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.SMITHSONIA?( MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS. 

^^* '• 230 



C 



ARRANGEMENT 



FAMILIES OF MAMMALS. 



WITH ANALYTICAL TABLES. 



PREPARED FOR THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 



BT 



THEODORE GILL, M.D., Ph.D. 



-^ 



i\\^ 



\ 




WASHINGTON: 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSOMAN INSTITUTION. 
NOVEMBER, 1872. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



The following list of families of Mammals, with analytical tables, has 
been prepared by Dr. Theodore Gill, at the request of the Smithsonian 
Institution, to serve as a basis for the arrangement of the collection of 
Mammals in the National Museum ; and as frequent applications for such 
a list have been received by the Institution, it has been thought advisable 
to publish it for more extended use. In provisionally adopting this 
system for the purpose mentioned, the Institution, in accordance with its 
custom, disclaims all responsibility for any of the hypothetical views upon 
which it may be based. 

JOSEPH HENRY, 

Secretary, S. I. 

Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington, October, 1872. 



(iii) 



COJfTENTS. 



I. List of Families* (including references to synoptical tables) 



1-27 



Sub-Class (Eutlieria) Placentalia s. Monodelphia (1-121) 
Super-Order Educabilia (1-73) 
Order 1. Primates (1-8) 

Sub-Order Anthropoidea (1-5) 
" Prosimiae (6-8) 

Order 2. Ferae (9-27) 

Sub-Order Fissipedia (9-24) . 
" Pinuipedia (25-27) 

Order 3. Ungulata (28-54) 

Sub-Order Artiodactyli (28-45) 
" Perissodactyli (46-54) 

Order 4. Toxodontia (55-56) . 
Order 5. Hjracoidea (57) 
Order 6. Proboscidea (58-59) 

Diverging (Educabilian) series. 
Order 7. Sirenia (60-63) 
Order 8. Cete (64-73) . 

Sub-Order Zeuglodontia (64-65) 
" Denticete (66-71) . 

Mjsticete (72-73) . 
Super-Order Inediicabilia (74-121) 
Order 9. Cliiroptera (74-82) . 

Sub-Order Animalivora (74-81) 
" . Frugivora (82) 
Order 10. Insectivora (83-92) 
Sub-Order Dermoptera (83) 

" Insectivora Vera (84-92) 

Order 11. Glires (93-112) 

Sub-Order Simplicidentati (93-110) 
Duplicidentati (111-112) 
Order 12. Bruta (113-121) 

Sub-Order Vermilinguia (113) 
Squamata (114) 



* The numbers iaclosed Tvitliin parentheses refer to the families 



1, 


45, 


46 


1, 


45, 


46 


1, 


47, 


50 


1, 


50, 


bis 


2, 


50, 


54 


3, 


47, 


56 


3, 


56, 


bis 


7, 


56, 


68 


8, 


47, 


70 


8, 


70, 


71 


11, 


71, 


84 


13, 


48, 


89 


13, 


48, 


89 


13, 


48, 


89 


13, 


48, 


91 


14, 


49, 


92 


14, 


92, 


93 


14, 


92, 


93 


15, 


93, 


97 


16, 


49 




16, 


49 




16 






18 






18, 


49 




18 






18 






20, 


50 




20 






23 






23, 


50 




23 






23 







(v) 



VI 



Sub-Order Fodientia (115) 

" Tardigrada (110-117) 

" Loricata (118-120) .... 

Bruta incertse sedis (121) . 
Sub-Class (Eatheria) Didelphia (122-134) .... 
Order 13. Marsupialia (122-134) .... 
Sub-Order Rhizophaga (122) .... 
" Sjndactyli (123-129) 

" Dasjuromorphia (130-131) 

" Didelphimorphia (132) . 

Marsupialia incertae sedis (133-134) 
Sub-Class (Prototberia) Ornitliodelphia (135-136) 

Order Monotremata (135-136) .... 

Sub-Order Tachyglossa (135) .... 
" Platypoda (136) . 



23 
9A 

24 

25 

25, 46 

25 

25 

26 

26 

26 

27 

27, 46 

27 

27 

27 



II. List op Authors referred to 



31-41 



III. Syxoptical Tables op Character op the Subdivisions op Mammals, with a 

Catalogue of the Genera 43- 



.^i=Li=L^^i>TO-:Bi^E3:isrT 



OP 



FAMILIES AND SUB-FAMILIES 



/"^T^ -i» «r 



The present portion of the "Arrangement of the Families of Mammals" 
is issued in advance of the entire work. The completion is delayed on 
account of the inability of the author to consult certain works and exam- 
ine the skeletons of several forms, but the remainder will be issued as 
soon as it can be prepared. Most of the pages now published have been 
stereotyped for more than a year, as will be seen from the dates at the 
bottom of the sio-natures. 



Sub-Order Anthropoidea. 
[Bimana,) 

1. Hominidae = Anthropini, Huxl., M. T. & G., 

1864, i, 153. 

{Simiae.) 
{Simiae catarrhinae,) 

2. Simiidae = Antliropomorpha, HuxL, M. 

T. & G. 1864, i, 648. 

July. 1871. 1 



VI 



Sub-Order Fodientia (115) 

" Tardigrada (116-117) 

" Loricata (118-120) . 

Bruta incertse sedis (121) 
Sub-Class (Eutheria) Didelpliia (122-134) . 
Order 13. Marsupialia (122-134) . 
Sub-Order Rhizophaga (122) . 
Syndactyli (123-129) 
" Dasyuromorpliia (130-131) 

" Didelpliimorphia (132) . 

Marsupialia incertse sedis (133-134) 



23 
PA 

24 

25 

25, 46 

25 

25 

26 

26 

26 

27 



.A.i^i=L.A.iNroEi:M:EiisrT 

OP 

FAMILIES AND SFB-FAMILIES 
OF MAMMALS. 

[Adopted provisionally by the Smithsonian Institution.] 
17. B.— The Fossil Families are indicated by Italics. 



Class A.— MAMMALIA. 
Sub-Class PLACENTALIA. 

Super-Order EDUCABILIA. 

(Gyrencephala = Megasthena + Archencephala = 
Archontia.) 

(Primate Series.) 

Order L— PRIMATES. 

Sub-Order Anthropoidea. 

(Bimana.) 

1. Hominidae = Anthropini, HuxL, M. T. & G., 

1864, i, 153. 

{Simiae.) 
[Simiae catarrhinae,) 

2. Simiidae = Anthropomorpha, HuxL, M. 

T. & G. 1864, i, 618. 

July. 1871. 1 



a. Simiinae = Simiina, Gray, M., L., & 

Fr.-eat. B., 6. 

b. Hylobatinae = Hylobatina, Gray, M., L., 

& Fr.-eat. B., 9. 

3. Cynopithecidae = Cynopithecini, HuxL, M. T. 

& G., 1864, i, 671. 

a. Semnopithecinae = Sub-Family II, Mart., Man 

and Monkeys, 445. 

b. Cynopithecinae = Sub-Family III, Mart., Man 

and Monkeys, 503. 

[Simiae platyrhinae.) 

4. Cebidae = Platyrliini, Huxl., M. T. & G., 

1864, ii, 93. 

a. Mycetinae = Mycetinae, Miv., P. Z. S., 

1865, 547. 

b. Cebinae = Cebinae, Miv., P. Z. S., 

1865, 547. 

c. Nyctipithecinae = Nyctipithecinae, Miv., P. 

Z. S., 1865, 547. 

d. Pitheciinae = Pitheciinae, Miv., P. Z. S., 

1865, 547. 

5. Mididae = Arctopithecini, Huxl., M. T. 

& G., 1864, ii, 124. 

Sub-Order Prosimiae. 
[Lemur oidea.) 

6. Lemuridae = Lemuridae, Geoff., Cat. Pri- 

mates, 66. 



3 



a. Indrisinae 

b. Lemurinae 

c. Xycticebinae 

d. Galagininae 
7. Tarsiidae 



= Indrisinae, Miv., P. Z. S., 

1866, 151. 

= Lemurinae, Miv., P. Z. S. 

1867, 960. 

= Nyctieebinae, Miv., P. Z. 
S., 1864, 643. 

= Galagininae, Miv., P. Z. S., 
1864, 645. 

Tarsidae, Geoff., Cat. Pri- 
mates, 83. 



[Dauhentonioidea, ) 

8. Daubentoniidae = Cheiromyidae, Geoff., Cat. 

Primates, 85. 

(Feral Series.) 

Order II.— FER^. 

Sub-Order Fissipedia. ^ 

[Aeluroidea,) 

[Aeluroidea typica,) 

= Felidae, FL, P. Z. S., 1869, 
15-18. 
= Felidae, § 1, Gray, P. Z. S., 
1867, 261. 
b. Guepardinae = Felidae, § 2, Gray, P. Z. S., 

1867, 277. 




9. Felidae 
a. Felinae 



c. Macliaerodontinae > Felinae, Biirm., A. M. P. B. 

-A. i, 122-138. 
10. Cryptoproctidae = Cryptoproctidae, FL, P. Z. 

S., 1869, 22. 



[Aeluroidea hyaeniformia,) 



11. Protelidae 

12. Hvaenidae 



= Protelidae, FL, P. Z. S., 

1869, 27, 474. 
= Hyaeiiidae, FL, P. Z. S., 

1869, 26. 



[Aeluroidea viverriformicu) 

13. Viverridae = Viverridae, FL, P. Z. S., 

1869, 18. 

a. Viverrinae J Yiverrina, IGray, 0.P.& 

I Genettina, J E.M.,46,49. 

b. Prionodontinae = Prionodontina, Gray, C. 

P. & E. M., 52. 
= Galidiina, Gray, 0. P, & 

E. M., 55. 
= Hemigalina, Gray, C. P. & 

E. M., 56. 
= Arctictidina, Gray, C. P. 

& E. M., 57. 
= Paradoxurina, Gray, C. P. 

& E. M., 59. 
= Cynogalina, Gray, P. Z. S., 

1867,521. = Cynogalidae, 



c. Galidiinae 

d. Hemigalinae 

e. Arctictidinae 

f. Parodoxurinae 

g. Cynogalinae 



h. Herpestinae 
i. Cynictidinae 
j. Rhinogalinae 
k. Crossarchinae 
14. Eupleridae 



= Herpestina, Gray, C. P. &E. 

M.,144. (\i-i<Herpestidae,) 
= Cynictidina, Gray, 0. P. 

& E. M., 169. 

= Rhinogalina, Gray,O.P.&E. 

M..,n 2. yiKEJiinogalidae, 

< Crossarcliina, Gray, C. P. 

& E. M., 176. 
= Euplereens, Doy., A. S. N., 

2e s., iv, 1835, Z., 281. 

(Cynoidea.) 



15. Canidae 
a. Caninae 



= Canidae, FL, P. Z. S., 1869, 

23. 
= Canidae, Gray, C. P. & E. M., 

178. 

b. Megalotinae = Megalotidae, Gray, C. P. & 

E. M., 210. 

(Ardoidea,) 

[Ardoidea musteliformia.) 

16. Miistelidae = Miistelidae, FL, P. Z. S., 1869, 

11-14. 
= Mustelina, Gray, C. P. & 

E. M., 81. 
= Melina, Gray, C. P. & E. M., 
122. (b-f < Melinidae.) 



a. Mustelinae 

b. Melinae 



c. Mellivorinae 

d. Mepliitinae 

e. Zorillinae 

f. Helictidinae 

g. Lutrinae 
h. Enhydrinae 



= Mellivorina, Gray, C. P. & 

E. M., 131. 
= Mephitina, Gray, C. P. & 

E. M., 133. 
= Zorillina, Gray, C. P. & E. 

M., 139. 
= Helictidina, Gray, C. P. & 

E, M., 141. 
= Lutrina, Gray, C. P. & E. M. 

100. (g-li < Mustelidae.) 
= Enhydrina, Gray, C. P. & 

E. M., 118. 



[Ardoidea typica.) 

17. Ursidae = Ursidae, FL, P. Z. S., 1869, 

6-9. 

[Ardoidea procyoniformia.) 

= Ailuridae, FL, P. Z. S., 1869, 



18. Aeluridae 

19. Cercoleptidae 

20. Procyonidae 
a. Nasuinae 



11, 36. 

> Procyonidae, FL, P. Z. S., 
1869, 9, 32. 

> Procyonidae, FL, P. Z. S., 
1869, 9, 32. 

= Nasuidae, Gray, C. P. & E. 
M., 238. 
b. Procyoninae = Procyonidae, Gray. C. P. & 

E. M., 242. 



21. Bassarididae = Bassaridae, Gray^ C. P. & S. 

M., 245. 

[Fissipedia sedis incertae.) 

22. Simocyonidae = Famille aujourd'hid eteinte, 

Gaudry, (320), 37. 

23. Ardocyonidaej < Ardocyoninae, Giebel, Sauge- 

thiere, 755. 
? 

24. Hyaenodontidae = Hyaenodontidae^ Leidy, Ext. 

Mamm. Dak. & Neb., 38. 

(I f ) 

Sub-Order Pinnipedia. 
[Pliocoidea,) 

25. Otariidae = Otariadae, Allen, B. M. C. Z., 

ill;Gill,A.N.,iv.,675. 
23. Phocidae = Phocidae, Gill, C. E. L, 1866, 

5,8. 

a. Phocinae = Phocinae, Gill, 0. E. I., 

1866, 5. 

b. Cvstopliorinae = Cystophorinae, Gill, 0. E. 

L, 1866, 6. 

c. Stenorhynchinae = Stenorliynchinae, Gill, C. 

E. L, 1866, 6. 

[Rosmaroidea,) 



8 

27. Rosmaridae = Rosmaridae, Gill, C. E. L, 

1866, 7. 

(Ungulate Series.) 

Order III.— UNGULATA. 

Sub-Order Artiodactyli. 

(Pecora s, Ruminantia,) 

[Pecora ? edentata.) 

27a. Chalicotheriidae = Chalicotheruan, Falc, Pal. 

Mem., i, 190, 208, 523. 

[Pecora tylopoda s. j^halangigrada.) 

28. Camelidae = Camelides, Gerv., Mamm. ii. 

223. 

[Pecora xmguligrada,) 

[Pecora iingidigrada typica.) 

[Girafoidea.) 

29. Giraffidae = Girafides, Gerv. Mamm. ii, 

210. 

[Booidea,) 
[Booidea typica,) 

30. Saigiidae = Saigiinae, Mm\, P. Z. S., 

1870, 451. 

31. Bovidae = Bovides, Gerv., Mamm. ii, 

174. 
a. Bovinae = Bovina, Rutim., N. D. S. G. 

K, xxiii, 21. 



b. Ovibovinae < Boveae, Gray, Mamrn., iii, 

15. 

c. Antilopinae | Antilopeae, | G. M., iii, 

I Strepsicereae, J 45, 131. 

d. Caprinae = Capreae, Gray, Mamm., iii, 

142. 

e. Ovinae = Oveae, Gray, Mamm., iii, 

160. 

32. Antilocapridae = Antilocapridae, Miir., P. Z. S., 

1870, 334. 

[Booidea cerviformia.) 

33. Cervidae = Cervidae, ScL, P. Z. S., 1870, 

114. 

a. Cervinae = Cervinae, Scl., P. Z. S., 

1870, 114. 

b. Cervulinae = Cervulinae, Scl., P. Z. S., 

1870, 115. 

c. Moschinae = Moschinae, Scl., P. Z. S., 

1870, 115. 

{Pecora unguligrada traguloidea.) 

34. Tragulidae = Tragulidae, A. Milne Edw., A. 

S.N..,5es.,ii,Z., 1864, 157. 

[Pecora iingidigrada incertae sedis,) 

35. Sivatheriidae = Sivatheriwn^ Falc, Pal. Mem., 

1, 247. 



10 

36. Helladotlieriidae = Fcmiille avjourcVhui eteinte^ 

Gaudry, A. F. Att. (321) , 252. 

[Pecora dentata.) 
[Oreodontoidea.) 

37. Oreodontidae. 

a. Oreodonti7iae = Oreodontidae, Leidy^ Ext. 

Mamm. Dak. & ISVo., 71. 

b. Agriochoerinae = Agrioclweridae^ Leidy, Ext. 

Mamm. Dak.&:^7eb., 131. 

[Anoplotheroidea, ) 

38. Anoplotheriidae = Anoj^lotJierudae, Leidy, Ext. 

Mamm. Dak. & Neb., 206. 

39. Dicliohunidae = Moscliidae § DlcJiobimina, 

Turii,P.Z.S., 1849, 158. 

[Omnivora.) 
[Merycopotamoidea.) 

40. Merycopotamidae = Merycop>otamiis^ Falc, Pal. 

Mem., ii, 407. 

[Hippopomatoidea.) 

41. Hippopotamidae = Hippopotamidae, Gray, C. 

P. & E. M., 356. 

a. Hippopotaminae = Hippopotamus, Falc, Pal. 

Mem., i, 130. 

b. Choeropsinae = Choeropsis, A. Milne Ed., 

E. H. N. M., 43. 



[Setifera.) \^' '^^^^ 

[Setifera suiformia,) ^KM[ • 

42. Phacochoeridae = Phacochoeridae, Gray, B. M., 

352. 

43. Suidae = Suidae, Gray, C. P. & E. M., 

327. 

[Setifera dicotyliformia,) 

44. Dicotylidae = Dicotylidae, Gray, C. P. & E. 

M., 350. 

[Anthracotheroidea, ) 

45. AnthracotJieriidae < Hippopotamidae, Turn., P. Z. 

S., 1849, 157. 

a. Hyopotaminae < AnthracotJieriidae, L'dy, Ex. 

Mamm. Dak. & Neb., 202, 

b. Anthracotheri- < Anthracotheriidae, L'dy, Ex. 

inae Mamm. Dak. & Neb., 202. 

Sub-Order Perissodactyli. 

[AncMppodontoidea,) 

45a. Anchippodontidae = Trogosus, Leidy, P. A. N. 

S., Phil., 1871, 114. 

[Solidungula,) 

46. Equidae = Equidae, Gray, C. P. & E. M., 

262. 



12 

47. Anchitlieriiclae = Ancliitheridae^ Leidy, Ext. 

Mamm. Dak. & Neb., 302. 

[Multungula.) 
[RJiinocerotoidea. ) ^ 

[Rhinocerotoidea rliinocerotiformia,) 

48. Rhinocerotidae = Rhinocerotidae, Gray, C. P. & 

E. M., 295. 

( Rldnocerotoidea macraucheniiformia. ) 

49. Macraucheniidae = MacraucheniajBiirm., A.M. 

B.-A., i, 32, 1864. 

50. PalaeotJterudae < PakceotherwideSjFictetjF^' 

leont.,2eed., 1,309-313. 

[Tapiroidea.) 

51. Tapiridae = Tapiridae, Gray, C. P. & E. 

M., 252. 

52. Lophiodontidcce < Tapiroides, Pictet, Paleont. , 

2e ed., i, 301. 

( Pliolojjhoidea, ) 

53. PliolopJiklae = Pliolophus, Oiuen, Pal., 

1860, 325. 

[Perissodadyli? incertae sedis.) 

54. Elasmotheriidae Rhinoceroides, Pictet, Pa- 

leont., 2e ed., i, 294. 



13 



Order IV.— TOXODONTIA. 

55. Nesodantidae = Nesodcn, Owen, Ph. T., 

1853, 291. 

56. Toxodontidae = Toxodon,- Burm, A. M. 

B.-A., i, 2.54, 1864. 

Order V.— HTRACOIDEA. 

57. Hyracidae = Hyracidae, Gray, C. P. & E. 

M., 279. 

Order VI.— PROBOSCIDEA. 

58. Elephantidae < Proboscideae, Falc, Pal. 

Mem., ii, 1868. 
Elephantinae ^= Elephantidae, Gray, C. P. & 

E. M., 358. 
Masfodontinae ^= Mastodontklae, Gray, C. P. & 

E. M., 359. 

59. Dinotheriidae = [Dinotheriides,] Gaudry, An. 

F. Att., 321, 162. 



MUTILATE SEKIBS. 
Order VII.— SIRENIA. 

{ffcdico7videa.) 

60. Halitheriidae < Halicorida, Brandt, Symb. 

Siren., ii, (f. 3,) 344. 



14 

61. Halicoridae < Halicorida, Brandt, Symb. 

Siren., ii, (f. 3,) 344. 
G2. Rhytinidae < Halicorida, Brandt, Symb. 

Siren., ii, (f. 3,) 344. 

[Manatoidea,] 

63. Trichechidae = Manatida, Brandt, Symb. 

Siren., ii, (f. 3,) 343. 

Order YIIL— CETE. 
Sub-Order Zeuglodontes. 

64. Basilosauridae < Zeuglodontes , VanBen., Mem. 

Ac. R. Belg., XXXV, 1865. 

65. Cynorcidae = Cynorcidae^ Cope, P. A. N. S., 

1867, 144. 

Sub-Order Denticete. 

[Delphinoidea,) 

{Delphinoidea platanistiformia.) 

66. Platanistidae < Plat anistidae, FL, Trans. Zool. 

Soc., vi, 113, 1867. 

67. Iniidae < Platanistidae, FL, Trans. 

Zool. Soc., vi, 114, 1867. 

[Delphinoidea typica.) 

68. Delphinidae > Delphinidae, FL, Trans. ZooL 

Soc, vi, 113, 1867. 



15 

a. Pontoporiinae = Pontoporiinae, Gill, 0. E. L, 

yi., 124, 1871. 

b. Delphinapterinae = Beluginae, FL, Trans. Zool. 

Soc, vi, 115, 1867. 

c. Delphininae < Delphininae, Fl., Trans. 

Zool. Soc, vi, 115, 1867. 

d. Globiocephalinae < Delphininae, FL, Trans. 

Zool. Soc.,vi, 115,1867. 

[Delpliinoidea zipliiiformia. ) 

69. Ziphiidae = Ziphioides, Fisch, N. A. M. H. 

N. P., iii, 41, 1867. 

a. Ziphiinae = Ziphiinae, Gill, 0. E. I., vi, 

124, 1871. 

b. Anarnacinae = Anarnacinae, Gill, C. E. I., 

vi, 124, 1871. 

{Pliyseteroidea. ) 

70. Physeteridae = Pliyseteridae, Gill, A. N., iv, 

727, 1871. 

a. Physeterinae = Physeterinae, Gill, A. N"., 

iv, 732, 1871. 

b. Kogiinae = Kogiinae, Gill, A. ^., iv, 

732, 1871. 

[Denticete incertae sedis.) 

71. Rliahdosteidae = Rhahdosteidae^ Gill, 0. E. I., 

vi, 123, 1871. 



16 

Sub-Order Mysticete. 

72. Balaenopteridae = Balaenopteridae, FL, Proc. 

Zool. Soc, 1864, 291. 

a. Agaphelinae == Agaphelinae, Gill, 0. E. I., 

vi, 124, 1871. 

b. Megapterinae = Megapterinae, FL, Proc. 

Zool. Soc, 1864, 391. 

c. Balaenopterinae = Balaenopterinae, FL, Proc. 

Zool. Soc, 1864, 391. 

73. Balaenidae = Balaenidae, FL, Proc. Zool. 

Soc, 1864, 389. 

Super-Order INEDUOABILIA. 

