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§ I. Introductory # . » 4 . . . 1 — 10 

Text. An attempt fatal to its Author s Party mifreprefentations 
of it, I . Not an ifolated Aft. Dramatic correftnefs of the 
Eikon Bafilike. Authorities for this narrative, a. MS. lUuf- 
trations. Admiral Pennington, 3. Pennington appointed to 
fucceed Lord Northumberland. Captain Slingfby, brother of 
Strafford's Secretary : relates the Parliamentary news, 25/^ 
No'v. (1641), 4. A night-long Debate. Sidney Bere, Under- 
Secretary of State : defcribes oppofition to printing the Re- 
monftrance, 5. Fears of the wife. Narrow majorities in Houfe 
of Commons. Conflift continued, 6. Firft great Parliamentary 
divifions. Protefting with a difference, 7. Mr. Thomas Wife- 
man to Admiral Pennington, 2»^Z)ff. (1641), 7,8. Palmer's 
proteft and punilhment. Abfentees from the Houfes, 8. The 
majority of eleven. Never more heat in Parliament than now, 
7,nd Dec. 1641. Minority fet up againlt Majority, 9. Clofe 
of the firft ftruggle of Parliamentary party in England, to. 

Notes. Services to Englifh Hiftoiy rendered by Sir John 
Romilly. Clarendon's charafter of Pennington, 3. 

§ II. The King's Return from Scotland . . 10 — 20 

Text. Aflertions of Clarendon, 10. The two attempts of the 
•^rd and ^th January. New State Appointments advifed by 
Lord Digby, 11. A queftion for enquiry. Sufpicions againft 
Falkland, Culpeper, and Hyde. Charges againft Pym and 
Hampden. The King's way of dealing with opponents, 12. 
Crufhing or conciliating, always too late, 13. Treafonable 
Correfpondence of Englifh members with Scotch Rebels. 
Clarendon's opinion of the five accufed, 14. Kimbolton a 
Scotch Commiffioner; narrowly watched by the Court. Lady 
Carlifle's intercourfe with both parties, 15. A dangerous 
mediator. Doubtful Services. Meetings in Pym's Lodgings, 
Chelfea, 16. Libels on Hampden. Avowed Rebels par- 
doned. Sufpefted Rebels to be impeached, 17. The King's 
threats againft the popular Leaders. Treafons committed 
In Parliament. Coercing a minority put forth as breach of 
privilege, 18, Signs of danger abroad. 30/A Nov. 1641 : 

vi Contents, 

alleged confpiracy to get up charges of Treafon, 19. Argu- 
ment for giving weight to a minority. Alarms generally 
prevalent. Confidence of the King, 20. 
Notes. Lord Digby's friendfhips, ii. Stratagem of winning by 
places. Offers to Pym. Their non-acceptance regretted 
by Hyde, 13. Secret Confultations, Kimbolton's ill 
company, 15. 

§ III. False Reliances ai — 29 

Text. The Royalift party in the City. Banquet at Guildhall, 
21. King's reception thereat. Lord Mayor Gourney made 
a Baronet. Welcome news for the King, 22. Speaker 
Lenthal alarmed: wiflies to be relieved from Spealcerfhip, 
and to become again the meaneft Subjeft of his Sovereign, 
23. Speaker Lenthal to Secretary Nicholas, ■7,rd Dec. 1641. 
Invokes the King's facred mercy. Craves Mr. Secretary's 
help in loweft pofture of obedience, 24. Expefts ruin from 
continuing in the Chair of the Houfe. A willing Dupe, 
Captain Slingfby to Admiral Pennington, 2«</ jD^t. (i 641), 
25. Factious Citizens. Fears and mifgivings of the beft in- 
formed, 26. Slingfby's Alarm. Wealthy and difcontented 
Citizens : coming in their coaches, 27. Unpopular atSls of 
the Lord Mayor. Second thoughts of Speaker Lenthal, 28. 
An Under-Secretary's Prayer, 29. 

Notes. Ovatio Carolina, 22. Clarendon's opinion of Lenthal, 
23. The King and the two Houfes. Citizens and 
M.P.'s. Sir Edward Dering, 26. Character of Sir Ed. 
Nicholas, 27. Speaker Lenthal to Secretary Nicholas, 28. 

§ IV. Fatal Mistakes ...... 29 — 39 

Text. Foolhardinefs of the King. Removes the Guard from 
the Houfes : Gives office to the Leaders of the Minority, 29. 
Affails Privilege, 30. Interferes with a Bill under difcuflion. 
Enforces Laws agalnft Puritans. Remits Penalties agalnft 
Roman Catholics. Partial execution of the Laws, 31. 
Refitted by the People, 32. A time for caution. Difaftrous 
Refolve of the King. The Tower and its Governor, 33. 
Balfour removed. Lunfford appointed : his infamous cha- 
rafter : his clofe friendfhip with Lord DIgby, 34. Objeft in 
appointing him, 35. A man to execute anything: and 
keep the five members, once arretted, fafe, 36. Evil fore- 
bodings of Sir Simonds D'Ewes. Addrefs voted for Lunf- 
ford's Removal. DifmifTal of Lord Newport. The Charge 
agalntt him, 37. Propofal to feize hoftages for the King's 
good Faith. The lie given to Lord Newport, i^th Dec. 
The lie retraced, 29/// Dec. Warnings in the Intei-val, 38. 
Sudden yielding of the King. Extraordinary determination 
taken, 39, . • . , 

• Contents. vU 


Notes. Wifeman to Pennington, ind Dec. (1641), 29. 
Under-Secretary Bere to Pennington, ^f,th No'V. and 
9/^ Dec. 1 641. Court Changes. Same to fame, z-^rd Dec'; 
30. Slingfby to Pennington, i6t/i Dec. 1641. Attack 
upon Newgate. Reprievals of Popifh offenders, 32. 
Windebank's Crime and Efcape, 32, 33. Lunfford's 
Warrant, 34. Clarendon's account of the Appointment. 
Clouds of words. Digby the 'fcapegoat, 35. Lords who 
fided with majority in Commons. Duke of Richmond's 
fally, z6tA Jan. (i 641-2), 36. 

§ V. Pym and the King 39 — 60 

Text. Popularity of the Leader of the Commons. Its caufes, 39. 
Pym imprifoned for his opinions in 1614. A Member of the 
Parliament of 1620. One of James the Firft's "Twelve 
Kings," 40. Rifes to the place of Leader, April 1640. 
Qualities and fervices which endeared him to the People. 
Clarendon's Tribute to his popularity, 41 . Former intercourfe 
with the King. Negotiations again opened, 42. King Pym : 
fecret influence over King Charles, 44. Songs and Satires 
againft the Parliament, 45. Pym's Conftitutional opinions. 
Alternately held up for avoidance and for example. Charac- 
teriftics of his Oratory, 46. Chancellorfhip of Exchequer 
again offered to him. Pym lefs extreme than Hampden. The 
offer made too late, 47. Pym filent as to the King's propofal : 
rejects it. Sir Edward Dering to Lady Dering, j-^t/i Jan. 
1641-2, defcribes Charles's overture to Pym, 48. Culpeper 
receives what Pym had declined, ijljan. (1641-2), 49. Old 
Vane finally difmiffed, 50. Revenge for Strafford. Young 
Vane alfo difmiffed, 51. Captain Carterett. Young Vane 
fucceeded by a friend of Strafford. Captain Carterett to Pen- 
nington, z^rd Dec. 1641. Pym welcomes Old Vane into the 
popular Ranks, 52. Under-Secretary Bere to the Admiral, 
23r^ Dec. The Commons refent Young Vane's difmifl'al. 
Previous offer to Pym and his Friends, July (1641), 53. 
Former attempt to give office to Leaders of the Commons. 
Not a mere expedient for faving Strafford : renewed after 
Strafford's execution. HoUis or Hampden named for Secre- 
tary of State, i^th July (1641), 54. Negotiations with 
popular Leaders kept open. Diftribution of offices fettled, 
z^th'July (1641), 55. Preparation for the new Miniflry. 
Making provifion for the worfl, 56. A fequel almofl: too 
ftrange for belief Prefent from the Admiral. Nicholas 
to Pennington, 29/^ July (1641), 57. Why Nicholas objects 
to Ecclefiaftical Reform. King's propofed Journey to Scot- 
land : objefted to by the Commons. The new Miniftry 
expefted : Hampden, Pym, HoUis, and Lord Saye and Seale, 
58. Nicholas about to retire: but does not retire. Why 
both attempts to conciliate popular Leaders failed. The rock 

viii Contents. ' 


they fplit againft, 59, A warning for Pym to aft upon. 
The warning taken, 60. 

Notes. Sir R. Cotton's fufFerings at feizure of his Library. 
The 1620 Parliament, 40. Why King's efforts to con- 
ciliate failed, 42. Royalift libellers of Pym. Doings when 
Pym was King. A propofed enaftment, 43. Pym chides 
members for late attendance. Is happieft in Storms, 44. 
Pym and the "King's Daughter." Pym's Pifture. Muft 
avoid Heaven for fear of Biihops, 45. Pym's laft refting- 
place, 46. Pym not adverle to the Church, but to 
Arminian praftices, 47. Camden Society Books. Winde- 
bank to his Son, ijth Dec, 1641. Secret underftanding 
with the Queen, 49. Windebank's grief at lofing place. 
Same to his Son, 24/^ Dec. A fellow feeling, 50. Admiral 
Pennington looking for Young Vane's office. Captain 
Dowfe to Pennington, 'i)OthDec'''f 51. Why Carterett was 
named Vice- Admiral by the Parliament, 52. Secretary 
Nicholas to Pennington, 54, 55. Sidney Bere to Penning- 
ton, 30^.4 J'^/y, 1641. Notice to quit Whitehall. Propofed 
Viceroy during the King's abfence. Confolations of a 
retiring official, 56. 

§ VI. The Westminster Tumults . * . . 60 — 67 

Text. Publication of the Grand Remonftrance. A Faft Day, 
■zzndDec. (1641), 60. How the King celebrated it. Difcon- 
tented Holiday Crowds, 61. Sea and Land Storms. A reli- 
gious war talked of. Lunfford's appointment cancelled. Too 
late. Memorable epithets firft invented, 62. Firft blood fhed 
in the Civil War, 64. Caufe of fudden AiTemblages in Weft- 
minfter Hall, 65. Party ftatements. Who were the firft 
AggrefTors, 66. True beginning of the Civil War: in the 
attempt to deftroy the Parliamentary Leaders, 66, 67. 

Notes. Cavalier : Origin and Meaning of the Word. The 
King complains of^ its ufe. Roundhead, 63. William 
Lilly's evidence. The King's fecret revealed. A Belief 
or Superftition. Charafter of Puritans, 64. What Lilly 
obferved of the Tumults. A Parliament the People's 
only hope. Secret Counfels, 65. 

§ VII. Citizens and Soldiers in the Hall . . 67 — 81 
Text. Monday 27/// Dec. 1641. Severity of the Winter, 67. 
Tempeft at Sea. Mr. Thomas Smith to Pennington, 30^^ 
Dec. At Whitehall Gate, 29//^ Dec'-, 68. Exafperation of 
the People. Jefuitical Faftion ftrong in the Houfe. The 
Under Secretary to the Admiral, 30^/^ Dec. Confufion and 
fears, 69. Lunllford knighted and penfioned upon his re- 
moval. Blood fhed 27M Dec. Coiutiers ordered to be armed, 
70. Share in the tumults taken by Citizens and Apprentices, 

Contents. ix 


70, 71. What Mr. Bramfton faw zjth Dec, Provocation 
to the People, 71. Soldier aflailants. Volunteer Guard to 
the King. Clarendon's opinion of them, 72. Component 
elements of the Guard. The King's unfeafonable acceptance 
of their Service. Citizens infulted and affailed by them, 73. 
Cuts and flaflies drawing blood. Plain meanings to Cla- 
rendon's fpeech. Eager encouragement to attack on Citizens, 

74. Abettors of the Outrage. Defign in encouraging the 
Whitehall Defperadoes : to draw together a {landing Guard, 

75. Admiffions by the King 9M March 1641-2. Wit- 
nefles above fufpicion, 76. A mad Chriftmas. Excufes for 
the Whitehall Guard. Unpopularity of Sir John Biron. 
Citizens chafed about the Hall by armed Soldiers, 77. Affray 
in the Abbey Dec. 28M. Unprovoked outrage by the Soldiers 
29M Dec. Gentlemen armed crowding the Court : 500 vo- 
lunteer Lawyers : 30/^ Dec. Charge againft Lord Briftol, 

78. No blood fhed by the Citizens. A fighting Archbifhop, 

79. Incitements to violence. Shops clofed, and all men arm- 
ing. Dangerous Beliefs, 80. A terrible refponfibility, 81. 

Notes. Fierce Froft in Paris: Windebank to his Son, 67, 68. 
The Penfion and Knighthood to Lunfford, 70. Arch- 
bifhop Williams, 71. Slingfby's Ship at Spithead. His 
brother's connexion with Strafford, 76. His error relative 
to the Citizens, 77. Entry from D'Ewes's Journal, 79. 

§ VIIL What was Passing in the House . . 81 — 88 

Text. Firft day of the tumults, 27M DecT^ 81. Second day of 
the tumults, 28/^ Dec. Lord Newport's difmiflal debated. 
Oliver Cromwell fpeaking, 82. Denounces the Earl of Briftol. 
Denzil Hollis attacks Lord Digby. Lord Digby's complicity 
with attempts of -^rd & /^h Jan!'., 83. No acquittal of Lord 
Digby intended. Refolution on his Impeachment. Long 
filences in the Houfe. Tuefday 28/>^ Dec'-, 84. Wednefday 
29^ Dec. Cromwell as to officering of the Army. Threats 
of French Interference to put down Englifh Liberties, 85. 
Infolence of a French Prieft, Court Secrets known to the 
French. French Information, 86. Warning from a Pri- 
foner in the Gate Houfe, 8 7. Prifon for Jefuits and Recufants. 
The danger known to Pym, 88. 

Notes. State of D'Ewes's Journal in the Harleian MSS, 81. 
The Spanifh Match, 82. Irifh military appointments, 85. 
John Marfton to Lord Kimbolton : Nature of his Com- 
munication, 87. Attack on the Parliament expefted, 88. 

§ IX. The Bishops sent to the Tower . . 88 — 105 

Text. Thurfday 10th Dec', 88. MelTage from the Lords, Pro- 
teftation of the Bifhops, 89. They retire from the Houfe: 
and proteft againft Proceedings in their abfence, 90, 9I4 

X Contents, 

EfFe6l of Proteft. An opportunity defired by the King. 
"Mobs" for two days only. Amount of provocation given, 
92. What the Bifhop of Norwich faw and heard. Fright 
given in the Houfe itfelf. Some Lords advifmg, 93. Lord 
Hertford alarms the BifhopS. Other Lords fmiling. What 
pafled at Williams's Lodgings. " Unfortunate " Accident, 
94. Charles and his Lord Keeper at Whitehall, Accident 
or Defign ? A furprife for the Bifhops. What Cromwell 
thought of the Proteftation, 95. The Bifhops charafterized 
by Cromwell. General feeling at the time, 96. Clarendon's 
opinion as to Impeachment, Contemporary Accounts. 
Slinglby to Pennington, 97. His opinion of the Proteftation : 
even Bifhops' friends averfe to it. Bere to Pennington, ^oth 
Dec. Committal of the Bifhops, 98. " Our deplorable con- 
dition." Prays the great tempefls have left the Admiral fafe, 
Mr. Thomas Smith to Pennington, 10th Dec. Endeavour of 
Bifhops to undo what Long Parliament had done, and compel 
a diffolution, 99. Williams compared to Achitophel. Com- 
plicity of Lords Briftol and Digby, Real drift of the Pro- 
teft. Prompt aftion of the Lords, 100, A conference. -1,0th 
Dec. 8 o'clock p.m. ten Bifhops fent to the Tower, loi. 
Laud and Williams within the fame walls at laft. Door fhut 
on perfecuted and perfecutor. Caricature of Williams as a 
Decoy Duck, 102, A witty conceit : Laud's enjoyment there- 
of. Perhaps his laft gleam of mirth, 103. D' Ewes fees the 
Bifhops' Bench turned into lumber. Is glad they no longer 
call themfelves " Lordfhips " ; and would keep them where 
they are, 104. " Clofe air" at Charing Crofs, 105. 

ifotes. What the mob did to Archbifhop Williams, Evidence 
of Bramfton, Hyde, and Hacket, 89. Hacket's Scrinia 
Referata defcribed, Ufelefs Knowledge. Written during 
the Proteftorate. Attack on Milton, 90. A fchoolboy 
fcrlbbler. Shakefpeare not known. Praife of Jonfon, 
Chaucer, and Spenfer, 91. How the Proteft was figned, 
95. Cafe againfl the Bifliops. Themfelves to thank for 
their unpopularity. Their violence and paffion i jtJi June 
1641. A true predi61ion, 96, Great Storms raging on the 
coaft, 99. Hacket's lament for the Bifhops. No love of 
Bifliops among the Lords, loi. Debate as to calling in 
Bifliops of Lichfield and Durham, 102, The two Arch- 
bifhops exchange Civilities in the Tower. Caricature 
of Williams as Church Militant, 103. Difadvantages of 
the Black Rod, 105. 

§ X. Shadows of the Coming Event , . . 105 — 112 

Text. Houfe of Commons Dec. 30^// (1641), 105. Members 
delighted by the folly of the Bifhops, 105, 106. Members 
alarmed bya fuggeftionof Pym's. Objeftion made by D'Ewes, 
106. A ftrange motion expe6led ; which follows accordingly, 

Contents, xi 


106,107. Pym's Speech. The remedy for danger. Neceflity 
for an immediate Guard, 107. The whole truth not told. 
Report of Pym's Speech by D'Ewes. A defign to be exe- 
cuted : Plot for deftroying the Houfe of Commons. Ad- 
journment to Guildhall propofed, 108. D'Ewes oppofes de- 
parture to City. " Let us not be taken together." The 
defign near or diftant ? Friday 31/? Z)ff. (1641), 109. Demand 
for Guard under Lord Eflex, 109, no. No reply. Halberts 
meanwhile provided. Committee to receive reply. Saturday 
i/?7iZ«. (1641-2), no. A Council at Whitehall, Falkland 
and Culpeper fworn into their offices, III. Confequences and 
refponfibilities incident to office atfuch a time, iii, 112. 

Notes. Dates of New Appointments, no, in. Culpeper Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer. Falkland Secretary of State, in. 

§ XI. The Impeachment before the Lords . . 112 — 118 

Text. Monday 3r^ j'a/z. 1641-2. King's meffage to Commons 
refufing Guard. Attorney-General delivers impeachment to 
the Lords. Introduced by Lord Keeper Littleton, 112. The 
Seven Articles of Treafon. i. General Charge, ii. Author- 
ship of Remonftrance. iii. Tampering with the Army. iv. 
Invitations to the Scotch. v. Punifhment of protefting 
Minority, vi. Raifing Tumults, vii. Levying War, 113,114. 
Agitation among the Lords. Immediate a6lion taken. King's 
demand refufed. Agreement with Commons, 115. Lord Kim- 
bolton repels the Charge. Lord Digby filent, 116. Failure in 
courage or good faith : Clarendon's charge againft him, 117. 
Digby affefts furprife : and fuddenly quits the Houfe, 117, 118. 

Notes. MS. Articles of Treafon in State Paper Office, 1 14, 115. 
Date of trani'miflion of Petition of both Houfes for Guard, 
115. Charles's anfwer thereto. Not Lord EfTex, but Lord 
Lindfay : the moft devoted of Royal Partizans, 116. 

§ XII. The Impeachment before the Commons . 118— 126 

Text. D'Ewes in the Lower Houfe. Pym fpeaking to the 
King's refufal of a Guard. D'Ewes's hurried and unfinifhed 
Reports, 118. Suggeftion for a City Guard. Fragments of 
Pym's Speech. Pym and Hollis informed of outrage at their 
liomes, 119. Their and Hampden's Papers feized by King's 
"Warrant : Declared a breach of Privilege. Refiftance juf- 
tified. Refolution againft Seizure of Private Papers, 120. 
Violation of Law as well as Privilege. The new Minifters 
filent. Hydeabfent. No oppofition attempted. The King's 
Serjeant at the door of the Houfe, 121. Enters, without his 
Mace. Demands the five Accufed. No Debate. Coni- 
pofure of the Houfe, 122. The Serjeant ordered to wait 
outfide. Deputation to carry Meffage to the King: The 
accufed will anfwer any /f^«/ Charge, 123. The Five Accufed 

xH Contents* 


ordered to attend dally. Refolution for Military Guard out 
of the City. Venn and Pennington fent to the Lord Mayor. 
Day declining, 124. Seals affixed by King's Warrant to be 
broken. King's Agents who feized Papers to be imprifoned, 
125. Laft Aft of the Houfe on ^rdjan",, 126. 

Note. ■ Sir Wm. Killigrew and the diamond hat-band and 
ring, 125. 

§ XIIX. What Followed the Impeachment . 126 — 129 

Text. Interview with the King. A Promife for next day. 
Authority for Scene to be defcribed, 126. Admixture of 
true and falfe. View taken by Mr. Hallam : how far credible, 
127. Did the King aft apart from all advice ? Were 
Attorney and Keeper wholly ignorant ? What Strode 
thought of their participation, 128. Propofed attempt of 
the 4th not fecret to the laft. Difcuffed the previous night, 

Notes. Ill advifers. Mr. Hallam's view not confonant with 
charafter of the King, 127. Mr. Attorney's Excufes to 
the Houfe: difbelieved by Strode, 128. The Queen's 
Attorney put forward. " Shut the door," 129. 

§ XIV. Scene in the Queen's Apartments . . 129—139 

Text. Ill Advifers, 129. Papifts and women. Statement of 
Madame de Motteville, 130. Warning to the Accufed from 
French Ambaflador. Effefts of Qu^een's intermeddling. 
Her defigns fufpefted by the Commons, 131. Sufpicions 
proved true. Clarendon explains her defire to have the Mem- 
bers impeached, 132. To fave herfelf from Impeachment. 
Lucy, Countefs of Carlifle : her daily intercourfe with Pym 
and Kimbolton after Strafford's death, 133. Retribution for 
betrayal of her friend : Betrays the Court to the Commons. 
Her conduft explained by her charafter, 1 34. Her brother 
Northumberland. Sir Philip Warwick's Scandal, 135, A 
fuggeftion more probable. Doftor Bates. Privy Counfellors 
faid to have advifed the King, 137. King and Queen on 
the night of the ird January : On the morning of the 4/^ 
Lady Carlifle clofeted with the Queen, 138. The One hour. 
Queen betrays her Secret. Lady Carlifle betrays the Queen, 

Notes. Henrietta's conduft on the return from Scotland. May 
the Hiftorian, 130. Charles mifled, 131. Abllraftion of 
the Crown Jewels, 132. A Courtier's view of the Impeach- 
ment and Arreft. Bufy Statefwoman become She-Saint, 
135. No ground for Warwick's Libel. Pym's unpuri- 
tanic manners. " Roundhead " explained by Baxter, 136. 
"That roundheaded Man," 137. 

Contents, xlii 


§ XV, Council on the Night of- the 3RD of Janu- 
ary . . ...... 139 — 154 

Text. The night's debate : Who were prefent ? 139. Teftimony 
of Sir Arthur Hafelrig. Gratitude to Lady Carlifle. Rage 
of the Queen. What Philofopher Hobbes fays, 140. Di- 
reftion in which to look for motives and objefts of attempt 
of 4M January. Not fo rafh as fuppofed, 141. Pofition of 
the King after failure of attempt or the ^rd January. Chal- 
lenge taken up by the Commons. Difficulty of retreat. Alleged 
Evidence to fupport the Charge, 142. Falfe Step irretriev- 
able within limits of Law. Nature of the aft already com- 
mitted. One way to recover ground, 143. Renewal of 
attempt with means to enforce it. Foiled only by Lady Car- 
lifle's warning. Idea of refiftance infeparable from propofed 
attempt, 144. The King incapable of a wife fear. Ifliie 
raifed, one of violence: reafon why Houfe withdrew its mem- 
bers, 145. Source of Queen's felf-reproach : not prevention 
of attempt, but interception of confequences. Previous pre- 
parations at Whitehall and in the City, 146. Evidence of 
Captain Langres. Afliftance fought from Inns of Court, 
147. Killigrew fent round with copy of Impeachment, 148. 
What the new minifters thought or the guilt of the accufed, 
149. Objeftion to arreft only after its failure. Hyde employed 
to juftify it. Mifreprefentation of the cafe, 150. No privilege 
claimed againft Treafon. Falfe Iflue raifed , 1 5 1 . Indemnity 
from Treafon never claimed. Method of proceeding only 
objefted to. Culpeper's confidence to Dering. Charles's truft 
in his new Counfellors, 152. Imputation againft Hyde and 
his friends. Believed to be " Contrivers " of the Arreft:, 
153. Their mode of objefting and denying : no evidence of 
" deteftation " of the Deed, but rather proof of indirect par- 
ticipation, 153, 154. Stake played for and loft, 154. 

Notes. "Littel Vil Murry," 139. May, and Hobbes, as to 
a demand for names of King's Advifers, 141. What 
Hyde thought of the Arreft ; and what he would have 
done himfelf, 142, 143. Whitelock's view. Extent of 
danger prevented by Lady Carlifle, 145. Inns of Court 
Volunteer Guard. A troubled midfummer : 1628. The 
countiy on the eve of Refiftance. Royal letter to Benchers 
of Gray's Inn, 147. Defire to have all citizens exercifed in 
arms. Defeft to be fupplied, a want of difcipline. Law 
Students not to negleft Studies, but to occupy leifure and 
vacations, 148. What Falkland, Culpeper and Hyde 
would have done with the Five Members : Seized them 
feparately, and fent each to a different prifbn, 149. 
" Gentlenefs" of the King's attempt alleged by Claren- 
don. An aft of favour, 150. Another fketch from fame 
hand. The King's ftyle of writing, 151. 

xiv Contents, 


§ XVI. Midnight Visit to the City , • . 154. — 160 

Text. Secretary Nicholas- confulting late with the King, 154. 
Provifion againft tumults next day, and againft demand of 
Commons for Guard, 154, 155. Order of Houfe for City 
Train Bands. Counter Warrant figned by the King. Grave 
Evidence againft the Court, 155. Order to Train Bands to 
fire on the Citizens : Intercepted, and not publifhed until 
now. Why not put in force. Reached the City too late, 
156. Fortunate accident for the King. What might have 
been Hiftory. Copy of the Warrant. Reference to Five 
Members, 157. Train Bands called out for the King. All 
Gatherings of Citizens to difperfe : On refufal, to be fired 
upon. Letter of Nicholas's Agent, 158. Whitehall clocks 
behind time. Anticipated by deputation from Commons ? 
Part midnight at the Tower. Any further /r/'Z/a^i? Commands ? 

159. Inferences from Agent's Letter. Preparations for 
the morrow. Memorable day, 160. 

Hote. Interlineation by Secretary Nicholas, 158. 

§ XVII. Morning of the 4TH of January , . 160 — 175 

Text. Houfe of Commons : Falkland reports King's Meflage, 

160. Motion as to King's tampering with Inns of Court. 
Four Members fent to the Four Inns. Grand Committee, 

161. Pym replies to Articles of Treafon. AUufion to 
Strafford. Charge of bringing over the Army to Parliament : 
lefs treafonable than overawing Parliament by Army, 162. 
Comparifons invited. Avows publication of Remonftrance. 
Accepts the guilt and refponfibility. As to charge of levying 
arms againft King, 163. As to apprehending delinquents. 
Guilty of defending Chrift's do6lrine, and orthodox Church 
government. Judgment defired from the Houfe. " Well 
moved." An ominous queftion, 164. Has not breach of 
privilege been committed .? HoUis, Hafelrig, and Strode, 
defend themfelves. Strode's fpeech. Hafelrig's: his reference 
to Scottifli Treafon, 165. Hampden fpeaks. Juftifies re- 
fiftance. Defines ill and difloyal, good and loyal fubjefts. 
Unaccuftomed emotion, 166. Where Hampden looked for 
true religion. In the two Teftaments. The Proteftant 
Church true. Bible alone needful to Salvation. Traditions 
and fuperftitions devilifh. The Romifh Church falfe, 167. 
A Creed to live by and die for. Hampden's change of 
bearing. Secrets of his charafter revealed. Waiting his 
time. Charges by Hyde and D'Ewes, 168. "Serpentine 
fubtlety." Imperfeft and prejudiced Judgments. What 
Hampden really was. Admiflions of Clarendon, 169. 
Higheft power of Statefmanftiip. A leader and governor of 
men, 170. Change in Pym as well as Hampden after accu- 
fation of Treafon, 170, 171. All thoughts of moderation 

Contents, xv 

gone. No compromlfe pofTible. A memorable friendfhip. 
Remark to Hyde. Advantage of knowing one's friends, 171. 
Conference with the Loi'ds demanded. Impeachment de- 
nounced as a fcandalftus paper, 172. The Whitehall Guard 
an interruption to free debate. Compofednefs of the leaders 
of the Commons. Gatherings of armed Men near the Houfe, 
173. Pym moves a deputation to City. Deputation departs. 
No man to know its errand. Alarm ftill increafmg. Ad- 
journment for an hour, 174. 

Notes. The table at Whitehall for gentlemen of Inns of Court. 
A violent young lawyer, 161. What made Hampden's 
hurt mortal, 168. Clarendon's character of Hampden: 
Equal to anything, 170. Pym greateft in the Houfe, 
171. Hampden and Pym as to "difcretion" of Mr. 
Hyde. " Snapplflinefs" of Mr. Hampden, 172. Bifliops 
in the Tower, 173, 1 74. 

§ XVIII. Betrayal of the Secret . . . 175 — 179 

Text. A momentous interval. Lady Carlifle betrays all to Pym. 
Private Meffage from Lord EfTex, Houfe affembles: half-paft 
one, 175. Report from Inns of Court. Lincoln's Inn. 
King's meflage to be in readinefs this day : But as prompt in 
loyalty to Commons. Same from Gray's Inn, 176. From 
Inner Temple and from Middle Temple, 176, 177. The 
Houfe fatiffied. Armed Crowds gathering nearer. Re- 
entrance of the Five Members. The fecret difclofed to the 
Houfe, 177. Should the accufed retire or remain.' A new 
Actor on the Scene. Lenthal announces King's approach, 
178. Leave to Five Members to abfent themfelves. Away to 
the City by Water. Strode refifts, and is dragged out, 179. 

Notes. Famous Entry in Commons' Journals, 177. Chronicler 
Heath, 178. 

§ XIX. The King's Approach to the House . 179 — 184 

Text. The King's attendants, 179. As to their number and 
arms. Teftimony of Sir Ralph Verney : of Rufhworth : of 
Ludlow: of Thomas May, 180. Alfo of Mrs. Hutchinfon, 
and D'Ewes. Clarendon contradifts all : Relating what was 
" vifible to all," 181. Slingfby's account to Pennington, 6th 
Jan"-, 181, 182. Armed Guards at Whitehall. Terror 
and trouble of the Citizens, 182. Slinglby one of the King's 
companions. How " innocently " armed. Difmay at their 
approach. Shops (hut up. The King paffes through Weft- 
minfter Hall, 183. Lobby of Houfe of Commons fuddenly 
filled. Armed men ftill prefs from without. Charles enters 
the Houfe, where never King was but once, 184. 
Notes. Reformadoes, 180. Slingftjy defcribes impeachment. 
Members fitting in Houfe notwithftanding, 182. 

xvi Contents. 


§ XX. The House entered by the King , . 184 — 195 

Text. Voice of Charles heard as he enters, 184. Armed fol- 
lowers vifible outfide. Door kept forcibly open. Captain 
Hide and Lord Roxborough, 185. Members rife and uncover. 
A crowd of bare faces. Charles turns to a well-known feat. 
Miffes Mr. Pym. Pafles up to Speaker's Chair, clofe by 
D'Ewes's feat. Stands on ftep of Lenthal's chair, 186. 
Looks long before he Ipeaks. Break in narrative of D'Ewes. 
One unmoved Speftator of the Scene. Young Mr. Rufh- 
worth. His Report and Defcription fent for by the King. 
Important Correftions made therein, 187. Copy fo corre6led 
in State Paper Office : A help to more vivid reproduftion of 
the Scene. The King's Speech to the Houfe, 188. Expefts 
Traitors to be delivered up to him, 189. Are the Five Mem- 
bers in the Houfe ? No reply. Nothing will be well, until 
Accul'ed are furrendered. Muft have them. Painful hefita- 
tion and effort. Addition by D'Ewes, 190. Confirmation 
of Rufhworth. Enquiries for Pym and Hollis. Reply. 
Looking for them himfelf. Speaker Lenthal's Speech. No 
eyes or tongue but as the Houfe's Servant, 191. Extraordinary 
Speech for an Ordinary man. Another greater but like 
example. "Dreadful" Silence. The King confcious of his 
failure, 192. His birds flown, Protefts he never intended 
force. Means to maintain the conceffions he has made. 
Expe6ls the Five will be fent to him. Declares their Treafon 
foul, 193. Leaves the Houfe: in anger, but not amid filence, 
193, 194, 195, " Privilege ! Privilege ! " fhouted after him. 
Pafles out, through files of armed Adherents, 195. 

Notes. Captain Hide: prominent in Weftminfter tumults: 
cafhiered and re-appointed, 185, Rufliworth's report of 
the Speech correfted by Charles, 188, Erafure by the 
King. Enquiry for Pym alfo erafed by King, 189. Charles 
the Firft's Speech at his Trial, 192. Slingfby's narrative 
of outrage. Silence of Houfe explained. Charles deter- 
mined to have the Accufed. Houfe had fent to City for 
4000 men. Shops all fhut. Bere to Pennington, 6t/i Jan. 
(1641-2), 194. Uncertainty as to flight of Members, 195. 

§ XXI. Impression produced by the Outrage . 195 — 204 

Text. Proceedings in Houfe after King's departure. Speech 
ofHotham, 195. Cries for adjournment. Houfe riles at 
3. 30 p.m. D'Ewes defcribes the King's defign : to have raifed 
a conflift in the Houfe. Details of the plot, 196. Armed 
delperadoes not to be reftrained. The King's perfon in 
danger. Strange deliverance. King's approach told to 
Fiennes, 197. Withdrawal of the members. Oppofition of 
Strode, 198, 199. Will feal his innocency with his 
blood. Sir Walter Earle pulls- him out by the cloak. The 

Contents. xvH 

Accufed warned at dinner hour by Eflex, 200. Unimpaf- 
fioned charaderof D'Ewes's teftimony. His fenfe of danger 
marked by execution of his Will : and letting his houfe in 
order, 201, Ifolation of D'Ewes from mere party. His 
precifion and fobriety. Qjieftion of the King's conduft. 
Could have had but one purpofe, 202. Not the aft but 
the failure unpardonable, Succefs narrowly miffed, Under- 
Secretary Bere's dread as to ultimate refult. Change muft be 
for the worfe. Rumours as to whereabouts of accufed, 203. 
Worfe ftorms on land than at fea. Circumftances well-known 
to Under-Secretary. His fears and forebodings, 204, 
Notes. Abrupt entry in Journals of ^h Jan. (1641-2), 
196, Identity of Strode with the earlier Strode difputed. 
Reply to objeftions made. Original impreflion ftrength- 
ened, not weakened. Ages of the principal men of the 
Commons. Miftakes of Thomas May, 198. Contempt 
of Royalifts for Strode, Varieties of Royalift (lander, 199. 
Qj.ieftion of accommodation with the King. Parliament 
men in peril, 201. An Invitation for Chriftmas de- 
clined, 204, 

§ XXII, Lord Digby and Mr. Hyde . . . 204 — 218 

Text. Violent and recklefs counfel. Carrying attempt to its 
iffue. Digby's propofal : to feize the Five Members dead or 
alive, 205. Mifchief let loofe by King's aft. Rumours 
againft Briftol and Digby. Small comfort for the Admiral. 
Suffering on waters, fear on land, 206, Jacob and Efau, 
Two parties out of Houfe ; but the leaders honeft, and only 
one party now in Houfe, Sole Rebels in England, 207. Open 
and fecret enemies, Caufe for this digreflion. Hyde the 
King's private advifer : fupplies fecret papers and information, 
208, Playing double and falfe. Betrays the Commons to 
the King, 209. Complaint of the King againft Pym. 
Pym's rejoinder, Meflages fent before voted. Houfe 
warned againft treachery. Letter to Pym, 210, Able mem- 
bers informed againft. King's preparations. Parliament in 
danger. Charge aimed at Hyde, 211. Self-defence againft 
treachery. Hyde accufed of advifing Arreft : Suggeftion ot 
his friends not to defend it, 212. Alleged fpeech upon 
Impeachment: Grofs mifreprefentation therein, 212, 213. 
Pretended occafion for Speech, Argument of Speech : no 
privilege for felony or treafon : undifputed by Pym and 
Hampden, 213, Imputation againft Leaders of the Com- 
mons. No proof exilting that the Speech was fpoken, 214. 
Hyde not in the Houfe, nor at Guildhall, or Grocers' Hall, 
214, 215, No evidence that Hyde took part in debates on 
arreft, 215, Reafons for abfenting himfelf. His help more 
ufeful elfewhere. Appeal to force, 216. Impreflion to be 
made on the people, 218, 


xviii Contents. 


Notes. Private meetings in Hyde's lodgings. Sufpicions 
againft him. Hyde fhut up with Charles, 209. Incon- 
fiftency in Hyde's MS, 215. Hallam's view of Impeach- 
ment, 216. William Lilly as to arreft of Members. Coft 
the K'ng his Crown. All confidence at an end. A 
dinner party on day of Arreft. Belief as to outrage in- 
tended. King's obftinacy, 217. 

§ XXIII. Sir Simonds D'Ewes and Speaker Lenthal 218 — 251 

Text. Further paufe in Narrative required. MS. Diary of 
D'Ewes, 218. Illuftrations to be drawn from it. D'Ewes a 
reliable Witnefs. Not a thorough going party man, 219. 
Differences with Leaders. Epithets applied to popular Chiefs. 
Why more tolerant of Pym : Pym more tolerant of him, 220. 
Difcuflion upon Anfwers to a Meflage. Objeftion of 
Royalifts : D'Ewes fupports it. Is aflailed by violent fpirits, 
221. Perfifts in fpite of them. Receives encouragement. 
Pym's " difcretion and modefty." Adopts the amendment, 
422. Mr. Strode lefs civil : fpeaks thrice and gets laughed 
at, 222, 223. Good humour of the Houfe. Moderation of 
D'Ewes, 223. Propofed cenfure of Sir Ralph Hopton. Pope 
foliciting help againft Englifti Parliament, 224. Hopton's 
offence: His expulfion moved, 225. D'Ewes'sfpeech in mitiga- 
tion. Interrupted by the hot fpirits. Appeals to order. His 
fuggeftion adopted by Houfe, 226. Makes fimilar objeflion 
to Hopton's : with better fuccefs. D'Ewes's love for moderate 
fpeech. Another Cafe for Cenfure, 227. Sir Edward Dering's 
publiftied Speeches. D'Ewes's indignation thereat. Would 
have Dering expelled. Denounces his vainglorious Preface, 
228. Dering's attack upon the Houfe. Mr. O. C. libelled. 
Mr. Speaker compliments D'Ewes, 229. Objeftion to fup- 
preffion of a Book: willraife its value from fourteen pence to 
fourteen ftiillings. Dering expelled, and his Book burnt, 229, 
230. Suggeftion from Mr. Oliver Cromwell : Will D'Ewes 
anfwer Dering ? 230. D'Ewes declines: has better things to 
do. Might not Mr. Cromwell do it > Other proofs of 
D'Ewes's accuracy. Originality of his Journal, 231. HolJis 
would alter a meffage voted. Meffage already printed. Who 
copies nightly from Clerk's Journals ? Falkland and two 
others, 232. But not D'Ewes: he reports " out of his head," 
never at fecond hand, 232, 233. Clerk Elfyng's Apologies. 
A delicate matter difcuffed. Note-taking inleparable from 
Speech-making. Relations of D'Ewes to Lenthal, 233. His 
authority in precedents: Critic and Patron of Mr. Speaker. 
Weakneffes of Lenthal. Self-furrender of his only claim to 
refpeft. A Witnefs againft Scot the Regicide, 234. A 
Time-ferver always. Traits and incidents from D'Ewes's 
diary. Qjieftion of Privilege, 235, Hafelrig and Lenthal. 

Contents. xlx 


Attack on Mr. Speaker. D'Ewes rebukes Hafelrig. Lenthal 
out of order, 236. Sugar duties' debate. Members entering 
juft before Queftion put. Not to withdraw. Extraordinary- 
proceeding of Mr. Speaker. Lenthal again at fault, 237. 
An Honourable Member interrupted. Honourable Member 
retorts. Mr. Speaker fuccumbs. D'Ewes's indignation. Len- 
thal's deficiencies as Speaker, 238. A Letter from the King. 
D'Ewes the great authority as to Order : Compofer of difcords 
in debate. Heat of ancient Burgefs for Coventry, 239. 
Fierce and unparliamentary looks. D'Ewes's opinion thereon. 
Ancient member again. Vote for allegiance to Parliamentary 
General : difliked by D'Ewes, 240. Burgefs for Coventry 
required to fay Aye : fays No. AfTailed by Mr. Speaker. 
Wifties to fay Aye : but not permitted. Other members 
frightened, 241. Sir Peter Wentworth cannot truft the King. 
Chancellor of Exchequer's horror. Houfe overlooks this 
** folly." Old Sir Harry Vane. Startling Speeches. Sir 
John Northcote's avowal, 242. " Make the Prince our 
King." Old Vane declares for Militia and ** new founda- 
tion, 243. Harry Killegrew's Speech. Novel Political 
Doftrine. Houfe laughs. Young Vane very ferious. Kille- 
grew's apology. Pym refills his expulfion, 244. An indif- 
creet friend. D'Ewes goes in fearch of Records. Expofes 
Cornifli ignorance. Is merciful in triumph, 245. Attempts 
to force early attendance. Alarming time when firft found 
neceflary. Tragi-comedy of the World, 246. Houfe in fad- 
nefs : Suddenly moved to laughter. The Shilling Fine. A 
failure. Shilling Fine again propofed. D'Ewes oppofed to it, 
247. Mr. Speaker late: rebuked: throws his fhilling on 
table : will not take it up again, 248. Ill refults of the Fine. 
Refufals to pay. Jack Hotham ordered to pay. Flings his 
fhilling on ground, 249. Beginning of the End. Call of 
Houfe attempted. Not forty members prefent, 250. A 
Stranger in the Houfe. How dealt with. Refumption of 
Narrative. Why interrupted, 251. 

Notes. D'Ewes's deteftion of forged fignatures to a Royalift 
Petition, 219. Withdrawing for fupper, 223. Kingaccufed 
of Popifh defigns. Too many grounds for fuch imputa- 
tion. Engllfh Politics at Rome. Letter to Hyde from 
brother-in-law, 224. The Pope's Nephew : Says he has not 
fomented Englifh troubles. His "intereft"in Pym and 
Hampden, 225. Remarkable entry in Journal. Gene- 
rofity of Houfe to Strafford's fon, 227. Contrail to 
Lenthal, 234. Northumberland true to old friends. An 
example profitable to Kings, 235. D'Ewes avoids Chair 
of Committee, 239. Miflbrtune to Royal Standard, 240. 
Occafion of Northcote's Speech. Anecdote of Killegrew. 
Will " find " a good caufe, 243. A reprimand, 245. 

XX Contents. 


§ XXIV. Appeal to the City .... 251 — 258 

Text. Mr. Rufhworth fent for by the King, 251. Report of 
his Majefty's Speech demanded. Mr. Rulhworth's humble 
excufes. King's fharp rejoinder. Speech tranfcribed from 
Notes, in King's prefence. Sent to prefs, 252. Proclamation 
againft Five Members. Ports clofed againft their efcape. 
Their place of refuge. City of London. Merchants' home 
as well as place of bufinefs, 253. Its palaces and privileges. 
Sources of its power, 254. Its complete and organized de- 
mocracy. Its incredible enrichment by trade. Clarendon's 
lament, 255. City difaffefted to Court. Well affefted to 
Commons. Semces in the War. Excitement on night of 
the Arreft,]256. " Cavaliers coming." Apprehended ieizure 
of arms, 257. King's MelFage to the Lord Mayor. War- 
rants againft accufed, 258. 

Notes. Lord Mayor's letter to Aldermen. Military organiza- 
tion of City. Inftruftions for Watch and Ward. Perfonal 
fervice required from Aldermen, 254. Fortifications of 
the City Walls, 255. Attacks on City in Royalift 
Satires, 256. City fliops all fhut. Rough draft of Royal 
Warrant. Ordnance fafely difpofed. Houfes to be 
fearched for mulkets. Pofleffors of fire-arms to be 
examined, 257. 

§ XXV. The King's reception in Guildhall . 258—263 

Text. An important day for Charles I., 258. His laft ftake 
for good will of City. His confidence ftill unabated. Grounds 
for fuch falfe reliance. Prefent fupporters and old traditions, 
259. Reception on his way. Caution to be wary of Speech. 
Forced mildnefs. Captain Slingfby an eye and ear witnefs. 
" Privilege ! Privilege ! " " To your tents, O Ifrael ! " 260. 
Arrival at Guildhall. King's Speech. Refolved to have the 
Five Members. Reliance on the City's good will. Will 
redrefs grievances and refpe6t privileges : but muft queftion 
Traitors, 261. Juftifies Whitehall Guard. Offers to dine 
with liberal Sheriff. *' Privileges of Parliament," and ** God 
blefs the King." Has any one anything to lay ? Yes : we 
vote you hear your Parliament, 262. No : that is not our 
vote. A bold fellow on a form. Rejoinder for him, "Trial 
—trial!" King dines with Sheriff, " Trial— trial !" 263. 

Notes. King's Speech at Guildhall, 258. AfTurances as to 
religion. Dinner at SheriflF's, 259. 

§ XXVI. Humiliation and Revenge . . . 264 — 271 

Text. Incidents of the return to Whitehall. Wifeman to Pen- 
nington, (>th Jan. News of the Week, 264, Fears of Infur- 
reftion. Accufed keeping out of way. Efforts to conciliate. 

Contents. xxi 


Gentlenefs of King's voice. Firmnefs of his purpofe. Muft 
bring Traitors to Trial, 265. Dinner at Sheriff Garrett's. 
Shouts againft the King. Glad to get home. Why Commons 
left Weftminfter. Expectation of Bloodfhed. Doubts which 
party ftrongeft, 266. Retrofpeft. More P.C.s made. God 
preferve His Majefty ! Meflage from Mrs. Wifeman. A worfe 
trial for Charles. Vifit from Common Council, 267. Their 
advice : Confult with your Parliament : Leave Tower alone : 
Difperfe Whitehall Guard : Abandon Impeachment, 268. 
King's firft aft on return from City. New Proclamation 
againft the Members ! Rough Draft in King's hand. 
Kimbolton omitted. Inftruftions to Secretary Nicholas, 269. 
The guilty have efcaped. Injunftion tofeizethem. Warning 
againft harbouring them. The City threatened. Solely the 
King's aft, 270. Hopelefs and recklefs perfiftence. Repent- 
ance of Nicholas. Charles direfts even Printing of Proclama- 
tion, 271. 
Notes. Bere to Pennington : Sth Jan. Cries in City, 264. 

Anecdote told by Slingftjy, 268. King's inftructions to 

Printer, 271. 

§ XXVII. Reassembling of the Commons . . 271 — aSi 

Text. Wednefday ^th Jan. ■l6/^\-^, Yefterday's agitation not 
fubfided, 271. Watches fent out: 260 Members prefent : 
90 of the King's party. Member for Colchefter leads Debate. 
Grimfton's Speech. Its fcope and value, 272. Expofition 
of the Power of Parliament. Why fo awfully predominant ? 
Becaufe it punlfties evil doers : comforts the opprefTed : and 
ftrips the wicked of place, 273. Late outrage due to evil 
counfellors. Offences charged. Conduft in Parliament. 
Right to fpeak freely. Title not to have votes queftioned : 
vi'hether on Bills of Attainder or others : or in drawing up Re- 
monftrances, 274. Conclufion. Members accufed for conduft 
in Houfe : Lodgings entered and papers feized : a breach of 
privilege. Motion upon Grimfton's Speech. Oppofed by 
Hopton. Excufes for the King. Committee to prepare Refo- 
lution, 275. They retire: nothing to be done till their return. 
They return in a quarter of an hour : with a Refolution written 
before we met, 276. D'Ewes not in confidence of Leaders j 
but his account truftworthy, 276, 277. Glyn's declaratory 
Refolution. Propofed Adjournment : Grand Committee to 
fit in the City. Warm Debate thereon. Sir Ralph Hopton, 
277. Did not we give firft provocation ? And how gracious 
the King's Speech ! Oppofes Committee and Adjournment. 
" Grand" Committee altered to " Seleft." Adjourn till to- 
morrow at 9 o'clock, 278. Divifion upon going into City, 
170 againft 86. Seleftion of the Committee. All who come 
to have voices, 279. Its duties. Comprifes feveral Royalifts. 
Names on Committee. Hyde, St. John, and Cromwell abfent 

3D£ii Contents, 

from it, 280. Motion by Lord Lifle. Irifli Affairs. Sharp 
Debate led by Fiennes. Meffage to Lords, Abrupt rifing of 
Houfe, 281. 

Notes. Divifion as to Duke of Richmond. One of D'Ewes's 
"young " men, 279. 

§ XXVIIL A Sudden Panic 281—289 

Text. Armed men marching upon us. Sir John Clotworthy 
perfifts with Refolutlons. Voted without being read. Dif- 
orderly Adjournment. Reafons for the fright, 282. Other 
Members to be accufed and feized. City only had prevented it. 
Alarm of the King. Change of purpofe. Refults of 4/// ^iSK. 
Darkeft Rumours thought true, 283. Scottifli ' ' incident :" 284. 
Irifti rebellion : and armyplof. King's fliare therein, 285, 286. 
Confequences of outrage worfe than itfelf Belief abtained for 
groffeft Charges. Captain Carterett's fears. Mr. Wifeman's. 
Obedience polfoned, 287. Powers of the State in conflift. 
Specific caufes of Alarm. Digby's plan for fecuring 
Members. King withholds Confent. Clarendon's own plan : 
To feize and throw them into feparate Prifons, 288, 
Notes. Offer of Montrofe to kill Argyle and Hamilton. Mr. 
Napier's difproof quite untenable. Text of Clarendon. 
Edition of 1826. Difclofed Author's plan. Hiltory com- 
pofed of two MSS. Secretary's tranfcript. Altered and 
corrupted by Author's Sons, 284. Reftoratlons. Scaffold- 
ings of a book. Later and earlier Verfions of fame events. 
The Montrofe charge, the later Verfion. Intended fo to 
ftand. ImpofTible not to print it: Reluftanceof firft Editors, 
285. Additions in 1826 not to be confufed with Reftora- 
tlons, 285, 286. Two kinds : weight refpe6lively due to 
each. Montrofe charge intended. The King Its au- 
thority. Why firft Verfion of it changed, 286. 

§ XXIX. How History may be written . . 289 — 294 
Text. Falthleflhefs of Clarendon. Unfafe guide. Comparifon 
with D'Ewes, Verney, and Rufhworth, 289. Statement by 
Clarendon. Alleged tone of Members' Friends, 290, Affefted 
fears and griefs. Propofal to adjourn Parliament. King's 
wifh to get Parliament away from London. Appointment of 
Committee. Royallftsfilent, 291. Three King's Advlfers : too 
dejefted to fpeak. Clarendon's Account fummed up. Five 
fpecific Statements, all untrue. Confronted with D'Ewes, 
Verney, and Rufhworth, 292. Never propofed to adjourn 
Parliament. Limit of ftay in City fpecified. Merchant Tailors' 
Hall not named. Royalifts not filent. Culpeper and Falkland 
on Committee, 293. 

Notes. Verney's account of Sitting of 5th. Rufhworth's 
Account. Adjournment to City, 290. 

Contents, xxiii 


§ XXX. Adjournment and Suspense . . . 254. 300 

'Text. Mafter-ftroke of meeting in the City, Neceflity of fuf- 
pending Weftminfter Sittings. Policy of appealing to Citi- 
zens. Alleged abfence of danger, 294, Fears pretended . 
to get help from "darling" City. But what lay private 
letters in State Paper Office ? Serious alarm at Impeach- 
ment. Fate of Members in balance. Wifeman's view, 
295. The Under Secretary's. Captain Carterett's, jth Jan. 
Gives no opinion, but ftates the faft. Vote of Houfe for the 
Accufed. Serjeant Dandie gone to feize them, 296. Attacked 
by the People. Obftinate refolve of the King. Thomas 
Smith to Pennington, yth Jan. Proteftion of Accufed 
againft King, 297. King will ufe force. City refolved to 
refift. "God help us!" Sling(by to Pennington, Stk 
Jan. M.P.s difcourfing of adjournment to City. Many 
refufe to go, 298. Fear to be thought " Acceffories." 
Threats if Accufed not given up. Royalifts begin to favour 
Irifh. Pym's heavieft charge proved true, 299. Sympathy 
with Irifli Rebellion, 300. 

Notes. Holborne's Argument, 299. 
§ XXXI. Commons' Committee at Guildhall . 300 — 316 

Text. Thurfday morning, (,th Jan. No exifting report of 
proceedings. Slight notices in Rufliworth and Verney, 300. 
Confufions of Clarendon. A regular record by D'Ewes. 
Where the Committee fat. Welcome of the Citizens. Military 
Guard in attendance, 301. City Hofpitalities. " Great cheer." 
Firft matter debated. Searching Lodgings and fealing up 
Papers. IfTuing illegal warrants, 302, Attorney-General's 
Proceedings firft quellioned. Motion to fend for Warrants. 
Refifted by D'Ewes. Speech by him, 303. Explains privi- 
leges againft arreft. Final, and temporary. Why fuch dif- 
tinftion. When the Houfe to judge as to faft and penalty, 
304.. When as to faft only. Otherwife Houfe might be 
thinned at pleafure. Yet Members guilty to be furrendered. 
Examples given. "Well moved," 305. Fair and juft temper 
of Committee. No defire to be irrefponfible, 306. D'Ewes 
refumes. As to cafes where Lords join. Privileges claimed 
by both Houfes. Impeachment by Lower Houfe : compels 
furrender of the perfon. Malice not prefumable, 307. 
Conclufion by D'Ewes. Loud acclamation. Glyn's Speech : 
aimed at fuch counfels as Hyde's. Private Informers of the 
King, 308. Spies in the Houfe. Manifett breach of privi- 
lege. Glyn has taken leaderftiip. Chiefs under him, 309. 
D'Ewes's Argument on Privilege. A firm pofition. More 
than one queltion at iflue. Clarendon's evafion, 310. Not 
one, but many breaches of law. King powerlefs to arreft, 311. 
; Each ftep an outrage. Subjeft may do what King cannot. 

xxiv Contents. 

Shame of Attorney- General. Makes apology through a 
Friend, 312. Apology not believed. Mr, Strode's remark 
thereon. Debate as to warrants continued. Sound principles 
ftated. No difference of opinion, 313. Difpute of D'Ewes 
with Wilde. Wrong iflue fuggefted. Correfted by D'Ewes. 
Lords to iffue Warrants. How to make a right thing wrong, 
314. D'Ewes's viftory over Wilde. Good fenfe of Com- 
mittee. Refolutions voted. Againft Warrants : againft perfons 
arrefting under them. Young Vane rifes, 315. Offers wife 
fuggeltion. Guard againfl claiming privilege for Crime. Sub- 
committee to draw provifo. Vane's claufe voted and printed. 
Adjourn to Grocers' Hall, 316. 
Notes, Why applaud D'Ewes and objeft to Hyde ? 305, 306, 
Anfwer fuggefted. Doggrel '* Five Members' March," 
306. Juft opinions as to Arrefl. Smith to Pennington, 
^th Jan. King not to accufe Subjefts, 311. Dil'con- 
tent with the King, 312. 

§ XXXII. Facts and Fictions .... 316 — 320 

Text. Clarendon Fiflions, Alleged reftriftion of Votes. Con- 
current fittings of Houfe. Hyde's afferted fpeech. Pretended 
references to Houfe itfelf, 317. Houfe confirming votes of 
Committee. All done during Five Members' Abfence. 
Reply. Votes not fo reftrifted. Houfe itfelf not fitting. Hyde 
not Speaking, 318. No Short Sittings. Journals fupport 
D'Ewes. Evidence of publifhed Declaration. As to War- 
rants: King powerlefs to iffue them, 319. As to Arrefl : 
King difabled from effe6ling it, 319, 320. As to claim of 
privilege : Not defired to bar a juft charge. Readinefs to 
bring guilty to Trial. 

§ XXXIII. Agitation in the City . . . 320 — 326 

Text. Thurfday night, 6th Jan"-, 320. Change in the People. 

Difpofed to any undertaking, 321. Sudden alarm at Ludgate. 

Threatened attack on Coleman Street. The Digby Plot. 

Lunfford in it, 322. City in Arms. 140,000 men with 

weapons. Panic continues. Women in terror. Exertions of 

Lord Mayor, 323. Streets cleared. City again quiet. Thanks 

of Council to Lord Mayor, 324. Ill-timed defiance. Troop 

raifed by Royalift Squire, 325. Tendency to undue fears, 326. 

Notes. Evidence of Clarendon. Tribunes exalted. Court 

reduced. All flanders believed, 321. Speech of Stapleton. 

Lunfford's bragging, 322. Order from Council, Saturday 

%th Jan. Members for City odious to Court. Swearing 

in of Falkland. Tumult of Thurfday noticed. Its authors 

muft be punifhed, 324. Certain perfons (M.P.s) over 

earneft. Find out authors of Alarm. Give up their 

Names, 325. 

Contents. xxv 


§ XXXIV. First Sitting at Grocers' Hall . 326—333 

Text. Friday jth Jan. WItnefles as to Outrage of ^k. Ab- 
ftraft of" their Evidence, 326. Concerted plan. Signal to be 
given. Difappointment. Neceflity of forcing Commons to 
obey King. Signal only wanted. Forcibly keeping open 
door of Houfe, 327. Counting numbers. Ingenuous Con- 
feffion. An important Witnefs : At Whitehall the previous 
Friday. What Lieut. Jenlcin faid. Again at Whitehall on 
the \th. Previous intelligence of King's defign, 328. 
Pafles over roof to efcape Crowds. Knew of coming 
trouble three weeks ago. Impreflion made on D'Ewes. 
Satiffied as to purpofe aimed at : to find excufe for armed con- 
flift with Houfe. Moves and carries vote to that efFeft, 329. 
Sheriffs of London in attendance. Alked as to Warrants. One 
replies, the other refufes. Difference between Wilde and 
D'Ewes. Don't fhout "Aye" or "No," but reflet and 
confider, 330. Againft calling in Warrants. Difcreet tone 
as to the King. Refpeft flill due. Touch of humour. An 
ill choice, 331. Call in Sheriffs and difmifs them. Suggeftion 
adopted. Motion that Five Members attend Committee : 
diflikedby D'Ewes: carried. King meets the challenge, 332. 
Frefh Proclamation againft accufed. Unwife courfe, 333. 

§ XXXV, Second Sitting at Grocers' Hall. . 333 — 338 

Text. Saturday ith Jan. Reply of Houfe to King's Pro- 
clamation, 333. Open defiance of the Sovereign. Alarming 
News. Step taken thereon. Guard ordered for the Tower, 
334. Seleftion of Commanding Officer: Major-General 
Skippon : charafter and fer\'ices, 335. Named chief of City 
Militia. How Authority comes into being : attends upon 
Necelfity. Order for pojfe comitatus. No fuch Guard needed, 
336. Committee ignorant of their power. Triumph pre- 
paring. Members to be borne back by the People. Propofal 
of King to attend Committee. Its reception, 337. Due re- 
fpe£l: to be paid. Way to be made for King and Nobles, 338. 

Notes. Importance of the Tower. Security to Merchants. 
Pym's Great Speech to the Lords, 334.. Effeft of political 
troubles on trade. Defence of the Commons, 335. 
Skippon and his Soldiers. Liking for Short Speeches, 336. 

§ XXXVI. Sunday the Ninth of January . . 338 — 339 

Text. Vifitors in City Streets and Chapels. Strangers meeting 
as Friends. Petitioners for Pym, 338. Petitioners for Hamp- 
den. Savoury Difcourfes. 122nd Pfalm. Text preached 
from, 339. 

xxvi Contents. 


§ XXXVII. Preparations for the Triumph . 340 — 356 

Text. Monday 10th Jan. Laft Sitting in Grocers' Hall. Crowds 
affembled. Speeches of Glyn and Alderman Pennington. 
Sufpefted tamperings at the Tower, 34.0. Evidence of 
danger. " Cavaliers." Sub-committee appointed, and Byron 
fummoned. Motion againft Killegrew and Fleming, 341. 
Moderation of Committee. Violent Language difliked. 
Refolutions modified and pafTed : Againft agents on T,rd and 
4//;, 342. Againft evil Counfellors : againft Proclamations 
ifliied ; againft warrants under King's hand, 343. Speech by 
Maynard: his fellowfhip with Glyn. Remembered at the 
Reftoration, 344. His prefent view of Parliaments: their pri- 
vileges : the attempted arreft : and the unlawful feizures, 345. 
All public bufinefs in peril. " Well Moved." Lords and 
Bi/hops uncontrolled. Men of Spirit difabled, 346. Agitation 
cutfide. Petition of Sailors. Services of Mariners accepted. 
To meet at 3 next morning: at the Hermitage, 347. The 
*' Water rats." The Five Members approach. Enter and take 
feats. Greeting. Off"ers from the Common People, 348. 
Thanked by Committee. Offers from Southwark Trained 
Bands. Accepted and told to be in Arms, 349. Proteftion 
of Sub-Committee. Arrangements for Tuefday's Guard. 
Irrevocable Step. Raifing troops without Commiffion, 350. 
Refolutions voted. ijl znd 2^^ 4-i^ 5^^> 35 '• 6;// to 
j7.t/i, 352. Hampden Speaks. Will you receive my Con- 
ftituents ? 4000 from Bucks. Better go back? 353. No, 
we will hear them. War beginning. Hampden's attitude 
and bearing. Laft a6ts of Committee, 354. Captain Hide 
difabled, Refufal to receive Sir John Byron's Meflenger, 
355. 3 p.m. lot^ Jan. Committee clofed, 356. 
Notes. Verney's Notes, 343. Mr. Pepys's Political Rogues. 
Popular View of them, 344. D'Ewes more correft than 
Ruftiworth, 347. Harleian MSS, 349. Verney's Miftakes. 
The Proteftation, 351. What number from Bucks: 
Hyde, Dering, Rufliworth, and D'Ewes, 353. Whitelock 
on fame fubjeft, 354. Hampden's ftiarein Bucks Petition. 
Falfe Charge. Captain Hide. New Lieutenant of the 
Tower, 355. Confefled ufurpations. Why neceflary, 356. 

§ XXXVIII. Flight of the King .... 356 — 369 

Text. 3 p.m. joth Jan"-, propofed Flight of King. Afts 
of Committee told to Charles, 356. His trouble and difmay. 
Takes fudden refolve. Crowds for Hampden. For Pym, 357. 
Alarming defeftions, 358. " Water rats." Trained Bands. 
Triumph for "Traitors." Sudden fenfe of Danger. Sir 
Edward Dering to his Wife. Commons going high. King s 
"terror." Pity for the King, 359. Noted vices Tefs danger- 
ous than fecret. Reafon for quitting London. Hope of 

Contents. xxvH 


fupport elfewhere. Projeft of the Queen. Vigilance of Com- 
mons, 360. Secret Service of Pennington. Conveys Queen 
to Holland. Under-Secretary Bere to the Admiral, \-}^tk 
Jan. Reports King's flight. Eflex and Holland, 361. 
Secretary Nicholas, 362. Small Work left for Under-Secre- 
tary. Grief of a Secretary of State's Wife. Lord Keeper 
offers to refign, 363. Royal Reverfes, 364. Gloomy pifture, 
365. Slingfby to Pennington. Unexpefted change of pofition. 
Officers following the King. Lunfford at Kingfton, 366. 
" Drunken flourifh." Sufpicious AfTociations. Digby and 
Lunfford, 367. Rejected Plan againft Five Members. Queen's 
reproach to King for its rejeftion. Charles I. quits London : 
never to return as King, 368. The Five placed on their 
" thrones," 369. 
Notes. Popular Petition. Pym's fupport of Law. Author of 
the Long Parliament, 357. Attacks on Pym. "Not a 
Gentleman or Scholar." "Rogue and Rafcal." "Peni- 
tent Traitor," 358. Refufals to accompany the King. 
Waiting on Committee. Final Defertions. Libel on 
Eflex, Holland, Warwick, and Pym, 362. D'Ewes and 
Lord Holland. King's flight not temporary. Union in 
Houfes, 363. Literary Entertainment. Letters not fafe, 
Defolate Court at Windfor. Endymion Porter to his 
Wife: \^h Jan. Very old fl:ory, 364. Troubles 
of a Courtier. Fear of " Rabble." King and Queen 
lying with their Children. Defperate times. King's 
poverty, Slingfljy and Pepys, 365. Captain Carterett, 
366. Agreement in Houfes. One exception. Faftion 
fubfiding, 367. Guizot's Re'volution d'Jngleterre, and 
Englifti Tranflation of fame, 368, 369. 

§ XXXIX. Return of the Five Members . . 369 — 376 

Text. Tuefday 11/^ Jan. March of City by Land. Guard 
by Water. Great Fefliival. No mere Holiday, 369. Soldiers' 
pikes and muflcets : carrying printed Votes of Houfes. Em- 
barkation at " Three Cranes." Under-Secretary's Account, 
370. Welcome at Weft:minfter. Entrance into Houfe. Pym 
thanks the City. Striking expreflions ufed, 371. Impreflion 
made on Royalift Member. Would you be King Charles or 
King Pym ? Letter of Sir Edward Dering. Guard againft no 
Enemy. Members thought fl:ill in danger, 372. Why Bucks 
Men came. Thanks by Mr. Speaker. Speech by Goodwin, 
373. Bucks Petition brought in. Its Guard of 6000. 
Crowd and preflure in Lobby. D'Ewes in Weft;minfter Hall. 
"Little fquare banners," 374. Departure of King noted. 
Queftion by Culpeper. Queftion by Sir Henry Chomley. 
Anfwered by Denzil Hollis. Clofe of Narrative, 375. 
Queft:ions not fettled in one Generation. Struggle of Com- 
mons againft Crown : why fticceflful, 376. 

xxviii Contents. 

Notes. What Clarendon faw, 370. Bere to Pennington, 
iph Jan"-, 111. Bucks Petition to the Houfe. Views 
held by Hampden. Petition to King, 373. Other 
Counties petition the King, 374, 

§ XL. Conclusion 376 — 387 

text. Arreftof Members a deliberate A61, How baffled. Only 
to be met one way, 376. The Civil War begun by it. Its 
connexion with Remonftrance. Defign of Remonftrance. 
Objeft of Arreft: to make the Minority mafters of the Houfe. 
Improbable cafe, 377. Peculiar Opinions of King. Nullity 
of Statutes in bar of Prerogative. All recent Afts in peril. 
Aflent under compulfion void. Dangerous Logic, 378. 
Pofition of Accufer to Accufed. Refufal to profecute or 
withdraw charge. " Vindication " of Pym. Why he changed 
his conduft after Arreft, 379. Parliament his only Refuge. 
Traitor or Minifter ? King will do anything but withdraw 
charge. Will waive Impeachment : hopes Mr. Hampden is 
innocent: Will indift at Common Law, 380. Will abandon 
all proceedings: will give general Pardon: But nothing elfe. 
Attorney-General impeached and puniftied. King ftill im- 
moveable. One of the Oxford proportions, 381. The Earl 
and the King. Strong ground for difcontent : ftated by White- 
lock, 382. Clarendon's defence of Charles. The truth 
mifftated : as a ground for aflailing Commons. Doubtful 
afl'ertion of Whitelock, 383. Probable efFe6t of withdrawing 
charge. EfFe6V of King's obftinate refufal. Perfiftence in the 
outrage. Interval for good Advice. Good Advifers provided, 
384. Refult upon the King. Events between ^h and 
^th Jan. 4/^ p.m. Proclamation againft Members, ^th 
a.m. King's Warrants and Vifits to Guildhall. 5/^ p.m. 
Second Proclamation, 385. 6th a.m. Serjeant fent to arreft. 
•jth a.m. Common Council Petition. %th a.m. New Minifters 
at Council Board. Same day : Third Proclamation againft 
Members ; and private order from Council Board, 386. No 
middle courfe pofTible. Acceptance of iflue raifed. Civil 
War, 387. 

Notes. Paper War. Blunt better than keen nib. Burleigh 
and Cecil. Too clever Clerk of Council, 383. 




§ I. Introductory. 

One of the moft fatal days in the life of Anat- 
Charles the Firft is generally, and juftly, [^J^f^ ^' 
accounted to have been that wherein he made author : 
the attempt to feize with his own hand upon 
five members of the Houfe of Commons fitting 
in their places in Parliament, againft whom, on 
the day preceding, he had exhibited in the 
Upper Houfe, through his Attorney-General, 
articles of impeachment for high treafon. This 
incident, however, with its attendant circum- 
ftances, having become, in common with the 
events immediately preceding it, the fubjedl of 
Lord Clarendon's moft elaborate, ingenious, 
and ftudied mifreprefentation, the true hiftory Party mif- 
of it remains to be elicited from truftworthy, [aSons of 
and as yet unpublifhed, contemporary records, i'j 

2 Arrejl of the Five Members. 

Not an It was certainly not the ifolated ad of rafh 

aft. imprudence and felf-willed indifcretion which 

the champion of the party whom its failure 
mod damaged very naturally defired that it 
fhould afterwards be confidered. It was at- 
tended by too many incidents befpeaking a 
deliberate and fettled purpofe, and came in the 
fequence of events with which it too exactly 
correfponded, to permit us fairly fo to confider 
it. The author of it, confiftently enough, 
always himfelf refented that imputation ; and 
Dramatic it is with a ftrid dramatic propriety he is made, 
ofThe "^ ^ ^y ^^ writer of the Eikon Baftlike ^ to afcribe 
Eilcon the a6l not to pafllon but to reafon, to claim 

Bafilike. . . . ^ r . , , 

ror It juit motives and pregnant grounds, and 
to refcue it from the reproach of being want- 
ing in the difcreetnefs that the touchinefs of 
the times required. It was moft afTuredly 
in only too perfed: agreement with all that 
the King and the King's friends had hzzw 
attempting fince the day of Strafford's execu- 
tion. The earlier period, with its clofe fuccef- 
fion of agitating conflids, has been retraced in 
an Effay defcribing the Debates on the Grand 
Remonftrance ; * but fome few gleanings in the 
field remain yet to be gathered, and will find 
here their proper place. 
Author!- The authorities to be employed in the pre- 

tiesforthis , n r i -n- 

Narrative, fent narrative, all of them exifting ftill in 

* Yox'ktx\ Hijlorical and Biographical E(fays, I. i — 175. 

§ I. IntroduElory . 3 

manufcript, have not before been ufed in any 
of the hiftories ; and it may be premifed, as to MS. Illuf- 
feveral important illuftrations of the time and 
many new fadls of much weight, derived from 
contemporary correfpondence in the State Paper 
Office,* that among the letters to be earHeft 
quoted are feveral addreffed to Admiral Sir 
John Pennington, then commanding the fleet 
in the Downs, by correfpondents evidently able 
and generally truftworthy, notwithftanding 
ftrong Royalift leanings. Penningtonf was a Admiral 
favorite of the King's, and within a very few J^^^ "'"^" 
weeks was to do him two memorable pieces of 
fervice, by carrying acrofs channel out of the 
reach of Parliament not only Loiyi Digby, 
but the Queen and the Englifh crown jewels, 

* Let me take the opportunity of faying, upon the thref- Services to 
hold of this work, that it could not have been written with- Enelilh 
out the facilities of accefs to the State Paper Office afforded Hiftorv 
by the kindnefs of Sir John Romilly, to whom I offer my rendered 
warmeft acknowledgments. Of the larger debt which all ^y Sir 
ftudents of our hiftory owe to theprefent Mafter of the Rolls, John 
it would hardly be becoming to Ipeak in this place; but it is Romilly. 
due entirely to him that the noble ftores of our State collec- 
tions are now becoming accefTible to all readers, and that in 
the double feries of " Calendars,^' and of " Chronicles and 
Memorials" publifhed by the MelTrs. Longman under his 
direftion, we have the promife ot an ultimate contribution to 
our National Hiftory which Englifhmen will be able to refer 
to with juft pride, as unfurpafTcd for its variety and richnefs 
of materiel, and for the thoughtful confideration which, by 
the moderate price the volumes are iffued at, has placed them 
within general reach. 

f Clarendon's Hift. ii. 277, 334.-6, and iii. 98, 107. The 
hiftorian fays of Pennington that he was a very honeft gentle- 
man, and of unfhaken truthfulnefs and integrity to the King ; 
adding that he had a greater intereft in the common feamen 
than any other perfon, having commanded them lb many 

13 2 

4 Arrejl of the Five Members. 

to be employed abroad in raifing materiel and 

means for the waging of civil war at home. 

Penning- A few months later, upon difmiflal of Lord 

pointed to Northumberland, the King had secretly made 

Lord^Nor P^^^i^^g^oJ^ Lord Admiral, but the appoint- 

thumber- ment was fuperfeded by Parliament. His 

prefent pofition in command of the home fleet 

rendered it extremely efTential that he fhould 

be kept well-informed of events ; and one 

Captain of his Captains, Robert Slingfby, brother of 

brothe/of Strafford's friend and fecretary, feems to have 

Strafford's come to London mainly with this defign. 

Writing on the day of his own and of the 
King's arrival there (the 25th of November), 
" from my lodging at a barber's houfe over 
^^ againfl the Rofe Tavern, in RufTell Street 
" in Covent Garden," Slingfby thus tells the 
Admiral the great parliamentary news : * 
relates cc 'pj^g bufincfs now in agitation is a Remon- 


mentary " ftrancc to be publifhed, wherein the ftate 
aThNov " °^ ^^^ kingdom, before the Parliament, is 
1 641, " fett down, and the Reformations fince : 
all matters of ftate and government, fince 
the King's coming to the crowne, being 
ript up : as fome fay, very much refleding 
" upon the King. On Monday laft it was very 
" hottly debated (in) the Houfe, with greate 
" oppofition: fome making proteftationsagainft 

* MS. State Paper Office. Slingfby to Pennington, 25th 
Nov. 1641. I follow the ordinary mode of fpelling the name, 
though the writer always fubfcrlbes himfelf "Slynglbie." 



^ I. IntroduElory. 5 

" It : it held almoft all the night. At laft being a night- 

*' voted, it was carried for the Remonftrance, ^°^|j^ 

" by eleven voices : yett they have fince fallen 

" upon itt againe, and have mittigated fome 

** thinges which occafioned greateft oppofition 

** to it ; yett doth it not paffe freely them 

" who befor oppugned it." 

It was hardly furprifing that it fliould not, 
confidering how much was at ftake. Every 
inch of ground was contefted. Alfo writing 
on the fame 25th of November, Mr. Sidney Sidney 
Bere, who (having charge of the foreign dif- under 
patches) had been in attendance on the King Secretary 
in Scotland, and who obtained employment as 
Under Secretary upon the appointment of 
Nicholas (on Monday the 29th November) as 
principal Secretary of State, makes fimilar 
allufion to the grand intelligence of the day, 
and in a tone which {hows his nearer acquaint- 
ance not alone with public affairs, but with thofe 
to whom their guidance was entrufted : " For 
** the bufinefs of the Houfes of Pari*, they 
" have been in greate debates about a Remon- 
" ftrance, w*^** the Houfe of Commons framed, 
" fhowing the grievances and abufes of many 
" yeares paft : the conteftation now is how to defcribes 
" publifh it, whether in print to the publick ^'PPp"^;!" 
" view, or by petition to his Majefty. It was ing the 
" foe equally carried in a divifion of opinions, ftrance. 
"that there were but 11 voices different: 
** this day is a great day about it, but what y«* 

6 Arrefl of the Five Members. 

Fears of " event will be I fhail not be able to write you 
lewie. cc by ^.]-jjg ordinary. It feems there are great 
" divifions betweene the two Houfes, and even 
" in the Commons Houfe, w'*" if not fuddenly 
" reconciled may caufe very great diftradions 
*' amongfl: us. It's the fear of many wife and 
" well-wifhing men, who apprehend great 
" diftempers, w'''* I pray God to divert."* 

So defperate was the ftruggle between forces 
not fo unequally matched as hiftorians have 
Narrow fuppofed ; and the refult thus far was, that the 
in^Hou'fr P^r'^y which attempted a readion in favor of 
of Com- the King had been defeated by this narrow 
majority. But other confiderations ftill hung 
in the balance. It remained to be feen, on 
the one hand to what ufes the vi6lory would 
be turned, on the other what yet might be 
done to mitigate the confequences of defeat. 
While the ftruggle was at its height, Charles 
was on his way back from Scotland ; having fent 
before him the mofl; urgent injundtions that 
until his arrival at leaft the conflid: was to be 
prolonged. Three days before he appeared at 
Whitehall the Remonftrance had been voted 
by its majority of eleven. Still there were 
queftions to be raifed in connedion with it, 
Conflia and ftill, as we have feen, the conteft was con- 
continued, tinued^ Charles was hardly lefs eager that the 
terrible record of his paft mifgovernment 

* MS. State Paper Office. Sidney Bere to Admiral 
Pennington, 25th Nov. 1641. 

§ I. Introdu£iory. y 

fKould not be prefented to him, than he had 
been that it fliould not be pafled ; and, after 
it was prefented, it became the great objedt of 
himfelf and his friends to obftrudl its pubHca- 

On the 1 6th of December, Captain Slingfby Firft great 
writes to Admiral Pennington: " Yefterday mentary 
' the Houfe of Commons fell upon thcRemon- dmfions. 
' ftrance w'^^' they had formerly prefented to 
' the King with a petition ; but had received 
' no anfwer. It was hottly debated, whether 

* it fhould be printed or nott : it helde them 

* very late in the nighte : at lafl: being voted, 

* it was carried by many voices to be printed : 
' yett fo as thofe were about a hundred w"*" did 

' proteft againft it, w"' a caution if it were Protefting 
' not contrary to the orders of the Houfe, difference. 
' and defired their names might be printed w'^ 
' the Remonftrance : that caution was to 

* avoid the penaltie of Mr. Palmer, who was 
' before comitted for protefting againft it. 
' It was after debated, whether to proteft 
^ againft anything that is voted in the Houfe, 

* be not contrary to the orders of the Houfe : 
' and it is thought by fome that fome of the 
' protefters will be queftioned for it."* 

A fortnight before this date, another friend, Mr. Tho- 
Mr. Thomas Wifeman, a man of confiderable JJJ^^ ^^^ ^' 
wealth and influence, had written in fimilar Admiral 

* MS. State Paper Office. Slingfby to Pennington, i6th 
Dec. 1641. 

Arreft of the Five Members. 
Penning- ftj-ain to the Admiral of Palmer's imprifon- 

ton, and _ , . . , 

Dec.1641. ment. He defcribed, in a few lines which 
exprefs exactly the nature and weight of the 
offence Palmer had given, and which Clarendon 
has laboured fo ingenioufly to conceal, the 
a6l that brought with it the *' penalty" referred 
Palmer's to by Slingfby.* " Mr. Palmer, the lawyer, 
and pun- " was fent three days agoe to the Tower, becaufe 
ilhment. it j^gg ^vas the firft man that defired to have 
" his Proteflation entered Againft the Remon- 
" ftrance in the name of All The Reft." In the 
fame letter Mr. Wifeman, adverting to matters 
connected with the Remonftrance and making 
a curious miftake as to the day of the great 
, debate (which was Monday the 22nd, not 
Thurfday the i8th of November), gives us a 
glimpfe of the temperate hopes too fanguinely 
expreffed by the Admiral himfelf : " This 
" Parliament, as you obferve, I hope may 
Abfentees " prove more temperate ; if foe bee all the 
Houfes.^ " memb" of the Houfes were fure mett 
" together : but I prefume they have already 
** don their worft; the Remonftrance being 
" finiftied uppon Friday was fennight, when 
" the Houfe of Comons did fit debating of 
" the matf therein contayned from three of 
•* the clock in the afternoone on Thurfday till 
1 " Friday morning at three of the clock ; and 

" beeing putt to the queftione whether the 
" Remonftrance fhould procede or not, there 

• See Hiji, and Biog. EJfays, \. 117- 13 2. 

§ I. Introdu£iory . 9 

' was 159 perfons for itt and 148 againft it. Thema- 
' And this very day it brought the King to {"^yj/^ 
^ towne, it being prefented unto him w'*" a 
^ petition thereunto annexed yeafterday at 
' Hampton Courte : what the fequel will bee 
' of it, a little tyme and patienfe will inform 
^ us. But there was never more heate in both Never 
' the Houfes then att prefent: God fend them IJ^p^J^i-^! 
' better at unitie whereby we may enjoy fairer ment than 
'hopes of peace and tranquillitie,, and thepec.'i64i. 
' King to Ibyne out w*^^ as much brightnefs 
' and fplendor as heretofore he hath done." * 

A hope, alas, with fmall chance of realiza- 
tion after the vote of the 15 th of December 
by which the Remonftrance was placed in the 
hands of the people. But, difcomfited in this 
diredlion alfo, a final ftand was neverthe- 
lefs to be made, and a final defeat to be 
encountered, upon the monftrous affumption 
of a right in the Minority to enter formal Minority 
proteft againft the feries of votes it had itfelf a^gahSi 
been fuceffively out-voted in refifting. That Majority, 
was on the 20th December : and within a fort- 
night after its date, as the fuccefsful leaders 
fat in their places in the Houfe (the interval 
having witneffed a defpairing effort, hitherto 
unknown and unfufpe<5ted, to win over Pym 
to the Court by a large and lucrative employ- 
ment), the attempt was made to feize them. 

• MS State Paper Office. Wifeman to Pennington, 
and Dec. 1641. 

lo Arrefi of the Five Members, 

th^firft^ Such were the ftages of a conflid, through- 
ftruggleofout Very fteadily maintained, of which the 
mentary o^ijed on one fide was to uphold, and on the 
Party in other to overthrow, the legitimate adion of 
the Houfe of Commons. Was it poffible that 
the long and hard fought battle fhould have 
had a more confiftent clofe ? It began in a 
fecret projed to overawe the Majority by 
bringing up the army to Weftminfter. It was 
continued through a fuccefllon of organized 
efforts to defraud the Majority of its lawful 
powers by the pretence of unlawful con- 
ftraints. And it was to be ended, furely with 
no inappropriatenefs, after a fecret and fuccefT- 
lefs effort to bribe with place the mofl diftin- 
guifhed of the leaders of the Majority, by an 
attempt openly to flrike them down. To what 
extent in this the King adted alone, or with 
the advice and countenance by which he had 
profited in every other flage of the flruggle, 
it will be one of the objedls of this EfTay to 

endeavour to develope. 

§ II. The King's Return from Scotland. 

Aflertlons It is repeatedly afferted by Lord Clarendon 
dom^^''"" that Lord Digby was Charles the Firft's only 
advifer in his refolve himfelf to effed the 
arrefi of the five members ; but in imply- 
ing that the rafh ad had the difapproval of 
the more legitimate advifers of the Sovereign, 
he nowhere alTerts that the articles of im- 

^ II. The King's Return from Scotland. ii 

peachment, of which it was but the too hafty 
and violent aflertion, were in their opinion 
unjuft. It would be hazardous to affirm of The two 
the King's attempt of the 4th of January, of S'srd 
that it was a more flagrant violation of law ^°^ 4th 

o January, 

and privilege than his attempt by means of 
his Attorney-General on the previous day ; yet, 
remembering that Falkland became a Privy 
Councillor only two days before, and five days New State 
later received the feals of a Secretary of State, ments: 
that Culpeper fat as Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer on the day Falkland was fworn of 
the Privy Council, and that Hyde had been 
offered concurrently the office of Solicitor 
General, — keeping in mind, moreover, that 
the perfon chiefly inflrumental in bringing 
about all thefe promotions is admitted by advlfed 
Clarendon to have been Lord Digby himfelf,* Digby. 
— it would be ftiil more difficult to believe that 
the ad of the Attorney-General, and the pro- 

• Clarendon expreflly informs ns {Jiift. ii. 99, 100), 
" The Loid Digby was much trufted by the King, and he 
" was of great familiarity and friendfhip with the other three, 
*' (Hyde, Culpeper, and Falkland), at leaft with two of them : 
" for he was not a man ot that exaftnels as to be in the 
'' entire confidence of the Lord Falkland, who looked upon 
" his infirmities with more feverity than the other two did 
"... He was equal to a very good part in the greateft 
" affair, but the unfitted man alive to conduft it, having an Lord Dig- 
" ambition and vanity fuperior to all his other parts, and a by's 
'* confidence in himlelf, which fometimes intoxicated, and friend- 
'* tranfportfcd, and expofed him ... He had been inftru- (hips. 
" mental in promoting the three perfons above mentioned to 
'* the King's favour; and had himfdf, in truth, fo great an 
" efteem of them, that he did very frequently, upon con- 
" ference together, depart from his own inclinations and 
" opinions, and concurred in theirs." 

