first of- 
ficers and directors were: Jesse G. Beeson, one of the founders of 
Dowagiac city, president; A. Jewell, of Wayne township, treasurer; 
A. D. Stocking, of Dowagiac, secretary; and W. G. Beckw^ith, of Jef- 
ferson, Israel Ball, of Wayne, William R. Fletcher, of Wayne, Frank 
Brown, of Pokagon, Daniel Blish, of Silver Creek, directors. 

The present ofikers are as follows : Sariiuel Johnson, president ; 
Frank Atwood, secretary; J. J. Ritter, treasurer; James H. Graham, C. 
H. Scott, Clint Elsey, Edson Woodman, Walter N. Sommers, director. 



The pioneer farmers of Cass county were probably as progressive 
as those of any other part of the country at that time. They brought 
with them from their homes in the older states the methods which pre- 
vailed there. And, as many of them came from the east, which was 
considered the most progressive section of the country, they must have 
known the best methods of farming which were practiced in their day. 

But the first farmers of this county were confronted wdth a task 
such as has been unknown in the settlement of the more w^estern prairie 
states. The obstacles to be overcome were great, the implements and 
means were primitive. The steel plow w^as not invented until after Cass 
county had been substantially settled and improved. Whereas the west- 
ern prairie sod is turned over for the first time by immense gang plows, 
draw'U by four or five horses, or even by a traction engine, the farmer 
of the twenties or thirties had to depend on a wooden moldboard shod 
with an iron share roughly made at a local blacksmith shop. 

With this hint at pioneer conditions it is evident that agriculture 
has Undergone development in as wonderful degree as any other phase 
of the county's history. It will be the purpose of this chapter to de- 
scribe as far as possible the methods and circumstances of early agricult- 
ure, and from the point of view^ of the past indicate the great changes 
that have preceded modern agriculture. 

The pioneer farmer's first work, after a rude temporary shelter had 
been provided, was to prepare a little spot of ground for the first crop. 
Those who located on Pokagon, Beardsley's and other well known 
prairies — and, as we know, those were the favorite selections of the 
first settlers — were very fortunate in this respect. Relieved of the neces- 
sity to clear off the trees, they had only to turn over the prairie sod. 
But even so, the undertaking involved labor that one man alone could 
hardly accomplish. The turf on the prairies was very tough, and the 
ground in most places was filled wnth a net-work of the wire-like red 
root. If the location w^as in the oak woods, it was necessary to girdle 
the trees, clearing away the underbrush and sweeping the surface with 



fire. The dead trunks of the trees were sometimes left standing the first 
season, and the corn grew up among the aisles of the blasted forests. 

Although the surface of the ground had been cleared, just beneath 
there rem.ained the roots of the former growth, and these, formed into 
massive ''stools," w^ere for several years insuperable obstacles to easy 
farming. An ordinary plow team would have been useless among the 
stools and grubs, and a common plow would have been quickly demol- 
ished. The plow used was a massive construction of wood and iron, 
and was known as the ''bull plow.'' The share and coulter were of iron, 
and made very heavy and strong. The beam was long and of huge 
proportions, to resist the enormous strain brought upon it. Usually the 
weight of one of these ponderous bull plows was about three hundred 
pounds, and occasionally one was found weighing five hundred pounds. 
vSix or seven yoke of oxen, and sometimes more, w^ere required to pull 
this implement through the ground. With such an equipment, the ordin- 
ary roots were torn from the ground like straws and subsequent culti- 
vation was made easy. It usually took twO' persons to do the plowing, 
a man to hold the plow and either a man or a boy to drive the team. 
This process of "breaking" new land was made a regular business ])y 
some of the pioneers, just as threshing is at the present time. 

In a few years plows with iron moldboards w^ere introduced, ])ut 
as they w^ould not scour well in all kinds of soil, they were not consid- 
ered a success at first. Besides, as the ground was full of roots, of new 
stumps and standing trees, the wooden moldboard was less liable to 
break than one of iron, so it was better adapted to the conditions than 
the iron one. The cultivation was done w^ith the hoe at first, then came 
the "fluke," a V-shaped w^ooden frame with five iron flukes, drawn by one 
horse, then the single shovel plow, then the double shovel plow, which was 
in use for a numl:ier of years. Among the trees, stumps and roots both 
the plowing and cultivation were tedious, laborious and disagreeable 
work. This condition continued for a number of years, until the stumps 
had decayed sufficiently to make it possible to remove them. 

The planting was likewise primitive. As the sod was turned over, 
a man followed about every third furrow, dug into the top of the fur- 
row with his foot or with a hoe and planted corn, covering it in the 
same w^ay. In some instances the corn w^as dropped in the furrow very 
near the outside, so that the edge of the next furrow when turned over 
would be directly over the grain. The corn would then come through 
between the two furrow^s. Wheat w^as sown among the stumps and trees. 


The grain was harrowed in with a w^ooden-toothed harrow. The farm- 
er who did not have even one of those rude implements w^ould cut a 
small tree, trim off part of the limbs so as to leave a bushy end, weight 
it with a log, and, hitching his team to it, would get about the same 
results as from a tooth harrow\ 

In harvesting the corn the stalk was not utilized, as is done at the 
present day. The prevailing practice was to pull the ear from the stalk, 
husk and all, haul the corn to a pile and then husk it. The husk was 
utilized for feed, and as much of the grain as was not needed for home 
consumption w^as hauled away to market. As soon as large crops of 
corn were grown husking bees became the fashion. The corn was 
pulled from the stalk and put in a pile, as when the farmer himself, or 
he and his family did the husking. Then a number of neighbors assem- 
bled and everybody husked. This was repeated at the home of each 
farmer until all had their crops husked. 

Wheat was harvested with the cradle, such an implement as a 
reaper or harvesting machine of any kind not then being dreamed of. 
Besides the cradle, the sickle also was in use at that time. But that was 
used only in wheat that had blown down or grew among stumps and 
trees, making it difficult and sometimes impossible to cradle. And for 
the first few^ years that was a large portion of the crop. It was well 
that only a limited area could be sown, because had there been a greater 
acreage it doubtless would not have been harvested. The work of har- 
vesting with those old-time implements was extremely slow in compar- 
ison with the way it can he done w^ith our improved harvesting machin- 
ery. The threshing was done either with a flail or the grain was tramped 
out by horses. Both processes were very slow, the former being about 
as slow as harvesting with the sickle. When horses were used a thresh- 
ing floor was made out-of-doors by smoothing the ground or beating 
it until it was as solid as could be made. The horses were ridden by 
boys, while tw^o men worked the grain toward the center of the floor 
and threw out the straw. 

In the early forties a machine came into use which threshed out the 
grain and dispensed both with the use of the flail and the tramping of 
horses. This machine consisted only of a cylinder, and was operated 
by horse power. When the threshing was done by any of these methods 
the grain had to be separated from the chaff by fanning with a sheet, 
the wind blowing the chaff away. There were no fanning mills then, 
but they were introduced a few^ years later. These mills were in the 


crudest form, but were considered a great improvement over the win- 
nowing sheet. All of this labor had to be done in order that the farmer 
might i^roduce a supply of wheat sufficient to provide bread for his 
family and, if possible, a small surplus to sell. 

Wheat regularly sold for fifty cents a bushel for many years, which 
seems a small remuneration for the labor bestowed upon the raising. 
During the early thirties, however, when immigration was greater than 
the settled population, the newcomers took all the surplus wheat at ex- 
travagant prices. This stimulated the farmers to unusual efforts and 
the following year everybody had wheat to sell, and prices were too 
low to pay for the labor of raising. George Meacham, in his capacity 
as sheriff of the county, called the farmers together at Cassopolis to take 
concerted action for disposing of the grain. It was suggested that a 
warehouse should be built at the mouth of the St. Joseph. Abiel Silver, 
one of the proprietors of the distillery at Cassopolis, came to the rescue 
by agreeing to purchase all the surplus. It was not long after that the 
tide of immigration increased so that the demand once more took all 
the supply. 

Corn and wheat were the two leading crops grown then, as they 
are now. Other. crops that were grown were oats, rye, potatoes, buck- 
wheat and flax. Oats were usually fed in the straw, only enough be- 
ing threshed out for the next year's seed. A patch of potatoes was 
planted on every farm for home use, but there were very few, if any, 
grown for market. The crop being a bulky one and the market so dis- 
tant made the growing of potatoes as a market crop impracticable. Flax 
was raised for home use, the product being manufactured into linen 
for a part of the family's wearing apparel. 

No attention was paid to the rotation of crops. Corn was planted 
after corn, and wheat after wheat, and that was continued year after 
year. Sometimes these crops were alternated, but only as a matter of 
convenience and not to prevent exhaustion of the soil. It was not nec- 
essary at that time to give any attention to this matter, which has come 
to be one of the most important questions the farmer of the present 
day has to consider. When the timber was first cleared away the land 
was full of fertility, and the possibility of the soil losing its substance 
had not yet been thought of. Had the same care been exercised in con- 
serving fertility then as the farmers are compelled to exercise now, the 
soils would never have become impoverished, as so many of them have. 

It has alreadv been told how some of the first settlers, immediately 


on arriving in the county, esj^ecially if they came in the fall of the 
year, busied themselves with cutting and stacking a sufficient amount of 
the native hay to feed their stock for the winter. Uzziel Putnam and 
Abram Townsend cut their first winter's supply of forage on the prairie 
about the present site of Edwardsburg. 

For many years the hay crop consisted of the native grasses. 
When the settlers were yet few in number the prairie and marsh land 
grasses furnished an abundant supply of hay for their live stock. When 
the prairie lands were all taken up each farmer on those lands set off 
a portion of his farm for a meadow, but this was sufficient only for the 
owner, and those who had settled in the timber had to look elsewhere 
for a supply. There was an abundant growth of grass on what were 
then known as wet prairies, or mowing marshes, which after being cut 
and cured in the sun, was called '^massauga" hay because of the numer- 
ous snakes by that name on the marshes. xA.t first every settler could 
find a sufficient supply of this marsh grass near his home if he had none 
on his farm. This hay had to be mowed by hand, then thrown to- 
gether and hauled from the marsh on a small sled drawn l^y a yoke of 
oxen. The ground was so soft that a team of horses and a wagon could 
not be driven over it. Only a small bit could be hauled out at a time 
in this way, and it took a number of these sled loads to make a wagon 
load. The same method of making hay had to be employed on all of the 
wet prairies of those days. 

With this view of the status of agriculture sixty years ago, it is 
not 'difficult to realize the broad developments that have taken place 
since then. Farming has become easier with every year. Its condi- 
tions and surroundings are no longer those of the common laborer. 
Several things have contributed to this change. Some claim that the 
invention of labor-saving machinery and its general use has done more 
to elevate agriculture than any other factor. It certainly is not wnde 
of the mark to measure the progress of agriculture by the distance that 
separates the self-binder from the cradle. Yet there are other factors. 
The working and hiring of help has been quite reformed from the 
methods of fifty years ago. The progressive farmer no longer depends 
on transient labor. Not so many years ago, when harvest time or other 
extra press of work arrived, the farmer w^ould start out into the sur- 
rounding country and hire by the day such men as were available. 
This is neither practicable nor possible now. Improved machinery has 
done much to relieve the farmer of the necessity of hiring day laborers. 


His policy now is to hire a man by the year, and often a man of family, 
who will live on the farm and give it his entire attention. 

Transportation has also effected many changes in farming methods. 
In place of marketing by the bushel, the farmer now markets ''on the 
hoof," that is, feeds his grain products to stock. And of recent years 
the farmers do not hesitate to import stock cattle from distant ranges 
of the Dakotas or the Southwest and feed them for market on grain 
raised in Cass county. This in itself is one of the most important de- 
velopments of Cass county agriculture. 

In the general upward trend of property values land is the last thing 
to appreciate. At a distance of ten years from the beginning of the 
present remarkable era of prosperity, the farm lands of the county show 
only a slight increase in value. But now more than ever the worth of 
Cass county lands is being understood. Instead of passing on to the 
western lands, where climate and soil are uncertain, the farmers of 
Ohio and other states in the east and middle west, after selling their 
farms at from $60 to $100 an acre, are choosing to locate on moder- 
ately priced lands in Cass county rather than investing in property which 
not for many years will have the environment of comfort and culture 
found here. 

Much of Cass county is situated in the famous Michigan fruit belt. 
The northern part of the county sliares with Van Buren county a repu- 
tation as a grape growing center. The shipping points of Mattawan, 
Lawton and Decatur draw upon northern Cass county for large quan- 
tities of grapes, as well as other fruits. There is a large acreage in the 
county better adapted to fruit culture than any other crop, and fruit- 
growing is increasing at the expense of other crops. 

Mention should be made of the mint culture which has become a 
feature of C^ass county agriculture during the past few years. The 
muck land of Volinia and Wayne and other townships is well adapted 
to mint growing. Mint is cultivated in rows like corn, and is cut just 
before it blooms, and from the harvest is distilled the mint oil. A still 
plant can be built for about $300. As an example of the crop's value, 
it is claimed that eight acres in Volinia township last season produced 
mint oil to the value of $1,050. 

One of the conspicuous methods of caring for crops should be 
mentioned. Within recent years progressive farmers have built silo 
plants for the purpose of preserving the essential qualities of ''roughen- 
ing" or fodder throughout the wnnter. One of the first things to catch 


the attention on many farms in the county is the silo plant, and often 
there are several of them. In these huge cylindrical, air-tight tanks, 
built of ''silo lumber," and some of the recent, ones of cement, the 
green corn, stalk and all, after being cut up by a special machine, is 
stored very much as vegetables are canned. While in the reservoir it 
undergoes a slight fermentation process, but with the exception of a 
small portion on the top, which rots and molds just as the top of a can 
of fruit often does, and which is thrown out before the rest is used, 
the entire contents of the tank are preserved with original sweetness 
and wholesomeness for feeding tO' stock during the severe winter sea- 
son. What an improvement this method is over the old one of stacking 
the dry fodder in the late fall, when most of its essential qualities have 
dried out, even one unfamiliar with agriculture can readily realize. 


The Grange, whose basic purposes are educational, fraternal and 
the general improvement of the farmer and his family and the con- 
ditions under which he works, has not been the factor in agriculture in 
this county which it has proved in other counties of Michigan, and yet 
its influence as a state and national organization for the uplift and im- 
provement of agriculture has been so great and so widely distributed 
that it deserves some mention in this chapter. 

The National Grange organization was commenced in 1867; tiut 
it was during the middle seventies that the movement reached its height 
in southern Michigan. The general name applicable to the organization 
as a whole is '^Patrons of Husbandry," the ''granges" being the subor- 
dinate branches, but the name Grange is the one generally used in re- 
ferring to all departments of the organization. The Grange was the 
first fraternal organization to admit the wives and daughters on an 
equal basis in every way. 

A few words should be said about the work of the Grange in 
general. The Grange was one of the most active forces behind pure 
food legislation in Michigan, and to its efforts — to give only one ex- 
ample — is due the fact that oleomargarine must be labeled with its 
true name, and not as butter. The Grange has more or less actively 
entered the field of commerce. In some counties "Grange Stores" have 
been established and successfully conducted. In Cass county they have 
not been so successful. 

The Grange claims to be the father of rural free delivery. Cer- 


tainly it has used its influence nowhere to better advantage, for free 
delivery in the country is now conceded to be the greatest boon that 
has come to the farmer. It has brought him in touch with the world and 
more than anything else has made obsolete the term ''countrified" as 
applied to the tiller of the soil. And this is in direct line with the pur- 
poses of the Grange. 


With the celebration of the Cass county fair in September of this 
year (1906) will be rounded out a period of fifty-five years since the 
first fair in the county and the above organization came into existence. 
The society was organized in the spring of 185 1, and the first fair 
held in the following fall. Justus Gage was president and George B. 
Turner secretary during the first year. The society held annual fairs 
from its organization up to 1884. Since that time no fairs have been 
held by the society. O'ne year ago a new organization w^as effected 
and held a successful fair. 

The Agricultural Society has been unfortunate in its choice of 
location, which three times has been changed owing to the exercise of 
''the right of eminent domain.'' Until 1857 the fairs were held on 
Samuel Graham's land at Cassopolis. Then fair grounds w^ere bought 
and laid out near where the Air Line depot is. The Peninsular (Grand 
Trunk) railroad had the right of w^ay, ran through the grounds and the 
society was compelled to move, but at once got in the road of the Air 
Line, having purchased the grounds on which is Forest Hall on the 
shore of Diamond lake, and had to abandon its second location. In 
187 1 the society bought twenty acres of land of Samuel Graham in the 
north part of the village at a cost of $3,000. This location was also 
interfered with a few years ago when the railroad was surveyed and 
graded in a northwesterly direction across the county. 

During the years the society held its fairs it succeeded in paying 
off all its indebtedness, but to do so life memberships were sold to many 
of the patrons. This cut down the receipts at the 1884 fair, so that there 
was not money enough to pay the premiums. Money was borrowed for 
that purpose, and a mortgage given on the grounds to secure the loan. 
In time foreclosure proceedings were begun and the village of Cass- 
opolis bought the land and now owns it. 

VOLINIA farmers' CLUB. 

Most notable, in many respects, of all the farmers' organizations 


was the Volinia Fanners' Club, which was organized in 1865 for the 
purpose of increasing "the knowledge of agriculture and horticulture" 
among its members and which held annual fairs in Volinia that were 
occasions of widespread interest and yearly anticipation, and of in- 
estimable value in raising the agricultural and stock standards of the 
locality. The first officers of the club were B. G. Buell, president ; A. B. 
Copley and John Struble, vice presidents; F. E. Warner, treasurer; 
H. S. Rogers, secretary. Of the older and original members John 
Huff and William Erskin are probably the only ones now living. Prom- 
inent among the members now deceased were H. S. Rogers, secretary 
for many years; M. J. Card, father of the present county treasurer; B. 
G. Buell, Levi Lawrence, Benjamin Hathaway, L N. Gard, M. B. 
Goodenough, Dr. Thomas, J. W. Eaton and James S. Shaw. 

The club met once a month, and the annual fair was held in the 
fall on the L N. Gard farm, and once on the Buell farm. The fair was 
an agricultural and stock display, at which no premiums except ribbons 
were offered, and everyone had a right to exhibit. The expenses were 
met largely by a small individual fee upon the members and by rental of 
booths. There were running races, but the horse racing feature was 
not developed to the exclusion of all other interests. A big tent was 
used to shelter some of the displays and to provide quarters for other 
indoor features. The fair lasted two days and drew its attendance 
from all the country round. 


This organization, begun in 1852, and still maintained among 
the farmers of the two townships named, provides the effective restraint 
upon horse thieves with which nearly every agricultural community 
has at some time been troubled. There are about one hundred members 
of the society, although the maintenance of the organization is the only 
business of importance transacted. The society has always succeeded 
in recovering captured animals, and its record is the best justification 
of its existence. The meetings of the society are held at Crane's school- 
house in Volinia. At organization the charter membership included 
eleven men, and was then confined to Volinia township, but member- 
ship was later extended to Wayne township. The first officers were 
Isaac Waldron, chairman; George Newton, secretary; Jonathan Gard, 















The contest between Cassopolis and other villages for the location 
of the county seat has been elsewhere described. For five or six years 
after the organization of the comity there was no fixed home for the 
transaction of official business. The first courts and the first meetings 
of the boards of supervisors were held at Edwardsburg, and later in 
private houses in Cassopolis. A jail was the first consideration with 
the supervisors. This having been completed, the board, in the fall of 
1835, provided for the erection, on the west side of Broadway, north 
of York street, of a wooden building, 34 by 24 feet in dimensions, 
costing not to exceed four hundred and fifty dollars, the same to be 
used for a court house and ''to contain desks for judges and bar.'.' The 
late Joseph Harper took the contract for the erection of this court 
house, and it was ready for occupancy May i, 1835. This first court 
house, it is seen, was not on the public square and stood well to the 
north end of the original village. 

However, the court house with which most of the old inhabitants 
of Cass county are familiar is the building which now stands on the 
south side of State street, west, and is used as a storage house. Its 
classic lines, its solid columns, combining the effects of the Greek tem- 
ple with Colonial residences, indicate that in its better days it was a 
more pretentious structure and sheltered affairs of larger importance 
than it now does. For more than half a century this building, which 
is pictured on another page, stood on the northeast quarter of the 
public square, and within its walls transpired the official actions which 
accompanied Cass county's progress from pioneer times to the close 
of the last century. 

The ''Court House Company" constructed this court house. The 
members of that company were the well known citizens, Darius Shaw, 
Joseph Harper, Jacob Silver, Asa Kingsbury and A. H. Redfield. In 
August, 1839, they entered into a contract with the county commis- 
sioners, David Hopkins, Henry Jones and James W. Griffin to erect 
a court house 54 feet in length and 46 feet in width and 24 feet high 


from sills to eaves, the material to be of wood, except the large brick 
vault; the first story to be fitted for office rooms and the second story 
to form the court and jury rooms. Six thousand dollars was the price 
agreed upon for putting up such a building, one-third of this sum to be 
paid in cash and the remainder in village lots, which the original own- 
ers had given to the county in consideration of the locating of the 
county seat at Cassopolis. 

The Court House Company discharged their duties in strict con- 
formance wuth specifications, and the building w^as ready for use in 1841, 
according to contract. Nearly sixty years elapsed from this date until 
the stone building now in use was completed and accepted for court 
house purposes. The old building early became inadequate for the 
accommodation of all the county officers, and in i860 the offices of 
clerk, judge of probate, register of deeds and treasurer were trans- 
ferred to a brick building specially erected by the board of supervisors 
on the northwest quarter of the square, where they remained until 
the completion of the court house six years ago. The building, com- 
monly called the 'Tort," is now used for a laundry. It was built by 
Maj. Joseph Smith. 


The building of the court house w^hich now adorns the public 
square in Cassopolis has a history such as few buildings of the kind 
in Michigan possess, and in a permanent record of the county it is 
proper to prepare an adequate and accurate account of the events and 
circumstances connected with the erection of this building. 

October 19, 1897, at the regular session of the board of super- 
visors, Mr. C. H. Kimmerle introduced a preamble and resolutions 
wliich was the first effective move toward the construction of a suita- 
ble county building. After reciting the facts that the old court house 
was "inadequate for the accommodation of business and was becoming 
old and dilapidated," and that the records of the county were ''crowded 
into small and inconvenient rooms in a separate building unprotected 
from fire and theft" (referring to the office quarters that had been built 
in i860), it was resolved to construct a court house costing not to ex- 
ceed forty thousand dollars, ''such building to be fireproof and of suffi- 
cient capacity to accommodate all the county officers, the board of 
supervisors and the circuit court." 

The board deferred the consideration of the original resolution 


until the January session, and on January 6, 1898, the board adopted, 
by a vote of 14 to 4, an amended motion whose sahent provisions were 
the following: The sum of forty thousand dollars, which was to cover 
the entire cost of the building, including furniture, plumbing, heating 
apparatus, was to be raised by loan secured and evidenced by four 
hundred bonds of the county of one hundred dollars each, bearing in- 
terest at the rate of four per cent per annum and payable as follows — 
the first eighty on January 15, 1899; and eighty on the 15th of January 
each year thereafter until all were paid. 

The resolution also provided that the proposition should be re- 
ferred to the people at the township elections, and it will be of interest 
to record the vote as cast for and against this proposition by the various 
tov/nships of the county. The total vote was 501 1, and a majority of 
229 was cast in favor of the new court house. The tabulated vote is 
as follows : 

Yes. No. 

Marcellus 174 335 

Volinia , 59 222 

Wayne 44 153 

Silver Creek , , 81 145 

Pokagon 112 1^7 

La Grange .507 38 

Penn . . . 189 153 

Newberg ., 142 192 

Porter 130 151 

Calvin 177 104 

Jefferson 135 39 

Howard 83 125 

Milton 52 54 

Ontwa 108 yy 

Mason 92 74 

Dowagiac, ist ward 199 141 

Dowagiac, 2nd ward 172 108 

Dowagiac, 3rd ward 164 123 

2620 2391 

The old court house was soon sold to the highest bidder, George 
M. Kingsbury being awarded the sale at $25, conditioned on his re- 
moving the building from the court house site and giving the use of the 
building for county purposes until the new structure was finished. 

The committee on specifications, consisting of six supervisors and 


one outsider, was first made up of the following : Supervisors'^ Huntley, 
White, Breece, Phillips, Beeman, Lindsley and Mr. David L. Kings- 

The building committee consisted of Supervisors Kimmerle, Hunt- 
ley, Lindsley, Motley and Mr. Kingsbury. 

The finance committee, as first made up, were Supervisors White, 
Atwood and Card. 

D. B. Smith was elected local superintendent of construction, and 
on October 5, 1898, the corner stone of the building was laid by the 
local lodge of Masons. 

In the meantime the committees had been called upon to consider 
the bids of the various contractors^and there were at least half a 
dozen applying for the contract — and on July 15, 1898, the contract 
w^as awarded to J. E. Gibson of Logansport, Ind., on the basis of the 
following letter : "J, the undersigned, propose and agree to furnish all 
the material and labor necessary to erect and build your pro^xDsed new 
court house according to revised plans for and in consideration of the 
sum of $31,500. — J. E. Gibson." 

The contract was let to Gibson by a vote of 11 to 5. The work 
then proceeded. The superstructure was only partly completed in the 
rough when certain differences between Gibson and the committee came 
to a crisis. The contractor claimed remuneration for extra work, while 
the committee charged failure to follow the plans and the use of improper 
material. According to the minutes of November 10, ''Contractor Gib- 
son announced he would do no further work until an estimate was 
made and not then unless the estimate was a liberal one, he to be the 

Because of this alleged "unreasonable neglect and suspension of 
work and failure to follow drawings and specifications" and various 
otlier items enumerated, including unauthorized departures from the 
original plans, a meeting of the board of supervisors was called, No- 
vember 17th, at which it was resolved that the contract between Gibson 
and the county was terminated. In February, 1899, the work already 
done on the court house was estimated at the value of ten thousand 
dollars, and it was calculated that $25,000 was needed to complete the 
building according to plans and specifications. 

February 21,, 1899, the board made a contract with the firm of 
James Rowson and August Mohnke, of Grand Rapids. A quotation 

♦For full names of supervisors, see official lists for the year. 


from the contract will show the position of the board with reference 
to the matter. After reciting the original contract between the comity 
and Gibson and the status of the w^ork up to date, it continues^ — *'Where- 
as said Jordan E. Gilxson so disregarded his said contract and the plans, 
specifications and drawings both in the use of unfit material and in the 
manner of the performance of his work and so delayed and neglected 
the completion of said building that much of the work done by him has 
been injured and damaged by the frost, so that the said county through 
its board of supervisors acting under provisions of said contract de- 
clared his employment at an end and took possession of said building 
and premises and all and singular of said material, and to the end that 
said imperfect w^ork and material might be removed, mended and re- 
placed and said building constructed according to plans and specifica- 
tions, this contract is entered into, etc." 

Under the new contract the w^ork proceeded rapidly. January 8, 
1900, the building committee reported that ''the court house is now 
substantially completed. About that time the county offices were 
moved to their new home, and the court house was formally accepted 
at the October session of 1900. The total cost of the building, includ- 
ing all extras, was as follows : 

Amount under contract, including that paid Gibson $35,200.00 

Furniture, including lighting fixtures ,. 3^575-09 

Extra work on building 1,922.79 

Heating contract 3,100.00 

Total $43,797.88 

The excess of cost over the first contract was credited to the failure 
of Gibson to perform his contract. ''Since the county was compelled 
to re-let the contract at an increased price and re-build a considerable 
part of the work constructed by Gibson, for which the county had 
actually paid him, the excess apparent from this report was created." 

The finance committee managed the negotiation of the bonds admir- 
ably. The first series of $8,000, payable January 15, 1899, was not sold, 
hut levied upon the taxable property of the county for the year 
1898, thus effecting a saving of nearly two hundred dollars in interest. 
The remaining thirty-two thousand w^ere sold to the First National 
Bank of Cassopolis and delivered in sums of not less than five thousand 
dollars as the work on the court house required. 

In the meantime J, E. Gibson had sued the county for the value of 


the material which he claimed to be on the ground at the time the contract 
was terminated. In the fall of 1899 the United States circuit court, 
before which the case was heard, decided adversely to the county, and on 
March 9, 1901, the judgment was affirmed in the United States court of 
appeals, to which the county had taken an appeal on a writ of error and 
bill of exception. As there were no available funds in the county treas- 
ury to meet the judgment, it was resolved by the board of supervisors 
to issue fifteen bonds of $1,000 each, at four per cent, the first seven to 
mature on January 15, 1904, and the remaining eight on January 15, 
1905. Supervisor Kimmerle, with the county treasurer, negotiated 
these bonds successfully to the banks of the county. In estimating the 
cost of the court house to Cass county, the amount of this judgment 
must be added to the other estimate, so that the aggregate cost of the 
court house was nearly sixty thousand dollars. 


Cass county's first public building was a jail. The board of super- 
visors, in March, 1832, voted a sum not to exceed $350 from the 
amount subscribed for the location of the county seat at Cassopolis to 
be expended on a ''gaol." Alexander H. Redfield let the contract, which 
specified that the structure should be 15 by 30 feet in ground dimen- 
sions and one story high, of hewn logs one foot square. The building 
w^as not completed in contract time and was not ready for use till 1834. 
Shortly afterward the jail was floored and lined with plank, the logs 
being driven full of nails and covered with strap iron as additional 
protection. The lock, nearly as large as one of the windows, is now 
a relic in the Pioneer Society's collection. This first jail, which was 
torn down about 1870, stood on the northeast corner of block i south, 
range 2 w^est, on the south side of State street and west of Disbrow. 
The jailer's residence, a frame building erected a number of years after 
the jail, is still standing, having been converted into, a paint shop. 

The first jail was replaced in 185 1 by a brick structure that stood 
on the court house square just north of the present court house. It 
was not a satisfactory building in point of its main purpose, the secure 
confinement of prisoners. 

In 1878-79 was erected the present jail and sheriff's residence at 
a cost of $17,770. W. H. Myers, of Fort Wayne, Ind., was the con- 
tractor, and Charles G.'^ Banks, Charles L. Morton and Joseph Smith 
were the building committee, Daniel B. Smith being local superintendent 


of construction. The jail was completed in February, 1879, the first 
plans for its erection having been made by the board of supervisors in 

When the jail was built there was installed what was then a 
modern heating plant. It proved unsatisfactory, and when the new 
court house was built a brick addition to house the furnace plant was 
erected adjoining the jail, and a model steam heating plant installed for 
both buildings. 


The Cass County Poor Farm, comprising 280 acres in sections 2, 
3 and 10, of Jefferson township, with its equipment of buildings, is the 
principal public charity in the county. Though the poor and unfortunate 
are always with us, the provisions for their care change to greater effi- 
ciency only to keep pace with the development of the community, and the 
increase of comforts with society at large. Hence the first maintenance 
of the public poor was as crude as the need for such charity was limited. 

The county poor were first provided for at a farm near Edwards- 
burg, a visit of the county commissioners to the institution being re- 
corded in the later thirties. 

The county officials next purchased of Asa Kingsbury the land in 
Jefferson township upon which the present institution is located, but 
a small log house was the only building designed for shelter, and small 
as was the number of inmates, the methods and means of caring for 
them was completely lacking in system. In view of this situation the 
board of supervisors, in October, 1853, appropriated the sum of $2,000 
for the erection of a suitable building. Pleasant Norton was the agent 
appointed to manage the construction, and W. G. Beckwith and Joshua 
Lofiand w^ere the building committee. The contract for a brick build- 
ing was given tO' Lewis Clisbee and son, at $1,795, and the work com- 
pleted and accepted in November, 1854. 

Fourteen years later, in 1868, a committee from the board of super- 
visors reix)rted that the poor house was ''an utterly unfit habitation for 
the paupers of the county," consequently the board recommended the 
raising of $5,000 for an addition to the building. This tax levy was 
approved by the people at the polls in April, 1869'. The money could 
not be used, however, for the erection of a new building, only for 
''additions," and the appropriations were made under that strict con- 
struction, although when the additions were completed early in 1871, 
the institution was practically new throughout. P. W. Silver was the 


contractor, and was paid in all nearly $8,000 for the construction work. 
D. M. Howell, James Boyd and Gideon Gibbs, superintendents of the 
poor at the time, were also the building committee to whom the credit 
of erecting the buildings belongs. In 1871 the asylum, a brick addi- 
tion two stories high, was constructed, its cost being about the same as 
the outlay for the other buildings, so that the county invested about 
$15,000 in this institution during the early '70s. 




By William H. C. Hale, 
County Commissioner of Schools. 

In giving a history of education in Cass county, it is necessary to 
speak briefly of education in the state of Michigan, as the educational 
affairs have always been nearly uniform throughout the state. 

Michigan was under the government of France from 1634 until 
1760. wSettlements were made at various places around the Great Lakes 
by the Jesuit missionaries, but the most important French settlement 
was the founding of Detroit by Cadillac in 1701. 

Under the French control centralization was the fundamental prin- 
ciple in all affairs. The military commandant was supreme in the state, 
and the priest or bishop in the church. Education was the function of 
the church. The initiative in everything w^as in the officials, not in 
the people. There were no semi-independent local organizations, like 
the New England towns, to provide for the management and support 
of schools. 

Two years after the founding of Detroit, Cadillac recommended 
the establishment of a seminary at that place for the instruction of chil- 
dren of the savages w^ith those of the French. It is doubtful if this rec- 
ommendation produced any immediate results, as it is stated that no 
indication of schools or teachers can be found until 1755, a half century 
later. Private schools of varying degrees of excellence are reported 
to have existed from 1755. Most of these were short-lived and of in- 
ferior character. 

Under the English control educational affairs remained the same 
as under the French, and after the United States occupied and formed 
a territorial government there was little change in educational affairs 
imtil 1827, when a law w^as enacted providing for the establishment of 
common schools throughout the territory. This act required every 
towmship containing fifty families to support a school in which ''read- 
ing, writing, orthography, arithmetic and decent behavior" should be 


taught. This was the first legal course of study for the Michigan pu- 
pils. The period of centralization had now passed, and local democracy 
was to have its opportunity. Emigration from the eastern states had 
now reversed the old French ideas. 

The actual state of elementary education and of educational affairs 
as late as 1836 is well pictured by Justice Thomas M. Cooley of the 
State vSupreme Court. ''The schools at the time state government was 
established w^ere still very primitive affairs. There were as yet no pro- 
fessional teachers. Some farmer or mechanic, or perhaps a grown-up 
son or daugliter who had had the advantages of the common schools 
of New York or New England, oft'ered his or her services as a teacher 
during the dull season of regular employment, and consented to take 
as wages such sum as the district could afford to pay. A summer school 
taught by a woman, who would be paid six or eight dollars a month, 
and a winter school taught by a man whose compensation was twice as 
great ^^•as what was generally provided for. But in addition to the 
wages the teacher received lier board 'boarding round' among the pa- 
trons of the school and remaining with each a number of days deter- 
mined by the number of pupils sent to school. If we shall incline 
to visit one of these schools in the newer portion of the state we shall 
be likely to find it housed in a log structure covered with bark, imper- 
fectly plastered between the logs to exclude the cold, and still more 
imperfectly warmed by an open fireplace or by a box stove, for which 
fuel is provided, as the board for the teacher is, by proportional con- 
tributors. The seats for the pupils may be slabs set on legs; the desks 
may be other slabs laid upon supports fixed to the logs which constitute 
the sides of the room. The school books are miscellaneous and consist 
largely of those brought by the parents when emigrating to the terri- 
tory. Those who write must rule their paper with pencils of their own 
manufacture, and the master will make. pens for them from the goose 
quill. For the most part the ink is oi home manufacture. There are 
no globes; no means of illustration; not even a blackboard. Such in 
many cases was the Michigan school. Better school buildings were 
now springing up, but as a rule nothing could seem more dreary or dis- 
piriting than the average school district. Nevertheless, many an intel- 
lect received a quickening in those schools, which fitted it for a life of 
useful and honorable activity. The new settlers made such provision 
for the education of their children as was possible under the circum- 
stances in which they were placed, and the fruits of their labors and 


sacrifices in this direction were in many cases surprising." Long after 
the formation of the state government in 1837 ^he schools of Cass 
county fitted very closely the descriptions given by Judge Cooley of 
the territorial schools. 

Michigan owes a large debt of gratitude to Isaac C. Crary and 
John D. Pierce. More than any other two men, they were instrumental 
in laying the foundations of her educational system, and in giving direc- 
tion to its early development. 

Mr. Crary was a member of the constitutional convention of 1835, 
and was appointed chairman of the committee on education. The com- 
mittee reported an article on education which was adopted by the con- 
vention almost without debate. This article provided for a system of 
education very similar to what we now have. 

In the constitutional convention of 1850, Mr. Crary and Mr. Pierce 
were both members from Calhoun county. Mr. Pierce was a member 
of the committee on education. An article was .finally adopted provid- 
ing for our present system of education, but not without some very ex- 
tended and serious debates. 

The question of free schools was earnestly debated, and the de- 
bates revealed a wide diversity of views. The discussions upon this 
topic were long and earnest, and resulted in the compromise which pro- 
vided for a free school in each district for three months each year. The 
limit of three months w^as unsatisfactory to the friends of free schools, 
but they accepted it on the principle that ''half a loaf is better than no 
bread at all." 

It is impossible in this article to enter into a full discussion of 
every section of the constitution on education. Section one states that 
''the superintendent of public instruction shall have the general super- 
vision of public instruction, and his duties shall be prescribed by law." 

John D. Pierce was appointed the first superintendent of public 
instruction by Governor Mason July 26, 1836. At the session of the 
legislature held in January, 1837, he reported a system of common 
schools, and a plan for a university and its branches. The plan has 
undergone many changes since then, but the fundamental principles 
remain practically the same. 

Mr. Pierce gave a long and very complete report to the first legis- 
lature. As a basis for the recommendations which he proposed to make, 
he began by calling attention to the vital importance of knowledge and 
virtue as the "broad and permanent foundations of a free state." 


In regard to the importance of education he said : 'Tn an educated 
and virtuous community there is safety; the rights of individuals are 
regarded and property is respected and secure. It may be assumed as 
a fundamental principle in our form of government that knowledge is 
an element so essential to its existence and vigorous action that we can 
have no rational hope of its perpetuation unless it is generally diffused." 
He emphasized especially the value and importance of elementary edu- 
cation for the great mass of the people. ''Universities may be highly 
important and academies of great utility, but primary schools are the 
main dependence. National liberty, sound morals and education must 
stand or fall together. Common schools are democratic in their nature 
and influence; they tend to unify society; in them the rich and the poor 
come together on terms of perfect equality. 

''Let free schools be established and maintained in perpetuity and 
there can be no such thing as a permanent aristocracy in our land ; for 
the monopoly of wealth is powerless where mind is allowed freely to 
come in contact with mind. We need wisdom, and prudence, and fore- 
sight in our councils; fixedness of purpose, integrity and uprightness of 
heart in our rulers; unwavering attachment to the rights of men among 
all people ; but these high attributes of a noble patriotism, these essential 
elements of civilization and improvement will disappear when schools 
shall cease to exert an all-pervading influence through the length and 
breadth of our land." 

A primary school system was soon organized. The unit of this 
system was, as it still is, the subdivision of the township known as the 
school district, and not to exceed nine sections or one- fourth of a town- 
ship. This limit was not removed until 1901. The school district was 
made practically almost independent in the management of its educa- 
tional affairs. As the law now stands, the officers are the moderator, 
treasurer and director, all elected for three years. 

In the upper peninsula an entire township may be organized into 
one district, with a board of education consisting of five members. In 
the township districts there may be any number of schools. The object 
of the township unit system was to bring all lands of a township under 
taxation for school purposes. 

School districts may now be consolidated into one district by the 
consent of a majority of the resident taxpayers of each district. 

School districts when consolidated, may levy taxes for the pur- 
pose of transporting pupils to and from school within the boundaries 


of the district and may use the funds arising from the one mill tax 
for the same purpose. The law for the consolidation of school dis- 
tricts was enacted in 1903. Since then there have been a few cases of 
consolidation. There have been nine cases of the consolidation of two 
districts and four cases where three or more districts have been con- 
solidated. The counties w^here consolidation has been tried are St. 
Clair, Wayne, Genesee, Kent, Isabella, Marquette, Emmet, Macomb, 
Kalamazoo and Charlevoix. 

The legislature of 1901 enacted a law by which township high 
schools may be organized. Only pupils who have passed the eighth 
grade can be admitted to- those schools. There have been no such 
schools organized up to this time, but the matter has been under con- 
sideration in several counties. 

One of the provisions with which the early settlers became un- 
willingly familiar was the famous ''rate bill" law, passed in 1843, 
which provided that the patrons of each school. might raise the funds 
necessary to continue the school through the term. The parents or 
guardians of the children were assessed a tax in proportion to the time 
such children attended school. This rate bill was made out by the 
teacher at the close of each term, and the amount distributed among 
the patrons. The law did not work well, for the poor parents or those 
indifferent to education would send to school as long as the public funds 
lasted, and when the rate bill set in would take their children out. 
Primary education thus became a question of ability to pay for it, and 
the fundamental principle of popular education was threatened. Never- 
theless, despite the inequality, the rate bill law was not repealed until 


Under the provisions of. the first school law of the state the town- 
ship school inspectors were the examining and supervising board of the 
township. They were required to examine all persons proposing to 
teach in the public schools ''in regard to moral character, learning and 
ability to teach school." At first the certificates were valid for one year. 
An amendment to the law in 1859 allow^ed the inspectors, in their 
discretion, to grant certificates for a term of not less than six months 
nor more than two years. Until the passage of the act creating the 
office of county superintendent in 1867, all examinations of teachers 
of all grades, and all supervision of the common schools were made 
by the township boards of school inspectors. This system of certifica- 


tion and supervision continued for thirty years. It had many weak 
points, and was pronounced a failure by the state superintendent in his 
report for 1866. 

In 1867 the legislature passed an act creating the office of county 
superintendent of schools. The law provided for the election of the 
superintendents, for a term of two years, by vote of the people at the 
April election. The county superintendents held examinations in each 
township at least once a year, and granted three grades of certificates. 
The first grade was valid for two years; the second for one year; and 
the third for six months. 

The extent of the examination was left to the discretion of the 
superintendent, with only the proviso that it must include orthography, 
reading, writing, grammar, geography and arithmetic. 

In 1875 ^1'^^ legislature repealed the county superintendency act and 
submitted a system of township superintendents, differing only a little 
from the discarded and worthless plan of township inspectors. The 
township superintendent's duties were very similar to those of the 
county superintendent, in the holding of examinations, and granting 

A new law, enacted in 1881, attempted to combine county exami- 
nations with township supervision. The law provided for a county 
board of three examiners elected by the chairman of the boards of 
school inspectors, for a term of three years. This board examined the 
teachers of the county and gave three grades of certificates, the first 
grade valid for three years ; the second for two years ; the third for one 
year, throughout the county. The chairman of the board of school 
inspectors was made supervisor of the schools of his township with the - 
ordinarv^ duties and powers pertaining to that position. 

In 1887 this law was revised and amended. Under this new law 
two county examiners w^ere chosen for a term of two years, by the 
chairman of the township boards of inspectors. These two with the 
judge of probate, appointed and employed a secretary for the term of one 
year. The secretary examined candidates for positions as teachers, and 
the other members of the toard acted with him in granting certificates. 
The examination questions were to be furnished by the superintendent 
of public instruction. In 1881 theory and art of teaching, history of the 
United States, and civil government had been added to the studies 
in which examinations must be made. In 1887 physiology and hygiene 
were also included. 


The secretary was required to visit each school in the county at 
least once in the year, and to perform all the usual duties of a supervis- 
ing officer. 

In 189 1 an act was passed providing for county commissioners of 
schools and two county examiners. 

Until 1903 commissioners were elected on the first Monday of 
April for a term of two years ; since then they are elected for four years. 
The commissioner is a county superintendent with a different title, and 
is charged with the duty of supervising the schools of the county. 

Two school examiners are elected by the county board of super- 
visors for a term of two years. The examiners assist the commissioner 
in conducting examinations. 

Three grades of certificates are granted. The first grade is valid 
for four years, the second grade for three years, and the third grade 
for one year. 

All questions for examination are prepared • and furnished by the 
state superintendent. Certificates may be renewed without examination 
under certain circumstances, and the examiners in one county may 
accept examination papers written in another county and treat them 
as if written before themselves. 

The State Board of Education conducts examinations every year 
and grants teachers' certificates vaHd for life, or until revoked by the 

The Normal College at Ypsilanti, and the normal schools at Mt. 
Pleasant, Marquette and Kalamazoo, grant limited and life certificates 
to their respective graduates. 

The State Board of Education also grants limited and life certifi- 
cates, without examination, to graduates of such colleges of the state as 
comply with certain prescribed conditions in respect to courses of 
study and instruction. 

In 1891 authority was granted by the legislature to the faculty of 
the department of literature, science and the arts of the University, 
to give a legal certificate of qualification to teach in any of the schools 
of the state. 

In incorporated cities the superintendent and board of education 
are emix)wered to examine their teachers and grant certificates. 

Graduates of county normal training classes are granted certifi- 
cates, which are valid for three years. 



The moneys used for the support of the common schools are, the 
interest from the primary interest fund, the one-mill tax, the unappro- 
priated dog tax, library moneys which are appropriated by the township 
board for school purposes, the tuition of non-resident pupils and the 
voted tax in the district. The primary money can be used for no other 
purpose than the payment of the wages of legally qualified teachers and 
only by districts in which five months of school were maintained during 
the last preceding year. 

The supervisor assesses upon the taxable property of his town- 
ship one mill upon each dollar of valuation. This tax is paid over to the 
treasurers of the several school districts. 

The qualified voters may levy a tax for general school purposes. 
When a tax is voted, it is reported to the supervisor who assesses it on 
the taxable property of the district. 

Whenever the unappropriated dog tax in any township is over and 
above the sum of one hundred dollars, it is apportioned among the 
several school districts of such township or city in proportion to the 
number of children of school age. The primary money in 1845 ^^^^ 
twenty-eight cents a scholar. There was a slow increase per capita until 
1880, when it was forty-seven cents a scholar. After 1880 a portion 
of all specific state taxes, except those received from the mining com- 
panies of the upper peninsula, were applied in paying the interest uix)n 
the primary school fund. Since then there has been a steady increase. 
In 1881 it was $1.06; 1890, $1.33; 1900, $2.15; 1905, $3.30. On 
account of the back taxes on railroads paid during the year 1906 the 
primary money for the October semi-annual apportionment is esti- 
mated at $10 per capita. 


In the first school law^ no provision was made for the union of 
districts or for the grading of schools, and no law was made authorizing 
the consolidation of districts to form union schools until 1846. The 
first graded school was established at Flint in 1846. From 1846 to 
i860 there were twenty-seven graded schools established in the state. 
Cassopolis and Dow^agiac established graded schools in 1857. In i860 
Detroit reported a high school with a single teacher and an average 
attendance of thirty-seven pupils. 

The first constitution of the state provided for the establishment 


of branches of the university. These branches were to serve a three- 
fold purpose, provide for local needs, fit students for the university, 
and prepare teachers for the primary schools. Branches were estab- 
lished at Pontiac, Monroe, Niles, Tecumseh, Detroit, Kalamazoo, 
Romeo and White Pigeon. These branches were supported by appro- 
priations made by the regents of the university. 

After graded schools began to be established in 1846, the Univer- 
sity branches went into disfavor, and they ceased to exist after 1849. 
liigh schools then became the connecting link between the university 
and the ordinary common schools. 

Cass county has (ivt graded schools, three of which are on the 
university list. Dowagiac, Cassopolis and Marcellus high school grad- 
uates may enter the state university without entrance examinations. 

The Dowagiac schools employ thirty teachers, Cassopolis nine, 
Marcellus seven, Vandalia four, Edwardsburg four. 


Schools were soon established in Cass county by the early set- 
tlers. Whenever a settlement was formed, arrangements were soon 
made for the education of the children. The first school in the county 
was taught in 1828 in the western part of what is now Pokagon town- 
ship. The first school in the limits of La Grange township was taught 
in 1830, Penn 1830, Ontwa 1829 or 1830, Volinia 1832 or 1833, Por- 
ter 1838 or 1839, Wayne 1835, Howard 1833, Milton 183 1 or 1832, 
Jefiferson 1833, Calvin 1834, Marcellus 1840, Mason 1836. The date 
of the building of the first school house in Silver Creek was 1838 or 
1839, ^^^1 Newberg 1837. Schools may have been taught before the 
school houses were built, but if so the fact is unobtainable at this time. 

There are at the present time one hundred and fourteen organized 
school districts in the county, in which are employed one hundred and 
fifty-seven teachers. The total wages paid to teachers in 1905 was 
$48,901.86, of which men teachers received $14,003.91 and women 
teachers received $34,897.95. 

The average monthly wages paid men teachers was $46.83, and 
women teachers received an average wage of $33.43 ^ month. 

The legislature of 1903 enacted a law permitting the establish- 
ment of county normal training classes for teachers of rural schools. 
In accordance with that law a class was organized and conducted in 
connection with the Dowagiac city schools during the year 1905-1906. 


A class of fourteen was graduated June i8, 1906. The graduates were: 
Fred J. H. Fricke, F. Ethel Wooster, N. Beryl Van Antwerp, Lillie 
Elaine Pray, Mary F. Sweetland, Bernice E. Williams, Ethel Eugenia 
Woodin, Agnes Straub, Jennie May Easton, Claribel Morton, Ray 
Murphy, Grace Aseneth East, John Alfred Norton, Mabel Cook. 

Graduates of county normal training classes are granted three- 
year certificates which may be renewed in the county where received, 
or they may be transferred to other counties. 

The pupils of the eighth grade in the rural schools are examined 
each year upon questions w^hich are furnished by the state superintend- 
ent. Those who pass are granted diplomas by the county commissioner. 
These diplomas will admit those who hold them toliigh schools and the 
Agricultural College without examination. 


From 1837 to 1867 the common schools were under the supervision 
and management of the township boards of school inspectors. Then the 
legislature created the office of county superintendent of schools. The 
first county superintendent of schools for Cass county was Chauncy 
L. Whitney, who was elected April i, 1867. The term of office was two 
years. Mr. Whitney resigned the position in the fall of the same year, 
and Rev. Albert H. Gaston was appointed to fill the vacancy. In i86g 
Irving Clendenen was elected, and in 1871 Lewis P. Rinehart. Samuel 
Johnson was chosen in 1873 and filled the office until it was abolished 
in 1875. 

From 1875 to 1881 the schools were under the supervision of town- 
ship superintendents. In 188 1 the legislature enacted a law which 
provided for a county board of school examiners, This board con- 
sisted of three members and were elected for three years by the chair- 
man of the township board of school inspectors. 

The county board of school examiners on organization elected one 
of their number chairman and one secretary. The secretary was the 
executive officer of the board. The following are the boards of ex- 
aminers under this act: 

1881-1882: E. M. Stephenson, secretary, i year; Michael Pember- 
ton, chairman, 2 years; Daniel B. Ferris, 3 years. 

1882-1883: Michael Pemberton, secretary, i year; Daniel B. Fer- 
ris, chairman, 2 years; Charles A. Mosher, 3 years. 

1883-1884: Daniel B. Ferris, secretary, i year; Charles A. Mosher, 
chairman, 2 years; Michael Pemberton, 3 years. 


1884-1885: Charles A. Mosher, secretary, i year; Michael Pember- 
ton, chairman, 2 years; Ralph W. Hain, 3 years. 

1885-1886: Michael Pemberton, secretary, i year; Ralph W. Hain, 
chairman, 2 years; Charles A. Mosher, 3 years. 

1886-1887: Ralph W. Hain, secretary, i year; Charles A. Mosher, 
chairman, 2 years; Michael Pemberton, 3 years. 

In 1887 the law was revised and amended. Two county examin- 
ers were chosen for a term of two years, by the chairmen of the 
township boards of school inspectors. These two examiners with the 
judge of probate, appointed and employed a secretary for the term of 
one year, who became ex-officio a member of the county board and its 
executive officer. The secretary visited all the schools in the county 
and received a salary of $800 per annum. 

The following are the boards of co'unty examiners under this act : 

1887-1888: Frank S. Hall, secretary, i year; Charles A. Mosher, 
chairman, i year; Michael Pemberton, 2 years. 

1888-1889: Daniel B. Ferris, secretary, 1 year; Michael Pem- 
berton, chairman, i year; William W. Chalmers, 2 years. 

March i, 1889, Daniel B. Ferris resigned and George W. Card 
w^as appointed to fill the vacancy. 

1889-189O': George W: Gard, secretary, i year; William W. Chal- 
mers, chairman, i year; Edmund Schoetzow, 2 years. 

1890^1891: Michael Pemberton, secretary, i year; Edmund 
Schoetzow, chairman, i year; Miss Hattie Graham, 2 years. 

In the year 1891 an act was passed providing for county commis- 
sioners of schools and two county examiners, the three to constitute 
a county board for the examination of teachers. The county com- 
missioner was to be chosen by the people at the election on the first 
Monday in April, for the term of tw^o years. In 1903 the act was 
amended and thereafter the commissioner was to be elected for a term 
of four years. To be eligible to the office of commissioner a person 
must have had an exjDerience of twelve months as a teacher in the 
public schools of the state, must be a graduate of the literary department 
of some reputable college, university or state normal school having a 
course of at least three years, or hold a state teacher's certificate, or 
be the holder of a first grade county certificate; but this last certificate 
qualifies the holder only in the county where it is granted. In counties 
having less than fifty districts a second grade certificate qualifies the 

The two school examiners are elected by the county board of super- 


visors for a term of two years. Any person is eligible to the office of 
examiner who has the qualifications required for a commissioner, or 
who has taught in the public schools nine months and holds, or has 
held within three years, a second grade certificate. 

The law^ of 1891 provided that the county board of supervisors 
should elect a commissioner to serve from June 2;^, 1891, until July, 
1893. In accordance with this act the Cass county board of super- 
visors elected Michael Pemberton commissioner. 

At the election held on the first Monday in April, 1893, Chester 
E. Cone was chosen commissioner for two years. Mr. Cone was re- 
elected three times, thus serving eight years. 

In 1901 William H. C. Hale was elected county commissioner 
for the term of two years, and in 1903, the law having been changed, he 
was re-elected for a term of four years. 

The following are the county boards of school examiners under 
the act of 1891 : 

1891-1892: Michael Pemberton, commissioner, 2 years; Hattie 
Graham, examiner, 2 years; Edmund Schoetzow, examiner, i year. 

1892-1893: Michael Pemberton, commissioner, i year; George A. 
Shetterley, examiner, 2 years; Hattie Graham, examiner, i year. 

1893-1894: Chester E. Cone, commissioner, 2 years; Hattie Gra- 
ham, examiner, 2 years; George A. Shetterley, examiner, i year. 

1894-1895: Chester E. Cone, commissioner, i year; Simon E. 
Witwer, examiner, 2 years; Hattie Graham, examiner, i year. 

1895-1896: Chester E. Cone, commissioner, 2 years; Lemuel L. 
Coates, examiner, 2 years; Simon E. Witwer, examiner, i year. 

1896-1897: Chester E. Cone, commissioner, i year; Simon E. Wit- 
wer, examiner, 2 years; Lemuel L. Coates, examiner, i year. 

1897-1898: Chester E. Cone, commissioner, 2 years; Lemuel L. 
Coates, examiner, 2 years; Simon E. Witwer, examiner, i year. 

1898-1899: Chester E. Cone, commissioner, i year; Frank E. 
Faulkner, examiner, 2 years; Lemuel L. Coates, examiner, i year. 

1899-1900: Chester E. Cone, commissioner, 2 years; John Finley, 
examiner, 2 years; Simon E. Witwer, examiner, i year. 

1 900- 1 901 : Chester E. Cone, commissioner, i year; Clififord N. 
Brady, examiner, 2 years ; John Finley, examiner, i year. 

1901-1902: William H. C. Hale, commissioner, 2 years; John Fin- 
ley, examiner, 2 years; Clifford N. Brady, examiner, i year. 

1902-1903: William H. C. Hale, commissioner, i year; Clifford N. 
Brady, examiner, 2 years ; John Finley, examiner, i year. 

1903-1904: William H. C. Hale, commissioner, 4 years; Clifford 
N. Bradv, examiner, i year; John Finley, examiner, 2 years. 


1904-1905: William H. C. Hale, commissioner, 3 years; Herman 
S. East, examiner, 2 years; John Finiey, examiner, i year. 

1905- J906: William H. C. Hale, commissioner, 2 years; Herman 
S. East, examiner, i year; John Finiey, examiner, 2 years. 

Mr. Hale's term expires July i, 1907. 

Mr. East's term expires October, 1906. 

Mr. Finiey 's term expires October, 1907. 

The commissioner's salary was $1,000 per annum until October, 
1905, when it was increased to $1,200. The examiners receive four 
dollars a day for the time spent upon examination work. 

In closing it may be said that Cass county has always kept pace 
with the progress of the times and all the schools, city, village and 
rural, compare most favorably with those of the other counties in the 
state. There is a growing sentiment among the pupils of the rural 
schools to enter high schools and high school graduates are becoming 
more and more inclined to take college courses. The people of Cass 
county, as compared with other counties, have always been very liberal 
in the support of their schools, and no fears need be entertained in re- 
gard to our future educational progress. 