(LissENCEPHALA Owen=MiCKOSTHENA Dana,) 

(Insectivorous Series.) 

Order IV.— CHIROPTERA. 

Sub-Order Animalivora. 

{Hoematophilina,) 

74. Desmodidae = Haematophilini, HuxL, P. Z. 

S. L., 1865, 386. 

[Histiophora.) 

75. Phyllostomidae > Pbyllostomidae, Gray, P. Z. 

S. L., 1866, 111. 

76. Mormopidae = Mormopes,Car.,Haiidb.ZooL, 

i, 83. 



17 

77. Rhinolophidae < Rhinolophidae, Gray, P. Z. 

S. L., 1866, 81. 

78. Megadermidae < Megadermata, Pet., M. P. A. 

W. Berlin, 1865, 256. 

a. Vampyrinae = Vampiri, Pet., M. P. A. W. 

Berlin, 1865, 503. 

b. Glossophaginae = Glossophagae, Pet., M. P. 

A. W. Berlin, 1868, 361. 

c. Stenoderminae = Stenodermata, Pet., M. P. A. 

W. Berlin, 1865, 356, 524. 

[Gymnorhina,) 

79. Yespertilionidae = Vespertiliones, Pet., M. P. A. 

W.Berlin,1865,258,524. 

a. Vespertilioninae = yespertilioniens,Gerv.,An. 

Am. S. Cast. — Mamm. , 74. 

b. Nycticejinae = Nycticeins, Gerv., Mamm., 

74. 

80. Molossidae = Molossi, Pet., M. P. A. W. 

Berlin, 1865, 573. 

81. Noctilionidae = Brachyura, Pet., M. P. A. W. 

Berlin, 1865, 257. 

a. Noctilioninae = Noctilionins,Gerv.,An.Am. 

S. Cast. — Mamm., 52. 

b. Emballonm^inae = JN'octilioninSjGerv., An.Am. 

S. Cast.— Mamm., 62. 

July, 1871. 



18 

c. Furiinae = Furia, Gerv., An. Am. S. 

Cast. — Mamm., 69. 

Sub-Order Frugivora. 

82. Pteropodidae = Pteropi, Pet., M. P. A. W. 

Berlin, 1867, 320, 867. 

Order YL— INSECTIVORA. 

Sub-Order Dermoptera. 

83. Galeopithecidae = Galeopithecidae, Miv., J. A. & 

P., ii, 1868, 124. 

Sub-Order Insectivora Yera. 
(Soricoidea,) 

84. Talpidae = Talpidae, Miv., J. A. & P., ii, 

1868, 150. 

a. Talpinae = Talpina, Miv., J. A. & P., 

ii, 1868, 151. 

b. Myogalinae = Myogalina, Miv., J. A. & 

P., ii, 1868, 152. 

85. Soricidae = Soricidae, Miv., J. A. & P., ii, 

1868, 153. 

[Erinaceoidea.) 

86. Erinaceidae = Erinaceidae, Miv., J. A.& P., 

ii, 1868, 146. 
a. Erinaceinae = Herissons, Gerv., H. N". 

Mamm., i, 229. 



19 

b. Gymnurinae = Gymnures, Gerv., H. N. 

Mamm., i, 231. 

[Centetoidea,) 

87. Centetidae = Centetidae, Miv., J. A. & P., 

ii, 1868, 147. 

a. Centetinae = Tanrecs, Gerv., H. N. 

Mamm., i, 233. 

b. Solenodontinae -= Solenodontes, Gerv., H. N. 

Mamm, i, 246. 

88. Potamogalidae = Potamogalidae, Allm., T. Z. 

S., vi, 149, 1-16. 

( Cliryschloridoidea) 

89. Clirysochlorididae= Chrysochloridae, Miv., J. A. & 

P., ii, 1868, 150. 

[Macroscelidoidea.) 

90. Macroscelididae = Macroscelididae, Miv., J. A. 

& P., ii, 1868, 143. 

a. Rhynchocyoninae = Rhynchocyons, Gerv., H. 

N. Mamm., i, 238. 

b. Macroscelidinae = Macroscelidiens, Gerv., H. 

N. Mamm., i, 235. 

91. Tupayidae = Tupaiidae, Miv., J. A. & P., 

ii, 1868, 145. 

{Insedivora incertae sedis.) 

92. Leptididae < Leptidis, Leidy, Ext. Mamm. 

Dak. & Neb., 345. 



20 

(Rodent Series.) 

Order GLffiES. 

Sub-Order Simplicidentati. 

[Lophiomyoidea. ) 

93. Lophiomyidae = Lophiomides, A. M. Edw., N. 

A. M. H. N. P., iii, 114. 



[Myoidea.) 

= Pedetina, Car., Handb. Zool., 

i, 101. 
= Dipodina, Car., Handb. Zool., 

i, 101. 
= Jaculina, Car., Handb. ZooL, 

i, 101. 
= Murides, Gerv., H. N. Mamm., 
i, 417. 
= Rhizodontes a. Spalacini, 
Br't., S.R., 307. 
b. Georhychinae = Rliizodontes b. Georhy- 

chini, Br't., S. R., 308. 
= Murini, Lillj., Gnag. 

Daggdj., 12. 

= Prismatodontes b. Macro- 

nyches, Br't., S. R., 309. 

= Primatodontes a, Brachyo- 

nyches, Br't, S. R., 309. 



94. Pedetidae 

95. Dipodidae 

96. Jaculidae 

97. Mnridae 
a. Spalacinae 



c. Murinae 

d. Siphneinae 

e. EUobiinae 



21 

f. Arvicolinae = Arvicolini, Lillj., Gnag. 

Daggdj., 22. 

[Myoxoidea.) 

98. Myoxidae = Myoxidae, Lillj., Gnag. 

Daggdj., 31. 

[Saccomyoidxa.) 

99. Saccomyidae = Saccomyinae, Bd., M. N". A., 

405. (e Saccomyidiis.) 

100. Geomyidae = Sciurospalaco'ides, Br't.,S. R., 

301. 

{ Castor oidea,) 

101. Castoridae = Castoridae, Morgan, Am. 

Beaver, 186. 

(Sciiir oidea.) 

102. Sciuridae = Sciiirida, Car., Handb. ZooL, 

i, 96. 

a. Sciurinae = Campsiurina, Car., Handb. 

ZooL, i, 96. 

b. Arctomyinae = Arctomyina, Car., Handb. 

Zool., i, 97. 

[Anomcduroidea. ) 

103. Ano^aluridae = Anomalurina, Car., Handb. 

Zool., i, 98. 



22 
[Hcqoloodontoidea. ) 

104. Haploodonticlae = Haploodontidae, Lillj., Gnag. 

Daggdj., 41. 

[Hystricoidea.) 

105. Spalacopodidae = Spalacopodidae, Lillj., Gnag. 

Daggdj., 44. 

a. Octodontinae x Octodontina, Waterh., N. 

H. Mamm., ii, 242. 

b. Ctenodactylinae < Octodontina, Waterh., N. 

H, Mamm., ii, 242. 

c. Ecliimyinae < Ecliimyina, Waterh., N. H. 

Mamm., ii, 286. 
• d. Cercolabinae = Oercolabina, Waterh., N. 

H. Mamm., ii, 484, (398). 

106. Hystricidae < Hystrichina, Car., Handb. 

ZooL, i, 109. 

107. Dasyproctidae ^= Dasyproctina, Car., Handb. 

ZooL, i, 110. 

a. Dasyproctinae = Dasyproctiens, Gerv., H. N". 

Mamm., 327. 

b. Coelogenyinae = Celogenyens, Gerv., H. N. 

MaDim., 325. 

108. Caviidae < Caviina, Car., Handb. ZooL, 

i, 110. 

109. Hydrochoeridae < Caviina, Car., Handb. ZooL, 

i, 110. 



23 

110. Chinchillidae = Chincliillidae, Lillj., Gnag. 

Daggdj., 42. 

a. Chinchillinae = Orobii seu Eriomyes monti- 

colae, Br't., S. R., 317. 

b. Lagostominae = Homalobii sen Eriomyes 

planicolae,Br't.,S.R.,317. 

Sub-Order Duplicidentati. 

111. Lagomyidae = Lagomyidae, Gray, A. & M. 

N. H., XX, 219, 1867. 

112. Leporidae = Leporidae, Gray, A. & M. 

N. H., XX, 219, 1867. 

Order XIIL— BRUTA. 
Sub-Order Vermilinguia. 

113. Myrmecophagi- = Myrmecophagidae, Gray, 0. 

dae P. & B. M., 390. 

a. Myrmecophaginae (Myrmecophaga,) Gray, C. P. 

(Tamandiia, { &E.M.,390. 

b. Cyclothurinae = Cyclothurus, Gray, C. P. 

& E. M., 392. 

Sub-Order Squamata. 

114. Manididae = Manididae, Gray, C. P. & E. 

M., 366. 

Sub-Order Fodientia. 

115. Orygteropodidae = Orycteropodidae, Gray, C. P. 

& E. M., 389. 



24 

Sub-Order Tardigrada. 

116. Bradypodidae = Bradypodidae, Gray, C. P. & 

E. M., 362 

a. Bradypodinae ( Bradypiis, ) Gray, 363, 

( Arctopithecus, ) 364. 

b. Choloepodinae = Choloepus, Gray, C. P. & 

E. M., 363. 

117. Megatheriidae = Gravigrada, Burm., A. M. P. 

B. A., i, 32. 

a. Megaiheriinae 

b. Mylodontinae 

Sub-Order Loricata. 

118. Dasypodidae > Dasypodidae, Gray, P. Z. S., 

1865, 360. 

a. Dasypodinae < Dasypodina, Gray, P. Z. S., 

1865, 360. 

b. Tatusiinae < Dasypodina, Gray, P. Z. S., 

1865, 360. 

c. Xenurinae < Dasypodina, Gray, P. Z. S., 

1865, 365. 

d. Tolypeutinae = Tolypeutina, Gray, P. Z. S., 

1865, 365. 
119 Chlamydophori- = Chlamyphoridae, Gray, P. Z. 

dae S., 1865, 387. 

120. Hoioloplioridae = Hoploj^horidae^ HuxL, Phil. 

Trans., civ, 31. 



25 
? 

121. Ancylotlieriidae = Fcnnille cmjoiird'lnii eteinte^ 

Gauclry, An. foss. d'Att., 
i, 129, 321. 

Sub-Class DIDELPHIA. 

Order XIY— MARSUPIALIA. 

Sub-Order Rhizophaga. 

122. Phascolomyidae = Phascolomyidae, Waterli., N. 

H. Mamm., i, 241. 

Sub-Order Syndactyli. 
{Poejyhaga.) 

123. Macropodidae = Macropodidae, Waterh., N. H. 

Mamm., i, 50. 

[Carpopliaga.) 

124. Tarsipedidae = Tarsipedides, Gerv., Mamm., 

ii, 277. 

125. Phalangistidae = Plialangistidae, Owen, T. Z. 

S., ii, 332. 

a. Petam^inae = Petauristins, Gerv., H. K, 

Mamm., ii, 276. 

b. Phalangistinae = Plialangistins, Gerv., H. N. 

Mamm., ii, 274. 

126. Phascolarctidae = Phascolarctidae, Owen, T. Z. 

S., ii, 332. 
[Diprotodontoidea . ) 



26 

127. Diprotodontidae < Diprotodon,Owen,Pal£eont., 

394-395. 

128. Thylacoleonidae < Thylacoleo, FL, Jour. Geol. 

S. L., xxiv, 1868, 307. 

[Entomophaga,) 

129. Peramelidae = Peramelidae, Waterli., N. H. 

Mamm., i, 354. 

a. Choeropodinae 

b. Peramelinae 

Sub-Order Dasyuromorphia. 

130. Dasyuridae = Dasyuridae, Owen, T. Z. S., 

ii, 332. 

a. Sarcophilinae 

b. Dasyurinae 

c. Phascogalinae 

131. Myrmecobiidae = Ambulatoria, Owen, T. Z. S., 

ii, 332. 

Sub-Order Didelphimorphia. 

132. Didelpliididae = Didelphididae, Waterh., N. H. 

Mamm., ii, 462, 



27 

]VIarsupialta incertae sedis. 

133. Plagiaidacidae = Plagiaulax, Falc, Journ. 

Geol. S. L., 1862, 348. 

134. Dromatlieriidae = Dromatherium, Owen, Pal., 

302. 

Sub-Class ORNITHODELPHIA. 

Order XVI.— MONOTREMATA. 
Sub-Order Tachyglossa. 

135. Tachyglossidae > Ornithorhynchidae, Gray, C. 

P. &E. M., 393. 

Sub-Order Platypoda. 

136. Ornithorhynchi- > Ornithorhynchidae, Gray, C. 

dae P. & E. M., 393. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY, 



OK 



LIST OF AUTHORS REFERRED TO 



(29) 



LIST OF AUTHORS REFERRED TO, 



The following enumeration of works is chiefly intended to explain the abbrevia- 
tions used in connection with the preceding list of families : the works most 
accessible to students generally have been used, w^henever they could be referred 
to in explanation of the limits of families adopted ; special monographs have been 
chiefly referred to when the groups in connection with which they are cited have 
not been limited in the same manner in general works. The " Osteographie" of 
de Blainville, although not actually referred to in connection with any special 
family, is so indispensable to any investigator of the mammals, and has been so 
much used by the writer, that the title thereof and an analysis of its contents have 
been given ; the analysis and assignment of dates of publication of the several 
monographs will doubtless prove useful, and save to some time and labor like that 
necessarily devolved upon the writer in ascertaining the data furnished. 

For the information of students, and because it is information often desired, the 
publishers' prices of most of the works cited are given, in the currency of the 
country where they were published. Many of the separate monographs reprinted 
from journals can be obtained from the second-hand book dealers — especially the 
German — and from the Xaturalists' Agency of Salem, Mass., but at varying prices. 

In order to secure uniformity of typography, only the initial letters of the charac- 
teristic Mords are capital, the example of the learned brothers Grimm, as well as 
other German writers, sanctioning such usage for their language. The initial 
letters, however, of the more important words of the general titles, and to which 
reference is made in the list, are capitalized, corresponding with and rendering at 
once intelligible the abbreviated references. The punctuation of the respective 
title-pages is adopted. The symbol ( <: ) denotes that the memoir after which it is 
inserted is contained in the volume or series whose title follows ; the symbol of 
equality (=) denotes that the memoir is co-extensive with the volume. 



ALLEN (Joel Asaph). On the eared seals (Otariadse), with detailed descrip- 
tions of the North Pacific species, by J. A. Allen. Together with an account 
of the habits of the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), by Charles 
Bryant. < Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, .... II, ISo. 1 
= pp. 1—108. 

ALLMAN (George James). On the characters and aflinities of Potamogale. 
.... < Transactions of the Zoological Society of London, YI, 1 — 16, pi. 
1-2, 1806. 

BAIRD (Spencer Fullerton). Mammals of North America; the descriptions 
of species based chiefly on the collections in the museum of the Smithsonian 
institution. .... With eighty-seven plates of original figures, illustrating the 
genera and species, and including details of external form and osteology. 

(81.) 



32 

Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1859. [4to., 4 p. 1., xi— xxxiv, 735 
pp. 4- (Part II, 1—55 pp.) 73G— 7G4 pp., 87 pi. (29 col.)— $10; with col. pi., 
$15.] 

[" Part I. General report upon the Mammals of the several Pacific railroad 
routes. . . •. Washington, D. C, July, 1857:" reprinted from the " Reports 
of explorations and survej^s to ascertain the most practicable and economical 
route for a railroad from the Mississippi river to the Pacific Ocean. • • . . 
Volume VIII. Washington: .... 1857." (60 pi. in v. VI, VII, VIII.) 
"Part II. Special report upon the Mammals of the Mexican boundary. By 
Spencer F. Baird, • . • . With notes by the naturalists of the survey. Wash- 
ington, D. C, January, 1859:" reprinted from the "Report on the Unitec! 
States and Mexican boundary survey, made under direction of the secretary 
of the interior, by William H. Emory, major first cavalry and United States 
commissioner. Volume II. Washington: .... 1859. (Part II. [§1.] Mam» 
mals of the boundary, •••.)" 62 pp. 27 pi.] 

BLAINVILLE (Henri Marie Ducrotay de). Osteographie ou description ico- 
nographique comparee du squelette et du systeme dentaire des Mammiferes 
recents et fossiles pour servir de base a la zoologie et a la geologic [ par H. M. 
Ducrotay de Blainville .... Ouvrage accompagne de 323 planches litho- 
graphiees sous sa direction par M. J. C. Werner, peintre du Museum d'histoire 
naturelle de Paris, precede d'une etude sur la vie et les travaux de M. de 
Blainville, par M. P. Picard.— [I— IV.— See " Contents."]— Paris: J. B. Bail- 
liere et fils .... 1839-1864. [Text, 4to., 4v.; Atlas, fol., 4v.] 

[Published in twenty-six fascicules ; the first twenty-five under the title : 
"Osteographie; ou, description iconographique comparee du squelette et du 
s}^ St erne dentaire des cinq classes d'animaux vertebres recents et fossiles, pour 
servir de base a la zoologie et a la geologic par M. H. M. Ducrotay de Blain- 
ville • • • . Ouvrage accompagne de planches lithographiees sous sa direction 
par M. J. C. Werner .... Paris, Arthus Bertrand, . . . ." [1839-1855.] 
The twenty-sixth and last fascicule was issued w ith the special title above 
given, titles for the four volumes of text and four of plates, table of contents 
and index, by the Baillieres in 1864. The subscription price w^as 2 francs 35 
centimes per plate ; the price of the tw^enty -sixth livraison, 45 francs ; and of 
the w^liole, on completion, 800 francs, "aulieu de 961 fr." 

The culpable neglect of the publishers to give the dates of publication of the 
several fascicules has doubtless devolved upon many investigators, as upon the 
writer, much trouble and annoyance in ascertaining them, and to save to 
others similar trouble, a collation is here presented, the dates having chiefly 
been ascertained from Wagner's annual reports in the " Archiv fiir Xatur- 
geschichte." The appearance of successive fascicules has not been noticed in 
the "Bibliographic de la France." 

The titles of the respective monographs given below are those at the upper 
fourth of the first page of each monograph, and which are the only special 
titles published. 

The work is more remarkable as a methodical repertory of facts respecting 
superficial osteological details, than as a digest exhibiting acute appreciation of 
the value and subordination of characters and their taxonomical application, 
or orthodox view^s respecting classification and the geological succession of 



33 

animals — tlie concurrent views of the most recent and approved investigators 
being tlie standard. Tlie "genera," it must be remembered, are generally 
about equal in extent to the families now generally adopted.] 

COiSTTEXTS. 

Tome premier | Primates — Secundates | Avec atlas de 59 planches. [7 pp + 9 

parts*, as below: — ] 
Atlas — Tome premier | compose de 59 planches | Primates — Secundates. [3 

p. 1. + 5 parts, viz. : — ] 

[A title-page with the more general title [see above] and the addition: — " Mam- 
miferes — Tome premier" was issued with the first fascicule in "1839," and 
another with the modification "Mammiferes. — Primates: Pithecus. Cebus. 
Lemur," in "1841," but both are superseded by the special title issued for the 
first volume with the twenty-sixth fascicule.] 

(Etude sur la vie et les travaux de M. de Blainville, par M. P. Nicard.) [1S64.— ccxxiii. pp. 

< F. xxvi.] 
([^.] De I'ost^ographie en general. > Ost^ographie des Mammiferes. pp. 19-47). [1S39.— 47 

pp. <F. i.] 
([B.] Ost6ographie des Primates.— Sur les primates en general et sur les singes {Pithecus) en 

particulier.) [1S39.— 52 pp. 11 pi. < F. i. (-f pi. 1 6z5 and 5 6is. < F. xxv, 1855.)] 

[A secondary general title for the Primates was issued as the first pages (p 1 = 
1 1) of the preceding, viz.: " Osteographie des Mammiferes de I'ordre des Pri- 
mates, suivie de recherches sur Thistoire de la science a leur egard, les principes 
de leur classification, leur distribution geographique actuelle et leur anciennete 
a la surface de la terre."] 

([C] Osteographie des Primates.— Sapajous {Cebus).) [1839.— 31 pp. 9 pi. =F. ii.] 
([X>.] Osteographie des Primates.— Makis (iemu?-)-) [18:^9.-48 pp. 11 pi. < F. iii.] 
([£.] M^moire sur la veritable place de I'Aye-Aye dans la s^rie des Mammiferes. Lu a la 

Society philomatique, le 16 mai 1816.) [1839.-40 pp. < F. iii.— Plate <F. iii.— Plate 

=pl. 5 < Z>.] 
([J!] De I'anciennete des Primates a la surface de la terre.) 68 pp. [1839] < F. iv.— Sans 

planches.] 
([(?.] Ostdographie des Cheiropt^res (Fesper^iZto, L.).) [1839.— 104 pp. 15 pi. < F. v.] 
{iH.'\, Osteographie des Mammiferes insectivores {Talpa, Sorex et Erinaceus, L.)) [1840. — 115 

pp. 11 pi. = F. vi.] 

Tomedeuxieme | Secundates | Avec atlas de 117 planches, [viii. pp. -f 9 parts. ] 
Atlas — Tome deuxieme | compose de 117 planches | Secundates. [2 p. 1. -f 8 
parts, viz.: — ] 

([/.] Osteographie des Carnassiers. [1840.— 85 pp. < F. vii.] 

[A secondary title for the Carnassiers (I — Q) was issued as the first pages 
(p. 1 = 1 1) of the preceding, viz.: "Osteographie des Carnassiers, precedee de 
considerations sur I'histoire de la science a leur egard, les principes de leur 
classification, leur distribution geographique actuelle, et suivie de recherches 
sur leur anciennete a la surface de la terre."] 

([./.] Des Phoques (G. Phoca, L.).) [1840.— 51 pp. 10 pi. < F. vii.] 

([K] Des Ours (G. Ursus).) [1841.-94 pp. IS pi. = F. viii.] 

{[L.] Des Ptttit-ours (G. Subursus).) [1S41.— 123 pp. 16 pi. = F. ix. (4- pi. 17 < F. x, 1542.] 

* The "parts" is each monograph or series distinguished by a special and complete pagination or 
numeration of plates. 

Jidy, 1871. 



84 

[Witli this fascicule was issued a general {Me limited thus : " Mammiferes. — 
Carnassiers : [ Ycspertilio. Talpa. Sorex. Erinaceus. Phoca. Ursus. Sub- 
ursus. .... 1841."] 

{[3f.] Des Mustelas (G. Mustela, L.)) [1842.— 83 pp. 15 pi. = F. x.] 

([i\^.] Des Yirerras.) [1842.— 100 pp. 13 pi. = F. xi.] 

{[0.] Des Felis.) [1843.-196 pp , 1 folded tab., 19 pi. = F. xii. (+ pi. 20 < F. xxv., 1855.)] 

([P.] Des Canis.) [1843.— 160 pp. 16 pi, = F. xiii.] 

([Q.] Des Hyenes.) [1844.— 84 pp. 8 pi. = F. xiv.] 

