Skip to main content

Full text of "Aëronautics: an abridgment of aëronautical specifications filed at the Patent office from A.D. 1815 to A.D. 1891"

See other formats


AERONAUTICS. 



AERONAUTICS: 

AN ABRIDGMENT 

OF 

AERONAUTICAL SPECIFICATIONS 

FILED AT THE 

PATENT OFFICE 

FROM A.D. 1815 TO A.D. 1891. 



GRIFFITH BREWER 

AND 

PATRICK Y. ALEXANDER. 



ILLUSTRATED. 



LONDON : 

TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 

1893. 



TA 57 js 



FLAMMAM. 




PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, 
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



PREFACE. 



OWING to the large number of specifications which have been 
filed at the Patent Office, it is extremely difficult for inventors 
of the present day to ascertain if their inventions have been 
anticipated. 

It is hoped that those interested in the subject of Aero- 
nautics will find this work of benefit to them in their 
researches, though it must not be expected that all the 
information contained in the specifications is comprised in so 
small a volume. 

In the yearly indexes published by H.M. Patent Office, 
many inventions are included under the heading " Aero- 
nautics" which do not particularly refer to the subject. 
This error in the official indexes is partly the fault of 
inventors who wish to cover an enormous ground under one 
Patent. Say, for example, an inventor patents a new motor, 
and states in his specification that the said motor may be 
employed for driving locomotives, traction-engines, ships, 
balloons, etc. The Government would probably place that 
invention under each of the separate titles, comprising the 
apparatus to which the motor could be applied. No doubt 
this is the best way to evade unnecessary responsibility in 
compiling such indexes ; but in a work of this condensed 
description it would be impracticable to follow their example, 
as the reader searching for improvements in aerial machines 



VI 



would hardly appreciate a light sprinkling of traction-engines 
or ironclad war-ships. 

Many of the specifications describe inventions which are 
no doubt impracticable ; some are even ridiculously absurd 
and are probably the result of dreams. All these, however, 
are equally included with the ingenious inventions, as in 
weeding them from the remainder we should make the work 
incomplete and therefore of little value. Besides, many 
practical suggestions may be gleaned from the most absurd 
inventions; and is it not premature to criticize a question 
which is still unsolved ? 

It is to be hoped that so many failures will not deter 
inventors from still striving to master the great problem of 
aerial navigation ; for it should be remembered that aerial 
navigation is not an impossibility but only a difficulty, which 
may be mastered by careful study and perseverance. 

GRIFFITH BREWER. 
PATRICK Y. ALEXANDER. 



AERONAUTICS, 



A.D. 1815. No. 3909. 

PAULY, Samuel John, and EGG-, Durs. 

" AERIAL CONVEYANCES AND VESSELS." 

ROUND bodies being unfit for navigation through a fluid, a 
fish-shaped aerostat is employed. The net is attached to a 
frame round the lower part of the aerostat, and the belly of 
the balloon is attached to this frame by a ribband or other 
appendage to enable same to act as a parachute, in case of 
the balloon bursting. The car is suspended to the frame. 

Wings are described composed of a head-piece playing 
backwards and forwards horizontally, and provided with 
feathers formed of silk, fixed to one side of a rod by means 
of ribs of whalebone. Five of these feathers may form a 
wing, and have their silk edges toward the tail. These wings 
will draw the air from the nose of the balloon, and drive it 
along its sides to the tail, thus causing the forward motion. 
They may also produce an upward or downward motion. 

The tail is of similar construction to the wings, and any 
motor may be employed. 

A barrel is suspended below the car, which, when moved 
toward the tail, causes the nose to rise, and when moved 
toward the nose depresses same ; thus the balloon proceeds 
upwards or downwards, as the case may be, in an inclined 
direction. Water contained in the barrel may be used as 
ballast. The inventors state that the aerostat might be 
dispensed with. 




A.D. 1826. No. 5420. 

VINEY, James, and POCOCK, George. 

" IMPKOVED KITES." 

KITES are employed for drawing vessels, etc., or for raising 
persons in the air. 

Tl^e/ peculiarities of these kites are: They are fitted with 
joints in the wings and the standard so that they may be 
^ojdod^p' '; Kje wings are spread by a moveable distender. 
'There are' Tour lines for controlling their power or diverting 
their course. Kite after kite may be attached one behind 
the other, and thus an indefinite power is obtained. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1840. No. 8337. 

POOLE, Moses. (A Communication.) 

" OBTAINING MOTIVE POWEK FOR THE PROPULSION OF 
VESSELS, ETC." 

THE inventor describes a screw-propeller having from two 
to twelve blades, which may be set at from one to eighty, 
nine degrees, according to " the power of wind you have to 
act against." 

This screw is shown in the two sheets of drawings, in 
conjunction with a boat or car. 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1842. No. 9478. 

HENSON, William Samuel. 
" MECHANICAL FLYING MACHINE." 

THIS invention describes the employment of an " aero- 
plane " for mechanical flight. 

In the introductory part of the specification the inventor 



states : " If any light and flat or nearly flat article be pro- 
jected or thrown edgewise in a slightly inclined position, 
the same will rise on the air till the force exerted is ex- 
pended, when the article so thrown or projected will descend; 
and it will readily be conceived that if the article so pro- 
jected or thrown possessed in itself a continuous power or 
force equal to that used in throwing or projecting it, the 
article would continue to ascend so long as the forward part 
of the surface was upwards in respect to the hinder part, and 




that such article, when the power was stopped or when the 
inclination was reversed, would descend by gravity only if 
the power was stopped, or by gravity aided by the force of 
the power contained in the article, if the power be continued, 
thus imitating the flight of a bird." 

It will be seen from this quotation that Henson had a 
clear knowledge of the properties of what is now termed the 
" aeroplane," and he proceeds to describe a machine in which 
an " aeroplane," propelled forward at a suitable inclination 
and speed, serves as a support on the air for itself and other 
parts connected therewith. 

The car or vessel is made with a view to strength and 
lightness, and three wheels are situated below to enable it to 
run on the ground. On either side of the car is an extended 

B2 



surface, made of wood framework covered with silk and 
firmly stayed with wire, so that the two extended surfaces 
form a trussed beam of great strength and lightness. A 
horizontal tail, which can be raised or lowered, is employed 
at the stern, for the purpose of guiding the machine up or 
down, and a vertical rudder or tail is employed for steering 
to the right or left. 

Two propellers are employed to drive the machine, and 
the engine and boiler which are to drive the propellers are 
preferably placed in the bow of the car, as the weight should 
be placed forward. 

The machine is started by running down an incline, at the 
same time having the propellers in motion, when it will be 
found to leave the ground, and it may then proceed in any 
direction. 

There should be about one square foot of surface for each 
half-pound of weight; and the following are the dimensions 
of a machine of 3,000 Ibs., which the inventor states he was 
making : Surface of the main aeroplane 4,500 square feet, 
tail 1,500 square feet, and the high-pressure steam-engine 
was of from 25 to 30 horse-power. 

This invention created a great stir at the time, and 
Mr. Henson made a machine, but it was of no practical use 
as a means of flight. 



A.D. 1843. No. 9598. 

SUNDERLAND, Thomas. 

" PROPELLING SHIPS AND BALLOONS." 

SCREW-PROPELLER having two flat blades attached to the 
ends of a cross-bar affixed to a longitudinal shaft. 

The impact of a jet of steam on the atmosphere is also 
described as a means of propulsion. The invention is illus- 
trated as applied to ships, for which it seems to be chiefly 
intended. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1843. No. 9642. 

POTTS, Lawrence Holker. 

" APPLICATION OF BALLOONS." 

BALLOONS are employed for drawing cars on tension railways, 
by which means they hecome of greater utility than hereto- 
fore. 

A machine is described consisting of treadles, handles, and 
cranks, for enabling men to utilize all their strength to 
actuate wings and oars. 

(Drawings?) 



A,D. 1843. No. 9856. 

MOAT, William Crofton. 

" AERIAL LOCOMOTION." 

A MACHINE is described to be driven by manual power (though 
the inventor states he does not limit himself to this power), 
composed of an oblong framework of wood. 

Four men are shown in the drawings turning a crank, 
which rotates two frames on either side of the machine, 
carrying four " flappers " each. These flappers act on the 
air in their downward stroke, but rise edgewise in their up- 
ward movement. The flappers consist of rectangular frames 
covered with parchment, which swing from pins on the ro- 
tating frames, and legs are provided for the machine to stand 
on when on the ground. A rudder is employed to steer the 
machine. 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1847. No. 11578. 

NEWTON, William Edward. ( Communicated by 
Dr. Van Hecke.) 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 
THIS invention is to enable balloons to take advantage of the 



. various currents of air which constantly blow in the same 
direction, or monsoons, and currents which are variable. 
These currents not being very deep it is necessary to keep 
the balloon at a constant height, and the inventor proposes to 
do this without loss of gas or ballast. 




Wings (propellers) are formed of wire rectangular frames, 
having silk stretched thereon. Two wings are mounted 
obliquely on each of four spindles, which are rotated by 
means of hand-wheels, to which they are connected by suit- 
able gearing. When rotated the wings exert a force either 
up or down ; thus the balloon may receive a force of from 
ten to fifty pounds in either direction vertically, and so be 
enabled to remain at any desired altitude. If desired, greater 
power may be employed than that of manual labour. 



A.D. 1848. No. 12337. 

BELL, Hugh. 

"NAVIGABLE BALLOON AND MECHANICAL FLYING MACHINE." 

THIS invention describes two distinct apparatus for navigating 
the air. 



1st. A navigable balloon. 

2nd. A mechanical flying machine. 

There are also some detail improvements applicable to 
aerial machines generally, described and shown in the 
drawings. 




The balloon is made in an elongated form and having a 
membrane within same, below which latter air can be forced 
to keep the balloon always distended. The network is made 
of flat silk bands, which are placed longitudinally and trans- 
versely, and also diagonally if required. A single strong 
band attaches the net to the horizontal circumference of the 
balloon, which, in case of accident, would allow the lower 
membranes to rise and fill like a parachute. 

A circular valve is held up to its seat by springs and 
opened by pulling a line. 

The balloon is fitted with a framework made of metal tubes, 
to which the boat-shaped car is attached. 

One or more two-bladed propellers are employed to propel 
the aerostat. Wings having a backward and forward motion 
in conjunction with a rotary motion are described. Pro- 
pellers are described which reciprocate, and open and shut 
like an umbrella, or a hinged double shutter. A water 
grapnel is made like an umbrella, and having a rope at each 
end. Dragging it by the rope attached to the " handle " end 
of the umbrella causes the grapnel to remain full of water, 



8 

but by pulling the other rope the grapnel is reversed and 
empties. 

For mechanical flight, an aeroplane, having its sides curved 
downward, is propelled at an angle. Wheels are provided 
to enable the machine to obtain the necessary velocity, in 
order to make the ascent. Tubes are employed in the con- 
struction of this machine. 



A.D. 1849. No. 12452. 

BROWNE, John. 

" BALLOON RAILWAY." 

A BALLOON having a car containing passengers is attached by 
means of a cord to a metal holder, which runs in contact with 
a rail situated on the ground. 

No drawings illustrate this vague specification, which also 
describes inventions for " wheel-rigged ships " and " atmo- 
spheric railways." 



A.D. 1852. No. 155. 

BROWN, David Stephens. 

" NAVIGATING SHIPS." 

THIS invention, although only described as applied to ships, 
is of interest in aeronautics, for the reason that an aeroplane 
is employed to take the weight of the ship partly off the 
water. 

The inclined plane may be employed either above the ship 
or below same. In the first position the plane will act on 
the air, whilst in the second position the water will be acted 
on. The ship may be drawn by kites or balloons. 

(Drawing.) 



9 

A.D. 1853. No. 143. 

DE MANARA, Horace. (Provisional only.) 

" APPLICATION OF BALLOONS." 

BALLOONS are employed to keep seats on vessels in an up- 
right position, in order to prevent sea-sickness, consequent 
on the motion of the vessel. 
(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1853. No. 179. 

JOHNSON, John Henry. (A Communication.) 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON/' 

AN elongated balloon supports a frame carrying the boiler 
and engines, which latter drive two pairs of paddle-wheels 
and parachute propellers. The paddle-wheels are made to 
act on the air during half their revolutions, the blades being 
feathered during the return motion. 




The parachute propellers are mounted on horizontal re- 
ciprocating shafts, and open and close alternately, the said 
shafts being actuated by eccentrics on the paddle-wheel axles. 

Horizontal sails, which may be adjusted to any angle, are 
employed to regulate the descent. Four triangular sails, 



10 

fore and aft, prevent rolling by their resisting surface, and 
the machine may be inclined at any angle by means of two 
weights, which may be adjusted longitudinally. 
A rudder is employed for steering horizontally. 



A.D. 1853. No. 395. 

DE NORMANDY, Alphonse Rene Le Mire. 

(Partly a Communication.) 

" ARTICLES MADE OF GUTTA-PERCHA." 

BALLOONS are made by pouring a certain quantity of gutta- 
percha into a vessel having its interior shaped to the form of 
the required balloon. The vessel is turned in every direction 
until the interior of same is covered with a film of the solu- 
tion. In drying this film contracts, and may then be 
removed. 
(Drawing.') 



A.D. 1854. No. 224. 

ALDBOROUGrH, Benjamin O'Neale Stratford, Earl of. 

" AERIAL NAVIGATION." 

IN this most lengthy specification (79 pages) an aerial machine 
is described having an aerostat of elongated form. 

Wings are most minutely described, which are intended to 
act in a similar manner to those of a bird. These wings are 
made to rise slowly against springs and then descend almost 
instantaneously, thus compressing the air by percussion under 
the concave part of each wing. 

Various theories on the flight of birds are propounded by 
the inventor, and his object has been to imitate these actions 
with his artificial wings. 

A tail is described which may act as a rudder, and strike 



11 

downward when the vessel is rising, and so compress the air 
beneath, as the inventor believes birds commonly do, especially 
pigeons. 

The wings may be employed in a machine without an 
aerostat. 

Any number of persons on board the aerial vessel may 
work the wings, each person working a separate wheel. 

Combinations of canes are used in all parts of the aerostat 
which require to be kept stiff, or of a sharp or angular form, 
the strength of each being suitable to its situation, and these 
strips are sewed to the material of which the envelope is 
constructed. 

Smoke or heated air, with or without gas, is employed, 
and long chimneys diminish the danger of fire. 

Perforated metal or wire-gauze is placed inside the chim- 
neys, which latter may be covered, or partly so, with asbestos 
cloth. 

Vacuum chambers, which can be acted on by currents of 
air, are described, for admitting the gas from the aerostat 
when the same has been distended by rare atmosphere at 
great altitudes, and the aerostat is divided to contain gases of 
various density. 

A " pilot boat " containing as much weight as can be 
spared from the aerial vessel, such as cordage, provisions, and 
persons, descends first, and then draws the vessel down by 
means of cords and two windlasses. Grapnels are also taken 
in the pilot boat. 

A landing-place, having a railway for receiving air-ships, 
is described, and a building is provided for their reception. 

The 24 sheets of drawings are most theoretical in their 
nature, and it is extremely doubtful if many parts of this 
invention could be made from the vague though lengthy 
description. 
(Drawings?) 



12 

A.D. 1854. No. 759. 

BOBCEUF, Pierre Alexis Francisse. (Provisional only.) 

" BALLOONS FOR MILITARY PURPOSES.'-' 

BALLOONS are held captive by wires, which may also be 
employed for signalling or exploding matters in the balloon, 
from an electric battery situated on the ground. 

The gas in the balloon may be used for projecting missiles. 



A.D. 1854. No. 1224. 

ALDBOROUGH, Benjamin O'Neale Stratford, Earl of. 

" LOCOMOTION ON LAND AND WATER." 

THE adaptation of wings (described in specification No. 224, 
A.D. 1854) to navigation on water, land, or ice. Aerostats, 
combined with vacuum and medium chambers, are also 
employed. 

By exhausting the air in the vacuum chambers and work- 
ing the wings the vessel maybe caused to slide upwards from 
the water on to the ice ; as, for instance, for the purposes of 
scientific discovery at the North Pole. 

Claim : " The adaptation of the principles and combinations 
for which I obtained former Letters Patent, bearing date the 
30th day of January last, under the title of t Improvements 
in Aerial Navigation,' or of modifications of the same, or of 
certain parts thereof ; and also the other improvements, as 
herein specified, to the navigation of the water, and also to 
locomotion on land or upon ice, and to any other purposes to 
which the same may be applicable/' 

(Drawings.) 



13 

A.D. 1854. No. 1334. 

DARTIGITENAVE, Prosper Guilhaume. (Provisional only.) 

" FLYING MACHINE/'' 

Two apparatus, similar to parachutes, are placed one above 
the other, and alternately pulled up and down. 

These parachutes are worked by steam or other suitable 
power, and when the desired height is reached the machine 
is directed by a horizontal flapper fixed on a centre, which 
may have an upward or downward inclination given to it by 
the aeronaut. Wings are provided to enable the machine to 
turn, their direction being guided by the aeronaut. 



A.D. 1854. No. 2447. 

LUFF, Henry James. (Provisional only.) 

" WAR BALLOON/' 

A BALLOON freighted with explosive compounds, and having 
a telegraphic communication with a vessel, is used for attack- 
ing forts and towns. 

The movements of the vessel can be directed from the 
balloon, and the movements of the vessel can bring the 
balloon to any desired position for letting down explosives. 
Plans of fortifications by photographic process may be 
obtained from the balloon, which latter may, when desired, 
be actuated from the land. 



A.D. 1855. No. 206. 

JOHNSON, John Henry. ( Communicated by Andr& Marie 

Prdverand.} 

" KITES." 

THE kite-frame is composed of two laths crossing at their 
centres, and capable of being folded parallel to one another. 



14 

The textile material which forms the sail portion is per- 
manently secured to the ends of one lath, and temporarily 
attached to the ends of the other. 

The tails are composed of flat boards, through the centres 
of which the cord passes, the said hoards presenting their 
flat faces towards the wind. 

A float attached to a mooring line may be drawn along by 
a kite ; and for signalling purposes, signals may be attached 
to the body or other part of a kite. 

A number of loops are provided on the " belly-band " of 
the kite, for attaching the main line, and thus the angle may 
be varied according to the amount of wind. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1855. No. 625. 

ALDBOROUGH, Benjamin O'Neale Stratford, Earl of. 

"AERIAL NAVIGATION." 

IMPROVEMENTS are described on the invention described in 
specification No 224, A.D. 1854, and forts are described for 
the reception of aerial vessels. 

Various warlike manoeuvres with aerial vessels are also 
described. 

This specification, like others by the same inventor, is very 
lengthy, and no abridgment of same can give any idea of 
the nature of the invention. Indeed, with the original speci- 
fication before them, the writers are quite unable to understand 
how the apparatus is to be manufactured from such vague 
descriptions. 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1855. No. 1136. 

CURTIS, William Joseph. (Provisional only.) 

" BALLOONS AND KITES." 
GUNPOWDER-GAS is employed to inflate balloons. Kites or 



15 

wings are attached to balloons to enable same to be governed 
from land or water, and these kites and balloons may propel 
a ship. Missiles may be conveyed and discharged by an 
electric spark, conducted along the cords or connections, or 
the missiles may be discharged by clockwork attached to 
the balloon. 



A.D. 1856. No. 2062. 

ALDBOKOUGH, Benjamin O'Neale Stratford, Earl of. 

"AERIAL NAVIGATION." 

THIS specification describes improvements on inventions 
described in specifications No. 224, A.D. 1854, and No. 625, 
A.D. 1855. 

Valves in the outer aerostat admit air to same when the 
external pressure is great, and air may also be permitted to 
escape by valves at the stern. Tubes or air-channels in the 
aerostat strengthen same. 

Air-channels in the aerostat assist in steering the aerial 
vessel, and two separate aerostats may be employed, their 
lower surfaces acting as wings. 

Double curtains protect the passengers and machinery 
during bad weather ; and improved springs are described for 
actuating the wings, which latter may also be assisted in their 
movement downwards by the force of the air contained in 
the chambers above. 

Two pilot boats are employed, and elastic cables are used 
with the grapnels. 

Rotary aerostats may be employed, and the invention may 
be applied to locomotion generally. 

Fourteen sheets of drawings are appended to a seventy- 
page description, both of which are like other specifications 
by the same inventor, viz. most vague and theoretical in 
their character. 

(Drawings.) 



16 



A.D. 1856. 



No. 2154. 



LASSIE, Jean Baptiste Justin. 
"NAVIGABLE BALLOON/' 

THE aerostat is made in a cylindrical form having a pro- 
jecting helical screw on its outer surface. A smaller cylinder 
is provided within the aerostat, in which latter the crew walk 




round in a similar manner to convicts in a treadmill. This 
rotates the whole aerostat, which makes the same advance in 
the air. 

The inventor proposes to make the aerostat 900 feet long, 
and 90 feet diameter. Three hundred men could be em- 
ployed, half of which number would be on duty at a time. 
According to the pitch of the screw, the speed may be fast 
or slow. 

A cut-wind is provided at the bow, and an auxiliary 
balloon having two vertical blades is employed at the stern 
for steering. 

An adjustable weight is suspended below to regulate the 
angle of the balloon. 

The descent may be performed by pumping air into 
auxiliary balloons. Spring safety-valves are employed ; and 
the aerostat may be made of iron, copper, or aluminium. 



17 

A.D. 1856. No. 2256. 

PELLEN, Marius. 

" COATING FOR BALLOONS." 

CAOUTCHOUC prepared in England, and subjected to the 
inventor's mode of preparation, is particularly applicable to 
the manufacture of balloons. 

Varnish is composed of amilaceous substances ; such as 
enulin, lichen, gum arabic, adragant, mucilage, and vegetable 
substances mixed with some kinds of gum, sugar, gelatine, 
dextrine, glucose, albumen, collodion, submitted to a certain 
preparation " without ether of gelatinous matter, that is, of 
pure gelatine of fish skin and of glue." 

These gums are prepared with pure water diluted with 
alcohol ; they must be very limpid, and should be strained. 

The varnish is applied while the balloons are distended. 

Small balloons should be filled at a pressure of about 40 
inches of water ; and the varnish above described may suit- 
ably be employed for coating the interiors of large balloons. 



A.D. 1856. No. 2993. 

CARLINGFORD, Godwin Meade Pratt Swift, Viscount. 

" FLYING MACHINE." 

THE car is in the shape of a boat, and fitted with three wheels 
beneath same, one being in front and two behind. 

Two wings of slightly concave form are fixed to the sides, 
the sustaining laths of which wings pass through the body of 
the car from one wing to the other, and thus hold them 
firmly in position. These 'wings serve the purpose of an 
" aeroplane " resting on the air, but having no movement 
imparted to them. A tail and rudder are provided, and the 
machine is propelled by means of the " Carlingford screw," 
actuated by a hand wheel and situated in the bow of the 
car. 

A sustaining surface of 25 to 30 ft. square is proposed, 



18 

though the machine may be considerably increased in size to 
carry very superior weights, in which case, however, the 
surface need not be increased in the same proportion. This 
conclusion is arrived at for the reason that an eagle weighing 
80 Ibs. has only four times the floating surface of a rook 
weighing one pound. 

