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Full text of "THE_ARMY_TECHNICAL_MANUAL_TM5-3895-348-14&p-2"

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TM 5-3895-348-1 4&P-2 




TECHNICAL MANUAL 



OPERATOR'S ORGANIZATIONAL, 
DIRECT SUPPORT, GENERAL SUPPORT, AND 

DEPOT MAINTENANCE MANUAL 
(INCLUDING REPAIR PARTS INFORMATION AND 
SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATING, MAINTENANCE 

AND REPAIR PARTS INSTRUCTIONS) 



FOR 

i 

I ROLLER MOTORIZED, f 

I STEEL WHEEL 

!l 2 DRUM TANDEM, 10-14 TON (CCE) 

HYSTER MODEL C350B-D 

NSN 3895-00-578-0372 




HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY 

FEBRUARY 1981 



SAFETY IS YOUR BUSINESS 

Safety, based on technical skill and years of experience, has been carefully 
built into your Detroit Diesel engine. Time, money and effort have been in- 
vested in making your diesel engine a safe product. The dividend you realize 
from this investment is your personal safety. 

It should be remembered, however, that power-driven equipment is only as 
safe as the man who is at the controls. You are urged, as the operator of this 
diesel engine, to keep your fingers and clothing away from the revolving "V" 
belts, gears, blower, fan, drive shafts, etc. 

An accident can be prevented with your help. 



IMPORTANT SAFETY NOTICE 

Proper service and repair is important to the safe, reliable operation of all 
motor vehicles. The service procedures recommended by Detroit Diesel 
Allison and described in this service manual are effective methods for per- 
forming service operations. Some of these service operations require the use of 
tools specially designed for the purpose. The special tools should be used when 
and as recommended. 

H is important to note that some warnings against the use of specific service 
methods that can damage the vehicle or render it unsafe are stated in this 
service manual. It is also important to understand these warnings are not 
exhaustive. Detroit Diesel Allison could not possibly know, evaluate and 
advise the service trade of all conceivable ways in which service might be done 
or of the possible hazardous consequences of each way. Consequently, Detroit 
Diesel Allison has not undertaken any such broad evaluation. Accordingly, 
anyone who uses a service procedure or tool which is not recommended by 
Detroit Diesel Allison must first, satisfy himself thoroughly that neither his 
safety nor vehicle safety will be jeopardized by the service method he selects. 



This Manual Contains Copyrighted'MaterialAnd Is Published With Permission Of 
Hyster Company And Detroit Diesel Allison, Division Of General Motors Corporation 




TECHNICAL MANUAL 
NO. 5-3895-348-14 &P 



TM 5-3895-348-1 4&P-2 

HEADQUARTERS 
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY 
WASHINGTON, DC, 20 February 1981 




OPERATOR'S, ORGANIZATIONAL, DIRECT SUPPORT, 

GENERAL SUPPORT, AND DEPOT MAINTENANCE MANUAL 

(INCLUDING REPAIR PARTS INFORMATION AND SUPPLEMENTAL 

OPERATING, MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR PARTS INSTRUCTIONS) 

ROLLER MOTORIZED, STEEL WHEEL 2 DRUM 

TANDEM 10-14 TON (CCE) 

HYSTER MODEL C350B-D 

NSN 3895-00-578-0372 
CONTRACT NO. DSA700-74-C-9024 



REPORTING OF ERRORS 

You can help improve this manual. If you find any mistake or if you know of a 
way to improve the procedures, please let us know. Mail your letter, or DA 
Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) direct 
to: Commander, US Army Tank-Automotive Materiel Readiness Command, 
ATTN: DRSTA-MBS, Warren, MI 48090. A reply will be furnished to you. 



VOLUME 2 Engine Operators, Service, And Parts Manual 

PART I Engine Operator's Manual 

SECTION 1. Description 

2. Engine System 

3. Engine Equipment 

4. Operating Instructions 

5. Lubrication And Preventive Maintenance. . . . 

6. Engine Tune-up Procedures 

7. Trotble Shooting 

8. Storage 

9. Built-in Parts Book 

10. Owner Assistance 

INDEX, ALPHABETICAL 




PART II 
iECTION 1. 
2. 
3. 



Engine Service Manual 
Engine (Less Major Assemblies). 
Fuel System And Governors 
Air Intake System 



Page 



4 

13 

31 

47 

55 

75 

113 

119 

123 

147 

149 



1-1 
2-1 
3-1 



4. Lubrication System 

5. Cooling System 

6. Exhaust System 

7. Electrical Equipment 

13. Operating Instructions 

14. Engine Tune-up 

15. Preventive Maintenance-Trouble Shooting-Storage . 



page 

4-1 

5-1 

6-1 

7-1 

13-1 

14-1 

15-1 



INDEX, ALPHABETICAL '. ....'.-...:.... INDEX 1 



PART III Engine Parts Manual 

Engine (Less Major Assemblies) . 

Fuel System 

Air System 

Lubricating System 

Cooling System 

Exhaust System 

Electrical System 



Al 
Bl 
Cl 
Dl 
El 
Fl 
Gl 



This technical manual is an authentication of the manufacturers' commercial 
literature and does not conform with the format and content specified in AR 
310-3, Military Publications. This technical manual does, however, contain 
available information that is essential to the operation and maintenance of the 
equipment. 



M 




PART I 



Operators 
Manual 




Series 53 Engines 





Printed in U.S.A. 



TO THE OPERATOR 

This manual contains instructions on the operation and preventive 
maintenance of your Detroit Diesel engine. Sufficient descriptive 
material, together with numerous illustrations, is included to enable 
the operator to understand the basic construction of the engine and 
the principles by which it functions. This manual does not cover 
engine repair or overhaul. 

Whenever possible, it will pay to rely on an authorized Detroit Diesel 
Allison Service Outlet for all your service needs from maintenance to 
major parts replacement. There are over 1500 authorized service 
outlets in the U.S. and Canada. They stock factory original parts and 
have the specialized equipment and personnel with technical 
knowledge to provide skilled and efficient workmanship. 

The operator should familiarize himself thoroughly with the contents 
of the manual before running an engine, making adjustments, or 
carrying out maintenance procedures. 

The information, specifications and illustrations in this publication 
are based on the information in effect at the time of approval for 
printing. Generally, this publication is reprinted annually. It is 
recommended that users contact an authorized Detroit Diesel Allison 
Service Outlet for information on the latest revision. The right is 
reserved to make changes at any time without obligation. 



WARRANTY 



The applicable engine warranty is contained in the form entitled 
POLICY ON OWNER SERVICE, available from authorized Detroit 
Diesel Allison Service Outlets. 



SUBJECT 



PAGE 



DESCRIPTION 

Principles of Operation ...................................................................................................................................... 4 

General Description ............................................................................................................................................. 5 

Model Description ................................................................................................................................................ 6 

General Specifications ......................................................................................................................................... 8 

Engine Model and Serial Number Designation .......................................................................................... 9 

Built-in Parts Book .............................................................................................................................................. 9 

Cross Section Views of Engine ........................................................................................................................ 10 

ENGINE SYSTEMS 

Fuel System ........................................................................................................................................................... 13 

Air System ............................................................................................................................................................. 17 

Lubricating System .............................................................................................................................................. 22 

Cooling System ..................................................................................................................................................... 25 

ENGINE EQUIPMENT 

Instrument Panel, Instruments and Controls ....................................................................... r.,. ..................... 31 

Engine Protective Systems ........................................................................................................... *. x .................... 33 

Electrical Starting System .................................................................................................................................. 37 

Hydraulic Starting System ................................................................................................................................. 38 

Cold Weather Starting Aids ............................................................................................................................. 41 

Governors ............................................................................................................................................................... 44 

Transmissions ......................................................................................................................................................... 44 

OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS 

Engine Operating Instructions .......................................................................................................................... 47 

A.C. Power Generator Set Operating Instructions ...................................................................................... 51 

LUBRICATION AND PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE 

Lubrication and Preventive Maintenance ...................................................................................................... 55 

Fuel, Lubricants and Coolants ......................................................................................................................... 66 

ENGINE TUNE-UP PROCEDURES 

Engine Tune-Up Procedures .............................................................................................................................. 75 

Exhaust Valve Clearance Adjustment ............................................................................................................. 76 

Timing Fuel Injector ........................................................................................................................................... 78 

Limiting Speed Mechanical Governor (In-Line Engines) ......................................................................... 79 

Limiting Speed Mechanical Governor (6V-53 Engine) ............................................................................ 84 

Variable Speed Mechanical Governor (In-Line Open Linkage) ............................................................. 89 

Variable Speed Mechanical Governor (In-Line Enclosed Linkage) ....................................................... 93 

Variable Speed Mechanical Governor (6V-53 Engine) ................................................................................ 98 

Supplementary Governing Device Adjustment ............................................................................................. 103 

Hydraulic Governor (In-Line Engine) ............................................................................................................ 108 

Hydraulic Governor (6V-53 Engine) ............................................................................................................... Ill 

TROUBLE SHOOTING ........................................................................................................................................... 113 

STORAGE ................................................................................................................................................................. 119 

BUILT-IN PARTS BOOK ........................................................................................................................................ 123 

OWNER ASSISTANCE .......................................................................................................................................... 147 

ALPHABETICAL INDEX ........................................................................................................................................ 149 



DETROIT DIESEL 



DESCRIPTION 



PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION 






The diesel engine is an internal combustion power 
unit, in which the heat of fuel is converted into work 
in the cylinder of the engine. 

In the diesel engine, air alone is compressed in the 
cylinder; then, after the air has been compressed, a 
charge of fuel is sprayed into the cylinder and ignition 
is accomplished by the heat of compression. 



The Two-Cycle Principle 

In the two-cycle engine, intake and exhaust take place 
during part of the compression and power strokes 
respectively, as shown in Fig. 1. In contrast, a four- 
cycle engine requires four piston strokes to complete 
an operating cycle; thus, during one half of its 
operation, the four-cycle engine functions merely as 
an air pump. 

A blower is provided to force air into the cylinders for 
expelling the exhaust gases and to supply the cylinders 
with fresh air for combustion. The cylinder wall 
contains a row of ports which are above the piston 
when it is at the bottom of its stroke. These ports 
admit the air from the blower into the cylinder as soon 
as the rim of the piston uncovers the ports as shown in 
Fig. 1 (scavenging). 



The unidirectional flow of air toward the exhaust 
valves produces a scavenging .effect, leaving the 
cylinders full of clean air when the piston again covers 
the inlet ports. 

As the piston continues on the upward stroke, the 
exhaust valves close and the charge of fresh air is 
subjected to compression as shown in Fig. 1 
(compression). 

Shortly before the piston reaches its highest position, 
the required amount of fuel is sprayed into the 
combustion chamber by the unit fuel injector as shown 
in Fig. 1 (power). The intense heat generated during 
the high compression of the air ignites the fine fuel 
spray immediately. The combustion continues until the 
injected fuel has been burned. 

The resulting pressure forces the piston downward on 
its power stroke. The exhaust valves are again opened 
when the piston is about halfway down, allowing the 
burned gases to escape into the exhaust manifold as 
shown in Fig. 1 (exhaust). Shortly thereafter, the 
downward moving piston uncovers the inlet ports and 
the cylinder is again swept with clean scavenging air. 
This entire combustion cycle is completed in each 
cylinder for each revolution of the crankshaft, or, in 
other words, in two strokes; hence, it is a "two-stroke 
cycle". 




Scavenging 



Compression 



Power 



Exhaust 



11733 



Fig. 1 - The Two-Stroke Cycle 



Page 4 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Description 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION 



fhe two-cycle diesel engines covered in this manual 
have the same bore and stroke and many of the major 
working parts such as injectors, pistons, connecting 
rods, cylinder liners and other parts are 
interchangeable 

The In-line engines, including the inclined marine 
models, include standard accessories such as the 
blower, water pump, governor and fuel pump, which, 
on some models, may be located on either side of the 
engine regardless of the direction the crankshaft 
rotates. Further flexibility in meeting installation 
requirements is achieved with the cylinder head which 
can be installed to accommodate the exhaust manifold 
on either side of the engine. 

The V-type engine uses many In-line engine parts, 
including the 3-53 cylinder head. The blower is 
mounted on top of the engine between the two banks 
of cylinders and is driven by the gear train. The 
governor is mounted on the rear end of the 6V-53 
blower. 

The meaning of each digit in the model numbering 
system is shown in Figs. 2 and 3. The letter L or R 
indicates left or right-hand engine rotation as viewed 
from the front of the engine. The letter A,B,C or D 
designates the blower and exhaust manifold location 
on the In-line engines as viewed from the rear of the 
engine while the letter A or C designates the location 
of the oil cooler and starter on the 6V-53 engine. 

Each engine is equipped with an oil cooler, replaceable 
element type lubricating oil filter, fuel oil strainer, fuel 
oil filter, an air cleaner or air silencer, a governor, a 
heat exchanger and raw water pump or a fan and 
radiator, and a starting motor. 

Full pressure lubrication is supplied to all main 



bearings, connecting rod bearings, and camshaft 
bearings, and to other moving parts. 

Oil is drawn by suction from the oil pan through the 
intake screen and pipe to the oil pump where it is 
pressurized and delivered to the oil filter and the oil 
cooler. From the oil cooler, the oil enters oil galleries 
in the cylinder block and cylinder head for 
distribution to the main bearings, connecting rod 
bearings, camshaft bearings, rocker arm mechanism 
and other functional parts. 

The cooling system has a centrifugal water pump 
which circulates the engine coolant through the oil 
cooler and water jackets. The engine temperature is 
regulated by a thermostat(s). 

Fuel is drawn from the supply tank through the fuel 
strainer and enters a gear type fuel pump at the inlet 
side. Upon leaving the pump under pressure, the fuel 
is forced through the fuel filter into the inlet manifold 
where it passes through fuel pipes into the inlet side of 
the fuel injectors. The fuel is filtered through elements 
in the injectors and then atomized through small spray 
tip orifices into the combustion chamber. Excess fuel is 
returned to the fuel tank through the fuel outlet 
galleries and connecting lines. 

Air for scavenging and combustion is supplied by a 
blower which pumps air into the engine cylinders via 
the air box and cylinder liner ports. All air entering 
the blower first passes through an air cleaner or air 
silencer. 

The engine may be started by either a hydraulic or an 
electric starting system. 

The engine speed is regulated by a .mechanical or 
hydraulic type engine governor, depending upon the 
engine application. 



I 



Page 5 



Description 



DETROIT DIESEL 




5043-5101 





SERIES 
53 


NUMBER 
OF 
CYLINDERS 


APPLICATION 
DESIGNATION 


BASIC ENGINE 
ARRANGEMENTS 
* (* b*low) 


DESIGN 
VARIATION 


SPECIFIC MODEL NUMBER 
AND STARTER-BLOWER 
ARRANGEMENT 



APPLICATION DESIGNATION 

5042 5 J 00 MARtNE 



DESIGN VARIATION 



STARTER-BLOWER ARRANGEMENT 



5043-5000 "N" ENGINE 

5043-5100 FAN TO F/W-INDU5TRIAL 5043-5J.OO 2 VALVE HEAD 

5044-5100 POWER-BASE 5043-5200 

5045-5100 GENERATOR 5042-2202 TURBOCHARGER 

5047-5100 FAN TO F/W-VEHICLE 



Odd number in lost digit designates starter 
opposite blower. 

Even number in last digit designates starter 
4 VALVE HEAD same side as Mower. 



* 2, 3, 4-53 BASIC ENGINE ARRANGEMENTS 

Rotation: R-(right) and L-(teft) designates rotation as viewed from the end of the engine opposite the flywheel. 
Type: A-B-C-D designates location of exhaust manifold and blower as viewed from the flywheel end of the engine. 



EXHAUST MANIFOID 



BLOWER 




LA (XXXX-1XXX) 



EXHAUST MANIFOLD 



EXHAUST MANIFOLD 



BLOWER 




LB (XXXX-2XXX) 



EXHAUST MANIFOLD 




BLOWER 



LC (XXXX 3XXX) 



EXHAUST MANIFOLD 




BLOWER 



LD (XXXX-4XXX) 



BLOWER 




RA (XXXX-5XXX) 



EXHAUST MANIFOLD 



BLOWER 




RB (XXXX-6XXX) 



EXHAUST MANIFOLD EXHAUST MANIFOLD 




BLOWER 



RC (XXXX-7XXX) 




BLOWER 



RD (XXXX-8XXX) 






ALL ABOVE VIEWS FROM REAR (FLYWHEEL) END OF ENGINE 



Fig. 2 - In-Line Engine Model Description, Rotation and Accessory Arrangement 



12223 



IpiW '" 



Page 6 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Description 





SERIES 
53 



NUMBER 

OF 
CYLINDERS 



APPLICATION 
DESIGNATION 



BASIC ENGINE 
ARRANGEMENT 
* (see below) 




SPECIFIC 

MODEL 

NUMBER 




APPLICATION DESIGNATION 

5062-3000 MARINE 

5063-5200 FAN to F/W-INDUSTRIAL 

5064-5200 POWER-BASE 

5065-5200 GENERATOR 

5067-5040 FAN to F/W VEHICLE 

5082-50OO MARINE 

5O83-5000 FAN to F/W INDUSTRIAL 

5087-5040 FAN to F/W VEHICLE 



DESIGN VARIATION 



5062-3000 "N" ENGINE 
5063-5200 4 VALVE HEAD 



* BASIC ENGINE ARRANGEMENTS 

Rotation: R-(right) and L-(left) designates rotation as viewed from the end of the 
engine opposite the flywheel. 

Type: A and C designates location of starter and oil cooler as viewed from the flywheel 
end of the engine. 

Cylinder Bank: Left and right cylinder banks are determined from the flywheel 
end of the engine. 



BLOWER 
THRUST 
REAR 

CAM 
SHAFT 

CRANK 
SHAFT 

OIL - 
COOLER 




CAM 

SHAFT 



IDLER 
STARTER 



LA (XXXX-1XXX) 



STARTER 




OIL 
COOLER 



LC (XXXX-3XXX) 



OIL 
COOLER 




STARTER 



RA (XXXX-5XXX) 



STARTER 




OIL 
COOLER 



RC (XXXX-7XXX) 



ALL ABOVE VIEWS FROM REAR FLYWHEEL END OF ENGINE 



11783 




Fig. 3 6V Engine Model Description, Rotation and Accessory Arrangement 



Page 7 



Description 



DETROIT DIESEL 



GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS 




3-53 



4-53 



6V-53 



Type 

Number of cylinders 

Bore 



Stroke 



Compression Ratio (nominalXstandard engines) 

Compression Ratio (nominal)("N" engines) 

Total Displacement - cubic inches 

Total Displacement - litres 

Number of main bearings 



2 Cycle 

3 

3.875 in. 

(98 mm) 

4.5 in. 

(114 mm) 

17 to 1 

21 to 1 

159 

2.61 

4 



2 Cycle 

4 

3.875 in. 

(98 mm) 

4.5 in. 

(114 mm) 

17 to 1 

21 to 1 

212 

3.48 

5 



2 Cycle 

6 

3.875 in. 

(98 mm) 

4.5 in. 

(114 mm) 

17 to 1 

21 to 1 

318 

5.22 

4 




3-53 4-53 6V. 53 


FRONT FRONT FRONT 





























^ 




d) 


\i 










Z 






^ 









(2) 


at 







CO 








^ ' 


f- 


x_x 


(?) 













U. 

uu 






o 










J 






s 





















(. 


HD 

FIRING 





< 




) 


FIRING 


ORDER 1 




ORDER 


RH-1-3-2 C___3 RH.1L.3R.3L.2R-2MR 


LH-1-2-3 FIRING LH-1L-1R-2L-2R.3I..3R 


ORDER 


RH-1-3.4-2 


LH.1-2-4-3 11749 



^^p^C 



Fig. 4 Series 53 Cylinder Arrangement 



Page 8 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Description 



ENGINE MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBER DESIGNATION 




Fig. 5 - Typical Model and Serial Numbers as 
Stamped on Cylinder Block (In-Line Engine) 

On the In-line engines, the model number and serial 
number are stamped on the right-hand side of the 
cylinder block in the upper rear corner (Fig. 5). The 
model number and serial number on the V-type 
engine is located on the top right-hand front corner of 
the cylinder block, as viewed from the rear of the 
engine (Fig. 6). 

An option plate, attached to the valve rocker cover, is 
also stamped with the engine serial number and model 
number and, in addition, lists any optional equipment 
used on the engine (Fig. 7). 

With any order for parts, the engine model number 
and serial number must be given. In addition, if a type 
number is shown on the option plate covering the 
equipment required, this number should also be 
included on the parts order. 




Fig. 6 - Typical Model and Serial Numbers as 
Stamped on Cylinder Block (6V Engine) 

Power take-off assemblies, torque converters, hydraulic 
marine gears, etc. may also carry name plates 
pertaining to the particular assembly to which they are 
attached. The information on these name plates is 
useful when ordering parts for these assemblies. 




OPOON PLATI: 



Fig. 7 - Option Plate 




BUILT-IN PARTS BOOK 



The Built-in Parts Book is an anodized aluminum 
plate (Option Plate) that fits into a retainer on the 
engine valve rocker cover and contains the necessary 
information required when ordering parts. It is 
recommended that the engine user read the section on 
the Built-in Parts Book in order to take full advantage 



of the information provided on the engine option 
plate. 

Numerous exploded view type illustrations are 
included to assist the user in identifying and ordering 
service parts. 



Page 9 



Description 



DETROIT DIESEL 



I ' 





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c 
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c 
IT} 
c 



ro 
o 

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(XJ 

s 



.1 



CO 



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o 



VIE '"" 



kPage 10 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Description 





(90! 



B; 

/a' 
1^ 
ro 

s 



c 
o 



2 
O 



Page ill 



DETROIT DIESEL 




ENGINE SYSTEMS 



The Series 53 Detroit Diesel engines incorporate four 
basic systems which direct the flow of fuel, air, 
lubricating oil, and engine coolant. 



A brief description of each of these systems and their 
components, and the necessary maintenance and 
adjustment procedures are given in this manual. 



FUEL SYSTEM 




The fuel system (Figs. 1 and 2) consists of the fuel 
injectors, fuel pipes, fuel manifolds (integral with the 
cylinder head), fuel pump, fuel strainer, fuel filter and 
the necessary connecting fuel lines. 

On In-line engines, a restricted fitting is located in the 
cylinder head fuel return manifold outlet to maintain 
pressure within the fuel system. On V-type engines, 
this restricted fitting is located in the left-bank 
cylinder head. 

Fuel is drawn from the supply tank through the fuel 
strainer and enters the fuel pump at the inlet side. 
Upon leaving the pump under pressure, the fuel is 
forced through the fuel filter and into the fuel inlet 
manifold where it passes through fuel pipes into the 
inlet side of each fuel injector. The fuel is filtered 
through elements in the injectors and atomized 
through small spray tip orifices into the combustion 
chamber. Surplus fuel, returning from the injectors, 
passes through the fuel return manifold and 
connecting fuel lines back to the fuel tank. 

The continuous flow of fuel through the injectors helps 
to cool the injectors and remove air from the fuel 
system. 





A check valve may be installed between the fuel 
strainer and the source of supply as optional 
equipment to prevent fuel drain back when the engine 
is not running. 



Fuel Injector 

The fuel injector combines in a single unit all of the 
parts necessary to provide complete and independent 
fuel injection at each cylinder. The injector creates the 
high pressure necessary for fuel injection, meters the 
proper amount of fuel, atomizes the fuel and times the 
injection into the combustion chamber. 

Since the injector is one of the most important and 
carefully constructed parts of the engine, it is 
recommended that the engine operator replace the 
injector as an assembly if it is not operating properly. 
Authorized Detroit Diesel Allison Service Outleis are 
properly equipped to service injectors. 



RIGHT 
BANK 




Fig. 1 - Schematic Diagram of Typical Fuel 
System In-Line Engine 



Fig. 2 Schematic Diagram of Typical Fuel 
System V-type Engine 



Page 13 



Engine Systems 



DETROIT DIESEL 




Fig. 3 Removing Injector from Cylinder Head 
Remove Injector 
An injector may be removed in the following manner: 

1. Clean and remove the valve rocker cover. 

2. Disconnect the fuel pipes from both the injector and 
the fuel connectors. 

3. Immediately after removing the fuel pipes, cover 
the injector inlet and outlet fittings with shipping caps 
to prevent dirt from entering. 

4. Turn the crankshaft manually in the direction of 
engine rotation or crank the engine with the starting 
motor, if necessary, until the rocker arms for the 
particular cylinder are aligned in a horizontal plane. 

CAUTION: If a wrench is used on the crankshaft 
bolt at the front of the engine, do not turn the 
crankshaft in a left-hand direction of rotation 
as the bolt will be loosened. Remove the 
starting motor and use a pry bar against the 
teeth of the flywheel ring gear to turn the 
crankshaft. 

5. Remove the two rocker shaft bracket bolts and 
swing the rocker arm assembly away from the injector 
and valves. 



6. Remove the injector clamp bolt, washer and clamp. 

7. Loosen the inner and outer adjusting screws on the 
injector rack control lever and slide the lever away 
from the injector. 

8. Free the injector from its seat as shown in Fig. 3 
and lift it from the cylinder head. 

9. Cover the injector hole in the cylinder head to keep 
foreign particles out of the cylinder. 



Install Injector 

Before installing an injector, be sure the beveled seat 
of the injector tube is free from dirt particles and 
carbon deposits. 

A new or reconditioned injector may be installed by 
reversing the sequence of operations given above for 
removal. 

Be sure the injector is filled with fuel oil. If necessary, 
add clean fuel oil at the inlet filter until it runs out the 
outlet filter. 

CAUTION: On four valve cylinder heads, there 
is a possibility of damaging the exhaust valves 
if the exhaust valve bridge is not resting on the 
ends of the exhaust valves when tightening the 
rocker shaft bracket bolts. Therefore, note the 
position of the exhaust valve bridge before, 
during and after tightening the rocker shaft 
bracket bolts. 

Do not tighten the injector clamp bolt to more than 
20-25 Ib-ft (27-34 Mm) torque, as this may cause the 
moving parts of the injector to bind. Tighten the 
rocker shaft bolts to 50-55 Ib-ft (68-75 Nm) torque. 

Align the fuel pipes and connect them to the injector 
and the fuel connectors. Use socket J 8932-01 and a 
torque wrench to tighten the fuel pipe nuts to 12-15 Ib- 
ft (16-20 Nm) torque. 

CAUTION: Do not bend the fuel pipes and do 
not exceed the specified torque. Excessive 
tightening will twist or fracture the flared ends 
of the fuel pipes and result in leaks. 
Lubricating oil diluted by fuel oil can cause 
serious damage to the engine bearings. 

Time the injector, position the injector rack control 
lever and adjust the exhaust valve clearance (cold 
setting) as outlined in the engine tune-up procedure. If 
all of the injectors have been replaced, perform a 
complete tune-up on the engine. 








Page 14 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Engine Systems 



Fuel Pump 

A positive displacement gear-type fuel pump is 
attached to the governor or blower on the In-line 
engines and to the flywheel housing on the V-type 
engines. 

A spring-loaded relief valve, incorporated in the pump 
body, normally remains in the closed position, 
operating only when the pressure on the outlet side (to 
the fuel filter) becomes excessive due to a plugged 
filter or fuel line. 

The fuel pump incorporates two oil seals. Two tapped 
holes are provided in the underside of the pump body, 
between the oil seals, to permit a drain tube to be 
attached. If fuel leakage exceeds one drop per minute, 
the seals must be replaced. An authorized Detroit 
Diesel Allison Service Outlet is properly equipped to 
replace the seals. 

Fuel pumps are furnished in either left or right-hand 
rotation, according to the engine model, and are 
stamped RH or LH. These pumps are not interchange- 
able and cannot be rebuilt to operate in an opposite 
rotation. 



Fuel Strainer and Fuel Filter 

A replaceable-element type fuel strainer and fuel filter 
(Fig. 4) are used in the fuel system to remove 
impurities from the fuel. The strainer removes the 
larger particles and the filter removes the small 
foreign particles. 

The fuel strainer and fuel filter are basically identical 
in construction, both consisting of a cover, shell and 
replaceable element. Since the fuel strainer is placed 
between the fuel supply tank and the fuel pump, it 
functions under suction; the fuel filter, which is 
installed between the fuel pump and the fuel inlet 
manifold in the cylinder head, operates under 
pressure. 

Replace the elements as follows: 

1. With the engine shut down, place a suitable 
container under the fuel strainer or filter and open the 
drain cock. The fuel will drain more freely if the cover 
nut is loosened slightly. 

2. Support the shell, unscrew the cover nut and remove 
the shell and element. 

3. Remove and discard the element and gasket. Clean 
the shell with fuel oil and dry it with a cloth or 
compressed air. 

4. Place a new element, which has been thoroughly 




Fig. 4 - Typical Fuel Strainer and Filter 
Mounting 

soaked in clean fuel oil, over the stud and push it 
down on the seat. Close the drain cock and fill the shell 
approximately two-thirds full with clean fuel oil. 

5. Affix a new shell gasket, place the shell and element 
into position under the cover and start the cover nut 
on the shell stud. 

6. Tighten the cover nut only enough to prevent fuel 
leakage. 

7. Remove the plug in the strainer or filter cover and 
fill the shell with fuel. Fuel system primer J 5956 may 
be used to prime the fuel system. 

8. Start and operate the engine and check the fuel 
system for leaks. 



Spin-On Type Fuel Filter 

A spin-on fuel strainer and fuel filter (Fig. 5) is used 
on certain engines. The spin-on filter cartridge consists 
of a shell, element and gasket combined into a 
unitized replacement assembly. No separate springs or 
seats are required to support the filters. 



Page 15 



Engine Systems 



DETROIT DIESEL 




Fig. 5 - Typical Spin-On Type Fuel Strainer 
and Fuel Filter Mounting 

The filter covers incorporate a threaded sleeve to 
accept the spin-on _ filter cartridges. The word 
"Primary" is cast on the fuel strainer cover and the 



word "Secondary" is cast on the fuel filter cover for 
identification. 

No drain cocks are provided on the spin-on filters. 
Where water is a problem, it is recommended that a 
water separator be installed. Otherwise, residue may 
be drained by removing and inverting the filter. Refill 
the filter with clean fuel oil before reinstalling it. 

A 1 " diameter twelve-point nut on the bottom of the 
filter is 'provided to facilitate removal and installation. 

Replace the filter as follows: 

1 . Unscrew the filter (or strainer) and discard it. 

2. Fill a new filter replacement cartridge about two- 
thirds full with clean fuel oil. Coat the seal gasket 
lightly with clean fuel oil. 

3. Install the new filter assembly and tighten it to two- 
thirds of a turn beyond gasket contact. 

4. Start the engine and check for leaks. 

Fuel Tank 

Refill the fuel tank at the end of each day's operation 
to prevent condensation from contaminating the fuel. 

CAUTION: A galvanized steel tank should never 
be used for fuel storage because the fuel oil 
reacts chemically with the zinc coating to form 
powdery flakes which quickly clog the fuel 
strainer and filter and damage the fuel pump 
and the fuel injectors. 








Page 16 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Engine Systems 




AIR SYSTEM 




In the scavenging system used in two-cycle engines, 
illustrated in Figs. 6 and 7, a charge of air is forced 
into the cylinders by the blower and thoroughly sweeps 
out all of the burned gases through the exhaust valve 
ports. This air also helps to cool the internal engine 
parts, particularly the exhaust valves. At the beginning 
of the compression stroke, each cylinder is filled with 
fresh, clean air which provides for efficient 
combustion. 

The air, entering the blower from the air silencer or 
air cleaner, is picked up by the blower rotor lobes and 
carried to the discharge side of the blower. The 
continuous discharge of fresh air from the blower 
enters the air chamber of the cylinder block and 
sweeps through the intake ports of the cylinder liners. 

The angle of the ports in the cylinder liner creates a 
uniform swirling motion to the intake air as it enters 
the cylinder. This motion persists throughout the 
compression stroke and facilitates scavenging and 
combustion. 



Air Cleaners 

Several types of air cleaners are available for use with 
industrial engines. The light-duty oil bath air cleaner 
is used on most models. However, a heavy-duty oil 
bath type or a dry type air cleaner may be installed 
where the engine is operating in heavy dust 
concentrations. 





Fig. 6 - Air Intake System Through Blower and 
Engine (In-line Engine) 



Fig. 7 Air Intake System Through Blower and 
Engine (6V-53 Engine) 

The air cleaners are designed for fast, easy 
disassembly to facilitate efficient servicing. Maximum 
protection of the engine against dust and other forms 
of air contamination is possible if the air cleaner is 
serviced at regular intervals. 

The light-duty oil bath type air cleaner (Fig. 8) consists 
of a metal wool cleaning element supported inside of a 
housing which contains an oil reservoir. A chamber 
beneath the oil reservoir serves as a silencer for the 
incoming air to the blower. Air is drawn into the 
cleaner by the blower and passes over the top of the 
oil bath, where a major portion of the dirt is trapped, 
then up through the metal wool, where the finer 
particles are removed, and then down the central duct 
to the blower. 

The heavy-duty oil bath type air cleaner (Fig. 9) 
consists of the body and fixed filter assembly which 
filters the air and condenses the oil from the air 
stream so that only dry air enters the engine. The 
condensed oil is returned to the cup where the dirt 
settles out of the oil and the oil is recirculated. A 
removable element assembly removes a major part of 
the dust from the air stream thereby decreasing the 
dust load to the fixed element. An inner cup, which 
can be removed from the outer (oil cup), acts as a 
baffle in directing the oil-laden air to the element and 
also controls the amount of oil in circulation and 
meters the oil to the element. The oil cup supports the 
inner cup and is a reservoir for oil and a settling 
chamber for dirt. 

Service the light-duty oil bath air cleaner as follows: 

Page 17 



DETROI 




Tigh ten the wing bo.t until the air cleane 
mounted. 



Service . he 



detachable screen by 1 
e screen one- qUi 



the tray type o 

OVetl0 f 1JSS p rformance of the 
cleaned s f s f!7 es p ence of fibrous mai 
be reahzed. The^e an(J u 

the air is often unuc heaw-duty air 
of the malfunct'onmg of ta-> '^ ^ 

material comes from p' airborne 
budding season and ate ^^ t] 



- a trya is 50% plugged- 
plugging ma ttay accumu i a uons 

areas , the rnesh d 

material. When * , wasm] 



Fig . 8 - Ughl-Duty OU Bath Air Cleaner 



.Loosen the wing 

assembly from the ait i 

then be separated "M> ^ ' ele meht, the lower 

^nCSf ^rcuV-ovabie inner cup or 

baffle and the center tube. 



to drain thoroughly. 



baffle and outer cup clean. 

remove dirt or oil. 





. , . u_c; he.fore installing the air 




DETROIT DIESEL 



Engine Sy 



clean tray is held up to the light, an even pattern of 
light should be visible. It may be necessary, only as a 
last resort, to burn off the lint. Extreme care must be 
taken to prevent melting the galvanized coating in the 
tray screens. Some trays have equally spaced holes in 
the retaining baffle. Check to make sure that they are 
clean and open. Figure 11 illustrates a thoroughly 
cleaned tray. The dark spots in the mesh indicate the 
close overlapping of the mesh and emphasize the need 
for using compressed air or steam. It is suggested that 
users of heavy-duty air cleaners have a spare tray on 
hand to replace the tray that requires cleaning. Having 
an extra tray available makes for better service and 
the dirty tray can be cleaned thoroughly as 
recommended. Spare trays are well worth their 
investment. 

3. Pour out the oil, separate the inner cup or baffle 
from the oil or outer cup, remove the sludge and wipe 
the baffle and outer cup clean. 

4. Clean and inspect the gaskets and sealing surfaces 
to ensure an air tight seal. 

5. Reinstall the baffle in the oil cup and refill to the 
proper oil level with the same grade of oil being used 
in the engine. 

6. Remove the hood and clean by brushing, or by 
blowing out with compressed air. Push a lint-free cloth 
through the center tube to remove dirt or oil from the 
walls. 

7. Inspect the lower portion of the air cleaner body 





Fig. 11 Air Cleaner Tray (Clean) 

and center tube each time the oil cup is ser 
there are any indications of plugging, tl 
assembly should be removed from the eng 
cleaned by soaking and then flushing with cl 
oil. Allow the unit to drain thoroughly. 

8. Place the removable element in the body a 
Install the body if it was removed from the er 
servicing. 

9. Install the outer cup and baffle assembly. Be 
cup is tightly secured to the body assembly. 

All oil bath air cleaners should be ser 
operating conditions warrant. At no time shoi 
than 1 /2 " of "sludge" be allowed to form ii 
cup or the area used for sludge deposit, nor si 
oil cup be filled above the oil level mark. 

The United Specialties dry-type air cleaner s 
Fig. 12 consists of a body, dust unloader and 
clamped to a base. 

Air is drawn through the cleaner intake pip 
automatically set into a circular motion. This 
spinning of the dirty air "throws out" the 
particles of dust and dirt where they are col 



ne Systems 



DETROIT DIESEL 



DUST UNLOAOER 



BASE 




BOuV 



CLAMP ELEMENT 



Fig. 12 - United Specialties Dry Type Air 
Cleaner 

sen the clamp screw and check the dust unloader 
struction or damage. 

Dck the spring clamps that hold the cleaner body 
cleaner base which is bolted to the air inlet 
g. Remove the body and then remove the 
it from the cleaner base. 

3 paper pleated air cleaner element can be 
d as follows: 

r a temporary expedient in the field, tap the 
ie or end of the element carefully against the 
dm of your hand. 

,UTION: Do not tap the element against a 
d surface. This could damage the element. 

>mpressed air can be used when the major 
ntaminant is dust. The compressed air (not to 
ceed 100 psi) should be blown through the 
^ment in a direction opposite to the normal air 
>w. Insert the air nozzle inside of the element 
id gently tap and blow out the dust with air. 
'hen cleaning the dust from the outside of the 
5ment, hold the nozzle at least 6 " from the 
;ment. 

ish the element if compressed air is not 
ailable, or when the contaminant is carbon, 
ot, oily vapor or dirt which cannot be removed 
th compressed air. 

;itate the element in warm water containing a 
m-sudsing detergent. 

UTION: Do not use water hotter than your 
id can stand, solvents, oil, fuel oil or 
oline. 



runs clean to rinse all loosened foreign material from 
the element. Shake out excess water from the element 
and allow it to dry thoroughly. 

CAUTION: Do not attempt to remove excess 
water by using compressed air. 

4. Inspect the cleaned element with a light bulb after 
each cleaning for damage or rupture. The slightest 
break in the element will admit sufficient airborne dirt 
to cause rapid failure of piston rings. If necessary, 
replace the element. 

5. Inspect the gasket on the end of the element. If the 
gasket is damaged or missing, replace the element. 

6. Install the element on the base with the gasket side 
of the element down against the base. Place the body 
over the element and base and tighten the spring 
clamps by hand. 

7. Replace the element after 10 washings or 1 year of 
service, whichever comes first, or any time damage is 
noted. 

8. Install the dust unloader and tighten the clamp. 

The Farr dry-type air cleaner (Fig. 13) is designed to 
provide highly efficient air filtration under all 
operating conditions and is not affected by engine 
speed. The cleaner assembly consists of a cleaner 
panel with a replaceable impregnated paper filter 
element. 

The cleaner panel and replaceable filter element are 
held together in a steel housing with fasteners. 




DETROIT DIESEL 



Engine Sysi 



The deflector vanes impart a swirling motion to the air 
entering the air cleaner and centrifuge the dust 
particles against the walls of the tubes. The dust 
particles are then carried to the dust bin at the bottom 
of the cleaner by approximately 10% bleed-oif air and 
are finally discharged into the atmosphere. The 
cleaner panel is fully effective at either high or low 
velocities. 

The remainder of the air in the cleaner reverses 
direction and spirals back along the discharge tubes 
again centrifuging the air. The filtered air then 
reverses direction again and enters the replaceable 
filter element through the center portion of the 
discharge tubes. The air is filtered once more as it 
passes through the pleats of the impregnated paper 
element before leaving the outlet port of the cleaner 
housing. 

The cleaner panel tends to be self-cleaning. However, 
it should be inspected and any accumulated foreign 
material removed during the periodic replacement of 
the impregnated paper filter element. Overloading of 
the paper element will not cause dirt particles to by- 
pass the filter and enter the engine, but will result in 
starving the engine for air. 

The filter element should be replaced, as operating 
conditions warrant, as follows: 

1 . Loosen the wing nuts on the fasteners and swing the 
retaining bolts away from the cleaner panel. 

2. Lift the cleaner panel away from the housing and 
inspect it. Clean out any accumulated foreign material. 

3. Withdraw the paper filter element and discard it. 

4. Install a new filter element. 

5. Install the cleaner panel and secure it in place with 
the fasteners. 



Air Silencer 

The air silencer, used on some marine engines, is 
bolted to the intake side of the blower housing. The 
silencer has a perforated steel partition welded in 
place parallel with the outside faces, enclosing flame- 
proof, felted cotton waste which serves as a silencer 
for air entering the blower. 



large foreign particles which might seriously d 
the blower assembly. 



Air Box Drains 

During normal engine operation, water vapor 
the air charge, as well as a slight amount of fu 
lubricating oil fumes, condenses and settles c 
bottom of the air box. This condensation is re: 
by the air box pressure through air box drain 
mounted on the side of the cylinder block. 

The air box drains must be open at all times. Wi 
engine running, a periodic check is recommend 
air flow from the air box drain tubes. J 
accumulation on the bottom of the air box indie 
drain tube may be plugged. Such accumulations < 
seen by removing the cylinder block air box cc 
and should be wiped out with rags or blown ou 
compressed air. Then remove the drain tube 
connectors from the cylinder block and clean 
thoroughly. 

Some engines are equipped with an air box 
check valve. Refer to the Lubrication and 
Maintenance section of this manual for 
instructions. 



Crankcase Ventilation 

Harmful vapors which may form within the engi 
removed from the crankcase, gear train and 
compartment by a continuous, pressurized vent; 
system. 

A slight pressure is maintained within the < 
crankcase by the seepage of a small amount 
from the airbox past the piston rings. This air J 
up through the engine and is drawn off thro 
crankcase breather. 

In-line engines are equipped with a breather ass 
which is mounted on the rocker cover or the fl] 
housing. The 6V engines incorporate a br 
assembly mounted inside of the upper engine 
cover. 

The wire mesh pad (element) in the br 
assemblies should be cleaned if excessive era: 
pressure is observed. If it is necessary to cle< 
element, remove the breather housing froi 
flywheel housing (In-line engines) and the 



e Systems 



DETROIT DIESEL 



LUBRICATING SYSTEM 




Fig. 14 - Typical In-Line Engine Oil Filter 
Mounting 

ries 53 engine lubricating system, illustrated in 
6 and 1 7, includes an oil intake screen and tube 
ly, an oil pump, a pressure regulator, a full-flow 
r or by-pass filter with by-pass valve, and an oil 
vith a by-pass valve. 

iting oil from the pump passes from the lower 
3ver through short oil galleries in the cylinder 
7 rom the block, the oil flows to the full-flow oil 
tien through the oil cooler (if used) and back 
e front engine cover and cylinder block oil 
s for distribution to the various engine 
;s. The drains from the cylinder head(s) and 
igine parts lead back to the oil pan. 

ssure is regulated by a pressure relief valve 
d in the engine front cover. Oil cooler and oil 
r-pass valves prevent the stoppage of oil flow if 
3ms become plugged. 



era 




Fig. 15 - Typical V-Type Engine Oil Filter 
Mounting 

full-flow filter that removes the larger foreign particles 
without restricting the normal flow of oil. 

The by-pass filter assembly, when used, continually 
filters a portion of the lubricating oil that is being bled 
off the oil gallery when the engine is running. 
Eventually all of the oil passes through the filter, 
filtering out minute foreign particles that may be 
present. 

The lubricating oil filter elements should be replaced, 
each time the engine oil is changed, as follows: 

1 . Remove the drain plug and drain the oil. 

2. The filter shell, element and stud may be detached 
as an assembly, after removing the center stud from 
the base. Discard the gasket. 

3. Clean the filter base. 

4. Discard the used element, wipe out the filter shell 
and install a new element on the center stud. 

5. Place a new gasket in the filter base, nosition the 



ROCKER ARM 
LUBRICATION 




OIL FROM PASSAGE IN 
CRANKSHAFT TO 
CONNECTING ROD 



CAM ROLLER 
LUBRICATION 



TO IDLER GEAR 



OIL COOLER 
BY-PASS VALVE 




OIL FILTER 

BY -PASS VALVE 



Fig. 16 Schematic Diagram of Typical In-Line Engine Lubricating System 



ROCKER ARM 
LUBRICATION 



TO BIOWER 



CAM ROLLER 
LUBRICATION 



TO IDLER GEARS 



OIL PRESSURE 
REGULATOR VALVE 



L FROM PASSAGE IN 
[ANKSHAFT TO 
>NNECTING ROD 



OIL FILTER 
PASS VALVE- 



OIL COOLER 
BY -PASS VALVE 




12229 



Fig. 17 - Schematic Diagram of Typical 6V Engine Lubricating System 



COOLING SYSTEM 



One of three different types of cooling systems is used 
on a Series 53 engine: radiator and fan, heat 
exchanger and raw water pump, or keel cooling. A 
centrifugal type water pump is used to circulate the 
engine coolant in each system. Each system incorpo- 
rates thermostats to maintain a normal operating 
temperature of 160-185F (71-85C). Typical engine 
cooling systems are shown in Figs. 18 and 19. 



Radiator Cooling System 



The engine coolant is drawn from the bottom of the 
radiator core by the water pump and is forced through 
the oil cooler and into the cylinder block. The coolant 
circulates up through the cylinder block into the 
cylinder head, then to the water manifold and 
thermostat housing. From the thermostat housing, the 



coolant returns to the radiator where it passes d 
series of tubes and is cooled by the air stream c; 
by the fan. 

When starting a cold engine or when the cool 
below operating temperature, the coolant is rest 
at the thermostat housing(s) and a by-pass pr< 
water circulation within the engine during the \ 
up period. 



Heat Exchanger Cooling System 

In the heat exchanger cooling system, the cool 
drawn by the circulating pump from the bottom < 
expansion tank through the engine oil cooler, 
through the engine the same as in the radiator an 
system. Upon leaving the thermostat housing 
coolant either passes through the heat exchange] 



BY-PASS RETURN 
WHILE THERMOSTAT 
IS CLOSED 



WATER IN 




12226 



Fig. 18 - Typical Cooling System for In-Line Engines 



passes the heat exchanger and flows directly to 
water pump, depending on the coolant 
rature. 

passing through the core of the heat exchanger, 
jolant temperature is lowered by raw water, 

is drawn by the raw water pump from an 
e supply. The raw water enters the heat 
ager at one side and is discharged at the 
ite side. 

Totect the heat exchanger element from 

>lytic action, a zinc electrode is located in both 

sat exchanger inlet elbow and the raw water 

inlet elbow and extends into the raw water 



The length of time a heat exchanger will function 
satisfactorily before cleaning will be governed by the 
kind of coolant used in the engine and the kind of raw 
water used. Soft water plus a rust inhibitor or a high 
boiling point type antifreeze should be used as the 
engine coolant. 

When foreign deposits accumulate in the heat 
exchanger to the extent that cooling efficiency is 
impaired, such deposits can, in most instances, be 
removed by circulating a flushing compound through 
the fresh water circulating system without removing 
the heat exchanger. If this treatment does not restore 
the engine's normal cooling characteristics, contact an 
authorized Detroit Diesel Allison Service Outlet. 




BY-PASS RETURN 

WHILE THERMOSTAT 

IS CLOSED 



WATER IN 



12220 



Fig. 19 Typical Cooling System for V-Type Engine 



Keel Cooling System 

The keel cooling system is similar to the heat 
exchanger system, except that the coolant temperature 
is reduced in the keel cooler. In this system, the 
coolant is drawn by the circulating pump from the 
bottom of the expansion tank through the engine oil 



cooler. From the cooler the flow is the same as i: 
other systems. Upon leaving the thermostat hoi 
the coolant is by-passed directly to the bottom o 
expansion tank until the engine operating tern 
ture, controlled by the thermostat, is reached. A 
engine temperature increases, the coolant is direct 
the keel cooler, where the temperature of the cooh 
reduced before flowing back to the expansion tank 



ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM MAINTENANCE 



The function of the engine coolant is to absorb the 
heat, developed as a result of the combustion process 
in the cylinders, from the component parts such as 
exhaust valves, cylinder liners and pistons which are 
surrounded by water jackets. In addition, the heat 
absorbed by the oil is also removed by the engine 
coolant in the oil-to-water oil cooler. 

For the recommended coolant, refer to Engine Coolant. 



Cooling System Capacity 

The capacity of the basic engine cooling system 
(cylinder block, head, thermostat housing and oil 
cooler housing) is shown in Table 1. 

To obtain the complete amount of coolant in the 
cooling system of an engine, the additional capacity of 
the radiator, hoses, etc. must be added to the capacity 
of the basic engine. The capacity of radiators and 
related equipment should be obtained from the 
equipment supplier. 



Fill Cooling System 

Before starting an engine, close all of the drain cocks 
and fill the cooling system completely. If the unit has a 
raw water pump, it should be primed, since operation 
without water may cause impeller failure. 



COOLING SYSTEM CAPACITY CHART 
(BASIC ENGINE) 


ENGINE 


CAPACITY 


Quarts 


Litres 


3-53 


8 


8 


4-53 


9 


9 


6V-53 


14 


13 



TABLE 1 



Start the engine and, after normal open 
temperature has been reached, allowing the coola 
expand to its maximum, check the coolant level, 
coolant level should be within 2 " of the top oJ 
filler neck. 

Should a daily loss of coolant be observed, and i 
are no apparent leaks, there is a possibility of \ 
leaking past the cylinder head water seal rings int 
cooling system. The presence of air or gases ir 
cooling system may be detected by connectii 
rubber tube from the overflow pipe to a v 
container. Bubbles in the water in the container di 
engine operation will indicate this leakage. An( 
method for observing air in the cooling system i 
inserting a transparent tube in the water outlet lini 



Drain Cooling System 

The engine coolant is drained by opening the cyli 
block and radiator (heat exchanger) drain cocks 
removing the cooling system filler cap. Removal o 
filler cap permits air to enter the cooling passages 
the coolant to drain completely from the system. 

Drain cocks or plugs are located on each side o; 
4-53 and 6V cylinder blocks. The 3-53 cylinder 1 
has a drain cock or plug located on the side ol 
block opposite the oil cooler. 

IMPORTANT: Drain cocks or plugs on both sid< 
of the engine must be opened to drain th 
engine completely. 

In addition- to the drains on the cylinder blocks, th 
line engines have a drain cock located on the be 
of the oil cooler housing. The V-type engines hav< 
drain cocks that must be opened when draining 
system. Radiators, etc., that do not have a drain 
are drained through the oil cooler housing drain. 

To insure that all of the coolant is drained comp] 
from an engine, all cooling system drains shou] 
opened. Should any entrapped water in the cyl: 
block or radiator freeze, it will expand and may < 
damage. When freezing weather is expected, dra: 



Engine Systems 



DETROIT I 



all of the drain cocks open until refilling the cooling 
system. 

The exhaust manifolds of marine engines are cooled 
by the same coolant used in the engine. Whenever the 
engine cooling system is drained, each exhaust 
manifold drain cock, located on the bottom near the 
exhaust outlet, must be opened. 

Raw water pumps are drained by loosening the cover 
attaching screws. It may be necessary to tap the raw 
water pump cover gently to loosen it. After the water 
has been removed, tighten the screws. 



Flushing 

The cooling system should be flushed each spring and 
fall. The flushing operation cleans the system of 
antifreeze solution in the spring and removes the 
summer rust inhibitor in the fall, preparing the 
cooling system for a new solution. The flushing 
operation should be performed as follows: 

1. Drain the previous season's solution from the 
engine. 

2. Refill the cooling system with soft clean water. If the 
engine is hot, fill slowly to prevent rapid cooling and 
distortion of the engine castings. 

3. Start the engine and operate it for 15 minutes to 
circulate the water thoroughly. 

4. Drain the cooling system completely. 

5. Refill the system with the solution required for the 
coming season. 



Cooling System Cleaners 

If the engine overheats and the fan belt tension and 
water level are satisfactory, clean and flush the entire 
cooling system. Remove scale formation by using a 
quality de-scaling solvent. Immediately after using the 
solvent, neutralize the system with the neutralizer. It is 
important that the directions printed on the container 
of the de-scaling solvent be thoroughly read and 
followed. 

After the solvent and neutralizer have been used, 
completely drain the engine and radiator and reverse- 
flush before filling the cooling system. 



pump should be removed and the radiator am 
reverse-flushed separately to prevent dirt ai 
deposits clogging the radiator tubes or bein^ 
through the pump. Reverse-flushing is accorj 
by hot water, under air pressure, being forced 
the cooling system in a direction opposite 
normal flow of coolant, loosening and forci] 
deposits out. 

The radiator is reverse-flushed as follows: 

1. Remove the radiator inlet and outlet ho 
replace the radiator cap. 

2. Attach a hose at the top of the radiator 
water away from the engine. 

3. Attach a hose to the bottom of the radis 
insert a flushing gun in the hose. 

4. Connect the water hose of the gun to tr. 
outlet and the air hose to the compressed air 01 

5. Turn on the water and, when the radiatoi 
turn on the air in short blasts, allowing the ra< 
fill between air blasts. 

CAUTION: Apply air gradually. Do not 
more than 30 psi (207 kPa) air pressure, 
great a pressure may rupture a radiator tub 

6. Continue flushing until only clean water is 
from the radiator. 

The cylinder block and cylinder head water 
are reverse-flushed as follows: 

1 . Remove the thermostat and the water pump 

2. Attach a hose to the water inlet of the cylind 
to drain the water away from the engine. 

3. Attach a hose to the water outlet at the to 
cylinder block and insert the flushing gun in th 

4. Turn on the water and, when the water ja< 
filled, turn on the air in short blasts, allov 
engine to fill with water between air blasts. 

5. Continue flushing until the water from th< 
runs clean. 

If scale deposits in the radiator cannot be ren 



Miscellaneous Cooling System Checks 

n addition to the above cleaning procedures, the other 
omponents of the cooling system should be checked 
leriodically to keep the engine operating at peak 
fficiency. The thermostat and the radiator pressure 
ap should be checked and replaced, if found 
lefective. The cooling system hoses should be 
nspected and any hose that feels abnormally hard or 
oft should be replaced immediately. 

dso, check the hose clamps to make sure they are 
ight. All external leaks should be corrected as soon as 
[elected. The fan belt must be adjusted to provide the 
iroper tension, and the fan shroud must be tight 
gainst the radiator core to prevent re-circulation of 
ir which may lower cooling efficiency. 



Water Pump 

^ centrifugal-type water pump is mounted on top of 
he engine oil cooler housing, either on the right-hand 
>r left-hand side of the engine, depending upon the 
ngine model and rotation. It circulates the coolant 
hrough the cooling system. 

lie pump is belt driven, by either the camshaft or 
lalance shaft (In-line engines) or by one of the 
amshafts (V-type engines). 

to impeller is pressed onto one end of the water 
tump shaft, and a water pump drive pulley is pressed 
into the opposite end. The pump shaft is supported on 
i sealed double-row combination radial and thrust ball 
tearing. Coolant is prevented from creeping along the 
haft toward the bearing by a seal. The shaft and 
tearing constitute an assembly and are serviced as 
uch, since the shaft serves as the inner race of the ball 
tearing. 

"he sealed water pump shaft ball bearing is filled with 
ubricant when assembled. No further lubrication is 
equired. 

Contact an authorized Detroit Diesel Allison Service 
Outlet if more information is needed. 



law Water Pump 

lie raw water pump (Figs. 20 and 21) is a positive 
lisplacement pump, used for circulating raw water 
hrough the heat exchanger to lower the temperature 
>f the engine coolant. It is driven by a coupling from 
he end of the camshaft. 

leal failure is readily noticed by a flow of water 
isible at the openings in the raw water pump housing, 
ocated between the pump mounting flange and the 



CAM DOWEL IMPELLER SEAL SLINGER GASKET 
SEAL RING 



PUMP 
ADAPTOR 



HOUSING PLATE SPACER SHAFT BEARING 




Fig. 20 Raw Water Pump Used on In-Line 
Engine 

inlet and outlet ports. These openings must remai 
open at all times. 

The impeller, cam and wear plate assembly, and wate 
seal assembly may be serviced without removing th 
pump from the engine as outlined below. 

1 . Remove the cover and gasket. 

2. Note the position of the impeller blades to aid i 
the reassembly. Then grasp a blade on each side of th 
impeller with pliers and pull the impeller off of th 
shaft. 



3. The neoprene spline seal(s) can be removed froi 
the impeller by pushing a screw driver through ih 
impeller from the open end. 



HOUSING CAM DOWEL SLINGER BEARING GASKET 

SEAL 




COVER 



/ IMPELLER WEAR 

GASKET SEAL ASSY. PLATE SHAFT BEARING 



Fig. 21 - Raw Water Pump Used on V-Type 
Engine 



Engine Systems 



DETROIT Dl 



CAUTION: If the impeller is reuseable, exercise 
care to prevent damage to the splined surfaces. 

4. Remove the cam retaining screw and withdraw the 
cam and wear plate assembly. 

5. Remove the seal assembly from the pump used on a 
V-type engine by inserting two wires with hooked ends 
between the pump housing and seal with the hooks 
over the edge of the carbon seal. Remove the seal seat 
and gasket in the same way. 

6. The seal may be removed from the pump used on 
the In-line engine by drilling two holes in the seal case 
and placing metal screws in the holes so that they may 
be grasped and pulled with pliers. Then remove the 
rubber seal ring. 

7. Clean and inspect the impeller, cam and wear plate 
assembly and water seal. The impeller must have a 
good bond between the neoprene and the metal. If the 
impeller blades are damaged, worn or have taken a 
permanent set, replace the impeller. Reverse the wear 
plate if it is worn excessively and remove any burrs. 
Replace the seal, if necessary. 

8. Install the seal assembly in the pump used on a 
V-type engine as follows: 

a. If the seal seat and gasket were removed, place the 
gasket and seal seat over the shaft, and press them 
into position in the seal cavity. 

b. Place the seal ring securely in the ferrule, and with 
the carbon seal and washer correctly positioned 
against the ferrule, slide the ferrule over the shaft 
and against the seal seat. Use care to ensure that 
the seal ring is contained within the ferrule so 
that it grips the shaft. 

c. Install the flat washer and then the marcel washer. 



A new seal may be installed in the pump used < 
In-Line engine by placing the rubber seal ring 
groove, starting the seal (with the lip facin 
impeller cavity) over the shaft and tapping i 
place against the seal spacer. 

9. Install the cam and wear plate assembly. 

NOTE: The wear plate is round and is dowel 
to the cam. The wear plate must be install 
with the cam in the pump housing as 
assembly. 

10. Apply a non-hardening sealant to the 
retaining screw and the hole in the pump be 
prevent any leakage. Then hold the cam wil 
tapped hole aligned and secure it with the screw. 

11. Compress the impeller blades to clear the 
cam and press the impeller on the splined shaf 
blades must be correctly positioned to folio 
direction of rotation. 

12. Install the neoprene splined seal(s) in the b 
the impeller. 

13. Turn the impeller several revolutions in the n 
direction of rotation to position the blades. 

14. Affix a new gasket and install the pump covei 

The Jabsco raw water pump is equipped v 
synthetic rubber impeller. Since synthetic rubbe: 
its elasticity at low temperatures, impellers mi 
natural rubber should be installed when it is nee 
to pump raw water that has a temperature below 



The natural rubber impeller can be identified 
stripe of green paint between two of the in 
blades. 



ENGINE EQUIPMENT 



INSTRUMENT PANEL, INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 



Die instruments (Fig. 1) generally required in the 
>peration of a diesel engine consist of an oil pressure 
>age, a water temperature gage, an ammeter and a 
mechanical tachometer. Also, closely related and 
asually installed in the general vicinity of these 
instruments are certain controls consisting of an 
;ngine starter switch, an engine stop knob, an 
jmergency stop knob and, on certain applications, the 
engine hand throttle. 

Forqmatic converters are equipped with an oil 
pressure gage and, in some instances, an oil 
:emperature gage. These instruments are mounted on 
a separate panel. 



Oil Pressure Gage 

rhe oil pressure gage registers the pressure of the 
lubricating oil in the engine. As soon as the engine is 
started, the oil pressure gage should start to register. If 
the oil pressure gage does not register at least the 
minimum pressure listed under Running in the Engine 
Operating Instructions, the engine should be stopped 
and the cause of low oil pressure determined and 
:orrected before the engine is started again. 



Water Temperature Gage 

The engine coolant temperature is registered on the 
^ater temperature gage. 




Fig. 1 Typical Instrument Panel 



Ammeter 

An ammeter is incorporated into the electrical circui 
to show the current flow to and from the battery. Afte 
starting the engine, the ammeter should register a hig] 
charge rate at rated engine speed. This is the rate o 
charge received by the battery to replenish the curren 
used to start the engine. As the engine continues t 
operate, the ammeter should show a decline in charg 
rate to the battery. The ammeter will not show zer< 
charge rate since the regulator voltage is set highe 
than the battery voltage. The small current registerei 
prevents rapid brush wear in the battery-chargin, 
alternator. If lights or other electrical equipment ar 
connected into the circuit, the ammeter will sho\ 
discharge when these items are operating or th 
engine speed is reduced. 



Tachometer 

The tachometer is driven by the engine and register 
the speed of the engine in revolutions per minut 
(rpm). 



Engine Starting Motor Switch 

The starting switch is mounted on the instrumen 
panel with the contact button extending through th 
front face of the panel. The switch is used to energiz 
the starting motor. As soon as the engine starts, releas 
the switch. 



Stop Knob 

A stop knob is used on most applications to shut th 
engine down. When stopping an engine, the spec 
should be reduced to idle and the engine allowed t 
operate at idle, for a few minutes to permit the coolar 
to reduce the temperature of the engine's movin 
parts. Then the stop knob should be pulled and hel 
until the engine stops. Pulling on the stop kno 
manually places the injector racks in the "no-fuel 
position. The stop knob should be returned to ii 
original position after the engine stops. 



Emergency Stop Knob 

In an emergency or if after pulling the stop knob, th 



may be pulled to stop the engine. The emergency stop opened for restarting after the malfunction h 

knob, when pulled, will trip the air shut-off valve corrected, 
located between the air inlet housing and the blower 
and shut off the air supply to the engine. Lack of air 

will prevent further combustion of the fuel and stop Throttle Control 

the engine. Tlie en g ine t h rott i e i s connected to the governc 

control shaft through linkage. Movement of t'h 

The emergency stop knob must be pushed back in control shaft changes the speed setting of the g 

after the engine stops so the air shut-off valve can be and thus the engine speed. 



ENGINE PROTECTIVE SYSTEMS 



MANUAL SHUT-DOWN SYSTEM 



fhe manually operated emergency engine shut-down 
levice, mounted in the air inlet housing, is used to 
top the engine in the event an abnormal condition 
hould arise. If the engine continues to run after the 
mgine throttle is placed in the no-fuel position, or if 
ombustible liquids or gases are accidentally intro- 
luced into the combustion chamber causing over- 
peeding of the engine, the shut-down device will 
>reye'nt damage to the engine by cutting off the air 
upply and thus stopping the engine. 



The shut-down device consists of an air shut-off valv 
mounted in the air inlet housing which is retained ii 
the open position by a latch. A cable assembly is use< 
to remotely trip the latch. Pulling the emergency shut 
down knob all the way out will stop the engine. Afte 
the engine stops, the emergency shut-down knob mus 
be pushed all the way in and the air shut-off valv 
manually reset before the engine can be started again. 



AUTOMATIC MECHANICAL SHUT-DOWN SYSTEM 



Phe automatic mechanical shut-down system illus- 
rated in Fig. 2 is designed to stop the engine if there 
s a loss of oil pressure, loss of engine coolant, 
iverheating of the engine coolant, or overspeeding of 
he engine. Engine oil pressure is utilized to activate 
he components of the system. 

V coolant temperature-sensing valve and an adaptor 
ind copper plug assembly are mounted on the exhaust 



manifold outlet. The power element of the tempera 
ture-sensing valve is placed against one end of tru 
copper plug, and the other end of the plug extend 
into the exhaust manifold. Engine coolant is directe< 
through the adaptor and passes over the powe 
element of the valve. Engine oil, under pressure, i 
directed through a restricted fitting to the temperature 
sensing valve and to an oil pressure actuated bellow 
located on the air inlet housing. 



.055" 

RESTRICTED 
ELBOW 



OIL FROM 
OIL GALLERY. 



WATER TO 

WATER PUMP 

INLET 



OIL PRESSURE 

ADJUSTMENT 

SCREW 



TEMPERATURE 

SENSING 

VALVE 




AIR 

SHUTDOWN 
VALVE 



PLUG AND 
ADAPTOR 
ASSEMBLY 

WATER FROM 

CYLINDER BLOCK 

WATER INLET E^LBOW 



12228 



Fig. 2 - Mechanical Shut-Down System Schematically Illustrated 



The pressure of the oil entering the bellows overcomes 
the tension of the bellows spring and permits the latch 
to retain the air shut-off valve in the open position. If 
the oil pressure drops below a predetermined value, 
the spring in the bellows will release the latch and 
permit the air shut-off valve to close and thus stop the 
engine. 

The overspeed governor, used on certain applications, 
consists of a valve actuated by a set of spring-loaded 
weights. Engine oil is supplied to the valve through a 
connection in the oil line between the bellows and the 
temperature-sensing valve. An outlet in the governor 
valve is connected to the engine oil sump. Whenever 
the engine speed exceeds the overspeed governor 
setting, the valve (actuated by the governor weights) is 
moved from its seat and permits the oil to flow to the 
engine sump. This decreases the oil pressure to the 
bellows, thus actuating the shut-down mechanism and 
stopping the engine. 

A restricted fitting, which will permit a drop in oil 
pressure great enough to actuate the shut-down 
mechanism, is required in the oil line between the 
cylinder block oil gallery and the shut-down sensing 
devices. 

To be sure the protective system will function properly 
if an abnormal engine condition occurs, have the 
system checked periodically by your local Detroit 
Diesel Allison Service Outlet. 

Also make sure the air shut-off valves close each time 
the engine is shut down. 



Operation 

To start an engine equipped with a mechanical 
down system, first manually open the air shut-ofl 
and then press the engine starting switch. As sc 
the engine starts, the starting switch may be re] 
but the air shut-off valve must be held in the 
position until the engine oil pressure inc 
sufficiently to permit the bellows to retain the la 
the open position. 

During operation, if the engine oil pressure 
below the setting of the pressure sensitive bellov 
spring within the bellows will release the late 
permit the air shut-off valve to close, thus stoppi 
engine. 

If the engine coolant overheats, the tempei 
sensing valve will open and permit the oil : 
protective system to flow to the engine crankcas 
resulting decrease in oil pressure will actuate the 
down mechanism and stop the engine. Also 
engine loses its coolant, the copper plug will be ] 
up by the hot exhaust gases passing over it and 
the temperature-sensing valve to open and actui 
shut-down mechanism. 

Whenever the engine speed exceeds the ove 
governor (if used) setting, the oil in the line fl 
the sump, resulting in a decrease in oil pressur 
oil pressure bellows then releases the latch and p 
the air shut-off valve to close. 

When an engine is stopped by the action of th< 
down system, the engine cannot be started agaii 
the particular device which actuated the shul 
mechanism has returned to its normal positio; 
abnormal condition which caused the engine to sto 
be corrected before attempting to start it again. 



AUTOMATIC ELECTRICAL SHUT-DOWN SYSTEM 



The automatic electrical shut-down system shown in 
Fig. 3 protects the engine against a loss of coolant, 
overheating of the coolant, loss of oil pressure, or 
overspeeding. In the event one of the foregoing 
conditions arises, a switch will close the electrical 
circuit and energize the solenoid switch, causing the 
shut-down solenoid to release the air shut-down latch 
and stop the engine. 



Operation 

The electrical circuit is de-energized under normal 
operating conditions. When the engine is started, the 
oil pressure switch opens when the oil pressure reaches 
approximately 10 psi (69 kPa) and the fuel oil pressure 



switch closes at approximately 20 psi (138 kP? 
pressure. The water temperature switch remains 

If the oil pressure drops below 10 psi (69 kPa), 
pressure switch will close the circuit and energi 
shut-down solenoid. This will activate the shui 
mechanism and stop the engine. 

A loss of coolant or an increase in coolant tempt 
to approximately 203 F (95 C) will close the c< 
in the water temperature switch, thus closir 
electrical circuit and activating the shul 
mechanism. 

The water temperature switch consists of a tei 
ture-sensing valve and a micro-switch. The 
contacts a copper plug (heat probe) which exten 




OVERSPEED 
GOVERNOR 



LUBE OIL 
PRESSURE 
SWITCH 



STARTING 
MOTOR 12224 



Fig. 3 - Automatic Electrical Shut-Down System 
Diagram 

ic exhaust manifold outlet. Engine water is directed 
VCT the power element of the valve and should the 
ater temperature exceed approximately 203 F 
)5 C), the valve will close the contacts in the micro- 
vitch and energize the shut-down circuit. If a loss of 
ater occurs, the heat of the exhaust gases will be 
ansmitted through the copper plug to the tempera- 
ire-sensing valve and cause the shut-down circuit to 
e activated. 

' the engine speed exceeds the high speed setting of 
ic overspeed governor, the governor switch will close 
nd activate the shut-down mechanism. 

/hen the engine is shut-down, the decrease in speed 
ill open the governor switch, and the decrease in oil 
nd fuel pressures will close the oil pressure switch and 
pen the fuel pressure switch, thus de-energizing the 
ircuit 

he cause of the abnormal conditions must then be 
etermined and corrected before the engine is started 
gain. Also, the air shut-off valve must be manually 
;set in the open position before the engine can be 
arted. 



FUEL OIL PRESSURE 
SWITCH 



TO BATTERY 




LUBE OIL 

PRESSURE 

SWITCH 



HO WIRE 
RELAY 



3ZI WATER 

TEMPERATURE 
SWITCH 



SHUT- DOWN 
SOLENOID 

12225 



Fig. 4 - Automatic Electrical Shut-Down System 
Incorporating Hot Wire Relay 

Some engines are equipped with an electrically 
operated automatic shut-down system which incorpo- 
rates a hot wire relay (Fig. 4). 

Since the fuel pressure builds up rapidly, the fuel oil 
pressure switch could close before the lubricating oil 
pressure switch opens, and effect a shut-down of the 
engine. The hot wire relay, however, delays the closing 
of the fuel oil pressure switch for several seconds to 
enable the lubricating oil pressure to build up and 
open the oil pressure switch contacts. 

When the lubricating oil pressure falls below 10 2 psi 
(69 14 kPa), the contacts in the oil pressure switch 
used in this system will close and current will flow 
through the hot wire relay to the solenoid. The few 
seconds required to heat the hot wire relay provides 
sufficient delay to avoid an engine shut-down when low 
oil pressure is caused by a temporary condition such as 
an air bubble or a temporary overlap in the operation 
of the oil pressure switch and the fuel oil pressure 
switch when starting or stopping the engine. 

The water temperature switch, which remains open 
during normal engine operation, is installed in the side 
of the thermostat housing. The switch contacts close 
when the water temperature reaches approximately 
205 F (96 C) and activate the shut-down solenoid. 



Engine Equipment 



DETROIT 



ALARM SYSTEM 



ALARM 



OIL 

PRESSURE 
SWITCH 



WATER TEMP 
SWITCH 



WIRING NOT FURNISHED 

WITH ENGINE. 
USE #14 STRANDED 
WIRE. 




ALARM BELL 



TAP BATTERY 12227 
12 TO 16 VOLTS 



Fig. 5 - Alarm System Wiring Diagram 



The alarm system shown in Fig. 5 is simi 
automatic electrical shut-down system, bi 
warning bell in place of the air shut-off valv< 
The bell warns the engine operator if t] 
coolant overheats or the oil pressure drops 
safe operating limit. 



When the engine is started and the oil p 
sufficient to open the oil pressure switct 
(opening pressure is stamped on the switch < 
alarm switch must be turned on manually 
system in operation. The water temperature 
normally open. Should the engine coola 
205 5F (96~15C), the water te 
switch will close the electrical circuit and 
alarm bell. Likewise, if the oil pressure dr 
the setting of the oil pressure switch, the s 
close and cause the bell to ring. The bell wil 
to ring until the engine operator turns i 
switch off. The alarm switch must also be 
before a routine stop since the decreasing oi 
will close the oil pressure switch and cause i 
ring. 

If the alarm bell rings during engine open 
the engine immediately and determine the 
the abnormal condition. Make the necessary i 
before starting the engine again. 



STARTING SYSTEMS 



ELECTRICAL STARTING SYSTEM 



The electrical system on the engine generally consists 
of a battery-charging alternator, a starting motor, 
voltage regulator, storage battery, starter switch and 
the necessary wiring. Additional electrical equipment 
may be installed on the engine unit at the option of 
the owner. 



Starting Motor 

The starting motor has a Sprag overrunning clutch. 
Pressing the starting switch engages the starting motor 
pinion with the teeth of the flywheel ring gear and 
energizes the starting motor. The starting motor drives 
the pinion and rotates the crankshaft. When the 
engine begins to operate, the Sprag clutch permits the 
pinion to overrun on its shaft, until the starting switch 
is released, and prevents overspeeding the starting 
motor. 



Starter Switch 

To start the engine, a switch is used to energize the 
starting motor. Release the switch immediately after 
the engine starts. 



Alternator 

The battery-charging alternator provides the electrical 
current required to maintain the storage battery in a 
charged condition and to supply sufficient current to 
carry any other electrical load requirements up to the 
rated capacity of the alternator. 



Regulator 

A voltage regulator is introduced into the electrical 
system to regulate the voltage and current output of 
the battery-charging alternator and to maintain a fully 
charged storage battery. 



Storage Battery 

The lead-acid storage battery is an electroch 
device for converting chemical energy into ele 
energy. 

The battery has three major functions: 

1. It provides a source of electrical power for si 
the engine. 

2. It acts as a stabilizer to the voltage in the ele 
system. 

3. It can, for a 'limited time, furnish current wh 
electrical demands of the unit exceed the output 
alternator. 

The battery is a perishable item which re 
periodic servicing. A properly cared for battej 
give long and trouble-free service. 

1. Check the level of the electrolyte regularly 
water if necessary, but do not overfill. Overfillii 
cause poor performance or early failure. 

2. Keep the top of the battery clean. When neci 
wash with a baking soda solution and rinse with 
water. Do not allow the soda solution to enter the 

3. Inspect the cables, clamps and hold-down b 
regularly. Clean and re-apply a light coating of 
when needed. Replace corroded, damaged parts. 

4. Use the standard, quick in-the-unit battery i 
the regular service test to check battery condition 

5. Check the electrical system if the battery be 
discharged repeatedly. 

If the engine is to be stored for more than 30 
remove the battery. The battery should be store 
cool, dry place. Keep the battery fully charge 
check the level of the electrolyte regularly. 

The Lubrication and Preventive Maintenance sect 
this manual covers the servicing of the starting 
and alternator. 

Consult an authorized Detroit Diesel Allison i 
Outlet for information regarding the electrical sy 



HYDRAULIC STARTING SYSTEM (HYDROSTARTER) 



The Hydrostarter System schematically illustrated in 
Fig. 6 is a complete hydraulic system for starting 
internal combustion engines. The system is automati- 
cally recharged after each start, and can be manually 
recharged. The starting potential remains during long 
periods of inactivity, and continuous exposure to hot 
or cold climates has no detrimental effect upon the 
Hydrostarter system. Also, the Hydrostarter torque for 
a given pressure remains substantially the same 
regardless of the ambient temperature. 



The Hydrostarter system consists of a reservoir, an 
engine-driven charging pump, a hand pump, a piston 
type accumulator, a starting motor and connecting 
hoses and fittings. 



Operation 

Hydraulic fluid flows by gravity, or a slight vacuum, 
from the reservoir to either the engine-driven pump or 
the hand pump inlet. Fluid discharging from either 
pump outlet at high pressure flows into the 
accumulator and is stored at 3250 psi (22 383 kPa) 
under the pressure of compressed nitrogen gas. 

When the starter is engaged with the engine flywheel 



ring gear and the control valve is opened, fluic 
pressure is forced out of the accumulator, 
expanding nitrogen gas, and flows into the : 
motor which rapidly accelerates the engine to 
cranking speed. The used fluid returns directl) 
reservoir from the starter. 

The engine-driven charging pump runs conti: 
during engine operation and automatically re 
the accumulator. When the required pres: 
attained in the accumulator, a valve within thi 
body opens and the fluid discharged by the p 
by-passed to the reservoir. The system can 1 
down and the pressure in the accumulator 
maintained. 

The precharge pressure of the accumulator 
pressure of the nitrogen gas with whii 
accumulator is initially charged. This pressure ] 
checked before the system pressure is raised 
initial engine start. To check the precharge p 
open the relief valve, on the side of the hand 
approximately 1/2 turn, allowing the pressure 
return to zero. Close the relief valve and pump 
strokes on the hand pump. The gage should 
rapid pressure rise from zero to the r 
precharge pressure, where it will remain 
change for several additional strokes of the pur 



STARTER 




ENGINE INLET 
PUMP ELBOW 



HAND 
PUMP 



PRESSURE 
GAGE 



SUPPLY [ 
PRESSURE " 
RETURN 



12221 



Fig. 6 - Schematic Diagram of Hydrostarter System Showing Oil Flow 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Engine Equipmei 



I Initial Engine Start 

Use the hand pump to raise the accumulator pressure. 
An accumulator pressure of 1500 psi (10 335 kPa) 
when the ambient temperature is above 40 F (4C) 
will provide adequate cranking to start the engine. 
Between 40 F (4C) and 0F (-18 C), 2500 psi 
(17 225 kPa) should be sufficient. Below F (-18 C), 
the accumulator should be charged to the maximum 
recommended pressure. Although the Hydrostarter 
cranks the engine faster than other starting systems, 
starting aids should be used in cold weather. 

NOTE: Use the priming pump to make sure the 
filters, lines, manifolds and injectors are full of 
fuel before attempting to start the engine. 

For ambient temperatures below 40 F (4 C), use a 
fluid starting aid. Add the starting fluid just prior to 
moving the Hydrostarter lever and during the 
cranking cycle as required. Do not wait to add the 
starting fluid after the engine is turning over, 
otherwise the accumulator charge may be used up 
before the engine can start. In this case, the 
accumulator charge must be replaced with the hand 
pump. 

With the engine controls set for start (throttle at least 
half-open), push the Hydrostarter control lever to 
simultaneously engage the starter pinion with the 
flywheel ring gear and to open the control valve. Close 
the valve quickly when the engine starts, to conserve 
the accumulator pressure and prevent excessive 
overrunning of the starter drive clutch assembly. 

Three different basic types of flywheel ring gears are 
used; no chamfer, Bendix chamfer, or Dyer chamfer 
on the gear teeth. Some difficulty may be encountered 
in engaging the starter pinion with the Dyer 
chamfered ring gears. When this happens, it is 
necessary to disengage and re-engage until the starter 
pinion is cammed in the opposite direction enough to 
allow the teeth to mesh. 



ADJUST TO GIVE 
1.3) ' MAXIMUM 
TRAVEL AT "A" 




PEDAL RETURN 

SPRING 

(INITIAL TENSION 1 S LBS.) 



TO RESERVOIR 



" COPP6R OR STEEl 
TOM 




FROM 
ACCUMULATOR 



STARTER 
CONTROL VALVE 



n STARTER CONTROL 

LEVER RETURN 

SPRING 
(INITIAL TENSION 15 LiS.) 



12216 



Fig. 7 - Hydrostarter Remote Control System 

flywheel ring gear. Release the pedal as soon as 
engine starts. 

The Hydrostarter motor is equipped with a conl 
valve that incorporates a threaded valve housing p 
with a 1/8 "-27 tapped hole in the center 
installation of the flexible hose. A 1/8 "-27 pipe p 
is installed when the remote control system is not us 

Springs are used to return the master cylinder pe 
and the Hydrostarter control lever to the off positior 



Remote Control System 

The Hydrostarter remote control system (Fig. 7) 
consists of a master cylinder, a pedal, a lever arm, two 
springs and a flexible hose. It is an independent 
hydraulic system using diesel fuel oil as a hydraulic 
fluid to actuate the Hydrostarter control valve by 



Filling 

Remove the filler cap from the reservoir and ad< 
sufficient quantity of hydraulic fluid (a mixture of 1 
diesel fuel and 25% SAE 10 or 30 lubricating oil] 
fill the system. 



Equipment 



DETROIT DIESEL 



litres) capacity reservoir, add approximately 8 
8 litres) of hydraulic fluid, 10 quarts (9 litres) 
quart (11 litres) reservoir, 14 quarts (13 litres) 
quart (15 litres) reservoir or 21 quarts (20 
L a 23 quart (22 litres) reservoir. 

'E: When the accumulator is charged to 
psi (20 670 kPa) and all hoses are filled, 
; should be enough hydraulic fluid remain- 
in the reservoir to completely cover the 
:n in the bottom of the reservoir. 



ss valve is located on the inlet side of the hand 
Loosen the lock nut and rotate this valve 
mately one turn counterclockwise with a screw 
Dperate the hand pump for 12 to 15 complete 
Do not pump too rapidly. Close the by-pass 
;htly and tighten the lock nut. 

the starter control lever to engage the pinion 
5 flywheel and open the control valve. While 

the lever in this position, operate the hand 
ntil the starter has turned several revolutions. 
ie control valve. Loosen the swivel hose fitting 
ischarge side of the engine-driven pump about 
is. Operate the hand pump to force air out 

begins to appear at the loose fitting. Tighten 
r el hose fitting and pressurize the system with 
1 pump sufficiently to start the engine. 

arm the initial starting instructions under 
f ion for Starting Engine First Time. Then, with 
ine running at least 1500 rpm, purge the 
Iriven pump of air. Break the hose connection 
ischarge side of the engine driven-pump until 
tream of oil is discharged from the pump. 

the hose to the pump and alternately loosen 
iten the swivel fitting on the discharge hose 
e oil leaking out, when the fitting is loose, 

to be free of air bubbles. Tighten the fitting 

and observe the pressure gage. The pressure 
rise rapidly to the accumulator precharge 

(1250 psi or 10 413 kPa at 70 F or 21 C), 
rease slowly, reaching 2900 to 3300 psi (19 981 
7 kPa). 

the pressure has stabilized near 3000 psi 
kPa), examine all of the high pressure hoses, 
ons and fittings for leaks. 



the open reservoir filler spout. An occasional spurt of 
oil may be emitted from the hose prior to by-passing. 
When the by-pass valve opens, a full and continuous 
stream of oil will flow from the hose. Reconnect the 
hose to the reservoir and install the filler cap. 

5. Fill the reservoir to the proper level. 

The Hydrostarter remote control system may be 
purged of air as follows: 

1 . Fill the master cylinder with fuel oil. 

2. Loosen the hose fitting at the Hydrostarter control 
valve. 

3. Actuate the master cylinder pedal until all of the air 
is discharged from the system and a solid stream of 
fuel oil is being discharged with each stroke. 



NOTE: Replenish the 
cylinder as required 
operation. 



fluid in the master 
during the purging 



4. Tighten the hose fitting and check for leaks. 

LUBRICATION AND PREVENTIVE 
MAINTENANCE 

Inspect the system periodically for leaks. Primarily, 
examine the high pressure hoses, connections, fittings 
and the control valve on the starter. Make certain that 
the oil level in the reservoir is sufficient to completely 
cover the screen at the bottom of the tank. Make this 
check after the accumulator is charged and the engine 
driven pump is by-passing oil to the reservoir. 

Every 2000 hours, or as conditions warrant, drain the 
reservoir and remove the screen. Flush out the 
reservoir and clean the screen and filler cap. Then 
reinstall the screen. 

Remove the bowl and element from the filter in the 
engine-driven pump supply hose. Wash the bowl and 
element in clean fuel oil and reassemble the filter. 

Release the pressure and drain the remaining 
hydraulic fluid from the system by disconnecting the 
hoses from the Hydrostarter components. Then 
reconnect all of the hydraulic hoses. 

CAUTION: The oil pressure in the system must 
be released prior to servicing the Hydrostarter 
motor or other components to prevent possible 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Engine Equipmc 



Lubrication 

Remove the Hydrostarter from the engine every 2000 
hours for lubrication. Before removing the Hydro- 
starter, release the pressure in the system by means of 
the relief valve in the hand pump. Then remove the 
three bolts which retain the starting motor to the 
flywheel housing. Remove the starting motor without 
disconnecting the hydraulic oil hoses. This will prevent 
dirt and air from entering the hydraulic system. 

Apply a good quality, lightweight grease on the drive 
clutch pinion to make sure the clutch will slide freely 
while compressing the spring. Also apply grease to the 
fingers of the clutch fork and on the spool of the 
clutch yoke engaged by the fork. This lubrication 
period may be reduced or lengthened according to the 
severity of service. 

Remove the pipe plug from the starting motor drive 
housing and saturate the shaft oil wick with engine oil. 
Then reinstall the plug. 

After lubricating, install the starting motor on the 
flywheel housing and recharge the accumulator with 
the hand pump. 

On engines equipped with a hydraulic remote control 
system, lubricate the shaft in the master cylinder 
through the pressure grease fitting every 2000 hours. 



Cold Waather Operation 

Occasionally, when an engine is operated in regions of 
very low temperatures, the starter drive clutch 
assembly may slip when the starter is engaged. If the 
clutch slips, proceed as follows: 

1. Release the oil pressure in the system by opening 
the relief valve in the hand pump. 

CAUTION: The oil pressure in the system must 
be released prior to servicing the Hydrostarter 
motor or other components to prevent possible 
injury to personnel or equipment. 



2. Disconnect the hydraulic hoses from the star 
motor. 

3. Remove the three retaining bolts and lock was 
and withdraw the, starting motor from the flyw 
housing. 

4. Disassemble the starting motor. 

5. Wash the Hydrostarter drive clutch assembh 
clean fuel oil to remove the old lubricant. 

6. When the clutch is free, apply SAE 5W lubrica 
oil. 

7. Reassemble the starting motor and reinstall il 
the engine. Then attach a tag to the starter noting 
lubricant used in the clutch. 

8. Recharge the accumulator with the hand pump. 



Marine Application 

In addition to the normal Hydrostarter lubrication 
maintenance instructions, the following special pre< 
tions must be taken for marine installations or o 
cases where equipment is subject to salt spray and 
or other corrosive atmospheres: 

1 . Clean all exposed surfaces and apply a coat of 2 
chromate primer, followed by a coat of suitable pai 

2. Apply a liberal coating of Lubriplate, type 130- 
or equivalent, to the following surfaces. 

a. The exposed end of the starter control valve 

around the control shaft where it passes thrc 
the clutch housing. 

b. The exposed ends of the hand pump cam pin. 

3. Operate all of the moving parts and check 
protective paint and lubrication every week. 

Consult an authorized Detroit Diesel Allison Sei 
Outlet for any information relating to the Hydros^ 
system. 



COLD WEATHER STARTING AIDS 



In a diesel engine, the fuel injected into the 
combustion chamber is ignited by the heat of the air 
compressed into the cylinder. However, when starting 



necessary to use an air heater or a starting flui 
assist ignition of the fuel. 



Engine Equipment 



DETROIT DIESEL 



the heat of compression to ignite the fuel-air 
mixture. 

FLUID STARTING AID 

The fluid starting aid (Fig. 8) is designed to inject a 
highly volatile fluid into the air intake system at low 
ambient temperatures to assist in igniting the fuel oil 
injected. The fluid is contained in suitable capsules to 
facilitate handling. 

The starting aid consists of a cylindrical capsule 
container with a screw cap, inside of which a sliding 
piercing shaft operates. A tube leads from the capsule 
container to a hand operated pump and another tube 
leads to the atomizing nozzle threaded into a tapped 
hole in the air inlet housing. 

The capsule container should be mounted in a vertical 
position and away from any heat. 

Start the engine, using the fluid starting aid, as 
follows: 

1 . Remove the threaded cap and insert a fluid capsule 
in an upright position within the container. 




PUMP 
INLET 
TUBE 



wpim,^.* 

. VV.'V-PUJG 



Fig. 8 Typical Fluid Starting Aid 



CAUTION: The starting fluid is toxic and 
inflammable. Use caution when handling. 

2. Pull the piercing shaft all the way out and install 
and tighten the cap on the container. 

3. Push the piercing shaft all the way down. This will 
rupture the capsule and fill the container with the 
starting fluid. 

4. Move the engine throttle to the maximum speed 
position. 

5. Engage the starter and at the same time pull the 
pump plunger all the way out. Push the plunger in 
slowly, forcing the starting fluid through the atomizing 
nozzle into the air intake. Continue to push the pump 
in until the engine starts. If the plunger is not all the 
way in when the engine starts, push it in slowly until it 
locks in the IN position. 

6. Unscrew the cap and remove the capsule. Do not 
leave the empty capsule in the container. 

7. Replace the cap on the capsule container and make 
sure the piercing shaft is all the way down. 



Service 

The cold weather fluid starting aid will require very 
little service. Replace the piston seal packing if the 
pump leaks. If there is an excessive resistance to 
pumping, the nozzle may be plugged. Remove the 
nozzle and clean it. 



PRESSURIZED CYLINDER STARTING AID 

Start the engine during cold weather, using the "Quick 
Start" starting aid system (Fig. 9) as follows: 



1 . Press the engine starter button. 

2. Pull out the "Quick Start" knob for one or two 
seconds, then release it. 

3. Repeat the procedure if the engine does not start on 
the first attempt. 

CAUTION: Do not crank the engine more than 
30 seconds at a time when using an electric 
starting motor. Always allow one minute 
intervals between cranking attempts to allow 
the starting motor to cool. 





Page 42 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Engine Equipment 




FUND 
CYUNDER 




VALVE 
LEVER 



Fig. 9 - Quick-Start Assembly 



Service 

Periodically perform the following service items to 
assure good performance: 

1. Remove the fluid cylinder and lubricate the valve 
around the pusher pin under the gasket with a few 
drops of oil. 

2. Lubricate the actuator cable. 

3. Actuate the valve with the cable to distribute the oil 
on the cable and allow the oil to run down through the 
valve. 

4. Remove any dirt from the orifice by removing the 
air inlet housing fitting, the orifice block and the 
screen. Then blow air through the orifice end only. 

5. Assemble and tighten the air inlet housing fitting to 
the actuator valve and tube. 

6. Check for leakage of fluid (fogging) on the outside 
of the engine air inlet housing by actuating the 
starting aid while the engine is stopped. If fogging 
occurs, disassemble and retighten the air inlet housing 
fitting to the housing. 

CAUTION: Do not actuate the starting aid more 
than once with the engine stopped. Over-loading 
the engine air box with this high volatile fluid 
could result in a minor explosion. 

1. Check the fluid cylinder for hand tightness. 



Page 43 



Engine Equipment 



DETROIT DIESEL 



GOVERNORS 




Horsepower requirements of an engine may vary 
continually due to the fluctuating loads; therefore, 
some means must be provided to control the amount 
of fuel required to hold the engine speed reasonably 
constant during such load fluctuations. To accomplish 
this control, one of three types of governors is used on 
the engines. Installations requiring maximum and 
minimum speed control, together with manually 
controlled intermediate speeds, ordinarily use a 
limiting speed mechanical governor. Applications 
requiring a near constant engine speed under varying 
load conditions, that may be changed by the operator, 
are equipped with a variable speed mechanical 
governor. The hydraulic governor is used where 
uniform engine speed is required under varying load 
conditions with a minimum speed droop. 



Lubrication 

The mechanical governors are lubricated by oil splash 
from the engine gear train. Oil entering the governor 



is directed by the revolving governor weights to the 
various moving parts requiring lubrication. 

The hydraulic governor is lubricated by oil under 
pressure from the engine. 



Service 

Governor difficulties are usually indicated by speed 
variations of the engine. However, speed fluctuations 
are not necessarily caused by the governor and, 
therefore, when improper speed variations become 
evident, the unit should be checked for excessive load, 
misfiring or bind in the governor operating linkage. If 
none of these conditions are contributing to faulty 
governor operation, contact an authorized Detroit 
Diesel A llison Service Outlet. 



TRANSMISSIONS 



POWER TAKE-OFF ASSEMBLIES 



The front and rear power take-off units are basically 
similar in design, varying in clutch size to meet the 
requirements of a particular application. The power 
take-off unit is attached to either an adaptor (front 
power take-off) or the engine flywheel housing (rear 
power take-off). 



Clutch Adjustment 

These instructions refer to field adjustment for clutch 
facing wear. Frequency of adjustment depends upon 
the amount and nature of the load. To ensure a long 
clutch facing life and the best performance, the clutch 
should be adjuste<i~before slippage occurs. 

When the clutch is properly adjusted, a heavy pressure 
is required at the outer end of the hand lever to move 
the throwout linkage to the "over center" or locked 
position. 

Adjust the clutch as follows: 

1. Disengage the clutch with the hand lever. 

2. Remove the inspection hole cover to expose the 
clutch adjusting ring. Rotate the clutch, if necessary, to 
bring the adjusting ring lock within reach. 

Page 44 



3. Remove the clutch adjusting ring spring lock screw 
and lock from the inner clutch pressure plate and 
adjusting ring. Then, while holding the clutch drive 
shaft to prevent the clutch from turning, turn the 
clutch adjusting ring counterclockwise as shown in 
Fig. 10 and tighten the clutch until the desired 
pressure on the outer end of the hand lever, or at the 




Fig. 10 Adjusting Clutch 




DETROIT DIESEL 



Engine Equipment 




.Clutch 


Hand Lever 


Pressure 


Torque 


Diameter 


Length 


PSI 


kPa 


Ib-ft 


Nm 


8" 


15 1/2" 


55 


379 


56-63 


76-85 


10" 


15 1/2" 


80 


552 


87-94 


113-127 


Ml 1/2" 


153/8" 


TOO 


689 


129 


175 


11 1/2" 


20" 


105 


724 


112-120 


152-163 



*Twin Disc Clutch 



TABLE 1 



clutch release shaft (Fig. 11), is obtained as shown in 
Table 1. 

When properly adjusted, the approximate pressure 
required at the outer end of the hand lever to engage 
the various diameter clutches is shown in the table. 
These specifications apply only with the hand lever 
which is furnished with the power take-off. 

A suitable spring scale may be used to check the 
pounds pressure required to engage the clutch. 
However, a more* accurate method of checking the 
clutch adjustment is with a torque wrench as shown in 
Fig. 11. 

To fabricate an adaptor, saw the serrated end off of a 
clutch hand lever and weld a 1-1/8" nut (across the 
hex) on it as shown in Fig. 11. Then saw a slot 
through the nut. 

When checking the clutch adjustment with a torque 
wrench, engage the clutch slowly and note the amount 
of torque immediately before the clutch engages (goes 
over center). The specified torque is shown in Table 1 . 

CAUTION: The thrust load on the bronze clutch 
release bearing should be kept at an absolute 
minimum. Therefore, the hand lever should be 
positioned on the shaft as near the 12 o'clock or 
6 o'clock position as possible. The 9 and 3 
o'clock positions are to be avoided. 




Fig. 11 - Checking Clutch Adjustment with a 
Torque Wrench and Adaptor 

Make a final clutch adjustment with the engine 
running as follows: 

1. Start the engine and operate it at idling speed 
(approximately 500 rpm) with the clutch disengaged. 
The speed will be sufficient to move the segments out 
to the operating position. 

2. Check the pressure required to engage the clutch. 
The engagement pressure should be the same as that 
following the adjustment. If the clutch engages at a 
lower pressure, the adjustment was probably made 
against the unworn portion of the facing. 

3. Stop the engine and readjust the clutch, making sure 
all disc segments are properly positioned. Install the 
inspection hole cover. 



TORQMATIC CONVERTERS 



ft 



The Torqmatic converter is a self contained unit which 
transfers and multiplies the torque of the prime 
mover. This unit transmits the power through the 
action of oil instead of through gears and in addition 
to multiplying the torque also acts as a fluid coupling 
between the engine and the equipment to be powered. 
The converter will automatically adjust the output 
torque to load requirements. 

There are various combinations of Torqmatic 
converters with features such as: an automotive or 
industrial flange on the shaft, a hydraulically operated 



lock-up clutch, a manual input disconnect clutch, and 
an accessory drive for either a governor or tachometer. 

Check the oil level daily. If the converter is equipped 
with an input disconnect clutch, additional checks and 
service will be necessary daily or at intervals 
determined by the type of operation. 

Adjust the disconnect clutches as outlined under power 
take-off clutch adjustment. 

Contact an authorized Detroit Diesel Allison Service 
Outlet for service on Torqmatic converters. 



Page 45 



Engine Equipment 



DETROIT DIESEL 



WARNER MARINE GEAR 



The Warner hydraulic marine gear assembly consists 
of a hydraulically operated multiple disc clutch in 
combination with a hydraulically actuated reversing 
gear train, an oil pressure regulator, an oil sump 
independent of the engine oil system and an oil cooler 
mounted on the engine. 

Oil pressure for the operation of the marine gear is 
provided by an oil pump incorporated within the gear 
housing and driven continuously while the engine is 
running. The oil is delivered under pressure from the 
pump to a combination marine gear control valve and 
pressure regulator valve. 

The pressure regulator valve maintains constant 
pressure over a wide speed range and the control valve 
directs the oil under pressure to either the forward or 
reverse piston cylinder. The operating oil pressure 
range for the marine gear at operating speed is 120 to 
140 psi (827 to 965 kPa) and the maximum oil 
temperature is 225 F (107C). Minimum oil pressure 
is 100 psi (689 kPa) at idle speed (600 rpm). 

Shifting from forward to reverse drive through neutral 



may be made at any speed; however, it is advisable to 
shift at low speeds, below 1000 engine rpm, to avoid 
damage to the engine, reverse gear or shaft. 

The marine reverse and reduction gear is lubricated by 
pressure and splash. The quantity of oil in the marine 
gear will vary with the inclination of the engine and 
must be properly maintained to the full mark on the 
dipstick to ensure satisfactory operation. 

It is recommended that vessels utilizing a marine gear 
have a suitable locking device or brake to prevent 
rotation of the propeller shaft when the vessel is not 
under direct propulsion. If the marine gear is not in 
operation and the forward motion of the vessel causes 
the propeller shaft to rotate, lubricating oil will not be 
circulated through the gear because the oil pump is 
not in operation. Overheating and damage to the 
marine gear may result unless rotation of the propeller 
shaft is prevented. 

Consult an authorized Detroit Diesel Allison Service 
Outlet for major repairs or reconditioning of the 
marine gear. 





Page 46 



DETROIT DIESEL 



OPIHAT9NG INSTRUCTIONS 



ENGINE OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS 



I 



PREPARATION FOR STARTING ENGINE 
FIRST TIME 

Before starting an engine for the first time, carefully 
read and follow these instructions. Attempting to run 
the engine before studying these instructions may 
result in serious damage to the engine. 

NOTE: When preparing to start a new or 
overhauled engine or an engine which has been 
in storage, perform all of the operations listed 
below. Before a routine start (at each shift), see 
Daily Operations in the Lubrication and 
Preventive Maintenance Chart. 



Cooling System 

Install all of the drain cocks or plugs in the cooling 
system (drain cocks are removed for shipping). 

Open the cooling system vents, if the engine is so 
equipped. 

Remove the filler cap and fill the cooling system with 
clean, soft water or a protective solution consisting of 
high boiling point type antifreeze, if the engine will be 
exposed to freezing temperatures. Refer to Engine 
Coolant. Keep the liquid level about two inches below 
the filler neck to allow for fluid expansion. 

Use a quality rust inhibitor if only water is used in the 
cooling system. 

Close the vents, if used, after filling the cooling 
system. 

On marine installations, prime the raw water cooling 
system and open any sea cocks in the raw water pump 
intake line. Prime the raw water pump by removing 
the pipe plug or electrode provided in the pump outlet 
elbow and pour water in the pump. 

CAUTION: Failure to prime the raw water pump 
may result in damage to the pump impeller. 



Lubrication System 

The lubricating oil film on the rotating parts and 
bearings of a new or overhauled engine, or one which 
has been in storage, may be insufficient for proper 
lubrication when the engine is started for the first 
time. 



It is recommended that the engine lubricating system 
be charged with a pressure prelubricator, set to supply 
a minimum of 25 psi (172 kPa) oil pressure, to ensure 
an immediate flow of oil to all bearings at the initial 
engine start-up. The oil supply line should be attached 
to the engine so that oil under pressure is supplied to 
the main oil gallery. 

With the oil pan dry, use the prelubricator to prime 
the engine with sufficient oil to reach all bearing 
surfaces. Use heavy-duty lubricating oil as specified 
under Lubricating Oil Specifications. Then remove the 
dipstick, wipe it with a clean cloth, insert and remove 
it again to check the oil level in the oil pan. Add 
sufficient oil, if necessary, to bring it to the full mark 
on the dipstick. Do not overfill. 

If a pressure prelubricator is not available, fill the 
crankcase to the proper level with heavy-duty 
lubricating oil as specified. Then pre-lubricate the 
upper engine parts by removing the valve rocker 
covers and pouring lubricating oil, of the same grade 
and viscosity as used in the crankcase, over the rocker 
arms. 



Turbocharger 

Disconnect the turbocharger oil inlet line and pour 
approximately one pint of clean engine oil in the line, 
thus making sure the bearings are lubricated for the 
initial start. Reconnect the oil line. 



Air Cleaner 

If the engine is equipped with oil bath air cleaners, fill 
the air cleaner oil cups to the proper level with clean 
engine oil. Do not overfill. 



Transmission 

Fill the transmission case, marine gear or torque 
converter supply tank to the proper level with the 
lubricant specified under Lubrication and Preventive 
Maintenance. 



Fuel System 

Fill the fuel tank with the fuel specified under Diesel 
Fuel Oil Specifications. 

Page 47 



Operating Instructions 



DETROIT DIESEL 



If the unit is equipped with a fuel valve, it must be 
opened. 

To ensure prompt starting, fill the fuel system between 
the pump and the fuel return manifold with fuel. If 
the engine has been out of service for a considerable 
length of time, prime the filter between the fuel pump 
and the injectors. The filter may be primed by 
removing the plug in the top of the filter cover and 
slowly filling the filter with fuel. 

In addition to the above, on an engine equipped with 
a Hydrostarter, use a priming pump to make sure the 
fuel lines and the injectors are full of fuel before 
attempting to start the engine. 

NOTE: The fuel system is filled with fuel before 
leaving the factory. If the fuel is still in the 
system when preparing to start the engine, 
priming should be unnecessary. 



Lubrication Fittings 

Fill all grease cups and lubricate at all fittings with an 
all purpose grease. Apply lubricating oil to the throttle 
linkage and other moving parts and fill the hinged cap 
oilers with a hand oiler. 



Drive Belts 

Adjust all drive belts as recommended under 
Lubrication and Preventive Maintenance. 



Storage Battery 

Check the battery. The top should be clean and dry, 
the terminals tight and protected with a coat of 
petroleum jelly and the electrolyte must be at the 
proper level. 

NOTE: When necessary, check the battery with 
a hydrometer; the reading should be 1.265 or 
higher. However, hydrometer readings should 
always be corrected for the temperature of the 
electrolyte. 



Generator Set 

Where applicable, fill the generator end bearing 
housing with the same lubricating oil as used in the 
engine. 

A generator set should be connected and grounded in 
accordance with the applicable local electrical codes. 

Page 48 



CAUTION: The base of a generator set must be 
grounded. 



Clutch 

Disengage the clutch, if the unit is so equipped. 
STARTING 

Before starting the engine for the first time, perform 
the operations listed under Preparation For Starting 
Engine First Time. 

Before a routine start, see Daily Operations in the 
Lubrication and Preventive Maintenance Chart. 

If a manual or an automatic shut-down system is 
incorporated in the unit, the control must be set in the 
open position before starting the engine. 

The blower will be seriously damaged if operated with 
the air shut-off valve in the closed position. 

Starting at air temperatures below 40 F (4C) 
requires the use of a cold weather starting aid. See 
Cold Weather Starting. 

The instructions for the use of a cold weather fluid 
starting aid will vary dependent on the type being 
used. Reference should be made to these instructions 
before attempting a cold weather start. 

CAUTION: Starting fluid used in capsules is 
highly inflammable, toxic and possesses anes- 
thetic properties. 



Initial Engine Start (Electric) 

Start an engine equipped with an electric starting 
motor as follows: Set the speed control lever at part 
throttle, then bring it back to the desired no-load 
speed. In addition, on mechanical governors, make 
sure the stop lever on the governor cover is in the run 
position. Then press the starting motor switch firmly. 
If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds, release 
the starting switch and allow the starting motor to cool 
a few minutes before trying again. If the engine fails 
to start after four attempts, an inspection should be 
made to determine the cause. 

CAUTION: To prevent serious damage to the 
starter, if the engine does not start, do not press 
the starting switch again while the starting 
motor is running. 



Initial Engine Start (Hydrostarter) 






DETROIT DIESEL 



Operating Instructions 



Ambient Temperature 


Pressure Gage Reading 


Above 40 F (4C) 
40FtoOF (4C to -18C) 
Below 0F (-18 C) 


1500 PSI (10 335 kPa) 
2500 PSI (17 225 kPa) 
3300 PSI (22 737 kPa) 



Table 1 

An engine equipped with a Hydrostarter may be 
started as follows: 



Clutch 

Do not engage the clutch at engine speeds over 1000 
rpm. 



Inspection 

While the engine is running at operating temperature, 
check for coolant, fuel or lubricating oil leaks. Tighten 
the line connections where necessary to stop leaks. 



Raise the Hydrostarter accumulator pressure with the 
hand pump until the gage reads as indicated in 
Table 1. 



Set the engine controls for starting with the throttle at 
least half open. 

NOTE: During cold weather add starting fluid at 
the same time the Hydrostarter motor lever is 
moved. Do not wait to add the fluid after the 
engine is turning over. 

Push the Hydrostarter control lever to simultaneously 
engage the starter pinion with the flywheel ring gear 
and to open the control valve . Close the valve as soon 
as the engine starts to conserve the accumulator 
pressure and to avoid excessive over-running of the 
starter drive clutch assembly. 



Engine Temperature 

Normal engine coolant temperature is 160-185F (71- 
85 C). 



Crankcase 

If the engine crankcase was refilled, stop the engine 
after normal operating temperature has been reached, 
allow the oil to drain back into the crankcase for 
approximately twenty minutes and check the oil level. 
Add oil, if necessary, to bring it to the proper level on 
the dipstick. 

Use only the heavy duty lubricating oil specified under 
Lubricating Oil Specifications. 



RUNNING 



Oil Pressure 

Observe the oil pressure gage immediately after 
starting the engine. If there is no pressure indicated 
within 10 to 15 seconds, stop the engine and check the 
lubricating oil system. The minimum oil pressure 
should be at least 18 psi (124 kPa) at 1200 rpm. The 
oil pressure at normal operating speed should be 40-60 
psi (276-414 kPa). 



Cooling System 

Remove the radiator or heat exchanger tank cap slowly 
after the engine has reached normal operating 
temperature and check the engine coolant level. The 
coolant level should be near the top of the opening. If 
necessary, add clean soft water or a high boiling point 
type antifreeze (refer to Engine Coolant). 



Marine Gear 



ft 



Warm-Up 

Run the engine at part throttle and no-load for 
approximately five minutes, allowing it to warm-up 
before applying a load. 

If the unit is operating in a closed room, start the 
room ventilating fan or open the windows, as weather 
conditions permit, so ample air is available for the 
engine. 



Check the marine gear oil pressure. The operating oil 
pressure range for the marine gear at operating speed 
is 120 to 160 psi (827 to 1103 kPa) and minimum oil 
pressure is 100 psi (689 kPa) at idle speed (600 rpm). 



Turbocharger 

Make a visual inspection of the turbocharger for leaks 
and excessive vibration. Stop the engine immediately 
if there is an unusual noise in the turbocharger. 

Page 49 



Operating Instructions 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Avoid Unnecessary Engine Idling 

During long engine idling periods, the engine coolant 
temperature will fall below the normal operating 
range. The incomplete combustion of fuel in a cold 
engine will cause crankcase dilution, formation of 
lacquer or gummy deposits on the valves, pistons and 
rings and rapid accumulation of sludge in the engine. 



NOTE: When prolonged engine idling 
necessary, maintain at least 800 rpm. 

STOPPING 



is 



Exhaust System 

Drain the condensation from the exhaust line or 
silencer. 



Cooling System 

Drain the cooling system if it is not protected with 
antifreeze and freezing temperatures are expected. 
Leave the drains open. Open the raw water drains of a 
heat exchanger cooling system. 




Normal Stopping 

1. Release the load and decrease the engine speed. Put 
all shift levers in the neutral position. 

2. Allow the engine to run at half speed or slower with 
no load for a short time, then move the stop lever to 
stop to shut down the engine. 



Emergency Stopping 

If the engine does not stop after using the normal 
stopping procedure, pull the "Emergency Stop" knob 
all the way out. This control cuts off the air to the 
engine. Do not try to restart again until the cause for 
the malfunction has been found and corrected. 

CAUTION: The emergency shut-down system 
should never be used except in an emergency. 
Use of the emergency shut-down can cause oil 
to be sucked past the oil seals and into the 
blower housing. 

The air shut-off valve, located on the blower air inlet 
housing, must be reset by hand and the "Emergency 
Stop" knob pushed in before the engine is ready to 
start again. 



Fuel System 

If the unit is equipped with a fuel valve, close it. Fill 
the fuel tank; a full tank minimizes condensation. 



Crankcase 

If the engine crankcase was refilled, stop the engine 
after normal operating temperature has been reached, 
allow the oil to drain (approximately 20 minutes) back 
into the crankcase and check the oil level. Add oil, if 
necessary, to bring it to the proper level on the 
dipstick. 

Use only the heavy-duty lubricating oil specified under 
Lubricating Oil Specifications. 



Transmission 

Check and, if necessary, replenish the oil supply in the 
transmission. 



Clean Engine 

Clean and check the engine thoroughly to make 
certain it will be ready for the next run. 

Refer to Lubrication and Preventive Maintenance and 
perform all of the daily maintenance operations. Also 
perform the operations required for the number of 
hours or miles the engine has been in operation. 

Make the necessary adjustments and minor repairs to 
correct difficulties which became apparent to the 
operator during the last run. 




Page 50 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Operating Instructions 




ALTERNATING CURRENT POWER GENERATOR SET OPERATING 

INSTRUCTIONS 




These instructions cover the fundamental procedures 
for operating an alternating current power generator 
set (Fig. 1). The operator should read these instruc- 
tions before attempting to operate the generator set. 

Never operate a generator set for a short (15 minute) 
interval - the engine will not reach normal operating 
temperature in so short a period. 

Avoid operating the set for extended periods at no- 
load. 

Ideally, operate the set for one hour with at least 40% 
load (generator rating). 

When a test must be made with a line load of less than 
40% of the generator rating, add a supplementary 
load. 

Connect the supplementary load to the load terminals 
of the control cabinet circuit breaker so that the 
generator can be "loaded" whenever the breaker is 
closed. 



it can be controlled to permit a reduction in the load 
should a normal load increase occur while the set is 
operating. Locate the supplementary load outside the 
engine room, if desirable, to provide adequate cooling. 

Loading the generator set to 40% of the generator 
rating and operating it for one-hour intervals will 
bring the engine and generator to normal operating 
temperatures and circulate the lubricants properly. 
Abnormal amounts of moisture, carbon and sludge are 
due primarily to low internal operating temperatures 
which are much less likely to occur when the set is 
tested properly. 

PREPARATION FOR STARTING 

Before attempting to start a new or an overhauled 
engine or an engine which has been in storage, 
perform all of the operations listed under Preparation 
for Starting Engine First Time. Before a routine start, 
see Daily Operations in the Lubrication and Preventive 
Maintenance Chart. 



Make certain that the supplementary load is such that In addition to the Engine Operating Instructions, the 



;*v , i 

"i,, SWITCH 

> A* 

'' SI1UV DOWN V 

m r.nnnai. -..! 

., "'. < 5fe-" 




Fig. 1 - Location of Controls on Power Generator Set 



Page 51 



Operating Instructions 



DETROIT DIESEL 



following instructions also apply when operating an 
alternating current power generator set. 

1. Before the first start, check the generator main 
bearing oil reservoir. If necessary, add sufficient 
lubricating oil, of the same grade as used in the engine 
crankcase, to bring it to the proper level on the sight 
gage. 

2. Check the interior of the generator for dust or 
moisture. Blow out dust with low pressure air (25 psi or 
172 kPa maximum). If there is moisture on the interior 
of the generator, it must be dried before the set is 
started. Refer to the appropriate Delco Products 
Maintenance bulletin. 

3. The air shut-off valve located in the air inlet 
housing must be in the open or reset position. 

4. Refer to Fig. 1 and place the circuit breaker in the 
off position. 

5. If the generator set is equipped with synchronizing 
lamps, place the lamp switch in the off position. 

6. Turn the voltage regulator rheostat knob counter- 
clockwise to its lower limit. 

7. Make sure the power generator set has been cleared 
of all tools or other objects which might interfere with 
its operation. 

STARTING 

If the generator set is located in a closed space, start 
the ventilating fan or open the doors and windows, as 
weather permits, to supply ample air to the engine. 

The engine may require the use of a cold weather 
starting aid if the ambient temperature is below 40 F 
(4C). Refer to Cold Weather Starting Aids. 

Press the throttle button and turn the throttle control 
(Fig. 1) counterclockwise to a position midway 
between run and stop. Then press the starting switch 
firmly. 

If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds, release 
the starting switch and allow the starting motor to cool 
a few minutes before trying again. If the engine fails 
to start after four attempts, an inspection should be 
made to determine the cause. 

CAUTION: To prevent serious damage to the 
starter, if the engine does not start, do not press 
the starting switch again while the starting 
motor is rotating. 

Page 52 



RUNNING 

Observe the engine oil pressure gage immediately 
after starting the engine. If there is no oil pressure 
indicated within 10 to 15 seconds, stop the engine and 
check the engine lubricating system. 

If the oil pressure is observed to be normal, increase 
the throttle setting to cause the engine to run at its 
synchronous speed. 

PREPARING GENERATOR FOR LOAD 

After the engine is warmed up (or the oil pressure has 
stabilized) prepare the generator set for load as 
follows: 

1. Bring the engine up to the rated speed. 

2. Turn the instrument switch to the desired position. 

3. Turn the voltage regulator rheostat knob slowly in a 
clockwise direction to raise the voltage, while watching 
the voltmeter, until the desired voltage is attained. 

4. If the generator set is equipped with a frequency 
meter, adjust the engine speed with the vernier throttle 
knob until the desired frequency is indicated on the 
meter. 

5. Make sure all power lines are clear of personnel, 
then place the circuit breaker control in the on 
position. 

NOTE: Perform Step 5 only if the generator set 
is not being paralleled with an existing power 
source. If it is being paralleled with a power 
source already on the line, read and follow the 
instructions under Paralleling before turning 
the circuit breaker control to the on position. 

PARALLELING 

If the load conditions require an additional unit to be 
placed on the line, the following instructions will apply 
to power generator sets of equal capacity, with one 
generator set in operation on the line. 

1. Prepare the generator set to be paralleled as 
outlined under Preparation For Starting, Starting, 
Running and Items 1 through 4 under Preparing 
Generator for Load. 

2. Check the voltmeter (Fig. 1); the voltage must be 
the same as the line voltage. Adjust the voltage 
regulator rheostat control if the voltages are not the 




same. 



3. Place the synchronizing lamp switch, of 
generator set to be paralleled, in the on position. 



the 




DETROIT DIESEL 



Operating Instructions 



4. Turn the vernier throttle knob until both units are 
operating at approximately the same frequency as 
indicated by the slow change in the brilliancy of the 
synchronizing lamps. 

5. When the synchronizing lamps glow and then go 
out at a very slow rate, time the dark interval. Then, in 
the middle of this interval, turn the circuit breaker 
control to the on position. This places the incoming 
generator set on the line, with no load. The proper 
share of the existing load must now be placed on this 
generator. 

6. The division of the kilowatt load between the 
alternating current generators operating in parallel 
depends on the power supplied by the engines to the 
generators as controlled by the engine governors and 
is practically independent of the generator excitation. 
Divide the kilowatt load between the generators by 
turning the vernier throttle knob counterclockwise on 
the incoming generator and clockwise on the generator 
that has been carrying the load (to keep the frequency 
of the generators constant) until both ammeters read 
the same, indicating that each generator is carrying its 
proper percentage of the total K.W. load. 

7. The division of the reactive KVA load depends on 
the generator excitation as controlled by the voltage 
regulator. Divide the reactive load between the 
generators by turning the voltage regulator rheostat 
control on the incoming generator (generally clockwise 
to raise the voltage) until the ammeters read the same 
on both generator sets and the sum of the readings is 
minimum. 

NOTE: The generator sets are equipped with a 
resistor and current transformer connected in 
series with the voltage coil of the regulator 
(cross-current compensation) which equalizes 
most but not all of the reactive KVA load 
between the generators. 

8. When the load is 80 per cent power factor lagging 
(motor and a few lights only), turn the vernier throttle 
knob on the incoming generator until the ammeter on 



that unit reads approximately 40 per cent of the total 
current load. 

9. Rotate the voltage regulator rheostat control on the 
incoming generator clockwise to raise the voltage until 
the ammeters read the same on both units. 

NOTE: If a load was not added during 
paralleling, the total of the two ammeter 
readings should be the same as the reading 
before paralleling. Readjust the voltage regula- 
tor rheostat on the incoming generator, if 
necessary. 

10. To reset the load voltage, turn the voltage regulator 
rheostat controls slowly on each unit. It is necessary to 
turn the controls the same amount and in the same 
direction to keep the reactive current equally divided. 

Power generator sets with different capacities can also 
be paralleled by dividing the load proportionately to 
their capacity. 

STOPPING 

The procedure for stopping a power generator set or 
taking it out of parallel is as follows: 

1. Turn off all of the load on the generator when 
stopping a single engine unit. 

2. Shift the load from the generator when taking it out 
of parallel operation by turning the vernier throttle 
knob until the ammeter reads approximately zero. 

3. Place the circuit breaker control in the off position. 

4. Turn the voltage regulator rheostat control in a 
counterclockwise direction to the limit of its travel. 

5. Press the throttle button and turn the throttle 
control to stop to shut-down the engine. 

NOTE: When performing a tune-up on a 
generator set that will be operated in parallel 
with another unit, adjust the speed droop as 
specified in Engine Tune-Up. 



ft 



Page S3 



DETROIT DIESEL 




LUBRICATION AND PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE 

To obtain the best performance and long life from a Detroit Diesel 
engine, the Operator must adhere to the following schedule and 
instructions on lubrication and preventive maintenance. 

The daily instructions pertain to routine or daily starting of an 
engine and not to a new engine or one that has not been operated for 
a considerable period of time. For new or stored engines, carry out 
the instructions given under Preparation for Starting Engine First 
Time under Operating Instructions. 

The time intervals given in the chart on the following page are actual 
operating hours or miles of an engine. If the lubricating oil is 
drained immediately after an engine has been run for some time, 
most of the sediment will be in suspension and, therefore, will drain 
readily. 

All authorized Detroit Diesel Allison Service Outlets are prepared to 
service engines with the viscosity and grade of lubricants 
recommended on the following pages. 




Page 55 



r 



Preventive Maintenance 



DETROIT DIESEL 



LUBRICATION AND PREVENTIVE 
MAINTENANCE CHART Hours 

Item Operation Miles 


Time Interval 1 




8 


50 


100 


200 


300 


500 


1,000 


2,000 ^ 

1 


Daily 


240 


1,500 


3,000 


6,000 


9,000 


15,000 


30,000 


60,000 


1. Engine Oil 


X 


















2. Oil Filter* 




















3. Coolant and Filter 


X 












X 


X 




4. Hoses 














X 






5. Radiator 
















X 




6. Heat Exchanger 1 Electrodes and Core 














X 


X 




7. Raw Water Pump 


X 


















8. Fuel Tank 


X 












X 






9. Fuel Strainer and Filter 












X 








10. Air Cleaners 




X 










X 






1 1. Air Box Drains 














X 


X 




12. Ventilating System 
















X 




13. Blower Screen 
















X 




14. Starting Motor* 




















15. Battery-Charging Alternator 








X 


X 




X 






16. Battery 








X 












17. Tachometer Drive and Clutch Controls 








X 












18. Throttle Controls 










X 










19. Engine Tune-Up* 




















20. Drive Belts 




X 






X 










21. Overspeed Governor 














X 






22. Fan Hub Bearings* 




















23. Shut-Down System 












X 








24. Hydrostarter System* 




















25. Air Compressor Air Strainer 










X 










26. Turbocharger* 




















27. Power Generator 








X 




X 








28. Power Take-Off 




X 


X 








X 






29. Torqmatic Converter 


X 




X 








X 




L 


30. Marine Gear 


X 








X 






X** 


f 


*See items on following pages "Twin Disc Marine Gear 







Page 56 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Preventive Maintenance 





Item 1 

Check the oil level daily before starting the engine. 
Add oil, if necessary, to bring it to the proper level on 
the dipstick. 

Select the proper grade of oil in accordance with the 
instructions in the Lubricating Oil Specifications. 

It is recommended that new engines be started with 
100 hour oil change periods. The drain interval may 
then be gradually increased, or decreased, following 
the recommendations of an independent oil analysis 
laboratory or the oil supplier (based upon the oil 
sample analysis) until the most practical oil change 
period has been established. 



Item 2 

Install new engine oil filter elements and gaskets each 
time the engine oil is changed. Check for oil leaks 
after starting the engine. If the engine is equipped 
with a governor oil filter, change the element every 
1,000 hours. 



Item 3 

Check the coolant level daily and maintain it near the 





Items 1 and 2 







Items 3 and 4 

top of the heat exchanger tank or the radiator upper 
tank. 

Clean the cooling system every 1,000 hours or 30,000 
miles using a good radiator cleaning compound in 
accordance with the instructions on the container. 
After the cleaning operation, rinse the cooling system 
thoroughly with fresh water. Then fill the system with 
soft water, adding a good grade of rust inhibitor or a 
high boiling point type antifreeze (refer to Engine 
Coolant). With the use of a proper antifreeze or rust 
inhibitor, this interval may be lengthened until, 
normally, this cleaning is done only in the spring or 
fall. The length of this interval will, however, depend 
upon an inspection for rust or other deposits on the 
internal walls of the cooling system. When a thorough 
cleaning of the cooling system is required, it should be 
reverse-flushed. 

If the cooling system is protected by a coolant filter 
and conditioner, the filter element should be changed 
every 500 hours or 15,000 miles. 



Item 4 

Inspect all of the cooling system hoses at least once 
every 500 hours or 15,000 miles for signs of 
deterioration. Replace the hoses if necessary. 

Page 57 



Preventive Maintenance 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Item 5 

Inspect the exterior of the radiator core every 1,000 
hours or 30,000 miles and, if necessary, clean it with a 
quality grease solvent such as Oleum and compressed 
air. Do not use fuel oil, kerosene or gasoline. It may be 
necessary to clean the radiator more frequently if the 
engine is being operated in extremely dusty or dirty 
areas. 



Item 6 

Every 500 hours drain the water from the heat 
exchanger raw water inlet and outlet tubes. Then 
remove the zinc electrodes from the inlet side of the 







Item 5 



''("s.j'.;i,vVV 1 fitful ',-. ?' 
"' ' Jftfr'W '' -' fas- 




Item 6 





Item 7 

raw water pump and the heat exchanger. Clean the 
electrodes with a wire brush or, if worn excessively, 
replace with new electrodes. To determine the 
condition of a used electrode, strike it sharply against 
a hard surface; a weakened electrode will break. 

Drain the cooling system, disconnect the raw water 
pipes at the outlet side of the heat exchanger and 
remove the retaining cover every 1,000 hours and 
inspect the heat exchanger core. If a considerable 
amount of scale or deposits are present, contact an 
authorized Detroit Diesel Allison Service Outlet. 



Item 7 

Check the prime on the raw water pump; the engine 
should not be operated with a dry pump. Prime the 
pump, if necessary, by removing the pipe plug 
provided in the pump inlet elbow and adding water. 
Reinstall the plug. 



Item 8 

Keep the fuel tank filled to reduce condensation to a 
minimum. Select the proper grade of fuel in 
accordance with the Diesel Fuel Oil Specifications. 

Open the drain at the bottom of the fuel tank every 
500 hours or 15,000 miles to drain off any water or 
sediment. 



Item 9 

Install new elements every 300 hours or 9,000 miles or 
when plugging is indicated. 

A method of determining when elements are plugged 




Page 58 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Preventive Maintenance 




to the extent that they should be changed is based on 
the fuel pressure at the cylinder head fuel inlet 
manifold and the inlet restriction at the fuel pump. In 
a clean system, the maximum pump inlet restriction 
must not exceed 6 inches of mercury. At normal 
operating speeds (1800-2800 rpm), the fuel pressure is 
45 to 70 psi (310 to 483 kPa). Change the fuel filter 
elements whenever the inlet restriction (suction ) at the 
fuel pump reaches 12 inches of mercury at normal 
operating speeds and whenever the fuel pressure at the 
inlet manifold falls to 45 psi (310 kPa). 



Item 10 

Remove the dirty oil and sludge from the oil bath-type 




Item 9 




air cleaner cups and center tubes every 8 hours or less 
if operating conditions warrant. Wash the cups and 
elements in clean fuel oil and refill the cups to the 
level mark with the same grade of heavy duty oil as 
used in the engine. The frequency of servicing may be 
varied to suit local dust conditions. 

It is recommended that the body and fixed element in 
the heavy-duty oil bath type air cleaner be serviced 
every 500 hours, 15,000 miles or as conditions warrant. 

Clean or replace the element in the dry-type air 
cleaner when the restriction indicator instrument 
indicates high restriction or when a water manometer 
reading at the air inlet housing indicates the 
maximum allowable air inlet restriction (refer to the 
Air Inlet Restriction chart in the Trouble Shooting 
section). Refer to the instructions in the Air System 
section for servicing the dry-type air cleaner. 



Item 11 

With the engine running, check for flow of air from 
the air box drain tubes every 1,000 hours or 30,000 
miles. If the tubes are clogged, remove, clean and 
reinstall the tubes. The air box drain tubes should be 
cleaned periodically even though a clogged condition 
is not apparent. If the engine is equipped with an air 
box drain tank, drain the sediment periodically. If the 
engine is equipped with an air box drain check valve, 
replace the valve every 500 hours or 15,000 miles. 



Item 12 

Clean the externally mounted crankcase breather 
assemblies every 1,000 hours or 30,000 miles. This 
cleaning period may be reduced or lengthened 
according to severity of service. Clean the internally 




Item 10 



Item 11 



Page 59 



Preventive Maintenance 



DETROIT DIESEL 



mounted breather pads at time of engine overhaul, or 
sooner if excessive crankcase pressure is observed. 

