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Full text of "Armour engineer and alumnus"

Illinois TitttHutc 
ofTccbnolpgy 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

CARLI: Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Illinois 



http://www.archive.org/details/armourengineeral03armo 




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f ANUFACTURERS using Witco materials 
are given extra assurance of uniform 
quality by Witco's thoroughly scientific meth- 
ods of pretesting. Before leaving our plants all 
products must measure up to standards that 
are frequently more exacting than required 
by those industries in which they are used. 
Shown here is a close-up of a step in a produc- 
tion process in one of Witco's plants, where 
standards are maintained by an unusually rigid 
system of checks and rechecks. The following 
are subject to the same stern inspection: 

WITCO CARBON BLACKS are made to meet indi. 



^am^ 



vidual requirements and to satisfy the most exacting 
demands for quality. 

WITCO TITANIUM DIOXIDE sets a new standard of 
fineness, ease of grinding and uniformly neutral 
white color. 

WITCO STEARITE is steadily growing in popular- 
ity because of its higher uniformity and greater 
economy. 

WITCO ClAY has found wide application because 
of its unusually soft, fluflfy texture. 



WISHNICK-TUMPEER, INC. 

Manufacturers and Importers 
NEW YORK . 295 MADISON AVENUE 

CHICAGO TRIBUNE TOWER 

BOSTON 141 MILK STREET 

CLEVELAND . 616 ST. CLAIR AVE., N. E. 

WITCO LTD., BUSH HOUSE, LONDON 

W.C. 2, ENGLAND 

Witco AflFiliotesi Witco Oil & Gas Company 

The Pioneer Asphalt Company 

Panhandle Corbon Company 

BUY DIRECT AND PROFIT DIRECTLY 



G-E Campus ^ews 




TOPS' 



A turbine-generator set now l>einii built at the 
Schenectady Works of the (General Electric Company 
will operate at a pressure of 2500 pounds and at a 
temperature of 940 F. This pressure is nearly 
1000 pounds more than that used for any other 
commercial unit now in service, and the lem]>era- 
lure is higher. 

it represents the work of many men. Experts in 
mechanical design have solved unique problems — 
for the shell of the turbine will have to withstand 
pressures equal to those more than half a mile be- 
low the surface of the sea. When the unit is com- 
pleted, electrical and chemical engineers, metallur- 
gists, and research workers will have contributed 
knowledge and experience to it. 

The design and construction of turbine-generators 
such as this is largely the work of college graduates 
— many of whom entered (i-K Test only a few vears 
ago. Thousands of other Test men are engaged in 
the design, manufacture, and sale of these and hun- 
dreds of other electric products that are used in 
industrv todav. 




T\VO PERMANENT WAVES AT ONCE 

Co-eds preparing for a dance are not the only sub- 



This wire. 19/10.000 in<'h in diameter, is first 
tightly wound. 335 turns to the inch, with the coils 
1/1000 inch apart. After the wire receives this first 
'"j)ernianent wave," it is coiled once more. 70 turns 
to the inch, with 7/1000 inch between the turns. 
This redui'cs the original 20 inches of wire to a coil 
5/8 inch long and having an outside diameter of 
310/10,000 inch. 

These permanent waves pay real di\i(lcnds in in- 
creased efficiency because tungsten wire becomes 
more brilliant as it is more closely compacted. This 
new process is only one of many developments made 
by G-E engineers in the field of illuininalion a 
Held which offers mam o|)porl unities for technically 
trained men. 




jects for permanent waving- 
wire used in General Electrii 



there is the tungsten 
lamps. 



WELDING IN THE ARCTIC 

A broken gear wheel recently threatened to shorten 
the 100-day working season of a group of miners on 
the Alaskan tundra, above the Arctic Circle. No 
time could be lost, for in early September the 
ground would be frozen solid. 

There was but one chance to save the season's 
work. The gear wheel was loaded in an umiak — a 
native boat made of skins — and for five days an 
Eskimo crew paddled to the settlement of Candle, 
where the Arctic Circle Exploration Company had 
a General Electric gasoline-driven arc-welding set. 
Three hours after their arrival, the Eskimos were 
ready to return with the repaired wheel. Instead of 
the ruinous loss of a season's work, the interruption 
lasted only two weeks. 

Opportunities for G-E products to be of service to 
industry occur in all parts of the world, and General 
Electric has built up an extensive international 
organization to meet those needs. 



GENERAL m ELECTRIC 



S/iiio 



TIME TESTED ELECTRICAL FUSES 

• • • 

"ECONOMY" 

"NATIONAL" 

"CLEARSITE" 

"ARKLESS" 

"BEACON" 

"ECO" 

• • • 

WE FUSE 

ELECTRICAL 
CIRCUITS 

EVERYWHERE 

ECONOMY FUSE & MFG. CO. 

2717 GREENVIEW AVENUE 

CHICAGO, ILL. 

A QUARTER OF A CENTURY 

OF DEPENDABLE SERVICE 




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How WELDING- 

makes Better Furniture 




Oxy-acetyleiie welding lias made tliis modern 
metal chair joint less. The result is smoother 
finish, increased durahility, added beauty, lower 
upkeep, greater strength and lighter weight. 
Similarly, in other industries, oxy-acetylene 
welding allows great freedom of design, im- 
proves countless pro<hicts and saves money for 
tliousands of manufacturers. 

Tomorrow's engineers will be expected to 
know how to apply this modern metalworking 
process. Several valuable and interesting tech- 
nical booklets describing the application of the 
oxy-acetylene process of welding and cutting to 
design, construction and fabrication are avail- 
able from Linde offices in principal cities. Write 
to The Linde Air Products Company, Unit of 
Union Carbide and Carbon Corporation, 30 
East 42nd Street, New York, N. Y. 



Chair parts are asserrt- 
bled on jigs, then welded 
lit /loints marked "W," 




Everything for Oxy -Acetylene Welding and Cutting 

LIWDE OXYGtN « PBEST -O-IITE ACETYtEWE » OXWELO ftPPARATUS AND SUPPtlis ff^OM III LTlVfDE 



UNION CARBIDE 



ARMOUR ENGINEER 

and ALUMNUS 



Editor 
WALTER HENDRICKS 



Gent'ial Maiiajier 

D. P. MORETON 



EDITORIAL ASSISTANTS 

Stephen P. Finnegan '39 
Bernaril W. Gaiiison '38 
Daniel W. Jarolison '39 
Raymond A. Kliphardt "38 
Nikolas A. Natinihek '40 



BUSINESS ASSISTANTS 

Albert N. Schreiber, '38 
Thomas Waldron, '38 



Published in October, December. 
March, and May, in the interests 
of the students, college, and alumni 
of Armour Institute of Technology, 
under the direction of a Managing 
Board, at aSOO Federal St., Chi- 
cago, 111. 



OCTOBER 193 7 

VOLUME 3 NUMBER 1 

IN THIS ISSUE 

ChitagoV Lake Shoic Dcv.lopnifnt. hy Frrd (,. Hi'ik lilina 6 

Fire PiottHtioii EngiiuHM-iiifi, by Joseph B. Vinm'unn y 

Th«> Eiiftiiu.*>r and th.- Busim-ss oC Li\ iug. /,v Hrnry P. Dutt„n 12 

Forward Pass Iiiterfcrt'iicc, by John J. SrhonuiK'r U 

Thermal Insulation Adds to Mans Comfort, by James C. 

Peebles j^, 

President's Report and Resignation 18 

Aeting-President Speaks 20 

Armour Teeh News 21 

Book Shelf 32 

Alumni Notes. 6y D. P. Moreton 37 



THE CONTRIBUTORS 

■ Henry P. Diitlon is Professor of Business Management at Armour Institute 
of Technology and a consultant in the field of engineering economics. 

■ Joseph B. Finnegan, a graduate of M. I. T.. is head of the Deparlnu-nt of 
Fire Protection Engineering. 

■ Fred G. Heuchling, Armour. \)1 is Executive Assistant, (".hirago Park Dislricl. 

■ D. P. Moreton is Secretary-Treasurer of the Alumni Association in addition 
to his position of Professor of Electrical Engineering. 

■ James C. Peebles, a recognized authority on the properties of all kinds of 
thermal insulating materials, is Professor of Experimental Engineering at 
A. I. T. 

■ John J. Schommer. nationalK kno«n Big-Ten f.iotl.all and i.a-kelball offi- 
cial. is Director of Physical Education at Armour Tech. 

■ Book Review by B. E. Gnetz. 

■ .Student Editor of tiii- i-ue. St^ph^n I'. Fimi>-iinn. 



CHICAGO'S LAKE SHORE 
DEVELOPMENT 



By Fred G. Heuchling 



CHICAGO, a ortat center of in- 
dustry and commerce, originator 
the skyscraper and the modern 
slaughter house, is truly a remarkable 
creation when we sum up her attri- 
butes as the City Beautiful. That she 
ranks along with the most famous 
cities of the world in this latter re- 
spect, none can deny. Fundamen- 
tally she owes her standing in this 
Held to the fact that Lake Michigan's 
waters wash her entire eastern boun- 
dary for a distance of thirty-five miles. 

This great natural asset was little 
appreciation in the early days of 
Chicago's history, and the rail- 
roads were permitted to pre-empt 
the lake shore without public protest. 
Opposite the downtown area the earli- 
est railroad line was built on a pile 
trestle several hundred feet out into 
the lake and parallel to what is now 
Michigan Avenue, practically in the 
same location that the depressed 
tracks now traverse in Grant Park. 

From the present Grant Park al- 
most to Jackson Park, railroads occu- 
pied a strip of land adjoining the 
lake shore, cutting off all the scenic 



and other benefits to the public that 
now are so great an element in our 
city life. South of Jackson Park, 
private property owners were per- 
mitted to secure title to lake shore 
property, and a golf club, private 
homes, and steel mills took possession. 
In the main, these still occupy the 
shore line clear to the Indiana State 
boundary, except for two city-owned 
bathing beaches and a Park District 
controlled park. 

On the north shore, Lincoln Park, 
from Diversey Blvd. to North Avenue, 
was for many years the onlj' public 
property of any consequence, and the 
rest of the shore line was restricted 
to private homes, apartments, and the 
like. 

Probably the first public body to 
realize and appreciate that the lake 
shore was the heritage of all the 
people, and to direct public attention 
to this fact, was the former Lincoln 
Park Commissioners. The practice had 
grown up in the late 70's and the 
early 80's of dredging sand for com- 
mercial use from the bottom of the 
Lake close to shore. This caused the 



Aerial view of lake front showing Century of Progress in Burnham Park 




shore to be washed away and other- 
wise damaged, and particularly af- 
fected Lincoln Park. 

In 1885 legislation was urged, and 
in 1893 the Illinois Legislature passed 
an Act forbidding private dredging 
operations and permitting the Lincoln 
Park Commissioners to reclaim sub- 
merged lands along the entire lake 
front opposite the district under their 
control. At the same time they were 
empowered to acquire riparian rights 
from private owners by purchase, 
gift, agreement, or condemnation. 
Thus, we may say it was not until 
1885 that the development of Chi- 
cago's priceless shore line began in 
earnest. 

In 1871, after the great fire, the re- 
sulting rubbish and refuse was dumped 
along the thin strip of land lying east 
of Michigan Avenue, and thus began 
our present downtown lake front park, 
first known as "Lake Park," and later 
designated as Grant Park. The earli- 
est government maps show that in 
1830 the shore line immediately south 
of the mouth of the river was over 
1200 feet back of the point where, — 
this very month, — Chicago threw open 
lier latest outpost into Lake Michigan, 
— the great Outer Drive Improve- 
ment. 

The beautification of Grant Park 
from Randolph Street to Adams Street 
west of the railroad tracks was not 
completed until 1917 although the 
part south of the Art Institute was 
landscaped some years earlier. Later 
the area east of the tracks was filled in 
and improved until today the total 
area of Grant Park is 303 acres, con- 
taining the classical Art Institute, 
Field Museum and Shedd Aquarium 
structures, and the exquisite Bucking- 
ham Fountain, greatest of its kind in 
the world. 

Turning now to the shore line north 
of the river, we note that the present 
Lake Shore Drive skirting Chicago's 
renowned "Gold Coast" and extend- 
ing today from Oak Street to North 
Avenue, had its inception in 1884. Its 
improvement, however, was not com- 
pleted until 1896. 

In 1915 the former Lincoln Park 
Commissioners commenced an ambi- 
tious program for extending Lincoln 



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Aerial view of Jackson Park showing Boat Harbor and Outer Drives 



Park northward by acquiring riparian 
rights and filling in and beautifying 
shore park areas. This continued until 
1934. when the Chicago Park District 
took over all former park districts in 
the city. Today we see Lincoln Park 
extending clear to Foster Avenue, with 
a total shore line, as the crow flies, 
of nearly five miles, enchantingly 
beautified and providing many facili- 
ties for marine and aquatic sports 
and other forms of outdoor recrea- 
tion. 

Meanwhile the south shore was de- 
veloping in a similar way. The 
epoch-making Worlds Fair of 1893 
that turned the eyes of all men on 
Chicago, inspired plans for continu- 
ing the shore line improvement from 
the north end of Jackson Park to 
Roosevelt Road, linking with Grant 
Park. However, it was not until 1912- 
15 that the former South Park Com- 
missioners found it possible to begin 
acquiring riparian rights here and to 



rill in new shore land east of the rail- 
road tracks. The program was con- 
tinued over many years, but aside 
from shore protection and filling in 
land very little improvement was ac- 
complished until "A Century of Prog- 
ress" was proposed. 

The famous Burnham Plan of Chi- 
cago, published in 1909, focused the 
attention of the world on Chicago's 
possibilities as a City Beautiful. It 
proposed great areas of park land to 
be made along the entire shore line 
with broad lagoons, formed by filling 
in long islands out in the lake parallel 
to the shore. The Lincoln Park Com- 
missioners had this plan in mind when 
in 1915 they started filling in "picnic 
island," now called Francis T. Sim- 
mons Island, opposite Lincoln Park. 
On the South Side the Park Commis- 
sioners likewise created what later be- 
came Northerly Island, extending 
from about 16th Street to present Cer- 
mak Road. This latter, with the new 



land forming the present Burnham 
Park, became the site of "A Century 
of Progress" in 1933. 

The proposal of the Burnham Plan 
to create a ciiain of islands and 
lagoons along the shore was based on 
the assumption that the beaches of 
the lagoons would provide public 
bathing. Experience in later years 
with actual construction of this kind 
proved that the quiet waters of such 
lagoons, when used for mass bathing, 
created a serious health menace. Fur- 
thermore, to provide ready access to 
the islands for the public numerous 
expensive bridges would be necessary. 
Of late years, therefore, the trend in 
lake shore development has been to 
avoid lagoons and islands and instead 
to create promontories, small bays, 
and sheltered harbors. Bathing 
beaches are located on open water, 
protected from erosion, where natural 
currents carry away pollution. Direct 
paths and driveways permit pedestri- 



nns. motorists, and bi; 



passengers 




quick and easy access to the shore. 
Wliile tlie scenic effects of the pro- 
])osed lagoons are lacking, Lake Mi- 
cliigaii is truly "brought to the 
jHople." 

In May, ]9;Ji, all the Park Dis- 
tricts in Chicago were consolidated 
into the Chicago Park District, and 
for the first time almost the entire 
lake shore line under public control 
was placed under a unified jurisdic- 
tion. Today twenty-eight miles of 
shore line are public property, and a 
continuous chain of park development 
tinbellishes it. 

The original Lincoln Park, extend- 
ing only from North Avenue to Diver- 
sey Boulevard, now contains over 
1 ,000 acres, stretching from Grand 
Avenue at the foot of the Municipal 
Pier to Foster Avenue six miles north. 
At the northerly end the Chicago 
Park District is just completing the 
improvement of newly made land, and 
already contracts have been concluded 
for the acquisition of the riparian 
rights along two-thirds of the remain- 
ing shore from Foster Avenue to 
Devon Avenue. From the southern 
extremity of Jackson Park at 67th 
Street, to Calumet Park at 95th 
Street, the shore line is still under 
])rivate control except for a city-con- 

Views of Outer Drive development along 
North Shore 

trolled park from 75th to 79th 
Streets. From 95th Street south 
almost to the Indiana State line 
the shore is now park property, and 
the southern half of it is improved 
and beautified. The northern half is 
in the course of improvement and 
when finished will make at this point 
a landscaped area of 194 acres. 

Although it may have taken decades 
to bring the city's lake shore line to 
its present state, Chicagoans are now 
awake to the public value inherent in 
shore property, and it is not too much 
to expect that the children of today 
will live to see a continuous park de- 
velopment along the city's entire east- 
ern boundary. 

The mere beautification of the shore 
is in itself a great asset to the city, 
but the surprising development of 
bathing, yachting, and other aquatic 
sports that has taken place in recent 
years, adds immeasurable economic 
and health-giving values. 

Fourteen bathing beaches have been 
established by the Park District at 
strategic points, where throngs go to 
disport themselves on the sands and 
in the water during the summer sea- 
son. Some impression of the popular- 
(Turn to page 28) 



8 



FIRE PROTECTION 
ENGINEERING 



By Joseph B. Finnegan 



WHEREVER nun have accumu- 
lated property which may be 
damaged by fire, and wherever men 
live or work in surroundings in which 
they themselves may be injured if tire 
occurs, there is work for the fire jiro- 
tection engineer. 

Because a large proportion of our 
j)eople live in towns or cities^ there 
is always the possibility that a fire 
in one building may spread to neigh- 
boring structures and even involve 
tile whole community. Because mod- 
ern industry and commerce require 
the use of large manufacturing plants, 
great warehouses, and wholesale and 
retail stores of, a size not known to 
earlier generations, the accumulation 
of values in any one place may be 
such that fire would cause large de- 
struction of wealth. 

Because many factories work with 
combustible materials, and because 
manufacturing processes frequently 
involve fire hazard, the possibility of 
disaster is always present. Each new 
omplication or extension of the so- 
ial organization, each new invention 
or mechanical develojjment may bring- 
new jiroblems for the fire protection 
engineer. 

One day, about eight years ago, 
newspaper headlines told of a terri- 
ble accident in a mid-western hospi- 
tal. X-ray films of hazardous type, 
improperly stored in a basement 
room, became ignited. Poisonous 
gases spread to all parts of the build- 
ing. Some patients were killed at 
once; others died a few days later. 
Engineers in the employ of the fire 
insurance inspection bureaus Avere at 
once detailed to cooperate with hos- 
pital authorities and municipal officers 
to ])revent the })ossibility of another 
such tragedy. Now, more than 3200 
hos))itals have been given tliis expert 
service, and the dangerous variety of 
film has been almost universally re- 
placed by non-hazardous material. 
Com])lete review of other hospital 
practices that might involve fire haz- 



ard, particularly in the use of" im- 
portant new anesthetics, has led to 
adoption of efficient safeguards 
against fires in operating rooms. 

After the war, manufacturers who 
had been making military exjilosives 
tried to develop a market for lac- 
quers which could be made from cer- 
tain materials which they were able 
to produce in large quantities. The 
attempt was most successful. The 
method of finishing automobile bodies, 
furniture, and scores of other large 
and small products made of metal or 
of wood has been revolutionized in 
a few years. The beauty and dura- 
bility of surface provided by the new 
lacquers is admirable, and the lac- 
quers do not introduce a fire hazard 
in the finished product. However, 
while they are in the liquid condition 
tliev are exceedingly flammable, and, 
since they are commonly applied by 
spraying, the danger of fire in the 
finishing rooms may be very great. 
To complicate the problem, in many 
factories the finishing processes are 
carried on in buildings which were 
designed for the use of less hazard- 
ous varnishes and much less danger- 
ous methods of application. 

The safeguarding of lacquer sjiray- 
ing processes has been one of tlie 
major problems and one of the im- 
portant successes of the fire protec- 
tion engineer. There have been fires, 
some of them very serious, but they 
have served to emphasize the sound 
nature of the engineers' recommenda- 
tions and the unfortunate results of 
failing to comply with them. 

A generation ago, the twenty-story 
Flatiron Building in New York was 
a famous "skyscraper." A fire depart- 
ment officer was asked, "How would 
you fight a fire in the upper stories 
i>f tlie Flatiron?" He said, "I'd be 
waiting for it at the ninth floor." To- 
day, with such a problem to solve, 
he would not be forced to wait. Mod- 
ern high buildings arc equipped with 
stand-pipe systems whicji provide fire 



departments with means for throw 
ing water on a fire in any story. 

In modern fire fighting the most 
conspicuous change of recent years 
has been the retirement of the steam 
engine, drawn by horses, and the in- 
troduction of motor apparatus. The 
old hose wagon has disappeared, and 
the pumper carries the equipment 
that formerh^ had its own separate 
transport. The high speed of modern 
apparatus reduces the time that must 
elapse before water can be thrown 
on a fire, and makes possible impor- 
tant changes in the spacing of fire 
department companies. 

Chicago can never forget the Iro- 
quois Theater fire. Fires in theaters 
and in schools have involved terrible 
loss of life. There will continue to 
be danger of such tragedies, because 
they are due in part to the swift 
spread of panic. Nevertheless, much 
has been done to reduce even this 
danger. In modern theaters, the prob- 
ability that fire will originate on the 
stage has been greatly reduced, ade- 
quate vents are provided above the 
stage so that fire will not tend to 
spread outward to the audience, firc- 
))roof curtains are provided and kept 
in operative condition, the lighting 
system is properly designed and con- 
trolled, and exits are many and are 
clearly marked. 

Most theater j)rograms e.-irry warn- 
ings against jianic, and in ease of fire 
there is rather general recognition of 
tlie fact that liurry and confusion 
would be a terrible mistake and that 
each person should walk, not run, to 
tlie nearest exit. It is wholesome for 
everyone to fear a stam))cde more 
than he fears a fire, and to be on his 
guard against losing his self-control. 
Tile j)rol)lem of the fire jirotection en- 
gineer when lie deals with tile tlieater 
problem is psychological as well as 
material. 

A similar situation is found in 
seliools. Tiuy siiould of course l)e of 
firejiroof construction, witli jjrojier 




This type of fire demon- 
strates the necessity for 
proper fire prevention and 
adequate fire-fighting equip- 
ment 



means of exit, but it is impossible to 
over-emphasize the importance of rou- 
tine drills that will make it easy and 
natural for the occupants to leave the 
building quickly in an emergency. 

Suppose that we were suddenly de- 
prived of petroleum and its products. 
Consider the millions of motors that 
use gasoline, the engines that use 
heavier oils, the larger number of do- 
mestic and industrial burners using 
fuel oils, the great importance of pe- 
troleum lubricants, the use of light 
petroleum products in dry-cleaning 
and for various solvent purposes. 

Crude petroleum has great fire 
hazard; all of the liquids which are 
obtained from it are hazardous, some 
of them to an extreme degree. The 
processes in which they are used in- 
volve great danger of fire. At every 
step sound fire protection engineer- 
ing principles must be employed if 
disaster is to be avoided. Largely for 
use in the extinction of fires in such 
materials there have been developed 
the so-called foam extinguishing 
equipments, which discharge a thick 
froth which will float on the surface 
of the liquid and smother the fire. In 
other cases, a gas which prevents com- 
bustion of the oil may be used to ex- 
tinguish fire. 

It has become commonplace to say 
that this is the age of electrocity. 
We may measure the industrial activ- 
ity of a community by the extent to 
which it uses electrical power. The 
material progress of its residential 
portions may be indicated by the ex- 



!0 



tent to which electric current is used 
for light and for household appli- 
ances. Electrical equipment of bad 
design, improperly installed, or im- 
properly used is seriously hazardous. 
There is no field in which more im- 
portant and careful work has been 
done in the reduction of danger to life 
and property. The National Electrical 
Code is one of the recognized engi- 
neering standards of the country. 

In the great majority of fires, ex- 
cluding those in electrical apparatus, 
in liquids, and in some chemicals, 
water is the best possible extinguish- 
ing agent. In general, the problem of 
extinguishing a fire is the problem of 
obtaining an adequate supply of water 
and directing it upon the burning ma- 
terial. A small quantity of water may 
he enough if it is applied when the 
fire is still small. The combined opera- 
tion of many fire department pump- 
ers may be needed if the fire has at- 
tained great headway, and when the 
fire is already large there will be 
great difficulty in directing the water 
to the place where it will be most ef- 
fective, that is, to the heart of the 
fire. The fire protection engineer, in 
considering these conditions, has real- 
ized that extinguishing equipment for 
permanent installation in a building 
should provide means for discharging 
water upon a fire wherever it may oc- 
cur, that it should be self-acting, that 
it should operate while the fire is still 
small, and that it should embody an 
alarm system to indicate that it has 
been called upon to discharge water. 



All of these requirements have beenn 
met admirably in the design of thet 
automatic sprinkler system, whichi 
represents the highest development inr 
fire extinguishing equipment. 

In many cases it is estimated thatt 
the fire hazard of a building is re- 
duced four-fifths by its sprinkleri 
equipment; that the probability of I 
loss is five times as great without thiss 
protection. 

The probability that fire will starti 
in a particular building is ordinarilyr 
dependent upon the occupancy of ther 
building. Assuming that fire doess 
start, the rapidity of its spread and! 
the amount of damage done will de- 
pend largely upon the construction. 
It is necessary that the fire protection) 
engineer give careful study to the 
characteristics of all the principal I 
building materials, and in particular 
to their behavior when subjected to 
fire. The design of buildings, as well I 
as their materials, is important. The 
protection of stair or elevator open- 
ings through which fire may spread, 
the protection of exterior wall open- 
ings and roofs against exposing fires, 
the design of interior partitions, the 
subdivision of large areas by means 
of fire walls, and a large number of 
other details may have a bearing upon 
the probability of loss by fire. Many 
fire tests have been made. We are 
able to say for instance that a particu- 
lar type of partition construction will 
retard fire for about 12 minutes; that 
a brick wall of 12-inch thickness will 
be an effective fire stop during eight 



liours or more of severe fire exposure; 
that one kind of column is subject to 
failure in 10 minutes; that anotlier 
will continue to carry its load under 
fire conditions for two or five or eight 
hours. 

Fire protection engineers have pre- 
pared elaborate building codes for all 
types of construction, and these pub- 
lications have been of importance not 
onh' in the business of fire insurance, 
but also as guides in tlie preparation 
of municipal building ordinances. 

The protection of money, jewelry, 
and valuable papers is sometimes a 
major problem. The theft or the 
burning of such valuables may be a 
staggering loss. Fire protection en- 
gineers at Underwriters Laboratories 
in Chicago have made scores of fire 
tests on safes. A purchaser can there- 
fore obtain practically any degree of 
protection that he wants for his val- 
uables; he can have a forty-five min- 
ute insulated cabinet, tn- a oiie-liour 
two-hour, or four-liour safe. 



To a large extent the probability of 
loss by fire in a given building de- 
])ends upon the construction of tlie 
building, the extent to which it is ex- 
posed to fire from other property, tiic 
nature of the materials and tlic proc- 
esses carried on, the kind and condi- 
tion of the private equipment for 
extinguisliing fire, and the genera! 
care and good iiousekeeping. Tliis, 
iiowever, is not tlie whole story. Wliat 
may be called tlie public fire protec- 
tion of the community affects tlie fire 
iiazard of every building. 

Tlie factors of most importance in 
public protection are the system of 
water supply and distribution, tiie fire 
department, and the fire alarm sys- 
tem. Careful inspections and elab- 
orate reports covering these and some 
less important features have been 
made by engineers of the National 
Board of Fire Underwriters in more 
than too cities larger tlian about 20,- 
000 ])0})niatioTi. Smaller eomnmni- 



ties are similarly covered by engineers 
of tlie insurance inspection bureaus. 

Wiiat is a fire protection engineer? 
What is fire protection engineering? 
It is not easy to answer these ques- 
tions in a single sentence. Our treat- 
ment of the subject has been intended 
to provide an answer by citing a few 
— not by any means all — of the prob- 
lems that a fire protection engineer 
deals witii. His work is of major im- 
])ortancc in saving life and property. 
In prosperous times the rapid accu- 
mulation of values and tlie haste and 
hustle of business activity make his 
services of obvious value. When the 
affairs of tlie community are less pros- 
])erous, there is especial need that he 
help in tlie conservation of the na- 
tion's wealth. In good times or in 
bad, he is one of the important work- 
ers in our complex industrial and 
I'ommercial organization. 

Wv liave just eommemoriited the 
(Turn fo page 30) 



Students training for the field of Fire Protection Engineering 




li 



THE ENGINEER AND THE 
BUSINESS OF LIVING 



W 



HAT d.K.' 



Iiis education after he gets it? 
The gap is often wide between what 
he does and wliat he thought he was 
going to do. I beeanie interested in 
electrieal experiments in liigh scliool, 
and to run tlie dynamo which sup- 
plied our little town with power 
seemed the very pinnacle of engineer- 
ing achievement and power. It was 
probably the picture of myself con- 
trolling those mighty and mysterious 
forces which sent me off to an engi- 
neering college. 

As it turned out, my very first job 
was in a totally different field. But 
even if I had continued in the field 
of my first ehoiee, I would })r(ibably 



By Henry P. Dutton 

li.-ive found eventually that the job of 
ruiniing the dynamo tenders was more 
interesting, closer to the real nerve 
centers of community life, than the 
job of running the dynamos. 

Various studies have been made of 
the occupations of engineers after 
graduation. These studies unite in in- 
dicating the predominance, as the en- 
gineer emerges from the learning 
years, of work which is partially or 
predominantly supervisory, adminis- 
trative, selling, or otherwise in the 
category of what we generally regard 
as '"business" rather than "engineer- 
ing." 

A lui'ky young engineer gets a job 
in the research department of a big 



The young engineer presents his solution to the problem 




company and starts making tests, 
finding out the answers to the ques- 
tions his superiors put to him. As he 
gets a little further up the ladder he 
finds that these questions are not 
asked solely out of idle curiosity. 
They touch such tangible realities as 
what causes the trouble the Smith 
Company is having with its welding- 
rod. 

Presently the young engineer, if he 
shows good sense and an ability to 
work with people, is sent out to the 
Smith factory. 

Eventually tlie problem is solved. 
Only then, perhaps, does the young 
research engineer learn that Brown, 
Jones, and 968 other customers have 
been having the same trouble and 
that the Smith solution is to be put 
on a ))roduction basis and supported 
!)y an advertising and selling drive. 
Before he gets through, the man who 
started with "straight engineering" 
finds himself drawn into production, 
selling, financial, and managerial 
j)roblems of whose very existence he 
may have been unaware when he 
started. By this time he may well 
liave become indispensable in tlie sales 
department, introducing the new 
product to customers and showing 
them how to use it. so a new man is 
liired for the research department, 
and the cycle starts afresh. 

So it goes. Every case is different. 
But in a company large enough to 
make the title "chief engineer" more 
tlian a compliment, even this job is 
more administrative than engineering. 
It is the job of the chief engineer to 
keep a bulk of work moving, to get 
drawings out on time, to select and 
train subordinates, and keep them 
lia])py and productive at their jobs. 
Tlie chief engineer continues to make 
the final decision on many important 
engineering matters, but this is not 
necessarily because he knows the most 
about engineering technique, but be- 
cause he has acquired the perspective 
and breadth to see the relation of the 
engineering problem to the marketing, 
hnancial. and other problems of the 
eenipany. 

Si'ientific investigation and creative 
research are among tlie most valuable 
and absorbing of human pursuits. A 
very small proportion of any grad- 
uating engineering class are likely to 
end up as distinguished inventors and 



\2 



investigators. But outside of this 
necessarily small group, it remains 
true that the natural line of advance- 
ment for most engineers lies away 
from the technical problems which 
first interested them, toward the 
problems of management and busi- 
ness. 

Granting that this is likely to be 
the future of the average successful 
engineer the question arises as how 
best to prepare for it. It would be 
a short-sighted institution which 
caught the uninformed imagination 
and enthusiasm of youth and turned 
it against itself. 

As a matter of fact, an engineer- 
ing education has proved to be one 
of the best of the various recognized 
educational disciplines as a prepara- 
tion for precisely the sort of future 
just discussed. The training of the 
engineer emphasizes methods of dis- 
covering and applying general prin- 
ciples to specific situations. It teaches 
the student to test his conclusions by 
the facts, to express in precise math- 
ematical statements the relationships 
he finds between cause and effect. In 
short, the training of the engineer is 
a training in straight thinking, and 
straight, disciplined thinking is just 
as important in business as it is in 
electricity or mechanics. 

Pursuing further the question of 
how best to prepare for a future 
which may combine engineering with 
management, we may ask, what pro- 
portion of the student's time should 
go to engineering, what to manage- 
ment ? 

The content of college courses may 
be divided roughly into two classes, 
the specific or factual and the general 
or theoretical. A few years ago it 
might have been useful to a sanitary 
engineer to have known how to wipe 
a joint. That was specific, factual in- 
formation whose utility was perfectly 
obvious. 

But the day of wiped joints is 
nearly past, and this particular knowl- 
edge has become obsolete except for 
a few special applications. A very 
large portion of the specific, factual 
kinds of information are likely to be- 
come obsolete in the years that pass 
between college class work and the 
responsibility of making decisions on 
the job. An understanding of princi- 
ples is generally more durable and 
more elastic than a knowledge of spe- 
cific facts. Fluids obey the same laws 
of flow that they did when the sani- 
tary engineer was a student; that part 
of his training will serve him as long 
as he deals with flowing fluids, which 
is apt to be a long time. 

Admitting the importance of the 
emphasis on general principles and on 
disciplining thinking in education, as 




Problem in the process of solution 



opposed to imparting specific details, 
we come to another principle of cur- 
riculum building. Education is a 
massive process, not a cafeteria-style 
collection of intellectual tid-bits. The 
main structure of the students' courses 
should possess a well knit unity, it 
should build up, line upon line and 
precept upon precept, an orderly pic- 
ture of a world in which effect inex- 
orably follows cause, should impress 
again and again until it becomes in- 
stinctive, the idea that the control of 
effects lies in a knowledge of causes. 
Any proposal which disturbs this 
essential unity is of questionable 
value, and the answer to the educa- 
tion for the combined career of en- 
gineer-administrator does not lie in 
a proportionate distribution of class- 
room time. The discipline of engi- 
neering has been built around the 
natural sciences and mathematics. A 
similar discipline might well be built 
up about the social sciences (one of 
whose more specialized applications 
is business), were we as far advanced 
in these sciences or were they as sim- 



ple as the natural sciences, physics or 
chemistry, for example. Because these 
things are not yet so, there is 
a strong argument for leaving undis- 
turbed the present foundation train- 
ing in the natural sciences. This 
training, which is the backbone of en- 
gineering, has proved its worth as a 
preparation for practical administra- 
tion and has even produced such 
great students as Taylor, the father 
of Scientific Management, and Pareto, 
the Italian sociologist. 

But if the strength of the engineer- 
ing education is tlioroughness, its 
weakness is apt to be narrowness. Too 
often the world of the engineer lies 
upon the single plane of technical ma- 
nipulation of materials. He is igno- 
rant of and bewildered by the great 
currents of economic change sweeping 
the world, often blissfully ignorant 
even of the economic implications of 
his own work. Knowing nothing of 
the principles of economical manufac- 
turing, he designs special, costly 
screws where a standard one would 
(Turn to page 34) 



13 



FORWARD PASS 
INTERFERENCE 



By John J. Schommer 



THE forward pass in football has 
afforded many thrills, and, con- 
versely, the penalties invoked by 
breaking the rules governing this type 
of plaj' have frequently caused vehe- 
ment outbursts of passion directed at 
tlie football rules committee, who make 
the rules, and at the football officials 
who legislate on the legality of for- 
ward pass plays on the gridiron. 

The rules committee tries to con- 
struct a set of rules that minimize cas- 
ualties, prevent unfair plays, and bal- 
ance defensive football against offen- 
sive football without undue favor to 
either type. 

The forward pass, introduced in 
1906 as an offensive weapon, could 
be thrown from anywhere on the field 
of play by the team that had the ball 
(called the offensive team). The de- 
fensive team was promptly taught to 
knock down eligible players. This in- 
volved frequent injuries, because tense 
receivers of passes running full tilt, 
eyes on the ball, were struck with 
frightful velocity by defensive men. 

This type of blocking gave rise to 
that famous saying, "Coaches do not 
look for blocks but listen for them." 

The rule was changed. Now, after 
a forward pass, the defensive man and 
the offensive man can not interfere 
with each other until the ball is 
touched excepting they clash in an 
honest effort to catch or bat the ball. 
The rule says "bona fide" effort. 

The penalty for the offensive man 
who blunders is the loss of 15 yards 
from the spot where the ball was put 
in play and the loss of a down. The 
penalty for the defensive man is loss 
of ball at the spot of interference. 
To explain the latter, i.e., if a pass 
is made by A (the offensive team) 
down the field and B (the defensive 
team) interferes in the field of play 
with A in any manner whatsoever, 
except in a bona fide effort to catch 
or bat the ball, A is given the ball at 
the spot of interference. A and B have 
equal rights and the question of hon- 
est effort turns on whether the ball or 
the man was played. 




The interference by either might 
consist of a push with the hand or 
hands, elbow, chest, shoulder, head, 
hip, or knee; or A might jump off 
B's foot or vice versa. B might smash 
headlong into A, never looking at the 
ball, or A might trip B or vice versa. 
A and B could kill one another, each 
making an honest effort playing the 
ball, and still no penalty would result. 
The play is often complicated, and the 
close decisions bring a torrent of 
abuse. 

Last year there was a tremendous 
windstorm of abuse on interference of 
passes at the Iowa-Illinois game, 
Minnesota-Wisconsin game, Purdue- 
Indiana, and many others, finally cul- 
minating in the Army-Navy game. In 
this latter game Army smeared a 
Navy pass-receiver at the Army's 
three-j^ard line on a long pass. There 
was no question about the interfer- 
ence. The Navy man was set to catch 
the pass coming his way, and would 
have probably scored a touchdown. Of 
course. Navy was awarded the ball on 
Army's three yard line and scored, 
beating the Army after 15 years' 
effort. 



The reaction of the press was that 
the penalty was too drastic. If it 
were not drastic no receiver would 
ever catch a long pass if there was a 
defensive player close by. B would 
play A and not the ball more often 
than has been done in the past. To 
me there is no question about that 
type of play where the ball is thrown 
to A and A is in a position to receive 
it and can do so before it touches the 
ground (in the estimation of an offi- 
cial), but that when A is interfered 
with illegally, he has been robbed of 
an opportunity to catch the ball and 
should justly receive it at the spot of 
the foul. 

On questions of interference remote 
from the proximity of the ball, where 
in the judgment of the officials neither 
A nor B had a chance to reach the 
ball before it struck the ground, is an- 
other matter. In these cases, no 
doubt, a lesser penalty than is now 
the rule should be given. 



[Note: The iollowing numbered captions 
refer to the figures on page 15, reading 
from left to right and top to bottom.] 



1. Pass caught simultaneously : Op- 
posing players making a bona fide 
effort to get the ball. Both players 
have equal right to the ball, and 
therefore no penalty results from such 
a collision. 



2. Breaking up pass: Black-jersey 
man going high into the air making a 
bona fide effort to break the pass. In 
doing so he crashed into the would-be 
pass-receiver. No penalty. 

Clarification: On a forward pass 
play defensive players have as much 
right to the ball as their eligible op- 
ponents. Even though severe bodily 
contact occurs, as players make a bona 
fide effort to catch or bat the ball, it 
shall not be construed as interference. 



14 



^^r;o.,,_ 




3. Illegal interference by ieam 
which did 7iot make pass: White-jer- 
sey team (offensive team) attempting a 
forward jiass. Continued in Figure i. 



1. Black jersey player (defensive 
team) making a blind stab at the ball 
at the same time pushing his oppo- 
nent. Ball goes to opponents at spot 
of foul as first down. Continued in 
Figure 5. 



5. Pass Interference: Black-jersey 
player making a stab at the ball and 
at the same time pushing the offensive 
player just as he touched the ball. He 
was unable to hold it. The ball goes 



to the white-jersey team at the spot of 
tile foul as first down. 



6. Interference by the team zchich 
did 7iot make pass: Opposing players 
going after a passed ball. Defensive 
player has caught the ball, but has 
violated tiie rules by pushing his op- 
ponent. Penalty: Ball goes to white- 
jersey team at the spot of foul as a 
first down. 



7. Interference hi/ passing team: 
Opposing players going after a passed 
ball. Offensive white-jersey player 
has caught the ball, but violated rules 
b_v using his knee on his opponent. 
Penalty: Loss of 1.5 yards from spot 



of preceding down, the play to count 
as a down. 

8. Interference by the team ivhich 
did not make pass: Black-jersey play- 
er tripped wiiite-jerscy player while 
jolaying the man and making only a 
blind effort to stop the ball. Cannot 
be classed as a bona fide effort to 
catch or bat the ball. Penalty: Ball 
goes to white- jersey team at spot of 
foul as first down. 

9. .In attempt to intercept pass: 
Opposing players going after a passed 
ball. Black-jersey player stepped on 
white-jersey player's foot, tripping 
him and causing him to miss the ball. 
However, he was making a bona fide 
attempt to intercept the pass. 



15 



THERMAL INSULATION ADDS TO 
MAN'S COMFORT 



THE term "thermal insulation" 
should be understood as including 
all those materials which are used 
throughout industry for the conserva- 
tion of heat. It is probable, however, 
that the public in general will be in- 
terested in thermal insulation chiefly 
through its application in the building 
industry, particularly in the construc- 
tion of dwelling houses. Therefore, in 
reviewing briefly the story of insula- 
tion, we shall confine ourselves to its 
application in the construction of Mr. 
Average Man's home. 

To begin witli, it may be instruc- 
tive to consider the particular mate- 
rials which are used for this purpose, 
what they contain, how they are made, 
and how they are used. For purposes 
of convenient classification we shall 
group them as follows : 

Board-Form Insulation: These 
materials consist chiefly of vegetable 
fibers obtained from wood, sugar cane 
stalks, corn stalks, straw, flax, etc. 



By James C. Peebles 



After proper chemical treatment the 
fibers, mixed with a large amount of 
water, and a small portion of suitable 
binder, are fabricated into a board- 
like structure, usually by rolling the 
wet mass of fibers on a screen, and 
then drying in a steam or air-heated 
dryer. The boards are usually about 
one-half inch thick, and are used in 
house construction as plaster-base or 
slieathing, and often as both. 

Blanket-Form Insulation: In 
this group fibers of vegetable, animal, 
or mineral origin may be used. These 
include wood, kapok, sea weed, cot- 
ton, animal hair, wool, feathers, as- 
bestos, mineral wool, and glass wool. 
The fibers are felted into a mat and 
frequently covered on both sides with 
water-proof paper, burlap, or asbes- 
tos paper. Such insulations have little 
pliysical strength and must be held 
securely in place, usually by means of 
special nails or wood nailing strips. 
They are soft and flexible and can 



be fitted into any desired shape when 
being applied. They are used to in- 
sulate dwelling house walls and ceil- 
ings, being placed between studs or 
joists and nailed along the edges. 

Bulk or Loose-Fill Insulation: 
These usually consist of mineral wool 
and glass wool, or asbestos fibers 
mixed with wood fibers, ground paper, 
or gypsum. Recently expanded ver- 
miculite has come into quite general 
use, and from time to time various 
mixtures are offered as bulk insula- 
tion. Perhaps the original insulation 
of this kind was sawdust, widely used 
in insulating ice-house walls. As in 
the case of the ice-house these bulk 
insulations are used to fill the hollow 
space between the wood studs in frame 
construction, or are placed between 
the joists for ceiling insulation. 

Batt Insulation: This group uses 
chiefly mineral wool or glass wool 
fibers formed into a loose mat or 
"batt," and protected on both sides 



Blanket insulation between attic joists 



Board form insulation being used as plaster-base 




16 



with paper or other covering. They 
are used largely for ceiling insula- 
tion, the batts being placed between 
the joists. 

Reflective Insulation: This form 
differs radically from those already 
considered. The usual form is a sheet 
of metal foil, usually aluminum. 
Sometimes the foil is mounted on kraft 
paper as a protection against tearing. 
The foil may be as thin as 0.0003 
inch, and is readily torn or otherwise 
damaged unless provided with a tough 
paper carrier. In practice the foil 
may be applied to one or both sides of 
the paper, thus providing one or two 
reflective surfaces. In addition to 
aluminum, certain non-metallic re- 
flective insulations have been pro- 
duced recently. They consist of 
paper sheets having a reflective coat- 
ing of a non-metallic nature. These 
reflective insulations depend for their 
efficiency upon their ability to re- 
flect radiant energy, much as a 
mirror reflects light. When we re- 
member that more than 50 per cent of 
the heat which passes through the 
hollow space in a frame wall is in 
radiant form, we can understand the 
effect produced when an efficient re- 
flector is placed in that space. 

Let us now suppose that Mr. Aver- 
age Man is planning to build a home. 
Naturally he wants it to be every- 
thing that he and his family have 
dreamed about, but at the same time 



expense must be watched carefully. 
If he is well informed he will cer- 
tainly decide that his shall be an in- 
sulated house. From the list of in- 
sulating materials considered above, 
which ones should he choose in order 
to get the best returns possible from 
his investment in insulation? 

Naturally no definite answer can 
be given to such a question which will 
be true in all cases. It will depend 
upon the type of construction to be 
used, the climate, the amount of money 
available for insulation, and perhaps 
somewhat upon building regulations. 
Furthermore, the variety of materials 
to choose from is so great that heat- 
ing engineers would doubtless differ 
somewhat in their recommendations. 
Nevertheless, certain basic principles 
can be followed, and if this is done 
a satisfactory insulation job will be 
reasonably sure to result. 

Let us suppose that our home 
builder proposes to build a two-story 
house of brick or tile construction, 
with unfinished attic. What procedure 
could he follow to produce a well- 
insulated house, one that will be easy 
to heat in the winter time and mucli 
more comfortable than usual in the 
hot summer months? 

Everyone who has inspected such 
a house during construction has no- 
ticed wooden strips placed vertically 
on the inside of the walls. These 
strips are about one inch thick and 



two inches wide, and are usually 
placed sixteen inches apart. They are 
known in tlie building trades as "fur- 
ring," and it is to these strips that 
the lath or otlitr plaster-base will be 
nailed. In insulating such a wall one 
good method is to apply blanket-form 
insulation, one-half inch thick and 
preferably with waterproof covering, 
cut to the proper width, and placed 
between the furring strips. In some 
cases a 2x2-inch furring has been 
used instead of the usual lx2-ineh. 
This makes possible the use of one 
inch of blanket-form insulation and 
still leaves an air space between in- 
sulation and plaster-base. In addition, 
board-form insulation can be used as 
plaster-base, which will increase con- 
siderably the thermal resistance of the 
wall. Furthermore, it should be noted 
tliat this type of plaster base provides 
insulation oi-er the furring, whereas 
the blanket insulation is placed ^e- 
frceen the furring. This insulation 
over the furring tends to prevent cold 
strips on the inside of the wall, which 
soon collect dust and produce the fa- 
miliar black streaks often noticed on 
interior walls and ceilings. 

In addition to the walls, the second 
floor ceiling should be insulated, be- 
cause much of tlie heat which is lost 
from a dwelling house goes out 
through the attic. For this purpose 
(Turn to page 26) 



Blanket insulation between partition studding 



Board form insulation being applied as sheeting 





17 



PRESIDENT'S 
REPORT AND 
RESIGNATION 



Q^O 



THE President's report for the 
year 1936-37 is primarily a rec- 
ord of the progress made during the 
past few years toward making eacli 
of the units embraced in the follow- 
ing program an effective reality. 

Recognizing progress already made, 
the Board of Trustees at its May 
meeting this year approved a plan for 
a composite school of applied science 
and design, of whicii the present In- 
stitute would be the nucleus and, 
doubtless for some time, the most im- 
portant unit. In addition to the 
undergraduate school of engineering, 
the proposed institution would include 
a school of architecture, a graduate 
school of applied science and design, 
a school, with an appropriate name, 
to be developed out of the present 
evening division with the purpose of 
serving persons who are employed, 
and, finally, a research foundation 
adequately endowed to carry on basic 
research for the advancement of 
science, at the same time that it serves 
industry. The objective of this pro- 
gram is, of course, to give Chicago an 
educational and research institution of 
the highest distinction, covering the 
whole field of science and design as 
they find application in an ever ad- 
vancing technology. 

The undergraduate school, which 
chiefly occupies our thought when 
Armour Institute is mentioned, has of 
course been operating effectively for 
many years. The progress of recent 
years has to do primarily with de- 
veloping the curriculum as, for ex- 



18 




ample, the reorganization of engineer- 
ing shops and the development of 
courses in such subjects as English 
and the Social Sciences. Equally im- 
portant is the progress made in rais- 
ing standards of teaching, both 
through reduction of teaching loads 
and the enrichment of teaching per- 
sonnel. 

The report opens with an an- 
nouncement of the additions to the 
teaching staff which became effective 
at the beginning of the current year. 
Dr. Linton E. Grinter, who comes to 
Armour from the Texas Agricultural 
and Mechanical College, and is re- 
garded by the profession as an out- 
standing leader in the field of Civil 
Engineering, has been appointed Di- 
rector of the Option in Civil En- 
gineering and Dean of the Graduate 
Division. Dr. Lester R. Ford, one of 
the outstanding mathematicians of the 
country, comes to Armour from Rice 
Institute to be Chairman of the De- 
partment of Mathematics. Mr. Jerrold 
Loebl, an alumnus, who has been serv- 
ing as a member of the Advisory Com 
mittee of Architects, to which refer- 
ence will be made later, has become 
Professor of Architecture and Acting 
Director of the Department. Charles 
Dornbusch has been appointed Asso- 
ciate Professor of Architecture, in 
charge of Design; Dr. Robert C. 
Kintner, Associate Professor of Chem- 
ical Engineering; Dr. John Day 
Larkin, Associate Professor of Polit- 
ical Science; and Dr. Paul Copeland, 
Associate Professor of Physics. 



There is a registration of approxi- 
mately 950 in the regular day course, 
as compared with 833 last year and 
771 two years ago. Moreover, the 
creation of the Division of Educa- 
tional Tests and Measurements, whicli 
becomes fully operative this year, has 
made it feasible to select new stu- 
dents more discriminately than ever 
before. Tlie number of applicants for 
admission was substantially twice the 
number of those admitted. Day regis- 
tration is further augmented by 182 
students in the Cooperative Course, 
a description of which has been pub- 
lished in past issues of the Engineer. 
In February, 1937, 102 cooperative 
students entered, while 80 were car- 
ried over from those who entered in 
February, 1936. A new group of co- 
operative students will enter in Feb- 
ruary, 1938. It will be seen that the 
day registration in the regular four- 
year and Cooperative Courses this 
year will be over 1200. 

Numerically, the most extraordin- 
ary development has been in the Eve- 
ning Division. The large increase last 
year over the preceding year made it 
essential to place the Division under 
the administration of a Dean. Dr. 
B. B. Freud, who is well known to 
alumni as a highly esteemed scholar 
and teacher, became Dean, effective 
September 1, 1937. There is a regis- 
tration in the Evening Division 
around 2200 this year, compared with 
1331 in the first semester last year 
and 777 two years ago. 

It is highly significant that such a 



large number of employed persons 
find opportunity for engineering edu- 
cation in our evening classes. More 
important still is the soundness of the 
program under which the Evening- 
Division is administered and the high 
standards which it embodies. These 
standards are controlled by the regu- 
lar Institute faculty through the re- 
spective departments. Many of the 
courses are necessarily given by in- 
structors who are not members of the 
regular faculty but wiio are selected 
in each case with the approval of the 
appropriate department. Day school 
instructors participate in evening- 
teaching as a part of their regular 
teaching loads rather than as an ex- 
cess burden, as was formerly the ease. 
As result, evening work does not over- 
tax the energy of the day staff. 

There are three types of evening 
school students ; those taking graduate 
courses, primarily courses leading to 
advance degrees ; those taking special 
engineering courses, with or without 
college credit; and high school gradu- 
ates who are completing part of their 
undergraduate requirements in the 
evening school. It is significant that 
the greatest concentration is in the 
group who are taking first and second 
year college subjects. 

Another opportunity wliich Armour 
is now offering to citizens of Chicago 
and vicinity is embodied in conference 
courses for executives. Trustee Al- 
fred L. Eustice is responsible for in- 
augurating a series of such courses, 
the first of which was given last win- 
ter, and consisted of informal dinner 
meetings held at the Hotel LaSalle 
from January to April. The subject 
of this course was Plant Engineering 
and Maintenance. From 36 company 
registrations, there was an average 
weekly attendance of 72. Henry P. 
Dutton, Professor of Industrial Man- 
agement, who was in charge of the 
course, has been appointed Director 
of Conference Courses, and plans are 
under way for offering during the 
current year courses similar to the one 
given last year. 

The appointment of Dr. Grinter as 
Dean of the Graduate Division, al- 
ready noted, is a definite step toward 
the creation of a graduate school as 
one of the units in the program above 
outlined. Graduate study has pre- 
viously been administered by a com- 
mittee consisting of Dr. Freud, Chair- 
man, and Professors Freeman and 
Peebles. The largest registration 
hitherto has been in the Evening 
Division. This year there are about 
210 graduate registrations in the eve- 
ning and about 20 graduate day stu- 
dents. 

Last year's report carried notice 



of the establishment of the Research 
Foundation and the appointment of 
Dr. Thomas C. Poulter as Director. 
Other articles which appeared in the 
Engineer and Alumnus during the 
year outlined in some detail the work 
which the Foundation is doing. The 
scientific staff of the Foundation con- 
sists of three groups, (1) scientists 
whose work is exclusively or pre- 
dominantly with the Foundation, (2) 
men employed primarily on research 
projects who do part-time teaching, 
and (3) regular members of the In 
stitute faculty who carry on collateral 
work with the Foundation. 

The most significant addition to the 
staff during the year was the appoint- 
ment of Dr. Max Jakob to establish 
and direct a laboratory on heat ex- 
changes. Dr. Jakob was for many 
years Director of the Division of Heat 
Exchanges in the Physikalisch-Tech- 
nische Reichsanstalt in Berlin, and 
is one of the world's foremost scholars 
in that field. The appointment fol- 
lowed correspondence covering a 
period of nearly a year, during which 
a careful survey had been made of 
the demand for the kind of service 
wiiich a laboratory on heat exchanges 
could perform. 

Significant changes have been made 
in the campus and the plant of the 
Institute during the past year. New 
classroom space has been provided by 
internal improvements in Chapin Halj, 
and much new equipment has been 
added. There has also been a gradual 
raising of the standards of sightliness 
through better maintenance and the 
planting of slirubs and lawns. 

Extraordinary expansion of the 
Evening Division, the establishment 
of the Cooperative Course, increased 
registration in the four-year day 
course, and the development of in- 
dustrial research represent an ex- 
tremely intense utilization of the 
plant throughout the college year. It 
is clear to everyone who is familiar 
with the problems of the Institute 
that improvements in the present 
plant solve our plant problem only 
temporarily. During the past year 
a committee has given careful thought 
to this problem with the result that 
efforts are now being focused upon a 
specific program. 

Among the services to which recog- 
nition is given in the report, particu- 
lar mention is made of the work of 
the Advisory Committee of Architects, 
the creation of which was noted in 
last year's report. The committee 
consists of John A. Holabird, Chair- 
man, Alfred S. Alschuler, C. Herrick 
Hammond, Jerrold Loebl, and Alfred 
Shaw. Mr. Jerrold Loebl of the 
Class of 1921 is not only a member 



of this Committee but, at considerable 
sacrifice to himself, lie is serving as 
Acting Director of the Department of 
Architecture. 

The report also calls attention to 
the excej)tional effectiveness of the 
Treasurer's office in liandling student 
accounts, of the Dean's office in han- 
dling its responsibilities and enlisting 
cooperation of associates, and of the 
faculty which has taken an active part 
in the develojjincnts wliich have just 
been outlined. 

Toward the end of the report, there 
is a financial review of the past four 
years in comparison with the years 
immediately ])reeeding. Whereas the 
excess of expenditures over income 
from endowment, student receipts and 
services from 192(5 to 1933 averaged 
nearly .$150,000, the average for the 
past four years has been approxi- 
mately $55,000, and for the past three 
years considerably less than $10,000. 
The improved showing has been 
brought about through personnel and 
other internal adjustments, through a 
raise of $50 per year in tuition, and 
through expansion of the educational 
program so as better to occupy the 
plant. At the same time, work in the 
regular four-year course has been en- 
riched; the average salary })aid to 
teachers has risen; teaching loads 
have been reduced; and much new 
talent has been added. After set- 
ting forth the developments above 
sketched, the report continues with 
the following paragraph: 

The President's report last year, as 
well as earlier reports, strongly em- 
jjhasized the need for increased en- 
dowment. We have all been working 
to that end and have received substan- 
tial encouragement. At the same 
time, we have been carrying on in the 
belief that a sound approach to efforts 
for new endowment would be found 
in developing our services and in the 
effective interpretation of these serv- 
ices as they contribute to the needs 
of industry and the community gen- 
erallj'. In pursuance of that policy, 
we now have a personnel which is 
capable of serving the community ef- 
fectively in many ways appropriate 
to our tj'pe of institution. We are 
probably better prepared to sell our 
services than we have been at any 
previous time. Unless, however, the 
recognition of our actual and potential 
service to the community speedily 
takes the form of increased endow- 
ment, the advances we have made will 
not be secure. In that fact lies the 
major problem with which you as the 
governing body of Armour Institute 
of Teclinology are confronted. 

The facts concerning the Presi- 
(Tum to page 35) 



19 




ACTING 

PRESIDENT 

SPEAKS 



Henry Townley Heald 



THE report of the retiring Presi- 
dent points out real evidence of 
progress during the past five years. 
The educational objectives have 
clearly crystallized around a strong 
undergraduate school of engineering 
and architecture, a strong graduate 
school, a well-developed evening divi- 
sion, and the Research Foundation 
concentrating on the problems of in- 
dustry. The Institute begins the year 
1937 with all of these divisions per- 
forming a greater service than ever 
before. 

Important additions to the staff, 
listed elsewhere in this issue, materi- 
ally strengthen the faculty, as well as 
provide the instruction necessary for 
the largest enrollment in the history 
of the School. It is difficult to com- 
pare faculty competence on any quan- 
titative basis, but it can be said with 
certainty that the Armour faculty is 
now better qualified to present first- 
class engineering instruction than 
ever before. Constant study of the 
curriculum with improvements each 
year suffice to insure the Institute a 
place in the forefront of engineering 
schools. The courses in Chemical En- 
gineering, Civil Engineering, Electri- 



cal Engineering, and Mechanical En- 
gineering appear in the list of accred- 
ited engineering curricula in the 
United States just released by the 
Engineers Council for Professional 
Development. The accrediting of 
curricula has been in every case pre- 
ceded by a searching investigation of 
the institution by a committee of the 
Council. 

A systematic program of improve- 
ment in physical facilities begun two 
years ago has added greatly to the use- 
fulness and comfort of the Institute 
plant and has effected a marked 
change in atmosphere, as well as ma- 
terially improving the appearance of 
the campus. This program is being 
continued as rapidly as resources per- 
mit. 

Alumni and friends of the Institute 
have long been aware of its financial 
problems. The problem of current op- 
erations on the present scale is now 
easily manageable through the support 
regularly being provided by Trustees, 
individual alumni, and friends in the 
community. However, the rapid de- 
velopment of Armour into the great 
technological institution which its 
plan calls for and which this commu- 



nity requires, is something which waits 
primarily for money: money for build- 
ings, for endowment, and for all the 
activities which have come to be asso- 
ciated with American educational in- 
stitutions. 

A committee consisting of three 
members of the Board of Trustees and 
two faculty members elected by the 
faculty council is now at work on the 
selection of Armour's fourth Presi- 
dent. This committee is agreed that 
the new President must bring to the 
position exceptional talents to carry 
forward Armour's program. Such a 
man will find an educational institu- 
tion already performing an outstand- 
ing service to its community and with 
an opportunity for development un- 
surpassed anywhere in America. He 
will find an influential Board of Trus- 
tees, a loyal alumni body, all ready to 
cooperate in the common purpose: 
building a greater Armour Institute 
of Technoloffv. 



*[Ed. Note: By action of the Board ol Trus- 
tees. Henry Townlev Heald. Dean oi the Insti- 
tute, has been appointed Acting-President.] 



20 



ARMOUR TECH NEWS 




tl.n 



NEW TRUSTEE 

MR. R. J. KOCH, newly elected 
trustee, is a graduate of Armour, 
having received his B. S. in C. E. in 
1913 and his C. E. five years later. 
After three years in the bridge de- 
partment of the Chicago, Milwaukee & 
St. Paul Railroad as designer of con- 
crete structures, he transferred to the 
General Fireproofing Company, soon 
becoming sales engineer. Two years 
later he began a ten year connection 
with the Ilg Electric Company, dur- 
ing which time he served as engineer, 
credit manager, and assistant treas- 
urer. In 1930 he became associated 
with Felt & Tarrant Manufacturing 
Company, holding first the position of 
treasurer and in 1934 becoming its 
president. 

In 1918 he married H. Virginia Felt 
of Chicago; and now they are the 
proud parents of a son and three 
daughters. Mr. Koch is a member of 
Delta Tau Delta and Tau Beta Pi. 
He is also a member of the Union 
League Club, Skokie and Shawnee 
Country Clubs, and of the Academy of 
Political Science of New York. He is 
a director of Felt & Tarrant Manu- 
facturing Company and of the Em- 
ployers' Association of Chicago. 



GRADUATE 
SCHOOL DEAN 

DR. L. E. GRINTER. nationally 
known authority on steel structures, 
comes to Armour from Texas A. & M. 
College, where he was professor of 
civil engineering. 

A native of Kansas, he received his 
B. S. from the state university. 
Awarded a fellowship at the U. of I., 
he did graduate work there, receiving 
his M. A. and Ph. D. degrees in 1924 
and 1926, respectively. Soon after 
this he was appointed engineer in 
charge of Design for the Standard Oil 
Co. From 1928 to 1936 he was con- 
nected with Texas A. & M. as pro- 
fessor of structural engineering, and 
in 1930 the University of Kansas 
awarded him the professional degree 
of civil engineer. 

Dr. Grinter has been appointed 
Head of the Civil Enginering De- 
partment and Dean of the Graduate 
School. He has been associated with 
many concerns as consultant and is the 
author of two books on steel struc- 
tures. He is a member of the A. S. 
C. E. and of the S. P. E. E., being 
especially active in both organizations. 
He is also a member of the honorary 
scholastic societies, Tau Beta Pi and 
Sigma Xi. 



GRADUATE SCHOOL 

GRADUATE study at Armour In 
stitutc of Tcclmolofiv lias .icvrl- 
itlitr rajiidly during the jjast 
Lars. 'I'lic (Irinaiui lor graduatr 
cour.sfs ill tiif evening sciiool is evi- 
denced by the present enrollment of 
more than two hundred men. This 
may be compared with the enrollment 
of forty students in 1935-1936, and 
of one hundred and forty students in 
193()-1937. The day seliool has had 
a less startling but equally gratifying- 
enrollment of gradaute students. 

Located in a community of five mil- 
lion persons. Armour Institute can 
and is oii'ering the only opportunity 
available for employed graduate en- 
gineers to obtain advanced graduate 
work leading to the master's degree. 
This explains not only the success of 
the graduate program in the evening 
school but the great number of 
schools represented by the graduate 
student body. This cosmopolitan 
group forms one of the most unique 
in the entire country-. Much of the 
value of graduate study in the Ar- 
mour graduate division comes from 
association with these men of diversi- 
fied educational and industrial experi- 
ence. 

It appears that engineers in ever 
increasing numbers are recognizing 
the advantage that the man with spe- 
cialized education represented by the 
master's degree has over the unspe- 
cialized graduate of a four-year en- 
gineering curriculum. The students 
registering in our graduate courses 
speak unhesitatingly of tlicir need for 
specialized information to help them 
handle their present jobs in such a 
manner that they will merit advance- 
ment. It seems that most graduates 
progress satisfactorily in industry for 
a year or two, but that a time comes 
when the demand upon the engineer's 
scientific background necessitates 
further study. Naturally, the en- 
gineer finds such study most effective 
when it is formally guided by his 
registration in graduate courses lead- 
ing to the master's degree. 

Although the evening school is 
serving an immediate need in the field 



21 



of graduate education, tliere is little 
question but that most of these adult 
students Avould have bettered their 
positions by an earlier completion of 
the master's work. If the engineer 
starts a tliree or four year master's 
program in the evening school a year 
or two years after receiving his B. S. 
degree, he is not benefited by the pro- 
fessional recognition accorded one 
with the M. S. degree until he has 
passed the critical first five years of 
his professional life. It seems evi- 
dent that his advancement could have 
been accelerated if he had completed 
a master's program during the first 
year after his graduation from a 
standard four-year engineering school. 
The Armour Institute anticiaptes the 
student's recognition of this important 
fact and is preparing to extend and 
improve its services in the field of full 
time graduate work in the day school. 
The financial problem need not en- 
ter as an insurmountable obstacle to 
full time or iialf-time graduate work 
for the recent graduate. Aided by 
possible scholarships, fellowships, re- 
search and teaching assistantships, 
and by cooperative arrangements with 
industry, as well as by tuition loans, 
prospective graduate students of ex- 
cellent qualifications will in most 
cases be able to arrange for the nec- 
essary time to complete the require- 
ments for the M. S. degree. Such 
requirements are standardized at 
thirty-two iiours of graduate work of 
which one-quarter is usually devoted 
to research work and the thesis. On 
a full time basis this program can be 
completed in any field of engineering 
in one academic year of two semesters. 
L. E. Grinter, 
Dean, Graduate School. 

EVENING DIVISION 

THE extraordinarj' expansion of 
"evening class" activities in the 
last two years has made it desirable to 
organize this part of the Institute's 
educational program as a . separate 
school under the name. The Evening 
Division, Armour Institute of Tech- 
nology, and to place it under the ad- 
ministration of a Dean. It is con- 
templated that all activities of the 
type usually described by the phrase 
"adult education" will also be ad- 
ministered by this Division eventually. 
The importance of the Evening Di- 
vision in the scheme of the Institute's 
functions may be seen most readily 
from its registration data. There are 
at present 2067 students enrolled in 
80 different subjects. It is necessary 
to schedule 128 separate sections and 
to engage 26 instructors in addition 



to tile regular staff to accommodate 
tliis enrollment. Last year there were 
1,112 enrollments; and in 1932, the 
depression's low, there were 370 in 
tile first semester, and 263 in the sec- 
ond. The attendance data for tiie 
years 1925 to 1937 are given in the 
accompanying graph. 

The size of the Division has fluctu- 
ated widely. It is dependent upon 
several factors, the dominant one at 
present being the economic situation. 
It has been found, for example, that 
the per capita steel production is a 
fairly accurate measure of that situa- 
tion. The almost precise parallelism 
between tlie two is surely more causal 
than coincidental. It would, of course, 
be desirable to stabilize tlie enroll- 
ment if possible. Certainly it can- 
not become much larger, in the Insti- 
tute's present physical plant, which 
is now carrying a capacity load. And 
it ougiit not be permitted to remain 
as sensitive as it is to the economic 
situation, if it is at all possible to 
make it less so. But how this may be 
done, if at all, is not clear at present. 

The Evening Division has always 
performed a scholarly and dignified 
educational function. Its standards 
are controlled by the regular Institute 
faculty operating through the respec- 
tive departments. The quality of tlie 
work it is doing and the educational 
results ensuing therefrom are in no 
way incompatible witli the high repu- 



tation of tiie College earned in its for- 
ty-four years of existence. 

The Division reaches a type of stu- 
dent which the College traditionally 
cannot reach. It furnishes special 
courses in engineering, architecture, 
and the basic sciences to adults not 
interested in college credit or degrees 
which wish to secure training in those 
subjects and who prefer to study un- 
der the auspices of a standard Col- 
lege of Engineering. Tiiese courses 
enable those employed during, the, day 
to extend their education by the use 
of their leisure time, so as to satisfy 
not only the immediate needs' of their 
technical occupations, but a.lso' their 
necessarily more remote ambitions to 
become "college trained." '(And as tlie 
work-day and the work-\veek become 
shorter, the number of ambitious men 
willing to spend a portion of their 
new leisure in this type of study is 
sure to increase. 

The Division also offers tiie first 
two years of the regular College cur- 
ricula of all the departments in eve- 
ning classes. And approximately 350 
students who could not otherwise at- 
tend college are seizing this oppor- 
tuiiitiy. In the Department of Elec- 
trical Engineering, regular junior 
work is this year being ofi'ered for 
the first time. It is not unreasonable 
to expect that in time it may be pos- 
sible to offer a complete undergradu- 
ate program in evening classes. 



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1800 
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YEAR 


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22 



Tlie graduate program in tlie Eve- 
ning Division is also a popular one. 
About 200 students are enrolled in 
tiie 20 courses offered by the Graduate 
Division. While many of these are 
taking tlie courses as advanced special 
ones, many also are taking them as 
part of a graduate program leading 
to a Master's degree in Engineering. 

And this year a very interesting ex- 
periment is being conducted. The 
Evening Division is giving tliree 
courses in Metallurgy at Wauktgaii. 
Illinois, under the joint sponsorsliip 
of the American Steel and Wire Com- 
pany to approximately ninety tech- 
nical employees of that Company. The 
results of this experiment cannot be 
foretold, but they are certain to be 
pertinent as well as interesting. In 
this connection, it should be said that 
the Evening Division is prepared to 
discuss the question of co-operation 
with professional and industrial so- 
cieties and with corporations inter- 
ested in the problems of engineering 
education as applied to employed 
adults. 

Benjamin B. Freud. 
Dean, Evening Division. 

RESEARCH 
FOUNDATION 

THE Research Foundation is 
starting its second year of re- 
search for industry' with considerable 
additional talent on its Research Staff 
as well as additional laboratories and 
equipment. 

Dr. F. W. Godwin in charge of 
the Coal Research Laboratory of the 
Foundation is starting a program 
which has to do with the better util- 
ization of fines which accumulate in 
a normal operation of a coal mine. 
This is a problem of considerable im- 
portance where soft coal is being 
mined and where the operator de- 
ducts the coal. The program on 
which Dr. Godwin is working is one 
which will utilize these fines in the 
production of a fuel which can be con- 
veniently transported and used, and 
which in addition, will provide a sat- 
isfactory outlet for these materials. 

Unusual talent in the persons of 
Dean L. E. Grinter and Dr. F. C. 
Dohrenwend has been added to the 
Staff of the Research Foundation in 
the division of Civil Engineering, and 
a most interesting program is con- 
templated in that field. 

Dr. Paul L. Copeland, a Research 
Physicist, will have charge of the 
Foundation Electronics Laboratory 
doing work in the field of thermionics, 
photoelectric and secondary electron 
emission as a basis for vacuum tube 
design, and discharge tube work. 

Mr. Robert I. Wishnick has estab- 



lished the Eli ^Vishnick Fellowship in 
the Researcii Foundation for the pur- 
pose of carrying on fundamental 
studies in the field of extreme pres- 
sure research. The research work 
conducted under this Fellowship will 
serve as material for a Doctor's De- 
gree thesis, and Mr. Robert M. Wil- 
liams of Fox Lake, Wisconsin, has 
been appointed Eli Wishnick I'ellow. 
Mr. Williams is starting a series of 
fundamental studies of the effect of 
pressure upon the physical properties 
of various jjure materials and solu- 
tions which, it is expected, will throw 
considerable light upon some of the 
very puzzling everyday problems en- 
countered in the engineering field. 

The division of Heat Transfer of 
the Research Foundation is equipped 
to carry on an extensive program in 
this field, which is of such great im- 
portance to most of the large indus- 
tries. Dr. Max Jakob who is in 
charge of this work, is one of the 
world's foremost scholars in that field. 
He was for many years Director of 
the Division of Heat Exchange in 
the Physikalisch - Technische Reich- 
sanstalt in Berlin. Adjacent to the 
Heat Transfer Laboratory is being- 
installed a constant temperature room 
which will provide adequate facili- 
ties for extensive programs in various 
types of insulation problems. It will 
provide facilities for maintaining a 
wide range of air temperatures and 
humidities under controlled conditions 
so that it will be possible to deter- 
mine the reason for failure of exist- 
ing insulation methods and arrive at 
a proper solution to such problems. 

The Research Foundation was or- 
ganized for the purpose of providing 
an industry or group of industries, 
with a physical plant and scientific 
aid necessary in the solution of indus- 
trial research problems. In this con- 
nection, it is serving many industries 
in the fields of physics, combustion 
engineering, mechanical engineering, 
automotive engineering, chemical en- 
gineering, and electrical engineering. 
Thomas C. Poulter, 
Director, Research Foundation. 

CO-OPERATIVE 
COURSE 

THE third Cooperative Class in 
Mechanical Engineering and the 
first in Electrical Engineering are now 
being formed, the first group of stu- 
dents coming to the Institute on Jan- 
uary .31, 1938, and the second or alter- 
nate group on April i. Many compa- 
nies will be sending boys for the third 
time, some for the second, and a 
goodly number for the first. 

In the two classes which started 
February 3, 1936 and February 1, 



l!i;i7. most of the students were sent 
out by tlie Institute to the companies 
as prospective employes. In the third 
class, there will be a decided change, 
in tiiat many of the companies co- 
operating witli the Institute are se- 
lecting prospects from among their 
own employes. These students have 
already been tried out in industry, 
and where they wish to come into the 
Cooperative Course the companies are 
b.icking them as tlieir candidates. 
Since the tendency toward seniority 
rights has increased, it now appears 
that more and more companies will be 
selecting boys from among their own 
employes. 

Industries wishing to find prospec- 
tive students interested in the co- 
operative education usually post the 
Institute circular on their bulletin 
boards, requesting the employe to see 
the superintendent or employment 
manager. Employes selected are sent 
to the Institute for certain tests of 
scholastic ability before final selection 
is made. Out-of-town industries send 
their candidates to the local high 
school principal, to whom tests have 
been sent by the Institute. 

It is gratifying to see how the in- 
dustries are taking advantage of the 
opportunity to advance and train 
young men of outstanding ability and 
how industries which have not previ- 
ously cooperated in this work-study 
plan are responding to this movement. 

Industries in Rockford, Peoria, and 
the Tri-Cities will have students en- 
rolled in this third class. Their addi- 
tion to present cooperating companies 
outside the city, Aurora. Joliet, Wood- 
stock, Hammond, and East Chicago, 
indicates a widening interest in this 
method of training. 

This work-study plan covers a pe- 
riod of five years, at the end of which 
the successful student receives a bach- 
elor of science degree. The curricu- 
lum is the same as for the students 
taking the regular full-time four-year 
program, and the opportunity for ex- 
tra-curricular activities during their 
school term is almost as good as for 
the regular students. The student 
must enter this work-study plan 
through a cooperating industry, and 
the Institute is in a position to assist 
industries in securing or selecting can- 
didates. 

The prerequisite for acceptance by 
the Institute is three semesters of 
algebra, three of geometry, two of 
physics, and two of chemistry. Stu- 
dents with one or two years of engi- 
neering from an accredited college 
may also become candidates in the 
Mechanical Engineering Course. 
L. J. Lease, 
Coordinator, Co-operativr Course. 



23 



NEW MEMBERS OF 
THE FACULTY 

Every Armour man likes an instruc- 
tor who is himself an Armour gradu- 
ate. WILLIAM B. AHERN re- 
ceived his degree here in '35. A mem- 
ber of the Department of Electrical 
Engineering, Ahem has continued his 
work at De Paul U. and has held a 
position with Wilson & Bennett Mfg. 
Co. His graduate work is now being 
completed at the Institute in the field 
of electrical power engineering. 

He is a member of Tau Beta Pi, 
Eta Kappa Nu, and Sphinx. 



Another faculty member who has 
found his way back to his Alma Mater 
is DAVID CHAPMAN. After re- 
ceiving his degree in Architecture in 
'32, Chapman took a position with 
Montgomery Ward and Company as 
a draftsman and designer. His ability 
as an architect has been increased 
through opportunities of extensive 
travel in foreign countries. 



The Department of English has an 
able and ambitious co-worker in the 
person of HOMER C. COMBS. 
After attending Georgetown College, 
Kentucky, and Washington Univer- 
sity, he continued his training at 
Northwestern University, where he 
received his degree of M.A. in 1933. 

Before coming to Armour, Mr. 
Combs held teaching positions at 
Lake Forest Univ^ersity, Lewis Insti- 
tute, Stephens CoUege, and North- 
western University. Some may be in- 
terested to know that he has been a 
radio announcer for KMOX, St. 
Louis; that he is a soloist, a lecturer, 
and a director of choruses; and that 
he has traveled widely. Mr. Combs 
has already assumed charge of dra- 
matics in addition to his regular 
teaching. 



PAUL L. COPELAND is a recog- 
nized authority in the field of electron 
physics. His academic degrees in- 
clude B.A., M.S., and Ph.D., the lat- 
ter two having been earned at Iowa 
State University. 

While his chief interests lie in the 
study of classical electricity, he is also 
well acquainted with all of the princi- 
pal divisions of physics. He has pub- 
lished numerous papers relating to 



electron emission, many of which have 
been found valuable in the electrical 
world of research. 

Dr. Copeland's experience as a 
teacher of physics includes an envi- 
able record of service on the faculty 
of several leading American technical 
institutions. He is a member of Sigma 
Xi and Phi Kappa Phi; and his mem- 
bership in professional societies in- 
cludes the American Physical Society 
and the American Association of Phy- 
sics Teachers. 



Since his graduation from Rensse- 
laer Polvtechnic Institute in 1931, 
CLAYTON O. DOHRENWENDhas 
been actively engaged in the develop- 
ment of theories in the field of me- 
chanics. His researches have in- 
volved studies of the photo-elastic 
properties of materials and the distri- 
bution of stresses in various types of 
structures. He holds the degree of 
M.C.E., and has been an instructor at 
Rensselaer Institute since 1981. 

Mr. Dohrenwend is a member of 
Sigma Xi, the American Society of 
Civil Engineers, and the S.P.E.E." His 
primary interests are in teaching and 
research, and as a hobby he selects 
photography. 



A man of wide and diversified in- 
terest is CHARLES HENRY DORN- 
BUSCH. Having studied at Colum- 
bia University, he received an Archi- 
tectural Prize Scholarship at Prince- 
ton in 1921. His talents led him to 
greater scholastic honors, namely, fin- 
alist in the Beaux-Arts Institute of 
Design (1924-25). 

Besides being an able teacher, Mr. 
Dornbusch has held such responsible 
positions as Chief of Design at the 
Century of Progress Exposition, and 
Chief of Reporting Service, Tennessee 
Valley Authority. 

Armour is pleased to have such a 
versatile architect as an addition to its 
faculty. 



The Department of Mathematics is 
fortunate in having as new head of 
the department, DR. LESTER R. 
FORD, recently of Rice Institute. 

Dr. Ford received his first degree 
at Missouri State University in 1911, 
and the A.M. at Harvard in 1913. A 
Traveling Fellow at Paris in 1915-16, 
he returned to Harvard and received 
his Ph.D. in '17, and for the next three 
years was an instructor there. Since 



that time he has been on the faculty of 
Rice Institute, and has continued to 
be actively engaged in research. 

Dr. Ford has lectured before the 
leading mathematical societies, he has 
served as a member of the Council of 
the American Mathematical Society, 
and is on the editorial board of the 
American Journal of Mathematics and 
Duke Mathematical Journal. He is 
listed in Who's Who in America and 
in American Men of Science. 



In June of this year, ERNEST 
FREIREICH, received his M. S. 
from Armour, and he now returns to 
his alma mater as an instructor in 
chemical engineering. Mr. Freireich 
plans to continue with his research 
work and to remain in the teaching 
profession. He is a member of the 
American Institute of Chemical En- 
gineering and of Phi Lambda Upsilon. 



DR. D. G. FULTON, a member 
of the mathematics staff, graduated 
with honors from Acadia University 
in 1929. A graduate student at the 
University of Michigan for the next 
three years, he devoted himself to 
study in the various fields of mathe- 
matics and physics, receiving his doc- 
torate in 1932 for his research in the 
Cauchy Integral Formula. In the 
same year he presented a paper on 
this subject before the American 
Mathematical Society. 

Dr. Fulton is a member of Phi Beta 
Kappa and Sigma Xi. 



DR. FRANCIS W. GODWIN is 
the new Head of the Coal Research 
Division of the Research Foundation. 
He spent his undergraduate years at 
San Diego State College, receiving a 
B. S. degree in chemistry. From 
there he went to Iowa State Univer- 
sity, taking his M. S. in 1934 and his 
Ph. D. in 1937. 

Dr. Godwin is singuarly well quali- 
fied for his new position, as evidenced 
by the amount and extent of his re- 
search work on coal and his published 
papers on that subject. 

He is a member of Phi Lambda 
Upsilon, Lambda Delta Lambda, and 
Sigma Xi. 

[Ed. Note: The photograph of Dr. Godwin was 
inadvertently omitted.] 



DR. WILLIAM HAMMER has 
been appointed Instructor in French 
and German in the Department of 



24 




Wm. B. Ahem 

Chas. H. Dombusch 

Robt. C. Kinfner 



David Chapman 
Lester R. Ford 
John D. Larkin 



Homer C. Combs 
Ernest Freireich 
Alfred L. Mell 



Paul L. Copeland 
Dawson G. Fulton 
Mrs. Anna C. Orcutt 



Clayton O. Dohrenwend 
Wm. Hammer 
Irwin E. Perlin 



English and Modern Language. Born 
in Germany, he attended such famous 
universities as Bonn, Cologne, and 
the Sorbonne. After extensive travel 
throughout Europe, he came to the 
University of Chicago to accept a Fel- 
lowship. In 1936 he received his 
M. A. degree and a year later his 
Ph.D. 

Dr. Hammer's major fields of study 
are language, pliilosophv, and peda- 
gogy. If necessity arises, he is capa- 
ble of teaching, besides French and 
German, Latin, Greek, Italian, Swed- 
ish, and Russian. Armour is espe- 
cially fortunate in having secured the 
assistance of so accomplished a scholar 
and teacher. 



DR. ROBERT C. KINTNER has 
been appointed Associate Professor of 



Chemical Engineering. Dr. Kintner 
received his training at Ohio State 
University where he had the degrees 
of Bachelor of Science, Master of 
Science, and Doctor of Philosophy 
conferred upon him. He has had sev- 
eral years of experience in industrial 
chemistry in various phases. He was 
for four 3-ears foreman and assistant 
superintendent of plants engaged in 
the manufacture of chemicals. Dr. 
Kintner taught in the Departments of 
Chemical Engineering at Ohio State 
University and at Rose Polytechnic 
Institute until 1930. After several 
years of work not connected with an 
educational institution he resumed 
teaching at Bucknell University in 
1933. It is from Bucknell that he 
comes to us. 



Dr. Kintner is a member of C. P. 
E. E., Alpha Chi Sigma, and various 
other chemical societies. 



DR. JOHN D. LARKIN joins the 
staff of the Institute as Associate Pro- 
fessor of Political Science. He is an 
alumnus of Berea College (B. A.) 
and the University of Chicago (M. 
A.). After taking his master's de- 
gree in 1925 Dr. Larkin taught at 
Hamline University (St. Paul), Rut- 
gers, the University of North Dakota, 
and at Harvard. 

Since receiving his doctor's degree 
(Harvard, 1930) he has been an in- 
structor at the College of the City 
of New York, where he has also 
served as departmenti head of the 



25 



School of Business and Civic Admin- 
istration. 

Dr. Larkin has published, besides 
several reviews, a monograph on 
"The President's Control of the Tar- 
iff." 



As a boy of 8, ALFRED LORENZ 
MELL went to Germany to live for a 
few years with liis grandfather. This 
grandfather was an architect, and the 
young Alfred then and there decided 
to follow in his hero's footsteps. In 
1931, his ambition was realized. 
After working for a number of years 
and making his own way, Mell gradu- 
ated in architecture from Armour In- 
stitute of Technology. Not only tiiat, 
he won the Art Institute scholarship 
and traveled in Europe for the pur- 
pose of furtlier study. 

He now returns to his alma mater 
as Instructor in Architectural Design. 
He has also his own office as an Indus- 
trial Designer, and he is associated 
with the office of Cowles & Colean, 
Chicago architects. 

In college, Mr. Mell was a member 
of Delta Tau Delta and Scarab. 



ANNA C. ORCUTT, Instructor in 
Orientation, has the distinction of be- 
ing the only instructor of the fair sex 
in the Institute. She is not really a 
new member of the faculty, however, 
since siie conducted several remedial 
classes last year for freshmen and 
sophomores. 

Mrs. Orcutt's undergraduate work, 
taken at various schools, led to an 
A. B. degree from the Western Re- 
serve University in 1925. Her grad- 
uate work at the same school and at 
the University of Chicago led to her 
M. A. At the present time she is 
completing the requirements of the 
University of Chicago for her Ph. D. 
Psychology, psychiatry, and education 
are her principal interests. 

Mrs. Orcutt's extensive experience 
in teaching, acquired at nine differ- 
ent schools, well equips her for her 
work in the remedial classes and for 
the new course offered in psychology. 



DR. IRWIN E. PERLIN, In- 
structor in Mathematics, received his 
Ph. D. from the University of Chicago 
in 1935 and his Master's and Bach- 
elor's degrees from Northwestern 
University two and three years pre- 
viously. During part of his residence 
at Northwestern he served as an As- 
sistant Instructor. He is a member of 
Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi. 



INSULATION 

(From page 17) 

either loose fill or batt insulation can 
be used with good results. It can 
easily be placed between the ceiling 
joists, working from the attic side, 
at a minimum of labor expense. Such 
a treatment will greatly reduce heat 
losses into the attic and produce more 
nearly uniform temperatures between 
first and second floors. 

If a frame house is to be built the 
insulation procedure with respect to 
the ceiling can well be the same as 
for the brick liouse. But when we 
come to the walls a different practice 
must be followed, although just what 
this practice should be lieating engi- 
neers are not in agreement. For some 
time it has been quite common prac- 
tice to fill the hollow space between 
the studs with some form of bulk or 
loose-fill insulation. However, prac- 
tical experience with this metiiod has 
not been entirely satisfactory. In the 
first place the insulation sometimes 
settles, thus leaving a considerable 
portion near the top of the wall witli- 
out any insulation. In the second 
place it has been found that moisture 
tends to collect in the insulation, 
greatly reducing its efficiency. This 
moisture condition is aggravated by 
artificial liumidification during the 
winter time, a practice which is in- 
creasing rapidly. It seems, therefore, 
that to pack a wall full of insulation 
is not good practice; in fact many 
heating engineers no longer recom- 
mend it. There is, on the other hand, 
a growing conviction that one or more 
air spaces within the wall will help 
to solve the problem of moisture con- 
densation. Under certain conditions 
moisture will probably be deposited, 
no matter how we build our wall. But 
with air spaces in the wall, a certain 
amount of re-evaporation can take 
place when weather conditions are 
favorable for it. 

For the wall of the frame house 
then, it seems better to use a blanket- 
form insulation, at least one inch 
thick, placed between the studs and 
so located as to provide an air space 
between insulation and plaster-base on 
the inside and between insulation and 
sheathing on the outside. The insula- 
tion should be provided with a good 
moisture-resisting covering, and if 
that covering can be provided with a 
reflective coating so much the better. 
If the house is to be built in an ex- 
posed position, a sheathing of board- 
form insulation will prove an excel- 
lent wind stop. In some cases such 
sheathing, and plaster-base also, are 
covered with a reflective coating on 



tlie air-space side. Thus conventional 
insulation is combined with the reflec- 
tive principle to give excellent results. 

If the prospective home builder, 
when planning his home, will apply 
the principles and materials discussed 
lierein there is no doubt that the re- 
sults will be gratifying. The cost 
should not be more than 3 to 5 per 
cent of the cost of the house, depend- 
ing upon the type of insulation de- 
cided upon. In any event, there is 
scarcely a single item of cost which 
can so amply justify itself on sound 
economic grounds. Insulation should 
paj' for itself in not to exceed five 
years, through fuel savings alone. In 
addition, tiiere is the greater comfort 
whicli tile family will enjoy, particu- 
larly during the summer time. Sec- 
ond floor temperatures will be much 
lower because of the insulation, and 
bake-oven bedrooms should be only an 
evil memory. 

When tiie home owner and his fam- 
ily move into their insulated home, 
there are a few points which they 
sliould keep in mind in order to secure 
maximum comfort in tiieir home. They 
should remember tiiat tiie liouse is a 
shelter, a protection from the sum- 
mer heat just as surely as from the 
winter cold. But observe how many 
families behave when the first hot day 
comes along. They open the windows 
wide and invite the heat in, in spite 
of the fact that the house was insu- 
lated for the very purpose of keeping 
the heat out. Windows should be kept 
closed during the heat of the day and 
opened only at night. Furthermore, 
efforts should be made to keep the 
direct rays of the sun off the window 
glass. Unless protected, the glass can 
easily reach a temperature of 140° F 
or more, and when we remember that 
the flow of heat through the windows 
is at least ten times as rapid as 
through the walls, the importance of 
keeping the surface temperature of 
the glass as low as possible becomes 
apparent. An awning over a window 
can reduce the glass temperature as 
much as 40° F and reduce by more 
than half the flow of heat through the 
windows. 

With such simple precautions as 
these it is possible to maintain for 
several days a temperature inside a 
well-insulated house about 20° below 
the daytime maximum. Then, as soon 
as cool weather comes again the house 
can be opened up and well aired, thus 
losing the heat that the walls have 
gradually accumulated during the hot 
spell. In this way the house can be 
reconditioned and made ready to serve 
as a welcome refuge during the next 
heat wave. 



26 




THOUGH the Bell System is made up of 
315,000 men and women serving every 
corner of the country,its structure is simple. 
[ i^ The American Telephone and Tele- 
graph Company coordinates all system ac- 
tivities. It advises on all phases of telephone 
operation and searches constantly for im- 
proved methods. |^ The 25 associated 
operating companies, each attuned to the 
area it serves, provide local and toll service. 
[Q Bell Telephone Laboratories carries 



on scientific research and development. 
^ Western Electric is the Bell System's 
manufacturing, purchasing and distributing 
unit. jQ The Long Lines Department of 
American Telephone and Telegraph inter- 
connects through its country-wide network 
of wires the 25 operating companies and 
handles overseas service. 

Thanks to the teamwork of these Bell 
System units, you can talk to almost any- 
one, anywhere, anytime — at low cost! 



27 




Outer Drive improvement, which includes one of the largest bascule bridges and nearly fo 



(From page 8) 
ity of these beaches is indicated by 
the fact that in recent seasons as 
many as 15,000,000 people have used 
park bathing beaches. The City of 
Chicago also operates three beaches 
on city-owned property and permits 
bathing at many street ends. On a 
bright summer day a journey along 
the shore makes it appear that all 
Chicago is in the water. 

Six of the finest inland yacht har- 
bors are contained in the parks along 
the Lake Front, providing space for 
mooring nearly one thousand craft. 
The imposing vessels that occupy 
these harbors make a beautiful .sight 
on a summer day and include sumptu- 
ous yachts as much as three hundred 
feet in length. Truly Chicago's Lake 
Shore has become a Mecca for the 
yachtsman. From all over the Great 

28 




:;^} -j^^v^^qSI^h:: 




es of elevated roadway. Dedicated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on October 5, 1937 




Lakes visitors come and drop anchor 
in beautiful Montrose, Belmont, or 
Jackson Park harbors, remaining to 
enjoy the many attractions that Clii- 
cago offers the summer visitor. 

Not only does the lake shore park 
development offer facilities for aqua- 
tics, but the broad acres of greensward 
established along the shore and un- 
interrupted by cross roads, provide 
exquisite picnic grounds and broad 
and sporty golf links. Chief among 
the latter is that at Waveland Avenue 
in Lincoln Park wliere thousands of 
golf enthusiasts have their irascibility 
cooled by lake breezes. 

Along with all its other advantages, 
Chicago's lake shore development has 
great utility value. Providing as it 
does an almost continuous stretch of 
land along the eastern boundary of 
the city, it has become the means for 

29 



aiitoists to travel from the far North 
Side to tlie far South Side without 
entering or crossing congested city 
streets. 

As motoring became more popular, 
more and more automobile driveways 
were provided. Each year saw addi- 
tional connections under construction 
and widening operations under way 
wliere increased traffic forced these 
measures. Soon business men living 
in all parts of the North and South 
Sides chose the lake shore driveways 
as their favorite route to and from 
business. A traffic survey last year 
showed that on the average business 
day 79,000 automobiles passed a given 
point on Lake Shore Drive at Oak 
Street. 

For many long years, Michigan 
Avenue was the only connecting bou- 
levard between the north and south 
shore driveways. Traffic on this 
famous thoroughfare grew more and 
more dense until it became almost im- 
passable during morning and evening 
liours. The Chicago plan of 1909 rec- 
ommended the construction of an outer 
link spanning the Chicago River at 
its mouth and providing a direct route 
from north to south that would relieve 
congestion on Michigan Avenue. On 
October 5, 19.37, after many years of 
planning and effort on the "part of 
Chicago's civic leaders, this last great 
improvement was completed bv the 
Chicago Park District and dedicated 
to public use by President Roosevelt. 
It includes actually two bridges, — one 
spanning the River,— and the other, 
Ogden Slip,— together with broad 
eight-lane driveway approaches ex- 
tending from North Avenue on the 
north to Roosevelt Road on the south, 
and with an additional connection to 
Michigan Avenue at Randolph Street. 

This improvement, involving a pub- 
lic investment of about thirteen mil- 
lions of dollars, provides the final link 
in what is now a continuous express 
driveway 16 miles long, skirting the 
lake shore throughout almost its en- 
tire length. Scenically, it rivals any- 
thing of its kind in the world. Eco- 
nomically, it provides means of r'eady 
access for the motorist to far distant 
parts of the city, and it constitutes 
a by-pass for tourists traveling 
through Chicago who do not wish to 
become entangled in city traffic. 

All these improvements have not 
been attained without substantial pub- 
lic investment. Sixteen hundred acres 
of new land have been created by fill- 
ing in the lake at various times. 
Twelve million dollars is invested in 
shore protection works alone. These 
offer a constant problem of mainte- 
nance and should have at least one-half 
million dollars per year spent upon 



tiiem to overcome wave and ice action. 
Early records do not accurately dis- 
close the cost of some of tiie other 
improvements, but, conservatively es- 
timated, Chicago has spent well over 
one hundred millions of dollars to 
create and improve her sliore line. 
Who shall say after viewing the beau- 
ties and advantages that it offers to- 
day that every dollar was not well 
spent? 

HRE PROTECTION 

(From page II) 
sixty-sixth anniversary of the great 
Chicago fire. During" the first week 
of October the whole nation has been 
asked to give special attention to fire 
prevention. In such a discussion as 
this, at sucli a time as this, it is most 
appropriate tliat we emphasize the im- 
portant fact that the reduction of our 
enormous fire loss and the saving of 
thousands of men, women, and cliii- 
dren from torture and death by fire, 
is a responsibility shared by every 
one of us. It cannot be shirked with 
easy-going carelessness as something 
which concerns only the fire insurance 
companies, the fire departments, and 
tlie professional fire protection engi- 
neers. 

Some authorities estimate that half 
our fires are due to easily preventable 
causes. Others say that"three-fourths 
would be closer to the truth. In either 
case, we are paying a tremendous 
price for our heedlessness. 

Do you throw away a match or a 
cigarette without being absolutely 
sure that it is extinguished? Do you 
smoke in bed? Do you handle jjnso- 



line carelessly? Do you short-circuit 
your electric fuses because they do 
wliat they are designed to do — ojjcr- 
ate when the wiring is overloaded? 
Do you tolerate the accumulation of 
rubbish in your attic or basement? 
Are there untidy corners in your store 
or factory? Do you ever realize that 
our manner of living and working is 
such that fuel is nearly always at our 
elbows, and that if it becomes ignited 
we are to blame? 

No amount of research and pains- 
taking effort on the part of a trained 
engineer can protect against fires 
which are due to gross neglect. Our 
fire departments are the best in the 
world, fortunately for us. The science 
and the art of fire protection have 
been developed here to a greater ex- 
tent than anywhere else in the world, 
again fortunately for us. But our fire 
loss in proportion to population is far 
greater than the loss in Germany, 
France, or England. Part of this great 
difference is due to the fact that a 
large proportion of our buildings are 
less fire resistant than those of west- 
ern Europe, but to a much greater 
extent our bad record is chargeable 
to the fact that we are heedless and 
that we consider a fire as a bit of bad 
luck, rather than as evidence that 
someone has been at fault. 

We must have engineers and fire- 
fighters. We rhust also have an in- 
creased sense of personal responsibil- 
ity for fires. A cow, a lantern, and a 
pile of hay made a dangerous com- 
bination two generations ago. Let us 
not tolerate equally dangerous combi- 
nations which may destroy other 
cities. 





Results of an explosion due to use of gasoline 


in washing machine 










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30 




OH.DADDy TMERES THE 
FAMOUS COG-RAILWAV 
CAR. I WISW WE HAD 

COME UP OKI IT. you 

MUST BE TIRED FROM 
THAT DRIVE 



NOT AT ALL. I JUST KEPT ' 

[THINKING HOWGOOD mis PIPE- 
FUL OF PRINCE ALBERT 
WOULD TASTE 
WHEN VJESOT 
/") .^{^*/IN-— 1 UP HERE 




I 



NOW FOR A MILD, MELLOW SMOkE.VOU 

KMOW, CHUBBINS, THE LONGER A MAM 

GOES WITMOUT PKINCE ALBERT THE 

MORE HE APPRECIATES 

HOW GOOD IT IS. IT ALWAVS 

SMOk'ES SO COOL, WITHOUT 

BIT of'tomgue-biteV r 




TRY p. A. ON THIS 
MONEY- BACK GUARANTEE! 



Smoke 20 fragrant pipefuls of Prince 
Albert. If you don't find it the mellowest, 
tastiest pipe tobacco you ever smoked, 
return the pocket tin with the rest of 
the tobacco in it to us at any time with- 
in a month from this date, and we will 
refund full purchase price, plus postage. 
(Signed) R. J. Reynolds Tobacco 
Company, Winston-Salem, N. C. 



pipefuls of fragrant 
tobacco in every 2-oz. 
tin of Prince Albert 



RiNCE Albert 



ALSO 

TRY ROLLING 

YOUR OWN 

WITH P. A. 



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31 



BOOK 
SHELF 



Lo! The Footprint Is Our Own 

Number, The Language of Science 
by Tobias Dantzig* is an extremely 
entertaining account of the evolution 
of the modern number concept. "The 
author holds that our school curricula, 
by stripping mathematics of its cul- 
tural content and leaving a bare skele- 
ton of technicalities, have repelled 
many a fine mind. It is the aim of 
this book to restore this cultural con- 
tent and present the evolution of num- 
ber as the profoundly human story 
which it is." Handsomely does Pro- 
fessor Dantzig achieve his purpose. 

A professor of mathematics at the 
University of Maryland and lecturer 
on mathematical physics at the United 
States Bureau of Standards, Dantzig 
could well assume the omniscient air 
of authority too often adopted by the 
scientist speaking, or writing, to the 
lay public. Or, as a capable scientist, 
he might have introduced all the para- 
phernalia of his art and presented a 
complete and technically perfect (or 
perfectly technical!) text on the 
theory of numbers. Dantzig, however, 
has done neither. He has produced 
a readable, intensely interesting, and 
authoritative portrayal of number 
theory as a story of human evolution, 
subject to human limitations. He 
mentions the names of mathematical 
innovators, but treats the slow early 
development of number and the rapid 
recent flowering of the concept as part 
of the cultural growth of the race. 
Even the table of contents is enter- 
taining and suggestive. It is here re- 
produced: 

Fingerprints 
The Empty Column 

Number Lore 
The Last Number 

Symbols 
The Unutterable 
This Flowing World 
The Act of Becoming 
Filling the Gaps 
The Domain of Number 
The Anatomy of the Infinite 
The Two Realities 
The presentation follows a gradual 
unfolding of the present number con- 
cept: first, the construction of the 
scale of positive integers based on 
finger c ounting; then the rational 

*(New York, Macmillan, 1933, 2nd ed. $2.50.) 



32 



numbers, the vulgar fractions. For a 
long time, these quotients of integers 
were considered all sufficient. Then 
the Pythagoreans tried to connect 
numbers and geometrj'. The famous 
Pythagorean theorem revealed the 
irrationals for the first time, and the 
cult suppressed them as unworthy of 
God ! In time pi and the roots gained 
favor. Tlien came the "sophisti- 
cated," the imaginaries. These were 
not allowed for many years. Even 
after a mathematician had needed and 
used them in achieving a real solution 
to a real problem, the imaginaries 
were only grudgingly admitted to the 
number system. After the imaginaries 
had gained standing, the transcend- 
entals were found, and the trigo- 
nometric functions and the logarithms 
were added to the number scale. Fin- 
ally, the number scale and the line 
became co-extensive and either could 
be used to represent the other. 

But has a line an end.'' Is there a 
last number.^ If there is no last num 
ber, liow can the validity of any of 
the mathematical operations be estab- 
lished.'' The answer is a bit shocking: 
it can't be ! The theme to which 
Dantzig returns is the concept of in- 
finity. He demonstrates the inade- 
quacy of scientific induction as a 
method of mathematical proof. He 



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shows the inadequacy of deductive 
metiiods in coping with infinity. And 
he concludes with a picture of mathe- 
maticians divided between the intui- 
tionists and the formalists. The for- 
mer regard the use of infinite pro- 
cesses as resting on the self-knorvl- 
idge of the human mind, unsupported 
by inductive or deductive demonstra- 
tion. The formalists tend to disallow 
infinite processes or to hedge them 
about with crippling limitations. Here 
is open and violent disagreement 
among foremost mathematicians on an 
issue fundamental to mathematics, . 
and to all science. If infinite processes 1 
are not valid, irrationals such as the ' 
square root of 2 have no meaning;; 
transcendentals such as pi, e, or \off 8- 
are banished from the number system; 
and all calculus is challenged. 

Finally, as a culmination of tlie 
discussion of infinite processes, and as 
the last stage of the development of 
the number concept, Dantzig intro- 
duces transfinite numbers. This chap--j 
ter, "The Anatomy of the Infinite,"f| 
is, to me, thrilling and bewildering. , 
I don't understand it, but I want very 
badly to. It is, however, the only • 
chapter not readily understood by any- ■ 
one conversant with high school I 
algebra. 

Dantzig lightens and brightens the ■ 
book with various neat and curious 
items. The medieval method of mul- 
tiplying on the fingers will help some 
of our freshmen. Multiplying by 
duplations is also a treat. Nimiber 
superstition is a joyful sidelight on 
human ingenuity running wild. The 
proof that the square root of 2 is 
irrational is easy, swift, and discon- 
certing. The demonstration of the 
countability of rational numbers is 
intriguing, and that of the countability 
of all algebraic numbers one more 
proof of the devilish ingenuity of the 
human mind. 

It is a book for all scientists, all 
engineers, all philosophers, and most 
other people. Fascinating both as to 
content and as to style, it is one of 
the few books that are too short. Let 
me finish with the theme of the book, 
the view of mathematics presented, 
and especially the attitude toward in- 
finite processes. Each chapter begins 
with a really delightful quotation. 
That heading the last chapter, taken 
from Eddington, is : 

"We have found a strange footprint 
on the shores of the unknown. We 
have devised profound theories, one 
after another, to account for its origin. 
At last, we have succeeded in recon- 
structing the creature that made the 
footprint. And lo ! it is our own." 
B. E. GoETZ. 




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ENGINEER and 
BUSINESS OF LIVING 

(From page 13) 

serve as well or better. He spends 
years in perfecting technically prod- 
ucts for which there is little or no 
market. History to him does not ex- 
ist; with all the greatness of his con- 
tribution to the progress of the in- 
dustrial world, it is doubtful if Fred- 
erick W. Taylor fully understood or 
appreciated the significance of the 
long history of industrial strife which 
underlay the oposition of so many 
workmen to his theories. Had he 
done so, the cause of sound industrial 
relations might be farther advanced 
today. 

So it has come to be recognized 
that there may be such a thing, for 
most individuals, as a too exclusive 
concentration on a single field. And 
gradually there have crept into the 
engineering curriculum, at least the 
rudimentary foundations of a more 
liberal education. In the field of the 
social sciences, economics is now re- 

34 



quired in most engineering colleges. 

Armour Institute of Technology has 
not been behind in its awareness of 
these tendencies, and its courses in the 
fields of economics, literature, and 
the social sciences should serve to 
make the thoughtful engineering stu- 
dent aware at least of some of the 
more important extra-engineering im- 
plications of his future work. If the 
comment of recent alumni is accurate, 
they are proving of practical value 
to the graduate in his first job as well 
as pointing his thinking and observa- 
tion in directions which will be useful 
to him in the future. It is probable 
that the future will see an even greater 
development in this direction. The 
times call urgently for men who can 
bring the discipHned thinking of the 
engineer to bear on the complex and 
swiftly changing needs of the day. 

There is a growing demand for en- 
gineering graduates in business; even 
in such apparently unrelated fields as 
retail merchandising. A review of typ- 
ical engineering curricula seems to in- 
dicate the possibility of retaining the 
whole present structure of studies in 
the basic sciences and mathematics, 



even reinforcing the latter a bit be- 
yond present standard requirements, 
and of displacing that portion of spe- 
cialized application-subjects which 
distinguisli one curriculum from an- 
other, by an equivalent amount of 
work in business administration, thus, 
equipping the engineer somewhat morej 
fully for service in this field. \ 

The field of the engineer broadens ' 
every day. We are beginning to look 
at the vast, intricate problems of gov- 
ernment, of business and of human re- 
lations through the eyes of the scien- 
tist and to have hope that by applying 
the methods of the scientist and the 
engineer to these problems we may 
bring more order, at least, out of the 
chaos which today envelops them. 
There are, it is true, profound differ- 
ences between dealing with human 
rights and purposes and manipulating 
insensate materials. But though the 
problem is difficult, its solution is of 
supreme importance. To any young 
man seeking a difficult but supremely 
interesting job let me recommend the 
study of business or government from 
the standpoint of the engineer. 



PRESIDENT'S REPORT 

(From page 19) 

dent's resignatii)ii can lust he told in 
he language, addressed to the Board 
of Trustees, in which the resignation 
was embodied. Following are the 
more signirieant parts of this coni- 
nunieation : 

For some time the Executive Com- 
kuittee has been aware that my resig- 
nation would be submitted at this 
time. The reasons which lead to a 
decision cf this kind are always com- 
plex and sometimes contradictory. It 
Idem serves a useful purpose to sub- 
ject them to detailed analysis. How- 
ever, I believe tliat the record of 
ents as outlined in this and in pre- 
vious reports shows that the work 
which your Committee in December, 
1932. asked me to undertake has been 
Kompleted. 

Taking full account of Armour's 
plendid history, the need for thor- 
ough-going internal reorganization at 
that time was clear. The reorganiza- 
tion jirogram was started in 1933, but 
the more important measures became 
effective at the beginning of the fiscal 
year 1934-3.5. The results were (1) 
to cut annual operating deficits as 
noted above, (2) to bring the educa- 
tional program of the Institute better 
into line with approved standards of 
engineering education, and (3) to pro- 
mote new educational services. . . . 

Building our development program 
out of current operations as we went 
along, we now have a going concern 
which embodies all of the essential 
elements of the composite institute of 
applied science and design which you 
approved at your May meeting this 
year. Educational foundations are 
laid for vigorous development of this 
comprehensive program. The task 
that remains is a task of buttressing 
financial foundations so as to place 
this inspiring educational structure 
beyond jeopardy, and to put it in a 
position for further advance. . . . 

Anything I may have done in co- 
operation with others toward meeting 
financial requirements has necessarily 
been, to a considerable extent, sec- 
ondary to mj' educational responsi- 
bilities. Educational leadership from 
now on must be combined with a high 
degree of concentration on securing 
new endowment. . . . 

While the personnel of the staff has 
changed and much new and efficient 
talent has been added, the competence 
with which the men who have years 
of service to their credit have stood 
behind the administration has been 
one of the major satisfactions. It is 



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also a matter for sincere gratification 
that in somt^ of the mcst .significant 
instances in whicli changes had to be 
made, the men equipped to taive on 
new responsibilities were foimd right 
in our own group instead of having 
to be called from afar. ^A'ithout en- 
larging further upon the many satis- 
factions which have sweetened the 
obvious anxieties of the position I am 
laying down. I want to record my 
sincere appreciation for all of the acts 
of consideration and help I have en- 
joyed. I want especially to place in 
this record my gratitude to the mem- 
bers of the staff for the conspicuous 
loyalty and devotion they have shown 
ill every undertaking for the adv.ince- 
iiiciit of Armour. 

For the greater part of my life, my 
interests liave centered dec'idedly in 
the field of education, but those of 
you wlio know me best are aware that 
for many years I have taken an active 
part in industry and in public service 
and have had an intense interest in 
those fields. At the time your Com- 
mittee invited me to come to Armour, 
it was my jnirpose to devote the rest 
of my life to those interests. . . . 

To whatever extent other activities 
may now command my efforts and my 
zeal, my affection for Armour will en- 
dure. The Executive Committee is 
aware of my sincere purpose to do 
everything 1 can at all times to 
help. . . . 

Many of you have heard me say, 
and I have said it often, that in my 
judgment the educational opportunity 
which lies before Armour Institute of 
Technology at this time is well nigh 
unique in American education. It is 
your task and the task of those whom 
you enlist in the service of the In- 
stitute to see to it that this great 
community comes forward with mate- 
rial resources adequately to insure 
stability, progress, and the fullest 
realization of this opportunity. 

In conclusion, I trust that I may 
use the columns of the Engineer and 
Alumnus to extend my greeting to the 
alumni. As I have already told the 
students through the columns of the 
Armour Tech News, I share the pride 
which every student and every alum- 
nus of Armour justly feels in his 
school. Quoting from the Tech News 
— "The years at Armour are now an 
integral part of my life, and I shall 
always be happy when opportunity 
comes to serve Armour and to help as 
I can those who are taking up the 
burdens which I lay down." 

WILLARD E. HOTCHKISS. 
October 21, 1937. 



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36 



ALUMNI NOTES 

by D. P. Moreton, Secy.-Treas. 



NEW LIFE MEMBERS 



BAUR, ROY E E.E. '27 

CARROLL, EMIL JOS E.E. '05 

GORMAN, ABRAHAM A F.P.E. '17 

GEIGER, ELMER S E.E. '29 

HEITNER, 'WALTER O E.E. '27 

HIRT, WILLIAM ADOLPH EX.E.E. '07 

HOFFMAN, WILLIAM C M.E. '33 

JAMIESON, BERTRAND G E.E. '97 

)ENS, ARTHUR H F.P.E. '31 

<OCH, ALBERT A C.E. '32 

_EVIN, MARVIN R. R E.E. '23 



LIZARS, JOHN B M.E. '23 

MERRY, EARL D E.E. '03 

MINIBERGER, GEORGE V M.E. '28 

MUNDAY, HAROLD W C.E. '23 

NYMAN, MEL R EX.E.E. '04 

PAHLMAN. PAUL JAMES M.E. '08 

PIPER, ELLSWORTH E IND.ARTS. '12 

PRICE, MYRON H EX.CH.E. '23 

SHERMER, CARL LOUIS C.E. '34 

SIEBENALER, GEORGE N M.E. '16 

VON GEHR, GEORGE H E.E. '28 



1897 

This was tlie 40th anniversary of the 
lass of 1897. We were able to' find the 
iddresses of only 14. members of tlie class 

each of whom a special letter was sent. 
Present at the alumni dinner were 

FAMES R. SLOAN, Pennsylvania Rail- 
•oad, Pittsburgh; WILLIAM F. SIMS, 
Commonwealth Edison Company, Cliicago; 
PROF. ROBERT V. PERRY, Armour 
Institute of Technologj-; and RALPH H. 
RICE, Board of Supervising Engineers, 
Chicago. 

Letters were received from Neal M. 
Loney with General Motors, Detroit; Fred- 
erick M. Moskovics, Dictograph Products 
Co., New York; Harry C. Abell, retired, of 
Vlandeville, Louisiana; and Bertrand G. 
lamieson of Monte Carlo, Monaco. Jamie- 
son wrote a message for all the alumni, 
and this was read at the dinner. 

Telegrams were received from John J. 
^Vheeler, Baltimore, Md., and Fred C. 
lohnson, Washington, D. C. 

RALPH H. RICE. 
MISSING: Gaylord, T. P.. E. E. 

Salamson. Max, E. E. Malcolmson. C. T., E.E. 
DECEASED: Matt, Geo. L., E. E. 

Chapman. P. R., E. E. O'Brien. Edw. D., E. E. 
Church, Edw. S.. E. E. Richardson, E., E. E. 
Freeman, C. E., E. E. 

I 1898 

Eyota, Minnesota, 
I March 28th, 1937. 

Secy., Armour Tech. Alumni Assn. 

Dear Sir: 

I was pleased to receive your letter of 
the 26th informing me of what is going 
on. According to Article 6, section 2, I 
am entitled to membership in the Associa- 
tion. I matriculated in 1898, I believe; 
then after finishing the first year in E. E. 
I went to Northwestern Medical School, 
graduating in 1903. I now have a son, 
Wayne Felix Dolder, in Electrical Engi- 
neering at the Institute. That is another 
reason why I am happy to be a member of 
the Alumni. I shall let you know later if 

1 can be present at the Banquet. I shall 



also be happy to receive the Armour 
Engineer. 

Sincerely yours, 
DR. F. C. DOLDER. 
MISSING: DECEASED: 

Patten, Geo. H., E. E. Blodgett, E. E.. E. E. 
Weinsheimer,W.E..E.E. Fairman, F. S., Arch. 
Flanrter.*, L. H., M. E. 

1899 

WILLIAM J. GORDON, M. E., visited 
the Institute last summer and expressed 
himself as pleased with the general ap- 
pearance. A few days ago while passing 
through the city he informed us that he 
had retired and expected to spend a year 
traveling in Europe. He lives at 2208 
Oliver Ave., S., Minneapolis, and has for 
years been consulting engineer for the In- 
ternational Milling Co., with offices in the 
McKnight Bldg., Minneapolis, Minn. 

WILLIAM D. MATTHEWS, E. E., is 
in the insurance business with the Im- 
proved Risk Mutuals, 2610 David Stott 
Bldg., Detroit, Mich. 

E. CANTELO WHITE, M. E., now 
resides at 5264 Independence Ave., New 
York, N. Y. He is president of the An- 
sonia and also the Tork Clock Companies 
at 430 Lexington Ave., New York City. 
MISSING: Johnson, E. C, E. E. 

Morse. C. S., E. E. Lewis, C. T., M. E. 

de Rimanoczy, B., E.E. Marienthal, O.B., Arch. 
DECEASED: Olson, E. H.. E. E. 

Bipp\is, S. E., E. E. Powers, H. S.. Arch. 

Goodhue, A. H., M. E. Terry, O. N., M. E. 
Hanai, Geo. K., E. E. Warren, Wm., E. E. 

1900 

WILLIAM T. DEAN, E. E., 1733 W. 
5th Ave., Gary, Indiana, is with the Car- 
negie-Illinois Steel Corporation, Gary. 
MISSING: DECEASED: 

Campbell, Mrs. M., C.E. Bradley, L. C. M. E. 
Graff, H. W., E. E. Creelman, A. T., E. E. 
Martin, Robt. C, E. E. 

1901 

CHARLES EDWARD EUSTICE, 
E. E., 309 Park Ave., Galena, Illinois, is 
president of the Galena Manufacturing 
Co. of Illinois. 



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WALTER IRVING LEWIS, M. E., is 
liresident of the W. I. Lewis Co., 1206 
Citizens Bldg., Cleveland, Ohio. He re- 
sides at ](;77 E. 11.5th St. 
MISSING: DECEASED: 

Arnold, M. M.. E. E. Bernharcl, F. H.. E. E. 
naker, E. M.. M. E. Colien, Louis, E. E. 

Miller, W. E., E. E. 

Parker, ,1. H., E. E. 

1902 

BENJAMIN F. EVER, E. E., 5232 
Rockhill Road, Kansas City, Mo., is presi- 
dent of the Moist-O-Meter Corp., with 
offices at 226 Board of Trade Bid},'., Kan- 
sas City. The Moist-O-Meter is a capacity 
method of measuring the moisture iii 
grains and any other materials. 

ROI.LAND M. HESKETT, E. E., 4.801 
E. lake Harriet Blvd., Minneapolis, is 
V.-Pres. of Montana-Dakota Utilities Co., 
N31 2nd Ave., S., Minneapolis, Minn. 

VICTOR SMITH PERSONS, C. E., is 
manager of Persons Dwan and Co., San 
Francisco, Cal. 

HENRY RUSSELL HARBECK, C. E., 
of River Forest, 111., is in the National 
Park Service, C. C. C, 300% S. Second 
St., Springfield, 111. 

SAMUEL E. SHAFER, M. E., is with 
the Chain Belt Co., Milwaukee, ^\•is. 
MISSING: Wallace. E. I... E. E. 

Hainl, M. F., E. E. DECEASED: 

lUiiliiin. A. E.. Arch. Anderson, A. H.. M. E. 
Il.inv,„„l. E. T., E. E. Collins, W. 0., E. E. 
Milkr. Ivan D.. C. E. Week, .lolin K.. E. E. 
S,-l,eidler. ().. M. E. 



1903 

JOHN SIDNEY BANTA, M. E., 930 
Hickory St., Waukegan, III., is Chicago 
District Engineer for the American Steel 
and Wire Co., Waukegan, 111. 

We were sorry to learn of the death of 
Mrs. George W". Niestadt. The members 
of the Association extend their sympathy 
to MR. NIESTADT and family. " 

ARTHUR WAGNER, E. E., president 
of the Arthur Wagner Company, Chicago, 
expects to have every member of the 1903 
class at the thirtieth reunion next spring. 
All 1903 men please take notice and get 
in touch with Wagner at 701-703 W. 
Washington St., Chicago, 111. 
MISSING: DECEASED: 

Brimson, C. T., E. E. Battey, F. V., E. E. 
Kaempfer, A., E. E. Edgecomb, E. E., M. E. 

Quien, E. L., Ch. E. Kabateck, M. G., E. E. 
Stillson, H. G., E. E. Philips, W. C. P., C. E. 
Weisskopf, M. J., C. E. Roos, E. S., E. E. 

Shimizu, H. S., M. E. 

1904 

CHARLES HERRICK HAMMOND, 
Arch., 684 Pine St., Winnetka, 111., is a 
member of the architectural firm of Burn- 
ham Bros, and Hammond, Inc., 160 N. La- 
Salle St., Chicago, 111. Mr. Hammond was 
a delegate from the U. S. A. representing 
the State Department and A. I. A. at the 
Uth International Congress of Architects 
held in Paris last July. 

The sad news of the untimely death of 
our fellow alumnus, MEI>VILLE S. 
FLINN, M. E., was a great shock to his 
many friends. The members of the Alumni 
Association extend to his wife and family 
their deepest sympathy. 

EDWIN JESSE HILLER, E. E., 7 
Bursley Place, White Plains, N. Y., is sales 
manager for Maurice Levy, 620 W. 22nd 
St., New York City. 

ORSON RAYMOND PRE SCOTT, 
M. E., is with the Sanitary District of 



Chicago, 910 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, 
He lives at 5910 Rice St. 

RUPERT H. STRANG, E. E., is super- 
intendent of the light and water utility at 
Richland Center, Wisconsin. 

LEONARD LUNDCJREN, C. E., now 
resides at 2895 Harrison St., San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. We appreciate his letter ad- 
vising us of his change in address, Just as! 
we welcome any information that keeps] 
our files up to date. ' 

MISSING: Clausen, H. W., C. E. 

Knapp, M. J., E. E. Flinn, M. S., M. E. 
Watt, J. M., M. E. Hamilton, H. L., M. E. 

DECEASED: Hart, Harrj- A., C. E. 

Buie, Arthur, E, E. Silver, E. I., C. E. ] 

1905 

EMIL J. CARROLL, E. E., is in the 
I'. S. Treasury Dept., 222 West NorthI 
Bank Drive, Chicago, 111. He resides at 
128 Linden Ave., Glencoe, III. 

JOHN F. T. ENGBLOM, Ex. E. E., is 
chief engineer and works manager for the 
Ericsson Telephones, Ltd., Beeston, Not- 
tingham, England. 