The machine may be started by suspending the stern end 
of the car by means of a trigger and cord, to the top of a 
9 ft. pole. The bow of the car is connected to two lines 
passing over pulleys on the tops of two other poles, and a 
weight is attached to the other ends of these lines. By re- 
leasing the trigger, the lines at the bow are pulled forward 
by the weight descending, and the machine receives a great 
forward velocity. The machine then becomes free, and speed 
may easily be sustained by turning the aerial screw. 

" I have proved by experiment that an aerial screw of only 
5 inches long can give a pull greater than a ten-pound 
weight suspended to a cord and drawing through a pulley ; 
and as it will only take such a small force to maintain the 
flight of the aerial chariot, that what we look upon as fabulous 
may hereafter come to pass, and that, like the chariot of 
Jupiter, we may yet behold two eagles trained to draw the 
aerial chariot. N.B. This observation may give the witty an 
opportunity of showing off." 

It is not necessary to continually turn the winch or work 
the pedal for actuating the aerial screw, as the machine can 
descend on an incline, and thus travel fifty or sixty miles 
according to the height attained. 

(Drawings.} 



A.D. 1857. t No. 1054. 

ALDBOROUGH, Benjamin O'Neale Stratford, Earl of. 

"AERIAL NAVIGATION." 

THIS specification describes improvements on Nos. 224 and 
625, A.D. 1855, and No. 2062, A.D. 1856. 

The weight of the crew of aerial vessels and other weight 



19 

carried by such vessels, is utilized for producing a rotary 
motion in the rotary aerostat. The application of the weight 
is also described to produce an oscillating or vibrating 
motion, or to operate wings or propellers. 

Twin hulls or cars may be employed, in which the advan- 
tages of a sharp prow and bluff prow are united. 

Curtains form a protection to the aerostat when anchored 
in an exposed position. 

Ketractile tubes, projecting downward, warn the aeronaut 
on approaching the ground ; and the aerostat may be jointed 
to the car in such a manner that the movements of the aerostat 
need not be imparted to the car. 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1857. No. 1581. 

CLAIR, Joseph Etienne Marie Jean. (Provisional only.) 

" PROPELLER/" 

Two hollow barrels tapering towards both ends and sur- 
rounded by screw vanes, on being rotated propel the vessel 
to which they are connected. 



A.D. 1857. No. 2483. 

BALBONI, Pascal. (Provisional only.) 

" PROPELLER." 

THE fin or propeller is formed by a triangular blade, working 
through a slot in an axle which receives a rotary motion. 
The blade receives a vibratory motion at every half revolution 
of the axle, thus moving towards the bow and performing 
another half revolution, when the same action is repeated. 

This fin, or " aile nageoire," is to supersede the paddle- 
wheel and screw now used in steam vessels. 

(Drawing.) 



02 



20 

A.D. 1859. No. 2330. 

BRIGHT, Henry. 
" FLYING MACHINE." 

Two propellers are mounted above the car of a flying machine, 
these propellers being made to revolve in contrary directions. 




This revolving of the propellers in opposite directions keeps 
the car from gyration. 

The descent is performed by reversing the propellers. 

The accompanying illustration shows the principle of this 
invention. 



A.D. 1860. No. 561. 

SMYTHIES, John Kinnersley. 

" FLYING MACHINE/' 

A BOILER is described having a number of tubes for obtaining 
a large heating surface with a small amount of weight. 

Vaporized hydrocarbon is burnt, which is formed from 
liquid hydrocarbon, stored in a tank below the apparatus. 

The weight of the water to be carried is also reduced by 
condensing the steam and employing the said water over and 
over again. The steam is condensed by passing into a hollow 
aeroplane formed of oiled silk and stayed by steel rods. The 
steam condensing in this large condenser runs to the lower 
part of same and is then pumped back into the boiler. 




21 

One or more pairs of wings are employed, which are 
flapped up and down by an engine, and these wings are made 
up of large feathers having a rod on one side, the other side 
being flexible. The rods slightly overlap the flexible edges 
in such a manner that on the downward stroke the wings 
beat firmly, with the exception of the last feather which bends 
to an angle. Thus the main portion of the wing supports 
the machine vertically, whilst the last feather on each wing 
gives the forward motion. 

The rider steers the machine by leaning in whatever 
direction he desires to travel,, thus changing the centre of 
gravity. Elastic legs are employed for descending. 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1860. No. 1114. 

HENRY, Michael. (Communication by Louis Coignard.) 

" PROPELLING AND STEERING." 

JET propulsion is described with reference to ships, and the 
direction of the jet tube is adjustable to enable the force to 
be exerted in the required direction for steering. 

This jet propulsion is also applicable to the propulsion of 
balloons and aerial vessels, though it is not particularly 
described as applied thereto. 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1860. No. 1155. 

BOYMAN, Richard Boyman. 

" MOTIVE POWER." 

THIS invention describes the application of the intermittent 
force of steam to obtain continuous rotary motion. 

There is no description of the apparatus as applied to aerial 



22 

machines, and the inventor merely remarks that the inven- 
tion may be applied to vessels, locomotives, and aerial 
machines. 
(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1860. No. 1598. 

STEVENS, Charles. (Communication by 0. F. Rablat.) 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOONS." 

CIGAK-SHAPED balloon, divided into four compartments, is 
fitted with wings on either side. These wings are moveable 
on hinges which form springs, and compartments or valves 
are situated in the wings. 

Pockets are provided, connected by valves to the under 
part of the balloon, for receiving the gas from the balloon 
when the same becomes distended. The car is made suitable 
for navigation on water, and a waterproof cloth inflated with 
air is attached to its upper edge to prevent the possibility of 
an upset. Springs are also provided on the under surface of 
the boat to lessen concussion on landing. 

The apparatus ascends or advances according to the velocity 
given to the wings. 

In a modification, the inventor states that the car may 
ascend by the employment of the wings alone, and without 
the help of the balloon. 

Rudders at bow and stern are employed for steering. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1860. No. 3103. 

SILAS, Ferdinand. (Provisional only.) 

" SIGNALLING WITH BALLOONS." 

A CAPTIVE balloon displays various coloured lamps in certain 
positions, and powerful lights situated below the balloon or 
on the ground may render the balloon a luminous sphere. 
When electric light is employed, the ropes may serve as 



23 



conductors from a battery on the ground ; and when gas is 
the lighting medium, the gas may be conducted through 
tubes attached to the ropes. 

Captive balloons may be employed as lightning-conductors, 
or as " electro-substractors." 

The balloon may be steadied by kites. 



A.D. 1861. No. 492. 

JAMES, William Henry. 
"APPLICATION OF BALLOONS." 

BALLOONS made of strong material are partly filled with 
water to serve as ballast, and these balloons are then employed 
for dragging nets or lines with hooks for the purpose of 
catching fish. 

Such balloons may also be employed for saving life from 
stranded vessels, and also for other purposes at sea. 

These balloons are not described with reference to aerial 
navigation. 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1861. No. 593. 

JACOB, Joseph. (Communication by Carl Preisenliammer 

and Carl Weniger.) 

" HYDROGEN GAS." 

HYDROGEN gas is made by passing steam through retorts 
containing metal, such as iron or copper, fired to a red 
heat. This action decomposes the steam and liberates the 
hydrogen. 

Two sets of retorts may be employed, one set only being in 
action at a time. 

No reference is made to aerial navigation, but this speci- 
fication is included in this abridgment, because reference is 
made to same in No. 2377, A.D. 1861, as describing the 
manufacture of gas for filling balloons. 



24 



A.D. 1861. No. 1929. 

PONTON D'AMECOURT, Gustave Louis Marie, Viscount de. 

" FLYING MACHINE." 

Two propellers mounted on a vertical axis, one above the 
other, are situated at the upper part of the machine. These 
propellers are made to revolve in opposite directions, thus 
exerting an upward force, whilst at the same time one 
propeller keeps the other in proper equilibrium and prevents 
the apparatus taking a gyratory motion. 

Another propeller is mounted on a horizontal shaft and 
imparts a forward motion to the machine. Vertical horizontal 
rudders are provided for steering purposes. 

All the propellers are driven from one prime mover, such 
as a steam-engine, which is situated in the lower part of the 
apparatus. 

This invention is practically the same as No. 2330, 
A.D. 1859. 

(Drawing.] 



A.D. 1861. No. 2377. 

JACOB, Joseph. (Communication by Carl Preisenhammer 

and Carl Weniger.) 

" HYDROGEN GAS." 

IMPROVEMENTS are described on the invention set forth in 
No. 593, A.D. 1861, for manufacturing hydrogen. The 
retorts for producing hydrogen are made to revolve, or 
stationary retorts are fitted with trays one above the other, 
through which the steam is made to circulate. 

The iron to be heated is placed on the trays, which iron, 
if in a finely divided state, can be heated in a few minutes. 
The steam is then admitted, and passing in contact with the 
heated iron is decomposed into hydrogen and oxygen, the 
former being conducted to a condenser and thence to a 



25 

gasometer, and the latter forms a compound with the heated 
iron. 

Hydrogen thus obtained may be employed for inflating 
balloons. 



A.D. 1861. No. 2420. 

PHILLIPS, Joseph Scott. (Provisional refused.) 

" FLYING MACHINE." 

THE principle is contained in the propulsion of a plane 
against the atmosphere by means of wings shaped like the 
hoof of a calf (or any other animal), affixed to large light 
wheels, and made of firm or loose flapping and bagging 
material, the said plane being made of a wooden or iron 
framework stretched with silk. The winged wheels being 
rotated by springs, by hand, or by steam, will flap as they 
revolve and renew an impulse on the air compressed by the 
plane, faster than the said air can recede from the pressure, 
and the machine will be upborne by the air. 

The chief part of the invention lies in the rotating wings, 
which pass on the air in one half a revolution and flap as 
they pass through the other part. 

The inventor probably had some idea of mechanical flight 
by propelling an aeroplane with feathering paddle-wheels. 



A.D. 1861. No. 2529. 

BROWN, David Stephens. (Provisional only.} 

" PROPELLING AND SUSTAINING BALLOONS. " 

AMMONIA and carbonic acid are employed to work engines 
which actuate propellers for propelling and sustaining 
balloons. 

Condensers containing the ammonia and carbonic acid in 
a liquid or solid state are suspended from the balloon and 
borne on the air. The gases produced are first utilized in 
the engines and are then injected into the balloon. Two 



26 

collapsed balloons are placed in the main balloon to receive 
the ammoniacal and carbonic acid gases. The balloon is 
made oblong and has a propeller and rudder at either end. 
Horizontal fans or screws are placed above the car, which is 
of boat-like form, these fans being worked by springs which 
are partly rewound by rotating in a contrary direction during 
the descent. The car is made inflated, and changes of tem- 
perature or atmospheric pressure may be utilized as motive 
power. 

This specification is very vague. 



A.D. 1862. No. 1786. 

CRESTADORO, Andrea. 

" FIRE BALLOON." 

THE motive power of a draught, caused by the air-sucking 
property of fire, actuates a rotary fan-wheel. 

A fire-balloon is described in which a stove rests upon a 
platform, and the chimney terminates in the balloon above. 

A motor worked by air-sucking faculty of fire actuates a 
propelling apparatus. 



A.D. 1863. No. 867. 

GEDGE, "William Edward. (Provisional only. Communication 
by Pierre Jacques Carmien.) 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

AN elongated balloon is mounted on a shaft which passes 
through same from bow to stern. The car is adjustably sus- 
pended to the ends of the shaft in such a manner that the 
angle of the balloon may be regulated. An engine situated 
in the car propels the balloon by rotating the shaft and 
balloon, which latter carries sails or a screw thread. 



27 

A.D. 1863. No. 2028. 

LUDEKE, Johann Ernst Friedrich. (Provisional only.} 

" SUSPENDING CAMERAS FROM BALLOONS." 

A CAMERA is suspended by the rope of a captive balloon, and 
the exposure may be made by means of an electric current. 

A pulley is situated above the camera, over which pulley 
passes a rope attached to the ground at one end, and to a 
drum on the ground at the other end. By this means the 
balloon may be raised and lowered whilst the camera is kept 
steady thereby. 

(Drawing?) 



A.D. 1863. No. 2141. 

WELDON, Walter. 

u BALLOON/' 

AN elongated balloon is composed of a number of bags, like 
the carriages of a railway-train, but with little or no space 
between the bags. These bags should be of greater diameter 
than their longitudinal length, and the balloon should be of 
much greater length than its diameter. The machine thus 
constructed will float horizontally, and may be propelled and 
steered. 



A.D. 1863. No. 2959. 

NEWTON, William Edward. (Provisional only. 
Communicated by Eugene Godard.) 

" BALLOONS." 

AN improved fire-balloon is described in this specification, and 
apparatus applicable to fire or gas balloons are also described. 
An air-heating apparatus is placed in the car of a " Mont- 
golfier" balloon, and straw or light dry wood is employed to 
obtain the required heat. Outer casings, through which air 
may circulate, are provided round the air-heating apparatus 



28 

to prevent the radiation of heat inconveniencing the aeronauts, 
and a fire door communicates with the interior. The fire is 
supported on a perforated sheet of iron, or a trellis-work of 
iron bars, and the ash-pan, which is suspended below the 




fire, may be raised or lowered to regulate the draught. The 
air fed to the fire is admitted through a perforated truncated 
cone, and a similar cone, but inverted, is employed to conduct 
the heated air to the balloon. 

Valves regulate the draught, and a wire-gauze disk pre- 
vents sparks entering the balloon. The balloon, which need 
not be varnished, is covered with straps like an immense net, 
and a valve may be employed at the upper part of the 
balloon. 

It may sometimes be necessary to empty the balloon more 
quickly, so for this purpose a cutting instrument is provided 
in the upper part of the balloon, which, on being pulled by 
means of a rope, rends the balloon from top to bottom. 

To render the grapnel rope elastic, rubber springs are pro- 
vided, but the rope itself takes the strain when the springs 
are stretched to their utmost. 



29 

A parachute is fitted to the outside of a balloon to prevent 
rapid descents. 

A balloon was made according to the above specification, 
weighing 4 ; 700 Ibs., and having a capacity of 498,500 ft. 



A.D. 1863. No. 3284. 

DE SAINT MARTIN, Henry Reda. (Provisional only.) 

" FLYING MACHINE.'-' 

LUNGS having a respiratory action, and composed of two 
inflatable bags, are employed to give a rising and falling 
motion to light, rigid frames (wings?). 

A hot-air apparatus supplies the lungs, and also actuates 
the propelling wheels. The lungs give necessary ascentional 
momentum to the apparatus, whilst the propellers move same 
in any required direction. 



A.D. 1864. No. 298. 

DAVIES, George. (Communication ~by Ferdinand diaries 
Honor i Phillippe d'JSsterno.) 

" FLYING MACHINE." 

THIS machine is provided with two wings and a tail, which are 
moved vertically, horizontally, and torsionally, and the weight 
of the aeronaut may be altered in position in the car. 

The wings and tail are composed of a rigid framework, 
combined with whalebone strip and a covering of strong silk. 

There are hand wheels in the car by which the operator 
may move the wings or tail in any desired direction. 

The inventor has omitted to provide any power for actu- 
ating the machine. 

(Drawings.) 



30 



A.D. 1864. No. 591. 

BKOOMAN, Richard Archibald. (Provisional only. 
Communicated by Pierre Quentin.) 

" CAPTIVE BALLOONS.''' 

Two large balloons are connected to a wire rope in such a 
manner that one rises whilst the other descends. The distance 
between the balloons should be about 300 yards, and the 
people in the cars are protected from the sun and rain. 

The ropes which support the balloon, the car, and the 
holding rope, are all attached to a spar on which they are free 
to turn, the car thus being maintained in a vertical position. 

In order to prevent the holding rope coming into contact 
with car in windy weather, the end of the rope may be 
divided in two and carry a frame in which the car is free to 
turn ; or two cars may be attached to the spar, and the rope 
attached between them ; or the car may have a recess from 
the side to the centre of same, and thus allow the rope to take 
any angle without tilting the car. 

The balloon is made of strong tarred fabric, lined with tissue 
paper, combined with light fabric coated with india-rubber. 

The network may be combined with the envelope, and the 
envelope thus consolidated terminates in a circular frame 
having outlet and inlet valves. 

A hyperbolical trunk allows the wind to exert an internal 
pressure when the balloon is employed in a hurricane. 



A.D. 1864. No. 748. 

GEDGKE, William Edward. (Provisional only. Communicated 
by Pierre Jacques Carmien.) 

" METAL BALLOON." 

A CYLINDRICAL metal balloon with conical bow and spherical 
stern, and fitted with sails on its exterior surface, is made to 
rotate by means of a suitable steam-engine situated in the car 
below. 

Two hemispheres, placed at the bow and stern, are blown 



31 

into by means of a bellows, actuated by the steam-engines, 
the air so blown acting as ballast. 

Archimedean screws are turned in one or other direction to 
aid in ascending or descending. 



A.D. 1864. No. 1982. 

CLARK, William. ( Communicated by Alexandra Marie 
Quinet and Archille Baudouin.) 

" INDIA-RUBBER BALLOONS." 

INDIA-RUBBER balloons having an internal valve, which is 
kept closed by the pressure of the gas within, are described 
in this specification. 

As this only refers to toy balloons, it is unnecessary to deal 
with the details of this invention. 

(Drawing.} 



AD. 1864. No. 2030. 

BROOMAN, Richard Archibald. (Provisional only. Com- 
municated by Charles Edmond Francois Couturier.) 

" FLYING MACHINE." 

EXTENDING arms are fixed at a distance from the body and 
terminate in wings or flappers. Springs are fitted at the 
connection of the wings and arms, and the aeronaut works 
the flappers by means of cords, and may thus progress even 
against the wind. 



AD. 1864. No. 2245. 

HAMMOND, Thomas Rundle. (Provisional protection 
refused.) 

" DRAWING BALLOONS." 

VULCANIZED india-rubber is distended, and any objects are 
attached thereto, such as mail bags, boats, waggons, or bal- 
loons, which, on being released, are drawn along by the 
india-rubber. 



32 



A.D. 1861 No. 2299. 

MENNONS, Marc Antoine Francois. (Communicated by 
Gustave de Struve and Nicholas de Telescheff.) 

"FLYING MACHINES." 

STATIONARY or moveable concave surfaces are employed in 
machines which fly by mechanical power, the stationary 
surfaces acting on the principle of aeroplanes, and the move- 
able surfaces acting as wings. 

The first machine, which is designed to carry 120 persons 
and to move at 30 miles an hour, has a large concave surface 
attached round the body or vessel for floating on the air. A 
propeller is provided, driven by a steam-engine, for giving 
the machine a forward motion, and vertical and horizontal 
rudders are employed for steering horizontally or vertically. 
A weighted regulator is provided to maintain the centre of 
gravity as nearly as possible in the same position. The 
machine is started down a decline, and when free the engines 
driving the propeller keep the machine flying. 

The second machine is provided with moveable wings, 
which are actuated by the aeronaut, and the machine is 
started in a similar manner to the first machine. 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1865. No. 930. 

HAENLEIN, Paid. (Provisional only.) 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

AN elongated balloon, having a horizontal framework around 
same, is driven by means of a propeller, and steered by a 
rudder covered with silk. Instead of propellers at the bow, 
propellers may be situated on either side of the balloon, and 
mounted on the framework, and a propeller may be mounted 
on a vertical axis situated below the car for regulating the 
altitude of the balloon. 

The propellers are driven by a gas-engine of particular 



33 



construction, having most of its working parts hollow to give 
lightness, and the gas required is drawn direct from the 




balloon. A small auxiliary balloon, situated inside the 
balloon, is inflated with air to compensate for the loss of gas. 



A.D. 1865. No. 1037. 

EOTHLEB, Gustave Wilhelm. (Provisional only.) 

" FLYING MACHINE." 

A STRONG but light framing surrounds the body of the person 
who is to fly, and the said framing is prolonged in front and 
behind about 5 feet. A windrose (having arms like the sail 
of a windmill) is employed in front, and offers very little 
resistance to the wind, as it is free to turn on its axis. A 
revolving wheel, having feathered spokes, acts as a rudder, 
and the onward motion is obtained by wings which are actu- 

/ o 

ated by spiral springs and by the arms of the person flying. 
Two elastic reservoirs of hydrogen are attached to the framing 
to assist in buoying up the person flying in the air. 

This provisional specification is extremely vague, and the 
parts are not very particularly described. 



A.D. 1865. No. 1953. 

LAROCHE, Leon Paul. (Provisional protection refused.) 

" FIRE-ENGINES AND HYDRAULIC MACHINES/' 
PISTONS of pumps are armed with " conic sharp-edged needle 



34 

plates, well polished, round, square, and triangular, showing, 
in one word, all the shapes that have been adopted, to be 
thoroughly polished and edged." 

This principle, the inventor states, may be applied to aerial 
machines and balloons. 

This description is quite incomprehensible, and the inventor 
who is a native of Paris, probably made his own translation. 

{Drawing.) 



A.D. 1865. No. 2208. 

BONNEVILLE, Henri Adrien. (Provisional only. 
Communicated by Charles Edmond Frangois Couturier.) 

" FLYING TOYS AND PARACHUTES/' 

A FLYING toy has wings attached to a central body, and a 
rudder is attached to the hinder part of the body. When 
the bodies are to fly rigidly, the body, tail, and wings are 
fixed in the same plane ; but when the wings are to flap they 
are hinged to the body, which is then inclined downward with 
the tail in an upright direction. The flapping of the wings is 
controlled by a thread or other means. 

In applying the principle to a parachute the wings would 
be made of silk, mounted on a suitable framework. 



A.D. 1865. No. 3283. 

CLARK, William. ( Communicated ly Solomon Andrews.) 

" DIRECTING THE COURSE OF BALLOONS." 

THE principle of this invention is propelling and steering 
balloons during the rising and falling motion, by means of 
inclined planes. 

The specification describes, and the drawings illustrate, three 
elongated balloons placed side by side, and having their 
longitudinal equators joined together by a diaphragm. An 
elongated car is also employed, and the aeronauts, by standing 



35 



either in the bow or in the stern, depress the bow or stern of 
the balloons, which in rising or falling travel along in the 
plane to which the diaphragm is inclined. 




The accompanying illustration shows a plane for the above 
purpose fitted to a spherical balloon, which plane may be 
adjusted to any required angle. 



A.D. 1866. No. 1143. 

BUTLER, James William. (Provisional only.) 

" MANUMOTIVE FLYING MACHINE." 

AN aeroplane is attached across the shoulders of the person 
intending to fly. The operator imparts an upward and forward 
motion to the apparatus by pulling a pair of wings downwards, 
the upward motion of the wings being obtained by springs. 

The operator, with the above apparatus attached, is con- 
veyed rapidly down a hill on a carriage until the rush through 
the air, acting on the aeroplane, lifts him from the carriage, 
when by plying the wings vigorously, a flight of considerable 
extent may be attained. 

D2 






36 

The start might also be obtained by jumping from a height, 
or by being pulled through the air at a great velocity by a 
rope. 



A.D. 1866. No. 1497. 

BOYMAN, Richard Boyman. 

