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Rev. W. T. LYON. M.A.. F.S.A. (Scot. 


The Most Revd. W. J. F. ROBBERDS. D.D. 

Bishop of Brechin, and Primus of the Episcopal 
Church in Scotland. 




Selkirk : 
The Scottish Chronicle" Offices. 






The following chapters appeared in the pages of " The 
Scottish Chronicle " in 1915 and 1916, and it is owing to 
the courtesy of the Proprietor and Editor that they are 
now republished in book form. 

Their original publication in the pages of a Church 
newspaper will explain something of the lines on which 
the book is fashioned. The articles were written to 
explain and to describe the origin and development of the 
Armorial Bearings of the ancient Dioceses of Scotland. 
These Coats of arms are, and have been more or less con- 
tinuously, used by the Scottish Episcopal Church since they 
came into use in the middle of the 17th century, though 
whether the disestablished Church has a right to their use 
or not is a vexed question. Fox-Davies holds that the 
Church of Ireland and the Episcopal Chuich in Scotland 
lost their diocesan Coats of Arms on disestablishment, and 
that the Welsh Church will suffer the same loss when the 
Disestablishment Act comes into operation ( Public Arms). 
Stevenson, on the other hand, says with regard to the 
Scottish Diocesan Arms that it has never been actually 
decided who, if anybody, has the right to use them 
(Heraldry in Scotland). It was therefore considered best 
to take for granted the customary use of the Arms — 
whether right or wrong — by the Episcopal Church, and to 
explain and describe their development. In view of the 
uncertainty, however, it was thought best to trace the 
course of their development only down to the Disestab- 
lishment, so readers will understand that when the Seals 


of post-Reformation Bishops are referred to, the reference 
is confined to those Prelates who ruled between the Refor- 
mation and the Revolution. A chapter was added in which 
tihe legal question of ownership is discussed. 

It is hoped that the book as a whole will be of interest to 
Scottish Ecclesiologists, though the last two chapters bear 
more particularly on the Episcopal Church and its 
customary use of the Arms. 

Of the scope of the book, it is not necessary to say more 
than a few words. It is not intended to be a manual of 
Heraldry, or even of Ecclesiastical Heraldry, but only an 
account of a rather neglected bypath of Scottish Ecclesi- 
ology — even Woodward in his ' Ecclesiastical Heraldry " 
devotes only a few pages to Scotland. Again, it is not to 
be regarded as a Church History : as a rule the history of 
a diocese is referred to only when it has some bearing on 
its coat of Arms, or on the seals of its Bishop or Chapter. 

The Heraldic " Tree " which appears as the frontispiece 
is, of course, an anachronism : with the exception of Edin- 
burgh, no Scottish Diocese possessed a Coat of Arms for 
centuries after its foundation. The Tree, however, illus- 
trates the growth of the Scottish Bishoprics : at the root of 
the Tree are the traditional Arms of Christ, from whom all 
originate; the three immediate sources, Ireland, England, 
and Norway are shown by the Arms of those countries on 
the trunk and lowest branches of the Tree. Erom the Irish 
foundation at lona the Primacy of the Scottish Church was 
transferred to Dunkeld, where Fuathal, " Primus Episco- 
pus," ruled in the 9th century ; from Dunkeld the Primacy 
passed to the " Bishops of the Scots " at St. Andrews, 
from whose diocese the majority of the Scottish sees were 
taken. The Diocese of Galloway was subject to the Eng- 
lish Archbishop of York, and the Dioceses of Orkney and 
the Isles to the Norwegian Archbishop of Trondhjem until 

the later middle ag-es. The fourteen bishoprics indicated 
by their shields make up the branches of the one tree of 
Ecclesia Scoticana, typified by the Scots P'ir Tree. 

Of the many books consulted, special acknowledgment 
must be made to Laing's " Catalogues of Scottish Seals," 
Macdonald's " Scottish Armorial Seals," " The Arms of 
the Royal and Parliamentary Burghs of Scotland," by the 
late Lord Bute, and the historical works of the late Bishop 
Dowden of Edinburgh. 

I have to acknowledge the great kindness of the Primus 
of the Episcopal Church in Scotland, who in the midst of 
his multifarious duties has written a foreword to this 

During the previous publication of the following 
chapters, one or two correspondents made suggestions 
which I have made use of, and for which I would express 
my thanks. 

And lastly, I must tender my warmest gratitude to 
Mr A. C. Croll Murray of Lanark, who is responsible for 
the illustrations. Many of the Coats of Arms of the 
Scottish Bishoprics allow real scope to an artist, and in 
giving worthy expression to the blazons, Mr Murray has 
spared no pains and grudged no time, with results which 
combine exactness of detail with real artistic feeling. 

North Berwick, September, 1917. 


Chapter i 


... Page xi. 



.. Page I 


The Language of Heraldry- 



Scottish Church Heraldry 



St. Andrews 





















Ross .. 


















The Isles 






The Legal Q 





Page 28 — For Laurencekirk in Forfarshire, read Laurence- 
kirk in Kincardineshire. 



It gives me much pleasure lo write a brief introductory 
word to this book. The science of Heraldry, as Mr Lyon 
points out, is not as well known in these days as it used 
to be formerly, and as indeed it deserves to be. But for 
those who are interested in Scottish ecclesiastical history 
tiiere is a store of most interesting- information contained 
in the descriptions given by the author, of the Arms which 
in the course of time came to be adopted by, or attached 
to, our various Scottish Bishoprics. Such information 
once again shows that our Church was no importation 
from England, but that its romantic story is essentially 
and intimately bound up with the life and history of Scot- 
land. A most useful and valuable chapter is that on " The 
Language of Heraldry " — for most of us, I expect, an 
unintelligible and unknown tongue. Under Mr Lyon's 
guidance we can enter more intelligently into the meanings 
of the different emblems and their inter-relation, and I 
think that not a few who read the book will wish that this 
chapter had been longer and fuller. Another chapter 
which is likely to attract special attention is that which 
discusses the legal right of the Episcopal Church to bear 
Arms, and which contains the author's interesting argu- 
ment by which he would answer the question he raises in 
the affirmative. Mr Lyon has given us a book which will, 
I hope, be widely read and studied, and he deserves the 
thanks of our fellow Churchpeople for his industry in 
placing such information, in a compact and attractive form, 
within their reach. 


Bishop of Brechin, Primus of the 
Episcopal Church in Scotland. 
September. 1917. 



In the middle ages heraldry formed no small part of the 
education of a gentleman : in fact it was considered indis- 
pensible in the upbringing" of a knight. In the twentieth 
century the science is generally neglected, if not scornfully 
regarded as unpractical in these unromantic times, and 
nothing more than the conceit of a past age. From the 
close of the middle ages the history of heraldry, or more 
properly armory, is one of gradual neglect : and this decay 
was one of the many incidental results of the discovery of 
gunpowder, and the consequent revolution of warfare, whxh 
led to the abandonment of the practice of wearing armour. 
During the seventeenth century the growing neglect 
brought the science into disrepute, until during the 
eighteenth century, as it has been said, heraldry was aban- 
doned to coach-builders and undertakers. 

In modern times there are signs that there is some 
revival of interest in the subject, but in Scotland particu- 
larly, ecclesiastical heraldry is still in a neglected state, due 
of course to the fact that the ancient dioceses of the national 
Church have been legally abolished, and the Established 
Church therefore has no use for the armorial bearings of 
the discarded sees. 

In the Scottish Church there are fourteen dioceses (now 
governed by seven Bishops), each one of which has a shield 
of arms, and each of these escutcheons has a history and 

a meaning, many of them of great interest. Yet their 
significance is comparatively unknown. Why does the 
Diocese of St. Andrews bear a white saltire on a blue 
ground? Who are the two figures on the shield of the 
Diocese of Ross intended to represent? 

Before we enter on the discussion of the significance 
of the armorial bearings of the various dioceses, it will be 
necessary to clear some preliminary ground as to the 
origin of heraldry in general, and especially to explain the 
technical terms used in the science. 

Tradition ascribes the origin of heraldry to a very early 
period of history. The mediaeval heralds assigned arms 
to many of the classical heroes, as Julius Caesar, Alexander, 
and Hector, Prince of Troy; to David, King of Israel; 
Joshua ; the three wise men or Kings who came to welcome 
the new-born Christ ; to the Apostles, and many other 
prominent men of the Bible from Adam onwards. In fact 
they did not scruple to assign arms to the Son of God him- 
self, viz., The wounded Heart, between pierced Hands and 
Feet arranged saltirewise. These arms are worthy of 
notice, not only as a heraldic curiosity, but also because 
they are sometimes to be seen in ancient buildings. They 
are also interesting because they reflect the feeling of the 
middle ages that every man who could lay claim to gentle 
birth must necessarily have a right to bear arms ; and 
Christ could lay claim to descent from the ancient royal 
family of Judah. In the " Boke of St. Alban's " (1488) 
we read, " Of the offspringe of the gentilman Japeth came 
Habraham, Moyses, Aron, and the profettys, and also the 
Kyng of the right lync of Mary, of whom that Gentilman 
Jhesus was borne very God and man : after his manhode 
Kyng of the londe of Jude and of Jues, gentilman by his 
Modre Mary, IVynce of cote-armure." 

Without doubt the germ or idea of heraldry is of very 
ancient origin. There are indications of it in the ensigns 

of the twelve tribes of Israel : in the directions for the 
pitching of the camp in the wilderness as recorded in the 
second chapter of Numbers, it was laid down that " Every 
man of the children of Israel shall pitch by his own 
standard, with the ensign of their father's house."* We 
find it again in the Eagles of the Roman army, and in the 
distinguishing devices of the legions. In our own country 
the tartans and badges of the clans bear witness to the 
almost universal desire of men to bear some distinguishing 
mark or badge to denote the gens to which they belong ; 
and it was in this desire that heraldry as we know it took 
its origin. 

The real beginnings of heraldry as a scientific system 
cannot be traced farther back than the twelfth century. It 
was intimately connected with chivalry, and it came into 
being to meet the needs of the knights who took part in 
the tournaments, and who fought in the wars of the 

When taking part in the tournament, the knight was 
completely hidden within his armour, and the convenience 
of a distinguishing badge soon became obvious. Again, 
in the first two crusades, when knights of many nations 
were engaged in the same adventure, the need for some 
distinctive badge must have become imperative, so that 
we find in the third crusade (1189) some sort of armorial 
bearings depicted on the shields of many of the 
knights. From the end of the twelfth century the custom 
of bearing arms became general, and was early adopted by 
Ecclesiastics, and indeed by all men of noble birth, so that 

*It has been suggested that the phrase " Lion of the Tribe of 
JuJah " has a leference to the ensign of that tribe. The identi- 
tication of Christ as the King with the tribal emblem finds 
parallels in later times, e.g., in Aytoun's " I-ays of the Scottish 
Cavahers," "Edinburgh after Flodden" : — 

No Scottish foot went backward 
When the royal I^ion I'ell. 

the right to wear " Coat-armour " came to be recognised as 
a sign of gentle birth, and armorial bearings became here- 
ditary in families, and were handed down from father to 
son. Armorial bearings were also assumed by city corpora- 
tions, livery companies, colleges and dioceses ; but it must 
always be borne in mind that originally armorial bearings 
were adopted as a distinctive badge which the knight wore 
when he went into battle. 


The Language of Heraldry. 

Heraldry may be said to have a language of its own, 
but for our purpose it will not be necessary to do more 
than indicate such terms as will make the study of Scottish 
diocesan heraldry intelligible. 

The " Achievement " is composed of several parts, 
the Shield, the Helmet, the Mantling, the Crest, and the 

(i) The Shield. This is the most important item in 
the heraldic achievement, because it bears the distinctive 
charges which form the armorial bearings of a family or 
society. The shape of the shield has varied considerably 
from the simple " Heater " shape, which was used when 
the science of heraldry was at its zenith in the middle ages, 
to the rococo forms of the i8th century, which bore prac- 
tically no resemblance to a shield at all. 

It should be borne in mind that when reference is made 
to the Dexter (right) and Sinister (left) sides of the shield, 
the point of view is supposed to be that of the knight 
holding the shield, i.e., looking over it; so that when we 
look towards a. shield of arms, the side which appears to 
us as the left, is, heraldically speaking, the dexter or right 

It will be most convenient to deal here, under the 
heading of " The Shield," with the " Tinctures," 
" Ordinaries," and " Charges." 

(a) The Tinctures are metals or colours. As a general 

rule every shield beaxs at least both a colour and a 
metal, the one for the ground, the other for the charge 
or charges. Metal must not be placed on metal, nor 
colour on colour* : the arms of Jerusalem are the out- 
standing- exception to this rule — the gold crosses on 
the silver ground — and in all probability they were 
deliberately adopted as being of a unique character, 
and therefore appropriate for a kingdom which was 
unlike all others. 

The tinctures with their heraldic names are : — 

Gold Or. 

Silver Argent. 


Red Gules. 

Blue Azure. 

Black Sable. 

Green Vert. 

Purple Purpure. 

Blood colour (Sanguine) and Orange (Tenny) and 

various Furs are also found in heraldry, but no 

examples of their use occur in Scottish Diocesan 

armorial bearings. The expression " Proper " 

applied to a charge, indicates that it bears its natural 

colouring ; it is often used, for instance, in reference 

to human figures. 

It is interesting to note that the most commonly 

used tinctures in Scottish as well as in English 

diocesan heraldry, are argent and azure; and this 

* Sometimes the charge may be blazoned both of a metal and 
of a colour : in that case the predominant tincture of the charge 
must conform to the rule : but minor parts of the charge may 
form exceptions. For instance, part of the gold crozier held by 
St. Ninian in the Arms of Galloway is placed directly upon the 
field which is argent : the figure of the Saint is coloured in 
accordance with the rule that colour must be placed on metal. 

preference is explained — at any rule in the case of 
Scotland — by the fact that these are the traditional 
colours both of the Virgin Mary and St. Andrew. 
(b) The Ordinaries are the simplest kind of heraldic 
device, being- simple geometric figures placed on the 
shield. Some are called " Honourable " and some 
" Subordinate " ordinaries, but the distinction 
between the two classes is not clearly marked, and 
writers differ as to the group in which certain 
ordinaries should be included. The following arc, 
however, usually included among the honourable 
ordinaries : — 

(A) The Cuief. (/i) The Pale. (C) The Fess. (D) The Bend 


(E) The Chevron. (F) The Saltibe. (G) The Cross. 

A few of the subordinate ordinaries will also be 
met with : — 

^ W KJ 

(A) The Pile. (B) The Pall. (C) Bordukr. 

(D) The Oule. (E) Trrssuur. 


Most of these ordinaries explain themselves, but 
the Tressure demands a word of explanation. This 
device is almost entirely confined to Scottish 
Heraldry, and is generally known as the Royal 
Tressure. It is borne on the royal arms of Scotland, 
and when it appears on the escutcheon of a subject, 
it is invariably the sig-n of special royal favour, and 
often of royal ancestry. It is usually blazoned, 
" A double Tressure, fiory conyitcr fiory,^' indicating 
that the heads of the fleur-de-lys, which lie behind 
the tressure, should be drawn alternately pointing 
towards the middle and the outside of the shield ; 
and they should not appear between the double 
tressure. The use of the tressure will again be 
referred to when we reach the heraldry of the Diocese 
of St. Andrews. 

The names of the ordinaries are also used to 
describe the manner in which a shield is divided : 
for instance, a shield may be parted per -pale, i.e., 
perpendicularly in the centre, as in the diocesan 
arms of Glasgow and Galloway, or per chevron 
i.e., according to the shape of a chevron. The term 
'per cross is not used, quarterly being employed 
instead, as in the case of the Diocese of St. 
Andrews, Dunkeld, and Dunblane. 

The names of the ordinaries are also used with 
reference to the arrangement of charges on the 
shield, e.g., the two crosiers arranged saltirewise in 
the arms of Argyll, 
(c) Charges may be of practically any nature : — 

(i) Living creatures, as men, animals, birds. 

(2) Inanimate charges of all kinds. 

(3) The ordinaries. 

Examples of (1) are common in ecclesiastical 
heraldry, particularly in Scotland, though thev are 

also found in Eng^land, as in the case of Our Lord 
seated upon a throne, depicted on the arms of 
Chichester, and of St. Mary on the arms of Salis- 
bury. In Scotland etTig^ies of Saints are blazoned 
on the armorial bearing-s of no less than six dioceses, 
Aberdeen, Orkney, Moray, Ross, Galloway, and the 

Of (2) we find examples in the Tree and Bell of 
Glasgow, the Crown of Thorns of Caithness, the 
Crosiers of Arg-yll, and the Passion Nails of 

The saltire of St. Andrews and Edinburgh, the 
piles of Brechin, and the saltire engrailed of Dun- 
blane are instances of the use of ordinaries. 