Tome troisieme | Quaternates ] Avec atlas de 54 planches. [y^iii pp. + 5 

parts. ] 
Atlas — Tome troisieme | compose de 54 planches 1 Quaternates. [2 p. 1. + 5 

parts, viz.:] 

([72 or ,S ] Des Elephants.) [1845.- 367 pp. 18 pi. = F. xvi.] 
([S or T.] Du Dinotherium.) [1845.— 64 pp. 3 pi. = F. xvii.] 
{{T OT U.I Des Lamautins (Buffou), (Jfawai^l*, Scopoli), ou Gravigrades aquatiques.) [1844. 

—140 pp. 11 pi. = F. XV.] 
([F.] Des Damans (Buffon), {Hyrax).) [1845.-47 pp. 3 pi. = F. xviii.] 

([F or X] Des Rhinoceros (Buflon), (G. Rhinoceros, L.).) [1846.- 2.S2 pp. 14 pi. = F. xx.] 
([X and non-lettered.*] Monographie du Cheval. G. JEgwws.) 1864. [SO pp. < F. xxvi.] 

Tome quatrieme — Quaternates — Maldentes | Avec atlas de 93 planches, [viii. 

pp. + 8 parts. ] 
Atlas — Tome quatrieme ] compose de 93 planches ] Quaternates — Maldentes. 

[2p.l. + 11 parts.] 

([r.] Des Palseotheriums, Lophiodons, Anthracotheriums, Choeropotames.) [1846. — 196 pp. 8 

_}. 3 + 3 + 1 [= 15] pi. = F. xxi.] 
([Z."] Des Tapirs (Buffou). (G. Tajnrus, Brisson).) [1846.-52 pp. 6 pi. = F. xix.] 
([J.^.] Sur les Hippopotames (Buffon), {Hijipopotarmis, L.) et les Cochons (Buffon), {Sus, L.).) 

1847. [248 pp. 8 + 9 [==17] pi. < F. xxii.] 
([J55.] Des Anoplotheriunis (G. Cuvier) et sur les genres plus ou moins diff^rents: 

1849. [155 pp. 9 pi. = F. xsiii.] 

Xiphodon, "j Merycopotamus, ") Falconer et Cauteley,t 

Dichobune, rG. Cuvier, 1822. Hippohyus, / 1S47. 

Adapis, J Paloplotberium, ^ 

Chalicotherium, J. Kaup, 1833. Dichodon, I R. Owen, 1848. 

Oainotherium, Brarard, 1835. Hyopotamus, J 
Microchoerus, Sc.f Wood, 1846.) 

([OC] Des Ruminants {Pecora, L.) en general et en particulier des Cbameaux, des Lamas, 

Buffon. (G. Camelus, L.) 1850. [131 pp. 5 pi. = F. xxi v.] 
([DD.] Osteographie des Paresseux {Bradypus, L.).) [1840.- 64 pp. 6 pi. = F. v.] 
{[EE. General title.] Publication posthume. — Explication des planches suivantes. 

PiLiFERES. Genres. Gorilla, Smilodon, Sciurus, Arctomys, Castor, Capromys, Myopota- 
mus, Hystrix, Cavia, Equus, Camelopardalis, Myrmecophaga, Macrotherium, Megathe- 
rium, Glyptodon, Toxodon, Elasmotherium, Macrauchenia et groupes qui s'y rattachent. 
SQ0AMMIFERES. Genre Crocodilus et groupes generiques voisins. 

Ost£ozoaiees. Signification des os du crane dans les diverses classes de ce type. 1855. 
[63 pp. 41 pi.] 
Table alphabetique des quatre volumes. 1855. [Ixvi. pp. •< F. xxvi.] 

BRANDT (Johann Friedrich). Symbolje sirenologicse, [fasciculus I,] quibus 
praecipue Rhytinse historia naturalis illustratur. .... (1845). < Memoires 

* The first series of letters is given in the list of monographs opposite title-pages, and the second in 
the table of contents of the third volume. 
t The cacography of the original is copied. 



85 

de TAcademie Imperiale des Sciences de St. Petersbonrg. Sixieme serie. 
Sciences mathematiqnes. pliysiqaes et natiirelles. Tome Yll. Seconde partie : 
Sciences naturelles. Tome VII. • • • . 1849.— Zoologie et physiologic, 1— IGO, 
pi. 1—5. 
BRANDT (Johann Friedrich). Beitrage ziir nahern kenntniss der saugethiere 
Russland's. Von J. F. Brandt. (1851.) < lb. Sixieme serie. Sciences 
malliematiqnes, pbysiqnes, et naturelles. Tome IX. Seconde partie. Sci- 
ences naturelles. Tome YII. • • • . 1855.— Zoologie et physiologie. 1—365. 
[ Yierte abliandlung. Blicke auf die allmaligen fortscbritte in der gruppirung 
der Nager [Glires] mit specieller beziebung auf die gescbicbte der gattung 
Castor, besonders des altweltlicben Bibers. (pp. 77—124.) Flinfte abband- 
lung. Untersucbungen iiber die craniologiscben entwickelungsstufen und die 
davon herzuleitenden verwandtscbaften und classificationen der Nager der 
jetztwelt, mit besonderer beziebung auf die gattung Castor, (pp. 125 — 836, 
pi. i— xi + va.)] 

Symbolse sirenologicce. Fasciculus II et III. Sireniorum, Pacbyder- 

matum, Zeuglodontum et Cetaceorum ordinis osteologia comparata, nee non 
Sireniorum generum monograpbise. . • • • . Pctropoli, 1861-68. [4to., 8 p. 
1. 883 (4-1) pp. 9 pi.] < Memoires de PAcademie Imperiale des Sciences 
de St. Petersbourg, Sixieme serie. Sciences naturelles. 1 — 365, 19 pi. 

De Dinotberiorum genere Elepbantidorum familisB adjugendo nee non de 

Elepbaniidorum generum craniologia comparata. • • • . St, Petersbourg, .... 
1869. [4to. 1—38 pp.] <Ib. XIY, No. 1. 

Untersucbungen liber die gattung Klippscliliefer(HyraxHerm.), besonders 



in anatomiscber und verwandtscbaftlicber beziebung nebst bemerkungen liber 
ihre verbreitung und lebensweise. • • • . St. Petersbourg, 1869. • • • . [4to. 
Ti, 127 pp. 3 pi.] < lb. XIY, No. 2. 

BURMEISTER (Carl Hermann Conrad, or, Bupanice, German). Descripcion 
de la Macraucbenia patacbonica. <:Anales del Musco publico de Buenos 
Aires, • • • , para German Burmeister, director del Museo publico de Buenos 
Aires. .... I, 82—65, pi. 1—4. 1864. 

Fauna argentina. — Primera parte. Mamiferos fosiles. <Ib. I, 87 — 232, 

pi. 5-8. 1866. 

[Contains monographs of Gravigrada (pp. 149—182, pi. v) and Effodienta, a, 
Biloricata.— «. e. Glyptodontes (pp. 183—231, pi. vi— viii).] 

Descripcion de cuatro espccies de Delfines de la costa argentina. > lb. I, 

367—445, pi. xxi— xxYiii, 1869. 

[Contains an anatomical monograph on Ponto'poria Blaiwcillii, demonstrat- 
ing its affinity with the Delpbinidse. ] 

Monografia de los Glyptodontes en el museo publico de Buenos Aires. 

<=Ib. II, 1—107, pL 1—12, 1870. [To be continued.] 

CARUS (Julius Victor). Handbuch der zoologie von Jul. Yictor Carus, . • • 
und C. E. A. Gerstaecker, .... Erster band. I. hiilfte. Wirbelthiere, bearb- 
eitet von J. Yictor Carus. — Leipzig : Yerlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, 1868. 



S6 

[8vo., Bogcn 1 — 27. — 2|tli.] I. classe. Mammalia, [Saugetliierc. pp. 09— 
191.] 
COPE (Ed-ward Drinkard). An addition to the extinct vertebrate fauna of tlie 
miocene period, with a synopsis of the extinct Cetacca of the United States. 
.... <: Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 
18G7, 138—156. 

[ Cjaiorcidai distinguished. ] 

DOYERE (M ...p...L---N««-). Notice sur un mammifere de Madagascar, 
formant le type d'un nouveau genre [Euplere] de la famille des carnassiers in- 
sectivores de M. Cuvier ; par M. Doyere. < x\nnales des sciences naturelles 
• • • . Seconde serie. Tome quatrieme. Zoologie. 1835, 270 — 283, pi. 8. 

EDWARDS (Alphonse Milne). Eecherches anatomiques, zoologiqucs et pa- 

leontologiqucs sur la famille des Chevrotains [Moschidre et Tragulida']. • • • . 
<: Annales des Sciences Naturelles. Cinquieme serie. Zoologie et Paleoutologie. 
.... II, 1864, pp. 49—167, pi. 2—12. 

Memoire sur une nouvelle famille de I'ordre des Rongeurs [Lophiomides]. 

. • . . <Nouvelles Archives du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris, III, 
81—118, pi. 6—10, 1867. 

EDWARDS (Henri Milne et Alphonse Milne). Eecherches pour servir a 
riiistoire naturelle des Mammiferes. .... Paris : Victor Masson et fils, • • • , 
1868 [— ] 1870. [4to., liv. ler_5er._Chaque livr. 13 fr.] 

FALCONER (Hugh). On the disputed affinities of the mammalian genus Pla- 
giaulax, from the Purbeck beds. .... < The Quarterly Journal of the Geo- 
logical Society of London, XYIII, 1862, 848—369. 



Palfeontological memoirs and notes of the late Hugh Falconer, A.M., M.D. 

. • • . With a biographical sketch of the author. Compiled and edited by 
Charles Murchison, M.D. , F.R.S. .... [See "Contents."] London: Robert 
Hardwicke, .... 1868. [8vo., 2 vols. (I,) Ivi, 590 pp. 34 pi.; (11, ) xiii, 675 
pp. 38pl.— 42sh.] 

CONTENTS. 

Vol. I. Fauna antiqua sivalensis. 
" II. Mastodon, Elephant, Rhinoceros, Ossiferous caves. Primeval man and 
his cotemporaries. 

FISCHER (Paul). Memoire sur les cetaces du genre Ziphius, Cuvier. .... 
<:Nouvelles Archives du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris, III, 41 — 79, 
pi. 4, 1867. 

[Contains a synopsis of the Ziphioides.] 

FLOWER (William Henry). Notes on the skeletons of whales in the principal 
museums of Holland and Belgium, with descriptions of two species apparently 
new to science. .... <- Proceedings of the scientific meetings of the Zoo- 
logical Society for the year 1864, 384—420. 

— ^ Description of the skeleton of Inia geoffrensis and of the skull of Pon. 

toporia blainvillii, with remarks on the systematic position of these animals 



37 

in the order Cetacea. .... < Transactions of the Zoological Society of Lon- 
don, VI, 87—116, pi. 4, 1867. 

[Contains a sj^stematic synopsis of the families and subfamilies Cetaceans.] 

FLOWER ("William Henry). On the affinities and probable habits of the 
extinct Australian marsupial, Thylacoleo carnifex, Owen. .... <: The Quar- 
terly Journal of the Geological Society of London, XXIV, 1868, 307—319. 

On the value of the characters of the base of the cranium in the classifica- 
tion of the order Caruivora, and on the systematic position of Bassaris and 
other disputed forms. • • • .. < Proceedings of the scientific meetings of the 
Zoological Society of London, for the year 1869, 4 — 37. 

■ On the anatomy of the Proteles, Proteles cristatus (Sparrman). • • . . < lb. 



1869, 474—496, pi. 36. 

GAUDRY (Albert). Animaux fossiles et geologic de I'Attique, d'apres les 
rccherches faites en 1855-56 et en 1860 sous les auspices de TAcademie des 
Sciences par Albert Gaudry. Paris: F. Sory, editeur, 1862 — 18G7. [4to., 
474 pp. 1 1.; atlas 4 p. 1., 1 map, 75 pi. — Published in 19 livr., at 6 fr. each.] 

GEOFFROY SAINT-HILAIRE (Isidore). Museum d'histoire naturelle de 
Paris. — Catalogue methodique de la collection des Mammiferes, de la collection 
des Oiseaux et des collections annexes. Par le professeur-administrateur 
M. Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, • . • et les aides-naturalistes MM. Florent 
Prevost et Pucheran. — Paris : Gide et Baudry, .... 1851. [8vo. 3 p. 1. — 
(Introduction.) xv. pp. — (Premiere partie. — Mammiferes. — Catalogue des 
Primates, par M. Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire.) 1 p. 1. vii, 96 pp.] 

GERVAIS (Paul). Histoire naturelle des Mammiferes avec Tindication de 
leurs moeurs, et de leurs rapports avec les arts, le commerce et 1' agriculture 
.... [See " Contents."] Paris L. Curmer .... 1854 [— ] 1855. [8vo., 2 v. 
(I) xxiv, 418 pp. 1 1. 18 col. pi., 14 uncol. pi.— 21 fr.; (II) 2 p. 1. 344 pp., 40 
col. pL, 29 uncol. pi. — 25 fr.] 

CONTENTS. 

Ire partie. [Introduction, Primates, Cheiropteres, Insectivores, Rongeurs.] • • . 

1854. 
[2e partie.] Carnivores, Proboscidiens, Jumeutes, Bisulques, Edcntes, Mar- 

supiaux, MoDOtremes, Phoques, Sireuides et Cetaces. .... 1855. 

Animaux nouveaux ou rares recueilles peudant I'expedition dans les 

parties centrales de I'Amerique du Sud de Rio de Janeiro a Lima, et de 
Lima au Para ; executee par ordre du gouvernement fran(^ais pendant les 
annees 1843 a 1847, sous la direction du comte Francis de Castelnau. • • . 
Mammiferes par M. Paul Gervais, • • • Paris, chez P. Bertrand, • • • 1865' 
[2 p. 1., 116 pp. 20 pi.] < Castelnau (Franc^ois de Laporte, comte de). Ex- 
pedition dans les parties centrales de I'Amerique du Sud, de Rio de Janeiro a 
Lima, et de Lima au Para. 7^ partie. Zoologie. 

GIEBEL (Christian Gottfried Andreas). Die Saugethiere in zoologischer, 
auatomischer und paloeontologischer beziehung umfassend dargestellt, .... 
Leipzig : verlag von Ambrosius Abel. 1855. [8vo., xii, 1108 pp. — 7 r. th. 10 



38 

GrlLL (Theodore Nicholas). Prodrome of a monograph of the Pinnipedes. 
• . • . < Communicatious of the Essex Institute. V, pp. 1 — 13, 18CG. 

The cared seals. [A review of memoir on the eared seals (Otariada?), etc., 

hy J. A. Allen.] < The American naturalist, a popular illustrated magazine 
of natural history. IV, G75. 

On the Sperm-whales [Physeterida?], giant and pygmy.. • • . <: lb. IV, 

725—748, 1871. 

Synopsis of the primary subdivisions of the Cetaceans. • • • . < Com- 



munications of the Essex Institute. VI, 121 — 126, 1871. 

GRAY (John Edward) . Catalogue of the specimens of Mammalia in the collec- 
tion of the British museum. Part III. Ungulata furcipeda. .... London : 
printed by order of the trustees. 1832. [12mo., xvi, 280 pp. 37 pi. — 12 sh.] 

Catalogue of Seals [Pinnipedia] and Whales [Cete] in the British mu- 
seum. .... Second edition. London : printed by order of the trustees. 1866. 
[8vo., vii, 402 pp.— 8 sh.] 

Synopsis of the genera of Vespertilionidge and Noctilionidoe. .... < The 

Annals and Magazine of Natural History, • . . XVII. Third series, 1866, 89— 93. 

A revision of the genera of Rhinolophidffi, or horseshoe bats. • • • . < Pro- 
ceedings of the scientific meetings of the Zoological Society of London for the 
year 1866, 81—83. 

Revision of the genera of Phyllostomidte, or leaf-nosed bats. .... < lb., 

1866, 111—118. 

Catalogue of Carnivorous, Pachydermatous, and Edentate Mammalia in 



the British museum. .... London : printed by order of the trustees. 1869. 
[8vo., 4 p. h 398 pp.— 6 sh. 6 d.] 

Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs, and Fruit-eating Bats in the collection of 

the British museum. .... London : printed by order of the trustees. 1870. 
[8vo., viii, 137 pp.] 

HUXLEY (Thomas Henry). On the osteology of the genus Glj'ptodon. • • • . 
< Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, CLV, 1865. 
81—70, pi. 4—9. 

On the structure of the stomach in Desmodus rufus. .... <: Proceedings 

of the scientific meetings of the Zoological Society of London for the year 1865- 
886—390. 

Reports of Professor Huxley's lectures on "The structure and classifica- 
tion of the Mammalia," delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons. < The 
Medical Times and Gazette, 1864, I and II, viz : — 

Lecture I [ — ] IX. Anthropini. [I, 153 : Distinctive characters and skcle 
ton. II, 177 : Muscles. Ill, 20 : Extremities. IV, 229 ; V, 2.":6 : Brain 
VI, 284 : Teeth and organs of reproduction. VII, 312 : Development, 
VIII, 343 ; IX, 309 : Variations and number of species,] 

Lecture X [ — ] XIX. Anthropomoepha. {{Troglodyfes niger.) X, 398 
XI, 428 ; XII, 456 : Skeleton and muscles. XIII, 486 : Larynx, Teeth 



39 

Brain. XIY, 509 : Organs of reproduction, development, variations. 

Troglodytes gorilla XIV, 509; XV, 537; XVI, 564. {Simia satyrus.) 

XVI, 564; XVII, 595; XVIII, 617. {Hylobates). XVIII, 617; 

XIX, 647. {Characteristics of hJsT^uovo^sio^vjiA.). XIX, 647.] 

Lecture XX [— ] XXL Cynopithecika. (v. I,) p. 671. (v. II,) pp. 
12 ; 40 ; 93 ; 123. 

Lecture XXII [— ] XXIII. Plattrhini. pp. 93 ; 123. 

Lecture XXIII. Arctopithecini. p. 124. 

Lecture XXIV. Lemuri^'I. Cheiromtini. Recapitulation, p. 145. 
HUXLEY (Thomas Henry). Professor Huxley's Lectures at the Royal College 
of Surgeons. [On Mammalia]. <:The Lancet, 1866, I, viz: — 

Lecture I [— ] IV. Sirenia. pp. 157—158 ; 180 ; 214—215 ; 239. 

Lecture IV [— ] IX. Cetacea. pp. 239 ; 268 ; 291 ; 324—325 • 350 ; 381. 

Lecture X [— ] XL Pinnipedia. pp. 434—435 ; 465—466. 

Lecture XII. Dog. p. 607. 

LEIDY (Joseph). The extinct mammalian fauna of Dakota and Nebraska, 
including an account of some allied forms from other localities, together with 
a synopsis of the mammalian remains of Xorth America. • • • . Preceded 
■with an introduction on the geology of the tertiary formations of Dakota and 
Nebraska, by F. V. Hayden, M. D. Philadelphia, 1869. = Journal of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. VII, second series. Phila- 
delphia : published for the Academy, by J. B. Lippiucott & Co. 1869. [4to., 
472 pp., 30 pi., 1 map.— $20.] 

LILLJEBORG (Wilhelm). Systematisk ofversigt af de Gnagande Daggdjuren, 
Glires. .... Uppsala : Kongl. akad. bocktrykeriet, 1866. [4to., 1 p. 1. 59 pp. 
3 folded tables.] 

McCOY (Frederick). On the species of Wombats [Phascolomyidse]. (Abstract.) 
.... <r Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, 
VIII, 266—270. 1868. 

MARTIN CWilliam Charles Linnaeus). A general introduction to the Natural 
History of Mammiferous Animals, with a particular view of the Physical 
History of Man, and the more closely allied genera of the order Quadrumana, 
or Monkeys, .... Illustrated with 296 anatomical, osteological, and other 
incidental engravings on wood, and 12 full plate representations of animals, 
drawn by William Harvey. London: Wright & Co. 1841. [8vo., 1 p. 1. 
545 pp., 12pl.— 16sh.] 

MIVART (St. George). Notes on the crania and dentition of the Lemuridse. 
• • • . < Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1864, 611 — 648. 

Contributions towards a more complete knowledge of the axial skeleton in 

the Primates. .... <Ib., 1865, 545 — 592. 

[Contains a synoptical arrangement of the order.] 

On the structure and affinities of Microrhynchus laniger [Lemuridse]. .... 

<:Ib., 1866, 151. 

On the skull of Indris diadema [Lemuridse]. .... <Ib., 1867, 247. 

Additional notes on the osteology of the Lemuridse. .... < lb., 1867, 960. 



40 

MIVART (St. George). Notes on the osteology of the Insectivora. • • • . — 
< The Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, I, 18G7, 281—312 ; 11, 18G8, 
117 — 154. [Contains a descriptive synopsis of the order.] 

Notes sur I'osteolojrie des Insectivores. • • • . < Annales des Sciences 



Naturelles. Cinquieme serie. Zoologie et paleontologie, VIII, 18G7, 221 — 284 ; 
IX, 18G8, 311—372. 

[A translation of the preceding.] 

MORGAN (Lewis Henry). The American Beaver [Castoridce] and his works. 
. . • . Philadelphia : J. B. Lippincott & Co. 1868. [8vo., 330 pp., 1 map, 28 
pl.-$5.] 

MURIE (James). On the saiga antelope, Saiga tartarica (Pall.) • • • . < Pro- 
ceedings of the scientific meetings of the Zoological Society of London for the 
year 1870, 451—503. 

Notes on the anatomy of the prongbuck, Antilocapra americana. 

.... < lb. 1870, 334— 368. 

OWEN, P.R.S. (Richard). On the osteology of the Marsnpialia. .... < Trans- 
actions of the Zoological Society of London, II, 1841, 379—408, pi. 68—71. 

Outlines of a classification of the Marsupialia. .... <Ib., II, 1841. 315 — 

333. 

Description of the skeleton of an extinct gigantic sloth (Mylodon ro- 

bustus, Owen), with observations on the osteology, natural afiinities, and 
probable habits of the Megatherioid quadrupeds in general. By Richard 
Owen, F. R. S., Hunterian professor and conservator of the museum of the 
Eoyal college of surgeons in London. Published by direction of the council. 
London : . . . Sold by John Van Voorst, .... 1842. [4to., 176 pp., 24 pi. 
w. 24 expl. 1.] 

— ■ Description of some species of the extinct genus Nesodon, with remarks on 

the primary group (Toxodoutia) of hoofed quadrupeds, to which that genus 
is referable. .... <: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of Lon- 
don. For the year MDCCCLIIL vol. 143, 291—310, pi. 15—18. 

Palaeontology or a systematic summary of extinct animals and their geolo- 



gical relations. .... Edinburgh : Adam and Charles Black. 1860. [8vo. 
XV, 420 pp.] 

PETERS (Wilhelm Carl Hartwig). [22. Mai 1865.] Hr. W. Peters legte 
Abhandlungen zu einer monographic der Chiropteren vor und gab eine Uber- 
siclit der von ihm befolgten systematischen ordnung der hieher gehorigen 
gattungen. <: Monatsberichte der koniglichen Preuss. Akademie der Wis- 
senschaften zu Berlin, 1865, 256 — 258. 