" PKOPELLING VESSELS." 

IN this very lengthy specification the inventor describes 
further improvements in propelling vessels by reaction, which 
improvements are the result of his experiments on intermit- 
tent reaction. 

He states that this method will be the only method of pro- 
pulsion on land, water, and in air. 

The invention is not particularly described as applied to 
aerial navigation, so it is beyond the scope of this book to 
deal with this particular means of propulsion. 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1866. No. 1571. 

WENHAM, Francis Herbert. (Provisional only.) 

" FLYING MACHINE." 

Two or more aeroplanes are arranged one above the other, 
and support a framework or car containing the motive power. 
The aeroplanes are made of silk or canvas stretched in a 
frame by wooden rods or steel ribs. When manual power 
is employed the body is placed horizontally, and oars or pro- 
pellers are actuated by the arms or legs. 

A start may be obtained by lowering the legs and running 
down hill, or the machine may be started from a moving 
carriage. One or more screw-propellers may be applied for 
propelling when steam-power is employed. 



37 

A.D. 1866. No. 2489. 

BOULTON, Matthew Piers Watt. (Provisional only.) 

" PROPELLING AERIAL VESSELS." 

A JET of fluid is forced from the stern of the vessel in the 
direction of the required movement of such vessel. This 
action imparts movement to the air, which impinges against 
a curved surface on the stern of the vessel, which is thus 
propelled. The necessary elevating force of aerial vessels 
might be obtained by the employment of inclined planes, 
surfaces, or vanes. 



A.D. 1866. No. 2809. 

BOULTON, Matthew Piers Watt. (Provisional only.) 

li PROPELLING AERIAL VESSELS." 

THE invention described in this specification is practically 
similar to the invention previously protected by the same 
inventor (No. 2489, A.D. 1866). 



A.D. 1866. No. 3262. 

BOYMAN, Richard Boyman. 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON/' 

THE inventor describes at length the state of aeronautical 
science at date of the application for this patent, and endea- 
vours to show by his arguments that aerial navigation can 




iver be accomplished by mechanical flight. The opini 
Dr. Pettigrow, the Duke of Argyll, and Dr. Arnott 



38 

quoted, but the inventor differs from them, and maintains 
that aerial machines must displace a quantity of air of equal 
weight to the entire aerial machine with its cargo. 

It is proposed to make a machine having a steel aerostat 
and weighing in all 600 tons. The aerostat is to be cylin- 
drical with conical ends, 200 feet in diameter, and a quarter 
of a mile long ; yet the resistance will only be 5070 Ibs., 
and the propelling force 406 horse-power. 

Jet-propulsion is employed (viz. propulsion by the impact 
of a current of air), which may either be produced by a jet of 
steam, or by a blower of the rotary blower type, which is 
shown in detail in the drawings accompanying the specifi- 
cation. 

The reaction-nozzles revolve so as to propel or back the 
vessel, and also to act as elevators and depressors. 

Rudders are employed, working in pairs, one fore and one 
aft. 

The gas contained in the aerostat may be employed for 
heating the boilers, though, if preferred, the heating-gas may 
be stored in separate receivers. 

Water is injected into the boiler by a steam injector, which 
forces the water at a sufficient velocity to overcome the 
pressure in the boiler. 

Moveable ballast keeps the machine at the required angle. 

To anyone interested in the science of aeronautics, this 
specification is well worth careful study ; the reflections, 
opinions, and theoretical views being most elaborately written 
and argued by an inventor, who without doubt was a most 
clever man. 



A.D. 1867. No. 466. 

HENRY, Michael. (Communicated by Henry Giffard.} 

" BALLOONS." 

AN enclosure of the height of a balloon, and having a rounded 
upper edge, is employed to protect a captive balloon from the 
wind whilst on the ground. The captive rope passes over a 



39 

pulley to a steam engine, the said rope tapering in thickness 
from the balloon downward. A trench is made to receive the 
car, which latter is suspended from a ring and situated in a 
cage. The lower part of the halloon is elastic to allow of 
expansion, and a stuffing-box closes the mouth of the balloon, 
through which the valve-line passes. Tubes are connected to 
the neck of the balloon and rise upwards to elbows hung from 
the net ; these tubes then descend towards the ground, where 
they are open to the air and act as exits and safety-valves. 
A tube is connected to the valve at the top of the balloon to 
enable gas to be admitted from above, and thus expel the 
heavier gas at the lower part of the balloon. A waterproof 
covering protects the balloon and net from rain. 
(Drawing.} 



A.D. 1867. No. 473. 

KAUFMANN, Joseph Meyers. 

" FLYING MACHINE." 

THE car contains the engine and boiler, and is mounted on 
wheels to enable it to run on land when starting, whilst at 
the same time the said car can float on water. 

The engine actuates the wings, and pillow-blocks are 
employed to oscillate the wings, so that they may strike the 
air at an angle both in the up-stroke and the down-stroke, 
thus wedging or screwing the machine through the air. 

P> lifters, which may be forced out by steam-pressure, are 

provided for giving the machine a sudden lift upwards when 

starting, or the machine may be run along on its wheels until 

"the air acting on suitable aeroplanes, set at an angle, gives 

the required lifting-power. 

A tail and two guides are employed to steer the machine 
vertically or horizontally. 

A tender, carrying stores, fuel, and water, and cars may 
be drawn behind the above-described machine, in which case 
the tender and cars would be provided with aeroplanes for 
supporting them on the atmosphere. 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1867. 



40 

BOULTON, Matthew Piers Watt. 

" PROPELLING VESSELS." 



No. 696. 



THIS invention refers most particularly to propelling vessels 
by drawing water by means of a pump, in a direction " oppo- 
site to the vessel's advance, and expelling it in the same 
direction." 

Reaction-wheels worked directly by steam may give a 
rapid rotation to a propeller for the purpose of aerial loco- 
motion. 



A.D. 1867. 



No. 1392. 



SMYTH, William. 
" FLYING MACHINE." 

THE car, which is of cylindrical form with tapered ends, is 
provided with horizontal propellers for propulsion, and ver- 
tical propellers for elevating. 

Aeroplanes are employed for sustaining the machine, and 
one pair of these aeroplanes may be extended at the bow and 
one at the stern, or several pairs may be arranged one above 
the other, in order to save length and weight. 

The propellers are actuated by a motive-power machine, in 




which the explosive force of the combustion of mixed gases 
is utilized, which explosion expands concertina-like chambers. 



41 

A.D. 1867. No. 1525. 

KAUFMANN, Joseph Meyers. (Provisional only.} 

" APPARATUS CONNECTED WITH FLYING MACHINES." 

THE pressure in the boiler is regulated by a " sneap," which 
consists of two pistons connected together, one being in com- 
munication with the steam, and the other with a mercury- 
gauge. At a certain pressure, the movement of the piston 
allows the steam to escape, and a whistle which is provided 
warns the attendant. 

The flow of oil to the furnace is regulated by a piston, 
which moves in proportion to the amount of pressure in the 
boiler ; the piston-rod is connected to a valve, and thus 
diminishes the amount of oil fed to the furnace on the 
pressure in the boiler exceeding the amount required. 

The inventor also describes apparatus previously set forth 
in his specification No. 473, A.D. 1867. 



A.D. 1867. No. 1982. 

CRADDOCK, Thomas. (Provisional only.) 

" FLYING MACHINE." 

A SMALL shaft is fixed to the person's body, and rotated by 
means of clutch pulleys, which are actuated by the feet and 
hands pulling down cords, the recovery of the pulleys being 
accomplished by springs. 

The rotation of this shaft actuates wings, which receive an 
up and down, and also a swivel, action, thus pulling the 
person forward as well as supporting him in the air. 

The wings, which are made on the principle of a lady's fan, 
are intended to move like the wings of a bird. 

By employing two or more pairs of wings acting at dif- 
ferent times, a continuous power is obtained. 

Steam-power may be employed, and as many as 40 wings 
on each side of the car could then be utilized. 



42 

A.D. 1867. No. 2115. 

BUTLER, James William, and EDWARDS, Edmund. 

" FLYING MACHINE." 

AN elongated triangular; aeroplane is employed, having a 
web down the centre of its underside, the aeroplane and web 
resembling in shape a paper dart. 




Horizontal and vertical rudders guide the machine verti- 
cally and horizontally. 

Propellers or wings may be employed for imparting a 
forward movement to the apparatus, or a jet of steam or 
other fluid may act by reaction on the air. 

When steam-power is employed, the aeroplane may be 
made hollow for condensing the steam, and thus save weight 
by using the same water repeatedly. 

The apparatus may be started from a carriage running on 
wheels, and when the speed has become sufficient the air 
acting below the aeroplane will raise the apparatus from the 
carried ge. 



A.D. 1867. 



No. 2223. 



BOYMAN, Richard Boyman. 

" PROPULSION." 

THIS invention describes, and shows in very clear drawings, 
further improvements in jet-propulsion ; but these improve- 
ments being shown as applied to ships, and it being only in- 
cidentally mentioned that the invention may be applied to 



43 

aerial machines, a detailed description would be beyond the 
scope of this work. 
(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1867. No. 2229. 

NELSON, James Edward. (Provisional only.) 

" NAVIGABLE AEROSTAT.'-' 

THE car is suspended from an aerostat of disc form, having a 
portion of its centre removed. By adjusting a weight sus- 
pended below the car the apparatus assumes an inclination, 
and can thus skim through the air in descending. 

Sails hinder the passage of air through the central opening 
of the balloon, thus regulating the velocity of descent ; 
and rudders steer the machine vertically and horizontally. 

In order to obtain a start, the machine is forced vertically 
upwards out of a cylindrical tower by means of compressed 
air. 

The machine may be propelled by the reaction of a jet or 
jets of fluid escaping from a reservoir or generator. 



A.D. 1867. No. 2397. 

GOUCHER, John. 

" PROPELLING." 

AN apparatus is described for propelling vessels on water, 
which apparatus, it is stated, is also applicable to propelling 
aerial vessels, though this application is not particularly de- 
scribed. 

Wings or flaps are hinged to a central rib in such a manner 
that they hold the water if moved in one direction, but fold 
on the rib if moved in the contrary direction. These ribs 
are attached at right angles to rods which connect similar 
cranks, so that on the rotation of the cranks the flaps hold 
the water during half a revolution, but are withdrawn from 
the water on the return half-revolution. 

(Drawings.) 



44 



A.D. 1867. 



No. 2504. 



SMYTHIES, John Kinnnersley. 
" STEAM FLYING MACHINE." 

A STEAM bird is constructed, with wings fulcrumed on the 
ends of links attached to the body of the apparatus, and these 
wings are composed of feathers which act on the air during 
their downward stroke, but rise without much resistance, 
owing to the feathers deflecting and permitting the air to 
pass between same. 

The wings are connected at their inner ends to the piston- 
rod of a steam cylinder, which in falling and rising flaps the 
wings up and down. 





The boiler is constructed with a number of small tubes to 
give a large heating surface with small amount of weight, as 
well as requiring a very small amount of water ; and the heat 



45 

is obtained by burning vaporized hydrocarbon combined with 
a hot-air blast. The exhaust steam is condensed in a hollow 
tail, thus saving weight in the quantity of water required. 
This tail also serves the purpose of a supporting surface (t, . 
aeroplane). 

Minute details are described. 



A.D. 1867. No. 3038. 

HENRY, Michael. (Communicated by Henry Gi/ard.) 

" BALLOONS." 

THE specification describes improvements on an invention of 
Henry Giffard's, No. 466, 1867. 

Instead of employing an elastic nock, the leading linos Mi 
made shorter, thus allowing the balloon to expand or contract 
without sagging. 

Safety-valves are employed at the lower part of iho Imlloou, 
and the nock is made of a short rigid tube having a nVxil>l<- 
end. 

A pressure-valve shows 1.1 ^ pmHsnm of l.lie gas in the 
balloon, and the mooring-cable passes through the centre of 
the car, which latter may have a double bottom for tin-, n-r.-j, 
tion of ballast &c. 

The mooring-cable is worked by steam-engines and i* 
fitted with a tension-gauge. 

The passengers enter the car by means of a foot-bri<l.: - , 
and an enclosure is provided to protect the balloon from the 
effects of bad weather. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1868. No. 392. 

BOULTON, Matthew Piers Watt. 
" PROPELLING ABRIAL MACHINKS." 

JETS of fluid are employed as the motive-power of aerial 
machines. The jet of fluid, steam for instance, issues towards 



46 

the hinder part of the vessel, which is shaped to offer but 
small resistance to the air. 

Various kinds of jets are described, which maybe employed 
as a supporting power by passing over the upper surface 
of a plane, thus reducing the pressure on its upper side, 
or the jets may be employed for propelling aeroplanes at an 
angle, which thus perform mechanical flight. 

Mixtures of inflammable gases may be ignited in a recep- 
tacle and thus produce the required jet by its escape through 
a suitable orifice. 

Steam boilers are described having a large heating-surface. 

In order to prevent an aeroplane leaving the plane in 
which it is travelling, self-regulating mechanism is employed, 
consisting of two rudders and a balance-weight, which mecha- 
nism corrects the angle automatically. 

(Drawing.} 



A.D. 1868. No. 412. 

MASEY, Philip Edward. (Provisional only.) 

" STEAM FLYING MACHINE." 

A SERIES of rotary vanes or blades, mounted on vertical axes, 
give the required lifting-power, and vanes mounted on hori- 
zontal axes impart a forward motion to the machine. 

These vertical and horizontal axes are driven by means of 
a rotary engine situated on a boiler having a large heating- 
surface. 



A.D. 1868. No. 568. 

HULLETT, John. (Provisional only.) 
" EMPLOYMENT OF KITES AND BALLOONS." 

A ROPE is suspended by kites, situated one above the other. 
These kites may be adjusted in angle by means of cords and 



47 



weights. Persons &c. may ascend the rope by means of a 
sail attached to a spar carried on a frame free to run up the 
rope on pulleys. 

The kite or kites may be fitted with gas-holders, and a 
balloon may be employed for elevating. 



A.D. 1868. No. 1005. 

BOULTON, Matthew Piers Watt, and IMRAY, John. 

"FLYING MACHINE.'-' 

A CYLINDER having two pistons, one working at either end of 
same, is situated in the body of the machine. The piston- 
rods are attached to a pair of wings in such a manner that on 
the pistons being driven apart, one from the other, by the 
explosion of mixed gases between them in the cylinder, the 
wings are brought down, thus effecting the flight of the appa- 
ratus. The upward movement or recovery of the wings is 
effected by the natural pressure of air beneath same caused 
by the weight of the machine. 

A secondary piston conveys the inflammable mixture be- 
tween the two main pistons, and modifications are described 
of the various parts of mechanism. 

The wings are formed of rods curved backwards and 
covered with light fabric, and these wings are capable of ad- 
justment. 

A tail is employed, mounted on a universal joint, thus 
allowing of its moving vertically and horizontally for the pur- 
pose of steering and balancing the vessel. 

(Drawing.} 



A.D. 1868. No. 1178. 

SPENCER, Charles Green. (Provisional refused.) 

i( MANUMOTIVE FLYING MACHINE." 

THE apparatus consists of a T-shaped web having vertical and 
horizontal limbs, which diminish to a point at the bow. The 



48 

horizontal web acts as an aeroplane when the machine is pro- 
pelled forwards, and there is a receptacle in the vertical web 
for a man. 




By running along the ground the machine becomes sup- 
ported on the atmosphere, and the person actuating suitable 
propeller-fins keeps the machine in motion. A rudder may 
be employed. 



A.D. 1868. No. 1666. 

HAMMANT, William. (Provisional refused.) 

" FLYING MACHINE." 

THIS provisional specification does not clearly describe any 
invention, but the inventor states that the apparatus consists 
of a frame of thin copper hollow cylinders charged with 
hydrogen. 

Elevating apparatus, consisting of fans, whose blades de- 
scend flatways and rise edgeways, are provided, and the sup- 
porting apparatus is said to consist of wings fitted with 
feathering blades. Screw-blades are employed for propelling, 
and the machine may be actuated by any suitable power. 



A.D. 1868. No. 1815. 

CRESTADORO, Andrea. (Provisional only.) 

" HOT-AIR BALLOON." 

A BALLOON is made of metallic sheet, and provided with a tap 
at top and bottom. The air inside the balloon is heated by a 



49 

furnace, whose chimney passes up through the centre and out 
at the top of the balloon. 

The inventor states that the air in a balloon of 200 ft. 
diameter, heated to 230 F., would have an ascending power 
of 38 tons. 



A.D. 1868. No. 1881. 

BOYMAN, Richard Boyman. 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

THIS specification describes improvements on the invention, 
by the same inventor, No. 3262, A.D. 1866. 

Instead of employing gas as the lifting power (in navigable 
balloons made of metal), it is proposed to rarefy the air in the 
aerostat by exhausting or heating same. Eotary pumps are 
shown for exhausting, and the machine is propelled by the 
action of a jet or jets of air on the outer atmosphere. The 
pumps are set in action until sufficient air is exhausted to give 
the required lifting power, and the machine can then be pro- 
pelled in any direction. 

When it is desired to descend, air is admitted to the aero- 
stat, which becomes heavier than the amount of air it dis- 
places. 

The aerostat is made of rings of metal with a sheet-metal 
covering to same, and is strengthened internally by stays. 
Quotations from correspondence between Professor Blanc 
and the inventor are given at great length. 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1868. No. 1987. 

NEWTON, William Edward. (Provisional only. 
Communicated by C. Williams.) 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON/' 

THE balloon is of elongated form, having the under horizontal 
surface flat. The propellers, which consist of adjustable vanes 



50 

capable of being feathered, may be employed for propelling, 
steering, elevating, or lowering the machine. 

A rigid platform is attached to the balloon, and the car is 
attached below the platform by rigid stays. The balloon, 
with the help of a " stay-hoop/' forms a parachute in case of 
accident, and horizontal adjustable rails act as aeroplanes. 

Compressed gas is carried to compensate for leakage, and 
steam is generated with carburetted hydrogen gas. 

Persons may descend to the ground by ladders, when the 
balloon is anchored, and the balloon need not be brought 
right down to the ground for this purpose. 



A.D. 1868. No. 2162. 

LIVCHAK, Josef. (Provisional only.) 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

A BALLOON, which is elongated with conic ends, is stated to 
be driven by the centrifugal force of the moving parts, and 
also by the application of the resistance of the air. The 
balloon is covered with an air-tight cloth, the two edges of 
which are secured to a loose frame connected with the body 
which carries the steam motor. 

The body may have its distance from the balloon modified, 
and " prismatic casings or wings " are mentioned in this 
specification. 



A.D. 1868. No. 2680. 

HUNTEE, John Morrison. 

" FLYING MACHINE." 

AEROPLANES are employed for supporting the apparatus on 
the atmosphere, and the propulsion is obtained by rocket jets, 
i. e. jets impinging on the atmosphere, which jets are pro- 
duced by the combustion of gaseous hydrocarbons mixed with 
atmospheric air. 

There are two aeroplanes, one on each side of the vessel, 



51 

mounted on their centres so that they may be adjusted in 
angle, to direct the machine up or down ; and the outer 
edges of these aeroplanes are provided with jets, pointing 
downwards, to buoy the machine up when required. 

Jets are provided at the stern to propel the machine, or 
propellers may be 1 employed having jets at the ends of their 
blades, for giving the desired rotary movement. 

By altering the direction of the bow or stern propeller, the 
vessel is turned on its axis, and so travels to the right or left, 
or this steering may be performed by steam-jets acting diago- 
nally at the bow or stern. 

The machine is started by running down hill on wheels 
which are provided for that purpose, which wheels are con- 
nected to the bodyJaY means of springs. 

A generator for making gas, and improved jets are also 
described. 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1868. No. 3677. 

GRYLLS, Henry William. (Provisional only.) 

" SPRING-MOTOR FOR AERIAL MACHINES." 

THIS provisional specification describes a motor to be driven 
by a spring or springs. 

The mechanism is placed in the car of a balloon, and drives 
a shaft, which projects from the car and carries fans or other 
driving arrangement. 



A.D. 1869. No. 1124. 

ABEL, Charles Denton. (Provisional only. Communicated 
by Emile Jombart.) 

" FLYING MACHINE." 

A NARROW platform constructed of a framing of wood and 

B2 



52 

filled in with louvre boards, laths, or staves is provided with 
quadrant- shaped wings. 

A person can impart an up and down motion to the wings 
by means of levers. 



A.D. 1869. No. 1769. 

MICHEL, Marius. (Provisional refused.) 

" EMPLOYING BIRDS FOR FLYING." 

BIRDS are harnessed to a triangular framework, to which 
latter the car is suspended. 

The birds may be guided by means of reins attached to 
their wings, or rudders may be employed for this purpose. 



A.D. 1869. No. 2827. 

NOBLE, William Henry. (Provisional only. Communicated 
by Frederick Marriott.) 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

AN elongated balloon is divided into three compartments, the 
bow and stern compartments being for the reception of gas, 
and the centre compartment for the steam engine. 

Aeroplanes which increase in width from the bow to the 
stern are mounted horizontally on each side of the balloon, 
and a rudder having vertical and horizontal webs is employed 
for steering vertically and horizontally. 

The balloon does not contain sufficient gas to cause it to 

O 

rise, but when the propellers are actuated the machine rises 
with the greatest ease. 



A.D. 1870. No. 623. 

BOYMAN, Richard Boyman, 
" PROPELLING BY REACTION." 

THIS invention refers to improvements in propellers for 
producing jets for propelling vessels and aerial machines by 



53 

reaction. More efficiency is obtained by employing these 
improved propellers, which, as in the previous inventions by 
the same inventor, draw air from the forward direction and 
eject it towards the stern. 
(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1870. No. 1469. 

HAUTE, Richard, 

" FLYING MACHINE." 

THIS machine, which may be propelled by either muscular or 
steam power, is provided with an aeroplane and propelled by 
a two-bladed screw. These blades have more of their super- 
ficies on one side of their axes than on the other, and they 
may be regulated in pitch according to the speed required. 

Rudders are employed for steering, and wheels are pro- 
vided to enable the machine to move on land. 

A " balancing beak " is employed at the bow of the 
machine, which, by its momentum, ensures the passage of the 
front of the machine through the air. The machine may be 
started down a hill or by rotating the propellers. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1870. No. 2040. 

ROSS, William Murray. (Provisional only.) 

" PROPULSION/' 

AERIAL machines are to be raised and propelled through the 
air by means of apparatus consisting of a number of vacuum- 
pumps. 

Vessels are also to be propelled in a like manner, and 
locomotives are to be stopped by pistons acting against the 
air. 

(Drawings.) 



54 

A.D. 1870. No. 3272. 

BRANNON, Philip. (Provisional only.) 
" BALLOONS." 

A BALLOON is constructed in three divisions, one above the 
other, the upper division containing hydrogen and the middle 
division being fitted with a heating-apparatus for rarefying 
the air. 

Wheels with feathering-gear, or propellers, give propulsion 
to the machine, and the motive power may be obtained from 
a tangential fan-wheel driven by currents of air. 

Plunging parachute propellers might also be employed, and 
all the propellers work on universal joints for steering. 



A.D. 1871. No. 728. 