Remove the crankcase breather from the engine and 
wash the steel mesh pad (element) in fuel oil and dry 
it with compressed air. Reinstall the breather 
assembly. 

Clean the breather cap, mounted on the valve rocker 
cover, in clean fuel oil every time the engine oil is 
changed. 



Item 13 

Inspect the blower screen and gasket assemblies every 
1,000 hours or 30,000 miles and, if necessary, clean the 
screens in fuel oil and dry them with compressed air. 




Item 12 



it 



I; 



Reinstall the screen and gasket assemblies with the 
screen side of the assemblies toward the blower. 
Inspect for evidence of blower seal leakage. 



Item 14 

The electrical starting motor is lubricated at the time 
of original assembly. Oil can be added to the oil wicks, 
which project through each bushing and contact the 
armature shaft, by removing the pipe plugs on the 
outside of the motor. The wicks should be lubricated 
whenever the starting motor is taken off the engine or 
disassembled. 

The Sprag overrunning clutch drive mechanism should 
be lubricated with a few drops of light engine oil 
whenever the starting motor is overhauled. 



Item 15 

Lubricate the alternator bearings or bushings with 5 or 
6 drops of engine oil at the hinge cap oiler every 200 
hours or 6,000 miles. 

Some alternators have a built-in supply of grease, 
while others use sealed bearings. In these latter two 
cases, additional lubrication is not necessary. 

The slip rings and brushes of an alternator can be 
inspected through the end frame assembly. If the slip 
rings are dirty, they should be cleaned with 400 grain 
or finer polishing cloth. Never use emery cloth to clean 
slip rings. Hold the polishing cloth agqinst the slip 
rings with the alternator in operation and blow away 





Sfc* 



o 




Item 13 



Item 14 




Page 60 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Preventive Maintenance 




I 



Item 15 



all dust after the cleaning operation. If the slip rings 
are rough or out of round, replace them. 

Inspect the terminals for corrosion and loose 
connections and the wiring for frayed insulation. 



Item 16 

Check the specific gravity of the electrolyte in each cell 
of the battery every 100 hours or 3,000 miles. In warm 
weather, however, it should be checked more 
frequently due to a more rapid loss of water from the 
electrolyte. The electrolyte level should be maintained 
in accordance with the battery manufacturer's 
recommendations. 



Item 17 

Lubricate the tachometer drive every 100 hours or 
3,000 miles with an all purpose grease at the grease 
fitting. At temperatures above +30F ( 1C), use a 
No. 2 grade grease. Use a No. 1 grade grease below 
this temperature. 



Item 18 

Lubricate the throttle control mechanism every 200 
hours or 6,000 miles with an all purpose grease. At 




Item 17 

temperatures above +30F ( 1C), use a No. 2 
grade grease. Use a No. 1 grade grease below this 
temperature. Lubricate all other control mechanisms, 
as required, with engine oil. 



Item 19 

There is no scheduled interval for performing an 
engine tune-up. As long as the engine performance is 
satisfactory, no tune-up should be needed. Minor 
adjustments in the valve and injector operating 
mechanisms, governor, etc. should only be required 
periodically to compensate for normal wear on parts. 



Item 20 

New drive belts will stretch after the first few hours of 
operation. Run the engine for 15 seconds to seat the 
belts and readjust the tension. Then check the belts 
and retighten the fan drive, pump drive and battery- 
charging alternator drive belts after 1/2 hour or 15 
miles and again after 8 hours or 140 miles of 
operation. Thereafter, check the tension of the drive 



Page 61 



Preventive Maintenance 



DETROIT DIESEL 



belts every 200 hours or 6,000 miles and adjust, if 
necessary. Too tight a belt is destructive to the 
bearings of the driven part; a loose belt will slip. 

BELT TENSION CHART (Ibs/belt) 







Fan Drive 


Generator Drive 


Model 


2 or 3 

belts 


Single 
belt 


Two 3/8" 
1/2" belts 


One 1/2" 

belt 


One 9/16" 
belt 


3,4-53 
6V-53 


40-50 
60-80 


80-100 


40-50 

40-50 


50-70 
50-70 


40-50 
40-50 


All 


For 3-point or triangular drive use a tension of 
90-120. 



Replace all belts in a set when one is worn. Single belts 
of similar size should not be used as a substitute for a 
matched belt set; premature belt wear can result 
because of belt length variation. All belts in a matched 
set are within .032 " of their specified center distances. 

NOTE: When installing or adjusting an acces- 
sory drive belt, be sure the bolt at the accessory 
adjusting pivot point is properly tightened, as 
well as the bolt in the adjusting slot. 

Adjust the belt tension so that a firm push with the 
thumb, at a point midway between the two pulleys, 
will depress the belt 1/2 "to 3/4". If a belt tension 
gage such as BT-33-73FA or equivalent is available, 
adjust the belt tension as outlined in the chart. 



Item 21 

Lubricate the overspeed governor, if it is equipped 
with a hinge-type cap oiler or oil cup, with 5 or 6 
drops of engine oil every 500 hours. Avoid excessive 
lubrication and do not lubricate the governor while the 
:ngine is running. 

Item 22 

f the fan bearing hub assembly is provided with a 
rease fitting, use a hand grease gun and lubricate the 
earings with one shot of Texaco Premium RB grease, 
r an equivalent Lithium base multi-purpose grease, 
/ery 20,000 miles (approximately 700 hours). 

very 75,000 miles or 2500 hours, clean, inspect and 
pack the fan bearing hub assembly with the above 
commended grease. 

a major engine overhaul, remove and discard the 
arings in the fan hub assembly. Pack the hub 
sembly, using new bearings, with Texaco 
emium RB grease or an equivalent Lithium base 
ilti-purpose grease. 




Check the shut-down system every 300 operating hours 
or each month to be sure it will function when needed. 

Item 24 

On engines equipped with a Hydrostarter, refer to the 
Hydraulic Starting System in the section on Engine 
Equipment for preventive maintenance and 
lubrication. 

item 25 

To clean either the hair or polyurethane type air 
compressor air strainer element, saturate and squeeze 
it in fuel oil, or any other cleaning agent that would 
not be detrimental to the element, until dirt free. Then 
dip it in lubricating oil and squeeze it dry before 
placing it back in the air strainer. 

For replacement of the air strainer element, contact 
the nearest Bendix Westinghouse dealer; replace with 
the polyurethane element, if available. 

Item 26 

There is no scheduled interval for performing an 
inspection on the Airesearch turbocharger. As long as 
the turbocharger is operating satisfactorily and there 



VP 'mf**'*^ 
^w 



ige 62 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Preventive Maintenance 




Item 25 




inspection is necessary. When service is required, 
contact an authorized Detroit Diesel Allison Service 
Outlet. 



Item 17 

The power generator requires lubrication at only one 
point - the ball bearing in the end frame. 

If the bearing is oil lubricated, check the oil level in 
the sight gage every 300 hours; change the oil every 
six months. Use the same grade of oil as specified for 
the engine. Maintain the oil level to the line in the 
sight gage. Do not overfill. After adding oil, recheck 
the oil level after running the generator for several 
minutes. 

If the bearing is grease lubricated, a new generator 
has sufficient grease for three years of normal service. 
Thereafter, it should be lubricated at one year 
intervals. To lubricate the bearing, remove the filler 
and relief plugs on the side and the bottom of the 
bearing reservoir. Add grease until new grease appears 
at the relief plug opening. Run the generator a few 
minutes to vent the excess grease; then reinstall the 
plugs. 

The following greases, or their equivalents, are 
recommended: 

Keystone 44H Keystone Lubrication Co. 

BRB Lifetime Socony Vacuum Oil Co. 

NY and NJ F926 or F927 ... NY and NJ Lubricant Co. 

After 100 hours on new brushes, or brushes in 
generators that have not been in use over a long 
period, remove the end frame covers and inspect the 
brushes, commutator and collector rings. If there is no 
appreciable wear on the brushes, the inspection 
interval may be extended until the most practicable 
period has been established (not to exceed six months). 
To prevent damage to the commutator or the collector 
rings, do not permit the brushes to become shorter 
than 3/4 inch. 

Keep the generator clean inside and out. Before 
removing the end frame covers, wipe off the loose dirt. 
The loose dirt and dust may be blown out with low 
pressure air (25 psi or 172 kPa maximum). Remove all 
greasy dirt with a cloth. 



Item 27 



is no appreciable loss of power, no vibration or 
unusual noise and no oil leaks, only a periodic 



Item 28 

Lubricate all of the power take-off bearings with an all 
purpose grease such as Shell Alvania No. 2, or 



Page 63 



equivalent. Lubricate sparingly to avoid getting grease 
on the clutch facing. 

Open the cover on the side of the clutch housing 
(8 " and 10 " diameter clutch) and lubricate the clutch 
release sleeve collar through the grease fitting every 8 
hours. On the 11-1/2" diameter clutch, lubricate the 
collar through the fitting on the side of the clutch 
housing every 8 hours. 

Lubricate the clutch drive shaft pilot bearing through 
the fitting in the outer end of the drive shaft (8 " and 
10" diameter clutch power take-offs) every 50 hours of 
operation. One or two strokes with a grease gun should 
be sufficient. The clutch drive shaft pilot bearing used 
with the 11-1/2" diameter clutch power take-off is 
prelubricated and does not require lubrication. 

Lubricate the clutch drive shaft roller bearings 
through the grease fitting in the clutch housing every 
50 hours under normal operating conditions (not 
continuous) and more often under severe operating 
conditions or continuous operation. 

Lubricate the clutch release shaft through the fittings 
at the rear of the housing every 500 hours of 
operation. 

Lubricate the clutch levers and links sparingly with 
engine oil every 500 hours of operation. Remove the 
inspection hole cover on the clutch housing and 
lubricate the clutch release levers and pins with a hand 
oiler. To avoid getting oil on the clutch facing, do not 
over lubricate the clutch release levers and pins. 

Check the clutch facing for wear every 500 hours. 
Adjust the clutch if necessary. 



Item 29 

Check the oil level in the Torqmatic converter and 
supply tank daily. The oil level must be checked while 
the converter is operating, the engine idling and the 
oil is up to operating temperature (approximately 
200 F). If the converter is equipped with an input 
disconnect clutch, the clutch must be engaged. 

Check the oil level after running the unit a few 
minutes. The oil level should be maintained at the 
proper level on the dipstick. If required, add hydraulic 
transmission fluid type "C-2" (Table 1). Do not overfill 
the converter as too much oil will cause foaming and 
high oil temperature. 

The oil should be changed every 500 hours of 
operation. Also, the oil should be changed whenever it 
shows traces of dirt or effects of high operating 
temperature as evidenced by discoloration or strong 
odor. If the oil shows metal contamination, contact an 

Page 64 




Item 28 



OIL RECOMMENDATIONS 



Prevailing 
Ambient 
Temperature 


Recommended Oil 
Specification 


Above 
-10F(-23C) 


Hydraulic Transmission Fluid, Type C-2. 


Below 
-10 F(-23C) 


Hydraulic Transmission Fluid, Type C-2. Aux- 
iliary preheat required to raise temperature 
in the sump to a temperature above 10F. 
(-23C) 



TABLE 1 

authorized Detroit Diesel Allison Service Outlet as this 
usually requires disassembly. Under severe operating 
conditions, the oil should be changed more often. 

The converter oil breather, located on the oil level 
indicator (dipstick), should be cleaned each time the 
converter oil is changed. This can be accomplished by 
allowing the breather to soak in a solvent, then drying 
it with compressed air. 




DETROIT DIESEL 



Preventive Maintenance 





Item 30 

The full-flow oil filter element should be removed, the 
shell cleaned and a new element and gasket installed 
each time the converter oil is changed. 

Lubricate the input clutch release bearing and ball 
bearing every 50 hours with an all purpose grease 
through the grease fittings provided on the clutch 
housing. This time interval may vary depending upon 
the operating conditions. Over-lubrication will cause 



grease to be thrown on the clutch facing, causing th 
clutch to slip. 



Item 30 
WARNER MARINE GEAR: 

Check the oil level daily. Start and run the engine a 
idle speed for a few minutes to fill the lubricatio 
system. Stop the engine. Then immediately afte 
stopping the engine, check the oil level in the marin 
gear. Bring the oil level up to the proper level on th 
dipstick. Use the same grade of lubricating oil that i 
used in the engine. Do not overfill. 

Change the oil every 200 hours. After draining the oi 
from the unit, clean the removable oil screer 
thoroughly before refilling the marine gear with oil. 

TWIN DISC MARINE GEAR: 

Check the marine gear oil level daily. Check the oi 
level with the engine running at low idle speed and thi 
gear in neutral. Keep the oil up to the proper level 01 
the dipstick. Use oil of the same heavy-duty grade an< 
viscosity that is used in the engine. 

Change the oil every 200 hours. Remove and clean thi 
oil inlet strainer screen after draining the oil an< 
before refilling the marine gear. The strainer is locatec 
in the sump at the lower end of the pump suction line 
When refilling after an oil drain, bring the oil up t< 
the proper level on the dipstick (approximately : 
quarts or 4.74 litres). 



I 



Page 



Fel, Oil and Coolant Specifications 



DETROIT DIESEL 



FUEL OBL SPECIFICATIONS 

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS SPECIFICATIONS 




The quality of fuel oil used for high-speed diesel engine 
pperation is a very important factor in obtaining 
satisfactory engine performance, long engine life, and 
acceptable exhaust. 

Fuel selected should be completely distilled material. 
Fuels marketed to meet Federal Specification VV-F-800 
[grades DF-1 and DF-2) and ASTM Designation 
D-975 (grades 1-D and 2-D) meet the completely dis- 
tilled criteria. Some of the general properties of 
VV-F-800 and ASTM D-975 fuels are shown below. 

FEDERAL SPECIFICATION ft ASTM 
! DIESEL FUEL PROPERTIES 



SpeclHcaliMi or 
dauiflcidoB Grade 


VV-F- 
800 
DF-1 


ASTM 
D47S 
1-D 


VV-F- 

800 
DF-2 


ASTM 
D-975 
2-D 


Flash Pt., F min. 


104 
(40'C) 


100 

(38"C) 


122 
(50'C) 


125 
(52'C) 


Carbon Residue (10% 
residuum), % max. 


0.15 


0.15 


0.20 


0.35 


Water & Sediment, % by 
vol., max. 


0.01 


trace 


0.01 


0.05 


Ash, % by wt., max. 


0.005 


0.01 


0.005 


0.01 


Distillation Temperature, 
90% by vol. recovery, min. 

max. 
End Point, max. 


572F 
(300C> 

626F 
(330"C) 


550F 
(288C) 


626-F 
(330'C) 

671' F 

(355C) 


540F 
<282*C) 
640"F 
(338C) 


Viscosity lOO'FOS'C) 
Kinematic, cs, min. 
Saybolt, SUS, min. 
Kinematic, cs, max. 
Saybolt, SUS, max. 


1.4 
3.0 


1.4 

2.5 
34.4 


2.0 

4.3 


2.0 
32.6 
4.3 
40.1 


Sulfur, % by wt., max. 


0.50 


0.50 


0.50 


0.50 


Cetane No. 


45 


40 


45 


40 



Residual fuels and domestic furnace oils are not con- 
sidered satisfactory for Detroit Diesel engines; how- 
ever, some may be acceptable. (See "DETROIT 
DIESEL FUEL OIL SPECIFICATIONS"). 

NOTE: Detroit Diesel Allison does not rec- 
ommend the use of drained lubricating oil as a 
diesel fuel oil. 

All diesel fuel oil contains a certain amount of sulfur. 
Too high a sulfur content results in excessive cylinder 
wear due to acid build-up in the lubricating oil. For 
most satisfactory engine life, fuels containing less 
than 0.5% sulfur should be used. 

Fuel oil should be clean and free of contamination. 
Storage tanks should be inspected regularly for dirt, 
water or water-emulsion sludge, and cleaned if con- 
taminated. Storage instability of the fuel can lead to 
jthe formation of varnish or sludge in the tank. The 
presence of these contaminants from storage instability 
must be resolved with the fuel supplier. 



Detroit Diesel Allison designs, develops, and man- 
ufactures commercial diesel engines to operate on die- 
sel fuels classified by the ASTM as Designation 
D-975 (grades 1-D and 2-D). These grades are very sim- 
ilar to grades DF-1 and DF-2 of Federal Specification 
VV-F-800. Residual fuels and furnace oils, generally, 
are not considered satisfactory for Detroit Diesel 
engines. In some regions, however, fuel suppliers may 
distribute one fuel that is marketed as either diesel fuel 
(ASTM D-975) or domestic heating fuel {ASTM 
D-396) sometimes identified as furnace oil. In this case, 
the fuel should be investigated to determine whether 
the properties conform with those shown in the "FUEL 
OIL SELECTION CHART" presented in this 
specification. 

The "FUEL OIL SELECTION CHART" also will serve 
as a guide in the selection of the proper fuel for various 
applications. The fuels used must be clean, completely 
distilled, stable, and non-corrosive. DISTILLATION 
RANGE, CETANE NUMBER, and SULFUR CON- 
TENT are three of the most important properties of 
diesel fuels that must be controlled to insure optimum 
combustion and minimum wear. Engine speed, load, 
and ambient temperature influence the selection of 
fuels with respect to distillation range and cetane 
number. The sulfur content of the fuel must be as low 
as possible to avoid excessive deposit formation, pre- 
mature wear, and to minimize the sulfur dioxide ex- 
hausted into the atmosphere. 

To assure that the fuel you use meets the required 
properties, enlist the aid of a reputable fuel oil supplier. 
The responsibility for clean fuel lies with the fuel 
supplier as well as the operator. 

During cold weather engine operation, the cloud point 
(the temperature at which wax crystals begin to form 
in diesel fuel) should be 10 F (6C) below the lowest 
expected fuel temperature to prevent clogging of the 
fuel filters by wax crystals. 

At temperatures below 20 F ( 29C), consult 
an authorized Detroit Diesel Allison service outlet, 
since particular attention must be given to the cooling 
system, lubricating system, fuel system, electrical sys- 
tem, and cold weather starting aids for efficient en- 
gine starting and operation. 

FUEL OIL SELECTION CHART 



Typical 
Application 


General Fuel 
ClawiflcatkM 


Final 
BolHng 
Point 


Cetane 

No. 


Sulfur 
Content 


City Buses 


No. 1-D 


(Max) 

550" F 
(288C) 


(Min) 
45 


(Max) 
0.30% 


All Other 
Applications 


Winter No. 2-D 
Summer No. 2-D 


67 5" F 
67 5 F 
(357'C) 


45 
40 


0.50% 
0.50% 



NOTE: When prolonged idling periods or cold 
weathrer conditions below 32 F (0C) are en- 
countered, the use of lighter distillate fuels may be 
more practical. The same consideration must be 
made when operating at altitudes above 5,000 ft. 




:e 66 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Fuel, Oil and Coolant Specifications 



LUBRICATING OIL SPECIFICATIONS 



I 



GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 

All diesel engines require heavy-duty lubricating oils. 
Basic requirements of such oils are lubricating quality, 
high heat resistance, control of contaminants. 

LUBRICATING QUALITY. The reduction of friction 
and wear by maintaining an oil film between moving 
parts is the primary requisite of a lubricant. Film 
thickness and its ability to prevent metal-to-metal 
contact of moving parts is related to oil viscosity. The 
optimums for Detroit Diesel engines are SAE 30 or 40 
weight. 

HIGH HEAT RESISTANCE. Temperature is the most 
important factor in determining the rate at which 
deterioration or oxidation of the lubricating oil will 
occur. The oil should have adequate thermal stability 
at elevated temperatures, thereby precluding forma- 
tion of harmful carbonaceous and/or ash deposits. 

CONTROL OF CONTAMINANTS. The piston and 
compression rings must ride on a film of oil to minimize 
wear and prevent cylinder seizure. At normal rates of 
consumption, oil reaches a temperature zone at the 
upper part of the piston where rapid oxidation and 
carbonization can occur. In addition, as oil circulates 
through the engine, it is continuously contaminated by 
soot, acids, and water originating from combustion. 
Until they are exhausted, detergent and dispersant 
additives aid in keeping sludge and varnish from 
depositing on engine parts. But such additives in 
excessive quantities can result in detrimental ash 
deposits. If abnormal amounts of insoluble deposits 
form, particularly on the piston in the compression 
ring area, early engine failure may result. 

Oil that is carried up the cylinder liner wall is normally 
consumed during engine operation. The oil and addi- 
tives leave carbonaceous and/or ash deposits when 
subjected to the elevated temperatures of the com- 
bustion chamber. The amount of deposits is influenced 
by the oil composition, additive content, engine tem- 
perature, and oil consumption rate. 

SPECIFICATIONS 
OIL QUALITY 

OIL QUALITY is the responsibility of the oil supplier. 
(The term oil supplier is applicable to refiners, blend- 
ers, and rebranders of petroleum products, and does 
not include distributors of such products.) 

There are hundreds of commercial crankcase oils mar- 
keted today. Obviously, engine manufacturers or users 
cannot completely evaluate the numerous commercial 
oils. The selection of a suitable lubricant in consultation 
with a reliable oil supplier, observance of his oil drain 
recommendations (based on used oil sample analysis 
and experience) and proper filter maintenance, will 
provide the best assurance of satisfactory oil 
performance. 



Detroit Diesel Allison lubricant recommendations are 
based on general experience with current lubricants of 
various types and give consideration to the commer- 
cial lubricants presently available. 

RECOMMENDATION 

Detroit Diesel engines have given optimum perform- 
ance and experienced the longest service life with the 
following oil performance levels having the ash and 
zinc limits shown: 



Former Mflttiry uid 
Commercial Lube 
Identification 


New API 
Utter Code 
Service Classification 


SAE Gride t 


MIL-L-2104B/1964 MS 
Supplement 1 


cc/sc 

CB 


30 or 40 
30 or 40 



1 SAE 40 grade oil has performed satisfactorily and 
is recommended in Detroit Diesel engines. Ob- 
viously, the expected ambient temperatures and 
engine cranking capability must be considered by 
the engine owner/operator when selecting the 
proper grade of oil. Only when the ambient tem- 
peratures and engine cranking capabilities result in 
difficult starting should SAE 30 grade oil be used. 
ASH LIMIT 

The sulfated ash limit (ASTM D-874) of the above 
lubricants shall not exceed 1.000% by weight, except 
lubricants that contain only barium detergent-disper- 
sant salts where 1.500% by weight is allowed. The ma- 
jority of lubricants marketed under the performance 
levels shown above have a sulfated ash content be- 
tween 0.55 to 0.85% by weight. 

ZINC CONTENT 

The zinc content, as zinc diorganodithiophosphate, 

shall be a minimum of 0.07% by weight. 

RECOMMENDATIONS REGARDING THE USE OF 

CURRENT OIL PERFORMANCE LEVEL PRODUCTS 

MEETING PRESENT MILITARY LUBRICANT 

SPECIFICATIONS 

The petroleum industry is currently marketing engine 
crankcase oils that may be identified as follows: 



MOhary or 
Commercial 
Identification 


API teller 
Code Service 
Clanlff cation 


Comment on 
Application 
ind Performance 


MIL-L-21MC 


CD/SC 


Supersedes M1L-L-45199B 
(Series 3) intended for 
diesel service. 


M1L-L-46152 


CC/SE 


Supersedes MIL-L-2104B 
intended for gasoline 
engine passenger cars. 


Universal 


Numerous 


Meets the performance 
criteria of all industry- 
accepted tests and all 
current military specifications 
including MIL-L-2104C and 
MIL-M6I52. 



Detroit Diesel Atlision does not have sufficient exper- 
ience with any of the above described lubricants to re- 
commend their use. Some oil suppliers have reported 
satisfactory performance of the above identified prod- 
ucts marketed by them. If an owner/operator intends 
to use any of the above described products, it is rec- 
ommended he obtain evidence from the oil supplier 
that the lubricant has performed satisfactorily in 
Detroit Diesel engines. The above products may be 
satisfactory for use in Detroit Diesel engines under 
the following conditions: 



Page 67 



Fuel, Oil and Coolant Specifications 



DETROIT DIESEL 



1 . The sulfated ash ( ASTM D-874) limit of the above 
lubricants shall not exceed 1.000% by weight, ex- 
cept lubricants that contain only barium detergent- 
dispersant salts where 1 .500% by weight is allowed. 

2. The zinc content, as zinc diorganodithiophosphate, 
shall be a minimum of 0.07% by weight. 

3. Sufficient evidence of satisfactory performance in 
Detroit Diesel engines has been provided to Detroit 
Diesel Allison and/or the customer. 



LUBRICANTS NOT RECOMMENDED 

The following lubricants are NOT recommended be- 
cause of a history of poor performance in Detroit 
Diesel engines: 



Military or 
Commercial 
Identification 


API teller 
Code Service 
Class (flea lion 


Comment 
on 
Performance 


M1L-L-2104B/1968 MS 


CC/SD 


Excessive ash 
deposits formed 


MIL-L-45199B 
(Series 3) 


CD 


Excessive ash 
deposits formed 


Multigrade oils 


Numerous 


History of poor 
performance in 
most heavy-duty 
diesel engines 



COLD WEATHER OPERATION 

Cold weather starting will be facilitated when immer- 
sion type electrical coolant heaters can be used. Other 
practical considerations, such as the use of batteries, 
cables and connectors of adequate size, generators 
or alternators of ample capacity, proper setting of vol- 
tage regulators, ether starting aids, oil and coolant 
heater systems, and proper fuel selection will accom- 
plish starting with the use of SAE 30 or SAE 40 oils. 
For complete cold weather starting information, con- 
sult an authorized Detroit Diesel Allison service out- 
let. Ask for Engineering Bulletin No. 38 entitled, 
Cold Weather Operation of Detroit Diesel Engines. 



MIL-L-461 67 ARCTIC LUBE OILS FOR 

NORTH SLOPE & OTHER EXTREME SUB-ZERO 

OPERATIONS 

The MIL-L-46167 specification was published by the 
Military on 15 February, 1974. Federal Test Method 
354 of Federal Test Standard 791 is an integral test 
requirement of MIL-L-46167. Lubricants that have 
passed the oil performance requirement limits of 
Method 354 may be used where continuous sub-zero 
temperatures prevail and where engines are shut down 
for periods longer than eight (8) hours. The lubricants 
that have shown the best performance when subjected 
to Method 354 evaluation may be described as multi- 
grades having a synthetic base stock and low volatil- 
ity characteristics. These lubricants are not comparable 
to the performance of SAE 30 or 40 oils after the en- 
gine has started and is operating at elevated engine 
temperature conditions. For this reason, MIL-L-46167 
lubricants should be considered only as a last resort 
when engine cranking is a severe problem and auxiliary 
heating aids are not available. 



OIL CHANGES 

The oil change period is dependent on the operating 
conditions (e.g. load factor, etc.) of an engine that will 
vary with the numerous service applications. It is rec- 
ommended that new engines be started with 150 hour 
oil change periods. For highway vehicles this corre- 
sponds to approximately 4,500 miles, and for "city" 
service vehicles, approximately 2,500 miles. The drain 
interval may then be gradually increased or decreased 
with experience on a specific lubricant while also con- 
sidering the recommendations of the oil supplier 
(analysis of the drained oil can be helpful here) until 
the most practical oil drain period for the particular 
service has been established. 

Solvents should not be used as flushing oils in running 
engines. Dilution of the fresh refill oil supply can occur, 
which may be detrimental. 

Full flow oil filtration systems have been used in 
Detroit Diesel engines since they have been manufac- 
tured. For the best results, the oil filter element should 
be replaced each time the oil is changed. 

NEW ENGINE OIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 

A relatively new engine oil classification system has 
been introduced to industry that describes the criteria 
required to meet each performance level. A simpli- 
fied cross-reference of oil and current commercial and 
military specifications is shown below. 

CROSS-REFERENCE OF LUBE OIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS 




API 

Code 
Utters 



CA 
CB 
CC 
CD 

t 



SA 
SB 
SC 
SD 
SE 



Comparable MHhary or Commercial Industry Spec. 



MIL-L-2104A 

Supplement I 

MIL-L-2104B (see Note below) 

MIL-L-45199B (Series 3) 

MIL-L-46152 (supersedes MIL-L-2104B for Military only) 

MIL-L-2104C (supersedes MIL-L-45199B for Military only) 

none 

none 

19M MS oils Auto passenger car 

1958 MS oils Auto passenger car 

1972 MS oils Auto passenger car 



t Oil performance meets or exceeds that of CC and SE oils. 
Oil performance meets or exceeds that of CD and SC oils. 
NOTE: MIL-L-2104B lubricants are currently marketed and 
readily avilable for commercial use. MIL-L-2I04B lubricants 
are obsolete for Military service applications only. 
Consult the following publications for complete 
descriptions: 

1. Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Technical 
Report J-183a. 

2. Federal Test Method Standard 791a. 

PUBLICATION AVAILABLE SHOWING 
COMMERCIAL "BRAND" NAME LUBRICANTS 

A list of "brand" name lubricants distributed by the 
majority of worldwide oil suppliers can be purchased 
from the Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA). 
The publication is titled, EMA Lubricating Oils Data 
Book for Heavy-Duty Automotive and Industrial En- 
gines. The publication shows the brand names, oil 
performance levels, viscosity grades, and sulfated ash 
contents of most "brands" marketed. 

ENGINE MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION 

111 EAST WACKER DRIVE 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 60601 




Page 68 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Fuel, Oil and Coolant Specifications 



STATEMENT OF POLICY ON FUEL AND 
LUBRICANT ADDITIVES 

In answer to requests concerning the use of fuel and 
lubricating oil additives, the following excerpts have 
been taken from a policy statement of General Motors 
Corporation: 

"It has been and continues to be General Motors 
policy to build motor vehicles that will operate 
satisfactorily on the commercial fuels and lubri- 
cants of good quality regularly provided by the 
petroleum industry through retail outlets. It is 
accordingly contrary to the policy of General 
Motors to recommend the regular and continued 
use of supplementary additives in such fuels and 
lubricants. 

"This policy should not be confused with the fact 
that certain supplementary additives may effec- 
tively and economically solve specific operating 
problems which occasionally arise in some 
vehicles. In such instances, supplementary addi- 
tives may be developed on the basis of suitable 
tests to remedy such problems without otherwise 
causing harm to vehicles. These selected products 
are then given official GM part numbers and 
made available for use in appropriate service 
applications. 

"While General Motors Corporation assumes 
responsibility for the additives selected by it to 
remedy specific operating problems, it cannot, 
of course, accept responsibility for the many 
other additives which are constantly being 
marketed. " 



Although the stated Corporation policy is self-ex- 
planatory, the following is emphasized: Detroit Diesel 
Allison does not recommend or support the use of any 
supplementary fuel or lubricant additives. These 
include all products marketed as fuel conditioners, 
smoke suppressants, masking agents, reodorants, tune- 
up compounds, top oils, break-in oils, graphitizers 
and friction-reducing compounds. 

NOTE: The manufacturer's warranty applicable 
to Detroit Diesel engines provides in part that 
the provision* of such warranty shall not apply 
to my engine unit which has been subject to 
misuse, negligence or accident. Accordingly, 
malfunctions attributable to neglect or failure 
to follow the manufacturer's fuel or lubricating 
recommendations may not be within the coverage 
of the warranty. 

SERVICE AND INSPECTION INTERVALS 

Generally, operating conditions will vary for each 
engine application, even with comparable mileage or 
hours and, therefore, maintenance schedules can vary. 
A good rule of thumb for piston, ring, and liner inspec- 
tions, however, would be at 45,000 miles or 1500 hours 
for the first such inspection and at 30,000 miles or 
1000 hour intervals thereafter. 

A suggested preventive maintenance practice is a 
regularly scheduled testing of fuel and lubricating oils 
by either the oil supplier or an independent testing 
laboratory. Since the oil supplier knows the physical 
properties of his products best and maintains labor- 
atories to determine practical oil drain intervals, take 
advantage of this service and request him to check 
drained oil samples frequently and report the results 
to you. 



Page 69 



Fuel, Oil and Coolant Specifications 



DETROIT DIESEL 



INGINE COOLANT 



Engine coolant is considered as any solution which is 
circulated through the'engine to provide the means for 
heat transfer from the different engine components. In 
general, water containing various materials in solution 
is used for this purpose. 

The function of the coolant is basic to the design and 
to the successful operation, of the engine. Therefore, 
coolant must be carefully selected and properly 
maintained. 



deposits, corrosion or a combination of these. 
Chlorides, sulfates, magnesium and calcium are 
among but not necessarily all the materials which 
make up dissolved solids. Water, within the limits 
specified in Tables 1 and 2 of Fig. 1, is satisfactory as 
an engine coolant when proper inhibitors are added. 



CORROSION INHIBITORS 




COOLANT REQUIREMENTS 

A suitable coolant solution must meet the following 
basic requirements: 

1 . Provide for adequate heat transfer. 

2. Provide a corrosion resistant environment within the 
cooling system. 

3. Prevent formation of scale or sludge deposits in the 
cooling system. 

4. Be compatible with the cooling system hose and seal 
materials. 

5. Provide adequate freeze protection during cold 
weather operation. 

The first four requirements are satisfied by combining 
a suitable water with reliable inhibitors. When 
operating conditions dictate the need for freeze 
protection, a solution of suitable water and a 
permanent antifreeze containing adequate inhibitors 
will provide a satisfactory coolant. 



WATER 

Any water, whether of drinking quality or not, will 
produce a corrosive environment in the cooling system. 
Also, scale deposits may form on the internal surfaces 
of the cooling system due to the mineral content of the 
water. Therefore, water selected as a coolant must be 
properly treated with inhibitors to control corrosion 
and scale deposition. 

To determine if a particular water is suitable for use 
as a coolant when properly inhibited, the following 
characteristics must be considered: the concentration 
of chlorides, sulfates, total hardness and dissolved 
solids. Chlorides and/or sulfates tend to accelerate 
corrosion, while hardness (percentage of magnesium 
and calcium present) causes deposits of scale. Total 
dissolved solids may cause scale deposits, sludge 



A corrosion inhibitor is a water soluble chemical 
compound which protects the metallic surfaces of the 
cooling system against corrosive attack. Some of the 



TABLE 1 



Chlorides (Maximum! 

Sulfates (Maximum! 

Total Dissolved Solids (Maximum) 

Total Hardness (Maximum I 



PARTS PER 

MILLION 

40 
100 
340 
170 



GRAINS PER 
GALLON 

2.5 
5.8 

20 

10 



Refer 10 Table 2 for evaluation of water intended for use in a 
coolant solution. 



TABLE 2 



Determine The Concentrations 

Of Chlorides, Sulfates. And 

Total Dissolved Solids 

In The Water 



_L 



Chlorides Under 40 ppm 

And 
Sulfales Under 100 ppm 

And 

Total Dissolved Solids 
Under 340 ppm 



_L 



Chlorides Over 40 ppm 

Or 
Sulfates Over 100 ppm 

Or 

Total Dissolved Solids 
Over 340 ppm 



Determine Total 
Hardness Of The Water 



Distill, De-mineralize 
Or De-ionize The Water 




Water Suitable For 
Use in Coolant 



Plus Inhibitors 



Fig. 1 Water Characteristics 




Page 70 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Fuel, Oil and Coolant Specifications 




more commonly used corrosion inhibitors are chro- 
mates, borates, nitrates, nitrites and soluble oil. 
Depletion of all types of inhibitors occurs through 
normal operation. Therefore, strength levels must be 
maintained by the addition of inhibitors at prescribed 
intervals. Always follow the supplier's recommenda- 
tions on inhibitor usage and handling. 



Chromates 

Sodium chromate and potassium dichromate are two 
of the best and most commonly used water system 
corrosion inhibitors. However, the restrictive use >of 
these materials, due to ecology considerations, has de- 
emphasized their use in favor of non-chromates. Care 
should be exercised in handling these materials due to 
their toxic nature. 

Chromate inhibitors should not be used in permanent 
type antifreeze solutions. Chromium hydroxide, 
commonly called "green slime", can result from the 
use of chromate inhibitors with permanent type 
antifreeze. This material deposits on the cooling 
system passages, reducing the heat transfer rate 
(Fig. 2) and results in engine overheating. Engines 
which have operated with a chromate-inhibited water 
must be chemically cleaned before the addition of 
permanent antifreeze. A commercial heavy-duty de- 
sealer should be used in accordance with the 
manufacturer's recommendation for this purpose. 













* 1 " fr 






CAST 


MM 


CAST 






IRON 


\ 


IRON 




\ 1/16" 
MINERAL DEPOSIT 11730 

1" CAST IRON PLUS 1/16" MINERAL DEPOSIT = 
4 1/4" CAST IRON IN HEAT TRANSFERABILITY 



Fig. 2 Heat Transfer Capacity 

chemical compounds which provide corrosion protec- 
tion, pH control and water softening ability. Corrosion 
protection is discussed under the heading Corrosion 
Inhibitors. The pH control is used to maintain an acid- 
free solution. The water softening ability deters 
formation' of mineral deposits. Inhibitor systems are 
available in various forms such as coolant filter 
elements, liquid and dry bulk inhibitor additives, and 
as an integral part of permanent antifreeze. 



I 



Soluble Oil 

Soluble oil has been used as a corrosion inhibitor for 
many years. It has, however, required very close 
attention relative to the concentration level due to 
adverse effects on heat transfer if the concentration 
exceeds 1% by volume. For example: 1 1/4% of soluble 
oil in the cooling system increases fire deck 
temperature 6% and a 2 1/2% concentration raises fire 
deck temperature up to 15%. Soluble oil is not 
recommended as a corrosion inhibitor. 



Non-chromates 

Non-chromate inhibitors (borates, nitrates, nitrites, 
etc.) provide corrosion protection in the cooling system 
with the basic advantage that they can be used with 
either water or a water and permanent antifreeze 
solution. 

INHIBITOR SYSTEMS 

An inhibitor system (Fig. 3) is a combination of 



Coolant Filter Elements 

Replaceable elements are available with various 
chemical inhibitor systems. Compatibility of the 
element with other ingredients of the coolant solution 
cannot always be taken for granted. 

Problems have developed from the use of the 
magnesium lower support plate used by some 
manufacturers in their coolant filters. The magnesium 
plate will be attacked by solutions which will not be 
detrimental to other metals in the cooling system. The 
dissolved magnesium will be deposited in the hottest 
zones of the engine where heat transfer is most 
critical. The use of an aluminum or zinc support plate 
in preference to magnesium is recommended to 
eliminate the potential of this type of deposit. High 
chloride coolants will have a detrimental effect on the 
water softening capabilities of systems using ion- 
exchange resins. Accumulations of calcium and 
magnesium ions removed from the coolant and held 
captive by the zeolite resin can be released into the 
coolant by a regenerative process caused by high 
chloride content solutions. 



Page 71 



Fuel, Oil and Coolant Specifications 



DETROIT DIESEL 





Inhibitor or 
Inhibitor System 


Corrosion 
Inhibitor 
Type 




Inhibitor 


Compatability 


Complete 
Inhibitor 
System 


Water 


Ethylene 
Glycol 
Base 
Antifreeze 


*Methoxy 
Propanol 
Base 
Antifreeze 


Sodium chromate 


Chromate 


No 


Yes 


No 


No 


Potassium dichromate 


Chromate 


No 


Yes 


No 


No 


Perry filter elements: 












5020 (type OS) 


Chromate 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


No 


S-453 (Spin-on) 


Chromate 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


No 


5030 (type OS) 


@Non-chromate 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


S-331 (Spin-on) 


@Non-chromate 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


5070 (type OS) 


# Non-chromate 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


S-473 (Spin-on) 


# Non-chromate 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Lenroc filter element 


Non-chromate 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Fleetguard filter elements: 












DCA (canister) 


Non-chromate 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


DCA (Spin-on) 


Non-chromate 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


AC filter elements: 












DCA (canister) 


Non-chromate 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


DCA (Spin-on) 


Non-chromate 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Luber-Finer filter elements: 












LW-4739 (canister) 


Non-chromate 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


LFW-4744 (spin-on) 


Non-chromate 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Nalcool 2000 (liquid) 


Non-chromate 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Perry LP-20 (liquid) 


Non-chromate 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Lubercool (liquid) 


Non-chromate 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Dowtherm cooling sys- 












tem conditioner 


Non-chromate 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 



*Dowtherm 209, or equivalent. 
@Perry "Year Around" formula. 
# Perry "Universal" formula. 




Fig. 3 - Coolant Inhibitor Chart 



Bulk Inhibitor Additives 

Commercially packaged inhibitor systems are availa- 
ble which can be added directly to the engine coolant 
or to bulk storage tanks containing coolant solution. 
Both chromate and non-chromate systems are 
available and care should be taken regarding inhibitor 
compatibility with other coolant constituents. 



use in Detroit Diesel engines. These systems can be used 
with either water or permanent antifreeze solutions 
and provide corrosion protection, pH control and 
water softening. Some non-chromate inhibitor systems 
offer the additional advantage of a simple on-site test 
to determine protection level and, since they are added 
directly to the coolant, require no additional hardware 
or plumbing. 



Non-chromate inhibitor systems are recommended for All inhibitors become depleted through normal 




Page 72 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Fuel, Oil and Coolant Specifications 



operation and additional inhibitor must be added to 
the coolant at prescribed intervals to maintain original 
strength levels. Always follow the supplier's recom- 
mendations on inhibitor usage and handling. 

NOTE: Methoxy propanol base permanent 
antifreeze (such as Dowtherm 209, or equiva- 
lent) must be re-inhibited only with compatible 
corrosion inhibitor systems. 



ANTIFREEZE 

When freeze protection is required, a permanent 
antifreeze must be used. An inhibitor system is 
included in this type of antifreeze and no additional 
inhibitors are required on initial fill if a minimum 
antifreeze concentration of 30% by volume is used. 
Solutions of less than 30% concentration do not 
provide sufficient corrosion protection. Concentrations 
over 67% adversely affect freeze protection and heat 
transfer rates. 

Ethylene glycol base antifreeze is recommended for 
use in Detroit Diesel engines. Methyl alcohol 
antifreeze is not recommended because of its effect on 
the non-metallic components of the cooling system and 
because of its low boiling point. Methoxy propanol 
base antifreeze may be used for freeze protection in 
Detroit Diesel Series 53 engines. Before installing 
methoxy propanol base antifreeze in a unit, the entire 
cooling system should be drained, flushed with clean 
water and examined for rust, scale, contaminants, etc. 
If deposits are present, the cooling system must be 
chemically cleaned with a commercial grade heavy- 
. duty de-sealer. 

The inhibitors in permanent antifreeze should be 
replenished at approximately 500 hour or 20,000 mile 
intervals with a non-chromate inhibitor sytem. 
Commercially available inhibitor systems may be used 
to re-inhibit antifreeze solutions. 



Sealer Additives 

Several brands of permanent antifreeze are available 
with sealer additives. The specific type of sealer varies 
with the manufacturer. Antifreeze with sealer 
additives is not recommended for use in Detroit Diesel 
engines due to possible plugging throughout various 
areas of the cooling system. 



GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS 



320 
300 
280 
260 
240 
220 

200 

T 

E 180 

M 

E 160 

R 

A MO 

T 
U 120 
R 

e 100 

(F) 
80 

60 
40 
20 

20 
40 




160 

149 

138 
127 
116 
104 
93 

82 M 
- E 

60 A 
T 
49 U 
R 

39 E 

(a 

27 

16 
4 
-7 
-18 
-29 
40 
51 
62 
-68 

73 



\\731A 




























































t 
i 
f 


















4 


t 
















> 


/ 














,-* 


-> 








--H 


1 



























































M 


MMMH 
- 


- FREEZING POINTS 

i 















-BOI 


LING 


POIK 


ITS 


























































































""x 


*^ 




RECOMMENDED 
i CONCENTRATION 










^^V 


N 


RANGE 30-67% 






















^N 


^ 










/ 










^ 








/ 


/ 


-60 
-80 

Qfl 












\ 




4 


/ 














^ 


t 
^ 


/ 

[/ 


















\ 

If 








100 

( 

/ 






















) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 10 
iNTIFREEZE CONCENTRATION (% BY VOLUME) 



Fig. 4 - Coolant Freezing and Boiling 

Temperatures vs. Antifreeze Concentration (Sea 

Level) 

essential that these systems be kept clean and leak- 
free, that filler caps and pressure relief mechanisms be 
correctly installed at all times and that coolant levels 
be properly maintained. 

WARNING: Use extreme care when removing a 
radiator pressure control cap from an engine. 
The sudden release of pressure from a heated 
cooling system can result in a loss of coolant 
and possible personal injury (scalding) from the 
hot liquid. 



All Detroit Diesel engines incorporate pressurized 
cooling systems which normally operate' at tempera- 
tures higher than non-pressurized systems. It is 1 . Always use a properly inhibited coolant. 



Page 73 



Fuel, Oil and Coolant Specifications 



DETROIT DIESEL 



2. Do not use soluble oil. 

3. Maintain the prescribed inhibitor strength. 

4. Always follow the manufacturer's recommendations 
on inhibitor usage and handling. 

5. If freeze protection is required, always use a 
permanent antifreeze. 

6. Re-inhibit antifreeze with a recommended non- 
chromate inhibitor system. 



7. Do not use a chromate inhibitor with permanent 
antifreeze. 

8. DO NOT mix ethylene glycol base antifreeze with 
methoxy propanol base antifreeze in the cooling 
system. 

9. Do not use an antifreeze containing sealer additives. 

10. Do not use methyl alcohol base antifreeze. 

11. Use extreme care when removing the radiator 
pressure control cap. 




A ; J 

i^^Rx |!P^B 



'Page 74 



DETROIT DIESEL 



I 



ENGINi TUNE-UP PROCEDURES 



There is no scheduled interval for performing an 
engine tune-up. As long as the engine performance is 
satisfactory, no tune-up should be needed. Minor 
adjustments in the valve and injector operating 
mechanisms, governor, etc. should only be required 
periodically to compensate for normal wear on parts. 

Three types of governors are used. Since each 
governor has different characteristics, the tune-up 
procedure varies accordingly. The three types are: 

1. Limiting speed mechanical. 



2. Variable speed mechanical. 



3. Hydraulic. 

The mechanical engine governors are identified by a 
name plate attached to the governor housing. The 
letters D.W.-L.S. stamped on the name plate denote a 
double-weight limiting speed governor. A single- 
weight variable speed governor name plate is stamped 
S.W.-V.S. 

Normally, when performing a tune-up on an engine in 
service, it is only necessary to check the various 
adjustments for a possible change in the settings. 
However, if the cylinder head, governor or injectors 
have been replaced or overhauled, then certain 
preliminary adjustments are required before the 
engine is started. 

The preliminary adjustments consist of the first four 
items in the tune-up sequence. The procedures are the 
same except that the valve clearance is greater for a 
cold engine. 

To tune-up an engine completely, all of the 
adjustments are made by following the applicable 
tune-up sequence given below after the engine has 
reached the normal operating temperature. Since the 
adjustments are normally made while the engine is 
stopped, it may be necessary to run the engine 
between adjustments to maintain normal operating 
temperature. 



Tune-Up Sequence for Mechanical Governor 

CAUTION: Before starting an engine after an 
engine speed control adjustment or after 
removal of the engine governor cover, the 
serviceman must determine that the injector 
racks move to the no-fuel position when the 
governor stop lever is placed in the stop 
position. Engine overspeed will result if the 
injector racks cannot be positioned at no fuel '; 
with the governor stop lever. 

1. Adjust the exhaust valve clearance. 

2. Time the fuel injectors. 

3. Adjust the governor gap. 

4. Position the injector rack control levers. 

5. Adjust the maximum no-load speed. 

6. Adjust the idle speed. 

7. Adjust the buffer screw. 

8. Adjust the throttle booster spring (variable spd 
governor only). 

9. Adjust the supplementary governing device f 
used). 

Tune-Up Sequence for Hydraulic Governor 

1. Adjust the exhaust valve clearance. 

2. Time the fuel injectors. 

3. Adjust the fuel rod. 

4. Position the injector rack control levers. 

5. Adjust the load limit screw. 

6. Adjust the speed droop. 

7. Adjust the maximum no-load speed. 

NOTE: Use new valve rocker cover gasket(s) 
after each tune-up. 



PageS 



Engine Tune-Up 



DETROIT DIESEL 



EXHAUST VALVE CLEARANCE ADJUSTMENT 



The correct exhaust valve clearance at normal engine 
Derating temperature is important for smooth, 
:fficient operation of the engine. 

nsufficient valve clearance can result in loss of 
;ompression, misfiring cylinders, and eventually 
>urned valve seats and valve seat inserts. Excessive 
'alve clearance will result in noisy operation, 
jspecially in the low speed range. 

Whenever the cylinder head is overhauled, the exhaust 
Valves reconditioned or replaced, or the valve 



operating mechanism is replaced or disturbed in any 
way, the valve clearance must first be adjusted to the 
cold setting to allow for normal expansion of the 
engine parts during the engine warm-up period. This 
will ensure a valve setting which is close enough to the 
specified clearance to prevent damage to the valves 
when the engine is started. 

All of the exhaust valves may be adjusted, in firing 
order sequence, during one full revolution of the 
crankshaft. Refer to the General Specifications at the 
front of the manual for the engine firing order. 



TWO VALVE CYLINDER HEADS 




Fig. 1 - Adjusting Valve Clearance (Two-Valve 
Cylinder Head) 

Cold Engine 

. Place the speed control lever in the idle speed 
position. If a stop lever is provided, secure it in the no- 
r uel position. 

2. Remove the loose dirt from the valve rocker cover(s) 
and remove the cover(s). 

3. Rotate the crankshaft, manually or with the starting 
motor, until the injector follower is fully depressed on 
he cylinder to be adjusted. 

CAUTION: If a wrench is used on the crankshaft 
bolt, do not turn the engine in a left-hand 
direction of rotation as the bolt will be 
loosened. 



4. Loosen the exhaust valve rocker arm push rod lock 
nut. 

5. Place a .012" feeler gage, J 9708, between the valve 
stem and the rocker arm (Fig. 1). Adjust the push rod 
to obtain a smooth pull on the feeler gage. 

6. Remove the feeler gage. Hold the push rod with a 
5/16 "wrench and tighten the lock nut with a 
1/2 "wrench. 

7. Recheck the clearance. At this time, if the 
adjustment is correct, the .010 "gage will pass freely 
between the end of the valve stem and the rocker arm 
and the .012" gage will not pass through. 

8. Check and adjust the remaining valves in the same 
manner as outlined above. 



Hot Engine 

Maintaining normal engine operating temperature is 
particularly important when making the final valve 
clearance adjustment. If the engine is allowed to cool 
off before setting any of the valves, the clearance, 
when running at full load, may become insufficient. 

1. With the engine at normal operating temperature 
(160-185 F or 71-85 C), recheck the exhaust valve 
clearance with feeler gage J 9708. At this time, if the 
valve clearance is correct, the .00 8 "gage will pass 
freely between the end of the valve stem and the 
rocker arm and the .010 "gage will not pass through. 
Readjust the push rod, if necessary. 

2. After the exhaust valve clearance has been adjusted, 
check the fuel injector timing. 




DETROIT DIESEL 



Engine Tune-Up 




FOUR VALVE CYLINDER HEADS 




Fig. 2 - Adjusting Valve Clearance (Four-Valve 
Cylinder Head) 

Cold Engine 

1. Place the speed control lever in the idle speed 
position. If a stop lever is provided, secure it in the no- 
fuel position. 

2. Remove the loose dirt from the valve rocker cover(s) 
and remove the cover(s). 

3. Rotate the crankshaft until the injector follower is 
fully depressed on the cylinder to be adjusted. 

CAUTION: If a wrench is used on the crankshaft 
bolt, do not turn the engine in a left-hand 
direction of rotation as the bolt will be 
loosened. 



4. Loosen the exhaust valve rocker arm push rod lock 
nut. 

5. Place a .027 "feeler gage, J 9708, between the end 
of one valve stem and the rocker arm bridge (Fig. 2). 
Adjust the push rod to obtain a smooth pull on the 
feeler gage. 

6. Remove the feeler gage. Hold the push rod with a 
5/16 "wrench and tighten the lock nut with a 
1/2 "wrench. 

7. Recheck the clearance. At this time, if the 
adjustment is correct, the .025 " gage will pass freely 
between the end of one valve stem and the rocker arm 
bridge and the .027 " gage will not pass through. 
Readjust the push rod if necessary. 

8. Check and adjust the remaining exhaust valves, in 
the same manner as above. 



Hot Engine 

Maintaining normal engine operating temperature is 
particularly important when making the final valve 
clearance adjustment. If the engine is allowed to cool 
off before setting any of the valves, the clearance, 
when running at full load, may become insufficient. 

1. With the engine at normal operating temperature 
(160-185F or 71-85C), recheck the exhaust valve 
clearance with gage J 9708. At this time, if the valve 
clearance is correct, the .023 " gage should pass freely 
between the end of one valve stem and the rocker arm 
bridge and the .025 " feeler gage should not. Readjust 
the push rod, if necessary. 

2. After the exhaust valve clearance has been adjusted, 
check the fuel injector timing. 



I 



Page 77 



Engine Tune-Up 



DETROIT DIESEL 



TIMING FUEL INJECTOR 




Injector 


Timing 
Dimension 


Tool 

Number 


*35 


.508 


J 8909 


35 


.484 


J 1242 


40 


.484 


J 1242 


45 


.484 


J 1242 


S40 


.460 


J 1853 


S45 


.460 


J 1853 


S50 


.460 


J 1853 


L40 


.460 


J 1853 


N40 


.460 


J 1853 


N45 


1.460 


J 1853 


N50 


1.460 


J 1853 



*ReferCor 



To time a fuel injector properly, the injector follower 
must be adjusted to a definite height in relation to the 
injector body. 

All of the injectors can be timed, in firing order 
sequence, during one full revolution of the crankshaft. 



Time Fuel Injector 

After the exhaust valve clearance has been adjusted, 
time the fuel injector as follows: 

1. Place the speed control lever in the idle speed 
position. If a stop lever is provided, secure it in the no- 
fuel position. 

2. Rotate the crankshaft, manually or with the starting 
motor, until the exhaust valves are fully depressed on 
the particular cylinder to be timed. 

CAUTION: If a wrench is used on the crankshaft 
bolt at the front of the engine, do not turn the 
crankshaft in a left-hand direction of rotation 
or the bolt will be loosened. 




Fig. 3 - Timing Fuel Injector 

3. Place the small end of the injector timing gage (see 

table for correct timing gage) in the hole provided in ^^ 
the top of the injector body, with the flat of the gage 
toward the injector follower as shown in Fig. 3. W ' ' 

4. Loosen the push rod lock nut. 

5. Turn the push rod and adjust the injector rocker 
arm until the extended part of the gage will just pass 
over the top of the injector follower. 

6. Hold the push rod and tighten the lock nut. Check 
the adjustment and readjust, if necessary. 

7. Time the remaining injectors as outlined above. 

8. If no further engine tune-up is required, use a new 
gasket(s) and install the valve rocker cover(s). 




Page 78 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Engine Tune-Up 



LIMITING MECHANICAL GOVERNOR AND INJECTOR RACK 

CONTROL ADJUSTMENT 



IN-LINE ENGINES 



The double-weight limiting speed governor is mounted 
on the rear end plate of the engine and is driven by a 
gear that extends through the end plate and meshes 
with either the camshaft gear or the balance shaft 
gear, depending upon the engine model. 

After adjusting the exhaust valves and timing the fuel 
injectors, adjust the governor and position the injector 
rack control levers. 

NOTE: Before proceeding with the governor and 
injector rack adjustments, disconnect any 
supplementary governing device. After the 
adjustments are completed, re-connect and 
adjust the supplementary governing device. 



Adjust Governor Gap 

With the engine stopped and at operating tempera- 
ture, adjust the governor gap as follows: 

1 . Remove the high-speed spring retainer cover. 

2. Back out the buffer screw (Fig. 8) until it extends 
approximately 5/8" from the lock nut. 



INJECTOR CONTROL 
TUBE LEVER 




3. Start the engine and adjust the idle speed screw 
(Fig. 7) to obtain the desired engine idle speed. Hold 
the screw and tighten the lock nut to hold the 
adjustment. 

NOTE: The recommended idle speed for non- 
EPA certified engines is 500-600 rpm, but may 
vary with special engine applications. 

4. Stop the engine, clean and remove the governor 
cover and the valve rocker cover. Discard the gaskets. 

5. Start and run the engine, between 800 and 1000 rpm 
by manual operation of the injector control tube lever. 

CAUTION: Do not overspeed the engine. 

6. Check the gap between the low-speed spring cap 
and the high-speed spring plunger with a .0015" feeler 
gage. If the gap setting is incorrect, reset the gap 
adjusting screw (Fig. 1). If the setting is correct, the 
.0015" movement can be seen by placing a few drops 
of oil into the governor gap and pressing a screw 
driver against the gap adjusting screw. Movement of 




Fig. 1 - Adjusting Governor Gap 



Fig. 2 Positioning the Rear Injector Rack 
Control Lever 



Page 79 



gine Tune-Up 



DETROIT DIESEL 



cap toward the plunger will force the oil from the 
> in the form of a small bead. 

Hold the gap adjusting screw and tighten the lock 



lecheck the gap and readjust if necessary. 

stop the engine and, using a new gasket, install the 
'ernor cover. The governor cover should be placed 
the housing with the pin of the speed control lever 
ijecting into the slot of the differential lever. 

Install the screws and lock washers finger tight. Pull 
cover away from the engine and tighten the 
zws. This step will properly locate the cover on the 
'ernor housing. 



sition Injector Rack Control Levers 

e position of the injector racks must be correctly set 
relation to the governor. Their position determines 
amount of fuel injected into each cylinder and 
;ures equal distribution of the load. Properly 
iitioned injector rack control levers with the engine 
full-load will result in the following: 

5peed control lever at the full-fuel position, 
jrovernor low-speed gap closed. 

High-speed spring plunger on the seat in the 
'ernor control housing. 

injector racks in the full-fuel position. 

just the rear injector rack control lever first to 




11609 



Fig. 3 - Checking Rotating Movement of 
Injector Control Rack 



ge 80 



establish a guide for adjusting the remaining injector 
rack control levers. 

1 . Disconnect any linkage attached to the speed control 

lever. 

2. Turn the idle speed adjusting screw until 1/2 "of 
the threads (12-14 threads) project from the lock nut, 
when the nut is against the high-speed plunger. 

CAUTION: A false fuel rack setting may result 
if the idle speed adjusting screw is not backed 
out as noted above. 

NOTE: This adjustment lowers the tension of 
the low-speed spring so it can be easily 
compressed. This permits closing the low speed 
gap without bending the fuel rods or causing 
the yield mechanism springs to yield or stretch. 

3. Back out the buffer screw approximately 5/8" , if it 
has not already been done. 

4. Loosen all of the inner and outer injector rack 
control lever adjusting screws (Fig. 2). Be sure all of 
the levers are free on the injector control tube. 

5. Move the speed control lever to the maximum speed 
position. Turn the inner adjusting screw down on the 
rear injector rack control lever until a step-up in effort 
is noted. This will place the rear injector rack in the 
full-fuel position. Turn down the outer adjusting screw 
until it bottoms lightly on the injector control tube. 
Then alternately tighten both the inner and outer 
adjusting screws. This should result in placing the 
governor linkage and control tube assembly in the 




SCREWDRIVER 



11610 




INJECTOR 

CONTROL 

RACK 



Fig. 4 - Checking Injector Rack "Spring" 




UCIKVJII LMCOCL 



engine lune-Up 




same positions that they will attain while the engine is 
running at full-load. 

6. To be sure of the proper rack adjustment, hold the 
speed control lever in the full-fuel position and press 
down on the injector rack with a screw driver or finger 
tip and note "rotating" movement of the injector 
control rack (Fig. 3) when the speed control lever is in 
the maximum speed position. Hold the speed control 
lever in the maximum speed position and, using a 
screw driver, press downward on the injector control 
rack. The rack should tilt downward (Fig. 4) and when 
the pressure of the screw driver is released, the control 
rack should "spring" back upward. 

If the rack does not return to its original position, it is 
too loose. To correct this condition, back off the outer 
adjusting screw slightly and tighten the inner adjusting 
screw slightly. 

The setting is too tight if, when moving the speed 
control lever from the no-speed to the maximum speed 
position, the injector rack becomes tight before the 
speed control lever reaches the end of its travel (as 
determined by the stop under the governor cover). 
This will result in a step-up in effort required to move 
the speed control lever to the end of its travel. To 
correct this condition, back off the inner adjusting 
screw slightly and tighten the outer adjusting screw 
slightly. 

NOTE: Overtightening of the injector rack 
control lever adjusting screws during installa- 
tion or adjustment can result in damage to the 
injector control tube. The recommended torque 
of the adjusting screws is 24-36 in-lbs (3-4 Nm). 




IMPORTANT: The above step should result in 
placing the governor linkage and control tube 
assembly in the same position that they will 
attain while the engine is running at full load. 

7. To adjust the remaining injector rack control levers, 
remove the clevis pin from the fuel rod and the 
injector control tube lever, hold the injector control 
racks in the full-fuel position by means of the lever on 
the end of the control tube. Turn down the inner 
adjusting screw on the injector rack control lever of 
the adjacent injector until the injector rack has moved 
into the full-fuel position and the inner adjusting 
screw is bottomed on the injector control tube. Turn 
the outer adjusting screw down until it bottoms lightly 
on the injector control tube. Then alternately tighten 
both the inner and outer adjusting screws. 

8. Recheck the rear injector rack to be sure that it has 
remained snug on the ball end of the injector rack 
control lever while adjusting the adjacent injector. If 
the rack of the rear injector has become loose, back off 
the inner adjusting screw slightly on the adjacent 
injector rack control lever. Tighten the outer adjusting 
screw. When the settings are correct, the racks of both 
injectors must be snug on the ball end of their 
respective rack control levers. 



GAP A-PJUSTING HIGH SPEED IDLE SPEED 

SCREW SPRING RETAINER ADJUSTING SCREW 




IDLE SPEED 
ADJUSTING SCREW 



TYPE B 



11746 



Fig. 5 - Adjusting Maximum No-Load Engine 
Speed (Type A) 



Fig. 6 - Governor Spring Assemblies 



Engine Tune-Up 



DETROIT DIESEL 



9. Position the remaining injector rack control levers 
as outlined in Steps 6 and 7. 

10. Connect the fuel rod to the injector control tube 
lever. 

11. Turn the idle speed adjusting screw in until it 
projects 3/16 " from the lock nut to permit starting the 
engine. Tighten the lock nut. 

12. Use a new gasket and replace the valve rocker 
. cover. 



Adjust Maximum No-Load Engine Speed 

All governors are properly adjusted before leaving the 
factory. However, if the governor has been recondi- 
tioned or replaced, and to ensure the engine speed will 
not exceed the recommended no-load speed as given 
on the engine option plate, set the maximum no-load 
speed as follows: 

TYPE A GOVERNOR SPRINGS (Fig. 6): 

1. Loosen the lock nut (Fig. 5) and back off the high- 
speed spring retainer approximately five turns. 

2. With the engine at operating temperature and no- 
load on the engine, place the speed control lever in the 
full-fuel position. Turn the high-speed spring retainer 
IN until the engine is operating at the recommended 
no-load Speed. 

The best method of determining the engine speed is 
with an accurate tachometer. 

3. Hold the high-speed spring retainer and tighten the 
lock nut. 

TYPE B GOVERNOR SPRINGS (Fig. 6): 

1. Start the engine and after it reaches normal 
operating temperature, remove the load from the 
engine. 

2. Place the speed control lever in the maximum speed 
position and note the engine speed. 

3. Stop the engine and, if necessary, adjust the no-load 
speed as follows: 

a. Remove the high-speed spring retainer, high- 
speed spring and plunger. 

CAUTION: To prevent the low-speed spring and 
cap from dropping into the governor, be careful 
not to jar the assembly while it is being 
removed. 

;' Page 82 



b. Remove the high-speed spring from the high- 
speed spring plunger and add or remove shims 
(Fig. 6) as required to establish the desired 
engine no-load speed. 

NOTE: For each .010 "shim added, the engine 
speed will be increased approximately 10 rpm. 

c. Install the high-speed spring on the plunger and 

install the spring assembly in the governor 
housing. Install the spring retainer in the 
governor housing and tighten it securely. 

d. Start the engine and recheck the engine no-load 
speed. Repeat the procedure as necessary to 
establish the no-load speed. 



Adjust Idle Speed 

With the maximum no-load speed properly adjusted, 
adjust the idle speed as follows: 

1. With the engine running at normal operating 
temperature and with the buffer screw backed out to 
avoid contact with the differential lever, turn the idle 
speed adjusting screw (Fig. 7) until the engine is 
operating at approximately 15 rpm below the 
recommended idle speed. 

NOTE: The recommended idle speed for non- 
EPA certified engines is 500-600 rpm, but may 
vary with special engine applications. 

2. Hold the idle speed adjusting screw and tighten the 
lock nut. 





Fig. 7 Adjusting Engine Idle Speed 



i 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Engine Tune-Up 





Fig. 8 - Adjusting Buffer Screw 



3. Install the high-speed spring cover and tighten the 
two bolts. 



Adjust Buffer Screw 

With the idle speed properly set, adjust the buffer 
screw as follows: 

1. With the engine running at normal operating 
temperature, turn the buffer screw in (Fig, 8) so it 
contacts the differential lever as lightly as possible and 
still eliminates engine roll. 

NOTE: Do not increase the engine idle speed 
more than 15 rpm with the buffer screw. 

2. Recheck the maximum no-load speed. If it has 
increased more than 25 rpm, back off the buffer screw 
until the increase is less than 25 rpm. 

3. Hold the buffer screw and tighten the lock nut. 



I 



Page S3 



engine lune-up 



UClK\J\l UICOCL 



LIMITING SPEED MECHANICAL GOVERNOR AND INJECTOR RACK 

CONTROL ADJUSTMENT 




6V-53 ENGINE 



The limiting speed mechanical governor is mounted at 
the rear of the engine, between the flywheel housing 
and the blower (Fig. 1). The governor is driven by the 
right blower rotor drive gear. The left blower rotor 
drive gear is driven by a shaft, that passes through the 
governor housing, from the engine gear train. There 
are two types of limiting speed governor assemblies. 
The difference in the two governors is in the spring 
mechanism (Fig. 7). One has a long spring mecha- 
nism, the other has a short spring mechanism. 

After adjusting the exhaust valves and timing the fuel 
injectors, adjust the governor and position the injector 
rack control levers. 

NOTE: Before proceeding with the governor and 
injector rack adjustments, disconnect any 
supplementary governing device. After the 
adjustments are completed, re-connect and 
adjust the supplementary governing device. 



Adjust Governor Gap 

With the engine stopped and at operating tempera- 
ture, adjust the governor gap as follows: 

1 . Remove the high-speed spring retainer cover. 




Fig. 1 - Limiting Speed Governor Mounting 



Page 84 



2. Back out the buffer screw (Fig. 9) until it extends 
approximately 5/8 " from the lock nut. 

CAUTION: Do not back the buffer screw out 
beyond the limits given, or the control link 
lever may disengage the differential lever. 

3. Start the engine and loosen the idle speed adjusting 
screw lock nut. Then adjust the idle screw (Fig. 8) to 
obtain the desired engine idle speed. Hold the screw 
and tighten the lock nut to hold the adjustment. 

NOTE: The recommended idle speed for non- 
EPA certified engines is 500-600 rpm, but may 
vary with special engine applications. 

4. Stop the engine, clean and remove the governor 
cover and the valve rocker covers. Discard the gaskets. 

5. Start and run the engine, between 800 and 1000 
rpm, by manual operation of the differential lever. 

CAUTION: Do not overspeed the engine. 

6. Check the gap between the low-speed spring cap, 
and the high-speed spring plunger with a .0015 " feeler 
gage. If the gap setting is incorrect, reset the gap 



f. Q 
.-S~. I \ 

GOVERNOR/ FEELER GAP ADJUSTING 

BOSS GAGE SCREW 




Fig. 2 - Adjusting Governor Gap 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Engine Tune-Up 



I 



adjusting screw (Fig. 2). If the setting is correct, the 
.0015 " movement can be seen by placing a few drops 
of oil into the governor gap and pressing a screw 
driver against the gap adjusting screw. Movement of 
the cap toward the plunger will force the oil from the 
gap in the form of a small bead. 

7. Hold the gap adjusting screw and tighten the lock 
nut. 

8. Recheck the gap and readjust if necessary. 

9. Stop the engine and, using a new gasket, install the 
governor cover. 



Position Injector Rack Control Levers 

The position of the injector racks must be correctly set 
in relation to the governor. Their position determines 
the amount of fuel injected into each cylinder and 
ensures equal distribution of the load. 

Properly positioned injector rack control levers with 
the engine at full-load will result in the following: 

1. Speed control lever at the maximum speed position. 

2. Governor low -speed gap closed. 

3. High-speed spring plunger on the seat in the 
governor control housing. 

4. Injector fuel control racks in the full-fuel position. 



OUTEK ADJUSTING?;. 

SCREW 
' 




The letters R or L indicate the injector location in the 
right or left cylinder bank, viewed from the rear of the 
engine. Cylinders are numbered starting at the front 
of the engine on each cylinder bank. Adjust the 
No. 3L injector rack control- lever first to establish a 
guide for adjusting the remaining injector rack control 
levers. 

1 . Disconnect any linkage attached to the speed control 
lever. 

2. Turn the idle speed adjusting screw until 1/2 "of 
the threads (12-14 threads) project from the lock nut 
when the nut is against the high-speed plunger. 

CAUTION: A false fuel rack setting may result 
if the idle speed adjusting screw is not backed 
out as noted above. 

NOTE: This adjustment lowers the tension of 
the low-speed spring so it can be easily 
compressed. This permits closing the low speed 
gap without bending the fuel rods or causing 
the yield mechanistn springs to yield or stretch. 

3. Back out the buffer screw approximately 5/8" , if it 
has not already been done. 

4. Remove the clevis pin from the fuel rod and the 
right cylinder bank injector control tube lever. 

5. Loosen all of the inner and outer injector rack 
control lever adjusting screws on both injector control 
tubes. Be sure all of the injector rack control levers are 
free on the injector control tubes. 

6. Move the speed control lever to the maximum speed 
position; hold it in that position with light finger 
pressure. Turn the inner adjusting screw on the 




11609 



Fig. 3 - Positioning No. 3L Injector Rack 
Control Lever 



Fig. 4 Checking Rotating Movement of 
Injector Control Rack 



Page 85 



Engine Tune-Up 



DETROIT DIESEL 



lo. 3L injector rack control lever down as shown in 
r ig. 3 until a slight movement of the control tube 
;ver is observed or a step-up in effort to turn the 
crew driver is noted. This will place the No. 3L 
njector in the full-fuel position. Turn down the outer 
djusting screw until it bottoms lightly on the injector 
ontrol tube. Then alternately tighten both the inner 
nd outer adjusting screws. 

NOTE: Overtightening of the injector rack 
control lever adjusting screws during installa- 
tion or adjustment can result in damage to the 
injector control tube. The recommended torque 
of the adjusting screws is 24-36 in-Ibs (3-4 Nm). 

IMPORTANT: The above step should result in 
placing the governor linkage and control tube 
assembly in the same position that they will 
attain while the engine is running at full-load. 

. To be sure of the proper rack adjustment, hold the 
peed control lever in the maximum speed position 
nd press down on the injector rack with a screw 
river or finger tip and note "rotating" movement of 
ic injector control rack (Fig. 4) when the speed 
ontrol lever is in the maximum speed position. Hold 
le speed control lever in the maximum speed position 
nd, using a screw driver, press downward on the 
ijector control rack. The rack should tilt downward 
Fig. 5) and when the pressure of the screw driver is 
jleased, the control rack should "spring" back 
pward. 

* the rack does not return to its original position, it is 
>o loose. To correct this condition, back off the outer 



SCREWDRIVER 



11610 




INJECTOR 

CONTROL 

RACK 



Fig. 5 - Checking Injector Control Rack 
"Spring 1 



adjusting screw slightly and tighten the inner adjusting 
screw slightly. 

The setting is too tight if, when moving the speed 
control lever from the no-speed to the maximum speed 
position, the injector rack becomes tight before the 
speed control lever reaches the end of its travel (as 
determined by the stop under the governor cover). 
This will result in a step-up in effort required to move 
the speed control lever to the end of its travel. To 
correct this condition, back off the inner adjusting 
screw slightly and tighten the outer adjusting screw 
slightly. 

8. Remove the clevis pin from the fuel rod and the left 
bank injector control tube lever. 

9. Insert the clevis pin in the fuel rod and the right 
cylinder bank injector control tube lever and position 
the No. 3R injector rack control lever as previously 
outlined in Step 6 for the No. 3L injector rack control 
lever. 

10. Insert the clevis pin in the fuel rod and the left 
cylinder bank injector control tube lever. Repeat the 
check on the 3L and 3R injector rack control levers as 
outlined in Step 7. Check for and eliminate any 
deflection which may occur at the bend in the fuel rod 
where it enters the cylinder head. 

11. To adjust the remaining injector rack control 
levers, remove the clevis pin from the fuel rods and 
the injector control tube levers, hold the injector 
control racks in the full-fuel position by means of the 
lever on the end of the control tube, and proceed as 
follows: 

a. Turn down the inner adjusting screw of the 
injector rack control lever until the screw bottoms 
(injector control rack in the full-fuel position). 

b. Turn down the outer adjusting screw of the 
injector rack control lever until it bottoms on the 
injector control tube. 

c. While still holding the control tube lever in the 

full-fuel position, adjust the inner and outer 
adjusting screws to obtain the same condition as 
outlined in Step 7. Tighten the screws. 

CAUTION: Once the No. 3L and No. 3R 
injector rack control levers are adjusted, do not 
try to alter their settings. All adjustments are 
made on the remaining control racks. 

NOTE: Overtightening of the injector rack 
control tube lever adjusting screws during 
installation or adjustment can result in damage 
to the injector control tube. The recommended 



age 86 




r 




DETROIT DIESEL 



Engine Tune-Up 




, r 



13. Insert the clevis pin in the fuel rod 
control tube levers, 



- 



*h 
the m Jector 



new gaskets and replace the valve rocker 



Adjust Maximum No-Load Engine Speed 



3- Hold the spring retainer and tighten the lock 
TYPE B GOVERNOR SPRINGS (Fig. 7): 



nut. 



BUFFER LOCK 

SCREW NUT 



TYPE A GOVERNOR SPRINGS (Fig. 7). 



HIGH SPEED 
SPRING RETAINER 




Fig. 6 - Adjusting Maximum No-Load Engine 
Speed 



Fig. 7 - Governor Spring Assemblies 



Page 87 



Engine Tune-Up 



DETROIT DIESEL 



3. Stop the engine and, if necessary, adjust the no-load 
speed as follows: 

a. Remove the high-speed spring retainer with tool 
J 5895 and withdraw the high-speed spring and 
plunger assembly. 

CAUTION: To prevent the low-speed spring and 
cap from dropping into the governor, be careful 
not to jar the assembly while it is being 
removed. 

b. Remove the high-speed spring from the high- 
speed spring plunger and add or remove shims as 
required to establish the desired engine no-load 
speed. 

NOTE: For each .010 "in shims added, the 
engine speed will be increased approximately 
10 rpm. 

c. Install the high-speed spring on the plunger and 

install the spring assembly in the governor 
housing. Install the spring retainer in the 
governor housing and tighten it securely. The 
maximum no-load speed varies with the full-load 
operating speed desired. 

d. Start the engine and recheck the no-load speed. 

Repeat the procedure as necessary to establish the 
no-load speed required. 

Adjust Idle Speed 

With the maximum no-load speed properly adjusted, 
adjust the idle speed as follows: 

1. With the engine running at normal operating 
temperature and with the buffer screw backed out to 



IDLE SPEED 

ADJUSTING 

SCREW 



ADJUSTING 
SCREW LOCK NUT 




avoid contact with the differential lever, turn the idle 
speed adjusting screw (Fig. 8) until the engine is 
operating at approximately 15 rpm below the 
recommended idle speed. 

NOTE: The recommended idle speed for non- 
EPA certified engines is 500-600 rpm, but may 
vary with special engine applications. 

If the engine has a tendency to stall during 
deceleration, install a new buffer screw. The current 
buffer screw uses a heavier spring and restricts the 
travel of the differential lever to the off (no-fuel) 
position. 

2. Hold the idle screw and tighten the lock nut. 

3. Install the high-speed spring retainer cover and 
tighten the two bolts. 

Adjust Buffer Screw 

With the idle speed properly set, adjust the buffer 
screw as follows: 

1. With the engine running at normal operating 
temperature, turn the buffer screw in (Fig. 9) so it 
contacts the differential lever as lightly as possible and 
still eliminates engine roll. 

NOTE: Do not increase the engine idle speed 
more than 15 rpm with the buffer screw. 

2. Recheck the maximum no-load speed. If it has 
increased more than 25 rpm, back off the buffer screw 
until the increase is less than 25 rpm. 

3. Hold the buffer screw and tighten the lock nut. 




Fig. 8 - Adjusting Engine Idle Speed 




Fig. 9 Adjusting Buffer Screw 



88 



UtIKUII UICOCL 



engine iune-up 




VARIABLE SPEED MECHANICAL GOVERNOR (OPEN LINKAGE) AND 
INJECTOR RACK CONTROL ADJUSTMENT 



IN-LINE ENGINES 



After adjusting the exhaust valves and timing the fuel 
injectors, adjust the governor (Fig. 1) and the injector 
rack control levers. 



Preliminary Governor Adjustments 

1. Clean the governor linkage and lubricate the ball 
joints and bearing surfaces with clean engine oil. 

2. Back out the buffer screw until it projects 
9/16" from the boss on the control housing. 




3. Back out the booster spring eye bolt until it is flush 
with the outer lock nut. 



Adjust Variable Speed Spring Tension 

1. Adjust the variable speed spring eye bolt until 
1/8 "of the threads project from the outer lock nut 
(Fig. 2). 

2. Tighten both lock nuts to retain the adjustment. 

NOTE: This setting of the eye bolt will produce 
approximately 7% droop in engine speed from 
no-load to full-load. 



Position Injector Rack Control Levers 

The position of the injector control racks must be 
correctly set in relation to the governor. Their position 





Fig. 1 - Variable Speed Open Linkage Governor 
Mounted on Engine 



Fig. 2 - Adjusting Governor Spring Eye Bolt 



Page 89 



Engine Tune-Up 



DETROIT DIESEL 



determines the amount of fuel injected into each 
cylinder and ensures equal distribution of the load. 
Adjust the rear injector rack control lever first to 
establish a guide for adjusting the remaining levers. 

1. Clean and remove the valve rocker cover. Discard 
the gasket. 

2. Disconnect the fuel rod at the stop lever. 

3. Loosen all of the inner and outer injector rack 
control lever adjusting screws. Be sure all of the 
injector rack control levers are free on the injector 
control tube. 

4. Move the speed control lever to the maximum speed 
position. 

5. Adjust the rear cylinder injector rack control lever 
adjusting screws (Fig. 3) until both screws are equal in 
height and tight on the injector control tube. 

6. Move the rear injector control rack into the full-fuel 
position and note the clearance between the fuel rod 
and the cylinder head bolt. The clearance should be 
1/32 "or more. If necessary, readjust the injector rack 
adjusting screws until a clearance of at least 1 /32 " to 
1/16 " exists. Tighten the adjustment screws. 



INNER 

ADJUSTING 

SCREW 

ar 




Fig. 3 Adjusting Injector Rack Control Lever 
Adjusting Screws 



7. Loosen the nut which locks the ball joint on the fuel 
rod. Hold the fuel rod in the full-fuel position and 
adjust the ball joint until it is aligned and will slide on 
the ball stud on the stop lever (Fig. 4). Position the 
shutdown cable clip and tighten the fuel rod lock nut 
to retain the adjustment. 

8. Check the adjustment by pushing the fuel rod 
toward the engine and make sure the injector control 
rack is in the full-fuel position. If necessary, readjust 
the fuel rod. 

9. Manually hold the rear injector rack in the full-fuel 
position, with the lever on the injector control tube, 
and turn the inner adjusting screw 'of the adjacent 
injector rack control lever down until the injector rack 
moves into the full-fuel position. Turn the outer 
adjusting screw down until it bottoms lightly on the 
injector control tube. Then alternately tighten both the 
inner and outer adjusting screws. 

NOTE.- Overtightening of the injector rack 
control lever adjusting screws during installa- 
tion or adjustment can result in damage to the 
injector control tube. The recommended torque 
of the adjusting screws is 24-36 in-Ibs (3-4 Nm). 

10. Recheck the rear injector rack to be sure that it has 
remained snug on the ball end of the rack control 
lever while adjusting the adjacent injector rack. If the 
rack of the rear injector has become loose, back off the 
inner adjusting screw slightly on the adjacent injector 
rack control lever and tighten the outer adjusting 
screw. When the settings are correct, the racks of both 
injectors must be snug on the ball end of their 
respective control levers. 




r 




Fig. 4 - Adjusting Fuel Rod Length 




Page 90 




11. Position the remaining injector rack control levers 
as outlined in Steps 9 and 10. 



Adjust Maximum No-Load Speed 

1. With the engine running, move the speed control 
lever to the maximum speed position. Use an accurate 
tachometer to determine the no-load speed of the 
engine. 

NOTE: Do not overspeed the engine. 

2. Loosen the lock nut and adjust the maximum speed 
adjusting screw (Fig. 5) until the required no-load 
speed is obtained. 

3. Hold the adjusting screw and tighten the lock nut. 



Adjust Engine Idle Speed 

1. Make sure the stop lever is in the run position and 
place the speed control lever in the idle position. 

2. With the engine running at normal operating 
temperature, loosen the lock nut and turn the idle 
speed adjusting screw (Fig. 6) until the engine idles at 
the recommended speed. The recommended idle speed 



, v, MAXIMUM SPEED 

*: '"ADJUSTING SCREW 





Fig. 5 Adjusting Maximum No-Load Engine 
Speed 



is 500 rpm. However, the idle speed may vary with 
special engine applications. 

3. Hold the idle speed adjusting screw and tighten the 
lock nut. 



Adjust Buffer Screw 

1. With the engine running at idle speed, turn the 
buffer screw in (Fig. 1) so that it contacts the stop 
lever as lightly as possible and still eliminates engine 
roll. 

NOTE: Do not raise the engine idle speed more 
than 20 rpm with the buffer screw. Check the 
maximum no-load speed to make sure it has not 
increased over 25 rpm by the buffer screw 
setting. 



Adjust Governor Booster Spring 

The governor booster spring is used on some engines 
to reduce the force necessary to move the speed 
control lever from the idle speed position to the 
maximum speed position. Adjust the booster spring as 
follows: 

1. Move the speed control lever to the idle speed 
position. 

2. Reduce the tension on the booster spring, if not 




Fig. 6 Adjusting Idle Speed 



Page 91 



Engine Tune-Up 



DETROIT DIESEL 




Fig. 7 - Adjusting Buffer Screw 

previously performed, to the minimum by backing off 
the outer lock nut (Fig. 8) until the end of the booster 
spring eye bolt is flush with the end of the nut. 

3. Adjust the eye bolt in the slot in the bracket so that 
an imaginary line through the booster spring will align 
with an imaginary center line through the speed 
control shaft. Secure the lock nuts on the eye bolt to 
retain the adjustment. 

4. Move the speed control lever to the maximum speed 
position and note the force required. To reduce the 
force, back off the inner lock nut and tighten the outer 
lock nut to increase the tension on the booster spring. 

NOTE: Before tightening the lock nuts, reposi- 
tion the booster spring as in Step 3. 

The setting is correct when the speed control lever can 
be moved from the idle speed position to the 
maximum speed position with a constant force, while 
the engine is running, and when released it will return 
to the idle speed position. 




Fig. 8 - Adjusting Booster Spring 
Adjust Engine Spaed Droop 

The adjustment of the spring tension as outlined under 
Adjust Variable Speed Spring Tension will result in 
approximately 7% droop from the maximum no-load 
speed to the full-load speed. This is the optimum 
droop setting for most applications. However, the 
droop may be changed as necessary for a particular 
engine application. 

1. Lower the speed droop by increasing the spring 
tension. 

2. Raise the speed droop by decreasing the spring 
tension. 

NOTE: A change in the variable speed spring 
tension will change the maximum no-load speed 
and the engine idle speed which must also be 
readjusted. 




VARIABLE SPEED MECHANICAL GOVERNOR (ENCLOSED LINKAGE) AND 
INJECTOR RACK CONTROL ADJUSTMENT 



IN-LINE ENGINES 




The single-weight variable speed governor is mounted 
on the rear end plate of the engine and is driven by a 
gear that extends through the end plate and meshes 
with either the camshaft gear or the balance shaft 
gear, depending upon the engine model. 

After adjusting the exhaust valves and timing the fuel 
injectors, adjust the governor and position the injector 
rack control levers. 

NOTE: Before proceeding with the governor and 
injector rack adjustments, disconnect any 
supplementary governing device. After the 
adjustments are completed, reconnect and 
adjust the supplementary governing device. 



Adjust Governor Gap 



With the engine stopped and at operating tempera- 
ture, adjust the governor gap as follows: 




1. Disconnect any linkage attached to the governor 
levers. 

2. Back out tne buffer screw until it extends 
approximately 5/8" from the lock nut. 

3. Clean and remove the governor cover and valve 
rocker cover. Discard the gaskets. 

4. Place the spec control lever (Fig. 1) in the 
maximum speed position. 

5. Insert a .006 "feeler gage between the spring 
plunger and the plunger guide as shown in Fig. 1. If 
required, loosen 'the lock nut and turn the gap 
adjusting screw in or out until a slight drag is noted on 
the feeler gage. 

6. Hold the adjusting screw and tighten the lock nut. 
Check the gap and readjust if necessary. 

7. Use a new gasket and install the governor cover as 
follows: 

a. Place the cover on the governor housing, with the 



OUTER 'fe 
ADJUSTING 

SCREW , *#* 





Fig. 1 Checking Governor Gap 



Fig. 2 Positioning the Rear Injector Rack 
Control Lever 



Page 93 



Engine Tune-Up 



DETROIT DIESEL 



pin in the throttle shaft assembly entering the slot 
in the differential lever. 

b. Install the four cover screws and lock washers 
finger tight. 

c. Pull the cover assembly in a direction away from 

the engine, to take up the slack, and tighten the 
cover screws. 



is step is required since no dowels are 
used to locate the cover on the housing. 



Position Injector Rock Control Lever* 

The position of the injector control rack levers must be 
correctly set in relation to the governor. Their position 
determines the amount of fuel injected into each 
cylinder and ensures equal distribution of the load. 
Properly positioned injector control rack levers with 
the engine at full-load will result in the following: 

1 . Speed control lever at the maximum speed position. 

2. Stop lever in the RUN position. 

3. Injector fuel control racks in the full-fuel position. 

Adjust the rear injector rack control lever first to 
establish a guide for adjusting the remaining levers. 

1.. Loosen all of the inner and outer injector rack 
control lever adjusting screws (Fig. 2). Be sure all of 
the levers are free on the injector control tube. 

2. Move the speed control lever to the maximum speed 
position. 




INJECTOR 

CONTROL 

RACK 



11 SOS 



Fig. 3 Checking Rotating Movement of 
Injector Control Rack 



SCREWDRIVER 



1161C 




INJECTOR 

CONTROL 

RACK 




Fig. 4 Checking Injector Control Rack 
"Spring" 

3. Move the stop lever to the RUN position and hold it 
in that position with light finger pressure. Turn the 
inner adjusting screw of the rear injector rack control 
lever down until a slight movement of the control tube 
is observed or a step-up in effort to turn the screw 
driver is noted. This will place the rear injector rack in 
the full-fuel position. Turn the outer adjusting screw 
down until it bottoms lightly on the injector control 
tube. Then alternately tighten both the inner and outer 
adjusting screws. This should result in placing the 
governor linkage and control tube in the respective 
positions that they will attain while the engine is 
running at full load. 

NOTE: Overtightening of the injector rack 
control lever adjusting screws during installa- 
tion or adjustment can result in damage to the 
injector control tube. The recommended torque 
of the adjusting screws is 24-36 in-lbs (3-4 Nm). 

4. To be sure of proper rack adjustment, hold the stop 
lever in the RUN position and press down on the 
injector rack with a screw driver or finger tip and note 
"rotating" movement of the injector control rack 
(Fig. 3). Hold the stop lever in the RUN position and, 
using a screw driver, press downward on the injector 
control rack. The rack should tilt downward (Fig. 4) 
and, when the pressure of the screw driver is released, 
the control rack should "spring" back upward. 

If the rack does not return to its original position, it is 
too loose. To correct this condition, back off the outer 
adjusting screw slightly and tighten the inner adjusting 
screw. The setting is too tight if, when moving the stop 
lever from the STOP to the RUN position, the injector 
rack becomes tight before the stop lever reaches the 
end of its travel. This will result in a step-up in effort 






DETROIT DIESEL 



Engine Tune-Up 



** W 



required to move the stop lever to the RUN position 
and a deflection in the fuel rod (fuel rod deflection can 
be seen at the bend). If the rack is found to be too 
tight, back off the inner adjusting screw slightly and 
tighten the outer adjusting screw. 

5. To adjust the remaining injector rack control levers, 
remove the clevis pin from the fuel rod and the 
injector control tube lever, hold the injector control 
racks in the full-fuel position by means of the lever on 
the end of the control tube. Turn down the inner 
adjusting screw on the injector rack control lever of 
the adjacent injector until the injector rack has moved 
into the full-fuel position and the inner adjusting 
screw is bottomed on the injector 'control tube.. Turn 
the outer adjusting screw down until it bottoms lightly 
on the injector control tube. Then alternately tighten 
both the inner and outer adjusting screws. 

6. Recheck the rear injector rack to be sure that it has 
remained snug on the ball end of the rack control 
lever while adjusting the adjacent injector rack. If the 
rack of the rear injector has become loose, back off the 
inner adjusting screw slightly on the adjacent injector 
rack control lever and tighten the outer adjusting 
screw. When the settings are correct, the racks of both 
injectors must be snug on the ball end of their 
respective control levers. 

7. Position the remaining injector rack control levers 
as outlined in Steps 4, 5 and 6. 

8. When all of the injector rack control levers are 
adjusted, recheck their settings. With the control tube 
lever in the full-fuel position, check each control rack 
as in Step 4. All of the control racks must have the 
same "spring" condition with the control tube lever in 
the full-fuel position. 

9. Insert the clevis pin in the fuel rod and the injector 
control tube levers. 




VARIABLE 
SPEED SPRING 



SOLID 
STOP 



SPRING 
RETAINER 




SPLIT SPRING 

STOP HOUSING 12215 



10. Use a new gasket and replace the valve rockei 
cover. 



Adjust Maximum No-Load Speed 

All governors are properly adjusted before leaving the 
factory. However, if the governor has been recondi- 
tioned or replaced, and to ensure the engine speed will 
not exceed the recommended no-load speed as given 
on the option plate, the maximum no-load speed may 
be set as follows: 

Start the engine and, after it reaches normal operating 
temperature, determine the maximuhj no-load speed 
of the engine with an accurate tachortieter. Then stop 
the engine and make the following adjustments, if 
required. 

L Refer to Fig. 8 and disconnect the booster spring 
and the stop lever retracting spring. 

2. Remove the variable speed spring housing and the 
variable speed spring retainer located inside of the 
housing. 

3. Refer to Table 1 and determine the stops or shims 
required for the desired full-load speed. Do not use 
more than four thick and one thin shim. A split stop 
can only be used with a solid stop (Fig. 5). 

4. Install the variable speed spring retainer and 
housing and tighten the two bolts. 

5. Connect the booster spring and stop lever spring. 
Start the engine and recheck the maximum no-load 
speed. 

6. If required, add shims to obtain the necessary 
operating speed. For each .001 "in shims added, the 
operating speed will increase approximately 2 rpm. 

IMPORTANT: If the maximum no-load speed is 
raised or lowered more than 50 rpm by the 



Full Load Speed 
RPM 


STOPS 


SHIMS 


Solid Ring 


Split Ring 


2575-2800 








At Required 


2101-2575 


1 





At Required 


1701-2100 


1 


1 


At Required 


1200-1700 


1 


2 


At Required 



Fig. 5 Locating of Shims and Stops 



TABLE 1 



Page 95 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Engine Tune-Up 




Fig . 7 . Adjusting Buffer Screw 
Adjust S-'ffer Screw 



. With the engine 



Fig. 6 - Adjusting Idle Speed 
installation or 



at normal operating 
in (Fig . 7) so that it 

s 



racks must be rechecked. 



n of the sector 



Adjust Idle Spaed 



adjust the idle speed 



1. Place the stop 
speed control lever 



position and the 



the 



- outthe 

temperature, back out me 
with the differential lever. 



3. Loosen the lock 
adjusting screw (Fig - 
at approximately 1 
speed. 



t normal operating 
to avoid contact 



is 



2 . HoK. the buffer screw .nd ,igh the lock am. 

Booster Spring 

me e ng iispedadjus,ed,ad ) us 1 d. booster 
splinj as follows: 
,. Move 0. speeo control lever to the idle speed 

position. 

. o an d -loosen the booster spring 
2 . Refer | ^ t j e 'e cd control lever. Loosen the 
SSSS on S eye tt at the opposite end of the 
booster spring. 

- retaining bolt in the slot of the 
3. Move the spring reta ^ f the bolt is on or 
speed control lever : * the *nl rf 

sHghtly over owgJ ^ M lever shaft and eye 



re & com mended idle 



4. Start the 

the maximum speed 



with special engine 

4. Hold the idle speed adjusting 



the speed control lever to 
and release it. The lever 
lf u does no t, 

js 





DETROIT DIESEL 



Engine Tune-Up 




the spring tension until the lever does return to idle 
and tighten the lock nuts on the eye bolt. This setting 
will result in the minimum force required to operate 
the speed control lever. 

5. Connect the linkage to the governor levers. 



Fig. 8 - Adjusting Booster Spring 




Page 97 



VARIABLE SPEED MECHANICAL GOVERNOR AND INJECTOR RACK 

CONTROL ADJUSTMENT 




6V- 53 ENGINE 



The variable speed mechanical governor assembly is 
mounted at the rear of the 6V engine, between the 
flywheel housing and the blower (Fig. 1). The 
governor is driven by the right-hand blower rotor 
drive gear. 

After adjusting the exhaust valves and timing the fuel 
injectors, adjust the governor and position the injector 
rack control levers. 

NOTE: Before proceeding with the governor and 
injector rack adjustments, disconnect any 
supplementary governing device. After the 
adjustments are completed, reconnect and 
adjust the supplementary governing device. 



Adjust Governor Gap 



With the engine stopped and at normal operating 
temperature, adjust the governor gap as follows: 

1. Disconnect any linkage attached to the governor 

levers. 

2. Back out the buffer screw until it extends 
approximately 5/8" from the lock nut. 



GOVERNOR f>.>- STOP i BLOWER 




3. Clean and remove the governor cover and the valve 
rocker covers. Discard the gaskets. 

4. Place the speed control lever in the maximum speed 
position. 

5. Insert a .006 " feeler gage between the spring 
plunger and the plunger guide as shown in Fig. 2. If 
required, loosen the lock nut and turn the adjusting 
screw in or out until a slight drag is noted on the 
feeler gage. 

6. Hold the adjusting screw and tighten the lock nut. 
Check the gap and readjust if necessary. 

7. Use a new gasket and install the governor cover. 
Position Injector Rack Control Levers 

The position of the injector control racks must be 
correctly set in relation to the governor. Their position 
determines the amount of fuel injected into each 
cylinder and ensures equal distribution of the load. 

Properly positioned injector rack control levers with 
the engine at full-load will result in the following: 

1. Speed control lever at the maximum speed position. 





Fig. 1 Variable Speed Governor Mounting 



Fig. 2 Adjusting Governor Gap 



Page 98 



LJCIKWII LSICQCL 



engine tune-up 





Fig. 3 Positioning No. 3L Injector Rack 
Control Lever 

2. Stop lever in the RUN position. 

3. Injector fuel control racks in the full-fuel position. 

The letters R or L indicate the injector location in the 
right or left cylinder bank, viewed from the rear of the 
engine. Cylinders are numbered starting at the front 
of the engine on each cylinder bank. Adjust the 
No. 3L injector rack control lever first to establish a 
guide for adjusting the remaining levers. 

1. Remove the clevis pin from the fuel rod and the 
right cylinder bank injector control tube lever. 

2. Loosen all of the inner and outer injector rack 
control lever adjusting screws on both injector control 
tubes. Be sure all of the injector rack control levers are 
free on the injector control tubes. 

3. Move the speed control lever to the maximum speed 
position. 

4. Move the stop lever to the run position and hold it 
in that position with light finger pressure. Turn the 
inner adjusting screw of the No. 3L injector rack 
control lever down (Fig. 3) until a slight movement of 
the control tube is observed, or a step-up in effort to 
turn the screw driver is noted. This will place the 
No. 3L injector rack in the full-fuel position. Turn the 
outer adjusting screw down until it bottoms lightly on 




INJECTOR 

CONTROL 

RACK 



11609 



Fig. 4 - Checking Rotating Movement of 
Injector Control Rack 

the injector control tube. Then alternately tighten both 
the inner and outer adjusting screws. 

NOTE: Overtightening the injector rack control 
lever adjusting screws during installation or 
adjustment can result in damage to the injector 
control tube. The recommended torque of the 
adjusting screws is 24-36 in-lb (3-4 Nm). 

The above steps should result in placing the governor 
linkage and control tube in the respective positions 
that they will attain while the engine is running at full 
load. 

5. To be sure of proper rack adjustment, hold the stop 



SCREWDRIVER 



11610 




INJECTOR 
CONTROL 

RACK 



Fig. 5 Checking Injector Control Rack 
"Spring" 



Page 99 



Engine Tune-Up 



DETROIT DIESEL 



lever in the run position and press down on the 
injector rack with a screw driver or finger tip and note 
the "rotating" movement of the injector control rack 
(Fig. 4). Hold the stop lever in the run position and, 
using a screw driver, press downward on the injector 
control rack. The rack should tilt downward (Fig. 5) 
and when the pressure of the screw driver is released, 
the control rack should "spring" back upward. If the 
rack does not return to its original position, it is too 
loose. To correct this condition, back off the outer 
adjusting screw slightly and tighten the inner adjusting 
screw. The setting is too tight if, when moving the stop 
lever from the stop to the run position, the injector 
rack becomes tight before the governor stop lever 
reaches the end of its travel. This will result in a step- 
up in effort required to move the stop lever to the run 
position and a deflection in the fuel rod (fuel rod 
deflection can be seen at the bend). If the rack is 
found to be too tight, back off the inner adjusting 
screw slightly and tighten the outer adjusting screw. 

6. Remove the clevis pin from the fuel rod and the left 
bank injector control tube lever. 

7. Insert the clevis pin in the fuel rod and the right 
cylinder bank injector control tube lever and position 
the No. 3R injector rack control lever as previously 
outlined in Step 4 for the No. 3L control lever. 

8. Insert the clevis pin in the fuel rod and the left bank 
injector control tube lever. Repeat the check on the 3L 
and 3R injector rack control levers as outlined in 
Step 5. Check for and eliminate any deflection which 
may occur at the bend in the fuel rod where it enters 
the cylinder head. 

9. To adjust the remaining injector rack control levers, 
remove the clevis pin from the fuel rods and the 
injector control tube levers, hold the injector control 
racks in the full-fuel position by means of the lever on 
the end of the control tube and proceed as follows: 

a. Turn down the inner adjusting screw of the 
injector rack control lever until the screw bottoms 
(injector control rack in the full-fuel position). 

b. Turn down the outer adjusting screw of the 
injector rack control lever until it bottoms on the 
injector control tube. 

c. While still holding the control tube lever in the 

full-fuel position, adjust the inner and outer 
adjusting screws to obtain the same condition as 
outlined in Step 5. Tighten the screws. 

CAUTION: Once the No. 3L and No. 3R 
injector rack control levers are adjusted, do not 
try to alter their settings. All adjustments are 
made on the remaining control racks. 



10. When all of the injector rack control levers are 
adjusted, recheck their settings. With the control tube 
lever in the full-fuel position, check each control rack 
as in Step 5. All of the control racks must have the 
same "spring" condition with the control tube lever in 
the full-fuel position. 

11. Insert the clevis pin in the fuel rods and the 
injector control tube levers. 

12. Use new gaskets and install the valve rocker covers. 



Adjust Maximum No-Load Speed 



All governors are properly adjusted before leaving the 
factory. However, if the governor has been recondi- 
tioned or replaced, and to ensure the engine speed will 
not exceed the recommended no-load speed as given 
on -the engine option plate, the maximum no-load 
speed may be set as follows: 

Start the engine and after it reaches normal operating 
temperature, determine the maximum no-load speed 
of the engine with an accurate tachometer. Then stop 
the engine and make the following adjustments, if 
required. 

1. Refer to Fig. 9 and disconnect the booster spring 
and the stop lever retracting spring. 

2. Remove the variable speed spring housing and the 
spring retainer, located inside of the housing, from the 
governor housing. 

3. Refer to Table 1 and determine the stops or shims 
required for the desired full-load speed. A split stop 
can only be used with a solid stop (Fig. 6). 

4. Install the variable speed spring retainer and 
housing and tighten the two bolts. 





SHIMS 



SPRING 
RETAINER 



VARIABLE 
SOLID SPEED 

STOP SPRING 



12222 



r 



Fig. 6 - Location of Shims and Stops 




Page 100 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Engine Tune-Up 



a IDLE SPEED 
ADJUSTING 
SCREW 




Fig. 7 Adjusting Idle Speed 



Full -Load Speed 


Stops 


Shims* 


Solid 


Split 


1200-2100 
2100-2500 
2500-2800 


1 
1 



1 





As Required 
As Required 
As Required 



*Maximum amount of shims .325" 
TABLE 1 

5. Connect the booster spring and the stop lever 
spring. Start the engine and recheck the maximum no- 
load speed. 

6. If required, add shims to obtain the necessary 
operating speed. For each .001 "in shims added, the 
operating speed will increase approximately 2 rpm. 

IMPORTANT: If the maximum no-load speed is 
raised or lowered more than 50 rpm by the 
installation or removal of shims, recheck the 
governor gap. If readjustment of the governor 
gap is required, the position of the injector 
racks must be rechecked. 

NOTE: Governor stops are used to limit the 
compression of the governor spring, which 
determines the maximum speed of the engine. 



Adjust Idle Speed 

With the maximum no-load speed properly adjusted, 
adjust the idle speed as follows: 

1. Place the stop lever in the run position and the 
speed control lever in the idle position. 



Fig. 8 Adjusting Buffer Screw 

2. With the engine running at normal operating 
temperature, back out the buffer screw to avoid contact 
with the differential lever. 

3. Loosen the lock nut and turn the idle speed 
adjusting screw (Fig. 7) until the engine is operating 
at approximately 15 rpm below the recommended idle 
speed. The recommended idle speed is 550 rpm, but 
may vary with special engine applications. 

4. Hold the idle speed adjusting screw and tighten the 
lock nut. 



Adjust Buffer Screw 

1. With the engine running at normal operating 
temperature, turn the buffer screw in (Fig. 8) so that it 
contacts the differential lever as lightly as possible and 
still eliminates engine roll. 

NOTE: Do not raise the engine idle speed more 
than 15 rpm with the buffer screw. 

2. Hold the buffer screw and tighten the lock nut. 



Adjust Booster Spring 

With the idle speed adjusted, adjust the booster spring 
as follows: 

1. Move the speed control lever to the idle speed 
position. 

2. Refer *" 



Engine Tune-Up 



DETROIT DIESEL 




Fig. 9 - Adjusting Booster Spring 



retaining nut on the speed control lever. Loosen the 
lock nuts on the eye bolt at the opposite end of the 
booster spring. 

3. Move the spring retaining bolt in the slot of the 
speed control lever until the center of the bolt is on or 
slightly over center (toward the idle speed position) of 
an imaginary line through the bolt, lever shaft and eye 
bolt. Hold the bolt and tighten the lock nut. 

4. Start the engine and move the speed control lever to 
the maximum speed position and release it. The speed 
control lever should return to the idle position. If it 
does not, reduce the tension on the booster spring. If 
the lever does return to the idle position, continue to 
increase the spring tension until the point is reached 
that it will not return to idle. Then reduce the tension 
until it does return to idle and tighten the lock nut on 
the eye bolt. This setting will result in the minimum 
force required to operate the speed control lever. 

5. Connect the linkage to the governor levers. 




Page 102 



UtIKUII UltbtL 



engine lune-Up 




SUPPLEMENTARY GOVERNING DEVICE ADJUSTMENT 



ENGINE LOAD LIMIT DEVICE 




Engines with mechanical governors may be equipped 
with a load limit device (Fig. 1) to reduce the 
maximum horsepower. 

This device consists of a load limit screw threaded into 
a plate mounted between two adjacent rocker arm 
shaft brackets arid a load limit lever clamped to the 
injector control tube. 

The load limit device is located between the No. 2 and 
No. 3 cylinders of a three or four cylinder engine or 
between the No. 1 and No. 2 cylinders of each 
cylinder head on a V-type engine. However, when 
valve rocker covers with a breather are used, the load 
limit device is installed between the No. 1 and No. 2 
cylinders on in-line engines and between the No. 2 
and No. 3 cylinders on V-type engines to avoid 
interference with the rocker cover baffles. 

When properly adjusted for the maximum horsepower 
desired, this device limits the travel of the injector 
control racks and thereby the fuel output of the 
injectors. 



LOAD LIMIT SCREW 



LOAD LIMIT 
SCREW SETTING 



ADJUSTING SCREW 
PLATE 



INJECTOR RACK 
CONTROL TUBE 




MARKINGS ON 

ADJUSTING 

SCREW PLATE 



11732 




Fig. 1 - Engine Load Limit Device 



Adjustment 

After the engine tune-up is completed, make sure the 
load limit device is properly installed as shown in 
Fig. 1. Make sure the counterbores in the adjusting 
screw plate are up. The rocker arm shaft bracket bolts 
which fasten the adjusting screw plate to the brackets 
are tightened to 50-55 Ib-ft (68-75 Nm) torque. Then 
adjust the load limit device, on each cylinder head, as 
follows: 

1 . Loosen the load limit screw lock nut and remove the 
screw. 

2. Loosen the load limit lever clamp bolts so the lever 
is free to turn on the injector rack control tube. 

3. With the screw out of the plate, adjust the load limit 
screw lock nut so the bottom of the lock nut is 
7/8" from the bottom of the load limit screw (Fig. 1) 
for the initial setting. 

4. Loosen the load limit lever clamp bolts so the lever 
is free to turn on the injector rack control tube. 

4. Thread the load limit screw into the adjusting screw 
plate until the lock nut bottoms against the top of the 
plate. 

5. Hold the injector rack control tube in the full-fuel 
position and place the load limit lever against the 
bottom of the load limit screw. Then tighten the load 
limit lever clamp bolts. 

6. Check to ensure that the injector racks will just go 
into the full-fuel position ~ readjust the load limit 
lever if necessary. 

7. Hold the load limit screw to keep it from turning, 
then set the lock nut until the distance between the 
bottom of the lock nut and the top of the adjusting 
screw plate corresponds to the dimension (or number 
of turns) stamped on the plate. Each full turn of the 
screw equals .042", or .007 "for each flat on the 
hexagon head. 

NOTE: If the plate is not stamped, adjust the 
load limit screw while operating the engine on a 
dynamometer test stand and note the number 
of turns required to obtain the desired 
horsepower. Then stamp the plate accordingly. 

8. Thread the load limit screw into the plate until the 
lock nut bottoms against the top of the plate. Be sure 
the nut turns with the screw. 

9. Hold the load limit screw to keep it from turning, 
then tighten the lock nut to secure the setting. 



Page 103 



Engine Tune-Up 



DETROIT DIESEL 



THROTTLE DELAY MECHANISM 



The throttle delay mechanism is used to retard full- 
fuel injection when the engine is accelerated. This 
reduces exhaust smoke and also helps to improve fuel 
economy. 

The throttle delay mechanism (Fig. 2) is installed 
between the No. 1 and No. 2 cylinders on three 
cylinder engines, between the No. 2 and No. 3 
cylinders on four cylinder engines, or between the 
No. 1 and No. 2 cylinders on the right-bank cylinder 
head of V-type engines. It consists of a special rocker 
arm shaft bracket (which incorporates the throttle 
delay cylinder), a piston, throttle delay lever, 
connecting link, oil supply plug, ball check valve and 
U-bolt. 

A yield lever and spring assembly replaces the 
standard lever and pin assembly on the rear end of the 
injector control tube on In-line engines (Fig. 3). A 
yield lever replaces the standard operating lever in the 
governor of the 6V-53 engine (Fig. 4). 



Opa ration 

Oil is supplied to a reservoir above the throttle delay 
cylinder through a special plug in the drilled oil 
passage in the rocker arm shaft bracket (Fig. 2). As 
the injector racks are moved toward the no-fuel 
position, free movement of the throttle delay piston is 
assured by air drawn into the cylinder through the ball 
check valve. Further movement of the piston uncovers 
an opening which permits oil from the reservoir to 
enter the cylinder and displace the air. When the 



ROCKER ARM SHAFT 

BRACKET WITH THROTTLE 

DELAY CYLINDER 



THROTTLE DELAY 
LEVER 



U-BOLT 



OIL SUPPLY OIL 
ORIFICE RESERVOIR 




CONTROL 

TUBE 



THROTTLE DELAY PISTON LINK CYLINDER HEAD 



Fig. 2 - Throttle Delay Cylinder 



d 



MJKTOft 
TUU 



SMINC 



p 

i 
i 




vieio 

IIVH 



11725 




Fig. 3 Throttle Delay Yield Lever (In-Line 
Engine) 



engine is accelerated, movement of the injector racks 
toward the full-fuel position is momentarily retarded 
while the piston expels the oil from the cylinder 
through a .016 "orifice. To permit full accelerator 
travel, regardless of the retarded injector rack position, 
a spring loaded yield lever or link assembly replaces 
the standard operating lever connecting link to the 
governor. 



r 



OPERATING SHAFT BUFFER SCREW || DIFFERENTIAL LEVER 




\ 

GOVERNOR 
HOUSING 

GAP 

SPRING OPERATING AND THROTTLE DELAY ADJUSTING 
YIELD LEVER ASSEMBLY 5/MO SCREW 



Fig. 4 - Throttle Delay Yield Lever (6V Engine) 




Page 104 



UCIKUM UltdtL 



Engine Tune-Up 



PISTON AND 
HOUSING FLUSH 




Fig. 5 - Adjusting Throttle Delay Cylinder 



Inspection 

When inspecting the throttle delay hydraulic cylinder, 
it is important that the check valve be inspected for 
wear. Replace the check valve if necessary. 

To inspect the check valve, fill the throttle delay 
cylinder with diesel fuel oil and watch for check valve 
leakage while moving the engine throttle from the idle 
position to the full fuel position. 

Adjustment 

Whenever the injector rack control levers are adjusted, 
disconnect the throttle delay mechanism by loosening 
the U-bolt which clamps the lever to the injector 
control tube. After the injector rack control levers have 
been positioned, the throttle delay mechanism must be 
re-adjusted. With the engine stopped, proceed as 
follows: 

1. Refer to Fig. 5 and insert gage J 23190 (.454 "set- 
ting) between the injector body and the shoulder on 
the injector rack. Then exert a light pressure on the 
injector control tube in the direction of full fuel. 

2. Align the throttle delay piston so it is flush with the 
edge of the throttle delay cylinder. 

3. Tighten the U-bolt on the injector control tube and 
remove the gage. 

4. Move the injector rack from the no-fuel to full-fuel 
to make sure it does not bind. 




Page 105 



Engine Tune-Up 



DETROIT DIESEL 



ADJUSTMENT OF MECHANICAL GOVERNOR SHUTDOWN SOLENOID 



When a governor shutdown solenoid is used on an 
engine equipped with a mechanical governor, the 
governor stop lever must be properly adjusted to 
match the shutdown solenoid plunger travel. 

The solenoid plunger can be properly aligned to the 
governor stop lever as follows: 

1. Remove the bolt connecting the rod end eye 
(variable speed governor), or the right angle clip 
(limiting speed governor) to the stop lever (Figs. 6 
and 7). Align and clamp the lever to the shutdown 
shaft in such a way that, at its mid-travel position, it is 
perpendicular to the solenoid plunger. This assures 
that the linkage will travel as straight as possible. The 
solenoid plunger has available 1/2 "travel which is 
more than adequate to move the injector control racks 
from the full-fuel to the complete no-fuel position and 
shutdown will occur prior to attaining complete travel. 



2. With the stop lever in the run position, adjust the 
rod end eye or right angle clip for minimum 
engagement on the solenoid plunger when the 
connecting bolt is installed. The oversize hole in the 
eye or clip will thereby permit the solenoid to start 
closing the air gap, with a resultant build-up of pull-in 
force prior to initiating stop lever movement. 

3. The bolt through the rod end eye or the right angle 
clip should be locked to the stop lever and adjusted to 
a height that will permit the eye or clip to float 
vertically. The clearance above and below the eye or 
clip and the bolt head should be approximately 
1/32 "minimum. 

NOTE: The lock nut can be either on top of or 
below the stop lever. 

4. Move the lever to the stop position and observe the 
plunger for any possible bind. If necessary, loosen the 





to" TRAVEL 
MID POSITION 



BOLT 



CLEARANCE 1/32" MIN. 




11597 



Fig. 6 - Typical Variable Speed Governor Lever Position 




Page 106 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Engine Tune-Up 



^^miF 




CLAMPING 
BOLT 



G 



C 



CLEARANCE 1/32" MIN. 




Vi" TRAVEL 

MID POSITION 




CUP 



SOLENOID 



Fig. 7 Typical Limiting Speed Governor Lever Position 



mounting bolts and realign the solenoid to provide 
free plunger motion. 




Page 107 



Engine Tune-Up 



DETROIT DIESEL 



HYDRAULIC GOVERNOR AND INJECTOR RACK CONTROL ADJUSTMENT 



IN-LINE ENGINE 



The hydraulic governor is mounted on the 3 and 4-53 
engines as shown in Fig. 1. The terminal lever return 
spring and the fuel rod are attached to an external 
terminal shaft lever. The maximum fuel position of 
the governor load limit is determined by the internal 
governor terminal lever striking against a boss that 
projects from the governor cover. 

Adjust engines having a hydraulic governor assembly 
after adjusting the exhaust valve clearance and timing 
the fuel injectors. 



Adjust Fuel Rod and Injector Rack Control 
Levers 



1. Adjust the inner and outer adjusting screws (Fig. 2) 
on the rear injector rack control lever until both screws 
are equal in height and tight on the control tube. 
Check the clearance between the fuel rod and the 
cylinder head casting (below the bolt) for at least 
1 / 1 6 " clearance when the injector rack is in the full- 
fuel position and the rack adjusting screws are tight. If 
the fuel rod contacts the bolt or cylinder head casting, 
readjust the screws to obtain the 1/16" clearance. 



TERMINAL LEVER 
RETURN SPRING 




NOTE: Overtightening the injector rack control 
lever adjusting screws during installation or 
adjustment can result in damage to the injector 
control tube. The recommended torque of the 
adjusting screws is 24-36 in-lbs (3-4 Nm). 

2. Remove the governor terminal lever return spring. 

3. Remove the fuel rod end bearing or ball joint from 
the terminal shaft lever and the terminal lever from 
the terminal shaft. 

4. Place the terminal lever on the terminal shaft so 
that the hole for attaching the fuel rod end bearing or 
ball joint is in line vertically above the terminal lever 
shaft at one half the arc of travel. Do not tighten the 
clamping bolt. 

5. Hold the injector rack control tube and the terminal 
lever in the full-fuel position and adjust the length of 
the fuel rod until the end bearing or ball joint will 
slide freely into the hole of the terminal lever as 
shown in Fig. 3. Tighten the lock nut to retain the ball 




Fig. 1 Hydraulic Governor Mounted on Engine 



Fig. 2 - Adjusting Height of Rack Control Lever 
Adjusting Screws 



Page 108 



LSI. i rvvsi i 



engine lune-up 






Fig. 3 Adjusting Length of Fuel Rod 

joint or end bearing and the terminal lever clamping 
bolt securely. 

NOTE: It will be necessary to slide the terminal 
lever partially off of the shaft to attach the fuel 
rod end bearing or ball joint to the terminal 
lever. 

6. Hold the terminal lever in the full-fuel position and 
loosen the inner adjusting screw 1/8 of a turn and 
tighten the outer adjusting screw 1/8 of a turn to 
retain the adjustment. This is done to prevent the 
governor from bottoming the injector racks, since 
there is no load limit screw on this governor. 

7. Remove the clevis pin between the fuel rod and the 
injector control tube lever. 

NOTE: Cover the cylinder head oil drain back 
hole, located under the control lever, when 
removing the fuel rod clevis pin to prevent its 
loss and possible damage to the engine. 

8. Manually hold the rear injector in the full-fuel 
position and turn down the inner rack control lever 
adjusting screw of the adjacent injector until the 
injector rack of the adjacent injector has moved into 
the full-fuel position and the inner adjusting screw is 
bottomed on the injector control tube. Turn the outer 
adjusting screw down until it bottoms lightly on the 




Fig. 4 - Adjusting Droop Bracket 

injector control tube. Then alternately tighten both the 
inner and outer rack control lever adjusting screws. 

9. Recheck the rear injector fuel rack to be sure that it 
has remained snug on the ball end of the rack control 
lever while adjusting the adjacent injector. If the rack 
of the rear injector has become loose, back off slightly 
on the inner adjusting screw on the adjacent injector 
rack control lever. Tighten the outer adjusting screw. 
When the settings are correct, the racks of both 
injectors must be snug on the ball end of their 
respective rack control levers. 



10. Position the remaining rack control levers 
outlined in Steps 8 and 9. 



as 



1 1 . Insert the clevis pin between the fuel rod and the 
injector control tube lever. 

12. Install the terminal lever return spring. 



Adjust Speed Droop 

The purpose of adjusting the speed droop is to 
establish a definite engine speed at no load with a 
given speed at rated full load. 

The governor droop is set at the factory and further 
adjustment should be unnecessary. However, if the 
governor has had major repairs, the speed droop 
should be readjusted. 

The best method of determining the engine speed is 
with an accurate hand tachometer. 

Page 109 



engine Tune-Up 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Full Load 


No-Load 


50 cycles 1000 rpm 
60 cycles 1200 rpm 
50 cycles 1500 rpm 
60 cycles 1800 rpm 


52.5 cycles 1050 rpm 
62.5 cycles 1250 rpm 
52.5 cycles 1575 rpm 
62.5 cycles 1875 rpm 



TABLE 1 

If a full-rated load can be established on the engine 
and the fuel rod, injector rack control levers and load 
limit have been adjusted, the speed droop may be 
adjusted as follows: 

1. Start the engine and run it at approximately one- 
half the rated no-load speed until the lubricating oil 
temperature stabilizes. 

NOTE: When the engine lubricating oil is cold, 
the governor regulation may be erratic. The 
regulation should become increasingly stable as 
the temperature of the lubricating oil increases. 

2. Stop the engine and remove the governor cover. 
Discard the gasket; 

3. Loosen the lock nut and back off the maximum 
speed adjusting screw (Fig. 5) approximately 5/8" 

4. Refer to Fig. 4 and loosen the droop adjusting bolt. 
Move the droop bracket so that the bolt is midway 
between the ends of the slot in the bracket. Tighten 
the bolt. 

5. With the throttle in the run position, adjust the 
engine speed until the engine is operating at 3% to 5% 
above the recommended full-load speed. 

6. Apply the full-rated load on the engine and re- 
adjust the engine speed to the correct full-load speed. 

7. Remove the rated load and note the engine speed 
after the speed stabilizes under no-load. If the speed 
droop is correct, the engine speed will be approxi- 
mately 3% to 5% higher than the full-load speed. 

If the speed droop is too high, stop the engine and 
again loosen the droop bracket retaining bolt and 
move the droop adjusting bracket in toward the 
engine. Tighten the bolt. To increase the speed droop, 
move the droop adjusting bracket out, away from the 
engine. 

The speed droop in governors which control engines 
driving generators in parallel must be identical, 
otherwise, the electrical load will not be equally 
divided. 



MAXIMUM SPEED 
ADJUSTING SCREW 




Fig. 5 - Adjusting Maximum Engine Speed 

Adjust the speed droop bracket in each engine 
governor to obtain the desired variation between the 
engine no-load and full-load speeds shown in Table 1 . 

The recommended speed droop of generator sets 
operating in parallel is 50 rpm (2-1/2 cycles) for units 
operating at 1000 and 1200 rpm and 75 rpm (2-1/2 
cycles) for units operating at 1500 rpm and 1800 rpm 
full load. This speed droop recommendation may be 
varied to suit the individual application. 



Adjust Maximum No- Load Speed 

With the speed droop properly adjusted, set the 
maximum no-load speed as follows: 

1. Loosen the maximum speed adjusting screw lock nut 
and back out the maximum speed adjusting screw 
three turns. 

2. With the engine operating at no-load, adjust the 
engine speed until the engine is operating at 
approximately 8% higher than the rated full-load 
speed. 

3. Turn the maximum speed adjusting screw (Fig. 5) 
in lightly until contact is felt with the linkage in the 
governor, 

4. Hold the maximum speed adjusting screw and 
tighten the lock nut. 

5. Use a new gasket and install the governor cover. 




Page 110 



LXL. I IVW8 B 



engine lune-up 




HYDRAULIC INJEC1OH RACK CONTROL ADJUSTMENT 



6V-53 ENGINE 





Fig. 1 Hydraulic Governor Mounting 

The hydraulic governor is mounted between the 
blower and the rear end plate as shown in Fig. I. The 
vertical control link assembly is attached to the 
governor operating lever and the bell crank lever on 
the governor drive housing (Fig. 2). 

After adjusting the exhaust valves and timing the fuel 
injectors, adjust the governor as follows: 

1. Disconnect the vertical control link assembly from 
the governor operating lever. 

2. Loosen all of the injector rack control lever 
adjusting screws. 

3. While holding the bell crank lever (on the governor 
drive housing) in a horizontal position (full-fuel), set 
the No. 3 injector rack control levers on each bank to 
full-fuel. 

4. Position the remaining rack control levers to the 
No. 3 control levers. 

5. Remove the governor cover. Discard the gasket. 

6. To determine the full-fuel position of the terminal 




Fig. 2 Hydraulic Governor Controls 

lever, adjust the load limit screw to obtain a distance 
of 2 " from the outside face of the boss on- the 
governor sub-cap to the end of the screw. 

7. Adjust the operating lever (on the governor) so that 
it is horizontal, or slightly below (as close as the 
serrations on the shaft will permit) when the shaft is 
rotated to the full-fuel position, or clockwise when 
viewed from the front of the engine. 

8. Loosen the lock nut and adjust the length of the 
vertical link assembly, attached to the bell crank lever, 
to match the full-fuel position of the governor 
operating lever and the injector rack control levers. 
This length should be approximately 6-5/16" 
Tighten the lock nut. 

9. With the governor operating lever held in the full- 
fuel position, turn the load limit screw ((Fig. 1) inward 
until the injector racks just loosen on the hall end of 
the control levers, to prevent the injector racks from 
bottoming. 

10. Release the governor operating lever and hold the 
adjusting screw while tightening the lock nut. 

11. Use new gaskets and install the governor cover and 
the valve rocker covers. 




Page 111 




r 




UCIKUM UIC3CL 



i5w^^^pB7 



TROUBLE SHOOTING 




Certain abnormal conditions which sometimes inter- 
fere with satisfactory engine operation, together with 
methods of determining the cause of such conditions, 
are covered on the following pages. 

Satisfactory engine operation depends primarily on: 

1. An adequate supply of air compressed to a 
sufficiently high compression pressure. 

2. The injector of the proper amount of fuel at the 
right time. 

Lack of power, uneven running, excessive vibration, 
stalling at idle speed and hard starting may be caused 
by either low compression, faulty fuel injection in one 
or more cylinders, or lack of sufficient air. 

Since proper compression, fuel injection and the 
proper amount of air are important to good engine 
performance, detailed procedures for their investiga- 
tion are given as follows: 



Locating a Misfiring Cylinder 

1. Start the engine and run it at part load until it 
reaches normal operating temperature. 

2. Stop the engine and remove the valve rocker 
cover(s). Discard the gasket(s). 

3. Check the valve clearance. The clearance should be 
.009 "(two valve cylinder head) or .024 "(four valve 
cylinder head). 





4. Start the engine and hold an injector follower down 
with a screw driver to prevent operation of the 
injector. If the cylinder has been misfiring, there will 
be no noticeable difference in the sound and operation 
of the engine. If the cylinder has been firing properly, 
there will be a noticeable difference in the sound and 
operation when the injector follower is held down. 
This is similar to short-circuiting a spark plug in a 
gasoline engine. 

5. If the cylinder is firing properly, repeat the 
procedure on the other cylinders until the faulty one 
has been located. 

6. If the cylinder is misfiring, check the following: 

a. Check the injector timing (refer to Engine Tune- 

Up Procedure). 

b. Check the compression pressure. 

c. Install a new injector. 

d. If the cylinder still misfires, remove the cam 
follower and check for a worn cam roller, 
camshaft lobe, bent push rod or worn rocker arm 
bushings. 

7. If installation of a new injector does not eliminate 
misfiring, check the compression pressure. 



Checking Compression Pressure 

Compression pressure is affected by altitude as shown 
in Table 1. 

Check the compression pressure as follows: 

1. Start the engine and run it at approximately one- 
half rated load until normal operating temperature is 
reached. 



Minimum Compression 
Pressure, psi 


Altitude, Feet 
Above Sea Level 


Std. Engine 


"N" Engine 


430 
400 
370 
340 
315 


540 
500 
465 
430 
395 



2,500 
5,000 
7,500 
10,000 



Fig. 1 Checking Compression Pressure 



TABLE 1 



Page 113 



Trouble Shooting 



DETROIT DIESEL 



2. Stop the engine and remove the fuel pipes from the 
No. 1 injector and the fuel connectors. 

3. Remove the injector and install adaptor J 7915-02 
and pressure gage and hose assembly J 6992 (Fig. 1). 

4. Use a spare fuel pipe and fabricate a jumper 
connection between the fuel 'inlet and return fuel 
connectors to permit fuel to flow directly to the fuel 
return manifold. 

5. Start the engine and run it at 600 rpm. Observe and 
record the compression pressure indicated on the gage. 

NOTE: Do not crank the engine with the 
starting motor to check the compression 
pressure. 

6. Perform Steps 2 through 5 on each cylinder. The 
compression pressure in any one cylinder should not 
be less than 430 psi (540 psi for "N" engines) at 600 
rpm. In addition, the variation in compression 
pressures between cylinders of the engine must not 
exceed 25 psi at 600 rpm. 

EXAMPLE: If the compression pressure readings 
were as shown in Table 2, it would be evident 
that No. 3 cylinder should be examined and the 
cause of the low compression pressure be 
determined and corrected. 

Note that all of the cylinder pressures are above the 
low limit for satisfactory engine operation. Neverthe- 
less, the No. 3 cylinder compression pressure indicates 
that something unusual has occurred and that a 
localized pressure leak has developed. 