12 Arreji of the Five Members. 

A queftion ceeding with which the King followed it up, 

for er 

with whatever feelings regarded after the event 

by thefe men, could have been taken in the firft: 
inftance abfolutely without their knowledge, 
or even their fufpicion. There is ground for 
believing otherwife ; and even if nothing more 
than a cafe of ftrong prefumption be proved, 
it ought in the particular circumftances to tell 
Sufpicions heavily againft them. That they were more 
pSidand ^^^" fufpedled at the time. Clarendon admits ; 
Culpeper and he adds that though fuch men as Hampden 
^ ^" and Pym had a better opinion of his difcretion 
than to believe he had himfelf any fhare in the 
advice of thofe proceedings, yet they were 
very willing that others fhould believe it.* 
Perhaps the real difficulty was, as the fads 
may tend to fhow, not to believe it. 
Charges The King had returned from Scotland, there 
againft cannot be a queftion, bent upon charging Pym 
Hampden, and Hampden with treafonable correfpondence 
during the Scotch Rebellion. Unfortunately 
The for Charles the Firft, it was almoft always 

^'"^f matter of doubt with him whether he ftiould 

way or 

dealing crufti or cajole an antagonift; and fuch was 
nts?^^°' his vice of temperament that whichever 
refolve he might finally take, was fure to 
be taken too late. He tried the one too late 
to deftroy the league for the Covenant in 
Scotland, he tried the other too late to fave 

• Life, i. 103. 



§ II. I^he King's Return from Scotland. 13 

the life of Strafford in England.* And now, Crufhing 
even while bent upon fattening a charge of°[jj^" ' 
treafon againft the popular leaders, bafed upon always too 
the fame tranfadtions as thofe which fuggefted 
a fimilar charge at the eve of the Long Par- 
liament, I fhall be able to fhow that even 
now there again occurred to him, and again 
too late^ that it might be pofTible to win by 
ftratagem f what he could not but fA:retly 
diftruft his power to win by force. Of courfe 
with the ufual refult. When a weak irrefolution 

* Hear what is faid by Clarendon : " If that ftratagem Stratagem 
" (though none of the beft) of winning men by places had ofwinning 
" been pra6lifed as foon as the refolution was taken at York men by 
" to call a parliament (in which, it was apparent, dangerous places. 
" attempts would be made, and that the court could not be 
" able to refift those attempts), and if Mr. Pym, Mr, 
" Hampden, and Mr, HoUis, had been then preferred with 
" Mr. Saint-John, before they were defperately embarked in 
" their defperate defigns, and had innocence enough about 
** them to truft the King, and be trufted by him, having yet 
'* contracted no perfonal animofities againft him j it is very 
" pofllble that they might either have been made inrtruments 
" to have done good fervice, or at leaft been reftiaincd from 
'* endeavouring to fubvert the royal building, for fupporting 
" whereof they were placed as principal pillars." HiJ}. 
ii, 60, In another paftage of his hiftory (iv. 438-9), he 
tells us : ** The King at one time intended to make Mr. Pym Offers to 
" Chancellor of the Exchequer, for which he received his Pym. 
" Majefty's promife, and made a return of a fuitable profefRon 
" of his fei-vice and devotion : and thereupon, the other 
" being no fecret, fomewhat declined from that ftiarpnefs in 
" the Houfe which was more popular than any man's." 
But again elfewhere he admits, ftill speaking of the pro- Xheir 
pofal to give office to Pym and Hampden : " It is great non- 
♦• pity that it was not fully executed, that the King might acceptance 
"have had fome able men to have advifed or afllftcd him." regretted 

'•371. , , by Hyde. 

f That, as has juft been feen, is Clarendon's expreflion 
applied to the King's mode of procedure (ii. 60) — " the 
" ftratagem of winning men by places." He had himfelf 
fufficient experience of it. 

14 Arrefi of the Five Members. 

prevents a man from doing at the right time 

what is right, obftinacy (which is but another 

form of the fame weaknefs and equally inac- 

cefTible to reafon) will always confirm and 

make him obdurate in whatever he may have 

ultimately done wrong. 

Treafon- Ominous threatenings of that purpofe of the 

fpondence ^^"g ^^ revive the charge of treafonable cor- 

of Englifti refpondence with the Scotch againft Hampden 

members \ i i i • r o 

with and rym, had preceded his return from Scot- 

fe'befs'^ land ; and that it was known to thofe admitted 

to his confidence, no well-informed ftudent 

of this period of hiftory will be difpofed to 

doubt. When Clarendon, therefore, fpeaking 

for himfelf and his friends as having with the 

greateft courage and alacrity oppofed what he 

terms, "all the feditious pradlices " of the 

leaders of the Commons, proceeds to admit 

that they were far from thinking that the five 

Claren- members were much wronged* by the accu- 

opinion fatJon of treafon ; nay, that fo vifible in the 

of the five Houfe had been their extreme difhoneft arts,t 

acculed. .' 

that nothing could have been laid to their 
charge incredible, only they thought it an 
unfeafonable time to call them to account for 
it ; and that, in regard to the choice of perfons, 
it was indifcreet to have included Lord Kim- 
bolton with the members of the Lower Houfe, 

* Hijl. ii. 1 60. 

f This word is incorreftly printed " a6ts " by Clarendon's 

^ II. The King's Return from Scotland. 15 

— It would feem tolerably certain that he carries Klmbol- 
his affedlation of ignorance fomewhat too far.* scotch 
KImbolton was included notorioufly becaufe Com- 

r y ' 1 o • I • -miflioner: 

or his conduct in the previous year as one or 
the CommifTioners " to arran2;e all caufes of 
" difpute with Scotland," and becaufe of the 
impoflibiiity of ftating the alleged cafe againft 
Hampden or Pym without involving Kim- 
bolton alfo. 

There are feveral pafTages In Charles's fecret narrowly 
correfpondence with Secretary N Icholas, during ^y^he^ 
his abfence in Scotland, which fhow with what Court, 
eager curiofity the doings of Kimbolton were 
watched at the time. Lady Carlifle, who. Lady 
though ftill continuing her intercourfe with inter- 
the Court, appears undoubtedly after Strafford's ^^^f\ . 
death, for reafons hereafter to be noticed, to parties, 
have given what help fhe could to the popular 

* "The purpofe," fays Clarendon {Hiji. ii. 128, T29), "of 
" accufing the members was only conlulted between the Secret 
" King and Lord Digby ; yet it was generally believed that consulta- 
" the King's purpofe of going to the Houfe wa^ communi- tions. 
" cated with William Murray of the Bedchamber, with 
" whom tlie Lord Digby had great friendlhip ; and thit it 
" was betrayed by him .... He [Lord Digby] was the 
" only perfon who gave the counfel, named the perlons, and 
" particularly named the Lord Mandeville, againft whom 
" lefs could be faid than againft many others, and who was 
" more generally beloved," &c. &c. And again he fays, 
(pp. 160, 161), when remarking that a fitter choice Ihould 
have been made of the perfons for arreft — " There being Kim- 
" many of the Houfe of more mifchievous inclinations, and bolton's ill 
" defigns againft the King's perfon and the government, and company. 
" more expofed to the public prejudice, than the Lord 
" Mandeville Kimbolton was: who was a civil and well- 
" natured man, and had rather kept ill company than drank 
" deep of that infeftion and poilon that had wrought upon 
" many others." 

1 6 jirrejl of the Five Members. 

4 leaders, is reprefented in one of N icholas's letters 
A danger- (27 September, 1641), as having taken to the 
ator.'"^ '' Queen a paper which it was much to the 
King's fervice to make public, and which fhe 
had obtained from Lord Mandeville.* (Lord 
Mandeville, or Kimbolton, I need hardly ac- 
quaint the reader, was the eldeft fon of the 
Earl of Manchefter, and had been called to 
the Upper Houfe in his father's barony of 
Montagu of Kimbolton.) The contents of 
that paper were fuch, however, that it became 
matter of doubt whether that which had 
appeared upon the furface of it fo defirable to 
be known in the King's intereft, was not in 
Doubtful reality a matter much more eflential to be 
fervices. j^^own in the intereft of the King's opponents ; 
and the condudl of Lady Carlifle foon con- 
firmed the latter fuppofition. Nicholas him- 
felf makes no concealment of his doubts of 
Kimbolton. He is careful to tell the King, 
" I hear there are divers meetings at Chelfea, 
" at the Lord Mandeville's houfe, and elfe- 
Meetings *' where" (Pym also had lodgings in Chelfea 
lodgCs^ at this time) " by Pym and others, to confult 
at Chelfea. « what is beft to be done at their next meeting 
" in Parliament." t Nor perhaps is it necef- 
fary to add that the alleged notorious com- 
plicity of Hampden with the fo-called Scottiih 
treafon was the fubjedl of countlefs contem- 

* E'velyn Correfpondence, iv. 75, ed. 1854. 
f Enjeljn Cor. iv. 76. 

§ II. 'The King^s Return from Scotland. 17 

porary fongs and libels, which, contemptible Libels on 
and little credible as they generally are, will "^'"P'^en. 
yet be found to refled, in Tome fhape or 
other, the party beliefs and hatreds of the day. 

Did I for this bring in the Scot 
(For 'tis no fecret now — the Plot 

Was Say's and mine together) : 
Did I for this return again, 
And fpend a winter there in vain, 

Again to invite them hither ! 

It was hardly attempted to be concealed, in Avowed 
fhort, from any of the King's friends, that his '^^a^jonej 
Majefty had taken advantage of his prefent 
vifit to Scotland to fatisfy himfelf of the 
fecret underftanding that had formerly exifted 
.between the leaders of the army of the Cove- 
nant and the leaders of the Englifh Houfe of 
Commons ; and though even Royalifts might 
reafonably doubt whether fuch a charge could 
be made the bafis of impeachment againft fuf- Sufpefted 
pefted rebels in England, after a grant to the ^e fm- ° 
avowed rebels in Scotland of an adl of oblivion peached. 
fo complete, that by the Crown's grace and 
favor Montrofe was now a Marquis, Argyle 
Scottifh Chancellor, and the little crooked 
Field-Marfhal of Balgony an Engliih Earl, yet 
the fadt of fuch evidence exifting againft the 
Englifh members was freely fpoken of, and 
was the fubjed of covert allufion in the cor- 
refpondence of Nicholas and the King. 

" Some day they may repent their feverity. 
"... I believe, before all be done, that they will 

1 8 Arreft of the Five Members. 

The ^ " not have fuch great cauje of joy'' ''^ ^' You 

threats^ " "^^7 ^^^ ^y this that all their defigns hit not; 

againftthe <c ^^^^ j j^^p^^ before all be done that they 

leaders. ^^ fhall mi/s of more." ■\ "Though I cannot 

** return fo foon as I could wifh, yet I am 

" confident that you will find there was 

*' necefjity for it^ and I hope that many will 

" mifs of their ends.'*'\, Thefe, and other fimilar 

expreflions, fhow how ftrongly the conviction 

had taken poflefTion of the King's mind, that 

he was bringing back with him to London the 

means of ridding himfelf effedlually of the 

members of the Houfe of Commons who were 

moft obnoxious to him. 

Treafons On his return, indeed, he enlarged the fcope 

committed ^f ^^^ accufation, fo as to take in their con- 

m Parlia- _ ' 

ment. dudt in parliament. To this the tone adopted 

by Hyde, Palmer, Culpeper, Falkland and 

their followers, in the Remonftrance debates, 

may be faid to have urgently invited him ; 

and he afFeded to believe, with them, that the 

Coercing minority had been fo coerced in thofe mo- 

pu^fbrth^ mentous difcuflions as to have endangered 

as breach the continued exiftence of parliamentary rights. 

lege'/^'" jBut, irrefpedlive of all this, the refolution to 

try an impeachment feems clearly to have 

been taken while he was yet in Edinburgh ; 

and it was but the after fuggeftion of mingled 

* The King to Nicholas, 5th Oct. 1641. E'uelyn Cor. 
'•' iv. 78, 79. 

f Same to fame, 9th Oct. 1641. E'velyn Cor. iv. 80. 
X Same to fame, 12th Nov. 1641. E'velyn Cor. iv. 81. 

§11. The King's Return from Scotland, 19 

fear, irrefolution, and obftinacy, which induced 
him on the very eve of its trial, to attempt 
(as it will be fhown fhortly that he did 
attempt) to bribe over to his fervice the 
principal " traitor.'* 

Nor have fuch indications been wanting, as signs of 
the many curious details produced from the^J"^^^J 
MS. Journal of D'Ewes during the progrefs 
of the Debates on the Remonftrance will have 
fupplied, of a kind of confcioufnefs on the 
part even of the members chiefly in danger, 
that fome blow to be flruck in fecret might be 
preparing againfl them. We may there obferve 
with what eager and prompt decifion, when 
Mr. Waller threw out his ingenious parallel 
between Pym and Strafford, Pym met the chal- 
lenge of his loyalty, and forced the Houfe to a 
fpecific declaration upon it. The King had not 
been five days in London, after his arrival 
from Scotland, when the fame leader of the 
Oppofition had occafion to afk from his place, 
whether it did not become the reprefentatives 30th Nov. 
of the people to take ferious note of the many Alleged 
figns around them of a confpiracy by fome confpiracy 
members of the Commons Houfe to accufe charges of 
other members of the fame of treafon ? And f^^'*"- 
when, on the 20th December, the queftion 
was independently difcuffed which had caufed 
fuch agitation in the Debates of the Remon- 
ftrance, whether a minority in the Commons 

might not have the fame liberty as in the 

c 2 

20 Arreji of the Five Members. 

Argument Lords of protefting agalnft the decifions of 
^JillJt to^ the majority, Mr. Holborne employed the 
a minority, fignificant argument that the abfence of fuch 
a right, in the event of the majority having 
pafled any meafure carrying with it grave con- 
fequences, would involve as deeply in thofe 
confequences the refifting members of the 
minority, who might "lofe their heads in the 
" crowd when there was nothing to fhow who 
*' was innocent."* A vague feeling of indi- 
vidual infecurity, a fhadowy fenfe of fome 
poflible impending danger, was now certainly 
Alarms prevalent among members of the Houfes in 
prevalent. ^ manner not before known ; and at the very 
hour when that remark was made by Holborne, 
D'Ewes, who had left to attend the King at 
Whitehall with an addrefs, was with fome 
alarm making a note for his Journal of the 
" confident and fevere look " with which 
Charles, not deigning to receive the obei- 
fances of honorable members, pafled out 
through the midft of them.f It is a pity 
Confi- that confidence and feverity fhould have been 
the King. "^^^ ^^e charadcriftics of this prince, at the 
very times when it moft behoved him to 
difliruft himfelf and conciliate others. 

* See Sir Ralph Verney's Notes of the Proceedings of the 
Long Parliament, 135, 136 j aad the admirable note thereon 
of the editor, Mr. Bruce. 

f Harleian MSS. i6z f, 265 a. See also my Hist, & Biog. 
EJfaySy i. 165. 

§ III. Falfe Reliances. 21 

§ III. False Relfances. 

The end to which matters were haftening The 
had now become manifeft enough. Confi- ^^y^^.'ft 

J . . - party in 

dent m his own lecret perfuafion that the the city, 
means of vengeance were in his hand, and 
mifled by the accident of a Royalift Lord 
Mayor into believing alfo, in the teeth of 
every other indication to the contrary, that a 
ftrong Royalift party exifted in the City, the 
King's public condud: fince his return, under 
the further exafperation of the paffing, pre- 
fenting, and printing of the Remonftrance, 
and of the tone adopted by its authors in 
debate, had been a feries of acfls that could 
have but one ifTue. Before retracing them, ht 
me fhow on what precarious foundations had 
been built the tone of confidence and defiance 
fo fuddenly and unadvifedly aflumed. 

The City entertainment provided by the en- Banquet 
thufiaftic Firft Magiftrate had been arranged hln ."' 
to take place on the day of Charles's arrival in 
his capital, and for the moment it fairly turned 
the heads of the King's friends as well as his 
own. Captain Slingfby informs his admiral 
that it was a magnificent reception, and that 
fince his coming to town he had been greatly 
pleafed to obferve a very great alteration of 
the affedions of the City to what they had 

21 ** Arrefi of the Five Members. 

King's re- been when he went away.* Mr. Sidney Bere 

therea": Writes more cautioufly, but remarks that all 

looked very " ftately and well."t Mr. Thomas 

Wifeman protefts that it was a reception and 

glorification of fo much worth, as to be far 

beyond the precedent of any made to former 

Kings that hiftory makes mention of; and 

that it had well fuited with the goodnefs, 

fweetnefs, and meritorious virtue of fo gracious 

a king as theirs was ; adding, that his Majefty 

Lord had " knighted in the field " the Lord Mayor 

Goumey ^"<^ Recorder, and, to add more grace to fo 

made a loyal a Chief Magiflrate, had been pleafed, 

the day after the banquet, to make him a 

Baronet. J 

But perhaps the moft flriking indication of 
all that now tended for the time completely to 
deceive and miflead the credulous King, was 
a letter dated the day after Mr. Wifeman's 
admiring efFuflon, which the new Secretary 
Welcome of State, to whom it was addreffed, muft with 
"hiking, ^oni^ exultation have fubmitted to his mafler. 
It was from Lenthal, the Speaker of the 
Houfe of Commons. This weak and common- 
place man, fo foon to be for ever afTociated 

* MS. State Paper Office. Capt. R. Slingfby to Admiral 
Sir John Pennington, 25 Nov. 1641. 

f MS. State Paper Office. Sidney Bere to Admiral 
Pennington, 25 Nov. 1641. 
! X MS. State Paper Office. Wifeman to Pennington, ad 

Dec. 1641. Court fcribes made the moft of it of courfe ; 
and under the title of Oruatio Carolina, in Somers's TraSis, 
iv. 137, will be found a ludicroufly pompous account of the 

§ III. Falfe Reliances. 23 

in hiftory with an apparently high-fpirited ^P^^Ij^J 
aflertion, in his own perfon, of the privilege alamed : 
and independence of the Houfe of Commons, 
was now only eager to be quit of his em- Wifhes to 
ployment, and proffer fervile fuit to the King, from the 
Clarendon truly charadlerifes him as a man of ^peaker- 
a very narrow, timorous nature, and it leems 
probable that the fierce debates on the Remon- 
ftrance had thoroughly alarmed him.* With 
his opportunities of obfervation, he could hardly 
fail to have fatisfied himfelf that a conflid of a 
yet more ferious kind now impended between 
the King and the Houfe, and this letter is decifive 
of his belief that the vidlory would be to the 
King. Nor was it poffible that Charles him- 
felf fhould have drawn any other conftrudlion 
from it. In continuing to remain where he 
is, in the chair of the Houfe of Commons, 
Lenthal fees only utter failure to his life, the 
ruin of his eftate, and poverty for his children, and to be- 
He prays to be relieved from his too onerous ^^^^^ ^^ 
dignity, and to become once more the meaneft "^f^"^^ ^ 

-,. -- . c rr lubjeCt of 

fubjedl of a fovereign whom he prorelies to his fove- 
regard with abje<5l veneration. ^^'S"' 

* For illuftrations of his charafter, and his fufferings at 
the hands of honorable and not refpeftfui members, fee my 
Hift. Gf Biog. EJfays, i. 82-84. Another opportunity of 
adverting to the fubjeft will occur in this narrative, but mean- 
while I may add what is faid, corre6lly enough, by Clarendon 
{^Hiji. i. 297). " In a word he was in all refpeds very un- Clarendon 
" equal to the work: and not knowing how to preferve his as to 
" own dignity, or to reftrain the licenle and exorbitance of Lenthal. 
" others, his weaknefs contributed as much to the growing 
" mifchiefs as the malice of the principal contrivers." 


Arreft of the Five Members. 

to Secre- 

3rd Dec. 
1 64.1. 






Mr. Secre- 
taiy's help 
in loweft 
pofture of 

"Right Honorable and Moft Noble S%" 
runs this remarkable letter, written on the 
fourth day after the appointment of Nicholas 
as Secretary of State,* " The aflurance of 
" your noble favours imboldnes me to commit 
" to your care the greateft concernment y* ever 
*^ it befell me, the defyer beinge enforced by 
" an unavoidable neceffity. I have now in 
" this imployment fpent almoft 14 months, 
<f w'^h |^^^.j^ foe exhaufted the labor of 25 yeares, 
" that I am inforced to flye to y^ sanftuary of 
" his facred mercy. Could I fuppofe that my 
" humble fute (grounded on y^ full expreffion 
" of duty and obedience) fhould have other 
" interpretation, or feeme unfitt in the deepe 
*' judgm* of his Sacred Ma'ye, I fhould then 
" defyer my thoughtes may perilTi in their firft 
*' conception, foe willingeam I to offer myfelfe 
" and fortune a facrifice for his Royall Service : 
" but in that I hope it cannot, I moft humbly 
" defyer your honor on my behalfe (in ye 
" loweft pofture of obedience), to crave of his 
' ' Sacred Ma'^*^ his Royall Leave that I may ufe 
'^ my beft endeavour to the Houfe of Cofftons 
*' to be quitt of this imployment and to retyer 
*' backeto my former privat Life, thatwhilft I 
" have fomme ability of body left, I may en- 
" deayour that w^^'out w*^'' I cannot but expedt 

* MS. State Paper Office, It is dated 3 December, 1641 ; 
and is addreffed, " The Rt. Hon. Sir Edward Nicholas, Knt., 
" one of his Ma')"" Secretarys of State, Humbly prefent 
« thes." 

§ III. Falfe Reliances. 25 

" a ruine, and put a badge of extreame poverty Expefts 

" uppon my children. The app'henfion of ^Jj";^^^^ 

*' my fpeedy enfuing mifery, hath begot this '" ^^^ 

" moft humble regret, but ftill with that dewtheHoufe. 

" regard of my obedienc and duty that noe 

" earthly confideratio fhall ever increafe the 

" leafte of thoughts that may tend to the re- 

" tardment of his Royall Commands. S', this 

" being p^'fented to your honour^^e care, affures 

" me of fuch a succefsful way as fhal be- 

'^ comme the duty of me his meaneft- fubjecft 

*' in all humilitie to befeech. Thus am I im- 

" boldened humbly to declare the relation and 

'* defyers of your Honor's moft obedient fer- 

" vant, Wm. Lenthal." 

To the King, fo willing to be duped, and A willing 
exulting ftill in the belief that he had at laft "^^* 
won friends in the City all powerful, here 
might be ground hardly lefs for belief that in 
the Houfe of Commons his enemies were 
falling asunder. Charles clutched at it, and 
defperately held to it, with the impulfive 
weaknefs of his nature. But never was fuch a 
belief raifed on fuch bafelefs foundations. 

Already, the very day before Lenthal's letter 
was written, a fufpicion that they were falfe 
reliances had occurred even to Captain Slingf- 

. Captain 

by. " Since the King's coming," he writes, silnglby 
" all thinges have not happned fo much to hisj^jp^'" 
" contentment as by his magnificent intertaine- nington, 
" ment att his entrance was expeded. . . . ,6^,. 


Arreft of the Five Members. 

Faftious " The fa6lIous Citizens begin to come again to 
1 izens. tj ^^ houfes with their fwordes by their fides, 
" hundreds in companies; their pretences only 
" againft Epifcopacie."* After a few days 
Sidney Bere, refledling doubtlefs the temperate 
mifgivings of his mafter the Secretary, writes 

Fears and of the fears and diftradtions increafing daily in 
Qf London, and that fuch truly were not without 
caufe, for that the exifting contention in the 
Houfe, and on points of fo high nature, could 
not bring about lefs than confufion and com- 
buftion in the end, if God did not prevent 
it.f Nor from this date had a week pafled 

the beft 

The Kinj 
and the 




Sir Ed- 

* MS. State Paper Office. Slinglby proceeds to fay of 
the King : " The next day after his coming he was expefted 
" at the Parliament, but he went away to Hampton Court ; he 
" came again on Monday laft and was expe6ted on Tuefday 
" at the Houfe, but he went back the fame night he came. 
" Since that, a Petition hath been fent to him concerning the 
" Remonftrance w*^*" had formerly bren fo much debate : and 
" to defire the nomination of the greate officers as he had 
" graunted to the Parliament in Scotland. This day the King 
*' came to London againe: atnoone it was queftioned whether 
" he would go to the Houfe or no, but I heare fince he is 
" gone." Of the faftious Citizens he alfo further remarks in 
this letter: "One of the Houfe was ftriftly examined by 
" them of w'^'' fide he was, in fuch a manner that with goode 
" wordes he was gladd to flippe from them: after he was 
" gone fome of them were heard to name him — faying it was 
" fuch a one — the greateft enemye we have. He made com- 
" plaints of it to the Houfe. Yefterday a conference between 
" the two Houfes wherein this matter was menf* and a 
" declaration agreed to be fett out to prohibitt the like 
*' affemblys hereafter .... This day the Houfe are upon 
" Sir Edward Dering who it is thought will be called to the 
" barre for fomething he hath fpoke in the Houfe." 

•|- MS. State Paper Office. Sidney Bere to Admiral 
Pennington, 9th Dec. 1641. There is fo pleafant a teftimony 
in this letter to the character of Nicholas, not merely to his 
activity and induftry, but to that fweetnefs of difpofition and 
moderation of temper which is borne out by all that is 

§ III. Falfe Reliances. 27 

before Captain Slingfby wrote with an alarm siingfby's 
which he hardly attempts to conceal, of the ^ ^""' 
difplay of manifeftations of feeling from the 
City, of a far more decifive and ferious kind 
than thofe which fo lately had ftartled him. 
Whereas it had been alleged that laft week's Wealthy 
"soUicitation of the Parliament" had pro- ^"^t^^^'g^ 
ceeded only from the ruder fort of people, citizens : 
now it was certain that " fome of the 
" better fort of the fame fadlion came in good 
" numbers to the Houfe, accoutred in the beft 
" manner they could, and in coaches, to pre- Come in 
" vent the afperfion that was layed upon them coaches to 
*' that they were of the bafer fort of people the Houfe. 
" only which were that way affeded." They 
had come, moreover, not merely to petition 
for the removal out of the Upper Houfe of the 
popifh Lords and Bifhops to whom exclufively 

publicly known of him, that the paffage is worth fubjoining. 

" By Mr. Valentine," he writes, ** I acquainted you w"* the 

" remove of Sir Hen. Vane, and that I had made my way unto 

" his Ma'"^ by the Murrayes, w'** hath taken foe good effedt 

•' that now I am wi"' the Secretary Nicholas (the King 

" having recommended me particularly)} and he appearing Character 

" moft ready to accept me, mentioning with all the refpeft of Sir Ed. 

" he bears unto you the afFeftion you have always pleafed to Nicholas. 

" have for me, foe that I cannot faile of good ufage, and 

" indeed his difpofition is foe fweete that he is not capable of 

" other. By this recommendation from his Ma''' I gueffe we 

" fliall not fuddenlie have a fecond Secretary, fmce all the 

" Forraine difpatches as well as Ireland are delivered into 

** Mr. Seer''' Nicholas, who noe doubt will acquit himfelfe 

" well, being a man alfo very laborious and aflive, and in 

" great fav' with both their Ma""." Neverthelefs Mr. Bere 

was wrong in his expectation : a fecond Secretary, to replace 

Vane, having already been felefted in the perfon of Lord 


28 Arreft of the Five Members. 

they imputed the ftoppage of thofe Ads which 

had pafied theLower for the fettling of religion, 

but alfo to complain " of fome ill-afFe6ted 

" perfons in the Cittie that endeavoured to 

Unpopu- " hinder their petition, wherein my Lord 

of the " Mayor was comprehended, who the day 

Lord cc before had given order to all the conftables 

" to raife their feverall watches and be readie 

*^ in armes, which has been very ill refented 

" by the Houfe."* So foon was the frail reed 

on which the King mainly relied, bending 

powerlefs under him. Poor Lenthal himfelf 

Second feems to have had a fafer fecond thought, and 

of Speaker had haftened to crave from Mr. Secretary 

Lenthal. Nicholas, "if the other way did not take," no 

longer the royal influence to relieve him of Mr. 

Speaker's poft, but the royal mefTage cuftomary 

in thofe times before Mr. Speaker's claim for a 

vote of money could be taken into confidera- 

tion.f Shall we wonder that the Under Secre- 

* MS. State Paper Office, Slingfby to Pennington, 

" aboard the Lyon in the Downes." The letter is dated by 

Slingfby himfelf " i6 January, 164.1," but this is a manifeft 

error for the " i6th December, 1641." 

Speaker | MS. State Paper Office. This fecond letter is well worth 

Lenthal fubjoining textually. " Right Honourable, May it pleafe 

to Secre- << your Honor," it runs, " If that other way doe not take, if 

tary « you may finde oportunity (without prejudice to your felfe) 

Nicholas, a let me entreat you to incline his Ma'^ to recomend me 

" to y* confideration of the Houfe, by which meanes I may 

" hope of fome fatiffaftion: but this is totally left to your 

j " honor's confiderati" as oportunity offers, & y' honor 

" thincke fitt in your owne judgment. Thus humbly cravinge 

" p''on for this great p'fumption I can fafely fay noe man 

" lives that is more 

" Your honor's moft humble fervant, 

Wm. Lenthal." 

§ IV. Fatal Mijiakes. 29 

tary, not many days later, is found writing to An Un- 
his friend the Admiral commanding in the f^^L^^^"^' 
Downs, " I pray God we find not that we prayer. 
" have flattered ourfelves with an imaginary 
" fl:rength and partie in the citty and elfe- 
" where which will fall away if need fhould 
" be/' * 

§ IV. Fatal Mistakes. 

Charles neverthelefs continued to adl as if Fool- 
that imaginary flrength were folid and eternal, ^f ^^^"^^^ 
On any other afliimption we fhould have to King, 
charadlerize as thofe of a madman the feries of 
his adls from the opening of December to 
Chriftmas Eve. He had removed the train- Removes 
bands on guard at the two Houfes, and had fub- jJoj^^^"'^ 
ftituted companies officered by himfelf. He Houfes : 
had put forth a moft ofFenfive order on 
the fubjed of religious worfhip. He had Gives 
recaft the offices at Court, notorioufly that "^^J^j.*" 
he might invite into his councils the leading of the 
opponents of the Great Remonftrance ; f or ™'"°"^ • 

* MS. State Paper Office. Sidney Bere to Sir John 

f On the 2nd of December Mr. Thos. Wifeman thus writes Wifeman 
(MS. State Paper Office), as his *' affiired and afFeftionate to Pen- 
" friend to command," to Admiral Sir John Pennington : nington, 
" My Lord of Holland, they fay, hath loft himfelf both 2nd Dec. 
** with the King and Queen j and for my part I believe it ; 164.1. 
" becaufe hee hath been obferved to hold councills and 
" confultations with the Lords in the abfence of the King 
" that have been againft Epifcopacie and the Bookeof Common 
" Prayer : W'' his Ma'"* fince his cominge home hath 
*' declaratively refolved to uphold, and with his lyfe to 
•* mayntayne. It is noyfed there will bee fuddenly a greate 


Arrefi of the Five Members. 

privilege ; 

Bere to 
ton, 25th 

Same to 
9th Dec. 


Same to 
a 3rd Dec 

it might be with other hopes in that direc- 
tion, fecret as yet, or known to Pym alone. 
He had aflailed the privileges of the Commons 

" remove at Court of cheifF offic", and that Sir John Banks 
" fhall be Lord Treas'. Mr. Nicleys [Nicholas] was on 
" Monday laft fworne Secretary of State and knighted ; and 
" my Lord Savill had the ftaff given him at Yorke of being 
" Treas' of the King's Houfehold in Mr. Secref Ffane's 
" place, who it is thought will not bee Secret^ long. He 
*' hath very ill lucke, to bee neither loved nor pittied of any 
" man." Some few days before, Sidney Bere had written 
(MS. 25th Nov.) : " At Newcaftle I underftand Mr. Secretary 
" Vane was commanded to deliver up his ftaffe of Treafur'; 
" wh'^'' was confered att Yorke upon my Lord Savile : it is 
" what was long fpoken of & expefled by him, and foe it 
" will be noe greate newes to you. The place of Secretary he 
" ftill keepes : w'^'' if he continue, as I fee no great appear- 
" ance to the contrary, he will not much reflefte on the lofle 
" of the other." Seven days later, the Under Secretary wrote 
again (MS. 9th Dec. 1641) to the Admiral: "The report 
" goes ftrong with us that many great removes more shallbe, 
" out of hand ; what ground there is for it, I cannot tell, but 
" thus the fpeech goes : Sir John Bankes to be Lo. Treaf*, 
*' Chamberlaine made Admirall, and Briftow Chamberlaine; 
" Holland, Newport, and fome fay Hamilton, alfo to be 
" difplaced. In the mean time we have a Lo.-Steward w"^*" is 
" Duke of Richmond. And thus we have and fhall have 
" many changes and removes in Court. Sr Henry Vane the 
" Yonger, its generally faid, and believed, will loofe his place. 
** I writt you of it by my laft; and mythinkes, if you have 
" a thought that way, a timely office done by Mr. Secretary, 
" who is foe much your friend, might be of good ufe." 
Welcome to the Admiral, however, as the place of Treafurer 
of the Navy would have been in quieter times, the troubled 
reports of his correfpondents appear to have decided him not 
to apply for it. On the 23d Dec. the Under Secretary 
writes (MS. State Paper Office), after mentioning the dilfatif- 
■ faftion of the Commons at the removal of Young Vane : 
" Yet ftill, S''Wm. Penningman [Pennyman] ftands the man 
*' defigned for it, though as yett nothing (to my beft know- 
" ledge) hath paft to that purpofe. But I eafily aflent to 
" yo' opinion that in fuch diftempered tymes as thefe arc, 
" you have little defire to mufter up friends for any employme' 
" of that nature, howfoever it were to be wiftied a place of 
" that truft had a man of yo' experience and worth — but I 
" ftirre noe further in it, fince its not yo"' pleafurc." 

^ IV. Fatal Miftakes, 31 

in a vital point, by an intemperate meiTage of interferes 
difapproval during their difcuflion of a bill for ^^^ ^'^^ 
raifing foldiers by impreflment. He had rafhly difcuffion: 
ifTued, on the very day after the citizens pre- 
fented their petition againft the Bifhops, a pro- Enforces 
clamation commanding the fevere execution of againft 
the ftatutes againft all who ihould bring in quef- P""tans: 
tion or impugn the book of Common Prayer. 
And while thus harfh in prefling, on the one 
hand, the law againft Puritan opponents of the 
Church, he had the inconceivable folly to 
refpite its operation, on the other, in favour of 
certain Roman Catholic priefts who had in- Remits 
curred the wrath of the Commons and fallen P^^^^^" 
under fentence of the courts, and whofe lives Roman 

1 • n.1 r r V Catholics. 

lay jultly rorreit. 

What .occurred thereupon would have 
daunted a fovereign of the Tudor line, but 
Charles the Firft had as little of the bold 
refolution as of the confiderate fear which alone 
is truly valiant. At the fame feftions when Partial 
thefe priefts were condemned to die, there had ^^^^^ 
alfo been condemned to death feveral men for laws. 
common offences. It was not fuppofed pof- 
fible, after a reprieve had been fent to the Jefuit 
offenders, that their fellow-prifoners, con- 
demned for offences held then to be compara- 
tively venial, would be executed. An order 
for the execution was neverthelefs received, 
and the agitation throughout the City was 
extreme. Monday the 13th December was 



Arrefi of the Five Members. 

by the 

appointed for the execution ; but on the pre- 
vious Sunday evening arms had been fecretly 
conveyed into Newgate, and open refiftance was 
made next day to the attempt to carry out the 
warrant. The refiftance was overmaftered that 
night, the wealthier citzens, however indignant 
at the King's interference, not choofing them- 
felves to interfere againft the law ; and on the 
Tuefday the men were hanged.* The incident 

Slingfbyto * I difcover thefe curious fafts in a letter which Captain 

Penning- Slingfby writes (MS. State Paper Office) to Pennington on 

ton i6th the i6th of Dec. (the letter is dated by miftake the i6th 

Dec. Jan.). He mentions the City petition againft the Bifhopsand 

1641. their continued attempts to enforce the Liturgy, and proceeds: 

" The next day after the delivery of the petition the King 

" fett out a proclamation comaunding the fevere execution of 

'* the lawes againft the contemners and oppugners of the 

" Comon Prayer Booke ; and an other comaunding all men 

" whatfoever that had right to fitt in Parliament to repaire 

*' thither by the twelfth of Janu. Thefe gave great diftaft to 

" that faction of the Cittie that were the petitioners. There 

" was a very greate SelRons the laft weeke, where there were 

** feven priefts condemned but reprieved by the Kinge : 

" many for other crimes : Munday laft being appointed for 

" their execution. Some body had conveighed fome armes 

" into Newgate to them the night before : fo y' they ceazed 

" upon the prifon, and ftood upon ther defenfe moft part 

" or that day : but at night were overmaftered and the next 

" day hanged .... the Houfe is much diftrafled at the re- 

" prieve of the Priefts, and att the forraigne Ambaftadors for 

" raedling in itt, efpecially at the Frenche, who did lay downe 

" fome reafons w"^*" did aggravate ther diftaft." Clarendon 

has not noticed this remarkably incident, nor is it mentioned in 

any of the hiftories, but in adverting to Secretary Winde- 

bank's flight he leaves us no room to doubt the view he was 

himfelf difpofed to take of fuch a "fufpending power" as 

Charles was praftically exerting in thefe reprievals of popifli 

Reprievals offenders. " I could never yet learn," he fays, fpeaking of 

of Popifli the conduft of the leaders of the Houfe, " the true reafon 

offenders. " why they fuflfered Secretary Windebank to efcape their 

" juftice, againft whom they had more pregnant teftimony of 

" offences within the verge of the law than againft any 

" perfon they have accufedfince this parliament, and of fome 




§ IV. Fatal Mijlakes. 23 

left fuch a fenfe rankling in the breafts of all A time for 
clafl*es of citizens, as the wifdom of the moft 
powerful of princes might have feared ; but 
Charles the Firft only the more bethought him 
how better to reftrain and curb thefe fadious 
and rebellious citizens. And as, for other Difaftrous 
reafons, his mind had been brooding over a the King, 
meafure on which he had lately refolved, to 
obtain more complete command of the Tower, 
he feleded this precife time to give effe6l to 
an intention which was to carry with it the 
moft difaftrous confequences. 

The Tower commanded the City. It was "^^^ 

Tower I 

the " Bridle" to the too reftlefs citizens, 
as the courtiers commonly called it ; * and it 
was efTential not more to the fafety of thofe 
well affeded to the Houfe of Commons than 
to the fecurity of the Houfe of Commons 
itfelf, that its Governor fhould be a man in and its 
whofe good faith they had confidence. Sir °^^™°'"- 

" that, it may be, might have proved capital, and fo their 

" appetite ot blood might have been fatilfied ; for, befides 

" his frequent letters of interceffion in his own name, and Winde- 

" fignification of his Majerty's pleafure, on the behalf of bank's 

" papifts and priefts, to the judges, and to other minilters of j-rime and 

" juftice, and proteftions granted by himfclf to priefts that efcape. 

" nobody (hould moleft them, he harboured fome priefts in 

'* his own houfe, knowing them to be fuch, which, by the 

" ftatutes made in the 29th year of Qj.ieen Elizabeth, is made 

" felony ; and there were fome warrants under his own hand 

" for the releafe of priefts out of Newgate who were actually 

" attainted of treafon, and condemned to be hanged, drawn, 

" and quartered : which, by the ftrift letter of the ftatute, the 

" lawyers faid, would have been very penal to him." — Hijl. i. 


♦ Clarendon, Hiji. ii. 81. 

34 Arrefi of the Five Member s. 

William Balfour was fuch a man, as he had 
fhown by his refolute refufal of tnormous 
profFered bribes to connive at the efcape of 
Balfour StrafFord. But Balfour, the tried friend of 
the Parliament, was now fuddenly removed 
from this all-important command, and it 
became known, on Chriftmas eve, that in his 
Lunfford place there had been appointed a foldier of evil 
appom e : ^.j^^radler and infamous name, whofe only con- 
ceivable qualification could have been, that of 
prefenting himfelf to the Court as a mere 
defperate tool for any kind of recklefs fervice.* 
He was a man, fays Sir Simonds D'Ewes, 
His infa- given to drinking, fwearing, quarrelling, and 
djarafter. ot^cr vices ; much in debt, and very defperate. f 
More than ten years before the prefent date 
Lord Dorfet had charadlerifed him as a young 
outlaw who feared neither God nor man, and 
who took a glory to be efteemed rather a 
fwaggering ruffian than the iflue of an ancient 
and honeft family. He belonged to the army 
of the North, and had been deeply involved 
in the plots for bringing it up to overawe the 
His clofe Clarendon cannot but admit that fuch was 
with1?ord ^^^ confefied and notorious repute of Lunfford, 
Digby. who was neverthelefs companion and friend to 

Lunfford's * The warrant of the appointment of "our trufty and 
warrant. " well-beloved fcrvant Col. Thomas Lunfford," is in the 
State Paper Office. It is given " under our llgnet at our 
" Court at Whitehall the zzd Day of December 164.1," and 
is addrefled to Lords Mancheftei, Dorlct, Dunlmore and 
Newburgh. t Harl. MSS. 162, f 272 b. 

§ IV. Fatal Miftakes. 3 5 

his excellent friend Lord Digby ; and he ex- 
plains with fufficient franknefs, though after his 
ufual fafhion, the objed: of the King and Lord Objeft in 
Digby in appointing him.* It was, that, ing him: 
having now fome fecret reafon (which, he 
interpofes but his editors omitted, " was not a 
" good one ") to fill that place in the inftant 
with a man who might be trufted, this man 

* His account of Lunfford's appointment is indeed in Claren- 
every way highly charafteriftic. Sir William Balfour having, don's 
he fays, had from the beginning of this parliament, " accord- account 
" ing to the natural cultom of his country" (Balfour was of the 
a Scotchman, and by the prudence of Hyde's firft editors appoint- 
thefe words are erafed from all the ordinary editions), " forgot ment. 
" all his obligations to the King . . . there had been a 
" long refolution to remove him from that charge . . . yet 
" there was neither notice or fufpicion of it, till it was heard, 
" that Sir Thomas Lunfford was fworn Lieutenant of the 
" Tower ; a man who, though of an ancient family in 
" Suflex, was of a very fmall and decayed fortune, and of no 
" good education ; having been few years before compelled 
" to fly the kingdom, to avoid the hand of juftice for fome 
" riotous mifdemeanour ... he was fo little known, except 
" upon the difadvantage of an ill character, that, in the moft 
" dutiful time, the promotion would have appeared very 
" ungrateful." And then follows one of thole fentences of Clouds of 
endlefs involution, and confufion of all relatives and ante- words, 
cedents, fiom which it is extremely difficult to elicit the precife 
meaning. He alTerts that Lunlford's appointment was fecretly 
the work of Lord Digby, who had meant to give it to his 
brother, " but he (the brother) being not at that time in town, 
" and the other " (ftriftly this ought to mean the king, but 
Lord Digby feeins really meant) " having fome fecret Digby the 
" reafon (which was not a good one) " the latter words alfo 'fcapegoat. 
are erafed from the ordinary editions — "to fill that place in 
" the inftant with a man who might be trufted ; he fuddenly 
" refolved upon this gentleman, as one who would be faithful 
** to him for the obligation, and execute anything he ftiould 
" defire or direft," — hold faft the five members, for example, 
if he could once get them ftiut up in the Tower ? But how 
monftrous the attempt of Clarendon to put up Digby in iuch 
a purpofe as the 'fcapegoat for the King — if (which perhaps 
is doubtful) the laft quoted "^^" muft be taken to ftand for 
Digby and not for the King himfelf. 



Arrejl of the Five Members, 

A man to 



and keep 

the five 





Lords who 
fided with 
majority in 

Duke of 
fally: 26th 

was fuddenly refolved upon as one who would 
be faithful for this obligation, and execute any- 
thing that fhould be defined or direded. A 
laboured periphrafis, which Bifhop Warburton 
puts into plain fpeech when he writes upon the 
margin of the page containing it, that the 
objed: was " to keep the five members fafe 
"whom it was determined to arrefl:." *^ So 
" as now," writes D'Ewes, in that entry of 
his Journal of the 24th of December which 
reports the difcuflion upon Lunfford's cha- 
rader, preferves the angry fpeeches refpeding 
him of the members for York, Middlefex, 
and Efifex (Sir William Alifon, Sir Gilbert 
Gerrard, and Sir William Mafham), fets down 
the King's proclamation confirming the appoint- 
ment, and laments over the vote of the Lords 
declining to join the Commons in prayers that 
it fhould be cancelled,* " So as now all things 

* The minority of twenty- two peers who protefted againft 
this too fcrupulous objection to interfere with the King's 
prerogative of placing or difpUcing his officers, gives us the 
names of the leading members of the popular party in the 
Upper Houfe. They were the Earls of Northumberland, 
Edcx, Pembroke, Bedford, Warwick, Bolingbroke, Newport, 
Suffolk, Carlifle, Holland, Clare, and Stamford, and the Lords 
Say and Seale (old Subtlety as he was called), Wharton, St. 
John, Spencer, North, Kimbolton, Brooke, Grey de Werk, 
Robartes, and Howard de Efcricke. It may be worth adding 
that, a very few weeks later, upon the incident of the 26th 
Jan. 1641-2, when the Duke of Richmond perpetrated his 
famous fally of propofing to evade the Militia bill, lent 
up from the Commons, by adjourning for fix months, 
twenty- four Peers entered a proteft againft the vote requiring 
the Duke to make fubmiflion and alk pardon, as ** not a 
" fufficicnt puniftiment for words of that daingerous confe- 
" quence." On this occafion feventeen of the foregoing 

§ IV. Fatal Mijiakes, 37 

*^ haften apace to confufion and calamity ; Evil fore- 

r I'lT/- r rry 'y • bodings of 

*Mrom which 1 Icarce lee any pombihty in sir Simon 

" human reafon for this poor Church and ^'^^es. 

" Kingdom to be delivered. My hope only 

"is in the goodnefs of that God who hath 

" feveral times during this parliament already 

" been feen in the Mount, and delivered us 

" beyond the expedlations of ourfelves and of 

" our enemies, from the jawsof deftruction."* 

An addrefs for Lunfford's removal was that Addrefs 

day voted in the Lower Houfe without a L°y^fj-Q°j,. 

diflentient voice ; and the Conftable of the removal. 

Tower, the Earl of Newport, was requefted 

for the prefent to take command of the place 

and to lodge therein. 

The defire of the Houfe was conveyed to 
Lord Newport by Sir Thomas Harrington and 
Mr. Henry Marten, who were informed there- 
upon that hewas no longer Conftable. The King Difmiflal 
had fuddenly difmifled him for an alleged dif- Newport, 
loyal fpeech during the royal abfence in Scotland. 
The incident further ftiows in what diredion 
all was now rapidly tending. The charge The 
again ft Lord Newport was that on the occa- againft 
iion of a meeting held at Kenfington, at which him : 
Pym and Lord Kimbolton were prefent, as well 

names reappeared, with omifHon of thofe of Lords Newport, 
Carlifle, Clare, Say and Scale, and North, but with addition 
of thole of the Earls of Lincoln and Leicefter, of Vifcount 
Conway, and of Lords Chandois, Hiindfdon, Paget, and 
Willoughby de Parham. See Sir Ralph Veiney^s Notes, 
p. 149. * Harl. MSS. 162, f. 278 b. 

38 Arreji of the Five Members, 

A pro- as Nathaniel Fiennes, his father Lord Say 
Sze hofta- ^"<i Seale (old Subtlety), Lord Wharton, 
ges for the Lord Dungarvon, and Sir John Clotworthy, 
good faith, upon fome difcourfe of an apprehended 
defign to overawe the Parliament by means 
of the army of the North, the Earl had 
remarked, " If there be fuch a plot, yet 
" here are his wife and children,"* meaning 
that thefe might be feized as hoftages. Taxed 
with the words by the King himfelf, Lord 
Newport indignantly denied them : upon which, 
with infulting addition, the queftion was re- 
The lie peated : " You can tell me nothing more than 
Lord " I know already ; therefore confider well 
^^h^d'^*' " what you anfwer." Lord Newport anfwered 
with vehement repetition of his denial ; and 
the King, contemptuoufly profefling forrow for 
his Lordftiip's memory, intimated that he was 
no longer Conftable of the Tower, and turned 
upon his heel. That was on the afternoon of 
Friday the 24th December. On Wednefday 
the 29th the King informed the Houfe of 
The lie Lords that he had never believed the charge 
Dec.a9th. ^S^^"^ the Earl, and defired it to be with- 

Such was the wonderful, the almoft incre- 
dible levity of Charles the Firft, in matters of 
Warnings accufation the moft grave. Between that 
interval. 24th and 29th of December the afped of 

* See Commons Journals (Tuefday 28th December), 
ii. 359. 

§ V. Pym and the King. 39 

affairs had grown more ferious, frequent Sudden 
gatherings together of large numbers of the [^e icing, 
people ]iad increafed, difcontent took a threaten- 
ing afpedt, and on the eve of the moft defperate 
refolution of his life, his wavering irrefolute 
temper Teemed to have yielded fuddenly. The 
withdrawal of the charge againft Lord Newport 
was one indication ; but another, much more Extraor- 
remarkable, and hitherto unfufpedled by any deitemiina- 
hiftorian, is now to be difclofed. t'on taken. 

§ V. Pym and the King. 

Beyond all queftion the moft popular man Popularity 
in England at this time was Pym. Thej^^^^j^^ 
attempts made upon his life during the debates of the 
on the Remonftrance, and above all the vic- 
tory obtained in that ftruggle, had raifed him 
even higher than during the memorable con- 
fli6l with Strafford. It was not fimply that 
ne was the foremoft man in the Parliament 
by which fo much had been achieved for the 
people, or that its very exiftence was in • 
fome meafure due to him, but alfo that heitscaufes. 
alone reprefented in his perfon the parlia- 
ments of former years, and thofe ufages 
and precedents, become fince the very bul- 
warks of freedom, which had only then been 
won by the hard and defperate endurance, the 
long imprifonments, not feldom the deaths, 
of the great men of the paft. In him the 
people ftill faw the Cokes, the Eliots, the Sir 

40 Arreji of the Five Members. 

Pymim- Robert Cottons,* remembered and honored 
for h^r ^^ ^'^^ earlieft martyrs pf the Stuart Kings, 
opinions He had himfelf been the inmate of a ftate 
prifon, as the reward for his condud: as a repre- 
fentative of the people, now nearly eight-and- 
twenty years ago. He had been a leading 
member in that wife and noble afiembly 
Amcmber which met in 1620, and abolifhed the in- 
Uamentof fa^nious monopolies at that time eating out 
1620. the heart of the kingdom. f He was one of the 
twelve who carried their famous declaration to 
King James at Newmarket, when the quick- 
witted fhrewd old monarch called out, ''Chairs! 
One of " chairs ! here be twal kynges comin ! " In all 
F^I^r^^ the fubfequent parliaments of that and the 
"twelve fucceeding reign he had played a diftinguifhed 
'"^ ■ part ; and when, after intermiflion of thofe 
conventions for twelve years, they met once 
more in April 1640, and men gazed upon 
each other looking who fhould begin, much 

Antiquary * O" pretence of a charge that he had furniftied precedents 

Cotton's ^° Sclden and Eliot, Sir Robert Cotton's noble library was 

fufFerines f^ized and held by the King, and unable to furvive its lofs 

at feizure '^e great fcholar died. "When," fays D'Ewes, " I went 

of his " fsvcral times to vifit and comfort him in the year 1630, he 

library. " would tell me they had broken his heart that had locked up 

" his library from him . . . He was fo outworn within a 

" few months, with anguifh and grief, as his fare, which had 

" formerly been ruddy and well colored, was wholly changed 

" into a grim and blackifh palencfs, near to the refemblance 

, " and hue of a dead vilage." A few months afterward he 

was dead. 

-f- " A parliament" it is well faid by the leading liberal 
ftatefman of our time, " to which every Engliftiman ought 
" to look back with reverence." Lord John RuflTcli's Effay 
on the Hijlory of the Englijh Go'vernment and Conjlitution, p. 50. 

§ V. Pym and the King. 41 

the greater part, as Clarendon fays, having Rifes to 
never before fat in Parliament, there quietly of^i^er- 
arofe to his place at their head the man above April, 
all others quarifiedKyexperience7by eloquence, 
and by courage to lead the LngJilh people. It 
was"then thaT'PyTnV'fextreme intiuence ftruclc 
root, and his name became a word familiar over 
England. This was he who, in tKaf brief 
PaflTament fo fatally diflblved, had told the 
wonderful ftory of their wrongs, which was all 
it bequeathed to the fufFering millions. This 
was he who chiefly had wrefted from the Court 
Its affent to the greater and ftronger Parliament, 
from which at laft redrefs was come. This was 
he who, on the ifTue of the writs for that memo- Qualities 
rable aflembly, had with Hampden ridden y-^ces^'^" 
England through, to urge upon all its inha- ^hich er- 

, . «- j— . . . 1 1 • • 1 1 r deared him 

Ditants their duties and their right, to choole to the 
honeftiy and petition freely. This finally was People, 
he who fince had broken down for ever the 
tyranny of Strafix)rd and of Laud, and who now 
had publifhed to the world the Great Remon- 
ftrance. Shall we wonder if every nook and 
corner of the kingdom were pervaded with his 
influence and renown, and that, fo identified 
with the paft, on him it might almofl: feem 
exclufively to refl: what the future was to 
bring. " I think Mr. Pym was at this time," ciaren- 


fays Clarendon, "the mofl: popular man, and ^"^^^j^ 
" the mofl: able to do hurt, that hath lived in ^yj"}_.^ 
any time. 

t< „.,„ .;.^^ " popularity. 

42 Arreft of the Five Members. 

Former Already once the King had turned to him in 

wkhThJ ^ ^ terrible extremity. When the fcheme was 
King. on foot to fave the life of Strafford he had 
offered Pym the Chancellorfhip of the Exche- 
quer. Clarendon, who ftates the matter not 
unfairly, fays the offer came too late, for that 
Pym and his friends could not then permit 
the Earl to live ; and he regrets its failure on 
the ground that it would have given the King 
fome able men to advife and afTifl him.* 
Strange and flartling as it feems, amid the 
events I am here defcribing, the King appears 
to have now again, even with what he after- 
wards alleged to be the proof of treafon in his 
Negotia- hand, opened a negotiation with the parliament- 
opene^^^'" ary leader for acceptance of the fame office. 
The details 1 have not been able to afcertain, 

Why the * There is much befide faid by Clarendon on this head. 

Kind's which, though coloured of courfe by his peculiar manner 

efforts to ^"^ tone, throws light upon the real caufes of the failure of 

conciliate t^^ery effort at accomoda ion : " But the rule the King gave 

failed " himf'^lf (very realonable at another time) that they fhould 

" firft do lervice and compafs this or that thing for him, 

" before they fhould receive favour, was then very unfeafon- 

" able ; fince, befides that they could not in truth do him that 

" fervice without the qualification, it could not be expefted 

•' they would defert that fide, by the power of which they 

" were liire to make themfelves confiderabie, without an 

" unqueltionable mark of intereft in the other, by which they 

" were to keep up their power and reputation. And fo, 

" whillf the King expefted they fhould manifcft their inclina- 

i " tions to his fervice by their temper and moderation in thofe 

' " proceedings that molt offended him, and they endeavoured, 

" by doing all the hurt they could, to make evident the power 

" they had to do him good, he grew lb far diiobliged and 

" provoked that he could not in honour gratify them, and 

" they fo obnoxious and guilty that they could not think 

" themfelves fecure in his favour." Hiji. ii. 6i. 

§ V. Pym and the King. 43 

beyond the fadl that the offer was made 
to Pym alone. King Pym* the people 

* The reader may perhaps be amufed by one or two Royalift 
examples of the ufc the RoyaliU libellers made of this libellers 
epithet. As thus : of Pym. 

Your ferious fubtilty is grown fo grave, 
We dare not tell you how much power you have. 
At leaft you dare not hear us. How you frown 

If we but fay, King Pym wears Charles's crown ! 
* * * * 

Well, we vow 
Not to aft anything you difallow : 
We will not dare at your itrange votes to jeer 
Nor perfonate King Pym with his ftate-flear! 

The Players'' Petition. 
Or again : from Pym's Anarchy : 

Alk me no more why Strafford's dead, Things 

And why we aimed fo at his head ? done when 

Faith, all the anl'wer I can give, Pym was 

'Tis thought he was too wile to live ! King. 

« * • « 

Aflc me no more why in this age 

I fing fo Iharp without a cage .... 

This anfwer I in brief do fing ; 

All things were thus when Pym was King. 

Or, from the Ne--w Diurnall: 

And yet their Rebellion fo neatly they trim 

They fight for the King, but they mean for King Pym. 

Or, from that Epigram upon The Parliament's Beliefs which 
fhows how far fuch libellers could go : 

Is there no God ? let's put it to a vote. 
Is there no Church ? lome fools fay fo by rote. 
Is there no King, but Pym, for to alTent 

What (hall be done by Aft of Parliament ? A pro- 

No God, no Church, no King — then all were well poled 

If they could but enaft there were no Hell. enaftment. 

Or, from the Ca'valier's Prayer ; 

Lawn fleeves and furplices muft go down. 
For why, King Pym doth fway the crown — 
But all are Bifhops that wear a Black Gown, 

Which nobody can deny. 

Or, finally (for fuch illuftrations might be indefinitely pro- 
longed), from the libel of which the opening lines alfo 


Arreft of the Five Members. 


Secret in- 

Chides the 
for late 

in ftorms. 

called him ; and the incident, one of the laft 
before the country feparated into two hoftile 
camps, and hardly credible if fimply related 
as from King to fubjedt, might indeed rather 
feem to exprefs the relation of fovereign to 
fovereign. But Charles had always, as will 
fufficiently be {t^n throughout this narra- 
tive, a feeling towards the great leader of 
the oppofition againft him, which appeared 
ftrangely to fluduate between defire and dread. 
In the correfpondence between himfelf and 
his Queen, Pym's name is that which moft 
frequently occurs, whether the defign be to 
inveigle and fnare, or more openly to denounce, 
the moft powerful of the parliamentary 
leaders ;* and even in the Royalift fongs 
againft the popular tribune there is that which 
exprefles, though very often in moft extrava- 

curioufly refleft Pym's continuous and zealous efforts to 
enforce that early and full attendance at the Houfe in which 
fo many members of even the popular party were fo fre- 
quently lemil's : 

Tiuth ! I could chide you Friends ! why how fo late ? 
My watch fpeaks eight and not one pin o th' ftate 
This day undone ! Can fuch remilncflc fit 
Your a(!-l:ive Ipirits, or my more Hcliifti wit ? 
The fun each Itep he mounts to Heaven's crown, 

Whilft Pym commands, Ihould fee a kingdome down. 

• # * « 

Thus whilom feated was Great James's Heir 

Juft as you fee me now, i' th' Kingdom's Chair. 

• ♦ • * 

Calmes proper are for guiltlelfe fons of Peace, 
Our veflcls bear out belt in Itormy feas. 
Charles muft not reign lecure whilft reigns a Pym : 
The fun, if it rife with us, mult let with him. 

PyTrCs Jun^Oy 1640. 
* See my Hijl. & Biog. EJajs, i. 19. 


§ V. Pym and the King. 45 

gant forms, a fomething that yet involves him Songs and 
more clofely with the King than is attempted againft the 
againft any other of the zealous and adive men P^rha- 
upon whom thofe recklefs libellers emptied 
moft eagerly their ribaldry and fcorn.* 

* For one inftance take the following : felefted from many 
of a fimilar charafter: 

(TAe Humble Petition of the Houfe of Commons). 

Next, for the State, we think it fit 
That Mr. Pym (hould govern it, 

He's very poor: 
The money that's for Ireland writ. 
Faith, let them have the Devil a bit, 

We'll afk no more. 

(The King^s Anfuuer to the Humble Petition). 

When you no more (hall dare hereafter 

A needlefle thing which gains much laughter, i; "^ ^" 

Granted before ; (^v■• 
When Pym is fent Irelan J to (laughter u^ * 

And ne'er more hopes to marry my daughter, dauj^n- 

You'U alk no more. ^^^' 

To this I may add fome lines Upon Mr. Pym's Pic- 
ture, which through all their violent abufe yet exprefs a 
kind of awe and terror at the man's predominance and power. 

Reader, behold the counterfeit of him Pym's 

Who now controuls the Land — Almighty Pym ! pifture 

A man whom even the Devil to fear begins. 
And dares not trull him with fuccelTlefs fins. 
A man who now is wading through the Flood 
Of reverend Laud's and noble Strafford's blood,. 
To ftrike fo high as to put Bifhops down 
And in the Mitre to controul the Crown. 

The wretch hath mighty thoughts, and entertains 

Some glorious mifchief in his a6live brains, Muft 

Where now he's plotting to make England fuch avoid 

As may outvie the viilany of the Dutch : Heaven 

He dares not go to Heaven, 'caufe he doth feare for fear of 

To meet (and not pull down) the Billiops there ! Bilhops. 

Is it not ftrange that in that Ihuttle head 
Three kingdomes' ruines Ihould be buried ? 

46 Arreft of the Five Members. 

Pym's Remarkable in every refped; Indeed was 

tional "' the mingled influence exerted by this famous 
opinions, member of the Commons over the Sovereign 
whofe defliny he fo largely controlled, and who 
never feems to have ralfed againfl him the hand 
to ftrike but with a mifgiving that paralyfed its 
aim, and foon or late brought himfelf into the 
fuppliant pofture to which he would have re- 
duced hisadverfary. Still Pym is ever the perfon 
fingled out for notice by Charles, and ftill the 
Alter- evil and the good alternate. Again and again, 
up*fo^ ^ during the paper war which attended the events 
avoidance \ am relating, and ufhered in the more terrible 
example, war, Charles is found recurring to his fpeeches 
for caufes of indignant proteft, of expoftulation, 
of reproach ; but the day as furely comes later in 
the ftruggle, when Pym is lying in his grave 
in Weftminfter Abbey,* when his place is 
occupied by flerner and lefs fcrupulous men, 
and when the poor King is fain to ranfack the 
Charaaer- very fpeeches in which once he found nothing 
omtory. '^ ^^^ rebellion, for maxims of conftitutional lore, 
for juft expofitions of the monarchy, for coun- 
fels to refped the law. Thefe, the moft 

Is it not ftrange there ftiould be hatch'd a Plot 
Which fhould outdoe the Tieafon ot the Scot, 
And even the malice of a Puritan ? 

Reader behold, and hate the poyfonous man ! 

The Piflure'b like him : yet 'tis very fit 

He adde one likenefs more — that's — Hang, like it ! 

Pym's laft * " Mr. Pym was buried with wonderful pomp and mag- 
refting- " nifirence in the place where the bones of our Englifh kings 
place. " '^^^ princes are committed to their reft." — Clarendon, Hiji. 

iv. 44.1. 

§ V. Pym and the King. 47 

ftrlklng qualities of the orator, and from which Chancel- 
even Charles could not turn away altogether Exchequer 
unheeding, may indeed have had fome influence ^gain 
thus early in bringing about a renewal of the to Pym. 
offer of the Chancellorfhip of the Exchequer. 
Clarendon evidently thought fo. He does 
not refer to it in exprefs terms ; but he helps 
materially to explain it when he intimates that 
even Hampden's acceflion, after his return from 
Scotland, to what was called the root and branch 
party in tl e State, had not entirely carried Pym pym lefs 
along with it ;* that the member for Tavif- ^^^^^^ 

. . . . than 

tock had no infuperable diflike to the conftitu- Hampden, 
tion of the Englifli Church, apart from Laud's 
grofs and cruel adminiftration of it; and that 
in confenting to let Pym fave the Monarchy, 
Epifcopacy alfo might be faved. Be this as it 
may, the offer came too late. In the authority The ofFer ' 
from which my information is derived, there ^^^ ^°° 
is nothing to explain the circumftances of it, 
and I cannot difcover that Pym himfelf made 

* " Mr. Pym was not of thofe furious refolutions againft Pym not 
" the Church as the other leading men were, and wholly adverfe to 
" devoted to the Earl of Bedford, who had nothing of that the 
" fpirit." — Hijl. i. 323. " In the Houfeof Commons, though Church : 
" of the chief leaders Nathaniel Fiennes and young Sir 
" Harry Vane, and (hortly after Mr. Hampden (who had 
" not before owned it), were believed to be for root and 
" branch ; which grew (hortly after a common exprefTion, 
" and difcovei-y of the feveral tempers ; yet Mr. Pym was not 
" of that mind, nor Mr. Hollis." lb. i. 4.10. " Mr. Pym was 
"concerned and paflionate in the jealoufies of religion, and 
" much troubled with the countenance which had been given But to 
'* to thofe opinions that had been imputed to Arminius. . . . Arminian 
" yet himfelf profefled to be very entire to the doftrine and pradlices. 
• difcipline or the Church of England." — lb. iv. 437. 


Arreji of the Five Members. 


Rejefts it. 

Pym filent afterwards the remoteft allufion to It. It is 
hardly likely indeed that any fuch reference 
from him would have been compatible with 
the terms on which it was fubmitted, with the 
refpedl ftill necelTarily paid to Charles, or with 
the fafety of his own pofition among the ex- 
treme members of the Commons. But Pym 
mufl well have known his danger in declining 
the offer, and that it thickened the royal fnares 
which already were fpread around him. 

The fad is at any rate indifputable, that fuch 

an offer was fpecifically made and rejeded. It 

refts on the authority of the member for Kent, 

Sir Edward Bering, whofe fervices to the Court 

in the debates on the Grand Remonftrance 

had won him recent and grateful acceptance 

there ; and whofe colleague in the reprefenta- 

tion of the county, Sir John Culpeper, 

13th Jan. received the office on Pym declining it. In a 

^ '^^''^ '' private letter to Lady Bering, written early in 

January, containing other evidence of his 

favor at Court and with the Queen, he tells 

her : " The King is too flexible and too good- 

" natured ; for within two howers, and a 

'* greate deale leffe, before he made Culpeper 

Defcribes " Chancellor of the Exchequer, he had fente a 

overturVto " meffengcr to bring Pym unto him, and 

Pym. << wold have given him that place."* Cul- 

* Since this letter was obligingly communicated to me, it 
has been, with many other very interelling papers from the 
Surrenden manulcripts, placed for publication in the hands 
of the Camden Society by the Rev. Lambert Larking, and 


to Lady 

§ V. Pym and the King, 49 

peper's patent is not dated until the 7th of Culpeper 
January, but the office had been given to what'pym 
him feveral days before, and he had taken his ^^'^ '^^- 
feat at the Council Board on New Year's Day. January, 
The exadl period of the offer to Pym can only ^^4^-*- 
now be guefTed at, but we may narrow it 
within the limits of the laft half of December. 

Thofe days had feen feveral changes. The 
feals, which Windebank had voided by his 
ignominious flight, were given to Nicholas.* 

the volume, already announced for publication under Mr. Camden 
Larking's editorfhip, will rank appropriately with the many Society 
other rare and important illullrations of this great period of books, 
our hillory in which the Camden Colleftion of books is pecu- 
liarly rich. 

* I have found in the State Paper Office, and cannot refift 
quoting, a letter written by Windebank from Paris (whither 
he had fucceeded in making good his flight), upon hearing 
that Nicholas had been appointed Secretary in his place. It 
exhibits the meannefs of the man's nature ; but more than this, 
it ftiows in my judgment plainly enough, that parliament was 
thoroughly jultified in having charged the Ex-Secretary as 
accomplice with the Qiieen in private and illegal pra61ires to 
favour the Roman Catholic religion. The letter is aiidrcflTed to 
his fon and dated the zy"" (or in the Englifh Ityle the 

17th Dec), 1641. '« Tom," it begins, "your letters Winde- 

" were very wellcum both for the greate honor they brought bank to 
" me from the Queene's Ma: & the good news of your health his fon, 
" and of the rell of myne in thofe partes. I do forbear to 17th Dec. 
" prefent my moft humble thankes myfelfe to Her M: for 164.1. 
" the fame rcafon that She in Her wifdom did not think fitt 
" to venter a lett' to me : Yet yo" mult not fail to pafle that 
" office in all humility for me, acquainting Her M: withall Secret un- 
" that I never was in a condition that more required her derftand- 
" comfort and gracious affiltance than now that 1 tinde, by Jng with 
" the dilpofing of the place I had the Honor to holde neere the Queen. 
" His M:, no hope left to ferve my Royall Mailer againe, 
" w*"" really is the greateft corofive to my harte that can be. 
" I do acknowledge it is no more than I had reafon to 
" expeft, & I thanic God I have had time to be prepared for 
" it. Neverthclefle now it is come I cannot be fo Itupid as 
" not to be fenfible of that w*'' ruines me and my polterity. 

j;o Arreft of the Five Members. 

Old Vane The Court exodus of Old Vane, whofe staff of 
miffed. the Treafuier of the Houfehold had been taken 
from him at Newcaftle to be at York beftowed 
on Lord Savile, was now completed by the 
demand that he fliould deliver up the feals of 
Secretary, deflgned for Falkland.* The old 

*' nor fo iniurious to myne owne harte to think that after fo 

** many years painfull & faithfuU fervices to both their 

"MM: I have delerved it. My hope is that His M. hath 

" done it to pieferve me from a greater blow (though truly 

" for my own particular & fetting afide the interelts of you 

" & the rell of my poor children a greater cold not falle upon 

" me) & that knowing my entire affe6lions to his perfon & 

" fervice moll farr from the leaft guilte of any intention to 

" offend, will in His Princely Goodneffe & His owne beft 

" tyme vouchfafe me & myne reliefe. In the meantime I 

" fliall erteem this & (if occafion ferve) my deereft harte 

Grief at " bloud a bleffcd ficrifice, if they may contribut any thing to 

lofing " the redreffe of His M: affaires, hoping that this fhall ferve 

place. " for fatiifaftion & expiation (even in the opinion of the moft 

** fevere) for any offence taken againft me ; and fo the 

" difpleafure of the time relente and go no farther, but 

" that I may be permitted to retourne to myne own poor 

" neft in the Country to end my dayes there in peace." 

Equally charafteriftic is the conclufion. The Queen in her 

fecret communication had afked Windebank to attend the 

French court for her, and to this he pleads unfitnefs, by reafon 

of the ftate of his mind, adding : " Bcfides I acknowledge I 

" am not yet in cafe to appear in publique, nor can for the preP 

•' Wynne fo much upon my felf to looke upon a foraine Prince 

" w"* any contentment, being deprived pf the bleffed & 

" gracious afpeft of my Malter." 

Winde- * Poor Windebank upon this writes to Son Tom from 

bank to Paris |*"i„°"} 1641-2, taking the ftriftly economical view of 

hisfon, Vane's diimiflal, " The newes of the removall of Sir Henry Dec. " Vane from the place of Secretary is very ftrange heere, and 

" truly my owne condition makes me fenfible of his, w'** 

A fellow- " confidering his great burden of children is very comiferable. 

feeling. ' " -^"^ w"'all I am infinitly comforted w'*" that of the D. of 

" Richmond W^'' is one of the noblelt things the K: hath 

" don of many yeares & of fingular confequence to his 

" fervice. If I durft, I would wi(h yo" to congratulat with 

" His Gr: in all humblenefs from me." It is quite in 

charafler that Windebank fhould confider the appointment 

§ V. Pym and the King. 5 1 

man's dlfgrace was but part of the punifliment Revenge 
over which Charles had brooded ever fince fojj^ 
Strafford's trial, which but for his weaknefs 
and ifolation he would then have inflidled, and 
which now he thought himfelf ftrong enough 
to inflid, not fimply on Vane himfelf but on 
his fon. Young Vane, who held the office of 
joint Treafurer of the Navy with Sir William Young 
RufTell, was ordered fuddenly to fend in his Z\S^£. 
accounts preparatory to the IfTue of a new 
patent without his name.* We learn this 
from the letter of another correfpondent of 
Pennington's, Captain Carterett, a man of 

of an amiable young Duke to an office in the Houfehold as 
the nobleft and wifelt aft of his glorious mafter. 

* Admiral Pennington's defire (already adverted to) to Admiral 
have had this office for himfelf, feems to have been generally Penning- 
underftood by his friends j and upon the fa6t of Young Vane's ton look- 
difmiffal being firft known, Capt. Dowfe, ignorant of the ing for 
Admiral's intimation to the Under Secretary that he did not Young 
wifti the matter preffed for the prefent, went and afked the Vane's 
office from the Lord Admiral, the Earl of Northumberland. Office. 
His note (in the State Paper Office) proves that the gift of 
the office to Strafford's friend Pennyman was the King's 
perfonal aft. " Noble Sir," he writes from York Houfe on Captain 
Dec. the 30th, " Upon the firft notice of Sir Henry Vane his Dowfe to 
•' being difcharged of the Treafurer's place of the Navy I Penning- 
" did (as I have written to you before) repaire to my Lord to ton, 30th 
" defire his LqP to remember your name to the King, if his Dec. 
" Ma'y did put by Sir Henry Vane. My Lord told me then 
" that S' Henry Vane was not abfolutely difmifled until his 
" accounts were perfefted for the whole yeare." A fecond 
time he waited on the Earl ; but " My Lord told me then 
" that the King had beftowed the place upon Sir William 
" Pennyman, but if he could doe you any fervice in it, he 
" would doe it. Soe wifhing you a Merry Chriftmas I reft 
" &c." So long previoufly as the i6th December Capt. 
Slingftjy had written decifively to the Admiral " Sir Henry 
" Vane the Younger is difmift of his Treafurerfhippe of the 
" Navy, and Sir William Pennyman in his place." 


52 Arreft of the Five Members. 

Captain great worth and diftindlion, who held the office 

of Comptroller of the Navy, and was, fays 

Clarendon, of great eminency and reputation 

in naval command.* Charles had alfo further 

refolved, to exprefs more plainly the ill- 

advifed challenge he was thus flinging down 

to the Houfe of Commons, to beftow the 

Young office on Strafford's agent and follower, 

Jeeded by ^ir William Pennyman. " This much I 

a friend of " knowe," writes Captain Carterett on the 

23rd December, to the Admiral of the fleet 

in the Downs, f " that the attorney hath a 

Captain " warrant for to prepaire a bill for the drawinge 

Carterett • . . 

to Pen- " ^ patente for S'" William Ruflell alone, his 

"'"Ston, <c joyned patente with S'' Hen. Vane being 

1641. " recalled in, w'^^ the Parliament doth take 

" fomething ill. For it feemes that S' Hen^ 

" Vane the Younger is much efteemed in the 

*' Houfe of Commons : but I doe not heare 

" the licke of his father, but rather that hee 

" hath loft the good oppinion of both fides.'' 

It might be fo, but not in that hour of Court 

disfavor would Pym have it thought fo by 

Pym wel- the Court. He welcomed into the popular 

Va'Urinto ranks the old fervant of the King by adding 

thepopu- }iis name to the feledt committee for Irifti 

lar ranks. 

* See Hiji. iii. 115. Carterett's intereft and reputation in 
I the navy, according to the hiftorian, was fo great, and his 

diligence and dexterity in command fo eminent, that the Par- 
liament, in a crifis of much difficulty, notwithftanding his 
Royalift opinions, named him for their Vice- Admiral. 

•f MS. State Paper Office. Carterett to Pennington, 23rd 
Dec. 1641. 

§ V. Pym and the King, j; j 

affairs; and on the fame 23rd of December, The 
when Carterett fo wrote to his Admiral, Under Secretary 
Secretary Sidney Bere, employed with Nicholas ^V}^^- j 
at Whitehall, was writing thus to the fame 23rd Dec. 
correfpondent : * '^ I can now give you this 
" certainty, that a warrant hath pafTed for the 
" outing young S^ Hen. Vane, and on the con- 
" trary an order is made in the Lower Houfe xhe Com- 
*^ for to confider of fome meanes and wayes™^'"^" 
"whereby to preferve him in; fo that it is Young 
" likely there will bee greate debate and con- ^^J^j'^ '^'^"' 
" teftation about this bufinefTe." It became, 
in fa6t, a new caufe of quarrel between the 
Commons and the King, and the condud of 
Pym in regard to it feems to fhow that the 
ftartling overture fo fuddenly made to himfelf 
muft already have been made and rejeded. 

Upon the probable motives, as well for that 
overture itfelf as for its rejedion, though it has 
been feen that nothing can with certainty be 
ftated, it will yet be not inappropriate to add 
fuch fuggeftion here towards an explanation of 
both, as will fairly arife out of a careful con- 
fideration of circumftances attending not only 
the attempt involved in the prefent inftance. Previous 
but the fimilar attempt which preceded it, to p^^ij 
obtain for the King the fervice of fome of the hisfriends: 
chiefs who led the oppofition againft him. But 1641'. 
for this it will be neceflary to go back to a period 

* MS. State Paper Office. Sidney Bere to Pennington, 23rd 
Dec, 1 641. 

54 Arreft of the Five Members. 

of nearly four months before the opening of 
my narrative. 
Former Clarendon leaves it to be inferred that the 

give"office negotiation by which office was placed at the 
to leaders difpofal of the Parliamentary leaders during 
Commons: the proceedings againft Strafford, had for its 
fole obje6t the hope of faving by fuch means 
Not a the life of that great minifter ; and that when 
STenT this failed, and Strafford's head had fallen, no 
For faving attempt was made to renew the propofal. 
' This however is not the fad. Within two 
months of the execution. Secretary Nicholas, in 
the fame letter in which he communicates to 
Admiral Pennington the vote by which the 
Commons had fentenced Lord Digby's pub- 
lifhed fpeech on Strafford's attainder to be 
Renewed burnt, and had declared Lord Digby himfelf to 
StrafFord's be for the future unfit to hold place or receive 
execution, employment under the King, adds this remark- 
able poftfcript : " The Lord Digby was by 
" his Ma"^ defigned to have gonne Lord 
*' Ambaffador into Fraunce as foone as the 
" Earl of Lecefter Ihould returne thence, but 
Hollisor '' (it is thought) the Parliament will difable 
Hampden « him for any fuch imployment. The fpeech 

ii3,in6Q for J L J X. 

Secretary " is that Mr. Hollis or Mr. John Hampden 
of State, cc /^albe Secretary of State, but the Lord 
164-1. " Mandeville doth now againe put hard for 
" that place."* 

Secretary * State Paper Office. The letter is addrefled " To my 
Nicholas '< much efteemed friend Sir John Pennington, Knight, Ad- 

§ V. Pym and the King. 55 

From this it is clear (for no one had fuch Negotia- 
fources of information as Nicholas) that, not- ^'''"y^'t^ 

•' ' popular 

withftanding the execution of Strafford and leaders 
Digby's difqualification for office, the King ^^ 
had ftill a purpofe of his own in keeping open 
the negotiation for receiving into his counfels 
the men who had ftruck fo heavily againft his 
dead minifter and his living friend. The letter 
of Nicholas is dated on the 15th of July, and 
until the clofe of that month, indeed as long 
as the King remained in London, the beft 
informed of Charles's own officers of ftate con- 
tinued to expedl the change. In lefs than a 
fortnight Nicholas wrote again as if all doubts 
and difputes as to the particular diftribution of 
offices had been fettled. Lord Mandeville and piftribu- 
Hampden had in the interval withdrawn their ^gs fettled, 
claims to the principal Secretaryfhip of State ^9th July, 
in favour of Denzil Hollis, while Hampden 
was to take the Chancellorfhip of the Duchy, 
Lord Saye and Scale to be Lord Treafurer, and 
the Chancellorfhip of the Exchequer to be, 
as in all the previous propofed arrangements, 
committed to Pym. Nor is it Nicholas alone 
who thus, up to the 29th July, believes that 

" miral of His Ma''^' Fleete imployed for garde of the Narrow ^q Pen- 
" Seas, aborde His Ma'"" ship the St. Andre, nowe riding in nington. 
" the Downes or thereaboutes. Leave this with the Poll ot 
" Sandwich to be conveyed." The exiftence of this letter 
was known to Lady Therefa Lewis. See her very interefting 
book, in illuftration of the portraits in the Clarendon Gallery, 
Lv-ves of the Friends and Contemporaries of Lord Chancellor 
Clarendon, ii. 442. 


Arreji of the Five Members. 

Prepara- thefe men are about to aflume the great offices 
new mi-^' of ftate. Eveti the fmaller clerks and fecre- 
niftry. tarres fervlng under him are making prepara- 
tions againft the expedled lofs of their employ- 
ments ; and Mr. Sidney Bere writes to tell 
Admiral Pennington, on the very eve of the 
King's departure to Scotland, that he hopes 
he has made provifion againft the worft.* 

for the 

Bere to 
ton, 30th 
July, 1641. 

Notice to 

during the 

tions of a 

* I fubjoin fome curious paflages from this letter, which 
is alfo in the State Paper Office (MS. Sidney Bere to Admiral 
Pennington, 30th July, 1641, Whitehall). Bere's employment 
at this earlier time was in connexion with the Foreign Office, 
to which he had been recommended by a previous engage- 
ment as Secretary with Sir Balthazar Gerbier. " I muft needs," 
he writes to the Admiral, " take y^ occafion of this enclol'ed 
" w"^'' was left att my chamber, to tell you, that the noife of 
" remove of officers increafes ftill, and fome thinke wee ffiall not 
" efcape w'** lefs than the lofle of Secretarys, w'^'' I begin to 
" feare much bymanyfignes. One, & truly a noble one, is this, 
*' that Mr. Trea' afked me this day how farre my graunt was 
'* advanced, I told him ready for the Kinge's hand tomorrow; 
" he bid me to haften it all I could, for a reafon he knew, w*^*" 
" you may easily gueffe carryes noe good interpretation. I 
*' am glad Mr. Murray is ingaged, who, fhoiild any fuch thinge 
" happen foe fuddenly, will w'''out doubt make good what 
" he hath undertaken, & I am confident both he and Mr. 
" Trea' will recommend me to y^ fucceffor. But for all thefe 
" doubts and furmifes we prepare ftill for y" Scotch journey, 
" & horfes goe before on Monday. Wee follow on Friday 
" nexte, and y" King on y'= 9''' which is Munday. The Par- 
" liam' its said will move for a longer ftay, but the King is 
" refolved. A whifper goes the Houfes will ftand for a Lo. 
" Lieut, in his abfence w*" power to pafle bills: what that 
'* propofition will produce in his refolution to graunt or deny, 
" goe or ftay, we ftiall ffiortly fee : but every one is full of 
" expectations what every grand councill ftiould produce in 
" the change of officers. Come the worft, if this graunt 
" pafle, I have fomething to truft to ag' I am old, and till then, 
" I hope w** God's bleffing, the countenance of my friends, 
" & my own induftry, to pafle well enogh. I have not foe 
" ill fpent this time, but I have purfed up for a yeare's fub- 
♦* fiftence and more, in w'*" time many changes will happen. 
" Thus I take all att the worft on the firft alarum, but I hope 

§ V. Pym and the King. 57 

Yet fo ftrange does it feem that purpofes A fequel 
involving a complete change in the greateft ftr'^ngg^for 
employments of the State fhould have been belief. 
entertained up to the very eve of the King's 
departure for Scotland, that they then fhould 
fuddenly and filently have been dropped, 
and that the King's letters to Nicholas from 
Edinburgh fhould as fuddenly be filled with 
covert threats againft the men chofen fo recently 
for the higheft dignities he had it in his power 
to beftow, that credit may hardly be claimed 
for fuch a ftatement without produdlion of the 
adlual evidence. The fecond letter of Nicholas, Prefent 
alfo in the State Paper Office, begins with ^Xiiral 
acknowledgment of a welcome prefent of four 
Guinea-birds, which the Admiral had fent for 
Mrs. Nicholas, " whereby you have made 
" her a proude woman, and Ihe defires me to 
'^ prefent to you her affedlionate thankes for 
'* that great raritie." He then defcribes the Nicholas 
appointment of Lord Eflex to be General of ^"j^^^"^ 
the Forces on this fide Trent ; fpeaks of 29 Juiy> 
Lord Pembroke as bearing the lofs of his 
employment with much patience and difcre- 
tion ; and makes frank allufion to the eccle- 

" there is noe caufe, but that we fhall rubb out yett this Sum- 
" mer at the leaft." It isvery remarkable to oblerve from this 
letter that at no time do the popular leaders, even when their 
immediate induftion into the great offices was looked upon as 
certain, appear to have taken the preffure of Parliament from 
off the King. The propofal of a Viceroy or Regent was fingu- 
larly diftafteful to him, and the difpute as to the proper time of 
his quitting London was vehemently maintained even to 
within a few hours of his departure. See my EJfays, i. 13. 