OSSELIN, Francois Alfred. 
" OBTAINING AND APPLYING MOTIVE POWER." 

THIS invention is based on a new law, and the apparatus, 
which is to be called the " dynamogene/'' is stated to be both 
" economical and universal/' 

The apparatus is described as applied to " ascentional 
engines " which are of the " general form of a kiosk borne 
in the air by the statical action of the differential/' 

The inventor gives a quantity of mathematical formulae, 
and states with confidence that by the use of his apparatus 
the problem of aerial locomotion is solved, but he does not 
particularly describe the manner of obtaining this much- 
wished-for result. 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1871. No. 944. 

BOYMAN, Richard Boyman. 

" SHIPS AND PROPULSION/' 
THE principal part of this invention refers to ships which are 



55 

made of great length and small cross section, to enable them 
to proceed at great speed without extra power. 

These ships are propelled by reaction, the power being 
obtained by means of rotary pumps, which pump water in 
the reverse direction to the movement of the ship. These 
propelling pumps are also applicable to aerial navigation. 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1871. No. 2031. 

HUNT, Bristow. (Provisional only. Communicated by 
Robert Courtemanche.) 

" AERIAL MACHINE." 

THE machine is of a fish-like form, and propelled by propel- 
lers driven by steam-power. 

Two screws will be used for ascending, and one screw is 
situated at the rear end for propelling, whilst the steering is 
performed with a rudder. 

Aeroplanes, which can be adjusted, are provided at the 
sides of the vessel, and in descending the screws may be 
stopped and the vessel allowed to descend on an inclined 
plane. 

A foot bridge and four supports are provided, and balloons 
containing hydrogen are attached to the bow and stern to 
lighten the ship. 

A.D. 1871. No. 2781. 

RIEBER, Juan. (Provisional refused.) 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

A TRIANGULAR balloon is provided with steam-engines for 
blowing the balloon forward, having one edge foremost to 
cut the wind. Weathercocks are employed to indicate the 
direction in which the balloon is moving. 

The drawing accompanying this specification would have 
been more suitable for a comic paper than to illustrate this 
" supposed " invention. 

(Drawing.) 



56 



A.D. 1871. No. 3067. 

WILSON, George. (Provisional only.} 

" MOTIVE POWEK." 

STREAMS of water are forced from a receiver and pass over 
step-like channels, thus unbalancing the pressure of the 
atmosphere, and causing it to act at intervals beneath the said 
channels. 

This motive-power apparatus is for performing mechanical 
work in propelling bodies on the ground or through water, 
and is also employed for raising bodies in the air. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1871. No. 3238. 

MOY, Thomas, and SKILL, Richard Edmund. 

" FLYING MACHINE." 

AN elongated body for containing the motor and passenger is 
suspended in the centre of a double hoop framework, which 
latter is mounted on four wheels for running on the ground 
when starting the machine. 

Two propellers, each composed of eight aeroplanes placed 
radially on an axis, are situated on either side of the 
machine. These aeroplanes are altered in their pitch as they 
revolve in such a manner that on striking downward their 
forward edges are slightly inclined downwards, whilst in 
ascending they are inclined upwards, thus always propelling 
and serving as supports on the air. 

Two adjustable horizontal aeroplanes are situated at the 
stern of the machine to steer same up or down, and these 
aeroplanes are actuated automatically by a pendulum, or they 
may be actuated by hand. 

(Drawings.) 



57 



A.D. 1872. No. 411. 

BROWN, David Stephens. (Provisional only.) 
" FLYING MACHINE." 

Two aeroplanes, which may be double-walled to serve as 
generators or condensers, are placed at a distance apart and 
held in position by tubular framework. 

The planes may be altered in inclination at rapid intervals, 
and the propellers may be of the screw, fish-tail, wing, or 
rocket kind. 



A.D. 1872. No. 821. 

SOUL, Matthew Augustus. ( Communicated by 
Paul Haenlein.) 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

A BALLOON of elongated form supports a framework, having 
two propellers mounted horizontally on same. A car con- 
taining a gas-engine, and fitted with a vertically mounted 
propeller below, is attached to the frame, and rudders are 
attached to the frame at the bow and stern for steering 
horizontally. 

The gas for burning in the gas-engine is drawn from the 
balloon itself, and an auxiliary balloon situated within the 
main balloon is provided for the reception of air as the gas 
is withdrawn. 

By driving the side propellers by means of the gas-engine 
the balloon is propelled forward, and by driving the propeller 
below the car the balloon may be raised up or down without 
expenditure of gas or ballast. 

A condenser is described in which ether or ammonia is 
employed for keeping the gas-engine cool. 

(Drawing.} 



58 

A.D. 1872. No. 3076, 

DUTHU, Jean Baptiste. 
" STEEKING BALLOONS.-" 

SAILS are provided on a balloon to enable it to beat and tack 
against the wind in a similar manner to a ship. A screw or 
fan, actuated from the car, is provided to aid " in these 
evolutions " in such a manner that when manoeuvring the 
proper side may be presented to the wind. 

Anchors are provided with two ropes to enable them to 
hook or unhook at will, the flukes being jointed for this 
purpose. 

A mast and horizontal spars are provided in the balloon, 
and a spring safety-valve is provided at the top to allow the 
gas to escape when at a certain pressure. 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1873. No. 2346. 

BROWN, David Stephens. (Provisional only.) 

" MOTOR/' 

A STEAM-ENGINE for propelling aerial machines is made to act 
with great energy at short intervals, instead of in a continuous 
manner. 

Springs hold the piston-rod back until the pressure is 
sufficient to overpower the springs, which piston then moves 
with great force. 



A.D. 1873. No - 

MARTIN, Margaret. 

" BALLOONS." 

A BALLOON or train of balloons of elongated form travels be- 
tween two points by means of an endless rope to which they 
are attached. The endless rope passes over pulleys at either 



59 

end which are worked by steam, and auxiliary balloons may 
be attached to the rope at intervals to support the weight of 
same. 

This lady inventor proposes to run a balloon line in this 
manner from Dover to Calais, the rope being suspended about 
400 feet above the sea. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1873. No. 3309. 

FLEURY, Albert. (Provisional only.) 

" STEERING PARACHUTE/' 

IF a weight be attached to a rectangular plate by cords of 
equal length connected to the corners of the plate, such plate 
in falling will be pulled down vertically. Should, however, the 
cords be of unequal length, the plate will travel down on an 
incline, or if the weight be omitted and a balloon employed 
in its place the balloon will rise on an incline. 

This principle may suitably be employed to convey tor- 
pedoes of considerable weight under water, by weighting them 
to descend at an angle. On arriving at the bottom a weight 
is unhooked and they rise at an incline towards the ship. 
Flying-birds, fishes, &c., may also be made in this manner. 



A.D. 1873. No. 4154. 

VAUGrHAN, Edward Primerose Howard. (Communicated 
by Edward Clarence Morse.) 

" ADVERTISING BALLOONS." 

CAOUTCHOUC balloons are ornamented or otherwise marked by 
means of stencil plates. The marking or colouring materials 
may be applied to a balloon whilst inflated or uninflated, and 
the balloon may also be marked internally. 



60 

A.D. 1873. No. 4255. 

GAVEAU, Jean Charles. 
" NAVIGABLE BALLOONS." 

Two or more balloons of equal capacity are connected by a 
framework, which forms a vessel with a deck and lower 
frame. 

A screw propeller is driven by mechanism which is not 
described, and a mast and sails are provided for directing the 
apparatus in case of need. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1873. No. 4279. 

BROWNE, John Collis. 

" PROPELLING BALLOONS." 

A SCREW propeller, composed of two pairs of blades, is em- 
ployed for propelling and assisting to raise balloons, such 
blades being constructed so as to act separately on the fluid. 

The propeller-shaft is provided with a universal joint to 
enable same to be directed in any direction. 

This propeller is also described as applied for raising water, 
ventilating buildings, &c. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1874. No. 81. 

DE VOGT, Henric Christian. 

" FLYING MACHINE/' 

A FRAME or wing, nearly horizontal and slightly convex in 
form, constitutes the elevating and propelling meansT ThisT 
frame is strengthened by struts and stays, and is fitted with 
feathers which overlap one another, thus holding the air on 
the downward stroke, but opening to allow the air to pass 
between same on the upward stroke. 



61 

A reciprocating up-and-down motion of this frame is ob- 
tained by the direct action of a piston-rod, and a rudder 
having vertical and horizontal vanes is employed for steering 
vertically or horizontally. 

A boat carries the boiler and engine, and a kite is fitted 
round the boat to prevent rolling. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1874. No. 777. 

RIDLEY, Joseph Douglas. (Provisional only.) 

" FLYING MACHINE." 

WINGS are reciprocated by means of a piston actuated by 
explosions, the motion being imparted through the medium 
of a piston-rod and cross-piece. 

The explosive agents in the cylinder are ignited by an 
electric spark ; and a tail is provided for steering the machine. 



A.D. 1874. No . 1144 . 

MENIER, Jean Sebastien Anacharsis. 

" FIKE BALLOONS/' 

FIRE balloons are provided with circular burners fed with 
hydrocarbon from tanks situated in the car. 

Asbestos wicks are employed in the burners, and the fuel 
is partly burned in the form of vapour. The fabric of the 
balloon may be rendered fire-proof, and the chimney for con- 
ducting the heated air to the balloon is provided with a wire 
spark-guard. 

A special carriage is employed for transporting the balloon 
and its appurtenances in readiness for inflation ; and when 
inflated the balloon may be held captive to the carriage by a 
wire rope. 

(Drawing.) 



II 



62 

A.D. 1874. No. 2808. 

MOY, Thomas. 

" FLYING MACHINE." 

THIS invention relates to improvements on the invention 
described in specification No. 3238 (1871). 

The machine is placed at a suitable angle to the horizontal, 
and the fixed aeroplanes at the hinder part of the machine, 
supporting part of the weight, reduce the angle of flight as 
the speed of the machine increases. The pendulum adjusts 
the revolving aeroplanes, and steering may be effected by 
altering the angles of the aeroplanes while in motion. 

The machine can be mounted on pontoons or wheels, to 
adapt them for resting on water or land when at rest. 

A pendulum regulates steam or other valves, which actuate 
mechanism for regulating the angle of a balancing plane, 
which latter keeps the machine at the desired angle. 

{Drawing.) 



A,D. 1874. No. 2821. 

BAGGS, Isham, (Provisional only.) 

" BALLOONS." 

HYDROGEN is generated in suitable generators, by the action 
of hydrochloric acid or zinc. 

In inflating fireballoons the products of combustion are 
caused to pass through layers of wire gauze. 

Wings are attached to a framework surrounding the bal- 
loon, which wings being inclined at an angle cause the 
balloon to travel on an incline when rising or falling. These 
wings are so balanced that they take the required angle by 
the pressure of the air up or down. 

A tail is employed for steering. 

An arrow is shot into soft ground to anchor the balloon 
when landing. 



63 

A.D. 1874. No. 3058. 

LAKE, William Robert. {Communicated by William 
Frank Browne.) 

u HYDKOGEN APPARATUS." 

A PORTABLE hydrogen generator is described in which steam 
is passed through retorts over incandescent material, and 
from thence through a condensing-coil. 
(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1874. No. 3132. 

SIMMONS, Joseph. (Provisional only.) 

11 FIRE BALLOONS." 

THE chimney is placed on a fire-proof seat and is attached 
within the balloon. 

The car is provided with wheels, and the fuel, which is con- 
tained in separate vessels, is raised to the car by force-pumps. 



A.D. 1874. No. 3177. 

HIME, Frederick. 
" NAVIGABLE BALLOON.'* 

THE balloon is of elongated form and supports three cars, one 
below for balancing the balloon, and one at each end. A 
propeller is mounted on a hollow shaft running longitudinally 
through the balloon, such shaft being supported at the centre 
as well as at both ends. 

A rudder is employed at the bow for steering the balloon. 

(Drawings.) 



64 

A,D. 1874. No. 3831. 

WATT, Alexander. (Provisional only.) 

" BALLOONS." 

BALLOONS are composed of air-tight chambers in the form of 
segments of a circle, or the so-called quarters of an orange. 

Chambers for generating hydrogen by the action of acid 
on zinc are described. 



A.D. 1874. No. 3996. 

ALEXANDER, Edwin Powley. (Provisional only. 
Communicated by Stanislas Ludovic Brion.) 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

INCLINED or helicoidal wings or blades are attached round 
the exterior surface of an elongated balloon, in such a manner 
that on the rotation of the balloon on its longitudinal axis it 
is propelled through the air. 

The balloon is rotated from the car, which latter is oblong, 
and is suspended from the axis of the balloon by light 
frames. 

The car is furnished with a screw propeller of its own, and 
one or more balloons may be combined with one car. 



A.D. 1875. No. 140. 

CAVE, John O'Connell. (Provisional only.) 
" FLYING MACHINE." 

Two shafts, one mounted within the other, carry screw pro- 
pellers at their upper ends. The lower propeller is of greater 
size than the upper propeller, in order to overcome the down- 
ward current of air caused by the rotation of the latter, or 
the lower propeller may "be revolved at a greater speed. 

By varying the angle of the propeller-shafts, the machine 
may be propelled in any direction. 



65 

The steering is effected by a rudder which may also act as 
a drag. 

For military purposes, the machine may be actuated by a 
compressed-air engine, which is supplied with compressed air 
from die ground by means of a suitable tube. 



A.D. 1875. No. 169. 

CLARK, Alexander Melville. (Communicated by Ferdinand 
Charles Honore Philippe d'Esterno.) 

" KITES." 

KITES are employed for suspending a person in the air for 
military purposes. 

The kites, which, if desired, may be provided with a frame, 
are held in tension from the ground by three or more ropes 
instead of one rope as has hitherto been the case. 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1875. No. 289. 

SIMMONS, Joseph, and MORRIS, Joseph Matthew. 

(Provisional only.) 

" PURIFYING GAS." 

HYDBOGEN gas is purified by passing it through a mixture of 
lime and water contained in a gasometer. 

The gas thus purified is rendered more expansive and 
lighter, and is particularly applicable to balloons. 



A.D. 1875. No. 574. 

BOULTON, Matthew Piers Watt. 

" GENERATOR." 

A GENERATOR of small weight in proportion to its power is 
heated from a combustion-chamber, in which a jet of petro- 
leum and a jet of oxygen meet and are burnt. 

The flame thus produced is passed into a chamber where 
a spray of water is playing. The spray is converted into 



66 

steam, which, mixed with the products of combustion, is fed 
from the generator to the engine. 
(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1875. 



No. 1690. 



MENIER, Jean Sebastien Anacharsis. 
" BALLOONS." 

THE inventor states that by the employment of aeroplanes 
attached to balloons the descent or ascent may be made on 
an inclined plane, thus propelling the balloon. 

Eudders steer the balloon, and the car being adjustable 
the centre of gravity may be changed at will. 



A.D. 1875. 



SIMMONS, Joseph. 
" KITE." 



No. 2428. 




A KITE, composed of fabric strengthened by means of a net 



67 

and stretched on a framework, is employed for raising a car 
containing an aeronaut. 

The kite becomes a parachute should the rope break. 



A.D. 1875. No. 2901. 

BIDDLE, Daniel. (Provisional only.) 

" SAILS FOE BALLOONS." 

SAILS supported by a mast and yard-arms are employed for 
steering balloons. 



A,D. 1875. No. 2979, 

McKEE, Henry. (Provisional only.) 

" BALLOONS." 

A HOT-AIR balloon is suspended by a wire rope to a gas 
balloon, and by regulating the heat in the hot-air balloon the 
ascent or descent may be effected. 

A speaking-tube is employed for communicating between 
the cars attached to the two balloons. 

Captive balloons are kept inflated by the combustion of 
gas fed up through a tube from the ground. 



A.D. 1875. No. 3315. 

JENSEN, Peter. (Provisional only. Communicated by 
Edward Vidal.) 

ic NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

AN elongated balloon is provided with two sets of fans (pro- 
pellers) mounted on the same vertical axis and propelled in 
opposite directions. 

Similar fans are employed for propulsion, and a steam 
engine is employed for working the fans, which engine is 
supplied with steam generated from a mixture of carbonic 

F2 



68 



acid with alcohol, or other appropriate substance. Buffers 
are provided for landing. 

This specification is not at all clear. 



A.D. 1875. No. 4151. 

SMYTHIES, John Kinnersley. 

" FLYING MACHINE." 

A VERTICAL multitubular boiler, in which liquid hydrocarbon 
is employed as a heating agent, generates steam for actuating 
an engine. The piston-rod of the cylinder is connected to 
the inner ends of two wings which are fulcrumed on the ex- 
tremities of two links, and by the rising and falling of the 
piston the wings are flapped up and down. 

The steam is condensed in the tail of the apparatus, whence 
it is pumped back into the generator. 

The wings, which are built up of overlapping feathers, 
hold the air on the down stroke, but not on the up stroke. 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1875. No. 4523. 

SANDERSON, John George Emilius. {Provisional only.) 

" PROPELLER." 

SEMI-CIRCULAR or semi-oval flat surfaces are attached to a 
horizontal shaft at an angle of 45, and this apparatus is 
employed as a windmill. The inventor, however, states that 
it may also be employed as a propeller either in water or air. 



A.D. 1876. No. 327. 

BUCHANAN, John. (Provisional only.) 

" PROPELLING." 

AIR or gas is forced into a chamber which is heated by a 
steam-jacket. The compressed air or gas thus heated expands, 
and by escaping through suitable valves propels or steers a 
balloon by its impact on the atmosphere. 



69 



A.D. 1876. No. 439. 

SNOW, Josiah John. (Provisional only.} 

" KITE PAKACHUTE." 

A PARACHUTE is fastened to a short tube, and an elastic spring \ 
in the parachute tends to keep it open against a frame until 
a large pressure of wind acts against the parachute. 

The apparatus, being placed on a kite line, runs up same 
by means of the wind acting under the parachute, but on 
arriving at the desired height it is suddenly stopped, and the 
extra force of the wind collapses the parachute, thus allowing 
the apparatus to run back down the kite-line to the starting- J 
point. 

(Draiving.) 



A.D. 1876. No. 2393. 

EUNKEL, Marc. (Provisional only.) 

" BALLOONS/' 

THE altitude of the balloon is regulated by compressing the 
gas into a reservoir contained in the car. By compressing 
the gas the balloon descends, and by allowing the compressed 
gas to escape into the balloon from the reservoir, the ascent 
is effected. 

The balloon is propelled by projecting a weight horizontally 
from the car. The weight is connected to another weight 
below the balloon by a cord, which passes over a pulley, and 
the weight in being projected hoists the second weight up to 
the car. When hoisted the second weight may be projected, 
and in its turn effect a similar result. 



70 

A.D. 1877. No. 603. 

MENIER, Jean Sebastien Anacharsis. (Provisional only.) 

" AERIAL TOY." 

AN india-rubber balloon is supplied with a bird's head, two 
wings, and a tail, which being fixed to the body of the 
balloon render same a self-steering aerial toy. 

Balloons are to be used as mediums for advertising. 



A,D. 1877. No. 924. 

BALLENI, Henri, and PAYNE, John Webber. 

(Provisional only.) 

"NAVIGABLE BALLOON/' 

WINGS or flappers are attached to a framework situated above 
a balloon. The wings are worked by means of rods from the 
car below, which latter is provided with a motive-power 
engine. A horizontal shaft running through the balloon 
carries a propeller on its rear end, and the car is provided 
with a rudder for steering. 

A gas generator and exhauster are employed for regulating 
the pressure in the balloon. 



A.D 1877. No. 1406. 

MOY, Thomas. 
te BOILERS AND ENGINES/' 

BOILERS for aeronautical purposes are composed of a number 
of fine curved tubes connecting tubular reservoirs, thus giving 
a large heating surface with small amount of weight. Gas 
or petroleum is employed for heating the boiler. The feed- 
water is controlled by a self-acting valve. 

Single-acting engines are described which have but a 
small number of working parts, and as direct an action as 
possible. 

(Drawings.) 



71 



A.D. 1877. No. 1647. 

WOODBURY, Walter Bentley. 

" BALLOON PHOTOGRAPHY." 

A PHOTOGRAPHIC camera is suspended to a balloon, which is 
held captive by a rope containing three insulated wires. 
A tail is provided to keep the balloon in its proper position. 




A current passing up by the first wire causes a clockwork 
apparatus, attached to the camera, to actuate rolls holding the 
sensitive film in such a manner as to bring a fresh portion of 
the film behind the lens after an exposure has been made. 

A current through the second wire actuates the shutter, 
and the third wire acts as the return in both instances. 



A.D. 1877. No. 2313. 

LAKE, William Robert. (Communicated ty Count 
Antoine Apraxine.) 

" BALLOONS." 

AN annular balloon is mounted on a framework, and is of 
sufficient size to sustain the maximum weight to be raised. 

An auxiliary balloon is provided above the main balloon, 
and the car is suspended from the main balloon framework. 



72 

A rope passes from the auxiliary balloon down through the 
main balloon to the car below. 

The inventor states that by pulling the small balloon down 
by means of this rope a descent can be effected without loss 
of gas. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1877. No. 3814. 

ROGERS, Charles Ogle. (Provisional refused. 
Communicated by Alfred W. Gittens.) 

" AERIAL BATTERY." 

A SHEET of canvas, or a sail or kite with one or more balloons, 
is held captive from a suitable apparatus on the ground. 

Kockets propel the apparatus ; and projectiles, explosive 
bombs, and nitro-glycerine are conveyed up the rope and 
dropped into hostile fortifications. 

Many other suggestions are made, but not particularly 
described. 



A.D. 1877. No. 3974. 

BRANNON, Philip. 
" FLYING MACHINE." 

A SUPPORTING surface, termed the " arcuate," is formed of 
any discoid, inverted ship or boat shape, " or any domic or 
pyramidal configuration, or other roof form, so as to act both 
for ascension and propulsion by its concave inferior surface 
in producing the greatest possible concentric or inward pres- 
sure on the adjacent air." 

Rotary propellers of various forms are shown and described, 
as are also their connections and their adjustment in various 
directions. Treadles and hand-wheels are in some cases pro- 
vided for actuating the propeller and rudders, and their con- 
nections are also described and shown in the drawings. 

For short journeys stored power is employed, or the appa- 



73 

ratus may be worked by an air engine or steam engine, in 
which a lamp-furnace, mass-furnace, flare and guard, or jury 
furnace may be employed for obtaining the required heat. 

An aerostat may be attached to the upper part of the 
aeroplane if desired . 

Many details are described to which the inventor gives his 
own names, but their number is too great and their forms are 
too vague for description in this abridgment. 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1878. No. 513. 

JACKSON, William. 
" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

PKOPELLERS are mounted horizontally and vertically in the 
car of a balloon for the purpose of propelling and regulating 
its altitude. The propellers may be worked by hand or by 
other suitable means or mechanical contrivances. 




The balloon proper may be formed in the shape of a bird 
or other design, and thus be suitable for places of amusement. 



A.D. 1878. No. 939. 

HEATHORN, Thomas Bridges. 

" JET PKOPULSION." 