FRANK ROWELL GOLDSMITH,! 
M. E., resides at 21 Grassmere Road, To- 
ronto, Canada. He is sales engineer for 
the Canadian General Electric Co., Ltd., 
214 King St., W., Toronto, Canada. Gold^ 
smith was sent to Canada in 1915 by the. 
"Hotpoint" Co., and now claims to be the 
oldest Hotpoint employe in Canada. 

WILLIAM F. HARVEY, C. E., 1.34 
Central Ave., Lake Bluff, 111., operates thei 
W. F. Harvey Sales Co., 560 W. Wasln 
ington Blvd., Chicago, 111. 

PETER LEO HEIN, C. E., is a mem- 
ber of the firm Lieberman and Hein, 190i 
N. State St., Chicago, 111. He resides at 
2746 Broadway, Evanston, 111. 

JOHN HAROLD PAYNE, E. E., is 
chief of the electrical division of the Bu- 
reau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 
Department of Commerce, Washington, 
D. C. 

FRANK ALVA PUTT, E. E., resides 
at 354 Woodlawn Ave., Glencoe, 111. To^ 
quote from a recent letter from Putt: /. 
avi associated uflth JhiU \ Elli.s, mil estate' 
operators, and am wnnnlin/ flu Hartford 
Rldg., at 8 South J>r<uh,>n, S/.. Chicago. I 
have hern in the real estate business for 
the piiKt fifhiii ijears, doing brokerage, 
real csfnh fiimnriiig and leasing, and m' 
aging of doicii town properties. I have' 
found that my engineering education has: 
l)een extremely valuable in connection withi 
the operation of loop office buildings. 

I have a wife and two children— a girl 
and a boy, both ypast twenty, the former 
employed in the insurance business and 
the latter with the Kimberly Clark Papei 
Company, in their sales department. 
MISSING: Wright, M. E., E. E. 

Ash, Howard J., E. E. DECEASED: 
Beamer, B. E., E. E. Armstron, J. R., E. E. 
Brackett, John C. E.E. Croskey. Philip, E. E. 
Jones, C. I.. C. E. Marshall, H. B., E. E. 

Stem, Le V. H., Ch. E. McBurney, E.. Jr., ME. 
Thompson, J. K., Ch.E. Whitney, F. B., C. E, 
Tyler, Alva W.. E. E. 



1906 

NORMAN W. COOK, Arch., 700 Web- 
ster St., Ottawa, Illinois, is practicing 
architecture with his office at the abovt 
address. 

MAURICE ELKIN, Ch. E., owns and 
operates the Elkin Manufacturing Co., 
1725 N. 6th St., Philadelphia, Pa. He 
lives at 5637 N. 16th St., Philadelphia. 

CHARLES EDWARD HAYES, M. E., 
is with the Taylor Realty Company, 4300 



38 



Roosevelt Way, Seattle, Washinyrtoii. His 
jome address is "Mileta Farm," Burton, 
Washington. 

EUGENE F. HILLER, C. E., 5321 
Voodlawn Ave., Chicago, 111., is in the life 
nsurance business at 1 N. La Salle St., 
[Chicago. 

I VAUGHN A. HOUGHTON, M. E., is 
k'ith Vaughn A. Houghton and Co., en- 
gineers, 50.5 Wasliington Blvd., Chicago, 
;ll. He resides at 82(5 Keystone Ave., 
Xiver Forest, 111. 

J. CARROLL JOHNSON, Arch., SHVs 
Henderson St., Columbia, S. C, is prac- 
icing architecture at the same address. 

VICTOR NICHOLSON, Ch. E., is en- 
rineering chemist for the city of Chicago, 
533 S. Ashland A^■e. His home address 
s 7630 S. -Marshfield Ave., Chicago, 111. 

EARL J. SMITH, F. P. E., is with the 
Jnderwriters Laboratories, Inc., 207 E. 
Dluo St., Chicago, 111. He resides at 208 
.Voodbine Ave., Wilmette, III. 

A recent letter from G ROVER KEITH, 
kl. E.. contained the sad news of the death 
if RALPH S. TORRANCE, E. E., who 
lad lived in Eau Claire, Wis., for several 
^ears. Our sincere sympathy is extended 
o his faniilv. 

FRANK 'STANLEY WARZESKI, Ch. 
5., 6 Berkeley PL, Montclair, N. J., is 
vith the Linde Air Products Co., 30 East 
1.2nd St., New York City. 
kllSSING: Scott. P. J.. M. E. 

Ulyn, A. J.. E. E. DECEASED: 

Sutler, Ed. W.. E. E. Carr, Alva L., M. E. 
5dson, N. L.. M. E. Dean. Stanley, C. E. 

jaylor, W. S.. M. E. Meyer, E. D., E. E. 
Sukawski, E. S., Arcli. Reynolds, M. B., C. E. 
Vlorrison, R. D.. M. E. Torrance, R. S.. E. E. 



1907 

•07 STEPS OUT FOR SOTH REUNION 
Reported by FRED HEUCHLING 

True to its reputation for achievement 
and activity, the Class of 1907 distin- 
guished itself this year by staging a tliir- 
tieth reunion that outslione anything of 
this kind ever attempted at Armour. This 
class was one of the first of the Institute 
alumni to foster class reunions, and in 1932 
it put on a three-day affair that surprised 
even its own prompters. 

This year a few of the Chicago 1907 
stalwarts gathered in early Spring to lay 
plans for their tliirtieth reunion. An am- 
bitious program was laid out, and an in- 
tensive mail campaign started to bring 
as many as possible of classmates and 
their families from all over the country to 
share the flowing bowl and revive their 
youth in a reunion that would exceed in 
excellence anything ever before attempted. 
When, on Saturday, May 22nd, at the Elec- 
tric Club of ChiVa-o "tlie first Get To- 
gether 1907 30th Reunion Luncheon con- 
vened, nearly one hundred alumni and 
their families were on hand. Some of 
these came from across the continent, and 
many had not been back to Chicago nor 
to the Institute since their graduation. 

Needless to say, there was great rejoic- 
ing, slapping of backs, and jovial rehear- 
sals of college pranks. The youths of 
1907 came back fathers and grandfathers 
— some grey and some not so grey for 
lack of hair. Some with paunches and 
otliers with bent knees but all fired with 



-ival of the days from 




Pictures Taken at 1907 Class Picnic at Farm of Al Eustice. 
Harrington, Illinois 



One of Al's pets 

View around private lake 

Yoke of prize oxen 



Mrs. Alfred Eustice 

Picnic in preparation 

Wild goslings 



enthusiasm ft 
190t to 1907. 

Following Saturday's luncheon, the gath- 
ering attended a lecture and demonstra- 
tion at the Electric Lighting Institute and 
then left for a tour of the city by auto 
in order to show the out-of-town visitors 
tiie sights created since their school days. 

On Sunday, May 23rd, the program con- 
sisted of an outing at Barrington, Illinois, 
where MR. AND MRS. ALFRED 
EUSTICE were the hosts at their beauti- 
ful farm. Aside from the members of the 
class and their families, a considerable 
number of faculty members and officers 
of the 1907 days were invited and joined 
in tl)e festivities. Dinner was served at 
the beautiful nearby Barrington Country 
Club where Al had arranged practically to 
monopolize the building. After the dinner 
the party returned to the farm, which, by 
the way, is a wonderful place for an out- 
ing, and games and other jollification were 
the order of tlie day. At the close of the 
afternoon an outdoor luncheon and re- 
freshments were served, and the party did 
not break up until after dark. The affair 
was particularly interesting and enjoyable 
because nearly everyone had a wife, 
brought her along, and the children and 
even the grandchildren were included. 

On Monday, May 2+th, the class gath- 
ered at the Institute in the morning, visit- 
ing their former haunts and broke bread 
together with some of the faculty at noon. 
In the afternoon the meeting adjourned 
to the North Side to witness the Cubs play 
baseball. In the evening a most interesting 
and instructive stag affair was featured. 
This took place at the Manhattan Brewery 
at the instigation of BEN PERLSTEIN 
who was always at the bottom of every 
1907 escapade. Here a groaning board 
loaded with Kalter Aufschnitt and an in- 
exhaustilile supply of the amber beverage 
topped off a day of jollity. 

Tuesday, the 25th, was given over to 
golf at the River Forest Country Club. 
On Tuesday evening the reunion closed 
with the crashing of silver and china and a 
blare of trumpets at the regular Alumni 
Banquet. Since many of the visiting class- 
mates from out-of-town had brought their 
wives with them, the class, smashing all 
precedents came to the banquet with their 
lady escorts. Some of the ladies, knowing 
they were flying in the face of tradition, 
persuaded several wives of faculty mem- 
bers to join the party so that for once an 
Alumni Banquet was made completely suc- 
cessful by the presence of the fairer sex. 
Only those who were present at the Me- 
dinah-Michigan Avenue Club that evening 
can appreciate how much the Thirtieth 1907 
Reunion did to stir up class spirit and 
revive pleasant memories. A representa- 
tive of each class that marked a 5th, 10th, 
15th, or similar reunion, rose that evening 
to give an account of his class since the 
years it had stepjied out into the world. 
Never has there been a more interesting 
and enjoyable feature on an Alumni Ban- 
quet ])rogram. 

So far as the class of 1907 is concerned 
they are definitely committed to five year 
reunions until the last man is gone. As 
an outgrowth of this year's affair a ])erina- 
nent 1907 organization was perfected and 
FRED G. HEUCHLING elected presi- 
dent and ALEXANDER H. BOEHMER 
was named secretary. Never again will a 
classmate stray from the fold, lost and 
unheard of. Never again will 1907 fall 
into a state of innocuous desuetude. For 
the next five years the members will be 
rehearsing the events of the 1937 reunion, 
and when they convene in 1942 it will be 



39 



BORG & BECK 

DIVISION OF BORG-WARNER CORP. 

Manufacturers 

of 

Automotive Clutches 

6558 S. Menard Ave. Chicago, III. 



to break more precedents and set an even 
higher standard for other classes to shoot 



Building Suppli** 



Bearing Service 



Connecting rod babbitting service — 
crankshaft bearings — piston pin bush- 
ings — bronze cored and solid bars — 
babbitt metals — connecting rod bolts 
and nuts — Laminated shims. 

FEDERAL-MOGUL 
SERVICE, Inc. 

Victory 2488 
2346 S. Dearborn Street 

CHICAGO 
H. C. SKINNER, M.E.'IS 



Boxes and Cartons 



CREATIVE DISPLAY CARTONS 
DISPLAY CARDS 

and 

FOLDING BOXES 
THE PINKERTON FOLDING BOX CO. 

Established 1899 

420 Rush St., Chicago 

F. P. Strauch M. E. '16 Superior 8348-9 



Building Supplies 



Cellufoam Corporation 

OF NEW JERSEY 
Manufacturers 

THERMAL & ACOUSTIC 
INSULATION 



66th & LaVerne Ave. 



Chi, 



MISSING: 

Badger, L. H., C. E. 
Heinsen, Geo. M.. C. li. 
Kilgore, C. E.. M. E. 
Pratt. E. A., C. E. 
Turnbiill, Ira J., M. E. 
Wendell. R. B.. E. E. 
Wolfe, Edw. J., E. E. 
Voiing, L. B., C. E. 



DECEASED: 
Ailing, C. R., F. P. E. 
Campbell. E. E., E. E. 
Davies, H. C, M. E. 
Ellett, E. H.. .Ir., C. E. 
Jackson, I. F.. M. E. 
SmaUey, J. S.. E. E. 
Stanton, G.. Jr. C. E. 
Williams, W., E. E. 



1908 

RALPH H. BADGER, E. E., paid us 
a visit last month and expressed consider- 
able surprise and pleasure at the changes 
and improvements made since his last vLsit. 
Ralph is devoting a great deal of time to 
a mining venture in the southwest and fre- 
quently flies back and forth between his 
home in Buffalo, New York and the min- 
ing camp. 

CLAYTON F. BUSSE, M. E., 1029 Hull 
Terrace, Evanston, 111., is in the olfice of 
Hoskins Manufacturing Co., 10 S. La Salle 
St., Chicago, 111. 

HAROLD VICTOR GLOS, M. E., 818 
Diversey Blvd., Chicago, III., is manager 
of Real Estate Sales and Property Man- 
agement Division, Sontag Bros., Inc., 27.30 
X. Clark St.. Chicago. Glos has devoted 
considerable time to real property apprais- 
als and has written several articles on the 
subject which have appeared in the Na- 
tional Real Estate Journal. 

JOSEPH H. JACOBSON, E. E., is sec- 
retary-treasurer of Bohett Electrical Mfg. 
Co., 4.54.3 Cottage Grove Ave., Chicago. He 
resides at 13.50 Madison Park, Chicago. 

JOSEPH EDWARD MONAHAN, 
M. E., is engineer-agent for modern ma- 
chine tools with warehouse and demonstra- 
tion facilities at 3.51 Indiana Ave., N. W., 
Grand Rapids, Mich. 

ROBERT CHARLES OSTERGREN, 
Arch., is a practicing architect with his 
office at 4300 N. Clark St., Chicago, 111. 
He resides at SSeVs Michigan Ave., Evans- 
ton, 111. 

ROBERT A. PERKINS, Arch., M. E. 
'17, is a member of the architectural and 
engineering firm of Perkins and McSayne, 
320-2() Paulton Block, Sioux Falls, S. D. 
He lives at 24 Riverview Heights, same 
citv. 

SAMUEL LOUIS ZIMMERMAN, 
C. E., is assistant engineer for the Chicago 
Park District in charge of paving and 
maintaining boulevards and driveways in 
the Chicago Park District. His address is 
5312 W. Jackson Blvd., Chicago. 
MISSING: Eyers, W.. F. P. E. 

Cahan, James, C. E. Johnson. A. R.. E. E. 
Collins, F. C. E. E. Lunak, S. E.. Ch. E. 
Cornwell, A. B., E. E. Matthei, H. R., C. E. 
Latta, Smith H.. M. E. Morgan, C. W., M. E. 
Loofbourrow. J.D..M.E. Nichols, H. W., E. E. 
Morey, C. R., E. E. Oehne, Jr.. T. C, E. E. 

DECEASED: Thomson. F. L., F.P.E. 

Biirge, G. C, M. E. Vacek, V. F., E. E. 

Dittmar, A. A., C. E. 

1909 

Secretary, Alumni Association 

I did not know until I received your let- 
ter that I was among the missing. My last 
job in the engineering field was that of 
District Manager, U. S. Oypsum Company, 
Construction Division, New York City. I 
have been a country lawyer since 1933 and 
am as nearly contented as I ever expect 
to be. I keep the old yen for the construc- 
tion business satisfied by occasionally buy- 
ing and remodelling an old building. Free- 
dom from union labor problems is the chief 
joy in country building. 

Best regards — especially to the old 
timers. 

EARL W. CHAMBERLIN, C. E. 

DONALD D. DICK, C. E., 232 South 
LaGrange Road, LaGrange, 111., is with 



SERVICISED PRODUCTS 
CORPORATION 

6051 West 65th Street 
Chicago, Illinois 

Exclusive Manufacturers of SYRA-BORD 

Interlocked Rubber Tile Floorf 

Also 

Asphalt Tile, Planking, and expansion joint. 

We can supply your needs for anything in 

sponge or cork-rubber products. 

PHONE GROVE-HILL 0423 



C. H. ANDERSON 
FLOOR COMPANY 



WOOD FLOOR 
CONTRACTORS 



161 E. ERIE ST. 

Delaware 1661 

CHICAGO 



LUMBER 

for 

Industrial Purposes 

WHOLESALE OR RETAIL 

• 

SCHENK LBR. CO. 

6601 So. Central Ave. 
Hem. 3300 

"The Only Yard in the Clearing Dist.' 



Edward 


Mines Lumber Co. 




Established 1892 


243 


1 So. Lincoln Street 


Chicago' 


s Largest Lumber Yard \ 


Phone Cana 


0349 Chicago 



40 



Building Supplies 



RODDIS COMPANY 

PLYWOOD PRODUCTS 

FOR EVERY PURPOSE 

1435 W. 37th St. Vir. 0110 

CHICAGO. ILL. 



Business Equipment 



AdJressograpli Equipment 

Save 40% to 60% 

We have a complete stock of fine re- 
built Addressograph and Graphotype 
Machines, available in either hand or 
power models. Also Cabinets — Trays — ' 
Frames — Plates — Ribbons — Cards — ^Tabs 
— Etc., Etc. We also cut lists and have 
a complete embossing service. Get our 
quotations before going ahead with that 
next iob. 

BUSINESS MACHINE 
SUPPLIES CORP. 

300 W. Adams St., Chicago. III. 

Central 7007 



Candies and Cigars 



Compliments 

PIONEER CANDY CO. 

Wholesale Confectioners 

CIGARS — CIGARETTES 

and 

FOUNTAIN SUPPLIES 



3211 Ogden Ave. 



Chicago 



Compliments of 

MIDWAY CIGAR 
FACTORY 



WHOLESALE 



CIGARS, CIGAREHES, TOBACCOS, 
CANDIES, GLOVES AND SUNDRIES 



22! West 63rd Street 

j'2488 

Phones: Englewood < 2489 

(.2266 



Chemical 



Telephone Superior 3523 Established 1894 

A. DAIGGER & COMPANY 

Colors — Chemicals — Oils 

Laboratory Supplies 

159 WEST KINZIE STREET 

CHICAGO 



Frank D. Chase, 307 N. Michigan Ave., 
Chicago, 111. 

HENRY CHARLES FRISBIE, C. E., 
2421 10th Ave., Los Angeles, California, 
is with the L. A. Metal Products, 2430 E. 
55th St., Los Angeles. 

JAMES S. HARVEY, M. E., is gen- 
eral superintendent of yards for the Mu- 
tual Service Corporation, 901 N. Sanga- 
mon St., Chicago, 111. His home address is 
7349 N. Seelev Ave. 

CARL HEIM, E. E., 2621 Morse Ave., 
Chicago, is management supervisor for 
George S. May Co., 2600 North Shore Ave., 
Chicago. 

WILLIAM H. PETERS, E. E., is oflBce 
engineer for the Kansas City Terminal 
Railway Co., LTnion Station Bldg., Kansas 
City, Mo. He gives his home address as 
R-1, Merriam, Kansas. 

ATI.EE C. RIKER, E. E., is with the 
Trading Post Realty and Insurance Co., 
114 S. Wolcott St., Casper, Wyo. His 
home address is 905 S. Grant St., Casper. 

MILTON C. SHEDD, E. E., lives at 
1132 Stearns Drive, Los Angeles, Califor- 
nia. He is building contractor with oflBces 
at 4814 Loma Vista Ave. 

HALI.AM C. SMITH, Ch. E., is with 
the Union Carbide and Carbon Corpora- 
tion, 30 E. 42nd St., New York City. His 
home address is 215 Larchmond Ave., 
Larchmond, New York. 

ARTHUR P. STRONG, E. E., 217 S. 
Elmwood Ave., Oak Park, 111., is with the 
W. A. Jones Foundry and Machine Co., 
4401 W. Roosevelt Road, Chicago, 111. 
MISSING: Maves. F. N.. M. E. 

Aliern, J. F.. F. P. E. Ostergr-en. H. N.. E. E. 
Perrine, A. A.. E. E. Richards. Jr.. T.E..C.E. 
Soper, E. C, M. E. Simmons, L. E., E. E. 

DECEASED: Spitzsla.ss, J. M.. M. E. 

Anderson, H. C. C. E. Tregav. John. F. P. E. 
Chatain, P. E.. Ch. E. Urson, Jr.. F. J., C. E. 
Curtis, H. S., E. E. Von Gunten, 0., Arch. 

Ebert. A. A., C. E. 

1910 

ARTHUR G. ANDERSON, C. E., is 
with the city of Chicago, in the water 
works construction division. He lives at 
1711 W. 105th Place, Chicago, 111. 

D. WILLIAM BOWMAN, Arch., 1732 
N. Stanley Ave., Hollywood, Cal., is with 
the Western Precipitation Corporation, 
1016 W. 9th St., Los Angeles. 

JULIUS GEORGE HATMAN, M. E., 
is with the Neville Co., Neville Island 
P. O., Pittsburgh, Pa. His home address 
is 183 Morrison Drive, Mt. Lebannon P. O., 
Pittsburgh. 

SAMUEL W. McCUNE, Jr., E. E., 2328 
Pennsylvania Ave., Wilmington, Del., is 
with the E. I. duPont de Nemours and 
Co., same city. 

FRED M. PFAELZER, F. P. E., is 
with the Pfaelzer C«al Co., 309 W. Jack- 
son Blvd., Chicago, 111. His home address 
is 17.55 E. 55th St., Chicago. 

HENRY ROSENTHAL, E. E., 132 
Carpenter Ave., Crestwood, New York, N. 
Y., is a member of the firm Madeheim and 
Rosenthal, 1 E. 44th St., New York Citv. 
MISSING: DECEASED: 

Crocker. A.H.Jr.. M.E. Deveney, W. J., C. E. 
Gentry. T. E., M. E. Kadic, Jos. F., E. E. 
Leavell. R. A., M. E. Munoz, Fredrico, C. E. 
MacEwing, E. D., E. E. Richards. O. L., E. E. 
Pearse, R. P., C. E. Sqiiair, F. R.. Oi. E. 

Thomas. Wm. E., M. E. Wemick, F. E., M. E. 
Vvnne. Eustace, C. E. Young, Don. A., M. E. 
Williams, D., C. E. 

191! 

CHARLES EDGAR BECH, M. E., 
6534 Pennsylvania Ave., Kansas City, Mo., 
is manager of the Kansas City branch, 
Busch Sutzer Bros. Diesel Engine Co., of 
St. Louis, Mo. 

CHARLES W. BINDER, C. E., 1940 
Superior Ave., Whiting, Ind., is with the 
Standard Oil Co. in the same city. 



WILKENS-ANDERSON CO. 

Scientific and Industrial Laboratory 
Supplies and Chemicals 

III N. CANAL ST. 

CHICAGO 



SECK <& DRUCKER, INC. 

CHEMICAL ENGINEERS 
Complete Plants and Equipment 
for the Vegetable and Animal 
Oils and Fats Industries. 
S. Clinton St. Chicago 



WALTER H. FLOOD & CO. 

CLASS 1906 _ 

Chemical Engineers 

Paving and Engineering Materials 
— Inspections — Reports — Specifica- 
tions — Physical and Chemical Tests 
— Design and Control of Asphalt 
and Concrete Mixtures. Atlantic ooii 
822 E. 42nd St., Chicago. III. 



BELKE MFG. COMPANY 

Patented Electroplating Special- 
ties, Plating, Polishing Supplies 
and Equipment 
Phone Mansfield 4606 
947 No. Cicero Ave. Chicago 

WM. E. BELKE. CLASS '18 



NATIONAL ALUMINATE 
CORPORATION 

6216 WEST 66TH PLACE 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

Specialists in the Manufacture and 

Use of Sodium AUtminate 



SERVING THE 
PROCESS INDUSTRIES 

through representation of well- 
known, fully qualified and 
progressive manufacturers of 

MACfflNERYand EQUIPMENT 

Evaporators — Filters — Centrifugals. 

Steam jet units, Condensers, etc. — 

for High Vacuums — Vacuum Cooling. 

Full line acid p. Chemical Stoneware. 

F. M. de BEERS & ASSOCIATES 

20 North Wacker Drive. Chlcap. Tel. Rand. 2326 



41 



Consulting Engineer 



Report* 
Analyses 



\'aluations 
Rate Surveys 



VAGTBORG & ASSOCIATES 

Incorporated 
CONSULTING ENGINEERS 

3300 Federal Street 
Design Operation 

Consultation Supervision 



INDUSTRIAL HEATING 

Consulting and Coniracting Engineers 

Billet. SUb Heating and Special Furnaces 

/ Natural Gas ^ 

To Uw: \^f' O""*^" V As Fuels 

V Producer Gaa ' 

FLINN & DREFFEIN COMPANY 

308 West Washington Street 



Ch 



cago, 



BRADY, McGILLIVRAY 

& MULLOY 

CONSULTING ENGINEERS 

37 W. Van Buren Street 

Phone Harrison 1188 

1270 Broadway. 

New York City. 

N. Y. 



E. H. MARHOEFER, JR. CO. 

CONTRACTORS 

1506 MerchcQidise Mart 



Costumes 



DE LUXE DRESS SUIT 
RENTAL CO. 

39 SOUTH STATE STREET 

Branches: 
6306 So. Halsted Street 
3400 W. Roosevelt Road 



SCHMIDT COSTUME & WIG SHOP 

REQUISITES FOR THE 
FANCY MASQUE BALL 
& AMATEUR STAGE 

920_NORTH CLARK STREET 

• 

Costumers to the ARMOUR PLAYERS 



Decorating 



1. M. ECKERT CO. 

Distinctive Decorating 

5524 BROADWAY. CHICAGO 

TELEPHONE LONGBEACH S4]7 

J. M. ECKERT, Pres. • (Class 1910) 



TIRUELL J. FERRENZ, C. E., 5327 
13th St., N. W., Washington, D. C, is as- 
sistant administrator of appraisal and re- 
conditioning division, Federal Home Loan 
Bank Board, Washington, D. C. 

DAVID DAVIS GOLDBERG, M. E., is 
sales manager, cone valves, Chapin Valve 
Mfg. Co., Indiana Orchard, Mass. He lives 
at Ifi Stratford Terrace, Sjiringfield, Mass. 

GEORGE VERXON GREEN, Ch. E., 
1029 S. Paxton St., Sioux City, Iowa, is 
with the American Macliinery and Supply 
Co.. 513 .Jackson St., same city. 

PHILIP KENT (Eichenberg), E. E., is 
with the Chicago Title and Trust Co., 69 
W. Washington St., Chicago, 111. His home 
address is 5048 Glenwood Ave., Chicago. 

WILLIAM P. McGUIRE, E. E., is with 
the Indiana Inspection Bureau, Chamber 
of Commerce Bldg., Indianapolis, Indiana. 
MISSING: DECEASED: 

Cleaver, T. G., C. E. Bradford. P. L.. E. E. 
De Tar, DeLos, E. E. daSilva. C. .1., C. E. 
Doering, R. C. F. P. E. Kellner, O. R., C. E. 
Emmons, G. C. E. E. McCaRue. J. A., M. E. 
r.ray, R. 1... E. E. Merriman. H. A., Arch. 

Griffiths, F. H.. M. E. Miller, P. F.. Ch. E. 
I'ettihone, G. D., E. E. Moore, W. W., Arch. 
Salomon. M. .1., C. E. Tellin. W. G., E. E. 
Solimidt. E. .1., M. E. 

1912 

Reported l)y .T. .1. SCHOMMER 

The class of 1912 held its 25th reunion 
.May 22, 1937, at the University Club, Chi- 
cago. Seventeen members from a total of 
sixty-nine answered the roll call. They 
are spread from China, .Tapan, .\ustrali<i, 
across the United States from California 
to New York, and then on into Great 
Britain, France, and South America. The 
following men were present at the reunion: 
H. A. BYFIELD, Ch. E., J. G. CHAND- 
LER, Ch. E., C. AV. COLLINS, C. E., F. 
C. DIERKIXG. C. E., H. C. DOR- 
MITZER, Ch. E., H. A. DREW, E. E., 
G. C. ERICKSON, E. E., P. W. EVAN.S, 
E. E., R. J. GEISLER, C. E., P. M. 
1 EICHENKO. C. E., W\ A. I.INDBERCi, 
E. E., M. L. LOWENBERG, C. E., W. G. 
MARTIN, E. E.. G. R. MEADE, E. E., 
.T. E. RUEF, M. E., ,T. J. SCHOMMER, 
Ch. E., E. M. SINCERE, Arch. 

Letters were received from the follow- 
ing: 

RONALD CLARK, located at Berlin- 
Wilmersdorf, Wurttembergische Str. 23-2+, 
connected with the General Motors Corp. 

LeROY D. KILEY, President of Mitch- 
ell Oil Corp., Mamaroneck, New York. 

CHESTER A. SNOW, with the Plioenix 
Insurance Co., Hartford, Conn. 

SIDNEY KAHN, Vice-President of 
Federal Yeast Corp., Baltimore, Md. 

VINCENT PAGLIARULO, 428 North 
Marel Avenue, Los Angeles, Calif. Elec- 
trical Research Products, Inc. 

DUDLEY F. HOLTMAN, 744 Jackson 
Place, Washington, D. C, with the H. M. 
Byllesby & Co. 

A telegram was received from R. S. 
CLAAR, 2915 Sunset Blvd., Minneapolis, 
Minn. 

A cablegram from R. C. ARMSTRONG, 
Melbourne Tech College, Melbourne, Aus- 
tralia. 



MISSING: 

Beach, W. E., C. E. 
Curren. Earl L., C. E. 
Enoshita. Toyozo, E.E. 
Hazen, Fred G., E. E. 
Newman, J. J., Ch. E. 
Swanson. W. R.. C. E. 
Tvirley, E. W.. Ch. E. 
Voshida. H. T., M. E. 



DECEASED: 
Bohlander, H. A., M.E. 
Dewalt, E. V., Arch. 
Hoehn, J. C, Ch. E. 
Lawrence. M. F., M. E. 
Leviton, M. I., Arch. 
Michael, J. C, Jr., E.E. 
Peck, Winfield, M. E. 



1913 

ORVILLE C. BADGER, C. E., 337 
Home Ave., Oak Park, 111., is with Roberts 
and Shaefer Co., 110 Wrigley Bldg., 
Chicago. 



WILLIAM T. BRAUN, Arch., is in the 
architectural business for himself at 545 
E. 89th Place, Chicago. 

J. DUDLEY BRADFORD, M. E., is 
engineer for the Koppers Co., Koppers 
Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. He lives at 22!) 
Garland St., Edgewood, Pa. 

PAUL K. BROWN, M. E., is advertis- 
ing production manager for the Liberty, 
magazine, Macfadden Publications, Inc., 
122 E. 42nd St., New York City. Home 
address is 85 St. Andrews Place, Yonkers, 
New York. 

.TOSEPH S. EHRMAN, E. E., 4480 N. 
Maryland Ave., Milwaukee, Wis., is presi- 
dent of the Blue Star Knitting Co., 1428 
North Farwell Ave., same city. 

JOSEPH LEO FARRELLY, C. E., 
architectural engineer for the Board of 
Education, City of Chicago, lives at 12247 
Harvard Ave., Chicago. 

CHARLES R. SCHLtLER, E. E., 12 S. 
Columbia St., Naperville, 111., is with the 
Commonwealth Edison Co., room 600, 72 
W. Adams St., Chicago. 

EMU. G. ZILMER, Arch., is a practic- 
ing architect with his office at 132-33 Fed- 
eral Square Bldg., Grand Rapids, Mich. He 
informs us that he and his wife are in busi- 
ness together, handling quite a bit of in- 
terior decorating. Their son, Bruce, is 
attending the Art Institute in Chicago. 
MISSING: Munn. W. K., Ch. E. 

Arp, W. B., E. E. Stanley, H. C, Arch. 

Connell, D.. Arch. Westlund. E. G., C. E. . 

Fisher, H.F. (Isr.),C.E. DECEASED: 
Furay, C. J., Arch. Arnold, C. H., F. P. E. . 

Garrison. C. W., C. E. Curtis, Marston, E. E. 
Kuehn, Hugo R., M. E. Ermeling. R. W.. Arch. 
Lill, A. C, C. E. Kehr. Chas. F.. M. E. 

Lundblad. C. D., Arch. Leibrandt, C. R., C. E. 
Moore, F. L., Ch. E. 

1914 

TOM C. BOLTON, E. E., is superinten- 
dent of Davison Bro. Co., 4th and Pierce 
Sts., Sioux Citv, Iowa. He lives at 2705 
Valley Drive. 

HERBERT E. JEDDY, C. E., resides 
at 1822 Stanwood Road, East Cleveland, 
Ohio. He is a sales engineer for the LTnited 
States Gypsum Co., 617 Hanna Bldg., 
Cleveland. 

LOTHARDT M. JENSEN, Arch., is 
vice president of The Brinn and Jensen 
Co., wholesale paper, etc., 1108-12 Harvey 
St., Omaha, Nebr. His home address is 
669 N. 57th Ave., Omaha. 

EDWARD W. MENKE, M. E., lives at 
41 W. 112 Place, Chicago. He is president 
of the Kelly-Menke Co., also the Kelmenite 
Corporation, both at 64 E. 25th St., 
Chicago. 

EDWARD L. NELSON, E. E., is a 
radio development engineer. Bell Tele- 
phone Laboratories, 463 West St., New 
York Citv. He resides at 39 Briarcliff 
Road, Mt. Lakes, N. J. 

FRANK A. SWANSON, E. E., is mas- 
ter mechanic for the Eisemann Magneto 
Corp., Brooklyn, New York, and resides at 
15 North Ave., Fanwood, New Jersey. 

JOSEPH ZAVERTNIK, Ch. E.,' 309 
Tenafly Road, Englewood, New Jersey, is 
with The Barrett Co., 40 Rector St., New 
York City. 

.MISSING : Oldenburger.W.C.C.E. 

Auer, P. Fenton. C. E. Roberts, W. F.. C. E. 
Barber, G. S., Arch. Schmidt. C. D., Arch. 
Barr, Allen W.. Arch. Sevin, Irv. M., C. E. 
Boetter, C. L., C. E. Shane, J. L., Arcli. 
Case, Harry L., E. E. Smith, H. F., C. E. 
Cohen, Joseph, Arch. Wight, J. C, Arch. 
Cooley, G. S., M. E. DECEASED: 

Eliel. A. G., Arch. Dean, Chas. A.. C. E. 

Kann, W. H., C. E Enislie, John M., C. E. 

Morrow, A. W., Arcli. Erickson, 11. E., M. R. 

1915 

WALTER L. BURROUGHS, E. E., as- 
sistant treasurer Allen Electric and Equip- 



42 



nciit Co., Kalamazoo, Midi., resides at 
707 Hillside Drive, same city. 

FRED L. BREWER, M. E., is presi- 

lent Brewer Bros., Inc., wholesale dealers 

In gasoline, oils, greases, tires, etc., for 

[ervice stations, LaGrange, 111. 

ARCHIBALD BULFIN GRIFFITH, 

rcli., manager of the Nicholas Senn Hos- 

ital, Omaha, Neb., resides at 840 S. 59th 

t., Omaha. He reports a family of two 

[joys and two girls. 

I THEO. K. PFAFFLIN, F. P. E., is in 
j:he Chicago office of the Home Insurance 
bo. of New York. He resides at 7140 
Eggelston Ave., Chicago. 
' E.MIL W. PFEIL, Ind. Arts., 2322 Com- 
monwealth Ave., Chicago, is teaching me- 
chanical drawing at Crane high school. 

EARL W. PORTER, Arch., managing 
sditor of the Riverside Press, Riverside, 
,3al., lives at 3.505 Ramona Drive. 

WALTER W. SIR, M. E., is master me- 
chanic in the Crawford Generating Station 
3f the Commonwealth Edison Co., 3501 S. 
Pulaski Road, Chicago. His home address 
is 415(j Barrv Ave. 



MISSING: 

Deitenbeck. Max. C. E 
Hamian. E. S.. M. E. 
Hirose, Yush.. Arch. 
Jlohnson, V. E., C. E. 
Mammes, H. A.. E. E. 



Sullivan. T. F., E. E. 
Willson, H. E., M. E. 
DECEASED: 
Congdon. C. C, Ch. E. 
Grossman, A. N., Gi.E. 
Juttemeyer, W.L., M.E. 



Mierakowski, T.K., E.E. Norton, Jos. C, C. E. 

Minchin, S. H., Arch. Palmer, R. C, M. E. 

Parrott. R. D., Ch. E. Sproesser. G. W., C. E. 

~ ~ " ■ ~ ~ Wight. Clifford, M. E. 



1916 

Ftliniarii 24, 1937. 
Secretary, Alumni Ansociation 

In permini/ the December issue of the 
Armour Enr/meer I was pleased to note 
mi/ iiamr luinniii thi iinaeni iiiiil (irroiuifvil 
for mriiih, r^ ,,f tin ,■!,,.■<,■ ,,f l!ll(i. / „„/;,•, 
that ijuii „r, -..■<, H, l< rhnj hn-^c an Armour 
Tirh ,irii,l,i,il, III, mini, '(I In lurii into an 
iinliiiiiid iniiihtir. 'riirniii lies a tale. 

Aflir h nvinij Armour. I xaas employed 
hit III, l.'iiiohiKin Maniifiii-turing Co., man- 
ufacturers of mininy machinery. I spent 
six years with them, interrupted by almost 
a year of war service. My work from a 
human standpoint Was interesting, but for 
no III, reason not satisfying. I prayed for 
iiuhlance, and felt a decided and sudden 
urge to become a priest. It m: anf at h,isl 
six years of study and certainlii a iliffi r, nl 
type of life. The change was miol, ,,hn,plhi 
and with such little difficulty that I cannot 
explain it except throiigh the operation of 
divine grace. 

I spent two years at Columbia College 
studying Latin and philosophy principally, 
and then was sent to Rome for four years 
of theology. Upon my ordination, I re- 
turned to till.': cnintrii as a prlitit of the 
Archdliir, XI of l>iihii,iii,. Mil jirxf charge 
was of parish Work al Dilxciini. Iiixca, for 
one year. Thin I \cos apjioiiihd a riiiiiihir 
of tilC Cohlllihia Aradilini farilllil jiarHrii- 
larly to start a ,;,iirs, In iiii rhanira! draw- 
ing. After four years of high-school teach- 
ing, I was transferred to college work to 
introduce a two years course in general 
engineering. Taking a year's leave of ab- 
sence, I studied surveying and an orienta- 
tion course in engineering problems. At 
the same time, I reviewed my mathematics, 
mechanics, and mechanical drawing. This 
was done at Iowa State College, Ames, 
Iowa. For the past three years, I have 
been teaching courses In mechnnlcal draw- 
ing, mechanics, surveyiiia. ami i iii/ineering 
problems. These subji'ts :ciili the funda- 
mental courses in math, iiiati,-s, chemistry, 
physics, English, and religion round out a 
well balanced two years general engineer- 



ing course. A student is then prepared to 
specialize in any branch of engineering hi 
may choose. 

You will be pleased to learn then that 1 
have not deserted the field of , ugin,, ring 
and that my training at Armour is loin]/ 
put to good use. Accept mi/ sim; n ajipri - 
elation for the interest you have mani- 
fested In me. 1 shall ever be grateful for 
rvhat .Irmiiiir has i/lven to me and loi/al 
to her Ideals. 

Yours respectfully, 
REV. L. J. ENGLER. 



Drawing Materials 



POST'S 

Drawing Materials 
THE FREDERICK POST CO. 

Hamlin and Avondals Avenues 
CHICAGO 









VERTICAL ^ 

1 


iTl 


TO DRAW ANY ANGLE 

/ ..A TO DRAW 
A "K^JkX HORIZONTAL 












■• :: •; :• 




r 






^iS= 




I 






< ^.> \k 




^ 







CLARENCE W. FARRIER, Arch., is 
now co-ordinator of the television division 
of the National Broadcasting Co., 30 
RockefeUer Plaza, New York City. He 
lives at 842 Soundview Drive, Mamaroneck, 
N. Y. 

WILLIAM C. LUCKOW, Ch. E., 975(i 
S. Hamilton Ave., Chicago, is chemist for 
the W. E. Long Co., 155 N. Clark St., 
Chicago. 

ESTES WILSON MANN, Arch., presi- 
dent and treasurer of Estes W. Mann, 
Architect, Inc., 967-8-9 Shrine Bldg., Mem- 
phis, Tenn., live-; at 219n S. Parkway East, 
Memphis. He is the jirdud daddy of two 
sons — "one futur, architect and one fu- 
ture second stori/ Maun." 

AHTIll^R A.' OSWALD, E. E., radio 
(IcvcldiiMuiit engineer for the Bell Tele- 
phone Laboratories at 4^3 West St., New 
York City, resides at 2 West Lane, Maple- 
wood, N. J. 

CONRAD L. OTT, M. E., 71 Farrand 
Park, Highland Park, Mich., is now sec- 
retary and treasurer of the Ott Machinery 
Sales Co., 540 Second Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

MALJRICE L. WILCOX, M. E., is with 
the Leaman Transportation Corp., Down- 
ington. Pa. His home address is 840 Ed- 
wards Ave., Drexel Hill, Pa. 
MISSING: McHugh, L. J., C. E. 

Adams, R. S., C. E. Miller, J. V., M. E. 
Apfelbach, H. J., Arch. O'Dea, T. M., Ind. Arts 
Appelbaum, A., C. E. Sosna, Sam. E., C. E. 
Armstrong, F. C, C. E. Sostheim, B. B., C. E. 
Broman, J. G., M. E. DECEASED: 
Eames, E. R., Arch. Echlin, E. S., M. E. 

Finkelstien, S. C, Arch. Hill, Claude, F. P, E. 
Foy, Edgar A., C. E. Rook, Henry A., C. E. 
Harris,H.S.(Katz).E.E. Smith, Bern. M., E. E. 
Kinnally, R. W., C. E. 

1917 

WILLIAM ERNST BAUER, JR., 
M. E., 1921 Eddy St., Chicago, is with 
Halsam Products Co., 4114 Ravenswood 
Ave., Chicago. 

FRANK J. CONWAY, Arch., is witli 
the Carrier Construction Corp., Merchan- 
dise Mart, Chicago. He lives at 406 Wes- 
ley Ave., Oak Park, 111. 

LOUIS E. GIVEN, E. E. is secretary- 
treasurer of Given Bros. Shoe Co., El 
Paso, Texas. His home address is 1005 
Baltimore St., El Paso. "Given would ap- 
preciate a letter from his old friends." 

STUART N. MILLER, C. E., 7203 S. 
Indiana Ave., Chicago, is with Oscar 
Daniels Co., 135 S. La Salle St., Chicago. 

STANLEY W. NEWMAN, C. E., is 
president Wildman and Newman, Inc., 33 
W. 42nd St., New York City. He lives at 
Topland Road, White Plains, New York. 



DREIFUSS BLOCK 

A complete portable unit for 
quick, accurate drawing. 

Ideal for 
Architects Students 

Engineers 
DREIFUSS and COMPANY 

7841 Westwood Drive 
Chicago 

Electrical Contracting 



DOOLEY ELECTRIC COMPANY 

ELECTRICAL CONTRACTORS 



456 E. 83rd St. • Stewart 7268 
CHICAGO 



A. S. SCHULMAN 

ELECTRIC COMPANY 

Electrical Engineers and 
Contractors 

537 South Dearborn Street 
CHICAGO 

PHONE HARRISON 7288 

Address All Communications to the Company 

A. S. SCHULMAN, President 
HARVEY T. NACK, Vice President 



Electrical Equipment 



THOMPSON - JAMESON 
ELECTRIC CO. 

360 W. Superior St., Chicago 

MOTORS and ELEVATORS 

MAINTAINED and REPAIRED 

LIGHT and POWER WIRING 

24 hour sersrice SUPERIOR 1396 



Transformer Specialists 

Design and production of transformers for 
Radio, Sound Amplification and Amateur 
Transmission. 1 1/2 K. W. limit. 

STANDARD TRANSFORMER 

CORPORATION 

STANCOR 

850 Blaclchawk Street Chicago. Illinois 



43 



CARROLL HARRY ROBERTS, F. P. 
E., is an insurance broker, P. O. Box 1453, 
Beaumont, Texas. 

LEO H. ROSENBERG, E. E., is with 
Lord and Thomas, 919 N. Michigan Ave., 
Chicago, 111., and lives at 7518 Chappel 
Ave., Chicago. : 

EARLE H. SMITH, C. E., with the 
Packard Motor Car Co., 1580 East Grand 
Blvd., Detroit, Mich., lives at 700 Whit- 
more Road, Apt. D-1, Detroit, Mich. 

HAROLD S. WHITE, M. E., is now 
with the Olds Motor Works, Lansing, 
Mich., having left the Studebaker Corp., 
South Bend, Ind., several months ago. His 
home address is 546 Meadowlawn Ave., 
East Lansing, Mich. 

WALTER WOLLASTON, Ch. E., is 
with Brunswick-Balke CoUender Co., 
Muskegon, Mich. His home address is In- 
terlaken. North Muskegon. Mich. 
MISSING: DECEASED: 

Cooper, Earl C, M. E. Anderson, J. E.. E. E. 
Goldberg, L. I., C. E. Bechaud, J. P., M. E. 
Hall, Ken. V., F. P. E. Cowles, Ray D., F.P.E. 
Kendall, S. W., Oi. E. Fitener, A. G., Ch. E. 
.Morse, Ralph L., M. E. Goorskey, N. J., Ch. E. 
Prochazka, R. V., E. E. Hankan, W. M., Ch. E. 
Turner, J. W., Arch. Zimmerman, A., E. E. 
Vesely, W. J., Arch. 

1918 

JOHN LEWIS BROYLES, E. E., is 
with the Economy Fuse and Mfg. Co., 2717 
Greenview Ave., Chicago. He lives at 3235 
Bryn Mawr Ave., Chicago. 

NORMAN LEE HUFFAKER, M. E., 
5400 Beivdiey Road, Richmond, Va., is 
with the New York Life Ins. Co., Box 
1618, Richmond, Va. 

A few lines of appreciation from ORA 
M. HULLINGER, E. E., Mgr. Trans- 
former Sales, Line Material Co., South 
Milwaukee, Wis. "Congratulations for 
splendid issue for May, 1937. Make-up, 
copy, photography, and advertising are all 
of the finest order." 

April 7, 1937. 
Secretary, Alumni Association 

Received your letter today written to my 
oldest brother, FRANK A. KNOTTS, and 
addressed to our former address, 675 
Adams St., Oary, Indiana. 

1 wish to inform you that Lieut. Frank 
A. Knotts died in France in the fall of 
1918 and now rests in St. Mihiel Cemetery, 
France. 

Any other information desired you may 
obtain from me or from my mother, Mrs. 
Thomas Knotts, who resides at 4324 Madi- 
son Street, Gary, Indiana. 

Very truly yours, 
(Signed) JOHN \V. KNOTTS. 

[Ed. Note: FRANK A. KNOTTS, was 
an Ex. Arch. 1918.] 

HARRY ALFRED PETERSON, C. E., 
1937 Stanton Ave., Whiting, Indiana, is as- 
sistant superintendent mechanical depart- 
ment Standard Oil Co. of- Indiana, at 
Whiting. 

J. IRVING PREST, Ch. E., is with tlie 
American Steel and Wire Co., Waukegan, 
III., and lives at 614 Lorraine Ave. 
MISSING: Koehler, W. W., Ch. E. 

Andre, Guy L., M. E. Lewin, Etlw. P., Arch. 
Durham, E. J., M. E. DECEASED: 
Erickson, R. A., E. E. Newlander, R. A., E.E. 
Kerr, Volney A., M. E. 

1919 

1060 Sleepy Hollow Lane, 

Plainfield, N. J., 

February 20, 1937. 
Secretary, Armour Alumni Association 

In connection with my work at the West- 
ern Electric Co., I have felt a need for 
information on subjects relating to man- 
agement and personnel administration. 



Electrical Equipment 



Phone Randolph 1125 
All Department* 

GOLDBERG & O'BRIEN 

ELECTRIC CO. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS AND 

CONTRACTORS 

OFFICE AND PLANT 

I 7 South Jeffarson Streat 
Chicago, Illinois 



Northwestern Electric Company 

408-412 Sonth Hoyne Avenue 

Electric Motors — Converters — Welders 
Guaranteed Service 




"Extra -Service" 

Friction and Rubber Tapes 
. . . at no extra cost 

VAN fLEEF BROS. 

Mjrs. RuHir »nd Ckimical Products 

WoodUwn Ave., 77th to 78th Sts. 
CHICAGO 



Motor* and Generators Rebuilt 

New and U«ed Motors for Sale 

Telephone Boulevard 2389 

CENTRAL MOTOR & REPAIR CO. 

ELECTRICAL ENQINEERING 

MANUFACTURERS OF RADIO GENERATORS 

GENERAL ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL 

REPAIRING 

615-617 ROOT STREET 
CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 



Tfie PYLE-NATIONAL 
COMPANY 

RAILROAD AND INDUSTRIAL CONDUIT 
WIRING FiniNGS 

AIRPORT AND AIR CRAFT 
LIGHTING EQUIPMENT 

STEAM TURBINES 

one-fourth to five horse power 

TURBO GENERATORS 

one-half to twelve kilowatt 

FLOOD LIGHTS 
Chicago lilinoif 



After taking several evening courses in 
the graduate school of New York Univer- 
sity without any particular coordination 
I decided to fit them into a program lead- 
ing to the degree of Master of Business 
Administration which would extend over 
a period of any number of years. . . . 

In addition to my regular job I have 
taken an active part in educational mat- 
ters, particularly in our evening school, in 
which I have served as head instructor of 
Telephony during the past ten years. 

The progress of the Institute, as related 
in the Armour Engineer, is inspiring. 
After the improvements described in the 
October, 193G, issue have been completed, 
an old timer will hardly find his way 
around. Tlie Research Foundation, dis- 
cussed by Dr. Hotchkiss, will no doubt 
bring additional honors to the school as 
industrial organizations turn to it for as- 
sistance. 

Sincerely yours, 
(Signed) EDWIN H. ARNOLD. 

LYNN E. DAVIES, M. E., 8024 La- 
fayette Ave., Chicago, is development en- 
gineer for the White Cap Co., 1812 N. 
Central Ave., Chicago. 

RAY O. JOSLYN, E. E., president of 
Layne Western Co., B. M. A. Bldg., Kan- 
sas City, Mo., resides at 438 W. 62nd St. 

MARION E. SHAW, C. E., is with Sar- 
gent and Lundy, 140 S. Dearborn St., Chi- 
cago, and resides at 8.39 S. Prospect Ave., 
Park Ridge, 111. 

MISSING: Senescall, Clyde, C. E. 

Cowles, F. S., Arch. Wallace, M. R., Arch. 

Dady, Wm. E., Arch. Wilbor, John B., Ch. E. 
Geldmeier, H. F.. E. E. DECEASED: 
Gold, C. L., C. E. Erickson, A. E., Arch. 

Mintz, Chas. W., F.P.E. Marks, Robt. E., M. E. 
Schimek, A. F., Arch. 

1920 

HAROLD F. CLAUSEN, M. E., is en- 
gineer for the Anaconda Copper Mining 
Co., Hennessey Bldg., Butte, Mont. He 
lives at 107 S. Excelsior Ave., Butte. 

EMIL DASING, C. E., 4729 N. Talman 
Ave., Chicago, is a designing engineer for 
the Sears Roebuck & Co. 

HIRSCH EPSTEIN, E. E., owns and 
operates a company manufacturing neon 
signs called International Neon Signs at 
14 N. May St., Chicago. His home ad- 
dress is 4939 W. Adams St., Chicago. 

MARSHALL GOTTLIEB, M. E., pro- 
prietor of M. Gottlieb and Co., 1414 S. 
Michigan Ave., Chicago, resides at 2828' 
Pine Grove Ave. 

ARTHUR LeROY LYON, Ch. E., 6659 i 
Phillips Ave., Chicago, 111., is with North- 
western Malt and Grain, 4600 Cortland 
Ave., Chicago. 

PAUL L. STERN, Ch. E., is with the. 
Clinton Co., Clinton, Iowa. His home ad- 
dress is Breezy Point, Clinton, Iowa. 

HAROLD DeFOREST STEVERS, 
E. E., 92113 16th Ave., South Nashville, 
Tenn., is an engineering draftsman. Cock 
design division, T. V. A., U. S. Engineer 
Corps. 604 Bennie Dillon Bldg., Nashville. 

WILLIAM JAMES WIGNALL, C. E., 
is with the A. M. Byers Co., Clarke Bldg., 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

MISSING: Podolsky, D. H., Ch. E. 

Bloomberg, S., E. E. Popkin, J. L., Arch. 
Fainstien, M., C. E. Sniely, Jas., E. E. 
Frank, Julian, C. E. Stein, Aaron, C. E. 

Jones, L. E., M. E. Wens. V"V Man, M. E. 

Karlson, Jos., Arch. DECEASED: 

McEldowney,H.B.,A'ch. Bentley, W. J., Ch. E. 
0'; onnor, W. J., Arch. Malpede, D. J., E. E. 
Peterson. H. C, M. E. 

1921 

MYNHART O. BRUECKNER, Ch. E., 
is with Chas. H. Bacon Co., Loudon, Tenn. 
His home address is Huffs Ferry Road, 
same city. 



44 



CHARLES BUSHNELL DOOI.IT- 
TLE, M. E., 65 N. Lonfrconunon Uoatl, 
Riverside, 111., is with the Illinois Bell Tel 
ephone Co., 212 W. Washiiifrton St., 
Chicago. 

MORTON G. GROSS, M. K., is a imi- 
chaiit at 23 W. Superior St., Duluth, .Minn. 

LYMAN DIXON .lUDSON, Ch. E., 
with the Western Electric Co., Chicafio, re- 
sides at 112.5 N. Elinwood Park, Oak Park, 
111. 

HARRY C. KIHI.STRO.M. E. E., is 
switchboard engineer, Westinghouse Elec- 
tric and Mfg. Co., Buffalo, New York and 
lives at 72 Westview Ave., Hamburg, New 
York. 

WILLIAM K. LYON, JR., C. E., is a 
postmaster at Niles Center, 111. He lives 
at 8029 Kilbourne Ave., same city. Wc 
were sorry to learn that you are having to 
use crutches as a result of an attack ol 
infantile paralysis in 1930. 

WALTER S. PAWL (PAWLOWSKI), 
M. E., 4713 Lee Highway, Arlington, \a.. 
is assistant examiner. Division 28, L^. S. 
Patent Office, Washington, D. C. 

GEORGE W. PETERSEN, C. E., 2S():i 
21st St., Columbu.s, Neb., writes: ••/'(-)• tli, 
pant 3'/' i/earn, 1 have been eiiiploi/ed hi/ 
the I'WA'in the Impectlon Dlvhion'. I icax 
priiiiioted in Jiili/ of la.st year to the Hiiper- 
visini/ Ent,\neer's position for the PW.l 
on tin Lo'up River J'niilir Poxt'er Projeet. 
This u-ill r<int tchen eonipleted appro.ri- 
iiiatelji ,'};n,()()n,()00 and con:iists of ranal.-<. 
poiCer liouKex, tranninigswn lines, suhstn- 
tion.t. etc. I <(m thoroughly enjoyimi this 
■work. 

Yours truly, 

(Signed) GEORGE W. PETERSEN. 

DELMAR L. ROSENDAL, E. E.. is 
with the Western Electric Co., 100 Cen- 
tral Ave., Kearney, N. J. He lives at 
Newell Place, N. Arlington, N. J. 

SHELDON H. WEBSTER, M. E., is 
with Montgomery Ward and Co., ()200 St. 
John Ave., Kansas City, Mo. His home 
address is 7204 Madison Ave. 

EMIL F. WINTER, Ch. E., is manager 
6f the printing department of the Pioneer 
Publishing Co., Oak Park, 111. He resides 
at (il)S LeMoyne Parkway, Oak Park. 
MI.SSING: Pearce. Wm. W., E. E. 

Bloom. Louis S., E. E. Zahrobsky. G. J.. E. E. 
Browde. A. M., Arch. DECEASED: 
Kaplon, Hilton, Ch. E. Burke, S. J., C. E. 
Mundt. Edw., C. E. Enneling. W.. Ind.Arts 

Muramoto, D. K.. E. E. (Jrahendike. C.A.. E.E. 
Newman, Dr.L.B.. M.E. Little. .1. Half. Ch. E. 

1922 

GEORGE H. ADI.ER, E. E., 318 Buell 
Ave., Joliet, 111., is with the Public Serv- 
ice Co. of Northern Illinois, 1701 S. First 
Ave., Maywood, 111. 

LUMIR P. BRAZDA, Ind. Arts, is 
teaching in the engineering department at 
Wilson Jr. College, 0800 Stewart Ave., 
Chicago. He lives at 1834. S. Gunderson 
Ave., Berwyn, III. 

ALFRED A. DAVIS, Ch. E., 4630 Bea- 
con Ave., Chicago, is with the Thomas 
Moulding Floor Co., 165 W. Wacker Drive. 

HARRY T. FULTZ, Ind. Arts, is state 
director, WPA, Adult Education Program, 
State of Illinois, 6th Floor, Merchandise 
Mart, Chicago, III. His home address is 
7347 Dorchester Ave., Chicago. 

GEORGE A. GILBERTSON, Ch. E., 
superintendent Pines Winterfront Co., 
1135 N. Cicero Ave., Chicago, lives at 5800 
Markham Ave. 

HENRY M'lLLIAM HERBST, Ch. E., 
1000 Loyola Ave., Chicago. 111., is presi- 
dent of "Biwax Corporation, 1017 S. Kol- 
mar Ave. 



Electrical Equipment 



R. E. FISCHEL 

Becker Brothers Carbon Co. 

Electrical and Mechanical Carbon 

Products 

223-5-7 NO. ASHLAND AVENUE 

Chicago 

MONROE 6544 



Economical Hl-Grade Rebuilt Deptndablo 

ELECTRIC MOTORS 

MOTOR GENERATORS, ROTARY 
CONVERTORS, ETC. 

Ask for Special LItt 

Gregory Electric Co. 

1603 S. Lincoln Street Chicago, III. 



LIGHTING EQUIPMENT 

by 

ARMOUR MEN 

MULTI ELECTRICAL MFG. CO. 
1840 West 14th Street, Chicago 



ELECTRIC 
MOTORS 



CALUMET 
4961 



DAVID GORDON 

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 

1720 SO. MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO 



LIGHTING PICTURES 

and 

ELECTRICAL SUPPLIES 

TRIANGLE ELECTRIC CO. 

600 West Adams Street 
Chicago 

Mr. Byrnes Tel. HAYmarket 7980 



TRANSFORMERS 
Write for catalogs and manuals 

• Transmitter Guide — No. 344 

Circuit diagrams, details and parts 
lists for transmitters ranging from 
25 watts to 1.000 watts 15c 

• Radio Servicin); Guide — Xo. 342 
Auto Installation hints, how to 
hulld a direct reading voltmeter, 
how to make and use output indi- 
cators and align receivers, tube 
data, etc 15c 

• Sound Amplifier Guide — No. 346 
Circuit diagrams, details and parts 
list for Amplifiers ranging up to 



KDWAHD HKHST (HKUKOVITZ), 
1-:. F... is seeretarv I'erlite ,Mf)r. ami Sup- 
plv Co.. ITS .-)tli .\ve., .S;.n iM-aiui^co, CaL, 
Mii'd lives at 1:5(15 riiion .St. 

LKOXAKI) .M. IIOI.MK.S, C. K... _':5(i 
Mdiitercv Ave., Oavton. Ohio, is with the 
D.ivton "I'ouer and l.iglit Co., Gas and 
I'.leeti-ic lUdfr., Davton. 

HAI.ril .S. KKNKICK, E. E., is in the 
,id\ crtisiiifr departnient of Swift and Co., 
I'liioii Stoek Yards, Cliicago, III. lie re- 
sides at ~-M> N. Lotus Ave., Chieago. 

CI'.OHCiK M. KKI.LEV, E. E., i.s mem- 
Iht of the firm Kilhonrn Engineering Co., 
sales rei)reseiitatives, at (iOO \V . Jackson 
151vd., Chieago. He lives at U.5 .S. Adams 
St., Hinsdale, 111. 

FUKDERICK C. IxWONc;. K. K., is in 
the loeomotive deiKirlmcnt of the Xankiiig- 
Sh.inghai and Slianfihai-Hangchow-Ningjio 
Kaihv.iys, North Station, Shanghai, China. 
His home address is, eare of Sun Kwong 
Hing, !I7 Wing Lock Street. Hongkong, 
China. 

MAX 11. .M AlilXK, Ch. K., an attornev- 
at-law, l:5il X. Clark St., Chieago, resid"e.s 
at 210J. Arthur Ave., Chieago. 

HAKOI.D A. PETKHSOX, C. E., is 
state reeonditioning su))ervisor of Home 
Owners Loan Corp., s:S(i World Heral.l 
Bldg., Omaha, Xeh. He lives at IJ? S. 
list St., Omaha. 

lli:{ .Seminary Road, 
Silver Spring, Maryland, 
.Vpril 17, 1937. 
Secretary, .\lumni Association. 

First of all let me take this ojiport unit y 
III tell I/"" hoxc much I enjoi/ the new 
.Inuoiir' r:n,,iiir, r and Jlinin'ins. It is do- 
iii,/ a n,il'}nl, and h,\i<i„:i to l>rinp all 
.Inannr nun rins, r I,,.,, 11,,'r. The articles 
an sphndid. and Ihi news aliout the school 
anil filhnc idiiiiini i.i mast interestiny. 

.if III- iiradiiatinii in 1922 / started in 
the enyineerinij department of Curtis 
Liyhliny. Inc., xcent into the sales depart- 
ment, and after three years Was put in 
rhari/e of sales priimiifion. In two years I 
was made advertisini/ and sales promotion 
iiianai/er. a pasitiiin I held for four years. 
Whi'ii the depression came I acted as ex- 
/lart sides manager for about two years. 
Finally this work was taken over and I 
fnitnd myself out in, the cold after spend- 
Inii lin 'of the best years of my life xcilh 

hiiriini this time I attended mani/ riin- 
niilinns. and far three i/ears acted 'as e.r- 
hihil manauer at the Eleetricul Dealer's 



.Ifltr liavinii Curtis Lii/htiny another 
itia/i and I I rlid a iiianiifactnrers agency 
linsinrss In < lirlrlral supplies, but this did 
not u-iirk ant. In l!i:W Cnrtis Lighting 
railed me hark fur si.f tnonths to manage 
their crhibil at -.1 Centiiri/ of Progress." 

In Februani, l.'t.M-. / came to Washing- 
Ian and associated xcith Harris \ ICx^-in;!. 
the nation's leadini/ phatiigrajdirrs. I Ik- 
rame manager of their direct mail depart- 
minl and have been handling all of their 
lint II f tincn business. I have become ac- 
ijiiainlid icith the eastern and southeast- 
ern states, havinii carerrd mast of Penn- 
sylvania, yexc Yark. .Maryland. Viruinia. 
West \'iriiinia. .\arlh Caralina. Sanlli 
Carolina. Tennessee, and Kentucky. 
Yours verv trulv, 
(Signed) .rOHX B.' THOMPSOX. 
MI.s.SING: (ieorffeviek, Ellas. .M.K. 

Bernstein, Jacol), C. E. Heniian. B. S., M. E. 
l)i.ssel. Woodridse. M.E. Mason, E. B.. C. E. 
Conner, Geo. D., Arch. McCormack, W.J...\rcli. 
Elerdam, E. C, C. E. I'aque, W. W.. M. E. 
Eisenstein, Sam.. M. E. Rehnquist, P. A.. M. E. 
Erlandson, N. H., E. E. Silverberfr. .S.. Cli. E. 
r.ambal, John ,1.. C. E. Watt, Jas. H., C. E. 



45 



Electrical Equipment 



Illinois Electric Porcelain 
Company 



MACOMB. ILLINOIS 

E. J. BURRIS 

District Representative 



5263 Qumcy Street, Chicago, Illinois 



VACUUM CLEANERS 

BOUGHT and SOLD 

WE REPAIR HOOVER 

AND 
ALL OTHER MAKES 

THE BOBBETT ELEC. MFG. CO. 

4543 Cottage Grove Ave., Chicago 
Tel. OAKIand 1252 



Cliicaso Transformer 
Corporation 

3501 ADDISON STREET 
Chicago, Illinois 

Independence I 120 




CHICAGO • ILLINOIS 

FOR QUALITY 
WHITE METAL ALLOYS 

ALL KINDS 



Employment Agency 



Want a Job? 

ARCHITECTS' AGENCY 

FURNISHES 

TECHNICAL MEN 

ARCHITECTS— ENGINEERS- 
CONTRACTORS— CORPORATIONS 
GEO. S. BANNISTER. Manager 
508 South Dearborn Street, Chicago 

Wabash 5589 



Engraving 



417 
PHONE 



NORTH STATE ST. 
SUPERIOR 6716 




ARTISTS • DESIGNERS 
PHOTO ENGRAVERS • 
BLACK & V^HITE • 
COLOR PROCESS • 
BEN DAY • 



1923 

EARL (ERLING) A. ARENTZ, E. E., 
vice-president U. S. Tank Ship Corp., 230 
Park Ave., New York City, resides at 12.5 
W. 16th St. 

BENJAMIN M. GARLAND, M. E., 
1128 Pratt Blvd., Chicago, he is with James 
B. Clow & Sons, in the marble mill, 2338 
S. Western Ave. 

Correction: ALBERT R. HAUSER, 
Arch., was given in the March, 1937, Engi- 
neer as Hansen — Beg your pardon. 

FRANK X. HENKE, Ind. Arts, 10807 
S. Wood St., Chicago, is teaching in the 
Chicago Manual Training College, 0800 
Stewart Ave. 

THEO. J. KANDERS, C. E., is district 
manager of The Patterson Kelly Co., Inc., 
1700 VValnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. He re- 
sides at 415 Church Road, Elkins Park, 
Pa. 

RAYMOND O. MATSON, F. P. E., is 
with the Illinois Inspection Bureau, 309 W. 
.Jackson Blvd., Chicago. He lives at 1122 
Lake Ave., Wilmette, III. 

ROBERT S. MAYO, C. E., sales engi- 
neer for the Ransome Concrete Machinery 
Co., Dunellen, N. J., lives at 18.50 Myrtle 
Ave., Plainfleld, N. J. 

MERLE CARO NUTT, Ch. E., was re- 
cently elected a trustee of the Illinois Wes- 
leyan L'niversity at Bloomington, 111. Mr. 
Xutt is vice president and secretary of the 
Moline Iron Works, Moline, 111., and re- 
sides at 301.5 Tudor Court, Moline. 

GERHARD N. SCHUMACHER, M. E., 
is a special agent in charge of Northern 
Indiana for the Hartford Fire Insurance 
Co., 1102 Tower Bldg., South Bend, Ind. 
He resides at 1315 Sunnyside Ave. 

FRED E. SLOAN, Arch., is a practic- 
ing architect at 737 N. Michigan Ave., Chi- 
cago. He resides at 404 Sigel St., Chicago. 

FREDERICK V. WALTERS, E. E., is 
teaching at Tilden Technical High School 
4747 S. Union Ave., Chicago. His home 
address is 774.;i Ridgeland Ave., Chicago. 

April 7, 19.37. 
Secy., Alumni Association 

Yniir rforfs fo run down my location are 
d(<iihi iipjin ciiil, ,1. Xo doubt you people 
hack (if xrhnol Imvc many occasions to feel 
that ^fraduatca have short memories in- 
deed. In my case I suppose, as tenth many 
others, it is not a matter of fading senti- 
ments or short mem,ories, but simply a 
matter of being caught up in so turbulent 
a stream of events as to preclude any 
thought except the matter at hand. I am 
hoping that your effort to renew contact 
K'ith school interests has come at a time 
■when I will be free enough from here on 
to profit by the continuation of that in- 
terest. 

Armour has always seemed to me so 
much more rpractical in its application to 
preparations for life and living than many 
other schools that I cannot but feel that 
the soundness of its methods will give it 
increasing influence in its field as each 
year passes. 

Very sincerely yours, 
(Signed) JOHN CLARK WORLEY. 
MISSING: Miller, D. F., E. E. 

Bland, Henry, E. E. Oboler, Max O., E. E. 

Clark. A. S.. Arch. Pollan. H. T.. M. E. 

Crane. W. O., E. E. Prentiss, E. W., C. E. 

Dolesh, F. J., E. E. Salzman, M. M., C. E. 

Downs, F. C. Oi. E. Schwartz, M. L., E. E. 
Goldstein, A.. M. E. Sommers, L. H.. Arch. 
Graicunas, V. A.. M.E. DECEASED: 
Mandel. D. M.. C. E. Mills, Paul R., M. E. 

1924 

MALCOLM L. BROWN, C. E., is su- 
perintendent of construction, Bureau of 



Engineering, State of Wisconsin, Madison. 
His home address is P. O. Box 2047, 
Madison. 

MAURICE A. DRUBECK, M. E., 6920 
Oglesby Ave., Chicago, is in the filtration 
plant-design department of the Division of 
Water Purification, City of Chicago, Navy 
Pier. 

KARL E. EPPICH, F. P. E., is a mem- 
ber of the firm Ed. P. Eppich and Sons, 
General Insurance, 810 14th St., Denver, 
Colo. He resides at 1131 Vine St. 

JAMES W. FULTON, M. E., is a part- 
ner of the firm of John R. Fulton Sons, 
Realtors, 19 N. Genesee St., Waukegan, 
111. His home address is 1326 N. Hickory 
St. 

HARLAND R. HARWOOD, F. P. E., 
1639 Farwell Ave., Chicago, is with the 
Federal Hardware and Implement Mu- 
tuals, 221 X. La Salle St., Chicago. 

CLARENCE F. KAUTZ, Ch. E., is in 
the manufacturing division of the Ethyl 
Gasoline Corporation, P. O. Box 688, Wil- 
mington, Delaware. His home address is 
1902 Berry St., Houston, Texas. 

ERNEST A. KLEIN, E. E., 733 Addi- 
son St., Chicago, is with the U. S. Gypsum 
Co., 300 W. Adams St., Chicago. 

JEROME H. LINDEN, C. E., is prin- 
cipal of the Orland Park Schools, Orland 
Park, 111. He lives in Palos Park, 111. 

EDWIN E. McLAREN, F. P. E., 4715 
Park Ave., Indianapolis, Ind., is with the 
W. E. Barton Agency, 500 Indiana Trust 
Building, Indianapolis. 

EDMUND J. MIESSLER, F. P. E., is 
superintendent of the Lima Branch of the 
Ohio Inspection Bureau, 1019 Lima Trust 
Bldg., Lima, Ohio. He lives at 319 West- 
wood Drive. 

GEORGE A. MORGAN, Ch. E., 1744 E. 
71st Place, Chicago, is with the Peoples 
Gas Light and Coke Co., 122 S. Michigan 
Ave., Chicago. 

F. RAYMOND NELLE, C. E., 1026 
Fifth St., Wyandotte, Mich., is in the De- 
partment of Interior, National Park Serv- 
ice, Saginaw S. P. 6, Bay City, Michigan. 

JAMES O. PECKHAM, E. E., is with 
the A. C. Nielson Co., 2101 Howard St., 
Chicago. He resides at 597 Greenview 
Ave., Highland Park, 111. 

LLOYD R. QUAYLE, C. E., is with 
Fruit Industries, Ltd., 270 Broadway, New 
York City. He resides at 8 Adams Place, 
Glen Ridge, N. J. 

CLAUDE ALBON STIEHL, Arch., is 
an independent architect, 435 Damon Bldg., 
Honolulu. He lives at 3566 Woodlawn 
Drive, Honolulu, T. H. 

ANTHONY J. ZELENKA, C. E., 2331 
S. 62nd Ave., Cicero, 111., is a practising 
architect and engineer with oflSces at the 
same address. 

JOHN H. BAILEY, Ch. E., is with L. 
Aronberg, 6 E. Lake St., Chicago, and 
lives at 845 N. Ridgeway Ave., Chicago. 

W. HALE BALDWIN, F. P. E., is an 
engineer for the Nebraska Inspection Bu- 
reau, 226 Standard Oil Bldg., Omaha, 
Neb. He lives at 3415 Lafayette Ave. 

CLIVE R. BISHOP, E. E., 1109 Mon- 
roe St., Evanston, 111., is with the Public 
Service Co. of Northern Illinois, 79 W. 
Monroe St., Chicago. 

HERBERT H. CHUN, E. E., paid us 
a visit in August and informed us that he 
was on his way to China for a stay of sev- 
eral years. Chun has been with the Arc- 
turus Radio Tube Co., 720 Frelinghuysen 
Ave., Newark, N. J., for several years. 



46 



0e39 Maryland Ave., Chicago, III. 
Armour Alumni Association 

In your letter of April 14., 1937, you re- 
port your lack of success in finding my 
name on your list of graduntes. I ■went 
through the four years at Armour under 
the name "Elmer Dai-is" and at the last 
minute, just before graduation, decided to 
have my diploma made out in my full 
name, Wilfred Elmer DaTix. My photo- 
graph in the 1925 class picture ap-pears in 
the second rotv from the bottom and the 
fourth picture from the right hand side. 
J hope this information 7t'ill help you in 
identifying me. 

Yours truly, 
(Signed) W. "E. DAVIS. 
MISSING: Miirner. H. K., C. E. 

Anderson. H. E.. Arch. Xel.^on, Carl A., M. E. 
Baim, Eugene, Ch. E. Olson, Alden T.. C. E. 
Bensinger, E. A., Ch.E. Samuels. Saul. C. E. 
Davidson, D. E., M. E. Spaid, 0. M., F.P.E. 
Falconer, J. W., E. E. Swanson, E.J., Ind.Arts 
Friedman, H. C. C. E. Vickers. W. H., M. E. 
Greenfield,T.(Isr.)Ch.E. Walk, Edw.. C. E. 
Hardwicke, L. C, C. E. DECEASED: 
Hart, T. H., E. E. Almendinger, H. A., 

Johnson, E. A., Arch. E. E. 

Laatsch, R. C. Ch. E. Finkelstien, L. M., E. E. 
Lipsky, Wm. S., M. E. Heller, Dnane L., M. E. 

1925 

JOHN R. FREDERICK, E. E., 910 
Park Aye., Beloit, Wis., is witii the Wis- 
consin Power and Light Co., 500 Public 
Ave. 

ELMER R. GRITSCHKE, C. E., is 
both mechanical and civil engineer for 
Neiler Rich and Co., 431 S. Dearborn St., 
Chicago. He resides at 1648 Morse Ave. 

PAUL B. HULTGREX, M. E., is with 
the Illinois Engineering Co., 20.35 S. Ra- 
cine Ave., Chicago. He lives at 1443 Ber- 
wyn Ave. 

ALBERT H. .JOSEPH, F. P. E., is 
with the Western Factory Insurance Ass'n, 
175 W. Jackson Blvd., Cliicago. He re- 
sides at 309 Grafton Ave., Davton, Ohio. 

RUSSELL LESLIE LAWSON, C. E., 
is a structural designer for Montgomery 
Ward and Co., Chicago, and lives at 10135 
Avenue "L." 

HAROLD J. LUTH, Ch. E., is a super- 
visor engineer in charge of power and 
steam at Brunswick Balke Collendar Co., 
Muskegon, Mich. He lives at 740 Jefferson 
St. 

PETER J. MARSCHALL, E. E., 2201 
Touhy Ave., Chicago, he is with Kroeschell 
Engineering Co., 213 W. Ontario St. 

CARL G. MILLER, F. P. E., is man- 
ager of the Knoxville and East Tennessee 
Branch, Tennessee Inspection Bureau, 1016 
Burwell Bldg., Knoxville, Tenn. He re- 
sides at 26 Oak Park Drive. "Enjoy the 
Engineer and Alumnus very much, espe- 
cially reference and news items about 
former classmates. Give its more of them. 
The entire publication is very interestinq." 

This from the NEDVEDiS who reside 
at 7219 Wright Avenue, Indianapolis, Ind. 
''If your records were straight, you -would 
know that Elizabeth Kimball 'gradwited 
from Armour after becoming Mrs. Ru- 
dolph Xedved, and under this name Eliz- 
abeth Kimball Nedved graduated in archi- 
tecture in 1925 and has' been in touch with 
Armour ever since. Mr. Nedved was also 
an Armour graduate in Architecture, class 
of 1922, and taught architectural design at 
Armour 1923-1928." Beg your pardon. 

WILLIAM S. RALPH, Arch., practis- 
ing architecture in Mineral Point, Wis., 
hopes soon to return to Chicago. 

NORMAN B. SCHREIBER, M. E., 
7344 So. Shore Drive, Chicago, is vice pres- 
ident of MacDonald Bros., Inc., 310 S. 
Michigan Ave. 

CHARLES EARL TWEEDLE, E. E., 
is vice president and general manager of 



Polar Air Inc., air conditioning at 100 N. 
Ewing St., Dallas, Texas. He resides at 
207 Appian Way. 

EUGENE VOITA, Arch., is practicing 
architecture at 141 W. Jackson Blvd., Chi- 
cago. His home address is 837 N. I.orel 
Ave., Chicago. 

.MISSING: Prciulergast. K. \V.. 

Beck, M. D., Ch. E. Arch. 

Bookman, T.. Ch. E. Rose, Geo.. Jr.. M. K. 
Gaylord, R. P., F.P.E. Schwarz, Edwin, E. E 
Johnson, J. C... Ch. E. Shoemaker, . I. M.. .M.K. 
Larkin, Clif. E., E. E. Willey. S. R., C. E. 
McFaul, Don. J.. M. E. DECEASED: 
Norton. H. E., Ch. E. Gaul, Carl C. C. E. 
Nudelman. C. S., C. E. Taylor, Von D., F.P.E. 
Ostland. R. E.. C. E. 

1926 

CHARLES W. BARGER, F. P. E.. is 
with Marsh and McLennan Insurance, 1507 
Merchants Bank Bldg., Indianapolis, In- 
diana, and resides at 621 E. 39th St. 

J. HOWARD BOWMAN, M. E., is with 
the Clarage Fan Co., Kalamazoo, Mich. 
His address is Route No. 9, Kalamazoo. 

PATRICK M. CONNELLY, E. E., 321 
S. Albany Ave., Chicago, is line design 
engineer for the Commonwealth Edison 
Co., 72 W. Adams St., Chicago. 

A. J. DANZIGER, F. P. E., is with 
Crum and Foster, 505 Insurance Exchange 
Bldg., Des Moines, Iowa. He resides at 
2623 39th St. 

WILLIAM A. DEAN, JR., E. E., 316 
N. Mayfield Ave., Chicago, is with the 
Bowman Dairy Co., 140 W. Ontario St., 
Chicago. 

EUGENE CLARKE HEDGES, C. E., 
is a drawing teacher at the Washburne 
Trade School, Sedgwick and Division 
Streets, Chicago. He resides at 1454 War- 
ner Ave. 

WILLIAM MARTIN KAUFMANN, 
M. E., is with the Worthington Pump and 
Machine Corp., Buffalo, N. Y. He lives 
at 129 Groveland Ave. 

WILLIAM J. PATTERSON, E. E., is 
with Swift and Co., Union Stock Yards, 
Chicago, and lives at 324 E. 80th St. 

ALEXANDER C. RASMUSSEN, C. E., 
6337 S. Ada St., Chicago, is with the Uni- 
versal Oil Products Co., 310 S. Michigan 
Ave. 

DOUGLAS R. STIEHL, M. E., is dis- 
trict manager for the B. F. Sturtevant Co., 
968 Stuart Bldg., Seattle, Waslungton. His 
address is 217 Republican St. 

DONALD S. ULLOCK, Ch. E., is with 
the Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Cor- 
poration, South Charleston, W. Va. He 
resides at 448 Forest Circle. 

GEORGE E. WOODFIELD, F. P. E., 
is special agent for Loyalty Group Insur- 
ance Companies, 316 Rogers Bldg., Jack- 
son, Michigan, and lives at 605 McBride 
St. 

MISSING: Reeder, C. D., E. E. 

Becker, Geo., Arch. DECEASED: 

Blume, L. J., Arch. Chatroop, L. W., C. E. 

Jacobs, Leo B.. Arch. Norrgard, E. G., M. E. 
Kloer, C. G., Arch. Ruddock. R. D., C. E. 

Komacker, F. J., C. E. 

1927 

WALTER HARRY ALEXANDER. 
F. P. E., member of the firm of W. L. 
Alexander and Son, Inc., 1220 1st National 
Bank Bldg., Cincinnati, Ohio, resides at 
585 Howell Ave. 

CLIFFORD A. BECKMAN, E. E., is 
the New York State Representative for 
the Visking Corporation, 6733 W. 65th St., 
Chicago. He lives at 229 Wellington Road, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

KARL J. BURKHARDT, E. E., is in 
the architectural bureau, electrical depart- 
ment. Board of Education, City of Chi- 
cago, 228 N. La Salle St., Chicago, 111., and 
lives at 4514 AVoodlawn Ave. 



Fells 



WESTERN FELT WORKS 

Manufacturers and 

Cutters of Felts 

For all Mechanical and Industrial 
Purposes 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



Flowers 




Telephone Victory 4515-4516 
"Your Telegraph Florist" 

J. F. KIDWELL CO. 




FLOWERS 

3530 MICHIGAN AVENUE 
T. A. Kidwell Chic^ 


go 



Serson Hardware 
Company 

ALL KINDS SHEET METAL 

WORK 

Special Attention to Repair Work 

Phone Victory 1773 109 E. 3l8t I 



Not in the Trust All Departments 

Kenwood 0050 



GOODMAN AMERICAN 
CORPORATION 

First in Chicago 

FINE ICE CREAMS 
BETTER BEVERAGES 

Manufacturers & Distributors of 

DAIRY-PRODUCE 



Phone LAWNDALE 7636 

CHICAGO ICE CREAM 
COMPANY 

ICE CREAM OF MERIT 
•i- -h -i- 

I624S. Keeler Ave. 
Chicago, Illinois 



47 



THOMAS P. CAMl', Cli. E., is in tlu- 
researcli department of the United States 
GyiJsum Co., 1253 Diversey Parkway, Clii- 
cago. He lives at 806 S. Diinton Ave., 
Arlington Heights, 111. 

FRANK A. DANDA, C. E., is a testinjr 
and inspection engineer for tlie Sanitary 
District of Chicago, 910 S. Michigan Ave., 
Chicago. He resides at 1809 S. 58th Court, 
Cicero, 111. 

RALPH WALDO EMERSON, Arch.. 
918 18th St., N. W., Washington, D. C, is 
associate architect, L^. S. Department of 
Interior, National Park Service, Hraiuli 
of Plans and Designs, Interior Hldg., 
Washington, D. C. 

FRED J. EWALD, E. E., is with the 
Edison General Electric Appliance Co., 
SfiOO W. Taylor St., Chicago. He lives at 
270 South St., Elmlnirst, 111. 

June U, 1937. 
Secretary, Alumni Association 

For the past three ijears I have been 
Chief Engineer of Copeland Refrh/erdtitm 
in Detroit. The owner of ('opehin'd i.< <ih,> 
the vufner of sevenil other eoneern.i. I'lCo 
of them lora/e,/ in Sii.lnet/. Ohio, lireenth/ 
1 wn, appoint,,! pro,l,„-tion En,m„er of 
Prima Mftl. Ci. (:lV(.s-/m cv an,/ ir,iners). 
and chief engineer of I'errlr.s /ir.o,l Ma- 
chinery Co. 

I oceasiomillii meet men who ,ir,iilnat,,l 
before me and ali„> .i,ime siiiee. I h,ii'i , ii- 
joyed the Armour Ent/ineer icith the inl, r- 
esting artiele.^ and familiar Dcene.',. 
Best regards, 
(Signed) PERCY C. HALL. 

JOHN CLARK HARROWER, C. E., 
6535 Grant Ave., Merchantville, X. J., is 
in the Foreign Aviation Sales Division of 
the R. C. A. Mfg. Co., Camden, N. J. 

CARL E. HERBST, F. P. E., is witli 
Crum and Forster, 175 W. Jackson Blvd., 
Chicago. He lives at 1723 Pleasant Ave., 
Highland Park, 111. 

W. F. KUFFEL, F. P. E., is now en- 
gineer in the Chicago office of the Phoenix 
Insurance Company of Hartford, Conn., 
175 W. Jackson Blvd., Chicago, 111. He 
was for several years second superinten- 
dent of Ratings for the Chicago Board of 
Fire Underwriters. 

HAROLD REESE NISSLEY, E. E., is 
Acting Associate Professor of Business in 
the School of Business, Miami LTniversity, 
Oxford, Ohio. 

HAROLD E. ROSS, M. E.. is engineer 
for the Carrier Corporation, 180 N. Mielii- 
gan Ave., Chicago. He resides at 8311 
East End Ave. 

ALBERT R. WACHNER, E. E., is 
buyer for Comnionweatth Edison Co., 72 
W. Adams St., Chicago. His address is at 
8538 S. Bishop St. 

FRANK C. WITTING, Ch. E., is with 
the Peoples Gas Light and Coke Co., 120 
S. Michigan Ave., Chicago. He lives at 
6718 S. Ridgeland Ave. 

MISSING: Madden, E. H.. E. E. 

Barfleld, N. D., Arch. Mazzone, S. A.. Arch, 
i Berkson, Aaron. Arch. Ohlinger, Leo. 0.. C. E. 
, Cailles, B. A., C. E. Schescli, Carl. M. E. 

George, H. R., Jr., M.E. Uebele, G. F., C. E. 
Goo. R. Y., Arch. Verano, Victorio. C.E. 

Henrich, R. L.. M. E. Weinberg, Jos., E. E. 
Heves. A. B., E. E. DECEASED: 

Larson. E. A., E. E. Lamm. M. H.. M. E. 
Lee. Geo. Harold, E.E. Urban. J. W.. Ch. E. 

1928 

MATHEW F. BEISBIER, M. E., is 
district manager for the Line Material Co., 
708 Columbia Mutual Tower, Memphis, 
Tenn. He lives at :iSl N. Claylirook Ave. 
Secretary, Alumni .Assdciation 

/ had' the ,/ood f,irhin, r,,-,i,llii of (//-- 
tainin,/ ,i M,ireh i.-<.iii, of the '■Jrnmnr En- 
gineer inni .Ihimiiii.'^'' ,in,l n,>tr that I ,im 
listed a.s' ■■miKKin,/.'' 



AIRGUIDE WEATHER INSTRUMENTS 

Hygrometers — Thermometers — 
Barometers 

for Domestic and Industrial Purposes 

FEE AND STEMWEDEL. INC. 

4949 North Pulaski Road, Chicago, Illinois 
KEYstone 6600 




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A NAME STANDING FOR 

QUALITY 

AND 

FINE WORKMANSHIP 

IN THE MANUFACTURE OF 

SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 

GAERTNER SCIENTIFIC 
CORPORATION 

1201 Wrightwood Ave. CHICAGO 



GAD GETE E R S 



% % m "yHAT'S what we've been 
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who never before realized what service 
they could get on special custom-built 
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job. With thousands of standard parts 
in our apparatus stock-room, a modern 
plant built expressly for producing "pre- 
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engineers on the job, we can save you 
plenty of time and money when you 
need laboratory equipment that can't 
be bought out of a catalog. 

PRECISION SCIENTIFIC CO. 

1740 N. Springfield Ave., Chicago, Illinois 



COMPLETE AND INTELLIGENT 
INSURANCE SERVICE 

Life Fire Casualty 

NATIONAL PROTECTED INVESTMENT 

COMPANY 

Fred G. HeucMing Co;), President 

Suite 428 — 506 South Wabash Avenue 

Chicago 



The Sooner You Plan Your Future, the 
Better Your Future Will Be— 

WM. C. KRAFFT 

EQUITABLE LIFE ASSURANCE 
SOCIETY OF UNITED STATES 

120 S. LA SALLE ST. FRA. 0400 



/ ,tradnate,t in /H.'S in Cheniieal Engi- 
n,erin,l and at present am repre.ient((tive 
and .s-ales en,,ineer in the State ,<f Ohio for 
the ]-vlfe.r'('hemi,-al Companij of Cam- 
hridqe. .Ua.s,.. monnfaet nrers of vnl,-ani-.,d 
rnld'ier latex and tale.,- e,im ponnd.',. M g 
o/Jice (ul<freKif is WS .tkron Saving.^ an, I 
Loan Hide/., Akron. Ohio, rind mg re.ii,lenee 
iV 80 ir. Center St. 

Very truly yours, 
(Signed) H()BERT N. BROWN. 

leKOY ,J. ERICSSON, E. E., is with 
tlu- Carter Carburetor Corporation, 2838 
N. Sjiring Ave., St. Louis, Mo. His home 
^iddress is (i()28 Clemens Ave. 

IlKNKY F.\BIAN, Ch. E., is assistant 
Cliief Chemist for the Institute of Ameri- 
can Meat I'acl^ers, 5<l K. Van Buren St., 



it .'•>:i 



74.th St. 



CAHL A. GUSTAFSON, C. E., ,5920 
Kidgc Ave., Chicago, is with the Powers 
Hegulator Co., 2720 Greenview Ave., 
Chicago. 

D.WID ITTIN, E. E., is with the Pales- 
tine Electric Corporation, Haifa, Pales- 
tine. His home address is 9 Barzilai St., 
Haifa, Palestine. 

LeROY A. KRAMER, Ch. E., 1040 E. 
8()th St., Chicago, is with the Victor Chem- 
ical Works, Chicago Heights, 111. 

JACK H. I-ANDES, Arch., is teaching 
in the Lane Technical School, 2501 Addi- 
son St., Chicago. He resides at 2934 N. 
Killiourn Ave. 

RICHARD K. LANGAN, F. P. E., was 
recently transferred from Louisville to 
Pco])les National Bank Bldg., .lackson, 
.Micli., as a fire and marine special agent 
for the Great American Ins. Co. Langan 
was for several years engineer for the 
Kentucky Actuarial Bureau. Mr. and Mrs. 
Langan "recently announced the birth of a 

ANSON BROWNELL MILLARD, 
M. E., is an engineer for the A. O. Smith 
Cori)oration, 3533 N. 27th St., Milwaukee, 
Wis. His home address is Box 91, Route 
3, Milwaukee. 

MILTON E. PAGE, C. E., is in the 
highway department of Cook County, 188 
W. Randolph St., Chicago. He commutes 
to 10329 Canterbury St., Westchester, III. 

FRANK J. PISCHKE, E. E., is with 
the American Telephone and Telegraph 
Co., 311 W. Washington St., Chicago. 

JOHN C. SEGELER, M. E., is engi- 
neer in the steam department of the L'ni- 
versity of Chicago, (ilOl Blackstone Ave., 
and lives at 9821 Exchange Ave., Chicago. 

ANDREW B. SMITH, M. E., for nine 
years connected with the Leathen D. Smith 
interests in Chicago and Sturgeon Bay, 
Wis., as marine superintendent and engi- 
neer has accepted an ajjiiointment as ma- 
rine survevor to the American Bureau of 
Shi])ping, Prudential Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. 
His home address is 209 Elmwood. 

SERENO E. STREETER, Arch., is 
field supervisor, controllers division. Met- 
ropolitan Life Insurance Co., Baker Bldg., 
Minneapolis. Minn. He lives at 4317 Beard 
Ave., S. 

MISSING: DECEASED: 

Bech. Jose .\., M. E. Everly. A. H., E. K. 
(liistafson. G. A.. E.E. Kleiner, G. W., Jr., 
Higgins. E. J. S.. Arch. E. E. 
Jones. C. S., E. E. Patterson. J. R.. M. E. 

Miller. Leo. F. P. E. Wright, C. O.. M. E. 
Ogden. Tom. C. E. 

1929 

W. .1. BCGGY, who has been special 
agent of the Automobile and the Standard 
Fire of Hartford in Indiana, has been pro- 
moted to state agent in West Virginia, suc- 
ceeding R. B. Miller, resigned. His head- 
(|uarters will be 511 Wheeling Steel Corp. 
Bldg., Wheeling, W. Va. 



48 



HENRY CHRISTIANSEN'. C. E.. is 
sales engineer for the Automatic Products 
Co., 24.50 N. 32nd St.. Milwaukee, Wis. His 
home address is 31 E. 110th PI., Chicago. 

ALBERT CRIZ (ABE CRI/EVSKY), 
Arch., is practicing architecture at 3.5 N. 
Micliigan Ave., Chicago. He lives iit ■)2l)-") 
S. Greenwood Ave. 

FRED R. DELTHONY, E. E., is in tin- 
U. S. Navj- Material Laboratory, Brook- 
Ivn Navy Yard, Brooklvn, N. Y., and lives 
at 1 Prospect Park M'est, Brooklvn. 

JAMES JAY, JR., E. E., 504 N. Ham- 
lin Ave., Chicago, is with the Common- 
wealth Edison Co. 

JOEL M. JACOBSON, C. E., is with 
the Glenn L. Martin Co., Baltimore, Md. 
Jacobson paid us a visit a few days ago 
and promised to write an article on Trans- 
atlantic Airplane Design. 

DONOVAN D. JOSEPHSON, M. E.. 
informs us that he married Miss Martha 
Jane Stipp of Asheville, N. C, October 4, 
193(). Josephson is with the American 
Anka Corp., Anka, N. C, and his home 
address is 36 College Park Place, Ashe- 
ville, N. C. 

Mr. and Mrs. CHARLES ALBER 
KLOPP, Arch., announced the birth of 
Charles, Jr., on April 14, 1937. 

VLADIMIR C. MIROX (.MIRONO- 
WICZ), E. E., is witli the Aladdin Radio 
Ind., 4()() W. Superior St., Chicago. 

ARTHUR E. NEUMANN, M. E.. is 
chief engineer for tlie Rudolph Wurlitzer 
Co., DeKalb, 111. His home address is 7919 
S. Ridgeland Ave.. Chicago. 

HOWARD CHARLES NEWMAN, 
M. E., is with the Conunonwealth Edison. 
Chicago. He informed us a few days ago 
that he expected to move to California in 
a short time. 

FLOYD C. ONG, E. E., is with the Bell 
Telephone I/aboratories, 463 West St.. 
New York City. He lives at 147 Western 
Ave., Morristown, N. Y. 

SIDNEY S. PULASKI, E. E., is with 
tlie Perfex Controls Co., 415 W. Oklahoma 
Place, Milwaukee, Wis. This company 
manufactures temperature controls, and 
Pulaski is in charge of the experimental 
testing. Home address is Bourbon, Ind., 
Route No. 1. 

PHILIP A. REIF. C. E.. 6142 S. Rich- 
mond St., Chicago, is in the engineering 
deiiartment of the Victor Chemical Co., 
Chicago Heights. 111. 

CHARLES H. STRONG, E. E., 
3 Lynch St., Elgin, 111., is with the Na- 
tional Inspection Co., 176 W. Adams St., 
Chicago. 

HARRY EISLER TURK, Arch., has 
his own architectural office at 232 E. Erie 
St., Chicago, and lives at :3800 N. Trov St. 

CHARLES PERCIVAL WARE. Arch., 
is in the engineering department of the 
Standard Oil of Indiana, Whiting, Ind. 
His address is 1447 E. Marquette Road, 
Chicago. 

JOHN R. YOUNT, Ch. E., is with the 
Bakelite Corp.. Boundbrook. N. J., and 
lives at 778 Hawthorne Ave. 
MISSING: C. E. 

Farrell, Fred. B., C. E. Rolir, E. K., F. P. E. 
Garbett, R., Ch. E. Strom, G. W.. E. E. 

Libanoff, Leo, C. E. DECEASED: 

Montgomen-. G. M., Greene. W. B.. F. P. E. 

1930 

WILLIAM F. ASMUS, E. E.. 11.535 
Normal Ave., Chicago, is with the Inter- 
national Harvester Co., 1015 W. 120th St., 
Chicago. 

CHARLES J. REAL, F. P. E., is Are 
insurance inspector for the Illinois Inspec- 
tion Bureau, 309 W. Jackson Blvd., Chi- 
cago, and lives at 6150 Winthrop Ave. 

ERNEST W. BERG, Arch., 2517 N. 
Sawyer Ave., Chicago, is with the Metal 



Insurance 



rts Co., !l.-)2 \V. Lake St., 



JACK I. KITCH 

"INSURANCE" is My Middle Name 

South East National Bank Building 

1180 East 63rd Street 

PHONE: FAIRFAX 7200 



YOUR FINANCIAL PLANS 

Can be guaranteed of accomplishment 
with an Equitable Life Insurance or Annuity 
Contract. 

ROBERT G. PILKINGTON. JR. 

•■.Wew Light on Old Problems'' 
120 So. La Salle St. Franklin 0400 



Build a Monthly Income 

through 

MAN'S STAUNCHEST FRIEND 

His Life Insurance 

By Consulting 
O. D. RICHARDSON 

Asso. General Agent 

Berkshire Life Insurance Co, 

PIHsfield, Mass. 

Room 1229—1 No. La Salle St. 

Chicago, Illinois 

Tel. Ran. 2224 



EUGENE 


F. 


HILLER 




(1M6) 




INSURANCE 


— 


ANNUITIES 


Personal 


Business 


for 
and 


Estate Protection 


No. 


1 North 


La £ 


aUe Building 




State S600 



EVERETT R. COLE 

General Insurance Broker 

175 W. Jackson Boulevard 

CHICAGO 



PAUL L MULLANEY (1924) 
INVESTMENTS 

Room 820, 231 South La Salle Street 

Chicago 

Telephone Franklin 8844 



Chicago. 

.MAX BO.SIIKS. Arcli., U2I S. Will.nd 
Ave, Chicago, is a traffic ciigiiuer, Traf- 
lic Division, Citv Hall, Chicago. 

K. l'KR(V>' UOVNTON, Ch. E., 212 
:iSth Ave, Bavside, N. Y., is a patent at- 
lornev with the L'nion Carbide & Carbon 
Corp.". :i() K. 1.2nil St., New York Citv. 

.JACK M. DOILKNMAIKR, K. K., is 
with the line Material Co. of .Milwaukee, 
Wis., and has recentiv been transferred 
from Cincinnati, Ohio," to the Detroit ter- 
ritorv, witii both residence and business 
.iddriss at ()17 S. Connecticut Ave., Roval 
Oak, .Mich. 

HKNR'i- WILKE FAUI.STICII, M.K., 
:J7I(i N. Lowell Ave., Chicago, is with tlie 
General Household Utilities Co., '^KiS X. 
I'ulaski Road, Chicago. 

I'HKODORE GARFIELD, Ch. E., is 
with StMndard Rrands, Inc., 1015 Inde- 
lu-ndenie Ul\(l., Chicago, and resides at 
.-)015 .Maypole Ave. 

AHFRKD CHARLES CiL'NTHER, 
F. P. E., H51 N. Ked/.ie Ave., Chicago, is 
now eini)loved in the engineering depart- 
ment. Western Factorv Insurance Asso- 
ciation, 175 W. Jackslin Blvd., Chicago. 
Gunther had been with the Oklahoma In- 
spection Bureau for six vears since grad- 
uation. 

HKNRY R. HALEY (Eckelnuin), F. 
I'. E., is now engineer for the Insurance 
Co. of North America, 209 W. Jackson 
Blvd., Chicago. He was previously with 
the Wisconsin Inspection Bureau, Madi- 

GEORGE .1. HELLER. .M. E., is with 
the Chrvsler ,\ir Temj), air conditioning, 
lilt Ingrabain BIdg., .Miami, Fla. 

GKORGK I). HORRAS, .IR., F. 1'. F., 
ISOl. Jefferson St., Kansas City, Mo., is 
a special agent with Cruni & Forster, 
5();3-.504 Sharp BIdg., Kansas City, Mo. 
Ilorras was formerly with the Oklahoma 
InsjH'ction Bureau at Tulsa. 

CARL HERBERT JOHNSON, E. F., 
7:S(> Walnut St., Allentown, Fa., is salws 
engineer for the Line Material Co. of Mil- 
waukee, Wis. with office address the same 
as bis residence. 

FRANK LeCJRADY, Ex C. E., married 
.Miss Helen Mary DeBolt, Sunday, June (i, 
IfCJT, at Westville, Ind., LeGrady is in 
the thermal insulation business in Chicago 
Heights, III. 

ARTHUR T. MARTIN, F. P. E., 516 
Fnglewood Ave., Chicago, is with the Vic- 
tor Chemical Co., Chicago Heights, III. 

FRANK F. POLITO, Arch., 2944 W. 
(irand Ave., Chicago, is operating his own 
architectural office at (i N. Michigan Ave. 

FREDERICK A. RASMUSSEN, C. E., 
723 E. Willow Ave., Wheaton, III., is with 
the engineering firm of I.oewehsohn, Pear- 
son and Solomon, Inc., Arcade BIdg., Kan- 
kakee, 111. 

CLARENCE L. ROSENQUEST, Arch., 
.")().'5:i N. Ridgeway Ave., Chicago, is with 
the Union Special Machine Co., 400 N. 
Franklin St., Chicago. 

DONALD W. SMITLI, M. E., Oklahoma 
City, Okla., is traveling for the Buick 
Motor Co. in western Oklahoma and the 
Texas Panbaiulle as parts and service re])- 
resentative. 

ROLAND M. SPENCER, M. F., .5009 
Clanniont St., Houston, Texas, is repre- 
sent inj: the Powers Regulator Co. in the 
Houston territory. Office address, 707 
.M and M BIdg., Houston. Sjiencer boasts 
a faniilv of two girls. 

.lOHX F. T.VR.MAX, t h. F.. is a re- 
search chemist at .Vrmour and Co., L'nion 
Stock Yards, Chicago. His home address 
is (>452 Ellis Ave., Chicago. 



49 



Jewelry 



SPIES BROTHERS. Inc. 

Manufacturing Jewelers 

CLASS PINS AND RINGS 

Fraternity and Sorority Jewelry 

Medals and Trophies 

Dance Programs and Announcements 

27 E. Monroe Street 

CHICAGO 



Laundry 



Tel. Haymarket 2338 

MANDLER'S LAUNDRY 

Industrial Supply 

Since 1875 

464-66 Milwaukee Avenue 

E. O. Mandler Chicago. III. 



WEST LAKE LAUNDRY COMPANY 

3329 S. State Street 
Chicago 

Serving railroads, institutions, industries 
since 1890. 

Telephone: Victory 6300 



Management Engineer 



GRIFFENHAGEN & 
ASSOCIATES 

Established 1911 

MANAGEMENT ENGINEERS 

AND ACCOUNTANTS 



CONSULTANTS ON PROBLEMS OF OR- 
GANIZATION, FINANCE, PERSONNEL. 
AND OPERATING PROCEDURE. 



Head Office: LaSalle-Wacker Building 
Chicago 



CHARLES R. SIMMONS 

CONSULTANT IN MANAGEMENT 

Industrial Engineer 



10 South La Salle Street 

CHICAGO 
Telephone Franklin 1234 



CHARLES F. VOJTECH, M. E., 2+51 
Hamlin Ave., is a patent attorney for 
Borg-Warner Corp., 310 S. Michigan Ave., 
Chicago. He was formerly with the Bell 
Telephone Lab in N. Y.. and made the 
change the first of tliis year. 

JOHN J. ZOLAD, Ch. E., 1106 Chris- 
topher St., Flint, Mich., is with the E. I. 
duPont dc Nemours and Co., Flint. 
MISSING: Solstad, E. W., Arch. 

Realty, S. A.. F. P. E. Taylor, J. L.. E. E. 
Fischman, L. H., C. E. Tell, F. O., Arch. 
Frost. A. J.. M. E. Wood, M. B., C. E. 

Goldman, J. R., Oi. E. DECEASED: 
Kilbourne, R. E., F.P.E. Kara, J. J., C. E. 
Peterson, F. B., E. E. Van Valzah, W. S., 
Sanborn, F. E., E. E. M. E. 

1931 

.\. B. AUEHBACH, C. E., is a 2nd 
Lieutenant, Corps of Engineers, Corozol, 
Canal Zone. 

LUMIR P. BRAZDA, Arch., 6522 S. 
Maplewood Ave., Chicago, is teaching at 
Wilson Jr. College, 68th St. and Stewart 
Ave., Chicago. 

March 27, 1937. 
Placement Officer: 

It was indeed a great pleasure to re.'- 
ceive your letter of 10th Dec, last, reestab- 
lishing our connection, which was left of en 
by my returning to Canton. 

I was fortuiuite to have returned and 
found work in my own profession, chiip- 
ping in my little bit towards the recon- 
struction of this large nation. There is a 
great deal to be done in every line of busi- 
ness; one must work hard to give one's 
best. At present I am also connected with 
the Skiang Chyn University, teaching 
architecture. I am enjoying it because 
academic lefork makes one keen. 

Gene Voita paid me a visit on his tour 
around the world. It makes me happy to 
have been able to hoist the banner of our 
old Alma Mater in this far outpost; and 
this bears greetings to you all — happy, 
seafaring, and adventurous architects and 
engineers. 

I wish you would please reinstate me 
so that I am no longer among the missing. 
Any circulars, bulletins, and magazines of 
old Armour I shall certainly be glad to 
receive, keeping in touch with what is 
going on over there. 

Kindly send me a copy of Armour 
school songs and yells and price of Armour 
banner, cushion, brass seal, and other sou- 
venir articles. 

If you see Voita, send my greetings; 
also to each and all of my old friends. 
Sincerely, 
(Signed) EUGENE W. CHIN. 

E. C. ERLAND, F. P. E., 5353 College 
Ave., Indianapolis, Ind., is special agent 
for the Fireman's Fund Insurance Co., 207 
Guaranty Bldg., Indianapolis. 

JAMES COLEMAN FILMER, E. E., 
217 Main St., Lombard, 111., is now with 
the Bendix Radio Corp., 60 E. 25th St., 
Chicago. He was formerly with the Tung 
Sol Lamp Works, Newark, N. J. 

WALTER A. KNOCKE, E. E., 3251 
W. 66th St., Chicago, is a welding engi- 
neer for the Pullman Standard Car Mfg. 
Co., 11000 S. Cottage Grove Ave., Chicago. 

HAROLD J. LATHAM, Ch. E., 1636 
Thorndale Ave., Chicago, is with the Peo- 
ples Gas Light and Coke Co., 3921 S. 
Wabash Ave. 

BRUCE LEHMAN, Ch. E., is a re- 
search chemist at the fertilizer works of 
Swift and Co., Hammond, Ind. He lives 
at 346 E. 108th St., Chicago. 



LORENZO A. NEWMAN, E. E., is as- 
sistant engineer for the Wisconsin Hydro- 
Electric Co., Amery, Wis. 

EMERSON G. SQUIRES, E. E., 204 
E. Crescent Ave., Elmhurst, 111., is witU 
Jenkins and Adair, Inc., 3333 Belmont 
Ave., Chicago. 

September 19, 1937. 
Dean, Armour Institute of Technology: 

Since February, 1936, Uncle Sam has 
been extending his guiding hand over me 
here at Rocky Boy. We are located in^ 
the Bear Paw Mountains between Havre 
and Great Falls, Montana, approximatehf 
thirty miles south of Havre and one hun- 
dred fifteen iniles northeast of Great 
Falls. The Canadian border is about forty 
miles north of here. In the most north- 
central and northeastern parts of Montana 
are classified as Plains areas. The moun- 
tains in which we are located are consid- 
ered as foothills of the Rocky Mountains. 

The Reservation here was provided by 
an Act of Congress which set aside a por- 
tion of abandoned Fort Assiniboine for 
the use of the Indians, who at that time 
were renegades wandering back and forth 
from Canada to the United States. The 
Reservation was started in 1917. At that 
time, General Pershing was lieutenant at 
Fort Assiniboine trying to keep the rene- 
gade Indians in Canada. Their chief at 
that time was "Stone Child," who was 
dubbed "Rocky Boy" by the local citi- 
zens. 

The New Deal found its way in here in 
1933, and since that time various agencies 
have contributed to the improvement and 
betterment of the Reservation. The major 
part of the construction iprogram consists 
of water development, irrigation, earth 
dams, building construction, and road con- 
struction the last for which I am re- 
sponsible. In addition there are five ele- 
mentary schools and one high school and, 
most important of all, the agriculture and 
stock-raising program. 

Because of the rugged topography, the 
area available for agriculture is limited. 
Equilibrium is brought about by the fact 
that the soil of very high quality is very 
productive in the presence of moisture. 
Stock raising is the most gainful occupa- 
tion for the Indians because of the ecc- 
tensive range area. 

This Reservation offers many problems 
in location and construction much differ- 
ent than those encountered back in Illi- 
nois and Indiana. We build a road of a 
standard that compares with that of sec- 
ondary state roads. The bridges are usually 
of timber. Snow removal is quite a prob- 
lem, with an abundance of snow which is 
usually accompanied by high winds. Last 
winter was especially severe, when we were 
snowbound for two te/eeks. 

Road construction work is carried on by 
"Force Account," using in most cases In- 
dians in common and skilled positions. 
Most of them have certain peculiarities 
with regard to doing a day's work. They 
constantly labor under the knowledge that 
they are wards of the Government and 
exert their effort accordingly. I speak 
from the impression I have received on 
this Reservation only. This is just one 
of the details that I found hard to be- 
come accustomed to after working on 
contract work. After ttilo years here 
the future seems quite a problem; that 
is, whether to stay here and dig up the 
earth or go in for anthropology. 

Sooner or later, I am hopeful that we 
will be able to return to Chicago to pay 
you a visit at the Institute. At pres- 



50 



eiU we have a three months' old bubii 
who is king pin and doesn't favor travel 
of any extent. 

My best regards to all of the old friends 
there; that is, if I made enough noise 
•ufhile there to warrant a place in their 
memories. 

Sincerely yours, 
ROSCOE WIXDBIGLER, C. E. 1931. 
MISSING: Hotchkin, M. A., F.P.E. 

BlaJma, Chas.. E. E. Lopatowski, E. J., C.E. 
Crow, Ralph M., Arch. Miles, Wallace, Arch. 
Dodson, Chas. K.. Ardi. Myers, K. H., E. E. 
Ferguson, L. J.. Ch. E. Yzaguirre, M. A., Ch.E. 

1932 

HAROLD F. ABENDROTH, E. E., 
4309 X. Francisco Ave., Chicago, is witli 
the Western Electric Co. at the Haw- 
thorne Plant, Cicero, 111. 

JAMES E. BRYANT, F. P. E., 430 
E. Virgin, TuJsa, Oklahoma, is with the 
Oklahoma Inspection Bureau, P. O. Box 
1857, Tulsa. 

C. NEWTON CANNON, M. E., is in 
the turbine engineering department of 
the General Electric Co. at the River 
Works, Lynn., Mass., and he lives at 237 
Humphrey St., Swampscott, Mass. 

EDWARD WILLIAM CARLTON, E. 
E., 1447 Hollywood Ave., Chicago, is an 
electrical engineer for the Jefferson Elec- 
tric Co., Bellwood. 111. Carlton is editor 
of the Jefferson Electric Co. newspaper 
called "Jefferson News," which he started 
a short while ago, and he is also taking 
graduate work at Armour. 

D. R. L. CORNELL, M. E., 429 N. 
Harvey Ave., Oak Park, 111., is assistant 
credit "manager, the C. F. Pease Co., 813 
N. Franklin St., Chicago. 

WALTER H. HORNBERGER, C. E., 
9325 Merrill Ave., Chicago, is designer 
and estimator for E. G. Todt Co., 9388 
Ewing Ave. 

WERNER KRAHL, E. E., 4151/2 Ad- 
ams St., Endicott, N. Y., is with the Inter- 
national Business Machine Corp. 

ORVILLE GUY LINNEL, Ch. E., 2609 
W. 64th St., Chicago, is with R. R. Don- 
nelley and Sons, 350 E. 22nd St., Chicago. 

JOHN A. NAVRATIL, Arch., 5218 W. 
24th Place, Cicero, 111., is with the General 
Design Corp., 840 N. Michigan Ave., Chi- 
cago. 

GLENN W. SCHODDE, F. P. E., is 
with the Federal Hardware and Implement 
Mutual Insurance Co., 24th St. and Nicolett 
Ave., Minneapolis, Minn. He lives at 
2517 Bryant Ave. S. 

MAYNARD P. VENEMA, Ch. E., 
14117 Lincoln Ave., Dolton, 111., is with 
the Universal Oil Products, care Shell Re- 
finery, East Chicago, Ind. 

ROGER F. WAINDLE, M. E., 826 
Lyman Ave., Oak Park, 111., is in the Chi- 
cago office of Hoskins Mfg. Co. of De- 
troit, at 10 S. I,aSalle St. 

ROY F. YOUNG, F. P. E., 5608 S. Hon- 
ore St., Chicago, is engineer for the Car- 
rier Corp., Merchandise Mart, 122 N. Bank 
Drive, Chicago. 

CLARENCE H. ZACHER, 2506 W. 
Grove St., Blue Island, 111., is with the 
Lakeside Engineering Corp., 222 W. Ad- 
ams St., Chicago. 

MISSING: Hromada, F. M. C. E. 

Eskonen, 0., C. E. Jungels, A. J., M. E. 

Fox, Chas. H., C. E. Stahm. Eli B., Arch. 
Hawes, Chas. S., M. E. Toopeekoff, E., M. E. 

1933 

GIFFORD S. BABCOCK, E. E., 136 E. 
156th Blvd., Harvey, 111., is \vith the Wy- 
man Gordon Co., Harvey, 111. 

HARRY F. BECKER, JR., F. P. E., 
8255 Ingleside Ave., Chicago, is with Lan- 
sing B. Warner, Inc., 540 N. Michigan 
Ave., Chicago. 



GEORGE J. BEEMSTERBOER, C. E.. 
is a general contractor with his offices at 
his home address, 11517 Parnell Ave., Chi- 
cago. 

W. C. BOCKHOLT, M. E., 1030 S. 
Grove Ave., Oak Park, 111., is with the 
Western Electric Co., Cicero, 111. 

EDWARD L. CURRAN, F. P. E., is 
witli the Mountain States Inspection Bu- 
reau, 801 Gas and Electric Bldg., Denver, 
C-olo. He lives at 1634 Eudora St. 

W. T. DUMSER, E. E., 1907 Wilson 
Ave., Chicago, is a testing engineer for 
the Commonwealth Edison Co., Central 
Service Bldg., 22nd and Throop Sts., 
Chicago. 

WILLIAM A. JANSSEN, Arch., 821 
Lyman Ave., Oak Park, 111., is with the 
Chicago Lumber Institute, 134 N. LaSalle 
St., Chicago. 

SVEN JOHANNISSON, Ch. E., 4912 
N. Washtenaw Ave., Chicago, is with the 
Armstrong Paint and Varnish Co., Chi- 
cago. 

JAMES W. JUVINALL, E. E., 1962 
71st St., Chicago, recently went with the 
Western Electric Co., Cicero, 111., after 
spending several years with the U. S. 
Gypsum Co. Juvenal is teaching in the 

EDWIN C. KENNER, F. P. E., 803 W. 
Forest Hill Ave., Peoria, HI., is an in- 
spector with the Illinois Inspection Bu- 
reau, 809 Jefferson Bldg., Peoria. Kenner 
married Miss Alma K. Ludwig on Dec. 25, 
1936, at the Westminster Presbyterian 
Church, Peoria. 

WILLIAM W. LANGE, E. E., 2423 
Dakin St., Chicago, is a development engi- 
neer for the G. E. X-Ray Corp., 2012 W. 
Jackson Blvd., Chicago. Lange is teach- 
ing evenings in the electrical department 
ai Armour. 

JACOB T. MAUER, C. E., 5548 N. 
Spaulding Ave., Chicago, 111., is an open- 
hearth metallurgist for the Wisconsin 
Steel Co., Chicago. 

JOHN H. MILLER, Ch. E., 3446 W. 
Chicago Ave., Chicago, is in the utilization 
testing department of The Peoples Gas 
Light and Coke Co., 3921 S. Wabash Ave. 

HANS P. NELSON, Arch., 2036 N. Al- 
bany Ave., Chicago, is in the Bureau of 
Design, Montgomery Ward and Co. 

ARTHUR W. OBERBECK was a mem- 
ber of the class of 1933, tout left during 
his junior year to accept an appointment 
to West Point. The following is taken 
from the Chicago Tribune of June 8, 1937: 
One of the proudest mothers in America 
this week is Mrs. Edan W. Oberbeck, who 
is at West Point to watch her son, Arthur 
W., graduate from the United States Mili- 
tary Academy at the top of his class. 
Cadet Oberbeck is one of I4 honor men 
who will receive gold stars for having at- 
tained an average grade of 91 or better 
during the last year. He was first in 
mathematics and engineering, the two most 
difficult arouses at the acadeiny. 

On Thursday he will receive the Maj. 
Gen. Francis Vinton Greene memorial 
saber, the Robert E. Lee memorial saber 
and a set of field glasses presented by 
the Veterans of Foreign Wars. During 
the past year he was captain of K com- 
pany. 

Cadet Oberbeck is SI^ years old and lives 
with his mother at 34-35 North Harding 
Avenue. He is a graduate of Lane Tech- 
nical High School and attended Armour 
Institute before going to West Point. 

NORMAN C. PENFOLD, M. E., 1442 
Summerdale Ave., Chicago, is with the 
Republic Heater Sales Co., 2240 Diversey 
Ave. 

MILTON L. PRIBAN, E. E., is with 
the Western Electric Co., Cicero, 111., and 
lives at 1.527 W. 18th St., Chicago, 111. 



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51 



Al.TfS M. KI'.AM, Cli. K.. is clH-in- 
ioal fiiftiiieer for the Oxford l':\\wf Co., 
Uumford, Maine. 

EDWARD P. KlvVUDOX, K. K., lJ():i 
Foster Ave., Cliieago, is with the /eiiitli 
Radio Corp. of Chieafro. 

HARRY C. ROWE, JR., E. E., l():?.s 
Greenleaf Ave., is pro])riet()r of Howe He 
search I.alboratories, 110:5 Bryii Mawr 
Ave., Chicagfo. 

RALPH L. SCAFl'HI, Arch., is a de- 
sifriier and builder, witli his ofKce at his 
home, 1337 \V. Tavh)r St., Chicago. 

JARL T. SOREXSOX, F. P. E., 7()_'.-) 
Sheridan Road, Chicago, is engineer and 
actuarj- with tiie Western Actuarial Bu- 
reau, 222 W. Adams St. Sorenson is in- 
structor in fire insurance at Armour Tecli. 
MISSING: Siinchez. Joe R.. E. E. 

Belton. Geo. R.. M. E. Tvler. W. W.. E. E. 
Btunet, Alan D.. C. E. P'ECEASED: 
Hanralian. Geo.. C. E. Cole. AbLiliam, Arcli. 

1934 

JOSEPH A. BACCI, C. E., 73() Cornelia 
Ave., Chicago, is witii tiie Austin Co., 510 
N. Dearborn St., Chicago. 

MEARL AVII.I.IAM BROOCKMAX, 
F. P. E., 132(i Swiniiev Ave, Fort Wavne, 
Ind., is with the Indiana Inspection Bu- 
reau, 813 Citizens Trust Bldg., Ft. Wavnc. 

DIAMOND SHERLAN DICKEY,' M. 
E., 81.5.5 Dorchester Ave., Chicago, is with 
The J. W. Murphy Co., 431 S. DeartKirn 
St., Chicago. 

FRANK S. EGLOFF, JR., M. E., 21.-) 
Olmstead Road, Riverside, 111., is with 
Fibre Making Processes, Inc. (pulp mill 
machinery), 435 N. Michigan Ave., Chi- 
cago. 

ROY A. EKROTH, Arch., is witii the 
architectural bureau, Y. M. C. A., 19 S. 
LaSalle St., Chicago. He lives at 4837 X. 
Handin Ave., Chicago. 

JOHN AGNEW FERRARA, M. E., 
15ie S. 58tb Ct., Cicero, 111., is with the 
Chicago Tubing and Braiding Co., 1315 S. 
3rd Ave., Mavwood, 111. 

WILLIAM C. FREITAG, F. P. E., is 
with the Fire Cnderwriters Inspection Bu- 
reau, 1229 Plvmouth Bldg., Minneapolis, 
Minn. He is "living at the Y.M.C.A., 9tli 
and LaSalle Sts., Minneapolis. 

WILLIAM R. GILMORE, E. E., .55.50 
Kenmore Ave., Chicago, is in exjieri- 
mental refrigeration. Mills N'oveltv Co., 
4100 W. Fullerton Ave. 

WALTER E. GUNDERSON, Ch. E., 
2717 S. Sawyer Ave., Chicago, is with R. 
R. Donnelley and Sons, 350 E. 22nd St. 

WILLIAM A. HEXSEL, M. E., (i203 
Ravenswood Ave., Chicago, is with W. 1'. 
Hebard and Co., 4:33 S. .lefferson St. 

CLARENCE HL'ETTEX, E. E., is a 
Junior electrical engineer with the Western 
Electric Co., Cicero, 111., and lives at 3210 
Arthington St., Chicago, 111. 

ERXEST KANE, Ch. E., 1177 S. Sco- 
ville Ave., Chicago, is wMth the Sinclair 
Refining Co., East Chicago, Ind. 

FRANK KAPLAN, C. E., is an engi- 
neer for the Chicago Park District, 9th 
and Columbus Drive. He lives at 1551 
W. 81st St., Chicago. 