[13. Juli 1865.] Hr. W. Peters las iiber flederthiere ( Vespertilio soricinus 

Pallas, Choroenycteris Lichtenst., BMnopliylla pumilio nov. gen., Artiheus 
fallax nov. sp., A. concolor nov. sp., Dermanura quadrimttatum nov. sp., 
Nycteris grandis n. sp.). < lb., 1865, 351 — 359. 

[Contains a synopsis of Stenodermiuag, pp. 356—359; continued on p. 524.] 



4:1 

PETERS (Wilhelm Carl Hartwig). [16. October 1865.] Hr. W. Peters las 
liber die zu den Vampiri geliorigen flederthiere und iiber die natiirliche stel- 
lung der gattung Antrozous. <Ib., 1865, 503 — 524. 

[22. Juni.] Hr. W. Peters las iiber die zu den Glossophagae geliorigen 

flederthiere und iiber eine neue art der gattung Coleura. <:Ib., 1868, 361 — 
886, 1 pi. 

PICTET (Francois Jules). Traite de Paleontologie ou histoire naturelle des 
animaux fossiles consideres dans leurs rapports zoologiques et geologiques. 
.... Seconde edition, revue, corrigee, considerablement augmentee, accom- 
pagnee d'un atlas de 110 planches grand in -4°. • • • .Paris, chez J.-B. Bailliere, 
. . . 1853 [— ] 1857. [8vo. 4 v. ; 4to. atlas.— 80 fr.] 

RUTIMEYER (Ludwig). Versuch einer natiii lichen geschichte des rindes, 
in seinen beziehungen zu den Wiederkauern im allgemeinen. [Eine ana- 
tomisch-palaeontologische monographie von Linne's genus bos. • • • . [4to., 
Erste abtheilung. 102 pp. 1 1. 2 pi.; Zweite abtheilung, 175 pp., 4 pi.] 
<:Neue Denkschriften der allgemeinen schweizerischen Gesellschaft fiir die . 
gesammten jSTaturwissenschaften. — Nouveaux memoires de la Societe helve- 
tique des sciences naturelles. XXIII, [Dritte dekade, II]. 1867. 

SCLATER (Philip Lutley). Remarks on the arrangement and distribution of 
the Cervidse. .... < Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1870, 
114—115. 

TURNER (H ... N • • • , jun.). On the evidences of affinity afforded by the 
skull in the Ungulate mammalia. • • • . < Proceedings of the Zoological 
Society of London. Part XVII, 1849, 147—158. 

VAN BENEDEN (Pierre Joseph). Recherches sur les Squalodons. .... 
< Memoires de I'Academie royale de Belgique, XXXY, 1865. 

"WATERHOUSE (George R • • .). A Natural History of the Mammalia. .... 
[See "Contents."] London: Hippolyte Bailliere, .... 1846 [— ] 1848 [8vo., 
(I), 3 p. L 553 pp., 22 pi. (11 col.).— ; (II,) 1 pi. 500 pp., 22 pi. (11 col.).— 
each 29 sh ; col., 34 sh 6 d.] 

CONTENTS. 

Yol. I. Containing the order Marsupiata, or Pouched animals, with 22 illus- 
trations engraved on steel, and 18 engravings on wood. 

Vol. II. Containing the order Rodentia, or Gnawing mammalia ; with 22 
illustrations engraved on steel, and [8] engravings on wood. 



SYNOPTICAL TABLES 



OF 



CHARACTERS 



OF THE SUB-DIYISIONS OF 



MAMMALS, 



WITH 



A CATALOGUE OP THE GE2fEEA. 



WASHINGTON, D.C. 
1871. 



MAMMALS. 



Abraucliiate Vertebrates with a brain whose cerebral hemisptieres are more or less 
connected (and in nearly inverse ratio) by an anterior commissure, and a superior 
transverse commissure (corpus callosum) ; the latter more or less roofing in the lateral 
ventricles: lungs and heart in the thorax, separated from the abdominal viscera 
by a muscular diaphragm : aorta single and reflected over the left bronchus : blood 
with red non-nucleated blood-corpuscles ; undergoing a complete circulation, being 
entirely received and transmitted by the right half of the quadrilocular heart to the 
lungs for aeration, (and warmed,) and afterwards returned by the other half through 
the system. Skull with two condyles, chiefly developed on the exoccipital elements, 
(one on each side of the foramen magnum): with the malleus and incus superadded as 
specialized auditory ossicles : and the lower jaw (composed of a pair of simple rami) 
articulated directly by convex condyles with the squamosal bones. Dermal append- 
ages developed as hairs. Viviparous : foetus developed from a minute egg : young 
nourished after birth by a fluid (milk) secreted in peculiar glands (mammary) by 
the mother. 



SUB-CLASSES. 

I. Brain with sup-rior transverse commissure composed of a body as well as 
psalterial fibres ; and with a well developed septum. Sternum with 
no element in front of the manubrium or presternum. Coracoid not con- 
nected with the sternum, but early anchylosed with and developed as a 
simple process of the scapula. Oviducts debouching into a double or single 
vagina, (and not into a common cloacal chamber). Testes variable in po- 
sition, but the vasa deferentia open directly or indirectly into a distinct 
and complete urethra, (and not into a cloacal cavity). Ureters discharge 
directly into the bladder the renal secretion, which thence passes into the 
urethra. Mammary glands with well developed nipples. 

A. Brain with the cerebral hemispheres connected by a more or less well- 
developed corpus callosum and a reduced anterior commissure. Vagina 
a single tube, but sometimes with a partial septum. Young retained 
within the womb till of considerable size and nearly perfect development, 
and deriving its nourishment from tbe mother through the intervention 
of a "placenta" (developed from the allantois) till birth. Scrotum 
never in front of penis. 

MONOBELPMIA. (I.) 

B. Brain with the cerebral hemispheres chiefly connected by a well-de- 
veloped anterior commissure, the corpus callosum being rudimentary. 



46 

Vagina more or less completely dividing into two separate passages. 
Young born when of very small size and imperfect development ; never 
connected by a placenta with, the mother, but when born attached by 
her to the nipple, from which the milk is forced by herself into the 
mouth of the young. Scrotum in front of penis. 



DIDEIFHIA. (II.) 



II. Brain with the superior transverse commissure with no well defined 
psalterial fibres ; and with the septum very much reduced in size. (Flower). 
Sternum with a peculiar T-shaped bone (the episternum or interclavicle) 
in advance of the manubrium or presternum. Coracoid extending from 
the clavicle to the sternum, and only towards maturity anchylosed with 
the scapula. The oviducts, enlarged below into uterine pouches, but open- 
ing separately from one another, as in oviparous vertebrates, debouch, 
not into a distinct vagina, but into a cloacal chamber, common to the 
urinary and genital products, and to the fseces. Testes abdominal in posi- 
tion throughout life, and the vasa deferentia open into the cloaca, and not 
into a distinct urethral passage. Ureters pour the renal secretion, not 
into the bladder, which is connected with the upper extremity of the cloaca, 
but into the latter cavity itself. Mammary glands with no distinct nip- 
ples. (Huxley.) 

OENITHODELFHIA. (III.) 



I. MONODELFHIA 

ORBERS. 

I. Brain with a relatively large cerebrum, behind overlapping much or all 
of the cerebellum, and in front much or all of the olfactory lobes : corpus 
callosum (attypically) continued horizontally backwards to or beyond 
the vertical of the hippocampal sulcus, developing in front a well-defined 
recurved rostrum. 

SUPER-OEDER EDUCABILIA. 

_ A. Posterior members and pelvis well developed. Periotic and tympanic 
bones articulated with the squamosal ; (etypically, free and otherwise 
modified, c. g. Tapir idae). 

1. Legs almost or entirely exserted outside of the common abdominal 
integument. First digit (great toe) of hind foot (pes) enlarged, op- 
posable to the others, (exceptionally resuming parallelism with them,) 
furnished with a nail. Brain withva well-developed calcarine sulcus, 
giving rise to a hippocampus minor within the posterior cornu of the 
ventricle by which the posterior lobe of the cerebrum is traversed. 
(Flower.) (Incisors four in each jaw; etypically, two — or all in upper 
jaw — suppressed. Clavicles completely developed.) 



47 

a. Digits with corneous appendages developed as claws (i. e. com- 
pressed) or, attypicallj, as nails (i. e. depressed). Teeth, of three 
kinds, (canines of second set etypically atrophied,) all encased 
in enamel ; (molars mostly two- or three-rooted). Placenta decidu- 
ate, discoidal. 

PRIMATES. (I.) 

2. Legs with the proximal joints (humerus and femur) more or less 
inclosed in the common abdominal integument. First digit of hind 
foot attypically reduced or atrophied ; etypically hypertrophied (e. g. 
Pinnipedia). Brain with no calcarine sulcus. (Incisors archetypically 
six in each jaw; etypically, two or more suppressed. Clavicles 
rudimentary, or — in (b) Ungulate Series — none.) 

a. Digits with corneous appendages developed as claws. Teeth of 
three kinds, all encased with enamel : canines specialized and 
robust : (molars mostly two- or three-rooted — etypically one-root- 
ed, — attypically one (^^^^') or more in each jaw sectorial, followed 
by tubercular ones.) Scaphoid and lunar consolidated into one bone. 
Placenta deciduate, zonary. 

FERAE. (ID 

b. Digits with corneous appendages developed as hoofs. Teeth of 
three kinds, (canines and incisors of second set exceptionally in 
part undeveloped,) all encased in enamel : (molars attypically two- or 
three-rooted, attypically with grinding surfaces.) Scaphoid and 
lunar separate. Placenta diversiform. 

b. 1. Incisors (archetypically f ; often, especially in the upper jaw, 
reduced in number or wholly suppressed ; implanted by simple 
roots,) with incisorial crowns. Feet with inferior (or, rather, pos- 
terior) surfaces with a hairy skin continuous with the rest of the 
integument: carpal bones in two interlocking rows; cuneiform 
narrow and affording a diminished surface of attachment forwards 
for the ulna (which is retrorse beside the radius); unciform and 
lunar articulating with each other and interposed between the 
cuneiform and magnum: hind foot with the astragalus at its an- 
terior portion scarcely deflected inwards, articulating more or less 
with the cuboid as well as navicular: toes (not more than four 
completely developed) with terminal joints encased in thick 
hoofs. Placenta non-deciduate, (diffuse or cotyledonary). 

UNGULATA. (IH.) 

b. 2. Incisors (| or f ; variable as to insertion,) with incisorial 
crowns. Feet mostly unknown: carpal bones unknown: hind 
foot with the astragalus at its anterior portion inclined obliquely 
inwards, articulating in front only with the navicular. Calcaneum 
with an extensive upwards surface for the articulation of the 
fibula, and with a large lateral process articulating in front with 



48 

the astragalus. Molars of upper jaw broad and extending into an 
externo-anterior angle ; of lower jaw, narrow and continuous in a 
uniform row. 

TOXODONTIA. (IV.) 

b. 3. Incisors (;|) of upper jaw next to symphysis (with persistent 
pulps) long and curved; those of lower jaw straight and nor- 
mal. Feet with inferior surfaces furnished with pads, (as in 
Rodents and Carnivores): carpal bones in two interlocking rows ; 
cuneiform extending inwards, (and articulating with magnum,) 
and affording an enlarged surface of attachment forwards for the 
ulna (which is antrorsely produced); unciform and lunar separat- 
ed by the interposition of the cuneiform and magnum: hind foot 
with the astragalus at its anterior portion extended and, as a 
whole, much deflected inwards, articulating in front only with 
the navicular: toes (four to the front feet, three to the hind) with 
terminal, phalanges encased in hoofs; (inner nail of hind foot 
curved). Placenta deciduate, zonary. 

HYRACOIDEA. (V.) 

b. 4. Incisors Q, or, in extinct forms, f or f, renewed from per- 
sistent pulps,) developed as long tusks curved outwards. Feet 
with palmar and plantar surfaces invested in extended pad-like 
integuments, which also underlie the toes: carpal bones in two 
regular (not interlocking) rows, broad and short; cuneiform ex- 
tended inwards — broad, and furnishing an enlarged surface of 
attachment forwards for the ulna (which is antrorsely produced). 
Unciform directly in front of cuneiform, and magnum directly in 
front of lunar: hind foot with the astragalus at its anterior por- 
tion very short, (convex,) and not deflected inwards, articulating 
in front only with the navicular : toes (five to each foot, in known 
forms,) encased in broad shallow hoofs. Placenta deciduate, 
zonary. — Snout produced into a very long proboscis. Legs mostly 
exserted outside the abdominal integument ; and with the proxi- 
mal and succeeding joints extensible in the same line. 

PEOBOSCIDEA. (VI.) 

B. Posterior members and pelvis more or less completely atrophied; the 
form of the body being fish-like, furnished with a horizontal tail, and 
specialized for progression in the water, Periotio and tympanic bones 
auchylosed together, but not articulated with the squamosal. 

1. Brain narrow. Skull with the foramen magnum posterior, directed 
somewhat downwards: supra-occipital nearly vertical and not ex- 
tending forwards, the parietals meeting and interposed between it and 
the frontals. Periotic with a posterior irregularly rounded part; 
tympanic annuliform. Lower jaw with well-developed ascending rami 
and normal transvere condyles and coronoid processes. Lateral teeth 
molar, and adapted to trituration of herbage. Neck moderate ; second 



49 

cervical vertebra witli an odontoid process. Anterior members mod- 
erately long, flexed at the elbow; with carpal bones and phalanges 
directly articulated with the adjoining ones ; and with normal digits. 
Mammae two, pectoral. — Heart deeply fissured between the ventricles. 



BIESNIA. (Vn.) 



2. Brain broad. Skull with the foramen magnum entirely posterior, 
directed somewhat upwards : supra-occipital very large, sloping for- 
wards, and (attypicary) extending forwards over or between the 
frontals. Periotic attenuated backwards; tympanic solid, entire. 
Lower jaw with no ascending ramus, with its narrow condyles at the 
posterior extremities or angles of the rami, and with only rudimentary 
corouoid processes. Teeth conic or compressed, monophyodont. Neck 
attypically very short; second cervical vertebrae with no odontoid . 
process. Anterior members (attypically) abbreviated, extended back- 
wards in a continuous line ; with carpal bones and phalanges often 
separated by cartilage ; and with the second digit composed of more 
than three phalanges. Mammae two, inguinal. 

CETE. (vni.) 



II. Brain with a relatively small cerebrum, leaving behind much of the 
cerebellum exposed, and in front much of the olfactory lobes: corpus 
callosum extending more or less obliquely upwards and terminating before 
the vertical of the hippocampal sulcus ; with no well defined rostrum in 
front. 

SUPER-ORDER INEDUCASIUA. 



A. Teeth encased in enamel : incisors (very variable as to number) with- 
out persistent pulps: canines present (but sometimes modified in form): 
molars attypically with sharp and pointed cusps. Lower jaw with 
condyles transverse, received into special glenoid sockets. Placenta 
discoidal deciduate. 

1. Anterior members adapted for flight: the ulna and radius being 
united, and the metacarpal bones and phalanges — 2 to 5 — much 
elongated; the whole sustaining a very thin leathery skin arising 
from the sides of the body, and extending backwards on the hind 
members, down to their tarsi. Mammae pectoral. 

CEIROPTERA. (IX.) 

2. Anterior as well as posterior members adapted for walking or grasp- 
ing: the ulna and radius entirely or partly separated: metacarpal 
bones and phalanges normally developed. Mammae abdominal : 
(etypically — in Dermoptera, &;c. — pectoral). 

July. 1871. INSECTIVOEA. (X.) 



50 

B. Teeth encased in enamel: incisors (|; exceptionallj, also two sup- 
plementary posterior teeth,) continually reproduced from persistent pulps, 
and growing in a circular direction: canines none: molars attypically 
with ridged surfaces. Lower jaw with condyles longitudinal, and not 
received in special glenoid sockets, but gliding freely backwards and 
forwards in longitudinal furrows. Members and feet ambulatorial. 
Placenta discoidal deciduate. 

GLIRES. (XI.) 

C. Teeth (when developed) not encased in enamel: incisors typically 
absent (lateral present in Dasypus): molars variable : members and feet 
ambulatorial, (modified often for grasping and digging). Placenta diver- 
siform (discoidal deciduate in Orycteropodidce and Dasypodkhe ; diffuse 
deciduate in Manididce; and coyledonous non-deciduate ? in Bradypo- 
didce), 

BEUTA. (XII.) 



I. PRIMATES. 

SUB-ORDERS. 

I. Cerebrum with its posterior lobe much developed, wholly or mostly cover- 
ing the cerebellum. Skull with lachrymal foramen within the orbit. 
Orbit separated from temporal fossa by the union of the alisphenoid and 
malar bones. Ears rounded, each with a distinct lobule. Female with 
uterus undivided, and clitoris imperforate. Mammae (2) exclusively pec- 
toral. 

ANTHROPOIDEA. 

II. Cerebrum with the posterior lobe not extended backwards over the entire 
cerebellum, a considerable portion of the latter being uncovered. Skull 
with lachrymal foramen outside the orbit. Orbits open behind, (partially 
closed in Tarsiidae). Ears more or less produced upwards and pointed, 
angulated at their extremities, with no distinct lobules. Female with 
uterus two-horned, and the clitoris perforated by the urethra. Mammae 
variable. 

PROSIMIAE. 



ANTHROPOIDEA. 

FAMILIES. 

I. Fore limbs withdrawn completely from the locomotive series, and trans- 
ferred to the cephalic (Dana). Form habitually erect, except in infancy. 
Feet with the great toe produced, and in same plane with others. Teeth 
in an uninterrupted series. Hair scant. {Bimcuia.) 

HOMINIDAE. (I.) 

II. Fore limbs more or less employed in progression. Form prone, exception- 
ally erect. Feet with the great toe more or less abbreviated, thumb-like. 



51 



and opposable to tlie others. Dental series interrupted by diastemas, 
especially in the upper jaw between canines and incisors. Hair dense. 

(S 17711 CE.) 

A. A bony external auditory meatus well developed, at the bottom of 
which is the membrana tympani. Pre-molars | X2. (Teeth M |- PM f 
C i 1 1x2.) Kose with the median septum thin and narrow (exception- 
ally, broad), and the nostrils correspondingly approximated. (Si7Ji{ce 
cata7-rhin(e.') 

1. Spinal column with a slight sigmoid curve ; lumbar as well as dorsal 
neural spines directed more or less backwards. Sacrum large and 
solid, composed of four vertebrae tapering gradually backwards. 
Sternum broad and short, with three or four bones between the manu- 
brium and xiphoid cartilage. Anterior limbs much longer than 
posterior. 

SIMIIDAE. 



(11.) 



2. Spinal column with a simple curve ; neural spines of lumbar and 
last dorsal vertebrae inclined forwards. Sacrum moderate, composed 
generally of three vertebrae not tapering gradually. Sternum elongated 
and narrow. Anterior limbs shorter than posterior ; rarely elongated. 

CYNOPITHECIDAE. (III.) 



B. Bony external auditory meatus null, and the tympanic membrane 
attached to a ring close to the surface. Pre-molars f X2. Nose with 
the septum broad and flattened (exceptionally, narrow), and the nostrils 
proportionally distant. {Si7nice platy7-hi7icB.) 

1. Teeth (M | PM | C i I f X2=) 33. Manus with inner digit (when 
developed) more or less slightly opposable to the rest. 

CEBIDAE. 



(IV.) 



2. Teeth (M f PM f C i I f X2=) 32. Manus with inner digit not 
opposable, but on same plane as rest; all armed with elongated com- 
pressed claws. 

MIDIDAE. 



(V.) 



I. HOMINIDAE. 

Single genus. 

Homo, 

II. SIMIIDAE. 

SUB-FAMILIES. 

Form robust. Ilia broad, alate. Cerebrum projecting backwards 
the cerebellum. Buttocks without callosities. 




II. Form slender. Ilia narrow, not alate. Cerebrum scarcely or not pro- 
jecting backwards over the cerebellum. Buttocks with callosities. 



HTLOBATINAE. (B.) 



52 

A. SIMIINAE. 

Gorilla I. Geoff. 

Mimetes Lea,ch=:TroriIodijtes, GeoS.^= Anihropopithecus, Bl. 

Simla Lmn.= Pithecus Geoff. 



Siamanga Gray. 
Hylohates 111. 



Pliopithecus Gerv. 
Dryopithecus Lartet. 



B. HYLOBATINAE. 



Extinct Simiidce? 



III. CYNOPITHECIDAE. 

SUB-FAMILIES. 

I. Stomach, complex ; tlie cardiac portion dilated ; the pyloric elongated. 
Cheek pouches obsolete. 



SBMNOPirHECINAE. (A.> 



II. stomach simple, as in man. Cheek pouches developed. 



CYNOPITHBCINAE. (B.) 



A. SEMNOPITHECINAB. 



Nasalis Geoff. 
Lasiopyga 111., Gray. 
Semnopithecus F. Cuv. 
Colobus 111. 
Guereza Gray. 



B. CYNOPITHECINAB. 
§. 1. 



§.2. 



Miopithecus I. Geoff. 
Cercopithecus Erxl. 

Cercopithecus sensu strict. 

Cercocebus Geoff. 
Macacus Lac, Desm. 

Macacus sensu strict. 
Inuus Geoff. 

Tkeropithecus I. GeoS.=Gelada Gray. 
Cynopithecus I. Geoff. 

§.3. 

Papio Erxl., Cuv., GeoS.= Cynocephalus Lac. 

Cynocpphalus, sensu strict. 
Mandrilla Cnv. ,=Mormon Less. 

Mormon, Gray, not 111. 



Chlorocebus Gray. 



Silenus Gray. 



Hamadryas Less., Gray. 
Choeropithecus Gray. 



Extinct Cynopithecidce. 



Mesopithecus Gaudry. 
Coenopithecus Rutimeyer. 



53 

IV. CEBIDAE. 

SUB-FAMILIES. 

I. Cerebrum with posterior lobe abbreviated, scarcely covering the cerebel- 
lum behind. Hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage greatly developed : hyoid 
bone expanded into a, sub-globular drum, with thin osseous walls, the 
larger cornua projecting backwards, the lesser obsolete. Incisors vertical. 

MYCETINAE. (A.) 

II. Cerebrum with posterior lobe enlarged, extending backwards much 
beyond the cerebellum. Hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage moderate. 

A. Incisors vertical. 

1. Cerebrum with convolutions well marked. Tail more or less pre- 
hensile. 

CEBINAE. (B^ 

2. Cerebrum with convolutions obsolete. Tail not prehensile. 

NYCTIPITHECINAE. (C.) 

B. Incisors inclined forwards. Tail more or less abbreviated and bushy. 

PITHECIINAE. (D.> 



Aluatta La,G.=2I>jcetes 111. 



A. MYCETINAE, 



B. CEBINAE. 
§.1. 



§.2. 



Cehus Erxl. 

Sapajou 'L?iC. = Ateles GeoflF. 
Eriode.-i I. Geo&.=Brachi/teles Gray. 
Lagothrix Geoff. 



C. NYCTIPITHECINAE. 
§. 1. 

Nijctipithecus Spix=^ofMs (Humb) 111. (Inapplicable.) 

§.2. 
CalUthrix Geoff. 
Saimiris Geoff., G!erv.= Chrysotkrix Wagn. 

D. PITHECIINAE. 

Pilhecia Desm. 