BALLOONS are propelled and steered by the action of a jet of 
fluid being ejected from the stern end of the car or other 



74 

part. The orifice through which the jet is ejected is elon- 
gated or + -shaped, thus forming a flat sheet of fluid which 
is more effective than a jet of a similar quantity of fluid 
projected through a cylindrical orifice. 

A fan or blower is employed for obtaining the draught, and 
any suitable power is employed for actuating the said fan or 
blower. 

(Drawing.) 

A.D. 1878. No. 943. 

ATKIN, Robert. (Provisional only.) 

" AEKIAL VESSEL." 

A VESSEL formed of thin metal, cane, or wood, covered with 
silk, is propelled by means of propeller-blades driven by a 
gas engine or other motor. 

The propeller-blades are carried on a hollow shaft, through 
which steam may circulate, and the vessel is steered horizon- 
tally and vertically by rudders. 



A.D. 1878. No. 1328. 

H ADD AN, Herbert John. (Communicated ly Frederick 
Augustus Lehmann and Charles RitcheL) 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 
THE altitude is regulated by means of a propeller mounted on 




a vertical axis, and a forward or backward movement is im- 
parted to the machine by a propeller mounted horizontally. 



75 

The latter propeller is mounted in such a manner that it 
may be directed to the right or left for steering purposes. 



A.D. 1878. No. 1827. 

HADDAN, Herbert John. (Communicated ~by Richard 
William Cowan and Charles Page.) 

" NAVIGATING BALLOONS." 

BALLOONS are propelled by paddle-wheels composed of a 
number of paddles, which are capable of turning on their 
pivots, and thus in rotating either cut through the air or 
hold same. Each paddle is provided with a projection, and 
on the paddles being rotated the projection comes in contact 
with a bar, which turns the paddle at right angles. The 
paddles are thus always feathered or edge on the wind, except 
when held in position by the bar, so that on rotation they 
only hold the fluid in one direction. 

The paddles may be made to act in any direction by ad- 
justing the bar, and thus the balloon may be propelled up or 
down, or in any other direction. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1878. No. 2039. 

VAUGrHAN, Edward Primerose Howard. (Communicated 
by Count Antoine Apraxine.) 

" BALLOONS." 

Two balloons are employed together, and by regulating the 
distance between them the inventor believes the altitude may 
be regulated. 



76 

This invention is very similar to one previously described, 
by the same inventor. 





A.D. 1878. No. 2421. 

SAMPLE, James. (Provisional only.) 

" PROPELLER." 

A PROPELLER for aerial machines is constructed with blades 
shaped like the wings of a bird, which reduces the slip of the 
propeller in the air. 



A.D. 1878. No. 3228. 

BREWER, Edward Griffith. (Provisional only. 
Communicated by Eugene Ernest Egasse.) 

" HYDROGEN GENERATOR." 

VESSELS and other appliances are described for making 
hydrogen gas, and the apparatus may suitably be employed 
for generating hydrogen for inflating balloons. 



77 

It is also suggested to carry a small hydrogen generator in 
the car of a balloon, for generating hydrogen to replace the 
natural loss of gas. 



A.D. 1878. No. 3546. 

ATKIN, Robert. {Provisional only.) 

" AERIAL VESSEL." 

THIS provisional specification describes a similar invention to 
No. 943, A.D. 1878, by the same inventor. 

A sheet of drawing is added, showing screw propellers, 
rudders, and a car which is attached to the vessel. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1878. No. 4104. 

KESSELER, Carl. (Communicated ly Wilhelm Raydt.) 

" BALLOONS." 

CAPTIVE balloons are inflated from a reservoir containing 
compressed gas. When the balloon is no longer required it 
is drawn down and the gas is returned to the reservoir by the 
help of a force-pump. 
(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1878. No. 4268. 

SMYTH, James Stewart. (Provisional only.) 

" BALLOON RAILWAY." 

BALLOONS are employed for supporting weights to be trans- 
ported on rope railways. The balloon can either be hauled 
by ropes, or advantage may be taken of a favourable wind. 



78 

A.D. 1878. No. 4332. 

NEWBOLD, Henry. (Provisional only.} 

" BALLOONS." 

AUXILIARY balloons are provided connected by suitable valves 
to the lower part of a main balloon. When the gas expands 
it passes into the auxiliary balloons, and is thus prevented 
from escaping into the air. 

Hydrogen may be generated by chemical reaction. 



A.D. 1878. No. 4757. 

JACKSON, William. 

" BALLOONS/' 

THIS invention refers to further improvements on No. 513, 
A.D. 1878, by the same inventor. 

A free balloon is propelled and regulated in altitude by 
screw propellers, it is also provided with a cannon for pro- 
jecting a harpoon-like grapnel into the ground for anchoring 
purposes. Canvas bags, fastened to the car, are inflated for 
keeping same afloat should a descent be made at sea. 

Trapezes are provided suspended to captive balloons, and a 
safety net is suspended below. 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1879. No. 409. 

ABEL, Charles Denton. (Communicated ~by Julius von 
Binzer and Eduard Bentzen.) 

" PROPELLERS." 

SCREW propellers for propelling bodies through air are built 
up of a number of S-shaped sections, the centre of the S 
forming the boss of the propeller. 
(Drawings.) 



79 

A.D. 1879. No. 594. 

BREWER, Edward Griffith. (Communicated by 
Eugene Ernest Egasse.) 

" HYDROGEN GENERATOR." 

THIS invention is a repetition of that described by the same 
inventor in his provisional specification No. 3228, A.D. 1878. 
(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1879. No. 1207. 

DILLON, Thomas Arthur. 

" ELECTRIC LIGHT ON BALLOONS." 

BALLOONS are employed for signalling by electric light. A 
dynamo on the balloon is operated by compressed air con- 
veyed to the car by means of a tube, or the compressed air 
may be carried in strong receptacles. 



A.D. 1879. No. 1569. 

BUCKHAM, William Peruano. (Communicated by 
James Stewart Smyth.) 

" BALLOON RAILWAY." 

WEIGHTS are transported along a rope by the aid of a balloon, 
which sustains or partly sustains the said weights. 
(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1879. No. 2229. 

PEARSE, Edward Arthur. 
" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

AN elongated conical-ended balloon is constructed of sheet 
copper strengthened externally by stays. A silk gas-bag is 



80 

provided in the interior of the copper cylinder, which bag on 
being inflated expels the air from the cylinder. 

A frame, having sleigh-shaped runners, carries the car, 
which is suspended to the balloorrby spring attachments. 

Gas engines in the car actuate a pair of screw propellers, 
which, when driven at a uniform speed, drive the balloon 
straight ahead, but by altering the speed of these propellers 
the machine may be driven to the right or left. 

The steering up or down is effected by means of an ad- 
justable weight, and spirit-levels are employed to indicate 
the angle of the apparatus. 

The car can be adjusted in relation to the frame, and spring 
buffers are employed for deadening the shock on alighting. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1879. 



No. 2376. 



BREAREY, Frederick William. 
" FLYING MACHINE." 




AN elongated body pointed at both ends contains the requisite 
machinery and the passengers. 



81 

Flexible lever-arms extend on either side, and a flexible 
spar extends from the tail end of the body. Silk or other 
suitable fabric is extended from the arms and along the spar 
at the tail, thus giving a large supporting surface. 

Vibrations are imparted to the arms, which propel the 
machine by a wave-like motion. 

The inventor does not mention how the said motion is 
imparted to the arms. 



A.D. 1879. No. 3779. 

WISE, William Lloyd. (Communicated ly William 
Augustus Leg go.) 

" AEROPLANE BALLOON/' 

AN elongated dart-shaped aeroplane is formed of a double 
skin to receive gas. 

The aeroplane displaces sufficient air to nearly support its 
entire weight, and also the weight of the car. 




By heating an expansion- chamber the entire machine is 
made to displace more air than its entire weight, and thus 
has a lifting power. The centre of gravity is adjusted by 
means of a moveable weight, and the angle of the aeroplane 
can thus be adjusted and cause the ascending or descending 
force to propel the machine ahead. 



82 

A.D. 1879. No. 3997. 

SIMON, Henry. (Communicated by George Baumgarten.) 

"NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

THE balloon is composed of four component parts, and the 
car is suspended close up to the lower part of the balloon by 
means of a rope, which passes through the interior to various 
ropes and bands on the outer envelope. 

A rope-ladder is provided up through the balloon to enable 
the aeronaut to ascend to the upper part of same when desired. 

The apparatus is propelled by means of a two-bladed 
feathering paddle, which takes a quarter turn at each half 
revolution, thus alternately holding and cutting through the 
air. The altitude is regulated by means of a propeller, the 
blades of which are adjustable in pitch. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1880. 



No. 985. 



LAKE, William Robert. (Communicated 
by Albert Livingstone Blackman.) 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON/' 

A FIRE-PROOF elongated balloon is made rigid by an internal 
framework of thin metal tubing, and the interior is divided 




into separate partitions. The hull of the air-ship extends the 
full length of the balloon. 

Propellers are employed for propelling the balloon horizon- 
tally, and a propeller which can be adjusted in its angle is 
employed for steering the machine in any desired direction. 



83 

A.D. 1880. No. 1776. 

HILL, Micaiah. (Provisional only.) 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

A FISH- SHAPED balloon is propelled by compressed air, which 
is allowed to escape by suitable orifices, situated about one 
third of the length of the balloon from the head. 
A flexible tail is employed for steering. 



A.D. 1880. No. 4701. 

BONNEVILLE, Henri Adrien. (Communicated by 
Anton de Schuttenbach.) 

" BALLOONS/' 

BALLOONS are constructed in the form of "an open para- 
chute," thus, in case of the balloon bursting, the parachute 
prevents an accident occurring. 

The balloon, which is constructed of several reservoirs, has 
the underside of stronger material than the upper side, so 
that the upper side would burst before the lower. 

An air cushion is provided to deaden concussion on landing. 

" Mechanics-antagonistical power " is employed for propul- 
sion, obtained by helices actuated by steam-engines. (This 
part of the specification is not very clear.) 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1880. No. 4839. 

HIME, Frederick. 
" FLYING MACHINE/' 

Two sets of rods are mounted on axes on either side of a 
suitable framework. The inner ends of these rods are con- 
nected to the cranks situated on a common shaft running 
down the centre of the machine. The rods are covered with 
suitable fabric, and thus form a wing on either side. 

G2 



84 

The cranks are arranged spirally on the shaft, which latter 
in revolving imparts to the wing a wave-like motion, thus 
propelling the machine. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1880. No. 4871. 

STEVENSON,, Robert. (Provisional only.) 

" FLYING MACHINE." 

BODIES are propelled or lifted in the air by a revolving fan, 
which exhausts the atmosphere in front of the machine or 
above same, and thus drives it forwards or upwards. 



A.D. 1881. No. 122. 

MARTIN, Thomas. (Provisional only.) 

" CAPTIVE BALLOON." 

A SMALL balloon without a car is held captive by a rope, and 
kept vertical by guys attached to its major diameter. 

A balloon to carry the passengers has a light tubular guide 
through same, which passQS round the captive rope of the 
small balloon, and the main balloon can be let up or down 
the rope by means of a guide-rope connected to the ground. 

A stop may be provided to prevent the balloon ascending 
too high, and the rope may be marked to indicate the height 
from the ground. An adjustable clip may be employed to 
arrest the balloon at any elevation on the rope. 



A.D. 1881. No. 430. 

CAPEL, Thomas John, and DE LA PAUZE, Alfred. 

(Provisional only.) 

" FLYING MACHINE/' 

THE car or boat is constructed of a framework of light weld- 
less steel tubing, or of bamboo, stayed or trussed together. 



85 

This framing is covered with oiled silk or other suitable 
covering. 

A large aeroplane is balanced on a mast situated in the 
car, and the said aeroplane can be inclined either up or 
down. 

Propellers are mounted on ball-and-socket joints, and can 
thus be employed for steering as well as for propelling. 
The car is mounted on springs connected to wheels, and the 
machine, when started on a level road, rises on the aeroplane 
being inclined upwards. 



A.D. 1881. No. 807. 

WIRTH, Frank. (Communicated by Eduard Goehrung.) 

" NAVIGATING BALLOON." 

A FRAME composed of tubes carries a car and is suspended 
by cords to a balloon. A shaft is mounted horizontally in the 
frame, the outer ends of the shaft being bent at an angle in 
the same direction. Two sleeves are provided on each end 
of the shaft, the said sleeves being connected by bevil wheels 
at the bent portions of the shaft, and being provided with 
discs at their other ends. Four radial arms are attached to 
each disc, the arms on one disc being connected to the corre- 
sponding arms on the adjoining disc by blades, vanes, or 
flexible material. By rotating the sleeves with their discs, 
the arms, rotating on different axes, are close together at. one 
part of their revolution, and far apart at the opposite portion 
of their revolution. 

The larger surface exposed acts more forcibly on the air 
than the smaller surface, and by adjusting the bent shaft the 
larger surface may be made to act in any direction, and so be 
employed to propel or regulate the altitude of the balloon. 

The propellers may be driven at different speeds one to the 
other, and thus be employed for steering the balloon. 

(Drawing.) 



86 



A.D. 1881. No. 1195. 

BREWER, Edward Griffith. ( Communicated 
by Auguste Debayeux.) 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

AN elongated balloon is propelled by rarefying the air in front 
of same. This is done by rotating a fan at the bow of the 
balloon, and any suitable power may be employed. 

Auxiliary fans may be employed for governing the move- 




ments of the balloon, and rudders may be employed for 
steering. 

By this principle of propulsion the balloon is not forced 
against the wind, but a path is opened in same into which 
the balloon passes without resistance. 



A.D. 1881. No. 1710. 

VAUGHAN, George Edward. (Communicated 
by Count Antoine Apraxine.) 

" BALLOONS/' 

BALLOONS are regulated in their altitude without loss of 
ballast or gas by the employment of ballasted or buoyed 
parachutes. These parachutes by being pulled up or down 
relieve the balloon of weight or lessen its lifting power. 

Propellers mounted on vertical axes are also employed for 



87 



a like purpose, and oscillating beams, which are provided 




with vanes to hold the air in one direction of the stroke but 
not in the other, may also be employed. 



A.D. 1881. 



No. 1879. 



HUTCHINSON, William Nelson. 
" BALLOONS." 



THE elevation of balloons is regulated by tightening the 
envelope, and thus compressing the gas. 

The net is extended below the balloon and drawn together 
at the zone by pulleys, thus compressing the balloon. 
Elongated balloons are compressed longitudinally by a rope 
which pulls the balloon together telescopically. 

Various other means are described for compressing bal- 
loons, and vanes may be employed to prevent gyration. 

(Drawings.) 



88 

A.D. 1881. No, 3401. 

JOHNSON, John Henry. (Provisional only. 
Communicated by Gaston Tissandier.) 

" PROPELLING BALLOONS." 

AN elongated balloon is propelled by a screw propeller, driven 
by an electro-dynamic motor, which is supplied with elec- 
tricity from a secondary battery. The electric spark which 
is generated is enclosed by wire netting to prevent danger 
from fire. 

By employing electricity, the weight of the balloon 
remains constant, and the danger of fire which exists in 
propelling balloons by steam is obviated. 



A.D. 1881. No. 3561. 

VAN de KERKHOVE, Auguste Henry, and SNYERS, Theodore. 

" FLYING MACHINE." 

PROPULSION is effected by the impact of fluid on air or water, 
which fluid escapes through an orifice, which is preferably of 
conical form. 

An aeroplane is connected above a long vessel which floats 
on water. By propelling the vessel and setting the aeroplane 
at an angle, the vessel will rise and travel through the air. 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1881. No. 3691. 

BLACKMAN, Albert Livingstone. 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 
AN elongated balloon is provided with one or more propelling 




screws at each side, and a steering-screw situated either fore 
or aft, or at both extremities of the balloon. 



89 
Machinery for changing the direction of the propellers is 




provided, and a governor is employed for keeping the vessel 
on an even keel. 

A framework is provided to keep the balloon rigid, and the 
chimney from the generator passes up through the balloon. 



A.D. 1881. No. 4684. 

KINNEAR, Frederick Constantine. 

" SIGNALLING BALLOONS." 

ELECTRIC or other lamps are attached to a framework below 
a balloon, and such lamps throw light on the surface of the 
balloon for advertising and signalling purposes. 

Electric currents or gas may be conveyed from the ground 
by wires or pipes. In free balloons the electric current is 
supplied from the car. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1881. No. 4887. 

EDWARDS, Edmund. ( Communicated by 

Julio Cezar Ribeiro de Souza.) 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

A TUBULAR framework, attached to the lower part of an 
elongated balloon, carries aeroplanes, a tail, a screw-propeller, 
and a steam-engine for actuating the latter. The steering is 
effected by raising the aeroplanes on one side of the balloon, 
and depressing them on the other side. 
(Drawing.) 



90 



A.D. 1882. 



No. 31. 



LAKE, William Robert. (Communicated by 
Carl Wolfgang Petersen.) 

" BALLOONS/' 

INSTEAD of employing a valve at the top of the balloon, the 
gas is ejected through the neck by compressing the balloon 
by means of a reefing-line. 

An aeroplane is attached between the balloon and the car 
for ascending or descending on an incline; or the balloon may 
be flat at top and bottom to act as an aeroplane for a like 
purpose. Disc-shaped rudders are employed, and several 
flat balloons may be coupled one above the other. 

Gas is generated in a suitable apparatus, situated in the 
boat or car, to compensate for the necessary loss of gas from 
the balloon. 

An indicator shows the inclination of the vessel, and a 
train of air-ships may be coupled together. 

{Drawing.) 



A.D. 1882. No. 34. 

SMYTHIES, John Kinnersley. 

" FLYING MACHINE." 
Two wings are fulcrumed to the sides of a light steam 




carriage, and these wings are flapped up and down by the 
action of a steam-cylinder. 



V 



91 

Benzoline vapour is burnt to generate steam in a multi- 
tubular boiler. 




A.D. 1882. No. 1229. 

LAKE, Arthur Wellesley. (Communicated ~by 
Thaddeus Hyatt.) 

" FLYING MACHINE/' 

A FLYING machine is described in which a rotary fan is 
mounted in the bow, and two small fans are mounted on 
either side. 

The blades of these fans, which are made of hollow 
hardened rubber frame-pieces covered with silk, propel and 
support the machine without the aid of a balloon or other 
supporting surface. 

This invention is based on a law of flight discovered by the 
inventor. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1882. No. 1737. 

BOTILT, Alfred Julius. (Provisional only. 
Communicated by Jules Jouanique.) 

" BALLOON." 

THE balloon, which is preferably constructed of aluminium, is 
stated to be made in three parts, though two only, the upper 
and the lower, are described. The upper part is somewhat 
smaller than the lower part, and these two parts are held 



92 

together by a gallery or framework. The lower part carries 
a deck, which supports all the appliances required for a 
journey. 

By filling the upper part with gas, the balloon will ascend ; 
and by pumping gas from the upper to the lower part, the 
balloon will descend. 

A rudder is provided for directing the balloon, but the 
inventor does not state how this operation is performed, 
except that the rudder is to be revolved. 



A.D. 1882. No. 1772. 

WILE.INS, Frederick. (Provisional refused.} 

11 BALLOONS.'-' 

TRAINS of balloons, cigar, fish, kite, cylindrical, and other 
shaped, are mentioned ; which may be propelled by fins, 
wings, paddles, or be pulled by horses. 

Numbers of other vague improvements are suggested, 
not particularly described. 



A.D. 1882. No. 2509. 

BOULT, Alfred Julius. (Provisional only. 
Communicated by Adolph Werner.) 

" BALLOONS." 

BELLOWS-LIKE balloons are attached to a board, and a number 
of brackets attached to the underside of the board carry 
shafts with propellers. 

Parachute wings and additional propeller-shafts are men- 
tioned, but the invention is not very particularly described. 



A.D. 1882. No. 4098. 

FISHER, Joseph Alfred, and SPENCER, Charles Green. 

" FIRE BALLOONS." 
THE lower part of a hot-air balloon is made of asbestos, and the 



93 

upper part is made fire-proof by the application of a solution 
of silicate of soda, tungstate of soda, or by asbestos paint. 




A.D. 1882. No. 4387. 

GREEN, Upfield. (Provisional only.) 

" BALLOON KAIL WAY." 

BALLOONS and aeroplanes are to be drawn along by means of 
a drum, which takes up a rope, situated on the ground, as the 
machine travels along. 



A.D. 1882. No. 4585. 

MAUGHAN, Benjamin Waddy, and WADDY, Samuel Banks. 

" PROPELLER." 

A PROPELLEE, which can be employed for aerial navigation, 
has its blades adjustable in such a manner that they may be 
adjusted in pitch whilst the propeller is in motion. 

The surface of the blades, which are concave in form, may 
be roughened to increase their efficiency. 

(Drawings.) 




A.D. 1882. No. 4954. 

TEMPLER, James. (Communicated by Henry Elsdale.) 

" BALLOON PHOTOGRAPHY/' 

SMALL balloons are employed to support a photographic 
camera for taking views of ground below the balloon. When 



94 

the balloon is held captive, an electric current may be 
employed to effect the exposure of the plate ; when the 
balloon is free an automatic apparatus is employed. 



A,D. 1882. No. 5251. 

JENSEN, Peter. (Provisional only. Communicated 
by Gustav Koch.) 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

FEATHERING paddle-wheels are arranged in recesses in a 
cigar-shaped balloon, the said paddle-wheels being capable of 
revolving at different speeds for steering purposes. 

A number of suggestions are made which are not particu- 
larly described. 



A.D. 1883. No. 518. 

LAKE, William Eobert. (Provisional only. Communicated 
by Eugene F. Falconnet.) 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

THE balloon, which is elongated in form and divided into 
chambers, is constructed of a metal framework covered with 
a thin metal or other suitable covering. Screw propellers, 
situated on the sides and also aft, are employed for propelling 
the balloon, and a screw is provided at the bow for steering 
purposes. 

The internal frame of the balloon is strengthened by braces, 
trusses, and girders. 



A.D. 1883. No. 1552. 

MAUGHAN, Benjamin Waddy, and WADDY, Samuel Banks. 

" FLYING MACHINE AND MOTOR." 

AN engine is described which derives its power from the 
combustion of solid, liquid, or gaseous explosives, the said 



95 

engine being of very light construction compared with the 
power developed. 

Two discs or wheels mounted on the same centre are made 
to rotate in contrary directions by the force of explosions 
acting between abutments on one wheel and valves on the 
adjacent wheel. By causing a number of explosions to take 
place during each revolution a steady power is obtained. 

Two or more machines are employed for feeding and firing 
the explosive, which latter may be composed of a chain of 
gunpowder-cylinders, one cylinder being exploded at a 
time. 

A flying machine is described having four vertically 
mounted propellers, two of which are driven in one direction 
by one wheel of the motor, and the two other propellers are 
driven in the contrary direction by the second wheel of the 
motor. 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1883. No. 1824. 

DE TELESCHEFF, Nicolas. 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOONS." 

AN elongated balloon is made with a longitudinal channel 
through same from end to end. This channel decreases in 
size at about the centre of the balloon, and thus the resistance 
encountered in front of the balloon is utilized to assist in 
propelling same, by the expansion of the air in the rear half 
of the channel. 
(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1883. No. 2264. 