Low compression pressure may result from any one of 
several causes: 

A. Piston rings may be stuck or broken. To 
determine the condition of the rings, remove the 
air box cover and press on the compression rings 
with a blunt tool. A broken or stuck compression 
ring will not have a "spring-like" action. 



cylinder head gasket, valve seats, injector tubes or 
through a hole in the piston. 



Engine Out of Fuel 

The problem in restarting the engine after it has run 
out of fuel stems from the fact that after the fuel is 
exhausted from the fuel tank, fuel is then pumped 
from the primary fuel strainer and sometimes partially 
removed from the secondary fuel filter before the fuel 
supply becomes insufficient to sustain engine firing. 
Consequently, these components must be refilled with 
fuel and the fuel pipes rid of air in order for the 
system to provide adequate fuel for the injectors. 

When an engine has run out of fuel, there is a definite 
procedure to follow for restarting it. The procedure is 
outlined below: 

1. Fill the fuel tank with the recommended grade of 
fuel oil. If only partial filling of the tank is possible, 
add a minimum of ten gallons of fuel. 

2. Remove the fuel strainer shell and element from the 
strainer cover and fill the shell with fuel oil. Install the 
shell and element. 

3. Remove and fill the fuel filter shell and element 
with fuel oil as in Step 2. 

4. Start the engine. Check the filter and strainer for 
leaks. 

NOTE: In some instances, it may be necessary to 
remove a valve rocker cover and loosen a fuel 
pipe nut in order to bleed trapped air from the 
fuel system. Be sure the fuel pipe is retightened 
securely before replacing the rocker cover. 

Primer J 5956 may be used to prime the engine fuel 
system. Remove the filler plug in the fuel filter cover 
and install the primer. Prime the system. Remove the 
primer and install the filler plug. 




B. Compression pressure may be leaking past the Fue ' F ' ow Test 



Cylinder 


Gage 


Reading* 


1 
2 
3 
4 


525 ps) 
520 psi 
485 psi 

51 5 psi 


(3617 kPa) 
(3583 kPa) 
(3342 kPa) 
(3548 kPa) 



The above pressures are for an engine operating at 
an altitude near sea level. 



TABLE 2 



1. Disconnect the fuel return hose from the fitting at 
the fuel tank and hold the open end in a suitable 
container. 

2. Start and run the engine at 1200 rpm and measure 
the fuel flow for a period of one minute. At least .6 
gallon of fuel should flow from the fuel return hose 
per minute. 

3. Immerse the end of the fuel return hose in the fuel 
in the container. Air bubbles rising to the surface of the 



r 




14 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Trouble Shooting 



CRANKCASE PRESSURE 
(max. In inches of wafer) 


Engine 


Speed (rpm) 


1800 


2000 


2200 


2500* 


2800* 


3-53 
4-53 
4-53T 
6V-53 


.5 
.5 


.5 
.5 


.5 
.5 


.9 
.9 
1.0 
.9 


1.0 
1.0 

1.0 



*Engines with four valve cylinder head(s). 



TABLE 3 

fuel will indicate air being drawn into the fuel system 
on the suction side of the pump. 

If air is present, tighten all fuel line connections 
between the fuel tank and the fuel pump. 

If the fuel flow fails to meet the amount specified, the 
fuel strainer, filter or pump should be serviced. 



Crankcase Pressure 

The crankcase pressure indicates the amount of air 
passing between the oil control rings and the cylinder 
liner into the crankcase, most of which is clean air 
from the air box. A slight pressure in the crankcase is 
desirable to prevent the entrance of dust. A loss of 
engine lubricating oil through the breather tube, 
crankcase ventilator or dipstick hole in the cylinder 
block is indicative of excessive crankcase pressure. 

The causes of high crankcase pressure may be traced 
to excessive blow-by due to worn piston rings, a hole 
or crack in a piston crown, loose piston pin retainers, 
worn blower oil seals, defective blower, cylinder head 
or end plate gaskets, or excessive exhaust back 
pressure. Also, the breather tube or crankcase 
ventilator should be checked for obstructions. 

The crankcase pressure may be checked with a 
manometer connected to the oil level dipstick opening 
in the cylinder block. Check the readings obtained at 
various engine speeds with the specifications in 
Table 3. 



Exhaust Back Pressure 



A slight pressure in the exhaust system is normal. 
However, excessive exhaust back pressure seriously 
affects engine operation. It may cause an increase in 
the air box pressure with a resultant loss in the 
efficiency of the blower. This means less air for 



EXHAUST SACK PRESSURE 
(max, in inches of Mercury) 


Engine 


No-Load Speed (rpm) 


1800 


2000 


2200 


2500* 


2800* 


3-53 
4-53 
4-53T 
6V-53 


1,3 
1.3 


1.7 
1.7 


2.1 
2.1 


2.7 
2.7 
1.8 
2.7 


2.7f 
2.7t 

2T7f 



'Engines with four valve cylinder heod(s). 
t3.8 for Marine engines. 



TABLE 4 



AIR BOX PRESSURE 
(min. in inches of Mercury) 


Max. Exhaust Back Pressure (Full Load) 


Engine 


Speed (rpm) 


1800 


2000 


2200 


2500* 


2800* 


3-53 
4-53 
4-53T 
6V-53 


5.5 
5.5 


6.9 
6.9 


8.6 
8.6 


8.0 
8.0 
33.5 
8.0 


9.3 
9.3 

9.3 


(Zero Exhaust Back Pressure) 


3-53 
4-53 
4-53T 
6V-53 


3.8 
3.8 


4.9 
4.9 


6.2 
6.2 


4.8 
4.8 
31.5 
4.8 


6.1 
6.1 

6.1 



*Engines with four valve cylinder head(s). 



TABLE 5 

scavenging, which results in poor combustion and 
higher temperatures. 

Causes of high exhaust back pressure are usually a 
result of an inadequate or improper type of muffler, 
an exhaust pipe which is too long or too small in 
diameter, an excessive number of sharp bends in the 
exhaust system, or obstructions such as excessive 
carbon formation or foreign matter in the exhaust 
system. 

The exhaust back pressure, measured in inches of 
mercury, may be checked with a manometer, or 
pressure gage, connected to the exhaust manifold. 
Remove the 1/8" pipe plug, which is provided for that 
purpose, from the manifold. If there is no opening 
provided, one can be made by drilling an 1 1 /32 " hole 

Paa* IIS 



Trouble Shooting 



DETROIT DIESEL 



AIR INLET RESTRICTION 
(inches of water) 


Engine 


Speed (rpm) 


1800 


2000 


2200 


. 2500* 


2800* 


Max. with dirty air cleaner (oil both or dry) 


3-53 
4-53 
6V-53 


13.4 
13.4 


E 


18.8 
18.8 
18.8 


23.0 
23.0 
23.0 


25.0 
25.0 
25.0 


Max. with clean air cleaner (oil bath) 


3-53 
4-53 
6V-53 


9.5 
9.5 


10.8 
10.8 


12.0 
12.0 
12.0 


14.0 
14.0 
14.0 


16.0 
16.0 
16.0 


Max. with clean air cleaner 
(Dry with prec leaner) 


3-53 
4-53 


6.8 
6.8 


10.8 
10.8 


12.0 
12.0 


- 





Max. with clean air cleaner 
(Dry less prec leaner) 


3-53 
4-53 
6V-53 


5.5 
5.5 


6.5 
6.5 


7.4 
7.4 
7.4 


8.7 
8.7 
8.7 


10.0 
10.0 
10.0 


Max. with air silencer (Full load) 


4-53T 





- 





20.0 


- 



'Engines with four valve cylinder heads. 



TABLE 6 

in the exhaust manifold companion flange and 
tapping a 1/8 "pipe thread. 

Check the readings obtained at various speeds (no 
load) with the specifications hi Table 4. 



Air Box Pressure 

Proper air box pressure is required to maintain 
sufficient air for combustion and scavenging of the 
burned gases. Low air box pressure is caused by a high 
air inlet restriction, damaged blower rotors, an air leak 
from the air box (such as a leaking end plate gasket), 
or a clogged blower air inlet screen. 

Lack of power or black or grey exhaust smoke are 
indications of low air box pressure. 

To check the air box pressure, connect a manometer to 
an air box drain tube. 

Check the readings obtained at various speeds with the 
specifications in Table 5. 



Air Inlet Restriction 

Excessive restriction of the air inlet will affect the flow 
of air to the cylinders and result in poor combustion 
and lack of power. Consequently, the restriction must 
be kept to a minimum considering the size and 
capacity of the air cleaner. An obstruction in the air 
inlet system or dirty or damaged air cleaners will 
result in a high blower inlet restriction. ' 

The air inlet restriction may be checked with a 
manometer connected to a fitting in the air intake 
ducting located 2 " above the air inlet housing. When 
practicability prevents the insertion of a fitting at this 
point, the manometer may be connected to the engine 
air inlet housing. The restriction at this point should 
be checked at a specific engine speed. Then the air 
cleaner and ducfing should be removed from the air 
inlet housing and the engine again operated at the 
same speed while noting the manometer reading. 

The difference between the two readings, with and 
without the air cleaner and ducting, is the actual 
restriction caused by the air cleaner and ducting. 

Check the normal air intake vacuum at various speeds 
(at no-load) and compare the results with Table 6. 




r 




UCIKVJI 



I rouble shooting 




PROPER USE OF MANOMETER 



Hg 



HEIGHT 

OF 
COLUMN 



H 2 



TOP SURFACE OF FLUIDS 



11719 



CONVEX FOR MERCURY 



CONCAVE FOR WATER 




Fig. 2 - Comparison of Column Height for 
Mercury and Water Manometers 

The U-tube manometer is a primary measuring device 
indicating pressure or vacuum by the difference in the 
height of two columns of fluid. 

Connect the manometer to the source of pressure, 
vacuum or differential pressure. When the pressure is 
imposed, add the number of inches one column of 
fluid travels up to the amount the other column travels 
down to obtain the pressure (or vacuum) reading. 



PRESSURE CONVERSION CJHART 


1" water = 
1 " water 
1" mercury = 
1" mercury = 
1 psi = 
1 psi = 


.0735 
.0361 
.4919 
13.6000 
27.7000 
2.0360 


' mercury 
psi 
psi 
' water 
1 water 
' mercury 



TABLE 7 

The height of a column of mercury is read differently 
than that of a column of water. Mercury does not wet 
the inside surface; therefore, the top of the column 
has a convex meniscus (shape). Water wets the surface 
and therefore has a concave meniscus. A mercury 
column is read by sighting horizontally between the 
top of the convex mercury surface (Fig. 2) and the 
scale. A water manometer is read by sighting 
horizontally between the bottom of the concave water 
surface and the scale. 

Should one column of fluid travel further than the 
other column, due to minor variations in the inside 
diameter of the tube or to the pressure imposed, the 
accuracy of the reading obtained is not impaired. 

Refer to Table 7 to convert manometer readings into 
other units of measurement. 



ENGINE ELECTRICAL GENERATING SYSTEM 



Whenever trouble is indicated in the engine electrical 
generating system, the following quick checks can be 
made to assist in localizing the cause. 

A fully charged battery and low charging rate 
indicates normal alternator-regulator operation. 

A low battery and high charging rate indicates normal 
alternator-regulator operation. 

A fully charged battery and high charging rate 



condition usually indicates the voltage regulator is set 
too high or is not limiting the alternator output. A 
high charging rate to a fully charged battery will 
damage the battery and other electrical components. 

A low battery and low or no charging rate condition 

could be caused by: Loose connections or damaged 

wiring, defective battery or alternator, or defective 
regulator or improper regulator setting. 

Contact an authorized Detroit Diesel Allison Service 
Outlet if more information is needed. 




Page 117 




r 




DETROIT DIESEL 



*^^MiPJ' 



STORAGi 



PREPARING ENGINE FOR STORAGE 



When an engine is to be stored or removed from 
operation for a period of time, special precautions 
should be taken to protect the interior and exterior of 
the engine, transmission and other parts from rust 
accumulation and corrosion. The parts requiring 
attention and the recommended preparations are 
given below. 

It will be necessary to remove all rust or corrosion 



completely from any exposed part before applying a 
rust preventive compound. Therefore, it is recommen- 
ded that the engine be processed for storage as soon as 
possible after removal from operation. 

The engine should be stored in a building which is dry 
and can be heated during the winter months. Moisture 
absorbing chemicals are available commercially for 
use when excessive dampness prevails in the storage 
area. 



TEMPORARY STORAGE (30 days or !ss$ 




To protect an engine for a temporary period of time, 
proceed as follows: 

1 . Drain the engine crankcase. 

2. Fill the crankcase to the proper level with the 
recommended viscosity and grade of oil. 

3. Fill the fuel tank with the recommended grade of 
fuel oil. Operate the engine for two minutes at 1200 
rpm and no load. 

NOTE: Do not drain the fuel system or the 
crankcase after this run. 

4. Check the air cleaner and service it, if necessary, as 
outlined under Air System. 



5. If freezing weather is expected during the storage 
period, add a high boiling point type antifreeze 
solution in accordance with the manufacturer's 
recommendations. Drain the raw water system and 
leave the drain cocks open. 

6. Clean the entire exterior of the engine (except the 
electrical system) with fuel oil and dry it with air. 

7. Seal all of the engine openings. The material used 
for this purpose must be waterproof, vaporproof and 
possess sufficient physical strength to resist puncture 
and damage from the expansion of entrapped air. 

An engine prepared in this manner can be returned to 
service in a short time by removing the seals at the 
engine openings, checking the engine coolant, fuel oil, 
lubricating oil, transmission, and priming the raw 
water pump, if used. 



EXTENDED STORAGE |30 days or mori 




When an engine is to be removed from operation for 
an extended period of time, prepare it as follows: 

1 . Drain and thoroughly flush the cooling system with 
clean, soft water. 

2. Refill the cooling system with clean, soft water. 

3. Add a rust inhibitor to the cooling system (refer to 
Corrosion Inhibitor under Cooling System). 

4. Remove, check and recondition the injectors, if 
necessary, to make sure they will be ready to operate 
when the engine is restored to service. 

5. Reinstall the injectors in the engine, time them, and 
adjust the valve clearance. 



6. Circulate the coolant through the entire system by 
operating the engine until normal operating tempera- 
ture is reached ( 1 60- 1 85 F or 7 1 -85 C). 

7. Stop the engine. 

8. Remove the drain plug and completely drain the 
engine crankcase. Reinstall and tighten the drain plug. 
Install new lubricating oil filter elements and gaskets. 

9. Fill the crankcase to the proper level with a 30- 
weight preservative lubricating oil MIL-L-21260, 
Grade 2 (P10), or equivalent. 

10. Drain the engine fuel tank. 

11. Refill the fuel tank with enough rust preventive 
fuel oil such as American Oil Diesel Run-in Fuel (LF 

Page 119 



Storage 



DETROIT DIESEL 



4089), Mobil 4Y17, or equivalent, to enable the engine 
to operate 10 minutes. 

12. Drain the fuel filter and strainer. Remove the 
retaining bolts, shells and elements. Discard the used 
elements and gaskets. Wash the shells in clean fuel oil 
and insert new elements. Fill the cavity between the 
element and shell about two-thirds full of the same 
rust preventive compound as used in the fuel tank and 
reinstall the shell. 

13. Operate the engine for 10 minutes to circulate the 
rust preventive throughout the engine. 

14. Refer to Air System and service the air cleaner. 

15. MARINE GEAR 

a. Drain the oil completely and refill with clean oil of 
the proper viscosity and grade as is recommen- 
ded. Remove, clean or replace the strainer and 
replace the filter element. 

b. Start and run the engine at 600 rpm for 5 minutes 
so that clean oil can coat all of the internal parts 
of the marine gear. Engage the clutches 
alternately to circulate clean oil through all of the 
moving parts. 

16. TORQMATIC CONVERTER 

a. Start the engine and operate it until the 
temperature of the converter oil reaches 150F 
(66 C). 

b. Remove the drain plug and drain the converter. 

c. Remove the filter element. 

d. Start the engine and stall the converter for twenty 
seconds at 1000 rpm to scavenge the oil from the 
converter. Due to lack of lubrication, do not exceed 
the 20 second limit. 

e. Install the drain plug and a new filter element. 

f. Fill the converter to the proper operating level 
with a commercial preservative oil which meets 
Government specifications MIL- L-2 1260, 
Grade 1. Oil of this type is available from the 
major oil companies. 

g. Start the engine and operate the converter for at 
least 10 minutes at a minimum of 1000 rpm. 
Engage the clutch; then stall the converter to raise 
the oil temperature to 225 F (107 C). 

CAUTION: Do not allow the oil temperature to 
exceed 225 F (107 C). If the unit does not 



have a temperature gage, do not stall the 
converter for more than thirty seconds. 

h. Stop the engine and permit the converter to cool 
to a temperature suitable to touch. 

i. Seal all of the exposed openings and the breather 
with moisture proof tape. 

j. Coat all exposed, unpainted surfaces with preserva- 
tive grease. Position all of the controls for 
minimum exposure and coat them with grease. 
The external shafts, flanges and seals should also 
be coated with grease. 

17. POWER TAKE-OFF 

a. With an all purpose grease such as Shell Alvania 
No. 2, or equivalent, lubricate the clutch throwout 
bearing, clutch pilot bearing, drive shaft main 
bearing, clutch release shaft, and the outboard 
bearings (if so equipped). 

b. Remove the inspection hole cover on the clutch 
housing and lubricate the clutch release lever and 
link pins with a hand oiler. Avoid getting oil on 
the clutch facing. 

c. If the unit is equipped with a reduction gear, drain 

and flush the gear box with light engine oil. If the 
unit is equipped with a filter, clean the shell and 
replace the filter element. Refill the gear box to 
the proper level with the oil grade indicated on 
the name plate. 

18. TURBOCHARGER 

The turbocharger bearings are lubricated by pressure 
through the external oil line leading from the engine 
cylinder block while performing the previous opera- 
tions above and no further attention is required. 
However, the turbocharger air inlet and turbine outlet 
connections should be sealed off with moisture- 
resistant tape. 

19. HYDROSTARTER SYSTEM 

Refer to Hydraulic Starting System in the section on 
Engine Equipment for the lubrication and preventive 
maintenance procedure. 

20. Apply a non-friction rust preventive compound, to 
all exposed parts. If it is convenient, apply the rust 
preventive compound to the engine flywheel. If not, 
disengage the clutch mechanism to prevent the clutch 
disc from sticking to the flywheel. 

CAUTION: Do not apply oil, grease or any wax 
base compound to the flywheel. The cast iron 
will absorb these substances which can "sweat" 







Page 120 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Storage 



II^^^I^BWP? 



out during operation and cause the clutch to 
slip. 

21. Drain the engine cooling system. 

22. The oil may be drained from the engine crankcase 
if so desired. If the oil is drained, reinstall and tighten 
the drain plug. 

23. Remove and clean the battery and battery cables 
with a baking soda solution and rinse them with fresh 
water. Do not allow the soda solution to enter the 
battery. Add distilled water to the electrolyte, if 
necessary, and fully charge the battery. Store the 
battery in a cool (never below 32 F.) dry place. Keep 
the battery fully charged and check the level and the 
specific gravity of the electrolyte regularly. 

24. Insert heavy paper strips between the pulleys and 
belts to prevent sticking. 



25. Seal all of the openings in the engine, including 
the exhaust outlet, with moisture resistant tape. Use 
cardboard, plywood or metal covers where practical. 

26. Clean and dry the exterior painted surfaces of the 
engine. Spray the surfaces with a suitable liquid 
automobile body wax, a synthetic resin varnish or a 
rust preventive compound. 

27. Cover the engine with a good weather-resistant 
tarpaulin or other cover if it must be stored outdoors. 
A clear plastic cover is recommended for indoor 
storage. 

The stored engine should be inspected periodically. If 
there are any indications of rust or corrosion, 
corrective steps must be taken to prevent damage to 
the engine parts. Perform a complete inspection at the 
end of one year and apply additional treatment as 
required. 



PROCEDURE FOR RESTORING AN ENGINE TO SERVICE WHICH HAS BEEN 

IN EXTENDED STORAGE 



1. Remove the covers and tape from all of the 
openings of the engine, fuel tank, and electrical 
equipment. Do not overlook the exhaust outlet. 

2. Wash the exterior of the engine with fuel oil to 
remove the rust preventive. 

3. Remove the rust preventive from the flywheel. 

4. Remove the paper strips from between the pulleys 
and the belts. 

5. Remove the drain plug -and drain the preservative 
oil from the crankcase. Re-install the drain plug. Then 
refer to Lubrication System in the Operating Instruc- 
tions and fill the crankcase to the proper level with the 
recommended grade of lubricating oil. 

6. Fill the fuel tank with the fuel specified under Diesel 
Fuel Oil Specifications. 

1. Close all of the drain cocks and fill the engine 
cooling system with clean soft water and a rust 
inhibitor. If the engine is to be exposed to freezing 
temperatures, add a high boiling point type antifreeze 
solution to the cooling system (the antifreeze contains 
a rust inhibitor). 

8. Install and connect the battery. 

9. Service the air cleaner as outlined under Air System. 



10. POWER GENERATOR 

Prepare the generator for starting as outlined under 
Operating Instructions. 

11. MARINE GEAR 

Check the Marine gear; refill it to the proper level, as 
necessary, with the correct grade of lubricating oil. 

12. TORQMATIC CONVERTER 

a. Remove the tape from the breather and all of the 
openings. 

b. Remove all of the preservative grease with a 
suitable solvent. 

c. Start the engine and operate the unit until the 

temperature reaches 150F (66 C). Drain the 
preservative oil and remove the filter. Start the 
engine and stall the converter for twenty seconds 
at 1000 rpm to scavenge the oil from the 
converter. 

CAUTION: A Torqmatic converter containing 
preservative oil should only be operated enough 
to bring the oil temperature up to 150F 
(66 C). 

d. Install the drain plug and a new filter element. 



Page 121 



e. Refill the converter with the oil that is recommen- 
ded under Lubrication and Preventive 
Maintenance. 

13. POWER TAKE-OFF 

Remove the inspection hole cover and inspect the 
clutch release lever and link pins and the bearing ends 
of the clutch release shaft. Apply engine oil sparingly, 
if necessary, to these areas. 

14. HYDROSTARTER 

a. Open the relief valve on the side of the hand 
pump and release the pressure in the system. 

b. Refer to the Ailing and purging procedures 



outlined in Hydraulic Starting System. Then, 
drain, refill and purge the Hydrostarter system. 

15. TURBOCHARGER 

Remove the covers from the turbocharger air inlet and 
turbine outlet connections. Refer to the lubricating 
procedure outlined in Preparation for Starting Engine 
First Time. 

16. After all of the preparations have been completed, 
start the engine. The small amount of rust preventive 
compound which remains in the fuel system will cause 
a smoky exhaust for a few minutes. 

NOTE; Before subjecting the engine to a load or 
high speed, it is advisable to check the engine 
tune-up. 



r 




Page 122 



MHM^^Hiii^^^Hffl 





BUftI 



PARTS 



BOOK 



DETROIT 



DIESEL 



ENGINES 




Built-in Parts Book 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Progress in industry comes at a rapid pace. In order for the 
engine manufacturer to keep pace with progress he needs a 
versatile product for the many models and arrangements of 
accessories and mounting parts needed to suit a variety of 
equipment. In addition, engine refinements and improvements 
are constantly being introduced. All of this dynamic action 
must be documented so that the equipment can be serviced if 
and when it's needed. It is fully documented in the manufac- 
turer's plant and in dealer Parts Departments with Master 
Files and adequate supporting records. But, what about YOU 
the user of this equipment? You have neither the time nor the 
inclination to ferret out specific part number data. What is 
the answer? -It is Detroit Diesel's exclusive BUILT-IN 
PARTS BOOK which is furnished with each engine. It takes 
the form of an "Option Plate" mounted on the rocker cover 
of the engine. With it, ordering parts becomes as simple as 
A, B, C. You have merely to provide the Dealer with . . . 




A. The "Model" number 



B. The "UNIT" number 



C. The "TYPE" number 



4 TYPE FOUIPMENT .TYPE EQUIPMENT 
61 CONN ROD/PSTN. 30 ENG LIFT BKT 



START-UP V 250 IL PA N 



242 OIL OIST 



-. 
INSPECTION 



UNIT NO. 
400080495 



565 DIPSTICK . 227 OIL FILTER I 

510 FAN . 171 C/S PULLEY ll 

117 WATER CONN . 318 WAT BY-PASS 1C, 

76 INJECTOR N45 . 181 FUEL FILTER 6> 

595 THROTTLE CONT. 1122 GOVERNOR HECH 43G 

247 ACC DRIVE .NONE BATT CHSG GEN 174 

(^NE INSTRUMENTS . 

JNIT 4D0080495 MODEL 50437001 SPEC 51G-2V 



C. 



B. 



From that much information, the dealer with his complete 
records on all engine models, can completely interpret your 
parts requirements. 




Page 124 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Built-in Parts Book 



^'^P 



What is this "built-in" book? It is an anodized aluminum 
plate that fits into a holding channel on the engine rocker 
cover. 



Ill 264 4 TYPE 

START-UP 250 

565 

INSPECTION 510 



UNIT NO. . 
400080495 I 



595 
247 

NONE 



FOUIPMEI 

CONN ROD /I 

OIL PAN 

DIPSTICK 

FAN 

WATER CONN 

INJECTOR N4. 

THROTTLE CflK 

ACC DRIVE 

INSTRUMENTS 



UNIT 40O080495 MCOELV 



ON THE LEFT SI DE of the plate is the Start-up Inspection 
Tab which is removed by the dealer when he has completed 
the inspection. 




IT .TYPE EQUIPMENT 
iSTN. 30 ENG LIFT BKT 
L . 242 OIL DIST 



227 OIL FILTER 
. 171 C/S PULLEY 
. 318 WAT BY-PASS , 
j .181 FUEL FILTER , 
IT. 1 122 GOVERNOR ME CH, 
* .NONE BATT CHRG GEN 



TYPE EQUIPMENT TYPE 6 GUI, 

345 F/W HOUSING 608 FLYhHi 

NONE OIL FIL TUBE 268 GIL C^ 

197 VENT SYSTEM 44 (D 1 L & 

187 C/S PUL BELT 145 MAT fJ 

102 yAT OTLT EL60 1 79 EXH^ 

628 FUEL LINES 141 A l^ 

430 ENG I NE MOUNTS 40- RC^ 

174 STARTING MTR 255 M 



50437001 SPEC 510-239 



NEXT is the type number and the equipment description. On the left is the 
type number. The type number designates all service parts applicable to the 
equipment. On the right is a brief description of the equipment. 



MENT 
EL 

CJOLER 
IL CAP 
R PUMP 
MFLO 

< INLT HSG 
5CKER COVER 
,UFFLER CONN 



SERIAL NO. 400080495 MODEL 50437001 
DETROIT DIESEL ALLISON -O.IV G.M.C. U.S.A. 
MAX RPM NL 02940 SO. 4A637S2 



ON THE RIGHT SIDE of the plate is pertinent data on the model number, 
serial number and the related governor setting. 




Page 125 




DETROIT DIESEL 



^ 




. 

Pump Cover ' s ', * 
' ' 



Keel Cooling / * 



SYSTEM 

* wtf 

Exhaust M uffl er and/or Connection 



- 

raulic Governor 

u jector Control s 

Throttle Controls 



Torque converter Lines 




DETROIT DIESEL 



Built-in Parts Book 




Within each of these sub-groups, various designs of similar 
equipment are categorized as "Types" and identified by a Type 
Number. 

The Distributor/Dealer has a Model Index for each engine 
model. The Model Index lists all of the "Standard" and "Stan- 
dard Option" equipment for that model. 







1.40Q6A ' 

Plywh6d Hdiisinl (SAE #3) ...,-,.....^.:.. .:;..,',...- ...... .,.......:.,...:,.:,... ................ ;. ................ .,.,:..,,..,., UOQ0A 

Connecting Rdd and Piston ......,,..,.< ..... ,.-;... T . .;.-.....:.,:' ........ ,,,..,.,...,,... .............. , ....... . ...... ............ ....... 1.6000 ' 

Camshaft and Gear Train ...... .,.,, ............ . ........ ..!,' ........ .. ............. :..; ........... ...... ... ..... .............................. 1.7000* 

Valve "Operating Mechanism .............. . ........ .. ............... ........... . ........................................................... < 1.8000 f 

Rocker Cover (with oil filler in one cover) ...,. .......... ................... ... ...................... . .......... . ......... ...... 1.8000A 

Fuel Injector N50 ..................................... ; .............. . ................ .................................. ,, ........... ..... ..... /,. ,^2,1000A 

Fuel Pump (3/8" inlet) (mounted on L. Bank camshaft) .................... . ............... ..........i. .,;.....;..'... 2.2000 

Fuel Filter ........................................................ ' .................................................................................... 2.3000A 

Fuel Manifold Connections .................................. .......................... ............................................... ...... 2.4000 

Fuel Lines ................................ . .............................. . ..................... , ...................................... ....... ;........ 2.5000A 

Governor - Mechpnical ..................... , ......... ..... ...................................... : .................... ...... . ....... , 2.7000A 




NOTE The option plate reflects which choice of options has 
been built into the engine. The Distributor /Dealer uses his 
model index to interpret the standard equipment. The plate, 
therefore, lists only the non-standard or choice items. 




So, give the dealer the 

A-Model No.. 

B-Unit No. . 

*C Type No. . 



*(lf not shown, indicate "NONE". The dealer knows the 
"standard" for the model). 



Page 127 



Built-in Parts Book 



DETROIT DIESEL 



FOR READY REFERENCE, Record the information on the Option Plate to this record. 



I- 



MODEL NO- 



UNIT NO.. 



EQUIP MINT 


TYPI 


EQUIPMENT 


TYPE 


EQUIPMENT 


TVPf 


Engine Base 




Water Bypass Tube 




Battery Chrg. Generator 




Engine Lifter Brkt. 




Thermostat 




Starter 




Flywheel Housing 




Water Filter 




Hyd. Starter Acces. 




Vibration Damper 




Exhaust Manifold 




Starting Aid 




Flvwheel 




Air Cleaner or Silencer 




Marine Gear 




Flywheel HSR. Adptr. 




Fuel Pump 




Torque Converter 




Oil Pan 




Injector 




Torque Converter Lines 




Oil Pump 




Blower 




Muffler & Conn. 




Oil Distribution 




Blower Drive Shaft 




Engine Hood 




Dipstick 




Fuel Filter 




Wiring Harness 




Oil Pan Drain Tube 




Fuel Lines 




Instruments 




Oil Filler Tube or Cap 




Air Inlet Housing 




Tach. Drive 




Oil Cooler 




Alarm or Shutoff 




Radiator 




Oil Filter 




Overspeed Governor 




Heat Ex. or Keel Cooling 




Oil Lines 




Throttle Controls 




Raw Water Pump 




Ventilating System 




Injector Controls 




Power Generator 




Crankshaft Cover 




Governor Mech or Hyd 




Control Cabinet 




Balance Wet. Cover 




Engine Mounts 




Cylinder Head 




Fan 




Power Take-off 




Conn Rod & Piston _ 




Crankshaft Pulley 




Hydraulic Pump 




Valve Mechanism 




Crankshaft Pulley Belt 




Air Compressor 




Fuel Manifold Conn 




Fan Shroud 




Camshaft & Gear Train 








Water Connections 




Rocker Cover 








Water Pump Cover 




Accessory Drive 








Water Manifold 













r 



OTHER USEFUL INFORMATION: 



Each fuel and lube oil filter on your engine has a decal giving the 
service package part number for the element. It is advisable to have 
your own personal record of these part numbers by filling in the 
chart provided below: 



TYPE 



Fuel Strainer 



Fuel Filter 



Lube Oil Filter Full-Flo 



Lube Oil Filter By-Pass* 



LOCATION 



PACKAGE PART NO. 



Not Standard 
AIR CLEANER 
If dry-type, indicate make and number of filter element: 



Wet type, indicate capacity. 



_qts. 




DETROIT DIESEL 



Built-in Ports Book 



PLUG 



BOLT SEAL RING 



INJECTOR HOLE TUBE 



BOLT 




WASHER 



COVER 



CYLINDER HEAD 



CRANKSHAFT PULLEY DRIVE GFAR 



BEARING 
SHELL 



TIMING GEAR 



BOLT 



RETAINER 



BOLT 



CRANKSHAFT 



SLEEVE 




REAR OIL 
SEAL 



THRUST 
WASHER 



f 628 



Page 129 



UUIII-III I Ul 13 



NUT 



NOT SOLD 
SEPARATELY 



BOLT 



OIL CONTROL PISTON 



COMPRESSION 
RINGS 

L 



v CONNECTING 

ROD | j 




RETAINER 



CONNECTING ROD, PISTON AND LINER 



NUT 



SPACER SLINGER 



SEARINGS 
\ 



WASHER RETAINER 




PULLEY SPACER 



\ 



BEARINGS 

CAMSHAFT AN0 GSAR 



GEAR 



NUT 



M9 



IDLER GEAR 

x,.,-iS, 



HUB 




THRUST WASHER 



BOLT 



IDLER GEAR 



Page 130 




UCIKWII 






GASKET 



BOLT 



LOCK WASHER 





KEY 

DRIVE HIJB BOLT OIL SEAL -^^^^ RETA ' |NER ^^MBf f PULLEY ^""""""~ WASHER 

ACCESSORY DRIVE FOR BELT DRIVEN ACCESSORY (DRIVE HUB TYPE) 



BOLT 




DRIVE PLATE DRIVE SHAFT BEARING GASKET LOCK WASHER PULLEY KEY NUT 



SPACER BOLT 




ACCESSORY DRIVE FOR 
BELT DRIVEN ACCESSORY 
(DRIVE PLATE TYPE) 



r 5* 

RETAINER BOLT ^ OIL SEAL 





ACCESSORY DRIVE FOR DIRECT DRIVEN ACCESSORY (CAMSHAFT GEAR) 



f 630 



Page 




Built-in Parts Book 



DETROIT DIESEL 



BOLT ROCKER ARMS SHAFT 

. BRACKET 





VALVE SPRING 
SPRING SEAT- 



GUIDE - 



INSERT- 



EXHAUST VALVE - 



VALVE OPERATING MECHANISM (4 VALVE) $*> 



CAM 
FOLLOWER 

GUIDE 



HUB GEAR RETAINER WASHER 




'BOLT 
ADAPTOR 



THRUST WASHER ^BOLF 
FUEL PUMP DRIVE (6V53) 



COUPLING 
DRIVE 
FORK 



OIL SEALS 



DRIVE GEAR 
GASKET PUMf^BODY DOWEL DRIVE .SHAFT \ 





<V SPRING GASKET PLUG 

'M ' 



RELIEF 
VALVE PIN 



TYPICAL FUEL PUMP 




PUMP 
COVER 

DRIVEN GEAR 
AND SHAFT 

GEAR 

RETAINING 
BAIL 



P 431 



Page 132 




r 




DETROIT DIESEL 



Built-in Parts Book 



BOLT- 



PLUG- 



a-*- 




GASKET 



-CD 



RETAINER - 



SEAL- 



SPRING- 



TYPICAL FUEL OIL STRAINER 



-BOLT PIPE ASSY. 

,WASHER 

/CLAMP 




- GASKET 



-COVER 




ELEMENT 



-SEAT 



-SEAT 




SHELL 




ELEMENT 



SEAT- 



SEAT- 



SHELL 



TYPICAL FUEL OIL FILTER 



SPACER 



GASKET 



RETAINER 



-SEAL 



-SPRING 




INJECTOR CONTROL TUBE 

PIN 

SPRING 




BOLT- 



RETAINER SPRING 
WASHER 
HOSE 



INJECTOR 




LOCK WASHER BRACKET LEVER 

INJECTOR AND CONTROLS 



LINK CLAMP 



P 632 



Page 133 



Built-in Parts Book 



DETROIT DIESEL 



SCREEN 



VALVE SPRING PLUG 



AIR INLET 
HOUSING 



WASHER BOLT 



WASHER SPRING LATCH SHAFT PINS 




BOLT 



CAM PIN HANDLE WASHER LOCK WASHER BOLT PIN 



LOCK WASHER SPACER CAM 



AIR SHUT-DOWN HOUSING 



P 633 



Page 134 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Built-in Parts Book 



LOCK WASHER 



GEAR 



GASKET 



ROTOR 




GASKET 



COVER' 

WASHER/ 



BLOWER ASSEMBLY AND DRIVE 
(4 CYL.) 



REINFORCEMENT 
PLATE 



P 634 



Page 135 



rarts Book 



DETROIT DIESEL 



SUPPORT 



BOLT- 



RING 



RING 



BOLT \ SUPPORT 

LOCK WASHER 





GASKET 



GASKET 



OIL SEAL 



SUPPORT 



BOLT 



SPACER 



END PLATE 



BLOWER 
/ HOUSING 



WASHER 






PLATE 
END PLATE LOCK WASHER 

GASKET 




BOLT 



REINFORCEMENT 
PLATE 



COVER LOCK WASHER 



BLOWER ASSEMBLY AND DRIVE (6 CYL.) 



P 635 



Page 136 




UCIKWII 




OIL COOLER 
BY-PASS VALVE 

LOWER ENGINE 
FRONT COVER 

OIL SEAL 



PUMP DRIVE 
GEAR 





Oil PRESSURE 

REGULATOR 

VALVE 



PLUG GASKET SPRING BOLT GASKET DRIVE SCREW INNER ROTOR 

OIL PUMP AND REGULATOR 



PUMP BODY BOLT 



P 636 




Page 13? 



GASKETS 



GASKET- 



CENTER STUD GASKET 




PIPE PLUG 



DRAIN PLUG SHELL WASHER SEAL RETAINER 

OIL FILTER 



ELEMENT GASKET 



HOSE 




Oil COOLER 



DRAIN COCK 



P 637 





>ge 138 



DETROIT DIESEL 



UPPER ENGINE 
FRONT COVER 




Page 139 



BEARING AND 
SHAFT ASSEMBLY 



8Y PASS TUBE 
COVER PLATE 




Page 14CF 



DETROM UltSCL 




FAN MOUNTING PIN 

SUPPORT 



SHAFT 



SEAL SPACER FAN HUB SPACER WA HER NUT 

(PULLEY) 





FAN MOUNT (&V-S3) 




OUTER FAN HUB 
BEARING CAP i 



FAN HUB 

CAP 



P 640 




Page 141 



DUOK 



DETROIT DIESEL 



BEARING AND 
SHAFT ASSEMBLY 



FAN MOUNTING 
SUPPORT 




S FAN HUB 

(PULLEY) 



FAN MOUNT 



EXHAUST 
MANIFOLD 



GASKET 



WATER 
OUTLET 
ELBOW 



SEAL 

GLAND 



GASKET 



WATER 

FLANGE THERMOSTAT 
I GASKET 



GASKET 

HEAT EXCHANGER 
MOUNTING 

BRACKET flllrn SEAL 
FILLER RETAINER 
CAP 
GASKET / GASKET 



CLAMP 
ELECTRODE 



HEAT 

EXCHANGER 

CORE 

GASKET 




THERMOSTAT 
HOUSING 



WATER BY-PASS 
TUBE 



RAW WATER 

OUTLET 

CONNECTION 



HEAT EXCHANGER 
OUTLET COVER 



RAW WATER 
INLET ELBOW 



GASKET 



HEAT 

HEAT EXCHANGER 

EXCHANGER CORE 

INLET 
COVER 



HEAT EXCHANGiR 



HEAT 

EXCHANGER 

TANK 



FRESH 
WATER 

INLET 
ELBOW 



P 441 



Page 142 




r 




DETROIT DIESEL 



Built-in Parts Book 



THERMOSTAT HOUSING WATER CLAMP HOSE CLAMP GASKET HEAT FILLER HEAT EXCHANGER GASKET SEAL SEAL 

AOAPTDI? BY-PASS \ \ \ FVrHAWCiFP f.AP FRFSH WATFP / BKTAPMPD nt AK 



ADAPTOR 
GASKET 



EXHAUST 
MANIFOLD 



THERMOSTAT 
HOUSING , 
ADAPTOR 



EXCHANGER CAP FRESH WATER 
TANK / INLET TUBE 



GASKET 



HEAT 

Sx EXCHANGER 

CORE 




RETAINER GLAND 



GASKET 




RAW WATER 

OUTLET 

CONNECTOR 



HEAT EXCHANGER 
OUTLET COVER 



THERMOSTAT 

HOUSING 

GASKET 

HEAT EXCHANGER 
CORE GASKET 



RAW WATER 

INLET 

CONNECTOR 



HOSE 
ELECTRODE 

1 

GASKET HEAT EXCHANGER HEAT EXCHANGER 

HEAT EXCHANGER FRE SH WATER FRESH WATER 

INLET COVER 



OIL COOLER CORE GASKET 
OIL COOLER CORE 
BUSHING 
ELBOW 

OIL INLET 
AND OUTLET 
HOSES 



INLET TUBE 



OUTLET ELBOW 



HEAT EXCHANGER (6V-S3) 



ADAPTOR 



BOLT 



ACTUATOR 



LOCK WASHER WIRE SCREW 

II \._L 



rt\ a >--. a M a P P. P 




INSULATOR 



BOLT 



WIRE 



VALVE ASSY 
(ELEMENT) 



V 



SHAFT SWITCH '(MICRO) SPRiNG BRACKET 

WATER TEMPERATURE SHUTDOWN SWITCH 



Page 143 



Built-in Parts Book 



DETROIT DIESEL 



SHAFT ASSY. ADAPTOR 



DRIVE 
COVER 



DRIVE COVER SEAL DRIVE SHAFT 





SEAL 



DRIVE SHAFT DRIVE ADAPTOR KEY DRIVE CABLE 

ADAPTOR 




P 643 



TACHOMETER DRIVE COVERS AND ADAPTORS 



Page 144 




DtTROIT DIESEL 



Built-in Parts Book 



WATER 
OUTLET TUBE 



CLAMP 



CONNECTOR 



BUSHING 



AIR COMPRESSOR 



BUSHING 



STRAINER 




COTTER 
PIN 



LU8E OIL 
SUPPLY TUBE 



DRAIN TUBE 



DRIVE COUPLING 
DRIVE PLATE 



ELBOW 



AIR COMPRESSOR AND DRIVE 



GASKET 



DRIVE COUPLING SPACER 




HYDRAULIC 
PUMP ASSY. 



ADAPTOR 



GASKET 



HYDRAULIC PUMP AND DRIVE 



P 644 





Page 145 



DETROIT DIESEL 




OWNER ASSISTANCE 

The satisfaction and goodwill of the owners of Detroit Diesel engines are of primary concern to the Detroit Diesel 
Allison Division, its distributors and their dealers. 

Normally, any problem that arises in connection with the sale or operation of your engine will be handled by the 
distributor or dealer in your area. It is recognized, however, that despite the best intentions of everyone concerned, 
misunderstandings may occur. If you have a problem that has not been handled to your satisfaction, we suggest 
that you take the following steps: 

Step One - Discuss your problem with a member of management from the distributorship or dealership. Frequently 

complaints are the result of a breakdown in communication and can quickly be resolved by a, member of 
management. If you have already discussed the problem with the Sales or Service Manager, contact the General 
Manager. If your problem originates with a dealer, explain the matter to a management member of the 
distributorship with whom the dealer has his service agreement. 

Step Two - When it appears that your problem cannot readily be resolved at the distributor level without additional 
assistance, contact the Detroit Diesel Allison Regional Office nearest you listed below: 



^(I|r 



Eastern Region 

Suite 202 

10 Parsonage Road 

Edison, New Jersey 08817 

Phone: (201) 246-5074 

Regional Manager: W. E. Johnston 

Service Manager: D. J. LaFave 



Great Lakes Region 

Garrison Place 
19855 Outer Drive 
Dearborn, Michigan 48124 
Phone: (313) 565-0411 
Regional Manager: A. W. Christy 
Service Manager: A. A. Voss 



Southeastern Region 

5730 Glenridge Drive, N. E. 

Atlanta, Georgia 30328 

Phone: (404) 252-3310 

Regional Manager: C. 0. Zimmerman 

Service Manager: L. R. Kirby 



Midwestern Region 

Suite 618 

2021 Spring Road 

Oak Brook, Illinois 60521 

Phone: (312) 654-6600 

Regional Manager: N. R. DeMaestri 

Service Manager: Stanley Dobrasko 



Southwestern Region 

Suite 130 

2655 Villa Creek Drive 

Dallas, Texas 75234 

Phone: (214) 241-7721 

Regional Manager: F. A. Skells 

Service Manager: W. C. Kaphengst 



Western Region 

Suite 345 

1700 South El Camino Real 
San Mateo, California 94402 
Phone: (415) 341-9241 
Regional Manager: W. C. Edwards 
Service Manager: J. P. Miles 




Prior to this call, have the following information available: 



Name and location of distributor (or dealer), 
Type and make of equipment. 
Engine model and serial number. 
Engine delivery date and accumulated 
miles or hours of operation. 
Nature of problem. 
Chronological summary of unit's history. 



Page 147 



Owner Assistance 



DETROIT DIESEL 



Step Three - If you are still not satisfied, present the entire matter in writing or by phone to the Home Office: 

Diesel Operations - J. E. Fisher, Manager Customer Services, Detroit Diesel Allison, 13400 W. Outer Drive, 
Detroit, Michigan 48228, Phone (313) 592-5608. 

Canada Operations - E. A. Kobe, Manager of Product Service, Diesel Division, General Motors of Canada, Ltd., 
P.O. Box 5990, 847 Highbury Avenue, London, Ontario N6A 4L6, Phone (519) 455-71 10. 

The inclusion of all pertinent information will assist the Home Office in expediting the handling of the matter. If 
an additional review by the Home Office of all the facts involved indicates that some further action can be taken, 
the Regional Office will be so instructed. 

If at this point your problem is still not resolved to your satisfaction, call or write: H. F. Wooster, Service Manager, 
Diesel Operations (313) 592-7279; D. F. Downham, Sales Manager, Diesel Operations (313) 592-7276. 

When contacting the Regional or Home Office, please keep in mind that ultimately your problem will likely be 
resolved at the distributorship or dealership utilizing their facilities, equipment and personnel. Therefore, it is 
suggested that you follow the above steps in sequence whea experiencing a problem. 

Your purchase of a Detroit Diesel engine is greatly appreciated and it is our sincere desire to assure complete 
satisfaction. 



W"n^ 



Page 148 



DETROIT DIESEL 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



Subject 



Page Subject 



Page 



Accessory Drive 131 

Adjustments: 

Injector Timing 78 

Mechanical Governor Shutdown Solenoid 106 

Power Take-Off 44 

Valve Clearance 76 

Air Compressor 145 

Air System: 

Air Box Drains 21 

Air Cleaners 17 

Air Silencer 21 

Crankcase Ventilation 21 

Alarm System 36 

AssistanceOwner 147 



B 



Blower Assembly and Drive 135 

Breathers 139 

Built-in Parts Book 9, 123 



Camshaft and Gears 130 

Cold Weather Starting Aids 41 

Compression Pressure 113 

Connecting Rod 130 

Cooling System: 

Antifreeze Solutions 74 

Coolant Filter 73 

Cooling System Capacity 27 

Corrosion Inhibitor 71 

Flushing 28 

Heat Exchanger Cooling 25, 142 

Radiator Cooling 25 

Raw Water Pump 29 

Crankshaft 129 

Cylinder Head 129 



Description, General 5 

Description, Model 6 



Engine Coolant 71 

Engine Cross-Section Views 10 

Engine Model Description Chart 6 

Engine Protective Systems 33, 134 

Electrical Starting System 37 



Fan Mounting 141 

Filters: 

Fuel Oil 15 

Lubricating Oil 22 

Fuel Oil Specifications 67 

Fuel System: 

Injector 13 

Pump 15, 132 

Strainer and Filter 15, 133 

Tank 16 



General Description ... 
General Specifications 
Governors 



5 

8 

44 



Heat Exchanger 142 

Hydraulic Pump 145 

Hydraulic Starting System 38 



Idler Gear 

Injector and Controls 

Instruments and Controls 



130 

133 

31 



Liner 130 

Lubricating Oil Specifications 68 

Lubrication and Preventive Maintenance 55 

Lubrication Chart 56 

Lubricating System 22 



Index 



DETROIT DIESEL 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 




Subject 



Page Subject 



Page 



M 



Maintenance, Preventive 
Marine Gear 
Misfiring Cylinder 
Model and Serial Number 



Oil Cooler 

Oil Filter 

Oil Pump and Regulator 

Operating Instructions: 

Cold Weather Starting 

Engine 

Power Generator Set 

Preparation for First Start 
Owner Assistance 



Piston 

Power Take-Off 
Preventive Maintenance 
Principles of Operation 



Shut-Down Systems 
Specifications: 

Fuel Oil 

General 

Lubrication Oil 
Starting Systems: 

Electrical 

Hydraulic 
Storage: 

Preparation 

Restoration 



55 

46 

113 

9 



138 
138 
137 

41 
47 
51 
47 
147 



130 

44 

55 

4 



33, 143 



67 

8 

68 



37 
38 

119 
121 



Tachometer Drive 144 

Thermostat 140 

Torqmatic Converter 45 

Transmissions 44 

Trouble Shooting: 

Air Box Pressure 116 

Air Inlet Restriction 116 

Checking Compression Pressures 113 

Crankcase Pressure 115 

Electrical Generating System 117 

Engine out of Fuel 114 

Exhaust Back Pressure 115 

Fuel Flow Test 114 

Misfiring Cylinder 113 

Use of Manometer 117 

Tune-Up Procedures: 

Engine 75 

Exhaust Valve Clearance Adjustment 76 

Hydraulic Governor: 

In-Line Engine 108 

6V Engine Ill 

Mechanical Governor: 

Limiting Speed (In-Line Engine) 79 

Limiting Speed (6V Engine) 84 

Variable Speed (Open Linkage) 89 

Variable Speed (Enclosed Linkage) 93 

Variable Speed (6V Engine) 98 

Supplementary Governing Device 103 

Engine Load Limit 103 

Governor Shutdown Solenoid 106 

Throttle Delay Mechanism 104 

Timing Fuel Injector 78 



Valve Operating Mechanism ... 

W 



132 



Water Pump 29,140 




age 150 



ENGLISH TO METRIC CONVERSIONS 



eo 







to get equivalent 






to 9t equivalent 


fOlNtoly 


* 


number of: 


Multiply 


by 


nu inter of: 




LENGTH 






ACCELERATION 




Inch 


25.4 


millimetres tmm) 


Foot /sec 2 


0.3048 


metre/see 2 imfc 2 ) 


tat 


0.3048 


metres (ml 


Inch /sec 2 


0.0254 


met re /sec 2 


Yird 


0.9144 


metres 








Wle 


1.609 


kilometres (km) 




TORQUE 






AREA 




Pound-Inch 


0.11298 


newton-metreslN-m) 








Pound-toot 


1.3558 


newton-metres 


inch 2 


645.2 


millimetres 2 (mm 2 ) 










6.45 


centimetres 2 (cm 2 ) 




POWER 




tat 2 


0.0929 


metres 2 (m 2 ) 








Yird 2 


tt 1361 


metres 2 


Horsepower 


0.746 


klloMtts IkWI 




VOLUME 






PRESSURE OR STRESS 




inch 3 


16187. 


mm' 


1 nches ol mercury 3. 377 


kilopMuls IkPD 




16.387 


CfflJ 


Inches of witer 


0.2491 


kilopiscils 




0.0164 


IHres II) 


Pounds/sq. in. 


6.895 


kilopiscils 


Quirt 


0.9464 


litres 








Gillon 
YinP 


3.7854 
0.7646 


IHres 
met res 3 Im') 




ENERGY OR WORK 










ITU 


1055. 


joules Ul 




MASS 




Foot-pound 


1.3558 


joules 








K Hewitt -hour 


3.6lO*or 


joules U -oneW-s) 


Pound 


0.4536 


klloqrims Ikq) 




3600000 




Ton 


907.18 


kllogrims 








Ton 


a 907 


tonne III 




LIGHT 






FORCE 




Foolcindie 


1.0764 


lumens/metre 2 llm/m 2 ) 


KNognrn 


9.807 


newtons IN) 




FUEL PERFORMANCE 




Ounce 


0.2780 


newtons 








Pound 


4.448 


newtons 


Miles W 


0.4251 


kilometreslitreikm/l) 








CD/mile 


2.3527 


IHrestilometre(lftm) 










VELOCITY 










Miles /hour 


1.6093 


kilometres/hrikmAil 



0) 
UJ 



TEMPERATURE 
t -( 



Dqne (ingle) 0.017 9 ridltns (rsdl 

Ounce (mssl-inch 720.0778 mlllkjnm 
(Winclnq) 

Op 



*C -|('F - 321 



-40 



T" 

-20 



80 

" 



120 



140 



F 

212 



10 13JO 



-p 
40 



00 



100 
C 



USC CONVERSION TABLES LIKE THIS : 

O hp 1 kW Rod Kross the 10 line to the 3 column . Read 9. 7 kW 

POWER -HORSEPOWER TO KILOWATTS 

( 1hp= 74599 kW) 



kf 


o 


t 


Z 


3 


4 


S 


e 


7 


B 


* 




kW 


A 


(H* 1 


*>V 


kW 


*w 


*(V 


**X 


*) 




; i' a 




07S 


t.4 


?24 


2^8 


3.73 


4,47 


5.22 


5.9 


10 


7.S 


&2 


B. 


9.7 


tQ4 


11.2 


t1.9 


12.7 




;; :- 


4.9 


T5.7 


ttV4 


17.? 


179 


186 


1ft.4 


V 


















118X.1 


: : 
' JMV 


;72,< 


23. 


23.9 


$4,6 


3S.4 


78' 





i 

. 

-S 

w- 

.8 
-S 



"-IU 

ec 

O b- 



I 
8 



8 
S 
-S 




PART II 



Service 
Manual 




Detroit Diesel Engines 

SERIES 53 





Printed in U.S.A. 




FOREWORD 

This manual contains instructions on the overhaul, maintenance and 
operation of the basic Series 53 Detroit Diesel Engines. 

Full benefit of the long life and dependability built into these 
engines can be realized through proper operation and maintenance. 
Of equal importance is the use Of proper procedures during engine 
overhaul. 

Personnel responsible for engine operation and maintenance should 
study the sections of the manual pertaining to their particular duties. 
Similarly, before beginning a repair or overhaul job, the serviceman 
should read the manual carefully to familiarize himself with the 
parts or sub-assemblies of the engine with which he will be 
concerned. 

The information, specifications and illustrations in this publication 
are based on the information in effect at the time of approval for 
printing. This publication is revised and reprinted periodically. It is 
recommended that users contact an authorized Detroit Diesel Service 
Outlet for information on the latest revisions. The right is reserved to 
make changes at any time without obligation. 





TABLE OF CONTENTS 



SUBJECT 



GENERAL INFORMATION 



ENGINE (less major assemblies) 



FUEL SYSTEM AND GOVERNORS 



AIR INTAKE SYSTEM 



LUBRICATION SYSTEM 



COOLING SYSTEM 






EXHAUST SYSTEM 



ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 



OPERATION 



TUNE-UP 




SECTION 





PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, TROUBLE SHOOTING AND STORAGE 




March, 1973 



General Information DETROIT DIESEL 53 



SCOPE AND USE OF THE MANUAL 

This manual covers the basic Series 53 Diesel Engines ouilt by the Detroit Diesel Allison Division of General 
Motors Corporation.' Complete instructions on operation, adjustment (tune-up), preventive maintenance and 
lubrication, and repair (including complete overhaul) are covered. The manual was written primarily for persons 
servicing and overhauling the engine and, in addition, contains all of the instructions essential to the operators and 
users. Basic maintenance and overhaul procedures are common to all Series 53 engines and therefore apply to all 
engine models. 

The manual is divided into numbered sections. The first section covers the engine (less major assemblies). The 
following sections cover a complete system such as the fuel system, lubrication system or air system. Each section is 
divided into sub-sections which contain complete maintenance and operating instructions for a specific sub- 
assembly on the engine. For example, Section 1, which covers the basic engine, contains sub-section 1.1 pertaining 
to the cylinder block, sub-section 1.2 covering the cylinder head, etc. The subjects and sections are listed in the 
Table of Contents on the preceding page. Pages are numbered consecutively, starting with a new Page 1 at the 
beginning of each sub-section. The illustrations are also numbered consecutively, beginning with a new Figure 1 at 
the start of each sub-section. 

Information regarding a general subject, such as the lubrication system, can best be located by using the Table of 
Contents. Opposite each subject in the Table of Contents is a section number which registers with a tab printed on 
the fjrst page of each section throughout the manual. Information on a specific sub-assembly or accessory can then 
be found by consulting the list of contents on the first page of the section. For example, the cylinder liner is part of 
the basic engine, therefore, it will be found in Section 1. Looking down the list of contents on the first page of 
Section 1, the cylinder liner is found to be in sub-section 1.6.3. An Alphabetical Index at the back of the manual 
has been provided as an additional aid for locating information. 

SERVICE PARTS AVAILABILITY 

Genuine Detroit Diesel "Factory Engineered" replacement parts are available from authorized Detroit Diesel 
Service Outlets conveniently located within the United States, in Canada from the distribution organization of 
Diesel Division, General Motors of Canada Limited, and abroad through the sales and service outlets of General 
Motors Overseas Operations Divisions. 

CLEARANCES AND TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS 

Clearances of new parts and wear limits on used parts are listed in tabular form at the end of each section 
throughout the manual. It should be specifically noted that the "New Parts" clearances apply only when all new 
parts are used at the point where the various specifications apply. This also applies to references within the text of 
the manual. The column entitled "Limits" lists the amount of wear or increase in clearance which can be tolerated 
in used engine parts and still assure satisfactory performance. It should be emphasized that the figures given as 
"Limits" must be qualified by the judgement of personnel responsible for installing new parts. These wear limits 
are, in general, listed only for the parts more frequently replaced in engine overhaul work. For additional 
information, refer to the paragraph entitled Inspection under General Procedures in this section. 

Bolt, nut and stud torque specifications are also listed in tabular form at the end of each section. 



^f^n 




ige 4 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



General Information 








PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION 



The diesel engine is an internal combustion power 
unit, in which the heat of fuel is converted into work 
in the cylinder of the engine. 

In the diesel engine, air alone is compressed in the 
cylinder; then, after the air has been compressed, a 
charge of fuel is sprayed into the cylinder and ignition 
is accomplished by the heat of compression. 



The Two-Cycle Principle 

In the two-cycle engine, intake and exhaust take place 
during part of the compression and power strokes 
respectively as shown in Fig. 1. In contrast, a four- 
cycle engine requires four piston strokes to complete 
an operating cycle; thus, during one half of its 
operation, the four-cycle engine functions merely as 
an air pump. 

A blower is provided to force air into the cylinders for 
expelling the exhaust gases and to supply the cylinders 
with fresh air for combustion. The cylinder wall 
contains a row of ports which are above the piston 
when it is at the bottom of its stroke. These ports 
admit the air from the blower into the cylinder as soon 
as the rim of the piston uncovers the ports as shown in 
Fig. 1 (scavenging). 



The unidirectional flow of air toward the exhaust 
valves produces a scavenging effect, leaving the 
cylinders full of clean air when the piston again covers 
the inlet ports. 

As the piston continues on the upward stroke, the 
exhaust valves close and the charge of fresh air is 
subjected to compression as shown in Fig. 1 
(compression). 

Shortly before the piston reaches its highest position, 
the required amount of fuel is sprayed into the 
combustion chamber by the unit fuel injector as shown 
in Fig. 1 (power). The intense heat generated during 
the high compression of the air ignites the fine fuel 
spray immediately. The combustion continues until the 
injected fuel has been burned. 

The resulting pressure forces the piston downward on 
its power stroke. The exhaust valves are again opened 
when the piston is about half way down, allowing the 
burned gases to escape into the exhaust manifold as 
shown in Fig. 1 (exhaust). Shortly thereafter, the 
downward moving piston uncovers the inlet ports and 
the cylinder is again swept with clean scavenging air. 
This entire combustion cycle is completed in each 
cylinder for each revolution of the crankshaft, or, in 
other words, in two strokes; hence, it is a "two-stroke 
cycle". 




Scavenging 



Competition 



Power 



Exhautt- 



5267 



Fig. 1 The Two Stroke Cycle 



February, 1972 Page 5 



General Information 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION 




The two-cycle diesel engines covered in this manual 
have the same bore and stroke and many of the major 
working parts such as injectors, pistons, connecting 
rods, cylinder liners and other parts are 
interchangeable. 

The In-line engines, including the inclined marine 
models, include standard accessories such as the 
blower, water pump, governor and fuel pump, which, 
on some models, may be located on either side of the 
engine regardless of the direction the crankshaft 
rotates. Further flexibility in meeting installation 
requirements is achieved with the cylinder head which 
can be installed to accommodate the exhaust manifold 
on either side of the engine. 

The V-type engines use many In-line engine parts, 
including the 3-53 and 4-53 cylinder heads. The blower 
is mounted on top of the engine between the two 
banks of cylinders and is driven by the gear train. The 
governor is mounted on the rear end of the 6V-53 
blower and on the front end of the 8V-53 blower. 

The meaning of each digit in the model numbering 
system is shown in Figs. 2 and 3. The letter L or R 
indicates left or right-hand engine rotation as viewed 
from the front of the engine. The letter A, B, C or D 
designates the blower and exhaust manifold location 
on the In-line engines as viewed from the rear of the 
engine while the letter A or C designates the location 
of the oil cooler and starter on the V-type engines. 

Each engine is equipped with an oil cooler (not 
required on certain two-cylinder models), full-flow oil 
filter, fuel oil strainer and fuel oil filter, an air cleaner 
or silencer, governor, heat exchanger and raw water 
pump or fan and radiator, and a starting motoV. 

Full pressure lubrication is supplied to all main, 
connecting rod and camshaft bearings and to other 
moving parts. A rotor-type pump on In-line or 6V 
engines or a gear-type pump on 8V engines draws oil 



from the oil pan through a screen and delivers it to the 
oil filter. From the filter, the oil flows to the oil cooler 
and then enters a longitudinal oil gallery in the 
cylinder block where the supply divides. Part of the oil 
goes to the camshaft bearings and up through the 
rocker arm assemblies; the remainder of the oil goes 
to the main bearings and connecting rod bearings via 
the drilled oil passages in the crankshaft. 

Coolant is circulated through the engine by a 
centrifugal-type water pump. Heat is removed from 
the coolant, which circulates in a closed system, by the 
heat exchanger or radiator. Control of the engine 
temperature is accomplished by thermostat(s) which 
regulate the flow of the coolant within the cooling 
system. 

Fuel is drawn from the supply tank through the fuel 
strainer by a gear-type fuel pump. It is then forced 
through a filter and into the fuel inlet manifold in the 
cylinder head(s) and to the injectors. Excess fuel is 
returned to the supply tank through the fuel outlet 
manifold and connecting lines. Since the fuel is 
constantly circulating through, the injectors, it serves tb 
cool the injectors and to carry off any air in the fuel 
system. 

Air for scavenging and combustion is supplied by a 
blower which pumps air into the engine cylinders via 
the air box and cylinder liner ports. All air entering 
the blower first passes through an air cleaner or 
silencer. 

Engine starting is provided by either a hydraulic or 
electric starting system. The electric starting motor is 
energized by a storage battery. A battery-charging 
generator, with a suitable voltage regulator, serves to 
keep the battery charged. 

Engine speed is regulated by a mechanical or 
hydraulic type engine governor, depending upon the 
engine application. 



rr!l 




Page 6 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



General Information 



5043-5101 





SERIES 
S3 


NUIMSEi 
OF 
CYLINDERS 


APPLICATION 
DESIGNATION 


BASIC IN8INE 
ARRAN@iMiNTS 
* (so feelew) 


DESIGN 
VAilATSON 


SPECIFIC MODEL NUMBER 
AND STAifii-iLOWER 
AliANGiMiNT 



APPLICATION 



a@NATION 



BiSIQM VARIATION 



STAKTii-BLQWii ARiANQEMENT 



5042-5100 MARINE 5043 -SgOO "N" INOINE 

5043-5100 FAN TO rVW-INDUSTRIAL 5043-5 J.OO 2 VALVE 

504&-5100 POWER-BAS! 5043-5J|00 

504|-5100 GENiltATOI 5042-2302 

5047-5100 MM TO P/W- VEHICLE 



number in last digit designates starter 
opposite blower. 

Even number in last digit designates starter 
4 VALVE HEA same side es blower. 



* 2, S, 4-3 iASi EN@8MJ 



Rotation: R-(rlght) and L-(laft) detignatsi rotation as viewed from the end of the engine appetite the flywheel. 
Type: A-B-C-D dasignatea location of exhaust manifold and blower as viewed from the flywheel end of Hi engine. 



EXHAUST MANIFOLD 




LA 



EXHAUST MANIFOLD 



BLOWER 




LI (XXXX-2XXX) 



EXHAUST MANIFOLD EXHAUST MANIFOLD 




BLOWER 



LC (XXXX-3XXX) 




BIOWER 



LD (XXXX-4XXX) 



EXHAUST MANIFOLD 




BLOWER 



HA (XXXX-5XXX) 



EXHAUST MANIFOLD 



BIOWER 




RB (XXXX-6XXX) 



EXHAUST MANIFOLD EXHAUST MANIFOLD 




BLOWER 



RC (XXXX-jFXXX) 




BLOWER 



(xxxx-sxxx) 



ALL ABOVE VIEWS FROM REAi (FLYWHEEL) END OF 



Fig. 2 In-line Engine Model Description, Rotation, and Accessory Arrangements 



February, 1972 Page 7 



General Information 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



5063 




1 ** r~ 














NUMBER 


APPLICATION 


BASIC ENGINE 


DESIGN 


SPECIFIC 


SSRIES 


or 


DESIGNATION 


ARRANGEMENT 


VARIATION 


MODEL 


S3 


CYLINDERS 




* (see below) 




NUMBER 



APPLICATION PESiQMATION 

SO62-3OOO MARINE 

S063-32OO PAN to P/W-INDUSTRIAL 

5O64-S20O POWER- BASE 

SO69.32OO GENERATOR 

3O67.9O4O FAN to F/W VEHICLE 

S082-SOOO MARINE 

3083-3000 FAN to F/W INDUSTRIAL 

SO87-3O4O FAN to F/W VEHICLE 



7 



PESION VARIATION 

5062-3000 "N" ENGINE 
3063-3200 4 VALVE HEAD 



* JAS8C IMQINE AR1AMQEMENTS 

Setatlont R-(rlg(9) and l-(laft) dslgnat8 rofatlan a viewed from the end of th 
engine opposite fh flywheel. 

Typei A and designates location of starter and oil cooler as viewed from the flywheel 
end of th engine. 

Cylinder Bankt Left and right cylinder banks ttr determined from the flywheel 

m<3 of th 



WW^H 



BLOWER 
THRUST. 
REAR, 




IDICR" 
STARTER 



Oil 
COOLER 



STARTER 




OIL 
COOLER 



LC (XXXX-3XXX) 



OIL 
COOLER 




STARTER 



RA (XXXX-5XXX) 



STARTER 




OIL 
COOLER 



RC (XXXX-fXXX) 



ALL ABOVE VIEWS FROM REAR FLYWHEEL END OF ENGINE 



Fig. 3 6 and 8V Engine Model Description, Rotation and Accessory Arrangement 



MfBI 



Pages 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



General Information 



GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS 







3-53 


Type 
Number of Cylinders 




2 Cycle 
3 


Bore 




3.875 in 


Stroke 




4 5 in 


Compression Ratio (Nominal) (Standard Engines). 
Compression Ratio (Nominal) ("N" Engines) . . 
Total Displacement Cubic Inches 




17 to 1 
2V to 1 
159 






4 



J^(P 



FRONT 




C 

c\ 


~) 

- ) 3-53 




V* 

(1 


i \ 






3 -53 






FIRING ORDER 






3-53 RH - 1-3-2 




Fig. 4 Cylinder Designation and Firing Order 



March, 1973 Page 9 



General Information 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



MODEL, SERIAL NUMBfli ANP OPTION PLATi 




Fig. 5 - Typical Model and Serial Numbers as 
Stamped on Cylinder Block (In-Line Engine) 

On the In-line engines, the model number and serial 
number are stamped on the right-hand side of the 
cylinder block in the upper rear corner (Fig. 5). 



An option plate, attached to the valve rocker cover, is 
also stamped with the engine serial number and model 
number and, in addition, lists any optional equipment 
used on the engine (Fig. 7). Where required, a smoke 
emission certification plate is installed next to the 
option plate. 



r 



VAIVE ROCKER COVER 




OPTION PLAT? SMOKE EMISSION PLATE 



Fig. 7 - Option Plate 



With any order for parts, the engine model number 
and serial number must be given. In addition, if a type 
number is shown on the option plate covering the 
equipment required, this number should also be 
included on the parts order. 

All groups of parts used on a unit are standard for the 
engine mode) unless otherwise listed on the option 
plate. 

Power take-off assemblies, torque converters, marine 
gears, etc. may also carry name plates. The 
information on these name plates is also useful when 
ordering replacement parts for these assemblies. 



Page 10 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



General Information 




GENERAL PROCEDURES 



In many cases, a serviceman is justified in replacing 
parts with new material rather than attempting repair. 
However, there are times when a slight amount of 
reworking or reconditioning may save a customer 
considerable added expense. Crankshafts, cylinder 
liners and other parts are in this category. For 
example, if a cylinder liner is only slightly worn and 
within usable limits, a honing operation to remove the 
glaze may make it suitable for reuse, thereby saving 
the expense of a new part. Exchange assemblies such 
as injectors, fuel pumps, water pumps and blowers are 
also desirable service items. 



Various factors such as the type of operation of the 
engine, hours in service and next overhaul period must 
be considered when determining whether new parts 
are installed or used parts are reconditioned to provide 
troubie- free operation. 

For convenience and logical order in disassembly and 
assembly, the various sub-assemblies and other related 
parts mounted on the cylinder block will be treated as 
separate items in the various sections of the manual. 



DISASSEMBLY 







Before any major disassembly, the engine must be 
drained of lubricating oil, coolant and fuel. On 
engines cooled by a heat exchanger, the fresh water 
system and raw water system must both be drained. 
Lubricating oil should also be drained from any 
transmission attached to the engine. 

To perform a major overhaul or other extensive 
repairs, the complete engine assembly, after removal 
from the engine base and drive mechanism, should be 
mounted on an engine overhaul stand; then the 



various sub-assemblies should be removed from the 
engine. When only a few items need replacement, it is 
not always necessary to mount the engine on an 
overhaul stand. 

Parts removed from an individual engine should be 
kept together so they will be available for inspection 
and assembly. Those items having machined faces, 
which might be easily damaged by steel or concrete, 
should be stored on suitable wooden racks or blocks, or 
a parts dolly. 



CLEANING 



Before removing any of the sub-assemblies from the 
engine (but after removal of the electrical equipment), 
the exterior of the engine should be thoroughly 
cleaned. Then, after each sub-assembly is removed 
and disassembled, the individual parts should be 
cleaned. Thorough cleaning of each part is absolutely 
necessary before it can be satisfactorily inspected. 
Various items of equipment needed for general 
cleaning are listed below. 

The cleaning procedure used for all ordinary cast iron 
parts is outlined under Clean Cylinder Block in Section 
1.1; any special cleaning procedures will be mentioned 
in the text wherever required. 



Steam Cleaning 

A steam cleaner is a necessary item in a large shop 
and is most useful for removing heavy accumulations 
of grease and dirt from the exterior of the engine and 
its sub-assemblies. 



Solvent Tank Cleaning 

A tank of sufficient size to accommodate the largest 
part that will require cleaning (usually the cylinder 
block) should be provided and provisions made for 
heating the cleaning solution to 180 F.-200 F. 

Fill the tank with a commercial heavy-duty solvent 
which is heated to the above temperature. Lower large 
parts directly into the tank with a hoist. Place small 
parts in a wire mesh basket and lower them into the 
tank. Immerse the parts long enough to loosen all of 
the grease and dirt. 



Rinsing Bath 

Provide another tank of similar size containing hot 
water for rinsing the parts. 



Drying 

Parts may be dried with compressed air. The heat 
from the hot tanks will quite frequently complete 
drying of the parts without the use of compressed air. 



March, 1973 Pag 11 



General Information 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Rust Preventive 

If parts are not to be used immediately after cleaning, 
dip them in a suitable rust preventive compound. The 



rust preventive compound should be removed before 
installing the parts in an engine. 



INSPECTION 



The purpose of parts inspection is to determine which 
parts can be used and which must be replaced. 
Although the engine overhaul specifications given 
throughout the text will aid in determining which parts 
should be replaced, considerable judgment must be 
exercised by the inspector. 

The guiding factors in determining the usability of 
worn parts, which are otherwise in good condition, is 
the clearance between the mating parts and the rate of 
wear on each of the parts. If it is determined that the 
rate of wear will maintain the clearances within the 
specified maximum allowable until the next overhaul 
period, the reinstallation of used parts may be 
justified. Rate of wear of a part is determined by 
dividing the amount the part has worn by the hours it 
has operated. 



Many service replacement parts are available in 
various undersize and /or oversize as well as standard 
sizes. Also, service kits for reconditioning certain parts 
and service sets which include all of the parts 
necessary to complete a particular repair job are 
available. 

A complete discussion of the proper methods of 
precision measuring and inspection are outside the 
scope of this manual. However, every shop should be 
equipped with standard gages, such as dial bore gages, 
dial indicators, and inside and outside micrometers. 

In addition to measuring the used parts after cleaning, 
the parts should be carefully inspected for cracks, 
scoring, chipping and other defects. 



ASSEMBLY 



Following cleaning and inspection, the engine should 
be assembled using new parts as determined by the 
inspection. 

Use of the proper equipment and tools makes the job 
progress faster and produces better results. Likewise, a 
suitable working space with proper lighting must be 
provided. The time and money invested in providing 
the proper tools, equipment and space will be repaid 
many times. 

Keep the working space, the equipment, tools and 
engine assemblies and parts clean at all times. The 
area where assembly operations take place should, if 



possible, be located away from the disassembly and 
cleaning operation. Also, any machining operations 
should be removed as far as possible from the 
assembly area. 

Particular attention should be paid to storing of parts 
and sub-assemblies, after removal and cleaning and 
prior to assembly, in such a place or manner as to 
keep them clean. If there is any doubt as to the 
cleanliness of such parts, they should be recleaned. 

When assembling an engine or any part thereof, refer 
to the table of torque specifications at the end of each 
section for proper bolt, nut and stud torques. 



WORK SAFELY 



A serviceman can be severely injured if caught in the 
pulleys, belts or fan of an engine that is accidentally 
started. To avoid such a misfortune, take these 
precautions before starting to work on an engine: 



Disconnect the battery from the starting system by 
removing one or both of the battery cables. With 
the electrical circuit disrupted, accidental contact 
with the starter button will not produce an engine 
start. 

Make sure the mechanism provided at the 
governor for stopping the engine is in the stop 

Page 12 



position. This will mean the governor is in the no- 
fuel position. The possibility of the engine firing 
by accidentally turning the fan or, in the case of 
vehicle application, by being bumped by another 
vehicle is minimized. 



Some Safety Precautions To Observe When 
Working On The Engine 

1. Consider the hazards of the job and wear protective 
gear such as safety glasses, safety shoes, hard hat, etc. 
to provide adequate protection. 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



General Information 




2. When lifting an engine, make sure the lifting device 
is fastened securely. Be sure the item to be lifted does 
not exceed the capacity of the lifting device. 

3. Always use caution when using power tools. 

4. When using compressed air to clean a component, 
such as flushing a radiator or cleaning an air cleaner 
element, use a safe amount of air. Recommendations 
regarding the use of air are indicated throughout the 
manual. Too much air can rupture or in some other 
way damage a component and create a hazardous 
situation that can lead to personal injury. 

5. Avoid the use of carbon tetrachloride as a cleaning 
agent because of the harmful vapors that it releases. 
Use perchlorethylene or trichlorethylene. However, 
while less toxic than other chlorinated solvents, use 
these cleaning agents with caution. Be sure the work 



area is adequately ventilated and use protective gloves, 
goggles or face shield, and apron. 

Exercise caution against burns when using oxalic acid 
to clean the cooling passages of the engine. 

6. Use caution when welding on or near the fuel tank. 
Possible explosion could result if heat build-up inside 
the tank is sufficient. 

7. Avoid excessive injection of ether into the engine 
during start attempts. Follow the instructions on the 
container or by the manufacturer of the starting aid. 

8. When working on an engine that is running, 
accidental contact with the hot exhaust manifold can 
cause severe burns. Remain alert to the location of the 
rotating fan, pulleys and belts. Avoid making contact 
across the two terminals of a battery which can result 
in severe arcing. 



^mp^ 




March, 1973 Page 13 



General Information 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 









a> 

I 

ui 

OJ 

c 



Page 14 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



1 
fiss mafr @mb9i@i 

N?INT 






Cylinder Block ,\ 

Cylinder Block End Plates .1.1 

Air Box Drains .1.2 

Cylinder Head .2 

Valve and injector Operating Mechanism .2.1 

Exhaust Valves .2.2 

Valve Rocker Cover .2.4 

Crankshaft .3 

Crankshaft Oil Seals .3.2 

Crankshaft Main Bearings .3.4 

Engine Front Cover (Lower) .3.5 

Crankshaft Outboard Bearing Support .3.5.1 

Crankshaft Pulley 1.3.7 

Flywheel 1.4 

Flywheel Housing 1 .5 

Piston and Piston Rings .6 

Connecfing Rod .6.1 

Connecting Rod Bearings .6.2 

Cylinder Liner .6.3 

Engine Balance and Balance Weights .7 

Gear Train and Engine Timing .7.1 

Camshaft, Balance Shaft and Bearings .7.2 

Camshaft and Balance Shaft Gears .7.3 

Idler Gear and Bearing Assembly .7.4 

Crankshaft Timing Geer .7.5 

Accessory Drives .7.7 

Engine Front Cover (Upper) .7.8 

Shop Notes-Trouble Shooting- Specifications- Service Tools 1.0 



February, 1972 SEC. 1 Page 1 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



1.1 



CYLINDER BLOCK 



The cylinder block (Fig . serves as the main 

structural part of the engine. Transverse webs provide 
rigidity and strength and ensure alignment of the 
block bores and bearings under load. Cylinder blocks 
for the two, three and four cylinder In-Line engines 
are identical in design and dimensions except for 
length. 

The block is bored to receive replaceable wet-type 
cylinder liners. On the In-Line and 6V cast iron 
cylinder blocks, a water jacket surrounds the upper 
half of each cylinder liner. 

The 

water jacket and air box are sealed off by a seal ring 
compressed between the liner and a groove in the 
block (Fig . 3 ). 

An air box surrounding the lower half of the cylinder 
liners conducts the air from the blower to the air inlet 
ports in the cylinder liners. An opening in the side of 
the block opposite the blower on the In-Line engines 
and air box openings in both sides of the block on the 
V-type engines provide access to the air box and 



permit inspection of the pistons and compression rings 
through the air inlet ports in the cylinder liners. 

The camshaft and balance shaft bores are located on 
opposite sides near the top of the In-Line engine 
block. 



The upper halves of the main bearing supports are 
cast integral with the block. The main bearing bores 
are line-bored with the bearing caps in place to ensure 
longitudinal alignment. Drilled passages in the block 
carry the lubricating oil to all moving parts of the 
engine, eliminating the need for external piping. 

The top surface of the In-Line block 

is grooved to accommodate a 
block-to-head oil seal ring. Also, each water or oil hole 
is counterbored to provide for individual seal rings 
(Fig. 6). 




1. Cylinder Block 

2. Bore for Cylinder Liner 

3. Support-Upper Main 
Bearing (Rear) 

4. Support-Upper Main 
Bearing (Front) 

5. Bore-Cam or Balance 
Shaft 

6. Air Box 



7. Water Passage from Oil 
Cooler to Block 

8. Oil Gallery (Main) 

9. Oil Gallery (to Blower) 

10. Oil Drain from Front 
Cover 

11. Oil Passage to Oil 
Cooler 

12. Oil Passage from Oil 



Cooler 

13. Oil Drain from Blower 

14. Cap-Main Bearing 
(Front) 

15. Oil Passage to Cylinder 
Head (from Camshaft) 

16. Oil Passage (Idler Gear 
Bearing) 

17. Water Drain 



18. Oil Gallery to Camshaft 
or Balance Shaft 

19. Oil Drain from Cylinder 
Head 

20. Cap-Main Bearing 
(Rear) 

21. Oil Pressure Take-Off 
Opening 



Fig. 1 Cylinder Block (Four Cylinder Block Shown) 



March, 1973 SEC. 1.1 Page 1 



1.1 Cylinder Block 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



f\ 



Each cylinder liner is retained in the block by a flange 
at its upper end, which seats in the counterbore in the 




Fig. 3 Air and Water Passages in In-Line 
Cylinder Block 



block bore. An individual compression gasket is used 
at each cylinder. 

When the cylinder head is installed, the gaskets and 
seal rings compress sufficiently to form a tight metal- 
to-metal contact between the head and the block. 

The In-Line cylinder blocks were revised at the idler 
gear hub mounting pads, to increase the rigidity of the 
flywheel housing, by increasing two of the three 
5/16" - 18 bolt holes of each mounting pad to 
3/8 " - 16 bolt holes (Fig. 7). The 3/8 " - 16 boh 
holes were incorporated in engines beginning with 
serial numbers 2D-903, 3D-011 and 4D-103. Revised 
end plates, end plate-to- block gaskets and flywheel 
housing are required with the change in bolt sizes. 
Only the revised cylinder blocks are available for 
service. 



The In-Line cyli'.der blocks have also been revised to 
improve the breathing characteristics and increase the 
flow of the lubricating oil returning from the cylinder 
head to the engine oil sump by the addition of two 
vertical oil passages directly under the camshaft and 
balance shaft at the front end of the cylinder block 
(Fig. 8). Cylinder blocks with the vertical oil passages 



Page 2 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Cylinder Block 1.1 



were used in engines beginning with serial numbers 
2D-4010, 3D-1 17 and 4D-348. 



New service replacement cylinder block assemblies 
include the main bearing caps, bolts and washers and 
the camshaft bearings (bushings). The dowels and the 
necessary plugs are also included. 

Since the cylinder block is the main structural part of 
the engine, the various sub-assemblies must be 
removed from the cylinder block when an engine is 
overhauled. 

The hydraulically operated overhaul stand (Fig. 9) 
provides a convenient support when stripping a 
cylinder block. The engine is mounted in an upright 
position. It may then be tipped on its side, rotated in 
either direction 90 or 180 where it is locked in place 
and then, if desired, tipped back with either end or the 
oil pan side up. 



temovv and Disawemble Engine 



must be removed from its base and disconnected from 
the transmission or other driven mechanism. Details 
of this procedure will vary from one application to 
another. However, the following steps will be 
necessary: 

1. Drain the cooling system. 

2. Drain the lubricating oil. 

3. Disconnect the fuel lines. 

4. Remove the air silencer or air cleaner and mounting 
bracket. 

5. Remove the turbocharger, if used. 

6. Remove the blower on In-Line engines. 

7. Disconnect the exhaust piping and remove the 
exhaust manifold(s). 

8. Disconnect the throttle controis. 

9. Disconnect and remove the starting motor, battery- 
charging generator and other electrical equipment. 

10. Remove the air compressor, if used. 

11. Remove the radiator and fan guard or the heat 
exchanger and other related cooling system parts. 



Before mounting an engine on an overhaul stand, it 12. Remove the air box drain tubes and fittings. 

sEcTTl~~Page~3 



1.1 Cylinder Block 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



13. Remove the air box covers. 




Fig. 6 Cylinder Head Gaskets and Seals in 
Place on Cylinder Block 



14. Disconnect any other lubricating oil lines, fuel 
lines or electrical connections. 

15. Separate the engine from the transmission or other 
driven mechanism. 




Fig. 7 Location of the Four 3/8-16 Bolt Holes 
in Rear of Cylinder Block 



ft. 



Page 4 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Cylinder Block 1.1 




Fig. 8 Vertical Oil Passages in Top of 
Cylinder Block 

16. Remove the engine mounting bolts. 

17. Use a chain hoist and suitable sling attached to the 
engine'lifting brackets to lift the engine. 




Fig. 9 - Engine Mounted on Overhaul Stand 

the cylinder block, together with disassembly, inspec- 
tion, repair and reassembly of each, will be found in 
the various sections of this manual. 

After stripping, the cylinder block must be thoroughly 
cleaned and inspected. 



18. Place the side of the cylinder block against the 
adaptor plate on the overhaul stand (Fig. 9). Use 
adaptor plate J 7622 (In-Line engine), 

with overhaul stand 
J 6837-01. 

19. Align the bolt holes in the adaptor plate with the 
holes in the cylinder block. Then install the 3/8 "-16 
and 5/16 "-18 bolts, with a flat washer under the head 
of each bolt, and tighten them securely. 

CAUTION: Be sure the engine is securely 
mounted to the overhaul stand before releasing 
the lifting sling. Severe injury to personnel and 
destruction of engine parts will result if the 
engine breaks away from the overhaul stand. 

20. With the engine mounted on the overhaul stand, 
remove all of the remaining sub-assemblies and parts 
from the cylinder block. 

The procedure for removing each sub-assembly from 




Fig. 10 - Cylinder Block Prepared for Pressure 
Test 



March, 1973 SEC. 1.1 Page 5 



1.1 Cylinder Block 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 




CUKRENT BLOCK 



Fig. 11 Location of Block Bore Seal Ring 
Groove 

Clean Cylinder Block 

1. Remove all of the plugs (except cup plugs) and 
scrape all old gasket material from the block. 

2. Clean the block with live steam. Make sure the oil 
galleries, air box floor and air box drain openings are 
thoroughly cleaned. 



Jets are not machined in the camshaft 

and balance shaft bushing bores in the current In-Line 

cylinder blocks. Oil is directed to the cam 

followers through small slots incorporated in the 

camshaft and balance shaft bearings. 

3. Dry the block with compressed air. 



Pressure Test Cylinder Block 

After the cylinder block has been cleaned, it must be 
pressure tested for cracks or leaks by either one of two 
methods. In either method, it will be necessary to 
make a steel plate of 1/2 " stock to cover each cylinder 
bank of the block (Fig. 10). The plate(s) will 
adequately seal the top surface of the block when used 
with cylinder liner compression gaskets and water hole 

Page 6 




J 5347. 





Fig. 12 - Checking Cylinder Block Bore with 
Tool J 5347 

seal rings. It will also be necessary to use water hole 
cover plates and gaskets to seal the water inlet 
openings in the sides of the block. One cover plate 
should be drilled and tapped to provide a connection 
for an air line so the water jacket can be pressurized. 

METHOD "A" 

This method may be used when a large enough water 
tank is available and the cylinder block is completely 
stripped of all parts. 

1. Make sure the seal ring grooves in the cylinder 
bores of the block are clean. Then install new seal 
rings in the grooves (above the air inlet ports). 

NOTE: The current blocks have two seal ring 
grooves above the air inlet ports of each 
cylinder bore. Only one seal ring is required, 
however. Install the seal ring in the upper 
groove, if it is in good condition; if the upper 
groove is pitted or eroded, install the seal ring 
in the lower groove. 

2. Apply a light coating of hydrogenated vegetable 



r 



DETROIT DSESEL 53 



Cylinder Block 1.1 







: MEASURE INSIDE DIAMETER Of BLOCK j 
BORE AT PLACES A, 8, C AND D ON 
"X7." AND "WY" AXIS. 



Fig. 13 Block Bore Measurement Diagram 

type shortening or permanent type antifreeze solution 
to the seal rings. 

3. Slide the cylinder liners into the block, being careful 
not to roll or damage the seal rings. Install new 
compression gaskets and water hole seal rings in the 
counterbores in the top surface of the block. 

4. Secure the plate(s) on the top of the block with 
5/8 "-1 1 bolts and flat washers. 

5. Install the water hole cover plates and gaskets on the 
sides of the block. 

6. Immerse the cylinder block for twenty minutes in a 
tank of water heated to 180 - 200 F. 

7. Attach an air line to the water hole cover plate and 
apply 60 psi air pressure to the water jackets and 
observe the water in the tank for bubbles which will 




MAIN BEARING CAPS FLYWHEEL END J 



Fig. 14 - Typical Cylinder Block Markings 

indicate cracks or leaks. A cracked cylinder block must 
be replaced by a new block. 

8. Remove the block from the water tank. Then 
remove the plates, seals, gaskets and liners and blow 
out all of the passages in the block with compressed 
air. 

9. Dry the cylinder liners with compressed air and coat 
them with oil to prevent rust. 

METHOD "B" 

This method may be used when a large water tank is 
unavailable, or when it is desired to check the block 
for cracks without removing the engine from the 
equipment which it powers. However, it is necessary to 
remove the cylinder head(s), blower, oil cooler, air box 
covers and oil pan. 

1. Prepare the block as outlined in Method "A". 
However, before installing the large sealing plate, fill 
the water jacket with a mixture of water and one 
gallon of permanent type antifreeze. The antifreeze 
will penetrate small cracks and its color will aid in 
detecting their presence. 

2. Install the plate(s) and water hole covers as outlined 
in Method "A". 

3. Apply 60 psi air pressure to the water jacket and 
maintain this pressure for at least two hours to give 
the water and antifreeze mixture ample time to work 
its way through any cracks which may exist. 

4. At the end of this test period, examine the cylinder 
bores, air box, oil passages, crankcase and exterior of 
the block for presence of the water and antifreeze 
mixture which will indicate the presence of cracks. A 
cracked cylinder block must be replaced by a new 
block. 

5. After the pressure test is completed, remove the 



March, 1973 SEC. 1.1 Page 7 



1.1 Cylinder Block 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



plates and drain the water jacket. Then remove the 
liners and seal rings and blow out all of the passages 
in the block with compressed air. 

6. Dry the cylinder liners with compressed air and coat 
them with oil to prevent rust. 



Inspect Cylinder Block 

After cleaning and pressure testing, inspect the 
cylinder block. 

1. Check the block bores as follows: 

a. Make sure the seal ring grooves (Fig. 11) are 
thoroughly clean. Then inspect the grooves and 
lands for evidence of pitting and erosion. Two 
grooves are provided above the air inlet ports of 
each cylinder bore in the current block. The single 
groove formerly below the air inlet ports has been 
eliminated. However, a cylinder liner seal ring is 
required in the upper groove only. The lower 
groove (on the current block) is provided for the 
seal ring if inspection reveals extensive pitting or 
erosion along the upper land or inner surface of 
the upper groove. If both grooves are eroded to 
the extent that sealing is affected, then the block 
must be replaced. 

b. Measure the entire bore of each cylinder with 
cylinder bore gage J 5347 (Fig. 12) which has a 
dial indicator calibrated in .0001 " increments. 
Use dial bore gage setting tool J 23059 to preset 
the cylinder bore gage to zero. Measure each 
block bore at the positions indicated in Fig. 13, 
on axis 90 apart. If the diameter does not exceed 
4.5235 " at position "A", 4.4900 " at position "B" 
(and a sealing problem hasn't occured), or 
4.3595 " at position "C" and "D", then the block 
may be reused. Also, the taper and out of round 
must not exceed .0015 ". 

2. Check the top of the block for flatness with an 
accurate straight edge and a feeler gage. The top 
surface must not vary more than .003 " transversely 
and not over .006 " (3-53 
engine) longitudinally. 

3. Make sure the cylinder liner counterbores in the 
block are clean and free of dirt. Then check the depth. 
The depth must be .300 " to .302 " and must not vary 
more than .0015 " throughout the entire circumfer- 
ence. The counterbored surfaces must be smooth and 
square with the cylinder bore within .001 " total 
indicator reading. There must not be over .001 " 
difference between any two adjacent cylinder counter- 
bores, when measured along the cylinder longitudinal 
centerline of the cylinder block. 

Pa ere g 



4. Check the main bearing bores as follows: 

a. Check the bore diameters with the main bearing 
caps in their original positions. Lubricate the bolt 
threads and bolt head contact areas with a small 
quantity of International Compound No. 2, or 
equivalent. Then install and tighten the bolts to 
the specified torque. When making this check, do 
not install the main bearing cap stabilizers. The 
specified bore diameter is 3.251 " to 3.252 " (In- 
Line engine). 

If the bores do not fall within these 
limits, the cylinder block must be rejected. 

CAUTION: Main bearing cap bolts are espe- 
cially designed for this purpose and must not be 
replaced by ordinary bolts. Effective with 
engine serial numbers 6D-27030 and 8D-1155, 
a new hexagon head bolt and hardened steel 
washer are being used in place of the former 
12-point flange type main bearing cap bolt. 

NOTE: Bearing caps are numbered to corre- 
spond with their respective positions in the 
cylinder block. It is imperative that the bearing 
caps are reinstalled in their original positions to 
maintain the main bearing bore alignment. The 
number of the front main bearing cap is also 
stamped on the face of the oil pan mounting 
flange of the cylinder block, adjacent to its 
permanent location in the engine as established 
at the time of manufacture. The No. 1 main 
bearing cap is always located at the end 
opposite the flywheel end of the cylinder block 
(Fig. 14). 

b. Finished and unfinished main bearing caps are 
available for replacing broken or damaged caps. 
When fitting a finished replacement bearing cap, 
it may be necessary to try several caps before one 
will be found to provide the correct bore diameter 
and bore alignment. If a replacement bearing cap 
is installed, be sure to stamp the correct bearing 
position number on the cap. 

NOTE: Use the unfinished bearing caps for the 
front and intermediate bearing positions. The 
finished bearing caps, machined for the 
crankshaft thrust washers, are to be used in the 
rear bearing position. 

c. Main bearing bores are line-bored with the 

bearing caps in place and thus are in longitudinal 
alignment. Bearing bores may be considered 
properly aligned with one another if the 
crankshaft can be rotated freely by hand after 
new bearing shells . have been installed and 
lubricated and the bearing caps have been 
secured in place and the bolts tightened to the 
specified torque. If a main bearing bore is more 




JWipi^ 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Cylinder Block 1.1 



than .001 " out of alignment, the block must be 
line-bored or scrapped. Misalignment may be 
caused by a broken crankshaft, excessive heat or 
other damage. 

d. If the main bearing bores are not in alignment or 
a replacement bearing cap is used, the block must 
be line-bored. Install the bearing caps in their 
original positions (without the bearing cap 
stabilizers) and tighten the bolts to the specified 
torque (Section 1.0). Line-bore the block, but do 
not remove more than .001 " stock. After boring, 
all bores must be within the specified limits of 
3.251 " to 3.252 " (In-Line block). 



5. Replace loose or damaged dowel pins. The dowels at 
the ends of the cylinder block must extend .680 " from 
the cylinder block face. 

The dowels used to retain the crankshaft thrust 
washers on the rear main bearing cap must extend 
.107 "to .117 "from the surface of the bearing cap. 

6. Check all of the machined surfaces and threaded 
holes in the block. Remove nicks and burrs from the 
machined surfaces with a file. Clean-up damaged 
threads in tapped holes with a tap or install helical 
thread inserts. 

7. After inspection, if the cylinder block is not to be 
used immediately, spray the machined surfaces with 
engine oil. If the block is to be stored for an extended 
period of time, spray or dip it in a polar type rust 
preventive such as Valvoline Oil Company's "Tectyl 
502-C", or equivalent. Castings free of grease or oil 
will rust when exposed to the atmosphere. 



Assemble and Install Engine 

After the cylinder block has been cleaned and 
inspected, assemble the engine as follows: 

NOTE: Before a reconditioned or new service 
replacement cylinder block is used, steam clean 



it to remove the rust preventive and blow out 
the oil galleries with compressed air. 

1. Mount the block on the overhaul stand. 

2. If a new service replacement block is used, stamp 
the engine serial number and model number on the 
upper rear corner of the In-Line block.. 

Also stamp the 

position numbers on the main bearing caps (Fig. 14) 
and the position of the No. 1 bearing on the oil pan 
mounting flange of the block. 

3. Install all of the required plugs and drain cocks. Use 
a good grade of sealing compound on the threads of 
the plugs and drain cocks. If a new service 
replacement block is used, make sure the top surface is 
plugged correctly to prevent low oil pressure or the 
accumulation of abnormal quantities of oil in the 
cylinder head. 

4. Clean and inspect all of the engine parts and sub- 
assemblies and, using new parts as required, install 
them on the cylinder block by reversing the sequence 
of disassembly. The procedures for inspecting and 
installing the various parts and sub-assemblies are 
outlined in the following sections of this manual. 

5. Use a chain hoist and suitable sling to transfer the 
engine to a dynamometer test stand. 

6. Install the air box covers and tighten the bolts. On 
In-Line engines, tighten the bolts to 12-16 Ib-ft torque. 



7. Complete the engine build-up by installing all 
remaining accessories, fuel lines, electrical connections, 
controls etc. 

8. Operate the engine on a dynamometer, following 
the RUN-IN procedure outlined in Section 13.2.1. 

9. Reinstall the engine in the equipment which it 
powers. 



November, 1973 SEC. 1.1 Page 9 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



1.1.1 



CYLINDER BLOCK END PLATE 



A flat steel plate, bolted to the rear end of the cylinder 
block, provides a support for the flywheel housing. A 
gasket is used between the block and the end plate. 



Inspection 

When the end plate is removed, it is essential that all 
of the old gasket material be removed From both 
surfaces of the end plate and the cylinder block. Clean 
the end plate as outlined under Clean Cylinder Block in 
Section 1.1. 



Install End Plate 

1. Affix a new gasket to the end of the cylinder block 
(flywheel end), using a non-hardening gasket cement. 
Also apply an even coating of gasket cement to the 
outer surface of the gasket (the surface next to the end 
plate). 



Inspect both surfaces of the end plate for nicks, dents, 
scratches or score marks and check it for warpage. 
Check the plug nuts in the end plate for cracks or 
damaged threads. If nicks or scratches on the sealing 
surfaces of the end plate are too deep to be cleaned 
up, or the plug nuts are damaged, replace the end 
plate or plug nuts. 

When installing a plug nut, support the end plate on a 
solid flat surface to avoid distorting the plate. Then 
press the nut in the end plate until the head on the nut 
seats on the end plate. 



/o 



V> 

-BOLT W 16 x 



W , 4***,, 




2. Align the dowel pin holes in the end plate with the 
dowel pins in the cylinder block. Then start the end 
plate over the dowel pins and push it up against the 
cylinder block. 

NOTE: When installing the end plate, the heads 
of the plug nuts at the top of the end plate on 
the In-line engine 

should always face the forward end of the 
cylinder block. 



Fig. 1 Cylinder Block Rear End Plate 
Mounting (In-Line Engine) 



November, 1973 SEC. 1.1.1 Page 1 



1.1.1 End Plate 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



3. On In-line engines, refer to Fig. 1 and install the 
3/8 "-16 x 7/8 " bolts with lock washers. Tighten the 
bolts to 30-35 Ib-ft torque. 

NOTE: On In-line engines built prior to engine 
serial numbers 2D-903, 3D-01 1 and 4D-103, the 
top center end plate attaching bolt was 3/8 "-16 
x 3/4 ". Do not use a longer bolt at this 
location on engines built prior to the above 
engine serial numbers. 



4. On a V-type engine, refer to Fig. 2 for the location 
and install the 3/8 "-16 x I " bolts with lock washers. 
Also install the two special washers and two 1/2 "-13 x 
1-1/2 " bolts as shown when the fuel pump is driven 
off the camshaft, or one special washer and bolt when 
the fuel pump is driven by the accessory gear. Tighten 
the 3/8 "-16 bolts to 30-35 Ib-ft torque and the 1/2 "- 
13 bolts to 71-75 Ib-ft torque. 




Page 2 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



1.1.2 



AIR BOX DRAINS 



During normal engine operation, water vapor from 
the air charge, as well as a slight amount of fuel and 
lubricating oil fumes, condenses and settles on the 
bottom of the air box. This condensation is removed 
by the air box pressure through air box drain tubes 
mounted on the sides of the cylinder block. 

The air box drains must be kept open at all times, 
otherwise water and oil that may accumulate will be 
drawn into the cylinders. 

One drain tube is used on an In-line engine (Fig. 1). 




Fig. 1 Air Box Drain Tube Mounting (In-Line 
Engines) 



November, 1973 SEC. L1.2 Page 1 



1.1.2 Air Box Drains 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Inspection 

A periodic check for air flow from (he air box drain 
tubes should he made (refer lo Section 15.1). 






Page 2 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



1.2 



CYLINDER 



The cylinder head (Fig. 1) is a one-piece casting. It 
may be removed from the engine as an assembly 
containing the cam followers, cam follower guides, 
rocker arms, exhaust valves and injectors. The head is 
securely held to the top of the cylinder block with 
bolts. 

Located in the cylinder head are the exhaust valves, a 
fuel injector and three rocker arms for each cylinder. 
One rocker arm operates the injector plunger; the 



other two operate the exhaust valves. The rocker arms 
are operated by a camshaft through cam followers and 
push rods. 



Exhaust valve inserts (valve seats), pressed into the 
cylinder head, permit accurate seating of the valves 
under varying conditions of temperature and materi- 
ally prolong the life of the cylinder head. The inserts 
are ground to very close limits and their freedom from 



I 



INJECTOR 



EXHAUST 

MANIFOLD WATER 
STUD NOZZLES 







o o o * 6*0 . 




CONTROL 
TUBE ASSEMBLY 



Fig. 1 - Typical Four-Valve Cylinder Head Assembly 



July, 1970 SEC. 1.2 Page 1 



.2 Cylinder Head 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



arpage, under ordinary conditions, reduces valve 
conditioning to a minimum. 

'o ensure efficient cooling, each fuel injector is 
iserted into a thin-walled tube which passes through 
le water space in the cylinder head. The lower end of 
ie injector tube is pressed into the cylinder head and 
ared over; the upper end is flanged and sealed with a 
eoprene seal. The flared lower end and sealed upper 
nd prevent water leaks around the copper tube. 

'he exhaust passages from the exhaust valves of each 
ylinder lead through a single port to the exhaust 
lanifold. The exhaust passages, exhaust valve inserts 
nd injector tubes are completely surrounded by 
ooling system water. 

i addition to being surrounded by water, cooling of 
icse areas is further assured by the use of double jet 
pray nozzles installed between each pair of cylinders 
i the water inlet ports of four valve cylinder heads. 
Jozzle holes are so positioned in the cylinder head 
lat the comparatively cool water which enters the 
ead is directed at high velocity against the sections of 
ic head which are subjected to the greatest heat. 



o seal compression between the cylinder head and 
ic cylinder liner, separate laminated metal gaskets 
:e provided at each cylinder. Water and oil passages 
:tween the block and head are sealed with synthetic 
ibber seal rings which fit into counterbored holes in 
ic block. A synthetic rubber seal fits into a milled 
roove in the block near the outer edge of the area 
>vered by the cylinder head. When the cylinder head 
pulled down, a positive leakproof metal-to-metal 
intact is assured between the head and block, 

ertain service operations on the engine require the 
imoval of the cylinder head. These operations are: 

. Removing and installing the pistons. 

, Removing and installing the cylinder liners. 

Removing and installing the exhaust valves. 

Removing and installing the valve guides. 

Reconditioning the exhaust valves and valve seats. 

Replacing the injector tubes. 

Installing new cylinder head gaskets. 

Removing and installing a camshaft. 



Cylinder Head Maintenance 

Engine temperatures should be maintained between 
160 and 185F. and the cooling system should be 
inspected daily and kept full at all times. 

Unsuitable water in the cooling system may result in 
lime and scale formation which prevent proper 
cooling. The cylinder head should be inspected around 
the exhaust valve water jackets. This can be done by 
removing an injector tube. Where inspection discloses 
such deposits, a reliable non-corrosive scale remover 
should be used to remove the deposits from the 
cooling system of the engine, since a similar condition 
will exist in the cylinder block and other components 
of the engine. Refer to Section 13.3 for engine coolant 
recommendations. 

Adding cold water to a hot engine may result in head 
cracks. Water must be added slowly to a hot engine to 
avoid rapid cooling which will result in distortion and 
cracking of the cylinder head (and cylinder block). 

Loose or improperly seated injector fubes may result 
in compression leaks into the cooling system and cause 
a loss of engine coolant. The tubes should be tight and 
properly seated. Refer to Section 2.1.4. 

The development of cracks in the cylinder head may 
be caused by abnormal operating conditions or 
through neglect of certain maintenance items. If this 
type of failure should occur, a careful inspection 
should be made to determine the cause so that a 
recurrence of the failure will be prevented. 

Overtightening the injector clamp bolts may also result 
in head cracks. Always use a torque wrench to lighten 
the bolts to the specified torque. 

Other conditions which may eventually result in head 
cracks are: 

1. Excess fuel in the cylinders due to leaking injectors. 

2. Oil pull-over due to an overfilled air cleaner .sump, 
or improper viscosity oil in the air cleaner. 

3. Neglected cylinder block air box drains which allow 
accumulated oil to be drawn into the cylinders. 



Remove Cylinder Head 

Due to various optional and accessory equipment used 
on the different engine models, only the general steps 
for removal of the cylinder head are covered. If the 
engine is equipped with special accessories that affect 
cylinder head removal, note the position of each 
before disconnecting or removing them to assure the 
correct reinstallation. 








age 2 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Cylinder Head 1.2 



1. Disconnect the exhaust piping at the exhaust 
manifold. 

2. Drain the cooling system. 

3. Remove the air cleaner(s) or air silencer. 

4. Disconnect the fuel lines at the cylinder head. 

5. Remove the thermostat housing and the thermostat 
as an assembly. 

6. Clean and remove the valve rocker cover. 

7. Disconnect and remove the fuel rod between the 
governor and the injector control tube lever. Remove 
the fuel rod cover, if used. 

8. Remove the exhaust manifold. 

9. Remove the injector control tube and brackets as an 
assembly. 

10. If the cylinder head is to be stripped for 
reconditioning of valves and valve seats or for a 
complete cylinder head overhaul, remove the fuel 
pipes and injectors at this time. Refer to Sections 2.1 
or 2.1.1 for removal of the injectors. 

11. Remove the cylinder head bolts. Then, lift the 
cylinder head off of the cylinder block, with lifter tool 
J 22062-01 (Fig. 2). 

CAUTION: When resting the cylinder head 
assembly on a bench, protect the cam follower 
rollers and the injector spray tips by resting the 
valve side of the head on 2" thick wood blocks. 



12. Remove the cylinder head compression gaskets, oil 
seals and water seals. 



Disassemble Cylinder Head 

If a cylinder head is removed for inspection and 
possible repair or replacement, remove the following 
parts: 

1. Fuel injectors, if rot previously removed. 

2. Fuel connectors. 

3. Cam follower guides and cam followers. 

4. Rocker arms, rocker arm shafts, brackets, push rods, 
push rod springs, spring seats and spring seat 
retainers. 

5. Exhaust valves and valve springs. 




in 



Fig. 2 - Lifting Cylinder Head Assembly Off 
Cylinder Block with Tool J 22062-01 

The removal procedures to be followed, when 
removing the parts mentioned above, are covered 
their respective sections of this manual. 

Clean Cylinder Head 

After the cylinder head has been stripped of all the 
component parts and all of the plugs (except cup 
plugs) have been removed, steam clean the head 
thoroughly. 

Thoroughly clean a new service cylinder head to 
remove all of the rust preventive compound, 
particularly from the integral fuel manifolds, before 
the plugs are installed in the fuel manifolds and the 
head is mounted on the engine. A simple method of 
removing the rust preventive compound is to immerse 
the head in solvent, oleum or fuel oil; then, go over 
the head and through all of the openings with a soft 
bristle brush. A suitable brush for cleaning the fuel 
manifolds can be made by attaching a 1/8" brass rod 
to brush J 8152. After cleaning, dry the cylinder head 
with compressed air. 



Inspect Cylinder Head 

I. Check the cylinder head for leaks as follows: 



a. Seal off the water holes in the head with steel 
plates and suitable rubber gaskets held in place 
by bolts. 



July, 1970 SEC. 1.2 Page 3 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



1.2 Cylinder Head 




stresses to occur in the casting 
flatness of the head 



which will affect the 




, Check ,h. bouon, (fire deck, of .he cy.ind.r head 
for flatness as follows: 



* "inTto check for ^^indeXXIso, check 
end and between , alUfjhe cyli^^ ^ ^ 

in 



Maximum 
Transverse 
Warpage 




Fig 3 - Checking Bottom Face of Cylinder 
Head for Warpage 



c 

reworking operations. 



b . 



or 



IK 



, v th e cylinder 

injector tube, prgr to 

of metal should be " O J. fro[n the top to 

the cylinder head. The Jtanc must 

the bottom (fir. > deck) of the < ^ (p . g 4) 
be less than '' ove d on the face 



heated 



the 



cr.cks 



outlined in Step 1. 



leaks. 



. 

d . Remove the cylinder, head from the tank and dry 

it with compressed air. 

e . if inspection revealed cracks, replace the cylinder 

head. 

f. Replace any leaking injector tubes as outlined in 

Section 2.1.4. 



e, a P^nsed Piod of op^uon, 

head may assume ,V "' "; ti ; al However, if the 

become o,e,he,.ed be* 

le " lperalures c ' use 




Fig 4 - Minimum Distance Between Top and 
Bottom Faces of Cylinder Head 




Page 4 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Cylinder Head 1.2 



up with crocus cloth wet with fuel oil. If the bores are 
excessively scored or worn so that the cam follower-to- 
head clearance exceeds .006" , replace the cylinder 
head. 

4. Inspect the valve seat inserts for cracks or burning. 
Also, check the valve guides for scoring. 

5. Check the water nozzles in a four-valve cylinder 
head to be sure they are not loose. Water nozzles are 
used only in the passages between the cylinders. If 
necessary, install or replace the water nozzles as 
follows: 



a. Be sure the water inlet ports in the bottom of the 
head are clean and free of scale. The water holes 
may be cleaned up with a 5/8" diameter drill. 
Break the edges of the holes slightly. 

b. If the water holes in the head have been enlarged 
by corrosion, use a wooden plug or other suitable 
tool to expand the nozzles so that they will remain 
tight after installation. 

c. Press the nozzles in place with the outlet holes 

positioned as shown in Fig. 5. The angle between 
the outlet holes in the nozzle is 90. Press the 
nozzles from flush to 1/32" below the bottom 
surface of the cylinder head. 



6. Inspect the parts removed from the cylinder head 
before they are reinstalled in the old head or 
transferred to a new cylinder head. 




Fig. 5 Correct Installation of Water Nozzles 
in Four-Valve Cylinder Head 

2. Exhaust valves and springs (Section 1.2.2). 

3. Install the fuel injectors at this time or after 
installing the cylinder head (Sections 2.1 or 2.1.1). 

4. Cam followers, cam follower guides, push rod 
assemblies, rocker arm shafts and rocker arms; do not 
tighten the rocker arm bracket bolts at this time 
(Section 1.2.1). 

5. Place new washers on the fuel connectors, then 
install the fuel connectors and tighten them to 20-28 
Ib-ft torque. 



Assemble Cylinder Head 

New service cylinder heads include valve guides, valve 
seat inserts, water nozzles, injector tubes and the 
necessary plugs. 

CAUTION: When installing the plugs in the fuel 
manifolds, apply a small amount of sealant 
merchandized as a "dual purpose sealer" to the 
threads of the plugs only. Work the sealant into 
the threads and wipe off the excess with a clean, 
lint-free cloth so that the sealant will not be 
washed into the fuel system and result in 
damage to the injectors. 



When a new cylinder head is to be used, remove the 
parts listed below from the old head and install them 
in the new head. If the old cylinder head is to be 
reused, install the parts in the old head prior to 
assembling the head on the cylinder block. 

1. Exhaust manifold studs. 



Pro-Installation Inspection 

Perform the following inspections just prior to 
installing the cylinder head on the engine. 



1. Check the cylinder liner flange height as outlined in 
Section 1.6.3. 



2. Check to be sure the tops of the pistons are clean 
and free of foreign material. 

3. Check to see that each push rod is threaded into the 
clevis until the end of the push rod projects through 
the clevis. This is important since serious engine 
damage will be prevented when the crankshaft is 
rotated during tune-up. 

4. Check to be sure that the groove and the 
counterbores in the top of the cylinder block are clean 
and smooth. 



July, 1970 SEC. 1.2 Page 5 



2 Cylinder__Head_ 

i ' 

Install Cylinder Head 



i r ^ll of the cylinder head 
a final visual check of al of ^the y 
t h 



and -als to ensure 



tht 






SM ls as 



below. 



and 



are 




, . . 

i liner. 



"* 



. , 






block bolt holes (Fig. 2). 




Page 6 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Cylinder Head 1.2 



6. The cylinder head must be gradually and uniformly 
drawn down against the gaskets and seals to ensure a 
good seal between the cylinder head and the block. 
Therefore, it is vitally important that the cylinder head 
be installed with the utmost care. 

7. Then, begin on the camshaft side of the head to 
take up the tension in the cam follower springs by 
tightening the bolts lightly. Finally tighten the bolts to 
170-180 Ib-ft torque with a torque wrench, about one- 
half turn at a time, in the sequence shown in Fig. 6. 
Under no circumstances should the torque exceed the 
specified limits, otherwise the bolts may become 
stretched beyond their elastic limits. 

8. Cover the oil drain holes in the cylinder head to 
prevent foreign objects from falling into the holes. 

9. If the injectors were not previously installed, refer to 
Section 2.1 or 2.1.1 and install them at this time. 

10. Tighten the rocker arm bracket bolts to 50-55 Ib-ft 
torque. 

CAUTION: There is a possibility of damaging 
the exhaust valves if the exhaust valve bridge is 
not resting on the ends of the exhaust valves 
when tightening the rocker arm bracket bolts. 
Therefore, note the position of the exhaust 
valve bridge before, during and after tighten- 
ing the bolts. 



11. Align the fuel pipes and connect them to the 
injectors and the fuel connectors. Use socket J 8932-01 
to tighten the connections to 12-15 Ib-ft torque. 

CAUTION: Do not bend the fuel pipes and do 
not exceed the specified torque. Excessive 
tightening will twist or fracture the flared ends 
of the fuel pipes and result in leaks. 
Lubricating oil diluted by fuel oil can cause 
serious damage to the engine bearings. 



12. Set the injector control tube assembly in place on 
the cylinder head and tighten the bolts, finger tight 
only. When positioning the injector control tube, be 
sure that the ball end of each injector rack control 
lever engages the slot in the corresponding injector 
control rack. With one end of the control tube return 
spring hooked around an injector rack control lever 



and the other end hooked around a control tube 
bracket, tighten the bracket bolts to 10-12 Ib-ft torque. 

13. After tightening the bolts, revolve the tube and see 
if the return spring pulls the injector racks out (no-fuel 
position) after they have been moved all the way in 
(full-fuel position). Since the injector control tube is 
mounted in self-aligning bearings, tapping the tube 
lightly with a soft hammer will remove any bind that 
exists. The injector racks must return to the no-fuel 
position freely by aid of the return spring only. Do not 
bend the return spring to bring about this condition. 

14. Install the fuel rod and the fuel rod cover (if used). 

15. Remove the covers from the drain holes in the 
head. 

16. Install the exhaust manifold and connect the 
exhaust piping. 

17. Install the thermostat housing and the thermostat. 

18. Install the air cleaners. 

19. Connect the fuel lines. 

20. Fill the cooling system and check for leaks. 

21. With the throttle in the OFF position, crank the 
engine over to be sure that all of the parts function 
freely. 

22. Before starting the engine, perform an engine 
tune-up as outlined in Section 14. 

23. Refer to Section 13.1 and start the engine. After 
starting the engine, check all fuel line connections to 
ensure that no fuel oil leaks into the cylinder head 
compartment to dilute the lubricating oil. 

24. After the engine has been warmed up (to at least 
160F.), recheck the torque on the cylinder head bolts. 

25. Recheck the exhaust valve clearance and the 
injector timing after the engine reaches normal 
operating temperature. 

26. Examine all fuel oil, lubricating oil and water 
connections for possible leaks. Tighten the connec- 
tions, if necessary. 

27. Install the valve rocker cover, using a new gasket. 



July, 1970 SEC. 1.2 Page 7 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



1.2.1 



VALVE AND INJECTOR OPERATING MECHANISM 



Three rocker arms are provided for each cylinder; the 
two outer arms operate the exhaust valves and the 
center arm operates the fuel injector. 

Each set of rocker arm assemblies pivots on a shaft 
supported by two brackets. A single bolt secures each 
bracket to the top of the cylinder head. Consequently, 
the removal of two bracket bolts permits the rocker 
arm assembly for one cylinder to be raised, providing 
easy access to the fuel injector and valve springs. 

The rocker arms are operated by the camshaft through 
cam followers and short push rods extending through 
the cylinder head (Fig. 1). 

Each cam follower operates in a bore in the cylinder 
head. A guide for each set of three cam followers is 
attached to the bottom of the cylinder head to keep 
the follower rollers in line with the cams and serves as 
a retainer during assembly and disassembly. 

A coil spring, located inside of each cam follower, is 
held in place in the cylinder head by a spring seat and 
spring seat retainer. 

Several operations may be performed on the valve 
mechanism without removing the cylinder head from 
the cylinder block, while the head must be removed 
for certain other operations. The operations NOT 
requiring removal of the cylinder head are: 




1. Adjusting valve clearance. 

2. Removing and installing a valve spring. 

3. Removing and installing a rocker arm. 

4. Removing and installing a rocker arm shaft or shaft 
bracket. 

5. Removing and installing an injector. 

It is also possible, if occasion requires, to remove or 
replace a push rod, push rod spring, spring seats or 
cam follower without removing the cylinder head. 
These parts, however, are more easily changed from 
the lower side of the cylinder head when the head is 
off the engine. Both methods are covered in this 
Section. 

To remove and install valves, valve guides, valve seat 
inserts and to recondition valves and valve seats, the 
cylinder head must be removed. Exhaust valves, guides 
and inserts are covered in Section 1.2.2. 



Lubrication 

The valve and injector operating mechanism is 
lubricated by oil from a longitudinal oil passage, on 
the camshaft side of the cylinder head, which connects 
with oil passages in the cylinder block. Oil from this 



Fig. 1 Injector Operating Mechanism (In-Line 
Engine Shown) 




Fig. 2 Cam Follower and Guide Location 



July, 1972 SEC. 1.2.1 Page 1 



1.2.1 Valve Operating Mechanism 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 




Fig. 3 Removing Push Rod from Upper Side 
of Cylinder Head with Tool J 3092-01 

longitudinal passage enters the drilled rocker arm 
shafts through the lower end of the drilled rocker 
shaft bracket bolts and lubricates the rocker arms. 

Excess oil from the rocker arms lubricates the exhaust 
valves and cam followers. Additional cam follower 
lubrication is provided by oil from grooves in the 
camshaft bushing bores which is directed against the 
cam follower rollers. 



Remove Rocker Arms and Rocker Arm Shaft 

1. Clean and remove the valve rocker cover. 

2. Remove the fuel pipes from the injector and the 
fuel connectors. 

CAUTION: Immediately after removjng the fuel 
pipes, cover each injector opening with a 
shipping cap to prevent dirt or other foreign 



snipping cap to prevent am or i 
matter from entering the injector. 



3. Bar the engine over in the direction of engine 
rotation or crank the engine with the starting motor to 
bring the push rod ends -- the outer ends -- of the 
injector and valve rocker arms in line horizontally. 





Fig. 4 Testing Push Rod Spring 

4. Remove the two bolts which hold the rocker arm 
shaft brackets to the cylinder head. Remove the 
brackets and the shaft. 

5. Loosen the lock nut at the upper end of the push 
rod, next to the clevis, and unscrew the rocker arm 
from the push rod. 



.010" TOTAL (MAX) 



DIAMETRIC 
CLEARANCE 




Fig. 5 Cam Roller Wear and Clearance 
Diagram 



Page 2 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Valve Operating Mechanism 1.2.1 



Inspection 

Wash the rocker arms, rocker arm shaft and brackets 
thoroughly in clean fuel oil and dry them with 
compressed air. Make certain that the oil passages in 
the rocker arms, rocker arm shaft and bracket bolts 
are open and clean. 

Inspect all of the parts for excessive wear. 

The maximum clearance between the rocker arm shaft 
and the injector rocker arm bushing or an exhaust 
valve rocker arm (which has no bushing) is .004 " with 
used parts. 

Examine each rocker arm pallet (contact face) for 
wear or galling. Also check the contact surfaces of the 
exhaust valve bridge (four valve cylinder heads). 



Remove Cam Follower and Push Rod Assembly 
(Cylinder Head Removed from Engine) 

With the cylinder head removed from the engine, 
remove the cam followers as follows: 

1. Rest the cylinder head on its side and remove the 
two bolts and lock washers securing the cam follower 
guide to the bottom of the cylinder head (Fig. 2). 
Remove the guide. 

2. Pull the cam followers from the bottom of the 
cylinder head. 

3. Remove the fuel pipes from the injector and the 
fuel connectors. 

4. Loosen the lock nuts at the upper end of the push 
rods and unscrew the push rods from the rocker arm 
clevises. 

5. Pull the push rod and spring assemblies from the 
bottom of the cylinder head. 

6. Remove the push rod lock nut, upper spring seat, 
spring and lower spring seat from each push rod for 
cleaning and inspection. 

The push rod spring seat retainers remain in the 
cylinder head. If the head is to be changed, these 
retainers must be removed and installed in the new 
head. 



Remove Cam Follower and Push Rod Assembly 
(Cylinder Head Not Removed from Engine) 

A push rod, push rod spring, spring seats and cam 
follower may be removed from the top of the cylinder 
head by using tool J 3092-01 as shown in Fig. 3. 



LEG 





FORMER 



CURRENT 



Fig. 6 Former and Current Cam Followers 

1 . Clean and remove the valve rocker cover. 

2. Remove the fuel pipes from the injector and the 
fuel connectors. 

3. Remove the rocker arm brackets and rocker arm 
shaft as outlined in Steps 3 and 4 under Remove 
Rocker Arms and Rocker Arm Shaft. 

4. Loosen the lock nut at the upper end of the push 
rod, next to the clevis, and unscrew the rocker arm 
from the push rod to be removed. Remove the lock nut 
from the push rod. 

5. Install the remover J 3092-01, a flat washer and nut 
on the push rod (Fig. 3). Screw the nut down on the 
end of the push rod to compress the push rod spring. 

6. Remove the retainer from the cylinder head with a 
screw driver or similar tool as shown in Fig. 3. 

7. Unscrew the nut at the outer end of the push rod, 
thus releasing the spring. 

8. Pull the push rod, spring, spring seats and cam 
follower out through the top of the cylinder head. 



July, 1972 SEC. 1.2.1 Page 3 



1.2.1 Valve Operating Mechanism 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 





Fig. 7 Removing or Installing Cam Follower Roller and Pin with Tool J 5840 

Inspection cam followers and related parts are removed for 

inspection. 



Proper cam follower inspection and service are 
necessary in obtaining continued efficient engine 
performance. When any appreciable change in 
injector timing or exhaust valve clearance occurs 
during engine operation, the cam followers, and their 
related parts, should be removed and inspected for 
excessive wear. This change in injector timing or 
exhaust valve clearance during engine operation can 
usually be detected by excessive noise at idle speed. 

After the cam followers are removed, wash them with 
lubricating oil or Cindol 1705 and wipe dry. Do not 
use fuel oil. Fuel oil working its way in between the 
roller and bushing may cause scoring on the initial 
engine start-up since fuel oil does not provide 
adequate lubrication. Wash only the cam follower 
associated parts with fuel oil and dry them with 
compressed air. 

Inspect the rounded end of the push rods for wear. 
Replace any push rod which is worn or bent. 

The purpose of a push rod spring is to maintain a 
predetermined load on the cam follower to insure 
contact of the cam roller on the camshaft lobe at all 
<irn"s. Check the push rod spring load whenever the 



The current push rod spring is made from .192 " 
diameter wire and was first used only in the injector 
cam follower position, effective with engine 
3D-3792. 

Effective with engine 3D-6128 

the new spring is also used in the 
exhaust valve cam follower position. The former push 
rod spring was made from .177 " diameter wire. 

Use spring tester J 9666 and an accurate torque 
wrench to check the push rod spring load (Fig. 4). 
Replace the current type spring when a load of less 
than 250 pounds will compress it to a length of 2-97 
64 ". Replace the former type spring when a load of 
less than 172 pounds will compress it to a length of 
2-1/8". 

It is recommended that if one former type push rod 
spring requires replacement, all of the former type 
springs in either the injector or valve cam follower 
positions be replaced by the current type spring. A 
new design upper spring seat is required with the use 
of the current push rod spring. 

Examine the cam follower bores in the cylinder head 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Valve Operating Mechanism 1.2.1 







Fig. 9 Checking the Clearance Between the 
Cam Follower Guide and Cam Follower Legs 

on its pin and the roller must be free from flat spots or 
scuff marks. If the roller does not turn freely or has 
been scored or worn flat, then examine the cam on 
which it operates. If the cam is excessively worn or 
damaged, replace the camshaft. 

Measure the total clearance between the roller bushing 
and pin, crosswise of the pin, as shown in Fig. 5 and, 
if the bushing is worn to the extent that more than 



Fig. 8 - Valve and Injector Operating 

Mechanism Details and Relative Location of 

Parts 

to make sure they are clean, smooth and free of score 
marks to permit proper functioning of the cam 
followers. Any existing score marks must be cleaned 
up. 

Check the cam follower-to-cylinder head clearance. 
The clearance must not exceed .006 " with used parts. 
If replacement of a cam follower is necessary, use the 
correct type service cam follower to be assured that the 
cam roller will receive the proper lubrication. 

The cam follower roller must turn smoothly and freely 




Fig. 10 Adjusting "Carrr "Potto wer -Guide 



July, 1972 SEC. 1.2.1 Page 5 



1.2.1 Valve Operating Mechanism 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



.010 " diametric clearance exists, replace the cam 
follower assembly or install a new cam roller and pin, 
which are serviced as a set. Be sure the follower legs 
are beveled (Fig. 6) and check the total side clearance 
between the roller and follower; this clearance must 
not be less than .015 " nor more than .023 ". 

Oversize roller and pin sets are available for service 
when required. However, DO NOT attempt to bore out 
the legs of a standard cam follower for an oversize 
roller and pin set. This cannot be over emphasized 
because of the extremely close manufacturing 
tolerances. 

NOTE: Cam follower assemblies with the letter 
"S" stamped on the end of the roller, pin and 
on one leg of the cam follower body are 
equipped with oversize roller and pin sets. 



4. Prior to installing a new roller and pin, remove any 
burrs on the surfaces of the cam follower at the pin 
holes. 

5. Position the follower body in the groove of the 
fixture with the proper size fixture plunger extending 
through the roller pin hole in one of the legs of the 
follower body. 

6. Position the roller in the cam follower body 
(Fig. 7). The small plunger in the tool will align the 
roller with the pin holes in the follower body. 

7. Align the pin with the hole in the follower body and 
carefully drive the pin into the body until the ends of 
the pin are centered in the legs of the body. 

8. Check -the .side clearance between the roller and the 
follower body. This clearance must be .015 " to .023 ". 




Remove and Install Cam Follower Roller and 
Pin 

1. Clamp fixture J 5840 securely in a vise as shown in 
Fig. 7 and place the cam follower in the groove in the 
top of the fixture with the follower pin resting on top 
of the corresponding plunger in the fixture. 

2. Drive the pin from the roller with a suitable drift. 
Exercise caution in removing the cam follower body 
and roller from the fixture as the follower pin is seated 
on top of a spring-loaded plunger in the fixture body. 

3. Before installing the new roller and pin kit, remove 
the preservative by washing the parts with clean 
lubricating oil or Cindol 1705. Do not use fuel oil. 



SPRING WIR6 ENDS 




FORMER 



SPRING WIRE 

END 
APPRO*. 180 

OPPOSITE 
CURRENT THIS POINT 



Fig. 11 Push Rod Spring Identification 



Install Cam Follower and Push Rod Assembly 
(Cylinder Head Removed from Engine) 

1. Install a serrated lower spring seat on each push 
rod. If the engine being assembled was equipped with 
plain lower spring seats, replace them with serrated 
spring seats (Fig. 8). 

2. Place the push rod springs (Fig. 11) on the push 
rods. 

3. Install the proper upper spring seat on each push 
rod. The cup shaped spring seat used with the current 
type push rod spring may also be used with the former 
spring. 

4. Install the spring seat retainer in the cylinder head. 
Then slide the push rod, lower spring seat, spring and 
upper spring seat as an assembly into the cam follower 
bore from the bottom of the cylinder head. 

5. Screw the push rod lock nut down on the upper end 
of the push rod as far as possible. Then screw the push 
rod into the clevis until the end of the rod is flush with 
or above the inner side of the clevis. 

6. Immerse (he cam follower assemblies in clean 
Cindol 1705 (heated to 100 -I25 F.) for at least one 
hour before placing them in the cylinder head, to 
ensure initial lubrication between the cam follower 
roller pins and the roller bushings. Rotate the cam 
follower roller during the soaking period to aid in 
purging any air from the bushing-roller area. The 
heated Cindol 1705 results in better penetration as it 
is less viscous than engine oil and flows more easily 
between the pin and roller bushing surfaces. After the 
cam follower is removed from the Cindol 1705, the 
cooling action of any trapped air in the pin and 
bushing area tends to pull the oil into the cavity. 



Page 6 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Valve Operating Mechanism 1.2.1 





BRIDGE IMPROPERLY POSITIONED 



BRIDGE PROPERLY POSITIONED 



ft 



Fig. 12 Relationship Between Exhaust Valve Bridge and Valve Stems 



NOTE: Heat the Cindol 1705 in a small pail, 
with a screen insert. The screen insert will 
prevent the follower assemblies from touching 
the bottom of the pail during soaking, thus 
avoiding the possibility of contamination. 

IMPORTANT: When installing a new cam 
follower assembly, wash it with clean lubricat- 
ing oil or Cindol 1705 to remove the 
preservative. 

7. Note the oil hole in the bottom of the cam follower. 
With this oil hole pointing away from the exhaust 
valves, slide the cam follower into position from the 
bottom of the head. 

8. Attach the cam follower guide (Fig. 8) to the 
bottom of the cylinder head to hold the group of cam 
followers in place. Tighten the cam follower guide 
bolts to 12-15 Ib-ft torque. Check to be sure there is at 
least .005 " clearance between the cam follower legs 
and the cam follower guide (Fig. 9). If there is 
insufficient clearance, loosen the guide bolts slightly 
and tap each corner of the guide with a brass rod 
(Fig. 10). Then retighten the bolts to 12-15 Ib-ft 
torque and recheck the clearance. 



Install Cam Follower and Push Rod Assembly 
(Cylinder Head Not Removed from Engine) 

1. Lubricate the cam follower as stated in Step 6 under 
Install Cam Follower and Push Rod Assembly (Cylinder 
Head Removed from Engine). 

2. Note the oil hole in the bottom of the cam follower. 



With this hole pointing away from the exhaust valves, 
slide the cam follower into position. 

3. Install a serrated lower spring seat on each push 
rod. If the engine being assembled was equipped with 
plain lower spring seats, replace them with serrated 
spring seats. 

4. Place the push rod springs (Fig. 11) on the push 
rods. 

5. Install the proper upper spring seat on each push 
rod. The cup shaped spring seat used with the current 
type push rod spring may also be used with the former 
spring. 

6. Set the push rod, lower spring seat, spring and 
upper spring seat down in the cam follower. 

7. Install a flat washer and nut on the push rod. Then 
place tool J 3092-01 on the push rod, between the flat 
washer and upper spring seat. Screw the nut down on 
the push rod until the spring is compressed sufficiently 
to permit the retainer to be installed. Partially collapse 
the retainer and install it in the cylinder head groove. 

8. Remove the nut, flat washer and tool from the push 
rod. 

9. Reinstall the nut on the push rod. Screw the nut 
down as far as possible on the push rod. Then screw 
the rocker arm clevis down on the push rod until the 
end of the push rod is flush with or above the inner 
side of the clevis. 

NOTE: The injector rocker arm (the center arm 
of the group) is slightly different from the 
exhaust valve rocker arms; the boss for the 



July, 1972 SEC. 1.2.1 Page 7 



1.2.1 Valve Operating Mechanism 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



shaft on the valve rocker arms is longer on one 
side of the arm than on the other. The extended 
boss of the valve rocker arms must face the 
injector rocker arm. 



Install Rocker Arms and Rocker Arm Shaft 

1. Install the cylinder head, if removed, as outlined in 
Section 1.2. 

2. Apply clean engine oil to the surface of the rocker 
arm shaft. 

3. Install the rocker arms and rocker arm shaft by 
reversing the sequence of operations for removal. 
Tighten the rocker arm shaft bracket bolts to 50-55 Ib- 
ft torque. After tightening the bolts, check for some 
side clearance to prevent bind between the rocker 
arms. 

CAUTION: On four valve cylinder heads, there 
is a possibility of damaging the exhaust valves 
if the valve bridges are not resting on the ends 
of the valves when tightening the rocker arm 



shaft bracket bolts (Fig. 12). Therefore, note 
the position of the exhaust valve bridges before, 
during and after tightening the rocker arm 
shaft bracket bolts. 

4. Align the fuel pipes and connect them to the 
injectors and the fuel connectors. Tighten the fuel pipe 
nuts to 12-15 Ib-ft torque with socket J 8932-01. 

CAUTION: Do not bend the fuel pipes and do 
not exceed the specified torque. Excessive 
tightening will twist or fracture the flared ends 
of the fuel pipes and result in leaks. 
Lubricating oil diluted by fuel oil can cause 
serious damage to the engine bearings. 

5. Fill the cooling system. 

6. Adjust the exhaust valve clearance and time the fuel 
injector as outlined in Section 14.1 and 14.2 before 
starting the engine. 

7. Start the engine and check for leaks in the fuel, 
cooling and lubrication systems. 

8. Tune-up the engine, as outlined in Section 14, after 
the engine reaches normal operating temperature. 




Page 8 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



1.2.2 



EXHAUST VALVES 



Four exhaust valves are provided for 
each cylinder 

(Fig. -1). The valve heads are heat treated and ground 
to the proper seat angle and diameter. The valve stems 
are ground to size and hardened at the end which 
contacts the rocker arm or the exhaust valve bridge. 

The exhaust valve stems are contained within exhaust 
valve guides which are pressed into the cylinder head. 
Exhaust valve seat inserts, pressed into the cylinder 
head, permit accurate seating of the exhaust valves 
under varying conditions of temperature and materi- 
ally prolong the life of the cylinder head. The exhaust 
valves and exhaust valve seat inserts are ground to a 
30 seating angle. 

The exhaust valve springs are held in place by the 
valve spring caps and tapered two-piece valve locks. 

Excess oil from the rocker arms lubricates the exhaust 
valve stems. The valves are cooled by the flow of air 
from the blower past the valves each time the air inlet 
ports are uncovered. 



Exhaust Valve Maintenance 

Efficient combustion in the engine requires that the 
exhaust valves be maintained in good operating 
condition. Valve* seats must be true and unpitted to 
assure leak-proof sealing, valve stems must work freely 
and smoothly within the valve guides and the correct 
valve clearance (Section 14.1) must be maintained. 




Proper maintenance and operation of the engine is 
important to long valve life. Engine operating 
temperatures should be maintained between 160 F. 
and I85F. Low operating temperatures (usually due 
to extended periods of idling or light engine loads) 
result in incomplete combustion, formation of 
excessive carbon deposits and fuel lacquers on valves 
and related parts, and a greater tendency for 
lubricating oil to sludge. 

Unsuitable fuels may also cause formation of deposits 
on the valves, especially when operating at low 
temperatures. 

When carbon deposits, due to partially burned fuel, 
build up around the valve stems and extend to that 
portion of the stem which operates in the valve guide, 
sticking valves will result. Thus, the valves cannot seat 
properly and pitted and burned valves and valve seats 
and loss of compression will result. 

Lubricating oil and oil filters should be changed 
periodically to avoid accumulation of sludge. 

Valve sticking may also result from valve stems which 
have been scored due to foreign matter in the 
lubricating oil, leakage of antifreeze (glycol) into the 
lubricating oil which forms a soft sticky carbon and 
gums the valve stems, and bent or worn valve guides. 
Sticking valves may eventually result in valves being 
held in the open position, being struck by the piston 
and becoming bent or broken. 

It is highly important that injector timing and valve 
clearance be accurately adjusted and checked periodi- 
cally. Improperly timed injectors will have adverse 
effects upon combustion. Tightly adjusted valves will 
cause rapid pitting of the valve seats and a hotter 
running condition on the valve stems. 




Ng. 1 Location ot txhaust valves 



Fig. 2 Removing Valve Spring 



August, 1972 SEC. 1.2.2 Page 1 



1 .2.2 Exhaust Valves 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



The cylinder head must first be removed before the 
exhaust valves, valve seat inserts or valve guides can 
be removed for replacement or reconditioning. 
However, the valve springs may be replaced without 
removing the cylinder head. 



Remove Exhaust Valve Spring (Cylinder Head 
Installed) 

An exhaust valve spring may be removed, without 
removing the cylinder head from the engine, as 
follows: 

1. Clean and remove the valve rocker cover. 

2. Crank the engine over to bring the valve and 
injector rocker arms in line horizontally. 

3. Disconnect and remove the fuel pipes from the 
injector and the fuel connectors. 

CAUTION: Immediately after removing the fuel 
pipes, cover each injector opening with a 
shipping cap to prevent dirt or other foreign 
matter from entering the injector. 

4. Remove the two bolts holding the rocker arm shaft 
brackets to the cylinder head and remove the brackets 
and shaft. 

5. Remove the cylinder block air box cover so that the 






Fig. 3 - Testing Valve Spring 



Fig. 4 Cleaning Valve Guide 

piston travel may be observed, then turn the 
crankshaft until the piston is at the top of its stroke. 

6. Thread the spring compressor tool into one of the 
rocker arm support bolt holes (Fig. 2). Then compress 
the spring and remove the two-piece valve lock. 

7. Release the tool and remove the valve spring cap, 
valve spring and spring seat. 



Remove Exhaust Valves and Valve Springs 
(Cylinder Head Removed) 

With the cylinder head removed from the engine, 
remove the exhaust valves and springs as follows: 

1. Support the cylinder head on 2 " thick wood blocks 
to keep the cam followers clear of the bench. 

2. Disconnect and remove the fuel pipes from the 
injectors and the fuel connectors. 

CAUTION: Immediately after removing the fuel 
pipes, cover each injector opening with a 
shipping cap to prevent dirt or other foreign 
matter from entering the injector. 

3. Remove the two bolls holding the rocker arm shaft 




Page 2 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Exhaust Valves 1.2.2 



brackets to the cylinder head and remove the brackets 
and the shaft. 

4. Remove the fuel injector. 

5. Place a block of wood under the cylinder head to 
support the exhaust valves. Remove the exhaust valve 
springs as outlined in Steps 6 and 7 above. 

6. Turn the cylinder head over, using care to keep the 
valves from falling out of the head. If the valves are to 
be reused, number each valve to facilitate re- 
installation in the same position. Then withdraw the 
valves from the cylinder head. 

7. Remove the cam followers and push rod assemblies 
as outlined in Section 1.2.1 under Remove Cam 
Follower and Push Rod Assembly (Cylinder Head 
Removed from Engine). 



Inspection 

Clean the springs with fuel oil, dry them with 
compressed air and inspect them. Replace a pitted or 
fractured spring. 

Check the springs with spring tester J 9666 and an 
accurate torque wrench. Replace a spring if a load of 
less than 33 pounds will compress a two valve cylinder 
head spring to 2.31 inches, or a load of less than 25 
pounds will compress a four valve cylinder head spring 
to 1.93 inches. The difference in the load between a 
pair of four valve cylinder head springs must not 
exceed 6 pounds or the valve bridge will be 
unbalanced. 



Inspect the valve spring seats and caps for wear. 
worn, replace with new parts. 



If 



Carbon on';the face of a valve indicates blow-by due to 
a faulty seat. Black carbon deposits extending from the 
valve seats to the valve guides may result from cold 
operation due to light loads or the use of too light a 
grade of fuel. Rusty brown valve heads with carbon 
deposits forming narrow collars near the valve guides 
is evidence of high operating temperatures. High 
operating temperatures are normally due to overloads, 
inadequate cooling, or improper timing which results 
in carbonization of the lubricating oil. 

Clean the carbon from the valve stems and wash the 
valves with fuel oil. The valve stems must be free from 
scratches or scuff marks and the valve faces must be 
free from ridges, cracks or pitting. If necessary, reface 
the valves or install new valves. If the valve heads are 
warped, replace the valves. 

If there is evidence of engine oil running down the 
exhaust valve stem into the exhaust chamber, creating 
a high oil consumption condition because of excessive 
idling and resultant low engine exhaust back pressure, 
replace the valve guide oil seals or, if not previously 
used, install valve guide oil seals. 

Clean the inside diameter of the valve guides with 

brush J 7793 (four 

valve head) as shown in Fig. 4. This brush will remove 
all gum and carbon deposits from the valve guides. 

Inspect the valve guides for fractures, scoring or 
excessive wear. Check the valve-to-guide clearance, 
since worn valve guides may eventually result in 
improper valve seat contact. If the clearance exceeds 

.005 " (four valve head), 
replace the valve guides. 

The current valve guides, which are not machined for 
use with oil seals, have a 45 chamfer at the upper 
end. They replace the former 15 chamfer valve 
guides for service. 



August, 1972 SEC. 1.2.2 Page 3 



1.2,2 Exhaust Valves 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Remove Exhaust Valve Guide 

1. Support the cylinder head, bottom side up, on 3 " 
thick wood blocks. 

2. Drive the valve guide out of the cylinder head with 
valve guide remover J 7775 
(four valve head) as shown in Fig. 5. 



Install Exhaust Valve Guide 

Turn the cylinder head right side up and install the 
valve guide us follows: 

1. Insert the internally threaded end of the valve guide 
in the proper valve guide installing tool (refer to the 
Valve Guide Installing Tool chart). Be sure to use the 
correct tool to avoid damage to the valve guide and to 
locate the valve guide to the proper dimension. 

2. Position the valve guide squarely in the bore in the 
cylinder head and press the installing tool gently to 
stari the guide in place (Fig. 6). Then press the guide 
in until the tool contacts the cylinder head (the bottom 
of the coii nter ho re, in the four valve cylinder head). 

CAUTION: Do not use the valve guides as a 
means of aiming the cylinder head over or in 
handling the cylinder head. 




Fig. 5 - Removing Valve Guide 





Fig. 6 - Installing Valve Guide 



Tool 
No. 


Cyl. 
Head 


Valve 
Guide 


Distance of 
Guide 
Below Top 
of Head 


J 7832 


4 Valve 


15 Chamfer 


.010"-. 040" 


J 9729 
J 9730 


4 Valve 
4 Valve 


45 "Chamfer 


.010"-. 040" 
.190" -.220" 



*Machined for use with valve guide oil seal. 

Valve Guide Installing Tools 
Inspect Exhaust- Valve Seat Insert 

Inspect the exhaust valve seat inserts for excessive 
wear, pitting or cracking. 

Remove Exhaust Valve Seat Insert 

The valve seat inserts are pressed into the cylinder 
head and must be removed as outlined in the 
following procedure to avoid damage to the cylinder 
head: 

1. Place the cylinder head on its side on a bench as 
shown in Fig. 7. 

2. Place the collet of tool 




Page 4 



/ 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Exhaust Valves 1 .2.2 




I 



Fig. 7 Removing Valve Seat Insert 

J 7774 (four valve head) inside the valve insert so that 
the bottom of the collet is flush with the bottom of the 
insert. 

3. Hold the collet handle and turn the T handle to 
expand the collet cone until the insert is held securely 
by the tool. 

4. Insert the drive bar of the tool through the valve 
guide. 

5. Tap the drive bar once or twice to move the insert 
about 1/16 " away from its seat in the cylinder head. 

6. Turn the T handle to loosen the collet cone and 
move the tool into the insert slightly so the narrow 
flange at the bottom of the collet is below the valve 
seat insert. 

7. Tighten the collet cone and continue to drive the 
insert out of the cylinder head. 



Install Exhaust Valve Seat Insert 

1. Clean the valve seat insert counterbores in the head 
with trichloroethylene or other suitable solvent. Also 
wash the valve seat inserts with the same solvent. Dry 
the counterbores and the inserts with compressed air. 

2. Inspect the counterbores for cleanliness, concentric- 
ity, flatness and cracks. 

The counterbores in a four 

valve head have a diameter of 1.159 " to 1.160 " and a 
depth of .294 " to .306 " on former engines and a 
depth of .300 " to .312 " on current engines. 

NOTI: Valve seat inserts which are .010 " 




Fig. 8 Installing Valve Seat Insert 

oversize on the outside diameter are available, 
if required. 

3. Immerse the cylinder head for at least 30 minutes in 
water heated to 180 F. to 200 F. 

4. Rest the cylinder head, bottom side up, on a bench 
and place an insert in the counterbore-valve seat side 
up. This must be done quickly while the cylinder head 
is still hot and the insert is cold (room temperature). If 
the temperature of the two parts is allowed to become 
nearly the same, installation may become difficult and 
damage to the parts may result. 

5. Drive the insert in place with installer 

J 7790 (four valve head) as shown in 
Fig. 8 until it seats solidly in the cylinder head. 

6. Grind the valve seat insert and check it for 
concentricity in relation to the valve guide as outlined 
below. 



Recondition Exhaust Valve and Valve Seat 
Insert 

An exhaust valve which is to be reused may be 
refaced, if necessary (Fig. 9). To provide sufficient 
valve strength and spring tension, the edge of the 



August, 1972 SEC. 1.2.2 Page 5 



1.2.2 Exhaust Valves 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 




Fig. 9 Refacing Exhaust Valve 

valve at the valve head must not be less than 1/32 " in 
thickness and must still be within the specifications 
shown in Figs. 1 1 and 12 after refacing. 

Before either a new or used valve is installed, examine 
the valve seat in the cylinder head for proper valve 
seating. The angle of the valve seat insert must be 
exactly the same as the angle of the valve face to 
provide proper seating of the valve. The proper angle 
for the seating face of both the valve and valve seat 
insert is 30 . 

When a new valve seat insert is installed or an old 
insert refaced, the work must be done with a grinding 
wheel (Fig. 10). 

The eccentric grinding method for reconditioning 
valve seat inserts is recommended. This method 




Fig. 10 Grinding Valve Seat Insert 



MAX. 

VALVE .002" 
ABOVE HEAD 



MAX. 

VAlVE ,032" 
6EIQW HEAD 

(.OW USJO PiUTSI 




VALVE 

SEAT 
INSERT 




Fig. 11 Relationship Between Exhaust Valve, 
Insert and Cylinder Head (Two Valve Head) 

produces a finer, more accurate finish since only one 
point of the grinding wheel is in contact with the valve 
seat at any time. A micrometer feed permits feeding 
the grinding wheel into the work .001 " at a time. 



To grind the valve seat inserts for a four valve 
cylinder head, use the following tools: 

1. Grinder J 8165-1 

2. Dial Gage J 8165-2 

3. Pilot J 7792-1 

4. Grinding Wheel (15 ) J 7792-2 

5. Grinding Wheel (30 ) J 7792-3 

6. Grinding Wheel (60 ) J 7792-4 
Grind the valve seat inserts as follows: 

1. First apply the 30 " grinding wheel on the valve seat 
insert. 

2. Use the 60 grinding wheel to open the throat of 
the insert. 

3. Then grind the top surface with a 15 wheel to 
narrow the width of the seat from 3/64 " to 5/64 " 



Page 6 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Exhaust Valves 1.2.2 




MAX. 

VALVE .006" 
ABOVE HEAD 



MAX. 

VALVE .01 8" 
BELOW HEAD 

(.033 ' USED PA8TSI 



3/64"TO5/64" VALVE 




VALVE FLUSH 
WITH HEAD 

..JL.L. 



3/64" TO 5/<S4" VALVE 



VALVE 
SEAT 
INSERT 



MAX. 
VALVE .024" 
BELOW HEAD 

(.035" USED P*RTSI 



CYLINDER 
HEAD 




VALVE 

SEAT 

INSERT 



FORMER 



CURRENT 



CYLINDER 
HEAD mtr 



Fig. 12 Relationship Between Exhaust Valve, Insert and Cylinder Head (Four Valve Head) 




(Figs. 1! and 12). The 30 face of the insert may be 
adjusted relative to the center of the valve face with 
the 15 and 60 grinding wheels. 

CAUTION: Do not permit the grinding wheel to 
contact the cylinder head when grinding the 
insert. If necessary, replace the insert. 

The maximum amount. that the exhaust valve should 
protrude beyond the cylinder head (when the valve is 
in the closed position), and still maintain the proper 
piston-to-valve clearance, is shown in Figs. 11 and 12. 
Grinding will reduce the thickness of the valve seat 
insert and cause the valve to recede into the cylinder 
head. If, after several grinding operations, the valve 



GRINDER 

DRESSING 

TOOL 





Fig. 13 Grinding Wheel Dressing Tool of Set 
J 8165 



recedes beyond the specified limits, replace the valve 
seat insert. 

When occasion requires, the grinding wheel may be 
dressed to maintain the desired seat angle with the 
dressing tool provided with the grinder set (Fig. 13). 

After grinding has been completed, clean the valve 
seat insert thoroughly with fuel oil and dry it with 
compressed air. Set the dial indicator J 8165-2 in 
position as shown in Fig. 14 and rotate it to determine 
the concentricity of each valve seat insert relative to 
the valve guide. If the runout exceeds .002 ", check for 
a bent valve guide before regrinding the insert. 

4. After the valve seat insert has been ground, 
determine the position of the contact area between the 
valve and the valve seat insert as follows: 

a. Apply a light coat of Prussian Blue or similar 
paste to the valve seat insert. 

b. Lower the stem of the valve in the valve guide and 
"bounce" the valve on the seat. Do not rotate the 
valve. This procedure will show the area of contact 
(on the valve face). The most desirable area of 
contact is at the center of the valve face. 

After the valve seat inserts have been ground and 
checked, thoroughly clean the cylinder head before 
installing the valves. 



Install Exhaust Valves and Springs 

When installing exhaust valves, check to see that the 
valves are within the specifications shown in Figs. 1 1 
and 12. Also, do not use "N" pistons with former four 
valve cylinder head assemblies unless the valves are 
flush with the cylinder head. If the valves are not flush, 
it may be necessary to regrind the valve seats so that 



August, 1972 SEC. 1.2.2 Page 7 



1.2.2 Exhaust Valves 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 




Fig. 14 Checking Relative Concentricity of 
Valve Seat Insert with Relation to Valve Guide 

the valves will be flush with the bottom surface of the 
cylinder head. 

NOTE: The distance from the top of the four 
valve cylinder head to the bottom of the valve 
spring seat counterbore is 1-11/64 " in current 
design cylinder heads or 1-5/64 " in former 
design heads. 

Be sure and install the correct parts in the four valve 
cylinder head. Current design cylinder heads are 
equipped with the thin valve spring seats (.060 ") and 
current design exhaust valves (Fig. 15). To facilitate 
replacement of a four valve head on an engine using 
the former exhaust valves, the proper quantity of the 
thick spring seats (.150 ") must be used. 

Service cylinder heads are of the current design. The 
current thin valve spring seats (.060 ") are included 
with each cylinder head as a shipped loose item. 

1. Lubricate the valve stems with sulphurized oil (E.P. 
type) and slide the valves all the way into the guides. 

IMPORTANT: If reconditioned valves are used, 
install them in the same relative location from 
which they were removed. 

2. Hold the valves in place temporarily with a strip of 
masking tape. Then, turn the cylinder head right side 
up on the work bench. Place a board under the head to 
support the valves and to provide clearance between 
the cam followers and the bench. 

3. Install the valve spring seats. 




CURRENT 

MSIGN 




Fig. 15 - Former and Current Design Exhaust 
Valves (Four Valve Head) 

4. Install the valve guide oil seals, if used, on the valve 
guides as follows: 

a. Place the plastic seal installation cap on the end of 
the valve stem. If the cap extends more than 
1/16" below the groove on the valve stem, 
remove the cap and cut off the excess length. 

b. Lubricate the installation cap and start the seal 
carefully over the valve stem. Push the seal down 
slowly until it rests on top of the valve guide. 

c. Remove the installation cap. 

5. Install the valve springs and valve spring caps. 

6. Thread the valve spring compressor J 7455 into one 
of the rocker shaft bolt holes in the cylinder head 
(Fig. 2). 

7. Apply pressure to the free end of the tool to 
compress the valve spring and install the two-piece 
tapered valve lock. Exercise care to avoid scoring the 
valve stem with the valve cap when compressing the 
spring. Tap the end of the valve stem lightly with a 
plastic hammer to seat the valve locks. 

NOTE: If valve guide oil seals are used, 
compress the valve spring only enough to 
permit installation of the valve locks. Com- 
pressing the spring too far may result in 
damage to the oil seal. 



Page 8 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Exhaust Valves 1.2.2 




8. Release the tool and install the valve locks on the 
remaining exhaust valves in the same manner. 

9. Check the position of the exhaust valve (Fig. 1 1 ). 

10. With the exhaust valves installed in the cylinder 
head, use spring checking gage WRE -500-60 and note 
the gage reading the moment the exhaust valve starts 
to open (Fig. 16). The minimum pressure required to 
start to open the exhaust valve must not be less than 

25 pounds 
for a four valve cylinder head. 

11. Install the injectors, rocker arms, shafts, brackets 
and any other parts that were previously removed 
from the cylinder head. 

12. Install the cylinder head. Refer to Pre-Installation 
Inspection and Install Cylinder Head in Section 1 .2. 

13. Perform a complete engine tune-up. 



Fig. 16 Checking Valve Opening Pressure 
with Gage WRE-500-60 



I 



August, 1972 SEC. 1.2.2 Page 9 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



1.2.4 




VALVE ROCKER COVER 



GASKET 




OPTION PLATE RETAINER 



Fig. 1 Typical Valve Rocker Cover Assembly 



The valve rocker cover assembly (Fig. 1) completely 
encloses the valve and injector rocker arm compart- 
ment at the top of the cylinder head. The top of the 
cylinder head is sealed against oil leakage by a gasket 
located in the flanged edge of the cover. 

An option plate is inserted in a retainer (Fig. 1) 
attached to the cover on each ]n-Line engine. 



The valve rocker cover assembly on certain engines 
may include a breather assembly or an oil filler, 
depending upon the engine application. 



Remove and Install Valve Rocker Cover 

Clean the valve rocker cover before removing it from 
the engine to avoid dust or dirt from entering the 
valve mechanism. Then remove the valve cover screws 
and lift the cover straight up from the cylinder head. 
Use a new gasket when re-installing the cover. 



I 



November, 1973 SEC. 1.2.4 Page 1 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



1.3 



CRANKSHAFT 



The crankshaft (Fig . 1 ) is a one-piece steel 

forging, heat-treated to ensure strength and durability. 
All main and connecting rod bearing journal and oil 
seal surfaces are induction hardened. 

Complete static and dynamic balance of the 
crankshaft has been achieved by counterweights 
incorporated in the crankshaft. 

The crankshaft end play is controlled by thrust 
washers located at the rear main bearing cap of the 
engine. Full pressure lubrication to all connecting rod 
and main bearings is provided by drilled passages 
within the crankshaft and cylinder block. 



diameter and the connecting rod journals are 2-1/2" 
in diameter^ 



On In-Line engines, six tapped holes are 

provided in the rear end of the crankshaft for 
attaching the flywheel. 



In-line engine main bearing journals are 3 " in 



Remove Crankshaft 

When removal of the crankshaft becomes necessary, 
first remove the transmission, then proceed as follows: 

1. Clean the exterior of the engine. 

2. Drain the cooling system. 

3. Drain the engine crankcase. 

4. Remove all engine to base attaching bolts. Then, 
with a chain hoist and sling attached to the lifter 
brackets at each end of the engine, remove the engine 
from its base. 



COUNTERWEIGHT 



CONNECTING ROD 
JOURNAl 



REAR MAIN 
BEARING JOURNAL 




OIL PUMP 
DRIVE GEAR 



LUBRICATING 
OIL HOLE 



I 



Fig. 1 Crankshaft Details and Relative Location of Part? (Three Cylinder In-Line. Engine 

Crankshaft Shown) 



November, 1973 SEC. 1.3 Page 1 



1 .3 Crankshaft 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 






5. Remove all of the accessories and assemblies with 
their attaching parts as necessary to permit the engine 
to be mounted on an overhaul stand. 

6. Mount the engine on an overhaul stand and fasten 
it securely to the mounting plate. 

CAUTION: Be absolutely sure the engine is 
securely attached to the stand before releasing 
the lifting sling. Severe injury to personnel and 
destruction of engine parts will result if the 
engine breaks away from the stand. 

7. Remove the oil pan. 

8. Remove the oil pump inlet pipe and screen. 

9. Remove the flywheel and flywheel housing. 

10. Remove the crankshaft pulley. 

1 1. Remove the front engine support. 

12. Remove the engine lower front cover and oil pump 
assembly. 

13. Remove the cylinder head(s). 



15. Remove the connecting rod bearing caps. 

16. Remove the main bearing caps. 

17. Remove the thrust washers from each side of the 
rear main bearing. 

18. Remove the pistons, connecting rods and liners. 
Page 2 



19. Remove the crankshaft, including the timing gear 
(Fig. 3). 

20. Refer to Section 1.7.5 for removal of the 
crankshaft timing gear and Section 4.1 for the 
procedure covering removal of the oil pump drive 
gear. 




Fig. 3 Removing or Installing Crankshaft 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Crankshaft 1 .3 





Fig. 4 - Typical Ridging of Crankshaft 
Inspection 

After the crankshaft has been removed, clean and 
inspect it thoroughly before reinstalling it in the 
engine. 

Remove the plugs and clean out the oil passages 
thoroughly with a stiff wire brush. Clean the 
crankshaft with fuel oil and dry it with compressed 
air. Then reinstall the plugs. 

Inspect the keyways for evidence of cracks or wear. 
Replace the crankshaft, if necessary. 

If the crankshaft shows evidence of excessive 
overheating, replace the crankshaft since the heat 
treatment has probably been destroyed. 

Used crankshafts will sometimes show a certain 
amount of ridging caused by the groove in the upper 
main bearing shell or lower connecting rod bearing 
shell (Fig. 4). Ridges exceeding .0002" must be 
removed. If the ridges are not removed, localized high 
unit pressures on new bearing shells will result during 
engine operation. 

The ridges may be removed by working crocus cloth, 
wet with fuel oil, around the circumference of the 
crankshaft journal. If the ridges are greater than 
.0005", first use 120 grit emery cloth to clean up the 
ridge, 240 grit emery cloth for finishing and wet crocus 
cloth for polishing. Use of a piece of rawhide or other 
suitable rope wrapped around the emery cloth or 
crocus cloth and drawn back and forth will minimize 
the possibility of an out-of-round condition developing 
(keep the strands of rawhide apart to avoid bind). If 
rawhide or rope is not used, the crankshaft should be 
rotated at intervals. If the ridges are greater than 
.001 ", the crankshaft may have to be reground. 



Carefully inspect the front and rear end of the 
crankshaft in the area of the oil seal contact surface 
for evidence of a rough or grooved condition. Any 
imperfections of the oil seal contact surface will result 
in oil leakage at this point. 

Slight ridges on the crankshaft oil seal contact surfaces 
may be cleaned up with emery cloth and crocus clolh 
in the same manner as detailed for the crankshaft 
journals. If the crankshaft cannot be cleaned up 
satisfactorily, the oil seals may be repositioned in the 
flywheel housing and front cover as outlined in 
Section 1.3.2. 

Check the crankshaft thrust surfaces for excessive wear 
or grooving. If only slightly worn, the surfaces may be 
dressed with a stone. Otherwise it will be necessary to 
regrind the thrust surfaces. 

Check the oil pump drive gear and the crankshaft 
timing gear for worn or chipped teeth. Replace the 
gears, if necessary. 



Inspect the crankshaft for cracks as outlined under 
Inspection for Cracks. 



Crankshaft Measurements 




Fig. 5 Critical Crankshaft Loading Zones 



November, 1973 SEC. 1.3 Page 3 



1 .3 Crankshaft 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



On 3 cylinder in-line crankshafts, 

the maximum runout on the intermediate journals 
must not exceed .002 "total indicator reading. 



Measure all of the main and connecting rod bearing 
journals (Fig . 7 ). Measure the journals at 

several places on the circumference so that taper, out- 
of-round and bearing clearances can be determined. If 
the crankshaft is worn so that the maximum 
connecting rod journal-to-bearing shell clearance (with 
new shells) exceeds .0045 " (In-line engine) 

or the main bearing journal-to- 
bearing shell clearance (with new shells) exceeds 
.0040" (In-line type engines), the crankshaft 

must be reground. Measurements of the crankshaft 
should be accurate to the nearest .0002 ". Also, if the 
journal taper or out-of-round is greater than .003 ", the 
crankshaft must be reground. 

Also measure the crankshaft thrust surfaces (Fig. 10). 




Fig. 6 - Crankshaft Fatigue Cracks 



Inspection for Cracks 

Carefully check the crankshaft for cracks which start 
at an oil hole and follow the journal surface at an 
angle of 45 to the axis. Any crankshaft with such 
cracks must be rejected. Several methods of determin- 
ing the presence of minute cracks not visible to the eye 
are outlined below. 

Magnetic Particle Method: The part is magnetized 
and then covered with a fine magnetic powder or 
solution. Flaws, such as cracks, form a small local 
magnet which causes the magnetic particles in the 
powder or solution to gather there, effectively marking 
the crack. The crankshaft must be de-magnetized after 
the test. 

Fluorescent Magnetic Particle Method: This method is 
similar to the magnetic particle method, but is more 
sensitive since it employs magnetic particles which are 
fluorescent and glow under "black light". Very fine 
cracks that may be missed under the first method, 
especially on discolored or dark surfaces, will be 
disclosed under the "black light". 

Fluorescent Penetrant Method: This is a method which 
may be used on non-magnetic materials such as 
stainless steel, aluminum and plastics. A highly 
fluorescent liquid penetrant is applied to the part. 
Then the excess penetrant is wiped off and the part is 
dried. A developing powder is then applied which 
helps to draw the penetrant out of the flaws by 
capillary action. Inspection is carried out under "black 
light". 

A majority of indications revealed by the above 
inspection methods are normal and harmless and only 
in a small percentage of cases is reliability of the part 
impaired when indications are found. Since inspection 
reveals the harmless indications with the same 
intensity as the harmful ones, detection of the 
indications is but a first step in the procedure. 
Interpretation of the indications is the most important 
step. 

All Detroit Diesel crankshafts are magnetic particle 
inspected after manufacture to ensure against any 
shafts with harmful indications getting into the 
original equipment or factory parts stock. 

Crankshaft failures are rare and when one cracks or 
breaks completely, it is very important to make a 
thorough inspection for contributory factors. Unless 
abnormal conditions are discovered and corrected, 
there will be a repetition of the failure. 

There are two types of loads imposed on a crankshaft 
in service a bending force and a twisting force. The 
design of the shaft is such that these forces produce 
practically no stress over most of the surface. Certain 




Page 4 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Crankshaft 1 .3 





5 CO) 



Is 

+ f 



-1.600- 



4-.002 
-.002 




18 



+.005 
-.005 

1.500 



J 



Fig. 7 Dimensions of Crankshaft Journals 
In-Line Engine 

small areas, designated as critical areas, sustain most 
of the load (Fig. 5). 

Bending fatigue failures result from bending of the 
crankshaft which takes place once per revolution. 



I 



.100" TO .130" RADIUS 

(V-ENGINES) 

.130" TO .160" RADIUS 

(IN-LINE ENGINES] 





AVOID 

SHARP 

.CORNERS 



Fig. 9 Crankshaft Journal Fillets 

The crankshaft is supported between each of the 
cylinders by a main bearing and the load imposed by 
the gas pressure on top of the piston is divided 
between the adjacent bearings. An abnormal bending 
stress in the crankshaft, particularly in the crank fillet, 
may be a result of misalignment of the main bearing 
bores, improperly fitted bearings, bearing failures, a 
loose or broken bearing cap, or unbalanced pulleys. 
Also, drive belts which are too tight may impose a 
bending load upon the crankshaft. 

Failures resulting from bending start at the pin fillet 
and progress throughout the crank cheek, sometimes 
extending into the journal fillet. If main bearings are 
replaced due to one or more badly damaged bearings, 
a careful inspection must be made to determine if any 
cracks have started in the crankshaft. These cracks are 
most likely to occur on either side of the damaged 
bearing. 

Torsional fatigue failures result from torsional 
vibration which takes place at high frequency. 

A combination of abnormal speed and load conditions 
may cause the twisting forces to set up a vibration, 
referred to as torsional vibration, which imposes high 
stresses at the locations shown in Fig. 5. 

Torsional stresses may produce a fracture in either the 
connecting rod journal or the crank cheek. Connecting 
rod journal failures are usually at the fillet at 45 to the 
axis of the shaft. 

A loose, damaged or defective vibration damper, a 
loose flywheel or the introduction of improper or 
additional pulleys or couplings are usual causes of this 
type of failure. Also, overspeeding of the engine or 
resetting the governor at a different speed than 
intended for the engine application may be contribu- 
tory factors. 

As previously mentioned, most of the indications 
found during inspection of the crankshaft are 
harmless. The two types of indications to look for are 
circumferential fillet cracks at the critical areas and 45 



November, 1973 SEC. 1.3 Page 5 



1 .3 Crankshaft 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



cracks (45 with the axis of the shaft) starting from 
either the critical fillet locations or the connecting rod 
journal holes as shown in Fig. 6. Replace the 
crankshaft when cracks of this nature are found. 



Crankshaft Grinding 

In addition to the standard size main and connecting 
rod bearings, .002", .010", .020" and .030 " undersize 
bearings are available. 

NOTE: The .002 " undersize bearings are used 
only to compensate for slight wear on 
crankshafts on which regrinding is unnecessary. 

If the crankshaft is to be reground, proceed as follows: 

1. Compare the crankshaft journal measurements 
taken during inspection with the dimensions in Table 
1 and Fig . 7 and determine the size to which the 
journals are to be reground. 

2. If one or more main or connecting rod journals 
require grinding, then grind all of the main journals 
or all of the connecting rod journals to the same 
required size. 

3. All journal fillets on the In-line crankshafts must 
have a .130" to .160" radius 



often produces grinding cracks. Cool the crankshaft 
while grinding, using coolant generously. Do not 
crowd the grinding wheel into the work. 

5. Polish the ground surfaces to an 8-12 R.M.S. finish. 
The reground journals will be subject to excessive wear 
unless polished smooth. 

6. If the thrust surfaces of the crankshaft (Fig. 10) are 
worn or grooved excessively, they must be reground 
and polished. Care must be taken to leave a .130" to 
.160" radius on the In-line crankshaft 

between each 
thrust surface and the bearing journal. 

7. Stone the edge of all oil holes in the journal surfaces 
smooth to provide a radius of approximately 3/32 ". 

8. After grinding has been completed, inspect the 
crankshaft by the magnetic particle method to 
determine whether cracks have originated due to the 
grinding operation. 

9. De-magnetize the crankshaft. 

10. Remove the plugs and clean the crankshaft and oil 
passages thoroughly with fuel oil. Dry the shaft with 
compressed air and reinstall the plugs. 



Install Crankshaft 




The fillet must blend smoothly 

into the journal and the crank cheek and must be free 
of scratches. The radius may be checked with a fillet 
gage. 

4. Care must be taken to avoid localized heating which 



Bearing 
Size 


Conn. Rod 
Journal Dia. 


Main Bearing 
Journal Dia. 


In-Line Engines 


Standard 
.002" Undersize 
.010" Undersize 
.020" Undersize 
.030" Undersiie 


2.49972.500" 
2.49772.498" 
*2.489"/2.490" 
2.47972.480" 
*2.469"/2.470" 


2.99973.000" 
2.99772.998" 
'2.98972.990" 
*2.979"/2.980" 
*2.969"/2.970" 



Dimension of reground crankshaft 
TABLE 1 

Page 6 



If a new crankshaft is to be installed, steam clean it to 
remove the rust preventive, blow out the oil passages 
with compressed air and install the plugs. Then install 
the crankshaft as follows: 

1. Assemble the crankshaft timing gear (Section 1.7.5) 
and the oil pump drive gear (Section 4.1) on the 
crankshaft. 

2. Refer to Section 1.3.4 for main bearing details and 
install the upper grooved bearing shells in the block. If 
the old bearing shells are to be used again, install 



Nominal 
Size 


Thrust Washer 
Thickness 


Min. 


Max. 


Standard 
.005" Oversize 
.010" Oversize 


.1190" 
.1255" 
.1300" 


.1220" 
.1270" 
.1320" 



TABLE 2 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Crankshaft 1 .3 



1.499" 



i.sor 



.67' 



IN-LINE 
ENGINE 



Fig. 10 Standard Dimensions at Crankshaft 
Thrust Surfaces-In-line Engines 

them in the same locations from which they were 
removed. 

NOTE: When a new or reground crankshaft is 
installed, ALL new main and connecting rod 
(upper and lower) bearing shells and new thrust 
washers must also be installed. 

3. Apply clean engine oil to all crankshaft journals and 
install the crankshaft in place so that the timing marks 
on the crankshaft timing gear and the idler gear 
match. Refer to Section 1.7.1 for the correct method 
of timing the gear train. 

4. Install the upper halves of the crankshaft thrust 
washers on each side of the rear main bearing support 
and the doweled lower halves on each side of the rear 
main bearing cap. The grooved side of the thrust 
washers must face toward the crankshaft thrust surfaces. 

NOTE: If the crankshaft thrust surfaces were 
reground, it may be necessary to install oversize 
thrust washers on one or both sides of the rear 
main journal. Refer to Fig. 10 and Table 2. 

5. Install the lower bearing shells (no oil grooves) in 
the bearing caps. If the old bearing shells are to be 
used again, install them in the same bearing caps from 
which they were removed. 

6. Install the main bearing caps and lower bearing 




Fig. 11 Checking Crankshaft End Play 

shells as outlined under Install Main Bearing Shells in 
Section 1.3.4. 

NOTE: If the bearings have been installed 
properly, the crankshaft will turn freely with all 
of the main bearing cap bolts drawn to the 
specified torque. 

7. Check the crankshaft end play by moving the 
crankshaft toward the gage (Fig. 11) with a pry bar. 
Keep a constant pressure on the pry bar and set the 
dial indicator to zero. Then remove and insert the pry 
bar on the other side of the bearing cap. Force the 
crankshaft in the opposite direction and note the 
amount of end pky on the dial. The end play should 
be .004 "to .011 "with new parts or a maximum of 
.01 8 "with used parts. Insufficient end play can be the 
result of a misaligned rear main bearing or a burr or 
dirt on the inner face of one or more of the thrust 
washers. 

8. Install the cylinder liner, piston and connecting rod 
assemblies (Section 1.6.3). 

9. Install the cylinder head(s) (refer to Section 1.2). 

10. Install the flywheel housing (Section 1.5). then 
install the flywheel (Section 1.4). 

1 1. Install the crankshaft lower engine front cover and 
the lubricating oil pump assembly on In-line 



November, 1973 SEC. 1.3 Page 7 



1.3 Crankshaft 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



engine. 

12. Install the engine front support, if used. 

13. Install the crankshaft pulley (Section 1.3,7). 

14. Install the oil pump inlet pipe and screen on In- 
line engine 

(Section 4.1). 

15. Affix a new gasket to the oil pan flange and install 
the oil pan. 

16. Use a chain hoist and sling attached to the lifting 



bracket at each end of the engine and remove the 
engine from the overhaul stand. 

17. Install all of the accessories that were removed. 

18. After the engine has been completely reassembled, 
refer to the Lubricating OH Specifications in 
Section 13.3 and refill the crankcase to the proper 
level on the dipstick. 

19. Close all of the drains and fill the cooling system. 

20. After replacing the main or connecting rod 
bearings or installing a new or reground crankshaft, 
operate the engine as outlined in the run-in schedule 
(Section 13.2.1). 




Pages 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



1.3.2 



CRANKSHAFT OIL SEALS 



An oil seal is used at each end of the crankshaft to 1 
retain the lubricating oil in the crankcase. The sealing 
lips of the oil seals are held firmly, but not tight, 
against the crankshaft sealing surfaces by a coil 
spring. 

The front oil seal is pressed into the lower front cover 
on In-line engine (Fig. 1). 



A single-lip oil seal is used at the rear end of the 
crankshaft of most industrial engines. A double-lip oil 
seal is used in engines where there is oil on both sides 
of the oil seal; the lips of the seal face in opposite 
directions. The rear oil seal is pressed into the flywheel 
housing (Fig. 2). 

Oil leaks indicate worn or damaged oil seals. Oil seals 
may become worn or damaged due to improper 
installation, excessive main bearing clearances, exces- 
sive flywheel housing bore runout or grooved sealing 
surfaces on the crankshaft. To prevent a repetition of 
any oil seal leaks, these conditions must be checked 
and corrected. 



Remove Crankshaft Oil Seals 

Remove the engine front cover (Section 1.3.5), 
outboard bearing support or the flywheel housing 
(Section 1.5) and remove the oil seals as follows: 

1. Support the forward face of the front cover, or the 
outboard bearing support, on two wood blocks next to 




the oil seal bore, Then press or drive the oil seal out of 
the front cover or the outboard bearing support. 
Discard the oil seal. 

2. Support the forward face of the flywheel housing on 
In-line engines 

on two wood blocks next to the 

oil sea! bore. Then press or drive the oil seal out of the 
housing. Discard the oil seal. 

3. Clean the oil seal bore in the front cover, outboard 
bearing support or flywheel housing thoroughly before 
installing a new oil seal. 

When necessary, an oil seal may be removed without 
removing the front cover, outboard bearing support or 
flywheel housing. This may be done by drilling 
diametrically opposite holes in the seal casing and 
threading metal screws, backed by flat washers, into 
the casing. Remove the seal by prying against the 
washers with pry bars. 



Inspection 

Inspect the front and rear end of the crankshaft 

for wear due to the rubbing action of the oil seal, dirt 
build-up or fretting caused by action of the flywheel. 




Fig. 1 Crankshaft Front Oil Seal 



Fig. 2 Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal (In-Lme 
Engines) 



November, 1973 SEC. 1.3.2 Page 1 



1.3.2 Crankshaft Oil Seals 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



The crankshaft surface must be clean and smooth to 
prevent damaging the seal lip when a new oil seal is 
installed. Slight ridges may be removed from the 
crankshaft as outlined under Inspection in Section 1.3. 

On In-line engines, if the crankshaft cannot be 

cleaned up satisfactorily, the oil seal may be pressed 
into the flywheel housing or the front cover 1/8" from 
its original position. 




If excessive wear or grooving is present, install an oil 
seal sleeve (Figs. 3, and 5) which provides a 
replaceable wear surface for the lip-type oil seal. The 
oil seal sleeve may be used with either the single-lip or 
double-lip type oil seal, and can also be used in 
conjunction with the seal spacer. However, an oversize 
oil seal must be used with the sleeve. 



Install the rear oil seal sleeve (Fig. 3) 
follows: 



as 



1. Stone the high spots from the oil seal contact 
surface of the crankshaft. 

2. Coat the area of the shaft where the sleeve will be 
positioned with shellac or an equivalent sealant. 

3. Drive the sleeve squarely on the shaft with 



crankshaft rear oil seal sleeve installer J 21277 (in-line 
engines) . 

4. Wipe off any excess sealant. 

5. Coat the outside diameter of the sleeve with engine 
oil. 

Install the front oil seal sleeve (Fig. 5) as follows: 

1. Stone the high spots from the oil seal contact 
surface of the crankshaft. 





rr 

GHOOvei 




GROOVED AREA 



CRANKSHAFT 
Oil SEAL 



FRONT 
COVER 




Fig. 3 Use of Rear Oil Seal Sleeve on 
Grooved Crankshaft (In-line Engines) 



Fig. 5 - Use of Front Oil Seal Sleeve on 
Grooved Crankshaft (In-line Engines) 




Page 2 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Crankshaft Oil Seals 1.3.2 



2. Coat the area of the shaft where the sleeve will be 
positioned with shellac or an equivalent sealant. 

3. Position the sleeve on the crankshaft with the radius 
on the sleeve facing away from the engine. 

4. Drive the sleeve squarely on the shaft with front oil 
seal sleeve installer J 22524 and the crankshaft pulley 
retaining bolt. 

5. Wipe off any excess sealant. 

6. Coat the outside diameter of the sleeve with engine 
oil. 

To remove a worn sleeve, peen the outside diameter of 
the sleeve until it stretches sufficiently so it can be 
slipped off of the end of the crankshaft. 



seal pointed toward the inner face of the cover or 
bearing support. 

3. Place the cover or outboard bearing support in an 
arbor press (inner face down). 

4. On In-line engines, use installer J 9783 to 
press the oil seal into the cover until the seal is flush 
with the outside face of the cover. 



5. Remove any excess sealant. 

6. Install the engine front cover (Section 1.3.5) or the 
outboard bearing support. 



I 



Oil Seals 

Current oil seals are made of an oil resistant synthetic 
rubber which is pre-lubricated with a special lubricant. 
Do not remove this lubricant. Keep the sealing lip clean 
and free from scratches. In addition, a plastic coating 
which acts as a sealant has been applied to the outer 
surface of the casing. Do not remove this coating. 



Install Crankshaft Front Oil Seal 



1. If the oil seal is not pre-coated, apply a non- 
hardening sealant to the periphery of the metal casing. 

2. Coat the lip of the new oil seal lightly with grease or 
vegetable shortening. Then position the seal in the 
cover or outboard bearing support with the lip of the 




Fig. 6 Installing Oil Seal in Flywheel Housing 



Install Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal 

1 . Support the inner face of the flywheel housing in an 
arbor press or on a flat surface. 

2. If the new seal is not pre-coated, apply a non- 
hardening sealant to the periphery of the metal casing. 
Then position the seal with the lip pointed Coward the 
inner face of the housing. 

3. Coat the lip of the oil seal lightly with engine oil 
(single-lip seal) or vegetable shortening (double-lip 
seal). Do not scratch or nick the sealing edge of the oil 
seal. 

4. On In-Line engines, use installer J 9479 to 
press the oil seal into the flywheel housing until the 
seal is flush with the outside face of the housing 
(Fig. 6). If the flywheel housing was not removed 
from the engine, place oil seal expander J 9769 
(standard size seal) or J 21278 (oversize seal) against 
the end of the crankshaft. Then, with the lip of the 
seal pointed toward the engine, slide the seal over the 
expander and on the crankshaft. Next, thread the 
guide studs J 9479-2 into the crankshaft. Now drive 
the seal into the flywheel housing with installer 
J 9479-1 until it is flush with the face of the housing. 



6. Remove any excess sealant from the flywheel 
housing and the seal. 



November. 1973 SEC. 1.3.2 . Page 3 



1.3.2 Crankshaft Oil Seals 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



CAUTION: If the oil seal is of the type which 
incorporates a brass retainer in the inner 
diameter of the seal, be sure the retainer is in 
place in the seal before installing the flywheel 



housing on the engine. If the retainer is left out, 
oil leakage will result. 

7. Install the flywheel housing as outlined in 
Section 1.5. 




Page 4 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



1.3.4 



CRANKSHAFT MAIN BEARINGS 



The crankshaft main bearing shells (Figs. 1 and 2) are 
precision made and are replaceable without machin- 
ing. They consist of an upper bearing shell seated in 
each cylinder block main bearing support and a lower 
bearing shell seated in each main bearing cap. The 
bearing shells are prevented from endwise or radial 
movement by a tang at the parting line at one end of 
each bearing shell. The tangs on the lower bearing 
shells are off-center and the tangs on the upper 
bearing shells are centered to aid correct installation. 

On In-line engines, a 7/16 "oil hole 

in the groove of each upper bearing shell, midway 
between the parting lines, registers with a vertical oil 
passage in the cylinder block. Lubricating oil, under 
pressure, passes from the cylinder block oil gallery by 
way of the bearing shells to the drilled passages in the 
crankshaft, then to the connecting rods and connecting 
rod bearings. 



I 




Fig. 1 - Main Bearing Shells, Bearing Caps 

and Crankshaft Thrust Washers - In-Line 

Engines 



April, 1974 SEC. 1.3.4 Page 1 



1 .3.4 Main Bearings 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



The lower main bearing shells have no oil grooves; 
therefore, the upper and lower bearing shells must not 
be interchanged. 

Thrust washers (Fig . l) on each side of the 

rear main bearing, absorb the crankshaft thrust. The 
lower halves of the two-piece washers are doweled to 
the bearing cap; the upper halves are not doweled. 

Main bearing trouble is ordinarily indicated by low or 
no oil pressure. All of the main bearing load is carried 
on the lower bearings; therefore, wear will occur on 
the lower bearing shells first. The condition of the 
lower main bearing shells may be observed by 
removing the main bearing caps. 

If main bearing trouble is suspected, remove the oil 
pan, then remove the main bearing caps, one at a 
time, as outlined below and examine the bearing 
shells. 




Fig. 4 - Removing Upper Main Bearing Shell 
(Except Rear Main) 





Fig. 5 Removing Upper Rear Main Bearing 
Shell 

Remove Main Bearing Shells (Crankshaft in 
Place) 

The bearing caps are numbered 1, 2, 3, etc., indicating 
their respective positions and, when removed, must 
always be reinstalled in their original position. 

All crankshaft main bearing journals, except the rear 
journal, are drilled for an oil passage. Therefore, the 
procedure for removing the upper bearing shells with 
the crankshaft in place is somewhat different on the 
drilled journals than on the rear journal. 

Remove the main bearing shells as follows: 

1. Drain and remove the oil pan to expose the main 
bearing caps. 

2. Remove the oil pump and the oil inlet pipe and 
screen assembly. 



Page 2 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Main Bearings 1.3.4 





BEARINGS SUITABLE 
FOR INSTALLATION. 



SCORED AND PITTED 
BEARINGS UNFIT FOR 
FURTHER USE. 



Fig. 6 - Comparison of Main Bearing Shells 



3. Remove one main bearing cap at a time and inspect 
the bearing shells as outlined under Inspection. 
Reinstall each bearing shell and bearing cap before 
removing another bearing cap. 

a. To remove all except the rear main bearing shell, 

insert a l/4"x 3/4 "bolt with a 1/2 "diameter 
and 1/16" thick head (made from a standard 
bolt) into the crankshaft journal oil hole. Then 
revolve the shaft to the right (clockwise) and roll 
the bearing shell out of position as shown in 
Fig. 4. The head of the bolt must not extend 
beyond the outside diameter of the bearing shell. 

b. Remove the rear main bearing upper shell by 
tapping on the edge of the bearing with a small 
curved rod, revolving the crankshaft at the same 
time to roll the bearing shell out as shown in Fig. 5. 

c. The lower halves of the crankshaft thrust washers 
will be removed along with the rear main bearing 
cap. The upper halves of the washers can be re- 
moved for inspection by pushing on the ends of the 
washers with a small rod, forcing them around and 
out of the main bearing support. 



Inspection 

Bearing failures may result from deterioration (acid 
formation) or contamination of oil or loss of oil. An 
analysis of the lubricating oil may be required to 
determine if corrosive acid and sulphur are present 
which cause acid etching, flaking and pitting. Bearing 
seizure may be due to low oil or no oil. 

Check the oil filter elements and replace them if 
necessary. Also check the oil by-pass valve to make 
sure it is operating freely. 

After removal, clean the bearings and inspect them for 
scoring, pitting, flaking, etching, loss of babbitt or 
signs of overheating (Fig. 6). The lower bearing shells, 
which carry the load, will normally show signs of 
distress before the upper bearing shells. 

Inspect the backs of the bearing shells for bright spots 
which indicate they have been moving in the bearing 
caps or bearing supports. If such spots are present, 
discard the bearing shells. 

Measure the thickness of the bearing shells at point 
"C", 90 "from the parting line, as shown in Figs. 7 
and 8. Tool J 4757, placed between the bearing shell 
and a micrometer, will give an accurate measurement. 



April, 1974 SEC. 1.3.4 Page 3 



1 .3.4 Main Bearings 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 




A Free Diameter 
B Installed .Diometer 
C Bearing Thickness 



Fig. 7 - Main Bearing Measurements 

The bearing shell thickness will be the total thickness 
of the steel ball and the bearing shell, less the 
diameter of the ball. This is the only practical method 
for measuring the bearing thickness, unless a special 
micrometer is available for this purpose. The 
miminum thickness of a worn standard main bearing 
shell is .1230 "and, if any of the bearing shells are 
thinner than this dimension, replace all of the bearing 
shells. A new standard bearing shell has a thickness of 
.1245 "to .1250 "(in-line engine), 
Refer to Table 1. 

In addition to the thickness measurement, check the 




BALI 

ATTACHMENT 



Fig. 8 Measuring Thickness of Bearing Shell 



Bearing 
Size 


Bearing 
Thickness 


Minimum 
Thickness 


In-Line Engines 


Standard 


.1245"/.1250" 


.1230" 


:002" Undersize 


.1255"/.1260" 


.1240" 


.010" Undersize 


.1295"/-1300" 


.1280" 


.020" Undersize 


.1345"/.1350" 


.1330" 


.030" Undersize 


.1395"/.1400" 


.1380" 




TABLE 1 

clearance between the main bearings and the 
crankshaft journals. This clearance may be determined 
with the crankshaft in place by means of a soft plastic 
measuring strip which is squeezed between the journal 
and the bearing (refer to Shop Notes in Section 1.0). 
With the crankshaft removed, measure the outside 
diameter of the crankshaft main bearing journals and 
the inside diameter of the main bearing shells when 
installed in place with the proper torque on the 
bearing cap bolts. When installed, the bearing shells 
are .001 "larger in diameter at the parting line than 
90 from the parting line. 

The bearing shells do not form a true circle when not 
installed. When installed, the bearing shells have a 
squeeze fit in the main bearing bore and must be tight 
when the bearing cap is drawn down. This crush 
assures a tight, uniform contact between the bearing 
shell and bearing seat. Bearing shells that do not have 
sufficient crush will not have uniform seat contact, as 
shown by shiny spots on the back, and must be 
replaced. If the clearance between any crankshaft 
journal and its bearing shells exceeds .0060", all of 
the bearing shells must be discarded and replaced. 
This clearance is .0010" to .0040 "with new parts. 

Before installing new replacement bearings, it is very 
important to thoroughly inspect the crankshaft 
journals. Very often, after prolonged engine operation, 
a ridge is formed on the crankshaft journals in line 
with the journal oil holes. If this ridge is not removed 
before the new bearings are installed, then, during 
engine operation, localized high unit pressures in the 
center area of the bearing shell will cause pitting of 
the bearing surface. Also, damaged bearings may 
cause bending fatigue and resultant cracks in the 



Page 4 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Main Bearings 1 .3.4 



crankshaft. See Section 1.3 under Crankshaft Inspec- 
tion for removal of ridges and inspection of the 
crankshaft. 

Do not replace one main bearing shell alone. If one 
bearing shell requires replacement, install both new 
upper and lower bearing shells. Also, if a new or 
reground crankshaft is to be used, install all new 
bearing shells. 

Bearing shells are available in .010", .020 "and 
.030 " undersize for service with reground crankshafts. 
To determine the size bearings required, refer to 
Crankshaft Grinding in Section 1.3. 

Bearings which are .002 " undersize are available to 
compensate for slight journal wear where it is 
unnecessary to regrind the crankshaft. 

NOTE: Bearing shells are NOT reworkable from 
one undersize to another under any 
circumstances. 

Inspect the crankshaft thrust washers. If the washers 
are scored or worn excessively or the crankshaft end 
play is excessive, they must be replaced. Improper 
clutch adjustment can contribute to excessive wear on 
the thrust washers. Inspect the crankshaft thrust 
surfaces. Refer to Install Crankshaft in Section 1.3. If, 
after dressing or regrinding the thrust surfaces, new 
standard size thrust washers do not hold the 
crankshaft end play within the specified limits, it may 
be necessary to install oversize thrust washers on one 
or both sides of the rear main bearing. A new 
standard size thrust washer is .1190" to .1220" thick. 
Thrust washers are available in .005 "and 
.010 "oversize. 



Install Main Bearing Shells (Crankshaft in 
Place) 

Make sure all of the parts are clean. Then apply clean 
engine oil to each crankshaft journal and install the 
upper main bearing shells by reversing the sequence 
of operations given for removal. 



I 



The upper and lower main bearing shells are not 
alike; the upper shell is grooved and drilled for 
lubrication -- the lower shell is not. Be sure to install 
the grooved and drilled bearing shells in the cylinder 
block and the plain bearing shells in the bearing caps, 
otherwise the oil flow to the bearings and to the upper 



LOWER MAIN 
BEARING SHELL 




Fig. 9 Crankshaft Thrust Washers in Place 

end of the connecting rods will be blocked off. Used 
bearing shells must be reinstalled on the same journal 
from which they were removed. 

1. When installing an upper main bearing shell with 
the crankshaft in place, start the plain end of the 
bearing shell around the crankshaft journal so that, 
when the bearing is in place, the tang will fit into the 
groove in the bearing support. 

2. Install the lower main bearing shell so that the tang 
on the bearing fits into the groove in the bearing cap. 

3. Assemble the crankshaft thrust washers (Fig. 9) 
before installing the rear main bearing cap. Clean 
both halves of each thrust washer carefully and 
remove any burrs from the washer seats -- the slightest 
burr or particle of dirt may decrease the clearance 
between the washers and the crankshaft beyond the 
specified limit. Slide the upper halves of the thrust 
washers into place. Then assemble the lower halves 
over the dowel pins in the bearing cap. 

NOTE: The main bearing caps are bored in 
position and marked 1, 2, 3, etc. They must be 
installed in their original positions with the 
marked side of each cap facing the same side 
of the cylinder block that carries the engine 
serial number. 



April, 1974 SEC. 1.3.4 Page 5 



1 .3.4 Main Bearings 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



4. With the lower main bearing shells installed in the 
bearing caps, apply a small quantity of International 
Compound No. 2, or equivalent, to the bolt threads 
and the bolt head contact area. Install the bearing caps 
and draw the bolts up snug. Then rap the caps sharply 
with a soft hammer to seat them properly and tighten 
the bolts uniformly, starting with the center bearing 
cap and working alternately towards both ends of the 
block, to 120-130 Ib-ft torque. 



NOTE: If the bearings have been installed 
properly, the crankshaft will turn freely with all 
of the main bearing cap bolts drawn to the 
specified torque. 

5. Check the crankshaft end play as outlined under 
Install Crankshaft in Section 1.3. 



6. Install the lubricating oil pump and oil intake pipe 
assembly. 

NOTE: If shims were used between the pump 
(8V engine) and .the bearing caps, install them 
in their original positions. 

7. Install the oil pan, using a new gasket. 

8. Fill the crankcase to the proper level on the dipstick 
with heavy-duty lubricating oil of the recommended 
grade and viscosity (refer to Lubricating Oil Specifica- 
tions in Section 13.3). 

9. After installing new bearing shells, operate the 
engine on a run-in schedule as outlined in 
Section 13.2.1. 




Page 6 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



1.3.5 



ENGINE FRONT COVER (Lower) 



In-Line 

The engine lower front cover is mounted against the 
cylinder block at the lower front end of the engine 
(Fig . 1 ). It serves as a housing for the 

crankshaft front oil seal, the lubricating oil pump, the 
oil pressure regulator valve and the oil cooler by-pass 
valve. The clean-out openings in the periphery of the 
current cover incorporate tapped holes and 1/2 "-14 
threaded plugs. 

On all In-line engines effective with engine 

serial number 

3D-4295 (except 3D-4373), 

the oil 

pressure regulator valve is located on the right-hand 
side of the engine front cover, as viewed from the 
front of the engine. Prior to the above engine serial 
numbers, the oil pressure regulator valve was located 
on the left-hand side of the front cover just below the 
oil cooler by-pass valve. 




Engines 



Remove Engine Front Cover 

1 . Drain the oil and remove the oil pan. 

2. Remove the crankshaft pulley as outlined in 
Section 1.3.7. 

3. Remove the two bolts and lock washers that secure 
the lubricating oil pump inlet tube flange or elbow to 
the engine front cover. 

4. Remove the bolts and lock washers that secure the 
engine front cover to the cylinder block. 

5. Strike the cover with a soft hammer to free it from 
the dowels. Pull the cover straight off the end of the 
crankshaft. 

6. Remove the cover gasket. 

7. Inspect the oil seal and lubricating oil pump as 
outlined in Sections 1.3.2 and 4.1. Also check the oil 
pressure regulator valve and oil cooler by-pass valve as 
outlined in Sections 4.1.1 and 4.4. 



Fig. 1 - Engine Front Cover Mounting (Lower) 
- In-Line Engine 



March, 1973 SEC. 1.3.5 Page 1 



1.3.5 Engine Front Cover (Lower) 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 




Fig. 3 Installing Lower Engine Front Cover - 
In-Line Engine 

Install Engine Front Cover 

1. Affix a new cover gasket to the cylinder block. 

2. Install oil seal expander J 7454 over the front end 
of the crankshaft. 



3. Thread two 3/8 "-16 pilot studs approximately 8 " 
long into two diametrically opposite bolt holes in the 
cylinder block to guide the cover in place (Fig. 3). 

4. Apply a light coat of cup grease to the lip of the oil 
seal. Slide the engine front cover over the oil seal 
expander and pilot studs as shown in Fig. 3. Push the 
cover forward until the inner rotor of the oil pump 
contacts the pump drive gear on the crankshaft. Rotate 
the crankshaft slightly to align the teeth, then push the 
cover up against the gasket and block. Do not force 
the cover. 

5. Remove the oil seal expander and pilot studs. 

6. Refer to Fig . 1 and install the 3/8 "-16 bolts 
and lock washers. Tighten the bolts to 30-35 Ib-ft 
torque. 

7. Affix a new seal ring on the end of the lubricating 
oil pump inlet tube next to the flange on an In-line 
engine . 

Attach the flange or elbow to the front cover with bolts 
and lock washers. Tighten the bolts to 13-17 Ib-ft 
torque. 

8. Affix a new oil pan gasket to the bottom of the 
cylinder block, then install and secure the oil pan to 
the block with bolts and lock washers. Tighten the 
bolts to 13-17 Ib-ft torque. 

9. Install the crankshaft pulley as outlined in 
Section 1.3.7. 

10. Refer to Lubricating Oil Specifications in 
Section 13.3 and refill the crankcase to the proper 
level on the dipstick. 



^5?W88IH 



Page 2 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



1.3.7 



CRANKSHAFT PULLEY 



The crankshaft pulley is secured to the front end of 
the crankshaft by a special washer and a bolt. 



Remove Crankshaft Pulley 

1. Remove the belts from the crankshaft pulley. 



2. Remove the crankshaft pulley retaining bolt and 
special washer. 



3. If a rigid type pulley is being removed from an In- 
line engine, install the pulley retaining bolt and 
puller J 4794-01 as shown in Fig. 1. Then force the 
pulley off the crankshaft by turning the puller center 
screw in. 

On pulleys that do not incorporate two tapped holes in 
the front face of the pulley, use a two arm universal 
type puller. 




Fig. 2 Installing Crankshaft Pulley Using 
Installer J 7773 

4. Remove the outer and inner cones, if used. 




Inspection 

The appearance of the rubber bushing does not 
determine the condition of a rubber mounted 
crankshaft pulley. Check for failure of the rubber 
bushing by locking the crankshaft and applying 
pressure to the crankshaft pulley. If the pulley cannot 
be rotated, the bushing is in satisfactory condition. If 
necessary, replace the rubber bushing. 



Install Crankshaft Pulley 

1. Lubricate the end of the crankshaft to facilitate 
pulley installation. 

2. Slide the inner cone (Fig. 3), if used, on the 
crankshaft. 



Fig. 1 - Removing Crankshaft Pulley Using 
Puller J 4794-01 



4. Start the pulley straight on the end of the 
crankshaft. 



August, 1972 SEC. 1.3.7 Page 1 



1.3.7 Crankshaft Pulley 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



OUTER 
CONC 



INNER 
CONE 




Fig. 3 Cone Mounted Pulley 

5. Install a rigid type pulley on an In-line engine 

with installer J 7773 as shown in Fig. 2. Then remove 
the installer. 



7. Slide the outer cone (Fig. 3), if used, on the 
crankshaft. 

8. Place the washer on the crankshaft bolt and thread 
the bolt into the front end of the crankshaft. 



10. On in-line engines with cone mounted pulleys 
NOT stamped with the letter "A", tighten the 3/4 "-16 
bolt to 290-300 Ib-ft torque. 

11. On all in-line engines with the rigid type 
pulleys and cone mounted pulleys stamped with the 
letter "A", tighten the 3/4 "-16 bolt to 200-220 Ib-ft 
torque. 

12. When pulleys stamped with the letter "U" (in a 
square box) are used, tighten the 3/4 ''-16 bolt to 290- 
310 Ib-ft torque. 



14. Install and adjust the belts. 



Page 2 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



1.4 



FLYWHEEL 



The flywheel is attached to the rear end of the 
crankshaft with six self-locking bolts. 

A scuff plate 

is used between the flywheel and the bolt heads to 
prevent the bolt heads from scoring the flywheel 
surface. 

A steel ring gear, which meshes with the starting 
motor pinion, is shrunk onto the rim of the flywheel. 

The flywheel is machined to provide true alignment 
with the clutch or a power take-off driving ring, and 
the center bore provides for installation of a clutch 
pilot bearing. The clutch or power take-off" driving ring 
is bolted to the flywheel. 

An oil seal ring, which provides an oil tight connection 




Fig. 1 Removing Flywheel 



between the crankshaft and the flywheel, is fitted into 
a groove on flywheels used with hydraulic couplings, 
clutches or Torqmatic converters. 

The flywheel must be removed for service operations 
such as replacing the starter ring gear, crankshaft or 
flywheel housing. On torque converter units, the 
flywheel is part of the torque converter assembly and 
is covered in the applicable converter service manual. 



Remove Flywheel (Transmission Removed) 

1. If a clutch housing is attached to the flywheel 
housing, remove the flywheel as follows: 

a. Remove the flywheel attaching bolts and the scuff 
plate. 

b. Lift the flywheel off the end of the crankshaft and 
out of the clutch housing. 

2. If a clutch housing isn't used, remove the flywheel 
as follows: 

a. Remove the flywheel attaching bolts and the scuff 
plate while holding the flywheel in position by 
hand, then reinstall one bolt. 

CAUTION: When removing or installing the 
attaching bolts, hold the flywheel firmly against 
the crankshaft by hand to prevent it from 
slipping off the end of the crankshaft. The 
flywheel is NOT doweled to the crankshaft. 



b. Attach flywheel lifting tool J 6361-01 to the 
flywheel with two 3/8"- 16 bolts of suitable length 
as shown in Fig. 1 . 

c. Attach a chain hoist to the lifting tool. 

d. Remove the remaining flywheel attaching bolt. 

e. Move the upper end of the lifting tool in and out 

to loosen the flywheel, then withdraw the flywheel 
from the crankshaft and the flywheel housing. 

f. Remove the clutch pilot bearing, if used, as 

outlined in Section 1.4.1. 

g. Remove the oil seal ring, if used. 



November, 1973 SEC. 1.4 Page 1 



1 .5 Flywheel Housing 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 




Bolt Size 



Location 



8x2 1/2" 
3/8".16x7/8" 
3/8"-16x2 1/2" 
3/8"-24x3 9/1&" 



3-6 



7-8-9-10-1 1-12 
I3-M-I5 



Fig. 3 - Flywheel Housing Bolt Sizes and 

Tightening Sequence (Operation l)--ln-Line 

Engine 

// is very important that all old gasket material be 
thoroughly removed from the flywheel housing and the 
end plate, otherwise run-out of the pilot and face of 
the housing may be affected when the housing is 
installed on the engine. 

Remove and discard the crankshaft rear oil seal. 
Install a new oil seal as outlined in Section 1.3.2. 



Install Flywheel Housing 

1. Lubricate the gear train teeth with clean engine oil. 

2. Affix a new flywheel housing gasket to the rear face 
of the cylinder block rear end plate. 



3. If the flywheel housing has an integral cast hub, 
install a flywheel housing-to-end plate shim (.015 " 
thick). Use grease to hold the shim to the cylinder 
block rear end plate (Fig. 2). 

Page 2 




4. Coat the lip of the crankshaft oil seal lightly with 
engine oil (single-lip seal) or vegetable shortening 
(double-lip seal). Do not scratch or nick the sealing 
edge of the oil seal. 

5. Thread two pilot studs J 7540 into the cylinder 
block to guide the housing in place (Fig. 1). On In-line 

engines, to pilot the oil seal on the crankshaft 
successfully, use oil seal expander J 9769 (standard 
size seal) or J 21278 (oversize seal) on the end of the 
crankshaft. 



6. With the housing suitably supported, position it 
over the crankshaft and up against the cylinder block 
rear end plate and gasket(s). Remove the oil seal 
expander. 

7. Install all of the flywheel housing bolts, lock 
washers, flat washers and copper washers in their 
proper location, finger tight. Remove the pilot studs. 

NOTE: If the engine is equipped with a clutch 





DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Flywheel Housing 1 .5 






housing, do not install the six bolts numbered 7 
through 12 (Fig. 3) until the clutch housing is 
installed. 

8. On an In-line right hand rotation engine, start at 
No. 1 and draw 

the bolts up snug in the sequence shown in Fig. 3. 



Fig. 6 - Flywheel Housing Bolt Tightening 
Sequence (Operation 2)--ln-Line Engine 

a. Tighten the 5/16 "-18 bolts (numbers 11 and 12) 

to 19-23 Ib-ft torque and the 3/8 "-16 bolts 
(numbers 7 through 10) to 40-45 Ib-ft torque. 
Tighten the remaining 3/8 "-16 and 3/8 "-24 
bolts to 25-30 Ib-ft torque. 

NOTE: Prior to Engine Serial Number 
3D-011 the bolts numbered 7 

through 12 in Fig. 3 were all 5/16 "-18 bolts 
and must be tightened to 19-23 Ib-ft torque. 

b. On the three cylinder engines, 
tighten the two 5/16 "-18 bolts that secure the top 
of the governor to the flywheel housing to 10-12 
Ib-ft torque. 




9. Refer to Fig. 6 for the final bolt tightening 
sequence on an In-line engine. Then start at No. 1 
and tighten the bolts to the specified torque. 



November, 1973 SEC. 1.5 Page 3 



1 .5 Flywheel Housing 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 





Fig. 9 - Checking Flywheel Housing 
Concentricity 

12. Install the flywheel (Section 1.4). 

13. Check the flywheel housing concentricity and 
bolting flange face with tool J 9737-01 as follows: 

a. Refer to Fig. 9 and thread the base post J 9737-3 
tightly into one of the tapped holes in the 
flywheel. Then assemble the dial indicators on the 
base post. 

b. Position the dial indicators straight and square 
with the flywheel housing bell face and inside 
bore of the bell. Make sure each indicator has 
adequate travel in each direction. 




Fig. 10 Checking Bore Runout 




UtIKUII UltOCL 



nywheel Housing i-.o 



NOTE: If the flywheel extends beyond the 
housing bell, the bore and face must be checked 
separately. Use the special adaptor in the tool 
set to check the housing bore. 

c. Tap the front end of the crankshaft with a soft 

hammer or pry it toward one end of the block to 
ensure end play is in one direction only. 

d. Adjust each dial indicator to read zero at the 
twelve o'clock position. Then rotate the crankshaft 
one full revolution, taking readings at 45 
intervals (8 readings each for the bore and the 
bolting flange face). Stop and remove the wrench 
or cranking bar before recording each reading to 
ensure accuracy. The maximum total indicator 
reading must not exceed .013 " for either the bore 
or the face. 

e. If the run-out exceeds the maximum limits, remove 
the flywheel housing and check for dirt or foreign 
material (such as old gasket material) between the 
flywheel housing and the end plate and between 
the end plate and the cylinder block. 

f. Reinstall the flywheel housing and the flywheel 

and tighten the attaching bolts in the proper 
sequence and to the specified torque. Then 
recheck 'he run-out. If necessary, replace the 
flywheel housing. 

14. Install the tlutch housing, if used. Tighten the 



3/8 "-16 attaching bolts to 30-35 Ib-ft torque and the 
3/8 "-24 nuts to 35-39 Ib-ft torque. 

a. Install tool J 9748 in one of the crankshaft bolt 
holes. 

b. Install the dial indicator J 8001-3 and position it 
to read the bore run-out of the housing (Fig. 10). 
Now check the run-out by rotating the crankshaft. 
The run-out should not exceed .008 ". 

c. Reposition the dial indicator to read the face run- 

out and rotate the crankshaft. The maximum 
allowable run-out is .008 ". 

d. If the bore or face run-out is excessive, loosen the 
housing attaching bolts and nuts slightly and tap 
the housing with a soft hammer in the required 
direction until the run-out is within limits. 
Tighten the attaching bolts and nuts evenly to 30- 
35 and 35-39 Ib-ft torque respectively. Then 
recheck the run-out. 



16. Use a new gasket and install the oil pan. 



tighten the 1/2 "-13 reinforcement 



Install and 



17. Remove the engine from the overhaul stand and 
complete assembly of the engine. 



November, 1973 SEC. 1.5 Page 5 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



1.6 



PISTON AND PISTON RINGS 



The trunk type malleable iron piston (Fig. 1) is plated 
with a protective coating of tin which permits close 
fitting, reduces scuffing and prolongs piston life. The 
top of the piston forms the combustion chamber bowl 
and is designed to compress the air into close 
proximity to the fuel spray. 

Each piston is internally braced with fin-shaped ribs 
and circular struts, scientifically designed to draw heat 
rapidly from the piston crown and transfer it to the 
lubricating oil spray to ensure better control of piston 
ring temperature. 

The piston is cooled by a spray of lubricating oil 
directed at the underside of the piston head from a 
nozzle in the top of the connecting rod, by fresh air 
from the blower to the top of the piston and indirectly 
by the water jacket around the cylinder. 

Each piston is balanced to close limits by machining a 
balancing rib, provided on the inside at the bottom of 
the piston skirt. 

Two bushings, with helical grooved oil passages, are 
pressed into the piston to provide a bearing for the 



PISTON 



J-; 




CONNECTING 
ROD 



OH RING 
EXPANDER 



NON-TURBOCHARGED ENGINE 




OIL RING 

One PiaceJ 

OIL RING 

'(Upper Hall) 

. OIL RING 

"(tower Hall) 



OIL RING 
EXPANDER 



Oil RING ARRANGEMENT TURBOCHARGED ENGINES 



hardened, floating piston pin. After the piston pin has 
been installed, the hole in the piston at each end of the 
pin is sealed with a steel retainer. Thus lubricating oil 
returning from the sprayed underside of the piston 
head and working through the grooves in the piston 
pin bushings is prevented from reaching the cylinder 
walls. 

Each piston is fitted with compression rings and oil 
control rings (Fig. 1). 

Equally spaced holes are drilled just below each oil 
control ring land to permit the excess oil that is 
scraped off the cylinder walls to return to the 
crankcase. 



Inspect Piston Rings 

When an engine is hard to start, runs rough or lacks 
power, worn or sticking compression rings may be the 
cause. Replacing the rings will aid in restoring engine 
operation to normal. 




Fig. 1 Typical Piston Assembly 



Fig. 2 - Removing or Installing Piston Ring 



April, 1974 SEC. 1.6 Page 1 



I .0 



risTon ana ribiun 



U/U I IVN-/I 



The compression rings may be inspected through the 
ports in the cylinder liners after the air box covers 
have been removed. If the rings are free and are not 
worn to the extent that the plating or grooves are 
gone, compression should be within operating 
specifications. Refer to Section 15.2 for the procedure 
for checking cpmpression pressure. 



Remove Piston and Connecting Rod 

1. Drain the cooling system. 

2. Drain the oil and remove the oil pan. 

3. Remove the oil pump and inlet and outlet pipes, if 
necessary (Section 4.1). 

4. Remove the cylinder head (Section 1.2). 

5. Remove the carbon deposits from the upper inner 
surface of the cylinder liner. 

6. Use a ridge cutter to remove any ridge in the 
cylinder liner at the top of the piston ring travel. 

NOTE: Move the piston to the bottom of its 
travel and place a cloth over the top of the 
piston to collect the cuttings. After the ridge has 
been removed, turn the crankshaft to bring the 
piston to the top of its stroke and carefully 
remove the cloth with the cuttings. 

7. Remove the bearing cap and the lower bearing shell 
from the connecting rod. Then push the piston and 
rod assembly out through the top of the cylinder block. 
The piston cannot be removed from the bottom of the 
cylinder block. 




Fig. 3 - Cleaning Piston 



8. Reassemble the bearing cap and lower bearing shell 
to the connecting rod. 



Disassemble Piston and Connecting Rod 

Note the condition of the piston and rings. Then 
remove the rings and connecting rod from the piston 
as follows: 

1. Secure the connecting rod in a vise equipped with 
soft jaws and remove the piston rings with tool J 8128 
as shown in Fig. 2. 

2. Punch a hole through the center of one of the piston 
pin retainers with a narrow chisel or punch and pry 
the retainer from the piston, being careful not to 
damage the piston or bushings. 

3. Withdraw the piston pin from the piston, then 
remove the connecting rod. 

4. Drive the remaining piston pin retainer out from 
the inside with a brass rod or other suitable tool. 



Clean Piston 

Clean the piston components with fuel oil and dry 
them with compressed air. If fuel oil does not remove 
the carbon deposits, use a chemical solvent (Fig. 3) 
that will not harm the piston pin bushings or the tin- 
plate on the piston. 

The upper part of the piston, including the 
compression ring lands and grooves, is not tin-plated 
and may be wire-brushed to remove any hard carbon. 
However, use care to avoid damage to the tin-plating 
on the piston skirt. Clean the ring grooves with a 
suitable tool or a piece of an old compression ring that 
has been ground to a bevel edge. 

Clean the inside surfaces of the piston and the oil 
drain holes in the piston skirt. Exercise care to avoid 
enlarging the holes while cleaning them. 



Inspection 

If the tin-plate on the piston and the original grooves 
in the piston rings are intact, it is an indication of very 
little wear. 

Excessively worn or scored pistons, rings or cylinder 
liners may be an indication of abnormal maintenance 
or operating conditions which should be corrected to 
avoid recurrence of the failure. The use of the correct 
types and proper maintenance of the lubricating oil 
filters and air cleaners will reduce to a minimum the 
amount of abrasive dust and foreign material 



Page 2 



UtIKUII UltbtL 



Piston and Piston Rings 1 .6 






THIS PISTON SUITABLE FOR 
INSTALLATION AS IS 



SLIGHTLY SCORED, USE ONLY 
AFTER REMOVING SCORE MARKS 
BY POUSHING WITH CROCUS 
CLOTH OR HARD INDIA STONE 




BADLY SCOREO-UNFIT 
FOR USE 



Fig. 4 Comparison of Pistons 




introduced into the cylinders and will reduce the rate 
of wear. 

Long periods of operation at idle speed and the use of 
improper lubricating oil or fuel must be avoided, 
otherwise a heavy formation of carbon may result and 
cause the rings to stick. 

Keep the lubricating oil and engine coolant at the 
proper levels to prevent overheating of the engine. 

Examine the piston for score marks, cracks, damaged 
ring groove lands or indications of overheating. A 
piston with light score marks which may be cleaned up 
may be 're-used (Fig. 4). Any piston that has been 
severely scored or overheated must be replaced. 
Indications of overheating or burned spots on the 
piston may be the result of an obstruction in the 
connecting rod oil passage. 

Replace the piston if cracks are found across the 
internal struts. Use the magnetic particle inspection 
methods outlined in Section 1.3 under Crankshaft 
Inspection for locating cracks in the piston. 

Check the cylinder liner and block bore for excessive 
out-of-round, taper or high spots which could cause 
failure of the piston (refer to Section 1.0 for 
specifications). 

Inspection of the connecting rod and piston pin are 
covered in Section 1.6.1. 



Other factors that may contribute to piston failure 
include oil leakge into the air box, oil pull-over from 
the air cleaner, dribbling injectors, combustion blow- 
by and low oil pressure (dilution of the lubricating 
oil). 

Inspect and measure the piston pin bushings. The 
piston pin-to-bushing clearance with new parts is 
.0025 "to .0034". A maximum clearance of .010 "is 
allowable with' worn parts. The piston pin bushings in 
the connecting rod are covered in Section 1.6.1. 



Remove Bushings from Piston 

1. Place the piston in the holding fixture J 1513-1 so 
that the bushing bores are in alignment with the hole 
in the fixture base. 



2. Drive each bushing from the piston with the 
bushing remover J 4972-4 and handle J 1513-2 
(Fig. 5). 



Install Bushings in Piston 

1. Place the spacer J 7587-1 in the counterbore in the 
fixture J 1513-1 (small end up). 



April, 1974 SEC. 1.6 Page 3 



.o 



TIMOR ana risron 





HANDLE 



INSTAUER 



BUSHING 



FIXTURE 



Fig. 5 Removing or Installing Piston Pin 
Bushings 

2. Place the piston on the fixture so that the spacer 
protrudes into the bushing bore. 

3. Insert the installer J 4972-2 in a bushing, then 
position the bushing and installer over the lower 
bushing bore. 

NOTE: Locate the joint in the bushing toward 
the bottom of the piston (Fig. 6). 

4. Insert the handle J 1513-2 in the bushing installer 
and drive the bushing in until it bottoms on the 
spacer. 

5. Install the second bushing in the same manner. 

6. The bushings must withstand an end load of 1800 
pounds without moving after installation. 

7. Ream the bushings to size as follows: 

a. Clamp the reaming fixture J 5273 in a vise 
Page 4 





Fig. 6 - Location oi Joint in Piston Pin 
Bushings 



(Fig. 7). Then insert the guide bushing J 4970-5 
in the fixture and secure it with the set screw. 



b. Place the piston in the fixture and insert the pilot 
end of the reamer J 4970-4 through the clamping 
bar, bushings and into the guide bushing. 




Fig. 7 - Reaming Piston Pin Bushings 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Piston and Piston Rings 1 .6 






Fig. 8 Measuring Piston-to-liner Clearance 



c. With the piston, fixture and reamer in alignment, 
tighten the wing nuts securely. 




^^B^ 



Fig. 9 - Measuring Piston Ring Gap 



d. Ream the bushings (Fig. 7). Turn the reamer in a 
clockwise direction only, when reaming or with- 
drawing the reamer. For best results, use only 
moderate pressure on the reamer. 

e. Withdraw the reamer and remove the piston from 
the fixture. Blow out the chips and measure the 
inside diameter of the bushings. The diameter 
must be 1.3775" to 1.3780". 



Fitting Piston 

Measure the piston skirt diameter lengthwise and 
crosswise of the piston pin bore. Measurements should 
be taken at room temperature (70 F.). The taper and 
out-of-round must not exceed .0005 " . Refer to 
Section 1.0 for piston diameter specifications. 

A new cylinder liner has an inside diameter of 

3.8752 "to 3.8767". The piston-to-liner clearance, 

with new parts, is .003 1 " to .0068 " (non-turbocharged 

engines). 

A maximum clearance of .010" (non-turbocharged 

engines) is allowable 

with used parts. 

With the cylinder liner installed in the cylinder block, 
hold the piston upside down in the liner and check the 
clearance in four places 90 apart (Fig. 8). 

Use feeler gage set J 5438 to check the clearance. The 
spring scale, attached to the proper feeler gage, is used 
to measure the force in pounds required to withdraw 
the feeler gage. 




Fig. 10 Measuring Piston Ring Side Clearance 



April, 1974 SEC. 1.6 Page 5 



1 .6 Piston and Piston Rings 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Select a feeler gage with a thickness that will require a 
pull of six pounds to remove. The clearance will be 
.001" greater than the thickness of the feeler gage 
used, i.e., a .004" feeler gage will indicate a clearance 
of .005 "when it is withdrawn with a pull of six 
pounds. The feeler gage must be perfectly flat and free 
of nicks and bends. 

If any bind occurs between the piston and the liner, 
examine the piston and liner for burrs. Remove burrs 
with a fine hone (a flat one is preferable) and recheck 
the clearance. 



Fitting Piston Rings 

Each piston is fitted with a fire ring, three compression 
rings and two oil control rings (Fig. 1). 

The current top compression (fire) ring can be 
identified by the bright chrome on the bottom side 
and oxide (rust color) on the top. The former ring had 
a plain metal color on both sides. 

A two-piece oil control ring is used in both oil ring 
grooves in the pistons for non-turbocharged (naturally 
aspirated) engines. 



All new piston rings must be installed whenever a 
piston is removed, regardless of whether a new or used 
piston or cylinder liner is installed. 

Insert one ring at a time inside of the cylinder liner 
and far enough down to be within the normal area of 
ring travel. Use a piston to push the ring down to be 
sure it is parallel with the top of the liner. Then 
measure the ring gap with a feeler gage as shown in 
Fig. 9. Refer to Section 1.0 for ring gap specifications. 

If the gap on a compression ring is insufficient, it may 
be increased by filing or stoning the ends of the ring. 
File or stone both ends of the ring so the cutting 
action is from the outer surface to the inner surface. 
This will prevent any chipping or peeling of the 
chrome plate on the ring. Tho ends of the ring must 
remain square and the chamfer on the outer edge 
must be approximately .015" 

Check the ring side clearance as shown in Fig. 10. 
Ring side clearances are specified in Section 1.0. 



Piston in Section 1.6.1. Then refer to Frg. 1 and 
install the piston rings. 

NOTE: Lubricate the piston rings and piston 
with engine oil before installing the rings. 

COMPRESSION RINGS 

1. Starting with the bottom ring, install the 
compression rings with tool J 8128 as shown in Fig. 2. 
To avoid breaking or pverstressing the rings, do not 
spread them any more than necessary to slip them 
over the piston. 

CAUTION: When installing the top compression 
(fire) ring with the tapered face, be sure the 
side marked "TOP" is toward the top of the 
piston. 

2. Stagger the ring gaps around the piston. 
OIL CONTROL RINGS 

The upper and lower oil control rings used on pistons 
for non-turbocharged engines consist of two halves 
(upper and lower). 

Install the oil control rings as follows: 

1. Install the ring expanders in the oil control ring 
grooves in the piston. 

CAUTION: When installing the oil control rings, 
use care to prevent overlapping the ends of the 
ring expanders. An overlapped expander will 
cause the oil ring to protrude beyond allowable 
limits and will result in breakage when the 
piston is inserted in the ring compressor during 
installation in the cylinder liner. Do not cut or 
grind the ends of the expanders to prevent 
overlapping. Cutting or grinding the ends will 
decrease the expanding force on the oil control 
rings and result in high lubricating oil 
consumption. 




Install Piston Rings 

Before installing the piston rings, assemble the piston 
and rod as outlined under Assemble Connecting Rod to 

Page 6 



Install the upper and lower halves of the lower oil 
control ring by hand. Install the upper half with the 
gap 180 "from the gap in the expander. Then install 
the lower half with the gap 45 from the gap in the 




UCIKUII UlCCStL OJ 



riston and riston Kings I .o 




upper half of the ring. Make sure the scraper edges 
are facing down (toward the bottom of the piston). 

NOTE: The scraping edges of all oil control 
rings must face downward (toward the bottom 
of the piston) for proper oil control. 



3. Install the upper and lower halves of both oil 
control rings (non-turbocharged engines) as outlined 
above. 

If there is a noticeable resistance during installation of 
the piston, check for an overlapped ring expander. 




April, 1974 SEC. 1.6 Page 7 



UtIKVJII LMCSCL 



I .O. I 



*p? " 



CONNECTING ROD 




Each connecting rod (Figs. 1 and 2) is forged to an 
"I" section with a closed hub at the upper end and a 
bearing cap at the lower end. The connecting rod is 
drilled to provide lubrication to the piston pin at the 
upper end and is equipped with a nozzle to spray 
cooling oil to the underside of the piston head on 
engines equipped with an oil cooler. Engines that are 
no; equipped with an oil cooler do not use nozzle type 
connecting rods. An orifice is pressed into a 
counterbore at the lower end of the oil passage (in 
rods equipped with a spray nozzle) to meter the flow 
of oil. 

NOTE: Never intermix nozzle type connecting 
rocs in an engine with non-nozzle type 
connecting rods. 

A helically-grooved bushing is pressed into each side 
of the connecting rod at the upper end. The cavity 
between the inner ends of these bushings registers 
with the drilled oil passage in the connecting rod and 
forms a duct around the piston pin. Oil entering this 
cavity lubricates the piston pin bushings and is then 
forced out the spray nozzle to cool the piston. The 
piston pin floats in the bushings of both the piston and 
the connecting rod. 

A service connecting rod includes the bearing cap. 





Fig. 1 Connecting Rod Mounting 



bolts, nuts, spray nozzle (if used), orifice and the 
piston pin bushings pressed in place and bored to size. 

The replaceable connecting rod bearing shells are 
covered in Section 1.6.2. 



Disassemble Connecting Rod from Piston 

Witn the rod and piston assembly removed from the 
engine, disassemble the piston and connecting rod as 
outlined in Section 1.6. 



BUSHING 




NUT 



Fig. 2 Connecting Rod Details and Relative 
Location of Parts 



April, 1974 SEC. 1.6.1 Page 1 



1.6.1 Connecting Rod 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



DO NOT USE OR ATTEMPT TO SALVAGE 
HODS WITH INDICATIONS OVER 005 DEEP 
EXTENDING OVER EDGES Op "H" SECTION 
ON BOTH SIDES OF FLANGE. SHADED AR 
ARC MOST HIGHLY STRCS5CO 



EXAMPLE OF AN INDICATION 
FOLLOWING LONGITUDINAL 
FORGING 7 LOW UNCS 




START OP FATIGUE CRACK RESULTING 
FROM OVERLOADING (DUE TO HYDRO- 
STATIC LOCK) DO NOT ATTEMPT TO 
SALVAGE (THJS TYPC OF INDICATION 
IS NOT VISIBLE WITH BUSHINGS IN PLACE). 



EXAMPLE or A TRANSVERSE INDICATION' 
THAT HOES NOT FOLLOW LONGITUDINAL 
FORGING FLOW LINES CAN BE CITHER A 
FORGING LAP. HIAT TREAT CRACK, OR 
START OF A FATIGUE CRACK. 




- NON-CRITICAL AREA- 



CRITICAL AREA 
ACCEPTABLE LIMITS 



NON-CRITICAL 
AXEA 



AS 



INDICATIONS IN NON-CRITIC 
ARE ACCEPTABLE UNLESS THEY CAN 
BE OBSERVED AS OBVIOUS CRACKS 
ITHOl'T WACNITIC INSPECTION 



LONGITUDINAL INDICATIONS 
FOLLOWING FOROED FLOW LINES 
ARE USUALLY SEAMS AND ARE NOT 
CONSIDERED HARMFUL IF LESS THAN 
1/12 DEEP. DEPTH CAN BE DETER- 
MINED BY GRINDING A SMALL AREA 
NEAR THE CENTER OF THE INDICA- 
TION. 



TRANSvr.ME IHI.XATIOMS [ACROSS FLOW LINES). 
HAVING A MAXIMUM LENGTH OF 1/i, WHICH CAN 
BE REMOVED BY GRINDING NO DEEPER THAN 1/64 
ARE ACCIPTABLIL AFTER THEIR COMPLETE RE- 
MOVAL. AN EX\.E.'TiON TO TH1 IS A ROD HAVING 
A-< INDICATION WHICH EXTENDS OVER THE EDGE 
OF "H" SECT.ON AND IS PRESENT ON BOTH SIDE* 
OF TH* FLANGt IN THIS CASE MAXIMUM ALLOW. 
ABLE DE.TH 14 . MS (SEE SECTDN A-A) 



GRINDING NOTES 

CAKE SHOULD >E TAXZN IN GRINDING OUT IN- 
DICATIONS TO ASSURE PROPER BLENDING OF 
GROUND AREA INTO UNGROUND SURFACE SO 
AJ TO FORM A SMOOTH CONTOUR. 



VVvVV'SNNXV NNVsXTWvNN 1 

POOR PRACTICE GOOD PRACTICE 

1496 




Fig. 3 - Magnetic Particle Inspection Limits for Connecting Rod 



Inspection 



Clean the connecting rod and piston pin with fud oil 
and dry them with compressed air. Blow compressH 
air through the drilled oil passage in the connecting 
rod to be sure the orifice, oil passage and spray holes 
are not clogged. 

Check the connecting rod for cracks (Fig. 3) by the 
magnetic particle method outlined in Section 1.3 
under Crankshaft Inspection. 

If a new service connecting rod is required, stamp the 
cylinder number on the connecting rod and cap (refer 
to Section 1.6.3). 

NOTE: Clean the rust preventive from a service 
replacement connecting rod and blow com- 
pressed air through the drilled oil passage to be 
sure the orifice, oil passage and spray holes are 
not clogged. Also make sure the split line (cap 
to rod) is thoroughly cleaned to avoid trapped 
contaminants from adversely affecting bearing 
shell "crush". 

Check the connecting rod bushings for indications of 
scoring, overheating or other damage. Bushings that 
have overheated may become loose and creep 

Page 2 



together, thus blocking off the lubricating oil to the 
piston pin, bushings and spray nozzle. 

Inspect the piston pin for signs of fretting. When re- 
using a piston pin, the highly polished and lapped 
surface of the pin must not in any way be refinished. 
Polishing or refinishing the piston pin is not 
recommended as it could result in very rapid bushing 
wear. 

Since it is subjected to downward loading only, free 
movement of the piston pin is desired to secure perfect 
alignment and uniform wear. Therefore, the piston 
pin is assembled with a full floating fit in the 
connecting rod and piston bushings, with relatively 
large clearances. Worn piston pin clearances up to 
.010" are satisfactory. 



Remove Bushings 

If it is necessary to replace the connecting rod 
bushings, remove them as follows: 



' \ 



UtIKUII UltbtL 



Connecting Kod 1 .6. 1 



DRIVER 
HANDLE - 



REMOVER 




HOLDER 



SPRAY 
NOZZLE 




POSITION HOLES 
AS SHOWN 



Fig. 4 Removing or Installing Bushings 



1. Clamp the upper end of the connecting rod in 
holder J 7632 (Fig. 4) so that the bore in the bushings 
is aligned with the hole in the base of the holder. 



2. Place the bushing remover J 4972-4 in the 
connecting rod bushing, insert handle J 1513-2 in the 
remover and drive the bushings from the rod. 




Fig. 6 Position of Spray Nozzle Holes 

Replace Spray Nozzle 

The connecting rod bushings must be removed before 
the spray nozzle can be replaced. The orifice in the 
lower end of the drilled^ passage in the connecting rod 
is not serviced and it is not necessary to remove it 
when replacing the spray nozzle. 

Replace the spray nozzle as follows: 

1. Remove the connecting rod bushings (note Caution). 

2. Insert spray nozzle remover J 8995 through the 
upper end of the connecting rod and insert the pin, in 
the curved side of the tool, in the opening in the 
bottom of the spray nozzle. 

3. Support the connecting rod and tool in an arbor 
press as shown in Fig. 5. 




Fig. 5 Removing Spray Nozzle 



Fig. 7 Location of Bushing Joint 



April, 1974 SEC. 1.6.1 Page 3 



1.6.1 Connecting Rod 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



4. Place a short sleeve directly over the spray nozzle. 
Then press the nozzle out of the connecting rod. 

5. Remove the tool. 

6. Start the new spray nozzle, with the holes positioned 
as shown in Fig. 6, straight into the counterbore in the 
connecting rod. 

7. Support the connecting rod in the arbor press, place 
a short 3/8" I.D. sleeve on top of the nozzle and press 
the nozzle into the connecting rod until it bottoms in 
the counterbore. 

8. Install new bushings in the connecting rod. 



Install Bushings 

1. Clamp the upper end of the connecting rod 
assembly in holder J 7632 so that the bore for the 
bushings aligns with the hole in the base of the tool 
(Fig. 4). 

2. Start a new bushing straight into the bore of the 
connecting rod, with the bushing joint at the top of the 
rod (Fig. 7). 

3. Insert installer J 4972-2 in the bushing, then insert 
handle J 1513-2 in the installer and drive the bushing 
in until the flange of the installer bottoms on the 
connecting rod. 

4. Turn the connecting rod over in the holder and 
install the second bushing in the same manner. 

5. The bushings must withstand an end load of 2000 
pounds without moving after installation. 

6. Ream the bushings to size as follows: 




a. Clamp reaming fixture J 7608-4 in a bench vise. 



c. Place ,he crankshaft end of the connecting rod on 
the ai bor of the fixture (Fig. 8). Tighten the nuts on 
the 3/8"-24 bolts (In-line engines) to 

40-45 Ib-ft torque. 



d. Slide the front guide bushing J 4971-6 (with the 
pin end facing out) in the fixture. 

e. Install spacer J 7608-3 in the fixture. 

f. Align the upper end of the connecting rod with the 
hole in the reaming fixture. 

g. Install the rear guide bushing J 1686-5 on the reamer 
J 7608-21, then slide the reamer and bushing into 
the fixture. 

h. Turn the reamer in a clockwise direction only, 
when reaming or withdrawing the reamer. For best 
results, use only moderate pressure on the reamer. 

i. Remove the reamer and the connecting rod from 
the fixture, blow out the chips and measure the in- 
side diameter of the bushings. The inside diameter 
of the bushings must be 1 .3760" to 1 .3765". This will 
provide a piston pin-to-bushing clearance of .0010" 





Fig. 8 Reaming Bushings 



Fig. 9 - Installing Piston Pin Retainer 




UCIKUII LMC3CL 



rcoa 



I.O.I 



to .0019" with a new piston pin. A new piston pin 
has a diameter of 1.3746" to 1.3750". 



Assemble Connecting Rod to Piston 

Apply clean engine oil to the piston pin and bushings. 
Refer to Fig. 2 and assemble the connecting rod to the 
piston as follows: 

1 . Place the piston in the holding fixture (Fig. 9). 

2. Place a new piston pin retainer in position. Then 
place the crowned end of installer J 23762 against the 
retainer and strike the tool just hard enough to deflect- 
the retainer and seat it evenly in the piston. 

CAUTION: Do not drive the retainer in too far 
or the piston bushing may be moved inward 
and result in reduced piston pin end clearance. 

3. Place the upper end of the connecting rod between 
the piston pin bosses and in line with the piston pin 
holes. Then slide the piston pin in place. If the piston 
pin-to-bushing clearances are within the specified 
limits, the pin will slip into place without use of force. 

4. Install the second piston pin retainer as outlined in 
Steps 1 and 2. 

5. After the piston pin retainers have been installed, 



check for piston pin end clearance by cocking the 
connecting rod and shifting the pin in its bushings. 

6. One important function of the piston pin retainer is 
to prevent the oil, which cools the underside of the 
piston and lubricates the piston pin bushings, from 
reaching the cylinder walls. Check the retainers for 
proper sealing as follows: 

a. Place the piston and connecting rod assembly 
upside down on a bench. 

b. Pour clean fuel oil in the piston to a level above 
the piston pin bosses. 

c. Dry the external surfaces of the piston in the area 
around the retainers and allow the fuel oil to set for 
about fifteen minutes. 

d. Check for seepage of fuel oil around the retainers. 
If the fuel oil leaks around the retainers, install new 
retainers. In extreme cases, it may be necessary to 
replace the piston. 

e. After the leakage test is completed, empty the fuel 
oil from the piston, dry the parts with compressed air 
and lubricate the piston pin with clean engine oil. 

7. Install the piston rings on the piston as outlined in 
Section 1.6. 

8. Install the piston and connecting rod assembly in 
the engine as outlined in Section 1.6.3. 



April, 1974 SEC. 1.6.1 Page 5 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



1.6.2 



CONNECTING ROD BEARINGS 



The connecting rod bearing shells (Fig. 1) are 
precision made and are replaceable without shim 
adjustments. They consist of an upper bearing shell 
seated in the connecting rod and a lower bearing shell 
seated in the connecting rod cap. The bearing shells 
are prevented from endwise or radial movement by a 
tang at the parting line at one end of each bearing 
shell. 



The upper and lower connecting rod bearing shells are 
different and are not interchangeable. The upper 
bearing shell has two short oil grooves and two oil 
holes; each groove begins at the end of the bearing 
shell and terminates at an oil hole. The lower bearing 
shell has a continuous oil groove from one end of the 
shell to the other. These grooves maintain a 
continuous registry with the oil hole in the crankshaft 
connecting rod journal, thereby providing a constant 
supply of lubricating oil to the connecting rod 
bearings, piston pin bushings and spray nozzle 
through the oil passage in the connecting rod. 



Remove Bearing Shells 

The connecting rod bearing caps are numbered 1, 2, 3, 
etc. on an In-lint engine 

with matching numbers stamped on 
the connecting rods. When removed, each bearing cap 
arid the bearing shells must always be reinstalled on 
the original connecting rod. 

Remove the connecting rod bearings as follows: 

1. Drain the oil and remove the oil pan. 

2. Remove the oil inlet pipe and screen assembly. 



3. Remove one connecting rod bearing cap. Push the 
connecting rod and piston assembly up into the 
cylinder liner far enough to permit removal of the 
upper bearing shell. Do not pound on the edge of the 
bearing shell with a sharp tool. 

4. Inspect the upper and lower bearing shells as 
outlined under Inspection. 

5. Install the bearing shells and bearing cap before 
another connecting rod bearing cap is removed. 



Inspection 

Bearing failures may result from deterioration (acid 
formation) or contamination of the oil or loss of oil. 
An analysis of the lubricating oil may be required to 
determine if corrosive acid and sulphur are present 
which cause acid etching, flaking and pitting. Bearing 
seizure may be due to low oil or no oil. 

After removal, clean the bearings and inspect them for 
scoring, pitting, flaking, etching or signs of overheat- 
ing. If any of these defects are present, the bearings 
must be discarded. The upper bearing shells, which 



BUSHING 




NUT 



Fig. 1 Connecting Rod and Bearing Shells 



April, 1974 SEC. 1.6.2 Page 1 



1.6.2 Connecting Rod Bearings 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Bearing 
Size 


Bearing 
Thickness 


Minimum 
Thickness 




In-Line Engines 




Standard 
.002" Undersize 
.010" Undersize 
.020" Undersize 
.030" Undersize 


.12457.1250" 
.12557.1260" 
.12957.1300" 
.13457.1350" 
.13957.1400" 


.1230" 
.1240" 
.1280" 
.1330" 
.1380" 


\ 


/Type Engine 




Standard 
.002" Undersize 
.010" Undersize 
.020" Undersize 
.030" Undersize 


.12477.1252' 
.12577.1262' 
.12977.1302' 
.13477.1352' 
.13977.1402' 


.1230" 
.1240" 
.1280" 
.1330" 
.1380" 



TABLE 1 



carry the load, will normally show signs of distress 
before the lower bearing shells do. 

Inspect the backs of the bearing shells for bright spots 
which indicate they have been shifting in their 
supports. If such spots are present, discard the bearing 
shells. Also inspect the connecting rod bearing bore 
for burrs, foreign particles, etc. 

Measure the thickness of the bearing shells, using a 
micrometer and ball attachment J 4757, as described 
under Inspection in Section 1.3.4. The minimum 
thickness of a worn standard connecting rod bearing 
shell should not be less than .1230 "and, if either 
bearing shell is thinner than this dimension, replace 
both bearing shells. A new standard bearing shell has 
a thickness of .1245" to .1250" (in-line engine). 

Refer to Table 1 . 

In addition to the thickness measurement, check the 
clearance between the connecting rod bearing shells 
and the crankshaft journal. This clearance may be 
checked by means of a soft plastic measuring strip 
which is squeezed between the journal and the bearing 
(refer to Shop Notes in Section 1.0). The maximum 
connecting rod bearing- to-journal clearance with used 
parts in .006 " . 

Before installing the bearings, inspect the crankshaft 
journals (refer to Inspection in Section 1.3). 

Do not replace one connecting rod bearing shell alone. 
If one bearing shell requires replacement, install both 
new upper and lower bearing shells. Also, if a new or 
reground crankshaft is to be used, install all new 
bearing shells. 



Page 2 



Bearing shells are available in .010", .020 "and 
.030 " undersize for service with reground crankshafts. 
To determine the size bearings required, refer to 
Crankshaft Grinding in Section 1.3. 

Bearings which are .002 " undersize are available to 
compensate for slight journal wear where it is 
unnecessary to regrind the crankshaft. 

NOTE: Bearing shells are NOT reworkable from 
one undersize to another under any 
circumstances. 



Install Connecting Rod Bearing Shells 

With the crankshaft and the piston and connecting rod 
in place, install the connecting rod bearings as follows: 

1. Rotate the crankshaft until the connecting rod 
journal is at the bottom of its travel, then wipe the 
journal clean and lubricate it with clean engine oil. 

2. Install the upper bearing shell - the one with the 
short groove and oil hole at each parting line -- in the 
connecting rod. Be sure tfte tang on the bearing shell 
fits in the groove in the connecting rod. 

3. Pull the piston and rod assembly down until the 
upper rod bearing seats firmly on the crankshaft 
journal. 

4. Note the numbers stamped on the connecting rod 
and the bearing cap and install the lower bearing shell 
- the one with the continuous oil groove - in the 
bearing cap, with the tang on the bearing shell in the 
groove in the bearing cap. 

5. Install the bearing and cap and tighten the nuts on 
the 3/8 "-24 bolts (In-line engines) to 40-45 
Ib-ft torque. 



6. Install the lubricating oil pump inlet tube assembly. 
Replace the inlet tube seal ring or elbow gasket if 
hardened or broken. 



7. Install the oil pan, using a new gasket. 

8. Refer to the Lubricating Oil Specifications in 
Section 13.3 and fill the crankcase to the proper level 
on the dipstick. 

9. If new bearings were installed, operate the engine 
on the run-in schedule as outlined in Section 13.2.1. 




ii: 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



1.6.3 



CYLINDER LINER 



The cylinder liner (Fig. 1) is of the replaceable wet 
type, made of hardened alloy cast iron, and is a slip fit 
in the cylinder block. The current liner is centrifugally 
cast, while the former liner was sand cast. 

The liner is inserted in the cylinder bore from the top 
of the cylinder block. The flange of each liner rests on 
a counterbore in the top of the block. 

A synthetic rubber seal ring, recessed in the cylinder 
block bore, is used between the liner and the block to 
prevent water leakage into the air box. 

The upper portion of the liner is directly cooled by 
water surrounding the liner. The center portion of the 
liner is air cooled by the scavenging air which enters 
the cylinder through eighteen equally spaced ports. 




I 



The air inlet ports in the liner are machined at an 
angle to create a uniform swirling motion to the air as 
it enters the cylinder. This motion persists throughout 
the compression stroke and facilitates scavenging and 
combustion. 

The wear on a liner and piston is directly related to 
the amount of abrasive dust and dirt introduced into 
the engine combustion chamber through the air 




Fig. 1 Cylinder Liner 



Fig. 2 Removing Cylinder Liner 

intake. This dust, combined with lubricating oil on the 
cylinder wall, forms a lapping compound and will 
result in rapid wear. Therefore, to avoid pulling 
contaminated air into the cylinder, the air cleaners 
must be serviced regularly according to the surround- 
ings in which the engine is operating. 




i LJ/ U " 



MEASURE INSIDE 
1 DIAMETER OF 

LINER AT PLACES 
i A, 8, C, D, E, 

F, AND G ON "XZ" 

AND "WV" AXES 



Fig. 3 Cylinder Liner Measurement Diagram 



November, 1973 SEC. 1.6.3 Page 1 



Remove Cylinder Liner 

It is very important that the proper method is followed 
when removing a cylinder liner. Do not attempt to 
push the liner out by inserting a bar in the liner ports 
and rotating the crankshaft, otherwise the piston may 
be damaged or the upper ring groove may collapse. 

To remove a cylinder liner, refer to Fig. 2 and 
proceed as follows: 

1. Remove the piston and connecting rod assembly as 
outlined in Section 1.6. 

2. Remove the cylinder liner with tool set J 22490 as 
follows: 

a. Slip the lower puller clamp up on the puller rod 
and off the tapered seat. Cock the clamp so it will 
slide down through the liner. The clamp will drop 
back on the tapered seat after it clears the bottom 
of the liner. Then slide the upper puller clamp 
down against the top edge of the liner. 




Fig. 4 Checking Bore of Cylinder Liner 



b. With the tool in place, strike the upset head on the 
upper end of the puller rod a sharp blow with the 
puller weight, thus releasing the liner. 

c. Remove the tool from the liner. Then remove the 

liner from the cylinder block. 

d. Remove and discard the cylinder liner seal ring 
from the groove in the cylinder block bore. 

If tool J 22490 is unavailable, tap the liner out with a 
hardwood block and hammer. 



Inspect Used Cylinder Liner 

When the cylinder liner is removed from the cylinder 
block, it must be thoroughly cleaned and then checked 
for: 

Cracks 

Scoring 

Poor contact on outer surface 

Flange irregularities 

Inside diameter 

Out-of-round 

Taper 

A cracked or excessively scored liner must be 
discarded. A slightly scored liner may be cleaned-up 
and re-used. 

Excessive liner-to-block clearance or block bore 
distortion will reduce heat transfer from the liner to 
the block and to the engine coolant. Poor contact 
between the liner and the block bore may be indicated 
by stains or low pressure areas on the outer surface of 
the liner. 

Examine the outside diameter of the liner for fretting. 






GLAZE 
BROKEN 



Fig. 5 Glazed Surface of Cylinder Liner 




Page 2 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Cylinder Liner 1 .6.3 




Fig. 6 - Cylinder Liner Ridge Due to Wear 

Fretting is the result of a slight movement of the liner 
in the block bore during engine operation, which 
causes material from the block to adhere to the liner. 
These metal particles may be removed from the 
surface of the liner with a coarse, flat stone. 

Install the liner in the proper bore of the cylinder 
block and measure the inside diameter at the various 
points shown in Fig. 3. Use cylinder bore gage J 5347 
(Fig. 4), which has a dial indicator calibrated in 
.0001 " increments, as it is rather difficult to obtain 
accurate measurements with a micrometer. Set the 
cylinder bore gage on zero in master ring gage J 8385. 
Also check the liner for taper and out-of-round. 

NOTE: Dial bore gage master setting fixture 
J 23059 may be used in place of the master 
ring gage. 

To reuse the liner, the taper must not exceed .002 "and 
the out-of-round must not exceed .003". In addition, 
the ridge formed at the top of the ring travel must be 
removed. If the out-of-round exceeds .003", rotate the 
liner 90 "in the block bore and recheck. 



bore becomes very smooth or glazed due to the 
rubbing action of the piston rings. Unless this glaze is 
removed, the time required to seat new piston rings 
will be lengthened. 

The ridge formed at the top of the liner by the travel 
of the piston rings must also be removed. Otherwise, 
interference with the travel of the new compression 
rings may result in ring breakage. 

Therefore, even though the taper and out-of-round are 
within the specified limits, the glaze and ridge must be 
removed by working a hone up and down the full 
length of the liner a few times. 

Whenever a liner is honed, it should be placed in a 
fixture (a scrap cylinder block makes an excellent 
honing fixture). However, if it is necessary to hone a 
liner in the cylinder block that is to be used in 
building up the engine, the engine must be dismantled 
and then, after honing, the cylinder block and other 
parts must be thoroughly cleaned to ensure that all 
abrasive material is removed. 

The hone J 5902-01, equipped with 120 grit stones 
J 5902-14, should be worked up and down, at a speed 
of 300-400 rpm, the full length of the liner a few times 
in a criss-cross pattern that produces hone marks on a 
45 "axis. This operation may be performed with emery 
cloth if a hone is not available. 

After the liner has been honed, remove it from the 
fixture and clean it thoroughly. Then dry it with 
compressed air and check the entire surface for burrs. 

After honing, the liner must conform to the same 
limits on taper and out-of-round as a new liner and 
the piston-to-liner clearance must be within the 
specified limits (Section 1.0). 



Inspect New Cylinder Liner 

Both the former and current liners can be intermixed 
in In-line engines. 



I 



Hone Used Cylinder Liner 

A used cylinder liner must be honed for the following 
reasons: 

1. To break the glaze (Fig. 5) which results after long 
periods of operation. 

2. To remove the ridge (Fig. 6) formed at the top by 
the piston ring travel. 

When a liner has been in service for a long period, the 



Install the cylinder liner in the block and measure the 
inside diameter at the various points shown in Fig. 3. 
Use dial bore gage J 5347 and set the gage on zero 
with master ring J 8385. 

NOTE: Dial bore gage master setting fixture 
J 23059 may be used in place of the master 
ring gage. 

A new cylinder liner is 3.8752" to 3.8767" on the 
inside diameter and should be straight from top to 
bottom within .001" and round within .002" total 
indicator reading when the liner is in place in the 



November, 1973 SEC. 1.6.3 Page 3 



1 .6.3 Cylinder Liner 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



block. Refer to Section 1.0 for the specified piston-to- 
liner clearance. 

NOTE: Do not modify the surface finish in a 
new service cylinder liner. Since the liner is 
properly finished at the factory, any change will 
adversely affect the seating of the piston rings. 



Fitting Cylinder Liner in Block Bore 

1. Wipe the inside and outside of the liner clean and 
make sure the block bore and counterbore are clean so 
the liner flange will seat properly. Then slide the liner 
into the block until the flange rests on the bottom of 
the counterbore in the block. 

CAUTION: Do not drop or slam the liner flange 
against the bottom of the counterbore in the 
block. 

2. Tap the liner lightly with a soft hammer to make 
certain the liner flange seats on the bottom of the 
counterbore. 

3. Clamp the liner in place with hold-down clamp 
J 21793 and measure the distance from the top of the 
liner flange to the top of the block with dial indicator 
set J 22273 (Fig. 7). The top of the liner flange should 
be .0465 " to .0500 " below the top of the block, and 
there must not be over .0015" difference in depth 
between any two adjacent liners when measured along 
the cylinder longitudinal center line. If the above 
limits are not met, install the liner in another bore and 
recheck, or use a new liner. 

4. Matchmark the liner and the cylinder block with 
chalk or paint so the liner mav be reinstalled in the 




Fig. 7 - Checking Distance of Liner Flange 
Below Top Face of Block 




OPERATION i 





Fig. 8 - Installing Piston and Connecting Rod 
Assembly in Ring Compressor and Cylinder 

Liner 

same position in the same block bore. Place the 
matchmark on the engine serial number side of the 
block (In-line engine). 



5. Remove the hold-down clarnp and the cylinder 
liner. 



Install Piston and Connecting Rod Assembly 

1. With the piston assembled to the connecting rod 
and the piston rings in place as outlined in 
Sections 1.6 and 1.6.1, apply Cindol 1705 oil to the 
piston, rings and the inside surface of the piston ring 
compressor J 6883. 

NOTE: Inspect the ring compressor for nicks or 
burrs, especially at the non-tapered inside 
diameter end. Nicks or burrs on the inside 
diameter of the compressor will result in 
damage to the piston rings. 



Page 4 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Cylinder Liner 1 .6.3 






Fig. 9 Cylinder Liner Seal Ring Location in Cylinder Block Bore 



2. Place the piston ring compressor on a wood block, 
with the chamfered end of the ring compressor facing 
up. 

3. Position (stagger) the piston ring gaps properly on 
the piston. Make sure the ends of the oil control ring 
expanders are not overlapped. 

4. Start the top of the piston straight into the ring 
compressor. Then push the piston down until it 
contacts the wood block (Operation 1 of Fig. 8). 

5. Note the position of the matchmark and place the 
liner, with the flange end down, on the wood block. 

6. Place the ring compressor and the piston and 
connecting rod assembly on the liner so the numbers 
on the rod and cap are aligned with the matchmark on 
the liner (Operation 2 of Fig. 8). 

NOTE: The numbers, or number and letter, on 
the side of the connecting rod and cap identify 
the rod with the cap and indicate the particular 
cylinder in which they are used. If a new service 
connecting rod is to be installed, the same 
identification numbers, or number and letter, 
must be stamped in the same location as on the 
connecting rod that was replaced. 

7. Push the piston and connecting rod assembly down 



into the liner until the piston is free of the ring 
compressor. 

CAUTION: Do not force the piston into the 
liner. The peripheral abutment type expanders 
apply considerably more force on the oil ring 
than the standard expander. Therefore, extra 
care must be taken during the loading 
operation to prevent ring breakage. 

8. Remove the connecting rod cap and the ring 
compressor. Then push the piston down until the 
compression rings pass the cylinder liner ports. 




Fig. 10 - Installing Piston, Rod and Liner 
Assembly in Cylinder Block 



November, 1973 SEC. 1.6.3 Page 5 



1.6.3 Cylinder Liner 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Install Cylinder Liner, Piston and Connecting 
Rod Assembly 

After the piston and connecting rod assembly have 
been installed in the cylinder liner, install the entire 
assembly in the engine as follows: 

1. Make sure the seal ring groove in the cylinder block 
is clean. Then install a new seal ring. 

NOTE: The current cylinder block has an ad- 
ditional seal ring groove approximately 1/8" 
below the original top groove (Fig. 9). This 
groove will permit further use of the cylinder 
block where corrosion or erosion of the upper 
seal ring groove has occurred. The lower seal 
ring groove in the current cylinder block has 
been eliminated. Reinstallation of the lower 
seal ring is not necessary in the former cylinder 
block. 

2. Apply hydrogenated vegetable type shortening or 
permanent type antifreeze to the inner surface of the 
seal ring. 

3. If any of the pistons and liners are already in the 
engine, use hold-down clamps (Fig. 7) to retain the 
liners in place when the crankshaft is rotated. 

4. Rotate the crankshaft until the connecting rod 
journal of the particular cylinder being worked on is 
at the bottom of its travel. Wipe the journal clean and 
lubricate it with clean engine oil. 

5. Install the upper bearing shell the one with a 
short oil groove at each parting line -- in the 
connecting rod. Lubricate the bearing shell with clean 
engine oil. 

6. Position the piston, rod and liner assembly in line 
with the block bore (Fig. 10) so the identification 
number on the rod is facing 

the engine serial number side 

(In-line engine). Also align the matchmarks on the 
liner and the block. Then slide the entire assembly 
into the block bore and seal ring, being careful not to 
damage the seal ring. 

7. Push or pull the piston and connecting rod into the 
liner until the upper bearing shell is firmly seated on 
:he crankshaft journal. 



8. Place the lower bearing shell - the one with the 
continuous oil groove from one parting line to the 
other -- in the connecting rod cap, with the tang on the 
bearing shell in the notch in the connecting rod 
bearing cap. Lubricate the bearing shell with clean 
engine oil. 

9. Install the bearing cap and the bearing shell on the 
connecting rod with the identification numbers on the 
cap and the rod adjacent to each other. On the 3/8"- 
24 bolts (In-line engines), tighten the nuts to 
40-45 Ib-ft torque. 



10. Check the connecting rod side clearance. The 
clearance between the side of the rod and the 
crankshaft should be .006" to .012" with new parts on 
an In-line engine. 



11. Install the remaining liner, piston and rod 
assemblies in the same manner. Use hold-down clamps 
to hold each liner in place. 

12. After all of the liners and pistons have been 
installed, remove the hold-down clamps. 

13. Install new compression gaskets and water and oil 
seals as outlined in Section 1.2. Then install the 
cylinder head and any other parts which were removed 
from the engine. 

14. After the engine has been completely reassembled, 
refer to the Lubricating Oil Specifications in 
Section 13.3 and refill the crankcase to the proper 
level on the dipstick. 

15. Close all of the drains and fill the cooling system. 

16. If new parts such as pistons, rings, cylinder liners 
or bearings were installed, operate the engine on the 
run-in schedule given in Section 13.2.1. 



Page 6 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



1.7 



ENGINE BALANCE AND BALANCE WEIGHTS 



In the balance of two-cycle engines, it is important to 
consider disturbances due to the reciprocating action 
of the piston masses. These disturbances are of two 
kinds: unbalanced forces and unbalanced couples. 
These forces and couples are considered as primary or 
secondary according to whether their frequency is 
equal to engine speed or twice engine speed. Although 
it is possible to have unbalanced forces or couples at 
frequencies higher than the second order, they are of 
small consequence in comparison to the primary forces 
and couples. Even the secondary forces and couples 
are usually of little practical significance. 

The reciprocating masses (the piston and upper end of 
the rod) produce an unbalanced couple due to their 
arrangement on the crankshaft. 

On an In-line engine, it 

tends to rock the engine from end to end in a vertical 
plane. This couple is cancelled by incorporating an 
integral crankshaft balance component and by placing 
balance weights 

at the outer ends of the balance shaft 
and camshaft (In-line engine). This balance arrange- 
ment produces a couple that is equal and opposite in 
magnitude and direction to the primary couple. 

On the balance shaft and 

camshaft (In-line engine), each set of weights (weights 
on the outer ends of each shaft comprise a set) rotates 
in an opposite direction with respect to the other. 
When the weights on either end of the engine are in a 
vertical plane, their centrifugal forces are in the same 
direction and oppose the primary couple. When they 
are in a horizontal plane, the centrifugal forces of 
these balance weights oppose each other and are, 
therefore, cancelled. The front balance weights act in a 
direction opposite to the rear balance weights; 
therefore, rotation will result in a couple effective only 
in a vertical plane. This couplej along with that built 
into the crankshaft, forms an elliptical couple which 
completely balances the primary couple. 

The balance weights are integral with the gears and 
the circular balance weights (pulleys) on the shafts. 
Additional weights are attached to the camshaft and 
balance shaft gears on three cylinder 

engines. 

Both the rotating and primary reciprocating forces 
and couples are completely balanced in the engines. 
Consequently, the engines will operate smoothly and 
in balance throughout their entire speed range. 



Remove Front Balance Weights 

1. Remove the nut at each end of both shafts as 
outlined in Section 1.7.2. 

2. Force the balance weight off the end of each shaft, 
using two screw drivers or pry bars between the 
balance weight and the upper front cover as shown in 
Fig. 1. 



Install Front Balance Weights 

1. Reinstall the Woodruff keys in the shafts, if they 
were removed. 

2. Align the keyway in the balance weight with the key 
in the shaft, then slide the weight on the shaft. If the 
weight does not slide easily onto the shaft, loosen the 
thrust washer retaining bolts at the opposite end of the 
shaft. Then, to prevent possible damage to the thrust 
washer, support the rear end of the shaft while 
tapping the weight into place with a hammer and a 



\z*r w 




Fig. 1 Removing rront Balance Weight (Pulley 
Type) 



November, 1973 SEC. 1.7 Page 1 



sleeve. Retighten the thrust washer retaining bolts to 
30-35 Ib-ft torque. Install the other weight in the same 
manner. 

3. Wedge a clean rag between the gears. Refer to 



Fig. 1 of Section 1.7.2 and tighten the gear retaining 
nuts to 300-325 Ib-ft torque. Then tighten the front 
balance weight retaining nuts to 300-325 Ib-ft torque. 
Remove the rag from the gears. 




ige 2 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



1.7.1 



GEAR TRAIN AND ENGINE TIMING 



A train of helical gears, completely enclosed between 
the engine end plate and the flywheel housing, is 
located at the rear of the Series 53 engines. 

The gear train on an In-line engine (Fig. I) consists of 
a crankshaft gear, an idler gear, a camshaft gear, and 
a balance shaft gear. The governor drive gear, the 
upper blower rotor gear for the three cylinder 

engines, 

are driven by the camshaft gear or 
balance shaft gear, depending upon the engine model. 



The idler gear rotates on a stationary hub. 

The camshaft and balance shaft gears on In-line 

engines 

are pressed on and keyed to their respective shafts and 

each gear is secured by a retaining nut and lock plate. 

The crankshaft, idler, camshaft and balance shaft 
gears on In-line engines are completely 

interchangeable with each other 



On In-line engines, the camshaft and balance shaft 
gears have additional weights attached to the rear face 
of each gear. 

These weights are 
important in maintaining perfect engine balance. 



On In-line engines, the crankshaft gear is 

pressed on and keyed to the end of the crankshaft. 




IN-LINE ENGINE 



R.H. ROTATION 



Fig. 1 - In-Line Engine Gear Train Timing Marks (Standard Timing Shown) 



February, 1972 SEC. 1.7.1 Page 1 



1.7.1 Gear Train and Timing 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 




The camshaft and balance shaft gears on an In-line 
engine 

mesh with each other and run at the same 
speed as the crankshaft gear. Since the camshaft gears 
must be in time with each other, and the two as a unit 
in time with the crankshaft gear, timing marks have 
been stamped on the face of the gears to facilitate 
correct gear train timing. 

The symbol system of marking the gears makes gear 
train timing a comparatively easy operation. When 
assembling the engine, it is important to remember the 
engine rotation. Then, working from the crankshaft 
gear to the idler gear and to the camshaft and/or 
balance shaft gear in that order, line up the 
appropriate circle symbols on the gears or the 
appropriate triangles as each gear assembly is installed 
on the engine. Refer to Fig .1 for a typical 

gear train timing arrangement. 

NOTE: It is advisable to make a sketch 
indicating the position of the timing marks 
BEFORE removing or replacing any of the 
gears in the gear train. 



symbols stamped on the gears. The letters stamped on 
the crankshaft gears identify the proper timing marks 
for the particular engine: "I" represents "In-line" 
engine, "R" represents 

right-hand rotation engine, 

and "A" represents advanced timing. 

Effective with engine serial numbers 3D-64404, 

all Series 53 vehicle 

engines are built with advanced timing. The timing is 
advanced by aligning the proper "A" timing mark on 
the crankshaft gear with the circle-triangle timing 
mark on the idler gear. 



IN-LINE ENGINE: 

The camshaft and balance shaft gears are positioned 
so that the circle timing marks are adjacent to each 
other (Fig. 1). One circle-triangle timing mark on the 
idler gear is aligned with the second "circle" on the 
mating camshaft (or balance shaft) gear. The other 
timing mark on the idler gear is aligned with the 
proper timing mark on the crankshaft gear. 



The circle and the triangle are the basic timing The crankshaft gear is stamped "IR-A" on the left 
Page 2 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Gear Train and Timing 1.7.1 



side of the circle timing mark (Fig. l)for a right-hand 
rotation engine. For standard timing, the circle on the 
crankshaft gear is aligned with the circle-triangle on 
the idler gear. For advanced timing, the "A" adjacent 
to the "IR" on the crankshaft gear is aligned with the 
circle-triangle on the idler gear. 



February, 1972 SEC. 1.7.1 Page 3 



1.7.1 Gear Train and Timing 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Lubrication 

The gear train is lubricated hy the overflow of oil 
from the camshaft and balance shaft pockets spilling 
into the gear train compartment. A certain amount of 
the oil also spills into the gear train compartment 
from the camshaft and balance shaft end bearings and 



the idler gear bearing. 



ENGINE TIMING 



The correct relationship between the crankshaft and 
camshafl(s) must be maintained to properly control 
fuel injection and the opening and closing of the 
exhaust valves. 

The crankshaft timing gear can be mounted in only 
one position since it is keyed to the crankshaft. The 
camshaft gear(s) can also be mounted in only one 
position due to the location of the keyway relative to 
the cams. Therefore, when the engine is properly 
timed, the markings on the various gears will match as 
shown in Fig . I. 

Pre-ignition. uneven running and a loss of power may 
result if an engine is "out of time". 

When an engine is suspected of being out of time, due 
to an improperly assembled gear (rain, a quick check 
can be made without removing the flywheel and 
flywheel housing by following the procedure outlined 
below. 



Check Engine Timing 

Access to the crankshaft pulley, to mark the top dead 
center position of the selected piston, and to the front 
end of the crankshaft or the flywheel for turning the 
crankshaft is necessary when performing the timing 
check. Then, proceed as follows: 

1. Clean and remove the valve rocker cover. 

2. Select any cylinder for the timing check. 

3. Remove the injector as outlined in Section 2.1 or 
2.1.1. 

4. Carefully slide a rod, approximately 12" long, 
through the injector tube until the end of the rod rests 
on top of the piston. Place the throttle in the no-fuel 
position. Then, turn the crankshaft slowly in the 
direction of engine rotation. Stop when the rod 
reaches the end of its upward travel. Remove the rod 
and turn the crankshaft, opposite the direction of 
-''in, between 1/16 and 1/8 of a turn. 



""' tVi .001" graduations and a 



spindle movement of at least 1". Provide an extension 
for the indicator spindle. The extension must be long 
enough to contact the piston just before it reaches the 
end of its upward stroke. Also, select suitable 
mounting attachments for the indicator so it can be 
mounted over the injector tube in the cylinder head. 

6. Mount the indicator over the injector tube. Check to 
be sure the indicator spindle extension is free in the 
injector tube and is free to travel at least one inch. 

1 . Attach a suitable pointer to the engine lower front 
cover. The outer end of the pointer should extend out 
over the top of the crankshaft pulley. 

8. Turn the crankshaft slowly, in the direction of 
engine rotation, until the indicator hand just stops 
moving. 

9. Continue to turn the crankshaft, in the direction of 
rotation, until the indicator starts to move again. Now 
set the indicator on zero and continue to turn the 
crankshaft until the indicator reading is .010". 



Engine 


'INDICATOR READING 


Standard 


Retarded 
1 -Tooth 


Advanced 
1 -Tooth 


STANDARD TIMING 


U 3 


.228" 


.204" 


.245" 


("3- 


.206" 


.179" 


.232" 


ADVANCED TIMING 


<'>3- 


.232" 


.206" 


.258" 



* Indicator readings shown are nominal values. The 
allowable tolerance is .005 in. 

(1) High velocity type injector earn. 

(2) Low velocity type injector cam. 



TABLE 1 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Gear Train and Timing 1.7.1 



10. Scribe a line on the crankshaft pulley in line with 
the end of the pointer. 

1 1 . Slowly turn the crankshaft, opposite the direction 
of rotation, until the indicator hand stops moving. 

12. Continue to turn the crankshaft, opposite the 
direction of rotation, until the indicator starts to move 
again. Now set the indicator on zero and continue to 
turn the crankshaft until the indicator reading is 
.010". 

13. Scribe the second line on the crankshaft pulley in 
line with the end of the pointer. 

14. Scribe a third line on the pulley half way between 
the first two lines. This is top dead center. 

NOTE: If the crankshaft pulley retaining bolt 
loosened up, tighten it to the torque specified in 
Section 1.0. 

15. Remove the dial indicator and rod from the 
engine. 



16. Install the injector as outlined in Section 2.1 or 
2.1.1. Then, refer to Section 14 and adjust the exhaust 
valve clearance and time the fuel injector. 

17. Turn the crankshaft, in the direction of rotation, 
until the exhaust valves in the cylinder selected are 
completely open. Reinstall the dial indicator so the 
indicator spindle rests on the top of the injector 
follower. Then, set the indicator on zero. Next turn the 
crankshaft slowly, in the direction of rotation, until the 
center mark on the pulley is in line with the pointer. 

18. Check the front end of the camshaft for an 
identification mark. For identification purposes, a 
letter "V" is stamped on each end of a low velocity 
camshaft; but a letter "V" is not stamped on a high 
velocity camshaft. Note the indicator reading and 
compare it with the dimensions listed in Table 1 for 
the particular camshaft in the engine. 

19. Remove the dial indicator; also remove the pointer 
attached to the front of the engine. 

20. Install the valve rocker cover. 



February, 1972 SEC. 1.7.1 Page 5 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



1.7.2 



/W*K; 



CAMSHAFT, BALANCE SHAFT AND BEARINGS 



The camshaft and balance shaft used in the In-line 
engines, 

are located just below the top of the cylinder 
block. The camshaft and balance shaft in the In-line 
engines may be positioned on either side of the engine 
as required by the engine rotation and accessory 
arrangement. 




The shafts are supported by bearings (bushing type) 
that are pressed into bores in the cylinder block. The 
balance shaft is supported by front and rear bearings 
only, whereas the camshaft is supported by end, 
intermediate and center bearings. 



The camshafts in the 

three cylinder engine are supported by two end 

bearings and two intermediate bearings. 



To facilitate assembly, letters signifying the engine 
models in which a shaft may be used are stamped on 
the ends of the shaft. The letters on the timing gear 
end of the camshaft must correspond with the engine 
model. For example, the letters RC are stamped on a 
camshaft used in an RC model engine. For additional 
identification, a camshaft with no designation on the 
ends or ;> "7" stamped on the ends is a high-velocity 
high-lift camshaft. A camshaft stamped with a "V" or 
"V7" is a low velocity high-lift camshaft. 




Fig. 1 Removing or Installing Nut on 
Camshaft or Balance Shaft 



NOTE: The low lift camshaft which provides a 
maximum valve cam lobe lift of .276 " is 
stamped "V7L" on both ends. 

Lubrication is supplied under pressure to the camshaft 
and balance shaft end bearings via oil passages 
branching off from the main oil gallery direct to the 
camshaft end bearings. 

In addition, oil is forced through an oil passage in 
each camshaft which lubricates the camshaft interme- 
diate bearings. On the current camshafts, the 
intermediate journal oil grooves were eliminated and a 
chamfer added to the intermediate journal oil holes. 
When replacing a former camshaft with a current 
camshaft, always use new bearings. 

All of the camshaft and balance shaft bearings 
incorporate small slots through which lubricating oil is 
directed to the cam follower rollers. 



Remove Camshaft or Balance Shaft 

Whenever an engine is being completely reconditioned 
or the bearings, thrust washers, or the gears need 




Fig. 2 Removing or Installing Thrust Washer 
Retaining Bolts 



August, 1972 SEC. 1.7.2 Page 1 



7.2 Camshaft and Bearings 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 




Fig. 3 - Removing End Bearing 

placing, remove the shafts from the engine in the 
Mowing manner: 

NOTE: Refer to Shop Notes in Section 1.0 to 
install a cup plug in the front end of the 
camshaft. 



Drain the engine cooling system. 

Remove all accessories and assemblies with their 
taching parts as necessary to permit the engine to be 
Dunted on an overhaul stand. 

ocedures for removing accessories and assemblies 
>m the engine will be found in their respective 
:tions of this manual. 

Mount the engine on an overhaul stand. Be sure the 
gine is securely mounted on the stand before 
leasing the lifting sling. 

Remove the cylinder head(s). Refer to Section 1.2. 

Remove the flywheel and the flywheel housing as 
tlined in Sections 1.4 and 1.5. 

Remove the bolts which secure the gear nut retainer 
ige 2 



plates (if used) to the gears, then remove the retainer 
plates. 

7. Wedge a clean rag between the gears as shown in 
Fig. 1; then, remove the nuts from each end of both 
shafts with a socket wrench. 

8. Remove the balance weights from the front end of 
the shafts as outlined in Section 1.7. 




9. Remove the upper engine front 
(Section 1.7.8). 



cover 



10. Remove the oil slinger from the front end of both 
shafts. 

11. Remove the two retaining bolts that secure the 
camshaft or balance shaft thrust washer to the cylinder 
block by inserting a socket wrench through a hole in 
the web of the gear as shown in Fig. 2. 

12. Withdraw the shaft, thrust washer and gear as an 
assembly from the rear end of the cylinder block. 



Disassemble Camshaft or Balance Shaft 

1. Remove the gear from the shaft. Refer to 
Section 1.7.3. 

2. Remove the end plugs from the camshaft, to 
facilitate the removal of any foreign material lodged 
behind the plugs, as follows: 

a. Clamp the camshaft in a vise equipped with soft 
jaws, being careful not to damage the cam lobes 
or machined surfaces of the shaft. 

b. Make an indentation in the center of the camshaft 
end plug with a 31/64 " drill (carboloy tip). 

c. Punch a hole as deeply as possible with a center 

punch to aid in breaking through the hardened 
surface of the plug. 

d. Then, drill a hole straight through the center of 
the plug with a 1/4 " drill (carboloy tip). 

e. Use the 1/4" drilled hole as a guide and redrill 

the plug with a 5/16 " drill (carboloy tip). 

f. Tap the drilled hole with a 3/8 "-16 tap. 

g. Thread a 3/8 "-16 adaptor J 8183 into the plug. 
Then, attach a slide hammer J 6471-1 to the 
adaptor and remove the plug by striking the 
weight against the handle. 

h. Insert a length of 3/8 " steel rod in the camshaft 
oil gallery and drive the remaining plug out. 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Camshaft and Bearings 1 .7.2 



NOTE: If a steel rod is not available, remove the 
remaining plug as outlined in Steps "a" 
through "g". 

Inspection 

Soak the camshaft in clean fuel oil. Then, run a wire 
brush through the oil gallery to remove any foreign 
material or sludge. Clean the exterior of the camshaft 
and blow out the oil gallery and the oil holes with 
compressed air. Clean the camshaft bearings and 
related parts with fuel oil and dry them with 
compressed air. 

Inspect the cams and journals for wear or scoring. If 
the cams are scored, inspect the cam rollers as outlined 
in Section 1.2.1. 

Check the runout at the center bearing with the 

CAMSHAFT AND BALANCE SHAFT CYLINDER 
BLOCK BORE MACHINING CHART 



Engine 


Bearing 
Location 


Dimension 


Minimum 


Maximum 


3 
3 


End 
Intermediate* 


2.385" 
2.375" 


2.386" 
2.376" 



TABLE 1 



camshaft mounted on the end bearing surfaces. Run 
out should not exceed .002 ". 

Examine both faces of the thrust washers. If either 
face is scored or if the thrust washers are worn 
excessively, replace the washers. New thrust washers 
are .208 " to .210 " thick. 

Also, examine the surfaces which the thrust washers 
contact; if these surfaces are scratched but not severely 
scored, smooth them down with an oil stone. If the 
score marks are too deep to be removed, or if parts are 
badly worn, use new parts. 

The clearance between new shafts and new bearings is 
.0045 " to .006 ", or a maximum of .008 " with worn 
parts. Excessive clearance between the shafts and the 
bearings will cause low oil pressure and excessive 
backlash between the gears. 

Bearings are available in .010 " and .020 " undersize 
for use with worn or reground shafts. 

Oversize camshaft and balance shaft bearings are 
available in sets, .010" oversize on the outside 
diameter, to permit reuse of a cylinder block having 
one or more scored block bearing bores. To use the 
oversize bearings, the camshaft and balance shaft 
block bores must be carefully line-bored (machined) to 
the dimensions shown in Table 1. 




Fig. 4 Installing Intermediate Camshaft Bearing 



August, 1972 SEC. 1.7.2 Page 3 



1 .7.2 Camshaft and Bearings 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Remove Bearings 



The end bearings must be removed prior to removing 
the intermediate bearings. 

CAUTION: When removing the bearings be sure 
to note the position of the bearings in the bore 
with respect to the notch in the bearings. 
Replacement bearings must be installed in the 
same position. 

1. Remove all accessories and assemblies with their 
attaching parts as is necessary so that tool set J 7593- 
32 may be used as shown in Fig. 3 and in A of Fig. 7. 

Tool set J 7593-03, designed for use with standard size 
bearings, may be used to remove and install .010 " 
undersize and .020 " undersize bearings by reducing 
the pilot diameter of the pilot J 7593-2, installer 
I 7593-3, remover J 7593-5, installer J 7593-6, and 
installer J 7593-15. The pilot diameter of these tools 
ihould be reduced by .020 ". This reduction in tool 
diameter does not materially effect usage on standard 
size bearings. If the tools are used frequently, however, 
it may be advisable to purchase additional standard 
pieces. Reduced diameter tools have not been released. 

>. Insert the small diameter end of the pilot J 7593-2 
.nto the end bearing. 

5. Then, with the unthreaded end of the shaft J 7593-1 
itarted through the pilot, push the shaft through the 
Dlock bore until the end of the shaft snaps into the 
emoverJ 7593-5. 

I. Now drive the end bearing out of the cylinder 
jlock. The nearest intermediate and /or center 
>earings can be removed now in the same manner, 
fhe large diameter end of pilot J 7593-2 will fit into 





INTERMEDIATE 
AND CENTER 



Fig. 5 Camshaft and Balance Shatt Bearing 
Identification 



NOTCH INBOARD AS SHOWN- 
-ALL BEARINGS THIS SIDE 




NOTCH OUTBOARD AS SHOWN-AU OTHER 
BEARINGS THIS SIDE 

REAR VIEW OF "A i D" 
3 CYLINDER ENGINES 



NOTCH INBOARD AS SHOWN - 
-ALL BEARINGS THIS SIDE 




NOTCH OUTBOARD AS SHOWN- 
-ALL BEARINGS THIS SIDE 

REAR VIEW OF "B & C" 
3 CYLINDER ENGINES 




Fig. 6 Location of Notch in Relation to Shaft 
Bore Centerline 



'age 4 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Camshaft and Bearings 1.7.2 



the camshaft bore and is used when removing the 
other end bearing and any remaining bearings. 



Install Intermediate and/or Center Camshaft 
Bearings 

Camshaft ,center and intermediate bearings must be 
installed prior to installing the camshaft end bearings. 
On the four cylinder In-Line and 8V engine, the 
center, rear intermediate and rear bearings are 
installed in that order by pressing the bearings from 
the rear to the front of the block. The front 
intermediate and front bearings are installed by 
pressing the bearings from the front to the rear of the 
block. Bearings are similarly installed in the three 
cylinder and 6V engine except that there is no center 
bearing. The center bearing for the two cylinder block 
is installed by pressing the bearing from the rear to 
the front of the block. 

NOTE: Current bearings incorporate lubrication 
grooves on the inner bearing surface (Fig. 5). 

To properly install the camshaft and balance shaft 
bearings, refer to Fig. 6 for location of the notch in 
the bearing in relation to the camshaft or balance 
shaft bore centerline in the cylinder block. 

Also, to facilitate assembly, the camshaft and balance 
shaft bearings are color coded on the side and/or end 
as shown in Table 2. 

1. Insert pilot J 7593-2 in the bore of the block as 
shown in Fig. 4. Use the small end of the pilot if an 



CAMSHAFT AND BALANCE SHAFT 
BEARING COLOR CODE CHART 



Bearing 
Position 


Color Code 


Outside 

Diameter 


Inside 
Diameter 


Currenf 


Former 


End 


Brown 
Brown 


Black 
Yellow 


Standard 

.010" 
Oversize 


Standard, 
.010" &. 020" U.S. 
Standard (only) 


Inter- 
mediate 


Orange 
Orange 


Red 
Blue 


Standard 

.010" 
Oversize 


Standard, 
. 010" &. 020" U.S. 
Standard (only) 



Table 2 



end bearing has been installed. Refer to B and C of 
Fig. 7. 

2. Insert the new intermediate or center bearing into 
the camshaft bore and position it correctly. Install the 
center bearing first. 

3. Then, with the unthreaded end of shaft J 7593-1 
started through the pilot, push the shaft through the 
entire length of the block bore. 

4. Slide installer J 7593-6 on the shaft until the 
locating pin registers with the notch in the bearing 
Then, slide installer J 7593-3 or J 7593-15 on the shaft 
with the large diameter inserted into the end of the 
block bore. Refer to C and note of Fig. 7. 

5. Next, place a spacer (if required), thrust washer, 
plain washer and hex nut over the threaded end of the 
puller. The short spacer J 7593-1 1, shown in Fig. 4, is 
used on the three cylinder (In-Line) and 6V blocks. 
The long spacer J 7593-10 is used on the two cylinder 
block. 

6. Align the shaft in such a way that a "C" washer, 
J 7593-4, can be inserted in a groove in the shaft 
adjacent to installer J 7593-6. 

7. Place a "C" washer in the groove near the end of 
the shaft and, using a suitable wrench on the hex nut, 
draw the bearing into place until the "C" washer butts 
up against installer J 7593-3 and prevents the shaft 
from further movement. 



Install End Bearings 

Refer to the camshaft and balance shaft color code 
chart and the cylinder block bore machining 
dimension chart when installing the end bearings. 

1. Insert pilot J 7593-2 in the bore of the block as 
shown in "D" of Fig. 7. Use the small diameter of the 
pilot if a bearing has been installed. 

2. Insert support J 7593-12 in the bore in the opposite 
end of the block; then, with the unthreaded end of the 
shaft started through pilot J 7593-2, push the shaft 
through the block and support J 7593-12. 

3. Place a new end bearing on installer J 7593-3 and 
align the notch in the bearings with the pin on the 
installer. Then, slide the installer and the bearing on 
the shaft. Position the bearing correctly with, the 
groove in the camshaft bore. 

4. Place "C" washer J 7593-4 in the end notch in the 
shaft; pull the shaft back until the washer butts 
against the installer. 



August, 1972 SEC. 1.7.2 Page 5 



1 .7.2 Camshaft and Bearings 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 




J-7593-5 



J-7S93-4 



td hd / 

A J-7J93-I J-7593-2 

THRUST BEARING WASHER NUT 



J-7J93-4 J-7593-3" J-7593-4 




I-7593-4 



J-7J93-3' 



J-7593-6 



J-7593-1 



J-7593-2 




J-7593-4 J-7593-3 J-7593-12 



NOTE: U> J-7593-1 5 when installing (he 
right front intermediate or left rear intermediate 
bearing in 6V cylinder block. 



J-7593-1 




J-7593-2 



NOTE: Use J-7593-15 in place of J-7593-3 
at shown in Fig. B to install center bearing in 
8V cylinder block. 




Fig. 7 Removing and Replacing Camshaft or Balance Shaft Bearings 



5. Next, place a spacer (if required), thrust washer, 
plain washer and hex nut over the threaded end of the 
shaft as shown in "D" of Fig. 7 and, using a suitable 
wrench on the hex nut, draw the bearing into place 
until the shoulder on the installer prevents the shaft 
from further movement. The bearing is now installed 
in its correct position. 

Install the remaining end bearings in the same 
manner. 



block. The center bearing for the two cylinder block is 
5.54 " from the rear face of the block. The 
intermediate bearings for the four cylinder and three 
cylinder block are 5.54 " from the rear and front face 
of the block. The right rear and left front intermediate 
bearings for the 6V and 8V cylinder block are 5.54 " 
from the rear and front face of the block; and the 
right front and left rear intermediate bearings are 
6.66 " from the front and rear face of the block. 



Use of tool J 7593-03 assures that the bearings are 
properly spaced in relation to the end of the block. 
The center bearing (notch end) for a four and 8V 
cylinder block is 10.94 " from the rear face of the 

Page 6 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Camshaft and Bearings 1 .7.2 



NUT PULLEY 



SLINGER KEY BALANCE 

SHAFT 



END THRUST GEAR 

BEARING WASHER 




SPACER PLUG 



CAMSHAFT 



SPACER 



GEAR 



RETAINER 



Fig. 8 - Camshaft and Balance Shaft Details and Relative Location of Parts 



Assemble and Install Camshaft and Balance 
Shaft 

Refer to Fig. 8 and assemble the camshaft and 
balance shaft. 

1. Install new end plugs in the camshaft. Press the 
plugs in to a depth of 1.940 " to 2.060 ". 

2. Install the gears and thrust washers on their 
respective shafts as outlined in Section 1 .7.3. 

3. Lubricate the bearings and shafts with engine oil 
and slide the shaft assemblies into the cylinder block 
being careful not to damage the bearings or the cams 
and journals. Make sure that the appropriate timing 
marks on the gears are aligned. Refer to Gear Train 
and Engine Timing in Section 1.7.1. 

4. Slide an oil slinger on the front end of both shafts. 

5. Install the upper engine front cover, if used, 
(Section 1.7.8). 



6. Secure the thrust washers in place as shown in 
Fig. 2 and tighten the bolts to 30-35 Ib-ft torque. 

7. Install the front balance weights (Section 1.7). 

8. Attach the gear nut retainer plates (if used) to the 
gears with bolts and lock washers and tighten the bolts 
to 35-39 Ib-ft torque. 

9. Check the clearance between the thrust washer and 
the gear on both shafts. The clearance should be 
.005" to .015 ", or a maximum of .019" with used 
parts. 

10. Check the backlash between the mating gears. The 
backlash should be .003 " to .005 " and should not 
exceed .007 " between used gears. 

11. Install the flywheel housing and other parts or 
assemblies that were removed from the engine as 
outlined in their respective sections of this manual. 



August, 1972 SEC. 1.7.2 Page 7 



UtIKWII UIC3CL 



CAMSHAFT AND BALANCE SHAFT GEARS 



The camshaft and balance shaft gears on an In-line 
engine 

are located at the flywheel end of the engine 
and mesh with each other and run at the same speed 
as the crankshaft. 

Since the camshaft and balance shaft gears on In-line 

engines 

must be in time with each other, timing marks are 

stamped on the rim of each gear. Also, since these two 

gears as a unit must be in time with the crankshaft, 

timing marks are located on the idler and crankshaft 

gears (refer to Section 1.7.1). 

Each gear is keyed to its respective shaft and held 
securely against the shoulder on the shaft by a nut. A 
gear nut retainer, with a double hexagon hole in the 
center, fits over the nut on some engines. The retainer 
is attached to the gear by bolts threaded into tapped 
holes in the gear. 

On the three cylinder In-line engines, 

external weights are attached to the rear face of each 
gear. 

The weights are important 
in maintaining perfect engine balance. 



When new service gears are used on an In-line engine, 
the external weights on the old 

gears must be ^transferred to the new gears. If the 
weights are transferred to new gears, tighten the bolts 
to 45-50 Ib-ft torque. 



Remove Camshaft and Balance Shaft Gears 

1. Remove the camshaft and the balance shaft from 
the engine as outlined in Section 1.7.2. 

2. Place the camshaft and gear assembly in an arbor 
press with the gear suitably supported as shown in 
Fig. 1. 

3. Place a wood block under the lower end of the 
camshaft so the threads will not be damaged when the 
shaft is pressed from the gear. 

4. Place a short piece of 3/4" O.D. brass rod between 
the end of the camshaft and the ram of the press; then 
force the camshaft out of the camshaft gear. 

5. Remove the thrust washer, Woodruff key and spacer 
from the camshaft. 

6. Remove the gear from the balance shaft in a similar 
manner. 




Fig. 1 - Removing Camshaft Gear 
Inspection 

Clean the gears with fuel oil and dry them 
compressed air. Then examine the gear teet) 
evidence of scoring, pitting and wear. Replac 
gears if necessary. 

Examine both faces of the camshaft and balance 
thrust washer and, if either face is worn or s( 
replace the washer. Also examine the surface o 
camshaft and balance shaft which the thrust w 
contacts. If this surface is scratched, but not se^ 
scored, smooth it up with a fine oil stone. 



Install Camshaft and Balance Shaft Gears 

1. Note the letters stamped on the end of the carr 
which signify the engine models in which a carr 
may be used. The letters on the timing gear end < 
camshaft must correspond with the engine moc 
the particular engine being assembled. Refer t 
front of this manual for engine model identificati 

2. Place the rear camshaft spacer over the timing 
end of the camshaft and install the Woodruff key 

3. Lubricate the thrust washer with clean engii 
and place the thrust washer over the gear end < 
camshaft and the spacer. 



7.3 Camshaft Gears 




Fig. 2 - Installing Camshaft Gear 

Start the camshaft gear over the end of the 
nshaft with the key in the shaft registering with the 



keyway in the gear. 

5. Then, with the camshaft supported in an arbor 
press, place a sleeve on top of the gear and under the 
ram of the press. Bring the ram of the press down on 
the sleeve and press the gear tight against the spacer 
on the shaft (Fig. 2). 

6. Measure the clearance between the camshaft thrust 
washer and the camshaft. This clearance should be 
.008" to .015" when new parts are used. With used 
parts, a maximum clearance of .021" is allowable. 

7. Install the gear retaining nut on the camshaft by 
hand. Tighten the nut after the shaft is installed in the 
cylinder block. 

8. Install the gear on the balance shaft in a similar 
manner. No rear spacer is used with the balance shaft 
gear, since the gear seats against a shoulder on the 
shaft. 



9. Install the camshaft and balance shaft in the engine 
as outlined in Section 1 .7. 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



IDLER GEAR AND BEARING ASSEMBLY 



IN-LINE 

The engine idler gear and bearing assembly, located at 
the flywheel end of the engine, meshes with the 
camshaft and crankshaft gears and rotates on a 
stationary hub. The hub is secured directly to the 
cylinder block by a bolt which passes through the hub 
and three bolts which pass through the flywheel 
housing, hub and end plate (Fig. 1). 

Two timing marks (a triangle within a circle) are 
stamped on the idler gear diametrically opposite 
( 1 80 ) to one another. 

The inside diameter of the idler gear bearing is 
2.186 "-2. 187 " and the outside diameter of the idler 
gear hub is 2.1825 "-2. 1835 ". Therefore, the clearance 
between the idler gear hub and the idler gear bearing 
is .0025 " to .0045 ", with a maximum allowable wear 
limit of .007 ". 

A thrust washer is provided on both sides of the idler 
gear and bearing assembly. The standard thickness of 
the idler gear and bearing assembly is 1.233 " to 
1 .234 " and the standard thickness of the two thrust 
washers is .236 " to .240 "; thus, the clearance between 
the thrust washers and the idler gear is .006 " to 
.013 ", with a maximum allowable wear limit of 
.017". 

On an In-line engine, the idler gear is positioned on 
the left-hand side for a right-hand rotating engine 

as viewed from the rear. Refer to Fig. 5 under General 
Description. 



ENGINES 




On early engines, an idler gear spacer (dumm 
was used on the side opposite the idler gear. Cu 
the flywheel housing has an integral cast hub 
.015 " thick shim is used between the flywheel h 
and the end plate. 



Remove Idler Gear and Bearing Assembly 
(Flywheel Housing Removed) 

1. Remove the idler gear outer thrust washer fr< 
idler gear hub (Fig. 3). 

2. Slide the idler gear straight back off of thi 
gear hub. 

3. Remove the bolt which secures the idler gear 




Fig. 1 - Installing Idler Gear Hub 



Fig. 2 Installing Idler Gear 



Idler Gear 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



INNER 
rHRUST 
VASHER 



OUTER THRUST WASHER 




IDLER GEAR 



BOLT 



Fig. 3 - Idler Gear Details and Relative Location of Parts 



Under block. Then remove the idler gear hub 
z idler gear inner thrust washer as an assembly. 



Hon 



the idler gear and bearing assembly, hub and 
washers thoroughly in clean fuel oil and dry 
nth compressed air. Examine the gear teeth and 
g for scoring, pitting and wear. If the gear teeth 
>rn or the bearing is scored, pitted or worn 
vely, replace the gear and bearing assembly or 
a new bearing in the gear. Examine the outside 
er of the idler gear hub and thrust washers; if 
or worn excessively, replace them. 

sr gear bearing with two oil grooves has been 
>rated in the idler gear and bearing assemblies 
ing with engine serial number 3D- 



a new bearing is installed in the idler gear, it 
jt protrude beyond the gear face on either side. 



Idler Gear and Bearing Assembly 

; the inner thrust washer on the forward end of 
;r gear hub with the flat in the inner diameter 
thrust washer over the flat on the end of the 
ib and with the oil groo'yes in the thrust washer 
the idler gear. 

: the small protruding end of the idler gear hub 



through the end plate and into the counterbore in the 
cylinder block. 

3. Insert two 3/8 "-16 bolts through the idler gear hub 
and thread them into the cylinder block, as shown in 
Fig. 1, to be sure the bolt holes will be irk alignment 
when the flywheel housing is installed. 

4. Insert the 3/8 "-16x1-3/4 " special bolt through the 
center of the idler gear hub and thread it into the 
cylinder block. Tighten the bolt to 40-45 Ib-ft torque. 
Then remove the two 3/8 "-16 bolts previously 
installed for alignment of the gear hub. 

5. Lubricate the idler gear hub and idler gear bearings 
liberally with clean engine oil. 

6. Position the crankshaft gear and the camshaft gear 
or balance shaft gear so that their timing marks will 
align with those on the idler gear. Refer to Figs. 1 and 
2 in Section 1.7.1. 

7. With these timing marks in alignment, install the 
idler gear as shown in Fig. 2. 

8. Apply a thin film of cup grease to the inner face 
(face with the oil grooves) of the outer idler gear 
thrust washer. Then place the thrust washer over the 
end of the idler gear hub with the oil grooves in the 
side of the thrust washer facing the idler gear and the 
flat in the inner diameter of the thrust washer over the 
flat on the end of the idler gear hub. 

9. Check the backlash between the mating gears. The 
backlash should be .003 " to .Q05 " between new gears 
and should not exceed .007 " between used gears. 



i.; 



CRANKSHAFT TIMING GEAR 



In-line 

The crankshaft timing gear is keyed and pressed on 
the crankshaft and drives the camshaft gear (In-line 

engines) or balance shaft gear (In-line engines) 
through an idler gear. 

Since the camshaft must be in time with the 
crankshaft, timing marks are located on the rim of the 
idler gear with corresponding timing marks stamped 
on the crankshaft gear and camshaft and balance 
shaft gears (refer to Section 1.7.1). 



Remove Crankshaft Timing Gear (Flywheel 
Housing Removed) 

The crankshaft timing gear is a .001 " to .003 " press 
fit on the crankshaft. Remove the gear as follows: 

1 . Remove the crankshaft rear oil seal sleeve, if used. 
To remove the sleeve, peen the outside diameter of the 
sleeve until it stretches sufficiently so it can be slipped 
off of the crankshaft. 

2. Before removing the crankshaft gear, align the 
timing marks of the gear train and note their location 
so the gear can be reinstalled in its original position. 

3. Attach bar type puller J 4871 to the crankshaft gear 
with three long bolts or hooks, flat washers and nuts 
through the holes in the gear as shown in Fig. 1. 

4. Turn the center screw of the puller to pull the 
crankshaft gear off of the crankshaft. 




Engine 

Inspection 

Clean the gear with fuel oil and dry it 
compressed air. Examine the gear teeth for evi 
of scoring, pitting or wear. If severely damagi 
worn, install a new gear. Also check the other ge, 
the gear train. 



Install Crankshaft Timing Gear 

1. If removed, install the Woodruff key in the ke 
in the crankshaft. 

2. Start the timing gear over the end of the crank 
with the timing marks on the outer rim of the 
facing out and the keyway in the gear in align 
with the Woodruff key in the crankshaft. 

3. Align the proper timing mark on the crank 
gear with the corresponding mark on the idler 
(refer to Section 1.7.1). 

NOTE: When advanced timing is required, ali$ 
the timing mark "A" with the timing mark c 
the idler gear. 

4. Place a heavy hammer against the head of th< 
in the front end of the crankshaft. Place ins 
J 7557 against the rear face of the timing geai 




Fig. 1 - Removing Crankshaft Timing Gear 



Fig. ,2 Installing Crankshaft Timing Gear 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



he gear up against the shoulder on the backlash should be .003 "-.005 " with new gears or r 

aft as shown in Fig. 2. .008 " maximum with used gears. * 

k the gear backlash with the mating gear. The 6. Install a new crankshaft rear oil seal sleeve, if 

required, as outlined in Section 1.3.2. 



53 



ACCESSORY DRIVE 



CAMSHAFT 




Fig- 1 Accessory Drive 

Szs^JfZ'Avsi 

For the 



accessory drive locations and rotation 



FLYWHEEL 



RC(5xxx-7xw) 









,, . 



Accessory Drive 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



BOLT 




Fig. 3 - Air Compressor Drive 

pling and drive plate (Fig. 3) or a spacer, 
te, drive coupling and hub (Fig. 4). 



s plate and spacer, when used, are bolted to 
haft or balance shaft gear. The accessory is 

the flywheel housing and driven by a drive 
:d to the accessory shaft and splined to the 
which is splined to the drive plate attached to 
haft or balance shaft gear. The current drive 

shown in Fig. 4, has 21 external teeth; the 
mpling had 23 external teeth. 

/en accessories, such as battery-charging 
'S or air compressors, are driven off the 
or balance shaft gears by a drive hub and 
r ig. 5), or a spacer, accessory drive plate, 
drive shaft, accessory drive retainer 
and pulley (Fig. 6). 

t arrangement, illustrated in Fig. 5, the drive 
ilted to the camshaft or balance shaft gear. 
;al retainer is bolted to the flywheel housing 
mlley is keyed to the drive hub shaft which 
irough the oil seal retainer. 

xond arrangement, shown in Fig. 6, the 
id accessory drive plate are bolted to the 
or balance shaft gear. The accessory drive 
;plined to the drive plate at one end and 
by a bearing in the accessory drive retainer 



SPACER 



DRIVE 
HUB 



COUPLING 





\ DRIVE 

BOLT DISC 



5470 



Fig. 4 - Hydraulic Pump Drive 
Remove Accessory Drive 

Remove the direct gear driven type accessory drive us 
follows: 

1. Remove any external piping or connections to the 
accessory. 

2. Remove the five bolts and lock washers attaching 
the accessory to the flywheel housing. Pull the 
accessory straight out from the flywheel housing. 

3. Remove the drive coupling. 

4. Remove the drive hub from the accessory shaft, if 
necessary. 

5. Place a clean, lintless cloth in the flywheel housing 
opening, underneath the accessory drive plate, to 
prevent bolts from accidentally falling into the gear 
train. Remove the lock wires, if used. Then remove the 
four bolts (and lock washers, if used) and remove the 
accessory, the drive plate and the spacer, if used. 

Remove the drive assembly for a belt driven type 
accessory as follows: 

1. Remove any external piping or connections to the 
accessory. 

2. Loosen the accessory and slide it toward the drive 
pulley. Then remove the drive belt and accessory. 

3. Remove the bolt and washer (Fig. 5), or nut 
(Fig. 6), retaining the pulley on the drive shaft. 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Accessory Drive 1.7, 



GASKET 



SQIT 



LOCK WASHER 




DRIVE HUB 



PULLEY 



WASHER 



BOLT 



F'g. 5 - Components of 
the drive retainer assembly to the flvwhe,, 
Remove the retainer assembly ^ ^ 



6. Remove the accessory drive 
space, (Fig. 6) , OI driv * 
similar 10 thai outlined in Sien 5 
driven type 



""Pection 



(Drh * HuD Type) 



newpar 



' Rem Ve the sna P ri "8 and ball bearing 
-sso r 



drive shaft 






oil and dry i, i, h 
i* h 
fluid 



excess 'vely, replace ,hem wjlh 



the 

earin S clean 




DRIVE PLATE 



DRIVE SHAFT GASKET 

BEARING 



BOLT 



LOCK RING 




KEY 



NUT 



RETAINER 



Accessory Drive 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 




OIL DRAINAGE 
PASSAGE 



7 - Former and Current Drive Plate Type 
Accessory Drive 

> hearing. Wipe the outside of the bearing 
en hold the inner race and revolve the outer 
r ly by hand. If the bearing is worn or does not 
y, replace the bearing. 

he accessory drive hub, shown in Fig. 5, for 
at the area of contact with the lip of the oil 

the hub is grooved to a point where the 

less of the oil seal is lost, a ring type oil seal 
available which serves to reposition the seal, 

/iding a new sealing surface for the lip of the 

. 8). 



Accessory Drive 

ive old gasket material from the flywheel 
Use care so that no gasket material falls into 
train compartment. 

a clean, lintless cloth in the flywheel housing 
to prevent bolts from accidentally falling in 
train. Align the bolt holes in the accessory 
te and spacer (if used), or the accessory drive 
i the tapped holes in the camshaft or balance 
ir. Then secure the plate and spacer, or drive 
i four bolts (and lock washers or lock wire, if 
emove the cloth from the flywheel housing 



SPACER 



DRIVE HUB 




COVER 



Fig. 8 - Location of Oil Seal Spacer 

CAUTION: When replacing the drive hub .on the 
accessory shaft, drive the hub squarely on the 
shaft (refer to Section 12.4). 

a. Place a new gasket on the flange and align the 
holes in the gasket with the bolt holes in the 
flange. Use a light coat of grease to retain the 
gasket in position. 

b. Place the accessory in position against the flywheel 
housing, rotating it, if necessary, to align the teeth 
of the accessory hub with those in the drive 
coupling. Secure the accessory to the flywheel 
housing with five bolts and lock washers. 

4. If the accessory drive shown in Figs. 6 or 7 is used, 
assemble as follows: 

a. Install the accessory drive plate and spacer as 
outlined in Steps 1 and 2 above. 

b. Place the drive shaft retainer on the bed of an 
arbor press, with the mounting flange side up. 
Press the double row ball bearing straight in until 
the bearing contacts the shoulder in the bore of 
the retainer. Install the snap ring. 

NOTE: On former accessory drives (Fig. 7), 
install the bearing with the protruding face of 
the inner race towards the retainer. , 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Accessory Drive , 1.7.7 



d. Turn the retainer over again, bearing side up, and 
press the accessory drive shaft in the bearing until 
the shoulder on the shaft contacts the bearing. 

e. Apply a light coat of grease to the mounting 

flange of the retainer and place a new gasket in 
position against the flange. Align the holes in the 
gasket with the bolt holes in the flange. 

f. Place the retainer and drive shaft assembly against 

the flywheel housing, rotating the shaft slightly, if 
necessary, to permit the teeth of the drive shaft to 
mesh with the teeth in the drive plate. Secure the 
retainer assembly to the flywheel housing with 
five bolts and lock washers. 

g. On current accessory drives, install the spacer over 

the shaft and against the bearing. 

h. Install the Woodruff key in the drive shaft. Start 
the pulley straight on the shaft, aligning the 
keyway in the pulley with the key on the shaft. 
Use a soft hammer to tap the pulley on the shaft. 

i. Thread the pulley retaining nut on the end of the 
drive shaft and draw it up tight. 

j. Install the accessory on the engine and slip the 
drive belt over the pulleys. Position the accessory 
to provide the proper tension on the belt and 
secure it in place. 

NOTE: When installing or adjusting an acces- 
sory drive belt(s), be sure the bolt at the 
accessory adjusting pivot point is properly 



tightened, as well as the bolt in the adjusting 
slot. 

5. Assemble the accessory drive shown in Fig. 5 i 
follows: 

a. Press a new oil seal in the oil seal retainer, if th 
seal was removed. 

b. Coat the mounting flange of the retainer lightl 
with grease and place a new gasket against th 
flange. Align the holes in the gasket with the bo 
holes in the flange. 

c. With the accessory drive hub in place (see Step 

above), slip the retainer and oil seal assembl 
over the end of the shaft. Use care not to damag 
the oil seal. Secure the retainer to the flywhee 
housing with five bolts and lock washers. 

d. Install the Woodruff key. Start the pulley straigh 
on the shaft, aligning the keyway in the pulle 
with the key on the shaft. Use a soft hammer t 
tap the pulley on the shaft. 

e. Install the washers and the pulley retaining bol 

and draw the bolt up tight. 

f. Install the accessory on the engine and slip th 

drive belt over the pulleys. Position the accessor 
to provide the proper tension on the belt am 
secure it in place. 

NOTE: When installing or adjusting an acces- 
sory drive belt, be sure the bolt at the accessory 
adjusting pivot point is properly tightened, as 
well as the bolt in the adjusting slot. 



ENGINE FRONT 

In-Line 

The upper engine front cover is mounted against the 
cylinder block at the upper front end of the engine. 

The 

camshaft and balance shaft oil seals (In-line engine) 

are pressed into the 
cover. 

Remove Cover 

When necessary, the oil seals may be removed without 
removing the upper front cover. This may be done by 
drilling diametrically opposite holes in the seal casing 
and threading metal screws, backed by flat washers, 
into the casing. Remove the seal by prying against the 
washers with pry bars. Install the new seals with 
installer J 9790. 

If necessary, remove the engine cover as follows: 

1. Remove the various parts and sub-assemblies from 
the engine as outlined in their respective sections of 
this manual. 

2. Remove the pulleys from the front end of the 
camshaft and balance shaft (In-line engine). 

Refer to Section 1.7.2. 

3. Remove the upper front cover-to-cylinder block 
attaching bolts. 



COVER (Upper) 

Engines 

4. Tap the cover and dowel pin assembly away f 
the cylinder block. 

5. Remove the Woodruff keys and oil seal sps 
from the shafts. 

6. Remove all traces of the old gasket material f 
the cylinder block and cover. 

Inspection 

Check the oil seals and the spacers for wear 
damage. Replace them if necessary. 



Remove Oil Seals 

1 . Support the inner face of the cover on wood bli 
at least one inch thick to protect the dowel pins in 
cover. 

2. Drive the oil seals out of the cover. 



Install Oil Seals 

1. Support the inner face of the cover on wood bloc 

2. If the outside diameter of the oil seal is not 
coated with sealant, coat the bore in the cover i 
non-hardening sealant. 



POSSIBLE AREAS 
OF INTERFERENCE 




Fig. 2 - In-Line Engine Upper hront Cover 



Front Cover 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



a new oil seal in the cover with the lip of 
nting toward the inner face of the cover. 

N: Keep the lip of the oil seal clean and 
m scratches. 

: seal into the cover with installer J 9790 
seal is flush with the bottom of the 



e second oil seal in the same manner, 
excess sealant from the cover and the seals. 



er 



iw gasket to the cover. 

le cover on the engine and secure it with 
ock washers. Tighten the bolts to 35 Ib-ft 



3. Apply cup grease to the outside diameter of the oil 
seal spacers, then slide them on the shafts. 

NOTE: Current engines use an oil slinger 
between the oil seal spacer and the shoulder on 
the camshaft and between the spacer and the 
end bearing on the balance shaft (In-line 
engine). Addition of the oil slinger improves 
sealing by reducing the amount of oil in the 
area of the oil seals. 

If oil slingers are installed on in-line engines built 
prior to Serial Number 3D-573 

check the distance from the holes to the gasket flange 
(Fig. 2). If necessary, machine or grind the cover to 
provide sufficient clearance for the slingers. 

4. Install a Woodruff key in each shaft. 

5. Install the pulleys on the shafts. 

6. Install and tighten the pulley retaining nuts to 300- 
325 Ib-ft torque. 



SHOP NOTES - TROUBLE SHOOTING - SPECIFICATIONS - 

SERVICE TOOLS 

SHOP NOTES 

TEFLON WRAPPED PIPE PLUGS 



Pipe plugs with a baked teflon coating are available 
for service. However, pipe plugs can be hand wrapped 
satisfactorily with teflon tape to provide a better seal 
and facilitate plug removal. When a teflon wrapped 
plug is installed, it is extremely important that the 
specified torque not be exceeded. 

Hand wrap a pipe plug with teflon tape as follows: 

1. Be sure the pipe plug is thoroughly clean and dry 
prior to applying the teflon tape. All dirt, grease, oil 
and scale must be removed. 



2. Start the tape one or two threads from the sm 
leading edge of the plug, joining the tape tog 
with an overlap of approximately 1/8" . 

3. Wrap the tape tightly in the same direction a: 
would turn a nut. The tape must conform tc 
configuration of the threads (be pressed into the r. 
diameter of the threads) without cutting or rippin 
tape. 

4. Hand tighten and hand torque the pipe plug ai 
not exceed the specified torque. Do not use power toe 



CHECKING BEARING CLEARANCES 



A strip of soft plastic squeezed between the crankshaft 
journal and the connecting rod bearing or main 
bearing may be used to- measure the bearing 
clearances. 

The strip is a specially molded plastic "wire" 
manufactured commercially and is available in three 
sizes and colors. Type PG-1 (green) has a clearance 
range of .001 " to .003", type PR-1 (red) has a range 
of .002" to .006" and type PB-1 (blue) has a range of 
.004 " to .009 " . 

The plastic strip may be used for checking the bearing 
clearances as follows: 

1 . Remove the bearing cap and wipe the oil from the 
bearing shell and the crankshaft journal. 

NOTE: When checking the main bearing 
clearances with the engine in a position where 
the main bearing caps are supporting the 
weight of the crankshaft and the flywheel, an 
erroneous reading, due to the weight of the 
crankshaft and flywheel, can be eliminated by 
supporting the weight of the crankshaft with a 
jack under the counterweight adjoining the 
bearing being checked. 

2. Place a piece of the plastic strip the full width of the 
bearing shell, about 1 /4 " off center (Fig. 1). 

3. Rotate the crankshaft about 30 from bottom dead 
center and reinstall the bearing cap. Tighten the bolts 
to the specified torque. 





Fig. 1 Using Plastic Strip to Measure 
Bearing-to-Crankshaft Clearance 



educations DETROIT DIESEL 53 

:he bearing cap. The flattened plastic strip (Fig. 1). The number within the graduation on the ' 

id adhering to either the bearing shell or envelope indicates the bearing clearance in thou- 
ift. sandths of an inch. Taper may be indicated when one 

end of the flattened plastic strip is wider than the 
other. Measure each end of the plastic; the difference 

the width of the flattened plastic strip at between the readings is the approximate amount of 
aint with the graduations on the envelope taper. 

CAMSHAFT CUP PLUG INSTALLATION 

il leak occurs at the drive plug area in the Install the cup plug as follows: 

f the camshaft, install a cup plug in the end 

shaft rather than removing and replacing 1. Clean the hole in the front end of the camshaft and 

ug. a Ppty Permatex No. 1 sealant, or equivalent, to the 

outer diameter of the cup plug. 
It is not necessary to remove the 

't from the engine when installing the 2. Install the plug to a depth of .180" -.210" with tool 

'. J 24094. 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Specifications 1 



TROUBLE SHOOTING 





EXHAUST VALVE 










Probable Causes 










1 


1 . STICKING VALVE 4. BENT VALVE 


8. VARNISH DEPOSITS 
ON VALVE STEM 






5. BROKEN VALVE 


1 






9. SCORED OR SCUFFED 

VALVE STEM 


2. IMPROPER VALVE 


SEATING 6 -EXCESSIVE VALVE TO 


1 


GUIDE CLEARANCE 


] 10. ALL VALVES BENT 






| 


3. VALVE SEAT PITTED 7. CARBON DEPOSITS 
'OR OVERHEATED ON VALVE HEAD 


1 1 . OIL RUNNING DOWN 
VALVE STEM 


SUGGESTED BFMFnY 





1. Check for carbon deposits, a bent valve guide, 
defective spring or antifreeze (glycol) in the 
lubricating oil. Replace a bent guide. Clean-up and 
re face the valve. Replace the valve if necessary. 

2. Check for excessive valve-to-guide clearance, bent 
valve guide or carbon deposits. Replace a bent or worn 
guide. Clean the carbon from the valve. Reface or 
replace the valve, if necessary. 

3. Check the operating conditions of the engine for 
overload, inadequate cooling or improper timing. 
Reface the valve and insert. Replace the valve if it is 
warped or too badly pitted. Use a harder-face valve if 
operating conditions warrant. 

4. Check for contact between the valve head and the 
piston as a result of incorrect valve clearance, an 
improperly positioned exhaust valve bridge (four valve 
head) or a defective spring. Check the valve guide, 
insert, cylinder head and piston for damage. Replace 
damaged parts. 

5. Check for excessive valve-to-guide clearance, 
defective valve spring or etching of the valve stem at 
the weld. Improper valve clearance is also a cause of 
this type of failure. Check the guide, insert, cylinder 
head and piston for damage. Replace damaged parts. 

6. Replace a worn valve guide. Check and replace the 
valve, if necessary. 



7. Black carbon deposits extending from the val 
seats to the guides indicates cold operation due to lig 
loads or to the use of too light a fuel. Rusty brov 
valve heads with carbon deposits forming narrc 
collars near the guides indicate hot operation due 
overloads, inadequate cooling or improper timii 
which results in carbonization of the lubricating o 
Clean-up the valves, guides and inserts. Reface I 
valves and inserts or replace them if they are warpe 
pitted or scored. 

8. Check for a worn valve guide or excessive exhai 
back pressure. Replace a worn guide. Check the val 
seat for improper seating. Reface the valve and inse 
or, if necessary, replace. 

9. Check for a bent valve stem or guide, metal chips 
dirt, or for lack of lubrication. Clean up the valve ste 
with crocus cloth wet with fuel oil or replace the vah 
Replace the guide. When installing a valve, use care 
depressing the spring so that the spring cap DO] 
NOT scrape the valve stem. 

10. Check for a gear train failure or for improper ge 
train timing. 

11. Check the operation of the engine for excess 
idling and resultant low engine exhaust back pressu 
Install valve guide oil seals. 



ecifications 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



SPECIFICATIONS 



i, clearances and wear limits are listed 

hould be specifically noted that the 

)ply only when all new parts are used at 

ere the various specifications apply. This 

to references within the text of the 

column entitled "Limits" in this chart 

unt of wear or increase in clearance which 



can be tolerated in used engine parts and still ensure 
satisfactory performance. It should be emphasized that 
the figures given as "Limits" must be qualified by the 
judgement of personnel responsible for installing new 
parts. These wear limits are, in general, listed only for 
the parts more frequently replaced in engine overhaul 
work. For additional information, refer to the text. 



TABLE OF SPECIFICATIONS, NEW CLEARANCES AND WEAR LIMITS 



These limits also apply to oversize and undersize parts 



:NGINE PARTS (Standard Size, New) 



MINIMUM 



MAXIMUM 



LIMITS 



Cylinder Block 

i- 

>r (top) 4.5195" 4.5215" 4.5235" 

>r (center) 4.4865" 4.4880" 4.4900" 

>r (bottom) 4.3565" 4.3575" 4.3595" 

Dund .0015" .0020" 

.0015" .0020" 

ner counterbore: 

>r 4.8200" 4.8350" 

3000" .3020" 

ing bore: 

liameter (vertical axis, in-line engine) 3.2510" 3.2520" 

:e of block: 

;--transverse (all) .0030" 

i--longitudinal (3 cyl.) .0060" 

counterbores (top surface): 

head seal strip groove 0970" .1070" 

loles 1090" .1150" 

s 0920" .0980" 

Cylinder Liner 

lameter (upper seal ring surface) 4.4850" 4.4860" 

ameter (lower seal ring surface) 4.3550" 4.3560" 

meter 3.8752" 3.8767" 

nd (inside diameter) .0020" .0030" 

ide diameter) .0010" .0020" 

flange BELOW block 0465" .0500" .0500" 

in depth between adjacent liners .0015" .0015" 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Specifications 



ENGINE PARTS (Standard Size, New) 



MINIMUM MAXIMUM 



Pistons and Rings 

Piston: 

Diameter (at skirt): 

Non-turbocharged engines 3.8699" 3.8721" 

Clearance-piston skirt-to-liner: 

Non-turbocharged engines .0031" .0068" 

Out-of-round .0005" 

Taper .0005" 

Inside diameter-piston pin bushing 1.3775" 1.3780" 

Compression rings: 

Gap (chrome ring) .0200" .0460" 

Gap (cast iron ring) 0200" .0360" 

Clearance--ring-to-groove: 

Top (No. 1) 0030" .0060" 

No. 2 0070" ,0100" 

No. 3 and 4 .0050" .0080" 

No. 3 and 4 (21:1 ratio piston) 0045" .0070" 

Oil control rings: 

Gap 0100" .0250" 

Clearance-ring-to-groove .0015" .0055" 

Piston Pins 

Diameter 1.3746" 1.3750" 

Clearance-pin-to-piston bushing .0025" .0034" 

Clearance-pin-to-conn.- rod bushing .0010" .0019" 

Connecting Rod 

Length-center-to-center 8.7990" 8.8010" 

Inside diameter (upper bushing) 1.3760" 1.3765" 

Normal side clearance (in-line engine) .0060" .0120" 

Crankshaft 

Journal diameter-main bearing (in-line engine) 2.9990" 3.0000" 

Journal diameter-conn, rod bearing (in-line engine) 2.4990" 2.5000" 

Journal out-of-round .00025" . 

Journal taper .0005" .0030" 

Runout on journals-total indicator reading: 

3 cyl. in-line engine .0020" 

Runout tolerance given for guidance when regrinding crankshaft. 

Crankshaft for 3-53 supported on No. 1 and No. 4 journals; runout me 
at No. 2 and No. 3 journals. 



When the runout on adjacent journals is in the opposite direction, the sum must not exceed .003" total indicator r< 
When in the same direction, the difference must not exceed .003" total indicator reading. When high spots of rur 
adjacent journals are at right angles to each other, the sum must not exceed .004" total indicator re.ading, or .0 
each journal. 



ENGINE PARTS (Standard Size, New) 



MINIMUM 



MAXIMUM 



LIMITS 



asher thickness 1190" 

(end thrust clearance) 0040" 

Connecting Rod Bearing 

ameter (vertical axis, in-line engine) 2.5015" 

o-journal clearance (in-line engine) .0015" 

thickness 90 from parting line (in-line) .1245" 

Main Bearings 

ameter (vertical axis, in-line engine) 3.0020" 

o-journal clearance (in-line engine) .0010" 

thickness 90from parting line (in-line) .1245" 

Camshaft 

(at bearing journals) 2.1820" 

it center bearing (when mounted on end 

st 0050" 

asher thickness 2080" 

Balance Shaft 

(at bearing journals) 2.1820" 

st 0050" 

asher thickness .2080" 

Camshaft and Balance Shaft Bearings 

ameter 2.1870" 

2--bearing-to-shaft .0045" 

Camshaft and Balance Shaft Gears 

.0030" 

Idler Gear (In-line Engines) 

0030" 

r bearing inside diameter 2.1860" 

' hub outside diameter 2.1825" 

s-bearing-to-hub .0025" 

0060" 

asher thickness .1180" 

Crankshaft Timing Gear 

0030" 

meter (gear) 4.0580" 

ameter (crankshaft) 4.0600" 



.1220" 
.0110" 



2.5035" 
.0045" 
.1250" 

3.0Q30" 
.0040" 
.1250" 



2.1825" 

.0020" 
.0150" 
.2100" 



2.1825" 
.0150" 
.2100" 



2.1880" 
.0060" 



.0050' 



.0050" 

2.1870" 

2.1835" 

.0045 " 

.0130" 

.1200" 



.0050" 
4.0590" 
4.0610" 



,0180" 

.0060" 
.1230" 



.0060" 
.1230" 



.0190" 
.0190" 

.0080" 
.0070" 
.0070" 



.0070' 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Specifications 



ENGINE PARTS (Standard Size, New) 



MINIMUM MAXIMUM LIMITS 



Blower Drive Gear 

Backlash 0030" .0050" .0070" 

End play (blower drive gear shaft) .0040" .0060" 

Governor Drive Gear 

Backlash 0030" .0050" .0070" 

Cylinder Head 

Cam follower bore (current) 1.0626" 1.0636" 

Cam follower bore (former) 1.0620" 1.0630" 

Exhaust valve insert counterbore: 

Diameter (4-valve head) 1.1590" 1.1600" 

Exhaust Valve Seat Inserts 

Outside diameter (4-valve) 1.1605" 1.1615" 

Seat width 0468" .0781" .0781" 

Valve seat runout .0020" .0020" 

Exhaust Valves 

Stem diameter (current 4-valve) .2480" .2488" 

Stem diameter (former 4-valve) .2475" .2485" 

Valve head-to-cylinder head: 

Current 4-valve head flush .024"recess. .039"reces 

Former 4-valve head 006"protr. .018" recess. .033"reces 

Valve Guides 

Distance below top of head (plain guide) 0100" .0400" 

Distance below top of head (machined for seal) 1900" .2200" 

Diameter-inside (4-valve) 2505" .2515" 

Clearance-Valve-to-guide (current 4-valve) 0017" .0035" .0050" 

Clearance-Valve-to-guide (former 4-valve) 0020" .0040" .0050" 

Rocker Arms and Shafts 

Diameter-rocker shaft 8735" .8740" 

Diameter-inside (rocker arm bushing) .8750" .8760" 

Diameter-inside (valve rocker arm bore) .8753" .8763" 

Clearance-shaft-to-injector rocker bushing 0010" .0025" .0040" 

Clearance-shaft-to-valve rocker bore 0013" .0028" .0040" 

Cam Followers 

Diameter 1.0600" 1.0610" 

Clearance-follower-to-current head 0016" .0036" .0060" 

Clearance-follower-to-former head 0010" .0030" .0060" 

Rollers and pins: 

Clearancepin-to-bushing 0013" .0021 " .010" Hori 

Side clearance-roller-to-follower 0150" .0230" .0230" 



Specifications DETROIT DIESEL 53 

STANDARD BOLT AND NUT TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS 



EAD 
E 


TORQUE 
(Ib-ft) 


THREAD 
SIZE 


TORQUE 
(Ib-ft) 


-20 


7-9 


9/16-12 


90-100 


28 


8-10 


9/16-18 


107-117 


i-18 


13-17 


5/8 -11 


137-147 


i-24 


15-19 


5/8 -18 


. 168-178 


-16 


30-35 


3/4 -10 


240-250 


-24 


35-39 


3/4 -16 


290-300 


i-14 


46-50 


7/8 - 9 


410-420 


i-20 


57-61 


7/8 -14 


475-485 


-13 


71-75 


1 - 8 


580-590 


-20 


83-93 


1 -14 


685-695 











EXCEPTIONS TO STANDARD BOLT AND NUT TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS 

LICATION THREAD TORQUE 

SIZE (Ib-ft) 

:tor control shaft bracket bolts 1/4 -20 10-12 

follower guide bolts 1/4 -20 12-15 

irnor to flywheel housing bolts 5/16-18 10-12 

gear hub and spacer bolts 5/16-18 19-23 

>an bolts 5/16-18 10-12 

gear hub and spacer bolts 3/8 -16 40-45 

:tor clamp bolts 3/8 -16 20-25 

DOX cover bolts (in-line engine) 3/8 -16 12-16 

heel housing bolts 3/8 -16 25-30 

heel housing bolts 3/8 -24 25-30 

lecting rod nuts (in-line engine) 3/8 -24 40-45 

line nuts 3/8 -24 12-15 

connector 3/8 -24 20-28 

;er arm bracket bolts 7/16-14 50-55 

vheel bolts 1/2 -20 110-120 

in bearing cap bolts 9/16-12 120-130 

inder head bolts 5/8 -11 170-180 

ge mounted air compressor drive shaft nut 3/4 -10 

kshaft end bolt (in-line engine) 3/4 -16 290-300 

:ompressor drive pulley nut 3/4 -16 80-100 

kshaft end bolt (engines with cone mounted pulley 



amped with letter "A" 


1 -14 


200-220 


shaft and balance shaft nut 


1-1/8 -18 


300-325 









ate at assembly with international Compound No. 2, or equivalent (refer to Parts Catalog or Microfiche, Section 12.8000A), 
>-ft plus increase torque to line-up cotter pin. 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 Specifications 

STANDARD PIPE PLUG TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS 

Use sealing compound on plugs without gaskets or Tellon. These specifications apply to plugs installed below the sur 
the part of which they are a component. 

THREAD TORQUE THREAD TOR< 

SIZE (Ib-ft) SIZE (Ib- 

1/8 10-12 3/4 33- 

1/4 14-16 1 75- 

3/8 18-22 1-1/4 95- 

1/2 23-27 1-1/2 110- 



SERVICE TOOLS 

TOOL NAME TOOL NO. 

Cylinder Block 

Bore gage J 5347 

Dial bore gage master setting fixture J 23059 

Dial indicator set J 22273 

Engine overhaul stand J 6837-01 

Adaptor plate (In-line) J 7622 



Cylinder Head 

Brush J 8152 

Cam follower holding fixture J 5840 

Cylinder head guides (set of 2) J 9665 

Cylinder head lifter J 22062-01 

Dial gage (4 - valve head) J 8165-2 

Grinder (4 - valve head) J 8165-1 

Grinding wheel (154 - valve head) J 7792-2 

Grinding wheel (304 - valve head) J 7792-3 

Grinding wheel (604 - valve head) J 7792-4 



Pilot (4 - valve head) J 7792-1 

Push rod remover (set of three) J 3092-01 

Socket J 8? 32-01 

Spring tester J 9t>66 

Valve guide cleaner (4 - valve head) J 7793 

Valve guide installer (154 - valve head) J 7832 

Valve guide installer (454 - valve head) J 9729 

Valve guide installer (guide used with oil seal - 4 valve head) J 9730 



Specifications DETROIT DltSEL 53 



. NAME TOOL NO. 

; guide remover (4 valve head) J 7775 

j spring checking gage WRE 500-60 

; spring compressor (4 - valve head) J 7455 

j seat insert installer (4 - valve head) J 7790 

5 seat insert remover (4 - valve head) J 7774 

kshaft 

shaft oil seal installer J 21899 

kshaft front oil seal installer J 22153 

kshaft front oil seal sleeve installer (in-line \ J 22524 

kshaft pulley installer J 7773 

kshaft pulley,' remover J 5356 

ikshaft rear oil seal (O.S.) expander J 21278 

ikshaft rear oil seal sleeve installer J 21277 

jle J 3154-1 

ometer ball attachment J 4757 

;eal expander J 9769 

,eal expander (in-line) J 7454 

,eal installer J 9479 

nstaller (part of J 9479) J 9479-1 

itud (2) (part of J 9479) J 9479-2 

eal installer J 9727 

eal installer J 9783 

T J 4794-01 

heel 

leel lifting tool J 6361-01 

heel Housing 

kshaft rear oil seal expander (O.S. seal) J 21278 

kshaft rear oil seal expander (Std. size seal) J 9769 

indicator J 8001-3 

indicator post J 9748 

neel housing aligning studs (set of 2) J 7540 

leel housing concentricity gage J 9737 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 Specifications 



TOOL NAME TOOL NO. 
Piston, Connecting Rod and Cylinder Liner 

Adaptor sleeve J 7608-5 

Bore gage J 5347 

Connecting rod bushing reamer J 4971-4 

Connecting rod bushing reamer set J 7608-01 

Connecting rod holder J 7632 

Cylinder hone set (2 1/2" to 5 3/4" range) J 5902-01 

Cylinder liner remover set J 22490 

Dial bore gage master setting fixture J 23059 

Dial indicator set j 22273 

Driver handle J 1513-2 

Feeler gage pack (part of J 5438) J 3174-01 

Fixture and arbor assembly J 7608-4 

Guide j 1686-5 

Guide J 4970-5 

Guide J 4971-6 

Hold down clamp J 21793 

Master ring - cylinder liner J 8385 

Micrometer ball attachment J 4757 

Piston and connecting rod bushing 

installer and remover set J 1513-02 

Piston bushing reamer J 4970-4 

Piston bushing reaming fixture J 5273 

Piston bushing spacer J 7587-1 

Piston holding fixture J 1513-1 

Piston pin bushing installer J 4972-2 

Piston pin bushing remover J 4972-4 

Piston pin retainer installer J 23762 

Piston ring compressor J 6883 

Piston ring remover and installer J 8128 

Piston-to-liner feeler gage set J 5438 

Spacer J 7608-3 

Spray nozzle remover J 8995 

Spring scale (part of J 5438) J 8129 

Stone (120 grit) J 5902-14 

Camshaft 

Adaptor J 8183 

Bar type puller J 4871 

Camshaft and balance shaft bearing 

remover and installer set J 7593-03 

Camshaft cup plug installer J 24094 

Camshaft oil seal installer J 21899 

Crankshaft timing gear installer J 7557 

Installer J 9790 

Slide hammer J 6471-1 

Spring scale J 8129 



UtIKUM Ult^tL 



SECTION 2 

FUEL SYSTEM AND GOVERNORS 
CONTENTS 



Fuel System, 



Fuel Injector (Needle Valve) 
Fuel Injector Tube 



Fuel Pump 

Fuel Pump Drive 

Fuel Strainer and Fuel Filter. 



2.1,1 
2.1.4 

2.2 
2.2.1 

2.3 



Mechanical Governors 

Limiting Speed Mechanical Governor (In-line Engine) 



2.7 
2.7.1 



Shop Notes - Trouble Shooting - Specifications - Service Tools. 



2.0 



FUEL SYSTEM 



The fuel system (Fig, l) includes the fuel 

injectors, fuel pipes (inlet and outlet), fuel manifolds 
(integral with the cylinder head), fuel pump, fuel 
strainer, fuel filter and fuel lines. 

Fuel is drawn from the supply tank through the fuel 
strainer and enters the fuel pump at the inlet side. 
Leaving the pump under pressure, the fuel is forced 
through the fuel filter and into the inlet fuel manifold, 
then through fuel pipes into the inlet side of each 
injector. 

The fuel manifolds are identified by the words IN (top 



passage) and OUT (bottom passage) which are a 
several places in the side of the cylinder head, 
aids installation of the fuel lines. 

Surplus fuel returns from the outlet side of 
injectors to the fuel return manifold and then ba 
the supply tank. 

All engines are equipped with a restrictive fittii 
the fuel outlet manifold to maintain the fuel s^, 
pressure. 

Refer to Section 13.2 for the size fitting required. 




Typical Fuel System for In-Line 
Engines 

may be installed in the supply line 
I tank and the fuel strainer to prevent 
ng back when the engine is shut down. 







DETROIT DIESEL 53 



2.1 



FUEL INJECTOR (NEEDLE VALVE) 



The fuel injector (Figs. 1 and 2) is a lightweight 
compact unit which enables quick, easy starting 
directly on diesel fuel and permits the use of a simple 
open type combustion chamber. The simplicity of 
design and operation provides for simplified controls 
and easy adjustment. No high pressure fuel lines or 
complicated air-fuel mixing or vaporizing devices are 
required. 

The fuel injector performs four functions: 



OUTLET 




INLET 




1. Creates the .high fuel pressure required for effi 
injection. 

2. Meters and injects the exact amount of fuel reqi 
to handle the load. 

3. Atomizes the fuel for mixing with the air in 
combustion chamber. 

4. Permits continuous fuel flow. 

Combustion required for satisfactory engine open 
is obtained by injecting, under pressure, a s 
quantity of accurately metered and finely atom 
fuel oil into the cylinder. 

Metering of the fuel is accomplished by an upper 
lower helix machined in the lower end of the injt 
plunger. Figure 3 illustrates the fuel metering f 
no-load to full-load by rotation of the plunger in 
bushing. 



FOLLOWER 



FOUOWEI 
SPRING 



FRTEf 
CAP 




NEEDLE VALVE 
SPRAY TIP 



SPRING CAGI 
SPRING SEA- 



Fig. 1 Fuel Injector Assembly 



Fig. 2 Cutaway View of Fuel Injector 



Fuel Injector 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



EFFECTIVE 
STBOKf 



EFFECTIVE 
STROKE 



EFFECTIVE 
STROKE 



V 



f 

JL 



IDLING 
LOAD 



HALF 
LOAD 



FULL 
LOAD 



ig. 3 - Fuel Metering from No-Load to Full- 
Load 

4 illustrates the phases of injector operation by 
tical travel of the injector plunger. 

ntinuous fuel flow through the injector serves, 
lition to preventing air pockets in the fuel 
, as a coohint for those injector parts subjected 
combustion temperatures. 

y the power output of the engine, injectors 
different fuel output capacities are used. The 
tput of the various injectors is governed by the 
ngle of the plunger and the type of spray tip 
fcefer to Fig. 5 for the identification of the 
rs and their respective plungers and spray tips. 

:he helix angle on the plunger determines the 
and operating characteristics of a particular 
f injector, it is imperative that the correct 
rs are used for each engine application. If 
rs of different types are mixed, erratic operation 
ult and may cause serious damage to the engine 
ie equipment which it powers. 

JTION: Do not intermix the needle valve 



|j 

rl LOWER 

J- PORT 



I 



START OF 

INJECTION 

STROKE 



END OF 

INJECTION 

STROKE 



BOTTOM 

OF 
STROKE 



Phases of Injector Operation Through 
Vertical Travel of Plunger 



injectors with the other types of injectors in an 
engine. 

Each fuel injector has a circular disc pressed into a 
recess at the front side of the injector body for 
identification purposes (Fig. 5). The identification tag 
indicates the nominal output of the injector in cubic 
millimeters. 

Each injector control rack (Fig. 2) is actuated by a 
lever on the injector control tube which, in turn, is 
connected to the governor by means of a fuel rod. 
These levers can be adjusted independently on the 
control tube, thus permitting a uniform setting of all 
injector racks. 

The fuel injector combines in a single unit all of the 
parts necessary to provide complete and independent 
fuel injection at each cylinder. 




INJECTOR SPRAY TIP* PLUNGER 



N45 6--QQ6--165A 



Fig. 5 - Injector Identification Chart 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Fuel Injector 



Operation 

Fuel, under pressure, enters the injector at the inlet 
side through a filter cap and filter (Fig. 2). From the 
filter, the fuel passes through a drilled passage into the 
supply chamber," that area between the plunger 
bushing and the spill deflector, in addition to that area 
under the injector plunger within the bushing. The 
plunger operates up and down in. the bushing, the bore 
of which is open to the fuel supply in the annular 
chamber by two funnel-shaped ports in the plunger 
bushing. 

The motion of the injector rocker arm is transmitted 
to the plunger by the follower which bears against the 
follower spring (Fig. 6). In addition to the reciprocat- 
ing motion, the plunger can be rotated, during 
operation, around its axis by the gear which meshes 
with the control rack. For metering the fuel, an upper 
helix and a lower helix are machined in the lower part 
of the plunger. The relation of the helices to the two 
ports changes with the rotation of the plunger. 

As the plunger moves downward, under pressure oi 
the injector rocker arm, a portion of that fuel trapped 
under the plunger is displaced into the supply chamber 




1. Injector Assembly 

3. Pin-Dowel 

24. Rack-Injector Control 

36. Clamp-- Injector 

38. Washer 

39. Bolt 

40. Tube-Injector Hole 

47. Shaft-Balance 

48. Camshaft 



49. Cam Follower Assy. 

52. Rod-Push 

56. Arm-Injector Rocker 

59. Tube-Injector Control 

60. Lever-Rack Control 
62. Head-Cylinder 

68. Pipe-Fuel Inlet (Supply) 

69. Pipe-Fuel Outlet 
(Return) 



through the lower port until the port is d< 
the lower end of the plunger. A portion < 
trapped below the plunger is then forced up 
central passage in the plunger into the Cue 
recess and into the supply chamber through 
port until that port is closed off by the upp 
the plunger. With the upper and lower 
closed off, the remaining fuel under the 
subjected to increased pressure by the 
downward movement of the plunger. 

i 

When sufficient pressure is built up, it opei 
non-return check valve. The fuel in the cl 
cage, spring cage, tip passages and tip fue 
compressed until the pressure force acting i 
the needle valve is sufficient to open the val 
the downward force of the valve spring. As s 
needle valve lifts off of its seat, the fuel 
through the small orifices in the spray 
atomized into the combustion chamber. 

When the lower land of the plunger un< 
lower port in the bushing, the fuel pressure 
plunger is relieved and the valve spring 
needle valve, ending injection. 

A pressure relief passage has been provici 
spring cage to permit bleed-off of fuel leakir 
needle pilot in the tip assembly. 

A check valve, directly below the bushing 
leakage from the combustion chamber inti 




Fig. 6 - Fuel injector Mounting 



Fig. 7 - Removing Injector from Cylinder 



Fuel Injector 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 




ig. 8 



Checking Rack and Plunger for Free 
Movement 



r in case the valve is accidentally held open by a 
particle of dirt. The injector plunger is then 
?d to its original position by the injector 
:r spring. Figure 4 shows the various phases of 
r operation by the vertical travel of the injector 
r. 

: return upward movement of the plunger, the 
)ressure cylinder within the bushing is again 
.vith fuel oil through the ports. The constant 
tion of fresh cool fuel through the injector 
the fuel supply in the chamber, helps cool the 
r and also effectively removes all traces of air 
might otherwise accumulate in the system and 
re with accurate metering of the fuel. 

lei injector outlet opening, through which the 
fuel oil returns to the fuel return manifold and 
ack to the fuel tank, is directly adjacent to the 
iening. 

ing the position of the helices, by rotating the 
r, retards or advances the closing of the ports 
; beginning and ending of the injection period. 
same time, it increases or decreases the amount 

injected into the cylinder. Figure 3 shows the 
; plunger positions from no-load to full-load. 
:he control rack pulled out all the way (no 
>n), the upper port is not closed by the helix 
fter the lower port is uncovered. Consequently, 
e rack in this position, all of the fuel is forced 
ito the supply chamber and no injection of fuel 
dace. With the control rack pushed all the way 

injection), the upper port is closed shortly after 
ver port has been covered, thus producing a 
um effective stroke and maximum injection, 
this no injection position to full injection 

n (full r;u'k moveni^nt^ thp rnntniir nf thp 



upper helix advances the closing of the ports and the 
beginning of injection. 



General Instructions for Injector Care and 
Overhaul 

The fuel injector is one of the most important and 
precisely built parts of the engine. The injection of the 
correct amount of fuel into the combustion chamber at 
exactly the right time depends upon this unit. Because 
the injector operates against high compression 
pressure in the combustion chamber, efficient opera- 
tion demands that the injector assembly is maintained 
in first-class condition at all times. Proper maintenance 
of the fuel system and the use of the recommended 
type fuel filters and clean water-free fuel are the keys 
to trouble-free operation of the injectors. 

Due to the close tolerances of various injector parts, 
extreme cleanliness and strict adherence to service 
instructions is required. 

Perform all injector repairs in a clean, well lighted 
room with a dust free atmosphere. An ideal injector 
room is slightly pressurized by means of an electric 
fan which draws air into the room through a filter. 
This pressure prevents particles of dirt and dust from 
entering the room through the doors and windows. A 
suitable air outlet will remove solvent fumes along 
with the outgoing air. Also provide a source for 1 10 
volt alternating current electric power. 




Fig. 9 - Injector High Pressure Test 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Fuel injector ! 



Provide the injector repair room with a supply of 
filtered, moisture-proof compressed air for drying the 
injector parts after they have been cleaned. Use wash 
pans of rust-proof material and deep enough to permit 
all of the injector parts to be completely covered by 
the cleaning agent, usually clean fuel oil, when 
submerged in wire baskets of 16 mesh wire screen. Use 
baskets which will support the parts so as to avoid 
contact with the dirt which settles at the bottom of the 
pans. 

Rags should never be used for cleaning injector parts 
since lint or other particles will clog parts of the 
injector when it is assembled. A lint-free cleaning 
tissue is a good, inexpensive material for wiping 
injector parts. 

When servicing an injector, follow the general 
instructions outlined below: 

1. Whenever the fuel pipes are removed from an 
injector, cover the filter caps with shipping caps to 
keep dirt out of the injectors. Also protect the fuel 
pipes and fuel connectors from the entry of dirt or 
other foreign material. 

2. After an injector has been operated in an engine, do 
not remove the filter caps or filters while the injector is 
in the engine. Replace the filters only at the time of 
complete disassembly and assembly of an injector. 

NOTE: In the offset injector, a filter is used in 




the inlet side only. No filter is required 01 
outlet side (Fig. 34). 

3. Whenever an injector has been remov 
reinstalled or replaced in an engine, m, 
following adjustments as outlined in Section 1' 

a. Time the injector. 

b. Position the injector control rack. 

4. Whenever an engine is to be out of servia 
extended period, purge the fuel system, then fi] 
a good grade of rust preventive (refer to Sectio 

5. When a reconditioned injector is to be pi 
stock, fill it with injector test oil J 8130. Do not 
oil. Install shipping caps on both filte 
immediately after filling. Store the injectoi 
upright position to prevent test oil leakage. 

NOTE: Make sure that new filters have 
installed in a reconditioned injector which 
be placed in stock. This precaution will pre 
dirt particles from entering the injector due 
possible reversal of fuel flow when insta 
the injector in an engine other than the orij 
unit. 



Remove Injector 

1 . Clean and remove the valve rocker cover. 

2. Remove the fuel pipes from both the injec 
the fuel connectors (Fig. 6). 

NOTE: Immediately after removal of the 
pipes' from an injector, cover the filter caps 
shipping caps to prevent dirt from entering 
injector. Also protect the fuel pipes and 




Fig. 10 Spray Pattern Test 



Fig. 11 Removing Injector Follower Stop 



Fuel Injector 



nectors from entry of dirt or foreign 
[erial. 

nk the engine to bring the outer ends of the 
)ds of the injector and valve rocker arms in line 
itally. 

nove the two rocker shaft bracket bolts and 
the rocker arms away from the injector and 
(Fig- 7). 

love the injector clamp bolt, special washer and 



An injector that passes all of the tests outlined below 
may be considered to be satisfactory for service 
without disassembly, except for the visual check of the 
plunger. 

However, an injector that fails to pass one or more of 
the tests is unsatisfactory. Perform all of the tests 
before disassembling an injector to correct any one 
condition. 

Identify each injector and record the pressure drop 
and fuel output as indicated by the following tests: 



sen the inner and outer adjusting screws on the 
r rack control lever and slide the lever away 
ic injector. 

the injector from its seat in the cylinder head 



;r the injector hole in the cylinder head to keep 
i material out. 

n the exterior of the injector with clean fuel oil 
y it with compressed air. 



jector 

ection does not reveal any external damage, 
>erform a series of tests to determine the 
on of the injector to avoid unnecessary 
uling. 





need stage of 
>n caused by 
jn matter in 
lue to improper 
ton. 



The above condition 
con be caused by 
either tack of fuel 
at high speeds or 
water in fuel. 



INJECTOR CONTROL RACK AND 
PLUNGER MOVEMENT TEST 

Place the injector in the injector fixture and rack 
freeness tester J 22396. Refer to Fig. 8 and place the 
handle on top of the injector follower. 

If necessary, adjust the contact screw in the handle to 
ensure the contact screw is at the center of the follower 
when the follower spring is compressed. 

With the injector control rack held in the no-fuel 
position, push the handle down and depress the 
follower to the bottom of its stroke. Then very slowly 
release the pressure on the handle while moving the 
control rack up and down as shown in Fig. 8 until the 
follower reaches the top of its travel. If the rack does 




Fig. 12 - Unusable Injector Plungers 



Fig. 13 - Installing Injector Valve Parts on 
Auxiliary Tester J 22640 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Fuel Injector 2 



not fall freely, loosen the injector nut, turn the tip, 
then retighten the nut. Loosen and retighten the nut a 
couple of times if necessary. Generally this will free 
the rack. Then, if the rack isn't free, change the 
injector nut. In some cases it may be necessary to 
disassemble the injector to eliminate the cause of the 
misaligned parts. 



INJECTOR HIGH PRESSURE TEST 

This test is performed to discover any fuel leaks at the 
injector filter cap gaskets, body plugs and nut seal 
ring. 

The high pressure test also indicates whether or not 
the plunger and bushing clearance is satisfactory. 

1. Install the injector in tester J 9787. 

CAUTION: When testing an injector just 
removed from an engine, the flow of fuel 
through the injector on the tester should be the 
same as in the engine. C ^nnections on the test 
head of the tester may be changed to obtain the 
correct direction of flow. 

2. Thoroughly dry the injector with compressed air. 

3. Check the fuel connections for leaks. If leaks have 
occurred, tighten the connections, dry the injector and 
recheck. 

4. With the injector rack in the full-fuel position and 
the injector tester handle locked in position by means 
of the handle lock (Fig. 9), operate the pump handle 
to build up and maintain the pressure. 

At this time, the condition of the plunger and bushing 
may be established. If there is excessive clearance 
between the plunger and bushing, pressure beyond the 
normal valve opening pressure cannot be obtained. 
Replacement, of the plunger and bushing assembly is 
then required. 

Pump up the injector tester and maintain a pressure of 
1600 to 2000 psi by actuating the pump handle. Then 
inspect for leaks at the injector filter cap gaskets, body 
plugs and injector nut seal ring. If any of these 
conditions exist, refer to Trouble Shooting Chart 5 in 
Section 2.0. 

NOTE: It is normal for fuel to seep out around 
the rack due to high pressure fuel being applied 
to a normally low pressure area in the injector 
assembly. However, fuel droplets at the rack 
indicate excessive leakage. 



injector tester to equal or exceed the capacit; 
the pressure gage. 



INJECTOR VALVE HOLDING PRESSURE 
TEST 

The injector valve holding pressure test will det 
whether the various lapped surfaces in the injec 
sealing properly. 

Operate the pump handle to bring the pressure 
approximately 450 psi. 

Close the fuel shut-off valve and note the p 
drop. The time for a pressure drop from 450 psi 
psi must not be less than 40 seconds. If the p 
drop is less than 40 seconds, check the inje< 
follows: 

1. Thoroughly dry the injector with compressed ; 

2. Open the tester fuel valve and operate the 
handle to maintain the test pressure. 

3. A leak around the spray tip or seal ring usi 
caused by a loose injector nut, a damaged seal : 
a brinelled surface on the injector nut or spray t 

4. A leak at the filter cap indicates a loose filter 
a damaged filter cap gasket. 

5. A "dribble" at the spray tip orifices indie 
leaking valve assembly due to a damaged surf 
dirt. Leakage at the tip will cause pre-ignition 
engine. 

NOTE: A drop or two of fuel at the spray ti] 
only an indication of the fuel trapped in 
spray tip at the beginning of the test and is 
detrimental as long as the pressure d 
specified is not less than 40 seconds. 



SPRAY PATTERN TEST 

After completing the valve holding pressure tes 
the fuel shut-off valve, place the injector rack 
full-fuel position and operate the injector severa 
in succession by operating the tester han 
approximately 40 strokes per minute as she 
Fig. 10. Observe the spray pattern to see that a! 
orifices are open and injecting evenly. The be^ 
and ending of injection should be sharp and t 
injected should be finely atomized. 

If all of the spray tip orifices are not ope 
injecting evenly, clean them during injector ov 




Fig. 14 - Injector Needle Valve Test with Auxiliary Tester J 22640 

VISUAL INSPECTION OF PLUNGER 



To prevent damage to the pressure 
>t exceed 100 psi during this test. 




An injector which passes all of the previous tests 
should have the plunger checked visually, under a 
magnifying glass, for excessive wear or a possible chip 
on the bottom helix. There is a small area on the 
bottom helix and lower portion of the upper helix, if 
chipped, that will not be indicated in any of the tests. 

Remove the plunger from the injector as follows: 




15 - Checking Needle Valve Lift 



Fig. 16 - Position of Fuel Flow Pipes in 
Comparator 



i uei 



1 . Support the injector, right side up, in holding fixture 
J 22396. 

2. Compress the follower spring. Then raise the spring 
above the stop pin with a screw driver and withdraw 
the pin (Fig. 1 1). Allow the spring to rise gradually. 

3. Remove the injector from the holding fixture. Turn 
the injector upside down, to prevent the entry of dirt, 
and catch the spring and plunger as they drop out. 

4. Inspect the plunger. If the plunger is chipped 
(Fig. 12), replace the plunger and bushing assembly. 

5. Reinstall the plunger, follower and spring. 



/ SWITCH 

VIAL 

FUEL FLOW 
VIAL CHANGER START BUTTON 





Fig. 17 Placing Injector in Comparator 
J 7041 



Fig. 18 - Setting Comparator Stroke Counter 
NEEDLE VALVE TESTS 

Remove the injector nut and remove all of the ] 
below the injector bushing as outlined u 
Disassemble Injector. 

Clean all of the carbon off of the spray tip seat ir 
injector nut as outlined under Clean Injector Parts. 

If the spray pattern test indicated that tip cleanii 
necessary, clean the carbon from the tip cavity b 
the needle valve and orifices as outlined under (. 
Injector Parts. 

With the injector nut and spray tip cleaned, asse; 
the check valve, check valve cage, spring, spring 
spring cage, needle valve and tip assembly 
auxiliary tester J 22640 (Fig. 13). Carefully pilo 
injector nut over the spray tip and valve parts 
thread it on the body as shown in Fig. 13. Tightei 
injector nut to 75-85 Ib-ft torque. 

Install the shield in the auxiliary tester as show 
Fig. 14 and operate the pump handle until the s 
tip valve has opened several times to purge thj 
from the system. 

Operate the pump handle with smooth even st: 
(40 strokes per minute) and note the pressure at v 
the needle valve opens. The valve should open bet 
2300 and 3300 psi. The opening and closing a 
should be sharp and produce a finely atomized spi 

If the valve opening pressure is below 2300 psi ai 



Injector 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



ioor, the cause usually is a worn or 
ring. Replace the spring. 

ling pressure is within 2300-3300 psi, 
c for spray tip seat leakage. Actuate 
i several times, then hold the pressure 
15 seconds. Inspect the spray tip seat 
re should be no fuel droplets although 
; of the end of the valve tip is 



seat is satisfactory, proceed to check 
a pressure drop of from 1500 to 1000 
)uld not be less than 5 seconds. If the 
ops from 1500 to 1000 psi in less than 
; the needle valve and tip assembly. 

ye assembly passes the above test, the 

check can be omitted. To check the 

t , use tool J 9462-01 (Fig. 15) as 




ator by placing the bottom surface of 
mbly on a flat surface and zero the 



y tip and needle valve assembly tight 
im of the gage with the quill of the 
ic hole in the plunger. 

.g the spray tip and needle valve 
jainst the gage, read the needle valve 
:ator. The lift should be .008 " to 
eds .018 ", the tip assembly must be 
less than .008 ", inspect for foreign 
the needle valve and the tip seat. 

alve lift is within the limits, install a 
spring and recheck the valve opening 
e action. Low valve opening pressure 
ition with a new spring and seat 
y tip and needle valve assembly must 



Calibrator 
J 22410 


Comparator 
J 7041 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


47 


51 


14 


20 



Fig. 20 - Position of Calibrator Fuel Flow Pipes 

Reassemble the injector as outlined under Assemble 
Injector and check it in the comparator or the 
calibrator. 



FUEL OUTPUT TEST 

The injector fuel output test can be performed in 
either the comparator J 7041 or the calibrator 
J 22410. 

When injectors are removed from an engine for fuel 
output testing and, if satisfactory, reinstalled without 
disassembly, extreme care should be taken to avoid 
reversing the fuel flow. When the fuel flow is reversed, 
dirt trapped by the filter is back-flushed into the 
injector components. 

Before removing an injector from the engine, note the 
direction of the fuel flow. To avoid reversing the fuel 
flow when checking injector fuel output, use the 
appropriate adaptor. The position of the fuel pipes on 
the comparator (Fig. 16) depends on the adaptor 
being used and the direction of fuel flow through the 
injector. The position of the braided fuel inlet tube 
and the plastic fuel outlet tube on the calibrator 
(Fig. 20) depends on the adaptor being used and the 
direction of fuel flow through the injector. 




Fig. 21 - Injector in Calibrator J 22410 

COMPARATOR J 7041 

To check the fuel output, operate the injector in the 
comparator (Fig. 17) as follows: 

1. Place the injector in the comparator and tighten the 
hand wheel to clamp the injector and adaptor in 
position. 

IMPORTANT: Make sure the counter on the 
comparator is preset to 1000 strokes. If, for any 
reason, this setting has been altered, raise the 
cover and reset the counter to 1000 strokes by 
pulling the selector wheel to be changed to the 
right and rotating it to its proper setting 
(Fig. 18). Then release the wheel and close the 
cover. Refer to the comparator instruction 
booklet for further information. 

NOTE: When installing a low clamp body 
injector in the comparator, position the injector 
in the adaptor at approximately a 45 angle, 
rather than straight into the adaptor, then bring 
it into a vertical position and secure it in place. 

2. Pull the injector rack out to the no-fuel position. 




Fig. 22 Setting Calibrator Stroke Counter 

3. Start the comparator by turning on the switch. 

4. After the comparator has started, push the inji 
rack in to the full-fuel position. 

5. Let the injector run for approximately 30 secon 
purge the air that may be in the system. 

6. After 30 seconds, press the fuel flow start bu 
This will start the flow of fuel into the vial. 




Fig. 23 Removing or Installing Filter Cap 



March. 1973 SEC. 2.1.1 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Fue! injector 2.1.1 



The exterior surface of an injector spray tip may be 
cleaned by using a brass wire buffing wheel, tool 
J 7944. To obtain a good polishing effect and longer 
brush life, the buffing wheel should be installed on a 
motor that turns the wheel at approximately 3000 rpm. 
A convenient method of holding the spray tip while 
cleaning and polishing is to place the tip over the drill 
end of the spray tip cleaner tool J 1243 and hold the 
body of the tip against the buffing wheel. In this way, 
the spray tip is rotated while being buffed. 

CAUTION: Do not buff excessively. Do not use a 
steel wire buffing wheel or the spray tip holes may 
be distorted, 

When the body of the spray tip is clean, lightly buff 
the tip end in the same manner. This cleans the spray 
tip orifice area and will not plug the orifices. 

Wash the spray tip in clean fuel oil and dry it with 
compressed air. 

Clean and brush all of the passages in the injector 
body, using fuel hole cleaning brush J 8152 and rack 
hole cleaning brush J 8150. Blow out the passages and 
dry them with compressed air. 

Carefully insert reamer J 21089 in the injector body 
(Fig. 29). Turn it in a clockwise direction a few turns, 
then remove the reamer and check the face of the ring 
for reamer contact over the entire face of the ring. If 
necessary, repeat the reaming procedure until the 
reamer does make contact with the entire face of the 
ring. Clean up the opposite side of the ring in the 
same manner. 

Carefully insert a .375 " diameter straight fluted 
reamer inside the ring bore in the injector body. Turn 
the reamer in a clockwise direction and remove any 
burrs inside the ring bore. Then wash the injector 
body in clean fuel oil and dry it with compressed air. 




OUTLET 




INLET 



OUTLET 




INLET 



5478 




Fig. 34 - Location of Filter In Injector Body 

Carefully insert carbon remover tool J 9418-1 in th 
injector nut. Turn it in a clockwise direction to remov 
the carbon deposits on the flat spray tip seat as show 
in Fig. 30. Remove the carbon deposits from the lowc 
end of the injector nut with carbon remover J 9418- 
(Fig. 30) in the same manner. Use care to prevei 
removing any metal or setting up burrs on the spra 
tip seat. 

Wash the injector nut in clean fuel oil and dry it wit 
compressed air. Carbon deposits on the spray ti 
seating surfaces of the injector nut will result in poc 
sealing and consequent fuel leakage around the spra 
tip. 

When handling the injector plunger, do not touch th 
finished plunger surfaces with your fingers. Wash th 
plunger and bushing with clean fuel oil and dry thei 
with compressed air. Be sure the high pressure blee 
hole in the side of the bushing is not plugged. If th: 
hole is plugged, fuel leakage will occur at the uppe 
end of the bushing where it will drain out of th 
injector body vent and rack holes, during engin 
operation, causing a serious oil dilution problem. Kee 
the plunger and bushing together as they are mate 
parts. 

After washing, submerge the parts in a clea 
receptable containing clean fuel oil. Keep the parts c 
each injector assembly together. 



Inspect Injector Parts 

Inspect the teeth on the control rack and the contn 
rack gear for excessive wear or damage. Also check fc 
excessive wear in the bore of the gear and inspect th 



Injector 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



11 automatically stop the flow of fuel 
ces. 

lei stops flowing into the vial, pull the 
no-fuel position. 

nparator off and reset the counter. 

reading on the vial and refer to Fig. 19 
' the injector fuel output falls within its 
. If the quantity of fuel in the vial does 
i the specified limits, refer to Trouble 
( 6 and Shop Notes in Section 2.0 for 
emedy. 



I J 22410 

fuel output, operate the injector in the 
, 21) as follows: 

e the cam shift index wheel and fuel 
n their respective positions. Turn on 
;1 oil heater switch and preheat the 
5 to 105 F. 

roper injector adaptor between the tie 
ge it with the fuel block locating pin. 
: adaptor forward and up against the 



injector seat J 22410-226 into the 
it (cradle handle in vertical position). 





Fig. 25 Removing Injector Nut 

Clamp the injector into position by operating the air 
valve. 

NOTE: Make sure the counter (Fig. 22) on the 
calibrator is preset at 1000 strokes. If for any 
reason this setting has been altered, reset the 
counter to 1000 strokes by twisting the cover 
release button to the left and hold the reset 
lever in the full up position while setting the 
numbered wheels. Close the cover. Refer to the 
calibrator instruction booklet for further 
information. 

3. Pull the injector racks out to the no-fuel position. 

4. Turn on the main power control circuit switch. Then 
start the calibrator by turning on the motor starter 
switch. 

NOTE: The low oil pressure warning buzzer will 
sound briefly until the lubricating oil reaches 
the proper pressure. 

5. After the calibrator has started, set the injector rack 
into the full-fuel position. Allow the injector to operate 
for approximately 30 seconds to purge the air that 
may be in the system. 

6. After the air is purged, press the fuel flow start 
button (red). This will start the flow of fuel into the 
vial. The fuel flow to the vial will automatically stop 
after 1000 strokes. 

7. Shut the calibrator off (thp ralihrntor will stnn in 



ruel Injector 




Fig. 26 - Removing Spray Tip from Injector 
Nut 

the specified limits. If the quantity of fuel in the vial 
does not fall within the specified limits, refer to 
Trouble Shooting Chart 6 and Shop Notes in 
section 2.0 for the cause and remedy. 

NOTE: Refer to Section 2.0 for different factors 
that may affect the injector calibrator output 
reading. 

The comparator or the calibrator may be used to check 
and select a set of injectors which will inject the same 
amount of fuel in each cylinder at a given throttle 
setting, thus resulting in a smooth running, well 
balanced engine. 




J 4298-1 




Fig. 28 - Cleaning Spray Tip Orifices 

An injector which passes all of the above tests may b 
put back into service. However, an injector which fai 
to pass one 'or more of the tests must be rebuilt an 
checked on the comparator or the calibrator. 

Any injector which is disassembled and rebuilt mu: 
be tested again before being placed in service. 



Disassemble injector 

If required, disassemble an injector as follows: 

1. Support the injector upright in injector holdin 
fixture J 22396 (Fig. 23) and remove the filter cap 
gaskets and filters. 

NOTE: Whenever a fuel injector is disassem- 
bled, discard the filters and gaskets and replace 
with new filters and gaskets. In the offset 
injector, a filter is used in (he inlet side only. No 
filter is required in the outlet side (Fig. 34). 

2. Compress the follower spring as shown in Fig. 1 




Fig. 27 - Cleaning Injector Spray Tip 



Fig. 29 - Cleaning Injector Body Ring 



Fuel Injector 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 




g. 30 - Cleaning Injector Nut Spray Tip Seat 

raise the spring above the stop pin with a screw 
and withdraw the pin. Allow the spring to rise 
illy. 

er to Fig. 24 and remove the plunger follower, 
:r and spring as an assembly. 

:rt the fixture and, using socket J 4983-01, loosen 
t on the injector body (Fig. 25). 

the injector nut straight up, being careful not to 
e the spray tip and valve parts. Remove the 
tip and valve parts from the bushing and place 
n a clean receptacle until ready for assembly. 

an injector has been in use for some time, the 
tip, even though clean on the outside, may not 
hed readily from the nut with the ringers. In this 
support the nut on a wood block and drive the 
wn through the nut, using tool J-1291-02 as 
in Fig. 26. 

'er to Fig. 36 and remove the spill deflector, 
ift the bushing straight out of the injector body. 

love the injector body from the holding fixture, 
the body upside down and catch the gear 
r and gear in your hand as they fall out of the 



BUSHING 



CHECK VALVE SPRING 
CAGE SEAT 




CTGR CHECK/ VALVE SPRING SPRAY 

'DY VALVE SPRING CAGE TIP 34 



8. Withdraw the injector control rack from the injector 
body. Also remove the seal ring from the body. 



Clean Injector Parts 

Since most injector difficulties are the result of dirt 
particles, it is essential that a clean area be provided 
on which to place the injector parts after cleaning and 
inspection. 

Wash all of the parts with clean fuel oil or a suitable 
cleaning solvent and dry them with clean, filtered 
compressed air. Do not use waste or rags for cleaning 
purposes. Clean out all of the passages, drilled holes 
and slots in all of the injector parts. 

Carbon on the inside of the spray tip may be loosened 
for easy removal by soaking for approximately 15 
minutes in a suitable solution prior to the external 
cleaning and buffing operation. Methyl Ethyl Ketone 
J 8257 solution is recommended for this purpose. 

Clean the spray tip with tool J 9464-01 Fig. 27). 

CAUTION: Care must be exercised when 
inserting the carbon remover J 9464-01 in the 
spray tip to avoid contacting the needle valve 
seat in the tip. 

Wash the tip in fuel oil and dry it with compressed 
air. Clean the spray tip orifices with pin vise J 4298-1 
and the proper size spray tip cleaning wire. Use wire 
J 21460 to clean .0055 " diameter holes and wire 
J 21461 to clean .006 " diameter holes (Fig. 28). 

Before using the wire, hone the end until it is smooth 
and free of burrs and taper the end a distance of 
1/16" with stone J 8170. Allow the wire to extend 
1/8 " from toolJ 4298-1. 




g. 31 - Sealing Surfaces which may Require 
Lapping 



Fig. 32 Examing Sealing Surface with a 
Magnifying Glass 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Fue! Injector 2. 



The exterior surface of an injector spray tip may be 
cleaned by using a brass wire buffing wheel, tool 
J 7944. To obtain a good polishing effect and longer 
brush life, the buffing wheel should be installed on a 
motor that turns the wheel at approximately 3000 rpm. 
A convenient method of holding the spray tip while 
cleaning and polishing is to place the tip over the drill 
end of the spray tip cleaner tool J 1243 and hold the 
body of the tip against the buffing wheel. In this way, 
the spray tip is rotated while being buffed. 

CAUTION: Do not buff excessively. Do not use a 
steel wire buffing wheel or the .spray dp holes may 
be distorted. 

When the body of the spray tip is clean, lightly buff 
the tip end in the same manner. This cleans the spray 
tip orifice area and will not plug the orifices. 

Wash the spray tip in clean fuel oil and dry it with 
compressed air. 

Clean and brush all of the passages in the injector 
body, using fuel hole cleaning brush J 8152 and rack 
hole cleaning brush J 8150. Blow out the passages and 
dry them with compressed air. 

Carefully insert reamer J 21089 in the injector body 
(Fig. 29). Turn it in a clockwise direction a few turns, 
then remove the reamer and check the face of the ring 
for reamer contact over the entire face of the ring. If 
necessary, repeat the reaming procedure until the 
reamer does make contact with the entire face of the 
ring. Clean up the opposite side of the ring in the 
same manner. 

Carefully insert a .375 " diameter straight fluted 
reamer inside the ring bore in the injector body. Turn 
the reamer in a clockwise direction and remove any 
burrs inside the ring bore. Then wash the injector 
body in clean fuel oil and dry it with compressed air. 




OUTLET 




INLET 



54/ 

e=J 

STANDARD INJECTOR OFFSET INJECTOR 
USE FILTER IN BOTH FILTER REQUIRED ON 
INLET AND OUTLET INLET SIDE ONLY 

(ABOVE CONTROL RACK 



Fig. 34 - Location of Filter In Injector Body 

Carefully insert carbon remover tool J 9418-1 ii 
injector nut. Turn it in a clockwise direction to rei 
the carbon deposits on the flat spray tip seat as si 
in Fig. 30. Remove the carbon deposits from the I 
end of the injector nut with carbon remover J 9< 
(Fig. 30) in the same manner. Use care to pn 
removing any metal or setting up burrs on the s 
tip seat. 

Wash the injector nut in clean fuel oil and dry it 
compressed air. Carbon deposits on the spra) 
seating surfaces of the injector nut will result in 
sealing and consequent fuel leakage around the s 
tip. 

When handling the injector plunger, do not toucl 
finished plunger surfaces with your fingers. Was! 
plunger and bushing with clean fuel oil and dry 
with compressed air. Be sure the high pressure I 
hole in the side of the bushing is not plugged. If 
hole is plugged, fuel leakage will occur at the u 
end of the bushing where it will drain out of 
injector body vent and rack holes, during er 
operation, causing a serious oil dilution problem. 
the plunger and bushing together as they are n 
parts. 

After washing, submerge the parts in a < 
receptable containing clean fuel oil. Keep the pat 
each injector assembly together. 



Inspect Injector Parts 

Inspect the teeth on the control rack and the co 
rack gear for excessive wear or damage. Also chec 
excessive wear in the bore of the eear and insnec 




ig. 35 



Details of Injector Filters and Caps 
and Their Relative Location 



t both ends of the spill deflector for sharp edges 
rs which could create burrs on the injector body 
sctor nut and cause particles of metal to be 
jced into the spray tip and valve parts. Remove 
vith a 500 grit stone. 

E the follower spring for visual defects. Then 
the spring with spring tester J 9666 and an 
te torque wrench. 

irrent injector follower spring (.142 " diameter 
las a free length of approximately 1.504" and 
be replaced when a load of less than 70 Ibs. will 
;ss it to 1.028 ". 

icommended that at the time of overhaul, all 
rs in an engine be converted to the current 
(.142 " diameter wire) which will provide 
ed cam roller to shaft follow. However, in the 
that one or two injectors are changed, the 
ing injectors need not be reworked to 
>rate the current spring. 

the seal ring area on the injector body for burrs 
>ches. Also check the surface which contacts the 
1 bushing for scratches, scuff marks or other 
:. If necessary, lap this surface. A faulty sealing 




-SEAL' 



SPILL 
DEFLECTOR 



NEEDLE VALVE- 



- SPRING CAGE 



SPRING SEAT- 



-VALVE SPRING 



CHECK VALVE 
CAGE 



CHECK VALVE 




Fig. 36 Injector Rack, Gear, Spray Tip and 

Valve Assembly Details and Relative Location 

of Parts 

surface at this point will result in high fuel 
consumption and contamination of the lubricating oil. 
Replace any loose injector body plugs or a loose dowel 
pin. Install the proper number tag on a service 
replacement injector body. 

Inspect the injector plunger and bushing for scoring, 
erosion, chipping or wear. Check for sharp edges on 
that portion of the plunger which rides in the gear. 
Remove any sharp edges with a 500 grit stone. Wash 
the plunger after stoning it. Injector Bushing 
Inspectalite J 21471 can be used to check the port 
holes in the inner diameter of the bushing for cracks 
or chipping. Slip the plunger into the bushing and 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Fuel Injector 2.1 



check for free movement. Replace the plunger and 
bushing as an assembly if any of the above damage is 
noted, since they are mated parts. Use new mated 
factory parts to assure the best performance from the 
injector. 

Injector plungers cannot be reworked to change the 
output. Grinding will destroy the hardened case at the 
helix and result in chipping and seizure or scoring of 
the plunger. 

Examine the spray tip seating surface of the injector 
nut and spray tip for nicks, burrs, erosion or 
brinelling. Reseat the surface or replace the nut or tip 
if it is severely damaged. 

The injector valve spring plays an important part in 



FOLLOWER- 



PLUNGER 



FOLLOWER SPRING- 




CONTROL RACK 



SPRAY TIP 




,TOP PIN 



Part 
Name 


Minimum 
Thickness 


Tip, Spray (Shoulder) 
Cage, Check Valve 
Valve, Check 
Cage, Valve Spring 


.199 
.165-. 163 
.022 
.602 



MINIMUM THICKNESS (Used Parts) 

establishing the valve opening pressure of the inje 
assembly. Replace a worn or broken spring. 

Inspect the sealing surfaces of the injector p 
indicated by arrows in Fig. 31. Examine the sea 
surfaces with a magnifying glass as shown in Fig. 
for even the slightest imperfections will prevent 
injector from operating properly. Check for bu 
nicks, erosion, cracks, chipping^ and excessive w 
Also check for enlarged orifices -in the spray 
Replace damaged or excessively worn parts. Check 
minimum thickness of the lapped parts as noted in 
chart. 

Examine the seating area of the needle valve for v, 
or damage. Also examine the needle quill and 
contact point with the valve spring seat. Repl 
damaged or excessively worn parts. 

Examine the needle valve seat area in the spray tip 
foreign material. The smallest particle of s 
material can prevent the needle valve from seal 
properly. Polish the seat area with polishing s 
J 22964. Coat only the tapered end of the stick v 
polishing compound J 23038 and insert it directly i 
the center of the spray tip until it bottoms. Rotate 
stick 6 to 12 times, applying a light pressure with 
thumb and forefinger. 

CAUTION: Be sure that no compound is 



.030" 



-CHECK VALVE 





VALVE CAGE 



SPRING SEAT 

LONG QUILL SHORT QUILtT 

\ .^- 

NEEDLE VALVE 




FORMER DESIGN 



NEW DESIGN 



2.1 .1 Fuel Injector 



DETROIT DIESEL 



accidentally placed on the lapped surfaces 
located higher up in the spray tip. The slightest 
lapping action on these surfaces can alter the 
near-perfect fit between the needle valve and 
tip. 

Before reinstalling used injector parts, lap all of the 
sealing surfaces indicated by the arrows in Fig. 31. It 
is also good practice to lightly lap the sealing surfaces 
of new injector parts which may become burred or 
nicked during handling. 



Lapping Injector Parts 

Lap the sealing surfaces indicated in Fig. 31 and the 
chart as follows: 

1. Clean the lapping blocks (J 22090) with compressed 
air. Do not use a cloth or any other material for this 
purpose. 

2. Spread a good quality 600 grit dry lapping powder 
on one of the lapping blocks. 

3 Place the part to be lapped flat on the block as 
shown in Fig. 33 and. using a figure eight motion, 
move it back and forth across the block. Do not press 
on the part, but use just enough pressure to keep the 
part flat on the block. It is important that the part be 
kept flat on the block at all times. 

4. After each four or five passes, clean the lapping 




powder from the part by drawing it across a 
piece of tissue placed on a flat surface and inspec 
part. Do not lap excessively (refer to the chai 
minimum thickness). 

5. When the part is flat, wash it in cleaning so 
and dry it with compressed air. 

6. Place the dry part on the second block. , 
applying lapping powder, move the part lightly a 
the block in a figure eight motion several times to 
it a smooth finish. Do not lap excessively. Again 
the part in cleaning solvent and dry it with compr 
air. 

7. Place the dry part on the third block. Do no 
lapping powder on this block. Keep the part flal 
move it across the block several times, using the f 
eight motion. Lapping the dry part in this m 
gives it the "mirror" finish required for pe 
sealing. 

8. Wash all of the lapped parts in clean fuel oil 
dry them with compressed air. 



Assemble Injector 

Use an extremely clean bench to work on and to 
the parts when assembling an injector. Also be su 
of the injector parts, both new and used, are clean 

Study Figs. 34 through 37 for the proper rel 
position of the injector parts, then proceed as folk 



ASSEMBLE INJECTOR FILTERS 

Always use new filters and gaskets when reassem 
an injector. 

1. Insert a new filter, dimple end down, slotted en 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Fuel Injector 2.1 



in each of the fuel cavities in the top of the injector 
body (Fig. 35). 

NOTE: Install a new filter in the inlet side 
(located over the injector rack) in a fuel injector 
with an offset body. No filter is required in the 
outlet side of the offset body injector (Fig. 34). 

2. Place a new gasket on each filter cap. Lubricate the 
threads and install the filter caps. Tighten the filter 
caps to 65-75 Ib-ft torque with a 9/16 " deep socket 
(Fig. 23). 

3. Purge the filters after installation by directing 
compressed air or fuel through the filter caps. 

4. Install clean shipping caps on the filter caps to 
prevent dirt from entering the injector. 



ASSEMBLE RACK AND GEAR 

Refer to Fig. 36 and note the drill spot marks on the 
control rack and gear. Then proceed as follows: 

1. Hold the injector body, bottom end up, and slide the 
rack through the hole in the body. Look into the body 
bore and move the rack until you can see the drill 
marks. Hold the rack in this position. 

2. Place the gear in the injector body so that the 
marked tooth is engaged between the two marked 
teeth on the rack (Fig. 36). 

3. Place the gear retainer on top of the gear. 

4. Align the locating pin in the bushing with the slot in 
the injector body, then slide the end of the bushing 
into place. 




J 5119 




Fig. 42 - Checking Injector Spray Tip 
Concentricity 

ASSEMBLE SPRAY TIP, SPRING CAGE 
AND CHECK VALVE ASSEMBLIES 

Refer to Fig. 36 and assemble the parts as follows: 

1. Support the injector body, bottom end up, 
injector holding fixture 3 22396. 

2. Place a new seal ring on the shoulder of the b( 
Then place the spill deflector over the barrel of 
bushing. 

3. Place the check valve (without the .010 " h 
centrally on the top of the bushing. Then place 
check valve cage over the check valve and against 
bushing. 

CAUTION: The former and new check valve and 
check valve cage are not separately inter- 
changeable in a former injector (Fig. 38). 



2.1.1 Fuel Injector 



DETROIT DIESE 





BRIDGE IMPROPERLY POSITIONED 



BRIDGE PROPERLY POSITIONED 



Fig. 43 Relationship Between Exhaust Valve Bridge and Valve Stems 



a former injector if a new design spray tip 
assembly is used. 

5. Place the spring cage, spring seat and valve spring 
assembly (valve spring down) on top of the check 
valve cage. 

CAUTION: When installing a new spray tip 
assembly in a former injector, a new valve 
spring seat must also be installed. The current 
needle valve has a shorter quill. 

6. Insert the needle valve, tapered end down, inside of 
the spray tip (Fig. 2). Then place the spray tip and 
needle valve on top of the spring cage with the quill 
end of the needle valve in the hole in the spring cage. 

7. Lubricate the threads in the injector nut and 
carefully thread the nut on the injector body by hand. 
Rotate the spray tip between your thumb and first 
finger while threading the nut on the injector body 
(Fig. 39). Tighten the nut as tight as possible by hand. 
At this point there should be sufficient force on the 
spray tip to make it impossible to turn with your 
fingers. 

8. Use socket J 4983-01 and a torque wrench to tighten 
the injector nut to 75-85 Ib-ft torque (Fig. 40). 

NOTE: Do not exceed the specified torque. 
Otherwise, the nut may be stretched and result 
in improper sealing of the lapped surfaces in a 
subsequent injector overhaul. 



ASSEMBLE PLUNGER AND FOLLOWER 

1. Refer to Fig. 37 and slide the head of the { 
into the follower. 

2. Invert the injector in the assembly fixture (fil 
end up) and push the rack all the way in. Thei 
the follower spring on the injector body. 

3. Refer to Fig. 41 and place the stop pin 
injector body so that the follower spring rests 
narrow flange of the stop pin. Then align the 
the follower with the stop pin hole in the i 
body. Next align the flat side of the plunger w 
slot in the follower. Then insert the free end 
plunger in the injector body. Press down < 
follower and at the same time press the stop p 
position. When in place, the spring will hold tl 
pin in position. 



Check Spray Tip Concentricity 

To assure correct alignment, check the concentr: 
the spray tip as follows: 

1. Place the injector in the concentricity gage J i 
shown in Fig. 42 and adjust the dial indicator tc 

2. Rotate the injector 360 and note the total i 
as indicated on the dial. 

3. If the total run-out exceeds .008 ", remo 
injector from the gage. Loosen the injector nut, 
the spray tip and tighten the nut to 75-85 Ib-ft 
Recheck the spray tip concentricity. If, after 



UICOCL 



ruei m|ecTor 



. \ . \ 



attempts, the spray tip cannot be positioned satisfacto- 
rily, replace the injector nut. 



Test Reconditioned Injector 

Before placing a reconditioned injector in service, 
perform all of the tests (except the visual inspection of 
the plunger) previously outlined under Test Injector. 

The injector is satisfactory if it passes these tests. 
Failure to pass any one of the tests indicates that 
defective or dirty parts have been assembled. In this 
case, disassemble, clean, inspect, reassemble and test 
the injector again. 



Install Injector 

Before installing an injector in an engine, remove the 
carbon deposits from the beveled seat of the injector 
tube in the cylinder head. This will assure correct 
alignment of the injector and prevent any undue 
stresses from being exerted against ihe spray tip. 

Use injector tube bevel reamer J 5286-9, Section 2.1.4, 
to clean the carbon from the injector tube. Exercise 
care to remove ONLY the carbon so that the proper 
clearance between the injector body .and the cylinder 
head is maintained. Pack the flutes of the reamer with 
grease to retain the carbon removed from the tube. 

Be sure the fuel injector is filled with fuel oil. If 
necessary, add cjean fuel oil at the inlet filter cap until 
it runs out of the outlet filter cap. 

Install the injector in the engine as follows: 

1. Refer to Fig. 6 and insert the injector into the 
injector tube with the dowel pin in the injector body 
registering with the locating hole in the cylinder head. 

2. Slide the injector rack control lever over so that it 
registers with the injector rack. 



3. Install the injector clamp, special washer (with 
curved side toward injector clamp) and bolt. Tighten 
the bolt to 20-25 Ib-ft torque. Make sure that the 
clamp does not interfere with the injector follower 
spring or the exhaust valve springs. 

NOTE: Check the injector control rack for free 
movement. Excess torque can cause the control 
rack to stick or bind. 

4. Move the rocker arm assembly into position and 
secure the rocker arm brackets to the cylinder head by 
tightening the bolts to the torque specified in 
Section 2.0. 

CAUTION: On four valve cylinder heads, there 
is a possibility of damaging the exhaust valves 
if the exhaust valve bridge is not resting on the 
ends of the exhaust valves when tightening the 
rocker shaft bracket bolts. Therefore, note the 
position of the exhaust valve bridge (Fig. 43) 
before, during and after tightening the rocker 
shaft bolts. 

5. Remove the shipping caps. Then install the fuel 
pipes and connect them to the injector and the fuel 
connectors. Use socket J 8932-01 to tighten the 
connections to 12-15 Ib-ft torque. 

CAUTION: Do not bend the fuel pipes and do 
not exceed the specified torque. Excessive 
tightening will twist or fracture the flared end 
of the fuel line and result in leaks. Lubricating 
oil diluted by fuel oil can cause serious damage 
to the engine bearings. 

6. Perform a complete engine tune-up as outlined in 
Section 14. However, if only one injector has been 
removed and replaced and the other injectors and the 
governor adjustment have not been disturbed, it will 
only be necessary to adjust the valve clearance and 
time the injector for the one cylinder, and to position 
the injector rack control lever. 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



2. 



FUEL INJECTOR TUBE 



The bore in the cylinder head for the fuel injector is 
directly through the cylinder head water jacket as 
shown in Fig. 1. To prevent coolant from contacting 
the injector and still maintain maximum cooling of the 
injector, a tube is pressed into the injector bore. This 
tube is sealed at the top with a neoprene ring and 
upset into a flare on the lower side of the cylinder 
head to create water-tight and gas-tight joints at the 
top and bottom. 



Remove Injector Tube 

When removal of an injector tube is required, use 
injector tube service tool set J 22525 as follows: 

1. Remove, disassemble and clean the cylinder head as 
outlined in Section 1.2. 

2. Place the injector tube installer J 5286-4 in the 
injector tube. Insert the pilot J 5286-5 through the 
small opening of the injector tube and thread the pilot 
into the tapped hole in the end of the installer 
(Fig. 1). 

3. Tap on the end of the pilot to loosen the injector 
tube. Then lift the injector tube, installer and pilot 
from the cylinder head. 




Install Injector Tube 

Thoroughly clean the injector tube hole in the cyl 
head to remove dirt, burrs or foreign material 
may prevent the tube from seating at the lower ei 
sealing at the upper end. Then install the tut 
follows: 

1. Place a new injector tube seal ring in 
counterbore in the cylinder head. 

2. Place the installer J 5286-4 in the injector 
Then insert the pilot J 5286-5 through the < 
opening of the injector tube and thread it intc 
tapped end of the installer (Fig. 2). 

3. Slip the injector tube into the injector bore 
drive it in place as shown in Fig. 2. Sealin 
accomplished between the head counterbore (ii 
diameter) and outside diameter of the injector 
The tube flange is merely used to retain the seal ri 

4. With the injector tube properly positioned in 
cylinder head, upset (flare) the lower end of 
injector tube as follows: 

a. Turn the cylinder head bottom side up, remov< 
pilot J 5286-5 and thread the upsetting 




Fig. 1 Removing Injector Tube 



Fig. 2 Installing Injector Tube 



4 Injector Tube 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 




Fig. 3 Upsetting Injector Tube 

5286-6 into the tapped end of the installer 
5286-4 (Fig. 3). 

hen, using a socket and torque wrench, apply 
pproximately 30 Ib-ft torque on the upsetting 
ie. 

emove the installing tools and ream the injector 
jbe as outlined below. 



i injector Tube 

an injector tube has been installed in a cylinder 

it must be finished in three operations: First, 

reamed, as shown in Fig. 4, to receive the 

3r body nut and spray tip; second, spot-faced to 

'e excess stock at the lower end of the injector 

and third, hand reamed, as shown in Fig. 5, to 

le a good seating surface for the bevel or the 

end of the injector nut. Reaming must be done 

illy and without undue force or speed so as to 

cutting through the thin wall of the injector 



OTE: The reamer should be turned in a 
jckwise direction only, both when inserting 
d when withdrawing the reamer, because 
3vement in the opposite direction will dull the 




Fig. 4 - Reaming Injector Tube for Injector 
Body Nut and Spray Tip 

1. Ream the injector tube for the injector nut and 
spray tip. With the cylinder head right side up and the 
injector tube free from dirt, proceed with the first 
reaming operation as follows: 

a. Place a few drops of light cutting oil on the 
reamer flutes, then carefully position the reamer 
J 22525-1 in the injector tube. 

b. Turn the reamer in a clockwise direction 
(withdrawing the reamer frequently for removal 
of chips) until the lower shoulder of the reamer 
contacts the injector tube (Fig. 4). Clean out all of 
the chips. 

2. Remove excess stock: 

a. With the cylinder head bottom side up, insert the 
pilot of cutting tool J 5286-8 into the small hole 
of the injector tube. 

b. Place a few drops of cutting oil on the tool. Then, 
using a socket and a speed handle, remove the 
excess stock so that the lower end of the injector 
tube is from flush to .005 " below the finished 



PETROIT DIESEL 53 



Injector Tube 2.1 




Fig. 5 Reaming Injector Tube for Injector Nut 
3. Ream the bevel seat in the injector tube: 

The tapered lower end of the injector tube must 
provide a smooth and true seat for the lower end of 
the injector nut to effectively seal the cylinder 
pressures and properly position the injector tip in the 
combustion chamber. Therefore, to determine the 
amount of stock that must be reamed from the bevel 
seat of the tube, the injector assembly should be 
installed in the tube and the relationship between the 
numbered surface of the spray tip to the fire deck of 
the cylinder head noted (Fig. 6). 

With the first reaming operation completed and the 
injector tube spot-faced, wash the interior of the 




Fig. 6 - Checking Location of Injector Spray 
Tip Relative to Lower Surface of Cylinder Head 

injector tube with trichloroethylene or clean fue 
and dry it with compressed air. Then perform 
second reaming operation as follows: 

a. Place a few drops of cutting oil on the bevel 
of the tube. Carefully lower the reamer J 52 
into the injector tube until it contacts the b 
seat. 

b. Make a trial cut by turning the reamer stea 
without applying any downward force on 
reamer. Remove the reamer, blow out the c 
and look at the bevel seat to see what portio: 
the seat has been cut. 

c. Proceed carefully with the reaming operai 
withdrawing the reamer occasionally to obs 
the reaming progress. 

d. Remove the chips from the injector tube 
using an injector as a gage, continue the rear 
operation until the shoulder of the spray ti 
within the limits specified in Fig. 6. Then \ 
the interior of the injector tube with trichlorc 
ylene or clean fuel oil and dry it with compre 
air. 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



FUEL PUMP 



The positive displacement gear type fuel pump 
(Fig. 1) transfers the fuel from the supply tank to the 
fuel injectors. The pump circulates an excess supply of 
fuel through the injectors which purges the air from 
the system and cools the injectors. The unused portion 
of fuel returns to the fuel tank by means of a fuel 
return manifold and fuel return line. 

On the In-line engine, the fuel pump is mounted on 
the governor weight housing and is driven through a 
drive coupling by the governor weight shaft. 



The fuel pump cover and body are positioned by 
means of two dowels. The dowels aid in maintaining 
gear shaft alignment. The mating surfaces of the 
pump body and cover are perfectly flat ground 
surfaces. No gasket is used between the cover and 
body since the pump clearances are set up on the basis 
of metal-to-metal contact. A very thin coating of 
sealant provides a seal against any minute irregulari- 
ties in the mating surfaces. Cavities in the pump cover 
accommodate the ends of the drive and driven shafts. 

The fuel pump body is recessed to provide running 
space for the pump gears (Fig. 2). Recesses are also 
provided at the inlet and outlet positions of the gears. 
The small hole "A" permits the fuel oil in the inlet 
side of the pump to lubricate the relief valve at its 
outer end and to eliminate the possibility of a 
hydrostatic lock which would render the relief valve 
inoperative. Pressurized fuel contacts the relief valve 
through hole "B" and provides for relief of excess 
discharge pressures. Fuel re-enters the inlet side of the 
pump through hole "C" when the discharge pressure is 
great enough to move the relief valve back from its 
seat. Part of the relief valve may be seen through hole 
"C". The cavity "D" provides escape for the fuel oil 
which is squeezed out of the gear teeth as they mesh 
together on the discharge side of the pump. Otherwise, 
fuel trapped at the root of the teeth would tend to 
force the gears apart, resulting in undue wear on the 



BOLT 



DRIVEN 
GEAR 

DRIVEN 
SHAFT 



PLUG GASKET SPRIN 




STEEL 
BALL 

DRIVE 
SHAFT 



COVER 



[DRIVE 
GEAR 



DOWEL OIL SEALS' 



Fig. 1 - Typical Fuel Pump Assembly 

compartment (Fig. 1). The oil seals are installed v 
the lips of the seals facing toward the flanged enc 
the pump body. A small hole "E" (Fig. 2) serves i 
vent passageway in the body, between the inner 
seal and the suction side of the pump, which prev( 
building up any fuel oil pressure around the si 
ahead of the inner seal. Two tapped holes in the un 
side of the pump body, between the oil seals, furnis 
means of attaching tubing for draining oflf . 
leakage. 

The drive and driven gears are a line-to-line t< 
.001" press fit on their shafts. The drive gear 
provided with a gear retaining ball to locate the g 
on the shaft. 

A spring-loaded relief valve incorporated in the pu 
body normally remains in the closed positi 
operating only when pressure on the outlet side (to 
fuel filter) reaches approximately 65 psi. 



Operation 

In operation, fuel enters the pump on the suction i 
and fills the space between the gear teeth which 
exposed at that instant. The gear teeth then carry 
fuel oil to the discharge side of the pump and, as 
gear teeth mesh in the center of the pump, the fuel 
is forced out into the outlet cavity. Since this i 
continuous cycle and fuel is continually being foi 
into the outlet cavity, the fuel flows from the 01 



fnOinf> 



Fuel Pump 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



UG GASKET PIN SPRING 




A -RELIEF VALVE VENT TO SUCTION S!OE 
8 -PASSAGE TO HEAD OF RELIEF VALVE- 

PRESSURE SIDE 

C -PASSAGE FROM RELIEF VALVE- 
SUCTION SIDE 

D -GEAR TEETH VENT CAV!TY 
-OIL SEAL VENT TO SUCTION SiDE 



DRIVEN DRIVEN BODY STEEL COVER DOWEL 
E GEAR SHAFT t BALL 




Fig. 2 - Fuel Pump Valving and Rotation (Right Hand Pump Shown) 



mp to the inlet side when the discharge pressure 
is approximately 65 to 75 psi. 

uel pump should maintain the fuel pressure at 
z\ inlet manifold as shown in Section 13.2. 

cage exceeds one drop per minute, the oil seals 
be replaced. 



re Fuel Pump 

connect the fuel lines from the inlet and outlet 
igs of the fuel pump. 

connect the drain tube, if used, from the fuel 



"nove the three pump attaching bolt and seal 
blies and withdraw the pump. 

:ck the drive coupling fork and, if broken or 
replace it with a new coupling. 



Fig. 3, refer to Figs. 1 and 2 and disassemble the 
pump as follows: 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Fuel Pump 



1. Remove the eight cover bolts and withdraw the 
pump cover from the pump body. Use care not to 
damage the finished faces of the pump body and 
cover. 

2. Withdraw the drive shaft, drive gear and gear 
retaining ball as an assembly from the pump body. 

3. Press the drive shaft just far Enough to remove the 
steel locking ball. Then, invert the shaft and gear 
assembly and press the shaft from the gear. Do not 
misplace the steel ball Do not press the squared end of 
the shaft through the gear as slight score marks will 
damage the oil seal contact surface. 

4. Remove the driven shaft and gear as an assembly 
from the pump body. Do not remove the gear from 
the shaft. The driven gear and shaft are serviced only 
as an assembly. 

5. Remove the relief valve plug. 

6. Remove the valve spring, pin and relief valve from 
the valve cavity in the pump body. 

7. If the oil seals need replacing, remove them with 
tool J 1508-7, as shown in Fig. 4, by clamping the 
pump body in a bench vise and screwing the threaded 
end of the tool shaft into the outer oil seal (seal 
nearest to the bolting flange). Then tap the pilot end 
of the shaft with a hammer to remove the seal. Repeat 
this operation to remove the inner oil seal. 



Inspection 

Clean all of the parts in clean fuel oil and dry them 
with compressed air. 

Oil seals, once removed from the pump body, must be 
discarded and replaced with new seals. The lips of the 
oil seals must fit snug around the pump shaft and must 
be free of nicks or cracks. 

Check the pump gear teeth for scoring, chipping or 
wear. Check the ball slot in the drive gear for wear. If 
necessary, replace with a new gear. 

Inspect the drive and driven shafts for scoring or wear. 
Replace with new shafts if necessary. The driven shaft 
is serviced as a gear and shaft assembly only. 

The mating faces of the pump body and cover must be 
flat and smooth and fit tightly together. Any scratches 
or slight damage may result in pressure leaks. Also 
check for wear at areas contacted by gears and shafts, 
Replace the cover or body if necessary. 

The relief valve must be free from score marks and 
burrs and fit its seat in the pump body. If the relief 




Fig. 4 - Removing Oil Seals 

valve is scored and cannot be cleaned up with fine 
emery cloth or crocus cloth, it must be replaced. 



Assemble Fuel Pump 

1. Lubricate the lips of the oil seals with a light coat of 
vegetable shortening, then install the oil seals in the 
pump body as follows: 



a. Place the inner oil seal'on the pilot of the installer 

handle J 1508-8 so that the lip of the seal will 
face toward the shoulder on the tool. 

b. With the pump body supported on wood blocks, 
insert the oil seal and tool in the pump body and 
drive the seal in until it bottoms in the 
counterbore (Fig. 6). 

c. Place the shorter end of the adaptor J 1508-9 over 

the pilot and against the shoulder of the installer 
handle. Place the outer oil seal on the pilot of the 
installer handle with the lip of the seal facing the 
adaptor. Then, insert the pilot of the installer 
handle into the pump body and drive the seal in 
(Fig. 7) until the shoulder of the adaptor contacts 
the pump body. Thus the oil seals will be 
positioned so that the space between them will 
correspond with the drain holes located in the 
bottom of the pump body. 

2. Clamp the pump body in a bench vise (equipped 
with soft jaws) with the valve cavity up.. Lubricate the 
outside diameter of the valve and place it in the cavity 



2 Fuel Pump 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Oil SEALS GASKET PUMP V BODY 




GASKET 



DRIVE 
COUPLING 



RELIEF 
VALVE 



PLUG 



Fig. 5 - Fuel Pump Details and Relative Location of Parts (Right Hand Pump Shown) 



:h the hollow end up. Insert the spring inside of the 
ve and the pin inside of the spring. With a new 
ket in place next to the head of the valve plug, 
.ce the plug over the spring and thread it into the 
mp body. Tighten the plug. 

Install the pump drive gear over the end of the 
ve shaft which is not squared (so the slot in the gear 

I face the plain end of the shaft). This operation is 
y important, otherwise fine score marks caused by 
:ssing the gear into position from the square end of 

shaft may cause rapid wear of the oil seals. Press 

gear beyond the gear retaining ball detent. Then, 

ce the ball in the detent and press the gear back 

II the end of the slot contacts the ball. 

Lubricate the pump shaft and insert the square end 
the shaft into the opening at the gear side of the 
up body and through the oil seals as shown in 



Place the driven shaft and gear assembly in the 
up body. 

CAUTION: The driven gear must be centered on 

haft to give proper end clearance. Also, the 

ered end of the gear teeth of the 



production gear must face the pump body. If a 
service replacement gear with a slot is used, the 
slot must face toward the numn cover 




Fig. 6 Installing Inner Oil Seal 



UtIKUII Ult5tL 



ruei rump A.I 



6. Lubricate the gears and shafts with clean engine oil. 

7. Apply a thin coating of quality sealant on the face 
of the pump cover outside of the gear pocket area. 
Then, place the cover against the pump body with the 
two dowel pins in the cover entering the holes in the 
pump body. The cover can be installed in only one 
position over the two shafts. 

CAUTION: The coating of sealant must be 
extremely thin since the pump clearances have 
been set up on the basis of metal-to-metal 
contact. Too much sealant could increase the 
clearances and affect the efficiency of the pump. 
Use care that sealant is not squeezed into the 
gear compartment, otherwise damage to the 
gears and shafts may result. 



8. Secure the cover in place with eight bolts and lock 
washers, tightening the bolts alternately and evenly. 





Fig. 7 - Installing Outer Oil Seal 



Fig. 8 Inserting Fuel Pump Drive Shaft and 
Gear Assembly through Oil Seals 

9. After assembly, rotate the pump shaft by hand to 
make certain that the parts rotate freely. When the 
shaft does not rotate freely, attempt to free it by 
tapping a corner of the pump. 

10. If the pump is not to be used immediately, place 
plastic shipping plugs in the inlet and outlet openings 
to prevent dirt or other foreign material from entering 
the pump. 

install Fuel Pump 

1. Affix a new gasket to the pump body and locate the 
pump drive coupling over the square end of the fuel 
pump drive shaft. 

2. Install the fuel pump on the engine and secure it 
with three bolt and washer assemblies. 

3. Connect the inlet and outlet fuel lines to the fuel 
pump. 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 2.2. 



FUEL PUMP DRIVE 



The fuel pump on In-line engines is driven by the 
governor weight shaft by means of a drive coupling. 

A drive 

adaptor attached to the balance shaft gear registers 
with a drive fork on the fuel pump shaft to provide a 
drive for the pump. Servicing of the fuel pump arid 
drive on an In-Line engine is covered in Section 2,2 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



2.7 



MECHANICAL GOVERNORS 



Horsepower requirements on an engine may vary due 
to fluctuating loads; therefore, some method must be 
provided to control the amount of fuel required to 
hold the engine speed reasonably constant during load 
fluctuations. To accomplish this control, a governor is 
introduced in the linkage between the throttle control 
and the fuel injectors. The following type of 
mechanical governor used: 

1 . Limiting Speed Mechanical Governor. 



Engines requiring a minimum and maximum speed 
control, together with manually controlled intermedi- 
ate speeds, are equipped with a limiting speed 
mechanical governor. 



TK governor has an identification plate 
located on the control housing, containing the 
governor assembly number, type, idle speed range and 
drive ratio. The maximum engine speed, not shown on 
the identification plate, is stamped on the option plate 
attached to the valve rocker cover. 



Check Governor Operation 

Governor, difficulties are usually indicated by speed 
variations of the engine; however, it does not 
necessarily mean that all such speed fluctuations are 
caused by the governor. Therefore, when improper 
speed variations are present, check the engine as 
follows: 

1. Make sure the speed changes are not the result of 
excessive load fluctuations. 

2. Check the engine to be sure that all of the cylinders 
are firing properly (refer to Section 15.2). If any 
cylinder is not firing properly, remove the injector, test 



it and, if necessary, recondition it as outlined in 
Section 2.1 or 2. 1.1. 

3. Check for bind that may exist in the governor 
operating mechanism or in the linkage between the 
governor and the injector control tube. 

With the fuel rod connected to the injector control 
tube lever, the mechanism should be free from bind 
throughout the entire travel of the injector racks. If 
friction exists in the mechanism, it may be located and 
corrected as follows: 

1 . If an injector rack sticks or moves too hard, it may 
be due to the injector hold-down clamp being too tight 
or improperly positioned. To correct this condition, 
loosen the injector clamp, reposition it and tighten the 
clamp bolt to 20-25 Ib-ft torque. 

2. An injector which is not functioning properly may 
have a defective plunger and bushing or a bent 
injector rack. Recondition a faulty injector as outlined 
in Section 2.1 or 2.1.1. 

3. An injector rack may bind as the result of an 
improperly positioned rack control lever. Loosen the 
rack control lever adjusting screws. If this relieves the 
bind, relocate the lever on the control tube and 
position the rack as outlined in Section 14. 

4. The injector control tube may bind in its support 
brackets, thus preventing free movement of the 
injector racks to their no-fuel position due to tension 
of the return spring. This condition may be corrected 
by loosening and realigning the control tube 
supporting brackets. If the control tube support 
brackets were loosened, realigned and tightened, the 
injector racks must be repositioned as outlined in 
Section 14. 

5. A bent injector control tube return spring may cause 
friction in the operation of the injector control tube. If 
the spring has been bent or otherwise distorted, install 
a new spring. 

6. Check for bind at the pin which connects the fuel 
rod to the injector control tube lever; replace the pin, 
if necessary. 

If, after making these checks, the governor fails to 
control the engine properly, remove and recondition 
the governor. 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



2.7 



LIMITING SPEED MECHANICAL GOVERNOR 



IN-LINE ENGINE 



The limiting speed mechanical 
performs the following functions: 

1. Controls the engine idle speed. 



governor (Fig. 1) 



2. Limits the maximum operating speed of the engine. 

The mechanical engine governors are identified by a 
name plate attached to the governor housing. The 
letters D.W.-L.S. stamped on the name plate denote a 
double-weight limiting speed governor. 

The governor is mounted on the rear end plate of the 
engine and is driven by a gear that extends through 
the end plate and meshes with either the camshaft 
gear or the balance shaft gear, depending upon the 
engine model. 



Operation 

The governor holds the injector racks in the advanced 
fuel position for starting when the throttle control 
lever is in the idle position. Immediately after starting, 
the governor moves the injector racks to the position 
required for idling. 

The centrifugal force of the revolving governor low 
and high speed weights is converted into linear motion 
which is transmitted through the riser and operating 
shaft to the operating shaft lever. One end of this 
lever operates against the high and low speed springs 
through the spring cap, while the other end provides a 
moving fulcrum on which the differential lever pivots. 

When the centrifugal force of the revolving governor 
weights balances out the tension on the high or low 
speed spring (depending on the speed range), the 
governor stabilizes the engine speed for a given setting 
of the speed control lever. 

In the low speed range, the centrifugal force of the low 
and high speed weights together operate against the 
low speed spring. As the engine speed increases, the 
centrifugal force of the low and high speed weights 
together compresses the low speed spring until the low 
speed weights are against their stops, thus limiting 
their travel, at which time the low speed spring is fully 
compressed and the low speed spring cap is within 
.0015" of the high speed spring plunger. 



Throughout the intermediate speed range the operator 
has complete control of the engine because the low 
speed gap is closed and the low speed weights are 




Fig. 1 - Governor Mounting 

against their stops, and the high speed weights are nc 
exerting enough force to overcome the high spec 
spring. As the speed continues to increase, th 
centrifugal force of the high speed weights increase 
until this force can overcome the high speed sprin 
and the governor again takes control of the engin< 
limiting the maximum engine speed. 

A fuel rod, connected to the differential lever and th 
injector control tube lever, provides a means for th 
governor to change the fuel settings of the injectc 
rack control levers. 

The engine idle speed is determined by the fon 
exerted by the governor low speed spring. When tf 
governor speed control lever is placed in the id 
position, the engine will operate at the speed where tt 
force exerted by the governor low speed weights wj 
equal the force exerted by the governor low spee 
spring. 



2.7.1 Limiting Speed Governor 



DETROIT DIESE 



BOLT 




COVER 
SCREW 



LOCK 
WASHER 



GASKET 



Fig. 2 - Governor Cover Details and Relative 
Location of Parts 

Adjustment of the engine idle speed is accomplished 
by changing the force on the low speed spring by 
means of the idle speed adjusting screw. Refer to the 
tune-up section for idle speed adjustment. 

The engine maximum no-load speed is determined by 
the force exerted by the high speed spring. When the 
throttle control lever is placed in the maximum speed 
position, the engine will operate at a speed where the 
force exerted by the governor high speed weights will 
equal the force exerted by the governor high speed 
spring- 
Adjustment of the maximum no-load speed is 
accomplished by changing the tension on the high 
speed spring. Refer to the tune-up section for the 
maximum no-load speed adjustment. 



Lubrication 



within the governor by the revolving weights. S 
oil drains from the governor through holes 
governor bearing retainer back to the engine 
train. 



Remove Governor from Engine 

Before removing the governor from the engin 
operation should be checked as outline 
Section 2.7. If the governor fails to control the < 
properly after performing these checks, remov 
recondition it. 

1. Disconnect the linkage to the governor c 
levers. 

2. Remove the governor cover and gasket. 

3 ."'Detach the spring housing from the go> 
housing by removing the two bolts and lock wash 

4. Loosen the high speed spring retainer lock nu 
spanner wrench J 5345-5 and remove the < 
assembly. 



5. Loosen the fuel rod cover hose clamps. 

6. Clean and remove the rocker cover fron 
cylinder head. 

7. Disconnect the fuel rod from the injector a 
tube lever. Remove the clip that holds the fuel r 
the differential lever and lift the fuel rod fror 
lever. 

8. Detach the fuel pump by disconnecting the 
lines and removing the three bolts. Also, disco 
the lubricating oil line, if used. 

9. Remove the five bolts from the governor w 
housing and the two bolts from the governor cc 
housing. 

10. Detach the governor and gasket from the engi 



Disassemble Governor Cover 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Limiting Speed Governor 2./ 



2. Remove the retaining ring and washer. Withdraw 
the speed control shaft from the cover. 

3. Remove the seal ring from the cover. 

NOTE: 

The double lever cover 
has the seal ring at the bottom of the cover. 

4. Loosen the governor stop lever retaining bolt and 
lift the lever from the stop lever shaft. 

5. Remove the retaining ring and washers and 
withdraw the stop lever shaft from the cover. 

6. Remove the seal ring from the top of the cover. 



Disassemble Governor Weight Housing 

1. Remove the gear retaining nut from the shaft, then 
remove the gear, key and spacer from the shaft. 

2. Remove the small screw holding the bearing 
retainer in place. 

3. Turn the bearing support until the large opening is 
centered over the fork on the operating shaft. 

4. Lift up on the weight shaft until there is enough 
clearance for a 5/16" socket wrench to be placed on 



GAP ADJUSTING 
SCREW 



'i&ffv*--- -m$\\$ 





Fig. 3 



Industrial 



Fig. 4 - Removing Fork from Operating Shaft 

the screws that hold the fork to the operating shi 
(Fig. 4). Then remove the two screws and washers. 

5. Lift the shaft and weight assembly out of t 
governor weight housing. 

6. Remove the screw and washers holding the bearii 
in the control housing and lift the shaft assembly o 
of the housing. 

7. Place a rod approximately 18" long through ti 
control housing and knock the plug out of the botto 
of the weight housing. 

8. Remove the snap ring and press the bearing fro 
the weight housing. 

9. Remove the spring clip and washer from ti 
governor operating shaft lever and remove tl 
governor differential lever. 

10. Press the bearing and operating shaft lever fro 
the operating shaft, if necessary. 

1 1 . If necessary, disassemble the control housing frc 
the weight housing. 



Disassemble Weight Shaft Assembly 

) . Press the bearing retainer from the weight shaft. 

2. If necessary, remove the snap ring and press t 
bearing from the bearing retainer. 

3. Remove the weight pin retainers from the govern 
weight pins, then drive the pins out of the carrier a 



1.7.1 Limiting Speed Governor 



IMPORTANT: Punch mark the carrier at the 
retainer end of the weight pins so the pins may 
be placed in the proper position when 
reinstalling the weights in the carrier. 

NOTE: Drive the pins out of the carrier from 
the weight pin retainer end. 



. Slide the riser and bearing assembly from the shaft. 
>o not disassemble the bearing since the riser and 
earing are serviced only as an assembly. 



lock nuts, and other parts of the control housing for 
defects that might affect the governor operation. 



Assemble Governor Cover 

1 . Place a new seal ring in the counterbore of the cover 
(Fig. 2). 

NOTE: The single lever cover has the seal ring 
at the top of the cover. The double lever cover 
has the seal ring at the bottom of the cover. 



itpaction 

nmerse all of the governor parts in a suitable 
leaning fluid to loosen and remove all foreign 
laterial. Use a bristle brush and compressed air as 
ecessary to ensure cleanliness of all parts. 

xamine the bearings for any indications of corrosion 
r pitting. Lubricate each bearing with light engine 
il; then, while holding the bearing inner race from 
irning, revolve the outer race slowly by hand and 
icck for rough spots. Replace the bearings if rough 
r tight spots are detected. 

he lower governor drive components have been 
fvised to reduce the clearance between the riser and 
ic weight shaft. With this change, additional 
ibrication is provided to the governor by an oil line 
>nnected between the oil gallery in the cylinder block 
rtd the governor weight housing. When replacing the 
ser assembly, shaft and carrier assembly> or the 
>mplete governor assembly, the new oil line must be 
istalled to provide adequate lubrication. 

xamine the riser thrust bearing for excessive wear, 
at spots or corrosion. If any of these conditions exist, 
istall a new riser and bearing assembly. Examine the 
eight carrier pins for wear and replace them if 
icessary. 

ispect the spring seats, plungers, adjusting screws, 
ck nuts and other parts of the control housing for 
jfects that might affect governor operation. 

spect the weight carrier, weights and retaining pins 
T wear. The current single-weight carrier replaces the 
rmer double-weight carrier. 



ispect the fuel pump drive end of the weight shaft, 
eplace the shaft if the end is worn or rounded. 



2. Lubricate the speed control shaft with engine oil, 
then slide the shaft through the cover. Install the 
washer and retaining ring on the shaft. 

3. Place the speed control lever over the shaft and 
secure it with the bolt and lock washer. 

4. On double lever covers, lubricate the stop lever shaft 
with engine oil, then slide the shaft through the cover. 

5. Place the seal ring in the counterbore of the shaft 
opening, then install the washers over the shaft. Lock 
the shaft in place with the retaining ring. 

6. Place the stop lever on the shaft and secure it with 
the bolt and lock washer. 



Assemble Control Housing 

1. Install a 1/8" pipe plug in the tapped hole in the 
side of the control housing. 

2. If necessary, assemble the control housing to the 
weight housing, using a good quality sealant between 
the tube and the housings. 

3. Install the governor operating shaft lower bearing, 
numbered side out, in the weight housing. Install the 
snap ring to secure the bearing (Fig. 5). 

4. Apply a quality sealant around the edge of a new 
plug and tap it in place. 

5. Start the governor operating shaft upper bearing 
over the upper end of the operating shaft. Support the 
lower end of the shaft on the bed of an arbor press. 
Use a sleeve and press down on the inner race of the 
bearing until it contacts the shoulder of the operating 
shaft. 



Limiting Speed Governor 2.7 



7. Lubricate both bearings with engine lubricating oil. 
Insert the lever and operating shaft assembly in the 
control housing. Guide the lower end into the bearing. 

8. Secure the upper operating shaft bearing with the 
round head retaining screw and washers. 

9. Place the fork on the operating shaft with the two 
cam faces facing the fuel pump. 



SPRING PIN 



DIFFERENTIAL 
LEVER 




TUBE 



PLUG 



SNAP RING 



WEIGHT 
SHAFT 




Fig. 6 Governor Weight Details and Relative 
Location of Parts 

10. Secure the fork to the operating shaft with n 
screws and lock washers. 

1 1 . Place the differential lever over the operating shi 
lever pin and secure it in place with a washer a 
spring pin. 



Assemble Governor Weight and Shaft 
Assembly 

1. If the carrier was removed from the weight shi 
press the carrier on the shaft so as to allow a clearai 
of .001" to .006" between the shaft shoulder and i 
rear face of the carrier. 

2. Press the governor weight shaft bearing into 
bearing retainer by pressing on the outer race of 
bearing (Fig. 6). 

3. Install the snap ring in the retainer with the flat s 
of the ring facing the bearing. 

4. Press the bearing retainer on the weight shaft ui 
the bearing is against the shoulder on the shaft. 

NOTE: To prevent any damage, press only on 
the inner race of the bearing. 



5. Place the riser on the weight shaft. 

6. Position the low speed weights, identified by 



Limiting Speed Governor 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



ill the high speed weights in the same way. The 
eed weights are identified by the long cam arm 
:ee center laminations; the middle lamination is 
thick and the outer ones are 1/8" thick. 

TE: The weight pins must be reinstalled in 
same positions from which they were 
toved. 



; the shaft and weight assembly into the weight 
g with the riser bearing placed behind the fork. 

i the bearing retainer until the large opening is 
le fork on the operating shaft. Tighten the two 
holding the fork to the operating shaft with a 
socket wrench. 

rn the bearing retainer until the counterbored 
i the retainer and housing line up. Install the 
to secure the bearing retainer to the weight 
g- 

ce the drive gear spacer on the shaft. Install the 
the keyway and place the gear on the shaft. 

jp the gear until the spacer is against the 
g. Install the drive gear retaining nut and 
i it to 125-135 Ib-ft torque. 



Governor 

to Fig. 1 and install the governor on the engine 
ows: 

ach the fuel rod to the differential lever and 
it in place with a washer and spring pin. 

ten a new gasket to the governor weight housing. 

rt the end of the fuel rod through the hose and 
; and into the opening in the cylinder head and 
>n the governor weight housing against the 
rear end plate; the teeth on the governor drive 
lust mesh with the teeth on the camshaft gear or 
e shaft gear. 



all the three 12-point head bolts with copper 
s in the governor weight housing next to the 
:r block. Instal].''the two remaining bolts with 
ashers and lode washers. Tighten the bolts to 35 
irque. 



and fittings to the weight housing and the cylinder 
block. 

7. Align and tighten the hose clamps on the fuel rod 
covers. 

8. Attach the fuel rod to the injector control tube lever 
with a pin and cotter pin. 

9. Assemble the industrial governor spring mechanism 
as follows: 



a. Thread the spring retainer lock nut on the 

retainer. 

b. Thread the idle speed adjusting screw on the 
governor spring plunger. 

c. Place the high speed spring over the governor 

spring plunger. 

d. Lubricate and install the spring plunger assembly 
in the spring retainer and secure it with a lock nut 
so that approximately 1/4" of the idle speed 
adjusting screw extends beyond the nut. 

e. Lubricate and insert the spring seat, low speed 
spring and the spring cap in the open end of the 
spring plunger. 

10. Thread the spring retainer and spring assembly 
into the governor housing and tighten the lock nut 
finger tight until an engine tune-up is performed. 

11. Assemble the vehicle governor spring mechanism 
as follows: 



a. Back off the lock nut at the outer end of the 
adjusting screw to within 1/16" of the slotted end 
of the screw. 

b. Slip the shims, if used, and the high speed spring 
over the plunger. Position the retainer over the 
high speed spring and insert the adjusting screw 
into the plunger. 

c. Position the seat and cap on the ends of the low 

speed spring and insert the assembly into the 
hollow end of the plunger. 

d. Insert the spring and plunger assembly into the 
control housing and tighten the retainer nut with 
spanner wrench J 5895. 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 Limiting Speed Governor 2.7.1 



13. Use a new gasket when installing the governor 15. Add lubricant to the speed control shaft through 
cover and lever assembly. Be sure the speed control the grease fitting on top of the shaft. 

shaft pin engages the slot in the differential lever and 

the stop lever is in the correct position. Secure the 16. Connect the linkage to the governor control levers. 

cover with four screws and lock washers. 

17. Install the fuel pump and fuel lines. 

14. Install the return spring and spring clip (single 18. Perform an engine tune-up as outlined in 
lever cover only). Section 14. 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



SHOP NOTES-TROUBLE SHOOTING-SPECIFICATIONS-SERVBCE TOOLS 

SHOP NOTES 



CHECKING INJECTOR TESTER J 9787 



The injector tester J 9787 should be checked monthly 
to be sure that it is operating properly. The following 
check can be made very quickly using test block 
J 9787-49. 

Fill the supply tank in the injector tester with clean 
injector test oil J 8130. Open the valve in the fuel 
supply line. Place the test block on the injector locating 
plate and secure the block in place with the fuel inlet 
connector clamp. Operate the pump handle until all of 
the air is out of the test block; then clamp the fuel 
outlet connector onto the test block. Break the 
connection at the gage and operate the pump handle 
until all of the air bubbles in the fuel system 
disappear. Tighten the connection at the gage. Operate 
the pump handle to pressurize the tester fuel system to 
2400-2500 psi. Close the valve on the fuel supply line. 
After a slight initial drop in pressure, the pressure 
should remain steady. This indicates that the injector 
tester is operating properly. Open the fuel valve and 
remove the test block. 

If there is a leak in the tester fuel system, it will be 
indicated by a drop in pressure. The leak must be 
located, correctefl and the tester rechecked before 
checking an injector. 



Occasionally dirt will get into the pump check valv 
the tester, resulting in internal pump valve leak 
and the inability to build up pressure in the tester 
system. Pump valve leakage must be corrected bel 
an injector can be properly tested. 

When the above occurs, loosen the fuel inlet conne 
clamp and operate the tester pump handle in 
attempt to purge the dirt Prom the pump check va 
A few quick strokes of the pump handle will usu 
correct a dirt condition. Otherwise, the pump ch 
valve must be removed, lapped and cleaned, 
replaced. 

If an injector tester supply or gage line is damagec 
broken, install a new replacement line (available fi 
the tester manufacturer). Do not shorten the old li 
or the volume of test oil will be altered sufficient! 1 
give an inaccurate valve holding pressure test. 

If it is suspected that the lines have been altered, 
by shortening or replacing with a longer line, ch 
the accuracy of the tester with a master injector 
which the pressure holding time is known. If 
pressure holding time does not agree with i 
recorded for the master injector, replace the lines. 



REFINISH LAPPING BLOCKS 



As the continued use of the lapping blocks will cause 




worn or low spots to develop in their lapping surfa 
they should be refmished from time to time. 

It is a good practice, where considerable lapping v* 
is done, to devote some time each day to relinish 
the blocks. The quality of the finished work depend 
a great degree on the condition of the lapping surf; 
of the blocks. 

To refinish the blocks, spread some 600 grit lapf 
powder of good quality on one of the blocks. P 
another block on top of this one and work the bit 
together as shown in Fig. 1. Alternate the blocks fi 
time to time. For example, assuming the blocks 
numbered 1, 2 and 3, work 1 and 2 together, the 
and 3, and finish by working 2 and 3 toget 
Continue this procedure until all of the blocks 



:tory when the entire surface is a solid dark 
Bright or exceptionally dark spots indicate 
and additional lapping is required. 

the surfaces have been refinished, remove the 



powder by rinsing the lapping blocks in trichloroethyl- 
ene and scrubbing with a bristle brush. 

When not in use, protect the lapping blocks against 
damage and dust by storing them in a close fitting 
wooden container. 



INJECTOR TIMING 




ONE TOOTH 
ADVANCED 



Fig. 2 Injector Rack-to-Gear Timing 



If it is suspected that a fuel injector is "out of time", 
the injector rack-to-gear timing may be checked 
without disassembling the injector. 

A hole located in the injector body, on the side 
opposite the identification tag, may be used to visually 
determine whether or not the injector rack and gear 
are correctly timed. When the rack is all the way in 
(full-fuel position), the flat side of the plunger will be 
visible in the hole, indicating that the injector is "in 
time". If the flat side of the plunger does not come 
into : full view (Fig. 2) and appears in the "advanced" 
or '"retarded" position, the injector should be 
disassembled and the rack- to-gear timing corrected. 



FUEL INJECTOR SPRAY TIPS 



o a slight variation in the size of the small 
s in the end of each spray tip, the fuel output of 
sctor may be varied by replacing the spray tip. 



Flow gage J 21085 may be used to select a spray tip 
that will increase or decrease the fuel injector output 
for a particular injector after it has been rebuilt and 
tested on the comparator. 



EFFECT OF PRE-IGNITION ON FUEL INJECTOR 



nition is due to ignition of fuel or lubricating oil 
e combustion chamber before the normal 
on period. The piston compresses the burning 
e to excessive temperatures and pressures and 
ventually cause burning of the injector spray tip 
ad to failure of the injectors in other cylinders. 

pre-ignition occurs, all of the injector 



assemblies should be removed and checked for burned 
spray tips or enlarged spray tip orifices. 

Before replacing the injectors, check the engine for the 
cause of pre-ignition to avoid a recurrence of the 
problem. Check for oil pull-over from the oil bath air 
cleaner, damaged blower housing gasket, defective 
blower oil seals, high crankcase pressure, plugged air 
box drains, ineffective oil control rings or dilution of 
the lubricating oil. 



BLUING INJECTOR BODIES AND NUTS 



ppearance of the injector body and nut of a 
injector can be enhanced with an oxide finish 
ed through a dipping process known as 
g". Pre-mixed compounds are available com- 
illy for preparing the necessary solutions, 
sd instructions are usually provided with the 
srcial compounds. An effective bluing solution 
; prepared in the service shop by mixing the 
ing materials: 



3-1/2 Ibs. of sodium nitrite per gallon of water 
1 ounce of phosphoric acid per gallon of water 

The procedure usually follows five (5) steps in 
sequence: 

1. An alkaline solution bath (180 -212 F.) to preclean. 



Df sodium hydroxide per gallon of water 



2. A hot or cold water rinse. 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Shop Notes 2. 



3. The bluing solution bath. 

4. A cold water rinse. 

5. An engine lubricating oil bath (180 -212 F.) to rust 
proof. The bluing tank should be a double walled, I -I/ 
2 " insulated type of No. 10 gage steel. 

The temperature of the sodium hydroxide, sodium 
nitrite and phosphoric acid solution for bluing steel 
parts should be 295 to 305 F. The boiling point of 
the solution is directly related to its concentration. 
Therefore, when the boiling point is too high, the 
solution is too concentrated and the volume of water is 
probably low. When this occurs, the boiling point can 
be reduced to 300 F. by adding water. The parts 
should be placed in the solution for 15 to 30 minutes. 

It is extremely important that the parts be free of oil 
before placing them in the bluing bath. Oil will 
produce a varied color part. 



There are several important safety precautions to 
followed for preparing and using the solutic 
Protective clothing such as rubber gloves, rub 
aprons and protective glasses contribute to the sal 
of personnel carrying out the procedures. W! 
preparing the solutions, the compounds should be ad 
to the water and not water added to the compour 
The dipping tanks should be properly vented and 
fumes exhausted to the outside atmosphere. Si 
temperatures of the caustic solutions exceed 
boiling point of water, any splashing encounte 
while adding rnake-up water can cause serious bui 
Always add water slowly and with extreme care. Wl 
the parts to be dipped are cold, caution should 
taken to avoid splashing that- might occur when 
cold parts come in contact with the hot solutions, 
heavy wire-screen type basket, suitable for holding 
quantity of injector bodies, is recommended 
dipping the parts in the solutions. 



INJECTOR COMPARATOR AND CALIBRATOR READINGS 




Fig. 3 - Checking Fuel Output 

Several factors affect the injector comparator and 
calibrator output readings. The four major items are: 

I. Operator Errors: If the column of liquid in the vial 
is read at the top of the meniscus instead of at the 
bottom, a variation of 1 or 2 points will result. Refer 
to Fie. 3. 



before the air is purged from the injector and lines, 
from an air leak on the vacuum side of the pump. 

3. Counter Improperly Set: The counter is set at 
factory to divert the injector output at 1,000 strok 



This should not be confused with counter overrun tl 
will vary from 2 to 6 digits, depending upon inter; 
friction. The fuel diversion is accomplished electrics- 
and will occur at 1,000 strokes (if properly s 
although the counter may overrun several digits. 

4. Test Oil: A special test oil is supplied with 
calibrator and the comparator and should always 
used. If regular diesel fuel oil (or any other liquid; 
used, variations are usually noted because of the aff 
of the oil on the s'olenoid valve and other parts. 

The fuel oil introduced into the test oil when the f 
injector is placed in the comparator or calibrator fo 
calibration check contaminates the test oil. Therefc 
it is important that the comparator or calibrator h; 
the test oil and test oil filter changed every six mont 
or sooner if necessary. 

In addition, other malfunctions such as a slipp: 
drive belt, low level of fuel oil, a clogged filter 
defective fuel pump or leaking line connections co 



Shop Notes 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



FUEL INJECTOR PLUNGERS 





CONSTANT ENDING 
HELIX 



VARIABLE ENDING 
HELIX 



Fig. 4 - Types of Injector Plungers 



: fuel output and the operating characteristics of an 



injector are, to a great extent, determined by the type 
of plunger used. Three types of plungers are illustrated 
in Fig. 4. The beginning of the injection period is 
controlled by the upper helix angle. The lower helix 
angle retards or advances the end of the injection 
period. Therefore, it is imperative that the correct 
plunger is installed whenever an injector is overhauled. 
If injectors with different type plungers (and spray 
tips) are mixed in an engine, erratic operation will 
result and may cause serious damage to the engine or 
to the equipment which it powers. 

Injector plungers cannot be reworked to change the 
output or operating characteristics. Grinding will 
destroy the hardened case and result in chipping at the 
helices and seizure or scoring of the plunger. 



H-OLD 




LOW CLAMP INJECTOR BODY 



When replacing the injector follower spring (.120 " 
diameter wire) in a low clamp body injector built prior 
to June, 1965 with a .new injector follower spring 
(.142 " diameter wire), it will be necessary to relocate 
the timing pin holes as illustrated in Fig. 5, or grind 
.022 " from the side of the injector timing gage shank, 
to permit continued use of the injector timing gage. 



Fig. 5 Relocating Timing Pin Hole in Injector 
Body 



REFINISHING FACE OF INJECTOR FOLLOWER 




4564 



When refinishing the face of an injector follower, it is 
extremely important that the distance between the 
injector face and the plunger slot is not less than the 
1.645 " minimum shown in Fig. 6. 

If the distance between the injector face and the 
plunger slot is less than 1.645 ", the height of the 
follower in relation to the injector body will be altered 
and proper injector timing cannot be realized. 

NOTE: To ensure a sufficiently hardened surface 
for rocker arm contact, do not remove more 
than .010 " of metal from the injector follower 
head. 



Fig. 6 - Injector Follower 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Shop Notes 2.0 



Air drawn into the fuel system may result in uneven 
running of the engine, stalling when idling, or a loss 
of power. Poor engine operation is particularly 
noticeable at the lower engine speeds. An opening in 
the fuel suction lines may be too small for fuel to pass 
through but may allow appreciable quantities of air to 
enter. 

Check for loose or faulty connections. Also check for 



improper fuel line connections such as a fuel pump 
suction line connected to the short fuel return tube in 
the fuel tank which would cause the pump to draw air. 

Presence of an air leak may be detected by 
observation of the fuel filter contents after the filter is 
bled and the engine is operated for 15 to 20 minutes at 
a fairly high speed. No leak is indicated if the filter 
shell is full when loosened from its cover. If the filter 
shell is only partly full, an air leak is indicated. 



FUEL LINES 



Flexible fuel lines are used in certain applications to 
facilitate connection of lines leading to and from the 
fuel tank, and to minimize the effects of any vibration 
in the installation. 

Be sure a restricted fitting of the proper size is used to 
connect the fuel return line to the fuel return 
manifold. Do not use restricted fittings anywhere else 
in the fuel system. 



When installing fuel lines, it is recommended that 
connections be tightened only sufficiently to prevent 
leakage of fuel; thus flared ends of the fuel lines will 
not become twisted or fractured because of excessive 
tightening. After all fuel lines are installed, the engine 
should be run long enough to determine whether or 
not all connections are sufficiently tight. If any leaks 
occur, connections should be tightened only enough to 
stop the leak. Also check filter cover bolts for tightness. 



2.0 DETROIT DIESEL 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



TROUBLE SHOOTING CHARTS (Needle Valve Injectors) 



Chart 4 



LOW OR HIGH VALVE OPENING PRESSURE 



LOW VALVE OPENING PRESSURE 



HIGH VALVE OPENING PRESSURE 



Probable Cause 



Probable Cause 



l.WORN OR ERODED NEEDLE VALVE 
OR VALVE SEAT IN TIP 



6. CARBON OR FOREIGN 
MATERIAL IN SPRAY TIP 



2. WORN OR DAMAGED NEEDLE 
VALVE QUILL 



7. CARBON IN TIP ORIFICES 



3. WORN OR DAMAGED NEEDLE 
VALVE SPRING SEAT 



4. WORN OR BROKEN VALVE 
SPRING 



5. DIRT OR FOREIGN MATERIAL 
IN INJECTOR 



SUGGESTED REMEDY 



1. Replace the needle valve and tip assembly. 

2. Replace the needle valve and tip assembly. 

3. Replace the spring seat. 

4. Replace the valve spring. 

5. Disassemble the injector and clean the parts. 



6. Remove the carbon in the tip with tip rean 
J 9464 which is especially designed and ground 
this purpose. 

7. Check the hole size of the spray tip orifices. Th 
using tool J 4298-1 with the proper size wire, clean 
orifices. 



Trouble Shooting (Needle Valve Injectors) 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



:hart 5 



INSUFFICIENT INJECTOR HOLDING TIME 



Probabl* Cause 



1. POOR BUSHING TO BODY FIT 



7. WORN OR BROKEN VALVE 
SPRING 



2. INJECTOR NUT NOT TIGHTENED 
TO SPECIFIED TORQUE 



8. WORN OR DAMAGED VALVE 
SPRING SEAT 



3. CRACKED SPRAY TIP 



9. DEFECTIVE SEAL RING 



4. WORN OR ERODED NEEDLE 
VALVE 



10. BODY PLUG LEAKS 



5. WORN OR ERODED NEEDLE 
VALVE SEAT IN SPRAY TIP 



11. FILTER GASKETS LEAK 



6. WORN OR BROKEN NEEDLE 
VALVE QUILL 



12. POOR SEALING SURFACES ON 
FUEL FITTINGS 



13. DIRT OR FOREIGN MATERIAL 
IN INJECTOR 



SUGGESTED REMEDY 



ap the injector body. 



9. Replace the seal ring. 



ighten the nut to 75-85 Ib-ft torque. Do not exceed 10 - Insta11 new bod y P lu g s - 

specified torque. 

11. Replace the filter cap gaskets and tighten the filter 

caps to 65-75 Ib-ft torque. 



5 and 6. Replace the needle valve and spray tip 
mbly. 

.eplace the valve spring, 
.eplace the valve spring seat. 



12. Clean up the sealing surfaces or replace the filter 
caps, if necessary. Replace the filter if a cap is 
replaced. 

13. Disassemble the injector and clean the parts. 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Trouble Shooting (Needle Valve Injectors) 2, 



Chart 6 



INCORRECT FUEL OUTPUT 



Probable Cause 



1. SPRAY TIP OR ORIFICES 
PARTIALLY PLUGGED 



7. WORN OR BROKEN VALVE 
SPRING 



2. SPRAY TIP ORIFICES ENLARGED 



8. CRACKED CHECK VALVE CAGE, 
SPRING CAGE, OR SPRAY TIP 



3. CARBON BUILDUP IN TIP 



9. CRACKED BUSHING 



4. WORN PLUNGER AND BUSHING 



10. POOR LAPPED SURFACES 



5. WORN OR DAMAGED NEEDLE VALVE 
QUILL 



11. FOREIGN MATERIAL BETWEEN 
VALVE AND SEAT 



6. WORN OR DAMAGED NEEDLE VALVE 
SPRING SEAT 



12. RACK AND GEAR NOT IN TIME 



SUGGESTED REMEDY 



1. Clean the spray tip as outlined under Clean Injector 
Parts. 



2. Replace the spray tip assembly. 

NOTE: The fuel output of an injector varies 
with the use of different spray tips of the same 
size due to manufacturing tolerances in drilling 
the tips. If the fuel output does not fall within 
the specified limits of the Fuel Output Check 
Chart, try changing the spray tip. However, use 
only a tip specified for the injector being tested. 

3. Clean the injector tip with tool J 1243. 

4. After the possibility of an incorrect or faulty tip has 
been eliminated and the injector output still does not 
fall within its specific limits, replace the plunger and 
bushing with a new assembly. 



5. Replace the needle valve. 

6. Replace the spring seat. 

7. Replace the valve spring. 

8. Replace the cracked parts. 

9. Replace the plunger and bushing assembly. 

10. Re-lap the sealing surfaces. 

1 1. Disassemble the injector and clean the parts. 

12. Assemble the gear with the drill spot mark on 
tooth engaged between the two marked teeth of 
rack. 



Trouble Shooting 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



FUEL PUMP MAINTENANCE 



fuel pump is so constructed as to be inherently 
ile free. By using clean water-free fuel and 
taining the fuel filters in good condition, the fuel 
D will provide long satisfactory service and 
re very little maintenance. 

;ver, if the fuel pump fails to function 
'actorily, first check the fuel level in the fuel tank, 
make sure the fuel supply valve is open. Also 
: for external fuel leaks at the fuel line 
actions, filter gaskets and air heater lines. Make 
in that all fuel lines are connected in their proper 



check for a broken pump drive shaft or drive 
ing. Insert the end of a- wire through one of the 
> flange drain holes, then crank the engine 
sntarily and note whether the wire vibrates, 
.tion will be felt if the pump shaft rotates. 

icl pump failures result in no fuel or insufficient 
)eing delivered to the fuel injectors and may be 
ned by uneven running of the engine, excessive 
tion, stalling at idling speeds or a loss of power. 



The most common reason for failure of a fuel pump 
to function properly is a sticking relief valve. The 
relief valve, due to its close fit in the valve bore, may 
become stuck in a fully open or partially open position 
due to a small amount of grit or foreign material 
lodged between the relief valve and its bore or seat. 
This permits the fuel oil to circulate within the pump 
rather than being forced through the fuel system. 

Therefore, if the fuel pump is not functioning. 
properly,.remove the relief valve plug, spring and pin 
and check the movement of the valve within the valve 
bore. If the valve sticks, recondition it by using fine 
emery cloth to remove any scuff marks. Otherwise, 
replace the valve. Clean the valve bore and the valve 
components. Then lubricate the valve and check it for 
free movement throughout the entire length of its 
travel. Reassemble the valve in the pump. 

After the relief valve has been checked, start the 
engine and check the fuel flow at sbrne point between 
the restricted fitting in the fuel return manifold at the 
cylinder head and the fuel tank. 



CHECKING FUEL FLOW 



^connect the fuel return tube from the fitting at 
jel tank or source of supply and hold the open 
f the tube in a convenient receptacle. 

rt and run the engine at 1200 rpm and measure 
uel flow return from the manifold. Refer to 
in 13.2 for trie specified quantity per minute. 

nnerse the end of the fuel tube in the fuel in the 
iner. Air bubbles rising to the surface of the fuel 
idicate air being drawn into the fuel system on 
iction side of the pump. If air is present, tighten 
;1 line connections between the fuel tank and the 
ump. 

he fuel flow is insufficient for satisfactory engine 
rmance, then: 

eplace the element in the fuel strainer. Then 
tart the engine and run it at 1200 rpm to check 
ie fuel flow. If the flow is still unsatisfactory, 
erform Step "b" below. 

eplace the element in the fuel filter. If the flow is 
till unsatisfactory, do as instructed in Step "c". 

abstitute another fuel pump that is known to be 
n good condition and again check the fuel flow. 



When changing a fuel pump, clean all of the fuel 
lines with compressed air and be sure all fuel line 
connections are tight. Check the fuel lines for 
restrictions due to bends or other damage. 



If the engine still does not perform satisfactorily, one 
or more fuel injectors may be at fault and may be 
checked as follows: 

1. Run the engine at idle speed and cut out each 
injector in turn by holding the injector follower down 
with a screw driver. If a cylinder has been misfiring, 
there will be no noticeable difference in the sound and 
operation of the engine when that particular injector 
has been cut out. If the cylinder has been firing 
properly there will be a noticeable difference in the 
sound and operation of the engine when the injector is 
cut out. 

2. Stop the engine and remove the fuel pipe between 
the fuel return manifold and the injector. 

3. Hold a finger over the injector fuel outlet and crank 
the engine with the starter. A gush of fuel while 
turning the engine indicates an ample fuel supply; 
otherwise, the injector filters are clogged and the 
injector must be removed for service. 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 Specifications 2.0 

SPECIFICATIONS 

STANDARD BOLT AND NUT TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS 



THREAD 
SIZE 


TORQUE 
(Ib-ft) 


THREAD 
SIZE 


TORQUE 
(Ib-ft) 


1/4 -20 


7-9 


9/16-12 


90-100 


1/4 -28 


8-10 


9/16-18 


107-117 


5/16-18 


13-17 


5/8 -11 


137-147 


5/16-24 


15-19 


5/8 -18 


168-178 


3/8 -16 


30-35 


3/4 -10 


240-250 


3/8 -24 


35-39 


3/4 -16 


290-300 


7/16-14 


46-50 


7/8 - 9 


410-420 


7/16-20 


57-61 


7/8 -14 


475-485 


1/2 -13 


r ... 71-75 


1 - 8 


580-590 


1/2 -20 


83-93 


1 -14 


685-695 











EXCEPTIONS TO STANDARD BOLT AND NUT TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS 

APPLICATION THREAD TORQUE 

SIZE (Ib-ft) 

Governor control housing to flywheel housing 5/16-18 10-12 

Blower drive assembly to flywheel housing 3/8 -16 20-25 

Injector clamp bolt 3/8 -16 20-25 

Fuel line connector 3/8 -24 20-28 

Rocker arm bracket bolt 7/16-14 50-55 

Governor drive gear retaining nut (in-line engine) 5/8 -18 125-135 

Injector filter caps 5/8 -24 65-75 

Injector nut (needle valve) 15/16-24 75-85 



SERVICE TOOLS 

TOOL NAME TOOL NO. 



INJECTOR TOOLS 

Injector body reamer J 21089 

Pin vise J 22800-3 

Injector bushing Inspectalite J 21471 

Injector calibrator J 22410 

Adaptor (standard body) J 7041-61 



Seat J 22410-226 

Injector comparator J 7041 

Adaptor J 7041-61 

Adaptor J 7041-72 

Adaptor J 7041-88 



Service Tools DETROIT DIESEL 53 



SERVICE TOOLS 

. NAME TOOL NO. 

Japtor J 7041-130 

:tor holding fixture J 22396 

:tor nut tip seat reamer (needle valve) J 9418-1 

:tor nut tip seat reamer (needle valve) J 9418-5 

:tor service tool set J 1241-05 

)ray tip cleaner J 1243 

)ray tip remover and bushing cleaner J 1291-02 

jector spray tip hole cleaner J 4298-1 

jector nut socket wrench ,. J 4983-01 

jector nut tip seat reamer J 4986-01 

jector valve seat deburring tool J 7174 

jector rack hole brush J 8150 

jector body brush J 8152 

jector wire honing stone J 8170 

;tor test oil (one gallon) J 8130 

tor tester J 9787 

>st block J 9787-49 

Japtor J 8538-10 

tor tip carbon remover (needle valve) J 9464-01 

ecial drill J 9464-1 

tor tip concentricity gage , J 5119 

ing block set J 22090 

ing compound J 23038 

I Ethyl Keystone solvent (one gallon) J 8257 

lie valve injector auxiliary tester J 22640 

lie valve lift gage J 9462-01 

hing stick set J 22964 

et J 8932-01 

ig tester J 9666 

iCTOR TUBE TOOLS 

der head holding plate.set J 3087-01 

tor tube service tool set J 22525 

ERNOR TOOLS 

'ol link lever bearing installer J 8985 

'nor cover bearing installer J 21068 

'nor cover bearing remover J 21967 



'nor weight carrier installer J 8984 

led nut J 21995-1 

wrench J 5895 

J 21995-2 

ner wrench J 5345-5 



SECTION 3 

AIR INTAKE SYSTEM 
CONTENTS 



Air Intake System 



Air Silencer 

Air Shutdown Housing. 
Blower (In- Line) 



3.2 
3.3 
3.4 



I 



Shop Notes - Trouble Shooting - Specifications - Service Tools. 



3.0 



AIR INTAKE SYSTEM 



n the scavenging process employed in the Series 53 
ngines, a charge of air is forced into the cylinders by 
me blower and thoroughly sweeps out all of the 
urned gases through the exhaust valve ports. This air 
Iso helps to cool the internal engine parts, 
particularly the exhaust valves. At the beginning of the 
ompression stroke, therefore, each cylinder is filled 
/ith fresh, clean air which provides for efficient 
ombustion. 

'he air, entering the blower from the air cleaner, is 
icked up by the blower rotor lobes and carried to the 
ischarge side of the blower as indicated by the arrows 
i Fig . 1 The continuous discharge of fresh air 

rom the blower enters the air chamber of the cylinder 
'lock and sweeps through the intake ports of the 
ylinder liners. 

'he angle of the ports in the cylinder liners creates a 
niform swirling motion to the intake air as it enters 
lie cylinders. This motion persists throughout the 
ompression stroke and facilitates scavenging and 
ombustion. 




Fig. 1 Air Flow Through Blower and Engine 
(In-Line Engine) 



3 Air Intake System DETROIT DIESEL 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



AIR SILENCER 



In-Line 

The air silencer (Fig. 1) is attached to the intake side 
of the blower housing to reduce the sound level of the 
air entering the blower. 

A perforated sheet metal partition divides the silencer 
into two sections. The engine side of the partition and 
the outer shell forms an air duct the entire length of 
the silencer. Air enters this duct from both ends and 
flows to the blower intake opening at the center. The 
area between the partition and the outer side of the 
silencer is filled with sound absorbent, flame-proof, 
felted cotton waste. 

An air intake (blower) screen is used between the air 
silencer and the blower housing to prevent foreign 
objects from entering the blower. 



Remove and Install Air Silencer 

While no servicing is required on the air silencer, it 
may be necessary at times to remove it to clean or 
replace the blower screen or to perform other service 
operations. 

1. Support the silencer and remove the attaching bolts 
and lock washers. Then remove the silencer and the 
blower screen. 



Engines 




Fig. 1 - Air Silencer Mounted on In-Line 
Engine 

2. Clean the blower screen with fuel oil and dry it 
compressed air. 



4. Place the lock washers over the bolts and slide 
bolts through the bolt holes in the silencer. 

5. Place the blower screen (In-line engines) over 
projecting bolts and position the silencer against 
blower housing. Then tighten the bolts. 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



AIR SHUT-DOWN HOUSING 




HOUSING 



BOLY-3/8" 
16 x 3" 



WASHER SPRING v LATCH SHAFT VALVE PIN 





LOCK WASHER SPACER CAM RING 



CAM PIN 
HANDLE 



BOLT-3/8" BOLT-3/8' 
LOCK WASHER 16 x 1-3/4" 16 x 2" 



2106 



Fig. 1 - Typical In-Line Air Shut-Down Housing Details and Relative Location of Parts 



The air shut-down housing on the in-line engine is 
mounted on the* side of the blower. 



The air shut-down 

housing contains an air shut-off valve that shuts off the 
air supply and stops the engine whenever abnormal 
operating conditions require an emergency shut-down. 

Remove Air Shut-Down Housing 

1. Disconnect and remove the air ducts between the air 
cleaner and the air shut-down housing. 

2. Disconnect the control wire from the air shut-off 
cam pin handle. 

3. Remove the bolts and washers that retain the 
housing to the blower and remove the housing from 
the blower. Remove the air shut-down housing gasket 
from the blower. 

NOTE: Cover the blower opening to prevent dirt 
or foreign material from entering the blower. 

Disassemble Air Shut-Down Housing 

Refer to Fig. 1 and disassemble the air shut-down 



1. Remove the pin from the end of the shut-do- 
shaft. Then remove the washer from the shaft and 1 
seal ring from the housing. 

1. Remove the two pins that secure the shut-off va 
to the shaft. 

3. Remove the bolt, lock washer and plain wasl 
which attach the latch to the housing. Then remove 
latch, latch spring and spacer. 

4. Note the position of the air shut-off valve spri 
and the valve (Fig. 2); then withdraw the shaft fn 
the housing to release the valve and the spri 
Remove the valve and spring and the seal ring fn 
the housing. 

5. Remove the cam pin handle and withdraw the c 
from the shaft. 

Inspection 

Clean all of the parts thoroughly, including the blov 
screen, with fuel oil and dry them with compressed ; 
Inspect the parts for wear or damage. The face of 
shut-down valve must be perfectly flat to assure a ti; 



3.3 Air Shut-down Housing 



DETROIT DIESEL 




Fig. 2 - Installing Air Shut-Off Valve Spring 
and Valve 

Assemble Air Shut-Down Assembly 

The holes for the cam pin handle and the retaining 
pins must be drilled, using a 1/8" diameter drill, at 
the time a new service shaft or air shut-off valve(s) is 
assembled. The valve(s) must be in the same plane 
within .03" when in the stop position (flush with the 
housing face). Refer to Figs. 1 and 2 and proceed as 
follows: 

1. Place the valve(s) and spring in position in the 
housing (Fig. 2) and slip the shaft in place. The shaft 
must extend .70" from the side of the housing where 
the shut-down latch is assembled. 




2. Install a new seal ring at each end of the shaft, 
sure the seals are seated in the counterbores of 
housing. 

3. Install the cam and cam pin handle on the shaft. 

4. Install a washer and retaining pin at the other < 
of the shaft. 

5. Assemble the spacer (bushing), spring and latch 
the shut-down housing with the 1 /4" -20 bolt, 1 
washer and plain washer. 



a. Align the notch on the bushing with the notch 

the latch and lock the bushing in this position. 

b. Install the pins in the valve(s) to retain it to 
shaft with the cam release latch set and 
valve(s) in the run position. 

c. Level the valve(s) in the shut-down position. 

d. Adjust the bushing so the valve(s) contacts 
housing when the cam release latch is set. 



Install Air Shut-Down Housing (In- Line 
Engines) 

1. Place the blower screen and gasket assembly 
position with the screen side of the assembly tow 
the blower. 

2. Refer to Figs. 1 and 3 and secure the air shut-d< 
housing to the blower with bolts, washers and 1 
washers as follows: 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Air Shut-down Housing 3. 



a. Install and finger tighten the six attaching bolts 
shown in Fig. 3. 

b. Tighten the two center bolts to 16-20 Ib-ft torque. 

c. Then tighten the four corner bolts to 16-20 Ib-ft 

torque. 

CAUTION: A power wrench should not be used 
to tighten the above bolts. 

3. Reset the air shut-down to the run position. 

4. Start and run the engine at idle speed and no load. 
Trip the air shut-down. If the engine does not stop, 
check it for air leakage between the valve and the 
gasket. If necessary, reposition the valve. 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



3.4 



BLOWER 



IN-LINE 



The blower supplies the fresh air required for 
combustion and scavenging. Its operation is similar to 
that of a gear-type oil pump. Two hoilow double-lobe 
rotors revolve in a housing bolted to the side of the in- 
line engines (Fig. 1) 

The revolving motion of the rotors provides a 
continuous and uniform displacement of air. 

The blower rotors are pinned to the rotor shafts, The 
rotor shafts are steel and the blower end plates are 
aluminum, providing for a compatible bearing 
arrangement. 

Gears located on the splined end of the rotor shafts 
space the rotor lobes with a close tolerance. Since the 
lobes of the two rotors do not touch at any time, no 
lubrication is required. 

Lip type oil s< 'Is are used in both the front and, rear 
end plates .;n jurrent engines. The seals prevent air 
leakage past the blower rotor shaft bearing surfaces 
and also keep the oil, used for lubricating the blower 
rotor gears, from entering the rotor compartment. 
Former blowers used a ring type oil seal consisting of 
a fiber washer, "0" ring, retainer and seal spring in 
each end of the blower rotors. 




ENGINES 



Inspect Blower (Attached to Engine) 

The blower may be inspected without removing it 
from the engine. However, the air cleaner and the air 
inlet housing must be removed. 

CAUTION: When inspecting the blower with the 
engine running, keep your fingers and clothing 
away from the moving parts of the blower and 
run the engine at low speeds only. 



Fig. 1 - Blower Mounting (3-53 Engine) 



: chips drawn through the blower will make 
ratches in the rotors and housing. Burrs around 
brasions may cause interference between the 
>r between the rotors and the blower housing. 

ail seals are usually indicated by the presence of 

the blower rotors or inside surfaces of the 

housing. Run the engine at low speed and 

a light into the rotor compartment and toward 

d plates and the oil seals. A thin film of oil 

ng away from a seal indicates an oil leak. 

n blower drive resulting in a loose, rattling 
within the blower may be detected by running 
;ine at approximately 500 rpm. 

rotor shafts or worn rotor shaft bearing surfaces 
;ult in contact between the rotor lobes, the rotors 
; end plates, or the rotors and the housing. 

ve backlash between the blower rotor gears 
results in the rotor lobes rubbing throughout 
ntire length. 



e Blower 

removing the blower from the engine, remove 
shut-down housing as outlined in Section 3.3. 

3-53 ENGINE BLOWER 

move the six bolts, special washers and 
cement plates which secure the blower to the 
end plate and the flywheel housing. Note the 
i of the (wo shorter bolts. Then remove the front 
ite cover and gasket from the blower. 



2. Remove the four blower-to-block bolts and special 
washers and lift the blower away from the engine. 




Fig. 5 - Removing Blower Rotor Gears 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 Blower 3 



Disassemble Blower 

3-53 ENGINE BLOWER 

1. Wedge a clean cloth between the rotors to pre 
their turning. Then remove the blower gear retai 
bolts and washers. 

2. For identification, mark the R.H. helix gear. 1 
remove the gears with pullers J 5825-01 as follows: 

a. With the pullers in place under the gears (Fig 
place a brass bar, approximately 1 " long 
5/8 " diameter, between the point of each p 
bolt and blower rotor shaft. 

CAUTION: If the brass bar is larger than 5/8 ' 
diameter, the serrations in the blower drivi 
gear may be damaged. 

b. Alternately turn the bolt in each puller until 
gears are off the shafts. 

3. Remove the rotor shims and the gear spacers 
place them with their respective gears to ensure co 
re-assembly. 

4. At the other end of the blower, remove the t 
thrust plate bolts, the thrust plate and three sp< 
from the front end plate. Remove the bolts and tl 
washers (refer to Fig. 7). 

5. Remove the two screws {hat retain the end pla 
the blower housing. Tap the end plate off of the d 
pins and housing with a soft (plastic) hammer, b 
careful not to damage the mating surfaces of the 
plate and the housing. 

6. Remove the rotors from the blower housing. 

7. Remove the retaining screws and remove the 
end plate as in Step 5. 

8. Remove and discard the lip type oil seals frorr 
end plates on current blowers. Remove the 
washer, "O" ring, retainer and retainer spring 
each rotor shaft on former blowers. 



Blower 




GASKET 



GEAR GEAR 

[L.H. HELIX) (R.H. HELIX) 



SPACER 



BOLT 



SLOWER 
HOUSING 



WASHER 



COVER REINFORCEMENT 
PLATE 




Fig. 7 - Typical Blower Details and Relative Location of Parts (3-53 Engine Blower) 



Blower 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 




: \g. 9 - Installing Lip Type Oil Seal in End 
Plate 




Fig. 10 - Installing Blower Rotors in Front End 
Plate 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Blower 3 




hig. 12 Installing Rear End Plate 



Inspection 

Clean and dry all of the parts thoroughly. 

The finished inside face of each end plate mus 
smooth and flat. Slight scoring may be cleaned up 
a fine grit emery cloth. If the surface is badly sc( 
replace the end plate. 

Inspect the surfaces of the rotors and the bl< 
housing. Remove burrs or scratches with an oil sto 

Examine the rotor shaft, gear or drive coupling 
burred or worn serrations. 

Inspect the blower gears for excessive wear or dam 

Check the bearing and oil seal contact surfaces o: 
rotor shafts and end plates for scoring, wear or nic 

If an oil seal sleeve is used on the rotor shaft, it ca 
replaced as follows: 

a. Place sleeve remover J 23679-2 over the 
shaft and behind the oil seal sleeve. 

b. Back out the center screw of one gear p 
J 21672-7 and attach the puller to the s 
remover with three 1/4 "-20 x 3 " bolts anc 
washers. 





Fig. 13 - Installing Blower Rotor Gears 



Fig. 14 Measuring Rotor Lobe to Housing 
Clearance 



3.4 Blower 



c. Turn the puller screw clockwise and pull the sleeve 

off of the shaft. 

d. Support the rotor, gear end up, on the bed of an 
arbor press. 

e. Start a new sleeve straight on the shaft. 

f. Place sleeve installer J 23679-1 on top of the sleeve 

and press the sleeve on the shaft until the step in 
the installer contacts the shoulder/on the shaft. 

NOTI: The step in the sleeve installer properly 
positions the sleeve on the shaft. 



To replace the former "0" ring oil seals by the current 
lip type oil seals, rework the end plates by following 
the instructions given in Shop Notes in Section 3.0. 



AM 
MIT- 
MM 



OMimo 

UMATIONS 




, 


. A . 


t 


c 










3.33 


.0075" 


.004" 


.010" 



MINIMUM UOWIR ROTC* CLEARANCES 



Assemble Blower 

Refer to Fig . 7 
follows: 



and assemble the blowe 



1. Install new lip type oil seals in each end plat 
current blowers as follows: 

a. Place the end plate on the bed of an arbor pres 

b. Lubricate the outer diameter of the seal and, u 
installer J 22576, press the seal (lip facing dc 
into the counterbored hole until the shouldei 
the installer contacts the end plate (Fig. 9). 

NOTE: A step on the seal installer will positioi 
the oil seal below the finished face of the em 
plate within the .002 " to .008 " specified. 

2. Install the ring type oil seals on the rotor shafi 
former blowers as follows: 

a. Install a retainer spring on each shaft of < 
rotor. Then place an "0" ring retainer (dii 
side up) on each spring. 

b. Lubricate the "O" rings with clean engine 
then slide one ring on each shaft. 

c. Lubricate and place a seal on each shaft. Note 

the tangs on each seal are flush with one sid 
the seal; this side of the seal must face toward 
rotor. 

3. Place the front end plate on two wood blocks. 1 
install the rotors, gear end up, on the end f 
(Fig. 10). On the former blowers, be sure that the 
type oil seals are properly positioned on the rotors. 

4. Install the blower housing over the rotors (Fig. 1 

NOTE: To prevent inadequate lubrication or lov 
oil pressure, care must be exercised in th< 
assembly of the front and rear blower em 
plates to the blower housing. The rear end plati 
for the 3-53 blower does not have tappec 

holes for the thrust washer plate bolts and n< 
thrust washer lubricating oil holes. 



Fig. 15 Minimum Blower Rotor Clearance 



5. Place the rear end plate over the rotor sh 
(Fig. 12). On the former blowers, be sure that the 
type oil seals are properly positioned on the ro 
Then secure each end plate to the 3-53 blower hou 

with two end nlate retaining screws and twn n 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Blower 




shafts with the missing serrations in alignmer 
the missing serrations on the shafts. 

9. Tap the gears lightly with a soft hammer i 
them on the shafts. Then rotate the gears un 
punch marks on the face of the gears match, 
marks do not match, re-position the gears. 

10. Wedge a clean cloth between the blower 
Use the gear retaining bolts and plain washers t< 
the gears on the rotor shafts (Fig. 13). Turn thi 
uniformly until the gears are tight again; 
shoulders on the shafts. 

11. Remove the gear retaining bolts and washers 
proceed as follows: 

3-53 Blower-- Place the gear washers 
gears and start the gear retaining bolts in tru 
shafts. Tighten the bolts to 25-30 Ib-ft torque. 



Fig. 16 Measuring Rotor Lobe to End Plate 
Clearance 

bolts and plain washers. 



6. Attach the two thrust washers to the front end of the 
blower with the washer retaining bolts. If 5/16 "-24 
bolts are used, tighten them to 25-30 Ib-ft torque; if 
3/8 " - 24 bolts are used, tighten them to 54-59 Ib-ft 
torque. 

7. Attach the three spacers and the thrust plate to the 
front end of the blower. Tighten the three bolts to 7-9 
Ib-ft torque. Then check the clearance between the 
thrust plate and the thrust washers. The specified 
clearance is .001 "to .003 ". 

NOTE: The current thrust plate is .260 " thick. 
The former plate was .180 " thick. 

8. Position the rotors so that the missing serrations on 
the gear end of the rotor shafts are 90 apart. This is 
accomplished by placing the rotors in a "T" shape, 
with the missing serration in the upper rotor facing to 
the left and the missing serration in the lower rotor 
facing toward the bottom (Fig. 14). Install the shims 
and spacers in the counterbore in the rear face of the 



12. Check the backlash between the blower 
using a suitable dial indicator. The specified ba 
is .0005 " to .0025 " with new gears or a maxim 
.0035 " with used gears. 

13. Time Blower Rotors 

After the blower rotors and gears have been ins 
the blower rotors must be timed. When pr 
positioned, the blower rotors run with a 
clearance between the rotor lobes and with a 
clearance between the lobes and the walls < 
housing. 

The clearances between the rotors may be estah 
by moving one of the helical gears out or in < 
shaft relative to the other gear by adding or ren 
shims between the gear hub and the rotor spacer 

It is preferable to measure the clearances with a 
gage comprised of two or more feelers, si 
combination is more flexible than a single feelei 
Take measurements from both the inlet and 
sides of the blower. 



Blower 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 




Fig. 17 



Inserting Cam in Blower Drive 
Support 



housing as shown in Fig. 14. Take measure- 
its across the entire length of each rotor lobe 
e certain that a minimum clearance of .004 " 
ts at the air outlet side of all blowers and a 
imum clearance of .0075 " (in-line engine 
/er) exists at the 

nlet side of the blower (Fig. 15). 

sure the clearance between the rotor lobes, 
>ss the length of the lobes, in a similar 
mer. By rotating the gears, position the lobes 
hat they are at their closest relative position 
. 15). The clearance between the lobes should 
minimum of .010 ". 

sure the clearance between the end of the 
r and the blower end plate as shown in 
16. Refer to the chart for the required 
imum clearances. 

!: Push and hold the rotor toward the end 
at which the clearance is being measured. 

ning the rotors, complete assembly of the 



BLOWER ROTOR END) CLEARANCES 
(Minimum) 


Engina 


Front End Plate 


Rear End Plate 


3-53 


,006" 


.008" 



15. Assemble the blower drive spring support as 
follows: 

a. Place the drive spring support on two blocks of 
wood (Fig. 17). 

b. Position the drive spring seats in the support. 

c. Apply grease to the springs to hold the leaves 

together, then slide the two spring packs (15 
leaves per pack) in place. 

d. Place the blower drive cam over the end of tool 
J 5209, insert the tool between the spring packs 
and press the cam in place. 

16. Install the drive spring support coupling on the 
rotor gear at the rear end of the blower. 



>ve the bolts and washers used to temporarily 
e front end plate to the housing. Then install 
: end plate to the blower with six bolts and 
washers and two reinforcement plates and 
le bolts to 20-25 Ib-ft torque. 



17. Secure the cam retainer to the coupling with four 
1/4 "-28 bolts and tighten them to 14-18 Ib-ft torque. 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Blower 



19. 



Install the rear end plate cover and gasket and 
secure the cover and end plate to the blower with six 
bolts and special washers and two reinforcement plates 
and tighten the bolts to 20-25 Ib-ft torque. 



bolts. Install a new engine eno plate to blower 
over the threaded ends of the bolts. Apply Scotcl 
Rubber Adhesive No. 4300, or equivalent, 1 
engine end plate side of the gasket 

NOTE: The current front and rear end pi 
gaskets are identical and may be used in eitl 
position. Formerly these gaskets were i 
interchangeable due to a difference in thickne 



Install Blower 

Examine the inside of the blower for any foreign 
material. Also revolve the rotors by hand to be sure 
that they turn freely. Then install the blower on the 
engine as follows: 

3-53 ENGINE BLOWER 

1 . Affix a new blower-to-block gasket on the side of the 
cylinder block. Use Scotch Grip Rubber Adhesive 
No. 4300, or equivalent, only on the block side of the 
gasket. 

2. Position the blower front end plate and gasket on 
the end of the blower and install six bolts with two 
special washers on the center bolts and the 
reinforcement plates on the two top and two bottom 



3. Place the blower on the cylinder block lo 
flanges and, while holding the blower in place, i 
the six bolts finger tight in the rear engine end 
and flywheel housing. Then install the blower-to 
mounting bolts and washers and tighten them to 
Ib-ft torque. 

4. Tighten the center blower-to-end plate bolt 
and then the top and bottom bolts to 20-25 
torque. Then tighten the blower-to-block bolts to 
Ib-ft torque. 

5. Check the backlash between the upper rotoi 
and the camshaft or balance shaft gear. The ba< 
should be .003 " to .007 ". 

6. Install the air shut-down housing (Section 3.3) 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



SHOP NOTES - TROUBLE SHOOTING - 

SPECIFICATIONS - SERVICE TOOLS 

SHOP NOTES 



REWORKING BLOWER END PLATES FOR IN-LINE 



ENGINES 



On non-turbocharged engines built prior to serial 
number 3D-34008 

when oil is detected on the blower rotors or 
inside surface of the housing, the blower end plate can 
be reworked to accommodate a new lip type oil seal or 
a steel insert. 

NOTE: Slight phonographic grooves can actually 
improve sealing. Unless wear is considerable 
and oil leakage is evident, the end plate need 
not be reworked. 



Rework Blower End Plate 



Use tool kit J 9533 to rework the end plate. 

NOTE: On some prior serviced blowers, the. end 
plates may have been reworked to accommo- 
date a steel insert. In such cases, proceed as 
follows but omit Step 10. 

1. Adjust the tool holder J 9533-2 and cutting tool 
J 9533-3 for the proper counterbore depth as follows: 



TOOL HOLDER 
J 9533-2 




CUTTING TOOL 
J 9533-3 



a. Insert the rough cutting tool J 9533-3 in the 
holder as shown in Fig. 1 . 

b. Position the holder and the cutting tool in 
fixture! 9533-1. 

c. Loosen the "upper knurled ring" on the 

holder. 

d. Rotate the "lower knurled ring" to raise or k 
the cutting tool. Turn the "lower knurled ri 
until there is a distance of .275 " - .285 " betv 
the end of the cutting tool and the bottom of 
fixture. 

e. Tighten the "upper knurled ring". 

2. Place fixture J 9533-1 on the blower end plate. 

3. Clamp the fixture and the end plate loosely to 
bed of a drill press. 




) Specifications 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 




Fig. 3 - Positioning Cutting Tool in Fixture 
Guide 

Install tool holder J 9533-2 in the drill press and 
;rt the rough cutting tool J 9533-3 in the holder 
g- 2). 

Position the cutting' tool in the fixture guide as 
wn in Fig. 3. Operate the drill press at 75-100 rpm 
as to center the cutting tool in the rotor shaft hole, 
hten the clamp. 

Lubricate the cutting tool and the area of the end 
te that is being reworked with a lubricant (oleum or 
1 oil). 

Operate the drill press at 300-350 rpm and slowly 
nterbore the hole until the collar of the tool holder 
ipproximately 1/16" from the fixture guide. Then 
uce the speed of the drill press to 75-100 rpm and 
tinue counterboring until the collar contacts the top 
:he guide. 

NOTE: Raise the cutting tool periodically during 
the drilling operation and apply additional 
lubricant. 

Jtop the drill press and remove the rough cutting 



1.4375 
1.4365 



DIA. 




.285 



tr 



1.06 



DIA. 



o 




.03 R. MAX. 



Fig. 4 - End Plate Oil Drain Back Counterbore 

9. Insert the finish cutting tool J 9533-4 in the holder. 
Lubricate the cutting tool and the end plate. Operate 
the drill press at 75-100 rpm and finish-cut the 
counterbore. Feed the cutting tool into the work 
slowly. 

10. Remove the finish cutting tool and install an end 
mill to machine the additional 1 .06 " diameter 
counterbore. The total depth of the combined 
counterbores is .44 " (Fig. 4). The additional counter- 
bore provides proper oil drain back from the oil seal 
area. 

11. Remove the fixture from the end plate. Wipe the 
cuttings from the end plate and fixture and dry the 
plate and fixture with compressed air. Remove any 
burrs from the edge of the oil hole. 

12. Thoroughly clean the cutting tool and the end mill 
flutes and repeat the procedures for the adjacent rotor 
shaft hole. 

13. Place the blower end plate on the bed of an arbor 
press. Use installer J 22576 to press the seal (lip facing 
down) into the counterbored hole until the shoulder on 
the installer contacts the end plate. 

NOTE: A step under the shoulder of the installer 
will position the oil seal below the finished face 
of the end plate within the .002 " to .008 " 
specified. 



Steel Inserts 

To install steel inserts in the blower end plates, follow 
Steps 1 through 9 and 11 and 12. Press the inserts 
flush to .003 " above the blower end plate surface. 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Specifications 3 



SPECIFICATIONS 

TABLE OF SPECIFICATIONS, NEW CLEARANCES AND WEAR LIMITS 

These limits also apply to oversize and undersize parts. 



ENGINE PART (Standard Size, New) 



MINIMUM MAXIMUM 



LIMITS 



Blower 

Backlash-rotor gears (all) 0005 " .0025 " .0035 

Backlash between upper rotor and camshaft 

or balance shaft gear (3-53) 0030" .0070" 

Backlash between blower drive gear and 

camshaft gear 0030 " .0070 " 

Clearances: 

Thrust plate and thrust washer (in-line) 0010 " .0030" 

Rotor to air outlet side of housing: 
In-line 0040 " 

Rotor to air inlet side of housing: 
In-line 0075 " 

Rotor to front end plate: 
In-line 0060 " 



3.0 Specifications 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



STANDARD BOLT AND NUT TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS 



THREAD 
SIZE 



TORQUE 
(Ib-ft) 



THREAD 
SIZE 



TORQUE 
(Ib-ft) 



1/4 -20 
1/4 -28 
5/16-18 
5/16-24 
3/8 -16 
3/8 -24 
7/16-14 
7/16-20 
1/2 -13 
1/2 -20 



7-9 

8-10 
13-17 
15-19 
30-35 
35-39 
46-50 
57-61 
71-75 
83-93 



9/16-12 
9/16-18 
5/8 -11 
5/8 -18 
3/4 -10 
3/4 -16 
7/8 - 9 
7/8 -14 
1 8 
1 -14 



90-100 
107-117 
137-147 
168-178 
240-250 
290-300 
410-420 
475-485 
580-590 
685-695 



EXCEPTIONS TO STANDARD BOLT AND NUT TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS 



APPLICATION 



THREAD 
SIZE 



TORQUE 
(Ib-ft) 



Blower drive coupling to rotor gear bolt (in-line) 1/4 "-28 

Blower drive gear pilot bolt (in-line) 5/16 "-24 

Blower timing gear-to-rotor shaft bolts 

(in-line and 6V) 5/16 "-24 

Blower thrust washer retaining bolt 

(in-line).- 5/16 "-24 

Air inlet adaptor-to-blower bolts 3/8" -16 

Air inlet housing-to-adaptor or blower 

housing bolts 3/8" -16 

Governor-to-blower front end plate bolts 3/8" -16 

Blower drive support-to-blower rear end 

plate bolts 3/8" -16 

Flywheel housing-to-blower drive support bolts 3/8" -16 

Blower drive gear cover bolt 3/8 " -16 

Blower-to-engine rear end plate and flywheel 

housing bolts (3-53) 3/8" -16 

3/8" -24 
Blower thrust washer retaining bolt 

(in-line) 3/8 " -24 

Blower end plate-to-block bolts 7/16 "-14 



14-18 
25-30 

25-30 
25-30 
16-20 

16-20 
20-24 

20-24 
20-24 
20-24 

20-25 
20-25 

54-59 
55-60 



Page 6 




DtTROIT DIESEL 53 



Specifications 3.0 



SERVICE TOOLS 



TOOL NAME 



TOOL NO. 



BLOWER 

Blower clearance feeler gage set J 1698-02 

Blower drive cam installer J 5209 

Gear puller (3-53) J 5825-01 

Handle : J 7079-2 

Blower end plate counterbore set: J 9533 

Fixture J 9533-1 

Cutting tool - holder J 9533-2 

Cutting tool - roughing J 9533-3 

Cutting tool finishing J 9533-4 

Blower service tool set: J 21672 

Gear pullers J 21672-7 

Rotor shaft ball bearing installer J 21672-10 

Oil seal and bearing remover J 21672-11 

Oil seal and roller bearing installer J 21672-12 

Oil seal sleeve and roller bearing 

inner race installer J 21672-16 

Spanner wrench J 21672-17 

Oil seal sleeve and roller bearing 

inner race remover J 21672-20 

Oil seal installer J 22576 

Oil seal sleeve installer (in-line) , J 23679-1 

Oil seal sleeve remover (in-line) _ J 23679-2 



March, 1973 SEC. 3.0 Pag 7 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



SECTION 4 

LUBRICATION SYSTEM 
CONTENTS 



Lubrication System. 



Lubricating Oil Pump 

Lubricating Oil Pressure Regulator 



Lubricating Oil Cooler 

Oil Level Dipstick 

Oil Pan 

Ventilating System 

Shop Notes - Specifications - Service Tools . 



4.1 
4.1.1 



4.4 
4.6 
4.7 
4.8 
4.0 



I 



LUBRICATION SYSTEM 



IN-LINE 

The engine lubrication systems, illustrated in Figs. 1 
and 2, include an oil intake screen and tube assembly, 
an oil pump, an oil pressure regulator valve, a full flow 
oil filter with a by-pass valve, an oil cooler and oil 
cooler by-pass valve. 

The rotor type oil pump is bolted to the back of the 
engine lower front cover and is driven directly by the 
crankshaft. 



Lubricating oil from the pump passes from the lower 
front engine cover through short gallery passages in 
the cylinder block. From the block, the oil flows to the 
full flow filter, then through the oil cooler and back 
into the front engine cover and cylinder block oil 
galleries for distribution to the various engine 
bearings. The drain from the cylinder head and other 
engine parts leads back to the oil pan. 

Clean engine oil is assured at all times by the use of a 



ENGINES 

replaceable element type full flow filter. With this type 
filter, which is installed between the oil pump and the 
oil cooler, all of the oil is filtered before entering the 
engine. Should the filter become plugged, the oil will 
flow through a by-pass valve, which opens at 
approximately 18-21 psi, directly to the oil cooler. 



On current engines, the oil cooler by-pass valve is 
located on the right-hand side of the engine front 
cover and the oil pressure regulator valve is located on 
the left-hand side as viewed from the rear of the 
engine (Figs. 1 and 2). On former engines, both valves 
were located on the right-hand side of the cover 
(Figs. 1 and 2). 

If the cooler becomes plugged, the oil flow will be to a 
by-pass valve in the lower engine front cover and then 
to the cylinder block oil galleries. The by-pass valve 
opens at approximately 52 psi in the current In-line 
engines . In the former In-line engines, 

the by-pass valve opens at approximately 30 psi. 



August, 1972 SEC. 4 Page 1 



4 Lubrication oystem 



L/CI 



UML.OUU JO 



ROCKER ARM 
LUBRICATION 




OIL FROM PASSAGE IN 
u, x CRANKSHAFT TO 
^ CONNECTING ROD 



TO IDLER GEAR 




OIL FILTER 
BY-PASS VALVE 



OIL PRESSURE 
REGULATOR VALVE 

OIL COOLER 
BY-PASS VALVE 



Fig. 1 - Schematic Diagram of Typical In-Line Engine Lubrication System 



Stabilized lubricating oil pressure is maintained within 
the engine at all speeds, regardless of the oil 



temperature, by means of a regulator valve located in 
the lower front engine cover. The regulator valve, 
located in the pump outlet passage, opens at 51 psi on 
In-line engines and returns 

excess oil directly to the crankcase. 



Page 2 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Lubrication System 4 



I 



Lubricating Oil Distribution 

Oil from the oil cooler on the In-line engine is directed 
to the lower engine front cover and then to a 
longitudinal main oil gallery in the cylinder block. As 
shown in Fig. 1, this gallery distributes the oil, under 
pressure, to the main bearings and to a horizontal 
transverse passage at one end of the block and to 
vertical passages at each corner of the block which 
provide lubrication for the balance shaft and camshaft 
bearings. The camshaft bearings incorporate small 
slots through which lubricating oil is directed to the 
cam follower rollers. 



In addition, oil is forced through an oil passage in 
each camshaft which lubricates the camshaft interme- 
diate bearings. All of the camshaft bearings 
incorporate small slots through which lubricating oil is 
directed at the cam follower rollers. 



August, 1972 SEC. 4 Page 3 



Oil for lubricating the connecting rod bearings, piston 
pins, and for cooling the piston head is provided 
through the drilled crankshaft from the adjacent 
forward main bearings. The gear train is lubricated by 
the overflow of oil from the camshaft pocket through a 
communicating passage into the flywheel housing. 
Some oil spills into the flywheel housing from the 
bearings of the camshafts, balance shaft (In-line 
engine) . 



the blower bearings received lubrication indirectly via 
fhe right rear camshaft end bearing only. Excess oil 
returns to the crankcase via drain holes in the blower 
end plates which lead to corresponding drain holes in 
the cylinder block (In-line engines). 




Drilled oil passages on the camshaft side of the 
cylinder head (Fig . 1 are supplied with oil 

from the bores located at each end of the cylinder 
block. Oil from these drilled passages enters the 
drilled rocker shaft brackets at the lower ends of the 
drilled bolts and lubricates the rocker arm bearings 
and push rod clevis bearings. 

Excess oil from the rocker arms lubricates the lower 
ends of the push rods and cam followers, then drains 
to cam pockets in the top of the cylinder block, from 
which the cams are lubricated. When these pockets -are 
filled, the oil overflows through holes at each end of 
the cylinder block and then through the flywheel 
housing and front cover to the crankcase. 

The blower bearings are pressure lubricated by oil 
from drilled passages in the cylinder block which 
connect matching passages in the blower end plates 
which, in turn, lead to the bearings. On current 
engines, lubricating oil is supplied directly to the front 
and rear right bank camshaft end bearings and 
supplies oil to the blower bearings. On former engines, 



One tapped oil pressure take-off hole is provided in 
the lower engine front cover on some In-line engines. 

In addition, tapped oil holes in the cylinder block, on 
the side opposite the blower, are also provided as 
follows: 



holes when the 
blower is on the right side of the engine. 

Cleaning Lubrication System 

Thorough flushing of the lubrication system is 
required at times. Should the engine lubrication 
system become contaminated by ethylene glycol 
antifreeze solution or other soluble material, refer to 
Section 5 for the recommended cleaning procedure. 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



4.1 



LUBRICATING OIL PUMP 



IN-LINE 

The lubricating oil pump, assembled to the inside of 
the lower engine front cover as illustrated in Fig. 1, is 
of the rotor type in which the inner rotor is driven by 
a gear pressed on the front end of the crankshaft. The 
outer rotor is driven by the inner rotor. The bore in 
the pump body, in which the outer rotor revolves, is 
eccentric to the crankshaft and inner rotor. Since the 
outer rotor has nine cavities and the inner rotor has 
eight lobes, the outer rotor revolves at eight-ninths 
crankshaft speed. Only one lobe of the inner rotor is 
in full engagement with the cavity of the outer rotor at 
any given time, so the former can revolve inside the 
latter without interference. 



By rotating the pump 1 80 , it can be used for 
either a right-hand or left-hand rotation engine. 



Operation 



As the rotors revolve, a vacuum is formed on the inlet 
side of the pump and oil is drawn from the crankcase, 
through the oil pump inlet pipe and a passage in the 
front cover, to the inlet port and then into the rotor 
compartment of the purnp. Oil drawn into the cavities 



ENGINE 




ENGINES 

between the inner and outer rotors on the inlet side of 
the pump is then forced out under pressure through 
the discharge port into a passage in the front cover, 
which leads to the lubricating oil filter and cooler, and 
is then distributed throughout the engine. 

If a check of the lubrication system indicates improper 
operation of the oil pump, remove and disassemble it 
as outlined below. 



Remove Oil Pump 

1. Drain the oil from the engine. 

2. Remove the crankshaft pulley, fan pulley, support 
bracket and any other accessories attached to the front 
cover. 

3. Remove the oil pan. 

4. Refer to Fig. 2 and remove the four bolts which 
attach the oil pump inlet pipe and screen assembly to 
the main bearing cap and engine front cover or oil 
pump inlet elbow. Slide the flange and the seal ring on 
the inlet pipe and remove the pipe and screen as an 
assembly. Remove the oil pump inlet elbow (if used) 
and gasket from the engine front cover. 

5. Remove the lower engine front cover. 




Fig. 1 Typical Right-Hand Rotation 
Lubricating Oil Pump Mounting 



Fig. 2 Typical Oil Pump Inlet Pipe ana 
Screen Mounting 



July, 1972 SEC. 4.1 Page 1 



4.1 Oil Pump 



UtIKUII UltbtL 




Fig. 3 Measuring Rotor Clearance 

6. Remove the six bolts and lock washers (if used) 
which attach the pump assembly to the engine front 
cover (Fig. 1) and withdraw the pump assembly from 
the cover. 



Disassemble Oil Pump 

If the oil pump is to be disassembled for inspection or 
reconditioning, proceed as follows: 




Fig. 4 Measuring Clearance from f-ace of 
Pump Body to Side of Rotor 



1. Refer to Fig. 5 and remove the two drive 
screws holding the pump cover plate to the pump 
body. Withdraw the cover plate from the pump body. 

2. Remove the inner and outer rotors from the pump 
housing. 



Inspection 

Wash all of the parts in clean fuel oil and dry them 
with compressed air. 

The greatest amount of wear in the oil pump is 
imposed on the lobes of the inner and outer rotors. 

This wear may be kept to a minimum by using clean 
oil. If dirt and sludge are allowed to accumulate in the 
lubricating system, excessive rotor wear may occur in a 
comparatively short period of time, 

Inspect the lobes and faces of the pump rotors for 
scratches or burrs and the surfaces of the pump body 
and cover plate for scoring. Scratches or score marks 
may be removed with an emery stone. 

Measure the clearance between the inner and outer 
rotors at each lobe (Fig. 3). The clearance should not 
be less than .004 " or more than .011 ". Measure the 
clearance from the face of the pump body to the side 
of the inner and outer rotor with a micrometer depth 
gage (Fig. 4). The clearance should be not less than 
.001 " or more than .0035 ". 

Inspect the splines of the inner rotor and the oil pump 
drive gear. If the splines are excessively worn, replace 
the parts. The rotors are serviced as matched sets, 
therefore, if one rotor needs replacing, replace both 
rotors. 

Remove the oil inlet screen from the oil inlet pipe and 
clean both the screen and the pipe with fuel oil and 
dry them with compressed air. Replace the inlet pipe 
flange seal ring with a new seal ring if necessary. 



Assemble Oil Pump 

After the oil pump parts have been cleaned and 
inspected, refer to Fig. 5 or 6 and assemble the pump 
as follows: 

1. Lubricate the oil pump outer rotor with engine oil 
and place it in the pump body. 

2. Lubricate the oil pump inner rotor with engine oil 
and place it inside of the outer rotor. 

3. Place the cover plate on the pump body and align 
the drive screw and bolt holes with the holes in the 



Page 2 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Oil Pump 4.1 



Oil COOLER 
BY-PASS VAIVE - 



LOWER ENGINE 
FRONT COVER 



Oil SEAL 



GASKEI 



PLUG 




BOLT 



PLUG GASKET SPRING 



BOLT 



GASKET 



INNER ROTOR 



PUMP BODY 



Fig. 5 Lubricating Oil Pump Details and Relative Location of Parts (Current; 



July, 1972 SEC. 4.1 Page 3 




Fig. 7 Kemoving Oil Pump Drive Gear 

pump body. Since the holes are offset, the cover plate 
can be installed in only one position. 

4. Install two new drive screws to hold the assembly 
together. 




hg. 8 Installing Oil Pump Drive Gear 

fit (slip torque) be checked with tool J 23126. On In- 
line engines, the drive gear should not slip on 
the crankshaft at 100 Ib-ft torque. 

CAUTION: Do not exceed these torques. If the 
gear slips on the shaft, it is suggested that 
another oil pump drive gear be installed. 



Remove Pump Drive Gear From Crankshaft 

With the lower engine front cover and the lubricating 
oil pump removed from the engine, the oil pump drive 
gear may, if necessary, be removed from the end of 
the crankshaft as follows: 

1. Thread the crankshaft pulley retaining bolt in the 
end of the crankshaft (Fig. 7). 

2. Attach the jaws of a suitable gear puller behind the 
gear and locate the end of the puller screw in the 
center of the pulley retaining bolt. 

3. Turn the puller screw clockwise, to remove the gear 
from the crankshaft. 



Install Pump Drive Gear on Crankshaft 



1. Lubricate the inside diameter of a new oil pump 
drive gear with engine oil. Then start the gear straight 
on the crankshaft. Re-installation of a used gear is not 
recommended. 

2. Position the drive gear installer J 8968-01 over the 
end of the crankshaft and against the drive gear and 
force the gear in place as shown in Fig. 8. When the 
end of the bore in the tool contacts the end of the 
crankshaft, the drive gear is correctly positioned. 

3. It is important that the press fit of the drive gear to 

-wv,.,f t b e Decked to be sure that the gear does 
~ rroni-shiift Tt is recommended the press 



Install Oil Pump 

1. The markings on the pump body indicate the 
installation as pertaining to left or right-hand 
crankshaft rotation. Be sure that the letters "UP R.H." 
(right-hand rotation engine) 

on the pump body are at the top 
(Fig. 1). 

2. Insert the six bolts with lock washers (if used) 
through the pump body and thread them into the 
engine front cover. Tighten the bolts to 13-17 Ib-ft 
torque. 



- - - BRACKET 



FLANGC 



Vi* 



OIL INLET PIPE 



GASKET 



SEAL RING 




SCREEN 



Fig. 9 Oil Pump Inlet Pipe and Screen 

Details and Relative Location of Parts (In-Line 

Engine) 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Oil Pump 4.1 



3. Install the lower engine front cover and pump 
assembly on the engine as outlined in Section 1.3.5. 

4. Attach the oil inlet screen to the oil inlet pipe 
support with two bolts 
and lock washers (Fig. 9). 



6. Place the oil pump inlet pipe and screen assembly in 
position and fasten the support to the main bearing 
cap with the two bolts and lock washers. 

7. Slide the inlet pipe flange and seal ring against the 



engine front cover 

and secure them with the two bolts and lock 
washers. 

CAUTION: On In-line engines, the oil pump 
inlet tube and water by-pass tube seals are the 
same size but of different material. Be sure that 
the correct seal is used. A new oil pump inlet 
tube seal may be identified by its white stripe. 

8. Install the oil pan and refill the crankcase to the 
proper level. 

9. Install the crankshaft pulley, fan pulley, support 
bracket and any other accessories that were attached to 
the front cover. 



I 



July, 1972 SEC. 4.1 Page 5 



UICOCL 



. I 



LUBRICATING OIL PRESSURE REGULATOR 



IN-LINE 

Stabilized lubricating oil pressure is maintained within 
the engine at all speeds, regardless of oil temperature, 
by a pressure regulator valve installed in the engine 
lower front cover as shown in Fig . ]. 

The regulator assembly consists of a hollow piston 
type valve, a spring, gasket and plug. The valve is 
located in an oil gallery within the lower front cover 
and is held tight against a counterbored valve seat by 
the valve spring and plug. When the oil pressure 
exceeds a given value as shown in the following chart, 
the valve is forced from its seat and the lubricating oil 
is by-passed into the engine oil pan. 



ENGINES 







Valve Opening 


Engine 


Front Cover 


Pressure 






(psi) 










Current 


51 



Under normal conditions, the pressure regulator valve 
should require very little attention. If sludge 
accumulates in the lubrication system, the valve may 
not work freely, thereby remaining open or failing to 
open at the normal operating pressure. 




Fig. 1 Location of Current Oil Pressure 
Regulator Valve In-line Engine Shown 



Whenever the lubricating oil pump is removed for 
inspection, the regulator valve and spring should also 
be removed, thoroughly cleaned in fuel oil and 
inspected. 

Remove Oil Pressure Regulator 

1. Remove the plug and washer from the engine lower 
front cover. 

2. Withdraw the spring and the valve from the cover. 
Inspection 

Clean all of the regulator parts in fuel oil and dry 
them with compressed air. Then inspect the parts for 
wear or damage. 

The regulator valve must move freely in the valve 
bore. If the valve is scored and cannot be cleaned up 
with crocus cloth, it must be replaced. 

Replace a fractured or pitted spring. 

Install Oil Pressure Regulator 

1. Apply clean engine oil to the outer surface of the 
valve and slide it- into the opening in the engine lower 
front cover (closed end first). 

2. Install a new copper gasket on the plug. 

3. While compressing the spring, start the plug in the 
side of the cover; then tighten the plug. 



April, 1971 SEC. 4.1.1 Page 1 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



4.4 



LUBRICATING OIL COOLER 



Engine oil coolers are provided for all engines. 

The oil cooler is 

mounted on the side of the cylinder block at the lower 
front corner. 

To assure engine lubrication should the oil cooler 
become plugged, a by-pass valve located near the top 
of the lower engine front cover by-passes oil from the 
oil pump discharge port directly to the oil galleries in 
the cylinder block. The by-pass valve opens at 
approximately 52 psi (current In-line engines). 

The valve components are the same as and serviced in 
the same manner as the oil pressure regulator valve in 
Section 4.1.1. 



pump through a passage in the oil cooler adaptor to 
the full flow oil filter, which is also mounted on the oil 
cooler adaptor, and then through the oil cooler core 
and the cylinder block oil galleries. 



Remove Oil Cooler Core 

1. Drain the cooling system by opening the drain cock 
at the bottom of the oil cooler housing. 



2. Remove any accessories or other 
necessary to provide access to the cooler. 



equipment 



3. On In-Line engines, loosen and slide the 

clamps and hose back on the water inlet elbow on the 
cylinder block. 



Cooling water circulated through the oil cooler 
completely surrounds the oil cooler core. Therefore, 
whenever an oil cooler is assembled, special care must 
be taken to have the proper gaskets in place and the 
retaining bolts tight to assure good sealing. 

The oil cooler housing on an In-line engine is attached 
to an oil cooler adaptor which, in turn, is attached to 
the cylinder block. The flow of oil is from the oil 




4. Loosen and slide the clamps and hose back on the 
tube leading from the thermostat to the water pump. 

5. Remove the bolts and lock washers which attach the 
water pump to the oil cooler housing. 

6. Matchmark the end of the oil cooler housing, cooler 
core and adaptor with a punch or file so they can be 
reinstalled in the same position. 

7. Remove the bolts and lock washers which attach the 
oil cooler housing to the adaptor or cylinder block and 
remove the housing and core as an assembly. Be 
careful when withdrawing the assembly not to drop or 
damage the cooler core. 




Fig. 1 - Typical Oil Cooler Mounting (6V-53 
Engine Shown) 



Fig. 2 - Preparing Oil Cooler Core tor Pressure 
Test 



July, 1972 SEC. 4.4 Page 1 



4.4 Lubricating Oil Cooler 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



GASKETS 



HOSE 




DRAIN COCK 




Fig. 3 - Oil Cooler Details and Relative Location of Parts (In-Line Engine) 



8. If the adaptor (In-line engine) is to be removed, the 
oil (liter must first be removed. Then remove the bolts 
and lock washers which attach the adaptor to the 



cylinder block. Withdraw the adaptor and gaskets. 

9. Remove all traces of gasket material from the 
cylinder block and the oil cooler components. 






DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Clean Oil Cooler Core 

1 . Clean oil side of Core - Remove the core from the oil 
cooler. Circulate a solution of trichloroethylene 
through the core passages with a force pump to 
remove the carbon and sludge. 

CAUTION: This operation should be done in the 
open or in a well ventilated room when 
trichloroethylene or other toxic chemicals are 
used for cleaning. 

Clean the core before the sludge hardens. If the oil 
passages are badly clogged, circulate an Oakite or 
alkaline solution through the core and flush thor- 
oughly with clean, hot water. 

2. Clean water side of Cooler - After cleaning the oil 
side of the core, immerse it in the following solution: 
Add one-half pound of oxalic acid to each two and 
one-half gallons of solution composed of one third 
muriatic acid and two-thirds water. The cleaning 
action is evidenced by bubbling and foaming. 

Watch the process carefully and, when bubbling stops 
(this usually takes from 30 to 60 seconds), remove the 
core from the cleaning solution and thoroughly flush it 
with clean, hot water. After cleaning, dip the core in 
light oil. 

NOTE: Do not attempt to clean an oil cooler 
core when an engine failure occurs in which 
metal particles from worn or broken parts are 
released into the lubricating oil. Replace the oil 
cooler core. 



Pressure Check Oil Cooler Core 

After the oil cooler core has been cleaned, check for 
leaks as follows: 

1. Make a suitable plate and attach it to the flanged 
side of the cooler core. Use a gasket made from 
rubber to assure a tight seal. Drill and tap the plate to 
permit an air hose fitting to be attached at the inlet 
side of the core (Fig. 2). 

2. Attach an air hose, apply approximately 75-150 psi 
air pressure and submerge the oil cooler core and plate 
assembly in a container of water heated to 180 F. Any 
leaks will be indicated by air bubbles in the water. If 
leaks are indicated, replace the core. 

CAUTION: When making this pressure test be 
sure that personnel are adequately protected 
against any stream of pressurized water from a 
leak or rupture of a fitting, hose or the oil 
cooler core. 



Lubricating Oil Cooler 4.4 



3. After the pressure check is completed, remove the 
plate and air hose from the cooler core, then dry the 
core with compressed air. 

NOTE: In cases where a leaking oil cooler core 
has caused contamination of the engine, the 
engine must be immediately flushed to prevent 
serious damage (refer to Section 5). 



Install Oil Cooler Core 

1. If the oil cooler adaptor (In-Line engines) was 
removed from the cylinder block, remove the old 
gasket material from the bosses where the adaptor sets 
against the block. Affix new adaptor gaskets (Fig. 3), 
then secure the adaptor to the cylinder block with five 
bolts and lock washers. 

2. Clean the old gasket material from both faces of the 
core flange and affix new gaskets to the inner and 
outer faces (Fig . 3). Insert the core into the 
cooler housing. 

NOTE: The inlet and outlet openings in the oil 
cooler core are stamped "IN" and "OUT". It is 
very important that the core be installed in the 
correct position to prevent any possibility of 
foreign particles and sludge, which may not 
have been removed in cleaning the fins of the 
core, entering and cirulating through the 
engine. 

3. Align the matchmarks previously placed on the core 
and housing and install the oil cooler core in the oil 
cooler housing. 

4. With the matchmarks in alignment, place the oil 
cooler housing and core against the oil cooler adaptor 
(In-Line engines). 



Tighten the bolts to 



13-17 Ib-ft torque. 



5. Slide the hose and clamps in position between the 
cylinder block water inlet elbow and the oil cooler. 
Secure the clamps in place. 

(,. Place a new gasket between the fresh water pump 
and the cooler housing and secure the pump to the 
cooler housing. 

7. Position the hose and clamps in place between the 
water pump and the tube to the thermostat housing. 
Secure the clamps. 

8. Install all of the accessories or equipment it was 
necessary to remove. 

July, 1972 SEC. 4.4 Page 3 



4.4 Lubricating uu cooler 



UCIKUM UIC5CL DJ 



9. Reinstall the oil filter (In-Line engine). 

10. Make sure the draincock in the hottom of the 



cooler housing is closed. Then fill the cooling system to 
the proper level. 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



4.6 




OIL LEVEL DIPSTICK 



A steel ribbon type oil level dipstick is mounted in an 
adaptor on the side of the engine (Fig. 1) to check the 
amount of oil in the engine oil pan. The dipstick has 
markings to indicate the Low and Full oil level. 



The engine should not be operated if the oil level is 
below the Low mark and no advantage is gained by 
having the oil quantity above the Full mark. Start and 
operate the engine for ten minutes to fill the oil filter, 
oil passages, etc., then stop the engine. After the 
engine has been stopped for a minimum of ten 




Fig. 1 - Typical Oil Dipstick Mounting 

minutes, add oil as required to bring the oil level up to 
the/w// mark on the dipstick. 





April, 1971 SEC. 4.6 Page 1 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



4.7 



OIL PAN 



The oil pan may be made of steel, cast iron or cast 
aluminum. A shallow or deep sump type oil pan is 
used, depending upon the particular engine applica- 
tion. A one-piece oil pan gasket is used with stamped 
steel pans. 



Removing and Installing Oil Pan 

On some engine applications, it may be possible to 
remove the oil pan without removing the engine. It is 
recommended that if the engine is to be taken out of 
the unit, the oil pan be left in place until the engine is 
removed. 

The procedure for removing the oil pan without taking 
the engine out and after taking the engine out of the 
unit will vary. However, the following will generally 
apply. 

1. Remove the drain plug and drain the engine 
lubricating oil. 

2. Detach the oil pan; take precautions to avoid 
damaging the oil pump inlet pipe and screen. 

NOTE: Stamped oil pans used on some marine 
engines have a layer of lead or cadmium 
beneath the paint to protect the pans against 
the salt water atmosphere encountered in some 
marine applications. If this coating is scuffed or 
broken unknowingly, corrosion or electrolysis 
may result. Electrolysis in the form of small 
holes will eat through the pan at the scuffed 
area. Therefore, do not rest, slide or rock the 
engine on its oil pan when removing it. Every 
precaution should be taken before installation 
to prevent nicks and scratches on stamped 
marine oil pans. Also exercise care when 
performing ejigine repairs to avoid scratching 
the outer surface of the oil pan. 

3. Remove the oil pan gasket completely. 



GASKET 




Oil PAN 



Fig. 1 Typical Oil Pan 

4. Clean the oil pan with a suitable solvent and dry it 
with compressed air. 

5. Inspect a cast oil pan for porosity or cracks. Check a 
stamped oil pan for large dents or breaks in the metal 
which may necessitate its repair or replacement. Check 
for misaligned flanges or raised surfaces surrounding 
the bolt holes by placing the pan on a surface plate or 
other large flat surface. 

6. When replacing the pan, use a new gasket and 
tighten the bolts evenly to avoid damaging the gasket 
or springing the pan. 



8. Install and tighten the oil drain plug. Tighten the 
plug (with nylon ' washer) to 25-35 Ib-ft torque. 
Replenish the lubricating oil supply and, after the 
engine is started, check for leaks. 



April, 1971 SEC. 4.7 Page 1 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



4.8 



VENTILATING SYSTEM 



Harmful vapors which may be formed within the 
engine are removed from the crankcase, gear train 
and valve compartment by a continuous, pressurized 
ventilating system. 

A slight pressure is maintained in the engine 
crankcase by the seepage of a small amount of air 
from the airbox past the piston rings. This air sweeps 
up through the engine and is drawn off through a 
crankcase breather. 

In-line engines are equipped with a breather assembly 
attached to the valve rocker cover (Fig. 1) or a 
breather assembly mounted on the flywheel housing 
(Fig. 2). 




Service 

It is recommended mat the breather tube be inspected 
and cleaned, if necessary, to eliminate the possibility 



Fig. 1 - Typical Crankcase Breather Mounting 
(In-Line Engine) 

of clogging. This can best be done by removing the 
tube from the engine, washing it with a suitable 
solvent and drying it with compressed air. 

The wire mesh pad (element) in the breather 



BREATHER 




BREATHER BODY PLUG 
\ - 




Oil FILLER CAP . 

*V 

> 

,, Jr. OIL FILLER TUBE 

SCREEN " 

A* - v 

EltN 

F S ~ J 

BREA1M6R 
' BODY 




WITH OIL FILLER TUBE 



Fig. 2 - Crankcase Breather Mounting and Details (In-Line Engine) 



December, 1970 SEC. 4.8 Page 1 



4.8 Ventilating System DETROIT DIESEL 53 




assemblies should be cleaned if excessive crankcase If it is necessary to clean the element, remove the 
pressure is observed. breather housing from the flywheel housing (In-line 

engines). 



Wash the element in fuel oil and dry it with 
compressed air. 



Reinstall the element in the breather housing, the 
upper front cover or the governor housing and/or the 
valve rocker cover and install them by reversing the 
procedure for removal. 



W^V\^ 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



4.0 



SPECIFICATIONS - SERVICE TOOLS 



I 



May, 1971 SEC. 4.0 Page 1 



4.0 Service Tools 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



SPECIFICATIONS 



STANDARD BOLT AND NUT TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS 



THREAD 
SIZE 


TORQUE 
(Ib-ft) 


THREAD 
SIZE 


TORQUE 
(Ib-ft) 


1/4 -20 


7-9 


9/16-12 


90-100 


1/4 -28 


. 8-10 


9/16-18 


107-117 


5/16-18 


13-17 


5/8 -11 


137-147 


5/16-24 


15-19 


5/8 -18 


168-178 


3/8 -16 


30-35 


3/4 -10 


240-250 


3/8 -24 


35-39 


3/4 -16 


290-300 


7/16-14 


46-50 


7/8 -9 


410-420 


7/16-20 


.. . 57-61 


7/8 -14 


475-485 


1/2 -13 


. . 71-75 


1 - 8 


580-590 


1/2 -20 


83-93 


1 -14 


685-695 











^p'HtA. ^ 



EXCEPTIONS TO STANDARD BOLT AND NUT TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS 



APPLICATION 



TORQUE 
(Ib-ft) 



Oil filter center stud 

Oil pan drain plug (Nylon washer) 18mm 



40-50 
25-35 



SERVICE TOOLS 



TOOL NAME 



TOOL NO. 



Crankshaft and oil pump gear puller 

Oil pump drive gear installer 

Oil pump drive gear adaptor 

Two-arm steel grip puller 



J 3051 

J 8968-01 

J 23126 

J 8174 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



SECTION 5 

COOLING SYSTEM 
CONTENTS 



Water Pump. 



Thermostat. 



Engine Cooling Fan. 



Coolant Filter and Conditioner. 
Specifications - Service Tools .... 



5.1 



5.2.1 



5.4 



5.7 
5.0 



I 



August, 1972 SEC. 5 Page 1 



^y""' 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



5.1 



WATER PUMP 



A centrifugal-type water pump (Fig. 1) is mounted on 
top of the engine oil cooler housing as shown in 
Fig. 2. It circulates the coolant through the oil cooler, 
cylinder block, cylinder head(s) and radiator. 

The pump is belt driven by either the camshaft or 
balance shaft (In-line engines). 



An impeller is pressed onto one end of the water 
pump shaft, and a water pump drive pulley is pressed 
onto the opposite end. The pump shaft is supported on 
a sealed double-row combination radial and thrust ball 
bearing. Coolant is prevented from creeping along the 
shaft toward the bearing by a seal. The shaft and 
bearing constitute an assembly, and are serviced as 
such, since the shaft serves as the inner race of the ball 
bearing. 

The sealed water pump shaft ball bearing is filled with 
lubricant when assembled. No further lubrication is 
required. 



Remove Water Pump 

1. Remove the radiator cap, open the block and 
radiator drain cocks, and drain the cooling system. 

2. Loosen and remove the water pump belts. 



OLT 



BY-PASS TUBE CONNECTOR 




COVEI 



PUILEY 




Fig. 1 Water Pump Assembly 



Fig. 2 Typical Water Pump Mounting 

NOTE: An idler pulley is used on some engines 
to adjust the water pump drive belt tension. 

3. Loosen the hose clamps and slide the hose up on the 
water by-pass tube. 

4. Remove the five bolts securing the water pump to 
the oil cooler housing and take off the pump. 



Disassemble Pump 

1. Note the position of the pulley on the shaft so that 
the pulley can be reinstalled in the same position when 
the pump is reassembled. Remove the water pump 
pulley as shown in Fig. 3. 

2. Remove the pump cover and discard the gasket. 

3. Press the shaft and bearing assembly, seal, and 
impeller out of the pump body as an assembly, by 
applying pressure on the bearing outer race with 
remover J 1930. 

CAUTION: The bearing will be damaged if the 
pump is disassembled by pressing on the end of 
the pump shaft. 

4. Press the end of the shaft out of the impeller as 
shown in Fig. 4, using plates J 8329 and holder J 358- 

5. Remove the seal assembly from the pump shaft and 
discard it. 



October, 1970 SEC. 5.1 Page 1 



5.1 Water Pump 



UCIKVJM UICOCL 



Inspection 

Wash all of the pump parts, except the bearing and 
shaft assembly, in clean fuel oil and dry them with 
compressed air. 

NOTE: A permanently sealed and lubricated 
bearing is used in the bearing and shaft 
assembly and should not be washed. Wipe the 
bearing and shaft assembly with a clean lintless 
cloth. 

Examine the impeller for damage and excessive wear 
on the impeller face which contacts the seal. Replace 
the impeller if it is worn or damaged. 

Discard the bearing if it has a general feeling of 
roughness, is tight or has indications of damage. 

Assemble Pump 

1. Use installer ] 1930 to apply pressure to the outer 
race of the bearing as shown in Fig. 5 and press the 
shaft and bearing assembly into the pump body until 
the outer race of the bearing is flush with the outer 
face of the body. 

CAUTION: The bearing will be damaged if the 
bearing and shaft assembly is installed by 
applying pressure on the end of the shaft. 

2. Lightly coat the outside diameter of the new seal 
with sealing compound. Then, with the face of the 






Fig. 4 Removing Shaft from Impeller with 

Tools J 8329 and J 358-1 

body and the bearing outer race supported, install the 
seal by applying pressure on the seal outer flange only, 
until the flange contacts the body (Fig. 1). Wipe the 
face of the seal with a chamois to remove all dirt and 
metal particles. 

3. Support the pulley end of the shaft on the bed of an 
arbor press and press the impeller on the shaft until 
the impeller is flush with the large end of the body. 



root 

1930 




Removing Pulley 



Fig. 5 Pressing Shaft Assembly into Water 
Pump 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Water Pump 5.1 



COVER 



SEAL ASSEMBLY 6ODY 



BODY 



CONNECTOR 



PULLEY 




GASKET 



IMPEltER 



GASKET 



Fig. 6 Fresh Water Pump Details and Relative Location of Parts 



4. Place the pulley on the bed of an arbor press. Place 
a suitable rod between the ram of the press and the 
impeller end of the shaft, then press the shaft into the 
pulley until the pulley is in its original position on the 
shaft. 

5. Install the cover and a new gasket on the pump 
body. Tighten the cover bolts to 6-7 Ib-ft torque. 

6. Run the pump dry at 1200 rpm for a minimum of 
30 seconds, or as required, to assure satisfactory 
seating of the seal. 

Install Water Pump 

1. Affix a new gasket to the flange of the water pump 
body. 



2. Secure the water pump to the oil cooler housing with 
the five bolts and lock washers. 

3. Install the hose between the water pump and water 
by-pass tube and tighten the hose clamps. 

4. Install and tighten the belts. 

NOTE: An idler pulley is used on some engines 
to adjust the water pump drive belt tension. 



5. Close all of the drain cocks and refill the cooling 
system. 

6. Start the engine and check for leaks. 



FRESH WATER PUMP WITH CERAMIC INSERT IN IMPELLER 



Effective with engine serial number 3D- 

64888, current 

water pump assemblies used on Series 53 engines 
include an impeller and ceramic insert combination 
(Figs. 7 and 8). Disassembly and assembly of the 
current water pump is the same as the former water 
pump except as follows: 

When removing the impeller protect the ceramic insert 
from damage at all times during pump overhaul. 
Always lay the impeller on the bench with the ceramic 
insert up to prevent damage to the insert. 



Inspect the ceramic insert for cracks, scratches and 
bond to the impeller. If the insert is damaged, it may 
be replaced in the following manner: 

1. Bake the used ceramic insert and impeller assembly 
at 500F. for one hour to remove the ceramic insert. 
The ceramic insert can be removed easily from the 
counterbore while the adhesive is hot. Wire brush the 
impeller bond area to remove the old adhesive, oxide, 
scale, etc. 

2. Wipe the impeller bond area and the grooved side 
of the new ceramic insert with a cloth soaked in a 



October, 1970 SEC. 5.1 Page 3 



TT uiei rump 



LSUIIXV^II 



JO 




FORMER DESIGN 



CURRENT DESIGN 



PULLEY SHAFT AND SEAL CERAMIC 

BEADING ASS?. ASSEMBLY INSERT 



CASKET COVER 



Fig. 7 Comparison of Water Pumps 

common solvent such as alcohol. Wipe clean with a 
dry doth. 

3. Place the adhesive washer in the impeller bond area 
with the ceramic insert on top. The polished face of 



the ceramic insert should be visible to the assembler. 
Clamp the ceramic insert and impeller together with a 
3/8" bolt and nut and two smooth 1/8" thick 
washers. Tighten the bolt to 10 Ib-ft torque. 

CAUTION: Do not mar the polished surface of 
the ceramic insert. 



4. Place the impeller assembly in a level position, with 
the ceramic insert up, in an oven preheated to 350F. 
and bake it for one hour. 

NOTE: The face of the ceramic insert must be 
square with the axis of the tapered bore within 
..004" . The pump shaft may be used as a 
mandrel for inspection. 



5. Remove the impeller from the oven and, after it has 
cooled to room temperature, install it in the pump. Do 
not loosen the clamping bolt until the assembly cools. 
Make sure the mating surfaces of the water seal and 
the ceramic insert are free of dirt, metal particles and 
oil film. 



CONNECTOR 



COVER 



PUUEV 




Fig. 8 Details of Water Pump with Ceramic Seal 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 




THERMOSTAT 



The temperature of the In-line engine coolant is 
controlled by a single choke type thermostat located in 
a housing attached to the water outlet end of the 
cylinder head. 



On the In-line 

engines, a by-pass tube is attached between the 
thermostat housing and the water pump. 



At coolant temperatures below approximately 170F., 
the thermostat valve remains closed and blocks the 
flow of coolant through the radiator or heat exchanger. 
During this period, the coolant circulates through the 
cylinder block and head and then back to the suction 
side of the pump via the by-pass tube. As the coolant 
temperature rises, the thermostat valve begins to open, 
restricting the by-pass system and permits the coolant 
to circulate through the radiator or heat exchanger. 



A properly operating thermostat is essential for 
efficient operation of the engine. If the engine 
operating temperature deviates from the normal range 
of 160F - 185F., remove and check the thermostat(s). 




With the valve fully opened in the in-line engine, a 
very small portion of the coolant will continue to 
circulate through the by-pass tube, while the major 
portion will pass through the radiator. 



Remove Thermostat 

1. Drain the cooling system to the necessary level by 
opening the drain valves. 



HOUSING 



PLUG 



THERMOSTAT 



OUTIET ElBOW 




GASKET 



BY PASS TUBE 
COVER PLATE 




Fig. 2 Thermostat Housing Details and Relative Location of Parts (In-Line Engine) 



July, 1971 SEC. 5.2.1 Page 1 



InermostaT 



UCIKUII UICOCL 



open when the temperature reaches 167' - 172"F. (In- 
line engine) or 174 C - 176T. (V-enginc). The opening 
temperature is usually stamped on the thermostat. The 
thermostat should be fully open at approximately 190'- 
- 192F. 

Clean the thermostat seating surface in the thermostat 
housing and base or the water outlet elbow. 

Check the bleed hole in the thermostat housing to be 
sure it is open (Fig. 5). 




2. Remove the hose connections between the 
thermostat housing water outlet elbow and the radiator 
or h^at exchanger. 

3. Loosen the bolts and remove the water outlet elbow 
from the thermostat housing on the in-line engine 
(Fig. 2). Take out the thermostat. 



Drill a 3/32" diameter hole in the thermostat housing 
used on in-line industrial engines built prio"r to serial 
number 3D-011 (refer to Fig. 6). 

This will provide a coolant drain hole for the by-pass 
cavity in the housing. 



Install Thermostat 

Refer to Fig . 2 
follows: 



and install the thermostat(s) as 



IN-LINE ENGINE: 

1. Place a new gasket on the thermostat housing. 



Inspection 

If the action of the thermostat has become impaired 
due to accumulated rust and corrosion from the engine 
coolant so that it remains closed, or only partially 
open, thereby restricting the flow of water, overheating 
of the engine will result. A thermostat which is stuck in 
a wide open position may not permit the engine to 
reach its normal operating temperature. The incom- 
plete combustion of fuel due to cold operation will 
result in a build-up of carbon deposits on the pistons, 
rings and valves. 

The operation of the thermostat may be checked by 

immersing it in a container of hot water (Fig. 4). 

Place a thermometer in the container, but do not allow 

h the bottom. Agitate the water to maintain 

imperature throughout the container. As the 

.eated, the thermostat valve should begin to 




A-STARTS TO OPEN 
B-FUUY OPEN 



Fig. 4 Method of Checking Thermostat 
Operation 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Thermostat 5.2.1 






Fig. 5 Bleed Hole in Thermostat Housing 

2. Insert the thermostat into the housing. 

3. Install the water outlet elbow and secure it to the 
housing with two bolts and lock washers. 

4. Connect the hose from the radiator or heat 
exchanger to the water outlet elbow, align and tighten 
the hose clamps. 




3 32" 01A COOLANT 
DRAINAGE HOLE 



Fig. 6 Cross-Section of Thermostat Housing 
(Early Industrial In-Line Engine) 




, 

f*p"'V J 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



5.4 




ENGINE COOLING FAN 



The engine cooling Can is driven by a pair of V-drive 
belts from the crankshaft pulley (Fig. 1), 



Effective with engine serial number 3D- 

new fan hub assemblies are being 
used on the In-line engines. The new assemblies are 
similar to the integral cast shaft and bracket design, 
with tapered roller bearings, currently used on the 
V-type engines (Fig. 5). 



The belt-driven fan is bolted to a combination fan hub 
and pulley which turns on a sealed ball bearing 
assembly (former In-line engines) or two tapered roller 
bearings ( current In-line engines). The 

crankshaft driven fan is bolted to the crankshaft 
pulley. 




Lubrication 

The sealed ball bearings, used in the fan hub assembly 
on the former In-line engines, is pre-luhricated and 
requires no further lubrication. 

The tapered roller bearings, used in the fan hub on 
current In-line engines, are pressure 
lubricated prior to assembly. The cavity between the 
bearings is packed with Chevron BRB No. 2 grease or 
an equivalent performance grease at the time the hub 
is assembled. Also the fan hub cap is packed 
approximately 75% full of grease. Repack the fan hub 
assembly as outlined in the assembly procedure. The 
hub cap at the front and a seal at the rear of the hub 
prevents leakage of the lubricant. 



Remove Fan, Hub and Adjusting Bracket 



The fan blades must rotate in a vertical plane parallel 
with and a sufficient distance from the radiator core. 



Fig. 1 Belt-Driven Fan Mounting 



July, 1972 SEC. 5.4 Page 1 



5.4 Fan 



UtIKUII UltbtL 




Fig. 3 - Removing Fan Hub (Pulley) 

Bent fan blades reduce the efficiency of the cooling 
system, may throw the fan out of balance, and are apt 
to damage the radiator core. Before removing the fan 
blades, check the blades for alignment. Do not rotate 
the fan by pulling on the fan blades. 

1. Remove the attaching bolts and lock washers and 
remove the fan and spacer (if used). 

2. Loosen the fan hub adjusting bracket bolts and 
remove the drive belts. Then withdraw the bolts and 
washers and remove the hub and bracket assembly 
from the engine. 



Disassemble Hub and Adjusting Bracket 
IN-LINF. FNGINES (FORMER): 

1. Measure the distance between the rear face of the 
rim on the pulley and rear face (machined) of the fan 
adjusting bracket. Record this measurement for 
reassembly purposes. 

2. Remove the fan hub from the shaft with a puller as 
shown in Fig. 3. 

in arbor press. Then 

naft and against the 

" '' 'tearing and 





Fig. 4 Former Fan Hub Assembly (In-Line 
Engine) 

CAUTION: Damage to the bearing will result if 
force is applied to the shaft. 

IN-LINE ENGINES (CURRENT): 

1. Remove the fan hub cap. 

2. Remove the hub bolt and washer. 

3. Withdraw the hub and bearing assembly from the 
shaft. It may be necessary to tap the end of the shaft 
with a soft hammer to loosen the hub assembly. 

4. Remove the oil seal and bearing from the fan hub. 

5. Remove the bearing spacer, shims and grease 
retainer. 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Fan 5.4 




assembly) and revolve the outer race of each bearing 



Fig. 5 Current Fan Hub Assembly (In-Line 
Engine) 



Inspection 

Wash the fan and fan hub parts thoroughly with fuel 
oil, dry them with compressed air and inspect them for 
wear or damage. 

NOTE: Do not wash the permanently sealed 
bearing which is used in the In-line engine hub 
assembly. Wipe the bearing and shaft assembly 
with a clean lintless cloth. 

Hold the inner race (shaft of sealed ball bearing 



July, 1972 SEC. 5.4 Page 3 



5.4 Fan 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



BEARING AND 
SHAFT ASSEMBLY 



FAN MOUNTING 
SUPPORT 




FAN HUB 

(PUUEY) 



2143 




Fig. 8 ' Typical Fan Hub and Adjusting Bracket Details and Relative Location of Parts (In-Line 

Engine) 

slowly by hand. If rough or tight spots are detected, 
replace the bearing. 

Examine the fan blades for cracks. Replace the fan if 
the blades are badly bent, since straightening may 
weaken the blades, particularly in the hub area. 

Remove any rust or rough spots in the grooves of the 
fan pulley and crankshaft pulley. If the grooves are 
damaged or severly worn, replace the pulleys. 



Assemble Hub and Adjusting Bracket 
IN-LINE ENGINES (FORMER): 

Refer to Figs. 4 and 8 and assemble the fan hub and 
adjusting bracket as follows: 

1. Press the shaft and bearing assembly into the 
adjusting bracket by applying pressure on the outer 
race of the bearing, using a suitable sleeve, until the 
bearing is flush with the pulley end of the bracket. 

2. Measure the shaft diameter and the pulley bore. It 
is important that a .001 " - .002 " press fit be 
maintained, Then support the bearing end of the shaft 
and press the fan hub (pulley) on the shaft to the 
original dimensions taken during disassembly. This 
will assure proper alignment and clearance of the 
parts. 






DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Fan 5.4 




July, 1972 SEC. 5.4 Page 5 



The shaft and bearing assembly are permanently 
sealed and require no lubrication. 

IN-LINE ENGINES (CURRENT): 

Assemble the fan hub and spindle shown in Fig. 5 as 
follows: 

1. Apply Chevron BRB No. 2 grease or an equivalent 
performance grease to the rollers of both bearings 
before installing them in the fan hub (pulley). 

2. Install the inner bearing with the protruding face of 
the inner race facing outward from the hub. 

3. Install a new seal with the felt-side flush with the 
outer edge of the hub. 

4. Place the hub over the spindle and install the 
bearing spacer. 

5. Pack the cavity approximately 1/4 full with grease 
and install the grease baffle. 

6. Place the shims against the bearing spacer. Then 
install the outer bearing with the protruding face of 
the inner race facing outward from the hub. 

7. Place the retaining washer with the breakout side 
toward the bearing. Install and tighten the bolt to 83- 
93 Ib-ft torque while rotating the pulley. 

8. Check the end play in the assembly with the spindle 
(shaft) in a horizontal position. The end play must be 
within .001 " to .006 ". If necessary, remove the boh, 
washer and outer bearing and adjust the number and 
thickness of shims to obtain the required end play. 
Shims are available in .015", .020" and .025" 
thickness. Then reassemble the fan hub and check the 
end play. 

9. Fill a new fan hub cap 3/4 full of grease and install 
it in the end of the fan hub (pulley). 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Fan 5.4 




Install Fan, Hub and Adjusting Bracket 

New .500 " ihick and .800 " thick fan hub spacers and 
a new fan hub cap replaces the former spacer and cap 
assemblies to provide spacers compatible with the six 
bolt hole mounting fan hub assemblies. The spacers 
(individually or in combination) also provide a means 
for setting the different clearances between the back of 
the fan blades and front groove of the crankshaft 
pulley. 

The new spacers have a flange on one side that serves 
as a pilot for the fan as well as a spacer pilot for the 



second spacer when two or more spacers are used 
together. 

EXAMPLE: A former 1.800" thick spacer and 
cap assembly have been replaced by two .500 " 
thick spacers, one .800 " thick spacer and the 
new fan hub cap. 

When replacing the former fan hub spacer be sure 
and include the new cap. 

1. Attach the fan hub and adjusting bracket assembly 
to the bracket support on the engine with bolts, lock 
washers and plain washers. Do not tighten the bolts. 

2. Install the drive belts and adjust the belt tension as 
outlined in Section 15.1. If used, install the adjusting 
bracket, bolt and plain washer shown in Fig. 10. 

3. Install the fan (and fan spacer and cap, if used) on 
the hub and secure it with the 5/16 "-18 bolts and lock 
washers. 



July, 1972 SEC. 5.4 Page 7 



, 

WVJx 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



WATER FILTER AND CONDITIONER 



The engine cooling system water filter and conditioner 
(Fig. I) is a compact by-pass type unit with a 
replaceable element. 

A correctly installed and properly maintained water 
filter and conditioner provides a cleaner engine 
cooling system, greater heat dissipation, increased 
engine efficiency through improved heat conductivity, 
and contributes to longer life of engine parts. 

The filter provides mechanical filtration by means of a 
closely packed element through which the water 
passes. Any impurities such as sand and rust particles 
suspended in the cooling system will be removed by 
the straining action of the element. The removal of 
these impurities will contribute to longer water pump 
life and proper operation of the thermostat. 

The filter also serves to condition the coolant by 
softening the water to minimize scale deposits, 
maintain an acid-free condition and act as a rust 
preventive. 

Corrosion inhibitors are placed in the element and 
dissolve into the water, forming a protective rust-proof 
film on all of the metal surfaces of the cooling system 
(refer to Section 13.3). The other components of the 
element perform the function of cleaning and 
preparing the cooling passages while the corrosion 
inhibitors protect them. 



GASKET 



ELEMENT 




DRAIN PlUG 



Fig. 1 Water Filter and Conditioner 

Make-up water up to approximately 40% of the total 
capacity of the cooling system may safely be added 
before a filter element change is required. 



Filter Installation 

If a water filter and conditioner is to be installed on an 
engine which has been in service, drain and flush the 
cooling system prior to installation of the filter. 



Filter Maintenance 

Replace the chemically activated element periodically 
and buff the lower corrosion resistor plate on the 
former filter each time (discard the plate if excessive 
metal loss or pitting is evident) to ensure effective 
protection of the cooling system. 

If the water filter is installed on an engine which has 
previously been in service, it may be necessary to 
change the filter element two or three times at 
intervals of 6,000 miles or less to clean up 
accumulations of scale and rust in the cooling system. 
It is advisable to drain and flush the system during 
these initial change intervals. 

Change the filter element periodically as outlined in 
Section 15.1. 



If it is necessary for any reason to drain the cooling 
system before an element change, the treated water 
should be saved and re-used. If the treated water is 
discarded, a new filter element must be installed since 
the protective agents in the used (ilter will have been 
partially consumed in treating the discarded water. 



Service 

Whenever the water filter is removed and reinstalled, 
the filter must have metal-to-metal contact (grounded), 
either directly with the mounting surface or through 
the mounting bolts. 



July, 1970 SEC. 5.7 Page 1 



5.7 Water Pilfer and Conditioner 



UtIKUII UltbbL 53 



The current water filter includes a non-chromate type 
element. This element can be used in place of either of 
the former water filter elements (permanent type anti- 
freeze or plain water type) and thus provides year 
around cooling system protection. The current and the 
former water filter elements are completely inter- 
changeable in the former filter can (refer to 
Section 13.3). 

Replace the element and service the water filter and 
conditioner as follows: 

1. Close the water filter inlet and outlet shut-off valves. 
If shut-off valves are not provided, vise grip pliers can 
be used to clamp each hose closed during the filter 
change. 

2. Remove the filter cover-to-filter body bolts. 

3. Remove and discard the element. 

4. Remove and discard the corrosion resistor plates, if 
the former type filter is used. 



5. Remove the sludge and sediment and wash the 
sump and filter body. Dry it thoroughly with 
compressed air. 

6. Replace the drain plug, if removed, in the bottom of 
the filter. 

7. Insert the new element. 

8. Use a new filter cover gasket, install the filter cover, 
and tighten the bolts evenly. 

9. Open the inlet and outlet lines by opening the shut- 
off valves or removing the vise grip plier clamps. 

10. Operate the engine and check for leaks. The top of 
the filter and the outlet line should feel warm to the 
touch with the rise in coolant temperature. If not, 
disconnect the filter outlet line at the end opposite the 
filter connection to bleed the air from the system and 
reconnect the line. Use caution to minimize coolant 
loss. 





DETROIT DIESEL 53 



5.0 



SPECIFICATIONS - SERVICE TOOLS 



SPECIFICATIONS 



STANDARD BOLT AND NUT TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS 



THREAD 
SIZE 


TORQUE 
(Ib-ft) 


THREAD 
SIZE 


TORQUE 
(Ib-ft) 


1/4 -20 


7-9 


9/16-12 


90-100 


1/4 -28 


8-10 


9/16-18 


107-117 


5/16-18 


13-17 


5/8 -11 


137-147 


5/16-24 


15-19 


5/8 -18 


168-178 


3/8 -16 


30-35 


3/4 -10 


240-250 


3/8 -24 


35-39 


3/4 -16 


290-300 


7/16-14 


46-50 


7/8 - 9 


410-420 


7/16-20 


57-61 


7/8 -14 


475-485 


1/2 -13 


71-75 


1 8 


580-590 


1/2 -20 


83-93 


1 -14 


685-695 











EXCEPTIONS TO STANDARD BOLT AND NUT TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS 



APPLICATION 


THREAD 
SIZE 


TORQUE 
(Ib-ft) 


Water pump cover bolt 


5/16-18 


6-7 


Raw water pump drive gear retaining nut 


5/8 -18 


30-35 









SERVICE TOOLS 



TOOL NAME 



TOOL NO. 



Holder 


J 358-1 


Remover and installer 


. J 1930 


Installer 


. .. . J 22091 


Puller 


J 4794-01 


Handle 


J 7092-2 


Plates 


J 8329 







May, 1971 SEC. 5.0 Page 1 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 




SECTION 6 

EXHAUST SYSTEM 
CONTENTS 



Exhaust System 

Exhaust Manifold (Air-Cooled) 



6 
6.1 



EXHAUST SYSTEM 



Fan and radiator cooled engines are equipped with an 
air-cooled exhaust manifold. 



The exhaust manifold is attached to studs located 
between the exhaust ports and the outer side of the 
two end ports in the cylinder head. Special washers 
and nuts secure the manifold to the cylinder head. 




I 




March, 1973 SEC. 6 Page 1 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



6.1 



EXHAUST MANIFOLD (AIR COOLED) 



Tne exhaust manifolds 

has an outlet to accommodate a square exhaust outlet 
flange (Fig. 1) 

Current manifolds, 

flanges (square) and flange gaskets have SAE standard 
dimensions. 



Remove Exhaust Manifold 

1. Disconnect the exhaust pipe or muffler from the 
exhaust manifold flange. 



3. Loosen, but do not remove, one of the center 
exhaust manifold nuts. Remove the other nuts and 
washers. 

4. Support the manifold and remove the center nut 
and washer. 



5. Remove the manifold and gasket from the cylinder 
head. 



Inspection 

Remove any loose scale and carbon that may have 
accumulated on the internal walls of the exhaust 
manifold. Clean the manifold and check for cracks, 
especially in the holding lug areas. 

Clean all traces of gasket material from the cylinder 
head. 

Examine the exhaust manifold studs. Replace dam- 
aged studs. Apply sealant to the threads and drive new 
studs to 25-40 Ib-ft torque (1.40" to 1.50" height). 



Install Exhaust Manifold 

1. Place a new gasket over the studs and against the 
cylinder head. 

2. Position the exhaust manifold over the studs and 
hold it against the cylinder head. 

3. Install the washers and nuts on the studs. If beveled 
(dished) washers are used, position them so that the 
crown side faces the nut. 




Fig. 1 - Typical Air-Cooled Exhaust Manifold (Square Flange) Mounting 



October, 1970 SEC. 6.1 Page 1 



6.1 Exhaust Manifold (Air-Cooled) 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



liwV'x,' j 




Beginning with one of the center stud nuts and 
working alternately toward each end of the manifold, 
tighten the nuts to 30-35 Ib-ft torque. 



5. Connect the exhaust pipe or muffler to the exhaust 
manifold flange. 




Page 2 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 




SECTION 7 

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT, INSTRUMENTS AND PROTECTIVE 

SYSTEMS 
CONTENTS 



Electrical System. 



Battery-Charging Generator 

Battery-Charging Generator Regulator.. 



7.1 
7.1.1 



Starting Motor., 



7.3 



Shop Notes - Trouble Shooting - Specifications - Service Tools. 



7.0 



ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 



A typical engine electrical system generally consists of 
a starting motor, a battery-charging generator 
(alternator), a transistor combination voltage regula- 
tor, current regulator and cutout relay to protect the 
electrical system, a storage battery and the necessary 
wiring. 

Additional equipment such as an engine protective 
system may also be included. 

Detailed information on maintenance and repair of 
the specific types of electrical equipment can be found 
in the service manuals and bulletins issued by the 
equipment manufacturer. Information regarding 
equipment manufactured by the Delco-Remy Division 
of General Motors Corporation may be obtained from 



their electrical equipment operation and maintenance 
manuals. The manuals may be obtained from United 
Delco Division, or from the Technical Literature 
Section, Delco-Remy Division of General Motors 
Corporation, Anderson, Indiana. 

In most instances, repairs and overhaul work on 
electrical equipment should be referred to an 
authorized repair station of the manufacturer of the 
equipment. Replacement parts for electrical equipment 
should be ordered through the equipment manufactur- 
er's outlets, since these parts are not normally stocked 
by Detroit Diesel Allison. For electrical equipment 
manufactured by Delco-Remy Division, repair service 
and parts are available through United Delco Division 
branches and repair stations. 



March, 1973 SEC. 7 Page 1 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



7.1 



BATTERY-CHARGING GENERATOR (D.C. and A.C.) 



The battery-charging circuit consists of a generator 
(alternator), regulator, battery and the wiring. The 
battery-charging generator is introduced into the 
electrical system to provide a source of electrical 
current for maintaining the storage battery in a 
charged condition and to supply sufficient current to 
carry any other electrical load requirements up to the 
rated capacity of the generator. 



The proper selection of a generator which will meet 
the needs of the battery-charging circuit on the 
particular engine is mandatory. This, together with 
adherence to the recommended maintenance proce- 
dures, will reduce generator troubles to a minimum. 
Since most generators adhere to the same basic design, 
the maintenance, removal and installation procedures 
for all are similar. 



The alternating current self-rectifying generator 
(alternator), Figs. 2 and 3, is especially beneficial on 
an engine with extra electrical accessories and one that 
has to operate for extended periods at idle speeds. 
Diodes, built into the slip ring end frame, rectify the 
three phase A.C. voltage to provide D.C. voltage at the 
battery terminal of the generator, thereby eliminating 
the need for an external rectifier. The alternator is also 
available in a variety of sizes and types. 



Generator Maintenance 

1. Maintain the proper drive belt tension. Replace 
worn or frayed belts. Belts should be replaced as a set 
when there is more than one belt on the generator 
drive. 

2. Lubricate the generator bearings as outlined in the 
Lubrication and Preventive Maintenance Chart in 
Section 15.1. 

Remove Generator 

1. Disconnect all of the leads from the generator and 
tag each one to ensure correct re-installation. 

2. Loosen the generator mounting bolts and nuts and 
the adjusting strap bolt. Then, remove the generator 
drive belts. 



May, 1971 SEC. 7.1 Page 1 



7.1 Battery-Charging Generator 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



flClD TERMINALS 



CONNECTOR 
ASSEMBLY 



BATTERY 
TERMINAL 



BRUSH 

ASSEMBLY 

V 



FIELD WINDING -, GREASE 
RESERVOIR 




POSITIVE 
SILICON 
RECTIFIER 
DIODES 



SLIP 
RINGS 



GREASE 4 

RESERVOIR 



BALL 
BEARING 



REPLACEABLE 

STEEL MOUNTING 

BUSHING 



BALL 
BEARING 



STATOR WINDING 
ASSEMBLY 




DRIVE 

END 

FRAME 



NEGATIVE SILICON 
RECTIFIER DIODES 



SLIP RING 
END FRAME 



BEARING & 
GREASE RETAINER 



Fig. 2 30 DN Type 100 A.C. Self-Rectifying Generator (Alternator) 



END TRAME 
DIODES 




CAPACITOR 
HEAT SINK 



MOUNTING 
LUG 



BRUSH AND 
TERMINAL 
ASSEMRLY 



THRU 



SLIP RING DRIVE 

END FRAME END FRAME 

.A 




DIODES 



STATOR 
ASSEMBLY 



Pig. 3 10 DN Type 112 A.C. Self-Rectifying Generator (Alternator) 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Battery-Charging Generator 7. 1 



3. While supporting the generator, remove the 
adjusting strap holt and washers and the mounting 
bolts, washers and nuts. Then remove the generator. 

4. Remove the pulley assembly if the generator is to be 
replaced. 



Install Generator 

1. Install.the generator drive pulley, if it was removed. 
Tighten the pulley retaining nut to 60 Ib-ft torque. 

NOTE: If the pulley was not removed, check the 
retaining nut for proper torque. 



2. Position the generator on the mounting brackets 
and start the bolts, with lock washers, through the bolt 
holes in the generator end frames. If nuts are used, 
insert the bolts through the bolt holes and then install 
the lock washers and nuts. 

3. Align the threaded hole in the extension ear of the 
diive end frame with the slot in the adjusting strap. 
Start the bolt, with the lock washer and plain washer, 
through the slot of the adjusting strap and into the 
threaded hole in the generator end frame. 

4. Place the drive belts in the grooves of the pulleys. 

5. Adjust the generator belt tension as outlined in 
Section 15.1. 



6. Attach the wires and cables. Be sure that each one is 
correctly installed in accordance with its previous 
location on the generator. Keep all connections clean 
and tight. 



Alternator Precautions 

Precautions must be taken when working on or around 
alternators. The diodes and transistors in the 
alternator circuit are very sensitive and can be easily 
destroyed. 

Avoid grounding or shorting the output wires or the 
field wires between the generator and the regulator. 

Grounding an A.C. generator's output wire or 
terminals, which are always "hot" regardless of 
whether or not the engine is running, or accidental 
reversing of the battery polarity will destroy the 
diodes. Grounding the field circuit will also result in 
the destruction of the diodes. Some voltage regulators 
provide protection against some of these circum- 
stances. However, it is recommended that extreme 
caution be used. 



May, 1971 SEC. 7.1 Page 3 



7.1 Battery-Charging Generator 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 




BRUSHES 



SEALS 



PULLEY 



BEARING 



COLLAR 




GREASE 

RESERVOIR 



4827 



Fig. 4 20 DN Type 250 A.C. Self-Rectifying Generator (Alternator) 



Accidentally reversing the battery connections must be 
avoided. 

Never disconnect the battery while an alternator is in 
operation. Disconnecting the battery may result in 
damage to the generator diodes due to the momentary 
high voltage and current generated by the rapid 
collapse of the magnetic field surrounding the field 
windings. 



connected correctly (negative to negative and positive 
to positive). 

Never use a fast charger with the battery connected or 
as a booster for battery output. 

Never attempt to polarize the alternator. 

The alternator diodes are also sensitive to heat and 
care must be exercised to prevent damage to them 
from soldering irons, etc. 





If a booster battery is to be used, the batteries must be 



If faulty operation of an alternator occurs on an 
engine equipped with an insulated starting motor, 
check to be sure that a ground strap is present and is 
correctly installed. 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



7.1.1 



BATTERY-CHARGING GENERATOR REGULATOR 



A.C. CHARGING CIRCUIT 



The alternating current generator regulator is similar 
in outward appearance to the regulator used with the 
D.C. generator. , The D.C. and A.C. regulators are 
NOT interchangeable. 

The internal wiring circuits of all standard A.C. 
generator regulators are similar, but the internal 
connections vary somewhat according to the method 
used to control the circuit breaker relay. 

There are two and three unit standard A.C. generator 
regulators; the two unit regulators have a circuit 
breaker relay controlled by a relay rectifier or by an 
oil pressure switch and the three-unit regulators have a 
circuit breaker relay controlled by a built-in control 
relay. 

The generator field circuit is insulated in the generator 
and grounded in the regulator. This type of connection 
is designated as Circuit "A". 

NOTE: Each type of regulator is used with a 
certain circuit. Do not attempt to interchange 
regulators. 



The two unit A.C. generator regulator has a circuit 
breaker relay and a voltage regulator unit while the 
three unit regulator is also equipped with a control 
relay in addition to the other two units. 



CIRCUIT BREAKER RELAY 

The circuit breaker relay has a core with the winding 
made up of many turns of fine wire. This core and 
winding are assembled into a frame. A flat steel 
armature is attached to the frame by a hinge and is 
centered above the core. Two contact points, supported 
by two flat springs on the armature, are located above 
two stationary contact points. The upper and lower 
contact points are held apart by the tension of a flat 
spring riveted to the top side of the armature. 



The relay contact points remain closed as long as the 
D.C. voltage is enough to hold the relay armature 
against the core. They open when the voltage 
decreases to a value at which the magnetic pull of the 
core can no longer overcome the armature spring 
tension. 



VOLTAGE REGULATOR 

The voltage regulator unit has a core with a single 
shunt winding. This winding also consists of fine wire 
and is connected across the D.C. side of the power 
rectifier. The assembly and parts are similar to the 
circuit breaker relay. The matching upper contact 
point is supported by a detachable contact support 
insulated from the frame. 



Operation 

If the voltage regulator unit is not operating, the 
generator field circuit is completed to ground through 
the contact points which are held closed by the tension 
of a spiral spring acting on the armature. 



When the D.C. voltage of the A.C. - D.C. system 
reaches the value for which the voltage regulator is 
adjusted, the magnetic field prdduced by the shunt 
winding overcomes the armature spring tension and 
pulls the armature down, causing the contact points to 
separate. When the contact points separate, resistance 
is introduced into the field circuit. The resistance 
decreases the field current causing a corresponding 
decrease in generator voltage and magnetic pull on the 
regulator armature. This allows the armature spring 
tension to re-close the contact points. When the 
voltage again reaches the value for which the voltage 
regulator is adjusted, this cycle repeats and continues 
to repeat many times a second, thus limiting the 
voltage to the value for which the regulator is set. 



Operation 

When the D.C. voltage reaches the value for which the 
circuit breaker relay is adjusted, the magnetism 
induced in the core by current flow in the winding is 
sufficient to overcome the armature spring tension and 
the relay points close. Closing of the contact points 
connects the D.C. side of the power rectifier to the 
battery so that current will flow to the battery 
whenever the generator is driven at sufficient speed. 



With the voltage limited in this manner, the generator 
supplies varying amounts of current to meet the 
various states of battery charge and electrical load. 

Voltage regulators are compensated for variations in 
temperature by means of a bi-metal thermostatic 
hinge on the armature. The effect of this hinge causes 
the regulator to adjust at a higher voltage when cold, 
which partly compensates for the fact that a high 
voltage is required to charge a cold .buttery. 



May, 1971 SEC. 7.1.1 Page 3 



7.1.1 Battery-Charging Generator Regulator 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



CONTROL RELAY 



In addition to a circuit breaker and a voltage 
regulator, the three-unit regulator has a control relay 
unit. This unit has a core with a single shunt winding 
connected from the "SW" terminal of the regulator to 
ground. The winding and core are assembled into a 
frame. A flat steel armature supporting the upper one 
of two relay contacts is attached to the frame by a 
hinge and is centered above the core. The lower 
contact point is supported by a detachable contact 
support insulated from the frame. An armature stop is 
assembled above the upper contact. 



Operation 

When the ignition switch is "OFF", the contact points 
are held apart by the tension of a spiral spring acting 
on the armature. When the ignition switch is turned 
"ON", battery current flows through the control relay 
winding to ground. The magnetic field produced by 
the winding overcomes the armature spring tension 
and pulls the armature down causing the contact 
points to close. This completes the circuit to ground for 
the circuit breaker relay winding so that it can operate 
when the D.C. voltage from the power rectifier reaches 
the value for which the circuit breaker relay is 
adjusted. The control relay contact points remain 
closed until the ignition switch is turned "OFF". 



TRANSISTORIZED AND TRANSISTOR REGULATORS 



In addition to the standard regulator, there are two 
other types of regulators being used with the self- 
rectifying A.C. generators in the battery-charging 
circuit. One is a transistorized regulator which contains 



a vibrating voltage regulator unit and a field relay 
unit. The other is a transistor regulator which contains 
no moving parts and is used with a separately 
mounted field relay. 



TRANSISTORIZED REGULATOR 



The transistorized regulator (Fig. 3). for use on a 
negative ground circuit, contains a vibrating voltage 
regulator unit and a field relay unit. The regulator uses 
a single transistor and two diodes. The transistor works 
in conjunction with the conventional voltage unit 
having a vibrating contact point to limit the generator 
voltage to a pre-set value. A field discharge diode 
reduces arcing at the voltage regulator contacts by 
dissipating the energy created in 'the generator field 



windings when the contacts separate. A suppression 
diode prevents damage from transient voltages which 
may appear in the system. 

Certain transistorized regulators are equipped with a 
choke coil to permit the installation of a capacitor 
between the regulator and the "BAT" terminal on 
installations experiencing radio interference. The 
capacitor suppresses the radio noise and the choke coil 




"fl" TERMINAL 



-fl" TERMINAL 
"BAT" TERMINAL" 




RESISTOR 



Fig. 3 Transistorized- Regulator 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Battery-Charging Generator Regulator 7.1.1 



acts to prevent oxidation of the voltage regulator 
contacts. Regulators incorporating the choke coil are 
identified by a spot of green paint on the regulator 
base, next to the single mounting bolt hole. 

CAUTION: A capacitor must not be installed 
unless the transistorized regulator incorporates 
the choke coil. 



Operation 

When the engine starting switch is closed, the field 
relay winding is energized and causes the contacts to 
close. Current then flows from the battery through the 
relay contacts to the regulator "F2" terminal. From 
this point, the current flows through the generator field 
winding and then through the transistor and voltage 
contact points to ground. 

As the generator speed increases, the increased voltage 
from the generator "BAT" terminal is impressed 



through the field relay contacts across the regulator 
shunt winding. The magnetism created in the winding 
causes the voltage contacts to open, thus causing the 
transistor to shut off the field current. The generator 
voltage then decreases and the voltage contacts re- 
close. This cycle repeats many times per second, 
thereby limiting the generator voltage to the value for 
which the regulator is set. 

The magnetism produced in an accelerator winding, 
when the voltage contacts are closed, aids the shunt 
winding in opening the con tacts. When the contacts are 
open, the absence of the magnetism in the accelerator 
winding allows the spring to immediately re-close the 
contacts. This action speeds up the vibration of the 
contacts. 



CAUTION: Do not short across or ground any of 
the terminals on the regulator or the generator 
and do not attempt to polarize the generator. 



TRANSISTOR REGULATOR 



The transistor regulator is composed principally of 
transistors, diodes, capacitors and resistors to form a 
completely static electrical unit containing no moving 
parts. 

The transistor is an electrical device which limits the 
generator voltage to a pre-set value by controlling the 
generator field current. The diodes, capacitors and 
resistors act together to aid the transistor in 
performing this function, which is the only function 
that the regulator performs in the charging circuit. 



The voltage at which the generator operates is 
determined by the regulator adjustment. Once 
adjusted, the generator voltage remains almost 
constant, since the regulator is unaffected by length of 
service, changes in temperature or changes in 
generator output and speed. 

A separately mounted field relay connects the 
regulator "POS" terminal and the generator field 
windings to the battery when the engine starting 
switch is closed. 



POTENTIOMETER 




"f" TERMINAL 



SUPWffSSION BACK BIAS 
DIODE DIODE 



S" TERMINAL 



Fig. 4 Transistor Regulator (Negative Ground Circuits Only) 



May, 1971 SEC. 7.1.1 Page 5 



7.1.1 Battery-Charging Generator Regulator 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



PLUG 

(REMOVE TO ADJUSf 
VOLTAGE SETTING) 




"FID/ 



POS. 



POTENTIOMETER 



FIELD DISCHARGE 
DIODE 



DRIVER COLLECTOR 
RESISTOR 




VOLTAGE DIVIDER 
RESISTOR 



FEED-BACK 
CAPACITOR 



EMITTER BASE 
RESISTOR 

SUPPRESSION 

DIODE 
FILTER 
CAPACITOR ,.,. 



PANEL BOARD ASSEMBLY 




Fig. 5 Transistor Regulator with Plug-In Connections 



The voltage regulator illustrated in Fig. 4 is designed 
for negative ground battery-charging circuits only. It 
has two exposed terminals. The voltage setting may be 
adjusted by relocating a screw in the base of the 
regulator. 

The voltage regulator shown in Fig. 5 has shielded 
plug-in connections and requires a cable and plug 
assembly to connect the regulator into the battery- 
charging circuit. This type of regulator may be used in 
negative ground, positive ground and insulated 
charging circuits. The voltage setting may be adjusted 
by removing a plug in the cover and turning a slotted 
adjusting button inside the regulator. 



Operation 

When the engine starting switch is closed, the field 
relay winding is energized, which causes the relay 
contacts to close. 

In the negative ground circuit with the field relay 
contacts closed and the engine not running, generator 
field current can be traced from the battery through 
the relay contacts to the regulator "POS" terminal. 
Current then continues through the back-bias diode 
(D-l) and power transistor (TR-1) to the regulator 
"FLD" terminal, and then through the generator field 
winding to ground, completing the circuit back to the 
battery. 

When the generator begins to operate, A.C. voltages 
are induced in the stator windings. These voltages are 



changed, or rectified, to a D.C. voltage which appears 
at the output, or "BAT", terminal on the generator. 
The generator then supplies currept to charge the 
battery and operate vehicle accessories. 

As generator speed increases, the voltage reaches the 
pre-set value and the components in the regulator 
cause transistor TR-1 to alternately "turn off' and 
"turn on" the generator field voltage. The regulator 
thus operates to limit the generator output voltage to 
the pre-set value. 

In the positive ground circuit, when the switch is closed 
and the engine is not running, the field current can be 
traced from the battery positive ground to generator 
ground, and then to the regulator "POS" terminal. The 
current continues through diode D-l and transistor 
TR-1 to the regulator "FLD" terminal, and then 
through the field winding and field relay contacts back 
to the battery, thus completing the circuit. Except for 
this primary difference, this circuit operates in the 
same manner as that described for the negative 
ground circuit. 



REGULATOR PRECAUTIONS 

Never short or ground the regulator terminals; do not 
attempt to polarize the circuit. 

Make sure all connections in the charging circuit are 
tight to minimize resistance. 

Refer to "A.C. Generator Precautions" in Section 7.1. 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



7.3 



STARTING MOTOR 



The starting motor is mounted on the flywheel housing 
as illustrated in Fig. 1. When the starting circuit is 
closed, a small drive pinion on the armature shaft 
engages with the teeth on the engine flywheel ring 
gear to crank the engine. When the engine starts, it is 
necessary to disengage the drive pinion to prevent the 
armature from overspeeding and damaging the 
starting motor. To accomplish this, the starting motor 
is equipped with a Sprag-type overruning clutch. 

A solenoid switch, mounted on the starting motor 
housing, operates the Sprag-type overrunning clutch 
drive by linkage and a shift lever (Figs. 2 and 3). 
When the starting switch is engaged, the solenoid is 
energized and shifts the starting motor pinion into 
mesh with the flywheel ring gear and closes the main 
contacts within the solenoid. Once engaged, the clutch 
will not disengage during intermittent engine firing. 
To protect the armature from excessive speed when 
the engine starts, the clutch "overruns", or turns faster 
than the armature, which permits the pinion to 
disengage itself from the flywheel ring gear. 

The solenoid plunger and shift lever is totally enclosed 
to protect them from dirt, water and other foreign 
material. 

In the heavy-duty clutch type (Fig. 3), an oil seal, 
between the shaft and the lever housing, and a linkage 
seal prevents the entry of transmission oil into the 
main frame of the starting motor and solenoid case, 
allowing the motor to be used on wet clutch 
applications. 

The nose housing on the Sprag clutch type starting 
motor can be rotated to obtain a number of different 
solenoid positions with respect to the mounting flange. 




When repositioning of the solenoid is required on a 
service replacement starting motor, proceed as follows: 

Starter with Intermediate-Duty Clutch 
(In-Line Engines) 

The lever housing and the commutator end frame are 
held to the field frame by bolts extending from the 
end frame to threaded holes in the lever housing. The 
nose housing is held to the lever housing by internal 
attaching bolts extending from the lever housing to 
threaded holes in the nose housing (Fig. 2). With this 
arrangement, it is necessary to partially disassemble 
the motor to provide access to the nose housing 
attaching bolts. Relocate the nose housing as follows: 

1. Remove the electrical connector and the screws 
attaching the solenoid assembly to the field frame. 
Then remove the bolts from the commutator end 
frame. 

2. Separate the field frame from the remaining 
assembly and pull the armature away from the lever 
housing until the pinion stop rests against the clutch 
pinion. This will provide access to the nose housing 
attaching bolts. 

3. Remove the nose housing attaching bolts with a box 
wrench or open end wrench. 

4. Turn the nose housing to the required position. 

NOTE: The solenoid must never be located 
below the centerline of the starter or dust, oil, 
moisture and foreign material can collect and 
cause solenoid failures. 

5. Reinstall the nose housing attaching bolts and 
tighten them to 11-15 Ib-ft torque. 

6. Reassemble the motor. 



Fig. 1 Starting Motor Mounting 



November, 1973 SEC. 7.3 Page 1 



7.3 Starting Motor 



UfclKUII UltbbL 



SOLENOID 



LINKAGE SEAL 




'/ 

GROUNDED 
BRUSH HOLDER BRUSH HOLDER 



COMMUTATOR 
END FRAME 

\ 



BRONZE 
BUSHING 



THRU 
BOU 



BRUSH 



LINKAGE 
^ SHIFT LEVER 
LEVER HOUSING 



INSULATED COMMUTATOR 




BRONZE 
BUSHING 

BRONZE \ 3887 
BUSHING \ 
ATTACHING ' INTERMEDIATE 



POLE SHOE 



FIELD COIL BOLT 



DUTY CLUTCH 



Fig. 2 Cross-Section of Motor with Intermediate-Duty Clutch 



Page 2 



UtIKUII Ult5tL 



Starting Motor 7.3 



Lubrication 

The starting. motor bearings (bushings) are lubricated 
by oil saturated wicks which project through each 
bronze bushing (one at each end and one at the 
center) and contact the armature shaft. Oil can be 
added to each wick by removing a pipe plug which is 
accessible on the outside of the motor (refer to 
Section 15.1). 



Flywheel Ring Gears 

The starting motor drive pinion and the engine 
flywheel ring gear must be matched to provide positive 
engagement and to avoid clashing of the gear teeth. 
Flywheel ring gear teeth have eithei 1 no chamfer or a 
Bendix chamfer. The Sprag clutch cannot be used with 
a ring gear with a Dyer chamfer. 



1. Remove the ground strap or cable from the battery 
or the cable from the starting motor solenoid. Tape 
the end of the cable to prevent discharging the battery 
from a direct short. 

2. Disconnect the starting motor cables and solenoid 
wiring. 

NOTE: Tag each lead to ensure correct 
connections when the starting motor is 
reinstalled. 

3. Support the motor and remove the three bolts and 
lock washers which secure it to the flywheel housing. 
Then pull the motor forward to remove it from the 
flywheel housing. 

Check the starting motor, if required, in accordance 
with the Delco-Remy "Cranking Circuit" maintenance 
handbook. 



Remove Starting Motor 

Failure of the starting motor to crank the engine at 
normal cranking speed may be due to a defective 
battery, worn battery cables, poor connections in the 
cranking circuit, defective engine starting switch, low 
temperature, condition of the engine or a defective 
starting motor. 

If the engine, battery and cranking circuit are in good 
condition, remove the starting motor as follows: 



Install Starting Motor 

To install the starting motor, reverse the procedure 
outlined for removal. Tighten the 5/8"-ll starter 
attaching bolts to 137-147 Ib-ft torque. 

Keep all of the electrical connections clean and tight. 
When installing wiring terminal leads to the starting 
motor and the solenoid switch, tighten the No. 10-32 
connections to 16-30 Ib-in torque and the 1/2" x 13 
connections to 20-25 Ib-ft torque. 



November, 1973 SEC. 7.3 Page 3 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



7.0 




TROUBLE SHOOTING 
SPECIFICATIONS - SERVICE TOOLS 





May, 1971 SEC. 7.0 Page 1 



7.0 Trouble Shooting 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



TROUBLE SHOOTING 





"S*-* 



CHECKING ENGINE ELECTRICAL GENERATING SYSTEM 



In analyzing generator-regulator operation, check for 
one of the five following conditions. 

1. A fully charged battery and low charging rate - this 
indicates normal generator-regulator operation. 

2. Low battery and high charging rate-indicates normal 
generator-regulator operation. 

3. A fully charged battery and a hjgh charging rate-lhis 
indicates the voltage regulator; is not reducing the 
generator output as it should and will damage the 
battery--and may be caused by improper voltage 
regulator setting, defective regulator unit, short circuit 
or poor connections in the generator or regulator 
wiring or high battery temperature. 



4. Low battery and low or no charging rate indicates 
improper or no regulator operation and may be due 
to loose connectons, damaged wires, low voltage or 
current regulator setting, oxidized contact points or a 
defective generator. 

5. Excessive arcing at contact pointsmay be due to 
oxidized or misaligned contact points, defective 
regulator winding, poor cable connections or other 
causes. 

If one of the latter three conditions exists, refer to the 
"Delco-Remy" electrical equipment operation and 
maintenance handbooks DR 324, DR 324A and DR 
324S for correction of the problems. These manuals 
may be obtained from United Motors Service. 



SPECIFICATIONS 



STANDARD BOLT AND NUT TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS 



THREAD 
SIZE 


TORQUE 

(Ib-ft) 


THREAD 
SIZE 


TORQUE 
(Ib-ft) 


1/4 -20 
1/4 -28 


7-9 
8-10 


9/16-12 
9/16-18 


90-100 
107-117 


5/16-18 


. 13-17 


5/8 -11 . 


137-147 


5/16-24 


15-19 


5/8 -18 


168-178 


3/8 -16 


30-35 


3/4 -10 


240-250 


3/8 -24 


35-39 


3/4 -16 


290-300 


7/16-14 


. . . . 4-6-50 


7/8 - 9 


410-420 


7/16-20 


57-61 


7/8 -14 


475-485 


1/2 -13 


71-75 


1 - 8 . . 


580-590 


1/2 -20 


83-93 


1 -14 ... 


685-695 











If 



EXCEPTIONS TO STANDARD BOLT AND NUT TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS 



APPLICATION 



THREAD 
SIZE 



TORQUE 
(Ib-ft) 



Tachometer drive cover bolt 

Tachometer drive cover bolt 

Tachometer drive shaft (blower) 



7/16 -14 
1/2 -13 
1/2 -20 



30-35 
30-35 
55-65 






Page 2 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Service Tools 7.0 




SERVICE TOOLS 



TOOL NAME 



TOOL NO. 



Puller set 

Slide hammer 

Tachometer drive shaft remover ... 
Tachometer drive alignment tool set 

Tool No. 1 (.310" ) 

Tool No. 2 (.313" ) 

Tool No. 3 (.375" ) 



5901 

5901-1 

5901-3 

23068 

23068-1 

23068-2 

23068-3 





May, 1971 SEC. 7.0 Page 3 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 1_3_ 

SECTION 13 

OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS 
CONTENTS 

Engine Operating Instructions 13.1 



Engine Operating Conditions 13.2 

Engine Run-In Instructions ~ 13.2.1 

Fuels, Lubricants and Coolants 13.3 



I 



March, 1973 SEC. 13 Page 1 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



13.1 



ENGINE OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS 



PREPARATION FOR STARTING ENGINE 
FIRST TIME 

Before starting an engine for the first time, carefully 
read and follow the instructions in Sections 13 and 14 
of this manual. Attempting to run the engine before 
studying these instructions may result in serious 
damage to the engine. 

NOTE: When preparing to start a new or 
overhauled engine or an engine which has been 
in storage, perform all of the operations listed 
below. Before a routine start (at each shift), see 
Daily Operations in the Lubrication and 
Preventive Maintenance Chart, Section 15.1. 



Cooling System 

Install all of the drain cocks or plugs in the cooling 
system (drain cocks are removed for shipping). 



Remove the filler cap and fill the cooling system with 
clean, soft water or a protective solution consisting of 
high boiling point type antifreeze, if the engine will be 
exposed to freezing temperatures (refer to Engine 
Coolant in Section 13.3). Keep the liquid level about 
two inches below the filler neck to allow for fluid 
expansion. 

Use a quality rust inhibitor if only water is used in the 
cooling system. 



Lubrication System 

The lubricating oil film on the rotating parts and 
bearings of a new or overhauled engine, or one which 
has been in storage, may be insufficient for proper 
lubrication when the engine is started for the first 
time. 

It is recommended that the engine lubricating system 
be charged with a pressure prelubricator, set to supply 
a minimum of 25 psi oil pressure, to ensure an 
immediate flow of oil to all bearings at the initial 
engine start-up. The oil supply line should be attached 
to the engine so that oil under pressure is supplied to 
the main oil gallery. 

With the oil pan dry, use the prelubricator to prime 
the engine with sufficient oil to reach all bearing 
surfaces. Use heavy-duty lubricating oil as specified 
under Lubricating Oil Specifications in Section 13.3. 
Then remove the dipstick, wipe it with a clean cloth, 
insert and remove it again to check the oil level in the 
oil pan. Add sufficient oil, if necessary, to bring it to 
the full mark on the dipstick. Do not overfill. 

If a pressure prelubricator is not available, fill the 
crankcase to the proper level with heavy-duty 
lubricating oil as specified under Lubricating Oil 
Specifications in Section 13.3. Then pre-lubricate the 
upper engine parts by removing the valve rocker 
cover(s) and pouring lubricating oil, of the same grade 
and viscosity as used in the crankcase, over the rocker 
arms. 



Air Cleaner 

If the engine is equipped with oil bath air cleaners, fill 
the air cleaner oil cups to the proper level with clean 
engine oil. Do not overfill. 



Transmission 

Fill the transmission case torque 

converter supply tank to the proper level with the 

lubricant specified under Lubrication and Preventive 
Maintenance in Section 15.1. 



March, 1973 SEC. 13.1 Page 1 



13.1 Operating Instructions 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Fuel System 

Fill the fuel tank with the fuel specified under Diesel 
Fuel Oil Specifications in Section 13.3. 

If the unit is equipped with a fuel valve, it must be 
opened. 

To ensure prompt starting, fill the fuel system between 
the pump and the fuel return manifold with fuel. If 
the engine has been out of service for a considerable 
length of time, prime the filter between the fuel pump 
and the injectors. The filter may be primed by 
removing the plug in the top of the filter cover and 
slowly filling the filter with fuel. 



Generator Set 

Where applicable, fill the generator end bearing 
housing with the same lubricating oil as used in the 
engine. 

A generator set should be connected and grounded in 
accordance with the applicable local electrical codes. 

CAUTION: The base of a generator set must be 
grounded. 



Clutch 

Disengage the clutch, if the unit is so equipped. 



Lubrication Fittings 

Fill all grease cups and lubricate at all fittings with an 
all purpose grease. Apply lubricating oil to the throttle 
linkage and other moving parts and fill the hinged cap 
oilers with a hand oiler. 



Drive Belts 

Adjust all drive belts as recommended under 
Lubrication and Preventive Maintenance in 
Section 15.1. 



Storage Battery 

Check the battery. The top should be clean and dry, 
the terminals tight and protected with a coat of 
petroleum jelly and the electrolyte must be at the 
proper level. 

NOTE: When necessary, check the battery with 
a hydrometer; the reading should be 1.265 or 
higher. However, hydrometer readings should 
always be corrected for the temperature of the 
electrolyte. 

Page 2 



STARTING 

Before starting the engine for the first time, perform 
the operations listed under Preparation For Starting 
Engine First Time. 

Before a routine start, see Daily Operations in the 
Lubrication and Preventive Maintenance Chart, 
Section 15.1. 

A manual shut-down system is 

incorporated in the unit, the control must be set in the 
open position before starting the engine. The blower 
will be seriously damaged if operated with the air 
shut-off valve in the closed position. 

Starting at air temperatures below 40 F. requires the 
use of a cold weather starting aid. See Cold Weather 
Starting, Section 12.6. 

The instructions for the use of a cold weather fluid 
starting aid will vary dependent on the type being 
used. Reference should be made to these instructions 
before attempting a cold weather start. 

CAUTION: Starting fluid used in capsules is 
highly inflammable, toxic and possesses anes- 
thetic properties. 



Initial Engine Start (Electric) 

Start an engine equipped with an electric starting 
motor as follows: Set the speed control lever at part 
throttle, then bring it back to the desired no-load 
speed. In addition, on mechanical governors, make 
sure the stop lever on the governor cover is in the run 
position . 

Then press the starting 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Operating Instructions 13.1 




motor switch firmly. If the engine fails to start within 
30 seconds, release the starting switch and allow the 
starting motor to cool a few minutes before trying 
again. If the engine fails to start after four attempts, 
an inspection should be made to determine the cause. 

CAUTION: To prevent serious damage to the 
starter, if the engine does not start, do not press 
the starting switch again while the starting 
motor is running. 



Warm-Up 

Run the engine at part throttle and no-load for 
approximately five minutes, allowing it to warm-up 
before applying a load. 

If the unit is operating in a closed room, start the 
room ventilating fan or open the windows, as weather 
conditions permit, so ample air is available for the 
engine. 



Inspection 

While the engine is running at operating temperature, 
check for coolant, fuel or lubricating oil leaks. Tighten 
the line connections where necessary to stop leaks. 



Engine Temperature 

Normal engine coolant temperature is 160 F. to 185 
F. 



t 



Crankcase 

If the engine crankcase was refilled, stop the engine 
after normal operating temperature has been reached, 
allow the oil to drain (approximately 10 minutes) back 
into the crankcase and check the oil level. Add oil, if 
necessary, to bring it to the proper level on the 
dipstick. 

Use only the heavy duty lubricating oil specified under 
Lubricating Oil Specifications in Section 13.3. 



Cooling System 

Remove the radiator or heat exchanger tank cap slowly 
after the engine has reached normal operating 
temperature and check the engine coolant level. The 
coolant level should be near the top of the opening. If 
necessary, add clean soft water or a high boiling point 
type antifreeze. 



RUNNING 



Oil Pressure 



Observe the oil pressure gage immediately after 
starting the engine. If there is no pressure indicated 
within 10 to 15 seconds, stop the engine and check the 
lubricating oil system. Refer to the Trouble Shooting 
Charts in Section 15.2. 



Transmission 

Check and, if necessary, replenish the oil supply in the 
transmission. 



March, 1973 SEC. 13.1 Page 3 



13.1 Operating Instructions 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Avoid Unnecessary Engine Idling 

During long engine idling periods, the engine coolant 
temperature will fall below the normal operating 
range. The incomplete combustion of fuel in a cold 
engine will cause crankcase dilution, formation of 
lacquer or gummy deposits on the valves, pistons and 
rings and rapid accumulation of sludge in the engine. 



NOTE: When prolonged engine idling 
necessary, maintain at least 800 rpm. 



is 



STOPPING 



Normal Stopping 



1. Release the load and decrease the engine speed. Put 
all shift levers in the neutral position. 

2. Allow the engine to run at half speed or slower with 
no load for a short time, then move the stop lever to 
the stop position to shut down the engine. 



Fuel System 

If the unit is equipped with a fuel valve, close it. Fill 
the fuel tank; a full tank minimizes condensation. 



Exhaust System 

Drain the condensation from the exhaust line or 
silencer. 



Cooling System 

Drain the cooling system if it is not protected with 
antifreeze and freezing temperatures are expected. 
Leave the drains open. Open the raw water drains of a 
heat exchanger cooling system. 



Crankcase 

Check the oil level in the crankcase. Add oil, if 
necessary, to bring it to the proper level on the 
dipstick. 



Emergency Stopping 

If the engine does not stop after using the normal 
stopping procedure, pull the "Emergency Stop" knob 
all the way out. This control cuts off the air to the 
engine. Do not try to restart again until the cause for 
the malfunction has been found and corrected. 

CAUTION: The emergency shut-down system 
should never be used except in an emergency. 
Use of the emergency shut-down can cause oil 
to be sucked past the oil seals and into the 
blower housing. 

The air shut-off valve, located on the blower air inlet 
housing, must be reset by hand and the "Emergency 
Stop" knob pushed in before the engine is ready to 
start again. 



Transmission 

Check and, if necessary, replenish the oil supply in the 
transmission. 



Clean Engine 

Clean and check the engine thoroughly to make 
certain it will be ready for the next run. 

Refer to Lubrication and Preventive Maintenance and 
perform all of the daily maintenance operations. Also 
perform the operations required for the number of 
hours or miles the engine has been in operation. 

Make the necessary adjustments and minor repairs to 
correct difficulties which became apparent to the 
operator during the last run. 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 




ENGINE OPERATING CONDITIONS 



The engine operating charts are included as an aid for 
engine operation and trouble shooting. Any variations 
from the conditions as listed may indicate an 



abnormal situation in need of correction. M-ake sure 
that the readings represent true values, and that 
instruments are accurate, before attempting to make 
corrections to the engine. 





July, 1972 SEC. 13.2 Page 1 



1 3.2 Engine Operating Conditions 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



iB|L r - 

wf ' ""^ 



-53 IN-LINE 



ENGINE 



(4-Valve Cylinder Head) 



2200 rpm 2500 rpm 2800 rpm 




Lubrication System 

Lubricating oil pressure (psi): 

Normal 40-60 40-60 40-60 

Minimum for safe operation 30.0 32.0 32.0 

'Lubricating oil temperature (degr. F.) - max 200-235 200-235 200-235 

Air System 

Air box pressure (inches mercury) min. at full load: 

At zero exhaust back pressure 3.7 4.8 6.1 

At maximum exhaust back pressure 5.4 8.0 9.3 

Air inlet restriction (inches water) - full load max.: 

Dirty air cleaner - oil bath or dry type 18.8 23.0 25.0 

Clean air cleaner oil bath or dry type 
with precleaner 12.0 14.0 16.0 

Clean air cleaner - dry type without precleaner 7.4 8.7 10.0 

Crankcase pressure (inches water) - max 0.8 0.9 1.0 

Exhaust back pressure (inches mercury) max.: 

Full load 3.0 4.0f 4.0 + 

No load 2.1 2.7f 2.7+ + 

Fuel System 

Fuel pressure at inlet manifold (psi): 

Normal with .070 " restriction 45-70 45-70 45-70 

Minimum 35 35 35 

Fuel spill (gpm) - minimum at no-load: 

.070" restriction 0.6 0.6 0.6 

Fuel pump suction at pump inlet 
(inches mercury) - max.: 

Clean system 6.0 6.0 6.0 

Dirty system 12.0 12.0 12.0 

Page 2 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Engine Operating Conditions 13.2 









2200 rpm 2500 rpm 2800 rpm 


Cooling System 

Coolant temperature (degr. F.) - normal 


160-185 160-185 160-185 


Raw water pump: 
Inlet restriction (inches mercury) - max. . .. 


5.0f 5.0f 5.0 


Outlet pressure (psi) - max 


lO.Of lO.Of 100 


Keel cooler pressure drop (psi) 
Maximum through system 


6.0f 6.0f 6.0 


Compression 

Compression pressure (psi at sea level): 
Average new engine - at 600 rpm 


480 


Minimum at 600 rpm 


430 







"The lubricating oil temperature range is based on the temperature measurement in the oil pan at the oil pump inlet. 
When measuring the oil temperature at the cylinder block oil gallery, it will be 10 lower than the oil pan temperature. 

tMaximum when this is the full-load engine speed. 



July, 1972 SEC. 13.2 Page 3 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



13.2.1 



ENGINE RUN-IN INSTRUCTIONS 



Following a complete overhaul or any major repair job 
involving the installation of piston rings, pistons, 
cylinder liners or bearings, the engine should be "run- 
in" on a dynamometer prior to release for service. 

The dynamometer is a device for applying specific 
loads to an engine. It permits the serviceman to 
'physically and visually inspect and check the engine 
while it is operating. It is an excellent method of 
detecting improper tune-up, misfiring injectors, low 
compression and other malfunctions, and may save an 
engine from damage at a later date. 

The operating temperature within the engine affects 
the operating clearances between the various moving 
parts of the engine and determines to a degree how 
the parts will wear. Normal coolant temperature (160 
- 185F.) should be maintained throughout the run-in. 

The rate of water circulation through the engine on a 
dynamometer should be sufficient to avoid having the 
engine outlet water temperature more than 10F. 
higher than the water inlet temperature. Though a 10 
rise across an engine is recommended, it has been 
found that a 15 temperature rise maximum can be 
permitted. 

Thermostats are used in the engine to control the 
coolant flow; therefore, be sure they are in place and 
fully operative or the engine will overheat during the 
run-in. However, if the dynamometer has a water 
stand-pipe with a temperature control regulator, such 
as a Taylor valve or equivalent, the engine should be 
tested without thermostats. 

The Basic Run-in Horsepower Schedule is shown in the 
Table. The horsepower shown in the table is at SAE 
conditions: dry air density .0705 Ib/cu. ft., air 
temperature of 85F., and 500 ft. elevation. 



DYNAMOMETER TEST AND RUN-IN 
PROCEDURES 

The Basic Engine 

The great number of engine applications make any 
attempt to establish comparisons for each individual 
model impractical. For this reason, each model has a 
basic engine rating for comparison purposes. 

A basic engine includes only those items actually 
required to run the engine. The addition of any engine 
driven accessories will result in a brake horsepower 
figure less than the values shown in the Basic Engine 
Run-in Schedule. The following items are included on 
the basic engine: blower, fuel pump, fresh water pump 
and governor. The fan and battery-charging generator 
typify accessories not considered on the basic engine. 

In situations where other than basic engine equipment 
is used during the test, proper record of this fact 
should be made on the Engine Test Report. The effects 
of this additional equipment on engine performance 
should then be considered when evaluating test results. 



Dynamometer 

The function of the dynamometer is to absorb and 
measure the engine output. Its basic components are a 
frame, engine mounts, the absorption unit, a heat 
exchanger, and a torque loading and measuring 
device. 

The engine is connected through a universal coupling 
to the absorption unit. The load on the engine may be 
varied from zero to maximum by decreasing or 
increasing the resistance in the unit. The amount of 



BASIC RUN-IN HORSEPOWER SCHEDULE* 








4 -Valve Head 


RPM 


ime 








3-53 j 








1800 


10 Min. 








15 










2200 


1/2 Hr. 








64 











Final run-in (within 5% of Rated BHP) should be for 1 1/2 hours at 

head engines. 

N45 Injectors Only 



2800 rpm for all other 4-Valve) cylinder 



October, 1970 SEC. 13.2.1 Page 1 



13.2.1 Run-In Instructions 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



power absorbed in a water brake type dynamometer, 
as an example, is governed by the volume of fluid 
within the working system. The fluid offers resistance 
to a rotating motion. By controlling the volume of 
water in the absorption unit, the load may be 
increased or decreased as required. 

The power absorbed is generally measured in torque 
(Ib-ft) on a suitable scale. This value for a given 
engine speed will show the brake horsepower 
developed in the engine by the following formula: 

BHP - (T x RPM)/5250 



Where: 



BHP = brake horsepower 
T = torque in Ib-ft 
RPM = revolutions per minute 

Some dynamometers indicate direct brake horsepower 
readings. Therefore, the use of the formula is not 
required when using these units. 

During the actual operation, all data taken should be 
recorded immediately on an Engine Test Report (see 
sample on page 4). 



Instrumentation 

Certain instrumentation is necessary so that data 
required to complete the Engine Test Report may be 
obtained. The following list contains both the 
minimum amount of instructions and the proper 
location of the fittings on the engine so that the 
readings represent a true evaluation of engine 
conditions. 

a. Oil pressure gage installed in one of the engine 
main oil galleries. 

b. Oil temperature gage installed in the oil pan, or 
thermometer installed in the dipstick hole in the 
oil pan. 

c. Adaptor for connecting a pressure gage or mercury 

manometer to the engine air box. 

d. Water temperature gage installed in the thermo- 
stat housing. 

e. Adaptor for connecting a pressure gage or water 

manometer to the crankcase. 

f. Adaptor for connecting a pressure gage or mercury 

manometer to the exhaust manifold at the flange. 



g. Adaptor for connecting a vacuum gage or water 
manometer to the blower inlet. 

h. Adaptor for connecting a fuel pressure gage to the 
fuel manifold inlet passage. 

i. Adaptor for connecting a pressure gage or mercury 
manometer to the turbocharger. 



In some cases, gages reading in pounds per square 
inch are used for determining pressures while standard 
characteristics are given in inches of mercury or inches 
of water. It is extremely important that the scale of 
such a gage be of low range and finely divided if 
accuracy is desired. This is especially true of a gage 
reading in psi, the reading of which is to be converted 
to inches of water. The following conversion factors 
may be helpful. 



Inches of water 
Inches of mercury 



psi x 27.7" 
psi x 2.04" 



NOTE: Before starting the Run-in or starting 
the engine for any reason following an 
overhaul, it is of extreme importance to observe 
the instructions on Preparation for Starting 
Engine First Time in Section 13.1. 



Run-in Procedure 

The procedure outlined below will follow the order of 
the sample Engine Test Report. 



A. PRE-STARTING 

1. Fill the lubrication system as outlined under 
Lubricating System -- Preparation for Starting Engine 
First Time in Section 13.1. 

2. Prime the fuel system as outlined under Fuel System 
-- Preparation for Starting Engine First Time in Section 
13.1. 

3. A preliminary valve clearance adjustment must be 
made before the engine is started. See Valve Clearance 
Adjustment in Section 14.1. 

4. A preliminary injector timing check must be made 
before starting the engine. See Timing Injector in 
Section 14.2. 

5. Preliminary governor adjustments must be made as 
outlined in Section 14. 

6. Preliminary injector rack adjustment must be made 
- see Section 14. 



f 



Page 2 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Run-in Instructions 13.2.1 



B. BASIC ENGINE RUN-IN 

The operator should be observant at all times, so that 
any malfunction which may develop will be detected. 
Since the engine has just been reconditioned, this run- 
in will be a test of the workmanship of the serviceman 
who performed the overhaul. Minor difficulties should 
be detected and corrected so that a major problem will 
not develop. 

After performing the preliminary steps, be sure all 
water valves, fuel valves, etc are open. Also inspect the 
exhaust system, being sure that it is properly 
connected to the engine. Always start the engine with 
minimum dynamometer resistance. 

After the engine starts, if using a water brake type 
dynamometer, allow sufficient water, by means of the 
control loading valves, into the dynamometer absorp- 
tion unit to show a reading of approximately 5 Ib-ft on 
the torque gage (or 10-15 HP on a horsepower gage). 
This is necessary, on some units, to lubricate the 
absorption unit seals and to protect them from 
damage. 

Set the engine throttle at idle speed, check the 
lubricating oil pressure and check all connections to be 
sure there are no leaks. 

Refer to the Engine Test Report sample which 
establishes the sequence of events for the test and run- 
in, and to the Basic Run-In Horsepower Schedule which 
indicates the speed (rpm), length of time and the 
brake horsepower required for each phase of the test. 
Also, refer to the Operating Conditions in Section 13.2 
which presents the engine operating characteristics. 
These characteristics will be a guide for tracing faulty 
operation or lack of power. 

Engine governors in most cases must be reset at the 
maximum full-load speed designated for the run-in. If 
a governor is encountered which cannot be adjusted to 
this speed, a stock governor should be installed for the 
run-in. 

After checking the engine performance at idle speed 
and being certain the engine and dynamometer are 
operating properly, increase the engine speed to half 
speed and apply the load indicated on the Basic Run- 
in Horsepower Schedule. 

The engine should be run at this speed and load for 10 
minutes to allow sufficient time for the coolant 
temperature to reach the normal operating range. 
Record length of time, speed, brake horsepower, 
coolant temperature and lubricating oil pressure on 
the Engine Test Report. 

Run the engine at each speed and rating for the length 
of time indicated in the Basic Run-In Horsepower 



Schedule. This is the Basic Run-In. During this time 
engine performance will improve as new parts begin 
to "seat in". Record all of the required data. 



C. BASIC RUN-IN INSPECTION 

While' the engine is undergoing the Basic Run-In, 
check each item indicated in Section "C" of the Engine 
Test Report. Check for fuel oil or water leaks in the 
rocker arm compartment. 

During the final portion of the Basic Run-in, the 
engine should be inspected for fuel oil, lubricating oil 
and water leaks. 

Upon completion of the Basic Run-in and Inspection, 
remove the load from the dynamometer and reduce 
the engine speed gradually to idle and then stop the 
engine. 



D. INSPECTION AFTER BASIC RUN-IN 

The primary purpose of this inspection is to provide a 
fine engine tune-up. First, tighten the cylinder head 
and rocker arm shaft bolts to the proper torque. Next, 
complete the applicable tune-up procedure. Refer to 
Section 14. 



E. FINAL RUN-IN 

After all of the tests have been made and the Engine 
Test Report is completed through Section "D", the 
engine is ready for final test. This portion of the test 
and run-in procedure will assure the engine owner that 
his engine has been rebuilt to deliver factory rated 
performance at the same maximum speed and load 
which will be experienced in the installation. 

If the engine has been shut-down for one hour or 
longer, it will be necessary to have a warm-up period 
of 10 minutes at the same speed and load used for 
warm-up in the Basic Run-In. If piston rings, cylinder 
liners or bearings have been replaced as a result of 
findings in the Basic Run-in, the entire Basic Run-in 
must be repeated as though the run-in and test 
procedure were started anew. 

All readings observed during the Final Run-in should 
fall within the range specified in the Operating 
Conditions in Section 13.2, and should be taken at full 
load unless otherwise specified. Following is a brief 
discussion of each condition to be observed. 

The engine water temperature should be taken during 
the last portion of the Basic Run-in at full load. It 
should be recorded and should be within the specified 
range. 



October, 1970 SEC. 13.2.1 Page 3 



13.2.1 Run-in Instructions 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Date. 



ENGINE TEST REPORT 

^________ Unit Number 




A PRE-STARTING 


1. PRIME LUB. 2. PRIME FUEL 3. ADJUST 
OIL SYSTEM SYSTEM EXHAUST VALVES 


4. TIME 5. ADJ. 6. ADJUST INJ. 
INJECTORS GOV. RACKS 






B BASIC ENGINE RUN-IN 


C BASIC RUN-IN INSPECTION 


TIME TIME WATFR LUB. 

AT r- RPM ni'fP VYI en, f*.tt 




1. Check oil at rocker mechanism 


SPEED START STOP ltMfS PRESS. 


2. Inspect for lubricating oil leaks 




3. Inspect for fuel oil leaks 




4. Inspect for water leaks 




5. Check and tighten all external bolts 




6. 


D INSPECTION AFTER BASIC RUN-IN 


1. Tighten Cylinder Head & Rocker Shaft Bolts 




4. Adjust Governor Gap 


2. Adjust Valves (Hot) 




5. Adjust Injector Racks 


3. Time Injectors 




6. 


E FINAL RUN-IN 


TIME TOP RPM pHp 


AIR BOX PRESSURE EXHAUST BACK CRANKCASE 
FULL LOAD PRESSURE F/L PRESSURE F/L 


START STOP NO-LOAD FULL LOAD 






BLOWER INTAKE ppcch: NBC" WATER TEMP. 
RES - - F / L RET MAN F/L FULL LOAD 


LUB OIL LUB> OIL P^SSURE 


TEMP. F/L ryLL !DLE 






F INSPECTION AFTER FINAL RUN 


1. Inspect Air Box, Pistons, Liners, Rings 




6. Replace Lubricating Oil Filter Elements 


2. Inspect Blower 




7. Tighten Flywheel Bolts 


3. Check Generator Charging Rate 




8. Rust Proof Cooling System 


4. Wash Oil Pan, Check Gasket 




9. 


5. Clean Oil Pump Screen, Remove Cloth 




10. 


REMARKS: 
















Final Run OKM Dynamometer , P"^ 



NOTE: Operator must initial each check and sign this report. 




UtIKUII UltbtL 



Kun-in instructions 



The lubricating oil temperature reading must be taken 
while the engine is operating at full load and after it 
has been operating long enough for the temperature to 
stabilize. This temperature should be recorded and 
should be within the specified range. 

The lubricating oil pressure should be recorded in psi 
after being taken at engine speeds indicated in the 
Operating Conditions, Section 13.2. 

Thtfuel oil pressure at the fuel manifold inlet passage 
should be recorded and should fall within the specified 
range. Fuel pressure should be recorded at maximum 
engine rpm during the Final Run-in. 

Check the air box pressure while the engine is 
operating at maximum speed and load. This check 
may be made by attaching a suitable gage (0-15 psi) 
or manometer (15-0-15) to an air box drain or to a 
hand hole plate prepared for this purpose. If an air 
box drain is used as a source for this check, it must be 
clean. The air box pressure should be recorded in 
inches of mercury. 

Check the crankcase pressure while the engine is 
operating at maximum run-in speed. Attach a 
manometer, calibrated to read in inches of water, to 
the oil level dipstick opening. Normally, crankcase 
pressure should decrease during the run-in indicating 
that new rings are beginning to "seat-in". 

Check the air inlet restriction with a water manometer 
connected to a fitting in the air inlet ducting located 
2" above the air inlet housing. When practicability 
prevents the insertion of a fitting at this point, the 
manometer may be connected to a fitting installed in 
the 1/4" pipe tapped hole in the engine air inlet 
housing. If a hole is not provided, a stock housing 
should be drilled, tapped and kept on hand for future 
use. 

The restriction at this point should be checked at a 
specific engine speed. Then, the air cleaner and 
ducting should be removed from the air inlet housing 
and the engine again operated at the same speed while 
noting the manometer reading. The difference between 
the two readings, with and without the air cleaner and 
ducting, is the actual restriction caused by the air 
cleaner and ducting. 

Check the normal air intake vacuum at various speeds 
(at no-load) and compare the results with the Engine 
Operating Conditions in section 13.2. Record these 
readings on the Engine Test Report. 

Check the exhaust back pressure at the exhaust 
manifold companion flange or within one inch of this 
location. This check should be made with a mercury 



manometer through a tube adaptor installed at the 
tapped hole. If the exhaust manifold does not provide 
a 1/8" pipe tapped hole, such a hole can be 
incorporated by reworking the exhaust manifold. 

Install a fitting for a pressure gage or manometer in 
this hole. Care should be exercised so that the fitting 
does not protrude into the stack. The manometer check 
should produce a reading in inches that is below the 
Maximum Exhaust Back Pressure for the engine (refer 
to Section 13.2). 



Refer to the Basic Run-in Horsepower Schedule and 
determine the maximum rated brake horsepower and 
the full-load speed to be used during the Final Run-in. 
Apply the load thus determined to the dynamometer. 



When the above conditions have been met, adjust the 
maximum no-load speed to conform with that 
specified for the particular engine. This speed may be 
either higher or lower than the maximum speed used 
during the Basic Run-In. This will ordinarily require a 
governor adjustment. 

All information required in Section "F.", Final Run-in, 
of the Engine Test Report should be determined and 
filled in. After the prescribed time for the Final Run- 
in has elapsed, remove the load from the dynamome- 
ter and reduce the engine speed gradually to idle 
speed and then stop the engine. The Final Run-In is 
complete. 



F. INSPECTION AFTER FINAL RUN-IN 

After the Final Run-in and before the Engine Test 
Report is complete-d, a final inspection must be made. 
This inspection will provide final assurance that the 
engine is in proper working order. During this 
inspection the engine is also made ready for any brief 
delay in delivery or installation which may occur. This 
is accomplished by rust-proofing the fuel system as 
outlined in Section 15.3. Also, a rust inhibitor should 
be introduced into the cooling system (refer to 
Section 13.3). 



October, 1970 SEC. 13.2.1. Page 5 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



13.3 



DETROIT DIESEL FUEL OIL SPECIFICATIONS 



Detroit Diesel designs, develops, and manufacturers 
commercial diesel engines to operate on diesel fuels 
classified by the A.S.T.M. as Designation D-975 (grades 
1-D and 2-D). These grades are very similar to grades 
DF-1 and DF-2 of Federal Specification VV-F-800. 
Residual fuels and furnace oils, generally, are not con- 
sidered satisfactory for Detroit Diesel engines. In some 
regions, however, fuel suppliers may distribute one fuel 
that is marketed as either diesel fuel (A.S.T.M. D-975) 
or domestic heating fuel (A.S.T.M. D-396) sometimes 
identified as furnace oil. In this case, the fuel should 
be investigated to determine whether the properties 
conform with those shown in the FUEL OIL SELEC- 
TION CHART, presented in this specification. 

The FUEL OIL SELECTION CHART also will serve 
as a guide in the selection of the proper fuel for various 
applications. The fuels used must be clean, completely 
distilled, stable, and non-corrosive. DISTILLATION 
RANGE. CETANE NUMBER, and SULFUR CON- 
TENT are three of the most important properties of 
diesel fuels that must be controlled to insure optimum 
combustion and minimum wear. Engine speed, load, 
and ambient temperature influence the selection of 
fuels with respect to distillation range and cetane 
number. The sulfur content of the fuel must be as low 
as possible to avoid excessive deposit formation, pre- 
mature wear, and to minimize the sulfur dioxide ex- 
hausted into the atmosphere. 

To assure that the fuel you use meets the required 
properties, enlist the aid of a reputable fuel oil supplier. 
The responsibility for clean fuel lies with the fuel 
supplier as well as the operator. 

During cold weather engine operation, the cloud point 
(the temperature at which wax crystals begin to form 
in diesel fuel) should be 10 F below the lowest ex- 
pected fuel temperature to prevent clogging of the 
fuel filters by wax crystals. 

At temperatures below 20" F, consult an authorized 
Detroit Diesel service outlet, since particular attention 
must be given to the cooling system, lubricating system, 
fuel system, electrical system, and cold weather starting 
aids for efficient engine starting and operation. 

STATEMENT OF POLICY ON FUELS AND LUBRICANTS 

In answer to requests concerning the use of fuel and 
lubricating oil additives, the following excerpts have 
been taken from a policy statement of General Motors 
Corporation: 

"// has been and continues to be General Motors 
policy to build motor vehicles that will operate 
satisfactorily on the commercial fuels and lubri- 
cants of good quality regularly provided by the 
petroleum industry through retail outlets. It is 
accordingly contrary to the policy of General 
Motors to recommend the regular and continued 



use of supplementary additives in such fuels and 
lubricants. 

"This policy should not be confused with the fact 
that certain supplementary additives may effec- 
tively and economically solve specific operating 
problems which occasionally arise in some 
vehicles. In such instances, supplementary addi- 
tives may be developed on the basis of suitable 
tests to remedy such problems without otherwise 
causing harm to vehicles. These .selected products 
are then given official CM part numbers and 
made available for use in appropriate service 
applications. 

"While General Motors Corporation assumes 
responsibility for the additives selected bv it to 
remedy specific operating problems, it cannot, 
of course, accept responsibility for the manv 
other additives which are constantly being 
marketed. " 

Although the stated Corporation policy is self-ex- 
planatory, the following is emphasized: Detroit Diesel 
does not recommend or support the use 5f any supple- 
mentary fuel or lubricant additives. These include 
all products marketed as fuel conditioners, smoke 
suppressants, masking agents, reodorants, tune-up 
compounds, top oils, break-in oils, graphitizers and 
friction reducing compounds. 

NOTE: The manufacturer's warranty applicable 
to Detroit Diesel engines provides in part that 
the provisions of such warranty shall not apply 
to any engine unit which has been subject to 
misuse, negligence or accident. Accordingly, 
malfunctions attributable to neglect or failure 
to follow the manufacturer's fuel or lubricating 
recommendations indicated above may not be 
within the coverage of the warranty. 



FUEL OIL SELECTION CHART 



Typical 
Application 


General Fuel 
Classification 


Final 
Boiling 
Point 


Cetane 

No. 


Sulfur 
Content 






(Max) 


lMin> 


(Max) 


All Other 
Applications 


Winter No. 2-D 
Summer No. 2-D 


675 F 
675" F 


45 
40 


0.50% 
0.50% 



NOTE: When prolonged idling periods or cold weather 
conditions below 32 F are encountered, the 
use of lighter distillate fuels may be more 
practical. The same consideration must be 
made when operating at altitudes above 5,000 ft. 



April, 1974 SEC. 13.3 Page 1 



DETROIT DIESEL LUBRICATING OIL SPECIFICATIONS 



OIL QUALITY 

OIL QUALITY is (he responsibility of the oil supplier. (The u-rni oil supplier 
is applicable to refiners, blenders, and rebrunders of petroleum products. anJ 
does not include distributors of such produel.s). 

There iire hundreds uf coinnierciiil eninkcase oils markcied today. Obviously, 
engine manufacturers or users eanmii completely evaluate the numerous 
commercial oils. The .selection of a suitable lubricant in consultation with 11 
reliable oil supplier, observance of his oil drain recommendations (based on 
used oil sample analysis and expcriencel and proper filter maintenance, will 
provide ihe best assurance of satisfactory oil performance. i' 

Detroit Diesel luhricunl recommendations are based on general experience 
with current lubricants of vtirious types und tiive considennion to the commer- 
cial lubricants presently availahle. 

RECOMMENDATION 

Del roil Diesel enyines have given optimum performance and experienced the 
longest service life with (he following oil performance levels having the iish 
anil zinc limits shown: 



Former Military and 
Commercial Lube 
l.lcnllficalion 


New API 
Utter Code 
Service Classification 


SAE Crude t 


MIL-L-2HMII NM MS 
Supplement 1 


cc sc 

CB 


.10 or -11) 
.TO or ml 



t SAE .10 and -40 grades have both performed satisfactorily in Detroit Diesel 
engines. Obviously, ihe expected ambient lernperature.s and engine crank- 
ing cnpahility must be considered by the engine owner 'opera tor when select- 
ing the proper grade of nil. 

The sLilfuied ash limit (A.S.T.M. D-H7-11 of the above lubricants shall not ex- 
ceed UHXV'.i by weight, except lubricants that contain only barium detergent- 
dispersunt salts where 1.500% by weight is allowed. The majority of lubricants 
marketed under ihe performance levels shown above have a siiffated ash con- 
lent between 0.55 lo O.M5".. hy weight. 



ZINC CONTENT 

The zinc ^content, a.s zinc diorgiinodithiophosphale 

(U)7"., hy weight. 



shall be a minimum of 



RECOMMENDATIONS REGARDING THE USE OF CURRENT OIL 

PERFORMANCE LEVEL PRODUCTS MEETING PRESENT 

MILITARY LUBRICANT SPECIFICATIONS 

The petrnleum industry is currently marketing engine crankcase oils that may 
he identified as follows: 



Mililor.v or 
Commercial 
Identification 


API teller 
Code Service 
Classification 


Comment on 
Application 
und Performance 


MIL-L-2HMC 


CD/SC 


Supersedes MIL-L-45IWU 
(Series .1) intended for 
diesel service. 


MIU.--Uil.s2 


CC-SE 


Supersedes M1L-L-2UMU 
intended for gasoline 


Universal 


Numerous 


Meets ihe performance 
criteria of till industry 
iiecepitJ tests and all 
current military specifications 
including M1L-L-2104C and 
MIL-l.-4ftl.S2. 



Detroit Diesel docs not hi\e sufficient experience \\iib any of the above de- 
scribed lubricants tu recommend their use. Some oil suppliers have reported 
satisfactory performance of the above identified products marketed bv them. 
If an owner-operator intends to use any of the above described products, it 
is recommended lieobtuin evidence from the oil supplier that the lubricant has 
performed satisfactorily in Detroit Diesel engines. The above products may he 
sati.sfactor.\ for use in Detroit Diesel engines under the following conditions: 

1. The sulfated ash lA.S.T.M. D-N7-1) limit of the above lubricants -shall not 
exceed 1 .000".. h\ weight, except lubricants that contain only barium 
detergeni-dispersant salts where 1.5(K)".. by weight ib allowed. 

2. The /inc content, as /me diorganodithiophosphnic. shall he a minimum nf 
0.07".. b\ weight 

X Sufficient evidence ut siUisdveiovv performance in Detroit Diesel engines 
has heen provided to Detroit Diesel and or the customer. 

LUBRICANTS NOT RECOMMENDED 

The following lubricants ure NOT recommended because of a history of pour 
performance in Detroit Diesel engines: 



Military or 
Commercial 
Identification 


API Letter 
Code Service 
Classification 


Comment 
on 
Performance 


MIU-L-2UMBM%H MS 


CC/SD 


Excessive ash 
deposits formed 


MIL-L-4.MWB 
lScries.ll 


CD 


Excessive ash 
deposits formed 


Multitude oils 


Numerous 


History of poor 
perforhiancc in 
most heavy duly 
diesel engines 



COLD WEATHER OPERATION 

Cold weather starting will be facilitated \\hen immersion type electrical coolant 
heaters eun he used. Other practical considerations, such us the use of bat- 
teries, cables and connectors of adequate size, generators or alternators of 
ample capacity, proper setting of volume regulators, ether starting niils. oil and 
coolant heater systems, and proper fuel selection will accomplish starling wilh 
the use of SAE 30 or SAE 41) oils. For complete cold weather starting informa- 
tion, consult an authori/ed Detroit Diesel .service outlet. Ask for Engineering 
Bulletin No. 3K entitled: "Cold Weather Operation" 



NORTH SLOPE & OTHER EXTREME SUB-ZERO 
OPERATIONS 

Some new special jiretic lubricants have recently been developed for Military 
use in extremely cold climates. The oils that have shown best cold temperature 
performance may he described as multigrade.s having a synthetic base stock 
and low volatility characteristics. At this time a new MiMtiiry arctic oil specifi- 
cation is being developed. The good oil performers have passed the oil per- 
formance criteria defined in (tentative! Federal Test Method .^4 of Federal 
Test Standard 741. The lubricants may he used where continuous sub-zero 
temperatures preMiil and where engines are shut down for periods longer than 
eight |N) hours. These are not comparable to the performance of SAE M or 40 
oils at operating conditions and should be considered only us a last resort when 
engine crank ing is a severe problem and auxiliary healing aids are not uvuilahle. 



OIL CHANGES 

The oil change period is dependent on the operating conditions (e.g. load 
factor, etc.) of an engine that will vary with the numerous service applications. 
It is recommended thai new engines he started wilh 150 hour oil change 




responds to approximately 4, MX) miles. 




Solvents should not he used as flushing oils in running engines. Dilution of 
ihe fresh refill oil supply c;m occur, which may he detrimental. 

Full flow oil filtration systems have been used in Detroit Diesel engines since 
they have been manufactured. For the best results, the oil filter element should 
he replaced each time the oil is chinned. 



NEW ENGINE Oil CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 

A relatively new eiiine oil classification system has been introduced to 
industry that describes the criteria required lo meet euch performance level. 
A simplified cross-reference of oil anil currcnl commercial anil military speci- 
fications is shown helovj. 

CROSS-REFERENCE OF LUBE OIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS 



API 
lode 
Letters 



CA 
CU 
CC 
CD 



SA 
SB 
SC 
SD 
SE 



Comparable Military or Commercial Industry Spec. 



M1L-L-2UMA 

Supplement I 

MIL-L-2UWB (sec Note 1 below, 

M1L-L-15199B (Series .1) 

M1L-L-4MS2 (supersedes MIL-L-2104B for Military only) 

MIL-L-2KHC (supersedes MIL-L-ISI^B for Military only) 

none 

none 

l%4 MS oils Auto passenger car 

1%8 MS oils Auto passenger car 

1472 MS oils Auto passenger car 



NOT!: I: MIL-L-2IU4I3 Lubricants are currently marketed and readily avail- 

for Military 



for Commercial use. MIL-L-2104B oils are obsolete fo 
service appl tcallon s tin I y . 

t Oil performance meets or exceeds that of CC and SE oils. 
Oil performance meets or exceeds that of CD and SC oils. 

For complete descriptions, consult the following publications; 

1. Society of Automotive Engineers tSAEi Technical Report J-lK."\a 

2. Federal Test Method Standard 7Yla. 

PUBLICATION AVAILABLE 
SHOWING COMMERCIAL "BRAND" NAME LUBRICANTS 

A Usi of "hrimd" mime lubricants distributed hy the majority of worldwide oil 
suppliers can be purchased from the Engine Manufacturers Association (EM A). 
The publication is titled/'EMA Lubricating Oils Data Book for Heavy Duly 
Automotive and Industrial Engines." The publication shows the brand names, 
oil performance levels, viscosity grades, and sulfated ash contents of most 
"brands" marketed. 

ENGINE MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION 

in EAST WACKER DRIVE 

CHICAGO. ILLINOIS WttOI 



UtIKUII DIESEL 53 



Fuel, Oil and Coolant Specifications 13.3 



ENGINE COOLANT 



Engine coolant is considered as any solution which is 
circulated through the engine to provide the means for 
heat transfer from the various engine components. In 
general, water containing various materials in solution 
is used for this purpose. 

The function of the coolant is basic in the design and 
the successful operation of the engine and must be 
carefully selected and properly maintained. 



COOLANT REQUIREMENTS 

A suitable coolant solution must meet the following 
five basic requirements: 

1. Provide for adequate heat transfer. 

2. Provide a corrosion resistant environment within the 
cooling system. 

3. Prevent formation of scale or sludge deposits in the 
cooling system. 

4. Be compatible with the cooling system hose and seal 
materials. 

5. Provide adequate freeze protection during cold 
weather operation. 

Normally requirements 1 through 4 are satisfied by 
combining a suitable water with reliable inhibitors. 
When operating conditions dictate the need for freeze 
protection, a solution of suitable water and an ethylene 
glycol type antifreeze containing adequate inhibitors 
will provide a satisfactory coolant. 



WATER 

Any water, whether of drinking quality or not, will 
produce a corrosive environment in the cooling system. 
Also, scale deposits may form on the internal surfaces 
of the cooling system due to the mineral content of the 
water. Therefore, water selected as a coolant must be 
properly treated with inhibitors to control corrosion 
and scale deposition. 

To determine if a particular water is suitable for use 
as a coolant when properly inhibited, the following 
characteristics must be considered. The concentration 
of (1) chlorides, (2) sulfates, (3) total hardness and (4) 
dissolved solids. These materials are objectionable for 
a number of reasons: chlorides and/or sulfates will 
accelerate corrosion, while hardness (percentage of 
magnesium and calcium present) will cause deposits of 
scale. Total dissolved solids may cause scale deposits, 



sludge deposits, corrosion or a combination of these. 
Chlorides, sulfates, magnesium and calcium are 
among but not necessarily all the materials which 
make up dissolved solids. Water, within the limits 
specified in Tables 1 and 2, Figure A, is satisfactory 
as an engine coolant when proper inhibitors are 
added. 



CORROSION INHIBITORS 



A corrosion inhibitor is a water soluble chemical 
compound which protects the metallic surfaces of the 
cooling system against corrosive attack. Some of the 
more commonly used corrosion inhibitors are chro- 
mates, borates, nitrates, nitrites and soluble oil. 
Depletion of all types of inhibitors occur through 
normal operation and therefore strength levels must 
be maintained by the addition of inhibitors at 
prescribed intervals. 

CHROMATES: Sodium chromate and potassium 
dichromate are two of the more commonly used water 
system corrosion inhibitors. However, the restrictive 
use of these materials, due to ecology considerations, 
has de-emphasized their use in favor of non- 
chromates. Care should be exercised in handling these 
materials due to their toxic nature. 

Chromate inhibitors must not be used in ethylene 
glycol antifreeze solutions. Chromium hydroxide, 
commonly called "green slime", can result from the 
use of chromate inhibitors with permanent type 
antifreeze. This material deposits on the cooling 
system passages, reducing the heat transfer rate, and 
will result in engine overheating. Engines which have 
operated with a chromate inhibited water must be 
chemically cleaned before the addition of eihylene 
glycol type antifreeze. A commercial heavy duty de- 
sealer should be used in accordance with the 
manufacturer's recommendation for this purpose. 

SOLUBLE OIL: Soluble oil has been used as a 
corrosion inhibitor for many years. It has, however, 
required very close attention relative to the concentra- 
tion level due to adverse effects on heat transfer if the 
concentration exceeds 1% by volume. For example: 
1-1/4% of soluble oil in the cooling system increases 
fire deck temperatures 6% and a 2-1/2% concentration 
raises fire deck temperature up to 15%. Soluble oil 
must not be used as a corrosion inhibitor. 

NON-CHROMATES: Non-chromate inhibitors (bo- 
rates, nitrates, nitrites, etc.) provide corrosion 



April, 1974 SEC. 13.3 Page 3 



1 3.3 Fuel, Oil and Coolant Specifications 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



TABLE 1 




Chlorides (Maximum) 

Sulfates (Maximum) 

Total Dissolved Solids (Maximum) 

Total Hardness (Maximum) 



PARTS PER 
MILLION 

40 
100 
340 
170 



GRAINS PER 
GALLON 

2.5 

5.8 

20 

10 



Refer to Table 2 for evaluation of water intended for use in a coolant solution. 



TABLE 2 



Determine The Concentrations 

Of Chlorides, Sulfates, And 

Total Dissolved Solids 

In The Water 



_L 



Chlorides Under 40 ppm, 

And 
Sulfates Under 100 ppm, 

And 

Total Dissolved Solids 
Under 340 ppm. 



Determine Total 
Hardness Of The Water 



Total Hardness 
Over 170 ppm 




Water Suitable For 
Use In Coolant 



Plus Inhibitors 



Figure A 



J_ 



Chlorides Over 40 ppm, 

Or 
Sulfates Over 100 ppm, 

Or 

Total Dissolved Solids 
Over 340 ppm. 



Distill, De-mineralize, 
Or De-ionize The Water 



Water Suitable For 
Use in Coolant 



Plus Inhibitors 



protection in the cooling system with the basic 
advantage that they can be used with either water or a 
water and ethylene glycol solution. 

INHIBITOR SYSTEMS 

i is considered as a combination of 



chemical compounds which provide corrosion protec- 
tion, pH control and water softening ability. Corrosion 
protection has been discussed earlier under the section 
on Corrosion Inhibitors. The pH control is used to 
maintain an acid free solution. The water softening 
ability deters formation of mineral deposits. Inhibitor 
systems are available in various forms such as coolant 




DtlKOIT DIESEL 53 



Fuel, Oil and Coolant Specifications 13.3 



COOLANT INHIBITOR CHART 



Inhibitor or 
Inhibitor System 


Corrosion 
Inhibitor 
Type 


Complete 
Inhibitor 
System 


Inhibitor Compatability 
Ethylene 
Glycol Base 
Water Antifreeze 


Sodium chromate 


*Chromate 


No 


Yes No 


Potassium dichromate 


*Chromate 


No 


Yes No 



Perry filter elements 
5020 (Type OS) 
S-453 (Spin on) 
5030 (Type OS) 
S-331 (Spin on) 
5070 (Type OS) 
S-473 (Spin on) 

Lenroc filter element 

Fleetguard filter elements 
DCA (Canister) 
DCA (Spin on) 

AC Filter elements 
DCA (Canister) 
DCA (Spin on) 



*Chromate Yes 

*Chromate Yes 

@Non-chromate Yes 

@Non-chromate Yes 

#Non-chromate Yes 

# Non-chromate Yes 

Non-chromate Yes 



Non-chromate Yes 

Non-chromate Yes 



Non-chromate Yes 

Non-chromate Yes 



Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 

Yes 



Yes 
Yes 



Yes 
Yes 



No 
No 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 

Yes 



Yes 
Yes 



Yes 
Yes 



Luber-Finer filter elements 
LW-4739 (Canister) 
LFW-4744 (Spin on) 


Non-chromate 
Non-chromate 


Yes 
Yes 


Yes 
Yes 


Yes 
Yes 


Nalcool 2000 (Liquid) 


Non-chromate 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Liquid Perry (LP-20) 


Non-chromate 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Lubercool (Liquid) 


Non-chromate 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


@Note 1 Perry "Year Around" formula. 
# Note 2 - Perry "Universal" formula. 



Figure B 



filter elements, liquid and dry bulk inhibitor additives 
and as an integral part of permanent antifreeze. 

COOLANT FILTER ELEMENTS: Replaceable ele- 
ments are available with various chemical inhibitor 
systems. Care should be used in the selection of 
elements relative to inhibitor compatibility with 
coolant solutions shown in Figure B. 

Problems have developed from the use of the 



magnesium lower support plate used by some 
manufacturers in their coolant filters. The magnesium 
plate will be attacked by solutions which will not be 
detrimental to other metals in the cooling system. The 
dissolved magnesium will be deposited in the hottest 
zones of the engine where heat transfer is most critical 
(Figure C). The use of aluminum or zinc in preference 
to magnesium is recommended to eliminate this type 
of deposit. 



April, 1974 SEC. 13.3 Page 5 



ruel, vJii and Coolant specmcations 



UCIKVJII UICOCL JO 







A 


AT TRANSFER CAPACITY 




I"-*. 

CAST 
IRON 




CAST 

IRON 




1/16" 
MINERAL DEPOSIT 5633 


1" CAST IRON PLUS 1/16" MINERAL DEPOSIT = 
4 1 /4" CAST IRON IN HEAT TRANSFERAWLITY 



Figure C 

A high chloride coolant will have a detrimental effect 
on the water softening capabilities of systems using 
ion-exchange resins. Accumulations- o f calcium and 
magnesium ions removed from the coolant and held 
captive by the zeolite resin can be released into the 
coolant by a regenerative process caused by high 
chloride content solutions. 

BULK INHIBITOR ADDITIVES: Commercially pack- 
aged inhibitor systems are available which can be 
added directly to the engine coolant or to bulk storage 
tanks containing coolant solution. Both chromate and 
non-chromate systems are available and care should 
be taken regarding inhibitor compatability with other 
coolant constituents (Figure B). 

A non-chromate inhibitor system is recommended for 
use in Detroit Diesel engines. The non-chromate 
systems can be used with either water or ethylene 
glycol antifreeze solutions and provide corrosion 
protection, pH control and water softening. Some of 
the approved non-chromate inhibitor systems offer the 
additional advantage of a simple on site test to 
determine protection level. 



ANTIFREEZE 

When freeze protection is required, an ethylene glycol 
hap n<riT>irQt :--- "^"uld be used. An 

*vpe of antifreeze 

d on initial fill 

i of 30% by 

"*% concentra- 

i protection. 































































































/ 






















^ 






J.lft 
















*" 


















^ 


,-1 


0^ 










300 


KB 





* 
























coo 


ANT 


PMD 


NO. 


. 










T 
1 




,,,ANI 


n*M 


V 

in q 


* 
JNCB 


4TRAT 


ON 










r 




-" 


n 


r n 

OPO 


M. 














i 

T 130 




1 


O1W 


9PO 


NTS 














U 

ft MM 
























I 

("ft AA 
























40 
























40 




WA 1 


MU' 


















30 


**J 


^i 




CO) 
. RAI 


<NI 

MM 


ATO 
10471 


IN 
k - - 










o 




^ 


k^ 


















30 








S 


k 










y 














N 










f 
















\ 






/ 


















1 


V 


/ 








oo 














t, 

^ i 










-100 


























A 


1 

KIWI 


9 a 
ma 


B a 

COM 


9 41 

aw* 


9 * 
AHOM 


9 
( 


) J" 
IV VI 


M 

jmnn 


> M 
1 


> 10 

563 







Figure D 

Concentrations over 67% adversely affect 
protection and heat transfer rates (Figure D). 



freeze 



Inhibitor depletion will occur in ethylene glycol base 
antifreeze through normal service. The inhibitors must 
be replenished at approximately 500 hour or 20,000 
mile intervals with a non-chromate inhibitor system. 
Commercially available inhibitor systems (Fig. B) 
may be used to re-inhibit antifreeze solutions. 

Several brands of permanent antifreeze are available 
with sealer additives. The specific type of sealers vary 
with the manufacturer. Antifreeze with sealer 
additives is not recommended for use in Detroit Diesel 
engines due to plugging problems throughout various 
areas of the cooling system. 




UtIKUII UltitL 



l-uel, Uil and Coolant opecmcanons 




COOLANT RECOMMENDATIONS 

1. Always use a properly inhibited coolant. 

2. If freeze protection is required, always use ethylene 
glycol antifreeze. 

3. Re-inhibit antifreeze with a non-chromate inhibitor 
system. 



4. Always follow the manufacturer's recommendations 
on inhibitor usage and handling. 

5. Do not use soluble oil. 

6. Chromate inhibitors should never be used with 
permanent antifreeze. 

7. Sealer type antifreeze should not be used. 

8. Maintain prescribed inhibitor strength. 





April, 1974 SEC. 13.3 Page 7 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 




SECTION 14 

ENGINE TUNE-UP 
CONTENTS 



Engine Tune-Up Procedures 14 

Exhaust Valve Clearance Adjustment 14.1 

Timing Fuel Injector 14.2 

Limiting Speed Mechanical Governor and Injector Rack Control Adjustment: 

(In- Line Engine) 14.3.1 




ENGINE TUNE-UP PROCEDURES 



There is no scheduled interval for performing an 
engine tune-up. As long as the engine performance is 
satisfactory, no tune-up should be needed. Minor 
adjustments in the valve and injector operating 
mechanisms, governor, etc. should only be required 
periodically to compensate for normal wear on parts. 



I 




July, 1972 SEC. 14 Page 1 



14 Engine Tune-Up 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Normally, when performing a tune-up on an engine in 
service, it is only necessary to check the various 
adjustments for a possible change in the settings. 
However, if the cylinder head, governor, or injectors 
have been replaced or overhaule.d, then certain 
preliminary adjustments are required before the 
engine is started. 

The preliminary adjustments consist of the first four 
items in the tune-up sequence. The procedures are the 
same except that the valve clearance is greater for a 
cold engine. 



3. Adjust the governor gap. 

4. Position the injector rack control levers. 

5. Adjust the maximum no-load speed. 

6. Adjust the idle speed. 

7. Adjust the buffer screw. 



NOTE: Use new valve rocker cover gasket(s) 
after each tune-up, 




To tune-up an engine completely, all of the 
adjustments are made by following the applicable 
tune-up sequence given below after the engine has 
reached the normal operating temperature. Since the 
adjustments are normally-made while the engine is 
stopped, it may be necessary to run the engine 
between adjustments to maintain normal operating 
temperature. 



Tune- Up Sequence for Mechanical Governor 

1. Adjust the exhaust valve clearance. 

2. Time the fuel injectors. 



Page 2 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



14.1 




EXHAUST VALVE CLEARANCE ADJUSTMENT 



The correct exhaust valve clearance at normal engine 
operating temperature is important for smooth, 
efficient operation of the engine. 

Insufficient valve clearance can result in loss of 
compression, misfiring cylinders and, eventually, 
burned valve seats and valve seat inserts. Excessive 
valve clearance will result in noisy operation, 
especially in the low speed range. 



Whenever the cylinder head is overhauled, the exhaust 
valves are reconditioned or replaced, or the valve 
operating mechanism is replaced or disturbed in any 
way, the valve clearance must first be adjusted to the 
cold setting to allow for normal expansion of the 
engine parts during the engine warm-up period. This 
will ensure a valve setting that is close enough to the 
specified clearance to prevent damage to the valves 
when the engine is started. 



March, 1973 SEC. 14.1 Page 1 



14.1 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



ENGINES WITH FOUR VALVE CYLINDER HEADS 





Fig. 2 Adjusting Valve Clearance (Four Valve 
Head) 

Ail of the exhaust valves may be adjusted in firing 
order sequence during one full revolution of the 
crankshaft. Refer to the General Specifications at the 
front of the manual for the engine firing order. 



Exhaust Valve Clearance Adjustment (Cold 
Engine) 

1. Remove the loose dirt from the valve rocker cover 
and remove the cover. 

2. Place the governor speed control lever in the idle 
speed position. If a stop lever is provided, secure it in 
the stop position. 

3. Rotate the crankshaft, manually or with the starting 
motor, until the injector follower is fully depressed on 
the particular cylinder to be adjusted. 

CAUTION: If a wrench is used on the crankshaft 



bolt at the front of the engine, do not turn the 
crankshaft in a left-hand direction of rotation 
or the bolt may be loosened. 

4. Loosen the exhaust valv-, rocker arm push rod lock 
nut. 

5. Place a .027 " feeler gage, J 9708, between the end 
of one exhaust valve stem and the rocker arm bridgje 
(Fig. 2). Adjust the push rod to obtain a smooth pujll 
on the feeler gage. 

6. Remove the feeler gage. Hold the push rod with a 
5/16 " wrench and tighten the lock nut with a 1/2 " 
wrench. 

7. Recheck the clearance. At this time, if the 
adjustment is correct, the .025 " gage will pass freely 
between the end of one valve stem and the rocker arm 
bridge and the .027 " gage will not pass through. 
Readjust the push rod, if necessary. 

8. Adjust and check the remaining exhaust valves in 
the same manner as above. 



Exhaust Valve Clearance Adjustment (Hot 
Engine) 

Maintaining normal engine operating temperature is 
particularly important when making the final exhaust 
valve clearance adjustment. If the engine is allowed to 
cool before setting any of the valves, the clearance, 
when running at full load, may become insufficient. 

1. With the engine at normal operating temperature 
(160-185 U F.), recheck the exhaust valve clearance 
with feeler gage J 9708. At this time, if the valve 
clearance is correct, the .023 " gage will pass freely 
between (he end of one valve stem and the rocker arm 
bridge and the .025 " feeler gage will not pass 
through. Readjust the push rod, if necessary. 

2. After the exhaust valve clearance has been adjusted, 
check the fuel injector timing (Section 14.2). 






Page 2 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



14.2 



FUEL INJECTOR TIMING 




Fig. 1 - Timing Fuel Injector 

To time an injector properly, the injector follower 
must be adjusted to a definite height in relation to the 
injector body. 

All of the injectors can be timed in firing order 
sequence during one full revolution of the crankshaft. 
Refer to the General Specif cations at the front of the 
manual for the engine firing order. 



Time Fuel Injector 



After the exhaust valve clearance has been adjusted 
(Section 14.1), time the fuel injectors as follows: 

1. Place the governor speed control lever in the idle 
speed position. If a stop lever is provided, secure it in 
the stop position. 

2. Rotate the crankshaft, manually or with the starting 
motor, until the exhaust valves are fully depressed on 
the particular cylinder to be timed. 

CAUTION: If a wrench is used on the crankshaft 



Injector 



N4S 



Timing 
Dimension 



1.460 



Timing 
Gage 



J 1853 



INJECTOR TIMING GAGE CHART 

bolt at the front of the engine, do not turn the 
crankshaft in a left-hand direction of rotation 
or the bolt may be loosened. 

3. Place the small end of the injector timing gage 
(refer to the chart for the correct timing gage) in the 
hole provided in the top of the injector body, with the 
flat of the gage toward the injector follower (Fig. 1). 

4. Loosen the injector rocker arm push rod lock nut. 

5. Turn the push rod and adjust the injector rocker 
arm until the extended part of the gage will just pass 
over the top of the injector follower. 

6. Hold the push rod and tighten the lock nut. Check 
the adjustment and, if necessary, readjust the push 
rod. 

7. Time the remaining injectors in the same manner as 
outlined above. 

8. If no further engine tune-up is required, install the 
valve rocker cover, using a new gasket. 



March, 1973 SEC. 14.2 Page 1 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



14.3.1 



LIMITING SPEED MECHANICAL GOVERNOR AND 
INJECTOR RACK CONTROL ADJUSTMENT 



IN-LINE ENGINE 



After adjusting the exhaust valves and timing the fuel 
injectors, adjust the governor and position the injector 
rack control levers. 

NOTE: Loosen the load limit lever for the load 
limiting device, if the engine is so equipped, 
before proceeding with the governor 
adjustment. 



Adjust Governor Gap 

With the engine stopped and at operating tempera- 
ture, adjust the governor gap as follows: 

1. Remove the high speed spring retainer cover. 

2. Back out the buffer screw until it extends 5/8" 
beyond the governor housing. 

3. Clean and remove the valve rocker cover. 

4. Start the engine and adjust the idle speed screw 
(Fig. 5) to obtain an idle speed of 500-600 rpm. 

NOTE: The recommended idle speed is 500-600 
rpm, but may vary with special engine 
applications. 

5. Stop the engine and remove the governor cover. 

6. Start the engine and control the speed manually by 
operating the injector control tube lever. The engine 
speed should be between 800 and 1000 rpm. 

CAUTION: Do not overspeed the engine. 



7. Check the gap between the low speed spring cap 
and the high speed spring plunger with a .0015" 
feeler gage. If the gap setting is incorrect, reset the 
gap adjusting screw (Fig. 1). If the setting is correct, 
the .0015" movement can be seen by placing a few 
drops of oil into the governor gap and pressing a 
screw driver against the gap adjusting screw. 
Movement of the cap toward the plunger will force the 
oil from the gap in the form of a small bead. 

8. Hold the gap adjusting screw and tighten the lock 
nut. 

9. Recheck the gap and readjust if necessary. 




Hig. 1 Adjusting Governor Uap 

10. Install the governor cover. The governor cover 
should be placed on the housing with the pin of the 
speed control lever projecting into the slot of the 
differential lever. 

1 1. Install the screws and lock washers finger tight. Pull 
the cover away from the engine and lighten the 
screws. This step will properly locate the cover on the 
governor housing. 



Position Injector Rack Control Levers 

The position of the injector racks must be correctly set 
in relation to the governor. Their position determines 
the amount of fuel injected into each cylinder and 
ensures equal distribution of the load. 

Adjust the rear injector rack control lever first to 
establish a guide for adjusting the remaining injector 
rack control levers. 

1. Disconnect any linkage attached to the speed control 
lever. 

2. Loosen all of the inner and outer injector rack 
control lever adjusting screws (Fig. 2). Be sure all of 
the levers are free on the injector control tube. 

3. Move the speed control lever to the full-fuel 



May, 1971 SEC. 14.3.1 Page 1 



r 



14.3.1 Limiting Speed Governor 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 




Fig. 2 Positioning the Rear Injector Rack 
Control Lever 

position. Turn the inner adjusting screw down on the 
rear injector rack control lever until a step-up in effort 
is noted. This will place the rear injector rack in the 
full-fuel position. Turn down the outer adjusting screw 
until it bottoms lightly on the injector control tube. 
Then alternately lighten both the inner and outer 
adjusting screws. This should result in placing the 
governor linkage and control tube assembly in the 
same positions that they will attain while the engine is 
running at full-load. 

4. To be sure of proper rack adjustment, hold the 
speed control lever in the full-fuel position. Press down 
on the injector rack coupling causing the coupling to 
rotate. 

NOTE: This coupling is on the end of the 
injector rack and fits around the ball end of the 
rack control lever. 



The setting is sufficiently tight if the coupling returns 
:o its original position. If the coupling does not return 
ID its original position, ii is too loose. To correct, back 
Dff the outer adjusting screw slightly and tighten ihe 
inner adjusting screw. 



The coupling is too tight if, when moving the speed 
:ontrol lever from the idle to the maximum speed 
position, the injector rack coupling becomes tight 
before the speed control lever reaches the end of its 
travel (stop under the governor cover). This will result 



in a step-up in effort to move the speed control lever to 
its maximum speed position and a deflection in the 
fuel rod (fuel rod deflection can be seen at the bend). 
If the coupling is found to be too tight, back off the 
inner adjusting screw slightly and tighten the outer 
adjusting screw. 

5. Manually hold the rear injector rack control lever in 
the full-fuel position. Turn down the inner adjusting 
screw on the injector rack control lever of the adjacent 
injector until the injector rack has moved into the full- 
fuel position and the inner adjusting screw is bottomed 
on the injector control tube. Turn the outer adjusting 
screw down until it bottoms lightly on the injector 
control tube. Then alternately tighten both the inner 
and outer adjusting screws. 

NOTE: Overtightening of the injector rack 
control lever adjusting screws during installa- 
tion or adjustment can result in damage to the 
injector control tube. The recommended torque 
of the adjusting screws is 24-36 in-lhs. 



6. Recheck the rear injector rack to be sure that it has 
remained snug on the ball end of the injector rack 
control lever while adjusting the adjacent injector. If 
the rack of the rear injector has become loose, back off 
the inner adjusting screw slightly on the adjacent 
injector rack control lever. Tighten the outer adjusting 
screw. When the settings are correct, the racks of both 
injectors must be snug on the ball end of their 
respective rack control levers. 

7. Position the remaining rack control levers as 
outlined in Steps 5 and 6. 



Adjust Maximum No-Load Engine Speed 

All governors are properly adjusted before leaving the 
factory. However, if the governor has been recondi- 
tioned or replaced, and to ensure the engine speed will 
not exceed the recommended no-load speed as given 
on the engine name plate, the maximum no-load speed 
may be set as follows: 

TYPE A GOVERNOR SPRINGS (Fig. 4): 

1. Loosen the lock nut (Fig. 3) and back off the high 
speed spring retainer approximately five turns. 

2. With the engine at operating temperature and no- 
load on the engine, place the speed control lever in the 
full-fuel position. Turn the high speed spring retainer 
IN until the engine is operating at the recommended 
no-load speed. 

The best method of determining the engine speed is 
with an accurate tachometer. 




f 



W^^^"' 



Page 2 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Limiting Speed Governor 14.3.1 




3. Hold the high speed spring retainer and tighten the 
lock nut. 




GAP ADJUSTING 
SCREW 



HIGH SPEED IDLE SPEED 

SPRING RETAINER ADJUSTING SCREW 




Fig. 4 Governor Spring Assemblies 





Fig. 3 Adjusting Maximum No-Load Engine 
Speed 



Adjust Idle Speed 

With the maximum no-load speed properly adjusted, 
the idle speed may be adjusted as follows: 

1. With the engine running at normal operating 
temperature and with the buffer screw backed out to 
avoid contact wilh the differential lever, turn the idle 
speed adjusting screw (Fig. 5) until the engine idles at 
the recommended idle speed. 

The recommended idle speed is 500-600 rpm, but may 
vary with the particular engine application. 

2. Hold the idle speed adjusting screw and tighten the 
lock nut. 

3. Install the high speed spring cover and tighten the 
two bolts. 



Adjust Buffer Screw 

With the idle speed properly set, adjust the buffer 
screw as follows: 

I. With the engine running at normal operating 



May, 1 97 1 SEC. 14.3.1 Page 3 



14.3.1 Limiting Speed Governor 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 




r 
i 
f 

L 

1 

& 

i 

s 

r 



from the maximum speed 

^M* **<** 

increase is less than 25 rpm. 

3. Hold the buffer screw and tighten the lock nut. 



Fig. 5 - Adjusting Engine Idle Speed 



i eHmina.es eng.ne 



roll. 



- Do not increase the engine idle speed 
than! 5 rprn with the buffer screw. 

2. Recheck the maximum no-load speed. If it has 




Fig. 6 - Adjusting the Buffer Screw 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



15 




SECTION 15 

PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE - TROUBLE SHOOTING 

STORAGE 
CONTENTS 



Lubrication and Preventive Maintenance.. 

Trouble Shooting 

Storage 



15.1 
15.2 
15.3 





I 



March, 1973 SEC. 15 Page 1 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



15.1 





LUBRICATION AND PREVENTIVi MAINTENANCE 

To obtain the best performance and long life from a Detroit Diesel 
engine, the Operator must adhere to the following schedule and 
instructions on lubrication and preventive maintenance. 

The daily instructions pertain to routine or daily starting of an 
engine and not to a new engine or one that has not been operated for 
a considerable period of time. For new or stored engines, carry out 
the instructions given under Preparation for Starting Engine First 
Time under Operating Instructions in Section 13. 

The time intervals given in the chart on the following page are actual 
operating hours or miles of an engine. If the lubricating oil is 
drained immediately after an engine has been run for some time, 
most of the sediment will be in suspension and, therefore, will drain 
readily. 




April, 1974 SEC. 15.1 Pag* 1 



15.1 Preventive Maintenance 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



LUBRICATION AND PREVENTIVE 
MAINTENANCE CHART Hours 

Hem Operation 


Time Interval 




8 


50 


100 


200 


300 


500 


1,000 


2,000 


Daily 


















1 . Engine Oil 


X 


















2. Oil Filter* 




















3. Coolant and Filter 


X 












X 


X 




4. Hoses 














X 






5. Radiator 
















X 
























7. Raw Water Pump 


X 


















8. Fuel Tank 


X 












X 






9. Fuel Strainer and Filter 












X 








10. Air Cleaner 




X 










X 






1 1 . Air Box Drains 














X 


X 




12. Ventilating System 
















X 




13. Blower Screen 

















X 




14. Storting Motor* 




















15. Battery-Charging Generator 








X 


X 




X 




X 


16. Battery 








X 




















































19. Engine Tune-Up* 




















20. Drive Belts 










X 






























22. Fan Hub Bearings* 




















23. Shut-Down System 












X 









'See items on following pages 




Page 2 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Preventive Maintenance 15.1 



Item 1 

Check the oil level daily before starting the engine. 
Add oil, if necessary, to bring it to the proper level on 
the dipstick. 

Select the proper grade of oil in accordance with the 
instructions in the Lubricating Oil Specifications in 
Section 13.3. 

It is recommended that new engines be started with 
100 hour oil change periods. For highway vehicles, this 
corresponds to approximately 3,000 miles, and for city- 
service vehicles approximately 1,000-2,000 miles. The 
drain interval may then be gradually increased, or 
decreased, following the recommendations of an 
independent oil analysis laboratory or the oil supplier 
(based upon the oil sample analysis) until the most 
practical oil change period has been established. 



Item 2 

Change the engine oil filter elements and gaskets each 
time the engine oil is changed. Any deviation, such as 
changing filters every other oil change, should be 
based on a laboratory analysis of the drained oil and 
used filter elements to determine if such practice is 
practical for proper protection of the engine. Make a 





Items 1 and 2 



Items 3 and 4 

visual check of all lubricating oil lines for wear and 
charing. If any indication of wear is evident, replace 
the oil lines and correct the cause. 



When the engine is equipped with a turbocharger, pre- 
lubricate it as outlined under Install Turbocharger in 
Section 3.5. 



If the engine is equipped with a governor oil filter, 
change the element every 1,000 hours. 



Item 3 

Check the coolant level daily and maintain it near the 
top of the heat exchanger tank or the radiator upper 
tank. 

Clean the cooling system every 1,000 hours or 30,000 
miles using a good radiator cleaning compound in 
accordance with the instructions on the container. 
After the cleaning operation, rinse the cooling system 
thoroughly with fresh water. Then fill the system with 
soft water, adding a good grade of rust inhibitor or a 
high boiling point type antifreeze (refer to Engine 
Coolant in Section 13.3). With the use of a proper 
antifreeze or rust inhibitor, this interval may be 
lengthened until, normally, this cleaning is done only 
in the spring or fall. The length of this interval will, 
however, depend upon an inspection for rust or other 



April, 1974 SEC. 15.1 Page 3 



15.1 Preventive Maintenance 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



deposits on the internal walls of the cooling system. 
When a thorough cleaning of the cooling system is 
required, it should be reverse-flushed. 

If the cooling system is protected by a coolant filter 
and conditioner, the filter element should be changed 
every 500 hours or 15,000 miles. 



Item 5 

Inspect the exterior of the radiator core every 1,000 
hours or 30,000 miles and, if necessary, clean it with a 
quality grease solvent such as Oleum and dry it with 
compressed air. Do not use fuel oil, kerosene or 
gasoline. It may be necessary to clean the radiator 
more frequently if the engine is being operated in 
extremely dusty or dirty areas. 




Item 4 



Inspect all of the cooling system hoses at least once 
every 500 hours or 15,000 miles for signs of 
deterioration. Replace the hoses if necessary. 




Item 5 



Item 7 

Check the prime on the raw water pump; the engine 
should not be operated with a dry pump. Prime the 
pump, if necessary, by removing the pipe plug 
provided in the pump inlet elbow and adding water. 
Reinstall the plug. 




Item 7 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Preventive Maintenance 15.1 




Item 8 

Keep the fuel tank filled to reduce condensation to a 
minimum. Select the proper grade of fuel in 
accordance with the Diesel Fuel Oil Specifications in 
Section 13.3. Open the drain at the bottom of the fuel 
tank every 500 hours or 15,000 miles to drain off any 
water or sediment. 



Item 9 

Install new elements every 300 hours or 9,000 miles or 
when plugging is indicated. 

A method of determining when elements are plugged 





Item 9 





to the extent that they should be changed is based on 
the fuel pressure at the cylinder head fuel inlet 
manifold and the inlet restriction at the fuel pump. In 
a clean system, the maximum pump inlet restriction 
must not exceed 6 inches of mercury. At normal 
operating speeds (1800-2800 rpm), the fuel pressure is 
45 to 70 psi. Change the fuel filter elements whenever 
the inlet restriction (suction ) at the fuel pump reaches 
12 inches of mercury at normal operating speeds and 
whenever the fuel pressure at the inlet manifold falls 
to 45 psi. 



Item 10 

Remove the dirty oil and sludge from the oil bath type 
air cleaner cups and center tubes every 8 hours (every 
6,000 miles for highway vehicle engines), or less if 
operating conditions warrant. Wash the cups and 
elements in clean fuel oil and refill the cups to the 
level mark with the same grade and viscosity heavy- 
duty oil as used in the engine. The frequency of 
servicing may be varied to suit local dust conditions. 

It is recommended that the body and fixed element in 
the heavy-duty oil bath type air cleaner be serviced 
every 500 hours, 15,000 miles or as conditions warrant. 

Clean or replace the element in the dry-type air 
cleaner when the restriction indicator instrument 
indicates high restriction or when a water manometer 
reading at the air inlet housing indicates the 
maximum allowable air inlet restriction (Section 13.2). 



Item 11 

With the engine running, check for flow of air from 
the air box drain tubes every 1,000 hours or 30,000 
miles. If the tubes are clogged, remove, clean and 
reinstall the tubes. The air box drain tubes should be 




ftem 10 



Item 11 



April, 1974 SEC. 15.1 Page 5 



15.1 Preventive Maintenance 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 




Item 12 




Item 13 

cleaned periodically even though a clogged condition 
is not apparent. If the engine is equipped with an air 
box drain tank, drain the sediment periodically. If the 
Engine is equipped with an air box drain check valve, 
replace the valve every 500 hours or 15,000 miles. 



Item 12 

Remove the externally mounted crankcase breather 
assembly every 1,000 hours or 30,000 miles and wash 
the steel mesh pad in clean fuel oil. This cleaning 
period may be reduced or lengthened according to 
severity of service (refer to Section 4.8). 

Clean the internally mounted breather pads at time of 
engine overhaul, or sooner if excessive crankcase 
pressure is observed. 



Clean the '-e :her cap, mounted on the valve rocker 
cover, in clean fuel oil every time the engine oil is 
changed (refer to Section 4.8). 



Item 13 

Inspect the blower screen and gasket assembly every 
1,000 hours or 30,000 miles and, if necessary, clean the 
screen in fuel oil and dry it with compressed air. 
Reinstall the screen and gasket assembly with the 
screen side of the assembly toward the blower. 



Item 14 

The electrical starting motor is lubricated at 1 the time 
of original assembly. Oil can be added to the oil wicks, 
which project through each bushing and contact the 
armature shaft, by removing the pipe plugs on the 
outside of the motor. The wicks should be lubricated 
whenever the starting motor is taken off the engine or 
disassembled. 

The Sprag overrunning clutch drive mechanism should 
be lubricated with a few drops of light engine oil 
whenever the starting motor is overhauled. 



Item 15 

Lubricate the battery-charging generator (alternator) 
bearings or bushings with 5 or 6 drops of engine oil at 
the hinge cap oiler every 200 hours or 6,000 miles. 

On early generators equipped with grease cups, turn 
the cups down one full turn every 100 hours or 3,000 
miles of operation. Keep the grease cups filled with 




f 



Item 14 




Page 6 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Preventive Maintenance 15.1 




Item 15 

Delco-Remy Cam and Ball Bearing Lubricating, or 
equivalent. Avoid excessive, lubrication since this may 
cause lubricant to be forced onto the commutator. 

Some generators have a built-in supply of grease, 
while others use sealed bearings. In these Jatter two 
cases, additional lubrication is not necessary. 

On D.C. generators, inspect the commutator and 
brushes every 500 hours or 15,000 miles. Clean the 
commutator every 2,000 hours or 60,000 miles, if 
necessary, with No. 00 sandpaper or a brush seating 
stone. After cleaning, reseat the brushes and blow out 
the dust. 

On A.C. generators (alternators), the slip rings and 
brushes can be inspected through the end frame 
assembly. If the slip rings are dirty, they should be 
cleaned with 400 grain or finer polishing cloth. Never 
use emery cloth to clean slip rings. Hold the polishing 
cloth against the slip rings with the generator in 
operation and blow away all dust after the cleaning 
operation. If the slip rings are rough or out of round, 
replace them. 

Inspect the terminals for corrosion and loose 
connections and the wiring for frayed insulation. 



Item 16 

Check the specific gravity of the electrolyte in each cell 



of the battery every 100 hours or 3,000 miles. In warm 
weather, however, it should be checked more 
frequently due to a more rapid loss of water from the 
electrolyte. The electrolyte level should be maintained 
accordance with the battery manufacturer's 



in 



recommendations. 



April, 1974 SEC. 15.1 Page 7 



15.1 Preventive Maintenance 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Item 19 

There is no scheduled interval for performing an 
engine tune-up. As long as the engine performance is 
satisfactory, no tune-up should be needed. Minor 
adjustments in the valve and injector operating 
mechanisms, governor, etc. should only be required 
periodically to compensate for normal wear on parts. 



Item 20 

New standard V-belts will stretch after the first few 
hours of operation. Run the engine for 15 seconds to 
seat the belts, then retension them. Retighten new fan 
drive, pump drive, battery-charging generator and 
other accessory drive belts after 1/2 hour or 15 miles 
and again after 8 hours or 240 miles of operation. 
Thereafter, check the tension of the drive belts every 
200 hours or 6,000 miles and adjust, if necessary. Too 
tight a belt is destructive to the bearings of the driven 
part; a loose belt will slip. 

Replace all belts in a set when one is worn. Single belts 
of similar size should not be used as a substitute for a 
matched belt set; premature belt wear can result 
because of belt length variation. All belts in a matched 
belt set are within .032 "of their specified center 
distances. 

Adjust the belt tension so that a firm push with the 
thumb, at a point midway between the two pulleys, 
will depress the belt 1/2" to 3/4" . If belt tension gage 
BT-33-73FA or equivalent is available, adjust the belt 
tension as outlined in the Chart. 




Item 20 



Engine 
Model 


Fan Drive 


Generator Drive 


2 or 3 
Belts 


Single 
Belt 


Two 3/8" 
or 
1/2" Belts 


One 1/2" 
Belt 


One Wide 
Belt 1 


2, 3, 4-53 
6, 8V-53 


40-50 
60-80 


80-100 


40-50 
40-50 


50-70 
50-70 


40-50 
40-50 


All 


For 3-point or triangular drive use a tension of 90-120. 



"Belt tension is 50-70 for a single premium high capacity belt 
(.785" wide) used to drive a 12 cfm air compressor.; 

BELT TENSION CHART (Ibs/belt) 

NOTE: When installing or adjusting an acces- 
sory drive belt, be sure the bolt at the accessory 
Adjusting pivot point is properly tightened, as 
"" a s the bolt in the adjusting slot. 



Item 22 

At a major engine overhaul, discard the bearings in 
the fan hub assembly used in radiator cooled engines. 
Pack the hub assembly, using new bearings, with 
Texaco Premium RB or an equivalent performance 
grease. 



Item 23 

Check the shut-down system every 300 operating hours 
or each month to be sure it will function when needed. 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



15.2 



TROUBLE SHOOTING 



Certain abnormal conditions which sometimes inter- 
fere with satisfactory engine operation, together with 
methods of determining the cause of such conditions, 
are covered on the following pages. 

Satisfactory engine operation depends primarily on: 

1. An adequate supply of air compressed to a 
sufficiently high compression pressure. 

2. The injection of the proper amount of fuel' at the 
right time. 

Lack of power, uneven running, excessive vibration, 
stalling at idle speed and hard starting may be caused 
by either low compression, faulty injection in one or 
more cylinders, or lack of sufficient air. 

Since proper compression, fuel injection and the 
proper amount of air are important to good engine 
performance, detailed procedures for their investiga- 
tion are given as follows: 



Locating a Misfiring Cylinder 

1. Start the engine and run it at part load until it 
reaches normal operating temperature. 

2. Stop the engine and remove the valve rocker 
cover(s). 

3. Check ihe valve clearance. 

4. Start the engine. Then hold an injector follower 
down with a screw driver to prevent operation of the 




injector. If the cylinder has been misfiring, there will 
be no noticeable difference in the sound and operation 
of the engine. If the cylinder has been firing properly, 
there will be a noticeable difference in the sound and 
operation when the injector follower is held down. 
This is similar to short-circuiting a spark plug in a 
gasoline engine. 

5. If the cylinder is firing properly, repeat the 
procedure on the other cylinders until the faulty one 
has been located. 

6. Provided the injector operating mechanism of the 
faulty cylinder is functioning satisfactorily, remove the 
fuel injector and install a new one. 

7. If installation of a new injector does not eliminate 
the misfiring, check the compression pressure of the 
cylinder in question. 



Checking Compression Pressure 

Compression pressure is affected by altitude as shown 
in Table 1. 

Check the compression pressure as follows: 

1. Start the engine and run it at approximately one- 
half rated load until normal operating temperature is 
reached. 



Minimum Compression 
Pressure (psi) at 600 rpm 


Altitude, Feet 
Above Sea Levol 


Std. Engine 




430 







400 




2,500 


370 




5,000 


340 




7,500 


315 




10,000 



TABLE 1 

2. Stop the engine and remove the fuel pipes from the 
injector and fuel connectors of the No. 1 cylinder. 

3. Remove the injector and install adaptor J 7915-02 
and pressure gage and hose assembly J 6992 (Fig. 1 ). 

4. Use a spare fuel pipe to fabricate a jumper 
connection between the fuel inlet and return manifold 
connectors. This will permit fuel from the inlet 
manifold to flow directly to the return manifold. 



Fig. 1 Checking Compression Pressure 5. Start the engine and run it at a 600 rpm. Observe 



November, 1973 SEC. 15.2 Page 1 



15.2 Trouble Shooting (Engine) 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



and record the compression pressure indicated on the 
gage. Do not crank the engine with the starting motor to 
obtain the compression pressure. 

6. Perform Steps 2 through 5 on each cylinder. The 
compression pressure in any one cylinder at a given 
altitude above sea level should not be less than the 
minimum shown in Table 1. In additon, the variation 
in compression pressures between cylinders must not 
exceed 25 psi at 600 rpm. 



fuel and the fuel pipes rid of air in order for the 
system to provide adequate fuel for the injectors. 

When an engine has run out of fuel, there is a definite 
procedure to follow for restarting it: 

1. Fill the fuel tank with the recommended grade of 
fuel oil. If only partial filling of the tank is possible, 
add a minimum of ten gallons of fuel. 

2. Remove the fuel strainer shell and element from the 
strainer cover and fill the shell with fuel oil. Install the 
shell and element. 

3. Remove and fill the fuel filter shell and element 
with fuel oil as in Step 2. 

4. Start the engine. Check the filter and strainer for 
leaks. 

NOTE: In some instances, it may be necessary to 
remove .a valve rocker cover and loosen a fuel 
pipe nut to bleed trapped air from the fuel 
system. Be sure the fuel pipe is retightened 
securely before replacing the rocker cover. 

Primer J 5956 may be used to prime the entire fuel 
system. Remove the filler plug in the fuel filter cover 
and install the primer. Prime the system. Remove the 
primer and install the filler plug. 



Low compression .pressure may result from any one of 
several causes: 

A. Piston rings may be stuck or broken. To 
determine the condition of the rings, remove the 
air box cover and inspect them by pressing on the 
rings with a blunt tool. A broken or stuck ring will 
not have a "spring-like" action. 

B. Compression pressure may be leaking past the 
cylinder head gasket, the valve seats, the injector 
tube or a hole in the piston. 



Engine Out of Fuel 

The problem in restarting an engine after it has run 
out of fuel sterns from the fact that after the fuel is 
exhausted from the fuel tank, fuel is then pumped 
from the primary fuel strainer and sometimes partially 
removed from the secondary fuel filter before the fuel 
supply becomes insufficient to sustain engine firing. 
Consequently, these components must be refilled with 

Page 2 



Fuel Flow Test 

The proper flow of fuel is required for satisfactory 
engine operation. Check the condition of the fuel 
pump, fuel strainer and fuel filter as outlined in 
Section 2.0 under Trouble Shooting. 



Crankcase Pressure 

The crankcase pressure indicates the amount of air 
passing between the oil control rings and the cylinder 
liners into the crankcase, most of which is clean air 
from the air box. A slight pressure in the crankcase is 
desirable to prevent the entrance of dust. A loss of 
engine lubricating oil through the breather tube, 
crankcase ventilator or dipstick hole in the cylinder 
block is indicative of excessive crankcase pressure. 

The causes of high crankcase pressure may be traced 
to excessive blow-by due to worn piston rings, a hole 
or crack in a piston crown, loose piston pin retainers, 
worn blower oil seals, defective blower, cylinder head 
or end plate gaskets, or excessive exhaust back 
pressure. Also, the breather tube or crankcase 
ventilator should be checked for obstructions. 

Check the crankcase pressure with a manometer 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Trouble Shooting (Engine) 15.2 



connected to the oil level dipstick opening in the 
cylinder block. Check the readings obtained at various 
engine speeds with the Engine Operating Conditions in 
Section 13.2. 



Exhaust Back Pressure 

A slight pressure in the exhaust system is normal. 
However, excessive exhaust back pressure seriously 
affects engine operation. It may cause an increase in 
the air box pressure with a resultant loss of efficiency 
of the blower. This means less air for scavenging 
which results in poor combustion and higher 
temperatures. 

Causes of high exhaust back pressure are usually a 
result of an inadequate or improper type of muffler, 
an exhaust pipe which is too long or too small in 
diameter, an excessive number of sharp bends in the 
exhaust system, or obstructions such as excessive 
carbon formation or foreign matter in the exhaust 
system. 

Check the exhaust back pressure, measured in inches 
of mercury, with a manometer. Connect the manome- 
ter to the exhaust manifold (except on turbocharged 
engines) by removing the 1/8 " pipe plug which is 
provided for that purpose. If no opening is provided, 
drill an 1 1 /32 " hole in the exhaust manifold 
companion flange and tap the hole to accommodate a 
1/8 " pipe plug. 



Air Box Pressure 

Proper air box pressure is required to maintain 
sufficient air for combustion and scavenging of the 
burned gases. Low air box pressure is caused by a high 
air inlet restriction, damaged blower rotors, an air leak 
from the air box (such as leaking end plate gaskets) or 
a clogged blower air inlet screen. Lack of power or 
black or grey exhaust smoke are indications of low air 
box pressure. 

High air box pressure can be caused by partially 
plugged cylinder liner ports. 



Check the air box pressure with 
connected to an air box drain tube. 



a manometer 



Check the readings obtained at various speeds (at no- 
load) with the Engine Operating Conditions in 
Section 13.2. 



Check the readings obtained at various speeds with the 
Engine Operating Conditions in Section 13.2. 



Air Inlet Restriction 

Excessive restriction of the air inlet will affect the flow 
of air to the cylinders and result in poor combustion 
and lack of power. Consequently the restriction must 
be kept as low as possible considering the size and 
capacity of the air cleaner. An obstruction in the air 
inlet system or dirty or damaged air cleaners will 
result in a high blower inlet restriction. 

Check the air inlet restriction with a water manometer 
connected to a fitting in the air inlet ducting located 
2 " above the air inlet housing. When practicability 
prevents the insertion of a fitting at this point, the 
manometer may be connected to the engine air inlet 
housing. The restriction at this point should be 
checked at a specific engine speed. Then the air 
cleaner and ducting should be removed from the air 
inlet housing and the engine again operated at the 
same speed while noting the manometer reading. 

The difference between the two readings, with and 
without the air cleaner and ducting, is the actual 
restriction caused by the air cleaner and ducting. 

Check the normal air inlet vacuum at various speeds 
(at no-load) and compare the results with the Engine 
Operating Conditions in Section 13.2. 



PROPER USE OF MANOMETER 



The U-tube manometer is a primary measuring device 
indicating pressure or vacuum by the difference in the 
height of two columns of fluid. 

Connect the manometer to the source of pressure, 
vacuum or differential pressure. When the pressure is 
imposed, add the number of inches one column of 



fluid travels up to the amount the other column travels 
down to obtain the pressure (or vacuum) reading. 

The height of a column of mercury is read differently 
than that of a column of water. Mercury does not wet 
the inside surface; therefore, the top of the column 
has a convex meniscus (shape). Water wets the surface 



November, 1973 SEC. 15.2 Page 3 



PRESSURE CONVERSION CHART 


1" water = 
1" water = 
1" mercury = 
1" mercury - 
1 psi = 
1 psi = 


.0735" mercury 
.0361 psi 
.4919 psi 
13.6000" water 
27.7000" water 
2.0360" mercury 



TABLE 3 

and therefore has a concave meniscus. A mercury 
column is read by sighting horizontally between the 
top of the convex mercury surface (Fig. 2) and the 
scale. A water manometer is read by sighting 
horizontally between the bottom of the concave water 
surface and the scale. 

Should one column of fluid travel further than the 
other column, due to minor variations in the inside 
diameter of the tube or to the pressure imposed, the 
accuracy of the reading obtained is not impaired. 





^-~~^ 


HEIGHT 


r ^ "T 

^ y 




/^~^\ 


COLUMN 






Hg 




H 2 






'^_- ^^ 


TOP SURFACE OF FLUIDS 


.- - ^s- 




CONVEX FOR MERCURY CONCAVE FOR WATER 



Fig. 2 Comparison of Column Height for 
Mercury and Water Manometers 



Refer to Table 3 to convert the manometer reading 
into other units of measurement. 



Page 4 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Trouble Shooting (Engine) 15.2 



Chart 1 



EXHAUST SMOKE ANALYSIS 



MAKE CHECKS WITH MINIMUM WATER OUTLET TEMPERATURE OF 160 F. 



Probable Causes 



BLACK OR GREY SMOKE 



Check For 



1. INCOMPLETELY BURNED FUEL | 



2. EXCESSIVE FUEL OR IRREGULAR 
FUEL DISTRIBUTION 



3. IMPROPER GRADE OF FUEL 



BLUE SMOKE 



Check For 



4. LUBRICATING OIL NOT BURNED 
IN CYLINDER (BLOWN 
THROUGH CYLINDER DURING 
SCAVENGING PERIOD) 



WHITE SMOKE 



1 



Check For 



5. MISFIRING CYLINDERS 



SUGGESTED REMEDY 



1. High exhaust back pressure or a restricted air inlet 
causes insufficient air for combustion and will result in 
incompletely burned fuel. 

High exhaust back pressure is caused by faulty exhaust 
piping or muffler obstruction and is measured at the 
exhaust manifold outlet with a manometer. Replace 
faulty parts. 

Restricted air inlet to the engine cylinders is caused by 
clogged cylinder liner ports, air cleaner or blower air 
inlet screen. Clean these items. Check the emergency 
stop to make sure that it is completely open and 
readjust it if necessary. 

2. Check for improperly timed injectors and 
improperly positioned injector rack control levers. 
Time the fuel injectors and perform the appropriate 
governor tune-up. 



Replace faulty injectors if this condition still persists 
after timing the injectors and performing the engine 
tune-up. 

Avoid lugging the engine as this will cause incomplete 
combustion. 

3. Check for use of an improper grade of fuel. Refer 
to Fuel Oil Specifications in Section 13.3. 

4. Check for internal lubricating oil leaks and refer to 
the High Lubricating Oil Consumption chart. 

5. Check for faulty injectors and replace as necessary. 

Check for low compression and consult the Hard 
Starting chart. 

The use of low cetane fuel will cause this condition. 
Refer to Fuel Oil Specifications in Section 13.3. 



November, 1973 SEC. 15.2 Page 5 



15.2 Trouble Shooting (Engine) 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Chart 2 



HARD STARTING 



Probable Causes 



ENGINE WILL NOT ROTATE 



Check For 



LOW BATTERY VOLTAGE, 
LOOSE STARTER CONNECTIONS 
OR FAULTY STARTER 



_L 



|2. DEFECTIVE STARTING MOTOR SWITCH 

I " ~ 



1 3. INTERNAL SEIZURE 



LOW CRANKING SPEED 



Check For 



4. IMPROPER LUBRICATING OIL 
VISCOSITY 



[Y. LOW BATTERY OUTPUT 



6. LOOSE STARTER CONNECTIONS 
OR FAULTY STARTER 



NO FUEL 



1 



Check For 



7. AIR LEAKS. FLOW OBSTRUCTION, 
FAULTY FUEL PUMP. 

FAULTY INSTALLATION 

I 
'""" NOT IN 



LOW COMPRESSION 



Check For | 



9. EXHAUST VALVES STICKING 
OR BURNED 



10. COMPRESSION RINGS WORN 
OR BROKEN 



(.CYLINDER HEAD 
GASKET LEAKING 



12. IMPROPER VALVE 

CLEARANCE ADJUSTMENT 



13. BLOWER NOT FUNCTIONING 



INOPERATIVE STARTING AID 
AT LOW AMBIENT TEMP. 



Check For 



14. IMPROPER OPERATION OF 
FLUID STARTING AID 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Trouble Shooting (Engine) 15.2 



Chart 2 



HARD STARTING 



-SUGGESTED REMEDY 



1. Refer to Items 2, 3 and 5 and perform the 
operations listed. 

2. Replace the starting motor switch. 

3. Hand crank the engine at least one complete 
revolution. If the engine cannot be rotated a complete 
revolution, internal damage is indicated and the 
engine must be disassembled to ascertain the extent of 
damage and the cause. 

4. Refer to Lubricating Oil Specifications in 
Section 13.3 for the recommended grade of oil. 

5. Recharge the battery if a light load test indicates 
low or no voltage. Replace the battery if it is damaged 
or will not hold a charge. 

Replace terminals that are damaged or corroded. 

At low ambient temperatures, use of a starting aid will 
keep the battery fully charged by reducing the 
cranking time. 

6. Tighten the starter connections. Inspect the starter 
commutator and brushes for wear. Replace the brushes 
if badly worn and overhaul the starting motor if the 
commutator is damaged. 

7. To check for air leaks, flow obstruction, faulty fuel 



pump or faulty installation, consult the No Fuel or 
Insufficient Fuel chart. 

8. Check for bind in the governor-to-injector linkage. 
Readjust the governor and injector controls if 
necessary. 

9. Remove the cylinder head and recondition the 
exhaust valves. 

10. Remove the air box covers and inspect the 
compression rings through the ports in the cylinder 
liners. Overhaul the cylinder assemblies if the rings 
are badly worn or broken. 

1 1 . To check for compression gasket leakage, remove 
the coolant filler cap and operate the engine. A steady 
flow of gases from the coolant filler indicates either a 
cylinder head gasket is damaged or the cylinder head 
is cracked. Remove the cylinder head and replace the 
gaskets or cylinder head. 

12. Adjust the exhaust valve clearance. 

13. Inspect the blower drive shaft and drive coupling. 
Replace damaged parts. 

14. Operate the starting aid according to the 
instructions under Cold Weather Starting Aids. 



November, 1973 SEC. 15.2 Page 7 



1 5.2 Trouble Shooting (Engine) 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Chart 3 



ABNORMAL ENGINE OPERATION 



Probable Causes 



UNEVEN RUNNING OR 
FREQUENT STALLING 



Check For 



I 



1. LOW COOLANT TEMPERATURE 



2. INSUFFICIENT FUEL 



3. FAULTY INJECTORS 



4. LOW COMPRESSION PRESSURES 



5. GOVERNOR INSTABILITY 
(HUNTING) 



LACK OF POWER 



Check For 



6. IMPROPER ENGINE ADJUSTMENTS 
(TUNE-UP) AND GEAR TRAIN TIMING 



7. INSUFFICIENT FUEL 



8. INSUFFICIENT AIR 



9. ENGINE APPLICATION 



10. HIGH RETURN FUEL TEMPERATURE 



1 . HIGH AMBIENT AIR TEMPERATURE 



12. HIGH ALTITUDE OPERATION 



DETONATION 



Check For 



13. OIL PICKED UP BY AIR STREAM 



14. LOW COOLANT TEMPERATURE 



15. FAULTY INJECTORS 



Page 8 




Chart 3 



ABNORMAL iNGINE OPERATION 



SUGGESTED REMEDY 



1. Check the engine coolant temperature gage and, if 
the temperature does not reach 160 to 185 F. while 
the engine is operating, consult the Abnormal Engine 
Coolant Temperature chart. 

2. Check engine fuel spill back and if the return is less 
than specified, consult the No Fuel or Insufficient Fuel 
chart. 

3. Check the injector timing and the position of the 
injector racks. If the engine was not tuned correctly, 
perform an engine tune-up. Erratic engine operation 
may also be caused by leaking injector spray tips. 
Replace the faulty injectors. 

4. Check the compression pressures within the 
cylinders and consult the Hard Starting chart if 
compression pressures are low. 

5. Erratic engine operation may be caused by 
governor-to-injector operating linkage bind or by 
faulty engine tune-up. Perform the appropriate engine 
tune-up procedure as outlined for the particular 
governor used. 

6. Perform an engine tune-up if performance is not 
satisfactory. 

Check the engine gear train timing. An improperly 
timed gear train will result in a loss of power due to 
the valves and injectors being actuated at the wrong 
time in the engine's operating cycle. 

7. Perform a Fuel Flow Test and, if less than the 
specified fuel is returning to the fuel tank, consult the 
No Fuel or Insufficient Fuel chart. 

8. Check for damaged or dirty air cleaners and clean, 
repair or replace damaged parts. 

Remove the air box covers and inspect the cylinder 
liner ports. Clean the ports if they are over 50% 
plugged. 

Check for blower air intake obstruction or high 



exhaust back pressure. Clean, repair or replace faulty 
parts. 

Check the compression pressures (consult the Hard 
Starting chart). 

9. Incorrect operation of the engine may result in 
excessive loads on the engine. Operate the engine 
according to the approved procedures. 

10. Refer to Item 13 on Chart 4. 

11. Check the ambient air temperature. A power 
decrease of .15 to .50 horsepower per cylinder, 
depending upon injector size, for each 10 F. 
temperature rise above 90 F. will occur. Relocate the 
engine air intake to provide a cooler source of air. 

12. Engines lose horsepower with increase in altitude. 
The percentage of power loss is governed by the 
altitude at which the engine is operating. 

13. Fill oil bath air cleaners to the proper level with 
the same grade and viscosity lubricating oil that is 
used in the engine. 

Clean the air box and drain tubes to prevent 
accumulations that may be picked up by the air stream 
and enter the engine's cylinders. 

Inspect the blower oil seals by removing the air inlet 
housing and watching through the blower inlet for oil 
radiating away from the blower rotor shaft oil seals 
while the engine is running. If oil is passing through 
the seals, overhaul the blower. 

Check for a defective blower-to-block gasket. Replace 
the gasket, if necessary. 

14. Refer to Item 1 of this chart. 

15. Check injector liming and the position of each 
injector rack. Perform an engine tune-up, if necessary. 
If the engine is correctly tuned, the erratic operation 
may be caused by an injector check valve leaking, 
spray tip holes enlarged or a broken spray tip. Replace 
faulty injectors. 



November, 1973 SEC. 15.2 Page 9 



15.2 Trouble Shooting (Engine) 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Chart 4 



NO FUEL OR INSUFFICIENT FUEL 



I 



Probable Causes 



AIR LEAKS 



1 



Check For 



1 



|l. LOW FUEL SUPPLY 



1 



2. LOOSE CONNECTIONS OR CRACKED 
LINES BETWEEN FUEL PUMP AND 
TANK OR SUCTION LINE IN TANK 



3. DAMAGED FUEL OIL STRAINER 
GASKET 



4. FAULTY INJECTOR TIP ASSEMBLY 



FLOW OBSTRUCTION 



I 



Check For 



I 



5. FUEL STRAINER OR LINES RESTRICTED 



6. TEMPERATURE LESS THAN 10 F. 
ABOVE POUR POINT OF FUEL 



FAULTY FUEL PUMP 



1 



Check For 



I 



7. RELIEF VALVE NOT SEATING 

I 



8. WORN GEARS OR PUMP BODY 



1 



9. FUEL PUMP NOT ROTATING 



FAULTY INSTALLATION 



I 



I Check For 
i 



10. DIAMETER OF FUEL SUCTION 
LINES TOO SMALL 



RESTRICTED FITTING 
MISSING FROM RETURN LINE 



12. INOPERATIVE FUEL INTAKE 
LINE CHECK VALVE 



13. HIGH FUEL RETURN 
TEMPERATURE 



onwuimy 





Chart 4 



NO FUEL OR INSUFFICIENT FUEL 



SUGGESTED REMEDY 



1. The fuel tank should be filled above the level of the 
fuel suction tube. 

2. Perform a Fuel Flow Test and, if air is present, 
tighten loose connections and replace cracked lines. 

3. Perform a Fuel Flow Test and, if air is present, 
replace the fuel strainer gasket when changing the 
strainer element. 

4. Perform a Fuel Flow Test and, if air is present with 
all fuel lines and connections assembled correctly, 
check for and replace faulty injectors. 

5. Perform a Fuel Flow Test and replace the fuel 
strainer and filter elements and the fuel lines, if 
necessary, 

6. Consult the Fuel Oil Specifications for the 
recommended grade of fuel. 

7. Perform a Fuel Flow Test and, if inadequate, clean 
and inspect the valve seat assembly. 



8. Replace the gear and shaft assembly or the pump 
body. 

9. Check the condition of the fuel pump drive and 
blower drive and replace defective parts. 

10. Replace with larger tank-to-engine fuel lines. 

1 1. Install a restricted fitting in the return line. 

12. Make sure that the check valve is installed in the 
line correctly; the arrow should be on top of the valve 
assembly or pointing upward. Reposition the valve if 
necessary. If the valve is inoperative, replace it with a 
new valve assembly. 

13. Check the engine fuel spill-back temperature. The 
return fuel temperature must be less than 150 F. or a 
loss in horsepower will occur. This condition may be 
corrected by installing larger fuel lines or relocating 
the fuel tank to a cooler position. 




November, 1973 SEC. 15.2 Page 11 



15.2 Trouble Shooting (Engine) 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Chart 5 



HIGH LUBRICATING OIL CONSUMPTION 



I 



Probable Causes 

























IXTERNAL LEAKS 


OIL CONTROL AT CYLINDER 
















Check For | 


Check For 










1. OIL LINES 


OR CONNECTIONS LEAKING 


7. OIL CONTROL RINGS WORN, BROKEN 
OR IMPROPERLY INSTALLED 






2. GASKET OR OIL SEAL LEAKS 










8. PISTON PIN RETAINER LOOSE 


3. HIGH CRANKCASE PRESSURE 










9. SCORED LINERS, PISTONS 
OIL RINGS 


OR 


4. EXCESSIVE OIL IN AIR BOX 










10. PISTON AND ROD ALIGNMENT 







INTERNAL LEAKS 



EXCESSIVE INSTALLATION ANGLE 



12. EXCESSIVE OIL IN CRANKCASE 



Check For 



5. BLOWER OIL SEAL LEAKING 



I 



[6. OIL COOLER CORE LEAKING 



-SUGGESTED RiMEDY- 



1 . Tighten connections or replace defective parts. 

2. Replace defective gaskets or oil seals. 

3. Refei to the Excessive Crankcase Pressure chart. 

4. Refer to the Abnormal Engine Operation chart. 

5. Remove the air inlet housing and inspect the blower 
end plates while the engine is operating. If oil is seen 
on the end plate radiating away from the oil seal, 
overhaul the blower. 

6. Inspect the engine coolant for lubricating oil 



contamination; if contaminated, replace the oil cooler 
core. Then use a good grade of cooling system cleaner 
to remove the oil from the cooling system. 

7. Replace the oil control rings. 

8. Replace the piston pin retainer and defective parts. 

9. Remove and replace the defective parts. 

10. Check the crankshaft thrust washers for wear. 
Replace worn and defective parts. 

1 1 . Decrease the installation angle. 

12. Fill the crankcase to the proper level only. 






Page 12 




UMCOCL 



I rouble onootmg (tngine) 



Chart 6 



EXCESSIVE CRANKCASE PRESSURE 



I 



Probable Causes | 



2. PISTON OR 



3. PISTON RINGS 











1 








BLOW-BY 






AIR FROM 


1 






OR Al 


ck For 








1 






| Chech 


1 








1EAD 








DICING 






5. DAMAGED B 


1 






TO-BLOCK G/ 










AGED 






6. CYLINDER BI 


1 






PLATE GASK 


GS 

ROKEN 






























EXCESSIVE 



BREATHER RESTRICTION 



Check For 



4. OBSTRUCTION OR 

DAMAGE TO BREATHER 



BACK PRESSURE 



I 



I Check For 



7. EXCESSIVE MUFFLER 
RESISTANCE 



1 



8. FAULTY EXHAUST PIPING 



SUGGESTED REMEDY 



1. Check the compression pressure and, if only one 
cylinder has low compression, remove the cylinder 
head and replace the head gaskets. 

2. Inspect the piston and liner and replace damaged 
parts. 

3. Install new piston rings. 

4. Clean and repair or replace the breather assembly. 



5. Replace the blower-to-block gasket. 

6. Replace the end plate gasket. 

7. Check the exhaust back pressure and repair or 
replace the muffler if an obstruction is found. 

8. Check the exhaust back pressure and install larger 
piping if it is determined that the piping is too small, 
too long or has too many bends. 



November, 1973 SEC. 15.2 Page 13 



15.2 Trouble Shooting (Engine) 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Chart 7 



LOW OIL PRESSURE 



MAKE CHECKS WITH MINIMUM WATER OUTLET TEMPERATURE OF 160F. 



T 



Probable Causes 



LUBRICATING OIL 



1 



Check For 



1. SUCTION LOSS 



2. LUBRICATING OIL VISCOSITY 



POOR CIRCULATION 



[Check For 



3. COOLER CLOGGED 



4. COOLER BY-PASS VALVE NOT 
FUNCTIONING PROPERLY 



5. PRESSURE REGULATOR 
VALVE NOT 
FUNCTIONING PROPERLY 



6. EXCESSIVE WEAR ON 
CRANKSHAFT BEARINGS 



7. GALLERY, CRANKSHAFT OR 
CAMSHAFT PLUGS MISSING 



PRESSURE GAGE 



I 



Check For 



8. FAULTY GAGE 



9. GAGE LINE OBSTRUCTED 



10. GAGE ORIFICE PLUGGED 



1. ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENT 
PANEL SENDING UNITS FAULTY 



OIL PUMP 



1 



Check For 



12. INTAKE SCREEN PARTIALLY 
CLOGGED 



13. RELIEF VALVE FAULTY 



14. AIR LEAK IN PUMP SUCTION 



15. PUMP WORN OR DAMAGED 



16. FLANGE LEAK (PRESSURE SIDE) 



Page 14 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Trouble Shooting (Engine) 15.2 



Ch<wt 7 



LOW OIL PRESSURE 



1. Check the oil and bring it to the proper level on the 
dipstick or correct the installation angle. 

2. Consult the Lubricating Oil Specifications in 
Section 13.3 for the recommefhded grade and viscosity 
of oil. 

Check for fuel leaks at the injector nut seal ring and 
fuel pipe connections. Leaks at these points will cause 
lubricating oil dilution. 

3. A plugged oil cooler is indicated by excessively high 
lubricating oil temperature. Remove and clean the oil 
cooler core. 

4. Remove the by-pass valve and clean the valve and 
valve seat and inspect the valve spring. Replace 
defective parts. 

5. Remove the pressure regulator valve and clean the 
valve and valve seat and inspect the valve spring. 
Replace defective parts. 

6. Change the bearings. Consult the Lubricating Oil 
Specifications in Section 13.3 for the proper grade and 
viscosity of oil. Change the oil filters. 



SUGGESTED REMEDY 



7. Replace missing plugs. 

8. Check the oil pressure with a reliable gage and 
replace the gage if found faulty. 

9. Remove and clean the gage line; replace it, if 
necessary. 

10. Remove and clean the gage orifice. 

1 1. Repair or replace defective electrical equipment. 

12. Remove and clean the oil pan and oil intake 
screen. Consult the Lubricating Oil Specifications in 
Section 13.3 for the proper grade and viscosity of oil. 
Change the oil niters. 

13. Remove and inspect the valve, valve bore and 
spring. Replace faulty parts. 

14. Disassemble the piping and install new gaskets. 

15. Remove the pump. Clean and replace defective 
parts. 

16. Remove the flange and replace the gasket. 



November, 1973 SEC. 15.2 Page 15 



15.2 Trouble Shooting (Engine) 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Chart 8 



ABNORMAL ENGINE COOLANT 
OPERATING TEMPERATURE 



I 



Probable Causes | 



ABOVE NORMAL 



I 



Check For| 



1. INSUFFICIENT HEAT 
TRANSFER 



2. POOR CIRCULATION 



1. Clean the cooling system with a good cooling system 
cleaner and thoroughly flush to remove scale deposits. 

Clean the exterior of the radiator core to open plugged 
passages and permit normal air flow. 

Adjust fan belts to the proper tension to prevent 
slippage. 

Check for an improper size radiator or inadequate 
shrouding. 

Repair or replace inoperative temperature-controlled 
fan or inoperative shutters. 

2. Check the coolant level and fill to the filler neck if 
the coolant level is low. 

Inspect for collapsed or disintegrated hoses. Replace 
faulty hoses. 

Thermostat may be inoperative. Remove, inspect and 
test the thermostat; replace if found faulty. 

Check the water pump for a loose or damaged 
impeller. 



BELOW NORMAL 



I 



Check For | 



3. IMPROPER CIRCULATION 



4. EXCESSIVE LEAKAGE 
AT THERMOSTAT SEAL 



REMEDY 



Check the flow of coolant through the radiator. A 
clogged radiator will cause an inadequate supply of 
coolant on the suction side of the pump. Clean the 
radiator core. 

Remove the coolant filler cap and operate the engine, 
checking for combustion gases in the cooling system. 
The cylinder head must be removed and inspected for 
cracks and the head gaskets replaced if combustion 
gases are entering the cooling system. 

Check for an air leak on the suction side of the water 
pump. Replace defective parts. 

3. The thermostat may not be closing. Remove, inspect 
and test the thermostat. Install a new thermostat, if 
necessary. 

Check for an improperly installed heater. 

4. Excessive leakage of coolant past the thermostat 
seal(s) is a cause of continued low coolant operating 
temperature. When this occurs, replace the thermostat 
seal(s). 




'age 16 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



15.3 



SfORAGi 



PREPARING ENGINE FOR STORAGE 



When an engine is to be stored or removed from 
operation for a period of time, special precautions 
should be taken to protect the interior and exterior of 
the engine, transmission and other parts from rust 
accumulation and corrosion. The parts requiring 
attention and the recommended preparations are 
given below. 

It will be necessary to remove all rust or corrosion 



completely from any exposed part before applying a 
rust preventive compound. Therefore, it is recommen- 
ded that the engine be processed for storage as soon as 
possible after removal from operation. 

The engine should be stored in a building which is dry 
and can be heated during the winter months. Moisture 
absorbing chemicals are available commercially for 
use when excessive dampness- prevails in the storage 
area. 



TEMPORARY STORAGE (30 days or less) 



To protect an engine for a temporary period of time, 
proceed as follows: 

1 . Drain the engine crankcase. 

2. Fill the crankcase to the proper level with the 
recommended viscosity and grade of oil. 

3. Fill the fuel tank with the recommended grade of 
fuel oil. Operate the engine for two minutes at 1200 
rpm and no load. 

NOTE: Do not drain the fuel system or the 
crankcase after this run. 

4. Check the air cleaner and service it, if necessary, as 
outlined in Section 3.1. 

5. If freezing weather is expected during the storage 



period, add a high boiling point type antifreeze 
solution in accordance with the manufacturer's 
recommendations. Drain the raw water system and 
leave the drain cocks open. 

6. Clean the entire exterior of the engine (except the 
electrical system) with fuel oil and dry it with 
compressed air. 

7. Seal all of the engine openings. The material used 
for this purpose must be waterproof, vaporproof and 
possess sufficient physical strength to resist puncture 
and damage from the expansion of entrapped air. 

An engine prepared in this manner can be returned to 
service in a short time by removing the seals at the 
engine openings, checking the engine coolant, fuel oil, 
lubricating oil, transmission, and priming the raw 
water pump, if used. 



EXTENDED STORAGE (30 days or more) 



When an engine is to be removed from operation for 
an extended period of time, prepare it as follows: 

1. Drain and thoroughly flush the cooling system with 
clean, soft water. 

2. Refill the cooling system with clean, soft water. 

3. Add a rust inhibitor to the cooling system (refer to 
Corrosion Inhibitors'm Section 13.3). 

4. Remove, check and recondition the injectors, if 
necessary, to make sure they will be ready to operate 
when the engine is restored to service. 

5 Reinstall the injectors in the engine, time them, and 
adjust the exhaust valve clearance. 



6. Circulate the coolant through the entire system by 
operating the engine until normal operating tempera- 
ture is reached (160T. to 1857.). 

7. Stop the engine. 

8. Remove the drain plug and completely drain the 
engine crankcase. Reinstall and tighten the drain plug. 
Install new lubricating oil filter elements and gaskets. 

9. Fill the crankcase to the proper level with a 30- 
weight preservative lubricating oil MIL- L-2 1260, 
Grade 2 (P10), or equivalent. 

10. Drain the engine fuel tank. 

11. Refill the fuel tank with enough rust preventive 



November, 1973 SEC. 15.3 Page 1 



15.3 Storage 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



'uel oil such as American Oil Diesel Run-in Fuel (LF- 
1089), Mobil 4Y17, or equivalent, to enable the engine 
o operate 10 minutes. 

12. Drain the fuel filter and strainer. Remove the 
etaining bolts, shells and elements. Discard the used 
:lements and gaskets. Wash the shells in clean fuel oil 
jnd insert new elements. Fill the cavity between the 
ilement and shell about two-thirds full of the same 
ust preventive compound as used in the fuel tank and 
"einstall the shell. 

13. Operate the engine for 5 minutes to circulate the 
rust preventive throughout the engine. 

14. Refer to Section 3.1 and service the air cleaner. 




'age 2 




DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Storage 15.3 



PROCEDURE FOR RESTORING AN ENGINE TO, SERVICE WHICH HAS BEEN 

IN EXTENDED STORAGE 



1. Remove the valve rocker cover(s) and pour at least 
one-half gallon of oil, of the same grade as used in the 
crankcase, over the rocker arms and push rods. 

2. Reinstall the valve rocker cover(s). 

3. Remove the covers and tape from all of the 
openings of the engine, fuel tank and electrical 
equipment. Do not overlook the exhaust outlet. 

4. Wash the exterior of the engine with fuel oil to 
remove the rust preventive. 

5. Remove the rust preventive from the flywheel. 

6. Remove the paper strips from between the pulleys 
and the belts. 

7. Check the crankcase oil level. Fill the crankcase to 
the proper level with the heavy-duty lubricating oil 
recommended under Lubricating Oil Specifications 
(Section 13.3). 

8. Fill the fuel tank with the fuel specified under Diesel 
Fuel Oil Specifications (Section 13.3). 

9. Close all of the drain cocks and fill the engine 
cooling system with clean soft water and a rust 
inhibitor. If the engine is to be exposed to freezing 
temperatures, fill the cooling system with a high 
boiling point type antifreeze solution (refer to 
Section 13.3). 

10. Install and connect the battery. 



1 1. Service the air cleaner as outlined in Section 3.1. 



November, 1973 SEC. 15.3 Page 3 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



Subject 



Section Subject 



Section 



Accessory drives 


1.77 


Damper-vibration 
Description-general 
Diesel principle 


1.3.6 

* 

* 

4.6 
1.1.2 
13.2.1 

7.0 
7 

1.1.1 
3.0 


Air box drains 


1.1.2 


Dipstick-oil level 
Drainsair box 
Dynamometer test 

E 

Electrical starting system-checking 

Electrical system 

End plate-cylinder block 

End plate blower 


Air cleaner 


3.1 


Air intake system 


3 


Air shutdown housing 


3.3 


Air silencer 


32 


B 

Balance shaft . ... 


1.7.2 


Engine: 
Balance . . . 


1.7 

5.4 
15.1 
2.7.1.4 
14.3.4 
2.3 
.4.2 
. 5.7 

* 

1.4 
1.5 
1.7 
2.5.1 
15.2 

2.1.1 
2.1.4 
13.3 
.2.2 
2.2.1 
2 
12.6.1 

1.7.6 


Balance weightsfront 


1.7 


Battery-charging generator .. 


7.1 


F 

Fan engine cooling 
Fan belt adjustment 
Fast idle cylinder. 
Fast idle cylinder 
Filter-fuel 
Filter-lubricating oil 
Filter coolant 
Firing order 
Flywheel 
Flywheel housing 
Front balance weights 
Fuel cooler 
Fuel flow-checking 

Fuel injector (needle valve) 
Fuel injector tube 
Fuel oil specifications 
Fuel pump 
Fuel pump drive 
Fuel system 


Battery-charging generator regulator . 


7.1.1 


Bearings: 
Camshaft and balance shaft .... 


1.7.2 


Connecting rod 
Connecting rod (clearance) 


1.6.2 
1.0 


Crankshaft main 


1.34 


Crankshaft main (clearance) 


1.0 


Crankshaft outboard 


1.3.5.1 


Idler gearengine . . 


. . .. 1.7.4 


Belt adjustmentfan 


15.1 


Block-cylinder 
Blower (in-line) 


1.1 
3.4 


Blower drive gear 


1.7.6 


Blower drive shaft . . . 


1.7.6 


Blower end plates 


3.0 


Bluing injector components 


2.0 


Breather crankcase 


4.8 


C 
Cam followers . . . 


1.2.1 


Fuel system priming pump 
G 

friar hlnu/pr rlrive 


Camshaft 


1.7.2 


Camshaft and balance shaft gears 


1 73 




Gear camshaft and balance shaft 

Gear-crankshaft timing 
Gear-engine idler 
Gear-flywheel ring 

""General Information Section 


1.7.3 
1.7.5 
1.7.4 
1.4 



July, 1972 Page 1 



dex 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



ibject 



Section Subject 



Section 




cad-cylinder 

eat exchanger 

ousing--air shutdown 
ousing flywheel !.. 



1.2 

5.5 

3.3 

1.5 



Model number engine 

Motor-starting (electrical) 



..7.3 



Oil cooler-engine 



Her gear-engine 

Her pulley-water pump 



ijector-fuel (needle valve) 

Bluing 

Calibrator and Comparator 

Operating mechanism 

Spray tip 

Test fixture (checking) 

Timing 

Timing (checking) 

Trouble shooting 

Tube 

ispection magnetic particle method 



..1.7.4 
..5.1.1 

.2.1.1 

2.0 

2.0 

.1.2.1 

2.0 

2.0 

.14.2 

2.0 

2.0 

2.1.4 
1.3 



Oil level dipstick 

Oil pan 

Oil pan 

Oil pressure regulator 

Oil pump driving gear 

Oil pump supports 

Oil seals crankshaft 

Oil specifications-fuel 

Oil specifications-lubricating . 

Operating conditions 

Operating instructions engine 



Operation-principles of 
Option plate 



4.4 

4.6 

4.7 

4.0 

4.1.1 

4.1 

.4.0 
.1.3.2 
..13.3 
..13.3 
.13.2 
..13.1 



jpping blocks refinishing ... 
ner cylinder 



jbricating oil cooler 

jbricating oil filters 

ibricating oil pressure regulator 



2.0 

1.6.3 

4.4 

4.2 

4.1.1 



Pan-oil 
Pan-oil 



..4.7 
4.0 



M 

agnetic particle inspection method 

ain bearings 

aintenance-preventive 

anifold-air cooled exhaust 



....1.3 
.1.3.4 
..15.1 
...6.1 



anometer (use of) 

arine gear 

echanical governor 

isfiring cylinder 

odel description chart 



15.2 

9.1.3 

2 

15.2 

* 



Regulator-battery-charging generator 
Regulator-oil pressure 



Restoring engine to service 

Rings-piston 

Rocker arms 

Rocker cover 

Rod-connecting 

Rod-push 

Rotation-engine 

Run-in instructions 

*General Information Section 



7.1.1 
...4.1.1 

.15.3 

1.6 

...1.2.1 
...1.2.4 
...1.6.1 

...1.2.1 

* 

.13.2.1 




ige 2 



DETROIT DIESEL 53 



Index 



Subject 



Section Subject 



Section 



Seals-crankshaft oil 

Serial number location: 
Engine 



1.3.2 



Shut-down housing 
Shut-down system ... 
Silencerair 



3.3 

7.4.1 

3.2 



Valveexhaust: 

Clearance adjustment . 

Guide and insert 

Operating mechanism 

Trouble shooting 

Ventilating system 



.1.2.2 
..14.1 
1.2.2 
.1.2.1 
....1.0 
....4.8 



Test-dynamometer 13.2.1 

Test-report 13.2.1 

Thermostat 5.2.1 



Thrust washers crankshaft 

Timingblower rotor 

Timing-engine 

Timing-injector 

Timing-injector (checking) 
Timing gear-crankshaft 



1.3.4 

3.4 

1.7.1 

14.2 

2.0 

1.7.5 



W 



Washers-crankshaft thrust 
Water pump-engine 



.1.3.4 
..5.1 



Weights-front balance 
"General Information Sect/on 



July, 1972 Page 3 



TM 5-3895-348-1 4&P-2 

PART i 
ENGINE PARTS MANUAL 



STEEL WHEEL ROLLER C350B-D 
CONTRACT NO. DSA 700-74-C-9024 



>up No. 



Description 



Pa ere No. 



1000 

5.1000 
1000A 
2000A 
2000B 
2000C 
3000B 



COOLING SYSTEM E1 

Fresh Water Pump E ^ 

Fresh Water Pump Cover El 

Water Outlet Manifold and/or Elbow E3 

Thermostat S3 

Water By-pass Tube E3 

"Water Connections E5 

Fan E6 

EXHAUST SYSTEM F1 

Exhaust Manifold Fl 

Exhaust Muffler and/or Connections F2 

ELECTRICAL-INSTRUMENTS G1 

Battery Charging Generator Gl 

Starting Motor G3 





GENERAL INFORMATION 



All engine components in this catalog are divided 
into seven major groups of functionally related 
parts. 



Each Engine Model is provided with a Model Index, 
which shows the Standard and Standard Option type 
numbers currently available on the model. All op- 
tional material type numbers are listed on the 
engine Option Plate, as shown in the illustration 
below. 

The names and type numbers of optional equipment 
built into the unit .at the factory are listed on this 
plate, along with the unit model, serial number and 
customer specification number (if any). Material 
not listed on the Option Plate is standard equipment 
and the type number is obtained from the model 
index. (Copies of the information, on the Option 
Plate Work Sheet, are furnished to distributors for 
their files.) 

To locate a part, first, establish the group where 
the part is used (see the Alphabetical Index or 
Group Nomenclature page), with this informa- 
tion, turn to the proper group. 



Example: 

For purposes of illustration, a Model 5033-7101, 
serial number 3D-1417 RC engine, will be used. 
To determine the proper part number of the fan 
pulley 

As indicated in the 
Group Nomenclature page, the F4n is 

group 5.4235 

The part 

is illustrated in Figure 4A. identified as being in 
group 5.4235. 

To determine the proper part number of the cylin- 
der block end plate, again refer to the Option Plate 
to note that there is no reference to the cylinder 
block indicating that it is standard equipment. 



To determine the proper fuel filter element part 
number, refer to the Option Plate to determine 
that the filter is standard equipment. 

Turn to group 2.3000A and 

in the column note that the part number 

of the filter assembly, in sub-group 2.3310, is 
5573949. However a note in the group heading 
refers to "Assembly Breakdown, Page B8 for 
components of the filter assembly. On page B8, 
the filter assembly 5573949 appears in column. 
All components of the filter assembly will 
De listed. 




Page 3 
January, 1972 



CAL INDEX: 

betical Index is particularly 

en only a part name is known and the 
not readily be determined. Parts are 
labetically by noun name, followed by a 
i of the application of the part and the 
p location. Component parts of assem- 
not listed since they will appear in the 
e book immediately following the assem- 
;h they belong. 

IEOUS: 

;inning of each of the 7 sections of this 
;re are several pages of illustrations. In 
on of the parts list figure numbers refer 
itions within that section only, unless 
noted. In the majority of cases illustra- 
typical, that is; they may represent more 
iart number. For example, in the case of 
el housing, figure 5A of section 1.0000, a 
sing is shown to represent all housings. 
Ders on illustrations are final group 



istances a part has more than one appli- 
lerever a part appears in its second or 
.cation the basic group is shown in paren- 
Dwing the description. 

lerwise specified, standard bolts in the 
are hexagon head. Other standard parts 
bed in detail. 



Delco-Remy electrical equipment is serviced by 
United Delco, Division of General Motors Corpora- 
tion, from its outlets throughout the country. Part 
numbers of Delco-Remy items are listed for refer- 
ence purposes only. 



The ASSEMBLY BREAKDOWN section is designed 
to eliminate repeating components of assemblies 
and sub- assemblies. When the Assembly Break- 
down is used it is always follows 
the group it pertains to. 

Assemblies 

which make use of the Assembly Breakdown 
will have a note to that effect under the sub- 
group heading. The note will refer to the page 
on which the assembly is shown. The part num- 
ber will appear in the first group of the Assembly 
Breakdown showing the quantity used* 

All other 

items appearing in that column are components 
of the assembly. 



f 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



Part Name 
A 

Adaptor , Accessory Drive 

Adaptor , Dipstick 

Adaptor , Oil Cooler 

Adaptor, Oil Filter Tube 

( To Oil Cooler Adaptor ) 4 , 

Arm Assy. Exhaust Valve 1, 

Arm Assy. Injector Rocker 1, 

B 

Bearing, Cam And Balancer Shaft 1, 

Bearing, Fan Shaft 5. 

Bearing, Gov. Operating Shaft (Lower) 2 . 

Bearing, Gov. Operating Shaft ( Upper) 2. 

Bearing, Gov. Throttle Shaft 2. 

Bearing, Governor Operating shaft (Lower) 2. 

Bearing, Governor Operating Shaft ( Upper ) 2 . 

Bearing, Governor Throttle Shaft 2 . 

Bearing, Governor Weight Carrier Shaft 2 . 

Bearing, Governor Weight Carrier Shaft 2. 

Bearing, Idler Gear 1. 

Belt, Crankshaft Pulley 1. 

Belt, Generator Drive 7. 

Blade, Fan 5, 

Block Assy. , Cylinder 1. 

Block, Cylinder 1. 

Blower Assy 3. 

Blower Kit, Installtion 3. 

Blower Kit , Repair 3. 

Body Assy. , Injector 2, 

Body, Fresh Water Pump 5 , 

Body, Fuel Pump 2. 

Bolt, Crankshaft Main Bearing Cap 1. 

Bolt, Cylinder Head 1. 

Bolt , Rocker Cover 1 . 

Boot , Gov To In j ector Link 2 . 

Boot, Governor To Injector Link 2. 

Bracket, Engine Lifter Front 1, 

Bracket, Engine Lifter Rear 1, 

Bracket, Engine Lifter-Front 1- 

Bracket, Engine Lifter-Rear 1. 

Bracket , Fan Shaft 5, 

Bracket , Generator Mounting 7 . 

Bracket, Generator Mtg 7, 

Bracket , In j ector Control Tube 2. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



Part Name 



Group No. 



ixhaust Valve 

Connecting Rod Piston Pin 

Injector And Exhaust Valve Rocker Arm Clevis. 

In j ector Rocker Arm-Large 

Injector Rocker Arm-Small 

Piston pin 

C 

lector Check Valve 

lector Valve Spring. 

Assy , 

icer , Fan Hub 

spacer , Fan Hub 

ikshaf t Main Bearing 

mst Valve Spring 

, Low Speed Spring 

jrnor Low Speed Spring . . 

ictor Filter 

jctor Shipping 

Filler Tube - 

ijector 

Cnj ector And Exhaust Valve Rocker Arm 

il Pump To Filter Tube , 

7 . Control Wi re Tube 

7-ernor Control Wire Tube , 

ig Rod Assy 

:, Fuel Pipe ' 

7. , Oil Cooler , 

, Accessory Drive , 

sy . , Governor , 

sy . / Governor ( Complete ) 

sy. , Governor Complete 

.r Box 

.ower Housing End Plate , 

Blinder Block Water Hole 

Blinder Head Water Hole 

igine Front-Lower 

igine Front-Upper , 

.ywheel Housing Large Hole , 

.ywheel Housing Small Hole , 

:esh Water Pump , 

lei Filter ( Secondary) 

lei Pump , 

lei Strainer ( Primary) 

1 Filter 



.8343 
,6040 
,8140 
,8110 
.8120 



1.6145 



2.1205 
2.1257 
1.7001 
5.4180 
5.4180 
1.3110 
1.8350 
2.7580 
2.7580 
2.1130 
2.1150 
4.5010 
2.1270 
1.8130 
2.5120 
2.9428 
2.9428 
1.6001 
2.4030 
4.4001 
1.7635 
2.7045 
2.7045 
2.7045 
1.1040 
3.4180 
1.1060 
1.2043 
1.3162 
1.3161 
5030 
,5050 
1031 
,3390 
,2030 
,3080 



4.2290 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



Part Name 



Grout 



Cover, Thermostat Housing 

Cylinder Kit 

D 

Deflector, Injector Spill 

Dipstick 

Draincock, Fuel Filter 

E 

Elbow, Oil Cooler Water Outlet 

Elbow, Water Outlet 

Element, Fuel Filter (Secondary) 

Element, Fuel Strainer ( Primary) 

Element, Injector Filter 

Element, Oil Filter 

F 

Fan , Generator 

Filter Assy. , Fuel 

Filter Assy. , Oil 

Filter Unit, Breather oil Separator 

Flange , Exhaust 

Flywheel 

Follower Assy. , Cam 

Follower, injector 

Fork , Gov. Operating Shaft 

Fork, Governor Operating Lever 

Fork, Governor Operating Shaft 

G 

Gasket Kit, Cylinder Head Overhaul 

Gasket Kit, Engine Overhaul 

Gasket Set, Cylinder Head Oil 

Gasket , Accessory Drive 

Gasket, Accessory Drive Adaptor 

Gasket, Air Box Cover 

Gasket, Air Inlet Housing Flange 

Gasket , Blower 

Gasket, Blower Housing End Plate Cover., 

Gasket , Breather Tube 

Gasket, Cylinder Block End Plate 

Gasket, Cylinder Block Water Hole Cover, 
Gasket, Cylinder Head Compression 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



Part Name 



Group No. 



Exhaust Manifold 

Exhaust Manifold. . . 

Exhaust Outlet 

Flywheel Housing 

Flywheel Housing Bell ^ 

Flywheel Housing Large Hole Cover. 

Flywheel Housing Large Hole Cover. 

Flywheel Housing Small Hole Cover. 

Flywheel Housing Small Hole Cover, 

Fresh Water Pump 

Fresh Water Pump Body Cover 

Fuel Filter Cover Screw 

Fuel Filter Cover To .Shell 

Fuel Pump To Engine 

Fuel Pump Valve Plug 

Fuel Strainer Cover 

Fuel Strainer Cover Screw 

Governor High Speed Spring 

Governor High Speed Spring Cover. . 

Injector Filter Cap 

Oil Cooler Water Outlet Elbow 

Oil Filter Cover 

Oil Filter Cover Nut 

Oil Filter Tube Adaptor 

Oil Pan To Block 

Oil Pressure Regulator Plug 

Thermostat Housing 

Thermostat Housing Cover 

Water Outlet Elbow 

;sy. , Idler 

cessory Drive. 

ilower Rotor 

lamshaf t And Balance Shaft 

amshaft And Balancer Shaft 

irankshaf t Timing 

lywheel Ring 

uel Pump ( Drive ) 

overnor Drive 

njector *-. 

il Pump Drive (On Crankshaft) 

or Assy 

r Assy 

Cam Follower 

Dipstick 

Exhaust Valve 



6. 
6. 
6. 
1. 
1. 
1. 
1. 
1. 
1. 
5. 
5. 
2. 
2. 
2. 
2. 
2. 
2. 
2. 
2. 
2. 
5. 
4. 
4. 
4. 
4. 
4. 
5. 
5. 
5. 
1. 
1. 
3. 
1. 
1. 
1. 
1. 
2. 
2. 
2. 
4. 
7. 
2. 
1. 
4. 
1. 



1010 
,1010 
2105 
5010 
5020 
5040 
5040 
5060 
5060 
1010 
1032 
3420 
3400 
2007 
2180 
3090 
3130 
7650 
7650 
1140 
3421 
2300 
2330 
3027 
7030 
1720 
2110 
2130 
2037 
7220 
7670 
4080 
7200 
7200 
3145 
4010 
2087 
7960 
1180 
1310 
1001 
7001 
8300 
6020 
8320 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



Part Name 



H 



Head Assembly, Cylinder 

Head Assy. , Cylinder 

Hose , Fuel Tank Flexible 

Hose , Oil Cooler Water Outlet Elbow 

Hose , Water By-Pass Tube 

Housing Assy. , Air Inlet 

Housing, Air Inlet 

Housing , Blower 

Housing, Flywheel 

Housing, Gov. Control 

Housing, Governor Control 

Housing, Governor High Speed Spring Adjusting Screw, 

Housing, Governor Limiting Speed Spring 

Housing, Governor Weight 

Housing , Oil Cooler 

Housing , Thermostat 

Hub, Idler Gear 

I 

Idler Pulley, Fan Belt 

Idler Pulley, Fan Belt (With Adjusting Arm) 

Impeller , Fresh Water Pump 

Injector Assy 

Insert , Exhaust Valve 

L 

Lever Assy. , Governor Control Operation Link 

Lever, Air Inlet Housing Shutdown Reset 

Lever, Air Inlet Housing Shutdown Valve 

Lever, Air Inlet Housing Shutdown Reset 

Lever, Air Inlet Housing Shutdown Valve. ....-..-....., 

Lever, Gov. Differential 

Lever, Gov. Operating Shaft 

Lever , Governor Cover Shutdown Shaft 

Lever, Governor Cover Shutdown Shaft. 

Lever , Governor Cover Throttle Shaft 

Lever, Governor Cover Throttle Shaft 

Lever, Governor Differential. 

Lever, Governor Operating 

Lever , Governor Operating Shaft 

Lever, Injector Control Tube 

Lever, Injector Control Tube Rack 

Liner , Cylinder 

Link, Governor Operating Lever Connecting 

Lock , Exhaust Valve Spring 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



Part Name 

Gov. High Speed Spring Retainer , 

Governor High Speed Spring 

Governor High Speed Spring Retainer , 

M 

, Exhaust 

, Exhaust 

sy. , Starting 

N 

be/ Governor , 

Connecting Rod Spray 

:ylinder Head Water , 

actor Valve < 


Kit, Injector , 

P 

ling Guide 

. Differential Lever , 

arnor Differential Lever 

arnor Operating Shaft , 

srnor Operating Shaft Lever , 

actor And Exhaust Valve Rocker Arm Clevis. 

actor Stop , 

bon , 

aather. , 

al , 

L Pump Inlet , 

ssy , 

Lr Inlet Housing Shutdown Control , 

Lr Inlet Housing Shutdown Control , 

Lower Housing End , , 

Lower Rotor Thrust , 

flinder Block End , 

si Filter , 

si Pump Valve , 

il Strainer Cover , 

L Pan Drain 

L Pressure Regulator , 

Bushincr Assv. , Iniector , 



Group 



2.7615 
2.7615 
2.7615 



6.1001 
6.1001 
7.3001 



2.7002 
1.6010 
1.2005 
2.1030 



2.1002 



4.70^1 
2.1165 
2.7315 
2.7315 
,7300 
,7300 
.8150 
,1100 
,6140 
4.8001 
2.4020 
4.1510 
1.6110 



3.3260 
3.3260 
3.4140 
3.4033 
1.1020 
2.3480 
2.2170 
2.3100 
4.7080 
4.1710 
2.1160 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



Part Name 



Pulley And Hub Assy. (Fan) 

Pulley And Hub Assy. , Fan 

Pulley , Crankshaft 

Pulley , Fan 

Pulley , Fresh Water Pump 

Pulley , Front Balance 

Pulley , Front Balancer 

Pulley, Generator 

Pump Assy 

Pump Assy. , Fresh Water 

Pump Assy. / Fuel 

Pump Assy. , Oil 

R 

Rack , In j ector 

Reconditioning Kit, Fresh Water Pump 

Reconditioning Kit, Fresh Water Pump 

Retainer, Cam And Balance Shaft Gear Nut 

Retainer, Cam And Balancer Shaft Gear Nut 

Retainer , Crankshaft Pulley 

Retainer, Fan Shaft Bearing 

Retainer , Gov. High Speed Spring 

Retainer, Governor High Speed Spring 

Retainer, Governor High Speed Spring 

Retainer , Injector Gear 

Retainer, Oil Filter Spring 

Retainer, Oil Filter Tube Adaptor By-Pass Spring. 
Retainer, Oil Filter Tube Adaptor By-Pass Spring. 

Retainer , Piston Pin 

Retainer , Push Rod 

Ring Set, Piston 

Ring, Injector Hole Tube Seal 

Ring, injector Seal 

Ring, Piston Compression 

Ring, Piston Oil Control 

Rod Assy. , Gov. To Injector Link 

Rod Assy* , Governor To Injector , 

Rod, Push 

Roller Set , Cam Follower 

Rotor Assy. , Oil Pump 

Rotor , Blower 

S 

Screen, Blower ? 

Screen , Oi 1 Pump Inlet 

ASSV. . Gov. Buffer 



2. 
5. 
5. 
1. 
1. 
1. 
5. 
2. 
2. 
2. 
2. 
4. 
4. 
4. 
1. 
1. 
1. 
1. 
2. 
1. 
1. 
2. 
2. 
1. 
1. 
4. 
3. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



Part Name 



Group No. 



uel Filter Cover 

uel Strainer Cover 

ov. Low Speed Spring Adjusting 

overnor Low Speed Spring Adjusting. . . 
r Inlet Housing Shutdown Valve Shaft, 
r Inlet Housing Shutdown Valve Shaft, 

ower Housing End Plate 

m And Balance Oil 

tn And Balancer Oil 

ankshaft Oil-Front 

ankshaft Oil-Rear 

linder Liner 

n Shaft 

esh Water Pump 

el Pump Oil 

vernor 

haust Valve Spring 

el Filter Element 

v. Low Speed Spring 

vernor Low Speed Spring 

jector Valve Spring ; 

sh Rod Spring-Upper 

sh Rod Spring-Lower 

sh Rod Spring-Upper 

Carrier Assy. , Governor Weight 

d Carrier Assy. , Governor Weight 

sy. , Gov. Operating 

sy. , Governor Operating 

Lr Inlet Housing Shutdown Valve...... 

Lr Inlet Housing Shutdown Valve 

alancer 

cesh Water Pump 

ael Pump 

ael Pump Driven 

DV. Operating 

Dvernor Operating 

i jector Control Tube End 

Dcker 

Dnnecting Rod Bearing 

rankshaf t Main Bearing 

ael Filter ( Secondary) 

lei Strainer ( Primary) 

LI Filter 

Generator 

;enerator Heat 

>wer Rotor Gear 

(Wheel 

Awheel Housing To End Plate 

:rankshaf t Rear Oil Seal 



2. 
2. 
2. 
2. 
3. 
3. 
3. 
1. 
1. 
1. 
1. 
1. 
5. 
5. 
2. 
2. 
1. 
2. 
2. 
2. 
2. 
1. 
1. 
1. 
2. 
2. 
2. 
2. 
3. 
3. 
1. 
5. 
2. 
2. 
2. 
2. 
2. 
1. 
1. 
1. 
2. 
2. 
4. 
7. 
7. 
3. 
1. 
1. 
1. 



3410 
3120 
7590 
7590 
3055 
3055 
4160 
7060 
7060 
3040 
3060 
6190 
4150 
1130 
2070 
7945 
8360 
3322 
7570 
7570 
1255 
8200 
8210 
8200 
7350 
7350 
7250 
7250 
3050 
3050 
7080 
1050 
2093 
2089 
7255 
7255 
9007 
8160 
6100 
3090 
3380 
3050 
2280 
1005 
1005 
4090 
5002 
5002 
3066 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



Part Name Grc 

Slinger , Cam And Balance shaft Oil 1. 

Slinger, Cam And Balancer Shaft Oil 1. 

Spacer , Blower Rotor Gear 3. 

Spacer , Blower Rotor Shaft oil Seal 3. 

Spacer , Cam And Balance Shaft Pulley 1. 

Spacer, Cam And Balancer Shaft Pulley 1. 

Spacer, Camshaft Gear 1. 

Spacer , Crankshaft Front Oil Seal 1. 

Spacer, Governor Weight carrier Shaft 2. 

Spacer, Injector Control Tube Lever 2. 

Spring, Air Inlet Housing Shutdown Valve Tension 3. 

Spring, Air Inlet Housing Shutdown Valve Tension 3. 

Spring , Exhaust Valve 1, 

Spring, Fuel Filter Element 2. 

Spring, Fuel Pump Valve Retaining 2, 

Spring , Governor High Speed 2 , 

Spring, Governor Low Speed 2 , 

Spring , In j ector Control Tube 2 , 

Spring, Injector Plunger. 2. 

Spring, Injector Valve 2. 

Spring, Oil Filter 4. 

Spring, Oil Filter Tube Adaptor By- Pass Valve 4. 

Spring, Oil Pressure Regulator 4. 

Spring, Push Rod 1- 

Strainer , Assy. , Fuel 2. 

Strap , Generator Adj usting 7 . 

Stud , Exhaust Manifold To Head 6 . 

Stud, Oil Filter Center 4. 

Support , Fan Mounting * 5 

T 

Thermostat Assy ' 5 

Tip Assy. / Injector Spray 2 - 

Tube And Lever Assy. , Injector Control 2. 

Tube Assy., Gov. Lubrication 2. 

Tube Assy. , Governor Lubrication. . . . / 2. 

Tube , Air Box Drain * 

Tube, Filter Outlet 2> 

Tube , Fuel Drain 

Tube, Fuel Pump Inlet 2l 

Tube , Fuel Pump To Filter 

Tube, Gov. Operating Shaft 

Tube , Governor Operating Shaft 

Tube , Injector Hole 

Tube , Water By-Pass 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



Part Name 



V 



Group No. 



t , In j ector 

Lr Inlet Housing Shutdown 

ichaust 

uel Pump 

uel Supply Check 

njector Check 

il Filter Tube Adaptor By-Pass. 

il Pressure Regulator 

W 

Blower Rotor Shaft Thrust , 

dam And Balance Shaft End Bearing Thrust., 
2am And Balancer Shaft End Bearing Thrust, 

Crankshaft Main Bearing Thrust , 

Fuel Pipe Connector , 

Rear Balancer 

p. , Gen. To Regulator , 

y. , Generator Regulator , 

y. t Generator To Regulator , 

r Inlet Housing Shutdown , 

r Inlet Housing Shutdown Control , 

vernor Control , 



2.1238 
3.3040 
1.8310 
2.2130 
2.5006 
2.1200 
4.3055 
4.1700 



4036 
7030 
7030 
3100 
4050 
7190 
1630 
1630 
7.1630 
3.3250 
3.3250 
2.9422 



INDEX 



Group No. 



Description 



1.0000 



1000 
1000A 
2000 
2000A 
3000 
3000A 
3000C 
3000D 
4000A 
5000A 
,6000 
,7000 
,7000A 
,70008 
,8000 



1.8000A 

2.0000 

2.1000A 

2.2000 

2.2000A 



3000A 

4000 

5000A 



2.7000A 

2.9000 

2.9000A 



3.0000 

3.3000A 
3.4000 
3.4000A 
3.4000B 

4.0000 

4.1000A 
4.1000B 
4.1000C 
4.2000A 
4.3000A 
4.4000A 
4.5000A 
4.6000A 
4.7000A 
4.8000A 



ENGINE ( less major assemblies ) 

Cylinder Block 

Air Box Drains 

Cylinder Head 

Engine Lifter Bracket 

Crankshaft, Oil Seals and Stabilizers., 

Crankshaft Front Cover 

Crankshaft Pulley 

Crankshaft Pulley Belt 

Flywheel 

Flywheel Housing 

Connecting- Rod and Piston-. . -, 

Camshaft and Gear Train 

Balance Weight Cover , 

Accessory Drive 

Valve and injector Operating Mechanism, 
Rocker Cover 

FUEL SYSTEM , 

Fuel Injector , 

Fuel Pump 

Fuel Pump Drain , 

Fuel Filter 

Fuel Manifold and/or Connections. ..... 

Fuel Lines and Fuel Cooler 

Mechanical Governor 

Injector Controls 

Throttle Controls 

AIR SYSTEM 

Air Inlet Housing 

Blower * 

Blower Drive Shaft 

Blower End Plate Cover 

LUBRICATING SYSTEM 

Oi 1 Pump 

Oil Distribution System 

Oil Pressure Regulator 

Oil Filter 

Oil Filter Lines 

Oil Cooler 

Oil Filler 

Dipstick 

Oil Pan 

Ventilating System 



MODEL DESCRIPTION CHART 
IN-LINE ENGINES 



5043-5100 





tlfS 
3 



NUMBER 

OF 
CYLINDERS 



APPLICATION 

DESIGNATION 

(see below) 



BASIC ENGINE 

ARRANGEMENTS 

*(* below) 



DESIGN 
VARIATION 
(see bolew) 



SPECIFIC MODEL NUMBER 

AND STARTER-BLOWER 

ARRANGEMENT 



APPLICATION DESIGNATION 



5042-5100 
5041-5100 
5044-5100 
504J.-5100 
S04Z-5100 



MARINE 

FAN TO F/W-INDUSTRIAL 

POWER-BASE 

GENERATOR 

FAN TO F/W- AUTOMOTIVE 



DESIGN VARIATIONS 

5043-50.00 "N" ENGINE 

5043-5100 2 VALVE HEAD 

5043-5200 4 VALVE HEAD 

5042-2102 TURBOCHARGER 



STARTER-BLOWER ARRANGEMENT 

Odd number in lost digit 
designates starter oppoiit* blower. 
Even number in lent digit 
designates starter tame lido at blower. 



2.3,4-53 BASIC ENGINE ARRANGEMENTS 

Rotation: L (left) and R (right) designates 

rotation viewed from the front of the 

engine. 

Type: A-B-C-D designates location of 

exhaust manifold and blower 

as viewed from the rear (flywheel) end. 



JST MANIFOID 




GOV. 



LA (XXXX-1XXX) 



EXHAUST MANIFOLD 




OOV. 



LB (XXXX-2XXX) 



OOV. 



EXHAUST MANIFOLD 



CAM 



BLOWER 




1C (XXXX-3XXX) 



EXHAUST MANIFOID 



CAM 
SHAFT 




BLOWER 



LD (XXXX-4XXX) 



5T MANIFOID 



EXHAUST MANIFOID 



EXHAUST MANIFOID 



EXHAUST MANIFOLD 



BAl. SHAFT 




BLOWER 




GOV. 



GOV. 




BLOWER 




GOV 



BLOWER 



ULIIIUII UILULL 



53 ENGINES 




U04Q 



1,1001 



FIG. U JKI4TO5 53 
CYUNBER BLOCK 
(with head gaskets) 




Figs. 1A, IB of 1.0000 



March 1Q74 



[ROIT DIESEL 



53 ENGINES 



1.2030 



1.2001 




1.8320 



1.2001 



6.1020 



2.7830 
2.8945 



i.2001 



5.2001 



FIG. 2A CYLINDER HEAD 



ITEM 1 



ITEM 5 





ITEM 3 






STEM 4 




HEM 6 



STEM 7 



V 948 




ITEM 8 



DETROIT DIESEL 



53 ENGINE 





1.3290 1.3280 1.3040 4,1310 



1.3140 ""jl 



1.3110' 



FIG. 3 A CRANKSHAFT (3-53) 



1 .3060 



1.3100 



P 547 




1.3055 



WORN AREA 



1.3040 
- 1.3160 



FIG 



. 3C CRANKSHAFT (3 -53 



ROIT DIESEL 



53ENGINES 



1.3170 




In- Line Models 
FIG. 4A 



UPPER FRONT COVER 



4.4170 



4.4160 



4.4 UQ 



1.3162 



U700 



.1710 4.1720 4.1690 1.3162 V.317Q 



NOT SOLO 
SEPARATELY 



4,1310 




4.100? 



4,1085 



DETROIT DIESEL 



53 ENGINES 



1.5075, 5-5001 

. 5A FLYWHEEL AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING (In-Line Models) 




in DIESEL 



53 ENGINES 



NOT SOLD SEPARATELY 



1.6120 




FIG. 6A CONNECTING ROD, PISTON AND LINER 



DETROIT DIESEL 



.7130 *.7062 1.7061 




1,7010 



53 ENGINE 



TJ030 '-7207 



( 




1 .7062 



1,7010 



1.7200 1.7200 



FIG. 7A CAMSHAFT (In-line Models) 



Oil DIESEL 



1,7190 1.1020 1.7200 




1.3145 



FIG. 7C GEAR TRAIN (Typical In-line) 



1.7225 



1.7225 




1.7250 



FIG. 7F IDLER GEAR 



DETROIT DIESEL 



53 ENGINES 



5040 



1.7*50 



17645 



5030 




1.7605 



FIG. 8A ACCESSORY DRIVE (Double Belt) 



in DIESEL 



53 ENGINES 




5.8320 



1.8330 



1.8310 



1.8343 




1.1 

1.8350 

1.8340- 

1.8360 

1.8320- 
1 .8330 

1.8310- 



FIG. 9A 
LVE MECHANISM 



FXG. 9B 
VALVE SPRING & SEAT 



FIG, 9C 
VALVE & ROCKER BRIDGE 



DETROIT DIESEL 



53 ENGINES 




IOIT DIESEL 



53 ENGINES 



1,2070 



5.20?0 



2,7001 




4.2240 



5,4090 



1 ,3280 



>- 4.8010 



1.5050*-, 



.4001 




PART 

NUMBER 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



5196490 



5199791 



5121366 
5121459 
454813 
103321 



5116354 



5116373 

180120 

103321 



5116380 



5115097 

186625 

103320 



1.1001 BLOCK ASSY., CYLINDER 

FOR COMPONENTS OF SERVICE CYLINDER 
BLOCK ASSEMBLIES REFER TO ASSEMBLY 
BREAKDOWN PAGES AS INDICATED BELOW. 

BLOCK ASSY. (PAGE A2) 



1*1002 GASKET KIT, ENGINE OVERHAUL 

CONSISTS OF NECESSARY GASKETS FOR 
ONE ENGINE OVERHAUL 

GASKET KIT 



1.1Q2Q PLATE, CYLINDER BLOCK END 
A PLATE ASSY. INCLUDES PLUG NUTS. 

PLATE ASSY. (RC-RD-LC-LD ENG.) 
NUT, PLUG (3/8"-24) 
BOLT, 3/8"-16X7/8" (12.9001) 
LOCKWASHER, 3/8" (12.9200) 

1.1030 GASKET, CYLINDER BLOCK END PLATE 
GASKET 

1.1040 COVER, AIR BOX 

COVER 

BOLT, 3/8 M -16X3/4" (12.9001) 

LOCKWASHER, 3/8" (12.9200) 

1.1050 GASKET, AIR BOX COVER 
GASKET 

1.1060 COVER, CYLINDER BLOCK WATER HOLE 

COVER (3/8" TAPPED HOLE) 
BOLT, 5/16"-18X7/8" (12.9001) 
LOCKWASHER, 5/16" (12.9200) 



PART 
NUMBER 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



5116357 



5196490 



5116142 

5198209 

141346 

5116199 



5146/--37 

3231135 

141346 

5146900 

114981 

5145009 

5145010 

5150131 

5121316 



5132286 

137421 

137397 



1.1070 GASKET, CYLINDER BLOCK WATER HOLE 
COVER 

GASKET 



A 1.1001 BLOCK CYLINDER 
BLOCK ASSY. (3-53) 

THE FOLLOWING ITEMS ARE ASSEMBLED TO THE 
CYLINDER BLOCK: 

CAP, MAIN BEARING (UNFINISHED) 

(1.3110) 

BEARING SET, CAMSHAFT (1.7010) 

PIN, 3/16"Xl/2" DOWEL (12.9290) 

BOLT, MAIN BEARING CAP (1.3140) 

THE FOLLOWING ITEMS ARE "SHIPPED 
LOOSE" WITH THE CYLINDER BLOCK. 

ELBOW, AIR BOX DRAIN TEE 
TEE, 1/4" INV. FL. (7.4586) 
PIN, 3/16"Xl/2" BOWEL (12.9290) 
PIN, 3/8 "XI 1/8" BOWEL (12.9290) 
IQRAINCOCK, 1/8" (12.9510) 
PLUG, 1/8" PIPE (12.9550) 
PLUG, 1/4" PIPE (12.9550) 
PLUG, 7/16" CUT (OIL HOLES) 
PLUG, 5/8 "XI 3/3 2" 

1.1100 TUBE, AIR BOX DRAIN 

TUBE (DEV. L. 12.00") 

ELBOW, 1/4" INV. FL. TUBE 90DEG. (12.9480) 

NUT, 1/4" INV. FL. TUBE (12.9500) 



FIG 



PART 
NUMBER 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



2A 



2A 
2A 
2A 
2A 



IB 



1A 
1A 
IB 
1A 



2A 



10G 
10G 



5198203 
5144425 
5198655 
5145009 
5121182 
5154453 
5151449 
5139997 



5199811 



5119293 



5121254 



5116290 
5121207 
5116122 
5116292 



5121263 



5123352 
5145010 



1.2001 HEAD ASSY* CYLINDER 

FOR COMPONENTS OF SERVICE CYLINDER 
HEAD ASSEMBLIES REFER TO ASSEMBLY 
BREAKDOWN PAGE A5 

HEAD ASSY. (4 VALVE) (3-53) 

ADAPTOR, FUSE PLUG 

PLUG, FUSE PLUG 

PLUG, 1/8" PIPE (12,9550) 

PLUG, 1/4" HEX* SKT* PIPE (2.4015) 

PLUG, 3/8 "-16 SLo HDLS. 

PLUG, 13/16" CUP (1*1001) 

PLUG, 7/8" DIA e CUP (STAINLESS) 



1.2002 GASKET KIT 9 CYLINDER HEAD OVERHAUL 

CONSISTS OF ALL GASKETS NECESSARY TO 
REPLACE ONE CYLINDER HEAD* 

GASKET KIT, CYLINDER HEAD 



1.2005 NOZZLE, CYLINDER HEAD WATER 
NOZ ZLE 

1.2010 GASKET, CYLINDER HEAD COMPRESSION 
GASKET 

1.2Q_20 GASKET SET, CYLINDER HEAD OIL 

RING, SEAL (END WATER HOLE) 

RING, SEAL (CENTER WATER HOLE) 

RING, SEAL (OIL HOLE) 

RING, SEAL 

1.203(3 BOLT, CYLINDER HEAD 

BOLT, 5/8--11X6 1/4" (12 PT 8 HD*) 

1.2043 COVER, CYLINDER HEAD WATER HOLE 

COVER (3/8" PIPE TAP) 

PLUG, 1/4" PIPE HEX. SOC 8 HD. 

(12.9550) 



PART 
NUMBER 



5145011 
5145012 
179839 
103321 



5116242 



5199527 



5160037 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



1.2043 COVER, CYLINDER HEAD WATER HOLE 

(CONT.) 

PLUG, 3/8" PIPE SQ. HD. (12.9550) 
PLUG, 1/2" PIPE SQ. HD. (12.9550) 
BOLT, 3/8"-16Xl" (12.9001) 
LOCKWASHER, 3/8" (12.9200) 



1.2044 GASKET, CYLINDER HEAD WATER HOLE 
COVER 

GASKET 



1.2045 TUBE, INJECTOR HOLE 



1.2046 RING, INJECTOR HOLE TUBE SEAL 

RING (PART OF KIT IN 1.2045) 
(2.1300) 



QUANTITY 



PART 
NUMBER 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



5198203 



5198655 
5154453 
5145009 
5199527 

5160037 
5116361 
5131961 
5119293 



5121182 
5151449 
5116262 

5121252 
5111467 



5129750 
5164294 
9409028 



B 1.2001 HEAD ASSEMBLY, CYLINDER 
HEAD ASSY. (4 VALVE) 

THE FOLLOWING ITEMS ARE ASSEMBLED TO 
THE CYLINDER HEAD. 

PLUG, FUSE 

PLUG, 3/8"-16 SPECIAL 

PLUG, 1/8" PIPE (12.9550) 

TUBE KIT (INCLUDES RING 5160037) 

(1.2045) 

RING (2.2046) 

INSERT, EXHAUST VALVE (1.8330) 

GUIBE, EXHAUST VALVE (1.8320) 

NOZZLE, WATER (DOUBLE OUTLET) 

(1.2005) 

THE FOLLOWING ITEMS ARE "SHIPPED LOOSE" 
WITH THE CYLINDER HEAD. 

PLUG, 1/4" PIPE (2.4015) 

PLUG, 13/16" CUP SPECIAL 

ADAPTOR, CYLINDER HEAD GOVERNOR 

CONTROL LINK (2.7830) 

ADAPTOR, CYLINDER HEAD GOVERNOR 

CONTROL LINK (2.7830) 

SEAT, EXHAUST VALVE SPRING (1.8360) 

1.2070 BRACKET, ENGINE LIFTER FRONT 

BRACKET 

SPACER, 1/8" THICK (7.1581) 

BOLT, 3/8"-16Xl" AA LOCK (12.9001) 

1.2080 BRACKET, ENGINE LIFTER REAR 



5119379 
9409028 



BRACKET (ITEM 7) 

BOLT, 3/8"-16Xl" (12.9001) 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



QUANTITY 



1.3001 CRANKSHAFT ASSY. 

A CRANKSHAFT ASSY. INCLUDES PLUG AND 
DOWELL IN 1.3001. WHEN REPLACING A 
CRANKSHAFT ASSY. INCLUDE AN OIL PUMP 
DRIVE GEAR IN 4.1310 



CRANKSHAFT ASSY. 

SLEEVE, CRANKSHAFT FRONT OIL SEAL 

(1.3056) (Use with 5198503 SEAL) 

PLUG, 1/8" PIPE (12.9550) 



1.3040 SEAL, CRANKSHAFT OIL - FRONT 

SEAL (SINGLE LIP O.S., USE WITH 

5198502 SLEEVE) 

SEAL 

SEAL (W/EXCLUDER LIP) 



1.3055 SPACER, CRANKSHAFT FRONT OIL SEAL 

SLEEVE (USE WITH 5198503 SEAL) 
(1.3056) 



1.3060 SEAL, CRANKSHAFT OIL - REAR 

SEAL (SINGLE LIP, STANDARD) 
SEAL (SINGLE LIP, O.S., USE WITH 
5196851 SLEEVE) 

SEAL (DOUBLE LIP, O.3., USE WITH 
5196851 SLEEVE) 



1 

AR 



AR 



1.306J) SLEEVE, CRANKSHAFT REAR OIL SEAL 
SLEEVE (WITH O.S. OIL SEAL) 



AR 



1.3090 SHELL, CRANKSHAFT MAIN BEARING 

A SHELL SET CONSISTS OF ONE UPPER 
AND ONE LOWER SHELL. 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



QUANTITY 



1.3090 SHELL, CRANKSHAFT MAIN BEARING 

(CONT'D) 

SHELL, LOWER (.010" U.S.) 
SHELL, UPPER (.020" U.S.) 
SHELL, LOWER (.020" U.S.) 
SHELL, UPPER (.030" U.S.) 
SHELL, LOWER (.030" U.S.) 
SHELL SET (STANDARD) (1 HOLE) 
SHELL SET (.002" U.S.) 
SHELL SET (.010" U.S.) 
SHELL SET (.020" U.S.) 
SHELL SET (.030" U.S.) 



AR 
AR 
AR 
AR 
AR 
AR 
AR 
AR 
AR 
AR 



1.3100 WASHER, CRANKSHAFT MAIN BEARING 
THRUST 

WASHER (STANDARD) 

WASHER (.005" O.S.) 

WASHER (.010" O.S.) 

PIN, 3/16"Xl/2" DOWEL (12.9290) 

PIN, 7/32 "Xl/2" DOWEL (1/32" O.S.) 



4 

AR 
AR 

4 
AR 



1.3110 CAP, CRANKSHAFT MAIN BEARING 

CAP 

CAP (UNFINISHED) 



4 
AR 



1.3140 BOLT, CRANKSHAFT MAIN BEARING CAP 
BOLT 



1.3145 GEAR, CRANKSHAFT TIMING 

GEAR 

KEY, l/4"X3/4" WOODRUFF (12.9350) 



1.3161 COVER, ENGINE FRONT-UPPER 

AN UPPER COVER ASSY. INCLUDES PINS 
AND PLUGS IN 1.3161. 

COVER ASS. 

PIN, 3/8 "XI 1/8" DOWEL (12.9290) 



PART 
NUMBER 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



QUANTITY 



1.3162 COVER, ENGINE FRONT-LOWER 



5197415 COVER ASSY. 

5145009 PLUG, 1/8" PIPE HEX SOC. HD. 

(12.9550) 

186282 BOLT, 3/8"-16X3 1/4" (12.9001) 

103321 LOCKWASHER, 3/8" (12.9200) 

5146648 PLUG, 1/2" - 14 HEX SOCKET 



5121082 
5116386 



1.3170 GASKET, ENGINE FRONT COVER 

GASKET (UPPER) 
GASKET (LOWER) 



5116484 



1.3280 PULIEY, CRANKSHAFT 
PULLEY (5.38" DIA., 2 GROOVES) 



1.3290 RETAINER, CRANKSHAFT PULLEY 

5180291 RETAINER (WASHER) 

5180629 % BOLT, 3/8"-16Xl 3/4" L. 

271632 BOLT, 3/4"-16Xl 3/4" (12.9001) 

% OPTIONAL HAS COUNTERBORE FOR 

HANiB) TACHOMETER 



1.3320 BELT, CRANKSHAFT PULLEY 

SIZES GIVEN ARE EFFECTIVE LENGTH 
AT WIDTH SHOWN. 

ALL BELTS ARE "PREMIUM" POLYESTER 
BELTS, UNLESS INDICATED (M.S.) 
"MILITARY STANDARD". 



5126447 



BETL SET (2 BELTS) (35.00" L., .500" W.) 



FIG 



PART 
NUMBER 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



QUANT 



5A 
5A 
5A 



5A 



5126671 

9412018 
5126587 



5116301 



1.4001 FLYWHEEL 

INCLUiDES GEAR IN 1.4010. 

"C" INDICATES A CHAMFERED ASST 

"NC" IS NON- CHAMFERED. 

PLATE, SCUFF (BOLT RETAINER) 
BOLT, LOCK (2 1/4" L.) 
FLYWHEEL ASSY. (SAE #3) (NC) 



1.4010 GEAR, FLYWHEEL RING 
GEAR (SAE 7?3-l26 TEETH) 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



QUANT I1Y 



1.5001 HOUSING, FLYWHEEL 

HOUSING (SAE #3) 
PLUG, 3/8" PIPE (12.9550) 
PLUG,, 3/4" PIPE (12.9550) 
PLUG, 1 1/4" PIPE (12.9550) 
BOLT, 3/8"-16X2 1/2" (12.9001) 
BOLT, 3/8"-16X7/8" (12.9001> 
BOLT, 5/16"-18X2 1/2" (12.9001) 
BOLT, 3/8"-16X 2 1/2" (12.9001) 
BOLT, 3/8"-24X3 9/16" (12.9001) 
BOLT, 3/8 lf -16X7/8" (12.9001) 
BOLT, 3/8"-16X7/8" (12.9001) 
LOCKWASHER, 3/8" (12.9200) 



1 
1 
1 
1 

6 
5 
2 
4 
3 
1 
1 
AR 



1.5002 SHIM, FLYWHEEL 
SHIM 

1.5010 GASKET, FLYWHEEL HOUSING 
GASKET 

1.5020 GASKET, FLYWHEEL HOUSING BELL 
GASKET 



1.5030 COVER, FLYWHEEL HOUSING IARGE HOLE 

COVER 

BOLT, 7/1 6 "-14X1" (12.9001) 
BOLT, l/2"-13Xl" (12.9001) 
WASHER, 7/16" UPPER (2.4050) 
LOCKWASHER, 1/2" (12.9200) 



1.5040 GASKET, FLYWHEEL HOUSING IAHGE "HOLE 
COVER 

GASKET 



1.5050 COVER, FLYWHEEL HOUSING SMA.LL HLOLE 

COVER 

BOLT, 5/16"-18X7/8" (12.9001) 





PART 



~ 


: . . 


FIG 

1 ^ 


NUMBER 




GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 


QUAN 






~~ ~ , 
1.6001 CONNECTING ROD ASSY. 


- 






QUANTITIES SHOWN ARE PER CYLINDER. 








A ROD ASSY. INCLUDES CAP AND 








ORIFICE WHICH ARE NOT SOLD 








SEPARATELY, PLUS ITEMS IN 1.6001, 








1.6010 AND 1.6040. 




6A 


5121262 


ROD ASSY. 




6A 


5197852 


BOLT (3/8"-24X2.76" L.) 


, 


6A 


839103 


NUT (3/8"-24 HEX.) 


t 






1*6010 NOZZLE, CONNECTING ROD SPRAY 




6A 


5150140 


NOZZLE 


2 






1.6040 BUSHING, CONNECTING ROD PISTON PIN 




6A 


5116181 


BUSHING 


2 






1.6100 SHELL, CONNECTING ROD BEARING 








A SHELL SET CONSISTS OP ONE UPPER 








AND ONE LOWER SHELL. 




6A 


5121247 


SHELL, UPPER (STD.) 


1 


6A 


5116187 


SHELL, LOWER (STD,) 


1 


6A 


5196652 


SHELL, UPPER (.002" U.S.) 


AB 


6A 


5196653 


SHELL, LOWER (.002" U.S.) 


AB 


6A 


5196654 


SHELL, UPPER (.010" U.S.) 


AR 


6A 


5196655 


SHELL, LOWER (.010" U.S.) 


AR 


6A 


5196656 


SHELL, UPPER (.020" U.S.) 


AB 


6A 


5196657 


SHELL, LOWER (.020" U.S.) 


AR 


6A 


5196658 


SHELL, UPPER (.030" U.S.) 


AB 


6A 


5196659 


SHELL, LOWER (.030" U.S.) 


AR 




5195929 


SHELL SET (STANDARD) 


AR 




5196664 


SHELL SET (.002" U.S.) 


AR 




5196665 


SHELL SET (.010" U.S.) 


AB 




5196666 


SHELL SET (.020" U.S.) 


AB 




5196667 


SHELL SET (030" U.S.) 


AB 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



QUANTITY 



1.6110 PISTON ASSY. 

A PISTON ASSY. INCLUDES BUSHING IN 
1.6145 AND RETAINER IN 1.6150. 
VAPOR BLASTED BUSHINGS (TYPES 58, 
59,94) NOT SERVICED SEPARATELY. 

PISTON ASSY. ("N" ENGINE") 
1.6115 RING SET, PISTON 

A PISTON RING SET CONSISTS OF 
SUFFICIENT RINGS FOR ONE (1) 
CYLINDER. 

RING SET 



AR 



1.6120 RING, PISTON COMPRESSION 

RING (FIRE RING) 

RING (CHROMED) (2ND, 3RD, AND 4TH) 

TWO COMPRESSION GROOVES ONLY. 



1.6130 RING, PISTON OIL CONTROL 

AN OIL CONTROL RING SET CONSISTS OF 
RINGS FOR ONE (1) CYLINDER. 
AN OIL CONTROL RING CONSISTS OF TWO 
(2) SCRAPERS AND ONE (1) EXPANDER. 

RING 



1.6140 PIN, PISTON 
PIN 

1.6145 BUSHING, PISTON PIN 
BUSHING (1.6040) 



1.6150 RETAINER, PISTON PIN 



DT7TA TKTED 




FIG 


PART 
NUMBER 


GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 


w 


6A 


5198899 
5121256 


1.6182 CYLINDER KIT 




A CYLINDER KIT CONSISTS OF ITEMS IN 
1.6110, 1.6115, 1.6120, 1.6140, 1.6180 
AND 1.6190 FOR ONE CYLINDER. 

CYLINDER KIT ("N" ENGINES) 

1.6190 SEAL, CYLINDER LINER 
SEAL 




GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



QUANTITY 



1.7001 CAMSHAFT ASSY. 

A CAMSHAFT ASSY. INCLUDES PLUG IN 
1.7001 

CAMSHAFT ASSY. (RB-RC-LA-LD ENG.) 
PLUG (1/2" DRIVE) 



1.7010 BEARING, CAM AND BAIANCER SHAFT 

A SET INCLUDES ALL END AND 
INTERMEDIATE BEARINGS WHICH ARE NOT 
SOLD SEPARATELY. 

BEARING SET (STD. I.D., STD. O.D.) 
BEARING SET (STD. I.D., .010" O.S., O.D.") 
BEARING SET (.010" U.S., I.D., STD. O.D.) 
BEARING SET (.020" U.S., I.D., STD. O.D.) 



1 

AR 
AR 
AR 



1.7030 WASHER, CAM AND BALANCER SHAFT END 
BEARING THRUST 

WASHER 

BOLT, 3/8"-16Xl" (12.9001) 



1.7060 SEAL, CAM AND BALANCER OIL 
SEAL, OIL (FRONT) 

1.7061 SLINGER, CAM AND BALANCER SHAFT OIL 
SLINGER 



1.7 062 SPACER, CAM AND BAIANCER SHAFT 
PULLEY 

SPACER 



1.7080 SHAFT, BALANCER 
SHAFT 



1.7130 PULLEY, FRONT BALANCER 



FIG 


PART 
NUMBER 


GROUP NUMBER, 


NAME AND DESCRIPTION 


QUA* 






1.7190 WEIGHT, REAR BALANCER 




7C 
7C 


5119277 

94-09028 


WEIGHT (CRESCENT 
THICK, 2 HOLES) 
BOLT, 3/8"-16Xl" 

1 _79fin ttKAR. r.AMF 


SHAPE, .239 1 11 
LOCK (12.9001) 

?HAFT AND BALANCER SHAFT 





7A,C 
7A,C 

7A 
7A 



7A 



7A 
7A 

7A 



7C 



7F 

7F 



7F 
7F 



5133387 
5133388 

218217 
5150087 



5121077 



5172734 

181360 

103321 



5135227 



5196793 
5132504 



5124458 
5157244 



GEAR (R.H. HELIX) (CAMSHAFT LB-LC- 
RA-RD, BALANCER LA-LD-RB-RC ENG.) 
GEAR (L.H. HELIX) (CAMSHAFT LA-LD- 
RB-RC, BALANCER LB-LC-RA-RD ENG.) 
KEY, 3/16"X5/8" WOODRUFF (12.9350) 
NUT (1.7140) 



1.720:2 SPACER, CAMSHAFT GEAR 
SPACER 



1.7207 RETAINER, CAM AND BALANCER SHAFT 
GEAR NUT 

RETAINER 

BOLT, 3/8"-24X3/4" (12.9001) 

LOCKWASHER, 3/8" (12.9200) 



1.7220 GEAR ASSY., IDLER 
INCLUDES BEARING IN 1.7225. 
GEAR ASSY. (L.H. HELIX) 

U 72.25 BEARING, IDLER GEAR 

BEARING 

WASHER (THRUST) 

1.7250 HUB, IDLER GEAR 

HUB 

BOLT (4.4190) 

1.7604 GASKET, ACCESSORY DRIVE 
GASKET (1.5040) 



FIG 



PART 
NUMBER 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



QUANT! 



8A 
8A 



5122386 
103196 
103321 
117049 



5188755 



5170450 
5140814 
5145091 



5143616 



5140971 
455921 



1.7622 ADAPTOR, ACCESSORY DRIVE 

ABAPTOR (HYERAULIC PUMP) (12.5020) 
STUO, 3/8"Xl 9/16" (12.9117), 
LOCEWASHER, 3/8" (12.9200) 
NUT, 3/8"-24 HEX. (12.9120) 



1.7623 GASKET, ACCESSORY DRIVE ADAPTOR 
GASKET, HYDRAULIC PUMP TO ADAPTOR 

(12.5005) 



1.7630 PLATE, ACCESSORY DRIVE 

PIATE 

SPACER 

BOLT, 3/8"-24X1.38" (12.5015) 



U7635 COUPLING, ACCESSORY DRIVE 
COUPLING 

1.7670 GEAR, ACCESSORY DRIVE 

GEAR, HY1DRAULIC PUMP DRIVE (12.5030) 
PIN, 1/8"X1 1/2" (3.3063) 



FIG 



PART 
NUMBER 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



9A 



9A 



9A 



9A 



9A,C 



9A 
9A,C 



9A 



5135268 
5135267 



5179954 



5150318 



5150311 



5150312 



5123700 



5150314 
5123711 



5116072 
5151272 



1.8060 ARM ASSY. EXHAUST VALVE 

INCLUiDES ITEMS IN 1.8130, 1.8140, 
1.8150 AND 1.8343. 

ARM ASSY. (RIGHT )( 4 VALVE) 
ARM ASSY. (LEFT) (4 VALVE) 



1.8080 ARM ASSY., INJECTOR ROCKER 

INCLUDES ITEMS IN 1.8110 THRU 
1.8150. 

ASM. ASSY. 



1.8110 BUSHING, INJECTOR ROCKER ARM-IARGE 
BUSHING 

1.8120 BUSHING, INJECTOR ROCKER ARM-SMALL 
BUSHING 



1.8130 CLEVIS, INJECTOR AND EXHAUST VALVE 
ROCKER ARM 

CLEVIS 



1.8140 BUSHING, INJECTOR AND EXHAUST VALVE 
ROCKER ARM CLEVIS 

BUSHING 



1.8150 PIN, INJECTOR AND EXHAUST VALVE 
ROCKER ARM CLEVIS 

PIN (CLEVIS END) 
PIN (BRIDGE END) 



1.8160 SHAFT, ROCKER 

A SHAFT ASSY. INCLUDES PLUG IN 1.8160. 

SHAFT ASSY. 
PLUG 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



QUANTITY 



1.8170 BRACKET, ROCKER SHAFT 

BRACKET 
BOLT 



1.8180 ROD, PUSH 

ROD 
LOCKNUT 



1.8190 SPRING, PUSH ROD 

SPRING (2 ORANGE STRIPES) (VALVE 
AND INJECTOR) 



1.8200 SEAT, PUSH ROD SPRING - UPPER 
SEAT (VALVE AND INJECTOR) 

1.8210 SEAT, PUSH ROD SPRING-LOWER 
SEAT 

1.8250 RETAINER, PUSH ROD 
RETAINER (SNAP RING) 

1.8260 FOLLOWER ASSY., CAM 

FOLLOWER ASSY. (INCLUDES ROLLER SET) 

1.8265 ROLLER SET, CAM FOLLOWER 

INCLUDES ROLLER WITH BUSHING AND 
PIN. 

ROLLER SET (STANDARD) 



1.8300 GUIDE CAM FOLLOWER 

GUIDE 

BOLT, 1A"-20X3A" (12.9001) 

LOCKWASHER, 1A" (12.9200) 



FIG 


PART 
NUMBER 


GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 


9C 


5199323 


1.8310 VALVE, EXHAUST 


VALVE (INCLUDES LOCKS) 






1.8320 GUIDE, EXHAUST VALVE 


A VALVE GUIDE KIT INCLUDES 1-5131961 
GUIBE ANO 1-5131973 SEAL. INSTALLER 
(PKG,) CONSISTS OF 100 PIECES. 


9G 


5131961 
5198529 
5131973 
5199912 


GUH3E 
KIT, VALVE GUIDE AND SEAL 
SEAL, VALVE GUIDE (USE WITH 5131961) 
INSTALLER, EXHAUST VALVE SEAL 
(4 VALVE) 






1.8330 INSERT, EXHAUST VALVE 


9C 
9C 


5116361 
5196752 


INSERT (STANDARD) 
INSERT (.010" OVERSIZE ON O.D.) 






1.8340 SPRING, EXHAUST VALVE 


9C 


5144-019 


SPRING (RED AND GREEN STRIPE) 






1.8343 BRIDGE, EXHAUST VALVE 


9G 


5135262 


BRIDGE 






1.8350 CAP, EXHAUST VALVE SPRING 


9C 


5123330 


CAP 






1.8360 SEAT, EXHAUST VALVE SPRING 




5111467 


SEAT (0.60" THICK) 






1.8370 LOCK, EXHAUST VALVE SPRING 


9C 


511634-1 


LOCK (HALVES) 






1.8450 COVER, ROCKER 


9D 


5125355 


COVER, (ITEM 2) (Y-6") 



'IG 



PART 
NUMBER 



5147994 



5100104 



QUANTITY 



1.8^55 GASKET, ROCKER COVER 
GASKET 

1,8460 BOLT, ROCKER COVER 
SCREW ASSY. 



GROUP NOMENCLATURE 



1.0000 
1.1000 
1.1 000 A 
1 .2000 
1 .2000A 
1.3000 
1 .3000A 

1 .3000C 
1.3000D 
1.4000A 
1.5000A 

1.6000 
1.7000 
1 .7000A 
1 .7000B 
1.8000 
1 .8000 A 



ENGINE (less major assemblies) 
Cylinder Block 
Air Box Drains 
Cylinder Head 
Engine Lifter Bracket 
Crankshaft, OH Seals and stabilizers 
Crankshaft Front Cover 

Crankshaft Pulley 
Crankshaft Pulley Belt 
Flywheel 
Flywheel Housing 

Connecting Rod and Piston 

Camshaft and Gear Train 

Balance Weight Cover 

Accessory Drive 

Valve and Injector Operating Mechanism 

Rocker Cover 



5.0000 
5.1000 
5.10OOA 
5.20OOA 
5.2000B 
5.2000C 

5.3000B 
5. 4000 A 



COOLING SYSTEM^ 
Fresh Water Pump 
Fresh Water Pump Cover 
Water Outlet Manifold and/or Elbow 
Thermostat 
Water By-pass Tube 

Water Connections 
Fan 



6.0000 



EXHAUST SYSTEM 
Exhaust Manifolt 
Exhaust Muffler and/or Connects 



6.1 000 A Exhaust Manifold 
6.2000A 



7 0000 ELECTRICAL-INSTRUMENTS 

T/IOOOA Battery Charging Generator 



7.3000A Starting Motor 



2.0000 
2. 1000 A 
2.2000 
2.2000A 
2.3000A 
2,4000 



FUEL SYSTEM 
Fuel Injector 
Fuel Pump 
Fuel Pump Drain 
Fuel Filter 
Fuel Manifold and/or Connections 



2.5000A Fuel Lines and Fuel Cooler 
2.7000A Mechanical Governor 



2.9000 
2.9000A 



Injector Controls 
Throttle Controls 



3.0000 



AIR SYSTEM 



3.3000A 
3.4000 
3.4000A 
3.4000B 



Air Inlet Housing 

Blower 

Blower Drive Shaft 

Blower End Plate Cover 



4.0000 
4. 1000 A 
4.1000B 
4.1000C 
4.20OOA 
4.3000A 

A AfW)A 



LUBRICATING SYSTEM 

Oil Pump 

Oil Distribution System 

Oil Pressure Regulator 

Oil Filter 

Oil Filter Lines 

Oil Cooler 



53 ENGINES 




*NOT SOLD SEPARATELY 
2.1010 



2.1030 




53 ENGINES 



FIG. 2A FUEL PUMP 



FIG. 2B FUEL PUMP DRIVE 

2.2292 




FIG. 2C FUEL PUMP DRIVE 



IT DIESEL 



53 ENGINES 



2.3380 



IP ' ' Jtei\^-..^.v ^^%^aM x ^ra'i^iilmr ili i 

liiPS^^^^^i 





jJ*Kfc.Y" '' ^ '''-\ 

*wfivwftteittiiif'Mli 
jf^illllPPPj 



2.3370 



t ? 

I 2.3* 

3320 

F IG, 3B FUEL FILTER (Canister Type EUment) 



F". :a fc^ | ^^^(^^^^M| 




2.3050 



2.3050 P 37 * 



2.3060 2-3070- 



FIG 



. 3C FUEL STRAINER (Stock Type Element) 




DETROIT DIESEL 



53 ENGINES 



2.5210 



2.5220 



2.5215 




2.5010 



2.5010 



Ill DIESEL 



53 ENGINES 




MECHANICAL GOVERNOR HOUSING 
HTS AND IEVER (Close4 Li 



DETROIT DIESEL 



53 ENGINES 




1011 DIESEL 



53 ENGINES 



2.7095 




P088 



FIG. 5H MECHANICAL- GOVBSBKOR COVER (Double Lever) 



DETROIT DIESEL 



2.7370 



2.7360 



53 ENGINES 




2J502 




2.7380 



FIG. 5L GOVERNOR WEIGHT 
SHAFT AND CARRIER 



UIKIL 



DO 



2,9009 2.' 



2,9007 



2.9012 



2.9010 



2.7819 
2.8940 



2.7819 




2.8940 



2.7834 



X>3 



FIG, 7A INJECTOR CONTROL TUBE {Inline Engine) 



TA~ of 2.0000 



PART 
NUMBER 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



5228773 



5228701 



5228583 
5226416 
5226912 
5228764 



5228601 



5229167 



5228109 



2.1001 INJECTOR ASSY. 

FOR TYPE 104 USE TYPE 93. 
QUANTITIES SHOWN ARE PER CYLINDER. 
INCLUDES ITEMS IN 2.1020 THRU 
2.1265. 




2.1002 OVERHAU^ KIT, INJECTOR 

OVERHAUL KIT CONSISTS OF ONE (1) 
SEAL RING, TWO (2) FILTER CAP GASKETS, 
TWO (2) FILTER ELEMENTS AND TWO (2) 
SHIPPING CAPS. 

OVERHAUL KIT 



2.1020 BODY ASSY., INJECTOR 

A BODY ASSY. INCLUDES DOWEL AND PLUG 

IN 2.1020. 

BODY ASSY. 

DOWEL 

PLUG, BODY 

TAG, NUMBER (N45) 



2.1030 NUT, INJECTOR VALVE 
NUT 

2.1040 RING, INJECTOR SEAL 
RING 

2.1050 DEFLECTOR, INJECTOR SPILL 
DEFLECTOR 

2.1060 FOLLOWER, INJECTOR 



PART 
NUMBER 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



QUANTITY 



5228739 



2.1080 SPRING, INJECTOR PLUNGER 
SPRING 



5228608 



2.3.100 PIN, INJECTOR STOP 
PIN 



5228587 



5228588 



2.1110 ELEMENT, INJECTOR FILTER 
ELEMENT 

2.1130 CAP, INJECTOR FILTER 
CAP 



5226186 



5226414 



2.1140 GASKET, INJECTOR FILTER CAP 
GASKET 

2.1150 CAP, INJECTOR SHIPPING 
CAP 



AR 



5228684 



2.1160 PLUNGER AND BUSHING ASSY., INJECTOR 

PLUNGERS AND BUSHINGS ARE NOT SOLD 
SEPARATELY. AN ASSY. INCLUDES PIN IN 
2.1165. 

PLUNGER ANO BUSHING ASSY. (N45) 



5226393 



2.1165 PIN, BUSHING GUIDE 
PIN 



5226719 



2.1170 RACK, INJECTOR 
RACK 



PART 
NUMBER 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



IB 



IB 



IB 



IB 



IB 



IB 



5228586 



5228690- 



5228696 



5229 j:'^ 



522850ft 



5228766 



5228594 



IB 



5121259 



2.1190 RETAINER, INJECTOR GEAR 
RETAINER 

2.1200 VALVE, INJECTOR CHECK 
VALVE 

2.1205 CAGE, INJECTOR, CHECK VALVE 
CAGE 

2.1235 TIP ASSY., INJECTOR SPRAY 

COMPONENTS OF TIP ASSY. ARE NOT 
SOLD SEPARATELY. 

TIP ASSY. (M65, N40, N45, N50,) 

2.1238 VALVE KIT, INJECTOR 
INCLUDES ITEMS IN 2.1250 AND 2.1255, 
VALVE KIT (SHORT QUILL NEEDLE) 

2.1250 SPRING, INJECTOR VALVE 
SPRING 

2.1255 SEAT, INJECTOR VALVE SPRING 
SEAT 

2.1257 CAGE, INJECTOR VALVE SPRING 
CAGE 

2.1270 CLAMP, INJECTOR 
CLAMP 



PART 
NUMBER 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



5146341 
5199560 
5118219 



5195078 



5150193 



5154216 



5146341 



5146337 
141195 



5134560 
3719219 



2.2001 PUMP ASSY., FUEL 

SEE ASSEMBLY BREAKDOWN AS INDICATED 

BELOW. 

A FUEL PUMP KIT INCLUDES A 3/8" 

INLET PUMP, GASKET IN 2.2007 AND 

REDUCING BUSHING IN 2.2030. 

PUMP ASSY. (L.H.) (3/8" INLET) 
PUMP KIT, FUEL (L.H.) (PAGE B5) 
BOLT, 5/1 6"- 18X7/8" (W/LW) 
#NOT SERVICED: COMPONENTS ARE 
AVAILABLE. FOR COMPLETE REPLACEMENT 
USE PUMP KIT SHOWN IN SAME TYPE. 



2.2004 OVERHAUL KIT, FUEL PUMP 

& OVERHAUL KIT 

& INCLUDES ITEMS IN 2.2007, 2.2070, 
2.2089, 2.2093, 2.2130, 2.2160 AND 
2.2180. 



2.2007 GASKET, FUEL PUMP TO ENGINE 
GASKET (5.1010) 

2^.2230 COUPLING, FUEL PUMP DRIVE 
COUPLING 

2.JQQ1 PUMP ASSY., FUEL 

PUMP ASSY. (L.H.) (3/8" INLET) 

(5199560) 

= NOT SERVICED: USE PART NUMBER IN 

PARENTHESES. 

2.2010 BOW, FUEL PUMP 

BODY 

PIN, l/4"X5/8" DOWEL (12.9290) 

2.2030 OVER, FUEL PUMP 

COVER 

BOLT, l/4"-20X3/4" (WITH LOCKWASHER) 



PART 
NUMBER 



GROUP NUMBER, NME AND DESCRIPTION 



5230007 



5174975 

14-74-81 



5181747 



5181746 



5174973 
103709 



5184530 



5174971 



5161003 



2.2070 SEAL, FUEL PUMP OIL 

SEAL 

2.2087 GEAR, FUEL PUMP (DRIVE) 

GEAR 

BALL, 1/8" DIA STEEL (12.9670) 

2.2089 SHAFT, FUEL PUMP DRIVEN 

A SHAFT ASSY. mCLUDES GEAR WHICH 
IS NOT SOLID SEPARATELY. 

SHAFT ASSY. 

2.2093 SHAFT, FUEL PUMP 

A SHAFT ASSY. INCLUDES SHAFT IN 
2.2093 AND ITEMS IN 2.2087. 

SHAFT ASSY. (DRIVE) 

1.2130 VALVE, FUEL PUMP 

VALVE 

PIN, 5/32"Xl" STRAIGHT (12.9300) 

2.2160 SPRING, FUEL PUMP VALVE RETAINING 
SPRING 

2_.2170 PLUG, FUEL PUMP VALVE 
PLUG 

2.2180 GASKET, FUEL PUMP VALVE PLUG 
GASKET 



PART 
NUMBER 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



5150193 



5146337 
5145009 
141195 



5134560 
5198558 
3719219 



5230007 



5174975 
147481 



5181747 



5181746 
5178700 



5174973 
103709 



2.2007 GASKET, FUEL PUMP TO ENGINE 
GASKET 

2.2010 BODY, FUEL PUMP 

BODY 

PLUG, 1/8" PIPE (12.9550) 

PIN, 1/4" X 5/8" DOWEL (12.9290) 

2.2030 COVER, FUEL PUMP 

COVER 

BUSHING, 3/8" X 3/4" 

BOLT, l/4"-20X3/4" (WITH LOCKWASHER) 

2 .2070 SEAL, FUEL PUMP OIL 
SEAL 

2.2087 GEAR, FUEL PUMP (DRIVE) 

GEAR 

BALL, 1/8" DIA STEEL (12.9670) 

2 .2089 SHAFT, FUEL PUMP DRIVEN 

A SHAFT ASSY. INCLUDES GEAR WHICH 
IS NOT SOLD SEPARATELY. 

SHAFT ASSY. 

2.2093 SHAFT, FUEL PUMP 



SHAFT ASSY. (DRIVE) 
SHAFT 



2.2130 VALVE, FUEL PUMP 

VALVE 

PIN, 5/32"Xl" STRAIGHT (12.9300) 



FIG 



PART 
NUMBER 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



QUANTITY 



2A 



5184530 



2A 



5174971 



2A 



5161003 



2.2160 SPRING, FUEL PUMP VALVE RETAINING 
SPRING 

2.2170 PLUG, FUEL PUMP VALVE 
PLUG 

2.2180 GASKET, FUEL PUMP VALVE PLUG 
GASKET 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



QUANTITY 



2.3001 STRAINER ASSY., FUEL 



SEE ASSEMBLY BREAKDOWN BELOW. 

STRAINER ASSY. (6") (T-60) 
DECAL (WITH 5575568 STRAINER) 
PLUG, 1/4" PIPE (12.9550) 



2.3310 FILTER ASSY., FUEL 

SEE ASSEMBLY BREAKDOWN PAGE B9 

FILTER ASSY. (4") (T-58) 

.OECAL 

PLUG, 1/4" PIPE (12.9550) 

BOLT, 3/8"-24Xl 1/2" (12.9001) 

LOCKWASHER, 3/8" (12.9200) 

NUT, 3/8"-24 HEX (12.9120) 



C 2 .300 1 STRAINER ASSY., FUEL 

STRAINER ASSY. (6" SOCK TYPE) (T-60) 

2.3010 ELEMENT, FUEL STRAINER (PRIMARY) 

ELEMENT (6", FELT SOCK TYPE, T-553) 
(INCLUDES GASKET IN 2.3090 AND 2.3130) 



2.3050 SHELL, FUEL STRAINER (PRIMARY) 

SHELL (2.3380) 

DRAIN COCK, 1/4" (12.9510) 



2.3080 COVER, FUEL STRAINER (PRIMARY) 

COVER ASSY. (IDENTIFIED WITH CAST "P") 
(INCLUDES ITEMS IN 2.3090, 2.3120 
and 2.3130) 



2.3090 GASKET, FUEL STRAINER COVER 
GASKET (2.3400) 



PART 
NUMBER 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



5145010 
5145011 

6435793 
6435794 



5573949 



5573261 



5574123 
5574126 
5574120 



5574124 
5574122 



5574125 



2.3100 PLUG, FUEL STRAINER COVER 

PLUG, 1/4" PIPE (TEFLON WRAPPED) 

(12.9550) 

PLUG, 3/8" PIPE (12.9550) 



2.3120 SCREW, FUEL STRAINER COVER 
BOLT (USE WITH COVER MARKED "P") 

2.3130 GASKET, FUEL STRAINER TDVER SCREW 
GASKET (USE WITH COVER MARKED "P") 

2.3310 FILTER ASSY., FUEL 
FILTER AS SiT. (4") (T-58) 

2.3320 ELEMENT, FUEL FILTER (SECONDARY) 

ELEMENT (4", TP-509) (INCLUDES 
GASKETS IN 2.3400, 2.3420) 

2.3322 SEAT, FUEL FILTER ELEMENT 

SEAT 
SEAL 
RETAINER (RING) 

2.3370 SPRING, FUEL FILTER ELEMENT 

SPRING 

SEAT, SPRING (WASHER) 

2.3380 SHELL, FUEL FILTER (SECONDARY) 

SHELL, ASSY. (INCLUDES ITEMS IN 
2.3322 AND 2.3370) 

2.3390 COVER, FUEL FILTER (SECONDARY) 



/ T TVT'M'T1T j niTt?T\ T.TI'I'TI /" A OT 



5574118 



1503536 



514-5010 



103647 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



2.3400 GASKET, FUEL FILTER COVER TO SHELL 
GASKET 

2.3410 SCREW, FUEL FILTER COVER 
SCREW 

2 .3420 GASKET, FUEL FILTER COVER SCREW 
GASKET (2.3110) 

2.3480 PLUG, FUEL FILTER 

PLUG, 1/4" PIPE (IN COVER) (12.9550) 

2.3500 DRAHNCOCK, FUEL FILTER 
DRAINCOUK, 1/4" (12.9510) 



QUANTITY 



FIG 



PART 
NUMBER 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



QUANTITY 



5116204 



5152138 



5152148 



2.4020 PIPE, FUEL 

PIPE ASSY. (INLET AND OUTLET) 

2. 4030 CONNECTOR, FUEL PIPE 
CONNECTOR 

2.4050 WASHER, FUEL PIPE CONNECTOR 
WASHER 



PART 
NUMBER 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



QUANTITY 



5122279 



5121080 
137407 

1374-23 



5177623 



5125318 
143338 



5116440 



j.5006 VALVE, FUEL SUPPLY CHECK 
VALVE, 1/4" SPRING TYPE 

2.5100 TUBE, FUEL PUMP TO FILTER 

TUBE ASSY. (DEV. L. 15.88") 

CONNECTOR, 3/8" INV. FL. TUBE 

(12.9460) 

ELBOW, 3/8" INV. FL. TUBE 90 DEG 

(12.9480) 

2.5120 CLIP, FUEL PUMP TO FILTER TUBE 
CLIP (3/8" TUBE) 

2.5151 TUBE, FILTER OUTLET 

TUBE ASSY. (DEV. L. 19 3/16") 
ELBOW, 3/8" INV. FL. TUBE 45 T3EG 
(12.9480) 

2.5210 TUBE, FUEL DRAIN 
ELBOW, RESTRICTED 



AR 



PART 
NUMBER 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



5129802 

180083 

9414285 

5145225 
9414322 
103320 



5122166 
109371 



5116336 



5126428 
5126792 
271468 
120380 



5122742 



5183042 



2.7001 GOVERNOR ASSY. 

A GOVERNOR ASSY. INCLUDES ITEMS IN 
2.7002, 2.7045, THRU 2.7810 EXCEPT 
2.7165, 2.7520, 2.7530, AND 2.7740. 



GOVERNOR ASSY. (LIMITING) 

BOLT, 5/16"-18Xl 1/2" (12.9001) 

BOLT, 3/8"-24X7/8" (12. PT. HD.) 

(12.9001) 

WASHER, 3/8" COPPER (12.9190) 

WASHER, 3/8" FLAT (12.9190) 

LOCKWASHER, 5/16" (12.9200) 



2.7002 NAME PLATE, GOVERNOR 

NAME PLATE 

SCREW, #9X3/16" RED. HD. DR. 



2.7010 GASKET, GOVERNOR TO ENGINE 
GASKET 

2.7045 COVER ASSY., GOVERNOR (COMPLETE) 
SEE ASSEMBLY BREAKDOWN AS INDICATED. 

COVER ASSY. (LIMITING) (C & D ENG.) 
(PAGE B18) 

SCREW, l/4"-20X3/4" FIL. HD. 
(GROOVED FOR TORSION SPRING) 
SCREW, l/4"-20X3/4." FIL. HD. 
(WITH LOCKWASHER) (12.9010) 
LOCKWASHER, 1/4" (12.9200) 

2.7051 GASKET, GOVERNOR COVER 
GASKET 

2.7165 LEVER, GOVERNOR COVER SHUTDOWN SHAFT 
LEVER (2.9410) 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



QUANTITY 



2.7170 LEVER, GOVERNOR COVER THROTTLE SHAFT 
LEVER (2.9340) 

BOLT, l/4"-20Xl" (12.9001) 
LO.CKWASHER, 1/4" (12,9200) 



2.7230 HOUSING, GOVERNOR CONTROL 

HOUSING (C & O ENGINES) 

ADAPTOR, INJECTOR CONTROL LINK BOOT 

(2.7830) 

PLUG, 1/8" PIPE 



2.7250 SHAFT ASSY*, GOV. OPERATING 

INCLUDES ITEMS IN 2,7255, 2.7280, 
2.7300, AND BEARING IN 2.7260. 

SHAFT AS3T * (C AND D ENGINE) 



2.7255 SHAFT, GOV 8 OPERATING 
SHAFT 

2.7257 TUBE, GOV. OPEATING SHAFT 
TUBE 



2.7260 BEARING, GOV. OPERATING SHAFT 
(UPPER) 

BEARING 

SCREW AND LOCKWASHER ASSST. 

#10-24X7/16" (12.9025) 



2.7270 BEARING, GOV* OPERATING SHAFT 
(LOWER) 

BEARING 

RING, SNAP (TO HOUSING) 



PART 
NUMBER 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



5122749 
5150898 
122161 



5122741 
94-25382 



5122746 



5126311 

5150941 

9421917 

120391 

142583 



5126310 



5129730 
5119127 

9428477 



2.7280 LEVER, GOV. OPERATING. SHAFT 

A LEVER ASSY. INCLUDES PIN IN 
2.7300. 

LEVER ASSY. (C & (D ENG.) 

SCREW (GAP ADJUSTING) 

NUT, l/4"-28 HEX. (12.9120) 



2.7290 FORK, GOV. OPERATING SHAFT 

FORK 

SCREW, #10-32X5/8" (W/LW) (12.9001) 

2.7300 PIN, GOVERNOR OPERATING SHAFT LEVER 
PIN 

2.7310 LEVER, GOV. DIFFERENTIAL 

A LEVER ASSY. INCLUDES PIN IN 
2.7315 

LEVER ASSY. (LIMITING SPEED) 

WASHER 

SCREW AND LOCKWASHER ASSY 

WASHER, 7/3 2"- 1/2" FLAT 

RETAINER, 13/64" SPRING (12.9640) 

2.7315 PIN, GOV 8 DIFFERENTIAL LEVER 
PIN (LIMITING SPEED) 

2.. 7 3 40 HOUSING, GOVERNOR WEIGHT 




2.7350 SHAFT AND CARRIER ASSY., GOVERNOR 
WEIGHT 

SEE ASSEMBLY BREAKDOWN PAGE B19 . 



PART 
NUMBER 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



5122738 



5183704 



5182560 



5182555 



5150892 



5150899 



5101432 

122161 

5102270 



5182557 



5186115 



2 7475 SPACER, GOVERNOR WEIGHT CARRIER 
SHAFT 

SPACER (BETWEEN GEAR AND BEARING) 



2.7540 SPRING, GOVERNOR LOW SPEED 
SPRING (2 YELLOW STRIPES) 

2.7550 SPRING, GOVERNOR HIGH SPEED 
SPRING (WIDE RED STRIPE) 

2.7560 PLUNGER, GOVERNOR LOW SPEED SPRING 
PLUNGER 

2.7570 SEAT, GOV. LOW SPEED SPRING 
SEAT 

2.7580 CAP, GOV. LOW SPEED SPRING 
CAP 



2.7590 SCREW, GOVERNOR LOW SPEED SPRING 
ADJUSTING 

PIN 

NUT, l/4"-28 HEX (12.9190) 

SCREW 



2. 7 6 10 RETAINER, GOVERNOR HIGH SPEED 
SPRING 

RETAINER 



2. 76,15 LOCKMJT, GOVERNOR HIGH SPEED SPRING 
RETAINER 

LOCKNUT 



PART 
NUMBER 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



5182559 

445520 

103320 



5152944 



5177083 
124925 



5122797 

5122798 

142583 

114783 

103361 

5150941 



5116262 



5199773 
272855 



5129726 



2.7635 HOUSING, GOVERNOR LIMITING SPEED 
SPRING 

HOUSING 

BOLT, 5/16"- 18X3 1/2" (12.9001) 

LOCKWASHER 5/16" (12.9200) 



2.7650 GASKET, GOVERNOR HIGH SPEED SPRING 
COVER 

GASKET 



2.7810 SCREW ASSY*, QOV. BUFFER 

SCREW ASSY. (INCLUDES SPRING) 
NUT (3/8"-24 HEX.) (12.9120) 



2.7819 ROD ASSY. GOV. TO INJECTOR LINK 

LINK (A & C ENG.) 

LINK (B & D ENG.) 

RETAINER, SPRING 13/64" (12.9640) 

PIN (l/4"X51/64" CLEVIS) (12.9260) 

PIN, l>61"Xl/2" COTTER (12.9250) 

WASHER (2.7310) 



2.7830 ADAPTOR, CYLINDER HEAD GOVERNOR 
CONTROL LINK 

ADAPTOR (IN HEAD) (PLAIN END) 



2.7834 BOOT, GOV. TO INJECTOR LINK 

# HOSE (7/8" I.D. X1.26"L) (A & C ENG. ) 
CLAMP, HOSE (SPRING, 1 1/4") (A & C 
ENG.) (12.9660) 

# STD. LENGTH HOSE. CUT TO LENGTH SHOWN. 



2.7890 TUBE ASSY,, GOVERNOR LUBRICATION 

TUBE ASSY. (DEV. L. 11.36") (WEIGHT 
HOUSING) 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



QUANTITY 



2.7945 SEAL, GOVERNOR 
SEAL 



AR 



2.7960 GEAR, GOVERNOR DRIVE 

GEAR (L.H. HELIX) (RG, RD, LA, LB) 
KEY, 5/32"X5/8" WOODRUFF (12.9350) 
NUT, 5/8"-18 LOCK (12.9140) 



j.7045 COVER ASSY., GOVERNOR (COMPLETE) 

COVER ASSY. (C AND D ENGINE, 
LIMITING SPEED) 



2.7050 COVER ASSY., GOV. (LESS SHAFT AND 
LEVER) 

INCLUDES ITEMS IN 2.7050, 2.7093 
AND 2.7100. 

COVER ASSY. (C AND D ENGINE, 

LIMITING SPEED) 

PIN, 3/16" X 5/8" ROLL (12.9275) 



.2.7095. SHAFT ASSY., GOVERNOR THROTTLE 

A SHAFT ASSY. INCLUDES ITEMS IN 
2.7095. PIN NOT SOLD SEPARATELY. 

SHAFT ASSY. 

PIN, l/8 M X3/4" SPRING (12.9300) 

FITTING, 1/8 M LUBE (12.9540) 



2.7115 SHAFT ASSY., GOVERNOR SHUTDOWN 

SHAFT ASSY. (INCLUDES PIN) (2.7053) 
PIN, 1/8"X1" ROLL (12.9275) 



2.7140 WASHER, GOVERNOR THROTTLE SHAFT 
(PACKING) 

SEAL RING (2.4225) 

WASHER, SEAL RING BACK-UP (2.7045) 



PART 
NUMBER 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



QUANTITY 



5182977 



5150238 
5122732 



5151487 
5178581 



5100061 



5196855 



5109544 



5122776 
5129721 



5122785 
9411504 



2.7145 WASHER, GOVERNOR SHUTDOWN SHAFT 
(PACKING) 

SEAL RING (3.3055) 



2.7150 RETAINER, GOVERNOR THROTTLE SHAFT 
PACKING 

WASHER (3.4001) 
RING, SNAP 



2.7155 RETAINER, GOVERNOR SHUTDOWN SHAFT PACKING 

WASHER (2.7430) 
RING, SNAP (2.7430) 
WASHER (DISHED) 



2.7350 SHAFT AND CARRIER ASSY., GOVERNOR 
WEIGHT 

SHAFT AND CARRIER ASSY. 



2.7360 SHAFT, GOVERNOR WEIGHT CARRIER 

SHAFT ASSY. (INCLUDES SHAFT AND 
CARRIER) (LIMITING SPEED) 



2.7380 RISER, GOVERNOR 

RISER ( INCLUDES THRUST BEARING) 
(SMALL FLANGE) 



2.7390 WEIGHT, GOVERNOR 

WEIGHT (LOW SPEED) 
WEIGHT (HIGH SPEED) 



2 .7430 PIN, GOVERNOR WEIGHT 



PART 
NUMBER 



9411502 



5122783 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



2.7470 BEARING, GOVERNOR WEIGHT CARRIER 
SHAFT (CONT.) 

RING, SNAP 



2.7502 SUPPORT, GOVERNOR WEIGHT SH4FT 
BEARING 

SUPPORT 



QUANTITY 



PART 
NUMBER 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



5195968 



5116264- 
9422203 



5150259 



5116267 



5116266 



5116265 



5115322 
5176228 



5146238 
5184255 
110730 
122236 



2. 9001 TUBE AND LEVER ASSY., INJECTOR 
CONTROL 

A TUBE ASSY. INCLUDES ONE (1) 
BRACKET IN 2.9003 AND ITEMS IN 
2.9007 THRU 2.9010. 

TUBE ASSY. (C ENGINE) 



j.9003 BRACKET, INJECTOR CONTROL TUBE 

BRACKET 

BOLT, 1/4"- 20X5/8" (12 PT. HD.) 



2.9007 SHAFT, INJECTOR CONTROL TUBE END 
SHAFT (1 1/16" L.) 

2 .9009 LEVER, INJECTOR CONTROL TUBE 

LEVER 

PIN, 1/8" X 3/4" GROOVE (12.9270) 

2 .9010 SPACER, INJECTOR CONTROL TUBE IEVER 
SPACER 

2.9012 SPRING, INJECTOR CONTROL TUBE 
SPRING 

2.09014 LEVER, INJECTOR CONTROL TUBE RACK 

LEVER 
SCREW 

2.9422 WIRE, GOVERNOR CONTROL 

* WIRE ASSY. (50" L.) (3.3250) 
PLATE, NAME 

LOCKWASHER, 3/8" (12.9200) 
NUT, 3/8"-24 HEX. (12.9120) 
* WIRE ASSY. LENGTH DETERMINED BY 



PART 
NUMBER 



5161464 
120392 
14-2583 
132105 



5155782 

3290569 

123298 

120380 

121902 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 

""" " " 

2.9426 PIN, GOVERNOR CONTROL WIRE SWIVEL 

PIN SWIVEL 

WAS^R, 1/4" FIAT (12.9190) 

RETAINER, 13/64" SPRING (12.9640) 

SCREW #10-32X3/8" FIL HD. 

(12.9010) 

2.9428 CLIP, GOVERNOR CONTROL WIRE TUBE 

CLIP (7.8320) 

CLIP (7.8320) 

BOLT l/4"-28X3/8" (12.9001) 

LOCKWASHER, 1/4" (12.9200) 

NUT l/4"-28.HEX (12.9120) 



QUANTITY 



GROUP NOMENCLATURE 



ENGINE (less major assemblies) 

Cylinder Block 
Air Box Drains 
Cylinder Head 
Engine Lifter Bracket 
Crankshaft, Oil Seals and stabilizers 
Crankshaft Front Cover 

Crankshaft Pulley 
Crankshaft Pulley Belt 
Flywheel 
Flywheel Housing 

Connecting Rod and Piston 

Camshaft and Gear Train 

Balance Weight Cover 

Accessory Drive 

Valve and Injector Operating Mechanism 

Rocker Cover 



5.0000 COOLING SYSTEM 

5.1000 Fresh Water Pump 

5.1000A Fresh Water Pump Cover 

5.2000A Water Outlet Manifold and/or Elbow 

5.2000B Thermostat 

5. 7000 C Water By-pass Tube 

5.30OOB Water Connections 

5.4000A Fan 



6.0000 EXHAUST SYSTEM 
6. 1000 A Exhaust Manifold 
6.2000A Exhaust Muffler and/or Connections 

7.0000 ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS 
7. 1000 A Battery Charging Generator 



7.3000A Starting Motor 



FUEL SYSTEM 
Fuel Injector 
Fuel Pump 
Fuel Pump Drain 
Fuel Filter 
Fuel Manifold and/or Connections 

Fuel Lines and Fuel Cooler 
Mechanical Governor 

Injector Controls 
Throttle Controls 



AIR SYSTEM 



Air Inlet Housing 

Blower 

Blower Drive Shaft 

Blower End Plate Cover 



LUBRICATING SYSTEM 
Oil Pump 

Oil Distribution System 
Oil Pressure Regulator 
Oil Filter 



OH DIESEL 



53 ENGINES 




3.4025 




3.3055 



FIG. 3A AIR INLET HOUSING 



3.3050 




1,1020 



1.5001 



4.8001 



3.3001 




53 ENGINES 



3.4080 




3.4042 

EARLY DESIGN 




FIG. 4A 3-53 BLOWER 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



QUANTITY 



3.3001 HOUSING ASSY,, AIR INLET 

FOR TYPE 478 USE TYPE 407. 
FOR TYPE 527 USE TYPE 481. 
A HOUSING ASSY. INCLUDES ITEMS 
IN 3.003 AND 3.3040 THRU 3.3110 

HOUSING ASSY. 

BOLT, 3/8"-16Xl 3/4" (4.4190) 
BOLT, 3/8"-16X2" (12.9001) 
BOLT, 3/8"-16X3" (12.9001) 
WASHER, 3/8" FLAT (12.9190) 
LOCKWASHER, 3/8" (12.9200) 



3.3003 HOUSING, AIR INLET 

HOUSING 

PLUG, 1/4" PIPE (12.9550) 



3.3007 GASKET, AIR INLET HOUSING FIANGE 

GASKET 

GASKET (3.4025) (W/SCREEN) 



3.3040 VALVE, AIR INLET HOUSING SHUTDOWN 

VALVE 

PIN, 1/8"X11/16" ROLL (12.9300) 



3. 3 050 SHAFT, AIR INLET HOUSING SHUTDOWN 
VALVE 

A SHAFT AND CAM ASSY. CONSISTS OF SHAFT, 
SPACER AND PIN IN 3.3050, PLUS CAM AND 
LEVER IN 3.3110. 

SHAFT 

WASHER, 3/8" FLAT (12.9190) 

PIN, 1/8"X11/16" ROLL (12.9300) 



3^3055 SEAL, AIR INLET HOUSING SHUTDOWN 
VALVE SHAFT 



PART 
NUMBER 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



5111904 
5112787 



5114727 

179803 

120392 

120380 

5143836 



5122623 
5114974 



103319 

5146238 

110730 

3796374 

3290569 

140855 

123298 

120393 

121902 

124925 



S0.86687 



SPRING (VALVE) (INTERNAL) 
SPRING (LATCH) (R.H HELIX) 



3.3090 LEVER, AIR INIET HOUSING SHUTDOWN 
VALVE 

LATCH 

BOLT, l/4"-20Xl 3/4" (12.9001) 
WASHER, 1/4" FLAT (12.9190) 
LOCKWASHER, 1/4" (12,9200) 
BUSHING, ECCENTRIC 



3.3110 LEVER, AIR INLET HOUSING SHUTDOWN 
RESET 

CAM 

HANDLE ASSY. 



3.3250 WIRE, AIR INIET HOUSING SHUTDOWN 

LOCKWASHER, 1/4" 

* WIRE ASSY. (57"L.) (2.9422) 
LOCKWASHER, 3/8" (12.9200) 
GUIDE, WIRE 

CLIP, 3/16" DIA. W/OFFSET 
SCREW. #8-32X5/16" L. SET 
BOLT, l/4"-28X3/8" 
WASHER, 11/32" FLAT 
LOCKWASHER, 1/4" 
NUT, 3/8 "-24 JAM 

* WIRE ASSYo LENGTH J3ETERMINED BY INSTALLATION, 
CUT TO SUIT. 



3o3260 PLATE, AIR INLET HOUSING SHUTDOWN 
CONTROL 

PLATE, INSTRUCTION 



PART 
NUMBER 




5198041 



5198684 



5119433 
5116295 



5119391 
141242 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION^ 

__ -- 
3.400J. BLOWER ASSY. 

BLOWER ASSY. (R.H.) 
BOLT (10 3/16" L.) 
BOLT (10 11/16" L.) 

WASHER (7/16") (FIAT) 

11/16" (12.9UUI; 

! ' <0 



QUANTITY 



3^4003 BLOWER KIT, INSTALLATION 

A KIT INCLUDES ITEMS IN 3 4010, 
3 4025, 3.4190, 3.4220, 3.4227 
AND COPPER WASHER IN 3.4350. 

3.4003 BLOWER KIT, INSTALLATION 
BLOWER INSTALLATION KIT 

3.4005 BLOWER KIT, REPAIR 

NON-TURBO KIT CONSISTS OF 
UAQUFR IN 3.4080, PILOT IN 
3 4082, PLUS ITEMS .IN 3.4090, 

3.4100, 3.4160, 3.4320, AND 
SPACER IN 3.4370. 

BLOWER REPAIR KIT (NON-TURBO) 

3.4010 GASKET, BLOWER 

GASKET (TO END PLATE) (3.4190) 
GASKET (TO BLOCK) 

3.4020 HOUSING, BLOWER 

HOUSING, ASSY. (INCLUDES PINS) 
PIN, 3/8"X7/8" DOWEL (12.9290) 



1 

2 

4 
4 
4 



AR 



AR 



FIG 



PART 
NUMBER 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



4A 
4A 
4A 



4A 
4A 
4A 
4A 



4A 



5196053 



5139297 



5116173 
5116170 
9409062 



5127077 
9409034 



5119194 
5119195 
9409018 
5121403 



5116164 
5116165 
5116166 
5116167 



5116168 



3.4025 SCREEN, BLOWER 
SCREEN 

3.4030 ROTOR, BLOWER 

INCLUDES SHAFT AND PIN WHICH 
ARE NOT SOLD SEPARATELY FOR 
TYPE 114. 

ROTOR ASSY. 

3.4033 PLATE, BLOWER ROTOR THRUST 

PLATE 

SPACER 

BOLT, l/4"-20Xl" (12.9001) 

3.4036 WASHER, BLOWER ROTOR SHAFT THRUST 

WASHER (25/64" I.D.) 

BOLT, 3/8"-24X7/8" (12.9001) 

3.4080 GEAR, BLOWER ROTOR 

GEAR (R.H. HELIX) 

GEAR (L.H. HELIX) 

BOLT, 5/16"-24X7/8" (12.9001) 

WASHER 

3.4090 SHIM, BLOWER ROTOR GEAR 

SHIM (.002") 

SHIM (.003") 

SHIM (.004") 

SHIM (.005") 

3.4100 SPACER, BLOWER ROTOR GEAR 
SPACER 

3. 41 40 PLATE, BLOWER HOUSING END 

A PLATE ASSY. INCLUDES PINS, PLUGS 
AND STRAINER IN 3.4140 AND SEAL 
IN 3.4160. 



PART 
NUMBER 



GROUP NUMBER, NAME AND DESCRIPTION 



QUANTITY 



5134914 
5139299 
5145009 
117297 



5134924 
5199367 



5199368 



5119429 
5119394 
5119395 



5119433 



PLATE, FRONT 

PLATE, REAR 

PLUG, 1/8" PIPE (12.9550) 

SCREW, 5/16"-18Xl 3/4" FIL. 

HD. (12.9010) 



3 .41 60 SEAL, BLOWER HOUSING END PLATE 

SEAL (LIP TYPE) (NON-TURBO) 
(STD. l.D.) 

# SEAL (USED WITH SLEEVE 5199368) 
(O.S. , l.D.) 



3.4163 SPACER, BLOWER ROTOR SHAFT OIL SEAL 
SLEEVE (USED WITH 5199367 SEAL) 

#USED TOGETHER TO RENEW SEALING 
SURFACE . 

3.4180 COVER, BLOWER HOUSING END PLATE 

COVER (FRONT) 

PLATE, REINFORCEMENT (LARGE) 

PLATE, REINFORCEMENT (SMALL) 



3.4190 GASKET, BLOWER HOUSING END PLATE 
COVER 

GASKET 



4 

AR 



AR 



GROUP NOMENCLATURE 



ENGINE (less major assemblies) 

Cylinder Block 
A Air Box Drains 

Cylinder Head 
A Engine Lifter Bracket 
i Crankshaft, Oil Seals and stabilizers 

lA Crankshaft Front Cover 

)C Crankshaft Pulley 

)D Crankshaft Pulley Belt 

3A Flywheel 

DA Flywheel Housing 

Connecting Rod and Piston 

Camshaft and Gear Train 

OA Balance Weight Cover 

OB Accessory Drive 

Valve and Injector Operating Mechanism 

lOA Rocker Cover 



5-0000 COOLING SYSTEM 

5,1000 Fresh Water Pump 

5.1000A Fresh Water Pump Cover 

5.2000A Water Outlet Manifold and/or Elbow 

5.2000B Thermostat 

5.2000C Water By-pass Tube 

5.3000B Water Connections 

5.4000A Fan 



6,0000 EXHAUST SYSTEM 
6.1000A Exhaust Manifold 
6. 2000 A Exhaust Muffler and/or Connections 

7.0000 ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS 
7.1000A Battery Charging Generator 



7.3000A Starting Motor 



FUEL SYSTEM 

30A Fuel Injector 

DO Fuel Pump 

OOA Fuel Pump Drain 

OOA Fuel Filter 

00 Fuel Manifold and/or Connections 

OOA Fuel Lines and Fuel Cooler 

K30A Mechanical Governor 

)00 Injector Controls 

)OOA Throttle Controls 



AIR SYSTEM 



OOOA Air Inlet Housing 

.000 Blower 

OOOA Blower Drive Shaft 

LOOOB Blower End Plate Cover 



LUBRICATING SYSTEM 
Oil Pump 

Oil Distribution System 
Oil Pressure Regulator 
Oil Filter 



DIESEL 



53 ENGINES 



4.4160 



1.31*2 



1.3170 



HOT SOLO 
SEPARATELY 



4.5310 




4.1001 



4J085 



4,1720 4,1690 1.3162 

FIG. 1A <HL POMP AND PRESSURE REGULATOR (Mine Engine) 



DETROIT DIESEL 



53 ENGINES 



4.15.10 




FIG. 2A OIL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 



TROn DIESEL 



4.2410 4.2330 



53 ENGINES 



4.2488 




4.2280 



FIG. 3A OIL FILTER 




4.4Y15 \ * 4.4 '0 4.4040 4.4001 4.4030 mo 



4.4050 



DEfflOHDIESEl 



53 ENGINES 



4.4040 4,4030 



4.4050 




4.4001