(2) The Helmet, which was placed above the shield, 
need not detain us, as it has no place in ecclesiastical 
heraldry.* Its place was taken by the " Mitre," which was 
used, of course, by Bishops and Abbats, or the " Hat," 
which is usually supposed to be the distinctive mark of a 
Cardinal. This is a common mistake, as in ecclesiastical 
heraldry — particularly in foreign countries — the hat is a com- 
mon feature : the different grades of clergv were distinguished 
by the colour of the hat, and by the number of tassels 
hanging from it. 1 he well-known Cardinal's hat is red in 
colour, and has 15 tassels depending from it on either side. 

The use of the ecclesiastical hat in heraldry ne\ er became 
general in Scotland, though there are examples of 
its use : for instance, Thomas Nidrie, Archdeacon of Moray 
(1520) bore on his seal above a shield charged with his 
paternal arms, an ecclesiastical hat adorned with tassels. 

(3) The Mantling or Lambrequin covered the helmet in 

order to afford protection from the heat of the sun. 

* There are a few exceptions to this rule : both Archbishop 
Sharp of St. Andrews, and Bishop T^eighton of Dunblane used a 
helmet in their armorial insignia : but the laws of heraldry were 
not very scrupulously observed in the 17th century. 


(4) The Crest as a rule was made of moulded leather, 
and was worn above the helmet on a wreath or torse. 

The mantling- and crest, beings practically part of the 
helmet, do not find a place in ecclesiastical heraldry. 

(5) Supporters were never used with official diocesan 
arms, and thoug^h it was not an uncommon custom to depict 
the arms of ecclesiastics as supported by two angels, and 
though some of the mediaeval Bishops and Abbats had, as 
individuals, the right to supporters, this part of the heraldic 
achievement falls outside the scope of these pages, which 
deal with the development of the official arms of the dioceses 
of the Scottish Church. 

The heraldic achievement of a diocese, then, consists of 
a shield of arms over which is placed a mitre. (N.B. — In 
the diagrams of the arms of the various dioceses in the 
following articles, the mitres are copied from those placed 
above the armorial shields of the Scottish Bishops on the 
heraldic ceiling of St. iNIachar's Cathedral at Aberdeen, 
which dates from 1520.) 


Scottish Church Heraldry. 

In Eng-land it was customary in the middle ages for the 
dioceses and great abbeys to bear oflicial arms, but in 
Scotland the practice was adopted only after the reforma- 
tion. During the mediaeval period a Scottish Bishop or 
Abbat bore a shield charged with his paternal arms, above 
which he placed a mitre indicative of his office : often, too, 
a crosier was placed palewise behind the shield, or in some 
instances two crosiers saltirewise : occasionally this badge 
of office was incorrectly borne iifon the shield as an addi- 
tional charge, as was done by Abbat Hunter of Melrose, 
whose arms, bearing two crosiers superimposed saltirewise, 
are still to be seen sculptured on the wall of the South 
Transept of the Abbey. 

There are, however, traces of the occasional use of 
official arms by the Scottish Ecclesiastics even before the 
reformation. Many of the Scottish Bishops — particularly 
in the Highlands — took their titles from the county or 
province over which they bore spiritual jurisdiction, rather 
than from their cathedral city, as was the usual Catholic 
custom. This peculiarity may have originated in the 
status of a Bishop in the Celtic Church, which was inferior 
to that of the Abbat of the monastery in which the Bishop 
lived : the consequence of this arrangement was that the 
Bishop, though he performed episcopal functions, was not 
master in his own house (sedes, i.e., see). In course of time 

the authority of the Bishop increased in the diocese, while 
that of the Abbat became confined to his own monastery, 
and the Bishop came to be identified rather with his diocese 
than with his see, and eventually it was the diocese or 
district which gave him his title. 

In some cases the Bishops not only derived their titles 
from the districts in which they ruled, but they assumed also 
the armorial bearings of the Lords of the districts as quasi- 
official diocesan arms, and bore them on their episcopal 
seals. We shall find instances of this practice in the case 
of Moray, Ross, and Caithness. In no case, how- 
ever, did these armorial bearings come to be recognized 
as official diocesan arms; they were merely used by some — 
very few — of the Bishops of the respective dioceses to indi- 
cate the extent of their jurisdiction. It should be noted, 
however, that the arms borne by the Diocese of Brechin are 
identical with those of the ancient Lordship of that name. 

But although it must be admitted that the assumption 
of diocesan arms dates only from the reformation, we can 
trace the germ of the armorial bearings of almost every 
diocese. In the majority of cases they are derived from the 
seals of the mediaeval Bishops, and their development can 
be traced through three stages : — 

(i) The earliest episcopal seals which have come down 
to us bear the figure of a Bishop in the act of bene- 

(2) As time went on, some device allusive to the patron 
of the cathedral or diocese — usually an effigy of the 
patron himself — was used as a device on their seals 
by Bishop after Bishop. 

(3) After the reformation these devices were adopted 
as armorial bearings by the various dioceses. Eight 
— possibly nine — of the diocesan shields of arms (in- 
cluding that of Edinburgh, as derived from St. 
Andrews) were evolved in this way. 


The adoption of official diocesan arms was probably due 
to the closer intercourse between England and Scotland 
which resulted from the union of the Crowns of the two 
countries in 1603. The practice had been general in Eng- 
land previous to the reformation, and its advantages were 
no doubt soon recognised b\- the Scottish Church. 

As regards the date of the assumption of arms by the 
various dioceses, it is not possible to give the exact year in 
any case. We find during the seventeenth century varia- 
tions of the arms borne by the Dioceses of Edinburgh, 
Glasgow, Brechin, and the Isles, which show that thev 
came into use gradually, and, it may bo added, without 
authority. But although we cannot arrive at the exact 
date of the adoption of the arms of any diocese, there were 
three distinct stages in the growth of Scottish diocesan 
heraldry as a whole, and these may be noted in different 
records of armorial bearings : — 

(1) The Register of the Lyon King of Arms. In Scot- 
land the Lord Lyon has, under the crown, the 
supreme judicial power of regulating the bearing of 
armorial insignia, and in the year 1672 an act of the 
Scottish Parliament was passed, ordaining all the 
nobility and gentry of Scotland to register their 
armorial bearings in the books of the Lord Lyon 
under pain of various penalties. In accordance with 
this act, the arms of the following dioceses, some of 
which had been assumed many years before, were 
recorded by the Bishops and are still contained in 
the Register : St. Andrews, Edinburgh, Ross, Gallo- 
way, and Argyll. (N.B. — The legal right of a dises- 
tablished Church to bear arms will be discussed in a 
later chapter.) 

(2) The " System of Heraldry," by Xlsbet of Dean, 
published in 170^. This book contains, in addition 


to those recorded in the Lyon Register, the arms of 
Glasgow and Dunblane. 
(3) Edmondson's " Body of Heraldry," published in 
1780, contains the armorial bearings of the 14 
Scottish dioceses, as borne at the present time. 
Thus, while some of the dioceses can claim for their 
armorial bearings an antiquity of almost three centuries, 
there is no diocese whose arms have not been in use for 
nearly 150 years. 


St. Andrews. 

Tradition connects the town of St. Andrews with the 
introduction of Christianity into Scotland in the fourth 
century, l^he legends of the coming- of St. Regulus to 
this country with the relics of St. Andrew are rather 
involved, but may be set down as follows : — St. Andrew 
the Apostle, after many missionary journeys in Scythia, 
Cappadocia, and Rithynia, came to Patras in Achaia, where 
among- his converts was the wife of the Pro-Consul. Her 
husband, enraged at her conversion, ordered the Apostle 
to be crucified on the diagonal cross or saltire, which has 
since been connected with his name. He was bound with 
cords to the cross, and lingered for two days, during which 
he exhorted his converts to remain stedfast in the faith. 
About 300 years later, according to the Aberdeen Breviary, 
Regulus was the custodier of the Apostle's relics at Patras : 
and on the invasion of Patras by Constantine, he was bidden 
by an angel lo hide certain parts of the sacred relics, .\fter 
Constantine had renio\cd the rest of the relics to Con- 
stantinople, the angel again appeared to St. Regulus and 
bade him take the part of the relics which he had concealed 
to the " Western Region of tlie world," where he should 
found a church in honour of the Apostle on the land where 
he should suffer shipwreck. We now follow the legend as it 
is contained in the MS. of the Priory of St. Andrews : 
After voyaging for a year and a half among the Greek 


Islands, on many of which he built oratories to St. Andrew, 
he at leng-th was wrecked on the shore of the country of 

the Picts Meanwhile, Ung"us, son of Ung^uist, a 

King- of the Picts, was waging- war in the Merse (with 
Athelstane, a Saxon King-, according- to one tradition). 
And as the Pictish King- was walking- with seven com- 
panions, the blazing white saltire of St. Andrew appeared 
in the blue sky, and a voice was heard saying, " Ungus, 
Ungus, hear me, an Apostle of Christ, called Andrew, who 
am sent to defend and guard thee." He was also warned 
in a dream that the relics of St. Andrew would be brought 
to his kingdom, and that the place where they should rest 
was to become renowned and honoured. The Picts, 
being victorious, swore to venerate St. Andrew for ever. 

King Ungus gave to St. Regulus or Rule a large part 
of Kilrymont for the building of churches to God and St. 
Andrew, the town which in later times was called St. 
Andrews. The Apostle thus came to be venerated as the 
Patron Saint of Scotland ; and the cross on which he 
suffered martyrdom, the saltire argent on an azure ground, 
became the national arms, and in later times the arms of 
the diocese of St. Andrews, the tinctures of the shield being 
derived from the mythical appearance to Ungus of the white 
saltire in the blue sky. 

As far as the heraldry of the diocese is concerned, we 
may make a start with the re-organization of the Church 
which took place in the reign of Malcolm Ceanmore and his 
Queen, St. Margaret, and continued during the following 
reigns. The purpose of this reformation was, of course, 
to bring the Scottish Church into line with the rest of the 
Church in the \\'est, with its headquarters at Rome. 
Turgot, Prior of Durham, who had probably been the 
Confessor and Biographer of St. Margaret, was conse- 
crated Bishop of St. Andrews in iioq. Although there 
was as yet no Primacy of St. Andrews, the old title of 


" Bishop of the Scots " was retained and appears on the 
seals of the Bishops as late as 1292 when it was used on 
the seal of Bishop W illiam Fraser, and this title seems to 
imply a claim to some sort of metropolitan jurisdiction. 
Another seal of the same Bishop has the title of " St. 
Andrews," and this became for the future the g^eneral 
custom. But owing partly to old asscx;ialions, and partly to 
the promint^nt share taken by many Bishops of the diocese 
in political and international affairs, St. Andrews was 
throughout the middle ages the most important see in 
Scotland, even before it was erected into an Archbishopric 
by Pope Sixtus 4th in 1472. 

Bearing- in mind, then, the prominent part played by 
the Bishops of St. Andrews in national affairs, we shall 
expect to find that many of them have left records in the 
way of seals. And indeed seals of every mediaival Bishop, 
with the exception of the first two, Turgot and Robert, 
have been preserved, some of them of great heraldic 
interest. The prevailing device is, as might be expected, 
the Patron Saint of the see : in fact, after the first seven 
Bishops, every Bishop who ruled the see before the Refor- 
mation bore on his seal, or on one of his seals, the device 
of St. Andrew and his saltire. 

The majority of these seals present no particular 
heraldic interest, though most of them are valuable in that 
they show the paternal arms of tiie owner, but four arc of 
great interest to us, as they exhibit armorial bearings 
possibly assumed for official purposes. 

(i) The seal of William de Landallis, who was con 
secrated in 1342. 

(1371.) St. Andrew crucified, between tW'O shields 
each bearing the royal arms, the sinister shield being 
differenced with a staff and sceptre or two crosiers in 
saltire o\er all. This shield, according to Birch 
(History of Scottish Seals), must be accepted as the 


first shield of arms of the see. Probably, howe\er, 
Birch was in error when he regarded the shield 
mentioned above as the official arms of the see, 
because as far as we know such a shield occurs 
nowhere else; but we may regard it as a shield 
assumed by the Bishop to denote his oflice as Bishop 
of the leading diocese of the kingdom of Scotland. 

In the base of the vesica-shaped seal is a Bishop 
kneeling in praj'er between two shields, both of them 
charged with the Bishop's paternal arms, viz., an 
Orle. And the interest is this ;, on the dexter shield 
within the Orle is a saltire. The question then arises, 
was this saltire assumed in allusion to his occupying 
the see of St. Andrews, and had the cross of St. 
Andrew come to be recognised as the badge of the 
diocese ? 

(2) Bishop John Kennedy, translated from Dunkeld to 
St. Andrews in 1440, has left two seals. In the 
base of the one there is the figure of a Bishop 
between two shields bearing the paternal arms of 
Kennedy, viz., a chevron between three cross cross- 
lets fitchee. On the dexter shield, the paternal arms 
are placed within the royal tressure. On the other 
seal is a shield of the Bishop's paternal arms within 
the royal tressure, surmounted by a mitre. 

(3) Bishop Patrick Graham, translated from Brechin 
to St. Andrews in 1465, who became first Arch- 
bishop In 3472, continued the practice of Bishop 
Kennedy, and bore on his seal his paternal arms, 
viz., on a chief engrailed, three escallop shells, 
within the royal tressure. 

Now this suggests an interesting question, Was 
it by virtue of their tenure of the see, which had 
Originally been known as the Bishopric of the Scots, 
that they bore the honourable augmentation of the 


tressure of the King of Scots, as Birch seems to 
suggest? This is, I think, very improbable, as the 
right to bear the royal tressure was very jealously 
restricted : it was very infrequently granted to sub- 
jects by the King, and was either a special mark of 
favour for service done to King or country, or a 
" Tessera of noble (royal) maternal descent " (Nis- 
bet). This mark of the Scottish Sovereign's favour 
had its parallel in the " Chief of Empire " (Or, an 
eagle displayed sable), and in France, " a Chief of 
France (Azure, seme de lis). It is much more 
probable that the tressure in both cases is an indica- 
tion of royal ancestry. Both Kennedy and Graham 
were grand-sons of King Robert III. Kennedy 
was the younger son of James Kennedy of Dunnure, 
by the Lady Mary, Countess of Angus, daughter 
of Robert III. : Graham was the son of the same 
Princess, whose third husband was Lord Graham. 
(4) On the counter seal of James Beaton, Arch- 
bishop of Glasgow, translated to St. Andrews in 
1508, there is a saltire of St. Andrew surmounted 
by a shield bearing quarterly the arms of Beaton 
and Balfour. 
The close connection which existed between the kingdom 
of Scotland and the diocese of St. Andrews is indicated by 
the common use of the Bishops on their seals of shields 
bearing the royal arms. Bishop de Landallis and six other 
pre-reformation Bishops and Archbishops made use of the 
royal arms in this way. It was without doubt an allusion 
to the ancient title, " Bishop of the Scots." 

The pre-reformation evidence as to the existence of 
diocesan arms then is practically negative. With the 
exception of a few honourable additions to paternal arms 
on the part of three Bishops, in virtue of their office, or 
granted to them for other reasons, and the use of the royal 


arms differenced in allusion to the see, as borne by one 
Bishop, there is no record of any arms of an official nature. 
The saltire borne on his seal by Archbishop James Beaton 
is the neaiest approach to the modern arms of the diocese to be 
found in the seals of the mediaeval Bishops. 

Of the post-reformation Bishops', there are extant 
several seals, thiee of which may be noticed. 

(i) George Gladstanes, translated from Caithness in 
1606, has left a round seal with a shield bearing a 
saltire, cantoned in relief with a rose. These arms 
must not, however, be confounded with those of the 
diocese : they were the paternal arms of the Bishop, 
and were used by him also on his official seal as 
Bishop of Caithness. 

(2) Archbishop Sharp bore on his seal the figure of a 
Bishop holding a crosier in his right hand, and a 
saltire in the left. 

(3) The same device was used by Arthur Ross, the last 
Archbishop before the disestablishment, and, used 
as it is apart from the figure of the Apostle, it shows 
that the saltire of St. Andrew had definitely come to 
be regarded as the official badge of the see which 
bore his name. 