SJOSTROM, PER. (Provisional refused.) 

" FLYING MACHINE." 
THIS machine is not very clearly described, and the inventor 



96 

proposes to use many appliances, which, however, he does not 
particularly describe. 

Screws made of frames covered with canvas are employed, 
and the blades of these screws can be varied in pitch. 



A.D. 1883. No. 2715. 

WELLNER, Georg. 

" BALLOON." 

A BALLOON is made in a wedge form and provided with a neck 
on its lower side. A stove is provided in the car attached to 
the neck of the balloon, by which means the temperature may 
be regulated for ascending or descending. 

The balloon takes an inclined force by reason of its angular 
form acting on the air in the ascent or descent. 

A rudder is employed for steering. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1883. No. 4055. 

IMRAY, Harold. ( Communicated by Edouard Oppikofer.} 

" PROPELLING AERIAL MACHINES." 

THE propelling force of the momentum of a moving body is 
employed in aerial machines, such propelling force not taking 
its point resistance from the outside air. 

-The apparatus can be driven by steam or other power, 
which reciprocates the weight backwards and forwards. 
(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1884. No. 7. 

SMYTHIES, John Kinnersley. 

" FLYING MACHINE." 

THIS machine is of the type previously patented by the same 
inventor, in which two wings are flapped up and down by 
the piston-rod of a steam-cylinder. 



97 

The wings may have a rigid front edffe and a flexible back 
edge, and they are arranged to hold the air on the down 
stroke, but not on the up stroke. This may be accomplished 
by shortening the wing, or allowing the air to pass through 
the wing, or deflecting the wing at an angle of 30 or 40 
during the up stroke, and allowing the said wing to return to 
its normal position and hold the air during the down stroke. 

A large tail may be employed to steady the machine, and 
if made double-skinned, it may be used as a condenser to con- 
dense the exhaust steam. The machine is guided by the 
aeronaut changing his position and thus altering the centre 
of gravity. 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1884. No. 2057. 

LAKE, William Robert. ( Communicated by Francois 
Folacci and Paul Berlin.) 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

A GIRDER is suspended by means of a net from an elongated 
balloon, the ends of the girder being turned up and connected 
to the ends of the balloon. 




Screw propellers rotate in cylindical casings situated in the 
girder, and a fan, which is mounted on a universal joint at 
the stern of the balloon, directs a current of air against an 
adjacent surface. 



98 

The said fan, it is stated, assists in propelling the balloon 
and the steering is effected by a double rudder operated by 
steering-cords. 



A.D. 1884. No. 2339. 

CtUARTERMAIN, William. 

" FLYING MACHINE." 

A FLYING machine is actuated by a motor in which the power 
of gases generated from vegetable products is employed; 
thus dispensing with the weight of a separate generator. 

Wings are actuated by cranks and connecting-rods to a 
crank-shaft, and are feathered on their up stroke, when they 
also propel the machine forward. 

(Drawings?) 



A.D. 1884. No. 2469. 

HADDAN, Herbert John. (Communicated ~by Otto Hartung.) 

"NAVIGABLE BALLOONS." 

A LIGHT frame carrying the propelling screws is suspended 
from an elongated balloon, and the propeller-shafts being 
adjustable allow the propellers to steer as well as propel the 
balloon. - 

A pair of propellers are mounted on vertical axes, and turn- 
tables or wheel- tracks are employed for altering the position 
of the propeller-shafts. 

The propeller-blades are stayed with wires to prevent their 
lateral deflection. 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1884. No. 2589. 

CORNELIUS, William. 

" FLYING MACHINE " 
Two wings are fulcrumed on the free ends of a U-shaped 



99 

frame, and a seat is provided within the frame for the aero- 
naut, whilst he actuates the wings hy handles attached to the 
inner ends of their rods. 




A hinged tail of an inverted trough form is attached to the 
rear of the frame, and may be actuated by cords attached to 
the feet of the aeronaut. 



A.D. 1884. No. 2628. 

SALMAN, Serkis-Bey. 
" NAVIGABLE BALLOON AND PABACHUTE." 

A FLAT balloon is caused to travel on inclined planes in ascend- 
ing and descending. The underpart of the balloon is made 
with an umbrella frame, and may be employed as a parachute 
without the rest of the balloon. 

A rudder is employed for steering. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1884. 



No. 2879. 



DUFF, Robert Low. 

" CAPTIVE WAR BALLOONS." 

CAPTIVE war balloons are employed for attacking and defend- 
ing fortifications and the like, projectiles and explosive bombs 

H2 



100 

being conveyed up to the balloon by a rope and discharged 
on to the hostile force. 
(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1884. No. 5621. 

WIETH, Frank. (Communicated by Eduard Gohrung.) 

" PROPELLER." 

A PROPELLER for aerial navigation is composed of a paddle- 
wheel having four blades mounted on a shaft, the said blades 
being partly enclosed by a casing. 
(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1884. No. 11301. 

GOWEE, Frederic Allen. 

" WAR BALLOON." 

THE valve at the top of a balloon is connected to a valve in a 
ballast-tank by a wire in such a manner as to automatically 
discharge gas or ballast in order to keep the balloon at a 
predetermined altitude. 

An explosive agent is released at a given time from the 
balloon by the burning of a fuse. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1884. No. 11994. 

HILFREICH, Francis. 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

AN elongated balloon is provided with two cars, which are 
connected together by means of a gangway. 

Feathering paddles are attached to each car, the said paddles 
being constructed of a rod having a blade at either end at 
right angles one to the other. 



101 { \'^ ; ;~V J ^; 

These paddles are caused to revolve and also to turn on 




their axes ; and the steering is effected by rotating the paddles 
at different speeds. 



A.D. 1884. No. 12503. 

SMART, George Edward. 

" PROPELLERS." 

PROPELLERS with hinged blades or wings are employed for 
aerial machines, the blades opening out during the power 
stroke and contracting during the return stroke. 
(Drawings.} 



A.D. 1884. No. 13768. 

PHILLIPS, Horatio Frederick. 
<l BLADES FOR DEFLECTING AIR." 

BLADES having curved surfaces are employed to deflect 
upward the air that comes in contact with their forward edges. 



< c 



A vacuum is formed over the blades, thus aiding the air 
below to support the weight. 



^c.{/* JA\^ : 102 

A.D. 1884. No. 14038. 

ARMOUR, James. 
" FLYING MACHINE/' 

PAIRS of wings are hinged to a spring blade and actuated by 
manual power, each pair of wings consisting of a main wing 
and a supplementary wing, all of which are adjustable. 

A wheel-frame is provided at the lower part of the machine^ 
and by running the machine down hill whilst actuating suitable 
treadles the machine is caused to rise by reason of the flap- 
ping motion of the wings. 

Several pairs of wings may be employed in one machine, 
and steam or other power may be employed instead of manual 
power. 

{Drawings.} 



A.D. 1884. No. 15023. 

BOULT, Alfred Julius. (Communicated by Alplwnse Aubrde.) 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 
Two pear-shaped balloons are connected together by a car 




containing the motive power, and the propelling is performed 
by oars and a screw. 

A rudder is employed for steering. 



103 

A.D. 1885. No. 1549. 

LAKE, William Robert. (Communicated ly Eugene F. 
Falconnet.) 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

THE "frame, gas-field, hull, and cabin" of an elongated 
cylindrical air-vessel is constructed of one general frame of 
metal jointed and braced together. Cross-girders, bulk- 
heads, posts, and braces are employed in the construction of 
the frame. 

The buoyancy of the air-ship is regulated by means of an 
air-sack situated in the gas-holder, and the vessel is covered 
with a roof provided with gutters and spouts, to protect it from 
the elements. 

" Wheel-houses " carry the propelling-screws, and a vertical 
screw regulates the altitude of the machine. Fin-shaped 
rudders are used for steering, and adjustable fans are employed 
as sails when the wind is fair. 

This complicated specification has 71 claims, and the draw- 
ings contain 85 figures. 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1885. No. 4618. 

CLARK, Alexander Melville. (Communicated by Moses 
Liberia Stilwell jBuckner.) 

" WAR BALLOONS." 

EXPLOSIVES are suspended to a frame attached to a balloon, 
and clock-work or other means is provided for releasing the 
explosives at a predetermined time. 

The balloon may be allowed to drift, or be propelled over 
the hostile force, when the explosives are released as above 
stated. 

(Drawing.) 



104 



A.D. 1885. 



No. 5118. 



HENDERSON, Arthur Charles. (Communicated ly Blaise 
B. Bontems.) 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOONS." 

WINGS are attached to a frame situated between a balloon 
and its car, the said wings being worked by a hand-lever. 

The motions of the wings are intended to imitate those of 
birds, and auxiliary mechanical birds may be actuated at the 
sides of the car. 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1885. No. 5854. 

BRUCE, Eric Stuart. 

" BALLOON SIGNALLING." 

ONE or more incandescence lamps are suspended within a 




balloon, and an electric current is supplied to the lamps by a 



105 

conductor on the captive rope. By alternately breaking and 
connecting the circuit the balloon is illuminated by flashes of 
any required duration, or the balloon may be illuminated 
continuously. 



A.D. 1885. No. 7727. 

BATE, Henry. 
" BALLOON BAIL WAY." 

ELONGATED balloons are employed with a travelling endless 
rope in a balloon railway. 
(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1885. No. 8567. 

HUTCHINSON, William Nelson. 

" TESTING SCREW PROPELLERS." 

A MACHINE is described for gauging the push of screw 
propellers intended for aerial propulsion. 

The screw to be tested is mounted on a horizontal shaft, 
which shaft is provided at its end with a spring indicator. 

(Drawing.) 



I 

( 



A.D. 1885. No. 9193. 

OWEN, Richard George. 

" FLYING MACHINE." 

A FRAMEWORK is provided with a seat, and two propellers, 
mounted on vertical axes at the upper part of the framework, 



106 

are rotated by treadles actuated by the person riding the 
machine. 



A.D. 1885. No. 9472. 

AUSTIN, Charles Edward, and BURCHELL, William. 

" PROPELLING BALLOONS." 

A CASING or tube is attached longitudinally to an elongated 
balloon, and within the tube a sheet of pliable elastic material 
is placed, and receives a reciprocal movement. In this manner 
the air is drawn in at one end of the tube and forced out at 
the other, thus propelling the balloon. 
(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1885. No. 9585. 

PRESTWICH, William Henry. 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOONS." 

AN elongated balloon is propelled by means of a pair of 
feathering paddles, which are similar in construction to those 
described in specification No. 11994, A.D. 1884. 

By attaching the balloon out of centre to a horizontal bar 
forming the frame below the balloon, gyration is avoided. 



107 

The direction of the paddles may be changed for the 
purpose of steering, and a rudder is employed for the same 
purpose. 

"Lappets/' or parachute-like wings, are attached to the 
sides of the balloon to prevent a rapid descent in case of 
accident. 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1885. No. 11158. 

WINKLER, August. 
" NAVIGABLE BALLOON.-" 

A BALLOON is propelled by the action of escaping jets of fluid, 
which exhaust the air in front of an umbrella-like surface. 
This surface, which is attached to the car, is drawn forward 
towards the vacuum, and the balloon may be steered by alter- 
ing the direction of this propelling-apparatus. 
(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1885. No. 14827. 

LAKE, William Robert. ( Communicated by 
Eugene F. Falconnet.) 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOONS." 

THIS specification describes the construction of elongated 
navigable balloons, in which a metal frame is employed within 
the aerostat. The balloons are propelled and steered by screws, 
and the interiors of the balloons are subdivided into several 
gas-tight compartments. 
(Drawings.) 



108 

A.D. 1885. No. 15627. 

ARCHIBALD, Edmund Douglas. 

" KITE-BALLOON." 
A KITE is employed in combination with a captive balloon, 




whereby ascents may suitably be made in windy weather. 



A.D. 1886. 



No. 1821. 



YBARGOITIA, Felipe Modet e. 
" BALLOON KAIL WAY." 

A BALLOON is attached to a pair of wheels running between 
two pairs of rails, situated on the ground or anchored in 
water. 

The rope is connected to a winch in the car of the balloon, 
and springs are employed on the rope to prevent jars of the 
balloon being communicated to the rails. 

(Drawings.) 



109 

A.D. 1886. No. 1830. 

WAELDE, Jacob. 

" FLYING MACHINE." 

A FLYING machine is propelled by a pair of revolving frames, 
which carry feathering paddles. A rudder is employed for 
steering, and the machine may be actuated by an electric 
motor, the electric current being supplied from a stationary 
dynamo-electric machine on the ground. 
(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1886. No. 7015. 

REDFERN, George Frederick. (Communicated by Joseph 
Symonds Foster.) 

" FLYING MACHINE." 

A SEAT is attached to a frame carrying a wheel, pedals, and 
two vertical screw propellers. The aeronaut rotates the 
propellers by means of the pedals, and thus causes the machine 
to fly. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1886. No. 7837. 

MOLESWORTH-HEPWORTH, Edward Newall. 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

A LONGITUDINAL spar is suspended by a net to an elongated 
balloon, which latter may be subdivided or composed of a 
number of small balloons enclosed in an outer envelope. 

The car is suspended by rods which hang fulcrumed to the 
centre of the longitudinal spar, and by means of cords, which 
connect the car to the extremities of the spar, the said car can 
be adjusted in position and so change the horizontal position 
of the balloon. An aeroplane is attached to the spar, and the 
balloon is propelled by a propeller actuated by the feet of the 



110 

passenger. Air is pumped into an elastic reservoir situated 
in the balloon, or allowed to escape in order to keep a 
uniform tension. 
(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1886. No. 8051. 

HUTCHINSON, William Nelson. 

"NAVIGABLE BALLOONS." 

ELONGATED balloons are provided with a tube or bar running 
the full length of the balloon and along the lower surface. 
By means of weights and springs this tube or bar is employed 
to compress the balloon for the purpose of keeping the surface 
smooth or to cause a rapid descent. 
(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1886. No. 9452. 

CLARK, Alexander Melville. (Communicated by Amedee 
Mathurin Gabriel Sebillot.) 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

AN elongated balloon is built of metal, and is propelled by a 
screw, which is actuated by a steam-motor. The heat from 
the smoke-stacks of the steam-generators is fed into the 
balloon for the purpose of dilating the air within the balloon, 
and thus dispensing with hydrogen or other gas. 

The balloon is constructed with an inner frame of nickel- 
plated steel, covered with a strong envelope composed of two 
sheets of asbestos with wire netting between. The balloon 
may be divided into compartments, each of which may be 
kept at any required temperature. 

(Drawings.) 



Ill 



A.D. 1886. 



No. 13901. 



LEMMON, Sydney. 
" AERIAL MACHINE." 

AN aerial machine is described which may be also operated 
on land or water. It is supported in the air by " balloons or 
air-vessels/' and propelled by paddles worked by foot-power. 

Shells may be dropped on the enemy, when an extra balloon 
would be attached to support the weight of the shell. 

(Dr airing.) 



A.D. 1887. 



No. 316. 



HADDAN, Herbert John. (Communicated ly 
Arthur de Bausset.} 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON/' 

AN elongated balloon of cylindrical form with pointed ends 
is constructed of solid steel plates, and is preferably about 
414 feet long. The lifting power is obtained by producing a 
vacuum in the balloon, and the propulsion is obtained by 




ejecting air against the atmosphere. Aeroplanes are provided 
on either side, and the car is suspended in such a manner 
that it may be adjusted longitudinally below the balloon. 



A.D. 1887. 



No. 5644. 



HUTCHINSON, William Nelson. 
" PROPELLING BALLOONS." 

A ROTARY 'blowing-engine is employed to project a jet of air 
from a nozzle for the purpose of propelling balloons. 



112 

By adjusting the jet the balloon may be steered in any 
direction. 
(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1887. No. 8182. 

JOHNSON, James Yate. (Communicated by 
Alexandre Ciurcu.) 

" JET PKOPULSION." 

A COMPOUND consisting of nitrate of ammonia, petroleum, and 
charcoal is burnt within a closed vessel, contained in the car 
of the balloon. The gas formed by this combustion is per- 
mitted to escape through a suitable orifice, and thus propel 
the balloon in a contrary direction to the escape of the jet. 
(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1887. No. 8255. 

GUSTAFSON, Wald. 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

AN elongated balloon supports a framework carrying a pro- 




peller which is actuated by the aeronaut. The propeller may 



113 

be adjusted in position in order to propel or regulate the 
altitude of the balloon. 

Other power may be employed, and any number of persons 
may assist in propelling the balloon. 



A.D. 1887. No. 8386. 

RIBEIRO, Joaquim Ignacio. 
" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

Two pairs of paddles actuated by the aeronaut are employed 
for propelling an elongated balloon, the paddles being set at 
right angles to each other and made to alternately feather and 
hold the air. This action may be adjusted so that they tend 
to propel the balloon up or down, or backwards or forwards. 

Two side aeroplanes, a tail, and a number of louvre flaps 
are employed to steady the balloon, and the side aeroplanes 
may be folded like fans. 

An adjustable weight is employed for trimming the balloon. 

(Drawing.} 



A.D. 1887. No. 9665, 

NORMAN, John James. 
" INFLATING FIRE-BALLOONS." 

LIQUID or gaseous fuel is fed, under pressure, to burners 
situated within a hood ; it is then burnt, and the products of 
combustion are fed through a pipe having a flexible joint to 
the interior of a balloon. 

The burner can also be suspended to the mouth of the 
balloon, and be employed during ascents, when a curtain is 
employed to confine the ascending heat. 

(Drawing.) 



114 



A.D. 1887. No. 11941. 

THOMPSON, William Phillips. (Communicated by 
George C. Baker.) 

" PROPELLING AND REGULATING." 

A PROPELLER is mounted on an adjustable arm in such a 
manner that it may he caused to act in any direction. 

The propeller is rotated from a main driving-shaft by means 
of bevel gearing. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1887. No. 15567. 

LANE, Howard. 
" MAKING BALLOONS/' 

MATERIAL for making balloons is shaped to the desired form 
by means of a spindle having tapering extremities. The 




spindle is supported on anti-friction wheels, and the material 
is spread on the spindle whilst it is being rotated. 



A.D. 1888. No. 508. 

PARKINSON, George Seaborn. 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

AN elongated balloon is propelled by the reaction of three 
jets of air, which are ejected from trumpet-shaped mouths 
situated at the stern and on either side of the balloon. 



115 
The air is forced through the mouths by means of a fan 




or blower, which is actuated by the aeronaut or by a suitable 
motor. 



A.D. 1888. 



No. 4552. 



APRAXIN, Count Anton. 
" BALLOON BAIL WAY." 

AN endless rope passes round pulleys situated on either side 
of a ravine or river, and the rope is made to travel by actuating 
the pulleys. Two or more balloons are attached to the rope 
by rigid rods, and the balloons support the weight to be 
transported. 
(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1888. 



No. 5742. 



GAGGING, Giovanni. 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOONS." 

THE ascending or descending force of an elongated balloon is 
employed to cause it to ascend or descend forward on an 
inclined plane. 



116 

An aeroplane is attached to the zone of the balloon, and 
rudders are provided for steering horizontally or vertically. 

A balance-weight is suspended below the balloon to regulate 
the angle of its inclination. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1888. 



No. 9448. 



BEUGGER, John. 

"NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

THE balloon has preferably the shape of a biconvex lens, and 
is distended by an internal frame composed of A-shaped rods. 
The car carries two propellers, which are actuated by two 
motors, and by driving the propellers at varying speeds the 
balloon may be guided to the right or left, or the steering may 
be performed by a rudder. 




The vertical direction of the balloon is regulated by an 
adjustable weight, or by increasing or decreasing the speed of 
the propellers. 

The lifting-power of the balloon alone is not sufficient to 
cause an ascent, so that it is only when the propellers force 
the machine ahead, causing the balloon to act as an aeroplane, 
that flight can be accomplished. 



117 

A.D. 1888. No. 9725. 

MIDDLETON, Henry. 

" FLYING MACHINE." 

A PAIR of wings, which are preferably concave on their under 
surface, are flapped up and down by the piston of a cylinder 
which is actuated by steam or other power. 

The wings are composed of elastic ribs attached to a main 
rod, which latter is fulcrumed to a link attached to the cylinder, 
and its inner end is connected to the end of the piston-rod. 

The wings are made to turn on the rods in order to feather 
in the air. 

Modifications are shown, but the construction of all the 
details is not fully described. 

(Drawings.} 



A.D. 1888. No. 10937. 

FABINI, Guillermo Antonio, and BALDWIN, Thomas Scott. 

" PARACHUTE." 




A FLEXIBLE parachute is made mushroom-shaped with a hole 
at the top for the passage of air. 



118 

Cords are sewn on the seams, and a cord is also sewn round 
the lower edge of the parachute. 



A.D. 1888. No. 11354. 

LORRAIN, James Grieve. 
" ELECTRICAL PROPULSION." 

ELECTRO- STATIC motors, which influence machines of the 
" Wimshurst" type, are employed for propelling aerial vessels, 
and the electricity is supplied from a primary battery consisting 
of a large number of small cells. 

In cases where the electro-motor is on a captive balloon, 
the current may be conveyed from apparatus on the earth. 

A screw which is employed for propelling may also steer 
the machine. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1888. No. 12736. 

HILFREICH, Francis. 
" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

THIS specification describes a balloon which is substantially 
identical with the one described in specification No. 11994 
A.D. 1884, by the same inventor. 

Screw propellers are mounted at the front of the cars to 
facilitate ascending and descending. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1888. No. 14610. 

MONTEITH, Joseph. 
" BALLOON RAILWAY." 

ELONGATED balloons are provided with an electric motor for 
actuating screws for propelling and regulating the altitude. 



119 

Electricity is supplied from a carriage running on an in- 
sulated railway-track, the current passing through the rails. 
Several arrangements of propellers and balloons are shown. 




A.D. 1889. No. 47. 

WORMS, James. 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

AN aeroplane is attached to the underside of an elongated 




balloon, the connecting-cords being continued down to support 



120 

the car. A motor is provided in the car for actuating a pair 
of wings, and a weight is adjusted below the aeroplane to 
regulate the angle of the balloon. 

The ascent is effected by working the wings, and a forward 
motion is obtained by placing the weight in front of the 
apparatus, thus causing the descent to be made on an inclined 
plane. 

By moving the weight to one side the machine may be 
steered horizontally. 



A.D. 1889. No. 1671. 

EDWARDS, Edmund. (Communicated by Jean 
Joseph Gloton.) 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

AN elongated balloon of the form of a haystack is constructed 
of metal plates rivetted and soldered together. 

Vertical screws are employed for regulating the altitude, 
and a horizontal screw is mounted at the stern for propelling. 
Two rudders are pivotted in the stern for steering purposes. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1889. No. 3360. 

CRAIG, John. 

" FLYING MACHINE." 

A FRAMEWOEK of wood or of metal tubing is covered with cloth ; 
above this framework two propellers are mounted on vertical 
axes, and naphtha turbines are mounted below the frame for 
driving the propellers. 

No mechanism is provided for horizontal propulsion, though 
a rudder is shown for steering the machine. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1889. 



No. 3957. 



121 

BASTAED, William John. 
" NAVIGABLE BALLOON. 