Chiropotes 111., Gray. 

BracltyuTus 8-p\x.= 0iial-aria Gray. 

Extinct Cebidce, 
Protopitliecus Lund. 



54 

V. MIDIDAE. 

GENERA. 

Saguinus La,c=IIapale GeoflF. 

IJapnle Gray. Jacchus Gray. 

Cehuella Gray. JMico G;ray. 
Midas Geoff. 

Leontojiithecus Gray. Oedipus Gray. 

Midas Gray. Seniocebus Gray. 

PROSIMIAE. 

FAMILIES. 

I. Teetli of three kinds, the canines being retained through life. Incisors 
small, with simple roots. Pectoral mammae developed, in addition to 
inguinal ones. (Owen.) (^Lemuroidea.') 

A. Fibula entirely distinct from the tibia. Skull with the orbits open 
behind. Incisors of upper jaw small, (rarely wanting,) separated into 
two groups by a symphysial interspace ; of lower jaw, larger, contiguous, 
and proclivous; canines of lower jaw parallel with and like incisors. 
Pes with the second toe armed with a subulate claw; rest with flattened 
nails. 

LEMURIDAE. (VI.) 

B. Fibula partially anchylosed with the tibia. Skull with the orbits parti- 
ally closed behind by the union above of the alisphenoid with the jugal. 
Incisors of upper jaw (4) contiguous, inner large and conic; of lower 
(2) contiguous and opposed to large upper teeth: canines of lower jaw 
Dormal. Pes with the second and third toes armed with subulate nails ; 
rest with flattened pointed nails. 

TARSIIDAE. (VII.) 

II. Teeth of two kinds, the canines being early deciduous. Incisors |, gli- 
riform, continually reinforced from the formative pulp ; the fangs very 
long, those of the lower jaw extending backwards to the base of the coro- 
noid processes. Inguinal teats only developed. — Manus with the middle 
finger very attenuated, and provided with a narrow scooped nail ; rest of 
nails (except of thumb of pes) similar, subulate. (^Daubentonioidea.) 

DAUBENTONIIDAE. (VIII.) 

SUPER-FAMILY LEMUROIDEA. 
VI. LEMURIDAE. 

SITE-FAMILIES. 
2- 



I. Teeth 30 ; i. e. M f P.M. f C. { I. -^x2. 



INDRISIITAE. (A.) 



II. Teeth 36 (exceptionally 32) ; i. e. M. f P.M. f C. i I. -^X^ (exception- 
ally, I. f in adult). 

A. Tarsus short or of moderate length. 



55 

1. Hind limbs considerably longer than the fore. Neural spines of last 
dorsal and lumbar vertebrse inclined forwards. Ears (in typical forms) 
moderate, with the anterior portion of the helix well developed, folded 
over the fossae of the concha and antihelix, and with the tragus and 
antitragus distinct. Tail elongated, not less than two-thirds the length 
of body. 



LEMITEINAE. (B.) 



2. Hind and fore limbs sub-equal, or fore ones shorter. Neural spines 
of dorsal and lumbar vertebrae inclined backwards. Ear (in typical 
forms) small, with the helix little marked, and tragus and antitragus 
obsolete. Tail short (always shorter than half the length of the body), 
rudimentary, or absent. (Mivart.) 



NTCTICEBIITAB. (C.) 



B. Tarsus very long ; calcaneum more than one-third the length of the 
tibia; naviculare much longer than the cuboid (Mivart). — Hind limbs 
much longer than the fore. Neural spines of the twelfth or thirteenth 
dorsal vertebrae turned forwards. Ear very large, with the pinna pro- 
longed upwards. 



a^T,^QININAB. (d.) 



A. rNDKISINAB. 

Indris Cuv. GeoflF.=ZjcAanofus l\\.^=Pithelemnr Less. 
Propithecus 'Qenn..=Macromerus Smith. 
Microrhynchus iovivdi.= Avahis Geoff. 

B. LEMUBINAE. 
Lemur Linn. 

Varecia Gray. Prosimia Gray. 

Lemur Gray. 
Hapalemur I. Geoff. 

Ilapalemur Gray. Prolemur Gray. 

Lepilemur I. Geoff. 
Chirogaleus Geoff. (St. G. Uiva.rt.)—Mi/spithecus F. Cuv. 

C. XrYCTICEBINAE. 

2.1. 

Perodicticus Benn. 
Arctocehus Gray, Huxl. 

Nycticebus GeoS.=Stenops l\\.-=Bradylemur (Blainv.) Less. 
Loris GeoS.r^Arachnocebus Less. 

D. QAIiAQUrrN-AE. 

Galago GeoS.=:OtoIicmis 111. 

Otolemur Coq. = Callotus Gray. Otogale Gray. 

Galago sensu strict. HemigaJago Dahlb. 
Microcebus Geoff. 

Murilemur Gray. Phaner Gray. 

Azema Gray. Mirza Gray. 



66 

VII. TARSIIDAE. 

Tarsius ^ioxv= M a crotarsus C. & G.=Cephalopachus Sw .=ni/psicebus Less. 

SUPER-FAMILY DAUBENTONIOIDEA. 
. VIII. DAUBENTOZSriIDAE. 

Dauhentonia GeoS,=Ai/e-ai/e Lac. = Cheirojnys Cuv. 

FERAE. 

STJB-ORDERS. 

I. Body more or less raised, with the legs exserted beyond the elbows and 
knees, and with the feet (generally with free toes) adapted for walking. 
Manus and pes with first phalanges and digits not enlarged nor "produced 
beyond the others (attypically more or less reduced or even atrophied). 
Skull moderately compressed between the orbits: with a distinct lachry- 
mal bone, perforated by a canal (the lachrymal), and more or less exserted 
outside the orbit, and, in conjunction with the malar, forming the anterior 
margin of the orbit : palatines extending forwards laterally between the 
frontal and maxillary bones, and leaving no vacuity. Tympanic bound- 
ed behind by the exoccipital. Deciduous dentition well developed. 

FISSirEDIA. 

II. Body prone, with the legs confined in the common integument beyond 
the elbows and knees, (with the feet rotated backwards, and with toes con- 
nected together), and especially adapted for swimming. Manus and pes 
with first phalanges and digits enlarged and produced beyond the others. 
Skull much compressed between the orbits : with a lachrymal bone early 
united with the maxillary, imperforate, and entirely contained within the 
orbit: malar applied to the inner side of a transverse zygomatic process of 
the maxillary and not continued to the front of the orbit (which is there- 
fore bounded by the maxillary) : palatines not extending forwards later- 
ally, extensive vacuities intervening between the frontal and maxillary 
bones. Tympanic separated from the exoocipitals by a vacuity as well as 
by the re-entering periotic bones. Deciduous dentition much reduced 
and rudimentary. 

PINKIPEDIA. 
FISSIPEDIA. 

FAMILIES. 

I. Skull with the paroccipital process applied closely to the auditory bulla ; 
the mastoid process small or obsolete ; external auditory meatus very 
short or imperfect. Intestinal canal provided with a coecum. Prostate 
gland salient. 

A. Skull with carotid canal minute and superficial or obsolete ; condyloid 
foramen and foramen lacerum posticum debouching in a common 
fossa: glenoid foramen minute or null. Os penis rudimentary (in 
Crijptoproctidce, enlarged). Cowper's glands present. (^Aeluroldea.) 



57 

1. Teeth 28-30 (M i, PM | or f , C i, I |x2) : true molar of upper jaw 
small, tubercular; of lower, sectorial. Snout very short, decurved. 
Bulla divided by a septum into posterior and anterior chambers com- 
municating with each other by a narrow aperture. (^Aeluroidea 
typica.) 

a. Body compact. Feet digitigrade, with the palms and soles hairy. 

Skull with no alisphenoid canal. 

FELIDAE. (IX.) 

b. Body elongated, viverriform. Feet plantigrade, with the palms and 
soles bald. Skull with a distinct alisphenoid canal. 

CRYPTOPEOCTIDAE. (X.) 

2. Teeth 32-34, diversiform, but no tubercular (or second true) molar 
in lower jaw. Snout moderate, depressed. Bulla with no septum. 
Feet digitigrade. {Aeluroidea hycenifonnia.) 

a. Teeth 32 (M -^ ? PM ^^? C i I |x2); molars very small and 
distant; no functionalized sectorial molars. 

PROTELIDAE, (XI.) 

b. Teeth 34 (M i, PM f, C j, I f x2) ; molars large and approximated ; 
true molar of upper jaw reduced, tubercular; last pre-molar sec- 
torial, feline: true molar of lower jaw sectorial. 

HY^NIDAE. (Xn.) 

3. Teeth 36-40 (M |— rarely *— PM f— exceptionally |-C i, I |X2) ; 
true molars of the upper, and last of the lower jaw tubercular. Snout 
moderate or elongated, depressed. Auditory bulla divided. {Aeluro- 
idea viverriformia.') 

a. Skull irregularly flattened behind above foramen magnum ; with 

the snout moderate or robust. Incisors approximated; canines 

robust. 

VIVEBRIDAE. (Xni.) 

b. Skull convex behind above foramen magnum (at least, especially 

so in young) ; with the snout slender. Incisors not approximated ; 

canines small. 

EUPLERIDAE. (XIV.) 

B. Skull with the carotid canal well developed, but opening into the 
foramen iacerum posticum ; condyloid foramen distinct ; glenoid foramen 
patent. Os penis large. Cowper's glands not developed. {Cgnoidea.) 

1. Teeth typically 42; varying between 38 and 4*3 (the true molars 

CANIDAE. (XV.) 

II. Skull with the paroccipital process not closely applied to the auditory 
bulla; the mastoid process prominent and projecting outwards or down- 
wards behind the external auditory meatus; external auditory meatus 
diversiform. Intestinal canal with no coecum. Prostate gland not salient, 
being contained in the thickened walls of the urethra. — Skull with the 



58 

carotid canal distinct, and more or less in advance of the foramen lacerum 
posticum ; condyloid foramen also distinct from the foramen lacerum 
posticum ; glenoid foramen generally well defined. Os penis very large. 
Cowper's glands not developed. — (^Arctoidea.) 

A. True molars of upper jaw one (M ^ ; rarely — in Mellivorincc — i) ; 
last pre-molarof upper jaw sectorial (rarely — in Enhydrince — with blunt 
tubercles). (^Arctoidea musteliformia.) 

MUSTELIDAE. (XVI.) 

B. True molars of upper jaw two ; last pre-molar of upper jaw tubercular 
(rarely — in Bassarididce — sectorial) . 

1. Last molar of upper jaw oblong and exceeding the first: three true 
molars in lower jaw; first narrowest but longest; second oblong and 
broader. Foramen lacerum posticum introrse, behind the postero- 
internal angle of the tympanic bone; carotid canal little in advance 
of the foramen lacerum posticum. Tail rudimentary. (^Arctoidea 
typica.) 

URSIDAE. (XVn.) 

2. Last molar of upper jaw more or less transverse and compressed 
forwards; two true molars in lower jaw; first broadest. Foramen 
lacerum posticum antrorse from postero-internal angle of the tympanic 
bone ; carotid canal nearly at or in advance of middle of inner wall 
of the auditory bulla. Tail well developed. {Arctoidea procyoni- 
formia.) 

a. Alisphenoid canal developed : auditory bulla very small, and with 

a very prolonged bony floor to the auditory meatus : paroccipital 

process long and trigonal, standing backwards and outwards, quite 

unconnected with the bulla. (Flower.)— Teeth 36 (M ?„ PM |, C {, 

I 1X2). 

AELTJRIDAE. (XVIII.) 

b. Alisphenoid canal none : auditory bulla well developed, and with 
a short bony floor to the auditory meatus : paroccipital process 
short and blunt, somewhat hooked, generally contiguous to the 
bulla at the base. 

b. 1. Teeth 36 (M f, PM |, C i I |x2) ; last pre-molar of upper 
jaw and first molar of lower tubercular. Snout abbreviated, de- 
curved. Lower jaw very stout, with an extensive auchylosed 
symphysis, with high coronoid processes, and extended back- 
wards and downwards at the angles. 

CERCOLEPTIDAE. (XIX.) 

b. 2. Teeth 40 (M f, PM f , C i, I |X2); last pre-molar of upper 
jaw and fii'st molar of lower tubercular. Lower jaw moderate or 
slender, with a reduced symphysis, with recurved coronoid pro- 
cesses, and extended upwards to the angles, which are near the 

condyles. 

PROCYONIDAE. (XX.) 



59 

b. 3. Teetli 40 (M ^, PM f, C i, I |x2), resembling those of 
Canidce ; first upper pre-molars sometimes deciduous; last pre- 
molar of upper jaw aud first molar of lower sectorial. Lower jaw 
as iu Procyonidce. 

BASSAEIDIDAE. (XXI.) 

Familide incertse sedis. 

1. Teetli 32? (M |? PM f ? C i? I f ;X2) ? last pre-molar of lower jaw 
moderate ; first molar obtusely sectorial ; second oblong, tuberculated. 

SIMOCYONIDAE. (XXII.) 

2. Teetli 4-i (M^, PM ^-, C {, I ^X2)? last pre-molar of upper jaw tri- 
tuberculate ; true molars tuberculate. 

ASCTOCYONIDAE. (XXIH.) 

3. Teeth 44? (M ^, PM f, C \, I ^x2)? last pre-molar of /owjer jaw 
enlarged ; first as well as second and third molars sectorial. 

HY^NODONTIDAE. (XXIV.) 

SUPER-FAMILY AELUEOIDEA. 
IX. FELIDAE. 

STJB-FAMILIES. 

I. Canine teeth of upper jaw moderate, with transversely convex anterior 
aud posterior margins ; those of lower jaw equal to upper and much ex- 
ceeding adjoining incisors. 

A. Sectorial tooth of upper jaw with an inwardly projecting antero-internal 
lobe. Claws retractile. 

FELINAE. (A.) 

B. Sectorial tooth of upper jaw with no internal lobe. Claws not re- 
tractile. 

QTJEPAKDINAE. (B.) 

II. Canine teeth of upper jaw enormously developed, compressed, and with 
distal trenchant anterior aud posterior margins; those of lower jaw re- 
duced in inverse ratio, and not much larger than the adjoining incisors. 
(Sectorial tooth of upper jaw with a transverse inner lobe some distance 
in front of the anterior end of the tooth.) 

MACHAERODONTINAE. (C.) 



Lynx Raf. 

Lyncus Gray. Caracal Gray. 

Neofelis Gray. 
Viverriceps Gray. 
Fells Linn. 

Uncia Gray. Leo Gray. 

Tigris Gray. Leopardus Gray. 

Pardalina Gray. Catohjnx Gray. 



60 



Pajeros Gray. 
C funis Gray. 
Aelurina Gerv. =Ailiirogale Fitz, 



Felis Gray. 



B. GTJEPAKDnrAE. 



Gueparda Gray. 



Drepanodon Nesti, Bronn. 
Machcerodus Kaup, Bronn. 
Smilodon Lund, Bronn. 



Pseudcelurus Gerv. 
Trucifelis Leidy. 
? Dinictis Leidy. 
? Aelurodon Leidy. 



Cryptoprocta Bennett. 



Proteles I. Geoff. 



C. MACHAERODONTINAB. 

All extinct. 



Other Felidae of Extinct Genera, 



X. CRYPTOPROCTIDAE. 

Single Genus. 

XI. PROTELIDAE, 

Single Genus. 



Hyaena Linn. 
Crocuta Gray. 



XII. HTAENIDAE. 

Genera. 



XIII. VIVERRIDAE. 



SUB-FAMILIES. 



I. Auditory bulla divided by an oblique groove into two portions ; an an- 
terior with the auditory meatus, and a posterior more inflated and larger 
portion. (Flower.) Toes short, regularly arched; the last phalanges 
bent up, withdrawing the claws into a sheath ; claws sharp. (Gray, s. 
Aeluropodae.) 

A. Nose simple, flat, bald, and with a central groove beneath. — Gray, s. 
Viverrida. 

1. Digitigrade: the under-side of the hind feet hairy, except the pads, 
metatarsus, and sometimes a small part of the tarsus. Upper flesh- 
tooth elongate ; upper tubercular grinders small, transverse. — Gray. 

a. Body robust ; tubercular grinders two above, one below on each 
side (f-D- — Grray. 



VIVEKRINAB. (A.) 



61 

"b. Body slender, elongate; tubercular grinders one on each, side 
above and below (x-j)* — Grraj. 



PKIONODONTINAE. (B.) 



2. Subplantigrade : the under-side of the toes and more or less of the 
back of the tarsus naked, callous. Flesh-tooth strong ; upper tuber- 
cular grinders large, broad. 

a. Tail moderate, not prehensile. The hinder part of the tarsus 
hairy to the palm ; the tail bushy. 



QALEDirN-AE. (C.) 



b. Tail moderate, not prehensile. The upper part of the hinder part 
of the tarsus hairy to the palm; tail ringed. (Grray.) Sectorial 
tooth with large tubercular ledge. 



HEMIQALIINAE. (D.) 



0. Tail very long, sub-convolute. The hinder part of the tarsus bald, 
callous. (Gray.) Sectorial tooth typical. 



PAKADOXTJKINAB. (E.) 



d. Tail thick, strong, prehensile. The hinder part of the tarsus 
bald, callous. Sectorial tooth of upper jaw transverse, sub-tuber- 
cular. 



ABCTICTIDINAE. (F.) 



B. Nose rather produced, rounded, hairy, and without any central groove 
below (Grray, s. Ci/nogalidce). Sectorial tooth with an extensive tuber- 
cular ledge. 

CYNOQAIilNAE. (Q.) 

II. Auditory bulla very prominent and somewhat pyriform, divided by a 
transverse constriction into two portions ; the anterior nearly as large and 
inflated as the posterior. (Flower.) Toes straight ; the last phalanx and 
claws extended. The claws blunt and worn at the end, the front ones 
often elongated. (Gray, s. Cijnopoda.) 

A. Nose flat and bald, beneath with a central groove. (Gray, s. Herpes- 
tidce.) 

1. Head elongate, conical ; tail conical or cylindrical. (Gray.) 

HEKPESTINAE. (H.) 

2. Head short, ventricose \ tail bushy, expanded laterally ; claws 
elongate. (Gray.) 

CTNICTIDINAE. (I.) 

B. Nose broad, convex, and hairy, beneath without any central groove. 
(Gray, s. Khinogalidae.) 

1. Head elongate, nose short. Teeth 40. False grinders f. (Gray.) 

KHINOQAIiINAE, (J^ 

2. Head ventricose. Nose elongate. Teeth 36. False grinders |. 
(Gray.) 

CROSSARCHINAE. (K.) 



Viverra Linn. 
Viverricula Hodgson. 

Genetta Cuv. 
Genetta Gray. 



62 

A. VIVERKINAB. 

3.1. 



§. 2. 



? Fossa Gray. 



B. PKIONODONTINAE, 

Prionodon B.ora&eld. =Linsa7ig Gray. 
Poiana Gray. 



Galidia I. Geoff. 

Eemigale Jourdan. 

Nandinia Gray. 
Paradoxurus F. Cuv. 
Paguma Gray. 
Arctogale Peters. 

Arctictis Temm.=Ictides F. Cuv. 

Cynogale Gray. 

Galidlctis I. Geoff. 
Herpestes lUig. 
Athylax F. Cuv. 
Calogale Gray. 
Gahrella Gray. 
Calictis Gray. 
Ariela Gray. 
Ichneumia I. Geoff. 
Bdeogale Peters. 
CTrra Hodgson. 
Tceniogale Gray. 
Onychogale Gray. 
Helogale Gray. 

Cynictis Ogilby. 

ItUnogale Gray. 
Mungos Ogilby. 



C. QALIDIINAE. 



D. HEMIGAIjIINAII. 



K, PAKADOXTJRINAE. 



r, AKCTICTIDINAE. 



Q. CYNOQALINAE. 



fil. HERPESTrNAE. 



I. CTNICTIDINAE. 



J. BHINOGALINAE, 



63 



K. CKOSSAKCHINAE. 



Crossarckiis F. Cuv. 

Suricata Desm.=Rhyzcena, Illig. 



Extinct Viverridae ? 



Paleonyctis Blainv. 
Soricictis Pomel. 
Amphichneumon Pomel. 
Galeotherium Waguer, (not Jacq.) 



XIV. EUPLERIDAE. 
Single genus. 



Eupleres Doy^re. 



SUPER-FAMILY CYNOIDEA. 
XV. CANIDAE. 

STJB-rAMILIES. 

I. Sectorial tooth of upper jaw elongated, and with the antero-intemal 
lobe projecting directly inwards; of lower jaw, elongated and narrowed 
forwards and with the externo-median lobe enlarged : true molars in 
upper jaw two (rarely one), tubercular. 



CANINAB. (A.) 



II. Sectorial tooth of upper jaw abbreviated, triangular, and with the antero- 
internal lobe large and ledge-like ; of lower jaw, comparatively short and 
broad forwards, and with the externo-median lobe reduced ; true molars 
of upper jaw three, tubercular. 



A. CANINAE. 

g. 1. 

Icticyon Lund=Cyn aliens GTa.y=^3Ielictes Schinz. 



Lycaon Brookes. 



MEQALOTINAB. (B.) 



Cyon Hodgson. 

Canis Linn. 

Canis= Ca n is-\- Lupus Gray. 

Si men i a Gray. 
Lycalopex Burm. 
Pseudalopex Burm. 

Lycalopex Gray. 

Vulpes. 
V 111 pes. 
Fennecus Gray. 



1-4. 



?.5. 



Dieba Gray. 
Crysocyon H. Smith. 



Thous Gray. 
Leucocyon Gray. 



Urocyon Baird. 



64 

§.7. 

Nyctereutes Temminck. 

B. MEQALOTINAE. 

Megalolis 'Q\sa\X7.=Agriodus H. '&m\i\x=Otocijon Licht. 

Extinct Canidae f incertae sedis. 
Amphicyon Lartet. 
Cynodon Aym. 
Gnlecynus Owen. 
Palceocyon Lund, (not Blainv.) 
Speothos Lund. 

SUPER-FAMILY ARCTOIDEA. 
XVI. MUSTELIDAE. 

SUB-FAMILIES. 

I. Skull with the cerebral portion comparatively compressed backwards ; 
and with the rostral portion comparatively produced, attenuated, and 
transversely convex above ; anteorbital foramen small and opening for- 
■wards. Feet with, little developed or no interdigital membrane. 

A. Auditory bulla much inflated, undivided, bulging, and convex forwards ; 
periotic region extending little outwards or backwards. Palate moder- 
ately emarginated. 

1. Last molar of upper jaw ^M — ) transverse, (with the inner ledge in- 
flated at its inner angle ;) sectorial tooth with a single inner cusp. 

a. M I ; First true molar (sectorial) of lower jaw followed by a small 
second (tubercular) one. Toes short, regularly arched, and with 
the last phalanges bent up, withdrawing the claws into sheaths. 
(Gray.) 

MUSTELINAB. (A.) 

b. M \ ; first true molar (sectorial) of lower jaw only developed. Toes 
straight, with the last phalanges and claws extended; the latter 
non-retractile. (Gray.) 

MELLIVORINAB. (C.) 