The first schoolhouse in this village was a log cabin, which stood 
on lot 5, block i south, range i west, just south of where Fisk's drug 
store now stands. The first building to be used exclusively as a school- 
house and erected for that purpose w^as a frame building, put up in 
1843, on land donated by Joseph Harper, on the east side of Rowland 
street on lot 8, block i north, range 2 east. The building is now occu- 
pied by John D. Williams as a dwelling house. Tlie ''union school" 
movement, described on previous pages, was made effective in Cass- 
opolis in 1857 by the erection of a ''Union" schoolhouse on the site 
of the present school building at a cost of $1,500, Daniel S. Jones being 
the builder. April 29, 1878, this, a wood building, as it then stood 
with certain additions and modifications from the original, was burned. 
vSchool work for the rest of the term and for several months in the 
fall was carried on in the most suitable temporary quarters that could 
be found. The sum, of ten thousand dollars was voted for the new 
brick building, and the completion of the building for occupancy in 
January, 1879, gave Cassopolis the central school which has .now been 
in use over a quarter of a century, and in many cases has sheltered two 
generations of school children. The building committee appointed to 
supervise the construction of this building were W. P. Bennett, A. 
Garwood, J. K. Ritter, S. C. Van Matre, J. R. Carr, W. W. Peck, 
the six school trustees. 

As originally constructed the Cassopolis school was the most mod- 
ern and perfect school structure in the county, and its long period of 
use shows that the money of the village was well spent in its construc- 
tion. The dimensions of the original building were y2 by 62 feet, two 
stories, the upper being used for high school purposes, and the first for 
the grades. In 1879 ^ two-story addition was built on the north side 
of the building and connected throughout with the old building. This 
building was necessary to accommodate the increased school popula- 
tion and the extension of educational work that has taken place since 


the old building was constructed. The cost of the addition was $3,000. 

Of the citizens who have done most for educational interests in 
Cassopolis, special mention should be made of John R. Carr, who for 
many years served as a member of the board, was a member of the 
building committee in 1878, and in numberless ways has shown a lively 
and helpful interest in the growth of the village's educational institu- 

In 1876 the school was graded by H. C. Rankin, then superintend- 
ent, and the first class was graduated three years later. Since Mr. 
Rankin, who remained at the head of the school four years, the fol- 
lowing superintendents have been his successors : 

1881-82, G. A. Osinga. 1891-92, George M. Fisk. 

1883, C. W. Mickens. 1893-98, Joseph Biscomb. 

1884-86, W. C Hewitt. 1899-1901, R. H. Struble. 

1887-90, W. W. Chalmers. 1902-05, J. M. Geiser. 

At this writing the board of education consists of : C. C. Allison, 
president; C. E. Cone, secretary; C. H. Funk, treasurer; U. S. Eby, 
W. L. Jones. The faculty for 1906-07 are: 

Superintendent — Paul P. Mason. 

Principal of High School — Carrie L. Ranney. 

Sciences and Mathematics H. S. — Geo. W. Hess. 

Latin in H. S. and 8th Grade — Elisabeth Steere. 

7th and part of 6th Grade — Lee Wolford. 

5th and part of 6th Grade^ — Daisy Billings. 

4th and part of 3d Grades — Ella Gardner. 

2d and part of 3d Grade — ^Grace Decker. 

1st and Kindergarten — Maud Eppley. 

In 1902 the high school was accredited with the University of 
Michigan. This means that the course of study and the grade of in- 
struction are such that the Cassopolis high school is on a par with the 
high schools of Michigan. The high school is noted for the number 
of its graduates who have gone to the various universities and colleges, 
and at this writing a number of former students are studying within 
the walls of higher institutions throughout the country. 


1879^ — May Smith, Lottie G. Rankin. 

1880— Ellen D. Giffin, Addie M. Kingsbury, Charles L. Smith, 
Kirk Reynolds, Mary Barnette, Carrietta Chapman, Lois Amsden, Min- 


nie B. Smith, Blanche E. Peck, Ellen N. Tietsort, Ellen A. Ritter, Al- 
bert H. Graham, Nellie M. French. 

1 88 1 — Addie Martin, William G. Loomis, Anna Graham, Melissa 

1882 — Bertha Lowella Chapman, Fanny Eugenia Glover, W. 
James Champion. 

1883— Ella M. Rogers, Eva M. Colby, Mabel Patch, Lemuel L. 

1884 — Carrie Goodwin, Laura Beverley, Carrie Woodruff. 

1885 — Georgiana Kingsbury, Myrta Norton, George Shaffer, Ber- 
tha Anderson, Cora M. Banks, Katie Kingsbury. 

1886 — Perlia B. Ferris, Glencora Graham, James S. Stapleton, 
Lora M. Curtis, Rolfe F. Patrick, Frank H. Green. 

1887 — Susan R. Webb, Frances Graham, Rosa Early, David L. 
Kingsbuiy, Carrie Higbee, Mary C. Bosworth, Belle Norton. 

1888 — Eva C. Ditzell, Bertha Kingsbur}-, Lora Kingsbury, Addie 
Graham, Ada Thomas. 

18891 — Charles L. Beckwith, Fred Patterson, Carl Bogue, Emma 
Anderson, Clara Darling, Harlan P. Bosworth, William T. C. Shaffer, 
Fanchon Stockdale, Jean Powell, E. Mae Carr. 

1890 — Otis Beeson, Wilber G. Bonine, Walter C. Bogue, Paul A, 
Covvgill, Belle Bogue, Nettie Savage, Maude Mcllvain, Ethel Shurte, 
Charles A. Webb, Edward Reighard, Paul Savage, William Mansfield, 
Ella Johnson, Nellie Wetmore, Blanche Giffin, Dora Norton. 

1 891 — Belle Goodw'in, Jessie Cure, Melville J. Shepard, Delia Wil- 
son, Edna Stockdale, Raymond R. Phelps, J. Paul Hopkins, Jay C. 
Northrop, Helen French, Jessie Jones, Mildred Sherman. 

1892 — Grace S. Hall, Ruby C. Abbott, Charles L. Goodwin, 
George F. Bosworth, Bernice Merwin, Eva L. Trowbridge, Halford E. 
Reynolds, Mortimer F. Stapleton. 

1893 — Roy Bond, Walter George, Stanley A. Farnum, Lura Phelps, 
Winifred Smith, Flora Wright, Harry Eggleston, Stanford J. Farnum, 
True Savage, Winifred Marr, Ruth Myers. 

1894 — Glenn S. Harrington, Edith Youngblood, Frank B. French, 
May Kingsbury, Belle Donough, Blanche Clark, Carrie Daniels, Ona 
Kline, Blanche Mcintosh, Blanche Fulton. 

1895 — Gideon W. Tallerday, Florence Higgins, Bert Hayden, 
Robert Pangtorn, Ward Shaw, Mary Miller, Clare Fletcher, Lora Mc- 
Cully, Adella Hartsell, Lena Deal, Joseph Churchill, Glenn Dunning. 

1896 — May Alexander, Blanche Fisher, Lutie Longfellow, Mary 
L. Stamp, Blanche Shepard, Bert A. Dool, Ernest Morse, Jesse L. 
Tallerday, Stephen Tallerday, Phillip Savage, Grace A. Dixon, Leona 
Fulton, Lottie L. North, Cora Skinner, George Donough, Glenn Leach, 
John P. Norton, LaMoine A. Tharp, Fred L. Woods. 

1897 — Herbert A. Anderson, Zora Emmons, Flora Lawrence, Mary 
Shurte, Mary Townsend, Lottie M. Turner, Bessie S. Carr, Glennie A. 













Kingsbury, Allan W. Reynolds, George Townsend, Jessie Bonine, James 
H. Kelsey, Carroll N. Pollock, Glennie Tietsort, Jessie M. Turner, Bart- 
lett Bonine, Jessie Howell, Justin Mechling, Percy F. Thomas, Grace 
Van Riper. 

1898 — Lynn B, Boyd, Frank Mansfield, Howard D. Shaw, Jasper 
Otis Haithcox, Jessie E. Kingsbury, Dora L. Messenger, Ellen S. Rick- 
ert, Asa K. Hayden, Frederick G. Walter, Herbert Leroy Smith, Donald 
S. Morse, Josie Kline, Claudia B. McDonald, Crete Connelly. 

1899' — Florence Ashcraft, Bertha Dacy, Edna Graham, Nellie 
Jones, Bertha Myers, Grace Stearns, Grace L. Voorhis, Ray K. Holland, 
Leon Beall, Lilly Brown, Alma Emmons, Belle Hayden, Henrietta Law- 
son, Marie Pollock, Elnora Thickstun, Joseph F. Hayden, Cyrus Myers. 

1900 — Hattie Wright, Chloa McDonald, Mabel F. Moon, Edith 
Ryon, Vivian Jerome, trances Glennette Willsey, Kate Ditzell, S. Edna 
Cook, Una Jones, Vera Hayden. 

1901 — Helen Anderson, Alberta Kingsbury, Howard K. Holland, 
Fred Wright, Nellie Dunning, Hiram Jewell, J. Howard Mcintosh, 
Joseph K. Ritter. 

1902 — Charles Condon, Frank Kelly, Mayme Dunbar, Jay Hay- 
den, Charles Jones, Fanchon Mason, Nellie Stevens. 

1903 — Jules Verne Des Voignes, Eugene Eby, Vera Ditzell, Mary 
Sincleir, Helen Donough, Newton G. VanNess, Elizabeth Jerome, 
Maude Tharp. Mahala Reynolds, Vesta Pollock. 

1904 — Crystal Thompson, Stella Hayden, Ruth Jones, Leora 
Johnston, Georgia Van Matre, Arietta Van Ness, Edna Pollock, Hazel 

1905 — Mary Kimmerle, Read Chambers, Carl Morse, Fred J. Miller, 
Clarence Timm, Winfield Leach. 

1906 — Mabel Peck, Robert Wood, Rebecca Tones. 


The citizens of Dowagiac take great pride in their fine schools, 
which, with a history of development covering half a century, are now 
in the front rank of schools in southern Michigan. To describe first 
the material equipment and school property, the eleven hundred pupils 
who' now attend school in the city are accommodated in three buildings, 
any one of which is as far in advance of the pioneer shelter afforded 
by the log schoolhouse of the forties as is possible to conceive. The 
splendid high school building, which was completed in 1903 at a cost 
of forty thousand dollars, presents the most modern features of school 
architecture. It was built on the site of what was known as ''the ward 
school/' on James and Oak streets, and the old building, erected in 
1864, forms the rear wing of the structure as a whole. The high school 


occupies the second floor of the new building, while the first contains 
eight grade rooms. The primary and kindergarten grades retain the 
first floor of the old building, which while adjoining the high school 
with possibility of direct communication, is nevertheless entirely separate 
so far as movement of pupils and administration are concerned. On the 
second floor of the ward building are located the rooms set apart for the 
use of the Normal Training class, a new educational institution to be 
described in a later paragraph. To mention only a few of the features 
that mark the new high school building as a model, a brief description 
must include its chaste yet simple architecture, devoid of the tedious 
ornamentation of earlier periods, the wide and ample and commodious 
effects gained without introduction of bare and factory-like exterior 
and interior; the large study room on the second floor; the well equipped 
laboratories ; the grouping of rooms and halls for the purpose of effective 
disciphne: the fan system of ventilation; the automatic regulation of 
furnace heating; and many other conveniences which a brief inspection 

Besides the high school building, which is the general name for 
the entire structure at James and Oak streets, there is the Central build- 
ing or Union school building, on Main and Parsonage streets, the 
central portion of which, built in i86t, is the oldest school building in 
the city. Until the erection of the new high school building, the high 
school was accommodated there, but now it is the home of the Seventh 
and Eighth grades departmental work, aud also the lower grades for 
that section of the city. 

The McKinley building, a four-room brick building in the First 
ward on the South side, erected in 1903, accommodates six grades 
with four teachers. 

The institutions of education above described have developed from 
the district school, supported at first by private contributions. The 
settlers of this vicinity had built a log schoolhouse and employed Miss 
Hannah Compton (afterward Mrs. Elias Jewell) as teacher in 1840. 
This schoolhouse stood on the old cemetery grounds, near West and 
Green streets, and was attended by the children of the Hamilton, 
McOmter and other pioneer families. A school in Wayne township, 
near the present city limits, next afforded educational facilities, as also 
a select school kept by Mrs. Henry Hills out on the State road, in section 
25 of Silver Creek. Several select schools were taught. In 1850, after 
the founding of the village, a schoolhouse was built on the site of the 


present Methodist church. The church society, in the latter 50s, bought 
and removed this building. 

Such was the situation when A. D. P. Van Buren came to Dowa- 
giac and organized the schools on the basis of permanent growth. To 
quote his own words : ''Miss H. Marie Metcalf, of Battle Creek, had 
started the Young Ladies' school at Dowagiac, but soon found it so 
large that she sought help, consequently I was requested to take charge 
as principal, which I did, October 4, 1856, she becoming assistant. The 
village of Dowagiac was then some seven years old, had some 1,200 in- 
habitants, had two churches, four taverns, and stores enough to ac- 
commodate the surrounding country. 

''The school was comjxDsed of girls from the age of twenty down 
to the child of seven or eight years. These, with some ten or twelve 
boys, to favor certain parents, constituted our charge. After we had 
taught a quarter of the term the directors of the school district made 
arrangements with us to take charge of the Union school, which the 
people of Dowagiac were about to organize. Hence our program was 
changed, and I was to be the one to call the school clans together here, 
as I had done six years before in Battle Creek, and form them into a 
union school." 

So Dowagiac became equipped with a union school, so far as the 
preliminary organization and a year's trial of the school was concerned, 
but the town yet lacked a suitable school building. It was not till 1861 
that this was provided, in the erection of a portion of the Central school 
building mentioned above. 

The instruction and care of the eleven hundred pupils in attend- 
ance at these schools is the work of Superintendent W. E. Conkling, 
with a corps of instructors consisting of one principal for each of the 
three buildings and twenty-seven departmental and grade teachers. This 
large teaching force in itself represents the progress from a time when 
one teacher could care for the school children of the village. Mr. Conk- 
ling, the superintendent of the schools since 1896, and himself a gradu*- 
ate of the high school w^th the class of 1881, is an enthusiastic and able 
educator and merits much of the credit for the present satisfactory con- 
ditions of education in Dowagiac. The building committee who super- 
vised the construction of the high school building, which, perhaps, for 
many years will be the best example of public architecture in the city, 
were Dr. F. H. Essig and Dr. M. P. White, who are still members of 
the school board. The other members of the 1x>ard at this writing are : 


E. Phillipson, president; Dr. J. H. Jones, treasurer; and Dr. F. H. 
Codding, secretary. 

Dowagiac high school is naturally the scholastic pride of the city. 
Its rank as an institution of learning of secondary grade is indicated 
by its being accredited for the fourth time with the University of Michi- 
gan, so that high school graduates enter without examination the uni- 
versity or any of the colleges and normal schools of the state. And the 
high school is also accredited with the North Central Association of 
Colleges and Secondary Schools, which includes the leading colleges 
and universities of the north central states. The high school course of 
study adopted at the middle of the year 1906 is that reported by the 
state superintendent of public instruction in accordance with the report 
of the Michigan commission on high school curricula. 

At the present writing there are one hundred and forty pupils in 
the high school. Since the first class was graduated in 1864 the gradu- 
ates up to April, 1906, numbered 334. The graduating class in 1906 
contained seventeen members, eleven of whom had signified their in- 
tention to go to college. The average age of graduates is now about 
18 years and 6 months. 

Many successful men and women found their early inspiration 
and training in the Dowagiac Fligh school. In this sketch of the school 
we may mention specifically some of the graduates in the various years. 
Of the class of 1870 was Charles W. Foster, now a lieutenant in the 
U. S. army. Arthur K. Beckwith, superintendent of the Round Oak 
shops, graduated in 1878, and a classmate was Harry B. Tuthill, judge 
of Superior Court at Michigan City, Ind. The class of 1879 gave Dowa- 
giac three of its w^ell known men. Dr. F. H. Codding, W. F. White, 
manager of the drill works, and Frank W. Lyle. Fred L. Colby, the 
mill man, now of Detroit, was in the class of 1880, and Victor M. Tut- 
hill, of Grand Rapids, came out in 1882. Another graduate is Dr. Alice 
I. Conklin, of Chicago. Clyde W. Ketcham, the lawyer, graduated in 
1894, and Fred E. Phillipson, also of Dowagiac, in 1893. Miss Louie 
Colby, of the Prang Educational Company, W. C. Edwards, of the Ed- 
wards Manufacturing Company, and A. B. Gardner, of the Round Oak 
works, all graduated in 1888. The class of '94 also graduated John F. 
Murphy, a surgeon in the U. S. navy; Robert L. Hampton, the Glen- 
wood stockman; Earl B. Hawks, a law^yer in the state of Washington, 
and Bert H. Fleming, a Methodist minister. A. P. Oppenheim, the 
merchant, graduated in 1895; J. Bernard Onen, the Battle Creek law- 


yer, in 1896; Fred L. Dewey, the merchant, in 1897. Classmates of 
Mr. Dewey, were Nels N. Stenberg, dentist at Three Rivers; J. Whit- 
field Scattergood, local editor of the Daily News; and F. B. Wedow, 
with the American Express Co. at Manistee. Clifford C. Robinson, a 
physician at Indiana Harbor; F. E. Phillipson, the merchant in Dowa- 
giac, and Hall H. King, assistant secretary of state at Lansing, were 
members of the class of 1898. From the class of '99 should be men- 
tioned I. J. Phillipson, lieutenant in the army; Bessie M. Vrooman, 
teacher at Big Rapids, Mich. ; E. J. Blackmore, dentist at Hartford, 
Mich. ; B. S. Gardner, dentist at Dowagiac, and S. P. Savage, principal 
of the Central school at Dowagiac. C. J. Brosan, principal of the 
high school at Ovid, Mich., belonged to the class of 1901 ; T. J. Brosan, 
now practicing law in Detroit, came out in 1902, and Roy Marshall, 
who has made rapid strides in newspaper work and is now connected 
with the Detroit Free Press, was also a member of the class of 1902. 


1864 — Isaac R. Dunning, Lottie Hills, Hattie Smead. 

1866^ — Jesse P. Borton, J. B. Craw^ford, Josie Harris, Lydia He- 
bron, John Rosevelt, Daniel E. Thomas. 

1867 — Annis Gage, Fannie Hebron, Una Hebron, Frank A. Lar- 

1868^ — Delia Beckwith, Maggie Cullom. 

1869 — Minnie Arens, Marcia Buck, Nellie Cady. 

1870 — C. Wilber Bailev, Charles W. Foster, Frank H. Reshore, 
A. N. Woodruff. 

1872 — Florence Cushman, Carrie Harwood, Frank McAlpine. 

1873 — Sarah Andrus, W. H. Hannan, Etta Henderson, Nellie 
Hull, Byron McAlpine. 

1875 — Ella Reshore. 

1876' — Hattie Foster, Augusta Dopp, Ida Mosher, Anna Tuthill. 

1877 — Edward Browne! 1, Lola Keatley, Fannie Starratt. 

1878 — Melva Arnold, Arthur Beckwith, Eva Coney, Harry Tuthill. 

1879^ — 1<^'^ Arens, Dora Blachlev, Lillian Brownell, Alice Barney, 
F. H. Codding, Allie Clark. W. F.'Hoyt, F. W. Lyle, Belle Mason, 
Susie Rouse, Ed. Snyder, Nellie Stebbins, Cora Wheelock. 

1880 — Addie Brasier, F. L. Colbv, Grace Gustine, Homer D. Nash, 
Kittie E. Starks. 

1 881 — ^Lottie Andrews, Stella Coney, W. E. Conkling, Ina Dopp, 
Stella Powell, May Spencer, Matilda Stark, Asa P. Wheelock. 

1882 — Kate Bassett, Emma Brownell, Ida Howard, Belle Hu.ff. 
Carleton S. Roe, Nora Shepard, Victor M. Tuthill. 


1883 — Addie S. Adams, Cameron C. Clawson, Ruth E. Coney, 
Lou Keatley, Maude Martin, Mabel Rouse, Rose Snyder. 
1884 — Horace G. Conkling. 

1885 — Eva Barker, Eva Barney, Dixon Churchill, Will Jessup. 
1886^ — Grace Bilderback, Stella Bond, Mary E. Conkling, Lyle 
Fletcher, Ella Gray, Grace Mater, Lena Taylor, May Van Riper. 

1887 — Harry Bigelow, Lula Griswold, Jessie Howser, Georgia 

1888 — Louie Colby, W. C. Edwards, Lura Defendorf, Flora Bron- 
ner, A: B. Gardner, Grace Hardy, Addie Henderson, Florence Jones, 
Edith Jones, Ruth Smith, Mary Taylor. 

1889 — Sylvia Day, Cora Ferris, Nellie Flanders, Lena Judd, 
Minnie Rice, Lena Starrett, Hattie Wiley. 

1890^ — Nellie Boyd, Alice L Conklin, Clara Griswold, Mabel C. 
Lee, Hannah G. Stenberg, Minta M. Wenner. 

1891 — Estella Ackerman, Edward P. Cook, Arthur W. Griswold, 
Frank C. Hardy, Lizzie Hartsell, Frances M. Merwin, Maleta Rudolphi. 
1892 — Jennie Larkin, Minnie Steele, Russell Van Antwerp. 
1893— W. E. Becker, Jay Boyd, Eva McNab, Mabel C. Miller, 
Anna E. Rudolphi, Kate L. Bigelow, Harriet F. Dewey, Fred E. Phillip- 

1894 — La Verne C. Bilderback, Blanche A. Flanders, Bert H. Flem- 
ming. Earl B. Hawks, John A. Jarvis„ Glennie E. Reames, Grace E. 
Watson, Robert L. Hampton, Mabel E. Allen, Ina C. Gage, C. W. 
Ketcham, Parker McMaster, John F. Murphy, Bessie Stenberg. 

1895 — Hannah L. Ackerman, 'Letha B. Elkerton, Guy B. Flem- 
ming, Peter M. Halfert, z\my E. Pegg, Homer S. Reames, La Verne E. 
wSearls, Genevieve Howser, Gertrude Dewey, Bertha Van Riper, Robert 
F. Munger, Leslie C. Sammons, A. P. Oppenheim. 

1896^ — Leon L. Barney, Phebe Hunter, Ralph Wanamaker, Myron 
Copley, William N. Beach, Maude E. Becker, J. Bernard Onen. 

1897 — Eva L. Park, Louise J. Reshore, Margaret Shigley, Herbert 
P. Curtis, Fred L. Dewey, Mabel Smith, Glenn E. True, Martha E. 
Luedtke, Clarice Bushnell, Myrta Mae Clarke, Bertha Sprague, Frank 
M. Broadhurst, Alice L Frost, Ethel Goble, Nels L. Stenberg, J. W. 
Scattergood, Ethel Tice, Mae Williams, Walter Lang, Thomas P. Leary, 
Verna E. Myers, Frank B. Wedow. 

1898^ — Eva Holloway, Clara Lyle, Gertrude Rix, Eva Copley, 
Maude Miller, Jere Mosher, Clifford C. Robinson, Herbert E. Phillip- 
son, Edith Bishop, Fred Woods, Bae Lake, Belle Stewart Gushing, 
Mabel Shotwell, Olive Marsh, Mabel Carr, Mary A. Murphy, Maude 
Smith, Ray Fiero-, Edith Oppenheim, Addie Sisson, Minnie M. Par- 
meter, Paul H. King. 

1899' — Lving J. PhilHpson, Bessie Vrooman, Zora Denyes, Lucile 
Gregory, Harry W. Palmer, Katie Maier, Frank E. McMichael, Earl J. 


Blackmore, Anna Elliott, Boyd S. Gardner, Mabelle Flewelling, Milton 
Holloway, James Murphy, Edna Norton, Laura Nicol, May Reighard, 
Sarah Parmeter, Samuel P. Savage, Verna B. True, Irene White. 

1900 — Mary E. Morse, Earle M. Parker, R. N. Gary, Jessie Gard- 
ner, Lena Swisher, Frank Edwards, Ezra Rutherford, Henry Savage, 
Guy Zelner, Olive Knapp, Edward O'Brien, Ethel Wooster, Frank 
Stahl, Eugene Colgan, Jessie Smith. 

1 901 — Cornelius J. Brosnan, Emma Burk, Jennie Fisher, Olive 
Gard, Grace Hampton, Alice Hawks, Hazel Hoyt, Hilda Hoover, Mattie 
Jenkins, Alice Julian, Burt Patch, Pearl Rice, Ina Sommer, Bernice 
Spencer, Harry Straub, Beryl Van Antwerp. 

1902 — Frank Benedict, Robert Bielby, Frank Born, Thomas J. 
Brosman, Eva E. Brown, Lilian Byers, Lloyd Conkling, Nellie Curtis, 
Birdie Eraser, Verna Hackett, Myrle Hopkins, Lora Leeder, Roy 
Marshall, Iva Michael, Ona Michael, Mary Norton, Ethel Pitcher, 
Maude Swisher. 

1903 — Pearl Anderson, DeZera Araue, Mabel Atlee, Earle Brown, 
Eva Burk, Hazel Caster, Ida Lee, Verge Lybrook, Viola Merwun, Joseph 
R. Mitchem, Irene Morton, Maud Preston, Donald B. Reshore, Louise 

T904 — Amy Acton, W. T. Alliger, Lavina Bryant, Virginia Chai>- 
man, Beulah Connine, Winifred Fiero, Genevieve Hopkins, W. H. Lake, 
Anna Lewis, Edna Mann, Teresa O'Brien, Irene Sprague, Anita Walker, 
Charles Wilber, Marion Wilson, Lyell J. Wooster, Fred D. Wooster. 

1905 — Walter Andrews, Vivian Blackmore, Ethel Conklin, LaVina 
Defendorf, Grace East, Minnie Egmer, Mable E. Engle, Carrel Flewell- 
ing, Olive Kinsey, Ray Murphy, Guy Nef¥, Edith Ryder, Edna Ryder, 
Otis G. Shanafelt, Charles Stahl. 

1906 — Laverne Argabright, Carmeleta Barton, Lee Benner, Mamie 
Burk, Orris Gardner, Cora Green, Ruth Hendryx, Thomas Hackett, 
William Hamilton, Helen Hoy, Max Ireland, Nita Kibler, Marguerite 
Lewis, Lois Powell, Fanny Springsteen, Elsie Stahl, Volney Wells. 


Being the earliest important center in Cass county, it is natural 
that we find in Edw^ardsburg a school record going back to the pioneer 
days. The private subscription schools, such as taught in those days, 
and described on previous pages, were instituted here in the winter 
of 1829^30, in a part of a double log house, Ann Wood .being the 
first teacher. J. C. Olmsted, who, in the spring of 1836, when eleven 
years old, reached his present home east of Edwardsburg, says that his 
first teacher during the summer of 1836 was Angeline, Bird, who taught 
in a private house. Then, in the summer of 1837, the. yillagers built a 


frame schoolhouse on lot 112, west of the present school building, the 
lot being donated by Abiel Silver. This structure served until the ''old 
brick" schoolhouse was erected on lot 132, adjoining the M. E. church 
lot on the east, in 1847, ^^^^ which many years afterward served as 
a private residence. Its dimensions were 24 by 30 feet, with a parti- 
tion across the north end, leaving the room 24 by 24, and as many as 
115 scholars attended the school each day during the winter O'f 1856-57, 
an assistant teacher being employed. The next building was constructed 
in 1 861 at a cost of $3,000. 

In 1886 District No. 3, comprising Edwardsburg, was made a 
graded school by Prof. G. W. Loomis, who was the first principal. 
Since that time the school has had the following principals : 

1887-8 — William Jessup. 

1889-90 — John B. Boyd and Michael Pemberton. 

1890-1 — Edmund Schoetzow\ 

1891-2 — Miss Clare Pemberton. 

1892-4 — H. R. Foster. 

1894-5 — F. A. Preston. 

1895-9 — Lemuel L. Coates. 

1899-190T — V. D. Hawkins. 

1901-2 — Luther Ettinger and J. G. McMacken. 

1902-4 — J. G. McMacken. 

1904-6 — Clifford N. Brady. 

1906-7 — Claude L. Pemberton. 

The course of study through the regular twelve grades, compares 
favorably with village schools of similar size and from time to time has 
been revised and adjusted to local needs and educational progress 
throughout the county and state. 

The board of education at this writing is : Henry Andrus, director ; 
William K. Hopkins, moderator; J. D. Bean, treasurer; Marcus S. Olm- 
sted, trustee; Edwin Harris, trustee. 

The faculty for 1906-07: Claude L. Pemberton, principal; Miss 
Charlotte Preble, grammar; Miss Anna Hafelt, intermediate; Miss 
Nellie Williams, primary. 

Informal commencement exercises were held in 1887, ^he year the 
school was fully graded, and Lillian Krome was then graduated. 

Following is the list of graduates, dating from 1888. 

1888 — Laura Snyder, Merta Miller, Ida Harwood, Genevieve 
Hanson, Bertha Thompson. 

1893 — Henrietta Hadden, Dora Silver. 


1894 — Lisle vShanahan, Hugh Beauchamp, Blanche Williams, Flor- 
ence Holdeman, Letta Lukenbach. 

1896^ — Cliflford Brady, Jessie Thornton, Mabel Parsons, Carrie 
Hadden, Anna Beauchamp, Alice Brady, Grace Hogmire, Matie Cobb, 
Mamie Graham. 

1897 — Inez Smith, Andrew Hadden, Fred Harwood. 

1898^ — Claude Reed, Robert Hadden, Verna Paul, Constance 
Brady, Jessie Rickert. 

1899' — Walter Thompson, Maxa Cook, William Parish. 

1900 — ^Harley J. Carlisle, Ida Perkins, Florence Parsons, Harry 
Kitchen, Warren Quimby, Margaret Hadden, Marion Brady, Ida Runkle, 
Lizzie Runkle. 

1901 — Winnifred Smith, Arthur Runkle, John Kitchen. 

1902 — George Andrus, Arthur Brady, Carl Manchow, Lloyd Dun- 
ning, Harry Meredith, Eleanor Bacon, Martha Hadden, Ella Truitt, 
Minnie Rogers. 

1903 — Maude E. Kelsey, Lewis H. Runkle, Adah B. Curtis, Gene- 
vieve Light, George L. Hadden, Winifred Hanson. 

1904 — Zendella Truitt, Lottie M. Rose, David Bacon, Charles A. 
Bement, Flora E. Martin. 

1905 — Leona Bean, Mary Snyder. Bessie Oliver, Lydia Thornton, 
Belle Harwood, Blenn Van Antwerp. 

1906 — Elizabeth Hadden, Thomas Head, Leidy Olmsted, Harry 


The founding of a village at Marcellus Center soon made necessary 
the formation of a school of higher grade than the ordinary district 
school, the children of the villagers at first attending the school east of 
town. In 1874 district No-. 9 w-as organized within the village, the first 
meeting being in August. The first school board were: Levi Bridge, 
W. O. Matthews, David Snyder. Under the supervision of George W. 
Jones, Leander Bridge and David Hain, as building committee, $1,000 
w^as expended in the erection of a one-story brick schoolhouse, 24 by 36 
feet in dimensions. Joel Booth was the first teacher. In 1876 a second 
story was added at a cost of $844, and thereafter two teachers employed. 
Miss Kellogg being the extra teacher. The number of scholars in- 
creased so that rooms had to be rented in Centennial hall. The last 
teacher in the old building was Eugene Bradt, assisted by Estella Hois- 
ington and Mrs. John Baent. 

It was not until 1881 that the Marcellus schools attained to the full 
possibilities of usefulness and classified efficiency. At the regular school 
meeting in 1880 it was' voted to raise $7,000 by issue of bonds for new 


buildings. Twelve lots were purchased of G. W. Jones, located in the 
east part of the block bounded by Arbor, Center, Woodland and Burney 

In the fall of that year was completed the two-story, four-room 
brick building on the south side of the village, at an expense of $8,000, 
and in the following spring was occupied. The building committee 
who had charge of this construction were George W. Jones, David 
Snyder, John Manning, Alex. Taylor, Manning Taylor, Dr. A. Carbine. 

At the regular school meeting of 1882 it was voted to grade the 
school. The board of trustees at that date were: Dr. Horace Carbine, 
H. M. Nottingham, Levi Burney, W. O. George, Dr. C. E. Davis, L. B. 
Des Voignes, 

The principals, or superintendents, of the Marcellus graded school 
have been, R. T. Edwards, who published the first catalogue in 1882; 
George DeLong, Mr. Montgomery, J. W. Hazard, C. H. Knapp, Ed- 
mund Schoetzow, W. L. Taylor, Edmund Schoetzow, whoi, with the 
exception of two years, has served since the fall of 1891. C. H. Knapp, 
in 1887, got out a catalogue for a ten-grade course of study. When 
Mr. Schoetzow took charge, in 1891, he organized the full twelve grades 
and completed the regular high school curriculum. 

The school was so crowded that in June, 1892, it was voted to bond 
the district for $2,500' to^ build a two-story addition, which was com- 
pleted about January, 1893. 

For 1906-7 the Board of Education are : Dr. C. E. Davis, presi- 
dent; E. M. Ketcham, treasurer; F. S. Hall, secretary; I. S. Smith, G. 
W. Kroll, trustees. Faculty : Edmund Schoetzow, superintendent ; 
Grace Templeton, principal; Leone B. Dennis, assistant principal; Eva 
C. Ditzell, second grammar; Frances Volkmer, first grammar; Katherine 
Brennan, second primary; Inez Willard, first primary. Inez Willard is 
teaching her seventeenth year in the first primary room, having taught 
nine years the first time. The total number of graduates is 119. Of 
these 100 were under Edmund Schoetzow's administration. 


1889 — Edwin Drury, Maude Bogert, Guy Keene. 

1890 — Julius Stern, Charles Giddings, Homer Kidney, Pearle An- 

1891— Grace Arnold, Bertha M. Hartman, Margaret R. Hutchin- 

1893 — Guy Snyder. 


1894 — Earle R. Clemens, Mae Manning, Belle Taylor, Enoch G. 
Bogert, John M. Alexander. 

1895 — Harriet L. Vincent, BeDee M. Poorman, Helen B. Munger, 
Grace E. Taylor, Jessie I. Mayhard. 

1896— William C. Hartman, Edith L. Hall, Mabel A. Vincent, 
Parthenia M. Stillwell, Ola M. Nicholson, Charles R. Welcher, Maude 
M. Palmer, Mabel C. Easterbrook, Pearle E. Swift, *Barton C. Notting- 
ham, Bert J. Vought. 

1897 — Roy E. Goodspeed, Mamie V. Sherman, Willard J. Gunter, 
Annis M. Mikel, Willard C. Davis, Eliza A. Reynolds. 

1898— A. Florence Taylor, Tacie R. Udell, V. Maude Marr. 

1 8991 — Clyde Clemens, Vera M. Jones, Carolyne L. Stern, Margery 
I. Kern, Florence McManigal, Burt L. Loveridge. 

1900 — Bertha Harris, Elma Mohney, Mary Remington, Susie 
Lutes, Georgia H. Hartman, L. Clare Poorman, Leroy S. Long, Nellie 
Batchelor, Earle J. Gould. 

1 901 — Carl G. Fulton, Leona Kent, Lxne Cropsey, Harry A. Brad- 
ford, Louella Apted, Clella E. Davis, Genevieve Mumford, Gay A. 
Webb, Merle Mack, Edna R. DeCou. 

1902 — Clair Smith, Sarah M. Hall, Frances C. Streeter, Mabel S. 
Long, Sarah E. Lutes, Lura Rosewarne, Jennie Lowry, Anna Bachelor, 
Mabel S. Fletcher, Lulu M. Franklin, Jennie Cleckner, Abby R. Munger, 
John H. Maxam. 

1903 — Neva F. Kent, Birdie Walker, Hattie R. Potter, Harry P. 
Jones, Albert J. Carpenter, Helen H. Stern, Ethel Apted, Hollister H. 
Savage, Deane E. Herbert, Daisy E. Lewis, Jennie M. Thompson. 

1904 — Rosa Hartshorn, Esther George, Mary Long, Alice Street- 
er, Beulah Potter, Clark Whitenight, Bessie Thurkow. 

1905 — Henriette George, Mary DeForest, Neva L Arnold, Ethel 
M. Holliday, Emar Hice. Florence Stern, Vera Thurkow, Jessie M. 

T906 — Vaughn R. LaBarre, Jennie M. Spitler, Leona Mae Moxley 
(colored), Fanny M. Saulpaugh, Mildred L Krise, Cleta Beatrice Kern, 
Sarah Orril Mack, Clarence A. Bradford, C. Blanche Waldron, Rena 
Hoisington, Grace M. Lewis, Kathryn B. Colburn, V. Kathryn Taylor, 
Verna B. Siegel. 


The Vandal i a Public School w^as graded by Jesse Borton, the prin- 
cipal, in 1873. ^^- Borton had been at the head of the school some 
time before and remained there until 1876. His successors have been: 

1877-8 J. Handschue. 
1879-89 Michael Pemberton. 

* Killed in the Spanish- American war. 



Thomas Chalmers. 


Chester E. Cone. 


A. F. Probst. 


C. L. Pemberton. 


C. L. Catherman. 


S. J. Bole. 


L. 0. DeCamp. 


H. S. East. 


*R. T. Baldwin, John Myron. 

The school has graduated one hundred and nine students notwith- 
standing there were no graduating classes in 1884, 1886, 1896, 1899 
and 1904, and the first class in 1883. 


1883 — Rose Bonine, Minnetta Thurston, Robert Coats, Florence 
Thomas, William Shillings, George D. Smith, Ella Carrier, Elroy 

1885 — Ida Tinker, PYed Jefferson, Herman S. East, *Mattie Cross, 
Henry Lane, *Dena O'Dell. 

1887 — C. H. Bonine, Erma Faulkner, Eva O'Dell, William Oxen- 

1888 — Samuel Stephens, Clare Pemberton, Leroy E. Deal, G. E,. 
Campbell, Bertha Bonine. 

1889' — Edna Fellows, Charles Wetherbee, Frank Lewis, J' Net 
O'Dell, John Setzler, *Edith Roys, Loren Miller. 

1890 — Pearl Bump, J. C. Faulkner, M. Lena Lynch, Carrie Kirk, 
Minnie Lambert, *Cora Thomas. 

1891 — Frank E. Faulkener, "^'Charity Mulrine, Earl Merritt, Ralph 

1892 — *Eva Jefferson, Bertha Arnold, Mary Seager. 

1893 — Frank Blood, Nellie Royer, Cora Arnold, Blanche Simpson, 
Lola Thurston, Iva Cussans, Clara Whited. 

1894 — Ella Symons, Nellie Kirk, Ada Phillips, Guy Van Ant- 
werp, Charles Setzler, Bernice McKinney, Myrta Shillings, Mary Smith, 
Albert Roys, Ethel Orr, Margaret Pemberton, Cora Royer, Odessa 
Seager, William Setzler. 

1895 — Belle Lvnch, Meda Weikle, Etta Train, Mary Skinner, Han- 
nah Bogue. 

i897^Leona Hollister, Ethel Deal. Blanche McCabe, John Simp- 
son, Verna Royer. 

1898 — Minnie Wilson, Vesta Lewis, Hattie Mealoy, Clarence 
Faulkner, Edna Barnum. 

* Resigned. 


1900 — Glennie Heslet, Flora HoUister, Ruby M. Johnston, Anna 
Setzler, Vera Lynch, Marie Denison, Mabel Honeyman. 

1901 — Blanche Wiltse, Arlie Bonine, Blanche Denison, LuVada 

1902 — Leon Alexander, Ward A. Bump, Florence Doan, Wayne 
Beardsley, Mabel A. Bonine. 

1903 — Clara Seidl, Fancheon Lewis, *P. Jay Freer, Carl Johnson, 
G. Belle Freer. 

1905 — Sadie Bonine, Clara Bonine, Mabel Curtis, Deva Brickell, 
Floyd Keller. 

1896 — Georgiana Longsduff, Onear Fisher, Reta Van Antwerp, 
Burt Pullin. 

The faculty for 1906 and '07: John Myron, principal; Mrs. Mae 
Dunning and Miss Ruby M. Johnston, assistants ; Miss Minnie Wilson, 
intermediate; Miss Mabel Bonine, primary. 

* Deceased. 


ladies' library association of cassopolis. 

In October, 1870, an organization under the name of ''Cassopolis 
Reading Room and Library Association" was effected, and the fol- 
lowing February incorporated with the following named incorporators : 
W. W. Peck, W. P. Bennett, C. S. Wheaton, J. T. Stevens, A. Gar- 
wood, A. B. Morley, A. Maginnis, H. Norton, O. Rudd, M. L. Howell, 
John Tietsort, J. M. Shepard, L. H. Glover, J. B. Boyd. The declared 
objects of the organization w-ere, ''the establishment and maintenance 
of a library and reading room; the procuring and furnishing of lectures 
on literary and scientific subjects; and the affording of such other means 
of literary, scientific and intellectual improvement as the association 
by its by-law^s may provide." The public reading room feature of the 
organization w^as kept up less than a year, but the library has been 
maintained to the present time, and contains about fifteen hundred 
volumes of choice fiction, history and travels, sheltered in the Pioneer 
Room of the Court House. 

A few of the ladies of Cassopolis have managed the library since 
the discontinuance of the reading room, and September 5th, 1905, new 
articles of incorporation were executed by the following women, who 
were made directors under the new organization — Ladies' Library As- 
sociation of Cassopolis : May S. Armstrong, Lucy E. Smith, Allie M. 
DesVoignes, Addie S. Tietsort, Hattie J. Holland, Maryette H. Glover, 
Sarah B. Price. 

Its officers are: Sarah B. Price, President; Maryette H. Glover, 
Secretary: Addie S. Tietsort, Treasurer. 

Article VII of the articles of association is as -follows: The 
officers shall be women twenty-one years of age and residents of Casso- 
polis, and members of the association. Any person paying the mem- 
bership fee provided for in the by-laws may become a member. 

The membership fee is one dollar, and the further fee of seventy- 
five cents each year after the first year. This payment authorizes the 











member to draw books from the library, which is open to its members 
Saturday afternoons, and in charge of the ladies. 

*THE ladies' library ASSOCIATION. 

The library movement in Dowagiac was begun by the ladies of 
the city in 1872. April 9th a meeting was called and a constitution 
and by-law^s were presented and adopted. The city was then canvassed 
for subscribers to the capital stock, the amount of which was fixed at 
$1,000, divided into 500 shares at $2.00 each. About 200 shares were 
sold. With this money books were purchased and the enterprise was 
fairly started. Books were loaned under proper regulations. The sign- 
ers of the constitution, or charter members, were: Mesdames Maria 
Palmer, Amanda W. Jones, Mary E. Lyle, May E. Bowling, Emma 
E. Van Riper, Jerusha E. Bailey, Lorraine Dickson, Caroline J. Mul- 
vane, Lillie A. Curtis and Miss Gertrude ReShore. A room w^as rented 
for the library until 1888, when P. D. Beckwith became interested in 
the cause and knowing the need of a permanent home for the library, 
built for it a small frame building and fitted it up with cases for the 
books and all necessary furniture and, with the lot on which the building 
stood, deeded it to the Association. Until his death Mr. Beckwith was 
ever a good and generous friend to the library cause. 

By the will of Wm. K. Palmer, an old and respected citizen, the 
Association received $1,200, the only gift of money ever received. In 
1902 the charter of the Association was renewed for thirty years. 

To the ladies of the Association who worked so long and earnestly 
the people of Dowagiac are indebted for the splendid Public Library 
they now possess. 

Feeling the need of a wider influence than a subscription library 
could have, they interested their friends in an effort to secure a Carne- 
gie Library for the city, and on receipt of the offer, went before the 
city council and pledged their books and income to the support of a 
public library. The money from the Palmer estate furnished the 
foundation of a permanent book fund for the library, and the income 
from the rent of the foi^mer library building is expended quarterly for 
books for the Public Library. 

The Ladies' Association, while co-operating with the Public Li- 
brary board and having its only purpose in advancing the interests of 
the library, is still maintained as an independent organization. The 

* Note — This article was contributed to the history by Grace ReShore. 


ofticers for the current year are : Mrs. Mable Lee Jones, President ; 
Miss Frances M. Ross, Vice President; Mrs. J. O. Becraft, Treasurer; 
Mrs. E. N. Rogers, Secretary. 


The building- is the gift of Andrew Carnegie, the grounds the gift 
of the Beckwith Estate. The PubHc Library and Reading Room were 
estabHshed by a resolution adopted March i6th, 1903, at a meeting of 
the common council of the city, and at the same meeting the mayor 
appointed as the first board of trustees, Mrs. E. N. Rogers, Mrs. F. J. 
Atwell, Mrs. A. B. Gardner, Miss N. A. Atwell, Miss Grace ReShore, 
Messrs. Wm. F. Hoyt, C. W. Flendryx, Rev. L. M. Grant, F. L. Be- 
craft. The board organized and elected officers, C. W. Hendryx, presi- 
dent; Mrs. A. B. Gardner, vice president; Miss Grace ReShore, secre- 
tary. Building committee : W. F. Hoyt, Mrs. Gardner, F. L. Becraft 

The architect selected was Berkeley Brandt of Chicago. The 
material used for the building is vitrified brick in two colors — with 
columns and trimmings in Bedford stone. The interior finish is in 
weathered oak, walls tinted terra cotta with light buff ceilings. At the 
right of the entrance is the children's room, w^ith low shelves on three 
sides of the room for books. The delivery desk is in the center, with 
the steel book-stacks at the back ; the general reading room at the left 
of the entrance. At the right from the stack room' is the librarian's 
room, and at the left is the reference and trustees' room. 

The lighting is a combination of electricity and gas. The furniture 
is oak in Mission style. In the basement is an assembly room seating 
about 250, which will be used for the children's league and other small 

The Library received from Mr. Elias Pardee, an old resident of 
the city, a valuable museum consisting of stuffed birds and small ani- 
mals and some very fine deer and elk heads ; birds' nests and eggs, shells, 
etc., which add greatly to the attractiveness of the rooms and interest 
and instruct the young people. 

In November, 1903, the cornerstone of the building was laid with 
appropriate ceremonies by the Michigan Grand Lodge of Masons. No- 
vember loth, 1904, the library was opened with an informal reception 
in the evening, and the next day began issuing books. At the tinie 
of opening the library contained 3,535 volumes — 2,752 of wliichi^ were 
from the Ladies' Library Association, 783 from the public school library, 














1,026 volumes have been added since. The circulation for the past year 
was 21,198 volumes. Readers' cards have been issued to 1,703 persons. 
The officers of the library board for the current year (1906) are: 
Wm. F. Hoyt, President; Frances M. Ross, Vice President; Grace 
ReShore, Secretary and Librarian. 


The Beckwith Memorial Theatre, dedicated by Colonel Robert G. 
Ingersoll in January, 1893, is constructed of Lake Superior red sand- 
stone with backwalls of brick. The building is 85x115 feet in dimen- 
sions, and is three stories in height. The front has a genuinely monu- 
mental effect, the first story being a magnificent arcade of four great 
arches, with twenty feet to each span, and showing the depth of the 
walls. On each pier is the portrait of a noted woman in bold relief, 
such famous women as George Eliot, George Sands, Mary Anderson, 
Sarah Bernhardt, Rachael and Susan B. Anthony being represented. 
Above this space smoothly chiseled stone reduces the effect again, and 
the top story front consists of semi-circular headed arches which form 
another arcade. Upon the bay directly over the main entrance is a 
large medalion portrait of Philo D. Beckwith, beneath which a mag- 
nificently carved panel bears the name ^'Beckwith." In the other front 
bays are portraits in medahon of Beethoven, Chopin, Rossini, Wagner, 
Verdi, Liszt, Voltaire, Ingersoll, Payne, Hugo, Emerson, Whitman, 
Goethe and the immortal Shakespeare. 

The main entrance to the building is in the middle division of 
the ground floor front and is eighteen feet in width. This also furnishes 
the entrance to the corner ground floor room, which is occupied by Lee 
Brothers & Company's bank, than which there is no finer banking room 
in the country. On the opposite side is the entrance to the postoffice, 
which is fitted up with the latest appliances for the expeditious handling 
of the mails. From off the arcade a magnificent flight of stairs leads 
to the second floor, the front portion of which is occupied by the offices 
of the Beckwith estate. 

The stage is fifty feet wide and thirty-eight feet deep, with beauti- 
fully ornamented boxes on either side. Everything has been done with 
a lavish hand. There are fifteen elegantly furnished dressing rooms, in 
which are all the conveniences for the comfort of the disciples of Thespis 
who visit this house. The drop curtain is a composite work of art. 
The general design is an original figure composition in classic Greek, 


and is monumental and decorative in contradistinction to the realistic 
school and apparently inspired by the artist's study of the theatre itself. 
The figures are superbly drawn and painted, and the landscape portion 
is magnificent. The whole presents a fitting picture by the greatest 
artists of the time. Each has done well his part. No one mind could 
have conceived it; nor could any one hand have executed it. It will live 
as a classic work of art wdien its makers shall have passed away. 

The scenery is designed for the cyclorama effect which has been 
found so effective, and which was first used in the Auditorium in Chi- 
cago. By this arrangement a scene can be set as a street or a garden 
by simply moving the scenes, which are profiled on both sides and top, 
anywhere desired. Every set of machinery is a finished piece of art. 
It is, after the latest fashion, lashed together with ropes, and is capable 
of being made into seventy-five distinct stage dressings. 

All the ornamental w^ork in the house is after the fashion of the 
Grecian school, and everything possible has been done to make this, the 
first memorial theatre erected in the country, the most beautiful play- 
house in the land. There are 499 over-stuffed mohair plush chairs, dyed 
in a light fawn and flesh colors, 329 of which are in the parquette and 
170 gracing the balcony. The gallery seats 200 comfortably. 

The problem of electric lighting of theatres has been solved in this 
house by the use of a large switchboard, in which there are twenty- 
five levers and nine ]>owerful resistance coils. The lighting of the stage 
itself is exceptionally complete, four hundred electric lamps in three 
colors being utilized for this purpose. The heating and the ventilation 
have been well looked to, and there never was a theatre whose air was 
more pure and whose warmth was more regular and comfortable. 

There is a roomy foyer and an abundance of fire escapes ; in fact 
nothing has been left undone which could add to the attractiveness and 
completeness of this house. It is a new^ and splendid model which time 
will demonstrate to be almost, if not quite, the acme of human skill in 
architecture, design and decoration. 



In the year of this writing there are eight newspapers pubhshed 
regularly in Cass county. Of these there is one daily, and one pub- 
lished twice a w^eek. Outside of the two large centers Edwardsburg and 
Marcellus support each a paper. 

In one respect, at least, the newspaper history of Cass county is 
noteworthy. All but one of the eight papers have had a continuous 
existence — though not all under continuous proprietorship — for at least 
a cjuarter of a century. The newspaper graveyard of Cass county is 
surprisingly small. The live ones are* not so . much troubled by the 
ghosts of defunct enterprises as in many other counties that might be 
named. Not that journalism has been without the usual reefs and 
shallows in this county. Not that there are no wrecks to record. Here, 
as elsewdiere, some newspapers, delivered in hope, have died in blameless 
infancy; one or two, having served their ephemeral purpose, passed out 
without the sting of failure ; the existence of one or two others was 
fitful and stressful from the first, and the end w^as the happiest part of 
their career. 

The early settlers of the county had no newspaper. Perhaps the 
most familiar paper that could be considered a ''home paper" was the 
Niles Herald, which was publislied by A. E. Draper from 1833 to 1838, 
being suspended at the latter date. In its columns, no doubt, were pub- 
lished the legal notices from Cass county. The only other paper in 
southwestern Michigan that was regularly published at that time, so 
far as is known to the writer, was the Kalamazoo Gazette, which was 
established in 1834, and is now in its 73rd volume. 

More than fifteen years elapsed after the organization of Cass 
county before the first newspaper enterprise ventured a permanent abode 
in the county. The Cass County Advocate issued its first number March 
II, 1845. T"h^ publishers got their equipment from the old Niles Ex- 
press. It announced a regular weekly appearance, but, as is well known, 
the intentions of early editors — ^often, too, of those still with us — did 
not possess the breadth and height and irresistible force needed to over- 


come the insuperable obstacles that beset pioneer publishing. Very 
often the person whose name conspicuously appeared as ''editor and 
proprietor," also was incumbent of the long list of positions that rank 
below the supreme office down to the despised "devil." As business 
manager, as news gatherer, as typesetter, as foreman of the press room, 
and power man for the hand press, the old-time publisher had no sine- 
cure. Too often his supply of paper ran out before the means of trans- 
portation by wagon could bring him his next invoice. These condi- 
tions, and many others that we cannot here describe in detail, might 
have interfered with the regular editing of the first Cass county new^s- 
paper. Certain it is, that its career was fitful. 

Mr. E. A. Graves was the editor and proprietor; a Democrat in 
politics and conducting his paper accordingly. Abram Townsend bought 
the enterprise in 1846, but he, too, failed to make it prosperous. In 
1850 it fell into the hands of another well known citizen, Ezekiel S. 
Smith. He evidently believed that Cassopolis was not a good field for 
a newspaper, and that the new railroad-born village of Dowagiac offered 
a better location. 

The removal of the Cass County Advocate to Dowagiac in 1850 
gave that village its first newspaper. Mr. L. P. Williams soon bought 
the plant of Mr. Smith, and by him the name was changed to the 
Dowagiac Times and Cass County Republican. In 1854, while the 
proprietor w^as away on a business trip, the office and the entire plant 
was destroyed by fire." Thus perished the first newspaper, after having 
lived nearly ten years. Its history was closed, for no' successor, phoenix- 
like, ever rose from its ashes. 

The contents of the early newspaper call for brief comment. 
Apropos of this point, Mr. C. C. Allison says : 'Tf you turn over the 
pages of the early paper expecting to find local news you will be dis- 
appointed. Now our papers exist , and are patronized for the local in- 
formation they contain; at that time this, idea of journalism had not 
arrived, at least not jn this part of the country. A letter from a foreign 
co'untry, describing alien people and customs, was eagerly seized upon 
by the editor, and its none too interesting facts spread over several col- 
umns of type. At the same time local improvements, county news, and 
the personal items which, now form the live features of the small news- 
paper, were usually omitted entirely or passed over with scant attention. 
Marriages and deaths and births formed the, bulk of the local news in the 
newspaper of fifty years ago." 


After the departure of the Cass County Advocate the citizens of 
Cassopolis evidently felt the void caused by no local newspaper. A 
stock company was organized, George B. Turner was selected as editor, 
and on March 17, 1850, the first number of the National Democrat 
was given to the public. Fifty-six years have passed since that date, 
and the National Democrat still flourishes. H. C. Shurter vv^as the 
publisher for the original company. 

The first few years of this paper's existence were not unmarked 
by vicissitudes, at least in ownership. In 1854, Mr. G. S. Boughton 
bought the paper, and within a few months sold it to W. W. Van Ant- 
werp. During the latter's proprietorship the late Daniel Blackman was 
editor. When the original stock company resumed control of the en- 
terprise in 1858, Mr. Blackman continued as editor, with Mr. H. B. 
Shurter as publisher. But, however well the paper may have served its 
ostensible ends, its financial condition remained discouraging. In 186 1 
the plant was sold at sheriff's sale. The purchasers were Pleasant Nor- 
ton, D. M. Howell and Maj. Joseph Smith. It was transferred by them 
to L. D. Smith, who managed it two years — the first two' years of the 
war, when news was at a premium everywhere. In March, 1863, the 
paper reverted to Messrs. Norton, Howell and Smith, Major Smith 
taking the editorial end of the business. 

In 1862 the proprietors had employed as their publisher a young 
man, then twenty-tvvO years old, named C. C. Allison. Born in Illinois 
in 1840 and coming toi Cassopolis when eight years old, the dean, as 
he now is, of the newspaper profession in Cass county began his career, 
and is likely to end it in the National Democrat office. He entered the 
office as an apprentice in 1855. He set type, wrote news items, and in 
a few years was master of the business. On May 5, 1863, he bought 
the paper, and from that date to this he has owned, managed and edited 
the oldest paper in Cass county. 

The Natio7ial Democrat is published weekly, is Democratic in poli- 
tics, and it has been the steadfast policy of its proprietor to keep it in 
the first rank, an impartial and comprehensive disseminator of news, and 
at the same time an advocate of progress and public spirit in the afifairs 
to which newspaper influence may be legitimately directed. 

The Republican interests, of the county are represented at Cassopolis 
by the Vigilant,, which is also far more than a partisan journal; it is 
well edited, has live, clean news, and its standard of newspaper enter- 
prise is the very highest, l^h^f Vigilant h^s witnessed an entire genera- 


tion of human progress, and its columns have contained the history in 
epitome of Cass county since the i6th of May, 1872, when its first copy 
was issued. D. B. Harrington and M. H. Barber were the founders 
of the paper. It went through several changes of ownership durin,^: the 
first years. C. L. Morton and W. H. Mansfield purchased it in Febru- 
ary, 1873, and in the following July Mr. Mansfield became sole pro- 

In 1876 Mr. Mansfield associated with himself Mr. James M. 
Shepard, a dentist by profession, and having followed from 1868 to that 
date the practice of dentistry in Cassopolis. Mr. Shepard, whose subse- 
quent career in public affairs is so well known, became the sole ow^ner 
of the Vigilant in 1878, and has conducted the paper under his per- 
sonal supervision except w^hile engaged in his public duties. For seven- 
teen years Mr. W. FI. Berkey has been connected with the office, and 
for about ten years has been managing editor of the Vigilant. He is 
a thorough and alert new\spaper man and shares in the credit for the 
success of the Vigilant. 

Although the plant of the Times and Cass County Republican was 
destroyed by fire in 1854, Dowagiac did not long remain an unoccupied 
field for newspaper endeavor. In the same year Mr. James L. Gantt 
established the Dow^agiac Tribune. The Tribune held undisputed pos- 
session of the field until 1858. In the meantime the policy of its editor 
was bringing upon him a storm of disapproval that ended in a small 
newspaper war. 