NORMAN CARL KRAUSE, Ch. E., 
5517 S. Paulina St., Chicago, is doing re- 
search work at the I'niversity of Chicago. 
Armour Engineer and Alumnus: 

/ fim cnclimiiui nni mnl (ihitui (nisxcrrs 
to the vanoiis' If, ,],.-: ,;,ii„..-fr,l. At the 
same tiw<. I ,c,n,t to nfrr mi, roi,,,n,f„h,- 
tions (in ih, jiiilil!riiH(iii ,if ichnt I mns'idi i- 
a swell ahniiii! iiiniiirjiie. The iimenil form 
has certiiiiihi i,,iii, tlinnnfh a 'fnui.iit!,iii in 
the fonr i/r-u-; ..hirr 1 uw.v r,rif,ii- of "Tlie 
Annonr E n<,in,,,-r on, I. oUli,iii,,h I hate 
to say it, I cou.si,!,,- it n v„st Impruvement. 

As you can see from the card, I'm now 
connected tenth Advance Heating and Air 



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DEVELOPMENT and SALE 

of 

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IRVEN H. WILSEY 

WRIGLEY BUILDING 
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t,irs for heolinii ,nid '„ir eondilionin,/ in- 
.•■■t,ill,iti,iiix. mill iini ill rhiirtie of the' e.iti- 
iniifini/. Jesii/nin;!. unit innlallini/ of the iiir 
cuiiditionin;/ jobs. 

Upon !,rudn,itioii. the '.if Meehiniieiil.i 
bunded loc/ether and xce now hold ineelini/.i 
txcire o !ie„r. one ineetin,, heini, in the 
form of „ .smoker „nd the other „ l„ni,,net. 
In ,i,ldition to tliol. durinii the xummer 
iiiontli.i. ice miinmie to have outlnq.i, lit 
■u'hieh xce mine ,i little hell. 

Sorri/ I eiin't i/ive yon more gos.iip abont 
liny of t7if--fflloxc.s. 'but I did xvant yon t,i 
kii,nc Ihiit I think i/oii're iloini, n ban,/-ni) 
job xcith the -l-:n',iine,r.- 

Best' regards, 
HERBERT KREISMAN, M. E. 

AL J. MORELLI, Arch., is a light 
sales engineer for the Public Service Co. 
of Xorthern Illinoi.s, 1701 S. First Ave., 
M.iywoo.l, 111, He lives at 2552 N. Austin 
.Vve., Chicago. 

.lOHX H. MORRISEY, E. E., 4111 
X\ I.eclaire Ave., Chicago, is with the In- 
ternational Business Machine Co., 23;^ W. 
Madison St. 

R. J. PFLUM, C. E., 411 W. 61st St., 
Chicago, is a naval aviator, V. S. Navv, 
Squadron VP-14. 

ROBERT BRUCE TAGUE, Arch., 
4423 Ellis Ave., Chicago, is in the office 
of George Fred Keck, 012 N. Michigan 

MLSSINO: DECEASED: 

I'.lifi ly. Keiinetli. Cli. R. Haiies, Geo. A., M. E. 

M.uviis. Leonard. C. E. 

1935 

J. S. ARAVOSIS, E. E., 851 Parkside 
.\ve., Chicago, is with the Kelso Burnett 
Electric Co., 22.3 W. Jackson Blvd. 

EDWARD BAUMEL, E. E., 6034 S. 
Troy St., Chicago, is a general draftsman 
for the Chicago Park District. 

UICHAHD F. BERGER, Ch. E., M. S. 
( h. K. ^li, 1215 Home Ave., Berwyn, 111., 
is with tile Universal Oil Products Com- 
pany, Chicago, and at present is traveling 
representative for this company, starting 
up new ))etroleuni refineries licensed under 
LIniversal Oil Products. Word from him in 
A])ril stated that he was at the McKee 
Plant of the Shamrock Oil and Gas Corp., 
Sunray, Tex., where they have the world's 
first Butane Polymerization Plant. 

ARTHUR BLOOM, Arch., is with M. 
D. Kolisdier, Architect, 520 N. Michigan 
Ave., Chicago, and lives at 8020 S. Dobson 
Ave. 

GEORGE BRADAC, M. E., 2214 N. 
Central Ave., Chicago, is with the West- 
ern Electric Company, Cicero, 111. 

CURTIS R. BRISTOL, F. P. E., is 
with the Kentucky Actuarial Bureau, 814 
Citizens Bldg., Paducah, Ky., and he lives 
at 223 N. 9th St. 

HARRY DRELL, M. E., 3833 W. Van 
Buren St., Chicago, is with the Interna- 
tional Harvester Co., 2600 W. 31st St. 

PHILIP A. FARO, Arch., 9254 An- 
thony Ave., Chicago, is a draftsman for 
W. L. Surer, 208 W. Adams St. 

LEO C. GALBRAITH, E. E., 1459 S. 
Tripp St., Chicago, is with the U. S. 
Gypsum Co., 300 W. Adams St. 

MELVIX GROSSMAN, Arch., 5.50 
Arlington Place, Chicago, is in the State 
Architect's office, 160 N. LaSalle St. 

LESTER O. A. JOHNSON, Arch., 7.544 
Sangamon St., Chicago, attended Yale Uni- 
versity last year for a master's degree in 
architecture. 

BARCLAY V. JONES, C. E., 1002 
CJreenfleld Ave., M'ilmette, 111., is an as- 
sistant on Engineer Corps, Pennsylvania 
R. R., room 819, Y.M.C.A., Grand Rapids, 
Mich. 



52 



HENRY LEVIX, Ch. E., is with the 
Wagenman Paint Co., 4320 Superior St., 
Cleveland, Ohio, and he lives at 129 East 
Blvd. 

JULIAN LEVY, Ch. E., 7700 Ridgeland 
Ave., Chicago, is with the International 
Harvester Co., West Pullman Works, 1015 
W. 120th St., Chicago. 

T. ARTHUR MAROW, F. P. E., 1106 
20th St., Rockford, 111. is with the Illinois 
Inspection Bureau, Room 517, Gas-Electric 
Bldg., Rockford. Marow married Miss 
Priebs of Chicago on September 12, 1936. 

JOSEPH M. O'CONNOR, C. E., 8108 
S. Laflin St., Chicago, is with the Peerless 
Ice Machine Co., 515 W. 35th St. 

GEORGE B. ROSENTHAL, Ch. E., 
2865 Dickens Ave., Chicago, 111., is with 
the Universal Scientific Equipment Co., 
1210 W. Van Buren St., in charge of spe- 
cial designs for corrosion-proof equipment. 

WALTER M. UZUNARIS, E. E., is 
with the International Harvester Co., Wis- 
consin Steel Division, 2701 E. 106th St., 
Chicago. He lives at 7921 Maryland Ave. 

GEORGE WILLIAM WHEATON, F. 
P. E., 1772 Elleron Ave., E. Cleveland. 
Ohio, is a ftre insurance inspector, 500 
Plain Dealer Bldg., Cleveland. 

ARLING MARTIN WOLF, E. E.. 
10100 Harper Ave., Detroit, Mich., is a 
sales engineer for Cutler Hammer, Inc., 
2755 E. Grand Blvd., Detroit. 
MISSING: DECEASED: 

None None 

1936 

WILLIAM ALT, M. E., 7209 Rhodes 
Ave., Chicago, is with Taylor Forge and 
Pipe Works, 14th St. and Cicero Ave., 
Cicero, 111. 

WILLIAM BILL, E. E., 6107 Sanga- 
mon St., Chicago, is with the Western 
Electric Company, Cicero, 111. 

CARLES P. BOBERG, E. E., 6758 
Calumet Ave., Chicago, formerly with the 
Stromberg-Carlson Telephone Co., Roches- 
ter, N. Y., is now with Western Electric 
Co., Cicero, 111. 

ALFRED BURNES, Arch., 1444. S. St. 
Louis Ave., Cliicago, is in the civil engi- 
neering department of the Chicago Park 
District. 

307 E. John St., Champaign, 111. 
Secretary, Alumni Association: 

My work here studying law at the Uni- 
versity of Illinois is very enjoyable, and 
I feel it will be of great benefit to me. 
Many things are learned in the study of 
law which greatly complement engineer- 
ing curricula; conversely, several men in 
the law department advocate engineering 
as the best pre-legal training. Unfortu- 
nately, we were given little opportunity to 
look into this while at Armour; but, ac- 
cording to the current trend there, stu- 
dents will eventually become aware of 
its importance and will probably focus 
more attention on it. 

That Armour is acknowledged as an 
outstanding school is unnecessary for me 
to mention; however, it is very gratify- 
ing to hear peo'ple express their opinions 
in that way as has been often done by 
students and faculty men here on the 
campus. 

Sincerely, 
WILBUR J. FLEIG. 

WILLIAM H. FOGLE, C. E., 7100 
Ridgeland Ave., Chicago, is with the Car- 
rier Corp., 221 N. Bank Drive, Merchan- 
dise Mart, Chicago. 

RUBIN HORWITZ, M. E., 1829 Hard- 
ing Ave., Chicago, is a piping draftsman 
with the Economic Heating and Plumbing 
Co., 1308 S. Pulaski Road. 

RUSSELL ROBARTS JOHNSON, 
C. E., 7620 Prairie Ave., Chicago, is with 



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the Universal Oil Products Co., 310 S. 
Michigan Ave. 

ROY S. KERCHER, Eng. Sc, 836 N. 
11th St., Milwaukee, Wis., is a student en- 
gineer with Cutler-Hammer, Inc., 12th and 
St. Paul, Milwaukee. 

327 South Ave., Wilkinsburg, Pa. 
Secretary, Alumni Association: 

/ Jmve been reading the last issue of 
the "Engineer" and without any qualifica- 
tio7is I can say it's the finest issue that 
lias been put out. It certainly is packed 
full of excellent articles. I was especially 
interested in "Educational Institutions'' 
and also ''Historical Sketch of Armour 
Institute of Technology." 

I was fortunate in having two of the 
papers I prepared in the course in Indus- 
trial Marketing selected and sent to the 
ex-ecutives of the Industrial Department 
as being representative of the class of 
work required. 

This course is a part of the graduate 
program sponsored by the University of 
Pittsburgh and carries two graduate cred- 
its. Mr. Lester, the instructor, is assistant 
sales manager of the Industrial Division 
of Westinghouse, and he has had a great 
deal of experience. I am sending you a 
carbon copy of his letter to the executive 
to show you his attitude toward the class 
and the work done. 

Outside of working hours, I am a sailor 
these days! I have joined a canoe club 
on the Allegheny River and am really 
enjoying handling a canoe under canvas. 
I Itave been surprised at the speed that 
can be obtained with our small boats. At 
least we don't have to worry about gaso- 
line and oil to cover a few miles. 
Sincerely, 

V. J. KROPF. 

BRUCE S. LANE, Ch. E., 9146 S. Ham- 
ilton Ave., Chicago, is chemical engineer 
for The Wander Co., Villa Park, 111. 

J. E. LINDEN, C. E., 7710 South Park 
Ave., Chicago, is resident engineer of .street 
improvements, Fairfield, III. He says he 
is employed by J. G. Cooney, Armour 
C. E. 1916, who is counseling engineer, 
Belleville, 111. 

Just received a word thai; HOWARD 
MILLEVILLE, Ch. E., may be addressed 
at 1.59 College St., Buiffalo, N. Y., until 
Xmas. 
Editor, Armour Engineer: 

Our M. E. class of 1936 has had three 
reunions in the brief time since gradua- 
tion, and an identical feature of the three 
has been the praise of foregoing issues of 
the "Engineer." You gentlemen have done 
a remarkably good job in our unanimous 
opinion. And in this connection may I 
mention another incident? 

O. W. ABMSBACH (in the office in 
which I work), class of 1917, was the sub- 
ject of one of the alumni notes last issue. 
The next day he was delighted to get a 
phone call from a friend and rln.ismate 
whom he had not sctn nr Inurd from 
since gradxation, but wlin liml .•<(( n Arms- 
bach's name in the magazine. That zcas a 
very forceful answer to some of my for- 
mer doubts. 

In the matter of our reunions, they 
have been successful socially and in at- 
tendance record. Undoubtedly their fre- 
quency will diminish in years to come, 
but as long as enthusiasm lasts, we want 
them as often as practical. The last two 
have featured a supper followed by bowl- 
ing, billiards, cards, slot machines, or just 
plain talk, all this entertainment being 
in one place in order to keep the group 
together. 

Yours trulv, 

harry' nachman. 



53 



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ERWTN R. MOZOLESKI, E. E., 10321 
Hoxie Ave., Chicago, is witli the Youngs- 
town Sheet and Tube Co., Indiana Har- 
bor, Ind. 
General Manager, Engineer & Alumnus: 

/ have just received and read from 
rovrr to rover my copy of the "Armour 
h'ii(;iii(rr." AUoxo me to coTKjratuJot' i/oii 
on (ui outstanding success. I am firiiilij 
convinced that ive are acfnalli/ itoiiuj 
places and doing things, and i/nn ran 
count on my support. 

May I offer a suggr.ilion that tec In- 
stitute a page in onr magazine as a sort 
of forvmi where ojiini(}ns and suggestions 
of alumni may tu- prlntrd on any subject 
relating to our alma mater and our Alumni 
organization. Thii< will tend to create 
artivr interest, and. tcho can tell, we 
mag git .fomr good ideas oitt of the gang. 

As a more tongitile token of my co- 
ojiiration. jind enclosed a check for my 
fir.it tu-(i years' dues as an alu/mn/us. 

1 have jnst returned from Toronto, 
Canada, xchrre I attended the conven- 
tion of the American Institute of Chem- 
ical Engineers for my company, thr 
■Sorth Shore Coke and Chrmiral." 

R. M. PAULSEN. 
Secretary, Abinini Association: 

Dnrinii thr past year I received train- 
ing in di.itilling inspectin7is. In this work 
sprriat ronsid'rration tras given tn el"C- 
trlrat installations. h'raii'.Ina that at some 
timr in thr fntnrr I mail i>r ralird upon 
to sign my namr to a distilling rrport. I 
',cani to obtain a knowledge of rtrrtrind 
installations in both hazardous and mm- 
hazanlons area.i so that I xcill not havr 
to -t.ark np" on am/ statrm-nt I may 
makr. 

After icorking out of our LonisvUe office 
for a ijear I was tran.<if erred to our \Branch 
Office at Lcrington. on the 1st of Sep- 
tember. I have enjoyed the work, and I 
like life in Kentncki). 

RAYMOND A. PETERSON. 

ALFRED J. ROSEN, Arch., 1146 Co- 
lumbia Ave., Chicago, is with Newhouse 
and Bernhani, 8 S. Michigan Ave. 

JOHN C. SCOTT, C. E., 9417 S. Laflin 
St., Chicago, is with the Powers Regidator 
Cii.. L'i'iO Greenview Ave. 

NEWTON W. SNASHAI.L, M. E., 
;3739 Stella Bldg., Steger, III., is in the 
mechanical department, Illinois Central 
R. R., 12th St. Depot, Chicago. 

EDWARD G. WICKEATZ, M. E., 2120 
Thomas St., Chicago, is with the Stewart- 
Warner Corp., 1828 Diversey Parkway. 
MISSING: DECE.^SED: 

Olson, E. W., Arch. None 

1937 

The following information was taken 
from the records in the Placement Office. 
Your cooperation in keeping us informed 
about your location and nature of the 
work you are doing will be appreciated. 
Advise" D. P. Moreton, Secretary, Armour 
Institute Alumni Association, Armour In- 
stitute of Technology, Chicago, 111. If 
your name does not appear, your business 
location is not recorded in the Alumni 
Office: 

Architects 

ROBERT WILLIAM BECKER, with 
Garden City Plating and Manufacturing 
Co. 

MORRIS H. BECKMAN received a 
M. I. T. scholarship and will go to school. 

ROBERT P. JOHNSTONE, Athey Co. 

JOSEPH KICHAVEN, John Deere 
and Co., Moline, 111. 

BERNARD NOBLER, Newhouse and 
Bernhani, Architects. 



ALBERT H. RAMP, U. S. Gv])sin 
Co. 

CHARLES A. SALETTA, Otis and 
Fuller, Architects, (i N. Michigan Ave., 
Chicago. 

EDWARD F. SCHMALTZ, Real Es 
tate Division, LIniversity of Chicago. 
Chemicals 

RAYMOND R. BACCI, Frederick H. 
Lew, Philadelphia, Pa. 

HERMAN OTTO BAUERMELSTER, 
Cliicago Mail Order Co., Chicago. 

LEO BEATTY, Armour and Co., Chi- 
cago. 

WARREN R. BRINKMAN, Swift 
and Co. 

ROBERT ALFRED CLARKE, Revere 
Copjier and Brass, Chicago. 

ARTHll{ G. DKEIS, Hercules Powder 
Co., Kalamazoo, Mich. 

CLINTON B. FOLKROD, Natural Gas 
Pipe Line Co., Chicago. 

DAVID FORBERG, Carrier Corp., 
Newark, N. J. 

JOSEPH A. HAASE, Bethlehem Steel 1 
Co., Bethlehem, Pa. 

FRANK HACKJVIAN, Container Corp., 
Chicago, 111. 

FLOYD B. HARMAN, Sinclair Refin- 
ing Co., Chicago. 

EUGENE A. HEIKE, Universal Oil 
Products, Riverside, 111. 

FRANKLIN D. HOFFERT, Universal 
Oil Products Co. 

MARTIN LOUIS HOLLAND, Velsicol I 
Corp., Chicago. 

LOUIS F. KACEL, Velsicol Co., Chi- 
cago. 

SAM H. KAPLAN, Condensor Products- 
Co., Chicago, 111. 

ROBERT M. LEVY, graduate assist-- 
ant, A. I. T. 

HAROLD E. LITTLE, International I 
Filter Co., Chicago. 

R. M. LLTNDBERG, graduate assist- 
ant, A. I. T. 

A. P. SCHREIBER, Publicity, A. I. T. 

WARREN F. SCHREIBER," Container I 
Corj)oration. 

PAUL R. SCHULTZ, JR., Case Schooll 
of Applied Science, Cleveland, Ohio. 

CHARLES H. SKUZA, JR., Columbii 
Tool Steel Co. 

CHARLES S. SRAMEK, Inland Steel I 
Company. 

JOHN FREDERICK STURGEON, E. 
I. duPont. 

WILLIAM WAITE, Swift and Com- -I 
pany. 

b"0SLEY WILHELM, Bethlehem Steel I 
Co., Bethlehem, Pa. 

Civils 

WILLIAM C. BEHMER, Graver Tank: 
& Mfg. Co., Chicago, 111. 

WALTER H. BOTTEI.SEN, E. 
Gritschke, Chicago, 111. 

GEORGE W. BOYLAN, Swift and I 
Company, Chicago. 

ALBERT C. FRANCIS, International I 
Harvester Co.. Chicago. 

NICK C. GIOVAN, Drexel Ice Cream i 
Co., Chicago. 

MARTIN S. HERZ, International Har- 
vester Co., Chicago. 

NAT S. KENDALL, Shaw, Noess & 
Walker, Chicago. 

ROBERT N. LANGE, W.P.A. 

HENRY MANKE, Swift and Co., Chi- 
cago. 

CARROLL J. McCARTY, Illinois State 
Highways Planning Survey, Chicago. 

JOSEPH K. McGRATH, Board of Lo- 
cal Improvements, City of Chicago. 

PAUL L. G. MOORE, U. S. Gypsum. 
Co. (Sales). 

FRANCIS X. POPPER, Link Belt Co., 
Cliicago, 111. 



54 



EDWARD J. REZABEK, Eugene 
Dietzgen (Production). 

BERXARD B. RIMAX, A. T. & S. F. 
Railroad Co., Cliican;o. 111. 

HERMAX M. KOSS, Illinois .Stale 
Hiurlnvav Planning'- .Siir\e\ . 

FRAXK A. SAI KO'W.SKA, (iraver 
rank and Mfg. Co. 

JAMES G. SMIDI , Illinois .State Higli- 
vay Planning Survey, Chicago, IH. 

FREDERICK A. SAIITH, Chicago 
Park District. 

JACK C. STERX, C. R. I. & P. K. R. 
it Washington, Iowa. 

DOXALD G. Sl'IIR, D. W Hoerinu 
md Co., Inc. 

EDWARD J. WOI.XIAK, V. S. Kngi- 
leer's Office, Calumet Harlior, Ind. 

LEWIS /AVISSl.EH, Rutgers Inivcr- 
iity graduate assistant. 

Ehrtricalg 

EARI.E H. BRINK, Cieneral Electric 
ro., Chicago, 111. 

WILLIAM C. BROWX, Swight and 
ro., Chicago, 111. 

WILLIAM A. CHAPIX, JR., General 
Electric Co., Chicago. 

DAXIEL DELVE, Victor Adding Ma- 
chine Co., Chicago, 111. 

NATHAN DISENHAUS, Climax 
Radio, Chicago. 

ARTHUR GOLDSMITH, A. I. T. fel- 
lowship. 

WILLIAM B. GRAUPNER, Bell Lab- 
jratories. 

FRED HEINE BERTRAM, Coyne 
Electrical School. 

EDWARD J. HICKEY, Fairbanks- 
Morse, Detroit, Michigan. 

LEONARD HOLMES, Bendix Radio, 
Chicago, 111. 

JACK HOUTSMA, General Electric 
2o., Chicago. 

EUGENE M. IMBUR, Electromotive 
["orp., Chicago. 

BERTIL W. JOHNSON, Western 
Electric Co., Cicero, 111. 

JOSEPH M. KUBERT, Pullman 
Standard Car Mfg. Co., Chicago, III. 

ROBERT GEORGE LIEBMANN, 
Pvle-National, Chicago, 111. 

"PAUL MILLER MARTIN, Westing- 
liouse Electric & Mfg. Co., Chicago. 

WILLIAM ROBERT MEHAFFEY, 
Senith Radio, Chicago. 

MELVIN EMIL MEZEK, Comnion- 
ivealth Edison Co., Chicago. 

PETER MORRISON, Carnegie Illinois 
steel Corp., Chicago. 

CARL ALBERT PETERSON, Stand- 
ird Transformer Corp., Chicago. 

WILLIAM D. PETERSON, Bendix 
Radio Co., Chicago. 

DONALD RICHARDSON, Mall Tool 
[Jompanv, Chicago. 

JOHN PAUL SLOWIAK, Link Belt 
::o. (Caldwell-Moore Plant). 

ANTON ALBERT SOBOLIK, JR., 
Huh Electric Co., Chicago. 

ROBERT W. WRIGHT, Stewart- 
Warner. 

ALFRED E. ZEIMANN, General 
Electric X-Ray. 

Fire Protects 

FRED R. ANDERSON, Kentucky Ac- 
tuarial Bureau. 

WILBERT MARTIN GUNTHER, 
Ohio Inspection Bureau. 

ROBERT D. HARWOOD, Tennessee 
Inspection Bureau. 

FREDERICK HENRY JOST, Missouri 
Ins])ection Bureau. 

EARL F. KREISEI, Viking Auto- 
matic Sprinkler Co. 

JOHN FRANCIS McCAULAY, Wis- 
consin Rating Bureau. 



ROY J. MAGNLTSON, Ohio Inspection 
Bureau. 

ROBERT LEE MKK/„ Indiana Inspec- 
tion Bureau. 

ROBERT 15. RUPPKU T, Ohio Inspec- 
tion Bureau. 

EKVIX .lOSEPH SIMEK, Illinois 
InsjH'cticHi Bureau, Chicago. 

CiEORGE SVEHLA, Kentucky Actu- 
arial Bureau, Louisville, Ky. 

FUAXCIS G. WESTERMAN, West- 
ern Factory Insurance Assn. 

RICHARD EDWARD WINKLER. 
Ohio Inspection Bureau. 

Mechaiiiral.i 

HKNRY L. APPEL, Western Electric 
Con,i>any, Cicero, 111. 

J0S1<:PH F. B.MtTCSEK, Western 
Klectric Comi)any, Cicero, 111. 

HOBKHT A. nOKILME, Danlv Machine 
Specialties, Inc., Chicago. 

WAITEK CARLSON, Neiler, Rich 
and Coninanv. 

KEXXKTU FREDERICK CARROL, 
I'rest-O-I ite Co, Chicago. 

WII LARD E. COLLIXS, Swift and 
Co.. Chicauo. 

JOHX CRAPPLE, Victor Gasket and 
Mfg. Co., Chicago. 

JOHX II. DAMIAXL Wurlitzer Co., 
DeKalh, 111. 

EDWIX A. DROEGEMUELLER, 
Stndard Oil Company, Chicago. 

AXDREW FLAGGE, Carnegie-Illinois 
Steel Co., Gary, Ind. 

AXTOX GEORGE FLEISSNER, Vic- 
tor Gasket and Mfg. Co. 

PAUL R. FRANZEN, Stewart- Warner 
Comi)any, Chicago. 

CHESTER E. IIOCKERT, General 
Electric Comjiany, Chicago. 

ERNEST C.' HOVER, Automatic 
Transport Co., Chicago. 

LEO J. JANAS, American Steel and 
Wire Co., Chicago. 

HUGH McPHAIL, Jones, Schweitzer 
and Conrad, Inc., Chicago. 

FRED L. LEASON, JR., Danly Ma- 
chine Specialties, Inc., Chicago. 

LOUIS LOGULLO, Carnegie-Illinois 
.Steel Co., Chicago. 

ABE MANDELOWITZ, Askania Regu- 
lator Co., Chicago. 

HOWARD M. MEYER, Danly Machine 
Specialties, Chicago. 

SYDNEY MIXER, Westerlin Campbell 
(York Refrigerating Machine). 

EDWARD E. MODES, Powers Regu- 
lator Co., Chicago. 

WILLARD C. NEARING, The Chicago 
Machinery Laboratory. 

REINHEART F. NIEMANN, Interna- 
tional Harvester Co., Chicago. 

PAUL A. REH, General Electric Co., 
Chicago. 

RUDOLPH A. RUEFF, International 
Harvester Co., Chicago. 

W. OTTO SAUERMANN, Republic 
Steel Co., Chicago. 

JOHN E. SHANAHAN, JR., Interna- 
tional Harvester Co., Chicago. 

FRANK J. SKACH, Beech Aircraft 
Co., Wichita, Kan. 

WILLARD GEORGE TEGTMEIER, 
Armour and Company, Chicago. 

PETER WINEL," Central Screw Co., 
Chicago. 

Science 

NORTON GERBER, graduate assist- 
ant A. I. T. 

EUGENE KREMI>, Container Corpo- 
ration, Chicago. 

JOHN JACOB PENN, U. S. Gypsum 
Co. (Mill). 

MISSING: DFXEASED: 

None None 



Real Estate 



WALLACE DON 

HAMILTON BROS. 

Real Estate 

CHESTER CHARLES 



-d Caf< 



ouievara ^\^dre 

That Old Time Rendezvous' 

CARL A. BRINKMAN. Mgr. 

3100 Michigan Avenue 

Victory 9354 



Roofing 




MULE-HIDE 
ROOFS 



Tough, Reliable, Durable and 

Handsome tool 
'Not a Kick in a Million Feet" 



School Supplies 



BECKLEY-CARDY CO. 

Laboratory Furniture and Equip- 
ment — School Supplies 



!G32 Indiana Avenue Chicago 



Water Treatment 



INTERNATIONAL FILTER CO. 

Water Purification, 

Hydraulic Control and 
Chemical Feeding Equipment 

59 E. Van Buren St. Chicago 



Telephone 

FRANK S. DUNHAM 

DEArborn 7003-7004 

For information on any 
size water softener or filter 



THE PERMUTIT CO. 

210 So. Clark St.. 
Chicago 



55 



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56 




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ENGINEERS 



Willis H^ Carrier . . . 
NGINEER 






m. 




1 undergraduate at Cornell, Willis 
Carrier dreamed of the science 
now known as air conditioning. And in 
1902, within a 
year after grad- 
uation, his 
dreams had be- 
come realities 
■ — through his 
installation of 
equipment to 
control trouble- 
some humidity 
and tempera- 
ture in a Brooklyn lithography plant. 

Years passed — years devoted to ex- 
perimentation, to designing new equip- 
ment, and developing new methods of 
installation. Then, in 1911 Mr. Carrier 
disclosed his now-famous Ra- 
tional Psychrometric Formulae 
to the American Society of Me- 
chanical Engineers — and true 
air conditioning was born. 

Overnight, a new industry 
came into being — an industry 



spreading health and prosperity through- 
out the world — and opening new and 
unlimited opportunities for engineers. 
And these opportunities have steadily 
increased — just as the demand for air 
conditioning it- 
self has stead- 
ily increased. 
New men, 
young men are 
needed — men 
with the vision, 
the determina- 
tion, and the 
ability to study 
and carry on the 

principles established by Willis H. Car- 
rier and his pioneering associates. 
To such men Carrier offers a wide va- 




riety of careers — ranging from labor- 
atory research, machine design, sales 
and installation, to work in the far cor- 
ners of the earth — the 99 countries of 
the world which 
today know the 
benefits of Car- 
rier Air Condi- 
tioning. Youth 
is welcomed at 
Carrier, its ca- 
pabilities fos- 
t e r e d — t h e 
young engineer 
gains recogni- 
tion in keeping with his accomplishments 
— not with age alone — for Carrier realizes 
that its future development, its future 
expansion depends upon its engineers. 





Dur 

300 


ngthisyear.Carr 
recent graduate 


ierhas 
, from 1 


rained 
eading 


engineering schools 
tion of the country. 

^co^rd!^and are ^nt'^ 
world's most fascin 
growing industry, w 


in every sec- 
Carrier needs 

a good school 
crested in the 
ating, fastest - 
rite us. 



CARRIER CORPORATION, SYRACUSE, N. Y. 



ORGANIZATION 



E N G I N 



TAe Three Musieteers 
of Smoitng Pleasure 



Wt. 



<y 



:th 



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refreshing MILDNESS 
T\STE that smokers like 
Chesterfields SATISFY 



m.imEsm^w 



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FACILITIES IN ACTION 




WITH demands for deliveries mounting and speed the keynote of production, your choice 
of raw materials becomes increasingly important. What are your needs? Let Witco know 
them and our complete facilities for quick service will be set in action to give you prompt 
delivery and full cooperation in the use of our up-to-the-minute line of chemicals, oils, pig- 
ments and allied products. 



WITCO CARBON BLACKS are made WITCO STEARITE is steadily grow- 
ing in popularity because of its 
higher uniformity and greater 
economy. 

WITCO D. P. G. is produced to meet 
the most rigid requirements of 
critical users. 



to meet individual requirements 
and to satisfy the most exacting 
demands for quality. 

WITCO TITANIUM DIOXIDE sets a 
new standard of fineness, ease of 
grinding and uniformly neutral 
white color. 



WISHNICK-TUMPEER, INC. 

NEW YORK , 295 MADISON AVENUE 

CHICAGO TRIBUNE TOWER 

BOSTON 141 MILK STREET 

CLEVELAND . 616 ST. CLAIR AVE., N. E. 

WITCO LTD. BUSH HOUSE, LONDON 

W.C. 2, ENGLAND 

Witco AffiHotes: Witco Oil & Gas Com pony 




as«aun&:!^«ii?*-^?K!<«wi»wr 



G-E Qampus ^ews 



SHARPSHOOTING TWO MILES 
UNDERGROUND 

C HOOTING HOLES through an oil-well casing at 
^ a depth of two miles underground is another 
problem successfully solved by electricity. The Lane- 
Wells Company Gun Perforator is an ingenious 
device used to pierce casings with steel bullets. When 
an oil pocket has been exhausted, the operators 
pierce the well casing at a different stratum, thus 
opening another pocket. 




In order to know where to pierce the casing and how 
deep the gun is, G-E electric locating, weight, and 
depth instruments are mounted on a panel in a 
truck from which the shots are fired and the results 
recorded. Over two and one half miles of steel- 
sheathed cable is used to lower and fire the gun, 
the current for the charge being carried in the core 
of the cable. Accurate measurement of the depth at 
which the gun strikes or leaves the fluid level in the 
well is indicated to the operator by a weight in- 
dicator which utilizes two General Electric Selsyn 
motors. 

In General Electric Company, numerous groups of 
engineers devote their entire time to the most 
efficient use of electricity in all types of industries. 
These men, former members of the Test Course, 
have solved many problems such as Sharpshooting 
Two Miles Undergroimd. 




TRAIN-PERFORMANCE DETECTIVE 

TN AN EFFORT to determine more accurately 
-*- the performance of an electric locomotive and to 
calculate the most efficient motor for the train, T. 
F. Perkinson, R, P. I., '24, a former Test man now 
in the Erie Works of General Electric Company, in- 



vented a machine which performs these operations 
mechanically. 

Computation by the step-by-step method of these 
calculations necessitates many hours of tedious slide- 
ride work; repeated adding and subtracting of 
time, speed, and distance increments; and reading 
of charts. The Transportation Calculator eliminates 
this work and solves the mathematics at least five 
times as quickly, depending upon the skill of the 
operator. 

The Transportation Department of General Elec- 
tric Company offers many opportunities to 
mechanical and electrical engineers in the design, 
construction, and production of electric locomotives, 
trolley cars, and trolley buses. The solutions of 
many interesting problems are found in this depart- 
ment, the Transportation Calculator being but one 
of them. 




BOXING THE ELEMENTS 

W^IND, RAIN, SLEET, SNOW, arctic and 
"' tropical temperatures, six-mile altitudes, and 
power dives — all are foimd within the confines of 
two steel rooms in the radio-transmitter test depart- 
ment in the Schenectady Works of General Elec- 
tric Company. 

To assure perfect performance of aircraft trans- 
mitters, the equipment is placed in these two rooms 
where extremely severe weather conditions are 
simulated. Portholes of one-inch glass in the rooms 
permit the test men to observe the effects on the 
instruments without being subjected to the same 
strains placed upon the transmitters. 

These complicated tests are made by college-trained 
men now on Test. The field of radio transmission 
from airplanes is, of course, new and progressive. 
The "flight rooms" provide radio engineers with a 
new and clearer conception of designs for radio 
equipment. 



GENERAL m ELECTRIC 



How WELBmG- 



makes Better Equipment 



The simplf design and joint less eonstruetiitn o( 
this brewiiii: ketth> were made possihh^ hy oxy- 
acetyhMie vvehUni!:. \^ ehling eliminates all ereviees, 
cracks or other tiny openings generally present in 
jointed construction and thus removes the possi- 
bility of bacteria lodging in such |)laces. This 




\velde<l kettle, being Jointless, is permanently leak- 
proof. It is easy to clean and keep clean. In addi- 
tion, welding has trinnned off the dead weight of 
the lieavier connections required by other methods 
of joining metals. 

Tomorrow's engineers will be expected to know 
how to take advantage of this modern metal work- 
ing process. Several valuable and interesting tech- 
nical booklets, which describe the application 
of the oxy-acetylene process of wehling and cut- 
ting to design, construction and fabrication, are 
available from Linde offices in principal cities. 
Write to The Linde Air Products Company, Unit 
of Union Carbi<le and (Carbon Corporation, 
30 East 42nd Street. New York, N. Y. 



Everything for Oxy- Acetylene Welding and Cutting 

T TNF)1^ UNION CARBIDE 



fGtN . PBEST-O-tlTE ACETYLENE . OXWEID ftPPARftTUS AND SUPPLIES fRQJVt 



mm 



FOR COMFORT 
CONVENIENCE AND SERVICE 




PALMER HOUSE 

STATE STREET AT MONROE • CHICAGO 

Edward T. Lawless, Manager 



ARMOUR ENGINEER 

and ALUMNUS 



Editor General Manager 

WALTER HENDRICKS D. P. MORETON 



EDITORIAL ASSISTANTS 
Stephen P. Finnegan '39 
Nikolas A. Natinchek '40 



BUSINESS ASSISTANTS 
Albert N. Schreiber, '38 
Thomas Waldion, '38 



Published in October, December, March, and May, in the inter- 
ests of the students' college, and alumni of Armour Institute of 
ilirection of a Managing Board, at 



Technologv, under the direction of 
3300 Federal Street, Chicago. Illinois. 



THE CONTRIBUTORS 

■ H. S. Card, formerly Editor of The Welding Engineer is 
Development Director of the Electric Welding Section of the 
National Electrical Manufacturer's Association. 

■ William D. Coolidge, a graduate of M. 1. T. and for several 
years a member of the faculty, joined the staff of the Research 
Laboratory of the General Electric Company in 1905 and is now, 
and has been since 1932, its Director. Dr. Coolidge is the 
recipient of many honors, degrees, and medals. 

■ C. W . Farrier graduated from Armour Institute of Technology, 
in architecture, in 1916. After serving in the World War, he 
entered the field of city planning, rendering valuable service to 
many of our principal cities. He took a prominent part in the 
operating organization of the Chicago "Century of Progress." 
Later he was co-ordinator of the Tennessee Valley Project, and 
is now co-ordinator of the Television Division of R. C. A. 

■ Harvey T. Hill graduated from Pennsylvania State College 
as a civil engineer in 1915, and from the LIniversity of Chicago, 
School of Business Administration in 1916. He has been promi- 
nent in the work of the Chicago Chamber of Commerce and 
Illinois Chamber of Commerce. He is now a general partner of 
the brokerage firm of Clement, Curtis & Co., Chicago. 

■ Charles F. Kettering was born on a farm in Ohio. He at- 
tended Wooster Normal School and graduated from Ohio State 
University. Dr. Kettering, who is now Vice President of General 
Motors Corporation in charge of research, has the remarkable 
gift of taking difficult problems apart, finding out the cold facts, 
and working out the solution. 

■ W^illi/im C. Krathwohl, Professor of Mathematics at Armour 
Institute of Technology, is a graduate of Harvard, Columbia, 
and the University of Chicago. 

■ C. Robert Moulton was for twelve years a member of the 
faculty of the University of Missouri. For six years he was on 
the staff of the Institute of Meat Packing at the University of 
Chicago. Since 1934 he has been technical editor of Meat 
magazine, and he is now associated with the Rosenwald Museum 
of Science and Industry in Chicago. 



DECEMBER 

VOLUME 3 



1 937 

NUMBER 2 



IN THIS ISSUE 

Research and Profiress, />}■ Charles F. Kettering . . 6 

Research in a Large Industry, by William D. 

Coolidge 9 

Television, by Clarence W. Farrier 12 

Arc Welding — Fifty Years of Development and 

Present Day Applications, fey H. S. Card 15 

Ore to a Ford in 28 Hours 18 

The Engineer and the Meat Packing Industry, fey 

C. Robert Moulton 20 

Scheduled Research, fey L. W. Wallace 22 

Cooperative Research for Industry, fey T. C. Poidter 25 

Chicago as a Financial Market, fey Harvey T. Hill 29 

Congressional Medal Awarded Dr. T. C. Poulter. . . 31 

Arc You Happy with Your Work, fey William C. 
Krathwohl 32 

Amiour Schedules Conference Course on Executive 

Control of Personnel 34 

Evening Division and Its Service to Industry 35 

Conference on Electric Welding 35 



■ Thomas C. Poulter, Director of the Research Foundation of 
Armour Institute of Technology, received his Ph.D. from the 
University of Chicago in 1933 and the honorary degree of Sc.D. 
from Iowa Wesleyan College, his alma mater, in 1935. Dr. 
Poulter was a Guggenheim Fellow in 1933-34, and he was Second 
in Command and Senior Scientist in charge of the scientific 
program on Byrd's Second Antarctic Expedition, 1933-35. For 
outstanding acliievement. Dr. Poulter has been awarded the 
Congressional medal. 

■ After completing the course in mechanical engineering in the 
A. & M. College of Texas in 1903, L. W. Wallace worked for 
three years with the Santa Fe railway. During the next eleven 
years he was on the faculty at Purdue. In 1912 he received the 
degree of Mechanical Engineer and in 1932 the honorary degree 
of Doctor of Engineering. Dr. Wallace is responsible for the 
development of research activity for the Association of American 
Railroads, and on December 1, he became head of the newly 
formed Division of Engineering and Research of Crane & Com- 
pany, Chicago. 




RESEARCH 



AND 



PROGRESS. 



By Charles F. Kettering 



THERE are many kinds of re- 
search, but when you get down 
below the surface, down to the funda- 
mentals, there is very little difference 
among them. Research in the automo- 
bile industry is just like research in 
any other industry. You have different 
problems, of course, and you may use 
different apparatus to solve them, but 
those features are still just surface 
characteristics. In the final analysis, 
research is a state of mind. 

So many people — and this includes 
quite a few hard-headed business men 
— think of research in terms of a 
fancy building full of machinery and 
test tubes, with white-coated men hud- 
dled in small laboratories working in 
a very mysterious manner. That word 
"mysterious" explains why we usually 
call this scientific research. You see, 
we call things scientific when we don't 
understand them very well. After we 
have found out something about them, 
they cease to be scientific. It is the 
same as incurable diseases. It is not 
that there is anything so different 
about the diseases. We call them in- 
curable because the doctors don't 
know anything about them. 

If you are going to start to do re- 
search work, the last thing you need 
is a building and expensive equipment. 



The problems are going to be solved 
in somebody's head, and, at best, all 
the physical equipment can do is help 
get that solution through an inch of 
the most dense material in the world, 
the human skull. So instead of wor- 
rying about a building, take a piece 
of paper and a pencil and start to 
make a list of those things that are 
worrying you, eight or ten problems 
in your business that you would like 
answers to. Then try to solve one of 
them. Not necessarily the first one — 
pick one that looks easier. It is like 
a cross-word puzzle. You skip around 
and fill it in where you can, and every 
word you get helps you on another 
word. You will be surprised to find 
how your problems are inter-related, 
and how the solution to one will affect 
some of the others. You may find that 
some of them are not problems at all. 
If you put up your building first, 
and fill it with fine machinery, and 
then start figuring out what your 
problems are, the chances are ten to 
one you'll not have what you want 
even in all that shiny new equipment. 
Suppose you are manufacturing some 
little metal gadget that isn't coming 
out to suit you. Your first thought is 
probably a metallurgical investigation. 
After you have spent some money on 



this, you start experimenting with re-- 
designing the article to get rid of your- 
troubles that way. Then one day youi 
find out, perhaps by accident, thatt 
your customers don't like certain fea-- 
tures of this gadget you are selling.. 
So you start working on that angle 
and may end up with a product which i 
is more desirable customer-wise and I 
has none of the production troubles 
of the former design. You may not 
be that lucky, but at any rate your 
problem has turned out to be one not 
of metallurgical research, but of cus- 
tomer research. In other cases it might 
turn out to be a question of economics, 
but it is a pretty safe bet that it will 
not be what you thought it was at; 
first. 

You will have to keep adding toi 
your list of problems. You are never' 
finished with a research program. . 
There will continue to be changes as. 
long as time and the world keep oni 
moving, and you must take advantage 
of those changes — or at least be sure 
that they do not take advantage of 
you. My conception of what research 
should be to industry is something like 
this : On the first of January somebody 
gives you a calendar. It has 365 pages 
in it, which you can tear off one by 
one as the days go by. As you tear 



off these pages, the calendar gets 
thinner and thinner. Now my idea of 
research is that it should add new 
pages on the back of that calendar as 
fast as you tear them off the front. 
Thus j'our calendar stays the same 
thickness regardless of the day or 
year. You always have something 
ahead of you. In the same way, re- 
search supplies those factors which 
make for a successful business by 
adding to those things which time 
takes away from you. In other words, 
research should be an organized effort 
to find out what you are going to do 
after j'ou can't keep on doing what 
you are doing now. 

Another definition which I often use 
is that research is for the purpose of 
keeping our customers reasonably dis- 
satisfied with what they have. The 
Sales Department sometimes objects 
to that on the grounds that a satisfied 
customer is the best advertisement a 
company can have. He may be a good 
advertisement, but he's an awfully 
poor buyer. 

As an example of how this actually 
works out, suppose that twenty years 
ago an automobile had been sealed in 



Below: Machining rotor of a Root blower 
Used on Large Railroad Diesel Engines. 





Above: Machine for Testing Connecting 

Rod Bearings, Designed to Stimulate 

Actual Operating Conditions. 



a glass case. This is a 1917 model, 
with all the most up-to-date improve- 
ments that were on cars at that time. 
Assume that the seal is so tight that 
nothing can happen to it — not a speck 
of rust, not the least deterioration in 
any part. We mark in big gold fig- 
ures on the case, $2,000, which was 
the original price. 

Now suppose we go away for a 
year. When we come back our ap- 
praisers look it over, cross off the big- 
gold figures, and mark it $1,800. The 
next year the same thing happens, 
$1,500. And the next. Look at it 
today. A high, clumsy vehicle, no 
four-wheel, hydraulic brakes, no big 
tires, no bright lacquer finish. An en- 
gine as big as in present cars but de- 
livering much less power and perform- 
ance. No automatic or synchro-mesh 
transmission. Stiff, hard springs with 
no shock absorbers. A fabric top. No 
safety glass or adjustable seat. None 
of the many smaller features which 
have made driving easier year by 
year. 

What would you offer for this car 
today? Somebody might pay $100 or 
$200 for it for some special purpose, 




Laboratory Set-up loi (he Study ol New Fuels Having High Anti-Knock Rating. 
Single Cylinder Engine Used for Fuel Research and the Study of Combustion. 




hut our market would be very limited 
at any price. 

Yet this ear has not changed in a 
detail since it was put in the case. In 
1917 it would have sold readily for 
■t'i.OOO. Today, exactly the same ear 
must almost be given away. It is your 
ideas that have changed, not the prod- 
uct. That is what I mean by making 
a dissatisfied customer. The difference 
between that 1917 price and the 1937 
price represents the value that you, 
as a customer, place on the results of 
research and engineering during those 
twenty years. 

But research does not just improve 
existing products — it creates new 
ones. There are so many people who 
blame it for unemployment through 
the development of labor-saving ma- 
chinery, and so few who give it credit 
for labor-creating, for furnishing all 
the millions of jobs in industries 
which would not be in existence today 
were it not for scientific development. 
This research business is a cumulative 
proposition — a little bit added here, 
a little there, some more in the next 
generation. Almost any product being 
manufactured today is the result of 
the work of many people over a long ; 
period of time. 

A friend and I were listening to ■ 
his radio the other night. It was a 
comparatively inexpensive set, but it 
had a short wave dial on it which he 
was ))laying with. Presently a voice 
said, "This is London." My friend 
was astounded and wouldn't believe it 
was really London. We listened a lit- 
tle longer, and he was finally con- 
vinced. 

"That's marvelous," he said. "I 
didn't think it was possible. Why, . 
the set didn't cost even fifty dollars."' 

"That hasn't anything to do with i 
it," I said. "Let's take that radio i 
apart in our imagination. We'll take • 
the stuff out of the wooden box they 
call the cabinet, and call in a cabinet 
maker. He says he can make that 
for about $3.50. Those little pins ■ 
somebody else will make for a couple • 
of cents apiece. That wire will be so ■ 
much a foot. So we have everything 
spread out on the table, each piece a 
separate product with the price for 
which someone will make it. After 
weighing this material we find that 
you can buy a radio for fifty or sixty 
cents a pound." 

"But that material isn't what you i| 
bought. You can't sell that kind of 
product as you do butter. You bought 
that something which, when all the 
pieces were put together, made it 
work. When you bought that fifty 
dollar radio, you bought the combined 
intelligences and experiences of every 
great electrical engineer from Michael 
Faraday on down. That's what made 
(Turn to page 34) 



RESEARCH 



IN A LARGE 



INDUSTRY 



By William D. Coolidge 




IT was thirty-two years ago (lack- 
ing only one year to complete 
what is usually considered a genera- 
tion) that I first made the acquaint- 
ance of research in industry. I had 
been reluctant to take the step lead- 
ing to that acquaintance. I had 
tiiought of research, to which I pro- 
posed to dedicate my life's work, as 
distinctively academic, as closely asso- 
ciated with educational institutions as 
was teaching itself. Industrial re- 
search in this country was a new 
thing, familiar to only a few. Some 
scientists regarded the small number 
of their fellows who had entered the 
service of industry as renegades who 
had sold their birthrights for a mess 
of pottage, or at the very least had 
debased their science by tainting it 
with commercialism. 

I do not think I shared that opin- 
ion, but it was hard for me to imag- 
ine that a laboratory operated by a 
company, admittedlj' existing to make 
money for its stockholders, could of- 
fer the freedom of inquiry, the unfet- 
tered choice of interesting problems, 
which I enjoyed in my academic sur- 
roundings. I further feared that I 
might be pocketed in a corner of a 
manufacturing plant, quite completely 
isolated from stimulating contacts 
with other research workers which I 
was sure to enjoy in collegiate cir- 
cles. It was only my complete con- 
fidence in my former instructor and 
colleague at M. I. T., Dr. Whitney, 



which induced me to join the small, 
but growing staff of the research lab- 
oratory, which he was then building 
up for the General Electric Com- 
pany. Even so, I yielded only with 
the stipulation that I should be free 
to give half my time to a continua- 
tion of the fundamental research on 
which I had been engaged for the 
past five years. 

That I have never regretted that 
move is shown by the fact that I have 
been with that laboratory ever since; 
but that is not the point I wish to 
lead up to by this personal preamble. 
I am seeking to emphasize the ex- 
traordinary change which the status 
of research in industry has undergone 
in less than a single generation. 

Thirty-two years ago, the indus- 
trial research laboratories of this 
country could be counted on the fin- 
gers of one hand. Today they num- 
ber about two thousand. Then they 
were a radical experiment. Now they 
are a well established part of nearly 
every large industry. Then the writer 
on industrial research could feel sure 
that nearly anything he wrote would 
be new to nearly every reader. Now 
there is a voluminous literature on the 
subject, so that if one is to forbear 
from technical discussions of most re- 
cent researches, the only novelty a 
writer can contribute must come 
largely from his personal views. 

Perhaps some directors of research 
would not fully subscribe to all I may 



write. I have occasionally found my- 
self in partial disagreement with 
some of the views expressed in arti- 
cles, similar to this, by others. In 
general, there are close similarities 
among all the industrial research lab- 
oratories I know, regardless of the 
nature of the industry, and whether 
tiie laboratory work is mainly chem- 
ical, physical, mechanical, metallur- 
gical, or biological — similarities in or- 
ganization, financing, selection of 
projects, and control of the work. But 
there are also differences, which I 
shall refer to later. 

For instance, every large labora- 
tory of which I know is organized on 
the group system. That becomes prac- 
tically essential with increasing size. 
There is a limit to the number of 
workers one man can supervise, so, 
as that limit is reached, it becomes 
necessary to delegate supervisory re- 
sponsibility to section heads. Again, 
as a part of a profit-making, or at 
least a profit-seeking, concern, the in- 
dustrial laboratory, like all other 
parts of the company, must operate 
on the budget system. In every in- 
dustrial laboratory some of the proj- 
ects undertaken are imposed by prob- 
lems arising in the work of other de- 
partments, while some arise from 
ideas originating among the labora- 
tory staff. In either case it is cus- 
tomary to plan the attack and guide 
its prosecution through conferences 
between the director and section 




Dr. W. R. Whitney and Dr. W. D. Coolidge wafch Dr. Irving Langtnuir demonstrate 
oil films on water. 



heads. Tliese similarities among large 
industrial laboratories are quite strik- 
ing in their completeness and univer- 
sality. 

These similarities are, however, 
structural or formal, while the diver- 
gencies are functional, and are there- 
fore, perhaps, of greater interest than 
tlie resemblances. 

I am not referring to the diflferences 
arising from the nature of the prod- 
uct of the company. It is obvious that 
the problems engaging the interest of 
a chemical company like Du Pont, or 
a metallurgical company like United 
States Steel, will be different from 
those undertaken by an electrical 
manufacturing and operating com- 
pany, like Bell Telephone or Radio 
Corporation of America. I am refer- 
ring to differences in function of the 
research laboratory in different indus- 
tries, as a contributing member of the 
industrial organism. 

For instance, most industrial re- 
search laboratories have a partial or 
complete responsibility for, and cor- 
responding control over, the technical 
processes of manufacture. In some 
cases this responsibility is So complete 
that all engineering activities are 
merged in the research laboratory, 
which is then responsible for all tecli- 
nical instructions of every kind re- 
quired by the factory, and supervises 
the carrying out of those instructions. 
In only a few companies, of which 
General Electric is one, is the re- 
search laboratory confined, in its rela- 
tions to other departments, to a purely 
advisory function. 

Each scheme has its advantages. 
When the product of a company is 
fairly homogeneous and when manu- 
facture is concentrated in a single 
plant, as in the Eastman Kodak Com- 



))any, it undoubtedly makes for effi- 
ciency to place full technical respon- 
sibility and authority in the research 
laboratory, for it is quicker, and much 
more certainly productive of the ex- 
act results desired, to be able to issue 
complete and binding instructions 
than to be forced to use argument, 
demonstration, and persuasion to in- 
duce the action desired by another 
independent agency. 

But in the case of a company sucii 
as General Electric, which has more 
than forty manufacturing plants in 
twenty-eight cities and towns, scat- 
tered over the country from the At- 
lantic to the Pacific coast, producing 
all kinds of electrical apparatus, from 
turbines and locomotives down to snap 
switches and miniature lamps, and a 
complete range of electrical appli- 
ances, decentralization is a practical 
necessity, and complete centralized 
technical control is out of the ques- 
tion. In such an organization the re- 
search laboratory's function becomes, 
by force of circumstances, purely ad- 
visory, while technical responsibility 
is carried by works laboratories and 
engineering departments located at 
the various plants. 

Lacking authority, the research lab- 
oratory must sell its ideas and prod- 
ucts to the other departments, and 
the enthusiastic and impatient re- 
search man may often feel that the 
"sales resistance" encountered within 
his own company is more adamantine 
and perverse than any likely to be 
offered by the general public. But the 
occasional delays resulting from such 
obstructions are perhaps more than 
compensated for by the flexibility con- 
ferred on the research laboratory by 
its freedom from continuing responsi- 
bility. The director is at all times 



free, subject to a single limitation I 
shall later mention, to select for at- 
tack only those problems of greatest 
present interest or of most immediate 
importance, to drop one activity at 
any time for another, to concentrate 
on a few major projects, or to deploy 
over a wider front. His staff has a 
guerilla-like mobility. 

Thus we find functional differences 
among industrial research laboratories 
arising both from the character of 
product and from the form of the 
manufacturing organization. But tliere 
are other differences resting on the 
inherent nature of research. 

We may define research as the sys- 
tematic search by the experimental 
method for new knowledge, thus dif- 
ferentiating it from engineering, 
which is the economic application of 
existing technical knowledge for use- 
ful ends. But the knowledge sought 
by research may be either of two 
kinds. It may be specific facts di- 
rectly applicable to a definite prob- 
lem, or it may be generic facts with 
no particular application in view. For 
want of better terms, we may desig- 
nate these two kinds of investigation 
as "intensive research," and "exten- 
sive, or fundamental, research." One 
seeks to enlarge our knowledge about 
existing things, so as to enable us to 
improve them, reduce their cost, or 
both. The other seeks to extend the 
frontiers of our knowledge, and is 
little concerned with what specific 
facts will be discovered or what, if 
any, their application will be. 

Let me illustrate by examples. Sup- 
pose we have a new synthetic resin, 
which possesses certain characteris- 
tics highly desirable for wire insula- 
tion, such, for instance, as good re- 
sistance to heat, to mechanical abra- 
sion, and to chemical attack by oil 
or ozone, but which also has certain 
disadvantages, such as brittleness at 
low temperature or high power fac- 
tor. Experience with somewhat sim- 
ilar materials may point to the possi- 
bility of reducing these disadvan- 
tages by modifying the composition. 
Experiments directed to the explora- 
tion of that possibility we may term 
intensive research. Its object is to 
gain new facts which will enable us 
to improve, and to extend the appli- 
cations of, that particular resin. 

Suppose again we realize the inade- 
quacy of our knowledge regarding 
some particular phenomenon and wish 
to enlarge it. For instance, there is a 
kind of electronic interaction which 
takes place between contacting layers 
of certain materials. On it is based 
the operation of the so-called "block- 
ing-layer" photo cell used in light me- 
ters and exposure meters, and of the 
copper-oxide rectifier. No comprehen- 
sive and wholly satisfactory explana- 



10 




Research in G. E. Laboratories. 
Top: At Work on Problems of High-Voltage Electron Tubes. Top: Investigating Fan Noises in Sound-proof Room. 
Bottom: Observing experimental sodium lamp. Bottom: Use of arc furnace in ceramics. 



tion of the underlying mechanism of 
tliat electronic exchange has as yet 
been advanced. More facts are needed, 
which only experiment can yield. If 
we start a series of experiments de- 
signed to uncover those facts, we may 
term this extensive or fundamental re- 
search. 

Of course, in our attempt to im- 
prove that resin, we may uncover a 
fact throwing new light on the whole 
subject of dielectric losses, but that 
would be purely adventitious — much 
like discovering buried treasure while 
digging for clams. Or the new facts 
resulting from the study of the photo 
cell may point the way to the devel- 
opment of a wholly new device, open- 
ing up a new broad field of activity. 
The faint hope of such an outcome is 
always present in every fiuidamental 
research, but if it appears, it, too, is 
in a sense adventitious, for it was not 
the objective of the research. 

It is in their objectives, not in their 
experimental methods, nor in their 



possible outcomes, that the two kinds 
of research fundamentally differ. It 
is the kind of objective which a re- 
search laboratory sets before itself 
which most fundamentally determines 
its function in the industry. 

All industrial research laboratories 
conduct intensive researches. In most 
laboratories it is the only kind of re- 
search that is considered. It is inten- 
sive research which improves product, 
reduces cost, opens up new applica- 
tions, increases sales, and, by provid- 
ing more and better things for more 
people, helps to raise living standards. 
Such research is now considered es- 
sential by practically every industry. 
The company which neglects it will 
soon be lagging behind its competi- 
tors, and the industry which neglects 
it will survive foreign competition for 
a time only by cowering behind tariff 
walls. 

Intensive research is a conservative 
investment. In competent hands it 
may be confidently expected to pay 



dividends. Not every project will be 
brought to a successful conclusion, but 
some should yield results of sufficient 
immediate value to pay for the fail- 
ures and to leave a material balance 
on the credit side. 

Fundamental research, on the mone- 
tary side, is a pure gamble. It is 
pioneering in an unknown land. What 
will be discovered and what its value, 
if any, will be, no one can foretell. 
Nevertheless, it was primarily to con- 
duct such explorations that the re- 
search laboratory of the General 
Electric Company was founded. It 
was realized by the officers of the 
company that the electrical industry 
sprang from the fundamental re- 
searches of Faraday and his contem- 
poraries; that electrical engineering 
was simply the application of the re- 
sults of research; and that electrical 
development would in time perforce 
slow down, unless a continuing sup- 
ply of new facts were forthcoming. 
(Turn to page 38) 



11 




DURING the past fifteen years 
our daily papers and periodicals 
have been carrying an increasing 
number of articles about the develop- 
ment of a new tj'pe of radio apparatus 
which would transmit pictures through 
the air. Periodically, we have been 
assured that television is "just around 
the corner," but to date the corner 
has not been turned as far as the pub- 
lic is concerned. These sporadic 
bursts of publicity have produced a 
confusion in the minds of the public 
which has given rise to all sorts of 
rumors as to why general television 
program service is not available to tlie 
people of the United States-. Most of 
these rumors are unfounded. 

The real reason why television is 
still in the laboratory stage and un- 
dergoing field tests is that it has not 
been developed and tested to the point 
where our exacting public will readily 
accept it as a new tool of society. 
Except for a few people who are in- 
terested in new gadgets as such, our 
citizens demand utility before they 
accept things with enthusiasm. Such 
enthusiastic acceptance falls to the lot 
of only those pieces of apparatus 
which do an old task much better than 
the old tools, or which offer a desir- 
able new service impossible without 



12 



TELEVISION 



By Clarence W. Farrier 



tlif new advances. Television is rap- 
idly approaching conformity with that 
specification, but it is not quite ready 
to meet the exacting test of public ac- 
ceptance. 

"Pictures tiirough the air" to most 
of us is an incredible phenomenon. 
The fruition of the efforts of the many 
scientists and engineers who have par- 
ticipated in the development of televi- 
sion apparatus is thrilling to contem- 
j)late. Even for those who have 
worked on this difficult problem, the 
lu.ulaclus are offset by the thrill of 
contrihuting toward a solution which 
l)romises soon to be the right answer. 

The present television apparatus is 
tlic result of a chain of events which 
extend back over a period of 120 
years. In 1817, Berzelius, a Swedish 
pharmacist, isolated the metal, selen- 
ium. Fifty-six years later May, a 
telegrapii operator, discovered that 
the electronic properties of selenium 
changed when exposed to light. In 
1830, Bakewell transmitted a picture 
over an electrical circuit. These 



early links, together with the discov- 
eries of Kerr, Crooks, Nipkow, and 
many others, gave the compelling im- 
petus for the intense program of re- 
search and development which has 
been forging links in the chain with 
constant acceleration during the past 
fifteen years. 

An essential element of a television 
system is a camera to receive the light 
from the image or scene which is to 
be transmitted. Inside the camera 
there must be a device for translating 
tlie picture into electronic impulses. 
These impulses must then be amplified 
and turned into radio impulses wliich 
are launched into the atmosphere. 
These impulses are then picked out 
of the air by receiving antennae and 
in the receiving apparatus must be am- 
plified, filtered into their components, 
and re-translated into a visual image. 
The accompanying sound is picked up 
by the customary microphone and 
transmitted in the same way as any 
other sound radio. 

The essential difference between 



"Mike and Ike" 



Microphone and 
Iconoscope. 




tlie video apparatus and the audio 
lies in the pickup and reproduction 
instruments. The image to be trans- 
mitted on the video channel is focused 
upon the "Ike,' and as in sound 
pickup the sound is focused upon 
the "Mike." The "Ike, or Icono- 
scope, as it is more politely known. 
is an evacuated glass container shaped 
like a Florence flask. In the neck of 
the container is placed an electron 
gun with its electrostatic focusing de- 
vice which concentrates the emitted 
electrons into a thin pencil directed 
toward the bulbous end of the tube. 
In the bulb of the container, a "plate" 
is so placed that a lens system focuses 
the image to be transmitted upon the 
face of the plate. The plate is ap- 
proximately .3 by 4 inches in size and 
consists of a sheet of mica on the 
face of which has been deposited 
thousands of tiny silver globules. 
These globules are coated with a 
photo-electric substance. The back of 
the sheet of mica is covered with a 
secondary electrode consisting of a 
thin sheet of metal. The secondary 
electrode is connected to a terminal 
leading out through the wall of the 
tube. 

The electronic action by which the 
Iconoscope changes the picture into 
impulses in the circuits can be briefly 
explained by stating that the mica 
plate with its two coatings acts as a 
condenser. Its dielectric tension at 





Numerous floodlights are directed at the artist. The Iconoscope camera is in ihe 
right foreground and the microphone overhead. 



any instant is the resultant of the po- 
tential differences between the mosaic 
of silver globules on one side and the 
plate electrode on the other. 

An electro-magnetic yoke is placed 
on the neck of the Iconoscope tube. 
This yoke along with its accompany- 
ing circuits causes the beam of elec- 
trons emitted from the electron gini 
to be swept back and forth across the 
mosaic plate. As the beam moves 
back and forth the electro-magnetic 
yoke pulls it down over the plate, 
causing it successively to cover all 
elements of the mosaic in every two 
trips. This process is called the scan- 
ning of the mosaic. The covering of 
the alternate lines is called interlacing. 

In the present system in the United 
States, the interlaced scanning uses 
44.I lines to the complete frame, and 
30 complete or 60 half frames per 
second. 

As the scanning of the mosaic by 
the electron beam occurs, the average 
pressure in the dielectric of the mosaic 
plate changes and gives rise to fluctu- 
ations in the circuit leading to the 
first amplifier. This dielectric pres- 
sure, after passing through other am- 
plifiers, eventually modulates the car- 
rier wave emitted by the television 
transmitter. 

The changes in dielectric pressure 



NBC television 
control room. 
Engineer in 
foreground 
monitors the 
sound, the one 
at back moni- 
tors the picture. 
The program 
director, in 
center, faces a 
"talk back" 
micro phone 
which connects 
with earphones 
of men who 
focus icono- 
scopes in the 
studio. 



13 




in tlie mosaic plate are brought about 
tlirough the focusing of the light 
image upon the mosaic by the camera 
lens system. Various parts of the 
mosaic receive light in varied amounts, 
depending upon the intensity of light 
or shade of the image. The varying 
amount of light in turn determines 
the electric charges on the mosaic 
globules through the action of the 
photosensitive coating on the silver 
globules. As the electron beam 
touches each globule of the mosaic, 
the charge of that globule changes. 
These charges are the electrical im- 
pulses which are transmitted to the 
receiver. 

Another set of circuits turns off the 
electron beam at the end of the scan- 
ning line until the magnetic deflecting 
circuits have had opportunity to set 
up the necessary field to direct the 



beam at the other end of tiie next line 
to be scanned. At the end of the last 
line of each half scanned frame, tlic 
electron beam is turned off in the 
same manner until the magnetic yoke 
directs the beam to tiie beginning of 
the first line of the next half frame. 

Tliroughout this process, very rapid 
changes take place in the radio im- 
pulses transmitted. As many impulses 
are transmitted per second as the 
stock ticker can transmit in four busi- 
ness days. In addition to tlie picture 
signals, synchronizing impulses are 
transmitted during the time the elec- 
tron beam is cut off. 

At present it seems probable that a 
six megacycle band will be necessary 
on the radio spectrum for each tele- 
vision station. Tliis band spread is 
approximately six times tlie width of 
that of the whole standard broadcast 
channel allocation. The six megacycle 
b;ind would j)rovide a guard band of 
.25 megacycles against an adjacent 
channel, and spacing of ."J. 2.5 mega- 
cycles between tiie video and audio 
channels. 

To obtain such clianncl widtlis, tlie 
unallocated radio spectrum involving 
frequencies above forty megacycles 
has to be used. In this region, the 
j)ropagation and attenuation charac- 
teristics of radio waves differ materi- 
ally from those in the standard broad- 
cast band. Reliable service does not 
extend much beyond the horizon as 
viewed from the height of the anten- 



nae system. Considerable research is 
being done at present in the further 
investigation of the propagation char- 
acteristics of the Ultra High Radio 
Frequency. 

The tentative television channels 
have the advantage of being free from 
the effects of most varieties of static. 
They are susceptible, however, to au- 
tomobile ignition noise and unshielded 
diathermy macliine emanations. 

The television receiving set picks 
up the composite signal emitted from 
the transmitter and unscrambles it 
into its component parts. The audio 
signal goes to the audio amplifiers and 
is heard over a loud speaker. The 
synchronizing impulses go to sweej) 
circuits and serve tlieir purpose of 
keeping an electron beam in the re- 
ceiving tube, the Kinescope, in step 
with the beam of the transmitting 
Iconoscope. The video signals go 
through their circuits and modulate 
this Kinescope stream of electrons. 

The Kinescope is similar in con- 
struction to the Iconoscope, except 
that its end is coated on the inside 
with a fluorescent material which be- 
comes luminous in proportion to the 
intensity of the electron beam focused 
upon it. The modulated electron 
beam from the electron gun of the 
Kinescope is caused to follow the ex- 
act pattern of the scanning beam of 
the Iconoscope, and by causing vary- 
ing degrees of fluorescence on the face 
(Turn to page 28) 



Left: NBC television antenna atop Empire State Building, from which millions of 
electrical impulses are transmitteci that direct a stream of electrons in painting the 

image of television. 
Below: Typical Television Receiving Set. Note Image Screen in Top of Console. 




14 



ARC WELDING 

• 

FIFTY YEARS OF 
DEVELOPMENT 
AND PRESENT DAY 
APPLICATIONS 

By H. S. Card 




"/ agree 'icitli a long list of naval 
architects, marine engineers, and own- 
ers xvlio are of the opinion that welded 
ship construction xcill eventualli) en- 
tirely/ replace riveted construction." — 
A marine engineer. 

"It is the writer's personal opinion 
that the car of the future will be 
largely assembled by welding." — Gen- 
eral mechanical engineer of a railroad 
ear-building company. 

"P rogressive engineers have 
switched their skeptical attitude and 
now favor welded c07istruction in a 
great many new applications in the 
metal fabricating field." — General 
manager of an equipment manufac- 
turing company. 

THE above published statements 
are less than a week off the press 
as this article is being written. They 
reflect an unmistakable trend on the 
part of engineers in all industries to 
accept modern arc welding practice as 
a dependable method of construction; 
yet, between the lines of the third 
quotation one reads that engineers 
have been skeptical and that present 
day attitudes are in the nature of a 
change of front. A brief outline of 
the story of arc welding, a story that 
abounds in the drama of achievement, 
will serve to establish a logical basis 
for a generation of skepticism and 
also to introduce the modernized proc- 
ess, its essential values, and a few of 
its noteworthy applications in the en- 



gineering world, to tiiose wlio have not 
kept pace witii its progress. 

Fifty years ago Coffin discovered 
tliat by establishing and maintaining 
an electric arc between the end of a 
steel wire and a piece of steel plate 
he could cause the wire gradually to 
melt and fu.se itself, drop by drop, 
to the plate below. That was the 
birth of metallic arc welding. (If 
the infant seems to have matured 
slowly, let it be remembered that wire- 
less telegraphy was born during the 
same era.) There is a peculiar fas- 
cination about this method of joining 
metals, this concentration and control 
of a powerful heating agent, guiding 
it along a predetermined path until 
finally two separate pieces of metal 
become a solidly iiomogeneous unit. 
If Coffin, or one of his early follow- 
ers, had been asked, "Could the steel 
work of a twenty-story office building 
be welded?" the answer would have 
been "yes." But to the question, 
"How?" the reply could only have 
been, "I don't know." Spurred by 
the challenge of such elusive possibil- 
ities, a handful of electrical engineers 
persisted in their research and experi- 
ments. After thirty years of hard 
work the proponents of the metallic 
arc process could point to machines 
which delivered current suitable for 
arc welding, steel welding wire that 
performed satisfactorily, and a few 
operators who could make reasonably 
sound electric arc welds. 



Then came the World War, and 
with it numerous emergencies which 
caused engineers, driven to despera- 
tion, to try out this new process. It 
exceeded their fondest iiopes. The de- 
molished engines of interned German 
siiips, thought to be ruined beyond r(;- 
pair, were restored to service in a few 
months. The emergency shipbuilding 
program was accelerated by the sub- 
stitution of arc welding for many riv- 
eting operations. Munitions makers 
found in it a means of getting quickly 
into production on much needed sup- 
plies. One "miracle" after another 
was performed in those days by this 
strangely hooded new craftsman who 
made his appearance in the metal 
fabricating industries, miracles which 
passed unnoticed because public at- 
tention was focussed on the news 
from the front. 

During the business slump which 
followed demobilization, plant execu- 
tives remembered this new tool which 
apparently could make everything 
from a milk can to a battleship and 
fix anything that needed repair, which 
could cut production costs and save 
the expense of buying new parts to 
replace what Avas worn or broken. It 
was in this post-war period, marked 
by tlie application of haphazard pro- 
cedures, leaving in their wake a se- 
ries of deplorable failures and hasty 
conclusions, that the engineering pro- 
fession became skeptical of arc weld- 
ing. Two important indictments were 

15 




Mammoth Arc- Welded 
Press Used in Auto- 
mobile Body Con- 
struction. 



formulated against tlie process. First, 
the arc fused metal absorbed from the 
atmosphere, during its transfer, 
enough oxygen and nitrogen to lower 
its ductility beyond what could be 
considered safe for engineering struc- 
tures. Second, in many plants the 
best authority on arc welding was the 
operator himself, and the management 
was dependent on the workman for 
control of the quality of the work. 

In general, both of these accusa- 
tions were correct. The fact that they 
were correct makes it seem important 
to restate them here; arc deposited 
metal of that day was not a satisfac- 
tory engineering material ; and no sat- 
isfactory method of controlling weld 
quality had been developed. 

Despite these handicaps, the arc 
welding process was rapidly making 
its entry into nearly every nook and 
corner of industry. Weld quality was 
being improved by the use of flux 
coatings on electrodes to neutralize 
the effect of atmospheric gases, and 
operators were being trained to hold 
a "short arc" in order to minimize the 
time of this effect. Moreover, there 
was an increasing number of engi- 

16 



ncers who became interested in the 
process and mastered its complexities 
so thoroughh' that they were able to 
capitalize its advantages. Makers of 
refrigerating and refining equipment 



were successfully welding low pres- 
sure tanks and piping into leakproof 
systems. Several steel frames for in 
dustrial buildings were welded and 
showed striking opportunities for sav- 
ings in the structural steel field. Elec- 
trical companies began to fabricate 
such structures as large stator frames 
at much lower cost than castings. Ma- 
chinery manufacturers applied the 
idea to the fabrication of bases, 
frames, jigs, and fixtures. A tank 
manufacturer demonstrated that it is 
feasible to arc weld mammoth storage 
tanks in the field. A boiler maker 
built for his plant a 1,000-ton capac- 
ity arc welded steel press at a cost 
of .$8,000 which would have cost him 
$22,000 with a cast frame. A Chicago 
j)lant startled the machinery world by 
))roducing a line of welded rolled steel 
gear blanks to replace cast gears. In 
all cases the objective was the same 
— a more serviceable structure at a 
lower manufacturing cost. 

It was plain enough tliat arc weld- 
ing had taken its place as a valuable 
production method in the heavy indus- 
tries, notwithstanding its technical 
limitations. Improved materials and 
methods, destined to remove tliose 
limitations completely, were in the 
making, and that hectic period in 
which a merry boom was followed by 
financial panic was a very important 
transition period for the process. It 
was ready to greet the industrial re- 
covery, clothed with the official ap- 
j)roval of practically all important en- 
gineering groups. Research had found 
corrective measures for the most trou- 
blesome defects. 

Protection of the arc fused metal 
from atmosplieric contamination was 
accomplished by surrounding the 
welding wire with a heavy coating. 
This coating burned uniformly as the 



Arc-Welded Frame for Huge 200-inch Telescope. 




ire melted, enclosed the arc in a 
anket of incandescent vapors, and 
;posited on top of the liquid metal an 
r-tight crust of protective slag, 
'^ithin the limits of this discussion 
- is impossible to describe the endless 
[•ray of combination, analyses of 
eel and materials used in coatings 
lat make up the large catalog of 
5avily coated welding electrodes, 
[here are many, excellent, heavily- 
)ated welding electrodes now used in 
idustrial arc welding. They vary 
reatly in composition. 

Chief among the advantages of pro- 
icting the arc was the production of 
elds having tensile streng-th and 
uctility equal to that of the mate- 
als welded; the latter might be or- 
inary mild steel, stainless steel, low 
Hoy, high tensile steel, etc.; the 
roblems presented by varying the 
Hoys were met by varying the cheni- 
lal composition of the wire and the 
Datings. The engineering significance 
f the new material was that a per- 
2ctly sound weld between two pieces 
f steel would have the same ability 
y withstand tension and bending 
)ads as the metal on either side. The 
^eld need not be a relatively weak 
rea. On the contrary, it could be 
lade a relatively stronger area, if de- 
ired. 

Equally ingenious and effective were 
he methods devised to provide man- 
gement control over welding opera- 
ions. Municipal building authorities 
nd boiler and pressure vessel inspec- 
ors wisely refrained from permitting 
he general use of arc welding for 
tructures under their supervision un- 
il weld quality could be made not 
nly a possibility but a certainty. 

In 1927, 42 welding operators in 
iS many widely separated shops were 
)ut through a uniform qualification 



test. Then they were asked to weld a 
set of typical structural connections. 
The uniformity with which these sam- 
ple joints met the computed require- 
ments for strength and safety was 
amazing even to the most ardent pro- 
ponents of structural welding. Tlius 
it was established that reliable work- 
manship can be predetermined by 
means of operator qualification tests, 
and that certain design values for 
welds can safely be accepted. This 
was the work of the Structural Steel 
Welding Committee of the American 
Bureau of Welding, whose report, 
published in 19.'J1, was hailed as the 
Mag-na Carta of fusion welding. 

P~urther confirmation of the depend- 
ability of arc welds was found in the 
experience of several leading pres 
sure vessel manufacturers. These en 
terprising firms were beginning to 
supply the petroleum industry, and 
other processing industries, with all 
welded vessels built to withstand pres 
sures and temperatures far beyond 
the capacit}' of vessels made by older 
processes. Insurance companies and 
regulatory bodies gave their approval 
and cooperated in the drafting of 
codes governing the application of 
welding in these various fields. 

The pattern of a typical welding 
code outlines the structure of well or- 
ganized management control; quashes 
the second indictment against arc 
welded construction. The fabricating 
shop is first required to demonstrate 
by a series of rigid tests that it has 
a definite procedure capable of meet- 
ing the code requirements for phys- 
ical properties in the weld metal. Each 
operator employed on work subject to 
the code is obliged to pass a qualifi- 
cation test, using the adopted shop 
procedure. Inspectors not employed 
(Turn to page 40) 



Modern all-welded tug boat for Atlantic coast service. 





KDKA's New 718 Ft. Electric Arc-Welded 
Antenna. 



17 



Top left: Storage bins and "high line." 



ORE TO A FORD 



Top right: Blast iumace. 



Bottom left: Steel billet being taken from 
soaking pit for removal to rolling mill. 



Bottom right: Tapping a blast furnace. 



THE stupendous size of the Ford 
Motor Company's plant at Dear- 
horn, Micliigan, and the vast scope of 
its operations are liardly more im- 
pressive to the engineer than the per- 
fection of tlie timing with which tliese 
operations are carried out. 

Hundreds of materials, gathered 
from the ends of the eartii, move 
tlirough the plant, elianging as they 
move step by step toward the final as- 



sembly line. Some are handled in 
enormous quantities, others in small, 
but each moves along in precisely the 
right amount and at precisely the 
rigiit pace to reach its objective at the 
moment it is needed. 

Tills synchronization of the work 
of men with materials and machinery 
makes possible the transformation of 
raw ore to a part in a finished Ford 
V'-8 in 28 iiours elapsed time. This 




IN 28 HOURS 



Top left: Cores move on conveyors as 
they are assembled. This shows inspec- 
tion of cylinder block core assembly. 



true of very few parts of course, 
because most of them require anneal- 
ing, heat treating, or other Iiandling 
[which consumes many hours. Every 
[part is given exact and careful treat- 
Iment to fit it for the work it is des- 
Itined to do. Nevertheless, the work 
advances with striking rapidity con- 
jsidering that parts are manufactured 
ito very close limits — more than 6,000 
precision gage applications being re- 



quired in the making of each car — and 
that Ford methods demand absolute 
uniformity as well as high quality. 

Efficiency in manufacture is of 
prime value in reducing storage re- 
quirements, and in eliminating much 
rehandling of materials. It is made 
possible only by close and constant 
control of the materials at every step 
of the way to the final assembly line. 
(Turn to page 36) 



Top right: Camshafts on overhead con- 
veyors. Workmen take off camshafts 
only when needed, the others traveling 
around the line again and again until 
removed. 



Bottom left: This five-way tapping ma- 
chine drills and threads 79 holes in V-8 
engine block at a single operation. 

Bottom right: On final assembly line. 
Shows body being lowered into position. 





THE ENGINEE 
AND THE ME A 
PACKING INDUSTR 



LEST the title of tliis article mis- 
lead the reader, let it be under- 
stood at the start that the engineer re- 
ferred to is also a bit of a chemist and 
a bacteriologist and that the refer- 



I'nc-fs wliicli will be used in illustra- 
tion will come from those industries 
which handle meat-type foods. The 
engineer is not a newcomer to the food 
industry, for science has been serving 



By C. Robert Moulton 



consumers of its products for many 
years. Yet the modern phase of the 
food industry is young, and new meth- 
ods of processing, distributing, and 
merchandising bid fair to bring about 
some major revolutions. 

The modern food industry is largely 
the result of the universal application 
of refrigeration to perishable foods. 
This is especially true of fresh fruits 
and vegetables, milk and dairy prod- 
ucts, eggs and poultry, fish, and meat. 
It would appear that there were no 
new problems here. However, two 
modern developments show that mere 
temperature control is but a part of 
adequate, efficient, and economical re- 
frigeration. These developments are 
quick-freezing and air conditioning. 
Quick Freezing 

P'ood spoilage is a result of the 
action of micro-organisms combined 
with enzymic changes and atmospheric 



Modern meat packing plant. Note extensive use oi glass brick in walls. 




20 



effects, especially oxygen. Low tem- 
peratures are fairly effective in con- 
trolling these processes, and the ex- 
clusion of light and oxygen is also an 
aid, especially in the case of fatty 
foods. The ideal temperature for 
keeping most perishable foods is as 
near the freezing point as possible but 
without allowing ice crystals to form. 
In many cases foods can be kept 
longer if frozen, but this process dam- 
ages certain foods. It used to be 
thought that most fruits and vege- 
tables were spoiled by freezing and 
that, while meat may be kept for 
months when frozen, it is never as 
good again. 

However, experience and experi- 
ment have shown that certain fruits 
and vegetables can be quickly frozen 
at low temperatures and delivered in 
this state to the ultimate consumer in 
very excellent shape with their orig- 
inal freshness and flavor well pro- 
tected. In the case of meat-type foods 
the effect of freezing by methods once 
considered adequate is to rupture the 
muscle cells, and, on thawing, such 
meats are soft and watery because of 
the escape of the valuable muscle 
serum. It has been shown that tlie 
size and location of the ice crystals 
■can be controlled by the method of 
freezing and that low temperatures 
such as 20°, 30°, and even better, 40° 
to 50° below zero Fahrenheit, will 
cause very small ice crystals to form 
within the sheath of the muscle cell 
or fiber. Thus the structure is not 
damaged, and the product when 
thawed is in all respects as good as 
fresh meat. 

But it is not as simple as this. Meat 
has a very low rate of conduction for 
heat. While lean meat is about 70 to 
75 per cent water, this water is in- 
timately related to proteins, fats, and 
salts within a poorly conducting mem- 
brane. Then the addition of fat makes 
the meat a progressively poorer con- 
ductor. The same is true of fish and 
poultry. Therefore, but relatively 
thin pieces of meat foods can be really 
quick-frozen. About three inches 
seems to be the limit. With thicker 
pieces, while the outside may freeze 
quickly, the inside will freeze no 
faster than slowly frozen meats. 

Also, when air is used as the means 
of taking heat out of the product, one 
is using a relatively poor conductor. 
Dry, cold air that moves slowly over 
a warmer body is not efficient in this 
respect. Moist air is much better. But 
very cold metal in more or less direct 
contact with flat surfaces of flesh 
foods is most excellent. 

There are two general types of 
quick freezing methods now in com- 
mercial use. In one type air is made 




Dried Beef Line in Armour & Co. Packing Plant. 
Table Tops and Other Parts Where Meat Co: 



Note Use of Stainless Steel in 
les in Contact with Metal. 



a better conductor by means of spray- 
ing devices which use brine solutions 
in the form of a mist as the heat 
absorbing material. The product may 
be frozen by direct action or it may 
be packed tightly in cartons or metal 
containers on which the spra}' falls. 

The other method involves very 
cold brine solutions which may be 
sprayed onto flat, segmented movable 
metal belts which contact the pack- 
aged goods above and below and thus 
effect very rapid heat transfer. In an- 
other process very cold brine is sent 
through waxed paper tubes which pass 
through the internal cavities of a 



chicken, for example, and thus bring 
about quick freezing. 

Air Conditioning 
When flesh foods are refrigerated 
they lose moisture. Freezing increases 
this water loss unless special precau- 
tions are taken to prevent it. This 
water loss means a loss in weight and 
tlierefore a loss in money to the food 
processer. In addition, the water loss 
often brings about a loss in quality of 
the product. In the meat packing in- 
dustry losses of this kind may occur 
in the chill and store rooms for car- 
(Turn to page 48) 



A Smoked Meat Hanging Room. Note Application of Air-Conditioning Equipment. 




21 



L. 



SCHEDULED 
RESEARCH 



By L. W. Wallace 



W'' HEN tlie average person meets 
the word "research" he visual- 
izes a scene within the sacred confines 
of a laboratory : White-coated magi- 
cians are brewing mysterious elixirs ; 
by the use of magic formulae new 
materials are being produced synthet- 
ically with properties far superior to 
those created by nature ; measuring 
devices, superhuman in tlieir ability to 
probe into the properties of materials 
are being manipulated, and their ultra- 
precise readings recorded. 

These activities appear to be en- 
tirely independent of the time element 



which exerts such a jiressure on life 
in tlie world outside the cloistered 
walls of the "research laboratory." 
While these processes appear to be 
going along in a leisurely manner 
with no time scheduled behind them 
this is not an indication of lack of 
planning or purpose, but the result of 
a deliberate removal of the direct ef- 
fect of the pressure found in a manu- 
facturing plant where the operations 
are repetitive and the production 
schedule demands that so many rivets, 
so many pounds of material, or so 
many assembled products be turned 



out per unit of time. Here the pres- 
sure of time is necessarily applied 
directly. 

The ideal method of conducting re- 
search is to set the stage in such a 
way that the pressure of time will not 
be applied directly, but will, never- 
theless, serve as a control, to elimi- 
nate wasteful methods and to crystal- 
lize all efforts toward a definitely for- 
mulated objective. 

Viewed in this manner research is 
a type of production. Consequently a 
detailed plan of action, schedule, and 
budget can be projected prior to start- 




Use of Motion Picture Cam- 
era in Determining Speed 
of Moving Car Just Prior 
to Impact. Experimental 
Lightweight Car at Left, to 
Be Struck by Standard 
A. A. R. Car at Right. 



22 



ing actual research work. One of the 
criticisms of research is its indefinite- 
ness as to cost and time of comple- 
tion. We hold that research can be 
and should be planned, budgeted, and 
scheduled, the same as any produc- 
tion job but without the direct appli- 
cation of pressure. This is achieved 
by skillful planning when the pro- 
gram is formulated. 

The Division of Engineering Re- 
search of tiie Association of Ameri- 
can Railroads has jurisdiction over all 
research relating to cars, locomotives, 
track structures, buildings, electrical, 
shop and maintenance-of-way equip- 
ment, and the materials and supplies 
used in connection therewith. Not 
only does it deal with all mechanical 
facilities, but also with metallurgical 
and physical problems, as well as fuel, 
water, paints, and other materials and 
supplies. The Division neitlier dupli- 
cates nor replaces the work of the 
test or research departments of the 
various railroads, but is supplemen- 
tary and complementary thereto. It 
maintains the closest possible contact 
with the mechanical, civil, electrical, 
chemical, and other technical offices 
of the railroads, the other Divisions of 
the Association, and suppliers of 
equipment and materials. 

The Division is essentially a plan- 
ning and administrative agency. It is 
not the purpose to have a large staff 
or to build and equip laboratories. 



There are existing in the United 
States and Canada ample research fa- 
cilities and personnel. They are to be 
found in industry, in the railroads, in 
endowed research institutions, and in 
engineering colleges and universities. 
Many of these research agencies are 
not fully occupied. They welcome ad- 
ditional opportunities and work, and 
by utilizing them a heavy investment 
in equipment is avoided and greater 
flexibility achieved. 

Thus tile problem confronting the 
Division in outlining the program for 
a contemplated piece of research is 
the planning and scheduling of the 
various steps so accurately that each 
part of the study can be carried 
through without the exertion of high- 
pressure or rusli methods which de- 
feat the purpose of research and de- 
stroy its very nature. The explorer 
does not go under full speed into new 
territory, but his course is planned, 
and the time element controls but does 
not disrupt the orderly pursuit of the 
objective. 

An example of a carefully planned 
and scheduled research project was 
that recently completed by the Divi- 
sion on the air conditioning of rail- 
road passenger cars, and is typical of 
the method of conducting all of the 
projects undertaken by the Division: 

(1) Through the conferences with 
railroad, manufacturing, and technical 



groups a list was made of the prob- 
lems relating to the subject. 

(2) A research Manual was pre- 
pared containing: 

(a) A list of eacii problem and a 
method of attack for obtaining factual 
information concerning each. The 
method of attack involved botii lab- 
oratory and road work. 

(b) Conference with representatives 
of manufacturers at which time the 
test technique to be used was fully 
discussed and approval obtained. 

(c) Manufacturers and railroads 
were requested to make available for 
test purposes the necessary equip- 
ment. 

(d) The necessary testing instru- 
ments were listed in the Manual, and 
likewise the test procedure formu- 
lated as decided in (c). 

(e) Detailed instructions as to how 
to carry out the road work and lab- 
oratory work. 

(f) Schedule for each phase of the 
work, including the date that each of 
four progress reports and the final re- 
port were to be ready. 

(g) Request to thirty railroads that 
each assign a man during parts of 
July, August, and September to as- 
sist in the road work. 

(h) First week in July these men 
attended a conference with the staff at 
Ohio State University where the road 
work program was hammered out. 

(3) Selection of personnel and 



Frame Applied to A. A. R. 
Standard Car to Measure 
Distortion Following a 
Series of Impacts. 




23 




Investigation of Air Condition in a Railway Car. 



places wliere laboratory work would (10) Approximate number of calcu- 

be done. This resulted in work being lations made from recorded 

done in the "hot room" of the Pull- data 85,000 

man Co., Chicago, and the Baltimore (11) The analysis of costs is based 

and Ohio Railroad, Baltimore, Mary- upon an experience record of 

land, and in the Mechanical Engineer- 1.(508 cars for 1935 with a total 

ing Laboratory of Ohio State Univer- car-mileage of 178,259,768 

sity, Columbus, Ohio. It will be seen by the above ex- 

(4) Selection of types of air-con- ample that research as conducted col- 

ditioning equipment and cars to be Icctively by the railroads through the 

tested and upon what railroads. Association of American Railroads on 

In accord with such a plan the ac- problems common to all, is not a hap- 

tual research work was started in li-i^ard, leisurely process, nor is it a 

early March, 1936, and a Summary '•"s'^'"?' mass-production affair, but a 

Report submitted under date of No"- '^arefully planned and scheduled pro- 

vember 24, 1936. The scope of the ''t^ ^''S- ^'^'^"'*' objective, 

work accomplished will be seen in the J^'' ^""^^l' f'^^^'f ^7 '"^'^ ^P^^'^' 

following Table: "'.'^'"^ comfort, and a luxurious en- 

vironment has offered a challenge to 

mtTiTT^ , .^^^^^ ^^ .^ '^''^ t*6-^t scientific and engineering 

J^.^r?^^^ ^^ AIR-CON- brains available, and has created 

DITIONING STUD\ problems so numerous that only by 

(1) Number of air conditioning sys- scheduled research can they be an- 
tems tested in laboratory." 15 swered before new conditions change 

(2) Number of drive mechanisms *'^" f"*"''^ <;o°^Pletely- I* ^'^ould be 
tested in laboratory 6 ^^mp'f ^ized, however, that progress m 

/ON XT 1 „ . ,. . , t"e design and operation of the phv- 

(3) Number of air-conditioned cars ,ieal properties of the railroads is de- 
tested in hot room 14 j^^^^j^^^ ^p^^ ^,^^ progress made by 

(4) Number of railroads that con- other industries. The discoveries 
ducted road tests. .' 31 made in metallurgy have made possi- 

(5) Number of passenger cars on ble the drastic reductions in weight 
which road tests were condue- without sacrifice in strength; advances 
ted 594 made in welding technique have made 

(6) Approximate number of hours possible a new method of fabrication 
of road testing. . 5 '>00 °^ cars; the solution of theoretical 

(7) Approximate "number ' of ' miles P'-obW i" mechanical design have 
of road testing 240.000 ^^^"^t^d in new types of motive power, 

r ^"" SO on. 

(8) Number of passengers who sub- The railroad industry adopts and 
mitted comments on conditions apples only the materials and designs 
in air-conditioned cars while ^hich have proved their worth under 
tests were being made. . . . 5,453 t^g severe conditions to be met in ac- 

(9) Approximate number of data tual operation. This method of test- 
readings recorded for all lab- ing is synonymous with that of 
oratory and road tests . .250,000 scheduled research. 

24 



The process of research is not elu- 
sive, fanciful, or something which 
must be confined to a cloistered en- 
vironment. It is an organized diligent 
investigation to discover facts. The 
facts to be discovered may relate to 
the heavens above, the earth below, 
the waters beneath, or to any human 
or physical element in either or all of 
them. Daily we apply the process of 
research because daily we are con- 
cerned with the facts of the universe 
and of life. 

In a large degree research is an 
attitude of mind — that attitude which 
prompts one to be eternally asking 
the question "why.?" — that' attitude 
which does not permit of the closing 
of the mind — that attitude which leads 
to ascertaining what people are doing 
on other lines of work and adapting 
that which is adaptable to one's own 
work — that attitude which warns 
against the folly of complacency and 
satisfaction with things as they are — ■ 
that attitude which expresses itself in 
the phrase "What is not yet, may be." 

It is the attitude which guards 
against the human instinct to enslave 
oneself in a shell — that attitude which 
stimulates co-operation and a free ex- 
change of experience and information 
— that attitude which recognizes that 
nothing is static — that change is the 
law of the universe and he who would 
win must frequently change his course. 
There is nothing mystical in such a 
concept. The process of research is a 
tangible, ready tool, the wise use of 
which begets results whose value ex- 
ceeds the cost paid in time, effort, and 
money. 

The fundamental requirements of 
one who engages in research are: an 
open mind, freedom from the shackles 
of precedent, no pride of authorship, 
willingness to modify conclusions and 
actions when new conditions and ele- 
ments make it clear that such modi- 
fications are justified. If one engaged 
in research departs very far from such 
fundamental concepts he is in danger 
and his usefulness likely to be greatly 
lessened. 

A research agency should be ready 
and anxious to support long estab- 
lished methods if actual facts sustain 
their fundamental soundness. More- 
over, if actual facts do not support 
long established practices the research 
agency should have the courage to say 
so, and why, and strongly support its 
position. The conditions enumerated 
are never fully realized because hu- 
man nature, weakness, and strength 
are what they are. However, we never 
rise above the standard set, so it is 
well to set the standard high. It was 
Seneca who said "Admire those who 
attempt great things, even though they 
fail." 



COOPERATIVE 
RESEARCH 
FOR INDUSTRY 



By Thomas C. Poulter 




s 



> 



SO much has been said about re- 
search and its value that the 
average person accepts it as an in- 
tegral part of industry without very 
clearly realizing its application to 
himself or to his business. Starting 
with a conclusion and piling up data 
with a pretense of supporting it is 
not research. Starting with facts, 
adding more facts to them, and find- 
ing out what they mean, represents 
the only type of research which will 
yield lasting benefit. Research cannot 
be carried out spasmodically. To be 
effective it must be continuous. It 
must represent a persevering pursuit 
of information. Very few individual 



research problems are spectacular. 
Most of them have to do with simple 
things — developing a little further in- 
formation on a subject on which 
something is known — modifying this 
and that conception, and searching 
for a little better understanding. It 
is only when we are able to view 
research from the standpoint of a 
general program that it is spectacular. 
Research should endeavor to antici- 
pate problems, and as often as not, 
must be carried out in advance of a 
demand for a direct application of the 
facts developed. The progress of 
every successful industry is based on 
research, whether it is carried out by 




.85 



Mi/ 



Research in Diesel Equipment Involves Investigations of the E ngines Themselves, and of Their Fuels and Lubricants. In the 
Set-up Illustrated, the Diesel Engine Drives a 200 H. P. Electric Dynamometer. 

By Means of a Large Number of Thermocouples, Accurate Fue 1 and Intake Air Measuring Devices, Equipment for Studying 

Combustion in the Cylinder and the Products of Combustion and Lubrication Control Equipment, Almost Every Possible 

Variable Is Carefully Regulated or Observed. 




25 




the consumer of tlie industry products 
or by the industry itself. The indus- 
try wliich depends solely on tlic con- 
sumer's research occupies an unhappy 
position of knowing less about its 
business tlian do its customers. It 
may awaken to find that other prod- 
ucts have been developed which will 
serve the purpose just as well. 

Industrial research by industries 
should be carried out by two groups 
of organizations : first, by industrial 
companies ; and second, by group ac- 
tion, tlirough organizations represent- 
ing the group. The proportion of the 
work wliich should be done by each 
of tlie two types of organizations will 
depend upon the nature of the indus- 
try. In general, those investigations 
having to do with special processes. 



Testing Insulation with Flat Plate Conductimeter. 
The samples of insulation to be tested are placed on opposite 
sides of an electrically heated plate with water cooled plates 
outside of the samples. The amount of heat transmitted in o 
given time from the electrically-heated plate to the water-cooled 
plates is used in determining the thermal conductivity of the 
specimens under test. 



Testing domestic refrigerator in constant temperature room. An 
accurate record is made of the performance of the refrigerator 
which includes temperature reading, electrical input, operating 
periods, etc. 



An investigation of the type of monomoleuclar film, molecular 
cross secional area, and length of the molecules of a substance 
by means of hydrophyl balance measurements. The balance 
being used permits measurements to be made with reseach 
precision. A mirror and scale are used in making the adjust- 
ments of the torsion head as the surface area of the film is 
reduced by moving the glass-bar barrier. All moving parts of 
the balance are controlled from outside the constant tempera- 
ture case so that measurements may be made at any constant 
temperature within the range of the thermostatic circulator. ( 




plant control, and the like, and the 
application of the results of coopera- 
tive research which makes the com- 
pany better able to compete with 
others in the industry, should be 
sponsored by the individual company.; 
For those fundamental problems 
which are common to all or to a group 
of the industry, or which involve the 
relation of the industry to the public 
or consumer, should be sponsored co- 
operatively. Cooperative research not 
only eliminates costly duplication of 
effort, but also sets up an organization 
which can speak authoritatively for 
the industry as a whole. 

The place that an organizatior 
holds in the industrial world toda 
not necessarily reflected in its 
search activities, but there is no bet^ 



ttr index of its future security than 
its research activities. There are but 
few research organizations so com- 
plete that they do not liave problems 
arising which could be handled to bet- 
ter advantage either from the stand- 
point of special training of personnel 
or special equipment required by out- 
side laboratories in which that train- 
ing or equipment is available. 

One of tlie easiest ways of making 
a problem hard for the student to solve 
is to give him more data than is nec- 
essary for its solution. Likewise, the 
solution of many research problems 
is made more difficult by the fact that 
the investigator is so completely en- 
grossed in the manner in which many 
other problems in the same industry 
have been solved that he finds it diffi- 



"Old Faithful" Dubbs No. 2. On This Unit, with a Capacity of 
250 Barrels a Day, Were Worked Out Many Features of Uni- 
versal's Cracking Process. This Unit, Which Is Now Retired 
from Active Service, Stands in Universal's Research and De- 
velopment Laboratories in Riverside Illinois. 

[Photo coiirtosy ,.f Oil oinl Cos Joiirmil] 



Dr. Komarewsky in His Laboratory in the Research Foundation 

of Armour Institute of Technology Working on New Processes 

for the Universal Oil Products Co. 



This Newest Development in the Field of Research at Extreme 
Pressures Whereby We Are Able to Develop Pressures of One 
and One-Half Million Pounds Per Square Inch Have Real Value 
in Studies Leading to a Better Knowledge of the Interior of the 
Earth and Its Magnetic Field. 

Very Little Attempt Has Been Made in the Past to Utilize Ex- 
treme Pressure Experiments in the Solution of Everyday Prob- 
lems, but They Are Rapidly Assuming a Place of Increasing 
Importance. In such Experiments Lie the Answers to Many 
Questions That Have for Years Been Considered Impossible 
of Solution. 



cult to isolate his particular problem 
and arrive at the easiest solution. 

In a large number of the more than 
two thousand industrial research lab- 
oratories in this country, it is neces- 

ry that the plant control work be 
carried out in the same laboratory as 
the general research program. In 
many cases this introduces a serious 
handicap in that the research program 
is being continually interrupted by 
control problems that need immediate 
attention in the plant. 

It is a popular belief that only large 
industries can support large research 
organizations, whereas it is more 
nearly the truth that the large indus- 
tries are supported by their research 



27 





f Oil and Gas Jo 



Modem Full Size Plant in the Petroleum Industry, with a Capacity of 14,000 
Barrels a Day. 



activities. You may say that there are 
industries wliich cannot aiford to es- 
tablish the necessary research labora- 
tory to make them occupy the place 
in the industrial world that they 
should, or that there are industries 
which regardless of their research fa- 
cilities are destined to be compara- 
tively small and therefore cannot af- 
ford a research organization. Only a 
relatively few years ago this would 
have been true, but today many of the 
largest industries do not operate lab- 
oratories of their own. For exam- 



p\e, the Association of American 
Railroads have a division of re- 
search; the public utilities have 
organizations known as the Utilities 
Research Commission, Inc. and Utili- 
ties Coordinated Research, Inc. ; and 
the corn industries have what is known 
as the Corn Industries Research 
Foundation. None of these organiza- 
tions operates a laboratory of its own, 
but each maintains extensive research 
activities in already existing labora- 
tories such as the Research Founda- 
tion of Armour Institute of Technol- 



ogy, where it is possible to obtain a 
much greater variety of facilities and ; 
personnel than it would be feasible 
for them to establish themselves. 

The very nature of most industries 
maintaining research laboratories is 
such as to make it necessary that the 
major portion of their research per- 
sonnel have training along one par- 
ticular line. For instance, a labora- 
tory may employ a hundred men, and 
more than ninety of them may be 
chemical or electrical engineers. Un- 
til recently it was only the very large 
industrial laboratories that could 
make available to each member of 
their research staff the services of 
men trained in a large variety of fields 
for consultation purposes or for fol- 
lowing up a particular investigation 
that could be much better handled by 
a man trained in an entirely different 
field than his own. 

The Research Foundation makes it 
possible for industrial organizations 
to avail themselves of facilities com- 
parable to those maintained by some 
of the largest industries. It also 
makes it possible for the industries 
that wish to know what a research 
program can do for them to obtain 
this service without the large initial 
cost of establishing a laboratory. 



TELEVISION 

(From page 14) 
of the Kinescope, reconstructs the pic- 
ture which may be focused upon the 
Iconoscope plate at that instant. 

The technical apparatus has reached 
that stage of development where its 
feasibility has been well demonstrated, 
but the immediate future promises a 
period of painstaking research and de- 
velopment in smoothing out its func- 
tioning. Television apparatus being a 
successively functioning system rather 
than an instantaneous one must be 
constructed in accordance with stand- 
ard which must be carefully consid- 
ered to insure their permanence. 
Changes in standards after a televi- 
sion service had started would neces- 
sitate the rebuilding of all receiving 
sets as well as of all transmitters. 

The reader is probably asking the 
universal question — "When is televi- 
sion going to be available to the 
people of the United States?" All of 
us may guess, but no one can name 
the date. Guesses as to the progress 
of research are as accurate as bets at 
the race track. 

In the meanwhile, program tech- 
niques for television entertainment are 
undergoing development also, and it is 
the hope that when the infant is born 
it will be a complementary credit to 
the present entertainment media. 



28 



CHICAGO AS A 
FINANCIAL 



MARKET 



By Harvey T. ffiU 



IT has often been said one way to 
be successful in politics is never 
to make a direct statement or a pre- 
diction. Regardless of all this, and 
because I am not a politician, I will 
begin this brief article with the state- 
ment, "Chicago should advance more 
as a financial market during the next 
decade than should any other financial 
center." By this I mean percentage 
of growth from what exists today. I 
realize such a statement is bound to 
bring up many questions, such as: 

(1) What is meant by the Chicago 
financial market? 

(2) Why should this market grow 
faster than any other? 

(3) What effect will government 
regulation have on the future growth ? 

(4) Is the Chicago financial market 
a good place for business men to turn 
when they want money for their busi- 
ness expansion? 

(5) Is this a good place for invest- 
ors to buy securities? 

Perhaps the readers of this article 
will think of many other questions, 
but it would seem the answers to these 
few might prove the point taken, that 
the immediate future growth of Chi- 
cago as a financial market should be 
encouraging to those interested in it. 
The Chicago Financial Market 

In speaking of the financial market 
of Chicago, I have in mind four ele- 
ments that make it up: first, the com- 
mercial banks ; second, the underwrit- 
ing houses that purchase securities 
from business institutions and retail 
them to the public; third, the broker- 
age houses that buy and sell for their 
customers commodities and securities 
that have been listed on stock ex- 
changes; and fourth, the market 
places themselves, which in Chicago 
include the Chicago Stock Exchange, 
the Chicago Curb Exchange, the 
Board of Trade of Chicago, the Chi- 
cago Mercantile Exchange, and the 
Chicago Live Stock Exchange. On 
the Stock Exchange and the Curb, 
only securities are traded. Securities 
are dealt in on the Board of Trade, 
but its chief commodity is grain; 
whereas the Mercantile Exchange is 

29 



a trading place largely for butter and 
eggs. 

The Future of the Market 

In predicting what might be the 
future of Chicago as a market place, 
it is well for us to look around and 
see what has happened in similar com- 
munities. Economists tell us that no 
community amounts to much as a 
financial center until that community 
becomes a lending center. In other 
words, as long as a community requires 
more money tlian it has within itself 
for the operation and the development 
of its business, it is a borrowing com- 
munity. No borrowing community is 
independent financially, any more 
than an individual who is borrowing is 
independent financially. 

However, the history of our great 
financial markets from Genoa, Venice, 
Amsterdam, and London to New York 
has been that when these centers be- 
came lending centers they started to 
become important financial centers. In 
other words, when these communities 
had more money than they needed for 
the operation and expansion of their 
business enterprises, they became in- 
dependent financial centers and started 
to grow in importance financially. An- 
other interesting observation is that 
eventually the importance of these 




Looking South on LaSalle Street, Toward 
Board of Trade Building. 



Trading Floor, Chicago Board of Trade. 





Cattle Sale at Union Stock Yards. 



financial centers equalled tiie impor- 
tance of their corresponding industrial 
and commercial strength. 

With these thoughts in mind, let us 
look at Chicago. Our economists tell 
us that a little more tlian a quarter 
of a century ago, Chicago became a 
lending center. Prior to that time 
when the business men of this Mid- 
western territory needed money for 
their enterprises, they had to turn to 
the East or to Europe to get part of 
their money, at least. However, for 
a little over a quarter of a century, 
Chicago has had sufficient financial 
strength to finance the various busi- 
ness projects of this community and 
has still money to spare. If our ex- 
periences are going to be the same as 
those of the other great financial mar- 
kets, we will eventually arrive at a 
point where our financial importance 
will equal that of our industry and 
commerce. Today the Chicago Board 
of Trade is the most important com- 
modity market in America, and the 
Mercantile Exchange is far superior 
in volume and importance to any other 
butter and egg market. Books could 
be written about Chicago's leadership 
in markets such as the Live Stock Ex- 
change and the various wholesale mar- 
kets of Chicago. This is hardly nec- 
essary, however, because Chicago's 
commercial and industrial position of 
importance is well known by everyone. 

In the field of commerce and indus- 



Chicago Stock Exchange. 



try. it is a well known fact that Chi- 
cago leads the rest of the country in 
many fields. It would seem the eco- 
nomic factors are set for us more ad- 
vantageously to make strides finan- 
cially than for any other market. Some 
pessimist might question our man- 
power to take advantage of tliis op- 
portunity. Such a pessimist has a 
right to liis own opinion, but, speak- 



ing as one who knows the financial 
leaders and financial institutions of 
important cities, I am sure Chicago 
lias no superiors as far as our man- 
power is concerned. The courage, con- 
structive imagination, and willingness 
to work is surpassed by no other group 
of men. There are those who thought 
in 1928 and 1929 that we were gaining 
the position we deserved, but who have 
lost a little faith on account of what 
the depression did to us. It is true 
that Chicago had 2;J1 banks in 1929 
and has but 56 today. It is true that 
many of our underwriting houses went 
out of business or were greatly 
crippled. The brokerage business and 
the volume of trading on the Exchange 
has suffered a severe setback. Never- 
theless, we still have sound banks in 
which the people have confidence. The 
underwriting business is, perhaps, re- 
covering faster than the brokerage 
and exchange trading. Therefore, it 
is my belief that we are on a sounder 
basis than ever before. It was our 
youth and inexperience that caused 
Chicago to suffer more during the de- 
pression than most other financial 
markets. It will be our youth and 
energy, coupled with natural economic 
factors, that will carry us on to the 
position we deserve, regardless of 
those who say, "It can never be done." 
Governmental Regulation 
What about this governmental reg- 
ulation? True, it ma}' hamper the 
general growth of banks, underwriting 
houses, brokers, and exchanges, but 
(Turn to page 45) 




30 



CONGRESSIONAL 
MEDAL AWARDED 
Dr. T. C. POULTER 



DOCTOR POULTER has been 
Director of the Researcli Foun- 
dation of Armour Institute of Tech- 
nology since September, 1936. He is 
a graduate of Iowa Wesleyan College, 
a Doctor of Science (Iowa Wesleyan), 
and a Doctor of Philosophy (Univer- 
sity of Chicago). He was Second-in- 
Command and Senior Scientist of the 
Second Byrd Antarctic Expedition. 

The Congressional Medal has been 
awarded to Doctor Poulter "for scien- 
tific accomplishment unequaled in 
Polar exploration." 



Doctor 
Thomas 
Charles 
Pouller 








\ 

\ 


i 








^ ^^mmr^m^amj^ 


J 



Rear Admiral 
Richard E. Byrd. 



The award will be made at a formal 
dinner to be held in the Red Lacquer 
Room of the Palmer House, Wednes- 
day evening, January 19th, 19.38. 
The presentation of the Medal will be 
made by the Honorable Henry Hor- 
ner, Governor of Illinois. Rear Ad- 
miral Richard E. Byrd; Rear Admiral 
Hayne Ellis, Commandant of the 
Ninth Naval District; and Brigadier 
General Philip B. Peyton, Command- 
ing General at Fort Sheridan, will be 
present. Invitations will be sent to 
all alumni of the Institute who are in 
the Chicago area, to our faculty and 
trustees, and to many others of our 
friends. We are assured of the pres- 
ence of approximately twenty five 
naval officers, and we expect to have 
with us representatives of the colleges 
and universities, of scientific and en- 
gineering societies, of business, and of 
government. All invitations will in- 
clude ladies. 

Any alumnus of the Institute, or 
any other friends of Armour who wish 
to make advance reservations, may 
mail checks, for .$.3.00 per person, 
payable to Armour Institute of Tech- 
nology. 

It is desirable that such reserva- 
tions be made as early as possible. 



31 




Takes Pleasure 



in 



Announcing . . . 

THE 

1938 

LINE OF 

UNIT MATCHED 
EQUIPMENT 



When You Think of Sound- 
Think of 

OPERADIO 

AMPLIFIERS AND SPEAKERS 



OPERADIO MFG. CO. 

ST. CHARLES. ILL. 



ARE YOU HAPPY 
WITH YOUR WORK 

By William C. Krathwohl 



During the past score of years, a 
great deal of research has been done 
in the fields of education and psy- 
chology to find the right job for the 
man. This has been made possible 
by the entrance of mathematics into 
these fields in the form of statistical 
analysis. The object of this paper is 
to tell of recent investigations con- 
cerning the subject of interests as it 
affects the choice of an occupation 
best suited to an individual. 

Graduates of engineering schools 
and upper classmen sometimes pause 
and wonder if they have chosen the 
occupation which is best suited to 
their talents. The freshman seldom 
worries. He does not have to. Of 
the three essentials for success in 
any vocation — ability, interest, and 
personality — lack of the first soon 
eliminates him who has the most 
cause to worry. 

Ability to succeed in any vocation 
is partly a function of intelligence. A 
study of the results of the Army 
Alpha intelligence tests which were 
given to men during the World War 
indicated that occupations might be 
ranked on the basis of intelligence 
scores. Studies made after the war 
showed the further interesting fact 
that the engineering group as a whole 
ranked higher in intelligence scores 
on this test than any other occupa- 
tional group. Whether this happened 
by chance is a subject which is still 
being investigated. Indications are 
that engineers will rank well toward 
the top of all occupational groups. 

There is, however, much more to 
success in a vocation than sufficient 
mental ability. The second factor 
which is of equal importance is the 
one of interest. Sheer superior 
ability may carry a man to a moder- 
ate degree of success in an occupa- 
tion. Whether he is happy in that 
occupation is another matter. 

Recently considerable work has 
been done on the subject of occupa- 
tional interests. Psychologists be- 
lieve that these interests become estab- 
lished at an early age, even though 



the individual may be unaware of 
their existence. Later in life they 
can be modified but only to a limited 
extent. Finally they become per- 
manent. 

The evidence that certain groups 
of occupations have characteristic in- 
terests is obtained from investiga- 
tions such as the one published in 
1930 by Miss Helen Fairbairn on a 
group of law, medical, and engineer- 
ing students. She found the results 
listed in the table following. Only 
those items have been selected which 
are of particular interest to engineer- 
ing students. 

The results of this questionnaire 
should not be taken too seriously 
since it is known that the number in 
the groups was small. One thing that 
stands out is the decidedness of the 
engineers. They either are or they 
are not. There rarely is a middle 
course. They know exactly what they 
want. Of the three groups, it is only 
with the engineers that one finds 
percentages as low as zero and as 
high as 90. 

Fairbairn also discovered that 
those students of highest ability ac- 
cording to intelligence tests and 
grades were apt to have the widest 
range of interests and to depart most 
from the average interest of the 
group. That is to say, students that 
have the highest intelligence seem to 
have the widest range of interests, 
whereas those of lower intelligence 
have a comparatively narrow range 
of interests. This agrees with inves- 
tigations made by other research 
workers. 

The most successful interest test on 
the market today, and the one on 
which the most extensive research 
work has been and still is being done, 
is The Vocational Interest Blank by 
Edward K. Strong Jr., Professor of 
Psychology at Stanford University. 
Strong describes the function of his 
test as follows: 

"Men engaged in a particular oc- 
cupation have been found to have a 
characteristic pattern of likes and 
dislikes, which distinguish them from 



32 



Percent reporting liking among those preparing for 

Childhood Activities Medicine Law Engineering 

Playing store 29 43 15 

Watching a plumber or carpenter at work 39 56 77 

Fixing up stray wheels and boards into a wagon. .11 36 46 

Learning passages of poetry to recite 14 86 

Dressing up for parties 29 36 7 

Running small engines 62 48 77 

Finding out about body, digestion, etc 51 26 15 



Pre- 
Law 

Activities Liked 

Listening to lecture on meclianical subject 45 

Addressing a meeting 13 

Talking with inferiors 13 

Introducing people in a social group 13 

Playing poker 33 

Playing chess 4 

Discussing a recent invention 30 

Attending frat dances 30 

Working experiments in a physical or biological 

laboratory 41 

Attending political meetings 66 

Fixing up old machines 50 

Activities Disliked 

Helping at an accident 13 

Addressing a meeting 42 

Addressing a class 4 

Reading Scientific Monthly 19 

Working puzzles 22 

Removing bone from cat's throat 63 

Washing dishes 9 

Writing thesis or essay . . . i* 36 



Pre- 


Pre-En- 


edical 


gmeering 


23 


90 


42 





16 


72 


32 





21 





24 


45 


48 


80 


38 


9 


69 


90 


40 


18 


73 


90 



40 


55 


13 





8 





26 


72 


50 


63 


37 


81 



men following other professions. 
Scores on the Vocational Interest 
Blank are a measure of how a man's 
interests coincide with those of the 
average man successfully engaged in 
a certain occupation. 

"For the purposes of this test, it is 
assumed that a man will be more ef- 
fective in his vocational career if he 
is engaged in work that he likes than 
if he is forced to do a great many 
things that he dislikes. If he is given 
his own free will in the matter, it is 
apparent from surveys made at Stan- 
ford University, that his general in- 
terest will, to a surprising extent, in- 
fluence his choice of a career." 

The test is now standardized for 27 
occupations. The reason for this se- 
lection is three fold. 1. Each of these 
occupations characterizes a large 
group of other occupations. 2. The 
interests of the 27 occupations can 
be distinctly differentiated from each 
other. 3. A sufficient number of men 
were found in each occupation to de- 
termine the characteristic interests 
with a reasonable degree of certainty. 
The occupations as listed below are 



divided into five classifications. This 
was done because occupations within 
a group seemed to be more closely 
related to each other than with those 
of a different group. 

I. Mathematician 
Physicist 
Engineer 
Chemist 
Physician 
Dentist 
Psychologist 
Architect 
Farmer 
Artist 

Ila. Lawyer 

Journalist 
Advertiser 

lib. Life Insurance Salesman 
Real Estate Salesman 



Ilia. 



Minister 
Teacher 
Musician 

(Turn to page 52) 



An All Purpose 

Air Velocity iVIeter 

Instantaneous Direct Reading 




Ne longer Is It ntcsssary to use Mmplleatad Instrumonta 
and stop watches or make slew, mathematical calculations 
to obtain accurate velocity roadlngs of Irregular shaped 
or slotted grilles, velocity readings In ducts, or at inlet 
or outlet openings or other air velocity measurements. 

New you can do all this and more with the "AInor" 
(Boyle System) Velometer, the instantaneous direct read- 
ing air velocity meter, and you can do It accurately, 
conveniently and quickly. You can obtain static, or total 
pressures, locate leaks and losses, detect drafts, er deter- 
mine efficiency of fans. Alters, blowers, and other eguip- 



The Velometer gives Instant air velocity readings 

directly In feet per minuts from as low as 20 F.P.M. 

up to Its maximum scale raadlng. Ranges up to as high 
as 600O F.P.M. are avallaiile. 

Write for Bulletin No. 2448 

ILLINOIS TESTING LABORATORIES, Inc. 



146 W. HUBBARD ST. 



CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 



TO ARMOUR'S 
ENGINEERS from 

Americas Finest Club! 



Incomparable 
facilities for your 
social functions! 
Enjoy a distinc- 
tion of unrival- 
ed luxury at 
no extra tariff. 
Dance s, fra- 
ternal affairs & 
banquets are ar- 
ranged by our 
own expert cater- 
ing staff. 

Your 

INSPECTION 

Invited 



meDinAH 

505 NORTH MICHIGAN BOULEVARD 



33 



RESEARCH AND PROGRESS 

(From page 8) 

it possible for you to hear 'This is 
London.' It wasn't the engineer, the 
wires, the varnish. It was the com- 
posite intelligences in the product. It 
was the years and years of research, 
not only on radio, but on many other 
subjects. That's what you bought." 

These two components are present 
in every product we buy and every 
industry making those products. There 
are so many pounds of material, and 
then there is that invisible factor 
which arranges that material into a 
useful, operating mechanism. It is 
something entirely apart from the 
man-hours and machine-hours of la- 
bor, which seem to be uppermost in 
all minds at present, yet without that 
something there would be no such jobs 
at all. 

This process of scientific develop- 
ment has been going on for years and 
years. There have been times when it 
has slowed down, only to spring ahead 
faster than ever. In some periods it 
has had the support of governments 
and finance. In others it was of neces- 
sity carried on secretly in garrets. In 
every generation people have said that 
we were approaching the end of this 
road, that everything important had 
been discovered. Then, as now, the 
argument was that science would un- 
cover no more fundamental knowl- 
edge, that any further progress would 
be the sort that would result only in 
labor-saving machinery to throw peo- 
ple out of work. 

There has been no evidence to bear 
this out and nothing to indicate that 
it will be any more true in the future 
than it has been in the past. Every 
discovery in science brings into view 
two more things which we don't know. 
We are just now beginning to find out 
the magnitude of the things we have 
little or no knowledge of. There is 
undoubtedly a great deal of knowl- 
edge and information in the world, but 
if there were only some means of 
comparing this with the mass of 
knowledge we don't know, I think we 
would feel very insignificant. But as 
long as we keep on working and don't 
lose our faith in the future, we are 
headed in the right direction. If we 
really want it and strive for it, the 
world will continue to improve; and 
inasmuch as all the rest of our lives 
must be lived in the future, it be- 
hooves us to make that future the best 
possible place to live in. 

The world isn't finished, and there 
are unlimited opportunities for us to 
make it a better and brighter world 
in every way. 



ARMOUR SCHEDULES 
CONFERENCE COURSE ON 
EXECUTIVE CONTROL 
OF PERSONNEL 



LAST spring the Institute launched 
a new kind of educational serv- 
ice, designed to meet the needs of op- 
erating executives, men who, because 
of their maturity and the pressure of 
every day responsibilities, frequently 
have little cliance to get out of the 
circle of their daily routines. 

To reach these men the formal 
class-room procedure gave way to tlie 
conference, in which, over a good din- 
ner at a downtown hotel, men could 
get acquainted, exchange experiences, 
and listen at ease to a speaker chosen 
for unusual accomplishment or ex- 
j3crience in his special field. 

The responses from participants 
were most gratifying. One man re- 
ported that a single idea picked up at 
the lecture on fire protection was sav- 
ing liis company annually several 
times the cost of the course. Others 
wrote tliat they hoped the course 
would be repeated, or to express the 
value they had received from partici- 
pation. 