Arrefi of the Five Members. 

objefts to 
tical Re- 

to Scot- 

to by the 

The new 
expefted : 
and Lord 
Saye and 

fiaftical reforms in progrefs, and the abufes 
they are levelled at. " The ade againft BishPP% 
'■'- Deanes, & Chappters, is not as yett pad the 
** Comons Houfe of P', and I hope never will : 
" for iiF it fhall, my father and myfelfe fhall 
" by the change of our Landlordes lofe 1500/. 
" in the value of our eftates. But I hope the 
'* Pari* will not holde it wife to punifhe the 
" Tenants for y^ Landlord's faulttes. The 
'* Comons are much troubled that the Kinge 
" will goe on Monday come fennight (as hee 
*' has declared openlie) towards Scotland. 
" They have had a conference with y<^ Lords 
" ab' prefenting to his Maj'y fome reafons ag* 
'* his Maj'^'^ goii^ge untill the armie be dif- 
" banded, w*^*", if there were money readie, 
" woulde not bee this fortnight. It is heere 
" faid that wee fhall fhortly before the Kinge*s 
*' departure have a greate change & addition 
" of officers abt Co'% as that the L** Saye 
" fhall be made L** Treas'', the L** Newburg 
'' Mafler of the Wardes, Mr. Jo. Hampden 
" Ch'" of y" Dutchy, Mr. Pym Cha^ of the 
" Excheq'', Mr. Denzill Hollis Principall Secr^ 
'« of State ; and that y^ Earl of Bath and L*^ 
" Brooke fhall be fworne of his Ma^*^' moft 
" honbie Privy Counfell."* He adds fome 

* This letter (alfo in the State Paper Office, and dated 
29th July, 1641) is addrefled like the former, with this 
addition: "Leave this with the^foote poft of Sand""^'' in 
" Philpot Lane att y' figne 'of y« Sand^*^*" Armes to be 
** conveyed." 

§ V. Pym and the King. 5^ 

particulars as to the army plot, the examina- 
tions as to which were then in procefs of being 
taken; and he clofes by faying that he propofes 
himfelf, God willing, to retire on the next Nicholas 
following Saturday to his houfe in the country, retire : 
to live quietly there if he can ; and that how- 
foever the world goes, the Admiral fhall be 
fure always to find that he is ftill conftantly 
and firmly his faithful and affedlionate friend. 

But of courfe Nicholas did not retire into But 
the country, nor did the parliamentary leaders retire, 
make their entrance into Whitehall. Not lefs 
myfterious in its origin and fate than the later 
attempt to obtain Pym's folitary fervice, it 
feems impoflible to review the circumftances why both 
attending this earlier effort to place both^ocOTici- 
him and his friends in power, without J'^'^f P°P"- 

. . , ^ \ , lar leaders 

arrivmg at the only folution which either failed, 
feems capable of receiving. Neither, it muft 
have been fufpedted or difcovered, was really 
or fincerely intended by the perfon who alone 
could give effeft to it. Both were wrecked by 
the utter diftruft and difbelief which the King The rock 
in all his dealings had infpired. In making *2n||'' 
again the overture fingly to Pym, there can be 
little queftion that Charles had the idea in his 
mind, as already hinted, that by fome artifice 
or trick, fome juggling and playing with the 
cards, Epifcopacy, even in its laft extremity 
of danger, was to be refcued ftill by bringing 
over the only popular leader not committed to 

6o Arrefi of the Five Members. 

A warn- root and branch. But the fate of the earlier 

Pym to negotiation, which I have thus been able to 

aft upon : retrace, opened alfo, as the later had been, at 

the very moment when Lord Digby had 

been fingled out for royal favour, was doubt- 

Thewarn- lefs the fufficient warning on which Pym wifely 

' adled. We need not look for his motives 

further a-field. The calm refufal with which the 

proffered place was put afide, and the dignified 

filence preferved in relation to it, may thus 

alike receive their fatiffatlory folution. 

§ VI. The Westminster Tumults. 

Publica- On the third day after the Grand Remon- 

Grand flrancc, printed by order of the Houfe, had 

Remon- begun to circulate among the people, the ob- 

fervance of a day of Faft and Humiliation had 

been appointed. The circumflance is referred to 

bytheUnder-Secretary,withwhofe letter, already 

quoted in the preceding fed:ion, as with a flmilar 

communication from Captain Carterett, there 

alfo went to the Admiral a copy of the pub- 

lifhed Remonftrance. " The Remonflrance is 

" likewife come out," he writes, " which I now 

" fend herewith, and leave unto your readinge to 

" judge of it. This is all I can fay more for 

" the prefent fave that yeflerday the fail was 

A Faft " obferved through London and the Court, 

Dec.'i"^! : *' ^"^ ^s to-day in Weftminfler. Indeed, there 

'* needs fome extraordinary devotion to divert 

" the many troubles and diflradions this State 

§ VI. The Wejiminfter Tumults. 6i 

'' is threatened withal, wch if God doe not of 
" his mercy turne awaye, it's much to be feared 
*' will very fhortly fall upon us : Soe that I 
" cannot wonder to reade yo^ compafTionate 
" fenfe thereof, but doe joyne w^** you that it's 
" a time wherein he that hath leafte to doe 
" may thinke himfelf the happieft."* The 
King, as we have feen, had celebrated the How the 
faft at Court by figning on that day, the bratf/L^' 
22nd December, the warrant for appointment 
of the diflblute Lunfford to one of the places 
of greateft truft in his dominions. We have 
feen alfo the tumult it provoked in the 
Houfe of Commons, and this had now readied 
on the people out of doors. It was the time 
of Chriftmas holidays, when unufual numbers 
were in London, daily thronging the ftreets ; 
and fuch and fo alarming were the manifefta- Difcon- 
tions of popular difcontent, that within three \^\\^^y 
days after the letters juft quoted we find crowds, 
another of Pennington's correfpondents, and 
a high civil fundlionary, writing to him in a 
ftrain that might well fhake the nerves of 
the gallant feaman far more than thofe terrible 
gales then fweeping the coaft during which 
his fhips had well-nigh foundered in the 
Downs. " But though,'* writes Mr. Thomas 
Smith, a man highly efteemed and holding im- 
portant office in the Admiralty, to his loving 

• MS. State Paper Office. Sidney Bere to Pennington, 23rd 


Arrefi of the Five Members. 

Sea and 



A re- 
war talked 

ment can- 

Too late. 

rable epi- 
thets firft 

and much honored friend, " the ftormes are 
" efcaped at fea, they are not fo on fhoare. 
'^ For here we have fuch jealoufies, and dlf- 
'* contents are dayly ray fed by the malignant 
" party between the King and his people, that 
" there talks now of nothing but drawing of 
" fwords and a war between the Proteflants 
'' and Papifts. W''' God forbid ! for though 
" we may know the beginning, noe man can 
" the end and confequences of an inteftine 
" warre." * 

On the evening of the day when that letter 
was written, the King found it abfolutely necef- 
fary (upon a reprefentation perfonally made to 
him the previous night at Whitehall by the 
Lord Mayor, a member of his own party) to 
cancel Lunfford's appointment ; but fwiftly 
as the ill-advifed ad was fo recalled, it was 
yet recalled too late. It was too late to pre- 
vent the tumults and difturbances of that and 
the following day. In thofe tumults, duly 
recorded, but not fairly or juftly difcriminated, 
in the hiftories, were firft heard the memorable 
epithets of Roundhead and Cavalier : two words 
deftined to become as famous as thofe other 
two of Whig and Tory, which, invented 
feven-and-thirty years later, ufed alfo as terms 
of reproach,! and bandied about from fide to 

* MS. State Paper Office. Thomas Smith to Pennington, 
23rd Dec. 

f That the word Cwvalier, not necefTarily a term of re- 

^ VI. The Weftminfter Tumults, 63 

fide, like thefe, amid tumultuous affemblages 
of Englifh citizens,* became in like manner 

proach (Shakefpeare certainly does not fo employ it when he Cavalier : 
fpeaks of the gay and gallant Englifh eager for French in- origin and 
vafion— meaning 

For who is he . . . that will not follow word : 

Thefe cuU'd and choice-drawn Cavaliers to France ?) 

was unqueftionably ufed in that fenfe on the occafion of thefe 
tumults (probably to conneft its French origin with the un- 
Englifti chara6ler of the defenders of the Queen and her 
French papift adherents to whom it was chiefly applied), 
appears from the faft that it is bandied about in declarations 
alternately iflued on the eve of the war by the Parliament and 
the King, the latter fpeaking of it more than once as a word 
much in diffavour. And, after the ftandard on either fide was 
unfurled, nay, when the battle of Edgehill had been fought, 
Charles elaborately accufes his antagonifts, "pretenders to peace The King 
" and charity " he calls them, of a hatefiil attempt " to render complains 
•' all perfons of honour, courage, and reputation, odious to of its ufe. 
" the common people under the ftyle of Cavaliers, infomuch 
" as the highways and villages have not been fafe for gentle- 
'* men to pafs through without violence or affront." Even 
in the very earlieft popular fongs on the King's fide the word 
has not the place it afterwards affumed, and one meets with 
Royaliil poets of a comparatively fober vein 

" Who neither love for fafhion nor for fear, 
As far from Roundhead as from Cavalier." 

D'Ewes's earlieft ufes of the word in his MS. Journal I find 

under dates of Monday loth January and Friday March 

4th, 1 64. 1 -2, and Friday 3rd June 1642. In the firfl he is 

fpeaking of parties who had been feen fufpicioufly entering 

the Tower ; in the fecond, of the Cavaliers at Whitehall who 

wounded the Citizens ; and in the lafl, of the King's party 

in Yorkfhire. Of the word Roundhead, on the other hand, Round- 

and the mixed fear and hatred it reprefented and pro- head. 

voked, decidedly the mofl charafteriftic example is furnifhed 

by the ever quaint and entertaining Bifhop Hacket, who 

(Scrinia Referata, ii. 207) tells a flory of a certain worthy 

and honefl Vicar of Hampfhire who always (in fuch manner 

as to evade the notice of one feftion of his hearers while «|. 

he fecretly pleafed the other) changed one word in the 

lafl verfe of the Te Deum — O Lord in thee have I trufled, 

let me never be a Round-head ! 

* See my Hijl. & Biog. EJfays ii. 6 (under Effay on 
De Foe). 


Arreft of the Five Members. 

the Indelible diftlndtlon of the two great parties 
Firft blood in Engllfh hlftory.* The firft blood fhed In 
fhedm the ^.j^^ ^^^^ ^j^-j ^^^ j^^^ flowed on that 27th 

Civil War. D / 

of December, fevefal citizens having been 
wounded and Sir Richard WIfeman flaln. 





fecret re- 

A belief 
or luper- 

of Puri- 

* There is a curious and charafteriftic pafTage by William 
Lilly {Monarchy or no Monarchy in England, part ii. ed. 165 1), 
referring to thefe tumults, of which he was himfelf an eye- 
witnefs, and deferving more attention than it has received. 
He is fpeaking of the King : " Fearing the worft, as himfelf 
" pretended (from the tumultuous aflemblages of Citizens), he 
'* had a Court of Guard, before Whitehall, of the Train 
" Bands ; he had alfo many diflblute gentlemen, and fome 
*' very civil, that kept within Whitehall with their fwords by 
" their fides, to be ready upon any fudden occafion. Verily 
"men's fears now began to be great j and it was by many 
" perceived, that the King began to fwell with anger againft 
" the proceedings of Parliament, and to intend a war againft 
" them : fome I'peeches dropt from him to that purpofe. It 
" happened one day, as fome of the ruder fort of Citizens 
** came by Whitehall, one bufy Citizen nmft needs ciy 'No 
" Bifhops.' Some of the gentlemen iffued out of Whitehall, 
" either to correft the faucinefs of the fool in words, if they 
" would ferve ; elfe, it feems, with blows. What pafted on 
" either fide in words, none but themfelves knew. The 
*' Citizen, being more tongue than foldier, was wounded, and 
*' I have heard, died of his wounds received at that time. It 
" hath been affirmed by very many, that in, or hearunto, that 
" place where this fellow was hurt and wounded, the late King's 
" head was cut-off, the Scaffold ftanding juft over that place. 
" Thefe people, or Citizens, who ufed thus to flock unto 
" Weftminfter, were, moftof them, men of mean, or a middle 
" quality . . . and yet moft of them were either fuch as had 
** public fpirits, or lived a more religious life than the vulgar, 
" and were ufually called Puritans, and had liifFered under the 
" tyranny of the Bifhops. In the general they were very 
*' honeft men and well meaning: fome particular fools, or 
" others, perhaps, now and then, got in amongft them, greatly 
" to the difad vantage of the more fober. They were modell 
" in their apparel, but not in their language; they had the 
" hair of their heads very few of them longer than their ears; 
" whereupon it came to pafs that thofe who ufually with their 
" cries attended at Weftminfter, were by a nick name called 
** Round-heads. The Courtiers again, having long hair and 
'* locks, and always fwordes, at laft were called by thefe men 

^ VI. The Wejiminfter 'Tumults. 65 

The Lords had at firft declined to join 
the Commons in petitioning for Lunfford's Caufe of 
removal, and it was the excitement confequent affem- 
upon this refufal, firft known by the publifhed Plages in 


proteft of twenty-two peers headed by names fter Hall. 
in fuch popular efteem as thofe of Bedford, 
Northumberland, Pembroke, and Eftex, which 
led to the affemblages that met fuddenly toge- 
ther, in large numbers certainly but unprovided 
with arms, in Weftminfter Hall and outfide the 
door of the Houfe of Lords.* It has been, 
notwithftanding an admiflion to the contrary 

'• Cavaliers ; and fo &c. &c. few of the vulgar knowing the What 

" fenfe of the word Cavalier. To fpeak freely and ingenuoufly, Lilly 

" what I then obferved of the City Tumults was this : Firit, obferved 

'* the fufferings of the Citizens who were anything well of the 

" devoted, had, during all this King's reign, been fuch and fo tumults. 

" great (being harrowed or abufed, continually, either by the 

" High Commiffion Court or the Star Chamber), that, as men 

" in whofe breads the fpirit of Liberty had fome place, they 

" were even glad to vent out their fighs and fufferings in this 

" rather tumultuous than civil manner : being affured that if 

" ever this parliament had been diflblved, they muft have been 

" racked, whipt, andftriptby the ... Clergy, and other extrava- 

" gant courfes : and for any amendment which they might 

" expeft from the King, they too well knew his temper ; that A Parlia- 

" though in a time of parliament he often promifed to ment the 

" redrefs any grievances, yet the beft friend he hath cannot People's 

** produce any one aft of good for his fubjefts done by him only hope. 

" m the vacancy of a parliament. The lofers uliially have 

*• leave to fpeak, and fo had the Citizens. All this Xmas 

" 1641, there was nothing but private whil"perings in Court, Secret 

" and fecret counfels held by the Queen and her party, with counfels. 

" whom the King fate in council very late many nights. 

*' What was the particular refult of thefe clandeftine confulta- 

" tions, it will prefently appear." In thefe laft few words he 

alludes of courfe to the impending attempt to arreft the 


* " The tumults," fays Nalfon, the moft unfcrupulous of 
Royalift partizans, " began upon this little clafti of the two 
" Houfes, the Lords refufmg to join with the Commons to 
*' petition out Lunlford." — CoUeiiions, ii. 781. 

6S Arreft of the Five Members. 

Party to be quoted fhortly even from Clarendon 
ments. himfelf,* uniformly afTerted by Royalift writers 
fince, and with fuch confident pertinacity 
that lefs partial writers have been over- 
borne by it, that thefe gatherings of the 
people were accompanied by violence, that 
the Citizens were the aggreflbrs, and that 
fwords were drawn at laft on the other fide 
only in felf-defence. The point is an important 
one to place beyond further quefl:ion, becaufe 
here, and not in any difpute as to whom the 
powers of the militia fhould refide with, really 
Who were began the Civil War. Elaborately to argue 
the firft upon this or that claim of right, whether to the 

aggrellors. .... r i o 

militia or to any other power of the State, m 
the pofition to which the incidents now under 
difcuflion were about fwiftly to bring the 
oppofing parties, is to be at infinite pains 
to throw words into the air. Both King 
and Parliament were foon to afcertain that 
peace was no longer poffible ; and it was but 
the prelude of fence to the fharper conflidt, the 
underftood paufe for coUedlion of ftrength on 
either fide, when the war of words about the 
Time be- ^lilitia began. In the chapter of hifl:ory I 
ginning of have here undertaken to rewrite lies the true 
War: fettlement of the doubt as to who began the 
Civil War ; and in thefe Wefliminflier tumults, 
which were the prologue of the tragedy, it 
will not be difficult to fiiow, on the unquefl:ion- 

* Hift. ii. 92. 

§ vir. Citizens and Soldiers in the Hall. 67 

able evidence now to be produced, not merely 
that the bloodfhed was exclufively the a6t of the 
King's friends and dependants, and that the 
natural alarm it created was made the excufe 
for other and more deliberately planned 
violence againft the people, but that all this in the at- 
was unavoidably a portion of that defign deftroy the 
againft the Parliament for which the time had Parlia- 
prematurely been fuppofed to be ripe, and leaders. 
which had for its firft and immediate objedl 
the deftrudion of the leaders of the Houfe of 

§ VII. Citizens and Soldiers in the 

The old year had now only five days to run, Monday, 
and was faft departing amid incidents that only ^^^ ^ **^* 
too fitly ufliered in its dark and gloomy fuc- 
cefTor. On this eve of the firft year of the 
Great Civil War, the phyfical and the moral 
atmofphere alike feemed charged with ftorm. 
So fevere a feafon had not been known for Severity 
many winters ; * and while each day, and hour winter. 

* It extended to Paris, from which city Windebank, 
writing to his fon in London on the J^t i)"c }^^4^"^> fpeaks of 
the extraordinary ftorms that were prevalent, and of " the very Fierce 
*' fierce froft methinks much exceeding thofe in England, froft in 
I am tempted to add a fiirther portion of the letter, which is Paris, 
every way charafteriftic of the weak and poor-fpirited writer, 
to whom a leading fhare in the government of England had 
been unrefervedly committed in the moft difficult and dan- 
gerous crifis of her ftory. He is telling his fon of his intenfe 
wifli to return to England. " Wherein, methinks, I sh"* not 
" longer be impedimented now that I am out of danger to 

V 2 

68 Arreft of the Five Members, 

of the day, brought its grief or terror to un- 
prejudiced watchers of events, it was in the 
Tempeft niidft of a tempeft that fwept the Englifh 
coaft with almoft unparalleled violence that the 
Admiral in the Downs continued to receive 
the letters which happily have preferved for 
us, in fair and unexaggerated language, an 
impartial teftimony of eye-witneffes to events 
very memorable in our hiftory. 
Mr. Thos. " Concerning the ftate of our affaires here," 
Penning- wrotc Mr. Thomas Smith, already named as a 
ton, 30th friend of Sir John Pennington, and who held con- 
fidential office under the Earl of Northumber- 
land, with whom he had rooms at York Houfe, 
" they are not foe well as I could wi{h, for wee 
'* are in dayly fears of uproares and diford". 
** The 'Prentices and our Souldiers have lately 
" had fome bickerings wherein many of the 
" 'prentices were wounded, and loft their hats 
" and cloakes. This was don yefterday at 
At White- f f Whitehall Gate, as the 'prentices were coming 
Z9th Dec' " from demanding an anfwer of their petition 
" lately exhibited to the Parliam' houfe. The 
" fould" continue in greate numbers in White- 

Winde- ** retourne any more to bufinefle. This I defire you to soUicit 
bank to " ^ purfue w"* all earneftnels if yo (hall find it lafe to ftir in 
his fon " ^*> ^^'^ ^ '"^y ^^^ myne own dear country, & poor neft 
" again, and fom ende of my wanderinges and greate fuffer- 
*' ings, W' if the world did rightly confider, I am confident 
'* they wold be fenfible of my condition, & the moft rigorous 
" & hard-harted wold thinke I have been abundantly punifhed 
" already for anything that I have donne. But God's will be 
" donne, and whatfoever you fhall negotiate herein muft be 
" with entire & all humble fubmiflion to His Ma'''," 

§ VII. Citizens and Soldiers in the Hall. 6g 

" hall. Thefe woundes of the 'prentices have 

^' foe exafperated them, that it is feared they Exafpera- 

' • t 11 1 • 1 1 *'°" of the 

" will be at Whitehall this day to the number people. 

" of ten thoufand ; whereupon the fouldiers 

** have increafed their number, built up a 

*' Court of Guard w^'^out the Gate, and have 

*' called down the millitary company to their 

" affiftance : and what will be the event, God 

" knows. Neither do the Houfes and King 

" agree fo well as I could wifhe. The Jefuiti- 

** call Fadlion, according to their wounted ^ Jefujti- 

" cuftome, fomenting ftill jealoufies between ftiong in 

" the King and his people, and the Bifhops *^" "°"^'- 

*' continually concurring with the Popifh Lords 

" againft the paffing any good bills fent from 

" the Houfe of Commons thither."* 

Under Secretary Sidney Bere, alfo writing The Un- 
on the fame day (the 30th of December) tary to the 
to his friend commanding in the narrow ^tlTDec 
feas, is more fpecific as to the caufes of 
the prevailing excitement : *' Since the Hol- 
'Midays began," he writes, "here have 
" been fuch rude aflemblies and multitudes 
** of the bafer fort of people, that everyday 
" threatened a defperate confu/ion. Nor are Conftifion 
" we yet free of thofe feares. The firft pre- ^" 
" tended caufe of this was the making of 
" Collonel Lunfford Lieut* of the Tower. 
" Which begat foe generall a murmure and 

• 'MS. State Paper Office. Smith to Admiral Pennington, 
30 Dec. 1 641. And, under fame date, the letter which 
follows : Bere to Pennington. 


Arrefi of the Five Members. 

and pen- 
upon his 

Blood fhed 
a7th Dec. 

ordered to 
be armed. 

Share in 



difcontent that his Ma'ie was pleafed to 
' remove him after two or three dayes pof- 
' feflion and to putt Sir John Biron in his 

* place ; having made the other a knight and 
' as I am told given him 50olb. a year pen- 

* fion.* But the people, not being as it 
' feemes fufficiently perfwaded of this remove, 
^ on Monday [the '27th] continuing their 

* infolencies, and meeting this Lunfford at 
^ Weftminfter, they fell to blowes, in w'^'' dif- 
^ order divers were lightly hurt, but without 
^ further danger ; and one of their chiefe 
' leaders there was S'" Richard Wifeman, who 
' was alfoe hurt. In fine thefe diftempers 
' have foe increafed by fuch little fkir- 
' mifhes, that now the traynebands " [of 

Middlefex] ** keepe watch everywhere : all the 

* courtiers commanded to weare fwords : and 
^ a Corps-de-Gard Houfe built up within the 
' railes by Whitehall, All which fills every one 
' wti^ feares and apprehenfions of greater evils." 

Such fears and apprehenfions might well 
exift, but frdm which quarter came the graver 
threatenings of ftorm ? On one fide were 
citizens and apprentices, at firft altogether un- 
armed, irritating doubtlefs as all crowds are. 

The pen- 
fion and 
hood to 

* This faft is now for the firft time known. Of its corre6t- 
nefs there can hardly be a doubt, for no man was in fo good a 
pofition for obtaining reliable information as the Under 
Secretary. The fame faft is moreover confirmed and repeated 
in a letter, alfo in the State Paper Office, dated the 29th Dec, 
1641, from Capt. Carterett to Admiral Pennington. 

§ VII. Citizens and Soldiers in the Hall, 71 

but wreaking no mifchief worfe than a crumpled taken by 
cloak or band, a torn gown, an impertinent and A™p- 
word, or an inconvenient huftling and prefTure. prentices. 
An eyewitnefs of the aflault on the Archbifhop 
of York, referred to always as the incident 
moft provocative of what followed, has def- 
cribed it for us. " I was witnefs," fays Mr. 
Bramfton,* the fon of the Chief Juftice of 
the Queen's Bench, and at this time an inti- 
mate afTociate of Mr. Hyde, " to a lane 
" made in both the Palace Yards, and no man 
" could pafs but whom the rabble gave leave what Mr. 
« to, crying A Good Lord! or A Good Man I ^^^"^^^^ 
** Let him -pajs I I did fee the Bifhop of Dec. 
" Lincoln's gownj" torne as he pafTed from the 
" ftair-head into the entry that leads to the 
*' Lords' Houfe." And as Mr. Bramfton faw 
we may ftill for ourfelves fee, vividly enough, 
thofe troublefome citizen -quidnuncs, thofe 
idle varlet-apprentices, and with the help of what 
the Under Secretary tells us, can imagine the 
reception they were likely to give to Lunfford, 
infolent with favors fo heaped upon him even 
in that hour of his difmiflal, as to afford but Provoca- 
a new and exafperating inftance of a popular the people, 
conceffion haughtily unmade in the very adt of 
making it. But, fuch being on one fide the 

• In his Autobiography y publilhed by the Camden Society, 
p. 82. 

f Williams, Bifhop of Lincoln, had fo recently become 
Archbifhop of York that Bramflon calls him by his more 
familiar title. 

72 Arrefi of the Five Members. 

cafe, bad and vexatious enough, what prefents 
The fol- itfelf to us on the other ? A fet of fierce 
ants. ' " foldier adventurers, not only men of completely 
defperate fortune, but all of them under the 
ban of the majority of the Houfe of Commons, 
yet offered and accepted with their riotous and 
recklefs followers as a Court of Guard to their 
fovereign, entertained and feafted at the very 
gate of his palace, and enlifted under a condi- 
tion of fervice which even Clarendon thought 
" unfeafonable," feeing that it began not in 
any needful defence of the King, but in a 
needlefs fhedding of the blood of his fubjeds. 
Volunteer It would Hot be eafy to feledl a paflage more 
Guard to charadtcriftic of the hiftorian than that in which 
he fpeaks of this Whitehall Guard, and of 
the difaftrous fervice in which they were em- 
ployed. He cannot deny that their entertain- 
ment by Charles was an a6t of grofs indif- 
cretion, and he is obliged to confefs that they 
firft drew their fwords upon the people. But 
Claren- the form in which he gives utterance to fuch 
option of all-important admiflions againft the party for 
them, whom hc holds his brief, is the moft fingular 
manifestation conceivable of the degree to 
which a partizan writer may permit himfelf to 
become unconfcious of the plain effect and 
meaning of the language he employs. He 
begins by faying * that all the while the King 
had been at Whitehall, befides his ordinary 

* Hifl, ii. 92, 94. 

§ VII. Citizens and Soldiers in the Hall. 73 

retinue, and menial fervants, he had kept in Compo- 
clofe attendance upon him a confiderable num- ments ^" 
her of officers of the late difbanded army, who ^ *^^, 

-,.., ,. ., - '- Guard: 

were lohcitmg their remamder of pay from 
the two Houfes which was fecured to them by- 
Ad: of Parliament, and were expecting fome 
farther employment in the war with Ireland ; 
and that thefe not very fcrupulous gentlemen, 
upon obfervation and view of what he calls 
the infolence of the tumults, and the danger 
that they might poflibly bring to the Court, The 
offered themfelves for a Guard to his Maiefty's ^'"^'^ 

, , uniealon- 

perlon, and were with more formality and able ac- 

ceremony entertained by him, than, upon a of^the^i" 

juft computation of all diftempers, was by Service : 

many conceived feafonable. And then he 

goes on to fay that " from thefe officers, — 

" warm with indignation at the infolences of 

" that vile rabble which every day pafTed by 

** the Court, — there proceeded, firft, words of 

" great contempt, and then, thofe words com- 

" monly finding a return of equal fcorn, blows Citizens 

" were fattened upon fome of the moft prag- ^n^^ ^f-? 

" matical of the crew." In plain language, failed by 

the provocation both of words and blows 

came firfl from the Whitehall defperadoes. 

Their advocate continues : " This was looked 

" upon by the Houfe of Commons like a 

" levying of war by the King, and much 

" pity cxprefTed by them that the poor people 

" fhould be fo ufed who came to them with 


Arrejl of the Five Members. 

Cuts and 

to Claren- 

Eager en- 
ment to 
attack on 

" petitions "— to go to the Houfe of Commons 
with petitions was in reality the tumult and 
infolence complained of — "for fome few of 
" them had received fome cuts and flafhes that 
" had drawn blood ; and that made a great 
" argument for reinforcing their numbers. 
" And from thefe conteftations the two terrns of 
" Roundhead and Cavalier grew to be received 
** in difcourfe, and were afterwards continued 
" for the moft fuccin6t diftindtion of afFedlions 
•* throughout the quarrel: they who were 
" looked upon as fervants to the King being 
" thus called Cavahers, and the others of the 
" rabble contemned and defpifed under the 
" name of Roundheads." 

To put all this into plain fpeech is to fay 
that, at a time when above all others it behoved 
the King to be wary of unduly exciting jea- 
loufies and fufpicions, he accepted from a band 
of recklefs and defperate foldiers of fortune a 
proffered perfonal devotion which was to dif- 
play itfelf in the moft adive hate of a parti- 
cular fedion of his people. Nor was it dry 
acceptance only, but eager encouragement, 
that Charles extended to them. While thefe 
men fo infulted the Citizens, upon whom 
they faftened blows, and upon whom they drew 
their fwords, they were the guefts of the 
King in his own palace, entertained and fed at 
his expenfe. And whether thofe of the af- 
failed were few or many, who, in the nicely- 

§ VII. Citizens and Soldiers in the Hall. 75 

chofen phrafe of Hyde, " received fome cuts Abettors 
" and flafhes that had drawn blood," neither outrage 
exaggerates nor diminifhes the crime. The 
faft undeniably remains, as admitted by Cla- 
rendon, and (in a pafTage which will fhortly be 
quoted) confirmed by Rufhworth ; and to it 
is ^to be added the further not lefs fignificant 
circumftance, that when that famous Declara- 
tion of both Houfes was prefented to the 
King at Newmarket in the early days of 
March, to which, as Lord Holland read it, 
Charles fpared no epithet of anger or fcorn 
{that's falje ! that's a lye I broke from him 
at its feveral averments), he heard in filence 
thofe portions of it which charged him with Defign in 
having enlifted in an unufual manner, and put ,^0.;^ "j^g 
into regular pay under the command of colonels, Whitehall 
this Whitehall Guard ; with having feafted does : 
and caroufed them at the palace in a manner 
altogether unaccuftomed ; with having endea- 
voured to engage the gentlemen of the Inns 
of Court to co-operate with them ; and with 
having for his manifeft defign in all this, " a 
" perpetual guard " fuch as the laws did not To draw 
warrant.* In his own formal anfwer, indeed, ft^afiding ^ 
publiflied on the 9th March, he fubftantially Guard, 
admits the allegations made. "Why the lifl:ing," 
he fays, " of fo many officers, and entertaining 
" them at Whitehall, fhould be mifconftrued, 
** we much marvel, when it is notorioufly 

* Rujh-uuort/i, III. vol. i. 529. 


76 Arrefi of the Five Members. 

" known the tumults at Weftminfter were 

" fo great, and their demeanour fo fcan- 

" dalous and feditious, that we had good caufe 

Admif- « to fuppofe our own perfon, and thofe of our 

th"King : " wife and children, to be in apparent danger ; 

2^}^ , " and therefore we had great reafon to appoint 

March, ^11 1 1 1 -r 1 

164.2. " a Guard about us, and to accept the dutiful 
" tender of the fervices of any of our loving 
" fubjefts."* 

Let me upon this fubjed: add to the 
evidence already quoted, that of another wit- 

Witneffes nefs equally above fufpicion ; whofe difcon- 

above fuf- ,/. ., , ^-^ ^ ^ 

tent at this time with the Houle or Com- 
mons t would have ill difpofed him to fympathy 
with any but its moft bitter affailants ; and 
who diftindly tells us, not merely that Lunf- 
ford and his friends, with drawn fwords, charged 
upon the Citizens and " chafed " them round 
the Hall, but that fmall parties of fome fifteen 
or fixteen officers of the army had fallen upon 
crowds of unoffending civilians, and left 
forty or fifty of them wounded. 

* Ru/hivort^, III. vol. i. 536, 537. 
Slingfby's "1" ^" the 25th Nov. 1641, Captain Slingfby had thus written 
fliip at 0^^' ^^^^^ Paper Office): "On Saturday morning laft I 
Spithead ' ' brought the Happie Entrance to the Spitthead, where, having 
2cth Nov. " ^ pilott aboard, but the windftill Northerly that fhe was not 
" like fuddenly to gett into the harbour, I came away to 
•' London. She is prel'ently to be made ready again to go 
His *' for Ireland, Captain Owen in her : Ibme of the Parliament 

brother's " as I hear having made fome fcruples concerning my fitneffe 
con- <' for that imployment, in refpeft of my brother's neare relation 

ne6tion " to my Lord of Strafford : yett I find no alteration in my 
with " Lord's [Northumberland] countenance towards me, as he 

Strafford. " fayth it will not prejudice me for other employments." 

§ VII. Citizens and Soldiers in the Hall. 77 

** I cannot fay," writes Slingfby, already A mad 
defcribed as the brother of Strafford's Secre- mas. 
tary,* " we have had a merry Chriftmas, 
" but the maddeft one that ever I faw. The 
** prentices and bafer fort of citizens, faylors, 
" and water men, in greate numbers everie day 
" at Weftminfter, armed with fwords, f hal- 
" herds, clubbs, w'-h hath made the Kinor keep Excufes 

' ' . ° ^ for the 

" a ftronge Guard about Whitehall, of the Whitehall 

" Trayned Bands without, and of gentlemen ^"^^'^• 

" and officers of the army within. The King 

** had upon Chriftmas Eve putt Coll. Lunfford 

" in to be Lieutenant of the Tower, w'^'' was 

" fo much refented by the Conlons and by the 

*'Cittie, that the Sunday after he difplaced 

" him again, and putt in Sir John Biron, who Unpopu 

" is little better accepted than the other. si"7ohn 

" Lunfford being on Monday laft in the Hall, Biron. 

" with about a dozen other gentlemen, he was 

" affronted by fome of the citizens whereof the 

" hall was full ; and fo they drew their fwords, 

*' chafing the citizens about the Hall, and fo 

" made their way through them w*^'^ were in Citizens 

" ye Pallace Yard and in Kinges Street, till ^w the 

" they came to Whitehall. The Archbifhop Hall by 

" of Yorke was beaten by the 'prentices the foidiers. 

• MS. State Paper Office. " R' Slyngfbie to the hon""'* Sir 
*' John Pennington Knt. Admirall of his Ma*'" Fleete for 
" guard of the narrow feas :" 30th Dec. 1641. 

•j- This is a mere carelefs affertion, as is proved by the 
paflages immediately following it, which (how that the Citizens 
could not have been armed. 

78 Arreft of the Five Members. 

" fame day, as he was going into the Parlia- 

" ment. The next day they aflaulted the 

" Abbey to pull down the organs and the altar" 

(there had been recent order for peculiar 

ceremonies and obfervances at the altar), " but 

Aftray in «^ it was defended by the Archbifhop of Yorke 

Abbey, " ^is fervants, with fome other gentlemen that 

Dec, 28th. f c came to them : divers of the citizens hurtt 

"but not killed: amongft them that were 

" hurtt, one knight, Sir Richard Wifeman, 

'* who is their cheife leader. Yefterday about 

"fifteen or fixteen officers of the army ftand- 

Unpro- " ing at the court gate, took a flight occafion 

outrage *' ^° ^"^ upon them, and hurt about forty or 

by the " fifty of them: they in all their fkirmifhes 


29th Dec. " have avoided thrufling, becaufe they would 
" not kill them. I never faw the Court fo full 
" of gentlemen. Every one comes thither with 
Gentle- " their fwordes. This day 500 gentlemen of 
armed ^* ^^^ Innes of Court, came to offer their fer- 
crowding cc yj^es to the King. The officers of the army 

the court, 

soovolun- " fince thefe tumults have watcht and kept a 

veTs- ■Totli '^ Court of Guard in the Prefence Chamber, and 

Dec. "are entertained upon the King's charge. A 

" company of foldiers are put into the Abbey 

" for defence of it. The Houfe of Commons 

" have drawn up a charge, and fent it up againfl 

" my Lord of Briftol : the fame that he was 

againfl: " long fincc accufcd of and acquitted by the 

Briftol. " fi^ft Parliament of the King.'* 

It has been feen, as defcribed by an adlual 

§ VII. Citizens and Soldiers in the Hall. 79 

eye-witnefs, what was the nature of the fo-called 

"beating" of the Archbifhop of York referred 

to in this letter ; and it is hardly neceflary to 

dired attention to the fad that all the real hurts 

defcribed in the various accounts are exclufively 

thofe inflidled on, and in no fingle inftance by, 

civilians. No mention occurs anywhere of a No blood 

wound, however flight, inflided by an apprentice (j^g q^j. 

or citizen. But we get fome clue to the means zens. 

ufed to irritate the mob into violence, by what 

was complained of in the Houfe of Commons 

on the morning after the Archbifhop's gown 

was fo rudely handled in Weftminfter Hall. 

Going from the Houfe to his lodging, an 

Honorable Member, " as he pafTed thro' the 

" churchyard, found there a guard of foldiers ; 

** and inquiring of them by whofe command 

" they were there, they anfwered by the Arch- A fighting 

*' bifliop of Yorke's : " whereupon, after iharp bifhop, 

difcuflion, the Houfe generally declared it to 

be a grave mifdemeanor that guards fhould fo 

be fet about without due authority, to the terror 

and affright of the people.* Certainly a torn 

* Nalfon's ColleSions ii. 793. I add a remarkable paflage 
from D'Ewes MS. Journal of little more than a fortnight's Entry 
later date, which may help to Ihow that the incidents now from 
under notice, and the principal aftorsin them, had a clofe and D'Ewes's 
ominous connexion with the attempt fo foon to be made by Journal, 
the king. " Mr. Miles Corbet made a relation touching one 
" Mr. Pemberton, who was examined when the Committee 
" fat in Guildhall, before Mr. Edward Wright an Alderman 
" of London, and was fent by him to one of the Counters : 
" that he had confefled that he was one of them that had 
*' come hither with the king on Tuefday, Jan. 4, and that he 
" commanded 40 men at the Abbey of Weftminftcr that 

8o Arreji of the Five Members. 

Incite- gown hardly luftified preparations fo fer- 
ments to° ■'•' rr r ' 
violence, mid able, and the reader may perhaps lee m 

the incident a fufficing explanation for what 
Captain Slingfby defcribes as occurring on 
" the next day." 

In brief, each hour now brought its alarm, 
and figns and portents of approaching calamity 
were everywhere abroad. The clofe of Captain 
Slingfby's letter leaves us no room to doubt the 
definite and dangerous impreflion already pro- 
duced upon himfelf. " The cittizens," he fays, 
Shops " for the moft part fhutt up their fhoppes, and 
anVal'l " ^'^ gentlemen provide themfelves with armes 
men « gs in time of open hoftillities. Both fadlions 

arming. , , ^ i • • 11 

" talke very bigge, and itt is a wonder there is 
*' noe more blood yett fpilt, feeing how earneft 
" both fides are. There is no doubt but if 
*' the King doe not comply with the Comons 
" in all thinges they defire, a fudden civill 
" warr mufl: enfue ; w*"'' everie day we fee 
Danger- " approaches fooner." Dangerous in its 
' growth fuch a belief as this could not fail to 
be. It narrowed the grounds of agreement 
left, fiiut out all hope in which ultimate fafety 
lay, and brought nearer the dreaded calamity 
by making the mere thought of it more fami- 
liar. If fuch men as Sllngfiby reafoned that 
} civil war was unavoidable, it was but natural 

that the recklefs men of his party fiiould adl 

" evening when Sir Richard Wifeman was hurt [to death]." 
— Harl MSS. 16, f. 331 a, 336 a. 

§ VIII. fVhat was pajfmg in the Houfe. -B i 

as if civil war were come. It is at leaft certain 
that in fuch a ftate of feeling and apprehen- 
fion, fo widely fpread, a terrible refponfibility 
attended any ad which ihould carry with it a 
fudden and violent increafe of the prevailing 

• • r A terrible 

excitements ; nor, were its conlequences ever refponfi- 
fo appalling, might its author with any juftice biUty. 
claim exemption from the charge of having 
deliberately intended to produce them. 

§ VIII. What was passing in the House. 

Resorting, for information of what was 
meanwhile pafling in the Houfe, to the manu- 
fcript Journal of D'Ewes,* we find the details 
of Captain Slingfby's letter in all refpedls con- 
firmed. On the firft day of the tumults, D'Ewes Firft day 
makes a brief and hurried note of what was Tumults, 
pafling in the Houfe ; and the abrupt, un- ^7th Dec. 
finifhed fentence, more ftrikingly than any 
elaborate detail, depidls the prevailing agitation. 
The fitting was only prolonged to receive 
evidence that " the quarrel in Weftminfter 
" Hall began from fome foldiers or gentlemen 

* Brit. Mus. Harleian MSS. 162-166. This moft curious State of 
and valuable record, as I have ftated in a former work, is D'Ewes's 
contained in five feveral volumes, to which corrcft reference Journal in 
is often extremely difficult ; the fame period occupying more the Har- 
than one volume, and it being frequently neceflary to examine leianMSS. 
all the volumes in learching for the completed record of one 
particular debate. The ftate of the writing, too, with its 
blotted and often hopeleflly involved interlineations, interpofes 
frequent obftruftion. My references have, however, been 
made with much care ; and, where not minutely exa6l, will 
always be found within one or two folios of the precil'e place 

82 Arreji of the Five Members. 

" who firft offered violence to the citizens,"''^ 
and that Colonel Lunfford was one of thofe 
whofe fwords had flafhed in the faces of un- 
Second armed men. Next day, however, Tuefday 
Tumults^ the 28th December, the day following that on 
z8th Dec. which Lunfford had fo led the affault on the 
crowd in Weftminfter Hall, D'Ewes was again 
at his poft, and found Cromwell fpeaking on 
Lord Newport's difmifTal from the conftable- 
fhip of the Tower. 
Lord The honorable member for Cambridge 

difm^l ^ feldom failed to give a pradical bearing and 
debated, purpofe to any debate he engaged in, and 
now he was employing the Newport affair 
to bring the Houfe back to confideration of 
the point, not whether fuch idle words as the 
King imputed had been fpoken,j" but whether 
treafonable advice had at any time been given, 
and by whom, for bringing up the army to 
overawe the deliberations of that Houfe. 
Oliver Cromwell, as we have feen Captain Slingfby 
fpeaking: inform his Admiral, diftindtly pointed to my 
Lord of Briftol, Lord^ Digby's father ; and, 
reviving an old to couple with it a new charge, 
arraigned him not merely as having notorioufly 
counfelled the Sovereign in former years, for 
worldly and prudential reafons, to become 
, Roman Catholic,^ but as having, in regard to 

* Harleian MSS. 162, f. 287 b. 
f See ante, p. 38, 

j When they were together in Spain, upon that mad freak of 
tlie Spanifh Match which carried with it feveral veiy grave con- 

§ VIII. What was pajfing in the Houfe. 83 

the matter of bringing up the Northern force, 
diftindly advifed his Majefty, in language con- 
fefled by himfelf, to " put the army in a 
" pofture." Fit, then, faid Cromwell, that this 
Houfe defire the Lords to join with us in De- 
moving his Majefty that fuch a perfon as this the Earl 
Earl of Briftol be removed from his councils, of Bnftol. 
For what room was there to doubt that a more 
than ordinary meaning lay beneath the words 
fo ufed ? The due pofture of the army at 
that time, added Cromwell, with the homely 
force and vigour that charaderifed all his 
fpeeches, was the -pofture of lying ft ill ^ and 
that pofture the faid army was already in.* 
Denzil Hollis followed up this attack on Lord Denzil 


Briftol by fome telling blows againft his fon, attacks 
Lord Digby, who had declared only the ^}\ 
previous day, in a fpeech which Hollis juftly 
charaderifed as the moft dangerous and perni- 
cious that could be fpoken by a fubjed, that 
this was not a free Parliament. f 

And here let me interpofe, that though the 
accufed members always maintained that the 
King aded on other than a fingle perfon's Lord 
advice in his great outrage againft them, it is complicity 
hardly necefl'ary alfo to fay that they needed ^i^^ ^*" . 

1 • n- I r T J -TN- 1 , tempts of 

nothmg to allure them or Lord Digby s 3rd and 
thorough complicity. It may be well to premife, "^^^ J^"* 

fequences. Perhaps the beft account of it can be gathered from 
Howell's Letters, 

* Harleian MSS. 162, f. 288 a. 

f lb, f. 291 a, b. 

a 2 

84 Arreji of the Five Members. 

however, that in whatever is further to be faid 

No acquit- having a tendency to involve others, no acquit- 

Lord ^'^ of Lord Digby is intended. His fhare was 

Digby in- open and avowed, at any rate after the event ; 

and when on the 19th February 1641-2, the 

Houfe (overruHng a recommendation from the 

committee to whom the matter had been 

referred, and of which Sir John Evelyn was 

chairman, for a bill of attainder) refolved 

to impeach him, one of the refolutions on 

Refolution which they proceeded was " That hee was an 

peach- " advifer of the articles ag* the five members, 

ment. cc ^j^^^ q£ ^j^^ King's coming to the Houfe of 

" Commons."* Other notices and indications 

of the fufpicion in which both Digby and his 

father were juftly held will hereafter appear alfo 

in many private letters. 

Aconfiderablepaufe enfued in the Houfe after 

Cromwell had fpoken, and in the courfe of his 

entry in this day's Journal, D'Ewes has thrice 

Ji°"S to remark that there followed " a long filence." 

lilences ^ c> 

in the The fhadow of events of which no man could 
forecaft the courfe or fee the end, had by this 
time fallen upon the moft voluble debaters ; and 
only the few refolute men who held together 

Tuefday ^j^^^ \^^ ^^ majority, proof alike againft the 
temptations of the Court and the impatience of 
the People, kept their courage and refolves 

! unfhaken. 

The next day pafled more quietly. For 

* Verney's t^otes, 157. 

§ VIII, What was pajfing in the Uouje. 85 

though a grofs outrage was fuddenly com- Wedncf- 
mitted by a party of foldiers upon a number ^ jjj Dec 
of citizens pafTmg Whitehall after having 
carried up a petition to the Houfe of Com- 
mons,* means had been taken by the popular 
leaders to prevent the recurrence of the crowds 
of the two previous days ; and the only 
threatening appearances in the ftreets were 
from flowly increafing groups of diflblute 
armed men, filently gathering to the new 
Guard at Whitehall. Still the greateft fears 
and doubts prevailed, and while Cromwell Cromwell 
was addrefling the Houfe upon the neceffity officering 
of having the army, efpecially in Ireland, of the 
officered by men in whom the people's 
reprefentatives had confidence, a man named 
Rowley was brought to the bar to give evi- 
dence of certain matters by which a worthy 
member had been not a little alarmed. *' De- 
" pofed by Rowley," fays D'Ewes, " that he 
" heard a French papift fay to another in 
" Cheapfide on Monday laft that he under- 
'* ftood there were hurly-burleys at Weft- Threats of 
*^ minfter, and that if there fhould fall out any terference 
" hurly-burleys here, there fhould soon come *° P"^ 

■' "^ down 

" fifteen thoufand French out of France upon Englifh 
" our backs."! The Houfe took no adion upon ' ^"'" 

• Ante, 68 and 78. 

•f- D'Ewes MS. Journal: Wednefday, 29 December, 164.1. 
The Member for Cambridge complained loudly on this occafion 
that no place had yet been found among the Irifti Military 
appointments for Captain Owen O'Connel. 

86 Arreji of the Five Members. 

this, any more than upon a report fubfequently 
brought in by Sir Arthur Haselrig to the 
infolence ^ff^^ ^}^^^ ^ French prieft had faid he hoped 
French ere long to fee half-a-dozen parliament men 
^"^ ' hanged. It is neverthelefs not undeferving of 
remark, that it was mainly from French per- 
fons that every afcertained or diftind warning 
was obtained, before the event, of the outrage 
about to be committed. Madame de Motte- 
ftcrets ville, and the people about the Queen, un- 
known to doubtedly knew it ; the French ambaffador, 
French. Montreuil, took credit to himfelf afterwards 
for having fecretly fent notice to the leaders of 
the House ; it was from a French officer, on the 
day of the attempt, that the intelligence was 
obtained which certainly prevented bloodflied ; 
it was, as we fhall find ftated by D'Ewes, 
from a " noble perfon who wiffies well to this 
" nation "* (in other words moft probably 
Montreuil, whose credit, hitherto impugned, 
Frenchin-the remark may re-eftablifli), that the French 

formation. j~. . ^ . /^ • t 

omcer m queltion, Captam Langres, was 
enabled to do that fervice ; and, the fame 
authority will tell us, it was by a member of 
the King's new guard, a Frenchman named 
Fleury, that Captain Langres was informed, 
three weeks before the more fpecial warning 
I on which he aded, that great troubles were 


From one of our own countrymen, indeed, 

♦ Harleian MSS. 162 f. 310 b. 

§ viir. What was pajjlng in the Houfe. 87 

an Englifhman ftill famous for his imagination 
and wit, a warning reached Lord Kimbolton 
the day before the arreft : when Marfton the 
dramatift, then laid by the heels in the Gate- Wammg 
Houfe, had written to him of a danger to foner in 
himfelf and the Parliament which it concerned ^0^^^*^' 
him at once to know ; which admitted of no 
delay, inafmuch as no one could tell how foon 
it might be too late ; and which, not more for 
his own than the Parliament's fake, he was on 
no account to flight, as thinking it of mean 
confequence.* But, of all the debtors' prifons, 

* I fubjoin this letter, found by Mr. Cunningham among John 
other papers of the time at Kimbolton Caftle, and firft printed Marfton to 
by Mr. Collier in his edition of Shakefpeare (1858, i. 179). Lord 
It is undated, but that " this prefent Monday " was Monday Kimbol- 
the 3rd January 164.1-2, is rendered in my judgment abfo- ton: 
lutely certain by the circumftances. Whether, indeed, the 
writer was the poet Marfton I was difpofed to doubt until I 
was favored with a communication from Mr. Beedham of 
Kimbolton, to whom my beft thanks are due. " To the 
" Right Honorable the Lord Kimbolton thefe. My Lord, — 
*' Though my owne miferies prefs me hard to follicite your 
" Honours Companion, yet that you may be aflured how much 
" I am vnfeduc't from my former temper, I ftiall now dif- 
" ferue my lelfe (though my condicon be very calamitous) Has a dif- 
" to ferue your Honour, and y* Parliam', in a matter of no covery to 
" meane concernm' : The errand I fend this paper on to your make, im- 
'* Lord'P is to off"er to your Honour a dilcovery of no meane portant to 
" confequence, w'^'' I befeech your Honor not to flight before his Lord- 
" you know it ; for when you do, I am fure you will not : ftiip and 
" to w'^ purpofe I humbly beg that your Honor will fend to Parlia- 
" fom fuch trufty and rationall meffinger to me, whofe ment. 
" relacoh to your Honour may be heere vnknowne, and y' 
'* the fame meilinger may bring me fom affurance y* I ftiall 
" be concealed in y* bufinefs : My Lord, I hope you will not 
" delay, for I cannot tell how foone, it may be to late : For 
" y* future I befeech your Honor to efteeme me a moft fayth- 
" full feruant to your Honor and y' Parliam', from w*^*" nothing 
'* ftiall eucr diflbblige Your moft humble feruant, John 
" Marston. — From the Gate-Howfe thisprefent Monday." 

$"8: Jrreji of the Five Members. 

Prifon for the Gate-Houfe was that to which all men 
and re- under remand or examination from the Council- 
cufants, table, and eminently all Jefuit priefts and 
recufants, were incefTantly committed ; and 
that Marfton had derived his information from 
Tome one connedled with the French fathers 
and confeflbrs about the Queen, I entertain no 
doubt whatever. Other circumftances render 
it as little doubtful that the contemplated im- 
peachment had been fecretly talked about for 
fome days, and that hints and cautions had 
been permitted to efcape. It will fhortly be feen 
what good grounds D'Ewes gives us for be- 
rpi,g lieving, that Pym himfelf knew at leaft enough 
danger of the intention to hazard the impeachment 

known to ., . i • n 

Pym. to put him wanly on his guard as againlt a 
particular impending danger, at leaft four days 
before the attempt of which it has been the 
cuftom of all hiftorians to write as having 
entered into the mind of the King only the 
moment before its execution.* 

§ IX. The Bishops sent to the Tower. 
Thurfday THURSDAY, the 30th December, was now 

30th Dec. 

* See alfo my Hijl. and Biog. EJJays, i. 135, note, forfmgular 

intimations, in the reafons prefented to the Lords for the claim 

of the Houles to be guarded by the trainbands they had 

feledled, that Pym knew the pofTible danger they had mod 

caufe to dread. He there fpeaks of the " furprizing of the 

Attack on " perfons of divers members of the Scottish parliam';" fays 

Parlia- thatwhifperings had gone abroad of "the like being intended 

ment ex- " ^g' divers perfons of both Houfes here ;" and broadly ftates 

pefted, in his conclufion that there was "juft caufe to apprehend fome 

30th Nov. " wicked and mifchievous pra6^ice ftill in hand to interrupt 

164.1. *' the peaceable proceedings of this parliament." 

§ IX. 'The Bijhopsjent to the Tower. 89 

come, and hardly had the Lower Houfe aflem- 
bled, when an urgent meffage from the Lords, Meflage 

, . ^ , ^ from the 

toucnmg matters or dangerous coniequence. Lords, 
called them to conference. The Bifhops in a 
body had fent to the Lords, through the King, 
that ill-advifed Proteftation which was the Protefta- 
fruitful fource of fo much fubfequent mifchief, Bifhops. 
ftating that fuch had been the tumults in 
Weftminfter for the laft three days, and fo 
obftru6led and menaced had they been in the 
attempt to take their feats,* that they did not 

* I have already quoted the account of the afTault on the What the 
Archbifliop given by the fon of the Chief Juftice of the mob did to 
Queen's Bench, a great friend of Mr. Hyde's, who faw Wil- Arch- 
liams's gown torn, and was witnefs to all that led to what biftiop 
Clarendon defcribes as the irrepreflible rage, and the ill- Williams, 
advifed proteftation, of the too fiery Archbifliop. Hyde 
himfelf alfo relates the incident (^Hiji. ii, 113), declaring In 
his exaggerated way that Williams's "robes" were "torn 
" fromhia back;" with the addition, which his friend Bramfton 
carefully avoids making, and for which there is no proof, that 
the Bifhop's " perlbn was afTaulted." I mull add the account of 
the fame difturbances from another eye-witnefs, Williams's 
quaint and admiring biographer, Hacket (^Scrinia Referata,td, 
1693, part ii. 177-179), who attended Williams at the time, and 
who, notwithftandingall his fanciful fuperfluity of phrafe, rather 
confirms Bramfton than Hyde: "There had been an unruly Evidence 
" and obftreperous concourfe of the people in the Earl of of Bram- 
*' Strafford's cafe; but a fedition broke forth about Xmas fton 
" that was ten times more mad .... The King came to Hyde, and 
" the Houfe of Commons, to demand five of their members Hacket. 
" to juftice, upon impeachment of treafon. His Majefty, it 
" feems, was too forward to threaten fuch perfons with the 
" fword of juftice, when he wanted the buckler of f'afety . . . 
** I am fure the King fuffered extremely for their fakes : all 
" feftaries and dcfperate varlets in city and fuburbs flocked by 
" thoufands to the Parliament .... Let the five members 
" be as honeft as they would make them, I am certain 
" thefc were traitors that begirt the King's Houfe where his 
** perfon was, with hoftility by land and water . . . every 
" day making battery on all the Bifliops as they came to 
" Parliament, forcing their coaches back, tearing their gar- 

■90 Arrefi of the Five Members, 

mean again to fit or vote until effedtually 


retire from ^ , 

the Houfe: ICCUred 

by his Majefty from the repetition 

" merits, menacing if they came any more." (Given with all 
the intercalated quotations and illuftrations of the original, 
the foregoing pafl'age would have filled feveral pages). It is 
Hacket's '^ow many years fmce I called attention to Racket s work, in 
Scrinia *he hope that it might find fome learned fociety not indifpofed 
Referata *o gi^^ ^ modern and acceffible form to fo genuine a Curiofity 
defcribed. o^ Literature. It may be doubted if the language contains 
fuch another produ6l of a bufy, garrulous, fertile, fanciful, 
not very ufeful, but prodigioufly ftored memory and brain. 
Every folio page of it (and it contains nearly 600 of the 
clofeft print) briftles with Greek and Latin quotations, applied 
with a rich and ready refource that is fairly aftoniftiing. It is 
nothing to fay that Seneca could not be too heavy nor Plautus 
too light for him, for he has all the clafTics from Homer down- 
wards at his fingers' ends; and it is really little (hort of appalling 
Ufelefs to obferve to what a fmall praftical ufe it is poflible to turn 
know- fuch a vaft amount of the kind of learning ftill prized in our 
ledge. fchools and colleges as beyond every other in importance. 

Witty conceits and well-chofen poetry ; admiring excerpts 
out of Chaucer, Spenfer, and Ben Jonion ; metaphors and 
figures out of all departments of knowledge ; apophthegms of 
the ftudy and the field ; quips of the nurfery 5 and the blackeft- 
lettered lore of the Fathers of the Church ; are heaped up in 
extravagant profufion. Too learned Hacket ! When he wrote 
this book (he finifhed it in 1657, though it was not publiftied 
till 1693), it behoved him to keep wary watch over his public 
fayings in his Reftory of Cheam ; and his Scrinia Referata 
was the only efcape he had for all that accumulated mafs of 
Written ufelefs knowledge. Cromwell was then our Englifh Sovereign, 
during the "jetting" up and down, as Hacket phrafesit, in all his glory, 
Protefto- and nobody had courage enough to " ftrike him to the heart 
rate. *' and expire upon the murderer." Nay, there was one man 

who had what he terms the incredible effrontery to defend 
and champion the murderer, and, " petty fchool-boy fcribbler " 
as he was, to engage in controverfy with — " O what a miracle 
" of judgment and learning ! — Salmafius ! " Yes, even with 
the " matchlefs Salmafius, with the prince of the learned men 
•' of his age," did " fo bafe an adverfary — O horrid ! " — dare 
Attack on *° meafure himfelf, as that " blackmouth'd Zoilus " Milton! 
Milton: '* ^^^ *^^^ behind me, Milton," exclaims Hacket, foaming 
over at the very mention of the name. He is " that ferpent 
" Milton : " he is " a Shimei," "a dead dog," "a canker- 
" worm ;" his fpirit is "venomous " and his breath that of a 
" viper." This, to be fure, was while Europe rang from fide 
to fide with the Letter to Salmafius^ and ten years before 

§ IX. 'The Bi/hopsfent to the Tower. 91 

of fuch affronts, indignities, and dangers : ^"^ P""?- 
wherefore did they then and therein proteft proceed- 
againft all laws, orders, votes, refolutions, and j^f[j.'° 
determinations, as in themfelves null and of abfence. 
no effect, " which in their abfence, fince the 
" 27th of this inftant month of December 1 641 , 
" have already paffed ; as likewife againft all 
" fuch as fhall hereafter pafs during the time 
*' of their forced and violent abfence." The 
defign of this daring ad:, and the objed: of 
Archbifhop Williams, its real author, have 
been remarked upon by the prefent writer in a 

the publication of Paradife Loft, which Hacket (who died 
Bifliop of Lichfield and Coventry) furvived three years ; but 
it feems probable, by the allufion to petty fchoolboy fcribbling, A fchool- 
that he at leaft knew of the Minor and Jwvenile Poems, boy 
though I think it more than probable, if he had read them, fcribbler ! 
that even the controverfy with Salmafms would hardly have 
thrown him into fuch tranfports of unmitigated abufe. For 
Hacket really appears to have had fome judgment in poetry. 
He knew nothing about Shakefpeare, but neither did anybody Shake- 
elfe, though the tour greatelt works of human genius, Hamlet, Ipeare 
Lear, Macbeth, and Othello, had all been written within not 
the century, and Hacket had himfelf arrived at man's eftate known, 
before the Tempelt was played, and the wand of the magi- 
cian broken. Still, he carefully avoids the admiration, then fo 
common, of the fecond rate fantaftical fchool; and he declares 
Ben Jonfon, whom he calls "our laureat poet," and " our Praife of 
" matter poet," to be "the beft of our poets of this century." Jonfon, 
Chaucer with him is *' noble Chaucer ; " and little fhort of Chaucer, 
the rapturous are his allufions to " our divine poet Mr. and Spen- 
'* Spenler," to "our arch poet Spenfer," to "our moft fer. 
" laureat poet Spenfer," to " Mr. Spenfer's divine wit," and 
to " Mr. Spenfer's moral poem," on which he largely draws 
for illuftrations and comparifons. One rather grieves to think 
that even if Mr. B. Simmons ftiould happen to have fent 
to the good old Bifhop in 1667 the new epic poem he had 
publiftied, he is lefs likely to have read beyond the author's 
name on the title page than to have thereupon inftantly thruft 
it afide with another " Get thee behind me, Milton ! " 

9 2 Arrefi of the Five Members, 

EfFeft of former work.* Its immediate eflfed was 


thoroughly to excite both Houfes mto at once 

difabling its abettors from fuch power of 

further mifchief as, if the Proteft had been 

admitted, or even pafTed in mere filence and 

contempt, they might thereafter have exerted 

fatally. Carry fuch a proteft but into its next 

ftage, and what was known to be the moft 

Anoppor- cherifhed hope of the King, that he might 

defired by ^^ "^^^ ^^^ ^^7 ^^ revoke, on the ground that 

the King. Parliament had not been free, all the popular 

conceffions of the paft momentous year, was 

open to him at any time as not diftant or im- 


Whatever the view taken of the nature or 

extent of the tumults, no contemporary wit- 

nefs has ventured to ftate that they were fuch 

as to provoke an ad: like this. The gatherings 

" Mobs " in the Hall, and at the entrance to the Houfe 

days only. 0^ Lords, wcre limited to the Monday and 

Tuefday, the 27th and 28th ; and while the 

tumults of thofe days were at their height, we 

have evidence of what was fuifered by the 

chief complainant himfelf, the author of the 

Proteftation, from the only perfon who fays 

expreffly that what he fets down he faw. 

The Archbifhop Williams had his gown torn as he 

provoca- pafled into the Houfe. But beyond that 

tion given, i^fult, witnefTed by Mr. Bramfton, there is no 

* Hift. andBiog. EJfays, i. 262, 268 : " The Civil Wars 
and Cromwell." 

§ IX. 'The Bijhopsjent to the Tower. 93 

evidence of any kind on record of a fpecial 

hurt or injury received by any of them. The what the 

utmoft that is alleged by the only member of J'^^^p of 

° ^ , ^ . Norwich 

the Epifcopal party who has himfelf defcribed faw and 
the occurrences, is that the rabble came by 
thoufands to the Houfe, filled the outer 
rooms, and abufed them as they pafled in, 
crying, No BiJJ.wps ! no Bijhops!* On the 
other hand there feems to me fufficient tefti- 
mony that pains had been taken, by mem- 
bers of their own Houfe, to put the Bifhops 
generally into that fort of needlefs fright which Fright 
might induce them readily to fall in with fuch fhrHoufe 
a Proteftation. One of the moft famous among i'^^^^- 
them, the pious and learned Hall, Bifhop of 
Norwich and author of the Satires ^ has in- 
formed us j" that as they were all fitting 
together in the afternoon of the 28th, it grew 
to be torchlight, and Lord Hertford, who 
had lately received his marquifate and other 
fpecial favors from the King, went up to the 
form on which they fat, told them they were 
in great danger, and advifed them to take fome 
courfe for their own fafety. " What is it ? " 
they cried. " What ihould we do ? " Where- ?°"\^ ^ 

•' ... Lords ad- 

upon the Marquis (with dlfiiculty holding his vifmg : 
countenance, it may be imagined, while he 
did fo) counfelled them to continue in the 
Parliament Houfe all that night. " Becaufe 

* Hall's If^orks, i. xliv. 

•J- In his Hard Meal'ure: lVorks,i. xlv. ed. Oxford, 1837. 

94 Arrejl of the Five Members. 

Lord « ffaith he) thefe people vow they will watch 

Hertford ,, ^ ^ K ^ j -ii r i 

alarms the you at your going out, and will learch 

Bifhops: (I every coach for you with torches, fo as you 

" cannot efcape." At this fome of them rofe, 

and earneftly defired of their Lordfhips that 

for the prefent("for all the danger," inter- 

pofes the Bifhop, " was at the rifing of the 

" Houfe") fome care might be taken for 

their fafety. Then proceeds Bifhop Hall 

Lords ^^*"y innocently : " ^he motion was received 

fmiling. " by fome Lords with a smile : and fome other 

" Lords, as the Earl of Manchefter, undertook 

'* the protedlion of the Archbilhop of York 

" and his company (whofe fhelter I went 

" under) to their lodgings." At the fame time 

the good Bifhop frankly adds that thofe who 

cared to flay long enough, got fafely home 

without help of any kind. 

What In Williams's lodgings, doubtlefs, the Pro- 

at Wil- teftation was that night mooted ; and thither 

hams's ^^yj^ ^^iV. at the invitation of Williams,* 

lodgings. ^ 1-1 

repaired no lefs than ten other right reverend 
Lords. '* Where," fays Clarendon, " imme- 
" diately having pen and ink ready," the 
paper was drawn up, figned by all prefent, and 
addreffed to the King for prefentation to the 
Lords ; and away with it went Williams next 
morning to Whitehall. There, by an accident 
"Unfor- which Clarendon calls ** unfortunate," not only 
accident. ^^^ King, but his Lord Keeper, at the very 

* Clarendon, Uiji, ii. 1135 Bifliop Hall, Works y i. xlvi. 

§ IX. T!he Bijhopsjent to the 'Tower. 95 

moment " happened " to be ; and Charles no Charles 
fooner received the Proteft, than, " cafting his ^^^^^ 
" eye perfundlorily upon it," he gave it to Keeper at 
Littleton, and, one hour later, the aflembled haii' ^' 
Lords were with much amazement liftening to 
it.* In this there may have been nothing but 
an " accident," as Clarendon alleges ; al- Accident 
though, from the firft note of alarm given by ^^ ^ '^" ' 
Lord Hertford, it looks, all of it, extremely 
like a fettled and planned defign. 

But the hands that aimed were lefs ftrong 
than thofe that received the blow, and the 
recoil was inftant and fatal. In "half-an- 
" hour " f from the time when the Commons 
were informed of the outrage propofed to be 
committed on the liberties of Parliament, the 
impeachment was fent up againft its authors, a fur- 
Bifhop Hall fays that though they had figned f^^f ^°' 
the Proteft, they intended ftill to have had Bifhops. 
fome further confultation about it ; when, be- 
fore they had time even to fuppofe that it ' 
could have pafled out of Williams's hands, 
they were all kneeling as accufed traitors at the 
Bar of the Lords. Cromwell had been adlive what 
in this prompt retribution ; and long years ^o"u"ht 
afterwards, when addreffing the laft Parliament of the 
of his Protectorate, he exulted in the part he tion. 

* Hiji. ii. 114.. Hall's account flightly differs in ftating 
that though they all heard the Proteft read at Williams's 
lodgings, it was afterwards fent for their fignatures to their 
own feveral places of abode. — fVorks, i. xlvi. 

t HiJi. ii. 118. 

g6 Arrefi of the Five Members. 

had fo taken againft men who would needs 

have it that no laws made in their abfence 

fhould be good, and fo, without injury to 

The others, cut themfelves off! Men, purfued 

charac- Cromwell, in his rough grand way, that were 

terized by trulv of an Epifcopal fpirit ; men indeed that 

Cromwell. . ^ ^ j , , i 

knew not uod ; that knew not how to account 
upon the works of God, how to meafure them 
out ; but would trouble nations for an intereft 
that was but mixed at the beft, iron and clay 
like the feet of Nebuchadnezzar's image ! * 

Nor in this did Protedlor Oliver go beyond 
what undoubtedly had been the feeling at the 
General time. So generally adverfe did opinion run 
the time, againft the ill-advifed a6l, that even Clarendon 
cannot find it in his heart to fpare any expref- 
fion of contempt for the fillinefs and folly of fo 
many Bifhops, during a ftorm which had carried 

Cafe * This is not the place for any detailed ftatement of the 

againft the ^"^^^ againft the Bifliops, which was a very ftrong one j or of 
Bifhops. ^^ caufes, which were many and great, that had led to their 

extraordinary unpopularity at this time. Suffice it to fay 
Them- that they had themfelves mainly to thank for it, and that the 
felves to tumults of which they now complained were but what their 
thank for own friends, arguing from the violence and paffion dif- 
their un- played by them, had expe6ted and predicted in the preceding 
popu- fummer. On the 17th June 1641, Sidney Bere had thus written 
larity. to Pennington (MS. St. P. O.) : " Fears & fufpitions amongft 

" us are foe great that I feare nothing lefTe than that we fhall 
Their " yett fall into a confufion, w'!" God forbid. The bufmefs of 

violence " the Biftiopps wilbe of dangerous conlequence, they being 
and paf- " violent and paflionate in their owne defence, & having in- 
fion 17th " gaged (as it were) the Lords by their late votes in their 
June " tavo', to the maintenance of their caufe, whereas the Com- 

1641, " mons feemeas refolute to pafle the bill for their utter extir- 

" pation, and foe tranfmitt it to the Lords according to y' 
A true " custome, & then it may juftly be feared the Citty will 
prediction. " prove as turbulent as they were on Strafford's caufe." 



§ IX. The Bi/fwpsfent to the I'ower, 97 

away card and compafs, and fent the beft pilot to 
his prayers, fevering from the good fhip and truft- 
ins themfelves to fuch a cockboat as Williams! 
But, quite as ftrongly as his diflike of the mif- J^"^"^ 
chievous Proteftation, the danger and fcandal opinion 
of which he cannot pretend to conceal, his 
objeftion to the punifhment that fo promptly 
followed it is put prominently forward ; and 
he afFeds to think that pofterity will hold it 
for incredible that Parliament fhould fo have 
outraged public decency, as to affix to fuch an 
offence as a fimple proteft a penalty fo out- 
rageoufly difproportioned as that of treafon. as to 
But as ufual this is a grofs mifreprefentation ^nJ^^^' 
of the fads, as well as of the fentiments of the 
time, even as they are yet difcoverable among 
thofe leaft friendly to the two Houfes ; and the 
entire untruftworthinefs of the author of fuch 
ftatements is never fully manifeft, until we are 
able to place them fide by fide with con- Contem- 
temporary notices of the fame occurrences, fet accounts, 
down with no other objeft than upon the 
inftant to refled: and convey, without conceal- 
ment of the paffions or bias of each writer, 
the living opinions and emotions of the hour. 

Captain Slingfby does not affed to be anv SHngfby 

V ' • \ I 1 n-i ^ toVtn- 

great politician, but even as he haftily wrote to nington, 
Pennington, in the afternoon of the very day '^°^^ ^^^' 
of this memorable incident, he makes its 
gravity and danger very confpicuous through 
his few confufed fentences defcribing it. " This 


Arreji of the Five Members. 


'* day," he writes, " the BIfhopps have made a 
" Proteftatlon agalnft the proceedings of this 
*' Parliament, declaring it no free parliament, 
opinion of " This makes a great ftirre here. The favourers 
theProtef- <« of them thinke it don to foone. The other 
" fide do feeme now to rejoyce that It is don, 
" having thereby excluded themfelves from 
" it." * He means that the a(5t was at once 
feen to exclude its authors from ever 
refuming their feats in Parliament, which, in- 
deed, was all the Commons had in view in 
bringing againft them a charge of treafon ; and 
that even thofe friends of the King who were 
favourable to fo bold an aflault on the very 
exiftence of the Parliament, felt that it had 
been done prematurely. In the fame fpirit, on 
the fame day, writes Under Secretary Bere: 
" This day there hath been great debatinge 
" in y^ houfes, and is ftill, but I cannot ftay 
" foe long to heare the ifTue, leafte I loofe the 
" comodity of this ordinary. Only thus much 
" is even now brought for newes — that the 
" Bifhopps having protefted againft all the 
" Adls made this Parliament againft them, 
Committal << twelve of them are now committed, and 
Bifhops. " two others fent for whereof York is one. 
*' But the particulars hereof I will not affeure, 
" being but even now brought unto me ; but 
'* fomething there is w*^'' by my next you ihall 

to it. 

Bere to 
ton, 30th 


MS. State Paper Office. Slingfby to Pennington, 30th 

^ IX. ^he Bi/hops/ent to the Tower. 99 

* have more particularly: onlie thus much to"Ourde- 
' lett you fee into what a deplorable condition con^j;. ^ 

' we are falling. I pray God blefle his Ma^'e tion." 

* in his royall perfon and councills, that wee 
' may once fee a peaceable and quiett time 

* againe. I wifh you, Si", a happy new yeare, 

' and I pray God the great tempefts have left Prays that 

* you in health and faftie." * To which may tempefts 
be added the ftill ftronger teftimony of a third ^^""^^^^^ 

/• f 11 • t 1 the Ad- 

correipondent, equally anxious to keep the miral Me. 

Admiral, amid thofe tempefts at fea, quickly and 

furely informed of the worfe ftorm raging on 

the land. " The laft plott of the Biftiopps," ^^'^^^ 

writes Mr. Thomas Smith to " his very Smith to 

" lovinge friend," on the afternoon of the day to^" "'"^' 

when the Proteft was made, "hathbeene their 30th Dec. 

** indeavour to make this Parliam* no parlia- 

" ment, and fo to overthrowe all afles paft, and 

" to caufe a diflblution of it for the prefent: wch Endea- 

11 T-»'/i vour or 

f^ hath been fo ftrongly followed by ye Popilh BUhops to 
" party, that it was faine to be putt to the Xe'^L^rl?' 
" vote, and the protefting lords carry ed itt to Parlia- 
" bee a free and perfedl Parliam*- as ever any jone and 
" was before. This did foe gawle the Bifhopps 5?^?^^ ^ 
" that they made their Proteftacon ag* the tion. 

* MS. State Paper Office. Sidney Bere to Admiral Great 
Pennington, 30th Dec. 1641. An illuftration occurs in the ftorms 
fame letter of the violence of the ftorms then raging on the raeing on 
coaft. ** The Poft of Sandwich tells me that y* laft weeke the coaft. 
" when he came awaye, your boats could not come aftioare." 
** We heare," writes Sllnglby, in a letter of an earlier date, 
" of the difafter lately hapened to the Roebuclce : and have 
" been very fenfible of the extreame tempeftuous weather you 
" have had fo long together." 

H 2 

.loo Arreft of the Five Members. 

" freedom of y^ vote and y* Parliam*, and in 

" their Proteftacon have inferted fuch fpeeches 

JTmparTd " ^^ ^^^6 brought y"' w'^'in y^ compafle of 

to Achi- " treafon, and thus the Counsell of Acittaphill 

°^ '^ * " is turn'd into foolifhneffe. The Earl of 

Coinpli- *' Briftoll and his fonne have been cheife 

Lords " concurrents with them, in this and other 

Briftoland «< evill councclls, for which they have been 

'^ ^" " impeacht and branded in ye Houfe of 

" Comons." * 

The writer of that letter, as already ftated, 
was high in the employment and confidence of 
Lord Northumberland, and his account, hafty 
and confufed as it is, exprefles more accurately 
Real drift than any other not only the real drift of the 
Proteft. Proteft to efFedt for the King an *^ overthrow 
" of all adls paft," and rendei: unavoidable a 
difTolution, but the prompt proceeding by 
which, under the lead of the Earl, a majority 
in the Houfe of Lords at once met and baffled 
the intrigue of Archbifhop Williams. For 
once, indeed, as foon as the firft divifion had 
been taken, the Lords adled quite as eagerly 
as the Commons, and quite as eagerly and 
promptly as the King in fending up the Pro- 
Prompt teftation. Within half an hour after it was 

action of _ , . 111/-,/. 

the Lords, prelentcd. It was voted a breach of the fun- 

* MS. State Paper Office. Mr, Thomas Smith, from York 
Houfe (the Admiralty), to "His very loving Friend Sir John 
" Pennington, knt. Admiral of His Ma''«* Fleete at Sea on 
" Board His Ma''«» Ship the Lyon at the Downes." 30 
Dec. 1641. 

^ 'IX. 57.!^ Bi/hopsfent to the Tower. loi 

damental privileges and being of Parliaments ; A con- 
upon the inftant, after conference between 
the HoufeSj* Glyn was fent up from the 
Commons to impeach the Bifhops for an en- 
deavour to fubvert the very exiftence of Parlia- 
ments, and therein the fundamental laws of 
the realm ; and by eight o'clock that winter 30th Dec. 

. , i- . , . J 8 o'clock 

nightj ten out or the twelve were committed pm. ten 
to the Tower.f and the other two, by reafon j^'^^ops 
of their great age (" and indeed of the worthy Tower. 
*' parts of one of them, the learned Biihop of 

• See Commons Journals, ii. 362, 363. 

•f- " In all the extremity of froft," fays Bifhop Hall {JVorks, 
I. xlv.), "at eight o'clock in the dark evening, we were voted to 
" the Tower." And lirten to the good indignant Racket. (Scrinia 
Referata, ii. 1 79) : " Hear and admire, ye Ages to come, what Hacket s 
" became of this Protellatlon, drawn up by as many Bifhops as Lament 
" have often made a whole provincial council. They were all for the 
'' called by the temporal Lords to the bar, and from the bar Bifhops. 
" fent away to the Tower. Nonne fult fatius trifles formidinis 
" Iras, Atque fuperba pati faftldia ? A rude world when it 
" was fafer to do a wrong than to complain of it. The people 
" commit the trefpafs, and the fufferers are punifh'd for their 
*' fault. 'Aj* ftayeipos a/jLaprdyot, au\rirj]s Trap' rifjuu rvirTerai. 
" Athen. lib. 9. A proverb agreeing to the drunken feafts of 
" the Greeks : If the cook drefs the meat ill, the mlnflrils 
" are beaten. That day it broke forth, that the largefl part 
" of the Lords were fermentated with an anti-epifcopal 
" fournefs. If they had loved that order, they would never j«Jq j^^g 
" have doomed them to a prifon, and late at night. In bitter ^f Bifhops 
" froft and fnow, upon no other charge, but that they among 
" prefented their mind in a moft humble paper to go abroad ^^ Lords. 
" in fafety. Ubi amor condimentum merit quidvis placiturum 
" fpero, Plaut. in Cafin. Love hath a moft gentle hand, 
" when it comes to touch where it loves. Here was no fign 
" of any filial refpeft to their fpirltual fathers. Nothing was 
" ofFer'd to the peers, but the fubftance was reafon, the ftyle 
" lowly, the praflice ancient; yet upon their pleafure, without 
*' debate of the caufe, the Bifhops are pack'd away the fame 
" night to keep their Chriftmas in durance and forrow : And 
" when this was blown abroad, O how the Trunck-men of 
" the Uproar did fleer, and make merry with it !" 

102 Arreji of the Five Members. 

'' Durham,") to the cuftody of the Black 


And fo that bitter night of froft and fnow, 

the 30th December 1641, faw the two Arch- 

L^ud and bifhops, York and Canterbury, whofe un- 

within the fccmly pcrfonal confli(5ts had been the fcandal 

atTaftr^ ^ °^ ^^ town for years, lodged at laft together 

within the fame prifon walls. Heretofore it 

had feemed impoflible but that the downfal of 

the one muft involve the well-doing of the 

other. During Laud's long afcendancy, and 

under his inceflant perfecution, Williams had 

been an inmate fucceflively of the Gatehoufe, 

The door ^^ Fleet, and the Tower ; nor could the doors 

perfecuted of the grim ftate fortrefs be faid to have fairly 

fe^uton' opened for him until they had clofed upon 

Laud himfelf. But now, after brief exulting 

triumph over his ancient adverfary, thofe 

gates are open for him again ; and into them 

re-enter the Bifhop of Lincoln, elevated 

meanwhile into Archbifhop of York, leading 

with him nine other Right Reverend prifoners. 

Who could wonder that the wits made merry 

^rwil- '' at it ? They devifed a pidure, fays Dr. Peter 

liams as a Hevlin, in which my Lord of York was re- 
Duck: fembled to the Decoy Duck (alluding to the 

* And fee Harleian yiSS. 163, fF. 410 a — ^4i4b. Atafubfe- 
^ quent part of the proceedings in the Impeachment, according 

! to D'Ewes, '* Mr. H. Bellafis moved that the Biftiops of 

" Lichfield and Durham were at the door. Debate if they 
" fhould come within the bar, and fit on chairs or ftools by 
"reafon of their great age : but refolved that they come in 
" fingly and fpeak at the bar." 

§ IX. 'The Bijho-ps Jent to the Tower, 103 

Decoys in Lincolnfhire where he had been A witty 
bifhop), reftored to liberty on defign that he*^°""**' 
might bring more company with him at his 
coming back : the device reprefenting the con- 
ceit, and that not unhappily. " Certain I am," 
adds the ingenious biographer of the rival 
prelate, " that our Archbifhop, in the midft 
•** of thofe forrows, feemed much pleafed with ^^"^^'^ 

' _ * enjoyment 

*'the fancy, whether out of his great love to thereof : 
" wit, or fome other felf-fatisfadion which he 
" found therein, is beyond my knowledge."* 
Poor old Laud ! One need not grudge him 
that ray of mirth which was probably the laft J^5'"|^^P* 
that glimmered feebly upon him between gleam of 
Strafford's fcaffold and his own. "^^'■*''' 

It may well be fuppofed that D'Ewes, ardent 
puritan as he was, underwent no great anguifh 

* Nor is this the only caricature of Williams which Heylin The two 
with infinite un6tion defcribes. Relating (^Life of Laud, p. Arch- 
461) the committal of the Bifhops to the Tower, he pro- biftiops 
ceeds : " Our Archbifhop had now more neighbours than he exchange 
" defired, but not more company than before, it being civilities 
" prudently ordered amongft themfelves, that none of them in the 
" fhould beftow any vifits on him, for fear of giving fome Tower, 
"advantage to their common enemy; as if they had been 
" hatching fome confpiracy againlt the publick. But they 
" refrained not on either fide from fending meffages of love 
" and confolation unto one another j thofe mutual civilities 
" being almoft every day performed betwixt the two Arch- 
** bifhops alfo, though very much differing both in their 
" counfels and affeftions in the times foregoing. The Arch- 
" bifliop of York, was now fo much declined in favour, that Carica- 
" he flood in as bad termes with the common people as the ture of 
'* other did; and his pifture was cut in brafs, attired in his Wil- 
" epifcopal robes, with his fquare cap upon his head, and Hams as 
" bandileers about his neck, (houldering a mufket upon one of Church 
•' his fhoulders in one hand, and a reft in the other." Militant. 

I04 Arreft of the Five Members. 

of mind at the ftroke which had fallen on the 
D'Ewes Bifhops. Looking in at the Upper Houfe 
Bifliops' fhortly after to hear a fentence pronounced, he 
uimed ^^^ without any kind of emotion that the 
into epifcopal bench had been turned into lumber. 

" There was but a thin Houfe of Lords, and 
'* on the right fide thereof a great emptinefs ; 
** the two forms on which the Bifhops ufed to 
" fit being thruft up clofe againft the wall."* 
On a fubfequent occafion, however, he gives 
a reafon which founds rather oddly to us 
now for regarding with equanimity the con- 
tinued incarceration of the prelates. " The 
" Speaker," he fays (in his Journal of the 21ft 
March, 1641-2), ** delivered in a petition 
Is glad " from the 12 Bifhops. I faid I was glad 
longe"°call ** to fee they had omitted their ftyle of Lord 
themielvescf Bifhop ; for I heard from fome that faw 
fhips:" " fome of them in the Tower but laft Saturday 
" calling to one another by the title of Lord- 
" Ihip, whereas by the fundamental laws and 
" ancient conftitution of the kingdom, their 
" flyle is, * Your Paternity' or ' Fatherhood.' 
" As for enlarging them, I will fay nothing, 
and «f becaufe I think they follow their fundlion 

keep them *'. o^ preaching better than they did before 
where they ci ^^^ came in, and are likewife lodged in a 
" good air : but for Durham and Lichfield, 
"I defire they may be enlarged for their 
humble fubmiflion. They are lodged in a 
• Journal \ Harl. MSS. 163, f. 459 a. 


^ X. Shadows of the Coming Event. 105 

" clofe air, namely, in the houfe of Mr. "Clofe 
" Maxwell, ufher of the black rod, near cLring 
" Charing Crofs."* D'Ewes can hardly have Crofs. 
meant that the air was clofe at Charing Crofs, 
but rather, we may prefume, that Mr. Max- 
well's houfe afforded, for the clofe keeping of 
a prifoner of ftate, lefs roomy and airy as well 
as much more coftly accommodation, than 
might be found in the buildings of the 
Tower, f 

§ X. Shadows of the Coming Event. 