It should be remembered that the newspapers of that time were 
more of political ''organs" than even the strongest of modern partisan 
journals. To advocate the success of its party and to give much the 
greater part of its news and editorial space to that cause was often the 
sole cause of a country newspaper's existence. And the change from 
that custom to the later ''news" paper is recent enough to be remembered 
by all. ' 

Hence it came about that when the course of the Tribune had be- 
come distasteful beyond endurance to the Republicans of the county, the 
officials and leaders of Cass county Republicanism met to consider and 
take action concerning their newspaper "organ." As a result of this 
meeting, which was held in January, 1858, overtures were made to Mr. 
Gantt either to dispose of the paper or to allow a committee to select 
an editor, in which case the expense would be borne by the party organi- 


zation. Mr. Gantt had no mind to surrender his prerogatives or poHcies, 
and his paper was issued as before. 

But there remained another method. The party leaders induced 
W. H. Campbell and N. B. Jones to establish another paper in Dowagiac. 
This rival was called the Republican. Mr. Jones retired at the end of 
three months, but Mr. Campbell conducted the paper with such energy 
and was so well supported by his constituents that in 1859 ^^^- Gantt 
sold him the good will of the Tribune, and moved the plant of the latter 
away. Thus the Republican was left master of the situation, and con- 
tinued for many years as the only Dowagiac paper. The names of the 
committee who were responsible for the establishment of the Republican 
were Justus Gage, Jesse G. Beeson, W. G. Beckwith, Joshua Lofland 
and William Sprague. 

The Republican, like other Cass county papers, has passed through 
a series of ownerships. Mr. Campbell continued its publication until 
January, 1865. At that date Mr. Charles A. Smith, a young man of 
only twenty-one years, but a practical printer and energetic newspaper 
man, took control and conducted the business successfully for two years. 
Mr. Jesse G. Roe was the next purchaser, but being unacquainted with 
the practical side of newspaper business, after three weeks he sold the 
plant to its founder, Mr. Campbell. In 1868 Mr. H. C. Buffington was 
installed as proprietor and editor, and continued the publication until 
September, 1875, when the business passed to Richard Holmes and C. J. 
Greenleaf. These partners gave much space to purely local matters, 
and their management throughout was quite successful. In Septeml:)er, 
J 880, another transfer was made, when Mr. R. N. Kellogg bought the 
Republican plant. Under Mr. Kellogg's ownership the name was 
changed from the Cass County Republican to the Dowagiac Republican. 

Successive owners of the Republican were E. H. Spoor, Becraft & 
Amsden, Becraft alone, then a Mr. Rose, Becraft & Son, and J. O. 
Becraft. Mr. Becraft was publisher of the Republican until 1904, when 
he sold it to Mr. H. E. Agnew, the present proprietor. 

In 1880 Mr. W. M. Wooster entered the lists of Cass county 
journalism. He had been proprietor of the Van Buren County Repub- 
lican, which he sold to Mr. Buffington, the former Republican editor. 
Buying the equipment of the Lawrence Advertiser, he removed it to 
Dowagiac, and on September i, 1880, he issued the first number of 
the Dowagiac Times, as an independent in politics^ — an unusual course 
for a paper to take at that time. In 188 1 the Times w^as sold to Mr. 


A. M. Moon, who has^ beeli identified with Cass county journahsm 
nearly thirty years, and who came to Dowagiac from Marcellus. Mr. 
Moon conducted the Times until 1885, when he sold it to its present 
proprietor, James Heddon. In 1897 Charles Heddon established the 
Daily News, which was issued from the same office as the Times, and 
the two papers are practically under one management. In this con- 
nection it is of interest that Ward Bros, established a paper called the 
Daily Nezvs in Dowagiac about 1880, although its existence was short.. 

The third paper of Dowagiac is the Herald, which was established 
in 1892 by Mr. N. Klock as the Standard. R. E. Curtis bought this 
paper in 1897, and it later became the property of J. A. Webster, who 
changed the name to the Herald, In April, 1903, A. M. Moon became 
the proprietor of the Herald and has since issued it every week. 

Marcellus has a somewhat disconnected newspaper record, but the 
Neivs has a record of nearly thirty years, and has been a good paper, 
ably edited and well patronized, since its start. The Messenger was the 
first paper in the village, established by S. D. Perry in 1874. The Good- 
speed brothers, Volinia farmers, soon came into possession of the plant 
and issued a paper known as the Standard under the management of 
Rufus Nash. The last issue appeared in August, 1876, and in 1877 
Mr. A. M. Moon bought the plant and brought out the first number of 
the Marcellus News, When Mr. Moon moved to Dowagiac he took 
part of the equipment of the News, but left the intangible interests and 
subscription lists of the News tO' his successors, C. C. Allison and J. J. 
A. Parker, who issued the first number under their management on 
December 24, 1881. Mr. Parker soon bought the interest of Mr. Alli- 
son, who had entered the newspaper field at Marcellus as a branch 
enterprise to his Cassopolis paper. Following Mr. Parker, the pro- 
prietor of the Ne7Vs was Mr. White, then Dr. C. E. Davis, who sold to 
the present proprietor, A, E. Bailey. 

The Vandalia Journal was established by William A. DeGroot, and 
the first number was dated June 14, 1881. The paper later passed to 
Jos. L. Stufr, who, after a short time, discontinued its publication and 
moved the type and presses to Chicago. 

Several years ago Mr. F. M. Viall established a small news sheet at 
Vandalia, but after about six rnotiths gave up the enterprise without 
having won fame for himself and brought the paper to any dignity in 

The Edwardsburg ^Arghis, whose presient proprietor is Henry Andrus 


(see sketch), was established in 1875, its first issue appearing October 
5th. William A. Shaw, H. B. Davis, F. M. Jerome and G. F. Bugbee 
were connected with the paper until 1879. In February of this year Dr. 
John B. Sweetland took charge of the paper, which he thereafter con- 
ducted in his vigorous and virile way, ''neutral in nothing, independent 
in everything," and was the proprietor for twenty years, until his death 
in 1899. Dr. Sweetland, in conformity with his principles, kept his paper 
independent in politics, and if he favored any movement especially it 
was the Prohibition. Mr. Henry Andrus was local editor of the Argus 
a long time under Dr. Sweetland, and since the latter' s death has con- 
ducted the paper, maintaining it at the high standard of former years. 
The Argus is issued regularly every Thursday. 

Illustrative of newspaper politics of half a century ago, is an inci- 
dent related by C. C. Allison, the veteran editor of the Democrat, In 
1840 Ezekiel S. Smith had been appointed by Gov. Woodbridge to the 
position of attorney in Cass county. Smith was a Whig, of the same 
brand and stripe as his political chief. He made it a point to emphasize 
his beliefs and aggrandize his party whenever possible while in Cass 
county. At that time the Democratic party was dominant in this sec- 
tion, its official organ at the county seat being the Cass County Advo- 
cate,, with its pioneer editor, Abram Townsend. 

Townsend was not succeeding in making his paper pay dividends, 
however successful it may have been as a political and news organ. 
One day, in this financial stress, he applied to Attorney Smith for a 
cash loan. ''No more loans on that paper," replied Smith, who was 
already Townsend's creditor; "why don't you go to Asa Kingsbury?" 
Kingsbury was a leader in Democratic affairs at that time, and his 
financial support to the Advocate had also been drawn upon to the limit. 
On being informed of Kingsbury's unwillingness to extend further 
credit. Attorney Smith, acting upon a sudden idea, asked, "What will 
you take for that newspa;per over there?" "t)o you really want to 
buy it, Mr. Smith ?" "Yes, I will buy the equipment and you can con- 
tinue as my editor," was the decisive manner in which the transaction 
was closed. "Now," continued Smith, after counting out the stipulated 
amount less what Townsend owed him, "let us go over and get out 
this week's paper." The make-up was about ready to go to press, and 
after looking it over the only change that the new proprietor requested 
was that the leading editorial l>e withdrawn and one written by himself 
substituted. This was done, and the Advocate appeared on the regular 


day of issue without any delay consequent upon the change of owner- 
ship, which took place quite unheralded to the citizens of the county 
seat. But for that reason the consternation was all the greater among 
the stanch Democracy when, on the first page of their loyal paper, they 
read a pungent editorial lauding the principles of Whiggism to the skies 
and holding up the sacred tenets and leaders of the Van Buren party 
to scorn and ridicule. 



The early followers of Aesculapius, in Cass county as elsewhere, 
were in the main honest, practical and sympathetic men. Such is the 
testimony of those whose personal knowledge connects the present with 
the past. Without the advantages of broad technical training, such as 
are within reach of the medical student now, without the vast heritage 
of accumulated experience, analyzed and classified for application t«^ 
every morbid condition of mankind, the pioneer physician had to com- 
pensate for his narrowness of professional vision and skill by a perva- 
sive sympathy and inspiring cheerfulness. 

Much of the practice was done by doctors who followed their pro- 
fession as an adjunct to the more necessary — to their own welfare — 
occupation of tilling the new soil or merchandising, or any other of the 
trades or activities by which the early settlers gained a living. There 
were, proportionately, fewer "town doctors." Some of the ''farmer 
doctors" were college graduates and men of considerable attainments, 
though necessarily rough in exterior, and, although handicapped for 
want of appliances, were perhaps as fully competent tO' combat the dis- 
eases incident to those conditions as our more modern physicians are 
to combat our more modern diseases. For it is a well known scientific 
truth that many of the refinements and advantages of modern civiliza- 
tion are really violations of the natural laws, which bring about their 
own diseases as punishment. 

A very brief record is left of those physicians who came to Cass 
county during the pioneer period. There was Dr. Henry H. Fowler, 
who seemed possessed .of the pioneer spirit, for several new settlements 
in this part of the country knew him as a citizen as much as a profes- 
sional man. He was interested in the formation of the. village of Geneva, 
on Diamond lake, and was a factor in having that place designated as the 
seat of justice. He had first located at Edwardsburg about 1830. 

There seems to have l^een no physician during the thirties who left 
a permanent impress on the life and affairs of the county. During that 
decade Cassopolis and vicinity had, for varying lengths of time, doctors 


named Isaac Brown, Charles L. Clows, David E, Brown, Benjamin F. 
Gould, who was a college graduate and practiced in Cassopolis till his 
death, in 1844; David A. Clows, and James Bloodgood. The first physi- 
cians in the county seem to have located at Edwardsburg. Of those 
early practitioners the most prominent was Henry Lockwood. Born 
in New York in 1803, a graduate of a medical college of that state, he 
located at Edwardsburg about 1837, and was in active and prosperous 
practice there till 1862. He died in December of the following year. 

The old town of Adamsville, in the southern part of the county, 
had a notable doctor in the early days in the person of Henry Follett. 
Born in New York in 1789, he studied medicine under private direc- 
tion, served in the war of 18 12 as assistant surgeon, and in 1836, with 
his family, made the journey in pioneer fashion from the east to his 
new home at Adamsville. Two years later he moved to a farm near the 
village, and in a combination of the two pursuits passed the remainder 
of his life, his death occurring in 1849. 

There were other physicians in the county during this period, but 
little record other than their names is preserved. Those earliest physi- 
cians — as well as their successors for many years — traveled about on 
horseback. There were no telephones by w^hich medical assistance could 
be summoned to remote parts of the rural districts, and hence, up to 
recent years, the sight of a flying horseman hastening to town was a 
signal to the neighbors that some one was ill. An hour or so later 
back would come the physician, muffled up beyond recognition during 
the severe winter season, or bespattered with mud from hard riding over 
the miry roads. There were no carriages. If there had been they would 
have ]:)een useless because of the rough and muddy roads, which were 
scarcely more than trails cut through the woods. The distances traveled 
in reaching the sufferers w^ere long, because the roads wound around so 
much, and often the patient was dead before the doctor could arrive. 
Sometimes after heavy rains the streams w^ould be swollen so as to 
render the fords impassable, or the bridges w^ould be carried away, 
necessitating a long detour in order to reach the destination. But num- 
berless and arduous as were the difficulties which beset the pioneer 
practitioner — and only a few have been alluded to, so that the picture 
is quite inadequate to reveal the hard life of our first doctors — it is to 
the lasting honor of the rugged character and faithful devotion to duty 
of those men that no call for help, matter not w^here it was or what its 
answ^ering meant in the way of personal hardship, was refused. 


But the times and conditions of practice changed rapidly. Dr. 
H. H. Phiinps, of Cassoix)hs, whose professional recollections in this 
county go back nearly forty years, states that when he began to practice 
the physicians no longer were traveling about the country on horse- 
back, with their medicine, surgical instruments, etc., in a saddle-bag. 
Buggies had already come into general use among the country practi- 
tioners, and the hard lot of the early doctor was in many other respects 

The diseases of those times were principally malaria, caused by 
lack of drainage in the county ; bronchitis and pneumonia, due tc^ ex- 
posure incident to their mode of life, and diarrhoea and dysentery in- 
duced by their coarse fare. Contagious diseases, on account of the iso- 
lation of the settlers, had little opportunity to spread. Heroic treat- 
ment was accorded their patients by old-time doctors. The tale is told 
of one such physician — not of Cass county, however — ^who gave a pa- 
tient sufifering from a ''blocked bowel" one hundred grains oi calomel 
at a single dose, and, strangest of all, there was complete recovery from 
both the ailment and the dosage. 

But malaria is no longer to be contended w^ith. The marshes have 
been drained. Whereas the early settlers fought mosquitoes — now 
known as most active agents in the spreading of contagious diseases — 
by means of smudges, screen doors now shut out the i^ests from our 
homes. This use of wire screening is one of many improvements that 
provided wholesome sanitary conditions and guarded against disease. 
The decrease of malaria is graphically illustrated in the statement of 
Dr. Phillips that not one lx)ttle of quinine is used now to thirty required 
when he began practice. Malaria was everywhere then, and quinine 
was the sovereign remedy in its treatment. 

Passing from the pioneer period of medical practice, we find a 
number of men of more than ordinary ability who adorned the pro- 
fession during the last half of the century. Dr. E. J. Bonine, who 
practiced in Cassopolis from 1844 ^^ the outbreak of the Civil war, 
was a soldier and pohtician as well as doctor. Born in Indiana in 182 1, 
he prepared for his profession, as was then the custom more than now, 
under a private preceptor instead of within college walls. He was 
elected to represent the county in the legislature in 1852. He was, in 
turn, a Whig, a Free-soiler, and then helped to organize the Republican 
party. He enlisted for service in the rebellion, and was advanced from 
the ranks to surgeon in chief of the Third Division of the Ninth Army 


Corps. He located at Niles after returning from the war, and was 
prominent professionally and in public life until his death. 

In the death of Dr. L. D. Tompkins on October I, 1902, there 
passed away the oldest medical practitioner in the county. Arriving in 
the county in 1848, he saw and experienced the conditions of pioneer 
practice. Still alive a half century later, his retrospect covered the most 
important period in the development of medical and surgical practice, 
and he could appreciate as none others could the changes that a life- 
time had wrought. 

''But perhaps it still is better that his busy life is done; 

He has seen old views and patients disappearing one by one." 

A former account of his life says : ''During the first eight or ten 
years of his residence in the county he almost invariably traveled on 
horseback. The roads were not then as numerous as now, and most 
of those which had been cleared and improved were in a condition in- 
ferior to those of the present. Large bodies of land were unfenced, and 
it was the universal custom among those persons familiar with the 
country when traveling in the saddle to save time by 'going cross lots' 
by way of the numerous paths leading through the 'openings' and heavy 
timber. Dr. Tompkins rode very frequently upon these paths and often 
in the darkness of night was obliged to lean forward upon his horse's 
neck to avoid being brushed from the saddle by overhanging limbs of 
the trees. Sometimes, wearied with travel and loss of rest, he would 
fall asleep in the saddle, but the trusty horse, plodding on through the 
darkness along the winding narrow path, would bring him' safely home." 
At the time of his death Dr. Tompkins was more than eighty-five years 
old, a remarkable age for one whose earlier experiences had been so 
rugged. Born in Oneida county. New York, in 1817, he moved to Ohio 
at the age of fifteen, and there prepared for his profession and practiced 
until he came to Cassopolis in May, 1S48. In 1852 he graduated from 
the well known Rush Medical College of Chicago. More than one 
physician now or formerly of Cass county ascribes the inspiration of 
his work tO' this aged doctor. In the history of Cass county medicine 
he will always be a venerable figure. 

Only five years younger in years at the time of his death was the 
late Dr. Alonzo Garwood, whose professional connection with Cass 
county was only a little less than that of Dr. Tompkins. Coming to 
Cass county in 1850, the close of a long life came July i, 1903. He 


was born October 15, 1824, in Logan county, Ohio, pursued his studies 
under the direction of a physician in his native county, later attended, 
under the preceptor system, the well known Starling Medical College, 
and on his graduation came directly to Cassopolis. Dr. Garwood gave 
considerable attention to public affairs, especially local school interests, 
and was of such political prominence that he was sent to the state senate 
in 1857. He was surgeon of the 28th regiment, Michigan infantry, 
during the Civil war. 

The list of Cassopolis physicians, past and present, is a long one. 
There was Richard M. Wilson, an early representative of the Eclectic 
school, who was here in the fifties. Alonzo B. Treadwell, well remem- 
bered by many in the county, began practice in the year that Dr. Wilson 
left, and continued for ten years, until his death in 1874. He had a 
varied career, was largely self-educated, served in the army, and died 
in the prime of years. For awhile he was partner with Drs. Tompkins 
and Kelsey. The latter, William J. Kelsey, father of the present Dr. 
J. H. Kelsey, had high professional connection in this county, and was 
a man of acknowledged ability. He was born in this county in 1839, 
and was a graduate of Rush Medical College in 1865. 

Other names that occur are those of Drs. Robert Patterson, Fred- 
erick F. Sovereign, F. P. Hoy, J. D. Mater, each of whom remamed but 
a short time. 

Dr. James S. Stapleton, born in Cassopolis in 1867, graduated from 
Hahnemann Medical College, in Chicago, and located in his native 
town, where he remained until his removal to Jones, where he died 
August 13, 1898. 

Oliver W. Hatch, born in Medina county, Ohio, July 28, 1825, 
came to Mason township, Cass county, with his parents, in 1837, attended 
the early district schools and also a select school taught by the late 
Judge H. H. Coolidge at Edwardsburg, and received his medical edu- 
cation by private study, at the LaPorte Medical College and at Rush 
Medical College in Chicago, where he spent his last term in 1848. He 
practiced at Georgetown, III, three years, then at Mishawaka, Ind., six 
months, after which he located in Mason township and was a practicing 
physician there until 1903, when he retired and moved to Cassopolis, 
where he still resides, being the oldest physician in the county. 

Dr. Bulhand, who died at Union September 11, 1905, was noted 
for his sympathy and strength of character, as well as his ability as 
a practitioner. He was absolutely frank, and never used his profession 


except according to its own ethics and the standards of personal integ- 
rity. He retired before his death, having practiced about twenty years, 
and hved on his farm in Calvin. 

J>own at Edwardsburg Dr. Israel G. Bugbee for many years com- 
l}ined his professional duties with business and official affairs. He was 
born in Vermont in 1814, studied medicine in Cass county and in a 
New York medical college, and practiced in Edwardsburg from 1840 
to 1869. He died in 1878. 

Among the contemporaries of Dr. Bugbee were Dr. Alvord, Dr. 
John Treat, Dr. Enos Pen well, and several others. Within the last four 
years there died in Edwardsluirg Dr. John B. Sweetland, whose con- 
nection wath that village lasted forty years. A graduate^ of the Uni- 
versity of Buffalo and a first-class physician, he was just as much a 
man of affairs. He served as a private and a surgeon during the war, 
was politically active and represented this county in the legislature, and 
his versatile character also led him into journalism, becoming editor 
and publisher of the Edwardsburg Argus. Dr. Sweetland was born in 
New York in 1834. 

Another Edwardsburg physician, now deceased, was Levi Aldrich. 
He was born in Erie county. New York, January 27, 1820, and gradu- 
ated in medicine in 1849. ^^ located in Edwardsburg in the early 
sixties, and remained there till his death. 

Dr. Robert S. Griffin, born in Erie county, New York, September 
25, 1828, came to the village, and at the age of nineteen years began 
the study of medicine witli Dr. Lockwood, and afterwards attended 
the Medical college at LaPorte, Ind., and at different times practiced 
a number of years in Edwardsburg. He died there December 27, 1905. 

The Cass County History of 1882 states that fifty physicians had 
practiced in Dowagiac from the time of its establishment as a village. 
Many have located there since that date. Manifestly no complete record 
of these could be here compiled. The majority remained a more or less 
brief time, and of these only the names are preserved. 

The first Dowagiac doctor seems to have been somewhat of an 
original character. It is related that, in a case of fever where the 
patient was not expected to live, he summoned Fred Werz, the village 
fiddler, to the bedside and commanded him to remain there day and 
night and fiddle his most inspiriting tunes when the patient had sink- 
ing spells. The doubly afflicted one recovered. This story notwithstand- 
ing. Dr. Thomas Brayton was a much loved physician. He began 


practice in the village about the middle of the last century and con- 
tinued until his death in a railroad accident during the sixties. 

Another eccentric practitioner was a Dr. Jarvis, whose ability as 
a drayman was as conspicuous as his skill in setting bones. It is said 
that for some time he drove a bull or steer to his vehicle instead of a 

Dr. C. \V. Morse, now deceased, was for a number of years in 
practice at Dowagiac, and part of the time was in the drug business. 

Few of the old-time doctors were better known than Dr. C. P. 
Prindle, wdio died at Dowagiac August 2, 1876, at the age of fifty-one 
years. He obtained his education and professional training in his native 
state of New York, and came to Michigan to find his field of labor about 
1850. Finally, in 1855, he located at Dow^agiac and practiced there 
until his death. He was a rugged and forceful character, both in his 
profession and as a citizen. Like Dr. Tompkins, he spent much of his 
time in the saddle, and wherever and whenever duty called him he went 
wn'thout thought of his personal convenience. He had a deep dislike 
for OvStentation and superficial learning, and in practice, as in his per- 
sonal relations, w^as direct, earnest, and wnthal sympathetic. The esteem 
in which he w^as held is shown by the fact that during his funeral the 
stores and business houses of Dow^agiac were closed. 

A physician who attained high rank in his profession was William 
E. Clarke, now deceased, who spent some of the younger years of his 
career in Dowagiac. He went to the army from this town, had an 
eventful record as a surgeon, and after the war moved to Chicago. 

The first representative of the eclectic school of medicine in Dowa- 
giac and Cass county w^as Cyrus J. Curtis. Born in New York state in 
1819, he died at Dowagiac April 21, 1875. He studied medicine and 
was a graduate of the Worthington Medical College of Ohio, and prac- 
ticed in various parts of the country until December, 1864, when he 
located at Dowagiac. Here he restricted his practice to the treatment 
of chronic diseases. The names of those who were associated with him 
in practice for varying lengths of time indicate several other well knowm 
Dowagiac physicians; these were S. T. McCandless, D. B. Sturgis, 
William Flora, Linus Daniels, H. S. McMaster, and his son, E. A. Cur- 

The medical profession of the early days had few regulations, 
either imposed by the state or inherent in the fraternity. The strict 
code of professional ethics w^hich now governs with greater power than 


any system of law had been scarcely formulated at that time. There 
were no requirements as to length and extent of preparation. Anyone 
who had enough faith in his own knowledge and skill could set himself 
up in practice. Herbs and roots supplied the materia medica which, 
according to certain formulas, were decocted by certain persons for 
the healing of man or beast, and several of these so-called ''herb doctors" 
achieved some distinction in the county. One of these was Dr. A. J. 
lioughton, whose practice extended o^ver a large territory. "Dr." 
Whitehead, an Indian ''medicine man," who located at Dowagiac in the 
sixties, practiced the "herb art" among such persons as relied on that 
form of healing. 

James D. Taylor was a homeopathic practitioner in Dowagiac from 
1858 until his death in 1871. Dr. J. H. Wheeler, who practiced in 
Dowagiac from 1867 to 1877, the year of his death, was an early settler 
of the county, having come here in 1835. He was a surveyor, and 
began the study of medicine during his leisure hours. Other Dowagiac 
physicians whose work here has been closed by death or removal, were 
L. V. Rouse, deceased ; E. C. Prindle, son of Dr. C. P. Prindle, who 
has located elsewhere; E. A. Curtis, now oi Chicago, besides those whose 
connection with the city was transient. Dr. Edward S. Stebbins, now 
deceased, located here in 1868, and devoted much of his time to special- 
ties, particularly the then new science of electro-therapeutics. 

Each of the smaller villages has had its medical representatives. 
In Vandalia the first physician was Dr. A. L. Thorp, who settled there 
in 1849, ^^^1 whose death occurred in Mishawaka, Indiana, only a few 
years ago. The doctor who was longest in practice in Vandalia was 
Leander Osborn, who was born in 1825 and who died in June, 1901. 
He taught school in early life, received his impulse to study medicine 
from Dr. E. J. Bonine, and completing his studies in Rush Medical 
College, he began practice in the village in 1853. ^[^ ^^^^ ^^^^ interested 
in politics, being in several local offices, and in 1866 was elected to the 

In P'okagon the principal former representatives were John Robert- 
son and Charles P. Wells. The former was born in New York in 1825, 
and, coming to the county in 1848, practiced at Sumnerville and Pokagon 
until failing health compelled him to abandon active work. Dr. Wells 
was born in New York in 1834, and his father was one of the first set- 
tlers of Howard township in this county. He was a graduate of a Cin- 
cinnati medical college, and in 1865 located at Pokagon, where he had 


the first drug store in the village and carried on his practice for many 

At Jones there was Dr. Thomas L. Blakeley, who, after three years' 
service in the war of the rebellion, took up the study of medicine, and 
in 1872 located at Jones, being the first physician of that place. He 
also conducted a drug store. Otis Moor, deceased, a graduate of the 
Rush Medical College in 1872, was for some years located at Williams- 

The personnel of the medical profession of Cass county at this 
writing is as follows : 

Casso]X)lis — T. W. Anderson, M. H. Criswell, Fairfield Goodwin, 
Marion Holland, G. A. Hughes, J. H. Kelsey, W. C. McCutcheon, H. 
H. Phillips, and Dr. R. H. von Kotsch. 

Dowagiac — William W. Easton, George W. Green, George R. 
Herkimer, J. H. Jones, W. J. Ketcham, S. H. McMaster, C. M. Myers, 
William E. Parker, Clarence S. Robinson, M. P. White. 

Marcellus — C. E. Davis and Ernest Shellito. 

Vandalia — S. L. Loupee, E. C. Dunning, Otis E. Newsom. 

Edwardsburg — E. W. Tonkin and E. B. Criswell. 

Pokagon — Charles A. Morgan and William A. Skeler. 

Jones — C C. Fenstermacher, J. V. Blood. 

Union — Edgar A. Planck. 

Penn — J. C. Huntsinger. 

Wakelee^ — Edward Wilson. 

Calvin^ohn Harris, U. S. Kirk. 

Adamsville — William F. Lockwood. 

In Cassopolis Dr. Anderson is probably the ranking physician in 
point of seniority. Dr. Criswell (see sketch) has been located here since 
1900, although he has practiced in the county much longer. Dr. Good- 
win, now retired from active practice, was captain of a company of 
Michigan cavalry in the rebellion and did not complete his medical edu- 
cation until after the war. He began his practice in Cassopolis in 1874, 
and has been active in business, especially in real estate, as well as m 
his profession. He built Hotel Goodwin and is its landlord. 

Dr. Holland, who came to Cassopolis from Edwardsburg in 1895, 
was a graduate of the medical department of the State University in 
1875, and from the dental department in 1877. He located in Edwards- 
burg in 1880 and conducted a drug store in connection with a general 


Dr. G. A. Hughes, who has practiced here for the past thirty years, 
was reared in St. Joseph county, this state. He is a speciaHst in eye, 
nose and throat diseases, besides a general practice. 

J. H. Kelsey, the successor in practice of his father. Dr. W. J., was 
born in Cassojxihs October 3, 1878, graduated from the medical depart- 
ment of the State University and has since practiced in Cassopolis. 

W. C. McCutcheon, whose sketch will be found elsewhere, has been 
practicing in Cassopolis since 1894. He w^as prepared at the Royal 
College of Physicians and Surgeons at Kingston, Ontario, and gradu- 
ated from Queen's University. On coming to Cassopolis he was a part- 
ner of Dr. Goodwin for a time, and has also served twO' years as county 

Dr. H. H. Phillips, who is one of the oldest practicing physicians 
in the county, was born and reared in New York, served in the Civil 
war from Minnesota, and fromi that state came to Cass county in March, 
1866. He has been engaged in general practice since the spring of 1868, 
and until ten years ago was located at Vandalia. 

Dr. P. H. von Kotsch is a recent addition to the ranks of tlie pro- 
fession in Cass county. 

Dr. W. W. Easton, who has been a resident of Cass county nearly 
all his life, and in Dowagiac since 1880, was born in Silver Creek 
township in 1853, attended Notre Dame University and graduated from 
Bennett Medical College in 1877. 

Dr. George R. Herkimer, homeopath at Dowagiac, was born at 
Niles in 1866, attended Albion College and the University of Michigan, 
and since graduation from the Hahnemann College at Chicago^ in 1890 
has been located in Dowagiac. 

Dr. J. H. Jones, who was born in New York in 1861 and came 
to this state at twenty-one, taught school and graduated from the Uni- 
versity of Michigan in 1893, and since 1894 has been practicing in 

Dr. W. J. Ketcham, born in New York City in 1850, came to this 
county in i860, read medicine with C. P. Prindle, graduated from the 
medical department of the University of Michigan in 1875, ^^^1 after 
several years' practice in Volinia located permanently at Dowagiac. 

Dr. H. S. McMaster was born in New York in 1842. Served in 
the war, studied at Albion College, prepared for his profession in several 
schools, finally graduating from Bennett Medical College of Chicago, 
and located at Dowagiac in 1871, being the first city physician there. 


Dr. C. M. Myers, who was born in Pokagon township in 1864, 
studied at Valparaiso, taught school in country and town, and followed 
a year's private study with three years in the Chicago Hahnemann Med- 
ical College. 

Dr. Clarence S. Robinson is another Cass county alumnus of the 
Bennett Medical College, from which he was graduated in 1880. He 
then located at Volinia and in 1894 in Dowagiac. Dr. Robinson was 
born in Wakarusa, Indiana. 

Dr. M. P. White, who has practiced at Dowagiac since 1886, was 
born near Wakelee, this county, was a student at the Valparaiso Nor- 
mal, and graduated at the medical department of Northwestern Univer- 
sity. He began practice at Wakelee. 

Dr. W. E. Parker has been practicing in Dowagiac for nearly twenty 
years. Born in Jefferson township in this county in 1854, he studied 
with Tompkins and Kelsey, and in 1879 graduated from Rush Medical 
College. He practiced in Cassopolis four years and in Three Rivers five 
years, and since then has been in Dowagiac except one year. In 1891 he 
graduated from the Post-Graduate Medical School of Chicago, where 
he specialized in the diseases of the eye, ear, nose and throat, and gives 
attention to this branch besides his general practice. 

At Marcellus Dr. C. E. Davis is the senior physician. He was 
born in Ohio in 1846, came to Cass county in 1861, served in the Civil 
war, and in 1869 began practice, which was interrupted by two years of 
study in the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania, from 
which he was graduated in 1873. ^^^ ^^^^ l^^^^'^ located in Marcellus 
since 1874. 

Dr. Charles A. Morgan of Pokagon has been established in that 
vicinity since his graduation from the medical department of the State 
University in 187 1. He is a native of Wales, came to Cass coimty wdien 
seven years old, and took part in the war of the rebellion. 

Dr. Donald A. Link, whose death occurred by drowning in On- 
tario August 15, 1906, was born in that province of Canada October 22, 
1865, studied medicine at McGill University and graduated from Detroit 
College of Medicine in 1895, after which he came tO' Cassopolis. He 
spent two years in the Klondike, and on his return in 1900, located in 
Volinia, where he practiced till his death. 

The majority of the physicians in the smaller centers are young men 
who have recently located in practice, although this statement in nO' way 
reflects upon their ability and standing in the profession. As indicated 


in the list aboA^e given, all portions of the county are represented by 
medical men. Calvin tow^nship, with its large colored population, is 
served by tw^o colored physicians. 

The practice of dentistry is no longer a subordinate branch of a 
regular physician's practice, but has attained the rank of a separate pro- 
fession. Its requirements in the way of natural ability and technical 
preparation are constantly being raised, so that the dentistry of today 
compares with that of twenty years ago about as the delicate work of 
the watchmaker compares with that of the blacksmith. Cass county's 
representatives in this profession are the following named : Cyrus H. 
Funk, Farnum Brothers (S. A. and S. J.), C. W. Martin, of Cassopolis. 

Physicians of this day acknowledge and appreciate the value of pro- 
fessional association. The bonds of common interest and mutual help- 
fulness are being drawn more closely in the numerous organizations 
whose membership is drawn exclusively from the ranks of the profession. 
The Cass County Medical Society was established some years ago as an 
independent body, but has in recent times been affiliated with the State 
Medical Society and, thereby, also with the American Medical Associa- 
tion. Thus it has the same constitution and by-laws as all similar so- 
cities in the counties of the state. 

Dr. E. A. Planck of Union is the president of the Cass County 
Medical vSociety for 1906; the secretary is Dr. McCutcheon of Cassopo- 
lis. The society meets once each three months, their time of meeting 
being technically defined as the last Thursday following the full moon 
in December, March, June and September. It is the general practice 
to have papers on two medical subjects read at each meeting, followed by 
discussions. Important cases are often brought up for clinical discus- 
sion. The membership of the society includes a majority of the active 
practitioners in the county. 

Though the present system of co-ordination of county medical so- 
cities and their affiliation with the state and national central bodies is 
of comparatively recent date, the history of medical organization in 
Cass county goes back more than half a century. The first medical so- 
ciety in the coimty was organized in August, 185 1. Of course, similar 
objects have been proposed as the practical purposes of such societies, 
whatever their date, namely, the advancement of the professional stand- 
ard, social intercourse and the establishment of a schedule of charges 
for services. 

The officers of the first Cass County Medical Society were : Pres- 


ident, Dr. D. E. Brown; vice president, Dr. Henry Lockwood; secre- 
tary, Dr. Alonzo Garwood ; treasurer, Dr. E. Penwell ; standing commit- 
tee, Drs. I. G. Bugbee, J. Allen and B. Wells. 

This first organization in time ceased its functional activity. More 
than twenty-five years from the date of its founding another society was 
fornied. The first officers elected, for the year 1877-78, were: Presi- 
dent, Dr. W. C. Morse; vice presidents, Drs. A. Garwood,. L. Osboi'n, 
R. Patterson; secretary. Dr. W. J. Kelsey; treasurer, J. B. Sweetland. 

The charter members of this society, besides those just named, were: 
Drs. L. D. Tompkins, F. Goodwin, J. Robertson, Edward Prindle, H. 
H. Phillips, Otis Moor, W. J. Ketcham, O. W. Hatch. 



The bar of Cass county has never lacked men of distinction by 
reason of sound abiHty, depth of learning, forensic skill, and active, virile 
character. Such men have honored the profession, have upheld the dig- 
nity of law and its institutions, and have been the strongest guarantee 
of healthful progress in all the lines of human activity. So broad is the 
field of modern jurisprudence, so peculiar and vital its expression and 
practice, that its ablest representatives are by no' means confined to one 
locality, nor any one locality necessarily without several leaders in coun- 
sel and court practice. Tt is not our purpose here to state the distinctive 
merits of the various representatives of the county bar, both past and 
present, but rather to mention briefly those who' have represented their 
profession, if not always in an eminent degree, at least with that share of 
success and honor which has made their names worthy of record in the 
history of the county. 

While the pioneers of the Cass county bar have, of course, passed 
away, there are those of the present members to do them honor because 
of personal and professional association during the intermediate genera- 
tion while the first lawyers were going to their decline and the younger 
legal aspirants were attaining seasoned and successful activity. Two 
names are mentioned as the ''first lawyers" of Cass county, designating 
men who were not less useful in civic and business life than in the law. 

The first of these, Alexander H. Redfield, was born in Ontario coun- 
ty. New York, October 24, 1805. A college-bred man, having spent 
three years in Hamilton College and graduating from Union College in 
1829, he studied law and was admitted to practice in the supreme court 
of New York in July, 1831, and in the following month arrived in 
Cass county. As elsewhere related, he was one of the original propri- 
etors of the site of CassopoHs, helped lay out the village and secure the 
location of the county seat, and was the first postmaster. He took part in 
the Black Hawk war as a colonel in the Michigan militia. He was a 
business man as much as a lawyer, and his operations in real estate took 
an increasing amount of his tim€ and attention. He was also- drawn 


into the swirl of politics. In 1847, after sixteen years of residence in Cass 
county, he was elected to represent the fourteenth district in the Michi- 
gan senate, and his subsecpient removal to Detroit deprived Cass county 
of its first law'yer and one of its ablest pioneer men of affairs. There- 
after, until his death in 1869, ^"^^ ^^as almost continuously devoted to 
public and political activity. Mr. Redfield was noted for his method- 
ical business and professional habits, and his ability to pursue a rigid 
routine of details was given as a chief cause of his success. 

Associated with A. H. Redfield in the formative events of Cassopo- 
lis' early history w^as another native of New York state, but a somewhat 
earlier settler of Cass county. Born in Oneida county in 1803, Elias B. 
vSherman came to the territory of Michigan in 1825, was admitted to the 
bar in Ann Arbor in 1829, and in September of the same year made his 
first accjuaintance wnth Cass county. He and Mr. Redfield were attor- 
neys in the first court of the county. He was the only prosecuting at- 
torney the county had during the territorial period of Michigan. He was 
ap|X)inted to the office in November, 1829, and at the first popular elec- 
tion after the granting of statehood in 1836 was chosen to the office by 
general suffrage. He was the leading county official during the first 
years. He held the office of district surveyor six years, from 1830, and, 
dating from his appointment in March, 183 1, w^as Cass county's probate 
judge until 1840. He was more of a trusted and honored public official 
than a lawyer, and in later years directed much of his attention to farm- 
ing. His death occurred November 14, 1890. 

In those years of historical beginnings the judicial circuit of which 
Cass county was a part embraced a varying number of counties, at one 
time practically all of southwestern Michigan. The first court of any 
kind held in Cass county was the two days' session of the circuit court 
held in August, 1831, at the house of Ezra Beardsley in Edwardsburg. 
Those were the days when the lawyers used to ride on horseback from 
one county to another on the circuit, put up at the hotel and attend the 
session of court. They used to tell stories and have jolly times. These 
peregrinations of the court were accompanied by a large force of lawyers, 
and it thus happened that many lawyers from adjoining counties were 
almost as w^ell known professionally in Cass county as the few who' had 
their residence in the county. Naturally the Cass county bar was numer- 
ically very small during the decade or so following the organization of 
the county and the establishment of the first courts. 

Among the lawyers resident of outside counties but whose practice 


made them familiar figures in this county might be mentioned Joseph N. 
Chipman, who spent a short time in Cass county, later going to Niles, 
where he died in 1870. He was known by his confreres as ''White 
Chip/' to distinguish him from another well known Berrien county law- 
yer of that time, John S. Chipman, whose sobriquet was ''Black Chip." 
Charles Dana, also a resident of Berrien, was, tO' quote the words of one 
who described him from personal knowledge, "a thin, dried-up, little 
man, with a remarkable feminine voice, but by all odds the best special 
pleader at the bar. Everybody liked Dana both for his goodness of heart 
and his unquestioned ability as a lawyer." The Cass county session of 
the circuit court was often attended in the early days by two noted Kal- 
amazoo lawyers, Charles E. Stuart and Samuel Clark. The former was 
a successful jury lawyer, but is specially remembered for his later prom- 
inence in politics, having represented his district in Congress as a mem- 
ber of the house and afterwards becoming one of the United States sen- 
ators from Michigan. Mr. Clark had also moved in the larger sphere 
of politics, and as a lawyer had the solid ability and the worth of per- 
sonal character which made his position secure among friends and pro- 
fessional associates. 

Although it is hardly proper to class his name among those of the 
legal pioneers, the career of James Sullivan, whose forty years of practice 
in this county began in 1838, was of first importance in the history of the 
old-time lawyers. Born in New Hampshire December 6, 181 1, member 
of a distinguished New England family of Irish origin, he graduated 
from Dartmouth College at the age of eighteen, studied law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar, and. after a brief period of practice came to Niles in 
1837. He soon moved to Edwardsburg, in this county, and from there 
to Cas$opolis, and from 1853 ^^1' his death in 1878 lived in Dowagiac. 
For a long time he was prosecuting attorney of the county, became a 
state senator, and was a member of the constitutional convention in 1850 
which formed the instrument which is yet the basis of Michigan govern- 
ment. It is said. that Mr.. Sullivan's success as a lawyer depended more 
upon his powers .as a logician and close reasoner than as an, orator. His 
high legal ability gave him distinction and influence. in spite of serious 
defects of personal character and manner. , He has been described as 
^'eccentric, erratic, nervous and intense, and yet no m^n of gentler nature 
or kinder heart has been known to the old residents of Cass, county." 

Ezekiel S. Smithy another early practitiorjerj carn^ to the county in 
1840, beciring a cqiTimission from Gov. Woodbridge as prosecuting 


attorney. After serving his term he practiced in the county, was also a 
merchant and one of the early editors. In 1852 he moved to Chicago, 
w^here he died in 1880. 

Judge Henry H. Coolidge, well remembered for his connection with 
the profession at Niles, where he died some years ago, was a resident 
lawyer of Cass county for about fifteen years. He settled at Edwards- 
burg in 1836, when twenty-five years old, was admitted toi the bar in 
1844, was elected prosecuting attorney in 1850, and moved from the 
county to Niles in 1859. He was at one time circuit judge of the dis- 
trict comprising Cass and Berrien counties. 

The Cass county bar of today is strong and able, and no disparag- 
ing word is intended when we say, in view of an earlier time, "There 
were giants on the earth in those days.'* The early lawyers left their 
impress on the jurisprudence of the state, and were largely influential 
for good in different phases of the early growth and development of 

Another lawyer who belongs to the past in life and active career but 
whose influence is a force with the yet living, was George Brunt Turner, 
who was born in Franklin countv, New York, March i, 1822. He came 
to Michigan when thirteen years old and already entering upon serious 
work, and from 1836 till his death was a resident of Cass county. Fie 
was one of those who got his legal knowledge largely under the direc- 
tion of Alexander H. Redfield. He was self-educated, and won promotion 
through the first grades by dint of ambitious and sustained effort. He 
w^as successful as a lawyer, but is also remembered for his activity in 
other fields. He was for several years editor of the first paper published 
in Cass county, the Cass County Advocate, now the National Democrat. 
His party aftlliation alone prevented him from acquiring distinction in 
state and perhaps national political affairs. In 1848 he was elected a 
meml^er of the state legislature and re-elected in 1849, ^^^ was Dem- 
ocratic candidate for other offices. His death occurred April 15, I90'3. 
Clifford Shanahan, who was born in Delaware in 1801 and died in 
Cass county in 1865, after a residence in the county of thirty-one years, 
was admitted to the bar in Cassopolis about 1845. He was best known, 
however, through his retention of the office of probate judge for the 
long period of twenty-four years, from 1840 to 1864, a record that has 
been equaled since that time only by William P. Bennett, whose term 
began January i, 1869, and continued to his death, June 16, 1896. 
Dowagiac's first resident lawyer was Noel B. Hollister, who came 


to the county in 1850. He remained only a few years, and in connec- 
tion with iiis law practice conducted a drug store. He served as cir- 
cuit court commissioner. 

A lawyer of unusual ability and experience, at one time circuit 
judge, and a man of affairs in the best sense, the late Daniel Black- 
man was a member of. the Cass county bar twenty-one years and his 
influence still remains. He was born in Newtown, Connecticut, De- 
cember 31, 182 1. .At the age of twenty-four he was admitted to the 
bar of his native state and after five years' practice in Danbury located 
in Cassopolis in July, 1851. He was elected in 1869, on a non-partisan 
ticket, to the position of circuit judge. Resigning in November, 1872, 
he moved to Chicago and became a member of the bar of that city. 
He was behind several movements that resulted in material and civic 
improvement in his village, and should be remembered in particular as 
one of the men who did much to make Cassopolis a station on the Pen- 
insular Railroad (now the Grand Trunk). He died in Chicago in 1896. 
The late Judge Andrew J. Smith became a licensed member of the 
Cass county bar in the early fifties, and from that time to his death was 
active not only in the law but in official and political life, the horizon 
of his influence being extended beyond the bounds of the county into 
the state at large. Through youth and early manhood he had tO' strug- 
gle to reach the vantage ground on which he would pursue his chosen 
career. Born in Ohio September 2, 1818, at eight years of age he went 
with the family to the pioneer district of Indiana, where circumstances 
would not permit him to attend the full measures of the meager winter 
terms of the district school. He had to work his way. His election to 
the office of constable of Valparaiso at the age of twenty shows that 
he early gained the confidence and esteem^ of his fellow citizens, and 
from that time on he was much in public life. He was a teacher and 
pupil alternately for a number of years, and while reading law he sup- 
ported himself by teaching or clerking in a store. He located at Ed- 
wardsburg in 1840, seven years later moved tO' Cassopolis, where in 
1853 he was admitted to the bar and in the following year elected pros- 
ecuting attorney. He served altogether twelve years in this office. In 
1874 he was elected attorney general of the state. In the fall of 1878, 
on the resignation of Judge Henry H. Coolidge from the judgeship of 
the second judicial district, Mr. Smith was elected circuit judge, and 
re-elected for the full term in the spring of 1881. His private life was 
in harmony with his public career, and there are many testimonies to 


his public-spirited and wholesome activity to be found among the rec- 
ords and his personal associates in the county. 

During the twelve years from 1853 to 1865 James M. Spencer was 
an attorney in the county. He was admitted to the bar in Cassopolis 
in the former year, being at the time only twenty-one years old. He 
held the office of justice of the peace at Dowagiac in Pokagon township, 
was circuit court commissioner two years and was United States 
assessor of internal revenue in the district comprising Cass county. 
From this county Mr. Spencer moved to Topeka, Kansas. 

Prominent among the lawyers who may be classed as the inter- 
mediate generation of the Cass county bar was the late Charles W. 
Clisbee. His connection with the Cass county bar began in the late 
fifties, and he was a contemporary of a group some of whom are still 
active in their profession. Mr. Clisbee was born in Cleveland, Ohio, 
July 24, 1833, and came to Cassopolis with the family five years later. 
He prepared for college at Oberlin, Ohio, entered Oberlin College, but 
spent the greater part of his collegiate career in Williams College, 
Massachusetts. He graduated from Hamilton College (New York), 
where he studied in the law school, in 1856, and two years later was 
admitted to the bar. By election in 1862 he became prosecuting attor- 
ney of Cass county. He was a delegate to the convention which re- 
nominated Lincoln in 1864. In 1866 Cass county sent him to the state 
senate. Mr. Clisbee had a remarkably powerful voice, and much of 
his public career pivoted on this God-given talent. In 1869 he was 
appointed reading clerk of the national house of representatives, held 
the office without interruption until 1875, and in December, 1881, was 
again appointed to that ix)sition. He was also reading secretary of the 
Republican national convention in Chicago in 1880. Upon the resig- 
nation of Judge Coolidge he was appointed tO' the vacancy and served 
until Judge Smith, his successor, was elected. During the interims of 
his service at Washington he practiced his profession in Cassopolis, 
giving special attention to the prosecution of pension claims, until his 
death, August 18, 1889. 

One of the versatile and scholarly men who have represented the 
Cass county bar in the past was Joseph B. Clarke, now deceased. He 
was bom in Connecticut. Graduating from the Rensselaer Scientific 
School at Troy, New York, he prepared for his legal career at Roches- 
ter, N. Y. The capacity of his intellectual powers may be judged 
from the fact that he was at various times editor of daily newspapers 


in Rochester and Buffalo, was professor of chemistry and other sciences 
in the Vermont Medical College and elsewhere, as well as incumbent 
of various civil positions under the general government. From Cold- 
water, Michigan, he moved to Dowagiac in 1859. He was a circuit 
court commissioner in this county, avS well as in Branch county, was 
prosecuting attorney, and for many years United States commissioner 
for the western district of Michigan. 

For a number of years between 1859 ^^^' ^^^'^ George Miller w^as 
a member of the county bar, with residence at Dowagiac. He served 
as circuit court commissioner, and in 1868 was elected prosecuting at- 
torney. He moved from the county in 1871, returned in 1875, and in 
1881 again left. His death occurred in Benton Harbor. 

During the sixties the county bar was honored by the membership 
of Jacob J. Van Riper, w^ho afterward became attorney general of the 
state. He was admitted to the Cass county bar in January, 1863, and 
remained in active practice, with residence at Dowagiac, Until 1872, 
when he moved to Buchanan in Berrien county, where he was elected 
judge of probate and served for eight years. He is now practicing 
law at Niles in that county. 

Freeman J. Atwell, deceased, who was born in Orleans county, 
New York, in 1831, read law there, and during the course of the Civil 
war, in which he took a soldier's part, admitted to the bar, located in 
Dowagiac in 1869, "^^^^^ ^^Y ^ successful practice made his career a part of 
the legal history of the county. For four years he was the county's 
prosecuting attorney, and died March 18, 1904. He is well rememl^ered 
among the former lawyers of the county. 

Among Cass county's native sons who aspired to^ legal prominence 
was John A. Talbot, who was born in Penn township in 1847. He had 
an army career, and was a graduate of the law department of the Uni- 
versity O'f Michigan. His career was one of promise, but was ended, 
after ten years' practice, by death in December, 1878. A noteworthy 
effort was the compilation of 'Talbot's Tables of Cases." 

Another former member of the county bar and a native of Cass 
county was William G. Howard, who was born in Milton township in 
1846. He was a college graduate, and was admitted, to- the bar at 
Kalamazoo in 1869'. In the following year he began practice at Dowa- 
giac in partnership with James Sullivan. In. the same year he was 
elected prosecuting attorney. He transferred his professional connec- 


tions to Kalamazoo in 1873, where he continued the practice until his 
death, August 8, 1906. 

George Ketcham, whose death occurred in Minnesota, was born 
in Mason township in 1850, graduated from Hillsdale College in 1873, 
studied law^ at Niles with the late Judge Coolidge, and was admitted at 
Cassopolis in. 1874. He held the office of circuit court commissioner. 

Merritt A. Thompson, who practiced here during the eighties, was 
a product of Cass county, born in Penn township in 1847. He gradu- 
ated from the law department of the State University in 1872, and had 
his office at Vanclalia from 1874 to 1881, when he removed from the 
county, but later returned and died at the infirmary from mental afflic- 
tion November 21, 1901. 

Warner J. Sampson, whO' died at Coldwater a few years ago, was 
admitted to practice in Cass county in 1880 and for some time was 
located at Marcellus, when he went tO' Hillsdale, where he died. 

Jason Newton was admitted to the bar at Cassopolis and practiced 
there for a time. 

So much for those whose active connection with the bar of Cass 
county has ceased. Tt is an impressive list. They were men of widely 
divergent characters and intellectual powers, but together they were 
worthy representatives of a noble profession. Comparisons between 
the past and the present personnel of the profession cannot be drawn 
here. Methods have doubtless changed in seventy years, the old-time 
lawyer might feel much out of place among the present members of the 
profession. The lawyer nowadays is often a business man and does not 
feel the professional cleavage which was quite pronounced forty or 
fifty years ago, when he was perhaps a member of a rather distinct 
professional class. But now, as then, the lawyers ''comprise a large 
part of the finest intellect of the nation," an assertion made by a high 
authority which is, of course, as applicable to the smaller political 
divisions as to the nation at large. 

The present bar of Cass county is to be described separately from 
those already mentioned only because they are still living; not that 
there is a special set of characteristics to be assigned to each of the two 
groups thus made. As already stated, some of those yet in active prac- 
tice were contemporaries or, at any rate, juniors in service along with 
those who have passed away. The associations and traditions, as well 
as the power of professional and personal influence, of the p^st, are 
still potent with the living members of the Cass county bar. 


In the spring of 1905 there was elected to the office of circuit 
judge of the thirty-sixth judicial district a Cass county lawyer of over 
twenty-five years' experience in the courts and legal affairs of the 
county. L. Burget Des Voignes (see sketch elsewhere), a native of 
Ohio and now in the prime of life, was admitted to the bar in St. 
Joseph county, this state, soon after he had arrived at his majority, and 
a short time after graduated from the law department of the University 
of Michigan. He practiced in Marcellus from October, 1878, until 
the death of the Cass county probate judge, William B. Bennett, when 
he was apjxiinted by the governor to the place and at the same time 
took up his residence in Cassopolis. He was re-elected to that office 
three times, and passed from that position to the circuit judgeship. He 
has also served as circuit court commissioner and as county prosecuting 

The office of judge of probate is filled by one of the younger mem- 
l>ers of the Cass county bar. Chester E. Cone came here from Indiana 
about ten years ago, became principal of the Vandalia high school, was 
then elected commissioner of schools, serving until succeeded by Mr. 
Hale, the present commissioner. While in the office of commissioner 
he was industriously reading law, and after a successful examination 
before the state examining board opened his office in Cassopolis, where 
he practiced until the resignation of Judge Des Voignes from the office 
of probate judge. He has also served as circuit court commissioner and 
is a member of the school board and the board of village trustees. 

The composition of the circuit court for the September term, 
1906, was as follows: 

L. Burget Des Voignes, circuit judge; George M. Fields, prose- 
cuting attorney; Carlton W. Rinehart, clerk; Edward J. Russey, sher- 
iff; Jacob Mcintosh, undersheriff; H. A. Sherman, reporter; Chester 
E. Cone, commissioner; Joseph R. Edwards, commissioner; William 
H. Hannon, deputy sheriff; Marcus S. Olmstead, deputy sheriff; George 
I. Nash, deputy sheriff. 

An active attorney for tw^enty-eight years and from 1899 until re- 
cently judge of the Cass- Van Buren circuit court, John R. Carr is in 
many ways prominent in the affairs of his county. Born on Prince Ed- 
ward's Island, British North America, May 18, 184 1, about the close 
of our Civil war he came to relatives in Van Buren county, Michigan, 
where he made his start by teaching district schools. In 1868 he en- 
tered the law department of the University of Michigan, where two 


years later he was graduated and admitted to the bar. Mr. Carr then 
formed' a partnership, which was to continue with success and profit 
for twenty-eight years, with Mr. M. L. Howell. In 1899, as is well 
known, the judicial districts of southwestern Michigan were recon- 
structed, and whereas theretofore Cass had been linked with Berrien, 
and Van Buren with Kalamazoo, at the date mentioned each of the more 
populous counties was made into a separate district, and Cass and Van 
Buren were made to form the thirty-sixth judicial district. An election 
for circuit judge was then in order, and, contrary to the general trend 
of political matters in this section of the state and to the surprise, i>er- 
haps, of both parties, a Democrat was the successful candidate in the 
new thirty-sixth. Mr. Carr was the fortunate gentleman to bring suc- 
cess to his party, and his service on the circuit bench showed that the 
confidence of the electors was not misplaced. On his election he dis- 
solved his partnership with Mr. Howell, and since retiring fi*om office 
he has re-engaged in active practice. Mr. Carr served as prosecuting 
attorney of the county four years, also two years as circuit court com- 
missioner. He is a ruling elder and trustee and active worker in the 
Presbyterian church of Cassoix)lis, his home town. 

Joseph R. Edwards, circuit court commissioner, and who served 
as county clerk two years, is one of Dowagiac's young lawyers and a 
justice of the peace in that city. 

A Cassopolis attorney who has also been in the official life of the 
county is Ulysses S. Eby. He was bom in Porter township of this 
county August 7, 1864. An alumnus of the famous Valparaiso Nor- 
mal, after finishing his studies there he began teaching school in Cass 
county and continued that until elected county clerk in 1896. He held 
the office two years. Returning to Valparaiso-, he graduated from the 
law school and was admitted before the Michigan supreme court. He 
was elected prosecuting attorney of the county, and was associated in 
practice with Clarence M. Lyle. At present he practices alone. He is 
a member of the Cassopolis school board. 

George M. Fields, prosecuting attorney of Cass county, who' is a 
resident lawyer of Dowagiac, has been an- active member of the county 
bar for over ten years, and has held his present office since 1902. A 
more complete sketch of Mr. Fields will be found on other pages. 

The oldest practicing lawyer, both in point of age and of years 
since admission to the bar, is Lowell H. Glover of Cassopolis. He 
began his studies privately at Edwardsburg, later with Daniel Black- 


man in Cassopolis, and since admission to the bar in October, 1862, has 
been in continuous practice. He has held the office of circuit court com- 
missioner; was ten years deputy county clerk; elected justice of the peace 
in April, 1862, he has held the office to the present date, less one year; 
has held various village offices, and was postmaster during Cleveland's 
first term. Under the only Democratic administration that Michigan 
has had in the last forty years he was deputy commissioner of the state 
land office. 

Coy W. Hendryx of Dowagiac (see sketch elsewhere) studied 
law with his uncle, the late Spafford Tryon, one of the able men of the 
past, and was admitted to the bar in 1882. Appointed in 1886, for 
twelve years he held the office of United States commissioner of the 
western district of Michigan. He has also been a circuit court com- 
missioner and city attorney of Dowagiac. 

Marshall L. Howell of Cassopolis is an example of ''the success- 
ful lawyer in business," a combination which has been noted as one of 
the tendencies of the modern American bar. Besides caring for a large 
practice in the local, state and United States courts, he is president of 
the First National Bank of Cassopolis. He was txirn in Cassopolis 
January 25, 1847, ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ educational opportunities, graduating 
from Kalamazoo College at the age of twenty and from the law de- 
partment of the University of Michigan in 1870, and since that date has 
been in continuous practice. He served as prosecuting attorney one 
term, beginning in 1874, and in 1876 was candidate for presidential 
elector on the Democratic ticket. 