This year's Conference Course will 
profit from last year's experience. 
Tlie general plan is unclianged. The 
number of Conferences has been re- 
duced to twelve. Last year's experi- 
ence has greatly broadened the field 
from which it was possible to secure 
speakers. Professor Dutton will con- 
tinue in general charge of the course. 
Men prominent in the industrial field 
will be asked this year to act as chair- 
men. 

The subject this year is Executive 
Control of Personnel. The subject is 
a bread-and-butter one to every execu- 
tive every working day of his life. 
While the tenseness which marked in- 
dustrial relations last summer has 
been relieved by the turn in business 
conditions, even a business recession 
brings its own crop of urgent person- 
nel problems. And wise personnel 
men realize that the time to get the 
organization house in order is not in 
the hurly-burly of a boom, but in those 
periods when attention can be given 
to the setting of standards, the train- 
ing of foremen, and the correction of 
faults in the organization. 

An exceptional group of speakers 
will lead the weekly discussion of how 
to secure these results. Few men, for 
instance, are better qualified than the 






Honorable Donald Richberg to dis- 
cuss the employer's responsibility to 
tlie public in his labor relations, or 
to give well balanced counsel on this 
difficult point. Few men liave had a 
wider or more successful experinece in 
the conduct of industrial relations 
than Harold Bergen, member of the 
firm of McKinsey, Wellington & Com- 
pany, and former head of tlie indus- 
trial relations work of Procter and 
Gamble. Glenn Gardiner, Vice-Presi- 
dent of tlie American Management 
Association, who is to talk on the fore- 
man and his problems, is the outstand- 
ing authority on this subject in the 
United States. 

The program as it stands to date 
follows : 

,Ian. 17 — Personnel Administration 
as a Managerial Problem* 

Jan. 21 — Practical Training Pro^ 
grams * 

Jan. .31 — Selection and Advance 
ment — Johnson O'Connor, Stevens In 
stitute, well-known for his work 
selection and vocational guidance. 

Feb. 7 — The Supervisor and Fore 
man — Glenn Gardiner, Forstman 
Woolen Co. 

Feb. 14 — Social Attitudes in Indus 
trial Relations — F. S. Roethlisberger 
Harvard University. 

Feb. 21— The Art of Handlim 
Men* 

Feb. 28 — Setting Objectives 
Measuring Performance* 

March 7 — Incentives to Perform 
once — Stanley Farwell, Vice-presiden 
and general manager. Business Re 
search Corporation. 

March 14 — Personnel Policies an 
the Business Cycle — R. W. Ston« 
University of Chicago. 

March 21 — The Responsibility o 
the Employer to the Community— 
Hon. Donald Richberg. 

March 28 — Collective Bargainin 
Today — H. L. McCarthy, Regions 
Director, Social Security Board. 

Apr. 4 — Essentials of a Personne 
Program — H. B. Bergen, McKinsey 
Wellington, & Co. 

Detailed information may be ob 
tained by calling or writing Armou 
Institute" of Technology, 3.300 Federa 
St., Chicago, Telephone Victory 4600 

*Arrangements in progress. 



34 



EVENING DIVISION AND ITS 
SERVICE TO INDUSTRY 



The extraordinary expansion of the 
Evening- Division is indicative of the 
importance of tlie service that Ar- 
mour Institute of Technology is ren- 
dering industry in providing training 
in the basic sciences, engineering, and 
architecture for men in their employ. 
Realizing the importance of this serv- 
ice to industry, the Institute is in sev- 
eral cases actually conducting classes 
in certain industrial plants, such as 
the course in metallurgy being given 
under the joint sponsorship of the 
American Steel and Wire Co. 

The magnitude of this service to 
industry may be easily seen by a 
glance at the results of a recent sur- 
vey in which the company connec- 
tions were classified under the follow- 
ing headings: Architects; Building- 
Materials and Supplies ; Chemical 
Companies; City of Chicago and 
Cities outside of Chicago; Construc- 
tion; Consulting and Sales Engineers; 
Cook County; Electrical Manufactur- 
ing; Entertainment; Finance and Real 
Estate; Heating, Ventilation, Air Con- 
ditioning, and Refrigeration; Illinois 
Highway and State of Illinois; Insur- 
ance; Mail Order Companies; Meat 
Packing Companies; Mechanical 



Manufacturing; Metal Products; Mis- 
cellaneous Manufacturing; Musical 
Companies ; Office Supplies ; Oil Com- 
panies; Printing and Publishing; Pub- 
lic Utilities; Railroads, Express, and 
Air Lines ; Schools ; Service Com- 
panies; Steel and Iron; United States 
Government; and Y. M. C. A. and 
other Clubs. 

One hundred and seventeen com- 
])anies in the field of mechanical engi- 
neering are represented by 323 stu- 
dents. International Harvester Com- 
pany has the largest representation, 
67; Link Belt Company has 38, Pull- 
man Company 31, Union Special Ma- 
chine Co. 12, and the Electro-Motive 
Co. and the Whiting Corp 9 each. 

The electrical manufacturing com- 
panies have 285 men. Western Elec- 
tric Company leads with 77; Good- 
man Manufacturing Co. has 20, Stew- 
art Warner Corp. 18, Westinghouse 
Electric and Mfg. Co. 16, General 
Electric X-Ray Lab. 12, and Zenith 
Radio Corp. 1 1. 

In the steel and iron industry forty- 
seven companies are represented by 
218 students. The Carnegie-Illinois 
Corp. has the largest representation 
in this field. Republic Steel has 15, 



Inland Steel 13, and the Wisconsin 
Steel Co. 9. 

The public utilities have a total of 
150 students from 15 companies, 89 
of whom are from the Commonwealth 
Edison Co., 11 from both the Peoples 
Gas, Light, and Coke Co. and the 
Illinois Bell Telephone Co.; 9 from 
the Chicago Dist. Electric Generating 
Corp.; and 7 from the Public Service 
Co. of Northern Illinois. 

The 65 chemical manufacturing 
companies are represented by 110 
men. Eight oil companies and six 
meat packing concerns have 43 men 
each. In the oil industry, the Std. 
Oil Co. of Ind. has 27 and the Sin- 
clair Refining Co. 8. In the meat 
packing industry Armour and Co. has 
20, Swift and Co. 10, and the Wilson 
Co. 7. 

Hundreds of other men who during 
the day play parts of varying import- 
ance in the manufacture of other prod- 
ucts are also taking courses in the 
evening either to meet the particular 
demands of their industry or to obtain 
a college degree. The service of the 
Evening School Division is not of 
value to those employed by industry 
alone, however, since twenty-seven 
students working for the City of Chi- 
cago and thirteen who work for the 
U. S. Government attend evening 
classes. 

Information regarding courses may 
be obtained by addressing Dr. B. B. 
Freud, Dean of the Evening Division. 



CONFERENCE ON ELECTRIC WELDING 



A conference on electric welding 
arranged by Armour Institute of 
Technology with the cooperation of 
the Hollup Corporation started on 
November 30 and is meeting three 
times weekly for a period of six 
weeks. 

The purpose of the conference is 
to acquaint welding engineers and 
supervisors with current research, ac- 
cepted design methods, and best prac- 
tice in the welding field, as evidenced 
by the following program: 

" Tuesdajs November 30, 1937^ — 
Metallurgy and Heat Treatment of 
Welds. Dr. W. A. Pearl, Director of 
Engineering Shops, Armour Institute 
of Technology. 

Thursday, December 2, 1937 — 
Metallurgy and Heat Treatment of 
Welds. Dr. W. A. Pearl. 

Friday, December 3, 1937 — Heavy 
Pressure Vessels. L. J. Larson, Di- 
rector of Welding Research, A. O. 
Smith Corporation. 



Wednesday, December 8, 1937 — 
Tank Welding Research and Design. 
H. C. Boardman, Research Engineer, 
Chicago Bridge & Iron Co. 

Thursday, December 9, 1937 — Pres- 
sure Tanks and Code Requirements. 
H. C. Boardman. 

Friday, December 10, 1937 — High- 
lights of Welding Design — C. S. 
Moody, Metallurgical Engineer, 
Northwest Engineering Co. 

Tuesday, December l-i, 1937 — Jigs 
and Fixtures. James Shiffli, Product 
Engineer, American Steel Foundries. 

Thursday, December 16. 1937— De- 
sign of Tall Steel Stacks for Welding. 
J. C. Sanderson, Structural Engineer, 
Sargent and Lundy. 

Friday, December 17, 1937 — Struc- 
tural Welding Design. V. O. Mc- 
Clurg, Chief Structural Engineer, 
Holabird and Root, Architects. 

Tuesday, January 4, 1938 — Weld- 



ing of Heavy Machinery. Westing- 
house Manufacturing Co. 

Thursday, January 6, 1938— Weld- 
ing of Heavy Machinery. Westing- 
house Manufacturing Co. 

Frida.v, January 7, 1938 — Research 
on Pipe Welding. E. R. Seablom, 
Research Welding Engineer, Crane 
Company. 

Tuesday, January 11, 1938 — Code 
Studies for Pipe Welding. E. R. Sea- 
blom. 

Thursday, January 13, 1938— Rail- 
way Track Welding Research. G. M. 
Magee, Ass't Director, Research Di- 
vision, Ass'n of American Railroads. 

Friday, January 14, 1938 — Con- 
struction and Maintenance of Modern 
Railway Equipment. G. M. Magee, 
Ass't Director. 

Tuesday, January 18, 1938 — Main- 
tenance of Railway Bridges. G. M. 
Magee, Ass't Director. 

(Turn lo page 52) 

3S 



ORE TO A FORD 

(From page 19) 

Ore carried in Ford freighters ar- 
rives at the docks at the company's 
Rouge plant, and is unloaded by 
cranes which remove from 12 to 17 
tons at a "bite." Most of it goes into 
the primary storage bins, but some is 
placed in dump cars and carried up on 
the plant "high line." 

The high line, sometimes called the 
backbone of the plant, is a concrete 
structure 40 feet high and three-quar- 
ters of a mile long. It is served by 
five railroad tracks, and is of open 
girder construction which permits un- 
loading cars at a great saving in time 
and handling. Some of the ore goes 
directly from the boats to the high 
line and is dumped into the active stor- 
age bins. It then goes into the skip 
car which charges the blast furnaces. 
From the ore boat to the blast fur- 
nace can take as little as 10 minutes. 

There are two blast furnaces be- 
tween the primary storage bins and 
the foundry, and together they have a 
capacity of 1200 tons of iron a day. 
A third blast furnace, of 1000 tons ca- 
pacity, now is being built at a cost of 
approximately $1..500,000, including 
all auxiliary equipment and changes. 

Charges of ore, coke, and limestone 
from the high line are dumped into 
the blast furnaces and there reduced 
to foundry iron. Part of it is taken 
in a molten state to the foundry, 
placed in "mixers" where it is mixed 
with the right proportions of scrap, 
and is brought to the proper heat for 
pouring. This direct transfer of 
molten metal saves the expense of 
casting all the metal into pigs and 
later remelting it. It also saves time. 

In the 30-acre foundry, which is 
the largest in the world. Ford techni- 
cians developed a casting system which 
revolutionizes foundry practice. It 
brings the molds, on conveyors, to the 
metal instead of requiring the metal 
to be taken to the molds as had been 
standard foundry practice for cen- 
turies. 

The cores for the engine block 
molds are themselves assembled on a 
moving conveyor line much as motor 
parts are assembled a little later in 
the complex business of building a 
motor car. These core assemblies are 
made of 46 separate cores, and the 
finished mold permits casting the en- 
tire Ford V-8 engine block in a single 
piece. 

The cylinder block molds are 
poured by a novel mechanism devel- 
oped by Ford engineers. It is a trav- 
eling ladle, operating on a track par- 
alleling the conveyor line. Metal from 



an air furnace flows into the trough of 
the traveling ladle in a continuous 
stream. The ladle is synchronized 
with a mold, pours it full, and then 
is reversed in time to begin pouring 
the next mold. Each of the four trav- 
eling ladles can pour 115 molds an 
hour, each mold taking 315 pounds of 
iron. This system not only eliminates 
lost motion, but also enables closer 
control of pouring temperatures. 

The multiple molds for the cast al- 
loy steel crankshafts developed by 
Ford metallurgists for the V-8 also 
move on conveyors to the pouring sta- 
tion, but in this case the pouring is 
done from conventional ladles. 

The engine block molds go from the 
pouring ladle on the same conveyor 
to the shakeout station and are cooled 
and cleaned. The casting then goes 
to the first machining operation, and 
moves steadily from one machine to 
the next, all the machining being done 
in the foundry building. The block 
tiien is sent from the foundry, which 
is being made still larger in the com- 
pany's current $40,000,000 expansion 
program, to the motor building by 
conveyor. 

The engine quickly takes form as 
it moves along the assembly line. 
Crankshaft, camshaft, matched sets of 
pistons, valve assemblies, and other 
parts go easily and snugly into place. 
The last bolt is tightened down, and 
the engine goes to the testing block. 
It is run in and inspected and then 
is ready for shipment to a branch as- 
sembly plant or to be sent to the final 
assembly line in the Rouge plant. The 
finished car leaves the line under its 
own power, 28 hours after some of it 
may have reached the plant as raw 
ore. 

Incidentally, increased value of the 
modern car is reflected in the fact that 
despite steady improvement in manu- 
facturing methods, more man-hours of 
work are required to make the 1938 
Ford than were needed to make its 
predecessor of a decade ago. 

The closely-timed march from ore 
to finished part could be followed as 
well through the steel mill as through 
the foundry, although steel-making is 
a longer process. A feature of Ford 
steel-making is the use of two 600- 
ton mixers, in which molten iron from 
the blast furnaces is stored pending 
transfer by 125-ton cranes to the open 
hearth furnaces for conversion into 
steel. This storage system in the 
steel mill, as in the iron foundry, 
saves the time and also the expense 
involved in casting pigs and subse- 
quently remelting them. 

There are 52 kinds of steel used in 
making a Ford V-8, 36 for car parts 



and 16 for tools used in making the 
parts. Each type is held for precise 
specifications, with checks at every 
step, but in producing either bar or 
sheet steel the metal moves swiftly 
through the progressive steps on pow- 
erful conveyors. 

The conveyor system is, in fact, a 
vital factor in the efficiency of the 
Ford production method. A recent 
check showed there were 96.5 miles of 
conveyor within the 1076-acre plant. 
By moving parts and materials to the 
places they are required in the plant 
the conveyor system eliminates con- 
fusion and does away with much of 
the drudgery once considered inevita- 
ble in industry. 

The conveyor system consists of a 
giant trunk line conveyor five miles 
long connecting all the buildings in 
the plant, and hundreds of small ones 
branching from it. 

One set of conveyors makes up the 
assembly lines. It moves slowly and 
at waist or knee level for the con- 
venience of the workmen. Another is 
overhead and travels in long circles, 
carrying parts over the assembly line 
until they are removed for use. The 
workmen take from the overhead con- 
veyors only such parts as they require 
from time to time. 

The conveyors are grouped under a 
dozen classifications, including mono- 
rail, overhead monorail, floor type, 
chip drag, belt, slat screw, bucket, 
buggy, carriage type, power driven 
roll chain, flight, and driven roller. 
Tremendous quantities of power, pro- 
duced in the vast central power sta- 
tion in the plant, are required to op- 
erate them. 

Even a casual visit to the Ford 
plant is sufficient to show plainly that 
speed in manufacture is impossible 
without precision and uniformity. 
When a part reaches the assembly 
point it must be exactly right. Other- 
wise, it won't fit, and time would be 
lost in searching for a part that did. 
This would disrupt the whole line, 
throw the careful timing out of gear. 
That is the reason thirteen labora- 
tories are operated within the plant, 
and that an entire squad of men is 
charged with the sole duty of check- 
ing precision gages with Johansson 
gage blocks. 

A casual visit is sufficient also to 
show that this manufacturing process 
has nothing to do with hurrying, that 
haste, in fact, would upset the entire 
system. It is a matter of seeing that 
everything moves forward at a rea- 
sonable pace, and that it reaches the 
right place at the right time and in 
the right quantities throughout the 
progression from ore to automobile. 



36 



>.2 i INSIDE A GLACIAt CAVE 

YES -AND I UNDECSTAND 
SOME OF 7HESE RiVEES 

of ice move dowm the 
mountain: as mucm as 
incvies a day r-^ 




CoDvriRht, 1937. R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. 




TRY P. A. ON THIS 
MONEY- BACK GUARANTEE! 

Smoke 20 fragrant pipefuls of Prince 
Albert. If you don't find it the mellowest, 
tastiest pipe tobacco you ever smoked, 
return the pocket tin with the rest of 
the tobacco in it to us at any time with- 
in a month from this date, and we will 
refund full purchase price, plus postage. 
(Signed) R. J. Reynolds Tobacco 
Company, Winston-Salem, N. C. 



ALSO 

TRY ROLLING 

YOUR OWN 

WITH P. A. 



pipefuls of fragrant 
tobacco in every 2-oz. 
tin of Prince Albert 



RiNCE Albert 



THE NATIONAL 
JOY SMOKE 



37 



RESEARCH IN A 
LARGE INDUSTRY 

(From page 11) 

As a potential source of sucli supply, 
tlic research laboratory was created. 

As a business gamble, it has paid 
large dividends. From its fundamental 
researches has come the knowledge 
which made possible the development 
of such radically new things as the 
gas-filled tungsten filament lamp, 
which has made practically the entire 
lighting field its own; the high vac- 
uum power tube, which became the 
heart of the transmitting station in 
the new art of radio broadcasting; the 
hot cathode X-ray tube, now univer- 
sally used in X-ray work; and atomic 
hydrogen welding, which made elec- 
tric welding applicable to new fields 
and incidentally became an important 
element in the fabrication of the 
"sealed-in" refrigerator unit. At the 
same time the increase in knowledge 
has enabled the laboratory, in its ad- 
visory capacity, to be more helpful 
to other departments in their special 
))roblems. 

Not all fundamental research yields 
results capable of immediate prac- 
tical application. For years we have 
been conducting research on thin films 
— films of molecular thickness — on 
water and on metals. A new branch 
of chemistry has been created — "sur- 
face chemistry" — but as yet no appli- 
cation to our company's product has 
been made. At the moment the bio- 
chemist seems more likely to profit 
from our work than we. 

Some useful application within our 
field may come in time. Some broad 
new field of profitable activity may 
conceivably be opened up. If neither 
of these events occurs, we shall at 
least have the consolation of the 
knowledge that we have contributed 
materially to the growth of chemical 
science, and that the profits to the 
company, originating in our other fun- 
damental researches, have far ex- 
ceeded the total expense of all our 
work. 

I do not wish to create the impres- 
sion that all our work, or even most 
of it, is of a fundamental nature. It 
actually engages only perhaps twenty 
per cent of our activities. Our labora- 
tory is truly a service department, 
even though the service we render is 
only advisory. Problems are contin- 
ually arising in other departments in 
which our help is needed. As far as 
possible we refer such problems to the 
various works laboratories, but many 
are of such a kind that we, with our 
highly trained specialists and special 
facilities, are best equipped to tackle 
them. In such cases, we undertake 
the job, and in general try to give it 

38 



precedence over our own problems. 
Such service work amounts to some 
forty per cent of our total. 

Again, it frequently happens that 
the possibility of developing some 
radically new device is suggested by 
our researches, or by some other event, 
and it may be so different from any 
current product that no existing de- 
partment has the knowledge, expe- 
rience, or facilities to undertake the 
development efficiently. It then is 
needful for us to develop it and per- 
haps even to manufacture for a time. 
Graphitized brushes, tungsten igni- 
tion contacts. X-ray tubes, radio 
power tubes, carboloy, and various 
forms of glyptal resins, were first 
manufactured in the laboratory. We 
never manufacture when another de- 
jiartment is ready to do so, nor do we 
carry a development farther than the 
))oint at which another department is 
))repared to take it over, but never- 
theless such development work con- 
stitutes another forty per cent of our 
total. 

But it is our fundamental work 
which we consider our most important 
activity, and which we jealously guard 
against encroachment by service and 
development work. It is from that 
that we hope will come the radically 
new things to add new and profitable 
lines to our company's product, to 
broaden its field of interest, to give 
new employment to labor, and to ben- 
efit the public through new comforts 
or conveniences. Moreover, it is in- 
valuable in its effects on our whole 
laboratory staff. Each contribution 
we can make to the advance of scien- 
tific knowledge increases our contacts 
with other workers in science, through 
attendance by our men at meetings 
of scientific societies for the presenta- 
tion of papers, and through inter- 
change of visits, induced by similar- 
ity of interest and of effort. I now 
recall with amusement my fear, thir- 
ty-two years ago, of being pocketed 
and isolated at Schenectady. I am 
sure that my work in an industrial 
laboratory has brought me more nu- 
merous and more stimulating contacts 
with fellow scientists than I would 
have enjoyed in an academic position. 
The assurance of such contacts is of 
great help to us in attracting first 
class men to our staff. 

Again, encouragement of funda- 
mental work gives the individual a 
wider option in the selection of con- 
genial problems. I have never felt 
fettered in my choice of work. My 
original stipulation for half-time on 
my old research was soon forgotten, 
never to be revived. If a man has 
true aptitude for fundamental re- 
search, he can find full exercise for 
it in our work. 



Whether a research man will be 
happier in a university or industrial 
laboratory is probably mostly a ques- 
tion of temperament. To some men 
the atmosphere of scholarship, free- 
dom, and quiet dignity, which charac- 
terizes academic surroundings is pe- 
culiarly congenial, and teaching gives 
added satisfaction. To others, the 
stimulation of constant contact with 
live problems and the satisfaction of 
witnessing the prompt application of 
the results of his researches to useful 
ends, are most enjoyable. In cither 
type of laboratory the rcsearcli 
worker should find full scope for his 
powers. 

The benefits arising from funda- 
mental research in an industrial lab- 
oratory are not confined to the com- 
pany which it serves. All scientific 
workers benefit, and, if the results 
are applicable in engineering, other 
companies and the public also gain. 
We selfishly wish that many more in- 
dustrial laboratories would engage in 
fundamental research. 

It may be said that since funda- 
mental research is a gamble, and the 
nature of the results impossible to 
foresee, only a large company, with 
highly diversified products and fields 
of interest, can afford such ventures. 
It is true that almost any important 
new fact in chemistry or physics is 
very likely to find useful applications 
in the diversified activities of Du Pont 
and General Electric, respectively, 
while the probability of utilization of 
such a fact would be much less in an 
equally large company with less di- 
versified product, such as United 
States Steel or Standard Oil. 

Nevertheless, by wise guidance, the 
chance of utilization may be increased. 
For instance, in our work, if a man 
is interested in studying ionization, we 
prefer that he should make his ob- 
servations on vacuum tubes on the 
bench in his laboratory, rather than 
through a telescope on distant stars. 
So I believe that if there is any phe 
nomenon, important in a company' 
work and yet inadequately understood, 
such as, in our case, the mechanism of 
dielectric losses and break-down, 
fundamental research on that phe- 
nomenon has a fair chance of yielding 
profitable returns. The odds against 
success may be ten to one, but suc- 
cess, if it comes, may pay a hundred 
fold the cost of the research. 



Mtvvp Cfjrisitmag 

anb a 
l^appfMtb) iear 

to all 



The Last Word is never spoken at 

Western Etectric 




The urge to "iii«ike it better 



is always there 



WHi:\ you approach old problems with 
a fresh A'iewpoint. you often gel oiit- 
standiiijj iniprovenienls. 

For example: wires for telephone cable 
had long been insulated by a spiral wrap- 
ping of paper ribbon. 

Refusing to accept this as the "last word," 
a Western Electric engineer mixed a wood 
pulp solution in a milk bottle — poured it 



on a wire — the pulp stuck. The systenuitic 
development of this idea resulted in a new 
and more economical insulating process — 
making an insulating covering of paper 
right on the wire! And the search for '"a 
better way" still goes on. 

Such originality leads to improved man- 
ufacturing processes and better telephone 
apparatus for the Hell System. 



Manufacturing Plants at Chicago, III., Kearny, N. J., and Baltimore, Md. 




39 



ARC WELDING 

(From page 17) 
by the shop liave access to the work 
at all tinies^ in order to be sure that 
there are not deviations from the ap- 
proved method. And definite specifica- 
tions for testing tlie finished work are 
prescribed. The performance of thou- 
sands of structures welded under vari- 
ous codes during the past six years 
has demonstrated tliat the "human ele- 
ment" problem is solved and that con- 
trol of weld quality can be maintained 
with unquestionable surety. 



With confidence in the process so 
definitely stimulated, engineers began 
more seriously to study the possibili- 
ties of better design for welding. 
Early designs for welded construction 
followed rather closely the lines which 
had been used in previous methods of 
construction. Gusset plates and con- 
necting angles were included in struc- 
tural steel work; lap joints were fa- 
vored in tank work; shapes dictated 
by the necessities of foundry practice 
were attempted in machine structures ; 
double butt strap joints in pressure 
vessels. The welded structures of to- 



Easier, more efficient laboratory work 



Transparent Mountings 
for Irregular Specimens 

The Metallurgist's dream came true with the Introduction of an 
absolutely clear and transparent mounting material. See all sides 
of the specimen. Observe the 
location of a broken weld and 
study the very spot microscop- 
ically. Ideal for the "Electro- 
lytic etch." 

Hundreds of Metallurgists 
using our new Specimen Press, 
never again would go back to 
the old melting pot and ladle 
method for mounting meta 
specimens. For "extreme edge" 
studies, convenience in han- 
dling, speed and economy, use 
this press and eliminate differ- 
ential etching action frequently 
encountered with the fusible 
alloy. 

New A-B Specimen 
Polisher 

Features such as direct- 
drive, vibrationless, selec- 
tive speeds, combined 
with the finest of work- 
manship, have pushed 
this single unit metallur- 
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to the front. Now in use 
from coast to coast. 






Specimen Cutter and Grinder 

For cutting metallurgical specimens to convenient sizes. Safe to 
operate, safe for your specimens. High speed. Water stream 
or tank cooling. 



Ask for Your Copy of the ««Metal Analyst** 

Featuring new methods for the daily tasks of the Metallurgist 



OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS • METALLURGICAL APPARATUS 
228 NORTH LA SALLE ST. • • CHICAGO ILL. 



day develop greater strength witli far 
les.s welding, due to the development 
of designs which look first to the most 
desirable disposition of the metal, and 
then to the location of welds where 
they can be made most efficiently. 
That is, the designing engineer can 
visualize his structure as a solid piece 
and then plan to build it from rolled 
steel plate and shapes in whatever 
manner seems most economical. Func- 
tional design made its appearance in 
many new fields. It is obvious that so 
great an advance could be possible 
only if weld metal could be made as 
strong, ductile, and homogeneous as 
tlie rolled .eteel which it joined. This 
can be done and is being done on a 
tremendously widening scale. 

P'or a quick review of the rapid 
growth and present status of arc weld- 
ing, the structural steel field is an 
interesting place to start. Buildings 
actually erected by welding 20 years 
ago might be regarded as experi- 
mental, but those buildings are still 
standing. A model code for the use 
of welding in the building construc- 
tion was formulated by the American 
Welding Society, in 1928. Within two 
years, this code had been adopted in 
24 states, and over 100 buildings had 
been welded. At present, all large 
fabricators and erectors of structural 
steel have welding equipment for use, 
not only on buildings, but also in the 
assembly of structures that are sub- 
ject to more severe loadings than will 
ever be encountered in the average 
building frame. There are only a few 
localities where the welding of build- 
ings is definitely prohibited. They are 
mostly large cities where the revision 
of codes is so cumbersome and com- 
plex that it takes years to get action. 
A few months ago a new code was 
adopted in the City of New York, 
which authorizes the welding of steel 
structures under a competent super- 
vision. Architects will naturally be 
cautious about adopting this erection 
method until they have become well 
enough acquainted with it to be able 
to design welded connection. 

Welding on ships was in the begin- 
ning an emergency measure. The ne- 
cessity for safety in this field is so 
great that in the early days it was not 
permissible to use welds for strength 
members. Even with this limitation, 
the fact that welding eliminated a 
great deal of overlapping of parts 
pointed to very desirable savings in 
weight, savings which could be trans- 
lated into either a decrease of fuel 
consumption or an increase of cargo 
capacity. Naval architects and de- 
signing engineers have been very busy 
developing designs which take advan- 
tage of the welding method and favor 
its most efficient use. All nations were 



40 



mpressed wlien Germany launched an 
dl-welded 10,000-ton "pocket battle- 
hip." That example has not been 
I'ldely copied in detail, but arc weld- 
is used to a very large extent in 
iiaval construction all over the world, 
rhe all-welded ships that we know 
test are barges and tankers. The 
jrend of the shipbuilders, however, is 
ilefinitely expressed by the first quota- 
lion at the beginning of this article. 
It is an evolution which must neces- 
arily be slow because drawing room 
)ractice must be carefully adjusted 
[o tlie change, and because extensive 
jnodifications in equipment, plant ar- 
angement, and personnel will be 
leeded. 

In the petroleum industry there is 
he problem of producing, refining, 
ind transporting billions of gallons 
f materials which are highly inflam- 
Inable and often explosive. From the 
|iil fields in Texas the crude oil flows 
hrough hundreds of miles of arc 
yelded pipe lines, through more lines 
)f welded intricate piping systems in 
•he refinery, through heating chambers. 
Into cracking stills at temperatures 
|»ver 1100 degrees above zero and at 
Pressures in excess of 1000 lbs. per 
iquare inch, into welded storage tanks 
»f 100,000 barrel capacity, through 
nore pipe lines to distributing points 





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The Cambridge Spot Galvanometer provides a 
complete outfit — galvanometer, lamp and scale 
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lias a stable zero anil does not require accurate 
levelling. The sliarpi y defined spot can easily be 
read at a distance. The lamp may be operated 
on A.C. service current or 4-v olt battery. Sensi- 
tivity in mm. on scale is from 19 to 170 per 
micro-ampere using coils of 10, 40 and 700 
ohms. Scale can be read to 0.2 mm. 



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These two great FREE catalogs are yours for the asking! 
220 pages of the latest radios, parts laboratory test equipment, 
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STOP IN OR SEND THIS COUPON NOW. 



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When you want accurate and de- 
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systems or Indu.strial Processes call in 
a Powers engineer. With a very com- 
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pressed air operated controls we are 
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THE POWERS REGULATOR 
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Offices in 45 Cities — See your phone directory. 

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41 




SHOW THEIR APPRECIATION 

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COMFORTABLE STYLE! 




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iti welded truck tanks to the under- 
uround welded tank at the filling sta- 
tion wliere you call for it. All along 
tlie line arc welded joints safeguard 
tlic petroleum companies from losses 
diV to leakage and from the fire and 
explosion hazards which leaking 
equipment would set up. Well in- 
formed petroleum engineers will state 
frankly that the industry could not 
operate on is present basis without 
arc welding. 

Ten years ago tlie prospects for 
welded railroad rolling stock did not 
seem very briglit because tlie regula- 
tory bodies were not convinced of tlie 
safety of welded construction, car 
builders and car shops were not 
tqiiipped or organized for production 
welding, and car designers were not 
re.idy to design for welding. The pro- 
duction of a few all-welded hopper 
cars in 19.31, with a weight saving of 
t300 lbs. each, demonstrated the pos- 
sibilities in this direction, and car de- 
signers began to give more attention 
to the new method of construction. 
Cars are now being welded in thou- 
sand lots. Nearly all of the new pas- 
senger cars involve a great deal of 
welding, and some of them are all- 
welded. The most striking example of 
progress in this field is the recent con- 
struction of an all-welded locomotive, 
including an all-welded boiler, which 
was put into experimental operation 
during the summer of 1937. 

In this brief catalog of the con- 
struction fields in which arc welding 
has assumed a permanently important 
position, we have been burning the 
pages rather rapidly. A longer view 
of one subject will develop a more 
definite conception of what industrial 
engineers are accomplishing by well 
ordered applications of the process. 
The machinery field will do as well as 
any. 

The replacement of castings by 
welded rolled steel structures began 
with simple bases for special ma- 
chines; that is, machines that were 
not expected to be duplicated. Fabri- 
cating cost, including materials, of the 
steel base was frequently less than the 
cost of a pattern for casting. Weight 
could be reduced because of the better 
physical properties and greater uni- 
formity of rolled steel. Alterations, 
even after construction had started, 
were comparatively easy to make. A 
very wide range of steel shapes which 
had been developed for structural 
work, were available everywhere. The 
uniformly good surface condition of 
rolled steel reduced the amount of the 
machining to a minimum. Here was 
an attractive outlook for welding en- 
thusiasts. By projection from the 
welded base they could visualize the 
entire replacement of castings with 



42 



C A 



E R S 



O F 



CAB 



E R 



E N G 



N E E R S 



J 



^:^. 



^m£> 



BECAUSE A Kafir 

COULDN'T STAND THE GAFF... 



• Man's quest for gold has led him into 
strange places , . . the frozen lands of the 
north, the deserts of the south, the bow- 
els of the earth. But from the land of 
Cecil Rhodes comes an amazing tale of 
muck and sweat and terrific heat . . . and 
man's victory over the elements! 
-vThe Robinson Deep Mine, Johannes- 
burg, South Africa, is the world's deep- 
est hole — 8,500 feet down! In those 
depths is gold, but with temperatures 
exceeding 100° Fahrenheit and humid- 
ities approaching 100'^, production 
reached what seemed to be an impass- 
able barrier Even the natives couldn't 
stand the intolerable heat! 

What could be done to improve 
conditions, to increase the effi- 
ciency of miners, to permit deeper 
excavations for gold? The answer 
was Carrier Air Conditioning! 

Into those black depths went 
Carrier engineers and for 365 days 
tackled the problems of rock tem- 



perature and adiabatic compression of 
air, both of which go higher as shafts go 
lower. They studied theexcessivehumid- 
ity; heat from oxidation; heat from hu- 
man bodies; frictional heat from machin- 
ery; and heat from explosives. And from 
their analysis came the installation of 
a Carrier Air Conditioning system with 
a cooling effect equal to 4,000,000 
pounds of ice every 24 hours. 

Thus again had engineering triumphed 
in avictory affecting not only production, 
efficiency and comfort, but one which 
left its impress on world economics. 

There is no limit to the scope of Car- 
rier Air Conditioning — nor to Carrier's 



further expansion and future accomplish- 
ments — except as measured by the num- 
ber and ability of the young engineers 
Carrier can bring under the training of 
the pioneers who have been through the 
35 years of the development of the art. 
In the Carrier organization, young men 
hold responsible positions — their capa- 
city gauged not by age, but by ability. 
And whether that ability is fostered best 
by laboratory research or field work in 
the far corners of the world. Carrier en- 
ables engineers to progress. Today in 
99 different countries, you will find ev- 
idence of Carrier engineers' contribution 
to the world's progress! 




D. 


ring 1937, Car 


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300 


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rem leadinc 


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leering schools 


in every sec 


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CARRIER CORPORATIONr SYRACUSE, N. Y. 



ORGANIZATION 



ENGINEERS 



43 



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TH E fuFKiN Pule Co 

Saginaw, Michigan 

106-110 Lafayette St., New York, N. Y. 




I welcome this oppor- 
tunity to greet my old 
friends once more and 
to wish all graduates 
and friends of Armour 
Institute of Technology 
a Merry Christmas 
and a Happy and 
Prosperous New Year. 

D. F. Campbell 



160 N. LaSalle St. 
Chicago, 111. 



welded parts. They made enough mis- 
takes to fill a book, but in the end 
they aecomi)lished many notable ad- 
vances in improved maeliinery design. 
Many of the early designs in tjiis 
field were undeniably ugly and erude, 
ehiefly because they depended upon 
the use of existing steel shapes, with 
a minimum of forming. Shop organ- 
izations were not accustomed to pro- 
duction welding, and some of these 
fabrications turned out to be as ex- 
pensive as they were unattractive. De- 
signers then turned to the mechan- 
ically operated gas torch which carves 
out for them from any thickness of 
steel plate shapes that are more effi- 
cient and more pleasing in contour. 
Another mechanical aid brought into 
the picture was the high powered 
bending brake. This machine provided 
nicely rounded corners and eliminated 
many feet of welding. By the aid of 
these two devices welded machine de- 
sign has advanced to the point where 
machinery manufacturers call atten- 
tion to the attractive "styling" of their 
{)roducts which they have accom- 
l)lished by adopting welded rolled 
steel. 

For a good many years it was 
thought that the economy of welded 
machine structures was limited to 
cases where only one or two articles 
were made to a single specification. 
The theory was that in larger produc- 
tion the pattern cost was soon ab- 
sorbed and that thereafter it was more 
economical to use castings regardless 
of the possible savings in weight, but 
this is not always the case. It has 
been found that when factory facilities 
are so organized that the fabricating, 
assembling, and welding operations 
were set up on an efficient and sys- 
tematic basis, the unit production costs 
are greatly reduced. Furthermore, 
fabrication costs can be controlled by 
the use of adequate forming and 
material handling equipment. The 
volume of production in many cases is 
not sufficient to justify the installation 
of all the machinery "that is desirable, 
just as it is not economical for these 
same firms to have their own foundry 
equipment. Consequently, there have 
sprung up a number of steel fabricat- 
ing plants specializing in the produc- 
tion of welded machinery structures in 
the same manner that castings are 
supplied by foundries. The machinery 
field is now adopting welded con.struc- 
tion on a very wide scale. There is 
probably no other field which offers 
such wide opportunity for originality 
in design and for the development of 
efficient production methods. 

To summarize the effect of current 
advances in a quantitative way would 
be extremely difficult. Our measuring 
stick would have to be applied in as 



Do You Want 

A Power Plant 

Dismantled 

or 

Boilers Removed 
or 

A Smoke Stack 
Razed 

? 

Phone 
BEN PERLSTEIN 

Canal 7464 

HOYNE INDUSTRIAL 
SALVAGE CO. 

2501 S. Hoyne Avenue 
CHICAGO 



44 



many different directions as there are 
different industries. In a general way 
we can judge the rate of growth by 
measuring the increased use of arc 
welding in steel fabrication. It has 
been estimated that the number of 
pounds of arc welding wire used for 
each ton of ingot steel produced has 
gone from 1.4 in 1932 to 2.4 in 1936, 
an increase of 70 per cent. Unofficial 
estimates indicate that while steel pro- 
duction increased 35 per cent during 
the first 6 months of 1936 arc welding 
activity increased 45 per cent, so the 
curve is still going upward. 

In line with the growing importance 
of this process in all branches of in- 
dustry and engineering it is not sur- 
prising that the engineers themselves 
are giving it more careful attention. 
Several of the large manufacturers of 
welding equipment and materials have 
established schools where plant engi- 
neers can come and take short courses 
in the principles of design and pro- 
cedure which are necessary to the 
proper application of arc welding in 
their plants. The "students" come to 
these schools from every state in the 
union, bringing their problems with 
them, and return to their work armed 
not only with the answers, but also 
with information that will take care 
of future problems. 

The young man who is preparing 



The Firm of 



CHARLES W. HILLS 

1414 Monadnock Building 
53 West Jackson Blvd. 

CHICAGO 



Patent-Trade Mark and Copyright 
Matters Exclusively 



Washington Office 

Munsey Building 
Washington, D. C. 




Drink 



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Order 

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Be Sure you get 
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liiniself for an eiit>'incering career can 
be sure that a sound understanding of 
arc welding will prove not only help- 
ful but necessary. The process is 
firmly established wherever metal 
structures, and especially steel struc- 
tures^ are used. In most fields there 
still remain problems to be solved 
and research activities to be continued. 
Armour Institute of Technology has 
prepared splendidly to meet this de- 
mand for welding knowledge. It offers 
both technical instruction and labora- 
tory practice with a competent staff 
of expertly informed teachers. Will 
the students of this generation rise to 
the challenge of the tiny arc, thrill to 
the forces which are in its control, and 
carry it on to new and more dramatic 
achievements ? The writer believes 
tliat thev will. 



CHICAGO AS A 
FINANCIAL MARKET 

(From page 30) 

not in Chicago in particular. In this 
connection, Ave shall always know that 
what is happening to us is also hap- 
pening to the other fellow in other 
cities. In other words, comparing 
Chicago to the other financial markets 
in tiie United States, we are at no 
disadvantage because of governmental 
regulation. 

Financing Business Expansion 

Someone may say that Middle West- 
ern business men, representing com- 
merce, industry, railroads, and utili- 
ties, are passing up Chicago and going 
to New York to do their underwriting. 
It is unfortunately true that some are. 
This trend is slowing down because 
our underwriting houses are recover- 
ing from the depression and can fi- 
nance the business that comes their 
way and because wise business lead- 
ers know it is a good tiling for them 
to have their securities held by their 
neighbors, which means Middle West- 
ern financing for Middle Western in- 
stitutions. If I were representing an 
industry in this territory seeking new 
finance, I would use the facilities of 
the Chicago financial market because I 
know it can render better service to 
Middle Western business enterprise 
than can be obtained anywhere else. 
Buying Securities in Chicago 

Now what about buying securities 
in Chicago. There is an old saying 
that things eventually find their true 
level; likewise, securities eventually 
sell for what they are worth. On ac- 
count of the depression and the rela- 
tive newness of the Middle West as 
compared with the East, securities can 



The John Marshall 



LAW 

SCHOOL 

FOUNDED 1899 

AN 

ACCREDITED 

LAW SCHOOL 

TEXT and CASE 

METHOD 



(40 weeks per year) 

Afternoon — 3 years 

5 days.. .4:30-6:30 

Evening — 4 years 

Men., Wed., Fri., 

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All courses lead 

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work required for 

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315 Plymouth Ct., Chicago, III. 




45 



Actuary 



ARTHUR STEDRY HANSEN 

Consulting Actuary 

TELEPHONE CENTRAL 1444 

135 S. LaSalle Street 

CHICAGO 



Air Conditioning 




AIR COMFORT CORPORATION 

1307 S. Michigan Ave. • CHICAGO 



ILGr 



.VENTILATION 

ILG ELECTRIC 
VENTILATING COMPANY 

2850 N. Crawford Ave., Chicago 

W. H. Hallstein, Treas. '14 

W. H. Riefi, V. P. '15 



MELLISH & MURRAY CO. 

CONTRACTORS and ENGINEERS 
1715 Carroll Avenue 

CHICAGO 

AIR CONDITIONING— VENTILATING 

SHEET LEAD WORK 

GENERAL SHEET METAL WORK 



Automotive 



Athey Truss Wheel Co. 

FORGED-TRAK 

WAGONS TRAILERS 

FOR 

HEAVY HAULING 



5631 West 65th Street 
Chicago 



lie purchased in Chicago that will re- 
turn to the investors a higher percent- 
age than will similar securities in the 
New York market. This, coupled with 
tlie fact tliat the average business in- 
stitutions with the same set-up and 
similar management can make more 
profits in the Middle West than any- 
where else, justifies investors to give 
serious consideration to the purchase 
of securities of Middle Western enter- 
I)rises. This is due to the fact that 
we are at the crossroads of the na- 
tion's business, and have all the advan- 
tages that a crossroads furnishes, not 
only in getting raw material, but in 
shipping finished products. There 
is developing in Chicago a new and im- 
portant reason for our hoping good 
tilings for our financial market. The 
President of the Chicago Association 
of Commerce set forth in his in- 
augural address as one of the aims of 
tlie Association for this year: "Devel- 
opment of Ciiicago as a financial mar- 
ket, comparable witli its recognized 
j)osition as a center for live stock, 
grain, agricultural implements, furni- 
ture, and transportation." To my 
knowledge, this is the first time any 

Automotive 



BORG & BECK 

DIVISION OF BORG-WARNER CORP. 

Manufacturers 

of 

Automotive Clutches 

6558 S. Menard Ave. Chicago, III. 



Bearing Service 



Connecting rod babbitting service — 
crankshaft bearings — piston pin bush- 
ings — bronze cored and solid bars — 
babbitt metals — connecting rod bolts 
and nuts — Laminated shims. 

FEDERAL-MOGUL 
SERVICE, Inc. 

Victory 2488 
2346 S. Dearborn Street 

CHICAGO 
H. C. SKINNER, M.E.'IS 



Permanent 

BLUE PRINTS 

Blue Printing, Black Printing, Blue Line 
and Color Printing 

Drawing Materials 

Special Service Always — Speed and Results 

Big Floor Space and Eguipment 

for Rush Orders 

Photo Prints 

CROFOOT, Ni'ELSEN & GO. 

ENGINEERING BLDG. 
205 Wacker Drive 
Tel. Randolph 3341 

Branch Office 
307 N. Michigan Ave. State 7046 



Boxes and Cartons 



CREATIVE DISPLAY CARTONS 

DISPLAY CARDS 

FOLDING BOXES 

THE PINKERTON FOLDING BOX CO. 

Established 1899 

420 Rush St., Chicago 

F. p. Straueh M. E. '16 Superior 8348-9 



Business Equipment 



AdJressograpli Equipment 

Save 40% to 60% 

We have a complete stock of fine re- 
built Addressograph and Graphotype 
Machines, available in either hand or 
power models. Also Cabinets — Trays — 
Frames — Plates— Ribbons— Cards— Tabs 
— Etc., Etc. We also cut lists and have 
a complete embossing service. Get our 
quotations before going ahead with that 
next iob. 

BUSINESS MACHINE 
SUPPLIES CORP. 

300 W. Adams St., Chicago. III. 

Central 7007 



Building Supplies 



Cellufoam Corporation 

OF NEW JERSEY 
Manufacturers 

THERMAL & ACOUSTIC 
INSULATION 



66th & LaVerne Ave. 



Chi 



46 



Building Supplies 



RODDIS COMPANY 

PLYWOOD PRODUCTS 

FOR EVERY PURPOSE 

1435 W. 37th St. Vir. 0110 

CHICAGO. ILL. 



C. H. ANDERSON 
FLOOR COMPANY 



WOOD FLOOR 
CONTRACTORS 



161 E. ERIE ST. 

Delaware 1661 

CHICAGO 



LUMBER 

for 

Industrial Purposes 

WHOLESALE OR RETAIL 

• 

SCHENK LBR. CO. 

6601 So. Central Ave. 
Hem. 3300 

"The Only Yard in the Clearing Dist.' 



SERVICISED PRODUCTS 
CORPORATION 

6051 West 65th Street 
Chicago, Illinois 

Exclusive Manufacturers of SYRA-BORD 

Interlocked Rubber Tile Floors 

Also 

Asphalt Tile, Planking, and expansion joint. 

We can supply your needs for anything !n 

sponge or cork-rubber products. 

PHONE GROVE-HILL 0423 



Chamber of Commerce in any com- 
munity has taken such a definite step 
to put its facilties back of building a 
bigger and better financial market. All 
this proves the leaders of tlie Chicago 
Association of Commerce realize that 
the general business of Chicago will 
be better if our financial market is 
stronger. It also indicates that tlie 
Association of Commerce leaders be- 
lieve there is a real opportmiity to 
build a bigger and stronger financial 
market in Chicago. 

I believe the growth of the Chi- 
cago financial market throughout tlic 
next decade will be greater in per- 
centage than the growth of any other 
financial market in the United States. 



Chemical 



Patronize our 
Advertisers 



Building Supplies 



Edward Mines Lumber Co. 

Established 1892 

2431 So. Lincoln Street 

Chicago's Largest Lumber Yard 

Phone Canal 0349 Chicago 



Candies and Cigars 



Compliments 

PIONEER CANDY CO. 

Wholesale Confectioners 



CIGARS — CIGARETTES 

and 

FOUNTAIN SUPPLIES 



3211 Ogden Ave. 



Chicago 



Compliments of 

MIDWAY CIGAR 
FACTORY 



WHOLESALE 



CIGARS, CIGAREHES, TOBACCOS, 
CANDIES, GLOVES AND SUNDRIES 



221 West 63rd Street 

(2488 

Phones: Englewood < 2489 

(.2266 



Telephone Superior 3523 Established 1894 

A. DAIGGER & COMPANY 

Colors — Chem icalo — Oils 

Laboratory Supplies 

159 WEST KINZIE STREET 

CHICAGO 



WILKENS-ANDERSON CO. 

Scientific and Industrial Laboratory 
Supplies and Chennicals 

III N. CANAL ST. 

CHICAGO 



NATIONAL ALUMINATE 
CORPORATION 

6216 WEST 66TH PLACE 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

Specialists in the Manufacture and 

Use of Sodium Aluminate 



SERVING THE 
PROCESS INDUSTRIES 

through representation of well- 
known, fully qualified and 
progressive manufacturers of 

MACfflNERYand EQUIPMENT 

Evaporators — Filters — Centrifugals. 

Steam jet units, Condensers, etc. — 

for High Vacuums — Vacuum Cooling. 

Full line acid p. Chemical Stoneware. 

F. M. de BEERS & ASSOCIATES 

20 North Wacker Drive, Chicago, Tel. Rand. 232B 



WALTER H. FLOOD & CO. 

CLASS l«06 

Chemical Engineers 

Paving and Engineering Materials 
— Inspections — Reports — Specifica- 
tions — Physical and Chemical Tests 
— Design and Control of Asphalt 
and Concrete Mixtures. Atlantic ooii 
822 E. 42nd St.. Chicago, IIL 



BELKE MFG. COMPANY 

Patented Electroplating Special- 
ties, Plating, Polishing Supplies 
and Equipment 
Phone Mansfield 4606 
947 No. Cicero Ave. Chicago 

V^M. E. BELKE, CLASS '18 



47 



SECK 6, DRUCKER, INC. 

CHEMICAL ENGINEERS 
Complete Plants and Equipment 
for the Vegetable and Animal 
Oils and Fats Industries. 



9 S. Clinton St. 



Chicago 



Concrete Breaking 



Phone; Normal 0900 

WANTED: A HARD JOB! 

Chicago Concrete Breaking 
Company 

BLASTING EXPERTS 

WITH A NATION WIDE REPUTATION 

Removal of 

MACHINERY FOUNDATIONS— ROCK 

SALAMANDERS — SLAG DEPOSITS — 

CONCRETE STACKS — VAULTS ETC. 



6247 Indiana Ave. Chicago, 111. 





Consulting Engineer 


Reports Valuations 
Analyses Rate Surveys 

VAGIBORG & ASSOCIATES 

Incorporated 

CONSULTING ENGINEERS 

3300 Federal Street 

Design Operation 
Consultation Supervision 



INDUSTRIAL HEATING 

Consulting and Contracting Engineers 

Billet, Slab Heating and Special Furnaces 

/ Natural Gas \ 

To Use: <^ goke Oven Gas ( ^, p^^,^ 

(producer Gas ' 

FLINN & DREFFEIN COMPANY 

308 West Washington Street 

Chicago, Illinois 



BRADY, McGILLIVRAY 

& MULLOY 

CONSULTING ENGINEERS 

37 W. Van Buren Street 

Phone Harrison 1188 

1270 Broadway, 
New York City. 

N. Y. 



E. H. MARHOEFER, JR. CO. 

CONTRACTORS 

1506 Merchandise Mart 



48 



MEAT PACKING 

(From page 21) 

ciss nieat.s, in the variou.s sau.sagc 
room.s, in the smokehou.se, and in tlie 
smoked meat hanging room.s. Part of 
the los.se.s are unavoidable or even de- 
sirable. But mo.st of them mu.st be 
controlled or excessive losses will 
occur. 

There are three tilings to do in air 
conditioning. First, temperature is 
controlled. Cold air has a smaller wa- 
ter capacity than warm air, and yet it 
can remove much moisture from meat 
since the moisture it contains is re- 
moved as it passes over the very cold 
coils. On returning to the meat the 
air removes more moisture. The re- 
quirements of chilling, freezing, smok- 
ing, .storing, cooking, or canning gen- 
cr.iUy limit temperature control. 

Control of the relative humidity is 
.■mother way of regulating moisture 
losses. In the chill rooms this can be 
accomplished by using brine sprays of 
the proper temperature and concentra- 
tion. Cold moist air reduces the total 
water loss while the brine spray ab- 
sorbs the excess moisture which comes 
ofl" in clouds from warm carcasses. In 
other rooms moisture may be added. 



Costumes 



SCHMIDT COSTUME & WIG SHOP 

REQUISITES FOR THE 

FANCY MASQUE BALL 

& AMATEUR STAGE 

920 NORTH CLARK STREET 

Coslumers to the ARMOUR PLAYERS 



Decorating 



1. M. ECKERT CO. 

Distinctive Decorating 

5524 BROADWAY, CHICAGO 

TELEPHONE LONGBEACH 543/ 

J. M. ECKERT, Pres. • (Class 1910) 



Drawing Materials 



POST'S 

Drawing Materials 
THE FREDERICK POST CO. 

Hamlin and Avondale Avenues 
CHICAGO 




Tiiis is true of the smokehouse where 
the smoking process will cause a great 
loss if the air is dry and too hot. 
Here not only the temperature and 
humidity should be controlled but also 
the density of the smoke and the 
movement of the air. 

This brings us to the third general 
factor, the rate of air movement. 
Rapid movement means rapid heat 
loss, but it also means heavy moisture 
loss. The rate and uniformity of air 
movement in the various rooms of a 
packing plant will have much to do 
with controlling loss of water. 
Control of Bacteria and Mold 

Low temperatures are more effec- 



DREIFUSS BLOCK 

A complete portable unit (or 
quick, accurate drawing. 

Ideal for 
Architects Students 

Engineers 
DREIFUSS and COMPANY 

7841 Westwood Drive 
Chicago 

Electrical Contracting 



DE LUXE DRESS SUIT 
RENTAL CO. 

39 SOUTH STATE STREET 

Branches: 
6306 So. Halsted Street 
HOO W. Roosevelt Road 



A.S.SCHULMAN 

ELECTRIC COMPANY 

Electrical Engineers and 

Contractors 

537 South Dearborn Street 
CHICAGO 

PHONE HARRISON 7288 

Address All Communications to the Company 

A. S. SCHULMAN, President 
HARVEY T. NACK, Vice President 



DOOLEY ELECTRIC COMPANY 

ELECTRICAL CONTRACTORS 

4S6 E. 83rd St. • Stewart 7268 
CHICAGO 



Electrical Equipment 



GOLDBERG & O'BRIEN 

ELECTRIC CO. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS AND 

CONTRACTORS 

OFFICE AND PLANT 

I 7 South Jefferson Street 
Chicago, Illinois 



Northwestern Electric Company 

408412 South Hoyne Avenue 

Electric Motors — Converters — Welders 
Guaranteed Service 




"Extra -Service" 

Friction and Rubber Tapes 
. . . atno extra cost 

VAN riEEF BROS. 

Mfrs. Rubber and Chtmical Produrts 

Woodlawn Ave., 77th to 78th Sts. 

CHICAGO 



Motors and Generators Rebuilt 

New and Used Motors for Sale 

Telephone Boulevard 2389 

CENTRAL MOTOR & REPAIR CO. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 

MANUFACTURERS OF RADIO GENERATORS 

GENERAL ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL 

REPAIRING 

615-617 ROOT STREET 
CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 



The PYLE-NATIONAL 
COMPANY 

RAILROAD AND INDUSTRIAL CONDUIT 
WIRING FITTINGS 

AIRPORT AND AIR CRAFT 
LIGHTING EQUIPMENT 

STEAM TURBINES 

one-fourth to five horse power 

TURBO GENERATORS 

one-half to twelve kilowatt 

FLOOD LIGHTS 
Chicago Illinois 



tive in controlling spoilage resulting 
from bacteria and other microorgan- 
isms providing their numbers are kept 
relatively low. Tlierefore, avoidance 
of contamination and the utmost sani- 
tation are required in an industry such 
as the meat packing industry. Hot 
water, steam, a good detergent, and 
sodium hypochlorite are effective aids 
in sanitation. 

In spite of the best efforts in this 
direction a packinghouse offers some 
opportunities for slow bacterial 
growth, and molds are especially 
prone to start since temperatures 
around 38° to 40° F. with relatively 
high humidity do not discourage them. 
Sunlight helps restrain them, but sun- 
light is an enemy to good refrigera- 
tion. So the packer must resort to 
cleanliness and frequent clean-ups. 
But in some cases this is not sufficient, 
and in others it can not well be used. 
Thus when good beef is held for ten 
days to two or three weeks for aging 
or ripening, which is desired by the 
connoisseur, more or less mold will 
grow on the surface. This is un- 
sightly, and it usually necessitates 
trimming of the surface of the cut of 
meat. It would be fine if such mold 
growths could be prevented by some 
direct action. One device that is still 
in the experimental stage is a special 
type of electric lamp which renders 
sterile the atmosphere and the surface 
of objects near it. 

A second means that is receiving 
considerable application to beef aging 
in Eastern cities is the use of ozone. 
Some early experimental work carried 
on by Dr. W. Lee Lewis of the Insti- 
tute of American Meat Packers 
showed that ozone in concentrations 
of 0.47 parts per million prevented 
germination of mold spores, while 
0.27 parts per million were ineffective. 
Tlie humidity was about 75 per cent 
and the temperature between 46° and 
.■)0° Centigrade. Both concentrations 

Electrical Equipment 



Electrical Equipment 



THOMPSON - JAMESON 
ELECTRIC CO. 

360 W. Superior St., Chicago 

MOTORS and ELEVATORS 

MAINTAINED and REPAIRED 

LIGHT and POWER WIRING 

24 hour .ervice SUPERIOR 139( 



Transformer Specialists 

Design and production of transformers for 
Radio, Sound Amplification and Amateur 
Transmission. l'/2 K. W. limit. 

STANDARD TRANSFORMER 

CORPORATION 

STANCOR 

850 Blaclchawk Street Chicago. Illinois 



R. E. FISCHEL 

Becker Brothers Carbon Co. 

Electrical and Mechanical Carbon 

Products 

3450 S. 52 ND AVE. 

Cicero 

CRAWFORD 2260 



Economical Hl-Gradg Rebuilt Dep«ndabla 

ELECTRIC MOTORS 

MOTOR GENERATORS, ROTARY 
CONVERTORS, ETC. 

Ask for Special LItt 

Gregory Electric Co. 

1603 S. Lincoln Street Chicago, III. 



LIGHTING EQUIPMENT 

ARMOUR MEN 

MULTI ELECTRICAL MFG. CO. 
1840 West 14th Street, Chicago 



ELECTRIC 



CALUMET 



MOTORS 4961 

DAVID GORDON 

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 
1720 SO. MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO 



LIGHTING PICTURES 

and 
ELECTRICAL SUPPLIES 

TRIANGLE ELECTRIC CO. 

600 West Adams Street 
Chicago 

Mr. Byrnes Tel. HAYmarket 7980 



TRANSFORMERS 
Write for catalogs and manuals 

• Transmitter Guide — No. 344 

Circuit diagranis. details and parts 
Ilstg for transmitters ranging from 
26 watts to 1.000 watts IBc 

• Radio Servicing Guide — No. 342 
Auto Installation hints, how to 
build a direct reading voltmeter, 
how to make and use output Indi- 
cators and align receivers, tube 
(lata, etc 16c 

• Sound Amplifler Guide— No. 346 
Circuit diagrams, details and parts 
list for Amplifiers ranging up to 
100 watts output, db table, etc.. .16c 



49 



Electrical Equipment 



niinois Electric Porcelain 
Company 

MACOMB, ILLINOIS 

E. J. BURRIS 

District Representative 

Talephon* Mantflald 7873 

5263 Quincy Sfreet, Chicago, Illinois 



VACUUM CLEANERS 

BOUGHT and SOLD 

WE REPAIR HOOVER 

AND 
ALL OTHER MAKES 

THE BOBBETT ELEC. MFG. CO. 

4543 Coftage Grove Ave., Chicago 
Tel. OAKIand 1252 



Chicago TransFormer 
Corporation 

3501 ADDISON STREET 
Chicago, Illinois 

Independence I 120 



CHICAGO • ILLINOIS 

FOR QUALITY 
WHITE METAL ALLOYS 

ALL KINDS 



Employment Agency 



Want a Job? 

ARCHITECTS' AGENCY 

FURNISHES 

TECHNICAL MEN 

to 
ARCHITECTS— ENGINEERS- 
CONTRACTORS— CORPORATIONS 
GEO. S. BANNISTER, Manager 
508 South Dearborn Street, Chicago 
Wabash 5589 



Engraving 



417 
PHONE 



NORTH STATE ST. 
SUPERIOR 6716 




ARTISTS • DESIGNERS 
PHOTO ENGRAVERS • 
BLACK & WHITE • 
COLOR PROCESS • 
BEN DAY • 



imparted a cucumber odor and metal- 
lic flavor to .such products as pork 
.sausage, lard, butter, and a number 
of other fat-containing products. In 
most cases beef and veal were not ad- 
versely affected. 

While these results were rather dis- 
couraging, experiments in Europe and 
the eastern part of the United States 
showed that ozone could be used to 
control the growth of mold during the 
ripening of beef. Temperatures used 
were between 32° and 39° F., and 
humidities varied from 75 to 80 and 
even 90 to 92 per cent. In order to 
prevent the workmen being affected 
by the ozone, it was introduced into 
the beef hanging room after it was 
filled and closed (about 3 P. M.). The 
concentration at the start was 2.3 to 
2.7 parts per million, but this falls to 
iialf that value in 15 minutes and then 
decreases more slowly. Dr. Arthur 
W. Ewell of Worcester Polytechnic 
Institute reports that maintaining the 
original concentration for two hours 
and repeating the treatment about 
twelve hours later permitted workmen 
to enter the room without hazard early 
the nejrt morning. Since different 
hanging rooms affect the loss of ozone 
in different ways, each plant presents 
its own problems. 

New Curing Procedures 

Meats have long been cured by the 
use of salt, sugar, saltpeter, and 
smoke. In the process the nitrate 
(saltpeter) is reduced to nitrite by 
bacteria present in the curing vat. 
This is a relatively slow process. The 
use of pickle from meats already 
cured (second pickle) speeds up the 
curing process. Another method that 
insures more rapid distribution of cur- 
ing agents is to pump the curing 
pickle into the meat by means of a 
glorified hypodermic syringe. Modern 
practice carries these ideas further. 
Sodium nitrite is employed in place of 
part or all of the nitrate, and more 
rapid distribution is secured by pump- 
ing the pickle through the arteries and 
veins of the ham or other cut. An- 
other method is to pump in many 
places with a more dilute pickle. Thus 
curing time has been progressively cut 
down for an average ham from 60 to 
to, 20, 12, and even fewer days. 

Copious pumping with dilute pickle 
makes a ham that will not keep well. 
But it has been found that when such 
hams are smoked with the final tem- 
perature in the smokehouse reaching 
160° to 165° F., the excess water is 
removed, the ham is cooked, and keep- 
ing qualities are excellent. The proc- 
ess also makes the ham very tender. 
New Rendering Methods 

Lard has long been rendered by two 
general methods. It may be made by 



FeltB 




WESTERN FELT WORKS 


Manufacturers 
Cutters of 


and 
Felts 


For all Mechanical an 
Purposes 


d Industrial 


CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 





Flowers 


Telepho 


ne Victory 4515-4516 


"Your 


Telegraph Florist" 


J.F. 


KIDWELLCO. 




Not Inc. 




FLOWERS 


3530 


MICHIGAN AVENUE 


T. A. Kidwe 


1 Chicago 



Serson Hardware 
Company 

ALL KINDS SHEET METAL 

WORK 

Special Attention to Repair Work 

Phone Victory 1773 109 E. Slst St. 



Not in the Trust All Departments 

Kenwood 0050 



GOODMAN AMERICAN 
CORPORATION 

First in Chicago 

FINE ICE CREAMS 
BETTER BEVERAGES 

Manufacturers & Distributors of 

DAIRY-PRODUCE 



Phone LAWNDALE 7636 

CHICAGO ICE CREAM 
COMPANY 

ICE CREAM OF MERIT 



I624S. Keeler Ave. 
Chicago, Illinois 



50 



AIRGUIDE WEATHER INSTRUMENTS 

Hygrometers — Thermometers — 
Barometers 

for Domestic and Industrial Purposes 

FEE AND STEMWEDEL. INC. 

4949 North Pulaski Road, Chicago. Illinois 
KEYstone 6600 



FOR 40 YEARS 

A NAME STANDING FOR 

QUALITY 

AND 

FINE WORKMANSHIP 

IN THE MANUFACTURE OF 

SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 

GAERTNER SCIENTIFIC 
CORPORATION 

1201 Wrightwood Ave. CHICAGO' 



GAD GETE E R S 



• • • T^HAT'S what we've been 
J. called by laboratory men 
who never before realized what service 
they could get on special custom-built 
apparatus until they called us in on the 
job. With thousands of standard parts 
in our apparatus stock-room, a modern 
plant built expressly for producing "pre- 
cision" products, and long-experienced 
engineers on the job, we can save you 
plenty of time and money when you 
need laboratory equipment that can't 
be bought out of a catalog. 

PRECISION SCIENTIFIC CO. 

1740 N. Springfield Ave., Chicago, Illinois 



COMPLETE AND INTELLIGENT 
INSURANCE SERVICE 

Life Fire Casualty 

NATIONAL PROTECTED INVESTMENT 
COMPANY 

Fred G. Heuchting ('07), President 

Suite 428—608 South Wabash Avenue 

Chicago 



The Sooner You Plan Your Future, the 
Better Your Future Will Be— 

WM. C. KRAFFT 

EQUITABLE LIFE ASSURANCE 
SOCIETY OF UNITED STATES 

120 S. LA SALLE ST. FRA. 0400 



cooking in open kettles or by boiling 
under steam pressure and removing 
the watery fluids and tissue. Other 
steps are necessary. In tliese methods 
heat transfer is not rapid, and too 
high temperatures may easily be 
reached. New procedures fast becom- 
ing standard include dry rendering in 
a closed, steam-heated, revolving tank 
in which a partial vacuum is main- 
tained, forced circulation of the finely 
comminuted fatty tissue over surfaces 
heated by steam, and other methods 
for giving lower temperatures and 
more efficient heating. 

New Structural Moterials 

The lighting and ventilating of meat 
packing plants present many prob- 
lems. In addition, corrosion may be 
widespread, and apparatus, tables, 
and equipment may be kept clean with 
great difficulty because of the action 
of much moisture and salt. New 
structural materials are now at hand 
which aid in solving these problems. 
A modern packing plant has been con- 
structed by one of the large meat 
packers in a southern state in which 
ordinary windows have been largely 
replaced with structural glass brick 
which give good light, cut down heat 
transfer, and permit a nearly plant- 
wide air conditioning. 

Stainless steels are now obtainable 
in quantity at prices sufficiently low 
to permit its very widespread use in 
the construction of trucks, tables, 
racks, hooks, tools, belts, machines, 
and other equipment which comes in 
direct contact with meat and meat 
products. Stainless steel does not cor- 
rode under packinghouse conditions. 
It is readily cleaned, and it leaves a 
surface that offers no secret hiding 
place for microorganisms which are 
the meat packers chief enemy. 
New Wrapping and Packing Materials 

Cellophane and other types of cel- 
lulose materials are in widespread 
use in many industries. The producer 
of meat-type foods is making wide use 
of such transparent materials for win- 
dows in cartons, wrappings of all 
kinds, and even for casings for vari- 
ous sausages, especially the larger 
kinds. When combined with litho- 
graphed labels or colored designs 
printed on the cellulose wrapping, 
these materials put meat products into 
party dresses. Even lamb and veal 
carcasses are now being marketed in 
transparent cellulose wrappings for 
the protection and delight of the pur- 
chaser. 

Truly the day of the old fashioned 
butcher is over, and the packer is 
stepping out. In this transformation, 
which is still going on, the chemist 
and the engineer are playing leading 
parts. 



JACK I. KITCH 

"INSURANCE" is My Middle Name 

South East National Bank Building 

1180 East 63rd Street 

PHONE: FAIRFAX 7200 



YOUR FINANCIAL PLANS 

Can be guaranteed of accomplishment 
with an Equitable Life Insurance or Annuity 
Contract. 

ROBERT G. PILKINGTON. JR. 

"New Light on Old Problems" 
120 So. La Salle St. Franklin 0400 



Build a Monthly Income 

through 

MAN'S STAUNCHEST FRIEND 

His Life Insurance 

By Consulting 
O. D. RICHARDSON 

Asso. General Agent 

Berkshire Life Insurance Co. 

Pittsfield. Mats. 

Room 1229—1 No. La Salle St. 

Chicago, Illinois 

Tel. Ran. 2224 



EUGENE 


F. 


HILLER 






190«) 




INSURANCE 


— 


ANNUITIES 


Personal, 


Business 


for 
and 


Estate Protection 


No. 


1 Narth 


La SaUe BuU«lii.g j 




State 8600 



Telephone Harrison 5481 

EVERETT R. COLE 

General Insurance Broker 

175 W. Jackson Boulevard 

CHICAGO 



PAUL L MULLANEY (1924) 
INVESTMENTS 

Room 820, 231 South La Salle Street 

Chicago 

Telephone Franklin 8844 



51 



Jewelry 



SPIES BROTHERS. Inc. 

Manufacturing Jeuitlers 

CLASS PINS AND RINGS 
Fraternity and Sorority Jewelry 

Medals and Trophies 

Dance Programs and Announcements 

27 E. Monroe Street 

CHICAGO 



Laundry 


Tel. Hayma 


rket 2338 


MANDLER'S 


LAUNDRY 


Industrial Supply \ 


Since 


1875 


464-66 Milwau 


kee Avenue 


E. O. Mandler 


Chicago, III. 



WEST LAKE LAUNDRY COMPANY 


3329 S. State Street 


Chicago 


Serving railroads, institutions, industries 
since 1890. 


Telephone: Victory 6300 



Management Engineer 



GRIFFENHAGEN & 
ASSOCIATES 

Esiablished 1911 

MANAGEMENT ENGINEERS 

AND ACCOUNTANTS 



CONSULTANTS ON PROBLEMS OF OR- 
GANIZATION, FINANCE, PERSONNEL, 
AND OPERATING PROCEDURE. 



Head OfRce: LaSalle-Wacker Building 
Chicago 



CHARLES R. SIMMONS 

CONSULTANT IN MANAGEMENT 

Industrial Engineer 



10 South La Salle Street 

CHICAGO 
Telephone Franklin 1234 



WELDING CONFERENCE 

(From page 35) 

Thursday, January 20, 1938 — 
Huilding Design for Welding. A. M. 
Candy, Consulting Engineer, The Hol- 
lup Corporation, 

Friday, January 21, 1938 — Weld- 
ing Practice and Design. A. M. 
Candy. 

Additional information may be ob- 
tained by addressing Dr. L. E. 
Grinter, Director of the Conference. 



Law School 



ARE YOU HAPPY WITH 
YOUR WORK? 

(From page 33) 

11 lb. Y. M. C. A. Secretary 

Y. M. C. A. Physical Director 
Personnel Manager 
School Superintendent 
1\'. Purchasing Agent 
Office Worker 
Accountant 

Vacuum Cleaner Salesman 
\'. Certified Public Accountant 

The test consists of 420 items. 
After eacii item is a rating scale 
marked L, I, D. If an individual 
likes a profession such as acting he 
draws a circle around L. If he is in- 
diflerent to a subject such as spell- 
ing, he draws a circle around I. If 
he dislikes an amusement such as 
bridge, he draws a circle around D. 

The person taking the test is re- 
quested to work as rapidly as possi- 
ble so as to get first impressions. 
People are so surrounded by the con- 
ventions of society, social pressures, 
filial obligations, and sometimes over- 
sensitized consciences that they are 
apt to name the things that they 
tiiink they ought to like, rather than 
tiiose that Mother Nature intended 
that they should. The first impres- 
sions of a person usually are those of 
the subconscious mind, and whether 
one does or does not accept the teach- 
ings of the psychoanalj'sts such as 
Freud, Jung, and Adler, it is this sub- 
conscious stratum of an individual 
that really determines what he is. 

The test is scored by assigning 
weights to each response. These 
weights differ for various occupations. 
This means that the 420 items must 
be scored 27 times for the 27 occupa- 
tions. The easiest way to accomplish 
this is to score the test on a Hollerith 
machine. Most colleges send their 
blanks to some one of the scoring bu- 
reaus that possess such a machine. 

Unlike most psychological tests 
where the size of the score indicates 
the degree of the trait being meas- 
ured, the size of the score in the vo- 



CHICAGO 

KENT 



COLLEGE off 

LAW 



Founded 1887 

Independent — Endowed— Non- Sec ta 

Afternoon and Evening Classes. 

Dea. 888S. College BIdg., 10 N. Fra 



Fitzgibbons Boiler Co., Inc. 

STEEL HEATING & POWER BOILERS 

Represented by 

MALVIN & MAY, INC. 

RAY C. MALVIN 

2427 So. Michigan Avenue 

Chicago, Illinois 

Victory 1617 



THE STAR OIL COMPANY 

ESTABLISHED 1890 

LUBRICATING OILS AND GREASES 

Telephone Seeley 4400 

GEO. HAMILTON 
344-348 N. Irving Avenue, Chicago 



Welding Specialists 

Hamler Boiler, Tank Co. 

6025 W. 66th St. 

Chicago 

Fabricators of Steel Plate 

ASME PRESSURE VESSELS 

STAINLESS STEEL TANKS 



SOL ELLIS <S SONS, Inc. 

PLUMBING AND HEATING SUPPLIES 
Chicago's Most Complete Stoch of 
Pipe, Pipe Fittings, and Valves. 
Complete Heating Plants, Boilers 
. . . Furnaces . . . Stokers , . . Oil 
Burners . . . Headquarters for 
TYLAC Wall Board. 

2118 S. State St. Victory 2454 

CHICAGO 



Motor Trucks 



MOTOR TRUCKS, TRACTORS, TRAILERS 
AND BUSSES 

Standard and Custom Built Chassis, All Sizes 

E. R. BURLEY. 1913 

Secretary and Sales Manager 

AVAILABLE TRUCK COMPANY 

2501 Elston Avenue 
Chicago 



HENDRICKSON MOTOR 
TRUCK CO. 

Manufacturers of 

»/2 to 5 TON 6 to 12 TON 

Four-wheel Trucks Six-Wheel Trucks 

Wabash Avenue at 36th Street 
Chicagro, Illinois 



52 



TIME TESTED ELECTRICAL FUSES 

• • • 

"ECONOMY" 

"NATIONAL" 

"CLEARSITE" 

"ARKLESS" 

"BEACON" 

"ECO" 

• • • 

WE FUSE 

ELECTRICAL 
CIRCUITS 

EVERYWHERE 

ECONOMY FUSE & MFG. CO. 

2717 GREENVIEW AVENUE 

CHICAGO, ILL. 

A QUARTER OF A CENTURY 

OF DEPENDABLE SERVICE 



53 



Neon Signs 



INTERNATIONAL NEON SIGNS 

Patented 

COL-R-BAC NEON SIGNS 

The latest development in Neon Signs 

14 N. May Street Chicago 



FEDERAL NEON SIGNS 

• 

CLAUDE NEON FEDERAL CO. 

225 North Michigan Ave. 

Chicago, Illinois 



Odice Furniti 




Office Furnilure House, Inc. 

171-73 WEST LAKE STREET 

Chicago 

Paper 



Schwarz 
Paper Co 



c<?o 



1430 S. Canal St. 
Chicago 



Patents 



DEVELOPMENT and SALE 

of 

PATENTS 

IRVEN H. WILSEY 

WRIGLEY BUILDING 
420 N. Michigan Ave., CHICAGO 



WHITEHALL 6150 



54 



cational interest test measures how 
nearly a man's interests coincide with 
those of the average man successfully 
enaged in that occupation. For this 
reason, scores on the test are given in 
terms of ratings. In answer to tlic 
question "Does the individual liave 
the interests characteristic of a par- 
ticular occupation.''", the rating of A 
means, yes; of B means, not sure; of 
C means, no. That is to say, if a man 
rates A on an occupation, his inter- 
ests coincide with the characteristic 
interests of men successfully engaged 
in that occupation. If he rates C, he 
does not iiave those characteristic in- 
terests. If he rates B, he has only 
some of tile characteristic interests of 
the average successful man engaged 
in that occupation. Recent researches 
MOW enable the B grade to be divided 
into 3 classes, B — , B, and B-f- which 
indicate the degree of coincidence in 
this doubtful range. In this way two 
ratings, the A and the C, are positive 
statements, leaving the doubtful cases 
to the B rating. These results are all 
based on statistical analysis which in 
turn is based on a rigorous mathemat- 
ical foundation. 

One question that arises is "Do in- 
terests change with age.?". This ques- 
tion was investigated by Strong who 
found tliat there is little change in the 
C ratings, that there is some change 
in the A ratings or the B ratings, but 
not in both combined. The greatest 
changes occurred between the ages of 
25 and 35, but these changes were 
vertical rather than horizontal. That 
is to say, the change may be from 
•V to B, or from B to A in some par- 
ticular occupation, but rarely from 
one occupation to another. 

There is some overlapping between 
interests in professions that are 
closely related. For instance, engi- 
neers tend to rate like chemists and 
purchasing agents and to a much less 
degree like farmers, personnel mana- 
gers, lawyers, physicians, and certi- 
fied public accountants. Zero percent 
of them rate A in advertising, minis- 
try, psycliology, teaching, life insur- 
ince, real estate, selling vacuum 
cleaners, or Y.M.C.A. work. 

Lawyers on tlie other hand tend to 
rate like journalists and to a lesser 
degree like chemists, doctors, engi- 
neers, personnel managers, teachers, 
and real estate salesmen. None of 
them rates A in ministry, psychology, 
purchasing agents, selling' vacuum 
cleaners, or Y.M.C.A. work. 

Sometimes a man scores high in two 
or more occupations. In such a case 
it frequently is advisable for him to 
consider an occupation combining 
these two. For instance, high scores 
both ill law and engineering suggest 
tliat he consider becoming a patent 



Photography 



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attorney or a lawyer spceializing in 
engineering problems. 

There are some vocations that the 
interest test cannot satisfactorily dif- 
ferentiate. A set of these consists of 
the four kinds of engineering, chem- 
ical, civil, electrical, and mechanical. 
Many other investigations have been 
made to differentiate between these, 
but so far no satisfactory solution has 
been obtained. 

Attempts have also been made to 
differentiate executives from other 
professions. Strong found that his 
"executive" group could not be dis- 
tinguished to any practical degree 
from non-executive groups and con- 
cludes that probably in every profes- 
sion there are men with executive 
ability. 

The question of personality is one 
in which the least is known as far as 
measurable statistical information is 
concerned. Most of the information 
at present available is subjective and 
of the cut and try type. Extensive 
investigations are being conducted in 
this field, and some day it is possible 
that personality traits can be meas- 
ured as satisfactorily as mental abil- 
ity and interests. 

An illustration of the use to which 
the Strong Interest Blank can be put 
was strikingly illustrated this spring. 
An Armour alumnus who knew that 
this test was being given, visited the 
department of educational tests and 
measurements. He holds a fine posi- 
tion in which the test showed that his 
interests lie. He had the opportunity 
of taking a better position, but won- 
dered if he would be as satisfied in 
the new position as he was in the old. 
The results of the test indicated that 
he would. 

In this test, then, there exists as 
far as it goes not only a remarkable 
instrument for determining the inter- 
ests of men engaged in many occupa- 
tions, but also a boon to vocational 
counselors. It is true that a man may 
make a success of an occupation in 
which his interests do not lie. In 
most cases it has been found either 
that his success is an indifferent one. 
or that he performs his tasks in an 
unusual manner. Certainly a man 
will make a greater success and be 
far happier in that kind of work 
which measures up to his ability and 
in which he is decidedly interested. 



[NOTE: Detailed information re- 
garding the Strong Vocational Inter- 
est test will be supplied upon request 
by the Department of Educational 
Tests and Measurements, of Armour 
Institute of Technology, 3.300 Fed- 
eral St.. Chicago, Illinois.] 



Real Estate 



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Telephone 

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For information on any 
size water softener or filter 

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Hollup perfectly centered rods avoid under- 
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Perfectly centered rods are possible only 
with Hollup equipment — equipment designed 
and built especially for the application of 
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The work of this special equipment is con- 
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Due to the high physical properties produced 
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they have passed all code requirements. 

Demonstrated at the Show 

Hollup perfectly centered Sureweld Pro- 
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rarefied atmosphere at high elevations, airplane 
engines require superchargers which operate like fan 
blowers, maintaining air pressure in the engines and 
permitting the motor to operate at normal efficiency. 

Today, twelve-hour flights from coast to coast at 
an average height of six miles are the objective of 
transport airlines. Experiments in this field have 
been successfully conducted by Transcontinental 
and Western Air, Inc., and the U.S. Army Air Corps 
with very encouraging results, using G-E turbine- 
driven superchargers. 

Military, transport, racing, and transoceanic planes 
are equipped with G-E superchargers which increase 
motor efficiency, speed, and flying distance. The 
superchargers were developed by Dr. S. A. Moss, of 
General Electric and are built in the River Works in 
Lynn, Mass. Student engineers on Test at Lynn 
have an opportimity to inspect and test tliese devices 
as a part of their training course. 




BEATING SWORDS INTO PLOWSHARES 

Vj^rELL, not exactly swords into plowshares, but 
' ' rather discarded rails, superheaters, and boiler 
tubes into steel for the overhead system of an 
electrified railroad line. In this manner the old 
steam railroad of the Witwatersrand Gold Mining 
Area was replaced by a completely electrified 
line. 



iiecause of the rise in gold prices di 



the last 



few years, an increased suburban jjasseiigcr Iradic in 
that section of South Africa necessitated an <iilarge- 
ment of the railroad. 

Mercury -arc rectifiers made by the Britisii Thomson- 
Houston Company, an affiliate of General Electric, 
supply the power for the ''Reef Scheme," as 
it is called, while 115 four-motor, multiple-unit car 
equipments were furnished by G.E. through the 
International General Electric Company. 

The engineering and sales work on this project was 
done by several former G-E Test men. Many such 
opportunities are open to graduates of college 
engineering schools who have successfully compleled 
the G-E Test Course. 




AMERICA'S OUTSTANDING YOUNG 
ELECTRICAL ENGINEER 

DR. CHAUNCEY GUY SUITS, research physi- 
cist of the General Electric Research Laboratory, 
in Schenectady, has been named by Eta Kappa Nu, 
honorary electrical engineering fraternity, as the 
outstanding young electrical engineer for 1937. 

Born in Oshkosh, Wisconsin in 1905, Dr. Suits 
graduated from the University of Wisconsin in 1927 
and from the Technische Ilochscliule in Zurich, 
Switzerland (Sc.D. '29). An ardent skier, he spends 
most of his spare time on the snowy slopes around 
upper New York State. 

As a member of the Research Laboratory staff, his 
work has been on the fundamentals of electric arcs, 
showing how arc temperature can be measured by 
sound, and it was for this work that the Eta Kappa 
Nu award was given him. Other activities for which 
Dr. Suits is noted include the investigation of non- 
linear circuits, high-pressure arcs, and the develop- 
ment of automatic tuning for radio receivers. 

Last year the award was given to Frank M. Starr. 
U. of Colorado '28. G-E Test '29, who is employed in 
the Central Station Engineering Department of 
General Electric. The Test Course, of which Starr is 
an alumnus, provides a practical education supple- 
mentary to the theoretical knowledge obtained in 
college. 




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The simplf desisfn and joiutless construction of 
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cracks or other tiny o[>(Miin}i:s generally present in 
jointed construction an«l thus removes the possi- 
bility of bacteria lod<:ing in such phices. This 




welded kettle, being jointless, is permanently leak- 
proof. It is easy to clean and keej) clean. In addi- 
tion, weliling has trinnned off the dead weight of 
the heavier connections required by other methods 
of joining nu'lals. 

Tomorrow's engineers will be expected to know 
how to take advantage of this modern metalwork- 
ing process. Several valuable and interesting tech- 
nical booklets, which describe the application 
of the oxy-acetylene process of welding and cut- 
ting to design, construction and fabrication, are 
available from Linde offices in principal cities. 
Write to The Linde Air Products C.ompany, Unit 
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LINDE "N""* CARBIDE 




ASH CONTENT REDUCED 
ofULihiJicL 

As a means of increasing efiiciency, flexibility and 
capacity in steam generation, S-P coals are proving 
to be remarkably effective. 

By taking advantage of advanced methods in spe- 
cific gravity separation of impurities, the quality of 
Peabody's finest Southern Illinois coals has been 
greatly improved. 



consider these new advantages 

reduced fuel consumption 
cleaner heating surfaces 
savings in ash removal 



controlled uniformity 
savings in freight 
savings in labor 



In brief, there is both reason and evidence to justify 
a test of S-P coal in your plant. Further details will 
be furnished gladly by a Peabody representative. 



Boiler outages from 
choking of gas passages 
practically eliminated! 

Removal of ultra fines by S-P preparation stops 
tube slagging and "birds nesting" (the most pro- 
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• CHICAGO- NEWYORKSTLOUISQMAHACINCINNATISPRINGFIELODAVENPORTMINNEiVPOLIS • 



ARMOUR ENGINEER 

and ALUMNUS 



Editor General Manager 

WALTER HENDRICKS D. P. MORETON 



EDITORIAL ASSISTANTS 
Stephen P. Finnegan, '39 
Daniel W. Jacobson, '39 



BUSINESS ASSISTANTS 
Albert N. Schreiber, '38 
Roland Boerlitz, '39 



Published in October, December, March, and May, in the inter- 
ests of the students, college, and alumni of Armour Institute of 
Technology, under the direction of a Managing Board, at 
3300 Federal Street, Chicago, Illinois. 



THE CONTRIBUTORS 

■ Joel M. Jacobson graduated from Armour Institute of Tech- 
nology, in civil engineering, in 1929. Mr. Jacobson taught for 
several years at Armour, devoting the major part of his time to 
the subject of Aviation; but the call of industry finally won him, 
and he is now staff engineer for Glenn L. Martin Co., Baltimore, 
Maryland. 

■ H. M. Hucke received a B. S. degree, in electrical engineer- 
ing, from the Polytechnic College of Engineering at Oakland, 
California, in 1927. He is an associate member in the Institute 
of Radio Engineers, and at present is Chief Communications 
Engineer for the United Air Lines Transport Corporation. 

■ Stuyvesant Penbody, a graduate of Yale in 1911, is president 
of the Peabody Coal Co. He takes pride in being known by 
his many friends and associates as a hard working executive. 
He rides his hobbies, such as amateur photography, directing 
farming operations on his Arrowbrook Farm, horse racing, 
playing squash, etc., with the same vigor he displays as an 
executive. 

■ Lloyd L. Call graduated from the University of Wisconsin, in 
electrical engineering, in 1918. He did graduate work in the 
departments of mathematics and physics, at Wisconsin, and re- 
ceived his M. S. degree in 1920. Mr. Call has held responsible 
positions with the General Electric Co., the Detroit Edison Co.. 
and the Western Electric Co.; and at present he is Chief Engi- 
neer for the General Electric X-Ray Corp., Chicago. 

■ Robert I. Wishnick graduated from Armour Institute of 
Technology, in chemical engineering, and later attended Chicago 
Kent College of Law from which he received a law degree. 
Mr. Wishnick is president of the Continental Carbon Company, 
and he takes a very active interest in the many companies which 
are under his control. 



MARCH 

VOLUME 3 

IN THIS ISSUE 



1 938 

NUMBER 3 



Trans-Oceanic Flying Boats, by Joel M. Jacobson 6 

Radio in Domestic Air Transport, by H. M. Hucke 11 

Bituminous Coal, "A Major Source of Energy," 

by Stuyvesant Peabody 15 

Commercial Application of X-Rays, by L. L. Call 19 

Soot Justifies Its Existence, by Robert I. Wishnick 24 

Developing a Man for the Job, by Robert N. 

McMurry 29 



"Night Hawks,*' by Frederic Oakhill. 



32 



What's Going On 

Armour Sponsors Midwest Power Conference 34 

New Boiler Replaces "Old Mary Anne" 34 

Department of Public Relations Established 35 
Research Foundation Publishes New Magazine 36 

Special High Pressure Boiler 36 

Recent Additions to the Faculty 36 

Tenth Annual Armour Relays 37 

Distinguished Alumnus Passes Away 42 

Alumni Notes, fey D. P. Moreton 43 



B Dr. Robert N. McMurry holds degrees from the Universities 
of Chicago and Vienna, and he is now Executive Secretary of 
the Psychological Corporation in Chicago. He has had extensive 
experience in clinical, social, and industrial psychology. 

■ Frederic Oakhill. Plant Engineer for Bauer & Black, is an 
Instructor in Plant Engineering and Maintenance in the Evening 
Division at Armour Institute of Technology. 



TRANS-OCEANIC 
FLYING BOATS 



by Joel M. Jacobson 



AdOOI) iiuasure of the progress 
of a civilization is the speed and 
ease of intercommunication it affords. 
The effects of the application of steam 
to land and water transportation and 
the results of the gasoline engine de- 
velopment offer ample proof of this 
fact. That the world is now entering 
another new phase of transportation 
improvement is clearly evident. Over- 
land air traffic has been increasing at 
a rapidly accelerating rate, and only 
political difficulties have prevented in- 
ternational transport from keeping 
step. Now that Pan American Air- 
ways has completed its pioneering on 
the trans-Pacific route and has com- 
pleted arrangements (with England's 
Imperial Airways) for trans-Atlantic 
flying, there is no limit in sight for 
the future. 

The place which the large flying 
boat holds in the picture of future 
over-ocean transportation has been 
very clearlj' outlined in the special 
report of the United States Maritime 
Commission, "Aircraft and the Mer- 
chant Marine," which was issued by 
Chairman Joseph P. Kennedy in No- 
vember, 1937. The commission's 
major purpose was the investigation 



of this country's decrepit merchant 
marine which now needs government 
help in order to exist. The competi- 
tion of other surface craft is becoming 
more and more serious because of sub- 
sidies and indirect aid given to the 
merchant marine of other countries 
by their super-nationalistic govern- 
ments. In addition, this industry 
now has another difficulty to meet. 
The recent rapid improvement in air- 
craft has now made them a serious 
contender for trans-oceanic transport 
of passengers, mail, and express. 

With existing equipment, points out 
Grover C. Loaning, Aeronautical En- 
gineer, and adviser to the Maritime 
Commission, it is possible to carry 20 
to 30 passengers a distance of 3,000 
miles non-stop at speeds over 175 
m.p.h. The passenger comfort pos- 
sible in present day aircraft exceeds 
that provided in the modern pullman 
car, and since the time required for a 
trans-Atlantic crossing is so short, 
the ocean super-liner may soon become 
commonplace. 

Since the deciding factor will be 
the cost of operation, a careful study 
of this question was made by the 
Maritime Commission. Considering 



The "Bermuda Clipper." Sikorsky S-42. Being operated between Baltimore and 
Bermuda by Pan American Airways. At landing stage in Baltimore. First flight. 

Courtesy of Baltimore Evening Sun. 







only designs which may be built from 
present day knowledge, a comparison 
of costs, based on depreciation, fuel 
consumption, and operating cost, indi- 
cates a distinct superiority of the 
large flying boat. It is noteworthy 
tliat while it takes about 9,000 horse- 
power to carry a single passenger 
across the Atlantic in the modern 
ocean liner, a dirigible or flying boat 
requires only 1700 h.p. because of the 
speed and frequency of schedule 
which is possible. So far as initial 
investment is concerned, the cost of a 
large ocean-going ship is about $50,- 
000,000. Tlie cost of the same pas- 
senger capacity in dirigibles is about 
the same, while a sufficient number of 
flying boats to give the equivalent re- 
sults could be built for only $18,000,- 
000. The chart on page 8, taken from 
the Maritime Commission's report, 
illustrates the comparative costs and 
the definite superiority of the flying 
boat. 

Quoting the report, "It would ap- 
pear, therefore, that these services 
(one day to Europe by airplane and 
two and a half days by dirigible) may, 
in the near future, be operated at a 
cost and with a fare equal to, or pos- 
sibly less than, that of a superliner. 
Such fast service with ample capacity 
for a large part of the passenger, 
mail, and express traffic will cause 
superliner service to lose much of its 
appeal and justification for a large 
class of traffic. If the shipping com- 
panies are not to add aircraft to their 
fleets, they will undoubtedly lose con- 
siderable traffic to independent airline 
companies." 

The first successful trans-Atlantic 
flight was made in 1919 by the United 
States Navy flying boat" NC-4. On 
May 8th of that year, three boats left 
Far Rockaway. New York, for Eng- 
land. Careful preparation for the 
flight had been made and included a 
line of destroyers along the entire 
route to Newfoundland, the Azores, 
Portugal, and England. The inher- 
ent safety of the flying boat for over- 
water flying was indisputably proved, 
not because one of the three starters 
finished the flight, but on account of 
the fact that, in spite of forced land- 
ings in mid-ocean by all three, not a 



life was lost. The NC-4, running for 
5 hours over open sea after being 
forced down by engine trouble on the 
way to Newfoundland, was able to 
taxi into Cape Cod on a single engine. 
The NC-], after landing on the water, 
traveled 100 miles afloat before being 
picked up by a steamship near the 
Azores. The NC-3 found it neces- 
sary to land in a 12 ft. sea on account 
of bad weather. The landing wrecked 
the liull, struts, and controls, but tlie 
NC-3 finally limped into Ponta Del- 
gada under its own power after 52 
liours afloat. Though the successful 
crossing was made in 9 stages and 
took 5i liours of flying time and 23 
days of actual elapsed time, the pos- 
sibilities of the flying boat were defi- 
nitely established. 

Tlie airplane which made this his- 
toric flight was not a great deal 
smaller than the modern "Clipper" 
ships. Its gross weight and useful 
load were about half that of the 
Sikorsky S-4'2 now making regular 
flights between Baltimore and Ber- 
muda. It was a braced biplane with 
a wing span of 126 ft. and a wing 
area of 2380 sq. ft. Powered witli 
four Liberty engines of 400 H. P. 
each, it was capable of cruising 1600 




Interior of passenger compartment, Martin 130 — "China Clipper" 

Courtesy of Glenn L. Martin Co. 



miles at an average speed of 92 m.p.h. 
The crew consisted of pilot, navigat- 
ing officer, and radio operator. It is 
probable that future historians will 
lay more emphasis on this first proof 
of flying boat possibilities than on tiie 



landplane crossing by Colonel Lind- 
bergh which began the rapid expan- 
sion of overland air transport nine 
years later. 

One fligiit does not make an airline. 
Almost ten years elapsed before the 



Two "Streamliners," the "China Clipper" and a modern automobile 



Courtesy of Glenn L. Martin Co. 







^^Mm 



FLYING BOAT 
dO Pt,ss.,50Ton 

150 Pc3i5s,125Ton 
D1R16IBLE 
100 Pass. 9,000,000 cu.f "I; 

200 PcissJQOOqOOO cuft 

SUPERLINER 
Similar to Normoinolie 




mmmmm<wwm 




mmrnw 




m4mmmm^mmmmmmm\ 




mm>i^ymm\ m^ Depreci^tfon 


[■*?.x^ Fuel 


mmmmmmm «! cr^w 




10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 150 
Dolioirs PerTransa+lointic Passenger Crossing 

Chart taken from Maritime Commission's report, showing comparative 
costs of flying boat and superliner 



results of tlie NC-Ji's flight began to 
be evident. Successful operation re- 
quired trained personnel, dependable 
aircraft and engines, repair and main- 
tenanci; stations, terminal facilities, 
and accurate weather forecasting. 
The pioneer oceanic transport com- 
pany is the Pan American Airways 
Corporation which, starting with a 
line from Key West to Havana, now 
operates over 40,000 miles of air- 
ways and, in 1937, logged over 73,- 
000,000 passenger miles, and carried 
over 3,000,000 lbs. of mail and ex- 
press. Its routes cover South Amer- 
ica and reach from Hongkong in the 
west to Bermuda in the east. Trans- 
oceanic air travel cannot be consid- 
ered a future development; it is here 
now. 

One would expect that the demand 
for America to Europe operation 
would have been met long before any 
western extension was even consid- 
ered. However, the difficulties in- 
volved in securing the necessary inter- 
national rights required for airlines to 



Europe iiave delayed trans-Atlantic 
development. Pan American Airways 
has recently completed an agreement 
with Imperial Airwaj's by which the 
two companies will share facilities for 
an England to America airline by way 
of the Azores, and one leg of this 
route is already in operation. The 
tired business man in New York, 
planning a week-end vacation, can 
now include Bermuda in his list of de- 

FIVE YEARS OF PROGRESS 
China Clipper 
Martin Model 130 
1935 

Gross Weight 52,000 lbs. 

Disposable Load. . . 27,000 lbs. 

No. passengers, day 

No. passengers, night 

Max. range still air . 3,200 miles 

Wing Span 130 ft. 

Overall Length 90 ft. 6 in. 

Hull Beam 11 ft. 3 in. 

Gross Horsepower. . 3320 

Cruising Speed. . . . 130 ni.p.h. 



Mayo Composite. Still undergoing tests. Both have been flown sep- 
arately, but not hooked together. 

Lonrtcsy of Popular Aviation 




sirable spots. Flying to Baltimore in 
a little over an hour, he may make 
connection witii either Pan American 
Airway's Sikorsky "Clipper" or Im- 
jierial Airway's "Cavalier" and be in 
Bermuda in about 51^ hours. Very 
soon, the trip to Europe, which re- 
quired 23 days in 1919, will take as 
many hours. 

Tlie airplanes wliieh make tlicsc 
flights possible are triumplis of engi- 
neering progress. A good picture of 
tiie modern ocean transport and an 
understanding of its capabilities may 
be gained from a study of the Martin 
Model 156 which has rccentlj^ been 
completed in Baltimore by the Glenn 
L. Martin Company. Tiiis flying boat, 
one of the largest to be built to date, 
is a braced monoplane with sponsons 
or "seawings" to give it good water 
stability. Similar to the "China Clip- 
pers" now making regular flights be- 
tween San Francisco and Hongkong, 
it has a gross weight of 63,000 lbs. 
and carries a total disposable load of 
33,000 lbs. The progress being made 

IN FLYING BOAT DESIGN 

Ocean Transport Project By 

Martin Model 156 Consolidated 

1937 1910 (?) 

63,000 lbs. 110,000 lbs. 

33,000 lbs. 5 1,500 lbs. 

36 54 

26 54 

5,000 miles 6,000 miles 

157 ft. 185 ft. 

91 ft. 10 in. — 

11 ft. Sin. 15 ft. 6 in. 

4000 4800 

156m.p.h. 190 m. p. h. 

in improving the performance of these 
boats is growing more rapid every 
year. A comparison of the character- 
istics of the Model 156 with its pre- 
decessor, completed only two years 
before, illustrates this development. 
The China Clipper, on the Pacific 
crossing, is able to carry about 2500 
lbs. of payload. The Martin "Ocean 
Transport" of 1937 can cover the 
same route with four times the pay- 
load and at 25 m.p.h. greater speed. 

The controlling factor of modern 
transport design, passenger comfort, 
is clearly evident in this present day 
clipper ship. Careful study of 
soundproofing methods and materials 
has made possible the reduction of 
noise to a level below that attained in 
railroad trains. The latest develop- 
ments in air conditioning are utilized 
in the elaborate heating and ventilat- 
ing system to give a uniform tempera- 
ture and constant supply of fresh air. 
Cabins are spacious, seats are soft and 
roomy, and berths are large enough 
to accommodate oversize passengers 



without cramping. Because of the 
airplane's large size, the trans-Atlan- 
tic traveler may move about freelj' 
without appreciably aifecting the bal- 
ance. A large, completely equipped 
galley, presided over by a trained 
steward, can provide excellent meals, 
served in the passenger's private com- 
partment. Toilet facilities are pro- 
vided by two lavatories at the rear 
of the airplane which arc supple- 
mented by double wash basins in the 
larger cabins for night flights. Bag- 
gage racks, capable of holding 75 cu. 
ft. each, are installed to the rear of 
the upper exit hatch and permit an 
ample allowance per passenger. 

The hull, 11 ft. wide, 91 ft. long, 
and 25 ft. high, is divided horizontal- 
ly into three decks. The upper, or 
flight deck, has three compartments. 
In the bow is the pilot's cockpit, con- 
taining all flight controls, instruments, 
and dual seats for pilot and co-pilot. 
The navigator's room, furnished with 
a large chart board, bookcases, and 
lockers for instruments, occupies the 
central portion of the flight deck. Be- 
hind the navigator, and directly under 
the wings, is the engine control cabin 
in which all fuel, mixture, propeller 
controls, and valves are centralized. 
Telephone communication with the 
pilots is utilized to insure instant re- 
sponse to their requirements. The 
pilot is provided with duplicate throt- 
tle controls. The water storage tank 
which supplies the galley, wash 
basins, and lavatories is installed in 
tiie after portion of the upper deck. 

The central, or passenger deck, is 
wider and longer. In the bow is the 
anchor compartment where the light 
weight Northill anchor and handling 
equipment is stored. The hatch, di- 
rectly in the nose, is accessible from 
the inside and ideally located for 
water maneuvering. The radio oper- 
ator occupies most of the space be- 
hind the anchor compartment and 
beneath the pilots. Two-way radio, 
both phf^ne and telegraph, may be 
installed, as well as beacon receivers 
and radio compass. The radio oper- 
ator is able to communicate with tlie 
pilots and the navigator by means of 
the inter-phone system. Behind the 
radio room, as well as on the sub-deck 
below. caro;o space is available for 
mail or light express. A special ex- 
ternal door opens directly into tliis 
portion of the hull so that the loading 
will not disturb passengers. The gal- 
ley also occupies a portion of this 
area, a room 5 ft. by 7 ft. being de- 
voted to this purpose. 

Passenger quarters are large and 
comfortable, consisting of three 
cabins 7 ft. x 11 ft. and 6I/2 ft. high, 
and a lounge compartment 11 x 12 ft. 
The smaller rooms, each furnished 




The first pressure cabin plane in the world, developed by the Lockheed Company to 
Army Air Corps specifications to test material and personnel problems incident to 
flight in the substratosphere <>i)n-ial Pl„,t,j,iraph. U. S. Army Air Corps. 



with seats for eight persons, may be 
made up into six berths at night. Tlie 
central lounge contains six individual 
seats and two large sofas which can 
accommodate six additional passen- 
gers. At night, this spacious room 
may be transformed into two sleeping 
compartments, each with individual 
washroom equipment, and accommo- 
dating four persons. Two lavatory 
compartments containing toilet, wash 
basin, towel racks, and other conve- 
niences, are installed behind the 
cabins and just ahead of the stairs 
which lead up to the main exit hatch. 
Crew quarters are arranged in the 
after part of the central deck. 

The lower portion of the hull, be- 
low the water line, is utilized as cargo 
and gasoline space although most of 
the fuel is carried in the stabilizing 
sponsons. Each sea wing is really a 
large gas tank with a maximum fuel 
supply of 2130 gallons. A fuel 
pump, electrically operated, pumps 
the gasoline to two 100 gallon auxil- 
iary wing tanks which supply the 
engines. Interconnection makes pos- 
sible the feeding of any engine from 
any tank and also for filling one tank 
from another. Lighting is taken care 
of by a 12 volt battery system charged 
by generators on the engines. 

Like all large modern airplanes, the 
Martin "Ocean Transport" is of all- 
metal construction. Wings are of alu- 
minum alloy of the box beam type, the 
upper surface being corrugated longi- 
tudinally and acting as the upper 
beam flange. Thin metal sheet cov- 
ering gives a smooth external surface. 
The two web type spars form the 
front and rear faces of the box. The 
lower surface is of flat sheet. Ribs 



with formed channel 
square tube diagonals. 



are trusses 
flanges and 

The main wing brace struts arc large 
size streamline aluminum alloy tubes, 
reinforced internally and having steel 
end fittings. Corrugations are used 
to a large extent in the hull construc- 
tion as well, both for the bottom and 
for the top deck. This is probably 
the most efficient manner in which 
large local strength may be obtained 
with thin sheet. Side skin is of flat 
sheet reinforced by the frame side 
members and intermediate vertical 
stiffeners. Controls are conventional, 
the control surfaces being balanced 
aerodynamically and statically, and in 
addition, the mass distribution is ar- 
ranged so as to reduce the possibility 
for flutter. The tail assembly, en- 
tirely of metal except for elevator and 
rudder which are fabric covered, is 
strut braced to the hull. 

The phenomenal progress of the 
trans-oceanic flying boat is not due 
to the genius of any one man, or, for 
that matter, of a single company. Tlie 
entire aeronautical world has con- 
tributed. The difference between the 
transport of two years ago and the 
flying boat of today represents the 
sum of many small individual im- 
provements. The Gottingen wing 
section of the Model 130 has been 
superseded by the NACA 23000 air- 
foil, the product of patient research 
at the Langley laboratories. The 
aspect ratio could be increased to im- 
prove performance only because of 
studies made by British, German, and 
American engineers as to the effect 
of wing span on that vicious danger 
in high speed aircraft, flutter. Wing 
loading has gradually increased from 



tlie 12 lbs. per sq. ft. in 1919 (tlic 
NC-i) to 22 lbs. in 1935 (Martin 
Model 130) and 27 lbs. today, only 
because of patient research on flap 
design which has practically doubled 
the maximum lift of airfoils. Even 
the lowlj' anclior has received its 
sliare of attention. Tlie heavy grap- 
nel of j-csterday has given Avay to the 
Northill folding anchor, witli a third 
the weight and twice the holding- 
power, thus increasing the payload by 
a hundred pounds or more. 

Normally, the engineer conserva- 
tively refuses to act the seer and pre- 
dict the future. In this case, no 
prophetic power is necessary. Pan 
American Airways engineers, still pio- 
neering, have laid down the require- 
ments of the next three or four years. 
In December, 1937, this company 
called for bids for the construction of 
three to twelve flying boats which will 
be enormously superior to any equip- 
ment now in service. Specifications 
require that the airplane shall carry 
100 passengers at least 5,000 miles at 
an average speed above 200 m.p.h. A 
crew of sixteen men in addition to a 
substantial baggage and mail load 
must be provided for. The minimum 
gross weight with which this perfor- 
mance can be obtained is about 170,- 
000 lbs., almost three times the 
weight of the Martin "Ocean Trans- 



port" and over twice that of the 
80,000 lbs. Boeing Clipper which is 
nearing completion in Seattle. 

Pan American is peering into the 
future, since engines of at least 2,000 
horsepower will be necessary, 
althougli the largest now available is 
1500 horsepower. Since flight at an 
altitude of 25,000 feet at approxi- 
matelj' 300 m.p.h. is desired, it will 
be necessary to use a compressed-air 
cabin to insure passenger comfort in 
the rarified atmosphere which is found 
at this height. 

That the transport company has 
not set down an impossible condition 
is indicated by the acceptance of the 
challenge by the manufacturers. Mr. 
Igor Sikorsky, manufacturer of the 
Bermuda Clipper, is reported as say- 
ing "You have laid down very stiff 
requirements, but we can build such 
a plane; of that I am sure." Other 
companies will not be far behind. 
Martin, Boeing, Consolidated, and 
Douglas, the other large boat manu- 
facturers, have also been asked to bid. 

Sub-stratosphere flight, with its 
attendant advantages of reduced 
poAver and better weather conditions, 
will therefore be possible on a com- 
mercial scale within three or four 
years. "Supercharged" cabins which 
provide the passenger with a 10,000 
ft. atmosphere wlien flying at altitudes 



up to 50,000 ft. arc already in the 
jirocess of development. A landplane 
embodying this feature is now under 
construction and will be in service in 
less than two years. Its application 
to the flying boat is certain. 

The cruising speed of 200 m.p.h. 
required for the new transport is a 
continuation of a definite trend, and 
it is not taking much of a chance to 
predict 300 m.p.h. within ten years. 
This will put Europe within seven 
hours of New York. 

As to size, the prospect is not so 
certain. Take-off space will probably 
limit this side of the development. It 
is safe to predict that flying boats 150 
feet long, with a wing span of 250 
feet and weighing above 125 tons, 
will soon be built. On account of the 
high speeds attainable and the result- 
ant short flying time, larger sizes 
should be unnecessary. However, to 
attain these dimensions, improvement 
in engines, materials, and terminal 
facilities must continue to progress at 
the same rate as in the past. The 
discovery of new principles of flight 
or new sources of power, such as the 
rocket motor, is not required to force 
this development. If any such unsus- 
pected invention does occur, the prog- 
ress will be accelerated to an even 
greater extent. 



Sikorsky XPBS-1. Four engines. Now being secretly tested by the Navy near Hampton Roads. Entered in competition 

against consolidated XPB2Y-1. 




RADIO 

IN DOMESTIC 
AIR TRANSPORT 



by H. M. Hucke 




Mainliner in ilight 



NO discussion of radio in air 
transportation would be complete 
without a brief reference to the early 
work which provided the foundation 
on which our present progress is built. 
These two arts, radio and aviation, had 
their beginnings so near the same time, 
that their rise to importance runs 
parallel through the thirty-five years 
that have passed since the Wright 
brothers first flew in 1903. Both ad- 
vanced slowly through the years that 
followed until the military needs of 
the World War suddenly accelerated 
their progress. After the War, ac- 
tivity lapsed for a few years until 
the advent of broadcasting, which 
lifted radio into the position it holds 
today. Aviation expansion followed 
shortly, when the first airmail con- 
tracts were let to the commercial air- 
lines in 1927. 

Up to that time radio had seen very 
little service on aircraft except for a 
few installations made during the 
War. The need for radio communi- 
cation had been present for some 
time, but until broadcasting hastened 
the development of lightweight tubes 
and accessories, the equipment had 
been too cumbersome for aircraft use. 

When the commercial operators be- 



gan carrying mail on a large scale and 
attempted to maintain reliable sched- 
ules, the lack of contact with the 
planes in flight became a serious han- 
dicap. Long distance telephone to 
farmers along the route was first used 

H. M. Hucke 




to chart the progress of the flights, 
but this was at best a makeshift, and 
the development of radio equipment 
became a necessity in 1928. 

The first research work was direct- 
ed toward a means for talking to the 
pilot while in flight, since his ability 
to tell of his progress made it pos- 
sible for the ground men to assist 
him with weather information and 
landing instructions. This develop- 
ment was done by the airline en- 
gineers and resulted in our present 
two-way voice radio system. 

The second research project was 
done by the Bureau of Standards and 
resulted in the development of the 
radio beacon. This very useful device 
has been improved from year to year 
until at present it represents the pri- 
mary means of finding the way from 
airport to airport. 

These first two radio developments 
were completed and in service by 19.30 
and for some years represented the 
only two practical contributions of 
the radio art to aviation. During the 
years that followed, a number of en- 
gineers continued their work along 
several lines, but produced no tangible 
results until in 1936 and 1937. Then 
in rapid succession, came the marker 



II 




Radio ground station 



beams, the plane direction finder, and 
tlie instrument landing system, in- 
creasing the radio aids from two to 
five. 

These three new developments rep- 
resent a series of additional aids whose 
use will materially add to the reliabil- 
ity of operations as well as improve 
the safety of flight in adverse weather. 
The development of the direction find- 
er is an adaptation of marine radio 
to aircraft service and represents no 
unusual innovation in radio practice. 



The marker beams and instrument 
landing system, however, are the re- 
sult of an advanced research program 
into the use of the new ultra high 
frequency radio waves. These waves 
can be made to follow a variety of 
paths, and their direction can be con- 
trolled as readily as the beam of a 
large searchlight. 

We find at the beginning of 19.38, 
that, while airplanes have advanced 
from single-motored mail planes to 
modern luxurv airliners, our radio 



services have advanced from none to 
five, all in the course of ten years. 
Radio waves while at first but simple 
carriers of a voice from plane to 
ground, have become the track, the 
block system, and soon the path down 
which the plane will glide to the run- 
way. 

How are they controlled? What 
paths do they follow? How are they 
used? These questions are often asked 
and often answered with an array of 
technical terms that only confuse the 
questioner. It is the plan of this 
article to supply the answers in terms 
that can readily be followed. Dia- 
grams are included to cover the more 
(lirtieult points, with a photograph or 
two to help. The five systems will be 
covered in the order of their develop- 
ment since some of them grew out of 
the experience gained in the use of 
tlicir predecessors. 

The Two-Way Telephone System 

The first plane-to-ground radio sys- 
tems used radio telegraph and required 
a radio operator on board the plane. 
Early mail planes, however, had no 
room for radio operators and carried 
only one pilot. Since very few pilots 
were radio operators and operating a 
telegraph key while flying an airplane 
was diflicult, voice communication was 
chosen in preference to code telegraph. 
The choice has proved wise since mod- 
ern planes already fly two miles while 
a single ten-word message can be 
tapped out on a telegraph key. With 
voice, onlv one-twentieth this distance 



Radio beacon 



Radio marker 






12 



is traversed while the same message 
is repeated into the microphone. 

Early mail planes usually carried 
enough gasoline for about two hun- 
dred miles of flight, and landing fields 
were provided accordingly. Each 
landing field needed a radio station, 
so the spacing of ground radio trans- 
mitters was determined on the basis of 
airplane gasoline supply. 

Since very few flight instruments 
had been developed, early airmail 
pilots usually flew by keeping the 
ground in sight and following rail- 
roads and highways. This meant tiiat 
in mountainous country they flew 
through the valleys below the sur- 
rounding mountain peaks. Engineers, 
therefore, had to choose a type of 
radio wave which would go over the 
mountains and down into the neigh- 
boring valley. The waves chosen were 
those which would go upward several 
hundred miles, strike a region known 
as the "Heaviside Layer", and bounce 
back in all directions. Because the 
sun forced the "Heaviside Layer" 
down close to the earth in daytime and 
the angle of radio wave reflection was, 
therefore, changed, it was necessary 
to choose a different wave for day use 
than for night use. Thus, if one tries 
to listen to the aviation stations on a 
home radio, he will find them at about 
.50 meters (6000 kc) in daytime and 
100 meters (3000 kc) at night. 

The wave lengths were also desir- 
able, since they required only small 
antennas on the plane as well as at 



Wisconsin 



Illinois 




Lake 
michigan 




PLANE LOOP ANTENNA DIRECTION FINDING SYSTEM 



Above: Instrument board of a modem 
trans-oceanic flying boat. 

Below: Direction finder triangulation. 



the ground radio stations. The small 
antenna has less drag and therefore 
does not reduce the plane speed. For 
example, even the four small antennas 
on the plane shown in the photograph 
on page . . . reduce the top speed 
about 3 miles per hour. A transcon- 
tinental flight takes 15 minutes longer 
because of this drag. Small antenna 
towers must be used at ground radio 
stations located on air fields because 
of the hazard of planes flying against 
them when landing. 

The proper power of the ground 
radio stations spaced 200 miles apart 
was determined by test and set at 500 
watts. Plane transmitter power was 
limited to 50 watts, since tiiis was the 
maximum power that could be drawn 
from a reasonably heavy storage bat- 
tery. Total weight of a complete radio 
installation on a single-motored mail 
plane was 150 pounds. 

Radio receivers used on planes and 
at ground stations have about the 
same number of tubes as those used 



13 




Direction finder loop antenna 

as home radios. Construction details 
are, of course, considerably different. 
While a seven-tube home radio may 
weigh 100 pounds, a similar plane re- 
ceiver weighs only 17 pounds, since it 
is built almost entirely of aluminum 
alloy. 

Voice communication receivers are 
built without tuning dials, because all 
the company ground stations on one 
division are tuned to the same wave- 
length. A simple switch changes the 
receiver from the day to night wave- 
lengths. All arrangements are sim- 
plified as much as possible, because 
pilots must concentrate on flying the 
plane and use the voice radio as 
quickly and easily as a telephone. In 
practice the system is actually many 
times faster than the telephone, since 
the "other party" on the ground is 
always connected and waiting for the 
pilot to speak. If static interferes, 
the companies arrange for radio oper- 
ators at three different stations to 
cover all contacts with every pilot. At 
least one operator always manages to 
"get through." 

As shown in the photograph on 
page . . . each ground radio operator 
uses a typewriter with a continuous 
roll of paper on which he types all 
the conversation that occurs in his 
division. A weather indicating panel 
gives instant information on the wind 
velocity, wind direction, outside air 



temperature, and barometer. A tele- 
type constantly prints the latest 
weather information on a paper tape. 
Pneumatic tubes dispatch small mes- 
sage carriers to ether departments. 
At his side are four telephones which 
instantly connect him with every other 
airline on the same field, — to a loud- 
speaker system so that information 
may be called out to every corner of 
the hangars, to the Bureau of Air 
Commerce Air Traffic Control, and to 
the local telephone exchange. Dupli- 
cate radio receivers are maintained in 
case of failure. Other receivers may 
be tuned to any radio beacon to check 
its operation, and another constantly 
repeats all conversation from the Field 
Radio Control Tower over a small 
loudspeaker. 

I)cs{)ite all these devices pouring in 
information at a rapid rate, the radio 
operator proceeds smoothly and accu- 
rately. Every device has beenilocated 
within arm's length and all hife move- 
ments so accurately timed that during 
rush hours an experienced o{)erator 
may handle a message per minute for 
short periods. This is only possible 
because pilots and operators all use 
tiie same forms when speaking over 
the radio. The following typical 
pilot's position report will serve to 
illustrate this point: 



UNITED number FIVE is passing 
over GOSHEN at TWO TWENTY- 
FIVE o'clock at an altitude of SIX 
THOUSAND feet, conditions are 
CLEAR; the visibility is UNLIM- 
ITED; the temperature is SIX FIVE 
degrees; air is SMOOTH; I ESTI- 
MATE niv arrival over MCCOOL at 
■rilHKl''. TWO FIVE o'clo.U at an alti- 
tude ..f F()l'l{ THOrSANI) feet and 
at C'HK'AC.O at FOl R /EltO FIVE 
(►■elocl<. 

Since all pilots' reports are given 
in the same sequence, the words in 
small letters may be left out, thus re- 
ducing the number of words from 62 
to 2 1 and cutting the time in half. 
The radio operator uses a standard 
code and types the above message as 
follows : 

US GO 22.5A 6T CAVU 0.5 SM EST 
MK 325 A 4T CG 405 A 

This further reduces the report 
from 62 to 13 short words with a total 
time saving of about five to one. Codes, 
abbreviations, and reporting systems 
are now nationally standardized so 
that a pilot or radio operator in Bos- 
ton will follow exactly the same pro- 
cedure that is used in Los Angeles. 

The combined airlines in the United 
States operate about two hundred fifty 
ground radio stations and about tliree 
hundred fifty aircraft radio stations. 
Messages total about two million per 
(Turn to Page 27) 



Instrument landing system 




AIRPORT LANDING AREA 



14 



BITUMINOUS COAL 

"A Major Source of Energy" 



by Stuyvesant Peabody 



FEW of us stop to think that to- 
daj^'s widespread use of coal for 
lieating and power generation is a 
comparatively recent development. In 
1850 the per capita consumption of 
coal in tiie United States was less than 
one-third of one ton per year. In 
recent years it has reached as high as 
five tons per capita per year, or an 
increased consumption of more than 
1500 per cent in less than a hundred 
years. In 1929, for example, ap- 
proximately 600,000,000 tons of coal 
were produced in the United States. 
Roughly translated, this meant the 
producion of energy equivalent to fif- 
teen years of hand labor by every 
person in the nation. 

Of our annual output, approximate- 
ly 28% is consumed by railroads; 
19.5% by general manufacturing; 
16% by coke ovens; 7.7% by electric 
utilities; 5.4% by steel works; and 
23.7% by domestic uses of all kinds. 

Statistics on the sources of power 
in the United States indicate that 
water power furnishes 7%, oil and 
gas 29%, and coal the remaining 64-%. 

In addition to the fuel used from 
the coal bin, the average home uses 
much invisible coal that comes into 
the house through gas and water pipes 
and electric wires. It has been esti- 
mated that the home using 15 tons of 
coal for heating will also consume 
about 13 tons of this transformed coal 
which are required to supply it with 
gas, electricity, water, and ice. 

The bituminous coal industry of 
the United States today employs di- 
rectly more than 500,000 men in the 
mines, and provides a livelihood for 
several millions of our citizens. It 
furnishes one-third of the freight ton- 
nage for our railroads, and approxi- 
mately one-fifth of their total freight 
revenue. 

Of the known coal deposits of the 
entire world, the United States has 
considerably more than one-third. At 
the present rate of extraction, our 
coal supply will last for more than 
700 years. 




The United States is the largest 
coal producing and coal consuming 
nation in the world. In normal times 
we produce at least 42% and consume 
40% of the world's total. It is also 
interesting to note that the world's 
heaviest consumption of coal occurs in 
the Chicago area, where more coal 
is used each year than in all of the 
New England states. There is no 
question but that the industrial lead- 
ership of the United States among 
all of the nations of the world has 
been made possible by the unlimited 
supply of low cost power derived 
from our readily accessible coal re- 
serves. In making this statement, I 
do not want to detract in any way 
from the American engineering genius 
that has been responsible for the sci- 
entific utilization of this power. 