Other incidents, more exciting even than 
the impeachment of the whole epifcopal bench, J^*^"^^ °^ 

i _ ^ r r ■' Commons, 

were meanwhile helping to rnake more memor- Dec. 30th, 

able this laft day but one of a moft eventful ^ '*'^' 

year, and D'Ewes enables us for the firft time 

to retrace them. " The Conference," he fays, 

" being ended, we returned to the Houfe, moft Members 

*' men expreffing a great deal of alacrity of by the 

" fpirit for this indifcreet and unadvifed adl of ^°%°^ 

* Harleian MSS. 163, f. 433 a. 

f Biftiop Hall confirms this view, telling us how much 
fubfequent reaibn he had to congratulate himfelf that the 
courtefy of the Black Rod, which at firft he had much defired, 
had not been extended to himfelf. " Only two of our number DJfadvan- 
" had the favour of the Black Rod, by reafon of their age ; j^g-gg ^f 
** which, though defired by a noble Lord on my behalf" (Hall ^•^ Black 
was in his 68th year) " would not be yielded. Wherein j^^j 
" I acknowledge and blefs the gracious providence of my 
" God : for had I been gratified, I had been undone both in 
" body and purfe ; the rooms being ftrait, and the expenfes 
" beyond the r?ach of my eftate." fVorks, i. xlvi. 

io6 Arrefl of the Five Members. 

the " the Bifhops." * It was fuch alacrity of 

fpirit as lighted up the gloomy features of 
St. John when he felt that all muft be worfe 
before it could be better. But it was quickly 
difpelled in the prefent cafe by the unufual 
Members gravity and ferioufnefs with which Pym, after 
alarmed j-gport made of the Conference, moved unex- 

by a lug- ^ ^ 

geftion of pededly that the door of the Houfe might be 
•^™ ** fhut, and that none might go out. Others, 
carrying further the fears of their grave leader, 
would have had it ordered alfo that the out- 
ward room might be cleared, and that none 
might go into the Committee Chamber. But 

Objeaion at this Sir Simonds arofe. " Thinking it," he 

made by - n • r 

D'Ewes. lays, "too great a reitramt, upon any realon 
'' whatever, I moved that I did very well allow 
" that the door (hould be fhut, but to reftrain 
" our going into the Committee Chamber 
" there was no need, feeing we intended to 
** clear the outward room, where there would 
*' be none left but the officers and minifters of 
" the Houfe, whom I conceived we might 
*^ truft to." D'Ewes's fuggeftion was admitted 
to be reafonable, and was adopted ; but the 
Speaker made a point at the fame time of 
defiring that nobody who went into the faid 
Committee Chamber fhould fpeak to anybody 

A ftrange gut at the window, or throw out unto them 

motion . . ^ r. i i» t^.t- 

expefted: any paper writmg. "1 expeded, D iLwes 
adds, " fome ftrange motion upon this fecret 

* Harleian MSS. 162, f. 294 b. 

§ X. Shadows of the Coming Event. 107 

" fecluding and clofe reftraining of ourfelves ; which fol- 
" and it followed accordingly."* coTdingly. 

What Pym proceeded to fay had fomething 
in it beyond that mere general fenfe of danger, 
which, from his knowledge of the King's 
charafler, he muft have known to be incident 
to his own refufal of the offer that had been 
fo recently made to him. His remarks, as briefly 
reported by D'Ewes, can hardly fail to be re- 
garded as evidence of fome knowledge, on his 
part, of the attempt fo foon to be made. He is Pym's 
miftaken as to time, the danger being lefs 
immediate ; he underftates it as to perfons, the 
peril ftretching to the Houfe generally through 
individuals firft to be affailed ; but in defiring 
to obtain from the majority a prompt and 
decifive adlion upon their claim to a fufficient 
Guard or Protedion to be chofen by themfelves, 
which was Hill in difpute with the King, he The reme- 
had, while necefTarily perhaps leaving un- aLger. 
revealed the entire extent of the danger known 
to him, with great fagacity at once addreffed 
himfelf to the remedy that alone could fully 
meet the danger, whatever it might be. His 
objed: was to induce the Houfe to invite a 
Guard of Citizens to their protedion without Necefllty 
another day's delay ; but he fpoke evidently mediate 
under fome reftraint, and the reception given Guard. 
to what he faid would feem to indicate that he 
had taken but few into his confidence as to 

* Harl. MSS. 162, f. 295 a. 

io8 Arrejl of the Five Members. 

the particulars which rendered him fo urgent. 

The Altogether, indeed, it is evident enough that, 

truth^not through the interval which had yet to pafs 

told. before the King's attempt was made, Pym was 

driven to concealments and half-confidences 

which circumftances rendered unavoidable ; 

and there is little reafon to doubt that from 

thofe who had fecretly opened with him the 

negotiations for that acceptance of office which 

Report of would have been his ruin, he had derived, 

s eech b ^^^^^" the fame feal of fecrecy, knowledge 

D'Ewes. which proved diredlly inilrumental to his fafety 

and that of his friends. 

The precife words of D'Ewes are thefe: 
" Mr. Pym moved that there being a defign 
" to be executed this day upon the Houfe of 

A defign _, • i r i • n i i • 

to be Commons, we might lend mltantly to the city 

executed: tc q^ London. That there was a plot for the 
A plot " deftroying of the Houfe of Commons this 
for de- <« ciay. That we fhould therefore defire them 
the Houfe " to come down with the Train Bands for our 
of Com- cc afTiftance." At which D'Ewes confefTes he 


was very much troubled, becaufe he feared that 

the remedy propofed would be as dangerous 

as the pretended defign. "Some few," he adds, 

*' feconded Mr. Pym's motion, but more op- 

" pofed it; and fome wilhed that we might 

Adjourn- " adjourn ourfelves to Guildhall." D'Ewes 

Guildhall flp^^^ °"^ ^^"^^ quefliion, remarking, in oppo- 

propofed. fition to Pym, that if all the grounds of 

fufpicion were that fome officers of the late 

§» X. Shadows of the Coming Event. 109 

army had been caroufing at Whitehall the pre- 
vious day, or that the King had drawn together 
a Guard, he did not think thefe fufficient to D'Ewes 
juftify departure to the city. He added a fug- departure 
geftion oddly charadleriftic of himfelf, that if to City, 
Mr. Pym had more certain grounds for the 
caufes of fear alleged, he knew of no fuch 
prefent preventive than that "we fhould 
" adjourn ourfelves till three of the clock, 
" that fo we may not be taken altogether."* "Let us 
As for the proceeding into the city, he quoted t^ken 
a faying of the Recorder, that the citizens are together." 
not all the fons of one mother, nor of one 
mind ; and it was not well that the Houfe 
fhould place abfolute faith even in London 
citizens. The words which clofed his fpeech 
are all of it that he has further left on record. 
He wilhed to learn what the defign was to The 
which Mr. Pym had alluded, and whether it neaf or 
were near or diftant. diftant? 

Pym made no reply to this appeal, and the 
refult of the day's debate is not known. But 
it is probable, from what occurred next day, 
that the middle courfe was adopted of a renewed 
appeal to the King. 

On Friday the ■? i ft December, Denzil Hollis Friday, 

. . lift Dec 

delivered verbally to Charles the Firft, in the ,5^1. 
name of the Commons of England, their 
earneft defire for a Guard out of the City „ , 

' Demand 

under command of the Earl of Eflex. The for Guard 

• Harleian MSS. 162, f 295 b . 


Arrefi of the Five Members. 



No reply. 


mittee to 

ift Jan. 
1641 — 2. 

King, whofe objedt now was to gain time 
however brief, declined to receive this verbal 
meflage, and required it in writing. It was 
immediately drawn up and prefented the fame 
day ; and we learn that the Commons, receiving 
no immediate anfwer, committed it to three of 
their members, Pye, Glynn, and Wheeler, 
juftices of peace for Weftminfter, to fet, in con- 
venient places for the fafeguard of the Houfe, 
good watches fufficiently armed. They further 
ordered that Halberts fhould be provided, and 
brought into the Houfe, for their own better 
fecurity ; which was done accordingly to the 
number of twenty, "and the faid Halberts 
" ftood in the Houfe for a confiderable time 
** afterwards." Reludlantly was confent then 
given* to adjournment over even the old re- 
cognifed holiday of New Year's Day, and not 
without the naming of a Committee to receive 
the King's anfwer if it fhould meanwhile be 

That anfwer, however, the King had refolved 
to accompany by another document that 
Ihould be the moft charaderiftic comment it 
was capable of receiving, and both were 
withheld until the morning of the following 
Monday. For the intervening Saturday he 
had other engagements. f On that day, the 

* After a remarkable speech by Pym at conference with 
the Lords: see Pari. Hiji. Ed. 1762, x. 151-5. 
Dates of f The Council Regifter fupplies important dates. On 
the ift Januaiy 1 64.1-2, the fubjoined entry appears. 

^ X. Shadows of the Coming Event. i ii 

firft of the ill-omened year when his ftandard A Coun- 
was finally unfurled againft the moft earneft whhe- 
and confcientious of his fubjedls, he fat with hall. 
his minifters in Whitehall ; and, the great 
Leader of the Long Parliament having refufed 
his proffered bribe, thofe two members of the 
Long Parliament who at its opening had with 
the greateft vehemence denounced the crimes Falkland 
of his mifgovernment took places at the ^"^ ^"^" 

o -T ^ peper 

Board. Lord Falkland was fworn of his fwom into 
Majefty's moft honorable Privy Council, and offices, 
feven days later received the feals of a Secretary 
of State ; and Sir John Culpeper having 
been alfo duly fworn, order was given for 
preparation of his patent as Chancellor of the 
Exchequer. It was made out " for life : " 
the King vainly hoping by fuch unconftitutional 
expedients to bar the power of the Commons Confe- 
to efFe6t a removal of his Councillors. Whether ^^J""^ 
or not Culpeper and Falkland had cognizance refponfi- 
of the firft official adt that was to follow their 

" This day Lucius Vifcount Falkland was fworne of his new 
♦* Ma" Moft Hon'''« Privy Counfell, by his Ma" Command appoint- 
" fitting in Counfell, tooke his place and figned with the ments. 
" other Lords." 

A fimilar entry of the fame date has relation to Culpeper, Culpeper 
and order is given for his admilFion "into the place of his Chancel- 
" Ma'" Under Treafurer and Chancellor of his Excheq' : " lor of Ex- 
but the patent fecuring him the office for life (he held it for chequer, 
little more than a year, it being then given to Hyde) is not 
dated until the 6th of January. Two days later we have the 
following entry : 

"This day, his Ma''* prefent in Counfell, and by his Royall Falkland 
" Command, the Lord Vifc' Falkland was fworne one of his Secretary 
" Ma" Princlpall Secretaries of State." of State. 


Arreft of the Five Members. 

to Office 
at fuch a 

3rd Jan. 

meflage to 

ment to 
the Lords. 

duced by 

acceptance of office, it cannot be doubted that 
they accepted it at too critical a time, and amid 
public excitements and difTenfions of too high 
and dangerous a nature, not to imply alfo a 
deliberate and fettled acceptance of all the con- 
fequences it might carry with it. 

§ XL The Impeachment before the 

The day had at length arrived when the 
danger fo long believed to be impending 
was to take definite fhape. Early in the 
morning of Monday the 3rd of January, 
while the Lower Houfe were moodily listening 
to the King's meflage refufing them the 
military Guard they had aflced for under' 
Eflex's command, but promifing, with what 
muft have founded as contemptuous irony, 
to be himfelf their protedor, Mr. Attorney- 
General Herbert, who was no longer a member 
of the Commons .but had taken his feat with 
the Lords under his writ of fummons as 
Afliftant, was delivering at the clerk's table 
of the Upper Houfe the fubfl:ance of another 
Royal Meflage, accufing of high treafon five 
members of the Commons and one of the 
Lords. Every circumfliance of mere form 
was obferved in the accufation ; and Mr. 
Attorney had not left his feat on the Judges* 
woolfack until Lord-Keeper Littleton, as the 
mouthpiece of the King, had duly referred to 

§ XI. The Impeachment before the Lords. 113 

the public bufinefs which his officer was there 
to difcharge. It is not unimportant to obferve 
this, feeing that both thefe dignitaries of State 
fought afterwards to put off from themfelves 
upon the Sovereign the refponflbility which the 
a6t had made their own. 

The articles of treafon were feven in TheSeven 
number, and were read from a paper which Articles of 

^ * i^ 1 realon. 

Sir Edward Herbert afterwards, in defending 
himfelf, faid that he had received directly from 
the King. Whether the formal and ftridlly 
legal wording and expreflion of the articles 
had been received alfo diredlly from the King, 
he omitted to fay. The firft article charged i. 
the accufed generally with the attempt to fub- general 

<=> J ir charge. 

vert the Government and fundamental laws, 
and to place in fubje(5ls an arbitrary and tyran- 
nical power. The fecond, aimed againft their li. 
authorfhip of the Remonftrance, attributed to ^"^^q^" 
them the traitorous endeavour, by many foul Remon- 
afperfions upon his Majefty and his Govern- 
ment, to alienate the afFedions of the people, 
and to make his Majefty odious to them. 
The third charged them with having en- iii. 
deavoured to draw the King's late army to jng'^^ji 
fide with them in their traitorous defigns. the army. 
The fourth, direded againft alleged communi- iv. 
cations with the Scottifh Rebels, imputed to ^jons 
them the traitorous invitation and encouraere- t° ^^f 

. . 1 1 • Ti /r • /I > Scotch, 

ment to a foreign power to mvade his Majeity s 
kingdom of England. The fifth, adopting 


Arrejl of the Five Members. 


ment of 
ing Mi- 




the language of the Minority of the Commons 
when the demand to record a proteft agalnft 
the pafling of the Remonftrance was refufed, 
accufed them of having traitoroufly en- 
deavoured to fubvert the rights and very 
being of parHaments. The fixth accufed them 
of having adlually raifed and countenanced tu- 
mults againft his Majefty. And by the feventh, 
having reference to the armed Guard which 
they had perfifted in voting for protedion of 
the Houfe, they were faid to have traitoroufly 
confpired to levy, and adlually to have levied, 
war againft the King. A manufcript copy 
of the charge, endorfed in the handwriting of 
Secretary Nicholas as " articles of treafon 
" againft Mr. Pym and the reft," exifts in 
the State Paper Office, and is printed below.* 

JVIS. * " Articles of High Treafon and other high mifdemeanors 

Articlesof " ag'the Lord Kemolton, Mr. John Pym, Mr. John Hampden, 
Treafon in " M""- Denzil Hollis, Sir Arth' Haflericke, and Mr. Will" 




" Strode. 

That they have traytoroufly endeav"* to fubvert the funda- 

mentall Lawes and Gov'" of the Kingdome of England, 

to deprive y'' king of his royale power, & to place 

in fubjefts an arbitrary & tyrannicall power over the 

lives, libertyes, & eftates of his Maj" lovinge people. 

That they have traytoroufly endeav'' by many fowle afpcr- 

fions upon his Ma"*^ & his Govern', to alienate the 

afFeftions of his people, & to make his Ma''" odious unto 


That they have endeav^ to drawe his Ma'' late armye to 

difobedience to his Ma""'' coiiSands, & to fyde with 

them in their traytorous defignes. 

That they have traytoroufly invited and incouraged a 

forreigne power to invade his Ma""" kingdome of 


That they have traytoroufly endeav'' to fubvert the rights 

& very being of Parlam'*. 

§ XI. The Impeachment before the Lords. 1 1 5 

While the articles were publicly read, the Agitation 
trouble and agitation were extreme. Their ^"df * ' 
Lordfhips, to ufe the expreflion of Clarendon, 
were " appalled." He is hardly juftified, how- 
ever, when he fomewhat fpitefully adds that 
they took time till the next day to confider of 
it, that they might fee how their Matters the imme- 
Commons would behave themfelves. Waiving ^^^^^ 
altogether the King's requirement through his taken. 
Attorney-General for immediate pofleflion of 
the perfons of the accufed, and for a committee 
to take evidence on the charges, the Lords at 
once raifed the queftion of the regularity of the 
accufation itfelf, and referred it to a certain King's 
number of their members to produce prece- '^""^"'^ 
dents and records. They fent an immediate 
meflage to the other Houfe and named mem- 
bers for a Conference. On the previous day, 
as on a day preceding, they had declined the 
urgent inftance of the Commons to join with 
them in demanding a Guard under an officer of 
their own feledlion ; but now they intimated Agree- 

,. ^• r •••1 J J* ment with 

their readmels to jom m that aemand.* Commons. 

*' 6. That for the compleating of their traytorousdefigns, they 

have endeav** as farr as in them lay by force & terror to 

compell the Parlam' to joyne with them in theire tray- 

torous Defigns, and to that end have aftually rayfed & 

countenanced tumults ag' y"= King and Parlam', 

" 7. That they have traytoroufly confpired to levie & aftually 

have levyed warr ag' the King. 

* The petition of both Houfes was tranfmitted on the 

evening of the 3rd, but the reply, fufpended by the exciting 

events which immediately followed, was not handed in until 

after the King had left London never to return, and the 

Houfes had provided their own Guards. The original MS. 

1 1 6 Arreji of the Five Members. 

The feeling difplayed was altogether fuch. 
Lord indeed, that though the peer included in the 
Kimbol- articles of impeachment. Lord Kimbolton, 

ton repels ^ 

the was not only prefent, but upon the inftant 

c arge. ^j-ofe, repelled the charge, and challenged 
public enquiry into it, no one was fo hardy 
as to prefs for his commitment. The perfon 
fitting next to Kimbolton while the Attorney- 
General read the articles, was Lord Digby, 
Lord who alone, according to Clarendon, knew of 
filent^ the King's intention, and had promifed to 
move the commitment (after the precedent in 
the cafe of Strafford) as foon as the accufation 

Charles's °^ *^"^ reply ftlll exifts in the State Paper Office, dated 

j- , the 3rd, and wholly in the handwriting of the King. It fhows 

• • what his determination had been to fight out the matter to 

ftirC a A ^^ '^^' ^^^ ^^ fecret reliance he ftill placed, notwithftanding 

the Citizen aflemblages and tumults at Weftminfter, on the 

power of the Lord Mayor within the City to promote and 

lupport his fervice. It is endorfed " Anfwer for a Guard," 

and runs thus : 

Not Lord " We having confidered the Petition of bothe houfes of 

EfTex, but " Parlament concerning a Guard, doe give this anfwer; that 

Lord *' we will (to fecure there feares) comand the L. Mayor of 

Lindsay : " London to apoint 200 men out of the Trained Bands of the 

" Citie (fuch as he will be anfwerable for to us) to wait on 

" the Houfes of Par: that is to fay, a Hundred on each 

" Houfe, & to bee comanded by the E: of Lindfay : it being 

" moft proper to him, as being L: Great Chamberlaine; who 

" by his place hath a particular charg: of y" Houfes of 

" Parliam', and of whofe integritie, courage, & fufficiencie, 

" none can dout." 

The moft '^^^ amount of fincerity involved in this propofal may be 

devoted of meafured by the faft, that the Hereditary Great Chamberlain, 

Royal being its author's moft devoted adherent, was the man who 

partizai.s. "^^'thin two or three weeks after figning the celebrated Belief that 

Charles had no intention to declare war againft his fubjefts, 

a6tually took command of the troops levied for that purpofe, 

and immediately after fell bravely fighting for his mafter as 

Commander-in-chief of the Royalift forces at Edgehill. 

§ XI. 'The Impeachment before the Lords, 117 

fhould be made.* Whether the warning fent 
this day by Marftonf had already reached Lord 
Kimbolton, we have no means of knowing; 
but it feems probable that it had, and that his Failure in 
prepared and refolute afpedt took Digby by fur- or"good 
prife. It is quite clear, from a fubfequent faith : 
paflage in Clarendon's Hiftory, that the author 
believed his friend to have failed either in 
courage or good faith. l}l Not to have moved 
at once the commitment " as foon as the At- 
" torney-General had accufed Kimbolton," he 
made a diftindt charge againft Digby, on the ciaren- 
ground that if he had done fo, he would pro- charge 
bably " have raifed a very hot difpute in the againft 
" Houfe, where many would have joined with 
" him." I do not think it unjuft to Lord 
Clarendon to fay, that we may infer from this 
pafTage what his own feeling was. Yet between 
the proceeding by Attorney, and the King's 
perfonal interference, the difference was not 
very great. 

For the moment, there' is little doubt, even Digby 
Digby's recklefs audacity would appear to have ^^^^^^k • 
failed him. Seeing the temper of the Houfe, 
he not only fat filent, but afFed:ed the utmoft 
furprife and perplexity as Mr. Attorney pro- 
ceeded ; and at the clofe, whifpering in Lord 
Kimbolton's ear with great feeming agitation 
that the King was very mifchievoufly advifed, 

* Clarendon, Hi/I. ii. 125. f See ante, 86-88. 

I Hijl. ii. 128. 

1 1 8 Arreft of the Five Members, 

and fud- that it fhould go hard but he would difcover 
?he Houfe! ^^^ advifer, and that he would at once go to 

him to prevent further mifchief, he rapidly 

quitted the Houfe.* 

% XII. The Impeachment before the 

p'Ewes D'EwES meanwhile was bufy in the Lower 
lower Houfe with his pen and ink, in his ufual place 
Ht fe, i^y fj^g Speaker's chair, " on the lowermoft 
" form clofe by the fouth end of the clerk's 
" table ; " but his pen moved lefs regularly 
than was its wont, and there is fcarcely a fingle 
fentence in this particular day's entry that is 
not left half-finifhed. As he entered the 
Houfe he had obferved groups and crowds of 
officers and others fcattered about here and 
there, in the lobbies and outfide paffages, in a 
manner not ufual ; but he took his feat with- 
out fufpicion of what was paffing in the Lords, 
Pym and found Pym fpeaking to the Anfwer made 
toThe"^ by his Majefty to the defire of the Houfe for 
King's a Guard of their own choolins;, and making re- 

refufal of . . . 

a Guard, port as to thofe very incidents, of a threatening 
and unufual kind, which had attracted his own 
attention outiide. Soon the agitation prevail- 
ing communicated itfelf to the learned member 
D'Ewes's for Sudbury, and we can but follow in un- 
and un- finifhcd and fomewhat incoherent lines the 
finiOied courfe of the fpeech, at the clofe of which 


* Clarendon, Hiji, ii. p. 128. 

§ XII. The Impeachment before the Commons. 1 19 

Pym moved and carried a fuggeftion by way ofsuggef- 
requeft to the authorities of the City, that they a city '^ 
would permit companies of trained bands to Guard, 
attend as a Guard upon the Houfes at Weft- 
minfter, and that they would fet ftrong defences 
and watches about the City ftreets and walls. 

One or two of the fentences ftill traceable in 
D'Ewes's note-book may fhow the tone Pym 
fpoke in. *« The Great Counfel of the King- Frag- ^^ 
' dom fhould fit as a free Counfel . . . No pym's'"' 
' force about them without confent . . . Not Speech. 
' only a Guard of foldiers but many Officers 
' in Whitehall . . . Divers defperate and 

* loofe perfons are lifted and combined together 
' under pretext to] do his Majefty fervice. 
"... One Mr. Buckle had faid the Earl of 

* Strafford's death muft be avenged, and the 
' houfe of Commons were a company of giddy- 
' brained fellows." After Pym ceafed, Natha- 
niel Fiennes brought forward, by way of 
report, fome other fads exhibiting the difloyal 
condud of the Digbys to the Houfe ; but his 
relation was brought fuddenly to a clofe. Pym 

and Denzil Hollis were called to the door upon Pym and 
urgent mefTages by their fervants,and members, informed 
in much excitement, began talking to each other of outrage 
at the fame moment of what was pafTmg in the homes : 
Lords. Then Pym returned to his place, and 
Nathaniel Fiennes clofed his report. 

** Mr. Fiennes's relation was fcarce made," 
fays D'Ewes, " when the whole Houfe, at leaji 

I20 Arrefi of the Five Members. 

Theirs <* the moft of us^ werc much amazed with 
Hamp- " Mr. Pym's information, who fhowed that 
den's cc j^jg trunks, ftudv, and chamber, and alfo 

papers i r r 

I'eized by " thofe of Mr. Dcnzu Hollis, and Mr. Hamp- 
walSnt- " ^^"' yNZXQ, fealcd up by fome fent from 
" his Majefty." This the Houfe proceeded 
to declare a grave breach of privilege ; and it 
was further ordered, without debate, and with 
wife and well-timed reference to the folemn 
Declared ProtcftatioH which every member had figned 
priv^kge? o"' ^^ ^^^ ^^ StrafFord's execution in behalf of 
the rights of Parliament, that if any perfon 
whatfoever, without firft acquainting the Houfe 
therewith and receiving from it due and necef- 
fary inftrudlion, jfhould offer to arreft or detain 
the perfon of any member, it was lawful for 
fuch member to ftand upon his guard of de- 
fence, and to make refiftance according to the 
Proteftation taken to defend the privileges of 
Refiftance Parliament. D'Ewes adds, that " though pri- 
■'" ' ^ * " vate intimation was now given to us that the 
" King's Attorney had in his Majefty's name 
" in the Lords' Houfe accufed the faid mem- 
" bers, and fome others of our Houfe of high 
*^ treafon, yet we accounted it a breach of 
*^ privilege that their papers, &c. fhould be 
Refoliitlon *^ fealcd up before their crime was made known 
Se of "to this Houfe.-;* 

private A breach of privilege had indeed been com- 

mitted. Fifty voices arofe with that of the 

* HarUian MSS,, 162, fF. 300 b, 302 a. 

§ XII. The Impeachment before the Commons. 121 

learned mafter of precedents at once to violation 
declare it fo. It was not fimply that the^f^J^^,^ 
privileges of Parliament had been outraged in privilege, 
the form and manner of the proceeding, but 
that the moft ordinary fafeguards of law, to 
which the meaneft citizen had to look for his 
daily and hourly protedion, had been deli- 
berately violated and put aiide. The new 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, Culpeper, was 
prefent ; and with Lord Falkland, the new The new 
Privy Councillor, occupied for the firft time Juent/'^* 
the official feats on the right of the Speaker's 
chair : but not a word againft the refolution 
now moved was uttered by either. Hyde was 
not in the Houfe, and it will appear hereafter 
to be a fa6t of fome fignificance that no proof Hyde 
is difcoverable of his prefence during any of ^^^^"^" 
thefe debates. 

The declaration of breach of privilege, and the No oppo- 
order for refiftance, having pafled by acclamation, attempted 
a Committee of conference was appointed to 
carry them to the Lords ; the managers named 
being Glyn, the member for Weftminfter and 
one of the leading lawyers on the popular fide, 
Nathaniel Fiennes, and Sir Philip Stapleton. 
Thefe had anfwered to their names, and 
were about to proceed to the Lords, when 
it was announced that Mr. Francis, King's The ^ 
Serjeant-at-Arms, was at the door of the Serjeant at 
Commons, having the mace in his hand, and *,^^ i""^*^ 

■, . ' . the Houle: 

bearing command to deliver from his Majefty 

122 Jrrefi of the Five Members. 

a meflkge to Mr. Speaker. But, even in that 
hour of fupreme excitement, the leaders of 
the Houfe forgot nothing that was due to 
its power and pre-eminence within its own 
walls. Mr. Francis was not permitted to 
enter until he had laid afide his mace. Divefted 
Enters, of that fymbol of authority he advanced to the 
his mace. Bar, and amid profound filence faid that he 
had been commanded by the King's Majefty, 
his matter, upon his allegiance that he fhould 
repair to the Houfe of Commons where 
Mr. Speaker was, and there to require of 
Mr. Speaker five gentlemen, members of 
the Houfe of Commons ; and thofe gentle- 
Demands men being delivered, he was commanded 
Accufed. to arreft them in his Majefty's name of 
High Treafon. " Their names," he added, 
" are Denzil Hollis, Sir Arthur Haflerig, 
'^ John Pym, John Hampden, and William 
" Strode." 
NoDe- No debate followed. The temper of the 

Houfe had been too decidedly fhown to render 
fafe any attempt to contravene it ; and a fort 
of fettled and ftern compofure, contracting 
ftrangely with the agitation that prevailed 
while yet the threatened blow had not fallen, 
appears in all the proceedings that immediately 
followed. The full knowledge of the worft, 
Compo- or what too haftily was taken for the worft, 
^J^^^°J*^^ brought with it all that upon the inftant 
became neceflary to fecure — what now was 

§ XII. The Impeachment before the Commons. 123 

diredly in peril — even the very exiftence of 

Parliament and parliamentary power. 

Mr. Francis was diredled to wait outfide The Ser- 

the door until the pleafure of the Houfe ^j^^^j."^°'j 

fliould be communicated to him. A meflage wait out- 


to the King was then ordered, not to be carried 
by Mr. Francis, but by four of their own mem- 
bers, of whom two, being his Majefty's Privy 
Councillors, might haply ferve to remind 
him, that, even from his chofen and feleded 
Minifters, an allegiance was due within thofe 
walls from which no power or prerogative 
claiming above the law could abfolve them. 
As the fworn fervants, not of the King, but of Deputa- 
the Commons of England, Culpeper and Faulk- carry mef- 
land were required to accompany Sir John ^?^ ^° *^^ 
Hotham and Sir Philip Stapleton, when the 
clofe of the conference with the Lords fhould 
have releafed Sir Philip. They were to inform 
the King that his meflage, being matter of 
great confequence, and concerning the privilege 
of all the Commons of England, would be 
taken into ferious confideration by the Houfe, 
which in all humility and duty would attend the ac- 
his Majefty with an anfwer with as much fpeed anfweiTny 
as the greatnefs of the bufinefs would permit, ^^gal 
and that the faid accufed members in the 
meantime fhould be ready to anfwer any legal 
charge made againft them. 

The five members were then feparately ad- 
drefled by Mr. Speaker, who enjoined them, one 

1 24 Arreft of the Five Members, 

The Five by One, to attend de die in diem in that Houfe 
ordered to "^^^11 further diredlion, fuch attendance to be 
attend fpecially entered upon the Journals.* Of the 
matter charged in the articles of treafon no 
notice now was taken. An order was fimply 
made that the Houfe fhould fit next morning 
at ten o'clock, as a Grand Committee, to con- 
fider the mefTage of the King. But what this 
meant was well underftood, and that the 
members were then to be heard in reply to 
their accufer. 

The ad; which followed proved to be one of 
Refolu- the moft important of all. The refolution for 
Military a Guard of the trained bands of the City, 
S"c[t'^°"* moved and carried by Pym at the opening of 
the fitting, was turned into an order of the 
Houfe and committed to the care of Alderman 
Venn and Pennington and Captain Venn, members for 
tonfent to London, who were diredled immediately to 
the Lord j-epair thither and demand of the Chief Magif- 

Mayor. ^ . . . , . ° 

trate and Authorities therein, in compliance 
with fuch order, a Military Guard for pro- 
tection of the Houfe. The charge was 
promptly executed ; in what circumft:ances, 
and with what eflTedt, will hereafter be feen. 

All this had been done with marked delibe- 
ration, and the day was far advanced. The 
Day conference with the Lords as to breach of 
declining, privilege had been brought to a clofe, and the 
Upper Houfe had joined with the Lower in 

* Where it yet (lands, C. J. ii. 368. 

§ XII. 'The Impeachment before the Commons. 125 

declaring againft the outrage committed by 
the a6l of fealing up the trunks, papers, and Seals 
doors, in the private houfes of the accufed. King's ^ 
Then an order pafTed the Houfe, giving power to r^r^"^ ^° 
its Serjeant-at-Arms to break open thofe feals, 
and to Mr. Speaker's warrant to take into cuf- 
tody the perfons by whom they were attached. 
Sir William Fleming and Sir William Killi- 
grew,* it had now been afcertained, were the 
King's principal agents ; and, a warrant for 
their apprehenfion having been iffued. Sir King's 
William Fleming and the perfons who had w^^" feized 
ad:ed under his diredion were conveyed that papers to 

. ^ be im- 

night to the cuftody of the Serjeant-at-Arms, prifoned. 
Sir William Killigrew was not to be found. 

Of the ad:s and proceedings of this memor- 
able day, which before midnight were in print 
and circulated throughout the City, that v/as 

• Thefe were men recklefe and needy, hangers-on of the 
court, and of broken fortunes. Among more important docu- 
ments in the State Paper Office there remains a note of this 
Sir William Killigrew's dated eighteen months before this Sir Wil- 
time, which {hows, not merely the ftraits he was in for money li^ni Killi- 
(common enough then for the beft men about the Court), grew: 
but the dilcreditable ways and means he reforted to for getting 
it. "Knowe all men," it runs, " that I, S' W" Killigrew 
" of London Kn' have borrowed of Mast' Robert Longe of 
" London Esq' a diamond hatband and one table diamond and the 
" ringe, w^ I the faid S' W" Killigrew have pawned unto diamond 
" Capt. Peeter (who dwelleth at M'" Southes the cutlar hatband 
" in the Strand) for one hundred pounds} the which I doe and ring. 
" binde myfelfe my heires and executors to redeeme and to 
" reftore unto Maft' Longe in or before Michaelmas Terme 
'* next : in witnefs whereof I have hereunto fett my hand, 
"London : June az"*, 1640. W" Killigrew." 

Endorfed : " Sir W" Killigrew's note for the Diamond 
" Hatt Band and Ring." 

126 Arrefi of the Five Members. 

Laftaft the lafl: but one. The laft was to fend out 

Houfe on intimation to the King's Serjeant-at-Arms 

3rd Jan. and MefTenger, Mr. Francis, "who attended 

*' all this while at the door of the Houfe of 

" Commons," that the anfwer to the King 

would be borne by members of their own. 

§ XIII. What followed the 

It was night before Falkland, Culpeper, 

Interview Stapleton and Hotham were admitted to 

King. ^ audience at Whitehall, and very ftrange the in- 

• terview muft have been. Charles appears to have 

addrefled himfelf folely to Falkland. Haftily, 

when the meflage had been delivered, he afked 

whether any reply was expeded, and, in the fame 

breath, before Falkland could anfwer, faid that 

A promife ^^ Houfe fhould havc his reply as foon as it 

lor next „- ^ • i 

day. afiembled next mornmg, and that meanwhile 

it was to take his aflurance that what had been 

done was done by his diredtion. It is juft poflible 

that Charles's intention, when he faid this, may 

have been to fend fuch reply ; but if fo, it did 

not furvive the fcene which is alleged to have 

been adled in thofe royal apartments not many 

hours after the four members quitted them.''' 

The anecdote refts on the authority of a 

Authority manufcHpt note publifhed by the hiftorian 

t^be de^- Echard, which had been left by Sir William 

fcribed. Coj^e of Norfolk to Mr. Archetil Grey, the 

* Echard's Hijlory (ed. 1720), p. 520. 

§ xiii. What followed the Impeachment. 127 

brother of Lord Grey of Groby ; and though Admix- 
it certainly feems dated fome hours too foon true and 
even for the occurrence it profefles to relate, f^'^«- 
and fhould be read very guardedly, there 
is room to fufpedt that it poflefles a con- 
fiderable fubftratum of truth, for the under- 
ftanding of which the reader will be better 
prepared if certain preliminary circumftances 
and confiderations are fubmitted to him. 
Upon the entire ftatement of the fa6ls he will 
have to judge, how far the proceedings which view 
already have been defcribed are likely, in all the Mr. 
ftartling and dangerous circumftances of the ^^^^^"^' 
time, to have been taken, as Mr. Hallam 
feems to fuppofe, by the King adling fingly 
and apart, not merely from his authorized 
advifers and from all his Privy Council,* but 
from the new adherents of his perfon and 
recipients of his favour, won to him by the 
Great Remonftrance. He will have to deter- How far 
mine how far it is credible, that a defign of 
fuch magnitude as the impeachment of leading 
members of the Commons, of which before 
the event rumours and alarms had gone forth 

* Hallam's words are [Conji. Hiji. n. 125, ed, 1855) that 111 ad- 
*' the King was guided by bad private advice, and cared not vifers : 
" to let any of his Privy Council know his intentions left he 
** ftiould encounter oppofition." This fumiife may be correft, Mr. Hal- 
but the King's charafter and hiftory cannot be faid to fupport lam's view 
it. The life of Strafford offers inceffant proof that Charles not con- 
took ftrange pleafure in refifting the advice of men moft fonant 
attached to him, and in whom he had reafon to place the with cha- 
greateft confidence. All the moft ferious afts of his own life rafter of 
were done in the very teeth of the moft prudent counfellors the King, 
who remained with him. 


Arreji of the Five Members. 

Did the 
King aft 
apart from 
all advice ? 

Were the 





ignorant ? 

of their 

in many quarters ; for which the late lawlefs 
levy of a Court of Guard at Whitehall was 
now loudly aflerted to have been the prepara- 
tion ; which, to every one in the King's con- 
fidence, was beyond all queftion known to be a 
defign not now for the firft time entertained ; 
and which required the aid of the keeper of 
his confcience, and the firft law officer of his 
crown, to carry through its very firft ftage ; 
had yet been imparted to no member of his 
Council when from his own hand the Attorney- 
General Herbert received the written articles 
of treafon, and from his own lips the Lord 
Keeper Littleton took the mefTage to the 
Lords. When Littleton and Herbert after- 
wards aflerted fo much, Strode, one of the 
accufed, publicly avowed his dift)elief.* But 

Mr. At- 
excufes to 
the Houfe. 


lieved by 

* This incident took place on the 12th February, when the 

conduft of Sir Edward Herbert (who had fat for Old Sarum : 

there were ten other Herberts in this Parliament) was under 

difcuffion. D'Ewes tells us {HarL MSS. 162, ff. 377b, 385 

a): " Mr. Pierrpoint faid that the Lord Keeper had told 

' him that after his Maj^ had fhown the articles to the 

' Attorney (impeaching Pym, &c.) he did to his uttermoft 

' power advife his Ma'' not to prefer them ; but the King 

' commanding him to do it, he came to the Lords Houl'e 

* to perform the fame, but was fo troubled in mind when 
' he came there, that he did adventure to return back 

* to his Maj^, and did humbly and earneftly advife 

* him the fecond time not to prefer the fame, but then 
' receiving his Maj''" ablblute and peremptory command 
' to do it, he performed it accordingly. Mr. Strode faid 
' he believed that Mr. Attor^ did not only contrive the 

* fame, but knew of the defign itfelf alio, for he was a man 
' of great parts and well fkilled in ftate matters, and was very 

* violent both on Monday and Tuesday Jan'' 3 and 4." All 
things confidered, Strode's fuggeftion was at leaft a pardonable 
one; and the reader will fhortiy have an opportunity of tefting 

§ XIV. Scene in the ^een's Apartments. 1 29 

fuch a queftion cannot even be raifed upon 

the more daring ad which was to be done 

on the fucceeding day. There is not a Propofed 

ihadow of pretence for the aflertion, that the the 4^h not 

King had kept fecret to the laft hour the pur- ^f^'^f 1° 

pofe to which efFeft was now to be given. It 

was moft certainly difcufled on this preceding 

night, and on the morning of the day itfelf ; 

nor is there any doubt as to fome at leaft of Dircufled 

thofe who were prefent at the ill-judged and 


ill-fated Council. "^S^t. 

§ XIV. Scene in the Queen's 

Whitelock, who had fair opportunities of ill ad- 
information both at the time of the occurrence 
and afterwards, fays in his Memorials that " the 
" Papifts, by the means and influence o{ the 

the credibility of the Lord Keeper's and Attorney General's 

ftatement by comparing it with accounts of the tranfaftion 

under the King's own hand. A few days before the prefent 

debate (Saturday, 29 Jan.) an effort had been made by the 

Court party to acquit Herbert by putting off upon " Peter The 

" Baal, Esq. of the Middle Temple, being the Queen's Queen's 

" attorney" (this is the "Ball" of thenotvery comprehenfible Attorney 

paper memorandum in Sir Ralph Verney's Notes, Tp. 150) the aft put for- 

of having drawn the articles of treason. D'Ewes enables me ward. 

to flate this ; and as the clofe of his Journal on that day is cha- 

rafteriflic of the ufage of the time, and of the unruly practices 

of honorable members, I fubjoin it : " Several committees 

" went out between iz Sc i, and many members, about one half 

*' in the Houfe, went out to dinner. Divers called to keep 

" the doors fhut, which made me to move — not to diflurb the 

'* fervice of the Houfe by calling out ' Shut the door,' but "Shut the 

" that we might again renew the ancient order of Parliament, Door." 

** and, feeing the days were growing longer, fit to a later 

<' period in the afternoon." — Harl. MSS. 162. f. 359 b. 


Arrefi of the Five Member s. 

Papifts 'f Queen, as wasfuppofed, perfuaded the King 
women. " the next day in the morning to come himfelf 
" to the Houfe of Commons ; " and he adds, as 
an accredited rumour of the time, that it was 
the women's counfel and irritation of Charles, 
telHng him that if he were King of England 
he would not fuffer himfelf to be baffled about 
thefe perfons, which provoked him to go to the 
Houfe himfelf, and fetch them out.* Madame 
de Motteville ftates diftindlly in her Memoirs 
de Motte- that the Queen had told her of a projed to ftrike 
terror into the Parliament, and feize again the 
power that had been wrefted from them ; and, in 
another pafTage, fhe fays more plainly that the 
King returned from the great dinner which had 
been given him in the City on his arrival from 
Scotland, t fo elated by the cheering and applaufe 

ment of 

ta's con- 
duft on 
the return 

May the 

* Memorials, \. 154 (ed. 1853). 

•j- Ante, 21, 22. Without placing anything of an implicit 
reliance on what isfaid by the Queen's chamber-woman, her 
pofition at the time yet fairly entitles her to be heard. " She " 
(the Queen) " was ever diligent," fays Madame de Motte- 
ville, " in gaining partizans to her hufband, and won over 
" the Lord Mayor. On the King's return from Scotland 
*' (he went to meet him and to apprife him of the compliant 
" difpofition of his fubjefts. The royal family were received 
" in London with great marks of loyalty, & the King re- 
" folved to take advantage of this ftate of things, to feize the 
" leaders of the Houfe of Commons. He entrufted his plan to 
** few but the Queen." A more truftworthy witnefsto thedif- 
aftrous effects of that unfortunate City dinner is the hiftorian 
May : " Who would not in probability have judged," he 
fays (Ji'tji. lib. 2, cap. 2, 18-19), " that the forementioned 
" coftly and fplendid entertainment which the City of London 
" gave to the King, would have exceedingly endeared them 
" unto him, and produced no effefts but of love & concord? 
*' Yet accidentally it proved otherwife. For many people, 
" ill affedled to the Parliament, gave it out in ordinary dif- 

§ XIV. Scene in the ^een's Apartments. 131 

of the Citizens, that he determined to avail 
himfelf of the fuppofed popularity implied in it, 
to feize the "leaders " in Parliament. Monte- Warning 
reuil, the French AmbafTador, fubfequently cufed from 
claimed the credit to himfelf of having given French 


timely notice to the leaders (" J'avois prevenu dor. 

" mes amis, et ils f'etoient mis en furete ") to 

provide for their fafety ; and even if the fadt of 

his having done fo were doubtful, he would 

hardly have ventured to claim the credit unlefs 

it were notorious that he had the opportunity. 

Finally, it only needs to advert, in proof of 

the notorious complicity of the Queen's party 

in the defign, to the fubfequent ftate paper of the Effefts of 

Commons in which they denounce " the in- P^^^" ^ 

\ intermed- 

** fluence which the priefts and Jefuits haddling. 
*' upon the afFedlions and counfels of the 
** Queen, and the admiflion of her Majefty to 
** intermeddle with the great affairs of ftate."* 

The leaders of the Commons had indeed j?*^"^ '^^'. 
good reafon to fufpedb her Majefty. Not peaed by- 
many months before this date, when their inter- *^^ ^°'"" 

■/ ■' raons : 

ference had arrefted her announced journey to 
Spa, they were foully affailed by the Royalifts 
upon the ground that they had covered her with 

" courfe (non ignota loquor, it is a known truth) that the 

" City were weary of the Parliament's tedious proceedings, 

" & would be ready to join with the King againft them. 

'* Whether it begat the fame opinion in the King or not, I Charles 

** cannot tell ; but certainly fome conceived fo, by aftions mifled. 

" which immediately followed." 

* Remonftrance from Grocers' Hall Committee. See 
Clarendon's Hiji. ii. 185. 

K 2 

132, Arrejl of the Five Members. 

difloyal fufpicions, nor had fcrupled to difcover, 

in a fimple excurfion for health and pleafure, 

treafonable motives, and even a poffible defign 

upon the property of the Crown. Yet not a 

great many days after the events now defcribed, 

Sufpicions every one of thofe fufpicions was proved* to 

trucT have been well-founded ; and when at length it 

was known that (he had managed to quit 

England upon the enterprize of ralfing foreign 

arms for the King, carrying with her to this 

end not only her own and the King's jewels, 

but the jewels of the Crown, f the regret might 

well be felt, even by moderate men, that the 

patriots had not put their old mifgivings into 

force. Confcious of her own intentions, this 

was doubtlefs what fhe had herfelf moft dreaded ; 

Clarendon and Clarendon explains the eager violence with 

h^rdX-e which fhc thrcw herfelf into the King's projedl 

to have the of impeaching the members, by the terror fhe 

members , . . . 

im- entertained of their impeaching herfelf. "That 

peached : f c ^hJ^h wrought fo much upon the Queen's 

" fears," he fays, J "befidesthe general obfer- 

*' vationhow the King was betrayed, and how 

'* his rights and power were every day wrefted 

Abftrac- * ^^^ Nalson, ii. 391, for indication that the Commons 
tionof the fufp^'^^'^ ^^^ defign againft the Jewels as early as July 1641. 
Crown "1" Whitelock's Memorials (ed. 1853), i. 159; and fee 

jewels Hallam, Conji. Hiji. ii. 139. Mr, Hallam is infinitely mode- 

rate and cautious in dealing with thefe pafiTages of our hiftory, 
but he admits, in a note to the pafl'age juft referred to, that 
the Queen's intended journey to Spa in July 1641, which 
was given up at the remonftrance of Parliament, was highly 

I HiJi. ii. 231. 

§ XIV. Scene in the ^eens Apartments, 133 

" from him, was an advertifement that ihe 

" had received of a defign in the prevalent 

" party to have accufed her Majefty of high 

** treafon ; of which, without. doubt, there had 

"been fome difcourfe in their moft private To fave 

" cabals, and, I am perfuaded, was imparted fj-orn im- 

" to her upon defign, and by connivance (for p^ach- 

" there were fome incorporated into that 

" fadion who exadly knew her nature, paf- 

" fions, and infirmities), that the difdain of it 

" might tranfport her to fomewhat which 

" might give them advantage. And fhortly 

" after that difcovery to her Majefty, thofe 

" perfons before mentioned were accufed of 

" high treafon." 

The perfon here more particularly pointed Lucy, 

. -^ ^ Countefs 

at as having played out, apparently on both of Cariifle. 
fides, the double intrigue of friend and of 
betrayer, was undoubtedly Lady Cariifle, now 
in daily intercourfe with Pym and Lord Kim- Her dally 
bolton, and herfelf a chief adtor alfo in the ^"urfe 
fcene about to be related. Without raifing with Pym 
the queftion whether it might not have been bolton : 
even with herfelf for " mefiienger " that the 
Queen and King had lately made the overture 
to Pym which was meant to enfnare him 
from his party, it does not admit of contro- 
verfy that this ftrong-willed woman, by far the 
moft generous and the moft conftant of all 
the friends of Strafford, and for that reafon after 
ftill in acceptance and reputation at Court, ^^^^)^J 

i\54 Arreft of the Five Members. 

had been, ever fince the King's furrender of 

his great Minifter, deep in the fecret counfels 

and confidence of Pym and his friends, and 

had done them moft material fervlces. Cla- 

Retribu- rendon's firft editors fupprefled the pafTage in 

betrayal of "^^^^h he dwells expHcItly on the evil fhe 

her friend : vvrrought agalnft her quafi-friends at Court: 

but It may properly here be reproduced. The 

hiftorian is clofing a fort of fumming up of the 

adverfe circumftances with which Charles the 

Firft at this time had to contend. "And laftly, 

" which, it may be, made all the reft worfe, the 

" Countefs of Carllfle, who was moft obliged 

" and trufted by the Queen, and had been for 

'* her eminent and conftant aifedllon to the 

" Earl of Strafford admitted to all the con- 

'^ fultations which were for his prefervation, 

" and privy to all the refentments had been 

" on his behalf, and fo could not but remember 

" many fharp faylngs uttered In that time, was 

Betrays " become a confidant in thofe counfels, and 

to^th?"" " difcovered whatfoever fhe had been trufted 

Com- 'f with."* So did Clarendon, out of his fimple 

mons: i r • i i 

obfervation and knowledge of humanity, and 

without reproach to the Countefs for fo 

Hereon- avenging a bitter wrong, fufficiently explain, 

plainedby ^^ ^^ feems to me, the fudden tranffer of 

her cha- Lady Carllfle's allegiance from Strafford's falfe 

friends to his open enemies. In that way, 

* Clarendon, Hift, ii. 603-604.. 

§ xrv. Scene in the ^eeris Apartments. 135 

not unnaturally, might fo vehement and im- 
petuous a fpirlt refent his betrayal ; it is to 
be remembered alfo that her brother, the Earl Her 
of Northumberland, had by this time, after a Northum- 
far lefs conftant and generous devotion to^erland. 
Strafford, changed fides from the Court to the 
Parliament ; and there is certainly not the 
fhadow of a ground for the imputation which 
fo many grave hiftorians have fince repeated Sir Philip 
on the authority of a jefting remark by Sir wick's 
Philip Warwick,* that this mature lady o{^^'^'^^'^'^' 

* The paflTage is worth quoting as written by one who 
pafled much time in very intimate perfonal attendance on the 
King, becaufe the only regret exprefled in it with regard to 
the attempt of the 4th January is that it was made too late: 

* In Scotland having learnt the confederacies againft him, 

* and the intelligence fome of our great members had held 
with the ambafTadors of foreign princes, particularly the 
French, and fomewhat of the depth of their defigns, he was 
forced to refolve to accufe fome members of both Houfes 

of treafon j but too late, God knows : enough to fhow, A Cour- 
that when Princes will long put off their dangers by tier's view 
' unreafonable concefTions, they do not divert their hazard, of the 

* but run into it. And now tho' he refolves to proceed Impeach- 

* againft thefe members by a due procefle in law, & accufe ment and 
' them firft in the Lords houfe by his Attorney Generall, arreft. 

* and then in the Houfe of Commons by liimfelfe (both 
' Houfes having ever allowed that no priviledge of parlia- 
' ment could by any fingle member of either Houfe be pre- 
' tended unto in the cafe of treafon, felony, or breach of 
' peace), yet his coming to the Lower Houfe being betrayed 
' by that bufy ftatefwoman the Countefs of Carlifle (who had 

' now changed her gallant from Strafford to Mr. Pym, Bufy 
' and was become fuch a (he-Saint that fhe frequented their ftatef- 
' fermons and took notes), he loft the opportunity of feizing woman 
'their perfons " &c. &c. Memoires (ed. 1702), p. 204. become 
While I am bound to ftate my convidion that the imputation ihe-faint. 
which would give to Lady Carlifle the great Puritan leader for 
her gallant, is without a fliadow of other teftimony to fupport 
it, I need not conceal the faft that the Royalift libellers kept a 
well fupplied armoxiry of weapons of this kind, which any 

136 An eft of the Five Members. 

more than forty years of age, who had been 
twenty years a wife* and five a widow, had now 

Nop-round R^yalift writer was fure to find always ready to his hand. 

for War- ^7"^'^ ^'"^^ living and gallantries were an untiring theme. 

wVk's From the l^env Diurnall, or from The Senfe of the Houfe, or 

libel from Reafons againft Accommodation, I could furnifh abundant 

inftances, but they are not always quotable. One of the more 
fcholarly of thefe recklefs penmen had invented even a Latin 
fong which went by Pym's name, and fupplied material for 
infinite libels by way of anfwer. 

I wonder one fo old, fo grave, 
Should yet fuch youth, fuch lightnefTe have. 
* * « * 

Thou mayft as foon turn Turk as king ; 
And that, oh that's the tempting thing — 
That thou mayft glut thine appetite 
With a feraglio of delight ! 

Occafionally, however, even a Royalift libeller is under fome 
influence which gives him paufe in his career of flander, and 
his charge againft the great leader refolves itfelf, at fuch times, 
into what may pofTibly have originated the whole of this 
fruitful theme of unlcrupulous wit — Pym's free unpuri- 
tanical manners, and flowing courtefy to women, repeatedly 
noticed by contemporaries. Take an example from Lines to 
a Lady : 

Then go, fair lady, follow him ; 
Fear no trumpet, fear no drum, 

Fair women may prevail with Pym, 

And one fweet fmile when there you come 
Will quickly ftrike the Speaker dumb. 

*' Round- Let me add that when Baxter, in awell-known paffage of his 

head " Narrati've (p. 34.), reprefents the Queen, in Pym's prefence, 

explained afking who that round-headed man was (which, by the way, 

by Baxter, fhe is not at all likely to have done, for there is ample evidence 

that his perfon was well-known both to Qjaeen and King 

long before the Strafford trial), the reader muft yet not 

fuppofe her to have meant by the phrafe that he was what is 

called clofe-cut or crop-eared. In that fenfe it would not be 

more applicable to Pym and Hampden than to Hopton and 

I Rupert. The remark of Baxter may be given for its illuftra- 

Pym's un- 



* She was married to Lord Hay, afterwards Earl of 
Carlifle, in the autumn of 1617. 

§ XIV. Scene in the ^een's Apartments. 1^7 

changed her " gallant" from Strafford to Pym. 
One of the King's phyficians, Doftor Bates, 
in his Rife and Progrejs of the 'Troubles, is 
not difpofed to be more complimentary to her 
than Sir Philip was; but at leaft he keeps more -^fys- 
within the probabilities when he afcribes her more 
condud to a willingnefs now to fet off her wit. Probable, 
as formerly fhe had done her beauty, the gifts 
of different ages, amongfl the Parliament 
men. This writer, a partizan of Charles the Doctor 
Firft, though he did not decline, during the ^ ^^' 
Protedtorate, to prefcribe for Cromwell, alfo 
diftindly declares, in that portion of his 
Elenchus Motuum which was written and 
printed before the Reftoration, that it was 
" by the advice of fome of his Privy Council Privy 
" who were themfelves members of the jorrfaTd'to 
" Houfe,"* that the King, finding the Com- have ad- 

, ° . vifed the 

mons refolute not to deliver up their members King. 
on legal charge, went himfelf the next morning 
to arreft them. 

Of a different complexion from his flate- 
ment, though not neceffarily at variance with 
it, is the fcene that waits to be defcribed from 
Coke's Manufcript, preferved by Archetil 

tion of the fubjeft treated ante, 63. He is fpeaking of the 
word Roundhead. " The original of which name is not certainly 
" known. Some fay it was becaufe the Puritans then com- <<Xhat 
" monly wore fhort hair, and the King's party long hair: j-Qund- 
*' fome fay it was becaufe the Qjaeen at Strafford's trial alked headed 
** who that round-headed man was, meaning Pym, becaufe he man." 
" fpake fo ftrongly." 
* Ed. 1685 ; p. 34, 

138 Arreji of the Five Members. 

King and Grey. A long and very paffionate debate had 
the^night P^Aed in the royal chamber on the night of 
of the 3rd the fruitlefs attempt of the Attorney-General, 

January : 1 >->. , . . , • 

the Queen takmg promment part therem; 
and it had ended, according to this account, 
in the fettled refolve that Charles would 
himfelf demand the members next morning. 
But his heart failed him when the morning 
came. He went to the Queen's apartments 
early, and, finding Lady Carlifle with her, took 
her Majefty into her clofet, and there, having 
put to her all the hazards of the attempt, and 
all its poffible confequences, declared that he 
On the " muft abandon it. Whereat the Queen, no 
ofthe4th. lo^g^J^ able to contain her paflion, violently 
burft out, " Allez, poltron ! Go, pull thefe 
'^ rogues out by the ears, ou ne me revoyez 
"jamais ! " Without replying the King left 
the room. The anecdote is certainly not 
in any refpedt reliable, if accepted ftridly in 
this form; but it feems to favor the fuppofi- 
tion of fome admixture of truth In it, though 
mifdated as well as mifltated, that Madame de 
Motteville fhould unconfcioufly have given us 
Lady Car- in her Memoirs a fort of fequel to it. She 
ed with the defer ibes the Queen, while waiting in her 
Queen, clofet with vehement expedation, rejoined by 
Lady Carlifle. In a previous paflage flie had 
dwelt upon Charles's leave-taking hardly an 
hour before, not in filence indeed, as Coke 
reports, but with a hafty promife to Henrietta 

§ XV. Council of the Night of ^^d January. 139 

that if ihe found one hour elapfe without The one 
hearing ill news of him, fhe would fee him, °"'^' 
when he returned, mafter of his kingdom. 
With impatient dread (he had fince pafTed that 
interval of fufpenfe, and now, on Lady Carlifle's 
fudden entrance, thinking the hour was paft 
and the ftroke made not miffed, fhe exclaimed 
to her friend, "Rejoice ! for I hope that the King Qjueen 
" is now mafler in his States, and that Pym he/fecret. 
" and his confederates are in cuflody." She 
had told the triumph of her hate too early to 
prevent Lady Carlifle from making it the Lady Car- 
triumph of her own. Within an hour from tr^L the 
that time, adds Madame de Motteville, Pym Queen, 
knew what was to be done that day. 

§ XV. Council of the Night of the 
3RD OF January. 

The nature of the debate of the preceding The 
night, the number who were prefent at it, and debate^: 
the chara<5ter of thofe who took adlive part in 
it, remain ftill matters of doubt to us. Was it 
a meeting of the King and Queen with the 
Queen's friends only, with Lord Digby, the 
French AmbafTador, and William Murray* of 
the Bed-Chamber, as Clarendon would have 
us believe ; or was it one at which, or im- who were 
mediately preceding which, the King had con- ^"^^ ^" ' 
fulted with thofe of his Privy Council who 

• "Littel Vil Murry," as the Queen calls him in her 

140 Arrejl of the Five Members. * 

Were alfo members of the Houfe of Commons, 
in other words with Sir Edward Nicholas, Cul- 
peper, and Falkland, as Do6lor Bates diftindlly 
TeftI- avers ? When Sir Arthur Hafelrig, himfelf one 
Sir Arthur of the accufcd, recalled the circumftances fixteen 
Hafdng. years later, in one of the Parliaments of the 
Protedlorate, it is remarkable that in what he 
faid, after expreffing his thanks to God that 
through the timely notice given by the kind- 
S Lad"'^^ nefs of that great lady, the Lady Carlifle, blood- 
Carlifle. filed had been prevented, he feems at once 
both to confirm the fubftance of Sir William 
Coke's ftory, and to make it much more pro- 
bable by changing the time alleged for it, while 
he leaves it compatible with either fuppofition 
as to the character of the previous night's meet- 
ing. On the King's " return," he faid, " the 
Rage of " Queen raged and gave him an unhandfome 

the Queen. ^*~ ° ° 

' " name, poltroon, for that he did not take 
'' others out ; and certain, if he had, they 
" would have been killed at the door."* On 
the other hand, when Hobbes fpeaks, in his 
Behemoth^ of the long fubfequent altercations 
between the Parliament and the King, and 
What fays that the perfiftent demand of the Houfe 
pher of Commons, that the King fhould declare 
Hobbes ^}^Q ^gj.g ^j^g perfons that advifed him to go, 
as he did, to the Parliament Houfe to appre- 
hend them, had for it no other motive than 

* Burton's Diary of the Parliaments of Cromwell, iii. 93. 
Hafelrig's i'peech was delivered on the 7th February, 1658-9. 

§ XV. Council of the Night of o^rd January. 141 

" to ftick upon his Majefty the difhonour of 
" defertlng his friends and betraying them 
" to his enemies,"* he diftindlly fandlions the 
afTertion of Bates that the a6t was neither un- 
premeditated by the King nor unadvifed by 
his counfellors.j- 

Perhaps the queftion, which muft after all be Direaion 
left to a careful and impartial judgment upon J" j^^j^^^^^. 
the attendant circumftances, may receive its motives 
not leaft important illuftration from confideringjeas of 
all that was involved in that chance of a fatal ^"empt of 
iflue, with fuch emphafis referred to by Hafelrig. ary. 
The turning point of the cafe is probably 
there ; and in what the undertaking included 
beyond its oftenfible pretences, its real key or 
folution may be found. It is ufual to treat 
the attempt which the King was now about to 
make, as an a6b of raflinefs far tranfcending in Not fo 

1*3.111 3.S 

its danger that which already through his fuppofed. 
Attorney General he had made, and far furpaff- 
ing in its folly all his other a6ls of ftate fince his 
return ; as an undertaking which he never could 
have dared to fubmit to any of his advifers, and 

* The truth was, as the hiftoiian May has pointed out 
(lib. 2, cap. 2, p. 25), that in this demand the Houfe was 
thoroughly juftified and perfe6tly regular ; " the law in two Demand 
** feveral ftatutes providing that if in time of Parliament the for names 
** King accufe a member of the fame of what crime foever, of King's 
** he ought to fignify to the Parliament who were the advifers. 
*' informers." 

f Hobbes in the fame tone and fpirit adds : *' The King 
" waved the profecution of the 5 members, but denied to 
** make known to them the names of thofe who had advifed 
'* him to come in perfon to the Houfe of Commons to 
" demand them." 

142 Arrefi of the Five Members. 

an adventure which necefTarily he muft have 
undertaken, if at all, on his undivided refpon- 
fibility. But does this view take fufficiently into 
account the antecedent circumftances, the chal- 
lenge flung down to the Houfes, the continued 
Pofition of exafperation of the Citizens, and the pofition in 
after fail? which, amid a population already fo dangeroufly 
ure of at- excited, the failure of the firft day's enterprife 
the 3rd had left the King ? There are occafions 
January, ^^en what would ordinarily be the madnefs of 
defpair becomes a courage only equal to the 
occafion. All the dangers involved in a 
deliberate attack on the privileges of the 
Houfe of Commons, and the perfons of its 
Challenge leaders, had now been incurred. The challenge 
bythe"^ thrown down had been promptly taken up, 
Commons, and from it, to a vifion lefs narrow and 
obfliinate than the King's, there might well 
Difficulty feem no pofTible retreat, confiftent with dignity 
or fafety. Let it be aflumed, as an ad: of juftice 
to Charles the Firft, that he honeftly believed 
himfelf to be in pojGTeffion of evidence, which, 
before fuch a tribunal as might be obtained to 
try them, would bring the accufed members 
certainly within the penalties of treafon.. 
Alleged Hyde profefles that he had no doubt of it ; 
toVupport ^'^'^ neither, it is probable, had Culpeper or 
the charge. Falkland.* But, on the other hand, the refo- 

1 * He is fpeaking, in another pafTage, of the fears enter- 

tained by himfelf and them that the attempted arreft might 
prove a difadvantage to the King's affairs. *' Not that they 
" thought the gentlemen accufed, lefs guilty ; for their 

§ XV. Council of the Night of 2^d January. 143 

lute determination of the Houfe to proted: its 
members interpofed an infuperable difficulty, 
and at once made painfully apparent that a 
falfe ftep had been taken. This, if at all to Falfe ftep 
be retrieved, it was now not poffible to able ' 
retrieve by any proceeding within the limits jyithm 
of the law. Five Commoners had been law. 
accufed of treafon before a tribunal which had 
not the fhadow of a jurifdidion to try them ; 
and the forms of the grand jury, which for 
centuries had Ihielded and proteded the Eng- 
lifh fubjedl, had given place to a lawlefs . 
exercife of the moft hateful of all the procefTes 
of law and of prerogative, an Attorney- 
General's Ex-officio upon the information of 
the King. Could anything now fuggefted to Nature of 
meet fuch a crifis be in effedt worfe, whether already 
by failure or fuccefs, than what had thus commit- 
diredtly occafioned it ? 

Thefe were the circumftances in which, on One way 
the night of the 3rd of January, we muftgrouad: 
affume the idea to have been ftarted, that, 

" extreme difhoneft arts in the Houfe were fo vifible, that What 
" nothing could have been laid to their charge incredible : Clarendon 
" but the going through with it was a matter of fo great thought of 
" difficulty and concernment, that every circumftance ought the King's 
" to have been fully deliberated, and the feveral parts dif- proceed- 
" penfed into fuch hands, as would not have fhaken in the ing. 

" execution If the choice had been better made, 

" and the feveral perfons firft apprehended, & put into dif- 
" tin6l clofe cultodies, that neither anybody elfe Ihould have What he 
" heard from them, nor they one from another, all which would 
** had not been very difficult, the high fpirit of both Houfes have done 
*' might poffibly have been fo dejefted, that they might have himfelf. 
" been treated withal." Hili. ii. 183-4. 

144 Arrefi of the Five Members. 

ftrong in the juftice of a cafe to which the 
fubtleties and niceties of law were no longer 
Renewal applicable, the King fhould go with the armed 
wk"^'"^* attendants of his new Court of Guard (pro- 
means to vided for that fpecial occafion, men afterwards 
' faid) to the Houfe next morning, and himfelf 
demand the members to be given up to him. 
Objeftion might be made that this would be 
but the repetition, in an exaggerated form, of 
what had failed that day : but the obvious 
anfwer, that, in the event of fuch refiftance 
being repeated, means of counter-refiftance 
were provided, gives its diftindlive charaAer 
to what the King now defigned. If bloodfhed 
followed upon violence, the refponfibility 
would reft with thofe who provoked it : nor 
Foiled is it poffible to doubt, that, but for Lady Car- 
t" Jv Car- life's interference, fuch muft have been the ifTue 
raifed. The whole of the occurrences of the paft 
three weeks had gone altogether in the fame 
dire6lion ; and we have feen that merely on the 
view of what was paffing from day to day, a 
terror and foreboding of calamity was in the 
Idea of hearts of the moft moderate men. It was 
iniSat hardly a time when even the thought of fuch 
ble from an aft as the King was about to undertake 
attempt, could have arifen, unaccompanied by the pre- 
vifion of fome confequences fure to follow, of 
which the weight or levity would wholly turn 
upon the degree of confidence or fear already 
infpired by the conduft of the people. But when 

Lady Car 



§ XV. Council of the Night of ^rd January, 145 

fear was wifdom, Charles the Firft had no fear. The King 
We fhall find that he ftill to this hour, and 'TJ^^ 
beyond it, blindly relied on the City as under fear. 
the control of its loyal Chief Magiftrate. He 
confefTed afterwards his miftake in having 
been induced to believe that the Houfe of 
Commons had now ceafed to be popular. 
Armed bravos and foldiers of fortune had un- 
punifhed drawn their fwords on the people, 
and " chafed " and hunted them in the public 
ways. And why not complete, at the Houfe 
itfelf, what in the ftreets had been thus begun ? 

The change of position taken up by the The iffue 
accufed members on the fecond day, bears of vio-°" 
out this view of the cafe, and fandtions the ^^"^^^ '• 
belief that the iffue fought to be raifed was, 
and could be, no other than one of violence.* 
The Houfe of Commons withdrew its mem- reafon 
bers at the approach of the King, not becaufe !^^y *^^ 
•it feared the King more than it feared his withdrew 
Attorney-General or his Serjeant-at-Arms, bei™^'"' 
but becaufe of the danger of a colliiion with 

* Whitelock fays {Memorials i. 153): "And divers "White- 
" imagined that if the five members had not received a fecret lock's 
** notice from a great court lady, their friend (who overheard view : 
" fome difcourfe of this intended aftion, and thereof gave 
" timely notice to thofe gentlemen) whereby they got out of „ r 

'* the Houfe juft before the King came : otherwife, it was Extent or 
" believed, that if the King had found them there, and called "^"S^*" 
" in his Guards to have feized them, the members of the F^^ented 
♦' Houfe would have endeavoured the defence of them, which ^ T-n 
" might have proved a very unhappy and fad bufmefs ; and ^-^r'"^*^- 
*' fo it did, notwithftanding that was prevented. This fudden 
" aflion being the firft vifible & apparent ground of the 
" enfuing ti-oubles." 

146 Arreji of the Five Members. 

the armed men who accompanied him. 

Attention has not been fufficlently fixed on 

Source of thIs part of the cafe. Madame de Motte- 

f^_re- vllle tells us that the Queen never ceafed to 

proach: reproach herfelf to the laft day of her life, 

for having cafually difclofed what led to the 

removal of the members from the Houfe. 

not pre- To have prevented, not the King's attempt, 

ItTemp"°^ but the poflibillty of violence and bloodfhed in 

but inter- giving cfFedl to It, was to her the moft bitter 

confe- ° reproach. *' Never did he treat me for a 

quences, f f moment," fhe exclaimed, " with lefs klnd- 

'' nefs than before It happened, though I had 

'^ ruined him." She had ruined him, becaufe 

unconfcloufly fhe had caufed the betrayal of 

his plan for difabling or ftriking down his 

enemies, in the Houfe where they had mortally 

aflalled him by upholding the liberties of his 


There is no injuftlce to the King in the views 

here exprefTed. The Injuftlce is in treating 

his fcheme as a braggart difplay offeree It was 

Previous never defigned to ufe. The preparations for 

donT'^' ^^ ^^^^ "^ ^°° deliberately made to render 

credible any fuch belief. It was afterwards 

clearly proved, and admitted by Charles, that 

on this 3rd of January means had been taken 

AtWhite- to fortify Whitehall with a confiderable accefs 

^^'^' of arms and ammunition. What was hoped, 

and defperately planned, to have been done in 

City.'" ^ t^c City, will fhortly be revealed upon 

§ XV. Council of the Night of "^rd January. 147 

evidence beyond cavil or difpute. So far back 
as the previous Friday the 31ft of December, 
as will appear hereafter from what D'Ewes Evidence 

. '■'■ r • 1 • 1 /- .of Captain 

reveals to us or evidence given by Captain Langres. 
Langres, orders had been fent to the officer in 
command of the Court of Guard at Whitehall 
to obey ^* one Sir William Fleming." On this 
very night while the fubjed was yet in debate, 
means had been taken to obtain afliftance from AfTiftance 
the gentlemen of the Inns of Court, who could {°"sht 

^ _ ' ^ trom Inns 

themfelves furnifh at that time an important of Court, 
military guard, and whom we have already i^^w 
eager, during the Weftminfter Hall tumults, 
to proffer for the King's protedion a band of 
500 men.* Sir William Killigrew had been 

• Ante, 78. I have found curious evidence exifting in the j^nsof 
State Paper Office of the anxiety of the Court to render this force pQu^t 
efficient and to fecure its fervices in cafe of need. It is a Royal Volunteer 
letter to the Benchers of Gray's Inn touching the exercife of Quard 
arms, and is dated at that ftriking period preceding the diflblu- 
tion of the Third Parliament, when, to mod thinking men, the p^ trou- 
hope of any final fettlement without ultimate appeal to arms jji^j time, 
muft firft have begun to appear defperate. No one who ex- Midfum- 
amines the State papers of this time in our National Repofi- .^^^ 1828: 
tory, ftill untouched by the hiftorian, can fail to be ftruck by 
the change of tone and attitude taken by the people. Thus 
early the country was on the point of rebellion. Only faith ^^ 
in the leaders of the Houfe of Commons kept it ftill. Even country on 
in a thing which till then had been a mere matter of courfe — gyg qJ j.p. 
the bringing of State prifoners from the Tower to the Courts flftance. 
— days, times, and modes of conveyance had to be felefted 
with the niceft care for avoidance of popular tumults j and 
whether Eliot and Selden were to be brought by water or by 
land, on particular occafions, was matter of anxious delibera- 
tion between the Governor of the Tower and the Law Officers 
of the Crown. Thepaper to which I have referred, and which Royal 
has never been printed, is worth fubjoining in detail. Apart letter to 
from its fpecial hiftorical fignificance, there may be found in Benchers 
it at the prefent time an intereft which makes appeal, yet of Gray's 
nearer and clofer, to that fpirit which fupplies in all ages a Inn. 

L 2 


Arrejl of the Five Members. 

Kllligrew fent round to each of the Four Inns with copies 
with Topy °^ ^^ articles of treafon, and with fummons 
of Im- from his Majefty in each cafe to be in waiting 
ment. the next morning at Whitehall. A fimilar 

courfe had been taken alfo with the Guard at 

the Palace. 

Defire to 
have all 
in arms. 

Defeft to 
be fup- 
want of 

Law ftu- 
dents not 
to negleft 
but to 
leil'ure and 

country's only efficient fafeguard, — the patriotic ardour, the 
difciplined valour, and the fkill in arms of her fons. 

" Trufty and Well Beloved Wee Greet you well. Con- 
" fidering that thefe times are full of aftion and danger, true 
*' religion being now aflaulted in all parts of Chriftendome, 
" our purpofe is to employ our beft care to make all our 
" fubjefts well prepared by the exercife of amies to defend 
" the truth and our Kingdomes, and to maintaine the fafetie 
" and honour of Our Nation ; and becaufe the voluntary 
" example of the gentlemen of the Innes of Court will much 
" conduce to that good end, Wee therefore will and require 
" you that you doe in our name recommend vnto them the 
" exercife of Archerie and Armes, inciting and incourageing 
" them at theire times of recreation to employ themfelves 
" therein, and efpecially in horfemanfhipp, a commendable 
" and noble exercife and moft neceffarie in all occafions of 
" Warr wherein other Nations have gott the advantage of 
" Us. Our greateft defeft is want of dilcipline and Knowledge 
" therein : by occafion thereof the greateft disorder and con- 
" fufion doe ufually happen in armes. But Wee doe ufually 
" referr it to every gentleman to exercife, either on horfe or 
*' foot, what armes fhall beft fort with his owne difpofition ; 
*' and Wee will extend our Royall grace and furtherance by 
" all fitt waies and meanes to all fuch as fhall manifeft their 
" forwardnes in that worke, which will be an honour to 
" your Societyes and a worthie example to our Subjects. 
" Our meaning is, not that any the Students of our Lawes 
" fhould by this occafion negleft their ftudies, but that they 
" fhould change their former exercifes in time of Vacancie 
" and recreations into the moft ufefull aflions for the 
" common good and defence of religion, our Royall perfon, 
" themfelves, and our countrye. And Wee will that you ftiall 
" caufe thefe Our Letters to be openly read unto the 
" Gentlemen of the Societie, declaring unto them that Our 
" care ftiall be duely to encourage and advance all fuch as 
" fhall well deferve either by their Studdies or the cora- 
" mendable Anions Wee now commend unto them. Given 
" under our Signet at our Pallace at Weftminfter the 28 of 
" June on the 4th Yeare of our Raigne," 

§ XV. Council of the Night of ^rd January. 149? 

Still, even afTuming the matter to have 
been fo prefented to the new Secretary of 
State and the two Privy Councillors moft 
recently fworn to advife the King, and moft 
deeply interefted in providing for his ultimate 
fafety by the advice they gave, all muft yet be 
conjecture as to the probable courfe they took. 
But it is impoflible to exclude from confidera- What the 

^ _ new 

tion the fad:, which Clarendon repeatedly Minifters 
admits, that they agreed thoroughly with the Jhe"|u^iit°^ 
King as to the guilt of the accufed, and never of the 
placed on higher grounds than thofe of " con- 
" venience " and expediency their objedlion to 
the attempted arreft.* We are to remember 
alfo that the objedlion was not publicly ex- 

* In the very paflage where he ventures on the ftrongeft What 
expreffion of doubt and apprehenfion as to the courfe taken Falkland, 
by the King (remarking that he and his friends, between Culpeper, 
grief and anger, were confounded with the confideration of and Hyde 
what had been done and what was like to follow), he never- would 
thelefs thus continues : " They were far from thinking that have done 
" the accufed members had received much wrong ; yet they with the 
" thought it an unfeafonable time to call them to account for Five 
" it. That if anything had been to be done of that kind, Members: 
** there fhould have been a better choice of the perfons, there 
** being many of the Houfe of more mifchievous inclinations 
" and defigns againft the King's perfon and the Government, 
" and were more expofed to the public prejudice, than the 
" Lord Mandeville Kimbolton was . . . Then Sir Arthur 
** Hafelrig and Mr. Strode were perfons of fo low an account 
" and efteeni . . . that they gained credit and authority by 
*' being joined with the relt, who had indeed a great Seized 
*' influence. However, if there was a refolution to proceed them 
" againft thofe men, it would have been much better to have feparately 
*' caufed them to have been all feverally arrefted, and fent and fent 
" to the Tower, or to other prifons, which might have been each to a 
" very eafily done before fufpefted, than to fend in that different 
" manner to the Houfes with that formality which would be prifon. 
" liable to fo many exceptions." 

150 Arreji of the Five Members. 

Objeaion pre/Ted until after the attempt had iflued in 

to arreft ■> ^^ r n 1 • • j 

only after Complete diiafter ; that it was then accompanied 
Its failure, j^y q^^.^ ftatements too groffly at variance with 
the known fadls not necefTarily to fubjed it to 
grave fufpicion ; and that the very perfon on 
whofe fingle afTurance pofterity has been con- 
tent to believe it, is the fame whofe pen was 
Hyde em- employed by the King to juftify the very adl 
juftify it° objeded to. Within a few days after its 
occurrence, Hyde, replying in the name of 
Charles to the City petition, vindicates it as 
Mifrepre- "a gentle" proceeding againft men who had 
oTthe been accufed on the cleareft grounds of high 
cafe. treafon ; for that, in fuch a cafe, as it was 
notorious that no privilege of Parliament could 
extend to treafon, felony, or breach of the 
peace, and as, in defpite thereof,* the Houfe 

" Gentle- * The anfwer to the City petition will be found in Htji. 
nefs" of ii. 14.9. "For his going to the Houfe of Commons, when 
King's " his attendants were no otherwife armed than as gentle- 
attempt " men with fwords, he was perfwaded, that if they knew 
alleged by " the clear grounds upon which thofe perfons flood ac- 
Claren- " cufed of high treafon, and [what would be proved againft 
don. " them, with which they fhould be in due time acquainted, 

" and confidered the gentle way he took for their appre- 
" henfion (which he preferred before any courfe of violence, 
" though that way had been very juflifiable ; fince it was 
" notorioufly known that no privilege of parliament can 
" extend to treafon, felony, or breach of the peace), they 
" would believe his going thither was an aft of grace and 
An aiSl of " favour to that Houle, and the moft peaceable way of having 
favour. " that neceffary fervice performed ; there being fuch orders 
" made for the refiflance of what authority foever for their 
" apprehenfion." It is difficult to fleer through the involu- 
I tions of thefe fentences, but to difcover their drift is not 

difficult. Somewhat later, when it had cealed to be fafe to 
urge the guilt of treafon againft the accufed as entirely clear 
and capable of proof, quite another colour was fought to be 

§ XV. Council of the Night of yd January, 151 

of Commons had made order for refiftance of 
the apprehenfion of their members againft all 
authority whatfoever, " any courfe of violence 
'^ had been very juftifiable." 

Let me add that when Clarendon, fpeaking no privi- 
in his proper perfon,* repeats this argument, Ififf^jed 
and ftates that the leaders claimed immunity againft 
againft even regular proceedings upon the 
charge of treafon, he pradifes largely indeed 
upon the carelefTnefs or credulity of his readers. 
" For if," he fays, " the judges had been Falfe iffue 
" compelled to deliver their opinions in point ^^'^^'^• 
*' of law, which they ought to have been, they 
" could not have avoided the declaring that 
" by the known law, which had been confefled 
** in all times and ages, no privilege of Par- 
" liament could extend in the cafe of treafon ; 
" but. that every Parliament-man was then in 
" the condition of every other fubjedl, and to 
" be proceeded againft accordingly." 

given to the fatal aft. " We put on," Charles is made to Another 
lay, (Huft)and, Coll. 246) " a fudden refolution to try whether fketch 
" our own prefence, and a clear difcovery of our intentions, fj-om fame 
" which haply might not have been fo well underftood, could hand. 
" remove their doubts, and prevent thofe inconveniences which 
" feemed to have been threatened ; and thereupon we refolved 
" to go in our own perfon to our Houfe of Commons, which 
" we difcovered not till the very minute we were going, the 
" bare doing of which we did not then conceive could have 
" been thought a breach of privilege," &c. &c. William 
Lily, charaderifmg Charles the Firft's ftyle, defcribes exaftly 
that of Clarendon : " He would write his mind fingularly The 
" well, and in good language and ftyle ; only he loved long King's 
'* parenthefes." It is Icarrely neceffary to add, that, in the ftyle of 
inftances juft quoted at leaft, the parenthefes are Clarendon's, writing. 
—See Lifcy 130-133, • Hiji. ii. 193. 


152 Arreft of the Five Members. 

Indemnity He knew pcrfcdly well, when he wrote this 

fornever Pa%e, that the Houfe of Commons had 

claimed : folemnly difclaimed the views and pretenfions 

here attributed to them ; and that the real point, 

from which he always ftudioufly manages to 

carry ofFthe attention of his readers, turns upon 

the breach of privilege and grofs breach of all 

Method of common as well as conftitutional law, involved, 

proceed- ^^^ jj^ charging members of Parliament with 

mg only . . ~, 

objefled treafon, but in the mode adopted to give effedt 
to fuch a charge. 

It is furely no very harfh afTumption, fee- 
ing how foon thefe arguments were reforted 
to in vindication, that fome fuch arguments 
might alfo have been debated on the memor- 
able night of the 3rd of January, when it is 
known that Falkland and Culpeper were cer- 
tainly with the King ; when they had been 
fworn fo recently of his Council ; and when 
the queftion was no longer whether the rafh 
attempt fhould be made, but whether it (hould 
be wholly abandoned by abandonment of all 
Culpeper's further authority. That Sir Edward Bering 
toDeilng! ^^^ derived from the new Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, Sir John Culpeper, his colleague 
in the reprefentation of Kent, the informa- 
tion that fhortly before the Chancellorfhip 
was conferred upon himfelf it had been offered 
Charles's ^° Py"^> fecms hardly to admit of doubt; 
truft in his and the mere fad: of the new minifters poffeff- 
fellors?" ' ^^g t^^s information, carries other prefump- 

§ XV. Council of the Nighi of ^^d January, 153 

tions with it inconfiftent with the notion that 
they had failed as yet to obtain the real 
confidence of the King. Such moft certainly 
was not the impreflion at the time. When imp"ta- 
Clarendon complains that himfelf, Falkland, againft 
and Culpeper, could not avoid being looked ^^^^ ^"'^ 

ir tr ^ !=> ^ hisrriends. 

upon as the authors of thofe counfels to which 
they were fb abfolute ftrangers, and which they 
fo perfectly " detefted ; " when he expreffes his 
vexation that they continued to be pointed at 
as the " contrivers ; " he at leaft exhibits what Believed 
was a prevailing belief, and one which a «°contri- 
partizan and fervant of the King, in a grave ^ers " of 
account of the period, has diftinftly fand:ioned. 
When, on the other hand, in almoft the fame 
page of his Hiftory, Clarendon declares that 
" the three perfons," Falkland, Culpeper, and 
himfelf, believed in the guilt of the accufed, 
and only thought it would have been far better Their 

^ ° mode or 

to have caufed them to have been all feverally objeaing 
arrefted and fent to the Tower or to other nyb/' 
prifons (which, he adds, if every circumftance 
had been fully deliberated, and the feveral 
parts diftributed among fuch hand^ as would 
not have fhaken in the execution, might have 
been very eafily done), he fupplies us with the no evi- 
means of tefting, by a very accurate meafure, ^Xtefta- 
the nature and amount of " deteftation " with ^jo" " ^^ 
which the King's a6t had infpired thefe coun- 
fellors of the King. Let Falkland and Cul- 
peper have all the advantage derivable from 

1 54 Arrefi of the Five Members. 

having fhared, at one and the fame time, the 
deteftation at the ill-doing of it by the King, 
and the eagernefs to have had opportunity of 
doing it better themfelves. The prefent writer 
at leaft is convinced that if thefe men were not 
but rather cJire6t they were indirect, parties to the deed 

proof or "', ^ _,-.,,, 

indireft that now waited to be done. If it railed, the 
tion'^^^^' King's ^^^^ could not be more defperate than 
already it was become. If it fucceeded, and 
Stake the leaders of the Majority in the Houfe of 
anYloft Commons were ftruck down, intimidation 
might be left to do its work upon their fol- 
lowers, the Minority which had rallied againft 
the Remonftrance might be gathered and rein- 
forced under lefs troublefome leaders, and the 
Englifh people be led back into bondage by 
the very power which had effeded their 

§ XVI. Midnight Visit to the City. 

Secretary One remarkable incident remains to be 

confult^no- defcribed, which a document in the State Paper 

late with Office enables me to eftablifh, and which 

°' will probably be accepted for irrefragable proof 

that at leaft the King was in confultation with 

one of his principal Secretaries of State, Sir 

Edward Nicholas, late in the night of this 

Provifion ■3''*^ January ; and that the objed of their 

againft deliberation muft have been, beyond all pof- 

next^day : ^^^^^ qucftion, to provide againft popular 

§ XVI. Midnight Viftt to the City. 155 

tumults which there was fpecial reafon to look and 
for on the following day, and to neutralize any ^^^^ ^f ' 
meafures taken by the Houfe of Commons Commons 
for defence againft further and forcible aggref- Guard, 
fion. To what extent the argument in the 
foregoing fedlion receives confirmation from 
fuch an occurrence, every reader will be able 
to judge for himfelf, and will be better able to 
judge corre(5lly when all its curious circum- 
ftances are told. 