Charles O. Harmon is one of the younger Cassopolis lawyers. 
Born in Porter township, he has a long record of public service. After 
serving four years in the office oi register of deeds, he took a place 
in the office of the secretary of state at Lansing. During his three 
years in the state capital he studied law, was admitted tO' the bar, and 
on returning to this county opened his office in Dowagiac and soon after 
at Marcellus. He then bought a set of abstract books and located at 
Cassopolis. His father, the late John B. Harmon, having died a few 
days after entering upon his second term as county clerk, the son, 
Charles O., was elected to the vacancy and completed his father's term 
with credit. 

Another new member of the Cass county bar is Clyde W. Ketcham 
of Dowagiac, whoi is rapidly coming into prominence in his practice. 
Born in this county thirty years ago, he attended the local schools, 


was in newspaper work awhile, and began studying law with Mr. C. E. 
Sweet. In 1897 he was elected justice of the peace in Dowagiac, serv- 
ing one term. He completed his law studies in the University of Mich- 
igan, and after admission formed a partnership with Charles E. Sweet, 
but is now practicing alone. 

James H. Kinnane, the only president the Cass County Bar Asso- 
ciation has ever had, was born in Kalamazoo^ county in 1859, was ad- 
mitted to the bar some twenty years ago, and has practiced in Dowa- 
giac since 1898. He has held several positions under the federal and 
state as well as local authority, and is at present city attorney of Dowa- 
giac. (See more extended sketch elsewhere.) 

Asa Kingsbury Hayden, son of the postmaster of Cassopolis, a 
native of the county and a graduate of the Cassopolis high school, is 
an active member of the bar and representative of various insurance 
companies. An interesting fact about Mr. Hayden's career is that he 
graduated from the law department of the University of Michigan be- 
fore attaining his majority. Consequently he was unable to obtain his 
diploma — equivalent to admission to the bar — and had to^ wait till 
time could confer upon him the full prerogatives for legal practice in 
the state of Michigan. 

Clarence M. Lyle, in practice at Cassopolis since 1900, first in 
partnership with U. S. Eby and since December, 1905, with H. D. 
Smith, was born in Van Buren county in 1874, was educated in this 
state and in South Dakota, where he lived from the age of eight years, 
being a student- at Dakota University. Returning east, he studied in 
the literary and law departments at Valparaiso, about 1898 was ad- 
mitted to the South Dakota bar, but in the same year came to Cassopo- 
lis, where he studied in the office of Howell & Carr and in 1900 was 
graduated from the law department at Ann Arbor. 

Frank Reshore, at one time connected with the legal profession in 
this county, gave up the law for other vocations, which he still pursues 
in Dowagiac. Born in Ohio in 1853 and brought to this county a year 
later, he graduated from the Dowagiac schools in 1870, and while clerk- 
ing in his father's store, read law, completing his studies by gradua- 
tion from the law department of the State University in 1875. 

It is a fact worthy of mention that a group of half a dozen law- 
yers whose professional careers identified them with Cass county were 
all born in Orleans county, New York. From that portion of the 
Empire state, by various' routes and influenced by different causes 


and circumstances, they foregathered in Cass county. One of these 
is Harsen D. Smith, the well known attorney of Cassopolis. Born in 
the county mentioned March 17, 1842, he was a teacher in early life, 
and in 1867 was admitted to the bar in Coldwater, this state. After 
several years' practice in Jackson he came tO' Cassopolis in 1870 and 
formed a partnership with th€ late Charles W. Clisbee; was with the 
late A. J. Smith until the election of the latter as circuit judge. He is 
now senior memter of the firm of Smith & Lyle. When the thirty- 
sixth judicial district was created he was apix>inted circuit judge to 
serve till the regular election. He was prosecuting attorney four years 
and a number of years a member of the state board of pardons. (See 

Charles E. Sweet of Dowagiac, of whom more extended mention 
is made elsewhere, has been engaged in successful practice in the county 
for twenty years. He is another Cass county lawyer who came under 
the influence and tutelage of the late Spafford Tryon. Mr. Sweet 
served one term as justice of the peace, twice as circuit court commis- 
sioner and twice as prosecuting attorney. 

John Wooster of Dowagiac was born in Hillsdale county, Mich- 
igan, in 1847, taught school as a means to an end, graduated from 
Hillsdale College in 1873, and after reading law two years in Kalama- 
zoo was admitted to the bar. His first office was at Constantine, but 
the same year he located in Dowagiac. He has served as city attorney 
four times. 

Other attorneys whose names appear as active members of the 
Cass county bar are two young lawyers at Marcellus, Walter C. Jones 
and Otis Huff, and Fred Phillipson of Dowagiac. 

From the preceding it will be seen that many changes have taken 
place in the personnel of the county bar in these years. Many new 
names have come into prominence, of men fitted to maintain and advance 
yet higher the standard of the past, whose talents, whose industry, whose 
devotion to the best ideals of the profession are not less worthy of ad- 
miration and honor than those same qualities in their predecessors. 
Perhaps the most conspicuous fact for comparison is that a larger pro- 
portion of the present members seem to have received collegiate train- 
ing, and an increasingly fewer number are being introduced to the pro- 
fession by the old-time method of rough and tumble experience and 
diligent thumbing the pages of Blackstone under the inspiration of indi- 
vidual ambition. No doubt those whose experience covers both the old 


and the new would assert that the period of preparation has been re- 
Heved of many difficulties that characterized it in their time; but on the 
other hand, the novitiate — while the aspirant waits for his clients — 
would seem to be as trying and as uncertain now as ever. 

A few years ago a movement was made to organize the Cass 
County Bar Association. The preliminary meetings were held, consti- 
tution and by-laws were adopted, officers elected, and the first dues 
were paid in by some of the members, but since the first flush of organ- 
ization the association has lapsed from activity, and now exists more 
by grace of its origin than by any manifestations of active energy. Its 
officers, who continue in office because their successors have never been 
elected, are: J. H. Kinnane, president; H. D. Smith, vice president; 
A. K. Hayden, secretary, and L. H. Glover, treasurer. 



Cass county presents a peculiar field for the study of American 
ability to assimilate races. Of the salient American stock the popula- 
tion of the county is typical in a high degree. The county is still rural. 
The distracting features of metropolitan life have not been introduced 
and with them the European racial elements which we find in manu- 
facturing centers. Its settlers, as we know, were drawn largely from the 
best stocks of the east, many from the New England states. Cass county 
citizens may truly be called representative American stock, a com- 
mingling of the best social elements and traditions. 

So much as regards the white Americans, and the ethnic varia 
tions presented by the Teuton and Slav, the Gaul and Saxon, who in 
varying proportions constitute the bulk of the population, are not to be 
discriminated in this article. But among this dominant race in Cass 
county are to be found two other races, and to what extent these are 
integrated with the bodies politic, industrial and social of the county 
it is the purpose of this article to inquire, at the same time recording 
the historical connection of these two peoples with Cass county. Cass 
county's history becomes unique because of the presence of these three 
heterogeneous racial groups within its borders, and a chapter may prop- 
erly be devoted to this phase of its history. 

It is a remarkable fact that the epochs of American domestic his- 
tory have turned upon the two races whose representatives are now 
living side by side with the white citizens of this county. The annals 
of settlement and expansion in America from the landing of the May- 
flower immigrants to the final winning of the great west from the 
wilderness were marked with conflict with the red men, who were the 
aboriginal possessors of the land. And the introduction of the black 
race from Africa at about the same time with the landing of the Pil- 
grims sowed the seed which more than two centuries later bore fruit in 
the Civil war, the crisis of the nation's existence. And now, in the 
peace and prosperity of the twentieth century, the destinies of the three 
racially distinct people are being wrought to the infinite purpose while 


dwelling side by side in Cass county. It is from this higher historical 
viewpoint that the history of the Indian remnant and the negro colony 
of Cass county should be considered. 

At an earlier point in this narrative we have related how Pokagon 
and his followers would not sign the Chicago treaty until they had 
been exempted from the clause providing that they leave their ances- 
tral home. Old Chief Pokagon was an Indian above the average in 
character and intelligence, understood the advantages to his race of 
civilization and was devoted to the Catholic religion, which the mis- 
sionaries had taught him. It was his purpose to settle his people in their 
old home and as far as necessary conform to the institutions and laws 
of the white people. In effecting this he first directed his efforts to 
securing title to sufficient land for his tribe, and used his influence to 
invest the cash apportionment of his followers in a tract of land in 
Silver Creek township, which, though entered in the name of Pokagon, 
was really owned in severalty. In the original land entries Pbkagon's 
entries, which were nearly all made in the winter of 1836-37, con- 
sisted of the following tracts in Silver Creek: Section 11, 296 acres; 
section 14, 258 acres; section 21, 160 acres; section 22, 160 acres — in 
all 874 acres in his name, all located in adjacent sections of the town- 
ship and in the vicinity where the present Indian community lives. 

On this land Pokagon's people lived, maintaining in part their 
tri1:)a1 organization and in part the relations of American citizens. The 
church which they built and which became the center of Catholic in- 
fluence in the county is elsewhere described. While Pokagon lived all 
went well. After his deatli in 1841 his son Pete became chief and dis- 
sensions arose that did much to disintegrate the tribe. The last cen- 
sus shows only eight or nine Indian families in Silver Creek. The 
last government annuity was given them in 1865 ^^d with the cessa- 
tion of this allowance all reason for the tribal organization passed. And 
yet the Indians clung to this form of social organization, and when 
Simon Pokagon died about six years ago, being the last of the Pokagon 
line and thus ending the chiefhood in the family inheritance, the rernain- 
ing number, following the custom of generations, came together and 
proceeded to elect Lexis, one of their nurnber, as chief, thus tenacious- 
ly holding on to old forms and customs. Further, a petition was made 
to the Indian commissioner that Tom Topash be appointed interpreter 
betw^een the government and the Indians. But the reply came that an 
interpreter was no longer needed, that the relations between the gov- 


ernment at Washington and this remnant of Pottawottomies had ceased, 
and that with the discharging of the last debt a few years ago the de- 
scendants of Pokagon's band were placed upon the same individual 
basis with all other American citizens. For these Indians in northwest 
Cass county are citizens. They attend the town meeting and vote, are 
safeguarded and restrained by the same laws, churches and schools are 
open to them, and the Indian community of Cass county has nothing in 
common with the picture that usually rises in the mind at the mention 
of America's aboriginal race, dwelling in wigwams, the men lying at 
indolent ease on the ground and the women scratching the soil with a 
stick, and such other illusions as will always be associated with the In- 
dian race. 

In general reputation for thriftiness and substantial character, the 
Boziel family, residing northeast of Silver Creek church, are the lead- 
ers of the settlement. They own about a hundred acres and are well 
liked in the country. Thomas Topash is chairman of the business com- 
mittee of the Catholic church, and his uncle, Steve Topash, near the* 
town hall, is another well known Indian. 

The veteran of the community is Alexander Bushman, a half- 
breed Shawnee, whose maternal grandfather was a white man, made 
a prisoner by the Shawnees in the Revolutionary war, continued to 
live with them and act as interpreter when this tribe was removed to 
the Osage river west of St. Louis, and became a well-to-do farmer and 
fruit grower. The latter's daughter moved with the Shawnees to Kan- 
sas and married a white man named Bushman, one of their children be- 
ing Alexander, who is now seventy-eight years old and has lived with 
the Pottawottomies since he was ten years old. He is a shrewd and 
intelligent old man, and having been placed in positions of responsibil- 
ity in acting for his people in their relation with the government at 
various times, he has had opportunities tO' observe and compare and 
judge his people from a larger point of view. He speaks of his family 
with pride evidently born of his white blood as ''working people.'' He 
himself was trained in a manual labor school and learned how to work. 
He married in Kansas, and after the war he came to Michigan on ac- 
count of relatives of his wife who lived here. Bushman was pleased 
with this country, and, having money, he bought land near the town 
hall in Silver Creek and there has lived to the present time. 

''The Indian is spoiled by giving him toO' much money'' is one of 
the facts of Indian character that he states from his observation and 


experience. 'The Indians are good workers, but are without steadi- 
ness and continuity of purpose; they take httle interest in their homes 
and farms as compared with the white people, and seem, as it were, 
stranded on the shores of civihzation, ahke unable to revert to their 
former condition or to possess and become a part of the life in which 
they live. The love of personal display is strong among our people. 
They will, when money comes to them, buy top buggies and other 
luxuries to the neglect of home comforts and personal necessities. Their 
social diversions are refined from the old customs. They have dances 
for which the music is often furnished by Indian fiddlers, and big din- 
ners follow these routs, w^iich are often the aftermath to wood-cutting 
bees. But the bane of my people, as it has been for generations, is 
drink, and the Indian character seems powerless against this tempta- 

Such was his estimate of his own people, and in the main it seems 
just. The judgment of a white citizen who has had close relations with 
these people was much more severe, but it was directed mainly against 
the Indian lack of thrift and inability to perform the duties and re- 
sponsibilities which are the lot of white citizens. To measure the In- 
dian strictly by the commonest standards of white people seems unfair. 
In point of intelligence the comparisons result more favorably. The 
Indian children who attend the district schools are not rated inferior 
in this respect to their white mates, and the teachers who have had such 
children under their direction find little cause of disparagement. 


In 1836 a fugitive slave named Lawson came to Calvin township 
with a Quaker preacher named Way. Lawson was the first negro set- 
tler of Calvin township and Cass county, so far as known, and was the 
pioneer of the movement wdiich in a few years made Cass county a ref- 
uge and secure retreat for the black race. But the first comers of this 
race were accidental settlers, and nothing in the nature of a definite 
movement of the unfortunate people began until the later forties. 

It was the Quaker settlement, elsewhere described, which undoubt- 
edly was the first cause of Cass county's colored settlement.. Due to 
the uncompromising anti-slavery attitude of the Friends, it was among 
the settlements and following th-eir general line of direction that the 
institution of the "underground railroad" flourished. The "under- 
ground railroad" for the transportation of fugitive slaves from the 


south to free Canada is so closely identified with the slavery period and 
hence so familiar a topic of American history that no description is 
needed here. But it should be stated that Cass county was on the direct 
route of this ''railroad," and according to some writers was the junc- 
tion point for the lines from Illinois and from Indiana, which con- 
verged here. As the slaves were hurried along this route it happened 
that some of them stopped in Cass county, finding homes and protec- 
tion among the abolitionists and their own people. For already a col- 
ony of freed negroes had located in the county. The majority of these 
were originally from North Carolina, having first taken up their homes 
in the north in Logan county, Ohio, and about 1845 ^^ 1846, owing to 
the cheapness of land in this county, as well as to the settlement of their 
white friends and sympathizers from the same part of Ohio, came in 
considerable numbers to Cass county. Many of these freed negroes 
purchased small farms and became, as it were, the backbone of the col- 
ored settlement. Among these early settlers were Harvey Wade, Neu- 
som Tann, Nathaniel Boon, Turner and Crawford Byrd, Kitchen Artis 
and Harrison Ash. A little later the colony was augmented through 
the provisions of the will of a Cable county, Virginia, planter named 
Sampson Saunders, who left $15,000 with his administrators for the 
purcliase of land and the settlement of his liberated slaves in a free 
state. Calvin township, with its cheap lands and friendly abolitionists, 
was selected as the site of this colony, and the Saunders colony, con- 
sisting of four brothers and their families and others, was a very im- 
portant addition to the negro population of the county. 

The extent of the migration and the distribution of the colored 
people can be very well understood from the census of 1850. At that 
date there were 10,518 white persons of the county and 389 negroes. 
Equally distributed, the colored people would have been a mere 
sprinkling in the county. But two townships contained two-thirds of 
the entire number, so that they were already a very noticeable element 
among the population. Calvin township had the largest number then 
as today, there being 158 negroes to 466 w^hites. In Porter township 
there were 105 colored to 1,154 whites, and the other townships rep- 
resented by this race were Howard with y2 colored persons, Penn with 
31, LaGrange and Cassopolis with 15, Jefferson with 5, and Silver 
Creek with 3. 

With such a considerable colored population, among whom was a 
number of fugitive slaves, it was inevitable that Cass county should 


attract considerable attention in the south, not only among the slaves, 
but from the whites whose blacks had escaped them. The planters of 
Bourbon county, Kentucky, had sufifered especial loss from escaping 
slaves, many of whom had taken refuge in Cass and Calhoun counties. 
The presence of the slaves in this county led to a concerted movement 
on the part of Kentuckians for their recapture, an event which has 
come down through history under the familiar name of the ''Kentucky 
Raid." It is not to be understood that the raid was made against a 
single locality and by one party of slave hunters. The Kentuckians di- 
rected their efforts to a broad field and carried on their operations for 
a considerable period of time, involving many separate expeditions, 
each with its own account. Hence the many versions of the raid are not 
contradictory, but describe the movement of different parties. Also, 
diese raids extended over a period of several years, beginning with 1847. 

One of the chief parties of raiders from Kentucky came to this 
county in August, 1847. Although they maintained secrecy in their 
intentions and directed their movements in the same manner that woukl 
characterize a gang of horse thieves, it is noteworthy that they clearly 
had the laws of the United States to support them in recovering their 
fugitive slaves and were compelled to act covertly only because of the 
hostility of the citizens to the institution of slavery. It was humane 
anarchy set against legalized oppression. 

The Kentuckians first liad their headquarters at Battle Creek, Init 
opposition to their plans was so determined that they moved south to 
Bristol, Ind., whence they directed their movements into Cass county. 
Setting out at night, in several detached parties, they endeavored t(^ 
round up all the slaves that belonged to them and of which they had 
been furnished information. In the course of the night they paid visits 
to Josiah Osl:)orn, the East settlement, in Calvin township, Zachariah 
Shugart near Vandalia and Stephen Bogue, names of the most influen- 
tial Quakers and abolitionists in the county. At each of these houses 
one or more negroes were captured and carried away by their former 

But before the southerners could collect the slaves and get away 
from the county the alarm had been spread by Bogue and Shugart, and 
a large party of citizens armed with guns and clubs stopped the progress 
of the Kentuckians and compelled them to go to Cassopolis, where they 
might prove their ownership of the blacks before a regular justice 
court. Excitement ran high that morning, and as the crowd of slave- 


owners, negroes and citizens pressed on from near Vandalia to the 
county seat the news spread to all parts of the county, and when the 
strange procession arrived an immense throng had gathered about the 
court house. 

The legal proceedings turned upon a writ of habeas corpus, requir- 
ing the Kentuckians to show cause why the negroes should not be released 
from custody. George B. Turner was retained as attorney for the 
Kentuckians and James Sullivan and Ezekiel S. Smith acted in be- 
half of the fugitives. The case was tried before Circuit Court Commis- 
sioner Mcllvain from Berrien county, who, illegally, soi it was later 
decided, had come from that county to hear the case in the absence 
of A. H. Redfield, of Cass county. The commissioner decided ad- 
versely to the Kentuckians, and at once the nine slaves were liberated 
and the same night were hurried out of the county by way of the 
underground railroad. 

The slave owners — whose names, so far as preserved, were Rev. 
A. Stevens, Hubbard Buckner, C. B. Rust, John L. Graves (sheriff of 
Bourbon county), James Scott, G. W. Brazier, Thornton Timberlake, 
and Messrs. Bristow and Lemon — were thus deprived of any recourse 
so far as local courts were concerned, and in February, 1848, brought 
suit to recover the value of their lost slaves in the United States Cir- 
cuit Court for the District of Michigan. Thornton Timberlake was 
the plaintiff named, and the defendants were Josiah Osborn, Jefferson 
Osborn, Ellison Osborn, David T. Nicholson, Ishmael Lee, William 
Jones and Elienezer Mcllvain — all prominent men of this county except 
Mr. Mcllvain, who, acting as circuit court commissioner, had liberated 
the slaves. Tlie case w^as not heard until January, 185 1, when the 
jury stood eight to four in favor of the plaintiff. The case was then 
compromised by the defendants paying a thousand dollars and costs, 
which amounted to about $3,000. Thus nominally the Kentuckians 
got justice, but their slaves were gone and it is said that their attorneys 
took as fees all the money paid over by the defendants, so that virtually 
the Cass county abolitionists had triumphed in their sturdy opposition 
to slavery whether sanctioned by law or not. 

The history of the Kentucky raid has been briefly sketched since 
the two previous histories of the county have described the circum- 
stances with considerable detail at a time when some of the prin- 
cipal actors were yet living and nothing could be added to their ac- 
counts.. The incidents are notable in themselves and form a very im- 


portant chapter in the history of th^ county and nation, while the 
movement against slavery was gaining strength. Of its effects on the 
negro colony in the county, it is probable that it increased rather than 
retarded the flight of fugitives to this vicinity. It advertised the 
county more broadly as a safe retreat for slaves and also caused the 
slave owners to hesitate before taking forcible means of recovering their 

Thus the negro population of the county continued on the in- 
crease during the fifties. The free negroes continued to come here 
from Ohio and other northern states, and during that decade some of 
the men settled who became the leaders of their race. Isaac P. Stew- 
art came from Ohio in 1854, and beginning with eighty acres in Calvin 
township became a man of substance as years passed on until he owned 
betw^een two and three hundred acres. Samuel Hawks, now one of the 
wealthiest and most influential men of Calvin township, settled here 
before the war and by industry and good management found the key 
to success. Green Allen, now deceased, at one time paid the largest 
tax of any man in Calvin. Eaton Newsom, grandfather of Dr. New- 
som, of Calvin Center, and James A. Mitchell, all from Ohio, were 
good reliable citizens and respected throughout the community. Tur- 
ner Byrd, who came from North Carolina by way of Logan county, 
Ohio, and who was an early settler about Chain lakes and founder and 
pastor of the Baptist church there, was a successful man and though 
uneducated was thoroughly respected by both white and black. Har- 
rison Ash was another whose promises were relied upon with the 
surety that indicates strength of character. Williami Lawson came into 
the county in 1853 and was the first merchant among his race, and also 
a good farmer. Some of the older citizens still living, besides Mr. 
Hawks, already mentioned, are William Allen, a son of Joseph Allen 
and nephew of Green Allen, who' is admittedly one of the ablest busi- 
ness farmers in Cass county, and who made his money by hard work 
and economy ; Jesse W. Madrey, of Cassopolis, who came to the county 
in 1852 as a boy, and has won a home and substantial place in the 
regard of his fellow citizens; and C. W. Bunn, who years ago began 
a sawmill business in Calvin after the timber had supposedly been 
used up, later establishing himself in the lumber business at Cassopolis, 
and owns property both here and at South Bend. 

What estimate shall be placed upon this unique colored settle- 
ment, which at the present tirne in Calvin township possesses the ma- 


jority (60 per cent) of the population and a large proportion of the 
land and wealth, besides exercising a controlling influence in politics, 
religion and education? Let the foremost representative of the colored 
ranee answer this c[uestion in his own words. In 1903 Booker T. 
Washington contributed to the Outlook an article entitled ''Two Gen- 
erations Under Freedom/' in which he described at length this interest- 
ing colony in Cass county. The article is one of the documents of 
Cass county history, and this chapter may be concluded with the quo- 
tation of its salient points together with a very few comments on the 
part of the present writer: 

''When I visited Calvin township recently," says Mr. Washington, 
"I found that it contained a pgpulation of 759 negroes and 512 whites. 
In addition to these a large negro population had overflowed into the 
adjoining township of Porter, and to some extent intO' all but two of the 
towns in the county. As I drove from Cassopolis in the direction 
of Calvin township, we soon began going through wiell cultivated 
farms and past comfortable-looking farm houses. The farms for the 
most part in their general appearance compared favorably with the aver- 
age farms we saw in Michigan. Many of the houses were large, at- 
tractive and well built. The yards were made beautiful with grass, 
shrubbery and flowers. The barns, stock, poultry and other farm at- 
tachments were in keeping with everything else we saw. In our drive 
of nearly ten hours, in which we covered nearly thirty miles of terri- 
tory, through Calvin township and a part of Porter, we saw little to in- 
dicate that we were in a negro town except the color of the faces of the 
people. They were up to the average of their white neighbors. 

*'In a few cases it was interesting to see standing on the same 
premises the small ca1:)in in which the i)eople began life years ago, 
and then to see near it a modern frame cottage containing six or seven 
rooms. To me it was interesting and encouraging to note to what 
extent these people 'lived at home,' that is, produced what they con- 
sumed. My visit took me through the community during the harvest- 
ing season, and at that time most of the farmers were engaged in 
threshing wheat and oats. On one farm we saw a large modern steam 
thresher at work, operated wholly by negroes and owned by a negro, 
Mr. Henry L. Archer. Mr. Archer not only threshed grain for the 
negro farmers in the tpwnship, but for the white farmers as well." 

Mr. Washington spoke highly, but in terms which all citizens 
would approve, of the successful colored men above mentioned, namely, 


William Allen, Samuel Hawks, Cornelius Lawson, Jesse W. Madrey, 
and C. W. Bunn. Continuing his description, he states that ''a con- 
siderable number of the colored people of Calvin township own their 
homes, and many of those who are renting are doing so from negro 
landowners. In a few cases w'hite people in the county are renting 
property owned by negroes.'' 

With respect to political relations and civic performance Air. 
Washington could find no evidence that ''there was any friction be- 
tween the two races. The county officials informed me that there 
wxre no reports of cheating at the ballot boxes, and that the affairs of 
the township w^ere conducted as well politically as any in the county. 
For some years it had been the boast of the negro tax collector of 
Calvin county that he w^as one of the first collectors to secure and pay 
into the county treasury all of the township taxes. * ''' * Each 
township in the county is entitled to one representative on the county 
board of supervisors which has the control of" the affairs of the entire 
county. The representative of Calvin is a black man, and I was told by 
several w^iite people of the county that the negro supervisor voted in- 
telligently and conservatively. >k >k * j ^y^g informed by several 
reliable white men of the county that there had never been any trouble 
worth mentioning growing out of political differences. When the war 
between the states broke out, as soon as colored soldiers were permitted 
to enlist, practically every negro man in the township who' w^as eligible 
enlisted and w^ent to the front. As a result there is a Grand Army ix)st 
in Calvin named Matthew Artis Post, in honor of one of the old set- 
tlers and soldiers. ^' h^ * jj^ j^-jy inspection of their church houses 
there w^ere tw^o things that specially pleased me. One was the fine and 
neat appearing parsonage which stood near the Chain Lake Baptist 
church ; the other was the appearance of the graveyard near the same 
building. The church house, the parsonage and the graveyard gave one 
a picture which made him feel he was in a Massachusetts village. The 
graveyard was laid out in family plots, and most of the graves had 
marble slabs or headstones. There W'Cre evidences that the burial place 
received systematic care." 

Since the enfranchisement of the negro no distinction is made 
between the white and colored men for jury service in the courts of 
the county, and among the jurors on the regular panel at each term of 
the circuit court are found colored men, both members from^ Calvin 
at the September (1906) term belonging to that race. Reuben Bever- 


ley, now deceased, then of Cassopolis, was the first colored man to be 
summoned and accepted as a juror in Cass county. His son later served 
four years as register of deeds of the county. 

While on his visit to the county Mr. Washington took opportunity 
to gain the opinion of some of the white men whose positions made 
their judgment concerning the race valuable. Judge L. B. Des Voignes 
spoke with convicition of the improvement of the material condition 
of the negroes during the preceding twenty years, and of the decrease 
of crime among them. *T do not recall any instance where white resi- 
dents of the township have objected to colored people buying land 
there. I do not think there is any depreciation in the price of land. 
To a stranger buying land the colored residents might be an objection; 
but I do not think it would be to those who know the colored people 
of Calvin. The colored residents have helped to contribute to the 
prosperity of the county, considering the opportunities they have had. 
There is a prosperous colored community in Volinia, of not more than 
a hundred persons, and there are colored residents in several of the 
townships of Cass county." 

Mr. C. O. Harmon, then county clerk, corroborated the testimony 
of Judge Des Voignes, adding that the colored people were ''quick to 
take advantage of improvements, such as the telephone and improved 
machinery. The merchants of Cassopolis find these people extra good 
customers. That may be one criticism to make — that they buy too 
freely for their own good." Mr. C. C. Nelson gave as his opinion that 
whereas the people of Calvin w^ere once haphazard and lawless, the 
tow^nship at one time furnishing two-thirds oif the court business of the 
county, that condition was now past and the colored people had im- 
proved more, proportionately, than the whites. 

The editor of this history was c[uoted by Mr. Washington as 
saying that "the first generation of negro settlers were fine men — none 
better. The second generation w^as bad. The third shows a marked 
improvement But through it all the best men have supported the law 
unfailingly. There is no social mingling, but otherwise the relations 
of the races are entirely friendly. I do not know of more than a 
dozen marriages between the whites and the blacks in the entire 

The observations and inferences of Mr. Washington, though the 
result of a brief visit to his people, must stand in the main as correct 
and judicious. The settlement will long deserve serious consideration 


and study as one of the notable experiments in the development of a 
racial community in mastering and adapting the principles of American 
democracy. Evidences of clannishness among the colored people are 
to be considered in a favorable light, since it seems that a wholesome 
integration of the race, independent, yet harmonious, is the true solu- 
tion of the ''negro problem." The ideas of these people certainly tend 
to good citizenship and a desire for homes, schools and morality. Yet 
the struggles of the settlement in this direction have some pathetic 
shadows. It is confessed that the disturbing element in this colony 
comes from the injection of a lower type from communities which 
have not had the advantages of that in Cass county. As long, then, 
as the older settlers remain predominant, with the training in self-con- 
trol and civic strength which ''two generations of freedom" give them, 
the welfare of the community seems to be assured. But what if the 
stock be weakened by the withdrawal to the cities — which is certainly 
taking place among the younger people — and. the infusion of inferior 
classes among those that remain? Can this small colony, enterprising 
and high-minded though it is, become the leaven for the whole lump 
and succeed in communicating its inheritance to all those who come? 
These questions need cause no immediate alarm, since all conditions 
point to progress rather than retrogression. 

Education and schools received little mention by Mr. Washing- 
ton because his visit to the county was during the summer vacation. 
The school at Calvin Center is entirely attended by negro children and 
taught by a colored man, and several other schools have negro teachers 
and colored children in the majority. Comparing these with other 
schools for the race, especially those tO' be found in the south, there is 
afiforded ground for the highest satisfaction with the progress these 
people are making in education. A comparison with one of the schools 
in the same county supported and attended by the whites results to the 
advantage of the latter, as should be natural. The colored people 
believe thoroughly in schools and send their children to them as a mat- 
ter of course, but it is confessed that they are not so strict in keeping 
them in school as their white neighbors, although the recent compulsory 
attendance law will leave little latitude in that direction for either 

There is a difference of opinion regarding the power of the 
churches, some maintaining that their hold on the people is not so 
strong as formerly and that the ministers are not broadening as rapidly 


as the people in their conceptions of moral duties and the relations ot 
the church to society. The modern era has certainly brought many new 
interests which the older and less educated negroes did not have. Read- 
ing is more general and it is probable that not a family with a settled 
home goes without a w^eekly perusal of the local paper, and many 
metropolitan papers go out daily over the rural routes to these homes 
in Calvin and Porter. Literary societies, fraternities and bands and 
other musical interests are not uncommon and indicate the widening 
scope of the people's training and progress. 

To the general observer it seems that there is a tendency to seg- 
regation of the race. This is encouraging rather than to be considered 
wnth delicate tact in conversation. As the colored people are becom- 
ing more independent and better adapted to American ideals, it seems 
that the bonds of race will bring them closer in their own social rela- 
tions and at the same time strengthen those relations in business, edu- 
cation, politics and activity for the general w^elfare which do not recog- 
nize racial lines. By all means the planting of a negro colony in Cass 
county two generations ago has redounded to the credit of the w^orld 
and advanced society one step further toward the goal of aspiration 
and striving on the part of this age. And for Cass county it is no 
small distinction that it has been the arena on which some of the most 
interesting and pressing problems of race assimilation and adaptation 
have been advanced to solution. 



The military history of Cass county has already been written in de- 
tail in the work of 1882. Fortunately the crises which demand almost 
unanimous outpouring of life and property in defense of country occur 
but rarely. The Sauk and Black Hawk war was the first martial event 
that concerned this county and, as we know, was too distant to cause 
more than an alarm and militia muster. The war with Mexico made 
comparatively small demand on the volunteer forces of the country, and 
no organization and perhaps no individuals from Cass county partic- 
ipated in that war. But the Civil war called for the county's best and 
bravest, and the call was not made in vain. The manhood of the state 
w^as drained off to fight in the south, and Cass county may never cease 
to be proud of the record her soldiers made in the rebellion. As stated, 
the history of our soldiers in that war has been fully written, not only 
in the Cass county history but forms a part of the annals of the state 
and nation. The detailed description of the movements of the regiments 
and divisions to which Cass county soldiers belonged does not, there- 
fore, seem to require repetition on these pages. But the names of those 
who enlisted from this county to fight on the battlefields of the south 
deserve space in every history of the county, and for this reason the 
individual records of Cass county soldiers in the Civil war are appended 
in full to this chapter. 

No regular organization was formed in this county for service in 
the Spanish-xA^merican war. Some individuals enlisted in the regiments 
formed in the state to fill out Michigan's quota, but so far as known none 
of these reached the field of action, most of the volunteers for that war 
getting their military experience in camp on American shores. 

Cass county has several representatives in the regular army and 
navy. In the list of Dowagiac high school alumni will be found brief 
mention of several who have attained rank in the army. Cassopolis 
is also proud of three young men now in the regular service of their 
country each with the rank of lieutenant, they being Frank M. Bennett 
and Steven V. Graham, in the navy, and Jay Paul Hopkins in the army. 




The following records represent the enlistments and service of Cass 
county men in the various regiments of the northern armies. In a few 
cases an entire company of a regiment would be composed of Cass county 
boys, but as a rule the roster of the regiments show those from this 
county distributed through the companies, occasionally only one Cass 
county soldier being found in a company. But the compilation is thought 
to contain the names of all those who went from this county. 

The individual record consists generally of the dates of enlistment 
and of the muster out or discharge, or of the sadder chronicle of death 
on the field or in hospital. The abbreviations used to convey these 
and other facts are self-explanatory. 


Company E. 
Capt. Daniel McOmber, Dowagiac. 
Capt. William H. Colburn, Silver Creek ; 

com. April ii, 1865; m. o. Dec. 16, 1865; 

1st Lieut. May 17, 1864; Sergt. vet. Jan. 

I, 1864; Corp., July 26, 1861. 
First Lieut. William H. Clark, Dowagiac, 

May 17, 1864; declined com. 
Second Lieut. Nathan H. DeFoe, Dow- 
agiac, Jan. 22, 1861 ; res. May 11, 1862. 
First Sergt. William T. Codding, Dow- 
agiac, July 22, 1861 ; m. o. Sept. 16, 

Sergt. Jehiel Hall, Dowagiac, July 23, 

1861 ; killed at Stone River Dec. 31, 

Sergt. Cyrus Phillips, DowagiaC, July 22, 

1861 ; vet. Jan. i, 1864; prom, ist Lieut. 

Co. F. •'"' 

Sergt. Leonard H. Norton, La .Grange, 

Aug. 10, 1861 ; vet. Jan. i, 1864; died of 

wounds March 5, 1864. 
Corp. William H. Colburn, Silver Creek, 

July 26, 1861 ; vet. Jan. i, 1864; prom. 

1st Lieut, from Sergt. 
Corp. Asher Huff, Dowagiac, July 26, 

1861 ; dis. for disability March 12, 1863. 
Corp. Comfort P. Estes, Dowagfa<:, July 

26, 1861 ; vet. Jan. i, 1864; killed at 

Kenesaw June 18, 1864. 
Corp. Christopher Harmon,, Dowagiac. 

July 26, 1861 ; vet. Jan. i, 1864; m. o. 

Sergt. Dec. 16, 1865. ' 

Corp. Theo. De Camp, Silver Creek, July 

26, 1861 ; dis. for disability March 11, 

Corp. William H. Clark, Dowagiac, July 

26, 1861 ; vet. Jan. i, 1864; m. oXt^it 

Sergt. May 28, 1865. . . . • -' 

Corp. Victor Wallace, Dowagiac, July 26, 

1861 ; vet. Jan. i, 1864; m. o. as Sergt. 

Dec. 16, 1865. 
Arnold, Desire, Silver Creek, July 26, 

1861 ; killed at Stone River Dec. 31, 

Brownell, Lorenzo D., Dowagiac, July 26, 

1861 ; dis. for disability Nov. 18, 1862. 
Barrack, Jonathan A., Calvin, Aug. i, 

1861 ; dis. for disability Aug. 17. 1862. 
Burling, Robert G., Pokagon, July 26, 

1861 ; dis. for disability Oct. 24, 1862. 
Bragg, Gustavus, Pokagon, Aug. 7, 1861 ; 

died of wounds at Trenton, Ga., Sept. 

10, 1863. 
Caston, Hiram,, Jefferson, July 26, 1861 ; 

m. o., wounded, Sept. 16, 1864. 
Cone, Hulett, Dowagiac, Aug. 31, 1861 ; 

died at Park Barracks, Ky., Nov. 5, 

Calhoun, Albert, Aug. 30, 1861 ; died in 

rebel hosp., Wilmington, N. C, March 

5, 1865. 
Day, Lucius C, Dowagiac, July 26, 1861 ; 

vet. Jan. I, 1864; m. o. July 15, 1865. 
Finehart, Daniel P., Pokagon, July 26, 

1861; died Feb. 8, 1862. 
Fleming, James H., Volinia, Aug. — , 

1861 ; died of wounds at Atlanta, Ga., 

Dec. 25, 1863. 
Heath, Edward C, Pokagon, July 26, 

1861; Corp.; died Aug. 23, 1862. 
Hill, James, Dowagiac, July 26, 1861 ; vet. 

Jan. I, 1864; m. o. Dec. 1.6, 1865. 
' Hanrta, Nathaniel L., Dowagiac, Aug. 10, 

1861; dis. for disability March 27, 1863. 
Hover, John B., Calvin, Aug. 21, 1861; 

vet: Jan. I, 1864; prom. Prin. Mus. 
Higgin^, George W., Dowagiac, July 26, 

186 i'; dis. for disability March 27, 1862. 



Henderson, George H., Dowagiac, July 26, 

1861 ; m. o. July 15, 1865. 
Hitsman, Sidney, Dowagiac, July 26, 1861 ; 

vet. Jan. i, 1864; m. o. Dec. 16, 1865. 
Higgins, Daniel, Dowagiac, Aug. i, 1861 ; 

dis. Dec. 5, 1862. 
Krisher, John, Jr., Calvin, Sept. 9, 1861 ; 

vet. Jan. i, 1864; m. o. Dec. 16, 1865. 
Leonard, William, Cassopolis, July 26, 

1861 ; vet. Jan. i, 1864; m. o. Dec. 16, 

Lucas, Henry, Newberg, July 31, 1861 ; 

vet. Jan. i, 1864; detached at m. o. 
Lewis, Edwin H., Cassopolis, July 26, 

1861 ; vet. Jan. I, 1864; dis. for disabil- 
ity April 18, 1862. 
Miller, William H. H., Calvin, July 26, 

1861 ; vet. Jan. i, 1864; killed at Frank- 
lin, Tenn., Nov. 30. 1864. 
Munger, Charles A., Dowagiac, July 26, 

1861 ; vet. Jan. i, 1864; prom, ist Lieut. 

from Sergt. 
Momany, Oliver F., Dowagiac, July 26, 

1861 ; wounded ; transferred to Vet. Res. 

Corps Feb. 16, 1864. 
McDonald, Alva, Pokagon, Aug. i, 1864; 

m. o. Oct. 3, 1864. 
Northrup, Adoniram, Calvin, Aug. i, 

1864; killed at Stone River Dec. 31, 

Nevill, John G., Dowagiac, Aug. i, 1864; 

wounded ; transferred to Vet. Res. 

Corps April 16, 1864. 
Orange, Andrew, Dowagiac, Aug. 10, 

1861 ; dis. Dec. 5, 1862. 
Peters, John, Calvin, Aug. i, 1861 ; dis. 

for disabilitv Mav 26, 1862. 

Pierson, Bartley, Calvin, Aug. i, 1861 ; 

dis. for disability May 3, 1862. 
Corp. Peter Rummels, Silver Creek, July 

26, 1861 ; vet. Jan. i, 1864; m. o. Dec. 

16, 1865. 
Rea, Albert W., Calvin, Aug. i, 1861 ; vet. 

Jan. I, 1864; died of wounds Dec. 15, 

Spicer, George G., Dowagiac, July 26, 

1861 ; vet. Jan. i, 1864; m. o. Dec. 16, 

Shanafelt, x\lbert A., Dowagiac, July 26, 

1861 ; m. o. Sept. 28, 1864. 
Shanafelt, Herbert R., Dowagiac, July 26, 

1861 ; died of wounds Columbia, S. C. 
Shearer, James H., Dowagiac, Aug. i, 

1861 ; died at Smithton, Mo., Jan. 29, 

Stevens, Joseph H., Dowagiac, Aug. i, 

1861 ; died of wounds July 7, 1864. 
Stevenson, Zimri, Calvin, Aug. i, 1861 ; 

vet. Jan. i, 1864; m. o. Dec. 16, 1865. 
Sturr, Joseph L., Calvin, Aug. i, 1861 ; 

m. o. Sept. 18, 1864. 
Tillotson, John D., Calvin, Aug. I, 1861 ; 

m. o. Dec. 16, 1865. 
Trenholm, Benjamin, Calvin, Sept. 9, 

1861 ; m. o. Sept. 16, 1864. 
Worden, Amasa P. R., Dowagiac, July 26, 

1861 ; died of wounds April 7, 1864. 


Morse, Abel S., Silver Creek, dis. for dis- 
ability Aug. 15, 1861. 

Row, Fred. P., Silver Creek ; dis. for dis- 
ability Sept. 10, 1861. 

Stage, William, transferred to Sappers 
and Miners Sept. 5, 1861. 


Field and Staff. 
Col. Chas. E. Clarke, Dowagiac, com. Oc- 
tober 16, 1864; m. o. as Lieut. Col. 
Sept. 7, 1865; com. Lieut. Col. Feb. i, 
1864; Maj. June 21, 1862; Capt. U. S. 
Army July 28, 1866; Brevet Major 
March 7, 1867, ^oi* gallant and meritor- 
ious services in the siege of Port Huron, 
La. ; retired June 28, 1878. 


Sergt. Maj. Henry W. Ellis, Pokagon, 
com. May 13, 1865; m. o. Aug. 20, 

Principal Musician Geo. L. Hazen, Calvin, 
e. Jan. i, 1862; vet. Feb. i, 1864; m. o. 
Aug. 20, 1865. 

Musician John R. Lee, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 
dis. by order Sept. 20, 1862. 

Company A. 
Briggs, George, Porter, e. Aug. 30, 1862; 
dis. by order July 22, 1865. 

Woodard, Alvah, Porter, e. Aug. 30, 1862; 
died of disease at Ft. Morgan, Ala., 
Sept. 24, 1864. 

Company C. 

First Lieut. Jas. A. Ellis, Dowagiac, com. 

Dec. T, 1862; trans, ist Lieut, to Co. D, 

July 20, 1863. 
Anderson, Andrew J., Calvin, e. Jan. 11, 

1864; trans, to 7th U. S. Heavy Artil- 
lery June I, 1864. 
Freeman, Henry W., Porter, e. Jan. 20, 

1864; trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps. 
Gilbert, Anson, Wayne, e. Dec. 21, 1863; 

died of disease at New Orleans, La., 

Oct. 12, 1864. 
Hawks, Henry, Mason, e. Jan. 11, 1864; 

trans, to 7th U. S. Heavy Artillery 

June I, 1864. 
Turnley, Hiram M., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

for disability March 28, 1864. 



Company D. 

Capt. Charles E. Clarke, Dowagiac, com. 
Aug. 20, 1861 ; prom. Major. 

Capt. James A. Ellis, Dowagiac, com. 
Sept. I, 1863; resigned July 19, 1864; 
trans, ist Lieut, from Co. C, July 20, 
1863; 2d Lieut. Co. D, Aug. 20, 1861. 

First Lieut. Frederick J. Clarke, Dow- 
agiac, com. Aug. 19, 1861 ; killed in bat- 
tle at Port Hudson, La., May 27, 1862. 

First Lieut. William W. Mcllvaine, Cass- 
opolis, com. Sept. i, 1863 ; com. 2d 
Lieut, Dec. i, 1862; Sergt. Aug. 20, 
1861 ; resigned as ist Lieut. July 20, 

First Lieut. Charles St. John, Dowagiac. 
com. March 7, 1865 ; m. o. July 20, 
1865; 2d Lieut. Co. F; Sergt. Co. D; 
vet. Feb. i, 1864. 

Second Lieut. John G. Allison, Porter, e. 
Sergt. Aug. 20, 1861 ; vet. Feb. i, 1864; 
m. o. as Sergt. July 20, 1865. 

Sergt. Hiram Meacham, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 
dis. for disability Oct. 14, 1862. 

Sergt. William O. Kellam, e. Aug. 20, 
i86t : dis for disability April 30, 1864. 

Sergt. Ira Coe, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; prom. 2d 
Lieut. U. S. C T. 

Corp. Charles K. Weil, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 
prom. 1st Lieut, ist La. Battery, Nov. 
29, 1862. 

Corp. Ira Coe, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. at 
end of service Aug. 23, 1864. 

Corp. Thomas M. Sears, La Grange, e. 
Nov. 21, 1862; vet. March 2, 1864; dis. 
by order Aug. 20, 1865. 

Corp. James K. Train, e. Dec. 16, 1863 ; 
m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 

Corp. Theodore Perarie, Ontwa, e. Dec. 
2, 1864; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 


Aikins, Alexander, Calvin, e. Oct. 7, 1863 ; 

m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Baker, Ferdinand, m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Bell, James M., Jefferson, e. Aug. 20, 

1861 ; vet. Feb. i, 1864; dis. for dis- 
ability Aug. I, 1865. 
Brown, Francis D., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. 
Carter, Elijah H., Porter, e. Aug. 12, 

1862; died at Port Hudson, La., of 

wounds May 27, 1863. 
Carter, John M., Calvin, e. Aug. 12, 1862; 

died of disease at Port Hudson, Sept. 

2, 1863. 
Christie, Willard, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. 
Curtis, Edward, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died 

of disease at New Orleans, La., Nov. 30, 

Gushing, James H., Silver Creek, e. April 

12, 1864; dis. by order Sept. 5, 1865. 

Dorr, Peter, Penn, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; vet. 

Feb. I, 1864; ni. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Estabrook, Aaron L., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. 
Estabrook, George R., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 

dis. for disability Oct. 14, 1862. 
Fraker, Oliver P., Porter, e. Aug. 20, 

1861 ; vet. Feb. i, 1864; dis. for dis- 
ability May 18, 1865. 
Gannett, Lewis, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. at 

end of service Aug. 2^, 1864. 
Grennell, Oliver C, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 
^ for disability Oct. 14, 1862. 
Gates, Jefferson, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died of 

disease at Baltimore Oct. 8, 1861. 
Gilbert, Allison J., Wayne, e. Dec. 21, 

1863; dis. for disability June 2, 1865. 
Goodrich, Noah, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

for disability Oct. 12, 1864. 
Gregg, James H., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. 
Greenman, James J., Porter, e. Aug. 12, 

1862; m. o. July 21, 1865. 
Hall, George M., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

for disability Oct. 6, 1863. 
Hall, Philander W., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 

vet. Feb. i, 1864; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Harmon, Benjamin H., died at Port Hud- 
son, La., of wounds May 27, 1863. 
Harmon, James, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

by order March 28, 1864. 
Harmon, Sylvester, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died 

of disease at Port Hudson, La., Aug. 

13, 1863. 
Herrod. Francis M., Porter, e. Jan. 2, 

1864; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Horr, Calvin L., Calvin, e. Aug. 14, 1862; 

m. o. July 21, 1865. 
Hover, Evart, Silver Creek, e. March 31, 

1864; m- o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Jackson, J. J., Porter, e. Aug. 27, 1862; 

dis. for disability March 10, 1863. 
Johnston, Albert, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. by 

order Feb. 10, 18^3. 
King, Edward, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. at 

end of service Aug. 23, 1864. 
King, John, e. Jan. i, 1862; vet. Feb. i, 

Kidder, Norman C, e. Aug. 12, 1862; m. 

o. July 21, 1865. 
Kirk, George W., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died 

of disease at Camp Williams Nov. 21, 

Lake, William H., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. 
Lewis, Peter, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died of 

disease at Port Hudson, La., Aug. 12, 

Mcintosh, Jacob M., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 

dis. at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. 
Mecham, Cyrus, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

for disability Oct. 14. 1862. 



Meacham, William J., e. Jan. i, 1862; dis. 

for disability Oct. 14, 1862. 
Miller, James M. ; dis. for disability Sept. 

18, 1863. 
Montgomery, Milton, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 

died of disease at Baton Rouge, La., 

Aug. 3, 1862. 
Montgomery, Samuel, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 

died of disease at Port Hudson, La., 

July 18, 1863. 
Myers, George R., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died 

of disease at New Orleans, La,, Aug. 

12, 1862. 
Nesbitt, William, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

for disability Oct. 14, 1862. 
Neville, Jerry, Silver Creek, e. Dec. 22, 

1863; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Osborn, Allen S., Calvin, e. Aug. 11, 

1862; m. o. July 21, 1865. 
Osborn, Arthur, e. Nov. 10, 1862; m. o. 

Aug. 20, 1865. 
Osborn, Job E., Calvin, e. Aug. 14, 1862 ; 

died of disease at Port Hudson, La., 

Oct. 4, 1863. 
O'Neil, Timothy, Silver Creek, e. Nov 

21, 1863; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Overmeyer, Thomas J., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 

dis. at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. 
Owen, Andrew J., e. Aug. 20, i86r ; dis. 

at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. 
Patrick, Levi W., died of disease at Baton 

Rouge, La., July 3, 1862. 
Randall, Lorenzo D., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 

dis. at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. 
Reynolds, George, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. 
Reynolds, Paul S., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

at end of service Aug. 2^, 1864. 
Rinehart, Henry, e. Aug. 18, 1862; m. o. 

July 21, T865. 
Ring. John, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. for dis- 
ability Oct. 14, 1862. 
Robb, John, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. for dis- 
ability Jan. 20, 1862. 
Rogers, Lcroy, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. at 

end of service Aug. 23, 1864. 
Sickles, George W., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died 

in action at Port Hudson, La., June 30, 

Starks, William, Silver Creek, e. April 12, 

1864; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Shawl, Merrin, Silver Creek, e. April 12, 

1864; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Stockwell, John, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

for disability Oct. 14, 1862. 
Stone, Edmund, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died 

of disease at New Orleans, La., Aug. 12, 

St. John, Charles, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 

20, 1861 ; vet. Feb. i, 1864; dis. for 

prom. 2d Lieut., this regt., Co. J, Nov. 

I, 1864. 
Swinehart, Lewis, Porter, e. Aug. 18, 

1862; died of disease at Port Hudson, 

La., Aug. 29, 1863. 
Tracy, Spencer, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died of 

disease at Port Hudson, La., Sept. 22, 

Wallace, William, e. Dec. 19, 1863 ; m. o. 

July 21, 1865. 
Wheeler, Thomas, Penn, e. Aug. 25, 1864; 

m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Wieting, John, Silver Creek, e. March 31, 

1864; dis for disability Dec. 15, 1864. 
Wilsey, William H., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died 

of disease at Carrolton, La., March 6, 


Company E. 

Second Lieut. Charles St. John, Dowagiac, 
prom, from Serg. Co. D, July 18, 1864; 
prom. 1st Lieut., Co. D, March 7, 1865. 

Company F. 


Corselman, Levi, Marcellus, e. March i, 
1862; dis. by order Sept. 14, 1865. 

Company G. 


Clark, George H., Wayne, e. Dec. 19, 

1863 ; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Dewey, Enoch, Silver Creek, e. Dec. 21, 

1863; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Stevens, Isaac R., Silver Creek, e. Oct. 

20, 1864; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 

Company K. 

P1rst Lieut. John Jacks, Edwardsburg, 
com. Sept. I, 1862; dis. for disability 
Oct. 27, 1863. 

First. Lieut. Edward C. Beardsley, Dow- 
agiac, com. Nov. 25, 1864. 

Second Lieut. John Jacks, Ontwa, com. 
Aug. 20, 1863 ; prom. First Lieut. 

Second Lieut. Edward C. Beardsley, Dow- 
agiac, com. June 3, 1864; prom. First 

Sergt. Charles Morgan, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 
dis. at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. 

Sergt. E. C. Beardsley, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 
prom. Second Lieut. 

Sergt. John P. Carr, Jefiferson, e. Aug. 
20, 1861 ; vet. Feb. i, 1864; m. o. Aug. 
26, 1865. 

Corp. John R. Lee, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; trans, 
to regimental band. 

Corp. Alonzo Benedict, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 
dis. for disability Oct. 26, 1862. 

Corp. Leonard Sweet, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 
dis. for disability Oct. 26, 1862. 

Corp. David Ogden, e. Aug. 20, i86t ; 
vet. Feb. i, 1864; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 

Corp. James H. Smith, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 
dis. for disability Jan. 20, 1862. 

Corp. John Chatterdon, Howard, e. Aug. 



20, 1861 ; vet. Feb. i, 1864; m. o. Aug. 
II, 1865. 


Barrett, Ransom, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died 

of disease at Port Hudson, La., June 

25, 1862. 
Bramhall, Nathan W., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 

died of disease at Port Hudson, La., 

Feb. 6, 1864. 
Brunson, Perry, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

to enter Regular Army Dec. 23, 1862. 
Bump, Adolphus, Jefferson, e. Aug. 20, 

1861 ; vet. Feb. i, 1864; m. o. Aug. 20, 

Coder, Willett G., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

for disability Oct. 26, i8(5i. 
Cole, Johnson B., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

for disability Oct. 29, 1862. 
Eby, George W. N., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

for disability Jan. 5, 1863. 
Hanson, Benjamin, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died 

of disease at Ship Island, La., March 

18, 1862. 
Haskins, Calvin, Jefferson, e. Aug. 20, 

1861 ; vet. Feb. i, 1864; m. o. Aug. 20, 

Heyde, Henry, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. at 

end of service Aug. 22,, 1864. 
Joy, Elias W., Jefferson, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 

vet. Feb. i, 1864; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Kieffer, Jacob, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. at 

end of service Aug. 23, 1864. 

Lamson, Horace, dis. at end of service 

Aug. 22,, 1864. 
Lockwood, Henry P., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 

died of disease at Baton Rouge, La., 

July 24, 1863. 
McKinstry, Albert, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

by order March 9, 1864. 
Mott, Sylvester, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died 

of disease at Camp Williams Oct. 8, 

Putnam, Uzziel, Pokagon, e. Aug. 20, 

1861 ; dis. for disability Jan. 26, 1864. 
^ ^ Niles, vet. Feb. i, 1864; 

m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Rourke, Patrick, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; vet. 

Feb. I, 1864; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Shiry, William, Baton Rogue, e. Aug. 20, 

1861 ; died of disease New Orleans, La., 

Sept. II, 1862. 
Smith, Mathew, e. Aug. 20, 1862 ; died 

of disease at New Orleans Aug. 2Q, 

Sweet, Leonard, re-e. Dec. 5, 1863; m. o. 

Aug. 20, 1865. 
Thayer, Ezra, Jefferson, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 

vet. Feb. i, 1864; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Westfall, Marvin F., Jefferson, e. Aug. 

20, 1861 ; vet. Feb. i, 1864; dis. for dis- 
ability June 4, 1865. 
Williams, George W., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 

dis. at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. 


Company A. 
Capt. Joseph Harper, Cassopolis, com. 

Sept. 26, 1861 ; resigned May 7, 1862. 
First Lieut. Charles A. Van Riper, La 

Grange, com. Oct. 4, 1861 ; resigned Feb. 

28, 1863. 
First Lieut. Austin L. Abbott, Pokagon, 

com. Feb. 23, 1863; resigned July 3, 

Second Lieut. David M. McLelland, Dow- 

agiac, com. Oct. 14, 1861 ; resigned Nov. 

16, 1862. 
Second Lieut. Robert S. M. Fox, Howard, 

com. April 8, 1864; prom, ist Lieut. 

Co. G. 
Sergt. Austin L. Abbott, Pokagon, e. 

Sept. 2S, 1861 ; prom, ist Lieut. Go. A. 
Sergt. George B. Crane, Pokagon, e. Oct. 

4, 1861 ; died of disease at Little Rock, 

Ark., July 23, 1864. 
Sergt. Benjamin F. Dunham, Cassopolis, 

e. Oct. 4, 1861 ; prom. Com. Sergt. April 

I, 1862; died of disease at St. Louis, 

Mo., May 24, 1862. 
Sergt. James Hill, Cassopolis, e. Oct. 9, 

1861 ; dis. for disability May 31, 1864. 
Sergt. Joseph R. Edwards, Pokagon, e. 

Sept. 28, 1861 ; dis. at end of service 

Jan. 9, 1865. 
Sergt. Robert S. M. Fox, Howard, e. Oct. 

2, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 25, 1863 ; prom. 2d 

Lieut. Co. A. 
Sergt. Isaac D. Harrison, Pokagon, e. 

Sept. 28, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 25, 1863 ; m. 

o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Corp. Isaac D. Harrison. 
Corp. William E. Stevens, Mason, e. Oct. 

22, 1861 ; prom. 2d Lieut. Co. K. 
Corp. Lewis Van Riper, La Grange, e. 

Oct. 4, 1861 ; dis. for disability Jan. 21, 

Corp. William Lingual, Pokagon, e. Sept. 

30, 1861 ; dis. at end of service Feb. 14, 

Corp. Almon W. Eck, Wayne, e. May 18, 

1863; vet. Feb. 29, 1864; m. o. Feb. 

15, 1866. 

Musician Wellman Blanchard, Pokagon, 
e. Oct. 15, 1861 ; dis. for disability Aug. 

16, 1862. 


Allen, Alonzo W., Pokagon, e. Sept. 28, 
1861 ; died of disease at Memphis, Tenn.^ 
Oct. 25, 1863. 



Allen, Nelson K., Porter, e. Jan. 30, 1864; 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Barker, George R, e. Dec. 15, 1861 ; vet. 

Dec. 5, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Bilderback, Peter, Silver Creek, e. Oct. 

31, 1861; died of wounds at Pittsburg 

Landing, June 5, 1862. 
Bilderback, Wesley B., Silver Creek, e. 

Oct. 31, 1861 ; dis. for disability Nov. 

14, 1863. 
Bronner, David, Penn, e. Oct. 18, 1861 ; 

died of disease April — , 1862. 
Brown, Albert E., Ontwa, e. March 2, 

1865; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Brown, Charles G., Dowagiac, e. Sept. 5, 

1862; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 

Buckley, Peter, Pokagon, e. March 18, 

1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Bucklin, George S., Wayne, e. Nov. 12, 

1861 ; dis. for disability Sept. 9, 1862. 
Bush, Asa L., Dowagiac, e. Feb. 18, 1862 ; 

died of disease at Memphis, Tenn., Oct. 

20, 1863. 
Byers, Charles F., La Grange, e. Aug. 19, 

1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 1865. 
Carr, Allen M., Ontwa, e. Feb. 25, 1864; 

dis. for disability May 22, 1865. 
Caves, Samuel, died of disease at Niles, 

Mich., March 23, 1862. 
Clasby, James, La Grange, e. Feb. 18, 

1862; dis. at end of service Feb. 17, 

Campbell, Daniel, Pokagon, e. March 18, 
1863; died of wounds at Camden, Ark., 
Oct. 6, 1865. ^ o^ A- 

Cleveland, Charles E., e. Jan. 27, 1862 ; dis. 
at end of service Jan. 27, 1865. 

Colby, James E., e. Oct. 14, 1861 ; died in 
action at Shiloh April 6, 1862. 

Colvin, James M., e. Oct. 29, 1861 ; vet. 
Dec. 25, 1863; accidentally killed Sept. 

5, 1864. 
Curtis, Franklin P., Mason, e. Feb. 14, 

1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Davis, Edson, Dowagiac, e. Oct. 5, 1861 ; 

vet. Dec. 25, 1863; m,. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Delaney, Thomas, Cassopolis, e. Oct. g, 

1861 ; vet. Dec. 25, 1863 ; dis. by order 

Aug. 14, 1865. 
Denison, Franklin, Cassopolis, e. Oct. 9, 

1861 ; vet. Dec. 28, 1863 ; dis. for disabil- 
ity May II, 1865. 
Eggleston, William J., Mason, e. Feb. 16, 

1865; dis. by order May 22, 1865. 
Emmons, Darius, Dowagiac, e. Feb. 22, 

1864; dis. by order May 22, iS6^. 
Emmons, Jonathan, Dowagiac, e. Feb. 

22, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, t^S66. ~ , 
Emmons, William A., Dowagiac, e. Feb. 

22, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Foster, Francis M., P^nn., e. Feb. 23, 

1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 

Gallagher, James, Jefferson, e. Dec. 8, 

1863; m. o. Feb. 15, i866. 
Gilbert, Samuel, Mason, e. Oct. 25, 1861 ; 

dis. by order Sept. 7, 1862. 
Gillespie, George, Dowagiac, e. Dec. 28, 

1861 ; dis. by order April 25, 1863. 
Goodrich, James, Jefferson, e. Feb. 22, 

1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Goft*, Hiram, Wayne, e. Nov. 9, 1861 ; died 

at home. 

Graham, Edward R., Cassopolis, e. Feb. 

21, 1862; dis. at end of service Feb. 21, 


Graham, Henry C, LaGrange, e. Sept. 7, 

1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 1865. 

Haas, Jacob, Howard, c. Sept. 2;^, 1864; 

dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 1865. 
Haines, Thomas L., Ontwa, e. March 2, 

1865; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Hartsel, Edward, Dowagiac, e. Oct. 5, 
1861 ; died of disease at Columbus, Ohio. 
Hatfield, Andrew V., dis. by order Jan 24, 

Hauser, Michael B., Pokagon, e. Oct. 15, 
1861 ; dis. for disability Aug. 28, 1862. 
Heaton, Abfam, Porter, e. Dec. 5, 1863; 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Heaton, Lester M., Porter, e. Dec. 29, 

1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Higgins, Benjamin F., Newberg, e. Oct. 

12. 1861 ; dis. by order April 21, 1863. 
Higgins, James P., e. Dec. 10, 1861 ; vet. 
Dec. 25, 1863 ; dis. for disability July 8, 
Higgins, John, Newberg, e. Dec. 11, 1861 ; 

vet. Dec. 25, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Higley, Solomon G., Ontwa, e. Dec. 29, 

1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Higley, William, Ontwa, e. March 2, 

1865; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Hill, Henry T., Cassopolis, e. Feb. 18, 
1862; dis. at end of service Feb. 17, 
Hibray, Jacob P., Newberg, e. Oct. 3, 
1861 ; died of disease at Montgomery, 
Ala., May i, 1862. 
Hitchcock, Lucius P., Porter, e. Feb. 5, 

1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Holmes, Henry, Pokagon, e. March 18, 
1863 ; died of disease at Dowagiac Oct. 
20, 1863. 
Holmes, William, Silver Creek, e. Nov. 
19, 1861 ; died of disease at Dowagiac 
June 10, 1863. 
Homer, James, LaGrange, e. Oct. 18, 
1861 ; vet. Dec. 28, 1863 ; m. o. Feb. 15, 
Hudson, James, Jefferson, e. Dec. 15, 1863; 

tn. o. Feb. 15, 1866, 
Huff, Charles H., .iJaQrange, e. Jan. 17, 

186S; 'dis. by order Jan. 24, 1866. 
Hunt, John H., Jefferson, e. Nov. 11, 



1861 ; vet. Dec. 25, 1863 ; m. o. Feb. 15, 

Ireland, Elon M., rti. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Jackson, Erastiis M., Porter, e. Feb. 7, 

1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Jackson, George, Mason, e. Feb. 14, 1865; 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Jackson, John S., Porter, e. Feb. 7, 1864; 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Jennings, Abrami, Dowagiac, e. Oct. 15, 

1861 ; dis. by order July 23, 1862. 
Johns, Aaron, Mason, e. Oct. 18, 1861 ; 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Kugan, Edward, Jefiferson, e. Feb. 28, 

1862; captured at Little Rock, Ark., 

Sept. 3, 1864; exchanged May 27, 1865; 

dis. at end of service July 8, 1865. 
Kelley, John H., Calvin, e. Feb. 7, 1865; 

died of disease at Washington, Ark., 

July 2, 1865. 
Kelley, Joseph, Calvin, e. Feb. 26, 1864; 

dis. by order May 22, 1865. 
Keyes, John, Wayne, e. Nov. 9, 1861 ; dis. 

by order July 16, 1862. 
Landon, Edward, Mason, e. Feb. 16, 1865; 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Langley, Zachariah B., Pokagon, e. Oct. 

13, 1861 ; dis. at end of service Jan. 7, 

Lillie. John, LaGrange, e. Dec. 28, 1861 ; 

dis. at end of service Jan. 7, 1865. 
Liphart, George M., LaGrange, e. Oct. 31, 

1861 ; died at Indianapolis, Ind., April 

17, 1865.^ 
Lewman, Simon, LaGrange, e. Feb. 22, 

1864; died of disease at Duvall's Bluff, 

Ark., Dec. 16, 1864. 
Maloney, Lawrence, Pokagon, e. Feb. 3, 

1864; died of disease at Camden, Ark., 

Dec. 9, 1865. 
Marsh, Benjamin, LaGrange, e. Dec. 7, 

1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Marsh, Nathan, LaGrange, e. March 16, 

1865; m- o- Feb. 15, 1866. 
]\Iiner, William A., LaGrange, e. Oct. 5, 

1861 ; vet. Dec. 25, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 

Munson, Allen C, Volinia, e. Sept. 2, 

1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 
Myers, George, Volinia, e. Feb. 18, 1864; 

died of disease at Camden, Ark., Dec. 

9, 1865. 
Neff, Aaron, Jefferson, e. Feb. 22, 1S64 ; 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Niblett, James, Mason, e. Feb. 8, i«64; 

dis. by order May 22, 1865. 
Nichols, Arthur, Penn, e. Dec. 11, 1861 ; 

dis. for disability July 17, 1862. 
Norton, Bela A., LaGrange, e. Jan. 27, 
1862; dis. at end of service Jan. 27, 

Odell, Victor M,, e, Feb. i, 1862; missing 

in battle at Shiloh April 7, 1862. 
Pratt, Henry D., Pokagon, e. Nov. 17, 

1861 ; died of disease at St. Louis, Mo., 

June 5, 1862. 
Pratt, James E., La Grange, e. Oct. 21, 

1861 ; vet. Jan. 2, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 

Philips, William J., Mason, e. Jan. 18, 

1864; died of disease at Duvall's Bluff, 

Ark., Nov. 26, 1864. 
Post, John H., Pokagon, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; 

dis. at end of service Jan. 2y, 1865, 
Reams, Peter, Jefferson, e. Feb. 23, 1864; 

dis. for disability May 26, 1865. 
Roberts. James H., Mason, e. Feb. 15, 

1865; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Robinson, Levi, Pokagon, e. Oct. 15, 1861 ; 

vet. Dec. 25, 1863; dis. by order March 

I, 1864. 
Rogers, Jesse, Porter, e. Dec. 5, 1863; m. 

o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Root, Charles, La Grange, e. Feb. 22, 1864; 

died of disease at Little Rock, Ark., 

Aug. 8, 1864. 
Root, Josiah C, La Grange, e. Oct. 31, 

1861 ; dis. for disability July 17, 1862. 
Rosburgh, Enos, Jefferson, e. Feb. 26, 

1862; dis. by order Nov. 16, 1862. 
Rost, John A., La Grange, e. Feb. 18, 

1862; dis. for disability June 4, 1862. 
Russey, John M., La Grange, e. Feb. 21, 

1862; vet. Feb. 29, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 

Sergt. James M. Savage, La Grange, e. 

Oct. 31, t86i ; vet. Dec. 25, 1863; m. o. 

Feb. 15, 1866. 
Scotten, William, Ontwa, e. March 2, 

1865; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Secor, Isaac, La Grange, e. Oct. 28, i86t ; 

died at Jackson, Tenn. (railroad acci- 
dent), Sept. 24, 1862. 
Secor, Joseph W., La Grange, e. Oct. 24, 

t86i ; dis. by order Sept. I, 1862. 
Shanafelt, William H., e. Oct. 31, 1861 ; 

vet. Dec. 25, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Shepard, Charles, Calvin, e. Feb. 25, 1864; 

died of disease at Niles, Mich. 
Shuste, Thomas P., LaGrange, e. Nov. 

IT, i86t ; dis. for disability Sept. 20, 

Simpson, Thomas, La Grange, e. Oct. 20, 

1861 ; vet. Dec. 25, 1863 ; m. o. Feb. 15, 

Soules, Peter, Pokagon, e. Oct. 15, 1861 ; 

vet. Dec. 28, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Stanage, Benton, La Grange, e. Feb. 20, 

1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Stephenson, James B., Jefferson, e. Feb. 

22, 1864 ; died of disease at Little Rock, 

Ark:, June 28, 1864. 
Steere, William H., Wayne, e. Nov. 19, 
1861 ; dis. for disability Aug. 2, 1862. 



Stevens, Samuel, Mason, e. Feb. 15, 1865; 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Smith, Nelson A., Porter, e. Oct. 13, 1861 ; 

dis. at end of service Jan. 7, 1865. 
Temple, Franklin, Ontwa, e. March 2, 

1865; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Thomas. Noble O., La Grange, e. Oct. 

31, 1861 ; dis. at end of service Jan. 

7, 1865. 
Thomas, Sherwood, La Grange, e. Oct. 

^T, 1861 ; dis. at end of service Jan. 7, 

Thompson, Smith, Marcellus, e. Oct. 20, 

1861 ; dis. at end of service Jan. 7, 

Townsend, William, La Grange, e. Oct. 

31, 1861 ; died of disease at St. Louis, 

Mo., Nov. II, 1863. 
Tubbs, Lester, Porter, e. Dec. 5, 1863; m. 

o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Upham. George, La Grange, e. Feb. 23, 

1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Van Tuyl, Richard, Mason, e. Feb. 27, 

1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
White, Seth, Wayne, e. Nov. 12, 1861 ; 

vet. Dec. 25, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Wilcox, Henry, Pennsylvania, e. Feb. 4, 

1862 ; killed in railroad accident at Jack- 
son, Tenn., Sept. 24, 1862. 
Willard, John, e. March 3, 1864; died of 

disease at St. Louis, Mo., Oct. 20, 1863. 
Williams, Samuel, Jcfiferson, e. Feb. 23, 

1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Winfrey, George, Dowagiac, e. Dec. 15, 

t86i ; dis. by order July 24, 1862. 
Wing, Orlando, Jefferson, e. Dec. 2, 1862 ; 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Wolfe, Franklin, e. Feb. 26, 1862; vet. 

Feb. 29, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
W^oolsey, Lewis, La Grange, e. Oct. 4, 

1861 ; died of disease at Camp Logan, 

Tenn., Alay 21, 1862. 

Company B. 

Baldwin, Edwin K.. La Grange, e. Dec. 

T, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Bell, Richard H., Howard, e. March 29, 

1862 : vet. March 22, 1864 ; m. o. Feb. 

15, 1866. 
Bryant, Thomas G., Mason, e. March i 

i86s; dis. at end of service Sept. 9. 

Dennis, John, Milton, e. March i, 1865 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Driscoll, Noah, Porter, e. Feb. 13, 1864 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Dunn, Ambrose, Cassopolis, e. Feb. 15 

1864; m- o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Haas, George, La Grange, e. Dec. i, 1863 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Haas, John, La Grange, e. Dec. i, 1863 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 

Haas, John A., La Grange, e. Dec. i, 

1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 

Higby, Calvin J., Newberg, e. Sept. 5, 

1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 

Huyck, William D., dis. for disability 

Nov. 9, 1865. 
Mosher, Lsaac, Pokagon, e. Feb. 16, 1863 ; 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1865. 
Palmer, Charles H., vet. Jan. 2, 1864. 
Parkerton, William, Dowagiac, e. Feb. 

19, 1862; vet. Feb. 27, 1864; m. o. Feb. 

15, 1866. 
Pettus, Luther, La Grange, e. Dec. i, 

1863 ; died of disease at Camden, Ark., 

Sept. I, 1865. 
Rose, John, Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, 1864; dis. 

at end of service Sept. 9, 1865. 
Wheeler, Edwin, Marcellus, e. Feb. 29, 

1864; m- o. Feb. 15, 1866. 

Company C. 

Ashley, Horace, e. Dec. 31, 1861 ; dis. for 

disability July 19, 1862. 
Barmore, John E., e. Dec. 5, 1861 ; vet. 

Dec. 29, 1863. 
Cobb, Albert T., Dowagiac, e. Dec. 25, 

1861 ; dis. for disability Feb. 25, 1862. 
Doty, James H., Porter, e. Feb. 22, 1864; 

vet. Dec. 24, 1863. 
Doty, William J., c. Dec. 7, 1861 ; vet. 

Dec. 24, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Griffith, Samuel, Milton, e. Oct. 25, i86t ; 

vet.- Dec. 24, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Corp. Charles Hungerford, Dowagiac, e. 

Oct. 25, 1861 ; dis. by order June 30, 

Kappelman, John, Pokagon, e. March i, 

1865; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
King, Samuel P., Porter, e. Feb. 22, 1864; 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Kirk, William H., Porter, e. Feb. 22, 

1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Marks, Isaac, Dowagiac, e. Feb. 15, 1862; 

vet. Feb. 25, 1864. 
McGee, Lemuel S., Dowagiac, e. Jan. 4. 

1862: vet. Jan. 2, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 

Olmstead, John, e. Feb. 8, 1862; dis. by 

order March 18, 1862. 
Sergt. John H. Patterson, e. Nov. 25, 

1861; vet. Dec. 24, 1863; m. o. Feb. 

15, 1866. 
Sanders. Daniel, Pokagon, e. Feb. 21, 

1865; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Stillwell, Edwin C, Dowagiac, e. Jan. 5, 

1862; vet. Dec. 31, 1863. 
Thompson, Reason, Porter, e. Feb. 23, 

1864; died of disease at Camden, Ark., 

Sept. 8, 1865. 
Welch, John C, Dowagiac, e. Dec. 25, 

1861; vet. Dec. 31, 1863; prom. 2d. 

Lieut. Co. I July 3, 1864. 



Company D. 

Simmons, Peter W., Mason, e. Aug. 31, 

1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 

Sirrine, Henry F., Volinia, e. Sept. 2, 

1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 

Springsteen, John W., Volinia, e. Sept. 6, 

1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 1865. 

Company E. 

Barton, Reuben, Pokagon, e. S^pt. 3, 

1864; dis. by order Sept. 14, 1865. 
Beebe, William H., died of disease at St. 

Louis, Mo., June i, 1862. 
Leach, James M., Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, 

1864 ; dis. by order June 20, 1865. 
Odell, Joseph, Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, 1864; 

dis. by order Sept. 14, 1865. 
Perkins, Harvey W., Howard, e. Oct. 18, 

1864; dis. by order Oct. 24, 1865. 
Walz, John, Silver Creek, e. Feb. 29, 

1864; died of disease at Grand Rapids, 


Company F. 

Second Lieut. William Horton, Jr., Dowa- 
giac (Sergt. Co. I), resigned June 12, 

Sergt. Philo H. Simmons, dis. for disabil- 
ity March 16, 1862. 

Sergt. Robert. A. Walton, Howard, e. 
Oct. 12, 186 1 ; vet. Jan. i, 1864; m. o. 
Feb. 5, 1866. 

Albrecht, Jacob G., Porter, e. Feb. 22, 
1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 

Bellows, Job. S., Ontwa, e. Sept. 2, 1864; 
dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 1865. 

Brown, Luman, Jefferson, e. Nov. 25, 
1861 ; died May i, 1862, of wounds re- 
ceived at Shiloh April 6, 1862. 

Butler, Henry M., m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 

Dean, Thomas, Ontwa, e. Nov. 8, 1861 ; 
dis. at end of service Jan. 7, 1865. 

Durstern, Michael, e. March 16, 1862; dis- 
charged by order July 15, 1862. 

Hawkins, Charles, Pokagon, e. Dec. 30, 
1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 

Hawkins, Benjamin, vet. Dec. y:>, 1863; 
m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 

Hawkins, Charles, discharged by order 
June 17, 1865. 

Inman, Isaiah, La Grange, e. Aug. 31, 
1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 

Leich, Elias, Milton, e. Dec. 5, 1861 ; trans, 
to Veteran Reserve Corps Jan. 15, 1864. 

Lewis, George W., Jefferson, e. Nov. 22, 
1861 ; vet. Dec. 30, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 

Lynch, William J., Milton, e. Oct. 15, 
1861 ; died on hospital boat May, 1862. 

Markle, John, Milton, e. Feb. 22, 1862; 

vet. Feb. 24. 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
McNitt, Charles W., Porter, e. Feb. 2(), 

1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Mitchell. Robert, Pokagon, e. Feb. 21, 

1865; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Moran, James, Jefferson, e. Dec. 2, 1861 ; 

vet. Dec. 30, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Morgan, Charles A., Milton, e. Oct. 15, 

1861 ; vet. Jan. i, 1864; m. o. Feb. 1=;, 

Noble, James M., Milton, e. Dec. 3, 1861 ; 

dis. by order June 25, 1862 ; re-e. March 

8, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
O'Keefe, Eugene, Silver Creek, e. Oct. 30, 

1861 ; dis. at end of service Jan. 7, 1865. 
Parks, Almenon, e. March 7, 1862; vet. 

March 8, 1864; m- o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Reigle, George W., Porter, e. Feb. 22, 

1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Reynolds, Henry C, La Grange, e. Sept. 

23, 1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 

29, 1865. 
Rogers, Charles F., Pokagon, e. Nov. 19, 

1861 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Jan. 15, 

Rogers, Hiram, Ontwa, e. Nov. 21, 1861 ; 

dis. for disability March 16, 1862. 
Rogers, Hiram L., Pokagon, e. Oct. 14, 

1861 ; died of disease at Keokuk, Iowa, 

May 6, 1862. 
Simmons, Joseph, Jefferson, e. Dec. 2, 

1861 ; dis. for disability March 16, 1862. 
Snow, William H., Jefferson, e. Nov. 22, 

1861 ; dis. at end of service Jan. 7, 1865. 
Tuttle, Jacob, Milton, e. Oct. 15, 1861 ; dis. 

for disability March 16, 1862. 
Whitmore, George A., La Grange, e. 

March 15, 1865; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Wilson, James, Ontwa, e. Dec. 13, i86r ; 

vet. Dec. 3, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Wilson, Joseph S., Ontwa, e. Dec. 14, 

1861 ; vet. Dec. 3, 1863 ; m. o. Feb. 15, 

Warden, George R., Jefferson, e. Dec. 5, 

1861 ; dis. by order July 25, 1862. 
Wyant, James, Ontwa, e. Nov. 21, 1861 ; 

dis. by order July 8, 1862. 
Zeek, William F., Ontwa, e. Sept. 2, 1864; 

dis. by order Oct. 31, 1865. 

Company G. 

First Lieut. Robert S. M. Fox. Howard, 
com. Oct. 19, 1864; resigned Sept. 18, 


Lawrence, Joseph. Silver Creek, e. Dec. 

IQ, 1863 ; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Nichols. Warren W., Marcellus, e. Sept. 

27, 1864: dis. by order Sept. 30, 1865. 
Schuh, Nicholas, La Grange, e. Dec. 3, 

1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 



Shawl, Alexander, Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, 

1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 

Shiver, Walter, Ontwa, e. Dec. 24, 1863; 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Stamp, David, Porter, e. Dec. 5, 1863; m. 

o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Ties, Anton, La Grange, e. Dec. 3, 1863; 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 

Company H. 

Bailey, James E., Silver Creek, e. Feb. 14, 

1864 ; dis. by order May 22, 1865. 
Born, Henry, Mason, e. Sept. 3, 1864; dis. 

at end of service Sept. 9, 1865. 
Conrad, Jacob, Volinia, e. Feb. 20, 1864; 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Eggleston, Harvey, Porter, e. Aug. 11, 

1862; vet. Dec. 26, 1863; dis. by order 

Sept. 30, 1865. 
Franklin, Samuel W., Mason, e. Jan. 29, 

1864; died of disease at Duvall's Bluff, 

Ark., Oct. 21, 1864. 
Salyer, James, Mason, e; died of disease 

at Duvairs Bluff, Ark., Sept. 24, 1864. 

Company I. 

Second Lieut. John C. Welch, Dowagiac, 

com. July 3, 1864; prom. 1st Lieut. Co 

A. Jan. 7, 1865. 
Allen, Israel M., Pokagon, e. Sept. 2, 1864 

dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 1865. 
Aumack, Jacob, Pokagon, e. Sept. 2, 1864 

dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 1865. 
Cole, William L., La Grange, e. Jan. 17, 

1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Corin, Robert, Ontwa, e. Sept. 2, 1864 

trans, to 5th U. S. Colored Infantry 

April I, 1865. 
Curtis, Thomas J., Mason, e. Aug. 31 

1864; died of disease at Duvall's Bluff, 

Ark., Nov. I, 1864. 
Fisher, John, Pokagon, e. Feb. 21, 1865 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Hayden, Edward W., e. Dec. 25, 1861 ; dis, 

for disability July 26, 1862. 
Hoyt, Henry, Mason, e. Aug. 31, 1864 

dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 1865. 
Johnson, Uriah, died of disease at Deca- 
tur, Mich., June i, 1862. 
Johnson, Egbert, Mason, e. Aug. 31, 1864; 

died of disease at Washington, Ark., 

July I, 1865. 
Leader, Nathan H., Pokagon, e. Sept. 2, 

1864; dis. by order May 6, 1865. 
Horton, William, Jr., Dowagiac, e. Dec. 

II, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 25, 1863; Sergeant, 

prom. 2d Lieut. Co. I. 
Knapp, Bruce, Silver Creek, e. Feb. 24, 
1864; dis. far disability Aug. 23, 1864. 

Tuttle, Royal J., Silver Creek, e. Feb., 

1864; died of disease at Duvall's Bluff, 

Ark., Aug. 12, 1864. 
McMichael, Albert, Ontwa, e. Feb. 24, 

1862; vet. Feb. 26, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 

Nye, Isaac, Jefferson, e. Sept. i, 1864; dis. 

at end of service Sept. 9, 1865. 
Ort, Adam, Mason, e. Aug. 20, 1864; dis. 

at end of service Sept. 9, 1865. 
Searles, Henry M., Mason, e. Feb. 24, 

1861 ; vet. Feb. 26, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 

Smith, Hiram, La Grange, e. Aug. 29, 

1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 

Stephenson, Harvey, Pokagon, e. Sept. i, 

1864 : dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 

St. John, John, Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, 1864; 

dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 1865. 
Tibbits, Nathan, Porter, e. Dec. 15, 1863; 

died of disease at Huntersville, Ark., 

July 2, 1864. 
Treat, Horace J., Silver Creek, e. Oct. 10, 

1861 ; died in action at Pittsburg Land- 
ing April 6, 1862. 
Yawkey, Amos, Howard, e. March 7, 

1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Vetter, Joshua T., vet. Dec. 29, 1863. 
W^illard, William, Jefferson, e. Dec. 3. 

1863; died of disease at Duvall's Bluff, 

Ark., Jan. 6, 1865. 

Company K. 

Second Lieut. William E. Stevens, Mason, 

e. Oct. 22, 1861; vet. Dec. 25, 1863; 

Sergeant Co. A. com. April 2, 1865; m. 

o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Bidlack, Charles E., Porter, e. Oct. 14, 

1864; dis. by order Oct. 27, 1865. 
Crandall, Lewis, Wayne, e. Feb. 22, 1864; 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Drake, Lorenzo, dis. by order Aug. 12, 

Farnham, Erastus S., e. Dec. 9, 1861 ; dis. 

at end of service Sept. 7, 1865. 
French, Noah, Sergeant, e. Oct. 10, 1861 ; 

dis. by order July 19, 1862. 
Hardy, Robert, Milton, e..Oct. 21, 1861 ; 

dis. by order Oct. 17, 1862. 
Nostrand, John J., Silver Creek, e. Nov. 

II, 1861; dis. at end of service Jan. 7, 

Rawson, Charles W., Volinia, e. Sept. 7, 
1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 

Sayers, James, Pokagon, e. Feb. 24, 1863; 

dis. by order June i, 1865. 
Shepard, Caleb, Howard, e. Dec. 28, 1861 ; 



vet. Dec. 29, 1863; dis. by order Aug. 1864; died of disease at Little Rock, 

12, 1865. Ark., June 13, 1864. 

Tappan, Harlow, Marcellus, e. Feb. 25, Webber, Geo. W., Ontwa, e. Feb. 29, 

1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 

Weatherwax, John G., Porter, e. Feb. 13, 



Surgeon William E. Clarke, Dowagiac, 

Surgeon 4th Mich. Infantry, trans. 

Surgeon to 19th Infantry Aug. 12, 1862; 

resigned July 18, 1863. 
Asst. Surgeon Leander D. Tompkins, 

Cassopolis, com. Aug. 12, 1862; resigned 

for disability Sept. 7, 1863. 


Quartermaster Sergt. John M. Myers, 
Cassopolis, e. Aug. 9, 1862; appointed 
ist Lieut, and Quartermaster; m, o. 
June 10, 1865. 

Commissary Sergt. George S. Larzelere, 
Silver Creek, com. Jan. 14, 1863; m. o. 
June 15, 1865. 

Principal Musician Ezekiel O'wen, La 
Grange, e. Aug. 9, 1862; m. o. June 10, 


Company A. 

Capt. Joel H. Smith, Dowagiac, com. July 
22, 1862; resigned July 11, 1864. 

Capt. George T. Shaffer, Calvin, com. May 
15, 1864; promoted Maj. 28th Mich. Inf.; 
wounded in action June 22, 1864. 

First Lieut. George T. Shafifer, Calvin, 
com. August 2, 1861 ; promoted Capt. 

First Lieut. Henry J. Ohls, Marcellus, 
com. May 8, 1865 ; Sergt. Aug. 8, 1862 ; 
m. o. June 10, 1865. 

Second Lieut. Reuben B. Larzelere, Dowa- 
giac, com. July 28, 1862; resigned Aug. 

7, 1863. 

Sergt. Isaac Z. Edwards, Pokagon, e. Aug. 

6, 1862; promoted 2d. Lieut. Co. E. 
Sergt. Norman B. Farnsworth, Silver 

Creek, e. Aug. 2, 1864; dis. for disabil- 

itv Sept. 2, 1863. 
Sergt. John S. Griffis, Wayne, e. Aug. 11, 

1862; killed at Resaca, Ga., May 5. 1864. 
Sergt. Barker F. Rudd, Newberg, e. Aug. 

8, 1862; dis. for wound Oct. 23, 1863. 
Sergt. George S. Larzelere, Silver Creek, 

e. Aug. 9, 1862; appointed Commissary 

Corp. George H. Batten, Penn, e. Aug. 9. 

1862; died of disease at Murfreesboro, 

Tenn., Aug. 29, 1863. 
Corp. Zach Aldrich, Newberg, e. Aug. g, 

1862 ; prom, sergt. ; dis. for loss of an 

eye Feb. 9, 1864. 
Corp. John Manning, Marcellus, e. Aug. 

13, 1862 ; dis. for wound, lost hand. May 


Corp. Alexander Kirkwood, Wayne, e. 

Aug. 9, 1862; prom, ist Lieut. Co. I. 
Corp. Amos D. Stocking, Pokagon, e. Aug. 

2, 1862; dis. for disability Feb. i, 1863. 
Corp. Albert T. Cobb, Wayne, e. Aug. 5, 

1862; dis. for disability Feb. 8, 1863. 
Corp. William Slipper, Penn, e. Aug. 2, 

1862; m. o. Sergt. June 10, 1865. 
Corp. James S. Crego, Silver Creek, e. 

Aug. 7, 1862; m. o. Sergt. June. 
Musician Ezekiel Owen, La Grange, e. 

Aug. 9, 1862; prom. Principal Musician 

Sept. I, 1863. 
Musician Franklin R. Sherman, Pokagon, 

e. July 31, 1862; m. o. June 22, 1865. 
Wagoner, Isaac Hamlin, Pokagon, e. July 

20, 1862 ; died of disease at Washington, 

D. C, Feb. 17, 1863. 


Allen, Loren A., Pokagon, e. Aug. 16, 

1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
AlHson, George W., Pokagon, e. Aug. 7, 

1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Allison, Henry C, La Grange, e. Aug. 3, 

1864; m. o. ?vlay 19, 1865. 
Anderson, Jacob M., Newberg, e. Aug. 

22, 1863 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps. 
Baker, Albert, Mason, e. Aug. 5, 1862; 

died of disease at Nicholasville, Ky., 

Dec. 5, 1862. 
Bell, Samuel D., Silver Creek, e. Aug. 8, 

1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Benton, Flic, Pokagon, e. ; m. o. 

June 10, 1865. 
Bend, 11iomas F,, Wayne, e. Aug. 6, 1862 ; 

dis. for wound April 28, 1865. 
Bowerman, Addison, Newberg, e. Aug. 

27, 1863 ; died of disease at Nashville, 

Tenn., Sept. 25, 1864. 
Bridge, Daniel G., Marcellus, e. Aug. 8, 

1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Corbit, James, Penn, e. Aug. 8, 1862; 

killed on picket before Atlanta, Ga., July 

23, 1864. 

Corwin. Amos B., Penn, e. Aug. 8, 1862; 

m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Cooper, Harley R., Jefferson, e. Dec. 15, 

1863; m. o. May 26, 1865. 
Crawford, George, Pokagon, e. Aug. 8, 

1862; Sergt.; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Crocker, Milford, Silver Creek, e. Dec. 

16, 1864; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Fosdick. Franklin H., Penn, e. Feb. 27, 

1864; dis. for disability June 27, 1865. 



Danahy, Timothy, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 9, 
1862; died of wounds at Resaca, Ga., 

May 25, 1864. 
Davis, Norman, Pokagon, e. Aug. 7, 1862; 

dis. for disability Feb. 8, 1863. 
Davis, Reason, Nevvberg, e. Aug. 13, 

1862; m. o, June 10, 1865. 
Davis, William, Penn, e. Aug. 9, 1862; 

m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Edwards, Henry, Pokagon, e. Aug. .9, 

1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Evans, John, Pokagon, e. Aug. 9, 1862; 

m. o. June. 10, 1865. 
Freeman, Adin, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 2, 

1862; killed in action at Thompson's 

Station, Tenn., March 5, 1863. 
Fuller, Oren A., Penn, e. Aug. 7, 1862; 

dis. for wounds May 20, 1863. 
Fuller, William R., Wayne, e. Aug. 6, 

1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Garwood, Levi, Volinia, e. Aug. 8, 1862; 

dis. for disability Aug. 21, 1863. 
George, Stephen L., Silver Creek, e. Aug. 

Q, 1862; dis. for disability Jan. 14, 1864. 
Gilbert, Jeremiah B., Penn, e. Feb. 27, 

1864; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Gillon, Patrick I., Pokagon, e. Aug. 9, 

1862 ; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Gleason, Charles H., Pokagon, e. Aug. 9, 

1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Grinnell, Sylvester M., Penn, e. Feb. 2^, 

1864; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Hagerman, Noah D., Penn, e. Aug. 9, 

1862 ; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Hamilton, John P., Wayne, e. Aug. 11, 

1862 ; died in action at Thompson's Sta- 
tion, 7>nn., March 5, 1863. 
Hannah, James A., La Grange, e. Aug. 9, 

1862; died in action at lliompson's Sta- 
tion, Tenn., March 3, 1863. 
Hawes, Jerome B., Pokagon, e. Aug. 11, 

1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Hoover, Calvin, La Grange, e. Aug. 8. 

1862 ; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Hungerford, Homer M., Wayne, e. Aug. 

9, 1862 ; missing in action near Dalton, 

Ga., 1864. 
Laylin, Oren, Wayne, e. Aug. 6, 1862 ; m. 

o. June 10, 1865. 
Lilly, Aaron, Wayne, e. Aug. 8, 1862; m. 

o. June 10, 1865. 
Lundy, Ira C, Penn, e. Aug. 8, 1862; m. 

o. June 10, 1865. 
Lundy, Robert, Penn, e. Aug. 11, 1862; 

dis. for disability Feb. 8, 1863. 
Lundy, Thomas, Penn, e. Aug. 8, 1862; 

died of disease at Annapolis, Md., April 

13, 1863. 
Lytle, William M., Marccllus, e. Jan. i, 

1863; dis. for wound Nov. 12, 1864. 
Mead, Smith, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 2, 

1862; m. o. June 10. 1865. 

Means, Andrew, Pokagon, e. Aug. 8, 1862; 

dis. for disability Aug. 18, 1863. 
Muncy, Nimrod, Wayne, e. Aug. 2, 1862; 

m. o. June 10, 1863. 
Nicholas, Ezra W., Marcellus, e. Aug. 9, 

1862; died of wounds at Vinirig's Sta- 
tion, Ga., Sept. 4, 1864. 
Nichols, William H., Marcellus, e. Jan. 

I, 1863; died of wounds at Chattanooga, 

Tenn., June 20, 1864. 
Parker, Haynes G., Calvin, e. Aug. 8, 
1862; died of disease at Nashville, 

Tenn., July 13, 1864. 
Parker, Romaine, Pokagon, e. Aug. 4, 

1862 ; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Parker, Thomas S., Calvin, e. Aug. 8, 

1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Peters, John, Silver Creek, e. Dec. 22, 

1863; died of wounds at Chattanooga, 

Tenn., June 20, 1864. 
Potter, Thomas, Jefiferson, e. Aug. 7, 

1862 ; died of disease at Lexington, Ky., 

Nov. 13, 1862. 
Reams, Caleb M., Penn, e. Aug. 26, 1862; 

m. o. July 19, 1865. 
Reams, Isaiah G., Penn, e. Sept. 12, 1862; 

m. o. July 19, 1865. 
Reams, Silas G., Penn, e. Aug. 31, 1863; 

m. o. May 24, 1865. 
Savage, Henry B., Marcellus, e. Aug. 12, 

1862; died in action at Thompson's Sta- 
tion, Tenn., March 5, 1863. 
Schideler, John, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 7, 

1862 ; died in rebel prison at Richmond, 

Va., March — , 1863. 
Schideler, Robert, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 

7, 1862 ; dis. for disability. 
Shawl. Madison, Silver Creek, e. July 25, 

1862 ; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Shepard, Purley, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 2, 

1862 ; died of disease at Lookout Mount- 
ain, Tenn., Oct. 26, 1864. 
Sherman, C. C, Pokagon, e. July 22), 1862 ; 

m. o. June 16, 1865. 
Spaulding, Joel, Newberg, e. Aug. 9, 

1862 ; m. o. May 10, 1865. 
Spencer, Edward, Wayne, e. Aug. 9, 1862 ; 

m. o. June to, 1865. 
Stedman, Livingston, Pokagon, e. Aug. 8, 

1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Stuart, Salmon, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 9, 

1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Suits, Jacob, Wayne, e. Aug. 9, 1862 ; m. 

o. June 10, 1865. 
Suits, Solomon A., Silver Creek, e. Aug. 

9, 1862 ; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Sullivan, Solomon A., Wayne, e. Aug. 4, 

1862; m. o. June 10, T865. 
Taylor, John. Pokaeon, e. Aug. 4, 1862; 

m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Thompson, Francis M., Wayne, e. Aug. 

Ti, 1862; m. o. June to, T865. 



Underwood, Enos, Newberg, e. Aug. 9, 

1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Underwood. Stephen W., Penn, e. Aug. 9, 

1862; m. o. July II, 1865. 
Wickham, William C, Silver Creek, e. 

Aug. 13, 1862; died of disease at Dan- 
ville, Ky., Dec. — , 1862. 
Wiggins, George E., Wayne, e. Aug. 11, 

1862; died of wounds at Richmond, Va., 

March — , 1863. 
Wiggins, Lorenzo R., Wayne, e. Aug. 7, 

1862; died in rebel prison, Richmond, 

Va., March — , 1863. 
Winchell, Seneca W., Pokagon, e. Aug. 2, 

1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. 

Company C. 

Phillips, John H., Newberg, e. Jan. 17, 
1864; !"• o. July 19, 1865. 

Company D. 

Second Lieut. Isaac Z. Edwards, Pokagon, 

trans, from Co. E. July 27, 1863 ; prom. 

1st Lieut. June i, 1864; resigned as 2d 

Lieut. Aug. 6, 1864. 
Plarrigan, William, Marcellus, e. Sept. 
, 15, 1864; m. o. June 23 1865. 
Wright, Giles, Newberg, e. Sept. 5, 1863; 

m. o. July 19, 1865. 

Company E. 

Second Lieut. Isaac Z. Edwards, Pokagon, 
com. May i, 1863; trans. 2d. Lieut, to 
Co. D. 

Ashley, William H., e. Aug. — , 1862; 
confined in Libby Prison ; died at An- 
napolis, Md., April 11, 1863. 

Basley, Hiram E., Jefferson, e. Dec. 15, 

1863, in loth Infantry. 

Hollister, Albert E., Penn, e. Sept. 29, 

1864, in loth Infantry. 

Mahey, Martin, Silver Creek, e. Dec. 

22, 1863, in loth Infantry; trans, to loth 

Mich. Infantry. 
Martin, George H., m. o. Aug. 3, 1865. 
Miller, Charles Z., e. Aug. — , 1862; died 

at Nicholasville, Ky., Dec. 13, 1862. 
Quay, William H., Newberg, e. Jan. 23, 

1864; died of disease at Nashville, 

Tenn., March 21, 1864. 
Quay, Edward L., Newberg, e. Dec. 21, 

1863; m. o. July 19, 1865. 

Welch, Thomas C, Jefferson, e. Dec. 15, 

1863; m. o. July 19, 1865. 
White, Enos H., Pokagon, e. Nov. 18, 

1864; ni. o. July 19, 1865. 

Company G. 

Beaman, Alonzo P., Newberg, e. Jan. 5, 

1864; m. o. July 19, 1865. 
Boghart, Peter C, Newberg, e. Jan. 5, 

1864, in Toth Infantry; died of disease 

March 3, 1864. 
Madden, Michael, Silver Creek, e. Dec. 

2S, 1863; m. o. July 19, 1865. 
McCoy, John, Silver Creek, e. Dec. 23, 

1863; m- o. July 19, 1865. 
Reams, Erastus, Dowagiac, e. Sept. 12, 

1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Reed, Henry S., Newberg, e. Jan. 5, 1864; 

died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., 

June 30, 1864. 
Reed, William T., Newberg, e. Jan. 5, 

1864; died of disease at Chattanooga, 

Tenn., Aug. 7, 1864. 
Trattles, Daniel, Newberg, e. Aug. 11, 

1862: m. o. June 10, 1865. 

Company H. 

Bair, Myron M., Newberg, e. Jan. 20, 
1864; ni. o. June 10, 1865. 

Hawkins, Isaac, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 13, 
1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. 

Musician George N. Rosebrock, Ontwa, e. 
Aug. 13, 1862; died of disease at Cov- 
ington, Ky., Oct. 21, 1862. 

Teagen, Samuel. Porter, e. Aug. 13, 1862; 
dis. for disability July 6, 1863. 

Company I. 

First Lieut. Alexander Kirkwood, Wayne, 

com. Nov. II, 1864; m. o. June 10, 

Buttrick, William, Wayne, e. Jan. 4, 1864; 

m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Carroll, Thomas, Wayne, e. Dec. 17, 1863 ; 

m. o. July 19, 1865. 
Cooper, Asbury, Jefferson, e. Dec. 15, 

1863, in loth Infantry; trans, to loth 

Michigan Infantry. 
Havens, Adam, Wayne, e. Jan. 4, 1864, in 

TOth Infantry; trans, to loth Michigan 

White, William L., Wayne, e. Dec. 4. 

1863 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps. 

non-commissioned staff. Company A. 

Sergt. Maj. James S. McElheny, Dowa- 
giac, e. Aug. 15, 1861 ; prom. 2d Lieut. 
Co. G. 

Hosp. Steward James R. Leader, Poka- 
gon; m. o. Oct., 1862. 

First Lieut. Sidney G. Morse, CassopoHs, 
com. June, 1862; ist Sergt. Co. M, May 
12, 1862 ; killed in battle at Second Bull 
Run, Aug. 30, 1862. 



First Lieut. John H. Simmons, Dowagiac, 
com. March 7, 1865 ; m. o. Nov. 7, 1865. 

Private Richard L. Crawford, Penn, e. 
Feb. 4, 1864; m. o. Jan. 23, 1866. 

Company B. 

Capt. Rollin C. Denison, Dowagiac, trans. 

from Co. M, Oct., 1861 ; trans, to Co. 

M, Nov., 1861. 
Capt. William Heazelit, Dowagiac, trans. 

from Co. K, July 18, 1862; m. o. Oct. 

30, 1864. 
Second Lieut. John Simmons, Dowagiac, 

prom. 1st Lieut. Co. A, March 7, 1865. 

Company C. 
Randall, Wesley C, Jefferson, e. March 
13, 1865; m. o. May 19, 1866. 

Company E. 
Bugler George Krupp, Pokagon, e. Dec. 

30, 1863; m. o. March 25, 1866. 
Shanafels, George, Calvin, e. Feb. 6, 

1865; m. o. Dec. 5, 1865. 

Company D. 

First Lieut. John Munson, Volinia, com. 
March 7, 1865; 2d Lieut. Dec. 4, 1864; 
m. o. trans, to Co. G, March 10, 1865. 

Company G. 

First Lieut. James S. McElheny, Dowa- 
giac, com. May 18, 1863; 2d Lieut. Nov. 
12. 1862; killed in action at Monterey, 
Md., July 4, 1863. 

First Lieut. John Munson, Volinia, trans, 
from Co. D, ist Lieut. March 10, 1865; 
m. o. March 10, 1866. 

Private Warren Simpson, Jefferson, e. 
Feb. 8, 1865 ; m. o. Dec. 5, 1865. 

Company K. 
Capt. William M. Hazelet, Dowagiac, com. 
Nov. 12, 1862 ; 2d Lieut. Co. M ; wound- 
ed in action at Gettysburg July 3, 1863 ; 
and at Cold Harbor June i, 1864; trans. 
Capt. to Co. B; m. o. Oct. 30, 1864. 


Apted, William, Volinia, e. Feb. 15, 1865 ; 

m. o. Dec. 5, 1865. 
Conner, Isaac B., Volinia, e. Feb. 17, 

1865; trans, to Co. G. 
Fonger, William, La Grange, e. Nov. 30* 

Hanna, Hezekiah, Vohnia, e. Nov. 26, 

1863; died at Washington, D. C, July 

II, 1864. 
Herbert, William P., Corp., Volinia, e. 

Dec. 15, 1863; m. o. March 10, 1865. 
James, Lewis, Volinia, e. Dec. 16, 1863; 

m. o. March 10, 1866. 
Kenny, James, blacksmith, Volinia, e. 

Nov. 30, 1863; m. 0. Jan. 10, 1865. 

Munson, John, saddler, Volinia, e. Nov. 

30, 1863 ; prom. 2d Lieut. Co. D, Dec. 

4, 1864. 
Myers, James W., Jefferson, e. Feb. 7, 

1865 ; m. o. Dec. 8, 1865. 
Sweet, George W., Volinia, e. Dec. 16, 

1863 ; m. o. July 16, 1865. 
Welcher, Nelson, Volinia, e. Nov. 30, 

1863; died at Detroit, ]\Iich., Oct. 27, 

Winegarden, Abram S., Volinia, e. Nov. 

30, 1863; dis. by order July 7, 1865. 

Company L. 

Corp. Albert Vincent, Volinia, e. Aug, 20, 
1861 ; died in rebel prison. 


Koonse, Herbert, Mason, e. Jan. 26, 1864; 

m. o. Sept. 25, 1865. 
Redman, J. W., Mason, e. Feb. 26, 1865; 

m. o. Dec. 5, 1865. 

Company M. 

Capt. Rollin C. Denison, Dowagiac, com. 
Aug. 12, 1861 ; resigned April 23, 1863. 

Capt. David W. Clemmer, Dowagiac, com. 
May 2, 1863 ; wounded in action at 
Gettysburg, Penn., July 3, 1863; m. o. 
Dec. 14, 1864. 

First Lieut. Charles H. Sprague, Dowa- 
giac, com. Aug. 12. 1861 ; prom. Capt. 
Co. A. 

First Lieut. David W. Clemmer, Dowa- 
giac, com. Aug. 12, i86t ; prom. Capt. 
May 2, 1863. 

Second Lieut. David W. Clemmer, Dowa- 
giac, com. May 12, 1862; prom, ist 
Lieut. Nov. 12, 1862. 

Second Lieut. William M. Heazlit, Dowa- 
giac, com. Aug. 12, T86i;'prom. Capt. 
Co. K, Nov. 12, 1862. 

First Sergt. David W. Clemmer, Dowa- 
giac, e. Aug. 12, 1861 ; prom. 2d Lieut. 
May T2, 1862. 

Sergt. Sidney G. Morse, Cassopolis ; ist 
Sergt. May 12, 1862; Commissary Sergt. 
Aug. 16, 1861 ; prom, ist Lieut. Co. A. 

Sergt. William Dickson, Dowagiac, e. 
Aug. 12, t86i ; prom. 2d Lieut. May 12, 
1862: dis. for disability January, 1864. 

Sergt. Joseph L. Tice, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 
22, 1861; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; dis. by 
order Aug. i, 1865. 

Sergt. John H. Simmons, Dowagiac; 

prom. 2d Lieut. Co. B. 
Sergt. Matthew B. Dopp, Dowagiac, e. 
Aug. la t86i; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; m. 
o. March 2^, 1866. 
Sergt. Gilbert Vincent, Volinia, e. Aug. 
20, 1861; dis. for disability Nov. i, 
Sergt. John W. Robinson, Dowagiac, e. 



Aug. 22, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; m. o. 

March 25, 1866. 
Corp. James S. McElheny, Dowagiac, e. 

Aug. 15. 1861 ; prom. Sergt. January, 

1862; Sergeant Maj. October, 1862. 
Corp. Charles Allen, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 

16, 1861 ; prom. Sergt. October, 1862 ; 

died in rebel prison at Florence, Ala. 
Musician John H. Simmons, Dowagiac, e. 

Aug. 16, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; pro- 
Musician George W. Pierson, Dowagiac, 

e. Aug. 16, i86t ; vet. Dec. 29, 1863; 

m. o. July 29, 1865. 
Farrier Abram R. Sigerfoos. Dowagiac, 

e. Aug. 19, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; 

m. o. July 31, 1865. 
Wagoner Daniel Rummell, Dowagiac, e. 

Aug. 16, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 21, 1863 ; m. o. 

Aug. 8, 1865. 

James R. Leader, Pokagon, e. Aug. 20, 

i86t ; promoted Hospital Steward. 
Henry W. Ellis, Dowagiac. e. Aug. 16, 

1861 ; dis. for disability Nov. i, 1862. 
Charles C. Wilcox, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 

16, 1861 ; prom. Sergt. ; dis. at end of 

John H. Simmons, Dowagiac. e. Aug. 16, 

t86t ; prom. Sergt. 
Albert H. Lewis, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 16, 

1861 ; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; m. o. March 

25. 1866. 

Company M. 

Angle, Philip, Wayne, e. Aug. 19, 1861 ; 

vet. Dec. 21, 1863 ; m. o. March 25, 

Barnaby, Alvin P., Volinia, e. Jan. 23, 

1864; dis. by order May 3, 1865. 
Barney, William W., La Granfre, e. Feb. 

15, 1864; flied of disease April 5, 1864. 
Becraft, William F., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 

20, i86t ; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; dis. by 

order May 31, 1865. 
Bentley, Pardon F., Pokagon, e. Aug. 13, 

1861 ; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; died at Alex- 
andria, Va., Nov. 22, 1864. 
Bilderback, John, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 

20, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; prom. 

Sergt. ; trans, to Co. D. 
Bulhand, Joseph L., Edwardsburg, e. Aug. 

22, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 21, 1863 ; rn. o. March 

2q, 1866. 
Cables, Jerome L, Volinia, e. Aug. 17, 

1861 ; vet. Dec. 21, 1863 ; m. o. Aug. 7, 

Chatterson, Joseph, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 

16, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; m. o. Nov. 
24, 1865. 

Clock, Miles A., Porter, e. ; m. o. 

Aug. 7, 1865. 

Colby, Frank, Penn, e. Feb. 2, 1864; vet. 

Dec. 21, 1863; m- o. July 10, 1865. 
Cook, Albert H., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 21, 

1861 ; dis. at end of service Sept. 24, 
^ 1864. 
Crawford, Charles C, Penn, e. Feb. 16, 

1864; died in action Wilderness, Va., 

May 6, 1864. 
Day, James E., Porter, e. Feb. 9, 1864; 

m. o. March 25, 1866. 
Dewitt, Lsaac A., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 19, 

1861 ; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; m. o. ALarch 

25, 1866. 
Drummond, Alcius, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 

22, 1861 ; dis. for disability April 10, 

Ellsworth, Andrew J.; m. o. March 25, 

Ensign, Leroy, Pokagon, e. Aug. 13, 

1861 ; died in battle at Winchester, Va., 

May 24, 1862. 
Gates, Henry C, Dowagiac, e. Sept. 5, 

1861 ; died of disease at Alexandria, 

Va., Sept. 24, 1862. 
Crush, John, Volinia, e. Aug. t6, 1861 ; 

vet. Dec. 21, 1863; m. o. March 25, 

Hutson, Edward R., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 

12, t86t ; dis. for disability. 
LIuff, Franklin, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 22, 

i86t ; vet. Dec. 21. 1863; dis. at end of 

service Aug. 22, 1864. 
King, John R., e. Oct. 10, 1862; died in 

rebel prison, Richmond, Va., Feb. 3, 

Labadie, A. C, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 16, 

1861 ; dis. for disability April 3, 1863. 
Lamphere, Elias, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 12, 

1861 ; dis. for disability April, 1862, 

Lillie, George, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 17, 

1861 ; dis. for disability Jan. 13, 1863, 

Lyons, John, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 16, 1861 ; 

dis. for disability September, 1862. 
McCreevy, Hiram, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 17, 

i86t ; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; dis. by order 

July 31, T865. 
Meacham, Charles, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 16, 

1861 ; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; m. o. March 

25, 1866. 
Morland. Joseph, Volinia, e. Jan. 16, 1864; 

m. o. March 25, 1866. 
Norton, Cassius M., Dowagiac, e. Oct. 

21, 1862; dis. by order June 19, 1865. 
Niver, William C, Ontw^a, e. Aug. 22, 

i86t ; died of disease at Annapolis, Md., 

Oct. X 1862. 
Ornt, Eli, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 22, 1861 ; 

dis. at end of service. 
Olney, Darwin, Dowagiac; e. Aug. 19, 

t86t ; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; killed in battle 

at Gettysburg, Penn., July 3, 1863. 



Oyler, John, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 22, 1861 ; 

dis. for disability July, 1862. 
Peck, Coleman C, Cassopolis, e. Aug. 19, 

1861 ; dis. at end of service. 
Pettigrew, William M., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 

22, 1861; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; m. o. May 

II, 1866. 
Pierce. Thomas P., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 

16, 1861 ; died of disease at Richmond, 

Reimer, Henry, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 16, 

1861 ; dis. for disability Nov. 29, 1862. 
Robinson, Richard M., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 

22, 1861; vet. Dec. 21, 1863: m. o. Aug. 

22, 1864. ^ ^ 

Roberts, Luman C, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 12, 

1861; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; m. o. Nov. 

24, 1865. 
Rose, Alexander, La Grange, e. Dec. 21, 

1863 ; m. o. Aug. 8, 1865. 
Rutter, Benjamin H., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 

20, 1861; dis. at end of service Sept. 

6, 1864. 
Rutter, Henry C, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 17, 

1861 ; died of disease April, 1862. 
Serrine, Ezra, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 16, 

1861 ; dis. for disability May, 1862. 
Stults, Seth S., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 26, 

1861 ; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; Sergt. ; trans. 

to Co. F. 
Shrackengast, George W., Dowagiac, e. 

Aug. 22, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 21, 1863. 

Shaw, John N., Corp., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 

16, 1861 ; dis. at end of service. 
Simons, Joseph R. C, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 

22, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 21, 1863 ; died at Ft. 

Bridger, Utah, Nov. 18, 1865. 
Smyth, Daniel, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 2'^^ 

1861 ; dis. for disability Jan. 14, 1863. 
Spillman, Jacob, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 26, 

1861 ; dis. by order. 
Stone, George, Corp., Jefferson, e. Feb. 7, 

1865; m. o. March 25, 1866. 
Suydam, William H., Silver Creek, e. 

Dec. 26, 1863; dis. by order Aug. 3, 

Taylor, Halbert R., Wayne, e. Dec. 28, 

1863 ; m. o. March 25, 1866. 
Thomas, Cassius, Porter, e. Feb. 19, 1864; 

died of yellow fever May 6, 1864. 
Tinkler, George W^.. Dowagiac, e. Aug. 

16, 1861 ; dis. at end of service. 
Tice, Myron C, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 19, 

1861 ; m. o. July 13, 1865. 
Watson, Joseph H., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 21, 

1861 ; taken prisoner in action at Robb's 

Tavern, Va. 
Wilber, Oscar, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 22, 

1861 ; died of disease Aug. 29, 1862. 
Wiley, James P., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 17, 
1861 ; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; m. o. March 
25, t866. 


Company D. 
Fellows, Austin P., Milton, Nov. 8, 1863; 
m. o. Aug. 17, 1865. 

Company I. 
Farrier John H. Ashley, Mason, e. Aug. 

24, 1864; dis. by order June 20, 1865. 
Rix, Alfred, Mason, e. Aug. 24, 1864; 

taken prisoner at Shoal Creek, Ala., 

Nov. 5, 1864. 
Stephens, George, Mason, e. Aug. 24, 

1861 ; dis. by order June 20, 1865. 

Company L. 

First Lieut. Andrew J. Foster, com. Aug. 
24, 1861 ; resigned Aug. 31, 1862. 

First Lieut. John H. Hutton, com. Sept. 
9; 1862: 2d Lieut. Aug. 24, 1861 ; re- 
signed for disability April 9, 1864. 

Quartermaster Sergt. William P. Thomas, 
e. Sept. 12, 1861 ; died of disease at Cor- 
mth, Miss., June 25, 1862. 

Sergt. Jay Blodgett, e. Sept. 16, 1861 ; dis. 
for disability Sept. 9, 1862. 

Corp. John K. Stark, e. Sept. 17, 1861 ; 
dis. for disability Aug. 14, 1862. 

Corp. Harvey L. Drew, e. Sept. 16, 1861 ; 

trans, to 3d Cav. Nov. 2, 1861. 
Corp. Albert P. Anderson, e. Sept. 14, 

t86i ; died of wounds near Boonville, 

Miss., July 3, 1862. 
Corp. William H. Todd, e. Sept. 16, 1861 ; 

dis. for disability Dec. 9, 1862. 
Corp. Samuel Maxham, e. Sept. 18, i86t ; 

dis. for disability Dec. 6, 1862. 
Corp. Abner P. Stimpson, e. Sept. 14, 

1861 ; vet. Jan. 5, 1864; m. o. Aug. 30, 

Wagoner Robert Lingrell, e. Sept. 8, 1861 ; 

vet. Jan. 5, 1864; prom. Sergt.; m. o. 

Aug. 17, 1865. 
Quartermaster Sergt. S. J. W. Thomas, 

e. 1862; killed at battle of Bear River, 

Feb. 29, 1863. 

Andrews, James H., Mason, e. Aug. 27, 

1864; dis. bv order June 3, 1865. 
Barker, John C, e. Oct. i, t86i ; vet. Jan. 

5, 1864; m. o. Aug. 17. 1865. 
Biirns, Lawrence, e. Sept. 14, 1861 ; vet. 

Jan. 5, 1864; died in action in Alabama 

Oct. 7, 1864. 



Burns, Roger, e. Sept. 14, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 

5, 1864; m. o. Aug. 17, 1865. 
Carlisle, William, e. Sept. 14, 1861 ; trans. 

to Vet. Res. Corps. 
Dailey, Hiram, e. Nov. 14, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 

5, 1864; m. o. Aug. 17, 1865. 
Eisele, Felix, e. Sept. 24, 1861 ; died in 

action at Mossy Creek, Dec. 2y, 1863. 
Eisele, Martin, e. Sept. 24, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 

5, 1864; m. o. Aug. 17, 1865. 
Goodrich, J T., e. Nov. i, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 

5, 1864; m. o. Aug. 17, 1865. 
Griffith, John W., e. Sept. 7, 1861 ; vet. 

Jan. 5, 1864; m. o. Aug. 17, 1865. 
Hanson, John, e. Sept. 16, 1861 ; dis. at 

end of service Oct. 22, 1864. 
Hewitt, Henry W., e. Sept. 16, 1861 ; dis. 

for disability May 30, 1863. 
Ketcham, Alonzo, e. Sept. 14, 1861 ; vet. 

Jan. 5, 1864; iTi- o. Aug. 17, 1865. 
Layton, James L., Newberg, "m. o. Aug. 

17, 1865. 
Loveland, Andrew J., e. Sept. 21, 1861 ; 

vet. Jan. 5, 1864. 
Lowry, William S., e. Sept. 13, 1861 ; vet. 

Jan. 5, 1864; dis. by order June 4, 

Lybacher, Porter, Mason, e. Aug. 14, 

1861 ; m. o. July 5, 1865. 
Mallory, Marquis D., e. Oct. i, 1861 ; dis. 

at end of service Oct. 22, i8i54. 
Manco, Theo., e. Sept. 13, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 

5, 1864; m. o. Aug. 17, 1865. 
Mann, George H., Mason, e. Aug. 14, 

1862; m. o. Aug. 17, 1865. 

Mannering, W. H., e. Oct. 10, 1861 ; dis. 

for disability Aug. 16, 1862. 
Marshall, James M., Mason, e. Aug. 19, 

1862; dis. for disability Dec. 6, 1862. 
Moore, Lorenzo D., e. Sept. 24, 1861 ; vet. 

Jan. 5, 1864; died of wounds at Shoal 

Creek, Ala., Dec. i, 1864. 
Nelson, Edgar, e. Sept. 16, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 

5, 1864; dis. by order May 19, 1865. 
Parker, Chandler, e. Nov. i, 1861 ; vet. 

Jan. 5, 1864; ^^' o- Aug. 17, 1865. 
Shockley, Alfred, e. Sept. 14, 1861 ; vet. 

Jan. 5, 1864; m. o. Aug. 17, 1865. 
Smith, Henry, e. Sept. 16, 1861 ; dis. at 

end of service Oct. 22, 1864. 
Smjth, Walter, e. Sept. 17, 1861 ; dis. at 

end of service Oct. 22, 1864. 
Stark, Edward, e. Sept. 24, 1861 ; dis. for 

disability Oct. 20, 1862. 
Stilson, Hiram, Mason, e. Aug. 14, 1862; 

trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Feb. 15, 1865. 
Stilson, John, Mason, e. Sept. i, 1864; 

m. o. Aug. 17, 1865. 
Stilson, William C, ]Mason, e. Aug. 24, 

1864; m. o. Aug. 17, 1865. 
Welting, Jacob, dis. for disability March 

25, 1863! 
Williams, Richard J., e. Sept. 14, 1861 ; 

vet. Jan. 5, 1864; dis. for promotion 

Sept. 20, 1864. 
Williams, Theodore, e. Sept. 18, 1861 ; 

killed by guerrillas at Madisonville, 

l^enn., March 7, 1864. 
Wooden, Timothy, e. Sept. 16, 1861 ; died 

of disease at St. Louis, Mo., Jan. 31, 



Company A. 
Smith, George W., Penn, e. Feb. 15, 1864; 
m, o. Feb. 12, 1866. 

Company F. 
Second Lieut. Morrel Wells, La Grange, 

e. Sept. 30, 1861, Corp.; vet. Jan. 19, 

1864; Sergt. ; prom. 2d Lieut. Co. F; 

prom. 1st Lieut. Co. I, Nov. 17, 1864; 

m. o. Feb. 12, 1866. 
Second Lieut. Robert H. Carr, Dowagiac, 

e. Sept. 2(i, 1861 ; Corp., Sergt., 2d Lieut. 

July 4, 1864; m. o. as Sergt., Feb. 12, 



Beebe, Benjamin F., Volinia, e. Feb. 24, 

1864; died of disease Duvall's Bluff, 

Ark., July 29, 1864. 
Vance, William J., Volinia, e. Jan. 19, 

1864; m. o. Feb. 12, 1866. 
Wallace, John I., Dowagiac, e. Sept. 30, 

1861 ; dis. for prom. June 20, 1863. 

Company L 

First Lieut. Morrel Wells, La Grange, 
com. Nov. 17, 1864; m. o. Feb. 12, 1866. 

Company M. 

Foster, David, Pokagon, e. Dec. 29, 1863; 
m. o. Feb. 12, 1866. 


Company A. Company C. 

McManus, John, La Grange, e. Nov. 3, McCoy, William, D. P. R., Aug. i, 1862; 
1863; m. o. Aug. 15, 1865. m- o- J"ly l» 1865. 



Partridge, Edwin D., Pokagon, e. Dec. 5, 

1863; m. o. Aug. 15, 1865. 
Riggs, Rensselaer, Porter, e. Aug. 18; 

1864; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Shoemaker, John H., Marcellus, e. July 

15, 1862; ni> o. July I, 1865. 

Company G. 
Covvles, David B., Howard, e. Nov. 3, 
1863; trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps 
Aug. 17, 1864. 

Company I. 
Bedwell, George W., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 

II, 1862; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Corp. Brown, Preston W., Dowagiac, e. 

July 29, 1862; m. o. July i, 1865. 
Driskel, Noah, Porter, e. Aug. 11, 1862; 

dis. for disability April 2, 1863. 
Eaton, Frank P., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 11, 

1862; dis. for disability March 3, 1863. 
Fetterly, Charles, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 2, 

1862; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Joy, Fraklin D., Penn, e. Aug. 11, 1862; 

m. o. May 3, 1865. 
Kennedy, David A., Penn, e. Aug. 11, 

1862; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Powers, Samuel H., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 11, 

1862; died of disease at Nashville, 

Tenn., Jan. 12, 1863. 
Roberson, Jonathan S., Corp., e. Aug. 2, 

1862; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Sept. i, 

Matthews, William, Penn, e. Aug. 11, 

1862; sick at Nashville at m. o. 
Morton, Charles L., Porter, e. Aug. 11, 

1862; dis. for disability Feb. 27, 1863. 
Sigerfoos. Albertus, Porter, e. Aug. 11, 

1862; sick at Nashville at m. o. 
Scrgt. Witherell, Henry A., Pokagon, e. 

Aug. II, 1862; died of disease at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., April 9, 1864. 
Lewis, James, Newberg, e. Aug. 11, 1862; 

killed in action at Stone River. 
Lewis, FVanklin B., e. Aug. ii, 1862; died 
of disease at Nashville. 

Company M. 

First Lieut. Hiram F. Beals, Dowagiac, 

com. Aug. 13, 1862. 
Quartermaster Sergt. William H. Davis, 

Dowagiac, e. July 26, 1862; dis. by 

order May 19, 1865. 
Commissary Sergt. James W. Argo, e. 

July 24, 1862; m. o. July i, 1865, 
Sergt. James D. Dawson, e. Aug. 11, 

1862; dis. for disability July 8, 1863. 
Sergt. Edward Pearce, Wayne, e. Aug. 

15, 1862; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Corp. Truman Pond, Wayne, e. Aug. 2, 

1862; died of disease at Louisville, Kv., 

Oct. 27, 1862. 

Corp. George Scott, Volinia, e. Aug. 5, 

1862; dis. for disability Jan. i, 1863. 
Corp. John Fox, Milton, e. Aug. 7, 1862; 

dis. by order May 19, 1865. 
Corp. Elias Ingling, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 

6, 1862; m. o. July i, 1865. 
Corp. John W. Bowles, Volinia, e. Aug. 7, 

1862; absent sick at m. o. 
Farrier Henry Cooper, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 

13, 1862; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Teamster Charles D. Northrup, Dowagiac. 

e. Aug. 5, 1862; m. o. July i, 1865. 
Wagoner Josiah Ipes, e. Aug. 2, 1862; m. 

o. July I, 1865. 

Abbott, Hiram, Milton, e. Aug. 16, 1862; 

m. o. July I, 1865. 
Aldrich, James M., e. Aug. 12, 1862; died 
of disease at Lebanon, Ky., Nov. 18, 
Arnold, Alvin, Newberg, e. Aug. 13, 1862; 

trans, to Vet. Res. Corps. 
Arnold, Robert, Volinia, e. Aug. 11, 1862; 

m. o. July I, 1865. 
Baldwin, Thomas, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 5, 

1862; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Dunbar. George W,, Milton, e. Aug. 13, 

1862; m. o. July T, 1865. 
Finch, Mathew, Volinia, e. Aug. 10, 1862; 

dis. for disability May i, 1863. 
Ferris, Albert P, Volinia, e. Aug. 11, 

1862; dis. by order May 3, 1865. 
Garwood, Levi J., Volinia, e. Aug. 2, 

1862 ; dis. by order June 29, 1865. 
Higgins, George W., Dowagiac, e. July 

26, 1862; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Haight, Horatio, Marcellus, e. Aug. 7, 

1862: m. o. July T, 1865. 
Hoyt, Henry. Dowagiac, e. Aug. 2, 1862; 
died of disease at Nashville, Dec. 26, 
Huff, Simon. Volinia, e. Aug. 15, 1862; 

m. o. July T, 1865. 
Humiston, Perry, e. Aug. 8, 1862 ; m. o. 

July I, 1865. 
Jaquays, William, Volinia, e. Aug.- 15, 
1862; transferred to Vet. Res. Corps 
Jan. 15, 1864. 
Little, John H., Volinia, e. Aug. 6, 1862; 

dis. fof disability Feb. ii, 1863. 
Northrup, Freeman G., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 
6, 1862; died of disease at Mitchellville, 
Tenn., Nov. 22, 1862. 
Parks, James, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 6, 1862; 

dis. by order April 28, 1865. 
Pond, Wesley D., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 9, 

1862; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Quick, Robert L, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 6, 

1862; dis. for disability Feb. 4, 1863. 
Rankin, John E., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 12, 
1862; m. o. July I, 1865. 



Shanahan, Henry, e. Aug. 12, 1862; m. o. 

July I, 1865. 
Southworth, George M., Volinia, e. Aug. 

11, 1862; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Sweetland, James M., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 

7, 1862; dis. for disability Jan. 7, 1863. 
Sweetland, John B., Edwardsburg, e. Aug. 

12, 1862; dis. by order to appointment 
as United States Medical Cadet Sept. 
20, 1863. 

Taylor, Nelson, m. o. July i, 1865. 

Thompson, Benjamin R, Milton, e. Aug. 
15, 1862; prom, to Corp. 1863, after the 
battle of Stone River; dis. for disabil- 
ity Nov. II, 1864. 

Tharp, John L., Penn, e. Aug. 9, 1862; 
dis. for disability March 25, 1864. 

Van Tuyl, John, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 8, 
. 1862 ; m. o. July i, 1865. 

Vaughn, Dewitt C, Calvin, e. Aug. 6, 
1862; died of disease in Indiana March 
18, 1863. 

Welch, Michael, La Grange, e. Aug. 5, 

1862; died in rebel prison Richmond, 

Va., Dec. 18, 1862. 
Welcher, Sherman B., Volinia, e. Aug. 

6, 1862; died of disease at Woodson- 

ville, Ky., Dec. — , 1862. 
Wilson, Samuel, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 6, 

1862; m. o. July I, 1865. 


Brown, Simeon, Wayne, e. Nov. 18, 1863. 
Day, Robert B., Wayne, e. Dec. 21, 1863. 
Rigin, Thomas, Mason, e. Nov. 3, 1863. 
Ross, William, Silver Creek, e. Dec. 23, 

Randall, Charles, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 30, 

Shoemaker, Franklin C, Penn, e. Dec. 

2S, 1863. 
Williams, Leonard W., Penn, e. Nov. 3, 




Surg. Sylvester L. Morris, Dowagiac, 
Oct. 23, 1863 ; Assistant Surgeon Sept. 
3, 1863; resigned July 28, 1864. 

Company D. 

Dean, Edward, La Grange, e, Jan. 23, 
1865; transferred to ist Michigan Cav- 

Randall, Wesley C, Jefferson, e. March 
T3, 1865; m. o. May 19, 1866. 

Shilling, Lemuel C, Volinia, e. March 15, 
1865; m. o. Jan. 9, 1866. 

Company H. 
King, Franklin T., La Grange, e. Jan. 6, 
1865; transferred to ist Michigan Cav- 

Company K. 
Huyck, Alva H., Volinia, e. March 15, 
1865 ; transferred to 7th Michigan Cav- 

Company M. 
Harrington, Silas, Silver Creek, e. Feb. 
17, 1865 ; transferred to 7th Michigan 


Company E. 
Savage, Frank, Marcellus, e. March 31, 
1865 ; m. o. Feb. 16, 1866. 

Company G. 
Branch, Arthur R., Silver Creek, e. March 

r, 1865 ; m. o. Feb. 16, 1866. 
Nearpass, Ira N., Newberg, e. March 31, 

1865; m. o. May 16, 1866. 

Company K. 
Potts, James H., Silver Creek, e. March 
ID, 1865; m. o. March 31, 1866. 

Company L. 
Bliss, Edwin S., Newberg, e. Jan. 26, 
1864; m. o. May 30, 1865. 

Dewey, Orlando, Marcellus ; m. o. March 

25, 1866. 
Kilmer, George R, Penn, e. Feb. 11, 

1864; m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Mathers, William, Silver Creek, e. Feb. 

17, 1865; m. o. March 10, 1866. 

Company M. 

Cole, Hiram G., Jefferson, e. Feb. 6, 1865 ; 

m. o. Feb. 8, 1866. 
Deline, Frank H., Calvin, e. Feb. 6, 1865 I 

died of disease at St. Louis, Mo., June 

24, 1865. 


Company A. 
Alexander, Samuel, Jefferson, e. Sept. 9, 
1862 ; missing in action. 

Crocker, William A., Jefferson, e. Sept. 

9, 1862; trans, to Invalid Corps Sept. 

10, 1863. 



Collins, Joseph E., Pokagon, e. Sept. 12, 

1862; died at Alexandria, Va., Jan. 12, 

Foster, Zach. ; trans, to ist Mich. Cav. 
Harrison, Jesse, Jefferson, e. Sept. 9, 

1862; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps April 

10, 1864. 
Henderson, William, Milton, e. Dec. 29, 

1862; m. o. June 7, 1865. 
Hu3^ck, John. 
Maloy, Thomas, Pokagon, e. Sept. 29, 

1862; m. o. Dec. 15, 1865. 
Milliman, Samuel, Pokagon, e. Sept. 18, 

Nelson, Walter, Pokagon, e. Sept. 29, 

1862; died in battle at Gettysburg, Pa., 

July 3, 1863. 
Peck, George P., Jefferson, e. Sept. 9, 

1862 ; dis. for disability Nov. 25, 1862. 
Richardson, Varnum, Pokagon, e. Sept. 

15, 1862; dis. for disability March 28, 

Smith, Thomas J., Milton, e. Dec. 25, 

1862; m. o. July 6, 1865. 
Stout, John, Milton; m. o. Dec. 15, 1865. 
Wortler, George A., Milton, e. Dec. 27, 


Company I. 
Irwin, Andrew; m. o. Dec. 15, 1865. 



Chaplain John Fletcher, Edwardsburg, 
Aug. 23, 1864; m. o. July 21, 1865. 

Company L. 

Capt. George Miller, Pokagon, Nov. 3, 
1862 ; resigned March 12, 1864. 

Commissary Sergt. James F. Prater, 
Wayne, e. Dec. 12, 1862 ; prom. Regi- 
mental Commissary Sergt. May i, 1864; 
m. o. July 21, 1865. 

Sergt. Henry L. Barney, Wayne, e. Dec. i, 
1862; prom, in U. S. Cav. Troops. 

Sergt. Clagon Dunham, Volinia, e. Dec. 
28, 1862; m. o. June 30, 1863. 

Corp. Martin Quinlan, VoHnia, e. Jan. 10, 
1863; m. o. July 21, 1865. 

Teamster John Oyler, Pokagon, e. Nov. 
12, 1862; m. o. Dec. 5, 1865. 

Barrett, George, Wayne, e. Dec. 28, 1862 ; 
m. o. June 13, 1865. 

Blackman, Jerome, Dowagiac, e. March 
24, T863; m. o. July 21, 1865. 

Brownell, William, Wayne, e. Dec. 27, 
1862 ; m. o. May 27, 1865. 

Ellsworth, Daniel, Howard, e. Jan. i, 

1863; dis. for disability June 9, 1865. 
Elliott, PTanklin, Jefferson, e. Jan. i, 1863; 

died in rebel prison at Richmond, Va., 

Feb. 17, 1864. 
Garrigan, John, Volinia, e. Dec. 18, 1862; 

died in rebel prison pen, Andersonville, 

Ga., June 19, 1864. 
Kelly, Edgar D., Wayne, e. Dec. 13, 1862; 

m. o. July 21, 1865. 
Rose, John H., Dowagiac, e. April 23, 

1863; dis. for disability June 9, 1865. 
Smith, Judson, Wayne, e. Jan. 12, 1863; 

m. o. July 21, 1865. 
Smith, Henry, Silver Creek, e. Jan. 12, 

1863 ; died of disease in Tennessee, Dec. 

2y. 1863. 
Travis, Ezekicl, W\ayne, e. Nov. 11, 1862; 

m. o. Dec. 5, 1865. 
Overbeck, Augustus, VoHnia, e. Jan. 8, 

1863 ; died at Dandridge, Tennessee, 

Dec. 15, 1863. 
Williams, James A., Corp., Penn, e. Dec. 

29. 1862; m. o. July 21, 1865. 
Davis, M. Barney. 
Willis I-)arney. 


Company G. 
Canning, George, Marcellus, e. Nov. 5, 
1863; m. o. Nov. 2, 1865. 

Company I. 
Allen, William H., Penn, e. Sept. 19, 

1863; m. o. May T7, 1865. 
Canning, Thomas, Marcellus, e. Sept. 19, 

1863; m- o. Aug. 24, 1865. 
Lettick, Williami, La Grange, e. Dec. 7, 

1863; m. o. Sept. 22, 1865. 

Company K. 
Sergt. Horace R. Brown, Ontwa, e. Sept. 
22, 1863 ; died of disease at Lexington, 
Ky., July 8, 1864. 

Blackburn, Thomas, Ontwa, e. Nov. 2, 

1863; m- o. Sept. 22, 1865. 
Blue, Erwin, Ontwa, e. Nov. 2, 1863; 

killed by accident at Shelbyville, Ky., 

July 17, T864. 
Brown, Carlton, Ontwa, e. Sept. 30, 1863 ; 

m. o. July 18, 1865. 
Lofand, Joshua, Ontwa, e. Sept. i, 1863; 

m. o. Sept. 22, 1865. 
Farrier William W. Marr, Ontwa, e. 

Sept. 22, 1863; m. o. Sept. 22, 1865. 
Saddler Albert R. Raymond, Ontwa, e. 

Oct. 9, 1863 ; m. o. Sept. 22, 1865. 
Shideler, George, Ontwa, e. Oct. 26, 

1863; m. o. Sept. 22, 1865. 
Shiar, Alonzo S., Ontwa, e. Sept. 22, 1863 ; 



died of disease at Ashland, Ky., July Steele, John S., Ontwa, e. Oct. 14, 1863; 

II, 1864. m. o. Sept. 22, 1865. 

Stark, Edward, Silver Creek, e. Sept. 10, Farrier Wieling, Jacob H., Silver Creek, 

1863 ; m. o. Oct. 9, 1865. e. Sept. to, 1863 ; i'". o. Sept. 22, 1865. 


Battery A. 

Second Lieut. George J. Nash, Volinia, 

e. March 6, 1865; m. o. July 28, 1865. 
Hanning, Samuel ; m. o. July 28, 1865. 
Hickox, William H., La Grange, e. Dec. 

30, 1863; m. o. July 28, 1865. 
Mesler, William, La Grange, e. Dec. 25, 

1863; m. o. July 28, 1865. 
Williams, Levi P., Porter, e. Feb. 9, 1863; 

m. o. July 28, 1865. 

Battery E. 
Abbott, Seneca W., Ontwa, e. Sept. 5, 
1864; m. o. Aug. 30, 1865. 

Battery F. 
Norris, Webb; m. o. May 6, 1865. 

Battery G. 
Smith, Horace, Sergt., Adamsville, e. Nov. 
23, 1861 ; dis. for disability Aug. 25, 
Wickerly, David, e. Dec. 15, 1861 ; dis. 
for disability July 28, 1862. 


Armstrong, Benjamin F., Pokagon, e. 

Sept. 17, 1863; dis. for disability May 

15, 1865. 
Arnold, Edward R., Corp., Volinia, e. Oct. 

9, 1863; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Barney, Myron F., Newberg, e. Sept. 7, 

1863; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Blanchard, George L., Pokagon, e. Sept. 

5, 1864; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Burnham, Charles M., Jefferson, e. Dec. 

31, 1863; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Canfield, Washington B., Marcellus, e. 

Sept. 17, 1863; dis. for disability Jan. 

12, 1865. 
Crane, Judson J., Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, 

1864; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Day, Alexander P., Volinia, e. Sept. 3, 

1864; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Davis, Charles J., Newberg, e. Sept. 7, 

1863; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Drake, George S., Newberg, e. Oct. 3, 

1863; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Goff, William H., Penn, e. Sept. 4, 1863; 

m. o. July I, 1865. 
Goff, Stephen C, Penn, e. Sept. 3, 1864; 

m. o. July I, 1865. . 
Goff, Sylvester J., Volinia, e. Sept. 3, 

1864; 'm. o. July I, 1865. 
Goodrich, George, Pokagon, e. Sept. 5, 

1864; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Harwood, William M., Penn, e. Aug. 29, 

1864; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Holloway, Charles, Newberg, e. Sept. 12, 

1863; m. o. July r, 1865. 

Holloway, William. Penn, e. Aug. 25, 

1864; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Hutchings, William W., Newberg, e. Sept. 

26, 1863 ; died of disease at Washington, 

D. C, March 21, 1864. 
Lemon, John F., Penn, e. Sept. i, 1864; 

m. o. July I, 1865. 
Martin, Robert N., Penn, e. Sept. 5, 

1863; dis. for disability Nov. 23, 1864. 
Murphy, William, Jefferson, e. Jan, 2, 

1864; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Patrick, Christopher, Corp., Marcellus, e. 

Sept. 7, 1863; m. o. July i, 1865. 
Pemberton, Eliphalet, Marcellus, e. Oct. 3, 

1863; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Pound, Isaac S., Pokagon, e. Sept. i, 

1864; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Rudd, Baruk L., Newberg, e. Sept. 9, 

1863; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Shoemaker, Frank C., Pokagon, e. Aug. 

30, 1864; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Skinner, James R., Marcellus, e. Oct. 2, 

1863; ni. o. July I, 1865. 
Skinner. Harrison H., Marcellus, dis. for 

disability Dec. 6, 1864. 
Tompkins, Melvin R., Newberg, e. Sept. 

26, 1863; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Turengo, Andrew, Jefferson, e. Jan. 4, 

1864; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Vincent, Henry, Volinia, e. Oct. 2, 1863; 

m. o. July I, 1865. 
Wetherell, Smith D., Corp., Volinia, e. 

Nov. 5, 1863; m. o. July i, 1865. 
Wilsey, Erasmus, Marcellus, e. Sept. 10, 

1864; m. o. July I, 1865. 


Company F. 
Sergt. Frank Upson, Howard, e. July 17, 

1861 ; died in action at Gaines' Mills 
June 27, 1862. 




Company E. 
Corp. Joel Cowgill, Calvin, e. May 25, 

1861 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps July i, 

Sergt. John S. Gliddon, e. May 21, 1861 ; 

vet. Dec. 31, 1863; dis. by order Sept. 

15, 1864. 
Private William Jackson, Jefferson, e. 

May 25, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 31, 1863; m. o. 

July 28, 1865. 

Sergt. Benjamin F. Lee, Ontwa, e. May 

25, 1861 ; died May 18, 1862, of wounds 

received at Williamsburg. 
Corp. Henry Meacham, Ontwa, e. May 

25, 1861 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Feb. 

I5> 1864. 

Company L 

Coleman, Francis A., Wayne, e. Feb. 21, 
1865; dis. by order June 15, 1865. 


Company A. Company D. 

Haigh, William, e. Aug. 28, 1861 ; vet. Stamp, E. M., Porter, e. Sept. 18, 1862; 

Dec. 15, 1863. 

m. o. June 3, 1865. 


Assistant Surgeon Cyrus Bacon, Ontwa, 
enrolled June 19, 1861, at Fort Wayne 
(near Detroit), Mich.; mustered in 

Aug. 22, 1861 ; resigned May 6, 1862 ; 
appointed Ass't Surgeon of Regular 
Army July 3, 1862; died Sept. i, 1868. 


Company A. 
Grant, William, Pokagon, e. Dec. 21, 
1863; died in action near Petersburg, 

Va., June 2y, 1864. 
Lane, Thomas, Milton, e. Dec. 22, 1863 ; 
m. o. July 30, 1865. 


Company A. 
Ayres, Sylvester B., Howard, e. Oct. i, 
1864; dis. by order June 20, 1865. 

Company B. 
Dougherty, Thomas, Howard, e. Sept. 29, 

1864; dis. by order June 20, 1865. 
Hedger, Charles W., Pokagon, e. Feb. 9, 

1865; m- o- Sept. 15, 1865. 
Kelly, Ethan, La Grange, e. March 17, 

1865; dis. by order Aug. 10, 1865. 
Mater, John, e. 1861 ; dis. 1862 ; re-e. in . 

same company, and finally dis. Sept. 26, 


Company C. 

Fisher, Francis, Porter, e. Oct. i, 1864; m. 
o. June 20, 1865. 

Company D. 
Bender, Joseph D., Newberg, e. April 5, 
1865; m. o. Sept. 15, 1865. 

Hendricks, Clark, Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, 

1864; m. o. June 20, 1865. 
Higgins, Charles J., Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, 

1864; rn. o. June 20, 1865. 

Company G. 

Cole, Brayton M., La Grange, e. March 

25, 1865; m. o. Sept. 15, 1865. 
Myers, William, Silver Creek, e. October 

4, 1864; absent sick at m. o. 

Company H. 

Saltsgiver, Henry, Porter, e. Oct. 3, 1864; 
m. o. Sept. 15, 1865. 

Company I. 

Thompson, John B., Howard, e. Sept. 30, 
1864 ; m. o. June 20, 1865. 


Company E. 
Baer, Westell, Marcellus, e. Oct. 20, 1864; 
m. o. July 19, 1865. 

Company C. 
Ayers, Thomas B., Porter, e. Oct. 27, 

1864; m. o. July 19, 1865. 
Barker, Peter, Marcellus, e. Oct. 31, 1864; _ _._ 

m. o. July 19, 1865. Company K. 

Brown, William A., Calvin, e. Nov. 2, Philips, John, Newberg, e. Jan. 17, 1864; 

1864 ; m- o- JwJy 19, 1865. m. o. July 19, 1865. 





Company C. 
Angle, John A., Wayne, e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; 

died of disease at Bardstown, Ky., 

March 20, 1862. 
Beardsley, Elisha L., e. Nov. 22, 1861 ; 

died of disease at Bardstown, Ky., June 

31, 1862. 
Birdgett, John, e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; dis. for 

disability Sept. 15, 1862. 
Farnham, John B., Ontwa, e. Aug. 24, 

1861 ; died of disease at Bardstown, Ky., 

Feb. 6, 1862. 

Company D. 
Hathaway, Henry C, e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; 

absent sick at m. o. 
Lucas, William H., e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; killed 

at Stone River. 
O'Connor, Cyrus W., e. Aug. 24, 

dis. at end of service Sept. 30, 1864. 
Philips, William J., e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; dis. 

at end of service Sept. 30, 1864. 

Company E. 
Corp. David Klase. 


Baldwin, Daniel, e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; died of 
wounds near Atlanta, Ga., Aug. /, 1864. 

Blakely, l^homas L., e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; 
dis. for disability Aug. 4, 1862. 

Booth, Zeivala, e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; dis. at 
end of service Sept. 30, 1864. 

Chamberlain, William L., e. Aug. 24, 
1861 ; dis. at end of service Sept. 30, 

Haines, James L., dis. at end of service. 

Latham, Kneeland, e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; dis. 
by order July i, 1863. 

Milliman, Bryant, dis. at end of service. 

Mullen, Sidney S., e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; dis. 
at end of service Sept. 30, 1864. 

Nottingham, Judson, dis. at end of serv- 
ice Sept. 30, 1864. 

Poorman, John, e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; dis. 
at end of service Sept. 30, 1864. 

Quay, George W., e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; died 

near Atlanta, Ga., of wounds Aug 7, 

Ryan, James N. C, e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; dis. 

at end of service Sept. 30, 1864. 
Schug, Emanuel, e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; dis. 

at. end of service Sept. 30, 1864. 
Schug, William F., e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; trans. 

to Vet. Res. Corps Nov. 15, 1863. 
Shoemaker, Samuel S.. dis. for disability. 
Smith, Cyrus, e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; dis. at 

end of service Sept. 30, 1864. 
Tayler, George, e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; died of 

disease at Bardstown, Ky., Feb. 5, 

Thompson, Smith, e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; dis. 

for disability Sept., 1861. 
Vanordstrand, John, e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; dis. 

at end of service Sept. 30, 1864. 
Van Valkenburg, Benjamin, e. Aug. 24, 

1861 ; dis. at end of service Sept. 30, 

Vanordstrand, Jerome P., Sergt., e. Aug. 

24, 1861 ; dis. at end of service Sept. 30, 


Company G. 
Bryan, James, dis. at end of service Sept. 

30, 1864. 
Bryan, Moses, died of wounds at Chat- 
tanooga, Tenn., Sept. 15, 1863. 
Granger, Chauncey, dis. for disability June 

8, 1864. 
Haines, James L., dis. at end of service 

Sept. 26, 1864. 
Higgins, Thomas W., died of disease 

March 18, 1862. 
Nichols, Charles N., dis. at end of service 

Sept. 30, 1864. 
Nichols, James O., died at Chickamauga, 

Tenn., Sept. 20, 1863. 
Scott, Lorenzo H., dis. at end of service 

Sept. 30, 1864. 
Skinner, Llarrison H., Corp., dis. for dis- 
ability Feb. 15, 1862. 


Company E. F., e. March , ; m. o. Sept. 

Sergt. Joel Cowgill, Calvin, e. March 9, 

1865; m. O'. Sept. 16, 1865. 
Musician Charles E. Deal, La Grange, Co. 

16, 1865. 

Musician Elam Dacy, La Grange; Co. F., 
e. ; m. o. Sept. 16, 1865. 


Company A. 
Beaman, Marvin D., Penn, e. Feb. 29, 

1864; m. o. July 25, 1865. 
Woliver, Philander J., Marcellus, e. Dec. 

3, 1863 ; Corp. ; m. o. July 25, 1865. 

Company C. 
Blood, Charles H., Volinia, e. Feb. 26, 

1864 ; m. o. July 25, 1865. 
Blood, George A., Volinia, e. Jan. 2, 

1862; vet. Jan. 18, 1864; m;. o. July 25, 




Dailey, William S., Porter, e. Dec. 13, 

1861; vet. Jan. 18, 1864; m. o. July 25, 

Haefner, Christian G., Volinia, e. Feb. 27, 

1864; m. o. July 25, 1865. 
Jacquays, Smith C, Volinia, e. Feb. 26^ 

1864; died of disease at Philadelphia 

May 20, 1865. 
Johnson, Henry M., Porter, e. Dec. 13, 

1861 ; died of disease at Danville, Ky., 

Nov. 20, 1862. 

Company E. 
Brown, William H., Pokagon, e. Feb. 29, 

1864; rn. o. 
Caldwell, William W., Pokagon, e. Oct. 

22, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 18, 1864; m. o. July 

25, 1865. 
Crego, Hilance J., Pokagon, e. Oct. 22, 

1861 ; dis. by order April 16, 1863. 
Fluallen, Simon E., Corp. Sergt., e. Oct. 

22, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 18, 1864; m. o. July 

25, 1865. 
Hazen, Charles, Dowagiac, e. Oct. 27, 

1861 ; dis. for disability Sept. 20, 1862. 
Hungerford, Calvin A., Dowagiac, e. Oct. 

22. 1861 ; vet. Jan. 18, 1864 ; m. o. July 

25, 1865. 
Hungerford, Mason, Dowagiac, e. Oct. 22, 

i86t ; m. o. at end of service Jan. 16, 

Hutson, Edward R., Dowagiac, e. Oct. 

22, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 18, 1864; m. o. July 

25, 1865. 

Kegley, William, Dowagiac, e. Oct. 22, 

1861; vet. Jan. 18, 1864; m. o. July 25, 

Lewis, Ephraim, Dowagiac, e. Oct. 22, 

1861 ; vet. Jan. 18, 1864; m. o. July 25, 

Moody, Loren, Dowagiac, e. Oct. 22, 

1861 ; vet. Jan. 18, 1864; m. o. July 25, 


Company G. 

Clendenning, James, e. Dec. 13, 1861 ; dis. 

for disability Oct. 29, 1863. 
Roy, William G., Penn, e. Dec. 12, 1861 ; 

vet. Jan. 18, 1864 ; Sergt. ; m. o. July 

25, 1865.- 
Salter, James, e. Dec. 12, 1861 ; vet. Feb. 

13, 1864; dis. by order June 20, 1865. 
Salter, Silas, e. Dec. 12, 1861 ; dis. for 

disability Sept. 12, 1862. 
Weist, William F.. Dowagiac, e. Oct. 22, 

1861 ; dis. for disability Nov. 23,' 1863. 

Company H. 


Campbell, Seth R., Silver Creek, e. 

27, 1865 ; m. o. July 25, 1865. 
Wright, Gilbert, Silver Creek, e. Feb. 27, 

1865 ; m. o. July 25, 1865. 

Company K. 

Wait, Byron, Jefferson, e. Feb. 3, 1865 ; 
died of disease at Louisville, Ky., July 
T, 1865. 


Company B. 

Austin, Harvey H., e. Nov. 25, 1861 ; vet. 

Jan. 4, 1864. 
Cope, Jacob, e. Oct. 5, 1861 ; dis. at end 

of service. 
Eaton, Abner, e. Dec. 18, 1861 ; dis. for 

disability Jan. 10, 1863. 
Garner, Henry, Porter, e. Nov. 28, 1861 ; 

vet. Jan. 4, 1864; m. o. July 18, 1865. 
Moore, Jared C, m. o. July 18, 1865. 
Morse, Albert J., e. Jan. 2, 1862; vet. Jan. 

4, 1864; m. o. July 18, 1865. 
Stewart, James A., vet. Jan. 4, 1864; m. o. 

July 18, 1865. 

Company E. 

Calkins, Thomas J., Porter, e. Sept. 27, 
1864; m. o. July 18, 1865. 

Company F. 

Wilson, John, m. o. July 18, 1865. 
Zimmerman, Michael, Porter, e. Sept. 27, 
1865; m. o. July 18, 1865. 

Company I. 

Rogers, George, Porter, e. Sept. 27, 1864; 
m. o. July 18, 1865. 

Company A. 

Fields, Alonzo, Porter, e. Sept. 27, 1864; 
dis. by order May 30, 1865. 

Company B. 
Bovet, Leon, Volinia, e. May 27, 1865; 

m. o. Aug. 13, 1865. 
Leitz. Joel B., Marcellus, e. Oct. 22, 

1864 ; died of disease at Alexandria, Va., 

June 3, 1865. 

Mowry, Jacob, Marcellus, e. Oct. 22, 1864 ; 
dis. by order Sept. 11, 1865. 

Company C. 
Hice. John, Volinia, e. March 18, 1865 ; 

m. o. Aug. 13, 1865. 
Park, John, Calvin, e. Nov. 30, 1864; dis. 

by order Aug. 2, 1865. 
Parsons, Ezra, Calvin, e. Oct. 22, 1864; 

m. o. Aug. 13, 1865. 



Racey, Robert, Milton, e. Oct. 22, 1864; 

(lis. by order June 25, 1865. 
Sampson, John, Calvin, e. Oct. 21, 1864; 

m. o. Aug. 13, 1865. 

Company D. 

Adams, John, Porter, e. Oct. 22, 1864; m. 

o. Aug. 13, 1865. 
Daniels, John, Volinia, e. March 18, 1865; 

m. o. Aug. 13, 1865. 
Dunn, Anson L., Newberg, e. Nov. 4, 

1864; m. o. Aug. 13, 1865. \ 

Wagner, John, Calvin, e. Dec. 5, 1864; m. 

o. Aug. 13, 1865. 

Company E. 

Descartes, Peter, dis. at end of service 

Jan. 28, J865. 
De Witt, James, Dowagiac, e. Dec. 23, 

1861 ; dis. for disability May 19, 1862. 
Doherty, Charles, dis. at end of service 

Jan. 28, 1865. 
Ducat, Dufify, dis. by order July 21, 1865. 
Gee, Alexander, m. o. Aug. 9, 1865. 
Girardin, Richard, dis. by order Sept. 9, 

Greenwood, Anthony, dis. for disabilit)* 

July 9, 1862. 
Johnson, Fred, Dowagiac, e. Dec. 21, 

186 1 ; vet. Jan. 25, 1864; dis. by order 

Aug. 5, 1865. 
Kelly, John, m. o. Aug. 13, 1865. 
Littlejohn, William, dis. for disability 

Aug. 3, 1862. 
Logan, John, dis. for disability Aug. 3, 


McTaggart, Archibald, dis. for disability 

Aug. 3, 1862. 
Nephew, Anthony, dis. for disability Aug 

II, 1862. 
Nye, Theo., dis. at end of service Jan, 

28, 1865. 
Walustrand, Julius, Marcellus, e. Oct. 22, 

1864; m. o. Aug. 13, 1865. 

Company G. 
East, Alva, Porter, e. Oct. 10, 1864; died 

of disease at Baltimore, Md., Feb. 21, 


Company H. 
Harder, Jan^es E., Howard, e. March 18, 

1865; m. o. Aug. 13, 1865. 
Honeywell, Newell, Howard, e. Oct. 6, 

1864; m. o. Aug. 13, 1865. 
Howard, John F., Howard, e. April i, 

1865; m. o. Aug. 13, 1865. 
Hudson, William, Howard, e. April i, 

1865; m. o. Aug. 13, 1865. 
Johnson, John S., m. o. Aug. 13, 1865. 
Root, John W., Volinia, e. March 18, 

1865; dis. by order Sept. 20, 1865. 

Company I. 
Bell, Edward B., e. Feb. 5, 1862; died of 

disease at Griffith's Landing, Miss., Oct. 

3, ^^Z- 
Joslin, Hiram, Newberg, e. Feb. 16, 1862; 

dis. for disability Aug. 25, 1862. 

Company K. 
Hogeboom, Cornelius P., m. o. Aug. 13, 

Company C. Company K. 

Rapp, George, Volinia, e. Jan., 1865 ; m. o. Prebamsky, Frank, Volinia, e. March 30, 
July 8, 1865. 1865; m. o. July 8, 1865. 


Company B. 

Dick, William M., Howard, e. July 2, 
1862; m. o. June 3, 1865. 

Doan, Thomas R., Howard, e. Aug. 3, 
1862 ; killed on Mississippi River by ex- 
plosion April 28, 1865. 

Earl, Levi F., Howard, e. Aug. 2, 1862. 

Foote, John M., Howard, e. Aug. 5, 1862; 
trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Dec. 15, 

Harder, Tunis J., Howard, e. Aug. 5, 
1862; m. o. June 3, 1865. 


Company A. Hunt, Henry H., Porter, e. March 9, 

Bowen, Henry H., Porter, e. Feb. 2^, 1865 ; m. o. June 30, 1865. 

1865; m. o. June 30, 1865. Lubbow, Wilham, Porter, e. March 7, 

Goldsmith, Henry, Porter, e. Feb. 27, 1865; m. o. June 30. 1865. 

1865; m. o. June 30, 1865. 

Kenyon, Varnum, Howard, e. Aug. 6, 

1862; died of disease at Fredericksburg, 

Va., Feb. 5, 1863. 
Kenyon, Jesse A., Howard, e. Aug. 6, 

1862; died of wounds at Washington 

Dec. 16, 1862. 
Schell, George D., Howard, e. Aug. i, 

1862 ; dis. by order June 16, 1865. 
Taylor, Fred, Howard, e. Aug. 7, 1862; 

dis. for disability Dec. 8, 1862. 



Powers, William, Porter, e. March i, 

1865; m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Preston, Winlield S., Porter, e. March 5, 

1865; m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Rinehart, Nathan, Porter, e. Feb. 27, 

1865; 1^^- ^- June 30, 1865. 
Stearns, Warren S., Porter, e. Feb. 27, 

1865; m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Story, Milton, Porter, e. Feb. 2^, 1865 ; 

m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Story, William A., Porter, e. Feb. 27, 

18O5; ni. o. June 30, 1865. 
Stout, Stephen S., Porter, e. March 9, 

1865; m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Sutton, John W., Porter, e. Feb. 28, 1865 ; 

m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Sutton, Joshua L., Porter, e. F'eb. 27, 

1865 ; m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Weaver, William H., Milton, e. March 15, 

1865; m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Williams, Charles H., Porter, e. Feb. 27, 

1865; m- o. June 30, 1865. 

Company B. 
Bell, John P., Milton, e. Aug. 25, 1864; 
m. o. June 30, 1865. 

Company C. 
Avery, Charles, Porter, e. March 5, 1865; 

m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Calkins, Henry H., Porter, e. Feb. 21, 

1865 ; m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Hilton, Hiram, Porter, e. Feb. 27, 1865; 

m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Jessup, A. H., Porter, m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Kyle, J. C, Porter, m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Kyle, A. R., Porter, m. o. June 30, 1865. 

Company E. 
Averill, Pliny T., Penn, e. March 16, 
1865; m- o. June 30, 1865. 

Blanchard, Bradford, Pokagon, e. March 

7, 1^05; m. o. June 30, i«D5. 
Curtis, George, untua, e. Sept. 5, 1864; 

died ot disease at Chicago, 111., March 

15, 1865. 
Kenyon, Hiram, Pokagon, e. March 10, 

1605; m. o. June 30, 1865. 
McKinstry, Charles, Pokagon, e. March 7, 

1005; m- o. June 30, 18O5. 
Parker, Augustus i\., Pokagon, e. Alarch 

U, 1^05; m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Parker, VViliiam H., ±^okagon, e. March 

7, 1805; n^. o. June 30, 18O5. 
Penrod, Nathan, Penn, e. March 16, 1865; 

m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Steinbeck, Morgan, Milton, e. Aug. 16, 

1864; m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Witherell, Duane, Pokagon, e. March 7, 

1865; m. o. June 30, 1865. 

Company F. 
Van Tuyl, George, m. o. June 30, 1865. 

Company H. 
Hodges, Benjamin, Penn, e. March 16, 

1865; m- o. June 30, 1865. 
Rea, John, Penn, e. March 16, 1865; m. 

o. Jujie 30, 1865. 
Share, Edwin, Milton, e. Sept. 12, 1864; 
m. o. June 30, 1865. 

Company K. 
Ames, Bela, m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Meacham, Oliver G., Porter, e. Feb. 27, 

1865; m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Nickerson, Evert B.^ Mason, e. Feb. 2^^^ 

1865; m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Reed, Otis, m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Reese, John M., Milton, e. Aug. 24, 1864; 

m. o. June 30, 1865. 


Company D. 

Sergt. Amos W. Poorman, Marcellus, e. 
Aug. 9, 1862; died of disease at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., June 13, 1864. 

Corp. Roswell Beebe, Marcellus, e. Aug. 
II, 1862; killed at Tebbs' Bend, Ky., 
July 4, 1863. 


Babe, Bruce, Marcellus, e. Aug. 11, 1862; 

m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Musician Joseph Beck, Newberg, e. Aug. 

15, 1862; m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Musician Samuel P. Beck, Newberg, e. 

Aug. 15, 1862; dis. for disability Jan. 

6, 1863. 
Beebe, Gideon, Marcellus, e. Aug. 11, 

1862; dis. for disability March 4, 1865. 
Butler, Ransom L., Marcellus, e. Aug. 11, 

1862; dis. by order July 26, 1863. 

Kent, Daniel, Marcellus, e. Aug. 11, 1862; 

dis. by order March 19, 1863. 
McKibby, Daniel, Marcellus, e. Aug. 11, 

1862; m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Messenger, Edward, Marcellus, e. Aug. 

II, 1864; dis. for disability Feb. 5, 1863. 
Nottingham, Horace M., Marcellus, e. 

Aug. 8, 1862; m. o. 
Nottingham, Oscar H., Marcellus, e. Aug. 

8, 1862; died of disease at Bowling 

Green, Ky., March 14, 1863. 
Poorman, John A., Marcellus, e. Aug. ii, 

1862 ; m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Root, Jacob, Marcellus, e. Aug. 12, 1862; 

m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Shears, Martin V., Marcellus, e. Aug. 11, 

1862; m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Shoemaker, Samuel, Marcellus, e. Aug. 

II, 1862; m. o. June 28, 1865. 



Taylor, Charles A., Marcellus, e. Aug. ii, 

1862; m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Taylor, Timothy A., Marcellus, e. Aug. 

II, 1862; m. o. May 13, 1865. 
Young, Simon, Marcellus, e. Aug. 11, 

1862; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Fed. 15, 


Company E. 

Bristol, Luther, Milton, e. Sept. 6, 1864; 
m. o. June 24, 1865. 

Company F. 

Bement, George, Ontwa, e. Aug. 13, 1862; 

m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Bradbury, Benjamin F., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 

13, 1862; died of disease at Bedford, 

Ky., June 7, 1863. 
Colby, Ira O., Ontwa, e. Aug. 13, 1862; 

died of disease at Mumfordsville, Ky., 

Jan. I, 1863. 
Day, Perry U., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 9, 

1862; died of wounds at Tunnel Hill, 

Ga., May 12, 1864. 
Goodrich, Levi C, Dowagiac, m. o. June 

24, 1865. 
Hastings, Justus H., Ontwa, e. Aug. 11, 

1862; m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Loux, Edwin G., Ontwa, e. Aug. 13, 1862; 

m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Mears, John, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 11, 1862; 

trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Feb. 15, 1864. 

Meredith, Nathaniel, Ontwa, e. Aug. 13, 

1862; m. o. June 14, 1865. 
McFaren, Henry, Ontwa, e. Aug. 13, 1862; 

mi. o. June 24, 1865. 
Niblett, William E., Ontwa, e. Aug. 19, 

1862; m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Rozelle, Joshua C, Ontwa, e. Aug. 13, 

1862; died of disease at Bowling Green, 

Ky., Feb. 25, 1863. 

Company G. 
Bows, William, Newberg, e. Aug. 21, 

1862 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps June 9, 

Benman, William H., Newberg, e. Aug. 

22, 1862; m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Bennett, John J., Porter, e. Aug. 12, 1862 ; 

m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Bird, William, Newberg, e. Aug. 21, 1862; 

m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Cook, Orlan P., Newberg, e. Aug. 22, 

1862; dis. for disability Sept. 23, 1863. 
Crump, William, Marcellus, e. Aug. 22, 

1862; died of disease at Lebanon, Ky., 

April 24, 1863. 
Kenney, Fernando, Newberg, e. Aug. 22, 

1862; m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Neumann, Louis, Newberg, e. Aug. 13, 

1862; m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Stickney, Sidney M., Marcellus, e. Aug. 

22, 1862; died of disease at Louisville, 

Ky., Oct. 30, 1862. 



Lieut. Col. George T. Shaffer, Calvin, 
com. Dec. 10, 1864; Maj. com. Aug. 15, 
1864; Brevet Col. and Brevet Brig. Gen. 
U. S. Volunteers, March 13, 1865, for 
gallant and meritorious services at bat- 
tles before Atlanta, Ga., and at Wise 
Fork, N. C; m. o. June 5, 1866. 

Surg. Alonzo Garwood, Cassopolis, com. 
Aug. 15, 1864; m. o. June 5, 1866. 

Company A. 
Sergt. Thomas J. Baunder, Volinia, e. 

Sept. I, 1864; m. o. June 7, 1865. 
Schooley, Henry, Volinia, e. Sept. 8, 1864; 

m. o. June 5, 1866. 

Company E. 
Avery, David C, Volinia, e. Sept. 7, 1864; 

m. o. May 4, 1865. 
Baird, John, Howard, e. Oct. 18, 1864; 

m. o. June 5, 1866. 
Baird, William S., Howard, e. Oct. 17, 

1864; m. o. June 5, 1866. 
Davis, Lowell, Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, 1864; 

m. o. June 7, 1865. 
Ernery, Robert, Volinia, e. Sept. 12, 1864; 

dis. for wounds June 30, 1865. 

Pope, Lyman, A., m. o. Aug. 16, 1865. 
Randall, William, Milton, e. Sept. 3, 1864; 
m. o. May 22, 1865. 

Company G. 

Blackman, David R., Volinia, e. Sept. 15, 

1864; m. o. June 5, 1866. 
Delong, Henry, Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, 1864; 

m. o. June 5, 1866. 
Hill, Charles A., Jefferson, e. Sept. 29, 

1864; m. o. May 31. 1865. 
Nichols, Tyler, Volinia, e. Sept. 5, 1864; 

m. o. June 19, 1865. 

Company H. 

Bates, Buel H., Penn, e. Aug. 22, 1864; 

m. o. May 29, 1865. 
Bogert, Cornelius, Penn, e. Aug. 20, 1864; 

dis. by order May 2^, 1865. 
Clendenning, H. M. T., Penn, e. Aug. 10, 

1864; m. o. June 8, 1865. 
Deacon, Isaac, Volinia, e. Sept. 20, 1864 -; 

m. o. June 5, 1866. 
Kinney, Nelson, Corp., Penn, e. Aug. 20, 

1864; m. o. June 5, 1866. 
North, Nathaniel, La Grange, e. Aug. 30, 

1864; died of disease at Charlotte, N. C. 

June 7, 1865. 



North, Norman, La Grange, e. Aug. 30, 

1864; m. o. June 5, 1866. 
Patterson, James, 2d Lieut., Penn, e. Aug. 

2S, 1864; died of disease at Alexandria, 

Va., Feb. 21, 1865. 
Pemberton, Nathan, Penn, e. Aug. 28, 

1864; m^ o. June 5, 1866. 
Robinson, Edmund, died of disease at Da- 
vids Island, N. Y., April 16, 1865. 
Tappan, William E., Penn, e. Aug. 29, 

1864; died of disease at Alexandria, 

Va., Feb. 4, 1865. 
Trill, George, Pokagon, e. Sept. i, 1864; 

died of disease at Alexandria, Va., Feb. 

12, 1865. 

Company L 

Bryant, James, Milton, e. Sept. 16, 1864; 

m. o. June 5, 1866. 
Freeman, Miles, Howard, e. Oct. 18I, 

1864; m. o. May 30, 1865. 
Mitchell, Alonzo J., Milton, e. Sept. 14, 

1864; m. o. Jan. 9, 1866. 

Company K. 

Harris, Benjamin S., Pokagon, e. Feb. 16, 

1865 ; m. o. May 30, 1865. 
Smith, Carlton, Pokagon, e. Feb. 16, 1865 ; 

m. o. Feb. 19, 1866. 


Company H. 

Harwood, Henry W., Ontwa, e. Dec. 2, 

1864; m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Harwood, Jacob W., Jefferson, e. Dec. 6, 

1864; m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Plirons, Oliver C, Jefferson, e. Dec. 2, 

1864; m. o. June 30, 1865. 

Massey, Robert D., Sergt., Ontwa, e. Nov. 

28, 1864; m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Massey, Peter, Corp., Ontwa, e. Nov. 28, 

1864; m- o. June 30, 1865. 
Shaw, Edwin O., Corp., Ontwa, e. Nov. 

30, 1864; m..o. June 30, 1865. 
Smith, Frank A., Corp., Ontwa, e. Dec. 

2, 1864; m. o. June 30, 1865. 


Company B. 
Allen, Nathan S., Penn, e. Aug. 19, 1864; 
m. o. July 28, 1865. 

Company E. 

Second Lieut. Winfield S. Shanahan, 
Cassopolis, e. March 7, 1865 ; Corp. 
March 6, 1863; m. o. July 28, 1865. 


Bibbins, Charles, Ontwa, e. April 13, 1863 ; 

missing in action at Cold Harbor June 

12, 1864. 
Nichols, Alexander, Ontwa, e. April 12, 

1863; m. o. July 25, 1865. 
Wyant, George, Ontwa, e. March 6, 1863 ; 

m. o. Aug. 7, 1865. 

Company F. 

Reigar, Daniel H., Sergt., Ontwa, e. May 
4, 1863; m. o. July 28, 1865. 

Company G. 
Jackson, Henry H., Pokagon, e. Aug. 12, 

1863; died of disease at Chicago, 111., 

Oct. 3, 1863. 
McNeil, William B., Ontwa, e. Aug. 12, 

1863 ; dis. for disability March 22, 1864. 
Smith, Wight D., Dowagiac, e. July 4, 

1863; m. o. July 28, 1865. 

Company H. 
Northrop, William B., Calvin, e. Feb. 26, 

1864; died of wounds in General Hos- 
Northrop, Marion A., Penn, e. Feb. 26, 
1864; died of disease at Chicago, 111., 
April 17, 1864. 

Company I. 
Beach, Myron W., Volinia, e. Sept. 7, 

1863; dis. for disability. 
Bedford, William, Pokagon, e. Aug. 3, 

1863; m. o. July 28, 1865. 
Fessenden, Qlement, Volinia, e. Sept. 21, 

T863; dis. for disability April 7, 1865. 
George, David L., Silver Creek, e. Aug. 

2^. 1863 ; died of wounds received at 

Wilderness May 6, 1864. 
Huff, Asher, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 24, 

1863; dis. by order Dec. 28, 1864. 
Huff, Isaac, Volinia, e. Sept. 7, 1863 ; miss- 
ing in action before Petersburg, Va., 

June 17, 1864. 
Nash, Charles, Volinia. e. Sept. 21, 1863; 

m. o. July 28, 1865. 
Nash, Theodore, Volinia, e. Sept. 21, 

1863 ; died near Petersburg, Va., June 

20, 1864. 
Waterman, Charles, Silver Creek, e. July 

28, 1863; died near Petersburg, Va., 

June 28, 1864. 

Company K. 
Johns, David, La Grange, e. Jan. 27, 1865 ; 
m. o. July 28, 1865. 




Company A. 
Hood, Philander, Pokagon, e. Aug. 17, 
1864; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 

Company B. 
Alexander, Jacob, Howard, e. Oct. i, 

1864; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Brown, John, Calvni, e. Oct. 20, 1863; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Brown, Stuart, Calvin, e. Oct. 20, 1863; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Butcher, David, Calvin, e. Oct. 21, 1863; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Callaway, Giles, Porter, e. O'ct. 21, 1863; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Coker, James, Calvin, e. Oct. 16, 1863; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Coker, Michael, Calvin, e. Oct. 18, 1863; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Curtis, George H., Calvin, e. Dec. 4, 1863; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Dungie, John, Calvin, e. Oct. 7, 1863; m. 

o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Gibbins, William, Jefferson, e. Aug. 24, 

1864; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Harris, Charles W., Howard, e. Oct. i, 

1864; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Hawl^y, William, Calvin, e. Oct. 22, 1863; 

dis. for disability May 26, 1864. 
Howard, William, Calvin, e. Oct. 5, 1864; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Limus, John, Pokagon, e. Oct. 10, 1863; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Little, Stewart, Calvin, e. Sept. 2S, 1864; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Mathews, Allison L., Calvin, e. Sept. 23, 

1864; died of disease at Orangeburg, S. 

C, Aug. 6, 1865. 
Newman, William H., Calvin, e. Oct. 7, 

1863; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Seton. Joseph, La Grange, e. Oct. 18, 

1863; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Stewart, George W., Calvin, e. Nov. 20, 

1863; died of disease at Beaufort, S. C, 

July 27, 1864. 
Stewart, James M., Calvin, e. Oct. 18, 

1863; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Stewart, John T., Calvin, e. Oct. 21, 1863; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Wade, Berry, Corp., Calvin, e. Oct. 7, 

1863 ; died of disease at Beaufort, S. C, 

Aug. 22, 1864. 
Williams, George W., Calvin, e. Oct. 21, 

1863 ; died of disease at Columbia, S. 

C, Aug. 12, 1865. 
Wood, John W., Calvin, e. Oct. 19, 1863; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 

Company C. 
Ford, William, La Grange, e. Feb. 17, 
1865; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 


Hill, Dennis R., Howard, e. Oct. i, 1864; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Redman, Vvillis, Howard, e. Oct. i, 1864; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Wallace, James H., Ontwa, e. Sept. 5, 

1864; m. o. bept. 30, 1865. 
Wilson, Nathaniel, Calvin, e. Oct. 18, 

1863; m- o. Sept. 30, 1865. 

Company D. 

Artis, George, Calvin, e. Nov. 5, 1863; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Barrister, Gustavus, Howard, e. Oct. i, 

1864; ni. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Calloway, Creed, Porter, e. Nov. 18, 1863; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Hunt, Jordan P., Calvin, e. Oct. 23, 1863; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Mattock, Henry, Pokagon, e. Feb. 16, 

1865; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Simons, William H., Calvm, e. Nov. 17, 

1863; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Vaughn, James, Calvm, e. Sept. 23, 1864; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 

Company F. 

Brown, John, Howard, e. Dec. 19, 1863; 

died of disease Jan. 17, 1864. 
Bowden, John, La Grange, e. Nov. 28, 

1863 ; died of disease at Beaufort, S. C, 

Nov. 14, 1864. 
Boyd, Anderson, Howard, e. Dec. 12, 

1863; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Conner, William F., Sergt., Penn, e. Dec. 

II, 1863; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Dungil, Wright, Penn, e. Aug. 22, 1864; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Ford, Edward, Milton, e. ; died of disease 

at Beaufort, S. C, Jan. 14, 1865, 
Harrison, Milford, Howard, e. Dec. 12 

1863 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Hays, Arick, Penn, e. Aug. 24, 1864; m. o. 

Sept. 30, 1865. 
Hays, William H., Calvin, e. Oct. 4, 1864 

absent sick at m. o. 
Henry, Martin V., Penn, e. Dec. 2, 1863: 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Hill, Anthony, Penn, e. Sept. i, 1864; m 

o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Howard, Ezekiel, Porter, e. Oct. 3, 1864 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Lett, Zach., Corp., Penn, e. Dec. 14, 1863 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Mathews, Henry A., La Grange, e. Sept 

5, 1864; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Plowden, William P., Howard, e. Dec 

19, 1863; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Ramsay, Joseph, Penn, e. Dec. 11, 1863 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 



Roberts, John, Penn, e. Aug. i8, 1864; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Van Dyke, Lewis, Sergt., Penn, e. Dec. 

II, 1863; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 

Company G. 

Ashe, Joseph C, Calvin, e. Sept. 23, 1864; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Bricey, George, Howard, e. Dec. 19, 1863 ; 

dis. for disability May 26, 1864. 
Boyd, Lawson, Calvin, e. Dec. 29, 1863 ; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Bird, James M., Calvin, e. Sept. 23, 1864; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Bird, Turner, Calvin, e. Sept. 23, 1864; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Farrar, Alfred, Corp., e. Dec. 21, 1863; 

absent sick at m. o. 
Heathcock, Bartlett, Porter, e. Dec. 29, 

1863 ; died of disease in Michigan April 

5, 1864. 
Heathcock, Berry, Porter, e. Dec. 29, 

1863; dis. for disability May 28, 1865. 
Hill, Jackson, Penn, e. Sept. i, 1864; m. 

o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Huston, John, Silver Creek, e. Dec. 26, 

1863; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Jefferson, Thomas, Pokagon, e. Dec. 30, 

1863; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Lawrence, Alfred, Howard, e. Dec. 12, 

1863; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Russell, Henderson, Pokagon, e. Dec. 30, 

1863; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Russell, Jacob, Pokagon, e. Dec. 30, 1863; 

dis. for disability June 8, 1865. 
Russell, John, Pokagon, e. Dec. 30, 1863; 

dis. for wounds June 8, 1865. 
Stewart, John E., Calvin, e. Feb. 28, 1864; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Stewart, Sylvester, Ontwa, e. Dec. 28, 

1863 ; dis. for disability May 30, 1865. 
Thornton, Henry, Calvin, e. Sept. 29, 

1864; ni. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Windburn. George, Howard, e. Sept. 23, 

1864; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Wines, Ebenezer, Howard, e. Sept. 23, 

1864; "1- o. Sept. 30, 1865. 

Company H. 

Corp. Aquilla R. Corey, Howard, e. Dec. 
24, 1864; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 


Cousins, Ely, Porter, e. Dec. 26, 1863; m. 

o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Cousins, David, Penn, e. Dec. 4, 1863; 

absent sick. 
Dorsey, James W., Howard, e. Dec. 24, 

1863 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Gibson, Marquis, Penn, e. Aug. 19, 1864; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Griffin, Solomon, Penn, e. Dec. 21, 1863; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Hill, Allen, Penn, e. Sept. i, 1864; m. o. 

Sept. 30, 1865. 
Sanders, Peter, Porter, e. Dec. 9, 1863; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
White, Henry, Calvin, e. Dec. 13, 1863; 

died of disease at Beaufort, S. C., Aug. 

7, 1864. 
White, Wright, La Grange, e. Feb. 17, 

1865 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Washington, George, Dowagiac, e. Dec. 

18, 1863 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Sergt. James Wheeler, Wayne, e. Dec. 29, 

1863; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 

Company L 

Anderson, Amos, Porter, e. Sept. 17, 

1864; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Anderson, Jefferson B., Porter, e. Jan. 11, 

1864; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Gillan, Andrew, La Grange, e. Dec. 31, 

1863 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Morton, Henry, Calvin, e. Sept. 23, 1864; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Sharpe, Joseph, Silver Creek, e. March 15, 

1865 ; dis. by order Oct. 28, 1865. 
Wilson, Joel, Howard, e. Dec. 24, 1863; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 

Company K. 

Sergt. Abner R. Bird. Calvin, e. Jan. 16, 

1864; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Harris, William, Calvin, e. Sept. 23. 1864; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
iNIurphy, Percival, Calvin, e. Jan. 15, 1864; 

dis. by order Nov. 13, 1865. 
Stafford, James K., Porter, e. Aug. 24, 

1864; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
I^albot, William H., Porter, e. Oct. 5, 

1864; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Wilson, Giles i^., Calvin, e. Sept. 23, 1864; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 


Company C. 
Dickerson, Albert, died of disease at 

Louisville, Ky., Feb. 24, 1864. 
Peachey, Aaron, Marcellus, e. Aug. 23, 

1864; (^ied of disease at Nashville, 

Tenn., Nov. 21, 1864. 

Company D. 
Gaines, Franklin, Pokagon, e. Dec, 

1863 ; m. o. Sept. 22, 1865. 
Little', John H., Marcellus, e. Aug. 

1864; dis. by order June 6, 1865. 




Company R Stanley, James S., Ontwa, e. Jan. 4, 1864; 

Williams, Isaac N., Penn, e. Aug. 21, m- o. Sept. 22, 1865. 

1864; dis. by order June 6, 1865. ^^" Tassel), David, Ontwa, e. Jan. 4, 

Company G. ^^^^i died of disease Feb. 16, 1864. 

Crampton, Abel, Pokagon, e. Dec. 15, Company K. 

1863; m. o. Sept. 22, 1865. i3i,^^,,^ ^viiii,,^ S-1^,^^ Creek, e. Dec. 21, 

x«k. TT%^- P^^TS- '• ^f V'^' 1863; m. o. Sept. 22, 1865. 

Au^' . tL "'' Rn^ggold, Ga., ^j^i^ ^^^y^^^^^ ^j Silver Creek; m. o. 

Aug. 5, I«()4. ^ ' o^ 

Rogers, Lucius, Ontwa, e. Jan. 4, 1864; ^^P^' ^^' ^^^^• 

dis. by order June 6, 1865. 


Mershon, Andrew, dis. by order July 2, 1863. 


Company K. McClelland, William. 

First Lieut. Charles W. Thorp, Nicholas- l^^^oop. Sylvester A. 

yille, Nov. 27, 1863; Second Lieut. Oct. Company I. 

II, 1862; Corp. Aug. 12, 1861 ; dis. for 

disability May 24, 1864. Lieut. William Stewart, Sept. i, 1862; m. 

Christie, Walter T., Marcellus; died of o. at end of service at end of war, Jan. 

wounds at Washington, D. C, May 12, i, 1865. 

1863. Corp. Samuel Inling, Newberg, e. Sept. 

Goodspeed, Edwin C. i, 1862; trans, to 5th Mich. Inft. ; m. o. 
Beebe, George S. 


Company D. 
Beckwith, Henry L., e. Feb. 22, 1864,; vet. recruit ; m. o. July 7, 1865. 


Company H. 
Graham, S. J., Mason, e. April, 1861 ; dis. for disability 1861. 


Company E. 1865 ; w-ounded in left arm at Rocky 

Graham, Sidney J., Mason, re-enl. Sept., Ridge, May 9, 1865. 

1861 ; vet. Feb. 1864; m. o. May 20, 


Company F. 
Williams, Henry, Mason. 

Tompkins, Newberg. 


Graham, Sidney J., e. April 17, 1861, in Co. H. ; re-e. in Co. E, 49th Ohio Vol. 
Inft. (See above.) 



W. J. MAY POST, G. A. R. 

W. J. May Post, No. 65, G. A. R., was organized at Jones July 
24th, 1882, with the following charter members: 

^Thomas L. Blakely, nth Mich. Infantry; Isaac S. Pound, 14th 
Mich. Battery; *Jabez S. Tompkins; Alonzo B. Congden, 88th Indiana 
Infantry; James L. Haine, nth Mich. Infantry; *Anson L. Dtmn, 
14th Mich. Infantry; '''Hugh Ferguson, nth Mich. Infantry; "^Cyrus 
W. O'Conner, nth Mich. Infantry; Samuel P. King, 12th Mich. In- 
fantry; Daniel Prattles, 19th Mich. Infantry; ^Stephen A. Gardner, 
124th Ohio Infant-i'y; Joseph H. Dunworth; *Horton M. Squires, 
Sharp Shooters; '''Henry Seigle; William Alexander, 12th Mich. In- 


Thomas Manning Post, No. 57, G. A. R., at Marcellus, was 
chartered May 19, 1882. The Post's charter members were the fol- 
lowing : 

H. J. Kellogg, Wm. Bedford, H. J. Ohls, Frank Shonhower, 
H. M. Nottingham, Wm. Schugg, G. I. Nash, Oren Holden, H. E. 
Giddings, R. Harvell, C. E. Davis, B. F. Groner, W. R. Snider, Samuel 
Kidney, John Littell, George Heckleman, Jas. Boner, H. H. Hartman, 
J. B. Fortner, George Eggleston, W. H. Vincent, E. Schugg, George 
Savage, Chas. Guich, William Casselman, J. T. Van Sickle, Robt. 
McDonald, Clarence Lomison, Asa Sheldon, E. S. Weaver, Chas. Souls, 
Asa Sheldon, Wm. McKeeby, A. H. Lewis, Chauncey Drury, S. P. 
Hartshorn, Noah Kunes, Beneville De Long, James Youngs, Isaac 
Snyder, L. P. Raymond, Joseph Gearhart, Carr Finch, Wm. Collier, 
H. Sheldon, James Wagner, W. H. Waugh, Sr., S. Eberhart, Zenas 
Kidney, B. F. Harrington, W. J. Herbert, M. F. Burney, Lewis Timm, 
George Reynolds, George Scott, Henry Whitney, J. G. Harper, J. J. 
Hinchey, Robt. Lundy. 

* Dead. 


The present membership of this Post is as follows: 
H. J. Kellogg, H. M. Nottingham, W. R. Snider, C. E. Davis, 
John Littell, J. B. Fortner, W. H. Waugh, Sr., W. J. Herbert, W. H. 
Vincent, Wm. Bradford, Clarence Lomison, Bemer Lewis, Richard 
Harvell, Noah Kunes, H. L. Cooper, Carr Finch, Chas. Tutton, G. I. 
Nash, V. W. Spigelmeyer, B. F. Adams, R, T. Streeter, W. H. Burch, 
Jos. Romig, John Crockett, F. C. Brown, R. D. Snyder, A. J. Maxan, 
Clark H. Beardslee, N. W. Holcomb, H. J. Ikes, E. W. La Barre, I. 
W. Steininger, John Smith, Julius Waterstradt, Robt. Smith, W. G. 
Walters, E. S. Mack, Levi Dennis, George F. Bowersox, Isaac Long, 
Daniel Emery, S. M. Reigle, Franklin T. Wolf, B. H. Hodges, Isaac 
De Con, Wm. Mclntyre, P. S. Youells, Pomeroy Castle, Peter Bowers, 
C. P. Bradford, H. C. Lambert, C. W. Graham, J. S. Brown, Wm. 

The office of Post Commander has l^een held in succession by 
the following named : H. J. Ohls, G. G. Woodmansee, George Hunger, 
Ray T. Streeter, one term each ; H. J. Kellogg, Peter Schall, Clarence 
Lomison, W. R. Snider, Levi Dennis, B. F. Groner, two terms each ; 
George I. Nash, five terms; J. B. Fortner, three terms. 


J. B. Sweetland Post, No. 448, at Edwardsburg, was chartered 
July 21, 1899, with the following members: 

William W. Sweetland, Edward Beach, John James, Enoch F. 
Newell, Jonas Sassaman, Charles R. Kingsley, George O. Bates, Theo- 
dore Manchow, John Jacks, Emanuel Rhinehart, James H. Andrus, 
Charles E. Gardner, George Bement, Covingtou Way. 

The present members are : 

Benajmin F. Thompson, Jonas Sassaman, Aaron Dever, Wm. W. 
Sweetland, John James, James H. Andrus, George Williams, Calvin 
Steuben, Covington Way, Theodore Manchow, William Funk, Roger 
Burns, John Jones. 


Matthew Artis Post, No. 341, was organized at Day March 10, 
1866, with twenty-one members, as follows : 

Commander, Bishop E. Curtis; Senior Vice Commander, Henry D. 
Stewart; Junior Vice Commander, James Monroe; Adjutant, Abner R. 
Byrd ; Quartermaster, Solomon Griffin ; Surgeon, Harrison Griffin ; Chap- 


lain, George Scott ; Officer of Day, Zachariah Pompey ; Officer of Guard, 
John Copley; Sergeant Major, James M. Stewart; Quartermaster Ser- 
geant, James H. Ford. Members: Peter Saunders, Caswell Oxendine, 
Berry Haithcock, John Curry, Samuel Wells, John Brown, Martin 
Harris, Andrew Gillum, George Broaidy, L. B. Stewart. 

The officers and members in August, 1906, are as follows : 

Commander, Abner R. Byrd ; Senior Vice Commander, James 
Monroe; Junior Vice Commander, Caswell Oxendine; Adjutant, Bishop 
E. Curtis; Quartermaster, Geo. H. Curtis; Surgeon, John A. Harris; 
Chaplain, Zachariah Pompey; Officer of the Day, James M. Stewart; 
Officer of the Guard, John Copley; Quartermaster Sergeant, L. B. 
Stewart ; Sergeant Major, Solomon Griffin. Comrades : Wm. S. 
Copley, Hiram Smith, A. B. Anderson, Bennett Allen. 

Matthew Artis W. R. C, No. 164, auxiliary to Matthew Artis 
Post, No. 341, was organized November 7, 1888, with the following 
ten members : 

Mary Copley, Cora Copley, Amelia Copley, Marinda Johnson, 
Anna Eliza Griff.n, Eva Dungey, Eva O. Byrd, Sarah E. Curtis, Eliza 
Oxendine, Elizabeth Stewart. 


Albert Anderson Post, No. 157, was organized at Cassopolis July 
7, 1883, and the following members mustered: 

Zacheus iVldrich, William G. Watts, Fairfield Goodwin, Thomas 
M. Scares, James Patterson, Samuel V. Pangborn, William T. Dilts, 
Jacob Mcintosh, Maro A. Abbott, John Pangborn, John Jackson, Joel 
Cowgill, Isaiah Plarris, James M. Roberts, Edmond Landon, William 
Wallace Marr, Owen L. Allen, 'Marvin E. Westfall, Marcellus K. 
Whetsell, Jos. T. Bangham. 

Since the first muster the following comrades have been added 
to the membership: 

July 21, 1883 — Fred A. Beckwith, John L. Tharp, John Glass. 

July 28, 1883 — Francis Coon, Alonzo Garwood, George B. 
Crandell, Benjamin F. Hogue. 

August 4, 1883 — Samuel Williams, James M. Cowin, Henry C. 
Walker, E. W. Cornell Wm. G. Roberts. 

August II, 1883 — Henry James, John A. Bronner, Jonathan H. 
Breed, I. M. Harris. 


August i8, 1883— Vincent Reames, Lewis Crandall, E. G. Loux, 
Charles Hedger, Reuben Beverly. 

August 9, 1884 — ^James M. Shephard, Francis Squires, Levi J. 
Garwood, William Clark, George T. Shaffer, Leander D. Tompkins, 
James M. Noble, Jesse W. Madrey. 

August 16, 1884 — Daniel L. Closson, John H. Keene, James H. 
Byrd, Edward P. Boyd. 

August 4, 1886, and since that time — Norris Richardson, Robert 
Toas, Michael Grimm, Erastus Saunders, John Rodman, S. M. Gren- 
nell, William Matthews, Abram Heaton, William Berkey, Moses F. 
Paisley, Henry Morton, Marion Garrison, Henry C. Westfall, John D. 
Williams, Edgar F. Hays, William H. Owen. 

soldiers' and sailors' monument association. 

To commemorate the bravery and patriotism of the many soldiers 
who have gone from this county to the wars of the country, and to 
stimulate the interest and veneration of the present and future genera- 
tions for the deeds of war which were necessary for the establishment 
of the repubhc, a movement has been set on foot to raise funds and 
erect a soldiers' monument to the soldiers and sailors of Cass county. 

The movement had its inception in the rooms of the H. C. Gilbert 
Post, No. 49, at Dowagiac, in April, 1905, when it was first proposed 
to raise the modest sum of five hundred dollars and locate such a monu- 
ment as that would provide on a soldiers' lot in Riverside cemetery. 
Willis M. Farr and Lewis J. Carr were appointed from the post to 
solicit funds, and these two later 'appointed a third G. A. R. member, 
John Bilderback, and Burgette L. Dewey, the merchant, and Clyde 
W. Ketcham, the lawyer, were afterward added. On the motion of 
Mr. Farr the committee proceeded to raise a fund of five thousand 
dollars or more, instead of five hundred, and amplify the plans and ob- 
jects accordingly. Individual donations have been mainly relied upon, 
a canvass was made among the citizens of Dowagiac and the county, 
and also outside, nearly one thousand dollars being contributed to the 
fund by what were considered outside parties. The pupils of the public 
schools were also given an opportunity to give small sums. A benefit 
was given by a baseball team, several clubs donated sums, the proceeds 
of a lecture and a legerdemain entertainment swelled the fund. The 
largest sum was given by the P. D. Beckwith Estate, five hundred 
dollars, and other large contributors have been Willis M. Farr, Bur- 


gette L. Dewey, Hon. William Alden Smith, Hon. Edward L. Hamil- 
ton, Charles R. Hannan of Boston, Mrs. Ellen T. Atwell, E. H. Spoor 

of Redlands, Cal., Mrs. Jerome Wares of Chicago, C. L. Sherwood, 

Burlingame, H. R. Spencer, Otis Bigelow, the City Bank, J. O. Becraft. 

The exectitive committee, on whom has fallen the chief burden 
in promoting this cause, consists of Willis M. Farr, Lewis J. Carr, 
John Bilderback, Burgette L. Dewey and Clyde W. Ketcham. By his 
enthusiasm and untiring efforts in behalf of the monument Mr. Farr 
has rendered most signal service, and that the large sum has been 
raised and the monument become a fact is due to the unselfish work 
on the part of its principal promoters. 

In addition to the above fund the city council of Dowagiac do- 
nated five hundred dollars, and the Board of Supervisors of Cass county 
one thousand dollars, making a sum total of $6,500.00. 




The vsocial tie was as strong, if not stronger, in the early days as 
in modern life. Job Wright, the hermit and recluse, whom we have 
elsewhere mentioned as seeking solitude on the island of Diamond lake, 
was an abnormal character. Such aversion to the society of fellow 
man is so uncommon as to mark its possessor with the interest of a phe- 
nomenon in human existence. His course w^as like a soldier trying to 
live by himself during the Civil war. As there were ties which drew 
the soldiers together, ties which exist even today, so there were ties which 
drew the early settlers together. They had common interests, had a 
common work to do, and were threatened by common dangers. Their 
very circumstances made it necessary that they stand together, min- 
ister to each other in sickness, and weep with those that wept; and this 
made them rejoice with those who' rejoiced. There are bonds in the 
Grand Army of the Republic which do not exist in any other society of 
men. And so it is with the early settlers of this county. We see this 
when they get together. They have no grips nor secret words, and yet 
one who is not an early settler is as effectually debarred from entering 
into their experiences as though he were on the outside of lodge-room 

Of course, the pleasurable occasions of the early days were in the 
main quite different from those of the present. They were also less 
frequent, and for that reason enjoyed with more zest. Some of those 
pleasures accompanied the tasks that had to be performed — in fact, w^ere 
a part of them. The work was of such a nature that neighbors often 
assisted one another. Without particularly intending it, each neigh- 
borhood was a co-operative society. The clearing of the land, getting 
rid of large timber, necessitated what were known as log rollings. No 
one individual could dispose of the great trees of those primeval for- 
ests. If he had undertaken it his progress would have been so slow and 
the w^ork so difficult that he would have given up in despair long before 
his task was completed. Necessity compelled co-operation in this work, 
and that principle w^as carried into much of the other labor that had to 


be performed. A man who was so selfish or so mean as tO' refuse his 
assistance to a neighbor who needed help was regarded with disfavor 
by the other settlers. In fact, he became almost an outcast. In more 
ways than one he was a greater loser than the one whom he refused to^ 

After the settlers had been here for a number of years and were 
raising large crops of corn, husking bees began to take the place of the 
log rollings of the earliest days. This does not mean that the log roll- 
ings ceased when the corn huskings began, for both were kept up at the 
same time throughout a number of years. But after each farmer had 
a comparatively large acreage cleared the log rollings became less fre- 
quent and the corn huskings more frequent. 

The women, too, had their methods of co-operation as well as the 
men, and they also made opportunities by this means for social gather- 
ings. Wool pickings and quiltings were among their frolics, and those 
occasions were not less enjoyable to them than the log rollings, house 
raisings and corn huskings were to the men. Manv of the women knew 
as much about outdoor work as the men. Often they assisted their hus- 
bands in the fields in order that the farm work might be done at the 
proper time and the necessaries of life provided for the family. And 
their household duties were more arduous than those of the farmers' 
wives of the present day. Besides, on account of living sO' far apart, 
their isolation was more complete. The occasions on which the women 
of the neighborhood would get together to help one another with a por- 
tion of their work afforded a pleasant relief from the toilsome labor at 
home, whether it was the labor of the field or the household. Besides 
the diversions already mentioned there were evening apple-parings, in 
which both young men and young women took part, and taffy-pullings 
for the younger people in the season of maple-sugar making. These 
gatherings closed by guessing contests, ''spatting out," and, frequently, 
by dancing. 

There was but little social diversion for that purpose alone, but it 
was associated with the usual labor in one form or another. This was 
not because the people of those days would not have enjoyed pleasure 
for pleasure's sake as well as the people of this generation, but rather 
because stern necessity decreed otherwise. Thus the social life of the 
pioneers became a part of their industrial life, and it is impossible to sep- 
arate the two in description. A few years later, when the people did not 
have to devote to labor every hour not spent in sleep, they found other 


methods for employing the time when they could come together. Sing- 
ing schools, spelling schools, debating clubs and literary societies began 
to take the place of corn huskings, apple-parings and taffy-pullings. But 
even these, like the other gatherings which preceded them, had their 
double purpose. The opportunity they afforded for mingling socially 
was not the only reason they came into existence. The cultivation of 
the musical talent, the mastery of the art of spelling or training for talk- 
ing in public were the paramount objects. 

What event — except the contrastingly sad one of death — would 
stir pioneer sentiment more than a wedding? The union of families 
that had perhaps met here after leaving homes in widely diverse parts 
of the country was an occurrence worthy of social happiness and one 
to be celebrated with jubilation. Marriages and births were the events 
most in keeping with the spirit of hope and progress that animated 
every new community. Tlierefore, let us recall one of the early wed- 
dings, a celebration of great interest tO' the county, eagerly looked for- 
ward to and long remembered among pioneer happenings. 

Though not the first wedding in the county, the marriage of Elias 
B. Sherman and Sarah, the daughter of Jacob Silver, on New Year's 
day of 1833, was the first in the county seat and perhaps the most nota- 
ble of the early weddings. At that time Mr. Sherman, though a young 
man of about thirty, had attained the prominence befitting the incimi- 
bent of the offices of prosecuting attorney, probate judge and district 
surveyor of Cass county, and who was also one o^f the founders of the 
village of Cassopolis. There was no minister in Cassopolis at that time, 
and as the bride desired the ceremony to be performed according to the 
Episcopal rites, the matter of finding the proper minister threatened to 
be a serious obstacle. Happily, it was learned that Bishop Philander 
Chase had recently located at Gilead in Branch county, and thither Mr. 
Sherman went and made known to the bishop his need. Although no 
railroad afforded the bishop a quick and comfortable ride to the place of 
ceremony and it was necessary for him to- undergo a long drive over the 
frozen roads, such difficulties wxre made nothing of by pioneer minis- 
ters. On the appointed morning the bishop was on hand, and the peo- 
ple of the village and the surrounding country were all alive to the 
festive importance of the day. The guests assembled in the second story 
of the building in which Jacob Silver sold goods, where elaborate 
preparations had been made in anticipation, and in the presence of many 
whose names have been mentioned in connection with the early history 


of the county the marriage was performed, the first of the many that have 
occurred in the village during the subsequent three-quarters of a cen- 

One other occasion may be described before proceeding with the 
special social and fraternal history. In 1837 Elijah Goble built a tav- 
ern at the little center called Charleston, in Volinia township. Having 
completed the structure, he resolved to have a house warming, to which 
he invited all his fellow pioneers. This was, therefore, perhaps the first 
gathering specially designed to include early settlers. It is stated that 
from seventy-five to one hundred people, mostly from the north part 
of the county, assembled at the Goble tavern on the designated day. 
The features of the meeting which we would most like to reproduce were 
unfortunately lost with the passing of the day itself, for the experiences 
those old settlers exchanged can never be retold ; the melody of the songs 
they sang has gone with the breath that made it. 

At this meeting in Volinia, as on other social occasions, music and 
dancing were features of the entertainment. It must not be supposed 
that the muse of song and harmony was a stranger tO' the pioneer set- 
tlements. Of instrumental music there was little, but the quietness and 
isolation of life in the wilderness was favorable to the expression of 
feeling by song. The earnest intoning of the old hymns in the first 
churches, the old-time melodies that were flung to the air at the social 
gatherings and the eager interest taken in the singing schools, all show 
that the love of harmony was as fundamental here as among older civ- 

And although there were no pianos and organs, an occasional settler 
possessed a more portable instrument and with this he softened some of 
the asperities of frontier life. Among the settlers who came to Milton 
township in 1829, was a Mr. Morris, who delighted to play on a fife. 
Surely, as its shrill notes sounded through the forest aisles, the birds 
must have realized the presence of a new form of existence competing 
with them in their solitudes. 

Peter Barnhart, who settled in Howard in 1830, was a fiddler, and 
it was his presence that lent the spirit of rhythm to many a pioneer dance. 
Isaiah Carberry, an early settler in the same township, was also skillful 
with the bow and was in demand at the dances. These dances were 
usually held in the evening after logging, husking or quilting bees. The 
democratic character of pioneer society prevented their being exclusive, 
and the fact that they were held after a day of hard labor is evidence 


that there was httle brihiance of costume or house decoration. The 
dyed homespun dresses of the girls and the home-tailored garments and 
rough, coarse boots of the men detracted nothing from the wholesome 
pleasure of the occasion. 

It w^ould not be out of place in a history of this kind to describe all 
the events and institutions of social living which have been strong and 
enduring enough to give permanence to the organizations which men 
and women form in promoting their community life. But in reality this 
entire history is given to the description of the forms and institutions 
wdiich have grown up in Cass county because of the introduction of civil- 
ization and the increasingly close contact betw-een the social units. Civil 
government has been described. The organization of communities for 
civil, business and other purposes has taken many pages of this volume. 
Business and industry have been described mainly in their relation to 
the people at large. When civil war was raging it called for citizens in 
the most perfected form of disciplined organization. Schools, as else- 
where described, have always l:)een the center O'f the social community, 
and churches are the very essence of the social life. These subjects 
finding exposition on other pages, it remains for this chapter to group 
together some of the social organizations w^hich have positive influence 
and definite purpose and form a recognized part in the life of Cass 
county's people. 

women's clubs. 

The Cassopolis Woman's Club, now^ a member of the great fed- 
eration of w^omen's clubs, w^as organized in 1898. Among those who 
assisted in the organization and became charter members may be men- 
tioned Mesdames Coulter, Goodwin, Sate Smith, Funk, Biscomb, Lodor, 
Mcintosh, Nell Smith, Armstrong, Cowgill (now deceased), Reynolds 
and Allison. The club w^as brought into the federation in 1901. 

The Cassopolis Woman's Club holds w^eekly sessions from October 
to April inclusive. Its w-ork is mainly literary, although it has taken a 
beneficial interest in certain matters of civic improvement and in beau- 
tifying the village. In its regular sessions topics of current and gen- 
eral importance are taken up according to a program that is arranged 
before the beginning of each season's work. 

The follown'ng are the officers of the club for the season of 1905-06 
just closed: President, Mrs. Addie S. Coulter; first vice president, 
Mrs. Catherine Criswell; second vice president, l\1rs. Helen Reynolds; 


recording secretary, Mrs. Clara Eby ; corresponding secretary, Mrs. 
Emma Coljb; treasurer. Mrs. Jennie Carman. 

Calendar committee — Mrs. Hattie M. Thickstum (chairman), Mrs. 
Rebecca B. Woods, :\Irs. Allie M. L)es Voignes, Mrs. May S. Arm- 

Meml)ers: — Mrs. May S. Armstrong. jNIiss Katherine Armstrong, 
Mrs. May F. Allison, Mrs. Thnrsy A. Boyd, Mrs. May Bowen, Mrs. 
Addie S. Coulter, Mrs. Emma Co1)b, Mrs. Katherine Criswell, Mrs. 
Jane Crosby, Mrs. Jane Carman, Mrs. Allie M. Des Voignes, Mrs. Clara 
Eby, Mrs. Maude W. Eppley, Mrs. Ellen R. Funk, Mrs. Ina M. Fisk, 
Mrs. Helen Francis, Mrs. Lida R. Goodwin, Mrs. Lola Geiser, Mrs. 
Grace Hain, Mrs. Myra Hughes, Mrs. Ruth T. Hayden, Mrs. Katherine 
Harmon, Mrs. Hattie J. Holland, Mrs. Helen Johnston, Mrs. Blanche 
Link, Mrs. Emily Mcintosh, Mrs. Helen Reynolds, Miss Nellie Rudd, 
Mrs. Grace Rinehart, Mrs. Nellie Stemm, Mrs. Leni M. Smith, Mrs. 
Sate R. Smith, Mrs. Lucy E. Smith, Mrs. Ocenia Sears, Mrs. Hattie 
Thickstun, Mrs. Alice Voorhis, Mrs. Ida Warren, Mrs. Ella Waldo 
Gardner, Mrs. Rebecca B. Woods, Mrs. Clara Zeller. 

Honorary members: — Mrs. Jennie Lodor, Mrs. Amelia Biscomb. 


The Amber Club is composed of some of the most intellectual wo- 
men in Cassopolis. It is unique in its organization, or rather in its lack 
of organization, having neither governing rules nor officers, and keep- 
ing no records. 

It sprung into existence in December, 1895, ^'^^^^''^ ^^'^^ following 
members : Mrs. Henrietta Bennett, Mrs. Maryette H. Glover, Mrs. 
Ocenia B. Harrington, Mrs. Augusta E. Higbee, Mrs. Stella Kingsbury, 
Mrs. Elma A. Patrick, Miss Sarah B. Price, Mrs. Addie S. Tietsort, 
Mrs. Ida M. Yost, all of whom are living and retain their membership 
in the club, excepting the last named lady, who died December 5, 1899. 
Before the death of Mrs. Yost the club had held annual banquets, and 
that year arrangements were completed for the banquet to be held at 
her home the day she died. Neither that nor subsequent banquets have 
been held. 

Since the beginning of the club three of the members have moved 
from Cassopolis, but are still recognized as members. The member- 
ship has been increased to seventeen by the addition of the following 
ladies : Mrs. Carrie L. Carr, Mrs. Carrie W. Fitzsimons, Mrs. Calista 


Kelsey, Mrs. Grace M. 0''Leary, Mrs. Cora L. Osmer, Mrs. May E. 
Ritter, Mrs. Elizabeth H. Sharpe, Mrs. Maria F. Thomas, Mrs. Lulu 

The meetings of the club are held weekly Monday afternoons in 
rotation at the homes of its members. It is purely a reading club. 
While their reading has been along general lines in history, books of 
travel and other literary works, thev have made a study of Shakespeare 
a specialty. 


The Nineteenth Century Club of Dowagiac was organized in 1889, 
the first meeting being held September 5th of that year. It joined the 
state federation in 1892, being a charter member of the federation. It 
joined the county federation in 1902. The club, whose membership is 
limited to fifty, meets on Thursday of each week from October to June. 
With its motto, ''A workman is made by working," the club has pursued 
at various times the study of history, literature and art of European 
countries and America and has contributed to civic betterment by plant- 
ing trees and ivy about the public schools and library grounds; has do- 
nated paintings to the high school and books to the library, maintains 
a life membership in the Children's Home at St. Joseph, has contributed 
to the Stone Memorial Scholarship Fund at Ann Arbor; has sent maga- 
zines to the state prison at Jackson, the asylum^ at Kalamazoo, the hospi- 
tal at Ann Arbor and the Old People's Home at South Haven ; has sent 
Christmas boxes to the county poor-house and in many ways directed its 
efforts toward practical philanthropy. The club has secured literary and 
musical talent for home entertainments and once a year gives an open pro- 
gram of its own to the public. In local and state legislation the club has 
secured the passage by the city council of an ordinance preventing ex- 
pectoration in streets and one prohibiting bicycle riders from cutting 
corners and riding across private property ; has sent petitions to the 
legislature in regard to placing women on boards of control, concerning 
cigarette and juvenile court laws; and has sent petitions to the United 
States Congress asking the passage of the lately enacted Heyburn pure- 
food bill, and also concerning the industrial condition of women, which 
was the first federal measure to which the women's clubs gave their 

The following are the names of the charter members of the club: 
Mrs. H. W. Richards, Mrs. Susan Van Uxem, Mrs. E. L. Knapp, Mrs. 


Henry Porter, Mrs. B. L. Dewey, Mrs. Theodore Wilbur, Mrs. Willis 
Farr, Mrs. H. F. Colby, Mrs. R. B. Marsh, Mrs. F. W. Lyle, Mrs. 
Aiigustius Jewell, Mrs. William M. Vrooman, Mrs. H. B. Burch, Mrs. 
John Gimper, Miss Frances M. Ross. 

The first officers were : President, Mrs. R. B. Marsh ; vice pres- 
ident, Miss Ross (Frances) ; secretary and treasurer, Mrs. E. L. Knapp. 

The present officers are: President, Miss Frances M. Rose; vice 
president, Mrs. T. J. Edwards; recording secretary, Miss Edith Oppen- 
heim; corresponding secretary. Miss Olive M. Marsh; treasurer, Mrs. 

A. E. Jew^ell ; custodian, Mrs. J. H. Jones. 

The present members are : Mrs. C. E. Avery, Mrs. S. M. Baits, 
Mrs. Otis Bigelow, Mrs. Eugene Gilbert, Mrs. B. A. Cromie, Mrs. 
James Harley, Mrs. F. H. Essig, Mrs. C. B. Harris, Mrs. Thomas 
Harley, Mrs. C. W. Ketcham, Mrs. Roy Jones, Mrs. E. P. McMaster, 
Miss Edith Oppenheim, Miss Frances M. Ross, Mrs. Grace Sweet, 
Mrs. W. M. Vrooman, Mrs. E. E. Alliger, Miss Irene Buskirk, Mrs. 
C L. Fowle, Mrs. H. J. Bock, Mrs. A. E. Gregory, Mrs. W. C. Ed- 
wards, Mrs. W. F. Hoyt, Mrs. Carrie Frost Herkimer, Miss Elma Kin- 
zie, Mrs. A. E. Jewell, Miss Olive M. Marsh, Mrs. J. H. Kinnane, Mrs. 
H. W. Palmer, Mrs. Fannie Wares, Mrs. Ira Gage, Mrs. M. P. White, 
Miss Mary Andrew, Mrs. Roy Burlingame, Mrs. F. H. Baker, Mrs. A. 

B. Gardner, Mrs. F. H. Codding, Mrs. W. E. Conkling, Mrs. T. J. 
Edwards, Mrs. A. E. Rudolphi, Mrs. E. B. Jewell, Mrs. John Warren, 
Mrs. J. H. Jones, Mrs. J. L. Parker, Mrs. E. N. Rogers, Mrs. C. W. 
Southworth, Mrs. D. W. Van Antwerp. 

The Tourists' Club of Dowagiac was organized January 30, 1896. 
There were, at first, no- dues. The only requirements for membership 
w^ere a common knowledge of English and a genuine desire to learn by 
study. College and high school graduates, former teachers and those 
whose education depended mostly on reading, all met on an equal foot- 
ing and enjoyed together what are called "tours." A country being se- 
lected for a visit and a wall map perhaps manufactured, its geography 
and then its history to the present time is given in topics, next its cities 
visited as realistically as possible, the motto and flag if a country, shield 
if a state, noted, and information and pleasure second only to a bona fide 
visit gained. Beginning at home, the United States was thoroughly ex- 
plored, then England and France, the countries of southern Europe, this 
year Holland, Belgium and Switzerland, the next year Denmark, Nor- 


way and Sweden, and after Europe is thoroughly ''done," probably 
South America will be "visited." 

A supplementary exercise at each meeting is called "Current 
Events," and consists of anything in the line of discovery, invention, re- 
search of any kind as found in the daily papers, "queer, quaint and curi- 
ous," often amusing, always interesting. The program opens with quo- 
tations from some author of the country studied, or upon some given 
topic, as "love," "hope," "anger." Good local musical talent, vocal solos 
and piano' numbers by members or visitors (especially young players 
needing a kindly audience), a little original music and some mild poetry 
have brightened the programs. The educating influence of the study, 
the "travel," is plainly seen in many instances and no mother has neg- 
lected her children! Though the majority are grandmothers, all are 
not, and that haq)-string of "neglected families" is evidently broken. 
If housekeeping and other woman's work will not allow two hours of 
recreation and mental uplifting in a week, it is sad indeed for woman! 
Lodges are beneficial and so are clubs. The Tourists' Club is pleased 
to note that while the city press at first accepted reports of their meet- 
ings on sufferance, they are now sought as an appreciated part of the 
news. Thus the assurance that the club has been nO' drawback to- the 
city, but a source of interest and enjoyment to many is a matter for 

The season begins with the first Thursday in October and closes 
with the last Thursday in May. Some years a reading club of those who 
had time to spare has met every Thursday during the vacation and has 
become acquainted with the Iliad, the Odyssey, part of the Anabasis and 
other gems of the classics. The plan of "free-for-all" has been changed 
to dues of one dollar a 3^ear, as the club has joined the co-unty federation 
and has also local expenses in the way of printed programs, flowers for 
funerals of members and often for the sick or "shut-in," and other dues. 
A committee, changed every year, arranges the program and material 
for the same is obtained from the city public library and from private li- 
braries — often from illustrated leaflets from agents for railroad excur- 
sions in various directions and from Baedecker's guide books. Most of 
the presidents have served two successive years and there is probably not 
a member who would not make a good president if other duties might 
allow. An average of four topics a year is prepared by each member 
and if one drops out volunteers take her work. "Work, not style" seems 
to be the motto of this club. The membership is limited to twenty-five, 


but a few more are equally welcome. There is a committee on music 
and a committee on program, the first appointed by the president, the 
second elected. 

The first program from January to June, 1896, reads : President, 
Mrs. F. J. Atwell; vice president. Mrs. C. H. Bigelow; secretary, Mrs. 
E. R. Spencer. 

Members: — Mrs. Will Andrews, Mrs. H. Arthur, Mrs. F. J. At- 
well, Mrs. O. S. Beach, Mrs. J. O. Becraft, Mrs. M. Hungerford, Mrs. 
William Larzelere, Mrs. G. B. Moore, Mrs. M. E. Morse, Mrs. R. E. 
Morse, Mrs. A. Benedict, Mrs. C. H. Bigelow, Mrs. Otis Bigelow, Mrs. 
H. Defendorf, Mrs. T. J. Edwards, Mrs. B. Elkerton, Mrs. M. Flan- 
ders, Mrs. Will Henwood, Mrs. H. FL Porter, Miss Grace Reshore, 
Mrs. T. J. Rice, Mrs. John A. Root, Mrs. C, L. Sherwood, Mrs. E. R. 
Spencer, Mrs. Susan Thomas, Mrs. S. Tryon, Mrs. T. F. Wilbur. 

A few have resigned, a few removed from the city and a few 
passed on to the better country. In memoriam : — Mrs. M. E. Morse, 
Mrs. C. L. Sherwood, Mrs. S. Thomas, Mrs.' S. Tryon, Mrs. W. H. 

Officers elected for 1906-07 are: President, Mrs. J. O. Becraft; 
vice president, Mrs. A. Hardy ; secretary. Miss Julia Michael ; treasur- 
er, Mrs. R. Van Antwerp. 

Present members : — Mrs. Jennie Allen, Miss Julia Alston, Mrs. C. 
Amsden. Mrs. F. J. Atwell, Mrs. C. H. Bigelow, Mrs. J. O. Becraft, 
Mrs. I. Buchanan, Mrs. M. Campbell, Mrs. L. J. Carr, Mrs. W. W. 
Easton, Mrs. A. Hardy, Miss Julia Michael, Mrs. G. B. Moore, Mrs. 
G. W. Moore, Mrs. R. E. Morse, Mrs. F. FL Reshore, Mrs. J. A. Root, 
Mrs. C. Schmitt, Miss Nettie Tryon, Mrs. R. Van Antwerp, Mrs. Will 

i/allegro club of marcellus. 

The idea of a ladies' literary club in Marcellus originated with Mrs. 
Dora Scott and Mrs. Anna Walters, who consulted with several others 
and as a result the following notice appeared in the Maixclhis Nezvs for 
September 30, 1892: ''All the ladies interested in a literary club will 
meet at the home of Mrs. A. Taylor Tuesday afternoon, October 4, at 
half-past two o'clock to organize." Fifteen ladies were present and an 
organization was formed under the temporary name of the ''Ladies' Lit- 
erally Club," with the following charter members: 

Mrs. Lydia Taylor, Mrs. Allie Des Voignes, Mrs. Lizzie Jones, 
Mrs. Susan Jones, Mrs. Cora White, Mrs. Lena White, Mrs. Effie 


Grant, Mrs. Allie Hudson, Mrs. Delia Hall, Mrs. Laura Hoffman, Mrs. 
Lena Flanders, Mrs. Anna Walter, Mrs. Dora Scott, Mrs. Fannie Mc- 
Manigal, Mrs. Anna Davis, Mrs. Pearl Arnold, Mrs. Laura Tanner, 
Mrs. Mary Cooley, Mrs. Mae vSchoetzow. 

The first officers were: President, Mrs. Lydia Taylor; vice pres- 
ident, Mrs. Allie M. Des" Voignes; secretary and treasurer, Mrs. Dora 
Scott; critic, Mrs. Mae R. Schoetzow. 

It was decided to read the play, ''The Merchant of Venice;" to 
hold the meetings at the houses of the members and on the Monday 
evenings from October i to May i of each year. The time and man- 
ner of holding the meetings has never been changed. 

The first year several Shakespearean plays were read, as well as 
some of ]\Iihon's poems. The title of ''L' Allegro," at the suggestion of 
Mrs. Cora White, was adopted as the permanent name of the club. The 
first year's work was brought to a close with a banquet at the home of 
Mrs. Lizzie Jones, given in honor of the ''martyred husbands," and at 
which about thirty-six guests were present. 

The officers for 1906-7 are: President, Lydia Taylor; vice presi- 
dent, Louise Sill ; secretary, Eva Ditzell ; treasurer, Amanda Harring- 
ton ; corresponding secretary and librarian, Anna Walter ; critic, Luvia 
Lukenbach ; par., Edna Davis. 

Members October, 1906 : — Mrs. Pearl Arnold, Mrs. Fanchon Bailey, 
Miss Alice Bailey, Mrs. Hester Bayley, Mrs. Josephine Beebe, Mrs. 
Merle Burlingtou, Miss Ethel Cowling, Mrs. Edna Davis, Miss Leone 
Dennis, Miss Eva Ditzell, Mrs. Nellie Goodes, Mrs. Amanda Harrington, 
Miss Pearl Hartman, Mrs. Allie Hudson, Airs. Lizzie Jones, Mrs. Bessie 
Jones, Mrs. Georgia Jones, Mrs, Elida Kroll, Mrs. Luvia Lukenbach, 
Mrs. Emma McManigal, Mrs. Fannie McManigal, Mrs. Edna Patch, 
Mrs. Mae R. Schoetzow, Mrs. Louise Sill, Mrs, Florence Sill, Mrs. Lydia 
Taylor, Miss -Frances Volkmer, Mrs. Anna Walter, Miss Inez Willard, 
Miss Lulu Weaver, Mrs. Kate Worden, Mrs. Dora Scott (honorary 
member) . 

The club work for the first few years was entirely of a literary 
nature and was confined for some time to a study of the leading English 
authors, especially Shakespeare, but the scope of the study gradually 
widened and other departments have been added, including charitable 
work. The various committees for the year (1906-07) are Sunshine, 
Philanthropic, Civic Improvement and Forestry, and Audobon. 

The first printed programs w^re arranged for the year beginning 


October 5, 1896. The club joined the state federation in 1900 and has 
been regularly represented by delegates at all succeeding meetings. The 
organization of the County Federation of Women's Clubs was the direct 
result of the issuance of invitations by L'Allegro Club to those of Dowa- 
giac and Cassopolis to join with it in the matter. Twoi clubs in Dowa- 
giac and one in Cassopolis, also the New Century of Marcellus re- 
sponded by sending delegates and the federation was formed in 1902. 


By the persistent efforts and earnest endeavors of twO' sagacious 
townswomen, Mrs. Parmelia Munger and Mrs. Inez Nottingham, who 
felt the need of mental improvement and foresaw the benefits to be de- 
rived by the mothers and housewives of Marcellus by special literary 
training and an interchange of ideas and experiences concerning the 
home and home-making, the rearing and education of children, the help 
that might be gained by an organized body to those around them; and 
having a deep desire to better know^ our own country, its history, laws, 
government and resources, its neighbors and its relation to them, the 
Isabella Club of Marcellus was organized October 23, 1895, with the 
following officers and members: President, Mrs. Parmelia Munger; 
A^ce president, Mrs. Lovinia Ridgeley; secretary and treasurer, Mrs. AI- 
mira Welcher. 

Charter members : — Mrs. Libbie Emery, Mrs. Frances Huber, Mrs. 
Kate Loveridge, Miss Florence Munger, Mrs. Theresa Poorman, Mrs. 
Eunice Lomison, Mrs. Jane Shannon, Miss Pearl Poorman, Mrs. Inez 
Nottingham, Mrs. Sabrina Groner, Mrs. Alice Walker, Miss Edna 
Welcher. After a lapse of eleven years the names of only six of the 
charter members remain upon the roll. Parmelia Munger and Lovinia 
Ridgley are deceased, while others have found new homes and moved 
from Marcellus. 

The club membership is limited to fifteen and the club is barred 
from joining the State Federation of Women's Clubs, twenty-one mem- 
bers being required. It is a member of the county federation. Early 
in the club year of 1900 the name Isabella was dropped and ''New Cen- 
tury" adopted, which name the oreanization now bears. 

The meetings are held Wednesday, fortnightly, at 2 o'clock in the 
afternoon. The motto of the club is, "We plan our work and work our 
plan." The programs are of a miscellaneous nature, the club maintain- 
ing the determination to^ study such subjects as are practical and bene- 


ficial. For three years the club has had the benefit of the State Travel- 
ing Library. It has also taken a four years' Bay View reading course 
in connection with the program. It has a small library of its own. 
There is a social feature of the program appreciated by the members, an 
annual social day, to which the husbands and friends of the members 
are invited. In 1904 the club held its first annual ''Pioneer Day," and 
gave a reception to the pioneers of the town and surrounding country. 
This day of reminiscences was fully enjoyed by the gray-haired guests, 
and at their recpiest the club determined to give them one day in each 
year, and set Wednesday nearest the middle of October as their day, 
which is to be known and observed as 'Tioneer Day.'' 

In philanthropic work the New Century Club has kept apace with its 
sister clubs of larger membership. The club has made a home among 
its members for a friendless child, which has been provided with cloth- 
ing and books ; it has also provided needy children with necessaries, that 
they might attend church and school ; it has cared for sick friends, and 
sent tokens and remembrances to the aged. It joined with the other 
clubs of the county in sending relief to the Children's Home of St. Jo- 
seph, Michigan. 

With the L'Allegro Club last year the school children of Marcellus 
were incited to the removing of old rubbish and rank weeds detrimental 
to public health, from the back yards and alleys, and beautifying the 
grounds with summer flow^ers and pretty vines. Thus many children 
were kept from the streets, and their minds from thoughts which lead 
to vice and crime. To keep the children's minds filled with healthful 
thoughts small prizes w^ere offered, which made them zealous and anxious 
to repeat their efforts. 

The club year of 1906-7 opened September 19th, with the following 
officers: President, Mrs. Frances Huber; vice president. Airs. Almira 
Welcher; secretary and treasurer, Mrs. Ida A. Parker. 

The other members are: Mrs. Kate Loveridge, Mrs. Ada Bucklin, 
Mrs. Inez Nottingham, Mrs. Bertha Palmer, Mrs. Jane Shannon, Mrs. 
Georgia Jones, Mrs. Edna Davis, Mrs. Alice Streeter, Mrs. Jessie Hill, 
Mrs. Nellie Seigel, Mrs. Alice Mack, Mrs. Sadie ShillitO'. 


A number of Edwardsburg's literary women met at Mrs. Mary 
Latson's November 19, 1894, for the purpose of organization for a sys- 
tematic study of literature and current events, and for social improve- 


nient. The organization was effected by the adoption of rules, among 
which was one hniiting the membership of the chib tO' twenty members, 
and the election of officers, who were : President, Mrs. Mary Latson ; 
secretary, Mrs. Frances E. Sweetland ; critic, Mrs. Lucy Reed ; assistant 
critic, Miss Lydia Blair. 

The following ladies became charter members : Mrs. Emma Aikin, 
Mrs. Mary Carlisle, Miss Eva C. Ditzell, Mrs. Ella Haynes, Mrs. M. 
Amelia May, Mrs. Frances E. Sweetland, Mrs. Alice Shanahan, Miss 
Lydia Blair, Mrs. Kate Criswell, Mrs. Hattie J. Holland, Miss Minnie 
Jacks, Mrs. Lizzie Parsons, Miss Jennie Sweetland, Mrs. Addie Thomp- 
son, Miss Bell Blair, Mrs. Lenora Dennis, Mrs. Addie Harwood, Mrs. 
Mary Latson, Mrs. Lucy Reed, Mrs. Mary E. Schoch. 

The club meets every Monday evening from October ist to April 
301th. A different program is arranged at the beginning of the season for 
each of the meetings, that for October 1, 1906, being: 
Roll Call — Vacation Happenings. 
Our Beginnings. 

Appointing Program Committee for 1907-8. 
Club Song. 

vSocial Hour, led by Miss Jacks. 

During the year, among other subjects, the following will be con- 
sidered : Pilgrim Mothers, Musical Composers, The Lidian, Men Who 
Have Achie\ed Eminence, The New U. S. Navy, American Bridge 
Building, Why Give Thanks, Women's Organizations, The Immigra- 
tion Problem, The Salvation Army, The Cotton Industry, The Origin 
of the Stars and Stripes, The South, Old and New, Journalism, Early 
and Late, Inauguration Day, Why March 4th, Cuba, Opening Up of 
Oklahoma, The American Desert and Its Secrets, San Francisco, Old 
and New. 

At this writing the membership is as follows: Miss Alfreda Al- 
len, Mrs. Frances Case, Mrs. Elizabeth M. Gosling, Mrs. Mary L. Har- 
mon, Mrs. Martha Parsons, Mrs. Helen Rinehart, Mrs. Addie Thoni])- 
son, Mrs. Elizabeth Bean, Mrs. Irene Dunning, Mrs. Addie Harwood, 
Miss Minnie Jacks, Mrs. Julia Redfield, Mrs. Laura Snyder, Mrs. Bertha 
Van Antwerp, Miss Bell Blair, Mrs. Lenora Dennis, Mrs. Ella Haynes, 
Mrs. Mary Latson, Mrs. Myrta Reese, Mrs. Alice Shanahan. 

The present officers are: President, Mrs. Alice Shanahan; vice 
president, Mrs. Elizabeth M. Gosling; secretary, Mrs. Addie Harwood; 
assistant secretary, Miss Minnie Jacks; treasurer, Mrs. Helen Rinehart. 


Fraternities of various kinds and for various purposes have such 
vogue among the people that it would be difficult to name all the organ- 
izations of that nature which can be found in a single county, and any- 
thing like a history of each one would be quite impossible. Of the old 
orders, the Odd Fellows were the first to get a hold in this county. 
Cass County Lodge No. 21, I. O. O. F., was organized February 18, 
1847, ^^d has been in continuous existence nearly sixty years. The 
vihage of Edwardsburg obtained a lodge of the same order in 1850 by 
the institution of Ontwa Lodge No. 49 on July i8th. The Odd Fellows 
were also the first secret order to be established in Dowagiac. Dowagi- 
ac Lodge No. 57, L O. O. F., was instituted September 12, 1851. Fol- 
lowing these three pioneer lodges the Odd Fellows have been organized 
in various other centers in the county, and both encampments and 
auxiliary Rebekah lodges have been formed. 

The Masons were not far behind the Odd Fellows. The first meet- 
ing of members of this fraternity was held at the old Union hotel in 
Cassopolis June 12, 1852, and soon afterward Backus Lodge No. 55, F. 
& A. M., was organized. Dowagiac Lodge No. 10 was organized Jan- 
uary II, 1855, and at Edwardsburg, St. Peter's Lodge No. 106, F. & 
A. M., was instituted January 14, 1858. The Masons have also increased 
in power and number, and both Cassopolis and Dowagiac have chapters 
of the Royal Arch, while there are several lodges in other parts of the 
county, there being one in Calvin whose membership is of the colored 

These two orders are the oldest and perhaps the strongest in total 
membership in the county. The Ancient Order of United Workmen 
has been active in the county for thirty years or more. The Maccabees 
are probably as energetic in fraternal work as any other order, and their 
numbers are steadily increasing. There are both Knights and Lady Mac- 
cabees in the two principal towns of the county. Besides these there 
are the Knights of Pythias, the Modern Woodmen of America, the In- 
dependent Order of Foresters, the Tribe of Ben Hur, the Catholic 
Knights and Ladies of America, the Royal Arcanum, and various lesser 
known orders. 

Dowagiac is the home office of the International Congress, a purely 
fraternal beneficial order, which has several branches in other villages 
of the county. 



October 9, 1873, about two hundred early settlers of the county 
met at the Court House in Cassopolis, for the purpose of organizing 
a society. Hon. George Newton was called to temporarily preside, and 
Hon. A. B. Copley was chosen as secretary. All the townships, ex- 
cepting Howard, were represented. The chairman appointed a com- 
mittee consisting of one from each township on organization. A recess 
was then taken until afternoon. 

Upon reassembling, Uzziel Putnam, Sr., the first white settler in 
the county, was elected permanent chairman, and C. C. Allison and 
W. H. Mansfield, editors of the local papers, appointed secretaries. A 
constitution was adopted and the following officers elected : 

Uzziel Putnam, Sr., President. 

George Meacham, Vice President. 

A. B. Copley, Secretary. 

John Tietsort, Assistant Secretary, and an executive committee 
of one from each township elected. Forty-one pioneers signed the 
constitution at this meeting. 

The executive committee met at Cassopolis January 21, 1874, and 
adopted the by-laws and adjourned to May 22nd, when Daniel S. Jones, 
G. B. Turner, John Nixon, George T. Shaffer and Joseph Smith were 
appointed a committee to make arrangements for the first annual re- 
union and picnic, to be held on the Fair grounds in Cassopolis, June 17. 

Since that time the society has held its annual reunion on the third 
Wednesday of June, with a single exception of one year. The last 
was the thirty-third reunion. These meetings have been largely attended, 
there being present from four to seven thousand people. 

Following is a list of principal officers : 
Year. President. Secretary. Treasurer. 

1873 — Uzziel Putnam, Sr. A. B. Copley Joseph Smith 

1874 — Uzziel Putnam, Sr. A. B. Copley Joseph Smith 

1875 — Uzziel Putnam, Jr. John T. Enos Asa Kingsbury 

1876— Uzziel Putnam, Jr. John T. Enos Jno. Tietsort 

1877— Uzziel Putnam, Jr. L. H. Glover Jno. Tietsort 

1878 — Uzziel Putnam, Jr. L. H. Glover Jno. Tietsort 



1879 — CjCO. I). Turner 
1880 — Geo. B. Turner 
1881 — Joseph Harper 
1882 — Jesse G. Beeson 
1883 — Gillman C. Jones 
1884 — Gillman C. Jones 
1885— M. T. Garvev 
1886— S. T. Read 
1887— Jos. N. Marshall 
1888 — Henry Kimmerle 
1889-^Ezekiel Smith 
1890 — Geo. T. Shaffer 
1891 — Chester Morton 
1 892 — Abi j ah Huy ck 
1893 — Geo. Longsduff 
1894— M. J. Card 
1895 — David R. Stevens 
1896 — Henry Michael 
1897 — Elias Morris 
1898— James M. Truitt 
1899 — Levi J. Reynolds 
1900 — J. Boyd Thomas 
1901 — Isaac Wells 
1902 — Jon'n C. Olmsted 
1903 — John Huff 
1904 — Geo. J. Tow^nsend 
1905 — Henry A. Crego 
1906 — S. M. Rinehart 

L. H. Glover 
L. H. Glover 
L. H. Glover 
L. H. Glover 
S. S. Harrington 
C. W. Clisbee 
C. W. Clisbee 
C. W. Clisbee 
C. W. Clisbee 
C. W. Clisbee 
C. W. Clisbee 
L. H. Glover. 
A. M. Moon 
A. M. Moon 
R. Sloan 
R. C. Sloan 
L. H. Glover 
L. H. Glover 
L. H. Glover 
L. H. Glover 
L. H. Glover 
L. H. Glover 
L. H. Glover 
L. H. Glover 
L. H. Glover 
L. H. Glover 
L. H. Glover 
L. H. Glover 

Jno. Tietsort 
Jno. Tietsort 
Jno. Tietsort 
C. H. Kingsbury 
C. H. Kingsbury 
Jas. H. Stamp 
Joel Cowgill 
Joel Cowgill 
C. C. Nelson 
C. C. Nelson 
C. C. Nelson 
C C. Nelson 
C. C. Nelson 
C. C. Nelson 
C. C. Nelson 
C. C. Nelson 
C. C. Nelson 
C. C. Nelson 
C. C. Nelson 
C. C. Nelson 
C. C. Nelson 
C. C. Nelson 
C. C. Nelson 
C. C. Nelson 
C. C. Nelson 
C. C. Nelson 
C. C. Nelson 
C. C. Nelson 

The principal speakers have been prominent men in the state. For 
the \'arious years the speakers have been as follows : 

1874 — Rev. James Ashley. 
1875 — J^i<^l§'^ F- J- Littlejohn. 
1876 — Governor John J. Bagley. 
1877 — Hon. E. W. Keightlev. 
1878— Hon. S. C. Coffinbury. 
1879 — Hon. Levi Bishop. 
1880 — Local Pioneers. 
1 88 1 — Governor David H. Jerome. 
1882 — Hon. Thomas W. Palmer. 
1883 — Governor Josiah W. Begole. 
1884 — Ex-Governor Austin Blair. 
188=; — Emorv A. Storrs. 
x886— Rev. A. J. Eldred. 
1887 — Governor Cyrus G. Luce. 
1888 — General L. S. Trowbridge. 
1889' — Hon. George L. Yaple. 
1890 — Judge Thomas R. Sherwood. 



1891 — Local Pioneers. 

1892 — Governor Edwin D. Winans. 

1893 — Governor John T. Rich. 

1894 — Hon. R. R. Pealer. 

1895 — Local Pioneers. 

1896 — Lion. Thomas Alarrs. 

1897— Rev. A. J. Eldred. 

1898 — Rev. Reason Davis. 

1899— Hon. William Alden Smith, M. C. 

1900^ — Rev. A. J. Eldred. 

1901 — Hon. E. L. Hamilton. 

igo2 — Hon. Thomas O'Hara. 

1903 — Hon. Henry Chamljerlin. 

1904 — Rev. Nimrod F. Jenkins. 

1905 — Governor Fred M. Warner, Judge O. W. Coolidge. 

1906 — Hon. William Alden Smith, M. C. 

The membership of the Pioneer Society, from date of organization 
to the present, with place of residence at time of joining the Society, 
and date of settlement and place of birth, is given in the following 

columns : 


George Redfield 

Uzziel Putnam, Jr. 

George Meacham 

Peter Shaffer 

Henry Tietsort 

John Tietsort 

William Jones 

Elias B. Sherman 

John Nixon 

Reuben Henshaw 

Abijah Henshaw 

Mrs. C. Messenger 

George T. Shaffer 

E. Shanahan 

Joseph Smith 

L. D. Smith 

D. S. Jones 

G. B. Turner 

Julia Fisher (wife of 

Henry Tietsort) 
H. Meacham 
J. R. Grenell 
Correl Messenger 
A. J. Carmichael (wife 

of Geo. T. Shaffer 

La Grange 


La Grange 
La Grange 

La Grange 
La Grange 


Date of 


Birth Place. to 






New York 










New York 


North Carolina 


North Carolina 


North Carolina 










Cass County 




New York 




Cass County 


New York 








Charlotte Turner 
Esther Nixon 
Miss Hannah Ritter 
James Boyd 
Lafayette Atwood 
Sarah Miller (wife of 

Chas. Kingsbury) 
Charles W. Clisbee 
R. V. Hicks 
Philo B. White 
A. D. Northrup 
Amos Northrup 
Moses H. Lee 
Henry L. Barney 
James E. Bonine 
Maria C. Jones 
Samuel Graham 
John Struble 
James H. Graham 
Silas Harwood 
A. B. Copley 
Joseph Harper 
D. M. Howell 
Ichabod Pierson 
G. W. Jones 
Lucinda Atwood 
Abijah Huyck 
Sila Huyck 
T. M. Tinkler 
Robert Watson 
N. Bock 
Arthur Graham 
Silas A. Pitcher 
Adam Suite 
Justus Gage 
Jacob Hurtle 
y. A. Barney 
S. T. Read 
Orson Rudd 
William Sears 
James Oren 
Pleasant Norton 
Rachel Norton 
Richard B. Norton 
James Townsend 
Ezra B. Warner 
S. D. Wright 
Nathan Jones 
Isaac Bonine 
Lowell H. Glover 
Thos. J. Casterline 



La Grange 

La Grange 





























Silver Creek 












La Grange 

La Grange 





Taunton, Eng. 1843 

Ohio 1830 

Indiana 1828 

New York 1836 

New York 1836 

Ohio 1830 

Ohio 1838 

England 1835 

New York 1837 

Vermont 1838 

Vermont 1838 
New Hampshire 1836 

Ohio 1838 

Indiana 1841 

New York 1841 

Pennsylvania 1838 

Pennsylvania 1846 

Ohio 1846 

New York 1837 

New York 1833 

Pennsylvania 183 5 

Ohio 1834 

Ohio 1840 

Ohio 1830 

Michigan 1832 

New York 1835 

Pennsvlvania 1845 

New York 183Q 

Ohio 1838 

Belgium 1832 

Scotland 1839 

Ohio 1836 

New York 1836 

New York 1837 

On the ocean 1833 

Pennsylvania 1837 

New York 1832 

Vermont 1836 

Pennsylvania 1836 

Ohio 1848 

Virginia 1832 

Tennessee 1832 

Ohio 1830 

Ohio 1829 

New York 1846 

Ohio 1827 

Ohio 1829 

Indiana 1842 

New York 1839 

New York 1844 



Asa Kingsbury La Grange 

Eli Green Dowagiac 

Samuel Squires Wayne ^ 

Leonard Haskins Dowagiac 

^faria M. White Dowagiac 

L. S. Henderson Dowagiac 

Theodore Stebbins Dowagiac 

Mrs. Theo. Stebbins Dowagiac 

John S. Gage Wayne 

Mrs. John S. Gage Wayne 

Mrs. Lucretia Gage Wayne 

Mrs. Thomas Tinkler Wayne 

Chester C. Morton Wayne 

Mrs. C. C. Morton Wayne 

E. O. Tavlor Wayne 

Mrs. E. 6. Taylor Wayne 

E1)enezer Copley Wayne 

George Whitbeck Wayne 

Mrs. Geo. Whitbeck W^ayne 

]\Trs. Ebenezer Copley Wayne 

William G. r>lair Ontwa 

Jonathan Olmsted Ontwa 

Horace Vaughn Ontwa 

Chaunccv Kennedy Ontwa 

John S. Jacks Ontwa 

Horace Cooper Jefferson 

David Bemcnt Ontwa 

Charles Haney Ontwa 

P). F. Wilkinson Ontwa 

Charles IMorqan Ontwa 

William R. Sheldon Ontwa 

H. H. Ridwell Ontwa 

R. D. ^lay Ontwa 

Samuel IT. Lee Ontwa 

John M. Brady Ontwa 

Noah S. Brady Ontwa 

John Gill Ontwa 

\'alentine Noyes Ontwa 

L G. Bugbee Ontwa 

Elizabeth IL Bugbee Ontwa 

Aaron Shcllhammer Porter 

John Shellhammer Porter 

James PL Hitchcox Porter 

Horace Thompson Porter 
Mrs. TTorace Thompson Porter 

Joshua Brown Porter 

Lucius Keeler Porter 

William Trattles Porter 

Mrs. William Trattles Porter 

Abel Beebe Porter 

Mrs. Abel Beebe Porter 

Massachusetts 1835 

Cass Co., Mich. 1834 

Kentucky 1836 

New York 1834 

Ohio 1837 

New York 1850 

New York 1835 

New York 1833 

New York 1839 

New York 1844 

New York 1848 

New York 1839 

New York 1844 

Ohio 1837 

New York 1844 

New York 1845 

New^ York 1844 

New York 1845 

New York 1835 

New^ York 1844 

New York 1836 

New ^^ork 1836 

New York 1844 

:\Iassachusetts 1840 

Cass Co., :^iich. 1831 

Ohio 1835 

Connecticut 1838 

Baden, (K^rmany 1833 

New York 1844 

Ohio 1842 

Connecticut 1835 

New York 1836 

New York 1837 

New Hampshire 1836 

New York 1835 

^lichio-an 1839 

Tsle of ]\Tan 1835 

New York 1835 

Vermont 1835 
Dartmouth, Eng. 1839 
Pennsylvania 1828 

Pennsylvania 1828 

New York 1831 

Massachusetts 1831 

New York 1835 

Indiana 1835 

New York 1836 

Encrland 1838 

Canada East 1836 

New York 1840 

Pennsylvania 1840 



James Motley Porter 

Mrs. James Motley Porter 

George Whited Porter 

Mrs. George Whited Porter 

Mrs. Betsey Whited Po-rter 

Hall l)eardsley Porter 

Mrs. Hall r)eardsley Porter 

Henry Long I^ortcr 

Edward Long Porter 

Oscar Long Porter 

Mrs. Oscar Long Porter 

A. H. Long l^rter 

Mrs. A. H. Long Porter 

Jacob Rinehart Porter 

IMrs. Jacob Rinehart Porter 

Albert Thompson Porter 

Samuel Rinehart l^orter 

Mrs. Samuel Rinehart l^orter 

Al)ram Rinehart Porter 

iMrs. A])ram Rinehart Porter 

T. A. Hitchcox Porter 

Gideon Hebron Porter 

'^\vs. Gideon Hebron Porter 

Marcus McHuran Porter 
Mrs. ]\rarcus INFcHuran Porter 

John M. Fellows Calvin 

Amos Pluflf Vol in i a 

Tames INT. Wright Volinia 

Mrs. J. ]\T. W^right Volinia 

Elizabeth vSquires Volinia 

George Spicer A'^olinia 

Wrs. George Spicer A^olinia 

George Newton Volinia 

Esther Newton Volinia 

Milton J. Gard Volinia 

Jay Rudd Penn 

J. K. Ritter Cassopolis 

Henry Shanafelt La Grange 

Mrs. PL Shanafelt La Grange 

Mrs. D. M. Warner Cassopolis 

C. Z. Terwilleger Volinia 

Tames M. Truitt Milton 

Margaret P. Truitt Milton 

Charlotte Morris Volinia 

Hattie C. Buell Volinia 

G. J. Townsend Penn 

E. H. Townsend Penn 

John H. Rich Volinia 

George Lyon Penn 

Selina Green Penn 

Tobias Riddle Berrien Co. 



New York 




Cass Co., Mich. 

18 so 

Cass. Co., Mich. 


Cass Co., Mich. 






Cass Co., Mich. 




New York 




New York 














New York 


New York 





Cass Co., ]\rich. 


Cass Co., ]\Iich. 



New York 













183 1 







Berrien Countv 








Cass Co., Mich. 


Berrien County 




Cass Co., Mich. 


Cass Co., Mich. 


Cass Co., Mich. 


Cass Co., Mich. 




North Carolina 






Asahel Z. Copley 

Leonard Goodrich 

John Squiers 

John R inch art 

Daniel Vantnyl 

James East 

E. C. Smith 

Mrs. E. C. Smith 

David Histed 

Charles Smith 

Harriet Smith 

James vShaw 

Peter Stnrr 

William Bilderl)eck 

Sarah r)ilder1:)eck 

lliram Rollers 

S. M Grinnell 

Jane A. Grinnell 

J. Fred Aferritt 

]\Tary A. Merritt 

i\!artha Warren 

Nelson A. Hntchings 

George Evans 

James M. l^ver 

Phehe C. Dyer 

Rehecca Jones 

:\[arv Driskell 

J>ennis Driskell 

I^dward IT. Jones 

wSamnel Everhart 

j\lary Everhart 
Tliomas W. Eudwick 
Jnlia A. T^ndwick 
Amo»s Cowgill 
iVIrs. E. E. Cow£^ill 
Mrs. M. A. Pncklin 
Laura L. Flenderson 
Lewis Rinehart 
Anna Rinehart 
Le Roy Curtis 
Hardy Langston 
Mary Lan^^ston 
Washhurn Benedict 
Loann Curtis 
Albert Jones 
H. D. Shellenbarger 
Sarah Shellenbarger 
William Renesten 
C. C. Grant 
Mars^aret Davidson 
Sarah Hebron 


New^ A^ork 



New A^ork 









New^ Jersey 






New York 



New A^ork 



New York 



New "S^ork 



New York- 



New York 



New Jersey 


Silver Creek 

New Jersey 


Silver Creek 

Ohio ' 



New Jersey 



New York 



New York 



Cass Co., Mich. 



Cass Co., Mich. 



• New York 





.... En^^land 



• • • • L .^ I t «^ 1 tl 1 1 V i 

New York 


Xcw "S^5rk 



Xtnv York- 

J 837 








Xew York 






Xew S^ork 






Ohio ' 


J^a Grange 



La Grange 

Xew York 


I_.a Grange 













Xew York 


Berrien County 

X'orth Carolina 


Berrien County 



La Grange 




XTew York 



New York 








La Grange 




New York 


La Grange 




Ncrth Carolina 




Nathaniel Blackmore 


John Hain, Jr. 

La Grange 

Jesse G. Beeson 

La Grange 

Mary Beeson 

La Grange 

Isaac A. Huff 

La Grange 

Isaac N. Gard 


David Hain 

La Grange 

Leander Osborne 


Harrison Strong 


Fideha A. Strong 


Margaret Stevenson 


Samuel Patrick 


Moses N. Adams 


Elenora E. Stephens 


Wesley Hunt 


H. A. Wiley 


S. C. Olmsted 


W. H. Hain 

La Grange 

Elmira Gilbert 


E. Dickson 


Calesta Stratton 


Eucinda Davis 


David R. Stephens 


Elias Jewell 


I. A. Shingledecker 

La Grange 

Barbara Shingledecker 

La Grange 

William Weaver 


Elizabeth Weaver 


S. H. Gilbert 


John C. Clark 

La Grange 

James P. Doty 

La Grange 

R. J. Dickson 


Hannah B. Dickson 


Elizabeth Gard 

Volinia . 

John Ilain 

La Grange 

Elizabeth Gilbert 


William Saulsbury 


Peter Huff 


Cool Runkle 


]\Targaret Runkle 


Merritt A. Thompson 


J. B. Thomas 


]\Irs. J. B. Thomas 


B. K. Jones 


Isaac Wells 

La Grange 

William J. Hall 


B. F. Rudd 


Loomis H. Warren 


Orley Ann Warren 


Susanah Davis 


Reuben B. Davis 


New York 












North Carolina 




New York 


New York 


New York 






New York 








La Grange, Mich. 




New York 






New York 


New Jersey 






New York 




New York 




New York 




New York 




North Carolina 








New York 








Ontwa, Mich. 










New York 


Cass County 








John Barber 


Mrs. Kate E. Barber 


Leonard Keene 


Alsey Keene 


Ebenezer Anderson 


George Laporte 


Peter Youngblood 

La Grange 

John Rosebroiigh 


James W. Robinson 


Alex. L. Tharp 


J. H. Thomas 


G. A. Meacham 


WilHam Clark 


Edwin T. Dickson 

Berrien County 

Laban Tharp 


Lydia Tharp 


Sanford Ashcraft 


Abigail Ashcraft 


R. Russell 


E. Russell 


B. Lincoln 


Acacha Lincoln 


WilHam D. Brownell 


Janies L. Glenn 


Henry Kimmerle 

La Grange 

M. J. Kimmerle 

La Grange 

D. A. Squier 


R. H. Wiley 

La Grange 

H. S. Rodgers 


M. A. Folmer 


Spencer Williams 


J. AVood 


A. C. Ellis 


H. i\[. Osborn 


Stephen Jones 

La Grange 

Elias Pardee 


C. C. Allison 

La Grange 

Josiah Kinnison 


Henry Michael 

Silver Creek 

Hiram Lee 


David B. Copley 


Mrs. Abbey H. Copley 


H. A. Chapin 


P. W. Southworth 


Mrs. J. A. Southworth 


Asa Huntington 


Zera A. Tyler 


William Allen 


Lyman B. Spalding 

La Grange 

Mrs. M. S. Robinson 


David Gawthrop 

La Grange 





North Carolina 




New Jersey 














New York 


North Carolina 








New York 


New York 


New York 




New York 




New York 




Ohio ' 














New York 


New York 
















New York 


New^ York 










New York 




La Grange 








Henry W. Smith 
Mrs. Nancy J. Smith 
Eh Benjamin 

John M. Truitt 
Ann E. Truitt 
Z. Tinkham 
John T. Miller 
W. H. Smith 
Robert D. Merritt 
Mrs. Robert Merritt 
Nathan Skinner 
I\[rs. Nathan Skinner 
W. G. Beckwith 
J. M. Jewell 
Julias Jewell 
James S. Odell 
Mrs. J. S. Odell 
:^lrs. W. H. Smith 
John Williams 
Emmett Dunning 

B. A. Tharp 
Dyer Dunning 
Emily Tyler 

C. M. Doane 
Emory Doane 
Green Allen 
Isaac Johnson 
Russell Cook 
Mrs. Russell Cook 
M. Carpenter 

Mrs. Eliza Carpenter 
Peter Truitt 
J. S. wShaw 
W. W. Smith 
H. C. Parker 
C. P. Wells 
James P. Smith 
Susan C. Smith 
J. E. Garwood 
Mrs. J. E. Garwood 
Joseph Kirkwood 
Harrison Adams 
Mrs. Harrison Adams 
Solomon Curtis 
Mrs. I^uisa Curtis 
Ann Coulter 
Ann H. Hopkins 
Mrs. Norton Bucklin 


























La Grange 







La Grange 

























New York 














New York 




New Jersey 












Ohio ^ 




New York 






North Carolina 




New York 


New Hampshire 














New York 


New York 


New York 






wS cot land 






New York 


New York 









Mrs. J. J. Ritter 
William R. Merritt, Jr. 
William Robbiiis 
Matilda P. Griffith 
Lizzie E. Tewksbury 
W. I. Griffith 
Mrs. W. I. Griffith 
Thomas J. Foster 

Amos Smith 
William Condon 
]\lrs. L. Goodspeed 
Daniel Blish 
Mrs. Julia Blish 
Catherine Roof 
Hugh C. McNeil 
Joseph Spencer 
Laura Spencer 
Samuel DeCou 
Isabella Batchelor 
A. A. Goddard 
C. W. Morse 
L. B. Patterson 
Hannah j\L Patterson 
W'illiam Flicks 

Jacob Tittle 

Henry Fredricks 

Henry Harmon 

Henrv Bloodgood 

Asa B. Wetherbee 

Abram Fiero 

Hannah Henshaw 

Eli Bump 

James Pollock 

Leander Bridge 

Harriet A. Bridge* 

Tra J. Putnam 

John E. Dodge 

Avril Earl 

Gamaliel Townsend 

John Hain, Sr. 

P. P. Perkins 

E. P. Clisbee 

Orlean Putnam 

Amelia Putnam 

James A. Lee 
Patience Lee 
John Bedford 

La Grange 







St. Joseph Co., Ind. 























La Grange 








La Grange 

La Grange 

La Grange 



La Grange 

La Grange 




New York 
" Michigan 

New York 
New Hampshire 
New York 
New York 
New York 
New York 
New Jersey 
New York 
Cass County 

Ohio ' 
New York 
New York 
New York 

New York 
New York 
Cass County 

New York 

New York 

Canada West 

North Carolina 

New York 


New York 

New York 

New York 

New York 











* The first white child born in Newberg township. 



Nathan Phillips 
George Rogers 
Abraham Rinehart 
Hannah E. Rinehart 
John Lybrook 
Josepli Lvbrook 
Ellen P. 'Hibrey 
Adelia T. Merritt 
Daniel Mcintosh 
Plugh P. Garrett 
John Mcpherson 
•William Young 
John A. Jones 
Zora E. Jones 
Roderick L. Van Ness 
Julia E. Van Ness 
Joseph L. Jacks 
JDr. A. J. Boughton 
Matthew T. Garvey 
Sarah E. Garvev 

Amos Jones 
William Reames 
Charles R. Poe 
John C. Carmichael 
Samuel Morris 
David Reardsley 
Mrs. Mary Dewey 
Valentine Noyes 
I'ricl Enos 

Polly M. Shellhammer 
James W. East 
Frank Savage 
Archibald Dunn 
Henry Aldrich 
George Smith 
Milton Hull 
William Lawson 
Ephraim Hanson 
Jonathan Colyer 
Sarah Atwood 
Catherine Colyer 
Arthur Smith 
Mary Jane Smith 
Salicia Emmons 
Uzziel Putnam 
James B. Treat 
Elizabeth Grubb 
Martha Norton 





La Grange 

La Grange 


Bristol, Ind. 


La Grange 


Flo ward 










La Grange 
























Silver Creek 



New York 


New York 




New York 




Cass Count v 




New York 












Cass County 




Vol in i a 











North Carolina 












New York 










New York 


Rhode Island 




North Carolina 


New York 


North Carolina 



1 83 1 

Ohio ' 




New York 


New York 


New York 


New York 








John A. Reynolds 
Laura J. Reynolds 
Joshua Leach 
A. F. Northrup 
Charity Rich 
N. B. Goodenough 
(jcorge Longsduff 
Margaret Scares 
George L. Stevens 
Flias Morris 
Charlotte Morris 
Elijah Goble 
Eliza Goble 
Levi Springsteen 
Braddock Carter 
Caroline Carter 
Anselm Jessup 
Richard C. Ross 
Mehitable Ross 
William Hitchcox 
Elizabeth Hitchcox 
George Benient 
Mrs. Betsy Gardner 
David T. Truitt 
A. J. Gardner 
David Beardslev 
Mrs. Belinda Miller 
Ann C. Miller 
Lewis FL jXIiller 
Virgil Turner 
Arietta Van Ness 
Elizabeth D. Keeler 
Joshua Richardson 
Eveline E. Richardson 
Thomas Stapleton 
Mrs. C. J. Grecnleaf 
ATaryette H. Glover 
Thomas Odell 
Henry J. Brown 
Sadie Huyck 
Jacob B. B recce 
Sarah M. Breece 
Aaron J. Nash 
Marc^aret R. Nash 

William H. Olmstead 
Sarah A. Olmstead 
Jacob Suits 
Mary Reames 
John E. Reames 








La Grange 







































New York 


New York 








New Y^ork 








Van Buren Co. 








New York 


New York 








New York 








New York 




New York 




New York- 


New York 


New York 


New York 


New York 


New York 






















New York 


New York 


New York 


New York 


New York 








Lovinia Reames 




Samuel Ingling 




Jane D. Ingling 


New York 


Jos. H. Burns 

Ala son 

New York 


Ann E. Burns 


New York 


John Bilderback 

Silver Creek 



Cynthia Bilderback 

Silver Creek 



Eleazer Hammond 


New York 


Reason S. Pemberton 




Margaret Pemberton 




Erastus Z. Morse 




Israel P. Hutton 

Berrien County 



John H. Hutton 




Anne Moorlag 




Sarah xA.nn Moorlag 




William Loupe 




Mary Loupe 




lantha Wood 


New York 


William H. Doane 


New York 


Lois A. Doane 



New York 


Gabriel Eby 




Caroline Eby 




Hiram N. Woodin 


New York 


Martha C. Woodin 


New York 


H. H. Poorman 




Plenrv E. Hain 




William M. Hass 

La Grange 



Nancv Simpson 




J. M: Huff 




Josephine B. Smith 




Perrv Curtiss 

Silver Creek 



G. W. Smith 




Alfred Shockley 




H. B. Shurter 


New York 


Martin Stamp 




A. D. Thompson 




C M. Odell 




Kimmey Shanahan 




Samuel W. Breece 




Jacob Reese 


New York 


Marcus Sherrell 




H. D. Bowling 




Mrs. ATarv Childs 




A. I. Ditz 


New York 


William W. Carpenter 




Georee W. Williams 




lasper K. Aldrich 




Mrs. Emily Curtis 




Enos Rosebrough 
George Tharp 
Peter Fox 
John Hess 
Henrv D. Goodrich 
John O. Pohock 
Wilham D. Fox 
Ehas B. Lowman 
John A. Parsons 
Nathaniel B. Crawford 
Byron H. Casterhne 
George S. Bassett 
David D. Brady 
Horace Warren 
Harvey Depuy 
George B. Crawford 
Asher J. Shaw 
Robert N. Martin 
John R. Everhart 
Sarah Driscol Everhart 
John Manning 
Richard M. WilUams 

Cyrus Tuthill 
Nicholas Haller 
Catherine Haller 
Samuel Stevens 
John F. Burnett 
Marcus L. Morton 
Moses Crosby 
Sarah Stanard 
James M. Chapman 
Mary Chapman 
Simon B. Poor 
Henry B. Wilson 
Ira Stephenson 
J. H. Beauchamp 

James G. Havden 
Jacob Allen, M. D. 
Henrv Thompson 
Edmund D. Bement 
Sarah 11. Simpson 
Harriet Benedict 
William H. Smith 
Melissa J. Smith 
Hannah L. Hall 
Charles Ferrell 
















La Grange 





Porter Co., Ind. 

La Grange 

















La Grange 

Riverside, Calif. 




La Grange 



Cass Co. 




















New Jersey 




Ohio ^ 






New Vork 










Ohio ^ 




Ohio ' 


New York 






New York 


New Jersey 




New York 


New York 




New York 


New York 


North Carolina 






* Calvin 


New York 






New Hampshire 


New York 






New York 






NAMES ADDED IN 1 884 AND 1 885. 

Lenguel Smith 
Hiram Jewell 
y\lonzo Garwood 
Scwcll Hull 
Edward Chatterdon 
Benj. F. Beeson 
Nancy O shorn 
Ellen Jackson 
Turner Byrd 
Jonathan Hill 
Tacoh Elill 
William J. Abbott 
Elias M. Ingling 
Alice E. Shanahan 
Damarius Allen 
Riifiis W. Landon 
Jaritis Avers 
James A. Williams 
Eliza M. Weatherby 
Sarah Fox 

Pleasant Arnick 
Ahram Hiitchins 
Roxana Bement 
Jane Jenkins 
Harriet Patterson 
]\Tary A. Hoiightaling 
Henrv S. Quick 
Eliza Smith 

John Keegan 
Thomas Kirkw^ood 
Melissa Kirkwood 
Micajah P. Grennell 
Margaret Pearson 
Anna INT. Shiirter 
]\Trs. Curtis 










Elkhart, Ind. 

Fayette Co., la. 

















La Grange 












New Jersev 






New York 




New York 




North Carolina 


Cass Co. 














New York 




New York 



Diamond Lake 


New York 


New York 






Ohio ' 


New^ Jersey 










New Tersev 


Ohio * 



Henrv Stevenson 
Henriette Stevenson 
S. H. Morse 
Tames L. Simpson 
David Thomas 






James Griffis 
Parmelia N. Griffis 
Eliza F, Hunt 
Phineas Nixon 
Grace S. Pound 
]\Iary A. Dunn 
Harriet A. Root 
Henry D. Arnold 
Mary Dunn Arnold 
Joseph W. Sturr 
Levisa Sturr 
Stephen A. Nichols 
Mary A. Nichols 
Nelson Hedger 
Samuel McKee 








La Grange 









Joudan P. Osborn 

Rhoda M. Huey 

Smyra Spencer 

Abner Brown 

Betsey J. Stephenson ]\[ason 

NAMES ADDED FROM 1 889 TO 1 895 

Cass Co. 


Lovina Allen Flaithcock 


Bcnnet Allen 


H. ^Tarquis Gibson 


Percilla Casey Ford 


Richmond Lake 


Fred A. Hadsell 


Henry A. Crego 


Henry W. Harwood 


Joseph Foresman 

La Grange 

William H. Owen 


Robert C. Sloan 


Byron Fiero 

La Grange 

Tva Wrio'ht Fiero 

La Grange 

W^:iliam R. Sheldon 


iNFilton WVight 

La Grange 

Flizabeth Myers Wright 

La Grange 


L^lvsses S. Eby 


Willis Haithcock 


George H. Curtis 


Mercv Wood Zelner 


E, W. V/agor 




















New Jersey 








New York 







New York 



New York 








North Carolina 


North Carolina 


New York 












New York 


La Grange 












North Carolina 




Kent Co., Mich. 


New York 




Rachel Shanafelt Um- 

Andrew C. Foster 
Reason Freer 
J. H. Warner 
James Moreland 
William Laporte 
Flmore F. Lewis 
William Pegg 
J. J. Cables 
Cynthia Allen Cables 
William IT. Beeson 
Nimrod Aluncy 

^lary A. Hass 
Daniel M. Fisher 
James 11. Abl)ott 
lohn Bedford 
Pliillip Ware 

La Grange 





La Grange 





La (irange 



La Grange 








Hiram Col^b Ontwa 

Nellie lieardsley Cobb Ontwa 

William Butts ' ^lilton 

Leverett E. Mather Howard 

Nathan G. Stanard Porter 

Lora Beardsley Stanard Porter 
Ida Springsteen Benedict La Grange 

Timothy B. Benddict La Grange 

Silas H. Thomas Penn 

William J. Primrose Tefferson 

David Judie Volinia 

John D. Williams Cassopolis 

Henrv L. Case Mason 

Cvnthia Tyler Case Mason . 

Clara Mead Zeller Cassopolis 

Thomas M. Scares 
Perry A. Cays 
Elwood East 
Mortimer O. Hadden 
Susan Eoresman 
Harriet Stephens 
Emily Wheeler 
George Scott 
Olive Parmenter Scott 
Samuel Hawks 


La Grange 

La Grange 



La Grange 








New York 


New York 




La Grange 




New i^ork 


New York 






La Grange 
























La Grange 


La Grange 












New York 




La Grange 


La Grange 




New York 


New York 


New York 




New York 









Margaret Hedger Olmsted Jefferson 

Ro)al Salisbury Howard 

Edmund Landen Jefferson 

l\aulina Allen Landen Jefferson 

Al^ram ii. llaff X'olinia 

\V. C. Griffith ^lilton 

Wm. H. C. Hale Calvin 

Thomas j\I. Areux Jefferson 

Lucy Regnall Areux Jefferson 

Elizabeth LIulse Stevens Mason 

Luther J. Pray 
liruce r>eel)e 
Jose])h Parker 
George Green 
IT-anidin T. Wolfe 
David A. Squire 
Myron V. Burney 
Ivobert Patterson 
Calvin A. Collev 




La Grange 








Philo Brown Calvin 

Herl^ert E. Moon Cassopolis 

Lsrael Ilartsell Penn 

Charles B. Zeller Cassopolis 

John R. Carr Casso])olis 

Edwin White Porter 

George F. Holliway Cassopolis 

Edwin W. Beckwith Jefferson 

Warren W. Reynolds Cassopolis 

George B. McNiel Cassopolis 

George M. Rivers Cassoi)olis 

Harsen D. Smith Cassopolis 

Charles Harlfelter Cassopolis 

Allen M. Kingsbury La Grange 

William Hartsell Penn 

Franc A. Lamb Cassopolis 

John J. Fisher Cassopolis 

Eber Reynolds Cassopolis 

Edward Keegan Jefferson 

Timothy B. Kingsbury La Grange 
Gertrude Ferris Kingsbury La Grange 

Qiarles Tietsort La Grange 

Charles A. Ritter Cassopolis 

Joseph Graham Cassopolis 

Charles E. Voorhis Cassopolis 
Em.eline Crandall Voorhis Cassopolis 







New York 












A I ason 


Kalamazoo Co. 














Lenawee Co. 




New York 








Nova Scotia 









185 1 

New York 


New York 


New York 












La Grange 


New Jersey 




Berrien Co. 










New York 




Wilbur F. Pollock 
Julia Hice Pollock 
Marshall L. Howell 
David L. Kingsbury 
Samuel Anderson 
Alamandal J. Tallerday 
vSterling B. Turner 
Jacob H. Osborn 
Lewis Freer 
William Green 
Omar J. East 
David Long 
Frank W. Lambert 
Alice Osborne Lambert 
Fred G. Pollock 
William Heaton 
Wm. H. H. Pemberton 
Delancie Pemberton 
Narcissus Lewis 
Jennie Alulrine Keene 
Harry J. Keene 
FFerman S. East 
Fiora James East 
Charles W. East 
Ellen Curtis East 
Charles W^ Chapman 
Clarence L. Sherwood 
loseph R. Edwards 
Frank W. Lvle 
Barak L. Rudd 
Bert Clasky 
Tra Tietsort 
Orville W. Coolidge 
Perry A. Tietsort 
Charles C. Philbrick 
Andrew F. Caul 
Robert H. Wilev 
Clitus W. Martin 
Isabel Grimm Martin 
Sarah Bunberry Shaw 
Asher J. Shaw 
Maria Shaw Kennedy 
Catherine Cullen 
Marsfaret Runkle Kingsley 
William A. Wright 
Clara M. Wright 
Charles O. Haefner 
John H. Root 
Simeon Huff 
Benjamin F. Graham 
Lincoln P. Gard 





St. Joseph Co. 






La Grange 



Berrien Co. 



Elkhart Co. 





Van d alia 

Cass County 



New York 












Rhode Island 



Cass Co. 












Cass Co. 



Cass Co. 






Kalannazoo Co. 


Cass Co. 













1 8 so 





New Jersey 





"Forest Hall" 




La Grange 











Grand Rapids 














Berrien Co. 





























Cass Co. 







M. Blanche Mcintosh Link VoHnia 

Charles E. Osborn 

James H. Leach 

Nathan Marsh 

Sarah Hunt Marsh 

Adaline Robinson Tietso 

Florence M. Tietsort 

Adaline M. Philbrick 

C. Fred Hoover 

Hiram R. Schutt 

Ezra Pearson 

Lydia Langsduff Carter 

Joseph H. Wetherbee 

Nancy Honts Wetherbee 

Abel Hamilton 

Adelbert M. Smith 

Justin A. Dunning 

John Bedford 

Keziah Ingling McOmbe 

Sarah Ingling Parker 

Allison B. Thompson 

Charles C. Aikin 
Emma Sprague Aikin 
Mary E. Solomon Schoch 

John C. Schoch 

Daniel S. Stryker 
Kate iNIilliman 
Richard J. Hicks 
Marcus S. Qlmstead 
Mary Ketcham Qlmstead 
George A. Tuesley 
Cassius M. Dennis 
Andrew J. Tuesley 
George A. Shetterly 
Jesse Title 
Henry Andrus 
James H. Andrus 
Edward Hirons 
Julia Tietsort Gates 
Charles W. Tietsort 
Abraham L. Clendenen 
Thomas J. Mealoy 
Cvnthia Fisher Mealoy 
Alfred J. East 
William T. Oxenford 
Dema Brody Oxenford 
lacob Mcintosh 
W. W. Hollister 
Frank Swinehart 
Silas H. Thomas 
Elvira Bogue Thomas 





rt Cassopolis 


Grand Rapids 











r Dowagiac 

Three Rivers 

















































Elkhart, Ind. 


New York 




New York 












New York 


New York 
























St. Jos. Co., Ind. 






Yan Buren Co. 














Cass Co. 


Cass 'Co. 





















Emily A. Smith Owen 
Tames H. Beauchamp 
Samuel B. Had den 
Davis A¥. liall 
Edwin G. Loux 
Mary E. Shanafelt-Wol 
Josephine Shanafelt-Me 
Adelbert Kram 
Bishop E. Curtis 
John Hildebridle 
Sarah Lutz Hildebridle 

Herbert Solomon 
Vincent Reames 
Eliza Grubb Harmon 
Tohn C. Harmon 
Fred B. Wells 
Hannah Crane Dibble 

C. H. Kimmerle 
Gorden G. Huntley 
C E. Lyle 

Alarquis D. Witherell 
Elmer W. Griffis 
Jerman S. Draper 
Henry Springsteen 





Edward si )urg 



New Vork 








cott La Grange 

La Grange 


rwin La Grange 

La Grange 


















La Porte Co., Lid. 











La Grange 




New York 





















New York 


New York 




In tlie preceding cliapters we haxe clescri])C(l many phcises of Cass 
county's history, and ]ia\'e endea\'ore(l so far a.s possililc to oi\-e a 
comprehensi\'e account of its institutions and its ])coplc ivrm tlie first 
settlement to tlie present date, l^^n* tlie last we ha\e reserx'cd an ac- 
cotmt of religious influences and church organizations and ])ersona]ities. 
It concludes the historical narrative with a certain ha])py ])r()priety. 
hY)r religion has well ))een called the capstone of the arch of life, liind- 
ing together and giving stahilit\' to the other ])arts — the culmination 
of the hopes and experiences of the human race. 

Though last to 1)e descrihed, religion was .hy no means last among 
the stages of development in the civilized life of Cass county. The 
jMoneers did not leave their religion hehind when they settled here, hut 
brought it with them. In the first settlements that were formed there 
were probably not a sufficient number of any one sect to form a church 
by themselves, and so they worshi])ed together. The points of doctrine 
or practice which divided them were h.eld in abeyance, persons of each 
sect yielded a little for the good of the whole, and in a spirit of union 
and Christian toleration they came together and each one tried to 
derive all the good he could from the meetings, exercises and discourses. 
For a time there were no church biuldings, but schoolhouses were soon 
erected, or private houses ser\'ed for the purpose, and there in the 
winter, or in tbe open air in summer, the people assembled. The pioneer 
religious meeting was spontaneous, necessarily had little formalism, 
and the first meetings, unrecorded in history, were of the kind told 
about in the Bible, wdiere ''two or three met together" to give expression 
to the rich and sincere feeling within them. This kind of w^orship w^as 
largely individual, w^as inherent in the nature of the pioneer man and 
woman wherever he w^as, and w^as not necessarily dependent on the 
organized religion known as the church. 


Of the first representatives of organized religion in this county 
there is, unfortunately, no definite record. As we have made clear in 
an earlier chapter, the first Christian influence to penetrate the wilder- 


ness of southern Michigan was that emanating from the devoted priests 
who, of their own initiative, or close in the train of those who conquered 
the land for the King of France, sought to win to their religion the 
souls of the heathen red men. The names of the early fathers who 
may have passed over this region are not accessible, and the only monu- 
ment they have left is the zeal and self-sacrifice with which they under- 
took their cause. From the letters of the Jesuit Father, Joseph Marest, 
w^e get some of the earliest descriptions of the St. Joseph country and 
its Indian inhabitants. It is known that the Jesuits had a mission on 
the banks of the St. Joseph at the present site of Niles, established in 
the early years of the eighteenth century. But this disappeared years 
before the permanent settlement of this region. 

The work of the P>ench Catholic missionaries left a permanent 
record for the historical times of Cass county. When McCoy and his 
associates founded the Carey Mission they found that many of the 
Pottawottomies still clung to the Catholic ritual and mode of worship. 
A knowledge of some of the religious holidays, such as Christmas, was 
found among them. After the removal of the Indians from this coun- 
try, Pokagon and his band of Roman Catholics located, as we know, 
in Silver Creek, and there formed the first organized Catholic com- 
munity in the county. Forty acres of the lands purchased by them was 
deeded to the church, and on this tract, in 1838, was built the first 
church in the township. Pokagon, it is related, met with some difli- 
culties in the construction of tliis edifice. His white neighbors were 
rather opposed to the rehgion espoused by the Indians. The Indians 
were unequal to the task of raising and joining the building which 
they had planned, and without the assistance of the white man's skill 
they could not have proceeded with the construction. John G. A. 
Barney, the well known pioneer of the township, was appealed to, and 
at once promised his assistance. When the timbers were in readiness 
he and his three hired men quickly raised and framed the building. 
The church, of hewn logs, was twenty by thirty feet, standing on the 
north shore of Long lake. It was destitute of any floor but the earth, 
and the seats were roughly cut benches. But services were held here 
by various priests for five or six years. 

This was the beginning of the Church of the Sacred Fleart of 
Mary, which might well be considered the visible monument to the 
work begun by the Jesuit priests almost two centuries before. 

In 1844 the first regular priest was assigned to this congregation. 


About the same time a school was estabhshed and conducted by Father 
Marivault, and later by the Catholic sisters. This school was supported 
from the go\xrnment annuities of the Indians. 

Aljout 1847, wlien Father Baroux was stationed here, the church 
w^as remodeled and was supplied with pews. This church, established 
b\' the Indians, was the nucleus of the Cathohc settlement in this county. 
One of the first white settlers to Ijecome a communicant of this church 
was Dennis Daly and liis brothers, Patrick and Cornelius. When Mr. 
])aly soon afterward attended the services he and one other person 
were the only white worshippers, all the rest being Indians. This was 
the beginning of white influence in the cliurch, and with the sul)sequent 
removal of mau}^ of the Indians and other causes of decline, the Church 
of the Sacred Heart came in time to be the place of worship of while 
Roman Catholics almost entirely. 

In 1858 a new church edifice was erected, Augustine J. Topash 
being foremost in the work which Ijrought about its construction. Ex- 
tensive additions were made to this 1)uilding, and in Septem1}er, 1861, 
the building w^as completed practically as it stands today. The church 
organization 1)ecame almost inacti\'e for some }ears, and when Father C. 
J. Roeper began his pastorate in 1875, ^^ ^^'^^ necessary to undertake 
many repairs and restorations. 

The church mem1)ershii) has remained about the same through 
various periods, it being now al^out fifty families. 

The Dowagiac Catholic church began its organized activity about 
1858, although the first house of worship was not erected until 1872. 
This, the first edifice of the Church of the Holy Maternity, was dedi- 
cated August 30, 1876. The same priest has always served 1x)th the 
Silver Creek and Dowagiac churches, the present pastor being* Rev. 
John G. Wall. In 1892 the present beautiful brick church, on North 
Front street, was erected. The first church had been located at the 
upper end of Orchard street, and for some time was the smallest church 
in the city. To Rev. Joseph Joos, who assumed the pastorate in 1891, 
was due much of the credit for constructing the new church, at a cost 
of $15,000, and bringing* the membership from fifty to about one hun- 
dred and fifty families. 


The Methodists have always been pioneers of evangelism. Through- 
out the middle west their circuit riders and missionaries- have appeared 


usually first, and always among the first to develop the religions side 
of the scattered communities. ~ 

Of the heginnings of Methodism in Cass county a contributor to 
the collections of the Michigan Pioneer Society has this to say: 

Rev, hlrastus Felton, who was appointed September 29, 1829, by 
the Ohio conference to the St. Jcjsejih Mission, laliored in Cass, Berrien 
and St. J(\'^eph counties, and in the following year returned to the same 
field with Leonard B. Curley as assistant. Classes were ]>rol)aldy 
formed this Aear on the south side of Beardslcy's ])rairie and on Young's 
])rairie ( |\^nn t(nvnship). }?i 1831 r chiton av as appointed to the Kala- 
n.iazoo mission, and Rev. T. ]. Robe to the Wayne circuit, the latter 
being ]M-omincnt among th.e Methodist workers in this section. Tra\^el- 
ing from Kalamazoo ''on horseliack and with die traditional saddle- 
bags," ]\ev. Robe established ])reaching at Little Prairie Ronde (Vo- 
linia), ^^)ung's ])rairie, Dinn^rind jnle, Cassf)]')o1is, T.aCr''nf.';<^ aiin 
Pokagon and BeardslcA's j^rniriry, 'Hkmc were twent\--iive rn:>^-ious m 
all, arranged so lie could rer'cl^ c'-cli (Mice in four weeks. 

Octojjer IJ, 1834. at the c )uference in AVayne crnmty, L^^li-nri, 
the St. [ose]}h circuit wa^ rein-e-^eu^ed !:) S. R. Rol)inson and the Cass - 
polis circuit by R. (\ A<eek. In t!ie s;nnc xepv Rev. Rolie formed a cla^s 
in Silver Creek, Nntlianiel A\>(:d ])e!ng the class leader. .At ihe organi- 
zation of the Pokngon Prairie chmcli, in 1832, Edward l\)wers was 
ap])ointed class leader, ,'iud tlie first meetings were lield in Powers' 
log house on ]\ikagon creek. 

^I^he Michigan conference Avns organized in 1836, Init it was not 
until 1840 that the southwe-t j^'-rt o-f the state was attached to its juris- 
diction. At the first conference in Marshall the Kdwardsburg charge 
was represented by Revs. J. B\ron and D. Knox. 

From this description of the general status of Methodism in the. 
county, w^e may proceed to mention tlie individual organizations. Fd- 
wardsburg evidently had the first, or certainly one of the first, classes. 
But the legal organization was not efl'ected liy election of trustees until 
February 13, 1837, when the corporate name was ado])ted and tlie 
following memliers elected as trustees: Pliram Rogers, Clifford Shau'i- 
han, Henry A. Chapin, Leonard Hain, Asa J\T. Smith. The Edw-nals- 
burg church has had two brick Iniildings during its history. The 
Methodists and Presbyterians in Fdw^ardsburg are now aliout on a par 
in point of strength and membership. 

At Cassopolis the Methodists w^ere early active, as noticed in the 


preceding paragraphs. But for a numher of years the circuit riders 
held their meetings in the courthouse and schoolhouses, and it was not 
until 1855 that Joshua Loflland and William Shanafelt gave to the 
denomination a house erected on Rowland street in 1(846 hy Jacoh Silver 
and Joshua T.ofland as a church edifice open to all denominations. This 
hm'lding now forms the front ])art of F. M. Fisk's drug stc^re. On the 
lot, on Rowland street, from which the old huilding had been remove 1. 
the society built in 1874 the present Methodist church and parsonage, 
at a cost of about v$8,ooo. The building committee were \Y. W. Peck, 
William L- Jakways, D. B. Smith and John Boyd. Rev. F. A. Baldwin 
is the present pnstor of the societv, and the trustees are John Atkinson. 
Wm. B. Havden, \\'m. H. Coulter, F. Jav Brown, Willinm Berke^^ 
Horace Col'l\ John Hilton. FTnrvey Noccker. There are pliout 130 
names on the church roll. 

The Methodists were active in the vicinitv of Do\vai:>:iac before 
anv village hnd been platted. The ''Cataract House" wns the ubiro 
of earlv mceti^^p.s under the direction of the circuit rider. R. C. !\[ecb, 
already- menli(^ne!]. A'^arious lav prenchers directed the work here f'>^" 
some vears. In 1840 the church was organized, and Avas known as tlie 
Wnvne circuit until t^^2, ^vben the name Downgiac first autocars on 
Methodist minntos, Tb^^ t^'ustccs appointed in that ^^e^v were StraAvtbor 
Bowlin<^". .\'!n 11 TTcn\V'^o/k Rol^ert A\^atsou, Sanniel Bell, Bcni^uTin Bob, 
John TJuff. F1i Bench. sbo^\ing v:ho were some of the earlv leaders in 
Methodism in DnAyao-inc. The cbtu'ch buibb'n^, in which the ATetbo- 
dists have worshiped for nenrlv half a cen.tnrA-. wn'^ ere^ied in I'^^^X) 
while Rev. F. H. Dav wns nnstor. 

The earb' c^^tablisbiuent <~)f n ^Tetbodist- dnss on rolN'a<?'on nrnirie 
has been described. The "Metliodist cIuutIi nt vSumnerville originated 
m a verv successful revival meeting held on the prairie in t8io. The 
meetings were held in a schoolhouse for mor^ than ten years, and in 
1854 the first building was completed. 

La Crange was also a field of Inlior for the earlv Methodists. The 
church at Fa Crange village was organized November to, 1858, at the 
house of Charles Van Riper, who was one of the first trustees, the 
others being John A. Van Riper, V^asbburn Benedict, Abram Van 
Riper, Jacob Zimmerman, John S. Secor, Joshua Lofland, Joseph W. 
Sturr. The house of worship was erected soon afterward. The church. 
like the village, has been on the decline for many years, and its mem- 
bership is reduced to twenty-seven. Rev. F. A. Baldwin, of Cassopob's, 


has charge of the society, and preaches for them each Sunday aftei- 
noon. The present trustees are : Tnnothy B. Benedict, James VV. 
Springstein, James Curtis, Mrs. Ida Benedict, Mrs. Samantha Curtis, 
Fred B. Wells, Clarence F. Wells. 

The Methodist meeting held on Young's prairie in Penn township 
by Rev. Felton in 1831, had a regular house of worship, but for many 
years in the interim the meetings were held at private homes or school - 
houses. The first legal organization of the church took place June 17, 
1858, its trustees being M. P. Grennell, David J. Whitney, Harrison 
Launburg, Joseph Jones and William Russey. The church was re- 
organized in 1876, and in 1877 the church edifice at Vandalia village 
was erected. The trustees at the time were John Lutes, A. Bristol, 
William F. Bort, Isaac Reifi^, L. Osborn. 

The North Porter Methodist Episcopal church was organized in 
1846, with fourteen members, Hugh Ferguson, G. W. Black and Nathan 
Skinner being the first trustees. Services were held in a, schoolhouse 
until 1858, when a church was erected on section 12. 

The Methodist church building at Union village, now used prin- 
cipally by the Free Baptists, was erected in its first form in 1858. 
Owing to a revival of that year the Methodists of this vicinity were very 
strong and built the church without outside assistance. In 1877 the 
church was rebuilt at a cost of $1,300. 

Coulter's Chapel, the Methodist organization in Howard, was 
erected in 1858 at a cost of $1,300, being located on section 13. The 
charter members were James and Ann Coulter, who gave the site and 
liberally toward the buikhng; Dennis and Cynthia A. Parmelee, Eliza 
Smith and Elizabeth Young. 

Rev. Felton, above mentioned, held religious meetings in Milton 
township in 1830, and the first society of this denomination was insti- 
tuted in 1832. Concerning the organization of the first society the 
follow'ing miscellaneous record dated July i, 1839, tells: 'Tn accordance 
to previous notice given according to statute providing for organization 
of religious societies, a meeting of members and hearers of the M. E. 
church convened at the schoolhouse near Cannon Smith's in the town- 
ship of Milton for the purpose of organizing a society by name and 
title the First Society of the M. E. Church in the Township of Milton." 
The three trustees elected were James Lowery, Thomas Powell and 
Nathaniel O. Bowman. A church edifice was erected on land donated 
by Cannon Smith in section 14, and has been called Smith's Chapel 


because of the liberality of Mr. Smith. The church was repaired in 
1856 and 1877, and was rebuilt in 1879. 

The town hall in Milton was originally built by a Protestant Metho- 
dist society. 

The Silver Creek M. E. church dates back to 1843, when Leroy 
L. Curtis, Erastus Stark and Delanson Curtis and wives formed the first 
society, the first named being leader of the class which was held at his 
home. The schoolhouse at Indian lake also was the meeting place for 
some years. 

In Calvin township are two M. E. churches supported by the col- 
ored people, the Bethel A. M. E. church being located at Calvin Center, 
and Mount Zion in section 23. Mount Zion is the oldest and the parent 
African Methodist Church in the county, having been organized in 
1849 '^y Matthew T. Newson. Meetings were first held in private 
houses, then in a log church on the present site, and then a neat frame 
building. The first trustees were Richard Woods, Benjamin Hawley, 
L. Archer, Lawson Howell, William Scott, Joseph Allen. 

The Bethel church congregation, which is an offshoot from that at 
Mount Zion, was organized in 1856, and their church at Calvin Center 
was erected in 1870' at a cost of $800: 

The Volinia Chapel M. E. Church, colored, was another branch of 
the Mount Zion church, and their church on section 36, of Volinia, was 
built in 1872. The first trustees w^ere R. Jeffers, William Walden and 
Henry Lucas. 

Quinn Chapel, another Methodist Episcopal church composed of 
colored people, is located at Cassopolis on the east side of O'Keefe street 
west, near the Air Line depot. The society was organized in 1898 by 
Rev. J. I. Hill, its first pastor, with J. R. Stewart, William T. Harper 
as trustees. The society's church edifice cost $1,000. It now has a 
membership of nineteen, and a Sunday school with an average attend- 
ance of twenty-five. Its present pastor is Rev. J. H. Alexander, and the 
trusteeship has been reduced to two acting members, J. R. Stewart and 
Abram Drenshaw. 

The first Methodist service held in Marcellus township was con- 
ducted at the house of Joseph Bair in 1838, and the first class was 
organized in 1842, and a second the next year. These soon became in- 
active, and no class was organized until 1862, when services began 
at Ely's schoolhouse. The brick church in Marcellus village was built 


in 1874, largely through the work of Rev. John Byrnes, the energetic 

The Methodist church at Jones originated at a meeting of the 
Methodists in the Baptist church at Poe's Corners, or the town center, 
in 1872. The meetings were held in the Baptist church there, later at 
David Fairfield's store in Jones, and later in the public hall at Jones. 

The charter members of this society were : David Fairfield, Louisa 
Fairfield, xM. E. Tharp, Phoebe Dyer, Iilizabeth Pound, Sarah Rumsey, 
J. E. Van Buren, b-sther Brooks, Elsey Bows, Mrs. Alexander, Jacob 
Rumsey, .\ndrew Correll, S. 1/odd, Margaret Todd, Catherine Cook. 

There are also ]\letho(hst societies at Corey and at Wakelee. 


On the autliority of the Rev. Supply Chase, theve w:is in 1836 a 
Baptist association known as Lalirange in the south west p>art of the 
state, which had been organized al)0ut 1834-35, ^rowing ( rit of tb.e 
immigration to that part of the state. No douljt reftrerce is made 
tO' the church at AMiitmanville, to which the founder of iJiC Aillage 
liad donated a lot wlicn he jdnttcfl tlie village. .\ church wp/- I iiiii on 
this lot. but both the Ijuilding and the organization crumbled ;!\\ay in 

At Fdwaulsburg the J::>a])t!st churcli niust luu'e been orgainzcd a< 
soo>n as, and perbajjs ])eft)re, that of LaGrange. J. C. Obmsted is 
authority for the statement that the churcli was organized at the house 
of Dr. Dunning on the prairie aljout 1835. This is affirmed l}y the 
legal record, w hich is as follows : ''At a public meeting of the male 
n]embers of the IMeasant Lake Briptist Church and Society, held at 
lulwardsburg, ]\Iay 14, ^Si,^. '" ''' '" Lsaac Dunning and M}'ron 
Strong were chosen presiding officers, and H. B. Dunning*, clerk. 
Myron Strong, Luther Chapin and Barak Mead were chosen trustees. 
It was resolved that the society be known as the Pleasant Lake Baptist 
Society." The Baptists were the most flourishing of all the church 
societies during the first ten or fifteen years of Edwardsburg's history, 
but for many years there has been little or no activity among them. 
They have a frame house of worship, but no regular services. 

The Dowagiac Baptist church w^as organized in 185 1, the first 
trustees being L S. Becraft, D. M. Lleazlett, Archibald Jewell, A. FL 
Reed, E. Ballenge, Jacob Allen, S. E. Dow, Isaac Cross, H. B. Miller. 

The present building was erected in 1852. Present membership is 


132. Pastors since 1880: E. R. Clark, N. R. Sanborn, H. A. Rose, 
G. M. Hudson, H. F. Masales, Ross Matthews, A. M. Bailey and M. 
F. Sanborn, present pastor. In 1900 a $1,600 parsonage was erected 
on the church property. In 1905 the. church building was remodeled 
and enlarged at an expense of $2,000. At present there is no indebt- 
edness and the work seems to be advancing. 

The Baptist church at Cassopolis was organized March 8, 1862, 
with the following charter members : Elder Jacob Price, Sarah B. 
Price, Sarah B. l^rice, Jr., Ellen Price, Mary Price, Carrie Ih'ice, P. 
A. Lee, Barak ]\iead, Harriet K. 3.iead, Elizal^eth A. Maginnis, Iv(j])ert 
H. Tripp, Jemima Smith. The present building, which was the first 
owned by the society, was not built until 1868, the dedication taking 
place March 16, 1869. It was built at a cost of about five thousand 
dollars. The membership is now about eighty-five and the present 
trustees are Frank M. Fisk, Chas. O. Flarmon, William PL Berkey and 
Rev. R. L. Bobbitt, pastor. 

\'olinia Baptist church, at the northwest corner of section 28, was 
erected about U\enly years ago, but the society had existed in that 
townshi]) siiicc i'^^}\ liaving l.iecn loniicd as a l.iranch of the Dowagiac 
church. James Churchill, Levi Churchill, Isaac Cross and Josiah Bond 
and their f:uiuiies were tliQ constituent members uf the society, but in 
a short time the membership had increased so that they were formed 
into :i!i indcjjendeiit body. 

Rev-. Jacol; j'rice, wlio or^iwA-AQd ihe Ba])tist cluucli at Cr.S:-. ihmis, 
also organized the Baldwin Prairie l^aptist church at Union, in Fel]- 
ruary, 1857, with six charter members. The church edifice was built