This same engineering genius also 
deserves credit for the development 
of our by-product industry, which 
turns coal into coke and in the pro- 
cess extracts hundreds of useful by- 
products. A few of tite more inter- 
esting of these coal by-products are 
gas for heating and cooking, anaes- 



tlictic gas, lubricants, motor fuel, 
analine dyes, paraffin, perfumes, as- 
phalt, insecticides, carbolic acid, fla- 
voring compounds, and baking soda. 
In the case of analine dj'es, it has 
virtually created a new industry. For- 
merly, nearly all of our dyes were 
imported from Germany. Now the 
United States produces nearly 95% 
of all the dyes it uses, and exports 
large quantities. 

Some Problems 

These few brief facts and figures 
indicate the important part contrib- 
uted by bituminous coal to our indus- 
trial and domestic affairs. But not- 
withstanding its great value to the 
nation, the coal industry is beset with 
serious problems. Overexpansion of 
producing capacity has resulted in the 
most destructive sort of competition 
within the industry itself. Constantly 
improved efficiency in coal burning 
equipment has contributed in no small 
way to shrinkage in consumption. A 
substantial tonnage has been lost to 
oil and natural gas. All of these 
factors, combined with slowing up 
of industrial activity in recent years, 
have reduced the consumption of coal 
in this country to approximately two- 
thirds of the peak years. 

Because of heavy over-production, 
bituminous coal has been sold gener- 
ally during the past ten year period 
at less than the actual cost of produc- 
tion. For 1928, the Bureau of In- 
ternal Revenue reports show a deficit 
for the bituminous coal industry of 
.$24,000,000.00; the loss for 1929 was 
$12,000,000.00; for 1930 $42,000,- 
000.00; and while the figures of sub- 
sequent years are not readily available, 
it is estimated that during 1931, 1932, 
and 1933 the industry lost not less 
than $50,000,000.00 per year. The 
report of the National Resources 
Board stated that virtually no other 
business covered by the Treasury De- 
partment's record showed such wide- 
spread money losses as the mining of 
bituminous coal. 



15 



'i-'&m 




;^?*^" 



CI Coal shot down, ready for loading. 



Coal seam face in Southern Illinois — approximately 
450 feet below ground. This field produces coal of 
the best quality found in Illinois. The seam is from 
7V2 to 8 feet in thickness. 



Mining machine which "undercuts" just above the 
floor to a depth of 6 to 71/2 feet, thus making if easy 
to shoot down the coal. 



Electric power drills are used for placing explosive 
charges at about the same depth as the undercut. 
The lightest possible charges are used to avoid ex- 
cess shattering of the coal. 



\ 



Placing the explosive which will be shot at night 
after all other men are out of the mine. 



Modern type of mechanical loader, electrically oper- 
ated and employing caterpillar locomotion. This ma- 
chine gathers the loose coal and loads it into pit cars 
swiftly and smoothly. 





^-^1 



Electric locomotives are now used almost exclusively 
for hauling both empty and loaded mine cars. The 
distance from the working face to the shaft is often as 
much as three miles in the larger bituminous mines, 
making speedy transportation essential. 

Q Classification screen which separates mine run coal 
^ into many evenly sized grades such as lump, furnace, 
small egg, stove, chestnut, pea, and various grades of 
screenings and stoker coal. Below the first screen 
shown here are a series of screens with progressively 
smaller holes. 

] Q Central control board from which the entire Peabody 
^ coal refining plant is regulated. The board is set to 
control the washing, screening and loading of the 
various sizes or combinations of sizes for which the 
mine has orders. Then by simply throwing one master 
sv/itch the whole plant is started. 

"I "I Before entering this wash box, coal is passed over 
magnetic pulleys to eliminate all tramp metal. It is 
also passed over high speed vibrating screens to re- 
move fine coal dust. In the wash box natural impuri- 
ties such as rock, slate, shale, and iron pyrites are 
extracted by specific gravity separation. Only choice, 
low ash coal is floated through the box. Compressed 
air agitators, used to churn the water, are seen at the 
right. In the center, over the wash box are two elec- 
tric eye controls which regulate release of impurities 
through refuse gates into the bottom of the box. 

lO Removal of foreign matter by hand picking. With 
the coming of the hydro-washing plant this method of 
cleaning coal is becoming obsolete with the exception 
of the large lump size. 

Powerful hoisting motors bring coal to the surface 
with almost unbelievable speed. Only fourteen to six- 
teen seconds are reguired to place the loaded mine 
car on the cage at the shaft bottom, hoist it to the 
surface and dump it at the top of the tipple. Two cage 
shafts permit lowering of empty cars while loaded 
cars are coming up, and the operation is thus re- 
peated with clocklike regularity throughout the work- 
ing day. 









Peabody cocl refining plants use well equipped 
laboratories to maintain a constant check on the quality of their 
output. Each car is sampled and an immediate analysis is 
made to determine heat value and ash content. 




14 



15 



Modern coal preparation plant of the hydro-wash- 
ing type. Huge water storage reservoir at the right, known as 
the "settling cone," has a capacity of 125,000 gallons. 

The steel industry is one of the largest con- 
sumers of coal. 



1 C The automatic stoker has brought better heating 

results, freedom from constant furnace tending and economy 
in fuel costs to hundreds of thousands of homes. It is the 
major development in home heating in recent years. Washed 
stoker coal, dusfproofed with oil or various chemicals, has 
proven particularly successful in this type of burning equip- 
ment. 




That the coal industry can "take 
it" is indicated clearly by the fact 
that in the face of tliese staggering 
losses, it has not pleaded for help or 
sympathy. It has showed patience 
in waiting for better times, fortitude 
in grimly hanging on, and courage 
in fighting to preserve its markets. 

I have mentioned the three main 
causes of shrinkage in coal consump- 
tion. The first of these was in- 
creased efficiency in coal burning 
equipment. Far from setting itself up 
in opposition, the industry has on the 
contrary fostered and promoted such 
improvements as a matter of service 
to its customers. 

The second contributing factor to 



decreased consumption of coal is the 
general slowing up of industrial ac- 
tivity. Therei isn't much tliat coal 
producers can do about that. 

The third factor is the inroads 
made by competitive fuels — oil and 
natural gas. Naturally, we have con- 
centrated a major portion of our 
thought and energy in fighting to hold 
our markets against this competition, 
— and with worthwhile results. In 
this battle, coal has the big advantage 
of greater economy. In the larger 
industrial plants where decisions are 
made on the dollar and cents basis, 
this advantage is usually sufficient. 
In home heating, however, conveni- 
ence frequently outweighs economy. 



Solution Through Improvements 

One of tlie coal man's main objec- 
tives has therefore been to introduce 
greater convenience in the use of coal 
for home heating. To this end auto- 
matic coal stokers have been perfected 
and have proved so popular that they 
have become a large and vital factor 
in the industry. New stokers that 
were installed during 1937 (not in- 
cluding the large industrial type) will 
consume a total of 7,500,000 tons per 
year, the major portion of which will 
be bituminous coal. 

Paralleling the introduction of 
stokers, we have employed a vast 
amount of scientific research for the 
(Turn to Page 38) 



18 



COMMERCIAL 

APPLICATION 

OF X-RAYS 



by L L. Call 



EVERY engineering student is 
familiar, to some extent, with the 
liistory, properties, and fundamentals 
of the methods of production of 
x-rays. But x-ray applications have 
increased so rapidly during the last 
ten years, and are becoming such an 
important tool for engineers, that he 
may not be taking full advantage of 
the application of x-ray in his work, 
or in his home. Probably most of us 
have accepted x-rays as we do many 
modern improvements today, without 
serious thought as to just how they 
are produced or what they will do 
for us. A short review of the proper- 
ties, latest methods of production, and 
new applications may be useful. 
Properties of X-Rays 

(A) X-rays are electromagnetic 
radiations propagated with a velocity 
of 3x10^° centimeters/sec, similar to 
light except that their range of wave 
lengths is from 0.06 to 0.5 Angstrom 
units (1 Angstrom unit =10^ cm.) 
instead of 3900-8 100 A whicli covers 
the visible wave length band. 

(B) X-rays are propagated in 
straight lines, and therefore for a 
point source in a vacuum their intens- 
ity varies inversely as the square of 
the distance from the source. 

(C) X-rays will penetrate mate- 



rials normally opaque to visible light, 
^laterials of low atomic number such 
as wood, aluminum, and animal tis- 
sues, absorb x-rays less than mate- 
rials of high atomic number, such as 
iron, lead, or bone. 

(D) X-rays will cause many kinds 
of crystals like calcium tungstate, cal- 
cium sulphide to give off visible light, 
or fluoresce in a darkened room. 

(E) X-rays will reduce the silver 
bromide in the emulsion of a plate or 
film to black metallic silver, in a man- 
ner similar to the way visible light 
will affect a film. 

(F) X-rays may be reflected and 
diffracted, but crystal planes are often 
used instead of mirrors or ruled grat- 
ing to detect these properties. 

(G) X-rays are polarized when 
they hit molecules of materials. 

(H) X-rays will ionize gases. 
(I) An x-ray beam is not affected 
by electric or magnetic fields. 

Production of X-Rcrys 

X-rays are produced when high- 
speed electrons are decelerated by 
matter. The modern x-ray tube con- 
sists of an envelope, made of insulat- 
ing material, and of metal, from 
which the air has been exhausted as 



x-ray tube, showing cathode and anode. 

Courtesy of Gcii. Elcc. X-Ray Corfu. 





completely as is possible with the 
best mercury vapor vacuum pumps. 
Sealed into the envelope is a cathode, 
consisting of a tungsten filament, and 
a target or anode usually made of a 
tungsten disc mounted into a heavy 
copper cylinder. 

The cathode filament is heated to 
incandescence by alternating current 
from 3-11 amperes, at a voltage from 
3.5 to 15 volts. The configuration of 
the filament and its support are ar- 
ranged to obtain definite small elec- 
tron bombardment patterns on the tar- 
get. The electrons are accelerated to 
the anode by means of a high positive 
potential above that of the filament, 
depending upon the shortest wave 
length that may be desired. The tar- 
get face is usually positioned at such 
an angle to the electron stream that 
the maximum area is covered by the 
electron stream, but the minimum area 
is projected in the direction of the 
x-ray beam. The range of voltage im- 
pressed on the tube terminals is 30,- 
000 peak volts to 1,500,000 peak volts. 
The ordinary x-ray tube gives off a 
heterogeneous band of wave lengths. 
The shortest wave length depends 
upon the peak voltage. Therefore 
the voltage is expressed in peak volts 
instead of R.M.S. volts. If one de- 
sires unusually short x-ray radiations, 
very high voltages must be impressed 
between filament and anode. The 
spectrum of x-radiations given out 
by the tube depends upon the target 
material. Tungsten is the most com- 
mon anode material because it has a 
very high atomic weight, high melting 
point, and good heat conductivity. 
Since high voltage must be impressed 
between the filament and target, the 
envelope must be an excellent insula- 



19 




Diagnostic x-ray gen- 
and control. 85 
500 MA. 



Mo.st .small x-ray generators apply 
high alternating voltage directly to the 
x-ray tube terminals. In this case, the 
tube conducts current on alternate 
voltage pulses when the anode is posi- 
tive, but prevents flow of current 
through the tube when the filament is 
negative. Such units are called self- 
rectified x-ray generators. A great 
many circuit combinations have been 



tor. Tlie air within tlie envelope must 
be removed sufficiently to avoid ion- 
ization by collision, which would re- 
duce the velocity of the electrons hit- 
ting the target, or if the pressure is 
too high, would eventually result in 
an arc inside the tube. The quality 
of x-ray beam (the shortest wave 
length) for a given tube depends on 
the voltage impressed across the ter- 
minals of the tube. 

The quality of x-rays is dependent 
upon the number of electrons hitting 
the target per second, or the tube cur- 
rent. The tube current is usually ex- 
pressed in milliamperes and ranges 
from 1 to 1000, depending upon tlie 
particular application made of the 
tube. The tube current may be con- 
trolled by adjustment of the filament 
temperature. The filament tempera- 
ture is varied by changing the heat- 
ing current. 

Since the electrical power converted 
into heat at the target may reach 60 
kw., the anode design is made to dis- 
sipate heat rapidly by radiation, con- 
duction, and convection. Circulating 
water or oil are commonly used to cool 
the target. 

In order to accelerate the negative- 
ly-charged cathode particles to the 
target with high velocity, a high posi- 
tive potential above that of the fila- 
ment must be impressed on the anode. 
An x-ray generator producing con- 
stant potential at high voltage sug- 
gests itself immediately. However, 
because of the anode characteristics, 
even constant anode potential will not 
produce a homogeneous x-ray beam. 




but will produce a spectrum of a 
range of wave lengths cf varying in- 
tensities. The shortest wave length 
j)roduced by a given tube is identical 
for equivalent values of peak voltage, 
regardless of the wave form of the 
voltage applied to the tube. The ef- 
fective wave length of any particular 
beam of radiation is the wave length 
of a monochromatic ray that has the 
same absorption coefficient as tlie 
whole beam itself. Although constant 
potential apparatus has the advantage 
of producing a beam of the greatest 
homogeneity, and the highest x-ray 
output for a given focal spot of tlie 
tube, other less expensive types of 
generators may be employed to pro- 
duce x-raj's commercially. 

The potential of the anode need 
not be maintained at a constant value, 
but may vary over a wide range of 
voltage wave forms. Thus a simple 
pulsating voltage such as produced by 
a four-valve high-voltage rectifier is 
commonly used. Such a rectifier is 
termed a full-wave generator. Alter- 
nate pulses of the a.c. voltage wave 
may be applied to the anode and 
cathode, such as that produced by 
connecting valves in series with tlie 
x-ray tube. 



Portable x-ray unit. 



devised for special applications, but 
the above types are in most common 
use. 

Medical Uses of X-Rays 

The application of x-rays to the 
field of medicine was suggested by 
Prof. W. K. Roentgen in 1895, the 
same year that he discovered the rays. 
Although many new uses have been 
found for this penetrating radiation 
since that date, the members of the 
medical profession are by a great mar- 
gin the largest users of x-ray appa- 
ratus. Every modern hospital or 
clinic must have an x-ray laboratory, 
and doctors and dentists find office 
installations one of their most help- 
ful tools in their daily work. 

The x-ray equipment used in med- 
icine may be divided into the follow- 
ing classes: X-ray generators de- 
signed for the diagnosis of diseases, 
and x-ray installations designed for 
the treatment of diseases. 

Diagnostic x-ray apparatus has been 
designed for (a) the examination of 
the bone structure of the body for 
fractures, (b) location of foreign ma- 
terials in the body, (c) detection of 
diseases such as tuberculosis, ulcers 
of the stomach, gall stones, and heart 
complicatians. The procedure usually 



20 



consists of making a preliminary ex- 
amination of the patient with the 
fluoroscope. This procedure consists 
of passing the rays througli the pa- 
tient and observing the shadow image 
on a fluoroscopic screen in a dark 
room. The apparatus is made mech- 
anically flexible so that the tube and 
tlie screen may be conveniently posi- 
tioned with respect to the patient and 
tile x-ray beam apertured by lead 
shutters to the particular region of 
the bod}' to be explored. The elec- 
trical control of the apparatus must 
be such that the tube kilovoltage and 
milliamperage are conveniently ad- 
justed within practical limits. The 
x-ray exposure is made by stepping on 
a foot switch. A complete set of 
notes is recorded by tiie doctor's as- 
sistant as he proceeds with the exam- 
ination. Fluoroscopic examinations 
require relatively low capacity equip- 
ment (lO-OO kv.p., 3-5 ma.) 

After the preliminary fluoroscopic 
examination has been made, a film is 




binations of tube kv.p., ma., and time, 
are required for the various objectives 
demanded in medicine, the control 
gear for radiographic x-ray appa- 
ratus is complicated. The variable 
kv.p. on the tube is usually obtained 
by fine autotrans former control wiiich 
supplies variable voltage to the pri- 
mary of the high-voltage transformer. 
The x-ray tube current is controlled 
accurately by induction or resistance 
regulators connected into the primary 
of the filament transformer. 

Tiie time interval for the exposure 
must be variable. Precision timers 
are required liaving ranges from 
1/120 second to 20 seconds. These 
timers frequently close and open the 
j)rimary of the high-voltage transfor- 
mer at the zero point of tiie current 
wave to avoid objectionable transients 
in tiie liigh voltage circuits. 

Since reproduction or duplication of 
film densities are iiigiily desirable, 
witii predetermined settings of the 
x-rav maciiinc, manv refinements sucli 



Constant potential 
x-ray generator, 400 Kv. 
P. 5 MA, ior therapy. 

Coiirtcsv of Gcii. Elcc. 
X-Ray Corpn. 



as stabilizers for keeping the filament 
voltage of the tube constant, and re- 
fined meters, are required. 

Protection Against High Voltage 

Since all x-ray tubes are operated 
on iiigli voltages, the electrical haz- 
ard to operators has always been pres- 
ent. During tlie past fifteen years 
tliis iiazard iias been reduced until 
today it is negligible. All iiigii-volt- 
age conductors are completely 
siiielded in grounded containers either 
liy placing the tube and transformer 
in one tank filled witli oil, or by plac- 
ing tiie generator (consisting of the 
transformers and the rectifier tubes) 
in one tank filled witii oil, and tiie tube 
in another tank filled with oil. 

Tlie tube unit is connected to tlie 
rectifier unit by means of iiigii voltage 
cables. Tiie cables are covered witii 
metallic sliields tiiat are grounded, as 
are also tlie tanks. 

X-Ray Protection 

In addition to tiie electrical iiazard, 
care must be taken to prevent undue 
exposure of operators to these pene- 
trating rays. 

The x-ray tube is siiielded witii lead 
and otiier materials in sucii a manner 
that a negligible quantity of x-rays is 
given off in directions other tiian that 
of tiie useful beam. In fluoroscopy, 
wiiere tiie operator is compelled to 



usually exposed for a permanent rec- 
ord, and to permit of a more detailed 
study of tiie pathology. 

Apparatus for making radiograms 
covers a very wide range of capacities, 
from small portable sets used in the 
home with a demand of 1 kv.a., to 
large hospital installations for making 
high-speed exposures as short as 1/60 
second at long focal-film distance (6 
feet), tiiat have a demand as higii as 
100 kv.a. from the power source. 
Roentgen apparatus for making films 
requires generators that will impress 
from 30-100 kv.p. on the tube and 
pass current through the tube from 
10 to 1000 ma. Since various corn- 



Control and 
treatment room of 
a therapy instal- 
lation, 400 Kv. P. 
5 MA. 




21 




stand directly in the beam, he is pro- 
tected by lead glass, and lead rubber 
aprons and gloves. The walls, floor, 
and ceiling of a room housing x-ray 
apparatus are covered with sheet lead, 
the thickness of which depends on the 
maximum voltage used. 

Therapy Apparatus 

The field of x-ray tiierapy requires 
the highest voltage generators (100- 
1500 kv.p.), operating x-ray tubes at 
low tube currents such as 1-10 ma. 
The time of exposures ranges from 1 
minute to hours. Therapy apparatus 
is usually designed for continuous 
duty. Such apparatus is used for the 
treatment of various diseases, includ- 
ing cancer. 

Since the voltages are abnormally 
high, the generators are housed in 
lead-lined rooms, the doors of which 
are equipped with interlock switches 
that open the power circuits when the 
operators enter these rooms. Tons of 
sheet lead are required to reduce the 
stray x-ray radiation to safe values 
in the largest installations. Recently 
400 kv.p. therapy generators have 
been built with the tube and trans- 
formers oil-immersed in a single 
grounded tank that may be placed in 
the patient's treatment room, thus 
conserving space and reducing the 
cost of lead lining. 

Industrial Uses 
The industrial uses of x-rays have 
been largely in the field of inspection, 
such as the inspection of welds used 
tc fabricate high pressure vessels for 
defects, castings for hidden flaws, 
foods for foreign matter, mechanical 
assemblies for improper arrangement, 



and pearls for cultured specimens. 

Since many of tliese applications re- 
quire x-rays of similar quality (wave 
length) and quantity (intensity) to 
tliose which liad been used in the med- 
ical science, medical x-ray generators 
were first adapted witli modifications. 
Some inspections such as foods re- 



Visual inspection unit for the inspec- 
tion oi foods. 



quire fluoroscopic apparatus designed 
for continuous duty, while the in- 
spection of three to four-inch steel 
welds must be accomplished by taking 
films of every inch of the weld with 
.iOO-lOO kv.p. generators. 

Tlie inspection of higli |)ressure ves- 
sels fabricated by welding has been 
specified in codes for insurance pur- 
poses. Undoubtedly laws will be en- 
acted in the future, making such in- 
sj)ection mandatory. Tlie inspection 
of foods has been advisable, not only 
to maintain high quality, but also to 
.'.void legal suits by consumers who 
might otherwise injure their teeth on 
foreign objects. Inspection x-ray ap- 
paratus is designed for continuous 
duty, is more ruggedly constructed, 
and is less liighly finished than med- 
ical apparatus. The control gear may 
have less range of selection elec- 
trically, but specific applications may 
require complicated mechanical ad- 
justment. The accurate positioning 
of a two-ton x-ray unit in a pent stock 
that is several hundred feet high, for 
the inspection of hundreds of feet 
of welded seam, is no simple problem 
and yet this is a common procedure 
in the welding art. In a similar man- 
ner, the individual inspection of fruit. 



Transformer 
room 800 Kv P 
10 MA therapy 
installa- 
tion, Mercy 
Hosp., Chgo. 




22 



such as oranges and grapefruit for 
frost blemishes, at the rate of 400 per 
minute, requires a complicated con- 
veyor mechanism and a carefully 
worked out fluoroscopic t e c h n i c. 
Scores of these inspection installa- 
tions are in daily use for your pro- 
tection. A food processor should not 
neglect this valuable tool to assure 
his customers a uniformly high-qual- 
ity product. 

Air-craft manufacturers too ha^i 
availed themselves of x-rays to ini 
prove their motors and plane struc- 
tures. 

X-Ray Crystal Analysis 

Tile fact that x-raj's are reflected 
and diffracted by the regular planes 
of molecules in crystalline substances, 
was investigated first by Prof. Lane 
in 1912. The most highly polished 
surface is very irregular, and the fin- 
est ruled grating is coarse in com- 
parison to the short wave lengths of 
x-rays; therefore, these usual means 
for reflecting and diffracting visible 
light are not ordinarily used for 
x-rays. Fortunately, the definite spa- 
cial symmetry of atoms of crystalline 
substances have dimensions sufficiently 
small so that they may be used as sur- 
faces and complex gratings for x-ray 
wave lengths. With few exceptions, 
the nature or behavior of a substance 
depends upon the arrangements of its 
atoms and molecules in the crystal. 
Therefore, the knowledge of their ar- 
rangement has the greatest practical 
value in understanding the physical 
and chemical properties of a substance 
and in predicting the effect upon 
these properties of various changes 
in arrangement. Such information 
concerning the internal arrangement 
of these crystals can be determined 
only by x-rays. 

When any crystalline material is 
subjected to x-ray analysis, an "x-ray 
diffraction pattern" is obtained. This 
pattern, recorded on a photographic 
film during a relatively long expos- 
ure, is an image of the radiation as 
it is modified by the object at which 
it is directed. Governed by the man- 
ner in which the x-radiation is modi- 
fied by the object, the characteristics 
of the pattern depend not only upon 
the atoms present in the material, but 
also upon their arrangement — the 
manner in which they are put to- 
gether, or their state of chemical com- 
bination. 

The chemical analysis of a sub- 
stance consists of comparing the lines 
of the x-ray diffraction patterns of the 
unknown and the known substances 
or elements. Quantitative estimates 
of the various elements may be made 
by comparing the intensities of the 
pattern lines. 




Weld inspection x-ray generator at Blau Knox Co. plant, Pennsylvania 



The crystal size and arrangement 
of a given substance are beautifully 
portrayed by the symmetrical spots 
and rings photographed on the film. 
These patterns are helpful in the 
stud}' of the effects of heat treatment, 
annealing, and working of metals. 

The engineer who uses a crystal 
analysis apparatus can maintain a bet- 
ter control of raw materials, can proc- 
ess these materials to the best ad- 
vantage, and can maintain better 
checks on the finished product than 
has been possible with older methods. 

Scientific Uses of X-Rays 

X-rays were discovered by a man 
working in the field of experimental 
physical science. Physicists have since 
used them to increase our knowledge 
of the structure of the atom. In the 
fields of botany and zoology, the rays 
have assisted in portraying quickly 
and efficiently the intricate structure 
of plants and animals, without the 
laborious dissections that would have 
destroyed the valuable specimens. 

The mummy casket no longer can 
hold its secret, for the contents bound 
by the wrappings may be inspected to 
such a high degree that even the dis- 
eases of the ancient may be analyzed 
by x-rays without the destruction of 
the casket. 

Miscellaneous Uses of X-Ray 

Portable x-ray sets have been used 
to locate piping and wiring in parti- 
tions of buildings, to locate lost valu- 
ables in homes, to inspect parcels sent 
through the mail for bombs, etc. 



Simcs are commonly fitted with the 
aid of x-rays. Pipes and golf balls 
have been improved with their use. 
Some of these applications have be- 
come routine practice and many others 
have been suggested that may be 
adopted in the future. 

Future Applications and Trends 
in Design 

Although an increasing number of 
x-ray installations are made each year, 
and the life of x-ray apparatus is 
long, the possible applications of 
x-ray in medical and industrial fields 
is only fairly started. There are hun- 
dreds of towns in the United States 
where x-ray equipment is not available 
and consequently the best medical job 
cannot be performed. 

Engineers may have considered that 
x-ray units are a doctor's tool, and 
that they are complicated, fragile, 
dangerous, and difficult to operate. 
I'hose objections are no longer valid. 
The interpretation of films and the 
specification of treatment in medicine 
are still a highly technical procedure, 
but the x-ray unit itself is an eflicient, 
rugged, safe device that can be op- 
erated by anyone who has had some 
experience with instruments or pre- 
cision machinery. 

The trends in apparatus design are 
contingent on the new uses found for 
x-ravs. New technics and methods 
require different ratings, duties, me- 
tering, and controls. Ob\aously, de- 
signers will continue to strive for a 
more faithful record of the pathology 
(Turn to Page 33) 



23 




THERE are many strange sights 
to be seen on that flat, desolate 
stretch of land called tlie Texas Pan- 
handle, but few are more spectacular 
than the sight of a carbon black plant 
in full operation. 

From a distance one sees a group 
of long, low, shed-like buildings from 
which rises an enormous black cloud 
like the genie from tlie bottle found by 
the fisherman in the ancient legend. 
Under this cloud and inside the build- 
ings, men, flames, and machinery are 
engaged in the scientific production of 
Soot. To the man in the street, accus- 
tomed to thinking of soot as a nui- 
sance, tlie deliberate manufacture of 



SOOT 

JUSTIFIES ITS 



EXISTENCE 



by 

Robert I. Wishnick 



this substance may appear to be in 
tlio nature of carrying coals to New- 
castle, but to manufacturers in many 
industries it is more in the nature of 
a godsend. For carbon black is a spe- 
cially valuable kind of "soot" — and its 
rise to importance as a manufacturing 
material is one of the most fascinating 
phases of America's industrial growth. 
Although used to some extent for 
many years in paint, ink, dry color, 
and craj'on manufacture, not until just 
before the war, when its remarkable 
reinforcing properties in rubber were 
discovered, did carbon black become 
a material of world-wide importance. 
Today, wherever those accepted neces- 



sities of civilization, the automobile, 
the printed page, and the painted or 
lacquered surface are found, carbon 
black plays an indispensable role. It 
has made possible the development of 
the modern, long mileage tire. It has 
improved the clarity of printing in 
newspapers, magazines, and books, 
while greatly increasing printing ma- 
chine speeds. Its intense jetness and 
durability have been utilized in the 
development of higher quality, longer 
lasting paints and lacquers. And re- 
search is extending its use to improve 
the strength, appearance, and per- 
manence of other products, sucli as 
paper and plastics. 




A bird's-eye view of 
Continental Carbon 
Company's modern car- 
bon black plant com- 
posed of 366 production 
buildings covering an 
area of 160 acres on the 
Texas Panhandle, near 
Sunray, Texas. 



2-4 



The Continental Carbon Company's 
plant at Sunray, Texas, in tlie heart 
of the great oil and gas fields, illus- 
trates how extensively carbon black is 
now being manufactured. This plant, 
utilizing the newest and most efficient 
equipment and employing every mod- 
ern method of control, is one of the 
world's largest and finest. It covers 
an area of 160 acres and is composed 
of 366 separate buildings, the total 
length of which, placed end to end, 
would be over six miles. The labora- 
tories, in whicli chemists are engaged 
constantly in testing and research, arc 
air-conditioned to assure correct tem- 



-T^lS^VJ. 




r.;f.f f 


.isx^T^7> ^ 


rFiw jp jr jr 


1 ^k^ K1&-^^3E3A]^^^ 


r/JTXxji 


■r -"^i^xrir z-^ v»-f-^ f-rf rww^ 








i 


Hieimg^ 




Carbon black is produced by burn- 
ing natural gas in a controlled amount of air. 
Here the operator reads the meter chart to de- 
termine the gas flow. 



Inside the burner houses night and 
day 1,185,840 of these small flames are playing 
on moving steel channels and depositing their 
quota of black, which is removed by stationary 
scrapers. 



He then adjusts the regulator to assure 
a correct flow and rechecks the meter chart. On 
the precision with which the flow is regulated 
depends the uniformity of the finished black. 



perature and humidity at all times. 
A complete village of homes has been 
built nearby to liouse the workers in 
this huge plant. 

Carbon black is produced by the im- 
pingement of natural gas flames on 
moving steel channels. This process, 
while not satisfactory entirely from 
the point of view of yield, is the most 
efficient yet developed. Tlie burner 
houses, which comprise most of the 
plant, are long low shed-like buildings 
of steel construction, 160 feet long, 12 
feet wide and 12 feet high. Gas is 
conveyed from a nearby oil company 
plant through huge pipes and distrib- 
uted to these burner houses through 
smaller pipes. Inside each house is an 
assembly of ten 8-inch cliannels whicli 
move back and forth over many small 
flames. As the gas burns the carbon 





Packing and weighing. Precision equipment is employed so that 
when the black is used by the bagful in customer's formula it can 
be relied upon to give expected results. These bags are then 
overslipped with other bags for cleanliness and protection in 
handling. 



Laboratory tests are made at regular intervals daily to keep pro- 
duction at a specified quality. Control is the essence of good carbon 
black manufacture. 




black is deposited on tlie steel chan- 
nels and is removed by stationary 
scrapers as the channels pass back and 
forth. It falls into hoppers, from 
which it is carried through conveyors 
to the packing houses where excess air 
and gases are removed by an agitating 
process. It is then bagged and com- 
pressed in 12 J 2 and 25 pound paper 
sacks. 

Considering the miles and miles of 
gas pipes, the intricate conveyor sys- 
tems and automatic equipment, this 
process of handling is carried out with 
amazing speed, cleanliness, and effi- 
ciency. It is a tribute to the engineer- 
ing ability and thoroughness of the 
organization. 

Continental also produces a pellet 
type of black called Dustless, which is 
free flowing and lends itself to ship- 
ment in bulk in steel tank cars built 
specially for Continental. Because of 
its freedom from dust and ease of 
handling, many rubber companies pre- 
fer to use carbon black in this form. 

As can be imagined the heat gener- 
ated by the burning process, when 
combined with the rays of a broiling 
Texas sun, is tremendous. The smoke 
produced, too, is dense and can be 
seen for miles across the prairie. A 
carbon black plant does not attract 
neighbors. 



So much for the actual production 
of carbon black. Let us see how and 
where it is used and what effect its 
use has brought in modern life. 

The primary purpose of carbon 
black in rubber is reinforcement, 
which in its widest sense, includes 
such properties as resistance to tear, 
abrasion, shock, and deformation. In 
such an article as an automobile tire, 
all of these properties are important 
— and carbon black provides them 
more abundantly than any other ma- 
terial known. Working with carbon 
black the rubber formulators have de- 
veloped the modern tire to the point 
where it now possesses strength and 
durability many times above that of 
the 1914 variety. In fact, so impor- 
tant has this development been that 
it has influenced the design of motor 
cars and hastened the manufacture of 
the modern streamlined affairs that 
operate so safely at high speeds. 

Other rubber products also owe their 
durability and special usefulness to 
properties of carbon black. Among 
these are rubber heels, conveyor belts, 
motor mountings, garden hose, cable 
coverings, and a host of other con- 
sumer and industrial products. The 
rubber industry is, in fact, the carbon 
black industry's best customer, using 
approximately 85 per cent of its an- 



nual output of about 150,000 000 lbs. 

Carbon black as now manufactured, 
is greatly improving the quality of 
))roducts of the paint, lacquer, and 
enamel industries. Because of its in- 
tense color, great tinting strength, 
iiigh degree of inertness and durabil- 
ity under adverse conditions, it has 
brought new standards in these neces- 
sities and advanced their usefulness 
in many fields. 

Modern printing is a high speed 
operation that demands ink of unusual 
properties. Here again the use of 
carbon black has had revolutionary 
effects. Its fine particle size, easy 
dispersion, intense color strength, and 
adaptability have contributed to the 
development of the inks that not only 
improve the clarity and readability of 
type in newspapers, magazines, and 
books but permit presses to operate at 
greatly accelerated speeds. Research 
is constantly adding to the usefulness 
of carbon black in this line. 

Among the other products used 
every day in which the use of carbon 
black has brought improvements are 
black papers, imitation leathers, shoe 
polishes, stove polishes, carbon paper, 
typewriter ribbons, and a great vari- 
ety of additional materials that benefit 
by increased strength and color. 

Practically all of the carbon black 



26 



utilized by the industrial world is pro- 
duced in the American southwest. The 
industry moves with the discovery of 
new and bigger oil and gas fields. 
Starting in Pennsylvania, its center 
then moved to West Virginia, then to 
Louisiana — and is now concentrated 
in the Texas Panhandle. The Conti- 
nental plant, typical of the newest and 
most efficient in the field, is supplied 
witii ample gas reserves to expand 
with the growing need. Meanwhile, 
researcii is constantly adapting carbon 
black to new uses, and the permanence 
of the industry in tiiis district is estab- 
lished by the vast abundance of gas it 
offers. As all industry moves forward. 
Carbon Black fulfills an increasingly 
important purpose; and contributes 
constantly to the comfort, safet}^, and 
efliciency of modern living. 



Further tests are made 
to facilitate the prod- 
uct's use in the cus- 
tomer's plant. Here the 
technician is testing to 
determine the ash 
tent of carbon black. 





Over the burner 
houses rise spectacular 
clouds of black smoke, 
which signify the growth 
of an important indus- 
try on the desolate 
Texas prairie. 



RADIO IN TRANSPORT 

(From Page 14) 
year. When we consider that this 
group of stations now represents one 
of the largest radio communications 
systems in the world, we get some 
idea of the progress tliat has followed 
the first experimental efforts in 1927. 

The Radio Beacon System 
While the commercial airlines were 



developing their ground-to-plane voice 
communications system, the Depart- 
ment of Commerce in 1926 commis- 
sioned the Bureau of Standards to 
develop a system of radio beacons for 
aircraft use. These were to provide 
guidance for aircraft in the same man- 
ner as the liglithouse service provides 
guidance for ships at sea. 

While radio direction finders had 
been used on steamships since the 



World War and to a limited extent in 
Europe for aircraft, the Bureau of 
Standards chose a still further ad- 
vanced sj'stem now commonly known 
as the "Radio Beam." The system pro- 
vides a form of automatic direction 
finder, with a heavy and complicated 
partsi on tiie ground and the light- 
weight and simple parts in the plane. 
The present radio beacon system 
consists of a series of 1 kilowatt radio 

27 



stations located about every 200 iiiik-s 
along the airway. Each station lias 5 
tall steel antenna towers similar to 
the single antenna tower used at radio 
broadcast stations. Four of the tow- 
ers are installed at four corners of a 
square about 150 feet across, and one 
tower is located at tlie center of the 
square. The center tower is used to 
broadcast weather information and is 
not necessary for the production of 
the beams. 

The four outer towers are sliown in 
the lower part of tiie illustration on 
page . . . and are lettered N, A, A, N. 
The two "N" towers, diagonally oppo- 
site each other, are connected to- 
gether, and tlie two "A" towers are 
similarly connected. Each tower sends 
out a series of radio waves as shown 
by the circular lines in the lower part 
of tlie illustration. Since the amount 
of power sent out by each tower is 
kept equal, the radio receiver in a 
plane flying on a line halfway between 
the two towers would pick up the 
same amount of signal from each. 

By means of an automatic telegraph 
key the tower to the right of the plane 
continuously sends out a dot-dash, the 
Morse Code for the letter A. The 
tower at tlie left of the plane sends 
out a dash-dot or letter N. Tlie pilot 
in a plane flying on a line running be- 
tween the towers Avill hear the dot- 
dash and dash-dot with equal intensity. 

The automatic telegraph key sends 
tlie dashes and dots in a carefully se- 
lected order as shown behind the 
plane in tiie upper part of the illus- 
tration. Note that the dash of the 
N falls on the space between the A's 
and the dot of the N falls on the space 
between the dot and dash of the A. 
In other words, the dots and dashes 
of one letter fill in the spaces of the 
other. If a pilot listens to both at 
the same time his ear blends them to- 
gether, and they sound like a steady 
tone. 

This steady tone is the so-called 
radio beam. If the pilot flies any 
other path than on a line halfway be- 
tween the two towers he will hear an 
unequal amount of either A or N, and 
they will not blend into the steady 
tone. For example, in the illustration, 
if the plane was off to the right of 
the bisecting line, the pilot would hear 
a strong A and a very weak N. In 
practice he would immediateh' correct 
his path by flying to the left until 
the blended steady tone was again 
heard. This blending of the A and N 
is so accurate that a deviation of more 
than one and one-half degrees off the 
center line is immediately noticeable. 

Each station sends out four beams 
which are usually directed to the 
North, South, East, and West. Where 



airlines meet at odd angles, tiie effects 
of the towers can be varied to shift the 
beams if necessary. 

The beacon stations liave still an- 
other feature in addition to providing 
a proper course to the next airport. 
Directly over the center of the four 
towers, tiie amount of signal received 
in a plane from each is exactly equal 
and opposite the signal from its diag- 
onal mate and therefore cancels itself. 
Tiiis cancellation of signals above the 
towers produces an area, in which no 
beam is iieard, known as tiie "cone of 
silence." A pilot knows that he has 
passed over this cone of silence when 
his signals suddenly fade out com- 
pletely and then are heard again with 
full strength about ten seconds later. 
At the same time he can turn his plane 
a little to the right and immediately 
notices that the N is now to his right 
instead of his left. Thus the cone of 
silence fade-out plus the reversal of 
the A and N tells him when lie has 
arrived at his destination. 

Eacii radio beacon station operates 
on a different wavelength, and the 
pilot may tune in station after station 
as he progresses across the continent. 
All are maintained by the Depart- 
ment of Commerce wiiicli has con- 
structed about 300 of them on almost 
every main airway in the United 
States. While the commercial air- 
lines make most use of them, the Army, 
Navy, mining and oil companies, and 
sportsmen fliers often "fly the beam" 
as they travel from place to place. 

Vertical Marker Beams 
Wiiile tlie cone of silence indication 
has been successfully used for many 
years, the amount of pilot skill needed 
and the time required for double 
checking has made improvements de- 
sirable. Pilots have long wished for 
a device that would turn on a light or 
ring a bell when they passed over 
the radio beam station. Just such a 
device has recently been perfected bj' 
the Bureau of Air Commerce engineers 
after a number of years of research. 

It makes use of the newly developed 
"short radio wave" beams which can 
be projected in almost any direction. 
Tiie illustration on page 12 shows 
two types of these beams. They consist 
of a radio transmitter installed in a 
small wooden building about six feet 
square with its output run out on suit- 
able wires to a specially shaped "pro- 
jector" antenna. These antennas may 
be made round, oval, long, or wide, 
so as to shape the beam in the same 
manner as the silvered reflector directs 
tlie lieadlight beams on an automobile. 
The cone of silence antenna and 
transmitter is always installed near 
the center of the four radio beam 



towers previously discussed so tliat 
when tlie pilot passes over the four 
towers he must fly through the in- 
visible beam. A special receiver on 
tiie plane connects to a flashlight bulb 
so that when the signal from the cone 
of silence beam is picked up by tlie 
receiver, it turns on the light. 

After the cone of silence beam had 
been developed, the Air Commerce en- 
gineers went a short step furtiier to 
the "fan marker beam." This uses 
the same transmitter but with a differ- 
ent antenna so that an elliptical or 
fan-shaped beam is projected upward. 
The elliptical beams may be installed 
on top of mountain ridges or tall 
structures as a means of warning pilots 
who may pass near them. Tiie re- 
ceiver operates a flashlight bulb in the 
same manner as for the cone of silence 
marker. Tiicse beams may be keyed 
with Morse code letters so that pilots 
can distinguish the one they have 
passed over. 

Cone of silence marker beams are 
now being installed at all radio bea- 
con stations by the Bureau of Air 
Commerce. Fan marker beams are 
also being installed wherever this type 
of warning indicator is designable. By 
installing them at regular intervals 
along the radio beacon course, a 
typical "block signal" system, as in 
railroad practice, will result. The 
pilot will receive a "go ahead" by 
two-way radio telephone as he passes 
each block signal. 

Plane Direction Finding System 
Duj)lication of equijjment is one of 
tlie first principles followed in all 
commercial aircraft operation. Auxili- 
ary receivers are carried in case the 
beacon receiver or two-way voice re- 
ceiver fails, with auxiliary batteries in 
case tlie main battery supply fails. 

Last fall still another duplicate fa- 
cility, known as the combined anti- 
static loop antenna and aircraft direc- 
tion finder was added. When used 
with the radio beacon receiver, it has 
the ability of reducing static, thereby 
making flying easier. When used as 
a direction finder it provides a means 
of plotting a course in case a beacon 
station should fail. 

Similar equipment has been used by 
steamships for many years but has 
only recently been reduced in weight 
and size for installation on aircraft. It 
consists of a loop antenna, as shown 
in the illustration on page 14, which, 
when revolved about its base, receive.* 
a much stronger signal when its edge 
is toward a radio station than when its 
flat side is toward the station. The 
direction of tiie station from the plane 
is usually determined by turning the 
(Turn to Page 40) 



28 



DEVELOPING A MAN 
FOR THE JOB 



by Robert N. McMurry 



ONE of tlie most important single 
decisions which an individual 
is called upon to make on leaving 
school is that concerning iiis clioice of 
a job. Its effects are extraordinarily 
far-reaching. On the wisdom of this 
choice may depend the difference be- 
tween a productive, happy life in a 
congenial occupation, and disappoint- 
ment, frustration, and failure. 

All too often an individual's choice 
of work on leaving school is deter- 
mined by irrelevant considerations. 
To begin with, he may accept the first 
opening which offers itself, regardless 
of his qualifications for it or the type 
of future which it may hold. He may 
allow himself to be influenced by emo- 
tional considerations such as the ro- 
mantic appeal of a job in far places, 
without thought of the price he may 
have to pay in isolation, loneliness, 
and remoteness from centers of scien- 
tific progress. Likewise, he may 
select a position because a friend is 
working for the same company or in 
the same line of work, again without 
regard for his special qualifications or 
the future which the position offers. 
Often he succumbs to the temptation 
of taking a job simply because it offers 
an attractive salary. He does not 
pause to consider that the work may 
be of a temporary nature or one for 
which his technical qualifications do 
not suit him. 

Too rarely does the young man base 
his choice upon an audit of his psycho- 
logical and temperamental qualifica- 
tions for the work. As a result of his 
schooling, he may have a fair idea of 
iiis technical qualifications. But he 
knows little about such factors as 
his level of intelligence, his native 
aptitudes, and the suitability of the 
job to his personality make-up. Ad- 
mittedly, these are not factors which 
are as obvious as such matters as tech- 
nical knowledge and rates of compen- 
sation. Nevertheless, they can be of 
great significance in determining suit- 
ability of the individual to the particu- 
lar work which he has in mind and 
conditioning his ultimate success in it. 

At the same time, it is equally im- 
portant that he have some insight into 
the personnel and policies of the com- 




pany with which he is to associate 
himself. Unfortunately, some con- 
cerns are not over-ethical in the repre- 
sentations which they make to young 
men about the character and future 
prospects of the positions which they 
are offering. There is sometimes a 
tendency to "over-sell" the jobs. 

Nothing is more tragic than for a 
young man to bind himself for a term 
of years by a contract and then dis- 
cover that either the company's method 
of operation, the cliaracter of his asso- 
ciates and superiors, or the opportu- 
nities which his job offers for produc- 
tive and congenial work are not what 
he had anticipated. Where such situ- 
ations develop they are equally disad- 
vantageous both to the man and to 
the employer. To the former because 
they mean a waste of the precious 
formative years of his young manhood ; 
and to the latter because its investment 
in training and supervising the work 
of this young man will be lost to it 
when he leaves at the expiration of 
his contract, and because of the ill-will 
whicli he may build for it after he 
leaves. 

On the other hand, it is equally 
important that an employer be careful 
about the selection of the young men 



wlioni he takes into his organization. 
In the first place, different jobs have 
different intellectual and temperamen- 
tal requirements, as well as technical 
ones. It is very necessary that care 
be exercised to avoid getting race 
horses for truck horse jobs and vice 
versa. Many companies make the 
mistake of demanding only men from 
the upper quarter or tenth of their 
classes without regard for the type of 
work for which they are to be engaged. 

If men are wanted for extremely 
teclmical research requiring imagina- 
tion and ingenuity in the highest de- 
gree, it is probable that the criterion 
of high scholarship is a valid one. 
However, for more routine types of 
work wliere these unusual intellectual 
qualities are not so necessary, it is 
often bad policy to employ men who 
have them. It is true that they learn 
their work quickly, but in a short time 
they become bored with the repetitive- 
ness of the work and seek a more 
stimulating outlet for their intellectual 
activities. If these are denied them 
by the nature of the task they quickly 
become dissatisfied and either fail to 
do their work satisfactorily or leave 
the company. In either case both the 
man and the employer stand to suffer. 

Furthermore, unbelievable as it may 
be, many persons who have never had 
any training in this most technical of 
occupations and who may, in addition, 
even be temperamentally unfitted for 
the work, are assigned the task of 
judging the qualifications of appli- 
cants for positions. Any employment 
man who has strong personal biases 
may be led by them to make choices 
which will be definitely disadvantage- 
ous to his organization. 

One of the most dangerous, yet 
common practices in the selection of 
men for jobs is the employment of 
untested criteria in judging the fitness 
of applicants. Some companies take 
only men with certain racial, physical, 
or educational qualifications without 
ever having made an analysis of cur- 
rent employees to determine whether 
these factors are actually valid indices 
of success. Even today more than one 
organization is putting faith into such 



29 



discredited pseudo-sciences as plire- 
iiology, physiognomy (as practiced by 
Catherine M. Blackford and her asso- 
ciates), and some even go so far as to 
place faith in astrology. These are 
not only completely futile procedures, 
but are very prone to work an injus- 
tice, not only upon the applicant, but 
upon the employer as well. 

Other companies have heard of psy- 
chological selection methods but are 
unwilling to spend the money to obtain 
qualified personnel to develop and ad- 
minister them. Instead they depend 
upon persons in their own organiza- 
tions who have not been trained in 
the proper methods to be used. As a 
result, individuals are placed in charge 
who have never been given insight into 
the limitations of psychological selec- 
tion procedures, as well as their ad- 
vantages. In consequence, companies 
are today indulging in such absurdities 
as giving the same test to every appli- 
cant from office boy to general mana- 
ger. Even worse than that, they do 
not bother to determine whether per- 
formance on a given test is related in 
any way to success on the job, and 
arbitrarily set levels of achievement 
on the tests without reference to their 
suitability for particular lines of work. 

These same companies would prob- 
ably never think of hiring anyone but 
a trained and skilled chemist for even 
their simplest material-testing work; 
yet in dealing with human beings who 
are infinitely more complex than most 
materials, they assign the delicate and 
important task of developing psycho- 
logical selection procedures to indi- 
viduals who are either rank amateurs 
or whose knowledge and experience at 
best is only that of a dilettante. When 
the results are unsatisfactory, as they 
almost invariably are, management is 
very prone to lay the blame on psy- 
chological selection procedures as such 
rather than on its own short-sighted- 
ness in the choice of persons to develop 
and operate these techniques. 

Careful psychological research, in- 
cluding a study of a rather wide 
variety of occupations has indicated 
that a man's vocational success is gen- 
erally predicated upon five factors. 
The first of these is his technical 
knowledge. Under present conditions 
it is becoming increasingly rare that 
the untrained man succeeds. It is be- 
coming more and more imperative that 
a man be something of a specialist in 
his own field. The day of the Jack- 
of-all-trades is definitely past. Within 
limits, the greater the degree of spe- 
cialization which a man can attain, 
assuming he has chosen a field for 
which he is intellectually and tempera- 
mentally suited, the greater the likeli- 
hood of his finding work in which he 



may be at the same time productive 
and happy. 

As specialization increases, how- 
ever, it must be recognized that it 
rapidly becomes more important that 
a man's technical equipment be exactly 
suited to the requirements of the job. 
Thus a man trained in organic chem- 
istry might experience some difficulty 
and loss of time and effort in adapting 
himself to work as a metallurgist. 
This, naturally, has the disadvantage 
of somewhat limiting the field in which 
the man can work. But obviously this 
is a factor which should be taken into 
consideration at the time when the 
particular vocation to be followed is 
chosen. 

The next factor of importance is one 
which has already been mentioned. 
This is the man's level of intelligence. 
There are many types of advanced 
technical work which are sufficiently 
routine that they may be mastered 
and successfully carried on by persons 
of average intelligence. From the 
standpoint of a man's work success 
it is of considerable importance, both 
for him and for his employer, to find 
the type of work which is best adapted 
to the level of his intelligence. 

Another factor of less significance, 
perhaps, but still one which should be 
given consideration both by the indi- 
vidual seeking work and the prospec- 
tive employer in evaluating the appli- 
cant's qualifications are his aptitudes. 
It has been discovered that certain 
individuals seem to have an innate 
knack for doing particular types of 
work which is independent of intelli- 
gence or training. For example, one 
individual may be a natural born 
mechanic. From early childhood, he 
has taken delight in taking door bells, 
locks, and other mechanical articles 
apart and putting them back together 
again, and he is usually very success- 
ful at this. In contrast, other indi- 
viduals may be equally intelligent and 
have a comparable background of tech- 
nical experience, but they do not have 
this knack or aptitude. They are the 
ones who are at a loss before things 
mechanical. They may be able to un- 
derstand them intellectually, but they 
do not have this facility of dealing 
with them practically. There are 
many of these so-called aptitudes. 
They are encountered particularly in 
the mechanical, engineering, and cleri- 
cal fields. Measures have been devised 
for them so that it is possible to form 
an objective judgment of the extent 
to M'hicli an individual has or has not 
one of these qualifications. They are 
not absolutely vital to success, but can 
be exceedingly helpful. 

Without doubt, however, the great- 
est single factor in determining a per- 



son's vocational success is his person- 
ality. In general there are two types 
of personality make-up which are defi- 
nitely disadvantageous both to the in- 
dividual and to his employer. The 
first of these is that where the indi- 
vidual suffers from some form of 
emotional maladjustment; that is, his 
personality shows the development of 
one or more traits to an abnormal 
degree. Thus there is the over-sus- 
picious (paranoid) person who accuses 
other persons of endeavoring to injure 
him in various ways. A type rather 
frequently encountered is the extreme- 
ly withdrawn or introverted (schizoid) 
person who stays to himself, has diffi- 
culty in forming friendsliips, and may 
be prone to escape from the less 
pleasant aspects of reality by flight 
into a world of phantasy and excessive 
day-dreaming. There are also those 
persons who are subject to excessive 
swings in mood (the manic-depres- 
sive type). They are the ones who 
are alternately elated! and full of 
drive and then depressed and without 
energy. Likewise, there are the chronic 
sufferers from ill health (the hypo- 
chondriacs) who often make use of 
their illness as a device to avoid re- 
sponsibility and to escape from un- 
pleasant tasks. There are many of 
these victims of minor mental illness 
and this condition handicaps them 
greatly in competing with other more 
normal persons in the world of indus- 
try and at the same time makes them 
a very doubtful risk for any employer. 

The second type of make-up which 
is disadvantageous both to the indi- 
vidual and to those for whom he may 
work, is that which may be termed an 
infantile or emotionally retarded per- 
sonality. These are the individuals 
who, although they may be intellectu- 
ally and chronologically quite mature, 
have never outgrown their childish 
habits of irresponsibility, dependence, 
and an incapacity for self-discipline. 
Like children, they are the ones who 
tend to live always in the present, 
giving little or no heed to the future 
or to the consequences of what they 
may do. They are the Peter Pans 
who continue to live in the happy, 
carefree wish-world of the nursery. 
They constitute the group to whom a 
ball game or a show is more important 
than an opportunity to improve them- 
selves by study. It is they who are 
often unwilling to give any extra 
thought or effort to the betterment of 
themselves or their jobs. 

These persons are especially difficult 
to detect because they are frequently 
well-endowed intellectually and are 
also capable of making an excellent 
appearance. Superficially they create 
(To Page 39) 



30 



OF INTEREST TO TELEPHONE USERS 

I think many people have only a vague idea of how our company functions 
within the Bell System, and how a unique business philosophy is operating to 
make your telephone service increasingly dependable and economical. This adver- 
tisement is the briefest possible statement of the philosophy that guides the 
Western Electric Company. 



PRESIDENT 



In 1882 the Bell System became convinced that the best way to assure uniformity 
of equipment necessary for universal telephone service was to control its manu- 
facture through one organization. To this end it acquired the Western Electric 
Company, which operates under this three-fold policy: 



1. To make telephone appa- 
ratus of high quality. 

This in itself is not unusual. What « 
unusual is that every item of equip- 
ment in the vast network of the Bell 
System must coordinate so perfectly that 
from any Bell telephone you can talk 
clearly with any one of the millions of 
others. Can you think of any other 
product which must meet such an ex- 
traordinary test? 

2. To work for efficiency and 
lower costs. 

Whether it be in purchasing materials 
— or in manufacturing the 43,000 items 
of telephone apparatus — or in distrib- 
uting ail this equipment to the Bell 
companies, Western Electric is always 
seeking the better way. As a result it 



has a progressive record of methods 
developed, products improved, econo- 
mies effected, and costs lowered. 

3. To keep prices at the lowest 
possible level consistent with 
financial safety. 

Western Electric furnishes most of the 
telephone equipment used by the opera- 
ting companies of the System. By com- 
bining their requirements it is able to 
manufacture more economically; and it 
eliminates selling expenses and credit 
losses. The resulting savings it passes 
along to its telephone customers in the 
form of lower prices. 

On these sales the policy of the 
Company is to set the lowest prices 
which will enable it to pay fair wages 
to its employees, to earn a fair return 
on the money invested in the business. 



and to maintain the Company's finan- 
cial stability. 

This policy of voluntarily limiting 
profits is reflected in the Company's 
financial record. In recent years it has 
earned on its investment a rate of re- 
turn only about half as large as that of 
a representative group of comparable 
manufacturers, and over a period of 
twenty years this rate has averaged 
less than 7%. 



This set-up within the Bell System re- 
sults in low costs to your Telephone 
Company, and thus Western Electric 
contributes its part in making Bell Tele- 
phone service dependable and eco- 
nomical. 



Western Etectric 

BELL SYSTEM SERVICE IS BASED ON WESTERN ELECTRIC QUALITY 

31 



NIGHT HAWKS 



By Frederic Oakhill 




Frederic Oakhill 



ARMOUR INSTITUTE OF 
TECHNOLOGY'S newest or- 
ganization is now a reality and the 
Evening Division Student Association, 
made up of "Night Hawks," as its 
members are already called, promises 
to become a motivating force in school 
activities. 

The idea of a student association 
for the Evening Division formed in 
the minds of several individuals at 
about the same time. One of the rea- 
sons behind such an association was 
to make it possible for the Evening 
Division students to obtain greater 
benefits from their school attendance 
than classroom work itself provided. 
While classroom work has its very im- 
portant place, by no means is it the 
whole story in the development of an 
individual in fitting liiniself for a life- 
time career. 



In the past our Night Hawks at- 
tended classes which more or less com- 
])letely determined their interest in 
the Institute. A few hardy souls 
scraped together small acquaintances 
and thus gathered together individ- 
uals with mutual interest. To these 
nun goes the credit for pioneering in 
this movement. 

However, a few individuals work- 
ing alone were rather ineffective, and 
each year the newer men drifted along, 
not fully realizing the opportunities 
and benefits of association. To ob- 
tain the necessary medium of a com- 
mon meeting ground, the idea of for- 
mulating and organizing an Evening 
Division Student Association was pre- 
sented by the author, who promptly 
received the task of bringing the As- 
sociation into being. The work to date 
has been most interesting, and tlie 
splendid cooperation received from 
many persons made the job an easy 
one. Messrs. Walter E. Koch, Algird 
Rulis, Charles Bielko, Robert J. 
Wnukowski, Leo Faitelson, Herbert 
Savage, and Harold A. Lynette II 
really carried the burden of work in 
the temporary organization. 

The Association promises to become 
the vehicle whereby Evening Division 
students can make acquaintances of 
men other than immediate classmates 
and thus enjoy a varied friendship. A 
man, in his efforts to obtain a CDllege 
education, should be encouraged to 
enjoy all of the benefits of college life. 
We believe the Association can pro- 
vide an opportunity for the acquire- 
ment of these benefits. 

The driving purpose behind the As- 
sociation can best be expressed by re- 
peating the Preamble to its Constitu- 
tion and Purposes as stated in this 
document : 

We, the Evening Division Students of 
Armour Institute of Technology, in order 




B. B. Freud, 
Dean of Evening Division 



to form a more perfect association and 
enjoy greater benefits, do ordain and es- 
tablish this Association. 

The Purpose of the organization is: 

1. To effect a working cooperation 
among Evening Division students. 

2. To cooperate with the Institute to 
jiromote its growth and broaden the scope 
of its benefits. 

3. To effect an avenue for enjoyment of 
social relations, not possible in class-room 
association. 

4. To sponsor meetings to which well 
known speakers will be invited to talk on 
subjects of mutual interest. 

5. To effect a means whereby students 
of the Evening Division may meet to form 
small groups interested in specific sub- 
jects. 

The Association has progressed to 
the point where a Constitution has 
been drafted and ratified. This Con- 
stitution is being hand lettered on 
parchment paper by Mr. Joseph Kolo. 
The Constitution will be framed and 
hung in the school where all can see 
it. It is hoped that some day this 
document may hang in a fitting club 
room of the Association. In due 
course of time, the "Night Hawks" 
are certain to participate enthusias- 
tically in the student activities of the 
Institute. 

The first election of oflieers lias been 
held. The following were elected: 
Walter E. Koch, President; Algird 
Rulis, Executive Vice President; 
Robert Wnukowski, Vice President; 
Albert L. Simandl, Vice President; 
Harold A. Lynette, II, Secretary; and 
Leo Faitelson, Treasurer. 

The following appointments were 
made: Charles Bielko. Recording 



32 



Secretar.v; J. Sabo, Recording Secre- 
tary; Lyle Suavely, Assistant Treas- 
urer; Wilbur Cook, Assistant Treas- 
urer; Herbert Savage, Chairman 
Membership Committee; and Jerome 
Chrasteck, Cliairman Activities Com- 
mittee. To these men now goes the 
burden of developing the Association 
into an effective group. 

At the first meeting of the Execu- 
tive Committee, it was decided to 
undertake three major events during 
the remainder of the present school 
term. The first event is to be a scien- 
tific lecture to be held on a Saturday 
in the near future; the second event 
is to be a dance to be held on a Satur- 
day night about the last of April; and 
the third event will take the form of 
a group attendance at the Annual Ar- 
mour Alumni Dinner. 




Walter E. Koch 



The main benefits that can accrue 
to the individual members of the As- 
sociation are varied; some will depend 
upon the member himself, while other 
advantages will just naturally develop 
because of the normal activities of the 
Association. However, those men who 
are now carrying on, fully realize that 
the worth-while benefits will go to 
those who take an active part in fur- 
thering the aims of the Association. 
And so they welcome participation in 
committee work on the part of inter- 
ested students. 

At the present time the Evening 
Division students will enjoy the 
greatest advantage because of their 
Association, but there is no reason 
why ultimately the day school men 
should not, if they care to, enjoy 
added benefits because of their ac- 



quaintance and association with tlie 
night school men. 

Tiie first tangible advantage the 
night scliool men will enjoy is a 
widened acquaintanceship which will 
enable them to meet others who are 
engaged in industry and thereby 
broaden their horizon in practical 
things pertaining to the daily job. 
Tiie chance to meet and know men 
who are up against the same prob- 
lems is a most valuable asset, for 
each may help the other in clarifying 
his outlook on the job. Free dis- 
cussion of mutual problems many 
times leads to their solution. Like- 
wise, when one knows the men who 
are doing things in the work-a-day 
world, one then has a real source of 
information available when needed. 
The men fully realize that with these 
benefits and advantages there gaes 
an obligation on their part to hold 
themselves in readiness to serve those 
who might need their help. They are 
well aware that there must be a mu- 
tual intercliange of ideas and help. 

When the Association has consoli- 
dated its position among the Evening 
Division students, the plan is to ef- 
fect a working cooperation with the 
day school men to further the mu- 
tual desires of both student bodies. 
Such a working cooperation and asso- 
ciation between the two student bodies 
will benefit both groups, whose com- 
bined efforts can bring about many 
changes which will be for the bet- 
terment of the students and the school 
at large. 

A free interchange and association 
of the night and day school men will 
enable the exchanging of practical 
job experience and theoretical knowl- 
edge, the combination of which makes 
for a fuller education. The night 
school student's theoretical education 
should progress more rapidly and on 
broader lines, while the day school 
man will have the advantage of seeing 
how their theoretical training is ap- 
plied on the daily job. The day 
school students would thus become 
more acquainted with the work-a-day 
world before they actually become a 
part of it. 

The benefits of a closer association 
among Armour Tech's students will 
accrue not only to the students and 
to the Institute, but also to those 
industries whose men are attending 
the Institute. They will reap tang- 
ible returns because of this broaden- 
ing influence upon their employees. 
Many industries are recognizing this 
situation even now. 

This movement will bring more of 
the benefits of a college education to 
the Evening Division students, and by 
giving them an opportunity to organ- 




Harold A. Lynette, II. 

ize a self-governed body which can 
enter into college activities, they can 
more fully realize their ambitions. 
This movement is just one more ex- 
ample of the trend of formal educa- 
tion in the direction of integrating 
more completely within itself the vari- 
ous forms of adult education. Many 
of these, especially night school study, 
have heretofore been subordinated to 
other educational efforts. The stu- 
dents themselves are forcing atten- 
tion to their problems. This spon- 
taneous movement is certain to have 
wholesome results. 



X-RAY 



(From Page 23) 



in medicine, and of the internal con- 
dition being investigated in industrial 
inspection. As the use of the appa- 
ratus is extended, the duty rating must 
be increased. The control will no 
doubt be refined for higher and higher 
precision as the skill of operators de- 
mands. The dependability and life 
of x-ray apparatus are satisfactory 
now, but continued effort will be made 
to increase these. X-ray units are 
precision instruments and consequent- 
ly are comparatively expensive, but 
like other instruments, the cost for a 
given utility will continuously de- 
crease as the volume increases. 

The engineer now has an opportu- 
nity to add the x-ray unit to his list 
of indispensable tools, such as the 
oscillograph, the potentiometer, the 
Wheatstone bridge, and the micro- 
scope, which have so notablv increased 
his efficiency in harnessing nature's 
wonders for the use of man. 



33 



ARMOUR SPONSORS 
MIDWEST POWER 
CONFERENCE 



FROM Armour Institute of Tech- 
nology comes tlie announcement 
that the Midwest Power Conference 
will be held at the Hotel La Salle, 
April 13-15, 1938. The new power 
conference under the sponsorship of 
Armour Institute of Technology, oper- 
ating with the cooperation of six mid- 
western state universities, will replace 
the original conference which was or- 
ganized under private and commer- 
cial sponsorship. The educational in- 
stitutions involved have accepted the 
responsibility for the Power Confer- 
ence because of the evident public 
service that can be rendered. Only at 
a centralized conference can all of 
the technical and social phases of 



power production, distribution, and 
utilization be discussed. 

Tile program planned for the con- 
ference will involve some thirty 
papers presented by accepted authori- 
ties drawn about equally from educa- 
tional and industrial fields. Emphasis 
will be divided between steam, diesel, 
electric, and hydraulic power. In each 
field papers will be presented which 
discuss the best modern practices, 
while other papers will venture into 
the picture of the future as indicated 
in the investigations of our great re- 
search laboratories. 

Of peculiar interest in these days 
of great advance in power produc- 
tion will be a paper surveying the 



Power Requirements of the Nation. 
Two papers presenting various phases 
of the controversial subject of Valua- 
tion of Power Plants will be heard 
with unusual interest. Equally con- 
troversial from tlie technical point of 
view will be the discussion of steam 
versus diesel power for driving mod- 
ern streamline speed trains. 

The Midwest Power Conference is 
open to all who are interested in 
power problems either from the tech- 
nical, sales, or production points of 
view. Registration and headquarters 
will be at the Hotel La Salle, April 
13-15, 1938. Entertainment and social 
features will be provided, such as a 
smoker, the banquet, and several 
luncheons for various groups. There 
will also be entertainment provided 
for the ladies. It is the intention to 
collect all papers presented at the 
Power Conference into a printed Pro- 
ceedings which should continue on an 
annual basis. 

Anyone desiring to be placed on the 
mailing list in order to obtain full de- 
tails of the program arrangements 
should send his name to L. E. Grinter, 
Dean of the Graduate Division, Ar- 
mour Institute of Technology, Chi- 
cago, Illinois, who will act as director 
of the Conference. 



DURING recent weeks the main 
building engine room has been 
reverberating with the sounds of un- 
usual activity. To the fellow who 
takes time to investigate this drumming 
of hammers and clinking of new boiler 
tubes, a most interesting sight is re- 
vealed — The Stirling boiler (known 
as "Old Mary Anne" to the Mechani- 
cals), is being replaced by an up-to- 
date steam generator of modern, well 
chosen design. "Old Mary Anne" 
gave a remarkable service of nearly 
thirty-seven years, but finally began 
to leak so badly that it was impossible 
to keep a fire within her. 

To satisfy the curiosity of those 
who have taken notice of the present 
installation, a few of the details con- 
cerning the unit might prove interest- 
ing. The manufacturer of the genera- 
tor proper is the Lasker Boiler and 
Engineering Corporation, a company 
well known to Armour men. 

The main feature of this new boiler 
is the use of "water walls" which con- 
sume a great portion of heat which 
might otherwise be lost by radiation. 
This consists of a network of boiler 
tubes placed vertically along the side 
walls of the setting. Stoking is to 
be accomplished by the use of a De- 
troit Roto Stoker of the spreader type, 
another feature which adds to the effi- 



NEW BOILER REPLACES 
"OLD MARY ANNE" 



ciency by affording more complete 
combustion of fuel. In connection 
with this type of stoker, a twin grate 
and ash pit are included in the design 
so that ashes may be dumped and 
emptied on one side of the fire cham- 
ber without damping the fire on the 
other half. As is usual with this type 
of firing, forced draft enters from 
the side of the ash pit, and the amount 
of ash to be removed from the cham- 
ber is reduced by the large amount of 
fly ash which goes up the stack. A 
cinder pickup arrangement is pro- 
vided in the stack for the removal of 
this fly ash. 

At normal operating conditions, the 
boiler is rated at 650 horsepower, 
evaporating 22,000 pounds of water 
per hour. Under peak load condi- 
tions, this capacity may be boosted to 
950 horsepower, but it is expected 
that operation will be such as to give 
an efficiency of approximately 75%. 



The interior of the unit consists of 
three drums and over 280 tubes, being 
arranged so as to be quite compact 
in relation to the rated horsepower. 
Working pressure will be in the neigh- 
borhood of 125 pounds, and tempera- 
tures at various points within the 
boiler will be recorded by pyrometers 
installed in desirable spots. In order 
to maintain a maximum of heat ab- 
sorption surface, a Vulcan Soot 
Blower is being installed to keep the 
boiler tubes as free from carbon as 
possible. 

It is expected that the careful de- 
sign and stoking principle used in the 
main generator will result in a great 
saving on fuel costs, and due consid- 
eration has been made for student ex- 
periments while the boiler is in opera- 
tion. A complete line of instruments 
is being included in the permanent in- 
stallation for the latter purpose. 



34 



DEPARTMENT OF 
PUBLIC RELATIONS 
ESTABLISHED 



IN order to promote closer coopera- 
tion between Armour Institute of 
Technology and tlie industrial com- 
munity, and to coordinate the various 
public service activities in which the 
Institute is now engaged, the Execu- 
tive Committee of the Board of Trus- 
tees has authorized the creation of a 
Department of Public Relations. 

David P. Moreton has been ap- 
pointed head of this department with 
the title of Director of Public Rela- 
tions. Professor Moreton graduated 
from Armour in the Class of 1906, 
and has been connected with the Insti- 
tute since graduation as a member of 
the Electrical Engineering Depart- 
ment. He has had close contact with 
industry, having held responsible po- 
sitions in the design, manufacturing, 
sales, and executive departments until 
a few years ago, when he decided to 
devote his entire time to the advance- 
ment of his Alma Mater. 

A number of activities, several of 
which are at present actually func- 
tioning, will be coordinated in this 
new department, so that full advan- 
tage may be taken of all the oppor- 
tunities the Institute may have to 
serve industry, the student body, and 
the alumni. 

These activities have been grouped 
under the following main classifica- 
tions : 

1. The general promotional pro- 
gram of Armour Institute of Tech- 
nology, particularly the raising of 
funds. 

The reception accorded the Insti- 
tute by industry for services rendered 
in various ways is an encouraging in- 
dication of the importance of the 
position which Armour Institute of 
Technology occupies in the field of 
technical education. With the grow- 
ing demand for an increase in this 
service it becomes imperative that 
more adequate facilities be provided 
to expand and improve this service. 



2. Establishment of an alumni 
office with a permanent ahiiimi se( r( 
tary to handle all records and Kvt.im 
business affairs of tlie Aluumi Asso 
ciation. 

No college or university is stronger 
than its alumni. But it is nectssary 
tiiat the problems of the college be 
properly presented to them in order 
that they may have tiie opportunity 
of working intelligently in their solu- 
tion. The tie between the school and 
its alumni can be very effectively 
made through the medium of a prop- 
erly organized and operated alumni 
office. 

3. Publishing the Armour Engi- 
neer and Alumnus and supervision of 
business management, editing, adver- 
tising, and circulation. This work will 
be handled by a publishing board 
composed of a representative of the 
alumni, the facultj^ and the student 
body. 

The printed page is the most effec- 
tive means of publicizing the activities 
and services which the Institute can 
render, and this material should be 
presented in as pleasing and impres- 
sive a way as possible. 

4. The general problems of public- 
ity, such as radio talks, lectures, news 
releases, and preparatory school in- 
terviews. 

All media of publicity will be of 
valuable assistance in promoting the 
various phases of the services which 
the Institute can render. 

5. Organization of conference 
courses. 

Since the Institute is at all times 
in a position to cooperate with indus- 
try by rendering special services, it 
is only proper that these services be 
placed at the disposal of industry in 
such a way that the maximum good 
may accrue to all who are interested. 

6. A placement office for the mu- 










D. P. Moreton 



tual assistance of students, alumni, 
and industry. 

A placement office properly oper- 
ated is of great value to both alumni 
and industry in establishing a proper 
contact between them. 

7. Coordination of all contacts 
between companies participating in 
the cooperative courses. 

A study should be made of the serv- 
ice rendered by the cooperative course 
so far as industry and the school are 
involved in order that a spirit of com- 
plete understanding may be estab- 
lished in working out the cooperative 
plan. 

The department will occupy offices 
on the campus in the newly recondi- 
tioned quarters at 41-4.3 West 33rd 
Street. In the final analysis the pro- 
motion of Armour Institute of Tech- 
nology is not the concern of a single 
department or individual, but must be 
considered in the broadest sense, 
which will involve the complete coop- 
eration of all individuals concerned 
with its problems, if a permanent and 
satisfactory solution of these prob- 
lems is to be accomplished. 

Walter Hendricks. 



35 



RESEARCH FOUNDATION 
PUBLISHES NEW MAGAZINE 



As a lurtlii r extension of its serv- 
ice to industry the Research Foun- 
dation of Armour Institute of Technol- 
ogy publislied, last month, the first 
edition of The Frontier. This period- 
ical, to be published bi-monthly, will 
recount the progress of the ever-ad- 
vancing frontier of scientific knowl- 
edge and the part research plays in 
that progress. 

The first issue of The Frontier fea- 
tures an article on Cooperative Re- 
search by L. W. Wallace, who is 
Director of the Division of Engineer- 
ing and Research, at Crane Company. 
In this article he shows how impor- 
tant research laboratories, such as 
those at Armour Institute of Teclinol- 
ogy, Massachusetts Institute of Tecli- 
nology, and Mellon Industrial Insti- 
tute, are to industry. 

There are other articles and notes 



about new ideas, new substances, and 
new processes. Some of these are: a 
coating that may be sprayed or 
brushed on glass that reduces glare 
and yet admits 90% of the available 
light; some new heat-treating salts; 
and a new high speed centrifuge that 
operates at 80,000 R.P.M. to give a 
force of 250,000 times that of gravity. 

An article by Dr. T. C. Poulter, 
Director of Armour's Research Foun- 
dation, on "Extreme Pressure Re- 
search" points out the importance of 
high pressure research in the very 
practical and important field of lubri- 
cation. Dr. Poulter, with apparatus 
which he designed and made, recently 
obtained a pressure of one and a half 
million pounds per square inch, about 
one and a half times the greatest 
pressure obtained up to that time. 

The editor of The Frontier is C. H. 
Hazard. 



SPECIAL HIGH- 
PRESSURE BOILER 

THE facilities of the Heat Trans- 
fer Laboratory, of which Dr. 
Max Jakob is Director, were greatly 
increased by the addition of a 750 
pound per square inch 3000 pound 
per hour boiler which was recently 
contributed to the Research Founda- 
tion by the Lasker Boiler and Engi- 
neering Company of Chicago. 

This boiler has many unusual fea- 
tures and is fabricated from special 
alloy steels. A boiler of this type 
has long been needed as a steam pro- 
ducer to be used in connection with 
many heat transfer problems includ- 
ing hot gas flow, water flow, steam 
flow, and condensing. 

The Lasker Boiler and Engineering 
Company has been long identified in 
the Chicago area as a progressive 
manufacturer of boilers and one which 
is interested in advancing the knowl- 
edge of steam generation. 



RECENT ADDITIONS TO THE FACULTY 



Born in Dor})at, Estonia, and edu- 
cated in schools of Finland and 
Germanv, MR. MICHAEL SADOW- 




Michael Sadowsky 

SKY acquired a thorough background 
of mathematics, characteristic of the 
type of training received in Euro- 
pean universities. His diverse studies 
fitted him to become an instructor in 
several German schools ; and he 
served as Assistant Professor of 



Mathematics and Mechanics at the 
University of Minnesota from 19:51 
to 1933. His research work has in- 
cluded many subjects in practical 
mathematics, and he has published 
numerous papers applying mathe- 
matics to physical and engineering 
problems. It is in this type of work 
that he has offered information to 
many of the well known scientific in- 
stitutions. 

Mr. Sadowsky's wide experience 
and proven ability make his ap- 
pointment to the Department of 
Mathematics most welcome. 



The department of Mechanical En- 
gineering has added a man of wide 
practical experience as a new staff 
member. MR. ALEXANDER 
COWIE, who comes to Armour from 
the University of Minnesota, where 
he has for the past four years been 
an instructor in machine shop prac- 
tice, has worked as a machinist both 
in the place of his birth, Glasgow, 
Scotland, and in the United States. 
He attended the University of Wis- 
consin, and received his B. S. degree 
in Mechanical Engineering at that 
school in 1931. His graduate work 
was completed at the University of 
Michigan, on a Tau Beta Pi Fellow- 
ship, in 1932. 

Mr. Cowie has worked in the engi- 



neering departments of the Westing- 
Iiouse Electric & Mfg. Co., the West- 
ern Electric Co., the Consolidated 




Alexander Cowie 

Ashcroft-Hancock Co., and the Min- 
neapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co. He 
is a member of Phi Eta Sigma, Pi Tau 
Sigma, Tau Beta Pi, the Society for 
Promotion of Engineering Education, 
and the American Society of Mechan- 
ical Engineers. 



36 



TENTH ANNUAL 
ARMOUR RELAYS 



L^IVE records fell in the Tenth 
X^ running of Armour Tech's famous 
relays Saturday afternoon and eve- 
ning, March 19th, in the University 
of Chicago field house as Armour 
Tech's track squad, the best tlie In- 
stitute has had the pleasure of calling 
its own for many years, easily won 
fourth place in the college division. 
One of the best relays ever iield, since 
their inception in 1928, the games 
Saturday were packed with thrills 
from the first event, which was a spe- 
cial mile run race in order that tiie 
brilliant Charles Fenske of Wiscon- 
sin could break the existing record for 
t:iis event, until Armour Tech's Sam 
Bingham raced home in the college 
seventy yard dash to win well ahead 
of the field in the time of 7.3 seconds. 

The relays hold the distinction of 
being one of the most representative 
of their kind in the central west. 
From eight states, thirty-four colleges 
and universities entered a field of 
some four hundred contestants in the 
preliminaries during the afternoon. 
Of these tliirty-four schools, twenty- 
seven of which were colleges. North 
Central College of Naperville, Illi- 
nois, boasting a track squad compar- 
able to the best, raced home ahead of 
Wayne University, also in the college 
division and championship winners of 
last year, to win the college division 
championship with a total of 43 and 
l/3rd points. Michigan State Nor- 
mal took third place with 21 points 
while Armour Tech ran a close fourth 
with 18 and l/3rd points. 

The brilliant Charles Fenske again 
proved himself the champion miler 
that he is as he raced home ahead of 
his teammate, Walter Mehl, to estab- 
lish a new record in tiie mile run. 
Coach Tom Jones of the Badger 
squad deliberately instructed Fenske 
to break the record for this event lield 
by Henry Brocksmith of Indiana and 
established at i minutes, 14.1 seconds 
in 1932. Fenske started in a field 
composed of himself, Walter Mehl, a 
teammate, Ernest Klann of the Uni- 
versity of Kansas, and Charles Mit- 
chell of Kansas State College. He ran 
a brilliant race, covering the first half 
in 2 minutes, 4.5 seconds and the sec- 
ond half in 2 minutes, 4.4 seconds, 



breaking the tape a full seventy yards 
ahead of liis teammate Walter Mehl 
who paced him at a fast clip during 
the first half. This was the fastest 
mile ever to be run on a clay track 
and in Chicago, and proves without 
a doubt that Fenske is definitely in a 
class with Cunningham and Venzke. 

Anotiier record fell in the high 
jump as a former Oak Park high 
school lad won his fourth title in this 
event. In 1935 Charles Bechel, now 
of Northern Illinois State Teachers 
College and formerly of Chicago 
Normal, astounded a rather brilliant 
field to win this event. In 1936 and 
1937 Bechel repeated his brilliant 
performance, each time falling just 
one inch short of the 6 foot, 5 inch 
record established by Nelson of But- 
ler in 1932. As a parting gift to the 
relaj's, Charles Bechel, in winning 
tliis event for the fourth time, cleared 
the bar at 6 feet, 6 inches to establish 
a new record. 

Another Armour Tecii lad. Earl 
Covington, Jr., astounded the assem- 
bled fans by winning the college divi- 
sion 440 yard event as he came 
]50unding into the back stretch to win 
ahead of a fast field in the time of 
53.6 seconds. In the university divi- 
sion seventy yard hia;h hurdles, an- 
other University of Wisconsin athlete 
Sam Smith broke the tape to win 
with a new record in the time of 7.6 
seconds and at the same time equal 
the American indoor record for tliis 
event. 

In the field events, other tlian the 
high jump, another record fell as 
Wisconsin University re-established 
its supremacy in the pole vault. Last 
vear a small college athlete, Llovd 
Siebcrt of North Central, beat Wis- 
consin's famous Haller to establish a 
new record at 13 feet, 8 and %ths 
inches. Tiiis year Milton Padway, 
who placed third last year, showed a 
surprising and thrilling ability to win 
witli a new record of 13 feet. 9 and 
%ths inches while Robert Elwood, 
an Armour Tech lad, tied for fourth 
wit!i 13 feet. 

Without a doubt, the relays this 
year were one of the best, although 
not one of the largest, the Institute 
has ever sponsored. 

Alexander P. Sciireiber. 



VERMONT 

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CERTIFIED QUALITY 
SATISFACTION ASSURED 



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Half Gallon 



$2.75 
1.50 



Add for packing and shipping: Chi- 
cago and vicinity: 25c a gal., 15c 
'/2 g^l- Outside of Chicaqo: 50c a 
gal., 25c I/2 gal. 



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MARLBORO, VERMONT 

Send Ordprs to \ ermnnt or lo 

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MIDway 8759 



TO ARMOUR'S 
ENGINEERS from 

America's Finest Club! 




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facilities for your 
social functions! 
Enjoy a distinc- 
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no extra tariff. 
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37 



For LOW COST 
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kegj, and various indusfrial processes. Wrlfo for Bulletin 258. 
THE POWERS REGULATOR CO., 2720 Oreenview Avenue., 
Chicago — Offices in 45 Cities — See your phone directory. 



liJiHiiM 



SONS OF 
ALUMNI 



An analysis of the Freshman class 
discloses the fact that twelve of its 
members are sons of graduates of Ar- 
mour. 

John Alschuler, son of Alfred A. 
Alschuler, Arch. '99; A. W. Carlson, 
son of A. W. Carlson, '09; W. D. 
Chapman, son of D. W. Chapman, 
C. E. '08; Raymond Heitner, son 
of Walter Heitner, E. E. '11 ; L. W. 
Holmboe, son of R. Holmboe, C. E. 
'18; J. R. LeVally, son of J. R. 
LeVally, Mech. '16; A. G. Michuda, 
son of A. S. Michuda, '13; E. C. Pion- 
tek, son of C. J. Piontek, Arch. '08; 
Marshall Salzman, son of A. L. Salz- 
man. Arch. '13; J. E. Sauvage, son 
of H. J. Sauvage, '05; A. W. Sha- 
piro, son of H. M. Shapiro, E. E. '16; 
and H. A. Zimmerman, son of S. L. 
Zimmerman, C. E. '08. 



COAL 

(From Page 18) 
purpose of improving our product to 
bring the utmost cleanliness and con- 
venience in its use. With the in- 
vestment of additional millions of 
dollars we liave developed coal re- 
fining plants which accurately control 
quality to predetermined standards. 
Coal in its natural state contains such 
impurities as slate, shale, rock, py- 
rites, sulphur, and fire clay. Nearly 
all of this foreign matter is unburn- 
able, and represents so much waste 
matter in the coal. 

The modern coal refining plant uti- 
lizes a hydro-washing process which 
not only removes loose impurities but 
also extracts pieces of coal in which 
hidden impurities are embedded. This 
process takes advantage of the fact 
that the impurities are heavier than 
coal. Raw coal is immersed in fast 
flowing water to which compressed 
air agitation is added. The force of 
the water is so controlled that coal 
is floated through the wash box 
while impurities sink to the bottom of 
the box. Leaving the box the coal is 



passed under high pressure rinsing 
sprays, graded into various sizes to 
fit different types of burning equip- 
ment, and dust-proofed with vapor oil 
sprays. Modern laboratories, equipped 
with the most efficient coal testing ap- 
paratus, are a part of each plant. 

Here representative samples, care- 
fully taken from each car, are screen- 
tested for size and accurately checked 
as to heat and ash content. 

The precision with which our mod- 
ern coal refining plants function is 
indicated by the fact that our com- 
pany's laboratory records over a pe- 
riod of several years show a fluctua- 
ion in ash content of less than 1%. 
The improvement in quality of the 
product is reflected by a one-third 
reduction in ash in stoker and screen- 
ings sizes, with corresponding in- 
crease in heat value per pound. 

But the advantages of this refined 
fuel go much farther. There are sav- 
ings in freight. (Think of the money 
that has been spent paying freight 
charges for transporting ash-forming 
impurities about the country!) There 
are savings in boiler room labor. 
There is also an important saving 
from increased combustion efficiency 
resulting from removal of ultra fines 
which permits better air distribution 
in the fuel bed. And there is a very 



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STANDARD OF ACCURACY 





Accurate 
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Showing complete lines of 
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Tape Rules 
Folding Wood, Steel, 

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Precision Tools 



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SAGINAW, MICHIGAN, U.S.A. 

MANUFACTURERS OF MEASURING 
DEVICES FOR OVER 50 YEARS 



38 



substantial saving) in boiler mainte- 
nance because of elimination of fly ash 
and tube slagging, and increased fur- 
nace efficiency which results from 
cleaner heating surfaces. 

Ability to overcome obstacles has 
always been an outstanding American 
characteristic. We in the bituminous 
coal industry feel that we are making 
real progress in solving our present 
problems and are confident that with 
the continued help of American en- 
gineering ingenuity the future holds 
real promise of steadily improving 
conditions in the coal mining business. 



TRAINING A MAN 

(From Page 30) 
a very favorable inijiression. It is 
only when inquiry is made into their 
ways of thinking and their objectives 
in life that this emotional infantilism 
begins to emphasize itself. In an in- 
dustrial situation persons of this sort 
are likely to be particularly disillu- 
sioning because they are rarely willing 
to show initiative and agressiveness, 
but prefer to be passive and depend- 
ent, being the leaners and excuse 
makers, rather than the producers. 

Closely related to personality make- 
up with reference to job success is the 
individual's motivation. A man's mo- 



Do You Want 

A Power Plant 

Dismantled 

or 

Boilers Removed 
or 

A Smoke Stack 
Razed 

? 



Phone 
BEN PERLSTEIN 

Canal 7464 

HOYNE INDUSTRIAL 
SALVAGE CO. 

2501 S. Hoyne Avenue 
CHICAGO 




- - - Increasingly Popular 



No. 2 Universal 
-No. 2 Plain 
■ No. 2 Vertical 



-May we send speci- 
fications of these 
profitable milling machines? 

Brown & Sharpe Mfg. Co. 
Providence, R. I. 



BROWN & SHARPE 



tivation is determined in a large meas- 
ure by his personality itself, in many 
instances supplemented by such fac- 
tors as the necessity of supporting 
dependents. Thus the person who has 
no dependents or has outside sources 
of income supplied by an inheritance, 
or a working wife, is generally less 
likely to have strong motivation to put 
extra effort in on the job than one 
whose family will cease to eat regu- 
larly if he stops work. This is a fac- 
tor that is of particular significance 
from the standpoint of the employer. 
Given two individuals of equal tech- 
nical and intellectual competence, in 
the long run the man with the strong 
motivation, whether it be economic or 
a matter of ambition, will probably 
turn out to be the more satisfactory. 
Last, but not least, is the factor of 
a man's family or domestic situation. 
This, too, is not unrelated to his per- 
sonality make-up and is also often a 
determinant of his motivation. It is 
important to know, for example, 
whether a young man is a spoiled 
child, living at home, pampered by his 
parents, or out on his own, making 



his own way. Likewise, it often mat- 
ters a great deal whether a man and 
his wife are congenial. If there is 
domestic discord it is almost inevitably 
bound to reflect itself in a man's work. 
It becomes a distraction and may even 
go so far as to drive him to drink or 
to form undesirable companionships. 
In the same way, a wife may destroj' 
or bolster a man's morale. Further- 
more, if she is so minded, she may 
keep him perennially in debt, or tied 
to her by chronic ill health. This, 
again, is a factor that is of unusual 
significance to the employer. Domes- 
tic difficulties alone may account for 
the failure of an otherwise well-quali- 
fied individual. 

Under practical every-day consider- 
ations, botli the young men looking 
for a job and the company seeking 
persons to fill positions in its organiza- 
tion can profit largely from the use of 
the psychological techniques which 
have been and are still in process of 
development in industry. For the 
young man it is now possible to obtain 
an audit of his vocational assets and 
liabilities, together with a reasonable 



39 



The John Marshall 
LAW 

SCHOOL 

FOUNDED 1899 

AN 

ACCREDITED 

LAW SCHOOL 

TEXT and CASE 

METHOD 



mended list of pre-legal 
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COURSES 
(40 weeks per year) 
Afternoon — 3 years 
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Evening — 4 years 
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All courses leacJ 
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work required for 
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New classes form 
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1414 Monadnock Building 
53 West Jackson Blvd. 

CHICAGO 



Patent-Trade Mark and Copyright 
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Munsay Building 
Washington, D. C. 



iiLsiglit into his personality make-up. 
It may in some cases even be possible 
to inform him of the significance of 
his domestic situation with reference 
to his probable job success. 

In the case of the employer, equally 
\aluable techniques are at hand. 
\\'Iiere adequately trained and experi- 
enced technicians have been employed, 
a number of organizations both large 
and small have found it possible to use 
procedures and instruments which en- 
able them to predict with a high de- 
gree of reliability the ultimate success 
of applicants who have come to them 
not only for clerical and technical 
positions, but also for sales and execu- 
tive work. This type of human en- 
gineering has long since passed the 
experimental, trial-and-error stage, 
and is now in a position to offer both 
to the individual and to the employer 
a means by which the present large 
economic losses due to vocational mal- 
adjustment may largely be minimized. 



RADIO IN TRANSPORT 

(From Page 28) 
loop so tliat the station cannot be 
heard. This is known as the aural-null 
system, and the null or zero side of 
the loop is used because of its greater 
accuracy over the maximum signal 
edge. A pointer on a compass card is 
connected to the loop antenna located 
underneath the plane and shows the 
direction in which the loop is turned. 
A small crank handle is provided for 
turning the loop. 

The navigation system used with 
the direction finder is shown in the 
illustration on page 13. For exam- 
ple, assume that a plane is flying just 
north of LaSalle, Illinois, at the point 
represented by the small black dot. 
The pilot successively tunes in the 
Sterling, Rockford, and Chicago radio 
beacon stations. As each station is 
heard he turns the loop antenna until 
the station is weakest and reads the 
pointer on the card. This pointer 
reading in degrees, is put down on a 
map as a dotted line running through 
tlie station at the proper angle as in- 
dicated on the compass card. When 
three such dotted lines are successively 
laid out on the map, they intersect to 
form a small triangle. If the accuracy 
of the readings has been good, the 
triangle will be very small and if 
accuracy is poor the triangle will be 
correspondingly larger. In either case 
the location of the plane on the map 
will be within the lines of this triangle. 

If readings are taken ever^' ten 
minutes a series of small triangles can 
be drawn across the map to show the 
pilot his location at all times. The 
direction and amount of wind drift 



will also be shown as well as the course 
he is following. If the Chicago radio 
beacon should fail, Milwaukee, or 
Goshen, Indiana can be tuned in, and, 
by proper plotting of courses, the 
plane can be brouglit into Chicago 
without delay. 

Instrument Landing System 

For many years pilots have hoped 
for a system which would allow them 
to locate and land on an airport which 
was completely obscured by fog or a 
blinding storm. Before tlie radio tele- 
phone and the radio beacon were de- 
veloped, pilots were sometimes lost 
in such conditions. The radio telephone 
made this unnecessary since the pilot 
could be contacted in flight and told 
to turn back or use a different airport 
when fog developed. The radio bea- 
con too will let him locate the airport 
even though he cannot see it. Once 
he is there, he can safely come down 
through the fog, provided there is a 
clear space of 500 to 1000 feet be- 
tween the ground and the lowest 
clouds. When this clear space is not 
available, flj'ing is not permitted under 
present regulations. 

In 1929 the Bureau of Standards 
began work on a radio system which 
would safely bring planes down 
through this" last 1000 feet. Their 



An All Purpose 

Air Velocity Meter 

Instantaneous Direct Reading 




It necessary to use complicated instruments 
and stop watclies or make siow. mattiematical caicuiations 
to obtain accurate velocity readings of irregular shaped 
or slotted orilles. velocity readings in ducts, or at inlet 
or outlet openings or oilier air velocity measurements. 



and 



"Aln 



(Boyle System) Velometer 
ing air velocity meter, i 
conveniently and quickly. 



The Velometer gives instant air velocity readings 

directly in feet per minute from as low as 20 F.P.M. 

up to its maximum scale reading. Ranges up to as liigh 
as 6000 F.P.M. are available. 

Write for Bulletin No. 2448 

ILLINOIS TESTING LABORATORIES, Inc. 

146 W. HUBBARD ST. CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 



40 



work was interrupted a few years later 
because of lack of appropriations, but 
others carried on, and in the summer 
of 1937 an advanced form of their 
system was carried to a successful 
conclusion. The United Air Lines and 
Bendix Radio Corporation cooperating 
with several other airlines at Oakland, 
California completed the system and 
made over 400 landings with the wind- 
shield of a large transport plane cov- 
ered with a canvas hood. 

The successful system used is 
siiown in the illustration on page It; 
tiiree radio transmitters located on and 
near' an airport are needed for its 
operation. Twq of them are of the 
same type as the fan markers previ- 
ously described. The third and largest 
sends out a multiple beam of special 
shape which makes the system pos- 
sible. 

The large transmitter sends out two 
equal overlapping beams ; one at eacli 
side of the runway on which the plane 
is to land. Each beam has a different 
musical pitch so that a radio receiver 
on the plane which picks up both 
beams can separate them into two 
channels. Both channels connect to 
the first or vertical needle on the dial 
of the instrument shown in the upper 
left-hand corner of the diagram. The 
musical tone from one channel pulls 
the needle to the left and the other 
tone pulls it to the right. If the plane 
flies exactly halfway between the two 
beams, the receiver picks up an equal 
amount of each tone. This keeps the 
pull on the needle equal so that it 
stays in the middle and indicates to 
the pilot that he is flying on a line 
which runs down the center of the 
runway. By carefully following the 
needle, a pilot can accurately land a 
10-passenger plane on a runway 200 
feet wide. 

Tiie left-right runway needle takes 
care of one-half the problem, but an- 
otlier type of indication is necessary 
to control the path down which the 
plane must glide to the ground. For 
this purpose the indicator dial has a 
second needle which moves in the up 
and down direction in the same man- 
ner as the other needle moves left and 
rigiit. The same two beams are used, 
but in this case the power from both 
tones is added together to operate the 
second needle. 

As shown in the diagram, the two 
beams not only project to the left and 
riglit of the runway, but they are also 
tilted upward so that their lower 
curved edge forms the proper gliding 
path for a descending airplane. When 
the plane follows this path the second 
needle of the indicator moves to a hori- 
zontal position across the center of the 



Kj ^ g^T^ -^^^l 




■ for Two-Ensine Ship 



PERFECT CONTROL 
O F FU E L-A I R R ATI O 

Designed as a flight instrument, the Cambridge Aero-Mixture Indieator 
determines tlie Fuel-Air Ratio of the engine mixture by analyzing a 
sample of the exhaust gas. The Indicator, calibrated in Fuel-Air Ratio 
over a range of from .11 to .065, provides a continuous guide enabling 
the pilot to control accurately the all-important mixture ratio at sea 
level or high altitude. 

The use of this instrument accordingly makes possible best engine 
performance under any given 

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dial. If the plane drops below the 
proper path, the needle drops below 
the horizontal center line; if above, 
tlic needle also moves above. By 
guiding the plane so that tlie two 
needles are always crossed exactly in 
the center of the dial, the wheels will 
always touch the ground at the proper 
point on the runway so that the plane 
can easily coast to a safe stop. 

The two fan markers are added as 
a double check on the system. The 
outer marker operates a liglit wiiich, if 
tlie needles are crossed and the sys- 
tem operating properly, should come 
on when the altimeter shows 2000 
feet above ground. If the light does 
not operate under these conditions, the 
pilot is warned while he is still at a 
safe altitude and can turn back or go 
to some other airport. 

The inner marker serves as a still 
further check at 200 feet and the edge 
of the airport. If all indicators are 
not in their proper position when tlie 
second light comes on, the pilot still 



lias an opportunity to pull back up 
and try again. With this system of 
double checks the pilot can try as 
many times as he desires until the 
needles are exactly crossed and each 
light comes on at its proper altitude. 

In transport planes the automatic 
(robot) pilot may be used in place of 
a human pilot to guide the plane down 
the landing beams. In cither case, the 
touching of the wheels on the ground 
is just as smooth as a landing made 
under normal daylight conditions. 

While work on this system has so 
far been entirely experimental, equip- 
ment for a number of airports is now 
being manufactured for installation in 
the spring and summer of 1938. Once 
installed, a period of test and training 
can be carried out to determine the 
system's feasibility in practical serv- 
ice. When this test period is com- 
pleted and the reliability has been 
demonstrated beyond question, the 
problem of fog will have been finally 
conquered. 



41 



DISTINGUISHED 

ALUMNUS 
PASSES AWAY 



FRIENDS and associates every- 
where were shocked by the recent 
deatli of Dr. Francis G. Pease, noted 
astronomer and Armour alumnus. Dr. 
Pease, a graduate of the class of 1901, 
died in a Pasadena hosj)ital after a 
brief illness. 

Dr. Pease gained his greatest fame 
for his work at the Mt. Wilson ob- 
servatory, with which he was asso- 
ciated since IQCl. During his career 
he designed many of the instruments 
which he used in his study of the 
stars. His most recent achievement, 
and the one for which he is perhaps 
best known, was hi.s work on the 200- 
inch telescope which is being built for 
the California Institute of Technology 
at Mt. Palomar. This instrument was 
designed from modified plans, drafted 
by Dr. Pease, for a 300-inch reflector. 
Together with Dr. George E. Hale, 
director of the Mt. Palomar project, 
he perfected a technique for grinding 
glass which made possible the con- 
struction of the world's largest tele- 
scope. 

Dr. Pease's studies and discoveries 
have done much to advance tlie sci- 
ence of astronomy. He did extensive 




Francis G. Peace 

photographic work, and his j)ictures 
of the moon are said by his co-work- 
ers to be the best in existence. He 
was the first person to measure many 
of the stars by the analysis of their 
light waves. For this work he de- 
signed and used a special 50-ft. inter- 
ferometer, the only instrument of its 
kind. He did pioneer work in the 
observation, with a spectroscope, of 
the rotation of stars beyond the Milky 
Way, and of changes in the spectra of 
variable stars. 

Of a nature more interesting to the 
general public were Dr. Pease's ex- 
periments in measuring the velocity of 



light, in which he co-operated with 
the late Dr. Arthur A. Michelson. The 
experiment, part of which consisted 
of the measurement of beams of light 
Hashed between Mt. Baldy and Mt. 
Wilson, attracted wide attention at 
the time. Dr. Pease carried the ex- 
periments on to completion after the 
death of Dr. Michelson. 

Dr. Pease was born in Cambridge, 
Mass., on January 14, 1881. He grad- 
uated from Armour in 1901, and later 
attended Oglethorpe University. 
Armour Institute of Technology con- 
ferred uj)on this distinguished alum- 
nus the honorary degrees of Master 
of Science in 1921. and of Doctor of 
Science in 1927. For a short time 
before coming to Pasadena, Dr. Pease 
was an observer at Yerkes Observa- 
tory at Williams Bay, Wis. During 
the World War he served as chief 
draftsman for the National Researcli 
Council. 

Dr. Pease was a member of many 
scientific organizations. He held a 
Fellowship in the Royal Astronom- 
ical Society of London, and was a 
member of the American Astronom- 
ical Society, the Astronomical Society 
of the Pacific, the A. S. M. E., the 
Engineering Society of Pasadena, of 
which he was president, the Optical 
Society of America, and Sigma Xi 
fraternity. He is survived by his 
widow, four brothers, and a sister. 

Dr. Pease was the first graduate of 
Armour to receive from the Alumni 
Association the Distinguished Service 
Key, in recognition of his scientific 
achievements. 



Armour Institute of Technology 

CHICAGO 

fl COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE 

Founded by Philip D. Armour 
1892 

SUMMER SESSION— JUNE 20 TO AUGUST 12, 1938 

Courses in Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics, Drawing, 
Mechanics, Field Practice in Surveying, Electricity, and 
Architectural Design. 

FALL TERM BEGINS SEPTEMBER 15, 1938 



FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, ADDRESS THE REGISTRAR. 



3300 Federal Street 



Chicago 



42 



ALUMNI NOTES 

by D. P. More+on, Secy.-Treas. 



ALUMNI DIRECTORY 

The Armour Institute Alumni Association has comijUtcd phins for the 
publishing of an Alumni Directory, which will be distributed free to all Armour 
men who indicate they want one by tilling in the postcard bound in this issue 
of the Engineer and Alumnus and returning it promptly to tlie Alumni office. 
Please be careful and give in legible form all of the information requested. 
This Directory will contain many interesting and valuable features; and your 
cooperation is essential for its real success. Present plans indicate the Direc- 
tory will be ready for distribution in June, and you will be advised further as 
to the exact date in the May issue of the Engineer and Alumnus. 

NjEW LIFE MEMBERS 



ELLIOTT, LOUIS E.E. '99 

FLOOD, WALTER H CH.E. '06 

HERBST, CLARENCE A CH.E. '22 

JONES, C. SIDNEY E.E. '28 

KOCH, ALBERT N M.E. '14 

LUNDE, ERLING H EX. M.E. '19 

McAULEY, BENJAMIN F M.E. '09 

MOSKOVICS, FREDRICK E EX.M.E. '97 



NIELSEN, ELKER R ARCH. 

PERLSTEIN, HARRIS CH.E. 

PETERSON, VERNON A E.E. 

ROSS, RALPH R. E.E. 

STOCKMANN, GERVASE J CH.E. 

WARZESKI, FRANK S CH.E. 

WATT, WILLIAM T E.E. 



1897 

A recent card from F. BENSON 
HALL, M. E., brings the information that 
he has moved from 3431 Kenilworth Ave., 
Berwyn, 111., and now lives at 27 Orchard 
BluiT, Dowagiac, Mich. 

The following is quoted from a letter 
recently received from HENRY C. HEN- 
GELS, who is an architect and engineer 
at 759 N. Milwaukee St., Milwaukee, 
Wis.: 

It ■was pleasant to receive your kindly 
letter of yesterday and your offer of the 
copies of your pubHriitiDn. for which 
please accept my thanks. If there is a 
subscription payment needed, be sure to 
let m.e know. 

Our contact with Armour goes back to 
the Academy days of 1893, 1894, and a 
part of 1805, so that perforce we cannot 
rate as that of a graduate. Our '94 and 
'OS were E. E. days, W'ith architectural 
study at the Art Institute. . . 

Our pleasantest recollections: the old 
French class held by Professor Monin, 
iAi( n he first came to America, and the 
cliiiiicl Services and Lectures of Dr. Gun- 

And n visit to Armour a few years ago, 

with Dean Monin, before his resignation. 

Most sincerely yours, 

HENRY C. H. ENGLES, A. I. A. 

JAMES RICHARD SLOAN, E. E., is 



cliief electrician for the central region of 
the Pennsylvania R. R., with headquar- 
ters at 1009 Pennsylvania Station, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. He resides at 132 S. Grand- 
view Ave., Grafton Branch, Pittsburgh, 
Pa. 

VICTOR H. TOUSLEY, Ex. E. E., 
Baldwin Road, Palatine, 111., is electrical 
field engineer for the National Fire Pro- 
tection Association at 612 No. Michigan 
Ave., Chicago. 

JOHN JONES WHEELER, M. E., is 
teaching physics at the Douglas High 
School, Baltimore, Md. He lives at 2015 
Division St. 

MISSING: Gaylord, T. P., E. E. 

Salamson. Max, E. E. Malcolmson. C. T., E.E. 

DECEASED: Matt, Geo. L., E. E. 

Chapman, P. R., E. E. O'Brien, Edw. D.. E. E. 

Church, Edw. S., E. E. Richardson, E., E. E. 
Freeman, C. E., E. E. 



1898 

Well BOYS, you will have the oppor- 
tunity this spring of celebrating the FOR- 
TIETH ANNIVERSARY of your gradu- 
ation from Armour Institute, and why not 
make it a real event? The alumni secre- 
tary will be very glad to cooperate with 
you. May I call your attention to the 
fact that the annual spring banquet of 
the Armour Alumni Association will he 
held on Tuesday evening, June 7, at the 



KEEP THIS DATE 

Tuesday Evening, June 7th, 1938 

ALUMNI SPRING BANQUET 



Medinah Club of Chicago, 506 N. Michi- 
gan Blvd. Tills will be a fine time and 
place for you to hold your class reunion 
and at the same time meet a lot of your 
old friends. May I have a letter from 
overv member of the class? 

HARRY A. MacCLYMENT, E. E., 
328'/o Mariposa St., Los Angeles, Califor- 
nia, is chairman of the Ijoard of the 
1 amont Chemical Co., 51() Seaton St., Los 
.Vngeles. Have you contacted the /Vrmour 
men in California as given on the list re- 
cently supiilied bv the alumni office? 

GEORGE A. PATTEN, E. E., is vice 
president of the Chattanooga Medicine 
Co., Chattanooga, Tenn. His home ad- 
dress is St. I''-lmo Station, same city. Glad 
to remove your name from our lost list. 

.MISSING: DECEASED: 

\Vein.<il,oiiner,W.K.,E.E. Blodcett. E. E., E. E. 

Eaiiman, F. S.. Arch. 

Klantkis, L. H., M. E. 



1899 

SAMUEL C. FIDDY.MENT, E. E., 

passed away Nov. 1, 1937. We take this 
opportunity of extending our sympathy to 
Ills family. 

RAY S. HUEY, E. E., is superintend- 
ent of the Duluth plant of the Universal 
.\tlas Cement Co., Morgan Park Station, 
Duluth, Minn. He resides at 1822 E. 
Third St. Huey is devoting his spare 
time to sailing, photography, a home work- 
siiop, and radio. 

LOUIS FRANK MAHLERS, E. E., 39 
Brentmoor Park, St. Louis, Mo., retired 
from active business some time ago and 
is at present devoting his time to look- 
ing after his personal interests and his 
five grandsons. 

LOUIS IRVING PORTER, E. E., 0912 
Perrv Ave., Chicago, is with the YMCA 
at 19 S. LaSalle St. 

CARL PAUL SCHRORDER, E. E., 
has been with Martin C. Schwab, consult- 
ing engineer, recently retired, for the past 
thirty-two years. He has recently formed, 
with an associate, N. L. Volens, a new en- 
uineering firm, known as Schroeder and 
Volens, at 307 N. Michigan Blvd., 
Chicago. 

MISSING: .lohnson, E. C. E. E. 

Morse, C. S., E. E. Lewis, C. T.. M. E. 

de Rimanoczv, B., E.E. Marienthal, O.B., Arch. 

DECEASED:' Olson, E. H.. E. E. 

Bippus, S. E., E. E. Powers, H. S.. Arch. 

Goodhue, A. H., M. E. Terry, O. N., M. E. 

Hanai, Geo. K., E. E. Warren, Wm., E. E. 



1900 

CHARLES A. GARCEf ON, M. E., is 
with the West Oxford Telephone Co., 
North I.ovell, Maine. 

DEAN HARVEY, E. E., electrical en- 
gineer for the Westinghouse Electric and 
Mfg. Co., East Pittsburgh, Pa., resides 
at 109 Dewev Ave., Edgwood, Pittsburgh, 
Pa. 

FREDERICK PETER WALTHEH, 
E. E., wlien last heard from was with 
the Continental Fire Insurance Co., New 
York, and resided at 1721 Upper Moun- 
tain Ave., Upper Montclair, N. J. 

MISSING: DECEASED: 

Campbell, Mrs. M., C.E. Bradley, L. C, M. E. 

Graff, H. W., E. E. Creelman, A. T., E. E. 
Martin, Robt. C, E. E. 



1901 

DR. FRANCIS GLADHEIM PEASE, 
E. E., has passed away, and his many 
friends at Armour Institute and among 



43 



Actuary 



ARTHUR STEDRY HANSEN 

Consulting Actuary 

TELEPHONE CENTRAL 1444 

135 S. LaSalle Street 

CHICAGO 



Air Conditioning 




AIR COMFORT CORPORATION 

1307 S. Michigan Ave. • CHICAGO 



ILC 



VENlh^ION 

ILG ELECTRIC 
VENTILATING COMPANY 

2850 N. Crawford Ave., Chicago 

W. H. Hallstein, Treas. '14 
W. H. RietT, V. P. '15 



MELLISH & MURRAY CO. 

CONTRACTORS and ENGINEERS 
1715 Carroll Avenue 

CHICAGO 

AIR COXniTIOXINC-VEXTILATING 

SHEET LEAD WORK 

GENERAL SHEET METAL WORK 



Athey Truss Wheel Co. 

FORGED-TRAK 

WAGONS TRAILERS 

FOR 

HEAVY HAULING 



5631 West 65th Street 
Chicago 



the alumni extend their sympathy to Mrs. 
Pease and family. We regret the loss of so 
fine and great a man. A picture aiul 
brief biographical sketch of Dr. Pcnsf 
appear elsewhere in this issue of the En- 
gineer. 

MISSING: DECEASED: 

Arnold, M. H., E. E. Bernhard, F. II.. E. E. 

Baker, E. H., M. E. Cohen, Louis, E. E. 

Miller, W. E., E. E. 

Parker, J. H.. E. E. 

Pease, F. G., E. E. 



1902 

HENRY RUSSELL HARBECK, C. E,. 
of River Forest, 111., is with the National 
Park Service, CCC, SOOVi S. Second St., 
Springfield, 111. 

ROY M. HENDERSON, E. E., 1423 
Judson Ave., Evanston, 111., is Chicago 
manager of United Engineers and Con- 
structors, Inc., Ill W. Washington St., 
Chicago. 

OSCAR SCHEIDLER, M. E., whose 
former address was 1447 W. 51st Place, 
Station G, Los Angeles, Calif., now lives 
at Granville, Ohio, P.O. Box 29G. 



MISSING: 

Baird, M. F., E. E. 
Benliam, A. E., Arch. 
Hanvood, E. T., E. E. 
Miller. Ivan D., C. E. 
Scheidler, 0., M. E. 



Wallace, E. L., E. E. 
DECEASED: 
Anderson, A. H.. M. E. 
Collins, W. C, E. E. 
Week, John E., E. E. 



1903 

The THIRTY-FIFTH reunion of the 
class of 1903 is a guaranteed success ac- 
cording to the predictions of ARTHUR 
WAGNER, who is in charge of arrange- 
ments. Wagner is president of the Arthur 
Wagner Company, 701-703 W. Washington 
St., Chicago, and he will appreciate hear- 
ing from all members of the class at once. 

Wagner writes: Thirf ii-tiv( iii<ii-.i (nio 
zee men of 'li : ' 7„.v.v ,h ,,„rlr,l fn'.n, .1.1. T. 
Onhi n fric nf ll.-,- hnv, .-r m/ ,<lrh nlhrr 
since tho.u ha),,,!! ,],:,,.■<. \Vh<il n liiu, -.,;■ 
could have if ;.-, ,-// <,nf ln„,tlnr for a 
CO„j>le of (l>n,s. ,,i,liin, ■.cilii tin .liiinail 
Arnioitr Baiiqiirl nn .Iinir 7! Whether iioi, 
can come or not, send me your addreas 
(end I will explain our plans. 

EUGENE R. WEBER. M. E., resides 
at 500 Lake Drive, South Milwaukee, Wis., 
and he is assistant manager of engineer- 
ing at the Bucyrus-Erie Co. South Mil- 
waukee. 



DECEASED: 
Battey, F. V., E. E. 
Edgecomb, E. E., M. E. 
Kabateck, M. G., E. E. 
Philips. W. C. P.. C. E. 
Roos, E. S., E. E. 
Shimizu, H. S., M. E. 



MISSING: 

Brimson, C. T., E. E. 
Kaempfer, A., E. E. 
Qiiien, E. L.. Ch. E. 
Ptillson, H. G., E. E. 
Weisskopf, M. J., C. E. 



1904 

DOX READ FRARY, E. E., is a gen- 
eral insurance .broker at 123 S. Broad St., 
Philadelphia, Pa. He lives on Belrose 
I,ane, Radnor, Pa. 

RAY W. HAMMOND, Ex. E. E., is 
vice president and manager of the Ham- 
mond Printing Co., 101-105 E. 5th St., 
Fremont, Nebr., and he resides at 825 N. 
Clarkson Ave., same citv. 

FREDERICK C. HIBBARD, Ex. 
E. E., lives at 1201 E. 00th St., Chicago, 
and he is a sculptor with studio at 923 
E. 60th St., Chicago. 

MEL R. NYMAN, Ex. E. E., was re- 
cently appointed manager of the third 
agency in Los Angeles for the California- 
Western States Life Insurance Co., with 
offices in the Pacific Commerce Bldg.: 

Mr. Nyman has an enviable record of 



BORG & BECK 

DIVISION OF BORG-WARNER CORP. 

Manufacturers 

of 

Automotive Clutches 

ccpo 

6558 S. Menard Ave. Chicago. III. 



Bearing Service 



Connecting rod babbitting service — 
crankshaft bearings — piston pin bush- 
ings — bronze cored and solid bars — 
babbitt metals — connecting rod bolts 
and nuts — Laminated shims. 

FEDERAL-MOGUL 
SERVICE, Inc. 

Victory 2488 
2346 S. Dearborn Street 

CHICAGO 
II. C. SKINNER, M.E.'IS 



Permanent 

BLUE PRINTS 

Blue Printing, Black Printing, Blue Line 
and Color Printing 

Drawing Materials 

Special Service Always — Speed and Results 

Big Floor Space and Equipment 

for Rush Orders 

Photo Prints 

GROFOOT, Ni'eLSEN & GO. 

ENGINEERING BLDG. 
205 Wacker Drive 
Tel. Randolph 3341 

Branch Office 

307 N. Michigan Ave. State 7046 



Boxes and Cartons 



CREATIVE DISPLAY CARTONS 
DISPLAY CARDS 

and 

FOLDING BOXES 
THE PINKERTON FOLDING BOX CO. 

Established 1899 
420 Rush St., Chicago 



-. P. Strauch M. E. 



Superior S348-9 



44 



A PLAVEB PITCHES TWO ] r -si '^ 1 






MNING. l' ~t-n*^ 


IT'S NOT UNUSUAU FOB. 1 V A,^ 






QUITE 




TRAST TC 


m m rTAMF. V ^— ^ i 


EM CHUBBIMSP 


^-,/ HOW LEADING 


!!U 




•^-- EXPERTS GRIP 






^, 


=^■1^^ PITCHING 




[^ 


*'■ ^''^^' 


■JHw" 


"'-^ 


_f7 ^fj >, 


\ 1 w 




^^1 L Jes/ 1/ ^' ' 














i^i 




i^^^^S 




M^. 


ll^^ 




LcoK,CHuaa^4S, ecxjOtj 

TWO VOHE HINGEHS. 
GUESS THAT CINCHES I 
THE PRIZE FOR HIM i 



P. A. MONEY-BACK OFFER. Smoke 20 fragrant pipe- 
fuls of Prince Albert. If you don't find it the mellowest, 
tastiest pipe tobacco you ever smoked, return the 
pocket tin with the rest of the tobacco in it to us at 
any time within a month from this date, and we will 
refund full purchase price, plus postage. (Signed) 
R. J. ReynoldsTobaccoCompany, Winston-Salem, N.C. 



Albert 



THE NATIONAL 
JOY SMOKE 




pipefuls of fragrant tobacco in 
every 2-oz. tin of Prince Albert 



successful life insurance experience, botli 
as a manager and as a personal producer. 
For the past two years he has been branch 
manager for Occidental Life's eminently 
successful San Francisco office and for the 
preceding ten years he was vice-president 
and general manager of Northwestern 
National Life's "Million-A-Month" White 
and O'Dell Agency in Minnesota. In the 
last 21 years he has personally produced 
.$20,000,000 of business. 

He is president and director of the LTni- 
versity Club of Minneapolis; past presi- 
dent of the Rotary Club of Minneapolis; 
past commander of the Raoul I-ufbery 
Post No. 128 of the American Legion; 
Scottish Rite Mason; first president (and 
honorary president for life) of the Min- 
neapolis Golf Club ; vice-chairman of the 
I ife Insurance Committee of the San 
I'rancisco Chamber of Commerce. Mr. 
Nyman was lieutenant-colonel in the U. S. 
Army during the World War. 

Just before going to press, we received 
word from Mr. Nyman that he has been 
confined in bed and that his illness has 
forced him to retire from business. We 
hope he will soon recover his health and 
strength. 

HERBERT G. ZUCKERMAN, Ch. E., 
900 Mendocino Ave., Berlieley, Calif., is 
a member of the firm Weyl-Zuckerman 
and Co.. 2054. L^niversity Ave., Berkeley. 

MISSING: Clausen. H. W., C. E. 

Knapp, M. J.. E. E. Flinn. M. S., M. E. 

Watt, J. M., M. E. Hamilton, H. L., M. E. 

DECEASED: Hart, Harry A., C. E. 

Buie, Arthur, E. E. Silver, E. I., C. E. 



1905 

K. W. BARTLETT, Ex. Ch. E., is 
president of the Amsco Refining Co., Cor- 
pus Christi, Texas. His address is 221 
Louisiana St. 

ARTHUR F. EDERER, Ex. M. E., 
president of the Ederer Engineering Co., 
291.5 1st Ave., S., Seattle, Wash., resides 
at 1007 14.th St., N. 

WARREN E. HILL, M. E., 1553 W. 
93rd St., Chicago, is teaching in the Chi- 
cago public schools. 

GARFIELD P. LENNARTZ, M. E., is 
the Chicago distributor for the LTnited 
States Air Conditioning Corp., 54.3 W. 
Washington St., Chicago. He lives at 2T41 
Fullerton Ave. 

MISSING: 

Ash, Howard J., E. E 

Beamer, B. E., E. E. 

Brackett, John C, E.E 

Jones, C. I., C. E. 

Stem, Le V. H., Ch. E 

Thompson, J. K., Ch.E. Whitney, F, B., C. E. 

Tyler, Alva W., E, E. 



Wright, M. E., E. E. 
DECEASED : 
Armstrong, J. R., E. E. 
Croskey, Philip, E. E. 
Marshall, H. B., E. E. 
McBumey, E., Jr.. M.E. 



1906 

HARRY A. BREMER, Ex. E. E, 

11548 Longwood Drive, Chicago, devotes 
his time to riding, golf, travel, and the 
operation of a mink ranch at Gobies, 
Mich. Bremer and Tully made quite a 
reputation for themselves in the field of 
radio some years ago, and they disposed 
of tlieir company, known as the "Bremer 



Tully Radio Co.," to Brunswick in 1929. 
The following is quoted from a card re- 
ceived from Bremer a short time ago: 
"The Armour Engineer and Alumnus is a 
credit to A. I. T. You fellows deserve a 
lot of credit for a splendid job. More 
power to yo%i." Thanks. 

SAMLTEL L. KLEIN, C. E., is presi- 
dent of both the Samuel Klein Construc- 
tion Co. and the National Road .loint Mfg. 
Co., at 10 S. LaSalle St., Chicago. He 
resides at 1330 Chase Ave. 

GEORGE W. KUHN, E. E., is with the 
Bell Telei)hone Laboratories, 463 West 
St., New York. He lives at 139 Unadilla 
Road. Ridgewood, N. ,1. The following 
is taken from a letter just received from 
Kului: 



Your letter of .lanuan/ Jl ra/nrdinq 
buck dues uupidd left mc bnlh a little 
(jricved and surpnsrd — c/riivcd that I aw 
so far in arre(ir.'< mid /ilnixiiirihi Kiir/irised. 
that I am ijoini In '<< /' I 'iff at a liaraain 
counter settle 



.iinqhi. Ihul iini 
check for ^6 ,iirl„.s<,l h, i-nciili. The only 
crumb of comfort that I can dig out of the 
situation is that apparently, judging from 
the statements on the mimeographed bill, 
all of the ahiiiiiii )iiiisl he in the same 
boat: thill Ix, till i/iiir /.''.?/ seems to be 
the one ■..■Inn lln hulluiii fill out of things. 
I presume also Ihut i/ou are going to see 
that this state of affairs doesn't happen 
again by transmitting yearly bills to each 
of the alumni. 