It has been feen that one of the laft a6ls of 
the Commons before they broke up their 
fitting after the articles of impeachment were 
prefented, was to fend Pennington and Ven into Order of 
the City with a requeft for a Guard out of the ^^^ ^ °'" 
Trained Bands under the immediate order of Train 
the Chief Magiftrate. Upon this being made 
known to the King, he thought himfelf ftrong 
enough to defeat it by a counter warrant to Counter- 
the Lord Mayor, and this was direded to be ^gned^L 
prepared accordingly. The rough draft of the the King. 
warrant remains ftill among the Papers of the 
State. It is in the handwriting of Under 
Secretary Bere, and is corredted by Secretary 
Nicholas himfelf, fufficing proof of its authen- 
ticity. Such proof, indeed, it needed, for it is 
in its terms very damnatory evidence againft Grave evl- 
the King and the King's counfellors. It is an againft 
inftrudlion to the Chief Magiftrate of London, ^ ^e Court, 
not merely to refufe to the Commons the 
Guard they had defired, but in its place to 

156 Arrefi of the Five Members. 

enroll fuch a Guard for the royal fervice, with 

order for its immediate employment in fup- 

prefling and difperfing all tumults, diforders, 

and affemblages of the people in the ftreets of 

Order to the City ; and with exprefs inftrudion to it, in 

Bands to cafe perfons fo aflembling fhould refufe to 

fire on the j-gj-jj-g ^6 their houfes peaceably, to fire upon 

them with loaded bullets. 
Inter- Happily for the King, this royal warrant 

not pub- remained hrutum fulmen^ and fees the light 
hfhed £j.^ jj^ thefe pages : for, had the attempt been 

until now. . . 

made to enforce it, London would in all pro- 
bability have witnefled fuch a fcene as muft 
then have changed the entire fubfequent courfe 
and aim of our Englifh Revolution. Nor is 
Why not the caufe which interpofed itfelf to prevent the 
force. attempt the leaft fhriking part of the ftory. 
Near the paper as it lies in our National 
Colledlion remains alfo the letter of the agent 
employed by Secretary Nicholas to carry it to 
Sir Richard Gourney. His inftrudions appear 
to have been to haften with it into the City, to 
fee the Lord Mayor, to urge upon him the 
neceffity of immediately calling the Sheriffs to 
council (one of whom was known to be as 
ftrongly royalift as Gourney himfelf ), to open 
and read it in their prefence, and to give direc- 
tions then and there for carrying it into effe6l. 
Reached But the night was farther advanced than in the 
too late, hafte and eagernefs had been fuppofed. The 
clocks at Whitehall had not kept good time. 

§ XVI. Midnight Vifit to the City. 157 

Mr. Latche the meflenger found the Chief 
Magiftrate in bed, and Ven and Pennington 
had been beforehand with him. In a word Fortunate , 
the projedt had failed, happily for all involved for the 
in it, moft happily for the King. It is dif- ^^'"g- 
covered only now, when two centuries have 
pafled away, as one of the fecrets of what 
might have been hiftory, that late in the night what 
of the 3rd of January, 1641-2, Charles the jJ^^'S^^^^^^^ 
Firft, in deliberation with his principal Secre- hiftory. 
tary of State, had provided, in a certain and 
too probable contingency, itfelf the refult of 
an excitement he was himfelf creating, for the 
firing with powder and bullet upon affemblages 
of his unarmed fubjeds in the ftreets of the 
City of London. 

Thus ran the warrant : '^ To the Lord ^°Fy °^ 

~ ^ . , , the war- 

" Maior of London. Right trufty and well- rant. 

*' beloved Counf"". Wee underftand that 

" the House of Cornons hath fent to have 

" Guard of the trained Bands of that O'' 

" Citty. Forafmuch as fome of w*^'' faid Reference 

" Houfe are lately accufed of high treafon. Members. 

" Our will and command is that you take 

" efpeciall care that none of Our trained bands 

*^ be raifed w'^'out fpeciall warrant from us, 

" and wee fhall take in O' royall care that 

" nothing fliall be don to the prejudice or 

" difturbance of O" faid Citty, [w^'' we fhall 

" be as vigilant to keepe in quietnes as others 

" are to engage & put into tumult and 

15^ Arrejl of the Five Members. 

" diforder *] : But in cafe you fhall find any 

'* great numbers of people to affemble together 

*' in a tumultuary & diforderly manner w"Un 

Train '^ C faid Citty or the liberties thereof, Our 

cabled out " '^'^ ^^^ Command is that you then caufe foe 

for the " many of O'" trained bands to be raifed as you 

" fhall thinke fitt, well armed and provided, 

" and that you give order tofupprefTe all fuch 

*^ tumults and diforders, and if they jfhall find 

All gath- " refiftance, and that the perfons foe affembled 

Citizens *' ^"aW. refufe to retire to their houfes peace- 

to dif- cc ably, or to render v"^felves into the handes of 

" juftice, that then, for the better keepmg of the 

*' peace, and preventing of further mifcheefes, 

" you cofhand the Cap*% Officers, and Souldiers 

On refufal " of our faid trained bands, by fhooting with 

upon. ^^ " bullets, or otherwayes, to fupprefie thofe 

" tumults, & deftroy fuch of them as fhall 

" perfift in their tumultuous wayes and dif- 

" orders : For which this fhall be yo' warrant. 

" Given, &c. 3rd Jan. 1641." 

And thus runs the letter which announced 

to Secretary Nicholas the failure of a miffion 

which fo temperate and difcreet a minifter muft 

in his heart have wholly difapproved. It is 

Letter of addreffed " To the Rt. Honorable Sir Edward 

^ent"!'^''' " Nicholas, Kn^' Principal Secretary to his 

" Ma^''^ att Court. Prefent thefe : " and is 

I endorfed in cipher by Sir Edward himfelf. 

* The words in Brackets are interlined in the handwriting 
of Nicholas. 

^ XVI. Midnight Fifit to the City. 159 

" Right Honorable, 

" The Clocks att Whitehall laft night went Whitehall 
^ to late. The nighte was further fpent than YCm6. the^' 
' they fhewed. My Lo. Major was in his *™^- 
' bedd before I came thither. Yet I fpake 
' w*'^ him & delivered the Letter : this 
' morning he will call the fherifFs to him & 
^ open it. This enclofed is a copie of the Antid- 
^ Order of the Houfe ^"^ was brought unto deputation 
' him by Alderman Pennington and Capt" *rom 
^ Venn, who did much enlarge themfelves in mons. 
^ difcourfe thereupon, intimating great feares, 
^ but kept themfelves in fuch generall termes, 
^ as the Order is, that their meanings were not 
^ eafilie to be known. I was till One of the Paft mid- 
' clock aboute the Tower, and found all "jjf^* ^' 
' places very well guarded, & the tumultuous Tower. 
^ rout difperfed. If the King upon fight of 
^ this Order Ihall direcft anything otherwife 
' than laft night, my man fhall attend to 
' receive y°^ cofhaunds & bring it privatly 
' to me. In the meanetime I fhall this morn- 
' ing purfue yefterday nighte's diredion, and Any fur- 
' then attend you w''' an Account of mv pro- ^^^f /•"- 

■z 7 r 'vate com- 

' ceedings who fhall and [ever] remaine mands ? 

" Y'' humble fervant 

" Strand ^k Jan. 1641." "JOHN LaTCHE." 

Doubtlefs much was left unfaid in that 
letter, but what is faid leaves it fufficiently 
clear that the members for London had in- 

i6o Arreft of the Five Members. - 

Inferences fplred the Lord Mayor with a falutary general 

agent's ^^^^j whlch they were careful not to weaken 

letter. by a too great explicltnefs. So the Court 

emifTary was fain to betake himfelf to the 

Prepara- Tower, to fee at leaft that the Guards were 

tliTmS- ^^^ ^"^y ^^^ ^"^ maintained about the great 

row. fortrefs. But why all this myftery and anxiety, 

why thefe untimely vifits and alarms, if there 

were not expeded to arife upon that January 

midnight a morning fraught with iflues for 

good or ill of an unufual and important 

nature ? 

Nor did it indeed fall Ihort of fuch ex- 
pedlation. As much as any day in the long 
courfe of our varied and noble hiftory, did 
rableday. this memorable day of the 4th of January, 
1 64 1 -2, contribute to turn the balance of 
events in favor of popular freedom. 

§ XVII. Morning of the 4Th of 


Houfe of It was early in the morning when D'Ewes 
Com- entered the Houfe ; but Lord Falkland had 

mens : 

Falkland already reported the King's reply to their mef- 
Kn°g's ^^g^ °^ ^^^^ preceding night, to the effedt that 
meflage. he would fend an anfwer that morning before 
the Houfe was fet. Still the anfwer was 
delayed, and, fhortly after, D'Ewes took his 
feat. Mr. Alexander Rigby, the member for 
Wigan, a lawyer of Gray's Inn who afterwards 
fat upon the trial of the King, then rofe and 

^ XVII. Morning of the /^th of January. i6i 

made fomefignificant comments on his Majefty's Motion as 

" . . . . -^ •' to Kino- s 

promifed anfwerjin connedlion with certain mef- tampertng 
fages which he alleged to have been fent round o7court* 
to the Inns of Court on the previous night, with 
copies of the articles of impeachment, and with 
injundlions to the gentlemen there *'to be in 
*' readinefs this day to attend at Whitehall, 
" and to be ready at an hour's warning to 
" defend his Majefty's perfon." * Mr. Rigby Four 
clofed with a motion, which was adopted, ^^Mo^^e 
that four members of that Houfe, alfo mem- Four inns. 
bers of the Inns, fhould on the inftant proceed 
thither, and afcertain the fadls by perfonal 

Then, purfuant to the Order of the previous Grand 
day, the Houfe turned itfelf into a Grand Commit- 
Committee ; and Pym, with the articles of 
treafon in his hand, arofe. He read the charges 

* Harl. MSS. 162, f. 304 b. Ludlow has a charafteriftic The table 
anecdote and illuftration in his Memoirs, (i. 21-22) : " The ^^ White- 
" King, finding that nothing lefs would fatiffythe Pari' than )^.^\\ fg,- 
" a thorow correftion of what was amifs, & full fecurity of gentlemen 
" their rights from any violation for the future, confidered of Jnns of 
" how to put a Hop to their Proceedings : & to that end Court. 
" encouraged a great number of loofe debauched fellows 
" about the town to repair to Whitehall, where a conftant 
" table was provided for their entertainment. Many gentle- 
" men of the Inns of Court were tamper'd with to aflift him 
" in his defign, and things brought to that pafs that one of 
" them faid publicly in my hearing — ' What ! (hall we 
" ' fuflFer thefe fellows at Weftminfter to domineer thus? 
" ' Let us go into the country, and bring up our tenants to 
" * pull them out.' Which words not being able to bear, A violent 
** I queftioned him for them ; and he, either out of fear of young 
" the public juftice, or of my refentment, came to me the lawj'er. 
*' next morning, and aflced pardon for the fame: which, by 
*' reafon of his youth & want of experience, I paffed by." 

1 62 Arrefi of the Five Members. 

fucceffively, admitting frankly that they ef- 

tablifhed treafon if proved : but he fo repeated 

Pym re- t^gm to that eager and excited audience, as 

plies to _ •' ^ o 

articles of with the higheft art of the orator to ftrike 

heavily againft the Court itfelf with the very 

weapons aimed at the accufed. "True, Mr. 

" Speaker," he faid, *^ this prefent Parliament 

" hath adjudged it treafon to endeavour to 

" fubvert the fundamental laws of the land." 

Allufion No one could miftake that allufion. " Sir, 

ford. " it hath likewife been voted high treafon to 

" attempt to introduce into this kingdom a 

" form of government arbitrary and tyrannical." 

In what particular feries of adls of State and 

of Council, fuch attempt confifted, the Re- 

monftrance had lately fpread and diffufed all 

over the land. ** Sir," he added, paufing at 

Charge of the third article which charged upon them the 

over^thf attempt to win over the King's Northern army 

^™y % ^^ themfelves, and fo pointedly rewording it as 

ment: to bring plainly before the Houfe the recent 

proved confpiracy of the King's fervants to 

overawe the deliberations of Parliamient by 

means of that very army, "Sir, it is un- 

" doubtedly treafon to raife an army to com- 

fontbk^" *' P^^ ^"y Pa^^i^J^e^t to make and ena6t laws 

than over- " without their free votes and wiUing pro- 

liamemby " cccdings therein." A cry of ftern fatiJFac- 

a™y' tion broke forth, as the orator fo proceeded 

through each of the charges of treafon. 

Then, ftill earneftly declaring that each, if 

§ xvir. Morning of the i\th of January. 163 

eftablifhed, might well juftify the laft penalties 

of its high oiFence, with a fingular vividnefs 

he confronted it with the comment of the Compari- 

particular conduct in Parliament to which yited. " 

alone, in his own cafe, it could poflibly apply. 

With fevere fimplicity he confined himfelf to 

the parallel in each inftance, and he employed 

not an unnecefTary phrafe or word. Thus, as 

to the fecond article, he faid, that if by free 

vote to join with the Parliament in publifhing 

a Remonftrance againft delinquents in the Avows 

State ; againft incendiaries between his Majefty ^^^^ '^f ' 

and his kingdom ; againft ill-counfellors, who Remon- 

labored to avert his Majefty's afFedlion from 

Parliament ; and againft ill-affe(5ted Bifhops 

for their innovations in religion, their oppref- 

iion of painful, learned, and godly minifters, 

their vexatious fuits in their unjuft courts, 

their cruel fentences of pillory and mutilation, 

their great fines, banifhments, and perpetual Accepts 

imprifonments — if that were to caft afperfions ^^^, s^'^*^ 

•^ , , . -t and re- 

upon his Majefty and his government, and to fponfibi- 

alienate the hearts of his loyal fubjedls, good '*^" 

Proteftants and well-affedled in religion, from 

their due obedience to his Royal Majefty, 

then did he avow himfelf guilty of that article. 

If it were to levy arms againft the King, he As to 

continued, to confent by vote with the Par- Lvymg ^ 

liament to raife a Guard of Trained Bands to ^™.^ „ 

fecure and defend the perfons of the members King, 

thereof, being environed and befet with many 

M 2 

164 Arrefi of the Five Members, 

^ppre- dangers, then was he guilty alfo of that a6t of 

delin- treafon. And further, if it were to be a traitor, 

quents. ^Q agree with the chief Council of the State 

in apprehending and attaching as delinquents 

fuch perfons as they knew to be difafFe6ted to 

the King's crown and dignity, to his wife and 

great Council of Parliament, to the pure and 

Guilty of fimple dodrine of Chrift, to the true and 

Chrift'l"^ orthodox government of the Church of Eng- 

doftrine land as eftablifhed and confirmed by many 

doxchurch Ads of Parliament in the reigns of Henry, 

govern- Edward, and Elizabeth Tudor, and of Kin? 

ment. •' . " 

James of bleffed memory, in that refped alfo 
he avowed himfelf to be guilty. 

Then, in conclufion, having thus feparately 

contrafted, under the feven feveral heads of 

treafon, his a6lions with the accufations againft 

Judgment him, Pym craved of the Houfe that it fhould 

from the further weigh both refpedively in the even 

Houfe. fcales of its wifdom, and he doubted not of 

being found altogether clear of the crimes laid 

to his charge. He was refuming his feat amid 

*' Well loud fhouts of "Well moved," "Well moved," 

^^^^ ' when he flopped a moment, again advanced 

towards the Clerk's table, and, while a fudden 

filence fell upon the Houfe, humbly craved 

Mr. Speaker's further patience to offer to his 

A further confideration, whether to exhibit articles of 

nous°^ef- treafon by his Majefly's own hands in that 

tion. Houfe agreed with the rights and privileges 

thereof ; and whether for an armed Guard to 

§ XVII. Morning of the \th of January. 165 

befet the doors of the Houfe during fuch ^^^ "°' , 

r ' r r 1 i i r "reach or 

accufation of any of the members thereof, privilege 
were not a grave breach of the privilege of ^J^_ 
Parliament ? The laft queftion had a pregnant mitted? 
meaning on the morning of this eventful day, 
but its full fio-nificance was ftill to come. 


Upon Pym refuming his feat, Hollis, Hafel- Hollls, 
rig, and Strode rofe afterwards in fuccefTion, and Strode 
and in the brief phrafe of D'Ewes, " protefted 'lefend 
*' their innocency." Strode further declared feives. 
his belief that the Impeachment was not 
directed againft them upon any fuppofition of ^^'^^^^'^ 
their being really guilty of the matters charged, 
but merely to compel their abfence from de- 
bate ; and he warned the Houfe, that if, 
under pretence of trial, they were to be arrefted 
and taken thence, they would never be pro- 
ceeded againft legally, but be fimply by force 
cut off. Hafelrig alone expreffly avowed Hafelrlg's 
that he was confcious of that part of the 
charge on which the King folely relied for 
any veftige of evidence in proof of it. After 
declaring that anything in the nature of a 
hoftile attack aimed againft the privileges of 
Parliament, conftituted one of the worft kinds 
of treafon, or of attempts to fubvert the funda- 
mental laws, he averred that his a6ls, and thofe Hafelrig's 


of the gentlemen with him, 'particularly with to Scottifti 
reference to Scotland ^ had been in perfedt ac-*""^^^""* 
cordance, upon every occafion, with votes and 
refolutions of that Houfe ; and that the charge 

1 66 Arreft of the Five Members. 

of promoting tumults and infurredion was 
utterly groundlefs. 
?eSS'^^" Hampden next arofe. His fpeech was more 
flriking ; it was indeed fingularly impreflive ; 
and in the fragment afcertainable yet of what 
aftually was faid by the member for Bucks, 
there is alTuredly nothing that in any way con- 
firms or countenances thofe manifeft interpola- 
tions in the publifhed fpeech attributed to him 
which led Mr. Southey to charaflerize it as an 
Juftlfies avowal of flavifh obedience ! It might, on the 
contrary, almoft feem as though his tone were 
expreflly aflumed to render impoffible any fuch 
imputation. As if, in a fingle fentence, he would 
anticipate and overthrow the whole miferable 
doftrine of Sir Robert Filmer and his fol- 
lowers, Hampden at once declared to the 
Houfe, on riling, that he underftood it to be 
111 and the fign of an ill and a difloyal fubjed, if a 
good and J^^i"! fhould yield obedience to the commands 
loyal, fub- q^ ^ King when thefe were againft the true re- 
ligion and againft the ancient and fundamental 
laws of the land ; whereas a good and a loyal 
fubjedb was he, who, to a King commanding 
anything againft God's true worftiip and reli- 
gion, or againft the ancient laws, denied obe- 
dience. One feems to hear that calm, clear 
Unaccuf- voice, troubled and ftiaken with a pafTion to 
emotion, which it was unaccuftomed, in this plain afTer- 
tion of the doctrine of Refiftance. 

But what, then, was the true religion ? I 

§ XVII. Morning of the /\.th of January, 

find it, faid Hampden, in my Bible. " By Where 
" fearching the facred writings of the New looked ^" 
" and Old Teftament, we may prove whether ^of true 

... , r/^j Jill religion. 

" our rehgion be or vjod or no, and. by look- 

" ing in that glafs difcern whether w'e are in 

** the right way or no. In thefe two Tefta- Thetwo 

" ments are contained all things necefTary to mentT 

" falvation ; and then only is our religion true, 

'* when that it doth hang upon this truth of 

*' God, and no other fecondary means. Neareft The Pro- 

*^ thereunto cometh the Proteftant religion, as church 

" I really and verily believe; teaching us that*"""^- 

" there is but one God, one Chrift, one faith, 

" one religion, which is the Gofpel of Chrift 

*^ and the dodtrine of His prophets and 

" apoftles. That other rreligion, therefore, ^'^le 

" which joineth with this dodirine of Church needful to 

" and His apoftles the traditions and inven- ^^l^^t'O"- 

" tions of men, ftrange and fuperftitious wor- 

" ftiipings, prayers to the Virgin Mary, to 

" angels, and to faints, cringing and bowing 

" and creeping to the altar, cannot, I fay, be 

"true, but is erroneous, nay devilifti. AH '^'^^'^'^^^s 

'* which being ufed and maintained in theftitions 

*' Church of Rome to be as neceftary as the '^^^*^''^' 

" Scripture to falvation, that Church is there- 

" fore a falfe and erroneous Church, both in The 

*^ dodtrine and difcipline — a faife worfliiping church 

*^ of God, and not the true religion.'* ^^^^^• 

Very folemn and memorable words to have 
been fpoken on fuch an occafion, containing in 

An eft of the Five Members. 

themfelves, and promulgating for all, not 
A creed merely a creed that men may live by, but a 

to live by • • 

and die belief they will cheerfully die for. It is given 
^°''* to few among the fons of men to fee the future 

in the inftant, but Hampden was of the few. 
His manner at this eventful time, too, gave 
Hamp- added weight to his words, which appear lefs 
change of ^° ^^'^^ impreffed the lighter members and 
bearing. Royalifts, indeed, this particular day, than the 
fudden and decifive change in the look and tone 
of him who uttered them. The mildnefs had 
for ever pafled away. A fixed and ftern 
refolution had replaced the old conciliatory- 
bearing, and now truly might his enemies fee, 
what Sir Philip Warwick tells us the fcurf 
Secrets of commonly on his face fhowed plainly enough,* 
that beneath the quiet and feeming pafTion- 

ter re- 

vealed, igfg felf-control which he was able ordinarily 
to afTume, lay a very fharp and acrimonious 
temper of the blood. 

Waiting They might have difcovered or fufpedted 

IS ime. j^ before. If Hampden had not until now 

aflumed this uncompromifing tone, if he had 

not earlier fpoken thus, it was fimply that 

before now the need had not fhown itfelf. 

Charges and the time for fo fpeaking had not come. 

and ^ ^ Clarendon charges him with begetting many 

D'Ewes. notions the education of which he committed to 

* In fpeaking of his death at Chalgrove. The hurt, Sir 
Philip fays, was not in itfelf mortal j but it was rendered fo 
by the acrimonious condition of his blood, " as the fcurte 
" commonly on his face (hewed." — Memoirs, 239. 

§ XVII. Morning of the ^th of January. i6^ 

other men, and with leaving his own opinions 
with thofe from whom he pretended to learn 

and receive them.*" D'Ewes attributes to him'! Serpen- 

1-11 *'"^ *""" 

a " lerpentme fubtlety " which brought any- tlety." 

thing to pafs that he defired, and " did ftill put 

" others to move thofe bufineifes that himfelf 

1 > T> 1 r ■ r Imperfect 

*' contrived.' j But thefe, as on a former and preju- 
occafion has been pointed out, are the im- ^^^ _ 
perfe(5l and prejudiced judgments of a characfler ments. 
whofe very flrength of felf-reliance, felf-con- 
tainment, and filence, invited that kind of 
mifconftrudlion. Upon no man of this great 
period, I would repeat, are fo unmiftakeably 
impreffed the qualities which fet apart the 
high-bred Englifh gentleman, calm, courteous, y^^^^ , 

• r ^r rr % • ■ i r r- Hampden 

reticent, lelr-poirellecl ; yet with a perfuafive was. 
force fo irreliftible, and a will and energy fo 
indomitable, lying in thofe filent depths, that 
all who came within their reach came alfo under 
their control. 

Thefe are qualities which no craft however 
dexterous, and no fubtlety the moft ferpentine, 
can in any manner or degree fupply. When 
Clarendon, after taxing even his ingenuity to Admji- 
draw a bill of indidlment againft Hampden, ckren- 
ends by fpeaking of him as not only a very ^on. 
wife man and of great parts, J and who laid his 
defigns deepefl:,§ but who had a great fagacity 

* HiJI. iv. 92—93. § Hi^. i. 323. 

t Harl. MSS. 163, f. 691 b. 
I Hij}. iv. 91. 

1 70 Arrejl of the Five Members. 

in difcerning men's natures and manners, and 

was pofTefled with the moft abfolute fpirit of 

popularity, that is, the moft abfolute faculties 

to govern the people, of any man he ever 

Higheft knew ; * he afligns to him the higheft form 

ftatefman. of power a ftatefman can poffefs. The richeft 

^'P- gifts are wafted in that diredlion, wanting this. 

To make the fpoils of differing intelledls its 

own, to draw ftrength from the weakneffes of 

men, to aflimilate the moft varied experiences, 

to render every mind it touches tributary, is to 

have that which the utmoft accompliftiment in 

eloquence, in learning, or in public affairs will 

A leader fail to give, and which conftitutes pre-eminently 

andeover- i j j r 

nor of ^ leader and governor or men. 

men. Nor was it that! any lefs fupreme temper, 

or inferior felf-command, had appeared in 
Hampden as he repelled the King's charge 
of treafon, but fimply that what before was 
not called for had become neceffary now, and 
as the occafton rofe he rofe along with it. 
After the accufation of Treafon, fays the hif- 

Change in torian of the Rebellion, Mr. Hampden was 

weU as^ much altered; his nature and carriagef feeming 

* Hijl. iv. 91-92. Again (ii. 15) he fays of him : "He 
" hath been mentioned before as a man of great underftanding 
** and parts, and of great fagaclty in difcerning men's natures 
*' and manners ; and he muft upon all occafions ftill be 
" mentioned as a perfon of great dexterity and abilities, and 
Equal to " equal to any trult or employment, good or bad, which he 
anything. " was inclined to undertake." 

f This is undoubtedly Clarendon's word, though Mr. 
Hallam ftrangely mifquotes it as " courage." Conft. Hiji. ii^ 

§ xvir. Morning of the \th of January. 171 

much fiercer than before. So alfo did he fay Hampden 

/- • 1 1 r 11 11 T» arteraccu- 

of Hampden's friend and fellow-labourer rym. ration of 
From the time, too, of his being accufed of '"^^°"* 
high treafon by the King, he never entertained 
thoughts of moderation, but always oppofed ^'^ , 

„ ^ r J ^ /\ thoughts 

all overtures or peace and accommodation.* of mode- 
They both faw, what men of fuch fagacity could "^^^^^ 
now hardly fail to fee, that the armed ftruggle 
was at hand, that it muft be fought out to its 
laft ifTue, and that when, in defence of the Law 
and Religion they fo prized, the fword was No com- 

/> 1 1 1 n 1 n promile 

once drawn, the fcabbard muft be flung away, poffible. 

And fo, to the clofeofwhatyet remained of 
the lives they had given up freely to their coun- 
try, thefe great men went in perfedl harmony a memo- 
together. They fhared the fame beliefs and f^^^^^j. 
purpofes, the fame hopes and refolves, the ftiip. 
fame enemies and friends, in common to the 
end. Nor was it otherwife than well, remarked Remark 
Hampden to Hyde when they next met in '^ ^ ^" 
the Houfe after the incidents of this 4th of 
January, that himfelf and Pym fhould hereafter Advan- 
know who were their friends. The trouble k,fowing 
which had befallen them had at leaft been^'}^'^, 
attended with that benefit ; and he faid alfo, 
"very fnappifhly" adds Mr. Hyde (an ex- 
preflion that reveals himfelf if it fails to exhibit 

* Hijl. iv. 441. In another paflage he fays of Pym that Pym 
** though in private defigning he was much governed by Mr. greateft in 
** Hampden, yet he feemed to all men to have the greateft Houfe of 
*• influence upon the Houfe of Commons of any man." Commons. 

iv. 438. 

172. Arrefi of the Five Members. 

Mr. Hampden), that he well knew Mr. Hyde 
had a mind they fhould both be in prifon.* 

Such, however, was not the mind of the 

Houfe of Commons. Undaunted amid the 

Confe- perils that furrounded them, they at once re- 

thriJl^d? ^o^ved, upon the laft of the accufed members 

demanded, refuming his feat, to defire a conference with 

the Lords to acquaint them that a fcandalous 

paper had been publifhed, and to require their 

help in inftituting inquiry who were the authors 

Impeach- and publifhers of the faid fcandalous paper, 

nouncedasto the end that they might receive condign 

a lean- punifhment, and the Commonwealth be 

dalous ^ / 

paper. fecured againfl: fuch perfons. Th^ fcandalous 
paper was the Articles of Impeachment which 
the King had publiilied by the hands of his 

* This anecdote is in Hyde's Life, (i. 103), and his mode 
of telling it is ftill to mix up with it a purpofed and deliberate 
mifreprel'entation of the real matter in ifTue. " Though 
" they," he lays, referring to Hampden and Pym, " had a 
Hampden " better opinion of his dilcretion than to believe he had any 
and Pym " Ihare in the advice of the late proceedings, yet they were 
as to " very willing that others fhould believe it ; and made all the 

** difcre- " infufions they could to that purpofe amongft thofe who took 
tion " of * " their opinions from them : towards which his known friend- 
Mr. Hyde. " Ihip with the Lord Digby was an argument very prevalent : 
" and then his oppofing the votes upon their privilege had 
" inflamed them beyond their temper ; infomuch as Mr. 
" Hampden told him one day, that the trouble that had 
" lately befallen them had been attended with that benefit, 
" that they knew who were their friends : and the other 
" offering to fpeak upon the point of privilege, and how 
** monftrous a thing it was to make a vote fo contrary to the 
" Snap- *' known law, he replied very fnappifhly, 'that he well knew 
pifhnefs " " ' he had a mind they fliould be all in prifon ; ' and fo 
of Mr, " departed without flaying for an anfwer," Hampden might 
Hampden, well turn upon his heel and move filently away, for reafons 
far other than thofe imputed to him. 

§ XVI r. Morning of the \th of January, 173 

Another objedl of the Conference (of 
which Fiennes, Glyn, the younger Vane, and 
Hotham were named managers), D'Evves 
adds, was to call immediate attention to the 
King's Guard at Whitehall, as not the lefs alfo 
" a breach of our privilege," and interruption ^^. 
to the freedom of debate. This is the firft Guard an 
hint he gives of any immediate alarm ; and |?^^""P- 

o y _ ' tion to tree 

though there is little doubt, as will fhortly ap- debate, 
pear, that Pym had received notice the previous 
night of fome fpecific and violent defign in 
contemplation, he was not, as it would feem, 
made aware of the King's refolve to take part 
in it himfelf.* Clarendon fpeaks of a com- 
pofednefs appearing, during the events of this Com- 

, 1 1 J . I f. pofednefs 

remarkable day, m the countenances or many of the 

who ufed to be difturbed at lefs furprifing if^ders of 
11-111/- f ,. ° the Corn- 

occurrences ; and this doubtlels was an mdica- mons. 

tion that the Houfe generally had been placed 

upon its guard. But its forced calmnefs was 

put to fevere tefts. " It was now generally 

" declared," fays D'Ewes, " that there was a 

" great confluence of armed men about White- Gather- 

*' hall, and that between thirty and forty arSed 

" canoneers went yeflernight into the Tower "?^""^^'' 

*' at ten of the clock. Alfo that the Hamlet 

" men, who were to be ordinary warders 

" there, had no arms given them : but that 

*' the Bifhops' men were well armed. f Mr. 

* Hlft. ii. J28. 

t Harl. MSS. 162, f. 304 b. Ten of my Lords the 

174 Arreji of the Five Members. 

Pym <c Pym moved that we might fend notice of 

deputation " thefe feveral informations and dangers into 

to City. <c the city, to the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, 

" and Common Council there aflembled, and 

" to let them know in what danger the Par- 

" liament was : all which was ordered accord- 

" ingly."* And, for execution of the order. 

Alderman Sir Thomas Soame wasjoinedto the 

two members, Pennington and Ven, who had fo 

ably difcharged themfelves of the meffage of the 

Houfe on the preceding day ; ^' and they were," 

Deputa- fays D'Ewes, " fent inftantly away into the 

parts/' City." In fuch hafte, indeed, that a material 

point was forgotten. " After they were gone 

" out, Mr. Peard" (the fame who moved the 

printing of the Remonftrance) " was fent after 

" them, to require them to let no man know 

No man ft their errand till they came into the City."f 

its errand. Still there wcrc members anxious that more 

fhould be done, as the rumour of what was 

preparing in Whitehall took more and more 

palpable fhape. " Mr. Nathaniel Fiennes and 

Alarm <' Others," fays D'Ewes, *' moved that fome 

creafmg. " members of this House might be fent to 

" obferve what numbers of armed men were 

" about Whitehall, and to know by what au- 

" thority they were aflembled there : but this 

Adjourn- " Order was not fully agreed upon, when we 

mentfor cc adjourned the Houfe, about 12 of the clock. 

an hour. 

Bifhops, it will be remembered, were at this time lodged, 
with of coiirfe all due attendance, in the Tower. 
• Harleian MSS. 162, f. 305 b. t lb. 

^ XVIII. Betrayal of the Secret. 175 

" till one of the clock in the afternoon — for an 
" hour's fpace." 

§ XVIII. Betrayal of the Secret. 

Momentous was the hour during which A mo- 
the Houfe thus adjourned its fitting, for within IJIJ^rval! 
that brief fpace all the King's intention was 
betrayed. Up to the time of the adjournment, 
grave as were the caufes of alarm, and the 
grounds for expedling fome adt of violence, the 
circumftance which gave its utmoft gravity to 
the outrage contemplated does not appear to 
have been in any degree fufpefted even re- 
motely. But now it was that Lady Carlifle Lady Car- 
managed to convey to Pym that the King trays all 
meant to put himfelf at the head of thofe ^^ ^7™* 
Whitehall defperadoes, and in perfon to de- 
mand, and if neceffary feize, the accufed mem- 
bers as they fat in their places in the Houfe of 
Commons. D'Ewes tells us that, " this day at 
" dinner,"* the five members alfo received a 
fecret communication of the King's intention Private 
from the Lord Chamberlain of the houfehold, fVorn i!ord 
Lord Eflex, with advice that they fhould ^^^x- 
abfent themfelves. 

Neverthelefs that does not appear to have 
been their firft intention. The Speaker re- Houfe re- 
fumed his chair, fays D'Ewes, between one and half-paft * 
two o'clock, and the four feleded members who, °"^- 

♦ Harl. MSS. 162, f. 306 b. 

176 Arreft of the Five Members. 

by order of the Houfe in the morning, had been 

difpatched to the Inns of Court, rofe and made 

Report \ix\d report of their miflion. Mr. Richard 

iroin Inns -^ 

of Court. Brown, of Lincoln's Inn, the member for 
Romney, ftated " that he had done the mef- 
" fage of the Houfe to the gentlemen of that 

Lincoln's fc fociety, whofe anfwer was, that they had at 
" firft gone to the Court laft week only upon 
*' occafion of a report brought to them that 
" the King's perfon was in danger : That 
" yefternight they had received a meffage from 
" his Majefty by Sir W"'* Killigrew and Sir 
<c -yy-m. pieming, that they fhould keep within 

King's fc this day, and be ready at an hour's warning 

meflage to t 1 • tv /r • n n 1 j 1 r r 

be in " ir his Majelty mould have occafion to ule 

th^^T^^^ " them : That they brought likewife a paper 

*' of articles to them, by which the Lord 

" Mandeville and five members of the Houfe 

*^ of Commons were accufed of High Treafon : 

" That they had only an intent to defend the 

*^ King's perfon, and would likewife to their 

Asprompt cc uttcrmoft alfo defend the Parliament, being 

to Com- ^'notable to make any diftindlion between 

mens, <c King and Parliament : And that they would 

" ever exprefs all true affedion to the Houfe 

*^ of Commons in particular." Mr. William 

Same from ^llis, of Gray's Inn, the member for Bofton, 

Grsv s •'J 7 

Inn. next rofe, and " made the like relation" from 
I that fociety. So, from the Inner Temple, did 

From In- ]y[j.. Roger Hill, member for Bridport, and who 

ner Tem- ^ ^ ^ ^ _ 

pie. fat afterwards in judgment on the King. And 

§ XVIII. Betrayal of the Secret. 177 

fo, finally, did Mr. Philip Smith, member for and from 
Marlborough, report from the Middle Temple ; Temple, 
with the difference that this Society fent their 
reply in writing, and defired it fhould be added 
that their intention to defend the King's perfon 
was no more than thev were thereunto bound 
by the oaths of allegiance and fupremacy. 
*' With which feveral anfwers from the Inns 
** of Court," D'Ewes adds, the Houfe refled The 
exceedingly well fatiffied. tiffied! 

Then rofe Nathaniel Fiennes, and, in proof 
that the royal meffages to the learned focieties 
juft related were but part of a fcheme which was 
under the fame direction, and which depended 
for its execution on the armed affemblages in Armed 

• d 

the vicinity of the Houfe, " made relation gathering 
*' that he had been at Whitehall, and had afked nearer. 
** of one of the officers by what authority they 
** were there affembled, who anfwered that they 
" were commanded to obey Sir W"* Fleming 
** in all things that he fhould enjoin them." 
The member for Banbury was flill fpeaking Re-en- 
when Pym, Hampden, Hollis, Hafelrig, and the^Five 
Strode entered and took their feats, where- Members, 
upon the Speaker diredted it to be entered in 
the Journals that they had done fo.* 

Communication was now made to the The Secret 
Houfe of the fecret intelligence received, and '^^^•={0^^'* 

. ° 'to the 

then followed a debate, brief and prefling, but Houfe. 

* See Common^ Journals, ii. 368, where the entry ftill 

lyB Arrefi of the Five Members. 

on which hung certain iffues by which the 
future deilinies of England were probably de- 
accufed*^^ tcrmined. Should the accufed retire, or wait 
retire or the King's arrival ? Pym, Hollis, and Hamp- 
den, confcious of all the danger, appear to 
have been for quitting the Houfe, Hafelrig and 
Strode for remaining ; and the dffentients were 
ftill urging reafons againft retreat while yet, as 
they argued, no poiitive knowledge was before 
them of a neceflity for abrupt departure, when 
A new a new adlor came fuddenly on the fcene. 
the°fcene ^^^^^^^^^^ with the exertion he had made to 
reach the Houfe rapidly, to which end he had 
even clambered over the roofs of neighbouring 
buildings,*there appeared at the door a friend 
of Nathaniel Fiennes, an officer of French 
birth fettled in England, by name Captain 
Hercule Langres. Fiennes left his feat, ex- 
changed fome hafty words with the unexpected 
vifitor, and immediately paffed up to Mr. 
Lenthal Speaker's chair : upon which Lenthal rofe and 
Khi^^'r^^ abruptly told the Houfe, now a fcene of ex- 
approach, traordinary excitement, that the King already 
had left Whitehall at the head of a large 
company of armed men, and was approaching 
Weftminfter Hall. 

Chronicler * Harl. MSS. 162, f. 310 b. Heath fays {Brief Chronicle, 
Heath, p. 39) that Langres was a fervantof the QjJeen. He declares 
alfo that the accufed members were not able to get into the 
City on the night of the attempted arreft, fuch was the excite- 
ment prevailing ; and that they lay hid all that night in the 
King's Bench Court, and did not find refuge in the City till 
next day. But nothing that Heath fays is worthy of credit 
unlefs well corroborated by better teftimony. 

^ XIX. 'ithe King^s Approach to the Houfe. 179 

This clofed debate. The motion before the ^P^^^ ^^ 


Houfe had been, that, confidering there was an Members 
intention to remove five of their members by t^em-*^"*^ 
force, to avoid all tumult let them be com- Selves. 
manded to abfent themfelves : but the motion 
now fubftituted, and at once affirmed, was that 
the Houfe give their members leave to abfent 
themfelves, but enter no order for it, " It was 
" a queftion," Hafelrig afterwards faid, " if we 
** fhould be gone; but the debate was jfhortened, 
" and it was thought fit for us, in difcretion, 
" to withdraw. Away we went. The King Away to 
" immediately came in, and was in the Houfe ^}^^ ^'^^ 

•' by water. 

" before we got to the water.* " Not, how- 
ever, until violence had been ufed. For, even 
then. Strode, " crying out that he knew himfelf 
" to be innocent, and that he would ftay in the 
" Houfe though he fealed his innocency with strode re- 
" his blood at the door,"t had to be dragged f'^^' ^"^^ , 

' ' DO IS dragged 

bodily out by his friend Sir Walter Earle, and out. 
placed in the barge which had been haftily pro- 
vided, and was in waiting at the Weftminfter 
§ XIX. The King's approach to the 

Meanwhile Charles and his companions The 
had well-nigh reached the lobby of the Houfe attS 
of Commons. ants. 

In the declaration of breach of privilege 

* Burton's Diary, iii. 93. 
t Harl. MSS. 162, f. 306 b. 

N 2 

I So Arreft of the Five Members. 

As to their fubfequently ifTued, it is ftated that the number 

number - ^ , . , 

and arms : of armed men who accompanied the Kmg was 
five hundred : nor does the King, in his reply, 
difpute this, though he alleges that his own atten- 
dants were no otherwife armed than as gentle- 
men with fwords. The remark pointed only 
to his immediate Guard and Pensioners ; but 
nothing was afterwards more diftindly proved 
than that the bulk of the force who followed car- 
ried fire-arms as well. Here are the witnefTes. 
Teftlmony Sir Ralph Verney flates, that, befide his 
Ralph ufual Guard and all his Penfioners, his Majefly 
Verney; ^^g attended by two or three hundred foldiers 
of Rufii- and gentlemen.* Rufh worth makes the fame 
worth: diflindiion between the royal guard of pen- 
fioners and halberdiers, and the mifcellaneous 
company who followed, and who conftituted 
the famous (or infamous) Whitehall Guard,of 
commanders, Reformadoes,j- and foldiers of 
ofLud- fortune, j: Ludlow, who might himfelf have 
been (and probably was) an eye-witnefs, fays 
that Charles went attended not only with his 
ordinary guard of penfioners, but alfo with 
thofe defperadoes that for fome time he had 
.entertained at Whitehall, to the number of 
three or four hundred, armed with partizans, 
mas May : fwords, and piflols.^ May, alfo a good au- 

j * Notes, p. 138. 

Refor- f A Reformado was an officer of a company difbanded, 

madoes. but whofe own ferviccs had been retained as ftill belonging to 
the regiment of which his company had formed part. 
X Hiji. Coll, part III. i. 4.77. § Memoirs, i. 24.. 

§ XIX. 'The King^s Approach to the Houfe. i8i 

thority, puts down " the gentlemen foldiers 

" and others armed with fwords and piftols " 

who were in immediate attendance on the 

King, at the number of about three hundred.* 

The wife of Colonel Hutchinfon, implicitly to of Mrs. 

be trufted as a witnefs, vouches likewife for the (^^ ^ 

numbers that attended Charles as not lefs than 

four hundred armed gentlemen and foldiers. f 

D'Ewes, who fhows the reverfe of any wifh and of 

to exaggerate the circumftances, defcribes the 

attendant company as compofed of "fome offi- 

" cers who ferved in his Majefty's late army and 

" fome other loofe perfons, to the number of 

" about fome four hundred.":}: Yet Clarendon, Clarendon 

writing at a time when he had little need to d°as'^all : 

fear contradidlion, has the inconceivable affur- 

ance to afk even his readers to believe, that it 

was " viftble to all men that the King had only relating 

" with him his Guard of halberdiers, and fewer u ^jj-^ie 

" of them than ufed to go with him upon^o^^^-" 

** any ordinary motion ; and that fewer of his 

" gentlemen fervants were then with him, than 

" ufually attended him when he went but to 

" walk in the park, and had only their little 

" fwords ! " § 

But let us further hear Captain Slingfby on • 
this point, which goes indeed to the root of siing%'s 

, -jTrr • • T« • 1 account to 

the matter. Writmg to rennmgton on thepenning- 

* Hijl, lib ii. cap. ii. 21. 

•f- Col. Hutchinfon's Memoirs, 76. 

I Harl. MSS. 162, f. 306 a. § HiJl. ii. 137-138. 


Arreji of the Five Members. 



ton: 6th of January,* the fecond day after the 

aiy. " attempted arreft, he makes fpecial mention of 

'^ the multitude of gentry and foldiers that had 

" lately flocked to the Court." Never in his 

life, he remarks, had he feen it fo thronged as it 

Armed then was : and the effeft had been to fuch an ex- 

whS-^* tent to terrify the Citizens, that they no longer 

appeared about Whitehall, from apprehenflon of 

the rough entertainment they were like to receive 

if they came again. But, he fays, after thus 

defcribing the armed crowds in the King's 

palace, there had fuddenly arifen fomething to 

trouble of breed expectation of troubles far tranfcending 

theCiti- anything caufed by the Weftminfter Hall 

tumults ; and then, he continues, " all partes 

" of the Court being thronged with gentlemen 

* MS, State Paper Office. The letter is dated, in mani- 

feft error, the 6th of December. It opens with the fubjoined 

Slingfby account of the articles of impeachment, as handed in the 

defcribes preceding day. " On Monday laft the King's Attorney 

impeach- " did impeach the Lord Mandevill, and Mfl'" Pirn, HoUis, 

ment : '* Strowd, Hamden, & S' Arthur Haflrigge, of High Treafon, 

** in the Upper Houfe. The fumme of the articles were fub- 

*' verting the fundamental! lawes, placing fubiefts in arbitrary 

" & tirannicall government, calling in a forraigne army, 

** endeavouring to draw the King's army from his obedience, 

" depriving the King of his royall power, laying fals afper- 

" fions againft the King to make him odious, countenancing 

" tumults againft the King & Parliament, forcing the Parlia- 

" ment by terror to joyne with them, fubverting the rights 

" & very being of Parliaments, praftifing to rayfe warre & 

'* aftually rayfmg warr againft the King : This charge was 

•* fent downe to the Comons houfe, who received it with the 

*' tearme of a fcandalous paper. A Serieant-at-Armes fent 

members'' " likewife to attach them, but was refufed. Their cloffetts 

fitting in " by the King's comaund ftaled up. but the fame night, by 

Houfe " order from the Houfe, opened agalne : the next day Ibme of 

notwith- " them, notwithftanding their impeachment, came and fatt in 

ftanding. " the Houfe." 

§ XIX. The King^s Approach to the Houfe. 183 

*' and officers of the army, in the afternoone 
" the King went with them all, his own Sllnglby 
" Guard, and the Penfioners : " expreflly King's 
adding that by far the moft part, among company. 
whom he then and there had taken his own 
place, were " arm'd with fwords and piftolls." 
Such was Hyde's innocent party, and their How innc 
harmlefs accoutrement, when they fet out on armed, 
this famous expedition ! 

Peaceful and innocent as they were, how- 
ever, with their *' little fwords," as Mr. Hyde 
ingenuoufly defcribes them, in their brief 
journey from Whitehall they had managed to Difmay 
carry difmay at every ftep ; and, as they neared approach. 
Weftminfter Hall, D'Ewes tell us, " it ftruck 
" fuch a fear and terrour into all thofe that 
" kept fhops in the faid Hall, or near the 
" gate thereof, as they inftantly fhut up their Shops ihut 
'^ fhops, looking for nothing but bloodfhed 
" and defolation."* Having reached the gate, 
the armed band formed fuddenly into a lane, 
ranging themfelves on either fide along the 
whole length of the Hall ; and Charles, The King 
paffing through this lane, and entering the door fhrough 
at the fouth-eaft angle, afcended the flairs Weftmin- 
into the Commons' Houfe. His armed com- 
pany clofed up, and as many as could prefs 
in crowded after him. The King's command 
had been, according to Sir Ralph Verney and 

* HarL MSS. 162, f. 310 a. 

184 Arreji of the Five Members. 

Captain Slingfby, himfelf one of the company, 
Lobby of that the great body fhould flay in the Hall ; 
Commons but, fays D'Ewcs, ^' his Majefty coming into 
filfed^"^^ " ^^^ lobby, a little room juft without the 
'^ Houfe of Commons, divers officers of the 
" late army in the North, and other defperate 
Armed " ruffians, prefTed in after him to the number 
men ftiU «« of about four fcore, befides fome of his 

prels irom 

without. " penfioners."* Captain Slingfby's account 

quite bears out D'Ewes. " When," he writes,t 

'' we came into Weftminfter Hall, w*^'' was 

Charles " thronged with the number, the King com- 

Houfc* ^ " manded us all to ftay there ; and himfelfe, 

" with a fmall trayne, went into the Houfe of 

where *^ Commons, where never King was (as they 

wa7but"^ " %)» but once King Henry the Eight." 


§ XX. The House Entered by the King. 

Within the Houfe, meanwhile, but a few 

minutes had elapfed fince the Five Members 

departed, and Mr. Speaker had received in- 

ftrudtion to fit ftill with the mace lying before 

Voice of him, when a loud knock threw open the door, 

Charles '■ . 

heard as ^ ^^^^ of armed men was heard, and above it 

he enters, ^^s we learn from Sir Ralph Verney) the 

voice of the King commanding " upon their 

*^ lives not to come in." J The moment after, 

followed only by his nephew Charles, the Prince 

1 * Had. MSS. 162, f. 306 b. 

t MS. State Paper Office. Slingfby to Pennington, 6 Jan. 
1641-2. I Notes, ^. 139. 

§ XX. The Hou/e entered hy the King. 185 

Eledor Palatine, Rupert's eldeft brother, he 

entered ; but the door was not permitted to be 

clofed behind him. Vifible now at the threfhold, Armed 

to all, were the officers and defperadoes above vifible 

named, of whom, D'Ewes proceeds, " fome had o^^fide. 

" left their cloaks in the Hall, and moft of them 

" were armed with piftols and fwords, and 

" they forcibly kept the door of the Houfe of Door kept 

'^ Commons open, one Captain Hide* ftand- "^^^ ^ 

" ing next the door holding his fword upright 

" in the fcabbard : " f a pidlure which Sir 

Ralph Verney, alfo prefent that day in his 

place, completes by adding that '^ fo the 

" doors were kept open, and the Earl of Captain 

" Roxborough ftood within the door, leaning Lord Rox- 

" upon it." J borough. 

As the King entered, all the members rofe 

* This Captain Hide, who thus, holding his fword upright Captain 
in its fcabbard, fignified his and its readinefs that day for any Hide: 
defperate deed, was the fame David Hide, " a Reformado in the 
*' late army againft the Scots and now appointed to go in fome 
" command into Ireland " {Rujhnjoorth, part iii. vol. i. 4-63), 
who, upon that difaftrous day of the Lunftord tumults which 
had its appropriate ifTue in the firll blood Ihed in this Great 
Civil War (that of Sir Richard Wil'eman, a London Citizen, 
mortally hurt on the 27th December), took a leading part in the Prominent 
conflift in Weftminfter Hall, " bullied " againft the Citizen in Weft- 
apprentices whom the hotWelfh wrath of Archbiftiop Williams minfter 
had efpecially provoked, and, drawing his fword with an oath, tumults: 
faid " he'd cut the throats of thofe Round-headed Dogs that 
*' bawled againft Bifhops : " which palfionate expreflions of his, 
Ruftiworth remarks, "as far as I could ever learn, was the 
" firft miniting" [minting, or coinage] " of that term or 
" compellation of Roundheads which afterwards grew fo 
" general." (See ante, 63, 137). Hide was afterwards Cafliiered 
cafliiered from his Irilh command by the Houfe, but he and re- 
reappeared in Merrick's Regiment during the Civil War. — appointed. 
See Rufh'ivoi'th, iii. 124.7. 

•j- Harl. MSS. 162, f. 307 a. J Notes, p. 139. 

1 86 Arr eft of the Five Members. 

Members ^nd uncovered, and the King alfo removed his 

rife and . ^ 

uncover, hat ; and it would not have been ealy, lays 
Ruftiworth, to difcern any of the five mem- 
bers, had they been there, among fo many 
A crowd bare faces ftanding up together. But there 
faces^."^^ was One face, among the Five, which Charles 
knew too well not to have fingled out even 
there ; and hardly had he appeared within the 
chamber, when it was obferved that his glance 
Charles and his ftep were turned in the diredion of 
well- Pym's feat clofe by the Bar. His intention, 
known baffled by the abfence of the popular leader, 
can only now be guefTed at : but, Ruftiworth 
miffesMr. adds, " his Majefty, not feeing Mr. Pym there, 
*' knowing him well, went up to the chair."* 
We all, fays D'Ewes, flood up and uncovered 
our heads, and the Speaker flood up jufl; 
before his chair. *' His Majefty, as he came 
paflesup ** up along the Houfe, came the moft part of 
er's chair": '^ ^^e Way uncovered, alfo bowing to either 
" fide of the Houfe, and we all bowed again 
" towards him, and fo he went to the Speaker's 
" chair on the left hand of it, coming up 
clofe by " clofe by the place where I fat, between the 
p'Ewes's ccfouth end of the Clerk's table and me." t 

feat. . 

As he approached the chair, Lenthal ftepped 

Stands on out to meet him ; upon which *' he firft fpake," 

Lenthal's fays D'Ewes, faying, " Mr. Speaker, I muft 

I *^^^^''' " for a time make bold with your chair." 

• mji. Coll. III. i. 477. 

t Harl MSS. 162, f. 306 a. 

■ § XX. ^he Houfe entered by the King. 187 

And then the King ftepped up to his place Looks 
and flood upon the ftep, but fat not down in fore^he^" 
the chair. And after he had looked a great fpeaks. 
while, he fpoke again. 

A break here occurs in the narrative of Break In 
D'Ewes. His relation for a while is inter- ti^e of 
rupted ; and a note afterwards written, l>'Ewes. 
and fubftituted for it, refers us to what 
was *' taken in charaders by the Clerk's 
" affiftant." Perhaps the only perfonOneun- 
wholly quiet and unmoved during the fpeftator 
extraordinary fcene, unlefs it were that^^*^^ 
moft impaffive of note- takers, Sir Simonds 
himfelf, was this lately appointed Clerk's 
afliftant, young Mr. Rulhworth, who was Young 

^ r J 1 r 1 ^1 1 , 1-1 Mr.Rufh- 

oblerved, as he lat at the Clerk s table, worth. 

bufily taking down the words of the King, 

as they broke upon the fuUen and " awe- 

'* full" filence. His report, drawn out in His report 

the evening by command of the King, f(,"iptio'n 

who had noticed him writins: at the fent for by 


table, was publifhed in a broadfide next 
morning, and D'Ewes, finding the King's 
words therein more exactly given than by 
himfelf, makes a reference in his Journal 
to thofe parts of it ; but his Majefty had important 
direded an omiflion which D'Ewes is '^^jf '""' 
careful to fupply in his own record, and therein, 
only a portion of which (the words fpoken 
by Lenthal) we find Ruihworth to have 
appended in after years to the account 

Arreji of the Five Members. 

Copy fo 
in State 

a help to 
more vivid 
tion of the 

fpeech to 



report of 





preferved in his ColleSlions.^ But, in 

addition to what is fo fupplied by the 

manufcript Journal of D'Ewes, I have 

been fortunate enough to find, in the State 

Paper Office, what appears to be the 

original copy of Rufhworth's report of 

what was faid by the King, as taken 

during the evening to the palace and 

corredied by Charles ; and, though the 

corre(5lions, trivial in themfelves, ferve 

chiefly to fhow the accuracy with which 

Rufhworth had taken his notes, the era- 

fures yet enable us exadlly to mark the 

charaderifl:ic breaks that occurred, and 

more vividly to reproduce the adtual 


*^ Gentlemen," faid Charles, " I am forry 

" for this occafion of coming unto you. Yef- 

'^ tcrday Ifent a Serjeant-at-Arms upon a very 

" important occafion to apprehend fome that 

" by my command were accufed of High 

" Treafon ; whereunto I did expedt obedience, 

* Hijl. Coll. III. i. 477-8. 

f I fubjoin an accurate copy of the portions in which the 
material correftions or erafures occur, with the latter printed 
in facfimile : 

that albeit 
I muft declare unto you here, noe king that ever was in 

England, fhall bee more CarefuU (of yo' priviledges) sum 

mentaine them to the uttermoft of his power then I fhall 

b«-Gl««r Yet you muft know y' in Cafes of Treafon noe 

perfon hath a priviledge. And therefore I am come to 

§ XX. The Houfe entered by the King. 189 

*^ and not a meflage. And I muft declare Expefts 
*^ unto you here, that albeit no King that ^e d°^^ 
" ever was in England fhall be more careful I'vered up 

- ... ... 1 to him. 

" or your privileges, to maintain them to the 
" uttermoft of his power, than I fhall be, 
" yet you muft know that in cafes of Treafon 

know, if any of thofe perfons that were accufed are here. 
ThenXcafting his eyes upp*n all the Members in Uie Houfe Erafure by 
faid, iXdoe not fee any of Ihem : I thinke I fhould know 


For I muft tell you Gent"" that foe long as thofe perfons that 

I have accufed (for noe flight crime, but for Treafon) 

are here, I cannot expeft that this Houfe can bee in the right 

way, that I doe heartily wifh It : Therefore I am come to 

tell you, that I muft have them, wherefoever I finde them. 

Then His Ma''« faid is Mr. r*ym here ? to w'='' Ape Body Enquiry 
\ * * forPym 

gave aniVveare. alfoerafed. 

Well, fince I fee all n*5» Birds are flowen I doe expeft from 

you, that you (hall fend them unto mee as foone as they 

but affeure 
returne hither : I muft IlU you in the word of a king I never 

did intend any force, but fliall proceed ag* them in a legall & 

faire way j for I never iH t tndtd any other. 

And now fince I fee I cannot doe what I came for. I 

thinke this is noe unfitt occailon to Repeat what I have laid 

formerly that whatfoever I have done in favour]\and to the 

good of my fubjefts I do meane to mentaine it. 


Arreft of the Five Members. 


the Five 
in the 

No reply. 

will be 
well till 
are fur- 

Muft have 



*' no perfon hath a privilege. And therefore 
" I am come to know if any of thefe perfons 
" that were accufed are here." 

Then he paufed ; and cafting his eyes upon 
all the members in the Houfe, faid " I do not fee 
" any of them. I think I fhould know them." 

" For I muft tell you. Gentlemen," he 
refumed after another paufe, " that fo long 
" as thofe perfons that I have accufed (for no 
^' flight crime, but for Treafon) are here, I 
" cannot exped that this Houfe will be in the 
" right way that I do heartily wifh it. There- 
*' fore I am come to tell you that I muft 
" have them, wherefoever I find them." 

Then again he hefitated, ftopped : and called 
out, " Is Mr. Pym here ? " To which no- 
body gave anfwer. 

The awkwardnefs and effort manifeft in 
thefe paufes and interruptions, the words that 
again and again recur, the needlefs and bald 
repetitions, in which we feem to hear the flow 
and laboured utterance with which Charles 
covered his natural impediment of fpeech, 
imprefs the imagination painfully. 

All the breaks and paufes, however, were 
omitted in the report direfted to be pub- 
lifhed ; and D'Ewes, furmifing that not only 
fuch omifTions had been made by the King's 
order, but alfo all mention of the reply given 
upon Charles's appeal to the Speaker, is 
careful to reftore what was wanting. " But 

§ XX. The Houfe entered by the King. 191 

" the King caufed all that to be left out, confirma- 

^* namely, when he afked for Mr. Pym, ^ep" °t as 

" whether he were prefent or not, and when correfted 

** there followed a general filence, that nobody King. 

" would anfwer him. He then afked for Mr. 

" Hollis whether he were prefent, and when Enquiries 

" nobody anfwered him, he prefTed the Speaker and 

" to tell him, who, kneeling down, did very Ho^^'s. 

" wifely defire his Majefty to pardon him, 

" faying that he could neither fee nor fpeak Reply. 

" but by command of the Houfe : to which the 

" King anfwered, ' Well, well ! *tis no matter. 

'' ' I think my eyes are as good as another's.' Looking 

for them 

*^ And then he looked round about the Houfe himfelf. 
** a pretty while, to fee if he could efpie any 
" of them." * Very welcome are all fuch addi- 
tional touches to a pidlure fo memorable. 

" May it pleafe your Majefty," faid Len- Speaker^ 
thai, to the appeal that he fhould fay where fpeech. 
Pym was (for, as Rufhworth himfelf, when 
he publilhed his ColleSiions, inferted his own 
report of the difcreet fpeech of Mr. Speaker, 
and as the good Sir Simonds, had he lived to 
fee it, would certainly have copied it in his 
Journal, it will here be moft properly appended 
to an account which fir ft gives to it all its 
fignificance), " I have neither eyes to fee nor No 
" tongue to fpeak in this place, but as the tongue 
" Houfe is pleafed to diredt me, whofe fervant ^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

* Houfe s 


* Harl. MSS. 162, f. 306 a. 

1^2 Arrejt of the Five Members. 

" I am here ; and I humbly beg your Ma- 
'^ jelly's pardon that I cannot give any other 
'^ anfwer than this to what your Majefty is 
" pleafed to demand of me.'* Words con- 
ceived indeed with a fingular prudence. Im- 
Extraordi- prcfTed deeply by the attitude of the Houfe, and 
peech for infpired fuddenly by the truft confided to him, 
an ordi- ^ man little famous for magnanimity or courage 
* difplayed both for the moment in a remarkable 
degree, and rofe to the occafion as greatly as 
the King fank beneath it. But forrow and 
fuffering are wifer teachers than anger and 
Another revenge. There was yet to come a day in 
greater Charlcs's life, when he too would rife to the 

but like ' _ 

example, demand of the time ; when his natural in- 
firmities would be vifible no longer ; and when 
men fhould wonder to behold, in one fo infirm 
of purpofe and difficult of fpeech, both unem- 
barrafled accents and a refolute will.* 
"Dread- After that long paufe defcribed by D'Ewes, 
fiknce. ^^^ dreadful filence, as one member called it, 
Charles fpoke again to the crowd of mute 
and fullen faces. The complete failure of 
The King his fcheme was now accomplifhed, and all its 
confcious poflible confequences, all the fufpicions and 
failure. retaliations to which It had laid him open, 

* " He had," fays William Lilly, " a natural imperfeftion 
** in his fpeech : at fome times could hardly get out a word : 
" yet at other times he would fpeak freely and articulately, 
Charles << as at the firft time of his coming before the High Court of 
the Firft s <« Juftice, where cafually I heard him : there he ftammered 
fpeech at << nothing at all, but fpoke very diftinftly, with much courage 
his trial. << and magnanimity." — Monarchy or no Monarchy, 

§ XX. The Hottfe entered by the King, 193 

appear to have rufhed upon his mind. " Well, His birds 

" fince I fee all my* birds are flown, I do °^"* 

*' expedl from you that you will fend them 

" unto me as foon as they return hither. 

'' But, I aflure you, on the word of a King, 

" I never did intend any force, but (hall pro- Proteftshe 

" ceed againfl them in a legal and fair way, "e^Jj^^ *"" 

"for I never meant any other. And now, force. 

" fince I fee I cannot do what I came for, I 

" think this no unfit occafion to repeat what 

** I have faid formerly, that whatfoever I have Means to 

*^ done in favour, and to the good, of my the con- 

" fubiefts, I do mean to maintain it. I will ceffions he 

11 1 11 ^^ made. 

" trouble you no more, but tell you I do 
" expedt, as foon as they come to the Houfe, Expefts 
" you will fend them to me ; otherwife I muft ^iil be 
"take my own courfe to find them." To {'^."'^ *° 
that clofing fentence, the note left by Sir Ralph 
Verney makes a not unimportant addition, 
which, however, appears nowhere in Rufh- 
worth's report. " For their treafon was foul, Declares 
" and fuch an one as they would all thank treafon 
" him to difcover.*'t If uttered, it was an ^°"^" 
efcape of angry afTertion from amid forced 
and laboured apologies, and fo far would agree 
with what D'Ewes obferved of his change of 
manner at the time: "After he had ended 
*^ his fpeech, he went out of the Houfe in a Leaves the 
" more difcontented and angry paiTion than he 

* " My " in Ruftiworth's original note : ** the " fubftituted 
by Charles. 

\ Verney's Notes, p. 139. 

194 Arrejl of the Five Members. 

In anger: '^ Came in, going out again between myfelf 
*' and the fouth end of the Clerk's table, and 
" the Prince Eledlor after him." * 

Captain * Harl. MSS. 162, f. 306 a. I will here add Cajpt. 

Slingfby's Slingfby's account, written the next day but one, but for 
narrative which of courfe he muft have been indebted to fome 
of the in- Royalilt members of the Houfe, as he had himfelf remained 
cident. outfide the lobby. " He came very unexpectedly, and at 
" firft coming in, comaunded the Speaker to come out 
" of his chayre, and fatt downe in it himfelfe, aflcing divers 
" times whether thofe traytours were there, but had no 
Silence of " anfwere : but at laft an excufe, that by y'= orders of 
the Houfe " ^^e Houfe they might not fpeake when there Speaker was 
explained, " o^^ of his cliayre. The King then afkt the Speaker, who 
*' excufed himfelfe, that he might not fpeake but what the 
" Houfe gave order to him to fay: whereuppon the King 
" replied it was no matter, for he knew them, if he faw 
" them. And after he had viewed them all, he made a 
Deter- ** fpeeche to them very maieftically, declaring his refolution 
mined to "to have them though they were then abfent : promifing 
have the " not to infringe any of their libertyes of parlament, but 
accufed. " coiiiaunding them to fend the traytours to him if they came 
*' there againe. And after his corning out he gave order to the 
" Sarieant att Armes to find them out j and attach them. 
Houfe had " Before the Kinge's coming, the Houfe were very high, and 
fent to " as I was informed, fent to the Cittie for fower thoufand 
City for " men to be prefently fent downe to them for their Guard. 
4000 men. " But none came, all the Cittie being terribly amazed w'"" 
" that unexpefted charge of thofe peribns : fhoppes all fhutt, 
" many of w"^'' doe ftill continue foe. They lykewife fent to 
" the trayned bandes, in the Court of Guard before White- 
Shops all " hall, to comaund them to difband but they ftayed ftill. 
fliut. " After the Kinge had beene in the Houfe, there was no more 

" fpoke, but only to adjorne till the next day." — MS. State 
Paper Office. Captain Slingfby to Admiral Pennington, 6th 
January, 1641-2. To which may be added an extraft 
from a letter, alfo in the National Colleftion, written on 
Bere to the fame 6th of January by Under Secretary Bere, enclofmg 
Penning- Ruftiworth's report of the King's fpeech to the Admiral, 
ton: "On Monday laft, the King's Attorney accufed 5 of the 

6th Jan. " Lower Houfe & one of the Upper of High Treafon 
1641-Z. " as you will fee by the Articles of accufation herew"*. 
" In confequenceof w*^*" a Serg' of Armes was fent to demand 
" them, but y^ Houfe taking time to confider of it, & having 
" fent a meflage inftead of the delivery. His Ma''' went the 
" next day hirnlclfe in perfon to y" Commons Houfe to demand 
" them, as you will fee by the inclofed fpeech. But it feemes 

§ XX r. Imprejfion produced by the Outrage, 195 

But he did not leave, as he had entered, in but not 
filence. Low mutterings of fierce difcontent fiience, 
broke out as he pafTed along, and " many 
" members cried out aloud, fo as he might !' ^"^i: . 

' ^ lege! Pn- 

" hear them, Privilege I Privilege!" Withvilege!" 
thofe words, ominous of ill, ringing in his ear, ^£°J^ \^^^ 
he repafled to his palace through the lane, 
again formed, of his armed adherents, and amid ^^^^^ °"* 

D ^ ' _ ' through 

audible fhouts of as evil augury from def- files of 
peradoes difappointed of their prey. Eagerly adherents, 
in that lobby had the word been waited for, 
which muft have been the prelude to a terrible 
fcene. Lady Carlifle alone had prevented it. 

§ XXL Impression Produced by the 

What briefly followed within the chamber Proceed- 
whofe mofl: facred rights had thus been Hfufe^ 
violated by Charles the Firft, is revealed after ^ 
to us only by D'Ewes. *^ As foon as parture. 
" he was gone, and the doors were fhut, 
" the Speaker aiked us if he fhould make 
" report of his Majefty's fpeech. But Sir 
" John Hotham faid we had all heard it, and speech of 
" there needed no report of it to be made. Hotham. 

** they had made therafelves out of the way, as they ftill alfoe Uncer- 
" remaine, w'='' fome conceive is but don till the Houfe fhall tainty as 
" refolve what to doe w"* them. Others thinke that they are to flight of 
" aSiually fled. What will be of it, time mull tell. In the members. 
" meane time this bufinefs filled every one w'** feares whaf 
** might enfue thereon, and the Cittie remained all that night 
" in armes, and are not yett very well affured, every one 
*' being poflcft with ftrange feares and imaginations." 


196 Arrejl of the Five Member s» 

Cries for cc ^j^^ others cHed to adjourn till to-morrow 

adjourn- , , . 1 r 

ment. " at orxc of the clock in the afternoon ; upon 
" which in the iflue we agreed. And fo, the 
" Speaker having adjourned the Houfe to 

Houfe " that hour, we rofe about half an hour after 

3.30 p.m. " three of the clock in the afternoon:* little 
" imagining for the prefent — at leaft a greater 
" part of us — the extreme danger we had 
" efcaped through God's wonderful provi- 
" dence."t 

D'Ewes cc Pqj. the defign was," purfues Sir Simonds, 


the King's wHting at the clofe of his day's Journal, and 

defign: bcforc the entry of the morrow, *' to have 

" taken out of our Houfe by force and violence 

*' the faid five members, if we had refufed to 

** have delivered them up peaceably and wil- 

" lingly; which, for the prefervation of the 

to have " privileges of our Houfe, we muft hav^e re- 

conflta in " fufed. And in the taking of them away, 

the Houfe. " they Were to have fet upon us all, if we had 

Details of " Tcfifted, in an hoftile manner. It is very 

the plot. <c true that the plot was fo contrived as that 

Entry in * The day's entry, as it ftill ftands in the Journals, well 

Journals exprefies, in its fudden and unfiniftied abruptnefs, the agitation 

of the and excitement in which the day muft have clofed. 


164.1-2. " Jan. 4. P.M. The King came into the Houfe of 

Commons and took Mr. Speaker's Chair. 

" Gentlemen I am forry to have this occafion 

to come unto you. 
* « « * 

** Refolved upon the queftion that the Houfe fliall 
adjourn itfelf till to-morrow one of the clock." 

•f Uarl, MSS. 162, f. 306 b. 

§ XXI. Imprejfion produced by the Outrage. 197 

" the King fhould have withdrawn out of the 

" Houfe, and pafled thorough the lobby or 

" little room next without it, before the maf- 

" facre fhould have begun, upon a watchword 

^' by him to have been given upon his pafling 

*' thorough them. But 'tis moft likely that Armed 

" thofe Ruffians, being about eighty in number, does not 

'^ who were gotten into the faid lobby, being ^° ^^. 

" armed all of them with fwords, and fome of 

** them with piftols ready charged, were fo 

" thirfty after innocent blood as they would 

" fcarce have flayed the watchword, if thofe 

" members had been there ; but would have 

" begun their violence as foon as they had 

" underftood of our denial, to the hazard of The ^ 

*' the perfons of the King and the Prince perfon m 

" Elector, as well as of us. For, one of them ^^^z^"^' 

" underftanding, a little before the King came 

" out, that thofe five gentlemen were abfent, 

" * Zounds 1 ' faid he, * They are gone ! and 

" ^ we are never the better for our coming !* 

" And the deliverance,'* adds D'Ewes, in Strange 
this remarkable paffage of his Journal, " will ranee. 
" appear to have been the more ftrange, if we 
" confider how the plot being revealed to one 
" M. Langres, dwelling in the Covent Garden, 
" after the King had taken his coach at White- 
" hall, and was coming toward us, he got 
^ ' through the multitude of thofe fouldiers and King's 
" ruffians, and coming to the Houfe acquainted toi^ to^ 
" Mr. Nathaniel Fienneswith the King's refo- Fiennes. 


Arreji of the Five Members. 

drawal of 
the mem- 

tion of 

Identity of 
with the 
Strode dif- 

Reply to 
obj eft ions 
made : 

ened, not 

Ages of 
the princi- 
pal men 
of the 




" lution. Whereupon Mr. Denzil Hollls, Sir 
" Arthur Hafelrig, Mr. Hampden, and Mr. 
" Pym, who had notice alfo formerly given 
'^ them that there was fuch a defign, did 
" prefently withdraw: but Mr. William Strode, 
" the laft of the Five, being a young man and 
" unmarried,* could not be perfuaded by his 

* I retain the opinion put forth in my Effay on the Grand 
Remonftrance {Hiji. and Biog. EJfays, i, 1-175) that this 
expreffion of D'Ewes, and the language ufed by Clarendon, 
are decifive againft the identity of the Strode of the parlia- 
ments of James and the early parliaments of Charles with 
the Strode of the Long Parliament. The grounds on which 
I formed and ftated that opinion have fmce been contefted in 
a book of great ability, and full of valuable matter relative 
to the Commonwealth period (^Studies and Illujirations of the 
Great Rebellion, by J, Langton Sandford, Efq.) j but I muft 
be permitted to think that Mr. Sandford's argument, though 
ingenious and elaborate, is not fatisfaftory. The gift of it lies 
in this remark: *' William Strode may very well have been 
" under forty in 16425 and this, in the eyes of 'an ancient 
" ' gentleman ' fuch as D'Ewes, woulden title him to the name 
" of * a young man'" (p. 399). Unfortunately for the fenfe 
in which the argument is ufed, it tells with the greateft force 
in the oppofite direftion. D'Ewes's own age was exaftly 
thirty-nine (he was born in December 1602) ; and it entitled 
him to the name of ' an ancient gentleman.' No one ac- 
quainted with the focial ufages and charafteriftics of that 
time would for a moment expe6l that a man of thirty-nine 
fhould be ftyled young. That is a modern ftyle altogether. 
But, even in our own polite days, a man of thirty-nine would 
not be likely to fingle out as a young man a perfon of his own 
mature age. Eefides, Mollis himfelf was only forty-four, 
Hampden was not more than forty-fix, Halelrig was feme years 
younger, and from fuch a company to feleft and fet apart for 
his youth a man of years fo nearly equal, would have been fheer 
abfurdity. Since my attention wa's firft drawn to this " hilloric 
" doubt," I have obferved that the hiftorian May aflerts the 
identity, faying of Strode that he had "before fuffered many 
** years of fharp and harlh imprifonment for matters done in par- 
" liament" (lib. 2, cap. 2, p. 21), but when he publifhed his 
Hiftory in 1 647 Strode had betn fome years dead, and in perfonal 
queftions May is not always ftriftly accurate or careful. To 
give an inftance : his account (p. 27) of the Whitehall Guard 
is inaccurate both as to time and perfons. It is not much to 

§ XXI. Impreffion produced by the Outrage. 1 99 

" friends for a pretty while to go out ; but 
" faid, that knowing himfelf to be innocent, he 

add to the other proofs, but it may be worth remark that the Contempt 
fame trivial and contemptuous mode of fpeaking of Strode, in of 
comparifon with the other members, is to be found in the Royalifts 
lampoons of the day. In the verfes fubjoined, he and Hafelrig for Strode, 
ftand in as marked contraft with the reft, even" though all be 
fet apart for abufe, as in the page of Clarendon : 

** My venom fwells," quoth Hollis, 

" And that his Majefty knows.V 
" And I," quoth Hampden, " fetch the Scots 

" Whence all this mifchief grows," 

" I am an afle," quoth Hafelrigge, 

" But yet I'm deep i' the plot; " 
" And I," quoth Strode, " can lye as faft 

" As Mafter Pym can trott." 

" But I," quoth Pym, " your hackney am, 

" And all your drudgery do, 
" I make good fpeeches for myfelf, 

" And privileges for you — " 

So, in London's Farewell {o the Parliament,' the abufe of '\^"^*^^^^ 
Hollis, Hampden, and Pym, is a good folid hate, and it is ^* Royalilt 
not till Strode's turn comes, that contempt feems to take the "^J^der. 
place of it : 

Farewell Denzil Hollis, with hey, with hey ; 
Farewell Denzil Hollis, with hoe ; 

'Twas his ambition or his need, 

Not his religion did the deed, 
With hey trolly, lolly, loe. 

Farewell John Hampden, with hey, with hey j 
Farewell John Hampden, with hoe ; 

He's a fly and fubtle fox. 

Well read in Buchanan and Knox, 
With hey trolly, lolly, loe. 

Farewell John Pym, with hey, with hey ; 
Farewell John Pym, with hoe ; 

He would have had a place in Court, 

And he ventur'd all his partie for't. 
With hey trolly, lolly, loe. 

Farewell Billy Strode, with hey, with heyj 
Farewell Billy Strode, with hoe ; 

200 Arrejl of the Five Members. 

Willfeal " would ftay in the Houfe though he fealed 

cency'with " ^^^ innocency with his blood at the door. 

his blood. "So as, being at laft overcome " (D'Ewes gets 
a little confufed in his fentences here) " by 
" the importunate advices and entreaties of his 
" friends, when the van, or fore-front, of thofe 
*' ruffians marched into Weftminfter Hall : 
" nay, when no perfuafion could prevail with 

SirWalter tc ^^ f^id Mr. Strode, Sir Walter Earle, his 

Earle pulls . _ . , - . , i • i 11 

him out " entire friend, was fame to take him by cloak, 

c^ak^ " ^"'^ P^^^ ^^'^ °^^ °^ ^^^^ place ; and fo got 
" him out of the Houfe. 'Tis very true, 
'' indeed, that the Lord Mandeville" (Kim- 
bolton continued to be more familiarly known 
by his old than by his new title) ''and thefe 
** five gentlemen had notice not only yefternight 
" of this intended defign, but were likewife 
The ac- " fent to, this day at dinner, by the Earl of 
cufed cc Ef^ex, Lord Chamberlain of his Majefty's 

warned at -^ _ _ j j 

dinner " houfehold, that the King intended to come 
Effex. ^ " ^° ^h^ Houfe of Commons to feize upon 
" them there, and that they fhould abfent 
" themfelves : yet had they no diredl aflurance 
" that the faid defign fhould certainly be put 
" in execution, till the faid M. Langres his 
" coming to the faid Houfe." * 

Such was the view taken, fuch the opinion 

He fwore all Wharton's lyes were true ; 
And it concern'd him fo to do, 
For he was in the faw-pit too — 
With hey trolly, lolly, loe. 

♦ Harl, MSS. 162, fF. 306 b. 307 a. 

§ XXI. ImpreJJion produced by the Outrage. 201 

uttered, with no public objedl or defign, but as Unim- 

.... - , - ° , . ^ paffioned 

a man communes with himlelr or his molt charac- 
intimate friend, of the proceedings of this ^^^g^, ' 
eventful day, by a member of the Houfe who teftimony. 
with his own eyes had witnefTed them, writing 
not many hours after the event ; and who 
gave further decilive proof of his fenfe of the ^'^ ^^"^^ 
danger which from that day awaited all men marked 
who might difcharge their duty fearleffly in ^J execu- 
the Houfe of Commons, by at once arranging will .- 
his affairs, fetting his houfe in order, and 
executing his will. "Some," he remarked in 
a fubfequent debate, "have faid it were well 
** for the Parliament men to fet their houfes 
" in order, left they fhould fhortly lofe their and fet- 
" heads. For my part, I confefs I have not 5j'"^£-g^-j^ 
" that work now to do; having ever fince order. 
" the 4th day of January laft paft, left my 
" will with a third perfon in truft.'* * The 

* Had. MSS. 163, f. 509 b. D'Ewes is fpeaking, ^ n.. 
on the 16th May, 164.2, more than five months after the H- 
events to which I am referring, of the difputes in York- At'' 
(hire which immediately preceded the outbreak of civil . , , 
war: "Mr. H. Bellafis, Sir R. Pye, and others, moved t^. 
" that we might think of fome way of accommodation. ^'* 

" Others moved that we might prepare to defend ourfelves. 
" I faid I was forry to fee things grown to fuch a height in Parlia- 
" Yorkftiire; and though his Majefty difavowed the injuries ment-men 
*' offered the poor freeholders of York/hire, I did not hear in peril. 
" that he difavowed thofe offered his poor Parliament, although 
" their meffages were hiffed at when they were read, and 
" although fome faid it were well for the parliament men to 
" fet their houfes in order left they fhould fhortly lofe their 
" heads. For my part I confefs I have not that work now to 
" do, having ever fmce the 4th day of January laft paft," 
the day of the attempted arreft, *' left my will with a third 
*' perfon in truft — (of which," D'Ewes adds with fome com- 


Arreji of the Five Members. 

from mere 

His pre- 
cifion and 

of the 

have had 
but one 

judgment fo formed, too, and the courfe fo 
taken on the inftant, were thofe of a man not 
iharing vehemently in any of the popular 
paffions ; never admitted to the confidence of 
the leaders ; having a ftrong perfonal diflike, as 
I fhall fhortly take an opportunity of fhowing, 
to fome of them ; and himfelf noted for a 
particular precifion and fobriety, as well in his 
habits of thought as in his ways of life. Nor 
is it in any degree reafonable to fuppofe that the 
King fhould fwt have refolved to give fome fort 
of eifed to his projedt, having once, however 
rafhly, embarked in it. To have intended 
merely to go and afk for the members, and, 
having fo invited the refufal which it was 
obvious would be given, to leave them unmo- 
lefted in their feats and himfelf come difcom- 
fited away, would have been indeed to add to 
fupreme rafhnefs a fupreme fillinefs. Armed 
men could have accompanied him for one pur- 
pofe only, and this was baffled by the abfence 
of the accufed : nor was it pofTible that any 
one, writing of the occurrence in later times, 
fhould have found it reafonably open to any 
other conftrudion, if upon this, as upon other 
great queftions between the People and the 
King, Clarendon had not drawn off to a falfe 
iflue fuccefTive generations of readers. Content 
to have profited by the adt if it had fucceeded. 

placency, "the Houfe took efpecial notice, as I was fain for a 
" while to flop from farther proceeding)". 

§ XXI. Imprejfton produced by the Outrage. 203 

it was an ad of which the failure was unpar- Not the 
donable : and every one in the confidence of f^jiu^e 
the King became eager to feparate himfelf ""Frdon- 
from it, to fpeak of it as apart and ifolated 
from other ads to which it was in truth no 
way contrafled or oppofed, to treat it as a 
fudden frenzy, and altogether to conceal the 
real objedt which it aimed at, and, but for an 
accident unforefeen, and the failure of fecret Succefs 
meafures here fhown to have been daringly ^^^^ ^ 
attempted, it might have gone far to ac- 

Compare . the tone fo taken, after the 
fad, with what men wrote upon the inftant 
who fhared Hyde's opportunities of know- 
ledge, who like him were behind the fcenes, but 
who wrote not to conceal, but to exprefs, the 
truth. *^ I pray God this very bufinefs," Under 
wrote Under Secretary Bere to Admiral Pen- sTrels^'^ 
nington on the 6th of Tanuary, "doe not ^f^^^^^ to 

. ultimate 

" render our condition in Court the worfe ; for reiblt. 

" things being now brought to a heighth, they 

" cannot confift foe, but muft change to the Change 

" great prejudice of the one or other fide : and ^^\^^ 

" I pray God wee find not that we have worfe. 

" flattered ourfelves w**^ an imaginary flrength 

" and party, in the Citty and elfewhere, w'^^^ 

" will fall away, if need fhould bee. A report Rumours 

" now goes that thofe perfons accufed are in ^V° 

° -t^ ^ where- 

" London, and fome will have itt they are abouts of 
" fitting w^'i the Comittee w*^'' fitts there. By ^''''"^^''' 

204 Arrefi of the Five Members. 

" all this, you will fee the greate diftradions 

" that are here : foe that you may well fay 

Worfe " wee have no lefs ftormes here than you have 

?°TV" " ^^^ ^^^ — ^ /^^r^ worfe and more full of 

atfea. " danger" * 

That is not the language of a man who 
regarded the King's adt as having fprung 
from a mere fudden unreafoning impulfe 
of anger, or who defired to underrate its 
Circum- crravity. The writer knew the circumftances 
well too well. He had himfelf drawn up the warrant, 

UnX" *° which, but for a merciful accident interpofed. 
Secretary : might have drenched London ftreets in the 
blood of the Citizens. He was perfedlly aware 
of all the preparations made, of all the deliber- 
ation ufed ; and his prayer to God is, that they 
His fears who had taken part therein (of whom he was 
bodings!" °'^^) ^^ight not find they had flattered themfelves 
with an imaginary ftrength, in the City and 
el fe where, which already was crumbling and 
falling away beneath them. 

^ XXII. Lord Digby and Mr, Hyde. 
Not of the moderate or confcientious tem- 

* MS. State Paper Office. The Under Secretary thus 

An invi- clofes his letter : " I humbly thank you for y' kind invitation 

tation for " abord this Xmas, where I would willingly be, but that I 

Chriftmas *' "^^7 "°*- ^^'^ ^^^ abfent: my bufineffe growing ftill more 

declined. " ^"" more: yett we have the addition of another fellow 

" Secret, by name Mr. Oudart, who was Secret^ to S' John 

" Bofwell : fo y' y^ labour is very eafy, but difpenfes not 

" with abfence. ' 

§ XXII. Lord Digby and Mr. Hyde. 205 

per of the Under Secretary, however, were violent 
thofe who had advifed the King. It is a bare lefs coun- 
aft of juftice to fay, of other and more adlive ^^^* 
participators in the Royal Councils at this 
time, that they did not fhow fear, remorfe, 
or apprehenfion of any kind. Lord Digby 
certainly does not feem to have fhrunk from the 
propofal to carry the King's daring attempt, be- Carrying 
gun that day, to its natural ifTue. He was willing f^" jj^^^J^ ^° 
to take the utmoft hazard upon himfelf, fays 
Hyde ; and would have redeemed his failure 
of promife in the matter of Lord Kimbolton 
by undertaking, with the congenial help of 
fuch gentlemen as Sir Thomas Lunsford, to 
feize the accufed members in the very houfe Digby's 
in the City where they had taken refuge, and 
either bring them away alive, or '' leave them 
*' dead in the place."* 

Elfewhere, too,f the fame writer tells us, 
that, as foon as the failure of the enterprife at 
the Houfe declared itfelf, Digby's great fpirit 
was fo far from failing, that when he faw the 
whole City upon the matter in arms to defend 
the Five Members, he, knowing in what 
houfe they were together, offered the King, 
with a feled number of a dozen gentlemen, 
who he prefumed would ftick to him, to feize To feize 
upon their perfons dead or alive. And with- Members 
out doubt, adds Clarendon naively, he would ^^^^ ^^ 


* Hiji. ii. 130. 