THE balloon, which is elongated in form, is contained in a 
frame consisting of upper and lower longitudinal rods and 
circumferential ribs. The interior of the balloon is subdivided, 
and an elastic pocket is provided below for the reception of 
the overflow gas. 

Two propellers are mounted on either side for propelling 
the balloon, and these propellers are actuated by the aeronauts, 
and may be partly worked by wind-fans mounted at the top 
of the balloon. 

Rudders are mounted at the bow and stern for steering 
purposes, and a line connects these two rudders in such a 
manner that they may be actuated simultaneously. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1889. 



DALE, William Buncombe. 

" BALLOON PARACHUTE." 



No. 4301, 




VALVES are fitted at the neck and at the top of a balloon, 



122 

Two guide-cords descend through the balloon from the top 
valve to the ring, and the lower valve is free to travel on these 
guide-cords. The upper valve is constructed of netting, 
covered with gas-proof material, and by pulling the above- 
mentioned material away the gas escapes, and the force of 
air caused by the rapid descent causes the lower part of the 
balloon to rise inside the upper part, and thus form a parachute. 



A.D. 1889. No. 4811. 

RIECKERT, Herman August Julius, and RIECKERT, Albert 
Emil Karl. 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

AN elongated balloon is composed of three compartments, 
situated one above the other, the lower compartment being 
strengthened by a strong wooden framework. The second 
compartment is attached to the upper surface of the lower 
one, and the third compartment is situated above the second 
and shifts its position according to the direction of the wind. 




A fan or propeller is driven by treadle mechanism, and the 
passengers are provided with seats within a closed car. Four 
boats are carried below the car for supporting the apparatus 
should a descent be made on water. 



123 



A.D. 1889. No. 6419. 

CHAMBERS, Jesse Mary. 

" PROPELLING BALLOONS." 

BALLOONS are to be propelled by the reaction of jets of air 
which are forced by means of two pairs of bellows attached 
to the sides of the car. 

The sides of the bellows may act as wings, and by adjusting 
the said bellows the balloon may be propelled in any direction. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1889. No. 7427. 

ZIMER, Frederick William. 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

AN elongated balloon having a concave under surface is pro- 
pelled by a screw propeller actuated by treadle mechanism. 

The underside of the balloon is made rigid by means of 
metal tubing, and the upper part of the balloon is kept to the 
required shape by thin bands of steel ribbon. The fabric of 
the balloon is held down onto the frame by means of cords, 
and by loosening these cords the fabric forms a parachute. 




The car, which is elongated and very deep, is mounted on 
a keel attached to the underside of the balloon, on which keel 
it is free to slide, the centre of gravity of the balloon being 
thus adjusted. 



124 

The propeller-blades are composed of tubular framework 
covered with canvas, and the steering is effected by means of 
rudders. 



A.D. 1889. No. 11108. 

ROBINSON, George. 

" AERIAL MACHINE." 

A RECTANGULAR box has gas-bags attached to two of its sides 
and " hinged elevators " attached to its ends. 

A gas-engine in the box rotates two shafts having screw 
propellers at both ends. 

This specification is very vague, the utility of several parts 
not being described. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1889. No. 12320. 

THAYER, David. 

" KITES." 

A NUMBER of kites, with or without balloons attached at the 
rear of same, are employed for elevating passengers, &c., in 
the air, and also for towing vessels over land or water. Con- 
trolling lines are connected to the sides of the kites in order 
to control the direction of the kites as may be required. 

By connecting a balloon to the upper part of a kite the 
failure of wind will not cause it to descend. 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1889. No. 13207. 

DAVIDSON, George Louis Outrani. 

" AERIAL MACHINE." 
AN elongated balloon is attached above a ' body surface," to 



125 



which latter the car is attached, and to which two wings and 
bow and stern rudders are pivotted. 

The " power of the attraction of the earth " is employed as 
a means of propulsion. 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1889. No. 14737. 

OTTO, Edward Charles Frederick, and OTTO, Edward Charles 
Frederick (Junior). 

" NAVIGATING BALLOONS AND FLYING MACHINES." 

BALLOONS and flying machines are to be propelled and sus- 
tained, partially or wholly so, by three distinct arrangements of 
mechanism. 

1. By employing feathering paddles, which are made to 
revolve and only hold the air on one quarter of their revolution. 
The paddles, of which there are four in each set, are con- 
structed on the principle described in the abridgement of 
No. 11994, A.D. 1884, and by rotating the sets of paddles at 
varying speeds the direction of the balloon may be varied. 

Mr. Otto, who is the inventor of the bicycle which bears his 
name, seems to have embodied some of the details of his 
bicycle invention in this specification on aeronautics. 

2. The second arrangement describes a pair of wings which 
are actuated by the direct action of a piston-rod, the said wings 
cleaving the air when moving upwards and forwards, and 
employing their full acting surface in the downward motion. 

3. The third propelling arrangement consists of a chamber 
having its rear end open to the atmosphere, through which 
opening periodical sudden discharges of steam are forced. 

The car is adjustable longitudinally below the balloon, and 
side aeroplanes are employed either with or without a balloon. 
(Drawings.) 



126 



A.D. 1889. 



No. 16883. 



MAXIM, Hiram Stevens. 
" FLYING MACHINE." 

THE object of this invention is to construct a flying machine 
having great power, effectually expended ; and every part of 
the machine is constructed as lightly as possible, consistent 
with the necessary strength. 




An aeroplane, composed of tubes covered with fabric, is 
pivotted to the main frame in such a manner that it may be 
adjusted, up or down, to any required angle. 

Two propellers, constructed of spokes covered with silk, 
are mounted side by side on the frame below the aeroplane, 



127 

and by driving these propellers at varying speeds the machine 
may be steered to the right or left. 

The propellers are driven by separate engines, supplied with 
steam from a boiler composed of comparatively large tubes 
connected together by tubes of very small diameter, thus 
giving a large heating surface ; and the heating of such 
boiler is effected by the combustion of vaporized hydrocarbon. 

A condenser, composed of flat tubes, is situated in the 
aeroplane, or the aeroplane may act as a condenser itself if 
constructed of two skins ; thus the necessity of carrying a 
large quantity of water for the boiler is obviated, as by means 
of the condenser the water may be used over and over again. 

The speed of the engines may be regulated by barometric 
means, thus enabling the machine to be kept at any required 
altitude, as by increasing the speed of the propellers the 
machine will rise, and by decreasing the speed the machine 
will descend. 

The machine is started on rails, one pair of rails being 
below the wheels and another pair a short distance above them. 
By running the machine along, it can be noticed whether the 
wheels run in contact with the upper or the lower pair of rails, 
and the required inclination of the aeroplane may thus be 
ascertained before the apparatus rises in the air. 

A modification of the invention is described, in which the 
aeroplane is fixed to the main frame, and auxiliary aeroplanes 
are pivotted at the bow and stern for the purpose of steering 
the apparatus vertically. 

The framework of the machine is built of steel tubes, 
trussed together, with the object of gaining the greatest amount 
of strength with the smallest expenditure of weight. 

There are 35 claims and 12 sheets of drawings to this 
specification. 



A.D. 1889. No. 18952. 

HOWSON, William. 

" WAR BALLOONS." 
BALLOONS are employed for conveying and automatically dis- 



128 

charging shells of either illuminating, asphyxiating, or ex- 
plosive capacity. The shells on being discharged allow of 
an escape of gas from the balloon by actuating a valve by 
means of a connecting-cord. 

A telescopic valve is described, as well as various construc- 
tions of shells and means for discharging same. 

Shells may be conveyed on the captive rope of a balloon 
by means of auxiliary balloons, and torpedoes may be employed 
in conjunction with balloons. 

Various warlike manoeuvres are described. 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1889. No. 19209. 

TIELKE-ALLAN, Francis Henrick. 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

THIS inventor has adopted the plan described in specification 
No. 2154, A.D. 1856, in which the balloon is provided with a 
helical worm or blades, and by rotating the balloon it forms 
its own propeller. 

In the particular arrangement described, two horizontal 
balloons are mounted on a shaft, and the car is suspended 
from the centre of the shaft between the balloons. The 
balloons are rotated by gearing from the car, and they may 
be subdivided into compartments. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1890. No. 4647. 

RADOTINSKY, Josef. 

" BALLOON." 

BALLOONS are made in two chambers, the upper one, which 
is in the shape of an inverted heart, being made of the 
ordinary fabric, and the lower chamber being constructed of 



129 

aluminium, so as to form a rigid case. By pumping gas 
from the upper chamber into the lower one, the balloon is 
caused to descend, whilst by allowing gas to return to the 
upper chamber an ascent is effected. A cord which is attached 




to the upper part of the balloon is drawn down when the gas 
is being withdrawn, for the purpose of preventing damage 
being caused to the balloon whilst making the descent. 

A rudder is provided for steering, and a propeller is also 
shown, though no particular means for actuating same is 
described. 



A.D. 1890. 



No. 5404. 



GREY, Ernest Howard. 
" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

THE balloon is constructed of a framework of wire or bamboo, 
covered with silk, and the interior is divided into separate 
compartments. 



130 
A frame which is attached to the balloon carries a saddle, 




treadle mechanism, and a propeller, and the aeronaut is thus 
enabled to propel the balloon. 



A.D. 1890. 



No. 8816, 



HARRIS, Henry Marmaduke. 
" AERIAL MACHINE/' 

THIS machine is built in the shape of a boat, and compart- 
ments are provided at the bow and stern for containing gas. 

A blast is blown through a funnel, which being adjustable 
enables the vessel to be steered. A balloon is fastened to the 
vessel to assist and control the ascent and descent. 

(Drawing.) 



A D. 1890. 



No. 11455. 



CAIRNCROSS, Stewart. 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

A RECTANGULAR framework covered with a light glazed 
material forms the lower part of a balloon ; and at the centre 
of this frame two pendulum arms are fulcrumed, at the lower 
ends of which arms a car is attached. 

A propeller is mounted on a horizontal shaft situated on 
the frame below the balloon, the said shaft being actuated by 
the aeronaut through gearing communicating with treadle and 
hand mechanism in the car. A rope is fastened to the bow 



131 

of the frame and thence over a pulley in the car to the stern 
of the frame. By rotating the pulley, the car is adjusted in 





position below the balloon, and thus enables the balloon 
and propeller to be regulated in position up or down. 



A.D. 1890. 



No. 12349. 



GRIFFITHS, Thomas, and BEDDOES, Thomas 
Henry Willoughby. 

" JET PROPULSION." 

GASES or explosives are ignited within a tube, where they 
expand, and in escaping against the outer atmosphere cause 
the propulsion of the aeronautic machine to which the 
apparatus is attached. 
(Drawing.) 



K 2 



132 



A.D. 1890. 



No. 13099. 



HUELSER, Charles. (Communicated by Sophus 
Hartmann and Max Nathan.) 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON/' 

AN elongated balloon is provided with a longitudinal frame- 
work, on each side of which are mounted frames carrying 
valve flaps. These frames are reciprocated backwards and 
forwards, the valve flaps closing and opening alternately, 
thus propelling the balloon. 
(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1890. 



No. 13311. 



MOORE, Ross Franklin. 
" FLYING MACHINE." 

THIS machine is constructed in imitation of a bat, with a 
frame below for carrying the driving-power and the load. 
The wings, which are made of a bamboo, steel, or aluminium 
frame covered with gold-beater's skin, silk, or light cloth, are 
made to oscillate, and are given a rocking motion. 





The machine can receive an electric current from lines on 
the ground, and thus dispense with the weight of batteries. 

The drawings accompanying this specification are simply 
diagrammatic views. 



133 



A.D. 1890. No. 15332 

BOULT, Alfred Julius. (Communicated by Wilhelm Ellingen.) 

" BALLOON RAILWAY." 

A CABLE is placed loosely on the ground between two points 
where a balloon is required to travel, and the cable is passed 




\ifupi]/ 




over a pulley situated in the car of the balloon. The pulley 
is rotated by an electro-motor in the car and thus draws the 
balloon along in the direction of the rope. 



A.D. 1890. 



No. 15850. 



WELLS, Clara Louisa. 
" BALLOON RAILWAY." 

BALLOONS are connected to a ring running on a line, which 
ring is drawn from place to place by ropes actuated by a 
stationary engine. 

The description is most vague, and suggestions are made 
for its application to travelling by land or sea, and also for 
training of birds to aid the balloons. 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1890. 



No. 20435. 



134 

PHILLIPS, Horatio Frederick. 

" FLYING MACHINE." 



THIS invention is based upon a previous invention, No. 13768, 
A.D. 1884, by the same inventor, in which he described the 
use of blades having convex upper surfaces. By giving these 
blades a rapid forward motion, a partial vacuum is formed 
above, thereby giving them a lifting power. 




According to this present invention a number of these 
blades are placed one above the other in a frame, and two or 
more of these frames are attached to the upper part of a body 
which is propelled by apparatus not described or shown. 



A.D. 1890. 



No. 21241. 



HUTCHINSON, William Nelson. 

" BALLOONS/' 

SALMON-SHAPED balloons are to have their upper halves 
constructed of thin metal, with a ridge running along the 
centre to throw off snow. 



135 

A.D. 1891. No, 1555. 

SINCLAIR, William Houston. 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

AN elongated balloon is constructed of bamboo-canes covered 
with air-proof fabric. A pair of paddles, actuated by any 
suitable power, are employed for propelling, and the feathering 
blades of such paddles may be on light tubular-steel frames 
acting as Venetians covered with strong silk. " The lowest 
deck is 96 feet long, and the balloon is divided into three 
parts." 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1891. Na. 1943. 

HUTCHINSON, William Nelson. 

" BALLOONS/' 

BALLOONS of various forms are made of sheet metal, 
strengthened internally by struts abutting against ribs 
attached to the interior. 

Air is withdrawn through holes in the lower part of the 
balloon, and hydrogen is admitted at the upper part, the 
interior openings of these outlets and inlets being protected 
by discs, to prevent the air mixing with the hydrogen 
through agitation. 



A.D. 1891. No. 4090. 

MUNNS, William Henry. ( Communicated ly William 
WillsJiire Riley.) 

" APPLICATION or BALLOON." 

A BALLOON is attached to the top of a tubular mast of a boat, 
and gas is supplied to the balloon from compressed gas 
reservoirs in the boat. 

The balloon keeps the boat afloat in case of it becoming 
filled with water, and it also acts as a sail to attract the 
attention of passing ships. 

(Drawings.) 



136 



A.D. 1891. 



No. 4485. 



NAHL, Perham Wilhelm. 
" NAVIGABLE BALLOON.-" 

AN elongated balloon, constructed in separate compartments, 
is provided with an aeroplane on either side, which increase 
in width towards the stern. Two propellers, one on either 
side of the halloon, are actuated by electric motors, which are 
supplied with electricity from secondary batteries. The 
propellers with their motors are mounted on a shaft, which 




enables their position to be adjusted by means of a hand 
wheel. A rod which is fulcrumed below the balloon carries a 
hollow ball at its lower end containing sand, and by adjusting 
this rod forward or backward the angle of the balloon may 
be adjusted. By opening a valve at the lower part of the 
ball, sand may be discharged from same and thus serve the 
purpose of ballast. 



A.D. 1891. 



No. 8142. 



BOULT, Alfred Julius. ( Communicated by Arthur 
de Bausset.) 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON/' 

AN elongated metal balloon is given the necessary ascentional 
force by creating a more or less complete vacuum within 



137 

same. The balloon, which is constructed of thin steel plates, 
is strengthened by an internal framework, and the inventor 
considers 738 ft. long and 144 ft. diameter to be suitable 
dimensions. 

Aeroplanes, inclined downwards at an angle of about 45, 
project from either side of the balloon. 

A car is suspended below the balloon and is adjustable 
longitudinally, thus regulating the angle of the apparatus. 

An exhaust fan is employed to propel the machine by the 
impact of a current of air, and by adjusting the outlet the 
direction of propulsion may be controlled at will. 

This invention is very similar to No. 316, A.D. 1887, by 
the same inventor. 

(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1891. No. 11212. 

NEWTON, Alfred Vincent. (Communicated by Alfred Nobel.) 

" MOTIVE POWER." 

A LIGHT motive power is obtained by the decomposition of 
water or other liquid within a closed vessel, through the 
action thereon of metallic sodium, potassium, finely-divided 
manganese or other metals having a like affinity for oxygen. 
The hydrogen which escapes is employed to work an engine 
for driving a balloon, or a jet in escaping into the atmosphere 
may be employed for direct propulsion by means of its 
repulsive power. 
(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1891. No. 12403. 

FYERS, William Augustus. 

" BALLOON/' 

A BALLOON is made in the form of a ring so that it will not 
obstruct the car in the event of a descent at sea. The car, 
which may be covered with waterproof canvas, is suspended 
close up to the balloon, and by dividing the said balloon into 



138 

separate compartments the danger from bullets in time of war 
is obviated. 




A second car may be suspended below the above men- 
tioned car. 



A.D. 1891. 



No. 12669. 



EDWARDS, Edmund. ( Communicated ~by Ludwig 
Hohrmann.) 

11 BIRDS-EYE PHOTOGRAPHY." 

A ROCKET or projectile, containing a camera attached to a 
parachute, is projected over the place to be photographed. 
On arriving over the desired spot the rocket or projectile 




explodes, thereby liberating the camera and parachute, which 
may be drawn back by a cord after the exposure of the 
negative. 



139 

A.D. 1891. No. 13311. 

PHILLIPS, Horatio Frederick. 

" FLYING MACHINES/' 

BLADES or sustainers (i. e. aeroplanes) are made with a 
convex upper surface, and a lower surface concave in front 




and convex towards the rear end. The convex underpart 
prevents the formation of an eddy below the front portion of 
the aeroplane. 



A.D. 1891. No. 14742. 

MOY, Thomas. 
" GOVERNING AERIAL MACHINES." 

Two appliances are described for governing aerial machines, 
the movement of which is regulated by the action of a 
pendulum. 

In the first apparatus, two idle toothed wheels are rotated 
by contact with right and left screws, situated on a sleeve 
sliding on a rectangular shaft. The two toothed wheels are 
mounted in sliding bearings which are pressed towards each 
other by springs ; and a pendulum having a cross arm at its 
upper part is suspended from a point between the wheels. 
On the pendulum swinging, one end of the cross arm takes 
into one of the toothed wheels and clamps it, thus throwing 
it out of gear with the other wheel. The sleeve now moves 
along the rectangular shaft, taking with it a lever which 
actuates a plane or rudder, thus correcting the angle of the 
machine. 

In the second arrangement, a pendulum is connected to a 
toothed lantern wheel, which tends to turn in one direction, 
and is held between projecting pins on the surface of two 



140 

segments keyed to a shaft. On the pendulum swinging out 
of the vertical position, it throws the lantern wheel towards 
one segment, thus freeing it from the other and turning the 
segment. The shaft is thus turned, which in its turn actuates 
rudders for controlling the machine. 
(Drawings.) 



A.D. 1891. No. 16033. 

GRIFFITHS, Thomas, and BEDDOES, Thomas 
Henry Willoughby. 

" BALLOON/' 

AN aerial raft is composed of a closed or covered vessel 
having a convex under surface, and a flat or concave upper 
surface. 

Tubular chambers are attached to the upper part of the 
raft and filled with gas to give buoyancy to the apparatus. 

A well, constructed of lattice work, is formed in the centre 
of the vessel for the accommodation of the aeronaut, and the 
apparatus is propelled by the reaction of escaping jets of 
fluid. 

(Drawing?) 



A.D. 1891. No. 19228. 

MAXIM, Hiram Stevens. 

" FLYING MACHINE/-' 

THIS specification refers to improvements on a previous 
patent No. 16883, A.D. 1889, by the same inventor. 

The chief objects of the invention are, to improve the 
construction of framework, to increase the efficiency of the 
boiler and the engines, and to maintain the machine on an 
even keel. 

The frame of the machine is constructed of metal tubes 
braced together, the aeroplane being connected to the floor 



141 

carrying the generator by two main side trusses and trans- 
verse tubes and stays. 

Rudders situated at the bow and stern are connected 
together by crossed wires, which cause them to move simul- 
taneously with a common effect, both tending to guide the 
machine either up or down ; and these rudders may be 
actuated by a cylinder which is automatically controlled by a 
gyrostat. 




The steam from the exhaust is fed to a condenser situated 
in the aeroplane, the fluid returning to a force pump, which 
resupplies it to the generator. 

A tubular generator is described, in which ether or gasoline 
is employed instead of water ; and engines for driving the 
propellers are also described. 

The screw propellers are two-bladed, and are built up of 
strips of wood cemented together and strengthened by metal 
clamps or flanges. 

There are 32 claims and 12 sheets of drawings to this 
specification. 



A.D. 1891. No. 19245. 

BREWER, William John. 
" NAVIGABLE BALLOON/' 

AN elongated balloon is enclosed in a framework, and a car 
having side aeroplanes is suspended below. 



142 

Propellers are mounted vertically above the balloon on the 
framework for altering the altitude, and horizontal propellers 
are employed for steering. 

Seats are arranged in the framework to enable the aeronauts 
to leave the car and let same fall from the balloon in case of 
accident, thus dispensing with much weight. 

(Drawing.) 



A.D. 1891. No. 20032. 

HUTCHINSON, William Nelson. 

" BALLOONS." 

A LONG steel tube passes longitudinally through a balloon and 
serves the double purpose of a "back-bone"" and a steam 
condenser for the generator. 



A.D. 1891. No. 21580. 

LE COMPAGNON, Armand, FAUCILLON, Zelie (Vve), DUBOIS, 
Georges Joseph Prosper, and ROYAUX, Emile Aleide. 

" NAVIGABLE BALLOON." 

AN elongated balloon, preferably composed of several com- 
partments, is enclosed in a framework, which enables the 
whole apparatus to move steadily through the air. 

The propeller, wings, or screw-blades are fixed to the sides 
of the framework, and are preferably actuated by a gas-engine 
supplied with gas from the balloon itself. 

The car, which is formed of a light rectangular structure, 
is fastened to a shaft hanging from the balloon frame and is 
held in position by stays. 

(Drawing.) 



143 

A.D. 1891. No. 21885. 

MIDDLETON, Henry. 

" FLYING MACHINES." 

ONE, two, or three pairs of wings are employed to sustain 
and propel the machines mentioned in this specification ; but 
as the inventor does not confine himself to the particular 
description of one machine, it is impossible to describe the 
numbers of machines and their modifications in a work of the 
concise nature of this volume. 

A screw propeller is sometimes employed to assist in 
propelling the machines. 

In some of the machines the engines which actuate the 
wings are rocked on trunnions, to impart a to-and-fro motion 
to the wings. 

Several kinds of tubular and other steam generators are 
mentioned, and a generator having air heated by chemical 
combination with some liquid or solid is also vaguely 
described. 

There are 10 claims to this rambling specification. 

(Drawings.) 



145 



NAME-INDEX. 