The arms were in fact recorded by Archbishop Sharp in 
the Lyon Register, " Azure, a St. Andrew's Cross argent," 
impaled with the paternal arms of Sharp. This would 
appear to be conclusive, but apparently there seems to have 
existed some doubt as to the propriety of the national arms 
being appropriated as the arms of one particular diocese, 
because there is a note in the Register as follows : — " Albeit 
for the seale of the see, he (Sharp) constantly gives. In a 
field azure, the Image of St. Andrew, the Patron of Scot- 
land, vested and placed within the porch of a church proper, 
having his crosse of martyrdome on his breast argent, with 


these words in Hying escroUs on each side, regi, ecclesiae, 
SACRis, on the right, and auspice summo numine on the 
left, and round the seal sigillum rotundum archiepiscopi 


This seems to indicate that, thougli adopted as a badge 
by the Bishops of the see, the saltire, or national arms of 
Scotland, could not legitimately be regarded as the official 
arms of the diocese of St. Andrews. And if such a strong 
supporter of the Episcopate and of the nexus between church 
and state as James Sharp, constantly gave the old device of 
the Bishops' seals as the official diocesan seal — and by giving 
the tinctures he would seem to wish to extend the use of the 
device to purposes apart from the seal — there are strong 
grounds for belief that the diocese of St. Andrews cannot 
rightly lay claim to the arms at present in use. 

But, on the other hand, since from the time of Bishop 
de Landallis in 1371, the saltire of St. Andrew has been 
used constantly, practically universally, by the pre-revolu- 
tion Bishops, in one way or another, either on seals in con- 
junction with the Apostle, or as a badge, or as a shield of 
arms, its modern use by their successors, though perhaps 
not strictly legal, can hardly be regarded as a very heinous 

If, however, at any time it should be decided to regu- 
larize, so to speak, the heraldry of the Church, it might be 
well to revert to the device used by at least nineteen pre- 
revolution Bishops on their seals, namely, St. Andrew on 

his cross. The shield might be blazoned thus: — " AzNre, 
the Apostle St. Andrew, vested of the field, surrounded by a 
radiation or, tied to his cross, argent." 

The arms in use at present are blazoned thus: — " Azure, a 
saltire argent." 



The arms of the diocese of Dunkeld — a Passion cross 
between two nails — are of comparatively modern origin. 

Abernethy and Dunkeld were probably early Columban 
settlements from the parent house of lona. About the 
middle of the ninth century, when the kingdoms of the 
Scots and the Picts were united under the rule of Kenneth 
MacAlpin, the king" built a new church at Dunkeld, trans- 
ferred some of the relics of St. Columba to it, and invested 
Tuathal, Abbat of Dunkeld, as Bishop of Fortrenn, with 
the primacy of the Pictish church. The translation of the 
relics from lona to Dunkeld was probably intended to imply 
a transference of the primacy — c.f. the translation of the 
relics of St. Cuthbert from Lindesfarne to Durham. This 
Bishop Tuathal is called " Primus Episcopus," and Dr 
Dowden is of the opinion that this means that he was the 
first Bishop in point of time who exercised Episcopal juris- 
diction (The Celtic Church in Scotland) : we have already 
seen that in former times Bishops in Scotland, as members 
of a monastic body, took a subordinate position and were 
subject to the jurisdiction of the Abbat. From now on- 
wards the Bishop of the newly-instituted see began to exer- 
cise not only authority as Abbat of the chief Columban 
house in the country, which contained the relics of the 
patron, but also as Bishop with a wide and real jurisdiction : 
he in fact claimed primatial authority over both Picts and 


Scots. And this primacy of Dunkeld lasted for many 
years, until it passed to the " Bishops of the Scots " at St. 

The cathedral was, as might be expected, from its 
early history, dedicated to St. Columba, and the effigy of a 
mitred figure was the prevailing device on the seals of the 
mediaeval Bishops, many of which have come down to our 
time. As the favourite device on the seals of Bishops of 
Scottish sees usually had some reference to the patron of 
the cathedral or diocese, as we have already seen was the 
custom at St. Andrews, we may infer with some degree of 
certainty that the figure is intended to represent St. 

There is no doubt as to the identity of the figure 
depicted on the seals of Bishop Gavin Douglas (15 15- 1522) 
and Bishop George Crichton, provided to the see in 1526. 
On the former of these the figure in a Gothic niche is holding 
a book in iiis right hand, on which is perched a dove, and in 
the latter he is represented holding a dove. The dove 
was the traditional emblem of St. Columba, whose name 
signifies Dove. 

An interesting seal is that of Bishop John Hamilton 
(provided 1544). It bears the device of a figure holding a 
basket with a bird in his right hand. This also is probably 
intended to represent St. Columba. 

The most interesting seal, however, of the mediseval 
Bishops — from a heraldic point of view — is that of Bishop 
Nicholas Duffield (1392-1411). The seal bears a figure of 
the Virgin and Child with a Bishop on each side : above is a 
representation of the Trinity : in the lower part of the seal 
is the half figure of a Bishop, on each side of which is a 
shield : the shield on the dexter side appears to bear "<?« a 
■pale a naire between two doves'' x the smister shield is 
indecipherable. The charges on this shield, the mitre, and 
the doves, have the distinct appearance of having been 


adopted as his arms by Duffield, as the Bishop of a diocese 
which was under the patronage of St. Cohimba. As, how- 
ever, tiiey are not found on the seals of any later. Bishops, 
thev cannot be regarded as having been adopted as diocesan 

The seal of the cathedral chapter bore on the ob\ erse 
side a representation of a reliquary, no doubt one of the 
treasures of the church, in all probability the shrine in 
which were contained the relics of St. Columba. On its 
reverse side, the seal boie the fig-ure of the patron. 

On some of the mediaeval seals, including that of the 
chapter, there is borne a shield of the royal arms of Scot- 
land. This is no doubt a reference to the primatial dignity 
of the ancient diocese : we have seen a similar use of the 
royal arms by the Bishops of St. Andrews, in allusion to 
the title borne by their predecessors, " Bishop of the 

There is one interesting shield of arms which appears 
on the seals of two Bishops of Dunkeld, one of whom ruled 
the see before the reformation, and the other in the 17th 
century. Both Gavin Douglas, who was consecrated to 
the diocese in 1516, and Bishop Alexander Lindsay, 1638, 
bore on their seals the armorial bearings of Abernethy. 
Bishop Douglas bore these arms as the second quartering 
on a shield in the base of his seal, and Bishop Lindsay 
quartered them with the arms of his family. The arms of 
Abernethy, however, appear as a quartering on the arms of 
the Lindsays of Evelick, to which branch of the family 
the Bishop belonged : and probably they are borne on 
his seal as personal rather than olTieial arms. 1 his seems 
to be the nearest approach we can find to official armorial 
bearings in the diocese of Dunkeld before the Revolution. 
There was from very early times a connection between 
Abernethy and Dunkeld : in the later days of the Celtic 
church, the Culdees of Abernethy are said to have claimed 

the right of appointing the Abbat of Dunkeld. The arms 
of Abernethy are, "' Or a lion rampant gules, debruiscd of 
a ribbon sable.'" 

The arms at present in use in the diocese are probably 
of a conventional nature. The Passion cross may possibly 
have reference to one of the most prized possessions of the 
cathedral in the later middle ages : Bishop Lauder, who 
completed the nave, and executed other works in connec- 
tion with the building, which he dedicated in 1465, gave 
many presents to the cathedral, one of which was a silver 
cross, containing a fragment of the true cross, which was 
regarded with great veneration. 

But this explanation cannot be regarded as satisfactory, 
and it is far more probable that the arms of the diocese 
were assumed lor no other reason than that they were suitable 
for ecclesiastical purposes. 

They are blazoned thus, " Argent, a Passion Cross sable, 
between two nails palewise in base, g/des." 



It has already been noted that the practice of using 
official arms for their dioceses only became general among 
the Scottish Bishops after the reformation. It was pro- 
bably the result of the closer intercourse between England 
and Scotland, consequent on the union of the crowns of 
the two countries : and this practice was of slow growth, 
arms being assumed in some dioceses earlier than in others. 
In fact, the practice never became universal in this country 
before the church was disestablished. The arms recorded 
in the Lyon Register, in accordance with the Act of 1672, 
by James Ramsay, Bishop of Dunblane, are evidence of 
this : he recorded only his paternal arms, but his successor 
in the see, Kobert Douglas, bore on his seal diocesan 
arms quartered with his own. As Bishop Douglas only 
began to rule the see four years before the revolution, it 
is evident that Dunblane was one of the last of the dioceses 
to assume arms before the disestablishment of the church. 
The origin of the arms is not known. 

Of the mediaeval episcopal seals not many are now in 
existence. Three of them, those of Bishop Robert de 
Prebenda, 1 258-1 282, William, 1 284-1 293, and Walter de 
Coventre, provided to the see in 1361, are of interest, as 
bearing the device of St. Blane or Blaan and St. Lawrence, 
the patrons of the cathedral. The former of these two 
saints is said to have been born in Bute in the sixth centurv : 


having been instructed in Ireland by St. Congall and St. 
Kenneth, he was consecrated Bishop. After a visit to 
Rome, he returned to Scotland and founded a Columban 
house at Dunblane, an offshoot of Kingarth in Bute. St. 
Lawrence may have been St. Augustin's successor at 
Canterbury : this Lawrence of Canterbury is said to have 
extended the faith not only among the Angles, but also 
among the ancient inhabitants of Britain, and even among 
the Scoti of Ireland : tradition says that he also made a 
journey to Pictland, and was there visited by St. Ternan, 
who laboured in the Mearns. Laurencekirk in Forfarshire 
is a memorial of this traditional friendship, and of the 
reverence in which the English Archbishop was held in 
Scotland. Or more probably he was St. Lawrence, the 3rd 
century Spanish martyr who was roasted to death on a 
gridiron at Rome. The later mediaeval Bishops and 
chapter in any case identified their patron with the Spanish 
martyr, as they represent him on their seals holding his 
traditional emblem, the gridiron on which he suffered death. 
The majority of the post-reformation Bishops had no 
noteworthy device on their episcopal seals — they bore as a 
rule their paternal arms — but two may be noticed : — 

(i) Two seals of Bishop Leighton, 1661-1669. Both 
of these seals bore the device of a shield charged 
with the paternal arms of the Bishop, viz., a lion 
rampant. On one of these seals, which was his 
official seal as Bishop of Dunblane, above the shield 
is a mitre and mantling, surmounted by a crest, 
viz., a lion's head erased, the use of which, as we 
have already noted, is incorrect in the armorial 
bearings of a Bishop. The second seal, which is a 
signet, is on a letter to the Duke of Lauderdale : it 
shows the shield with a helmet instead of a mitre, 
together with mantling and crest. The signature 
of the Bishop on the letter is interesting : he merely 


signs R. Lcig-hton, and does not use an official 
signature derived from his diocese. 
(2) Two seals of Bishop Robert Douglas, already 
referred to, both of which show the arms at present 
in use in the diocese, in one case quartered, and in 
the other, as is more usual, impaled with his 
paternal arms, which are borne with differences on 
the two seals. This was the first Bishop of Dun- 
blane to use the official armorial bearings of the see. 
The arms are blazoned thus: — ''Argent, a Saltire 
engrai/ed azure.'' 



The arms of the diocese of Edinburgh are derived from 
those of St. Andrews, as the diocese was formed out of 
the Archdeaconry of Lothian, hitherto included in the old 
primatial see of Scotland. Their origin need not be 
referred to here, as it has already been explained in the 
chapter dealing- with St. Andrews. 

The diocese of Edinburgh was founded by King Charles I. 
in 1663. William Forbes was appointed the first Bishop, 
and the old Collegiate Church of St. Giles became the 
cathedral. The diocese still retained some small connection 
with the parent see, as the Bishop of Edinburgh held the 
office of \'icar General of the Province of St. Andrews. 

The arms — which are unique among those of Scottish 
dioceses, in that probably they were olficially granted by 
the Lord Lyon — are the same as those of St. Andrews 
differenced with a mitre in chief. Whether they were 
actually granted or not to the see, we hnd ihem recorded 
in the Lyon Register by Bishop George Wishart as early 
as August, 1674. 

Bishop Rose, who ruled the see from 1687-1720, bore 
on his seal a shield of the diocesan arms impaled with his 
paternal arms : above the shield is a mitre. 

These were not, however, the earliest arms of the 
diocese. A seal of Bishop David Lindsay {1634) bears a 
shield parted per fess. In the chief a saltire with an open 

crown in the base for the see of Edinburgh. In the base 
his paternal arms. Over the shield is an imperial crown, 
under which is the letter R. No doubt the crowns refer to 
the royal founder of the see. 

It is in one sense a matter of regret, when the arms of 
the diocese of Edinburgh were first granted or assumed, 
that, in accordance with the usual Scottish custom, no 
reference was made in them to local hagiology, though it 
is true that they are allusive to the patron of the diocese 
from which the new see was taken. St. Cuthbert, for 
instance, who had been closely connected with the Lothians 
and the South-East of Scotland — though his birth-place 
was still included in the diocese of Glasgow — was one of 
the most widely venerated of British saints : or again, St. 
Giles was the traditional patron of Edinburgh and its parish 
church. Either of these saints or their symbols might 
have been adopted as armorial bearings of the diocese, in 
accordance with the general Scottish custom, by which the 
diocesan arms were dcri\ ed from the devices allusive to 
their Patrons borne on their seals by the mediaeval 
Bishops. Or, as the present arms do not appear to 
have been used before the restoration, it would have 
been appropriate if they had been made to bear some 
charge allusive to the founder of the diocese, King Charles 
the Mortyr. And this might even yet be done by adopting 
Bishop Lindsay's device, and placing a crown in the base 
of the shield. Thus, while the saltire would still serve to 
denote the connection between the diocese of Edinburgh and 
the parent see of St. Andrews, the open crown would be a 
reminder of the royal founder of the diocese, as well as of 
the crown of martyrdom which he won. 

The arms are blazoned thus :— " Azure, a Saltire argent, 
in cJiief a mitre, garnished or.^'' 



The common seal of the city of Aberdeen has had an 
interesting history. The oldest seal which has come down 
to u^, attached to a charter of 1179, bore on its obverse 
side a ligure of St. Nicholas mitred and his hand raised in 
benediction. The inscription runs : — "' signum beati nicolai 
ABERDONENSis " ; and the reverse side bore the represen- 
tation of a large church or other building with three spires. 

St. Nicholas was the patron saint of the Parish Church 
of Atxrdeen : being regarded as the patron saint of sailors, 
we often find churches dedicated to him in seaports, e.g., 
Newcastle and Yarmouth, etc. 

The building on the reverse side of the seal was probably 
a conventional picture of the town, and in all likelihood, 
the three spires which surmount the building have in process 
of time developed into the arms, the three rowers, which 
are at present borne by the city. Thus, while the reverse 
aide of the ancient seal has developed into the arms of the 
city, the obverse side has come to be used as the armorial 
bearings of the diocese of Aberdeen. 

Both devices were recorded for the city in the Lyon 
Register : — 

(i) Gules, three towers triple-towered, within a double 
tiessitre fiorv counter flory, argent. 

This device, which is universally recognized as the arms 
of the citv need not detain us : it is sufficient to say they 


appear in their present form as far back as 1520, when they 
were depicted on the ceiling of St. Machar's Cathedral, and 
on a seal cd cansas (1537). 

(2) The second blazon contains two errors: — "Azure 
a temple argent, St. Michael mitred and vested frofer, with 
his dexter hand lifted uf to heaven, fraying over three 
children in a boiling chauldron of the first, and holding in 
ihe sinister a crosier, or." 

The name of Michael is of course a mistake for Nicholas, 
the patron saint of the town — an Archangel would hardly 
lie represented in episcopal vestments and mitre. The 
'"' boiling chauldron " is an incorrect allusion to that miracle 
of St. Nicholas which was most popular in the Middle 
Ages : — St. Nicholas was Archbishop of Myra in Cilicia in 
the fourth century, and the legend relates that during a 
great famine, the Bishop was travelling through his diocese 
in order to visit and comfort his people. One night he 
lodged at an inn, the host of which was a " Son of Satan." 
This man was in the habit of stealing children, whom he 
salted, and served up as food to his guests. He set before 
the Bishop a meal made out of the limbs of three children, 
but St. Nicholas immediately recognized the nature of the 
food. Reproaching the inn-keeper for his wickedness, he 
went to the tub where the remains of the children were being 
salted, and made the sign of the cross over them. The 
children immediately sprang- up alive and well. 

This legend has been sometimes understood to be 
symbolic of Baptism ; the Bishop represents the Church, 
rescuing souls from death by the saving rite of Baptism; 
and the inn-keeper is sometimes depicted as a demon with 
horns and hoofs, and the salting-tub as a font. 

A representation of this legend first appears on the seal 
of the town in 1430, and in it the three children are repre- 
sented in the tub of the legend. When, however, the arms 
were recorded in the Lyon Office, this was altered into a 

35 1272453 

" boiling chauldron," and this blazon was retained by 
Woodward in the arms of the diocese of Aberdeen. 

It was probably from this legend that St. Nicholas came 
to be venerated as the patron samt of children — especially 
schoolboys — and in this character he annually comes on 
Christmas Eve under the guise of Santa Claus, i.e., 
Nicholas. He died in 326 or 342 on December 6th, and 
was buried at Bari in Apulia. 

The se;ils of the mediaeval Bishops, though interesting 
as bearing for the most part, shields charged with their 
paternal aims, have no bearing on the arms at present in 
use in the diocese. The prevailing device on the main part 
of the shield was the Virgin and Child, Old Aberdeen being 
under the protection of St. Mary, to whom King's College 
was dedicated. 

The seal ot Bishop Gavin Dunbar, however, is of interest, 
as introducing St. Nicholas. This Saint is depicted on the 
right of the Virgin Mary, while a Bishop ( ? Machar) stands 
on the left. 

The seal of the cathedral chapter also is worthy of notice. 
It bore on the upper part a figure of the Virgin and Child 
under a Gothic niche : the lower part of the seal is divided 
into three niches, in the centre one of which is the figure of 
a Bishop, which Laing thinks may be intended for St. 
Nicholas . but it is as likely, if not more so, that it was 
meant for St. Machar, the traditional founder of the old 
diocese, who built the first church, in accordance with the 
directions of St. Columba, at the place where a river took 
the form of a pastoral staff — the site of the mediaeval 
cathedral on the banks of the River Don. 

The seals of the post-reformation Bishops also present 
no particular interest, and have no bearing on the modern 
arms of the see. 

We can find, then, practically no of the diocesan 
arms in the ancient ecclesiastical records, and they must be 


regarded as having been derived from the common seal of 
the cathedral city, as we shall find was also the case with the 
diocesan arms of Moray. 

But, although, of course, there is no authority for their 
use by the diocese of Aberdeen, they are by no means 
inappropriate, and there can be little objection to their being" 
retau)ed ; in fact, they serve a useful purpose by preserving 
the memory of the device boi-ne on one side of the ancient 
seal of the city, while the city arms keep alive the memory 
of the other. 

In the picture of the shield, reproduced above, it should 
be noticed that the "Teinple"'' — which represents the 
architectural canopy over the saint in the seals — is drawn 
in the Byzantine style in allusion to the locality of the 
dioce.^e which St. Nicholas ruled. The saint himself is 
drawn " in pontificals," i.e., vested in the conventional 
robes of a Bishop, in alb, chasuble, and mitre. Lord Bute, 
in discussing the arms of the city of Aberdeen, urges that 
the saint should be vested in the distinctive robes of an 
Eastern Bishop. In heraldry, however, there is a traditional 
manner of representing a Bishop, to which it is best to 
adhere, and all the more so as the rohes of a fourth century 
Eastern Bishop must be more or less a matter of conjecture. 

The aims of the diocese may be blazoned thus : — 
^^ Azure, in the porch of a Temple argent, St. Nicholas standing 
mitred and vested proper, holding in his sinister hand a crosier or, 
with his dexter hand lifted up to heaven, praying over three child- 
ren proper in a salting-tub of the field/' 



The arms of the diocese of Orkney bear the figure of 
St. Magnus, the patron of the see and of the cathedral at 

Orkney and Zetland were early colonized by Scandi- 
navians, whose influence gradually spread throughout the 
Hebrides also. These colonists were in the habit of 
making raids on the coasts of Britain, and they even sent 
expeditions against Norway itself. In the tenth century 
Harold, King of Norway, sailed to the Western seas and 
annexed the Orkneys and the Hebrides, and over these 
islands he placed Norwegian Earls as governors. They 
and their descendants ruled for some centuries, nominally 
as vassals of the kings of Norway, but generally, to all 
intents and purposes, independent sovereigns. Magnus 
was the son of Erlend, one of the Scandinavian Earls of 
Orkney. He was one of a family, the members of which 
were continually quarrelling among themselves, and stirring 
up strife in the islands ; and, to restore order, Magnus Bare- 
foot, King of Norway, came to Orkney in the year 1098. 
He sent the two Earls, Erlend and Paul, his brother, back 
to Norway as prisoners. He then took Magnus and his 
brother, the younger Erlend, and their cousin Haco, the 
son of Paul, on a marauding expedition round the West of 
Scotland. They penetrated as far as Anglesea, where a 
battle was fought with the Norman earls of Chester and 


Shrewsbury. The young Magnus refused to take any part 
in the battle, because, as he said in answer to the angry 
enquiry of the king, " No man here has done me wrong, 
and therefore I will not fight " : he is said to have recited 
the psalter as long as the battle lasted. After the death 
of his brother in Ireland in 1102, his father and uncle 
having died in Norway, Magnus was invested with the 
Earldom of Caithness, and it is recorded that his just 
government and holy life gained him the reverence and 
affection of all his subjects. Meanwhile his cousin Haco 
had seized the Earldom of Orkney, but on appeal to the 
King of Norway, Magnus received his father's half. For 
two years the cousins ruled in comparative harmony, but 
the old family dissensions broke out again, and eventually 
brought about the murder of Magnus by his cousin. The 
two earls agreed to meet in battle at Eglishay with an 
equal number of ships and retainers ; Haco, however, 
treacherously arrived with eight ships instead of two, 
which was the number arranged. His followers were 
prepared to fight for Magnus, but he refused to endanger 
the lives of his friends, and declined the unequal battle. 
He knew well that his life was in imminent danger, and he 
spent the night in the church, and in the morning received 
the BlesseJ Sacrament : the followers of Haco entered the 
building, and seized Magnus, and he was condemned to 
death. He kneeled, confessing his sins, and praying for 
his murderers. He then signed himself with the sign of 
the cross, and bending forward, his head fell at the second 
stroke of the executioner's sword. He was afterwards 
buried at Christ Church, Birsa, by his mother Thora. 
Almost immediately after his death men began to venerate 
him as a saint, and when in 1138 his nephew Earl Ronald 
began to build the cathedral of Kirkwall, it was dedicated 
in the name of St. Magnus, and his relics were removed to 
the building which has since borne his name. 


During- the middle ages St. Magnus was held in great 
reverence in the Northern Islands, and as might be 
expected, his efligy finds a place among the devices on the 
seals which have come down to us. Unfortunately not 
many of the mediaeval seals have survived, but two of them 
are of interest to us. 

The seal of Bishop de Tulloch, 1422, bears a represen- 
tation of St. Magnus holding a sword, as does that of Adam 
Bothwell, 1559. 

The chapter seal of Kirkwall cathedral bore the design 
of a Gothic porch of a centre and two side doors : in the 
centre is the figure of the patron holding a sword in his 
right hand : and in the side doors are figures of monks in 

But although the information to be obtained from the 
mediseval seals is very meagre, there are other indications 
of the close traditional connection of St. Magnus with the 
diocese of Orkney. Bishop Maxwell gave a peal of bells 
to the cathedral in 1528, and three of the bells bear a 
medallion, showing a representation of St. Magnus holding 
a sword. And on the Archdeaconry at Kirkwall, there are 
the sculptured remains of the arms of Archdeacon Fulzie 
(1566) with the device of a crown, which may be an allusion 
to the royal saint. 

Of the post-reformation Bishops, Andrew Honeyman, 
1664, has left a seal, in some ways not unlike that of the 
mediaeval chapter, showing St. Magnus in the centre niche 
of three, holding in his hand what appears to be a crozier, 
but may have been intended for the usual sword, or perhaps 
a sceptre. On the arch of the middle niche is inscribed 


The saint, although in reality his title was that of Earl 
of Orkney, is as a rule represented as a king, crowned, and 
holding a sword in his right hand, no doubt in allusion to 
his death. 


The arms of the diocese then trace their origin to the 
saint who gave his name to the cathedral of Kirkwall. 
And although St. Magnus was not in himself a particularly 
striking figure, the arms are appropriate and interesting 
in their allusion to a past epoch in Scottish history, when 
the Northern islands were under the sway of the King of 
Norway, and the diocese of Orkney was under the juris- 
diction of the Archbishop of Trondhjem. 

The arms are blazoned : — " Argent, St. Magmis, 
standing, royally vested, on his head a crovn of gold, in his 
dexter hand a sivord, proper.'^ 



The arms of the diocese of Moray, like those of Aber- 
deen, are derived not from the dedication of the cathedral, 
as is common in Scotland, but from that of the parish 
church of the cathedral city. The diocesan arms of Moray 
are in fact nothing- more than an adaptation of the Common 
Seal of the Burgh of Elgin. 

They represent St. Giles or Aegidius standing in a 
church porch, holding in his right hand a cross, and in his 
left a book. It would be correct to depict, in addition, a hind 
pierced in the back with an arrow fawning against him : 
The hind is so generally connected with St. Giles (cf. , the 
Supporters in the arms of the City of Edinburgh), that 
even though not mentioned in the blazon of the shield, it 
may be considered an integral part of the heraldic repre- 
sentation of the Saint. 

St. Giles was an Athenian of the 8th century, who, 
becoming celebrated for his charity and his miraculous 
gifts of healing, and fearing that the resulting fame would 
endanger his soul, retired from his native country to a 
remote cave in the neighbourhood of Nimes in France, 
where he lived as a hermit on wild herbs and the milk of 
a hind. One day the King of France — so runs the legend — 
who was hunting in the neighbourhood, shot the hind, 
wounding it. He followed it and came to St. Giles' 
retreat, where he found the Saint holding the wounded 


hind in his arms. The King-, recog^nising that he was a 
man of God, entreated him to allow a monastery to be 
built in the place where his cave was. This was done, 
and St. Giles, at the request of the King-, became Abbat 
of the monastery, which he is said to have ruled " wisely 
and Godly for some years, until he passed away to heaven." 

The " church porch " in the shield is merely the archi- 
tectural canopy under which the Saint was depicted on the 
ancient Burgh seals, but in its Gothic appearance it is by 
no means inappropriate when we remember the connection 
between St. Giles and the g-reat monastery which bore his 
name and of which tradition says he was the first Abbat. 

In the episcopal records of the see we can find no trace 
of St. Giles. There are extant the seals of sixteen Bishops, 
fourteen of whom governed the diocese before the Refor- 
mation. Of these nine show their paternal arms. Bishop 
John Pilmore in 1357 bore on his seal, in addition to his 
paternal arms, a shield charged with the arms of the 
province of Moray, viz., 3 cushions within a double tressure 
flory counter flory. This is the sole case of any approach 
to official arms on the part of the Bishops of Moray, and 
was used only to indicate tlie extent of the diocese. The 
prevailing- device, which occurs on the seals of nine 
(possibly ten) pre-reformation Bishops, was a representa- 
tion of the Holy Trinity, which was the dedication of the 
Cathedral at Elgin. The two post-reformation Bishops, 
whose seals are extant, bore their paternal arms, and one of 
them. Bishop John Guthrie, in 1623, on his seal revived the 
old device of a representation of the Holy Trinity, flanked 
on either side respectively by the Blessed Virgin and St. 

But although among the episcopal seals of Moray we 
can find no trace of St. Giles, on the seal of the Cathedral 
Chapter there is the rude figure of a saint holding a book 
in his left hand : this saint has not been identified, but from 


the fact that he holds a book in the left hand it is possible 
that the fig-ure represents St. Giles. Both in the Burgh 
seal of Elgin (copied in the modern diocesan arms of 
Moray), and in the seal of the Chapter of St. Giles at Edin- 
burgh (1496), the saint is represented as holding a book in 
his left hand. So possibly the book held in the left hand 
may identify the figure on the Chapter seal of Elgin with 
St. Giles. But this is only conjecture, and nothing should 
be deduced as a certainty from this seal. 

The arms then at present used in the diocese of Moray 
cannot claim any ancient authority as diocesan arms, but 
they nevertheless have a distinct historical value. And 
their value consists in this : — Depicting, as they do, the 
patron saint of the ancient Cathedral city, they serve to 
emphasise the identity of the modern diocese of Moray 
vv^ith its Cathedral at Inverness, with the ancient and 
mediaeval diocese with its Cathedral at St. Giles* town of 

The arms may be blazoned thus : — " Azure, within a 
Church Porch St. Giles, vested and mitred, holding in his dexter 
hand a Cross, and- in the sinister a Book ; fawning against 
him a Hind pierced in the back by an arrow, all proper.'^ 



In March, 1673, John Paterson, Bishop of Ross, in 
accordance with the act of the previous year, recorded at 
the Lyon Oflice the arms which are still in use as the official 
arms of the diocese : but although he was careful to carry 
out the requirements of the law, he does not appear to have 
understood the significance of the arms which had been 
officially used by at least one of his predecessors. 

The arms represent two figures : — Dexter, a saint in a 
red garment, his hands folded on his breast ; sinister, a 
Bishop. Bishop Paterson recorded these arms with the 
Lyon as follows: — '^ Argent, a Bishop standing on the 
sinister habited in a long robe close girt, 'purfure, mitred, 
end holding in Ids left hand a crosier or, and -pointing with 
his right to St. Boniface on the dexter side, clothed, and 
both his hands laid on his breast, proper.'' This interpreta- 
tion has been accepted by Woodward, and has been retained 
in the Church Year Book. Now, in naming the dexter figure 
St. Boniface, Bishop Paterson was, I think, in error : it 
had evidently been forgotten who the other figure was 
intended to represent, and probably no investigation was 
made as to the origin of the arms : and for this we must look 
in the history of the Cathedral of the Diocese. 

The first Cathedral of the see was erected at Rosemarkie 
bv St. Boniface or Quiritinus in the seventh century, and was 
dedicated to St. Peter. Boniface was one of the many semi- 


legendary early Scottish churchmen — though he was Scottish 
only by adoption and not by birth — and, of course, must 
not be confounded with Boniface, the Englishman, who 
became Archbishop of Mainz and Apostle ^of Germany. 
The legend of St. Boniface in the Breviary of Aberdeen, 
though containing some obvious historic errors, relates some 
facts for the accuracy of which there is a certain amount of 
circumstantial evidence. Nectan, King of Pictavia, who has 
been described as a King of Romanizing tendencies, sent to 
Rome for clergy to counteract and overcome the influence 
of the Columban missionaries in his kingdom. The Aberdeen 
Breviary relates that Pofe Boniface came to Scotland with 
some companions whose names are given ; Nectan and his 
whole court were baptized, and Boniface and his companions 
set to work to evangelize the country. Though the title of 
Pope is clearly incorrect, there are three facts which tend 
to conhrm the truth of the journey of Boniface and its object, 
and his subsequent labours : — 

(i) Many ancient church dedications in the district 
covered by his labours bear the names of the reputed 
companions of his mission, as Benedict, Madianus, 
Servanus, Pensandus, and Triduana. 

(2) The dedication of his cathedral is significant, and 
the number of churches dedicated to St. Peter in the 
district is in favour of the view that he was a Roman 
Missionary who came to bring the local church into 
conformity with the see of St. Peter. 

(3) On one of the seals of the Burgh of Fortrose, where 
the later cathedral wa? built, Boniface is depicted 
holding a key probably to emphasize the fact that it 
was the Roman Church of which he was the repre- 
sentative, which held the keys of the Kingdom of 

Probably in 1235 the seat of the Bishop was transferred 
to the neighbouring town of Fortrose, and the new cathedral 


was dedicated to St. Peter and St. Boniface, the p-nron and 
the founder of the ancient cathedral. 

We see then that two names were held up to special 
reverence in the district which in the ecclesiastical organiza- 
tion of Scotland came to be known as the Diocese of Ross, 
St. Peter the Apostle and St. Boniface; and we shall not 
be out of our reckoning if we identify the two figures on the 
present diocesan arms with these two saints. 

We may now turn to the development of the arms. Of 
the pre -Reformation Bishops, not many seals remain extant, 
and these show no prevailing device : several Bishops bore 
their paternal arms. Two (Roger, or Robert, in 1304, and 
Alexander Steward, provided 1350) bore the arms of the pro- 
vince of Ross, viz., three lions rampant (in the case of Alexan- 
der within the royal tressure), in allusion, of course, to the 
territory over which they held spiritual authority. Bishop 
Robert, 12 55- 12 70, showed on the reverse side of his seal a 
bust of a Bishop in pontificals, with the inscription : " scs. 
BONiFATius." Bishop John Fraser or Frisel, 1498, on his 
seal showed St. Peter with the keys and a cross, and Bishop 
Robert, 1280-1296, showed St. Peter and St. Boniface 
within two Gothic niches. The Chapter seal bore the figures 
of the same two Saints, with the inscription: " sigillum 


Of tlie post- Reformation Bishops, John Alaxwell in 1635 
bore on his seal a shield bearing the two figures, assumed 
as tiie arms of the diocese impaled with his paternal arms : 
ihis is the first appearance, as far as we know, of the device 
of the two saints a-s the definitely ofiicial arms of the see, 
which were afterwards recorded by Bishop Paterson in the 
Lyon Register in 1673. 

Another question now arises : we have identified the two 
figures as St. Peter and St. Boniface, but which is St. 
Boniface and which is St. Peter? In spite of Bishop 
Paterson, I think there can be no doubt that the Bishop 


represents the former, and the Saint described in the Register 

as " clothed and both his hands laid- on Jus breast,'^ i.e., the 

dexter figure, the latter. Four facts support this view : — 

(i) The dexter being- the more honourable side, it would 

naturally be assigned to St. Peter, not only as the 

earlier patron of the see, but also as the Prince of the 


(2) St. Peter would not be depicted in mediaeval 
Heraldry — or indeed elsewhere — as a Bishop ; while 
it would be extremely improbable that the traditional 
founder of a see would be depicted in any other 
manner on diocesan seals, etc. 

(3) The colour of the robe of the dexter figure seems to 
indicate St. Peter. It is usually blazoned gules : 
and, though the colours of St. Peter are as a rule 
blue and yellow, the red robe would here be used 
with reference to his martyrdom ; whereas St. 
Boniface, as far as is known, did not die a martyr's 
death, so we would expect his colour to be either 
white or the episcopal purple ; and the sinister 
figure on the shield is vested purpure. 

(4) On the seal of Bishop Robert 2nd, already referred 
to, the episcopally vested figure is expressly named 
Scs. Bonifatius. 

The only variation of the diocesan arms is that used bv 
Bishop James Ramsay (1684). He bore on his episcopal seal 
a shield charged with one figure, St. Peter, for the see of 
Ross, quartered with his paternal arms. 

The arms of the diocese of Ross should be blazoned thus, 
" Argent, on the sinister side, St. Boniface, fontifically 
vested purpure, -mitred and holding in his left hand a crozier 
or, and pointing with his right to St. Peter on the dexter side, 
habited gules, and both his hands laid on his breast." 



The arms of the diocese of Caithness are of comparatively 
modern origin, and cannot be regarded as very satisfactory, 
being merely of a conventional nature. They have no particu- 
lar connection with the diocese or its history ; the couped 
saltires have a rather insignificant appearance, and have no 
traditional or heraldic connection with the Crown of Thorns. 
This is the more unfortunate, as in the few seals of the 
medieval Bishops which have come down to us — and most 
of them have only come to light in recent years — there are 
some of great heraldic interest : one of them in particular 
would have afforded a far more satisfactory basis on which 
the armorial bearings of the diocese might have been formed. 
Three of the mediaeval seals are of particular interest 
to us : — 

(i) That of William, who was Bishop of the diocese in 
1250. His seal bore the device of a Bishop in a boat 
as seen from the prow, his hands held up in adoration. 
This may possibly refer to one of the miracles of 
his predecessor in the see, St. Gilbert, who was, by 
the way, the last Scot to be venerated as a Saint. 

Gilbert, Archdeacon of Moray, became Bishop of 
Caithness about the year 1223. He was evidently a 
man of great ability and force of character, and ruled 
his turbulent diocese for about twenty years. Among 
other works he rebuilt the cathedral of Dornoch, the 


dedication of which was St. Mary, labouring with 
his own hands. He found it a small church served by 
one priest ; he left it with a full chapter, and statutes 
based on those of Elgin, which had in turn been 
derived from Lincoln. 

The legend already referred to, is as follows : — 
" A certain person had hired the salmon fishings from 
the Lord of Caithness for a sum of money. Owing 
to the lack of fish, he had not wherewithal to pay his 
rent, and when the season arrived, that it might not 
pass without profit, he earnestly besought Bishop 
Gilbert to wash his holy hands in the water, and so 
attract the salmon, which accordingly took place." 
(Forbes, " Calendars of Scottish Saints.") After 
his death in 1245, Gilbert became patron of the 
diocese and cathedral. 
(2) Bishop Thomas Murray de Fingask, consecrated 
1343, bore on his seal the device of a Bishop between 
two shields ; the dexter shield bearing the paternal 
arms of Murray, and the sinister, a Lymphad or 
Galley within a double tressure, flory counter flory. 
The latter shield is something of a mystery. The 
arms are those of the Lord of the Isles, and the inscrip- 
tion on the seal as read by Laing is " s. thome dei 
GRA EPi CATHENENSis ET INSULA," the Seal of Thomas, 
Bishop of Caithness and the Isles. Laing- therefore 
regarded this shield as having been borne on his seal 
by Bishop Murray in allusion to his see of the Isles, 
the arms of the Earldom of Caithness being a galley or 
lymphad without the tressure. There is, however, no 
record of this Bishop having held the see of the Isles 
in addition to Caithness, and according to Woodward 
the shield is intended to allude to the latter diocese. 

A later writer on Scottish seals (McDonald, " Scot- 
tish Aimorial Seals ") throws new light on the ques- 


tion. He reads the inscription : " s. thome dei gra 
EPi CATHENKNSis IN scociA.'' The shield therefore 
would thus appear without doubt to be intended for the 
diocese of Caithness. 

But tiie tressure still presents a difficulty. Lind- 
say of the Mount, Burke, and others all agree in 
blazoning the arms of the Earldom of Caithness as 
" a galley in full sail " — no tressure. But though 
as a general rule the galley is blazoned without the 
tressure, on the sea) of John, Earl of Caithness 
(1296), there is a shield charged with a galley within 
the royal tressure, so the use of this device was not 

It may therefore be assumed that the shield on 
Bishop Murray's seal is intended to represent the 
arms of the Earldom of Caithness ; and that for some 
reaison, unknown to us, the shield was charged with 
the honourable addition of the royal tressure. 
(3) The arms of the province of Caithness, as already 
noted, were a galley in full sail, and this device 
appears as quarterings on the seal of Bishop 
Andrew Stuart I., who was provided to the see in 
1 501. He differenced the arms of the province 
with an annulet (a plain ring) in the fess point of 
the shield (i.e., the central point of the shield). In 
England the annulet was the difference customarily 
borne on the family arms by the fifth son, but as 
Bishop Stuart was an illegitimate son of the house of 
Invermeath, the annulet would not have been used 
here in this connection. It was perhaps borne by 
the Bishop to differentiate between the arms of the 
" Bishop " and those of the " Earl " of Caithness. 
The post-reformation Bishops bore on their seals their 
family arms, and they are of no particular interest. 

It should be noted then that in the past records of the 


see, at any rate as far as the Bishops are concerned, the 
favourite device, as far as we know, was allusive to the sea 
and ships. 

Now the modern arms are without authority : they have 
not yet been long enough in actual use to become traditionally 
identified with the diocese, as is the case with the arms of 
Dunblane for instance, which, like those of Caithness, have 
never been recorded at the Lyon Office : the combination of 
saltircs and Crown of Thorns has no significance, and the 
sizes of the tiny saltires and the comparatively gigantic 
Crown, are out of all proportion to one another. 

On the other hand the shield borne by Bishop Andrew 
Stuart, the golden galley with a silver sail on an azure 
ground, an annulet depicted on the sail, would be in every 
way a satisfactory shield of arms for the see. Not only is it 
derived from the arms of the province from which the 
diocese takes its name, but the galley is a device of great 
beautv, and very characteristic of Scottish Heraldry : it is 
appropriate too for a diocese which is almost surrounded by 
the sea. It is also ecclesiastically appropriate — the ship of 
the church, bearing the ring, the symbol of eternity. 

Would it then be too much to hope that the present 
armorial bearings of the diocese of Caithness might be 
abandoned in favour of the ancient, beautiful, and appro- 
priate device, " Azure, a Galley, or, in full sail, argent, 
bearing on its sail, and "flying on flag and fennon, an annulet 
of the /ield." 

The arms at present in use are blazoned thus : — " Azure, 
a Croivn of Thorns or, between three Saltires coiifed, 



The diocese of Brechin has the honour of sharing its 
armorial bearings with the Crown. The three piles in point 
were blazoned on the arms of Henry de Brechin, natural son 
of David, Earl of Huntingdon in England, and Earl of 
Garioch and I-ord of Brechin in Scotland, half brother of 
William the Lion. He took his surname from the Lordship 
of Brechin, which he obtained from his father. After some 
vicissitudes the lands passed to the Earls of Dalhousie, and 
the Lordship was annexed to the Crown in 1437. 

The arms of the see, as we shall find in the case of 
Glasgow also, are identical with those of the cathedral city, 
the little town being no doubt a mere adjunct of the cathedral. 
At Brechin we lind that there has existed a certain amount 
of confusion as to the correct blazoning of the arms of the 
city and diocese. Three different varieties of armorial 
bearings have been used at different times as the offcial 
arms ;— - 

(i) The Cathedral of Brechin was dedicated to the Holy 
Trinity, and on the seals of the mediaeval Bishops 
the prevailing device was a pictorial representation 
of the Trinity. The earliest Bishops whose seals 
have come down to us show, as might be expected, a 
simpler device, but from the time of Bishop Patrick 
de Locrys (Leuchars), who ruled over the diocese from 
135 1 until his resignation in 1383, every Bishop whose 
seal survives, with the possible exception of George 


de Schoreswood, 1453/4-1462, bore a representation 
of the Trinity. The mediaeval draughtsmen did not 
scruple to draw the Eternal Father, usually repre- 
sented as a venerable Man in a long robe, supporting 
between his knees the crucilied Son, while the Holy 
Spirit, in the form of a Dove, is also depicted. 

Thomas Meldrum, Ofiicial of the diocese, 15 14, 
bore on his seal a representation of the Trinity, and 
the same device was used on the seal of the cathedral 
chapter ; on the latter the Holy Spirit is shown 
descending from the Father to the Son. (1509). 

The city bore practically the same device, which 
in Burice's " General Armory " is quaintly blazoned, 
" Or, a representation of the Trinity, proper " ! 
(2) Of the post-reformation Bishops, two retained on 
their shields the device used bv their predecessors 
in the middle ages, but three of them, David 
Strachan, 1662, George Haliburton. 1678, and James 
Drummond, 1684, showed the figure of a Bishop with 
uplifted hands : Bishop Haliburton bore this device 
on a shield impaled with his paternal arms, and Laing 
takes it to be the armorial bearings assumed for the 

Now the arms of the city have been blazoned : — 
" Azure, in the 'porch of a Gothic church, its lower 
extremity terminating in the nombril -point, argent, 
a saint sitting, proper, habited of the field; in base 
an escutcheon of the second charged with three piles 
issuing from the chief and meeting in the base point, 
gules.'' (Gumming MS.) ; and Black in his " History 
of Brechin to 1864 " identifies the saint borne on the 
arms of the town as St. Ninian. 

The seal also of a 14th century Official of the 
diocese bore the head of a mitred Bishop, which may 
possibly be mtended to represent the same saint. 


(3) The irms at present in use, " Or. three piles in -pointy 

gules." These were originally, as we have already 

seen, the arms of Henry de Brechin, son of the Earl 

of Huntingdon, and in the course of time they have 

come to be borne by the diocese and town of Brechin. 

In Burke's "Armory" they are given in addition to 

his blazon of the Trinity ; and m the description of 

the town arms in the Gumming MS. these bearings 

are borne on an escutcheon in the base of the shield. 

I'hey aie also found on various churches of the 

diocese ; for instance, they are carved on the west side 

of the old church tower at Dundee : and over the 

window in the remains of the ancient church of Mains 

in Forfarshire there is a sculptured fragment, repre 

seating the Annunciation, and. below a pot of lilies, 

is a shield bearing two piles in point (the third pile 

has been lost). 

Now, how are we to reconcile these three different 

armorial bearings? First as regards (2), St. Ninian had no 

connection with Brechin, and it is difficult to guess why he 

should have been depicted as the armorial bearings of the 

town and diocese. Probably the episcopal figure referred 

to on the seals of the post-reformation Bishops is not to be 

regarded as anything more than the conventional figure borne 

universally by the earliest Bishops, whose seals have come 

down to us, and need not be identified at all. 

As regards (3), we may gain some light from the 
cathedral which was dedicated to the Holy Trinity. In the 
majority of the Scottish sees the diocesan arms are derived 
from the patron of the cathedral, either in the shape of an 
effigy of the saint himself, or as a pictorial representation of 
one of his miracles ; we have already seen that the practically 
universal device borne on the seals of the mediaeval Bishops 
of Brechin was a pictorial representation of the Holy 


Bearing these two facts in mind, we may now try to 
determine the significance of the charge, three piles in point. 
The piles imve been supposed to represent passion nails; 
but there seems, to be no good reason for this explanation of 
the charge. The nails could hardly have altered so much 
from their original shape, as we may see them depicted on 
the arms of the diocese of Dunkeld : so we must look for 
another explanuion of the three piles in point. 

Mow '' three," when we remember the dedication of the 
cathedral suggests the Trinity, and " In point," the three 
all meeting and converging in one, again is suggestive of the 
Trinity. Loid Bute has put forward the theory that these 
three piles in point are a heraldic translation of the actual 
picture which was borne on the seals of the Bishops and 
others in earlier times. He takes the three piles to be three 
broadening rays of light proceeding from one point, and this 
explanation has much to support it. It connects the charge 
with the prevailing device on the seals of the Bishops, and 
also with the dedication of the cathedral. The arms were 
first assumed by David, Earl of Huntingdon, who was born 
in 1 143, and the cathedral of Brechin was founded in 11 50, 
but. as Lord Bute points out, " We have not sufficient 
knowledge to enable us to suggest either that the dedication 
was derived fiom them, or that they were taken from the 
dedication." (The arms of the Royal and Parliamentary 
Burghs of Scotland.) In either case, the probabilities are 
that theie was some connection between the cathedral of 
Brechin and the arms of the Lordship, which were afterwards 
assumed by the town and diocese, and that they represent 
heraldically the Holy Trinity, which reverence forbids men 
to depict in any but a symbolic manner.* 

We may repeat the blazon of the arms thus : — " Or, three 

Piles in faint, gules." 

* It is not intended that the reader should understand that 
the not uncommon charge of " three piles in point" always or 
even generally refers to the Trinity : but that in this case the 
charge may have had some relationship to the Dedication of 
Brechin Cathedral. 



Of the many interesting- armorial bearings of Scotland, 
there are none better known than those of the city and 
diocese of Glasgow. 

This is the tree that Dcver grew, 
This is the bird that never flew. 
This is the fish that never swam, 
And this is the bell that never rang. 

So runs one version of the rhyme, the popularity of which 
indicates the general interest taken in these arms even by 
people who, as a rule, pay no attention to the science of 

The origin of these arms has been the subject of much 
discussion, and their derivation has been found in different 
sources. The arms were not recorded till the year 1866 by 
the Town Council of Glasgow, though they had been in 
use for a long time previously. The arms as used by the 
diocese of Glasgow were never registered, and are identical 
with those of the city : they are, however, not to be 
regarded as having been "borrowed" from the c>ty, as 
was done in the case of the sees of Aberdeen and Moray ; 
in Glasgow the contrary was the case, as it was the city 
which derived its arms from devices Dorne on the seals of 
the mediaeval Bishops. 

Of the different interpretations which have been given 
to the arms, we may mention four : — 


(i) That offered by Dr Eyre, late Roman Catholic 
Archbishop of Glasgow. He suggests that the 
four emblems, the fish, the tree, the bird, and the 
bell, are used in allusion to St. Kentigern and his 
work. The fish is symbolic of the office to which 
he, like the Apostles, was called, to become a fisher 
of men, the ring in its mouth being the usual symbol 
of immortality. The tree refers to the church of 
Kentigern, which grew from small beginnings to 
great dimensions, like the mustard seed in the 
Parable ; and the redbreast is representative of the 
birds of the air which should come and lodge in the 
branches. The bell is an allusion to the world- 
wide fame of the saint, " Yes, verily, their sound 
went unto all the earth, and their words unto the 
ends of the world." 

(2) Cleland in his " Annals " (1828), appendix, quoted 
in the " Book of Glasgow Cathedral," gives the 
following explanation : — "' The tree is emblematical 
of the spreading of the Gospel, its leaves being 
represented as for the healing of the nations. The 
bird is also typical of that glorious event, so beau- 
tifully described under the similitude of the winter 
being past, and the rain over and gone, and the 
time of the singing of birds being come. Bells 
for calling the faithful to prayers were considered 
so important in matters of religion, that the rite of 
consecration was conferred on them by the digni- 
taries of the Roman Church. As to the salmon, 
it may refer to a tradition .... of St. Mungo 
(this will be referred to later), in the year 600 : or 
it may have reference to the staple trade of the 
town, which was fishing and curing salmon from a 
very early period " 

(3) Dr Arthur Johnstoun in 1642 published an epigram 


relating- to the arms of the city of Glasgow, 
*' Insignia Civitatis Glasguae " : this was translated 
forty years later by John Barclay, Minister of 
Cruden, and published at Aberdeen : — 

The Salmon which a Fish is of the Sea, 

The Oak which springs from Earth, that loftie Tree, 

The Bird on it, which in the Air doth flee, 

Glasgow, does presage all things to thee. 

To which the Sea or Air or Fertile Earth 

Do either give their Nourishment or Birth. 

The Bell that doth to Public Worship call 

Sayes Heaven will give most lasting things of all. 

The Ring the token of the Marriage is 

Of things in Hcav'n and Earth both thee to bless. 

These three explanations rest on no evidence, but are 
based on conjecture. The fourth interpretation has the 
support of tradition, as well as of the devices on the seals 
of the mediaeval Bishops : — 

(4) According- to tradition, the armorial bearings of 
Glasgow are derived from incidents in the life of 
St. Kentigern or Mungo, the Founder and first 
Bishop of the ancient see. 

Kentigern, as is well known, was the illegitimate 
son of the Christian Thenew (Enoch), a Pictish 
Princess whose home was at Traprain in the district 
no\v known as East Lothian. According to the 
tribal custom, as a punishment for inchastity, she 
was set adrift in an open boat at Aberlady, and is 
said to have been carried by the tides and winds 
outside the May Island, and then up the Forth to 
the shore of Culross, where the mother and the 
newly-born child were taken under the protection 
of St. Serf. The child received the name of Kenti- 
gern (? Chief Lord), and grew up under the care of 
St. Serf, to whom he so endeared himself that he 


gave him the name of Mungo or Dear One. It was 
at this period of his life that he worked the miracles 
connected with the bird and the tree. The bird 
was a pet robin of St. Serf; the legend, as related 
in Joceline's Life of St. Kentigern, tells how in the 
absence of St. Serf in church, his pupils were play- 
ing with the bird, and in the struggle as to who 
should have it, unfortunately pulled its head off : 
they then laid the blame on Kentigern, who at once 
restored it to life by prayer and the sign of the cross. 
The tree was originally a branch of hazel : the boys 
in St. Serf's school were responsible, each one for 
a week at a time, for keeping in order the fire from 
which the church lights were kindled. Kentigern's 
enemies maliciously extinguished the fire, when he 
was in charge, but he rekindled it with a branch of 
hazel which miraculously burst into flame. — This 
was, in more ways than one, a miraculous branch, 
as it has since grown not only into a tree, but into 
an oak tree, under which guise it is recorded in the 
Lyon office for the City of Glasgow. 

While still a young man, Kentigern came to 
Cathures, the modern Glasgow, and began to preach 
the Gospel beside the Molendinar Burn, where, 
according to tradition, St. Ninian had consecrated 
a cemetery, and he was chosen as Bishop by the 
Prince of Strathclyde. Later in life, he was forced 
by the Pagan party to flee the country ; he went to 
Wales, where he spent some years with St, David, 
and is said to have founded the diocese of St. Asaph. 
He at last returned to his old diocese of Strathclyde, 
and in this later period he worked the miracle which 
has left its record in the salmon and ring on the 
shield of arms of Glasgow. Queen Langueth, of 
Cadzow, having a young- lover at the court, gave 


him a ring- which had been a gift to her from her 
husband. The king, hearing of this, managed, 
when the young man was asleep, to draw the ring 
from his finger, and threw it into the Clyde. He 
then returned home, and asked his wife to show 
him the ring. Of course she was unable to produce 
it, and the king gave her three days in which to find 
it. The queen, in despair, sent a messenger with 
an urgent entreaty for help to St. Mungo, who 
bade him throw a line and hook into the river : he 
did so, and caught a salmon, in which was found 
the queen's ring. When the king again demanded 
to see the ring, it was duly produced, and his sus- 
picions were set at rest. The queen is said to have 
amended her life at the exhortations of the saint. 
He died about the year 600, and probably his body 
still rests under the cathedral at Glasgow which 
bears his name. 

The bell is supposed to represent that of St. 
Kentigern, which, according to a not very reliable 
tradition, had been a gift from the Pope. He is 
said to have hung it on a tree beside the Molendinar 
Burn, and to have used it at service time. In any 
case, bells of a quadrangular shape figure largely 
among Celtic ecclesiastical antiquities : we shall hear 
of another bell in connection with St. Moluag of 
Lismore. After the Reformation St. Mungo's bell 
fell into the hands of two citizens, who on November 
19th, 1577, sold it to the Town Council. ;^io was 
paid for the bell, and there is a record of the Council, 
" Andro (Laing) to be maid burges gratis ... for 
ye said caus of ye bell." It was used by the city 
bellringer as late as 1661, but is now lost. 
I have already noted that the first three explanations 
rest on nothing more substantial than conjecture, but the 


traditional derivation — and the fact that it rests on populai 
tradition, in a case of this sort is an argument in favour 
of its correctness — is supported by the devices on the 
seals of the mediccval Bishops. 

Many of these seals survive, and twelve of them bear 
the device of the salmon and the ring. John de Lindesay, 
consecrated 1323, bore the redbreast as well as the 
salmon. The chapter seal (1321) and the seal of the 
Official of the diocese (1523) both bore the bell. 

The most interesting from our point of view of the 
series of Bishops' seals, are two of Robert Wischard, 
consecrated 1273. 

The first is an early seal, and represents St. Mungo in 
the act of benediction : on the dexter side is a bird on a 
branch ; on the sinister, a salmon holding a ring. Here 
we have the earliest representation of the " tree." 

The other seal (13 15) is divided horizontally into three 
parts. The upper compartment shows a monk kneeling 
and presenting a fish with a ring to St, Mungo, who is 
sitting. In the middle division there are two niches : in 
the dexter, a figure holding a sword in the right hand : 
in the sinister, a female figure holding a ring. In the 
lower portion of the seal a Bishop is depicted kneel- 
ing. The inscription reads : rex.furit. hec.plorat. 
PATET.AURUM. DUM.SACER.oRAT. This is almost certainly 
a pictorial representation of the legend of St. Mungo and 
the Queen of Cadzow's ring, and goes far to establish 
what may be called the " Kentigern theory " as to the 
derivation of the salmon and ring. The inscription may 
be translated, " The king is furious; she is weeping; while 
the saint prays, the golden ornament appears." 

There has also survived a third seal of this Bishop, 
with a representation of the bird and salmon. 

Then in mediaeval times, the " tree," the bird, and 
the salmon were all used on the seals of the Bishops of the 


diocese, the prevailing- device on the main part of the seal 
being, as might be expected, the patron saint himself; 
and the bell was used, together with the other three 
emblems, on the seal ad causas of the cathedral chapter, 
which was used from 1488- 1540. 

In pre-reformation times, then, the four emblems of 
St. Kentigern, the branch, the bird, the salmon, and the 
bell, are all found as devices on the seals of the Bishops 
and other ecclesiastical officials and communities. But 
it was not till after the Reformation that they came to be 
used in a heraldic manner : and the arrangement of the 
emblems as a heraldic charge was the work, not of the 
bishops of the diocese, but of the town authorities. 

In the middle ages Glasgow was a Bishop's Burgh : 
the Provost was nominated by the Bishop, who also selected 
the Bailies from a list submitted to him by the Town Coun- 
cil. It was not till the eve of the reformation that Glasgow 
became an independent town. 

We find, then, that the common seal of the town was 
derived from those of the Bishop and bore the four emblems 
arranged round the head of St. Kentigern, which occupied 
the centre of the round seal. This common seal was in 
use in 1325 and was still used as late as 1647. In that 
year (August 28th) a new seal appears bearing a variation 
of the arms now in use. This was not, however, the first 
appearance of the arms of Glasgow. In 1592 a shield was 
carved in the wall over the entrance of the Tron Church. 
This bore the device of a tree growing out of a salmon : a 
bird on the branches, and a bell hangings detached on the 
dexter side of the shield. The tree is eradicated, that is 
to say, the mount in the base of the shield is not yet there, 
and the bell is on the wrong-, i.e. the dexter, side. This 
variation was placed on the old Grammar School in 1601 ; 
in Lauder's Chapter House in the Cathedral is a fragment 
bearing the same device ; and it was also found on a stair 


in the inner quadrangle of the old College, which was not 
older than 1631. 

On a bell made in Holland for the Tron steeple in 
163 1, is a shield of arms the design for which was sent 
from Glasgow to Holland, and on this shield the tree is 
shown for the first time growing from a mount in the base 
of the shield. 

There are other examples of the arms of Glasgow used 
by the city authorities in the 17th century, but enough 
have been noticed to show the development of the shield. 

We may now return to the ecclesiastical use of the arms. 
The earliest example is contained in a very interesting seal 
belonging to the Chapter of the Cathedral. The device on 
the seal is a church (? the Cathedral). In the open door 
is a tree growing, together with the salmon and bell : 
probably the redbreast was also there, but it cannot now 
be made out. 

This seal was given to the Chapter by William Ander- 
son, Provost of the city from 1664-1670. Thus while the 
four emblems of St. Kentigern were derived by the town 
from the diocese, it was the Provost of the town who gave 
them back to the diocese in the form of armorial bearings. 
Two post-reformation Archbishops have left seals of 
heraldic interest : — 

(i) Alexander Cairncross, 1684-1687, bore on his seal 
a shield, parted per pale : dexter, the assumed arms 
of the see : sinister, his paternal arms. In the 
diocesan arms there is no mount, the tree being 
'* eradicated " and the bell is detached. 
(2) John Paterson, Dean of Edinburgh, the last Arch- 
bishop of Glasgow, has left a round seal, which 
shows us another variation of the arms as usually 
borne : the seal bears a shield parted per pale : 
dexter, the arms very much as at present in use ; 
but the arrangfement of the emblems is reversed : 


the bird and the salmon look to the sinister, and the 
bell hangs from the tree on the dexter side. There 
is also a chief charged with the demi-figure of St. 
Mungo : sinister, his paternal arms. The demi- 
figure of the Saint is not unlike the bust of St. 
Mungo at present used as the crest of the city. 
(Andrew Fairfoul, 1661-1663, bore on his seal an 
ingenious device, viz., the Glasgow tree, among the 
branches of which was a shield bearing three fowls, his 
paternal arms, a kind of combination of official and 
personal arms.) 

Both in mediaeval and post-reformation times, then, 
we find devices used with reference to the traditional 
founder of the see and his miracles : and these devices in 
process of time developed into the present shield of arms. 

As regards blazoning the arms, their origin should be 
kept in mind, and the tree should be blazoned as " Jiazel,^' 
instead of the " oak " recorded by the Town Council. 
And, though the bell in the arms of the city is blazoned 
in the Lyon Register, as "in the sinister fess point," 
i.e., not hanging from the tree, but detached, it would 
perhaps be more appropriate to attach the bell to the 
sinister side of the tree, in allusion to the practice of St. 
Mungo beside the Molendinar Burn, mentioned above. 
By so blazoning the arms of the diocese, we would avoid 
a slavish copy of the city armorial bearings, and as diocesan 
arms they would gain in significance from the allusion to 
the first Bishop. 

The arms then may be blazoned thus : — 
" Argent, on a mount in base vert, a hazel tree ; pendent from a 
bough thereof on the sinister side an old quadrangular church bell; 
on the top of the tree a red -breast ; upon the stem at the base a 
salmon fessways on its back, holding in its mouth a signet ring, all 



The name of St. Ninian, the earliest known Scottish 
Bishop, must always be connected with the diocese of 
Galloway. He was the first Bishop of the ancient see : the 
cathedral was dedicated to him and St. Martin of Tours : 
his effigy is represented on the diocesan arms as recorded 
in the Lyon Register in the 17th century by Bishop John 
Paterson, son of the Bishop of Ross, who recorded the 
arms of that diocese. 

The facts of the life of St. Ninian axe very well known, 
but may be briefly set down. He was born at Witherne in 
Galioway in the fourth century ; as a young man he went 
to Rome, where he spent several years, and was consecrated 
by the Bishop of Rome for the Western parts of Britain. 
On his way home he visited St. JNlartin at Tours, and from 
him he borrowed masons, who might build for him a church 
after the Roman manner. He chose Witherne in Galloway 
as the site of his church, and there he built what was reputed 
to be the first church constructed of stone in Britain. The 
building must have been in progress in the year 397, because, 
hearing of the death of St. Martin, which took place in that 
year, Ninian dedicated his church to him. 

Bede's account (contained in Forbes' " Kalendars of 
Scottish Saints") is of interest : — " The southern Picts who 
lived on this side of the mountains, had long before, as is 
reported, forsaken the error of idolatry, and embraced the 


tiuth by the preaching of Nynias, a most reverend Bishop 
and holy man of the British natron who had been regularly 
instructed at Rome in the faith and mysteries of the truth : 
whose episcopal see, named after St. Martin and the Bishop, 
and famous for a stately church (wherein he and many 
other saints rest in the body) is still existent among the 
English notion. The place belongs to the Bernicians, and 
is generally called Candida Casa, because he there built a 
church of stone, which was not usual among the Britons." 

St. Ninian preached the gospel to great multitudes who 
came to be baptized, and it is recorded (by Aelred, a 12th 
century monk of Rievaulx, whose statements, however, are 
not always reliable) that he ordained Priests, consecrated 
Bishops, and divided the whole land " per certas 
parrcchias." He died about the year 432. 

The Bishops who ruled the diocese of Candida Casa, or 
Galloway, during the middle ages, have not left many seals : 
it should be remembered, by the way, that they were subject 
to the English Archbishop of York practically till the close 
of the middle ages. It was not until 1472 that the diocese 
became a part of the Scottish Church, when it was included 
in the province of St. Andrews by the Bull of Pope 
Sixtus IV. Twenty years later it was transferred to the 
province of Glasgow. 

Those seals, however, that have come down to our time, 
bear as the main device an effigy of the tirst Bishop of the 
ancient see. One of them in particular presents a feature 
of special interest; Bishop Thomas Spens, 1449/50-1457 or 
1458, bore on his seal the figure of a Bishop, clearly St. 
Ninian, holding a fetter in his right hand : on each side is a 
niche containing a fetter lock to secure both feet. Now the 
oldest seal of the Burgh of Whithorn has the representation 
of a sainted Bishop seated on what looks like a table or 
bench, and on each side of the Bishop are three links of a 
chain. The later burgh seal represented a saint with a 


chain and fetter lock hanging from his wrist. Laing takes 
this figure to be St. Leonard, no doubt on account of the 
chain, which was the recognised symbol of that saint, who 
was the patron of prisoners and slaves. But it seems 
incredible that the device of the chain and fetter lock used 
on both the burgh seals, and on that of at least one of the 
mediasval Bishops of the diocese, should refer to the foreign 
St. Leonard, who had no connection with the burgh or 
diocese, rather than with Ninian, who was a native of the 
place, and with whom the history both of the see and town 
was closely connected. The figure must be intended to 
represent the patron, and, as Lord Bute suggests, the fetters 
are no doubt allusive to the right of sanctuary possessed by 
the monastery and cathedral of Whithorn. 

The seal of the chapter referred only indirectly to St. 
Nmian : it bote the representation of a building, which was 
probably intended to be the Candida Casa, the successor of 
the famous building of the founder of the see. 

The seals of the post-reformation Bishops bore as a rule 
the paternal arms of their owners, but Bishop Paterson, who 
recorded the arms of the diocese at the Lyon Office, impaled 
those arms, which are at present in use, with his paternal 
arms. Thus both in the mediaeval church and in the 
reformed, we find the figure of the patron saint used as 
the favourite device by the Bishops on their official seals. 

In the shield of arms of the diocese, it would be appro- 
priate and probably more correct, to blazon the links of 
chain, not only because they seem to have had a traditional 
connection with St. Ninian, but for the sake of their historical 
significance, as preserving the memory of one of the privileges 
enjoyed by the ancient cathedral of the diocese. 

The arms are blazoned thus: — ''Argent, St. hUnian 
standing and full-faced proper, clothed with a pontifical 
robe proper, mitred and holding a crosier, or.'^ 



The arms of the diocese of Argyll first appear, as far 
as we know, on the seal of Bishop Arthur Ross, who governed 
the see from 1675-1679. His seal, which was round in 
shape, bore a shield parted per pale : dexter, two crosiers 
endorsed saltirewise, in chief a mitre : sinister, the paternal 
arms of Ross. These diocesan arms he recorded in the 
Lyon Register. 

There are two possible explanations of this shield of 
arms : 

(i) The diocese of Argyll or Lismore was probably 
founded about the year 1200 : it was not mentioned 
in the list of Scottish sees in the Bull of Pope Inno- 
cent III., who was crowned 1 197-8. St. John Scot, 
Bishop of Dunkeld, whose jurisdiction extended to 
the extreme west of the country, is said to ha\-e asked 
the Pope to separate the western part of his diocese, 
as he, being an Englishman, did not understand the 
language of the people. The diocese of Argyll was 
therefore formed out of the parent see of Dunkeld, 
and Bishop John's Chaplain, Haraldus, became first 
Bishop about the year 1200. Walcot suggests that 
the second crosier in the shield of the arms of the 
diocese is allusive to the parent see of Dunkeld. 
(2) The arms may be derived from the famous crosier 


of St. Moluag or Molocus, which is still in existence, 

in the possession of the Duke of Argyll. Moluag, 

according to the legend, was a Scot who was brought 

up by Brandan, a famous saint, celebrated, among 

other thing-s, for being the father or Abbat of 3000 

monks. St. Moluag early showed great piety, for 

when his fellow-disciples built houses for themselves. 

he built churches and altars for God. This saint was 

held in great honour during the middle ages, as the 

founder and first Bishop of the early see of Lismore, 

a little island in Loch Linnhe, where in later times the 

cathedral of the diocese of Argyll was built. There 

are strong grounds for supposing that another relic 

of this saint, in addition to his crosier, is still in 

existence, namely, his bell. According to Bishop 

Dowden (The Celtic Church in Scotland), the 

Kilmichael Glassary Bell with its twelfth century 

shrine, now in the National Museum of Antiquities 

in Edinburgh, is probably none other than the bell 

of St. Moluag which was famed throughout the middle 

ages. St. Moluag is said to have retired from Lismore 

to Ross, where he became associated with St. 

Boniface, and was buried in the cathedral of 


St. Moluag then, being reverenced in the mediaeval 

diocese as the reputed founder of the ancient see, and as 

the patron of the cathedral church at Lismore, it is not 

surprising to find that a representation of a sainted Bishop 

(i.e., with a halo) is the prevailing device on the seals of 

the mediaeval Bishops : and it is not difficult to identify the 

figure with the patron. 

The early Bishops of every see in Scotland bore on theii 
seals the device of a Bishop in the act of benediction, but 
as time went on, some device, allusive as a rule to the 
dedication of the cathedral or to the patron of the diocese* 


became the general custom. But in the diocese of Argyll, 
as in the dioceses of Glasgow and Galloway, the patrons of 
the cathedrals and sees were bishops ; so an Episcopal figure 
remains the prevailing device in these sees throughout the 
middle ages, while generally the owner of the seal is repre- 
sented in an attitude of adoration in the base of the seal. 
In the case of Argyll the sainted Bishop, whom we may 
assume to be St. jNloluag, appears on the seal or on one of 
the seals of every medieval Bishop whose seals have come 
down to us. The first is that of Bishop Alan ; there is 
represented St. Moluag- ; and in the base, the Bishop 
adoring his patron. Later Bishops also bore their paternal 

From an examination of the seals of the mediaeval 
Bishops, then, the weight of such evidence as there is, is 
rather in favour of the second interpretation of the shield 
of arms, namely, that the crosiers are borne in allusion to 
the famous old crosier of the saint who, according to 
tradition, had so close a connection with the diocese. But 
the evidence, it must be admitted, is so meagre, that it is 
much more probable, when we remember that in 1675 the 
palmy days of the science of heraldry were past, that the 
arms assumed for the see are merely of a conventional nature. 
However this may be, the choice of crosiers as the heraldic 
bearings of the diocese was in this case a happy coincidence. 

The arms are blazoned thus : — "Azure, two crosiers in 
saltire and in chief a mitre, or." 


The Isles. 

In the nineteenth century the Lyon King of Arms 
granted armorial bearings to the newly-founded college of 
Cumbrae. And this shield bore as its first and fourth 
quarterings the arms which had been previously assumed 
for the diocese of the Isles. The shield of the see repre- 
sents St. Columba, the patron of the diocese and of the 
Monastery at lona, in a coracle holding in his left hand a 
dove, and looking towards a blazing star. The story of St. 
Columba, his mission to the Picts, and his foundation of 
the monastery at lona, are so well known that there is no 
need to relate them here : suffice it to say that we shall 
find reference to the saint and his work in the seals of 
mediaeval Bishops of Sodor or The Isles, and more 
especially in those of the post-reformation Bishops. 

Of the seals of the pre-reformation Bishops, only very 
few have survived, two of them of early date. On these 
two seals, which belonged to Bishop Richard (consecrated 
in 1252-3 by the Archbishop of Trondhjem, to which metro- 
politan the see of the Isles was then subject), and Bishop 
Mark, his successor, there appears the device of a Bishop. 
This figure may possibly have been intended to represent 
the Abbat Columba. John Campbell, provided to the 
bishopric in 1486-7, bore on his seal a figure of St. Columba, 
which can be identified beyond doubt by the nimbus and by 


the dove which he is holding- : in the base of the seal is a 
shield bearing- the Bishop's paternal arms. 

There is one interesting indication of the existence of a 
diocesan badge or emblem. On the famous heraldic ceiling- 
of the cathedral of Aberdeen there are depicted the paternal 
arms of the Bishops who occupied the Scottish sees in 1520. 
In that year the diocese of The Isles was vacant ; and 
instead of leaving the shield which was intended to bear 
the arms of the B'shop of that see blank, or omitting it 
altogether, there was carved on it as a charge a dove 
displayed, a play on the name Columba. Though this 
cannot, of course, be regarded as a diocesan shield of arms, 
it may be recognised as an example of the use of a symbol 
of St. Columba as the badge of the see during a vacancy. 

Three post-reformation Bishops have left seals showing 
different versions of the device borne on the arms of the 
diocese at the present time : so we have, with the modern 
arms three variations : — • 

(i) The seal of Bishop Andrew Knox, 1605. On it is 
shown St. Columba in an open boat, holding in his 
left hand a book. This is no doubt an allusion to 
the book of the Gospels, the translating of which, 
according to tradition, was the cause of his exile 
from his home in Ireland. 
(2) The seals of Bishop Nigel Campbell, 1634, and 
Bishop Robert Wallace, 1661, show a figure of 
St. Columba in a boat, rowed by three men : 
this probably is a representation of the follow- 
ing incident : — " On one occasion, while St. 
Columba was at sea, a tempest came on, and the 
waves dashed over the ship. He was helping the 
sailors to bale out the water. ' What you do now,* 
they cried, ' can be of little use. Pray for us rather, 
else we perish.' He ceased from his work, and 
standing on the prow, stretched out his hands to 


heaven, and prayed fervently. That same hour 
the storm abated." (Grub.) 
(3) The arms at present in use. They are probably a 
representation of the same incident as that depicted 
in (2), thoug-h the sailors have been omitted. But 
Baring- Gould connects the shield with the see of 
Man, and identifies the saint with St. Mauchold, 
and the leg-end that he committed himself to the 
waves to find a sphere of mission work under the 
g^uidance of God. 
But in spite of variations, the main desig^n of the three 
devices is practically the same, St. Columba in an open 
boat ; for the history of the development of the arms points 
to the correctness of the Columba-interpretation as ag-ainst 
the theory of Baring Gould. I think that there can be no 
doubt that the arms, as at present used, are a representa- 
tion of an incident in the life of the patron of the see. 

They are blazoned in the Lyon Register as the first and 
fourth quarters of the arms of the Colleg^e of the Holy 
Spirit, Cumbrae, thus: — ''^ Azure, St. Columba in a boat at 
sea, in his sinisitr hand a dove, and m the dexter chief a 
blazing star, all -pro-per.^^ 



Marshalling is the arrangement of different Coats of 
Arms on one shield. Arms may be thus grouped to indicate 
marriage, office, or the union of territories, nations, or 

In cases of personal arms there are many possible com- 
binations and in consequence many rules to be observed, 
but we have only to deal with : — 

(i) Diocesan arms combined with the paternal arms of 
the Bishop. 

(2) Arms of dioceses which have been united to meet 
the needs of the Church. 

Official arms are impaled with the paternal arms of the 
holder of the office. (When arms are impaled, the shield 
is divided into two equal parts perpendicularly, and the 
two coats are placed in their entirety, one in either half.) 
The official arms as the more honourable occupy the dexter 
side. In the middle ages official arms were practically 
unknown in Scotland, and Diocesan arms were not used 
until after the Reformation, when the custom was bor- 
rowed from England. It then became the custom of the 
Scottish Bishops to impale their family arms with those 
of their sees, as did the English Bishops. It is true that 
the custom of impaling paternal with official arms has 
never become general in Scotland, but in view of the fact 
that the custom of impaling the arms of the Bishop with 


those of the see is as old as the practice of bearing diocesan 
arms, there is much to be said for the continuance of the 

As regards the grouping- of diocesan arms, it must be 
remembered that these are not personal, but fall into the 
category of Arms of Dominion, or of Inferior Dominion. 
Different methods have been employed : — 

(i) Impalement: the meaning of this term has already 
been explained. It is usually associated with marriage, 
when the husband impales the arms of his wife with his 
own, or with arins of office, but there are also a few cases 
on record where the impaled arms indicate unions of fiefs 
or dominions. Stevenson (Heraldry in Scotland) cites the 
case of Lord Ruthven and Dirleton who in 1550 and 1560 
inherited the honours of both his father and his mother, 
and afterwards used a seal with his father's and mother's 
arms per pale. This may possibly be an example of im- 
paled arms alluding to the union of two fiefs as by marriage. 
There is also the case of the Royal arms used by Queen 
Anne, in the first and fourth quarters of which are dis- 
played the arms of France and England parted per pale. 
This is the customary manner in which are combined 
the arms of the united dioceses of Aberdeen and Orkney, 
Glasgow and Galloway, and Argyll and The Isles. It was 
by impalement, too, that the arms of the Dioceses of 
Gloucester and Bristol were combined during the union 
of those sees in the 19th century. But in view of the scanty 
precedents it is doubtful whether this is the best method 
to be adopted. 

(2) The more usual method of grouping Arms of 
Dominion was quartering, that is, dividing the shield into 
four parts per cross, or into a larger number of " quarters," 
for the term " Quarter " in heraldry is not confined to the 
fourth part of the whole. 

The ancient arms of the English Kings were , quarterly, 


France and England, indicating the royal claim to dominion 
over the two countries. 

The modern Royal Arms of Great Britain and Ireland, 
though they are the personal arms of the Sovereign, inas- 
much as no subject may lawfully display them or make use 
of them, are in reality Arms of Dominion, which are borne 
by the King in virtue of his office in place of the Arms of 
Saxe Coburg Gotha, which are his family arms in accord- 
ance with the laws of heraldry. 

Now here we have two examples of Arms of Dominion, 
the one indicating the (theoretical) union of two kingdoms, 
and the other the union of three. In both cases the com- 
bined arms are borne quarterly. 

This method has distinct advantage over the present 
haphazard methods of grouping the arms of united 
dioceses, not only as being more in accordance with prece- 
dent, but also as affording a system by which the arms of 
two or of three dioceses can be grouped in a uniform 

At the present time there are in Scotland three groups 
of two, and two groups of three, united dioceses. The 
former consist of Aberdeen and Orkney, Glasgow and Gal- 
loway, and Argyll and The Isles, the latter of St. Andrews, 
Dunkeld and Dunblane, and Moray, Ross and Caithness. 
The manner in which the arms of the former groups are 
marshalled has been on the whole uniform, namely, by im- 
palement, but there has been much diversity of use in the 
case of the latter. The correct method of arranging the 
arms of both the united dioceses is that commonly followed 
in the Diocese of St, Andrews, Dunkeld, and Dunblane, 
where the arms of St. Andrews occupy the first and fourth 
quarters, Dunkeld the second, and Dunblane the third. 
(Strictly speaking, on the analogy of the Royal arms, in 
the Diocese of Dunkeld the arms of that see should be 
placed in the first and fourth quarters, and the arms of 


Dunblane should be similarly arranged, when the arms 
are used in connection with that diocese.) 

But there are variations in use : for instance, St. 
Andrews is sometimes made to occupy the whole of the 
dexter half of the shield, while the sinister side is divided 
horizontally between Dunkeld and Dunblane. If this 
arrangement means anything-, It means that St. Andrews 
once married Dunkeld, who unfortunately died, and St. 
Andrews consoled himself with Dunblane. Another rather 
unsatisfactory arrangement of the arms of this united 
diocese is that used on the Bishop Wilkinson memorial in 
St. Ninian's Cathedral at Perth. There the shield is 
divided per pale and chevron; i.e., a perpendicular line is 
dropped from the middle of the top to the central point of 
the shield : from this point two lines are drawn to the 
lower parts of the sides of the shield in the form of a 
chevron, dividing the shield into three more or less equal 
compartments. In these are displayed the coats of arms 
of the three dioceses. This is a method almost unknown 
to British Heraldry, though it is not uncommon on the 
Continent. It occurs, for instance, in German Heraldry 
in the arms of Hanover, where the shield is " tierced in 
pairle reversed, ^^ the three compartments being occupied 
by the arms of Brunswick, Luneburg, and Westphalia. 

The arrangement at present in use of the arms of the 
Diocese of Moray, Ross, and Caithness is even more un- 
satisfactory. The shield is divided per pah, dexter the 
arms of Moray, sinister those of Ross, while the coat of 
Caithness occupies the whole base of the shield, an 
arrangement which appears to be based on no law of 

If, then, the arms of the united dioceses are to be 
grouped on shields, the most satisfactory and probably the 
most correct course would be to adopt the uniform method 
of quartering. 


There is, however, one fact which should not be left 
out of account. In the case of families and states where 
different coats of arms have been quartered on the same 
shield, it has been done in view of the fact that the union, 
which the coat of arms was to indicate, was intended to be 
a lasting- one. Now in the case of the Church, this 
intention does not exist : the combination of dioceses 
which exists at present is not permanent ; the arrangement 
of the dioceses has been altered from time to time in the 
past, and no doubt will undergo more changes in the 
future to meet the varying needs of the Church ; in fact, 
the whole system of united dioceses is a temporary ex- 
pedient born of the present numerical weakness of the 
Church. Keeping this fact in view, it might be well to 
adopt what was perhaps the oldest method of marshalling 
arms, that is by placing the two or the three shields side 
by side, and not grouping them on one shield. Shields 
so arranged are said to be accolce. This system would 
emphasize the fact that each of the ancient dioceses is still 
a separate entity, though perhaps combined with others as 
a temporary expedient, framed to meet the Church's 
present needs. The Bishop's paternal arms would then be 
impaled with each of his diocesan coats. 

Note. — It should be borne in mind that from the legal 
point of view there is no question of marshalling the arms 
of the Scottish Bishoprics. In no united diocese of the 
Episcopal Church are both or all three coats registered at 
the Lyon office, and, whether the Church has a right to 
bear the registered coats or not, the use of those which 
have never been matriculated is certainly illegal. 


The Legal Question. 

In discussing the legal right of the Episcopal Church 
to bear Arms, there are two distinct questions to be 
answered : — 

(i) The question of general principle. Is a diocese 
in a Presbyterian country so far recognized as to be 
able to claim the privilege of bearing arms? 

(2) Is the disestablished Church in Scotland entitled to 
continue the use of the five particular coats of arms 
which were recorded at the Lyon office during the 
period of its legal establishment? 

In the first question is involved the further question, 
to whom do we assume these arms to belong? are they the 
official arms of the Bishop himself, or are they the arms of 
the diocese as a corporate body? 

Official arms are few and far between in Scottish 
Heraldry : the Lyon King of Arms was granted arms in 
virtue of his office : so was the Master of the Revels in 
Scotland ; but with one or two exceptions the use of official 
arms was almost unknown in this country. It has already 
been shown that during the middle ages Bishops as a 
general custom used their paternal arms with external 
additions indicative of their office, such as Mitre and 
Crozier : and such is still the general rule in Scottish 
Heraldry with respect to the arms of those who hold high 


But, on the other hand, the mediaeval Bishops occa- 
sionally bore on their seals arms indicating the territory 
in which their diocese lay : in other words, such arms had 
reference rather to the Bishop's sphere of jurisdiction than 
to his Episcopal office. And it was on these lines that the 
Episcopal Heraldry of Scotland developed. The armorial 
bearings of many dioceses are identical with those of the 
city from which the diocese derives its name, or where its 
cathedral was situated. The arms of St. Andrews, Aber- 
deen, Moray, Ross, Brechin, Glasgow, Galloway, are all 
in a greater or less degree derived from those of their 
cathedral cities. This would seem to indicate that the 
arms were intended to be diocesan rather than merely the 
official insignia of the Bishop. 

If this is the case, there is not much further difficulty. 
Corporate bodies, it is generally conceded, have the right 
to record and bear arms, or to receive a grant of arms from 
the Lyon King. The Lyon Register contains records of the 
arms of burghs, universities, banks, merchant companies, 
schools, etc., and among the records of arms granted to 
colleges are those of the College of the Holy Spirit at 
Cumbrae. Now these arms granted by the Lyon King in 
recent times have a double significance : not only was it a 
grant of arms made to a college which has no connection 
with the State, but as has already been noted (chap, xvii), 
the first and fourth quarters consist of the armorial insignia 
borne of custom by the diocese of the Isles. This seems 
to be a recognition on the part of the highest heraldic 
authority in Scotland of the general principle that a dis- 
established Church has a right to bear arms, and that a 
diocese as such is under no disability in this respect. 

But while there is little doubt that there are at least 
reasonable grounds for assuming that a diocese has a 
right to arms, yet it must be remembered that under the 
law of 1672 the assumption of arms, except under the 


authority of the Lyon Court, is forbidden under severe 
penalties. Of the fourteen dioceses in Scotland, the arms 
of only five — St. Andrews, Edinburgh, Ross, Galloway and 
Arg-yll — have been registered in accordance with the law, 
all of them previous to the disestablishment of the Church. 

The interesting- question now arises : is the disestab- 
lished Church entitled to continue the use of those par- 
ticular coats of arms which belonged to it during its legal 
connection with the State? or did the armorial bearings 
share the fate of the dioceses when they were legally 
abolished? or are they the legal property of the present 
establishment, together with the endowments and other 
property of the old undivided Church of Scotland? 

The chief difficulty is the lack of precedent. The case 
of the Church of Ireland affords the nearest parallel, and 
there the practice of bearing diocesan arms has continued 
in spite of the disestablishment. Of course the two 
Churches are not in quite the same position ; in Ireland no 
other Communion was set up by law in the place of the old 
national Church, and therefore no claim can be put forward 
by any other body. 

In Scotland the problem is not so easy of solution, being 
complicated by the existence of the Established Church, 
which succeeded to the rights, privileges and property of 
the ancient Church. But it must not be forgotten that 
diocesan arms came into existence during the periods of the 
reformed Episcopacy ; they were not among the possessions 
of the mediaeval Scottish Church, but in their origin they 
belong purely to the " Episcopal " Church. In any case 
the present Established Church has laid no claim to their 
possession, so in all probability any claim which it might 
have had has lapsed during the past two centuries. 

A recent writer on Scottish Heraldry, referring to this 
question, says : " Who, if anyone, since the Revolution 
Settlement have right to those arms has, so far as we 


know, never been decided " (Stevenson, " Heraldry in 
Scotland," 1914)- In the year following the publication 
of this work, a case was tried in the Lyon Court which, 
though not an exact analogy, has curious points of resem- 
blance to the problem which is under our consideration. 

The history of the case was this : — In 1914 Roderick 
Ambrose Macneil, Chief of the Macneils of Barra, died in 
the United States of America, being still a British citizen, 
leaving two sons. Paul Humphrey Macneil, the elder son, 
in his father's life time renounced his allegiance to the 
British Crown and became an American citizen ; in conse- 
quence of this his father in 191 3 nominated his second son, 
Robert Lister Macneil, the petitioner, to succeed him as 
Chief of the Clan, and assigned to him the arms pertaining 
to the Chief. Robert Lister Macneil therefore petitioned 
the Lyon King to grant him the arms recorded by General 
Roderick Macneil in 1824, which were borne by his (the 
petitioner's father), Roderick Ambrose Macneil. 

In the course of his decision the Lyon King of Arms 
said : — 

" In the present case the Petitioner asks to be 
allowed to record the arms registered in 1824 by the 
undoubted head of his family. General Roderick 
Macneil. If these were allowed him, it follows that 
his elder brother and the senior line in future genera- 
tions would be deprived of arms altogether, i.e., of 
the arms to which they would otherwise be entitled. 
The elder brother is an American citizen and 
cannot therefore take out a new grant of arms for 
himself : but he has a perfect right, if he chooses, to 
matriculate in his own name the arms recorded by his 
kinsman in 1824, as the right to matriculate arms 
is one which depends on descent alone and has 
nothing to do with nationality. 


" It appears to be the g-eneral opinion of writers 

on the subject that a chief has the power of such 

nomination, thoug^h in all probability it was homolo- 

g-ated by the clan in general, or the leading- members 

of it, acting- for the community at larg-e." 

He accordingly granted the Petitioner, i.e., the 

younger son, the arms recorded by General Roderick 

Macncil in 1824, together with supporters (Highland Chiefs 

being entitled to such honourable additaments), biif the 

arms were to he dijfirenced as for a second son. 

The force of this decision was that while the younger 
son was granted the chiefship with all such privileges as 
attach to it on the nomination of his father, the late Chief, 
and in the absence of opposition from the clan, the right of 
the elder brother to the undiminished paternal arms was 
not prejudiced, even though he had become an American 

This decision has a strong bearing on the position of the 
Scottish Episcopal Church. There are several points of 
resemblance between the position of the elder Macneil and 
that of the disestablished Church : — 

(i) The elder brother severs his connection with 
the British State : the Episcopal Church by disestab- 
lishment lost its State relationship. 

(2) The younger son gets the title of Chief with 
such honours and privileges as pertain to it : the Pres- 
byterian Church became the " Established " Church 
of Scotland with the privileges and endowments 
belonging to the position- 

(3) The choice of the younger son by his father 
was homologated by the clan : the establishment of 
the Presbyterian Church was and is approved by the 
majority of the nation. 

(4) But the family arms still belong to the alien 


elder brother and his heirs after him jure sanguinis 
there are therefore strong grounds for assuming that 
the dioceses of the Episcopal Church in Scotland, 
which, though no longer legally connected with the 
State, still exist " in dutiful allegiance to the King," 
enjoy unimpaired their right to their ancient arms. 
To sum up briefly : — 

1. The principle that dioceses as corporate bodies may 
bear arms, even when the Church itself is disestablished, 
appears to have been recognised by the Lyon Court in the 
grant of arms made to the College of the Holy Spirit, 

2. The claim of the dioceses to bear those particular 
arms which were recorded by them before disestablishment 
is supported by the practice of the Church of Ireland ; by 
the fact that the Presbyterian Church has laid no claim to 
them, the practice of bearing arms having arisen in post- 
reformation Episcopal times ; and by the decision of the 
Lord Lyon King of Arms in the petition of the Macneil of 



Aberdeen : Arms of City, 33, 
36; C'athednil Heraldic ceil- 
ing, 10, 34, 70; Chapter Seal, 
85; Kind's Collej^e, ;>"). 

Aberdeen : Anns of Diocese, 
9, 33-36, 86. 

Aberdeen and Orkney, Arms 
of, 80. 

Abernethy, 23, -lo ; Ann.s of, '26. 

Accolee, 83. 

Achievement, 5. 

Alan, Bishop of Argyll, 73. 

Anderson, William, Provost 
of Glasgow, 64. 

Andrew, St., 16; Colours of, 7. 

Anne, Queen, Roval Arms of, 

Annulet, 51. 

Argyll: Arms of Diocese, 8, 9, 
13, 71-73; Foundation of 
Diocese, 71. 

Argyll and the Isles, Arms of, 

Beaton. James, Archbishop of 
Glasgo^v and St. Andrews, 

Bend. 7. 

" Bishop of the Scots," 18, W. 

Blane, St., 27, 28. 

Boke of St. Albans, 2. 

Boniface, St., 45-46, 72. 

Bothwell, Adam, Bishop of 
Orkney, 39. 

Brandan, St.. 72. 

Brechin : Arms of City, 53, 54, 
55; Seal of City, 54; Cathe- 
dral Dedication, 53, 56. 

Brechin: Arms of Diocese. 9, 
12, 13, 53-56, 86. 

Brechin, Henry, Lord of, 53. 

Cairncross, Alexander, Arch- 
bishop of Glasgow, 64. 

Caithness: Arms of Diocese. 
9, 49-52. 

Caithness: Arms of Earldom, 

50, 51. 
Campbell, John, Bishop of the 

Isles, 75. 
Campbell. Nigel, Bishop of 

the Isles, 76. 
Candida Casa, 68. 
Cathuref; (Cila.sgow). (JO. 
Celtic Church, 11. 
Charges. 8, 9. 
Charles I, King, 31, 32. 
Chevion, 7. 
Chief, 7. 
Colours, 6. 

Columba, St., .35, 75, 76, 77. 
Coventre. Walter de. Bishop 

of Dunblane, 27. 
Crest, 10. 
Crichton. George, Bishop of 

Dunkeld. 24. 
Cross, 7. 
Crusades, 3. 
Cumbrae Collece : Grant of 

Arms, 75, 77. 86. 
Cuthbert, St., .32. 

David, St.: 60. 

Diocesan Arms. Adoption of, 

Dornoch Cathedral, 49. 
Douiilas, Gavin. Bishop of 

Dunkeld, 24, 25. 
Douslas, Robert. Bishop of 

Dunblane, 27. 29. 
Drummond. James, Bishop of 

Brechin, 54. 
Duffield, Nicholas, Bishop of 

Dunkeld, 24. 
Dunbar, Gavin, Bishop of 

Aberdeen, .35. 
Dunblane : Xvme. of Diocese. 

9. 14, 27-29; Chapter Seal, 

Dundee: Arms on Church 

Tower, 55. 


Dunkeld: Arms of Diocese, 
9, 23-26; Chapter Seal, 25. 

Edinburgh: Arms of City, 41; 
St. Giles', 31; Chapter Seal, 

Edinburgh: Arms of Diocese, 
9, 12, 13, 31-32. 

Elgin : Burgh Seal, 41 ; Cathe- 
dral, 42; Chapter Seal, 

England, Ancient Arms of, 80. 

Fairfoul, Andrew, Archbishop 
of Glasgow, 65. 

Fess, 7. 

Fortrose Cathedral, 46; Chap- 
ter Seal, 47. 

Fraser, John, Bishop of Ross, 

Fraser, William, Bishop of St. 
Andrews, 18. 

Fulzie, Archdeacon of Orkney, 

Furs, 6. 

Galley or Lymphad, 50, 52. 

Galloway: Arms of Diocese, 
6 note, 9, 13, 67-69, 86. 

Gilbert, St., Bishop of Caith- 
ness, 49-50. 

Giles, St., 32, 41-42. 

Gladstanes, George, Arch- 
bishop of St. Andrews, 20. 

Glasgow: Arms of City, 57, 
as, 64; Burgh Seal. 63; 
Cathedral, 61, 63; Chapter 
Seal, 63, 64. 

Glasgow: Arms of Diocese, 9, 
13, 14, 57-65, 86. 

Glasgow and Galloway, Arms 
of, 8, 80. 

Graham, Patrick, Archbishop 
of St. Andrews, 18. 

Guthrie, .lohn. Bishop of 
Moray, 42. 

Haliburton, George, Bishop of 
Brechin, 54. 

Hamilton, John, Bishop of 

Dunkeld, 24. 
Hanover, Arms of, 82. 
Haraldus, Bishop of Argyll, 

Harold, King of Norway, 37. 
Hat, Ecclesiastical, 9. 
Helmet, 9. 
Honeyman, Andrew, Bishop 

of Orkney, 29. 
Hunter, Abbat, of Melrose, 11. 
Huntingdon, David, Earl of, 


Impalement, 79. 
Innocent III., Pope, 71. 
lona. Monastery at, 75. 
Ireland, Church of, 87. 
Isles: Arms of Diocese, 13, 

Isles, Lord of the. Arms, 50. 
Israel, Tribal Ensigns of, 3. 

John, St., the Scot, 71. 

Kennedy, John, Bishop of St. 

Andrews, 18. 
Kenneth Macalpin, King of 

Scots and Picts. 23. 
Kentigern, St., 58, 59-61, 62. 
Kilmichael Glassary Bell, 72. 
Kilrymont, 17. 
Kirkwall Cathedral, 37, 38; 

Chapter Seal, 29. 
Knox, Andrew, Bishop of the 

Isles, 76. 

Lambrequin or Mantling, 9. 
Landallis, William de. Bishop 

of St. Andrews, 18, 19. 
Lauder, Bishop of Dunkeld, 

Ijawrence, St., 28. 
Lawrence, St., of Canterbury, 

Leighton, Robert, Bishop of 

Dunblane, 9, 28. 
Leonard, St., 69. 
Lindsay, Alexander, Bishop of 

Dunkeld, 25. 


Lindsay, David, Bishop of 

Edinburgh, 31. 
Lindsay, John de, Bishop of 

Glasgow, 62. 
Lisniore, 71 ; Cathedral, 72. 
Locrys (Leuchars), Patrick, 

Bishop of Brechin, 53. 
Lyon King of Arms, 13, 75, 85-. 

Machar, St., 35. 
Macneil, General Roderick, 88. 
Macneil, Robert lister, 88. 
Macneil, Roderick Ambrose of 

Barra, 88. 
Magnus Barefoot, King of 

Norway, 37. 
Magnus, St., 37, 38. 
Mains, Arms in Church at, 55. 
Malcolni Ceaniuore, 17. 
Margaret, St., 17. 
Mark, Bishop of the Isles, 75. 
Marshalling, 79. 
Martin. St., 67. 
Mauchold, St., 77. 
Maxwell, Bishop of Orkney, 

Maxwell, John, Bishop of 

Ross, 47. 
Meldrum, Thomas, 54. 
Metals, 6. 
Mitre, 9. 
Moluag, St., 72. 
Moray : Arms of Diocese, 9, 

41-43, 86. 
Moray: Arms of Province, 42. 
Moray, Ross, and Caithness, 

Arms of, 12, 81, 82. 
Mungo, St., see Kentigern. 
Murray, Thomas, Bishop of 

Caithness, 50. 

Nectan, King of Pictavia, 46. 
Nicholas, St':, 33, .34. 
Nidrie, Thomas, Archdeacon 

of Moray, 9. 
Ninian, St.. 54. 60, 67, 68, 69. 
Nisbet of Dean, 13, 

Orkney : Arms of Diocese, 
9, 37-40. 

Pale, 7. 

Paterson, John, of 

Gla.sgow, 64. 
Paterson, John, Bishop of 

Ross, 45. 
Paterson, Bishop of Galloway, 

Peter, St.. 46, 47, 48; Colours, 

Pile, 56. 
Pilmore. John, Bishop of 

Moray, 42. 
" Pontificals, " 36. 
Prebenda, Robert de. Bishop 

of Dunblane, 27 

Quartering, 80. 

Ramsay. James. Bishop, of 

Dunblane, 27. 
Ramsay, James, Bishop of 

Ross,' 48. 
Recister of the Lord Lyon, 

13, -iO, .31, 33, 4.5, (3.5. 67, 71, 

77, 86. 
Regulus, St., 16. 
Richard, Bishop of the Isles, 

Robert I., Bishop of Ross, 47. 
Robert II., Bishop of Ross, 

47, 48. 
Robert, Bishop of St. And- 
rews, 18. 
Roger, Bishop of Ross, 47. 
Rose, Bishop of Edinburgh, 

Rosemarkie Cathedral. 45, 72. 
Ross: Arms of Diocese, 9, 13, 

Ross: Arms of Province, 47. 
Ross, Arthur. Bishop of 

Argyll. 71. 
Royal Arms. 25. 80-81. 
Ruthven and Dirleton, Seal 

of Lord. 80. 

Official Arms. 79, 85 
Ordinaries, 7-9. 

St. Andrews: Arms of Diocese, 
9, 13. 15-21, 86. 


St. Andrews, Dunkeld, and 

Dunblane, Arms of, 8, 81-82. 
Saltire, 7. 

" Santa Claus, " 35. 
Seals, Ei)iscopal, 12. 
Serf, St.. 59, 60. 
Sharp, James, Archbishop of 

St. Andrews, 9, 20. 
Shield, 5. 

Sixtus IV.. Pope, 17, 68. 
Sodor, see Isles. 
Spens, Thomas, Bishop of 

Galloway, 68. 
Steward, Alexander, Bishop 

of Ross, 47. 
Strachan, David, Bishop of 

Brechin, 54. 
Stuart, Andrew, Bishop of 

Caithness, 51. 
Subordinate Ordinaries, 7. 
Supporters, 10, 89 

Thenew, St. 59. 
Tinctures, 5, 6. 
Torse, see Wreath. 
Tournament, ^. 
Tressure, 7, 8, 19, 50. 

Trinity. Representation on 
Seals, 42, 54, 56. 

Tuathal, Bishop of Fortrenn, 
" Primus Episcopus, " 23. 

Tulloch, Bishop de, of Ork- 
ney, 39. 

Turcot, Bishop of St. And- 
rews, 17. 

Ungus, King of Picts, 17. 

Virgin Mary; Colours, 7. 

Wallace, Robert, Bishop of 

the Isles, 76. 
Whithorn Burgh Seal. G8; 

Cathedral, 69; Chapter Seal. 

William, Bishop of Caithness, 

William, Bishop of Dunblane, 

Wischard, Robert, Bishop of 

Glasgow, 62. 
Wishart. George. Bishop of 

Edinburgh, 31. 
Wreath, 10.