■}• CidiVenAovis State Papers, Supplement to third vol. Iv-lvi. 

2c6 An eft of the Five Members . 

have done it, " which muft likewife have had 
" a wonderful efFe<5l." 
Mifchief Such wcre the elements of difcord and 
b * Khf 's violence let rudely loofe by the ad of the King ; 
act. and to comprehend all that follows, to under- 

ftand even the alarms we have {zzw exprefled 
by D'Ewes after the King's departure, and 
what we fhall obferve hereafter of their fudden, 
unexplained, and abrupt recurrence, the fadt 
of fuch mifchief being abroad, and fuch 
rumours or threats of defperate defigns under- 
lying men's ordinary difcourfe, muft ftill be 
kept carefully in mind. " The publike voice 
" runs much," "wrote Bere to Pennington, 
Rumours " againft Briftol and his fon, as great inftru- 
B^Xland " ments of thefe mifunderftandinges." * With 
i^'gt'y- more elaboration, and with allufions that 
pointed to fecret intrigues not lefs than to 
frank and open outrage, Mr. Smith of the 
Admiralty wrote to the King's favourite fea- 
man. He began by telling his *' honoured 
** compeer," what grief he feels that his rela- 
Small tion of affairs cannot be fuch as might comfort 
for"the ^^ Admiral's languiftiing fpirits, as in his 
Admiral, lateft letter he had defcribed them, turmoiled 
and almoft tired in thofe tumultuous feas. 
Suffering " You fuffer on the waters, we feare on the 
fearTn"^' " land." And he proceeded to explain the 
land. fources of the fear. " The defires and 

* MS. State Paper Oflice, Januaiy, 1 641-2. 

§ XXII. Lord Dighy and Mr. Hyde. 207 

" endeav'^* of men, efpeclally of fuch as Rule, Jacob and 

" are fo diverfe, that wee feeme to bee now •^^^"• 

" in this K.dom like to the pregnant wombe 

" of Rebecca, which teemes of difcourfe and 

" afFedtions, fome labouring to bringe forth 

" the Honeft Jacob of order, tranquillitie, Two par- 

iT» iT-rrvr fies out of 

" and peace, others the Rough Elau of dil- Houfe : 
" cord and ruine." Yet one advantage had 
already attended the attempt made on the 
Houfe of Commons. It was expedled that 
in future there would be lefs difagreement, and 
a more general co-operation for the public 
good, than before was noted therein. *^ Wee but the 
« are not," continued Mr. Smith, " altogether ^^^^l. 

* out of hope of a Good Period in regarde 
' thofe y* rule in Parlem* are both honeft and 

* able men. If diftradlions and confufions 

* come, 'twill be from fome fadlious firebrands 

' that trouble the Court, abufe his Ma*'^, and and only 
' feeke to fifh in troubled waters ; and, through °"^ P^''^^ 

' _ ' o now in 

' feare of being rewarded according to theire Houfe. 
' merit, do labor to bring all things to ruine 
^ with themfelves. But the Good God will 
' not fuifer them long thus to divide betwixt 

* O'' good King and his People, whom they 
' traduce w*'» falfe report of Rebellion, where- 

' as indeede they are the greateft and only Sole rebels 

* Rebells I know in England, and go about land. 

* y^ K.dom raifing tumullts and falfe reports 
' to putt the land into an uproar if they can, 
^ and fcandalize the hon'^^'^ and juft Proceed- 

2o8 Arrefi of the Five Members. 

" Ings of the Parlem* w^* lying and unjuft 
'^ imputations."* 

This difcreet and temperate man, writing 

thus a few days after the King's attempt, 

found not more mifery occafioned by firebrands 

Open and fuch as Digby, than by thofe more fecret 

mief ^^^' agents of confufion who went about creating 

jealoufies and diflikes againft the ParHament, 

of whom it will not be unjuft, upon his own 

account of his own proceedings at the time, 

to feledt Hyde as by far the moft prominent 

Caufe for example. And to underftand the pofition he 

greffion ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ refped taken up is neceflary, in his 

inftance not lefs than in that of Digby, to a 

proper comprehenfion of the fequel of thefe 

extraordinary fcenes. 

Hyde acknowledges,-]- that, feveral weeks 

earlier than the attempted arreft, he had 

Hyde the become fecretly the King's private counfellor, 

private ^^d had in confequence withdrawn from fo 

advifer: frequently or publickly as before taking part in 

the proceedings of the Houfe. So early as 

during the Remonftrance Debates, indeed, he 

was, as in a former work has been fhown,J 

Supplies fupplying the King with refolutions ^nd papers 

perTand" o^ the Houfe in their firft rough draft ; and, 

mforma- \^ many paflages of the Memoir written by 

himfelf, his modus operandi is defcribed in 

• MS. State Paper Office. Thos. Smith (from York Houfe) 
to Admiral Pennington : January, 1641-2. 
f Life, i. 98-100. 
X See my Hijl, and Biog. EJfays, i. 14.2, &c. 

§ XXII. Lord Digby and Mr. Hyde. 209 

detail, entirely without difguife, and even with 
a chuckling felf-fatiffadlion.* He feems to 
take an odd kind of pride, in avowing openly Playing 
the double part he played in the Houfe and in faifg. 
the back fcenes of the Court ; while he was 
unfcrupuloufly ufing his opportunities of ob- 
taining knowledge of the fecrets of the popular 
leaders, for no other purpofe than to betray Betrays 
them to the King. Several curious uncon- ^^j^^"^" 
fcious illuftrations of the fame double-dealing the King. 
are recorded alfo in the Journal of D'Ewes. 
When, fhortly after thefe events. Lord 

* For example {Life, i. 102-3): " And fo they (Vifcount Private 
" Falkland, Sir John Colepepper, and Mr. Hyde) met every meetings 
" night late together, & communicated their observations & Jn Hyde's 
" intelligence of the day ; & fo agreed what was to be done lodeine;s. 
" or attempted the next ; there being very many perfons of 
** condition & intereft in the Houfe who would follow their 
" advice, & aflift in anything they defired . . . And after 
" their deliberation together, what was to be put in writing 
" was always committed to Mr. Hyde ; and when the King 
" had left the town, he writ as freely to the King as either 
" of the others did .... and now when the governing 
" party had difcovered the place of the nightly meetings, 
" that a Secretary of State and a Chancellor of the Exchequer 
" every day went to the lodging of a private perfon, who 
" ought to attend them, they believed it a condefcenfion that 
" had fome other foundation than mere civility." And in 
another remarkable paflage he fays (i. 130-133): " They had Sufpicions 
" long detefted and fufpeiled Mr. Hyde, from the time of againft 
" their firft Remonftrance, for framing the King's meflages hira. 
" and anfwers, which they now every day received, to their 
" intolerable vexation : yet knew not how to accufe him. 
" But now that the Earls of Eflex and Holland had dif- 
" covered his being (hut up with the King at Greenwich, and Hyde fhut 
" the Marquis of Hamilton had once before found him very up with 
** early in private with the King at Windfor, at a time when Charles. 
'* the King thought all paflages had been flopped ; together 
" with his being of late more abfent from the Houfe than he 
" had ufed to be ; and the refort of the other two every night 
" to his lodging, as is mentioned before j fatiffied thena that 
" he was the perfon." 

2 1 o Arrefi of the Five Members. 

Compton, the member for Warwickfhire, and 
Sir Edward Baynton, who fat for Chippenham, 
had been fent with a meflage from the Houfe 
Complaint to the King, replying to a complaint againft 
^in^ o^^ o^ Pym's fpeeches, they reported on their 
againft return that they had duly delivered the 
meflage, and that the King gave them for an 
anfwer that he was altogether unfatiffied that 
Mr. Pym had any ground for the bold affer- 
tion he had made. Whereupon Mr. Pym 
Pym's flood up and faid he conceived there needed 
no further declaration to fatiffy his Majefty ; 
and Sir Edward Baynton called the attention 
of the Houfe to the fad, that fuch reply from 
his Majefty was not given upon the fudden, 
for that, as they gathered from fome expreflions 
MefTages of the King, " he had feen the faid meffage 
voted. " before they gave it him." * In like manner 
alfo, when, fome week or two earlier, the famous 
ftruggle with the King upon the Newmarket De- 
claration had been in progrefs, D'Ewes relatesf 
The that "Mr. Pym delivered in a letter diredled 

Houfe tc ^.Q j^jjj^^ fuperfcribed * John Pym, Efq. at 
againft " ' his Lodgings in Weftminfter,' which had 
treachery. ,, ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ S\mon Richardfon and John 

" Walker, two watchmen of Weftminfter, in 

*' the Palace Yard. It had no name to it : 

Letter to " but the writer faid in y<^ beginning of it that 

^™' " not knowing how to venture fafely, he 

• Harl. MSS. 163, f, 438 b. f Ibid 163, f. 246 a. 

§ XXII. Lord Digby and Mr. Hyde. 211 

' had fent him this letter, and caufed it to be 
^ dropped in the ftreet, having done {o with 
' two formerly : notwithftanding his danger if 

* he fhould be difcovered, yet he had adven- 
^ tured out of love to his country to give him 

^ timely warning. That nothing was done in Able 
' the Houfe, butfome able members amongft us X^^^m^A 
^ Jent it J as well as all mejfages intended for againft. 

* him J to his Majejly before they came from us, 

* and fent him alfo heads ready framed for his 

' anfwers. That the King was refolved to King's 

* ufe force, and that we fhould find the Navy ^ons!^^" 
^ of England turned againft us. That he 

* had heard the King fay he had the nobility, 
' gentry, and divers honeft men of his fide. 

^ That the Parliament had irritated the mili- Parlia- 
' tary men and denied them employment in j^angen 

* Ireland, and fo prepared fwords for their 
' own throats." 

The contents of the letter 'it is not necefiary 
further to dwell upon, but circumftances gave 
to them afterwards much weight ; and that 
Hyde was diftinctly aimed at, every one ap- Charge 
pears to have taken for granted. Means were jj'Tde. ^ 
adopted immediately after to put fome check 
to his opportunities of treachery ; but the faft 
of fuch fecret enemies exifting within the 
Houfe, more dangerous than its open affailants, 
and fufpedted ftrongly while yet the truth was 
not perfedlly eftablifhed, fhould avail againft 
any hafty or harfti judgment of the precaution- 

p 2 

212 Arrefl of the Five Members. 

Self-de- ^j-y g^j^(£ repreflive meafures which it forced in 

fence •' r \r r 

agalnft fheer felf-defence upon the leaders. 

treachery. yj^^^ fufpicion fhould have lighted upon 

Hyde, moreover, as foon as the King's attempt 

was made, will hardly feem furprifing after 

the fecret hiftory that D'Ewes difclofes. 

Hydeac- This fufpicion he frankly confefles himfelf. 

advlfing He tells us * that fome friends of his who 

arreft : Joved him vcry well, had warned him that he 

was pointed at as one of the contrivers of the 

arreft, all the more certainly becaufe of his 

known friendfhip with Digby ; and they had 

fuggeftlon advifed him fo to carry himfelf, in the debates 

friends not which {hould arife upon it, that it might evi- 

to defend dently appear that he did not approve of it, or 

was privy to it. Notwithftanding which good 

advice, he adds in another place, he did fpeak 

on a particular occafion in a fenfe adverfe to 

the claim of parliamentary privilege in matters 

of treafon, though amid noife and clamour, 

and with wonderful evidence of diflike.f He 

Alleged cven profefTes to give an abftradl of what he 

fpeech ^ ^^}^ . ^j^j would appear to have faid fo ill, that, 

peach- but for the purpofe of fhowing how poor was 

the ftrongeft cafe that fuch an advocate could 

put againft the overwhelming argument on the 

other fide, it would not be neceflary to give 

an abftrad of it here. It is only by a perfiftent 

Grofs mif- mifreprefentation that he makes out any cafe 

reprefen- ^^ ^|j . £qj. \^ cannot be too often repeated that 

♦ Hift.n. 136. t mjl. ii. 138, 139. 

§ XXII. Lord Digby and Mr. Hyde. 213 

never, from the firft of thefe proceedings to '^^'on 
the laft, was It aflumed on the fide of the 
accufed members that privilege of ParHament 
could or ought to run in a cafe of felony or 

On the occafion now pretended (for no Pretended 
circumftance of identification Is connedled withfoj.fpee"h. 
the fpeech, and no clue given to when it was 
fpoken, beyond the general ftatement that it 
was upon certain votes being propofed ^' at the 
" Committee" to be fubmitted at the re- 
aflembllng at Weftmlnfter), Hyde took upon 
himfelf to warn the Houfe to take heed that Argument 
they did not, out of tendernefs of their privl- ° ^^^^^^ '* 
lege, which was and muft be very precious to 
every man, extend it further than the law 
would fufFer it to be extended ; that the Houfe 
had always been very fevere upon the breach 
of any of their privileges, and In the vindi- no privl- 
cating thofe members who were Injured ; but fekMiy°or 
that the difpofing men to make themfelves treafon : 
judges, and to refcue themfelves or others, 
might be of evil confequence, and produce ill 
effects : at leaft if it fhould fall out to be, that 
the perfons were arrefted for treafon, or felony, 
or breach of the peace ; in either of which 
cafes, there would be no privilege of Parlia- 
ment.* All which was as well known to Mr. undif- 
Pym and Mr. Hampden as to Mr. Hyde, Pym and 
nor was the remoteft pretence to aflert or Hampden. 

• Hift. ii. 138-9. 

2 1 4 Arreji of the Five Members, 

juftify the contrary ever fet up by either. 

They muft have fcouted fuch arguments, if 

employed at all ; and the real truth I believe 

to be, that fuch a fpeech was never fpoken. 

Of courfe it tells extremely well in the 

Imputa- Hiftory of the Rebellion, that Mr. Hyde, 

*'°" o amid noife and clamour, and with wonderful 

leaders of evidence of diflike, fhould have taken a line of 

mons. ' reafoning fo manifeftly juft, that if we believe 

him to have ufed it, and that fuch was the 

reception given to it, we muft attribute to the 

leaders on the other fide, to whom he profefles 

to have been replying, a tone and argument 

as manifeftly unycA.. It will hereafter be feen 

more plainly how falfe fuch an inference would 

be. Suffice it for the prefent to point out 

No proof that no trace of any fuch remarks by Hyde, 

that'tl^ o^ o^ ^'^^ participation in one of the de- 

fpeech was bates arifmff out of thefe tranfadions, is 

Ipoken. ^^ 11- n r T< 

dilcoverable in any niape or form. From the 
expreflions ufed it might be aflumed, that he 
was fpeaking on the Refolution of the Houfe 
that any one attempting to give effed to the 
confefled illegality of the Impeachment, by 
arrefting the Members whom it accufed, and 
whom the King, in a fubfequent as illegal pro- 
clamation, had outlawed, would be guilty of a 
Hyde not breach of privilege. But he was certainly not 
Houfe : prefent when that refolution was moved. He 
feems to wifti us to infer, that the fpeech might 
have been delivered on one of the days when 

§ XXII. Lord Dighy and Mr. Hyde. 215 

the Grocers' Hall Committee were preparing nor at 
refolutions to be pafled on the Houfe re- ^^ 
aflembling.* But D'Ewes has carefully reported S'^?^^'^' 
each day's proceeding of that Committee, with- 
out the remoteft reference to Hyde. 

It was eafy, in fhort, with no record of the 
debates exifting to confront him, to take the 
credit of having fb fpoken, and to fling upon 
the popular leaders the difcredit of having 
forced him fo to fpeak. D'Ewes now enables 
us to ftate, however, with an almoft abfolute 
certainty, that not even on one occafion did No evi- 
this adive member of the Houfe, this incefTant Hydetoo\; 
and untiring orator againft the Remonftrance, P^J"* »" 
fpeak for or againft the proceedings of the 3rd arreft. 
and 4th of January .■!■ His name nowhere ap- 
pears as having been even prefent. Culpeper 
and Falkland, Sir Ralph Hopton and Mr. 
Herbert Price, noted partizans of the King, 
are in the lift of the Committee appointed to 

* It is a very fignificant circumftance, with reference to the Incon- 
doubt thus fuggefted, that in his text as undoubtedly left by fiftency 
himfelf (in a lair copy made by his fecretary) for publication, in Hyde's 
the introduftion to the mention of this fpeech is limply : MS. 
" And thefe votes the Houfe confirmed, when they were 
" reported : though in the debate it was told them, &c." It is 
only from the notes and additions found by comparifon with 
one of his additional illuftrative papers (lettered B), that the 
words to be now quoted in Italics are fupplied by the edition 
of 1826: "And thefe votes the Houfe confirmed, when 
"they were reported: 'which caufed fame debate, and Mr. 
" Hyde {notiuithjlanding the good advice that had been gi'ven 
" to him) told them" Sec. &c. ii. 139. 

t When upon a former occafion Hyde's abfence was re- 
marked, his friend Falkland had to fuggeft an excufe for it 
(Clarendon's State Papers, ii. 141, where the letter, manifeftly 
belonging to March 1640-4.1 is placed under 1642) : fo con- 
ftant and punftual were his ordinary attendances. 

2i6 Arrefi of the Five Members . 

meet in the City ; but not Hyde. Many not 

on the lift of the Committee, to which all who 

came had voices, are yet carefully recorded as 

taking part in the debates. But no where do we 

Reafons find Hyde's name. He feems to have been 

ing him- fo imprcfTed by that advice of the friends 

^elf. ^i-^o loved him, to be careful not to fliow anv 

approval of the King's attempt, as for the time 

to abfent himfelf from the Houfe altogether. 

Prudent advice it unqueftionably was, and 
given doubtlefs by men who not only knew 
the need for it in the particular cafe, but, 
friendly to the King as they were, faw the real 
iiTue which his failure had made inevitable, and 
His help which Hyde could now better help by other 
ful elfe- methods than that of public fpeaking in par- 
where. liament. It fhifted the ftruggle to other fcenes 
than thofe it had heretofore occupied. Mr. 
Hallam is no friendly critic of the popular 
leaders at this crifis, but he finds himfelf com- 
pelled to admit that the fingle falfe ftep which 
Appeal to rendered the King's affairs irretrievable by any- 
force. thing fhort of civil war, and placed all recon- 
ciliation at an infuperable diftance, was the 
attempt to feize the five members within the 
walls of the Houfe.* Plainly, it was an 

Hallam's * Conft. Hijl. ii. 126 (ed. 1855). " An evident violation," 

view of Mr. Hallam adds, "not of common privilege, but of all 

impeach- " fecurity for the independent exigence of parliament, in the 

ment. " mode of its execution." The paflage of his Monarchy or 

no Monarchy (ed. 1651), in which William Lilly expreflly 

records his opinion that the aft of the January 1641-2 

coft Charles the Firft his crown, is well worth fubjoining for 

§ XXII. Lord Digby and Mr. Hyde. 217 

appeal to force. Both parties felt it, and both 
inftindlively turned in the diredion where alone, 

the curious fafts it contains, and for its incidental corroboration 

of much that has been adverted to in my text. After remarking William 

that the refult proved that the King had really no evidence Lilly as to 

againft the acculed members but his own thoughts, as he him- arreft of 

felf confeffed, he proceeds: "And furely, had it been in his uiembers. 

" power to have got their bodies, he would have ferved thefe 

" members as he did Sir John Eliot, whom without caufe he 

" had committed to the Tower, and never would- either 

" releafe him, or (how caufe of his commitment, till his death. 

" This rafli aflion of the King's loft him his crown. For, as Coft the 

" he was the firft of kings that ever, or fo imprudently, brake King his 

** the privileges by his entrance into the Houfe of Commons crown, 

" aflembled in parliament, fo, by that unparalleled demand of 

" his, he utterly loft himfelf, and left fcarce any pofFibility of 

'* reconcilement j he not being willing to truft them, nor they All confi- 

" to ti-uft him, who had fo often failed them. It was my dence at 

" fortune that day to dine in Whitehall, and in that room an end. 

" where the Halberts, newly brought from the Tower, were 

" lodged fortheufe of fuch as attended the King to the Houfe 

" of Commons. Sir Peter Wich, ere we had fully dined, A dinner 

" came into the room I was in, and brake open the chefts party on 

'* wherein the aims were, which frighted us all that were day of 

" there. However, one of our company got out of doors, and arreft. 

" prefently informed fome members that the King was pre- 

" paring to come in to the Houfe : elfe I believe all thofe 

" members, or fome of them, would have been taken in the 

" Houfe. All that / could do farther was prefently to be 

'* gone. But it happened alfo the fame day that fome of 

" my neighbours were at the Court of Guard at Whitehall, 

" unto whom I related the King's prefent defign, and con- Belief as 

" jured them to defend the Parliament and members thereof, to outrage 

" in whofe well or ill doing confifted our happinefs or mif- intended. 

" fortune. They promifed afliftance, if need were j and I 

" believe, would have ftoutly ftood to it for defence of the 

" Parliament or members thereof. The King loft his reputa- 

" tion exceedingly by this his improvident and unadvifed 

" demand : yet, notwithftanding his failure of fuccefs in the 

" attempt, fo wilful and obftinate was he, in purfuance of that King's 

" prepofterous courfe he intended, and lb defnous to compafs obftinacy. 

" the bodies of thofe five members, that the next day he pofted 

" and trotted into the City to demand the members there : he 

" convened a meeting at the Guildhall, and the Common 

" Council aflembled : but mum could he get there ; for the 

" word, London Derry, was then frefti in every man's 

" mouth." Some years before, againft the advice even of 

Strafford himfelf, the City of London had been dragged 

2 1 8 Arreft of the Five Members. 

for either, now Jay ftrength and fafety. Every- 
Impreflion thing depended hereafter on the impreflion to be 

to be made , , , , , ^ - . 

on the made upon the people, and on the relponle it 
people. might be pofTible to obtain from the great mafs 
of the inhabitants of London. 

% XXIII. Sir Simonds D'Ewes and 
Speaker Lenthal. 

Further BuT before refuming the courfe of my 
narrative narrative, already interrupted by the neceflity 
requned. q^ interpofing the foregoing feftion, it feems 
defirable to make further paufe for introduc- 
tion of other matter alfo of a perfonal kind, 
from which not merely the general fubjedt, but 
the particular fcenes in which its ftriking intereft 
confifts, will receive eflential illuftration. 
What is foon to pafs in debate within the 
Houfe, or at Guildhall or Grocers' Hall in 
the City, during thofe days of excitement 
following the attempted arreft which wait to 
be defcribed, will have for its principal autho- 
Manu- rity the Journal of D'Ewes ; and while that 
Diary of Hch and curious manufcript lies open before 
D Ewes : j^^^ j pj-Qpofe, before paifing to thofe later 
fcenes, to draw from it fome inftances and 
examples in proof of its claim to be received 
as an authentic record, by which the pecu- 

into the Star Chamber, and, on the falfe pretence of fome 
invalidity of a grant by James the Firft, mulded not only of 
their plantation of Derry, but in a heavy fine as well. 

§ XXIII. D'Ewes and Speaker Lenthal. 219 

liarities both of D'Ewes and Lenthal will be 
charafteriftically difplayed, and amufing as well illuftra- 
as valuable information afforded as to the d°awn° ^ 
forms, the ufages, the difcipline, and the from It. 
management of the Houfe of Commons,* in 
thefe memorable days of its hiftory. 

Let me, then, firft imprefs upon the reader 
(it cannot be done too often or too ftrongly) 
that Sir Simonds D'Ewes is really, in regard 
to all the matters under difcuflion in thefe 
pages, fo far a moft reliable witnefs, that his D'Ewes a 
fympathies were never decidedly, or at all wimefs. 
adively, with the members accufed or any of 
their more intimate friends. Within certain 
limits, his flrong Puritan opinions, and the 
deference really felt for, and paid to, his know- 
ledge of precedents and conftitutional forms, 
caufed him to ad fteadily with them ; but the Not a 
more attention he received, the more he was gj^n°"^ 
difpofed to claim, until, taking literally a half P^'^ty 
jefting remark made by Sir William Lytton f 
that really the Houfe could not poffibly fpare 
him, he put himfelf forward fo inceffantly on 
every queftion, embarrafled fo many by his 
pedantic exaggeration of trifling rules and 

* For others I may be allowed to refer the reader (all 
repetitions here of matter formerly publifhed being carefully 
avoided) to the notes to the Eflay on the Debates of the Grand 
Remonftrance in Hiji. and Biog. EJfays, i. 1-175. 

•f- He had been of material lervice to the member for 
Hertfordfhire in expofmg the forged fignatures to a royalift 
petition from that county. See my Hifi. and Biog, E/fays, 

220 Arreji of the Five Memhers. 

forms, and fpared the Houfe itfelf fo little, 

that even his extraordinary learning loft its 

DIfFer- relifh, and he fell into fad perfonal differences 

the leaders. "^^^^ ^^ leaders, even while in hearty agreement 

with their general policy and aims. Hampden 

became too *' ferpentine" and "fubtle" for 

him. Denzil HoUis was too " proud " and 

" ambitious." Strode was too much of a 

" firebrand " and " notable profaner of the 

Scriptures," and had " too hot a tongue." 

Epithets Glyn alfo was a " fwearing profane fellow." 

th^popu-^ Hafelrig was too "violent." Harry Marten was 

lar chiefs, a " fiery heathen," and had a too " fcurrilous 

" and windy wit." With a fneer, in like manner, 

he qualifies an attack upon the impetuofity of 

Nathaniel Fiennes, " though he hath amongft 

" his other good parts an able voice." And 

if he does not ufe the fame tone or apply 

fimilar epithets to Pym (all now quoted were 

Why more g^ppjjg(^ within a vcry few weeks of the in- 

Pym. cidents in this narrative, for, at a later time, 

he ufed even lefs fcrupulous fpeech), it is 

becaufe that great popular leader, with a 

profound knowledge of the ftrength of his 

Pym more party, had alfo a wife deference for the weak- 

hlm!^" ° nefles and vanity of individual members of 

it, and was always ready with the conceffion 

that fubftantially yielded nothing, while it 

foftened anger, quieted fears, and was foothing 

to felf-efteem. 

To take one inftance out of many, which will 

§ XXIII. D' Ewes and speaker Lenthal. ill 

alfo fhow the perfonal pofition in which D'Ewes 
generally flood to the party with whom com- 
monly he adedj I give his account of an inci- 
dent, full of charadter, which arofe out of the 
difcuflion of one of the anfwers to a meflage Dlfcuffion 
of the King in the courfe of the prefent dif- "JfJ^gj-s to 
ferences. Pym had drawn up the anfwer, and a royal 
fome expreflions in it were ftrongly ob- ° ' 
jedted to by Mr. John Vaughan, the Royalift 
member for Cardigan, when fuddenly it oc- 
curred to D'Ewes that there might be fome- 
thing in the objedtion fo taken. 

" Mr. Pym read the Anfwer, or Declara- 
" tion, to his Majefty's meflage. Divers 
" called to have it put to the queftion, but objeftion 
" Mr. Vaughan ftood up and defired us to ^q^"i|J[ 
" confider well two things in it : i. the King's members. 
" railing of men to be to the terror of his 
*' people ; ii. where we faid we would not 
*^ obey his Commiflioners. Mr. Pym anf- 
" wered him fomewhat fuperficially" (D'Ewes 
means, in the literal fenfe of the word, that 
Pym fpoke curforily or flightingly), " and yet 
" divers called to put the Declaration to the D'Ewes 
" queftion : which made me, iuft as the ^u^^S^^^ 

Tl ^ 'J objecuon. 

" Speaker was ftanding up to put the quef- 

" tion, to fay " — urging thereon more ftrongly 

Mr. Vaughan's objedion. " As I was pro- 

" ceeding," he refumes, " fome indifcreet 

" and violent fpirits interrupted me, and !« aflkiled 

" called — to the Queftion ! Whom the fp^irks? ^^^ 

222 Arrefi of the Five Members, 

Perfifts in " Speaker having firft reproved, I went on." 

[hem° The worthy Baronet very decidedly exprefled 

himfelf, in fhort, in favour of moderate and 

conciliatory fpeech. " It concerned us much 

" to weigh all our expreflions, and not leave 

" the kingdom without all hope or poffibility 

" of an accomodation between his Majefty and 

'^ us, left fo we precipitate things into fpeedy 

Receives " confufion. After I had done Mr. Peard 

agement. " ftood Up, and did with great vehemency 

" reprove thofe indifcreet and foolifh members 

" who had interrupted me firft: fhowing 

* ' breach of privilege, &c. When I fat down, 

" many difcreet and fober members called on 

" me ftill to fpeak and go on. And Mr. Pym 

*^ alfo, who had made report of the faid Decla- 

Pym's " ration, did with much difcretion and modefty 

tion and " approve what I had fpoken, and coming 

n-.odefty:" cc himfelf to the Clerk's table, did amend the 

" faid Declaration according to the advice I 

" had given." (It involved little beyond the 

change of a few letters.) "Which being read 

adopts " was approved of, and thofe indifcreet fpirits 

ment?^" ' " ^^^^ interrupted me had not a word to fay 

" againft it."* 
Mr. Strode On the Other hand obferve the condudt of 
that " firebrand " Mr. Strode, on a precifely 
fimilar occafion, when what is called the 
Newmarket Declaration was under difcuffion. 
" Divers," fays D'Ewes, " fpake after me ; 

* Harl. MSS, 163, f. 467 b. Another fimilar inftance 

§ XXIII. jyEwes and Speaker Lenthal. 223 

" and Mr. William Strode, having fpoken fpeaks 

" twice before, flood up and fpake the third 

" time, and related the fame matter in fub- 

" fiance ; which made me fland up and 

' ' fpeak to the order of the houfe and inter- 

" rupt him, &c. He fat down, and divers and gets 

" laughed, and fome fpake after him." * ^^^^^"^^^ 

Generally it is to be remarked, upon all thefe 
fcenes, much to the credit of the Houfe, that Good 
the moderation and temper of D'Ewes, when the^Houfe. 
difcreetly put forward, feems hardly ever to have 
failed of its eiFedt. When the Declaration was 
under difcuffion, in which, upon intelligence 
received of the fchemes fet on foot for raifing 
money abroad, fome very plain truths were 
addrefTed to the King, he interfered, almofl Modera- 
as zealoufly as Sir Ralph Hopton, and much S'Ewes 
more fuccefffully, to obtain abatement of fome 
of its terms. He had left the Houfe between 
four and five o'clock that afternoon,-}- while the 
debate was in progrefs, and on his return 
between five and fix he found Sir Ralph with- 
drawn into the committee chamber, and the 

will be found of a moderating expreffion moved by Pym and 
feconded by D'Ewes, Ibid 163, f. 518 b. 

• Harl. MSS. 163, f. 431 a. 

f In a charafteriltic entry of earlier date, D'Ewes lets us 
into the fecret of thefe retreats from the Houfe during the 
afternoon hours of a long debate. "I returned into the 
*' Houfe," he fays, "between 5 and 6 o'clock at night, and 
'* it was my good fortune that I withdrew fo feafonably With- 
" between 2 and 3 as I did, having by that means freedom drawing 
" for fome hours, and convenience of fupping in time, and on for 
** my return I heard almoft the whole matter debated over fupper. 
" again." Harl. MSS. 162, f. 354. b. 


Arreft of the Five Members. 

cenlure of 
Sir Ralph 


Houfe in fharp debate what cenfure to lay 
upon him. '* The words he had fpoken were 
" occafioned on the reading of that part of 
" the Declaration which ihowed that the Pope's 
" Nuncio had folicited the Kings of France 
" and Spain to fend each of them 4000/. to 
" his Majefty againft the Parliament, and that 
" we did believe his Majefty could not give 
*^ ear to fuch counfels unlefs he meant to 
*^ change his religion. Upon which the faid 
" Sir Ralph Hopton ftood up and fpake 
" very vehemently againft the faid article, 
** faying, amongft other particulars, that we 
" did thereby charge the King with apoftacy.* 

accufed of 

Too many 
tor fuch 

politics at 

Letter to 
Hyde from 

* Clarendon refers to this incident, and fays that Hopton 
charged the Houfe with accufmg the King of defigns favourable 
to Popery on evidence that would not hangaconftable. But, 
to fay nothing of the letters found after Nafeby, all that has 
fince been difcovered of the fecret purpofes and defperate 
expedients reforted to by Charles the Firft, tends direftly to 
fliow how thoroughly well informed, though unable always to 
give up their informants, the leaders of the Houfe of Commons 
were. As to Charles's undoubted negotiations for the pro- 
curing foreign help againft the Parliament on condition of 
fpecial ceffions to the Roman Catholic faith, fee my EJfaySf 
i. 75-6. Let me add that there is a very curious letter in the 
Clarendon State Papers (ii. 14.1-2) which may be quoted, not 
only in aid of what has been faid (ante, 32 and 49) of 
the fufpicion of Secretary Windebank's illegal praftices in 
favour of the Roman Catholic religion, but in proof of the 
intereft with which Englifh politics were now regarded in 
Rome, and of the prudent and fomewhat ominous referve 
which, precifely at the very date of the incident defcribed in 
my text, had fallen fuddenly on the Pope's nephew and one of 
the leading Cardinals, otherwife accuftomed, as it would feem, 
largely to indulge in garrulity about England. Writing, to his 
brother-in-law Hyde, from Rome at the clofe of March 1642, 
Mr. Ayleftjury fays : " The laft week, we came from Naples ; 
" where we met with an Englifh Francifcan Friar, called 
" Father Morton ; who ufed us exceeding civilly, and has a 

§ XXIII. lyEwes and Speaker LenthaL 225 

" After which, though he explained himfelf, Hopton's 
" and acknowledged his fault to proceed from ° ^""* 
" his miftake, yet the Houfe would not reft 
" fatisfied, but caufed him to withdraw." * 
When D'Ewes entered, Sir Henry Herbert, 
the member for Bewdley, was fpeaking in miti- 
gation of his offence (againft a proportion 
for difabling him which the member for Hisexpul- 
Bletchingly, Sir John Evelyn, had ftarted), and moved, 
in favour of the more moderate fuggeftion that 
he fhould be permitted to purge his fault by a 
few days lodgment in the Tower. Such cen- 

" great mind to go into England to accufe Secr^ Windebank 
" of greater matters than the parliament ever laid to his 
" charge. I alTure you the difcouri'e he makes of him is 
" very good fport ; and in thefe fad times I could wifh you 
" had him amongft you to make you merry. At Rome there 
" are graver gentlemen ; but I underftand nothing of them 
" but their civility, which is as much as can be imagined. 
** Indeed, from the higheft to the loweft, they are all fo. The 
" other day we were with the Cardinal Francefco Barberino, 
" the Pope's nephew, and had a long audience of him, but 'Yhc 
" not a word of England, though I fought all I could to put popg's 
" him into that difcourfe of which he is veiy well informed, nephew • 
" and at other times liberal enough. For, Sir Walter Pye 
" having been with him fome days before, all his difcourfe 
" was to perfuade him that the troubles of England and 
" Ireland have never been fomented by any of the Pope's 
" minifters : and that they all wifhed the flourifhing eftate of fays he 
" our country. Befides, he made particular mention to him has not 
" of Mr. Pym, Mr. Hampden, Mr. Hollis, and fome others." fomented 
What fort of " particular mention " Pym and Hampden are Englifti 
likely to have attrafted to themfelves in the halls and council troubles, 
chambers of the Vatican, it would not be difficult to imagine ; 
and he muft have been a very clever Cardinal indeed if he 
managed to imprefs any Englifti traveller with the belief that 
he, one of the higheft dignitaries of the Roman Catholic His**inte- 
Church, took an impartial intereft in the welfare of thofe reft" in 
famous members of the Englifti Commons. The reference, Pym and 
however, is at leaft remarkable. Hampden. 

* Harl. MSS. 163, f. +10 3.-414 b. 

2 26 Arrejl of the Five Members, 

fures being very much matter of precedent, 

D'Ewes's Sir Simonds at once plunged into the debate, 

mitiga-'" ^.nd claimed hearing from the Speaker. But 

tion. Sir John Evelyn was fo loudly called for, that 

D'Ewes was fain, after beginning his fpeech, 

to give way. " After Sir John fat down," he 

proceeds, ' ' I flood up to continue my former 

'^ fpeech where I left off; but fome violent 

" fpirits, whom otherwife I efteemed very 

Inter- " honeft men, fearing that by my fpeaking I 

the hot ^ " might prevent the putting of the queftion 

fpirits. " for difabling Sir Ralph, which I did, would 

*' fain have interrupted me, crying out He hath 

" fpoken ! he hath fpoken ! But they, being 

" foon afhamed of the breach of the order of 

" the Houfe and their own violence, became 

" filent and I proceeded, fhowing that indeed 

Appeals '* my very worthy friend on the other fide 

^^' " (and here I pointed to Sir John Evelyn) 

" did break the order of the Houfe in inter- 

" rupting me after I had begun." 

The refult of Sir Simonds's interference 

was the more moderate courfe of fending 

Hopton to the Tower ; and when Sir Walter 

Earle, upon this, moved that Sir Ralph fhould 

His fug- not be enlarged but in a full Houfe, D'Ewes 

adop°"d fenfibly pointed out what injuflice this vague 

by Houfe. exprcffion might involve, and induced the 

majority to confent to receive the petition for 

releafe on any day when tendered, provided 

always it was between the hours of two and 

§ XXI II. D'Ewes and Speaker LenthaL 227 

four o'clock. He then goes on to fay, that, the 
original debate on the Declaration having Makes 
been refumed, he objeded himfelf to expref- objeaion 
iions in it, " condemniiig them almoft as to Hop- 
" much as Sir R. Hopton had done, but with 
*^ better fuccefs, for amendment enfued on my ^j^j^ 
" motion." Still he was not fatiffied ; and better 


when, on the following day, it was finifhed and 

pafled upon the queftion, he adds : ^ ^ many par- 

" ticulars continuing in it, full of irritating and 

*' rigid expreflions to his Majefty concerning 

" his own words and actions, which I utterly 

" mifliked : for we might have declared the D'Ewes's 

" whole and naked truth as well in reverential |^o^g°ate 

" and humble words, as in fo high and afperous fpeech. 

" terms."* 

Upon another occafion, however, he found Another 
himfelf lefs decidedly in fympathy with that JjJ|^^^"J 
ardent royalift, " Hopton of the Weft," and 

• Harl. MSS. 163, f. 414 b. On that fame day fo re- Remark- 
markable an entry appears alfo in D'Ewes's Journal, carrying ^^ig entry 
with it fuch marks of generous confideration on the part of :„ Journal, 
the Houfe to the memory of a great opponent, that the reader * 
will thank me for fubjoining it. " Upon Mr. Denzil Hollis's 
" motion it was ordered that the young Earl Strafford, being 
** fome fifteen years old, being nephew to tlie faid Mr. HoUis, 
" being his filler's fon, and whom the King by letters patent 
" created Earl Strafford fince the attainder of his father, fhould Generofity 
*' continue his troop in Ireland and receive his pay thereof, of Houfe 
" though he were not there prefent : the faid Mr. Hollis under- ^q Straf- 
•* taking to fee his abfence properly fupplied." It is curious ford's fon. 
that the order which rendered thisipecial application neceffary, 
was one introduced under the government of the young man's 
father, the great Earl ; who refilled nothing more ftrongly in 
Ireland than the abufe of abfenteeifm and non-refidence in 
every polTible form, whether it were in the captains of regiments 
or the proprietors of eftates, 


228 Arreft of the Five Members. 

by no means difpofed to mitigate punifhment 

to an offending member. This was when Sir 

Edward Dering, in lefs than a month after the 

arreft of the members, had printed his fpeeches 

Sir Ed- againft the Grand Remonftrance, with a preface 

Derinff's ^'^ ill-judged and indifcreet, remarking upon 

publifhed members of the Houfe and otherwife fcandal- 


izing its orders of debate, that opportunity- 
was taken to vote his expulfion. The propofal 
found an ardent fupporter in D'Ewes. He 
had no mercy for any one who departed from 
precedent, violated old ufage, or committed 
breaches of parliamentary decorum ; and, enter- 
D'Ewes's ing the Houfe juft as the debate began, and 
tion^"^' fi'^'^irig attempts made to evade the motion 
thereat, by no fharper cenfure than the Tower, he tells 
us that he loft all patience. 

'^ After I had heard divers fpeak," he fays, 

'^ and faw a great part of the Houfe begin to 

" incline to inflitl no other punifliment on 

" him than fending him to the Tower, I was 

Would ff very much troubled at it; efpecially when 

Bering ex- " Sir R. Hopton faid that we might retain 

pelled. cc j^j^i becauje of his great parts" At this, 

unable to contain himfelf any longer, he ftarted 

up ; detailed the offences of the book ; 

denounced the prefumption of the author; 

defcribed him fo overvaluing himfelf in his 

(.es"h°is"' *^ "^°^ fcandalous, feditious, and vain-glorious 

vain-glori- « performance," as if he had been able of him- 

face. felf to weigh down the balance of that Houfe 

§ XXIII. D' Ewes and Speaker Lenthal. 229 

on either fide when he pleafed ; pointed out 
the evi] confequence of printing fuch argu- 
ments, without allufion to the anfwers made 
thereto ; dwelt upon the outrage to the free- Derlng's 
dom of debate as unpardonable, feeing that ^"q^ ^he 
he had therein difcovered the fecrets of the Houfe. 
Houfe, had difcredited the a6ts of the Houfe, 
and had named members of the Houfe (among 
them Mr. O. C. by which the member for Mr. o. c. 
Cambridge was plainly intended) to their 
difgrace ; and he concluded by declaring that 
if he himfelf, member for Sudbury, fhould ever 
be fo unfortunate as to offend that alTembly 
in fo high a nature, he would rather hide him- 
felf for ever in a cell than enter again within 
thofe walls ! *' As foon,*' he continues, " as I 
' had fpoken, having delivered myfelf with 
* fome vehemence, the Speaker faid prefently Mr. 
^ to fome about his Chair, ^ You may fee, now. Speaker 

._, iT-k' r • 11 compli- 

^ ' what Sir Edward Dermg's friends have pro- ments 
' ' cured him, by endeavouring to have a fmall "' 
' * cenfure pafTed upon him.'*'* The tide had 
turned againft Sir Edward. The determina- 
tion became ftrong, not only to expel the 
writer, but to put a mark of opprobrium on 
the book ; and though D'Ewes fenfibly refifted 
Sir Walter Earle's motion for " calling it in," Obje'^tlon 

_ o 'to lupprel- 

on the ground that fuch a proceeding would fion of a 
raife the price of it from fourteen pence to 

• Had. MSS. 162, f. 366 b. 

230 Arreft of the Five Members. 

will ralfe fourteen (hillings, and haften a new impreflion,* 
fourteei?"^^^ did not oppofe Mr. Oliver Cromwell's 
pence to fuggeftion for remitting it to the hands of the 

fourteen 1 t 1 • • r 

fhlllings. common hangman. It was, by a majority or 
85 to 61, ordered to be burnt in Palace Yard, 
Bering Cheapfide, and Smithfield, on the Friday 
and\i^s following. Bering was expelled ; and a war- 
book rant ifTued for a writ for Kent to choofe a new 

burnt. , . , 


Between that day and the next, however, a 
doubt feems to have occurred to the honor- 
able member for Cambridge whether to burn a 
book were quite the beft way of anfwering any 
dangerous matter contained in it; and D'Ewes 
relates accordingly what took place near the 
clofe of the fitting on the following day.")* 
A fuggef- *^ Mr. Oliver Cromwell," he fays, "moved 
Mr"oirer " ^^^^ ^^^ ^' Bering's book, lately fet out by 
Cromwell. " him, had many dangerous and fcandalous 
" pafTages in it, by which many muft be de- 
t " ceived and led into an ill opinion concerning 

' \. " the proceedings of this Houfe ; and there- 
** fore defired that fome able member of the 
** Houfe might be appointed to make a fhort 
'J::, *' confutation of the fame. And then he 
■*' nominated Me. Which made me prefently 
Will " ftand up and anfwer, that 1 conceived that 
anfwer^^ " ^^ gentleman who laft fpoke did not dream 

Dering ? 

* This paflage of the debate was referred to in my Hlft. 
and Biog. Efays,i. 89, but the details here given have not 
before been prefented. f Had. MSS. 162, f. 368 a. 

^ XXIII. D'Ewes and Speaker Lenthal. 23 1 

*' that it was now near 7 of the clock at night, 
'* or elfe that he would not at this time have * 
' ' made fuch a motion as he did : for, if I 
*' could but gain fome fpare time from the 
*' public fervice of the Houfe, I have other p'Ewes 

declines * 

"things to print, of more public ufe and has better 
" benefit than the confutation of Sir E. ;^'"ss 

to do. 

" Dering's fpeech could be : and therefore I 
** defired that the gentleman himfelf who 
" made the motion, might be defired to under- 
" take the tafk. The Speaker then defired ^'Sj* 

not Mr. 

" that I would print that, that would be for the Cromwell 
" public good." And with this polite inti- ^° '' ■ 
mation from Mr. Speaker, unfeconded by any 
eagernefs on Mr. Cromwell's part to aflume 
himfelf the literary labour he would have 
impofed on D'Ewes, the fubjedt dropped. 

It will not be out of place to connedl with Other 
it, and the illuftrations formerly given of the ^'^-^Ewes'^s 
general truftworthinefs, as well as temperate accuracy, 
and moderate fpirit, of a man to whofe manu- 
fcript record of the events under notice this nar- 
rative has been, and will be, fo largely indebted, 
further and very ftriking proof of his inde- 
pendent honefty and confcientioufnefs in regard 
to his Journal. It is this in truth which gives 
it a charadter of accuracy and original authority Orlglnal- 
that none of the many other exifting MS. journal!* 
journals of this time, which on examination turn 
out to be, for the mofl: part, mere tranfcripts 
•from the official records of the Houfe, can in 


Arreft of the Five Members. 

alter a 

The mef- 






Journals ? 

and two 

But not 
D'Ewes ; 

he reports 
" out of 
his head:" 

the leaft lay claim to. In the midft of the events 
under notice, when a meflage had been voted, 
late one evening, to the King, Denzil Hollis 
brought it again before the Houfe the follow- 
ing morning, with a view to an alteration in the 
wording which he defired to fuggefl:. 

" But," D'Ewes continues, " Sir Guy 
' Palmes faid he did not know how it could 

* well be ordered, becaufe the votes were 
^ already printed. Thereupon fome thought 
^ that the clerk or his men had given it out : 
' others that it might be tranfcribed by fome 
' of the Houfe. So the clerk was afked who 

* did conftantly write out of his Journal Book 
^ every night after the Houfe was rifen ; and 
^ he faid the Lord Falkland only (who had 
' lately been made principal Secretary). Then 
^ they afked him who, alfo, did fometimes 

* write out of the faid Journal Book, or were 
^ prefent ; and he faid, Mr. Moore and Mr. 

* Bodvill did often write out of the fame, and 
^ that myfelf was fometimes prefent. But I, 
^ miflaking him, and conceiving that he 
' ranked me amongfl: the tranfcribers (who 

* fcarcely wrote 3 words out of his Journal 
^ Book in 3 months), was very angry with 
^ him, and ftood up and faid, that I was indeed 
' often prefent when others tranfcribed out 
' of the faid Journal, but did myfelf write not 

* out of that hut out of my head: and there- 

* fore I deflred that the clerk might name the 

^ XXIII. UEwes and Speaker Lenthal. 233 

*' time when I tranfcribed anything out of his never at 

*' Journal. With which the houfe refting fatif- ^and. " 

" fied, as I conceived, I troubled myfelf no 

" further about it. But Mr. H. Elfyng, the 

" clerk, came to me in Weftminfter Hall after 

'^ we were rifen, and expreffed a great deal of Clerk 

" forrow that I did miftake him ; that he only apologies, 

*^ named me as being prefent, and the rather 

" that I could prove what he faid." * 

An incident highly charadleriftic of D'Ewes, 
which occurred on the next following day, 
completes the pidlure of our learned and care- 
ful reporter, zealous for the originality of his 
notes, fenfible of the power derived from 
exercife of fuch an art, and refolved to abate no 
jot of the influence it gave him. A delicate 
matter coming under debate (being nothing a delicate 
lefs than information, fubmitted by Pym, of™^"^^'^^^" 
tamperings on the part of the Court with 
foreign powers, for the lending an army, 
if need fhould be, to put down the liberties of 
England) fome members arofe, in much ex- 
citement, to fuggeft that the debate be adjourned Note- 
for a day, and that no one meanwhile be per- ?^|^'"g 

•' -T inlepara- 

mitted to take notes. " Stop note-taking ! " ble from 
cried D'Ewes. f " You cannot ! Or, if you can, maSng. 
" make men hold their tongues, then, as well !" 
Such being the recognized pofition of 
D'Ewes in the Houfe, and his admitted autho- 
rity in everything conneded with its ufages ^/l^fj?"^ 

* Harl. MSS. 163, f. 430 a. f lb. 163, f. 432 b. toLenthal: 

234 Arrefi of the Five Members. 

his author- and the precedents of former times, he was 
cedent?^^' ^^turally brought into frequent relations with 
the Speaker; and whether Lenthal found it 
more opprefTive to fubmit to his critical 
objurgations, or to enjoy the advantage of his 
condefcending patronage, it might be difficult 
to fay. There is, however, hardly a week's 
critic and entry in his Journal that does not prefent him 
^l^^ ° in one or other of thefe pofitions ; and if 
Speaker, nothing were known of Lenthal but the noble 
words we have feen him ufe on a fudden 
and great emergency, we might well be dif- 
pofed to reject as incredible the impreffion 
which D'Ewes fteadily conveys, that he was a 
timid, reftlefs, indecifive, ill-informed, and ill- 
Weak- conditioned man. Unhappily this impreffion 

nefles of . 11 , .- . 

Lenthal. IS too Well bome out by what otherwile is 

known of his life, and by what already this 

narrative has difclofed.'^^ We know that this 

Self-fur- was the man who, violating the principle laid 

hU o^nly down by himfelf on that memorable 4th of 

claim to January, and flinging fcorn and difrepute on 

the only adl by which in hiftory he is honorably 

remembered, actually had the bafenefs, at the 

A witnefs Reflioration, to give evidence againfl Scot the 

Scot"the regicide of words which he had heard within 

regicide, ^he Houfe when fitting in the Speaker's 

chair If When Lenthal is credited, therefore, 

* Ante^ 22, 25. 
Contraft f State Trials, \. 1063. As a contraft let me mention, in 

to Lenthal. juftice to the Earl of Northumberland, whofe conduft throughout 
thefe affairs feems to me to have been unworthy of his abilities 

§ XXIII. D' Ewes and speaker Lenthal. 235 

' with qualities generally poor and commonplace, 
we may be only too well aflured that the fad:s 
alleged will juftify the charge. Such evidence ^ time- 
abounds in every part of D'Ewes's Journal, ways, 
and proves beyond all doubt, quite irre- 
fpedive of the fpecial proof given in a previous 
feftion of his eager defire at this time to offer 
fervile homage to the King, that what he 
fhowed himfelf unmiftakeably to be in later 
years, he now already was, and was known to 
be. And I gladly feize the opportunity of 
adding, to what was remarked upon the fub- 
je6t in a former work,* other traits and in- Traits and 
cidents relating to him from D'Ewes's curious from^" ^ 
manufcript, not merely charadleriflic and D'Ewes's 

. diary. 

amufing in themfelves, but fuch as, befides 
completing what was formerly faid, will lalfo 
help further to fhow D'Ewes's own pofition 
in reference to parties in the Houfe. 

A debate arofe upon a queftion of privi- Queftion 
lege : a perfon having been arrefted, after order °J P'^'^^" 
had iffued from the Houfe that he fhould be 

and his name, that when, upon the Reftoration, he confented, Northum- 
like Lenthal, to receive favour from the Government, it was berland 
by no fuch bafe betrayal of a6ls and proceedings in which he true to old 
had himfelf been a participator. Ludlow tells us in his friends. 
Memoirs that Lord Northumberland (who had taken the oath 
of fidelity to the Commonwealth) was heard to fay in the 
Convention Parliament at the Reftoration, that though he had 
no part in the death of the King, he luas againji qiiejlioning j^^ exam- 
tkofe ^Mho had been concerned in that affair, that the example pjg profit- 
might he more ufefultopofteritj, and profitable to future Kings, able to 
by deterring them from the like exorbitancies. iii. lo, ed. 1699. Kings. 

* Hiji. and Biog. Effays (Debates on the Grand Remon- 
ftrance), i. 82, 83, &c. 


Arrefi of the Five Members, 

and Len- 

on Mr. 



out of 

fent for as a witnefs. "When," fays D'Ewes, 
' fome fpake to the cafe, and miftook it, and 

* the Speaker would have informed them of 

* the cafe how it flood. Sir A. Hafelrig fpake 
^ to the order of the Houfe, and faid that the 
' Speaker ought not to ftand up and interrupt 
^ any other member of the Houfe when he 
' was fpeaking. Whereupon the Speaker 
' flood up and anfwered Sir Arthur Hafelrig 

* that he had not flood up to interrupt any 

* member, but only to inform fuch as fhould 
' fpeak of the truth of the cafe. But Sir 
' A. H. not fatiffied herewith, flood up 
^ again : faying he would fpeak to the order 
^ of the Houfe, and under colour thereof 
' endeavoured to reply to the Speaker, and to 
' get faid over again the fame thing : which 
' made me interrupt him, though I much 
' refpeded him." He accordingly, with defe- 
rence, but very decidedly, rebukes " that wor- 

' thy gentleman in the Gallery," who, upon 
D'Ewes refuming his feat, " would have fpoken 

* again to the order of the Houfe ; but the 
' Houfe, it feems, being fatiffied with what I 

* faid, would not hear him again."* 

That was a great triumph for Sir Simonds, 
if not for Lenthal ; but, upon a fubfequent quef- 
tion of order and ufage, Mr. Speaker himfelf 
feems to have been permitted to violate all 
precedent. Soon afterwards there occurred a 

Harl MSS. 163 f. 405 b. 

§ xxiir. D'Ewes and Speaker Lenthal. 23 7 

debate, very jftiffly maintained on both fides. Sugar- 
about the cuftom to be impofed on fugar. debate 
D'Ewes was the lafl: fpeaker, and fat down 
with a folemn warning to the Houfe that they 
ihould be wary of offending the Hollanders 
with fuch an impoft. " Between which time 
*' and the putting of the queftion itfelf," he 
continues, " fome members came into the Members 
" Houfe, and fome called on them to with- J"ft^before 
** draw ; and thereupon grew a debate, whether queftion 
" by the order of the Houfe they fliould with- 
*^ draw or not : and in the iffue it was 
" obferved that regularly no member of the 
" Houfe could be commanded to withdraw. Not to 
" but when he came in after the queftion ^' 

" had been put the firft time." But the 
extraordinary thing was, D'Ewes concludes, 
that upon going to the divifion, the Speaker not 
only claimed to vote, but actually voted, *' the 
"like of which I never knew before or fince."* 

Again, fhortly after, occurred another in- Extraoidl- 
ftance of Mr. Speaker forgetting the dig-nitv"^'!-^'^^" 

X to t> C3 / ceeding 

of his place. It arofe out of Sir John Holland, of Mr. 
the member for Caftle Rifing, objedling to the ^^^ ^^* 
amount of the parliamentary- levy on his 
county. "Sir John Holland," fays D'Ewes, Lenthal 
" a Norfolk man, feemingly anxious to fliow ^S^" ^' 
*' his forwardnefs for the county, faid he was 
*' informed that Norfolk would not pay the 

• Harl MSS, 163, f. 4.29 b. 


Arrefi of the Five Members. 

An hon. 








cies as 

* fum laid on them by the £400,000 bill, 
^ except ibme abatement ; and that if any dif- 
^ temper arofe in Norfolk, it would be paid' 
' nowhere in England. Whereupon the 
' Speaker flood up and interrupted him, and 
' faid fuch words were very dangerous and 
^ not fit to be/poken. But Sir J. H. ftood 
' up to juflify himfelf, and averred that he 
' only faid he was informed fo, and claimed 
^ the privilege of a member not to be inter- 
' rupted, &c. Whereupon the Speaker, for- 
' getting the dignity of his place, and deferting 
' the jufl ground that was given him to 
' interrupt him, gave fome approbation to 
' what he had faid, and fat him down. So 
^ as Sir John Holland was proceeding on as 
^ if he had done very well before, which 
^ made me, with fome indignation to fee the 
' Speaker's mifcarriage, ftand up and fpeak to 
^ the order of the Houfe."* Here, beyond 
all doubt, was another decided fuccefs for 
D'Ewes ; and the Houfe loudly, and very pro- 
perly, applauded him for thus vindicating Mr. 
Speaker, though againfl Mr. Speaker himfelf. 

But, even in the trivial duties andobfervances 
of his place, Lenthal was by no means expert. 
Some letters having been handed in to the 
Speaker, and among them one from the King, 
he gave it to the Clerk of the Houfe, *' who," 

HarLMSS. 163, f. 461 a. 

§ XXIII. jyEwes and Speaker Lenthal, 239 

fays D'Ewes, "having read the fuperfcription a letter 
" Charles Rex, I ftood up and reminded the {J"'" '^^ 
' *' Speaker that he was to read fuch letters 
" himfelf : on which he acknowledged his 
" error, and read it." It came at laft, indeed, D'Ewes 
to be very generally underftood that the ^yjjfjj!^^^ 
member for Sudbury, and not the Speaker, was astoorder: 
the man to fettle queftions of order, and to 
compofe jarring difcords in debate.* A curious 
inftance occurred when Sir Henry Mildmay, 
the member for Maiden, who fat afterwards compofer 
on the trial of the King, would have obtained ^^^f^'-^^ 
confent from the Houfe to a bill for trade debate, 
which threatened to interfere mightily with 
the Coventry weavers ; whereupon Mr. William 
Jeflbn, an ancient alderman of that borough Heat of 
who very worthily.reprefented it,fl:arted up with burgeft 
hiuch heat and *i fpake very earneftly againft for Coven- 
" fuch a bill, fayii^g that by fo doing we would 
** deftroy the wh'ole trade of the kingdom. 
'^ Whereupon Sir H. Mildmay took excep- 
** tion, affirming that the faid Mr. Jeffon 
" had looked very fiercely upon him when he 

* Other duties appear at times to have been impofed which D'Ewes 
he took upon himfelt with lefsrelifti. The followingmay ferve avoids 
as an example : " Between 4 and 5 the Houfe refolved into a chair of 
" Grand Committee on Tonnage : and when the Speaker Com- 
" withdrew, and moft of the Houfe with him, fome to mittee. 
" Committees, and fome clean away, fo as we were fcarce 4.0 
" left, divers called on me to fit in the chair at the Committee. 
" So as, fearing that I (hould not have excufed myfelf, I with- 
'• drew out ot the Houfe, and after Mr. Ellis had taken the 
" faid chair, I returned again. The bill pafl'ed, and we rofe 
" between 5 and 6." Harl. MSS. 162, f. 357 a. 

240 Arrefi of the Five Members. 

Fierce and " fpokc, and that it was done in an unparlia- 

men^tary " mentary way." Here was a novel cafe ! and 

looks: it muft be confefled that D'Ewes, on appeal 

being made to him, treated it more fenfibly 

than might have been expedled. Defiring to 

D'Ewes's qualify, as he fays, fuch unneceffary heat, he 

opinion declared that in all his knowledge of thefe mat- 
thereon. . ° 

ters he never knew exception taken at looks 

before ; and, with fome further goodnatured 

words, he perfectly reconciled the offended 

knight and too choleric ancient burgefs.* 

Ancient ^^ fared not fo well, however, with the good 

member old member for Coventry fome few months 


later, when, upon the unfurling of the Royal 

ftandard at Nottingham '* about fix of the 

'' clock in the evening of a very ftormy and 

" tempeftuous day," f the Houfe of Commons 

promptly met the King's proclamation againft 

Vote for Lord Efiex as a traitor, by a vote calling upon 

to^FzA\^ every member to anfwer individually, upon the 

mentaiy inftant, whether he would venture and hazard 

genera . j^j^ |j£^ ^^^ fortune with the Earl of Effex, 

Lord General. D'Ewes regarded this vote 

with little favour, and dwells upon the harfh 

way in which it was prefixed by the " fiery 

Difllked " fpirits " who had introduced it : wherein, he 

D'Ewes. adds, they were feconded, in a manner un- 

* Harl. MSS. 163, f. 502 a. 

f «' The ftandard," Clarendon fubfequently tells us {Hijl. 
iii. 190), "was blown down the fame night it had been fet up, 
" by a very ftrong and unruly wind." 

§ XXIII. D' Ewes and speaker Lent hal, 241 

worthy of hlmfelf and contrary to the duty of 

his place, by Mr. Speaker. "And whereas Required 

" one Mr. Jeflbn, one of the burgeffes for *° ^"^ ^J'^- 

" Coventry, being an ancient man, did only 

" defire a little time to conflder of it before 

" he gave his anfwer, they would not permit 

" that, but compelled him to anfwer prefently, 

" whereupon he, not being fatiffied in his con- 

" fcience, gave his No. At which thofe hot Says No. 

" fpirits taking great diftafte, the Speaker, 

" unworthy of himfelf and contrary to the 

" duty of his place, fell upon him with very Affailed 

" ftrange language for giving his No ; and sL^eV. 

" when the poor man, terrified with the dif- 

" pleafure he faw was taken againft him, would 

" have given his Aye, they would not permit Wifhes to 

"him to do that neither. Sir Guy Palmes, ^^^t, not 

" and Mr. Fettyplace" (the members for permitted. 

Rutlandfliire and Berkfhire, both of them 

declared Royalifts) " were fo overawed by Mr. other 

" JefTon's miffortune as they anfwered Aye "15'?^^'^^ 

" without any further debate ; and fo did many ened. 

" others who came dropping in from dinner, 

" not knowing what had been done and was 

" doing in the Houfe." * 

Nor had the fcene been lefs ftriking fome 
three months earlier (little more than fix weeks 
after the attempted arrefl:), when, amid the war 
of declarations and replies that preceded the 
unfurling of the ftandards. Sir Peter Wentworth 

• Harl, MSS, 164, f. 1060 b. 


Arreft of the Five Members. 

Sir Peter 
worth : 

truft the 

lor of Ex- 

this <' fol- 

Old Sir 



Sir John 

(who fat for Tamworth, and afterwards on the 
High Court of Juftice) took the occafion of 
a particular meflage from Charles to fay " that 
" we could not confide in the King nor trufi him : 
" which made Sir John Culpeper, Chancellor 
" of the Exchequer, who fat near him, rife up 
" and fay that he wondered that any man 
" fhould dare to fpeak fuch language within 
" thefe walls — That we could not confide in the 
"King!" Confiderable excitement enfued, 
D'Ewes proceeds to tell us, but Sir Peter's 
plain fpeaking having found feveral backers, 
he was permitted to explain himfelf. " And 
" fo the Houfe pafTed by his folly." 

But then followed an incident well worthy 
record in itfelf, and having a highly charafter- 
iftic fequel with D'Ewes for its hero. Old 
Vane, who fo long had ferved the highefl: 
offices of ftate, had fignalifed himielf, fince 
his lofs of Court favour and public employ- 
ment,* by difplaying in oppofition all the 
caution and prudence which accompany the 
expeftation of being reftored to power. But, in 
a fpeech he delivered on the prefent occafion, 
this referve was flung afide. He ihowed that 
things were come to a defperate condition. 
In a previous debate on the Cuftody of the 
young Prince of Wales, very ftartling allufions 
had been made. Sir John Northcote, the 
member for Afhburton, had faid plainly he 

* J/tie 50, 51. 

§ XXIII. D^Ewes and Speaker Lenthal. 243 

would rather iiicreafe the jealoufies between 
the King and the Houfe than any way diminifh 
them, and, amid continual excitement and 
interruptions, had perlifted in naming an inten- 
tion which they had all heard difcufled elfewhere 
if not in that Houfe, " to crown the prince and '' ^^^^ 

11- • T. • r ^^ **^^ Pnnce 

" make him Kmg."* But now, m a very full our 
Houfe, amid an unufual and fuUen filence. Old ^"^' 
Vane did not fcruple to take fomething of a fimi- 
lar tone. He gave in his adhefion to the views 
exprefled by Pym and Hampden upon the quef- 
tion of the Militia, declared his convidlion that 
" the prefent flame would devour all " unlefs 
great care and wifdom were ufed for flopping old Vane 
it, " and wilhed that to that end we might lay r^'^^^'ii?,. 

' _ / tor militia 

"a new foundation." This called up Mr. and "new 
Harry Killegrew of Cornwall, the member for tbn"."^' 
Weft Looe,j- who made a violent Royalift 
fpeech, and in the courfe of it propounded a 
conftitutional dodtrine of an extremely novel 
and difconcerting kind. He warned them that 
they were fetting their feet on flippery places 

* Northcote's fpeech was delivered on the 14th January on 
the motion of Sir Henry Chomley, the member for North- 
allerton, for removal of jealoufies between King and Parlia- 
ment. Harl. MSS. 162, f. 328 a. 

f The fame " gallant gentleman and generally known," Anecdote 
of whom Clarendon relates {Life, i. 140) that fubfequently, ofKille- 
on being invited with the other members to offer a contribution grew, 
towards the formation of an army for the Parliament, flood 
up and anfwered, he would provide a good horfe, and a good 
fword, and a good buff coat, and then he would find a good Will 
caufe :" which for that time only raifed laughter, though they " ^^^ " 
" knew well what caufe he thought good, which he had never a good 
" diffembled." caufe. 

B 2 

244 Arreft of the Five Members, 

Harry in what thev called their new foundation, and 


gre^v's that he could wifh, before the gentlemen he 

ipeech. faw around him concluded matters of fo great 

moment then and there, as impofing the militia 

and all their new taxation on the people, they 

fhould fend fome members of that Houfe into 

each county to have their confent; otherwife, 

they might come to feel the weight of the major 

Novel part of the people ; for it was not the ena£iing 

doarine. of a law that made it in force, but the willing 

obedience to it. " With fome other words," 

D'Ewes adds, " to the like efFed, at which 

Houfe " many of the Houfe, laughing heartily when 

" he fpoke them, it made him repeat them 

" once or twice." The laughers meanwhile 

Young defifted, for Young Vane arofe with much 

ferious^^'^ gravity to take exception to words carrying 

fuch dangerous import. Others followed in 

the fame tone ; and fome, fays D'Ewes, did 

aggravate the words fo far, that they were 

againft allowing Mr. Killegrew to explain 

himfelf. With fome difficulty Pym obtained 

Kllle- hearing for him, " and fo he made fome little 

apology. " juftification, protefting in the prefence of 

" God that he had no intention to do any dif- 

" fervice to the Houfe." Upon this Pym 

Pym re- oppofed the motion for his expulfion, which 

f^dfion. '^^^ rejeded by 131 to 97. He was however 

ordered to withdraw, and, the debate continuing, 

there came fuddenly to his relief another Cor- 

nifhman, Mr. Chadwell, the member for St. 

§ XXIII. D'Ewes and Speaker Lenthal. 245 

Michaels, who profefTed to cite fome ancient An indif- 
record fupporting what the member for Weft f^end. 
Looe had faid. D'Ewes no fooner heard it 
than he fufpedled an impofture. He withdrew 
very quietly, for it was againft the order of the 
Houfe ; haftened over to his lodging, clofe at D'Ewes 
hand ; looked through his papers and records; larch'of 
hurried back to the debate ; and threw upon records. 
it a flood of antiquarian lore, underneath which 
poor Mr. Chadwell, and his mifquoted, mif- 
dated, and wholly mifreprefented record, were 
completely carried away. But it is a peculiarity 
of D'Ewes to be always magnanimous in his 
moments of triumph. He never tramples on 
the fallen. " No doubt, Mr. Speaker," he 
faid, " I think this gentleman very faulty who 
** would prefume to mifquote Records for 
" Mr. Killegrew. But, not being well fkilled Expofes 
" in Records, perhaps he did not know the ignorance. 
" dangerous confequence." That was his tone. 
The Houfe fell in with it; and both Killegrew 
and Chadwell, thanks to the moderation and is merd- 
good {tn(Q of Pym, efcaped with but flight ^"J^ 'jj *"" 

Thefe illuftrations may now be fitly clofed 
with fome notice of the many efforts made to 

* HarL MSS, 163, f. 451 b. Being called to the Bar, the ^ repri- 
Speaker told them that the Houfe conceived the offence to be mand. 
or a very high nati re, confidering the circumftances of time 
and the opinions of fome people abroad ; and therefore they 
had commanded him to give them a (harp reprehenfion, and 
it was the mercy of the Houfe that the cenfure was no feverer. 

246 Arrefi of the Five Members. 

Attempts compel early and full attendance at the Houfe, 
early at- i^ which D'Ewcs and Lenthal took prominent 
tendance, p^rt. Under the form of fines for being late 
at prayers, thefe attempts were frequently re- 
newed; and they had originated at a memorable 
time. As early as the previous May (1641), 
when the duties and refponfibilities of member- 
fhip had become fuch as to daunt and deter all 
but the moft refolute ; amid the plots for Straf- 
ford's efcape, and the tumultuous aflemblages of 
the people demanding juftice upon him ; when 
the King ftill paufed on the verge of defperate 
Alarming counfels ; while each hour of every day came 
firft found laden with its danger and its terror ; only two 
neceffary. (j^ys before Charles had gone to the Lords to 
warn them againft pafling the attainder, for that 
he never in his confcience could confent to it ; on 
the very day when Pym arofe in the Commons 
to explode the confpiracy of Henry Percy and 
Goring for bringing up the army and feizing 
on the Tower, — D'Ewes makes the fubjoined 
mod ftriking entry in his Journal. It adds 
another to many memorable inftances of the 
Tragi- clofe intermixture of ferioufnefs and laughter in 
thrwoHd. ^'^^5 tragi-comedy of the world, and is one more 
proof that men are never fo prone to fudden 
burfts of mirth as when heavy and overborne in 
fpirit by a long ftrain of anxiety, by nervous ex- 
citement or apprehenfion, by the over-wrought 
intenfity of either hope or fear. 

" Prayers being done, after the Speaker had 

§ XXIII. jyEwes and Speaker Lenthal. 247 

*' fitten a good while, and all men filent, the The 

" Clerk's afliftant began to read a bill touching fadneV" 

" wire-drawers, which being prefently flopped, 

" did amidft our fad apprehenfions move 

" laughter from divers that fuch a frivolous Suddenly 

" bill fhould be pitched upon, when all matters whter? 

" were in fuch apparent danger. After fome 

" half-hour's filence more, or a quarter's, fome 

" called to have the order read, which was 

" made on Saturday, by which every member 

" that came after eight of the clock was to pay 

" one fhilling. And then, as men came in, 

" divers cried, * Pay ! Pay!' When the Serjeant The (hil- 

" demanded the faid fhilling, which bred a great ^"^ ^^' 

" confufion."* 

Such was the continued confufion, indeed, A failure, 
that for this particular time it had to be 
abandoned. But, ten months later, it was re- 
newed ; and Sir Simonds had again, upon the 
fpecial fubjeft, though on this occafion with 
inferior fuccefs to that we have feen formerly 
attend him, to vindicate the dignity of Mr. 
Speaker's place againfl Lenthal's own forgetful- 
nefs and non-afTertion of it. On a Tuefday shilling 
the fine was propofed. "A motion made," ^^^ again 

r T^.i-' T '1 r 1 propofed. 

lays u h.wes, ''as 1 came m, that men 
" members as fhould not come up by 8 and 
" be at prayers, fhould pay a fhilling. I faid, ■Q^Y.wts 
" when that was tried twelve months ago oppofed 
" it was laid afide from its inconvenience, 

• Harl. MSS. 163, f. 514 a. 

248 Ar reft of the Five Memhers. 

'^ after one day's pradice ; and that the beft 
" way would be to rife at 12, and not at 2 or 
" 3, to enfure members coming at 8. Divers 
" others fpake againft it ; but the greater 
" number being for it, it pafTed." * 

Very little, however, as it would feem, to the 

^'^•, immediate edification of Mr. Speaker, feeing 

late : that next morning, Wednefday, he did not him- 

felf make his appearance till a quarter to nine. 

'' The Houfe by this time," D'Ewes remarks, 

" was very full at prayers, by reafon of the order 

** made yefterday. Sir H. Mildmay, after 

" prayers, flood up and faid he was glad to fee 

rebuked : " this good efFccTt of yefterday's order ; and faid 

'^ to the Speaker that he did hope that hereafter 

" he would come in time ; which made the 

l^'^'fh'n' a- " Speaker throw down twelvepence upon the 

on table t " table. Divers fpake after him, and others 

'^ as they came in did each pay his fhilling to 

*' the Serjeant. I fpake to the Orders of the 

*' Houfe : That the order made yefterday was 

" to fine ^ after ' prayers, and therefore you 

" (I fpake to the Speaker) cannot be fubjedl 

" to pay ; and for coming a little after 8, that 

*^ was no great difference. Although I fpake 

will not *f truly, the Speaker having caft down his 

take it up ,, ^ .,,. . , , . • ,, • 

again. milling, would not take it up again, f 

One may perhaps infer, without difrefpedl, 
that Lenthal had fulked a little ; and the ill 
effect of fo throwing down his twelvepence, 

* Harl. MSS. 163, f. 474 a. f lb. 163, f. 475 b. 

§ XXIII. D'Ewes and Speaker Lenthal, 249 

certainly difplayed itfelf next day, Thurfday, ill refuks 
when the adlion found an imitator well dif- 
pofed to exaggerate it. After obferving that 
on that morning only about forty were at 
prayers, D'Ewes proceeds to fay that it was 
ordered upon the motion of Mr. Rous, that 
the fines of yefterday and to-day be given to 
Dr. Leighton, being in fome diftrefs. Then 
came on a petition complaining of Dr. Fuller, 
parfon of St. Giles's, having chofen two 
churchwardens ill afFeded to religion, in oppo- 
fition to two chofen by the parifhioners. 
*' Some coming in and refufino; to pay, whilft Refufals 

r r . , • • 1- J- to pay. 

" the aforefaid petition was reading, divers 

" called out to them to pay, and fo inter- 

" rupted the Clerk's afliftant, who was reading 

" it. Mr. John Hotham ftood up and faid 

*' that the time appointed for men to come 

" yefterday by the order was 8, and that the 

" chimes for that hour went juft as he came 

" into the houfe. But the Speaker telling Jack 

" him that prayers being paft he muft pay, ordered to 

" and he ftill refufing, it was put to the P^y- 

" queftion, ruled affirmatively, and ordered ac- 

" cordingly . Whereupon he took his fhilling, 

"and threw it down upon the ground : J^^Jj^s his 

" upon which fome called him to the bar, ground. 

*' others that he fhould withdraw : and the 

" Speaker, ftanding up, did fharply reprove him 

*• for that adion, as being a contempt to the 

" Houfe. Which caufedhim, as I conceive, a 

250 Arrefi of the Five Members. 

" little after, to withdraw out of the Houfe, 
" though he returned again this forenoon."* 
Beginning Thefe various fcenes, and the attempts to 
EnV check in honorable members a growing ten- 
dency to flacken and be remifs in their atten- 
dances, prefigure what was now rapidly ap- 
proaching. The King's party had loft their 
laft venture, and filent defertions were reported 
Call of daily. A call of the Houfe had been attempted 
attempted, with ill fuccefs foon after Strafford's execution, 
and now another attempt was made. " Mr. 
" D. Hollis," fays D'Ewes, " moved that the 
" houfe might be called, and fuch as were abfent 
" fined, for the relief of Ireland." But Sir 
Simonds ftoutly oppofed the motion, reminding 
Mr. Speaker that none of the members who 
were abfent at the firft calling had paid their 
£5 fine. In the end, the motion was overruled, 
and D'Ewes adds : " A number went to the 
" conference with the Lords, and we had not 
Not forty cc foj-ty left, fo the Speaker left the chair, and 

members ^. ^ 

prefent. " we difcourfed feverally one with another for a 
" pretty while." f Difcourfe which has all 
pafled away with the honourable members 
themfelves, but of which we might perhaps 
with flight effort, if it were worth the while, 
recal fo much as the fubjoined little incident of 
that day is likely to have called forth, as they 
fo talked feverally one with another. It had 
occurred while the Houfe yet fat, and bufinefs 

♦ Harl MSS. 163, f. 476 a. f i^- 162, f.401 b. 

§xxiv. appeal to the City. 251 

was proceeding. *^One Mr. Shepherd, aAftranger 
*^ ftranger, came Into the Houfe and ftood jjoufg^ 
*^ behind the Serjeant. So divers efpied him 
" out, and called him to the Bar. There, he 
" would not tell his name, but faid he was a 
" Bedfordfhire man. As divers knew him. How 
'* he was difmiffed." * 

And now I refume the courfe of this narra- Refump- 
tive, which will not be held, I truft, to have *^°" °f 

' _ , . , narrative. 

been interrupted needleilly, by a feries of inci- 
dents and illuftrations intimately connected 
with it; all of them dravvn from an'unpublifhed 
^ufcript record ; ranging, in every inftance, 
nn a compafs of not many weeks beyond 
the date of the Arreft of the Five Members; 
and not only fupplying traits of hiftory and 
perfonal charader eflential to any thorough why in- 
comprehenfion of the circumftances and refults *^""P*^'^' 
comprifed in that event, but teftifying to the 
truftworthinefs of one of the principal witnefTes 
to be called in evidence for what yet remains 
to be defcribed. 


§ XXIV. Appeal to the City. 
Charles fent for Mr. Rufhworth fhortly Mr. Rufh- 
after he reached Whitehall. James Maxwell, ^°"y^'"' 
ufher of the Houfe of Lords, the fame to whom King. 
Strafford yielded himfelf a prifoner, and in 

* Harl. MSS. i6t, fF. 385 a. 389 a. 

252 Arreft of the Five Members. 

whofe houfe at Charing Crofs two right 
Report of reverend prelates were now impounded, bore 
his majef- ^|^g mefTage to the aftonifhed Clerk's affiftant. 

ty s _ p 

fpeech Arrived in the Royal prefence, the King com- 
eman e . YCi2ivAz6. him to give him a copy of his fpeech 
that day, which " his Majefty had obferved 
" him to take in charaders at the table in the 
" Houfe." Somewhat alarmed at the order, and 
perhaps not without the ambition to fhow the 
King that Mr. Speaker's recent lefTon of alle- 
giance to the Commons had not been thrown 

Mr. Rufh- away, Mr. Rufliworth ftammered out excufes ; 

worth s ■' 

humble and proceeded humbly to remind his Majefty 

excufes. j^^^ ^ certain member had been committed to 

the Tower, for reporting what a certain other 

member had faid in the Houfe. Then faid his 

„.^ ,^ Majefty fmartly, " I do not alk you to tell me 

fharp re- " what was faid by any member of the Houfe, 

joi" <=!■• <c i^^jt- yf^\^2X I faid myfelf." Whereupon, Mr. 

Rufhworth informs us, that, omitting what 

Lenthal had interpofed, he " readily gave 

" obedience to his Majefty's command, and in 

" his Majefty's prefence, in the room called 

trarfii " the Jewel-houfe, tranfcribed his Majefty's 

cribed << fpeech out of his charadlers, his Majefty 

notes, in '^ ftaying in the room all the while, and then 

m-effnce " ^ there prefented the fame to the King : 

*^ which his Majefty was pleafed to command 

Sent to "to be fent fpeedily to the prefs, and the next 

pj'cs. ;j morning it came forth in print." But alas 

for the prefent chances of fuch an appeal ! 

§ XXIV. Appeal to the City. 253 

Every copy that could now be circulated had 
for its precurfor, and illuftratlve comment, the 
printed and publifhed Grand Remonftrance, 
already for nearly three weeks in the hands of 
every Citizen. 

On the fame night, after Rufhworth quitted Proclama- 
the King, there came forth a proclamation 3°";^^ 
reiterating the charge of treafon againft the Five Five 
Members, and clofing the ports againft any 
attempt they might make to quit the kingdom. Ports 
This proclamation is ordinarily confounded ^^°^^^ 
with that which forbade all perfons under their 
graveft penalties to receive or harbour them, ^ '^^^^' 
and which was not iflued until afterwards. 
Received and harboured, meanwhile, it was 
well known that they now were, in a houfe in Their 
Coleman Street in the City : whither already of^^g^Wg 
the King was refolved to proceed next day to 
demand them, and to try his final chances of 
authority and predominance in that ftronghold 
of his kingdom. 

Of the influence and importance of the City of 
City of London at this time, it is needlefs to 
fpeak. It reprefented in itfelf the wealth, the 
ftrength, and the independence, which had 
made England feared and honoured throughout 
the world. Within its walls, and under the 
fhadow and prote6lion of its franchifes, flept Mer- 
nightly between three and four hundred thou- ^^^^^^ 

D J ^ _ home as 

fand Citizens. The place of bufinefs of the well as 
merchant, in thofe days, was alfo his refidence bufinefs. 


Arreji of the Five Members. 

Its palaces and his home. The houfes then recently built 

leges!"^*' ^y iiobles beyond its precinfts, along the Strand 

of the magnificent river, fcarcely tranfcended in 

extent or iplendour thofe palaces of its mer- 

. chant princes, which lurked everywhere behind 

its bufy wharves and crowded counting-houfes. 

But, beyond every fuch fource of aggrandife- 

Sources of ments, its privileges were its power. From its 

Its power, g^^ijg^ charters, and immunities, wrefted from 

the needs, or beftowed by the favour, of fuccef- 

five princes ; from its own regulation of its 

military as well as civil aifairs ; '"" from its 

letter to 

tion of 

tions for 
watch and 






* Late in the night of the 4th of January, the day of the 
King's attempt, upon fome fuggeftion which had reached him 
from Whitehall, Sir Richard Gourney fent round to the 
Aldermen of each ward in the City a letter of which the 
rough draft, brought back apparently to the Court, is now in 
the State Paper Office. It will be read with intereft for the 
proof it affords of the military government and organization 
of the City at the time. Of courie the obje6l which the Lord 
Mayor had in view was fruftrated by the very means thus 
propofed to give effe6t to it. He mifcalculated, as the King 
did ; and the organization and refiftance they would have 
invoked to proteft themfelves, they found fuddenly turned 
againft them. The letter begins by ftating, that, for the 
better fuppreffing and apprehending of all fuch infolent perfons 
as fhall be tumultuoufly affembled in and about the City 
and Liberties thereof, each Alderman do ftraightway appoint 
*' fubftantial double watch and ward of able men, well 
" weaponed and furniftied with Halberds and Mufquetts, to 
** be from henceforth duly kept & continued every night and 
** day . . efpecially at eveiy gate, pofterne, & landing 
*' place within the fame, to beginne at eight of the clock in 
" the evening and continue until five in the morning. And 
" fo from that tyme, by new fupply, until eight at night 
" again," to go on until each Alderman have further order to 
the contrary from the Chief Magiftrate. And further, each 
Alderman is adjured " that yourfelfe take the fervice, the danger 
** of the tymes confidered, perfonally to heart and care. And 
" that you, your deputy, & fome of the Common Councilmen, 
** in perfon, do not only by turne watch every night, but that 

§ XXIV. Jfpeal to the City. 255 

complete and thoroughly organized democracy, Its com- 
governed and governing by and within itfelf ; organlfed 
was derived an influence which made it formid- demo- 
able far beyond its wealth and numbers. Cla- 
rendon, after fpeaking of its incredible acceflion 
of trade, of its marvellous increafe in riches, its incre- 
people, and buildings, of its unvarying choice Ji'^il^ient 
of the wealthieft and beft-reputed men, of the by trade, 
wifeft and moft fubfl:antial citizens, to ferve its 
offices and dignities, and of its feveral power- 
ful companies ** incorporated within the great 
** corporation," falls into a lament that wife Claren- 
men Ihould not have forefeen, that fuch a full- ment. 
nefs could not poffibly continue there without 
an emptinefs in other places ; and that the 
government of the country fhould undergo 
negleft, while fo many perfons of honour and 
eftates were fo delighted with the City.* But 
this lament was not indulged until the City 

*' you provide the fame watch and ward to be orderly fett 
" torth & continued in manner as aforef'' within your wards." 
Gates were everywhere to be fhut and itrongly guarded, iiortinca- 
Efpecial care to be taken that the faid gates, and portcullifes t'o^s or 
thereunto belonging, were fpeedily repaired and made fuffi- *"^ t^ity 
ciently ftrong wherelbever required: and the portcullifes made walls, 
eafy to let down and draw up when need Ihould be. Alfo 
provifion was to be made for fetting right all chains and 
pofts in any way defeftive, fubftantially and ftrongly. Alfo 
each parifh in the ward was to be fufficiently furniflied with 
hooks, ladders, buckets, fpades, fhovels, pickaxes, augurs, and 
chifels. Men were likewife to be provided in fuch numbers 
that the Trained Bands and watches might be kept conftant 
to their ftations, and always in full efficiency. And every 
houfeholder was to be refponfible for the good conduft of his 
apprentices. They were not to permit either them or their 
fervants to go abroad without moft fevere penalties. It is 
figned ^'This^th dayof Jan^. Michell." * Hift, ii. 151. 

256 ^rreji of the Five Members. 

The City had made itfelf, in the fame writer's wordsj 

to the ^ " eminent for its difaffedlion to the govern- 

Court. <f ment of Church and State " (as then 

adminiftered), and had in fad: overthrown it. 

To its honour, be it faid, that, from the hour 

the caufe of public freedom was in peril, the 

City of London caft in its fortunes unre- 

Well fervedly with the oppofition to the Court.* 

afFeftedto ^ /. r n • • l 1 • n 

the Com- Its relolute rerulal to jom the league agamlt 
"'°"'- the Scottifh Covenant, had baffled the counfels 

and wafted the energies of Strafford ; and its 

Services in Trained Bands, under Skippon, were deftined 

^ ■ largely to contribute to the final defeat of the 

Excite- Throughout the night of Tuefday the 4th 

night o'f °^ January, a terrible excitement prevailed, 
the arreft. Upon intelligence of the King's attempt, all the 

fliops had been clofed, and the City alt night 

Attack on * The City, it is almoft unneceflaiy to fay, is the conftant 
City in objeft of unfparing ami niercilefs attack in the Court Satires, 
Royalift but its power is freely admitted, and the fuftaining force it 
iatires, imparted to the popular counfels is never for a moment quef- 
tioned. The subjoined lines are from An Addrefs to the City : 

Now do you daily contribute and pay 

Money your Truths and Honours to betray ! 

Bigg with Fanatic thoughts and wilde defire, 

'Tis you that blow up the increafmg fire 

Of foul Rebellion ! you that alone do bring 

Armies into the Field againft your King ! 

For wer't not from fuftainment from your Baggs 

That " Great " and "Higheft" Court that only braggs 

Of your vain folly, long 'ere this had been 

Punifti'd for their bold facrilegious fin . . . 

They would not then have fo fupreamly brought 

Their votes to biing the kingdome's peace to nought, 

Nor with fo flight a value lookt on him 

King Charles, and only doted on king Pym ! 

§ XXIV. appeal to the City. 257 

was under arms.* From gate to gate pafled ** c:ava- 

lit*rs com— 

the cries of alarmed Citizens that the Cavaliers ing." 
were entering, that their defign was to fire the 
City, and that the King himfelf was at the head 
of them. Threats of a contemplated feizure Apprc- 
of the arms of the Citizens, by violent entry feizure of 
into their houfes under royal warrant, increafed ^'''"^• 
the prevailing dread and excitement."}" Nor 
was the feeling likely to abate upon rumours 

* " The fhops of the City generally (hut up, as if an enemy City fhops 
" were at their gates ready to enter, and to plunder them ; all (hut. 
" and the people in all places at a gaze, as if they looked 
" only for direftions, and were then difpofed to any under- 
" taking." — Clarendon, Hijl. ii. 160. 

t That there exifted too much ground for thefe fufpicions, I Rough 
difcover by the rough draft, in the State Paper Office, of the draft of 
fubjoined " Warrant to the Lord Mayor under the Signet," royal war- 
dated 4th of January 164.1. "Whereas wee are informed lant. 
" that fix peeces of Ordnance, ufually belonging to the 
" Artillery Yard, have now lately been brought into that Oranance 
*' O' Citt}i of London, and placed in Leaden Hall, but w"* ^^^^^7 '^i^" 
*' what intentions wee are not yett well fatiffied. [Confidering poi^d. 
" the diftempers and troubles of thefe times,] Our will and 
** command therefore is, that you forthwith take an efpeciall 
" care to fee thofe faid peeces foe fafely difpofed of, that they 
* onely ferve for the guard and prefervation of the faid Citty, 
" if caufe (hould foe require. And whereas wee are farther Houfes to 
" informed that feverall perfons of mean quality have of late befearched 
** taken into their houfes an unufuall number or mufquets, as for rauf- 
" fome 20, 30, 40, or thereabout, and amunition accordingly. Jcets, 
" Our will and pleafure is that you likewife caufe a fearch to 
** be made through' the faid Citty and the Liberties thereof, 
" and, when you (hall find any fuch quantities of armes, that 
" you examine thofe perfons upon what grounds and reafons PoflefTors 
*' they have made fuch provifions, and, as you (hall fee caufe, of fire- 
" that you take foe good affurance from them, that they may be arms to be 
'* refponfible for the faid armes and their intentions therew"', examined. 
** that through the fame the peace and fafety of that Our 
" Citty not any ways be endangered. And for foe doing this 
" (hall be y"^ warrant. Given under our Signet, Whitehall, 
" 4th Jan. 1641," The words within brackets are an inter- 
lineation in Nicholas's hand-writing. 


Arrefi of the Five Members. 

King's fpread abroad widi the dawn, of a meflage 
[hfLmd° received by the Chief Magiftrate from White- 
Mayor, hall, to the efFed that his Majefby had matter of 
prefling occafion to addrefs to the Lord Mayor 
and Common Council, and propofed to vifit 
Warrants Guildhall before noon. Warrants of arreft, 
accufed. Committed to the hands of the two Sheriffs of 
London, preceded him there ; and no indica- 
tion was wanting of a determined refolve that 
he would yet carry out his purpofe of obtain- 
ing pofleflion of the perfons of the accufed. 

§ XXV. The King's Reception in 

Soon after nine o'clock on the morning of 
Wednefday the 5th January, or nearly four 
hours before the time to which the Houfe of 
Commons had adjourned their meetfng that 
day, Charles fet out upon his enterprife of 
conferring with the City authorities ; and the 
report in Rufliworth, and half a page in 
Clarendon, are all that has hitherto come down 
to us of what paffed at a meeting which may 
be faid to have determined the King's fate.* 

An im- 
day for 
Charles I. 

* Hijl. Col. III. i. 479, 4.80; Clarendon, Hijl. ii. 131. I 

fubjoin Rufhworth's account, which, brief" and dry as it is, 

comprifes all the detail known to us hitherto of what tranf- 

pired. " His Majefty being arrived at Guild Hall, and 

" the Common Council afTembled, he made this f'peech to 

King's " them : ' Gentlemen, I am come to demand fuch perfons as 

fpeech at " ' 1 have already accufed of High Treafon, and do believe 

Guildhall. " * are fhrouded in the City. I hope no good man will keep 

" ' them from me 5 their offences are Treafon and Mifde- 

§ XXV. The King's Reception in Guildhall. 259 

For, in this vifit, he threw his laft ftake for the His laft 
good-will of his citizen fubjedts. Declining good-wHl 
to take any Guard with him, and counting to of City, 
the laft upon a greeting at Guildhall not lefs 
enthufiaftic or loyal than had welcomed him 
on his return from Scotland, he left White- 
hall with the confident belief that he fhould His confi- 
drive his enemies from their laft refuge. Nor unabated, 
was he without fo much ground for the delu- 
fion as, however fcant and infufficient in reality, 
might perhaps have been expedled to fuffice to 
a mind fo obftinate and narrow. He continued Grounds 
to have undoubtedly many adherents among f°ife "ejj. 
thofe holding municipal places. One of the ance. 
Sheriffs was his unflinching partizan. The 
Chief Magiftrate wielded extraordinary powers 
in that day, long fince fallen to difufe ; and 
the devoted adherence of the prefent holder 
of the office, carried ftill an amount of Prefent 
fupport that in ordinary circumftances might ^nA°o\"^ 
have turned the fcale. Royalty itfelf, more- traditions. 
over, had not loft even then all its old tradi- 

*' ' meanour of an high nature. I defire your loving afliftance 

" ' herein, that they may be brought to a legal trial. And 

*' ' whereas there are divers fufpicions raifed that I am a 

" * favourer of the Popifh Religion, I do profefs in the name Affur- 

" ' of a king that I did, and ever will, and that to the utmoft ances as to 

** ' of my power, be a profeculor of all fuch as fhall any ways religion. 

" * oppofe the laws and ftatutes of this kingdom, either papifts 

" * or feparatifts ; and not only fo, but I will maintain and 

*' ' defend that true Proteftant Religion which my Father did 

" * profefs, and I will continue in it during life.' His Majefty 

" was nobly entertained that day in London at the houfe of Dinner at 

** one of the Sheriffs, and after dinner returned to Whitehall Sheriff's. 

" without interruption of tumults." 

s 2 


Arrefi of the Five Members. 

on his 

to be 
wary of 


an eye- 
and ear- 

" Privi- 
lege ! pri- 
vilege ! " 

" To your 
tents, O 

tional and Inherent authority ; and the number 
of waverers, or men of no fixed opinion, 
whom all thefe circumftances would be likely to 
influence, could not have been Inconfiderable. 
Hardly had Charles pafled Temple Bar, how- 
ever, when he muft have felt thefe fupports begin 
to crumble under him ; and fuch warning had he 
received to be wary of his fpeech by the time he 
reached Guildhall, that his declared and deter- 
mined purpofe to have the five traitors de- 
livered up to him, which he had come there 
exclufively to repeat and enforce, muft have 
founded ftrangely out of keeping with the 
forced mildnefs of his tone. We are happily 
able to break through the referve of Rufh- 
worth, and fully to defcribe the fcene. 

It was Captain Slingfby's fortune that day, 
as he writes to Admiral Pennington the day 
following,* " being in a coach," to meet the 
King with his fmall train going into the City. 
Whereupon, he fays, he followed him. His 
Majefty's reception in the ftreets was not favour- 
able. UnfupprefTed cries of difcontent broke 
forth. The multitude prefTed around his coach 
with confufed fliouts of Privilege of Parliament ! 
Privilege of Parliament ! and one, lefs reftrained 
than the reft, made himfelf confpicuous by 
flinging into the window a paper on which 
was written, " To your Tents, O Ifrael I " 

* MS. State Paper Office: Slingfby to Pennington: 6fh 
January 164. 1-2. 

§ XXV. The King^s Reception in Guildhall. 26 1 

The offence was expiated at Seflions ; but the 
Ten Tribes had even now deferted the Reho- 
boam, whom neverthelefs the more gracious 
company, the Mayor, the Sheriffs, the Alder- 
men, and all the Common Council afTembled in ^"i'.jt^ f* 
full order and ceremony at Guildhall, received 
with every external mark of homage and 

He at once addrefled them. He had come. King's 
he faid, to demand fuch perfons as he had ^^^^ 
already accufed of high treafon, and did 
believe were fhrouded in the City. He hoped 
no good man would keep them from him, Refolved 
their offences being treafon and mifdemeanor the Five 
of a high nature ; and he delired afliftance to Members. 
bring them to a legal trial. He was very 
forry to hear of the apprehenfions the City had 
entertained of danger, and he was come to ^^^'f"^^ 

D ' _ .on the 

them to fhow how much he relied on their City's 
affedions for his fecurity and guard, having ^°° "^' ' 
brought no other with him. Whereas there 
had been fufpicions raifed that he was a favorer 
of the Popifh religion, he now declared to them 
his wifh and intention to join with the Parlia- 
ment in extirpation not alone of Popery, 
but of all fchifms and fedlaries. His refolve T^'l' ^^' 


was to redrefs all the grievances of the fubjedl, grievances 
and his care fhouldbe topreferve the privileges privHeges: 
of the Parliament ; but again and again, accord- 
ing to Slingfby, he repeated, he muft quejiion but muft 
thofe Traitors, He juflified the Military Guard Traitors. 

0.62 Arreji of the Five Memlers. 

\i^'^^\ „ eftabllflied at Whitehall, and faid the reafon 

Whitehall r r • i- nr i ti t 

Guard, thereof was " for fecuring himfelfj the rarha- 

" ment, and themfelves, from thofe late tu- 

" mults." He added, fays Slingfby, '* fome- 

'* thing of the Irifh ; and at laft had fome 

'' familiar to the Aldermen " (fpoke them 

friendly words, that is), " and invited himfelf 

dine with '^ to dinner to the SherifFs." He was careful 

Sheriff *° ^^^^"^ ^°^ ^"^^ honour Mr. Sheriff Garrett, 

who was of the two, according to Clarendon, 

thought to be lefs inclined to his fervice. 

9.™"°"^ So far all had pafTed very quietly ; in an 

oppofmg ominous filence, but without interruption. 

Then, fays Slingfby, after a little paufe, a cry 

was fet up among the Common Council, 

V Privi- Parliament ! Privileges of Parliament ! And 

Jeges 01 a -y 

Parlia- prcfcntly another, God hlejs the King I Thefe 

anT^'*God ^^°' ^^ wHtcs, " Continued both at once a 

hlefs the " good while, I know not which was loudefl." 

'^' Sufficiently decifive evidence, it will be thought, 

out of fuch lips, that the refiflance to the 

loyal ejaculation muft indeed have been floutly 

and flurdily maintained. 

Has any Nothino; Can be more charaderiftic than the 

one any- ° 

thing to fequel, as related by this eye-witnefs fo favor- 

^^' able to the King. " After fome knocking for 

" filence, the Kinge cofnaunded one to fpeake 

" if they had any thinge to fay. One fayd, 

wte^rj "^^ ^^ ^^^^ '^^^^ of this Court that your Ma''' 
hear your " heare the advice of your Parlament. But 
ment!" *' prefentlie another anfwered, // is not the 

§ XXV. The King's Reception in Guildhall. 263 

'^ vote of this Court : it is your ownn vote ! 'No— thzt 

'^The Kinge replyed, IVho is it that fays Iy^°^ 

*' cio not take the advyce of my Parlament : I 

'' do take their advyce and will: hut I mufi 

" diftinguifh between the Parlament and fome 

" Tray tors in it: and thofe" (Slingfby tells 

us that he again and again repeated this) " he 

" would bring to tryall — tryall ! " Then 

there was filence again : but prefently, and 

quite unexpedledly, another highly charader- 

iftic interruption. " Another bold fellow, A bold 

" in the loweft ranke, flood upp upon a^^rm. 

*^ a forme, and cryed The Priviledges of 

" Parlament ! And another cryed out, Ob- 

^^ferve the man, apprehend him! The King 

" mildly replied, / have and will ohferve Rejoinder 

,,..,, r Tt 1 • for him. 

*' all prtvt ledges of Parlament, but no pri- 

" viledges can prote£i a tray tor from a tryall — " Trial — 

*^ tryall ! And foe departed. In the outer 

*' hall were a multitude of the ruder people, 

*^ who, as the King went out, fett up a greater 

*^ cry The Priviledge of Parlament !'^ 

Through thefe ruder people he pafTed to Dines with 
Sheriff Garrett's houfe, was nobly entertained 
therein until 3 o'clock, and, with the fatal and 
determined fhout of Privilege I Privilege I 
again raifed from the lips of thoufands, while 
upon his own doubtlefs there trembled ftill 
the hefitating and painful, if not lefs obftinate, 
cry of Trial — Trial I he returned to White- " Trial— 

trial ' " 

hall. He had thrown and loft the ftake. 


Arrefi of the Five Members. 

of the re- 
turn to 

§ XXVI. Humiliation and Revenge. 

Of the incidents of Charles the Firft's 
return to his palace on this ill-omened day, 
when, as Clarendon mildly phrafes it, he 
failed of that applaufe and cheerfulnefs which 
he might have expedled from the extraordinary 
grace he had vouchfafed. Captain Slingfby 
fays nothing ; but they are named by another 
correfpondent of Pennington, whofe letter, 
contributing fome heightening touches even to 
the relation juft given, will find alfo here its 
appropriate place. " Noble Sir," writes Mr. 
Thomas Wifeman* to the Admiral of the 
Channel Fleet, ^' I am forry that the times are 
" fuch they will afford little elfe to advize of, 
" than the daily diftracflions that increafe upon 
'^ us. The laft weeke, 12 B'''" were impeached 
" of high treafon by the Parlament ; and this 
" weeke, 5 of the cheifFe memb'' of the Houfe 
" of Comons, & the Lord Mandeville in the 
" Lords Houfe, by the King : as by the 
" charge given then, & theire names, you 

g • MS. State Paper Office, 6th January. I append, from 

p "^^ . ° the fame rich and unexplored materialsof hiftory,fomefentences 
ennme- ^^-^ letter, with fame date, from Under Secretary Sidney Bere: 
" Yefterday the King went to Guild Hall in peribn. . . . 
" They made a confufed noife cryine out for Privileges of 
" Parliament, to w''' his Ma"" gave all the affurance poffible 
" that his intention was not in the leafte to infringe them, . . 
" But att this time he went not guarded as he did the day 
" before to Parliament. That afternoone the Lower Houfe 
" fatt, & have adjourned until Tuefday next. . . w'-'' caufes 
" ftill a greate diftemper of apprehentions amongft them." 

to Pen- 
nington : 
6th Janu- 

News of 
the week. 

ton : 
6th Janu 


Cries in 

§ XXVI. Humiliation and Revenue, iS^ 

" may perceive by a particular herew* inclofed Fears of 

" — w*=h hath bredd fuch a diftemper both in l"onr^^" 

" y^ Cittie & Houfes of Parlam^ that wee are 

" not free from the fears of an infurredion. 

" The 6 perfons keepe out of the way ; and Accufed 

" although the Comons Houfe did promife for ^^^^^ 

" theire forth coffting, yet they are not way. 

" coming forth. His Ma^'^ yefterday came 

" into the Cittie, & made a gracious fpeech 

" to the Lord Maio'" Ald"& Comon Councill 

" at the Guildhall, where they were afTembled 

" to take order for the faftie of the fame ; and 

" did, as much as in him laye, ftrive to give Efforts to 

"them all fatiffacion. Many cryed out to '^°"'^'^'^*^ • 

" his Ma"^ to mayntaine the priviledges of 

** parlam*, to whom he moft gently replyed it Gentlenefs 

" was his defire foe to doe, & would not in of.^i"g's 

' voice, 

^^ the leaft invade upon them ; but they mull 

" give him leave to diftinguifhe betweene the Firmnefs 

" Parlam^ and fome ill-afFedled members in it, ofhispur- 

11 r • • pole. 

'* w^ have gon about by trealons to inmre 
" his perfon, and to w*'^drawe his people from 
" their allegiance. And therefore, both for 
" his owne faftie & theire goods, hee muft and Muft 
" will finde them out, to bring them to Tuftice ^'".^ 

' _ o »' Traitors to 

" — w""" fhould be don in a legall and parlamen- trial. 
" tarye way, & no other wayes. And if they 
" could cleare themfelves, he fhould bee glad of 
"it; if otherwife, hee held them not memb" 
" fitt to fitt in that affemblye, w'' were mett 
" together to make good lawes, and to 

266 Arrejl of the Five Members. 

" reforme the abufes of the kingdome, and 

'' not to betray their King. Afterwards, his 

Dinner at " Matie was pleafed to bidd himfelfe to dinner 

Garrett's. " ^o Sheriff Garrett's, where hee flayed till 3 of 

" the clock; and then, returning to Whitehalle, 

Shouts of «f the rude multitude followed, crying againe 

againft the '^ PHvUedges ofparlam^i Priviledges of -parlamf^ 

King. cc whereat the good King was fomewhat moved, 

'' and I believe was glad when hee was at 

Glad to 'f home. The Comittee of the Houfe of 

'' Comons — (being affrayed, as is conceived, of 

*' the King's Guards, w^^ hee hath lately taken 

Why f< to his own perfonne at Whitehaull, beinge 

left Weft- " there a Courte of Guard built, and the 

minfter. <c Xrayne bands of Middlefex night and day 

^' attending, w*^ at leaft 6 fcore other officers, 

" w^^i^ have theire dyett at Courte) — come into 

" the Cittie at the Guildhaull to hould theire 

*' confultatons, the Parlam* being adjourned 

" till Tuefday next. What thefe diftempers 

Expeaa- <c will producc, the God of Heaven knowes ; 

bloodflied. " but it is feared they cannot otherwife end 

" than in blood. The Puritan fadionne, w^*^ 

" the fectaryes & fchifmatickes, are foe preva- 

** lent both in Cittie and Countrey, that no 

'' man can tell, if the King & Parlam* fhould 

Doiibts " not agree, w'^'' partie would bee ftrongeft. On 

ptrty^ " Tuefday his Ma^'"^ went to the Houfe of 

ftrongeft. 'f Comons to demand the perfons of thofe 

" that were accufed for treafon : but they were 

*' not there to be found. The Houfe, it feemes. 

§ XXVI. Humiliation and Revenge. 267 

'*' taking it ill the King fhould come in that Retro- 

" manner to breake their privilledges, for ^^ 

" ought I can underftande refolve to proted: 

*' theire memb''", & not to deliver them into the 

" hands of the King. And to take them by 

" force — they have fuch a partie in the Cittie 

"that it will coft hott water! We have 3 

" Privie Councill''* more made: the Earl of More 

« Southat- my Lord of fFaulkland, & Sr Jno l^^^-^^^^^.^ 

" Colpepper, whoe is likewife Chancell'' of the made. 

" Exchequer ; and my Lord of South*°" fworne 

" Gentleman of the Bedchamber to the King. 

" Thus you fee the changes of the times, 

** whereon I pray God preferve our Gracious God pre- 

" King, and fend us peace at home whatfoever ^-^i^'f 

" wee have abroad : wh'^'' is the hartye prayer of 

" y'' moft affedt^ & faithfull friende, Tho. 

" Wiseman. My wife, and Do6lor, wifh Meflage 

*' you a good new year, & fhee hath fent you wifeman'. 

" a toaken of her refpedls to you, & prays yof 

*' acceptance wherein I fhall acknowledge my 

*' thanks & reft once again yours, T. W." 

Yet another, however, and perhaps worfe A Vr"^^^ 
trial was referved for the Kmg, when, within Charles. 
a couple of days after this vifit of evil omen, 
its refult declared itfelf in a formal anfwer from 
the magnates of the City to the demand he had 
made for fafe delivery into his cuftody of the 
bodies of Pym, Hampden, and the reft. He vifit from 
had to receive their furred and robed deputa- council : 
tion in Whitehall : and to liften while Mr. 


Arrefi of the Five Members, 

advice ; 

with your 
ment : 

leave the 
alone : 

the White, 
Guard : 


told by 

Recorder read aloud their petition, reprefent- 
ing the dangers which had arifen, and the 
greater that were impending, from the mif- 
underftanding between his Majefty and his 
Parliament ; and praying him again to refort 
to the advice of that great council, to abftain 
from further fortifying of Whitehall or the 
Tower, to place the latter fortrefs into the hands 
of perfons of truft, to remove all unufual mili- 
tary companies and armament from the pre- 
cindls of his palace, to appoint a known and 
approved Guard for the fafety of himfelf and 
his Parliament, and not further to reftrain of 
their liberty, or proceed againft otherwife than 
according to parliamentary right and privilege, 
the members lately accufed. 

Humiliating trials all thefe, no doubt ; and 
it requires no effort to underftand the emotion, 
and the eagernefs to be home again,* which the 
good Mr. Wifeman attributes to his gracious 
fovereign while yet on the City fide of Temple 
Bar. But it requires fome effort, as well as a 
very intimate acquaintance with the charader 
of this King, not to rejed as almoft incredible 

* A curious incident followed upon his arrival at the 
palace, which is thus related by Slingfby. (MS. State Paper 
Office, 6th January.) " At the King's coming home, there 
" was a meane fellow came into the privy chamber, who had a 
" paper fealed up, w"^*" he would needes deliver to the Kinge 
" himfelfe. With his much importunitie he was urged to be 
" mad, or drunke, but he denyed both. The gentleman ufher 
" toolce the paper from him, carried it to the King, and defiring 
" fome gentlemen there to keepe the man. He was prefently 
" fent tor in, & is kepte a prifoner: but I know not 
" wherefore." 

§ XXVI. Humiliation and Revenge. ^69 

the fuppofition, that his firft ad, upon his return King's 

^ , • I c • • r 1 ^ rr firft 3.61 on 

to his palace arter receiving men a lellon, was return 
with his own hand to pen a frefh inftrudion f^o'" C*^* 
to Mr. Secretary Nicholas, for a new proclama- 
tion denouncing the accufed members, fpecially 
diredled againft thofe who were harbouring 
them, and to be iflued on the following day. New pro- 
The fadl neverthelefs is undeniable. Clarendon againft the 
expreflly mentions the publication of that parti- members ! 
cular proclamation on the " next day,*'* and 
I have difcovered in the State Paper Office the 
rough draft of it, with the date of the 5 th of Rough 
January, wholly in the handwriting of Charles K^ng'" 
himfelf. Kimbolton is not named in it. It is hand, 
reftrided to the five members of the Lower Kim- 
Houfe, with probably a lingering hope that the Q^[°f"j 
Upper Houfe, if the ftruggle with them were 
put afide, might yet be induced to ad with 
the Court. It is endorfed by Nicholas, " His 
" Ma^'^^ warr* to me to draw upp a Proclama- 
" tion ag* Mr. Pym, &c." ; is addrefTed to 
'^ Our trufty and well-beloved Councell"" S"" 
" Edward Nicholas, Kn*, our Principal Secre- inftruc- 
*' tary of State," and runs thus : " Charles R. secretary 
" — Our will and pleafure is that you forthwith Nicholas. 
" prepare a draught of a Proclamation declar- 
*' ing y^ courfe of our proceedings upon the 
" accufation of High Treafon and other high 
" mifdemeanours lodged againft Mr. Denzill 
« Hollis, S"" Arthur Haflerig, Mr. John Pym, 

♦ Hiji. li. 131, 

270 Arreji of the Five Members. 


Mr. John Hampden, and Mr. William 
" Strode, members of Our Houfe of Com- 
" mons, who, being ftruck with the confcience 
have^"^ of their own guilt of foe hainous crimes, 
efcaped. « have made their efcape. And Our will & 
" pleafure is, that you thereby commande all 
Injunc- it our officers minifters and loving fubjedls 
feizethem. " to ufe their diligence in y^ apprehending & 
" carrying of .them, & every of them, to Our 
" Tower of London, to bee kept in fafe cuf- 
" tody, to bee brought to triall according to 
Prohibi- " jufticc. And that, moreover, you prohibitt 
againft " all ou^' loving fubjefts to harbor relieve 
hf'^^Xm " ^ maintayne them, with any other fit 
" claufe. And for doing hereof this fhall bee 
*' yo"" fufficient warrant. Given at our Court 
" at Whitehall this fifth day of January in the 
" 17th yeare of our Reigne." 
The City Any fuch prohibition againft harbouring 
ed^ the accufed was in effedl a threat againft the 

City, launched precifely at the moment when 
its author had difcovered himfelf powerlefs to 
enforce it ; and this circumftance, even if the 
warrant had not been entirely in the hand- 
writing of the King, muft have fufficed to 
Solely the declare it exclufively the King's ad. Here no 

Kingsaft. J, -nTiiii -1 

doubt can exiit. It would have been Ineer mad- 
nefs in any other man to afTume, in fuch cir- 
cumftances, the refponfibility. It is not con- 
ceivable, for a moment, whatever part Nicholas 
or the reft may have taken before the declared 

§ XXVII. Reajfemhling of the Commons. 271 

and manifeft failure, that they fliould now Hopelefs 
have encouraged a perfiftence fo hopelefs, foje^sper-" 
recklefs, fo impotently obftinate and vain. It fiftence. 
will fhortly appear indeed, in exprefs terms, 
that by this time Nicholas very heartily had re- Repent- 
pented of having ever accepted his high office; ?Jicholas. 
and there is every reafon to believe, that, from 
the day when the City thus declared againft the 
King, Sir Edward required, for even the com- 
moneft minifterial adl connected with the im- 
peachment of the members, Charles's own fign 
manual. For the very printing of this procla- Charles 
mation the King has himfelf written the inftruc- evenprint- 
tion, preferved alfo in the State Paper Office.* i"g of 


§ XXVII. Reassembling of the Com- 

Meanwhile, at fome half hour after one Wednef- 
o'clock on the fame fifth of January, while the janua^, 
exciting fcenes above defcribed were in progrefs ^H^-"^' 
in the City, the Houfe of Commons had reaf- 
fembled at Weftminfter. The agitation of defter- 
yefterday had not fubfided. The firfl: ad: ta^tlon^not 
was to order that the doors be locked, f and the ^"^^'^^'^* 
outer lobbies cleared of all perfons but fer- 

* "Charles R, Our will and Command is that you Kind's in- 
" give orders to Our Printer to print Our Proclamation fl-^u^jons ' 
" for Apprehending of Mr. John Pym, Mr. John Hampden, ^n nrinfer 
" Mr. Denzil Hollis, Sir Arthur Hafelrigge, and Mr. P^'"'^'^* 
" Wm. Strode. For which this (hall bee yo' warrant. 
" Given at Our Court at Whitehall this 6 day of Jan''. 
" 1641. 

" To Sir Edw** Nicholas 

" Our Principall Secretary." f Harl. MSS, 162, f. 307 b. 

272 Arreft of the Five Members. 

vants to members ; that no member Ihould offer 
to go out without leave ; and that fome fhould 
Watches fend forth their fervants, to fee what numbers 
fent out. ^^ people were repairing towards Weftminfter, 
and to bring notice to the Houfe. So pre- 
pared and watchful for other than the conflifts 
of debate, and with hands nervoufly clutching 
260 mem- at lefs peaceful weapons, there fat this day two 
ftnt-^"^^" hundred and flxty members, and among them 
90 of the nearly ninety of the party of the King. The 
King s Royalifts had not affembled in fuch force fince 
the debate and divifion of the 1 5th of December 
on the printing of the Remonftrance. When 
D'Ewes entered the Houfe, he found Grimfton, 
The mem- the member for Colchefter, fpeaking of " the 
cS/hefter " g^'^^^ breach of their privileges by his Ma- 
leads de- "jefty's coming to the Houfe yefterday with 
" fo great a number of officers of the late 
*^ army, and men defperate of purpofe and 
" in fortune, armed fome of them with hal- 
" herds and fwords, others with fwords and 
" piftols, demanding to be delivered to him 
" Mr. Pym and other members of the Houfe, 
" whom he accufed of high treafon." 
Qrim ^^- Grimfton's fpeech was not only very 

fton's able, ftriking fkilfully feveral chords which 
elicited loud and vehement refponfe, but it 
Its fcope cleared the ground for all the fubfequent dif- 
and value, cuffions, and at once gave to the refentment 
which the King's ad had aroufed^ its proper 
fhape and right diredion. Parliament, 


§ XXVII. Reajfemhling of the Commons. 273 

he faidj had always claimed and exercifed Expofition 
power and jurlfdiftion above all other courts power of 
of judicature in the land; its wifdom and 
policy had been accounted of higher import 
than thofe of any other council ; and all orders 
in the State had been brought frankly to admit 
its rights and privileges, its power and jurif- 
didlion, its free continuance. Whence and 
wherefore had proceeded, then, the interruption 
of which they complained ? 

The anfwer to that queftion was to be found Why fo 
bv inquiry into what circumftances they were ^^^^"^^X. 

' _ T- ^ _ •' predomi- 

which had given fuch "aweful predominancy" to nant ? 
the very name of a Parliament in this nation. It 
was becaufe the ordinances and ftatutes of that 
high court ftruck with terror and defpair all 
fuch evil-doers as were malefadors in the Becaufe it 
State. It was becaufe, not alone the meaneft pu"'^^^ 

' evil-doers: 

of his Majefty's fubjeds, but the greateft per- 
fonages of the kingdom, were in danger, if 
infringers of the law, to be called in queftion 
by this higheft court, and to be by it punifhed. 
It was, on the other hand, becaufe the drooping 
fpirits of men, groaning under the burden of comforts 
tyrannical oppreftion, had been from the fame *^^^ j". 
fource enriched and comforted; while places 
and offices of power, both in Church and 
State, had been ftruck out of the hands ofandftrlps 
the wicked and the unmerciful. He difcovered *¥ 7"^^^^^ 

of place. 

the explanation to be, therefore, that the aft 
of which they complained was the ad: of evil 


274 Arreji of the Five Members, 

The late counfellors who defired, if poflible, to break 

dufto^evil °^ ^^^ diflblve a Parliament which had de- 

counfel- clared its intention to bring all incendiaries 

and delinquents in the State to condign punifh- 

ment for their crimes. 

OfFences Then Grimfton pointed diftindlly to fpecific 

charged, offerees given by members of that Houfe, at 

which the articles of treafon had been diredled. 

He declared that no pretence exifted for treafon- 

Conduain able charge except fuch as condud in the Houfe 

itfelf might have provoked. In reply to which, 

amid ftern expreflions of fympathy from all 

around him, the member for Colchefter claimed 

for himfelf, and for them all, the inalienable 

Right to right, within the walls of Parliament, to fpeak 

freely freely, without interruption or contradidion, 

in all debates, difputes, or arguments, upon any 

bufinefs agitated therein. He claimed it as a 

Title not privilege that they Ihould not be queftioned for 

votes quef- ^^^^ by any human power. Whether, he went 

tioned: on to fay, with allulions he did not care to make 

lefs open and undifguifed, it were freely to give 

■whether vote, judgment, or fentence upon the reading of 

attainder ^^7 ^iH to be made a law, or upon any bill either 

or others: of attainder or other charge againft delinquents 

and perfons criminous to the State ; or 

whether it were, by free vote, to iffue Protefta- 

orindraw- tion, Remonjlrancey OT othtv Declaration; he 

moXan- claimed this for himfelf, and for all, as thefolemn 

right and privilege of Parliament. 

Wherefore his conclufion was, that for 


§ XXVII. Reajfembling of the Commons^ 275 

members of that Houfe to be accufed of any Condu- 
crime, or to be impeached for treafon by any 
perfon whatever, during the continuance of 
Parliament, for things done in the fame. Members 
without legal accufation and profecution by the ^'^^^^^^ 

t> r J tor con- 

whole Houfe — and further, that to be appre- duft in 

bended or arretted upon fuch impeachment, 
or to have ftudies broken open, and books lodgings 
or writings feized upon, without confent and ^^^ papers 
warrant of the whole Houfe — was a breach ^^'^^^^ = 
of the privilege and right belonging to the a breach 
power, the jurifdidlion, and the continuance of ? P"^^" 
the High Court of Parliament. All which, he 
fubmitted, it was in the higheft degree expedient 
explicitly and promptly to embody, in a decla- 
ratory refolution of the Commons of England. 

Grimfton refumed his feat amid cries of ap- Motion 
proval which his folid and mafterly expofition cr^m- 
had well deferved, and preparation was there- fton's 
upon made to refer it to a Committee to draw 
up the neceflary refolution. This, however, 
was ftoutly oppofed by feveral of the Royalifts, ?P??^^'^ 
headed by Hopton of the Weft. " Sir Ralph tin. ^^' 
" Hopton and fome five or fix more," fays 
D'Ewes, " excufed his Majefly's coming with fo Excufes 
" extraordinary a number." But the majority, ^^ *^^ 
led by Glyn the member for Weflminfler, 
fleadily carried their point ; and, proceeds 
D'Ewes, the Houfe " nominated Mr. Glyn and Commit- 
" fome few others to withdraw into the Com- pare refo- 
" mittee Chamber, and to draw up a declaration l"tion. 

T 2 

276 Arreji of the Five Members. 

They re- <f to that end and purpofe." They withdrew 

accordingly ; and then rofe the member for 

Hertfordfhire, Sir WilHam Lytton, to Tuggeft 

do noth- that no other bufinefs ihould be taken in hand 

thfir're- Until their return. He was warmly feconded 

turn. jj^ ^i^jg . gjj. John Clotworthy, on the other 

hand, pointing out the urgency of Irifh affairs, 

and defiring that they might but append a fhort 

refolution to fome proportions agreed upon 

by the Irifh Committee. To the furprife of 

not a few, however, and of D'Ewes among 

them, it was found that this debate might 

have been fpared ; for, in the midfl of it. 

They re- Glyn and his friends returned. " During the 

turn in 3. 

quarter of " debate," fays D'Ewes, " Mr. Glyn and the 

an hour : cc ^^^ ^j-jq ^gj.g commanded to withdraw into 

'^ the Committee Chamber, having flayed 

'* there about a quarter of an hour, now 

with a '* brought down a long Declaration ready 

writt"n°" " penned, which was doubtlefs prepared and 

before we " ready written by fome members of the 

'^ Houfe before we met this afternoon." 

D'Ewes here uneafily refers to confultations with 

Pym and the refl in Coleman Street, to which 

D'Ewes he had not been invited ; but it is jufl to 

confidence ^im to flate, that, throughout the invaluable 

of lead- record he has preferved of thefe momentous 

crs • 

fcenes, from which details are here taken 
hitherto unknown, not even diflantly re- 
ferred to in the Journals of the Houfe, and 
of which no mention is made in Sir Ralph 

§ XXVII. ReaJJemhling of the Commons. 277 

Verney's or any other memorial, his perfonal but his 
jealoufies and diflikes have fmall weight t^ft""^ 
againft the gravity of the fa6ts he reveals. worthy. 
He thus defcribes the Declaratory Refolution Glyn's 
brought back by Glyn : "It contained intoryRefo- 
fubftance that his Majefty had yefterday ^"^'o"- 
broken the privileges of this Houfe, by 
coming hither with a great number of 
armed men, and ftriking terror into the 
members. And though we could not fit 
here in fafety, nor properly fall upon the 
agitation or handling of any bufinefs till 
we had vindicated our privileges, yet our 
care to uphold this commonwealth, and the 
confideration of the miferable condition of 
Ireland, had induced us firft to adjourn this Propofcd 
Houfe to (and fo a blank was left for the f^'^j^J'^"" 
day), and to appoint a Grand Committee 
to fit at the Guildhall in London at 3 of Grand 
the clock this afternoon, to confider of the pommit- 

' tee to lit in 

means of our fafety, and of the afilftance the City. 

of Ireland, and to authorize the feledt 

committee of Irifh affairs to fit when and 

where they pleafed." 

This having been read by the Clerk, a warm Warm de- 
debate arofe. The oppofition was led by Sir^^^'^^* ^^^~ 
Ralph Hopton, who declared that there was 
no precedent for what therein was propofed to 
be done. For his own part, he thought that ^^^ ^^^P^ 

, . Hopton. 

many excufes might be urged for the King's 
having come to the Houfe with fo great a 

zyZ AfTeji of the Five Members. 

number, and fo unufually armed. And then he 

pleaded a neceflity which the King himfelf had 

created (afluming this ftatement of it to be true), 

to juftify the outrage he afterwards committed. 

Did not <c Had we not ourfelves had divers of our 

firft provo- " fervants lately attending in the lobby without 

cation? (c ^}^g doors of this Houfe, armed alfo in an un- 

" ufual manner, with carabines and piftols ? " 

He begged the Houfe to remember, too, that 

And how the fpeech his Majefty made on the occafion 

gracious j-j^d been full of grace and goodnefs. In conclu- 

the King s '-' *-' 

fpeech ! fion, adds D'Ewes, ** he did not think we could 

Oppofes " appoint a Grand Committee to go into Lon- 

Commit- fc ^q^^ j^qj. vv^ould he have had us to have ad- 

adjourn- " joumcd at all." Then followed fome warm 

ment. fpeaking on both fides ; and the time originally 

named as the limit for the fitting of the Houfe, 

as well as the hour for afi^embling elfewhere, 

had foon flipped away. In the end, D'Ewes 

"Grand" tells US, " we refolvcd to alter it from a Grand 

commit- <c Committee to a Seled Committee, and to 

tee alter- ' 

cdto"Se- " adjourn the fitting of this Houfe to Tuefday 

left " -' . ° . ^ 

" the nth, and it being between three and 

*^ four of the clock we did alter our meeting 

Adjourn " this afternoon till to-morrow morning at 

morrow " nine of the clock." Not, however, without 

^f 9 a divifion. Hopton and his friends obiedled 

o clock, 11 1 

equally to the Seled Committee, and infilled 
upon dividing. *' The Speaker," D'Ewes 
continues, " put the quefliion as followeth : 
" As many as are of opinion that a Committee 

§ XXVII. ReaJfembUng of the Commons, 279 

' ' fhall be appointed by this Houfe to fit at Divifion 

*' Guildhall in London, let them fay Aye, tOgo°nginto 

" which there was a great affirmative : and to ^^^y- 

" the negative, a lefs. Next, the Speaker 

" appointed tellers for the Ayes, who went 

" out (of which number I was), Mr. Arthur 

" Goodwin and Mr. Carew. Their number 

" was 170. And for the Noes, who fat ftill, 17°. 

" he appointed tellers Mr. Kirton and Mr. 

*^ Herbert Price, and the number was 86, 

*' and fo it was carried accordingly."* 

The naming of the Committee then took Seleaion 
place. " And thereupon," continues the commit- 
precife Sir Simonds, " Sir John Culpeper, t^^- 
" newly made Chancellor of the Exchequer, 
" and divers others, were named to fit a com- 
*^ mittee at the Guildhall in London to-morrow 
" morning at 9 of the clock, and all that 
" would come were to have voices : and they All who 
" were to confider of the breach of the Privilege ^^^ *° 

• Harl. MSS. 162, f. 308 a. In little more than a fortnight 
(fee ante 36, 37), upon the impeachment of the Duke of £)Jvifion 
Richmond (for his famous fally in the Lords upon the Militia as to Duke 
Bill being brought under confideration, when he broke in q{ RJch- 
upon fundry grave fuggeftions as to the day when difcuflion mond. 
ftiould be taken thereon, by advifing as a greatly preferable 
courfe, " an adjournment for fix months "), the King's party 
muftered in larger force, but the popular leaders had made 
correfponding exertion. The numbers then were 223 led 223 
into the lobby by HoUis and Stapleton, to 123 of whom the againft 
counters were Culpeper and Herbert Price. From a fpeech 123. 
made on the occafion byD'Ewes, wherein he thought the only 
excufe that could poffibly be made for the Duke was his being 
"a young man," fome light may be thrown on the argu- 
ment, ante 198, drawn from his applying a fimilar epithet to 
Strode. The Duke of Richmond was now nine-and-twenty. 
—Harl. MSS. 162, f. 356 b. 

28o Arreji of the Five Members. 

Its duties. " of Parliament by his Majefty's coming yefter- 

*' day, with other particulars mentioned in the 

" before-recited declaration." The Committee 

Comprifes included, befides Falkland and Culpeper, fome 

Royalifts. ardent Royalifts, and feveral not unfriendly to 

the King. Among thefe fat Herbert Price, 

the member for Brecon ; Sir Richard Cave, who 

?nCoL ^^^ ^°^ Lichfield; Sir Ralph Hopton himfelf; 

mittee. Sir John and Chriftopher Wray, the members 

for Lincolnfhire and Great Grimfby ; Sir 

Benjamin Rudyard ; the members for 

Cockerworth and Chippenham, Sir John 

Hippefley and Sir Edward Hungerford. It 

comprifed, on the other hand, Glyn ; Sir 

Philip Stapleton ; William Pierrepoint (Earl 

Kingfton's fecond fon, who fat for Great 

Wenlock), and Nathaniel Fiennes ; Bulftrode 

Whitelock, the member for Marlow ; Sir 

Thomas Walfingham, who fat for Rochefter ; 

the members for Weftbury and Ludgerfhall, 

Mr. Wheeler and Mr. Walter Long ; Sir 

John Hotham; Sir Walter Earle ; Sir Robert 

Cooke, who fat for Tewkefbury ; Mr. Grim- 

fton and Sir Thomas Barrington, who fat for 

Colchefter ; and the members for Devon- 

fhire and Hertfordfhire, Sir Samuel Rolle and 

Hyde, St. Sir William Lytton. Hyde's name nowhere 

CromweH appears ; neither does that of Oliver St. John, 

abfent t^g Solicitor-Gcncral ; and it is ftill more 

remarkable that Cromwell's alfo fhould be 

abfent. He may poffibly have had prefting 

§ xxviii. A Judden Tank. 281 

bufinefs to occupy him during thefe few days, 
on his coufin Hampden's affairs at Great 

LordLifle (Lord Leicefter's eldeft fon, who Motion by 
fat afterwards on the trial of the King), now Liflg. 
moved that the Committee fo appointed fhould 
have power to iffue out fuch money as might 
be required for payment of the troops to be 
fent into Ireland. Another refolution connedled 
with Irifh affairs was alfo adopted on the fug- Irifli 
geflion of Stapleton. And then followed a^ ^^^^' 
brief but fharp debate, raifed upon a motion by sharp 
Nathaniel Fiennes, that a meffage fhould go ^^^ 
up to the Lords to let them know, that, '' by Fiennes. 
" reafon of his Majefty coming to our Houfe 
" yeflerday in fuch a warlike manner, we had 
" adjourned the Houfe till Tuefday next, at one 
" of the clock, and that we had in the meantime 
" appointed a Seleft Committee to fit in the Meffage 
" Guildhall in London, to which all the mem- '° ^""'^^ 
" bers of the Houfe who would come were to 
' ' have voices, to confider of the breach of the 
" Privilege of Parliament and the fafety of the 
'^ Kingdom." The debate ended in the 
naming of Mr. Fiennes and divers others to 
carry up this meffage accordingly. But the 4^brupt 
Houfe arofe, adds D'Ewes, before he returned, Houfe. 
or was able to bring any anfwer. 

The Houfe fuddenly arofe, in truth. 

282 Arrefi of the Five Members. 

becaufe there had broken out a fudden alarm. 

Armed It was abruptly bruited at the doors that a 

marching body of armed men were in march upon 

upon us. them, and a panic of agitation enfued. Sir 

John Clotworthy was in the adl: of urging 

certain neceflary refolutions for the fervice of 

Ireland, connefted with the fupply of men and 

arms, when fhouts of " Move, move," and 

"Adjourn," interrupted him; and though the 

Sir John imperturbable member for Maiden would per- 

thy per-" ^^ i'^ having what he wanted, the votes were 

fifts with put without the ufual forms. "All were 

relolu- ^ 

tions. " allowed," fays D'Ewes, " and voted by the 
Voted " Houfe, but in fuch hafte as they would not 
being" " permit the Clerk to read them." Then, in 
read. the like precipitate fafhion, adjournment until 
the following Tuefday at one o'clock wasrefolved 
upon the queftion. Mr. Speaker ordered the 
Diforderly adjournment accordingly ; and the Houfe rofe 

adjourn- . ^ _ o / ' 

ment, in extreme diforder " at about four of the 

4P-m- fc clock in the afternoon." 

D'Ewes appends to the day's journal an ex- 
planation, from which it might feem that the 
fudden fright had not been wholly groundlefs. 

Reafons " For," he fays, " we had new alarums given 

fright. " us of the coming down of armed perfons 
" upon us : and it was generally reported alfo, 
" that his Majefty had intended to have come 
" down to both the Houfes this afternoon, 
" again attended with thedefperate troop with 
" which he came yefterday, and to have 

^ XXVIII. A Judden Panic. 283 

*' accufed fome other members, both of our other 
*' Houfe and of the Lords Houfe, of Treafon, ^^^ ^c- 
" and to have feized upon their perfons : but^^^^d^"'! 
" that, going into the City of London this 
*^ morning, he was there fo roundly and plainly city only 
" dealt withal by people of all forts, who ^'^^ PJ^r 
" called upon him to maintain the privilege of 
" Parliament ; to follow the advice of his 
'^ Great Counfellin Parliament, without which 
" they were all undone" (D'Ewes here appears 
to be repeating the expreflions of fome excited 
friend rather than quietly recording his own) 
— *' and that their blood would cry to Heaven 
'^ for juftice — and that they would with their 
" lives and fortunes maintain the fafety of his Alarm of 
" Majefty's perfon, and the fafety and Privi- ^ '"^' 
" lege of Parliament ; fome alfo throwing the 
" printed Proteftation of the Houfe of Com- 
" mons into his coach as he went along ; as 
" that he both returned late out of the City, change ot 
" and altered, it feems,his former refolution."* purpose. 
It is now of courfe not difficult to make Refults 
light of thefe alarms, and to fmile at their not jantary. 
very coherent expreflion ; but we may be fure 
that they were then very real. It was of the 
very eflence of the King's attempt that it 
fhould carry fuch confequences. Whatever 
diftruft or doubt had been in any diredlion en- Darkeft 
tertained of the Sovereign, It confirmed. To [h^rfi" 
the rumours which had mixed him up with true. 

* Harl. MSS. 162, f. 308 b. 

284 Arrefi of the Five Members. 

Scottifh very recent and as defperate defigns in Scot- 
den"^''" ^^''^^ againft the leaders of the Covenant,* to 

* In alluding to this tranfa£tion in my Eflay on the Grand 
Offer of Remonftrance (Hift. and Biog. EJays), and to the ftatement by 
Montrofe clarendon (Hijh ii. 17), that Montrofe had " frankly" fug- 
to kill Ar- gefted to the King the alfaffination of Argyle and Hamilton, I 
gyle and ought perhaps to have mentioned a highly elaborate argument 
Hamilton, j^ Mr. Napier's Life of Montrofe (ii. 78-109), thedrift of which 
Mr Na- '^ ^^^ merely to defend Montrofe from having made the offer, 
pier's ^"' *° endeavour to eftablifh that Clarendon's affertion that he 

difproof ^^'^ done fo was not originally intended to ftand as part of his 
quite ie^t, and in fa6l only ul'urps the place of a fupprefled paffage 

untenable '^^^^•^''^'l ^^ oneof the Appendices of the edition of 1826. Upon 
* the former part of this argument I offer here no opinion ; 
but upon the latter I have fimply to lay that it breaks 
down altogether. It is not for a moment tenable. The 
The text ^^^^ °^ Clarendon mull always now continue in the ftate 
of Claren- wh^^'^iii he left it himfelf after his laft revifion, clearly 
don copied out by his fecretary for publication or fuppreffion, 

according to certain dire6lions in his will ; and the chief 
Chief value of the edition of 1826 will always be, that it enabled 

value of us for the firft time to read it in that ftate. The confufion 
Edition which exifts as to the feveral MSS. left by him, and from 
of 1826. which that important collation was made, arifes from the faft 
that feveral years after he had planned his Hiftory and written 
the firft four books, he refolved to recaft the plan fo as to 
admit therein of all the incidents of his own Life. He there- 
Difclofed upon began an Autobiography ; but after purfuing it for fome 
Author's time, he threw it afide, and reverted to his defign of a Hiftory, 
plans and making great additions to that which already he had written, 
text. and completing It in 1673. His final talk then was, to form, 

from the two MSS. thus drawn up (the Life having gone over, 
Hiftory in a more ftriking way, much of the ground of the firft four 
compofed books of the Hiftory), a third text, by taking the MS. of the 
of two Hiftory for the bafis, and Importing into it all the material 
MSS. portions and corrections of the MS. of the Life. The refult 

was a fair tranfcript made by his Secretary under thefe in- 
c J. ,, ftru6lions, which was found completed at his own death, in 
tranf ■ f-^ December 1674. Afterwards came the publication, mainly 
'P ■ from a copy of this tranfcript, by his fons : with the modifica- 
tions, alterations, and omiffions, which, in exercife of the 
Altered difcretion left to them by their father, they had made to 
and cor- pleafe their political friends, or out of delicacy to perfons ftlll 
rupted by living; and which fo remained until 1826. The edition pub- 
author's lllhed that year was the refult of an entirely new collation of 
fons. the three MSS. above named : i. The original MS. of Hiftory: 

2. The original MS. of Life : 3. The Tranfcript conftru6ted 

§ XXVIII. A Judden Panic. 285 

even thofe which had pointed to him as not iriih 
unconnefted with the awful outbreak in Ireland, ''^''^^''O" • 

out of both. The Editors, lettering the Tranfcript as A, the 
Life as B, and the Hiftory as C, collated the whole afrefh ; Reftora- 
reftored in Notes every word, fentence, and paflage omitted tions. 
or inany manner altered in A ; and, in a feries of Appendices, 
fupplied (reforting for the purpofe to B and C), in addition 
to all that the author's fons had rejefted, ftill more which the 
author himfelf had already deliberately excluded from the Scaffold- 
Tranfcript made under his inftructions. We are thus enabled j^gg ^f 
to compare particular ftatements made by Clarendon in his Hiftory. 
firft draft of the Hiftory, with accounts of the fame incidents 
manifeftly more authentic, and better confidered, which he 
had fubfequently inferted in the Life, and had finally direfted ^^^^^ ^"d 
to be fubftituted for the former in his Secretary's Tranfcript. ^^^'i^r 
The reader will at once perceive what I mean, if, to feleft jeriions ot 
only one or two out of very numerous inftances, he makes '^"^^ 
comparifon of Appendix i. 536 (MS. C.) with i. 416 (MS.B.); events. 
or of ii. 61 — 2, note (MS. C), with ii. 44 — 49 (MS. B.) j or 
of Appendix ii. 575 — 9 (MS. C), with ii. 13 — 19 (MS. B). 
The latter of thefe inftances is that under notice refpefting 
Montrofe ; and it does not admit of the remoteft doubt that TheMon- 
the account in the Appendix, taken from the firft four books trofe 
of the Hiftory, written before 1648, and afterwards rejefted, charge 
was meant by Clarendon to be entirely fuperfeded by the the later 
account in the Life, written many years later, and, by his own verfion. 
direftionto his Secretary, placed in the final Tranfcript, where 
it has ftood ever fince, and muft continue to ftand. Even Intended 
apart from the other irrefiftible evidence, the context fo conclu- fo to ftand, 
fively (hows this, that but for Mr. Napier's extraordinary fup- 
pofition to the contrary, fuggefted by zeal for his hero, and 
maintained with an air that impofes on readers fuperficially in- 
formed, the details I have entered into would fcarcely have been 
called for. It is fimply ridiculous to pretend that the paflage Impoflible 
complained of, and (be it true or falfe) undoubtedly left by not to 
Clarendon, in the final difpofition of his papers, to ftand where print it: 
it now does, could by pofTibility have fallen into that place by 
accident. Lords Clarendon and Rochefter had no alternative 
but to print it; and with what reluctance they did fo is proved reluft- 
by what we now know of their fubftitution, for" to kill them ance of 
*' both," of the words " to have them both made away." firft Edi- 
The point, however, was well worth clearing, becaufe all the tors, 
illuftrative matter in the 1826 edition requires to be read with 
careful reference to the faft that the author had deliberately 
and defignedly excluded the greater part of it from his com- 
pleted text (an inftance may be referred to, ante, p. 215, note) ; Additions 
and it is exceedingly important, in reading Clarendon, to keep jj^ 1826 


Arreji of the Five Members. 

and Army It fecmed to give deadly corroboration. It 

P°*' put undoubtedly beyond further queftion what 

the popular leaders had all along maintained, 

that the defign, clearly proved, of bringing up 

the army from the North, had had for its 

King's fpecific objedl to overawe themfelves and fuf- 

Jhlrefn'^ pend the adion of Parliament. Clarendon 

fpeaks as if the failure of the Arreft fufficed to 

fhow its futility, and there an end. But he 

not to be 
with re- 

kinds : 

weight re- 
due to 

ly intend- 

The King 
its autho- 

iirft ver- 
fion of it 

the diftinftion always in view between that defcriptlon of" new 
matter fupplied in the 1826 edition, and the more effential 
reftorations reconftituting the original text, which had been 
corrupted and falfified in innumerable inftances by his fons, 
Lords Clarendon and Rochefter, in preparing the firft edition. 
The portions firft printed in Notes and Appendices in 1826 are 
of two kinds : i. The reftoration of the text to the condition 
in which Clarendon himlelf had left it, by reftoring fuppreffed 
paflages, and replacing modified or altered phrafes and fen- 
tences : ii. The additional illuftration of the text by fupplying 
further notices or amplifications of fpecial incidents treated 
therein, from the two manufcripts, B and C, which I have 
above defcribed : and the degree of authority given to either 
fhould be regulated according to the fafts here fupplied. 
I clofe, as I began, by ftating moft expreffly that, according 
to all the evidence we poffefs, it muft have been, and was, 
the deliberate intention of Clarendon, upon reviewing all 
the materials he had collefted, to convey to the readers of 
his Hiftory, as his own final impreffion, that Montrofe had 
" frankly" propofed to the King the aflaflination of Argyle 
and Hamilton. Upon the probability or otherwife of fuch 
an offer having been made, it is not neceffary that I fliould 
here give an opinion ; but it is impoffible to read the text 
in connexion with the Appendix (of which, taken together, 
it is important to remark, as Mr. D'Ifraeli in his Commen- 
taries, ii. 242-52, ed. iS$5i, has pointed out, that they are 
not in any refpeft irreconcileable), without an inference, 
amounting almoft to certainty, that the King himfelf was 
Clarendon's informant. And the explanation of the two 
accounts may probably be, that, writing while Charles ftill 
lived. Clarendon preferred to exprefs the matter in paraphrafe ; 
but that, writing of the incident at a later time, after the 
king's death, he had no hefitation in putting it, as he fays 
Montrofe did the propofal, ** frankly." 

§ XXVIII. A Judden Panic. 287 

well knew that this was not fo ; and that it 
was lefs the firft excitement attending fo ftart- confe- 
ling an attempt wherein its troubles and danger quences of 
confifted, than in its fubfequent more enduring worfe than 
efFedl upon men's modes and ways of regard- '*^^^^' 
ing public affairs. He unconfcioufly admits as 
much in another pafTage of his Hiftory, when he 
remarks that everything formerly faid of plots Belief ob- 
and confpiracies againft the Parliament, which g^roffeft °^ 
before had been laughed at, was now thought charges. 
true and real ; and that all which before was 
merely whifpered of Ireland, was now talked 
aloud and printed. 

The various letters of the time are filled 
with fimilar indications. " All things are now Captain 
« in foe great diftradion heare," wrote Cap- ^ars!''"' 
tain Carterett on the day after this fitting of 
the Houfe, " that there is noe thinking of 
" doeing anything ; but every-body are pro- 
" viding after their owne fafetie as if every- 
'* thing were inclainable to ruine." " By 
" the next poft,*' writes Mr. Wifeman, "you y, .^..^ 
" may expe6t to heare of greate changes man's. 
'' either for the better or worfe. The times 
" are dangerous to difcourfe what I might. 
" Only if God, in his greate mercie, doe not 
" fpeedely looke upon us, wee are like to 
" perifh. The obedience of his Ma^'^^* fubjeds obedience 
« hath been poifoned." The incidents of P°^^°"'^* 
the 3rd and 4th of January, in fiiort, had 
drawn up into hofliile forces two powers in the 


Arreft of the Five Members. 

caufes of 

Powers of State v/hofe agreement was effential to its 

in conflia. Welfare, but which never more could aft in 
concert or unifon till the ftruggle between 
them was over, and aviftory won. This was 
a fad: pregnant with general alarm for all men, 
and mod for the thoughtful and refleding. 

Neither were reafons wanting for fpecific and 
well-grounded alarm as to the adual perfonal 
fafety of the accufed and other members of 
both Houfes. From the very writer who 
laughs to fcorn the notion that there was any 
fort of danger, we may learn what, and how great, 
the danger was. It is Clarendon, as we have 
feen, who relates the plan by which his friend 
Lord Digby, according to him the fole advifer 
of the attempt, propofed to redeem its failure 

members, by feizing himfelf upon the accufed, backed by 
fufficient numbers to render it certain that they 
miuft either be taken or left dead in the place. 
It is Clarendon who fays, that, if the King had 
not withheld his confent, without doubt Lord 

withholds Digby would have done it. It is Clarendon 
who drily remarks upon that prefumed fuccefs 
to a plan fo atrocious, that it " muft have had 
" a wonderful effedl." Above all it is Claren- 

Claren- don who, by way of pradical proof of his 

plan. affertion that no perfonal danger could pofTibly 
have befallen the accufed, adually puts forward 

To feize ^ p]^^! of his own bv which, taking good care 

and throw ^ ,,, r ii 

them into nrft to lecure and lock up feparately the per- 
p?fons? ^^"^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ leaders, he fancies that fuch 

plan for 




§ XXIX. How Hifiory may he written. 289 

a blow might have been flruck at what he 
calls " the high fpirit of both Houfes " that 
Charles might have reduced them to treat, and 
fo have forced them to his own terms.* 

§ XXIX. How History may be 


The aflertion that the Five Members were 
at no time in any perfonal danger, admits but 
of one comment. It is not true. Concluflve FaithlefT- 
proof has been given, in a former work,f ciaren- 
of the faithleflnefs and untruftworthinefs of^""' 
Clarendon as any fafe guide to a knowledge unfafe 
of the events for which Hume accepted him guide. 
as the fole and implicit authority, and in 
which his lead has been more or lefs followed 
by every later hiftorian. But if further fimilar 
evidence be defired, let me fupply it by fimple 
comparifon of his account of the fitting of the Compari- 
Houfe of Commons of Wednefday the 5th of ^?j,'^^'^. 
January, with that which I have above derived 
from the manufcript of Sir Simonds D'Ewes, 
and from other contemporary fources. Until 
now. Clarendon's was the only account pre- 
ferved to us of that fitting, except a memo- 
randum of eight lines by Sir Ralph Verney, vemey 
and another by Rufh worth of exadly the fame ^"'^.f"'^" 

* See ante, pp. 143, 149, and 153, where the authorities 
are given <or thefe various aflertions. 

t Eflay on the Grand Remonftrance. See Hift. and Biog. . 
Efajs, i. 1-175. 


290 Arrejl of the Five Members. 

extent.* The record by D'Ewes was made on 

the day to which it refers ; it is confirmed by 

Verney's and by Rufhworth's notes ; and its 

veracioufnefs is beyond queftion. 

Statement " When the Houfe of Commons next met," 

don. ^"^^"'fays Clarendon in his Hiftory,t ** none of the 

" accufed members appearing, they had friends 

Alleged " enough, who were well inftru6led to aggravate 

members' '^ the late proceedings, and to put the Houfe 

friends. <c Jj^^q g^ thoufand jealoufies and apprehenfions, 

." and every flight circumftance carried weight 

Verney's * Sir Ralph Verney fays : " Wednefday, 5th Jan''. 1641. 

account of " The Houfe ordered a Comittee to fit at Guildhall in London, 

fittlni'- of " and all that would come had voyces. This was to confider 

5th. *' and advife how to right the Houfe in point of privilege, 

" broken by the King's coming yealterday, with a force, to 

" take members out of our Houfe. They alowed the Iri(h 

*' Comittees to fit, but would meddle with noe other bufineffe 

" till this were ended. They acquainted the Lords in a 

" meflage with what they had donn, and then they adjorned 

"the Houfe till Tuefday next." (Verney's A^of^/, 139-40). 

Rufh- Rufhworth fays (part III. vol. i. 478-9): "The Commons 

worth's " ^snt M''- Fiennes with a meflage to the Lords to give them 

account. " notice of the King's coming yelterday, & that they 

"conceived it a high & great breach of privilege : & to 

" repeat their defires that their LoP"* would join them in a 

" petition to the King that the Parliament may have a Guard 

" to fecure them as fliall be approved of by his Majefly, and 

" both Houfes; and alfo to let them know, that they have 

" appointed a Committee to fit at Guildhall London, and 

" have alfo appointed the Committee for Irifli affairs to meet 

" there." Then he quotes the order pafled for adjournment 

Adjourn- to the City, on the ground "they cannot with the fafety of 

ment to " their own perlbns, or indemnity of the rights & Privileges 

City. " of Parliament, fit here any longer without a full vindication 

" of fo high a breach, & fufficient Guard wherein they may 

" confide : " to which, after appending the names of the 

Committee, and that all who will come are to have voices, he 

adds : " and then the Houle adjourned till Tuefday the i ith 

" of January at one in y* afternoon, according to the faid 

" Order." 

t Hijl. ii. 132, 133. 

§ XXIX. Hgw Hijiory may be written. 291 

" enough in it to difturb their minds. . . . 
^' They who fpake moft paflionately, and 
" probably meant as malicioufly, behaved 
" themfelves with modefty, and feemed only 
" concerned in what concerned them all : and 
" concluded, after many lamentations, that they Affeaed 
** did not think themfelves fafe in that Houfe, griefs. 
*' till the minds of men were better compofed ; 
" that the City was full of apprehenfions, and 
" was very zealous for their fecurity ; and 
*' therefore wifhed that they might adjourn the Propofal 
" Parliament to meet in fome place in the City, pariii-"'^" 
** But that was found not pradli cable \ fince "^^^^t. 
" it was not in their own power to do it, with- 
" out the confent of the Peers and the concur- 
" rence of the King * who were both like King's 
" rather to choofe a place more diftant from parUa-^^ 
" the City. And, with more reafon, in the end "^^"' 
" they concluded, that the Houfe fhould London. 
^* adjourn itfelf for two or three days, and 
" name a committee who fhould fit both Appoint- 
" morning and afternoon in the City ; and conrait- 
" all who came to have voices: and Mer- ^ee. 
*' chant Tailors' Hall was appointed for the 
*' place of their meeting, they who ferved 
'' for London undertaking that it fhould be 
" ready againft the next morning: no man 
'* oppofing or contradi6ting anything that was 
«' faid ; they who formerly ufed to appear for Royalifts 
<* all the rights and authority which belonged ^ * 
<' to the King, not knowing what to fay, 

t; 2 


Arrefi of the Five Members. 

adviiers ; 

too de- 
jefted to 

don's ac- 

Five fpeci- 
fic ftate- 
ments, all 

ed with 
and Rufli- 

*' between grief and anger that the violent 
" party had, by thefe late unfkilful adions 
" of the Court, gotten great advantage, and 
^^ recovered new fpirits : and the three perfons 
"before named" (himfelf, Culpeper, and 
Falkland), "without whofe privity the King 
" had promifed that he would enter upon no 
" new counfel, were fo much difpleafed and 
" dejeded, that they were inclined never more 
" to take upon them the care of anything to 
" be tranfafted In the Houfe." 

This account contains five alleged fadls. 
I. That the popular party went down to 
the Houfe with a propofal for the adjourn- 
ment of Parliament. 2. That the propofal 
fubftltuted was an adjournment of the Houfe 
itfelf for two or three days. 3. That Mer- 
chant Tailors' Hall was appointed as the place 
of meeting for a Committee named to fit in 
the interval, the members for London under- 
taking to have it ready the next morning. 
4. That no man belonging to the King's 
party oppofed or contradlded anything that 
was fald. 5. That Hyde, Culpeper, and Falk- 
land, were too much difpleafed and dejedted 
to fhow any prefent inclination to take upon 
them the care of anything to be tranfaded in 
the Houfe. 

On the other hand, the account preferved by 
D'Ewes, and confirmed in every refpedt by 
the brief notes of Verney and Ruih worth, as 

§ XXIX. How Hijiory may he written. 293 

well as by the unpublifhed contemporary let- 
ters here adduced, furnlfhes a counterftatement 
to every one of thefe averments, i. There Never pro- 
never was mooted fo abfurd a propofition as Adjourn 
to adjourn Parliament. The courfe had doubt- Parlia- 
lefs been concerted, as D'Ewes fomewhat pet- 
tifhly intimates, with the abfent leaders; and 
the Declaratory Refolution was propofed and 
carried, as, prepared and ready written, it 
had been brought to the Houfe. 1. The Limit of 
limit of adjournment was at once diftindlly city fped- 
fpecified as Tuefday the nth January, and ^^''• 
it will be feen hereafter that the hiftorian was 
not without a motive in fubftituting the 
loofe and undetermined ''two or three days." 
3. Guildhall was from the firft named and 
appointed, and not Merchant Tailors' Hall, Merchant 

I'll r n- r • Tailors 

as to which, therefore, the queftion of gettmg Hall not 
it ready could hardly have arifen. 4. So "^™^°- 
far from no man belonging to the King's 
party contradicting or oppofing anything that 
was faid. Sir Ralph Hopton (the King's fervant, Royalifts 
as Rufhworth calls him) contradidled every- "° 
thing that was faid without fcruple ; and the 
oppofition was fo determined that the Royalifts 
divided 87 againft the propofal of Glyn, which 
was four more than the divifton of the 15th of 
December againft the printing of the Remon- 
ftrance. 5. Hyde undoubtedly took no part^ and^Fafk- 
and was probably not in the Houfe ; but ^^"d on 
Culpeper and Falkland were named for the tee. 

294 Arrefi of the Five Members. 

Committee to fit during the recefs, and ferved 
upon it. 

§ XXX, Adjournment and Suspense. 
Matter- The adjournment into the City was un- 

meeting doubtedly a mafter ftroke of poHcy. The 
in the ^Q^ Qf violence committed, the continued 
prefence of the Court of Guard at Whitehall, 
the refufal of its officers to difband upon a 
Neceflity meffage fent fpecially from the Commons on 
inAveft-' ^^ morning of the 5th, the petition to the 
minfter King for a Guard ftill uncomplied with, were 
all manifefb and unanfwerable grounds for 
fufpending temporarily the fittings at Wefl- 
minfler. But the Houfe could not afford that 
its vifible adlion and influence fhould be with- 
drawn, even for an hour ; and to fit by Com- 
mittee in Guildhall, was not merely to make 
inflant appeal, in the leaft refiflible form, to 
Policy of the fympathy and fupport of the Citizens, but 
appealing ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ -^^ ^^ fortuncs of the Houfe 

to Citizen?. 

with the fate of the five accufed, who had 
taken refuge in a houfe in Coleman Street. 
Clarendon laughs at the notion of any member 
of the Commons conceiving for a moment 
Alleged ^^Jt his accufed colleagues were in the leafl 

ablence or ° 

clanger, danger. Not that the Five durft not, he avers, 
venture themfelves at their old lodgings, for 
no man would have prefumed to trouble them ; 
but that the City might fee that they relied 
upon that place for a fanduary of their privi- 

^ XXX. Adjournment and Siifpenfe. 295 

leges againft violence and oppreffion.* He Fears pre- 
fays, as in a paflage formerly quoted we have ^^"°^^ '• 
feen, that all caufe for apprehenfion ceafed 
upon the failure of the outrage of the 4th ; 
and that nothing could equal the contempt the 
accufed themfelves felt for the power, of which 
they yet affeded to put on a confiderable 
fliow of dread. This laft was merely " to to get 
'* keep up the apprehenfion of danger and the u^^j.][°"^^ 
*^ efteem of their darling the City."f But let City, 
us obferve what tone, on the other hand, 
is taken by Admiral Pennington's well in- 
formed correfpondents ; men not alone inti- But what 
mately acquainted with all the movements of igf^Jj"^^ ^ 
the Court, but the moft important of them him- state Pa- 

• • p£r Ofncc? 

felf in office, and enjoying the confidence of 
the principal Secretary of State. It never once 
occurred to thefe men, at leaft until the fhout 
of Privilege of Parliament was become uni- 
verfal, and the King had fled before it, that his 
impeachment of Pym and Hampden would serlous 
be, or was meant to be, a mere dead and ?^^™ ^' 

^ ' ^ impeacn- 

empty letter. For feveral days after the articles ment. 
of accufation were publifhed, the accufed are 
fpoken of everywhere, in each and all thefe Fate of 
letters, as men whofe fate abfolutely is hanging J^^^fa^nce. 
in the balance. 

Mr. Wifeman, four days after the outrage, wife- 
fears it to be impofiible but that the affair 
will have bloody ifiiie, becaufe the Houfe is 

• Hiji. ii. J 30. t lb. ii. 178, 

man s 


Arrefi of the Five Members, 


tary's : 

rett's : 
7th Janu- 

Gives no 
but ftates 
the faft. 

not more determined than the King flill 
appears to be. The Under Secretary of 
State writes in doubt, on the third day after 
the failure of Charles's attempt at the Houfe, 
whether the accufed are not a6lually fled. 
And, on that fame day, Captain Carterett 
defcribes his apprehenfion that there muft be 
ferious diflurbance before all things could be 
rightly underftood, for that many would have 
the accufed members to be brought to their 
trial, and others not, faying it was againft the 
privileges and liberties of the Parliament. " I 
" am not wife enough," continues the honefl: 
feaman, " to diftinguijfh the Right of it, but 
" this I am certaine, that our good King is 
" much abufed. On Tuefday hee went to the 
*' Houfe of Comons to demand thofe men w'^^^ 
" were acufed, but noe anfwer was given him. 
" Yefterday hee went into the Citty, and after 
*' he had fpent fome tyme in Guyldhall (to give 
" fatiffadion of his good meaning towards his 
" people), he went to one of the Sheriffs to 
" dinner. The two Houfes have adjorned 
" untill Tuefday nexte ; and this day there was 
" a Comittee of both the Houfes in Guyldhall, 
" where they have voted that thofe men accufed 
" fhall not be apprehended nor detained, foe 
" that I feare very much that this will increafe 
" the difturbances of the tyme. This day, one 
" Serjant Dandie went into London to take 
leizethem. c£ ^^ accufed men to aprehend them, where 

Vote of 
Houfe for 
the ac- 

gone to 

§ XXX. Adjournment and Sufpenfe. 297 

" hee was much abufed by the worfe fort of Attacked 
*' people. My wife is yf humble fervant and people. 
*' wifhes you a mery new yeare, and foe doth 

" G. Carterett." 
Strange, if what Clarendon fays be true, that 
the King fhould have laboured fo hard to bring 
upon himfelf the quite needlefs and gratuitous 
fufpicion, and upon his agents and officers the 
abufe and hatred, of even the " worfe fort " 
of his people ! I have fhown that with his obft'mate 

, , , . r I • r refolve of 

own hand, on the evenmg or his return from King. 
the City, Charles had drawn up the proclama- 
tion agrainft fuch as fhould continue to harbour 
the traitors ; and on the following morning, it 
is placed beyond doubt by Captain Carterett's 
ftatement, one of the Royal ferjeants was dif- 
patched into the City to endeavour again to 
complete the arreft. To what extent moreover, 
in the City itfelf, all this was thought to favour 
of an adtual and prefent danger, I am further 
able to fhow on the teftimony of a friend of 
the Earl of Northumberland's. " My noble Thomas 
*' Compeer," writes on the 7th of January the p™nhing- 
fecretary of the Lord Admiral to the Admiral *«" = 

^• • 1 T-v <T-i 1 T • 7th Janu- 

commandmg m the Downs : " 1 hough 1 writt ary. 

" to you foe lately, yet I cannot choofe but ^•^•^* 

<« give you y*^ occurrences of y^ time. They 

'* being of fuch importance. The fix Delin- 

' ^ quents continue in y'' Citty, and are there pro- Proteaion 

" teded againft ye King's mind. This breeds ^gS^''^ 

" difpleafure in him, feare in all. Some have King. 


Arrefi of the Five Members. 

King will 
ufe force. 

City re- 
folved to 

" God 

help us ! ' 

to Pen- 
nington : 
6th Janu- 


ing of ad- 
to City. 

Many re- 
fufe to go. 

'^ perfuaded ye K. to raife force to fetch y™ 
" out. This made y^' Cittle laft nighte to bee 
" all in armes, and y*^ gates and Portcullifes to 
" beefhutt; and for ought I heare, are fo yet. 
^^ The Cittiz"s delivered a Petition yefterday, 
" humbly befeeching his Ma^'" that thofe men 
" might be proceeded ag* in a Parliamentary 
" way : no anfwer yet. 'Tis beleeved y^ Cittie 
*' is refolved to proteft y™. Some well afFedled 
" Nobles to both fides do labor to pacifie the K. 
'^ Some ill afFeded labor as much to bring all . 
" to confufion with falfe tales. Wee knowe 
" both. God help us ! Your true Friend and 
" humble fervant, Thomas Smith." 

This letter outruns by a day the point at 
which our narrative had arrived, but another 
remains to be cited which will take us back to 
that rifing of the Houfe at Weftminfter on the 
5th January, preparatory to the fittings in 
Guildhall. " The Houfe yefterday," wrote 
Captain Slingfby on the 6th, " were very high 
" againe, and, I perceive, not refolved to 
" deliver the men in that are impeacht : they 
" adjorned. the Houfe till Tuefday nexte, before 
" w'-'^' time the King fhall have no anfwere: 
'^ but in the meantime a Comittee of the whole 
" houfe to meete at Guyldhall. This day, being 
'' in the Privy Chamber, I heard fome Parlia- 
" ment men difcourfing of it. Some fayd they 
" would not go to Guyldhall, becaufe the men 
" impeacht wold be there : and, fince the reft 

^ XXX. Adjournment and Sujpenfe. 299 

' would not deliver them, they might be all Fear to be 
^ accefTories.'"" The Houfe is yett very thinne ; l^acfef- 
' as I am tould, above 200 of them in the forles." 
' country, who can not come up according to 
' the Proclamation, by reafon of the greate 
^ floodes ; many in the towne forbearing to 
^ come there. There is no other difcourfe Threats if 
^ but of open armes, if thofe men be notj^^^ -y^j^ 
' brought to tryall. The ill afFeded Partie "P- 
^ (w''' are thofe y* follow the Courte) doe Royallfts 
^ now fpeake very favourably of the Irifh ; favour 
^ as thofe whofe grievances were greate, there ^"^' 
^ demaunds moderate, and may fiand the Kinge 
' in much J}ead : many libells printed againft 
' the King." 

No printed libel, however, it is much to be 
feared, could poffibly have been worfe than 
this written one, of which Captain Slingfby is 
here unwittingly the author. It has been 
always one of the graveft of the Royalift charges Pym's 
againft Pym, that in his famous fpeech before charge 
the Upper Houfe delivered in a week from proved 

. true. 

this date (wherein he warned the Lords of the 
danger it might prove to themfelves if they 
left the great tafk of faving the liberties of the 
kingdom to the Houfe of Commons alone), 
he advanced a charge, unfupported by any kind 

* Precifely the argument ufed in the Houfe of Commons JIol- 
itfelf by Hyde's friend and fellow " rat," Holborne (Hijl. and borne's 
Biog. EJfaySy i. 170), famous once for his fplendid argument argument, 
againft (hip-money, delivered amid clapping of hands and 
ihouts of popular delight which the judges found it irapoffible 
to reftrain. 

3^0 Arreft of the Five Members. 

of proof, againft the King and the King's 
friends, that fo far from entertaining any laud- 
able eagernefs to bring to condign punifhment 
the leaders of the cruel maflacre and rebellion 
in Ireland, they had given the Houfes too much 
Sympathy reafon to fuppofe that they felt towards them 
rebellion^ ^yi^P^thy and favour. Can it be faid, after 
reading what is written by Captain Slingfby, 
that Pym had not good authority for the charge 
he made ? 

§ XXXL Commons' Committee at 

Thurfday Meanwhile the Committee at Guildhall, 
6th'janu'- doubtlefs not greatly caring whether Captain 
^^Y' Slingfby's friends m.ay pleafe to join them this 

day or not, have punftually affembled at the 
Guildhall on the morning of the 6th of January, 
and are now awaiting us. 
No exift- Of the proceedings of that Committee, 
o?pro-°'^'^ beyond the fad that they took evidence as to 
ceedings. the incidents of the 3rd and 4th which were 
fubfequently reported, no account exifts ex- 
cept in thefe valuable notes of D'Ewes. The 
Journals of the Houfe are entirely filent during 
the interval from the 5th, the day of adjourn- 
ment, to the nth, that of reaffembling. Rufh- 
Slight no- worth devotes to thofe days only a few lines, 
Rufti-" ^^ which he makes brief allufion to the 
worth and evidence which was taken in the courfe of the 
einey. ^t^ings. Sir Ralph Verney mentions but the 

§> XXXI. Commons' Committee at Guildhall. 301 

fix refolutions * that were pafled, on the 
days when the Committee fat at Grocers* 
Hall, in reference to the breach of privi- 
lege committed. Clarendon, not afFedling to Confufions 
give particular account of anything, confufes ^^^^ 
everything. D'Ewes alone, who attended the 
Committee each day at Guildhall and at Grocers' 
Hall, has preferved anything like a regular 
record of its proceedings. And this is here A regular 
given to the world as D'Ewes fet it down d^ewcs.^ 
each day. 

He begins his journal of Thurfday the 6th 
of January, by ftating that a great number of 
the Houfe met at the Committee at the Guild- 
hall, in London, that forenoon about ten of 
the clock. '^ I came thither about eleven of 
" the clock. We fate in the room within the where 
" court into which the juries do ordinarily ^^Jj^^^^^'J^"^ 
" withdraw." 

They had been greeted, on arrival at the Welcome 
committee room, by a deputation of the lead- citizens, 
ing members of the Common Council, in their 
robes and chains ; and a military guard com- 
pofed of fome of the wealthieft of the citizens, 
every man having his footman in fuit and 
cafibck with ribbons of the colours of his • 
company, was in clofe attendance during all Military 
their fittings. Nor were the good old hofpi- gJeJjJ.'" 
talities of the City wanting ; and D'Ewes has ance. 
more than once to fufpend his report that he 

* See Notes, 140- 141. 

302 Arreft of the Five Members. 

City hof- may inform us, that about one of the clock he 
pita ities. ^Jt-hfjj-ey^^ Qutj intending to go away, but 

coming into the Hall he found a feaft pre- 
pared for the entertainment of the members, 

^^ whereat he dined before he departed, and they 

cheer." had "great cheere." 

The firft matter they fell upon at the Guild- 
hall, D'Ewes proceeds to tell us, was the unjuft 
and illegal proceedings againft Pym and the 
other members, inftituted by the King's 
Attorney in the Lords' Houfe on the previous 
Monday. What Grimfton had treated generally 
in his very able addrefs, was now to be handled 

Firft mat- in detail. " It was firft debated and refolved 

ed. " *^ that the faid impeachment there was illegal 
" and a breach of the privilege of Parliament. 
*' Then they fell in debate, which continued 

Searching jc ^j^gn I Came in, that the fealing; up of the 

lodgings, ' . 

and feal- " doors of the chambers and ftudies of the 

pafe"? " ^aid Mr. Pym and Mr. Hollis, on Monday 

'^ morning laft, was a breach of the liberty of 

" the fubjedt and of the privilege of Parlia- 

" ment ; and this was alfo voted upon the 

'^ queftion. Then we fell in debate concern- 

illegal^ " ^^g ^^ King's ifTuing out warrants, figned 

warrants. <f vvith his own hand, to Mr. Francis and others 

" his Serjeants-at-Arms, to attach their 

" bodies : that they were illegal, and againft 

" the liberty of the fubjedl and the privilege 

'^ of Parliament." * 

♦ HarU MSS. 162, f. 309 a. 

§ XXXI. Commons^ Committee at Guildhall, 303 

The Committee thus wifely began at the Attorney- 
beginning, queftioning the Attorney-General's proceed-'' 
proceeding by impeachment before difcufling ings firft 
the outrage that followed. The folitary argu- tioned. 
ment of any weight that is ufed by Clarendon 
in palliation of the condudl of the King, 
aflumes that the popular leaders claimed their 
privilege of Parliament as an immunity even 
from the charge of treafon : we fhall now 
fee on what foundation this refts, and with 
how much truth any argument bafed thereon 
could be urged. Upon the laft propofition as Motion to 
to the warrants of arreft, a debate arofe, in ^^"^ ^°^' 

' warrants. 

which Nathaniel Fiennes and one or two more 
took part ; and in the courfe of it a fuggeftion 
was made that the Committee fhould fend to 
Mr. Brown, the Clerk of the Houfe of Lords, 
for a copy of the proceedings in that Houfe 
againft the five members of the Lower Houfe. 
Upon this D'Ewes arofe, and made certainly Refifted 
the moft able fpeech, moft ferviceable in know- ^,„ 
ledge and illuftration, and going moft diredtly 
to the points in ifTue, of any from himfelf that 
he has recorded in his Journal. Its reception 
by the Committee generally, is honourable 
evidence of their temper and fpirit. 

*' I did defire," he fays, " that we might Speech by 
" not fend for the copies of any proceedings ^ ^"'^^^ 
*^ which had been there printed againft thefaid 
** members of our Houfe. We were not 
** truly to take notice of fuch, becaufe thefe 

3^4 Arrefi of the Five Members. 

Explains " proceedings againft our own members are 

againft " fij"ft to begin in our own Houfe. For there 

arreft. *^ is a double privilege we have in Parliament: 

" the one final, the other temporary. Our 

'^ final privilege extends to all civil caufes, and 

** fiiits in law: and this continues during the 

Final, and " Parliament. The other privilege, which is 

^empo ^j temporary, extends to all capital caufes, as 

*' Treafon or the like, in which the perfons 

" and goods of the members of both Houfes 

'* are only freed from feizure till the Houfes 

'' be firft fatiffied of their crimes, and fo do 

" deliver their bodies up to be committed to 

Whyfuchtt fafe cuftody. And the reafon of this is 

tion. " evident, becaufe their crime muft either be 

*' committed within the fame Houfes, or with- 

** out them. As for example. If any mem- 

" ber of the Houfe of Commons be accufed 

'' for treafonable adiions or words, committed 

" or fpoken within the walls of the fame 

" Houfe, then there is a necefiTity that not only 

" the matter of fail, but the matter of crime 

" alfo, muil be adjudged by that Houfe; for 

When the ** it can appear to no other court what was 

\lreVs°to " ^^^''^ ^oxiQ, in refped that it were the higheft 

faft and ** treachery and breach of privilege for any 

P^"^ y- << member of that Houfe to witnefs or reveal 

'* what was done or fpoken therein, without 

" the leave and diredlion of the fame Houfe. 

" And if it be for treafon committed out of 

" the Houfe, yet fi:ill the Houfe muft be 

§ XXXI. Commons' Committee at Guildhall. 305 

*' firft fatiffied with the matter of fadl, before When as 

" they part with their members; for, elfe, all q° jy^ 

*' privilege of Parliament muft, of neceflity, 

"'* be deftroyed. For, by the fame reafon that 

** they accufe one of the faid members, they 

*^ ' may accufe forty or fifty upon imaginary and Otherwife 

*' falfe treafons, and fo commit them to cuftody ,n°"ht b^ 

' ' and deprive the Houfe of their members, thinned 

*' Whereas, on the contrary fide, the Houfe ^ure. 