2. Last molar of upper jaw (M —j enlarged and more or less extended 
longitudinally. — M i. Toes straight, with the last phalanges and 
claws extended ; the latter non- retractile. (Gray.) 

MBLINAB. (B.) 

B. Auditory bulla elongated and extending backwards close to the par- 
occipital process. (Flower.) Palate moderately emarginated. 

1. Last molar of upper jaw (M-^) transverse; (with the inner ledge 
narrowed inwards): sectorial tooth with two inner cusps. 

HELICTIDIMTAB. (J-.) 

C. Auditory bulla inflated, undivided, with the anterior inferior extremity 
pointed and commonly united to the prolonged hamular process of the 
pterygoid. (Flower.) Palate moderately emarginated. 



65 

1. Last molar of upper jaw (^I v) transverse; (with the inner ledge 
compressed). 

ZOKILLINAH. (B.) 

D. Auditory bulla little inflated, transversely constricted behind the mea- 
tus auditorius externus and thence inwards ; in front flattened, forwards : 
periotic region expanded outwards and backwards. Palate deepl/ 
emarginated. 

1. Last molar of upper jaw (^I^) quadrangular, wide, but with an 
extended outer incisorial ledge. 

MEPHITIITAB. (D.) 

IL Skull with the cerebral portion swollen backwards and outwards ; and 
with the rostral portion abbreviated, high and truncated forwards, and 
widened and depressed above : anteorbital foramen enlarged and pro- 
duced downwards and backwards. Fe^et with well-developed iuterdigital 
membrane, and adapted for swimming. 

A. Teeth normal, 36 (M h, PM f, C i I ^X-): sectorial tooth (PM 4 ) 
normal, efficient, with an expanded inner ledge ; the other molars 
submusteliue. Posterior feet with normally long digits. 

liXJTKIirAB. (G.) 

B. Teeth very aberrant, 32 (M i, PM I, C f , I f — the lower inner incisors 
being lost — X2): sectorial tooth (PM-^) defunctionalized as such, 
compressed from before backwards ; the other molars also' with blunted 
cusps. Posterior feet with elongated digits. 

A.^MTJSTBLINAB. 
§.1. 

(Digitigrade.) 
Muxtela L., Guv. =3/arf€s Gray (Les Martes — Mustela Cuv), 
Putorius Cu.v .=Foetorius Keys, and Bias. 

Putorius Gray. 

Gymnopus Gray. 

Gale Wagner=Ji«.s?c/a Gray, not Cuv. 

Lutreola Wagner= Vison Gray. 

§. 2. 

(Plantigrade.) 
Galictis Bell=£'iVara Lund. 

Galera Gray. Grisonia Gray. 

§. 3. 
(Sub-plantigrade.) 
Gnlo Storr. 

B. MELINAE. 

Taxidea Waterh. 
Meles ^iovv=Taxus Cuv. 
Mydaus F. Cuv. 

Arctonyx F. CuY.-=.Synarchus Gloger, 
August, 1871. 



66 

C. MELLIVORINjaJL 

Mellivora StoTT=RateIus Grciy=Lipo'us Lund. 

D. MEPHITINAS. 

Conepatns Grciy=Thiosmus Licht. <.Marpu'ius Gray. 
Mephitis Cav., Gray. 
Spilogale Gray. 

B. ZORILLINAE. 

Zorilla GTa.y=Rhabdojale 'Wa,gn.=Ictonyx Lund. 

F. HELICTIDINAB. 

Helictis GrSLy=Melogale I. GeoS.= Rhinogale Gloger, not Gray, 

a. IiUTKINAE. 

§.1. 

Barangia GT&y=Lepfonijx Less., Gerv. 

Aonijx Less., Gerv., Gray. 

Lonira GYay=:Saricovia Less. =Loutra Gerv. (misprint). 

Lutra Linn. 

Lutra Gray. Nutria Gray. 

Lntronectes Gray. 
Hydro gale Gray. 
Lutax Gray (not Gloger)=La^axm Gerv. 

§.2. 
Pteronura Gray, Gerv. =P/erura Wiegm. 

H. SNHTDRINAJ!. 

Enhydris Fleming^Lafax Gloger. 

Extinct Musi el idee? incertce sedis, 

Palaeomephiiis ,V&geT=Palaeobassaris Paul von Wurt. 

Palaeogale Meyer. 

Plesiogale PomeL 

Plesictis Pomel. 

Putoriodus Pomel. 

Potamotherium Geoff.= l Lutrictis Fouxel= ^. Stephanodon Meyer. 

Thalassictis Nordm 

Galeotherium Jager (not Wagner). 

Enhydriodon ¥d.\Q.-=Amyxodon Falc, 

Ursitaxus Falc. 

XVII. ITRSIDAK 

Genera. 

Thcdassarctos Gray. 
Ursus Linn. 



67 

Ursus Gray. Mgrmarctos Gray. 

Tremarctos Gerv* 
Helarctos Horsf. 

§.2. 
Melursus MeyeT=Prochilus 111. 

Extinct Ursidae f 
(^Family ? Hycenarctidae ?) 
Hyitnarctos Caatl. and Y2i\.c.-=^Agriotherium'^&gn.=Sivalarcto9-\-Amf,hiarctos Blainv. 
=Hemicyon Lartet. 

XVIII. AELUBIDAE. 

Genus, 
Aelurus F. Cuv. 



XIX. CERCOLEPTIDAE. 

Genus. 
Cercoleptes I\\[geT:=Kinkojou Lac.=Poio5 C\iv. = Caudivolvulus Desm. 

XX. PROCYONIDAE. 

ST7B-FAMILIE8. 

I. Snout attenuated. Auditory bulla small, abruptly contracted, flattened 
forwards and towards the external auditory meatus. Mastoid process little 
developed, extrorse behind meatus. 

NASTJINAB. (A.) 

II. Snout comparatively abbreviated. Auditory bulla large, sloping gradu- 
ally towards the external auditory meatus. Mastoid process enlarged and 

prolonged downwards. 

PKOCYONINAE. (B.) 

A. NASUIKAE. 



Nasua Storr= Coati Lac. 



Procyon Storr. 

Tylodon Gerv. 
Leptarcios Leidy. 



Bassaris Licht. 



B. PKOCYONINAB. 



Procyonidae? of extinct genera. 



XXI. BASSARIDIDAE. 

Genus. 



FISSIPEDIA INCERTAE SEDIS. 
XXII. SIMOCYONIDAE. 

Extinct. 
Simocyon Kaup=Z)iapAorus Gaudry. 



68 

XXIII. ARCTOCYONIDAE. 
Extinct. 
Aretocyon Bl&inv. -\-Palaeocyon Blainv. (not Lund). 

XXIV. HYAENODONTIDAE. 

Extinct. 
Hyaenodon de Laiz & de Par.= ? Hyaenodon-\-Taxotherium-\-Pterodon Blainv. 

Fissipedium Genera incertae sedis. 
Acanthodon Meyer. 
Harpayodon Meyer. 
Patriofelis Leidy. 
Sinopa Leidy. 



{Hyaenidae ?) 



Lycyaena HenseL 
Hyaenictis Gaudry. 



Ictitherium Gaudry. 



(Viverridae?) 

PINNIPEDIA. 

FAMILIES. 

I. Molar teeth | or | ; canines of both jaws moderately developed, those of 
upper jaw being scarcely larger than those of lower; incisors persistent. 
(P/wcoidea.) 

A. Form comparatively archetypical, with the hinder legs flexible for- 
wards. Small ear conchs developed. Skull with the mastoid processes 
strong and salient, standing aloof from the auditory bullae ; with well- 
developed post-orbital processes, and alisphenoid canals. Incisors (f) 
of upper jaw notched. Anterior limbs about as large as the posterior; 
their feet with digits decreasing in a curved line and without claws : 
posterior feet with all their digits nearly co-terminal and furnished with 
long linguiform flaps extending beyond their tips ; the three middle toes 

alone clawed. 

OTAEIIDAE. (XXV.) 

B. Form attypically phociform, with the hinder legs projected back- 
wards and not flexible forwards. Ear conchs obsolete. Skull with the 
mastoid processes swollen, and seeming to form part of the auditory 
bullae; the post-orbital processes null or obsolete; no alisphenoid 
canals. Incisors (variable in number — | or |, or f — ) of upper jaw not 
notched. Anterior limbs smaller than the posterior ; the feet with the 
digits successively abbreviated and armed with claws : the posterior 
flippers emarginated (the third and fourth digits being shortest), and 

provided with claws (rarely suppressed). 

PHOCIDAE. (XXVI.) 



69 

II. Molar teeth f f , the posterior generally caducous in adult : canines of 
uppfciTJaw greatly hypertrophied and developed as tusks; those of lower 
jaw atrophied: incisors, except external of upper jaw, deciduous. (Ros- 
maroidea.) 

A. Form comparatively etypical, with the hinder legs flexible forwards. 
Ear conchs obsolete. Skull with the mastoid processes strong and 
salient ; the surface continuous with the auditory bullae ; no postorbital 
processes ; distinct alisphenoid canals. Anterior limbs about as large 
as posterior ; feet with the toes decreasing in a curved line, destitute of 
claws : posterior feet with the five digits scarcely increasing toward 
inner ; all provided with claws, 

BOSMARIDAE. (XXVIl.) 

SUPER-FAMILY PHOCOIDEA. 

XXV. OTARIIDAE. 

Genera. 

§.1. 

Zaiophus Gill. 

Zalophus sensu strict. Neophoca Gray. 

§.2. 
Eumetopias Gill. 
Otaria Peron. 

Otaria sensu strict. Phocarctos Peters, Gray. 

Arctocephalus F. Cnv.=Halarctos Gill. 

Arctocephalus Gray. 

Gypsophoca Gray. 

Arctophoca Peters=£uo<aria Gray. 
Callirhinus Gray. 

XXVI. PHOCIDAE. 

STJB-FAMILIES. 

I. Maxillar zygomatic process with the posterior surface subvertical or very 
oblique. Malar oblong-rhomboid, emarginated above and below. 

A. Intermaxillaries narrow, prolonged, and wedged behind between the 
supramaxillaries and nasals. Nasal bones narrow, diminishing in 
width backwards. Incisors |; exceptionally!. 

PHOCINAE. (A.) 

B. Intermaxillaries terminating far from nasals. Nasal bones narrow and 
shortened. Incisors #. 

CYSTOPHOKINAE. (B.) 

II. Maxillar zygomatic process with its lower and posterior surface extended 
horizontally backwards, and its angle continued far behind along the inner 
side of the malar. Malar elongated, bow-shaped, and curved upward in 
front. 

A. Intermaxillaries narrow, not continued backward between nasals and 
supramaxillaries. Nasal cavity expanded, with the nasal bones widest 

STENORHTNCHINAE. (C.) 



70 

A. PHOCINAE. 
11. 

Phoca Linn., Gill= Callocephalus F. Cuv,, Gray. 

CaJlocephalus Gray. Ealicyon Gray. 

Pagomys Gray. 
FagophUus Gray. 
ErignatliHs Gill=P/ioca Gray, not Linn. 

Ilalichoerus Nilss. 

§.3. 
Monachus Flem.=PeIa gios F. Cnv. =IIeIiophoca Gray. 

B. CYSTOPHOKINAE. 

Cystnphora W\\'s>^.=.Stemmatopus F. Cuv. 

Macrorhinus F. Cuv.=J/i>ou?i^a Gray=J/acrorAy?ia Gray=J/orun5ra Gray. 

C. STENORHYNCHINAK. 

Lohodon Gray. 
Stenorhynchus F. Cuv. 

Leptonychotes=:Leptonyx Gray, not Sw. 1821. 
Ommatophoca Gray. 

Extinct Phocidae? 
Pachyodon Meyer. 
Pristiphoca Gerv. 

STJPER-FAMILY ROSMAEOIBEA. 
XXVII. ROSMARIDAE. 

Single genus. 
Rosmarus ^cop.=Odobaenus (Briss.) lU. =:Trichechus auct. pi., not Linn. 

Extinct Rosmaridae. 
Trichechodon Lankester. 



TJNGTJLATA. 
STJB-ORBERS. 

I. Digits paired, the third and fourth being subequally developed and ex- 
serted ; (the fifth, generally, nearly corresponding in size and position to 
the second, and, generally, developed — or atrophied — in nearly equal 
degree ;) the articulating phalanges and proximal carpal and tarsal bones 
correspondingly modified. Astragalus with its anterior or inferior articular 
surface divided by a crest into two sub-equal facets. Femur without 
a third trochanter, and with its shaft generally perforated at the fore and 



71 

npper part by the medullary artery. Dorso-lumbar vertebrae, generally, 
nineteen in number (d. 12 — 15-|-1. 7 — 4.) Skull with the intermaxillary 
bones flattened above towards the symphysis, and with the incisors, when 
present, diverging towards their roots. Stomach more or less subdivided 
©r complex: coecum comparatively small and simple. 

ARTIODACTYLA. 

II. Digits unpaired or unequal, the third being the largest and most exserted ; 
(the fourth nearly co-equal in size and position with the second ; fifth — 
of hind foot, at least, — atrophied;) the articulating phalanges and carpal 
and tarsal bones correspondingly modified. Astragalus with the anterior 
or inferior articular surface divided into two very unequal facets. Femur 
with a third trochanter, and with its shaft perforated at tlie back-part by 
the medullary artery. Dorso-lumbar vertebrae not less than twenty-two 
in number (d. 18 — 19-f 1. 3 — 6). Skull with the intermaxillary bones 
tectiform above and united towards the symphysis, and with the incisors, 
when present, implanted subvertically and nearly parallel to their roots. 
Stomach simple: coecum very much enlarged and sacculated. 

PERISSODACTYLA. 



AUTIODACTYLA. 



FAMILIES. 




I. Molars (M) attypically each with two double crescentiforrn folds, whos 
convex surfaces are internal. Canines of lower jaw, attypically, re 
sembling, and parallel with, incisors ; (differentiated and specialized in 
Camelidae). Palatine bones contracted and compressed behind, thin, and 
(at the walls of the posterior nares) separated by a wide sinus from the 
terminal portion of the supramaxillary bones. Digestive system adapted 
for rumination : stomach tripartite, or, attypically, quadripartite, a " psal- 
terium" being finally developed. — Axis with the odontoid process like 
a spout, or hollow half-cylinder, and with a prominent sharp semi-circular 
rim. (Flower.) — {Pecora; or, Rwninantia.) 

* Incisors deciduous from upper as well as lower jaws. Canines of lower 
jaw inclined forwards, witli compressed cuneate crowns. Placenta and 
stomach unknown. Chalicotheroidea. 

One family. CHALICOTHEEIIDAE. (XXVII a.) 

** Incisors persistent in lower jaw. 

A. Hind limbs with the proximal joint (femur) exserted and not contain- 
ed within the common integument. Canines of lower jaw specialized 
and differentiated from incisors. Incisors in part (i. e. lateral) persist- 
ent in upper jaw. Placenta diffuse. Stomach imperfectly quadripartite. 
(Pecora tylopoda s. phalangigrada.) 

One family. CAMELIDAE. (XXVIII.) 

B. Hind limbs with the proximal joint (femur) not exserted but inclosed 
within the common integument. Canines of lower jaw similar to and 



72 

parallel with the incisors. Incisors deciduous from upper jaw; per- 
sistent in lower. Placenta and stomach diversiform. {Pecora unguli- 
grada.) 

1. Placenta polycotyledonarj. Stomachquadripartite, a well-developed 
psalterium being dilFerentiated. Incisorial series of lower jaw unin- 
terrupted at the symphysis. {Pecora unguligrada tijpica.) 

a. Neck very long and slender, the cervical vertebrae (3-7) being 
much elongated : the dorso-lumbar vertebrae comparatively ab- 
breviated and declining backwards, the hinder limbs being shorter 
than, or as short as, the anterior. Horns developed as epiphyses 
of the frontals, and covered with an extension of the skin. ( Giraf- 
foidea.) 

One family. GIRAFFIDAE. (XXIX.) 

b. Neck comparatively more or less short, the cervical vertebrae 
(3 — 7) being normally developed : the dorso-lumbar vertebrae 
longer, and highest backwards, the hinder limbs being considerably 
longer than the anterior. Horns diversiform. {Booidea.) 

i. Skull with the auditory bulla produced downwards, especially 
towards the inside, and applied behind to the paroccipital pro- 
cess. Styloid process deflected more or less forwards and en- 
closed in an oblique fold on the outer surface of the auditory 
bulla. Palatine axis declivous from the occipito-sphenoid axis. 
{Booidea tyjnca.) 

a. Horns persistent, (common to both sexes,) and developed as 
sheaths of true ''horn" on osseous cores originating from the 
frontal bones. Styloid process partially enclosed iu a more or 
less open canal. 

a. 1. Olfactory organ extremely expanded and inflated above : 
nasal bones much abbreviated, arched upwards, and entirely 
separated from the supra-maxillaries as well as lachrymals, 
the fi'ontals projecting between the latter and the nasals. 
Supra-maxillaries and inter-maxillaries reduced and atten- 
uated forwards. Posterior nasal cavity with walls inflated 

outwards. 

SAIGIIDAE. (XXX.) 

a. 2. Olfactory organ normally developed : nasal bones elonga- 
ted, straight or declining forwards, and connected by suture 
with the lachrymals, supra-maxillaries and sometimes with 
the inter-maxillaries. Supra-maxillaries and inter-maxil- 
laries well-developed forwards. 

BOVIDAE. (XXXI.) 

b. Horns deciduous, peculiar to the rutting season, (in both 
sexes,) developed as pseudocorneous sheaths with agglutinated 
hairs on osseous cores originating from the frontal bones. Sty- 



73 

loid process completelj inclosed in a canal by the lateral 
extension of the base of the bony meatus auditorius. 

ANTILOCAPRIDAE. (XXXII.) 

ii. Skull with the auditory bulla little produced downwards and 
applied only to the inner surface of the paroccipital process. 
Styloid process directed downwards, interposed between the bulla 
^nd paroccipital process, and not inclosed in an oblique fold of 
the auditory bulla. Palatine axis nearly parallel with the oc- 
cipito-sphenoid axis. {Booidea cerviformia.) 

One family. CERVIDAE. (XXXIII.) 

2. Placenta diffuse. Stomach tripartite, the psalterium being unde- 
veloped. Incisorial series of lower jaw interrupted at symphysis, (the 
middle incisors very enlarged and expanded towards their crowns.) 
{Pecora unguligrada tragidoidea.) 

One family. TRAGULIDAE. (XXXIV.) 

3. Familiae incertae sedis. 

a. Skull broad behind, in front of the molars contracted forwards, 
with the facial portion produced downwards and abbreviated, and 
with the nasal bones abbreviated and longitudinally arched. 
Molars (M |, PM f ,) broad ; inner crescentic plates of enamel run- 
ning zig-zag-wise in large sinuous flexures. Horns in two pairs. 

SIVATHERIIDAE. (XXXV.) 

b. Skull with the parietals and supraoccipital extended far back- 
wards, and contracted forwards in front of the molars, with the 
facial portion normally produced. Molars (M |, PM |,) broad; 
inner crescentic plates of enamel describing a simple curve. Horns 

none, (in both sexes ?) 

HELLADOTHERIIDAE. (XXXVI.) 

C. Hind limbs with the proximal joint (femur) not exserted, but inclosed 
within the common integument (Inferential). Canines of lower jaw 
similar to and parallel with the incisors. Incisors all (I 3-3) persistent 
in upper jaw. (M |, PM |, C i I |x2=44.) Placenta diffuse (Liferen- 
tial). Stomach tripartite, the psalterium being undeveloped {Inferen- 
tial). (Pecora dentata.^ 

1. Teeth of both jaws in an interrupted series, the canines of the upper 
jaw being enlarged, and the first premolar of the lower caniniform, and 
received in diastemas of the opposite jaw. {Oreodontoidea.) 

OREODONTIDAE. (XXXVII.) 

2. Teeth of both jaws in a nearly or quite uninterrupted series, the 
canines and first premolars of neither jaws projecting. {Anoplothero- 
idea.) 

a. Body somewhat cerviform, with the hind limbs little longer than 
the fore, (having the relative length normal to walking quadru- 
peds.) Teeth comparatively uniform. 

ANOPLOTHERIIDAE. (XXXVIII.) 



74 

b. Bodj somewhat leporiform, with the hind limbs much longer than 
the fore, (as in the Leporids.) Teeth comparatively differentiated. 

DICHOBUNIDAE. fXXXIX.) 

II. Molars (M) attjpically tuberculiferoua. Canines of lower jaw enlarged 
and often developed as tusks, entirely differentiated and distant from 
incisors. Palatine bones scarcely contracted behind, thick, and (at the 
walls of the posterior nares) articulated with the terminal portion of the 
Bupraniaxillary bones. Digestive system not adapted for rumination: 
stomach imperfectly septate. — Axis with the odontoid process conical. 
(Flower.) — {Omnivora,) 

A. Body massive, with the feet phalangigrade, and their external (2, 5) 
toes well developed and produced as far as or beyond the first phalanges 
of the middle (3 — 4) toes; the last phalanges wide and with convex 
margins : manus with unciform bone much broader than high, and with 
second phalanx wedged between trapezoid and magnum ; pes with 
cuboid broader than high. Lower j aw with a deep preangular expansion 
directed forwards. (Snout rounded and with the nostrils open upwards 
and sideways. Mammae two, inguinal.) Ohesa. 

? Molars of upper jaw with a bow-shaped (convex extrorsely) longitudinal 
and a straight transverse valley dividing four tubercles, all of which are 
convex introrsely (towards the palate) and concave externally, (thus 
simulating the teeth of ruminants.) Molars of lower jaw narrower than 
those of upper, and with the longitudinal valley very narrow : (last 
molar with a supplementary posterior lobe.) Canines comparatively 
small and cylindro-couic. (Merycopotarnoidea.) 

MESYCOPOTAMIDAE. (XL.) 

! Molars (M) of upper jaw with nearly straight or irregularly sinuous 
longitudinal and transverse valleys dividing four tubercles, of which 
the external two are convex extrorsely and the inner two convex in- 
trorsely (towards the palate.) Molars of lower jaw resembling those 
of upper, (the last molar with a supplementary posterior lobe.) 
Canines very large and furrowed along their posterior surface. {Uip- 

popotamoidea.') 

HIPPOPOTAMIDAE. (XLI.) 

B. Body suiform ; with the feet unguligrade, and their external toes re- 
duced in size and not produced or assisting in progression; the last 
phalanges elongated and trihedral: manus with the unciform little or 
no broader than deep, and with the second phalanx not wedged be- 
tween the trapezoid and magnum ; pes with cuboid deeper than broad 
and emarginated behind. Lower jaw with uo preangular expansion. 
(Snout disciform and with the nostrils in it and open forwards. Mam- 
mae in increased number (4 to 10), ventral as well as inguinal.) Seti- 
fera. 

1. True molars of upper jaw with oblong crowns with four or more 
principal sub-conical lobes and accessory smaller ones. 



75 

a. Occipital bone witli long deflected styliform paroccipital processes 
in front of the occipital condyles, and emitting transverse internal 
ridges in which are the condyloid foramina. Squamosals with 
their articular processes projecting directly outwards from their 
bases (and thus aloof from the auditory bullae), and with the 
zygomatic processes overlying the malar bones. Pterygoid bones 
twisted and reflected outwards : the crest continued upwards and 
backwards into the temporal region. Articular surface for lower 
jaw transversely concave, antero-posteriorly convex, and with no 
post-glenoid process. Lower jaw with triangular condyles. Canine 
teeth of upper jaw (in males) more or less twisted outwards and 
upwards and parallel with the lower. Back with no dorsal scent 
gland. (^Seiifera suiformia.) 

i. Skull with the palato-maxillary axis extremely deflected and 
forming a high angle with the occipito-sphenoidal axis. Basi- 
sphenoid reflected (with a crest uniting with the presphenoid), 
and forming two deep pocket-like cavities. Orbits directed up- 
wards and backwards. Malar bones very deep, and with a short 
inferior process. Dental series aberrant (molars reduced (in old) 
to true (M 1 — 3) or even last true molar) : last or third true molar 
elongated and composed of three longitudinal rows of columnar 
tubercles presenting, when worn, simple oval insular areas. (In- 
cisors, in adults, reduced to 2 (or none) in upper, and sometimes 

none in lower jaw.) 

PHACOCHOERIDAE. (XLII.) 

ii. Skull with the palato-maxillary axis little deflected, and nearly 
parallel with the occipito-sphenoidal axis. Basisphenoid normal, 
and with no bursiform cavities. Orbits directed outwards and 
forwards. Malar bones elongated and with a long inferior pro- 
cess. Dental series normal (M | x2, PM | x2, C } x2, 1 ^ x2=44): 
molars with corrugated cusps presenting, when worn, deeply 
sinuated insular areas. 

STTIDAE. (XLin.) 

b. Occipital bone with short backward-directed paroccipital processes 
originating sideways from the occipital condyles, and emitting a 
transverse internal ridge continuous with the anterior margin of the 
bone, behind which are the condyloid foramina. Squamosals with 
their articular processes deflected from their bases and bounding 
the outside of the a,uditory bullae, and with the zygomatic processes 
articulating obliquely with the malar bones. Pterygoid bones 
simply curved outwards: the crest with a crest-like anterior 
process of the squamosal in front of the auditory bullae. Glenoid 
fossa curved and transversely concave, antero-posteriorly concave 
and with a distinct post-gleuoid process. Lower jaw with trans- 
verse condyles. Canine teeth of upper jaw simply decurved, very 
acute and trenchant behind. Back with a posterior dorsal scent 
gland. {Setifei-a dicotyliformia.) 

One family. DICOTYLIDAE. (XLIV.) 



76 

2. True molars of upper jaw with quadrate crowns, with four principal 
pyramidal and more or less distinctly trihedral lobes, divided by deep 
valleys, not filled up by cement, but, in some genera, interrupted with 
minor tubercles and ridges. (Owen.) Orbits, attypically, with a 
continuous margin behind. Lower jaw, attypically, with a tubercle 
projecting outwards. (Anthracotheroidea.) 

ANTHRACOTHERIIDAE, (XLV.) 

ARTI0DACTYLI1 INCERTAE SEDIS. 

SUPER-FAMILY CHALICOTHEROIDEA. 

XXVIIIa. CHALICOTHERIIDAE. 

CliaHcotherium Kaup., Falc. 

PECORA. 

SUPER-FAMILY CAMELOIDEA. 

XXVIII. CAMELIDAE. 

Genera. 



Extinct Camelidae. 



Camelus Linn. 
Auchenia 111. 

Merycotherium Bojanus. 
Poehr other ium Leidy. 
Procamelus Leidy. 
Megalomeryx Leidy. 
Ilomocamelus Leidy. 
Protomeryx Leidy. 
Merycodus Leidy. 
Camelops Leidy. 
Palauchenia Owen. 

SUPER-FAMILY GIRAFFOIDEA. 
XXIX. GIRAFFIDAE. 

Single genus. 
Giraffa Storr ex. Briss. = Ca?ne/o/)arf/a/«.s Cuv. 

SUPER-FAMILY BOOIDEA. 

XXX. SAIGIIDAE. 

Genus. 
Saiga Gray. 

XXXI. BOVIDIAE. 

SUB-FAMILIES. 

{Fide auct. plur.) 

I. Form massive, with the head declined ; with the neck abbreviated, the 
third and succeeding vertebrae being much shortened. Legs stout, and 



77 

with the metacarpals and metatarsals little or uo longer than the phalanges 
with hoofs. 

A. Molars comparatively broad, without supplemental lobes. The basi- 
occipital bone with its tubercles well developed, and a deep groove 
between them. (Turner.) 



BOVINAB. (A.) 



B. Molars comparatively narrow, with supplemental lobes. The basioo- 
cipital bone broad and flat, with a ridge and a fossa on each side. 
(Turner.) 



OVIBOVINAE. (B.) 



II. Form slender, with the head more or less uplifted ; with the neck com- 
paratively lengthened, the third and succeeding vertebrae being not much 
shorter than thick. Legs slender, and with the metacarpals and metatar- 
sals much longer than the phalanges with hoofs. 

1. Horns diversiform (definable by no common characters), conical, 
cylindrical, or compressed ; or, sub-angular, with a sub-spiral ridge 
originating at the base anteriorly ; or, variously contorted. 



ANTILOPINAE. (C.) 



2. Horns curved backwards, sub-angular, with a rectilinear ridge an- 
teriorly continuous around the convex curve. 



CAPRINAB. (D.) 

3. Horns curved outwards and forwards or sub-spiral, sub-angular, 
with a rectilinear ridge continuous around the convex curve. 

OVINAE. (E.) 
A. BOVINAB. 

Bos Linn. 
Bibos Hodgson. 

Biijos sensu strict. Probos Hodgson. 

Bubalus H. Smith- 

Bubalus sensu strict. Syncerus Hodgson. 

Hemibos Falc. (Extinct.) Amphibos Falc. (Extinct.) 

Anoa Leach. 
Poepkagus Gray. 
Bison H. Simith=Bonasus Wagn. 

B. OVIBOVINAE. 

Ovibos Blainv. 

Ouiios sensu strict. BootheriumLeidy. (Extinct.) 

C, ANTILOPINAB. 
§. 1. 



(Strepsiceros Turner.) 



Strepsiceros H. Smith. 
Oreas Desm. 
Trayelaphus Blainv. 



78 



§.2. 
(Gazclla Turner.) 



Paniholops Hodgson, Gray, Gerv. 
Procapra Hodgson. 
Gazella Blainv. 
Tragops Hodgson. 
Antidorcas Sund. 

j^pijceros Sund, 

Antilope Blainv. 

Tetraceros Leach. 



(Antilope Turner.) 

(Cervicapra Turner.) 

CTetraceros Turner.) 

{Oreotragus Turner.) 



Calotragus Sund. 
Scopophoriis Gray. 
Oreotragus Gray. 

Nesotragus Von Dubeu. 

Cephalophus H. Smith. 

Nanotragus Sund. 
Pelt a Gray. 
Eleotragus Gray. 
Adrnota Gray. 
Kohus H. Smith. 



Connochetes Licht. 
Connochetes Gray. 



(Xeoiragus Turner.) 

(Cephalophus Turner.) 

(Eleotragus Turner.) 



§.3. 
( Catohlepas Turner. ) 

(Alcelaphus Turner.) 



Gorgon Gray» 



Alcelaphus Blainv. 

Damalis H. Smith=G'a«e/.'a §. Gerv. 

§. 4. 
(Nemorhaedus Turner.) 
Capricornis Ogilby. 
Nemorhaedus H. Smith. 

(Budorcas Turner.) 
Budorcns Hodgson. 

§.5. 

(Apolceros Turner.) 
Mazama Raf., Gray=A})locero.^ H. Smiih= Antilocapra Gerv. 

(Riipicapra. Turner.) 
Rupicapra Blainv., Gray=Capena K. and B. 



79 



§. 6. 



Aegoceros H. Smith, T}irneTz=Hippotragus Sund. 
Ori/x Blainv., Turner. 
Addax Gray, Turner. 



5- (' 
(^Portax Turner.) 



Portax H. Smith. 



D, CAPKINAE. 

Uemitragus Gray. 

Hemitragus Graj. 

Kemas Ogilbj, Gray, Gerv. 
Cupra Liim. 

Aegoceros (Pall., Gray (p. 147, not p. 142). 

Ibex (Pall,), Gerv. = Ca/;ra Gray. 

Capra (Linn.), Gerv.=Hircus Gray. 



E. OVINAB, 

Oris Linn. 

Ouis sensu strict. 

Caprovis Hodgson=cil/usi??ion Gray, Gerv. 
Pseudovis Hodgson. 
Ammotragus Blyth. 



Palaeotragus Gaudry. 
Pcdaeoryx Gaudry. 
Tragoceros Gaudry. 
Palaeoreas Gaudry. 
Aniidorcas Gaudry. 

Leptotherium Lund. 
Cosoryx Leidy. 



Extinct genera. 
(^Antilopinae. ) 



{Bovidae? incertae sedis.) 



XXXII. ANTILOCAPEIDAE. 

Genus. 
Antilocapra Or6.=Dicranoceros H. Smith. 



XXXIII. CERVIDAE. 

SUB-FAMILIES. 

L Horns developed. 

A. Canine teeth small or none. 

B. Canine tooth of male enlarged and tusk-like, 

II. Horns not developed. 

A. Canine teeth of male enlarged and tusk-like. 



CEKVIWAE. (A.) 
CEHVTJLINAS. (3.) 



MOSCHIIfAE. (C.) 



80 



A. CERVINA2. 

(Genera Jide Sclater.) 
§.1. 



Alces H. Smith. 

Rangifer H. Smii'h= Tar a7idus Ogilbj. 

Dama H. Smith. 
Cervus Linn., Sclater. 

Cervus sensu strict. 

Ehiphiirus A. M. Edw. 

Rusa Hodgson. 

Axis Hodgson. 

Blastoceros Sund. 

Coassus Gray. 
Capreolus Gray. 



§.2. 
§.3. 



Sika Hodgson. 

Rucervus Hodgson=:Pano'm 



Hyelaplius Sund. 
Cariacus Gray. 
Furcifer Sund. 
Pudu Gray. 



B. CEKVTJLINAE. 

Cervulus Bla.mv .=Mun(jacus Gra,j=Stijlocerus H. Smith=Prox Ogilby. 

C. MOSCHINAE. 

Moschus Linn. 
Hydropotes Swiuhoe. 

Extinct. 
(Cervinae.) 
Megaceros Owen. 

(Cervidae? related to Moschinae?) 
Dremotlierium E. Geoff. 

Amphitragulus Fouiel=Tragulotheriu7n Croizet. 
Dorcatherium Kaup. 
Leptomeryx Leidy. 

SUPEE-FAMILY TRAGTJLOIDEA. 
XXXIV. TRAGULIDAE. 

Genera. 
§.1. 



Tragulus Briss. 

Traguhis sensu strict. 

Ilyomoschns Gray. 



Meminna Gray. 



§.2. 



SUPEE-FAMILY 1 SIVATHEROIDEA. 

XXXV. SIVATHERIIDAE. 
Extinct. 
Sivatherium Talc, and CautL 



[Gray. 



81 

IncertcB sedis. 



Bramatherium Falc. and Cautl. 



SUPEE-FAMILY 1 HELLADOTHEROIDEA. 
XXXVI. HELLADOTHESIIBAE. 

Extinct. 
Helladotherium Gaudrj. 

SUPER-FAMILY OREODONTOIDEA. 
XXXVII. OREODONTIDAE. 

Extinct. 

A. Orbit complete behind. Lachrymal bone impressed bj a well-marked 
fossa. (Leidj.) 

OREODONTINAE. (A.) 

B Orbit incomplete behind. Lachrymal bone with no fossa. (Leidj.) 

AQRIOCHOEKIDAB. (B.) 
A- OKEODONTINAE. 

Oreodon Leidy=Mer2/coidodon Leidy^Colylops Leidj. (^Fide Leidj.) 
Merrjcochoerus Leidy. 
Merychyus Leidy. 
Leptauchenia Leidy. 

B. AQB.IOCHOEHIDAB. 

Agriochoerus Leidy.= J Eucrotaphus Leidy. 

SUPER-FAMILY ANOPLOTHERIOIDEA. 
XXXVIII. ANOPLOTHERIIDAE, 
Extinct. 
Anoplotherium Cuv. 
Eurytherium Gervais. 

% 
XXXIX. DICHOBUNIDAE. 

Extinct. 

{^Genera fide Turner.) 

Caenotherium BrtiV a.Td=OpIotheriu7n Laiz. and de Par. 
Dichodon Owen. 
Dichohune Cuv. 
Xipliodon Cuv. 

Anoplotheroidea? incerfce sedis, 
Tapinodon v. Meyer, 1846. 
Choereomeryx Pomel, 1848. 
Aphdotherium Gervais. 
February, 1872. 



82 

Cebochoerus Gervais. 

Zoolijus Aymard. 

Diplocus Aymard. 

Ili/aegulus Pomel. 

Microtherium v. 'MeyeT=:A?>iphi7neri/x Pomel. 

Adapis Cuv. 

Homaladotherium Huxl. 

OMNIVORA. 

SUPER-FAMILY MESYCOPOTAMOIDEA, 

XL. MERYCOPOTAMIDAE. 

Extinct. 
Merycopotamus Falc. and Cautl. 

SUPER-FAMILY HIPPOPOTAMOIDEA. 
XLI. HIPPOPOTAMIDAE. 

SUB-FAMILIES. 

A. Skull depressed between tlie orbits and with the frontal sinus ob- 
solete ; the orbits prominent above the level of the forehead, and closed 
behind. 

HIPPOPOTAMINAE. (A.) 

B. Skull convex between the orbits and with the fi'ontal sinus well 
developed ; the orbits depressed below the level of the forehead and 
incomplete behind. 

CHOEROPSINAE. <B.) 
A. HIPPOPOTAMINAE. 

Hippopotamus Lmn.=rTetraprotodon Falc. and Cautl. 

B. CHOEROPSINAE. 

Choeropsis Leidy. 

Extinct, 
{Hippopotaminae.^ 
Hexaprotodon Falc. and Cautl. 

SUPER-FAMILY SETIFERA. 
XLII. PHACOCHOERIDAE. 

Genus. 
Phacoclxoerus F. Cnv. =::Eu'reodo7i G. Fisch. 

Extinct genus referred {erroneous! i/?} to Phacochoeridae, 
Calydonius v. Meyer. 

XLIII. SUIDAE. 

§ 1. 

Babirussa F. Cuv. =PorcMS Wagler. 



83 

§.2. 
Potamochoerus Gray= Choiropotamus Gray. 
Sus Linn. 

Sus Gray. Scrofa Gray. 

Centuriosus Gv3.j=Gyrostis Gra,y=Ptychochoerus Fitz. 
Porcula Hodgson. 

Extinct genus incertce sedis. 
Hippohyus Falc. and Cautl. 

XLIV. DICOTYLIDAE. 

Genera. 
DIcotyles Cuv. 
Notophorus Gray. 

Extinct. 
Platygonus Lee, Leidy.=Hyops Le(i.=Protochoerus Lee. =Euchoerus Leidy. (Fide 
Leidy.) 

SUPER-FAMILY ANTHRACOTHEROIDEA. 
XLV. ANTHRACOTHERIIDAE. 

Extinct. 

SUB-FAMILIES. 

A. Premolars of upper jaw in part (PM 4) resembling the true molars, 
and with tubercles in transverse series (y | --) separated by transverse 
vallies; the preceding (PM 3, 2, 1) successively more and more differ- 
entiated forwards. 

HYOPOTAMINAE. (A.) 

B. Premolars (PM 4, 3, 2, 1) of upper jaw all differentiated from the true 
molars, and each with a conical crown and a small inner lobe. 

ANTHKACOTHEBIINAE. (B.) 
A. HYOPOTAIUNAE. 

Hyopotamus Owen. 

Bothryodon Aymard=J[ncoc?us Pomel. • 

B. ANTHKACOTHEHIINAE. 

Anthracotherium Cuv. 
Elotherium Pomel. 

EXTINCT OMNIVORA? INCERTJE SEDIS. 

Choeropotamus Cuv. 

Palaeochoerus Pomel =: Cyclognathus Croizet = Brachygnathus Pomel = Synaphodus 

Pomel. 
Choeromorus Lartet. 
Entelodon Aymard. 
Heterohyus Gervais. 
AcotheruJtim Gervais. 
Choeroiherium Falc^Tetraconodon Falc. 



84 



Tiianotherium Leidy. 
Perchoerus Leidy. 
Leptochoerus Leidy. 
Nanohyus Leidy. 



PERISSODACTYLI. 

FAMILIES. 

L Incisors (4? in lower jaw) in part gliriform, the outer having persistent 
pulps, and growing continuously in a circular direction. {Anchippodonto- 
idea.) 

ANCHIPPODONTIDAE. (XLV. a.) 

XL Incisors not gliriform. 

1. Middle digit and hoof hypertrophied and alone supporting the body, 
the lateral (second and fourth) digits being more or less atrophied and 
functionless, or (attypically) obsolete (reduced to the condition of 
"splint bones"). Femur with a fossa above the external condyle. 
Skull (attypically) much prolonged forwards. Molars subequal (not 
decreasing forwards) and cuboid ; pre-molars (PM 3-4) also enlarged 
(not decreasing forwards) and (except second) cuboid ; the second 
(PM 2) elongated; the first milk molar (D 1) more or less persistent 
and not replaced by a pre-molar (PM 1) ; disproportionately small. 
Incisors with a deep invaginated fold of enamel penetrating the in- 
terior from the crown, and producing a central cavity filled with 
cementum. {Solidungula.') 

A. Ulna with the shaft atrophied and the extremities anchylosed and 
consolidated with the radius. Fibula rudimentary and anchylosed 
to the tibia. Skull with the orbit complete behind. Upper molars 
(PM and M) — at least, of second set — with a deep valley re-entering 
from the postrorse portion of the inner side obliquely forwards, and 
(in connection with a more or less deep valley re-entering from the 
introrse portion of the anterior border or the angle) more or less 
isolating an introrse enamel lobe or area, and with two (anterior and 
posterior) crescentic enamel islands. Lower molars (PM 2, M 2) 
with a valley re-entering inwards from the outer wall, one from the 
introrse portion of the anterior wall, and another (terminating in 
anterior and posterior branches) from the posterior portion of the 
inner wall. 

EQUIDAE. (XLVI.) 

B. Ulna with the shaft complete and moderately developed, and more 
or less diflFerentiated from the radius. Fibula archetypical ly com- 
plete but archylosed with the tibia. Skull with the orbit incomplete 
behind. Upper molars (PM.3-4 and M) with a deep (anterior) val- 
ley re-entering from the middle of inner side inwards and forwards 



85 

and ending in lateral branches, and with a (posterior) valley re- 

enterin"' from the posterior wall. Lower molars with a V-shaped 

valley re-entering from the outer wall, and two Y-shaped vallies, 

re-entering from the inner wall (the crowns having W-shaped 

ridges) 

ANCHITHEEIIDAE. (XLVII.) 

Middle digit and hoof not hypertrophied, and only in connection with 
the lateral supporting the body, the lateral being well developed and 
efficient. Femur without a fossa above the external condyle. Skull 
moderately prolonged forwards. Molars unequal (the first smaller 
than the second), diversiform ; pre-molars decreasing in size forwards ; 
first milk molar not persistent, but (generally) replaced by a pre- 
molar (PM 1) of moderate size. Incisors without an invaginated fold 
of enamel penetrating the interior. 

A. Nasal region expanded or thrown backwards, the supramaxillary 
bones forming a more or less considerable portion of the border of 
the nasal aperture ; the nasal bones contracted forwards, or atro- 
phied. Molars with crowns traversed by more or less well-defined 
continuous ridges. 

a. Upper molars with a continuous outer wall and without com- 
plete transverse crests. {Rhinocerotoidea.) 

aa. Neck abbreviated. Incisor teeth (attypically) reduced in 
number or entirely suppressed. (^Rhinocerotoidea rhinoceroti- 
formia.) 

^ Skull with the basioccipital comparatively well developed 
behind and narrowed forwards ; (with tympanic and periotic 
bones anchylosed and wedged in between the squamosal, ex- 
occipital and other adjacent cranial bones. — Huxley;) with 
the nasal bones produced forwards and more or less arched, 
and meeting an upward developed expansion of the supra- 
maxillary bones. Upper molars with a deep valley extending 
obliquely inwards from the median portion of the inner wall 
and (PM 4, M 1-2) a shallow one extending from the posterior 
wall. Lower molars (PM 2, M 3) with two curved transverse 

RHINOCEROTIDAE. (XLVIII.) 

bb. Neck more or less elongated. Incisor teeth developed in 
normal number Q). (Rhinocerotoidea macraucheniformia.) 

* Skull with the basioccipital widened forwards : with the nasal 
bones extremely reduced and above or behind the orbits : tlie 
supramaxillary bones rectilinear above, arched and approxi- 
mating each other in front of the nasal aperture but separated 
by the extension upward of the vomer ? Dental series almost 



86 

continuous : upper posterior molars (M 2, 3) eacli with a shal- 
low valley extending inwards from the anterior portion of the 
inner wall, and with two or three deep depressions in the 
inner half: lower molars (PM 3, M 3) with two (anterior 
and posterior) more or less defined crescent-shaped ridges : 

canines small. 

MACRAUCHENIIDAE. XLIX.) 

■** Skull with the basioocipital comparatively narrow forwards : 
with the nasal bones produced forwards and terminating in 
a free narrowed surface; the supra-maxillary bones with an 
upward developed expansion (connected with the nasal 
bones) and widely separated above in front. Dental series 
interrupted by wide diastemas : upper molars (PM 2, M 1, 2, 
3) each with a deep valley extending obliquely inwards from 
the median portion of the inner wall and a shallow one ex- 
tending from the angle or posterior wall : lower molars (PxM 
2, M 2) with two (anterior and posterior) crescent-shaped 
ridges: canines well developed. 

PALAEOTHERIIDAE. (L.) 

b. Upper (as well as lower) true molars without a continuous outer 
wall, but (M 2-3, at least,) each with two complete transverse 
crests. (^Lophiodontoidea. ) 

1. True molars as well as pre-molars in part (PM 2, 3, 4) nearly 
similar, squarish, and each with the anterior crest marginal, but 
with an anterior cingulum terminating in a cusp at the antero- 
outer angle of the tooth ; hindmost molar (M 3) with no posterior 
lobe. Anterior feet with four toes ; posterior with three, (in 
known types). 

TAPIRIDAE. (LI.) 

2. True molars and pre-molars differentiated from each other ; the 

former oblong, with the anterior crest remote from the anterior 

margin and continuous with a small crest recurrent from the 

outer wall: hindmost molar with a posterior lobe ; (pre-molars 

not bilophodont but with a lobe extending inwards from the 

inner wall). Anterior feet with lour (?) toes; posterior with 

three (?). 

LOPHIODONTIDAE. (LII.) 

B. Nasal region compressed and extended forwards, the supramaxil- 
lary bones excluded from the nasal apertui'e ; the nasal bones 
elongated and extending far forwards, and articulated with the in- 
termaxillary bones. Molars (M 1, 2, 3) of upper jaw each with two 
transverse rows of tubercles (3|3) separated by a transverse valley 
and with a cingulum anteriorly and internally : (lower molars dis- 
similar). (Pliolophoidea.') 

PLIOLOPHIDAE. (LIII.) 



87 

Perissodactyli? incertae sedis. 
Molar teeth of lower jaw with, a crenulated longitudinal ridge. Canines and 

incisors wanting. 

ELASMOTHERIIDAE. (LIV.> 

STJPER-FAMILY ANCHIPPODONTOIDEA. 
XLVa. ANCHIPPODONTIDAE. 

Exti7ict. 
Anchippodus Leidy=Trogosus Leidy. 

SUPER-FAMILY SOLIDUNGULA. 

XLVI. EQUIDAE. 

Genera. 
Equus Linn. 
Asiniis Gray. 

Asinus sensii strict. 



Hippotigris H. Smith. 



Extinct, 
Hipparion Chri&to\=Hippotherium Kaup. 
Merychippus Leidj. 
Protophippus Leidy =Hippidion Owen 1870. 

XLVII. ANCHITHERIIDAE. 

Extinct. 
Genera Jide Leidy. 
Anchitherium v. Meyer^Hipparitherium Christol. 
Hypoliippus Leidj, 1858. 
Parahippus Leidy, 1858. 
Anchippus Leidy, 1868. 

SUPER-FAMILY RHINOCEROTOIDEA. 
XLVIII. RHINOCEROTIDAE. 

Genera. 
Rhinasier Gray. 

Rhinaster sensu strict. Ceratotherium Gray. 

Rhinoceros Linn. 

Rhinoceros sensu strict. Ceratorhinus Grav. 



Coelodonta Bronn. 

Acerothirium Kaup. 
Badactherixim Croizet, 
Hyracodon Leidy. 



Extinct* 
§.1. 

§.2, 



88 

XLIX. MACRAUCHENIIDAE. 

Extinct.. 
Macrauchenia Ow en:=Opisthorhinus Bravard. 

L. PALAEOTHERIIDAE. 

Extinct. 
Palaeotheriiim Cuv. 
Monacrum Aymard. 
Propalaeotherium Gervais, 1849. 
Paloplotkerium Owen= Plagiolophus Pomel. 

SUPER-FAMILY LOPHIODONTOIDEA. 
LI. TAFIRIDAE. 

Genera. 
§. 1. 



Elasmognathus Gill. 

Tapirus Linn. 
Rhinoclwerus Gray. 



§.2. 



III. LOPHIODONTIDAE. 

Extinct. 
Genera Jide Bronn. 
Lophiodon Cwv .=Tapir other ium Blainv. 1817 (not 1846). 
Tapiroporcus Jager, 1835. 
Coryphodon Owen, 1846. 

Listriodon v. Meyer, 184:6= Tapir otherium Lartet 

Pachijnolophus Pomel, 1841=nyracotheriu77i Blainv. 1844 (not Owen, 1840). 
Lophiotherium Gervais, 1849. 
Tapirulus Gervais, 1850. 
Anchilophus Gervais, 1852. 

SUPER-FAMILY PLIOLOPHOIDKA. 

LIII. PLIOLOPHIDAE. 

Extinct 
Pliolophus Owen. 

PERISSODACTYLI INCERTAE SEDIS. 
LIV. ELASMOTHERIIDAE. 

Extinct. ■- 
Elasmotherium Fischer = ? Stereoceros Duvernoy. 

TJNGULATA1 INCERTAE SEDIS. 
Hyracotherium Owen. 
Stereognathus Owen. 



89 



IV. TOXODONTIA. 

FAMILIES. 

I. Teeth 44 (M f, PM f , C |, I | X2) ; molars of upper jaw mostly (PM 3-4, 
M 1) oblong, moderately narrowed backwards, with two folds (the ante- 
rior of which is divided) re-entering from the inner side. Incisors three 
on each side, with simple fangs ; the first largest, compressed, widely 
separated from its homologue; the second smaller, trihedral; the third 
lateral and behind the second, and rudimentary: molars of lower jaw 
comparatively broad and complex : canines moderate ; incisors implanted 

in a curved row. 

NESODONTIDAE. 

II. Teeth 36 (M f, PM f, C ^, I |x2) ; molars with enamel coat interrupted 
at the anterior and posterior margins ; those of upper jaw mostly (P.M 3, 4, 
M 1-3) obliquely triangular, rapidly narrowed backwards, with a single 
simple fold re-entering obliquely forwards from the inner side. Incisors 
of upper jaw two ou each side, but with incisorial crowns, the outer with 
roots of nearly uniform diameter throughout, and describing the segment 
of a circle, (like those of rodents,) and with ^rsistent pulp — (Owen) : 
molars of lower jaw narrowed, especially the posterior portions ; canines 

rudimentary ; incisors in a nearly straight line. 

TOXODONTIDAE. 

LV. NESODONTIDAE. 

Exti7ict. 
Nesodon Owen. 



(LV.) 



(LVI.) 



Toxodon Owen 



Hyrax Linn. 

Hijrax Gray. 
Dendrohyrax Gray. 



LVI. TOXODONTIDAE. 

Extinct. 

V. EYRACOIDEA. 

FAMILY. 
LVII. HYRACIDAE. 

Genera. 




Euhyrax Gray. 



IV. PHOBOSCIDEA. 

FAMILIES. 

I. Incisors of upper jaw (l-{-l) everted, enormously developed and modified 
as cylindro-conic tusks, with roots extending backwards and converging, 



90 

and thus producing a high pre-narial rampart: incisors of lower jaw com- 
paratively small and directed forwards, or entirely absent. Molars suc- 
cessively displacing each other from behind forwards (and therefore no 
pre-molars replacing the deciduous ones), and not more than two (or one) 
fully developed at the same time. Skull abbreviated and enlarged 
obliquely, convex backwards and outwards, and with the occipital con- 
dyles declined. 

EIEPHANTIDAE. (LVIII.) 

II. Incisors of upper jaw atrophied or absent, (and consequently an uninter- 
rupted oval depression occupying the naso-maxillary region) : incisors of 
lower jaw (1+1) enlarged, and developed as tusks decurved downwards 
and backwards, and involving the symphysial portion of the jaw. Molars 
vertically developed (with pre-molars replacing the deciduous molars), 
and in considerable number (PM #, M f X2) at the same time. Skull 
moderately long, and with the occipital condyles inclined upwards. 

DINOTHERIIDAE. (LIX.) 

LVin. EIEPHANTIDAE. 

STJB-rAMILIES. 

I. Intermediate molars (D 4, M 1, 2) with an "isomerous" ridge formula 
(t. e. with the ridges equal in number in the successive teeth — three to 
five): the ridges attypicaily continuous: the valleys with a thick deposit 
of cementum. 

ELEPHANTINAE. (A.) 

II. Intermediate molars (D 4, M 1, 2) with a "hypisomerous" or "aniso- 
merous" ridge formula (i. e. with the ridges increasing in number by one 
("hypisomerous") or more ("anisomerous") in the successive teeth {e.g. 
D 4', M 18, M 29 to D 4"pm.^ m iiepm.^ m 218p°'): the ridges with more or 
less mammilliform tubercles: the valleys with little or no cementum. 

MASTODONTINAB. (B.) 
A. ELEPHANTINAE. 

Elephas Lmn=:Elasmodon Falc.=Euelephas Falc. 
Loxodonta F. C\iy.=Loxodon Falc. 

Extinct genu$. 
Stegodon Falc. 

B. MASTODONTINAE. 

Extinct. 
Pentalophodon Falc. 
Mastodon CiiY. = TetraIoj)hodon Falc. 
Tetracaulodon Godmsiii=Trilophodon Falc. 

LIX. DIITOTHEKIIDAE. 

Extinct, 
Dinotherium Kaup. 



91 
Vn. SIHENIA. 

FAMILIES. 

I. Tail entire, rounded, and with the vertebrae towards last {i.e. 5-{-x); 
sub-cylindrical and destitute of transverse processes. Intermaxillary 
bones with the branches little prolonged backwards and with the anterior 
portion nearly or quite straight. (^Trichechoidea.) 

TEICHECHIDAE. (LX.) 

II. Tail forked, and with the vertebrae (except the terminal) depressed and 
provided with transverse processes. Intermaxillary bones (attypically) 
with the branches prolonged backwards and with the anterior portion more 
or less deflected. {Halicoroidea.') 

A. Teeth present, and in part at least functionally developed in the adult : 
molars | to f x2 in number, but rarely present in full complement, the 
anterior being gradually cast ; incisors in the upper jaw two (more or less 
prominent) at least in the male. Teeth of the complete series — at least 
of Trichechidae — M -llf, C f, I |X2; the upper incisors only persistent, 
the others as well as the canines being reabsorbed ; molars successively 
increasing in size backwards. 

1. Molars mostly with two or three roots each (generally three-rooted 
above and two-rooted below) ; and with crowns furnished with obtuse 
tubercles arranged in transverse yoke-like eminences, and in the 
posterior ones with an additional narrower tuberculated yoke behind 
the principal ones. (^Brandt.) 

HALITHERIIDAE. (LXI.) 

2. Molars with simple hollow roots (not separated from the crowns) ; 
with crowns furnished with little prominent tubercles, few in number 
(in the anterior teeth simple or double, in the rest three or four) not 
forming yoke-like eminences, and early worn away and disappearing. 

HALICORIDAE. (LXII.) 

B. Teeth absent. (Intermaxillary lines with the apical portion produced 
and simulating incisorial teeth. Manducation is only effected by a 
very large palatine corneous plate, and by another opposed to it and 
covering the very large and elongated symphysis of the lower jaw. — 
Brandt.) 

EHYTINIDAE. (LXIII.) 



SUPER-FAMILY TEICHECOIDEA. 
LX. TEICHECHIDAE. 

Genus. 
Trichechiis Linn=3Ianatiis StoTT=Ox)jsto7nus Fischer. 



SUPEK-FAMILY HALICOKOIDEA, 
LXI. HALITHERIIDAE. 

Extinct. 

Halitherium Kaup, 1838=fiaZiaua.ssa v. Meyer, 1838. 

Metaxytherium de Christol. Fucotherium Kaup. 

Halitherium Kaup. Pontotherium Kaup. 

Pugmeodon Kaup. Cheirotherium Bruuo. 

LZn. HALICORIDAE. 

Genus. 
Halicore llligeT=Dugxingus Tied.m.= Platystomus Fisch. 

LXIII. EHYTINIDAE. 

Genus. 
Extinct ? 
Rhytina Steller=>S'fe//e/'MS Desm.=iV(sp?<s Fisch. 

SIEENIA? IHCERTAE SEDIS. 

Extinct. 
Trachytherium Gervais. 
Prorastomus Owen. 
Anoplonassa Cope. 
Hemicaulodon Cope. 
Crassitherium Van Beneden. 



VIII. CETE. 

SUB-ORDERS. 

I. Intermaxillaries expanded forwards, normally interposed between the 
maxillaries, and forming the terminal as well as anterior portion of the 
lateral margin of the upper jaw. Nasal apertures produced more or less 
forwards, and with the nasal bones freely projecting. Teeth of the inter- 
maxillaries apparently in normal number (3-|-3), conic ; of the maxillaries, 
2- or 3-rooted. 

ZETTGLODONTIA. 

II. Intermaxillaries narrowed forwards, forming only the point of the upper 
jaw, and underlaid by the maxillaries, which form the entire lateral alve- 
olar margins of the jaw. Nasal apertures far back, near the vertex, and 
with the nasal bones appressed. Teeth (when present) all single-rooted. 

A. Teeth more or less persistent after birth. Upper jaw without baleen. 
Supramaxillary expanded backwards over the frontal bones, but not 
produced outwards in front of the orbits. Rami of lower jaw united by 



93 

a symphyseal suture. Olfactory organ rudimentary or absent; the nasal 
bones appressed on the frontals and overlapped distally by the meseth- 
moid. 

DENTICETE. 

B. Teeth absorbed and disappearing before birth. Upper jaw provided 
with plates of baleen. Supramaxillary not expanded backwards over 
the frontal bones, but produced outwards in front of the orbits. Rami 
of lower jaw connected by fibrous tissue, and not by suture. Olfactory 
organ distinctly developed ; the nasal bones projecting forwards, and 
not overlapped at their distal ends. 

MYSTICETE. 
ZEUGLODONTIA. 

FAMILIES. 

I. Parietal, frontal, and especially nasal bones elongated. Anterior nares 

open forwards. (Cope.) 

BASILOSAUEIDAE. (LXIV.) 

II. Parietal, frontal, and especially nasal bones abbreviated. Anterior nares 

open far behind. (Cope.) 

CYNORCIDAE. (LXV.) 

LXIV. BASILOSATTRIDAE. 

Extinct genera. 

Basilosaurus IlsLTl.^Zeufjlodon Owen=Poli/ptychodon Emmons=HydraTchos Koch. 
Durodon Gibbes^Powio^eni^s Leidy. 

LXV. CYNORCIDAE. 

Extinct genera, 
(^Fide Copei.) 
Portheodon Cope. 

Squalodon GTa,t.=CoIophonodon Leidy, Cope, 1867. 
Cynorca Cope. 
Delphinodon heidy= Squalodon Cope, 1867. 

Genera? incertae sedis, 
Stenodon Van Ben. 
Saiirocetus Gibbes. 

DENTICETE. 

FAMILIES. 

I. Rostrum of skull moderately prolonged, and terminating in a rounded or 
subangulated apex. 

A. Head (generally) rostrated and attenuated, or ledge-like around the 
margin. Skull with the vertex produced forwards. Supraoccipital not 
projecting forwards laterally above the temporal fossae. Frontals visible 



94 

above only as elongated hook-shaped borders produced backwards 
around the maxillaries. {Delphinoidea.) 

1. Lachrymal bones coalesced with the jugals. 

a. Costal cartilages not ossified. The tubercular and capitular 
articulations of the ribs blending together posteriorly. (Flower.) 

al. Maxillary bones with crests null or little developed. Teeth in 
great part with a complete cingulum, or a distinct tubercle at the 
base of the crown. Eye moderate. External respiratory aperture 
transversely crescentiform. 

INIIDAE. (LXVI.) 

a2. Maxillary bones with large bony incurved crests. Teeth with- 
out cingulum or tubercle. Eye rudimentary. External respira- 
tory aperture longitudinal. 

PLATANISTIDAE. (LXVII.) 

b. Costal cartilages firmly ossified. Posterior ribs losing their capitu- 
lar articulation, and only uniting with the transverse processes of 
the vertebrae by the tubercle. (Flower.) 

DELPHINIDAE. (LXVIII.) 

2. Lachrymal bones distinct from the jugals. 

a. Costal cartilages not ossified. The hinder ribs losing their tuber- 
cular, and retaining their capitular articulation with the vertebrae. 
(Flower.) 

ZIPHIIDAE. (LXIX.) 

B. Head not rostrated or marginated; snout high towards the front 
and projecting beyond the mouth. Skull raised behind and retrorsely 
convex. Supraoccipital projecting forwards laterally to or beyond the 
vertical of the temporal fossae. Frontals visible above as erect triangular 
or retrorsely falciform wedges between the maxillaries and supraoccipital. 
(^Physeteroidea. ) 

PHYSETERIDAE. (LXX.) 

IL Rostrum of skull prolonged into a slender, straight beak, the inter- 
maxillary and maxillary bones forming a cylinder, bearing teeth on its 
proximal portion. (^Rhabdosteoidea.) 

RHABDOSTEIDAE. (LXXI.) 

SUPEK-FAMILY DELPHINOIDEA. 
LXVI. INIIDAE. 

Genus. 



Inia D'Orb. 

Tretosphys Cope. 
Zarhadiis Cope. 
Priscodelphimis Leidy. 
Ixacanihus Cope. 
Lophoceius Cope. 



Extinct Iniidaef 



95 

LXVII. PLATANISTIDAE. 

Genus. 
Platanista Cuv. 

LXVIII. DELPHINIDAE. 

SUB-FAMILIES. 

I. Neck evident externally, the cervical region being attenuated. Frontal 
area longitudinally expanded and little depressed. Postorbital process of 
frontal and zygomatic process of squamosal projecting outwards, and the 
latter enlarged and directed forwards. Maxillary with a crest and free 
margin over orbital region. 

PONTOPORIINAE. (A.) 

II. Neck not evident externally, the cervical region not being differentiated. 
Frontal area abbreviated and declivous. Postorbital process of frontal 
and zygomatic process of squamosal compressed, and the latter compara- 
tively short and oblique. Maxillary with no supraorbital crest. 

1. Digits (second and third) not segmented into more than 5-6 pha- 
langes, each. 

a. Cervical vertebrae all distinct. 

DELPHINAPTERINAE. (B.) 

b. Cervical vertebrae more or less (2 to 7) consolidated. 

DELPHININAS. (C.) 

2. Digits (second and third) segmented into numerous phalanges. 

QLOBIOCEPHALINAB. (D.) 
A. PONTOPOKIINAB. 

Pontoporia Gr&j=StenodeIphis Gerv. 

B. DEIiPHINAPTEBINAB. 

Delphinapterus Lac, lAW}. -=3 elug a Gray. 
Monodon Linn. 

C. DELPHIiriNAB. 

Sot alia Gray. 

Steno Gray. 

Delphirius Linn. 

Clymenia Gray. 

Tur slops GeTV.=Turs{o Gray. 

Cephalorhynchus F. C\iv.=Eutropia Gray. 

Lagenorhynchus Gray. - 

Electra Gray. Feresa Gray. 

Lucopleurus Gray. Lagenorhynchus Gray. 

Leucorhamphus Lill}. =Delphinapterus Gray (not Lac.) 
Pseudorca Reinh. 
Orca Gray 

Orca sensu strict. Ophysia Gray. 

Orcaella Gray. 
Phoccena Gray. 

Phoccena sensu strict. Acanthodelphis Gray. 

Neomeris Gray. 
Sagmatias Cope. 



96 



D. aiiOBIOCBFSALnrAS. 



Glohiocephalus Gtslj. 

Glohiocephalus sensu strict. 
Grampus Gray. 



Sphaerocephalus Gray. 



LXIX. ZIPHIIDAE. 



STJB-rAMILIES. 

I. Maxillaries with no incurred lateral crests. 
II. Maxillaries with greatlj developed incurved crests. 



ZIPHIINAK. (A.) 



ANANAKCINAB. (B. 



A. ZXFHIINA2. 

Ziphius Cu.Y.=Epiodon Gray. 

Epiodon Gray. Petroryhnchus Gray. 

Mesoplodon Gerv. = Ziphius Gra,j = Heterodon Blainv. 1816 (not Beauv. 
1800) = Diodon Less. = Aodon Less. = Nodus Wagl. 

Ziphius Gray. Dolichodon Gray. 

Neoziphius Gray. Dioplodon Gerv. 
Berardius Duv. 



B. ANAKNACINAE. 

^narnacMs Lac^^Hi/peroodon La.c.=Chenocetus Eschr. 



Hyperoodon Gray. 



Lagenocetua Gray. 



Extinct Ziphiidat, 



Choneziphius Duv. 
Belemnoziphius Huxl. 
Placoziphius Van Ben. 
Ziphirostrum Van Ben. 
J./)oroius Du Bus. 
Ziphiopsis Du Bus. 
Rhinostodes Du Bus. 

SUPER-FAMILY PHYSETEROIDEA. 
LXX. PHYSETERIDAE. 

STJB-FAMILrES. 

I. Head very large, truncated in front. Blow-hole near the edge of the 
snout. Cerebral cavity declining downwards. Jugal and zygomatic pro- 
cesses of squamosal connected. 



PHYSETERINAE. (A.) 



II. Head moderate, conic in front. Blow-hole frontal. Cerebral cavity 
inclining upwards. Jugal and zygomatic processes of squamosal remote. 



KOQUNAB. (B.) 



A. PHYSETEEINAB. 

Physeter L\r\-n.= Cat odon Gra.j-\-Physeter Gray. 
Physeter sensu strict. 

B. KOQIINAB. 

Kogia Gr2iy^^Euphysetes Wall. 
Callignathus Gill. 



Meganeuron Gray. 



97 

Extinct Physeieridaef 



Orycterocetus Leidy. 
Ontocetus Leidy. 



SUPEB-FAMILY! EHABDOSTEOIDEA. 
LXXI. RHABDOSTEIDAE. 

Extinct genus, 
Rhabdosteus Cope. 



MYSTICETE. 

I. Skull with the maxillary region slightly arched, and with short baleen 
plates. Rostrum broad at the base, gradually tapering, depressed. Front- 
als with the orbital processes moderately prolonged, broad, and flat on the 
upper surface. (Supramaxillary bones with the posterior margin deeply 
excavated.) Tympanic bones elongated, ovoid. Lower jaw with the coro- 
noid process more or less developed. Cervical vertebrae in whole or in 
part separated. Manua narrow, with four digits (first wanting). (Flower. ) 

BALAENOPTERIDAE. (LXXII.) 

n. Skull with the maxillary region greatly arched, and with long, narrow 
baleen plates. Rostrum narrow and compressed at the base. Frontals 
with the orbital processes much prolonged, and extremely narrow and 
rounded on the upper surface. (Supramaxillary bones with the posterior 
margins entire.) Tympanic bones broad, rhomboid. Lower jaw with the 
coronoid processes scarcely perceptible. Cervical vertebrae coalesced. 
Manus broad, with five digits. (Flower.) 

BALAENIDAE. (LXXIII.) 

LXXII. BALAENOPTERIDAE. 

SUB-FAMILIES. 

L Throat not plicated. Dorsal fin null. 

AaAPSELrN^A:^. (a.) 

n. Throat longitudinally plicated. Dorsal fin developed. 

A. Frontal with the orbital processes much narrowed externally. (Flower. ) 
Manus very long, with the four digits segmented into many phalanges. 
Dorsal fin hump-like. 

MEQAPTEKINAE. (B.) 

B. Frontal processes with the orbital processes nearly as broad at the 
outer extremity as the base, or somewhat narrowed. (Flower.) Manus 
moderate, with the four digits having each not more than six phalanges. 
Dorsal fin high, erect, falcate or subfalcate. 

BALAENOPTEKINAJS. (O.) 
A. AQAFHEIilKAS. 

Agaphelus Cope. 
Rhachianectes Cope. 
February, 1872. 



98 



B. MEQAPTBEINAJS. 

Megapatera Gray. 
Poescopia Gray. 
Eschrichtius Gray. 

C. BAIiAENOPTEBINAB. 
§.1. 

Physaliis Gray. 

Benedenia Gray. Fhysalus Gray. 

Cuvierius Gray. 
Sihhaldius Gray, 1866=F7oti;erms Lillj. 1867. 
Rudolphius Gray (s. ^.), 18G6=5i66a/6/ius Lillj. 1867. 

§. 2. 
Balaenoptera Lac. 

Balaenoptera seusu strict. Swinhoia Gray. 

Extinct genera incertae sedis. 

Cetotheriiun Brandt. 
Plesiocetus Van Ben and Gerv. 



Balaena Linn. 
Neohalaena Gray. 
Euhalaena Gray. 
Hunterius Gray. 
Cnperea Gray. 
Macleayius Gray. 

Palaeocetus Seeley. 



LXXIII. BALAENIDAE. 

Genera. 
{Fide Gray.) 



Extinct Balaenidae?