Ilk iiou are doimi a iin-at job on 



I thi 

the -./i 



II ou 
I'ur E 



holh'f, 



45 



Building Supplies 



Cellufoam Corporation 

OF NEW JERSEY 
Manufacturers 

THERMAL & ACOUSTIC 
INSULATION 



66th & LaVerne Ave. Chicago 



RODDIS COMPANY 

PLYWOOD PRODUCTS 

FOR EVERY PURPOSE 

1435 W. 37lh St. Vir. 0110 

CHICAGO, ILL. 



C. H. ANDERSON 
FLOOR COMPANY 



WOOD FLOOR 
CONTRACTORS 



161 E. ERIE ST. 

Delaware 1661 

CHICAGO 



LUMBER 

for 

Industrial Purposes 

WHOLESALE OR RETAIL 

• 

SCHENK LBR. CO. 

6601 So. Central Ave. 
Hem. 3300 

■'The Only Yard in the Clearing Dist.' 



iiinil sliiiiiljiolnt (did (icncral inli'rcsl 
shUKljiiuiif. J Kiis juiriir,,!, trill /,h„s;<l 
icith Ihr l.'f.uic iclnrh In iilrluris r,r,,ll,<l 
old Si-nus ,tnd old /-(rr.v. // uv,,v iv n/ 
</o(id. ]\'i.ihin(/ you succcxk in all i/our 
r(nhir<.i. I remain. 

Yours sincerely, 

GEORGE v. KUHN. 

IIUCiH G. R. QUIN, Ch. E., is with 
the Heillv Tar and Chemical Co., Granite 
City, 111.," and liyes at 2547 Delmar Aye. 

CHARLES R. RIKER, E. E., editor 
and manager of the Electric Journal, .530 
Fernando St., Pittsburgh, Pa., resides at 
1(11 Woodhayen Driye. 

Wll I.IAM ROBERT WILSON, M. E., 
Tit Parker Aye., Detroit, Mich., owns and 
operates liis own business at 710 Stephen- 
son Bldg. 

,1. M. VAN VALKENBURGH, Ex. 
E. E., president of Owners Light and 
Power Service, 40 N. Dearborn St., Ciii- 
cago, resides at 50() W. (jlst Place. 

MISSING: DECEASED: 

Allyn, A. J.. E. E. Carr, Alva L., M. E. 

Cutler, Ed. W., E. E. Dean, Stanley, C. E. 

Edson. N. L., M. E. Meyer, E. D., E. E. 

C.aylor, W. S., M. E. Peterson, N. P., E. E. 

Kukawski, E. S., Arcli. Reynolds, M. B., C. E. 

Morrison, R. D.. M. E. Torrance, R. S., E. E. 
Scott, P. J., M. E. 



1907 

ARTHUR J. COLE, Ex. E. E., is Pa- 
cific Coast manager for tlie McGraw Elec- 
tric Co., with office and residence address 
at Ki-'T lliPoint St., Los Angeles, Calif. 

HAROLD K. COPENHAVER, C. E., 
a member of the Chicago Board of Trade, 
resides at .ili Normal Parkway, Chicago. 

WILLIAM ADOLPH HIRT, Ex. E. E., 
is suj)ervising operator of power plants 
for the Detroit Edison Co., Room 622, 
general offices, 2000 Second Aye. His ad- 
dress is 10615 Foley Aye., Detroit. 

BALTHASAR HOFFMAN, JR., M. 
E., j)roprietor of the B. Hofifman Mfg. 
Co., 1819 W. St. Paul Aye., Milwaukee, 
Wis., liyes at 617 N. 76th St., Wauwatosa, 
Wis. 

HARRY W. JARROW, Ex. M. E., 
president of the Jarrow Products Corp., 
420 N. I.aSalle St., Chicago, resides at 
1317 E. 52nd St. 

ALFRED L. KUBITZ, E. E., 506 Ash- 
land Aye., Riyer Forest, 111., is with the 
Illinois Commerce Commission, 160 N. I>a- 
Salle St., Chicago. 

CIIANCEY S. MILLARD, C. E., chief 
engniecr for the Premier-Pabst Corp., 917 
W. .luncau Aye., Milwaukee, Wis., lives 
at 1435 W. Kilbourn Ave. 

JOHN EARL SAUNDERS, E. E., sig- 
nal engineer for the D. L. & W. R. R., 
Hoboken, N. J., lives at 66 Kendal Ave., 
Maplewood, N. J. 

C. U. SMITH, M. E., is general man- 
ager and chief engineer. Board of Harbor 
Commissioners, Room 769 City Hall, Mil- 
waukee, Wis. He lives at 3200 N. Sum- 
mit Ave. We were sorry to hear of your 
mother's death and extend our sympathy 
to j'ou and your father, who is held in 
highest esteem by the alumni and those 
who were associated with him at Armour 
Institute. 

ROY FRANKLIN STEWARD, Ch. E., 
is a patent lawyer, with office at 52 Van- 
derbilt Ave., New York City. His home 
address is P.O. Box 867, Meriden, Conn. 

JOHN T. WALBRIDGE, C. E., is resi- 
dent engineer. North Shore Sanitary Dis- 
trict, Waukegan, 111. He lives at 6.50 Sun- 
rise Ave., Lake BluflF, 111. 

JOHN BARNARD WELLS, M. E., is 
secretary of Snook and Wells, Inc., P.O. 
Box 848, Maricopa, Calif. 



MISSING: DECEASED: 

Badger, L. H., C. E. Ailing, C. R., F. P. E. 

Heinsen, Geo. M., C. E. Campbell, E. E., E. E. 

Kilgore, C. E., M. E. Davies, H. C, M. E. 

Pratt, E. A., C. E. EUett, E. H., Jr.. C. E. 

Turnbull, Ira J., M. E. Jackson, I. F., M. E. 

Wolfe, Edw. J., E. E. Smalley, J. S.. E. E. 

Voiing, L. B., C. E. Stanton, G., Jr.. C. E. 
Williams, W., E. E. 



1908 

On June 7 will be tlie celebration of 
the THIRTIETH ANNIVERSARY ot 
tile graduates of this class. We hope that 
1908 will he well rejiresented. 

RALPH E. BADGER, E. E., has been 
a|)pointcd chairman of arrangements for 
the thirtieth reunion. The meniibers of 
the class will receive definite information 
from liim on tliis suliject sliortlv. 

MARION ,1. ANDERSON, "E. E., is 
IH-ojirictor of the Indiana-Michigan Elec- 
tric Co., Hartford, Mich. 

HAROLD A. BAl\M, Ex. M. E., 9245 
S. Damen Ave., Chicago, is secretary- 
treasurer of the Safety Electric Co., 110 
S. Dearborn St., Chicago. 

CLARENCE I. BOTTERON, Arch., 
has his ardiitectural office at 3616 Main 
St., East Cliicago, Ind. He resides at 
Cedar I ake, Ind., Route 1. 

WILLIAM FRANCIS CONLIN, M. E., 
is superintendent, Ojien Llearth Dept., 
American Steel & Wire Co., Donora, Pa. 
His home address is Rockefeller Bldg., 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

JAMES GUERIN, C. E., resides at 
1218 Albion Ave., Chicago. 

GROVER JOHN MEYER, C. E., 215 
Gy])sy Lane, Youngstown, Ohio, is asso- 
ciated with Truscon Steel Co. of that city. 

IRVING ODELL, Ex. M. E., publisher 
and editor of the Milifari/ and Naval 
Diyeat, Room 2603, 11 S.' LaSalle St., 
Chicago, resides at ()()9 Walden Road, Win- 
netka, 111. 

MISSING: Eyers, W.. F. P. E. 

Cahan, James, C. E. Johnson, A. R.. E. E. 

Collins, F. C, E. E. Lnnak, S. E., Ch. E. 

Cornwell, A. B., E. E. Matthei, H. R., C. E. 

Latta, Smith H., M. E. Morgan, C. W., M. E. 

Loofbourrow, J.D.,M.E. Nichols, H. W., E. E. 

Morey, C. R., E. E. Oehne, Jr., T. C, E. E. 

DECEASED: Tliomson, F. L., F.P.E. 

Biirge, G. C, M. E. Vacek, V. F., E. E. 
Dittmar, A. A., C. E. 



1909 

A. GAGE HALL, M. E., 24 West Dri%'e, 
Douglaston, N. Y., is with The Dorr Co., 
Inc., 570 Lexington Ave., New York. 

S. L. HEAPS, Ex. Arch., 312 E. Cen- 
tral Blvd., Kewanee, 111., is a project en- 
gineer with the Bureau of Agricultural 
Engineering at Camp D5, Havana, 111. 

GEORGE H. HIRSCHFELD, E. E., 
is manager of the New Mexico Public 
Service Co. Both his business and home 
address is Cocorro, New Mexico. 

HAROLD R. HOUGH, Ex. C. E., is 
jjresident of H. R. Hough Co., 400 N. 
Michigan Blvd., and he resides at 4560 
S. Michigan Ave., Chicago. 

CURTIS M. LINDSAY, E. E., owns 
and operates a book and stationery store 
in San Jose, Calif., and resides on Route 
3, Box 525A, San Jose. 

E. V. McKARAHAN, F. P. E., lives at 
325 McKinley Road, Grosse Pointe, Mich. 

IVAN C. PETERSON, C. E., president 
of Suhr, Berryman, Peterson, and Suhr, 
130 N. Wells St., Chicago, resides at 2016 
Fargo Ave., Chicago. 

HERBERT ROSE, E. E., lives at 6711 
Alta Loma Terrace, Los Angeles, Calif. 

GILBERT I. STADEKER, E. E., is 
with the Sampson Electric Co., 3201 S. 
Michigan Ave., Chicago. His address is 
1310 Hyde Park Blvd. 



46 



E. D. UHLENDORF, Ex. C. E., is ex- 
ecutive engineer, Public Utility Engineer- 
ing and Service Corp., 2.51 S. LaSalle St., 
Chicago. Reach him at 1227 Winnemac 
Ave. 

ROY WHITING STURTEVANT, C. 
E., inspector U. S. Navy Yard, Ports- 
mouth, N. H., lives at York Village, 
Maine. 

MISSING: Mayes. F. N.. M. E. 

Ahern, J. F., F. P. E. Ostergren, H. N., E. E. 

Perrine. A. A., E. E. Richards. Jr., T.E.,C.E. 

Soper, E. C, M. E. Simmons, L. E., E. E. 

DECEASED: Spitzglass. J. M., M. E. 

Anderson, H. C C. E. Tregray, John, F. P. E. 

Chatain, P. E., Ch. E. Urson, Jr., F. J.. C. E. 

Curtis, H. S., E. E. Von Gunten, O., Arch. 
Ebert. A. A., C. E. 



1910 

WILLIAM CLARKSON, JR., C. E., is 

president of the Oil City Iron Works, Cor- 
sicana, Texas. He resides in the same 
city. 

GEORGE WALLACE FISKE, M. E., 
Route 1, Box 46, Lancaster, Calif., is man- 
ager, Shell Oil Co. Refinery at Signal 
Hill, Long Beach, Calif. 

ROY E. GUTHIER, C. E., 2731 Car- 
men Ave., Chicago, is with the Bridge 
Division of the City of Chicago, 402 City 
Hall. 

ROY S. KLOMAN, C. E., 4.319 N. Fran- 
cisco Ave., Chicago, is with the Board of 
Local Improvements, City Hall, Chicago. 

H. J. MOORE, Ex. M. E., is with the 
Inland Steel Co., East Chicago, Ind. He 
lives at 4128 Euclid Ave., same city. 

WILLIAM J. NEVILLE, E. E., 4:31 
W. 61st Place, Chicago, is with Peabodv 
Coal Co., 231 S. LaSalle St. 

ERVIN S. PASHLEY, Arch., resides 
at Princeton and Vassar Sts., College 
Park, Md. 

TILLMAN G. VON GUNTEN, Arch., 
lives at 1501 S. Cth Ave., Maywood, 111. 

MISSING: DECEASED: 

Crocker, A.H.Jr., M.E. Deveney, W. J., C. E. 

Gentry, T. E., M. E. Kadic, Jos. F., E. E. 

Leavell. R. A., M. E. Munoz, Fredrico, C. E. 

MacEwing. E. D., E. E. Richards, O. L., E. E. 

Pearce, R. P.. C. E. Squair, F. R., Ch. E. 

Thomas, Wm. E., M. E. Wernick, F. E., M. E. 

VsTine, Eustace, C. E. Young, Don. A., M. E. 
Williams, D., C. E. 



1911 

THANE GRIFFITH CLEAVER, C. 
E., 1426 Hillsdale Ave., Dormont, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., is sales engineer for the Car- 
negie-Illinois Steel Corp., Carnegie Bldg., 
same city. 

FRANK B. GILBERT, Ex. M. E., is 
research engineer for The Creamery Pack- 
age Mfg. Co., 1243 W. Washington Blvd., 
Chicago. His address is 4 N. Vine St., 
Hinsdale, 111. 

ROBERT HAY, E. E., is proprietor of 
Auto Electric Service Garage and a fine 
modern swimming pool at Rock Springs, 
Wyo. 

FRANK E. MYERS, E. E., 2629 Rose- 
land Terrace, Maplewood, Mo., is with 
the Interstate Commerce Commission, 
Room 522, L^. S. Courts and Custom 
House, St. Louis, Mo. 

JOHN S. REID, JR., E. E., is Exam- 
iner of Efficiency for the Committee on 
Finance, Chicago Citv Council, Room 302, 
City Hall, Chicago. ' He resides at 7441 
Yates Ave. 

J. ALBERT M. ROBINSON, M. E., 
owns and operates a consulting engineer's 
office at 228 N. LaSalle St., Chicago, and 
gives particular attention to water sup- 
ply, treatment, and related power mat- 
ters. He lives at 9955 S. Seeley Ave. 



ALBERT A. SCHWARTZ, Arch., is 
practicing architecture, with his studio at 
liis home address, 163 E. Ohio St., Ciii- 
cago. 

RALPH E. SMALLEY, Arch., instruc- 
tor in Architectural Drawing at Mechan- 
ics Arts High School, St. Paul, Minn., re- 
sides at 897 Marshall Ave. 

RAYMOND R. ZACK, C. E., 211 6th 
St., N. W., Mason City, Iowa, is district 
engineer, Iowa Highwav Commission, 15 
2nd St., N. E. 

MISSING: DECEASED: 

De Tar, DeLos, E. E. Bradford, P. L., E. E. 

Doering, R. C. F. P. E. daSilva, C. J., C. E. 

Emmons, G. C., E. E. Kellner, O. R., C. E. 

Gray, R. L.. E. E. McCague, J. A., M. E. 

Griffiths, F. II., M. E. Merriman, H. A., Arcli. 

Pettibone. G. D., E. E. Miller, P. F.. Ch. K. 

Salomon, M. J., C. E. Moore, W. W., Arch. 

Schmidt, E. J., M. E. Tellin, W. G., E. E. 



1912 

OSCAR FERDINAND ABRAHAM- 
SON, E. E., is with the Chesapeake & 
Ohio R. R., Toledo, Ohio. He lives at 
2661 Latonia Blvd. 

FRANK ALLEN GRAHAM, E. E., 
448 W. Dartmouth Road, Kansas City, 
Mo., is with tlic Kansas City Power and 
Light Co., i:i3() Baltimore Ave. 

ADOLPH LOUIS HESS, C. E., is a 
bridge designing engineer for the City 
of Chicago, City Hall, Chicago. He lives 
at 2515 Winnemac Ave. 

FRANK JOHN MACK, C. E., is witii 
the Universal Oil Products Co., 310 S. 
Michigan Ave., Chicago. His address is 
1003 Circle Ave., Forest Park, 111. 

ELSWORTH ELMER PIPER, M. E., 
is a draftsman and lives at 4449 Victoria 
Park Drive, Los Angeles, Calif. 

THOMAS FRANCIS WOLFE, C. E., 
6418 Magnolia Ave., Chicago, is with the 
Cast Iron Pipe Research Association, 122 
S. Michigan Ave. 

MISSING: DECEASED: 

Beach, W. E., C. E. Bohlander, H. A.. M.E. 

Curren, Earl L., C. E. Dewalt, E. V., Arch. 

Enoshita, Toyozo, E.E. Hoehn, J. C, Ch. E. 

Hazen, Fred G., E. E. Lawrence. M. F.. M. E. 

Newman, J. J., Ch. E. Leviton, M. I., Aich. 

Swanson, W. R., C. E. Michael, J. C, Jr., E.E. 

Turley, E. W., Ch. E. Peck, Winfleld, M. E. 
Yoshida, H. T., M. E. 



1913 

The TWENTY-FIFTH ANNIVER- 
SARY of your class will be celebrated 
this spring and you will be hearing more 
aljout it in the very near future. Keep 
the afternoon and evening of June 7 open 
for the annual spring alumni banquet and 
reunion which will be held at the Medinah 
Club of Chicago, 505 N. Michigan Blvd., 
Chicago. 

WILLIAM T. BRAUN, Arch., is in 
business for himself. His office and home 
address are 545 East 89th PI., Chicago. 

HOWARD COOPER, M. E., was, until 
recently, assistant manager of domestic 
lubricant sales, when he was advanced to 
chief lubrication engineer, for the Sinclair 
Refining Co., New York. 

JAMES J. HAYES, M. E., is witli 
the Standard Power Equipment Co., 53 
W. Jackson Blvd., Chicago. He resides 
at 7443 Jeffrey Ave. 

NORMAN FRANK KIMBALL, M. E., 
2:316 Genesee St., Utica, N. Y., is with The 
Martin Cantine Co., Saugerties, N. Y. 

GEORGE L. OPPER, C. E., 433 Addi- 
son Road, Riverside, 111., is village man- 
ager for the Village of Riverside, III. 
Opper is also president of Narr, Green 



Building Supplies 



SERVICISED PRODUCTS 
CORPORATION 

6051 West 65+h Street 
Chicago, Illinois 

Exclusive Manufacturers of SYRA-BORD 

Interlocked Rubber Tile Floors 

Also 

Asphalt Tile, Planking, and expansion joint. 

We can supply your needs for anything in 

sponge or cork-rubber products. 

PHONE GROVE-HILL 0423 



Edward Mines Lumber Co. 

Established 1892 

2431 So. Lincoln Street 

Chicago's Largest Lumber Yard 

Phone Canal 0349 Chicago 



Business Equipment 



AJdressograph Equipmenl 

Save 40% to 60% 

We have a complete stock of fine re- 
built Addressograph and Graphotype 
Machines, available in either hand or 
power nnodels. Also Cabinets — Trays — 
Frames — Plates — Ribbons — Cards — Tabs 
— Etc., Etc. We also cut lists and have 
a complete embossing service. Get our 
quotations before going ahead with that 
next job. 

BUSINESS MACHINE 
SUPPLIES CORP. 

300 W. Adams St., Chicago, ill. 

Central 7007 



Candies and Cigars 



Compliments of 

MIDWAY CIGAR 
FACTORY 



WHOLESALE 



CIGARS, CIGAREHES, TOBACCOS, 
CANDIES, GLOVES AND SUNDRIES 



22! West 63rd Street 

(2488 

Phones: Englewood < 2489 

(,2266 



47 



and Upper, Inc., engin;-ers, 40U N. Michi- 
gan Ave., Chicago. 

PETER G. PIRIIIE, Ch. E., is engi- 
neering editor of Bakcru Weekly, 45 West 
4,'5th St., New Yorli. He resides at '22 
Cedar Place, Garden City, New Yorli. 

RICHARD F. ROTHWELL, C. E. 
2245 Wesley Ave., Fivanston, 111., is with 
the General Management Corp., 23] S. La- 
Salle St., Chicago. 

PAUL N. RVLANDER, C. E., chief 
engineer for the Long Construction Co., 
Baltimore, Md., resides at 42(j Kenneth 
Square. 

CHARLES H. SPENCER, M. E., me- 
chanical engineer for Roberts and Schaef- 
fer Co., 1110 Wrigley Bldg., Chicago, lives 
at Burns Ave., Flossmoor, 111. 

ALEXANDER R. WEBB, C. E., is 
Professor of Civil Engineering, Oliio 
Northern University, Ada, Ohio. He is 
also city engineer for the City of Ada. 
His address is 316 S. Johnson St. 

EMIL G. ZILLMER, Arch., is prac- 
ticing architecture in Grand Rapids, Mich., 
132-133 Federal Square Bldg. A recent 
letter from Zillmer informed us that the 
following Armour men have been meeting 
regularly: ALFRED CHARLES HOV- 
EN, M. E. '21; J. H. MARKHAM, Cb. 
E. '19; .lOSEPH MONAHAN, M. E. '08; 
.JOHN N. NIND, Ex. M. E. '07; CLYDE 
TEESDALE, Ch. E. '08; and G. F. 
TOUGH, Ch. E. '20. 



MISSING: 
Arp, W. v., E. E. 
Connell, D., Arch. 
Fisher, H.F. (Isr.),C.E. 
Furay, C. J., Arch. 
Garrison, C. W., C. E. 
Kuelin, Hugo R., M. E. 
L.ill, A. C, C. E. 
Luiidblad, C. D., Arch. 
Moore, F. L., Ch. E. 



Munn, \V. K., Oi. E. 
Stanley, H. C, Arch. 
Westlund, E. 0., C. E. 
DECEASED: 
Ainold, C. H., F. P. E. 
Curtis, Marston, E. E. 
Ermeling, R. W., Arch. 
Kelir. Chas. F., M. E. 
Leibrandt, C. R., C. E. 



1914 

R. G. BOHN, Ex. M. E., is chief en- 
gineer for the Michigan Carton Co., 79 
Fountain St., E., Battle Creek, Mich. He 
resides at 149 Oaklawn. 

The following letter was received from 
E. A. GOODNOW: 

Dear Secretary: Among the "mh^'iii(i 
souls" you have listed WILLIAM ('. 
OLDENBURGER, class of 1911,. 11, is 
with the Dearborn Chemical Co.'s railroad 
r( pri s( nliiliv< in Mc.vico, his maili7ig ad- 
drrs l<,\i,q r„,va Erla, V Carranza No. S3, 
Mcriro, i)A'\, Mr.cico. 

I saw him about a m,onth ago and .•oni- 
gested that he get in touch with y<ni .■"! 
that he could get on the mailing list and 
receive the ENGINEER AND ALUM- 
NUS. However, he had to leave town in 
a hurry and probably didn't get time to 
phone you. 

Yours very truly, 

E. A. GOODNOW. 

EUGENE C. LANG, E. E"., lives on 
Geneva Road, St. Charles, III. He is a 
partner in the firm of Carnavan and 
Lang, consulting enginers, 231 S. La- 
Salle St., Chicago. 

LESLIE C. MEYER, M. E., is purchas- 
ing agent for the Illinois Gear and Ma- 
chine Co., 2108 N. Natchez Ave., Chicago, 
111. His residence is 1012 N. Taylor Ave., 
Oak Park 111 

JOEL POMERENE, C. E., resides at 
7239 Ibsen St., Chicago. He is with the 
U. S. Gypsum Co., 300 W. Adams St., 
Chicago. 

HAROLD O. SEXSMITH, Ex. Arch., 
is practicing architecture, with his office 
at 6636 Hollywood Blvd., Hollywood, 
Calif. He resides at 4564 Finley Ave., 
Los Aniieles, Calif. 



Candies 


and Cigars 


Com 


pliments 


PIONEER CANDY CO. | 


Wholesale 


Confectioners 


CIGARS - 


- CIGARETTES 


FOUNTAIN "supplies | 


3211 Ogden Ave. 


Chicago 



MI'J.Nll.LI"', \-. SThX'HKK, K. ]<',.. 
l-'.iiclid Place, Monlclair, N. ,1., is \ 
tlic Western Union 'r.legrapli Co., 
Hudson St., New 'I'ork City. 



Chemical 



Telephone Superior 3523 Established 1894 

A. DAIGGER & COMPANY 

Colors — Chemicals — Oils 

Laboratory Supplies 

159 WEST KINZIE STREET 

CHICAGO 



WILKENS-ANDERSON CO. 

Scientific and Industrial Laboratory 
Supplies and Chemicals 

III N. CANAL SL 
CHICAGO 



NATIONAL ALUMINATE 

CORPORATION 

6216 WEST 66TH PLACE 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

Specialists in the Manufacture and 

Use of Sodium Aluminate 



SERVING THE 
PROCESS INDUSTRIES 

through representation of well- 
known, fully qualified and 
progressive manufacturers of 

MACHINERY and EQUIPMENT 

Evaporators — Fillers — Centrifugals. 

S'eam jet units. Condensers, etc. — ■ 

for High Vacuums — Vacuum Cooling. 

Full line acid p. Chemical Stoneware. 

F. M. de BEERS & ASSOCIATES 

20 North Wacker Drive, Chicago, Tel. Rand. 2326 



WALTER H. FLOOD & CO. 

CLASS 1906 

Chemical Engineers 

Paving and Engineering Materials 
— Inspections — Reports — Specifica- 
tions—Physical and Chemical Tests 
—Design and Control of Asphalt 
and Concrete Mixtures. Atlantic ooii 
822 E. 42nd St., Chicago, III. 



MISSING: 

Auer, P. Fentoii, C. E. 
Barber, G. S., Arch. 
Harr, Allen W., Arch, 
noetter, C. L., C. E. 
t'ase, Harry L., E. E. 
Cohen, Joseph, Arch, 
foolcy, G. S., M. E. 
Elicl, A. G., Arch. 
Kami, W. II., C. E 
Morrow, A. W., Arch. 



Oldenburfrer.W.CC.E. 
Roberts, W. F., C. E. 
Schmidt, C. D., Arch. 
Sevin. Irv. M., C. E. 
Shane, J. L., Arch. 
Smith, H. F., C. E. 
Wight, J. C, Arch. 
DECEASED: 
Dean, Clias. A., C. E. 
Einslie, John M., C. E. 
Eriekson, H. E., M. E. 



1915 

JOHN FRIECE ADAMSON, E. E., is 
with Fries-Walters Co., electrical contrac- 
tors, 2001 \V. Pershing Road, Chicago. He 
nsidrs ,it :i8.'5 Milton Ave., Glencoe, 111. 

I I'DWIG W. A. BUNGE, M. E., is 
])ic.sitlcnt of the Niagara Summit Mining 
Co. His address is ISfiO Jewett Drive, 
Hollywood, Calif. 

FRED LEWIS FAULKNER, E. E., 
antomotive engineer for Armour and 
Company, U. S. Yards, Chicago, lives at 
!)!)11. Prospect Ave. Faulkner has been 
\ery active in the affairs of the Society 
of Automotive Engineers for a numiber 
of years. 

r.OULS EDWIN IHBBARD, M. E., is 
a jiartner in the Carbonite Metal Co., bab- 
bit manufacturers, 1500 S. Western Ave., 
Chicago, and lives at 10971 Church St. 

JACOB LEWIS, Arch., COII Rhodes 
Ave., Chicago, is practicing architecture 
at 30 N. Dearborn St. 

WILLIAM V. LINDBLOM, C. E., is 
assistant treasurer, Walworth Co., Greens- 
biirg. Pa. He resides at 324 S. Maple 
Ave. 

H. H. 1 ORD, Ex. E. E., is field man 
for tlie Prudential Insurance Co., with 
business and home addresses, Montevideo, 
Minn. 

STANLEY MOYER PETERSON, 
Arch., 231 17th St., Wilmette, 111., is a 
mcmiier of the technical staff. Cook 
County Assessor's Office, County Bldg., 
Chicago. 

EDWARD DIENHART PIERRE, 
.Arch., is a member of the architectural 
firm Pierre and Wright, Architects, 909 
Architects and Builders Bldg., Indianapo- 
lis, Ind. He lives at 40.36 N. Illinois St. 

THOMAS F. SULLIVAN, E. E., is 
with the Monroe Paper Products Co., 
Monroe, Mich., and resides at 326 N. Ma- 
comb St. 

EDWARD THERON TAYLOR, Ind. 
Arts, 2212 N. Keeler Ave., Chicago, is 
teaching at the Lane Technical School. 

FRED L. WARD, Ex. M. E., 211 S. 
2nd Ave., Marshalltown, la., dropped into 
the alumni office a few days ago and in- 
iUiire:l rcgardin'r the location of his class- 
Kiatc, STANI EY W. ANDERSON, 
F. P. E. Mr. Ward is in his o\vn lumber 
business. 



MISSING: 

Hirose, Yosh., Arch. 
Johnson, V. E., C. E. 
Mammes, H. A., E. E. 
Mieczkowski, T.K.. E.E. 
Minchin, S. H., Arch. 
Parrott, R. D., Ch. E. 
Shaffer, Sydney, E. E. 
Stark, A. G.. Arch. 
Willson, H. E.. M. R. 
WonfT, J. K., M. E. 



r>ECEASED: 
Congdon, C. C. Ch. E. 
Grossman. A. N.. Oi.E. 
Juttemeyer. W.L., M.E. 
Norton, Jos. C, C. E. 
Palmer, R. C. M. E. 
Sproesser, G. W.. C. E. 
Wight, Clifford, M. E. 



1916 

HAROLD E. ANNIXG, C. E., superin- 
tendent of construction for the U. S. 
Gypsum Co., 300 W. Adams St., Chicago, 



48 



resides at 2652 Bryant Ave., Evanston, 
111. 

JULIES F. BOAND, Ex. Ch. E., is as- 
sistant manager of the Carter Branch, Na- 
tional Lead Co., 12042 S. Peoria St., Chi- 
cago. He lives at 12126 Harvard Ave. 

MAX LOWELL CABLE, Arch., lives 
at 5335 Magnolia Ave., Chicago. He is 
practicing architecture, with his office at 
24.00 W. Madison St. 

RICHARD FULLER DURANT, Ch. 
E., is acid and black powder superinten- 
dent, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Dii 
Pont, Washington. 

WILLIAM C. MUNDT, Ex. C. E., 604 
E. Douglas St., Bloomington, 111., is De- 
partment Adjutant, The American Legion, 
Department of 111., McBarnes Bldg. 

GEORGE B. PERLSTEIN, Ch. E., 
7734 Kingston Ave., Chicago, 111., is with 
the Premier-Pabst Corp., Peoria Heights, 
111. 

GEORGE N. SIEBENALER, M. E., 
is teaching at the Lane High School, 2501 
Addison St., Chicago. He resides at 427 
S. 17th Ave.. Mavwood, 111. 

BENJAMIN LEO STEIF, Arch., 219 
S. Ave., Glencoe, 111., is head of the firm 
of B. Leo Steif and Co., architects, 919 N. 
Michigan Blvd., Chicago. 

FREDRIC P. STRAUCH, M. E., is 
president and treasurer of Pinkerton FoLl- 
inff Box Co., 414-420 Rush St., Chicago. 
H° lives at 1519 Central Ave., Wilmett;-, 
111. 

MISSING: McHugh. L. J.. C. E. 

Adams, R. S.. C. E. Miller, J. V., M. E. 

Apfelbach. H. J., Arcli. O'Dea. T. M.. Ind. Arts 

Appelbaum, A.. C. E. Sostheim, H. B.. C. E. 

Armstrong, F. C. C. E. DECEASED: 

Broman, J. C, M. E. Echlin, E. S.. M. E. 

Eames, E. R.. Arch. Hill, Claude, F. P. E. 

Finkelstien, S. C, Arch. Rook, Henry A.. C. E. 

Foy, Edgar A., C. E. Smith, Bern. M.. E. E. 
Harris.H.S.(Katz),E.E. 
Kinnally, R. W., C. E. 



1917 

LESLIE E. HAYES, E. E., district 
manager of the Wisconsin Power and 
Light Co., 30 W. Milwaukee Ave., Janes- 
ville. Wis., lives at 628 Milton Ave. 

HARVEY H. HEMPSTEAD, Ex. E. 
E., is district manager of the Peninsular 
Telephone Co., 17 Second St., Lake Wales, 
Fla., and lives at 952 Lake Shore Drive. 

ALBERT J. JENSEN, Ex. Arch., is 
teaching in the Industrial School District, 
Council Bluffs, Iowa. His home address 
is 318 Sherman Ave. 

ABE J. PLATT (Plocinsky), M. E., 
is district manager for the Balaban and 
Katz Corp., 2724 Milwaukee Ave., Chi- 
cago. His residence is 943 Ainslie St. 

CARROLL HARRY ROBERTS, F. P. 
E., is an insurance broker in Beaumont, 
Texas. 

CARROLL LESTON SHAW, C. E., 
612 S. Prospect Ave., Park Ridge, 111., is 

a structural steel contracting engineer 
with The R. C. Mahon Co., 231 S. LaSalle 

St., Chicago. 
LEONARD ELGAR STARKEL, C. E., 

is with the Pure Oil Products Co., 1255 

Green Bav Road, Wilmette, 111., and lives 

at 925 Oakwood Ave.. Wilmette. 

WILLIAM PETER TRONVIG, F. P. 

E., 406 N. Main St., I ombard. 111., is an 

insurance engineer with Marsh and Mc- 

Lennon, Inc , 164 W. Jackson Blvd., 

Chicago. 

MISSING: DECEASED: 

Cooper. Earl C, M. E. Anderson, J. E.. E. E. 

Goldberg, L. I.. C. E. Bechaud. J. P.. M. E. 

Hall, Ken. V.. F. P. E. Cowles, Ray D.. F.P.E. 

Kendall. S. W., Ch. E. Fitzner, A. G.. ' 1. F. 

Morse. Ralph L.. M. E. Goorskey, N. J.. Ch. E. 

Prochazka, R. V., E. E. Hankan, W. M., Ch. E. 

Turner. J. W., Arch. Zimmerman, A., E. E. 

Vesely, W. J.. Arch. 



Chemical 




BELKE MFG. COMPANY 

Patented Electroplating Special- 
ties, Plating, Polishing Supplies 
and Equipment 

Phona Mansfield 4606 
947 No. Cicero Ave. Chicago 


WM. E. BELKE, CLASS 


■'• 1 



SECK & DRUCKER. INC. 

CHEMICAL ENGINEERS 
Complete Plants and Equipment 
for the Vegetable and Animal 
Oils and Fats Industries. 



9 S. Clinton St. 



Chicago 



Concrete Breaking 



Phone: Normal 0900 
WANTED: A HARD lOB! 

Chicago Concrete Breaking 
Company 

BLASTING EXPERTS 

WITH A NATION WIDE REPUTATION 

Removal of 

MACHINERY FOUNDATIONS— ROCK 

SALAMANDERS — SLAG DEPOSITS — 

CONCRETE STACKS— VAULTS— ETC. 

• • • 
6247 Indiana Ave. Chicago. 111. 



Consulting Engineer 



INDUSTRIAL HEATING 

Consuhing and Contracting Engineers 

Billet, Slab Heating and Special Furnaces 

/ Natural Gas ^ 

To Use: \^f^ Oven Ga, { ^^ p^^,, 

(.Producer Gas / 

FLINN & DREFFEIN COMPANY 

308 West Washington Street 

Chicago, Illinois 



BRADY, McGILLIVRAY 

& MULLOY 

CONSULTING ENGINEERS 

37 W. Van Burcn Street 

Phone Harrison 1188 

1270 Broadway. 
New York City. 

N. Y. 



E. H. MARHOEFER, JR. CO. 

CONTRACTORS 

1506 Merchandise Mart 



1918 

Tlie TWKN'TIKTH UEl'XION c.f tliis 
class will be held at tlie Meclinali Clul> 
of Chicago, 505 X. Micliigan Hlvd., Chi- 
cago, the evening of June 7, so kindly 
make your plans accordingly. 

W. "ll. HHETTINC;. Kx. M. !■',.. owns 
and oj.cratcs the Crvstal Laundry at L'Ki 
W. ;ird St.. Ashland. Wis. 

LKSTKH CLAYTON BU.SII, C. E., 
now resides in California. Ills home ad- 
dress is SJl (^uiidara St., San Francisco. 

F. McKKN/.IE DAVISON, Ex. C. E., 
is engineer of maintenance for the Fed- 
eral Government, Washington, D. C. He 
lives at 4404. Volta Place, N. W., Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

ALAN H. FERGUSON, E. E., is an 
electrical engineer for the Carnegie-Illi- 
nois Steel Corp., Room 362, Frick Bldg. 
Annex, Pittsburgh, Pa. His address is 
2420 Vodel St. 

AXEL A. HOFGREN, E. E., is a pat- 
ent attorney with his own firm and office 
at 105 W^" Adams St., Chicago, and his 
residence at 555 Ash St., Winnetka, 111. 

WALTER WILLIAM KOEHLER, Ch. 
E., lives at 112 E. McLean St., Alhambra, 
Calif. The following letter was received 
from him a few days ago: 

■'Rccih'cd your letter of Jan. 12, 193S. 
. . . I hiiil to stop liforkiiifi on account of 
ill hi'dllh. Mil hc'llh i.t much improved, 
iiiid jirtisju il ',if u-nrhiiiii iiiiain within the 
iiKir flit an is iinlml {iivnnihle.. However, 
it is iiirissiini thniinih these e.rpensive 
years to live within a certain budget.... 

"Met an ole timer of Armour by the 
name of Henry Beck and enjoyed the talk 



../ many ha/.p;, hour 
tut,'. II, 



II ut lit th,' /(i.v/; 



nnl iilsi, lives in .llhonihro. 
■■air,' my r,,i„rds to th, alumni. 
Respectfullii i/ours. 
WALTER WM. KOEHLER." 
LEWIS EDWARD TWERY', Arch., is 
an architect in the construction division 
(if tlie V. S. Veterans Administration, 
Wasliiiigton, D. C. He lives at 605 Rox- 
lioro I lace, N. W'., Washington, D. C. 

MISSING: Lewin, Edw. P.. Arch. 

Andre. Guy L., M. E. Twery, L. E., Arch. 

Durham, E. J., M. E. DECEASED: 

F.rickson. K. A., E. E. Newlander, R. A., E.E. 

Kerr. Volney A., M. E. XcthlieUc-r, S. D., C. K. 



1919 

EDWIN A. FRITSCII. Ind. Arts, 2159 
W. 115th St., Chicago, is a technical 
teacher at the Washburne Trade School, 
1225 Sedgewick St. 

ERLING H. LUNDE, Ex. M. E., is a 
sales engineer for the Dean Machinery 
Co., 80 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago. He 
resides at 0708 Olympia Ave. 

HARRY LEON MORSE, Arch., is a 
draft.sman for The /.ack Co., 2311 W. Van 
Buren St., Chicago, and his home is at 
614:3 N. Mozart St. 

MISSING: Senescall, Clyde, C.E. 

Cowles. F. S., Arch. Wallace, M. R., Arch. 

Dadv, Wm. E.. Arch. Wilbor. John B., Ch. E. 
Geldmeier, H. F.. E. E. DECEASED: 
Gold, C. L.. C. E. Erickson, A. E., Arch. 

Mintz, Chas. W., F.P.E. Marks, Robt. E., M. E. 
Schimek, A. F., Arch. 



1920 

RAYMOND WICKLUND BROWN, 

E. E., is an engineer in design of testing 
equipment at the Hawthorne Works of the 
Western Electric Co.. Chicago. He lives 
at 10004 Claremont Ave. 

•TOSEPII Bl^RDA, .Jr., Ex. C. E., is 
number of the firm linrda and Van Schel- 



49 



Decorating 



1. M. ECKERT CO. 

Distinctive Decorating 

5524 BROADWAY, CHICAGO 

TELEPHONE LONGBEACH 5437 

J. M. ECKERT, Pres. • (Class 1910) 



Dress Suits 



Phone Randolph 8393 
Open Ez'c-niiigi hy Appointment 

Be Huxe ©rcsg ^uit J^cntal 
Companp 

TUXEDOS. FULL DRESS and CUTAWAY 
SUITS TO RENT 

A FULL LINE OF ACCESSORIES 



Drawing Materials 



POST'S 

Drawing Materials 
THE FREDERICK POST CO. 

Hamlin and Avondale Avenues 
CHICAGO 




Electrical Contracting 



A.S.SCHULMAN 

ELECTRIC COMPANY 

Electrical Engineers and 
Contractors 

537 South Dearborn Street 

CHICAGO 

PHONE HARRISON 7288 

Address All Communications to the Company 

A. S. SCHULMAN, President 
HARVEY T. NACK, Vice President 



DOOLEY ELECTRIC COMPANY 

ELECTRICAL CONTRACTORS 



456 E. 83rd St. • Stewart 7268 
CHICAGO 



tema, surveyors and engineers, 12200 S. 
Stewart Ave., Chicago. His home is at 
11100 S. Michigan Ave. 

GEORGE MELVIN HENRY, M. E., 
chief gas dispatcher for The Peoples Gas 
Light and Coke Co., 122 S. Michigan Ave., 
Chicago, resides at 7649 Eastlake Terrace. 

EUGENE M. MATSON, C. E., 7447 N. 
Hoyne Ave., Chicago, is with the Universal 
Oil Products Co., 310 S. Michigan Ave. 

HUGO F. SASSE, Ex. Arch., is a 
Naval Officer, U. S. Navy. His address is 
U. S. S. Antares, care Postmaster, New 
York, N. Y. 

MISSING: Podolsky, D. H., Ch. E. 

Bloomberg, S.. E. E. Popkin, J. L., Arch. 

Fainstien, M., C. E. Smely, Jas., E. E. 

Frank, Julian, C. E. Stein, Aaron. C. E. 

Karlson, Jos., Arch. Wong, Viik Man, M. E. 

McEIdowney,H.B.,Arch. DECEASED: 

O'Connor, W. J., Arch. Bentley, W. J., Ch. E. 

Peterson. H. C, M. E. Malpede, D. J., E. E. 



1921 

ALFRED CHARLES HOVEN, M. E., 

is with the American Seating Company, 
901 Broadway, Grand Rapids, Mich. He 
lives at 1504 Lake Grove. 

ROBERT O. KLENZE, E. E., 4424 N. 
Paulina St., Chicago, is with the Cleanser 
Products, 312 S. Green St. 

A. RUSSELL MEHRHOF, Ex. E. E., 
is a sales engineer for Cutler Hammer, 
Inc., 275.5 E. Grand Blvd., Detroit, Mich. 
He has two children, and lives at 48;W 
Cortland Ave. 

CLARENCE L. PFEIFFER, Ex. M. 
E., 19411 Troy Place, Detroit, Mich., is in 



DREIFUSS BLOCK 

A complete portable unit for 
quick, accurate drawing. 

Ideal for 
Architects Students 

Engineers 
DREIFUSS and COMPANY 

7841 Westwood Drive 
Chicago 



the Body Engineering Department of the 
Fisher Bodv Corp. 

JAMES R. PROBASKA, Ex. Ch. E., 
is manager of the laboratory for the Bor- 
den Co., 221 N. LaSalle St.", Chicago. He 
resides at 154 S. Longcommon Road, Riv- 
erside, 111. 

CORNELIUS SIPPA, Jr., Ch. E., pres- 
ident and treasurer of The Kosta Com- 
pany, 1115 N. Franklin St., Chicago, re- 
sides at 2316 Orrington Ave., Evanston, 
111. 

ADRIAN TABIN (Tabachnik), M. E., 
7.354 N. Seeley Ave., Chicago, is with 
Tabin-Picker and Co., 4119 Belmont Ave. 

MISSING: Rudd, E. B., Ch. E. 

Bloom, Louis S., E. E. Zahrobsky, G. J., E. E. 

Browde, A. M., Arch. DECEASED: 

Kaplon, Hilton, Ch. E. Burke, S. J., C. E. 

Mundt, Edw., C. E. Ermeling, W., Ind.Arts 

Muramoto, D. K., E. E. Grabendike, C.A., E.E. 

Newman, Dr.L.B., M.E. Little, J. Hale, Ch. E. 
Pearce, Wm. W., E. E. 



1922 

SPEROS D. APOSTOL (Apostolos), 
E. E., is in the engineering department of 
the Commonwealth Edison Co., 72 W. 
Adams St., Chicago. He lives at 5638 Win- 
throp Ave. 

WALLACE TAYLOR GRAY, Ch. E., 
is with Becton, Dickinson, and Co., Ruth- 
erford, N. J. His address is 86 Wheaton 
Place. 

DANA R. HYDE, C. E., passed away 
October 9, 1937, at the Hinsdale Sani- 



tarium as a result of complications fol- 
lowing an operation. We extend to his 
wife and family our deepest sympathy. 
Mr. Hyde lived at 2649 E. 78th St., Chi- 
cago, and was employed by the Chase 
Brass and Copper Co. 

Our apologies to GEORGE H. KELLY 
and the Kelburn Engineering Co. for er- 
rors in the notice appearing in the Octo- 
ber, 1937, issue of the Engineer. 

CHARLES M. KRAEMER, E. E., is 
with the Muter Co., 1255 S. Michigan Ave., 
Chicago. His home is at 2944 Wisconsin 
Ave., Berwyn, 111. 

ROBERT R. MAGUIRE, F. P. E., is 
special agent for the South Eastern Un- 
derwriters Association for the western 
part of Florida, Room 805, American Na- 
tional Bank, Pensacola, Fla. He lives at 
1902 E. Monroe St. 

RUSSELL OWEN MILES, E. E., 2652 
Inglewood Ave., St. Louis Park, Minn., is 
with The Electric Storage Battery Co., 617 
Washington Ave., N., Minneapolis, Minn. 

HAROLD F. MILLER, Ex. C. E., is 
with the Great States Theaters, as pro- 
jection engineer in the Lyric Theater, Blue 
Island, 111. He lives at 14519 Kentucky 
Ave., Harvey, III. 

E. B. MUESER, E. E., 120 Melrose 
Ave., Elmhurst, 111., is with the Illinois 
Bell Telephone Co., 215 W. Randolph St., 
Chicago. 

PAUL ANDREW REHNQUIST, M. 
E., passed away in November, 1937. We 
extend to his family our sincere sympathy. 

EARL CHARLES RIEGER,M. E., is 
with the International Harvester Co., 2626 
W. 31st Blvd., Chicago. He lives at 1421 
Walnut St., Western Springs, 111. 

PAUL J. RUPPRECHT, M. E., is 
teaching at the Linblom High School, 6130 
S. Lincoln St., Chicago. His address is 
9052 S. Loomis Blvd. 

JOSEPH JOHN WALLACE, SR., C. 
E., is manager of the Joliet Engineering 
Co., 500 Shelby St., Joliet, 111., and he re- 
sides at 101 Seeser St. 

E. A. GOODNOW, E. E., reports an- 
other lost man, JAMES HUSTON 
WATT, C. E. He is with the Advertising 
Checking Bureau, 538 S. Clark Ct., Chi- 
cago, and lives at 242 Walton Place. 

MISSING: Herman, B. S., M. E. 

Bernstein, Jacob, C. E. Mason, E. B.. C. E. 

Bissel, Woodridge, M.E. McCormack, W.J.,Arch. 

Conner, Geo. D., Arch. Paque, W. W., M. E. 

Eierdam, E. C, C. E. Rehnquist, P. A., M. E. 

Eisenstein, Sam., M. E. Silverberg, S., Ch. E. 

Erlandson, N. H., E. E. DECEASED: 

Gambal, John J., C. E. Hyde, D., C. E. 
Georgevick, Elias, M.E. 



1923 

The annual spring banquet will be held 
on Tuesday evening, June 7, at the Me- 
dinah Cluib of Chicago, 505 N. Michigan 
Blvd. It will be the FIFTEENTH AN- 
NIVERSARY of your graduation from 
Armour Institute so do all you can to 
make this get-together a real success. 
Meet your old friends and classmates. 

MORRIS COHEN, Ch. E., is with the 
SchuIze Baking Co., 118 W. 47th St., Kan- 
sas City, Mo. He resides at 727 E. 62nd 
St., same city. 

HENRY EICKELBERG, M. E., 818 
Forest Ave., Oak Park, 111., is owner and 
operator of a garage at 160 N. Marion 
St., Oak Park. 

GEORGE GOEDHART, C. E., recently 
informed the alumni office that he was in 
the construction business and at the pres- 
ent time is constructing post offices at 
Susanville and at Colusa, Calif., under 
contract with the Federal Government. 

JOHN KRAMER, E. E., 79.36 Oakleaf 
Ave., Elmwood Park, 111., is with L. H. 



50 



Lamont and Co., 9 S. Clinton St., Chi- 
cago, 111. 

JOHN V. LIZARS, M. E., is practicing 
law at 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York, 
N. Y. He resides at 75 White Oak St., 
New Rochelle, N. Y. The following is 
taken from a recent letter received from 
Lizars : 

"You liHll be interested to know that I 
met Jeff Corydon, Jr.. M. E. '22, (iikI E. 
:^rrrrin S'rahn;/. C. E . '22. ihin.ni thr la.s-l 
wr,l:. „!,</ S,„i,, r.i ,,„,! I .n; ,/„/»,/ to ini- 
<!,!■/, ik, I,, ,,,ui"i,l:, ,,hn,n,l ,i<,l In'riiif/s in 
tin nr,/ ,u ar Jul arc.- 

What progress are you making, and can 
the alumni office be of any help to you? 

MARION R. R. LEVIN, E. E., is witli 
the Illinois Bell Telephone Co., 212 W. 
Washington St., Chicago, III. He lives at 
444. W. 31st Street. 

ROBERT S. MAYO, C. E., is in busi- 
ness for himself manufacturing special 
tunnel macliinerv in Lancaster, Pa. He re- 
sides at 307 N. West End Ave. 

CHARLES A. MISURA, M. E., 3218 
Dartmouth Ave., Dallas, Texas, is engineer 
for W. E. Callahan Construction Co., 2034 
Moxley St. We quote the following from 
a recent letter received from Misura: 
''Dear Secretary : 

"I'm enclosing my check for $6.00 to 
cover back dues for the rperiod of 1931- 
1938 in accordance with your statement of 
Jan. 11, 1938. 

"I appreciate the opportunity of set- 
tling these back dues on such an attractive 
basis and removing my name from the 'de- 
lliuiiient dues' list. Since I always con- 
.■.(■(/< r myself a loyal alumnus and have re- 
tained an interest in the activities and 
progress of the Institute at all tim,es, there 
is no excuse for my negligence; yet in de- 
fense of myself and as a gentle hint for 
treatment of other similar cases, I do not 
recall having received a single statement 
or notice of dues for the period in ques- 
tion. I puzzled over the lack of such no- 
tice at first, with intent to write for in- 
formation, but as so often happens, such 
good intentions go astray and are pigeon- 
holed in the press of more immediate de- 
nuinds for one's attention, especially when 
in a new environment far removed and 
with only infrequent contact with the 
former. This suggests that perhaps an oc- 
casional letter and notice of dues Would 
act as a reminder and awakener of a 
slumbering sense of duty and loyalty. 

"During this period I did receive an oc- 
casional copy of The Armour Engineer 
AND Alumnus, but it failed to arouse me 
to action — immediate action, the lack of 
which usually consigns the subject to the 
'blind alleys' of the mind. Cold facts and 
figures command attention of a mind 
trained in the engineering and business 
professions and are more apt to evoke the 
desired response. This is true in my case 
at least, and such facts are not easily 
pigeonholed. This response is evidence 
enough. 

''The above may be true of others. The 
average person — and most of us are that — 
needs a bit of prodding to make him aware 
of his obligations, especially when these 
are of remote origin and he lacks a fre- 
quent personal touch imth them. I had no 
difflculty in remaining an actively inter- 
ested alumnus while residing in Chicago — 
through frequent attendance at luncheons 
annual, banquets, visits to the Institute, 
and other personal contacts. Removal of 
these and substitution of the fresh claims 
of a new environment presents a difficult 
hurdle to overcome in the maintenance of 
the former relationships. 

"All of this ' e.vpounding' is offered 
neither as an e.vcuse nor a criticism, but a 



generalization of enndition^ with a po.s.'tihle 
solution of cases similur t,t nilin . Tin re 
are cases — few. I Imiii -.cln r, linn is no 
intere.if xchaferer ami in> .!/-/<,.'/ -.cill pro- 
duce anil ,/firl. Ollnr i-asrs ronliniir lo 
dispfai/ on Oi-tivi ami po rliei/iol ini) inter- 
est r,gor<ll,ss of dislonee an, I inf nqneneii 
of contact. It is the 'dormant, inactive ii'i- 
tere.-'t' case, such as mine, which may In 
reaicakened to a greater or lesser degre, . 

"Riskinti the un/nirdonahle sin of too 
ureal a nse of the 'prst person' I am en- 
closing a brief sketch of nn, 'doings' since 
leavinii the Inslitiilc in 1923. 

- First Ihr,, ,i,ars uurr spent In Chi- 
eago. with s,v,ral /irn,s in winor englnrrr- 
ing -work inehnllng a season on my encn <(s 
a. radio engineer and constructor. Early 
in 1926 an opportunity presented itself 
with a Chicago contractor on a street 
lighting installation contract in St. Louis. 
Orlglnallii a i/iar's work, this e.vtended it- 
self into Idi'fi. ./ new connection with a 
local eanlrarhn- In St. Louis put me info 
the grneral const nietlon field, '.chleh eon- 



Electrical Equipment 



tinned ,hn 
Old man ,/ 



III, 



iiin ,1, pr, sslon finally caught up xcilh 
me a fno' years ago as the slump hit th, 
e,inst ruction game a heavy blow. Before 
l,ing, however, I toas fortunate in making 
a fairly good conne,-ll,in -cclth my /ire.-:,nt 
emploi/ers, W. E. Cdhiloin t'unsl nielion 
Co. of Dallas, Te.ras. primarllg rng.,g,d in 
hear, I eonstruetl,in m,isllii ,if pnhlie n,i- 
ture' sn,'h as ,!ams. I,ve,s. eanal and h,tr- 
hor lmprov,i„,nls. hnnnls. lar.fe water- 
icorks, se^L'rr. an, I irrhiallon pro), els. ,te. 
My work Is that ,if an ,n,iin,,r. , slim, 'lor, 
and occasion, ill II . sii p, rliil , ml, iil . Mil resl- 
dence is ofjielally In Dallas, hut I spmd a 
greater portion 'of a year travelling from 
one en, I of th, country to the other, espe- 
pidlli/ 7chi n hill, line/ on new construction. 
Haven't fiillg r, covered from the depres- 
sion. ,111,1 III, fiiliir, iif III, iiiiliislry as seen 
from Ih,' pris, lit vi,ic is n,in,' too bright, 
but at least \.','r, k,, ping heads above' the 
water and ■zcatehlinj for firmer footing. 

'•I'm happllii marrlid to a St. Louis 
belle and xo'ill soon celebrate the fourth 
anniversary. Just two of us but hope some 
day to have a future Armour undergrad- 
uate. Sincerely yours, 

C. A. MISURA." 

PAUL L. MULLANEY, Ex. M. E., 
2920 Commonwealth Ave., Ciiicago, is with 
Lawrence Stern and Co., Inc., 231 S. La 
Salle St. 

LOUIS NEEDLMAN, M. E., president 
of the Mid-City Architectural Iron Co., re- 
sides at 2439 N. Francisco Ave., Chicago, 
111. 

JOSEPH JACOB RAPHLING, E. E., 
is in the LT. S. Patent Office, Dept. of 
Commerce Bldg., Washington, D. C. His 
home address is 1704 N. Troy St., Arling- 
ton, Va. 

REINHOLD H. RUWALDT, E. E., is 
with the Indiana Public Service Co., 5262 
Homan Ave., Hammond, Ind., and he lives 
in Beecher, III. 

O. G. SMITH, C. E., 2118 Chase Ave., 
Chicago, is engineer of buildings for the 
Illinois Bell Telephone Co., 212 W. Wash- 
ington St. 

MORRIS SPECTOR, E. E., is practic- 
ing patent law, 110 S. Dearborn St., Chi- 
cago. He resides at 5519 S. University 
Ave. 

RAY LEWIS WALKER, Ex. E. E., is 
general superintendent of claims for the 
United States Fidelitv and Guaranty Co., 
16 Liberty St., New York City. 



Ph 


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Northwestern Electric Company 

408-412 South Hoyne Avenue 

Electric Motors — Converters — Welders 
Guaranteed Service 




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Friction and Rubber Tapes 
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MISSING: 
Bland, Henrj'. E. E. 
Clark, A. S., Arch. 
Crane, W. O.. E. E. 
Dolesh, F. J., E. E 



Downs, P. C, Ch. E. 
Goldstein, A., M. E. 
Graicunas, V. A., M.E. 
Mandel, D. M.. C. E. 
Miller, D. F., E. E. 



Motors and Generators Rebuilt 

New and Used Motors for Sale 

Telephone Boulevard 2389 

CENTRAL MOTOR & REPAIR CO. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 

MANUFACTURERS OF RADIO GENERATORS 

GENERAL ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL 

REPAIRING 

615-617 ROOT STREET 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



51 



Oljoler, Max 0., E. E. Scliwaitz, M. L., E. E. 

Pollan, H. T., M. E. Sominers, L. H., Arcli. 

Prentiss, E. W., C. E. DECEASED: 

Salzman, M. M., C. E. Mills, Paul R., M. E. 



1924 

RICHARD B. BERRY, C. E. is owner 
and operator of Clietek Indianhead Re- 
sort, Clietek, Wis. 

JOHN R. BRADY, Cii. E., is assistant 
superintendent, open hearth for the Wis- 
consin Steel Co., lOCth St. and Torrenee 
Ave., Chicago. He lives at 8005 Lafay- 
ette Ave. 

ROBERT L. BRANDT, Arch., partner 
in the firm Alexander and Brandt, archi- 
tects, 2-2 W. Monroe St., Chicago, resides 
at 501 S. Central Ave. 

DAVID E. DAVIDSON, M. E., 182;30 
Prairie Ave.. Detroit, Mich., is engineer 
for the Link-Belt Co., 5938 Linsdale Ave., 
Detroit. 
"Dear Secretary: 

"Thanks very kindly for your Ictti r nf 
November 17 and the enclosed alumni n c- 
ord card. This card has been prajiirlii 
filled out and is non' enclosed in this 
letter. 

■II that J hai'e not li<ii 



Electrical Equipment 



"/ am very 
more prom/it in iidlinii this infuriiiiilinn 
to yov and iiiii!--t <i/i<ili,,ii:i fur nnl hirriin/ 
answer! tl a iirccimis l<//,r r( ci in d from 
you. I have been niuV(d around from plan 
to place a considerable amount and really 
appreciate hearing from somebody at 
Armour again. 

Veni trull/ i/oiirs, 

b. E. DAVIDSON." 

LESLIE C. HASKEl L, E. E., is witli 
the Public Service Co., Northern Illinois, 
Northbrook, 111. He lives at 113 S. Park 
Ave., Waukegan, 111. 

CARL G. JACKSON, M. E., is general 
manager of the Holliday Gravel Co., 1004 
Baltimore Ave., Kansas City, Mo. His 
home address is 3001 E. 68th" St. 

ALBERT KARLSBERG, E. E., 5.508 
Cornell .Ave., Cliieago, is a partner in the 
Rem-Kar! Metal Co.. 2215 Ford Ave. 

EUGENE E. MARK, E. E., is traflRe 
accountant for the Illinois Bell Telephone 
Co., 212 W. Washington St., Chicago, 111., 
and he lives at 808 S. St. Johns, Highland 
Park, 111. 

DAVID L. MESSER, M. E., is local en- 
gineer for the Illinois Bell Telephone Co., 
635 18th St., Rock Island, 111. His home 
address is 2906 24.th Ave. A, Moline, 111. 

RICHARD F. ODENWALDT, M. E., 
is with Jos. T. Ryerson & Son, 16th and 
Rockwell Sts., Chicago. His address is 
6807 N. Campbell Ave. 

LOLTIS H. I. PFOHL, C. E., 71-53 Kes- 
sel St., Forest Hills, L. I., N. Y., is with 
the Otis Elevator Co., 260 11th Ave., New 
York City. 

ELIHU O. PIERCE, F. P. E., is spe- 
cial agent for the St. Paul Fire and Ma- 
rine Ins. Co., 815 Guarantee Title Bldg., 
Cleveland, Ohio. His residence address is 
2680 Noble Road, Cleveland Heights, Ohio. 

ELMER F. RESKE, F. P. E., is with 
the Chicago Board of Underwriters, 17() 
W. Jackson Blvd., Chicago, 111., and he 
lives at 10350 S. Fairfield Ave. 

EARL L. SANBORN, F. P. E., is with 
the Detroit Fire and Marine Insurance 
Co., 210 E. Michigan St., Milwaukee, Wis. 
His home address is 4336 N. Wilwood Ave. 

LOUIS SCHULMAN, C. E., is an en- 
gineer. Bridge Design Division, City of 
Chicago, City Hall, Chicago. He lives at 
7000 N. Paulina St. 

LOUIS C. THOELECKE, F. P. E., is 
with the Nonvich Union Fire Ins. Society, 
ltd., 175 W. Jackson Blvd., Chicago. His 
address is 1137 Maple Ave., Evanston, III. 



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LIGHTING EQUIPMENT 

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one-half to twelve kilowatt 

FLOOD LIGHTS 
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THOMPSON -JAMESON 
ELECTRIC CO. 

360 W. Superior St., Chicago 

MOTORS and ELEVATORS 

MAINTAINED and REPAIRED 

LIGHT and POWER WIRING 

24 hour service SUPERIOR 1396 



Transformer Specialists 

Design and production of transformers for 
Radio, Sound Amplification and Amateur 
Transmission. 1 1/2 K. W. limit. 

STANDARD TRANSFORMER 

CORPORATION 

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850 Blackhawk Street Chicago, Illinois 



R. E. FISCHEL 

Becker Brothers Carbon 


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ELECTRIC MOTORS 

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CONVERTORS, ETC. 

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Gregory Electric Co. 



1603 S. Lincoln Str 



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MULTI ELECTRICAL MFG. CO. 
1840 West 14th Street, Chicago 



PAUL RAYMOND UNGER, Ch. E., 
7130 Euclid Ave., Chicago, is with the 
Mid-West Heat Service Co., 3227 Carroll 
Ave. 

JULIAN M. VEGGEBERG, M. E. is 
in tlie Bureau of Engineering, City of Chi- 
cago, 811 N. Michigan Ave. His home ad- 
dress is 1810 N. Nagle Ave. 

HICHARD HENRY WALWORTH, 
M. K.. is with Thompson Products, Inc., 
7T:J1-7881 Conant Ave., Detroit, Mich. He 
lives at 5082 Courville Ave. 



MI.SSING: 

Anderson. H. E., Arcli. 
Raim, Eugene, Ch. E. 
Ben.singer, E. A., Cli.E. 
Davidson, D. E., M. E. 
Falconer, J. W., E. E. 
GreenfieId,T.(Isr.)Ch.E. 
Hardwicke, L. C, C. E. 
Hart, T. H., E. E. 
Johnson, E. A.. Arch. 
Lipsky, Wm. S., M. E. 
Miirner, H. K., C. E. 



Nelson, Carl A., M. E. 
Olson, Alden T.. C. E. 
Samuels, Saul, C. E. 
Spaid, O. M., F.P.E. 
Swanson, E.J., Ind.Arts 
Vickers, W. H., M. E. 
Walk, Edw., C. E. 
DECEASED: 
Almendinger, H. A., 

E. E. 
Flnkelstien, L. M., E. E. 
Heller, Duane L., M. E. 



1925 

THOMAS W. BOYLE, Ex. M. E., 6133 
Kciiniore Ave., Chicago, is agent for the 
l'.i(uital)le Life Assurance Society, Room 
Ui.51. 120 S. LaSalle St. 

WILLIAM JOHNSTON DIXON, C. 
E., is an industrial engineer for the Car- 
negie Illinois Steel Co., 89th and Strand 
Sts., Chicago. His home address is 8237 
Kimliark Ave. 

HAROLD H. EGGERS, M. E., 6142 
Woodlawn Ave., Chicago, is with the XL 
Refrigerating Co.. 1S:U W. .59th St. 

ALVIN F. HIBBKLKR, E. E., is with 
the Commonwealtii pAlison Co., 72 W. 
Adams St., Chicago. He resides at 4222 
N. Lincoln St. 

EUGENE E. JOHNSON, M. E., is in 
tiie general Diesel sales division of Eair- 
l)anks, Morse and Co., 900 S. Wabash 
.\ve., Chicago. His home address is 8212 
S. l.aflin St. 

EDWIN M. MEYER, E. E., is elec- 
trical engineer for the Porcelain Products, 
Inc., Parkershurg, W. Va., and he lives 
at lis IDth St. 

.MARC Kl.LUS A. MOELLER, F. P. E., 
is an insurance engineer for the Tennes- 
see Inspection Bureau, 1016 Burwell 
Bldg., Knoxville, Tenn. 

DOMINIC G. MULLIGAN, F. P. E., 
is with the Mountain States Inspection 
Bureau, 801-.30 Gas and Electric Bldg., 
Denver, Colo. He resides at 1825 Cherry 
St. 

DONALD F. OTHMER, Ex. Ch. E., 
202 Columbia Heights, Brooklyn, N. Y., 
is head of the department of Chemical 
Engineering, Polytechnic Institute, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 

D. B. SCOVILLE, Ex. Arch., Is with 
the Leonard Construction Co., 37 S. Wa- 
bash Ave., Chicago. His home address is 
Crystal Lake, 111. 

WILLIAM H. SOTHEN, E. E., 350 E. 
7tth St., Chicago is with the Illinois Bell 
Telephone Co., 208 W. Washington St. 

GEORGE E. TRUTERA, M. E., is me- 
chanical engineer for Templeton Kenly 
and Co., 1020 S. Central Ave., Chicago. 
His home address is 6427 W. 16th St., 
Berwyn, 111. 

GLENN R. WAGNER, F. P. E., is 
with the Chicago Board of Underwriters, 
175 W. Jackson Blvd., Chicago. He lives 
at 1U216 S. May St. 

EARLE S. WHITCOMBE, F. P. E., 
822 S. 18th Ave., Maywood, 111., is with 
the Hartford Fire Insurance Co., Wrigley 
Bldg., Chicago. 

JOHN H. WITTE, M. E., is with the 
Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., 207 E. 



52 




a^^JP 



11 :! 



There's a lift in the voice that says 
— "Pabst Blue Ribbon, please" — 
and a nod of approval from the one 
who serves it. Pabst has won such 
acclaim through five generations. 

PABST 

Order a Case JM Today 




GOOD TASTE FOR 94 YEARS 

53 



Ohio St., Chicago. He lives at 5921 N. 
Rockwell St. 

MISSING: I'rendeigast, R. W., 

Beck, M. D., Ch. E. Arch. 

Bockman, T., Cli. E. Rose, Geo., Jr.. M. E. 

Gaylord, R. P., F.P.E. Scliwarz, Edwin, E. E. 

Johnson, J. G.. Ch. E. WiUey, S. R., C. E. 

McFaul, Don. J., M. E. DECEASED: 

Norton, H. E., Ch. E. Gaul, Carl C, C. E. 

Novitskv, P. P.. Oi. E. Taylor, Von D., K.P.E. 
Nndelman. C. S., C. E. 
Ostland, R. E., C. E. 



1926 

ARTHUR W. ANDERSON. Ch. R., 
2139 Lincolnwood Drive, Evanston, Ill- 
is with the Uptown Fuel Co., Kimball and 
Touhv Aves., Chicago. 

FLOYD EDWIN BROWN, F. P. E., 
is an engineer for the Mountain States 
Inspection Bureau, 801 Gas and Electric 
Bldg., Denver, Colorado. He lives at 680 
High St. 

BEN BARRY COFFEY, ,Tr., Ex. F. 
P. E., 672 N. Belvedere, Memphis, Tenn- 
is a fire insurance inspector for the Ten- 
nessee Inspection Bureau, 1434 Commerce 
Title Bldg. 

NORMAN ALEXANDER DANIEI^S, 
F. P. E., is a fire protection engineer for 
the Chicago Board of Underwriters, 17.5 
W. Jackson Blvd., Chicago. He lives at 
10977 Church St. 

MICHAEL A. DEL MONTE, C. E., 
is with Westerlin and Campbell Co., 1113 
Cornelia Ave., Chicago, 111. He lives at 
4848 Handerson St. 

.TAMES E. FARNSWORTH, E. E., 
1527 N. Austin Blvd., Chicago, 111., is 
teaching in the Chicago high schools. 

FRANK JOSEPH FUCHS, Arch., is 
a member of the firm Nelson and Fuchs, 
architects, 1155 4th St., La Crosse, Wis. 
He resides at the same address. 

CARLOS HARVEY GAMBELL, M. 
E., is a farmer, and his address is Route 
No. 1, Mulino, Ore. 

HOMER HENRY GEYMER, E. E., 
lives at 144-9 N. Park Ave., Chicago. He 
is teaching in the Chicago high schools. 

HARRY GOERS, F. P. E., is with the 
Fire Insurance Rating Bureau, 626 E. 
Wisconsin Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. He re- 
sides at 2757 N. 51st SL 

GORDON GOODWIN, M. E., 306 W. 
Chicago St., Elgin, 111., is with the Elgin 
National Watch Co. 

HERBERT CARL HOFF, E. E., is 
with the Commonwealth Edison Co., 72 
W^ Adams St., Chicago. His address is 
419 N. Ashland Ave., La Grange, 111. 

KARL BOEGNER HL^BEN, C. E., re- 
sides at Palatine, 111., Box 396. 

EDWARD JOSEPH JAROS, C. E., is 
farming at present, and his address is 
Route No. .3, Box 69, Molalla, Ore. 

ARTHUR S. LAEDERACH, E. E., is 
in the engineering department of the 
Standard Oil Co. of Indiana, Whiting, Ind. 
He lives at 1813 La Porte Ave." 

FRANCIS H. LE CREN, E. E., is with 
the Western Electric Co., Hawthorne Sta- 
tion, Chicago, and resides at 1527 N. Cen- 
tral Ave., Chicago. 

ROBERT F. MALLORY, Ex. F. P. E., 
is branch manager of the Nebraska In- 
spection Bureau, 1302 Sharp Bldg., Lin- 
coln, Nebr. He resides at 2745 Manse 
Ave. 

PAUL DURBIN McCURRY, Arch., 
is teaching at the Tilden High School, 
Chicago, and he lives at 9350 S. Hamilton 
Ave. 

RICHARD F. NIEMZ, Ex. Arch., is 
assistant construction officer, 1st Lt., U. 
S. Army, Chicago Quartermasters Depot, 
1819 W\ Pershing Road, Chicago. His 
home address Is 2322 Argyle St. 



Electrical Equipment 



ELECTRIC 
MOTORS 



CALUMET 
4961 



DAVID GORDON 

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 

1720 SO. MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO 



LIGHTING PICTURES 

and 

ELECTRICAL SUPPLIES 

TRIANGLE ELECTRIC CO. 

600 West Adams Street 
Chicago 

Mr. Byrnes Tel. HAYmarket 7980 



IHORMRSON' 



1 1 1 UlMMaBiMiiJ 1 1 1 1 ^^ 

TRANSFORMERS 
Write for catalogs and manuals 

• Transmitter Guide — No. 344 

Circuit diagrams, details and parts 
lists for transmitters ranging from 
25 watts to 1.000 watts 16c 

• Radio Sej^icing- Guide — No. 342 
Auto Installation hints, how to 
build a direct reading voltmeter, 
how to make and use output indi- 
cators and align receivers, tube 



IBc 

• Sound Amplifier Guide — No. 346 

Circuit diagrams, details and parts 
list for Amplifiers ranging up to 
lO'O watts output, db table, etc.. .IBc 



Illinois Electric Porcelain 
Company 

MACOMB, ILLINOIS 


E. J. BURRIS 

District Representative 


Telephone Mansfield 7873 
5263 Quincy Street, Chicago, Illinois 



Chicaso Transformer 
Corporation 

3501 ADDISON STREET 
Chicago, Illinois 

Independence I 120 




CHICAGO • ILLINOIS 

FOR QUALITY 
WHITE METAL ALLOYS 

ALL KINDS 



AVILLIAM J. POLLOCK, Ch. E., is 

clu'iiiist for the Phoenix Metal Cap Co., 
2 in \V. 16th St., Chicago, and he lives 
at 20.57 Berwyn Ave., Chicago. 

WILLIAM S. SARGENT, Ex. E. E., 
;5.531 Hollydale Drive, Los Angeles, Calif. 
is electrical tester for the department of 
Water and Power of Los Angeles, 16.30 
X. Main St. 

LUDWIG KARL SLUGODZKI, E. E., 
is laboratory custodian and librarian for 
the Bendix "Radio Corp., 60 E. 35th St., 
Chicago. He resides at 2904 N. Wash- 
tenaw Ave. 

FRED .JOHN TOPINKA, M. E., is 
with Swift and Co., S. Omaha Station, 
Onialia, Xebr. He lives at 506 S. 31.st St. 

HARRY DAWSON WILSDOX, M. E., 
212 E. Ponce de Leon Ave., Decatur, Ga., 
is engineer for the Link-Belt Co., 1116 
Murphy Ave., S.W., Atlanta, Ga. 

MISSING: Reeder, C. D., E. E. 

Becker, Geo., Arch. DECEASED: 

Bhime, L. J., Arch. Chatroop, L. W., C. E. 

Hamid, C. A.. M. E. Norrgard, E. 0., M. E. 

.lacobs, Leo B., Arch. Ruddock, R. D., C. E, 

Kloer, C. G., Arch. 

Kornacker, K. J.. C. E. 



1927 

I.OUIS p. ALLAIRE, F. P. E., is as- 
sistant engineer for the Fireman's Fund 
Ins. Co., 175 W. Jackson Blvd., Chicago, 
111. His residence is 7025 N. Wolcott 
Ave. 

N. D. BARFIELD, Arch., 112 N. Lin- 
coln St., Hinsdale, III., is an executive in 
the construction department of Montgom- 
ery AVard and Co., 619 W. Chicago Ave., 
Chicago. 

CLIFFORD A. BECKMAN, E. E., 
makes the following interesting announce- 
ment: 

"Bi/ the Beckman Production Co., Inc., 
Buffalo, N. Y., rifjht off the Assembly 
Line!. We are PROUD to announce the 
release of our new 1937 Model Baby Girl, 
Lucille Joan Beckman. Your attention is 
ilircrted to the folloitnng features of this 
Xnc Model: date of release, Dec. 14, 1937; 
xceif/ht of chassis, 9 lbs., 2 oz.; 2-lung 
power, free squealin;/ ; plenty knee action, 
scream lined; economical fuel consump- 
tion. Assurance of the superior quality 
and performance of this New Model may 
be had in the fact that its designer and 
chief engineer is Clifford A. Beckman and 
Production Manager Mildred T. Beckman. 
This new attraction can be viewed 'most 
any day now at our nursery -showroom at 
229 Wellington Road. Your inspection is 
cordially invited." 

CHARLES CAPOUCH, Jr., E. E., is 
connected with Western Electric Co., 
Hawthorne Works, Chicago. He resides 
at 2749 S. Kedvale Ave., Chicago. 

JAMES J. DOHENY, Jr., Ch. E., 4247 
West End Ave., Chicago, Is with the Alco- 
hol Tax Unit, B. I. R. 

PAUL A. EXKE, M. E., is with Kel- 
logg Co., Battle Creek, Mich. He lives at 
131 North Ave. 

AETLEY C. FLEXXER, E. E., 2703 
E. 76th Place, Chicago, 111., is with Sar- 
gent and Lundy, 140 S. Dearborn St. 

GEORGE H. FRANK, M. E., 143 N. 
Parkside Ave., Chicago, is with Continen- 
tal Can Co., 46.33 W. Grand Ave. 

JOHN CLARK HARROWER, C. E., 
has both a new home and business ad- 
dress. He lives at 357 Shermans, Elm- 
hurst, 111., and is engineer for Bendix Ra- 
dio Corp., 60 East 25th St., Chicago. 

CLARENCE E. KENNEY, E. E., is In 
the steam turbine department of Allis- 
Chalmers Mfg. Co., Milwaukee, Wis. He 



54 



resides at 1409 S. 77th St., West Allis, 
Wis., and in his spare time he is worliing 
on a stone house. 

CHARLES WILLIAM LANG, C. E^, 
is with Underwriters' Laboratories, 207 
E. Ohio St., Chicago, and lives at 10837 
Long^vood Drive. 

CHESTER LONG, F. P. E., 329 S. 
Ogden St., Denver, Colo., is special agent 
for Glens Falls Ins. Co.. 522 Symes Bldg. 

EDWIN H. MADDEN, E. E., recently 
reported among the missing, has been lo- 
cated. He is with the Aetna Casualty and 
Surety Co., 17.5 W. Jackson Blvd., Chi- 
cago, "ill., and lives at .334 N. Lotus Ave. 

JOHN R. MARSHALL, Ch. E., York- 
ville, 111., is publisher for the Kendall 
County Record. 

ROiiERT P. PETERSEN, M. E., is 
sales engineer, New Departure Division, 
General Motors Corp., 3705 Carnegie Ave., 
Cleveland, Ohio, and resides at 2249 Cara- 
bel Ave., Lakewood, Ohio. 

ALFRED E. PETRIE, E. E., employed 
by the Illinois Bell Telephone Co., 6317 
Maryland Ave., Chicago, lives at 7743 
Calumet Ave. 

WALTER H. PITTELKO, C. E., 19.33 
S. 51st Ave., Cicero, 111., is structural de- 
signer. Swift and Co., LT. S. Yards, Chi- 
cago, 111. 

ROBERT W. SCHIRMER, F. P. E.. is 
connected with the Pearl Assurance Co., 
Ltd., 175 W. Jackson Blvd., Chicago, as 
underwriting engineer. His residence is 
.5:340 N. Bernard St. 

REGINALD G. SCHULER, E. E., 
2135 I.eland Ave., Chicago, is with the 
Teletype Corp., 1400 Wrightwood Ave. 

ALEXANDER J. SLATALLA, C. E.. 
is married, has two children, and resides 
at 1.301 Chicago St., Green Bay, Wis. He 
is engineer for the Wisconsin Highway 
Commission, Nicolet Bldg. 

ROBERT C. SWANSON, Arch., lives 
and practices architecture at 5137 N. Troy 
St., Chicago, 111. 

EWALD C. THORSEN, E. E., 1.344 
I.unt Ave.. Chicago, is with Major Equip- 
ment Co., 4fi03 Fullerton Ave. 

WILTON F. KUFFEL, F. P. E., 1021 
S. Prospect Ave., Park Ridge, 111., who 
for several years has been Second Supt. 
of Ratings for the Chicago Board of Fire 
Underwriters, is in the Chicago office of 
the Phoenix Insurance Co. of Hartford, 
175 W. Jackson St. 



MISSING: 

Berkson, Aaron. Arch. 
Cailles, B. A., C. E. 
George, H. R., Jr., M.E. 
Goo, R. Y., Arch. 
Henrich, R. L.. M. E. 
Heyes, A. B., E. E. 
Larson, E. A.. E. E. 
Lee, Geo. Harold, E.E. 
Madden, E. H.. E. E. 



Mazzone, S. A.. Arch. 
Ohlinger, Leo. 0., C. E. 
Schesch, Carl, M. E. 
Uebele, G. F., C. E. 
Verajio, Victorio. C.E. 
Weinberg, Jos., E. E. 
DECEASED : 
Lamm, M. H., M. E. 
Urban, J. W., Ch. E. 



1928 

The TENTH REUNION for this cla.ss 
will he held on the evening of June 7 at 
Medinah Club of Chicago. 506 N. Mich- 
igan Blvd. It is a grand place to make a 
real event of the annual spring banquet 
of the Armour Alumni Association. Kindly 
cooperate by letting the alumni secretary 
know what your plans are. 

GEORGE A. AMUNDSEN, C. E., .3020 
N. Karlov Ave., Chicago, 111., is with Chi- 
cago Mill and Lumber Co., 940 N. Ogden 
Ave. 

BENJAMIN BERNSTEIN, M. E., is 
in the LT. S. Engineering Dept., Clock 
Tower, Rock Island, 111., and resides at 
823 4th Ave. 

GEORGE A. GRAPPLE, Ch. E., re- 





Electroplating 


You w 


reck -em We fix em 




McVITTlE 




1600 South State St. 


We 


plate anything made of metal. 


No 


job too large or too small for us. 


RESPONSIBLE RELIABLE | 




1600 South State St. 




Chicago 




Calumet 6881-6882-6883 



Electrical Windings 



ELECTRICAL WINDINGS 
INCORPORATED 

DESIGNERS and MANUFACTURERS of 
ELECTRICAL WINDINGS AND SPECIALTIES 

16 NORTH MAY STREET 
CHICAGO 

Telephone SEEley 6400 



Employment Agency 



Want a Job? 

ARCHITECTS' AGENCY 

FURNISHES 

TECHNICAL MEN 

to 
ARCHITECTS— ENGINEERS- 
CONTRACTORS— CORPORATIONS 
GEO. S. BANNISTER, Manager 
508 South Dearborn Street, Chicago 
Wabash 5589 



Engraving 



417 
PHONE 



NORTH STATE ST. 
SUPERIOR 6716 




ARTISTS • DESIGNERS 
PHOTO ENGRAVERS • 
BLACK & WHITE • 
COLOR PROCESS • 
BEN DAY • 



Felts 


WESTERN FELT WORKS 


Manufacturers and 
Cutters of Felts 


For all Mechanical and 'ndustrial 
Purposes 


CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 



Flowers 



Telephone Victory 4515-4516 
"Your Telegraph Florist" 

J. F. KIDWELL CO. 

Not Inc. 

FLOWERS 

3530 MICHIGAN AVENUE 
T. A. Kidwell Chicago 



search chemist with Wilson & Co., lives 
at 5428 \V. Harrison St., Chicago, 111. 

ROBERT D. DOUBT, E. E., 2720 W. 
.")(ith St., Chicafro, is assistant to master 
nuihaiiic American Can Co., 6004 S. West- 
ern .\ve. 

HARRY P. EICHIN, M. E.. with The 
\'iskinfj Corp., 67.33 W. 65th St., resides 
:,{ 5!lt2 S. Washtenaw Ave., both in Chi- 
.•Mfro, 111. 

JOHN T. EVEX, F. P. E., is engineer 
and special representative of the National 
Fire Ins. Co. of Hartford, 175 W. Jackson 
Blvd., Chicago. His wife, Mrs. Lucille 
Barbara Even, who became interested in 
the study of insurance law during the 
time Mr. Even was doing graduate work 
at Armour Institute, has been licensed to 
practice law. Governor Horner person- 
ally presented the certificate and extended 
congratulations. Their hoTiie address is 
Itn N. State St., Aurora, 111. 

JOSEPH GROSGUTH, Jr., Ex. Arch., 
1833 N. Washtenaw Ave., Chicago, is sur- 
veyor in the construction and equipment 
department of Montgomery Ward and 
Company, Chicago. 

V.wi. HIEBER. C. E., Mundelein, Til., 
who is with tlic Illinois Division of High- 
ways, Courier News Bldg., Elgin, 111., 
dropped into the alumni office the other 
day and inquired for the address of his 
cla'ssmate, Alan C. Tully, C. E.. also listed 
here. 

LEONARD E. JOHNSON. M. E.. .5301 
N. Christiana Ave., Chicago, III., is engi- 
neer for the Illinois Bell Telephone Co., 
208 W. Washington St. 

CADWALADER SIDNEY JONES, 
E. E., is teacher of electricity, Thomas 
Kelly High School, 4123 S. California 
Ave.", and lives at 3023 W. Jackson Blvd. 
CARL L. LOHNER, M. E., 76.37 Ea.st 
End Ave., Chicago, 111., is assistant divi- 
sion general superintendent of Swift and 
Co., U. S. Yards, Chicago. His hobbies 
are chess and outdoor sports. 

KENT L. MACY, F. P. E., engineer 
with America Fore Fire insurance Group, 
844 Rush St., Chicago, 111., resides at 360 
Ridge Blvd., Evanston. 111. 

ULRICH GEORGE NAEF, Ch. E., 
4039 N. Avers Ave., is with Cliicago By- 
product Coke Co., 3500 S. Crawford Ave., 
both in Chicago. 

FRED NATELLA, C. E., is a lieuten- 
.iiit, V. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 
Wasliington, D. C. His home address is 
:!!)1.5 W. Grand Ave., Chicago, 111. 

RAYMOND E. ORTON, C. E., 7038 
Cregier Ave., Chicago, is with Wisconsin 
Steel Works, 106th St. and Torrence Ave., 
Chicago. 

FREDERICK D. PAYNE, F. P. E., 
interested in gardening and collecting 
matches, is with the Indiana Inspection 
Bureau. Sprinkler Dept., 320 N. Meridian 
St.. Indianapolis, Ind. He lives at 23 E. 
.3.Srd St. 

W. P. SCHOLZ, E. E., Arlington 
Heights, 111., Box 421, is with the National 
Broadcasting Co., Merchandise Mart, Chi- 
cago. 

HARVEY O. SNEDIKER, F. P. E., 
of the staff of the Western Actuarial Bu- 
reau addressed a recent meeting of the 
Association of Fire and Casualty Agents 
of South Dakota in Sioux Fails. Mr. 
Snediker resides at 1929 N. Sayre Ave., 
Cliicago. 111., and his business address is 
Room 900, 222 W. Adams St. 

PAUL W. STEINERT, E. E., 3822 
Crest Road, Philadelphia, Pa., is buyer 
and supervisor of manufacturing for 
American Stores Co., 424 N. 19th St., 
Philadelphia. He has l)een visiting in the 
East for several months and renewed his 

55 



Serson Hardware 
Company 

ALL KINDS SHEET METAL 

WORK 

Special Attention to Repair Work 

Phone Victory 1773 109 E. 31st St. 



Not In the Trust All Departments 

Kenwood 0050 



GOODMAN AMERICAN 
CORPORATION 

First in Chicago 

FINE ICE CREAMS 
BEHER BEVERAGES 

Manufacturers & Distributors of 

DAIRY-PRODUCE 



Phone LAWNDALE 7636 

CHICAGO ICE CREAM 
COMPANY 

ICE CREAM OF MERIT 



1 624 S. Keeler Ave. 
Chicago, Illinois 




FOR 40 YEARS 

A NAME STANDING FOR 

QUALITY 

AND 

FINE WORKMANSHIP 

IN THE MANUFACTURE OF 

SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 

GAERTNER SCENTIFIC 
CORPORATION 

1201 Wrightwood Ave. CHICAGO 



.icquaintaiice with Leslie John Anderson, 
E. E. 

ALAN C. TULLY, C. E., who manages 
the business of the Ethyl Gasoline Corp. 
in Australia and New Zealand, recently 
married lady Kingsford-Smith, widow of 
Sir Charles. At present he is located at 
3()8 Collins St., Melbourne, Australia. 

MISSING: DECEASED: 

Bech. Jose A., M. E. Everly. A. H.. E. K. 

Gustafson, G. A., E.E. Kleinert, G. W.. Jr.. 

Higgins. E. J. S.. Arch. E. E. 

Jones. C. S., E. E. Patterson. J. R., M. E. 

Miller, Leo. F. P. E. Wright. C. O., M. E. 

Ogden. Tom. C. E. 



1929 

JOHN G. ATTWOOD, Ch. E., resides 
at 812 Scoville Ave.. Oak Park, III. 

AUSTIN AUGUSTINE, F. P. E., 80,5 
9th St., N,E„ Mason City, Iowa, is in- 
spector. Iowa Ins. Service Bureau, .31,5 
First National Bank Bldg., same city. 

CARL A. BLOMQUIST. M. E., with 
Link-Belt Co.. 1018 Louderman Bldg.. St. 
Louis. Mo., lives at 6649 Berthold Ave. 

GEORGE V. CALABRESE, E. E., 
3839 Artliington St., Chicago, is connected 
with the I.umenite Electric Co., 37 W. 
Van Buren St. 

EDMUND H. CHUN, C. E., Conchas 
Dam, N. M., Box 986 is with the United 
States Engineer, Conchas Dam, N. M. 

E. JAMES DAWSON, E. E., 10.5,5 X. 
I.awler Ave., is with Commonwealth Edi- 
son Co.. 72 W. Adams St., Room 830, both 
in Chicago, III. 

FRED B. FARRELL, C. E.. recently 
rejiorted missing, is with Bureau of Pub- 
lic Roads. Washington, D. C. 

THEODORE W. FRIEDMAN, C. E.. 
5033 Kansas Ave., N. W., Wa.shington, 

D. C. has been enrolled as a Lieutenant 
and assiiined to the quota of the Wash- 
ington Navy Yard. 

FRED G. GEDELMAN, F. P. E., is 
engineer for Eliel and Loeb Co., 175 W. 
.lackson Blvd., Room 17.37, Chicago. Resi- 
dence, 3121 Eastwood Ave. 

Excerpt from letter of E. S. GEIGER, 

E. E.: 

". . . In going through my file I came 
across an article which was published in 
our local newspaper La Informarion . . . 
which mentions Armour Institute of Tech- 
nology, and thinking that this may be of 
interest to j'ou, I am forwarding a clip- 
ping of it with translation, which proves 
that it is a small world after all and the 
name of Armour Institute is not confined 
to the portals of 33rd and Federal 
Streets." 

He is with Compania Electrica de Santo 
Domingo, Santiago, Dominican Republic, 
M'est Indies. 

EDWARD W. GROSS, E. E., 3859 W. 
64th St.. Chicago, 111., is employed by The 
Wilson Laboratories, 4225 S. Western Ave. 

J. C. HARROWER, C. E., has a pilot's 
transport license and has been for six 
years in South America for the Radio 
Corporation of America, coordinating for 
Bendix Radio Corp., 60 E. 25th St., Chi- 
cago, 111. He lives at .357 Sherman St., 
Elmhurst, 111. 

HARRY JULIAN KAYNER, E. E., 
1414 E. 55th St., Chicago, 111., is assistant 
chemical engineer for Howard Radio, 1735 
W. Belmont Ave. He is married and 
fatlier of a baby almost a year old. 

GEORGE AUGUST KLOEPFER, C. 
E.. is instructor for United States Navy, 
Pensacola, Fla. 

HAROLD R. LUTZ, Arch., designer 
and draftsman for Elmer William Marx, 



2734 N. Milred Ave., Chicago, 111., resides 

at 6106 N. Glenwood Ave. 

He is the proud father of a son, Richard 

Harold, born on the 27th of February, 

1938. 

JEROME R. MARCUS, M. E., 908 
Margate Terrace, Chicago, is employed by 
Western Electric Co., Hawthorne Station. 

E. L. MICHELSON, E. E., is planning 
engineer. Commonwealth Edison Co., 72 
W. Adams St., Room 827, and lives at 
16.34 North Shore Ave., Chicago. 

F. W. SANDELS, F. P. E., 1341 E. 
89th St., is with Chicago Board of LTnder- 
writers, 175 W. Jackson Blvd., both in 
Chicago. 

JOHN J. SCHMITT, Jr., Ex. C. E., 
sales engineer. The Insulite Co., 205 M'. 
Wacker Drive, Chicago, 111., resides at 
7532 N. Damen Ave. 

DONALD L. WILLIAMS, C. E.. H4 
Dewey St., Edgewood, Pa., is with Wilson- 
Snyder Mfg. Corp., Braddock, Pa. 

MISSING: Rohr, E, K., F. P. E. 

Garbett, R.. Ch. E. Strom. G. W., E. E. 

Mbanoff, Leo, C. E. DECEASED: 

Montgomery, G. M., Greene, W. B., F. P. li,. 



1930 

WILLIAM F. AS.MUS, E. E., is in the 
Mechanical Department of International 
Harvester Co., 1015 \V. 120th St., Chi- 
cago, 111., and resides at 11.535 Normal 
Ave. 

FRANK JOSEPH ASTE, F. P. E., 
440 S. Parkway E., Memphis, Tenn., is 
with Tennessee Inspection Bureau, 1434 
Commerce Title Bldg. 

DEAN L. BANTA. Ex. Arch., with 
Harry S. Cutmore and A.ssociate, Inc., 
1411 First National Bank Bldg., Chicago, 
lives at 30 W. Chicago Ave. 

WILLIAM L. HAFNER, C. E., 240 
Lathrop Ave., Forest Park, 111., is con- 
nected with Wallace & Tiernan Co., 605 
W. Washington Blvd., Chicago. 

HENRY R. HALEY (Eckelman), F. 
P. E., has been with the Wisconsin In- 
spection Bureau, but is now engineer for 
Insurance Co. of North America, 209 W. 
Jackson St., Chicago, 111. 

JOHN W. HURLEY, C. E., 5650 N. 
Spaulding Ave., is Instructor, Aviation 
Department, Lane Technical High School, 
2.501 W. Addison St., Chicago, 111.; also 
flight instructor for Naval Aviation 
Cadets. 

ROBERT B. JOHNSTON, M. E., is 
salesman for Armstrong Cork Products 
Co., 14 E. Jackson Blvd., Chicago, 111. 
Residence, 1341 N. State St. 

ISADORE G. KATZ, Ch. E., 133 N. 
L'nion, Apt. 5, Grand Rapids, Mich., is 
with Edison Bros. Stores, Inc., 147 Mon- 
roe Ave., N. W. 

ALBERT D. LEVY, Arch., is in Wash- 
ington, D. C. with Suburban Resettlement 
Administration. 

N. C. NARTEN, F. P. E., whose hob- 
bies are collecting stamps and photog- 
raphy, is assistant superintendent of au- 
dits. Fire Insurance Rating Bureau, 626 
E. Wisconsin Ave., Milwaukee, Wis., and 
resides at 3446 N. 47th St. 

JOSEPH NEBEL, E. E., father of a 
baby girl almost one year old, Mary Alice, 
teaches at the Harper High School, 6520 
S. Wood St. He lives at 7017 Merrill Ave: 
Chicago. 

EDWARD R. ROWLEY, M. E., 8752 
Ward St.. is with National Lead Co., 900 
W. 18th St., Chicago, 111. 

CARLTON ERNEST RUDELIUS, 
E. E., is junior engineer. Northern In- 



56 



diana Public Service Co., 5265 Holinian 
Ave., Hammond, Ind., and resides at 4-629 
Cameron Ave. 

JOHN B. SITZLER, Ex. C. E.. lives at 
513 Ravine Ave.. Peoria. 111. 

WALTER R. TROGNITZ, Cli. E., 8 
Parkwood Road, Rockville Center, N. Y., 
is with U. S. Steel Corp., 71 Broadway, 
New York. 

WILLIAM G. AVHEELAND. F. P. E., 
is resident inspector for Ohio Inspection 
Bureau, 12.3 Frederick St., Marietta, Ohio. 

ALBERT WINKLER, M. E., experi- 
mental engineer for Bendix Products Co., 
401 Bendix Drive. South Bend. Ind.. lives 
at 1118 Birner. 

MISSING: Taylor, .1. L.. E. E. 

Beatty, S. A., F. P. E. Tell. F. O.. .\t1i. 

Fischman, L. H., C. E. Wood. M. B.. C. E. 

Frost, A. J., M. E. PECEASED: 

Goldman, J. R., Oi. E. Kara, J. .1., C. E. 

Kilbourne, R. E., F.P.E. Van Valzali, W. S., 
Peterson, F. B., E. E. M. E. 
Solstad, E. W., Arch. 



1931 

IRVING MAURICE BERGER, C. E.. 
is in the War Department. V. S. Eng. 
Area Office, foot of Hayward St., Peoria, 
111. He resides at 2660 N. Kedzie Ave., 
Ciu'cago. 

THEODORE C. FOIN, Ch. E., 6120 
Drexel Ave., is with Hercules Powder Co., 
3650 Touhy Ave., Nortown Station, Chi- 
cago, 111. 

RICHARD S. FOX, E. E., is electrical 
draftsman with the Sanitary District of 
Chicago, 910 S. Michigan Blvd., Room 700, 
Chicago. He lives at 3604 Hollywood 
Ave., Hollywood, 111. 

HARMON S. HOLT, F. P. E., 43 Lin- 
naean St.. Cambridge. Mass.. is with 
L^nited Mutual Fire Ins. Co., 31 St. 
.Tames Ave., Boston, Mass. 

FRANK M. JAMES, F. P. E., 1200 
Bicknell Ave., Louisville, Ky., is engineer 
for E. S. Tachau and Sons, and also spe- 
cial agent for Louisville Fire and Marine 
Ins. Co. His office address is 208 Speed 
Bldg. 

ARTHUR H. JENS, F. P. E., is engi- 
neer for Springfield Fire and Marine Ins. 
Co., 222 W. Adams St., Chicago, and re- 
sides at 7407 N. Ashland Blvd. His favor- 
ite sports are golf, riding, and archery. 

WILLIAM JERVIS, Ex. C. E., instruc- 
tor. Central High School, Scranton, Pa., 
lives at 325 Warren St. 

ELDON A. JOHNSON, C. E., is at 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
Cambridge, Mass. 

RICHARD G. KELLNER, E. E., in- 
dustrial engineer, Firestone Tire and Rulj- 
ber Co., Firestone Park, Akron, Ohio, lives 
at 80 W. Center St. 

MAXWELL C. LARKIN, F. P. E., 
Oak Grove Hotel, Minneapolis, Minn., is 
special agent and engineer for Travelers 
Fire Ins. Co. First National-Soo Line 
Bldg. 

CARL A. LARSEN C. E., senior engi- 
neering aide for Navy Dept., LT. S. Gov- 
ernment, resides at 2209 40th Place, N. W., 
Washington, D. C. 

HAROLD J. LATHAM, Ch. E., 1636 
Thorndale Ave., Chicago, 111., is employed 
bv Peoples Gas Light and Coke Co., .3921 
S. Wabash Ave. 

GEORGE E. LINDEMANN, E. E., in- 
strument design engineer with Republic 
Flow Meters Co., 2240 Diversev Parkway, 
lives at 1162 W. 19th Place, Chicago. 

CHARLES T. LINK is plant engineer 
for Container Corp. of America, 1.301 W. 
35th St., Chicago, 111. Residence, 1407 Elm- 
dale Ave. 



FRANK W. (WALTER F.) MICH- 
ALSKI, E. E., 1G15 S. Highland Ave., 
Berwvn, 111., is employed by Common- 
wcaltii Edison Co., Room 931, 72 W. 
Adams St., Chicago. 

MERTON MOSS, E. E., dealer in 
X-Ray equipment, operating under the 
name of Moss X-Ray Co., 4735 Broadway. 
Chicago, 111., resides at 1421 Elmdale 
.■\ve., Chicago. 

FRED T. MUNCH, M. E., .561 Mitchell 
Ave., Elmhurst, 111., is with Chicago 
Board of L^nderwriters, 175 W. Jackson 
Blvd., Chicago. 

ORLAND R. MURPHY, E. E.. resiil 
ing at 5439 Potomac Ave., Chicago, 111., 
sent us the following: 

Orlcind B. Miirphil, prrsiih nf. (iiiiiiiiiiir( s- 
the organization of Elcrtriral ]Viiiilliifis. 
Inc.. 16 N. Mdi/ S/.. Cliiratio, to specialize 
ill the (le.'<i(in "iid imni iifacture of all type.i 
of tran.-<f(inii( !■.•<. .inli iKiids, chokes, mnri- 
iietn. etc. The nexv company is set up to 
(li:tii/ii coils and mountings for ant/ specific 
inn-jidxe or to work from manu^acturern 
.ijiecifications. 

Mr. Miirphr/ Was formerly associated 
with Utah Radio Products and Standard 
Tran.iformer Corp. and has recently been 
chief engineer for Robertson-Davis. 

FRANK O'CONOR, M. E., engineer 
for Riehle Testing Machine Division, 
American Machine and Metals, East Mo- 
line. 111., lives at 1.33 W. 13th St., Daven- 
liort, Iowa. In his spare time he plays ten- 
nis and handball. 

NATHAN R. ROSEN, Arch, 6111 S. 
Albany, Chicago, is architect and building 
superintendent. Power Construction Co., 
212 S. Marion St., Oak Park, III. 

WILLIAM J. SANTINA, C. E., Junior 
civil engineer in LT. S. Engineer Office, 
War Dept., 9.32 U. S. Post Office Bldg., 
Chicago, III., lives at 8817 S. Laflin St. 

ELMER S. WARNER, E. E., 4.521 
Wrightwood Ave., is with Commonwealth 
Edison Co., Engineering Dept., Room 839, 
72 W. Adams St., Chicago. 

ROBERT NEAL WILSON, F. P. E., 
employed by America Fore Ins. & Indem- 
nity Group, 1008 Chamber of Commerce 
Bldg., Indianapolis, Ind., lives at 634 
Highland Drive. 

MISSING: Hotchkin. M. A., F.P.E. 

Blahna. Chas., E. E. Lopatowski, E. J.. C.E. 

Chin, E. W., Arch. Miles, Wallace. Arch. 

Crow, Ralph M., Arch. Moore, G. R.. F.P.E. 

Dodson. Oias. E., Arch. Yzagulrre, M. A., Ch.E. 
Ferguson, L. J., Ch. E. 



1932 

MARSHALL R. BEAL, F. P. E.. is 
with the Indiana Inspection Bureau, 202 
Poledor Bldg., South Bend, Ind., and re- 
sides at 705 Lincoln Way E. 

RICHARD F. BEATTIE, M. E., 3612 
N. Richmond St., Chicago, III., is safety 
engineer. Hardware Mutual Casualty Co., 
221 N. LaSalle St. 

ALBERT F. BIGELOW, Ch. E., chem- 
ist for Lennon Wall Paper Co.. 1004 4th 
Ave., Joliet, 111., lives at 219 Sherman St. 

EDWARD L. BYAN, C. E., 6728 S. 
Artesian Ave., Chicago, is mechanical 
salesman with The B. F. Goodrich Co., 
310 W. Taylor St. In his spare time he 
records international events. 

SIDNEY D. CANNELL, M. E., is em- 
ployed bv Illinois Garment Co., 1 E. Wil- 
son St., Batavia, 111. Residence, 182 Main 
St. 

JOSEPH B. FINNEGAN, Jr.. F. P. 
E., is special agent for the Crum and For- 



AIRGUIDE WEATHER INSTRUMENTS 

Hygrometers — Thermometers — 
Barometers 

for Domestic and Industrial Purposes 

FEE AND STEMWEDEL. INC. 

4949 North Pulaski Road, Chicago. Illinois 
KEYslone G600 



GAD GETE E R S 



% m T^HAT'S what we've been 
-L called by laboratory men 
who never before realized what service 
they could get on special custom-built 
apparatus until they called us in on the 
job. With thousands of standard parts 
in our apparatus stock-room, a modern 
plant built expressly for producing "pre- 
cision" products, cmd long-experienced 
engineers on the job, we can save you 
plenty of time and money when you 
need laboratory equipment that can't 
be bought out of a catalog. 

PRECISION SCIENTIFIC CO. 

1740 N. Springfield Ave., Chicago, Illinois 



COMPLETE AND INTELLIGENT 
INSURANCE SERVICE 

Life Fire Casualty 

NATIONAL PROTECTED INVESTMENT 
COMPANY 

Fred G. HeuchUng ('07), President 

Suite 428—506 South Wabash Avenue 

Chicago 



The Sooner You Plan Your Future, the 
Better Your Future Will Be— 

WM. C. KRAFFT 

EQUITABLE LIFE ASSURANCE 
SOCIETY OF UNITED STATES 

120 S. LASALLE ST. FRA. 0400 



JACK I. KITCH 

"INSURANCE" is My Middle Name 

South East National Bank Building 

1180 East 63rd Street 

PHONE: FAIRFAX 7200 



YOUR FINANCIAL PLANS 

Can be guaranteed of accomplishment 
with an Equitable Life Insurance or Annuity 
Contract. 

ROBERT S. PILKINGTON, JR. 

"New Light on Old Problems" 
120 So. La Salle St. Franklin 0400 



57 



j-tcr companies, Fletcher Trust Bldg., In- 
dianapolis, Ind. He was previously with 
the Illinois Inspection Bureau and" West- 
ern Factory Ins. Association. 

PAUL H. FRYE, E. E., 762.5 Jefferion 
St., Kansas Cit_v, AIo., is assistant radio 
engineer, 18th and Grand, Kansas City. 

IGNATIUS A. HECKMILLER, C." E., 
83 N. Brookville Rd., Indianapolis, Ind., 
comments as follows: 
Dear l)(<n, UraUl: 

Reruliini iidiir urticle in a recent copy 
of th< I'.iiqiiii , riiKi News-Record has re- 
newed Dili- iirqiKiiiifance and has tempted 
me to Write. 

Two months at/o I accepted <i cirH serv- 
ice appointment nx jniiior hiidridtlir i ii- 
gineer with th< l>iji<irlii,i nl uf tnltrinr. 
Geoloffica! Sum n. SHi-fnr, \\,(l,r /,', - 
source Branch, \citli nljic, in I ndiidnipolis. 
Ind. I resii/nid fmrn mil position with 
the D. I.. N(ifi,in,il l'<nk Service at Park 
Ridge, III., to lakr thin one. 

I luwe to do striani gaging work in 
Michigan, Kentucky, and Indiana. There 
is much more ojjice work than work in 
the field. . . 

Yours truly, 
IGNATIUS A. HECKMILLER. 
WILLIAM L. JOST, E. E., 19.35 Doug- 
las St., Rockford, 111., is salesman for 
A. J. Heinz Co., 342 N. AVestern Aye., 
Chicago, with whom he has been con- 
nected since 19.35. He is married and 
has a one year old son. 

EDWIN" H. KNOX, F. P. E., whose 
hobbies are swimming, fishing, and skat- 
ing, resides at 4218 N. Woodburn St., 
Milwaukee, Wis. He is special agent for 
Crum & Forster Ins. Co., 825 N. Jeffer- 
son St. 

PHILIP HERBERT KORRELL, E. 
E., 213 27th Ave., Bellwood, 111., is .junior 
engineer, Jefferson Electric Co., same city. 
R. J. LINDBLAD, Arch., for the State 
of Illinois, lives at 517 Leach Ave., Joliet, 
111. 

ROBERT C. LONGWELL, M. E., 71.3.3 
S. Wabash Ave., is with York Ice Ma- 
chinery Co., 1113 W^ Cornelia St., Chicago, 
111. ^ 

RICHARD E. MEAGHER, C. E., em- 
ployed by Wilson & Melvaine, 120 W. 
Adams St., Chicago, 111., lives at 5711 S. 
Lowe Ave. 

SAMUEL L. OTTO, M. E., 515 S. Ehn- 
wood Ave., Oak Park, 111., is clerk in the 
order department, Stannard Power Equip- 
ment Co., 53 W. Jackson St., Chicago. 

HAROLD A. PEARSON, E. E., opera- 
tor foi" Pul>lic Service Co., Joliet, 111., 
resides at 931 Kellv Ave. 

CLARENCE J. ROBIN, C. E., assist- 
ant engineer, War Dept., U. S. Engineer 
Office, Pickwick Dam, Tenn., whose busi- 
ness address is ()04 Bennie-Dillon Bldg., 
Nashville, Tenn., wrote some time ago: 
Dear Secretary . • 

. . . I have been with the Engineer Of- 
fice ever since fini.'.hing .icho<d' <ind hov( 
reached the a.ixis/<nil < miiiii i r'.i iirmh. 
For the past chvin nmnfii.^- I Iiovr l>, , u 
working in con jnmlion -ici/h !In Ti niiis- 
see Valley Anfhori/i/ hir, <il I'irkxcirk. 
We are only conv( ni'id 7cifli /hi nnist na- 
tion of the Z/orAx on fhisr TVA proj(rt.f. 
and since this one is practically completed, 
I am being transferred to the Lock De- 
sign Office in Nashville. 

I have been married almost four years 
and have a girl a little over two year's old. 
Sincerely, 

C. J. ROBIN." 
ANDREW HENRY WESTON, E. E. 
6350 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, 111., is assist- 
ant switchboard operator at the State I,ine 
Electric Plant, Chicago District Electric 

58 



Insurance 



Build a Monthly Income 

through 

MAN'S STAUNCHES! FRIEND 

His Life Insurance 

By Consulting 
O. D. RICHARDSON 

Asso. General Agent 

Berkshire Life Insurance Co. 

Pittsfield, Mass. 

Room 1229— I No. La Salle St. 

Chicago, Illinois 

Tel. Ran. 2224 



Patronize our 
Advertisers 



EVERETT R, COLE 

ASSOCIATED WITH 

FRED. S. JAMES & GO. 

ESTABLISHED 1872 

INSURANCE 

175 WEST JACKSON BOULEVARD 

TELEPHONE WABASH 3720 

CHICAGO 



Investments 



PAUL L MULLANEY (1924) 
INVESTMENTS 

Roond 820, 231 South La Salle Street 

Chicago 

Telephone Franklin 8844 



Jewelry 



SPIES BROTHERS. Inc. 

Manufacturing Jewelers 

CLASS PINS AND RINGS 

Fraternity and Sorority Jewelry 

Medals and Trophies 

Dance Programs and Announcements 

27 E. Monroe Street 

CHICAGO 



(ienerating Corii., lO.-ith St. and Lake 
Michigan, South Cliicng,.. III. 

ALVIN ,1. WICIISKU, ,IR., Arch., 20 
X. Wacker Drive, Room 1.5.30, resides 
at -15.32 N. Winchester Ave., Chicago. 

ANDREW R. WILLARD, M. E., 912 
Noyes St. Evanston, 111., is with IJttell 
Machine Co., 4127 Ravenswood Ave., Chi- 
cago. 

MISSING: Hroniada, F. M. C. E. 

Davis. H. R.. M. K. Jungels, A. J., M. E. 

Eskonen, 0., C. E. Stalim, Eli B.. Arch. 

Fox, Chas. H., C. E. Toopeekoff, E., M. E. 
Hawes, Chas. S., M. E. 



1933 

Be sure to reserve Tuesday evening, 
.hine 7, for the annual spring banquet 
which will be lield at the Medinah Club 
of Chicago, 50() N. Michigan Blvd., Chi- 
cago. ^ This will be your FIFTH ANXI- 
\'EHSARY, and we are waiting to hear 
what your jilans are for making this a 
big reunion. Of course we shall be glad 
to help in any way we can. 

ROBERT OTTAWA BELFORD, Ex. 
F. P. E., resides at 4821 10th Ave. S., 
Minneapolis, Minn., and is on the road 
for the Inspector Fire Underwriters In- 
spection Bureau, Minneapolis. 

GEORGE R. BELTON, M. E., 72 Sight- 
hill Ave., Toronto, Ont., Canada, is pur- 
chasing agent for Dyment, Ltd., 245 Car- 
law Ave. 

ARTHUR B. BRONWELL, E. E., 
who is instructor at the School of Engi- 
neering, Northwestern University, Evans- 
ton. 111., and lives at .317 Olmstead Road, 
Riverside. 111., sent the following: 
III or Sirnliirii: 

I inn inrlo.iing a check for -^j.no fn cover 
1)11/ ill linijiii iif iihninii dins and ri store my 
rriilil rolini, nl .Irmmir I n.-fit i,/r. I have 
ilisrnvinil to my di.^tre.is that even college 
in.ilriirtors sometimes await long and pa- 
fiinllii the arrival of a pay check. 

Alhnc me also to congratulate you upon 
your excellent work on the Armour Engi- 
neer. Each succeeding number is better 
than the one previous.' The wide circula- 
tion of the Armour Engineer will undoubt- 
edly go a long Way toward publicizing the 
iircomplishments of Armour Institute and 
It.i place in the engineering world. . . 
Sincerely yours, 
ARTHUR B. BRONWELL. 

ALAN D. BURNETT, C. E., is propor- 
tioning engineer. City of Chicago, City 
Hall, Chicago, III." Residence, 1929 
Winona St. 

ROMAN J. DOMBROW (DROMBRO- 
SKI), E. E., 38.58 N. Oconto Ave., is 
junior electrical engineer. Western Elec- 
tric Co., Hawthorne Plant, Chicago, III. 

MALIRICE J. ERISMAN, M. E., is 
now living at 930 N. Taylor Ave., Oak 
Park, 111. 

MARTIN FUHRER, M. E., .5208 
Drexel Ave., Chicago, is with Eugene and 
Max Fuhrer, architects and engineers, 188 
W. Randolph St. 

MILTON M. GESS, E. E., with Battery 
Equipment and Supply Co., Chicago, re- 
sides at 14504 Lincoln Ave., Dolton, 111. 

WILLIAM H. HLTLSWIT, JR., E. E., 
physicist, LT. S. Rubber Products, Inc., 
Passaic, N. ,L, was recently married to 
Miss Ruth Anne Johnson at Clifton, N. J., 
73 Hudson St. 

JOHN R. JACKSON, JR., F. P. E., 
885 Vine St., Chattanooga, Tenn., is with 
Tenn. Inspection Bureau, 919 James Bldg. 

LEONARD W. KRIZAN, Ch. E., lives 
at 2001 W. 69th St., Chicago. 



N E E R S 




Carrier Centrifugal Refrigeration— 

the development that revolutionized an industry! 



IT'S a simple matter to provide refriger- 
ation for air conditioning small stores 
or buildings. A good conventional com- 
pressor will do the work in a satisfactory 
manner, and at reasonable cost. But it's 
a different matter entirely to supply the 
thousands of tons of refrigeration re- 
quired for cooling skyscrapers — or for 
industrial processing. Space is costly. 
Power costs must be controlled. P< 
ing the trend toward rotating, high speed, 
smooth -action machinery. Carrier en- 
gineers developed Carrier Centrifugal 
Refrigeration — a development that 
literally revolutionized the industry! 
Think of a compressor capable of sup- 
plying cooling equivalent to melting 
1000 tons of ice each day — yet 
so compact that it can be installed 
in a fraction of the space required 
for conventional compressors. So 
economical that power costs are re- 
duced as much as 25'J'c — yet so 
simple that no skilledattendants are 




required. So efficient, the first machine 
constructed is operating today, as effec- 
tively as when installed, 15 years ago. 
Centrifugal Refrigeration . . . Evapo- 
rative Condensing . . . safe refrigerants 
. . . in fact every Carrier contribution to 
the comfort and efficiency of the world 
has been brought about through engi- 
neering. And the opportunities for young 
engineers to gain recognition at Carrier 
are greater now than ever before. At 
Carrier, young men hold responsible po- 
sitions — their capacity gauged, not by 
age, but by ability. Whether that ability 
is fostered best by laboratory research or 
field work in the far corners of the world. 
Carrier enables engineers to progress. 
■C: -i: * 

During 1937, Carrier trained 300 recent 
graduates irom leading engineering 
schools in every section of the country. 
Carrier needs more men. If you had a 
good school record, and are interested in 
the world's most fascinating and fastest- 
growing industry, write us. 



Air Conditioning 



CARRIES CORPORATION, SYRACUSE, N, Y. 



ORGANIZATION 



ENGINEERS 



59 



Jewelry 


MEDALS TROPHIES 


DIEGES and riUST 


185 N. Wabash Ave.. Chicago 


Central 3115 


CLASS JEWELRY FRATERNITY PINS 



Laundry 



Tel. Hayma 


rket 2338 


MANDLER'S 


LAUNDRY 


Industrial Supply \ 


Since 


1875 


464-66 Milwau 


kee Avenue 


E. O. Mandler 


Chicago, III. 



WEST LAKE LAUNDRY COMPANY 

3329 S. State Street 
Chicago 

Serving railroads, institutions, industries 
since 1890. 

Telephone: Victory 6300 



Management Engineer 



GRIFFENHAGEN & 
ASSOCIATES 

Established 1911 

MANAGEMENT ENGINEERS 

AND ACCOUNTANTS 



CONSULTANTS ON PROBLEMS OF OR- 
GANIZATION, FINANCE, PERSONNEL, 
AND OPERATING PROCEDURE. 



Head Office: LaSalle-Waclcer Building 
Chicago 



CHARLES R. SIMMONS 

CONSULTANT IN MANAGEMENT 

Industrial Engineer 



10 South La Salle Street 

CHICAGO 
Telephone Franklin 1234 



EARL CHAS. KUBICEK, Arch., 7344 
Champlain Ave., Chicago, is office passen- 
fier traffic manager. The Milwaukee Road, 
Room 707, Union Station, Chicago. 

CHARLES MARSH, Ex. M. E., is 
liead of the science department, Todd 
School for Bovs, Woodstock, 111. 

RAYMOND "e. NELSON, M. E., whose 
liobby is photography, resides at 163.3 
Cataipa Ave., Chicago. He is sales en- 
gineer for Central Screw Co., 3511 Shields 
Ave. 

DAVID W. PEARSON, Ex. F. P. E., 
special agent for Oregon for General Ins. 
Co. of America, 601 Board of Trade Bldg., 
Portland, Ore., lives at 3127 N. E. 32nd 
Ave., same city. He is married and has 
two children. His recent letter reads: 
Dear Secretary: 

Just received the ven/ intereatinq De- 
cember issue of the EXaiyEER. If is 
certaiiihj n pleasure to have fond mem- 
ories of the old school hrou(/ht back tcilli 
each issue of this magazine. 

In. the course of my travels I have run 
across several alumni of Armour ami 
thought you miflht be interested in knoxc- 
imi their xchereabouts. 

W. r. BELL. E.r. Arch. '21, is Jiotc 
miiiKciiini (lii-d-for of the Western Retail 
Liimlx riin ii's ./x.v)i. BiVPs office is in 
Siii/th, hiit don't knoif the e.vact address. 
He may he ri checked through the office of 
the Western Retail Lumbermen's Assn., 
.Tones Bldff.. Spokane. Wash. . . 

II. J. 8AWTELL. M. E. '06. is man- 
aqer of the Yellowstone Lumber Co.. 
Miles City. Mont. 

I hope this information xolll he of some 
help. 

Best xcishes to the Alumni Association. 
DAVID W. PEARSON. 

GROTE REBER, E. E.. 212 W. Semi- 
nary Ave., Wheaton, III., is radio engineer 
for'Stewart Warner Corp., 1828 Diversey 
Blvd., Chicago. 

IRVING SIEGAL, Arch., 1500 S. Ked- 
vale Ave., Chicago, does designing and 
construction supervising on private con- 
tracts. 

DEAN B. SNAPP, F. P. E., engineer 
for State Farm Fire Ins. Co., Blooming- 
ton, 111., married Miss Florence Fogel- 
sanger of Glen Ellyn, 111., about a year 
ago. They reside at 1002 E. Washington 
St., Bloomington. 

.JOSEPH WILLARD ZVONECEK, 
M. E., is assistant chief engineer for Con- 
tainer Corp. of America, Carthage, Ind., 
where he now lives. In his spare time he 
enjoys reading and plays golf. 

MISSING: Tvler. W. W.. E. E. 

Belton, Geo. R., M. E. DECEASED: 

Hanratian. Geo., C. E. Cole, Abraham, Arch. 
Sanchez, Joe R., E. E. 



1934 

Mr. and Mrs. JOHN L. BRENNER 
(Ex. M. E.) announce the birth of a baby 
girl. Barbara Ruth. They live at 96 W. 
6th St., Oswego, N. Y., and Mr. Brenner 
is connected with Johns-Manville Corp., 
E. Seneca St., same city. 

WILLIAM W. BURSON, Ch. E., is 
chemical analyst for Western Electric Co., 
22nd St. and Cicero Ave., Cicero, 111. He 
resides at 612 Surf St., Chicago. 

LOY A. CALLEN, C. E., 834 N. Mas- 
sasoit Ave., Chicago, is junior civil engi- 
neer for the Sanitary District of Chicago, 
910 S. Michigan Blvd. His hobby is tak- 
ing moving pictures. 

DONALD N. CHADWICK, E. E., is 
sales engineer for U. S. Supply Co., 1315 
W. 12th St., and lives at 315 E. 48th St., 



both in Kansas City, Mo. He is interested 
in contacting former Armour Institute 
men for the purposes of forming an 
alumni club. More power to you Chad- 
wick ! 

NORMAN E. COLBURN, JR., C. E., 
writes from 119 E. 5th St., Jacksonville, 
Fla.: 
Dear Secretary: 

Your notice was forwarded from Ohio, 
and I am enclosing $2.00 for my alumni 
dues. I have been down here in Florida 
for several months and have been intend- 
in ii III tcfrife. giving my nrxv address, but 
xciis pnviiitid h,i 'purr lauiKX.i. At pres- 
ent I mil \ciirkiini -.cith Mi rriff. Chapman, 
4- Scii/t Co.. ich'ich is a contracting firm 
acting as agents for the National Con- 
tainer Corp. We are building a 200-ton- 
per-day paper mill to make paper for 
cardboard cartons, etc. I am designina 
pipinij. etc. The e<iuipmeut i',< being placed 
mm', and ice arc just beginning to put 
up the pipe. However, we are being 
rushed qtiite a bit, and I think I'll be 
hunting for another job some time next 
month. I quit my job nf Mead because 
I figured this xcoiilil tie u good chance to 
get some valualili i x/n riince. I have 
learned a lot here. I did all of the high- 
pressure steam line designing and helped 
on the turbine installation, but with busi- 
ness conditions as they are at present I 
don't know whether the knowledge will 
help me much. Anyway. I hope I can 
get a job a lot closer to Chicago and home 
ne.rt month, and if I do I'll pay you a 
visit. 

Sincerehi. 
NORMAN COLBURN. 

STEPHEN P. DAVISON, F. P. E., 
goes in for sailing and swimming. He is 
engineer for Chicago Board of Underwrit- 
ers, 175 W. Jackson Blvd., and resides 
at 7616 Colfax Ave., Chicago. 

LEO FRANDZEI , C. E., .3357 Crystal 
St., Chicago, is junior engineer, IT. S. En- 
gineer Office, Rock Island, 111. He re- 
ports that H. A. KUNTSON, C. E. '32, 
IRA KRAWITZ, C. E. '33, and OTTO 
SCHMIDT, C. E. '34, are also employed 
at the same place. 

LAAVRENCE FRATESCHI, E. E., has 
been transferred to the Milwaukee, Wis., 
branch of Fairbanks, Morse & Co. 

EARL W. GOSSWILLER, M. E., is 
experimental engineer. The Exhibit Sup- 
ply Co., 4222 W. Lake St., and resides at 
1816 W. Chase Ave., both in Chicago. 

GLEN F. GRAHAM, E. E., 1167 S. 
Scoville Ave., Oak Park, 111., is with 
Baldwin-Duckworth Chain Corp., 549 W. 
Randolph St., Chicago. 

CHESTER E. HILLMAN, M. E., is 
secretary-treasurer for the Armour Mechs. 
group '.34 and is anxious that there be a 
large representation at this year's annual 
banquet, to be held June 7 at the Medinah 
Club of Chicago. He was married re- 
cently, and lives at 2323 Chase Ave., 
Chicago, 111. Mr. Hillman is engineer for 
R. R. Donnelley & Sons Co., 3.50 E. 22nd 
St. 

ALFRED FRANK KAPECKL Ch. E., 
chemical engineer at C051 W. 65th St., re- 
sides at 104;3 N. LeCIaire Ave., Chicago. 

GERALD E. MYERS, F. P. E., is with 
the Illinois Inspection Bureau, 911 Myers 
Bldg., Springfield, 111. 

HERBERT A. RASCHKE, E. E., 6346 
S. Talman Ave., Chicago, is employed by 
Weston Electrical Instrument Corp., 205 
W. Waeker Drive. 

GEORGE M. REED, E. E., is general 
dealer salesman in southern Illinois for 
Fairbanks, Morse & Co., whose Chicago 
address is 600 S. Michigan Blvd. 



60 



RAYMOND JOHN SCHWAB, Arch., 
is designer for James F. Eppenstein, 35 
E. Wacker Drive, Chicago, 111. He lives 
at 6224 N. Washtenaw Ave. 

E. A. SVOBODA, M. E., 1236 East 
Ave., Berwyn, III., is sales correspondent 
for Johns-Manville Sales Corp., 222 N. 
Banks Drive, Chicago. 

REV. HENRY GEORGE VOR- 
SHEIM, JR., Ch. E., is minister of the 
Central Presbyterian Church, Portsmouth, 
Ohio and resides at 1210 17th St., same 
city. 

MISSING: DECEASED: 

Eberly, Kenneth, Oi. E. Hanes, Geo. A., M. E. 

Marcus, Leonard, C. E. 



1935 

BERNARD B. ABRAMS, Ex. C. E., 
holds two positions in Terrell, Tex.; one 
as Post Adjutant of the Texas Military 
College, the other, city engineer for the 
city of Terrell. 

LOUIS W. BIEGLER, F. P. E., 707 
Garfield St., Oak Park, 111., is fire insur- 
ance inspector, Chicago Board of Under- 
writers, 175 W. Jackson Blvd., Chicago. 

BURTON RUSSELL BUCHHAUSER, 
Arch., is mechanical draftsman for Liquid 
Carbonic Corp., 3100 S. Kedzie Ave., Chi- 
cago. Residence, 3339 W. Byron St. 

ROBERT F. DALTON, Ch. E., 421 
2(Jth St., Moline, 111., is foundry metal- 
lurgist for International Harvester, Farm- 
all Works, 4401 4th Ave., Rock Island, 
111. We sent him a short time ago a 
list of Armour men living in his vicinity 
whom he is anxious to contact. 

JOSEPH H. DeBOO, M. E., 1310 N. 
Springfield Ave., Chicago, with Western 
Electric Co., Cermak Road at Cicero Ave., 
is secretary-treasurer of the M. E.'s of 
this class. Many thanks for the very 
helpful letter from you a few days ago 
giving definite information relative to ac- 
tivities of a large group of graduates 
from this class. We are indeed grateful 
for this way of bringing the alumni rec- 
ords up to date. We quote in part from 
DeBoo's letter: 

At our last meeting, WILLIAM WAL- 
LACE HENNINO, who had been presi- 
dent of the organization sincr !t.^ hrr/in- 
ning at school, suq(/i .-•■li il. hi fun nh lin- 
ing Ms office to'riloMJs' Fli.lMK 
JONES, the newly ehclcd president, that 
the club enter upon the holding of tech- 
nical sessions as one of its regular activi- 
ties. Henning described this type of meet- 
ing as one in which individuals would re- 
late to the other men, accounts of experi- 
ences gained and problems encountered 
in every day work since graJualinn. He 
indicated that there was much thai could 
be exchanged between the men ((ml, prob- 
ably, much to be gained by the group ((s 
well as the individuals in this general 
display of ideas and practices used in 
different phases of the business world. 
The member of the club enthusiastically 
agreed as to the possibilities of this activ- 
ity and president Jones directed jilans for 
carrying it out. 

The M. E.'s of '35 would sincerely ap- 
preciate being informed of ideas found 
practicable by any other alumni group 
and would gladly receive cuminuuirafion 
from any group. 

CHARLES K. GOLDBERG, M. E., 
draftsman and designer, Clearing Machine 
Corp., 6499 W. 65th St., Chicago, 111., re- 
sides at 5700 S. Wolcott Ave. In his 
spare time he is interested in i)laying 
chess and bowling. 



CHESTER MICHAEL KASMER, E. 
E., 1521 W. 58th St., Chicago, is with tlu- 
Federal Power Commission. 

CHARLES LIEBERMAN, Arch., sales 
manager for Victory Store Fixture Co., 
(iS4 Milwaukee Ave.," Chicago, lives at 934 
Winona St. 

BERNARD LEE MESSINGER, M. E., 
710 Gordon Terrace, is connected with 
Peerless of America, Inc., 515 W. 35th St., 
both in Chicago. He reports that JO- 
SEPH MICHAEL O'CONNER, C. I'., 
is also emploved by this concern. 

JOHN K. "MORRISON, F. P. E., who 
is with the Tennessee Inspection Bureau, 
1034 Stahlman Bldg., Nashville, Tenn.. 
writes: 
Dear Secretary: 

... 7 want to ranqratuhde the stuff 
of The Engineer for the r;r)ru/ -.i>ork Iheif 
hove t,(,„ ',li,i„,i ill iiiiikillil the llliKlozin'e 
veni inlenx/iii,/. I ilmi't .-■( e ((ui/thine/ in 
it thai could lie improved the (Inly trou- 
ble is that it isn't issued often enough. 
Yours very truly, 

J. K. M'ORRISON. 

A letter received recently from 
GEORGE ISAO NAKAYAMA, E. E., 
1048 Gulick Ave., Honolulu, Hawaii, reads 
as follows: 
Dear Secretary : 

... 7 have tied in with the Hawaiian 
Electric Co. and am doing business of 
my own. (Operating as Nakayama Radio 
Service, Corner Beretania and Smith Sts., 
Honolulu, T. H.) Had pretty rough go- 
ing because of lack of capital and exten- 
sive credit in the selling game. 

I hope to be pretty well on my feet In/ 
the end of this spring. 

I shall write you again soon. 
'Sincereh/. 

G. I." NAKAYAxMA. 

EDWIN ARTHUR RUNGE, Arch., 
429 Maplewood Ave., Struthers, Ohio, is 
with Leif Lee, consulting engineer, 810 
Union National Bank Bldg., Youngstown, 
Ohio. 

GEORGE EDWARD THOMPSON, 
Ch. E., resides at 7342 Merrill Ave., Chi- 
cago, 111. He is connected with Cochrane 
Steam Specialties, 332 S. Michigan Ave. 

HOWARD JOHN ZIBBLE, F. P. E., 
formerly engineer in the Kentucky Actu- 
arial Bureau at Louisville, is now with 
Willett E. Main Ins. Agency, Madison, 
Wis. Congratulations, Zibble, on your 
marriage to Helen Jean Shepherd of Wil- 
mette. 111., late last year ! Residence, 106 
S. Hancock St., Madison, Wis. 



1936 

EDGAR P. AULER, M. E., employed 
by Taylor Forge and Pipe Works, 14th 
St. and Cicero Ave., Cicero, 111., lives at 
4848 Hutchinson, Chicago. 

VICTOR JOSEPH CHIAPPE, Arch., 
2674 W. Madison St., is with Karlin and 
Simpson, architects, 64 E. Lake St., Chi- 
cago, 111. 

RAYMOND S. FEINBERG, Ex. Arch., 
4603 Wycliff, San Antonio, Texas, has 
married Lorraine Strickland of Dallas. 
Best wishes. 

JOHN GALANDAK, C. E., resides at 
2801 S. St. Louis Ave., Chicago, and is 
connected with Aeromotor Co., 2500 W. 
Roosevelt Road. 

DON CARLOS HARRIS, M. E., has 
changed his residence to 7627 E. End Ave., 
Chicago. He is with Carbide and Carbon 
Chemicals Corp., Box 7.50, Whiting, Ind. 



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WHITEHALL 61S0 



WILLIAM P. HEALY, Ch. E., 7842 
Bennett Ave., Chicago, 111., is employed 
bv Socony-Vacuum Oil Co., East Chicago, 
Ind. 

T. M. HOFFMAN, JR., E. E., is now 
with Humble Oil and Refining Co., Bay- 
town, Texas. He may be reached at Box 
•175, same city. 

EDGAR R. JOHNSON, F. P. E., 1825 
Stevens Ave., Louisville, Ky., is employed 
by Kentucky Actuarial Bureau, 940 
Starks Bldg., and reports he is doing 
nicely. 

We quote the following from a recent 
letter received from VICTOR J. KROPF, 
E. E., 1.318 Singer Place. Wilkinshurg, 
Pa., who is with Westinghouse Electric 
and Mfg. Co., East Pittsburgh, Pa: 
Secretary. Alumni Association: 

. . . You will remember Dr. Hob.idii, 
ccho taufiht for a i/cKr (it Armour before 
coming to Wcntiuifhousc. "Hobble" as we 
call him in on old schoolmate of my room- 
mate here, no as a result -.cr have been 
to„cth,r quite a lillh hit, 1,1. II, is iluiiio 
Vi'rii well icith thr cmj'oii,/. '"in,/ lnrol,,t 
in the Central Slall,,,, !■: ,i„ln, , rino /»-/-/. 

After a ,i,or a„,l I:.;, mmtlhs on the 
student coins, h, r, -.cilh W , sti„,,h,',ise. 



Oiiice Furniture 



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a regular position. I am located in the 
Machinery Electrification Section of the 
Indiistria'l Sales Dept. At the present 
time we arc h,in,llinii siieeifieations and 
proposals en, ritm , I, rl rienl equipment 
for several lurij, ijnv, rnm, iit jobs ituch 
as Grand Coulee bam and part of the 
TVA projects. I have written up sev- 
eral propositions and it m extremely inter- 
estinq. It is larqehi application work, 
and '„ee„si„nalhi uv ,/). ont on trips to dis- 
cuss e,rl,,!n ,1, tolls -..-l/h e„.sl„mers. so that 
I am , n/lr,ti/ pleas,, I icith my location and 
its prospects. . . 

Sincerely. 

V. J. KROPF. 

JOHN O. LARSON, C. E., is now with 
Steel Buildings, Inc., Middletown, Ohio. 
Residence, 2207 Linden Ave., same citv. 

ALBERT HENRY MAACK. 6.34.9 S. 
Washtenaw Ave., Chicago, III., is em- 
ployed by Empire Oil and Refining Co., 
East Chicago, Ind. 

SVEN T. NYLEN, C. E., is superin- 
tendent, Federal Quarry, Moulding Brow- 
nell Corp., 165 W. Wacker Drive, Chicago. 
He lives at 7701 Halsted St. 

LEONARD W. ROBBIE, Ch. E., Uni- 
versal Oil Products, Dumas, Texas, sent 
a post card reading, I am down in Te.vas 
as a poly plant operator for U. O. P. 
Berger is in charge of the unit and uses 
me as a "stooge." Please note that I did 
not start this fire! 

MAURICE P. SHIU, E. E., who is a 
proud father of Maurice III, born a short 
time ago, was forced to return with his 
familj from Canton, China, because of 
the Japanese invasion. His home here 
in Chicago is 56.53 Drexel Ave. The fol- 
lowing is a report of his major experi- 
ences since leaving Armour Institute: 

Upon completing my studies at dear old 
alma, mater in the summer of 1936, I left 
for China a few months later. In the 
latter part of October, I arrived at Hong 
Kong after an eighteen day voyage across 
the Pacific. 

From Hong Kong, I went by rail to 
Canton, a. distance of one hundred and 
txcenty miles. I made m,y home in the 
residential district of May Yee Kong, 
Tungshan. 

In the middle of January of 1937, I 
received my appointment to the Kwang- 
tung Provincial Cement Factory as an 
assistant engineer at their power plant. 




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Phone Hyde Park 2435 



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To business correspondents who do not 
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seen your place of business, your letter- 
head reflects the personality of your firm 

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Ml/ position lasted only a few months, and 
Ih'ciiiisc of political affairs, I tendered mij 

lirfon' lomi, I nrrivrd another appoint- 
mnit to the Kuuniiitini,! I'roviiirlol Ili,/!,- 
icoii Admiiustration as imiiiicrr Iti thiir 
wrrhaiiiral ami aittowotivc deport m,„ts. 
Ml! work there mis ver;/ intensftiKj as 
I liiiil iilwoi/s eiijoi/ed priirticol tniiniinj. 

.1 list as I zcas settlint/ doxcii and niakinij 
a living for myself, the Sino-Japanese 
War broke out in Shanghai , in July, 1937. 
yot verii long after the Japanese seized 
Shanohiii. word reached Canton that the 
Japa'iusr icoidd soon slai/e an air raid 
over Canton. 

fnfartiniolrh, far nn, iH„,de. the Jap- 
anisi linnilirrs rain,,/ ,'halli from the sklj 
over Canton ,,ii .Inoiist ..7, /.''.?r, the first 
air mid that the eitii had ,ver Witnessed. 
Ilnndnds of civilians and nan-eomtuitant s 
were killed. The horror of II all. hands 
and legs blown from the hoih/: hnman 
flesh hanging from telephone and elect rir 
'wires! 

The objectives of the Japanese air raid 
on. Canton -were the Tin-Flo Military Aero- 
drome, the militani estaldishments, and 
the Canlan-Kowloon h'alhway. The latter 
connects Canton 'with the ikritish Crown 
Colony of Hong Kong. However, the 
Japanese air raid resulted in only slight 
damage to our aerodrome and a loss of 
one pnrsuit plane. 

So(}n after the air raid, I received notice 
from the American Consul General to 
evacuate Miiij Yee Kong, Tungshan, im- 
aicdidtilii -while there were still transpor- 
tation facilities. May Yee Kong, Tung- 
shan was marked the "danger zone" as 
it was only three miles west of the Tin-Ho 
Aerodrome. 

Bii evenimt. people livinif in this resi- 
dential district heqan a 'wh.desale evacnei- 
fion for the liriti.-h Colony of Hong Kong 
hi/ iiieans of train and steamer, and within 
a' fc'w </'(//.s- tlie ilistrict was deserted. 

Wieks 'jia.isid. nil sign of a second air 
raid! People an Ihe streets were alert; 
iiicrchiints 'were going about their business 
as though nothing had happened. 

On the morning of September SI, at 
1:00 a. m., an air raid alarm sounded 
throughout the city. At tin .lamr instant, 
the city was put in total darknes.-< i.ecept 
for the hiniinoiis lii/ht of Ihe moon. Five 



elin.sed. 



ift guns were 



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activi ! .Is I wiilchid from a large tree 
in mil i/anlin. I sa'w a squadron of ten 
Japii'ii<.^( hoiiiliers heading for the Tin-Ho 
Aeradroiiii. I'hey flew over my home at 
rt high altitude' to escape anti-aircraft 
shells. Still, their engines were audible 
at such heights. Then suddenly the 
bombers flew low, one after another to 
release their diiidly missiles. As the 
latiiilis mil tin iiirfli. the ground which I 
-was sliniirnig an frimbled from beneath 
mil fill white iiiiiiui windows and doors 
-w'rri' hrnki n In Ih, 'district. 

iicliiin euntinualli/, it prevented our pur- 
suit planes from "dog fighting" with the 
enemy in the city. So our planes took 
to the air to meet the enemy near Bogas 
Tigris Forts, the entrance to Canton from 
the sea. Here a brilliant combat was 
staged with a loss to the Japanese of two 
bombers and also one jinrsnil plane. Our 
loss 'WHS idnaist as i/riat in /nirsiiit pliincs. 
Inside the citi/. 'our mil i-airernft i/uns 
downed two of the cneniirs planes. The 
duration of this niid 'Was over two hours; 
but three hiinrs aftir this raid Was over, 
the Japanese again stiii/id another raid 
over the city in an attempt to demoralize 
the Chinese people. 



For a greater Armour 
Institute resulting in greater 
service to Chicago and the 
Middle West. 



BOWES 
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540 N. Michigan Ave. 
Whitehall 7945 



HAMILTON BROS. 

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63 



.V,- n„itl,'r h,nc fn,n,r„lh, th,- ./, 



p,i. 



iiiviuliil the citii hi, ulr. Iliii/ vould ti«f 
hrcdk III)' vKinile of the Chinese peojilc: 
instead, the;/ stirred in their hearts n 
strong determination to defeat Japan U'ilh 
'time." 

-rime'- is an i„i p.irtani factor in this 
zcar with Japan. Ixraiise of the fart that 
she can not carri/ on war in Chinese terri- 
torii without monei/. Therefore, Japan's 
hiKje war e.rpenditure.1 will soon draf/ hrr 
down to the point ■where she ■will realise 
that her military adventure in China is 
'■(loomed." 

GII.BEHT WILLIAM STUTZ, E. E., 
resides at 18 E. Nortliwest Hifrlnvay, Ar- 
lington Heiglits, IlL He is in tlie reseanli 
division of FairbanliS, Morse & Co, (jOl) 
S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111., and was 
married some months ago. 

DAVID C. TIMBERLAKE, F. P. E.. 
.50() W. St. CatluriiR- St., Louisville, K\ ., 
is connected witli Kcntuekv Actuarial Bu- 
reau. Starks Bhl^.. Louisville. 

WESLEY S. WIETING, Arch., in the 
construction Dept., Scott-Burr Stores 
Corp., 430 W. Randolph St., lives at 37tl) 
Ward St., Chicago. 

MISSING: DECEASED: 

Olson, E. W., Arcli. None 



1937 

ANTHONY J. ALLEGRETTI, Ch. E., 

resides at .517 N. Laramie Ave., Chicago, 
Hi. He is chemical engineer for Conti- 
nental Can Co., 463;3 W. Grand Ave. 

HERMAN OTTO BALterMEISTER, 
Ch. E., is now assistant for Commonwealth 
Edison Co. in their chemical engineering 
division, 2233 S. Throop St. and lives at 
238() Seminary Ave., hotli in Chicago. 

WALTER H. BOTTELSEN, C. E., is 
married and employed bv American Utili- 
ties Service Corp., 214 Main St., Savanna, 

ROLF O. BREUER, E. E., assistant 
clerk with HOLC, Merchandise Mart, is 
at 7512 Eastlake Terrace, Chicago. 

EARLE H. BRINK, E. E., is student 
engineer. General Electric Co., Erie, Pa 

WALTER CARLSON, M. E., 11241 
Normal Ave., Chicago, 111., is stationed 
at Pensacola, Fla., Aviation Cadet with 
U. S. Navy, Naval Air Station. 

WILLIAM A. CHAPIN, JR., E. E., 
has been transferred to the Schenectadav, 
N. Y., plant of General Electric Co. 

MARK L. DANNIS, Sc, with Gaert- 
ner Scientific Corp., 1201 W. Wrightwood, 
Chicago, lives at 1401 Hyde Park Blvd. 

PAUL R. FRANZEN, M. E., 5912 N. 
Washtenaw Ave., is organ designer for 
Hammond Instrument Co., Chicago 

POBERT J. HARROLD, M. E., de- 
signing engineer, Charles Bruning Co., 
1134 W. Hubbard St., resides at 545 N. 
Humphrey Ave., Oak Park, 111. 

EDWARD F. HICKEY, 130 Trow- 
bridge, Detroit, Mich., is still with Fair- 
banks Morse & Co. of that city. He is 
anxious to contact Armour men workin"- 
in that vicinity. '^ 

IAN RALPH IKENN, C. E., is engi- 
neering draftsman, power plants, with 
H. A. Durr & Co., 123 W. Madison St., 
Chicago. Residence, 4.337 N. Monticello 
Ave. Ikenn is much interested in wood- 
craft. 

ROBERT P. JOHNSTONE, Arch., 
8224 Drexel Ave., Chicago, is designer for 
Trace and Warner. 

WILLIAM D. PETERSON, E. E., with 
Bendix Radio Co., was married to Miss 
Kveta Sasko. Congratulations. Resi- 
dence, 81.32 La Fayette Ave., Chicatro 



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210 So. Clark St., 
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PAIL A. REH, M. E., student engi- 
neer at Ceru-ral Electric, Schenectady, 
X. ^ ., resides at 233 Seward Place, saine 

i)()XAI.D C. RICHARDSON, E. E., 
I">l(i W. 6th Ave., Gary, Ind., writes: 

/ have been engineer with Gary Heat. 
I.iilht, and Water Co., 500 Br'oadwatj. 
<>'arii. for about three toeeks, and I enjoi/ 
mil work. A'o other Armour boi/s 'are 
Ik re. I have met several men emjiloiiine/ 
.iniioiir men, and the;/ think highli/ of 

LAURENCE RICK, Ch. E., 2(J11 Divi- 
sion St., is analytical research chemist with 
Miner Laboratories, 9 S. Clinton St., Chi- 
cago, 111. 

HERBERT S. RUEKBERG, M. E., 
<!iief engineer, Elmer E. Mills Corp., 812 
U . Vnn Buren St., Chicago, resides at 
ii.i.S3 Sheridan Rd. 

LEONARD SORKIN, Ch. E., lives at 
0.54 N. Monticello Ave., Cliicago. 

CHARLES S. SRAMEK, Ch. E., 4510 
S. Gross Ave., Chicago, has recently been 
promoted from pumpman to stillman and 
will soon be sole operator of a new 2.5,000 
gallon and four 8,000 gallon intermittent 
stilLs, at the By-Products Plant, Inland 
Steel Co., Indiana Harbor. Ind. 

SIGMCND J. SULINSKI, C. E., 37,58 
Divcrsey Ave., is analyst for State High- 
way Planning Commission, 20 N. Wacker 
Drixc, Chicago, 111. 

MICHAEL J. WILSON (WASYL- 
CnV). E. E., junior development engi- 
neer. Electrical Engineers Equipment Co., 
Melrose Park, 111., resides at 930 N. Monti- 
cello Ave., Chicago. 

PETER WINEL, JR., M. E., 1871 
Burling St., Chicago, sent us a long list 
of Armour Mechanics with up to date in- 
formation as to their present connections, 
for which we are indeed grateful. I ast 
January this class held its first reunion, 
and Winel writes as follows: 

Dear Se, retarij : 

The reunion^ turned out to he a great 
■■■■uccess. cii'ilh 7-1 per rent of the class pres- 
<nl. It icas derided to hold two such af- 
fairs « gear xcith the possibility of having 
a pirnir every summer. 

The III- iiibers who were unable to at- 
leiid ici re certainly missed by their elass- 
• iiate.i. and ice are hoping to see them at 
our iii'.rt reunion. 

■ Is I have been appointed the corre- 
■yionding secretary of the group, I would 
like to take this opportunity of request- 
ing the few members who failed to an- 
swer our reunion invitation to write me 
and let me know where we can qet in 
touch with them. 

We are looking forward to meetinq the 
rest of the class of '.37 at the Anmml 
.trmour Alumni Banquet (June 7—Me- 
diunh (/lul, of Chicago.) 

In closing I would like to congratulate 
the editorial staff- of the Armour 'Ei,,,',urer 
and Alumnus for the fine xc:,rk I hi,, are 
doing and trust that the enrlnsr,! iufirma- 
tlon xcill assist them in keepini/ an up to 
date record of the '37 M. E. Class. 
Yours very truly, 

PETER WINEL. 

EDWARD J. WOLNIAK, C. E., is 
now field engineer for Youngstown Sheet 
and Tube Co., Indiana Harbor, Ind. Resi- 
dence, .5734 S. Paulina St., Chicago, II'. 

ROBERT WILLIAM WRIGHT, E E. 
5216 W. Monroe St., is engineer and 
draftsman with Elsberg Mfg. Co., Inc 
3.53 W. Grand Ave., Chicago. 

MISSING: DECEASED: 

None None 



64 



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DEW on the grass may be tine for the farmers 
and an indication of fair weather, but it has no 
place in metal heat-treating furnaces. Moisture in 
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metal, thus decreasing the size of the part. Because it 
is impossible to tell the amotmt of moisture in such a 
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The potentiometer consists of a metallic mirror 
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cubic foot of gas may be derived. Thus the furnace 
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Many of the G-E developmental engineers working 
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SPEEDY FLIES 

THERE are many legends of nature which have 
remained for manv years, eventually being 
refuted by naturalists, but one which has persisted 
up until a few weeks ago is that of the phenomenal 
speed of the deer botflv. While man plods along at a 
speed of 400 miles per hour in his airplane, one 



entomologist calculaled ih.- speed of llie deer bot- 
fly to be 800 miles per hour. Digressing from his 
usual type of experiments. Dr. lr\ing Langnuiir, 
Nobel Prize winner in the General Electric Kesearch 
Laboratory, exploded this entomological iii^lli by 
means of a series of tests. 



leer 
sect 



.U'dl 



Using a piece of solder the size and sliaj)e of 
botfly. Dr. Langmuir showed llial if this 
traveled at 800 miles per hour it would en... 
wind pressure of 8 poiimls per s([uare inch 
to crush it. and that maintaining such a v<'locity 
would require a power consumption of one-half horse- 
power — a good deal for a fly. He also demonstrated 
that the insect would be invisible at speeds in excess 
of 60 miles per hour, yet the entomologist estimated 
the speed of the fly at 400 yards per second because 
he saw a brown blur pass by his eyes. Finally the 
calculations showed that if the fly, while traveling 
at this speed, struck a human being, it would pen- 
etrate the skin with a force of four tons per sipiare 
inch and bury itself deep in the 'flesh. 

ATOM? 




BOMBARDING ATOMS 

The modern miracles of aviation, television, and 
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tieth century of progress. But it is a different matter 
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Using a machine called a cyclotron, devised by Prof. 
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people are talking about this barrage of ionic 
ammunition because the results have proven success- 
ful in the treatment of cancer. 

This is the third of such atom-smashing machines 
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SYSTEM 




ARMOUR ENGINEER 

and ALUMNUS 



Editor General Manager 

WALTER HENDRICKS D. P. MORETON 



EDITORIAL ASSISTANTS 
Stephen P. Finnegan, '39 
Richard E. Griniidal, "41 
Daniel W. Jacobson, '39 
James D. Sheehan, '38 



BUSINESS ASSISTANTS 
Albert N. Schreiber, '38 
Roland Boertitz, '39 



Published in October, December, March, and May, in the inter- 
ests of the students, college, and alumni of Armour Institute of 
Technology, under the direction of a Managing Board, at 
3300 Federal Street, Chicago, Illinois. 



THE CONTRIBUTORS 

■ Frank F. Fowle received a B. S. degree in electrical engineer- 
ing from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1899. He is 
head of Frank F. Fowle and Company, consulting electrical and 
mechanical engineers. Mr. Fowle has been editor-in-chief of the 
Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers since 1913. He has 
been engaged in engineering work since 1899, and makes his 
home in Winnetka, Illinois. 

■ Charles M. A. Stine graduated from Gettysburg College with 
a B. A. degree in 1901. He successively received B. S., A. M., 
M. S., Sc. D., Ph. D., and LL. D. degrees. He joined the chemical 
staff of DuPont de Nemours and Company in 1907; became 
chemistry director in 1924, and has been a member of the execu- 
tive committee since 1930. Dr. Stine has developed numerous 
processes and products in connection with high explosives, pro- 
pellent powder, dyes, artificial leather, and other inorganic and 
organic chemical products. 

■ Gustav Egloff, Director of Research for the Universal Oil 
Products Company, received his A. B. degree from Cornell Uni- 
versity in 1912 and later attended Columbia University from 
which he received M. A. and Ph. D. degrees. Dr. Egloff has 
made a study of oil cracking for over 20 years. He has been 
issued 237 patents relating to the processing of petroleum oil, 
coal, shale oil, and chemical derivatives to the petroleum. He is 
the author of over 300 articles relating to the petroleum industry 
and of several books. He is a director of the American Institute 
of Industrial Engineers and a member of numerous learned 
societies and clubs. 



■ Edward J. Brady is a graduate of the University of Illinois. 
He spent many years in the Research Department of the Chicago 
Steel and Wire Company and the Joseph T. Ryerson Company. 
He is now a welding engineer, specializing in stainless steel, 
with the Holliip Corporation. 

■ William Trinkaus, Jr., graduated from Armour Institute of 
Technology, in Civil Engineering, in 1908. He received a C. E. 
degree in 1915 al Armour Tech and graduated from Kent Col- 
lege of Law in 1917. He was principal construction engineer 



MAY 1938 

VOLUME 3 NUMBER 4 

IN THIS ISSUE 

The Engineer and His Service to Society, hy Frank 

F. Foivlp 6 

Chemistry Contril)Utes "'Better Things for Belter 

Living," by Charles M. A. Stine 13 

Modem Oil Refining, by Gustav Egloff 2S 

Arc Welding of Stainless Steels, by Edward J. Brady M) 

The Sanitary District of Chicago, by If illiam 

Trinkaus, Jr 18 

A Day's Visit to Armour Institute of Technology, 

by Walter Hendricks 34 



What's Going On 

Our New President 33 

Donors of Funds and P]qui|>iiicnt 48 

Dr. C. A. Tibhals Appointed Dean 50 

Alumni Notes 51 



for the Sanitary District of Chicago from 1909 to 1917, assistant 
chief engineer from 1917-1919, and acting chief engineer until 
July 1, 1937, when he was appointed chief engineer. 

■ Walter Hendricks graduated from Amherst College in 1917. 
He attended the University 6( Grenoble in France and the Uni- 
versity of Chicago from which he received his M. A. degree in 
1930. He was lieutenant in the aviation corps of the U. S. A. 
from 1917-1919. He came to Armour Institute of Technology 
in 1922 as an instructor in English and has been head of the 
department since 1934. 



THE ENGINEER 

AND HIS SERVICE 

TO SOCIETY 

"All Honor to the Engineer" 

by 

Frank F. Fowle 




WHEN we speak of engineering 
in the accepted modern sense 
we mean the science of controlling the 
forces and materials of nature for the 
benefit of man, and the art of apply- 
ing this science to the service of so- 
ciety. This definition obviously in- 
cludes all branches of engineering, 
both ancient and modern. The terra 
engineering was derived from the 
ancient term engine, which originally 
had several meanings, such as natural 
capacity or skill, anything used to 
effect a purpose, any device or con- 
trivance, an instrument, or any of 
various machines, and later a machine 
for generating power, such as a steam 
engine or locomotive. An engineer, 
in early parlance, was one wlio de- 
signs or contrives, an inventor, one 
who carries through an enterprise by 
skillful management, and in modern 
usage one who practices etigineering. 
The first engineer, perhaps, was a 
man of the old stone age who fasli- 
ioned implements and gadgets of 
stone, many thousands of years ago. 
These added to man's capacity both 
to protect himself and to attack his 
enemies, and provided him with means 
to construct defenses and build crude 
shelters for his greater comfort. With 
these primitive tools he became' in time 
the master of hitherto unavailable re- 
sources of nature, which in turn 
yielded to his curiosity and afforded 
still better implements and improved 
contrivances to lessen the hardships 



of a precarious existence. Thus began 
man's long and tedious ascent from 
the age of intellectual darkness to the 
unparalleled civilization of today. 
This ascent is marked especially by 
the continuous improvement of tools 
and methods for discovering nature's 
secrets, and these naturally brought 
advancing mastery over natural re- 
sources and growing facility in con- 
structing those things which consti- 
tute the evidence of a materialistic 
culture. 

In painfully slow stages man ad- 
vanced from the paleolithic age to the 
neolithic or new stone age, character- 
ized by more and better implements 
of stone, bone, and horn, and by the 
beginnings of agriculture and the 
presence of domestic animals. The 
remains of stone structures built dur- 
ing this era are still extant on both 
hemispheres. There is evidence that 
copper and bronze were known as 
early as six thousand years ago, al- 
though some authorities place the so- 
called bronze age somewhat later, or 
about 2500 B.C. Still later or per- 
haps three to four thousand years ago 
men began to smelt iron and in large 
degree it superseded bronze except for 
ornamental purposes. The discovery 
and use of these metals marked a very 
distinct advance in material culture. 

Numerous races of people in ancient 
countries on both sides of the world, 
equipped with tools and implements 
of metal as well as stone and other 



less durable materials, then created 
an era in which man for the first time 
acquired real mastery over his envir- 
onment. These peoples gradually 
learned the properties and possibili- 
ties of their materials. They laid out 
roads, built viaducts, cut tunnels, and 
constructed bridges of wood and 
stone, as well as suspension bridges. 
They planned and erected buildings 
and structures which became historic. 
Ships, harbors, docks, light houses, 
and canals were constructed for pur- 
poses of trade and commerce between 
countries. They also built aqueducts 
and reservoirs for water supply and 
irrigation, drainage systems, fortifica- 
tions, and engines of attack for use 
in warfare. In fact they developed 
the rudiments, at least, of nearly 
every form of engineering which did 
not depend on the application of gen- 
erated forces. Their use of mechan- 
ical power was extremely limited, 
although they understood the con- 
struction of primitive water mills and 
pumps, and early made use of wind 
power for pumping and grinding. 
Animal power and sometimes human 
power were also used for these pur- 
poses. 

Because of their lack of mechanical 
power and power-driven machines, 
these early engineers required the use 
of cheap manual labor on a vast scale. 
This was supplied in most cases by 
slaves, who oftentimes were captives 
of war impressed into this man-killing 



6 



work. Examples of wliat tliis meant 
are most interesting. Herodotus is 
quoted as authority for the statement 
that the construction of the Great 
Pyramid required a hundred thousand 
men for twenty years. He also tells 
us that ten years were required to con- 
struct the road over which the blocks 
of stone were transported from the 
rafts on the Nile to the site of the 
Pyramid. Again, the Bible tells us 
that thirty thousand men were en- 
gaged in building King Solomon's 
Temple at Jerusalem. Countless thou- 
sands of slaves also were pressed into 
service in the galleys, or man-pro- 
pelled ships, much used in those times, 
both in commerce and war. 

Private enterprise in those days was 
unheard of, time was unimportant, 
and nearly all great undertakings 
were built under public enterprise 
with slave labor. Examples of endur- 
ing structures wiiich were the product 
of that period include the Pyramids 



and Tombs of Egypt, Solomon's tem- 
ple, Roman roads and aqueducts, the 
Greek temples, the Great Wall of 
China, and the buried ruins of many 
ancient cities on the shores of the 
Mediterranean Sea. Any list prepared 
with the purpose of embracing them 
all would be almost endless. 

With the advent of the Middle Ages 
came Christianity, and in time men 
became civilized in the true sense. 
There appeared scholars, mathema- 
ticians, and scientists who commenced 
the exploration of the laws of natural 
phenomena and the properties of mat- 
ter. Many of their discoveries are of 
classical importance todaj', and to at- 
tempt even any enumeration of them 
would be impracticable. This growing 
body of scientific knowledge enabled 
inventors and engineers to make cor- 
responding progress in the mastery of 
natural resources and the construction 
of almost every kind of structure or 
machine whicli could be built bv man- 



ual labor or the primitive power- 
driven tools then known. Man came 
to an increasing realization tiiat he 
was seriously handicapped by lack of 
mechanical power adequate to replace 
hand labor on a substantial scale. 
The power of wind and of water were 
developed to quite a remarkable de- 
gree, but these powers were limited 
both in quantity and mobility. Man's 
quest for mechanical power, for a mul- 
titude of purposes, became intensive. 
In the seventeenth century the use 
of steam power was first proposed. 
Savery, Newcomen, and Watt took up 
the quest, with the result that they 
started wliat is now termed the in- 
dustrial revolution, or the modern age 
of power. Toward the close of the 
eighteenth century the steam engine 
became a practical but still inefficient 
machine. Its first appearance in this 
country was shortly after the Revo- 
lution, and it was taken up by Oliver 
Evans, who became the so-called 



When the temple at Jerusalem was completed King Solomon gave a feast to the artificers employed in its construction. 
On unveiling the throne it was found that a smith had usurped the seat of honor on the right of the King's place not yet 
awarded. Whereupon the people clamored and the guard rushed to cut him down. "Hold. Let him speak," commanded 
Solomon. "Thou hast O King invited all craftsmen but me. Yet how could these builders have raised the temple without 
the tools I fashioned." "True", decreed Solomon, "The seat is his of right. ALL HONOR TO THE IRON WORKER." 

(Jewish Legend) 





Blast furnace with 
hot air stoves to the 
left. These stoves 
are used to preheat 
the air used in the 
blast furnaces. 



father of the higli-pressurc engine in 
America. Evans was also the origina- 
tor of milling machinery and wrote 
the first American text-books on the 
subject. The steam engine was the 
cause of the industrial revolution 
which ushered in the modern age of 
power, with its train of consequences 
which altered our whole mode of life 
and gave us unparalleled prosperity 
and comfort. 

Electrical phenomena had attracted 
attention probably as early as 600 
B.C., but not until the seventeenth 
century did this mysterious subject 
receive serious attention. Franklin 
experimented with lightning, but to 
little practical purpose. It remained 
for a genius named Faraday to dis- 
cover the principle of the dynamo in 
the fore part of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. By the middle of the century 
inventors were working on practical 
machines for generating electric poAver 
and re-converting it into mechanical 
work. At the Philadelphia Exposition 
in 1876 the dynamo and the motor 
were demonstrated to be successful 
machines, although on a tiny scale, 
but the ultimate results are known to 
all. It might well be said that this 
achievement ushered in a second in- 
dustrial revolution, because for the 
first time power became both mobile 
and divisible on practically a univer- 
sal scale. 

Engineering in our own country 



Ore loading and 
unloading facilities, 
showing high line 
for blast furnaces. 
Ore and limestone 
piles are seen in 
the foreground. 
Boats dock at the 
left, are unloaded 
by cranes shown in 
the foreground. 



was inhibited jjrior to the Revolution 
by the same limitations which pre- 
vailed generally all over the world, 
and perhaps in further measure by 
the British decrees against industry 
in the American Colonies. In a new 
countrj^, populated only by a few mil- 
lion civilized inhabitants along a sea- 
coast some two thousand miles in 
lengtli, the early engineering works 
were confined to building ships, docks. 



harbors, roads, and bridges, and 
rather primitive mills for grinding, 
sawing, turning, rolling, hammering, 
and the like. Iron was mined and 
smelted on a very small scale, but 
our best iron and steel were neces- 
sarily imported. Our own industrial 
age scarcely commenced until we were 
a free country, but once we were at 
liberty to develop our resources, our 
possibilities were virtually unlimited. 
Among notable engineering accom- 
plishments during the late eighteenth 
and early nineteenth centuries were 
the building of wooden bridges, first 
for highways and later for railroads. 
The first notable bridge was built in 
1785, and others followed rapidly 
with the expansion of settlement and 
increase in travel. Better highways 
were needed also, and McAdam be- 
came celebrated for his early work 
on the great National Road. Numer- 
ous inventors and engineers contrib- 
uted to tlie development of wooden 
bridges, which continued in wide use 
until after the Civil War. Suspension 
bridges of note were developed in the 
1830's, and iron truss bridges came 
into use shortly before the War. Mod- 
ern steel bridges were developed late 
in the nineteenth century, and today 
represent the last word both in truss 
and suspension types and in combina- 
tion. Perhaps in the whole history of 
American engineering there is no more 
striking example of progress than the 
contrast between Nathan Hale's 
wooden bridge across the Connecticut 
river at Bellows Falls, of 1785, and 
the mile-long suspension bridge across 
the Golden Gate, of 1937. The pio- 
neers also built bridges of stone, some 




8 




Large General Electric waterwheel suspended from crane 
at Wheeler Dam Hydroelectric Station of Tennessee Valley 
Authority. 

Three — 277 Kilovolt Westinghouse auto transformers in- 
stalled at Los Angeles. 



High tension transmission line. 

General Electric single-shaft, tandem-compound steam tur- 
bine-generator set, 160,000 Kilowatt in Hudson Avenue Sta- 
tion of the Brooklyn Edison Company, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



of which arc still in use, but mono- 
lithic bridges of reinforced concrete, 
many of them of exceptional architec- 
tural beauty, are comparatively mod- 
ern. 

An era now almost forgotten was 
that of American canals, which flour- 
ished from the late eighteenth to the 
mid-nineteenth centuries. From the 
Atlantic seaboard to the Mississippi 



river, and from Virginia to the north- 
ern boundary, the country was inter- 
laced with thousands of miles of 
canals. They first supplemented and 
then superseded the stage coaches, but 
finally yielded to the railroads. The 
great example was the so-called Grand 
Canal, otherwise known as DeWitt 
Clinton's ditch, or the Erie canal. The 
earliest canals were constructed in 



some instances with the assistance of 
British engineers, but Americans soon 
took their places, and some of the 
most famous names in our engineer- 
ing annals are identified with the con- 
struction of the canal system. 

Contemporaneous with the building 
of roads, bridges, and canals in the 
early nineteenth century was the de- 
velopment of steam navigation. Fitch, 




Long lines broadcast control equipment, in the Telephone Building at 311 West 
Washington Street, Chicago. Research and engineering skill have combined to 
develop "chain broadcasting" by means of which a program is carried by tele- 
phone wires to be broadcast simultaneously by dozens or hundreds of radio stations. 



Power Units — City of Los Angeles — owned and operated jointly by The North- 
western and Union Pacific Railways. Diesel Electric locomotives. Manufactured by 
the Electromotive Corporation. 



Rumsey, Fulton and others pioneered 
in this field, and by 1810 their efforts 
were eommercially successful. The 
steamboat then took its permanent 
place in our systems of transporta- 
tion, first for commercial purposes, 
and presently for the navy, on both 
lakes and rivers. Western river steam- 
lioats developed into a distinctive type 
and played a prominent part in set- 
tling the west. This type of boat, in 
fact, had a glamorous history down 
to the period of the Civil War, and 
even afterward. Subsequently it fell 
into comparative disuse because of 
railroad competition, but its modern 
counterpart, the diesel-powered steel 
barge, seems to be rejuvenating river 
transport. 

American railroad development, 
which started in 1830, is one of our 
outstanding achievements of engineer- 
ing, both civil and mechanical, and 
later electrical. Starting with loco- 
motives of about five tons, strap rails, 
and quaint wooden cars, operating 
over lines only a few miles in length, 
the system expanded with startling 
rapidity. It gave impetus to our en- 
tire national life and produced great 
changes in the distribution of popula- 
tion and industry. The original lines 
were soon consolidated into through 
systems, and before 1860 it was pos- 
sible, with only a few changes of cars, 
to travel by rail from the eastern sea- 
board to the Mississippi river. The 
trans-continental railroad was pro- 
jected by 181'5, surveyed in the 
1850's, and completed in 1869. Be- 
cause it aided materially in making 
us one country from ocean to ocean, 




10 



during a critical period of our history, 
it was appropriately named the Union 
Pacific. Our modern railroad system 
of some 250,000 miles has been re- 
built and re-equipped many times 
since its inception, and a considerable 
mileage is now equipped with electric 
propulsion. The serious problems 
with which it is confronted today are 
economic, and the guidance of engi- 
neers in solving these problems would 
offer the most hope of a wise solution. 
There can be no doubt that railroads 
will constitute the backbone of land 
transportation for many years to come 
if not indefinitely. 

No electrical development of note, 
except the telegraph, appeared before 
the late 1870's. Edison perfected the 
incandescent lamp and developed a 
complete system of central station 
supply and distribution which came 
into use in the early 1880's. West- 
inghouse espoused the alternating-cur- 
rent system and pioneered in the use 
of so-called high voltages for distri- 
bution. Electric power transmission 
made a modest beginning in the last 
decade of the century and before 
many years exerted a profound effect 
on the whole art of generation and 
distribution of power. It made pos- 
sible the development of the modern 
super-power station, including its 
complement of boilers, turbines, and 
generators, with high steam pressures 
and temperatures, and the production 
of a kilowatt-hour of energy with less 
than a pound of coal. Likewise it 
made available many water powers 
which previously had no market. To- 
day the national mileage of transmis- 




Overseas telephone switchboard in the Long Lines Building of the American Tele- 
phone and Telegraph Company, 32 Sixth Avenue, New York. Development of the 
telephone art by engineers and research workers has made it possible for about 
ninety-three per cent of all the telephones in the world to be interconnected for 
service. Telephone calls from all parts of the United States to Europe, to Bermuda, 
to the more distant countries of South America and to ships on the Atlantic Ocean 
pass through this board. 



One of the "Steamliners" of the Chicago & North Western Railway. Manufactured 
by the American Locomotive Company. Most powerful 4-6-4 passenger locomotive 
ever built. 





sion lines is approximately the same 
as the total railroad mileage, although 
the average distance over which elec- 
tric power is transmitted is relatively 
short. 

In the development of communica- 
tion by the written and spoken word 
over wires or through space, and by 
sound-motion pictures, American engi- 
neers have been pre-eminent. Al- 
though the electric telegraph and the 



Boulder Dam partly conslructed. 
view. 



Night 



Copper reduction works in process of 
construction. 




ti'lcjihone were products of the last 
century, this development is largely 
the work of engineers now living. 
About ninety-five per cent of the tele- 
phones in the whole world can be 
reached from any telephone in the 
United States, and one can make a 
telephone call across the country with 
almost as little delay as calling a 
neighbor. We also lead the world in 
the development and use of the tele- 
phone for commercial and social pur- 
j)oses. The vacuum-tube device which 
is responsible for much of this re- 
markable development can be made to 
function as amplifier, rectifier, or se- 
lective valve, and has almost countless 
applications in industrial control. It 
lias also made possible the radio broad- 
cast jirograms which carry entertain- 
mrnt, instruction, and news to count- 
less listeners in both our own country 
and foreign lands. 

In the realms of mining, metallur- 
gical and chemical engineering, Amer- 
ican engineers long have been pre- 
eminent. The iron and steel industry, 
non-ferrous metal industries, cement 
industry, glass and porcelain indus- 
tries, and a long list of industries 
producing such things as textiles, pa- 
per, chemicals, oil, rubber products, 
lumber products, and countless syn- 
thetic substitutes, all stand as monu- 
ments of achievement by scientists, 
inventors, and engineers. The same 
is true as regards the development of 
machines for working every known 
kind of materials, type-setting and 
I)rinting machines, milling machinery, 
mechanical refrigeration, excavating 
machines, and machinery for handling 
materials in bulk. The different types 
of electric motor applications for in- 
dustrial, commercial, and domestic 
purposes now total many thousands. 

The modern internal-combustion 
engine, with its application to auto- 
mobiles, locomotives, airplanes, ships^ 
barges, tractors, and power plants, is 
an outstanding American achievement. 
The first diesel engine in America was 
brought from Germany in 1898. In 
the short period of forty years since 
that date, practically this whole de- 
velopment has taken place, and it 
continues vigorously at the present 
time. 

Public utilities for supplying water, 
gas, and electrical energy, and sys- 
tems of sewage disposal, drainage, and 
irrigation, represent a brilliant chap- 
ter in the history of engineering. 
These services, together with commu- 
nication and transportation, touch the 
lives of all our people and are indis- 
pensable to national well-being and 
prosperity. 

(Turn to page 52) 



12 



CHEMISTRY 
CONTRIBUTES 

"BETTER THINGS FOR 
BETTER LIVING" 



by 

Charles M. A. Stine 




SCIENTIFIC research, with par- 
ticular reference to chemical 
development, has exercised a profound 
influence upon our economic life. The 
chemical industry is in fact dedicated 
to a basic policy of reducing cost and 
improving quality. Behind its more 
general aspects, there is ample evi- 
dence at every hand of just how 
greatly scientific research has contrib- 
uted to the more intimate problem of 
providing "Better Things for Better 
Living." 

Even members of a comparatively 
younger generation can remember 
when a private carriage was a luxury 
of the few. Today, millions of people 
own their own automobiles. Many 
can recall when only the fortunate 
minority could afford silk stockings, 
and other clothing made of silk. 
Today, millions of our girls who work 
in offices and mills dress better than 
queens of 100 years ago. Tyrian 
purple was once the mark of kings. 
Today a better and more durable pur- 
ple is within the means of everyone. 
Within our memory the mid-winter 
fare of the American family was 
largely limited to a few staple items. 
Today we have fresh fruits from the 
tropics, fresh vegetables from recent 
harvests, and such an abundance and 
variety of foodstuffs that our menu 
far surpasses that at the command of 
the richest and most powerful em- 
peror of the last century. We have 
progressed from the dim and smoky 
kerosene lamp to the electric bulb; 



from the wood and coal stove to auto- 
matically controlled central heating; 
from hot, stuffy summer quarters to 
air-conditioned office buildings, rail- 
way cars, apartment houses, and a 
rapidly increasing number of homes. 
All of these things, at steadily de- 
creasing cost, have been made avail- 
able through scientific research. The 
real significance of all this is simply 
that the average man can, on a limited 
budget, enjoy luxuries that were un- 
known only a few years ago. 

But scientific research has done 
more than contribute to a general low- 
ering of the prices of many of the 
necessities and luxuries of life. It 
has opened up new avenues of em- 
ployment through the development of 
new industries ; it has created mate- 
rials which contribute to our comfort 
and health; it has aided in the con- 
servation of our natural resources; it 
has given us synthetic products which 
tend to make us independent of for- 
eign sources of supply for certain vital 
materials. Scientific research has 
done more than create materials which 
contribute to greater happiness by 
satisfying our inherent craving for 
beauty and fine quality. It has light- 
ened physical labor and reduced the 
number of hours per day necessary to 
make a living, with no reduction in 
weekly wages. Scientific research has 
thus provided leisure, supplied money, 
and conserved energy, for enjoyment 
of the "Better Things for Better Liv- 
ing," which it has created. 



Consider the contributions of chem- 
istry to textiles, since clothing is ac- 
counted a major necessity. No one 
knows when the manufacture of textile 
fabrics was started, but we do know 
that many centuries before the birth 
of Christ, spinning and weaving were 
extensively practiced in P^gypt, and 
according to tradition the culture of 
silk was begun in China about 5000 
B. C. 

From prehistoric times until about 
200 years ago, textile yarns were all 
spun and woven by laborious hand 
operations, and within the memory of 
persons now living the spinning wheel 
and hand loom were used in making 
cotton and woolen fabrics for iiome 
use. Early in the eighteenth century, 
and extending down through the nine- 
teenth century, remarkable advances 
were made in textile technology, but 
most of these advances were of a 
purely mechanical nature. 

The textile industry was, for ex- 
ample, still dependent upon natural 
dyes, such as saffron, sumac, and in- 
digo, which covered only a limited 
range of colors, were relatively dull, 
and in many cases were not fast to 
light or wasliing. Furthermore, many 
natural dyestuffs had to be imported 
from Europe, Asia, and Africa, and 
were quite expensive. During the 
latter half of the nineteenth century, 
however, chemistry contributed syn- 
thetic dyestuffs to the textile industry, 
using coal tar as the basic raw ma- 
terial. This development of synthetic 



13 




dyestuffs was of far-rcacliiiig impor- 
tance to the textile industry. Today, 
from humble eoal tar, the chemist 
makes a complete rainbow of bright 
fast colors, the cost of which in many 
cases is only a small fraction of that 
of somewhat similar, though inferior, 
natural colors. The famous old 
Tyrian purple, for example, derived 
from a shellfish found in the Mediter- 
ranean Sea, was so expensive that the 
Roman Emperor, Diocletian, set the 
price of wool dyed with this color at 
around $350 a pound. Today the 
chemist makes purple dyestuffs from 
coal tar, far exceeding in brilliance 
and fastness the royal purple of 
antiquity, and at a cost which adds 
only a few cents a j'ard to the finished 
fabric. 

In ISSi came the epoch-making 
discovery by Chardonnet, a French 
chemist, that synthetic textile fibers 
could be made from relatively cheap 
raw materials. It was the birth of 
the man-made fiber later to revolu- 
tionize the textile industry under the 
name of "rayon." Using cellulose de- 
rived from the spruce tree and cotton 
linters as raw material, the rayon 
industry has traveled far since its 
humble beginning in France some fifty 
years ago. The importance of Char- 
donnet's pioneering work is brought 
home by the fact tliat, although rayon 
was first manufactured in this country 
in 1911, more than 50,000 workers 
were employed in making the 290,- 
000,000 pounds of synthetic yarn 
produced in the United States last 
year, to say nothing of the thousands 
employed in the manufacture of rayon 
fabrics and clothing. 



14 




The reasons for this sensational 
textile development are not hard to 
find. Through chemical research, the 
beauty and quality of rayon yarns 
have been steadily improved, as a re- 
sult of which garments made from this 
synthetic fiber have emerged from the 
basement bargain counter to the most 
exclusive salons of fashion. 

It may be said that rayon has 
assisted in breaking down class dis- 
tinctions. It has brouglit about a cora- 
))lete similarity in the appearance of 
the Colonel's Lady and Judy O'Grady 
— since this new textile fiber has made 
them sisters over the skin ! Thanks 
to this outstanding contribution of 
chemical research to the textile indus- 
try, whereby fabrics of surprising 
beauty and quality have been brought 



Research apparatus af the Experimen- 
tal station oi E. I. du Pont de Nemours & 
Company, near Wilmington, Delaware. 

The inspection room at the du Pont 
Company's Rayon plant near Richmond, 
Virginia, where each skein — 6,000 to 
10,000 yards of rayon — is placed upon a 
rack directly under a light and given an 
intensive examination by trained inspec- 
tors who classify the yarn according to 
definite grade standards. 

Beginning of the actual making of 
"Cellophane" cellulose film at the Rich- 
mond, Virginia, plant of E. I. du Pont de 
Nemours & Company. A sheet of "Cello- 
phane" is seen leaving the coagulating 
bath on its way through a series of 
chemical treatments toward the finished 
product. The subject was in motion 
when photographed. 




*r^ 



within the reach of every woman in 
the United States, it is literally true 
tiiat "Solomon in all his glory was 
not arrayed like one of these"; but 
what may be more to the point — 
neither was the Queen of Sheba. 

The contributions of scientific re- 
search to the automotive industry have 
been as far-reaching in their social 
implications as in the case of the tex- 
tile industry. To begin with, chem- 
ical research gave us, about the year 
1921, quick-drying, low-viscosity lac- 
quers, based on pyroxylin made by 
treating cotton linters with nitric acid, 
— a development which made possible 
the mass production of automobiles by 
cutting down the time required for 
finishing a car from weeks to hours — 
to say nothing of the superior beauty 



Chemicals to be tested as insecticides, 
fungicides or bactericides are prepared 
as dusts, sprays or dips for the use of 
entomologists, plant pathologists or other 
experimenters in laboratory, greenhouse 
and field. A few of the more than 2500 
chemicals available in the du Pont Pest 
Control Research Laboratory, Wilming- 
ton, Delaware, are shown on the shelves. 
Others are being added as they are 
synthesized in other du Pont laboratories. 

Spraying fruit or shade trees with in- 
secticides, or fungicides to control the 
destructive infestations of these plant 
diseases. 

The first step in nitrogen fixation by the 
usual synthetic ammonia process is to 
make "blue" water gas. Shown here is 
the charging floor of a coke oven battery, 
into which coal is fed, heated, and vola- 
tile matter distilled off, leaving the coke, 
which is used in making water gas. This 
view is from the top of the ovens at the 
Belle, West Virginia, Works of E. I. du 
Pont de Nemours <& Company. Capacity 
is 1260 tons of coal per day. 



and durability of these new pyroxylin 
finishes. More recently, the chemist 
has contributed still another type of 
quick-drying finish, based on syn- 
thetic resins having their origin in 
coal tar and vegetable oils, which bids 
fair to rival the pyroxylin lacquers in 
importance. The chemist has also 
given us coated fabrics in place of the 
leather formerly used for upholstery, 
and in this connection it is of interest 
that to supply leather in yardage 
equivalent to that of the pyroxylin- 
coated "leather cloth" now used, a 
vast acreage would have to be devoted 
to the raising of cattle for hides. 

The chemist has, moreover, elimi- 
nated one of the major hazards of mo- 
toring by giving us safety glass, for 
the windows and windshields of our 
cars, made by sandwiching a sheet of 
transparent cellulose plastic between 
two pieces of plate glass. Scientific 



.f&M 





research has materially reduced the 
expense of motoring by giving us 
tires of superior quality at lower cost. 
A further scientific development which 
has far-reaching significance, — not 
only to the automotive industry, but 
to the petroleum industry as well, is 
that of "cracking," whereby the 
amount of gasoline obtainable from a 
given crude oil is double that formerly 
obtained by straight distillation. It 
is clear that this development has, in 
effect, doubled our oil reserves so far 
as gasoline is concerned. Furthermore, 
cracked gasoline, having a higher "oc- 
tane rating," — that is, less tendency 
to "knock," has made possible the 
modern higli-compression motor. 



Rats being prepared for Vitamin D as- 
say at the New Brunswick (N. J.) labora- 
tory of E. I. du Pont de Nemours & 
Company. 



Packing synthetic camphor from flak- 
ing machine at the Deepwater Point 
(N. J.) plant of E. I. du Pont de Nemours 
& Company. This camphor comes from 
the pine tree. 



Rubber mill use for washing neoprene 
chloroprene rubber at the Deepwater 
Point (N. I.) plant of E. I. du Pont de 
Nemours & Company. Neoprene is made 
from limestone, coal, salt, and water. 




I have frequently referred to a])- 
jilied science as a creator and distribu- 
tor of wealth. One of the notable 
examples of a vastly improved prod- 
uct made available to all at much 
lower prices, is the automobile. The 
low-priced car of today has more 
beauty, comfort, durability, and 
safety than the many times more ex- 
pensive automobile of a by-gone day. 
In judging our new cars only by the 
yard-stick of economy, it has been 
estimated that research has resulted 
in a saving of more than three billion 
dollars a year to American motorists. 

Scientific research has enhanced the 
returns of agriculture through the de- 
velojjment of chemical fertilizers 
wliieh greatlj- increase the yield and 
quality of farm crops. The chemist 
has literally made two blades of grass 
grow where but one grew before. 
Within recent years science has dem- 
onstrated the practicability of more 
concentrated fertilizers which effect 
a considerable saving to the farmer 
by eliminating freight charges on 
sand and other inert fillers which for- 
merly ran as high as 25 per cent in 
some commercial fertilizers. 

The chemist also supplies the tiller 
of the soil with improved weapons 
with wliich to fight the hordes of hun- 
gry insects wliicli cause a loss esti- 
mated at two billion dollars a year, 
and the plant diseases which are re- 
sponsible for an estimated additional 
one and one-half billion dollar loss 
to agriculture. It is not possible to 
say how high these losses would run 
but for the scientific research directed 



16 




to the control of the insects and plant 
diseases which threaten our farm 
crops. The chemist is, however, doing- 
all in his power to stem the tide of 
this battle in favor of the farmer, 
and new laboratories are being built 
for the synthesis and testing of insec- 
ticides and fungicides with which it 
is hoped the enemy may ultimately be 
completely routed. 

The role played by science in re- 
cent years in making synthetic prod- 
ucts available as materials of construc- 
tion has well-nigh revolutionized the 
building industry. No longer are the 
architect and builder wholly depend- 
ent upon natural products. Scientific 
research has contributed to tlie build- 
ing industry materials which are used 
from roof to foundation, from fire- 
proof composition shingles, to the 
window glass which transmits the 
health-giving ultra-violet light from 
the sun. 

By means of the new safe refriger- 
ants known as "Freon" which the 
scientist has built to specifications, as 
it were, the air-conditioning of homes, 
theaters, and office buildings, as well 
as for use in domestic and hotel re- 
frigerating units has been made pos- 
sible and economically feasible. 

Fear was once entertained that 
serious famines might occur unless 
some means were devised to restore to 
the soil nitrogen taken from it by 
growing crops. It is quite true that 
in ages past nature laid away a store 
of sodium nitrate in the desert regions 
of Chile, but it was recognized that 
these natural deposits of nitrogenous 



Articles made of "Lucite" methyl 
methacrylate resin. This plastic is as 
clear as rock quartz. One of the proper- 
ties of "Lucite" is its ability to convey 
light through itself edgewise, concen- 
trating the illumination at the ends or 
edges only. This plastic can be pro- 
duced transparent, translucent, and 
opaque, and in any color, or combination 
of mottles. It is made from coal, air and 
water. 



Color paste ready to go into the air 
dryers at the Dye Works of E. I. du Pont 
de Nemours & Company at Deepwafer 
Point, New Jersey. 



fiTtilizer could not hist forrver, and 
that in time of a national emergency 
tliis foreign source of supply for a 
vital material might be cut off. But 
fear of famine due to a lack of "fixed" 
nitrogen no longer exists. The chem- 
ist has developed metiiods for taking 
nitrogen from the air and combining 
it in such a way as to make it useful 
as a fertilizer for our crops. And this 
same fixed nitrogen, in the form of 
nitric acid, is also used in the manu- 
facture of dozens of products with 
which we have daily contact, — includ- 
ing the beautiful finishes on our cars, 
non-siiattering safety glass, motion 
picture film, plastics used in making 
numerous toilet articles, finger nail 
(Turn to page 52) 




17 




THE 



Sanitary District 
OF Chicago 



by 

William Trinkaus, Jr. 



LAKE Michigan is the source of 
the public water supply for Chi- 
cago and its suburbs. Their most im- 
portant problem has been to prevent 
contamination of the lake by sewage. 
The Sanitary District of Chicago was 
created specifically to remove any 
possibility of sewage pollution of the 
water and to dispose of the sewage. 
When completed its works will rep- 
resent a capital investment of nearly 
a third of a billion dollars. 

Paying out a million dollars a 
month for the last five years on con- 
tracts for construction, The Sanitary 
District of Chicago is now nearing 
completion of a building program of 
treatment works and sewers that will 
permit reduction of the quantity of 
diluting water taken from Lake Mich- 
igan without endangering the purity 
of the public water supply. This ar- 
ticle gives a brief resume of the evo- 
lution of Chicago's great sanitary 
system and describes the n'ew works 
which will provide facilities for col- 
lecting and treating the sewage origi- 
nating within the district. By pre- 
venting the discharge of sewage into 
the source of its public water supply 
system, chlorinating the water, and 
supervising milk and food supply, 
Chicago has reduced the rate of deatlis 
due to water-borne disease to the low- 
est of any large city in the world. 

Early Attempts at Sanitation 

To visualize the progress that has 
been made, consider the situation in 

18 



Chicago as it was before 18.50. The 
terrain was practically a marsh only 
a few feet above the level of Lake 
Michigan, and the population was 
growing rapidly. Lack of drainage 
made the streets impassible quagmires 
in wet weather, and open gutters car- 
ried an odorous slime that offended 
the senses. A privately owned com- 
pany delivered water of miserable 
quality to a small part of the city 
through mains made of spruce logs 
bored lengthwise and joined by 
wooden fittings. Most of the people 
secured their water for household use 
from shallow wells or went down to 
the beach and carried it home in buck- 
ets. Every householder had an out- 
house on his lot, and of course the 
wells soon became contaminated. 
Water carriers did a thriving business 
delivering lake water to those who 
could afford it at a nickel a bucket or 
a quarter a barrel. Epidemics of ty- 
phoid fever reaped a terrible toll of 
human lives. At times the rate of 
deaths frcm this cause alone reached 
5.6 percent of the population, or one 
out of every eighteen inhabitants per 
year. 

Following such an epidemic in 185i 
the City Council commissioned a 
young civil engineer to devise a rem- 
edy. He spent a year studying condi- 
tions in every city in America and in 
thirteen European cities and found no 
precedents that fitted the conditions 
here. He then proposed a scheme 
that was nothing short of daring in 
view of the state of engineering 



knowledge of that day and created a 
violent outburst of public protest. He 
suggested that the city should lift it- 
self out of the mud by filling the 
entire area ten to fourteen feet so as 
to give them enough elevation to per- 
mit building underground sewers to 
drain into the lake or into the Chi- 
cago river. In spite of the objections 
the city adopted that scheme, and for 
the first time in its short life enjoyed 
dry basements and streets free from 
tlie odor of sewage. More important, 
however, was the relief from tiie curse 
of water-borne disease which settled 
down to a rate of about sixty-five 
deaths per year per hundred thousand 
of population. The sewers built as a 
part of tliat scheme were the first in 
any city in America, and some of 
them are still serving portions of the 
downtown area today. 

Despite the pumpage from the 
South Branch into the Illinois and 
Michigan Canal, the increasing dis- 
charge of wastes from distilleries, 
slaughter houses, and other industries, 
together with the sewage, soon made 
the Chicago river so foul tliat the city 
was obliged to adopt measures to 
purify it. Several years of study and 
debate finally resulted in adoption of 
a plan whereby the City agreed to 
defray the cost of lowering the summit 
of the Illinois and Michigan canal to 
provide additional drainage toward 
the Des Plaines river. The city spent 
$£3,300,833.71 for deepening the canal. 
Work was begun in 186.5 and com- 
pleted July 15, 1871. The city built 



a pumping station of 1,000 c.f.s. 
capacity at Bridgeport in 1884 to 
piunp water out of the river into the 
canal, supplementing the uncertain 
gravity flow. This pumpage resulted 
in considerable improvement in condi- 
tion of tlie South Branch and during 
the dry seasons actually caused a re- 
versal of current in the main stream. 
However, the public water supply was 
still endangered, because tiie runoff 
after every storm overpowered the 
effect of pumping, and swept the ac- 
cumulated sludge out into the lake. 

Sanitary District Created 

At the same time the city was build- 
ing its water works to pump water 
from the lake through tunnels and off- 
shore intakes. It was not long before 
traces of sewage were detected in the 
city water, and as the city grew the 
water became more contaminated until 
it was unsafe for public use. By 1885 
the population had reached 800,000, 
and in that year a great flood swept 
such a load of fllth out into the lake 
that the people demanded that some- 
thing be done to assure them of pure 
water. The City Council on January 
27, 1886 authorized the appointment 
of a Drainage and Water Supply 
Commission of three engineers of the 
highest professional standing to make 
a complete study of the Chicago situ- 
ation and devise a means of sewage 
disposal that would assure the city a 
safe water supply for years to come. 
That commission at once started on 
the formidable task defined by the 
Council resolution and in its reports 
proposed the scheme we now know 
as tile Dilution System. 

The task of building and operating 
such a system far exceeded the powers 
of the city as then constituted so the 
Commission proposed that the state 
legislature pass a bill to permit the 
organization of metropolitan districts 
with powers to levy and collect taxes, 
issue bonds, and build and operate 
sanitary works. Such a bill was 
passed in 1889, and under it the Sani- 
tary District of Chicago was organ- 
ized and approved by the voters at 
the November election that year. It 
has the honor of being the first sani- 
tary district in history to be governed 
by officials elected by popular vote 
and endowed with the resources and 
powers to carry on a system of sew- 
age disposal. It has served as a pat- 
tern for the creation of numerous 
other sanitary and water supply dis- 
tricts in subsequent years. 

Sewage Disposal by Dilution 

The new district at once started 
work on construction of the proposed 



THE SANITAR'l" DISTRICT OF CHICAGO 

CHANNELS, SEWERS 



SEWAGE TREATMENT WORKS 

^ Chii-ago. Ill Jnnumy !938 

EVAN5T0N P.S. 

' w 

LEGEND 
SEWERS AND TREATMENT WORKS 
r- sis ill ' ' ^mm COMPLETED 

^^ FINANCING ARRANGED 
■ ■■ FUTURE WORK 




"■Vjiy^ 



Dilution System. Its first task was to 
build the Chicago Sanitary and Sliip 
Canal or Main Channel from Robey 
Street on the South Branch of Chicago 
river to the Des Plaines river above 
Lockport. That canal was regarded 
in its day as one of the engineering 
wonders of the world. It pierces the 
divide which separates the watershed 
of the Great Lakes from the Missis- 
sippi system, and its outlet is lower 
than the level of Lake Michigan. 
When the canal was opened in 1900 
it caused the reversal of the Chicago 
river. Lake Michigan, which was for- 
merly its mouth, became its source, 
and the fresh water drawn out of the 
lake was mixed with the discharge 



from Chicago sewers in the ratio of 
3-1/3 cubic feet per second for every 
thousand population. The diluted mix- 
ture is discharged into the Des Plaines 
river and purified by natural stream 
aeration as it rolls downstream on its 
way to the Mississippi. The Calumet- 
Sag Channel was built to connect the 
Little Calumet river at Blue Island 
and the Main Channel at Lemont, and 
its operation has caused the Calumet 
river to reverse. Also, the North 
Shore Channel was built from the lake 
shore at Wilmette to the North Branch 
of Chicago river at Foster Street to 
bring in fresh water to keep the North 
Branch of the river flushed out. Those 
three canals, together with large inter- 

19 




Lockport Power House at the terminus of the Main Channel generates power for operating pumping stations of the Sanitary 
District and lighting some streets and parks in Chicago and suburbs. The federal navigation lock at the right connects with the 
Illinois Waterway so that boats from New Orleans can come into Chicago. Average fall at this point is 34 feet. 



cepting sewers and pumping stations 
along the lake front, comprise the di- 
lution system, whicli cost roughly 
$125,000,000 to build. It was com- 
pleted in 1922, and since that time no 
sewage has been discharged into Lake 
Michigan in the entire .33 miles of 
frontage between the north line of 
Cook County at Glencoe and the 
Indiana state line. 

Let's speculate a moment on what 
might have happened from 1900 to 
1930 if the old system of emptying 
sewage into Lake Michigan had been 
continued. The population, of Chi- 
cago increased from 1,698,500 to 3,- 
376,000. Suppose the typhoid fever 
death rate had continued as it had 
been from 1870 to 1900 (although it 
certainly would liave been higher). 
Applying that rate to the actual popu- 
lation we miglit assume that no less 
than 56,500 people would liave died 
in those thirty years from typhoid 
iever. Actually the typhoid fever 
death rate dropped sharply after the 
opening of the canal, and by 1930 was 
less than one per hundred thousand 
of population. The dilution system 
can therefore be credited with three 

20 



major accomplishments. It prevented 
a very large number of untimely 
deaths from water-borne diseases; it 
relieved the people of the necessity 
of boiling all drinking water by pro- 
viding a safe water supply; and it 
resulted in cleaning up our beaclies 
so they became fit places for bathing, 
and gave Chicago a magnificent lake 
front. It is hardly necessary to call 
attention to the millions of bathers on 
our lake front during tlie summer sea- 
son. 

Artificial Treatment Required 

The extremely rapid increase in 
population of the Sanitary District 
by 1908 liad convinced its engineers 
tliat the time would soon come wlien 
the dilution system would not have 
capacity to dispose of the sewage. 
Thereupon they started a program of 
research and testing that has con- 
tinued to the present and has resulted 
in the development of the present arti- 
ficial treatment system for disposing 
of about 95 percent of tlie sewage of 
the district. In brief, that system is 
a plan by wliieh tlie entire 442 square 



miles of the District is divided into 
four major sections as sliown in the 
following list wliich gives tlie arrange- 
ment as it will be after completion of 
works now under construction. 







Equivalent 


Project 


Area Population 


North Side . . 


. . 115 


sq. mi. 1,275,000 


West Side . . 


. . 40 


" " 1,600,000 


Southwest . . 


. .192 


" " 2,690,000 


Calumet . . . 


. . 95 
442 


" " 435,000 




6,000,000 






Average 


Process 




Daily Capacity 


Activated Slu 


dge. . 


. 250,000,000 gal. 


Imhoff Tanks 




. 472,000,000 " 


Activated Sludge. . 


. 400,000,000 " 


" 




. 136,000,000 " 




1,258,000,000 " 



Tlie above population figures include 
industrial wastes now equal to the 
sewage from 1,413,000 population, 
which must be treated. In addition to 
the above major works the District 



lias seven minor treatment plants 
serving small outlying sections remote 
from an intercepting sewer. Each of 
these projects is comparable to a sep- 
arate city, complete with its system 
of intercepting sewers leading to a 
centrally located treatment plant. The 
intercepting sewers receive the flow 
from the local sewers, whicli are Iniilt 
by the city or village, and convey it 
to the works where the sewage is 
treated and the clarified water is dis- 
charged into the canals and carried 
away by the dilution system. The 
Sanitary District has built 166.1 miles 
of these intercepting sewers which 
range in size from four feet up to 
twenty-four feet wide, except for a 
small amount of pipe sewer in outly- 
ing sections. Roughly, one-fourth of 
those sewers are large enough to ad- 
mit a street car. 

Present Treatment System 

The North Side area is served by an 
activated sludge plant at Howard St. 
and McCormick Road. That plant 
was placed in service in 1928 and has 




The Main Channel built by the Sani- 
tary District is the vital link connecting 
the waterways of the Mississippi valley 
with the Great Lakes. This view shows 
the cut 160 ft. wide and 24 ft. deep 
through solid rock. 



capacity to liiat aii averagr flow 
of 2.50,000,000 gallons per day. It 
is at present treating 203 m.g.d. 
Every day it removes over a hundred 
tons of solid matter, measured on a 
dry basis, and produces a reduction of 
92 percent in the organic matter con- 
tained in the sewage received. 

The West Side Treatment Works 
in Stickney has served the West Side 
and Loop areas and part of tlie Des 



Controlling Works at the mouth of Chicago river will form an enclosure to prevent the escape of river water into Lake 
Michigan and control the normal flow into the river. The navigation lock shown here under construction will permit boats to 
pass at any time. 





Driving a 25 if. tunnel through treacherous ground re- 
quired careful support to prevent caveins. This steel 
arch structure left the tunnel free of timbering so that the 
concrete lining could be placed writhouf interference. 



Where a sewer goes under a river the tunnel comes 
out into the open behind a cofferdam. Here is a water- 
tight steel structure extending below the bed of the Main 
Drainage Canal which permitted a three barrel section 
of the Southwest Intercepting Sewer to be built in the 
dry. One half of the crossing was completed inside this 
cofferdam and then it was moved to the other side of the 
Channel and used for the other half. 



Ten miles of the West Side Intercepting sewer is 17 by 
17 feet or larger in cross section — large enough for a 
freight train with room to spare. 



Volume of sewage flow at this point is so large that 
two 13 ft. barrels were cheaper to build than a single 
sewer of like capacity. Frequent openings in the center 
wall make the two act as one to carry 1200 cubic feet 
per second when required. 



A collapsible steel shell forms the inner surface of 
the reinforced concrete lining of this 17'3" by 19'2" sewer. 
The outer steel structure supports the surrounding earth 
during concreting and is left in place. Concrete, nearly 
four feet thick at the bottom of the side walls, was shot 
into place by compressed air and vibrated to a glass- 
like finish. 



i 


lif 


^^ 


■ > i-' y 


M 


IWl/i rzf^A 




22 



The two GG-inch air mains to carry compressed air to 
the aeration tanks were placed in the service tunnel 
before the top slab was poured. Also the heavy cast- 
iron pipe lines for handling sludge, steam and water 
were installed on the racks at the right. 



Four sets of steel forms 70 feet long were used in build- 
ing the walls of the aeration tanks at Southwest Treat- 
ment Works. There are over eleven miles of walls in the 
aeration and final settling tanks and enough concrete 
to pave 79 miles of standard Illinois highway. In this 
picture one of the forms is being set by the travelling 
cableway. 



Construction of treatment tanks covering 39 acres 
called for transportation of materials and equipment by 
a cableway swung between travelling towers 1800 feet 
apart. The circular tanks in the foreground are the final 
settling tanks where the solids are separated from the 
treated sewage and the clarified water is sent on its way 
to the Mississipi. 



One of the main sewage pumps at the West Side 
Sewage Treatment Works. 



The main pump room at the West Side Works contains 
seven pumps with total capacity to lift 780,000.000 gal- 
lons against a head of 68 feet. Total horsepower of these 
motors is 12000 and the power comes from the Sanitary 
District's own hydroelectric power plant at Lockport. 






\^~.7^,, -^^.-.i, 



^:$^^ 

M^^ 




Construction of the major works in 
this treatment plan was started in 
1925 and proceeded in an orderly way 
on a program that was within the 
ability of the taxpayers to finance 
without undue burden and would be 
completed in 19 15. Neighboring 
states brought suit against the Dis- 
trict, seeking to prevent the with- 
drawal of any water from Lake Mich- 
igan for sanitary uses, claiming dam- 
age to their riparian rights and navi- 
gation because of the alleged lowering 
of the lake levels. That suit was 
terminated in 1930 by the decree of 
the U. S. Supreme Court which limits 
the amount of diversion from the lake 
to 1500 cubic feet per second after 
December 31, 1938. Such a limita- 
tion would make the dilution system 
entirely inadequate, and as a result the 
District was obliged to double the 
rate at which it was building treat- 
ment works and impose a heavy bur- 
den on the taxpayers. At the same 
time the depression became acute, and 
tax payments were defaulted. That 
(■om})cllcd the District to suspend all 
construction o])crations for two years. 

When the Public Works Adminis- 
tration was created to stimulate em- 
(Turn to page 54) 



IM.iiius \all<.\ suburbs since 1930. 
That plant has capacity to treat ITi.- 
000,000 gallons average flow per day 
bj"^ the Imhoff or sedimentation and 
digestion process. 

In the southerly })artion of the 
District the Calumet Treatment \Vorks 
receives the drainage from 95 square 
miles lying south of 87th Street and 
treats it by the activated sludge proc- 
ess. Here is installed capacity to 
treat 136,000,000 gallons average 
flow per day and mechanical equip- 
ment to dry and burn the solids by a 
new process developed by the engi- 
neers of the district. 

The Southwest project, now under 
construction, will receive and treat 
the drainage from all of the South 
Side of Chicago north of 87th Street 
which includes the wastes from the 
Stock Yards and packing houses. 
Those industrial wastes are equiva- 
lent to the sewage from an ordinary 
city of a million population. Treat- 
ment will be by the activated sludge 
process, and the solids removed from 
the sewage will be dried and burned 
under the same boilers which generate 
the steam for driving and main pum])s. 
blowers, and turbines for auxiliary 
power. Initial capacity of these works 
will be 400 000,000 gallons per day, 
and they are so designed that the 
capacity can be increased to 1,200,- 
000,000 gallons average flow by ad- 
ding more tanks and equipment. 



North Side Treatment Works serves an area of 115 square miles with 1,275,000 
population and treats an average of 205,000,000 gallons of sewage every day. 
removing over a hundred tons of solids measured on a dry basis. Rated capacity 
is 250,000,000 gallons per day. 



Calumet Sewage Treatment Works, placed in service December IG, 1935 has 
capacity to treat 136,000,000 gallons of sewage per day by the activated sludge 
process and disposes of the solids by drying and burning. This building houses 
the mechanical equipment, offices, laboratory, shops and storerooms. 




24 



Modern Oil Refining 



by 

Gustav Egloff 



THE oil industry of the world has 
made an investment of over $19,- 
000,000,000 to produce the materials 
which modern civilization requires. 
This investment covers the fields of 
oil production, natural gasoline manu- 
facture, transportation, refining, and 
marketing. The oil wells of the world 
produced over 2,000,000,000 barrels 
of crude oil during 1937. 

In the United States approximately 
30,000,000 motor cars were operated 
last year consuming over 22 000,000,- 
000 gallons of motor fuel. This vol- 
ume of gasoline was sufficient to pro- 
pel these motor vehicles a distance of 
300,000,000,000 miles or 80,000,000,- 
000 more miles of travel than in 1931, 
the previous peak year for road trans- 
portation. It is estimated that 1,280,- 
000,000 barrels of crude oil were pro- 
duced in the U. S. during 1937, about 
18 percent more than in the year 
1936. 

There is no scientific or technical 
branch of human knowledge which has 
not been called upon in solving the 
manifold problems of technology with 
which the oil industry is faced. 

The physicist, chemist, engineer, 
geologist, and representatives of other 
basic sciences share in the location of 
oil, its storage, transportation, and 
refining to commercial products. Many 
industries beside that of oil itself — 
the chemical industries, the makers of 
alloy steels, the airplane, automotive 
and ceramics industries, and many 
others, contribute to the manufacture 
of motor fuels and lubricants. The 
oil industry shows its alertness in 
the number and quality of research 
workers engaged in solving its prob- 
lems, which are ever increasing and 
tax the finest brains available. 

One of the foundation stones of the 
oil industry is the modern cracking 
process to produce high antiknock mo- 
tor fuels. What, one may ask, is 
cracking, and why has it come into 
use? Cracking is the thermal de- 
composition of heavy oils under ele- 
vated temperature and pressure to 
form gasoline. It has developed to its 
present dominant position among oil 
refining processes because by its use 
alone can an adequate supply of motor 
fuel be provided and because cracked 




Gustav Egloff 



gasoline is a fuel notably superior to 
most straight run gasolines obtained 
by the simple distillation of petroleum 
at atmospheric pressure. 

As early as 1912 the growth of the 
automobile industry indicated that its 
requirements for motor fuel would 
soon be greater than the capacity of 
the oil industry to supply by methods 
then in use. In the past seventeen 
vears, the number of motor cars in this 
country has increased from 9 000,000 
to about 30,000,000, expanding the 
consumption of motor fuel from 4.,- 
578,000,000 gallons to more than 22,- 
000,000,000 gallons per year. This 
vastlv increased demand has been met 
by the development of cracking, pro- 
duction of motor fuel by this method 
increasing in this period from a negli- 
gible amount to half of the total sup- 



ply. In addition, the use of cracking 
has so increased tlie quality of the 
gasoline, particularly its freedom from 
knocking, that it has been possible to 
increase the compression ratio of the 
average motor car from i to 6.3, im- 
proving the efficiency more than 30 
percent. This is therefore an advance 
of tremendous economic significance. 
Because of the improved anti-knock 
value of the gasoline and improved 
motor design, speeds of transporta-. 
tion liave more than doubled in recent 
years. 

The cracking process is one of the 
greatest conservation forces extant, 
having saved in the year 1937 alone 
over 1,280 000,000 barrels of crude 
oil. For if the cracking process had 
not been developed, it would have re- 
quired over twice the volume of crude 

25 



y 



r 



- CONDENSER 



m^. 






Flow diagram 



oil now produced to satisfy the gaso- 
line requirements of the motor cars 
operating in tlie United States. 

The modern cracking process, al- 
though primarily used for the produc- 
tion of gasoline, also yields gaseous 
and liquid olefinic hydrocarbons in 
vast volumes from which many syn- 
thetic products are produced such as 
polymer gasoline, isooctane motor fuel, 
lubricants, alcohols, glycols, ethers, 
ketones, aldehydes, acids, resins, and 
rubber substitutes. 

The first commercial cracking for 
gasoline production was carried out 
twenty-five years ago by Dr. William 
M. Burton of the Standard Oil Com- 
pany of Indiana. Pressure stills. 
8x30 feet in dimensions, termed 
"Shell" stills, were used. These were 
of riveted construction made of mild 
steel such as is used for boiler-plate. 
Fractionation of the cracked vapors 
was carried out by air cooled harp- 
like pipe arrangements. The operat- 
ing conditions of these early stills 
were temperatures of about" 740° F. 
and pressure of 75 lbs. per sq. in., the 
rate of cracking being about 125 bar- 
rels of gas oil a day. 

Tlie advance in the cracking art 
from that time to this is astounding. 
Today cracking takes place in pipe 
stills — long tubular passage heated 
in furnaces — at temperature ranges 
from 900 to more than 1100° F. and 
pressures running to 1000 lbs. per 
sq. in., operation being continuous for 
six months or more. The cracking 
capacities of individual units range 
from 300 to over 20 000 barrels per 
day. In the early days the yield of 



gasoline from cracking gas oil was 
between 30 and 35 percent, witli oc- 
tane rating about 60; whereas today 
units operating on the same type oil 
produce more tlian 70 percent of 
motor fuel with 71' octane rating. 

Octane rating, which will be re- 
ferred to in more detail later, is the 
accepted measure of antiknock value 
of motor fuel. It is determined by 
comparing tlie tendency of a gasoline 
to knock with that of blends of a 
badly knocking hydrocarbon, n-Iiep- 
tane and a hydrocarbon wliich only 
under the most severe conditions can 
be made to knock at all-isooctane 
(2, 2.4 trimethylpentane). Tlie octane 
number is the percentage of isooctane 
in the blend. 

A flow diagram of a present crack- 
ing day cracking unit is shown in 
Figure xx. The oil to be cracked 
is separated into a light and a 
heavy fraction, and these are heated 
separately under temperatures and 
pressures best suited to them. The 
oil from both heaters passes throug'i 
a reaction chamber, to increase the 
time it is held at high temperature, 
the pressure is lowered, and it 
enters a flash chamber, where the 
heavier portions are separated as 
vapors into the fractionating column. 
This column is a bubble tower, so- 
called, because fractionation is brought 
about by bubbling the vapors through 
condensed liquid on a series of pans 
or trays. The raw oil enters this 
column, and the combined raw and 
cracked materials are separated into 
gasoline, whicli passes overhead, and 



light and heavy oil fractions are re- 
turned separately to the furnaces 
while still in a heated condition by hot 
oil pumps. 

The larger present day cracking 
units process over 20,000 barrels a 
day of a variety of charging stocks, 
such as straight run gasoline, gas oil, 
and topped crude oil (petroleum from 
which the lighter fractions have been 
removed). During this cracking proc- 
ess these stocks pass through a num- 
ber of heating coils, whose length is 
over 6.5 miles, distributed in several 
furnaces, and over 55 percent of the 
imput is converted into 70 octane 
finished gasoline, and the remainder 
into tractor fuel, furnace oil, road oil, 
and coke useful for domestic heating, 
the last at the rate of 220 tons per 
day. 

Incredible advances have been made 
since 1912 in the discovery and use of 
new alloys containing chromium, 
nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, titan- 
ium, tungsten, aluminum, and silicon, 
to enable cracking units to operate 
imder the high temperatures and pres- 
sures obtaining today. A new art of 
electric welding has been developed 
for the construction of reaction cham- 
bers, flash chambers, bubble towers 
and receivers. Reaction chambers 
are also made by piercing solid in- 
gots of steel, following the methods 
used in making large guns. Elec- 
tric welded reaction chambers 10x50 
feet with wall thickness of four 
inches and forged reaction vessels 
6x42 feet with three inch walls 
thickness have been constructed. Frac- 



26 



tionating columns of tlie bubble cap 
type for cracking units are built up 
to 12 feet 6 inches by 85 feet and even 
higher, some of these having as many 
as 23 decks bearing over 800 bubble 
caps for distribution of vapors. 

In the manufacture of reaction 
cliambers the use of alloys has been 
a major advance, addition of one per- 
cent molybdenum to low carbon steel 
practically doubling the strength of 
these vessels at temperatures of 875° 
F. and up. Under constant tempera- 
ture - pressure conditions, approxi- 
mately one-half the wall thickness is 
needed when the molybdenum steel is 
used that is necessary with plain car- 
bon steel. As illustration, a 5x tO foot 
carbon steel reaction chamber with 
2% inch wall weighing about W tons 
can be replaced by a 21 ton chamber 
of reduced wall thickness by adding 
molybdenum to the steel. The lining 
of vessels to prevent corrosion is also 
a new technique which has made great 
strides by the use of cements, alloy 
liners, and alloy facings which are 
fused into the steel, and by spraying 
corrosion resistant metals to protect 
the steel surfaces. 



A major development in engineer- 
ing was the building of hot oil pumj)s 
for use at temperatures as high as 
800° F., and pressures of 900 pounds, 
some of these pumps operating at tlic 
rate of more than 1000 gallons ]nr 
minute. 

In 1913 the entirt- investiiuiit in 
cracking stills was about $2,000,000, 
while in 1937 it was over $450,000,- 
000. The development of the crack- 
ing art in the oil industry lias been 
due not only to petroleum technolo- 
gists, but in part to contributing in- 
dustries. The metallurgist producing 
new alloys permits the use of tem- 
peratures and pressures of cracking 
impossible with steel alone; the cera- 
mist with his new bricks produces 
better furnaces. The instrument man- 
ufacturer makes it possible centrally 
to control the gigantic modern top- 
ping-cracking units costing some $2,- 
000,000 each, whose instrumentation 
is in striking contrast to that of the 
early shell still costing about $20,000 
which used only indicating mercury 
thermometers and pressure gauges. 
The electric welder and ingot piercer 
produce high pressure vessels ; the 



pum}) conii)anies make special pumps 
to handli' hot oils. In fact these are 
in reality new industries founded upon 
the cracking process, not one of which 
was in existence in 1913. 

Polymerizafion 

A by-product from cracking oil is 
hydrocarbon gas having iiigh heating 
value which has been heretofore used 
as fuel. The volume of cracked gas 
])r()duced yearly in the U. S. is over 
350,000,060,006 cu. ft. The volume 
and ])ropcrties of gas produced in the 
cracking process is governed by sev- 
eral factors, notably the composition 
of the charging stock and the operat- 
ing conditions time, temperature, and 
pressure. This gas is made up of 
))araffins and olefins and can be frac- 
tionated to obtain ethylene, propene, 
and butenes, which are reactive hydro- 
carbons from which many other sub- 
stances can be synthesized. Cracking 
is therefore a source of enormous 
quantities of pure hydrocarbons for 
use in synthetic chemistry. A part 
of this gas is used for the production 
of alcohols, glycols, ethers, aldehydes. 



Dubbs cracking unit with 14.000 barrels per day throughout. The light and heavy oil furnaces are at the left, and the first 
three large vessels to right of them are reaction chamber, flash chamber and fractionating column. 





ketones, acids, lubricating oils, resins, 
and rubber-like material. 

The most important use of cracking 
still gases, however, is the conversion 
to polymers for use as motor fuel. 
This is brought about either by gen- 
eral polymerization of both propene 
and the butenes, or by selective poly- 
merization of the butenes to isooctane 
which may be hydrogenated to isooc- 
tane. 

The great significance of polymer- 
ization lies in the high antiknock value 
of the hydrocarbons produced, which 
are needed to satisfy the growing de- 
mand for high octane fuels for both 
automobile and aviation use. 

The structure of the hydrocarbons 
used in internal combustion engines 
has been of recognized importance, 
particularly since isooctane was first 
synthesized as a test fuel of 100 oc- 
tane rating. With the advent of com- 
mercial polymerization processes, hy- 
drocarbons of known structure have 
been brought within the reach of the 
consumer — and, hence, the automotive 
engineer could design engines of 
higher efficiency because he had de- 
tailed knowledge of the combustion 
properties of the hydrocarbons the 
engines were to use. 

Much study has been given to the 
relation of molecular structure to oc- 
tane rating. Branched chain paraffins 
have better combustion properties than 
their straight chain isomers when used 
in automotive engines. At the moment, 
branched chain paraffins are consid- 
ered the type of hydrocarbons most 
desirable in a motor; however, some 
tests indicate that in liquid cooled air- 
plane engines aromatic hydrocarbons 
are superior to paraffins. 



Cracking still furnace during construc- 
tion showing use of special ceramics. 



Interior of cracking furnace showing 
tubes making up pipe still. 



2,2-DinicthvIi)r()pane HC -C- CH 83 
H-HCH-H 
H 

H HH H 

2-Methvlbutane HC -C-C-C-H 90 
H HCH H H 
H 

The following table gives the octane 
ratings of a considerable number of 
individual paraffin, olefin, and aroma- 
tic hydrocarbons. 

Ili/drorarbon 

Paraffins 

CH^ Methane 125* 

C.H,, Ethane 125* 

C^H^ Propane 125* 

C^Hjn Butanes 

Isobutane 99 

n-Butane 91 

C-Hjo Pcntanes 

2, 2-Dimethylpropane ... 83 

1-Methylbutane 90 

n-Pentane 64 

C,.,Hj4 Hexanes 

2, 3-Dimethylbutane .... 95 
n-Hexane 59 

CjHj,- Heptanes 

2, 2-Dimethylpentane ... 93 




As an example of the effect of struc- 
ture, the structure of the pentanes is 
shown below with the octane rating 
of each. 

Octane No. 
HHHHH 
Normal Pentane H-C-C-C-C-CH 64 
HHHHH 
H 
H-HCH-H 



2, 3-Dimethylpentane ... 85 
2, 4-Dimethylpentane ... 90 

2-Methylhexane 64 

n-Heptane 

CsHjs Octanes 

2, 2, 3-Trimethylpentane . 101 
2, 2, 4-Trimethylpentane . lOQ 

n-Octane — 26 

C<,H,o Nonane — 28 

CioHo. Isodecane 93 

Cj„Hoi3 Isododecane 100 



28 



C,H, Butenes 

1-Butene 80 

2-Butene 83 

Isobutcne 87 

C,Hi,., 2, 2, 4.-Trinu'tliylpeii- 

tene * 89 

2, 2, -t-Trimetliylpentcne-l' 86 

C„H,^ ex -Isononene 75 

/?-Isononene 84 

Polymer Products 

Diisobutene 8 !■ 

Triisobiiteiie 87 

Diisopentene 75 

Cycloparaffins 

Methyl Cyelopentane 82 

Cyclohexane 77 

Aromatics 

Benzene 97 

Toluene 100 + 

*( Estimated). 

The wide variation among closely 
related substances, particularly among 
isomers, should be particularly noted. 

The polymerization processes in 
commercial operation operate by heat 
and pressure alone or by catalysis. 
The "unitary tliermal process" (Poly- 
merization Process Corp.) treats both 
olefinic or paraffinic gases, producing 
therefrom gasoline and gas oil. The 
operating conditions range in temper- 
ature from 950 to 1100° F. and pres- 
sure from 1000 to 3000 pounds per 
square inch. The optimum conditions 
to obtain the end product desired de- 
pend on the composition of the hydro- 
carbon gases processed. The octane 
rating of the motor fuel product is 
about 76 with equivalent blending val- 
ues of from 83 to 92 when mixed in 
50 percent concentration witii fuels 
of lower octane rating. 

The "multiple coil polymerization" 




Instrument board of 3,000 barrel Dubbs 
cracking unit. One of tfie most impor- 
tant features of a modem cracking still 
is the extensive use of control instru- 
ments, making possible smooth and 
precise operation. 



Hot oil pump feeding oil to Dubbs 
cracking unit at the rate of 1,000 gpm at 
750-800 deg. F. and 900 pounds pressure. 




(Pure Oil Company) produces motor 
fuel from paraffin and olefin gases by 
first subjecting them to temperatures 
ranging from 900° to 1000° F. and 
pressures of 600 to 800 pounds per 
square inch in the "primary" poly- 
merization operation of "high pres- 
sure-low temperature." The gases 
from this operation, essentially para- 
ffinic, are then subjected to a cracking 
temperature of over 1300° F., prepar- 
atory to a second polymerization re- 
action carried out at 1150° to 1300° 
F. and pressures of 50 to 75 pounds 
per square inch. The products are 
gasoline, fuel oil, and tar. At the 
lower temperatures of operation, the 
octane rating of the motor fuel is 
between 78 and 80 and on a blending 
basis 96. However, when operating 
the "multiple coil unit" at the highest 
temperature given, the octane blend- 
ing value of the gasoline ranges be- 
tween 105 and 135. The yield of 
liquid product in a typical run is 4.1. 
gallons or 3.7 gallons of gasoline per 
thousand cubic feet of gas. 

The catalytic polymerization proc- 
ess (Universal Oil Products Com- 
pany) invented by Dr. V. N. Ipatieff 
operates on cracked gases or on dehy- 
drogenated propane and butanes. The 
liquid produced boils entirely within 
the gasoline range, and has an octane 
rating from 80 to 85, or upon a blend- 
ing basis 90 to 135, depending on the 
quality of gasoline to which it is 
added. The method of operation of 
this process consists in treating the 
olefinic gases at a temperature of 450° 
F. and pressures around 200 pounds 
per square inch with a solid phos- 
(Tum to page 56) 



29 




ARC WELDING 

OF 

STAINLESS STEEL 



UNDOUBTEDLY, there are few 
engineers today who are not at 
least vaguely familiar with the arc 
welding process. They have inter- 
ested themselves proportionately to 
the degree to which they feel this 
rapidly growing industry will affect 
their particular field of engineering. 
For this reason many engineers have 
perhaps failed to familiarize them- 
selves completely with one of the 
most important tools of modern in- 
dustry. 

It is difficult to imagine a field of 
engineering that is not dependent 
upon the arc welding process for rea- 
sons of design, economy, strength, 
weight, saving, etc. 

The mechanical engineer will find 
that both heavy and light machinery 
design, as well as plant maintenance, 
is dependent in no small measure upon 
arc welding. 

To the electrical engineer, the weld- 
ing industry opens up a field of en- 
deavor in motor, generator, and trans- 
former design. Great strides will be 
made in the near future in improving 
the electrical equipment necessary for 
arc welding. Welding itself is an 
important tool in the manufacture of 
electrical equipment. 

The metallurgical engineer will 
find that the study of arc deposit 
metal and the base metal adjacent to 
the weld opens up unlimited possi- 
bilities of research and control. 

The chemical engineer will be in- 
terested to learn that practically all 



vats, tanks, and receptacles used for 
every purpose — from manufacturing 
breakfast foods to dyeing fabric in 
textile mills — are fabricated from cor- 
rosion-resistant alloys by the arc 
welding process. 

Recent changes in the building 
codes of our larger cities have opened 



by 
Edward J. Brady 



up entirely new possibilities in de- 
sign and construction methods to the 
architectural engineer. 

The civil engineer will build our 
bridges of the future, lighter in weight 
and stronger by means of the arc 
welding process. 

The architect can unleash his cre- 
ative imagination to beautify building 
entrances, stair rails, and grill work 
with new combinations of stainless 
steel, copper, bronze, and aluminum, 
because these metals can now be 
easily arc welded. 

Thus we find that every field of 
engineering, without exception, has 
already received, or will receive in 
the very near future, benefits from 
this most modern of industrial tools. 

Great strides have also been made 
in modernizing the steels to meet the 



All welded pulp digester used in paper mill industry. Analysis: 18% chromium 
- 8% nickel — 2 to 4% molybdenum. 




30 




ever-increasing demand of greater 
strength and weight saving. We tind 
a steadily growing tendency for the 
use of alloys for construction work, 
and it is significant that the popu- 
larity and demand for these new al- 
loy steels is almost directly propor- 
tional to their weldability. 

Many authorities have made the 
statement that this generation will 
see a time when it will be as difficult 
to purchase straight carbon steel as 
it was to purchase alloy steel during 
the last generation. 

Of the hundreds of new high ten- 
sile alloy steels given to industry dur- 
ing the past ten years there is one 
alloy that combines corrosion resist- 
ance, tensile strength, ductility, and 
maximum ease of welding. This 
metal has become commonly known 
as "stainless steel," although there 
are at least 100 or more varied 
analyses. 

The term "stainless steel" in itself 
is not correct because it is not "stain- 
less" in a true meaning of the word, 
and, also, it can hardly be called a 
steel. The more correct term perhaps 
would be "corrosion-resistant" or 
"rustless iron." 

The correct welding procedure for 
any type of steel and especially the 
stainless steels should be based upon 
sound scientific principles. Scientific 
knowledge, when applied with judg- 



ment and common sense, is always the 
most practical. In order to have a 
better understanding of the correct 
welding procedure for stainless steels 
it is necessary to study the underlying- 
principles of metallurgy and heat 
treatment. There can be no line 
drawn between the practical and sci- 
entific methods because thev over 



Above: Stainless 
steel bridge between 
t h e Wrigley Build- 
ings — Chicago, 111. 
Analysis: 18% chro- 
mium — 8% nickel. 



to all extent wlu-niii they become in- 
dispensable to each other. It is true 
that many welders without even an 
elementary knowledge of the steel 
they were welding have worked out a 
satisfactory procedure after costly ex- 
perimentation. Modern industry de- 
mands that welding be based on ac- 
curate knowledge and understanding 



Right: Cyaniding 
pot used at elevated 
temperatures. Analy- 
sis: 18% chromium. 





31 






L_ 



"T" joint of 18-8 stainless clad welded 
with 25-12 stainless electrode. 

Butt joint weld of 18-8 stainless clad 
welded with 25-12 stainless electrode 
and heavy-coated mild steel electrode. 

Inside corner weld of 18-8 stainless 
clad welded with 25-12 stainless elec- 
trode and heavy-coated mild steel elec- 
trode. 



and not on guesswork, liabit, or 
chance. Witli this thought in mind 
it is possible to outline a simplified 
and practical method for welding the 
various stainless steels that will be 
based upon their physical and chem- 
ical characteristics. 



Wlien etched witli acid and magni- 
fied under tiie microscope, all steels 
siiow certain characteristic grain for- 
mations. These grain formations 
have been classified by metallurgists, 
and in tlie study of stainless steels 
we find that the 100 or more different 
types will siiow only three character- 
istic grain structures. Therefore, if 
we can classify the numerous types 
of stainless steels according to their 
grain structure we will have an index 
to every correct welding procedure. 
In the following table all stainless 
steels have been classified according 
to every correct weldin-j procedure. 
Martensitic (under 16% chromium). 
Ferritic (over 18% chromium). 
Austenitic (18% chronv'um — 8% 
nickel and alloys of higher alloy 
content containing: both chromium 
and nickel V 

Martensite is the hardest state of 
steel, with the exception of cemeutite, 
which hardly, if ever, appears as a 
solid structure. Tvpioal stainless 
steels having this characteristic range 
structure are as follows: 
l- e'/f chromium. 
lO-l.S^'^ chromium. 
11-18% chromium. 
The above steels have the following 
physical characteristics : 

1. Less coefficient of expansion 

than mild steel. 
■2. One-third to two-thirds tiie 
thermal conductivity of mild 
steel, depending upon the chro- 
mium content. 
3. Four and one-half times the 
electrical resistance of mild 
steel. 
1. Magnetic. 

5. Drastic air hardening prop- 
erties. 
With the knowledge of these basic 
physical properties, it is possible to 
work out practical welding proce- 
dures. The fact that these steels have 
drastic air hardening properties is 
perhaps the outstanding reason why 
they are so difficult to weld. To il- 
lustrate the extent to which they pos- 
sess this property, a 5% chromium 
steel with .20% carbon was air cooled 
from 1575° F. This specimen had 
a tensile strength of 21 2,000 # with 
an elongation of 9%>. The same steel 
heated to the same temperature, but 
allowed to furnace cool, had a tensile 
strength of 75,000# with an elonga- 
tion of 32 7c- It has recently been 
discovered that additions of columbium 
will help to retard this air harden- 
ing effect. This air hardening con- 
dition can be checked when these 
steels are arc welded if the work is 
preheated to a temperature between 
300° and 400° F. Wherever pos- 
sible, the welded structure should be 



annealed between 1300° and 1150^" 
after tiie welding operation. 

Little difficulty is encountered with 
warping because the coefficient of ex- 
pansion is less than that of mild steel. 
The electrical resistance is consider- 
ably higher than that of mild steel, 
so it is necessary to manufacture the 
welding electrodes less than 1 !•" long- 
to prevent resistance heating. 

Approximately 10%. to 20% of the 
chromium content of the wire is lost 
in the arc because of oxidation, and, 
therefore, it is advised that an elec- 
trode have a slightly higher chromium 
content than tlie material being 
welded. 

It is now possible to purciiase 
10-13% chromium and 11-18% ciiro- 
mium steels in the non-hardening 
grade. It has been found that alu- 
minum additions of approximately 
.20%, to .10%, will retard the air 
hardening effect, and it is recom- 
mended that this non-hardening type 
be used wiierever arc welding is em- 
j)loyed. 

Typical stainless steels in tlie Fer- 
ritic group arc tlic 18-23% cliromium 
and 23-30 ""v cliromium types. These 
steels liavc a|)proximately the same 
thermal conductivity, coefficient of 
expansion, electrical resistance, and 
magnetic properties as the Martensitic 
group. Tiie principal difference in 
their characteristics is tiiat tiiey are 
not susceptible to heat treatment and 
are, tlierefore, "non-hardening." How- 
ever, this fact does not mean tiiat 
ductile welds can easily be made be- 
cause we encounter brittleness as a 
result of grain growth. To illustrate 
the effect of grain growtii in these 
steels, a rolled plate containing 
23-30%, chromium will liave a tensile 
strengtii of 100,000 4^ with an elonga- 
tion of 25% to 35%. A casting with 
exactly tiie same analysis will iiave a 
tensile" strength of 80,000# witli an 
elongation of 2% to 5%. The rolled 
plate and the casting were both in 
the annealed condition. Annealing 
had no effect whatsoever on the grain 
size of the casting, and the rolled 
plate was ductile because the grain 
size had been reduced by the rolling 
operation. Ductility could be intro- 
duced in the weld metal if it were 
peened above the critical temperature, 
but this is not practical. 

It is recommended tiiat the Fer- 
ritic types of stainless steel be pre- 
heated to a temperature of 300° to 
■100° F during the welding operation, 
witli tiie only thouglit in mind of help- 
ing to relieve the welding stresses set 
up and not to introduce ductility. 

Wherever possible, the Martensitic 
and Ferritic stainless steels should be 
welded witii an 18% cliromium — 8% 
(Turn to page 81) 



32 



ARMOUR ALUMNI BANQUET 

Tuesday, June 1. 1938 

at 

THE MEDINAH CLUB OF CHICAGO 
505 North Michigan Avenue 

MEET YOUR OLD FRIENDS AND HEAR ABOUT RECENT EVENTS 

AT THE INSTITUTE 

Music by Musical Organizations of Armour Institute 

Directed by O. Gordon Erickson 

Talk by James D. Cunningham, Chairman of the Board of Trustees 

Introduction of our new president 

Introduction of Dr. C. A. Tibbals, Dean of the undergraduate college 

Introduction of Dr. L. E. Grinter, Dean of the graduate division 

A message from President H. T. Heald 

Reports 
Election 



Nominees for Alumni Trustee • Use Ballot on Page 4 of This Insert 




HAROLD S. ELLINGTON 
Civil Engineering, 1908 
Age, 52 Years 
HAROLD S. ELLINGTON 
started working with the National 
Construction Company, railroad engi- 
neers, and later transferred to the 
Standard Concrete Construction Com- 
pany, contractors specializing in rein- 
forced concrete buildings and struc- 
tures. From 1912 to 1916 he was 
plant engineer for the Stroh Brewing 
Company, Detroit, ^lichigan, and from 
1916 to 1919 construction manager for 
the Book Estate, Detroit. Since 1919 
he has been a member of several firms 
of architects and engineers, and now 
is a partner in Harley and Ellington. 



EUGENE R. WEBER 

Mechanical Engineering, 1903 

Age, 58 Years 

Upon graduation from Armour EU- 
GENE R. WEBER obtained employ- 
ment with Lathrob Steel and Coupler 
Company, Melrose Park, 111. He later 
went with the Bucyrus Erie Companv 
of So. Milwaukee, Wis. A series of 
connections with different companies 
followed, including tlie Link-Belt 
Company and Illinois Steel Company, 
of Chicago, and the American Loco- 
motive Company, of Richmond, \'ir- 
ginia. The experience gained, he re- 
turned to the Bucyrus-Erie Company, 
as assistant manager of engineering, 
when the opportunity presented itself. 



LESTER T. WILSON 
Chemical Engineering, 1911 
Age, i7 Years 
Immediatelv following graduation 
LESTER T.'WILSON went to work 
for the National Lead Company as 
chemist in their Chicago branch. He 
attended training camp at Fort Sheri- 
dan in 1917. and was commissioned 
first lieutenant. In 1918 he was as- 
signed to the 37th French Field 
Artillery, Louvaine, France, and later 
to the 32nd Division. A. E. F. After 
the Armistice he was commissioned 
captain. Wilson is now sales manager 
of the National Lead Company at 1 11 
Broadwav. New York. N. Y. 



ARMOUR INSTITUTE ALUN 



"A Gift Each Year f, 



AIJMOUR INSTITL'TK OF TKCHNOI.CKJV 
lias consistently moved forward, and today 
it is rcnderinj'' a broader and more valuable service 
to the students, community, and industrial world 
than ever before. Tite development of this serv- 
ice to its present hi<>li standard is, in lar<ie meas- 
ure, due to the cooperation of all interested iu- 
divicluals and jiToups. 

The students at Armour Institute of Technology 
are a <iToup of entliusiastic young nien, eager to 
learn and deserving of every reasonable oj)por- 
tunity which may be provided for their education. 
These young men are seeking an education with 
the sanie objectives that you alumni had when 
you attended Armour, and everyone well remem- 
bers the serious attitude assumed by all toward 
both work and play. 

The faculty at Armour Institute of Technology 
is composed of a group of very Hue men, men who 
rank high in their respt-ctive fields and have the 
confidence of both the students and industry, men 
who have given and now are giving generously of 
their ability and time with the one thought fore- 
most in their minds that Armour Institute of Tech- 
nology must go forward and show no sign of 
faltering. 

Everyone realizes how inadequate the present 
physical plant is for the load it is now carrying, 
but we should take pride in the fact that the ad- 
ministration of the school affairs has been in the 
hands of men who have accomplished miracles so 
far as space problems are coMccrncd. Although 
the faculty and students may be working under 
rather adverse conditions, yet a fine spirit of com- 
plete cooperation prevails, and there is developed 
in the student the finer traits so essential to a 
successful life. 

Armour Institute of Technology has many rea- 
sons to be proud of its Board of Trustees, num- 
bering over forty. These gentlemen through tiieir 
various business connections and official positions 
represent a true cross section of practically all 
phases of enginering. They know the type of serv- 
ice which Armour Institute of Technology should 
be rendering industry and the youth of our com- 
munity, and they are constantly trying to make 
this service more valuable and effective in all of 
its phases. Many of these men are giving gener- 
ously of their time and means, and take genuine 
personal pride and satisfaction in helping with all 
of the problems of the Institute. 

The Board of Trustees recently elected Dean 
H. T. Heald for president of Armour Institute of 
(Continued in last column) 



TH 



Whereas, Armour Institute of Technology is renderi 
a very valuable service to its student body, i 
engineering profession, and to industry; and' 

Whereas, Tfiis service is being utilized by a lar 
group of young men who are desirous of obtami 
an engineering education; and 

Whereas, This service is made possible to a very lar 
degree by the concerted efforts of a group of ec 
cators composing the faculty of Armour Institute 
Technology; and 

Whereas, A group of men composing the Board of Tri 
tees are giving generously of their counsel, tin 
and funds; and 

Whereas, It seems only proper that the Alumni Associ 
tion of Armour Institute should demonstrate 
some concrete way their loyal attitude towo 
their Alma Mater and their appreciation of Y 
service to them by participating in a suitable pL 
for her financial support; now 

Therefore, Be It Resolved. That the Armour Institu 
Alumni Association immediately take the nece 
sary steps to put into operation a perpetual givii 
plan; and 

Be It Further Resolved, That the actual details involve 
and the set-up and operation of this plan be place 
in the hands of the Executive Secretary of tl 
Alumni Association, who v/ill carry out the pu 
pose of the plan from an office on the campus ; 
the college; and 



STUDENTS ENTHUSIASTIC 

AT a recent general assembly of the student body, a plan for tl- 
establishment of a Student Union was presented to them f< 
their consideration. 

The main features of this plan are as follows: 
A Student Union Association will be formed and each student w< 
pay a regular fee into this association each semester while he is i 
attendance at Armour Institute of Technology. 

Income debenture bonds will be sold in sufficient amount not t 
exceed perhaps $30,000, to provide funds to make this union a realit' 



PERPETUAL GIVING PLAN 

very Living Alumnus^^ 



LAN 



It Further Resolved, That the Alumni Board of Man- 
agers have general supervision of the funds and 
decide in advance from year to year the specific 
purpose for which the fund will be used during the 
coming year; and 

I It Further Resolved. That all funds be made payable 
to the order of Armour Institute of Technology but 
mailed to the Executive Secretary of the Armour 
Institute Alumni Association in order that Alum.ni 
records may be complete; and 

s It Further Resolved, That a separate and complete 
record be maintained by the Alumni Association 
of all contributions and disbursements and a 
yearly report be prepared and mailed to all don- 
ors; and 

5 It Further Resolved, That general publicity be given 
to this plan through the columns of the Armour 
Engineer and Alumnus and at the annual spring 
banquet of the Alumni Association; and 

e It Further Resolved. That a pledge card stating 
clearly the project for which the contribution is 
being made be sent each year to every living 
alumnus. 

Resolution passed by the Board of Managers of the 
.rmour Institute Alumni Association in regular meeting 
.uly assembled. 

(Signed) D. P. Moreton, Secretary-Treasurer. 



? APPROVE UNION PLAN 

The Armour Mission building will be converted into a Student 
Jnion. and extensive changes and Improvements will be made m order 
rhat it may be more serviceable and better adapted to the Student 
Jnion requirements. 

The Alumni Association will be asked to contribute $10,000 during 
\\\e current year to assist in this project. 

A general referendum was subsequently held at which the 
students voted overwhelmingly in tavor of the plan. 



Ttchnolo^y, and everyone evidences a feelinj; of 
complete .satisfaction in tins clioice. President 
Heald lias been witii tiie Institute a number of 
vears, and in his various positions during this time 
lie lias become intimately acquainted with all of the 
Institute's jjfoblems, a fact which will be a great 
help to him in developing a really constructive and 
progressive development program. Those who 
have been associated with him are greatly encour- 
aged about the future of tiie Institute under his 
leadership. Tiie progress of Armour Institute of 
Technology is by no means dependent upon a sin- 
gle man or group of men, but upon the complete 
cooperation of all interested individuals, groups, 
and, in fact, the entire community. 

Armour Institute of Tedinology is justly proud 
of her sons because they have accomplished much 
since their years at the Institute, and they repre- 
sent the greatest asset any educational institution 
may ever possess. 

With the above facts clearly in mind, the officers 
of the Armour Institute of Technology Alumni 
Association met with the members of the Executive 
Committee of the Board of Trustees several times 
during the early part of tiie current scliool year, 
for the purpose of discussing tlie possible metiiods 
by which the Alumni Association could participate 
in tlie program of financial support to the Insti- 
tute. These conferences resulted in the president 
of the Alumni Association calling a general meet- 
ing of all former officers of the association, who 
now constitute an advisory council, and tlie subject 
was discussed in this general meeting. The mem- 
bers present felt that the Alumni Association 
should support the Institute in a financial way and 
by motion tlie president was instructed to appoint 
a committee to study the problem and submit a 
definite perpetual giving plan to the Alumni lioard 
of Managers for their approval. Tliis committee 
was appointed, and tliey developed a plan wiiich 
tiiey submitted to tlie Board of Managers wlio in 
turn approved it. 

For your convenience, a pledge card is provided 
in the magazine. 

Now. as our Alma Mater marches on, are we 
going to stand aside and perhaps ridicule any 
sign of a faltering step or shall we press 
forward and give strength and encouragement to 
lier who is so justly deserving r 

We now liave an opportunity of demonstrating 
that true Armour spirit of loyalty and apprecia- 
tion bv pledgino- to do our part in keeping tlie 
banner of Armour Institute of Teelinology out in 
front. 



ELECTION OF ALUMNI OFFICERS 



Extract from Alumni Constitution 

.liliili X. Conimittic ou yomiiititions 
Section I 

Before April IJtii of each year in whicli an election is to be 
held, the Board of Managers shall appoint a conniiittee on nomi- 
nations of five active members. Two members of this commit- 
tee shall be selected from the Board of Managers and no other 
meml>ers of the committee shall be members of the Board of 
Managers. No two members of the committee shall be from the 
same class. 

This committee shall prepare and transmit to the secretary- 
treasurer not later than the 15th of May, a written list of nomi- 
nations for the various offices to be filled. Tlie secretary-treas- 
urer shall include this list, together with a statement that an 
election is to be held, in the announcement of the annual banquet 
for that year. 

.Irtlrif XI. Ehrtion of Officers 
Section I 

^'()ti^g sliall l)e from the floor at the annual bancjuet. The 
secretary-treasurer will supply ballots to the active members 
present. A plurality of votes cast shall elect. The president 
shall appoint a committee of three tellers of election who to- 
gether with the secretary-treasurer of the Alumni Association 
will determine the ballot. This committee shall report to the 
])resident who shall in turn announce the results of the election 
before the adjournment of that meeting. 

Tlie iiominatiiis committee, appointed in accordance 



with article X, section I of the Constitution, presents lor 
the consideration of the meeting to be held on the evening 
of June 7, 1938, the following slate. 

President: John Joseph Schommer, Ch.E. '12. 
\'ice-President: J. ^Varren McCaffrey, Ch.E. '22. 
Sec'y-Treas. : William Nicholas Setterberg, Arch. '29. 
Board of Managers: 

Clas.ses 1897-1901 — William Fargo Sims, E.E. '97. 
Classes 1907-1911— E. F. Pohlman, Ch.E. '10. 
Classes 1917-1921 — Clinton E. Stryker, E.E. '17. 
Classes 1927-1931— Arthur H. Jens, F.P.E. '31. 
Classes 1932-1936— Harvey C. Rossing, C.E. '32. 
All of above for four years except Rossing who will 
serve only two years. 

Signed : 
OscAU Allen Anderson, M.E. '1.5. 
Arthir H. Jens, F.P.E. '31. 
CL.\rDE A. Knuepfer, C.E. '1.5. 

Chairman 
NoR.MAN Joseph Schlossman, Arch. '21. 
Monroe Adney Smith, Jr., C.E. '10. 
Members of the Nominating Committee, 
Armour Alumni Associati(ui, April 3, 1936. 



ELECTION OF ALUMNI TRUSTEES 



Extract irom Alumni Constitution 

.Irtirl, XII. .U,n,nii .Uinih,,:-: of the Boar,l of TnL-ifcs 
Section 1 
Tlie oflicers and Board of Trustees of Armour Institute of 
Technology have granted this Association the privilege of elect- 
ing three alumni representatives to membership on the Board 
of Trustees who, with the President of the Alumni Association, 
will represent the alumni of Armour Institute of Technologv on 
the Board of Trustees. This association shall elect the three 
alumni representatives to the Board of Trustees as follows: 

(a) The Board of Managers shall nominate candidates for 
representatives and shall transmit to the secretary-treasurer not 
later than the 15th of April in each year in which an election is 
to be held, a written list of their nominations. The secretary- 
treasurer shall include this list, together with a statement that 
an election is to be held, in the announcement of the annual 
banquet for that year. 

(b) Voting sliall be by mailed ballot in the vear in which the 
election is held. 

(e) Each nominee shall be an active member of the Alumni 
Association of Armour Institute of Technologv. A graduate or 
non-graduate of a class that has arraduated fiVe or more years 
prior to the date of election shall be eligible. 



The Board of Managers of the Armour Institute of 
Technology Alumni Association submits, for the consider- 



ation of the alumni, the following brief biographical 
sketelies of the tiirce nominees. 

One of these men is to be elected, by mailed ballot, by 
the general Alumni Association, to serve as an Alumni 
representative on the Board of Trustees. Please indicate 
your choice on the attached ballot. Detach and seal your 
ballot in a plain envelope. Place the plain envelope, with- 
out any writing or printing on it, in a second envelope 
with your name appearing on the outside of the second 
envelope, and mail at once to D. P. Moreton, Secretary- 
Treasurer, the Armour Institute of Technology Alumni 
Association, care of Armour Institute of Technology, 3300 
Federal Street, Chicago, Illinois. 
Signed: 

Phillip Harrington, E.E. '06. 

Arthur Katzinger, M.E. '16. 

Morris W. Lee, M.E. '99. 

E. F. Pohlman, Ch.E. '10. 

Henry W. Regensburger, M.E. '20. 

Harvey C. Rossing, C.E. '32. 

Clinton E. Stryker, E.E. '17. 

Members of the Board of Managers, 

Armour Alumni Association, April 3, 1936. 



FOR PHOTOGRAPHS AND BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF NOMINEES, 
SEE PAGE 1 OF INSERT 



n HAROLD S. ELLINGTON 



BALLOT 

VOTE FOR ONE 

D EUGENE R. WEBER 



D LESTER T. WILSON 



MAIL THIS BALLOT AT ONCE TO 

D. P. MORETON. Secretary-Treasurer 

ARMOUR ALUMNI ASSOCIATION 

ARMOUR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 

3300 FEDERAL STREET, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



OUR NEW 
PRESIDENT 



x-^t^^p 



S^^ft^ 



A'l' a meeting- cf the facultj^ lield 
May 10, James D. Cunningliam, . 
J're.'tident of tlie Board of Trustees 
announced that the Board had unani- 
mously elected Dean Henry Townley 
Heald president of Armour Institute 
of Technology. The announcement 
was enthusiastically received. 

President Heald came to tlie Insti- 
tute in 1927 as assistant professor of 
ei\ il engineering and continued in this 
eajjaeity until 1931 when he was ap- 
pointed associate professor and assist- 
ant dean. In 1933 he was made dean 
of freshmen, and in the following 
year, dean of the college and professor 
of civil engineering. 

Following the resignation of Dr. 
Willard E. Hotchkiss in the fall of 
1937, Dean Heald was appointed act- 
ing president. Plans were immediately 
formulated by the Board of Trustees 
for tlie selection of a new president, 
and a committee was appointed com- 
posed of E. O. Griffenhagen, chair- 
man, E. E. Sunny, and Charles Davis 
of the Board and Dr. L. E. Grinter 
and Professor Harry McCormack of 
the faculty, to explore the field and 
make definite recommendations. This 
committee nominated Dean H. T. 
Heald as their unanimous choice. 

President Heald was born in Lin- 
coln, Nebraska in 1901. He received 
the degree of B.S. in civil engineering 
from the State College of Washington 
in 1923 and the degree of M.S. from 
the University of Illinois in 1925. He 
was married to Miss Muriel Starcher 
of Yakima, Washington in August, 
1928. 

Upon graduation, President Heald 
entered the field of practical engineer- 
ing. The experience thus gained en- 
abled him later to approach the solu- 
tion of educational problems from the 
viewpoint of sound engineering prac- 
tice. 

The fact that President Heald has 
become intimately acquainted with 
the Institute's problems should be of 
great help to him in developing a 
really constructive and progressive 
program. 



HENRY 
TOWNLEY 
HEALD 



ARMOUR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 

OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT 

MAY 25, 1938 

TO THE ALUMNI: 

The greatest assets of Armour Institute of Technology are 
the human values associated with the school. I like to think 
of Armour not as a physical plant equipped to carry on in- 
struction and research, but as an association of men, ranging 
in age from the youngest freshman to the oldest alumnus, 
banded together in spirit if not in fact, and all imbued by 
the common ideals of the college. This association includes 
the student body, the alumni, the faculty, and the Board of 
Trustees, all working toward the common goal of making 
Armour one of the truly outstanding institutions of its kind. 
Perhaps the best evidence of the effectiveness of any 
educational institution is the record made by its alumni. A. I. T. 
is proud of the accomplishments of its alumni, not only in the 
professions of engineering and architecture but also in many 
allied fields of endeavor. My personal acquaintance with the 
recent graduates and the present student body gives me every 
reason to believe that the fine record made by the older alumni 
will be continued and enhanced as time goes on. 

You are all familiar with many of the recent developments 
in our educational and research program. In spite of insuffi- 
cient finances, great progress has been made. I view this 
progress as only a beginning, and I am confident that by 
united effort, we shall be able to build upon the sound foun- 
dation of the past and the fine performance of the present 
toward new and distinguished achievements in the future. It 
is my sincere hope that we have the full support and con- 
fidence of all Armour men in working toward this goal. 

H. T. HEALD. 



33 



^'■' 




A DAY'S VISIT TO 
ARMOUR INSTITUTE 
OF TECHNOLOGY 

By Walter Hendriclcs 



ABOUT nine o'clock one morninfi; 
a cab stopped in front of tiie 
massive structure at tlie corner of 
Thirty-third and Federal streets, and 
out stepped a man in a gray tweed 
suit. "This seems to be the place," he 
said to the driver as he glanced at the 
gold lettering above the entrance and 
paid his fare. 

A few minutes later he was sitting 
in the president's office. "My reason 
for coming," he said, "is this. I have 
a son, eighteen, who will graduate from 
high school in June. He's interested 
in engineering, and wants to enter Ar- 




mour in tile fall; so I thouglit I'd take 
time to pay you a visit." 

"We are pleased to have you come," 
said the president. 

"I suppose I really ought to know 
more than I do about your school, 
having lived in Chicago for the past 
twenty-five years, but I'm ashamed to 
say I don't." 

"Well, we've been here since the 
Columbian Exposition, — 1892, to be 
exact, and we'll soon be rounding out 
the half century and celebrating our 
golden anniversary." 

"I seem to remember something I 
once read or heard. . . . Founded by 
Philip D. Armour, wasn't it.''" 

"Yes, by Philip D. Armour, the 
meat packer, who furnished the neces- 
sary funds after listening to a sermon 
by Rev. F. W. Gunsaulus of Plymouth 
Church on 'What I would do if I had 
a Million Dollars.' " 

"And did be give the million ..." 
"Yes, he did, and three or four mil- 
lions besides, to provide young men 
and women with an opportunity to 
help themselves." 

"But you don't have 
young ladies here, do 
you.''" 

The j) r e s i d e n t 
laughed. "Not any 
more. But we did at 
lirst, and for about ten 
years thereafter." 



Mr. Western arrives at 
the Institute 



"Not studying engineering surely." 
"No, hardly, but home economics, 
library science, and kindergarten 
training." 

The visitor looked surprised. 
"I see you do not know about the 
interesting background of our school," 
tlie president suggested. 
"No, I don't." 

"Well, briefly, it is this: When 
Joseph F. Armour died in 1881, he 
left a bequest of $'100,000 to be used 
by his brother Philip to establish a 
Sunday school for the people of the 
community. With the addition of an- 
other $100,000 of his own, Philip D. 
Armour built the Armour Mission, in 
1886, and presented it to Plymouth 
Sunday school." 

"But how does that hook up with 
the Institute?" 

"In this way," the president went 
on. "One of the young ladies of the 
Mission, one Julia A. Beveridge, rea- 
lizing that story-telling was not enough 
to keep children busy and out of mis- 
chief, started a class in clay modeling. 
Impressed by the results, she went on 
and established other classes: wood- 
carving, tile-making, and free-hand 
and mechanical drawing for the boys ; 
dress-cutting and millinery for the 
girls." 

"Ah, now I see the connection." 
The president smiled. "A good be- 
ginning, you think?" 

"It couldn't have been better." 
"Well, five years after the opening 
of the Mission, this building you are 
now in was being constructed. That 
was in 1891. Influences had been 
working on Mr. Armour. The success 
of the Mission classes had exceeded 
all expectations. And, then, that ser- 
mon I mentioned, by Gunsaulus, on 
'What I would do with a Million Dol- 
lars,' — that was the turning point. It 
was then that Mr. Armour decided to 
expand his brother's original idea and 
create a great technological institution 
in the middle west." 

"Your story takes my breath away," 
said the visitor. 

"I thought you'd like to hear it," 
the president answered. "Well, in 
1892 when we opened, we started with 
the mechanical and electrical engin- 
eering courses; in 1899, we added 



civil engineering; in 1901, chemical 
engineering; in 1903, fire-protection 
engineering, the only course of its 
kind; and in 1933, engineering sci- 
ence." 

"You seem to have tlie fundamental 
courses." 

"Yes. we do liave. and we aim to 
give a thorough and comprehensive 
training in each one." 

Together tiiey walked down the 
marble stairway to the dean's office 
on the first floor. 

"This is Mr. Western, Dean Tib- 
hals. He has come to pay us a visit." 

"I'm happy to welcome you to the 
Institute, Mr. Western, and I'll be 
glad to answer your questions and to 
show you our school." 

The president asked to be excused, 
having to return to his office for an 
appointment with a Chicago indus- 
trialist. 

"First of all, I'd like to know about 
your entrance requirements," the visi- 
tor said, leaning back in the comfort- 
able chair the dean had offered him. 

"Four years of creditable work in a 
creditable high school," the dean re- 
plied briefly. 

"Mathematics.''" 

"Yes, indeed. And a lot of it. And 
physics, and chemistry, and English, 
all fundamentals for the young en- 
gineering student. By the way, when 
we step into the registrar's office, I'll 
give you a catalog explaining all this 
in detail." 

"Does the young man begin studying 
engineering the first year.''" the lawyer 
questioned. 

"No. He continues with the funda- 
mentals, and witii few exceptions he 
does not begin to specialize until liis 
third year." 

After a conversation of some ten 
minutes, the dean and his guest started 
out on a tour of inspection, stopping 
first at tlie office of the registrar. 

"This is Mr. Western, Mr. Kelly. 
He has a son who is interested in en- 



Tho visitor 
receives a 
cordial 
welcome 
from the 
president, 
H. T. Heald 




gineering and is thinking about enter- 
ing Armour in the fall. He would like 
to have a catalog, and he would be in- 
terested, I am sure, in knowing some- 
thing about our enrollment." 

"Well, we liave over three thousand 
students," tiie registrar remarked, 
iianding Mr. Western a catalog and 
an application blank. 

"Over three thousand! I didn't 
realize you were as large as that." 

"Of course, that figure needs some 
interpretation," said tiie registrar. 
"We have about nine hundred regular 
students in the college, and another 
two hundred co-operatives." 

"What are co-operatives?" 

"Boys who combine working at a 
job and attending classes for alter- 
nating periods of eight or nine weeks 
throughout the year to graduate in five 
years instead of four," the dean ex- 
plained. 

"What an excellent arrangement!" 
said Mr. Western. "And Iiow helpful 
to boys who otherwise would be unable 
to obtain an education!" 

"Yes, we feel that it's a fine thing — 
for the boys, for the school, and for 
industry. Of course we could not 



lielp the boy if we did not liave the 
co-operation of industry." 

The registrar was waiting to con- 
tinue. "And we have over two thou- 
sand students in the evening school." 

"As many as that! .> . ." 

"Yes, and here we feel we are doing 
a very special service to our com- 
munity," tlie dean spoke up. "Most of 
these two thousand young men liavc 
not had the opportunity of going to 
college. After graduating from liigh 
school, they had to find a job. Real- 
izing the value of education, to them- 
selves and to their employers, they 
have come to us for help." 

"But can tiiese boys get work of col- 
lege grade in the evening?" 

"Yes, indeed. But here's the dean 
of the Evening Division. I know he 
will be happy to tell you something 
about that. Dean Freud, this is Mr. 
Western. He is very much interested 
in our school. He would like to know 
something about tlie evening school." 

"Well, we have some courses, prac- 
tical in nature and requiring no pre- 
requisites, for young men with ex- 
perience in the subject; but most of 



Rev. F. W. Gunsaulus 



Joseph F. Armour 



Philip D. Armour 






our evejiino- courses are the same as 
tliose of the reguhir college." 

"But can a man earn ai degree by 
attending evening classes?" 

"At y)resent he may take two years 
of college work in four years; but this 
will soon be extended so that he may 
obtain his degree in eight years, or 
twice as long as in the regular col- 
lege." 

"Could a young man take evening 
school work now, and day school work 
later, or both at once.'" 

"O, yes. I told you the courses are 
the same, and it makes no difference 
when he takes them. If a young man 
should have to give up day school in 
order to go to work, he could continue 
his education on half time in the eve- 
ning. Also, if a young man who has 
been attending evening school should 
find it possible to attend day school, 





A busy hour in the 
library 



Dean Tibbals greets 
Mr. Western 



he could transfer without any diffi- 
culty whatsoever." 

"That's a very fine arrangement," 
the visitor commented. "Now, one 
more question. You said something 
about helping boys increase their value 
to their employers. Have you ever 
counted up the number of companies 
these boys represent?" 

"Yes we have. More than five 
hundred organizations, including com- 
panies in mechanical engineering, 
electrical engineering, the steel and 
iron industry, public utilities, chem- 
ical manufacturing concerns, munici- 
pal and governmental organizations, 
and many others." 

"That's very impressive. I begin 
to realize how significant your evening 
school work is and what a splendid op- 
portunity you are offering young men 
to improve themselves." 

From the registrar's office, the dean 
and the inquiring visitor proceeded to 



the library adjoining. Part of the 
space allotted is for a reading room, 
and every seat in the room was oc- 
cupied bv' students Avho were com- 
pleting assignments unfinished at mid- 
night or seeking some assistance in a 
problem they had not been able to 
solve. 

Suddenly the bell rang, signalling 
the termination of the first class. Al- 
most immediately the room was stir- 
ring with students coming and going. 

"Now I see what a busy place it 
is," the visitor remarked. 

"It is a busy place, and much too 
small for our needs. But we're look- 
ing forward to the time when we shall 
have a building that will be adequate." 

"What a fine opportunity for some 
Chicago industrialist to create a me- 
morial and to contribute to the intel- 
lectual life of his city !" 

The dean smiled, half wishing tliat 



with the waving of some magic wand 
he might bring it to pass. 

(Quietness had returned. The seats 
were once more filled. Late comers 
had to find quiet corners in halls and 
unoccupied classrooms. 

"How many volumes do you have?" 
the visitor inquired. 

"Over fifty thousand," the dean re- 
plied. 

"Are they all technical books?" 
"O, no. While it is true we have 
a somewhat greater proportion of 
books on pure and applied science, we 
have also a large number on social and 
I)olitical science, psychology, history, 
languages, even drama and poetry." 
"That's interesting, and of course 
only as it should be if you're aiming 
to develop the whole man and not 
merely the technical side of him." 

"How many books are circulated in 
a year?" the dean asked the librarian, 
in order to develop the discussion. 

"Over seventy thousand, of which 
forty thousand were used in the li- 
brary and over thirty thousand at 
home." 

They took the elevator to tlie top 
floor and stepped into the large room 
at the south end. It was the gj'm- 
nasium. 

"Our field house," said the dean, 
with a twinkle in his eye. 

"I understand. You've outgrown 
it, as you have the library. This is 
where the boys of '92 did their calis- 
thenics and gymnastics." 

"Exactly. And it was one of the 
finest gymnasiums to be found." 
"Do you use it still?" 
"O, yes, for gym classes and for 
boxing and wrestling. For track and 
baseball, we have Ogden Field across 
the way; and we have tennis courts in 
the rear of Chapin Hall. Fortunately 
we have the 108th Engineers Armory, 
only two blocks away, for basketball; 
the fieldhouse of the University of 



38 



Cliicago for indoor track and swim- 
ming; and numerous tine courses near- 
by for golf." 

"Do you iiavc a football team?" 

"No, we don't. We hardly have 
time, because our school work is very 
demanding; but we do have excellent 
baseball and basketball teams." 

The dean and his guest walked 
across the hall to the drafting room. 
The day was warm, and students were 
working in their shirt sleeves. 

"Freshmen are required to take en- 
gineering drawing six hours a week," 
the dean explained. "First they learn 
to use their instruments, doing plates 
of lettering and learning drafting 
fundamentals and conventions, but 
after they have acquired technique, 
they advance to the drawing of ma- 
chine parts and of models." 

"I should tliink that sometimes 
tliey'd get tired and slip off to the 
gym." 

The dean laughed. "They do." 

Now on the fourth floor the dean 
and his guest stepped into the organic 
laboratory. There were no students 
present, no one except a graduate 




regular intervals stood ring stands for 
supporting, by clamps, the students' 
apparatus. Above the benches there 
were gas pipes and water pipes and 
plug-ins for electricity. 

In a closed cabinet stood scores of 
small jars filled with chemicals, and 
on a rack dozens of gallon bottles of 
solvents and reagents. One was 
labeled plainly "For Acid Hums." 

"And what is tliis tiling in the cen- 
ter of the room?" he asked. 

"A fume cabinet," the graduate re- 
plied, proceeding to explain. "\Vhtn 
a student performs an experiment in 
which there is a strong reaction, lie 
does it at this table under this hood 
so that the fumes will be carried out- 
doors and not be disseminated into 
the room." 

They walked about the room, the 
graduate pointing out the various 
pieces of apparatus. "And this," he 
announced, "is an automatic stirrer. 
It saves the boys a lot of work." 

"That ought to be a popular sort 
of machine," the lawyer said. 

"It is. The boys don't even have 



Mr. Western meets 
Dr. Freud, Dean, 
of the Evening 
Division, and Mr. 
Kelly, the 
Registrar 



to stir. They simply turn the switch, 
and the machine does the rest. There 
are six stirrers on the one shaft, each 
working independently." 

In the chemical engineering labora- 
tory, seniors were carrying on experi- 
ments of a practical character. One 
was making a gas analysis. 

"What's the object of that exinri- 
ment?" the visitor asked. 

"To find the constituents of tlic gas 
and the relative amounts of it," the 
senior replied. 

"And what are you doing?" the 
visitor inquired of another senior. 

"I'm fractionating various liquid 
mixtures," he answered. 
"Gasoline ?" 

"O, no, sir. Gasoline has a number 
of liquids in it. From the crude oil 
they fractionate or separate first tlie 
lightest liquids and continue until 
they have only pitch and paraffine." 

"Ah, I see. So that's what they 
mean by 'fractionating.' Well, young 
man, how many liquids do you have 
there?" 

"Only two, sir. This is called the 
'binary system' and is intended only 
for experimental purposes." 

They went on into the industrial 
laboratory where stood a ten-foot 
fractionating column, steam- jacketed 
kettles, dryers, apparatus for studying 
radiation, pumps for building up a 
vacuum or pressure, centrifuges for 
separating liquids and solids and used 
in milk analysis. 

In the industrial laboratory annex 
were other machines, such as pressure 
filters, a mill for mixing raw rubber 
with chemicals, a vulcanizer, extrac- 
tors, agitators, gas and electric high- 
temperature ovens, and evaporators of 
four different types. 

From one machine to another the 
visitor trailed his competent guide, 
listening with careful attention to his 
explanation. 

"I am ccrt.iiiily impressed and can 



assistant, who was working unobtru- 
sively in a far corner. 

The door had barely closed behind 
the dean when suddenly it opened 
again. "Several calls and appoint- 
ments for you, Dean Tibbals," said 
tile messenger. 

Turning to the visitor the dean said, 
"Now you see what sort of life a dean 
leads." 

They laughed. Asking to be ex- 
cused, he turned his guest over to the 
graduate, who promised to guide Mr. 
Western througli the cliemical labora- 
tories. 

The room was full of work benches, 
under which were lockers for students' 
utensils. On top of the benches at 

37 



No time to waste in the freshman drafting room 







sec liow complete and tliorough the 
course must be," said tlic visitor. 

"And still you have seen only a part 
of what we have. Here, for instance, 
is a special research laboratory for 
work on oil. And here is a bacteri- 
ological laboratory for the study of 
water treatment." 

They stepped into the second. The 
visitor bent over and looked at the 
dun-colored cultures of bacteria that 
clung to the bottoms of overturned 
glass receptacles. 

The equipment included an incu- 
bator for developing the bacteria, an 
autoclave for sterilizing, and a still 
for making nitrogen-free water. 

Arriving at the third floor, they 
looked into the physical chemistry 
laboratorj' to see how electricity and 
chemistry work hand in hand. But 
here's the freshman laboratory. . ." 
"I should like to see that. My boy, 
you know, is interested in chemistry." 
"Well, this lab is much like the first 
one I showed you, but there's a class 
in session which perhaps you would 
like to visit." 

"I should, indeed." 
Witiiin this laboratory the odors 
seemed less noticeable. The students, 
protected by an apron, seemed to be 
prepared for the worst. They seemed 
also to be in a state of perpetual mo- 
tion, turning from and returning to 
their experiments. Passing among 
them moved an instructor who paused 
to examine the nature of some result. 
From every ])art of the room came 
chemists in the rough to ask questions 
and to interrupt what was going on. 
The instructor seemed infallible, 
never making a mistake in grading 
the student's qualitative analysis of 
unknown specimens, and always wil- 
ling to analyze any sample the student 
was in doubt about. It was even ru- 
mored that the instructor carried on 
his fingertips minute quantities of 
various chemicals which enabled him 
to derive a positive test for any 
missing ion. 

Suddenly there was a crash of 
glass, followed by good-natured laugh- 
ter and serio-comic remarks. Even 
the graduate assistant and Mr. West- 
ern had difficulty in appearing digni- 
fied and sympathetic. 

"There goes what's left of the 
dishes and the breakage fee," said the 



Advanced chemistry 
Industrial chemistry 
Freshman chemistry 



young chemical engineer, who was 
grinning from ear to ear. 

From the cloudy region tiie inquirer 
and the graduate descended to the 
clearer atmosphere of the electrical 
laboratories. With the turning of a 
knob thej^ stood in the very room where 
Lee De Forest, in 1901 an instructor 
at the Institute, experimented with 
wireless telegraphy and sent his first 
message through the air. Now it was 
full of strange looking machines, like 
nothing the visitor had ever seen 
before. 

"What are thev?" he asked exeited- 
I.v- 

"Television instruments," said the 

instructor, in charge of tlie laboratory. 

"And how do they work?" 

"If you'll excuse me, I'll return to 

the laboratory," the graduate assistant 

interrupted. 

"Certainly. And thank you for 
your courtesy." 

The instructor in television pro- 
ceeded. "We have in this room rep- 
resentative equipment for all phases 
of television." 

"I see, but . . ." 

"Now, this machine on the left is 
one of the earliest. It has telephones 
for two-way communication for sight 
and sound with low-definition picture, 
which means that what you see will be 
recognizable, but not very clear. We 
call this a forty-five line scanner." 
"But how . . ." 

"Now, the one on the right has a 
sixty-line scanner, whicli means that 
the details will be about twice as clear 
as on the first one. This apparatus 
has a larger scope and is much more 
flexible. Also, this one has a powerful 
arc light, whereas the other has only 
a Mazda bulb." 

"Very interesting, but . . ." 
"Now, the one over near the win- 
dow is our very latest accession. In 
fact it has just been built, and largely 
with the help of these two student 
assistants. It is the first high defini- 
tion television transmitter to be con- 
structed in Chicago. . ." 
"Well !" 

"It will have a 441 line scanner, 
and the pictures should be as clear as 
home movies." 
"But how. . ." 

"What were you going to ask?" 
"How does one — how does the ma- 
chine work?" 

"O, yes . . . You see this large 
bulb? Well, this is the electric eye, 
or 'iconoscope.' You focus this icono- 
scope on an outdoor scene, start your 
apparatus, and transmit both picture 
and sound by wire or wireless." 

Having given Mr. Western a dem- 
onstration of the television, the in- 
structor locked the door of his room 
of magic and accompanied him on a 



38 




Experiment in television 

tour of inspection through the elec- 
trical department. 

First object of interest was a repli- 
ca of Edison's lamp in a glass case 
along the wall. Here, too, were other 
lamps: one for a Christmas tree con- 
trasted with one of 2500 candlepower 
for a street light on State Street. In 
another case were samples of elec- 
trical apparatus, both antique and 
contemporary; and in still another, 
radio tubes from the smallest to the 
largest. 

But these cases seemed only super- 
fluous ; for within the laboratory stood 
many more, crowded with other dis- 
plays. 

•Here was an induction motor, part- 
ly cut away to reveal its construction, 
and there a locomotive head-light gen- 
erator for instructional purposes. 

On a long, low table was an arti- 
ficial telephone line, approximately 
equivalent to two hundred miles of 
open line, used in experimental work 
to demonstrate characteristics of 
telephone transmission. 

"What can you do with that?" the 
visitor inquired. 

"We can calculate the velocity and 
attenuation, or loss, of current over 
the wires," the instructor explained. 

"Do you have a course in radio?" 

"We do, and many of these instru- 
ments, designed for high frequency 
measurements, are used in that course. 
The students assemble the apparatus 
as required, spend time investigating 
vacuum tubes, and investigate circuit 
elements." 

"I suppose the students have a 
radio club." 

"Yes, they do. And they have a 
transmitter which sometimes is work- 
ing and sometimes not. I understand 
it is just being remodeled from what 
it was to what it will be." 

The lawyer laughed, reminded per- 
haps of his own son's experiments. 

On the first floor, was still another 
laboratory that was filled with a 



variety of direct and alternating cur- 
rent machines such as are used in in- 
dustry, on which students experi- 
mented. 

"I think that's a group of junior 
chemicals," the instructor said. 

"Chemicals ! Do you mean to say 
that chemical engineering students 
take electricity?" the visitor asked. 

"Of course. The chemical engineer 
also must know the principles of elec- 
tricity, because many chemical pro- 
cesses involve the use of electrically- 
driven machinery or the use of elec- 
tricity directly as an agent." 

"I hadn't thought of that." 

Nearby was another group. These 
happened to be students in electrical 
engineering. 

"Experiment number twelve," said 
one. 

"A Proney brake test on a D.C. 
motor," someone enlightened them. 

For a few minutes it seemed as if 
they were engaged on a W.P.A. proj- 
ect, with three of them working and 
seven looking on. 

"Who knows what we're doing?" 
one of them asked. 

"You don't." another answered. 

"The prof said it would take us 
half an hour if we knew what we're 
supposed to do," said a third. 

"It'll take you two hours," said a 
fourth. 

By this time an instructor in tlie 
department appeared and set the boys 
to their task, and the visitor and his 
guide moved on to look at an oscillo- 
graph, a stroboscope, a transformer, 
and a sine-wave alternator with tliird 
harmonic generator. 

As Mr. Vv'cstern and liis guide 
emerged from the dynamo laboratory 
they were met by the dean, who, hav- 
ing just concluded a conference with 
the director of the mechanical engi- 
neering department, was about to 
tackle the problems of three perspir- 
ing freshmen who had been sitting on 

39 



Testing a radio 

a cushionless Iniu'h waiting for an 
interview. 

The dean caught the dirtctor by 
the sleeve as lie was about to walk 
away and introduced the visitor. "And 
how is it going, Mr. Western?" the 
dean asked him. 

"Great. It's like seeing all of Eu- 
rope in three weeks. I'll never for- 
get the time. . . Well, I'll have to tell 
you that one later. . ." 

"How about coming in to my office 
and sitting down, or do you wish to 
go on?" 

"Go on, of course. I've come to 
look over. . ." 

"That's fine. You'll have just 
about time to inspect the meclianical 
department before lunch. I'll be 
waiting for you." 

The visitor walked off with the di- 
rector, telling him the story about the 
time he went to Europe witli his wife 
on a Cook's tour. It must have been 
a humorous story, because the dean 
could hear their laughter as they 

Practical experiment on electrical machin 




^r-4 




Crushing a concrete block 

walked down stairs to tlu- mechanical 
laboratory. 

"All the equipment in this room," 
the director explained, "is for experi- 
ments in heating and ventilating. This 
first piece of apparatus is a high pres- 
sure steam pump, developing 12,000 
pounds per square inch." 
"What's it used for.^" 
"For testing the strength of pipes 
and fittings. Now, this next machine 
is a centrifugal blower, used for sup- 
plying a large quantity of air for ven- 
tilating and air conditioning." 

Beyond these were many other 
pieces of equipment: a vertical steam 
engine, a condenser, a direct-acting 
steam pump, a two-stage centrifugal 
pump, a Pelton water-wheel, a Ven- 
turi meter, each a story and an ex- 
periment in itself. 

From here they went into the ma- 
terials testing laboratory, where ma- 
terials are tested b_v being stretched, or 
twisted, or crushed, or bent. 

Here stood three machines that 
tested mainly iron and steel, concrete 
and wood, for intention and compres- 
sion. They were like the three bears, 
for one was of 200.000 jiounds pres- 
sure, the second of 60,000 pounds, 
and the baby bear of only 10 000. 

"I should think these machines 
could run tests for industry," the 
visitor commented. 

"They can," the director replied. 
"In fact, all the machines in this lab- 
oratory have been used that way to 
test thousands of products. Here, 
for example, is a torsion machine that 
twists an automobile axle until it 
breaks ; there, is a hardness, tester for 
testing the hardness of metals ; there, 
a cold bending machine, for bending 
boiler plate — which is supposed to 
bend double without cracking, if it is 
good ; and there, a tension machine for 
stretching fabrics." 

"These must be of considerable in- 
terest and practical value to the stu- 
dent," the lawyer commented. 

"In the south end of this building," 
the director continued, "we have the 
power plant of the Institute, where Ave 
generate cur heat, light, and power." 
"Do the students have anything to 
do with that?" the visitor asked. 



"No, that is all the function of a 
trained staif; but the chief engineer 
gives instruction in the practical op- 
eration of a plant and explains every- 
thing in great detail. There is, how- 
ever, besides the steam turbine, an air 
compressor, and two generator engine 
units, a Corliss engine, a condenser, 
and a pump which arc used Hy the 
students in running efficiency tests. In 
other words, this is the steam labora- 
tory of the mechanical engineering de- 
partment." 

"What about shops?" the visitor 
asked. 

"I was just coming to that. They 
are in Machinery Hall, directly oppo- 
site. I'll have a senior mechanical 
student take you there, also to the au- 
tomotive and refrigerating laborator- 
ies." 

"We may as well start at the bot- 
tom," the senior said as they entered 
the welding laboratory. 

Here were different types of A.C. 
and D.C. welding machines and a 
manifold system of gas welding, per- 
mitting a small class to work at one 
time. 

Along the wall were heat-treating 
ovens, for hardening, annealing, and 
carbonizing metals; and two power 
hammers, the modern equivalent of the 
old blacksmith's, for shaping the 
heated metals. 

From the welding lab they pro- 
ceeded to the machine shop on the 
floor above. 

"Our equipment includes all types 
of standard machine tools, some auto- 
matic and some semi-automatic," the 
shop instructor explained, naming 
them as he pointed them out. 

"Do all students take shop work?" 
the lawyer asked. 

"No, only the mechanicals and elec- 
tricals, who must take it during their 
junior and senior years. With others, 
this work is elective." 

"What about foundry work?" 

"That's on the fourth floor. We'll 
go there now," the senior spoke up. 

Within the foundry were furnaces 
for pouring brass, bronze, and alumi- 
num ; a cupola for making gray cast 
iron ; and an oven for making cores. 
Along the wall were ten stalls within 



Testing a Diesel engine 

each of whieii two students worked at 
bench molding while others worked on 
the floor. 

On the way out, the senior suddenly 
remembered the metallurgical labora- 
tory, hidden away on the third floor 
and claiming the sjiacc once occupied 
by the old woodworking shop. 

"Would you be interested in look- 
ing at it?" the senior asked. 

"Yes, indeed." 

The professor who answered their 
knock led them into a room in which 
three photomicrographs were mounted 
on stands. 

"What are they for?" the visitor 
asked. 

"For taking photographs through a 
microscope of the structure of metal." 

In the professor's office were CE^ses 
of geological specimens; and in the 
laboratory, metallurgical specimens, 
primarily gold and silver, but also 
zinc, lead, and copper, from every 
important mine in the country. 

"Does the work include practical 
applications?" 

"Yes, many. We are constantly en- 
gaged in determining the causes of 
failures in metal: here's a piece of a 
flag pole that snapped off in a school 
yard." 

"Was anybody hurt?" 

"Fortunately not. And here's a 
fragment of a rusted milk can, a car- 
bon dioxide tank that blew up, a high 
pressure water pipe that burst, an 
auto muffler that burned through, and 
a stamping die that refused to stamp." 

"I see, I see," the lawyer inter- 
rupted good-naturedly, realizing how 
completely the professor was answer- 
ing his question. 

On the second floor landing the 
senior pointed out a case of tools. 

"Do you mean to say that students 
made all those tools?" the visitor de- 
manded. 

"Yes, sir, every one of them. That's 
a part of the course." 

As they approached the automotive 
laboratorv to the north, tliev could 



40 



hear the noise of an engine in opera- 
tion. Within the laboratory the human 
voice was useless against the deafen- 
ing roar. 

As the engine came to a stop, the 
senior shouted, "That's the same type 
of engine that Lindbergh used on his 
hop across the ocean." 

"Interesting. And do you have 
other airplane engines?" 

"Yes, several. There's a Packard 
engine, the same as was used on the 
Shenandoah, with four valves and 
four spark plugs in each cylinder." 
"Why so many?" the visitor asked. 
"To light the bon fire in four places 
at once, to insure complete utilization 
of fuel," tlie senior answered pictur- 
esquely. 

The lawyer smiled. "I understand." 
"And there's an old Liberty, used 
in the crates that were flown at the 
end of the World War; and over there 
some rotary motors : the (jnome, the 
Wasp, and Hispana-Suiza, that swing 
around a stationary shaft." 

"I see. And now, what are all these 
other engines?" 

"These three are Diesels: a ten- 
horsepower Fairbanks-Morse, a sixty- 
horsejiower International, and a one 
hundred twenty-horsepower Hercules. 
Over in the corner stands an old West- 
inghouse, three-cylinder, forty-horse- 
power, gasoline engine." 

"It looks like a sturdy machine." 
"It is. The prof says he thinks it 
could run twenty-four hours a day for 
a year and still not wear out." 

Students were making a heat bal- 
ance test on a Fairbanks-Morse en- 
gine. "Every part of the fuel going 
in can be traced and evaluated," the 
senior explained. 

The professor stepped out of his 
office, greeted Mr. Western, and pro- 
ceeded to show him some of his re- 
cently acquired measuring instru- 
ments. "Here," he said, "is a cathode 
ray indicator, used to show variations 
in the very rapid changes in pressure 
during combustion, when l/l 000th of 
a second is a long time." 

Practical work in the foundry 



"The student has nothing on tlie 
professor in the way of picturesque- 
ness," the lawyer thought. 

At the refrigeration laboratory the 
students were taking ice from below 
the floor when the visitor and his 
guide arrived. 

"Do you buy the ice?" he asked. 
"O, no, sir. That ice is manufac- 
tured right here. That boiler over 
there is the starting point. Steam from 
that boiler runs the compressor next 
to it. You see, ammonia is a gas and 
can be liquefied by compressing and 
cooling." 

"I always think of ammonia as a 
water solution in a bottle with little 
Red-Ridinghood — no, I guess it's Bo- 
Peep, on it." 

"Yes, that's right. Well, the com 
pressed ammonia gas is forced into 
the condenser up there, and then it 
expands in pipes placed in the tank 
of brine under the floor. You see, 
when ammonia expands it absorbs heat 
from the water, and thus freezes it. 

"Very clear. The boys seem to be 
enjoying their work — at least the 
coca-cola they're drinking." 

"Well, since there's no use made of 
the ice, and the boys liate to see it 
going to waste, they bring along a few 
bottles to be cooled." 

"V^ery ingenious boys," the lawyer 
said with a twinkle. "They ought to 
make a success in life." 

The dean had resolved the perplexi- 
ties of the perspiring freshmen and 
was waiting for Mr. Western. To- 
getlier they walked to the faculty 
club. 

Several professors came in and 
joined them, and soon appeared the 
president and the treasurer. 

Eddies of conversation developed 
in various parts of the room. 

"Did you have a successful trip?" 
one asked the director of music. 

"Very." Then turning to Mr. West- 
ern he explained that he had taken 
the glee club on a short trip down 
state. 

"So you have music here, too, eh? 
I'm glad to know it." 

"We have also an orchestra," the 
director added. "Fast night the mu- 
sical clubs gave a program over a 
nation-wide hookup." 



"Indeed! That's very interesting. I 
thought from what I saw this morning 
that all you do here is work." 

"We also play," said the instructor 
in English who was also coach of dra- 
matics. "We are presenting a one act 
play by O'Neill tomorrow at 10:30." 

"You mean these engineering stu- 
dents are doing that?" 

"Yes; and the arcliitects, too," the 
instructor added. "The areliiteets de- 
sign the set ;nid the engineers build it, 
both usually taking ])art in tlir act- 
ing." 

"All such activities ought to make 
a better engineer," said Mr. Western. 
"They should add to his appreciation 
of the fine arts, and supplement his 
affection for the practical." 

"What kind of morning did you 
have" the president now asked of Mr. 
Western, causing the eddies to merge 
in what soon became a current of con- 
versation. 

"Great," was Mr. \\'estern's first 
word. He paused as if gathering force 
to proceed. "I have been deeply im- 
j)ressed. I am beginning to under- 
stand the vision of your founder in 
establishing such a school in such a 
place as Chicago. It seems to me 
you've been hiding your light under 
a bushel, or else we have been too 
blind to see the flame. I am thinking 
of the thousands of young men you 
have trained and sent out into tiie 
active life of this great metropolis, 
and I am wondering if our city fully 
appreciates the technological institute 
it has here. All I can say is that I 
believe you have a great future aliead 
of you, situated as you are in the cen- 
ter of world commerce and industry." 
The professors were for the mo- 
ment silent. They could sense the sin- 
cerity of the visitor's remarks, and 
secretly they shared liis enthusiasm. 
The president broke the impressive 
calm. "You've seen only a part of 
it, Mr. Western. We should have 
waited till this evening." And tlicy all 
laughed. 

"The visitor had established the topic 
of conversation: one after another 
spoke of the ways in which the school 
was helping industry and industry 
helping the school. They spoke of the 
regular inspection trips that students 

Metallurgical laboratory 



;rH»" 





of all departments take, to plants and 
factories of all types situated in and 
near Chicago, to bridges, tunnels, 
cribs, pumping stations, disposal 
plants, and many more. Even the pro- 
fessor of business management spoke 
of factories as the laboratories for his 
courses in time and motion study, en- 
gineering economics, and surveys and 
markets ; and he described a confer- 
ence course for executives, meeting 
for several hours in the evening once 
a week. The co-ordinator of the co- 
operative courses spoke of linking in- 
dustry and the school. The president 
closed the discussion with a reference 
to the board of trustees, nearly all 



of whom. lie said, were men prominent 
in commerce and industry. 

Lunclieon past, the dean invited the 
visitor to inspect the Mission building, 
reviewing for him briefly the story the 
president had previously told him 
about the founding of the Institute. 
"Besides the faculty club and grill, 
the building contains a student lunch 
room, a school store, an assembly hall, 
classrooms, and a large drafting 
room." 

"A fine old building," the visitor 
remarked after looking it over. 

"And now we are planning to re- 
model and recondition it and turn it 
into a student union." the dean; con- 
cluded as they walked down Federal 



til 



per 
six 



street to the civil engineering labora- 
tories. 

In Cliapin hall, they examined 
the filtration plant, set inside tlie 
building and occupying a space ex- 
tending from the basement to tlie third 
floor. 

"How large a system is tli 
visitor asked. 

"Thirty-six thousand galli 
day, or sufficient for a towr 
luindred people." 

"And is this an actual plant?" 

"O, yes," the dean assured him. 

They returned to the first floor and 
examined the filter pipe gallery and 
elilorinating system, and then pro- 
ceeded to the basement to inspect the 
tanks of raw and filtered water — the 
beginning and end of the system. 

Back on the first floor, they visited 
the soil mechanics laboratory. Here 
one could see demonstrated what 
would happen if one built his house 
upon sand, with another building be- 
ing erected nearby. 

Within the laboratory was a room, 
the size of a refrigerator in a butcher 
shop. But this room was just the op- 
posite of a refrigerator. It was a 
humid room, full of steam, and drip- 
ping with moisture, with a temperature 
of 7.5 degrees. Instead of legs of lamb 
enclosed in cloth, there were chunks 
of clay wrapped in burlap to preserve 
them in their natural state. 

A graduate assistant obligingly took 
out a roast and cut off a piece which 
he pressed into a five-incli cake and 
put away to harden undisturbed for 
six weeks, then to be tested in the soil 
consolidation device by having loads 




Above: Story con- 
test in the faculty 
club 



Below: Between 
classes 




applit'd to it to determine distortion, 
measurable to ten thousandths of an 
incli. And if one had built his castle 
upon clay instead of sand, one could 
determine how much it would settle. 

In other rooms were other exhibits: 
here a model of the Chicago-type bas- 
cule bridge, there two panels of struc- 
tural steel shapes, and another of wire 
products. 

"We are planning a museum of en- 
gineering models," said the director of 
the civil engineering option, also dean 
of the graduate school. 

"Do you mean a museum of science 
and industry similar to the one in 
Jackson park, except on a smaller 
scale?" 

"Well, hardly that. There you have 
one of the wonders of America, a tre- 
mendous educational force, an institu- 
tion we shall make more and more 
use of as the years go by, and with 
whicli we are proud to co-operate in 
every way. No, we could not nor 
would not attempt to duplicate their 
undertaking. What we have in mind 
is a museum of models useful for in- 
structional purposes." 



The engineei 
in disguise 



The engineer 

at (and?) his 

best 



-■ 


r^^Lt^l 




v'\~^ ^^^^^MM^^^^^^M 




^^^^^^H 


iB 


^^^^^^^^^H 




^ w^ 


^^H|^9 





"I think Mr. Western would like 
to know about your laboratory in the 
country," the dean of the college sug- 
gested. 

The director-dean smiled. "He 
means our summer school of surveying 
situated on a lake in northern Wis- 



consin which sophomores in civil en- 
gineering must attend for six weeks." 

"I'd like to attend that school my- 
self," the lawyer said. 

"The boys enjoy it. It's a memor- 
able event for them, living, working, 
and playing together." 



Music hath charms to soothe the troubled engineer 




fi 



m:¥m 




A problem in the soil mechanics 
laboratory 

"And now, Dean Grinter, I think 
Mr. Western would like to hear some- 
tliing- about our graduate school." 

"I should, indeed." 

"Well, our graduate sehool is ex- 
panding very rapidly, particularly the 
evening work." 

"Do you mean to say that a eollegc 
graduate located in Ciiicago can at- 
tend scliool in the evening and obtain 
an advanced degree.^" the lawyer 
asked. 

"Yes, that's right. We have over 
a hundred graduates, of Armour and 
of. many other schools, temporarily or 
permanently residing in Chicago, who 
are taking advanced courses leading to 
a degree," the graduate dean ex- 
plained. 

"Well, that certainly is an oppor- 
tunity for young men who otherwise 
would be unable to continue their ad- 
vanced education." 

Close by was the office of the direc- 
tor of the engineering science option. 

"This is the newest of our depart- 
ments," the dean said to his guest as 
they entered. 

"It is planned for those who wish 
to have a training in general engineer- 
ing science with adequate training in 
all the special fields, but specializing 
in none of them," the director ex- 
plained. 

Mr. Western thought well of such a 
course and felt that more and more 
students would be attracted to it, es- 
pecially among those who planned to 
go into industrial management. 

From here the dean led his guest 
through corridors and past room after 
room in which classes were in session. 

"I suppose you consider mathemat- 
ics one of the fundamentals of a tech- 
nological training," Mr. Western sug- 
gested. 

"Yes, we do," the dean replied, 
"and also physics, the laboratories of 
which we shall visit next." 



In the office of Dr. L. E. Grinter, 
Dean oi the Graduate Division 

"What about English?" the lawyer 
asked. "Do you believe that an engi- 
neer needs English?" 

"Indeed we do. And so do the stu- 
dents. They realize what lack of ex- 
pression will mean to them in pursu- 
ing^ their profession; consequently the 
Department of English places its 
emphasis upon the fundamentals of 
grammar, logic, and rhetoric." 

"To speak frankly, and as a lawyer 
with a respect for words, I think so 
too, and I'm glad to hear about it." 

Classes were being dismissed. Cor- 
ridors became instantly crowded with 
students exchanging classes or seeking 
exits leading outdoors and home. 

Along came two young men, each 
wearing a red bandana about his neck 
and carrying a large monkey wrench. 

"What's the meaning of that?" Mr. 
Western laughingly asked. 

The dean explained that the boys 
had been pledged to the mechanical 
engineering society and were being 
put through the preliminaries before 
initiation. 

"And do you have social fraterni- 
ties, too?" he asked. 

"Yes, we do, and also honoraries." 

"I don't suppose you have a chapter 
of Eata Baleof Hay, do you?" 

"Yes, we have." 

"Ha, ha. It must have been added 
since my college days, or I should 
have had to learn it when I memorized 
the list." 

"I'm sure the chapter would enjoy 
having you stop," the dean suggested. 

"I'd like to, but not today." 

"We have other activities also, such 
as a radio club. . ." 

"My son is interested in radio." 

"A rifle club, chess club, stamp club, 
camera club . . ." 

"That's fine. All work and no play 
would make Johnny a dull engineer." 

The dean agreed. "We have also a 
student newspaper and an annual." 



Adjusting controls in the filtration pl( 

They had reached the physics lab- 
oratory. 

"Our equipment covers the work 
in mechanics, heat, light, sound, wave 
motion, and electricity and magne- 
tism," the professor said as he con- 
ducted ]Mr. Western through the gen- 
eral laboratory. "Some of our pieces," 
he went on, "are of special interest, 
because they were sent over from Ger- 
many and Switzerland for exhibition 
at the Columbian Exposition of 1893, 
and purchased at the close of the Fair. 
This dividing engine, for example, is 
a Geneva Society instrument." 

"That should be very interesting 
historically to such a school as yours, 
founded at that time," the lawyer com- 
mented. 

"And we have, also, special equip- 
ment for more advanced courses in 
heat, light, and electronics." 

"I suppose there are many applica- 
tions of physics to industry." 

"Yes, practically every piece of ap- 
paratus has its applications," the pro- 
fessor concluded. 

"And now we have only the Re- 
search Foundation laboratories left," 
the dean said to Mr. Western. "But 
there are two departments, whose 
special laboratories are down town, 
that I wish to tell you about. The 
first is our school of architecture, lo- 
cated in the Art Institute." 

"Do you mean on the lake front, on 
Michigan avenue and Adams street?" 

"Yes. Our architectural department 
occupies the upper floors, above the 
gallery." 

"I knew the Art Institute conducted 
an art school, but never dreamed that 
Armour Institute of Technology had 
its school of architecture there." 

"We have been affiliated since the 
establishment of the new Art Institute 
and the founding of Armour Institute 
in 1892." 

"Does the architectural student do 



44 



all his work at the Art Institute?" 

"No. In his first year he devotes 
more of his time here to engineering 
fundamentals, but in the following 
years he spends more on architectural 
subjects down town." 

"I suppose the school is widely rec- 
ognized among the profession." 

"It is, indeed. At tlie head of it 
are competent men; and it has an ad- 
visory council of distinguished arclii- 
tects to assist in its direction. 

Mr. Western expressed a wish to 
visit it at some later time. 

"The other department is that of 
Fire Protection Engineering, the only 
course of its kind, established here in 
1903." 

"I should certainly like to know 
about that." 

"Well, here we are at the office of 
the director of the option, and lie will 
be pleased to tell you about it while 
I go back to the office." 

"Our arrangement is similar in a 
way to that of the Department of 
Architecture," the director explained. 
"The student does his work in engi- 
neering here at the Institute, taking 
most of the required courses of the 
first two years and regular courses 
in fire protection; and he goes to the 
Underwriters' Laboratories on the 
near north side for his special work." 
"Does the fire protection student 
take physics, chemistry, and electric- 
ity. 

"Yes, a graduate fire protection en- 
gineer is qualified in several brandies 
of engineering." 

"What is the work done at the Un- 
derwriters' Laboratories?" 

"Devices and appliances, both do- 
mestic and industrial, are thoroughly 
tested for fire hazard. Hydraulic tests 
are made on fire hydrants, sprinkler 
lines, water meters, alarm devices, and 
water valves of all types. 

"Do the students of this depart- 
ment also go on inspection trips ?" 

"Yes, frequent trips are made to 
familiarize the student with actual 
industrial processes and the common 
types of building construction, as well 
as types of applied fire protection." 

"What about your graduates ? Do 
they find employment readily?" 

"Yes. Most of them are hired by 
insurance companies; but as time goes 
on and their value is appreciated, 
more and more are employed by indus- 
tries." 

The dean had returned. "And now, 
Mr. Western, as I said before, we 
have only one thing more to show 
you, something that will interest and 
surprise you. At noon you mentioned 
our connection with the technological 
and industrial life of the city and of 
the central west. We told you about 
our co-operative students who work in 




Summer camp for civil engineers 



shops and attend school alternately 
throughout the year; about our eve- 
ning schcol students who must work 
during the day but who may attend 
both graduate and undergraduate 
courses; about our regular students 
who after four years of fundamental 
and practical training go out and as- 
sume their share of responsiblility. 
Now I want to tell you about our Re- 
search Foundation and to introduce 
you to its directors and its staff." 

"Is this Research Foundation more 
closely connected with industry?" Mr. 
Western asked. 

"Yes and no. It docs not furnish 
the men to industry as do all the other 
departments of our school, but it fur- 
nishes service." 

"What do you mean by that?" 

"Simply this. Industry may have a 
technological or scientific problem 
which it cannot solve. It calls upon 
the Research Foundation. The Foun- 
dation sets its trained experts to the 
task of finding a solution." 

"I see. And do you have such proj- 
ects that youi are working on now?" 

"Yes, at all times. Do you remem- 
ber looking into a chemistry labora- 
tory on the third floor of Main build- 
ing?" 

"Yes, I do. Full of all sorts of 
tubes and bottles and glass pipes 
and . . ." 

"That's the one. Well, that is a re- 
search laboratory in which special 
problems of oil are investigated." 

"I recall that the young man said 
something about it." 

"And do you remember the mate- 
rials testing laboratory where those 
stretching, and twisting, and crushing- 
machines were?" 

"O, yes, my three bears." 

"Well, that laboratory can handle 
special problems for industry. And 
so can many others. But here in this 
building we have established the 
Foundation headquarters and have 
equipped several laboratories strictly 
for research." 

45 



"I'd like very mucli to sec them." 

"This is Dr. "Poulter, Mr. Western. 
He is the director of the Research 
Foundation, and tliis is Professor 
Vaglborg, tlu- associate director." 

"I am pleased to meet b th of you 
gentlemen." 

"And now. Dr. Poulter, I'll let yon 
tell Mr. Western about ymir work and 
show him what you have." 

"This, Mr. Western, is called tlie 
'coal research laboratory.' " 

"For studying coal?" 

"Exactly. Now, this simple machine 
is a colloid mill. It will mix materials 
that will not ordinarily mix, as for 
example, oil and water. That mixture 
will not be a solution, however, but 
a colloid, which is a suspension of 
ultra-microscopic particles of one sub- 
stance in another. Let me explain: 
the droplets of oil are broken up into 
a size too small to be observed micro- 
scopically, and because of electrical 
charges the particles have, they re- 
main suspended. What we get appears 
to be a solution, but it is not. It is 
a colloid." 

In the physics laboratory 





Activities in the Department of Architecture 



"What about milk?" 

"Very good, Mr. Western. You 
couldn't have thought of a more com- 
mon example. When the suspension 
in the bottle breaks, the cream, or fat, 
separates from the water." 

"But how do you use it with coal?" 

"W'e use it to make liquid coal." 

"Impossible." 

The director laughed. "Yes, we are 
using worthless fines, which mine op- 
erators cannot sell, and mixing them 
with oil to make a liquid fuel." 

"Incredible! And does it work?" 

"Surely. We are using it now in 
our automotive laboratory which, 
doubtless, you visited, not only in 
Diesels, but in internal combustion 
engines normallj' using gasoline or 
kerosene." 

"But wait. The cream rises to the 
top of the bottle. How do you keep 
the coal from separating from the 
oil?" 

"That's our problem. And when 
we can draw off a pint or a gallon 
of the mixture and have it the same 
throughout, we sliall have solved our 
problem. Then you will be able to 
use it in your oil burner." 

"Think of it! Liquid coal!" 

"All this other equipment is for 
standard testing of fuels of all kinds," 
the director explained, pointing out 
ovens, gas analyzing apparatus, fur- 



naces, viscosimeters, calorimeters, and 
the inevitable accurate balances. 

He guided his guest into the base- 
ment where there were crushers and 
grinders, including one which samples 
the coal as it grinds; an electro-mag- 
netic vibrating screen for sizing coal; 
a high temperature gas furnace, for 
determining the fusion temperature of 
ash — useful in studying clinkering; a 
float sink apparatus, for studying the 
economics of coal washing at the 
mine ; an apparatus for measuring the 
dustiness of coal; and an experimental 
apparatus for studying new metliods 
of removing ash from coal. 

"Now, this," said the director on 
entering the machine shop on the sec- 
ond floor, "is the heart of the research 
laboratories. Here we have the essen- 
tial machinery for turning out preci- 
sion equipment. This is a cylinder 
grinder, and this a precision lathe. 
Here is a drill press I had with me 
at the South Pole . . ." 

"Soutli Pole!" 

"Dr. Poulter was second in com- 
mand on the Byrd Antarctic Expedi- 
tion," the dean spoke up. 

"In this small laboratory," tiie di- 
rector went on, "I am studying the 
effect of pressure on lubricating oils. 
Under pressures as high as -100,000 
pounds per square inch, oils become 
as hard as lead or copper." 




"But do you meet such pressures in 
actual lubricating problems?" Mr. 
Western asked. 

"O, yes, with roller ball bearings 
under a heavy load; so we are trying 
to determine the hardness curve for 
the different oils." 

"What's the highest pressure you've 
been able to get?" Mr. Western asked, 
beginning to feel almost like an engi- 
neer himself. 

"The highest ever reached — a mil- 
lion and a half pounds per square 
inch." 

"And what can you do with it?" 

Dr. Poulter smiled. "It's of no prac- 
tical value at the present time, but it 
is of theoretical value." 

"They visited other laboratories in 
which man}- investigations were being 
made for industry, and Mr. Western 
was more or less dazed as he listened 
to the amazing stories. 

"And now, finally, we come to the 
heat insulation laboratory," he said, 
"where all sorts of materials used in 
heating and cooling appliances are 
tested." 

"What kinds of materials do you 
mean?" 

"Materials such as rock wool, as- 
bestos, and many others, used for in- 
sulating domestic stoves and large 
baking ovens; and materials for re- 
frigerating trucks, storage plants, 



Students of Fire Pro- 
tection Engineering in 
action. 



46 




High pressure equipment in the Research Laboratory Dr. Poulter and Professor Vagtborg discuss the Research Foundation. 



show cases . . ." 

"Uo you test any of tlie apj)!!- 
ances.''" he asked. 

"Yes, we do: refrigerators, coolers, 
radiators, and many others. We test 
lliem in this constant temperature 
room, tlie floor of which is made of 
concrete laid over cork, the walls of 
plaster over cork, and the ceiling of 
asphalt over cork. By means of those 
steam pipes along the wall and refrig- 
erating coils near the ceiling, we can 
maintain a constant temperature 
twenty to one hundred degrees." 

"Do I understand, then, that in this 
room you can duplicate any weather 
conditions these appliances might 
meet?" 

"That's right, — hot or cold, dry or 
moist." 

"Thank you, sir, for the time you 
have given me and your kindly inter- 
est. The more I see, the more I am 
impressed with the significance of 
your school to the community." 

"But have you no way of enlighten- 
ing the public about your school?" Mr. 
Western asked as they walked away 
from the Research Foundation. 

"Yes, indeed. I have been saving 
that for the last. Here we are now 
at the department of public relations 
which includes publicity, personnel 
and placement, alumni, and publica- 
tions. Let's step in and meet Profes- 
scr Moreton, the director," said the 
dean, "and after you have talked with 
him, please come to my office." 

"I'm very happy to make your ac- 
quaintance, Mr. Western," the direc- 
tor said. 

"I suppose this is where you keep 
the records of your graduates." 

"^s far as they will let us, it is," 
the director said cheerfully. "But you 
don't realize how hard it is to keep 
that record up-to-date." 

"I have some idea. I know how 



•pin. 



careless I liave been 
college informed." 

"Well, we are fortunate in having 
a loyal and an enthusiastic body of 
alumni, that part of a college that 
makes for weakness or strength. A 
college is no stronger than its alumni, 
and she counts on them as they count 
on her, and both are happy if neither 
one fails. This is the point of con- 
tact." 

"Ycu have expressed that very 
convincingly, professor. Now what 
about the other departments?" 

"The chairman of publicity takes 
care of promotional publicity in the 
way of talks, lectures, and announce- 
ments. The personnel officer arranges 
for interviews between employer and 
graduating students and does every- 
thing he can to increase the scope of 
our usefulness. Our magazine is the 
most widely distributed college pub- 
lication in the country." 

"Well, you are doing something 
and I wish vou the best of luck." 



Mr. Western 
learns about 
the activities of 
the Department 
of Public Rela- 
tions. 



"It has been a j)leasure to talk with 
you, Mr. Western." 

The clock struck five. The day was 
ending for the regular students and 
just beginning for those wiio attended 
in the evening. 

The dean had called a cab, which 
stood waiting at the curb in front of 
the entrance; and when Mr. Western 
appeared, the dean and the president 
were there to see him off. 

"It has been a great day for me," 
he said, "and I am thoroughly con- 
vinced after meeting the men on your 
faculty and seeing the various groups 
of students at work in the many dif- 
ferent departments that Armour In- 
stitute of Technology is rendering a 
very valuable service and that our 
community has every reason to feel 
proud of this splendid institution." 

"It has been a pleasure to have 
you," said the president. 

"W^e hope to see j'ou and your son 
in September," the dean said as the 
driver closed the door and drove away. 



47 




DONORS OF FUNDS AND EQUIPMENT 



iiiniii. aiul triciids 
,it Arnimir Iiistituti 



CONTIUBLTIONS lr..iii iiuhistrirs. tnistc 
H'vc.-ith- in c'arr\iiii;- on tlic ((iucatioiial |ir( 
r.clinolo-v. 

Diirinsj,- till- past year the fdUowiiiu- individuals and ronipan 
li-il)ut.(l funds and i(iuii)nunt. 

Arnir.nr Institntr of IV-cimolooT takis tills ()|)|i(.i-tunit.v of t 
iii-atitudf lor this sul>stantial assistance. 



DONORS OF FUND- 



Acnu^ StiH'l Co. 

Alfred S. Alsclnihr 

Anurican Stiel l'"(nnidrits 

Claire L. Barnes 

S. IJ. Chapin 

Crane Company 

A. Daigfjer & Co. 

Economv Fuse & Manufaetui 

Alfred L Eustiee 

Newton C. Farr 

Felt & Tarrant Mfs;. Co. 

(Joodnian .Manufacturing Co. 

Robert B. Harper 

H. M. Henderson 

Charles W. Hills. Jr. 

Ug Electric Ventilating Co. 

Inland Steel Co. 

International Harvester Co. 

Havniond J. Koch 

Howard L. Krum 

Link-Belt Co. 



-Marbleluad Lime Co. 

Alice C!iai)in Mny 

John J. Mitchell 

^^'illiam S. Monroe 

Sterling Mortm 

Harold W. Mundav 

Walter Oherf elder" 

l'eoi)l,s (ias Light & Coke Co. 

Harris Perlstein 

Pheoll Mfg. Co. 

Pullman, Inc. 

Revere Coj)per & Brass Incorporated. 

Dallas Division 
John P. Sanger 
Sears, Roebuck & Co. 
H. N. Spaulding 
Bernard E. Sunny 
Western Actuarial I'urcau 
Westinghouse Electric Elevator Co. 
Whiting Corporation 



DONOR.S OF KQLUPMENT 

.\meriean Cork Institute 
American Television Institute 
Athey Truss Wheel Co. 
P>endix Products 
Carnegie- Illinois Steel Corp. 
Central Steel & Wire Co. 
Economy Fuse & Mfg. Co. 
Electric" Si)ray-it Co., Milwaukee 
Electric Storage Battery Co. 
Ellison Draft Gage Co. 
Fairbanks, Morse & Co. 
Faville-LeVallv Corporation 
Hamler Boiler" Co. 
Hercules Motor Co. 
Holhij) Corpor.-ition 
Internationa] Harvester Co. 
Lasker Boiler & I'-nginecring Cn, 
Midwest Engineering Works 
Moto Meter Clage 
Powers Regulator Co. 
Pratt and Whitney Aircraft Co. 
R. C. A. \'iclor Distributing Corpr 
Republic Flow Meters Co. 
Rockwood Mfg. Co. 
Ryerson Steel Co. 
United American Bosch 
Wallace and Tiernan Co. 
Wheeico Instruments Co. 



ARMOUR 
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 



CHICAGO 



THE COLLEGE 



THE EVENING DIVISION 



Offers four-year courses in Architecture, Chemical, 
Civil, and Electrical Engineering, Engineering Science, 
Fire Protection Engineering, and Mechanical Engineer- 
ing; also the five-year Mechanical Engineering course 
in co-operation with Industry, each leading to the degree 
of Bachelor of Science in its particular field. 

THE GRADUATE DIVISION 

Offers full-time or part-time programs of post graduate 
study leading to the degree of Master of Science. Pro- 
grams are arranged to meet the needs of full-time grad- 
uate students, and also of employed graduate engineers 
who desire further specialized training, but who must 
carry on their studies in the evening or on Saturday. 



Offers college credit courses, wherein, by way of an 
intensive four-year program, the student may obtain the 
equivalent of two years of full-time college training, and 

Special courses, and sequences of special courses, 
wherein employed students not interested in degrees, 
may secure adequate training in engineering and 
architecture. 

THE DAY AND EVENING SUMMER 
SESSIONS 

Wherein a broad program of fundamental subjects is 
offered, furnishing opportunity for students of other col- 
leges as well as of Armour, to go forward in their 
programs, or make up deficiencies. 



Summer Session June 20 to August 12, 1938 

Summer Session, Evening Division, June 13 to August 19 

First semester begins September 12, 1938 

The Institute Bulletins (General Information, Graduate Division, Evening Division, Summer Session) will be sent on 

application. Address 

Registrar 

ARMOUR 
INSTITUTE of TECHNOLOGY 

3300 FEDERAL STREET, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



48 



TO ARMOUR'S 
ENGINEERS from 

America s Finest Club! 



Incomparable 
facilities for your 
social functions! 
Enjoy a distinc- 
tion of unrival- 
ed luxury at 
no extra tariff. 
Dances, fra- 
ternal affairs & 
banquets are ar- 
ranged by our 
own expert cater- 
ing staff. 

Your 

INSPECTION 

Invited 



meDinAH 



CLUB <•/ CL 



505 NORTH MICHIGAN BOULEVARD 



The John Marshall 
LAW 



SCHOOL 

FOU NDED 1899 

AN 

ACCREDITED 

LAW SCHOOL 

TEXT and CASE 

METHOD 



For Cat 

mended I 



Study o( Low and Prope 
Preporotion" oddress 
Edward T. Lee, Deon 



COURSES 
(40 weeks per year) 
Afternoon— 3 years 
5 days.. .4:30-6.30 
Evening — 4 years 
Mon„ Wed., Fri., 
6:30-9:20 
Post-graduate 
1 year..twicea week 
Practice courses 
exclusively. 
All courses lead 
to degrees. 
Two years' college 
work required for 
entrance. 
New classes form 
in Feb. and Sept. 



315 Plymouth Ct., Chicago, III. 



The Firm of 



CHARLES W. HILLS 

1414 Monadnock Building 
53 West Jackson Blvd. 

CHICAGO 



3nt-Trade Mark and Copyright 
Matters Exclusively 



Washington Office 

Munsoy Building 
Washington, D. C. 




P. A. MONEY-BACK OFFER. Smoke 20 fragrant pipe- 
f uls of Prince Albert. If you don't find it the mellowest, 
tastiest pipe tobacco you ever smoked, return the 
pocket tin with the rest of the tobacco in it to us at 
any time within a month from this date, and we will 
refund full purchase price, plus postage. (Signed) 
R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Winston-Salem, N.C. 



^ 



^ 




DH. CHARLES AUSTIN TIB- 
BALS, associate dean since last 
October and professor of analytical 
cliemlstry at Armour since 1908, re- 
ceived the appointment of dean of the 
undergraduates on May 10th. 

Dr. Tibbals came to Armour in 



DR. C. A. TIBBALS 
APPOINTED DEAN 



1908 from the University of Wiscon- 
sin, where he was an assistant in 
chemistry from 1902 to 1906. He 
attended Columbia University from 
1899 to 1902 as an undergraduate and 
then went to the University of Wis- 
consin, where he received his B.A. in 
1!K)K his M.A. in 1906, and his Ph.D. 
ill 1908. In 1909, he received a fel- 
lowship from the American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science. 

From 1908 to 1911, Dr. Tibbals 
iicid the position of assistant professor 
of eliemistry at Armour Tech. In 
1911, he became associate professor 
of analytical chemistry, and held this 
post until 1928, when he was made 
full professor. He received the title 
of assistant dean in 1936; associate 
dean in 1937; and now holds the title 
of dean of the undergraduates. 

Dr. Tibbals was a captain in the 
Ordnance Department of the United 
States Army in 1918 and engaged in 
research work on high explosives and 
jjrojcctilc loading. He is now Cap- 



tain of Ordnance in the U. S. Army 
Reserves. 

Aiding the Underwriter's Labora- 
tories in Chicago he has written va- 
rious technical reports. He is co- 
author with E. E. Gill of the book 
Qualitative Analifsis. He has also 
written special articles for technical 
magazines. 

He is a member of the University 
Club, University of Wisconsin Club, 
Illinois Club of Columbia Alumni, and 
the Tennis Club of Chicago. The Phi 
Lambda Upsilon, Sigma Xi, Alpha 
Chi Sigma, Phi Gamma Delta, and 
Triangle fraternities claim him a mem- 
ber. He has been a member of the 
American Chemical Society since 1901, 
is a member of the Army Ordnance 
Association, and a fellow of the A. A. 
A.S. Episcopalian Club. 

Dr. Tibbals' kind and sympathetic 
attitude toward the student and his 
problems has won for him the respect 
and admiration of the entire student 
body. 



r>i^ CAMBRIDGE 
FLUXMETER 




A Bettct SHOP 
INSTRUMENT 

The Cambridge Illuminated 
Dial Fluxmeter is particu- 
larly suitable for routine 
testing of magnets. On this 
model figures engraved 
upon a transparent moving 
scale are projected by means of an illuminating optical system 
onto a translucent screen. The resulting magnification provides 
an equivalent scale length of twenty inches; with end, center or 
displaced zero. Useful not only in badly lighted places but also 
for distant readings in ordinary daylight. A Bowden wire controls 
the zeroising device at a distance. If required, portions of the 
screen can be colored green and red for test acceptance or rejec- 
tion limits. It is readily used by unskilled workmen. 



3732 Grand 
Central 



CAMBRIDGE 



INSTRUMENT CP V 



Pioneei 
Manufactu 
of Precisi 




TWO INSTRUMENTS IN ONE— Com- 
bining a temperature regulator with 
an indicating thermometer gives a 
visual check on the performance 
of the regulator and makes it easy 
to adjust it for the required opera- 
ting temperature. 

EASY TO INSTALL — Both ther- 
mometer and regulator operate 
from the same thermal system. 
Write for Bulletin No. 229. 

TKE POWERS REGULATOR CO., 2780 
Greenview Avenue, CH CAGO— 231 E. 46tli 
Street, NEW YORK — Offices in 45 Cities. 



50 



•■*«I' 



ALUMNI NOTES 



MEET OLD FRIENDS 

AT ALUMNI BANQUET, lUNE 7 
At Medinah Club of Chicago 

505 North Michigan Avenue 
Call D. P. Moreton. VICtory 4600 for Reservations 



NEW LIFE MEMBERS LOYAL FRIEND DIES 

SINCE MARCH ISSUE -j^rjENDS and a s s o c i a t e s of 

^BrR??ErT'■J^TREDVR,CCLAY:A^^H^;5 t FREDERICK U^SMITHbusi^ 

DICKEY, DIAMOND S M.E. '34 ncss manager and Comptroller ot 

ELLINGTON, HAROLD SLAIGHT .C.E. '08 Armour Institute from 1896 until 

ENGBLOM, JOHN F. T EX.E.E. '05 5920, were grieved to learn of his 

HENKE, FRANK X IND.ARTS '23 , ' . jj, „ 

LOEWENBERG, ISRAEL SIDNEY. .ARCH, '16 death on April Id, iJ.iH. 

NELSON, MORRIS O C.E. '30 Mr Smith was born in England in 

OLDENBURGER, WILLIAM C C.E. ;i4 ^^^^ j^^ ^^^.^^ ,,i^ ^^^t,, t,._^,e^ 

OPPER, GEORGE L Ch. \ S . f t? i j j 

PARADISE, LOUIS A. ..B.S.M.E. ■06-M.E. '11 worked in the Bank of England, and 

PETRIE, ALFRED E E.E, '27 after a brief military experience came 

RIETZ, WALTER H ^^•■^^^- '.|^ to America in ISTS." 

SALZMAN, ABRAHAM L EX,ARCH, '13 , t. , j-. . 

SCHIRMER, WALTER E F,P.E, '31 While in the East, he was credited 

SCHOCK, CHARLES M ARCH. '31 by Alexander Graham Bell with ob- 

STEWARD, ROY FRANKLIN CH.E, '07 ^.;;,,:„o. ^Iip npoessirv c-init-il to nro- 

TABIN (TABACHNIK) ADRIAN .., M.E. '21 *'"'""^ ^he neccssarv capital to pro 

WILSON, LESTER ,..B.S,CH.E. 'K-CH.E. '21 mote and place the telephone at the 




disposal of the people of his adopted 
country. 

In 1883, Mr. Smith located in Chi- 
cago and served for many years as 
the personal secretary of Mr. P. D. 
Armour, the founder of Armour & Co., 
and Armour Institute of Technology. 
At the Armour & Co. office, Mr. 
Smith's balance sheets printed by 
hand are still exhibited as a work of 
art and for their meticulous accuracy. 

Dean C. A. Tibbals, Mr. G. S. Alli- 
son, Professor J. J. Schommer, and 
several alumni attended the funeral 
services in Milwaukee. 




413 N. State Street 



superior 6716 




51 




THE ENGINEER 

(From Page 12) 
Public recognition and esteem 



of 



THEY'RE BUILT 

TO ''^ake. W' 

-AND THEN SOME 

Although precision-made 
throughout, there's nothing 
sissy about Lufkin Tapes 
or Rules, for they're de- 
signed and built for utility. 

No matter what pattern 
of Tape or Rule you prefer, 
you'll find it in the Lufkin 
line and that it will give 
you the utmost in accuracy, 
convenience and service. 

Write for 256-page Catalog 



UFKiN 



TAPES . RULES . PRECISION TOOL! 



tlie engineering profession is probably 
as general today as it ever has been. 
In tile minds of many people it is 
recogiiized as a learned profession 
ranking in social importance with the 
contemporary professions of medicine, 
law, architecture, and theology. On 
the other hand, this recognition is not 
universal, and there has been a ten- 
dency in some quarters to criticize 
engineers for developing America's 
capacity for production in faster 
teni])o tlian our capacity for consump- 
tion. Tliere is little sympathy with 
this view among engineers themselves, 
but, nevertheless, they have been 
backward in disproving it. They per- 
haps could profit from the example 
of the iron worker who went unbidden 
to King Solomon's feast in celebration 
of the completion of the temple, and 
usurped tile seat of honor at Solo- 
mon's right. Tile people clamored for 
his removal, but the iron worker re- 
pliid that without him the temple 
could not have been built. Whereupon 
Solomon allowed him to remain and 
said to the i)eople, "All honor to tlie 
iron worker." 

The outlook for the engineer of to- 



An All Purpose 

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Instantaneous Direct Reading 




is it necessary to use complicated Instruments 
and stop watches w make slow, mathematical calculations 
to obtain accurate velocity readings of irregular shaped 
or slotted grilles, velocity readings in ducts, or at inlet 
or outlet openings or other air velocity measurements. 

Now you can do all this and more with the "AInor" 
(Boyle System) Velometer, the instantaneous direct read- 
ing air velocity meter, and you can do it accurately, 
conveniently and quickly. You can obtain static, or total 
pressures, locate leaks and losses, detect drafts, or deter- 
mine efficiency of fans, filters, blowers, and ether equip- 



The Velometer gives instant 


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directly in feet per minute from 


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up to its maximum scale reading. 


Ranges up to as high 


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morrow seems brilliant in its possibil- 
ities. By virtue of his training in 
applied science, and economy in all 
tilings, the engineer is peculiarly 
fitted not only to exceed his past per- 
formances but also to take greater 
jiart in tiie management of public af- 
fairs. The engineer has created mod- 
ern civilization, and he owes a dutv 
to society to see that it is wisely used. 



CHEMISTRY 

(From Page 17) 
polisii, seutHes.s shoe lieels, and wash- 
able water-proof coated fabrics widely 
used for upholstery, bookbinding, and 
window sliades. 

For the prevention and healing of 
disease, and the alleviation of pain, 
chemistry has made contributions of 
far-reaching significance. To begin 
with, Louis Pasteur, a P'rench chemist, 
was the founder of serumtherapy, 
whereby antitoxins are developed in 
the blood of animals for inoculation 
against various diseases. While phy- 
sicians still believed that diseases 
were spread by mysterious vapors 
that issued from the earth, Pasteur 
showed that the bodies of diseased 
animals contain bacteria not found in 
those of hcaltliy animals. In so doing, 
he established the germ theory of 



Write joT Bulletin No. 2448 

ILLINOIS TESTING LABORATORIES, Inc. 

146 W. HUBBARD ST. CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 



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52 



Actuary 



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disease upon the unshakable founda- 
tion of scientific experiment. 

What may we expect of the scien- 
tist in tiie future? Lacking the vision 
of a seer, perhaps it is rash for us to 
speculate. In establishing the germ 
theory of disease, Louis Pasteur, a 
cliemist, pointed the way to the pre- 
\ention or cure of such maladies as 
diplitheria, yellow fever, smallpox, 
and cholera, and I confidently expect 
the sister sciences of chemistry, 
physics, biology, and medicine, to 
point the way to the prevention or 
cure of such diseases as cancer, tuber- 
culosis, and leukemia. 

It seems that the complex organic 
chemistry of the human body chal- 
lenges tlie organic research chemist 
in clarion tones. In the last few 
years we have begun to gain some 
vague appreciation of the importance 
of the secretions of the ductless glands 
— the hormones. Following the pio- 
neer work of such men as Abel of 
Hopkins, some brilliant pieces of re- 
searcli work have resulted in the eluci- 
dation of the constitution of a number 
of these complex organic substances. 
It is safe to predict that increasing 
attention on the part of the chemist 
to this field of bio-chemistry, and the 
cooperation of the chemist and the 
biologist and physicist, should yield 
results of tremendous importance to 
tlie liealth of mankind. This seems 
to me the most useful contribution 
that organic chemical rcsearcli could 
make to the happiness of the human 
race. 

We may safely assume that in the 
field of textile fibers, new metallic 
alloys, building materials, synthetic 
resins, pigments, and colors, vehicu- 
lar transportation, illumination, sani- 
tation — in all these fields, the many 
striking and valuable contributions of 
applied science which have thus far 
come from the researcli laboratory are 
an earnest of the continuation of this 
type of valuable development. 

The roots of industrial development 
are the research laboratories, and 
these roots iiave penetrated the rich 
and productive soil of applied science 
so deeply and widely tliat there is no 
possibility of suspending their growth 
and productive activities, save by the 
intervention of some political cata- 
clysm which would destroy the whole 
tree. 



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53 



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"The Only Yard in the Clearing Dist.' 



CHICAGO SANITARY 
DISTRICT 

(From Page 24) 

j)loymcnt in 1933 the District applii-d 
to it for a loan and grant of federal 
funds to permit resumption of con- 
struction work. The P. W. A. has 
made available to the District a loan 
of $!■ 1,938,000, secured by 4 percent 
bonds of the District, and a direct 
grant of $16,692,000, or a total of 
.$58,630,000, with which we are now 
completing enough sanitary works to 
permit the District to accept the re- 
duction in diversion of lake water 
without endangering the purity of tlie 
water supply of this area. Principal 
items in this program are: 

80.3 miles of intercepting sewers. 

Completion of Calumet Treatment 
Works. 

Comi)h'tion of West Side Treat- 
ment Works. 

Construction of new Southwest 
Treatment Works. 

Construction of Chicago River Con- 
trolling Works. 

Addition to Nortli Side Treatment 
Works. 

Pumping Station at 39th and Ra- 
cine Avenue. 

Practically all of the sewers in this 
program were built in tunnels under 
busy streets in Chicago and suburbs 
without disrupting normal street 
traffic. These tunnels were driven 
through all sorts of earth and solid 
rock, and, in spite of difficult and even 
hazardous tunnelling conditions, the 
work has been completed without seri- 
ous accident as a result of rigid en- 
forcement of safety regulations. Work 
on the Calumet and West Side plants 
was resumed at once, and the com- 
pleted works were placed in service 
promptly. The Calumet plant em- 
bodies the modern ideas in treatment 
by the activated sludge process with 
disposal of the sludge by drying and 
burning. Work at the West Side plant 
included completion of the third bat- 
terv of 36 Imhoff tanks with design 
capacitv for 204.000,000 gallons per 
day average flow at one-hour deten- 
tion. 

The new Southwest plant to be 
placed in service early next year is 
unique in many respects other than 
mere size. The layout is designed 
for ultimate expansion to 1200 m.g.d. 
capacity at 5-hour aeration and the 
initial capacity will be 400 m.g.d. 
The main sewage pumps, blowers, and 
generators for auxiliary electric power 
will be driven by steam turbines. 
Steam will be generated in four boil- 
ers having total capacity to produce 
440,000 pounds of steam per hour at 
425 pounds pressure and 725 degrees 
final temperature. Clarified sewage 



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54 



Candies and Cigars 



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Evaporators — Filters — Centrifugals. 

Steam jet units. Condensers, etc. — 

for High Vacuums — Vacuum Cooling. 

Full line acid p. Chemical Stoneware. 

F. M. de BEERS & ASSOCIATES 

20 North Wacker Drive, Chicago, TeL Rand. 2326 



WALTER H. FLOOD & CO. 

CLASS 1906 _ 

Chemical Engineers 

Paving and Engineering Materials 
— Inspections — Reports — Specifica- 
tions — Physical and Chemical Tests 
— Design and Control of Asphalt 
and Concrete Mixtures. Atlantic ooii 
822 E. 42nd St., Chicago, IH. 



SIECK & DRUCKER. INC. 

CHEMICAL ENGINEERS 
Complete Plants and Equipment 
for the Vegetable and Animal 
Oils and Fats Industries. 



9 S. Clinton St. 



Chicago 



effluent will be used for condenser 
cooling, thus solving one of the major 
problem.^ in steam plant operation. 
Also, sludge from tliis plant as well 
as tiiat from tlic North Side Works 
will be dried by the new system, devel- 
oped by the District engineers, and 
burned under tlie main boilers. Air 
lifts will be used for pumping acti- 
vated sludge from the final tanks into 
the return channel. Those lifts will 
probably be equipped with automatic 
control mechanisms using an "electric 
eye" or photo-electric cell to maintain 
a constant depth of sludge in the 
tanks. 

Special mention should be made of 
the new process for disposing of 
sludge, heretofore the most trouble- 
some and expensive single operation 
in the process of sewage treatment. 
This process is the result of six years 
of experiment and has effected a saving 
of about fifty percent in first cost of 
the Southwest works. It can be oper- 
ated the year round, eliminating the 
need for winter storage of sludge. 
No odors can escape to cause a public 
nuisance, and the dried sludge can be 
diverted for use as a fertilizer ma- 
terial if desired. By this process the 
sludge is first coagulated by adding 
a conditioner and then dewatered on 
vacuum filters. The filter cake is 
then mixed with dried sludge, and the 
mixture is completely dried in a closed 
circuit of superheated sludge vapor. 
The excess vapor is withdrawn from 
this circuit and passed through the 
furnace flame to destroy all odors. 
The dried sludge is burned like 
powdered coal and supplies enough 
heat to evaporate its own moisture, 
so it is not necessary to add fuel ex- 
cept when sludge is diverted for ferti- 
lizer. It is anticipated that this sys- 
tem will also result in large savings 
in annual operating costs as compared 
with other methods of disposal. 

Another important item in this 
program is the control works at the 
former mouth of the Cliicago river. 
These works provide a watertight en- 
closure to prevent the escape of any 
river water into the lake because of 
reversals of flow in the river. A 
navigation lock 600 feet long will per- 
mit shipping to pass in or out at any 
time. 

Total cost of the artificial treatment 
system when completed will approxi- 
mate |203 000,000 which means that 
each person served will have "in- 
vested" $14. 30 in the construction of 
sanitary works that give him complete 
disposal of sanitary and industrial 
wastes from homes and factories plus 
a public water supply that is free 
of all disease germs. The annual op- 
erating cost including every item of 



Concrete Breaking 



Phone; Normal 0900 
WANTED: A HARD JOB! 

Chicago Concrete Breaking 
Company 

BLASTING EXPERTS 

WITH A NATION WIDE REPUTATION 

Removal of 

MACHINERY FOUNDATIONS— ROCK 

SALAMANDERS — SLAG DEPOSITS — 

CONCRETE STACKS— VAULTS— ETC. 

• • • 
6247 Indiana Ave. Chicago, 111. 



Consulting Engineer 



INDUSTRIAL HEATING 

Consulting and Contracting Engineers 

Billet, Slab Heating and Special Furnaces 

/Natural Gas ") 

To Use: ^^f" Oven Ga« ( ^^ p^^,^ 

I Producer Gas ' 

FLINN & DREFFEIN COMPANY 

308 West Washington Street 

Chicago, Illinois 



BRADY, McGILLIVRAY 

& MULLOY 

CONSULTING ENGINEERS 

37 W. Van Buren Street 

Phone Harrison 1188 

1270 Broadway, 

New York City. 

N. Y. 



Contractors 



E. H. MARHOEFER, JR. CO. 

CONTRACTORS 

1506 Merchandise Mart 



I. M. ECKERT CO. 

Distinctive Decorating 

5524 BROADWAY, CHICAGO 

TELEPHONE LONGBEACH 5437 

J. M. ECKERT. Pres. • (Class 1910) 



Dress Suits 


Phone R.nnJolrh S-393 


Opni I-:-.-fninf,< by .i ppnintmtnl 


IDc Huxc Brcgs ^ult IRcntnl 


Companp 


TUXEDOS, FULL DRESS and CUTAWAY 


SUITS TO RENT 


J FULL LINK OF ACCESSORIES 


it S. State Street. Chicado 


Suite 4011 Mentor Building Cor. Monroe 



55 



Drawing Materials 




POST'S 

Drawing Materials 
THE FREDERICK POST CO. 

Hamlin and Avondale Avenues 
CHICAGO 



Electrical Contracting 



A.S.SCHULMAN 

ELECTRIC COMPANY 

Electrical Engineers and 
Contractors 

537 South Dearborn Street 

CHICAGO 

PHONE HARRISON 7288 

Address All Communications to the Company 

A. S. SCHULMAN, President 
HARVEY T. NACK, Vice President 



DOOLEY ELECTRIC COMPANY 

ELECTRICAL CONTRACTORS 

456 E. 83rd St. • Stewart 7268 
CHICAGO 



WHITE CITY 

Electric Company 

Electrical Contractors 

• 

569 West Van Buren St. 
Chicago 

Tel. Wabash 5880 Established 1905 



DREIFUSS BLOCK 

A connplete portable unit for 
quick, accurate drawing. 

Ideal for 
Architects Students 

Engineers 
DREIFUSS and COMPANY 

7841 Westwood Drive 
Chicago 



cxpt-nsc except interest and retire- 
ment of bonds amounts to only $1.17 
l)er jierson served. 

Typlioid fever lias praetieally dis- 
appeared from Ciiicago. Since 19;J0 
tile averajje death rate from that cause 
has been 0..39 per 100,000 or one. per 
year for every 250,000 people. 

Desifijn and construction of nearly 
sixty million dollars wortii of enfji- 
neerino; works, some of tliem extremely 
complicated in nature, in less than 
four years is oI)viously a formidable 
taslv. It lias been carried through 
with complete coordination between 
Sanitary District and P. W. A. forces 
who iiave inspected and approved the 
work at every stage. 



Electrical Equipment 



OIL REFINING 

(From Page 29) 

plioric acid catalyst. The yield of 
motor fuel per tliousand cubic feet va- 
ries as a function of the olefin per- 
centage in the gas. From gas con- 
taining 36 percent of propene and 
butenes, the yield (10 lb. Reid vapor 
pressure) is 8.3 gallons per 1000 
cubic feet. 

One of tlie major developments in 
the utilization of butanes derived 
from natural gas, natural gas gaso- 
line, and refinery gases is their con- 
version into high octane motor fuels 
by a combination of cracking and 
catalytic polymerization. A plant is in 
operation processing over 1,000 bar- 
rels a day of butanes, producing a 
relatively large yield of olefin con- 
taining gases at a temperature of 
1075° F. and 750 pounds pressure as 
well as some pyrolytic gasoline. 
These gases are then passed through 
solid phosphoric acid catalyst which 
polymerizes the olefins into motor 
fuel. A typical operating run pro- 
cessing 1,090 barrels a day of butanes 
produced 4.02 barrels of polymer gas- 
oline made up of 109 barrels of pyro- 
lytic and 293 barrels of catalytic poly- 
mer gasoline. 

Tlie cracking of butane and other 
paraffinie gases prior to polymeriza- 
tion inevitably leads to loss of ma- 
terial through side reactions. A more 
desirable first step is catalytic deliy- 
drogenation, which at 950° F. and 
atmospheric pressure gives olefins 
suitable for polymerization. Thus if 



GOLDBERG & O'BRIEN 

ELECTRIC CO. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS AND 

CONTRACTORS 

OFFICE AND PLANT 

17 South Jefferson Street 
Chicago, Illinois 



iNorthwestern Electric Company 

408412 South Iloyne Avenue 

Electric Motors — Converters — Welders 
Guaranteed Service 




"Extra -Service" 

Friction and Rubber Tapes 
. . . at no extra cost 

VAN riEEF BROS. 

Mfri. Rubber and Chemical Product! 

Woodlawn Ave., 77th to 78th Sts. 
CHICAGO 



tv.S^£'fl< 



COMPLETE 

Electrical Insulation 

Service 

HIGHEST QUALITY MATERIALS 
Macallen 
Dolphins 
Manning 
Emerald 

and Other Brands 
Consultation Service 

INSULATION MANUFACTURERS 
CORPORATION 

Cleveland Chicago 



Motors and Generators Rebuilt 

New and Used Motors for Sale 

Telephone Boulevard 2389 

CENTRAL MOTOR & REPAIR CO. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 

MANUFACTURERS OF RADIO GENERATORS 

GENERAL ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL 

REPAIRING 

615-617 ROOT STREET 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



56 



Electrical Equipment 



The PYLE-NATIONAL 
COMPANY 

RAILROAD AND INDUSTRIAL CONDUIT 
WIRING FiniNGS 

AIRPORT AND AIR CRAFT 
LIGHTING EQUIPMENT 

STEAM TURBINES 

one-fourth to five horse power 

TURBO GENERATORS 

one-half to twelve kilowatt 

FLOOD LIGHTS 
Chicago lllinolt 



THOMPSON - JAMESON 
ELECTRIC CO. 

220 Inslilute Place, Chicago 

MOTORS and ELEVATORS 

MAINTAINED and REPAIRED 

LIGHT and POWER WIRING 

24 hour service SUPERIOR 1396 



Transformer Specialists 

Design and production of transfornners for 
Radio, Sound Annplification and Amateur 
Transmission. 1 1/2 K. W. limit. 

STANDARD TRANSFORMER 

CORPORATION 

STANCOR 

1500 N. Halsted St. Chicago, Illinois 



R. E. FISCHEL 

Becker Brothers Carbon Co. 

Electrical and Mechanical Carbon 

Products 

3450 S. 52ND AVE. 

Cicero 

CRAWFORD 2260 



Economical 



Grade Rebuilt Dependable 

ELECTRIC MOTORS 

MOTOR GENERATORS, ROTARY 
CONVERTORS, ETC. 

Ask for Special Llit 

Gregory Electric Co. 

1603 S. Lincoln Street Chicago, III. 



LIGHTING EQUIPMENT 

by 

ARMOUR MEN 

MULTI ELECTRICAL MFG. CO. 
1840 West 14th Street, Chicago 



tlie propane and butanes in the resi- 
due gas from the polymerization unit 
in tile example cited be dcliydrogen- 
ated, and reeycicd tiirougii tlie poiy- 
merization step, the yield will i)c in- 
creased by 3.8 gallons per thousand 
feet, making a total of 12.1 gallons. 

The catalytic polymerization units 
now in operation have daiiy gasoline 
capacities of l.,000 to 110,000 gallons. 
One plant of 15 million cubic feet ca- 
pacity produces approximately 60. 000 
gallons per day. Another catalytic 
unit with a capacity of about 27 mil- 
lion cubic feet of craclvcd gas will pro- 
duce roughly 110,000 gallons of 81 
( etane rating gasoline. 

Tlie investment cost of tlic poly- 
merization units in operation in the 
U. S. is about .$18,000,000. Tiie pres- 
ent yearly production is about 360,- 
000,000 gallons, while were all the 
jjossible sources of polymer gasoline 
utilized. the potential production 
would be 9,000,000,000 gallons of 
polymer gasoline. 

Isooctane Motor Fuel 

Tile manufacture of isooctane mo- 
tor fuel iiaving 100 octane rating in 
large quantities whicli is an actuality 
today has had a profound influence on 
tiie design and operation of modern 
motors. 

In contrast to the former expensive 
method of producing isooctane fuel 
(at $20.00 a gallon) from butyl alco- 
liol, we are now able to ])olymerize 
cat.-iiytically the normal and isobutenc 
in tiie gases derived from tiie craciv- 
ing process. The catalytic polymeriz- 
ation of tiiese hydrocarbons taites 
places witii either sulfuric acid or 
solid phosplioric acid forming isooc- 
tcnes which upon mild hydrogenation 
form isooctanes ranging from 90 to 
100 octane rating. To produce avia- 
tion gasoline of 100 octane rating the 
isooctanes are blended with isopen- 
tane derived from tiie distillation of 
natural gasoline or with natural gaso- 
line of 75 octane and tiien tetraethyl 
leaded to 100 octane. 

The manufacture of isooctanes by 
tills process in plants in operation or 
projected is at the present time at the 
rate of 126,000,000 gallons a year. 

In airplane engines designed to 
malie use of the higher-quality fuels, 
it has been estimated that each addi- 
tional octane number is worth from 
two to eight cents more per gallon be- 
cause of the increased earning power 
of the airplane. Higher octane rat- 
ings mean quicker take-ofF and in- 
creased pay-load ability and cruising 
range of the airplane. Comparing tiie 
use of 87 octane with 100 octane gaso- 
line, the latter lifts about 30 percent 
more weight and increases mounting 



Electrical Equipment 



ELECTRIC 
MOTORS 



CALUMET 
4961 



DAVID GORDON 

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 

1720 SO. MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO 



LIGHTING PICTURES 

and 

ELECTRICAL SUPPLIES 

TRIANGLE ELECTRIC CO. 

600 West Adams Street 
Chicago 

Mr. Byrnes Tel. HAYmarket 7980 



IHORMRSON 



TRANSFUKMERS 
Write for catalogs and manuals 

• Transmitter Guide — No. 344 

Circuit diagrams, details and parts 
inging from 



25 



tts to 1,000 



• Radio SeniclnK Guide — No. 342 

Auto Installation hints, how to 
build a direct reading voltmeter, 
how to make and use output Indi- 
cators and align receivers, tube 



dat 



IBo 



• Sound Amplifler Guide— No. 346 

Circuit diagrams, details and parts 
list for Ampliflers ranging up to 
100 watts output, db table, etc.. .16c 



500 



Huron St., Ch 



). 111. 



Illinois Electric Porcelain 
Company 



MACOMB. ILLINOIS 



E. J. BURRIS 

District Representativt 



Telephone Mansfield 7873 
5263 Quincy Street, Chicago, Illinois 



Chicaso Transformer 
Corporation 

3501 ADDISON STREET 
Chicago, Illinois 

Independence I 120 



CHICAGO • ILLINOIS 

FOR QUALITY 
WHITE METAL ALLOYS 

ALL KINDS 



57 



Electroplating 



You wreck 'em We fix 'em 

McVITTIE 

1600 South State St. 

We plate anything made of metal. 

No job too large or too small for us. 

RESPONSIBLE RELIABLE 

1600 South State St. 

Chicago 

Calumet 6881-6882-68«3 



Electrical Windings 



ELECTRICAL WINDINGS 
INCORPORATED 

DESIGNERS and MANUFACTURERS of 
ELECTRICAL WINDINGS AND SPECIALTIES 

16 NORTH MAY STREET 
CHICAGO 

Telephone SEEley 6400 



Felts 


WESTERN FELT WORKS 


Manufacturers and 


Cutters of Felts 


For all Mechanical and Industrial 
Purposes 


CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 



Flowers 



Telephone Victory 4515-4516 
"YouT Telegraph Florist" 

J. F. KIDWELL CO. 

Not Inc. 

FLOWERS 

3530 MICHIGAN AVENUE 
T. A. Kidwell Chicago 



Hardware 



Serson Hardware 
Company 

ALL KINDS SHEET METAL 

WORK 

Special Attention to Repair Work 

Phone Victory 1773 109 E. Slet St. 



Ice Cream 



Not in the Trust All Departnnents 

Kenwood 0050 



GOODMAN AMERICAN 
CORPORATION 

First in Chicago 

FINE ICE CREAMS 
BETTER BEVERAGES 

Manufacturers & Distributors of 

DAIRY-PRODUCE 



and cruising speed about 30 percent. 

The drive for higher octane motor 
fuels lias led to studies of other or- 
ganic compounds than hydrocarbons. 
In countries wliich have no crude oil 
supplies and are nationalistic-minded 
to the extent of trying to make them- 
selves economically self sufficient, the 
use of methanol and ethyl alcohol as 
motor fuel blended with gasoline de- 
rived from crude oil is being adopted. 
Alcohol is much more expensive to 
produce than gasoline from crude. The 
world consumption of ethyl alcohol 
blended in motor fuel during 1937 was 
about 200.000,000 gallons or 0.6 per- 
cent of the 33,000,000,000 gallons of 
motor fuel consumed. The U. S. con- 
sumption of alcohol as motor fuel is 
practically zero. 

^^'ith tiie demand for motor fuels of 
very high octane rating, studies have 
been made of tiie utility of ethers and 
ketones. 

Contrary to the behavior of etliyl 
ether, which is a violent knock in- 
ducer, some ethers, notably isopropyl 
ether and mixed ethers, have higli 
antiknock value and in general good 
susceptibility to tetraethyl lead. How- 
ever, such fuels as isopropyl ether 
have lower energy content than hydro- 
carbon fuels of the same octane rat- 
ing, and octane increase must be dis- 
counted by about two numbers for 
each percent lowering in heat content 
of the fuel compared to hydrocarbons. 

Isopropyl ether is produced by 
chemical treatment of propene, which 
is present in refinery cracking plant 
gases or which may be produced by 
dehydrogenating or cracking the pro- 
pane contained in both natural and re- 
finery gases. Isopropyl ether can be 
used as a supplement to isooctane to 
supply the necessary front-end vola- 
tility which isooctane lacks. 

It is estimated that there is now 
sufficient propene available in the 
United States, exclusive of all normal 
demands for other purposes, to pro- 
duce approximately 340 million gal- 
lons of technical isopropyl ether per 
year. This quantity of isopropyl 
"ether, when blended 40 percent with 
gasoline and "leaded" with 3 cc. of 
tetraethyl lead per gallon, will equal 
850 million gallons of 100 octane gaso- 
line. The volume of antiknock ethers 
could be greatly increased if mixed 
ethers such as methyl isopropyl were 
also produced. In addition, if all the 
propane available in the United States 
were converted to propene and then to 
isopropyl ether, the potential volume 
of 100 octane gasoline would be 
greatly increased. 

The ketones, of which acetone and 
methyl ethyl ketone have been used 
as motor fuels, have high octane rat- 
ing and good tetraethyl lead suscepti- 




FOR 40 YEARS 

A NAME STANDING FOR 

QUALITY 

AND 

FINE WORKMANSHIP 

IN THE MANUFACTURE OF 

SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 

GAERTNER SCENTIFIC 
CORPORATION 

1201 Wrightwood Ave. CHICAGO' 



AIRGUIDE WEATHER INSTRUMENTS 

Hygrometers — Thermometers — 
Barometers 

for Domestic and Industrial Purposes 

FEE AND STEMWEDEL. INC. 

4949 North Pulaski Road, Chicago, Illinois 
EEYstone 6600 



GAD GETE E R S 



9 9 lyHAT'S what we've been 
J. ccilled by laboratory men 
who never before realized what service 
they could get on special custom-built 
apparatus until they called us in on the 
job. With thousands of standard parts 
in our apparatus stock-room, a modem 
plant built expressly for producing "pre- 
cision" products, and long-experienced 
engineers on the job, we can save you 
plenty of time and money when you 
need laboratory equipment that can't 
be bought out of a catalog. 

PRECISION SCIENTinC CO. 

1740 N. Springfield Ave., Chicago, Illinois 



COMPLETE AND INTELLIGENT 
INSURANCE SERVICE 

Life Fire Casualty 

NATIONAL PROTECTED INVESTMENT 
COMPANY 

Fred G. Heuchling Co;), President 

Suite 428 — 606 South Wabash Avenue 

Chicago 



The Sooner 


You 


Plan Your Future, the 


Better 


Your 


Future Will Be— 


WM. 


c 


KRAFFT 


EQUITABLE LIFE ASSURANCE 
SOCIETY OF UNITED STATES 


120 S. LA SALLE ST. FRA. 0400 



58 



! 

1 


CAREERS 


O F 


C A B R I 


E R 


E N G 1 


[ N E E R S 


.J 




On the Great Nieuw Amsterdam— 
The Largest Air Conditioning System Afloat! 



IT WAS no simple task adapting air con- 
ditioning to the ocean liner. Carrier 
engineers worked for years to overcome 
what seemed to be unsurmountable ob- 
stacles. The corrosive effect of salt air and 
water, for example, made it necessary to 
introduce special metals for condensers 
— and drip-proof or water-tight construc- 
tion for motors. New types of equipment 
were necessary to meet the restrictions 
imposed by low ceilings and limited 
space. Then there were problems of 
propeller vibration . . .the rolling of the 
ship... the rapid changes of outdoor 
weather conditions. And, above all, the 
necessity for absolute dependability. 

Carrier engineers overcame 
these obstacles — overcame them 
so thoroughly that today, any ship 
built without air conditioning is 
considered obsolete before she is 
launched. The "Normandie," the 



"Queen Mary," the "Mariposa" and 
dozens of smaller vessels all feature 
Carrier Air Conditioning for passengers' 
comfort. And now, with the maiden 
voyage of the "Nieuw Amsterdam" this 
spring, the largest air conditioning system 
afloat will be in operation. 

Aboard the "Nieuw Amsterdam," pas- 
sengers will enjoy true air conditioning 
at any season of the year. They'll be kept 
cool in hot weather by Carrier Centrifu- 
gal Refrigerating Machines providing 
300 tons of cooling — or the equivalent 
of melting 600,000 pounds of ice each 
day. In cool weather they'll be warmed 
by gentle Carrier heating. And always, 



arrie 



Air Conditioning 



they'll find perfect ventilation and circu- 
lation of clean, humidity-controlled air. 
Engineering enabled Carrier to 
pioneer in the marine field — just as it 
enabled Carrier to pioneer in every other 
field of industry and commerce. And the 
opportunity for still greater engineering, 
and still greater pioneering are as great 
or greater today than ever before. Youth 
is no obstacle — at Carrier, recognition is 
gained by accomplishments, not by age 
alone. And the young engineer is en- 
couraged to use his abilities to their best 
advantage — whether they be adapted to 
experimental, development or installation 
workinCarrier's world-wide organization. 
• • • 

During 1937, Carrier trained 300 recent 

schools in every section of the country. 
Carrier needs more men. If you had a good 
school record, and are interested in the 

growing industry, write us. 



CARRIER CORPORATIOKr SYRACUSE, N. Y. 



ORGANIZAT 



ENGINEERS 



59 



JACK I. KITCH 

"INSURANCE" is My Middle Name 

South East National Bank Building 

1180 East 63rd Street 

PHONE: FAIRFAX 7200 



YOUR FINANCIAL PLANS 

Can be guaranteed of accomplishment 
with an Equitable Life Insurance or Annuity 
Contract. 

ROBERT G. PILKINGTON. JR. 

"New Light on Old Problems" 
120 So. La Salle St. Franklin 0400 



Build a Monthly Income 

through 

MAN'S STAUNCHEST FRIEND 

His Life Insurance 

By Consulting 
O. D. RICHARDSON 

Asso. General Agent 

Berkshire Life Insurance Co, 

Pittsfield, Mass. 

Room 1229—1 No. La Salle St. 

Chicago, Illinois 

Tel. Ran. 2224 



EVERETT R. COLE 

ASSOCIATED WITH 

FRED. S, JAMES & CO. 

ESTABLISHED 1872 

INSURANCE 

175 WEST JACKSON BOULEVARD 

TELEPHONE WABASH 3720 

CHICAGO 



Investmenl.'! 



PAUL L MULLANEY (1924) 
INVESTMENTS 

THE FIELD BUILDING 
135 South La Salle Street 

Chicago 
Telephone Franklin 1166 



bility. Tile octane number of ace- 
tone i.s 100 and that of methyl ethyl 
ketone is 98.5. Like the ethers, ho\v<i 
rver. tluir energy content is lower 
than tli.it of hydrocarbon fuels. 

Lubricating Oils 

The macliines of today call for im- 
proved qualities in the lubricants used. 
Lubricating oils as produced by na- 
ture are not suitable for many modern 
motors. This is in large part due to 
the increase in compression pressure 
under which combustion is brought 
.ibout in order to increase tiie effi- 
ciency of tiie engines. As the pres- 
sure increases, natural mineral oils 
fail to give satisfaction. Hence, the 
treatment of lubricating oils has un- 
dergone revolutionary changes by the 
use of solvents, and addition of syn 
thetic chemical compounds and poly- 
merized olefins. 

Yor many years sulfuric acid has 
been the agent used to rerine motor 
fuel and lubricants. Sulfuric acid re- 
fining of lubricants involves a heavy 
loss due to polymerization, oxidation, 
formation of addition compounds, and 
solubility of certain hydrocarbons in 
the acid. These effects are eliminated 
by using solvents to separate the hy- 
drocarbons of high viscosity index and 
other good properties from those of 
low quality, the separation being by 
physical rather than chemical refininji. 
Such solvents as phenols, used with 
and without propane, acetone, nitro- 
benzene, aniline, chloraniline, benzol- 
sulfur dioxide mixtures, dichlorethyl- 
ether (chlorex) and furfural are used 
for the improvement of lubricating 
oils. 

An important development in chem- 
ical synthesis is the production of com- 
pounds for addition to lubricating oils 
in order to improve such properties as 
oiliness. viscosity index, pour point, 
and oxidation resistance. Products 
used in order to improve one or more 
of these qualities include polymerized 
hydrocarbon oils, oxidized petroleum 
oils and waxes, fatty acids and some 
cf their salts, halogenated hydrocar- 
bons, long chain alkylated aromatics, 
methyldichlorstearate, tricresylphos- 
phate, beta-naphthol, and aluminum 
naphthenate. 

Addition of certain of these com- 
pounds to lubricants cuts down the 
wear on motors, and starting at low 
temperature these are more efficient 
because of the ease with which the oil 
penetrates and keeps its film strength 
between moving parts. Low oil con- 
sumption and safe lubrication using 
compounded oils at liigh temperatures 
combined with low sludge and varnish 
forming tendencies are also important 
advantages when operating at high 
speeds. Some of these addition agents 



Jewelry 



SPIES BROTHERS. Inc. 

Manufacturing Jeivelers 

CLASS PINS AND RINGS 

Fraternity and Sorority Jewelry 

Medals and Trophies 

Dance Programs and Announcements 

27 E. Monroe Street 

CHICAGO 



D iEGEs and r msT 

185 N. Wabash Ave., Chicago 

Central 3115 
CLASS JEWELRY FRATERNITY PINS 



Laundry 



Tel. Haymarket 2338 

HANDLER'S LAUNDRY 

Industrial Supply 

Since 1875 

464-66 Milwaukee Avenue 

E. O. Mandler Chicago, III. 



WEST LAKE LAUNDRY COMPANY 

3329 S. State Street 
Chicago 

Serving railroads, institutions, industries 
since 1890. 

Telephone: Victory 6300 



CHICAGO 

KENT 



COLLEGE off 

LAW 



Founded 1887 

Independent — Endowed — Non- Sectarian 

Afternoon and Evening Classes. 

TeL Dea. 8883. College BIdg., 10 N. Franklin St. 



Management Engineer 



GRIFFENHAGEN & 
ASSOCIATES 

Established 1911 

MANAGEMENT ENGINEERS 

AND ACCOUNTANTS 



CONSULTANTS ON PROBLEMS OF OR- 
GANIZATION, FINANCE, PERSONNEL, 
AND OPERATING PROCEDURE. 



Head Office: LaSalle-Wacker Building 
Chicago 



60 



Management Engineer 



CHARLES R. SIMMONS 

CONSULTANT IN MANAGEMENT 

Industrial Engineer 



10 South La Salle Street 

CHICAGO 

Telephone Franklin 1234 



Mechanicnl 



Fitzgibbons Boiler Co., 


Inc. 


STEEL HEATING & POWER 


BOILERS 


Represented by 




MALVIN & MAY, INC 




RAY C. MALVIN 




2427 So. Michigan Avenue | 


Chicago, Illinois 




Victory 1617 





THE STAR OIL COMPANY 


tSTABLISHED 1890 


LUBRICATING OILS AND GREASES 


Telephone Seeley 4400 


GEO. HAMILTON 


344-348 N. Irving Avenue, Chicago 



Welding Specialists 

Hamler Boiler, Tank Co. 

6025 W. 66th St. 

Chicago 
Fabricators of Steel Plato 
ASME PRESSURE VESSELS 
STAINLESS STEEL TANKS 



when added to lubricants in concen- 
trations of about one percent are re- 
j)orted to cause the oil to withstand 
jH-essures of more than 15,000 pounds 
to the square incli and reduce tlie mo- 
tor wear over hO percent. 

Polymerized lubricants of special 
j)roperties have been manufactured by 
the catalytic action of aluminum chlo- 
ride on propene, butenes, pentenes, 
and light fractions of gasoline from 
the cracking of paraffin wax or w.ixy 
oils. When lubricating oils from 
tthyhnc were manufactured by this 
nutliod, it was found that the viscos- 
ity-temperature coefficient was infe- 
rior, but thermal polymerization fol 
lowed by aluminum chloride treatment 
gave an improved lubricant. Since the 
viscosity of a lubricant is a function 
of the length of the straight chain in 
tlie molecule, the polymerization treat- 
ment most desirable in lubricating pro- 
duction is that which encourages the 
lengthening rather than the branching 
of the chain. A further observation 
has also been made, that the more 
straight chain the molecule, the less 
readily it will polymerize. The long 
chain paraffins as lubricants are re- 
jjorted to be superior compared to the 
cycloparaffins, olefins, and aromatics. 
It is estimated that the lubricant 
and rejjair bills of the gasoline 
and high-speed Diesel motors used 
throughout the world can be reduced 
over .$1. '50,000,000 a year by use of 
the im])roved lubricating oils avail- 
able. 



Motor Trucks 



SOL ELLIS & SONS, Inc. 

PLUMBING AND HEATING SUPPLIES 
Chicago's Most Complete Stock of 
Pipe, Pipe Fittings, and Valves. 
Complete Heating Plants. Boilers 
. . . Furnaces . . . Stokers . . . Oil 
Burners . . ■ Headquarters for 
TYLAC Wall Board. 

2118 S. State St. Victory 2454 

CHICAGO 



Motor Trucks 



MOTOR TRUCKS, TRACTORS, TRAILERS 
AND BUSSES 

Standard and Custom Built Chassis, All Sizes 

E. R. BURLEY. 1913 

Secretary and .Sales Manager 

AVAILABLE TRUCK COMPANY 

2501 Elston Avenue 
Chicago 



ARC WELDING 

(From Page 32) 

nickel electrode. Sometimes this 
method is not feasible from the cor- 
rosion resistance standpoint, and in 
this case it is suggested that a weld- 
ing electrode corresponding in analy- 
sis to the parent metal be used on the 
side where the corrosion takes place 
and the 18-8 electrode be used on 
the opposite side for streng-th and 
ductility. 

Stainless steels falling in the Aus- 
tenitic group are as follows: 
18% chromium — 8% nickel. 
25% chromium — 12% nickel. 
25%) chromium — 20%^ nickel. 
■35%. nickel — 15% chromium. 
60% nickel — 15% chromium. 
The above steels may also contain 
additions of titanium, columbium, 
molybdenum, etc. 

It is fortunate that approximately 
80% of the total tonnage of the stain- 
less steel used in this country is of 
the Austenitic type, because it is by 



HENDRICKSON MOTOR 
TRUCK CO. 

Manufacturers of 

2% to 5 TON 6 to 12 TON 

Four-Wheel Trucks Six-Wheel Trucks 

Wabash Avenue at 36th Street 
Chicago, Illinois 



Neon Signs 



INTERNATIONAL NEON SIGNS 

Patented COL-R-BAC NEON 

SIGNS 

SUPER GREEN Tubing 

SUPER GOLD Tubing 

14 N. May St. Chicago, Illinois 



FEDERAL NEON SIGNS 

• 

CLAUDE NEON FEDERAL CO. 

225 North Michigan Ave. 

Chicago, Illinois 



Paper 



Schwarz 
Paper Co 



C<73 



1430 S. Canal St. 
Chicago 



DEVELOPMENT and SALE 

of 

PATENTS 

IRVEN H. WILSEY 

WRIGLEY BUILDING 
420 N. Michigan Ave., CHICAGO 



WHITEHALL 6150 



61 



Office Furniture 




Office Furniture House, Inc. 

171-73 WEST CAKE STREET 

Chicago 

Photography 



GOOD PORTRAIT 
PHOTOGRAPHY 

In Our Studio or Your Home 

Specialists in Pictures -for 

Reproduction 

OLD PICTURES COPIED 

Est. 40 Years 14th Floor 

27 E. Monroe DEArborn 2924 




CHICAGO 
10NR0E ST. 
Official Plwtographer 
for the 
ARMOUR ENGINEER & ALUMNUS 



Dramatized Photographij 

FOR ADVERTISING 
AND INDUSTRY 

KAUFMANN& FABRY CO. 

COMMERCIAL ILLDSTRATIVE PHOTOGRAPHERS 

425 South Wabash Avenue • Chicago 



MOST THORODGHLY EQUIPPED 
PHOTOGRAPHIC PLANT IN AMERICA 



HARRISON 3135 



Printing 



5^ 



]arM, 



lANOGRAPHi 



An economical reproduction process 
for Office Forms, Charts, Diagrams, 
Grafs, Specifications, Testimonials, 
House -Organ Magazines, Bulletins, 
Maps and many other items. 

No Run Too Long. No Run Too Short. 
Estimates will not obligate you 
in any way. WRITE OR CALL. 

CHICAGO PLANOGRAPH CORP. 

517 S. JEFFERSON STREET, CHICAGO 




far the mo.st easily welded. The fol- 
lowing are the principal physical 
characteristics of Austenitic stainless 
steels: 

1. Thermal conductivity — one-half 
that of mild steel. 

2. Coefficient of expansion — 50 '^v 
greater than that of mild steel. 

3. ILleetrieal resistance — G^o tinns 
that of mild steel. 

1. Non-magnetic. 

•5. Melting temperature approxi- 
mately 200° F less than that of 
mild steel. 

G. Does not air harden. 

7. Carbide precipitation. 

From the above physical character- 
istics we can work out correct weld- 
ing procedures. It is recommended 
that 20% less welding current be 
used on an 18-8 stainless electrode be- 
cause the heat is localized along the 
seam because of the low thermal con- 
ductivity and because the melting 
temperature is lower than mild steel. 
A gap should be allowed between the 
plates to allow for the excessive ex- 
pansion. These steels are non-mag- 
netic and therefore lend themselves 
to greater ease of welding because the 
effect of magnetic are blow is not en- 
countered. Steels of this type receive 
their maximum ductility and corro- 
sion-resisting properties by rapid 
cooling from the critical temperature. 
Therefore, every precaution should be 
taken to allow the weld metal to cool 
as rapidly as possible. This may be 
accomplished by running the weld in 
stringer beads (no weaving), small 
diameter electrodes, and low weldiu'-- 
current. 

Austenitic stainless steels possess 
a property known as "carbide precipi- 
tation" or "intergranular corrosion," 
M-hich takes place when this metal is 
cooled slowly between the tempera- 
tures of 1550° and 700° F. Slow 
cooling between these temperatures 
will cause the carbon to combine with 
the chromium, forming chromium car- 
bide, which aligns itself along the 
grain boundaries, thus impoverishing 
the immediate area of chromium. The 
depletion of chromium at the grain 
boundaries results in lowering the cor- 
rosion resistance of the steel. 

Carbide precipitation in the weld 
deposit is not a serious problem be- 
cause the rapidity with which it cools 
in the average weld prevents this phe- 
nomenon from occurring. However, 
if the welded structure is to be re- 
heated above 700° F during service 
and allowed to cool slowly, chromium 
carbide will form. 

For welded structures operating in 
service at temperatures above 700° F 



Printing 



Fred VV. Krengel Oias. W. Jeffries 

THE MINERVA PRESS 

Printers 

6400 Minerva Avenue, Chicago 

Phone Hyde Park 2435 



LETTERHEADS 

To business correspondents who do not 
know you personally, or who have not 
seen your place of business, your letter- 
head reflects the personality of your firm 

FRANK W. l51C[C& & Company 

432 South Dearborn • Chicago 

JjeUerhead cfhllsts 



FRED KLEIN CO. 

732-738 Van Buren St. 

Creators and Producers 

of Better Grade 

Printing 

Monroe 6363 Chicago 



ENVELOPES 

• Standard lines in stock 

• Specials made to order 
» P I a i n or printed 

MILLS ENVELOPE CO. 

538 South Wells Street. Chicago 
Telephone Harrison 7233 



Radio 



CORP 0\R AT I O N 

833 W. Jackson Blvd. 

CHICAGO, ILL. 

"Everything in Radio" 



QUAM SPEAKERS 

"RADIO'S FAVORITE VOICE" 




QUAM-NiCHOLS CO. 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

1674 Broadway, New York 



62 



VIBRATORS 

I UTAH 



Ul RADIO PRODUCTS CO. 



Orleans Street CO 
Chicago, Illinois | 

TRANSFORMERS 



For a greater Armour 
Institute resulting in greater 
service to Chicago and the 
Middle West. 



BOWES 
REALTY CO. 

540 N. Michigan Ave. 
Whitehall 7945 



WALLACE DON 

HAMILTON BROS. 

Real Estate 

CHESTER CHARLES 



Restaurant 



oulevard lUafe 

That Old Time Rendezvous" 

CARL A. BRINKMAN, Mgr. 

3100 Michigan Avenue 

Victory 9354 



Roofing 




MULE-HIDE 
ROOFS 



Tough, Reliable, Durable and 

Handsome tool 
'Not a Kick in a Million Feet" 



School Supplies 



BECKLEY-CARDY CO. 

Laboratory Furniture and Equip- 
ment — School Supplies 



1632 Indiana Avenue Chicago 



it is recommended that additions of 
eolumbium be added to both the base 
metal and the electrode. Columbium 
has a greater affinity for carbon than 
chromium, and columbium additions 
of approximately ten times the carbon 
content will prevent the formation of 
chromium carbide. Titanium will also 
accomplish this purpose, but, unfor- 
tunately, it is practically impossible 
to transfer this element across tiic 
arc, whereas columbium is approxi- 
mately 80% efficient in this respect. 

During the past year practically all 
of the steel warehouses have stand- 
ardized their stocks of round, square, 
and flat bars with a grade of stain- 
less steel known as "free machining 
18-8." Instead of the regular .025 
maximum phosphorus and sulphur 
content, this type of stainless steel 
contains .17% maximum phosphorus 
and .60% maximum sulphur for the 
purpose of increasing tiie machin- 
ability. 

Many shops have encountered dif- 
ficuty in welding this type of steel 
because a high sulphur content intro- 
duces "hot-shortness," which invari- 
ably results in the weld cracking. 
Wherever the design is such as to in- 
troduce excessive stress, it has been 
found practically impossible to weld 
this steel, and it is strongly recom- 
mended that no attempt be made to 
do so. 

The use of stainless clad has grown 
in popularity during the past few 
years because rapid strides have been 
made in perfecting the bond between 
the stainless steel and mild steel. This 
material has a veneer of stainless steel 
bonded to mild steel with the stainless 
layer comprisino; 20% of tlie total 
thickness of the plate. Stainless clad 
may be welded with a stainless elec- 
trode on the stainless side and a 
shielded arc mild steel electrode on 
the opposite side. It is recommended 
that the stainless side be welded first 
with a 25% chromium — 12%- nickel 
electrode in order to allow for any 
possible dilution with the mild steel. 
If this procedure is followed, the weld 
deposit will always contain an alloy 
content of at least 18% chromium and 
8% nickel. 

This article is not written with the 
intention of providing detailed weld- 
ing procedures but rather to point out 
the fact that a basic knowledge of the 
physical characteristics of stainless 
steels will enable the welder to out- 
line correct welding procedures. A 
knowledge of practical metallurgy as 
applied to shop practice will permit 
the welder to proceed with under- 
standing and not guesswork. 



Screw Machine Products 



\^ Machine 

c,„,„.i.„..,. Products 


ficatlons. Capacity CONTRACT 
1/16" to 258". MANUFACTURING 


C. A. Knuepfer '15 W. J. Tarrant '23 
Pres. Vice-Pres. 


General SngmmnM H^orks 

^TOjWDimmi Street - CHicago 



Water Treatment 




ANAi.vcrTy 

CON/ULTANT/ 
MANlfACTURtR/ 



Scale and Corrosion Control 

and 

Proportioning 

Aqueous Systems 

D. W. Haering & Co., Inc. 

3408 Monroe St., Chicago, 111. 

NEVada 3434 



INTERNATIONAL FILTER CO. 

Water Purification, 

Hydraulic Control and 
Chemical Feeding Equipment 

59 E. Van Buren St. Chicago 



Telephone 

FRANK S. DUNHAM 

DEArborn 7003-7004 

For informa+ion on any 
size water softener or filter 

THE PERMUTIT CO. 

210 So. Clark St., 

Chicago 



63 




ONE COOD TURN. . . 



Do yourself a good turn. Next time order Pabst 
Blue Ribbon Beer. You, too, will find why Pabst 
is well worth waiting for. There has been a 
friendly understanding between men and Pabst 
that runs through five generations. Order a case. 



PABST 



ORDER A CASE TODAY 



64 




GOOD TASTE FOR 94 YEARS 



Premicr-Pabst Sales Co.. Chicaao 



RAISING THE STANDARDS OF WELDING 




PERFECTLY 
CENTERED 
COATINGS 



Hollup Sureweld Protected Arc Electrodes 
are always concentric . . . the metal in the 
exact center . . . the coating uniform in 
thickness at all points. 

To the Welding Industry, this means larger 
output, a saving in rods and operators' time, 
lower production costs and welds of quality. 

Hollup perfectly centered rods avoid under- 
cutting, eliminate unnecessary arc blow, pre- 
vent contamination of the arc and permit 
perfect fusion and evenly deposited metal. 

Perfectly centered rods are possible only 
with Hollup equipment — equipment designed 
and built especially for the application of 
protective coatings by Hollup engineers. 



The work of this special equipment is con- 
stantly checked by an inspection staff on the 
job 24 hours a day. Tests are continually 
being made for concentricity, weldability, 
mechanical characteristics and chemical 
composition. 

Due to the high physical properties produced 
by the Sureweld Protected Arc Electrodes 
they have passed all code requirements. 



Demonstration 

Hollup perfectly centered Sureweld Protected 
Arc Electrodes will be demonstrated for all ap- 
plications upon request. 



lup Products— a rod for every job in electric and oxy 'acetylene welding— are available through 88 distribui 



I 



CORPORATIO N 

i^qR? w anfh di Chicago 




Chesterfields are made of 
mild ripe tobaccos . . . rolled in 
pure cigarette paper . . . the best 
ingredients a cigarette can have 

For You,,, there's MORE PLEASURE 
in Chesterfield's milder better taste 



Copyright 1938, LIGGETT & Myers Tobacco Co. 



/ 



52310 
620.5 


Ar5 


Armour engineer. . . 


nev/ ser. 
V.3 


1937-38 


DEMC0.216 


IITV^ 


7o^ r-UiJi^ 


_- 



620.5 b'fiZlO Ar5 

new 

V . u 

Armour Institute of Technology 
Library 

CHICAGO, ILL. 



LIBRARY oi^juY