Abel, C. D 1124 1869 

409 1879 

Aldborough, Earl of 224 1854 

1224 1854 

, 625 1855 

2062 1856 

1054 1857 

Alexander, E. P 3996 1874 

Andrews, S 3283 1865 

Apraxine, A 2313 1877 

2039 1878 

1710 j88i 

4552 1888 

Archibald, E. D 15627 1885 

Armour, J 14038 1884 

Atkin, 11 943 1878 

3546 - 1878 

Aubree, A 15023 1884 

Austin, C. E., and another 9472 1885 



3, I 2821 1874 

Baker, G. C 11941 1887 

Balboni, P 2483 1857 

Baldwin, T. S., and another 10937 1888 

Balleni, H., and another 924 1877 

Ballian, S.-B 2628 1884 

Bastard, W. J 3957 1889 

Bate, H 7727 1885 

L 



146 

Baudouin, A., and another 1982 1864 

Baumgarten, C 3997 1879 

Beddoes, T. H. W., and another 12349 1890 

16033 1891 

Bell, H 12337 1848 

Bentzen, E., and another 409 1879 

Bertin, P., and another 2057 1884 

Beugger, J 9448 1888 

Biddle, D 2901 1875 

Blackman, A. L 985 1880 

3691 1881 

Boboeuf, P. A. F 759 1854 

Bonneville, H. A 2208 1865 

4701 1880 

Bontems, B. B 5118 1885 

Boult,A. J 1737 1882 

2509 1882 

, 15023 1884 

15332 1890 

8142 1891 

Boulton, M. P. W 2489 1866 

2809 1866 

696 1867 

392 1868 

and another 1005 1868 

574 1875 

Boyman, E. B 1155 1860 

1497 1866 

3262 1866 

2223 1867 

1881 1868 

623 1870 

944 1871 

Brannon, P 3272 1870 

,, 3974 1877 

Brearey, F. W 2376 1879 

Brewer, E.G 3228 1878 

594 1879 

H95 1881 

Brewer, W. J. . .. , 19245 1891 

Bright, H 2330 1859 



147 

Brion, S. L 3996 1874 

Brooman, R. A 591 1864 

2030 1864 

Brown, D. S 155 1852 

2529 1861 

,, 411 1872 

2346 1873 

Browne, F. W , 3058 1874 

Browne, J 12452 1849 

Browne, J. C 4279 1873 

Bruce, E. S 5854 1885 

Buchanan, J 327 1876 

Buckhan, W. P 1569 1879 

Buckner, M. L. S 4618 1885 

Burchell, W., and another . 9472 1885 

Butler, J. W 1143 1866 

2115 1867 

Cairncross, S 11455 1890 

Capel, T. J., and another 430 1881 

Carlingford, Viscount 2993 1856 

Carmien, P. J" 867 1863 

748 1864 

Cave, J. O'C 140 1875 

Chambers, J. M 6419 1889 

Ciurcu, A 8182 1887 

Clair, J. E. M. J 1581 1857 

Clark, A. M. 169 1875 

4618 1885 

9452 1886 

Clark, W 1982 1864 

3283 1865 

Coignard, L 1114 1860 

Cornelius, W 2589 1884 

Courtemanche, R 2031 1871 

Couturier, C. E. F 2030 1864 

2208 1865 

Cowan, R. W., and another 1827 1878 

Craddock, T 1982 1867 

Craig, J 3360 1889 

Crestadoro, A 1786 1862 

L2 



148 

Crestadoro, A 1815 1868 

Curtis, W. J 1136 1855 

Dale, W. D 4301 1889 

Dartiguenave, P. G 1334 1854 

Davidson, G. L. 13207 1889 

Davies, G 298 1864 

De Bausset, A 316 1887 

8142 1891 

Debayeux, A 1195 1881 

D'Esterno, F. C. H. P 298 1864 

169 1875 

De la Pauze, A., and another 430 1881 

De Manara, H 143 1853 

De Normandy, A. R. L. M 395 1853 

De Saint Martin, H. R 3284 1863 

De Schuttenbach, A 4701 1880 

De Souza, J. C. R, 4887 1881 

De Struve, G., and another , 2299 1864 

De Telescheff, K, and another 2299 1864 

1824 1883 

De Yogt, H. C 81 1874 

Dillon, T. A 1207 1879 

Dubois, G. J. P., and others 21580 1891 

Duff, R. L 2879 1884 

Duthu, J. B 3076 1872 

Edwards, E., and another 2155 1867 

4887 1881 

1671 1889 

12669 1891 

Egasse, E. E 3228 1878 

594 1879 

Egg, D., and another 3909 1815 

Ellingen, W 15332 1890 

Elsdale, H 4954 1882 

Falconnet, E. F 518 1883 

1549 1885 

14827 1885 

Farini, G. A., and another 10937 1888 



55 J5 

55 5 



149 

Faucillon, Z., and others 21580 1891 

Fisher, J. A., and another 4098 1882 

Fleury, A 3309 1873 

Folacci, P., and another 2057 1884 

Foster, J. S 7015 1886 

Francis, G. G 13841 1887 

Fyers, W. A 12403 1891 

Gaggino, G 5742 1888 

Gaveau, J. C 4255 1873 

Gedge, W. E 867 1863 

748 1864 

Giffard, H 466 1867 

3036 1867 

Gittens, A. W 3814 1877 

Gloton, J. J 1671 1889 

Godard, E 2959 1863 

Goehrung, E 807 1881 

Gohrung, E. 5621 1884 

Goucher, J 2397 1867 

Gower, F. A ' 11301 1884 

Green, U 4387 1882 

Grey, E. H 5404 1890 

Griffiths, T., and another 12349 1890 

16033 1891 

Grylls, H. W 3677 1868 

Gustafson, W 8255 1887 

Haddan, H. J 1328 1878 

1827 1878 

..- 2469 1884 

316 1887 

Haenlein, P 930 1865 

821 1872 

Hammant, W 1666 1868 

Hammond, T. R 2245 1864 

Harris, H. M 8816 1890 

Harte, R 1469 1870 

Hartmann, S., and another 13099 1890 

Hartung, 2469 1884 

Heathorn, T. B 939 1878 



150 

Henderson, A. C 5118 1885 

Henry, M 1114 1860 

466 1867 

3036 1867 

Henson, W. S 9478 1842 

Hilfreich, F 11994 1884 

12736 1888 

Hill, M 1776 1880 

Hime, F 3177 1870 

4839 1880 

Howson, W 18952 1889 

Huelser, C., and another 13099 1890 

Hullett, J ' 568 1868 

Hunt, B 2031 187 1 

Hunter, J. M 2680 1868 

Hutchinson, W. IS" 1879 1881 

8567 1885 

8051 1886 

i 5644 1887 

21241 1890 

1943 1891 

20032 1891 

Hyatt, T. , . 1229 1882 

Imray, H 4055 1883 

Imray, J., and another 1005 1868 

Jackson, W 513 1878 

4757 1878 

Jacob, J 593 1861 

2377 1861 

James, W. H 492 1861 

Jensen, P 3315 1875 

5251 1882 

Johnson, J. H 179 1853 

-.'. 206 1855 

3401 1881 

Johnson, J. Y. 8182 1887 

Jouanique, J. 1737 1882 

Kaut'mann, J. M. 473 1867 



151 

Kaufmann, J. M 1525 1867 

Kesseler, C 4104 1878 

Kinnear, F. C 4684 1881 

Koch, G 5251 1882 

Lake, A. W 1229 1882 

Lake, W. E 3058 1874 

2313 1877 

985 1880 

31 1882 

518 1883 

2057 1884 

". 1549 1885 

14827 1885 

Lane, H 15567 1887 

Laroche, L. P 1953 1865 

Lassie, J. B. J 2154 1856 

Le Compagnon, A., and others 21580 1891 

Leggo,W. A 3779 1879 

Lehmann, F. A., and another 1328 1878 

Lemmon, S. 13901 1886 

Livchak, J 2162 1868 

Lorrain, J. G 11354 1888 

Liideke, J. E. F. ...j 2028 1863 

Luff, H. J 2447 1854 

McKee, H 2979 1875 

Marriott, F 2827 1869 

Martin, M 2776 1873 

Martin, T 122 1881 

Masey, P. E 412 1868 

Maughan, B. W., and another 4585 1882 

1552 1883 

Maxim, H. S 16883 1889 

19228 1891 

Menier, J. S. A .'.. 1144 1874 

1690 1875 

603 1877 

Mennons, M. A. F 2299 1864 

Michel, M 1769 1869 

Middleton, H. ... 9725 1888 



152 

Middleton, H 21885 1891 

Moat, W. C 9856 1843 

Molesworth-Hepworth, E. N. 7837 1886 

Monteith, J 14610 1888 

Moore, E. F 13311 1890 

Morris, J. M., and another 289 1875 

Morse, E. C 4154 1873 

Moy, T., and another 3238 1871 

2808 1874 

1406 1877 

,, 14742 1891 

Munns, W. H 4090 1891 

Nahl, P. W 4485 1891 

Nathan, M., and another 13099 1890 

Nelson, J. E 2229 1867 

Newbold, H 4332 1878 

Newton, A. Y 11212 1891 

Newton, W. E 11578 1847 

2959 1863 

1987 1868 

Nobel, A 11212 1891 

Noble, W. H 2827 1869 

Norman, J. J 9665 1887 

Oppikofer, E 4055 1883 

OsseUn, A. F 728 1871 

Otto, E. C. F., and another 14737 1889 

Otto, E. C. F., Jun., and another 14737 1889 

Owen, E. G 9193 1885 

Page, C., and another 1827 1878 

Parkinson, G. S 508 1888 

Pauly, S. J., and another 3909 1815 

Payne, J. W., and another 924 1877 

Pearse, E. A 2229 1879 

Pellen, M 2256 1856 

Petersen, C. W 31 1882 

Phillips, H. F 13768 1884 

, 20435 1890 

13311 1891 



153 

Phillips, J. S 2420 1861 

Pocock, G., and another 5420 1826 

Ponton D'Amecourt 1929 1861 

Poole, M 8337 1840 

Potts, L. H 9642 1843 

Preisenhammer, C., and another 593 1861 

2377 1861 

Prestwich, W. H 9585 1885 

Preverand, A. M 206 1855 

Quartermain, W 2339 1884 

Quentin, P 591 1864 

Quinet, A. M., and another 1982 1864 

Rablat, C. F 1598 1860 

Radotinsky, J 4647 1890 

Raydt, W 4104 1878 

Redfern, G. F 7015 1886 

Ribeiro, J. 1 8386 1887 

Ridley, J. D 777 1874 

Rieber, J 2781 1871 

Rieckert, A. E. K., and another 4811 1889 

Rieckert, H. A. J., and another 4811 1889 

Ritchel, C., and another 1328 1878 

Robatel, J 1581 1857 

Robinson, G 11108 1889 

Rogers, C. 3814 1877 

Rohrmann, L 12669 1891 

Ross, W. M 2040 1870 

Rothleb, G. W 1037 1865 

Royaux, E. A., and others 21580 1891 

Runkel, M 2393 1876 

Sample, J 2421 1878 

Sanderson, J. G. E 4523 1875 

SebiUot, A. M. G 9452 1886 

Shill, R. E., and another 3238 1871 

Silas, F 3103 1860 

Simmons, J 3132 1874 

and another 289 1875 

2428 1875 



154 

Simon, H 3997 1879 

Sinclair, W. H 1555 1891 

Sjostrom, P 2264 1883 

Smart, G. E 12503 1884 

Smyth, J. S 4268 1878 

1569 1879 

Smyth, W 1392 1867 

Smythies, J. K 561 1860 

2504 1867 

4151 1875 

34 1882 

7 1884 

Snow, J. J 439 1876 

Snyers, T., and another 3561 1881 

Soul, M. A 821 1872 

Spencer, C. G 1178 1868 

and another 4098 1882 

Stevens, C 1598 1860 

Stevenson, E 4871 1880 

Sunderland, T 9598 1843 

Templer, J 4954 1882 

Thayer, D 12320 1889 

Thompson, W. P. . . 11941 1887 

Tielke-Allan, F. H 19209 1889 

Tissandier, G. 3401 1881 

Yan de Kerkhove, A. H., and another 3561 1881 

Van Hecke .. 11578 1847 

Vaughan, E. P. H 4154 1873 

2039 1878 

Vaughan, C. E 1710 1881 

Yidal, E 3315 1875 

Viney, J., and another . . 5420 1826 

Von Binzer, J., and another . . . . 409 1879 

Waddy, S. D., and another 4585 1882 

4585 1883 

Waelde, J 1830 1886 

Watt, A 3831 1874 

Weldon, W 2141 1863 



155 

Wellner, G 2715 1883 

Wells, C. L 15850 1890 

Wenham, F. H 1571 1866 

Wenigner, C., and another 593 1861 

2377 1861 

Werner, A 2509 1882 

Wilkins, F 1772 1882 

Williams, C 1987 1868 

Wilson, G 3067 1871 

Winkler, A 11158 1885 

Wirth, F 807 1881 

5621 1884 

Wise, W. L 3779 1879 

Woodbury, W. B 1647 1877 

Worms, J 47 1889 

Ybargoitia, F. M. e 1821 1886 

Zimer, F. W 7427 1889 



157 



SUBJECT-INDEX 



BALLOONS. 

CAPTIVE. 1854, 759, 2447. 1555,1136. I860, 3103. 1863, 
2028. 1864,591. 15(57,466,3036. 15(55,568. 1874, 
1144. 1875, 2979. 1877, 1647, 3814. 1879, 1207. 
1551, 122, 4684. 1882, 4954. 155-, 2879. 1885, 
5854, 15627. 1555, 11354, 14610. 1889, 18952. 

COMBINED WITH AEKOPLANES. 1865, 3283. 155, 1987. 1869, 
2827. 1571, 2031. 1874, 2821. 1575, 1690. 1577, 
3974. 1879, 3779. 1551, 4887. 1882, 31. 155^, 
2628. 155*5, 7837. 1887, 316, 8386. 1555, 5742, 
9448. 1889, 47, 7427, 14737. 1890, 11455. 1521, 
4485, 8142, 19245. 

CONSTKTJCTION OF. 1815, 3909. 15^5, 12337. 155-4, 224. 
1555, 625. 1856, 2062, 2154. 1557, 1054. 1860, 
1598. 15(51, 2529. 1868, 867, 2141. 15(5-4, 591, 748. 
1865, 930. 15<5<5, 3262. 1867, 466, 2229, 3036. 15(55, 
1666, 1815, 1881, 1987, 2162. 1869, 2827. 1870, 
3272. 1571, 2031, 2781. 1872, 821, 3076. 1878, 
2776, 4154. 157-4, 2821, 3132, 3177, 3831, 3996. 1575, 
2979. 1577, 603, 2313. 1575, 513, 943, 2039, 3546, 
4332. 1879, 2229, 3779, 3997. 1880, 985, 1776, 4701. 
1551, 122, 1195, 1879, 3401, 3691, 4887. 1882, 31, 
1737, 1772, 2509, 4098, 5251. 1888, 518, 1824, 2715. 
1884, 2057, 2469, 2628, 11994, 15023. 1555, 1549, 
4618, 9472, 9585, 14827. 1886, 7837, 8051, 9452, 
13901. 1557, 316, 15567. 1555, 508. 1889, 1671, 
3957, 4301, 4811, 7427, 13207, 18952, 19209. 1890, 



158 

BALLOONS (continued). 

4647, 5404, 8816, 11455, 13099, 21241. 1891, 1555, 
1943, 4090, 4485, 8142, 12403, 14742, 16033, 19245, 
20032, 21580. 

FIRE. 1854, 224. 1862, 1786. 1863, 2959. 1868, 1815, 

1881. 1874, 1144, 3132. 1882, 4098. 
MAKING GAS FOE. 1855, 1136. 1865, 930. 1867, 466. 

1878, 821. 1874, 2821, 3831. 1875, 289. 7577, 924. 

1575, 3228, 4104, 4332. 1879, 594. 1882, 31. 7550, 

9452. 1557, 9665. 

PHOTOGRAPHY FROM. 1864* 2447. 1868, 2028. 1577, 1647. 
1552, 4954. 1891, 12669. 

PROPELLING BY MEANS OP JETS OP FLUID. 1843, 9598. 1860, 
1155. 1866, 1497, 3262. 1567, 2223, 2229. 1565, 
1881. 1570,623,2040. 1576,327. 1575,939. 1550, 
1776, 4701. 1884, 2057. 1555, 9472. 1557, 316, 
5644, 8182. 1555, 508. 1889, 6419, 14737. 1890, 
8816, 12349. 1891, 8142, 11212, 16033. 

PBOPELLING BY MEANS OP SCREWS. 1843, 9598. 1848, 12337. 
1856, 2154. 1561, 2529. 1863, 867. 1565, 930. 
1571, 2031. 1878, 821. 1575, 4255, 4279. 1874, 
3177, 3996. 1577, 924. 1575, 513, 943, 1328, 3546, 
4757. 1879, 2229. 1550, 985. 1551, 1195, 3401, 
3691, 4887. 1882, 4585. 1555, 518. 1884, 2057, 
2469, 15023. 1555, 1549, 8567, 14827. 1556, 7837, 
9452. 1557, 8255, 11941. 1555, 9448, 11354, 12736, 
14610. 1559, 1671, 3957, 4811, 7427, 11108. 1890, 
4647, 5404, 11455. 1891, 4485, 19245, 21580. 

PROPELLING BY WINGS. 1515, 3909. 1854, 224, 1224. 1556, 
2062. 1560, 1598. 1565, 1666. 1577, 924. 1555, 
5118. 1559, 47, 6419, 13207, 14737. 1591, 21580. 

PROPELLING BY OTHER MEANS. 1555, 179. 1567, 2397. 1565, 

3677. 1570, 3272. 1571, 944. 1575, 4255. 1575, 

2901, 3315. 1576, 2393. 1577, ,3814. 1575, 1827. 

1579, 3997. 1551, 807. 1882, 5251. 1555, 4055. 



159 

BALLOONS [continued). 

1884, 5621, 11994, 12503, 15023. 1886, 9472, 9585, 
11158. 1887, 8386. 1888, 12736, 1889, 14737. 
1890, 13099. 1891, 1555. 

RAILWAYS. 1843, 9642. 1878, 2776. 1575, 4268. 1579, 
1569. 1882, 4387. 1555, 7727. 1886, 1821. 1555, 
4552, 14610. 1890, 13311, 15332, 15850. 

REGULATING ALTITUDE OF.-15.47, 11578. 15<%, 748. 1865, 
930. 1571, 2031. 1572, 821. 1575/2979. 1876, 
2393. 1577, 2313. 1575, 513, 1328, 1827, 2039, 4757 . 
1579, 2229, 3779, 3997. 1551, 122, 1195, 1710, 1879. 
1882, 1737. 1884, 11301. 1555, 12736, 14610. 1559, 
1671. 1890, 4647. 1591, 19245. 

VALVES FOE. 1848, 12337. 155(5,2062. 1557,3036. 1872, 
3076. 1884, 11301. 1559, 18952. 

WEIGHT, ADJUSTABLY ATTACHED TO. 1815, 3909. 1856, 2154, 
1868, 867. 15(55, 3283. 1866, 3262. 1579, 2229, 
3779. 1886, 7837. 1557, 316, 8386. 1555, 5742, 
9448. 1559, 47, 7427, 14737. 1599, 11455. 1591, 
4485, 8142. 

FLYING MACHINES. 

AEROPLANES, WITH. 1842, 9478. 1848, 12337. 1862, 155. 
1555, 2993. 1861, 2420. 1864, 2299. 1866, 1143, 
1571, 2489. 1867, 473, 1392, 2115, 3036. 1555, 392, 
1178, 2680. 1870, 1469. 1571, 3238. 1872, 411. 
1573, 3309. 157-4, 2808. 1577, 3974. 1551, 430, 
3561. 1884, 7, 13768. 1559, 14737, 16883. 1599, 
11455, 20435. 1591, 13311, 14742, 19228. 

CORRECTING ALTITUDE OF, AUTOMATICALLY. 155.$, 2299. 1555, 
392. 1571, 3238. 1874, 2808. 1559, 16883. 1591, 
14742, 19228. 

MANUMOTIVE. 1843, 9856. 1864, 2299. 1555, 1037. 1555, 
1143, 1571. 1557, 1982. 1555, 1378. 1559, 1124, 
1577, 3974. 1884, 2589, 14038. 1555, 9193. 1555, 
7015. 



160 

FLYING MACHINES (continued). 

PROPELLING, SUPPORTING, OR STEERING WITH 

screws : 1842, 9478. 1848, 12337. 1856, 2993. 1861, 
1929. 1864, 2299. 1867, 1392, 2115. 1868, 412. 
1870, 1469. 1875, 140. 1877, 3974. 1551, 430. 
1552, 4585. 1883, 2264. 1555, 8567. 1887, 11941. 
1550, 11108, 16883. 1891, 19228, 21885. 

wings: 15 224. I860, 561, 1598. 155-4, 298, 2030, 
2299. 1865, 1037, 2208. 1866, 1143. 1557, 473, 
1982, 2504. 1868, 1005, 1666. 1869, 1124. 157^, 
81, 777. 1875, 4151. 1570, 2376. 1550, 4839. 
1882, 34, 1229. 155^, 7, 2339, 2589, 14038. 1555, 
9725. 1889, 14737. 1500, 13311. 1891, 21885. 

paddles, pars, jets, or other means: 1843, 9856. 1854, 
1334. 1551, 2420. 1555, 3284. 1866, 1571, 2489. 
1557, 2115, 2397. 1555, 392, 2680. 1570, 2040. 
1571, 3238. 1575, 2421. 1551, 3561. 1884, 5621, 
12503. 1555, 1830. 1550, 14737. 1500, 11455. 
1501, 11212. 

VERTICAL SCREWS FOR SUPPORTING. 1550, 2330. 1551, 1929. 
1555, 412. 1575, 140. 1550, 4871. 1555, 1552. 
1555, 9193. 1555, 7015. 1550, 3360. 

KITES. 

1525, 5420. 1555, 206, 1136. 1550, 3103. 1555, 568. 
1575, 169, 2428. 1575, 439. 1577, 3814. 1555, 
15627. 1550, 12320. 

PARACHUTES. 

1515, 3909. 1848, 12337. 1555, 2959. 1555, 1987. 1575, 
3315, 2428. 1575, 439. 1550, 4701. 155-4, 2628. 
1555, 9585. 1855, 10937." 1550, 4301, 7427, 16883. 
1501, 19228. 



PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



AERONAUTICAL NOTES. 



/t 



Aj^iJL^. 





AERONAUTICAL NOTES. 



o $r ir f-j) 




AEONAUTICAL NOTES. 





-*V-o- 





7 





f 




AA 



J 





\5r~ 



AERONAUTICAL NOTES. 




ULZVTtT^X. ; 

b-o^^ 






AERONAUTICAL NOTES 




AERONAUTICAL NOTES. 











A E R N A U TICAJNOTES 




AERONAUTICAL NOTES 









1 




AERONAUTICAL NOTES. 



AERONAUTICAL NOTES. 



AERONAUTICAL NOTES. 



AERONAUTICAL NOTES. 





VERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY 
BERKELEY 



Return to desk from which borrowed. 
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 



'N 9 1948 
JUN 9 1948 



REC.CIR.JM1 



ir 
V 



LD 21-100m-9,'47(A5702sl6)476 



THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY