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ilP^ OF 




Late Sub'Editor, "Evening Mtfil," 

Tutor of Oriental Languages to Civil and Military Officers, 

Autlior of "Some Mysore Worthies," 


" Two Worthies of Southern India, ' ' 


i'JOiS, ^ 

[All Rights Reserved.l 
















I am greatly indebted to my friend Mr. S. Gnanamuttu, 
B.A., L.T., afthe Madi-as Christian College, for the valuable help 
he has rendered me in correcting the proofs when the sheets 
\Yere passing through the press. I am thankful to my Printers 
for the neat execution of their work, and Messrs. Wiele and 
Klein for the blocks they have made. 

I have experienced considerable difficulty in translating 
most of these records from different languages and from illegi- 
ble vernacular manuscripts, and fully trust that this attempt to 
serve the public will meet with an encouraging reception. 

Madras, A. VADIVELU. 

1st January, ^,903 






> i 

• c 


I. H. H. THE Nawab OF Banganapalli, C.S.I. I to 32 

II. H. H. THE Maharajah of Bobbili ... 33 to 62 

III. H. H. the Maharajah of Jeypore ... 63 to 79 

IV. H. H. the Rajah of Palavancha and 

Bhadrachalam ... 7ga to 79! 

V. H. H. the Rajah of Kallikote and 

Atagada ... 80 to 104 

VI. The Zemindar of Kurupam 105 to 120 

VII. „ „ Mandasa 121 to 128 

VIII. „ „ Etaiyapuram 129 to 152 

IX. „ „ Shek Muhammadpurm. 153 to 167 

X. ,5 „ Polavakam .*.. ... 168 to 173 

XI. „ „ KOTHAM 174 to 181 

XII. „ „ Kapilesvvar Muttah... 182 to 191 

XIII. „ „ Sangam Valasa ... 192 to 196 

XIV. The Zemindarni of the Gollaprolu 

Muttah ... 197 to igg > 

XV. „ „ Gutalah ;, ... 200 to 202 


> > 

^ > H. H. The Xnwah of Baugauapally. C, S. I. 

C f 

.kailikotc Estate press, iiauiblau- 




Banganapalli, one of the Native States under the 
control of the Governor of Madras, is ruled by a Nawab 
whose claims to eminence are founded not upon any 
daring adventure or extraordinary learning, hit upon the 
successful administration of his State, his steadfast loyalty 
to the British Crown, his increasing benificence to his 
subjects and his enlightened co-operation in movements 
for public good. Naturally noble-minded, his pursuits 
are just, his views are formed after mature reflection, and 
he is incapable of sentiments derogatory to the character 
of impartial and upright men. These exemplary qualities 
are just those which leave their lasting mark on the State, 
and entitle the ruler to the heartfelt gratitude and 
intelligent admiration of the people. There is no denying 
the fact that the State of Banganapdli has a very bright 
future before it, and it is with great pleasure that we 
give the first place in this series to a biography of His 
Highness the Nawab Saiyid Fateh AH Khan Bahadur 
c. s. I., the present ruler of Banganapalli. 

The area of Banganapalli is about 275 square miles, 
and the population according to the Census of 1901, is 
32,279. There are 13 Sub-Jaghirs in the State, and the 
annual income including them is a little more than 2^ 
lakhs of Eupees. 

The Aeistoceacy of Southern India. 

The Sub-Jaghirdars have no more powers within 
their own villages than taking measures to prevent the 
removal of the crops in cases of non-payment of kists, 
and then seeking the help of the Nawab for serving the 
defaulters with demand notices. They possess neither 
civil nor criminal powers. Suits arising within their 
jaghirs are exclusively triable by the Nawab's Courts, for 
the maintenance of which the Jaghirdars contribute. 

In order to trace the history, from its origin, of the 
illlustrious family to which His Highness the Nawab 
belongs, it is necessary to go back more than three 
centuries, to the year 1051 (Hijri) or about 1633 A. D., 
when Sha Abbas II sat on the throne of Persia, assisted 
in Government by Saiyid Mahomed Khan Buzvi, his 
Minister, who had two sons Saiyid Hussain Ali Khan,, 
and Saiyid Thaher Ali Khan. On the death of this 
Minister, the Sha, who had been following with interest 
the progress made by Saijad Thaher Ali Khan the 
younger son in education and culture, and appreciating 
his quick intelligence and comprehensive practical genius, 
conceived the idea of making him his Minister in pre- 
ference to the elder, as a worthy successor to their father. 
When Saijdd Hussian Ali Khan, the elder son, heard this 
news, his rage knew no bounds and with determined 
spjte, he commenced to plot against the life of Thaher 
Ali. But in all conspiracies where a number of persons 
have to be let into the secret, there is always the danger 
of some one of them proving a betrayer. So it was in this 
case. Somebody who knew the state of affairs informed 
'their mother of the contemplated murder of her younger 
and better loved son. Thereupon, acting with a quickness 
of purpose and resolution rare among women, she lost no 

H. H. THE Nawab of Banganapalli. 3 

time in providing Thaher Ali with a well-filled purse, and 
informing him that his life was seriously in danger, succeed- 
ed in persuading him to leave the kingdom in secrecy 
and without the least delay. 

About this time the Moghul Empire was at its 
zenith in wealth and power. The Moghul Emperor, who 
was a ruler of a very enlightened and liberal-minded type, 
had thrown open the high appointments of his State, both 
civil and military, to men of intelligence, culture, tact 
and integrity, irrespective of the place from which they 
might hail ; and consequently all responsible appointments 
were at the time filled by the best educated ilaen whom 
Persia could furnish. 

Ali Adil Sha, who was then the ruler of Bijapur, in 
■'the Dekhan, and who had the intelligent co-operation of 
his Minister, Saiyid Asad Ali Khan, was a suzerain lord, 
and also a great patron of learning. On a certain evening, 
while the Minister was out in his palanquin, some 
Persians, who were among the retinue, oil seeing a person 
in the coarse garb of a mendicant seated on a pial, 
left their lord, hastened to the pial, and paid their most 
respectful homage and reverence to the,seemingly poverty- 
stricken personage seated there. As soon as the Minister 
reached home, he demanded from them, half in anger and 
half in surprise, an explanation regarding their stran^ 
behaviour and asked them to tell him what they knew 
about the dervish, whom they had run so eagerly to respect, 
leaving alone their own master. Then they told him that 
the man who was dressed like a dervish was the younger 
■ son of the late Minister of Persia, that for a long time he 
was given up for lost, nothing being, known as to his fate, 
but that on that day they found him in gthe wretched plight 

The Aeistocbacy of Southern India. 

that the Minister saw him in, and recognised him at once. 
Hearing this almost romantic story, Saiyid Asad Ali Khan 
sent one of them to fetch Thaher Ali, which was soon 
done. The coarse dress was removed and a rich dress 
suitable to his birth was at once put on. The respect due 
to a Minister's son was cheerfully accorded to him, while 
he himself showed that he fully deserved such esteem 
by his courtly manners, his witty conversation, his 
abundance of thought and his great eloquence. The 
Minister was delighted at his having found such a noble 
companion, and very desirous of cementing the connec- 
tion more closely, allowed the friendship to rise to kinship 
by giving his daughter in marriage to Thaher Ali. Some- 
time after, Saiyid Asad Ali Khan died, and the ruler of 
Bijapur had to appoint a suitable successor. The former 
had sons, but his son-in-law, Thaher Ali, had had frequent 
occasions to impress the King with his nobility of beha- 
viour, his uprightness and administrative capacity. The 
King naturally wished to confer the vacant ministership 
on Thaher Ali. This roused the malice and hatred of the 
sons of the deceased, and in their envy, they coolly shed 
the blood of their brother-in-law, attacking him in the 
night in a most cowardly manner. The Hindustani 
chronicler here characteristically adds that the heavens 
wore a gloomy countenance for sometime as if in keeping 
^v'ith the dark motives of the atrocious murderers, or as if 
in harmony with the darkness of the deed that was per- 
petrated on one, who, in life, slied light around him by his 
cheerful courtesy and kindliness of address. Poor Thaher 
Ali's wife, mad with grief at the murder of her husband, 
and exasperated by the cruel insults which her own 
brothers had heaped upon her, left the place at once with 
her two sons, Saiy-'d Asad Ali Khan and Saiyid Mahomed 

H. H. THE Nawab of Banganapalli. 

Khan Nnghdi, and found her way to a remote part of the 
world, Arcot, in Southern India, where she sought for, 
and obtained the bountiful help and powerful protection 
of the Nawab Sadut-ulla- Khan. The mind of Saiyid Ali 
was unhinged by the violent calamity that happened to 
his father, and his whereabouts were not known. The 
other, Saiyid Mahomed Khan Nughdi, was made a 
Munsubdar, and by dint of courage, resourcefulness and 
tact, he soon rose to be the Commander of a thousand 
horse in the service of the Nawab of Arcot. He subse- 
quently married the grand daughter of the then Jaghirdar 
of Banganapalli, Fazle Ali Khan, who was a descendant 
of the grand Vizier of Aurangazeb. 

Banganapalli was originally under the sway of a 
, chief named Kaja Nanda Chakravarthi and his descen- 
dants. Ismail Adil Sha, the ruler of Bijapur, attacked 
and conquered, in 1643, Banganapalli and the surround- 
ing Zamindaries, of which he gave Banganapalli as a 
Jaghir, in reward for services rendered, to his General, 
Siddu Simbul. At this time, Raja Gopal, the Zamindar 
of Kurnool, was a source of disturbance and annoyance to 
the surrounding Mahomedan Jaghirdars, and the King of 
Bijapur hearing of this, asked the Nawab of the Carnatic 
to proceed against Eaja Gopal and subdue him. This was 
done, and in recognition of this useful service, Abcul 
Wahab Khan, the Nawab of the Carnatic, had the Kurnool 
Zamindari conferred on him. Later on, however, the 
whole of the Dekhan was conquered by Aurangazeb, 
and the Kingdoms of Golconda and Bijapur lost their 
independence and fell, and with these, Banganapalli and-^ 
the surrounding Jaghirs passed directly under the sway 
of the Moghul Emperor, Aurangazeb. He appointed 


6 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

Mahomed Beg Khan, a relation of his Minister, Mubaraz 
Khan, as Jaghirdar of BanganapalH, an appointment which 
was held by him in fealty till the dismemberment of the 
Moghul Empire. When, however, Asaf Jah (Nizam-ul- 
Mulk), the Viceroy of Hyderabad, assumed sovereign- 
power, Mahomed Beg Khan, declared his independence and 
constituted himself a petty Chieftain or Nawab. In the 
course of his southern tour, Asaf Jah recognised Mahomed 
Beg Khan's title, and granted to him the territory in 
Jaghir. Mahomed Beg Khan and his descendants held 
the Jaghir till 1758. 

From the union of Saiyid Mahomed Khan Nughdi 

with the grand-daughter of Fazle Ali Khan came two sons, 
Saiyid Hussain Ali Khan and Saiyid Asad Ali Khan. In 
1150 Hijri, or about 1732 a.d., Gulam Ali Khan, a relation 
of Fazle Ali Khan succeeded him as Jaghirdar of Bangana- 
palli, and his sister-in-law was given in marriage to 
Saiyid Asad Ali. On the death of Ghulam Ali Khan, 
Saiyid Hussain Ali became Jaghirdar, and desirous of 
obtaining some military distinction, applied to Hyder Ali, 
then in the zenith of his power and glory, for an appoint- 
ment under him, in the military service. For long, until 
the death of his patron Hyder, Hussain Ali Khan served 
in that capacity in Mysore, with benefit to the State 
a!: id credit to himself. When Tippu succeeded, Hussain 
Ail who had become an invalid, took leave of his master 
and started for his native place, Banganapalli. But, 
unfortunately, he died on the way, and had not the pleasure 
of seeing again his native home. Tippu, on hearing of this 
^ sudden calamity, sent for the widow of Hussain Ali Khan 
and his children, who were four, named Saiyid Ghulam 
Ali Khan, Saiyid .jFateh Ali Khan, Saiyid Ahmed Ali 

H. H. THE Nawab of Banganapalli. 7 

Khan and Saiyid Mustafa Ali Khan. But as the children 
were then of tender age and in poor health, the widow 
did not wish to subject them to the trying hardships which 
a long journey to Mysore would entail, and so delayed 
paying her respects to Tippu at his capital. This, the 
over-exacting and impulsive Tippu Sultan, construed into 
a deliberate slight, and instantly ordered the confiscation 
to the State, of the Jaghir of Banganapalli. A sense of her 
helpless position and misery struck her as if a keen shaft 
had pierced her brain, and her usual strength of mind 
and firmness under trial which had hitherto so often 
stood her in good stead now failed her, and in despair, she 
went away to Furrooknagar with her children. 'There, it 
so happened that on a certain day when Nizam Ali 
Khan, the then Nizam of Hyderabad, set out on a walk, 
he saw the four boys (her sons), who, though dressed so 
shabbily as to evidence their extreme destitution, deported 
themselves with much sober dignity falling in a line and 
making their obeisance to the sovereign in a manner 
which only the sons of noblemen learn as a part of their 
training. The Nizam who was struck by this incon- 
sistency between their noble deportment and their needy 
appearance, called the boys to him, and asked them to tell 
him who they were. They related their melancholy 
history; on hearing which, the Nizam was moved with 
compassion for them, and directed them to appear the I 
next day before the Minister, Musheer-ul-Mulk. They ' 
did so, and were told that they w^ould be the recipients 
of an annual allowance of Eupees 3,000 each. Saiyid 
Hussain Ali Khan, their paternal uncle, who was in 
hiding at the time to escape the anger of Tippu against 
his family was sent for by the Nizam, and had much 
wealth and honor conferred upon him. » Of the four sons 


8 The Aristocracy op Southern India. 

of Asad Ali Khan mentioned above, the youngest, Mustafa, 
was distinguished for his manl}- behaviour and refined 
courtesy — qualities which among men of his nation are 
passports to eminence. The Minister considering him 
therefore a suitable husband for his grand-daughter made 
him his grand-son-in-law. Saiyid Ahmed Ali Khan, 
another of the brothers, married the daughter of a 
Munsubdar, and remained in Hyderabad for sometime. 
Saiyid Hussain Ali Khan, the uncle, by his talents and 
devotion to service won the esteem of the Nizam who 
conferred on him the title of Mazafar-ul-Mulk with a 
present of 800 sowars. At the head of this small army, he 
proceeded to Banganapalli accompanied by his nephews, 
attacked the place, and defeated the Sultan's army in the 
battle of Thammadapalli in 1205 (Hijri), or 1787 A. d., at 
which, one of his nephews, Saiyid Fateh Ali was killed. 
When everything was over, Saiyid Hussain Ali Khan, 
celebrated the wedding of his daughter with Saiyid Ghulam 
Ali Khan, nis eldest nephew, who was placed on the 
Musnud of Banganapalli as the rightful heir, though 
Hussain Ali Khan, the uncle, continued to reside at 
Banganapalli. Subsequently Ghulam Ali Khan remained 
for the most part of his time at Hyderabad, fought the 
battles of the Nizam, side by side with the English, against 
their common enemies, and distinguished himself for 
(hersonal valour, on many a battle field. In recognition of 
these services, the Nizam conferred on him the title of 
Mansuriod-daulah Bahadur. In a battle against the 
Maharattas, he lost the fingers of his right hand, and, as 
must happen among people who do most of their fighting 
with the sword, this put an end to his military career. 
Meanwhile, the uncle, Hussain Ali Khan, who was in 
Banganapalli, wa^ suddenly taken ill, and ou the news 

H. H. The Nawab of Banganapalli. 

reaching Ghulam Ali Khan at Hyderabad, he left for 
BanganapalH, but before he reached the place, Hussain 
Ali Khan had died. Saiyid Ghulam Ali Khan had two 
sons and several daughters. He conferred the Jaghir 
of Banganapalli on his eldest son Saiyid Hussain Ali 
Khan, his second son Saiyid Fateh Ali Khan being 
already in possession of a Jaghir in Hyderabad. Saiyid 
Ghulam Ali Khan died three years later in 1822 A. d. 
Hussain Ali Khan, having no male issue, adopted the 
younger son of Saiyid Fateh Ali Khan, gave his daughter 
in marriage to him and made him heir-apparent. Saiyid 
Ghulam Ah Khan ascended the Musnud after the death 
of his uncle and father-in-law, Hussain Ali Xhan. But 
Ghulam Ali Khan having died issueless, his elder brother 
Saiyid Asad Ali Khan's son Saiyid Fateh AU Khan, the 
present ruler of Banganapalli, ascended the Musnud. 

In 1800, the Nizam transferred his control over 
Banganapalli to the British Government, when he ceded 
the Districts of Cuddappah and Bellary. In the 
Schedules attached to the Partition Treaty of Seringa- 
patam, the territory of Ban^anaplli had been rated at 
45,000 Canteroy Pagodas, or Kupees 1,31,250; but at the 
request of the Nizam who pleaded that the Jaghir had 
been granted for the maintenance of the numerous 
members of a noble family, the tribute was remitted by 
the British Government. i 

Mansurud-daulah, the Great, during his lifetime, 
with a view to prevent f utm^e disputes among his relations 
about property, made a settlement by which he assigned 
certain villages called sub-jaghirs to his cousins and 
the members of his family subject to the condition, that 
in the case of any one dying without heir, the sub-jaghir 


10 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

should revert to the ruling Nawab with the moveable 
and immoveable property of the deceased ; and in cases 
of disloyalty among Sub-jaghirdars their property, both 
moveable and immoveable, should be confiscated, and the 
offenders deported beyond the limits of the State. 

The family, however, was burdened with debt origi- 
nally incurred chiefly by Saiyid Asad Ali Khan, brother of 
Muusurud-daalah, while he was Subadar of Cuddappah, 
and in consequence of embarrassments resulting from the 
Nawab Hussain Ali Khan's inability to satisfy his 
creditors, the Madras Government at the request of the 
Nawab himself undertook the management of the State 
from 1825, and after clearing the debt restored the 
Jaghir in 1848. Before the issue of the Sunnud of restora- 
tion Hussain Ali Khan died, leaving behind, as his 
adopted heir, his nephew Saiyid Gulam Ali Khan, who 
was also his son-in-law, having married his daughter 
Imdad Hussainee Begum. Both by matrimonial relation- 
ship and by right of descent, Saiyid Ghulam Ali Khan was 
recognised Jaghirdar by Government, and a Sunnud was 
issued to him in 1849, renewing the grant conferring 
civil and criminal jurisdiction unlimited, except in regard 
to capital punishments which alone require the special 
sanction of the Madras Government. 

<^ The following is the Sunnud : — 

""Whereas the Eight Honourable the Governor in 
Council of Fort Saint George was pleased, on the 
12th July 1848, to confer upon Hoossain Ali Klian and 
his heirs for ever, in Jaghir, the lands of BanganapaUi, 
free of peshcush and pecuniary demand ; and w^hereas the 
said Hoossain Ali Khan has demised before the issue of a 

H. H. The Nawab of Banganapalli. 11 

Sunnud to confirm the same, and Ghnlam AH Khan has 
been recognised and acknowledged by the Government of 
Fort Saint George as his successor and representative : 
this Sunnud is granted to the said Ghulam Ali I^an as 
the present Jaghirdar. 

The Jaghir of Banganapalli, conferred as aforesaid 
upon Hoossain Ali Khan and his heirs for ever free of 
peshcush and pecuniary demand, is hereby confirmed to 
you, Ghulam Ali Khan, as the representative of the said 
grantee Hoossain Ali Khan, now deceased. 

You, therefore, shall have the general management 
of the revenue and police of your Jaghir, ancl also the 
duty of administering civil justice subject to the under- 
mentioned conditions : — 

You shall at ail times maintain faith and allegiance 
to the Honourable Company ; their enemies shall be your 
enemies, and their friends shall be your friends ; you shall 
assist the Honourable Company to the utmost of your 
power against foreign and domestic foes ; you shall 
maintain a strict watch over the public peace in your 
Jaghir ; you shall not afford an asylum to offenders from 
the Company's Districts, but shall either deliver them up, 
or assist the Officer of the Company who may be sent in 
pursuit of them ; you shall cause justice to be rendered to 
inhabitants of the Company's Districts and others whk 
may have pecuniary claims on any of the inhabitants of 

In the administration of criminal justice within your 
Jaghir, you will abstain from the punishment of muti- 
lating criminals, and will not sentence capitally, or 
execute persons capitally convicted, without the sanction 

12 The Aeistocracy of Southern India. 

of Government previously obtained ; but will refer all 
cases appearing to you to call for such punishments, for 
the consideration and orders of the Governor in Council. 

You shall he answerable to the Honourable Company 
for the good government of your Jaghir ; and if ever it 
should happen that in consequence of misgovernment, 
the interposition of the Honourable Company should 
become necessary, the Governor in Council of Fort Saint 
George will, in such case, take such measures as may 
appear just and proper for restoring order, and providing 
for the security of the people. 

On etery occasion of your alienating any part of 
your lands, either rent free or on pajmient of favourable 
quit rent, you shall notify the particulars and conditions 
of such alienation to the Agent to the Governor of 
Fort Saint George, at Kurnool, or to any other officer 
who may from time to time be appointed by the Madras 
Government for the purpose, and you shall not confer 
any such inam lands, except under a written document, 
in which the terms and duration of the grant shall be 
distinctly specified, which duration is under no circum- 
stances to extend beyond the enjoyments of the Jaghir by 
the grantee. 

Given under the seal of the Honourable Company 
(nd signature of the Eight Honourable the Governor in 
Council, in Fort Saint George, this twentieth day of 
March, one thousand eight hundred and forty-nine." 

In 1802, the Jaghirdar received a Sunnud guarantee- 
ing that the Government of India would permit any 
succession legitimate according to Moslim law, nnd it is 
as follows : — 

H. H. The Nawab of Banganapalli. 13 

"Her Majesty being desirous that the Government of 
the several Princes and Chiefs, who now govern their 
own territories, should be perpetuated, and that the 
representation and dignity of their Houses should be 
continued ; in fulfilment of this desire, this Sunnud is 
given to you to convey to you the assurance that, on 
failure of natural heirs, the British Government will 
permit and confirm any succession to your State which 
may be legitimate according to Mahomedan Law. 

Be assured that nothing shall disturb the engage- 
ment thus made to you, so long as your House is loyal to 
the Crown and faithful to the condition of the treaties, 
grants or engagements, which record its obligations to 
the British Government." 

In 1861 Saiyid Ghulam Ali Khan Bahadur was 
made a Campanion of the Star of India. He died in 1868 
without male issue, and succession to the Jaghir was 
contested by his widow, Imdad Hussainee Begum and 
his nephew and son-in-law Fateh Ali Khan Bahadur, the 
present Naw^ab, whom the deceased had, during his life, 
nominated his heir. 

His Highness the Nawab Saiyid Fateh Ali Khan 
Bahadur, r.s.T.. the son of Saiyid Asad Ali Khan Bahadur, 
the elder brother of Saiyid Ghulam Ali Khan Bahadur, 
C.S.I., the forme]- Nawab of Banganapalli, was born ft 
Banganapalli in 1S48. Dissensions arising between the 
father and the uncle of the present Nawab, the family of 
Saiyid Asad Ali Khan Bahadur was compelled to leave 
the limits of the Jaghir, and betake itself to Hyderabad, 
by virtue of the Sunnud given by Mansurud-daulah, the ' 
founder of the State. The greater portion ol the youth 
of the Nawab was spent in Hyderabad, though he and 

14 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

the other members of the family retained their hold on 
their sub-jaghir in Banganapalli. He was placed under 
the tuition of two competent Moulvis, who taught him 
Persian, Arabic and Hindustani. Riding, shooting and 
instruction in other branches to suit the tastes and needs 
of a member of a highly respectable and ruling family, 
were not neglected. During the time he stayed at 
Hyderabad, he greatly distinguished himself by his intel- 
ligence, attainments, strong common sense and urbanity. 
A few years after, he married the daughter of his uncle 
Saiyid Ghulam AH Khan Bahadur, but she was not 
destined to enjoy the pleasures of her wedded life long, 
the cruel hand of death snatching her away after three 
years. The Nawab then married a lady from the well- 
known family of Nurul-umra Bahadur of Hyderabad. By 
the first wife the Nawab has three sons, namely Saiyid 
Ghulam Ali Khan Bahadur, Saiyid Asad Ali Khan 
Bahadur, Saiyid Hussain Ali Khan Bahadur, and a 
daughter. When the news of the death of his uncle 
reached Hyderabad, the Nawab accompanied by his father 
arrived in Banganapalli. There was a strong contest for 
succession between Imdad Hussainee Begum, the shadi- 
ividow of Saiyid Ghulam Ali Khan Bahadur ; Nazimud- 
daulah, who was not related by blood to the late 
Jaghirdar, but was married to Shahar Bano Begum, 
j^is eldest nicka-daughter, and Saiyid Fat^h Ali Khan 
Bahadur, the present ruler. But the Government of 
India recognised the title of the third contestant in the 
following terms : — 

1. " Nawab Ghulam Ali Khan, c.s.i., Jaghirdar of 
Banganapalli, having died on the 7th October 1868, it 
has become necessary for the Governor-in-Council to 

H. H. The Nawab of Banganapalli. 15 

determine who shall be declared to be the successor of 
the deceased Nawab in the Jaghir of Banganapalli. 

2. From the correspondence above recorded, it 
appears that Ghulam AH Khan died, leaving no direct lineal 
male heir, and that there are claimants to the Jaghir. 

These are : — 

1st. Imdad Hussainee Begum, shadi-widow of 
Ghulam Ali Khan, the recently deceased 
Jaghirdar, and shadi-daughter of Hussain 
Ali Khan, the predecessor in the Jaghir, 

and uncle of the said Ghulam Ali Khan. 


^nd. Nazimood-daulah, who is not related by 
blood to the late Jaghirdar, but who -is 
married to Shahar Bano Begum, his eldest 

3rd. Fateh Ali Khan, a son of Asad Ali Khan, 
elder brother of the late Jaghirdar. This 
claimant is married to Abasi Begum, the 
second nicka-daughter of the late Jaghirdar. 

3. Imdad Hussainee Begum, the shadi-widow of 
the late Jaghirdar, claims on two grounds : — 

1st. As nearest heir to her father Hussain Ali 
Khan, the predecessor in the Jaghir, ana 
uncle of her late husband. 

2nd. As co-partner in the Jaghir, which she 
pretends to have enjoyed in common with 
her late husband. The Government are 
unable to recognise as valid the grounds 
advanced by this claimant. 

* . 

1(3 The Aiustocragy of Southern India. 

4. It is observed that the Sunnud of 1849 under 
which the late Jaghirdar held the State of Banganapalli, 
was not issued to Hussain Ali Khan, his immediate pre- 
decessor and his heirs, but to Ghulam Ali Khan himself 
and his heirs. 

5. It is true that Imdad Hussainee Begum's father 
was put in possession of the Jaghir by an order of Govern- 
ment, dated r2th July 1848, that he would, except for his 
untimely death have in due course received a Sunnud 
confirming the Jaghir to him and his heirs, but such a 
sunnud was never actually issued and in deciding the 
present question of succession to the Jaghir, the Govern- 
ment must be guided by the Sunnud of 1849, which 
conferred the Jaghir on the late Ghulam Ali Khan and 
his heirs and in this document no allusion whatever is 
made to Imdad Hussainee Begum. On the other liand- 
her husband Ghulam Ali Khan, the nephew of the late 
Jaghirdar, is clearly recognised as the successor and 
representative of that dignitary. 

G. When in 1849, the Government preferred Ghulam 
Ali Klian to his elder brother Asad Ali Khan, as successor 
to their uncle, ^the Jaghirdar, they were doubtless 
influenced by the consideration that Ghulam Ali Khan 
was son-in-law as well as nephew to the late Hussain Ali 
'JLhan. There were other cogent reasons for the selection 
in his relationship Ijy blood to the last Jaghirdar, his 
experience in revenue matters and his favor with his 

7. The Government are also unable to recognise the 
alleged co-partnery right with her late husband, and which 
is advanced by Imdad Hussainee Begum as furnishing a 

H. H. The Nawab of Banganplli. 17 

ground for her claim to the succession. No such right is 
stated in the Sunnud of 1849, nor has it ever been recog- 
nised by Government, 

8. For the reasons above adduced, the Governor-in- 
Council is of opinion that Imdad Hussainee Begum has 
failed to establish any claim to succeed to the Jaghi:*-. 

9. The second claimant to the Jaghir, Nazimood- 
daulah who married Shahar Bano Begum, the eldest 
nicka-daughter of the late Jaghirdar Ghulam Ali Khan, is 
not by blood related to the late Jaghirdar. His claim 
rests solely on a document executed jointly by the late 
Jaghirdar and his wife Imdad Hussainee Begum at the 
time of the claimant's marriage with the late Jaghirdar's 
nicka-daughter in 1863, by which the Jaghirdar engaged 
to make Nazimood-daulah his heir in the Jaghir, in case 
he should die without male issue, and solemnly declared 
that he would make no other settlement of the Jaghir to 
the prejudice of this engagement. 

10. The Government are unable to recognise this 
document as being of any effect in supporting Nizamood- 
daulah's claim. Such a deed is, in their opinion, null and 
void. • 

1st. Because it never received the assent of 

3nd. Because it contemplated a departure from 
the sense of the Sunnud of 1849, by 
which the Jaghir was secured to the heirs 
of Ghulam Ali Khan. 

Under these circumstances the claims of Nazimood- 
daulah is inadmissible. 

» 3 

18 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

11. The third applicant for the Jaghir of Bangana- 
palli is Fateh AH Khan, eldest son of Saiyid Asad All 
Khan, the elder brother of the late Jaghirdar, Ghulam All 
Khan. He is married to a nicka-daughter of the late 

12. The Governor-in-Council is of opinion that this 
claimant is, after his father Asad Ali Khan who advances 
no claim to the succession, the nearest heir in the sense 
of the Sunnud of 1849 to the deceased Jaghirdar Ghulam 
Ali Khan. 

In addition to his near relationship by blood, and his 
connection by marriage, Fateh Ali Khan was designated 
by the late Jaghirdar as his successor in a deed executed 
on the 22nd June 1866, in the presence of the Collector of 
the Kurnool District. 

Although this deed is of no effect without the confirm- 
ation of the Government, it was formally communicated 
to the Civil Officer representing the Government, as 
expressive of the selection of a successor made by the late 
Jaghirdar, and in conformity with the intention of the 
Sunnud of 1849. 

13. After a careful consideration of the claims above 
described. His Excellency the Governor-in-Council resolves 
to direct the issue of a Sunnud conferring on Fateh Ali 
Khan and his heirs for ever, in Jaghir, the lands of 
Banganapalli free of peshcush and pecuniary demand in 
the same conditions as those contained in the Sunnud of 

14. From the letter received from the Collector of 
Kurnool, dated 7th January, it appears that under the 
arrangements made by the late Jaghirdar Ghulam Ali 
Khan, in which arrangements,. Fateh Ali Khan concurs, 
provision has been made for the late Jaghirdar's family. 

H. H. The Nawab op Banganapalli. 19 

15. The Collector of Kiirnool is directed to commu- 
nicate this order to Fateh Ali Khan, to Imdad Hussainee 
Begum, and Nazimood-daulah." 

That a member of the illustrious family of the 
Banganapalli Nawabs should by right of descent assume 
the rulership of the State was in itself a very popular 
event. It was an augury of prosperity to the subjects of 
Banganapalli. Personally the Nawab had inspired the 
people of the place with love, admiration and esteem 
for him. He was proclaimed Nawab with the usual 
solemnities. Mr. Chase, the then Collector of the Kurnool 
District, installed him on the guddi of his, ancestors, 
offering him his sincerest congratulations and wishing him 
many years of health, prosperity, and usefulness in the 
position to which he had succeeded. 

Three years after the above Sunnud was issued the 
widow of the late Nawab again commenced to annoy the 
present ruler by defying his authority. The Collector of 
the District proposed to constitute a punchayet to consider 
the dispute and bring about a reconciliation between the 
present ruler and the widowed Begum. The subject 
came up for consideration before the Government of 
Madras when the following proceedings were passed : — 

" The Government observe that subject to the 
sovereign authority of the British Gevernment, the NawpjD 
of Banganapalli possesses under Sunnud limited criminal 
jurisdiction in his Jaghir, but has the uncontrolled 
administration of civil justice, and of revenue matters, and 
is answerable for the good government of the Jaghir. 
There are certain obligations imposed upon him in regard ' 
to his general management, but nothing which in any way 
whatever invests the Collector of Kurnool with any 

> J 


20 The Aeistocracy of Southern India, 

appellate authority or requires the interference oJ' Govern- 
ment, except in cases of niisgovernraent. 

2. In the present instance it is evident that ill feeling 
on the part of the v/idow of the late Nawab who claims 
the succession is inducing her to set the Nawab in 
defiance, but she must be given to understand that his 
authority must be respected and the Government cannot 
sanction any proceeding which would have the appearance 
of weakening that authority. 

3. On these principles the Government cannot 
approve Mr. Chase's proposal to constitute a punchayat, 
presided over by a Government _ ofiicer to determine the 
disputes between the Nawab and the widowed Begum, 
and would be unable to sanction any such arrangement. 
They regret that Mr. Chase should have taken the step of 
suggesting it to the Nawab and the opposite parties 
without previous reference to Government. 

4. They desire that Mr. Chase will take an early 
opportunity of visiting Banganapalli and impressing on 
the Begum kindly but firmly that she must accept the 
present state of things, and refrain from defying the 
Nawab's authorit^% but that if she persists in her present 
line of conduct, it may be necessary to arrange for her 
residing beyond the limits of the Jaghir at either Kurnool 

^r Hyderabad. 

5. Mr. Chase will also inform the Nawab that his 
authority in the matter will b<? supported by Government 
so long as he behaves with justice and consideration to 
the Begum." 

The first wife of the Nawab was a highly talented 
lady ; she was conversant with Persian, Aiabic and 

H. H. The Nawab of Banganapalli. 21 

Hindustani. She took an active interest in female 
education. Her noble disposition, her generous instincts, 
her dislike of ostentation, her respect of all that is true 
and good, were some of the characteristics calculated to 
raise her in the estimation of those who had known 
her personally and render her an object of admiration, 
gratitude and love to her dependants. In 1886 she 
obtained the Naw^ab's permission to visit Palestine. She, 
accompanied by her children, went on a pilgrimage to 
Karbala and other holy places. The Nawab being 
anxious about the safety of his family sought the assist- 
ance of Government, through the Political Agent, when 
they issued the following general letter : — 



" The bearer, who is the Begum of the Nawab of 
Banganapalli, a native State, within the jurisdiction 
of the Government of Madras, is proceeding with her 
children and suite, consisting of about 30 followers, on 
a pilgrimage to Ninevah (Karbala in Irak Arabi), and 
expects to pass through Basurah, Bagdad, Najef, Samrah, 
and Kazmeen. It is requested that the Begum may be 
treated with due respect, and that such help may be 
afforded to her, both on her forward and return journe;(i> 
as she may be in need of " 

It is hardly necessary for us to say that the Begum 
was treated with due respect and attention in her travels, 
and while at Bagdad an escort of eight sowars was 
furnished to her by the Turkish Governor of that place. 
She died one year after her return from Karbala. 

22 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

There are different grades of reception accorded to 
Native Princes witfiin the jurisdiction of a Governor. In 
order that we may give a full idea of the Nawab's 
position as the Ruler of a State, we give below the 
ceremonies obeserved when he visited, and was visited 
by, H. E. the Governor of Madras, and H.E. the Viceroy 
and Governor-General of India : — 


"At 4-45 P.M., on Thursday, the 30th December, 1895, 
H. E. the. Governor received a visit from the Nawab of 
Banganapalli, at Government House, Madras. 

The Under-Secretary to Government in the Depart- 
ments under the Chief Secretary and an Aid-de-Camp, 
to His Excellency proceeded in one of the Governor's 
carriages from Government House, at 4-10 p.m., for the 
purpose of escorting the Nawab, from Moore's Gardens, 

The deputation was received at the Nawab's house, 
by his eldest son. The Nawab and the deputation then 
drove to Government House in the Governor's carriage, 
the Nawab's eldQst son, and an Officer of the Nawab's 
Staff following in one of the Nawab's carriages. 

On alighting from the crriage, the Nawab was met by 
the Military Secretary to His Excellency the Governor, 
who, with the deputation led him up the stairs. The 
Nawab was received at the top of the stairs by the Private 
Secretary to His Excellency, who conducted him to the 
Reception room. 

The Governor received the Nawab seated, and showed 
him to a seat at l\'s right hand. 

H. H. The Nawab of Banganapalli. 23 

On the right of the Nawab was seated the Under- 
Secretary, the Private and Military Secretaries to the 
Governor, and His Excellency's personal staff. 

After a short conversation the Nawab 's attendants 
were introduced by the Aid-de-camp. 

At the close of the interview, attar and pan were 
given by the Governor to the Nawab, and .by the Under- 
Secretary to the Nawab's attendants. 

The ceremonies at the Nawab's departm'e were same 

as those observed at his arrival. 

The Nawab was escorted to and from Government 

House by a party of the Body Guard, consisting of one 

Non-commissioned Officer, and eight sowars. 

The Entrance Hall of Government House was lined 
by an armed party of the Body Guard (twelve). 

A Native Officer's mounted party (sixteen) of the 
Body Guard with a trumpeter proceeded in front of the 
grand entrance and also the House-guard of Native 
Infantry ; these together saluted on the arrival and 
departure of the Nawab. , 



His Excellency the Governor retui-ned the visit of the 
Nawab of Banganapalli, on Wednesday, the 4th Decem- 
ber, at 4-45 P.M. 

A deputation consisting of the Nawab's eldest son, and 
an officer of the Nawab's Staff waited on the Governor, 
at Government House, at 4-30 p.m. I^. E. the Governor 

' i 


24 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

started under a salute of seventeen guns, and was attended 
by the Under-Secretary in the Departments under the 
Chief Secretary, and two Aides-de-camp. 

The Nawab received the Governor at the step of the 
carriage at the Nawab's residence, and conducted him to 
a seat at his right hand. 

On the right of the Governor sat the Under-Secre- 
tary, and the Aid-de-camp. On the left of the Nawab sat 
his attendants. 

After a short conversation, the Nawab's attendants 
were received by him. 

At the close of the interview, attar and pan were 
presented by the Nawab to the Governor, and by the 
Nawab's principal attendants to the British Officers 

The ceremonies which attended the Governor's 
arrival were repeated at His Excellency's departure. 

A guard of honor was drawn up at the Nawab's 
residence, and saluted the Governor on his arrival and 



At 12-15 p.m., on Friday, the 25th November, 1892, 
His Excellency the Viceroy and Governor-General, 
received a visit from the Nawab of Banganapalli, at 
Government House, Madras. 

The Political Officer on duty with the Nawab, 
accompanied him to Government House. 

H. H. The Nawab of Banganapalli. 25 

On alighting from his carnage, the Nawab was met 
by an Aid-de-camp to the Viceroy, and was received at 
the top of the stairs by the Officer on Special duty in the 
Foreign Department, who conducted him to His 
Excellency's presence. 

The Viceroy received the Nawab seated, and motioned 
him to a seat at his right hand. 

On the right of. the Nawab was seated the Political 
Officer, and beyond him such of the Chief's attendants, 
not exceeding two in number, as are entitled to a seat in 

On the left of the Viceroy were seated iflie Ofhcer 
on Special duty in the Foreign Department, and His 
Excellency's personal staff. 

After taking his seat, the Nawab rose and presented 
a nazar of 31 gold mohurs, which were touched and 

After a short conversation, the Nawab's attendants 
were introduced by the Political Officer, and offered nazars 
of one gold mohur each, which were also touched and 

At the close of the interview, a!tar and pan were 
given by the Viceroy to the Nawab, and by the Officer on 
Special duty in the Foreign Department to his attendants. 


When H. R. H. the then Prince of Wales, now 
King Edward VII, visited Madras, the Nawab was » 
one of those introduced to His Koyal Highness, at the 
Government House. After a short conversation with the 


26 The Akistocuacy ui' Southekn India. 

Nawab, His Koyal Highness presented him with a silver 
medal, and a double-barrelled revolver of excellent work- 

The following Simnud, dated Fort William, 24th 
January 1876, signed by His Excellency Lord Northbrook, 
the then Viceroy, was given to the Nawab, conferring 
upon him as a hereditary distinction the title of Naioab : — 

" In recognition of your position as the Jaghirdar of 
Banganapalli, I hereby confer upon you the title of 
Naivab as a hereditary distinction to be assumed by your 
successors iDn formal recognition of their succession." 

On the occasion of the Golden Jubilee of Her 
Majesty the late Empress of India, the Political Agent 
for Banganapalli, communicated the following to the 
Nawab with compliments and best wishes for his long 
life, wealth and prosperity : — 

'■'Your Highness, 

On the auspicious occasion of the celebration of the 
Jubilee of Her Majesty the Queen, Empress of India, 
I address Your Highness, whose loyalty to the British 
Throne and Government is unquestioned, with the desire 
of associating you with the expression of joyfulness at 
this event, which is general throughout India, and of 
conveying to you an expression of my high consideration, 
and of my best wishes for the continued prosperity of 
Your Highness, and of Your Highness's State." 

The Jubilee was celebrated in Banganapalli with 
the greatest enthusiasm. All the buildings in the Town 
of Banganapalli -having been previously whitewashed, 
the festivities commenced by a banquet given by the 
Nawab Syed Fateh Ali Khan Bahadur, c.s.i., to the 

H. H. The Nawab of Banganapalli. 27 

Mohammedan population, which lasted until 2-30 p.m. 
At 3 P.M., the Nawab held a Durbar, which was 
attended by all the nobles of the Court, and the 
representatives of the agricultural community. At 5-30, 
a congratulatory address was read in English and Hindus- 
tani, and received with cordial cheers. This was followed 
by prayers in the Durbar Hall for the long life and pros- 
perity of Her Majesty, the Queen Empress. After this, 
followed the release of eight prisoners from the State Jail, 
and a reduction in the sentences of four others. This 
was succeeded by a salute of 31 guns from the ramparts 
of the Fort, and a distribution of attar and betel. From 
6 p.m., till the dawn of the following day, 'the palace, 
public buildings, and the houses generally were illuminated 
with coloured and plain lights, whilst fireworks, music, 
and dancing continued during the night. On the morning 
of the 17th, a distribution of food was made to about 
8,000 persons, including visitors to the festival from the 
outlying districts ; and at night a similar feasting took 
place, and there was another display of fireworks. 
During both the celebration days, prayers were offered 
in the temples and mosques for Her Majesty's long life 
and prosperity, and a distribution of alms was made 
to the poor. The Nawab defrayed a^l the charges. 

The Nawab was made a Member of the Central 
Committee of the Imperial Institute in 1887, when 4he 
following correspondence took place between the Chief 
Secretary to the Government of Madi'as, and the Nawab: — 

" Sir, 

I am directed to inform you that, since the receipt 
of your letter expressing willingness to serve on the 
Central Committee of the Imperial Institute, and to 

28 The Aristoceacy of Southern India. 

subscribe towards that institution, a telegram has been 
received from the Government of India to the effect that the 
subscription qualifying for membership of the Committee 
will, in ordinary cases, be Bs. 500 and upwards ; but as 
you have been speciall}'' selected by His Excellency the 
Governor in Council on the ground of your general qualifi- 
cations, I am to state that there will be no objection on 
yom' part to subscribe the above amount. The Govern- 
ment, would, however, like to be informed of the sum 
you propose to subscribe." f 

" Dear Ski, 

With great pleasure I acknowledge the receipt of 
your letter No. 1132, dated 12-8-87, and state that I 
feel fully sensible of the high honor conferred on me 
by His Excellency the Governor in Council in adding my 
name to the list of subscribers to the Imperial Institute, 
which honor I gratefully acknowledge. I beg to express 
my regret that my limited means do not permit me to 
subscribe to the noble and laudable object which the 
Institute represents, more than the very limited sum of 
Rs. 4,000. I request you will kindly try to make this 
acceptable to the Government of India conveying, at the 
same time, my heart-felt thanks for the very benevolent 
intentions cherished by Her Imperial Majesty towards 
her loyal Indian subjects." 

When the news of the death of the Queen was 
received at Banganapalli, the Nawab ordered the closing 
of all Public Offices at once, and mourning was observed 
for eight days. Prayers were offered in all mosques and 
temples. The Nawab sent a message of condolence, 

H. H. The Nawab of Banganapalli. 29 

through the Potitical Agent to the Governor of Madras, 
to be communicated to the bereaved members of the 
Eoyal Family. 

It will not be out of place if we should give here 
some of the most important reforms effected by the 
Nawab in the interests of his subjects. 

Formerly there was only one Amildar under the 
immediate directions of the Jaghirdar (as he was then 
known). All the civil and criminal cases would be 
taken before him and he would hear and dispose of them, 
without any particular procedure, the Amildar helping 
him as an interpreter. The Nawab has now introduced 
a new system by which the State is administrated on 
modern principles. A Tahsildar, assisted by a suitable 
establishment, is appointed. He is in charge of the State 
Treasury under the direct supervision of the Nawab. The 
Tahsildar is responsible for the due collection of revenue, 
and also for the settlement of boundary disputes, and 
other cases connected with land tenure. There is a 
Magistrate exclusively entrusted with criminal powers. 
The Munsiff is empowered to decide civil suits involving 
a sum up to Paipees 3,000. The Sac^ar Court presided 
over by the Nawab is the final appellate authority over 
the decisions of the above said courts. Besides being the 
Appellate Court, the Sadar Court exercises original civi> 
and criminal jurisdiction : in civil suits of above 
Kupees 3,000 and in grave criminal offences. The law 
in vogue in the British territory is observed here. 

The Jail building is a new one on improved sanitary 
principles. There is a Eurasian in charge of it, and the 
local ISTedical officer is the ex-ofiicifj Superintendent. 

30 The Aristocracy op Southern India. 

There is also a garden attached to the Jail for the prisoners 
to work in. 

The State has now a well -trained Police force under 
the able supervision of a Police Inspector, who had had 
good experience in the Madras Police Force. There are 
also three out-stations for the convenience and the safe- 
guarding of the villages belonging to the State. 

The State dispensary is worked on English lines 
under a well-experienced and diplomaed Medical Officer of 
the Civil Medical Department, Madras. The hospital is 
resorted to not only by the inhabitants of the capital, but 
also by "those living in the surrounding British tracts. 
The Medical Officer has a competent assistant, besides 
three compounders. It is satisfactory to observe that a 
diplomied midwife is also employed on the staff of the 
dispensary. The supply of medicine is quite ample, and 
the instruments are kept in very good order. 

There are schools for boys in the head quarters and 
also in the principal villages. At head quarters there 
is an English school which teaches up to the Primary 

In October 1873, Saiyid Ghulam Ali Khan Bahadur, 
the heir-apparent was born. When the news of his birth 
was announced, it was received with pleasure and delight 
' every^vhere, and the people were very jubilant over the 
event. Proper arrangements were made for the Prince's 
education, and the services of a suitable tutor were secured 
to teach him English, Hindustani, Persian and other 
subjects. He has grown to be an intrepid rider, and a 
capital huntsman, and bears a very good character. He 
married the daughter of his uncle, Saiyid Murtuza Ali 
Khan I Bahadur, on the 7th December, 1900. He has a taste 


'Tit{qmt?}| ■•sso.M D5'R!|e305Pin^T«H 

% I ^ 

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o ?; /; 


r" £ ^ 
e e I 


H. H. The Nawab or Banganapalli. 31 

for histoiy, and has a large collection of historical and 
. biographical works both in English and Urdu. 

The second Prince, Saiyid Asad AH Khan Bahadur, is 
a great reader. He has a large collection of standard 
works, and his taste for English literature has been 
growing from day to day. His wife, whom he married 
seven years ago, comes from the well-known family of 
NNurul-umra Bahadm- of Hyderabad. The third Prince, 
Saiyid Hussain Ali Khan Bahadur is very intelligent and 
painstaking in the acquirement of knowledge. 

The Nawab must be proud of his sons. They are all 
noble, generous, and gentlemanly, and they pay particulaj: 
attention to the fact that their household ought to be 
sober and well-governed. They do not love show, but 
everything from their dress to their equipage, is simple 
and nice. Such are their distinguishing traits, and these 
amiable features leave their impress upon all who come 
in contact with them. 

As soon as the Nawab was installed on the Guddi, 
he found out, as most essential things to peace and 
good government, the instilling into public officers an 
adequate sense of their responsibility,* and a diligent 
enquiry into and an early redress of all grievances and 
abuses. To establish his reputation as a just and enligh- 
tened ruler, the Nawab has had to study carefully the 
important changes in public opinion, and to found his 
judgment on public affairs on a minute and elaborate 
consideration of the arguments for and against. He is 
sincerely religious-minded and God-fearing, and in matters, 
great or small, he never allows any prejudices to warp his 
judgment, and in all circumstances keeps his temper 

32 The Aristocracy op Southern India. 

equable and unruffled. He is a devout believer in the 
teachings oJ; Mahomed the Prophet, and profoundly 
learned in the Koran. To understand the truths mentioned 
in it, he is of opinion, that one needs not a capacious 
intellect, a disciplined mind or a great store of what 
the world calls learning, but a heart so humbled by the 
spirit of God as to receive them as His Testimony in 
"the love of the truth." Sufhce it to say that as an 
administrator, he exercises a decided influence for good 
upon his subjects, and that he is held in the highest 
estimation by people in and around Banganapalli, for his 
sterling character, impartial justice, and rigid honesty 
of purpose. All these qualities claim a due recognition 
at the hands of Government and a Knighthood from 
the Government of India, all right-thinking people must 
grant, will prove but a deserved reward. From what 
has been said of the Nawab, it is evident that he will 
always retain the confidence of the paramount power, 
and be the protector of the rights, privileges, and liberties 
of his subjects, who form the backbone and sinews of 
his State ; and his sincere convictions and sound practical 
applications of them are of such value that it is impossible 
to over-estimate their worth. As constancy of conduct 
and fixity of prmciple are the characteristics of the 
Nawab, characteristics which claim their attention by 
.their very rarity, they are sure to impress any student 
of the history of our times with a feeling of high esteem 
for the illustrious personage in whom such virtues are 

H. H. The Mahiirajtih of Bobbjli. K, C. L E. 

liulUJii^tc KStuty vi'eiib. iiuniblitit; 



The Maharajah of Bobbili was the only prince of 
Southern India, on whom the title of "Maharajah" 
was conferred by the Government of India, in the last year 
of the nineteenth centmy during the life-time of Her 
Majesty the late Empress of India. He is one of those 
distinguished noblemen whose services have greatly con- 
tributed to widen the influence and support the renown 
of the paramount power. 

The Bobbili Zemindari is one of the most ancient 
Zemindaries in India. It is included in the Vizaga- 
patam District, Madras Presidency, and possesses a very 
interesting history. It is situated in lat. 18°22' to 18°46 ' 
N., long. 83°10' E., is surrounded by the British taluks 
of Chipurupalli, Gajapatinagaram, Salur, Parvatipur, 
Palconda and Chicacole, and consists of the Pergunnahs 
(Tanas) of Bobbili, Kajam, Kavitey anl Sitanagaram, each 
of which is under the charge of an officer called Ameen. The 
Zemindari, together with the proprietary estates eventually 
bought, is about 920 sq. miles in area, and contains 202 
Jeroyiti villages, 70 agraharams and 6 mokhasas. Its 
revenvie is about 5 lakhs of rupees, including the value of 
about 3,567 garces of paddy, which is paid in kind. The 
peishcush is Ks. 95,315 and the land-cess, Es. 32,467. 

There are 14 indigo factories in the Zemindari ; most 
of them are leased to Messrs. Ai-buthn;.it and Co. 

34 The Aristocracy of Southern India, 

The chief town is Bobbili, the residence of the Maha- 
rajah. (Lat. 18"34'N., long. 18''25'E.) It is about 70 
miles north-west of Vizagapatam. Sir M. E. Grarft Duff, 
who visited Bobbili in 1883, describes it as " a clean and 
well-kept town, furnished with all the appliances of 
Anglo-Indian civilisation — schools, hospitals and what not 
— all within a walk of the remains of the Old Fort, where 
126 years ago was enacted one of the most ghastly stories 
which even Indian History has to record." 

The Bobbili family belongs to the tribe known as 
Velama Doras, who (according to Orme) " esteem them- 
selves the highest blood of Native Indians next to the 
Brahmins, equal to the Eajputs, and support this pre- 
eminence by the haughtiest observances, insomuch that 
the breath of a different religion, and even of the meaner 
Indians, requires ablution." The men of this race are, as 
a rule, well-built and of a warlike disposition. 

The founder of the house of Bobbili was the 
fifteenth in descent from the founder of the house of 
Venkatagiri, from which eminent family sprang the present 
ruler of Bobbili. In 1652, Sher Mahomed Khan, the 
Nawab of Chicacoip, on behalf of the Moghul Emperor, 
marched against Vizagapatam, when the former was 
accompanied by two chiefs, viz., Nirvana Rayappa, gener- 
ally known as Pedda Bayadu, the fifteenth Rajah of 
Venkatagiri, and Madhava Varma, the ancestor ol' the 
Vizianagaram family. In recognition of the meritorious 
services rendered to the Nawab by the former • hief , 
the Moghul Emperor conferred upon him the graiit of 
the Kajam Estate, where the chief built a fort and 
in token of his gratitude towards the worthy donor 
named it Bebboc'y (the royal tiger), in honor of his 

H. H. The Maharajah of Bobbili. 35 

patron's designation, Sher (tiger). From Bebbooly the 
name of the town and Zemindari has been corrupted into 
Bobbin. In addition to the grant of this vakiable estate, 
the further recognition of the chief's services by the 
Moghul Emperor was the conferring of the titles of Rajah 
and Bahadur, and also the right to use a white flag, dhanka, 
nowbat and other insignia of royalty. After establishing 
every thing on a firm basis, Eajah Pedda Eayadu Bahadur 
Garu returned to his place, nominating his son Lingappa 
as the ruler of the newly obtained Raj. Rajah Lingappa 
Bahadur, who had inherited the valour and prowess of 
his father was also very serviceable to the Moghul 
Emperor whenever there was any disturbance. A son of 
the General Sher Mahomed Khan went on a hunting 
excursion on a certain day, when he was surprised, 
captured and kept in confinement by a Fattooridar at 
Rangavaka near Palasa in the Ganjam District. The 
General's request to the Rajah Lingappa Bahadur to 
rescue his son met with a favourable response, and the 
result was, that the Fattooridar was taken prisoner and 
the boy brought out of confinement. The solicitude, 
intrepidity, and the most opportune help of the Rajah 
Bahadur so much won the favor and esteem of the 
General, that he commended him to the favorable notice 
of the Moghul Emperor, whose admiration of the promp- 
titude and generous nature evinced by the Rajah became, 
so great, that he ordered the free enjoyment of as many 
villages in his State as he could in one night adorn with 
festoons. This was accordingly done, and the Rajah 
became the lord of twelve villages. The Moghul Emperor 
went a step further, and conferred the title of Ranga Row 
(Lord Ranga Vaka-Vaka, meaning a seat or resort of a 
Fattooridar, otherwise meaning victor in battle). This 

36 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

title has since been used by all succeeding members of the 
Bobbili family. 

The sixth of the Kajahs whose reign is memorable 
on account of the Battle of Bobbili, was Eajah Gopala 
Krishna Ranga Row Bahadur Garu. In 1756 the dis- 
orderly behaviour of the Poligars called for measures of 
repression, and M. Bussy marched with a European force 
to restore order. On his arrival in Vizianagram, he was 
assured by the Rajah that the Chief of Bobbili was the 
instigator of all disturbances. "We take the following 
from the Madras Manual of the Administration by Dr. 
Macleane,^about the attack on the Fort of Bobbili, and 
its result : — 

" The Rajah of Vizianagram to testify his own loyalty 
Joined the French with a force of 11,000 men to assist in 
crushing his rival. Before attacking the latter, M. Bussy 
offered the chief a pardon for the past, and land of equal 
value elsewhere, if he would abandon his ancestral estate, 
but the offer was refused. The attack on the fort of 
Bobbili is one of the most memorable in Indian History. 
At daybreak, the field pieces began to play on the mud 
defences, practicable breaches were at once made, and the 
assault sounded. After four hours' desperate fighting, 
hand to hand, Bussy called off his men to allow the 
cannon to widen the breaches. A second [assault was 
then ordered, but with no better results ; for not a man 
had gained footing within the ramparts when five hours 
later Bussy again withdrew the storming party to repeat 
the argument of artillery. The defenders now recognised 
^ their desperate position, and collecting their wives and 
families put them to death, and returned to their posts. 
The assault soon recommenced ; and when at sunset. 

H. H. The Mahaeajah of Bobbili. 37 

Bussy entered the fort as victor with the remnant of his 
army, it was only because every man of the garrison was 
dead or desperately wounded. An old man, however, 
crept from a hut, and leading a child to Bussy presented 
him as the son of the dead chief. Four other men had 
preserved their lives, and two nights later when the 
Vizianagram camp was buried in sleep, they crept into 
the Bajah's tent, and before the .sentries discovered and 
shot down the assassins, they had stabbed the Kajah 
to death with thirty- two wounds. The child, Chinna 
Ranga Bow, saved from the slaughter, was invested by 
Bussy with the chiefship of the lands that had been 
offered to his fathers." * 


The Chief, whose reign was longer than that of any 
of his predecessors, was Rajah Sweta Chalapati Ranga 
Row Bahadur who became famous far and wide on 
account of his munificent gifts. During his reign every 
charitable undertaking in the District found in him a 
ready, willing and benevolent patron. In 1832 serious 
disturbances broke out in the Ganjam and Vizagapatam 
Districts. The Rajah devised all means in his power and 
succeeded in apprehending Kambara V^nkatarayadu and 
other Fattooridars who were the cause ol the disturbance 
and delivered them to Mr. Russell, the Special Com- 
missioner, who was appointed by the Government of* 
Madras. It is to the credit of the same Rajah that he 
made large additions to the estate. 

The Rajah who had no issue adopted one of the 
sons of the Rajah of Pittapur as his heir and successor, 
and died on the 18th August 1862. 


38 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

Kajah Sitarama Kanga Eow Bahadur, the adopted 
son of the deceased Eajah, ruled only for five years. He 
gave a marked impetus to the promotion of education, 
and it v^as he who started the Anglo- Vernacular School 
at Bohbili in 1864. It is to be greatly regretted that he 
died at the comparatively early age of 23 years. 

Eani Lakshmi Chellayamma Garu succeeded her 
deceased husband. Though the lady was very young when 
the onerous duty of guiding the destiny of a large State 
devolved on her, yet her enhghtened policy, her liberal- 
heartedne^ss and her statesmanship enabled her to excel 
most of her contemporaries. She very prudently 
appointed a Dewan of well-tried abilities, who had already 
given proof of his uprightness and energy during the 
reign of her late father-in-law. Her liberality during 
the great famine in Bengal, in 1873, is still a household 
word in many places. She sent paddy of the value of 
Eupees 50,000, and this noble conduct met with the 
approbation of the Government of India, which recorded 
its high sense of appreciation of the generosity of the Eani. 
She was represented by her Dewan, when H. E. H. the 
Prince of Wales, now oar Most Gracious Emperor, King 
Edward VII, visited Madras, and had the special honour of 
receiving a medal from His Eoyal Highness. In February 
? 876, the Government of India, in token of their apprecia- 
tion of the wisdom displayed by this lady, conferred on her 
the title of "Eani" as a personal recognition. A re- 
bellion broke out at Bastar, when the Eani, with her 
usual promptitude, rendered her share of help in quelling 
it. We avail ourselves of this opportunity of giving 
publicity to the following letters about the Eani, who 
died on the 7th Mry 1887 :— 

H. H. The Mahabajah of Bobbili. 39 

" Madam, 

I am directed by the Government to communicate to 
you, their thanks for the assistance you rendered to them, 
in the march of an army for the crushing of the rebelhon, 
that recently broke out in Bastar, and for other con- 
venient arrangements that you made for them in that 
connection. I have, therefore, gladly communicated the 
matter to you and enclosed an extract from the order. 

(Signed) * * * 

Acting Agent to the Governor.'' 
Office of Governor's ^ 

l^nd July, 1876. 


26TH JUNE 1876, NO. 1279. 

* * * * 


" Mr. Goodrich will also convey to His Highness 
the Maharajah of Vizianagaram and to the liani of 
Bobbili the thanks of Government for the assistance and 
facilities they, afforded to the movements of the troops on 
the late occasion. 

(True Extract). 

(Signed) * * 

Acting Agent to the Governor." 

-10 The Aeistoceacy of Southern India. 


" Madam, 

Mr. Fraser, the Assistant Agent, has communicated to 
me that, in immediate response to his request, you des- 
patched to Pachipenta fifty of your sepoys at a time when 
the Pohce were absent from that station. I am much 
obliged to you for your timely help. 


(Signed) J. H. GAESTIN, 

Agent to the Governor." 

The Honourable the Maharajah Sir Venkata Sweta 
Chalapati Kanga Eow Bahadur, k. c i. e., who succeed- 
ed the Eani, was born on the 8th September 1862, at 
Venkatagiri, being the third son of no less a personage 
than H. H. the late Eajah Sarvagnya Kumarayachandra 
Bahadur Garu, c. s. i., the 27th in descent of the 
distinguished and well-known house of Venkatagiri. 

When the Prince was nine years old, the House of 
Bobbili had no .l^eir, but was under the guidance of Eani 
Lakshmi Chellayamma Bahadur Garu, who adopted 
him in 1872 as her heir and successor after the formal 
performance of the ceremonial rites observed in Hindu 
adoption. Arrangements befitting the position of the 
Eani were made for the education of the Prince, who, in 
spite of the most exalted position to which he had been 
raised, worked assiduously to acquire knowledge. He 
was first placed under the tuition of two competent 
native gentlemen, and when it was found that a European 
of good qualilkations should be appointed tutor, the 


H. H. The Maharajah of Bobbili. 41 

services of Mr. J. Marsh were secured, under' whose 
guidance the Prince continued to be for nearly three years. 
During this period he received instruction not only in 
history, political economy and other subjects, but also 
in athletic exercises, in order to make him a man of 
good physique as well as a highly cultured ruler. The 
study of Sanskrit which contains the ethical code of the 
Hindus was not neglected, and a Pundit of rare attain- 
ments was employed to instil into the mind of the Prince 
the sacred principles of Hinduism. When he was 
fifteen years old, the title of " Empress " was conferred 
upon Her Majesty the late Queen Victoria. On that day, 
meetings, in commemoration of the unique eveM, were 
held at all the principalities in India. At the 
meeting that came off at Vizagapatam, the Prince 
took a conspicuous part and was given a seat on the 
dais with the late Maharajah of Vizianagram. One 
thing very remarkable connected with this noteworthy 
event was that the Princes of the two renowned houses 
which had been on hostile terms for years past met each 
other on the most friendly terms possible. It was on this 
most auspicious occasion that that seed of friendship was 
sown between the heads of the two distinguished families 
which, in process of time, grew into su^ a mighty fruit- 
bearing tree. The following year the installation of the 
Rajah of Venkatagiri, the Prince's eldest brother, took 
place, and at that ceremony was present the future ruler 
of Bobbili. It was on that auspicious occasion that the 
three sons of the Rajah of Venkatagiri w^ho had been 
adopted to the three distinguished houses of Bobbili, 
Pittapur and Jetprole respectively, met one another, after 
having been separated for a long time. The same j^ear 
the wedding of the Prince was celebrated at Bobbili 


42 The Aristockacy of Southern India. 

on a grand scale, but the happy pak were destined to Hve 
in peace and harmony only for two years, as the Bani 
sank into an untimely grave in 1880, after giving birth to 
a son, Kajah Venkata Kumara Krishna Eanga Kow 
Bahadur, the senior Kumararajah of Bobbili, the only fruit 
of their union. There is no rose but has its thorns and 
it was not, therefore, strange that some ill-feeling arose 
between the Prince and hjs adoptive mother, the Rani, 
but it did not exist long. At the intervention of Mr. 
Garstin, the then Collector of the Vizagapatam District, 
the way for reconciliation was paved, but he was sudden- 
ly transferred to another appointment, and the amicable 
settlemfyit was brought about by the Honourable Mr. 
Carmichael, who was sent to Vizagapatam as a Special 
Commissioner in connection with the Rumpa Rebellion. 

Before the Rajah was raised to the gaddi, he married 
his deceased wife's sister, as it was considered inauspicious 
for a widower to perform the ceremonial rites attendant 
on such occasions. The installation ceremony was per- 
formed on a magnificent scale on the 30th November 
1881. He was very grateful to his adoptive mother, and 
it was his intention that the Rani should live without the 
least uneasiness in her mind, and he therefore set apart 
the revenue derived from the estate of Karakavalsa and 
some other villages, which amounted to Rs. 60,000, for 
the sole expenditure of the Rani. 

The first and foremost reform which the Rajah set 
his hands to, was the raising of the Middle School of 
Bobbili to a High School on a constitutional basis, asking 
the Government of Madras to withdraw their grant. This 
reform, tending towards education, which was the first of a 
series of reforms introduced later on, speaks volumes in 

H. H. The Maharajah of Bobbili. 43 

favor of the Eajah, whose educational attainments and 
Hberal ideas imbibed under the fostering care of Mr. Marsh, 
have not been in vain, but have borne good fruit. The 
Eajah, not unmindful of the difficulties which the lame, 
the blind, and the decrepit are subject to, came forward 
to deserve a share of their gratitude by establishing a poor 
house. The moral and religious training he received while 
young, had made a deep impression upon his mind, and it 
was therefore his earnest desire that his subjects should 
also have the benefit of free exchange of thought ; and 
with this object in view, he started an association for the 
discussion of religious, moral and scientific subjects. 

Two years after the Eajah ascended the guddi, H. E. 
Sir M. E. Grant-Duff, the then Governor of Madras, 
visited Bobbili, and was the guest at the palace. Having 
entertained a very high opinion of the Eajah, His Excel- 
lency made the following remarks in the course of his 
reply to an address presented by the inhabitants of 
Bezwada : — 

" We have in these North-eastern Districts men who, 
like the Maharajah of Vizianagram, the Zemindars of 
Mandasa, and of Bobbili, and the Eajah of Pittapur, are 
doing much in various ways for the enlig'j4;enment of those 
around them." 

In 1883 the Eajah went on a pilgrimage to Benares, 
Gaya and other important places in Northern India, and 
after spending a few months in travel returned to his place. 
A sudden calamity that happened to him was the death of 
his second wife at child birth. This very nearly broke the 
heart of the Eajah, but he soon rallied, and resigned him- 
self to the decrees of God. The following year he tra- 
velled to the chief towns of pilgrimage in Southern India, 

44 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

and before returning to Bobbili proceeded to Venkatagiri 
to witness the marriage festivities of his l)rother, the 
Bajah of Jetprole. 

The death of the Eajah's adoptive mother, which 
melancholy event took place in 1887, was a heavy shock 
to him, and this was followed by the death of his younger 
son. The Kajah bore the losses with calm resignation. 

The year 1887 has left a memorable page in the 
annals of the British Empire ; the most noteworthy event 
of that year in which everybody, from prince to peasant, 
took part, was the Jubilee of Her Majesty, the late 
Empress of India. The Eajah, whose gratitude is as 
great as his loyalty to the British administration is beyond 
all doubt, in commemoration of the unique and auspicious 
event, erected a market at Bobbili, which was a desidera- 
tum for a long time, and designated it " The Victoria 
Market." In connection w^ith this event the Eajah sent 
an address to the late august sovereign enclosing it in a 
silver casket. 

In 1888 when the Eajah paid a visit to Madras he 
was rceived by Lord Marsham, an aid -de-camp to the 
Governor of Madras, with the usual respect to which a 
Eajah is entitled?* There were visits to, and return visits 
from, the Governor. A few months afterwards the Eajah 
travelled to some of the important places in India, where 
*ne had the honor of interviews with H. E. H. the Duke 
of Connaught, H. E. Lord Dufferin, the then Viceroy, 
and H. E. Lord Eeay, the then Governor of Bombay. 
This year a Question was raised as regards the hereditary 
titles to which the Eajah was entitled, and after a lenghly 
correspondence the title of "Eajah" which was held by 
his ancestors was recognised. 


H. H. The Mahakajah of Bobbili. ^^ 

Among several other things, the Madras Mail, in com- 
menting on the Birthday Honors, made the following 
remarks about the Rajah of Bobbili: — 

" The Rajah is a young man of about 28, is a good 

horseman, and fond of sports and outdoor games. He is 

very popular with his ryots, and his careful administration 

of the affairs of the Zemindari has tended greatly to 

increase his revenue. He speaks and writes English with 

considerable ease. He is an enlightened and courteovis 

nobleman who has travelled often and far, and made many 

friends in the three Presidencies." 

The same year the Rajah married for the third time the 

present Maharani. He built a palace and styled it, "The Raj 
Mahal." The inside of the mansion is as varied and diver- 
sified in its arrangements as the exterior. The. apartments 
are furnished in the most exquisite style. The gardens and 
adjacent grounds are laid out and arranged in the most 
tasteful and at the same time pleasant manner. 

For more than three years there existed a dispute as 
regards the family property among the sons of the Rajah 
of Venkatagiri, the brothers of the Rajal-iR)f Bobbili. As the 
father and the brothers were alive to the fact that the Rajah 
was circumspect, able, and just, possessing the rare talent 
of conciliating the minds of men and of infusing a spirit o8E 
unanimity into a great number of discordant parties, they 
expressed their desire that he should be their arbitrator. 
The Rajah with his usual promptitude and willingness 
spared neither time nor pains in bringing about a recon- 
ciliation. In connection with this matter the following 
letter addressed by Lord Connemara under date 19th 


46 The Aristocracy of SorTHERN India. 

August 1892, 106, Mount Street, Grosvenor Square, to the 
Kajah of Venkatagiri, proves the high opinion entertained 
of the Rajah of Bobbih by the noble lord : — 

"My Dear Kajah, 

" I thank j^ou for your letter of the 6th May, and I 
am very glad indeed to hear that the suit for a partition of 
your estate instituted by your father has been withdrawn. 
Family disputes are always especially disagreeable. Your 
brother, the Rajah of Bobbili, is a very sensible man, for 
whom I have a great regard, and has done well to interfere 
in this matter. 

"With best good wishes for the welfare of all your 

I remain, 

^ Very sincerely yours, 

(Signed) CONNEMARA." 

On the 29th August of the same year the Rajah was 
blessed with a son, Sree Rajah Rama Krishna Ranga Row 
Bahadur, by his 3rd and present wife. 

The Rajah attended the receptions at Madras, given 
to H. R. H. the late lamented Prince Albert Victor in 1889, 
and to His Imperial Highness the Czare witch in 1891. 

The year 1893 marks the most gratifying epoch in the 
reign of the Rajah, for it was in that year that he left on a 
voyage for Europe, accompanied by his youngest brother, 
Rajah Venugopaul Bahadur. On the 14th April, he left 
Bobbili, took steamer at Bombay and landed at Marseilles. 

H. H. The Maharajah of Bobbili. 47 

He visited Paris, and thence proceeded to London on the 
19th May. 

His Excellency the Governor, Lord Wenlock was 
kind enough to furnish him with letters of introduction 
to the Secretary of State for India and others. On the 
29th of that month they attended the Levee at St. James' 
Palace held by His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales on 
Her Majesty's behalf. They were allowed the privilege of 
going to the Levee by the Ambassador's gate and were 
introduced by the Secretary of State for India. They also 
went to the customary Reception at the Foreign Office in 
honour of Her Majesty's Birth-Day on the 3rd June. They 
went by the Pimlico Entrance to the two State'^alls and 
one State Concert given in Buckingham Palace. Having 
been invited by the Duke of Cambridge, they were present 
at the ceremony of laying the foundation-stone of the New 
Wing to the Royal United Service Institute, by H. R. H. 
the Prince of Wales. They paid their respects to H. R. H. 
the Duke of Connaughfc on the 19th July, when the 
Duke said he remembered seeing the Rajah at Poona. 
They also went to the Garden Party at Marlborough 
House, given on the 5th July by H. R. H. the Prince of 
Wales, to have the honour of meeting H. M. the Queen. 
Lord Kimberley, the Secretary of Statv^or India, kindly 
introduced the Rajah and his brother to H. R. H. the 
Duke of York at the Garden Party given by Mr. and 
Lady Constance Shaw Lefevre to meet the Duke ancf 
Princess Victoria May before they were married. H. R. H. 
the Prince of Wales, at the interview given on the 
10th July to the Rajah and his brother, was pleased to 
say that he was glad to make their acquaintance, to 
which the Rajah replied that it was a great honour to 
them to be^ graciously allowed to pay him their loyal 


48 The Aristocracy of Southeri^ India. 

respects. The Eajah paid his most humble and loyal 
respects to H. M. the Queen-Empress on the 17th July 
at Windsor Castle. 

We deem it a great privilege to quote the following 
interesting account Irom the Rajah's diary : — 


" I left my place at 20 minutes to 12 o'clock and 
drove to Paddington Station for Windsor Castle ; thence 
I went in the Special train at 1-10 p.m., in which Lord 
Kimberley, Lord Eipon, and some other Privy Coun- 
cillors were going to attend H. M.'s Council. Sir Gerald 
Fitzgerald met me at the station and accompanied me to 
the Castle. The Special train arrived at Windsor at 
1-40 P.M. There were some carriages from the Castle 
awaiting to convey us there. Sir Fitzgerald and myself 
drove in a Landau drawn by a pair of horses which were 
driven by a postillion. 

"In the Castle I was conducted to a room to wait 
there till called for. There I had some fruit and lemo- 
nade for my lunch. A little after 3 o'clock I was called 
for and was conducted by Sir Fitzgerald near to the 
Queen's Chamber. Then the Lord-in-waiting received 
me, conducted mS" to the Queen's Chamber, and present- 
ed me to Her Majesty. H. M. was standing, and shook 

hands with me in a very pleasing manner. 

" Her Majesty's conversation, though short, was 
very kind and pleasing. Her Majesty was pleased to 
introduce me to H. M.'s daughter. Princess Beatrice of 
Battenberg, who was with Her Majesty. 

" Through Her Majesty is 74 years of age, she 
noticed carefully my oriental costume. Her Majesty was 


H. H. The Maharajah of Bobbili. 49 

very kind and pleasing in her expressions. I was very 
much pleased, and felt more honoured in being allowed 
thus to pay my most humble and loyal respects to our 
Sovereign who has already ruled 56 years. Since my 
boyhood I have had an intention to go to England to pay 
my loyal respects to Her Majesty. Now my wishes are 

" A few minutes after, the Privy Councillors and 
myself left the Castle, drove to the station, and returned 
to the Paddington station by the special train. Now I 
can say I am fully satisfied with my visit to this distant 
country. I may also mention here in this connection 
that I am the first Kajah that has ever come from the 
Madras Presidency. 

" Thank God ! this is the most happy day of my life." 

Shortly afterwards the Rajah was presented with a 
photo bearing H. M.'s autograph signature, in acknow- 
ledging the receipt of which the Eajah wrote as follows : — 

"I have no words to express my most humble and 
loyal thanks to Her Gracious Majesty, the Queen and 
Empress of India, for H. M.'s most kind favour in pre- 
senting me with Her Portrait. I este??n it a very great 
and special favour on the part of H. M. to my ancient 
family which had been ever loyal to the British Govern- 
ment and whose footsteps, it has been, and will ever be, 
my desire to follows :— 

** I have erected a market at Bobbili, to commemorate 
H. M.'s Jubilee, and on my return to my country, I intend 
to build a Town Hall in memory of my loyal visit to H. M., 
which, with H. M.'s permission, I would name tlio 
' Victoria Town Hall.' 


50 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

" I would beg you, Sir, to convey to Her Gracious 
Majesty, with every expression of loyalty, and with my 
humble thanks, my gratitude for, and appreciation of, 
H. M.'s Gracious Gift. 

I have the honour to remain. 


Your most obedient and humble servant, 

(Signed) V. S. EANGA EOW, 

Rajah of Bobbili." 

In reply to this the Eight Hon'ble H. F. Ponsonby 
wrote : — 

" Osborne, Isle of Wight 
11th August, 1893. 
" Sir, 

" In reply to your letter, which I had much pleasure 
in submitting to the Queen, I am commanded by Her 
Majesty to assure^ou that she has learnt with much satis- 
faction your intention of building a Town Halb in memory 
of your visit to the Queen, and that Her Majesty gladly 
j,^rants permission for the building to be named the 
'Victoria Town Hah.' 

I have the honour to be, 
Your faithful servant, 


H. H. The Maharajah of Bobbili. 51 

The Eajah presented an ivory casket to H. R. H. the 
Princess May of Teck, as a wedding present, which was 
acknowledged in the following words : — 

White Lodge, 

Richmond Park, 


"Her Serene Highness the Princes Victoria May of 
Teck, desires the Comptroller to convey her greatful thanks 
to H. H. the Rajah of Bobbili for the beautiful gift he has 
kindly sent to her which the Princess has pleasure in 

4th Julij, 1893. 

The Rajah subscribed 100 guineas to St. Mary's 
Hospital Fund, and presented an ivory casket to the 
Queen-Empress. He and his brother attended the " At 
Homes " of the Duke of Westminster, the Marchioness 
of Salisbury, Lady Battersea, Lady Henry Lennox, and 
the Marchioness of Ripon, the Countess of Jersey, and 
also Lady Temple's Garden Party and the Anniversary 
Fete at the Crystal Palace. 

He visited Lord Kimberley, Secretary of State for 
India, Lord Connemara, Sir Mountstuart Grant-Duff, 
Lord Herschell, Lord Northbrook, Lord Reay, and some 
others. , , 

At the public functions he was also introduced to 
H. R. H. Princess Christian, H. R. H. the Duke of 
Cambridge, the Duke of Teck, Lord Dufferin, Lord 
Roberts, and many others. 

During his sojourn in England, the Rajah visited 
Brighton, Oxford, Liverpool, Edinburgh, and Bedford. 


52 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

On the 22nd August he set sail from England and 
visited Paris, Lucerne, Venice, Florence, and Eome, 
embarked on the S.S. Shcmno)i at Brindisi for India on 
the 19th, and reached Bombay on the 2nd September, 
following : — 

He received addresses of welcome from the people 
of Venkatagiri, and of Bol)bili where he safely returned 
on the 18th September 1893. 

The impression made upon the English public by the 
Bajah was deep and is sure to be lasting. He attracted 
universal regard by his personal qualities as well as by 
his exaHied rank. The respect he received in England 
was directed as much to the man as to the prince and 
his discriminating mind felt the tribute, while his heart 
perhaps acknowledged it as the most grateful regard to 
w'hich his services for his subjects were entitled. 

In 1894, in commemoration of his recent visit to 
England, the Bajah built a hall, called the "Victoria 
Town Hall," the foundation stone of which was laid 
by H. E. Lord Wenlock, the then Governor of Madras, 
who, after performing the ceremony, addressed those 
present as follows^. — 

"I feel great pleasure in acceding to the request made 
i)y you to lay the foundation-stone here in commemora- 
tion of the visit which you paid to Her Majesty the Queen- 
Empress when you visited England last year. I do 
not think that you could possibly commemorate this visit 
in a more suitable and proper manner than that in which 
you propose to do. It is therefore a matter of extreme 
pleasure and satisfaction to myself that I have been able 


H. H. The Maharajah of Bobbili. 53 

to come here on this occasion, and perform the ceremony 
of laying the foundation-stone of what, I trust, will he the 
lasting record of loyalty to Her Most Gracious Majesty 
the Queen-Empress, and of your devotion to her, and the 
loyal principles with which you and your family have 
always heen associated. I believe this particular form 
which you have chosen is one most suitable to the people 
of this country. They will find in this building, which 
you are about to erect, opportunities of meeting on occa- 
sions when their deliberations can be properly accompanied 
by suitable surroundings, such as are going to be placed at 
their disposal as a record of not only your own loyalty, but 
of the generosity and interest which you feel towards 
ameliorating the condition of your own people. It is for 
these and other reasons that I am pleased to be here this 
afternoon and I shall be glad to send home an account of 
my visit here, and to assure all those at home who have, 
as I have, a lively interest in all matters connected with 
this country, that they will find, here in Bobbili, a noble- 
man who is anxious to do his duty to all by whom he is 
surrounded and who is anxious to prove on all occa- 
sions his loyalty and affection to Her Majesty the 
Queen-Empress. With these words l^an do no more 
than congratulate you on this auspicious occasion, and I 
trust it will not be long before the building is erected 
which will be a lasting record of events, which have been* 
of such satisfaction and gratification to yourself, and to 
those who are, as I am, interested in the welfare and well- 
being of the people of this country." 

At the entertainment given at the Eaj Mahal, His 
Excellency the Governor proposed the liujah's health 
thus : — 

54 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

" Eajah, Ladies, and Gentlemen, — I have to thank 
you, Sir, very much indeed for the kind manner in which 
you have proposed my health, and those who have also 
received what you have proposed just now in an extremely 
touching manner. I can only say for myself that it is a 
matter of extreme pleasure to me that I have been able to 
respond to the invitation that you were kind enough 
to extend to me some time ago, viz., that I should come 
to Bobbih towards the end of this year to lay the stone 
which I had the honour of doing this afternoon. * * 

"J; * * Here is a town and an estate 

administered in the most excellent and most practical 
manner. I gather, from every source which is open to me 
to obtain information from, that the people of this country 
are happy and enjoying themselves in quiet and prosperity, 
and that you keep a special watch and special guard over 
their interests in a most special manner. On behalf of 
Government I can only express my sincere thanks for the 
manner in which you look after all those in whom you are 
interested, and amongst whom your work is cast. The 
ceremony that I had the honour of being present at this 
afternoon was a specially interesting one, as it was one 
commemorating the visit which you yourself paid to Her 
<; Majesty the Queen-Empress, when you were in England ; 
it is one which will hand down to posterity a record of that 
visit, and specially of the loyal spirit which was predomin- 
ating in your own mind at the time when you paid your 
visit to that country. I think I may safely say that, in 
the Northern Circars, Landlords and Zemindars of this 
country are animated by the same spirit which animated 
you, and if, at aK.y time, their fortune should be so great 

H. H. The Maharajah of Bobbili. 55 

that they should be able to pay their respects, in the same 
manner as you did, to Her Majesty the Queen-Empress, 
they will be actuated by the same feelings of loyalty and 
devotion to the British Crown as you yourself. Sir, possess. 
I do not know if it is necessary for me to say anything 
more than, on behalf of Government, to thank you for the 
extremely kind hospitality which you have extended to as, 
and which has made our visit so very comfortable and so 
very enjoyable." 

* -se- -sf -x- -sf 

The following day, His Excellency, on behalf of 
Lady AVenlock, laid the foundation stone of the,,j3amas- 
thanam Gosha Hospital, and spoke thus : — 

" Kajah, — I can only express to you my great 
pleasure in acceding to the request which you have made 
that I should attend the ceremony of laying the founda- 
tion-stone of this hospital, and at the same time of 
assming you of the great regret which Lady Wenlock 
feels at not being able to be present here and perform the 
ceremony which I have just undertaken. * * * 

* * -x- ^ * 

" Your own family has contributed largely in this 
particular direction. The Gosha Hospital at Madras, the 
gift, almost the entire gift of the Bajah of Venkatagiri, 
shows very well how keenly the members of your family^ 
take interest in this particular matter. The foundation 
of this institution here shows that you yourself are as 
keenly alive to the interests of those unfortunate women 
of this country, who, up till now, have received so little 
support. I hope this institution, when it is once started, 
will be the means of affording relief and comfort to a very 
large number of women of this country and this town ; 

50 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

and that other bodies and private individuals, who come 
to see the good work here done, will not hesitate to follow 
your excellent example. 

^ ^n ^F ^F A" 

" I have only to express the pleasure I have had in 
being here, and to congratulate you on the extremely good 
example you have set to others, who, like yourself, are 
responsible for the well-being of such a large number of 

The Kajah built the Gosha Hospital and the Lady 
Apothecary's quarters at Bobbili at his own cost, and 
handed^ them over to the District Board with a magni- 
ficent donation of Es. 20,000 for the management and 
up-keep of the institution. 

The Kajah was very much indebted to Mr. Turner, 
a former Collector of the Vizagapatam District for the 
friendly ad^'^ce he always gave him, and it was therefore 
his intention to pay some tribute to his memory in a subs- 
tantial manner, and when the Eajah threw out his 
suggestion to build a choultry, it took a definite shape, 
and contributions came from the people of the District, 
the list being headed by the Eajah with Es. 6,000. 

The Eajah was kinghted in 1895, when the following 
observations ware made by the Madras Mail : — 

" Among the recipients of higher honours the only 
Madras name that appears is that of the Eajah of Bobbili. 
This nobleman has exhibited progressive tendencies of a 
marked kind. He has, like several of his confreres in 
other parts of India, overcome the aversion to undertak- 
ing a voyage to England. Since his return, he has been 
endeavouring to show that the experience gained has had 

H. H. The Maharajah of Bobbili. 57 

the effect of enlarging his mind. Lord Wenlock, during 
his recent tour in the Northern Circars, laid the founda- 
tion-stones of two important and much-needed institu- 
tions which the Eajah himself admitted were in 
commemoration of his visit." 

The ceremonj'' of investiture took place at Oota- 
camund. H. E. Lord Wenlock, the then Governor of 
Madras, invested the Kajah with the insignia of the Most 
Exalted Order of the Indian Empire. In addition to the 
honor conferred upon the Kajah by the British Govern- 
ment and the kind words said of him by the Governor, 
all his subjects without one dissentient voice resolved 
to offer to their beloved Rajah the highest tribute of 
respect and praise that could be bestowed upon a Prince. 
The Rajah, on returning to Bobbili, was the recipient of a 
spontaneous address from all classes of his subjects. 
While thanking them for their kindness, he said that 
he could not carry out all their requests at once but 
promised to fulfil many of them in due courbc. On this 
occasion he showed his generosity by remitting to his 
subjects, Rs. 80,000, arrears of revenue. 

The Rajah paid his respects to H. E. Lord Elgin, the 
then Viceroy, when His Excellency visited Madras, and he 
then endowed a bed to be called, "Lady Elgin's bed" in 
the Victoria Caste Gosha Hospital in Madras. In 1896 
the Rajah endowed another bed to be called "Lady 
Wenlock's bed." 

When the seat in the Governor's Council occupied 
by the late Maharajah of Vizianagram fell vacant on the 
expiry of his term, the then Governor of Madras nomin- 
ated the Rajah to it. 


58 The Aristockacy of Southern India. 

In the famine of 1896-97 the Kajah subscribed 
Kupees 10,000, to the Indian Famine Belief Charitable 
Fund, fed a vast multitude of poor people in the Samas- 
thanam Poor House, spent about Es. 25,000 on irrigation 
works, and sold grain at a very low rate to the Samas- 
thanam servants and to the poor of all classes. 

In 1897 the Diamond Jubilee of Her Majesty the 
late Queen Empress was celebrated with great eclat at 
Bobbili. A durbar was held, a large concourse of people 
being present at it. The Kajah evinced his loyalty and 
attachment to the British power by sending an address to 
Her Majesty enclosing it in a suitable casket. 

On the 21st February 1898 the " Victoria Town Hall" 
was opened by H. E. Lord Haveiock. The following feli- 
citous speech was made on the occasion by the Governor : — 

" The Eajah has so fully and clearly explained the 
history and objects of this Town Hall that there remains 
little for me to say except that I feel it a pleasure and 
honour to be asked to consummate the work w'hich was 
begun by my distinguished predecessor. I appreciate 
very heartily and deeply the sentiments which have moved 
the Kajah to carry out this work, and I trust that the 
usefulness of the building with which he has endowed the 
Town of Bobbili will be extensive and long-lasting. With 
these words I now declare the Victoria Town Hall to be 
duly opened." 

The people of the Town and the Zemindari presented 
an address to His Excellency, and received a reply from 
him at the Town Hall. In his reply he said : — 

" Representatives of people of the Town of 
Bobbili. — 1 thank you for your kind address of welcome. 

H. H. The Maharajah op Bobbili. 59 

It is with the greatest satisfaction I have heard the 
tribute of praise which yon have bestowed upon the Rajah 
of Bobbili who, as you say, has endowed you with many 
useful public institutions, and they are valuable works to 
that extent. You admit that you are supplied with 
schools, hospitals, and other charitable institutions, and 
that water-supply has been amply provided for. This is a 
very high tribute of gratitude and praise to your enligh- 
tened Rajah. In consequence of his munificence towards 
you, you say that there is very little left for you to ask at 
my hands. ***** 

I am glad to be able to join with you in ccy:;gratu- 
lating ourselves on the success of the efforts of the 
Government to withstand the horrors of famine and 
distress during last year. I take this opportunity of 
expressing the gratitude of the Government for the 
efforts that were made by the Rajah himself to assist the 
people in his own immediate neighbourhood, and I 
wish also not to lose this opportunity of expressing 
the high appreciation of my Government of the skill, 
zeal and devotion of the District Officers under extremely 
difficult and trying circumstances. I thank you once 
more for the welcome you have accorded»^o me here." 

In proposing the health of the Rajah at the enter- 
tainment given to His Excellency in the evening of the 
same day, the latter spoke thus : — 

" I thank you, Rajah, for the kind and too flattering 
terms in which you have proposed the toast of my health. 
I thank you, gentlemen, also for having so cordially 
responding to it. It is true, as the Rajah remarked, that 
the determining cause of my visit to the Circars was his 


GO The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

invitation to take part in the ceremony of opening the 
Hall, the ceremony wliicli I look forward to performing 
to-morrow. I had the intention of coming to this part of 
the country during this season if it had been possible. 
But for my promise to take part in this ceremony, I think, 
I should have been compelled to postpone it to a future 
occasion. However, I have managed to find sufficient 
time to carry out the projected visit to this part of the 
country, and I am very glad to find myself to-night as 
the guest of the Eajah. I am certain that Lady 
Havelock would have been pleased, if she could, with her 
presence on the present occasion, have given an addition- 
al satisfaction to the Rajah. But the Bajah has rightly 
said that the long journey from Madras, performed in 
the hurried way that my journey on the present occasion 
was arranged to be performed, prevented her from 
coming. She could not possibly have undergone the 
fatigues of this long and hasty journey. Before I sit 
down, I must ask you to join with me in drinking a toast 
which probably needs little or no commendation, that is, 
the toast of the health of the Eajah of Bobbili. The 
Eajah of Bobbili is, as we all know, a descendant and a 
representative of the race which has distinguished itself in 
the wars in this'^art of the country, and has left its mark 
on the history of the Circars. The Eajah himself is a 
man of literary ability ; he has also been an observant 
traveller ; he is a large landowner who knows how to 
work his property to the best possible advantage, and he 
is, I can testify, a most valuable member of my Legis- 
ative Council, representing there the interests of the large 
landed proprietary of the Madras Presidency. I can only 
say that I wish that we had many more men in the Madras 
Presidency and in India like the Eajah of Bobbili. " 

H. H. The Maharajah op Bobbili. G1 

The Madras Mail remarked thus on the speeches 
made by H. E. the Governor and the Eajah Bnhadnr : — 

" It will be seen from the reports we publish to-day 
that the Governor's visit to Bobbili was marked by some 
very cordial speech-making. Eeferring to His Excellency 
the Eajah remarked : — 

" It is a rare fortune for a Province to be presided over 
by such a statesman, a statesman who, by a life which 
has been devoted to his country's service, has added to the 
high gifts of nature, a vast store of practical knowledge 
and experience, and who, while he is ready to listen to the 
popular voice and official advice, is at the sa3*ie time 
capable of maintaining his own independence of judgment." 

In the middle of April the wedding of the Kumara 
Eajah of Bobbili was celebrated with much rejoicing. The 
Eajah's mother, the Eajah of Venkatagiri, k. c. i. e., Eajah 
Muddu Kristna with his wife, and Eajah Venkata Krishna 
came from Venkatagiri. Eajah Venugopala Krishna and 
the second son of the Kumara Eajah of Pittapur also 
arrived from Madras. The Zemindar of Sangamvalsa 
was also present at the wedding. 

The Eajah was renominated to the Legislative 
Council in 1898, and he has since then been a member of 
that august assembly. No objection was raised to his 
election, which was felt to be well deserved, whilst there, 
seemed to be every probability that his habits of business 
would be advantageously brought into play. He express- 
ed his views more freely than ever against the Tenancy 
Bill, and thus fully realized the confidence reposed in him 
by his constituents. 

There was a sudden bereavement in the noble family 
of Bobbili in May 1899, caused by the death of the great- 


62 The Aristocracy of RouTHEnN India. 

rjrand mother of the "Rajah at the ripe old age of 90 year's. 
The venerable lady was very fortunate, indeed, as she lived 
to see her grandson's grandson. The Rajah endowed a 
third bed in the Victoria Caste and Gosha Hospital in 
the name of the deceased grand old lady. 

On the 22nd of October 1899 the Knmara Eajah was 
blessed with a daughter ; she is the first grandchild 
of the Rajah. She was named in November, " Sree 
Victoria Vencata Hamanamma." The name of Victoria 
was selected by the Rajah to show his admiration, love, 
and respect for Her Majesty the late Queen-Empress. 

In ^899 the personal distinction of "Maharajah" was 
conferred by the Government of India on the Rajah of 

The Maharajah was selected by the Government 
of Madras to represent the aristocracy of Southern India 
on the occasion of the Coronation of His Majesty King 
Edward VII. The IVIaharajah went to England, was 
present at the ceremony, paid his respects to His Majesty, 
and returned some months ago after visiting many places 
of importance in Europe. There w^as a grand send off 
and great ovation when he left Bobbili for England, and 
on returning safe^ there was a warm reception and kind 
welcome by his ryots. There was the usual presentation 
of addresses to the Maharajah. 

i It is an admitted fact that the Maharajah of 
Bobbili has won the confidence and esteem of the 
Government of Madras by the successful manner in 
which he has been managing the estate. His warm 
heart, his open hand, his free and cordial manner, 
have won the love of his ryots. His courteousness and 
affability have secured him many noble friends both among 
Europeans and njjtives. 


11. H. The Maharaja of Jcypore. 

kiiilikoto Estate Itcss. Kaiubliu. «-. 



His Highness the Maharajah, Sri Sri Sri Vikrama 
Deo, Azem, Maharajah, Yujadud Dowla, Mahahat Assar, 
Yedal Yemeenay, Salatnut, Samsamay, Killapathay, Islam 
Sri Jhadkhand Badusha, Maharajah of Jeypore, of the 
Solar Eace, the possessor of a hilly tract, in the Vizaga- 
patam District, naturally mild and pacific like his father, 
possesses a quick apprehension and extensive capacity, 
evinces talents for business, and is no less distinguished 
for sobriety and decorum of deportment than for literary 
acquirements. He ascended the gucldl at a time vihen all 
animosities had begun to subside and tranquility reigned 
supreme throughout the Samastanam. The prudent 
conduct of his father had removed the principal obstacle 
which had embarrassed his predecessors ; and to maintain 
the tranquility so happily established required no arduous 
exertions of body or of mind, no daring enterprise or 
complicated scheme of pohcy, but the same mixture of 
prudence, moderation and firmness as characterised his 
father's administration. 

Jeypore Samastanam is in the Vizagapatam District, 
Madras Presidency, lying between 17 30' and 20° N» 
Lat. and 81° 20' and 84° 4 Long. It is bounded on the 
north by Kalahundi in the Central Provinces; on the 
east by the plain of Vizagapatam ; on the south by 
Eekapally and Golconda ; on the west by Bastar. The 
area of the Samastanam is 11,526 square miles and popula- 
tion, 4,42,454. 

64 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

The Jeypore Sainastanam is divided into two parts, 
Upper and Lower, which are within the jurisdictions of 
the Special and Senior Assistant Agents, whose Head- 
Quarters are at Koraput and Parvatipur respectively. 

To the east and north-east of Gunupur lies the 

Savra Hill Country, consisting of two table-lands about 

200 square miles in extent. North of Gunupur the 

Samastanaiu runs up in a wedge-like form to a distance of 

70 miles between Kalahundi of the Central Provinces on 

the west, and Parlakimidy on the east reaching very 

nearly 20° N. Lat. In the centre of this district stands 

out the remarkable group of hills named Nimghiris which 

rise to a height of 5000 feet separated by the valley of not 

more than 1200 feet from the ranges on either hand. The 

drainage from Nimghiries and the neighbouring countries 

flows directly south-east to the sea, forming at Kalinga- 

patam, the river Vamsadhara, so called from the bam 

boos, (vamsa) growing on its banks and the Nagavali at 

Chicacole. The population chiefly Khonds and Sawras 

number 1,37,966, the largest towns being Jeypore, Kotpad, 

Nowrangpur, Nandapur, Gudari, Gunupur, Rayaghada, 

Singapur and Bissamkatak. The western portion of the 

country consists «f the taluks of Jeypore, Nowrangapur, 

and Malkanagiri, while the taluk of Koraput lies in the 

east. The principal towns are Jeypore, Kotpad and 

» Nowrangapur. 

The religion of the country is mainly Hinduism. 
Ethnologically the inhabitants include Aryans, Colarians, 
and Dravidians. The Aryans are comparatively recent 
colonists and comprise the ruling and fighting men and 
the priests. The cultivators called Purajas (literally 
subjects) number about more than two-thirds of the 

H. H. The Mahaeajah of Jeypore. 65 

entire population, Aryans represent one-seventeenth, 
Parjas one-sixth. The mountaineers retain far greater 
independence than the ryots of the Jeypore and the 
Malakanagiri plateaus. In the uplands patriarchal autho- 
rity is still unassailable ; in the low-lying lands it is only 
preserved in parts M^here jungle tracts abound which are 
being slowly brought under cultivation. 

The Maharajah is the rightful owner of the land. 
Every variety of land tenure is found throughout Jeypore. 
The tenants have no occupancy right. When the Maha- 
rajah is satisfied as to the advisability of leasing out the 
land to a stranger, he has a legal right to do so. The 
pattas and ruuchalkas exchanged between the Maharajah 
and his tenants are yearly documents and they contain 
express stipulations binding the tenants to relinquish their 
right to the lands at the end of the Fasli. 

The religious ceremonies and social customs of the 
various tribes differ but little from one another. The 
process of fusion of the habits of the later immigrants 
with aboriginal customs is, however, very apparent. In 
those parts of the country which are in a prosperous 
condition ideas and manners imported from the coast 
districts are gradually overcoming amd absorbing all 
aboriginal conceptions, but on the other hand, in jungle- 
covered and backward lands the colonists are always 
corrupted by the superstitions of the indigenous races/ 
The following is Mr. Carmichael's account of the Zemin- 
dary tenure : — 

"At the period of the cession of the Northern Circara 
we found the country divided into Navili and Zemindari. 
The Navili lands consisted of the old domestic or house- 
hold lands of the sovereign and tracts near to towns 


66 The Aristocracy op Southern India. 

resumed by the Muhammadans and appropriated for the 
support of their numerous garrisons and estabhshments. 
These lands the local Foujdars and Nawabs always 
retain under their immediate management parcelling out 
the rest of the country into Zemindaries. But the 
Muhammadan rulers were impatient of details and a mode 
was invented of transacting the business of revenue more 
in the gross. Their revenue agents were rendered stationary 
in the districts where they collected and became respon- 
sible to Government for revenue, receiving payment by a 
percentage or share of what they collected. Under native 
governments every thing which was enjoyed, whether 
office or possession, had a tendency to become hereditary. 
There was a convenience in preserving in each district the 
same agent of revenue, and after him, his son or successor, 
because each was better acquainted with the people and 
the resources of the district than, generally speaking, any 
other man could be. In this manner the situation of these 
agents became in fact hereditary, and before the period 
of the English acquisitions, the Persian appellation of 
Zemindar had been g(3nerally appropriated by them. The 
Jeypore Zemindari and the family of its Rajah are of old 
standing, and the origin of both is involved in a mist of 
tradition. *' 

"Previous to the acquisition of the Northern Circars 
by the East India Company, Jeypore was paying tribute 
to Hyderabad. 

'Tn 1848, the affairs of the Samastanam fell into a great 
confusion owing to the insubordination of some members 
(jf the Maharajah's family. The disturbance went so far 
that Lower taluks were attached by the Government. 
The troubles lasted two years and broke out again in 

H. H. The Maharajah of Jeypore. 67 

1885. In 1860, for the 1st time, the British interefered 
in the administration." 

Jeypore (Teypm-am, "the city of victory"),- town 
in the Jeypore Samastanam, Vizagapatara District, 
Madras Presidency, Lat 88° 55' N, and Long. 82° 83' 
is situated at an elevation of about 2,000 feet above 
the sea 7 miles to the north of the northern wall of the 
plateau of the Vizagapatam hills. 

The Royal family of Je3'pore traces its origin to 
Jammu (Cashmere) and to a date many centuries ago. 
Kumbhira]a>h Deo a descendant of Kanakasena of the 
solar race was once the King of Jammu. He had three 
sons and the second of them, Vinaik Deo, who could not 
succeed his father, while the eldest son was alive, repaired 
to Benares on a pilgrimage, where it is traditionally 
believed he made a penance and after twenty, one days 
of hard and rigid penance the god, Kasi Wisweswar, 
appeared in his dream, and bade him go to Nandapitr, 
telling him at the same time that he would obtain the 
throne of that kingdom. In obedience to the mandate of 
Kasi Wisweswar, Vinaik Deo left at once for Xandapiu'. 
The journey to that place was not easy then, for there were 
not so many facilities for travel as thare are now ; never- 
theless, he did not feel the wearines of travel, as the 
enterprise he had embarked on was such that if he should 
achieve his object he would be raised to a high positioif. 
He would be an independent king ruling over a large 
state with a number of feudal lords under his control. 
As the journey was anything but pleasant, he underwent 
many difficulties and privations, and ultimately reached ^ 
the place whither he was enjoined to proceed without 
delay by god, Kasi Wisweswar. On reaching the place, he 


fj8 The AitisTocrtACY of Sodtheem India. 

enterd the temple dedicated to Sarweswar ; and in the 
conrse of his nsnal pra.yer, he mentioned the ohject of his 
visit to the place. The very night, the god, Sarweswar, 
appeared in a dream to the king of Nandapur, and said 
that an accomplished prince was present at the temple, 
and that he was by far the best qualified to receive the 
hand of his (King's) daughter. This was a surprise to 
the latter but as he had had no male issue he thought 
that he had better make the prince his son-in-law, should 
he be endowed with all the accomplishments as detailed 
by the god in the dream. With this resolve he went to 
the temple where, to his surprise and wonder, he beheld 
the prince dressed shabbily. The coarse garments were 
lost sight of in the contemplation of his fine form, his 
upright gait and the intellectual cast of his countenance. 
After mature deliberation, the King arrived at the con- 
clusion that, as regards the new-comer the prince and 
his daughter the princess, should he resolve to unite their 
hands, there would be no circumstance to raise a suspicion 
of an inequality of social grades to present an insuperable 
barrier to their union. The prince related to the King the 
circumstances that took him to the place ; thereupon the 
latter took the former to his house and made him his 
son-in-law, entrusVing to him the management of the 
State. The new king, named Vinaik Singh Deo, governed 
the place by a strict adherence to the laws then in existence 
and by a mixture of moderation and firmness he succeeded 
in maintaining the peace. For some reason or other, the 
people of the place rose against him and as he was unable 
to subdue their turbulence, he had no other alternative 
than to attempt to find his way back to his native country. 
In his wanderings he came in contact with ojie Bonijaro 
(merchant) Naik, by name Lobinia, who helped the 

H. H. The Maharajah of Jeypore. 69 

prince with an army consisting of cavalry, and infantry, 
and 10,000 cattle lor transport. With this equipment, 
Vinaik King Deo proceeded again to Nandapm% quelled the 
rebellion and took possession of the kingdom. In token of 
gratitude to the merchant prince whose help was most 
opportune, Vinaik Singh Deo used in his signature chatuni 
(a rope used by the merchants for tying cattle) . This mark 
has from that time forward been used by all the succee- 
ding kings. Vianik Sing Deo went against many kingdoms 
and conquered them. The boundaries of the then 
Nandapur Samastanam were as follow : — 

East. — Up to Chicacole. 

South. ,, ,, Rayavaram in Sarvasiddi Taluq. 

West. ,, ,, Bhaskali river and Bastar. 

North. ,, ,, Budalingam beyond Kalahandi, and 

Pota-Chinchada near Boda Kimidi 
and Gummagodo near Parlakimidi. 

Vinaik Singh Deo reigned for 33 years and died in the 
year 1476. He was succeeded by his son Sri Viziachand- 
raksha Deo who reigned for 34 years and died in 1510. It 
was during his reign that the Goddess Sri Kanaka Durga 
and the God Sri Vallabhanarayanaswamy were brought 
from the Carnatic and established m the Nandapur town. 
The next in succession was Sri Bhariva Deo, who 
was born in 1486, and ascended the throne in 1510, in his 
24th year. The large tank which goes by the name of 
Bhairava Sagar in Bobbili owes its existence to him. 

Sri Viswanadha Deo who succeeded him reigned 
for a long period of 44 years but his rule was marked by no 
event of importance. His son, Sri Balarama Deo who 
held the reins of administration for over a quarter of a 


70 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

century followed in the wake of his father by intro 
ducing no changes in the administration and by adhering 
to the principles laid down by his ancestors. His son, 
Sri Yesovanta Deo became king at the comparatively 
young age of IG and reigned for 40 years. The following 
rule w^as characterised by events of some importance. 
Sri Vikrama Deo, the king, transferred his capital from 
Nandapurto Jeypore w^here he erected a fort. The Nizam 
of Golconda (Hyderabad) presented the king wdth a sword, 
mohee-morath (nishanees) and an elephant with a yellow 
ho7vdha, conferring on him the following titles : — 


L^ V^ii ilii^ ^iiV^ ^^iI.V^ ,, iil^ 

" Azem Maharajah, Yujadud-Dowla, Mahabat-Assar, 
Yedal-Yemeena5^Salatnut-Samasamay,Khillapathay, Islam 
Sree Jhadkhand Badusha Jeypore Circar." 

The Sunnad conferring the said titles, and the 
presents referred to above are still preserved in the 
Jeypore fort as relics. 

Sri Vikrama Deo had two wives. It was at the time 
of the marriage of the king with the junior Eani that the 
country lying between Gummagodo and Kiny villages was 
alienated to the Parlakimidy family. Sri Krishna Deo, 
the spn by the senior Maharani came to the throne in 1669. 
He reigned for a short time, and it was during this period 
that Poosapati Seetaramarazu, who came from Bezwada 
was given Kumili and Gandredu, and the following Zemin- 
daries were created :— Bobbili, Devupalli, Rekapalli, 
Narava Mutha, Kottakki and Salur. 

The next in right of succession was Sri Viswambhara 
Deo Maharajah who reigned only for four years from 
1672 to 1676. It was during this Maharajah's time that 
the following Zemindaries were formed : — Pedapadam, 


H. H. The Mahaeajah of Jeypoee. 71 

Ramabhadrapuram, Makkuva, Sividi, Kurapam, Merangi, 
Palem Miitha, Palakonda, Birikotu, Pachipenta, Poram, 
Rangavalasa, Andra, Koduru, iSainbam, Bondapilly, 
Kalahundi, Bindra Novogodo, and Khariar ; and officers 
were appointed for the administration of these Zemin- 

There was now a break in the line of succession as 
the last mentioned Maharajah died issueless, while each of 
the former Maharajahs had a son to succeed him. 
However, Sri Viswambhara Deo Maharajah had a 
brother Sri Mallakimardhana Krishna Deo who came to 
the throne in 1676. He fought with the French and suc- 
ceeded in capturing some of their guns at Nandapur. His 
Ijrother Sri Hari Deo Maharajah reigned only for three 
years and found an untimely grave in 1684. Sri Balarama 
Deo, the brother of the former Maharajah who came to 
the throne in 1684, adopted Sri Eaghunath Krishna Deo, 
the grand son of his uncle Sri Yesovanta Deo of Gunupur. 
Sri Ragimuatha Deo Maharajah's reign extended over 20 
years, and the only event of importanee was that Bissam- 
katak and Merangi were made tributaries. After the 
demise of the Maharajah, his son Sri Ramachandra Deo 
Maharajah was placed at the head of the administration. 
It was at his instance that the Sangamvalasa Zemindari 
was established. The last days of the Maharajah were 
any thing but pleasant to him as family dissensions and 
quarrels weighed heavy on his heart. He died childless, 
and his brother Sri Balarama Deo, who was the main 
cause of the family disputes became ruler in 1711. He was 
very unfortunate as he ruled the State only for a couple of 
years. Before he breathed his last, he had the pleasure to 
see the Zemindaries of Kalahundi and Khariar and 
Nuvagodo gaining independence under the auspices of the 


7*2 The Aristoceacy of Southeen India. 

j\Faharattas. He was succeeded by his brother Sri 
Viswambhara Deo Maharajah who ascended the 
throne in 1718. He was a typical orthodox Hindu. 
It was he that established the Ugratara Yentra 
and the Goddess China Kanaka Durga in Jeypore. The 
next in succession was Sri Lala Krishna Deo the step- 
brother of the former Maharajah, who ruled over the Sa- 
mastanam for a period of six years, and finding every thing 
in chaos, betook himself to Kalayanasingapur. His brother 
Sri Vikrama Deo Maharajah came to the throne in 1758. 
He was assisted in the administration by the well-known 
Dewan Jagannadhapatro. It was during the rule of this 
Maharajah that fierce battles took place, one of them 
being against the French at Malkanagiri; they were driven 
away as far as Godavery. AnotheT battle that followed 
was with the Maharattas at Ummerkota. The payment 
of Jamabandi which was hitherto made to the Nizam 
of Hyderabad was transferred to the British, and the 
Parganas of Kotpad were acquired from Bastar for the 
military assistance rendered to the Bastar king in 1777. 

Sri Eamachandra Deo Maharajah ascended the throne 
in 1779. He reigned nearly for half a century; during 
which long period cihe Peish-cush payable to the paramount 
power was iixed at Es. 16,000 and an elephant with four 
horses was presented to the Maharajah by the Nagpur 
Government. The living monuments of his long reign are 
the Jagannasagar tank in Jeypore, the Mekhamala 
and other gardens, the Jagannadhapur and Ganganapur 
Agraharams. The custom Sati being in existence then, 
the third wife of the Mahrajah ascended the funeral pile 
with her husband. The British Government issued to the 
Maharajah a Sannad Milklet Istimirar. 

H, H. The Mahaeajah of Jeypobe. 73 

Sri Vikrama Deo Maharajah, the son of Sri Bama- 
chandra Deo Maharajah, came to the throne in 1825. His 
administrative capacity was so great that immediately 
after he assmned the reins of Government he instituted 
such wholesome measures that he found it a light task to 
change the chaos into order and to infuse a new spirit into 
the personnel of the State. Several futuridars whose heads 
turned and who always troubled the former Maharajahs 
were arrested and brought to book. He was very pious 
and orthodox. Up to this time the administration of 
Criminal and Civil justice was practically in the hands of 
the Maharajahs of this family. 

Sri Kamachandra Deo Maharajah who was born in 
1843 assumed the reins of administration in 1860. He ren- 
dered valuable aid to the British Government in quelhng the 
Savra rising in the Gunupur taluq and the well-known 
Rampa rebellion in the Godavery District. The authorities, 
while, placing on record their high appreciation of the 
attachment of the Maharajah, went to the extent of pre- 
' senting him with a sword, a military uniform, a diamond 
ring, a rifle, a watch and a pearl necklace. When 
H. E. H. the Prince of Wales, now King Edward VII, 
visited Madras, the Maharajah was oiae of those that were 
introduced to his Royal Highness, who presented him 
with a medal. Several educated men, Brahmins and 
Muhammadans, who hailed from distant places, found in 
him a great patron. It would appear that in 18(30 the 
Maharajah voluntarily resigned the administration of Civil 
and Criminal justice in favour of the British. 

The present Maharajah, Sri Sri Sri Vikrama Deo,» 
was born in 1875, and as he was a minor of 14 years 
at the time of his father's death, the management of the 


74 The Aristockacy of Southern India. 

Samastanam was taken over by Government. When 
the prince arrived at the years of discretion, his father made 
suitable arrangements for the education of the son and 
Dr. Marsh who was then appointed tutor remained as 
such till the expiration of the minority of the prince. Sri 
Vikrama Deo attained under his tuition a considerable de- 
gree of learning and a general knowledge of the arts and 
sciences. True to the principle that travelling is half edu- 
cation, the doctor took his pupil to almost all the places of 
importance in India. In the course of these tours, he 
interviewed Lord Elgin, the then Viceroy and Governor- 
General of India, and Lord "Wenlock, the then Governor 
of Madras. Under the most favourable auspices, after the 
Maharajah had received a sound education and the 
Government of Madras had formed a high opinion of his 
character, Sri Sri Sri Vikrama Deo Maharajah ascended 
the gudcli on the 27th November 1895. It was a day of 
very great rejoicing to the people of Jeypore to find the 
son of their deceased Maharajah, with all the accomplish- 
ments necessary for a ruler of a large Samastanam, placed 
at the head of the administration. The investiture 
ceremony took place at the instance of Mr, Willock, i.c.s., 
the then Agent to the Governor at Vizagapatam, when 
all the local European and Native Officials were present to 
witness the inaugm-ation. In 1893 the Maharajah was 
married to a princess of the well-known Surgoja House 
iiL Udayapur (Chota Nagapur) . The fruit of this union is 
Sri Sri Sri Kamachandra Deo born on the 17th December 
, 1893. The Government of India in recognition of the 
merit and qualifications of the Prince conferred on him 
^ the personal distinction of Maharajah in 1896, which was 
originally owned by his ancestors both before and after the 
advent of the British. The Maharajah went to Madras in 


The Kuuiava Kajah of Jeyporc, 

Kiiiiikotc i,Vt;itc I'lfs^, Kiuibhii. 

H. H. The Maharajah of Jeypore. 75 

1901 and visited His Excellenc}'- Lord Curzon, the A^'iceroy 
and Governor-General of India, and also Sir Arthur 
Havelock, the then Governor of Madras. He again visited 
Madras in January 1902 and had an interview with Lord 
Ampthill the present Governor. The construction of the 
new fort which was commenced during his minority 
was completed by him. After assuming the reins of 
the Samastanam, he made grand improvements to the 
old fort now in the occupation of the Royal Family. 
A temple was lately constructed by Her Highness Lakshmi 
Devi Rajeswari, the Dowager Maharani, at a cost of 70,000 
Rupees and dedicated to the god Ramachandraswami. 

Be it said to the credit of the Maharajah that he 
opens his purse liberally to any institution that is calculated 
to do good to the public at large. He is not conservative, 
but is very liberal although he may be said to be orthodox. 
We are, glad to observe that he has offered Rs. 150,000 to 
the Government of Madras for the construction of the 
Collab and the Indravati bridges. To the Victoria 
Memorial Hall Fund at Calcutta, he lately gave Rs. 5,000, 
and a similar amount to the same fund at Madras. The 
Maharajah and the Maharani Circar ha^e established four 
beds in Victoria Caste and Ghosh a Hospital at a cost of 
Rs. 8,800. The Maharajah sometime ago subscribed and^ 
paid Rs. 4,000 to the Indian Famine Relief Fund and 
1,050 Rupees to the Transvaal War Fund. Through 
Mr. H. A. Sim, the Maharajah paid Rs. 1,500 to the 
Royal Asiatic Society's Medal Fund in England, and to the 
Victoria Memorial Hall Redemption Fund in Madras, 
Rs. 1,500. 


70 The Abistocbacy of Southern India. 

He pays the following annual contributions to the 
Government of Madras — 

Agency Works ... ...10,000 

Vaccination ... ... 1,800 

Medical ... ... ... 700 

Sanitation ... ... ... 750 

Education ... ... ... 1,200 

The Maharajah is aided in the affairs of the Samasta- 
nam by M. R. Ry. P. Venkannah Pantulu Garu, who after 
having made a name as a revenue officer of extraordi- 
nary abilities in the British service, joined the staff 
of the Samastanam some years ago. It is gratifying to 
find that the Samastanam has an efficient establishment 
and the following are the Officers thereof : — 

Durbar Sanskrit Pandits. 

1. M.R.Ry. Vidyabhnshana Kristna Nando Sastri 


2. M.R.Ry. Krishna Dass Garu. 

Family Purohit. 
1. Deena Moni Radho. 


1. Sri Lakshmi Chendra Rai Garu. 

2. Sri Neela Kanta Rai Garu. 


Samasthanum Office- 

J. Marsh, Esq., m.a. t.l.]).. Administrator, on have. 
Mr. P. Venkannah Pantulu, Dewan. 

,, B. Subba Row, Sheristadar. 

,, M. Kamaraju Pantulu, Head-accountant. 

,, G. Syamalarow Pantulu, E. Head Clerk, 

H. H. The Maharajah of Jeypore. 77 

Divisional Officers. 

1, Sri Sn Gopinadha Deo Garu, Manager, Je5'pore 


2. Mr. V. Liiigamurti Pantnln. Manager. Gnnpnr 

Division . 


1. Mr, K Somayajulu Pantnln, Yakil. 

Jeypore Division. 

1. Sri Jagannaclha Qai, Huzur. 

2. Bilkari Dass, Korapnt. 

3. Pithambarasantro, Kotpacl. 

4. Balabhadra Bakshi Bahadur, Nowrangpur. 

5. C. H. Snryanarayana Bow Pantnln, Bhyrava- 


6. M. Gopalaswami Naidn, Omerkote. 

7. K. Seetharamayya Pantulu, Malkangiri. 

8. K. Simhagiri Patnaik, Nandapore. 
9.^ M Hari Kristna Patnaik, Eamagiri. 

Gunpur Division. 

1. D. Jagannaiknln Pantnln, Gnnpnr. 

2. V. Gangarajn Pantulu, Eayaghada. 

3. G. Bamakrishnamma Pantulu, Kalyanasingpur. 

4. P. Brahmaji 'Row Pantulu, Natayanapatam. 

5. Gorachendra Santra, Gudari. 

6. K, V. Narasimham Pantulu, Madgole. 

7. M. Venkannah Pantulu, Narasipuram. ' 

Medical Establishment. 

1. M.B.By. Vaidyaraj Vinayakamisri Garu. 

2. ,, Vikramaraj Payila Garu. 

8. ,, Lobiny Maha Patro Garu. 

Body- guards Kuinandan or Comuiandaut. 

1. Mr. Eahim Khan Sahib. 


78 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

stables Establishment- 
2. Mr. J. Langan, Supemitendent 

Elephant Establishment. 

1. Mr. Pithavasa Mabanti, Superintendent. 

Huzur Guards 

1. Sri Krishna Chandra Deo, Commandant. 

2. J. Kannayya, Jamadar. 

'1 D, Hanmnantharow, Havildar. 

Forest Establishment- 

1. Mr. C. A. Eber Hardie, Chief Forest Officer. 

2. „ C. Hammond, Divisional Officer, Jeypore. 

3. ,, E. D. Pierce do. Gunpm'. 

Range Officers 

1. Mr. A. Gordon, Omerkote Eange. 

2. „ Barlow, Malkangiri Kange. 

3. ,, A. M. Clay, Mottu Eange. 

4. ,, E. G. Bm-by, Jeypore Eange. , 

5. ,, C. Butler, Eayaghada Eange. 

6. ,, Samuels, Gunpur Eange. 

Saw-mills Establishment. 

1. Mr. W. A. Aberneithy, Superintendent. 


Devasthannm Establishment. 

1. D. V. Suryanarayana Eow Pantulu, Ameen. 



1. K. Suryanarayana Patnaik. 

2. P. Venkatarow Pantulu. 

Educational Establishment 

1. V. Bhamiah Chetti, Tutor to Sri Sri Sri Yuwa- 
rajah Maharajah. 

H. H. The Maharajah op Jeypore. 79 

Thatraz or Commander-in-chief. 

1. Sree Narendra Thatraz, Zemindar of Bissam- 


1. Dargi Patro, 

2. Lokanadha Jenna. 

The Maharajah is of middling stature and of pleasing 
countenance and his eyes shine forth with remarkable 
intelligence. He is elegant in deportment and affable and 
unassuming in his manners. With energies of mind and 
with splendid talents for business, he is patient, prudent, 
and attentive to the affairs of the Samastanam and skilful 
in conducting them. He is conversant with several 
languages and is a great lover and patron of the arts and 
the sciences. From what has been said above, it will be 
easily seen that the Maharajah has been managing the 
Samastanam with much credit to himself and benefit to 
his subjects, and towers so high above others that he richly 
deserves the highest honors that it is in the power of the 
Government of India to confer on him. 



Of the most illustrious and well-known family of 
Palavancha and Bhadrachalam, His Highness Sri Eajah 
Parthasaradhi Appa Eao Savai Aswa Kao Bahadur, 
Badshahee Munsubdar and Rajah of Palavancha and 
Bhadrachalam estates, has all the characteristics of great 
men, and from his rare perseverance, energy of character 
and various other virtues, deserves a prominent place in 
this series. 

Bhadrachalam is a taluq and estate in the Godavari 
District, Madras Presidency, lying between 17*^ 35' 45" 
and 17° 56' 30" N. lat., and 80'=' 54' 30" and 81° 8.'E. long. 
It contains 315 villages, half of which belongs to an old 
superior proprietary estate, with 35,656 inhabitants, chiefly 
Koyas. This taluq with that of Eekapalli, was transferred 
from the Central Provinces to Madras in 1874. Until 1860 
this tract formed part of the Upper Godavari District ceded 
in that year by H.H. The Nizam. The area with Eekapalli 
is 911 square miles. Bhadrachalam is the name also of 
the chief town of the estate. It is about 104 miles from 
Eajamundry, and 15 from Dummagudem. It receives its 
name from being near the rock on which Bhadradu 
performed his devotions. It is celebrated for the temple 
of Eamachandra who is said to have crossed the river at 
this spot, on his famous expedition to the island of Ceylon, 
and also for the annual fair held here in his honour. This 
temple was built four centuries ago by some Rishis of old 
but additions have been made from time to time. It 

H. H. The Kiijuh of Palavanchji ii' Bhadraehalaiu, 

Ktillikgtt; Kstate Prtjss, KaUlbha. 

The Eajah of Palavancha & Bhadrachalam. 796 

consists of a main building with a fine dome, flanked by 
24 smaller temples on both sides. It is surrounded by a 
high wall, and may be ascended by steps from near the 
bank of the Godavari. The sacred jewels are said to be 
of great value. H. H. The Nizam annually contributes 
£ 1300 towards the maintenance of the temple. Twenty 
miles from Bhadrachalam is Parnasala, another shrine of 
great antiquity. There are also in it court houses, a town 
school, a jail, a post office, and a police station. About 
20,000 people, chiefly from the coast attend the fair held 
there every April, when English and country cloth, sugar, 
opium, spices, hardware, &c., change hands to the value of 
about £ 5000. 

The illustrious family from which the Eajah Sahib 
has sprung dates its origin to a time many centuries ago. 
One of the most well-known princes of the family in olden 
days was the recipient of the title of Asioa Bao from 
Mahar!j,jah Pratapa Piudra who held sway over Warangal 
before the Mahomedans conquered Southern India. It 
would appear that the Maharajah had a horse of the best 
mettle, and it was ungovernable ; but in spite of this 
defect in the animal, the Maharajah on account of the 
excellence of the breed conceived a great liking for it. 
The Prince tried the horse and rode it so well that the 
Maharajah was agreeably surprised and conferred on him 
the title of Asioa Rao {asioa meaning a horse, and Rao* 
meaning king). From that time forward the titles has 
became hereditary. 

After the Hindu kingdom of Prataparudra was over- 
thrown by the Mohammadan Emperor of Delhi, the 
ASWARAOS became independent for sometime. ^Vhen 
Tamerlane invaded the country and ascended the throne 


79c The Aeistocracy of Southern India. 

of Delhi in 1324 A. D., Annappa Aswarao who is now 
reckoned as the progenitor of the family was the ruling 
chief of the estate. The Emperor however established 
his suzerainty over Annappa Aswarao, and granted him a 
free perpetual sunnud on feudal tenure under the condi- 
tion of supplying the Imperial army with five hundred 
soldiers whenever called upon. The Zemindari had been 
enjoyed by eighteen descendants of the family in succession 
with independent right free of any kind of assessment. 
Afterwards the Emperor Aurangzib, also called Alamghir 
Badsha, once in war sought the help of a chief of this 
family and a Ixajah of Bholapur, and being greatly pleased 
with the valor and prowess displayed by them both, made 
them Badshahee Munsubdars. 

The ruling Zemindar in 1796 was Kajah Narasimha 
Aswa Kao. Just then, there were many changes in the 
Supreme Government at Delhi, and the Zemindar, whose 
assistance was sought by the Moghul Emperor, asserted 
his right and refused to comply with his request. Zafrad- 
daulah, also known as Zabid Jung, who was on hostile 
terms with Bajah Narasimha Aswa Eao foully murdered 
him and carried away immense treasure, and also the old 
sunnuds and other important papers connected with the 
estate. To the titles of the Aswara Eao family were 
added the distinguished epithets of liifuth va avail 
• x>andlia. H. H. The Nizam took possession of the estate 
which under his management was called Parganai 
Hasanbad va Senharagiri Sarhar Kammamet Suhai 
Phiralmnd Buniyad Hyderabad Deccan. 

After the death of Zafarudowla, Eamachendra Aswa 
Eao, one of the descendants of Narasimha Aswa Eao, 
regained his estate and enjoyed it for a year. Later on. 

Thf Kajah of Palavancha & Bhadeachalam. Idd 

Bajah Venkatarama Narasimha Aswa Rao, the twenty- 
first in succession from Annappa Aswarao, who originally 
obtained a sunnud from Tamerlane, was granted a fresh 
one by Meer Nizam Ali Khan Bahadur in the year 1798, 
1"240, Hezree with the titles of Rajah, Bahadur, 
Savai, and Munsuhdar. He was further permitted to 
maintain an army of two thousand horse, and three 
thousand foot and carry an Alain, and Nagdra, and 
sunnuds were issued by His Highness the Nizam accord- 
ingly. After him, Rajah Narasimha Aswarao, who was 
commonly known as Savanna Aswarao, ascended the 
musnud of Palavancha, and died leaving three minor sons 
and two daughters; one of the latter died unmarried, while 
the other was the mother of the subject of this biography. 
During the minority of these children, the Settipalli 
family disputed with them for the estate, and the 
Government having referred the matter to arbitration 
decided the dispute in favour of the minor princes. The 
eldest 6f these princes having died a bachelor, the second 
one succeeded to the estate and held it for sometime, and 
was again succeeded by his brother Seeta Piamachendra 
Savai Aswarao Bahadur, who again obtained a permanent 
sunnud from the Nizam's Government. But during the 
reign of this Rajah the estate ran into debt and was 
mortgaged to a greedy sowcar. About this time, the 
Nizam made over to the British Government the territory 
lying along the left bank of the Godavari, which included 
a portion of the estate of the Aswaraos called Sri Bhadra- 
chalam. Seetha Ramachendra Savai Aswarao soon after 
died a bachelor, leaving after him an aged mother, and 
a married sister. The estate was therefore registered in • 
the name of his mother Kanee Lakshmi Narasamma 

Ide The Aristocracy op Southern India. 

While matters stood thus, the mortgagee sowcar who 
managed the estate for twelve years instituted a suit for 
the recovery of a very large amount, the principal having 
multiplied itself half a dozen times under the most 
complicated system of compound interest. The defen- 
dant Ranee, being unable to contest the suit ably, the 
sowcar gained his case and obtained a decree for six 
lakhs of rupees, whereby for only a half of the amount 
decreed, he carried off the best portion of the estate — the 
two patties of Mulluru and Eamanujavaram ; and had 
the remaining three lakhs paid out of the Nizam's 
exchequer. Dispossessed of her ancient estate thus, 
Ranee Lakshmeenarasamma Rao died in disappointment 
and despair, leaving a daughter and a daughter's son, Sree 
Rajah Parthasarathy Appa Rao Savai Aswarao Bahadur in 
whose veins runs the blood of both Aswarao and Appa Rao 
families. The young prince smarting under the injustice 
done to his maternal family, proceeded early in his life 
to Hyderabad and instituted a suit for the recovery of his 
maternal estate. 

Sri Rajah Parthasaradhi Appa Rao Savai Asiva Rao 
Bahadur is most respectably connected also on the pater- 
nal side. He is the eighteenth in descent from the first 
member of the family, of which Venkayya Appa Rao, 
generally known as Vijaya Appa Rao, had obtained two 
'sunnuds on the 80th January 1763 from Asaf Jah, whereby 
he was granted the large Zemindari of Nuzvid, which 
consisted of eighteen parganas, and was also empowered 
to keep a nowbat and a jhalardar-pallahi. To the 
distinguished titles of BajaU, Bahadur, Munsuhdar, 
savai, were added the epithets of Thahavar-va Jaladai 

The Eajah of Palavancha & Bhadrachalam. 79/ 

The sixth in succession were Eajah Venkatadri 
Appa Eao, and his brother, Eajah Narasimha Appa Rao 
alias Narayya Appa Eao. It was about this time that 
H. H. the Nizam of Hyderabad transferred his suzerainty 
over the Northern Circars to the British Government. 
Eajah Narayya Appa Eao had a son, Eajah Venkata 
Narasimha Appa Rao by his fourth wife, and also two 
sons Eajah Eamachandra Appa Eao and Narasimha 
Appa Eao by his fifth wife. The eldest of these, Eajah 
Venkata Narasimha Appa Eao came to the possession 
of the eighteen parganas. 

In the year 1802 when the British Government com- 
menced the Permanent Settlement of the Zamindaries, 
Rajah Ramachendra Appa Rao, brother of the said 
Venkata Narasimha Appa Rao, brought a suit for 
partition of the estate, and obtained a decree against his 
brother, whereby the Zemindari was divided into two 
shares ; , and he obtained the half called the new-Nuzvid 
Zemindari, and his brother Venkata Narasimha Appa 
Rao, was given the other portion called the new-Nidada- 
volu Zemindari. They were also granted Simnad-i-Mil- 
kliiet Istimerars for their respective portions. 

One unfortunate slip however occurred in this connec- 
tion. The existence and claims of the other brother of 
Venkata Narasimha Appa Eao, Eajah Narasimha Appa 
Eao who was then a minor were not brought to the 
notice of the Government, and they possibly mis- 
understood that both Venkata Narasimha Appa Eao, 
and Narasimha Appa Eao, meant the same person. But 
on a suit brought by the said Narasimha Appa tlao, 
the Government found out their mistake, and as 
they could not alter the decision already passed, they 

70.7 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

granted him two villages of their own, and 14 villages from 
the Nidaclavolu and Nuzvid Zemindaries. These were 
called Chevendra and Tangellamudy muttas, and perma- 
nent sunnuds were also given for the said two muttas. 
Narashima Appa Eao was succeeded by his son Venka- 
tadri Appa Eao, who died on 18th May 1891, leaving his 
son and successor, Sree Eajah Parthasaradhi Appa Rao, 
the present Eajah and Badshahee Munsubdar ot Palava- 
ncha and Bhadrachelam estates. He is as already 
described the grandson {Daiohitra) of Ranee Ijakshmi 
Narasamma Eao, 'and the British Government recognising 
his heirship to that Eanee, registered the Bhadrachelam 
portion of the Palavancha estate in his name in 1869. 

Sri Eajah Parthasaradhi Appa Eao Savai Aswa Eao 
Bahadur was born in 1860 at Eavicherla in the Krishna 
District. His father was the Eajah of Chevendramuttah, 
Chanubanda and jageer Eavicherla. At the special 
request of Eajah Narayya Appa Eao Bahadur of Nidada- 
vole, Eajah Venkatadri Appa Eao Bahadur and the whole 
family came to Senivarapupeta and settled down there in 
1864. A few years after, Eajah Narayya Appa Eao 
Bahadur died. Both before and long after his death, his 
brother Sri Eajah Venkatadri Appa Eao Bahadur managed 
the estate. The deceased Eajah had left behind him two 
widows. Ranis Papamma Rao and Chinnamma Rao. By 
4 virtue of the will left by Rajah Narayya Appa Eao Bahadur 
to the effect that his moveable and immoveable property 
should be divided equally between his wives, accordingly 
they managed the estate jointly. Eani Chinnamma Ead 
died before Eani Papamma Eao. The latter adopted one of 
the Eajahs of Nuzvid, Eajah Venkatramayya Appa Eao 
Bahadur, who died leaving a son, Eajah Narayya Appa 
Eao Bahadur. Sri Eajah Venkatadri Appa Eao, the 

The Kajah of Palavancha & Bhadrachalam. 72/i 

father of the subject of this memoir, brought a suit in the 
Sub-court of Ellore to cancel the adoption made by Kani 
Papamma Eao Bahadur. The case was decided in favor 
of the plaintiff. Soon afterwards she adopted Sri Eajah 
Narayya Appa Eao Bahadur, who was the son of the 
first adopted Eajah, and who also died some years after 
adoption. She died a few years ago without adopting 
anybody. Sri Eajah Parthasaradhi Appa Eao Bahadur 
as one of the nearest heirs brought about four years ago 
a suit in the District Court of Eajahmundry for one-third 
share of the Nidadavole, Baharzalli, Ambarupeta, and 
Medur estate. The case is pending disposal. 

The Nizam's Government under His Highness Meer 
Mahabuballi Khan Fattezung Bahadur, g. c. s. i., g. c. b., 
enquired into the case of Eajah Parthasaradhi Appa Eao 
Bahadur for ten years, and made over the estate to him 
which had been confiscated by them, on pajrtnent of the sum 
of three lakhs, for which it was so confiscated, with interest 
at 14 as, per cent, per mensem, amounting to six lakhs of 
rupees. This order was issued in Fasli 1302 under No. 
1032 and 23 Mahesaffur 1311 Hezree 28th Mohar. The 
Eajah was granted with the estate civil and criminal 
powers by the Nizam's Government as were formerly 
enjoyed by his ancestors. He is empowered to sentence 
offenders to three years' rigorous imprisonment, to fine up j 
to one thousand rupees, and to award thirty stripes. He 
has unlimited powers in civil cases, and could try suits for 
any amount. Besides these powers the Eajah is given 
permission to keep his own Police, maintain a Eegistration 
Department, and issue separate stamps for use in his 
dominions. The Eajah still claims the remainder of the 
estate, which the usurious sowcar had managed to obtain. 

79z The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

His Highness the Nizam has the highest respect for 
the Rajah Sahib, and on every important state occasion 
he is invited and his nazar accepted. He is honored 
by presents of costly apparel and jewel by His Highness. 
On the occasion of the installation of the Nizam in 1886, 
the Eajah's nazars were accepted, and he was presented 
the usual khillat (paga, sallas, a hlieenkliahtan,a pair of 
yelloio shaids) and jewels (a diamond kalaggee, sarpaish, 
a diamond garland, and a pair of diamond dast bands). 
The Rajah Sahib has also the privilege of offering nazars 
in marriage and other important occasions. 

The state was owned in the beginning by the 
MuTYALA Family, and Mutyala Aswa Rao is reckoned as 
the first of the line of Rajahs that had been enjoying the 
Zemindari from time to time. The Zemindari was then 
taken possession of by force, and successively held by 
the Jalagam, Tandra, Settipalli, Kandimandla and 
Damaea families. Damara Aswarao adopted a son from 
Kandimandla family, and in the dispute between these 
two families for the Zemindari and the adoption, it was 
finally settled by the Government by arbitration, that the 
Zemindari should belong to the Damara Family. The 
last surviving male member of the Damara Family died 
' a bachelor leaving his mother and a married sister, and the 
Zemindari consequently reverted to his aged mother, 
Kanee Lakshmeenarasamma Kao, the grandmother of 
Rajah Parthasarathy Appa Rao Bahadur. On the death 
of the Ranee, Rajah Parthasarathy Appa Rao Bahadur, 
who is her daughter's son Dawhitra became the heir to 
the Zemindari according to Hindu Law of Inheritance, 
and has been in possession and enjoyment of the same. 

?Ri Kajah Naravya Appa Rao Bahadl-r, 
Sri Kajah V'knkatramavva Appa Kao Bahadur, 

II lui; I^ajau ok 1'alavanciia and Bhadrachala.m. 

The Rajah of Palavancha & Bhadeachalam. 79; 

The Rajah Sahib has married one of the daughters of 
the Rajah of Mylavaram, in the Krishna District and the 
result of the union is four sons and one daughter, of 
whom only two are now alive. The elder Sri Rajah 
Narayya Appa Rao Bahadur has married the second 
daughter of the Kumara Rajah of Pittapur, and the 
younger Rajah Venkatramayya Appa Rao Bahadur is a 

The Rajah Sahib has established a hospital at Burag- 
ammala Padu, his present head quarters, and has secured 
the services of a competent medical officer, and has also 
employed a vaccinator. The instruments are kept in very 
good order, and there is an ample supply of good 
medicines. He has established a Telugu and English 
school with a good staff of teachers. 

The police department is every thing that could be 
desired under the able supervision of a Mivnthazam, who 
is a retired officer of much experience having been in tha 
British police for a long time. 

The Rajah Sahib has secured the services of an 
armourer, who was once in the British service and has 
since retired, and whose work is to keep in good order the 
muskets belonging to the police, and those of the Rajah, 
Sahib, and also to manufacture such as will be necessary 
for both. 

He has sunk wells for the use of his ryots and has also 
made new roads. He lately introduced a sugarcane planta- 
tion in the Palavancha estate. He has also repaired a 
number of tanks and wells. 

Idle The Aristoceacy of Southern India. 

The Rajah Sahib personally disposes of the civil and 
criminal cases ; but when he goes on circuit, his assistants 
under his orders hear them. The laws in vogue are 
similar to those observed in British territories. 

Whenever the Eajah Sahib proceeds to Hyderabad, 
His Highness the Nizam's Government receive him with 
marked respect by furnishing him with a body guard, a 
state carriage, and an elephant with amari. 

The Rajah Sahib shortly expects from H. H. the 
Nizam Subadar powers which his ancestors had exercised 
and also the dharmaJcartha powers of the Sri Bhadra- 
chalam temple at Bhadrachalam. 

From what has been said of the Rajah Sahib it is 
patent that he is a member of one of the most ancient and 
well-known families of Southern India. He enjoys the 
highest titles conferred on his ancestors by the Moghul 
Emperor, and he is today honored and respected^iby His 
Highness the Nizam ; but it is to be regretted that the 
Government of India has not as yet conferred on him any 
distinction while others who are lower in the social scale 
have been honored in various ways. By his deeds 
the Rajah Sahib has proved himself very useful to his 
ryots and also to the public at large. This is the only 
Zemindar in Northern Circars who has civil and 
criminal powers, and whose claims to recognition seem 
to have been neglected. 

Those who know the Rajah Sahib personally, can 
bear testimony to the fact that he is simple, polite and 
generous. He is kind to all; he treats the rich and the 
poor alike. He is very religious but not bigoted. As we 
have said, he is a member of one of the most ancient 

The Rajah of Palavancha & Bhadrachalam. 191 

families of Southern India holding a permanent sunnud 
from H. H. the Nizam of Hyderabad, but he has not 
received one for the Bhadrachalam estate from the British 
Government, though other Zemindars hold permanent 
sunnuds in accordance with Regulation 25 of 1802. He is 
a great lover of justice, and since the time he took posses- 
sion of the estate, no one could reproach him with a single 
act of injustice. The high spirited nobleman has done 
much to ameliorate the condition of his ryots, and moving 
in the best of societies in Northern Circars and in Hydera- 
bad he has become the great ornament of his court, the 
prime mover of wise counsels, and the helper of all useful 




All those who have been watching the progress of 
events from one end of India to the other, can bear 
testimony to the fact, that there are some Zemindaries 
to-day in this part of the Presidency, which would seem 
to confirm the idea, that for any Zemindar who is imbued 
with honest and noble principles the path to success is an 
easy one ; and among such Zemindars a chronicler of the 
history of the Ganjam District is sure to give a prominent 
place to the Eajah of Kallikote and Atagada. His High- 
ness the Raj ah- Sahib Mehrban-i-dostan Sri Rajah Hari 
Hara Marda Rajah Deo Bahadur is known to the people 
of the District and those in the Presidency as a nobleman 
of cultivated mind, of high principles, of polished manners, 
happy in his family and attentive to the interests of his 

Kallikote is a Zemindari estate in the Ganjam District. 
It is\ituated between 19° 24' and 19° 48' N Lat., and 
between 85° 59' and 85° 14' E Long. The chief town is 
Kallikote. The estate has an area of 231 square miles 
"^ and contains 238 villages. The adjoining taluk of Atagada 
was added to the estate by purchase in 1854 by the 
former Zemindar. The area of the Atagada estate is 265 
squre miles. It contains 203 villages divided into 
three muttahs or sub-divisions. Kallikote lies on the 
northern boundary of the Madras Presidency, adjoining 
the Banpur country in Orissa. The soil is generally very 
fertile, and is well supplied with water. 

MvFlSlfSJxjTlS] fc!I\»7l5] fSfvM^ 
P nyi\f rg||Ci 1?i^-f r^llliT iytVf rg||ljT lVt\f rg 


iSri Hiiri Hara Marda Rajah Deo l^abadiir 
Kajah of Kallikote & Ata'^ada. 


Kallikote Fstate Press, Rambha. 

H. H. The Rajah of Kallikote & Atagada. 81 

The family to which the Eajah has the honor to belong 
is a very ancient one. In order to trace its origin we 
have to go back many centuries. The first member of 
the family of whoni anything is known is Maruva Hari 
Gopal. The date of his birth and particulars of his 
parentage are all buried in obscurity but it is said that he 
belonged to the family of the Eana of Marwar and that 
he was in the house of Mukund Prasad, the brother of 
the Eana. Hari Gopal received a very kind treatment 
at the hands of Mukund Prasad, and in course of time he 
became a favorite with all the members of the family. 
He was intimate with them and became fascinated 
with the beauty of the younger daughter of Mukund 
Prasad. He told the fact to a Brahmin friend of his, who 
advised him to banish the idea from his mind, as he should 
not marry a giii who belonged to another sect, but he added 
that he would be permitted to do so by secretly performing 
the penance, known as "Bisbavasu Gandarbhara Eaja- 
mantra?" and by giving 5000 gold coins to the officiating 
priest at Chittore. He accordingly performed the penance 
for 27 days and on the 28th day, tradition says, a big 
serpent emerged from the trunk of a huge banyan tree, 
swallowed him and threw him up again. He lost consci- 
ousness for sometime and when he had regained it, the 
serpent said that it was "tSankanath," that under the 
orders of the Siva Mahadeva it had given birth to him, 
that he was its son, that his gottram thereafter should 
be "Nageswara," and that he could marry the younger 
daughter of Mukund Prasad at Batteswara, near Puri, 
in the Dekhan. The serpent further added that the 
grandson of Hari Gopal would become the Eajah of 
Dekhan. Hari Gopal and the girl Eathna Mani arrived 
at Puii after a travel of 13 months and 2 days. Altet 


82 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

18 years, she gave birth to a son ; with him she went to 
the bank of the Chilka Lake, near the hill called Sammul, 
where the serpent referred to above appeared unto 
her. Hari Gopal, having experienced all the vicissitudes 
of life, was quite tired of them and therefore preferred 
to become an ascetic. He sold all the valuable jewels 
he had and with the proceeds he excavated tanks, 
sank wells, built choultries, and spent the remaining 
portion of his life in prayers and solitude. He died at 
the ripe old age of 92. The custom of sati was in 
existence then and Eathna Mani ascended the funeral pile 
of her husband. Gopal Ballabha, their son, went to 
Chittore to perform the funeral rites of his parents as a 
Brahmin could not be had at Puri to ofiiciate at the 
ceremony. He met the Brahmin friend of his father and 
informed him of everything about his parents. He saw 
his father's maternal uncle, who was pleased to give the 
young man his grand-daughter in marriage. The married 
couple with Damodar the son of the Brahmin Sriend of 
Hari Gopal and his family and a number of followers, 
came and settled down at Goppa Kudu, now an island on 
the Chilka Lake, where they established a temple dedica- 
ted to Siva, known as Gupteswara temple. Gopala Balla- 
bha had three sons and a daughter. After some years he 
went on a pilgrimage when he met Daduva Manasingh, a 
prominent man of his day, and formed his acquaintance, 
which soon ripened into friendship, and the result was that 
Gopal Ballabha gave away his daughter in marriage to the 
son of Daduva Manasingh. From Chittore he went on a 
pilgrimage to many places in Northern India, and thence 
went to Rayapuram in Central India, where he formed the 
acquaintance of the then Dewan of Hyderabad who had 
gone to that place. With the Dewan he went to Hyderabad 

H. H. The Rajah op Kallikote & Atagada. 83 

and paid his respects to the Nizam, who was pleased to 
give him a sunmid for lands extending to a distance of 
400 miles. From Hyderabad he went to Goppa Kudu, 
where he heard that two of his sons had died. He related 
all his adventures to the third son Maruva Kali Prasada 
Eana and died soon afterwards. 

Maruva Kali Prasada Eana constituted himself the 
lord of lands extending through 400 miles as far as the 
Rushi Kallya river and the Bay of Bengal in the south, 
and Orissa in the east. Of the 400 miles, 108 miles were 
forests and 292 miles, arable lands. He became Rajah 
of half the land and appointed minor Rajahs under him 
for the rest. The peishcush payable by him to the Nizam, 
was Rs. 1,400 annually. From the subordinate Rajahs, 
he received Rs. 48,000 and the income from the estate 
under his control was 32,000 Rs. He maintained 32 
elephants, 150 horses, and 15,0U0 pikes (sepoys). It was 
customary in those days to build forts in rocks for perfect 
safety, and accordingly he built a fort and lived in it. 
Shortly afterwards his first son died, and his second son 
went away on pilgrimage without any body's knowledge 
and after travelling to many places, he went to Oudh, where 
he saw his brother-in-law, Ramakumar, and married two of 
his nieces. Maruva Kalli Prasada Rana, who went in 
search of his son, met him at Benares, while returning 
with his two wives. They all repaired to their native 
place. Maruva Kalli Prasada Rana installed his son Kuber 
Singh as the future ruler and spent the remaining 
portion of his life in retirement. He left Goppakuda, 
stopped in Ki-ishnagiri, six miles from Kallikote, and 
built many temples such as Dadheshwar and Ramachandi. 
Most unfortunately for him, on a certain day, a cobra 

84 The Aristocbacy of Southern India. 

was found within the idol of Eamachandi in the temple. 
He tried to remove it and in th*^ attempt lost his life, as 
the cobra bit him. 

Kubera Mitra had 9 sons, the eldest of them being 
Durga Prasan. In the battle between the Kings of Bastar 
and Jaipur, Durga Prasan who went to fight under the 
orders of the Nizam, distingiushed himself so well that 
the Nizam conferred on him honors, and load'ed him with 
wealth. While returning, he brought with him some girls 
of the Chohanu community who were very fomous for their 
beauty and married two of them. One of them poisoned 
herself and died, while the other died in child-bed. Making 
his eldest son his successor, he left the place and stopped 
at Sardhapur a village near Kallikote, where he performed 
a grand ^a^a??^. When this ceremony was being performed, 
there arose a dispute between two of the Brahmins that 
were present, when the Eajah ordered their immediate 
removal. In the duel that ensued they killed each other, 
and the Eajah considering this a bad omen, built two 
temples in memory of those two Brahmins. 

Bholabhadra Eana, the next in succession, went to 
Oudh, married the eldest daughter of his maternal uncle 
Harischandra Singh and settled down at Kespur, where 
he erected a fort. He established 258 villages and ducr 
a canal known as Kharkari which is now the boundary 
line between Kallikote and Atagada. He performed a 
j Off am called "Choyana." He had two sons Narasinga 
Eana and Deva Ballabba Eana. The former was a great 
warrior and an accomplished athlete. In a competition 
between him and one of the warriors of Daduva Durga 
Mohan Singh, Eajah of Oudh, he came out victor. In 

H. H. The Kajah of Kallikote & Atagada. 85 

another competition with an elephant of the Rajah 
known (as "BuUml," he showed his prowess and daring 
))y dragging it backwards with its tail, and by pulling it 
forwards with its tusks. He became famous at Oudh 
and married the daughter of Eana Beer Singh the 
brother of the Rajah and stopped there for four years. 
He had two sons and Chandrasekara, the elder succeeded 
him. Sudham Chandra Singh and Balaram Sing, brothers 
of the Rajh of Pattali, went to Puri, where they saw - 
Chandrasekar, took him to their place, and arranged for 
his wedding with the three daughters of a member of 
their family. He had eight sons who went to the west 
for their marriages, when there were evil omens in the 
State, and the Rajah with a weakness of heart performed 
a jagcim called " Chine " for the well being of his sons. 
Before the completion of the ceremony two of the Rajah's 
wives died on one and the same night, while the other 
died a few days after, in child-bed. 

Nilambar Singh, the nexc in succession, went with 
his brothers to Maidinapur and married the two daughters 
of Jalam Singh, a man of great reputation, went to 
Benares on pilgrimage with his wives and died there. 
They also jumped into the Ganges and died after the 
custom known as " Sohayavanam." 

The next prominent member of the family was 
Sarbasewar Deva Rana. He left his native place, went to 
Puri, formed the acquaintance of the Rajah of that place 
called Rama Kesari, stopped there for some time, and then 
married the daughter of tlie Maharajah of Oudh, Daduva 
Amrita Singh Takur. There he performed a jagam called 
Sharada Braja I'eya and died three years after. Raghu- 

86 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

natha Deva Rana succeeded him. He married the two 
daughters of the Maharajah of Puri, and performed a 
jagam known as Agni Shtom. Visvambhara Deva Rana, 
who succeeded him, married the daughter of Rama Kesari, 
the Rajah of Puri, and also the daughter of Bagala Ameer 
Singh of Rewa. Then there was a quarrel between the 
Chohanu and the Rana families. Latchmi Narayana 
Bhunj of Boudh, Bisva Mohan Singh, Ranjit Singh, and 
Baneswar Singh of the Punjaub sided the Chohanu people, 
who were 4000 in number. The quarrel assumed in course 
of time gigantic proportions and lasted for four years and 
eight months, many falling victims on both sides. 
Lakshmi Narayana Bhunj while returning to his place, 
usurped 120 (coses) of land, now known as Gumsur, 
which is in the possession of the British Government, 
while Biswa Mohan, Ranjit, and Banneswar, who came 
from the Punjaub, took possession of Palur, Biruli and 
Ganjam respectively. At this stage, there was a dissen- 
sion between the Rajah of Puri and the Niz^lii of 
Hyderabad at Ganjam. In the battle between the two, 
the Rajah Biswambara who helped the Rajah of Puri lost 
his life. 

The next prominent member of the family was Rama- 
chandra Deo. He ruled over only 45 (coses) of land 
that were left out of the 400 coses his ancestors had held. 
TVith the object of regaining the lost lands, he collected 
pikes (sepoys), but died before his object was accomplished. 
Of the 11 others that succeeded him, there is nothing of 
importance to mention here. Ganga Pershad Rana, who 
was somewhat prominent, married the daughter of the 
Maharajah Sivanand Singh of Benares. He died from 
the effects of a thunderbolt that struck him, leaving behind 
him his two sons named Gendu and Kirthan. 

H. H. The Kajah of Kallikote & Atagada. 87 

The brothers who succeeded their father rendered 
themselves very popular by their amiability and noble 
nature, and after a time they paid a visit to the Nizam, 
with the sunnuds their predecessors had received from 
him. The Nizam gave them a warm reception and granted 
them lands which were one third of Kallikote, and which is 
now known as Chattramutta. They took arms against 
Machandri who was in possession of Paluru, defeated him 
in battle, and while about to kill his wife, she obtained 
from them a promise that they and their successors, 
would perform the ceremony known as Pithirni in com- 
memoration of their death. This is performed every year 
on the first Sunday of the month of Chaitra. They 
secured the Punkala Muttah which is one third of Kallikote, 
Birudi and Atagada, the neighbouring Zemindaries of 
Kallikote with a sunnud from the Nizam, Gendu died 
childless but Kirthan had sons. One of them went to 
Jalanthra, married the daughter of the Kajah of that place, 
and i^topped there. The other, Syam Sundara Deo, 
married the two daughters of Katur Bhibul Singh of 
Benares. After ruling the estates for a time, he went on a 
pilgrimage to Kameswaram and other places leaving his 
son Gangadhar as his successor. 

Gangadhar was very religious and therefore esta- 
blished 32 temples in his estates. He extended the canals 
called Kharkari and Kalajur. He performed a jagam at 
Kontapoda, where he established a Siva Linga dedicatee? 
to Siddeswar. He went against the Kajah of Puri and 
defeated him in battle. He was a learned man and he 
had a host of educated men under him for the manage- 
ment of his estate. He was succeeded by his son 
Vikrama Deo, who married the two daughters of Katoor 
Mahadeo Singh of Benares and also the three daughters 

88 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

of Dadma Avatat Ram fSing. Haricharan Rajah who 
succeeded him had a chequered career. He was once 
captured by the Rajah of Parla and kept in confinement 
for sometime. It was not long, before he married the 
granddaughter of the Rajah of Parla and got the title of 
Chotra Sahib. He went with his wife to Kallikote and 
spent the remaining portion of his life there. He was 
succeeded by Krishna Saran who performed ajagam called 
Saradhabaja Peya. He was ill for a long time, and think- 
ing a change would restore his health, he went to Cuttack, 
where he died. Balakeswara Deo who succeeded him 
went with the Rajah of Puri to Cuttack and there they 
married the daughters of Sri Rama Singh, a member of 
the Chohanu community. It was on this occasion 
that the Rajah of Puri conferred on Bala Keswara Deo, 
the title of Mar da Baja as a hereditary distinction. The 
latter discovered the waterfall, known as Nirmala Jhar, 
where he also built some temples. He dug a big tank 
Marda Sagar, founded a village and gave it away as a 
gift to poor Brahmins, and also built a fort called 
"Mardakote." Jagannadha Marda Raja Deo, who 
succeeded him, lived to a great age, and had the pleasure 
of seeing his great grandson. 

The next prominent member of the family was Madan 
Gopal Marda Raja Deo. He had many brothers, and 
*^ there was a quarrel among them, with the result that 
some of them were killed, and a few left the place. One 
of them Nalinakya Marda Raja Deo succeeded him. 
He founded many villages in his name, and made consi- 
derable improvement in the estate. 

The people of Ganjam, in a body, at this time, rose 
against the British Government, when it would appear that 

H. H. The Eajah of Kallikote & Atagada. 89 

the authorities suspecting the Rajahs to have had a hand 
in it, curtailed their powers, and ranked them among 

Jagannadha Marda Eaja Deo, who came next was of 
a religious turn of mind. He spent the major portion of 
his time at Puri, where he died. Bala Keswara Singh 
Marda Eaja Deo who married the daughter of the Eajah of 
Surangi, made manj^ additions to the estate. His suc- 
cessor, Narayana Marda Eaja Deo, married the first 
daughter of the Eaja of Boudh. 

Sri Eaja Sahib Mehrban-i-dostan Narayana Marda 
Eaja Deo, the father of the present Eajah, was the next 
prominent member of the family ; he had a brother and a 
sister; the latter was married to Bhraja Eajah Singh, the 
Eajah of Dharakota. Sri Narayana Marda Eaja Deo was 
highly accomplished in Sanskrit and Oriya, and in matters 
military, was an expert. He married the daughter of 
the Ea^ali of Boudh. As he was childless by this wife, he 
married another, the daughter of the Bardana Samanth 
of Eamapur, a member of the Eouth family in Orissa. 
His third wife was the daughter of Biswanath Singh 
of Tekkali, a member of the Chohanu community. The 
second wife had three sons and four daughters, the eldest 
of them being the present Eajah. The other two sons 
died and the first of the daughters has married Eaja 
Eaghunath Singh of Bali Atagada in Orissa. The * 
second is still unmarried, whilst the third has married 
the present Eajah of Dharakote in the Ganjam District. 
By the first wife, Sri Narayana Marda Eaja Deo has a 
daughter, who is the wife of the Eajah of Surangi in 
the Ganjam District. The building of the temple of 
Jaganatha,in Kallikote, which was begun seven ge«eratious 

90 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

ago, was finished in liis time at a cost of over a lakh of 
Eupees. He built, at a cost of more than 10,000 Rupees a 
temple at Kallikote, dedicating it to Balinkeswari. He 
excavated a tank known as Babucha Bandho spending on 
it 5,000 Rupees. At a cost of about Rs. 25,000, he con- 
structed kitchens attached to the Bhubanes war temple — one 
of the famous temples in India near Puri. He pur- 
chased a shamiana for Rs. 12,000 and gave it away as a 
present to the temple in Jagannath. In order that the 
revenue of a village might be used to meet the expenses 
of the feeding of the Vaishnavas of Puri, he purchased 
the village and gave it away as a gift. He established a 
Sanskrit school for the diffusion of vedic lore. He was 
a great admirer of ayurvedic medicines, and he encour- 
aged the use of them by securing the services of competent 
physicians who looked to the medical wants of the people 
of Kallikote and also those of the smTounding villages. He 
had under him ten Pundits well versed in Sanskrit. He 
established two villages in his name and gave thei^n away 
as gift to poor Brahmins. They are known as " Narayana 
Puri ; " one is in Kallikote and the other, in Atagada. 
The former is valued at Rs. 20,000, and the latter at 7,000. 
He once fed 7,000 poor people at Godavari, and gave a 
giftof a Rupee each ; on another occasion he fed 4,000 people 
at Puri with a gift of Rupee each ; once again he fed 
4,000 people at Prayagh and gave each of them a Rupee* 
*-B.e i^erJioi-med the A gnishtom jagani o^t Kallikote, spend- 
ing a lakli of Rupees. The then Zemindar of Atagada 
failed to pay the peishcush due to Government, and the 
estate was put to public auction when the Rajah bought 
it. He built a palace at Kallikote conformably to modern 
taste and fashion with the necessary appliances and 
furniture as became a Rajah. He was universally known 

H. H. The Kajah op Kallikote & Atagada. 91 

and respected for his unflagging energy, zeal and charity. 
He celebrated the marriages of many people at his own 
cost, and also the upanayanam (thread-wearing ceremony) 
of many poor Brahmin boys. He had on several occasions 
met the expenses of many poor people who went on 
pilgrimage. On the occasion of the thread-wearing cere- 
mony of the present Eajah, his father gave away a village 
as gift to his family priest. 

The following letter that was addressed to him by no 
less a personage than Lord Napier, the then Governor of 
Madras, speaks for itself, about the Eajah's generosity : — 

Chatterpoee, Jiihj 21st, 1866. 

" Str, My Friend, 

On my arrival in this District, I was much gratified 
to learn from Mr. Forbes that you had taken a most 
liberal part in relieving the wants of the people in yom' 
estate Rs well as those who repaired to your residence 
from the adjoining country. This conduct was most 
worthy of a person of your high position and descent 
and inspires the Government with a particular esteem for 
your character. It is a matter of regret to me that your 
subsequent illness and the misfortunes which have 
occurred in your family have rendered it necessary for 
Government to suspend the measures of relief which you 
had undertaken. I trust that this period has now passed,* 
and that you will feel yourself justified in co-operating 
with Government in providing means for the support of 
the people. Should this be the case it will give me great 
pleasure to assist you in any way which you may point 
out to the Collector of the District. If the stores of rice 
in your possession are exhausted by the numberj of 

92 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

persons whom you have fed, Government would supply 
with rice at the cost price at Madras and take upon 
themselves the charge of transport, or Government would 
be prepared to exhaust directly a certain share of the 
expenditure which you may make on the distribution of 
food. It is very desirable that relief should be afforded at 
Kallikote or in its immediate vicinity, in order that 
the people may not crowd to other places where it is 
difticult to supply the wants of so great a number. 

I hope before leaving this country to visit Kallikote 
and to thank you personally for your charitable exertions. 

I remain. Sir, 
Yoar sincere friend and well-wisher, 

(Signed) NAPIEE, 
Governor of Madras. 

The Eajah, after a brief illness, died at Kallikot§, when 
he was only 53 years old, leaving behind him three sons 
o,nd a daughter. 

Sri Eaja Hari Hara Marda Eaja Deo Bahadur, was 
born at Kallikote, on the 10th July 1872. There was good 
deal of jubilation all over the estate on hearing the news 
of the birth of the prince. Many poor were fed in honor 
of the event, and monev was also distributed amons 
"them. He was first taught Sanskrit by an experi- 
enced pundit of rare attainments. After sometime he was 
taught English at Kallikote. He did not make much 
progress, as the death of his father interfered much with 
his study. The Court of Wards took charge of the 
the management of the estate and sent the young Eajah 
to Parlakimedi for education. He remained there for a 

H. H. The Eajah of Kallikote & Atagada. 93 

short time and then went to Madras, where he was placed 
under the care and tuition of Mr. E. AV. Potts, a well- 
known educationist of his day, who devoted much 
attention to give the young pupil such instruction in 
political economy and other kindred subjects as was 
calculated to enable him to manage his estate well. 
His intelligence and understanding were seen and admired 
by those who came in contact with him; his love of 
pleasure had not so much ascendancy^ over him as in the 
case of many other princes of his position. His friends, 
his teachers, and those who knew him most intimately 
were thoroughly sensible of the extent of his mental 
faculties, and when his education came to a close, he was 
considered as one who had the best chance of gaining 
a distinguished position among the princes of Southern 
India. At the completion of his 21st year, in 1883, he 
took charge of the management of his estate from tha 

Court of Wards, and made his brother Yuvaraj. 
The Eajah Sahib married in 1891, the first daughter 

of Babu Brindabhan Chandra Bhunja Deo, Chotra 

Sahib of Mourbhunj, the paternal uncle of the present 

Maharajah of Mourbhunj, a Native State in the Balasore 

District, Orissa. The Eani was suddenly taken ill, when 

the best of medical aid was obtained but in vain. She 

died after being confined to her bed only for a short time* 

The Eajah married his deceased wife's sister in 1895, » 

when under the directions of H. E. the Governor of 

Madras, the Private Secretary, Mr. MacUartie wrote 

thus : — 

2Sth May, 1895. 

My Dear Sir, 

I am much obliged for your letter dated 17th instant. 
I am now to convev H. E. the Governor's congratulations 

94 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

on the successful performance of your marriage cere- 

Wishing you a long and prosperous life. 

I remain, 

Yours sincerely, 
(Signed) C. F. MacCAETIE. 

It was the Eajah Sahib that purchased the Eambha 
Estate from Mr. F. J. B. Minchin some years ago. As 
the major portion of the Chilka Lake which is attached 
to that estate belongs to the Eajah Sahib we give an 
ficcount of it from W. W. Hunter's Orissa : — 

"A native tradition relates how, about the year of 
Our Lord 318, a strange race (the Yavanas) came sailing 
accross the sea, and cast anchor off the holy city of Puri, 
hoping to capture the temple, with its store of jewels, and 
treasure-house of costly oblations. But the priests^ having 
for days beforehand seen quantities of litter from the 
horses and elephants drifting ashore, fled with the precious 
image and left an empty city to the invaders. The dis- 
appointed General Eed-arm (Eakhta-Bahu) by name, 
enraged at the tell-tale tide, advanced in battle array to 
punish the ocean. The sea receded deceitfully for a 
couple of miles, and then suddenly surging in upon the 
presumptons foreigners, swallowed them up. At the same 
time it flooded a great part of the Puri District, and 
formed the Chilka Lake. 

We take the following from " Wild-life in Canara" by 
Forbes : — i 

" The Chilka Lake extends from Pooree to the neigh- 
bourhood of the town of Ganjam, a distance of nearly fifty 

H. H. The Kajah of Kallikote & AtactAda. 95 

miles, with an average width of ten miles. It is separated 
from the sea by a narrow sandy plain, but is bordered on 
its inland side by a varied and beautiful margin of hill 
and woodland. The lake is fed by a branch of the 
Mahanuddi (which joins the sea near Pooree), and during 
the rains its surplus waters cut their way to the sea at 
the narrowest point of the intervening plain, by a channel 
which remains open to the tide for the greater part of the 

" Thus the Chilka is neither wholly salt nor wholly 
fresh ; but it is full of fish, produces immense quantities 
of prawns, and ia in consequence the resort of great 
numbers of wild fowl. Pelicans and cormorants of 
different sorts fish its waters, and waders of all sizes and 
species feed along its shores. The osprey and the fish- 
hawk are always to be seen there, and vast flocks of wild 
duck and teal of many varieties make it their favourite 

" Among the rocks at the base of the hills which here 
and there descend into the lake, colonists of others find a 
congenial home, and where there is space for a margin of 
green turf, the peafowl steals out from among the over- 
hanging bamboo clumps, morning and evening, to pick 
up small marine insects. 

" Several islands are scattered about the lake, some flat 
and rush-grown, where water-rail and teal, and some * 
other species breed, and where collectors of eggs may find 
specimens not often procurable. But the most remark, 
able of the group is Bird Island, a high pile of boulders at 
the southern end of the lake, and distant about two miles 
from the shore. It is greatly favoured by birds of many 
sorts as a breeding-place. 

9(j The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

"A quarter of a mile from the western shore of the 
Chilka is Deer Island, a low sandy islet, almost covered 
with thicket, except along its shores, where the rise and 
fall of tidal water only permits the growth of a wide 
margin of saline tm-f. There are glades here and there 
among the underwood and yew trees. The whole of the 
little island is less than a mile. This is the chosen haunt 
of a small herd of spotted deer which seems to cross at 
pleasure from the mainland, some of them being almost 
always to be found on " Deer Island." 

" The sandy plain which separates the Chilka Lake 
from the sea is not more than two miles wide, and it 
becomes gradually narrower towards the spot where the 
lake is open to the sea. Considerable herds of antelope 
graze over this plain, which is in parts thinly clothed with 
grass, and they may be stalked and coursed there." 

The Eajah Sahib is not unknown to the present 
Viceroy and also to the present and some of the former 
Governors of Madras. They have all visited the Chilka 
Lake, enjoyed its beautiful scenery and have spoken 
in praiseworthy terms of the able management of the 
estates of the Eajah Sahib. Sir Arthur Havelock wrote 
thus, under date, 1st April 1898 : — 

"My Dear Eajah, 

I beg your acceptance of the photographs of myself 

which I am sending you. I take the opportunity of 

" thanking you once more for your kindness and hospitality 

at Eambha. I retain a pleasant recollection of my visit." 

With expressions of regard, 
I remain. 
Your sincere Friend, 
(Signed) A. E. HAVELOCK. 

H. H. The Rajah of Kallikote (fe Atagada. 97 

The present Eani is an accomplished lady in Uriya. 
She has published a book entitled " Balikapato," which is 
a very interesting reading. The whole of the Ramayana 
and the Mahabarata is epitomised in it in dialogue 
form, showing the acute intelligence of the authoress. 
Besides the Ramayana and the Mahabarata there are also 
many other points of interest in the book, copies of which 
are given away gratis. She gave birth to a son in 1898, 
who died a child of 8 months, when H. E. the Governor 
of Madras wrote to the Rajah Sahib in the following 
terms : — 

Uth April 1898. 
" My Dear Rajah, 

It is with sincere sorrow that I have heard of the 

terrible loss you have sustained in the death of your 

little son. I hesitate to intrude upon your great grief, but 

I should like you to know that I sympathize with you 

warmly in your sad bereavement. 

With sentiments of regard, 

I remain, 

Your sincere friend, 

(Signed) A. E. HAVELOCK." 

The Raui Sahiba was safely deliverd of a son 
in 1899. The prince, pet-named Eric, is in the best of 
health and spirits, and is placed entirely under the 
care of a European governess. He lisps English much 
better than his own language. He has a bright and 
intelligent look about him. Mrs. F. H[arvey Dunn, the 
governess in charge of the prince, is, though a young lady 
of great medical experience. She was for about five 
years a certificated sick nurse and diplomaed midwife 
in the Government Lying-in-Hospital, and latterly Head 


98 • The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

Nurse, General Hospital, Madras. She has been for the 
last three years a professional nurse under the Eajah 
Sahib, and mainly in charge of the prince. The arrange- 
ment of the furniture in the drawing room at Eambha 
Palace together with all its decorations has been due to 
her skill and taste. 

The following is a copy of the sunnud conferring the 
personal distinction of Bajah on Sri Hari Hara Marda 
Baja Deo Garu by His Excellency Lord Elgin : — 


Sahib Mehrban-i-dostan Sri Hari Hara Marda Kaja 
Deo Garu, Zemindar of Kallikote and Atagada in 
the District of Ganjam in the Madras Presidency. 

I hereby confer upon you the title of Baja as a 
personal distinction. 

(Signed) ELGIN, 
Simla, Viceroy d Governor-General 

The list May , 1898 . of India. ' ' 

The Eajah Sahib is the only prince in the whole of 
the Ganjam District who is quite in touch with the 
spirit of the times. His mansions, one at Kallikote and 
the other at Eambha — the most remarkable edifices in the 
whole of Northern Circars — are completely fitted up with 
modern appliances. Every possible means has been 
, adopted to establish a veritable air of palatial magnificence. 
Elaborately carved and brilliantly polished tables, chairs, 
sofas and various other kinds of furniture supported on 
guilded frames of exquisite workmanship are placed in 
the halls and in the rooms. The sleeping apartments 
are furnished with a degree of splendour and elegance 
corresponding 'to the magnificence of the sitting rooms. 
Standing on the upper storey of the mansion at Eambha, 



I i^- 


Mr. A. C. Tatam. 

KiUlikotj Kstatc riess, lloJ-ulj^t, 

H. H. The Rajah of Kallikote & Atagada. 99 

one could command a beautiful view of the Chilka Lake, 
which is 48 miles in length and of a greater portion of 
the surrounding scenery as well. A number of islands 
stud the area of waters, and on one of them stands the 
halting bungalow of the Rajah. The whole of the mansion 
is provided with gas and electric lights. There is a separate 
apartment in it for the generation of gas as well as electri- 
city in charge of an electrician who is specially appointed 
for the purpose. For the quick despatch of business there 
is a telephonic communication from one portion of the 
building to another, and there is also a connection from 
the mansion in Rambha to that in Kallikote, to enable the 
Rajah Sahib, to pass immediate orders, and also to receive 
first hand information concerning everything. The 
mansion in Rambha has got water communication with 
a basin of water in the compound, and pipes have been 
laid with connections to almost all the apartments in the 

The three estates are managed by the Rajah Sahib 
personally, aided by competent assistants. This is the 
only Rajah at present in Northern Circars who has got a 
European gentleman as Private Secretary. Mr. Ram 
Hari Sampat Naick, a member of a highly respectable 
family, is at the head of the Revenue Department, and 
Mr. Bholobodro Maha Patro is the Personal Assistant. 
The latter talks and writes English remarkably well. ; 
As both the gentlemen are scrupulously honest the Rajah 
Sahib has placed implicit confidence in them. Mr. 
Arthur Cecil Tatam, the Private Secretary, also contributes 
much to the management of the estate and we must say 
a few words about him : — 

He was born in Woolwich in 1872. His father served 

100 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

for a number of years in the Horse Artillery, rising to the 
rank of Captain, got his services transferred to the 
Eemount Department, and stayed for a long time in India. 
He went to England on sick leave, where he died some 
years ago, leaving behind him three sons and three daugh- 
ters. Mr. Arthur Cecil Tatam is second of them. Mr. 
Edwin Charles Tatam, the eldest of the sons of Captain 
Tatam, is in England as a private medical practitioner. 
Captain AV. J. Tatam, the third son, is now in Bangalore, 
attached to the Veterinary Department. He served for 
two years in South Africa. He passed through the ordeal 
of the siege of Ladysmith, and was unfortunately one of 
those that were captured by the opposite side. Mr. A. 
C. Tatam received his early education in Bedford Modern 
School, one of the most prominent public schools in 
England. He then joined the United Services College, 
Westward Ho, and was there a student for a number of 
years. He was a great athlete, and was the Captain of 
the College Cricket Club. He took part in almost all the 
prominent games and matches, and acquired the name of 
a champion cricketer of his days. After leaving College, 
he joined the school of Mr. Windle Taylor of Brampton, 
Huntingdonshire, and was a tutor for four years. Mr. 
H. T. Taylor, Collector of the Ganj am District, went to 
England on leave three years ago, when Mr. Tatam 
formed his acquaintance. On his returning to India, 
Mr. Taylor got Mr. Tatam as Private Secretay to the 
Eajah Sahib. He has been as such for the last two years. 
He carries on the private correspondence of the Eajah 
Sahib, arranges for entertainments to European guests, 
and looks after the stables. He married the daughter of 
Mr. Eichards, retired paymaster of the navy, in July 
1901. He is a good huntsman and an intrepid rider. He 

H. H. The Eajah of Kallikote & Atagada. 101 

is a member of the managing committee of the KalUkote 
College, and a member of the Taluq Board of Ganjam. 

The Second Grade College at Berhampore, now 
known as "Kallikote College" was first established by 
Government, but some years ago they were going to abolish 
it ; then some of the Zemindars in the District undertook 
its management. After a few years it was about to collapse 
for want of proper support when the Rajah Sahib came 
forward with a liberal donation of a lakh of Eupees, and 
the institution now stands on a permanent footing. 

Till 1897 one of the great wants of the townsmen of 

Berhampore was a town hall. The Rajah Sahib, who 

perceived the want, with a generosity becoming a prince, 

built at his cost a spacious building for the use of the 

public of Berhampore, and called it " The Diamond 

Jubilee Hall," in honor of that most auspicious event — the 

Diamond Jubilee of Her late Majesty Queen Victoria. 

The Rajah Sahib has established a free dispensary at 
Kallikote, the head-quarters of one of his estates, and this 
has been very useful to the people living there and also 
to those in the surrounding villages. There is a com- 
petent medical officer in charge of the hospital. 

The Rajah Sahib has a press of his own called the 
"Estate Press." Two newspapers in Oriya are printed* 
there ; one of them is called Fraja Bhandu, and the other 
Yutkala Maduko. The former is a weekly paper and the 
latter, a monthly journal which is printed free of charge 
to the editor with a view to popularise journaHsm and 
enlighten the Oriya speaking community. Dliarma Sastar 
is printed and sold at the press at a very cheap rate. 

102 The Aristocracy of Southern India, 

Besides a Sanskrit school, there is also an English 
school teaching up to the Lower Secondary standard at 
Kallikote. There are competent teachers attached to both 
the institutions. 

Ten poor Brahmins are fed free every day at Kalli- 
kote, and thirty poor of other castes are given rations. 
Byragies who pass Kallikote on pilgrimage are also 
supplied rations. 

The estates are all surrounded by hills, and the forests 
on them are all systematically and well managed. There 
are several mines of graphite and manganese. Mr. T. 
Chaudry, d. d. r., geologist, has been prospecting, and 
has already discovered some mines of manganese. Every 
effort is being made to make these mines successful. 

There are several places of interest in these estates 
with grand shrines hoary with age and with views of sur- 
passing beauty. In one of them there is a tank with the 
idol of Siva in it, whence springs out a fountain of < water. 

The Eajah Sahib has travelled through India and 
Upper Burmah. He went twice to Ceylon. He spent his 
time most usefully in his travels in studying the charac- 
teristics of the people. 

The revenue from the Kallikote and Atagada estates 
before the Rajah Sahib took charge of them, was only 
tRs. 330,000, but now there has been a rapid rise to about 
Rs. 520,000. The peishcush he has to pay is about 
110,000 Rupees. It is to be said to the credit of the Rajah 
Sahib that he goes out touring to the villages belonging 
to his estates, hears the complaints of his ryots, redresses 
their grievances whenever and wherever necessary, and 
affords them every facility to pay their rent. 


H. H. The Bajah of Kallikote & Atagada. 103 

One thing that has brought a great deal of honor, the 
thing which more than any other raises him in the estima- 
tion of the paramount power is that in his estate men of 
malpractices, loose behaviour, corruption and bribery have 
been rooted out, as the Rajah Sahib himself takes a keen 
interest in all departments of business. By all who have 
had any dealings with him, his character is readily seen 
and admired, and they have expressed it as their opinion, 
that it is impossible to overlook his indomitable energy, 
clear intellect, sound judgment, and sterling integrity, 
as well as that earnestness of purpose which is indispens- 
able to greatness. 

As regards irrigation works, the Rajah Sahib is in no 
way backward ; many tanks have been restored completely, 
and many new ones have been formed. He has spared 
neither pains nor money in constructing new irrigation 
works wherever practicable. 

The Rajah Sahib is an excellent horseman ; he can 
remain a number of hours on the saddle without showing 
any signs of fatigue. His love for horses amounts to a 
passion, and he maintains a good stud for his personal use. 
He has carriages of almost all descriptions of up-to-date 
model of English make. 

Most of the leisure hours of the Rajah Sahib are 
spent in intellectual improvement ; he has gained a wide » 
acquaintance with general literature and has become 
acquainted with such topics as go to form a well-trained 
mind. By preference he gives his attention to political, 
constitutional, industrial, and social historj^ and has 
acquired all the knowledge that the books at his command 
could give regarding the present condition of the leading 
nations of the world. Besides all this, the Rajah Sahib 

104 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

is deeply imbued with noble principles ; he has always 
been a firm friend of popular freedom, and has earned an 
honorable reputation as the patron of those movements 
that are calculated to do good to the public at large and 
as the helper of the suffering and the deserving. To be 
one of the chosen men of the people and most respected 
encouragers of young India, and the generous host and 
princely entertainer of viceroys and governors indicates 
a nature of wonderful breadth of mind and nobility of 

As an illustration of the broad nature of the Kajah 
Sahib's sympathy, it may be interesting to note that in 
addition to the numerous educational institutions, to which 
he has given his support, he has more or less actively 
identified himself with many charitable institutions. 
Every lineament of his face appears to bespeak generosity 
of heart, rectitude of principle, and innocence of soul. 
He is not influenced by the narrow and jaundiced ^iews of 
superstition and bigotry. The advantages of education 
and high principles have rendered him the friend of his 
district, the pride of his race and the glory of his age. 
It is a great pity that a prince of such brilliant 
qualifications, one who has proved himself by his deeds 
and advanced ideas that he is above the average run of the 
princes of Southern India, has not yet received any due 
recognition of his merits. If the Government of India be 
pleased to confer the title of ' Maharajah ' and the honor 
of a knighthood on him, such a distinction will be but a 
just reward for the eminent services he has rendered both 
to his subjects and to the public at large. 


Sri laijah Y. Veerabliaclra l\ajii Bahadur 
Garu in uuiforui. 

KHllikytcKstatc i'ress, Kaaibliii- 



Endowed with those splendid talents and energy 
that characterize the representatives of aristocracy, the 
Zemindar of Kurupam, Sri Kajah V. Veerabhadra Eaju 
Bahadur Garu, possesses all the private and domestic 
virtues, and from the careful training he received when 
young, and from the ability and skill he has already 
displayed in the conduct of business, merits a prominent 
place m the modern history of Southern India. 

The Kurupam Zemindari is situated in the north- 
eastern part of the Vizagapatam district, and lies partly 
in the jurisdiction of the Deputy Tahsildar of Parvatipur, 
and partly in that of the Gunupur Deputy Tahsildar, in 
the division of the Senior Assistant Collector of Parvati- 
pur. Its area is nearly 700 square miles, of which 
about 450 square miles are agency tracts, and 250 
square miles are plains. The total number of villages in 
the Kurupam Zemindari (including the lately purchased 
estate of Chemudu) is 271, of which about 200 are agency 
villages, while the rest are situated in the plains. 

The area of the forests belonging to the estate is not * 

less than 400 square miles. The country, being situated 

partly in the agency tracts and partly in the plains, 

presents a beautiful variety of hills and dales interspersed 

with extensive plains and cultivated lands. The forests 

of the estate contain excellent timber, and abundant game 

of all kinds. 


106 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

The total revenue of the estate from all sources is 
over a lakh of rupees annually, and the revenue of the 
agency villages is capable of great development, v^hile 
if some irrigation projects which are now under contempla- 
tion, are carried out, the revenue of the villages 
situated in the plains promises to rise considerably. The 
Peishcush payable to the Government by the Kurupam 
Zemindari, including the estate of Chemudu, is Es. 
18,987-14 annas, while the land cess is Es. 5,173-9-4. 

About the origin of the Kurupam Zemindari, Mr. 
Carmichael's Vizagapatam District Manual says as 
follows : — 

" The Kurupam Zemindari (with the exception of 
the Gumma Hunda which was added by the favour of 
Gopinath Deo of Parlakimidi about the middle of the 18th 
century) was granted to Sanyasi Eaju, afterwards honored 
with the title of Vairicherla which has the same meaning 
as Satrucherla, by Visvambhara Deo of Jeypore;" while 
the Eeport of the Committee of Circuit in Vizagapatam, 
and Chicacole Districts, dated 12th September, 1784, 
says as follows : — 

" Kurupam, the most northern part of the Vijaya- 
nagaram Zemindari was formerly dependent on the 
Nandapuram (Jeypore) Eajah, and held by the family of 
Dimalash, paying a tribute of seven thousand rupees, 
besides having 2,000 men in readiness for the superior 
Eajah's service. It remained in the same family till 1773, 
when Seetharamaraju (of Vijayanagaram), being at an 
entertainment there, took it by surprise, secured all its 
wealth and made the Eajah and his relations prisoners. 

S. R. V. Veerabhadra Raju Bahadur Garu. 107 

' ' The inhabitants resenting this breach of hospitahty 
were continually in arms, and besides destroying the crops 
put him to great expense in supporting troops, and in 
presents to appease their principal leaders. On using his 
influence, Vijayaramaraju restored the country to Siva 
Ramaraju, the dispossessed Rajah, who was to pay him 
Rs. 40,000." 

Of the political status of the Zemindars in the 
Northern Circars in general. Dr. MaClean's Presidency 
Administration Manual says: "The Rajahs in the 
Northern Ch'cars were at first treated as Feudatories^ and 
paid tribute, being expected in return to keep the hill tribes 
in order. In 1802, however, a permanent settlement was 
introduced and the chiefs became Zemindars, retaining 
the management of the land revenue of their estates, but 
being themselves handed over to the judicial power. In 
Vizagapatam, there are 14 Zemindaries, all of ancient 
lineage, &c. 

" Of these 14 ancient Zemindaries in the Vizagapatam 
District, Bobbili, Yijayanagaram, and one or two extinct 
Zemindaries, are situated in the plains while the rest are 
Hill Zemindaries the largest and the most important of 
which is Jeypore and next in rank, extent and importance 
are Kurupam, Madogole, and one or two more." 

Of the origin and political status of the Hill Zemin- 
daries, Mr. Beaufoy, in his report on the Northern Circars 
in 1792, writes as follows : — 

"The Zemindars who inhabit the several districts 
that constitute the Northern Circars may be considered as 
composed of two different classes. 

1C8 The Aristcceacy of Southern India. 

" (1) Those who reside in the hills on the Western 
frontier, (2) those whose principal possessions are in the 
plains, between the highlands and the sea. 

" The former, the Hill Zemindars, secure in the woody 
and unwholesome heights they inhabit, and encouraged 
by the hope of an eventual asylum in the dominions of the 
Nizam or the Rajah of Berar, are rather tributary 
Princes than Subjects, and often furnish examples of 
successful depredation or unfinished revolt. 

"Surrounded like the chieftains of the Feudal times by 
Military tenants, whose lands are held on under stipulations 
of personal service (Kurupam Zemindari contains 17 vil- 
lages of this class), and whose ardour is often increased by 
the bond of family attachment and the strong enthusiasm 
of clanship, they are always prepared for the excursions of 
predatory war. 

" Of humbler lineage than the chieftains of the hills, 
the greatest of the lowland Zemindars are descended 
from those officers and revenue agents of the Sovereigns of 
Orissa, who were employed by the Mussulman conquerors 
in the management of their new acquisitions, and in the 
collection of taxes they imposed. Hence thej'^ are con- 
sidered by the inhabitants of the hills as traitors to their 
ancient lords, and usurpers of their rights. 

"Of such Hill Zemindaries situated in the Vizaga- 
patam District, Jej^pore, as stated above, is the first, and 
next comes Kurupam." 

The family records go to prove, and it is also 
traditionally believed that the Kurupam Zemindari was 
obtained by one Vairicherla Agniveerudu in recognition of 
his valour and military service rendered to some chief. The 


S. R. V. Veeeabiiadra Raju Bahadur Garu. 109 

name Agniveerudu is very signiticant, meaning " fiery 
valom\" Vairiciierla has become a surname and is adopted 
by his descendants. Nothing is known of about five or 
six generations subsequent to Agniveerudu, and the name 
on record after him is Vairicherla Pedda Sanyasiraju. 
From historical accounts, we understand that Sivarama 
Raju, the son of Pedda Sanyasi Raju, was the contemporary 
of Seetharam Raju of Vizianagram, and we can therefore 
safely say that the origin of the Zemindari was about the 
middle of the 15th century. 

The next in line of succession after Vairicherla Pedda 
Sanyasiraju was his son Vairicherla Sivarama Raju, who 
succeeded to the estate with good credentials as he was 
Dewan to his father. We take the following about 
Sivarama Raju from Mr. Carmichael's Vizagapatam 
District Manual : — 

" Sivarama Raju of Kurapam joined heartily in the 
rebellio:i against the Pusapaties, which broke out about 
the period of the establishment of the first chief in council, 
and when the Company's troops under Captain Mathews 
advanced into Jeypore in the year 1774, he attacked the 
rearguard and cut off their supplies. On their return 
from Jeypore, the Pusapaties led Captain Mathews to 
Kurapam and arrested Siva Rama Raju with all his family. 
The Zemindari was restored to the old family by the 
Collector of the Northern Division in 1706, and the 
pe manent settlement of 1802 was made with Sivarama 
Raju's son Chinna Sanyasiraju." 

Chinna Sanyasiraju was the first to rule the estate 
under the Permanent Revenue Settlement for a period of 
28 years, from 1802 to 1830. He instituted many salutary 
reforms, established agraharams, and dug tanks. As he 


110 The Aristocracy op Southern India. 

was without a heir he adopted Sitharama Raju, a son of his 
cousin, duly intimating the fact to the authorities 
concerned. Sitharama Uaju was as good as his adoptive 
father, and there was considerable improvement in the 
estate during his time. He died in 1830 leaving behind 
him an only infant who survived his father but for a 
few days. Virtually his widow, Subhadramma Garu, 
succeeded to the estate, and ruled it for eleven years, from 
1830 to 1841. She endeared herself to the hearts of 
everybody ; her piety and charitable nature are still 
remembered by many an old man and woman. As she had 
no issue, she adopted her grandson, Sree Suryanarayana 
Eaju Bahadur Garu, the father of the present Zemindar. 

"It is clear that the chiefs of Kurupam were very 
influential, and played an important part in the history 
of those parts of India when the government of the 
country was unsettled, when native princes and chiefs 
were partly brought under British yoke and. partly 
resented it, when plotting and rebellion were the common 
occurrences of the day, and when the country was torn 
asunder by dissensions. Long before the advent of the 
British, the chiefs were very powerful, and were dreaded 
abroad for their ferocity, as it was common with them 
to make inroads upon villages, and make them their 
property by dint of sword, arrows, and bow-strings, in the 
' use of which they were well skilled. Thus in addition 
to the property they had inherited from their ancestors, 
they had acquired forts and new estates comprising many 
villages, and constructed temporary mud forts with bam- 
boo fencing so as to prevent the coming in of arrows 
which were the common weapons of the day. Among 
the forts acquired in this way by the chiefs of Kurupam, 

S. R. V. Veerabhadea Eaju Bahadue Gaeu. Ill 

may be mentioned those of Gmnmakota, Viswanathapm', 
Tadikonda and Kumbi Kota. They would go to these 
places, subdue them, make them their own, settle for a 
time there until all fear of rebellion from the subjugated 
has vanished, and then proceed on their march of depre- 
dation to another convenient quarter. It will also be 
interesting to note in this connection that in the Thati- 
konda valley is constructed a fort of this kind, in which 
are located a number of entire villages. This was to 
prevent the coming in of arrows upon those thatched 
roofs. It was the custom in those days for robbers to 
append a firebrand or a burning torch to an arrow, and 
let it go on these thatched roofs so that they might take 
fire, and the inmates of the houses might come out 
affording the free hooters facilities for carrying on their 

We have ample proof on record that these influential 
chiefs were engaged in intrigue and warfare about 1774, 
the time of Warren Hastings, the first Governor-General 
of India. These powerful princes (then called Deos) such 
as Jeypore, and chiefs under them such as Kurupam and 
Madugole, were, with ample privileges, after the Permanent 
Settlement of 1802, styled by the common designation of 

Sri Eajah Suryanarayana Eaju Bahadur Garu was 
a child of three years when his adoptive mother died, 
and hence the estate was taken under the Court of 
Wards. It was in 1857 that the Eajah Sahib was put 
in charge of the estate with a large cash balance. During 
the 34 years of his rule, the estate witnessed numerous 
changes for the better. His statesmanship was admitted 
by every one of the officers who came in contact with 

112 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

him. He dug a number of tanks, cleared up numerous 
jungle tracts, and brought many waste lands under the 
plough. It is gratifying to observe that the revenue of 
the estate tripled itself in his time. He married Sri 
Sowbhagyavathi Patta Mahadevi Garu and the fruit of 
their union is the noble subject of this memoir. 

He purchased the Zemindari of Chemudu, and also 
several agraharam villages and inam lands, besides 
investing a large sum of money on the mortgaging of 
many neighbouring agraharams and mokasas. He has 
immortalized his name by establishing a new town called 
" Suryanarayana Eaju Puram." He was very religious all 
through his life. He built two temples, one dedicated 
to Siva, and the other to Vishnu, with an endowment of 
lands for their upkeep. In spite of his numerous charities, 
there was found in his treasury, after his demise, a cash 
balance of a large sum of money. 

When we review his life, we cannot but admire in 
him the great qualities which distinguished him through- 
out his long and successful career and made him one 
of the greatest men of his race. He died in January 1891, 
leaving behind him many friends and relations to bemoan- 
his loss, and carrying with him the good will of his 

Sri Kaja Veerabhadra Kaju Bahadur Garu was 
born on the 6th September 1877. As the only male 
child of the Vairicherla family he was the pet of his parents 
and of everybody else connected with him. While a 
boy, his precocious intelligence and quiet habits were 
admired by all. His father was mindful of his duty 
towards the bringing up of his son, both on EngHsh 

Sri Hajah Y. Yeerabhadra Eaju Bahadur, 
Q-aru iu native gostiuue. 

KitUikyU' Ebtiitc Prt'tjs, Kumbha. 



Mandasa is one of the most ancient zemindaries in 
the Ganjam District, and the chief members thereof in 
olden days distinguished themselves in many a battle-field, 
and hence it claims to be the possession of a noble family 
of historical importance. The present Zemindar Sahib 
Mehrban-i-dostan Sri Rajah Yasudeva Rajamani Raja 
Deo Garu, a highly enlightened prince with broad views 
and noble generosity has rendered himself very popular 
with all, and has won golden opinions from collectors 
and governors. 

The first member of the family to which the Zemin- 
dar has the honor to belong was a famous Kshatrya 
named Varma Simha of the lunar race who came to 
prominence in the 13th century. The estate obtained by 
him ha^ been during all these centuries in the enjoyment 
of the family in unbroken perpetuity. Sri Srinivasa 
Rajamani Raja Deo, the grandfather of the present Rajah, 
had a splendid record for great ability and noble character. 
He was very charitable ; temples, agraharams and other 
institutions of public utility that he established are ample 
evidences of his large-heartedness. The choultry built by 
him at Haripur has been of much use to the pilgrims ihat 
go to Benares and Rameswaram. As he was a nobleman 
of high respect and vast experience, he was accepted as a 
safe counsellor by almost all the officers who came in 
contact with him ; he was frequently consulted by them 
in matters of importance. He was specially of great 
service to the collectors of the district. Whenever a dis- 
turbance took place he was the first to render all possible 

122 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

aid to suppress it and to restore peace and order by 
sending his own armed men and retainers. The Govern- 
ment of Madras had reposed so much confidence in him, 
that he was generally commissioned to capture on their 
behalf the rebels and mutineers. On a certain occasion, 
there were within the jurisdiction of another Zemindar in 
the District, insurrections '^nd rebellions and everything 
was in confusion and disorder. All this called for the in- 
terference of the Government of Madras, but they did not 
disturb the management of the estate by the Zemindar, 
because of the surety of the Eajah of Mandasa in whom 
they had placed implicit confidence and for whom they 
had the highest respect. 

Eajah Sri Jagannadha Rajamani Eaja Deo Garu, c.i.E., 
the father of the present Eajah, was a scholar, artist, and 
statesman. His loyalty to the British throne which he 
had inherited from his ancestors, was of a superior order, 
and the successful manner in which he had managed the 
estate was admitted on all hands. He was the recipient 
of the following sunnud in 1877, conferring on him the 
title of Companion of the Indian Empire : — 

" Victoria by the G^-ace of God of the United Kingdom of 
Gh'eat Britain and Ireland, Queen, Defender of the 
Faith, Emjyress of India, Sovereign of the Order of 
the Indian Empire. 

, To 

Sri Eajamani Eaja Deo, 

Zemindar of Mandasa, 

Gree';tng : 

Whereas \¥e are desirous of conferring upon you such 

a mark of Our Eoyal favour as will evince the esteem in 

which we hold your person and the services which you 

S. R. Vasudeva Eajamani Raja Deo Garu. 123 

have rendered to Our Indian Empire, We have thought fit 
to nominate and appoint you to be a member of Our said 
Order of the Indian Empire, We do by Grant of the 
Dignity of a Companion of the Order of the Indian 
Empire, to Sri Eajamani Raja Deo of Mandasa, these 
presents grant unto you the dignity of a Companion of 
Our said Order and hereby authorize you to have, hold 
and enjoy the said dignity and rank of a Companion 
of Our said Order, together with all the singular privileges 
thereunto belonging or appertaining. 

" Given at Our Court at Osborne, under Our Sign 
Manual and the Seal of Our said Order, this first day of 
January, 187S. in the Forty-first Year of Our Reign." 

By the Sovereign's Command, 

(Signed) SALISBURY." 

In further appreciation of the Rajah's excellent 
management of the estate he was authorised to keep two 
pieces of cannon by the grant of the following license : — 

No. 49. 

goverment of ixdia, 

Home Department. " 

Simla, the 22nd August 1887. 

With reference to rule 12 of the rules made by the 
Governor-General in Council under the Indian Arms Act, 
1878, and published in the notification of this department, 
No. 518, dated the 6th March 1879, the Zemindar of 
Mandasa in the Ganjam District of the Madras Presidency 
is hereby licensed to possess two cannon. 

By Order of His Excellency 

The Viceroy and Governor-General, 

(Signed) A. P. MACDONNELL, 
* iSecretary to the Govt, of hidia. 


124 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

The title of Bajah as a personal distinction was 
conferred on him by the Government of India in 1887, 
when H. E. the then Governor of Madras, wrote as 
follows : — 

Madras, Januarij 6th, 1886. 
" My Friend, ^ 

Now at last I am able to address you as 'Rajah 
officially and I need hardly say that it gives me very great 
pleasm^e to do so. 

Long may you live to enjoy honors and to benefit 
your people on your noble estate. 

Believe me to be, 

Your sincere friend, 
(Signed; M. E. GEANT-DUFF." 

The Kajah Sahib and Sir M. E. Grant-Duff were on 
very friendly terms, and they always corresponded with 
each other. We give here one of the letters written 
by his Excellency to the Eajah Sahib : — 

November 6th, 1886, 


" My dear Eajah, 

It is always a great pleasure to me to hear from you 
and I trust that when I am in Europe I may now and 
'- then have tidings of your welfare. 

I think it must be you who have sent me a very 
pretty little carved bottle which came yesterday from 
Mandasa wdth a letter. 

Will you permit me to offer two books of myself — the 
one published and relating to my life here — the other 
privately printed and l)elonging to my pre-Indi::,n life. 


S. R. Vasudeva Rajamani Raja Deo Garu. 125 

" I should feel it a great honor to be thus represented 
in your ancient castle where you so kindly received me. 

I am, 
With every good v^^ish, 

Your most sincere friend, 
(Signed)^ M. E. GRANT-DUFF." 

As specimens of local art and handicraft, the Rajah 
sent some beautifully carved boxes to the Colonial and 
Industrial Exhibition held in London, of which His Most 
Gracious Majesty King Emperor (then Prince of Wales) 
was President. The Rajah was the recipient of two 
medals for the carved boxes. Much credit is due to 
him for being the first to establish an English school 
in the District. Mr. G. S. Forbes congratulating him 
uu the interest he evinced in matters relating to educa- 
tion wrote in the following terms : — 

" My Dear Rajah. 

>% * ^ -x- * 

I wish all the Zemindars would follow your excellent 

and generous example in the establishment of SQhools, 

I hope your are going on satisfactorily and that all the 

villages on your estate are taking advantage of them." 

In honor of the visit of His Royal Highness, the then 
Prince of Wales to India, the Rajah endowed a scholarship 
called " The Prince of Wales' Scholarship." 

Sir M. E. Grant-Duff, in a public speech made at 
Bezwada, classed the Rajah of Mandasa with the Maha- 
rajah of Vizianagram, and the Rajahs of Bobbili and 
Pittapur and said: "We have in these north-eastern 
Districts, men who, like the Maharajah of Vizianagram, the 
Zemindars of Mandasa and of Bobbili, are doing much in 
varioui ways forthe enlightenment of those around them." 


126 The Aristoceacy of Southern India. 


In recognition of the public spirit and loyalty of the 
Rajah, the Government of Madras in 1877 granted to him 
the following certificate : — 

"By Command of His Excellency the Viceroy and 
Governor-General this certificate is presented in the 
name of Her Most Gracious Majesty Victoria, Empress 
of India, to Sri Rajamani Raja Deo Garu, Zemindar of 
Mandasa, son of Sri Srinivasa Rajamani Raja Deo Garu, 
in recognition of his services to the State in handing over 
free of cost the land required for a road through his 
Zemindari and of the public spirit and loyalty which he 
has evinced in various ways," 

Sri Rajali Vasudeva Rajamani Raja Deo Garu, the 
eldest of the three sons, was placed, while young, under the 
careful supervision of his father; and under the instructions 
of his teachers he- learnt English, Telugu, Bengali and 
Urdu. The Rajah Sahib wishing to show his loyalty to the 
British Government volunteered himself to place his 
services at the disposal of the Government of Madras and 
to proceed to South Africa at a time when the Boer war 
assumed gigantic dimensions and threatened to become 
a serious matter. This was just before the relief of Lady- 
smith when Field-Marshal Lord Roberts was of opinion 
that every available man in the Empire would be required 
for active service in the war. The Rajah spared no time 
in making arrangements about the management of the 
estate by the Government of Madras during his absence 
in field service. On hearing that Ladysmith had been 
relieved, and that there was no necessity for him to join 
the war service, the Rajah rescinded the arrangements he 
had made. At every successful stage of the war there 
were great rejoicings at Mandasa and prayers and thanks- 
givings in the temple. ' f. . 

S. B. Vasudeva Eajamani IIaju Deo Garu. 127 

On hearing the death of Her Most Gracious Majesty, 
the Queen-Empress Victoria, the Eajah evinced his 
sympathy in various ways. To commemorate the memory 
of that august lady, he came forward to build a hospital 
last year and the foundation stone was laid by the Collector 
of the district. The building is in course of construction 
and it will soon be an accompttshed fact. He maintains 
a bed in the Gosha Hospital, and has endowed a secondbed. 
To the Victoria Memorial Fund, the Dowager Kanee and 
the Kanee of Mandasa subscribed Ks. 2,000. The follow- 
ing letter was addressed by H. E. Lord Ampthill, on the 
3rd October 1901 to the Kajah Sahib : — 


The Zemindar of Mandasa. 

Dear Sir, 

I wish in reply to your letter of the 26th September 
last, to thank you most sincerely for the generosity with 
which your family has come forward, to support the 
Women's Victoria Memorial Fund. Will you be so good 
as to express my gratitude to the Dowager Kanee, and to 
your lady the Eanee of Mandasa. 

Believe me, 

Yours very truly, 

(Signed) AMPTHILL." 

The Kajah Sahib takes much interest in students' 
hostels, and the present additional ward to the students' 
hostel at Berhampore owes its existence to his generosity. 

When the Kajah Sahib heard of the redemption of 
the Victoria Town Hall at Madras, he not only subscribed 
Rs. 3,000 towards it but also induced many of his friends 
to contribute towards the movement. He maintains a 
lower secondary school, a girls' school, a Sanskrit school, 

128 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

and a primary school for boys. He has instituted a 
scholarship for students that study for the B. A. ] degree 
Examination in the Vizianagram College after passing the 
F. A. Examination from the Parlakimedi College or the 
"Kallikote College. 

In 1897 the Government of India granted the 
following certificate to the Kajah Sahib in recognition of 
his services as a member of the District Board of Ganjam 
and also for the special interest taken by him in 
va(jcination : — 

" By command of His Excellency the Viceroy and 
Governor-General in Council, this certificate is presented 
in the name of Her Most Gracious Majesty Queen Victoria, 
Empress of India, to Sahib-i-Mehrban-i-dostan, Sri 
Vasudeva Eajamani Eaja Deo Garu, Zemindar of 
Mandasa, son of Sri Jagannatha Eajamani Raja Deo, in 
recognition of his services as a member of the District 
Board of Ganjam and of the special interest taken by him 
in vaccination." 

"[The Eajah Sahib manages the affairs of the Samas- 
thanam assisted by his brother who is known as Thatraz 
(Commander-in-chief), and also by the Dewau, Mr. 
Chalapathi Sastri Garu, a gentleman of great worth and 
excellent principles. 

It is gratifying to note that the Rajah Sahib is very 
kind to all his ryots, and whenever they represent to him 
their grievances, he gives them a patient hearing and 
affords them ready redress. His qualities both of head 
and heart are admired by everybody ; he is a perfect 
gentleman ; he is very charitable and sympathetic to the 
poor ; his loyalty to the British throne is exemplary ; 
and he has been maintaining the prestige and honor of 
his family by his generous acts and noble behaviour. 

Kiii Bahtidur Iv. Jagaiiiiadha Chettiar. 
Hxi JRajah .Taf>avira Rama Ettap^i Xayaker Bahadur, 

Jiaiiikote Estate in'ess, i^atobjiU; 



. The Zemindar of Etaiyapuram, who belongs to the 
ancient stock of a Hindu family that furnished to the 
country warriors and statesmen, has inherited all the 
noble and generous qualities that characterised his 
ancestors, and is now in the highest estimation of the 
Government of Madras ; and, as his sentiments are guided 
by justice and moderation, he is most loved by his ryots. 

The ancient Zemindari of Ettayapuram consists at 
present of Ettayapuram proper, Nagalapuram, Golwar- 
pati, part of Elayarampannai, and Sundarapachayapuram, 
in the Tinnevelly District, and Vallanadhi Division of the 
Gandamanaickanoor Zemindari in the Madura District, 
purchased by the Court of Wards in 1896. 

Q.*he total area of the Zemindari is 647 square miles 
or 415, "428 acres approximately ; of this extent, the 
cultivable area is 374,441 acres, and the rest consists of 
waste lands, and hill and forest tracts. 

The nature of the soil is rich black cotton interspersed 
with red loam here and there. The approximate annual 
revenue is 415,000 Es. and the annual Peishcush is Ks. 
135,000 The chief crops are cotton, cumbu, and cholam^ 
Out of 60 lakhs worth of cotton annually grown in the 
Tinnevelly District, 30 lakhs worth is grown in the 

The hill and forest tracts are game preserves. The 

greatest and most important of them is the Kurumalai 

reserve, nearly 3 miles east of the Kumarapuram station 
• 17 • 


180 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

. , f_ 

of the South Indian Eailway. The game preserved con- 
sists of deer, antelope, hare, and wild boar. They are 
preserved chiefly w^ith a view to afford sports to gentlemen 
visitors, majority of whom are European Officers of rank 
in the service of His Majesty's Government. The South 
Indian Kailway skirts the Zemindari. The nearest 
Eailway station is Koilpati Vhich is nine miles west of 
Ettayapuram and which is connected with it by a metalled 

Tradition says, and there are also records to show, 
that the ancestors of the Zemindar of Etaiyapuram were 
at Chandragiri, being in possession of territories adjacent 
to it. The first of those prominent among them was 
Periappa Nayakar who flourished in 856 A. D. Nine 
generations passed away without any member in the 
family doing anything worthy of record. 

The tenth in succession was Nallama Nayakar, who 
was distinguished for his prowess and adventurous career. 
He had a great desire to proceed to Vijianagram, which 
was then Jn the height of its glory and to pay a visit to the 
Kajah, but one thing that stood in his way before 
venturing to pass the gates of the fort to interview the 
Kajah was that he should choose one of the two 
alternatives — either he should wrestle with a powerful 
man, named Soman, and overcome him, or pass underneath 
th\j gold chain that Soman had attached to his left leg. 
Nallama I^ayakar whose body was of a colossal build 
chose the former alternative, and in the combat he came 
off victorious, and beheaded Soman. The eight brothers 
,of the gate-keeper threw themselves on the mercy of 
Nallama Nayakar and sought his protection. He fixed 
the head of Soman to a spear, and his garments stained 

S. K. J. R. V. Ettappa Nayakar Bahadub. 131 


with blood to the point of a lance, and with these things 
presented himself before the King, who, admiring the valour 
of Nallama Nayakar welcomed him to his court, and pre- 
sented him with a gold head to be worn as a badge on his 
left leg, and allowed him to use the blood-stained cloth as 
a banneret. To commemorate the fact of his having 
spared the lives of the eight .brothers of Soman, the King 
conferred on Nallama Nayakar the title of Ettappan 
(meaning father of eight) , and also presented him with two 
state fans, besides lands and villages. By the special 
order of the King, Nallama Nayakar was taken round in 
procession before he left the place. From that time 
forward the appellation " Ettapan " has been used by all 
the successive Zemindars of Etaiyapuram. The gold 
head, on the occasion of the installation ceremony, is tied 
to the left leg of the installed Zemindar by the descen- 
dants of Soman referred to above, and the blood-stained 
banneret is also carried. 

Kumara Muttu Ettappa Nayakar, the fourteenth 
in descent, migrated to Madura with a number of his 
kinsmen owing to disturbances and insurrections by 
Mahomed Alaudin, and paid his respects to Adi Vira 
Parakrama Pandian, the Eajah of Madura, who, on hearing 
the antecedents and noble ancestry of Kumara Muttu 
Ettappa Nayakar granted him and also his followers ^ 
extensive lands and villages, such as Anaiyur ai^d 
Karukotanpatti, and they settled down there.- Kumara ^ 
Muttu Ettappa Nayakar brought order out of the chaos 
then existent and engaged himself in useful pursuits. As he 
had no issue for a long time he built a temple and dedicated ^ 
it to (Kumara) Subramaniaswami. Shortly after this, he 
was blessed with a son, who was named Kumara Ettappa 

132 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

. r — 

Nayakar. It was this gentleman that put clown the 
pride of an outlaw named IMuvarayan and ultimately put 
him to death levelling his fort to the ground. In recogni- 
tion of the valorous deed of Kumara Ettappa Nayakar, 
the Pandian king conferred on him the title of " Sundara 
Pandya". As Sundara Pandya Ettappa Nayakar had 
acquired a wide reputation^^for his enterprising spirit and 
daring valour, the Pandian king empowered him to quell 
disturbances in the south, and to restore order and peace 
as every thing was in confusion and disorder by marauders 
and upstarts. He accordingly proceeded to Satur, built a 
fore, and left one of his kinsmen, Nallama Nayakar, in 
charge of it, which thereafter came to be known as 
" Nallama Nayakar Kottai" ; there still remain some ruins 
of the fort to the east of Satur and on the south banks of 
the river. 

The next prominent member of the family, Kumara 
Ettappa Nayakar, brought the Maravars of Elan^bunom 
to subjection, and granted the privilege of carrying his, 
and his successors' palanquin on two of them, Arjuna 
Thalaven and Muttirala Thalaven and their descendants. 
He won the esteem and regard of one of the viceroys 
of the Pandyan king, by name Jagavirarama Pandyan, 
by collecting the taxes that Remained unpaid by the 
Marawars of Elambunom, whi'ch were 50 bullock loads of 
(. money. The viceroy being pleased with the integrit)^ 
and unflinching energy that characterised Kumara 
Ettappa Nayakar, made him a grant of Elambunom, 
Peddharajapuram, now known as Peddapuram, Pandava- 
mangalam, Suraikapati, Eeral, Valampati, Bamanuttur, 
and Naduvirapatti, yielding a revenue of IJupees 19,2.50. 
He went a step further in his munificence by making the 

S. E. J. E. V. Ettappa Natakar Bahadur. 133 

Nayakar the warden of Tirnchuli, conferring on him the 
title of " Jagavirarama," and by giving him the village 
of PadavathapuUy for his palanquin expenses. He 
continued lord at Elambunom for more than a quarter of 
a centmy. 

Jagavira Kama Ketchila Ettappa Nayakar, the 19th 
ni succession, subdued Saya Malai and added 15 surround- 
ing villages to it. He was made guardian of one of the 
72 bastions of Madura. 

Jagavira Eama Kumara Ettappa Nayakar, who was 
the next Zemindar, has the credit of having built the 
present town of Etaiyapuram in January 15G7, and also 
the Siva temple there. The King of Madura, Kumara 
Krishnappa Nayakar, and the Zemindar of Etaiyapuram, 
proceeded to Travancore and attacked the fort of Eraneel. 
While returning, the latter was treacherously killed by an 
arrow discharged by a concealed foe. The former being 
overwh(^med with grief on account of the sudden death 
of his comrade made to the family of the deceased a grant 
of Calugumalai, and also affixed the word " Aiyan" to the 
names of the succeeding members of the family, 

The next prominent member was Jagavira Eama 
Ettappa Nayakar Aiyan, who went with the King of 
Madm-a, Muthu Krishnappa Nayakar, to collect certain 
dues owing to him in Travancore. Sri Vanji Marthanda, 
the then Eajah of Travancore, received them very, kindly 
and rendered them every possible aid. 

Jagavira Eama Ketchila Ettappa Nay akar Aij'an , the 
next in succession, on a certain day, while deer-stalking, 
went into a dispute with the Golavarapatti people, when 
with his sword in his left hand, he cut down a horse 

' 134 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

and its rider. From that time forward he was called 
"Edawangkai" or left-handed Ketchilappa Nayakar. He 
once overcame the then Sethupathi in a dispute, and 
deprived him of his state miibrellas and two state horses, 
and chased him and his attendants as far as Pemalli village. 
The eldest son of the Zemindar's second wife, Eana Sura 
Ketchilappa Nayakar, g6t into the good graces of Muthu- 
virappa Nayakar, received as gift, certain villages attached 
to Kurumalai and settled down there. 

It was in the administration of the next Zemindar, 
Jagavira Eama Ketchila Ettappa Nayakar Aiyan, that 
protection was given to the Catholic priests living there. 
The following inscription on a stone is still in existence : — 

"Year — year 865, the 19th day of the month Chitra. 
We Jagavira Ettappa Nayakar Avergal (make proclama- 
tion as follows) : As in our father's days, twenty-five years 
ago, this church of God in our territory and the Matha of the 
ascetics of the city of Rome were preserved fjeom harm, 
so also now we being resolved to do the same have visited 
this church and the priests and have given and set up this 
stone. Wherefore if any person should do any harm to 
this church of God or the priests, or their disciples, not 
only will he become a traitor to us, but let him also incur 
the guilt which would ensue from slaying a black cow 
and Brahmans on the banks of the Ganges. Thus we 
have ordained as long as sun and moon endure. Jagavira 
Ettapa Nayakar. May the Lord preserve (us)." 

The 27th ruler, Jagavira Rama Venkateswara Ettappa 
Nayakar Aiyan was very religious and also said to be well- 
skilled in magic and witchcraft. The Rajah of Ramnad 
besieged the fort of Anamanthakudi and sought the 
aid of the Zemindar of Etaiyapuram, who lost no time in 

S. R. J. R. V. Ettappa Nayakae Bahadib. 135 

sending a force of 5,000 armed men. It was during this 
reign that the Vishnu temple at Etaiyapuram was con- 
structed and dedicated. The Zemindar was a great patron 
of learning. He gave substantial rewards to Kadigai 
Muthu Pulavar for his Samudra Vilasam, and Kumaresa 

Muthu Jagavira Rama Cumara Ettappa Nayakar, the 

31st Zemindar, was also well known for his wisdom and 

valour. He had a standing army of 6,000 men. He was 

the first to render meritorious services to the British 

Government by defeating the adherents of a refractory 

Poligar, Cataboma Nayakar of Panjalamcurichy, who 

defied the authorities and set at naught, their measures. 

The then Collector, Mr. Lushington heard favorable 

.accounts of the most opportune help of the Zemindar of 

Etaiyapuram who went there with a small army against 

Cataboma Nayakar. 

In recognition of the timely help given by the 

Zemindar of Etaiyapuram in the defeat, pursuit, and 
capture of the rebel chief Cataboma Nayakar, the British 
Government made him a grant of the village of Sivagnana- 
puram. The chief was executed and one of his accom- 
plices, Kumaraswami Nayak, his brother, was imprisoned 
with many others at Eamnad. A conspiracy was formed 
to release the latter. The conspirators successfully 
proceeded to the jail, overpowered the guards, enterecf and 
threw open the prison doors. This over, they proceeded 
to Panjalamcurichy and erected a fort well manned by a 
garrison of 5,000 men all ready and eager for the fight. 
A small army of the British fired and killed 100 men at 
one discharge when the remainder beat a precipitate 

13(i The Aeistoceacy of Southern India. 

retreat. Mr. Lushington, the Collector, who was then at 
Nagalapuram, wrote to the Etaiyapuram Zemindar, 
requesting him to make a thorough enquiry and to submit 
him a full report on the exact position of affairs, which he 
accordingly did. On receipt of the report, Mr. Lushington, 
with a small army proceeded to Panjalamcurichy via 
Etaiyapuram duly intimaljing the fact to the Zemindar in 
advance to make the necessary arrangements. On arriving 
at Etaiyapuram, Messrs. Lushington and Cassamajor con- 
sulted the Zemindar as to the course they should adopt in 
carrying out their object, and also demanded assistance 
from him in the operations against that fort. The Zemin- 
dar, as it was his wont under such circumstances, promised 
them all the aid in^his power and requested them to supply 
him with fire arms and other requisites, as he and the 
Poligar of Panjalamcurichy were on hostile terms. The 
necessary arms were forthwith furnished to the Zemindar's 
men and three hundred additional muskets were subse- 
quently supplied to them. Lieutenants Laughton-- Lauden 
and Warren with three companies and some guns were 
sent ,^"0 the protection of Etaiyapuram. 

Muthu Jagavira Eama Kumara Ettappa Nayakar 
Aiyan died after ruling 33 years and he was widely known 
for his piety, generosity and other good qualities. 

Jagavirarama Venkateswara Ettappa Nayakar Aiyan, 
who came next in succession, erected a temple dedicated 
to Subramanyaswami and allotted two villages yielding 
annually Rupees 900 for its up-keep and maintenance. 
He erected a choultry and sank a well at Etaiyapuram. 
In 1827 the Eight Honorable S. Lushington, Governor of 
Madras, paid a visit to Etaiyapuram. 

S. K. J. K. V. Ettappa Nayakar Bahadur. 137 

A stone mantapam of exquisite workmanship was 
erected by the Zemindar at a cost of Eiipccs 30,000, in 
honor of Cakigachala Mm-ti (a Hindu God) . 

A palanquin and jewels of the value of lis. 20,000 
were presented to the same idol. The lakshadwipam (one 
lac of lights) ceremonj' was ptjrformed on a very grand 
scale at a cost of a large sum of money. Es. 50,000 were 
spent in connection with the ashtahandanavh (the ceremony 
of fixing an idol) which was performed in honor of 
Saliwateswarar and Sri Kanthimathi of Tinnevelly. He 
established a choultry at a cost of lis. 15,000, which is still 
in existence, and in which Brahmins and Goshais are 
supplied with food gratis every day. He built some more 
temples and they are all even to this day maintained by 
the members of his family. The excellent buildings known 
as Sundaravilasam, Kaliana Mahal, Subramania Vilasam, 
and others that grace the town of Etaiyapuram were built in 
his.timj. The two flags of honor promised to the Zemin- 
dar's father were received then. He left behind him five 
sons, Jagavira Eama Kumara Ettappa Nayakar ^iyan, 
Venkateswara Ettu Nayakar, Muthuswami Pandian and 
Eamaswami Pandian. The eldest of these succeeded to 
the estate and built a new palace in the place of the old one 
which he pulled down. He also erected a substantial brick 
fortress instead of the old mud fort. The edifice known 
as " Shunmugavilasam " with a golden cupola was built-* 
by him. Some roads, especially the fine and broad one 
leading to Naduvirpati, were constructed under his orders. 
Villages yielding an annual income of Es. 2,500 were set 
apart for the festivals of the Siva and Vishnu temples. 
Villages yielding Es. 7,600, annually were made perma- 
nent endowments for the up-keep of the temple of Subra- 


138 The Abistocracy of Southern India. 

maniaswami. The great mantapam at Kalugumalai v^as 
also erected in his time. Jewels set with precious stones 
of the value of Ks. 70,000 were presented to Subramania- 
swami and his Tamil verses in praise of Siva, Vishnu, and 
Subramaniaswami bear testimony to his ripe scholarship. 
Two bridges, one at a cost of Es. 6000, and another at Es. 
10,000, respectively, were built by him. The Government 
of Madras placed on record their high appreciation 
of his public spiritedness and benevolence. His bounty 
and munificence did not end here, for he also built a 
choultry at Vepalpate and endowed two villages yielding 
Es. 1500, annually for its up-keep. When he died 
he left no heirs and hence his brother, Jagavira Eama 
Venkateswara Ettappa Nayakar Aiyan succeeded to the 
estate. He spent a large sum of money in erecting 
mantapams and other appendages to the Siva temple there. 
Notable among the additions to the palace was the Hall 
of Installation surmounted with five golden cupolas costing 
Es. 7,000. He also died childless and therefore his "brother 
Muthuswami Jagavira Eama Ettappa Nayakar Aiyan came 
to the"f»ossession of the estate. He had an interview with 
the then Governor of Madras, when His Excellency visited 
the Tinnevelly District. Swami Dikshidar, the author of 
Chambu Kairam, a portion of the Skunda Puranam, was 
publicly honored and rewarded by the Zemindar. 

A silver hoiodah and a car at a cost of about 20,000 
Eupees were prepared for the use of the Kalugumalai 
temple. He left behind him two sons, the elder of whom 
succeeded him. 

Jagavira Eama Kumara Ettappa Nayaker Aiyan had 
the honor of welcoming H. E. H. the Prince of Wales, 
now King Edward VII, when he landed at Tuticorin in 

S. R. J. E. V. Ettappa Nayakar Bahadur. 139 

December, 1875. The Zemindar travelled with His Koyal 
Highness as far as Koilpati. We give the following lengthy- 
extract relating to the visit of His Eoyal Highness to 
the Tinnevelly District : — 

" At last we reached terra fir ma. The preparations 
were pretty ; but there was re?illy very little time to look 
about one. A temporary pavilion or Pandal had been 
erected, in which the inevitable address was delivered, 
and the Zemindars were presented ; and when the 
exchange of courtesies had ended, the Prince walked to 
the station, where he waited till the exhausted and 
exhausting Margaret Northcote, had delivered her 
luckless freight. It is scarcely possible to exaggerate the 
quiet charms of the scenery along the new Eailway, or the 
great delight of the people at the combined attractions of 
the first Train, and of the Prince. The whole population 
thronged to the road-side. The tall, erect figures, square 
shouldf^'s, broad chests, narrow flanks, and straight limbs 
of the men, struck one almost as much as the graceful 
carriage and elegant forms of the women. It would be 
difficult to find a finer race in any part of the world. 
Their attitudes of wonder and joy were singularly grace- 
ful and attractive. Some expressed their feelings by 
placing their hands, clasped as if in prayer, before their 
breasts ; others held their fingers to their lips, as if to 
suppress their cries ; but as the Train passed , one and alL» 
clapped hands, as if they were of a London alidience, 
applauding at a Theatre. A more natural, easy, and well- 
to-do looking people could not be found in Christendom. 
Plains green with sugar, rice and cotton, spread to the 
foot of the wooded Hills of gniess rock, which, generally 
- conical, w^ere sometimes worn into fantastic outline of 

1-10 The ARisTociiACY of Southern India. 

castle-like crag, and beetling precipice. It is certainly a 
land, if not flowing with milk and honey, inhabited by a 
population of sweet and kindly disposition, whose virtues 
are admitted by Missionaries, and whose exceeding tract- 
ability has gained for them the praise of masters, not 
always given to indulge in over-laudation of any native 

" The part of India, which the Missionaries call 
Tamil-land, is larger than Bavaria, Saxony, Wurtemburgh, 
and the German Dukedoms together, and contains a 
population of about sixteen millions of peope. The 
Neilgherries rising to the height of 8,000 feet, the Pulney 
with peaks 7,000 feet high, and their eastern offshoots, 
diversify the surface ; and the watersheds throw off 
supplies for the great rivers, which become, however, for 
part of the year, little more than beds of sand. Coffee is 
planted on the lower ranges ; rice in great quantities is 
cultivated in the plains, and sugar cultivation is extending. 
Indigo and different kinds of ^rain thrive in parts of the 
District, if so it may be called, and cotton is not only 
suflici'ently abundant for the wants of the native manu- 
facturers, but gives margin for export. The manufacture 
of iron, of very great excellence, the ore of which, is found 
in large quantities throughout is still carried on. Here we 
have the Salt Tax and monopoly in full force, the French 
, at Pondicherry receiving £'10,000 a year for prohibiting 
the manufacture within their Settlements ; the revenue of 
the Tamil District from this objectionable source amount- 
ino- to about two millions of Rupees per annum. 

"At Maniachi, 18 miles from Tuticorin, a deputation 
of about 6,000 native Christians including a large body of 
clergy and catechists, and 1,000 boys and girls receiving 

S. R. J. R. V. ETTAPrA Nayakar Bahadur. 141 

education in Church of England schools, awaited the arrival 
of H. n. H. The Prince of Wales, the Rev. Dr. Caldwell, 
the able and learned Missionary of the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel, and the Rev. Dr. Sargent, a 
veteran representative of the Church Missionary Society, 
surrounded by a considerable staff of English clergy, stood 
on the platform side by side typ^ying the perfect unanimity 
with which our two great Church societies are laboring for 
the evangehsation of India. "When H. R. H. alighted 
from his carriage, the Missionaries were presented to him 
by Mr. Robinson and Canon Duckworth. Dr. Caldwell, 
read an address of welcome from the Church of Tinnevelly 
expressing the devoted loyalty of its members and their 
deep sense of the special blessings they enioyed as the 
Christian subjects of a Christian sovereign. The progress 
of the Church of England Mission in this region was 
sketched, and it was shown how the good seed convej-ed 
from Tanjore by Schwartz about the end of the last 
centurj' and that which was sown broadcast from 1820 
onwards by Rhenius, both German Missionaries in the 
employ of English Societies, had been nurtuved by 
Missionaries since 1840, until the Native Christian com- 
munity in Tinnevelly is the most numerous in India. 
Christian congregations have been formed in about 900 
towns, villages, and hamlets composed exclusively of 
converts. The total number of Native Christians in the 
District was stated to be sixty thousand, who are unde«* 
the charge of 54 Native clergy and 590 catechists, and 
teachers of various grades; and the number of communi- 
cants is 10,878. The schools are attended by about 
13,000 boys and girls. It is worthy of note that the 
Christians in Tinnevelly contributed last year Rs. 32,488 
for th^e support ot their own church equivalent in the ^ 

142 The Abistocracy of Southern India. 

sacrifice it represents to eight or ten times the amount in 
England. At the conclusion of the address, a hand- 
somely bound Bible and Prayer Book, in the Tamil 
language, and offerings of embroidery and exquisitely 
fine lace, the handiwork of girls attending the Tinnevelly 
schools were presented to His Eoyal Highness." 

"At 12-20 P. M., the Train stopped at Koilpati, 
36 miles from Tuticorin. There was a small camp and a 
handsome mess-tent fitted up luxuriously near the station. 
The tents belonged to the minor Zemindar of Etaiyapuram 
who was there with his kinsfolk and tenants, and the 
usual mighty multitude to greet the Prince. Once more 
we had occasion to wonder at the swarming masses and 
to admire the fine forms, pleasant manners and looks, and 
picturesque appearance of the people. There was a halt 
of half an hour for luncheon and, before the Prince 
resumed his journey, he accepted from the Zemindar 
some articles of trifling value as mementoes of his visit." 

The Zemindar was one of those that were invited to 
be present at the Imperial Assemblage held at Delhi in 
1876, when he had an interview with the then Viceroy 
and Governor-General of India, and received a gold medal 
from him with the following certificate : — 

" By command of His Excellency the Viceroy and 
^"Governor-General this certificate is presented in the 
name of Her Most Gracious J\rajesty Victoria, Empress of 
India, to Jagavira Bama Cumara Ettappa Nayakar, 
Zemindar of Etaiyapuram, son of Muttusawmy Jagavira 
Rama Ettappa Nayakar, in recognition of his loyalty and 
fidelity to the British Government and charity to the 
poor. 1st January 1887." 

S. R. J. R. V. Ettappa Nayakar Bahadur. 143 

He was thus enabled to travel throughout India, 
escorted by a Public Officer of rank, under the orders 
of the Madras Gvernment. He was one of the few who 
were invited to attend the assemblage from Southern • 


In the course of his travels to and from Delhi and 
other parts of India on the same occasion, under the 
special orders of the Government of Madras, he was 
escorted by a Public Officer of rank. 

"When famine raged most furiously in 1877-78 the 
Zemindar established feeding houses and thousands of 
people were fed gratis. He further extended his right 
hand of sympathy to his ryots by advancing them large 
sums of money. The following that appeared then in 
the proceedings of the Court of Wards will not be out of 
place here : — 

" The interest displayed by the minor Zemindar in 
the management of the charities is highly creditable to him. 

2. The Collector will intimate to the ^ minor 
Zemindar their high appreciation of his conduct on this 

We give the following remarks made by the Judge of 
the Subordinate Court of Tinnevelly in the decision* 
given in favor of the Zemindar in the suit brought by his 
paternal uncle : — 

" Here the plaintiff described the Etaiyapuram Estate 
as a simple Zemindari created at some time prior to 
1783, (L e., during the Mahomedan period) and denied • 
at the first hearing that it was an ancient Polliam. 
Cons^uently I cast upon 1st defendant the burden of , 


144 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

establishing tliat it was a Polliam and not a mere Zemin- 
dari, which, as ah'eady observed, does not necessarily 
imply impartibility. Whether the estate existed as a 
Polliam prior to the Mahomedan rule or not, is thus the 
next question for consideration. The plaintiff's own 
exhibit A (the History of Etaiyapuram published by one 
Swami Dikshadar) shows that the family was founded 
so far back as in A.D. 803 ; that 36 successions intervened 
between the original founder and the present 1st 
defendant ; and that during this long period of 1,000 years 
there w'as not a single instance of a partition having taken 
place of the estate. Throughout this book the Polligar is 
spoken of as a sovereign prince. It is true that this book 
was filed by plaintiff for the limited purpose of showing 
that his grandfather was not the son of his immediate 
predecessor ; but this will not prevent the Court from 
reading the whole book as one document and availing 
itself of other informations therein contained. * * * 

" For the foregoing reasons I find that the Estate 
of Etaiyapuram was a Principality ; that from the nature 
of its constitution, as a sort of sovereignty, it has been all 
along impartible ; and that the villages acquired during 
the time of Plaintiff's grandfather and father form 
accretions to it and are therefore equally impartible." 

He made to the Local Board a free gift of the road 
^leading to Calugumalai, 8 miles long, laid out and 
maintained at his own cost. For the completion of the 
bridge at Srivaikuntam across the Tambraparni he lent 
with the approval of the Government, Kupees 35,000 to 
the District Board of Tinnevelly. His tenants were 
greatly benefited during his time since all the irrigation 
works underwent thorough repairs. 

S. R. J. R. V. ETTArpA Nayakah Kattadur. UT) 

Though he was liberal-minded and f^enerous to a 
fault, yet he was able to effect a large saving. He built a 
palace on modern style at a cost of two lakhs of llupees, 
and this has added much to the picturesqueness of the 
town. During his time education made great progress in 
his estate through the establishment of endowed schools. 

The Zemindar acquired a wide reputation for nunii- 

licence and nobility of heart, and after a brief illness he 

passed away in May, llSOO, amidst the universal regret 

of his friends, relations and ryots. 

The present Zemindar, Sri Rajah Jagavira Rama 
Venkateswara Ettappa Nayakar Bahadur was liorn in 
1878. Till 1890, proper arrangements were made lor 
his education, and he applied himself with industry and 
zeal to the acquirement of knowledge. Soon after 
his father's death, the Court of Wards undertook the 
management of the estate, and sent the young Zemindar 
to Madr.-^s for education. He was trained by educationists 
of much experience and moral worth such as Messrs. Potts, 
Ellison, Morrison, Payne, and Rai Bahadur K. Jagannadha 
Ohettiar. While under the cai*e of Mr. Morrison he 
travelled with him to almost all the places of importance 
in the Madras and Bengal presidencies, and Colombo, by 
land and by sea, and learnt the manners and customs 
prevailing in those places. Under the care of his veteran 
instructors he devoted himself to study and a preparation « 
for his after life. At the same time, he did not neglect the 
accomplishments of a well-born Zemindar, and became 
a keen sportsman and a good rider. 

In December 1899, the Rajah attained his majority, 
and the Government of Madras installed Jiiiu on the 
guddi of his ancestors. The ceremony took place on a 


14G The Aristoct.acy of RorTiiEPA' India. 

j^rand scale when there were present the Collector of the 
District and many other prominent officials. In the 
course of the speech made on the occasion he thanked 
the Government of Madras, and said : — 

"It is now my pleasant dutj^ to thank the Madras 
Government, the Com't of Wards and the several Collectors, 
who were in the district since the assumption of the 
management hy the Court of Wards, for the education they 
have given me and for the excellent management of my 
estate during my minority, and thank specially Mr. Bedford 
for the honor he has done me by his personally handing 
over the charge of the Estate to me on this occasion." 


The Eajah thanked the officials of his Samasthanam, 
and his respective guardians in the following terms : — 

" I am certainly proud to mention the name of Mr. 
V. Venkatroyer here who was managing the estate under 
the Court of Wards in the beginning; and all his good work 
could be seen in the whole of the estate. He was 
universally liked and respected for his good work and 
ability. He was succeeded by M. E. Ry. P. Sivarama 
Iyer Avergal, b.a., as manager and he has managed the 
estate satisfactorily ; and it is in his time that an addition 
was made to the estate by the purchase of a large portion 
of Gandamanayaganoor and I thank him for all he has done 
towards the improvement of my estate and for the 
excellent manner in which he conducted my marriage 

" I also thank my several guardians, Messrs. Potts, 
Ellison, Morrison, Payne and Kai Bahadur K. Jagan- 
nadha Chetty Garoo who have all taken such deep interest 
in my welfare. 

S. R. J. R. Y- Ettappa Nayakar Bahadur. 147 

" Lastly I assure you I will make it my sacred duty to 
manage my estate without deviating from the path of 
virtue and justice ; and wish to avail myself of this 
opportunity to present this sunnud to Rai Bahadur 
K. Jagannadha Chetty Garoo with whose experience, I 
hope to give satisfaction in the management of my ancient 
and important Zemin dari. 

" Thanking you again, ladies and gentlemen, for your 
extreme kindness in attending this installation ceremony, 
I fervently pray for the speedy termination of the 
Transvaal troubles in favour of Great Britain and Ireland 
and for the long life, sound health and prosperous rule 
of Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen-Empress of 

The Rajah of Ramnad telegraphed the following 
message of congratulation on the occasion : — 

" My heartfelt congratulations to you on your assump- 
tion of charge of your ancient and historical estate. My 
fervent prayers to Sree Ramanatha and to Kalugachala 
Shanmuga Moorthi to grant you long life and coiTtinued 
prosperity and to make you and your truth llourisli. 1 
have little in the way uf advice except to beg yuii mobt 
earnestly at; the sou of one A\'ho was to me devoted 
brother t& take my complete failure as a Zemindar as • 
sufficient warning to you in your future career and to 
remind you of the words of Lord Ripon to the, Nizam, 
' look to your finance,' an advice which I disregarded 
but which I must beg you " to^ bear in mind to avoid the 
consequences. I suffer by disregarding it. You know what 
great affection and regard I have for you personally and 
it is that that prompts me, even presses me to wire to you 
thus«opening my heart to you. Your manager, Mr. , 


148 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

Sivaramier is in away my guardian and I have fatherly 
rc{,^ard for him . I regret his leaving you . I am performing 
Abhishekam and Archanai m your mame this day grandly 
to my Lord Sree Kamanatha and to our Divine Mother 
and will send you prasadam. Be ever loyal to our 
Sovereign and Her Government and use your wealth, 
power, and influence to benefit others, and to injure none, 
and above all, be devoted to the feet of Him who from 
Kalugachalam protects you all, and thus you will be happy 
now and ever." 

Mr. G. S. Forbes telegraphed thus : — 

" Sincere congratulations undertaking management 
your estates. AVish you every success and happy and 
prosperous year." 

The Maharajah* of Bobbili wired as follows : — 

"Hearty congratulations on jour taking charge of 
your estate." 

The Court of Wards desired to replace Mr. Payne who 
was obliged to go to England on urgent private affairs by an 
oiliccr who would not only be competent to instruct llie 
young Zemindar in regard to the management of his estate 
but would also be a suitable person for retention after the 
"property passed the hands of the Government of Madras, 
Kai Bahadur K. Jagannadha Chettiar, an officer of marked 
ability, unblemished reputation and long experience was 
specially selected for that post. He was Dewan of the 
estate for about 2 years and worked with much success. 
He lately retired on a decent pension. The present JJe\N an 
1.3 Mr. b. T. bhunmugam i'lllai, b. a., a retirtd I'-puty 


S. 11. J. 11,. V. EiTAprA Nayakar Bahadur. 149 

Collector of much experience. With the inteHi^ence of 
the Eajah Sahib coupled with that of his able and ener<;etic 
Dewan, the Samasthanam is sure to thrive and prosper. 

The Eajah Sahib was under the care and tuition of 
competent Englishmen of great parts, and the advantages 
derived from his travel to v&rious parts of the country, 
opened his eyes to reforms in social life, and the first item 
he desired to practically carry out was the opening of a 
Girls' School in his estate. During his father's time there 
was an English school teaching up to the Lower Secondary 
standard, and the present Rajah raised it to the grade of a 
High School. Etayapuram is a very large estate, where 
a High School was a desideratum for a long time. These 
measm-es tending towards education were carried out by 
him soon after he assumed charge of the estate. He has 
opened a model farm on scientific principles, and this in 
itself is sufficient to prove that he is just paving the way 
for higher reforms in point of cultivation. Ho has also 
established a choultry, a school, and a market at 
Yeppalpatti. » 

In honor of the Coronation of King Edward YII, a 
meeting was held at J^^taiyapuram when the Kajah made 
the following interesting speech : — 

" Gentlemen, 

\\e are assembled here, not to discuss questions 
connected with our private concerns, nor to express our 
views on party or public questions of any kind, but to 
perform a most solemn and sacred function of paying 
homage to our Most Gracious Sovereign, His Maje^ity. 
the King-Emperor Edward All, this the most mcmoralilc 
day '*i hi^ Coronation, in the City of Lonclon, being the • 


loO The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

capital of his world-wide dominions, on which, you all 
know, the Sun never sets, and further to express our 
sentiments of congratulation on that happy event, and 
of our loyalty and devotion to the British Crown of 
unrivalled splendour and glory. 

"It is no exaggeration to say that we (Indians) are 
deeply indebted to the British Kaj for the innumerable 
benefits we have been enjoying under its suzerainty, 
such as gigantic irrigation and water supply projects, 
noblest charities in the establishment of Hospitals and 
Chattrams, rapid advance in Education, Civilisation, 
Religious liberty, Art, Science, Literature, Trade and 
Manufacture, and various other privileges never before 
chronicled in the pages of the Indian History, and I do 
not think we can possiblj^ repay the debt except by 
continuing to be ever most grateful and loyal to the 

. "I really wish I were, at this moment, present in 
London among the party of Indian visitors, there, partaking 
of the loyal functions they perform, and the grand and 
gorgeous spectacle they enjoy this day. As it is, I could 
but make a feeble attempt at what I thought the only 
best way of commemorating the event, by planting trees 
and topes, sinking wells, feeding and clothing the poor, 
V .nd conducting a procession of the Emperor's portrait 
round the streets of this town and holding a Durbar like 
this, here. So far, I am glad to say, my attempt has 
been a perfect success, and I must not omit to thank all 
of my relations, friends, officers, and ryots, as my success 
is due mainly to their hearty co-operation and assistance 
throughout, and we all see, this afternoon, the Heaven 
has also accorded its banction to our arrangemettis by 


sending, from the region of clouds, long unheard peals 
of thunder accompanied by rain, as if the report of our 
101 guns fired is not loud enough to proclaim the happy 

" In conclusion, I, with the full consent of the meeting, 
once more voice my own sentiments as well as theirs, 
of hearty congratulation on 'our Emperor's Coronation, 
and of our devoted loyalty to the Throne as well as the 
secret prayer of our heart of hearts to the Almighty God 
for the long life and continuously prosperous reign of His 
jNIajesty ; and I propose three cheers to His Majesty the 
King-Emeror, and three more to Her Majesty the Queen, 

The Eajah, who, in intelligence, capacity and fixed 
purpose, is in no way inferior to his predecessors, has 
undertaken what he considers as the most important duties 
of his exalted position, in the establishment of educational 
instit'jtions, and in the introduction of scientific methods 
of cultivation. He is a nobleman of great promise with 
fine feeling, generous sympathies and an excellent and 
resolute character. We give the following from what Mr. 
Caldwell expressed in his history of the Tinnevelly 
District about the Etaiyapuram Samasthanam : — 

" This lucid and most interesting history of Ettaiya- 
puram Zemindari, the most important Zemindari in 
Tinnevelly District may be said to form an Epoch in the 
literary history of the Presidency of Madras and even of 
Southern India, as it is not only the first connected 
history of an Indian Zemindari which has appeared, but 
is in itself a model which other Zemindars would do 
well to follow. The Zemindar instead of giving himself up 


ir/A The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

to idleness and luxury, and leaving the best interests of his 
people to their I'ate, has set himself to imitate the public 
spirited and beneficent action of the best class of European 
nobles and not only made for himself a name and position 
in the foremost class of Indian local administrators, but 
has given his Zemindari the highest position that any 
Indian district of this class has yet reached. I cannot 
but trust that the Madras Government will take the 
opportunity of evincing its sense of the Zemindar's 
services to the State by the example he has set, and its 
desire that his example should be followed by others in 
some appropriate manner. For instance, might they not 
give this history, a place amongst the historical memoirs 
and records published by themselves, together with 
conferring on this model Zemindar, some title of honour, 
valued by natives ?" 


Sri Riijah A- ^'- -Tuj^j^a Ihu) Gt\ni, 


Kiiiiikytc Ksjtiite I'lCos, l^anibhii. 



Of handsome person and with fascinating; manners 
and a brilliant intellect, Si;i l\ajah A. V. Jugga llao 
Bahadur Garu, the subject of our sketch, is a gentleman 
of varied attainments, and has rendered such sigiial 
service to the scientific world as cannot fail to raise him 
in the estimation of many a savant both of the East 
and the West. He has been much abroad; he has 
travelled through Eui'ope and many other foreign lands, 
and his mind being stored with all he has seen and heard 
his conversation is most ajjreeable and instructive. 


It is said that the family from which Sri Jugga Pvao 
Garu has sprung is an ancient one, and that some of his 
ancestors held respectable and high posts under the 
Xizanl of Hyderabad, prominent of them being INIr. 
Ankitam Sriramulu Garu, who was Dewan to the Nawab 
of Masulipatam. Eai Bahadur A. V. Narasiitga Eao 
Garu, the son of Dewan Sriramulu Garu, was born in 1827. 
Mr. Narasinga Eao lost his father when but an infant ; and 
so he was taken to Vizagapatam and brought up under the 
care of his maternal grandfather. His education was, 
at first entrusted to Mr. Porter, and then to the Eev. 
J. Hay, D. I)., the father of modern education /b 
Northern Circars. Mr. Narasinga Eao entered the service 
of the East India Company when he was young, and 
early rose to the position of Deputy Collector through 
sheer dint of energy, good character, and perseverance. 
He married Sri Achayamma Garu, the daughter of ^Ir. 
Godav Jugga Eao Gam. , 


154 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

Sri Eani Achayamma Gam, the wife of Kai Bahadur 
Narasinga Kao Garu, and mother of Mr. A. V. Jugga 
"Rao Garu, comes of a very highly respectable family, 
the first prominent member of it being Mr. Goday Jugga 
Eao Garu, who came from Masulipatam to Vizagapatam 
as the Dubash of the then Governor-in-Council of 
Northern Circars, which had a special Governor in those 
days. Mr. Jugga Rao Garu built a temple— the only 
chief temple now — dedicated to Sitharamaswami, which 
is a living monument of his piety. He had two sons, 
Prakasa Eao Garu, and Narain Eao Garu. The former 
died heirless, but the latter was blessed with two sons, 
one of them being Mr. G. V. Jugga Eao Garu. 

Mr. Goday Venkata Jugga Eao Garu was sent by 
his father to Madras for education, where he remained for 
some time, and made considerable progress in his studies. 
He had a scientific and inventive turn of mind. He built 
in 1874 an Observatory at Vizagapatam, and determined 
the latitude of the place, and also invented a Pluviometer 
(instrument for measuring rain). The following extracts 
show the position he held in the scientific world : — 

Miscellaneous Papers. 

No. 1405. 


The Meteorological Eeporter to the Govt, of Bengal 

A. V. Nursing Eow, Esq., 

"Daba Gardens," Vizagapatam, 

Dated Calcutta, 22nd Augtist 1870. 

I am directed to communicate to you the thanks 
of the Lieutenant Governor for the valuable assistance 

Sri Rajah A. V. Jugga Rao Bahadur Garu. 155 
-» ' 

you have voluntarily rendered to this Department by 

forwarding your observations for collocation with those 

of the official observations. 

I have the honor to be, 


Your niDst obedient servant, 


Meteorological Beporter to 
the Govt, of Bengal. 

No. 67. 


The Meteorological Reporter to the Govt, of Bengal. 


A. V. Nursing Row, Esq., 

• Vizagapatam, 

Dated Calcutta, 10^/t February 1872. 

Sir, • 

I am directed to convey to you the thanks of the 
Lieutenant Governor of Bengal for the valuable assistance 
you have rendered to this office in communicating copies 
of the Vizagapatam Registers. , 

I have the honor to be, ^ 

Your most obedient servant, 

Meteorological Reporter to 
the Govt, of Bengal. 


i5(i The Aeistockacy of Southern India. 

No. 416. 


The Meteorological Keporter to the Govt, of Bengal. 
To • 

A. V. NuiisiNG Eow, Esq., 


Dated -Calcutta, \Uh Aiirjust 1874. 


I am directed to communicate to you the thanks 
of the Lieutenant Governor for the valuable assistance 
you have voluntarily rendered to this Department by 
forwarding your observations for collocation with those 
of the official observatories. 

I have the honor to be, 
Your most obedient servant, 
(Signed) M. G. WILLSON, 
Off<j. M c tea ruIo(j leal Reporter to 
the Govt, of Bengal. 

Extract from the Hanchj Booh of Meteorology. 

Alex. Buchan. 

"Since this rain gauge does not admit of very nice 
measurement another sort is frequently used, consisting of 
a receiving- vessel and a glass measure of much smaller dia- 
npeter, which admits of as nice graduation as maybe desired. 
A good specimen of this class is the gauge recommended 
by Mr. Symons, London, Fig, 80, in which (b) is the vessel 
which receives the rain, and (c) the graduated vessel which 
measures the amount. There being often great difficulty 
or trouble experienced m replacing the glass measure 
when it chanceu to -ct broken, the late G. V. Ju-'-a lior/. 

Ski Bajah A. V. Jugga Rao Bahaduh Gaku. 157 

a wealthy Zemindar of Vizagapatam, proposed a gauge 
(Fig 81) in the form of a funnel having a diameter of 4" 697 
inches or a receiving area of 17"88 square inches. Now 
since a fluid ounce contains 1*788 cubic inches of water, 
it follows that for every fluid ounce collected by tliis 
gauge, the tenth of an inch of rain has fallen. The measure 
can of course be graduated to afiy degree of nicety ; and 
it may easily be reproduced if required. It is also the 
cheapest rain-gauge costing only 76'. 6(?. wlicn made of 
copper and 4?. (jd. when made of tin. Self-registering rain 
gauges have been invented by Osier and Cresley ; but 
being too expensive for general use, they need not be 

Mr. Venkata Jugga Kao had no sons, but he had an 
only daughter, Sri Achayamma Garu, who was given in 
* marriage to Mr. IS'arasinga liao Garu. After the death of 
Mr. Goday Jugga i\ao Garu, his daughter inherited his 
estate, and in order to manage this, Mr. Narasiuga l\ao 
resigned his post of Deputy Collector and Magistrate. 

Mrs. Narasinga Eao was a lady of really fine char^icterj 
elevated thoughts and noble disposition. The Government 
of Madras in recognition of her qualities, both of head and 
heart, conferred on her the personal distinction of Eani. 

A cultured man himself, Mr. Narasinga Bao enlarged 
the observatory founded by his father-in-law by adding to 
it an equatorial Telescope, surmounted with a mo,veable 
dome at a cost of a lakh of Kupees, a transit instrument 
and a sidereal clock. He also opened a Meteorological 
Observatory and furnished Government daily with meteoro- 
logical reports. The Government of India in recognition 
of his services conferred on him the title of Bai Baliadur. 
He wa^ appointed Honorary Metcorolo;;icc<l Eeportcr to 


158 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

the Government of India for Vizagapatam. The Govern- 
ment evening gun at that station having been discontinued 
in 1871, Mr. Narasinga Eao offered to bear the expenses 
of the firing which the Government of Madras allowed 
as a special case and this useful institution has been 
maintained ever since. He was elected Fellow of the 
Royal Astronomical Society in 1871, and of the Royal 
Geographical Society in 1872. 

"We give the following extracts we were able to collect 
from Government records, and also from the annual reports 
of A. V. Jugga Eao Observatory for the information of 
our readers : — 

No. 465. 

" Order dated 28th November 1871, No. 3837. 
The Eight Honorable the Governor in Council , 
authorizes the firing of an evening gun at Waltair under 
the orders of the Officer commanding Northern District, 
Mr. Nursing Eow paying for the powder on presentation 
of the necessary vouchers. 

(True Extract.) 

(Signed) A. C. SILVEE, Col., 

Offg. Secy, to Govt. 

The Adjutant General, 

Controller of Military Accounts, 

Insr-Genl. of Ord. d Magazines. 

(True Copy.) 

(Signed) T. TAYLOE, 
Hd. Clerk, Adjt. GenVs. Office. 

My dear Mr. Nursing Eow, 
I have the pleasure to forward for your perusal 
Proceedings of Government sanctioning the .evening 

Sri Eajah A. V. Jugga Kao Bahadur Garu. 159 
^ji i — — . — 

gun under the arrangements proposed by you. I will send 
the order giving effect to above from this evening by my 
Serjeant-Major to Vizagapatam about 4 to day. If you 
have any thing in the v^^ay of instruction to send to the 
man who regulates the clock by which the gun is fired, let 

me know before hand please. 


Believe me, 
Waltair, Your's sincerely, 

6th Dec. 1871. (Signed) C. G. GUNNING. 

Kindly return the " Proceedings of Government." 

From The Indian Magazine, August 1887, issued 
by the National Indian Associstion London, in aid of 
Social Progress and Education in India 


G. V. Juggarow's Observatory, Daba Gardens, Vizagapatm; 
Kesults of Meteorological observations, 1885. With 
an I*ntroduction, containing Astronomical observa- 
tions, &c., by A. V. Nursingarow, Esq., f. r. a. s., 
F. R. G. s., Calcutta : Thacker, Spink & Co. ^ 

Perhaps the most picturesque of all the coast districts 

of the Madras Presidency is Vizagapatam — the land of the 

Hindoo Mars, which is the meaning of the word — lying 

along the north-west shore of the Bay of Bengal. Here, 

in the chief native town of the district, lived in former 

days a wealthy Zemindar, G. V. Juggarow Esq., wiio, to 

the many acts of benevolence he practised among the 

people* around him, added a great taste for scientific 

enquiry, especially in the subject of Meteorology ; for 

the furtherance of which, he established there in 1841 ihe 

excellent observatory which bears his name. In the 

introduction to this Eeport of Eesults, Mr. Juggarow's 


160 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

tliaries are largely quoted from, to show what had been his 
great desire, to provide and maintain an estabHshment for 
the accurate record of these observations, as also to 
communicate to the residents around " the state of my 
barometer or the aiDproach of bad weather," and he 
enjoined upon his heirs, " in case I breathe my last before 
doing so, they should make the Institutions permanent at 
the cost of my estate." The observatory had originally 
been well stocked with instruments, but these becoming 
antiquated, others of much greater value and of recent 
date liave been introduced l)y his son-in-law and successor 
Mr. A. V. Nursingarow, who, with the help of a number 
of well trained native assistants, has so carefully and 
regularly conducted these observations in the past, that 
in all subjects, such as temperature, rainfall direction and 
force of winds, ^c, comparison is made with what had 
been recorded daily in sixteen previous years. 

From . ^ 

The Collector's Office, 


Mth August, 1874. 
My Dear Sir, 

I have the pleasure to forward you the Government 
Order which please return after perusal on the subject of 
the light to be exhibited from your flag staff tower, and 
shall feel obliged if you will permit overseer Soobiah 
Nayudu to proceed with the work. 

Believe me, • 

Yours faithfully, 
(Signed) NOEDMANN, 

Executive Engineer. 
A. V. Nursing Eow, Esq. 





Sri Bajah A. V. Jugga Eao Bahadur Gartj. 161 

— — j — — . 

No. 743. 


5th June, 1885. 

H. G. Turner, Esq., 

Ag. Collectoj' of Vizagapatam. 

A. V. Nursing Eow, Esq., 


I have the honor to annex for your information 
extracts from reports to Government on the subject of the 
signal Tower on Dolphin's Nose. 

Extracts from the Proceedings of Government, dated 
13th May 1885, No. 200 Marine. 

* * * Notes of Inspection by the Chief Engineer, 
P. W. D., 1 Circle, February— March 1885. 

* „ * -x- * 

Signal Tower on Dolphin's Nose. This building is in 
a state of great disrepair, and has evidently been neglected 
for years. It is surmounted by a Flag Staff the support- 
ing ropes of which appeared to be rotten, and the wood 
work might fall at any time. The present condition of , 
the building is certainly dangerous and it should be either 
repaired or pulled down. .. , * 


From J.H. Taylor, Lieut. E.N.R., Master Attendant, 
Madras, to the Chief Secretary to Government, dated 
Madras, 28th April 1885, No. 3493. 

•V 'fC 'p •f* '^ . 


l"62 The Aiustockacy of Southern India. 

The signal Tower on Dolphin's Nose is private pro- 
perty. It is an old observatory belonging to the Nursing 
Kow's family ; it was put at our disposal for the exhibition 
of a lantern for the benefit of the shipping, but on the 
occasion of a cyclone, in October 1876, the light and 
portion of the house was destroyed, but the injury to the 
direct property was not in any way caused by the lantern 
or any marine interference. 

* * * * "5^ 

I have the honor to be, 
Your most obedient servant, 

(Signed) H. G. TUENEE, 

Acting Collector. 


Ut May 1886. 


Flag staj^ on Dolphin's Nose. 
" It is hereby notified for the information of the public 
that Mr. A. V. Nursing Eow has erected an expensive 
and durable Flagstaff on the Dolphin's Nose, and the 
time signals are now hoisted on it under his orders every 
morning between 8 and 9 o'clock to indicate time. 

" The flags are hauled down at nine in the morning 
with great precision, and it is intended thereby to indicate 
the precise time of that hour not only for the information 
of persons whose distance from the Fort renders the 
report of the 9 p. m. time gun inaudible, but also to afford 
the Shipping in the Eoads the means of finding the error 
of chronometers and to indicate the error of the time gan." 

Sri Rajah A. V. Jugga Rao Bahadur Garu. 163 

Eai Bahadur A. V. Narasinga Rao Garu loved, culti- 
vated, and encouraged arts and sciences, and held men 
of learning in the highest esteem and confidence. He 
v^as fond of society, and his course of life was sober 
and regular. Lively in conversation, he kept up the 
dignity of his station by the most amiable and condescend 
ing behaviour. 


He left Rupees 1,15,000, as an endowment for a 
College to be called after his wife. The College is managed 
by a small committee of which the Collector of the 
District is the Chairman, and Sri Rajah A. V. Jugga Rao 
Garu is the Vice-chairman. The strength of the Collesre 
is 450 with Mr. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar, m.a., l.t., a 
teacher of tried abilities, as Principal, who has a good 
staff of assistants, consisting chiefly of graduates. There 
is a library and reading room attached to the College for 
the use of the students and teachers. There is also a 
hostel»of which the Principal is the Warden. 

Sri Rajah A. V. Jugga Rao Bahadur Garu was born 
on the 4th February 1866, at Vizagapatam. He received 
his elementary education in the London Mission High 
School there. As for scientific education it was chiefly 
conducted by his father, who took a special interest in 
training him in astronomical and meteorological work.' 
He made rapid progress in the study of scientific subjects 
by his steady application. He evinced great interest in 
amateur dramatic performances while young, and started 
an association called, " Jaganmitra Dramatic Company," 
whchis still in existence. He succeeded to the n-sanagement 
of the estate in October 1898. Till then he was engaged 
in scientific pursuits. Besides maintaining an Astrono- 
mical Observatory opened by his father and the Celestial ' 


164 The Aeistocracy of Southern India. 

Photograph Observatory started by his mother, he has 
expanded very much the scope of the Meteorological 
Observatory by providing it vi^ith all the latest instrmiients. 
He also opened a magnetical observatory which is one 
of the three such grand institutions in India, and is 
expected to be of immense use to the Government of 
India in the forthcoming mk,gnetic survey of this country. 
The portion of the work connected with this part of the 
Presidency will be conducted personally by Mr. Jugga 
Eao Garu. He has also opened a Seismological Obser- 
vatory which is a very rare institution in any country for 
measuring the current of earthquakes. 

He has great interest in Horticulture, and has studied 
Botany well. He has a rare collection of standard works 
on Botany. Very many plants not generally found in 
other famous gardens of India are grown in his horti- 
cultural garden. He is a member of the International 
Association of Botanists. 

His drawing room is an evidence of his great taste for 
art, and he has beautified it by some original paintings 
which he collected when he went to Paris. 

He went to England in 1900, when he had the unique 
privilege of paying his respects to Her Most Gracious 
Majesty, the late Queen Victoria, and to the then Prince 
of Wales, now King Edward VII. When Mr. Jugga Eao 
Vas there, he was elected Fellow of the Eoyal Astronomical 
Society, Eoyal Meteorological Society, Royal Colonial 
Institute, and Society of Arts. While in England he visited 
various Observatories, and studied their working, and also 
visited the Agricultural Exhibition of York opened by the 
Prince of Wales. He stayed in Paris for a fortnight, and 
visited the famous Paris Exhibition, and examined all its 

Sri Eajah A. V. Jugga Rao Bahadur Garu. 1G5 
♦ t . 

departments. He also visited Switzerland, and the 
famous towns of Italy. In the various places of his visit 
he gathered excellent specimens of art. He has just 
published a very interesting diary of his travels and his 
opinions on most things which he saw in his tour are 

most lucidly given in it. 


He has got a beautiful library of more • than 10,000 
volumes, treating on science, English literature, and 
Indian subjects, among them being many rare books out 
of print, besides the leading Cyclopaedias and other books 
of reference. 

In his mansion one can see a magnificent assemblage 
of all sorts of furniture, fancy things, trees and plants, 
forming the sublimes t and at the same time the most 
charming scenery in all Vizagapatam. Nothing can exceed 
the diversified and picturesque loveliness of the landscape 
which is in a conspicuous part of the town. Upon an 
eminence stands the mansion of Mr. Jugga Kao. The 
grand building and the grounds occupy a large area, and 
the enclosure is surrounded by a wall forming a complete 
square. Standing high above the front storey, one could 
look down, with the view of a bird, upon the buildings, 
grounds and walls of the mansion — the sea at a short 
distance — and the whole circumjacent town far and wide.,, 
The grand front of the mansion and the other lines of the 
square array of buildings that enclose the court yard ar« 
all of modern architecture. The central hall of the 
mansion with its lofty roof sustained by no pillars is 
hung with suits of armour. Passing through the entrance 
hall, we reach another hall, in the middle of the mansion, 
which contains excellent furniture and rare specimens of all 
kinds of novelty he was able to collect when he travelled ^ 


166 The Aristoceact of Southern India. 

in Europe. Suffice it to say that all the apartments are of 
the most splendid description, for they are all embellished 
with elaborate sculpture work and the furniture bear 
scientific evidences of their pristine richness and elegance. 

In the central hall of the mansion there is a statue 
of Jupiter, mounted on a beautiful silver dome which 
was presented to Sri Godaj^ J^^gg^ I^ao Garu, by the late 
Sriman Srinivasa Pillai, Dayawant Bahadur, and others 
with the following inscription : — 


GoDAY Venkata Jugga Eao, Esq., 

On his departure from Madras. 


C. Srinivasa Pillai and others, his native fribnds at 
the Presidency, who fully appreciating his public spirit 
evinced by his exertions for the general welfare of the 
Hindu community, thus express their friendship, esteem 
and admiration inspired by his many amiable qaalities 
and by the successful perseverance with which he has 
■prosecuted the improvement of his mind. 

Madras, 14^7^ Julij, 1838. 

Sri Rajah Jugga Eao Bahadur Garu has received a 
bronze statue of Her late Majesty Queen Victoria from 
England, and he is going to present it to the town of 
Vizagapatam. The canopy is in course of construction; 
as soon as it is finished, the statue will be unveiled by 
H. E. the Governor of Madras. c 

Sri R.AJAH A. V. Jugga Eao Bahadur Garu. l67 

He has constructed a hospital at his own cost in a 
conspicuous part of the town. This has been of great 
help to those who require medical aid. He has erected 
stone posts in many places to enable the heavily laden 
labourer to rest his burden on for a while. A rest house 
in Waltair owes its existence to him. 

His friends have received every proof of his natural 
goodness of heart as well as of his candor and prudence. 
He is very affable, courteous, and kind to everybody ; 
and in almost all the circles of Vizagapatam he is spoken 
of well and received with great respect. 





Sri Eajah K. E. V. Krishna Kao Bahadur, b. a., 
Zemindar of Polavaram, who has a bold and enterprising 
spirit, and the most remarkable versatility of genius, is 
the only graduate of the aristocracy in Northern Circars. 
He has become a very prominent figure in Southern India, 
by the initiative he invariably takes in almost all public 
movements, and has acquired a good reputation for his 
untiring energy and unflagging zeal in any matter of 
importance that he sets his heart upon. 

The family from which Sri Eajah Krishna Eao 
Bahadur has sprung is of great antiquity, wealth, and 
influence. One of the members of the famjj.y, Mr. 
Venkata Eazu Garu, held the important and respectable 
post of Sheristadar in the Krishna and the Godavari 
Districts. He had four sons, viz., Venkatarayaningar, 
Eamanna Garu, Pedda Subbarayaningar, and Chinna 
Subbarayaningar. The family being undivided, all the 
brothers lived together. The father, Mr. Vankata Eazu 
Garu, out of the money he had laid by, bought a small 
estate in the Krishna District, and his eldest son, 
Venkatarayaningar, a man of much influence and tact, 
acquired large estates, and in course of time his fame for 
charity, large heartedness, and generous instincts was 
spread far and wide. He constructed choultries at stated 
intervals from Eajahmundry, his head quarters, to 
Benares ; and it would appear that he twice distributed 

Sri Rajah K. K. V. Krishna Kao Bahadur. B. A. 

kuiiikotc Kstate pieSs, Haiubluii 

Sri Kajah K. K. V. Krishna Kao Bahadur Garu. 169 

I — — — — — ■ ■ - ■ 

his weight in gold to poor Brahmins and other poverty- 
stricken people of the District ; and in times of famine he 
left the tax uncollected. After Mr. Venkatarayaningar, 
his widow began to manage the estate. As it was a large 
one, and as she had no experience, she lost every thing. 
A cousin of Venkatarayaningar, Jagannadha Kao, owned 
the present Polavaram estat(?, Taduvoy and Jangareddy 
Gudiem, and Ganapavaram estates, and also the present 
Gutata estate. These estates were not then so flourishing 
as they are now, and hence they did not pay the pro- 
prietors well. The Gutata estate passed to the hands of 
the Shroff of Mr. Venkatarayananingar, who was a 
dependant of the family. A partition took place, when 
Jagannadah Kao, retained to himself the present Pola- 
varam estate and gave away Jangareddy Gudiem and 
Taduva estates to Pedda Subbarayaningar, and the Gana- 
pavaram estate to Ramanna Garu. The estates of the 
latter two were partly sold, and partly lost to Government. 
Jagannadha Kao had a son, named Kamachandra Venkata 
Krishna Rao, who had a son, named Venkata Jagannadha 
Kao, and also a daughter. Venkata Jagannadha Kao died 
at the comparatively early age of 25, leaving behind him 
a young widow, Kamayamma Garu, and gave her the 
option of adopting a son of her own choice. She adopted 
her sister's son Mr. Krishna Rao, the subject of our memoir j 
Mr. Pedda Nagaraja Kao Garu was the gi'eat grandfather 
of Mr. Krishna Kao, and enjoyed the honor and pi;ivilege 5f 
being the leader of the -Bar in the Provincial Court at 
Masulipatam. He was known to be of very high legal 
attainments, a great .Sanskritist, and a renowned poet in 
Sanskrit and Telugu. He is the author of Sakuntala- 
praniam in Telugu, and of several commentaries on 

Sanskrit books. 


170 The AEisTociiACY of Southeen India. 

Kamayamma Garu, the adoptive mother of Krishna 
Eao, was universally known for her virtue and charity. 
Her charity was not of the old and orthodox style, but 
quite in keeping with modern requirements, for she 
educated a number of men, most of whom are now 
graduates holding decent posts. AVhat she gave away was 
such as to extend its usefulness to every portion of the 
District. Choultries and various other useful institutions 
established by her are the living monuments of her 
philanthropy and noble-mindedness. 

Mr. Krishna Eao was born on the 11th November 
1871, at Polavaram, in the Godavari District. While a 
boy of five years, he was as we have said, adopted by his 
mother's sister, Kamayamma Garu. He received the 
rudimentary portion of his education in Telugu and 
Sanskrit at home. The Government of Madras found 
that the estate was very efficiently managed by Kama- 
yamma Garu, but the only thing that called for their 
remark was that the minor Zemindar was not properly 
educated. As she was very fond of her son it was with a 
pang that she sent him to Eajahmundry in 1884 for educa- 
tion. Soon after he joined a pubhc school there, his intelli- 
gence shone forth with so much lastre that he gained 
a great reputation among the boys and teachers. With 
surprising rapidity he passed the Matriculation Examina- 
tion in ]887. He had the capacity and inclination to 
learn everything that came in his way, nor was there any 
branch of knowledge that he despised ; yet he was most 
inclined to mathematics and literat.ure. In process of 
time when he began the study of literature and history 
with greater application he was looked upon as a coming 
man in the literary field. He joined the F. A. class of the 

Sei Rajah K. E. V. Krishna Rao Bahadur Garu. 171 

Rajahmundrj^ College in 1888. In August of that year 
his adoptive mother died, which disturbed his studies for 
the remaining portion of the year. Notwithstanding the 
many impediments that stood in his way he joined the 
College the following year to resume his course of study. 
The adoption was just then threatened by an upstart, 
named Venkata Razu, who had nothing to do with the 
family. Unfortunately Mr. Krishna Rao's study was 
again disturbed, and he could not attend college as 
he had to contend in the suit. Owing to this cause 
and owing also to his protracted illness, he could not 
continue his studies till 1891, towards the end of which 
5'ear the suit was disposed of favorably to him. He 
was then in a settled mind, and was in a condition to 
resume his collegiate course. With a mind resolved to 
take the degree at any cost — fortunately nothing interfered 
with him — he joined the F. A. class of the Madras Christian 
College, and passed the F. A. Examination in 1893. The 
year following he joined the B. A. class, and passed both 
the Language branches in 1896. About September of that 
year he was suddenly taken ill — so ill that his life was 
despaired of — which continued the whole of 1897. The 
following year he spent in recruiting his health, and in 
1900 he appeared for the History branch, and came out 
successfully. After taking the degree he took charge of. 
the estate, and made Cocanada his head-quarters. 

Being actuated with a historical interest he lately 
travelled all over India. With the Science College in 
Poona he has been greatly impressed. This, he is of 
opinion, is a very useful and practical institution. Of the * 
Ferguson College his impression is no less enthusiastic. 
Sarvajanic Sabha, he says, is a very well attended and , 

172 The of Southern India. 

patriotic institution unlike the so called institutions in 
Southern India that come to the notice of the people 
periodically, and seldom do any work to promote public 

He is an advocate of social reform, and as such has no 
objection to foreign traveL He once arranged to go to 
England for higher education ; he purchased passage, 
outfit, &c., but was advised by doctors not to venture on a 
sea voyage as he was just then in poor health. As 
regards the National Congress Mr. Krishna Eaois of opinion 
that there should be a political agitation on constitu- 
tional and moderate basis. He admits that some of the 
members go out of the way, but he sympathises heart and 
soul with the movement. He has the highest respect for 
Mr. A. 0. Hume, whose whole-hearted devotion to the 
political salvation of India, he greatly admires. He 
has an equal sympathy with the aims of the social 
conference ; but he is afraid that it has not been a success 
as most of the resolutions passed are not carried out 
practically. He has a very great admiration for Veerasa- 
lingam Puntulu Garu, Rai Bahadur, as the only man who 
has the courage of his convictions. 

In 1895 he started a society called the Andhra- 
bhashojjeevani (society for the resuscitation of Telugu 
literature) of which he was the Vice-President for about 
two years, while the Hon. Mr. Anandacharlu was the 

There had been a Telugu journal published in Eajah- 
mundry by Mr. N. Subba Rao, some years ago and when 
that was removed to Madras to be edited by Eai Bahadur 
Veerasalingam Puntulu Garu, Mr. Krishna Kao started a 
magazine known as the Saraswati in 1898. He has, been 

> . 

Sri Eajah K. K. V. Krishna Kao Bahadur Garu. 173 

conducting the journal very ably by publishing ancient 
literature that had not been printed and also by supplying 
various kinds of useful information. 

He paid a donation of Kupees 1,000, last year, to the 
" Widows' Home" started by Kai Bahadur Veerasahngam 
Puntulu Garu, at Madras. K<e has established a hospital 
at Polavaram, and this is very useful to all the neighbour- 
ing villages. There is a choultry at Kottapalli, near 
Cocanada, established by his mother, which he maintains. 
Every educational movement in the District finds in him 
a patron. 

It was at his instance that a grand industrial 
exhibition was held last year at Cocanada, the first of its 
kind in the annals of the District. He helped a great 
deal towards the success of the District Conference and 
the Provincial Conference. 

Hj is always busy with his books and journals, and 
suffers not a day to pass without adding something or other 
to his store of knowledge. He is very well infoi-ftied on 
almost all the topics of the day. Affable and courtly in 
his manners he has all the accomplishments of a perfect 
gentleman. He is one of the best products of half a 
century of Western education, and the most sanguine . 
expectations of his preceptors have been amply realised. 
His life has thus far justified the high promise of hiS 
early youth. 



The surviving representative of the Peddapur Samas- 
thanam which was once in its glory, and which is 
now extinct, is Sri Eajah Vatsavaya Venkata Simhadri 
Jagapathi liazu Bahadur Garu, who is much loved by 
his ryots for his generosity and kindness towards them. 

From the vernacular records that are forthcoming, 
we understand that the ancestors of the family of the 
Zemindar of Kotham originally came from Northern India 
and settled down in Godavari, Nellore, Kristna and 
Vizagapatam Districts. They were divided into two 
sections known as Mandapathi and Vatsavayi ; the former 
were prominent at Ongole in the Nellore District,' and the 
latter at Peddapuram in the Godavari District. These two 
families acquired extensive lands not by any treacherous 
means but by adventure and warfare, as it was a period of 
chivalry, when heroism, bravery and valour were much 
respected and honored. 

The founder of the Peddapur estate was Sri Timma- 
,razu Bahadur Garu, who went against some of the 
neighbduring Mahomedan rulers, conquered them and 
built a fort at Peddapur. He drove away some of the 
Kshatryas from the village of Tirupathi as they were 
causing a good deal of annoyance to the surrounding 
Zemindars. This act won the esteem and admiration of 
the well-known Kings of Anga, Vanga, Kalinga and Chola. 
He dug a big tank at Peddapuram which is known as 




S. K. V. V. S. Jagapathi Kazu Bahadur Garu. 175 

: • 

" Tirupathi Eaz Cheruvu." Sher Muhammad, one of the 
Mahammadan rulers, in recognition of the heroic spirit of 
Timma Eazu Bahadur Garu presented him with a sword 
which he received holding the handle up. The custom in 
vogue was that the receiver of any gilt should receive the 
thing in a suppliant posture ; but the way in which 
Timma Eazu Bahadur received the gift showed that he 
was in no way inferior to Sher Muhammad in point of 

Sri Eaja* Jagapathi Eazu Bahadur Garu, the next 
in succession, erected some temples at Kattamuru, 
and dedicated them to Vishnu, and also built some 
mantapams and towers. He defeated a powerful Maho- 
medan chief, Mahomed Beg, in battle, and took posses- 
sion of such insignia, as cllianka, nagar and nowbath. 
By sheer dint of valour, he took possession of Kummurn, 
Bickavol, Tuni, Molleru, and Pittapur, and ruled 
them, ile advanced towards several turbulent gangs 
of people in the agency tracts, brought them to 
subjection and made them his feudatories. He was 
succeeded by his son Timma Jagapathi Eazu Bahadur 
Garu who defeated Narahari Deo in battle and captured 
his fort at Parlakimedi. This was done at the special 
request of the Maharajah of Vizianagram, Poosapathi 
Sitharam Eazu Bahadur Garu. Timma Jagapathi Razu 
Bahadm- Garu was very charitable, and the moniiments 
of his charities are tanks, wells, and some other useful 
institutions. He died childless, and therefore his nephew 
Eaya Jagapathi Eazu Bahadur succeeded him. Nothing 
is known of him more than the fact of his having been 
very charitable to the poor. His son Timma Jagapathi 
Eazu„Bahadur Garu was a linguist, for he was well 



176 The Akistoceacy of Southern India. 

versed in a number of languages, and was also a poet. 
Eaya Jagapathi Eazu Bahadur Garu, who succeeded him, 
conquered all his enemies, a,nd killed a Muhammedan 
ruler named Jaffer Ali near the Vindia mountains. He 
composed some verses in Telugu in honor of the God, 
Eamaswami at Bhadrachalam, and gave away Yanam, 
which was a sub-division 'of the Peddapur estate, to the 
Trench. His son Timma Jagapathi Eazu Bahadur 
maintained a large army consisting of cavalry and infantry. 
He died in 1797. It was his son Eaya Jagapathi Eazu 
Bahadur Garu that obtained a permanent, sunnud for 
enjoyment of lands und _■ him from the British Govern- 
ment in 1802, He died in 1805 leaving behind him three 
v/idows : of whom th' , senior, Eani Lakshmi Narasayya 
Garu succeeded him. Soon after this, disputes arose as 
regards the succession between the Eani and Jagannadha 
Jagapathi Eazu Bahadur Garu, the cousin of the former 
Eajah. The matter was referred to Government ; they 
upheld the claims of the latter, and accordingly fiistalled 
him as such. After the death of the youngest Eani in 
1837, '^Suryanaraya Jagapathi Eazu Bahadur, son of 
Jagannadha Jagapathi Eazu Bahadur, succeeded to the 
estate. He was in charge of the same only for five years, 
during which period, owing to unforeseen difficulties such 
. as cyclones and famine, the arrears of tax could not be 
paid to Government. Further the estate was encumbered 
'with dpbt owing to mismanagement during the time of 
the Eani referred to above. 

For scarcely had three years elapsed from the date of 
his succession, when the Collector brought the estate for 
sale on account of arrears. His proceedings were, however, 
set aside by the local Government, and they passed an 

S. R. V. V. S. Jagapathi Razu Bahadur Garu. 177 

order dated 4th January 1842, declining to confirm the 
sale on the ground that "there were strong objections to 
the transfer of landed property from a family who had 
possessed it for centuries," and remarking that "as the 
Collector admitted that the season had been adverse, and 
as it appeared from the petition of the proprietor (the 
father of the present petitioner) that he was desirous of 
entering into an adjustment of the arrears. His Lordship 
in Council would prefer some arrangement being made 
with the view of preserving the estate to the family." 
Then he thought that by proposing to Government to 
take the estate under their own management, he might 
effectually show them that the short collections of the 
Zemindari were not caused b^ his inability, and he 
accordingly made the proposal by a petition addressed 
to Government on the condition that it should be 
restored to him after the discharge of the arrears. In 
the meantime the Collector and the Board of Revenue 
had, in pursuance of the order of Government, dated 4th 
January 1842, recommended that as the sale of Veeravaram 
having been regularly completed, could not be legally set 
aside, the petitioner should be " allowed to retain posses- 
sion of the remaining portion of the estate, consisting of 
six Muttas paying an annual Peishcush of Rs. 1,69,434-8-0, 
on the condition that the balance of arrears which, after 
giving credit for the purchase-money of Veeravaram,' 
amounted to Rupees 2,55,997-10-3 should be liquidated 
by twenty annual instalments of Rs. 12,799-14-1, to be 
paid of course in addition to the current permanent 
Beriz." Thereupon the local Government passed an 
order, dated 11th April 1842, directing that the property 
should be managed by the Collector on his account in 
accordance with his proposal. The Collector managed it 

178 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

for 5i years, but his management did not show any better 
results, and the arrears were considerably augmented. 
At the end of that period the Collector again recom- 
mended the sale of the estate, and ultimately it was sold 
in auction and bought in on account of Government. 

Sri Kajah Vatsavaya .Venkata Simhadri Jagapathi 
Kazu Bahadur Garu was born in 185H at Tuni. He 
learnt Sanskrit and Telugu at home under able pundits, 
and can talk Hindustani fluently. At a comparatively 
early age he evinced much interest in hunting and riding, 
and in course of time he became an expert in both. He 
did not spend his time in frivolous pursuits but in careful 
study of vedic lore ; and books treating on the ethical code 
of Hindus occupied a great portion of his time. He is 
very active and energetic, and he has developed these 
qualities to such an extent that he works for hours 

> c 

The present Zemindar some years ago appealed to 

His Excellency the Governor in Council to restore the 

estate owned by his ancestors. 

His prayers were : — 

1st. That the Government would be pleased to 

restore his Zemindari to him with all its 

profits, after deducting the annual Peishcush 

c and the charge of management from the 

collections of the twenty years from 1842 

to 1862. 

2ncl. That, if the Government did not consider that 
he was entitled to a remission of the whole 
balance due by his father, they would be 

S. E. V. V. S. Jagapathi Razu Bahadur Garu. 179 

pleased to restore the estate to him with all 
surplus funds which might now remain to 
its credit, on condition of his paying the 
balance of Rupees 2,55,997 minus such 
portion of it as they might think proper to 
remit, or of paying the whole if no remission 
was thought prober, or, 

3rd. That if His Excellency considered that the 
surplus funds could not be paid. His 
Excellency would be pleased to restore his 
Zemindari to him. 

The prayers of the Zemindar did not meet wdth a 
favorable response. 

As soon as the Eajah Sahib took charge of the estate, 
he established a choultry at Tuni, where a large number 
of people, irrespective of caste, colour or creed are fed 
gratis ^very day. There are special wards for each caste. 
There is a separate establishment for the management of 
the choultry, and those who go there are highly satisfied 
with the treatment they receive at the hands of those in 
charge of it. 


The Eajah Sahib lately contributed towards the 
Lady Dufferin Fund, Es. 2,000, Es. 1,000 to the Victoria 
Memorial Fund, and Es. 200 to the Seshadri Memorial, 

Being a great Sanskritist himself, the Eajah Sahib is 
an admirer and encourager of Sanskrit study. Till a few 
years ago he had in his Samasthanam a well-known pundit 
Mahamahopadyaya Sriman Paravastu Venkata Eanga- 

180 The Aristoceacy of Southeen India. 

He maintains eight Hindu temples at the head 
quarters of his estate, and in the month of Karthika 
(December) ceremonies are performed on a grand scale at 
a cost of a thousand Rupees. On these days hundreds of 
poor people are fed. 

The Bajah Sahib has tixcavated many channels and 
tanks. When famine threatened furiously in 1899-1900, 
he spent Rs. 10,000 at the request of Government on 
repairs to tanks and channels. 

He has much faith in Ayurvedic medicines. He has 
studied medicine well and is a great doctor. He prepares 
excellent drugs, mixtures, &c., and gives them away free 
to all people. He has English, Ayurvedic and Unani 
medicines with him. He maintains an establishment for 
preparing and administering them. 

He once went out hunting in one of his forests, and 
chased two tigers to a distance of 12 miles, and ultimately 
shot them dead. He has killed a number of tigers and 
cheetahs. He would ride on horse back wherever possible, 
and go walking long distances at a stretch while on 
hunting excursions. He is undoubtedly a keen sportsman. 
He has trained a number of animals to peform different 
kinds of feats. Horses of the best mettle, goats and sheep 
of excellent breed he has in his menagerie, and their 
performances in the ring are simply wonderful. Those 
animals have been trained under the immediate super- 
vision of the Rajah Sahib and they are all kept in good 

He has a press of his own with a large establishment 
for the purpose of printing rare medical books. All the 

S. E. V. V. S. Jagapathi Bazu Bahadur Garu. 181 

proofs pass through his hands ; he does not grudge the 
trouble of going through them carefully. 

The Eajah Sahib is extremely kind to his ryots. 
He advances them money for purposes of cultivation. 
He makes large remissions during famine times, and 
hence they do not emigrate to other places in times of 
difficulty. Though he is said to be orthodox his views 
are very liberal. He is very loyal to the British Govern- 
ment, and is a friend of every one of the Collectors of the 
District. He is held in the highest estimation by his ryots, 
and is very popular with the general public. 



The Nuzvid Zemindari family is perhaps the oldest 
of the families of Zemindars in the Krishna District, 
and in olden days some of the members distinguished 
themselves in battle, attained great successes in the field 
and thus rose to prominence. The present representative 
Sri Eajah Venkata Eangiah Appa Eao Bahadur, a 
member of the Nuzvid family, and the Zemindar of 
Kapileswar Muttah, has had the benefit of Western 
education, and having travelled to most of the important 
places in India, accompanied by his tutors while he was 
under the management of the Court of Wards some years 
ago, has been able to manage his estate without any 

The first member of the family of whom anything 
is knowti was Meka Basavanna who hailed from the south, 
and established himself on the left bank of the river 
Krishna some two hundred years ago. It is said that 
he built a small fort near Gollapalli, which was then 
a debatable land and a battle field for the armies of the 
Orissa Eajahs, of the King of Vijianagar, and of the Nawab 
ot Golconda. The fort must have been an insignificant 
one, or else it would have drawn the attention of those 
powerful chiefs. In 1667, Appanna, generally known 
as Vijaya or " victorious " added much to his ancestral 
estate, and received from the Nawab of Golconda the 
titles of Thahavar va zalalat and dastugaha with some 
insignia of royalty. He was further given the titleg of 

Sri Pvcijah Veiikata Kan,i2:iah A))i)a Kao 13ahaclur. 

Kaiiikoty Kfitatc i'K^s, Kumbha. 

S. E. V. Eangiah Appa Kao Bahadur. 183 

Kajah, Bahadur, and Appa Rao, which have been used by all 
the succeeding members of the family. The fort now at 
Nuzvid owes its existence to Eajah Vijaya Appa Rao 
Bahadur. There is a legend to the effect that on a 
certain day as he was going on a hunting excurtion he 
came to a field of gingelly oil seed, where a goat was 
defending itself most furiously iigainst the attacks of a wolf. 
This the Rajah considered to be a good omen inasmuch 
as a feeble animal successfully resisted a mighty one, and 
on the spot he built his fort ; and hence Nuzvid is derived 
from Nuvid chetta vidu (the place of the oil seed plant). 

Sri Rajah Narasimha Appa Rao Bahadur, the next 
prominent member of the family, received the title of 
Tee7i hazar mansuhdar which meant that he held his 
estates on the feudal tenure of leading three thousand 
men to the standard of his suzerain or lord. He was a 
very successful and popular ruler, and many poems were 
composed in his honor by the prominent poets of those 
times. The Kajah died childless, and hence the estates 
passed to a distant relation named Appanna, and on his 
death, to Eamachandra, also called Narasimha Appa Eao. 
It was in the time of Eamachandra that Asaf Jah, Subadar 
of the Dekhan, went to the Elrishna District to bring it 
under the central authority. Ramachandra set himself reso- . 
lutely to the task of defying the authority of the Subadar, 
and stood a siege which lasted for three months in th^^. 
Nuzvid fort, but fell a victim to the sword of Eustum Ali 
Khan, who kept the estates for twelve years ; but his 
successors were not able to manage them, and so they 
arranged to rent them out. Under the influence of two 
members of the Kamadana family who were dependants 
on tlpte Eajahs of Nuzvid, one Venkatadri a descendant 

184 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

of the Nuzvid family, took the eighteen parganas of his 
ancestor for rent. The Kamadana people exerted their 
influence with the Nawab of Hyderabad and got a perma- 
nent sunnud for those parganas in the name of Venkatadri, 
but before they returned, Venkatadri had died. However, 
his brother Jagannadha received the sunnud. The new 
Zemindar in a short time Earned against his benefactors, 
and in the struggle that ensued they made him prisoner. 
Before setting him free they wrung out a promise from 
him to give them the management of the Nidadavole and 
Pentapad parganas ; but he failed to fulfil his promise as 
he tried to expel them from his jurisdiction when he had 
regained his liberty. They used their influence again 
with the Nizam of Hyderabad and succeeded in obtaining 
a sunnud for the whole of the Nuzvid estates. When 
this fact reached the ears of Appa Kao he was in a fix, 
and scarcely had the Kamadana people arrived from 
Hyderabad, when he offered them the whole of the Char- 
mahal estate on condition that they got the runnud 
cancelled. This they did, but he proved false to his promise. 
By thir time ' the French had established themselves at 
Masulipatam and were very influential in the Dekhan. 
They had a fort at Divi within the jurisdiction of the 
Zemindar. The Kamadana people made known their 
grievances to the French and sought their help. They 
wanted Appa Rao to come to terms, but he would not do 
JTo; the consequence was that a battle took place, in 
which he was made prisoner. He died in the prison. 
Thereupon the Kamadana people exerted their influence 
with the French, and got one Venkatadri, a lineal descen- 
dant of the family, to succeed Appa Kao. Venkatadri 
obtained Amaldari and Zemindari sunnuds through 
Hasan Ali Khan. Venkatadri Appa Eao, in token of 

S. R. V. Rangiah Appa Rao Bahadur. 185 

his gratitude to his benefactors, the Kamadana people, 
gave away the Charmahal estate. Narasimha Appa 
Rao, the next in succession, managed the state badly 
and the tax due by him to Government fell into an-ears, 
and as he failed to pay though repeatedly demanded, the 
authorities were constrained to send a small army to take 
possession of the estate. He borrowed money from 
Government officials and met the demand. As he had not 
paid the money borrowed from them, they brought their 
claims against him. He first appealed to the Governor- 
in-Council at Madras, and then to the Court of Directors 
in London. The latter ordered a strict enquiry to be 
made. While matters stood thus, Narasimha Appa Rao, 
assumed an attitude of defiance, and the result was that a 
small army of the British was sent against him. He 
made his escape to the Nizam's territory, and when an 
extradition for his arrest was obtained, he appeared before 
the Chief in Council and offered to pay his arrears if his 
rebellion was condoned and his estates were restored. 
His requests rnet with a favorable response, but he failed 
to pay his arrears, and Government were obliged*to send 
a small army to take possession of the estate. In the 
severe fight that ensued, Narasimha Appa Rao escaped in 
disguise, and his opponents levelled the ramparts to the 
ground. The Government issued a proclamation to tho 
effect that they had removed Rajah Narasimha Appa Rao 
from the Zemindari, and that his elder son Rajah, Venkaia 
Narasimha Appa Rao was recognised Zemindar. The 
father took refuge in the jungles of Bhadrachalam and 
caused much annoyance to the Company's officers by 
burning villages, plundering treasure an& killing and 
mutilating any who resisted. The Company's officers 
effected a compromise with him in 1785 and permitted 

186 The Aeistocracy op Southern India. 

him to reside with his son at Nuzvid. The father and 
his two wives were instrumental in fomenting these distur- 
bances, and after his death Nuzvid became quieted down. 

Ramachandra Appa Eao, one of the sons of the former 
Zemindar, and also one of his widows tried to follow in his 
wake in annojdng the Compa:ny's officers, and Government 
took the management of the estate and granted the 
claimants allowances. In 1880, the authorities restored 
the Zemindari by issuing sunnuds to Venkata Narasimha 
Rao for the Nidadavole parganas and to Ramachandra 
Appa Rao for six parganas, and as the youngest brother 
of these two was yet a minor he received nothing. All 
arrears due to Government were relinquished, and so they 
were placed in charge of the estates with clear balance 
sheets. After the death of Ramachandra Appa Rao and 
Venkata Narasimha Appa Rao, the management of the 
estates came under the Court of Wards. Eajah Sobha- 
nadri Appa Eao, the son of Ramachandra Appa Eao . took 
possession of the estate in 1831. He had in his treasury 
fourteen Jakhs of Eupees, the accumulations of his long 
minority. His extravagance dissipated this hoard and in 
a short time he became burdened with a debt of six lakhs 
of Eupees. Eajah Narayya Appa Eao, the son of Rajah 
Sobhanadri Appa Rao, was a very enlightened Zemindar. 
in his time, the town of Nuzvid was cleansed, new 
rqads were made through it, and lamp posts were erected, 
all at his cost. He died in 1877, leaving three minor 
sons ; the eldest of them was recognised Zemindar, and 
the estates were taken under the management of the 
Court of Ward^. 

The late Rajah Sobhanadri Appa Eao, who died in 
• 1868, left six sons. The fourth son, Rajah Venkata 

S. E. V. Eangiah Appa Eao Bahidub. 187 

Narasiinha Appa Rao, presented a petition to Government, 
praying that the Zemindari might be divided, which 
petition was rejected. He then commenced a suit against 
his five brothers to recover a share of the estate and also 
the personal property left by his father. The case was 
decided by the District Judge of Krishna, and an appeal was 
preferred to the High Court oi Madras against the decision 
of the Lower Court, and ultimately the Privy Council 
decided that the Nuzvid estates became a new Zemindari 
not feudal in its tenure or impartible in its nature, and 
therefore the succession to them must be regulated 
by the ordinary Hindu Law. 

In consequence of the said decision the five surviving 
sons of Raja Sobhanadri became entitled to one-sixth of 
the estates with arrears of mesne profits, which arrears 
the minor sons of their eldest brother could not possibly 
pay out of their sixth share. The District Judge, in 1880, 
issued ^n injunction to the Collector to divide the estate and 
the Collector anxious to avert the ruin of the three minors, 
endeavoured to persuade the successful litigant ^o agree 
to some compromise. The uncle of the minors would 
listen to no argument. To arrange a division among 
claimants of this nature was a troublesome business, 'but 
in 1881 it was accomplished by the Collector who effected a 
compromise under which the minors retained one-sixth of 
the estates and a sum of money in hand. The remaindc>r 
of the estates and of the money at credit of the minors was 
divided among the five uncles in accordance with the 
decision of the Privy Council. 

Sri Raja Venkatadri Apparow Bahadur Garu 
went to Hyderabad with his elder brother Sri Raja 
Jag!innadha Appa Row Bahadur co recover the estate of 

188 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

Joojjooroo which was taken possession of by the Govern- 
ment of His Highness the Nizam of Hyderabad from the 
Kalavakollu family, of which his mother's sister was a 
member. He stayed about three years in Hyderabad 
with his brother. As His Highness was then a minor, Sir 
Salar Jung the Prime Minister was ruling the country on 
behalf of the Nizam. *" 

Unfortunately at the end of three years, Baja Jagan- 
nadha Apparow died of malarious fever before he attained 
his object. When the sad news reached Nuzvid, the 
eldest of the brothers, Raja Narayya Appa Row went to 
Hyderabad leaving behind his aggrieved father who was 
prepared to start. He reached Hyderabad in time and 
soothed his other brother. He paid his respects to Sir Salar 
Jung who told him that he had already requested his 
brother to return as the settlement was difficult, but that 
he had not done so. Then both the brothers returned to 
their place. A year after, Kaja Sobhanadri Appa Row died 
of dysentery. Then Kaja Narayya Apparow, the elUest of 
the brothers, succeeded to the Zemindari. He gave 
his bro\iher Raja Venkatadri Appa Row the charge of 
Kamatams and Bhutadi accounts. He performed his 
duty so well that he became very popular and he was 
consulted by his brother on important matters. After 
<3ome years differences arose between the brothers. Then 
a suit was preferred by the Zemindar in conjunction with 
tWo other brothers. Raja Simhadri Appa Row ana Rajah 
Venkataramayya Appa Row. Several attempts were 
made by Government officials and private men to effect a 
compromise, but the Zemindar was stubborn. He 
was not willing even when the brothers requested him to 
give them all Nunna Parganna or Rs. 1000, allowance 
per mensem. He agreed to give Rs. 500 each^^per 

S. E. V. Kangiah Appa Kao Bahadur. 189 

J — I 

mensem. Therefore the compromise was not effected, 
and the suit was continued with rigor chiefly by Raja 
Venkatadri Appa Kow. He died before the matter was 

Sri Rajah Venkatadri Appa Rao Bahadur was first 
taught Persian under the supervision of his father. He 
became a great scholar in that language and also in 
Telugu. He was a poet and his compositions bear 
testimony to his ripe scholarship. He married the only 
daughter of Sri Malrazu Kondala Rao Garu, pensioned 
Zemindar of Narasaraopet. The result of this union is 
Sri Rajah Venkata Rangiah Appa Rao Bahadlir Garu, 
who bears the name of this sketch. 

Sii Rajnh Yeiikafca Rnngiali Appa Eao Bahadur lost 
his father while lie was three years old. The management 
of the estate was entrusted to his paternal uncle, Sri 
Rajah t^imhadri Appa Eao Bahadur. Sri Rani Venkata 
Rama Lakshmi Kanakamma Rao Bahadar, the widow 
of the late Raja Venkatadri Appa Rao Bahadui,' being 
dissatisfied with the management of Sri Rajah Simhadri 
Appa Rao Bahadar, took everything into her hands. 
She went with her son and also with a number of iier 
relations to many places of pilgrimage in India. She was 
in charge of the estate only for a year, when the Court of 
Wards took its management under them, and sent thJ 
minor Zemindar first to Masulipatam, and then to 
Madras for education. At the latter place, he joined the 
Pacheappa's College, and read up to the Matriculation 
standard, during which period he was under the 
guar.lianship of Mr. R. U. Potts. The Zemindar was taken 
on tqur to almost all the places of iinportMiice in India and 

190 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

Ceylon, and thus his powers of observation were consider- 
ably impi'oved. As a student his conduct was exemplary 
bo'ch towards his tutors aud his classmates. We quote here 
his views on travel : "Every man, in my opinion, should, as 
far as his means and circumstances allow him travel over 
the world; for those who stick fast to their homes are like the 
fi-og in the fable, which de»ms that its abode — the bottom 
of the well — is the entire world, for it never comes out of it. 
My dear fellow countrymen, you ought to travel at least in 
India, for you are fortunate enough to be born in this 
country, which is the embodiment of all the characteristic 
features of the whole world. In India you can see the 
luxuriant foliage and beautiful animals of the Torrid Zone. 
In India you can also see the snows of the Frigid Zone, 
the picturesque mountain sceneries, the large and grand 
river basins, the beautiful waterfalls, and the best speci- 
mens of architecture iu the world. You can meet with 
people of almost all the nations speaking different 
languages." ^^ 

The Rajah Sahib appreciates highly all the good that 

the Court of Wards have done him and has specially 

thanked them for their giving him an opportunity to visit 

the various sacred places in India. 

As soon as Sri Rajah Yenkata Rangiah Appa ttao 

t Bahadur attained his majority, he was put in charge of his 

Estate. As he had received a good education under 

Mr. Potts, he experienced no difficulty in following the lines 

already chalked out by Government for his guidance. 

He is a father of six children, two sons and four 
daughters. The elder of the former, Sri Rajah Partha- 
saradhi Appa Rao Bahadur has been adopted by his 
paternal uncle, the Zemindar of the Vuyyur Estate. 

S. K. V. Rangiah Appa Eao Bahadur. 191 


He has nob interfered with the charitable institutions 
maintained and established by his father, but has made them 
more T>ermanenfc and useful. He is very religious, but not 
narrow-minded. He has been managing the estate very 
carefully with the assistance of a suitable staS of officials. 
He does not love show, but is very simple, courteous and 
polite. He is very kind to his ryots, and the public of the 
Krishna District speak very highly of his noble behaviour 
and gentlemanly qualities. 




One of the oldest of the living representatives of the 
aristocracy of Southern ^pdia bearing a good name for 
sagacity and nobility, is Sri Rajah Mritunjaya Nishanka 
Bahadur Garu, Zemindar of Sangam Valasa. He is a 
nobleman of varied attainments and great experience, and 
though well-stricken in years is to-day in the best of health 
and spirits, and still keeps up his studious habits. It is 
therefore vi^ith pleasure that we have assigned a place 
in this book to his biography. 

The family from which the Eaja Sahib has sprung, is 
a very ancient one, the progenitor of which was one 
Damodar of the lunar race, who lived in the vicinity 
of Nandapur, having arrived there from Northern India. 
By sheer dint of energy and valour he wks able 
to obtain possession of lands near Nandapur and ultimately 
constitlited himself king of that place. Whenever he 
went against his enemies, he stopped at a place called 
Sangrama Veerathi (ISangrama, meaning battle, and 
Veerathi, residence) ; this in Telugu is known as Sangam 
. Valasa. In his line of descent there was born a king 
named Prataparudra, who won various territories putting 
tjown tl^e kings of those places, and who thereby improved 
his own estate. He acted with such valour as to 
deserve the name of Prataparudra. The next prominent 
member of the family was Eamachandra, who was 
a friend of the king of Nandapur, which was not far 
away from his place. At that time the king of Nandapur 
• owing to disturbances caused to him by his enemies 

yri Kajiih Mntuiijaya Nibhauka Bahadur. 


kiiiiikote fcstate Press, Kal»bhu; 

S. R. M. NiSHANKA Bahaduu Garu. 193 

implored the aid of liamachaudar, who, in coiuphance 
with the request, defeated his enemies. For this act of 
valour, the king of Nandapur conferred on Ramachandar, 
the title of Nishanka (fearless), which has become here- 
ditary. The latter had a son named, Nandanna Nishanka, 
who was an ornament to the family as he was well-known 
for his generosity. The ag/aharams, tanks, wells, &c., 
established by him yet bear his name. He had two sons, 
Jagannadha Nishanka and Karranna Nishanka. The elder 
established many useful institutions for the use of the 
public, and was extremely kind to all. He had nine 
Bons, and the eldest of them, Siyyandora Nishanka, who 
was placed at the head of the administration followed the 
footsteps of his father, and thus acquired a good reputation 
for his noble behaviour and honesty of purpose. He had 
two sons, Jiyyondora Nishanka and Patra Nishanka ; the 
former succeeded to the estate. 

During the time of Jiyyondora Nishanka, the king 
of Vijianagram established his power over Jeyporo, when 
the brother of the king of the latter place with great 
anger left Jeypore and settled down at Narayan^patuam, 
and from that place sought the assistance of Jiyyondora 
Nishanka, who had made him king of Narayanapatnam. 
Jiyyondora Nishanka had two sons, the elder Peddanna 
Nishanka, who succeeded the father, ruled the estate well> 
At this stage, the king of Pithamanipur, whose head 
turned on account of his great powers, fell upon, Sangaftu 
Valasa, when Peddanna Nishanka witli a large army 
went against his enemy, and chased him as far as 
Belgaum. He had three sous, Thammandora Nishanka, . 
Venkata Nishanka and Veeranna Nishanka. They lost » 
their father when they were all young, and the eldest went 
aw3y on pilgrimage ; hence Venkata Nishanka was placceV 

194 The Aristocbacy of Southern India. 

on the 7)iusnud by the British Government as he was very 
helpful to them when they established their power over 
Northern Circars. Venkata Nishanka ruled the estate for 
a long time. He had two sons, Peddanna Nishanka and 
Karranna Nishanka ; the elder succeeded to the estate. 
His life was rendered miserable owing to family dissen- 
sions, and he therefore applied to the Eajah of Bobbili to 
interfere in his behalf and to effect a compromise. When 
Karranna Nishanka went to Bobbili on this mission, the 
Eajah of the latter place treated the former with great 
condescension, and offered him a palace to live in. There, 
his son, Sri Eajah Mritinjaya Nishanka Bahadur Garu, 
was born in April 1828, a posthumous child. As he was 
born at Bobbili, the Eajah of that place conceived a great 
liking for him and treated him as a child of his own. 
The British Government interfered, and took the manage- 
ment of the estate under them. 

Sri Eajah Nishanka Bahadur Garu, when he was young, 
was sent to Vizagapatam, under the guardianship* of his 
maternal uncle, fcsri Medini Eao Narasimha Eazu Garu. 
Efficient' tutors to teach him different languages were ap- 
pointed under the orders of Government. He was very 
studious and intelligent, and therefore without much effort 
karnt many languages. He did not waste a single moment 
but made the best use of his time in the acquirement of 
knowledge. He learnt the Vedas, and other branches of 
philosophical Hinduism under a great preceptor, Mahama- 
hopadyaya Srimafch Paravasthu Venkata Eangachariar. In 
1847, Sri Eajah Nishanka Bahadur Garu was installed on 
the guddi of his ancestors, when there was much rejoicing 
all over the estate. His maternal uncle built a neat town, 
near Sangam Valasa, on account of the salubriousness of its 
> climate, and called it Mritunjayanagar, which has sijice 

*. : 

S. R. M.NisHANKA Bahadur Garu. 195 

become the seat of the Zemindari, where a nice palace 
is built with all the modern appliances. 

It is creditable to Sri Rajah Mritinjaya Nishanka 
Bahadur Garn that he is the only Zemindar in Northern 
Circars, who possesses a knowled^fe of many arts and sci- 
ences. He has studied medicine well, and has cured many 
hard cases by administerirfg the medicines prepared 
by him. His knowledge of astronomy is of a hij^h order, 
and he is an expert in examining diamonds. It is 
an acknowledged fact that he is a great architect, and 
a renowned artist. His musical talent is admired by all. 
That he is a highly accomplished Telugu scholar has been 
proved beyond doubt by his well-known commentaries 
on the following three of the works of Kalidasa : — 
Abhignyana Sakunthala, Vikramorvasiya and Malavikagni 
Mitra. His book of morals, known as Nithi Sastra Sangra- 
ham, has become a popular one, and is highly spoken of by 
the educated classes. He has also published the following 
originAl works in Telugu : — Sri Sambha Sathakam, Gowree 
Vivaham, Eaja Sekhara Vilasam, Sri Suryanarayana 
Charitham, Dasavathara Natakam and ParijatliiR)!. He 
is also the author of a book which contains a Code of Laws 
as a help to Zemindars. 

In 1877, the Eajah Sahib convened a large meeting 
and addressed those present on the proclamation of the 
late Queen Victoria as the Empress of India. He 
composed some verses in praise of Her Majesty, and pA- 
sented them to her. On the occasion of the Diamond 
Jubilee of Her Majesty the late Empress of India, he was 
the recipient of a certificate of honour as a recognition of 
his ripe scholarship, and of the able management of his 
estate. Last year, on the occasion of the Coronation of His 
Majesty King Edward YII, the Eajah Sahib got up a largo 

196 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

meeting at Sangam Valasa, and made a grand speech 
expatiating on the benefits derived trom British rale in 
general, and on the virtues of the King in particular. 

To the Rajah Sahib were born seven sons ; the last 
four of them died while young. His eldest son, Sri 
Rajah Chandrasekhara Nishanka Bahadur, who was an 
educated prince, died some years ago leaving a son, 
Sri Eajah Viswesa Nishanka Bahadur. The Bajah- 
tSahib's second son has also sons and grandsons. 

His Majesty King Edward VII, while President of the 
Eoyal Asiatic Society, expressed himself highly pleased 
with the commentaries of the Rajah Sahib on the works 
of Kalidasa and apt)ointed him a member of that body. 

The Rajah Sahib has been in charge of the estate for 
the last 56 years, and his rule, we think has been the 
longest amongst the Zemindars of Northern Circars. At 
the end of his 50th year's rule, a jubilee was celebrated 
at Sangam Valasa. On that most auspicious occasion 
his subjects prayed for his long life and prosperity, * while 
his brother Zemindars and friends offered their congratu- 

He has saved from ruin the temple dedicated to Viswes- 
vara, Swami in Sangam Valasa. He has presented 
Valuable jewels to many temples. He is very pious, and 
therefore generally spends his time in the company of 
Pundits. He is very charitable to the poor, and is greatly 
popular throughout the district. 

The Rajah Sahib is full of honours and years, and 
his counsel on matters of importance is highly valued 
by the educated public of ihe Vizagapatam District. 
His versatile genius, his noble behaviour, his vast and varied 
experiences and many other virtues that he possesses 
entitle him to the iirst place amongst the Zemindars of 
'the District. o 



In the Madras Presidency there are some rich landed 
estates managed most carefully by Zemindarnis, free from 
all encumbrances. This in itself is sufficient to prove 
that Southern India, more especially the Madras Presi- 
dencj', is not devoid of women ^^ho can manage large 
estates, and to show to the outside world that their 
intelligence and statesmanlike qualities are not inferior 
to those of women in other parts of India. The Zemin- 
darni of the Gollaprolu Muttah has been managing the 
estate since the demise of her husband with much benefit 
to the muttah and credit to herself. 

Sri Eajah Rao Eamayamma Eao Bahadur Garu is the 
widow* of the late Sri Rajah Venkata Rao Bahadur Garu, 
the third brother of the late Rajah of Pitt^pur, Sri Rajah 
Venkata Mahipathi Gangadhara Kama Bao Bahadur 
Garu, and the daughter of Sri Venkayya Garu of the well- 
known Chelikani family. She married Sri Rajah Venkata 
Kao Bahadur Garu in 1865. • 

Since the establishment of the Pittapur estate, it has • 
been a custom to make the senior member its ruler. Ijy 
virtue of this custom, the then senior membor, Sri Rajah 
Venkata Mahipathi Gangadhar Rama Rao Bahadur 
assumed charge of the estate, and was pleased to give 
away the Gollaprolu muttah to his brother, Sri Rajah ^ 
Venkata Rao Bahadur Garu, instead of the usual allowance. 
As the latter had no issues hy his wife, he marrit'd^ 

198 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

another, Venkayyamma Garu, the daughter of the Zemin- 
dar of Thangalamudi. The Rajah was cutoif in the prime 
of life after a brief illness. The estate was then registered 
in the names of both the widows, the income being 
divided between them. Venkayyamma Garu died in 1889. 
In 1886, Ramayamma Garu adopted her sister's son, 
which adoption the llajah .of Pittapur objected to and 
brought a suit to cancel. The case was disposed of in 
favor of the plaintiff. This over, the Rajah brought 
another suit for the share of the deceased Venkayyamma 
Garu in the estate. The suit was dismissed, and the 
whole of the estate was registered in the name of Rama- 
yamma Garu. 

The water supply to the village of Gollaprolu at a 
cost of Rupees 4500 owes its existence to her generosity. 
She has built a choultry which is valued at Rupees 2000. 
She contributes Rs. 500 annually towards the expenses of 
the festival of Sitharamaswami. She is a Vaishnavite by 
birth and b)^ profession, but she is not a conservative in 
religion. She .admits the tenets and principles of the 
various ' branches of Hinduism as she is of opinion that 
they, one and all, tend towards the same goal — Mukthi 
(freedom from bondage). In proof of this she has built a 
temple for the use of the S^ivites at a cost of Rupees 2000, 
with an endowment of lands for its upkeep. Some years 
ago she gave away large pieces of land to the poor people 
as sites ^o build houses on. Four hundred households are 
indebted to her for this piece of charity. 

There is a village called by her name near Gollaprolu. 
She has established two water sheds, one near the 
Railway station, and the other in the town of Gollaprolu. 
She lately purchased lands and presented them to some 



Sri Bajah Rao Ramayamma Rao Bahadur Garu. 199 

of her most faithful servants. Two students preparing 
lor University examinations receive monthly stipends 
from her. Many other students also receive help from 
her occasionally. She subscribes liberally to the Veda 
Pata Sala at Cocanada. On the Vijaya Dasami day 
she feeds a large number of people, and gives presents to 
all her servants. She has celebrated at her cost many 
marriages of poor people. The children of her deceased 
servants who are incapable of maintaining themselves are 
protected by this benevolent lady. Many of her relations 
who are poor are liberally helped by her, and some of 
them live with her. 

She manages her estate in a most business-like 
manner. She is helped by a Dewan and a good staff of 
officials. She hears the grievances of her ryots through 
her Dewan and affords them speedy redress. She is very 
affable, courteous anfl kind to every body. 



The only prominent family of the Vaisya community 

amongst the landed aristocracy is the Manyam family, and 
the present representative thereof is Sri Manyam Maha- 
Lakshmamma Garu, Zemindarni of the Gutalah Muttah, 
who bears a good name, and an exemplary character. 

The first member of the family to which the 
Zemindarni has the honor to belong was Manyam 
Kanakayya who flourished at Cocanada in 1790 as a 
negotiation merchant. He went to Yanam, started 
business and succeeded very well.' He had five sons, 
Venkata Karasayya, Sathialingam," Reddiah, Venkata 
Rathnam and Prakasa Eayadu. Of these, Sathialingam 
who rose to prominence bought the Gutalah estate, which 
was originall,v in the possession of Mangapathi Deo, 
Maharajah of Polavaram. In 1812 the whole of the 
Polavaram estate was put to public auction, when Rajah 
Ap^a Rao of Nuzvid purchased it. In 1827 Sathialingam 

••bought the same from Rajah Appa Rao for 230,000 Rupees. 

"^^ Till 1850 the former managed the estate, but after his death, 
his son, Kanakayya, and his brother, Venkatarathnam took 
the management into their hands. Venkatarathnam had 
four sons, Kanakayya, Venkatasubba Row, Seethia and 
Rajah Jee. In 1860 Venkatarathnam died ; then the first 
two became joint Zemindars. As all the brothers died 
one after another, Kanakayya was in sole charge of the 
estate for about ten years. He had a son, Chinniv Kana- 
kayya, who knew English, French and Sanskrit. «- He 

S. M. Maha Lakshmamma Garu. 201 

built the present mansion at Yanam. He purchased from 
the French extensive lands of the value of a lakh of Rupees. 
He was highly respected by the French Government for 
his scholarship, liberality, and noble behaviour. He 
established and maintained a choultry at Yanam and 
another at Gutalah to feed people gratis irrespective of 
caste, colour, or creed. ' 

Sri Maha Lakshmamma Garu is the daughter of 
Seetharala Sathialingam Garu, who was a merchant 
of Vizagapatam, and who died eight years ago. 
He was known for his charities in the Godavari 
and Vizagapatam Districts. Sri Manyam Maha Laksh- 
mamma Garu was born in 1856, and was married to 
Chinna Kanakayya Garu in I860. The happiness of their 
married life continued for eight years, after which period, 
the cruel hand of death snatched away Kanakayya. Since 
then Maha Lakshmamma has been managing the estate. 
She l^as acquired a gi'eat reputation for her liberality. She 
lately gave away inam lands to some poor people. 
Some years ago when famine raged furicusly she made a 
remission of more than 10,000 Eupees in the tax 
due from her ryots She has built two temples, and 
has restored three ruined ones. Some years ago she* went 
on a pilgrimage to Jagannath, where she gave away large 
sums of money to the poor. She feeds many people 3 
gratis every day in her choultry at Yanam. She 
contributes very liberally towards all movemenifs started 
by the French Government. 

When the estate was purchased by Sathialingam 
Garu from Eajah Appa Rao of Nuzvid, the latter sent * 
the insignia such as danka, nagar and chopdar stifcks, 
which were subsequently recognised by the British/ 


202 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 

Government. The French Government in recognition 
of the nobility of SathiaHngam Garu, granted him \ 
permission for the beating of nagar in his mansion as a 
mark of respect. 

The present Zemindarni sets out on tour whenever 
she finds it convenient to do so, and hears the complaints 
and grievances of her ryots. During the time of her 
former manager, owing to mismanagement, the estate 
was encumbered with debt, but everything has been 
set right after the present manager joined the staff of the 
Zemindarni' s establishment. He has been a manager for 
the last fifteen years, during which period he has shown a 
large saving, and has thus saved the estate from decay 
and ruin. He is spoken of very highly by the French 
Governor, and also by the Judge of Yanam. 

The Zemindarni is very kind to the poor of all 
classes, and many people depend on her bounty. Her 
charities are all of the advanced type and she is adipired 
for her virtues,, both as a woman and a Zemindarni, 






Page. Para. Line. 

5 „ 4 •• add /^S(7t/ before /J//. 

1 4 ,, if* ... re.:\(\ sfcoHfi {qv JiipI. 

44 3 9 ... ndd Jiibi/ec before maikiL 

67 3 8 ... iijserc hyphoii tor coma between 

Imeii/y and one. 
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omit accordivgly. 
read Rao for Rad. 
insert a coma after son. 

insert a coma after young and a before /ofl^v. 

add schools aher yofir. ^ 

read 1877 for 1876. 
, read GuUila for Gutat.T. 
omit coma after /?^«<?. * 

insert a cowij after think c. « 










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I 96 



202 The Aristocracy of Southern India. 
Government. The French Government in recognitionj 

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CS Vadivelu, A 

1203 The aristocracy of 

V12 southern India