'* of Commons hath ever been fo juft as to 

''part with fuch members when they have Yet mem- 

'' been difcovered. As in the Parliament de ^^^'^ SJ^J.'/ 

" A° 27° of Queen Elizabeth, Doctor Parry, rendered. 

*' being a member of the Houfe, was firft 

" delivered up by them to fafe cuftody, and 

*' afterwards arraigned and condemned of high 

*' treafon, and executed for it. And fo like- 

'' wife in Mr. Coppley's cafe. In the Parlia- Examples 

*' ment in the laft year of Queen Mary, he ^^^^"' 

" fpake very dangerous words againft the faid 

*' Queen; yet it was tried in the Houfe of 

" Commons, as appears in the original journal- 

*' book of the fame Houfe, and the faid 

" Queen, at their intreaty, did afterwards 

" remit it." 

Cries of *' well moved," now rewarded " weil 
the firm yet moderate reafoning,* and the apt '^°^^^- 

* Subftantially this argument does not differ from that 
which Clarendon fays he took, occafion to urge upon the 
Houl'e in pointing out to them (//i/?. ii. 139) that privilege Why ap- 
of parliament did not run in cafes of treafon, felony, or plaud 
breach of the peace : but how is it that what was heard from D'Ewes ? 



Arrefi of the Five Members. 

conftltutional learning, of the logical and well- 
read member for Sudbury : but thefe cries, 
grateful as he tells us they were to him, are to us 
Fair and the ftill more valuable teftimonyof a fair and juft 
o"f Com-^^ temper in the Committee itfelf, upon a quef- 
mittee. tion where Clarendon would have us believe 
the repeated affeverations he makes, that no 
man was for a moment liftened to who at- 
tempted to explain what the law really was, or 
No defile who aflertcd that a member of Parliament 
fDonfibk!" might have his refponfibilities like any other 

and objeft 
to Hyde ? 


" Five 

D'Ewes with fuch approving cries, fhould have been received 
from the lips of Hyde with, as he is anxious to have us 
believe, noife and clamour, with wonderful evidence of diflike, 
and with fome faint contradiftions that no fuch thing ought 
to be done whilft a parliament was fitting? (See ante, 212-16.) 
The folution of this, as already I have ventured to fuggeft, 
appears to be that Hyde made no fuch fpeech ; and that the 
affertion is a mere confufion of his memory between what he did 
or did not lay, and what he had afterwards felt that he might 
have faid. The charge he brings both in his Hiftory and his 
Memoir, as though the Houfe claimed in thefe tranfa6lions to 
override both the judges and the law itfelf, is but another 
form of the doggrel Five Members' March, of which two or 
three out of the fcore of ftanzas may amufe the reader, 

" And let no wights henceforth prefume 
To hold it rime or reafon, 
That judges Ihall determine what 
Is Felony or Treafon. 

But what the Worthies fay is fo 

Is Treafon to award. 
Albeit in Council only fpoke 

And at the Council-Board. 

And for this Sea of Liberty, 

Wherein we yet do fwim, 
Gramercy Kimbolton and Strode fay I, 

Hafelrig, Hollis, Hampden, Pym." 

§ XXXI. Commons^ Committee at Guildhall. 307 

" But," proceeded D'Ewes, " for the cafe of D'Ewes 
' thefe gentlemen that are now in queftion, it ^^ ""^^^' 
' doth not yet appear to us whether it be for 
' a crime done within the walls of the Houfe 
' of Commons or without : fo that, for aught 
' we know, the whole judicature thereof muft 
' firfl: pafs with us. For the Lords did make an 
'■ A(5l Declaratory, in the Parliament Roll de 
' A° 4" Ed. III. N° 6°, that the judgment of As to cafes 
' Peers only did properly belong to them ; fo loiJs 
' as I hold it fomewhat clear that thefe gentle- J°'"- 
' men cannot be condemned, but by fuch a 
' judgment only as wherein the Lords may 
^ join with the Commons, and that muft be 
' by Bill. And the fame privilege is to the Privileges 
^ members of the Lords' Houfe. For we botlT^ ^ 
^ muft not think that if a private perfon Houfes. 
^ fhould come there and accufe any of them 
^ of treafon, that they will at all part with 
^ that member, or commit him to fafe tuftody, 
^ till the matter of fad be firft proved before 
^ them. 'Tis true indeed, that, upon the impeach- 
' impeachment of the Houfe of Commons £ovver ^ 
^ for Treafon or any other Capital Crimes, Houfe : 
' they do immediately commit their members 
^ to fafe cuftody : becaufe it is, firft, admitted compels 
' that we accufe not till we are fatiffied in the ^""f"^^^" 

or the 

^ matter of fadl ; and, fecondly, it is alfo perfon. 
' fuppofed in law that fuch an aggregate body 
■ as the Houfe of Commons is, will do Malice not 
' nothing ex livore vel ex odio, feeing they are Jbk"'"" 

3o8 Arrefi of the Five Members. 

" entrufted by the whole Commons of Eng- 

" land with their eftates and fortunes." 

Conclu- Sir Simonds dofed his calm and temperate 

^" ^y expofition with a decifive aflertion of opinion. 

" So as upon the whole matter/' he faid, *' I 

" conclude that the proceedings againft thefe 

" five gentlemen have been hitherto illegal ; 

*' and that we ought to demand fafety for 

*' their perfons to come and fit amongfl: us, 

'^ till their crime jfhall be proved before us." 

Loud ac- Then, as he refumed his feat, he proceeds to 

clamatlon. ^g]] ^3 with pardonable complacency, " there 

*' followed a loud acclamation of fi^eil moved y 

" and Mr. Glyn fpake after me, and faid that 

*^ I had abundantly and very well cleared this 

'* point both with authority and reafon." 

Glyn's But Glyn's fpeech was remarkable for more 

fpeech: ^|^^j^ ^.j^jg^ Some pafTagcs of it were hardly 

lefs folid and weighty than Grimfton's. Speak- 

aimed at ing from the queftion of the Warrants to the 

^"^^n general confideration of breach of their pri- 

counlels d ^ r 

as Hyde's, vileges, he ftruck more nearly and diredbly 
than Grimfton had done at the evil councillors, 
by whom mifunderftandings had been for a 
long period affiduoufly raifed and encouraged 
between his Majefty and that Houfe. Thefe 
Private in- men, he faid, and fuch as thefe, had been, 
the Kin °. ^^^ wtvc ftill, cafting afperfions, and fpread- 
ing abroad evil reports, not only of the mem- 
bers, but of the proceedings of the Houfe of 
Commons againft them and others of their 

^ XXXI. Commons* Committee at Guildhall. 309 

favorites. Forhimfelf he would fay that, of all 
breaches of the privileges of Parliament, none 
more grave could be committed than to in- 
form his Majefty of any proceedings in the Spies In 
Houfe of Commons, upon any bufinefs what- 
foever, before they had concluded, finifhed, 
and made ready the fame, to prefent to his 
Majefty for his royal aflent thereunto. Further, 
he faid, it was in his view a breach of Parlia- 
mentary privilege to mifinform his Majefty 
contrary to the proceedings in Parliament, 
thereby to incenfe and provoke him againft 
the fame. And to all men it was viftbly a Manifeft 
moft manifeft breach of privilege, to come rivUege 
to the Commons Houfe fitting in free conful- 
tation, and there, aflifted and guarded with 
armed men, to demand as it were vi et armis 
any members fingled out and accufed, without 
the knowledge or confent of that Houfe. 

Mr. Glyn had evidently, in the abfence of the Glyn has 
member for Taviftock, aflumed in the Com- leaderftilp, 
mittee the place of leader to the popular party ; 
and, quietly taking their places by his fide, 
as of right entitled to claim the next rank to 
that which all feem at once to have conceded 
to Glyn's diftindlion as a lawyer and his pofi- 
tion as member for Weftminfter, we find, 
among the moft adive and influential, young Chiefs 
Sir Harry Vane, Nathaniel Fiennes, Grimfton, him. 
Maynard, Alderman Pennington, Stapleton 
the member for Boroughbridge, and Wilde 

3 1 o Arrefi of the Five Members. 

the member for Worcefterfhire, who occupied 
the chair of the Committee more frequently 
than any other member. 
D'Ewes's Glyn had fpoken truly in the compliment 
o/privi- he offered to the learning and difcrimination of 
lege. ^j-jg member for Sudbury. D'Ewes had argued 
the matter of privilege, taking the King's 
proceeding as the bafis or ftarting point, upon 
incontrovertible grounds. He had anticipated 
and repelled the falfe infinuations of Clarendon, 
and now, covered by Glyn's authority againft 
fuch further objedions as were made, he 
carried the committee with him to a pofition 
from which their right to refift was un- 
Afirm affailable. Without minutely difcuffing a 
po 1 ion. qygfj-JQj^ which can no longer, with our 
fettled and afcertained rules of procedure, be 
viewed exadlly as it prefented itfelf in thofe 
days, it is clear that the mere breach of privi- 
lege, grofs as it was, was not the King's worft 
More than offence on that miferable day. Whatever, 
tion at afTuming that a cafe exifted on which to take 
ifilie. proceedings at all, the form of thofe proceedings 
fhould ftridlly have been, whether by impeach- 
ment of the Commons themfelves, or by 
indidlment preferred to a grand jury, the 
method taken by the King leaves quite imma- 
Claren- terial. When Clarendon afferts that " if the 
evafion. ^^ judgcs had been compelled to deliver their 
" opinions in point of law, which they ought 
*^ to have been, they could not have avoided 

§ XXXI. Commons* Committee at Guildhall. 3 1 1 

" the declaring, that by the known law, which 
" had been confefTed in all times and ages, no 
'^ privilege of Parliament could extend in the 
" cafe of treafon," * he knows perfe6lly well 
that he is not raifing the real ifTue.f There ^°* ^"^ 
were a dozen violations of the known and breaches 
fettled law to be dealt with, before that could °^^*'^- 
even come to be confidered. Each ftep had 
been an outrage. Hyde was too good a lawyer 
not to be perfedly aware, that, fo far from the 
King's having anything like the power he had King 
aflumed to exercife in this cafe, even an ordi- t°arrefl:^ 
nary magiftrate or juftice of peace had a power 
fuperior to the fovereign's. The King was in 

* Hiji. \\. 193. 

t I find remarkable evidence, in a letter written the morning , n 
after the King's attempt, of how clearly, in oppofition to all ■'• " 
thefe falfe ftatements and reafonings of Clarendon, the nature n 
of the outrage which had been committed was difcriminated 
by impartial byftanders, and how accurate and unexaggerated 
was the meafure taken of the breach of privilege involved. 
Mr. Thomas Smith writes from York Houfe (built for 
Buckingham when Lord-Admiral, and fmce occupied by 
holders of that high office), on the 5th Januaiy, to his 
"true friend" Admiral Pennington. "Since the im- Smith to 
" peachm' and fending of the Bpps. to the Tower, His Penning- 
" Ma''* hath fent y* Attourney Gen'" to y* Upper Houfe to ton : 
" accufe my Lo. Mandeville, Mr. Pym, Mr. HoUis, Mr. ^tb Janu- 
" Strode, Mr. Hampden, and Sir Arthur Haflerig, to bee ary. 
" guilty of High Treafont This was don on the 3'' of 
" January. The Houfes are much difpleafed at this manner of 
" proceeding becaufe, fay they. Kings ought not to be the 
" accufers of their fubjefts; and they complaine that in y* ttj^o- not 
" manner of managing this bufmefle y* King hath done ^ accufe 
" many things tending to breach of Priviledge. As Sealing Cubiefts 
" up their ftudies, w'=" y= Parliam' hath opened againe, and 
" imprifoned thofey' feaiedthem. [And fending] his Sergeants 
" into the Houfe of Commons to attack y" perfons of fome 
" who are fuppofed to be delinquents, &c. The Lords gave 
" anfwer that if a Parliamentary Charge were given in againft 
" thofe Delinquents, they would be Comitted to cuftody, but 
" till y" they would not. The Kynge, offended that they were 

312 Arrefi of the Five Members, 

Each ftep reality powerlefs. He could not draw up the 

j^gg^ " impeachment. He could not carry it to the 

Lords by his Attorney. He could not ferve 

it in the Commons by his Serjeant-at-arms. 

He could not in perfon arreft under it. And 

for the manifeft reafon that, prefuming a wrong 

to be done by fuch means, the fubjedl would 

Subjeft be left without a remedy. " A fubjedl," faid 

whatKing^h'^^^J^ft^'^^M^^^ham to Edward IV,* "may 

cannot. " arreft for treafon ; the King cannot ; for, 

'^ if the arreft be illegal, the party has no 

" remedy againft the King." 

Shame of So ftrongly did the Attorney General, 

Attorney- indeed, afterwards feel the humiliation in 


which confiderations of this kind involved 

him, that upon the proceedings fubfequently 

taken againft him, he requefted the Lord 

Keeper to intereft himfelf with one of his 

Makes friends who fat in the lower Houfe for Notting- 

through a ham, Mr. Francis Pierpoint, third fon of Lord 

friend. Kingfton, to offer an apology for his breach of 

the law. This curious paflage, alfo revealed to 

us by D'Ewes, has already been quoted in a 

notef ; but it feems impoffible to underftand, if 

" not reftrayned, came the next day himfelf in perfon well 
" giiarded into y'= Commons' Hoiife (a thing never heard of 
"before) to demand y'pfons; but they were at that tyme 
" abfent, and do ftill abfent themfelves. The King much 
" difpleafed departed, and is this day gone himfelfe into 
" London to have y" pclaimed Traytors. Thefe violent 
" proceedings of the King's give much difcontent everywhere, 

Uiscon- <( ^j^j ^^ 3,.g daily in feare of uproares ; yet all care is taken 

t^nt with « to prevent mifchiefe." 

the Kmg. ♦ Quoted by Lord Macaulay in V\%EJfays, i. ^t. 

f Ante, 11%. My late extracts from the D'Ewes Journal will 
be found in Harl. MSS. 162, ff. 308 a and b, and 309 a and b. 

§ XXXI. Commons' Committee at Guildhall, 313 

Herbert really felt the " trouble " of mind al- Apology 
leged, and faw before him fo clearly the confe- jieved.' 
quences of his ad, how an officer of fo much ex- 
perience fhould have fufFered himfelf to be 
overborne in a matter where he was certain him- 
felf to be the firft vidim. One is rather difpofed 
to conclude with Mr. Strode, in the pregnant Mr. 
remark he threw out on the occafion of Pier- remark 
point's interceffion, that he believed Mr. Attor- thereon, 
ney did not only contrive the fame, but knew 
of the defign itfelf alfo ; for he was a man of 
great parts, and well (killed in ftate matters. 
The incredulity was at lead pardonable. 

But we left the debate of the 6th of January Debate as 
before it clofed, amid the cries of approval *° ^'^^''" 

^ ^ rants con- 

which followed the fpeeches of D'Ewes and tinued. 
Glyn. Divers, D'Ewes proceeds to tell us, 
afterwards fpoke refpeding the warrants which 
purported to have been ifTued out under the 
King's hand, and no one ventured to af- 
fert their legality. The fpeeches all went to Sound 
one refult. That fuch warrants could not be ftatedT ^^ 
good: that the fovereign was himfelf a party 
againft all capital offenders: that, being entitled 
on convidlion to have their lands and goods, 
he could therefore be neither judge nor accufer 
in their trial : that his warrants were to be No difFe- 
iflued forth by his minifters, who were by opbLn. 
the law appointed thereunto : " with much 
" other matter to that efFed." 

A charaderiftic incident then occurred, which 

314 Arreft of the Five Memhers. 

Difpute further fliows how clearly D'Ewes kept before 
with ^^* himfelf, and how fteadlly before the Com- 
Wilde. mittee, the point it moft behoved them to reft 
their cafe upon. Mr. Serjeant Wilde, fpeaking 
from theChair,and taking advantage of exciting 
expreffions thrown out in difcuffing thefe war- 
rants of the King, would have had the Com- 
Wrong mittee affirm that the mere charge of treafon in 
^^ft^d"^' ^^ abftra(5l, no matter how inftituted, was, as 
againft a member of the Houfe of Commons, 
a breach of privilege ; but the member for 
Correaed Sudbury wifely fubftituted a refolution againft 
^, the mode of inftituting fuch a charge which lately 

had been taken, and denouncing the ifTue of any 
additional warrants, as not only a violation 
of the privilege of parliament, but a breach of 
the liberty of the fubjedl : and this the Com- 
mittee adopted. Thewifdom of fuch a courfe 
was manifeft. Even fuppofing that the view 
could be fupported, of a right in the Lords to 
entertain the accufation of treafon at the 
inftance of the Attorney-General, it was the 
Lords to Lords, and not the King, who fhould have 

iHue war- . ^ 

rants. ilTued the warrants : and D'Ewes was right to 
continue to fix the attention of the Committee 
upon the mode of procedure. Had the very right 

How to itfelf exifted, the method would have turned 

right ^ it into wrong. "At length," he fays, "Mr. 

thing cc Serjeant Wilde propounded a queftion to be 

wrong. -' . ^ . 

" put concernmg the arrefting of Mr. Denzil 
" Hollis, or any of the other four members 

§ XXXI. Commons^ Committee at Guildhall. 3 1 5 

" accufed of high treafon, that it was a breach D'Ewes's 


*' of privilege: but I moved that the firft over 

*' queftion might be put touching the ifTuing ^*^^^' 

*' forth of any frefh warrants; that the fame 

'^ was a breach of the liberty of the fubjedt, 

*' and a violation of the privilege of Parlia- 

'^ ment : which motion of mine was approved Goodfenfe 

'^ by the Committee, and the fame was refolved ^jj^g""^" 

" upon the queftion, and ordered by the Com- 

*' mittee accordingly." 

There was no further objedlion to the refo- Refolu- 
lutions fubmitted. " We proceeded," fays y°"gj^ 
D'Ewes, " to vote it a breach of privilege of 
" Parliament, and of the liberty of the fubjedl, 
" for any perfon to arreft any of the faid 
" members by colour of fuch warrants ; and Againft 
" we declared them public enemies of the 
" Commonwealth. It was alfo further refolved 
" upon the queftion, and ordered by the Com- 
" mittee, that to arreft any member of either Againft 
" Houfe without confent of that Houfe whereof arreft"n„ 
" fuch perfon was a member, was againft the ""^^"^ 
" liberty of the fubjeft, and a breach of the 
" privilege of Parliament, and that any perfon 
" who ftiould fo arreft fuch member ftiould be 
" declared a public enemy of the Common- 
" wealth. Which votes being put and ordered, 
" it was moved that a fub-Committee might 
" be appointed to go out, and to draw out a 
" Declaration to this purpofe." 

Then rofe the younger Sir Henry Vane vrne"nfes: 

3i6 Ar reft of the Five Members. 

OfFers wife with a propofition, as the fequel to what the 
tion^*^ ' learned member {killed in precedents had fo 
well moved, which he offered to the Com- 
mittee as very necefTary to be included in the 
Declaration, and which was eminently charadler- 
iftic of his own fenfe of juftice. " He did 
*^ move," fays D'Ewes, "that we might make 
" fome iliort declaration that we did not intend 
Guard " to proted thefe five gentlemen, or any other 
claiming " member of our Houfe, in any crime ; but 

privilege cc f}^ould be moft ready to bring them to con- 
tor crime. _ ^ ^ ^ " 

" dign punifhment, if they fhould be proceeded 

" againft in a legal way." The Committee 

aflented ; and young Vane, Glyn, Grimfton, 

Sub-Corn- Nathaniel Fiennes,and Sir Philip Stapleton, hav- 

draw^*° ing been named as the fub-Committee to draw 

provifo. the declaration, left the chamber for that pur- 

pofe. While they were abfent, " I departed," 

fays D'Ewes, " from the Committee, between 

" two and three of the clock in the afternoon ; 

" but the Declaration was afterwards brought 

Vane's " in by the faid Committee, and allowed and 

voted and " voted by the Committee, and printed." He 

printed, adds, that as the Common Council required 

the Guildhall Chamber for City ufes, and it 

Adjourn was moreover in itfelf fomewhat inconvenient, 

*° 9?t"m the Committee adiourned itfelf to meet next 

cers Hall. . • /-> 

mornmg m Grocers' Hall. 

^ XXXII. Facts and Fictions. 

The elaborate particularity with which the 

§ XXXII. Fa5is and Fidions. 317 

good Sir SImonds D'Ewes thus records in de- 
tail the proceedings of the Seled Committee of 
the Commons, feems as though fpecially pro- Clarendon 
vided for refutation of the ftudied mif- 
reprefentations and difingenuous artifices of 
Clarendon. Speaking generally of the pro- 
ceedings of the Committee defcribed in the 
foregoing fedion, that writer deliberately 
ftates : i . That all the refolutions voted Alleged 
were in fupport of, and fimple corollaries from, of votes. 
the broad and unreftrided aflertion, "that 
" the arrefting, or endeavouring to arreft, any 
" member of Parliament, was a high breach 
" of their privilege." 2. That the Houfe 
itfelf held fhort fittings, concurrently with Concur- 
the fittings of the Committee, for the mere J['^t"ing3 ^^ 
purpofe of confirming the votes fo pafl!*ed. Houfe. 
3. That when the votes in queftion were 
propofed for confirmation, he (Mr. Hyde) Hyde's 
took part in the debate, and was received with fpeech, 
noife and clamour, and with wonderful evidence 
of diflike, merely for ftating what was a known 
truth to any one who knew anything of the 
law, namely, that where perfons were arretted 
for treafon, or felony, or breach of the peace, 
there could be no privilege of Parliament. 
And, 4. That after this debate " the Houfe Pretended 
" confirmed all that the Committee had voted, ffnouf? 
" and then adjourned again for fome days, and itfelf. 
*^ ordered the Committee to meet again in the 
" City. ... the Houfe itfelf meeting and 


Arreft of the Five Members. 

ing votes 
of Com- 

All done 






Votes not 
fo re- 


itfelf not 

Hyde not 

" fitting only to confirm the votes which were 
" pafTed by the Committee, and to profecute 
" fuch matters as were by concert brought to 
" them, by petition from the City, which was 
'^ ready to advance anything they were diredled : 
'^ and fo, while the members yet kept them- 
" felves concealed, many particulars of great 
" importance were tranfaded in thofe fhort 
" fittings of the Houfe. * " 

To which elaborate mifflatement, the reply 
which D'Ewes enables us to make is very 
fimple. It is : i. That the votes of the 
Committee diftindtly limited and defined the 
breach of privilege as confifting, not in the 
accufation or the arreft, but in the means and 
procefs employed therein, whereby the law 
of the land and the liberty of the fubjed, 
not lefs than the privileges of Parliament, 
were violated. i. That the Houfe held no 
fuch fittings, the Committee having in the 
firfl inflance received full powers, and exer- 
cifing an entire jurifdidion over the matters 
referred to them. 3. That it is therefore 
impoffible that Mr. Hyde can have addreffed 
the Houfe ; that there is no evidence of his 
having ever attended the Committee ;t and 
that, affuming him neverthelefs to have 
fpoken at the Committee as alleged, what we 
have feen of their reception of D'Ewes's tem- 
perate fpeech renders it extremely improbable 

* Hijl. ii. 138-140. 

f See ante, 212-216. 

§ XXXII. Fads and Fi^iions. 319 

that Mr. Hyde's very Innocent remark fhould 
have been hooted down. And 4. That there ^°^°" 
was only one adjournment of the Houfe be- 
tween the 5th and the 1 ith January, 1641-2 ; 
and that there were no fhort fittings whatever 
while the Five Members yet kept themfelves 
concealed. Even if D'Ewes had not revealed 
this, the evidence of the Commons' Journals Journals 
would have been decifive. They are a total D'Ewes. 
blank between the two days named. 

Happily, too, the Declaration remains, which Evidence 
embodied the conftitutional fuggeftlons ofJ-fhedDe- 
D'Ewes and the manly propoiition of Vane ; claration. 
and it needs but to quote a few of Its noble kn- 
tences to diffipate thefe fi(5lIons of Clarendon. 
After ftating the high breach committed againft 
the rights and privileges of Parliament, and 
the liberties and freedom thereof, by the King's 
attempt to arreft the members, it proceeded : 

" And whereas his Majefty did Iflue forth ^^ to 
' feveral warrants, under his own hand, for the 
' apprehenfion of the perfons of the faid mem- 
' bers, which by law he cannot do ; there being King 

* not all this time any legal charge or accufa- fo^ug*^^* 
' tion, or due procefs of law, Iflued againft them. 

' them, nor any pretence of charge made 
^ known to the Houfe ; all which are againft 
' the fundamental liberties of the fubjedl, and 

* the rights of Parliament : whereupon, we 
' are neceftltated according to our duty to 

' declare, and we do hereby declare, that any ^^^Jf- 

320 Arrejl of the Five Members. 

King dlf- cc perfon that fhall arreft Mr. Hollis, Sir 

abled from \ , ^^ - , . n«^-r. -n^ r r-r ^ 

efFeaing " Arthur Halelng, Mr. Pym, Mr. Hampden^ 

**• " and Mr. Strode, or any of them, by pre- 

** tence or colour of any warrant ifTuing out 

" from the King only, is guilty of a breach of 

" the liberties of the fubjeft, and of the 

As to " privileges of Parliament, and a public enemy 

privilege : " to the Commonwealth .... Notwithftanding 

" all which, we think fit further to declare, that 

" we are fo far from any endeavour to proted: 

** any of our members that jfhall be in 4ue 

*^ manner profecuted (according to the laws of 

not ff the kingdom, and the rights and privileges 

bar ajuft *' of Parliament) for treafon, or any other mif- 

charge. cc demeanor, that none fhall be more ready 

" and willing than we ourfelves to bring them 

Readlnefs cc ^q q. fpeedy and due trial : being fenfible 

to bring , . ,, , ,, - 

guilty to " that It equally imports us, as well to lee 
trial. "juftice done againft them that are criminal, 
" as to defend the jufl rights and liberties of 
" the fubjedls and Parliament of England." 

§ XXXIII. Agitation in the City. 
Thurfday 'Yue Declaration of the Commons on the 

night, 6th 

January. Breach of their Privilege was printed and in 
circulation in the City, on the night of that firft 
meeting at Guildhall. Agitation and excite- 
ment had continued to increafe out of doors. 
Clarendon is no mean or incredible witnefs 
where his pafTions or interefl: do not deceive 
or miflead him to perverfion of the truth. 

§ XXXIII. J git at ion in the City. 321 

and he fays that it cannot be exprefTed how A change 
great a change there appeared to be in the people, 
countenance and minds of all forts of people, 
upon thofe late proceedings of the King.* 
The fhops of the City, while the mem- 
bers remained therein, were generally fhut 
up, as if an enemy were at their gates ready 
to enter and to plunder them ; the people 
in all places, he adds, were at a gaze, as 
if, difpofed to any undertaking, they looked Difpofcd 
only for diredtions ; and the wildeft reports under- 
were fpeedily accepted and believed. D'Ewes t^i^i^g- 
for once confirms Clarendon. On this Thurf- 
day night, he tells us in a note appended to 
his Journal of the 6th January, the watch at 

* The paflage is curious and vakiable, though in its aim Evidence 
and object the reverie of candid. " It cannot be expreffed," of Claren- 
he fays {Hijl. ii. 159), "how great a change there appeared don. 
*' to be in the countenance and minds of all forts of people, 
" in town and country, upon thefe late proceedings of the 
** King." He afferts (with what likelihood I have attempted 
to (how in my Eflay on the Great Remonftrance) that the 
popular leaders had of late been lofing their fpirits, fo that fome 
of them were even refuming their old refolutions of leaving 
the kingdom; but that "now again they recovered greater Tribunes 
" courage than ever, and quickly found that their credit and exalted. 
" reputation was as great as ever it had been : the Court being 
*' reduced to a lower condition, and to more difefteem and Court 
" negleift, than ever it had undergone. All that they had reduced. 
" formerly faid of plots and confpiracies againft the Parlia- 
" ment, which had before been laughed at, were now thought 
" true and real ; and all their fears and jealoufies looked upon AH 
" as the efFefts of their great wifdom and forethought. All (landers 
" that had been whifpered of Ireland was now talked aloud believed. 
*' and printed ; as all other feditious pamphlets and libels 
" were." Thefe remarks are fo coloured as to give a falfe 
expre(rion to the fa£ls they embody, but the fa6ts themfelves 
are confirmed by what already has been quoted from private 


Arreft of the Five Members. 

alarm at 


attack on 



in it. 

Ludgate was alarmed fuddenly, between 9 and 
10 o'clock, by information that the fame band 
of defperadoes who had accompanied the King 
to the Houfe on Tuefday, had a fimilar deflgn 
to be executed in the City that night. The news 
fpread fimultaneoufly from feveral quarters, 
and the reported plan was that of an attack 
upon the houfe in Coleman Street, where the 
accufed members were. The rumour had in 
all probability arifen from fome oozing out of 
the projed: of Digby, as to which Clarendon, 
in the charadler he has left of that recklefs per- 
fonage* in the fupplement to the third volume 
of his State Papers, gives us the particular 
information, that it was conceived immediately 
upon the Citizens declaring abfoluteiy for the 
members, and rejecting, as they had done the 
day before this to which D'Ewes refers, the 
King's perfonal overtures for affiftance. Fur- 
ther he tells us, as we have {^zn^ that Digby 
counted upon a feledt number of a dozen Gen- 
tlemen, who he prefumed would flick to 
him (his friend Lunfford was onef), to 
help him out with this projed, by feizing on 
the Five Members dead or alive ; and he pro- 

* State Papers, iil. Iv. Ivi. See ante, 205. 

Speech of ^ Stapleton made rather a good fpeech when the Digby 

Staplcton. plot, and Lunl'tord's connexion with it, became notorious 

the week after the prefent j defcribing Lunfford, "this 

"Colonel " as he calls him, not content, under the influence of 

Lunfford's the King's unmerited favour, " but imitating the w.iter-toad, 

bragging. " and, feeing the fhadow of a horfe feem bigger than itfelf, 

" fwelling itfelf Itraightway to rival the fame, and lb burfting.'' 

§ XXXIII. Agitation in the City. 323 

tefts that without doubt he would have done it, 
and that it muft have had a wonderful efFe6l. 
A wonderful effedl, even the rumour of it 
appears to have had. 

The City and the fuburbs, fays D'Ewes, The city 
were almoft wholly raifed, fo that within little '" ^""'* 
more than an hour's fpace there were forty 140,000 
thoufand men in complete arms, and near a weapons, 
hundred thoufand more that had halberds, 
fwords, clubs, and the like. Such was the 
military organifation of the City Train Bands 
in thofe days. Notwithftanding this, however. Panic 
the panic ran its courfe, as it is in the nature ^°"*'""^^' 
of all panics to do. " Yet," D'Ewes tells us, 
in a fentence which exhibits not a little of the 
nervous derangement it commemorates, " the 
" general cry of the City, Arm I Arm ! was 
'* with fo much vehemency, and knocking at 
" men's doors was with fo much violence, 
" that fome women being with child were Women in 
" fo much affrighted therewith that they 
*' mifcarried." However, the Lord Mayor Exertions 
played his part of pater 'patriae within the Mayor. 
City walls with all neceffary promptitude and 
vigour, and put a timely check to thefe domeftic 
inconveniences. He had tried, but vainly, 
to prevent the Trained Bands from getting 
under arms ; but he afterwards fent to White- 
hall, and, in every diredion where authentic 
intelligence was procurable, he difperfed it 

on all fides in place of the exaggerated rumours 

T 2 

324 Arrejl of the Five Members. 

Streets flying about ; and he took finally fuch ikilful 
meafures for clearance of the ftreets, that in 
little more than an hour from his firfl; inter- 
City again ference, the City was again quiet, and " every 
quiet. J J ^^^ retired to his houfe." Two days later, he 
Thanks of was fpecially thanked by an order of the Council 
toTord Board, at which the King was prefent and the 
Mayor. jiew Minifters of State ; and at which demand 
was made, under their hands, for delivery up of 
the names of the perfons who had " importuned 
" him to put the Trained Bands in arms."* Yet 

Order * ^ copy of this Order from the Council-Board addreffed 

from *° ^^^ " Lo'^l Mayor &c. of London," and dated Saturday the 

Council ^*^' ^''ift'^ ^^ '^he State Paper Office, and furnifhes remarkable 
Saturday evidence of the tone and fpirit which muft have animated the 
8th Tari Coimcil in difcuffing the incidents of the preceding Thurfday, 
the 6th of January. It is to be borne in mind, in reading it, 
that the members for the City were notorioufly thofe who had 
Members o'v^rruled the Lord Mayor as to the aflembling of the Trained 
for City Bands, and that the Committee of the Commons, fitting in 
odious to *^^ ^'fy> \\e.\A the ftep to have been eflential to the fafety of 
Court ^^^ citizens. The infertions within brackets are in the hand- 

writing of Nicholas ; and the intimations with which the 
Swearinsr Order concludes as to the fwearing in of Lord Falkland at 
inof Faik- ^^^ Board that day, may perhaps be taken as an evidt-nce of 
land. Nicholas's anxiety that the faftfliould be known in the City, and 

his own refponfibility fo far lightened by participation with 
one fo recently engaged and trufted on the popular fide in the 
Houfe of Commons. " Hearty commendations to your LP and 
Notices " the reft. Whereas the King's Ma^ hath taken notice of a 
tumult of " great diforder & tumult within the Cittie of London & 
Thurfday. " Liberties thereof where many thoufands of men as well of 
" the Trayned Bands as others were in armes on Thurfday 
*' night laft [without any lawfull authority, as his Ma'' is 
*' informed] to the great difturbance & amightm' of all the 
" inhabitants: for which neither his Ma''", nor this Board, doth 
" [find] believe any caufe given at all, nor the leaft danger to 
" have been intended to the faid Citty, or inhabitants thereof. 
The " by any perfon whatever. W''' being of fo dangerous confe- 

authors " quence, as the fame may no way be connived at : but is 
muft be " moft requifite that the authors of the alarme be enquired 
puniflied. " after, exam"*, and puniflied according to Law : that others 

§ XXXIII. Agitation in the City, 325 

the right fo challenged had never until now been IH- timed 
queftioned ; and the time appropriately feledled 
for this note of defiance, was when bands of 
armed men were being organifed, as well by the 
King as by his followers, without any warrant 
from the law. D'Ewes concludes the very note 
I have quoted, by faying that the alarm in the 
City had been greatly increafed by the circum- 
ftance of a troop of horfe, raifed by a Royalift Troop 
Squire of EfTex, having been billeted at Bar- Royaii/ 
net, and reported, ** upon what mifinformation Squire. 

" may both hereafter be deterred from the like feditious 

"attempts, & his Ma""= good fubjefts better fecured in the 

" peaceable quiet & enjoying of what is theirs. And whereas Certain 

•' his Ma"' hath been informed that before the alarme, certaine perfons 

" perfons were earned w'"* yo' Lop to put the Trayned Bands CM.P.s) 

'* of the Cittie in armes; w'^'^you refufingto doe becaufe [you over 

" faid] you knew no caufe of feare, yet the fame was after- earneft. 

'• wards done without yo' commands & ag' yo'' will [and 

" without any authority]. His Maje^, having duly confidered 

" of the premifles, hath thought fitt by advice of this Board 

" hereby to pray and require you, together with y' Brethren 

" the Aldermen and the Recorder of the faid Cittie, forthwith 

" to meete & to ufe all diligence for the enquiring and finding pj^d out 

"out, by what meanes and by whofe endeav"^ foe great a ^mj^^j.^ q^- 

" diforder did happen ; who were the authors of the alarme alarm 

" [by what & whofe order the trayned bands were raifed] 

" and upon what pretexte ; and fuch as you fhall difcover to 

'• be guilty of this fo great offence, that you take a fitting 

" courfe that they may be forthcoming: and further that you 

" certifie this Board with fpeed of yo' proceedings therein, 

" and what you finde [as alfo the names of thofe who at firft Give up 

" importuned you to put the Trayned Bands in amies]. To their 

" the end fome further courfe may thereupon be direfted for names. 

" fettling the peace & quietnefle of the Citty, & for 

" punifhm' of the offenders according to the Laws & Statutes Mufl be 

" of the Realme. Wherein not doubting of y"^ care, we bid punifhed. 

" you very heartily farewell. From Whytehall the 8 of 

" January 164.1. Y' very loving friends. — This day, his 

" Ma'y prefent in Counfell, and by his royall comand, the 

" Vifc' Faulkland was fworne one of H. M. principal 

«« Secretaries of State." 

22$ Arrefi of the Five Members. 

'^ I know not, to be but the fore-runners of 
** five hundred horfe that were laft night to 
" come into the City of London." 
Tendency The univerfal tendency of communities and 
to undue Tjodics of men to undue and exaggerated fears 
is well underftoodj and the prefent naturalnefs 
of fuch fudden fears and panics has been 
fhown ; nor was the chara6ler of the difclofures 
made at the reaflembling of the Committee at 
Grocers' Hall the next morning, of a kind to 
difcontinue or abate them. 

^ XXXIV. First Sitting at Grocers' 

Friday, On the day of the firft fitting at Grocers* 

7t Jan. j^g^]]^ Friday the 7 th, it had been appointed 
to take evidence as to the circumftances of 
the King's attempt of the previous Tuef- 
day, and the charafter and condudt of the 
armed men who accompanied him. " The 
" bufinefs was entered into," fays D'Ewes, 
WitnefTes tc before I came in, and divers witnefles were 

as to out- ... 

rage of " examined in my hearing." Of the ftate- 

'^ ' ments made by thofe witnefles he proceeds to 

Abftraft give an abftradt, confirming in all material 

evidence, poii^ts the account already given, and fupply- 

ing fome additional particulars not without 


It feems certain, from the great mafs of the 
evidence adduced, and fupported even by 
witnefles oppofed to the majority in the Com- 

§ XXXIV. Firfi Sitting at Grocers' Hall. 327 

mons, that, while the King was in the Houfe, a Concerted 
word or fignal was expeded to be given. It ^ ^"' 
was diftindly depofed by feveral, that, when 
his Majefty was coming out of the Houfe, 
divers officers of the late army [in the North 
" and other defperate ruffians " called out signal to 
for the word, but, when they faw no word ^ s^^^"- 
given, they '^ bade make a lane and fo de- Difap- 
*' parted." One of the witneffes, a Captain ment? 
Ogle, depofed that while fpeaking, on the 
morning after the attempt, with one of the 
officers who came with the King, this perfon did 
not fcruple to avow that he and others accom- 
panied his Majefty to be his guard in confe- 
quence of having heard that the Houfe of Com- Neceffity 

111 \ ^r• °' rorcing 

mons would not obey the Kmg, and that there- Commons 
fore it was neceffary to force them to it. " And Kin^ 
" he believed that if, in the pofture that they 
" were fet, the word had been given, they OnJy the 
" fhould certainly have fallen upon the Houfe wanting.^ 
" of Commons." Another witnefs fwore to 
having heard " one of the defperadoes " cry out, 
as he held up his piftol ready cocked, " I will 
** warrant you I am a good markfman, I will 
" hit fure." Another, Mr. John Chambers, 
depofed to the forcible keeping open of the Forcibly 
Commons' door ; to the violence ufed againft opeS'"^ 
the fervants of members of the Houfe ; to the Jj'O"' °f 
firearms with which the King's party had come 
prepared ; and to the interchange of queftions he 
had overheard among them, as to what might 

328 Arreji of the Five Members. 

Counting be the exa6l number of members muftered in 
the Houfe that day. A fimilar piece of evi- 
dence muft be given in the words of D'Ewes : 
" That when the King entered the Houfe, and 
" it appeared that neither Mr. Pym, nor any 
*' of the other four were there, one of thefe 

Ingenuous cc bloody ruffians faid * Zounds ! there are 

confeinon. r i 1 1 1 

" ' none or them here, and we are never the 

" ' better for our coming ! ' " 

An ira- The moft notable piece of evidence, however, 

mtnds. ^^^ given by Captain Hercule Langres, who 

played fo important a part on the memorable 

day ; and D'Ewes enables us firft to publifh 

it. Dwelling in Covent Garden, he faid, he 

AtWhite- had occafion to be in Whitehall on the laft day 

previous ^^ December, the Friday preceding the King's 

Friday, endcavour to arreft the members. That he 

What there underftood from Lieutenant Jenkin, who 

kin\id!"' ^^*^ Command of a company of the Trained 

Bands at Whitehall, that he was then under 

orders to obey one Sir William Fleming. That 

he was with that officer again on the following 

Again at Tuefdav, having heard from a noble gentleman 

Whitehall , .V, ° , . . ,1 , , r . 

on the 4th. who wilhed well to" this nation (doubtlels the 
French ambafTador, Montreuil) of the defign 
Previous of the King's going to the Houfe to be, to take 
gence of out thofe five members by violence which were 
Kings accufed of treafon, if he found them there. 

uelign. _ , _ 

That, feeing his Majefty was to be accom- 
panied to that end with divers officers and 
foldiers armed with halberds, fwords, and 

§ XXXIV. Firjt Sitting at Grocers^ Hall. 329 

piftols, among whom were divers Frenchmen, 
namely Monfieur Fleury and others, he pafTed 
through the roof, got to the Houfe of Com- Paflesover 
mons before his Majelty could come, and efcape 
acquainted Mr. Nathaniel Fiennes therewith. "°^^^- 
Further, that the faid Monfieur Fleury had 
told him, as long ago as fome three weeks, Knew of 
that there would be troubles fhortly here in trouble 
England, that he had guefTed fo before, but ^^'^^^ 

o ' C5^ J weeks ago. 

that now he was fure of it. 

After this e^^idence had been taken, D'Ewes impreffion 

himfelf rofe to ftate to the Committee the im- D'Ewes. 

preffion it had produced upon him, and to 

fuggeft a refolution in accordance therewith. 

'* I moved," he fays, '^ that feeing we had all 
' the material paflages of this defign proved 
^ unto us by feveral witnefTes, I was in mine 
' own confcience fully fatiffied, that if God had Satlffied as 

^ r \ 1 • 1 to purpofe 

^ not m a wonderrul manner prevented it by aimed at. 

' the abfence of thofe our five members, we 

' had been all in very great danger of having 

* been deftroyed. And therefore I did defire 

' that we might refolve the fame upon the 

^ queftion. Others feconded me ; and after To find 

' a pretty while, the queftion enfuing was armed 

' agreed upon. That the coming of the conflia 

'^ foldiers to the Houfe of Commons with his Houfe. 

' Majefty, on Tuefday laft, was a defign to 

' take fome members out of the faid Houfe, Moves 

and carries 
vote to 

' or denial, then to fall in an hoftile manner that efFeft. 

' and, in cafe they fhould find any oppofition ^^^^ ^^ 


Arrefi of the Five Members. 

Sheriffs of 
London in 

as to 

One re- 
plies, the 

Wilde and 

"aye" or 
** no," but 
refleft and 

" upon the Houfe of Commons ; which was a 
'^ traitorous defign againft the King and Parlia- 
" ment." 

Meanwhile Serjeant Wilde, reviving the 
queftion on which D'Ewes had outvoted him 
on the previous day, had fucceeded in obtaining 
orders from the Committee for the attendance 
of the two Sheriffs of London, with the war- 
rants they had received under the hand of the 
King for the apprehenfion of the five members ; 
and now their arrival was announced. They 
were called in, and aflced by Mr. Serjeant 
Wilde whether they had brought with them 
the warrants. Sheriff Garrett, who had 
entertained the King two days before, and 
whofe fympathies were with the popular party, 
anfwered that he had ; the other declined to 
anfwer, on the ground that the duty of his 
place enjoined fecrecy. 

At this point D'Ewes interpofed,and upon his 
motion the Sheriffs withdrew. Serjeant Wilde 
then ftarted up, from the Chair, to aflc whether 
the Committee did not mean to require them to 
deliver in the warrants : to which feme having 
cried Aye, and more No, D'Ewes took upon 
himfelf bluntly to inform the Committee that 
the queftion would not be determined by their 
confufed crying Aye and No, but by their 
confideration and debate what courfe was beft 
to be taken. Suppofe the Sheriffs did deliver 
up the warrants upon demand, what did they 

§ XXXIV. Firji Sitting at Grocers' Hall. 23 ^ 

propofe to do with them ? Unlefs they In- Againft 
tended to keep them, they were better not to warrants? 
demand them ; and, as the cafe then flood, it 
was his clear opinion that they fhould not 
keep them, and therefore not demand them. 
Becaufe, he proceeded to argue (with that 
guarded moderation of tone in reference to Difcreet 
the King, and that defire to avoid any perfonal Jhe^Kfrig. 
queftioning of his prerogatives, by which the 
teftimony he has juft borne to the charadler of 
the attempt of the 4th of January is rendered 
greatly more valuable), though his Majefty, 
being mijled by evil counjel, had in many par- 
ticulars violated their privileges, yet they ftill 
owed him fo much refpedt as not to afTume Refpeft 
authority to take from his minifters, to whom ' "^' 
he had fent them, even thefe manifeftly 
illegal warrants. " Neither do I doubt," 
he continued, with a touch of the humour Touch of 
wherewith he occafionally relieved the grave 
precifion of his oratory, " but they fhall fleep 
" as quietly in the Sheriffs' hands as in our 
" cuftody, who, I believe intend to make but 
" little ufe of them. And indeed the City of 
" London in general, and thofe gentlemen in 
*' particular have deferved fo well of us, as I 
" defire not that we fhould put them upon 
" that flrait as either to offend his Majefly, or An ill 
" difobey us. One of them, you fee, pretends 
*' fecrecy, and the other would gladly be ex- 
" cufed ; and therefore I defire that they may 


Arreft of the Five Members. 

Call m 
and dif- 
mifs them. 


that Five 



D Ewes. 


meets the 

" be called In, and be informed of the good 
** opinion we have of them, and fo be dif- 
" miffed. Some," D'Ewes adds, " feconded 
" me, and others fpake contrary ; but it was 
" overruled that they fhould be called in and 
*' difmiffed, as I had moved : which was done 
" accordingly." 

The next refolution, however, moved in 
difcharge of a duty which the circumftances 
unavoidably forced upon them, was in effedt 
a diredl challenge to the fovereign. It was 
that the five members accufed might and 
ought to come to attend that Committee, 
notwithftanding any warrant iffued out, or 
other matter or accufatlon, againft them. It 
was oppofed by fome very flrongly, and the 
difcuffion was ftill proceeding, when, at 4 
o'clock, D'Ewes quitted Grocers' Hall. His 
opinion was, that this open defiance fhould not 
have been reforted to, until a dired: demand for 
fafety to the perfons of the accufed fhould have 
been refufed by the King ; and apparently he 
wifhed to avoid fupporting a refolution which 
yet he could not confcientioufly have oppofed. 
It was carried, and the members invited to 
attend Grocers' Hall publicly on the following 

The King meanwhile had met, more than 
halfway, the challenge of the Commons, and 
early on the morning following this vote, the 
very day when Falkland received the feals. 

§ XXXV. Second Sitting at Grocers^ Hall. 333 

there came forth a frefh Proclamation, reiterat- Frefh pro- 
ing againft the Five Members the accufation of againft 
High Treafon, and commanding all magiftrates accufed. 
and officers to feize and convey them to the 
Tower. A letter from the Council Board 
alfo reached the Chief Magiftrate, of which the 
objedl was to make the City members refpon- 
fible for meafures taken by them on the night 
of the alarm to proteft the Citizens. It was 
impoffible but that the courfe thus adopted 
fliould precipitate every danger, weaken what Unwlfe 
chances were left to Charles the Firfl-, and ^^^^ ^' 
give unexpedted opportunities and power to 
his antagonifts. 

§ XXXV. Second Sitting at Grocers' 

Within one hour after appearance of the Saturday, 
King's proclamation on Saturday the 8th of j^^ ,^ 
January, commanding all loyal men throughout 
the kingdom to apprehend the Five Members of 
the Commons whom he had accufed of treafon, 
the Committee of the Commons had affembled 
in Grocers' Hall ; and, after renewing the Reply of 
order for the public appearance of the accufed toVin^'s 
members on Monday, preparatory to the return proclama- 
to Weftminfter on the following day, they 
pafled two refolutions. The firfl: : that a 
printed paper in the form of a proclamation 
iffued out for the apprehending five gentle- 
men, members of the Houfe of Commons, 

334 Ar reft of the Five Memhers. 

Open was falfe, fcandalous, and illegal. The fecond : 
Qf^jjg that all adls of the Citizens of London, or 
Sovereign, of any Other perfon whatfoever, for the de- 
fence of the Parliament and the privileges 
thereof, or the prefervation of the fame, were 
according to their duty, and the late pro- 
teftation, and the laws of the kingdom, and 
that if any perfon fhould arreft or trouble them 
for fo doing, he was declared an enemy of the 
Commonwealth. Then were tidings brought. 
Alarming while thefe votes were in progrefs, of a (hip 
"^^^" from Berwick laden with arms having neared 
the Tower ; and this led to the moft important 
ftep yet taken by the Committee. Sir John 
Byron, Lieutenant of the Tower, and Captain 
Coningfley, Lieutenant of the Ordnance, having 
Step taken been fummoncd and examined, it was refolved 
thereon, ^j^^^. j^eafurcs fhould be adopted with all dif- 
A Guard patch for the fetting of a Guard upon that 
fofthe^ great fortrefs (the only fecurity in thofe days 
Tower, for even the fandlity of commercial dealings),* 

J * clarendon admits how vitally important it was to obtain 

" r fecurity for the fafe keeping of the Tower, even in the very 

, language of cavil with which he complains of " the petition 

rp *' brought and delivered in the names of feveral merchants 

" who uled to trade to the Mint ; in which they defired that 

** there might be fuch a perfon made lieutenant of the Tower 

Security to " as they could confide in (an expreffion that grew from 

merchants. " that time to be much ufed), without which no man would 

" venture bullion into the Mint, and by confequence no 

" merchant would bring it into the kingdom." — Hid, ii. 154. 

In that noble fpeech (one of the greateft monuments of 

Pym's eloquence, at once maffive and perfuafive, that exifts in the 

great Englifh language) delivered by Pym before the Upper Houfe 

fpeech to at the Great Conference of the 24th of January, but a few 

the Lords, days fubfequent to the prefent date, when the leader of the 

§ XXXV. Second Sitting at Gr ocas' Hall. 2ZS 

under command of an officer having equally the 
confidence of the City and the Parliament, and Seleftion 
irremovable "without the King's command fig- manding 
« nified by both Houfes." The officer feleded o^"'^ '- 
was the Captain of the Artillery Garden, Skip- 
pon ; " a faithful and able foldier," fays White- 
lock ; a man, fays Clarendon, who had ferved 
very long in Holland, and from a common 
foldier had raifed himfelf to the degree of a Major- 
Captain, and to the reputation of a good skippon. 
officer ; " a man of order and fobriety, and 
" untainted with any of thofe vices which the 
" officers of that army were exercifed in : " a charafter 
man, let me add, very notable in the coming ^"'^ ^^^' 
years, and whofe part in our Englilh hiftory 
dates from this day.* 

Lower Hoxife invited the concurrence and help of the Lords 

in faving the kingdom, but told them that their refufal would 

not diicourage the Commons in faving it without fuch aid, he EfFeft of 

alfo adverts to the evil influences upon trade arifmg from the political 

infecurity of the Tower. " But I muft proteft," he faid, troubles 

" the Houfe of Commons hath given no caufe to thefe on trade. 

*' obftruftions. We have eaf'd Trade of many burdens and 

" heavy taxes j we have freed it from many hard reftraints by 

** patents and monopolies ; we have been willing to part with 

" our own privileges, to give it encouragement j and we have 

*' fought to put the merchants into fecurity and confidence in 

" refpeft of the Tower of London, that fo they might be 

" invited to bring in their Bullion to the Mint as heretofore 

" they have done. We are no way guilty of the troubles. Defence 

" the fears, the public dangers, which make men withdraw of the 

*' their flocks, and keep their money by them, to be ready for Commons. 

" fuch fudden exigents as in thefe great dillraftions we have 

" too much caufe to expe(5l. I muft clear the Commons. 

** We are in no part guilty of this. Whatfoever mifchief 

" thefe obftruftions in trade (hall produce, we are free from it. 

** We may have our part in the mifery, we can have no part 

" in the guilt or dilhonour." 

* Whitelock (i. 191), has preferved for us a fpecimen of 


Arrefi of the Five Member i. 

•Chief of 
the City- 


comes into 
being : 




Order for 
po[fe comi- 

No fuch 



and his 

Liking for 



Captain Skippon was named, before the 
Committee arofe, Major-General of the Mi- 
litia of the City of London. It was an office 
never before heard of, Clarendon fays afterwards 
in his Hiftory, nor imagined that they had 
authority to conftitute. Their authority, it 
might have been replied, fprang into life with 
the proclamation ifTued on this 8 th of January 
1 641 -2, and the letter of that morning's date 
from the Council Board. It had become 
neceflary that the Trained Bands of London 
fhould be under the command of a perfon fit 
to lead them, and authority waits upon neceffity. 
A Sub-Committee was alfo appointed to con- 
fer and arrange, as to the Military arrange- 
ments for Tuefday, with the Common Council 
of London : order having been at the fame time 
iflued, to the Sheriffs of London and Middlefex, 
for the raifing of the pojfe comitatus " for the 
"Guard of the King and Parliament " on the 
occafion of the return to Weftminfter. Little 
was that precaution needed. But even the men 

what he calls thofe fhort and encouraging fpeeches to his 
foldiers which induced the City Bands, all through the Civil 
War, to march forth under his command with the utmoft 
cheerfulnefs. *' Come, my boys, my brave boys, let us pray 
*' heartily and fight heartily. I will (hare the fame fortunes 
** and hazards with you. Remember the caufe is for God, 
** and for the defence of yourfelves, your wives, and children. 
** Come, my honeft brave boys, pray heartily and fight heartily. 
** and God will blefs us ! " Thus would he go all along 
with the foldiers, adds the grave Mr. Whitelock ; talking to 
them, fometimes to one company, and fometimes to another j 
and the foldiers feemed to be more taken with it than with a 
fet formal oration. 

§ XXXV. Second Sitting at Grocers' Hall. 337 

who fat at Grocers' Hall at the clofe of this Com- 
eventful week of January, could not gauge the ignorant 
depth or force of the feeling, which, fince its °^ '^^"' 

•I • . power. 

commencement, had ftirred London and its 
adjacent counties to their depths, and already had 
determined finally the queftion of the fafety of 
Parliament againft the King. Though the 
Committee made arrangements and iflued 
orders as having no longer any fear, they Triumph 
could have formed but little notion as yet '^^^'^^""^' 
of the charadler and kind of triumph where- 
with the great mafs of the people were pre- 
paring, againft the day of the propofed return Members 
to Weftminfter, to celebrate and glorify the ^^^^^ 
men whom the King fo recently had denounced back by 

, , 1 1 J • the people. 

as traitors, and on that very day had agam 
publicly outlawed and profcribed. 

A very ftriking incident occurred before the 
Committee, on this 8th of January, adjourned. 
Word was brought to them that the King, Propofal 
attended by certain members of the Houfe of ?o attend 
Lords, propofed to come in perfon on Monday Com- 
next to the Committee. It was probably a 
mere threat, thrown out in the hope that it 
might compel abandonment of the propofed 
public appearance of the accufed members on 
that day. But, whether really or only colourably 
entertained, the Committee, with confummate 
calmnefs and good tafte, intimated their readi- 
nefs to give dutiful welcome to fuch a vifit, its recep- 
by the degree of preparation they would make 

338 Arrejl of the Five Members. 

Due re- for it. '^ Thereupon they ordered the Captains 

paid. " of the 'Trained Bands that attended them as a 

" Guard fhould take efpecial care that his 

Way to '' Majefty and the Englifh nobihty have way 

for'KbE- " niade for them to come in ; and Sir Ralph 

and No- <« Hopton and Mr. Charles Price, who were 

" the King's fervants, were defired to fiand by 

'* the Officers of the Guard to fee the fame 

" performed^ and to fhew them fuch perfons 

*^ as are of the Englifh nobility." Of courfe 

nothing more was heard of a vifitfrom the King. 

§ XXXVI, Sunday the Ninth of 

Vifitorsin SuNDAY, the 9th of January, faw groups of 
Sd''^'^^^*^ ftrange vifitors in the London ftreets, churches, 
chapels, and chapels. The City had become fuddenly 
and filently filled with other than the famihar 
faces of her Citizens. Men not known to each 
other but by the purpofe that lighted up each 
countenance as they met, men who were com- 
Strangers P^^^^ flrangcrs, fays Lilly, grafped hands 
meeting as firmly, and pafTed on without uttering a word. 
A fettled and quiet determination everywhere 
iliowed itfelf. Large numbers had poured 
Petitioners into London that morning with a petition, 
for Pym. f^gned by feveral thoufands for protection of 
Mr. Pym. They were chiefly of the citizen 
and merchant clafs, but in attendance upon 
them were thickly gathering crowds of appren- 
tices and artizans. Four thoufand fquires and 

§ XXXVI. Sunday the Ninth of January. 339 

freeholders had ridden up yefterday from Petitioners 
Buckinghamfhire to protect their beloved re- dTn. ^'"^ 
prefentative : fubftantial farmers and fturdy 
yeomen, born and bred within the fhadow of 
Hampden's beeches ; gentlemen of landed 
eftate, who had feledled him to obtain redrefs 
for their wrongs : the fame, who, but a few 
weeks before the afTembling of this parliament, 
had in great numbers preferred imprifonment 
to a timorous compliance with unjuft levies 
of coat and condudt money in their feveral 
fliires. They are here now to live or die with 
Mr. Hampden ; to offer fervice to the Com- 
mons ; refpedfully to petition the King. And 
from many a pulpit ifTued forth, on this mem- 
orable Sunday, the folemn greeting of the 
great city to her welcome vifitors. *^ We did 
" hear feveral moft favoury difcourfes out of Savoury 
"the hundred and twenty-fecond Pfalm." 
The noble old words bring back the fervour 
of the true faith, the belief in God and His 
word, the ftern and indomitable refolution, 
which charaderifed this grand time. " Our 122nd 
'^ feet fhall ftand within thy gates, O Jerufalem ! ^ '"* 
" Jerufalem is builded as a city that is compadt 
" together : whither the tribes go up, the tribes 
" of the Lord unto the teftimony of Ifrael, to 
'* give thanks unto the name of the Lord. . . . Text 
" Pray for the peace of Jerufalem : they fhall ^/^^^^^^ 
" profper that love thee ! Peace be within thy 

" walls, and profperity within thy palaces !" 

z 2 

340 Arreft of the Five Members. 

% XXXVII. Preparations for the 

Monday It was nearly ten on the following morning 
lot jan^: ^\^^^ ^^ proceedings of the Committee were 
refumed. The Committee men had found it 
Laftfitting no eafy matter to get to their places ; fo 
cers' Hall thronged were the narrow ways of the Poultry, 
and fo difficult the approach to the magnificent 
old Hall which the wealthy Company of 
Grocers had placed at their difpofal. For, this 
was the day when the accufed members were 
publicly to refume their feats by the fide of 
Crowds their colleagues, and denfe crowds of the 
people had afTembled to give them welcome as 
they pafTed in from Coleman Street. When 
D'Ewes entered, Glyn had been explaining 
the condudl of the Roman Catholic Lord 
Herbert, in a matter which fhowed his loyalty 
to the Houfe ; and this elicited from all fides 
Speeches (the Puritan Sir Simonds himfelf chiming 
and Pen- heartily in with it) an expreffion of gratitude 
nington. and refped. Alderman Pennington then 
rofe to make a communication refpefting 
the Tower ; and what he had to relate con- 
firmed the alarms of the week preceding, 
Sufpefted and eflablifhed the fad: of interferences with 

tamper- i i i r r \ n • 

ings at the the guard and defence of that all- important 

Tower, fortrefs, in dired oppofition to the orders of 

the two Houfes. The hamleteers, who adled 

ordinarily as warders, had been difcharged, and 

§ XXXVII. Preparations for the Triumph. 341 

were not fufFered to re-enter ; while others had 
been introduced in their place. The body of 
canoneers, upwards of forty in number, whofe 
refidence was outfide the walls, had been or- 
dered to take up refidence within ; a company 
of carbineers had joined them ; and, adling with Evidence 
thefe, there were now fome forty or fifty re- ° "^^^' 
tainers of the accufed Bifliops : all difaffedted 
to the Houfe. Several of the old hamleteers, 
being called in, depofed alfo to a6ls of the new 
Governor having a drift entirely oppofed to 
the refolutions of Parliament. The carbineers 
had been introduced fecretly ; within the pafl: 
two days, confiderable numbers of " cavaliers " " Cava- 

. • liers " 

had been permitted to pafs in and out ; unufual 
quantities of ammunition were in fl:ore ; and 
the flood was kept in the moat. A fub-com- Sub-com- 
mittee was appointed, therefore, to examine ™'j"J^j^P" 
further ; and diredion was ifliied for the attend- and Byron 

r r" T I T» fummon- 

ance or bir John Joyron. ed. 

Then rofe Sir Henry Ludlow, the member 
for Wiltftiire, father of the more famous 
Edmund (who upon Sir Henry's death in 1644 
fucceeded him in the reprefentation of his 
county), and fubmitted a vote to be pafl'ed by 
the Committee, and reported to the Houfe, 
declaring it to have been a traitorous con- 
fpiracy in Sir William Killegrew and Sir Motion 
William Fleming to publifli to the Four KiTiegrew 
Inns of Court a fcandalous paper againfl: ^"'i ^^^m- 
Five Members of the Commons. But this 

34^ Arrefi of the Five Members. 

Modera- refolutiorij fays D'Ewes, in a paflage that 
Q^_ exhibits charaderiftically the prevailing defire 
mittee. to avoid all intemperance of expreffion, had to 
be " referred to Mr. Glyn and fome others to 
" put into form, becaufe it was very long, and 
Violent " [contained] too high expreflions of fome 
(Tfl^k^cf^ " cruel and bloody intentions in the faid Sir 
" William Killegrew and Sir William Fleming." 
Soon the fub-committee returned, and the fub- 
joined refolutions were put. The wifh feems 
to have been that all the votes having dired: 
perfonal reference to the outrage committed 
on the Five Members, fhould be taken before 
their appearance among the Committee ; and 
that what was referved for fettlement on their 
arrival jfhould be (imply the order of proce- 
dure for the Return to Weftminfter next day. 
Refolu- The Chairman rofe, and read from the paper 
difTed'and banded to him : That the publifhing of feveral 
paffed. articles purporting to form a charge of High 
Treafon againft certain Gentlemen, members 
of this Houfe, by Sir William Killegrew, Sir 
William Fleming, and others (in the Inns of 
Court and elfewhere, were afterwards inferted), 
Againft was a high breach of the privilege of Parlia- 
the"^i'd°" "^^"tj a feditious ad malicioufly (fo written 
and 4th. in miftake for manifeftly) tending to the fub- 
verfion of the peace of the kingdom, and an 
injury and difhonour to the faid members, 
there being no legal charge or accufation 
againft them. 

§ XXXVII. Preparations for the Triumph. 343 

Further, the Chairman read : That the pri- Againft 
vileges of Parliament, and liberties of the fub- fdiors. 
jed, fo broken, could not be fully vindicated 
u.nlefs the King would difcover who advifed 
him to the fealing up of chambers, ftudies, 
and trunks of faid members, the fending a 
ferjeant to the Houfe to demand them, and 
coming in his own perfon to Parliament to 
apprehend them, to the end that fuch evil 
counfellors might receive exemplary punifh- 
ment. — But as thefe words were read, feveral Againft 
members fuggefted the neceflity of allufion to tions 
the warrants under the King's hand ; and the lAu^^^- 
fadt of the appearance of Serjeant Dandie and 
his company in the City, for the declared pur- 
pofe of feizing the accufed, together with the 
fimultaneous appearance of the Proclamation 
threatening penalties of the law againft all who 
fhould be difcovered entertaining, lodging, har- 
bouring, or converfing with them, became the 
fubje(5t of excited converfation and difpute. 
In the end, the words " and to iflue feveral Againft 
"warrants under his Majefty's own hand to under" ^' 
" apprehend the faid members"* were inferted king's 
in the firft refolution, and the vote was made 
to comprife this addition : And that it was 
lawful for all perfons whatever to entertain, 
lodge, harbour, or converfe with, thofe five 
gentlemen, and that whofoever fhould be 

* Interlineations of the votes as originally put, appear in 
Sir Ralph Verney's Notes, 141, 142. 

344 Arrefi of the Five Members, 

queftioned for the fame was, andfhouldbe, under 
the protedlion and privilege of Parliament. 
Speech by Before the votes finally pafTed, a fomewhat 
remarkable fpeech was made by Maynard, who 
fat for Totnefs. This was the fame able and 
unfcrupulous lawyer who, adling clofely by the 
Hisfellow- fide of Glyn throughout this great bufinefs, 
G^JyiT* as a flickler for the rights of Parliament and the 
people, confented afterwards, with Glyn, to do 
the dirty work of the Refloration ; had the In- 
exprefTible baf^nefs to join with him in con- 
ducing the profecution againfl Vane ; and 
moft juflly drew down upon himfelf and his 
afTociate, even during the orgies of the opening 
Remem- of Charles the Second's reign, contempt and 
thrRefto- tiatred from the common people and citizens, 
ration. who had not, through all that interval of nearly 
twenty years, forgotten thefe their old high- 
flying efforts in behalf of popular rights 
againfl Court and King.* 

For the prefent, however, it is to be ad- 
mitted, in juflice to the member for Totnefs, 

Mr.Pepys' * " BlefTed be God," fays Pepys, devoutly, at the clofe of 

political the long entry in his Diary (i. 179, 180, ed. 1854) of the 

rogues. 23rd April, 166 1, in which he has been defcribing Charles 

the Second's Coronation, " I have not heard of any mifchance 

" to anybody thro' it all, but only to Serjeant Glyn, whofe 

" horfe fell upon him yefterday, and is like to kill him, which 

" people do pleafe themfelves to fee how :uft God is to 

Popular " punifli the rogue at luch a time as this : he being now one 

view of " ^'^ ^'^^ King's Serjeants, and rode in the Cavalcade with 

them. " Maynard, to whom people wifh the fame fortune." And 

who will not remember Butler's immortal couplet ? 

" Did not the learned Glyn and Maynard 
To make good fubjefts traitors, ftrain hard ?" 

§ XXXVII. Preparations for the 'Trhimph. 345 

that he fpoke forcibly, and drove the particu- 
lar queftions home. After enlarging, in the ^^^J^j^^^^"^ 
manner of the time, upon the nature of a parlia- 
Parliament, and its fovereignty in difcovering ™^'^*^ ' 
and curing all difeafes in a Commonwealth ; 
after avowing his confident belief that the long 
intermiflion of thofe affemblies had been the 
fole caufe of all the evils and troubles that had 
happened to his Majefty's kingdoms ; he faid 
that the worthy gentleman below him, in- 
dicating the member for Colchefter, had, on a 
previous day, exprefled in very pregnant 
terms the one great privilege of Parliament to 
which every other fubferved. This was, Not their 

1 n • 1 r \ r • privileges: 

to be queltioned or acculed, tor or concernmg 
any vote, argument, or difpute, during free 
fitting as the people's reprefentatives, either in 
the continuance of a Parliament, or after the fame 
might be diflblved or broken off, either legally 
or illegally. Applying which to the tranfac- 
tions of the 3rd and 4th, he would fay that no the 
greater breach could be committed than to arreft? ^ 
accufe of High Treafon five members of that 
Houfe during the continuance of its fittings, 
for and on account of matters debated on and 
done in the Houfe, in their charader of mem- 
bers thereof ; and then, upon fuch accufation, 
to proceed to break open their chambers, and the 
trunks, and ftudies, and feize upon their books fJJzures! 
and writings. 

For if, faid this ikilful and popular fpeaker. 

34^ Arr eft of the Five Members. 

All public if to be queftioned for free debating or argu- 

bufinefsin . . -.^,. , , .° . .,° 

peril. ing in Parliament were no breach or privilege, 
then could they not fafely intermeddle with or 
agitate any bufinefs whatfoever, concerning 
either Church or State, but what fhould be 
appointed and nominated by his Majefty and 
his Privy Council. And further, if, for things 
done in the Houfe, if, repeated Maynard, amid 
"Well cries of "very well moved," for things ex- 
preflly done therein, freely chofen members of 
that Houfe might be accufed of treafon, then 
would it be dangerous longer to fit in Parlia- 
ment upon any bufinefs of diforders in the 
State and grievances to the fubjeft, committed 
or done by great perfonages, fuch as Lords 
and BIfhops ; feeing that thefe might at any 
Lords and time, by their fubtle inventions, induce his 
uncon- * Majefly to favour their adions, by merely pre- 
trolled. tending to uphold his honour, maintain his pre- 
rogative, fupport his royal power, and the like. 
And finally he had to fay that if upon any 
fuch accufation, the chambers, trunks, and 
ftudies of fuch accufed members might be 
broken open, and their writings feized upon, 
then would it altogether difcourage any man to 
undertake any fervice for the good of his 
country, who fhould fo perceive that he 
might at pleafure be bereaved of fuch means ' 
Men of and helps as alone enabled and rendered him 
abled. ' ' ^^ for duties to the Commonwealth. He 
was for thofe reafons, therefore, favorable to the 

§ XXXVII. Preparations for the Triumph. 347 

votes then fubmitted, and to a declaration to 
be drawn up from the fame for the informa- 
tion and encouragement of all loyal fubjedls. 

The refolutions had fcarcely been voted, 
when a commotion outfide the Hall gave notice Agitation 
of fome frefh excitement, and it was announced 
that a very numerous deputation of failors and 
mariners, mafters and officers of fhips, bring- 
ing with them a petition figned on the fudden Petition of 
by more than a thoufand hands, had come to ^^'^°'^- 
proffer their fervices, in D'Ewes's phrafe, " to 
" be with us tomorrow, to defend the Parlia- 
*' ment by water with mufkets and other 
*' amunition in feveral veflels ; which was 
" accepted by us," and all needful orders made Services of 
in rektion thereto.* Permiffion was given, for accepted, 
example, that all the veflels fhould be fitted 
with artillery, provifo being made that no com- 
mand for firing, fave in the way of falute, 
fhould be given that day, unlefs " the King 
" and Parliament " fhould be firfl afl;*ailed. 
Order was alfo drawn up for the place of ren- To meet 
dezvous. To take advantage of the tide, and corning : 
that the whole fleet might come through bridge 
together, they were " to meet at the Hermi- at the 
" tage at 3 next morning." All which being Hermit- 

* Harl. MSS. 162, f. 309 b. Rufhworth, In his brief p'Eyy^es 
allufion to thefe occurrences {Coll. III. i. 453), fays that it niore cor- 
was on Saturday both the feamen and the apprentices attended ^^^ ^2ci\ 
to proffer their fervice : but D'Ewes, who reports all the Rufh- 
details, is of courfe to be preferred as a witnefs, and he is worth, 
entirely fupported by Sir Ralph Verney's brief record, Notes, 

34^ Arrejl of the Five Members. 


'* water 

fettled, away went the " water-rats," as the 
rats." King bitterly called them, when, hearing this 
day of their proffer fo to guard the Commons 
back to their home at Weftminfter, he felt 
himfelf weaker by one defertion more, and faw 
that his mariners and feamen had gone over 
to his enemies. 
The Five But now came fhouts from without far ex- 
approach, ceeding any that had yet been heard, and the 
Five Members were known to be approaching. 
Enter and They entered amid what D'Ewes calls the 
' " welcome of many," and took their places " in 
" among us." He remarks in what order 
they entered, Hollis and Hafelrig, Pym, 
Hampden, and Strode ; and the imagination 
fupplies all that his fimple expreflion includes. 
Greeting, of the heartfelt fympathy that greeted them, 
and of the determination of the Committee to 
make common caufe with colleagues branded as 
traitors, whofe only title to that vengeance of 
the Court had been the extent of their fervice 
to the Houfe of Commons and the people. 
When they had taken their feats, it was found 
that cries and prefTure ftill fo increafed from 
without that it was expedient to call in a cer- 
tain number as fpokefmen for the great mafs of 
the common people and apprentices, who were 
OfFers faid to be thronging round the doors. They 
coTmon e^'^tered accordingly, and, fays D'Ewes, '■'■ in 
people. " their own names and in the names of all the 
" reft defired to guard the Parliament to- 

§ XXXVII. Preparations for the Triumph. 349 

" morrow. Whereto Serjeant Wilde, by order 

" from and in the name of the Committee, 

" gave them hearty thanks for their prefent offer Thanked 

* ^ and former care and readinefs to guard the ^X ^°'"" 

° mittee. 

" Parhament, wherein many of them had been 
" wounded. For this the Committee hoped 
" to fee them have redrefs in due time : but 
" defired them to keep at home to-morrow for 
*' the guard of the City, whilft their mafters 
^^ did guard up at the Parhament: and that 
" whenfoever we had occafion to ufe them, 
" they fhould have notice from us. One of 
" them anfwered for the reft that they would 
'^ obey our command, and fo departed." 

Still another group from thofe eager crowds offers 
without, however, had by this time forced its s™™h- 
way into the outer pafTages of the Hall, and a ^ark 
paufe had to be made for its reception in the Bands, 
committee room. " Divers," fays D'Ewes, 
" of the borough of South wark then came 
" and offered the afliftance of their Trained 
" Bands to us to-morrow, to come and be our 
" guard at Weftminfter. We told them that 
" we hoped the City of London would take 
' ^ care for our guard : but accepted their offer Accepted, 
" with thanks, and defired them to be in thef"!*'^.^'' 

•* _ to be in 

" fields about Lambeth and in South wark in arms. 
" their arms."* 

Sir John Clotworthy now rofe, and per- 

• Harl. MSS. 162, f. 313 b. I may take this opportunity 
of faying that the entire proceedings of this Monday the loth 
January are comprifed within ff. 312 a, and 313 b. 

350 . Arreft of the Five Members. 

Proteaion formed the great fervice of the day. He 
Com- " reported the heads of the various refolutions 
raittee. which the Sub-Committee named at the pre- 
ceding fitting had fettled with the Committee 
of the Common Council of London appointed 
to confer with them, for provifion of the 
Arrange- Military Guard to accompany the Five Mem- 
Tuefday's bers on their return to Weftminfter on the 
guard. morrow. This was the true pledge of v/el- 
come which the Houfe and the City had been 
all thefe days preparing, and by which they 
became bound, in penalties of treafon they 
would hardly themfelves have queflioned, 
irrevoca- never to recede from the conflidl now pro- 
^^" voiced until a vidory was won. Each article 
of the refolutions was put feparately, and 
a vote taken upon it : not without refiftance 
from fome who were prefent (among them 
Hopton and Price, and Sir Edward Bering ; 
what tone was taken either by Falkland or 
Culpeper is not afcertainable), but with a 
quiet and ftern determination on the part of 
the great majority, as fully confcious of the 
refponfibillties incurred. " It was really trea- 
Raifing " fon," exclaimed Philip Warwick,* "for them 
without " ^° march without the King's commiffion." 
commif- If it were in ftridnefs fo, then fo let it be : 
they believed indeed otherwife, and that, even 
by royalift theories of the conftitution, to fecure 
the fafety of the Parliament and Kingdom was 

* Memoirs i 226, ed. 18 13. 

§ XXXVII. Preparations for the Triumph. 2S 

to provide for the fafety of the King : but to 
the courfe they were now taking, whatever it 
might involve, they had been driven in flieer Refolu- 
felf-defence by their aflailant. voted : 

The firft refolution* was, that it had become Firft. 
neceflary to have a fufficient guard provided 
for the fafety of the King, Kingdom, and 
Parliament. The fecond, that fuch guard Second, 
fhould be raifed out of the City and the parts 
adjacent. The third, that eight companies Third, 
fhould be appointed for to-morrow's guard, to 
aflemble at eight o'clock, under the command 
of Captain Skippon. The fourth, that Skippon Fourth, 
fhould receive rank as Serjeant Major General 
of the City Forces, until the City ordered it 
otherwife ; and that all the officers and men 
who fhould be of the Guard ferving under 
him, were to take the Proteftationf before they 
marched. The fifth, that eight pieces of ord- Fifth, 
nance, with all accoutrements belonging thereto, 

* Thefe all important votes are now for the firft time fet 
down as they were paffed. A copy of them is in Verney's Vemey's 
Notes (14.2-3), but lels correft than that of D'Ewes ; and fo 
unfamiliar ftill was the name very famous afterwards, that 
" Skipworth " is written in every inftance by Verney, inftead 
of Skippon. D'Ewes gives the right name, 

f For the terms of the Proteftation, fee RufJiivorth, III. i. 
241. And for the names fubfcribed to it of the members of 
the Commons (between 4 and 500) and the Lords (numbering 
with the judges and lawyers 106), Ibid. 244-8. The oath The Pro- 
taken included a folemn profeflion of determination to main- teftation. 
tain " the true Reformed Proteftant Religion, exprefted in the 
" Do6lrine of the Church of England, againft all popery 
" and popifh innovation within this realm, and alfo the 
" power and privilege of parliaments, and the lawful rights 
" and liberties of the fubje6ts." 

352 Arreft of the Five Members. 

fhould accompany the Guard ; and that all the 
Trained Bands were to be at their colours, under 

Sixth. Skippon's command. The fixth, that Serjeant 
Major General Skippon fhould not fail to 
perform what was ordered that day; and that, 
until fuch fervices were ended, he was not to 
ftir upon any command or countermand what- 
ever, without confent and direftion from 

Seventh, parliament. The feventh, that Skippon 
and his force were declared to have power, 
fhould violence be offered, to offend and 

Eighth, defend. The eighth, that all Captains were 
to receive order to beat drum, de die in diem, 
from Skippon himfelf; and that all foldiers 
fhould repair to their colours in arms. The 

Ninth, ninth, that all citizens who might be difpofed 
to mount themfelves fhould likewife be com- 
manded by Skippon, and that fuch would be 

Tenth, held as a moft acceptable fervice. The tenth, 
that all ammunition neceffary fhould be pro- 
vided out of the Chamber of London. The 

Eleventh, eleventh, that the Common Council Committee 
were to be confidered free from all commands 
and arrefts, and that they fhould not, until 
further leave obtained from the Houfe of 

Twelfth. Commons, flir out of the City. The twelfth, 
and laft Refolution, declared that all this fervice 
in general, as well as in every particular, fhould 
be held good and acceptable fervice, and legal ; 
and that it fhould be accounted to be for the 
fafety of the King, Kingdom, and Parliament. 

§ XXXVII. Preparations for the Triumph. 353 

Thefe votes having been taken feparately, 
Hampden was the firft to break the filence Hampden 
which the Five Members had obferved fince ^P'^^'^^- 
they refumed their feats. He thanked the 
Committee for his friends and himfelf, craving 
their good counfel as to a matter it behoved 
him to lay before them. " Divers thoufands will you 
" were coming out of Buckinghamfhire with '^"^Y^ ^Y 
** a petition. The petition was to declare ents? 
" their readinefs to live and die with the Par- 
" liament, and in defence of the rights of the 
" Houfe of Commons. He had to ftate that 
" they came in a peaceable manner, and that 
" he thought it his duty to acquaint the Com- 4000 from 
" mittee therewith."* Upon this, however, the "^'''^^^* 
Royalift members prefent appear to have offered 
a refiftance hardier than any by which the Refo- 
lutions were met. Very many, D'Ewes in- 
forms us, fpoke to what Mr. Hampden had 
faid ; and feveral would have had the men 
coming out of Buckinghamihire fent unto to Better go 
have returned thither. But this of courfe was ^^^^ ^ 

* The numbers of Hampden's petitioners are very varioufly What 
ftated. *' As foon," fays Clarendon, fpeaking of the day number 
following the prefent, " as the citizens and mariners were from 
'• difcharged, fome Buckinghamihire men, who were faid to Bucks? 
"be at door with a petition, and had indeed waited upon 
•' the triumph with a train of four thoufand men, were called 
" in : who delivered their petition in the name of the inhabi- Hyde. 
" tants of the County of Buckingham, and faid it was Dering. 
" brought to the town by about fix thoufand men." ii. 166. 
Dering, in the fame letter to his wife in which he dates the 
number at five thoufand, puts in a parenthefis his belief that Rufh- 
they were not more than two thoufand. Rulhworth (iii. i. worth and 
4S6) reckons them at four thoufand ; D'Ewes, at five or fix D'Ewes. 


Arreji of the Five Members . 

No : we 
will hear 

War be- 

den's atti- 
tude and 

Laft aas 
of Com- 

over-ruled. " The greater fenfe of the Com- 
" mittee," fays D'Ewes, " being to let them 
" alone, becaufe we did not know fully the 
" intent of their coming." It was afterwards 
faid by Clarendon that only Mr. Hampden 
fully knew that ; that the levying of war in 
England dated from the day when thofe 
thoufands out of Buckinghamfhire were invited 
to tender their petition ; and that whatfoever 
afterwards was done, was but the fuper- 
ftrudure upon the foundations which that day 
were laid.* The remark is at leafi: rendered 
more intelligible by the pidlure D'Ewes has 
given us of Hampden on the eventful day. In 
the very moment of the paffing of refolutions 
claiming rights of the executive for the Com- 
mons' Houfe alone, to rife and diredt attention 
to ''thoufands" of his conftituents who had 
ridden up from their county to fhow readinefs, 
if need were, to die for that Houfe, difplayed 
at leaft the colleAed and determined fpirit of 
the member for Buckinghamfhire. f 

Only two more a6ls of the Committee are 
recorded by D'Ewes. The firft was a report 
made from the Irifh Committee by Sir Robert 
Harley, to the effed that the Lord-Lieutenant 
of Ireland would, at their fuggeflion, difable 

* Bift. ii. 170. 

t Whitelock, in mentioning the arrival of thefe troops of 
Buckinghamfliire yeomen (i- 156), fays that they brought up a 
petition on behalf of their knight of the fhire, " whereof 
" probably he was not altogether ignorant beforehand." 

§ XXXVII. Preparations for the 'Trhmph. 355 

from his command Captain Hide,* notorious Captain 

for his infolent demeanour on the day of the ^j^^ ' 

attempted arreft. The fecond was their anfwer 

to a meffage from the Lieutenant of the 

Tower. " A mefTage," fays D'Ewes, " came 

" from Sir John Byron, declaring that he 

" heard there were fome complaints here Refufal to 

" againfthim: and that he defired to know J'^";""^ ^'' 

" them, that fo he might make anfwer to Byron's 

" them. We refufed to give his meffenger any 

*' anfwer, becaufe he took notice of what had 

" been ad:ed here, and did not apply himfelf 

** to anfwer by petition. "f With which cha- 

Why ftiould he have been ? The fame imputation is repeated Hamp- 
with addition, in a Royalift Satire (Jpeech againji Peace at den's ftiare 
the Clofe Committee). in Backs 

Did I for this my county bring 
To help their knight againft their king, 

And raife the firft fedition ? 
Though I the bufinefs did decline. 
Yet I contrived the whole defign, 
And fent them their Petition. 

A paflage from the Petition will be quoted ftiortly, and it 
certainly bears throughout the Hampden mark very vifibly 
ftamped upon it. But the charge implied is, that though he Falfe 
appeared to " decline " the fervices of his friends, he had charge, 
really in fecret '* contrived " them. It is the old accufation : 
and I name it here that the reader may fee, by Hampden's 
open and frank avowal before the Committee itfelf, how 
gcoundlefs it is. 

* See Ante 185. Harl. MSS. 162, f. 313 b. D'Ewes's Captain 
exaft expreffion is : "that the Lord Lieutenant would put Hide. 
" out Capt. Hide as we had defired, and that he would fend 
" fuch lifts of the officers as we had defired." 

f Harl. MSS. 162, f. 313 b. The refult finally was, that New lieu- 
Sir John Byron was difplaced, and Sir John Coniers, the fame tenant of 
who was feie6led by Strafford for the defence of Berwick, and the Tower, 
whom Clarendon (in a paffage of hisHiftory, ii. 172, fuppreffed 
by his fons) admits the King had no other exception to than 

AA 2 

2S^ Arreft of the Five Members. 

3 p-m. raderiftic alTertion of having maintained unim- 
a^. """ paired the full plenitude of power with which 
Clofe of ^j^g Houfe had invefted them, this famous Com- 

Commit- . ^ r T-xjT- 

tee. mitee brought its fittmgs to a clofe. D Ewes 

ihut up his note book and quitted the Hall a 
little after 3 o'clock. 

§ XXXVIII. Flight of the King. 
3 p.m. At almoft the fame hour when the member 

ary. Pro- ^^^ Sudbury was leaving the Committee room 
pofed in the afternoon of Monday the loth of 
King. January, Charles the Firft had formed the 
determination to quit Whitehall. 

As the incidents of that laft fitting of the 

Committee were communicated to him, by 

meflengers who pafTed to and fro between the 

City and the Palace, in vain he had attempted 

Acts of to fupprefs his agitation. To an obftinate 

teeToTcl "to incredulity had fucceeded a difmay and bewilder- 

Charles. ment the moft extreme, and long did his 

partifans remember the forrowful humiliations 

of this day. It was, fays Clarendon, the 

trouble and agony which ufually attend gene- 

Confefled that he was recommended by them, was named Lieutenant in 

ufurpa- his ftead. The Houfe did not affefl to difguife from them- 

tions. felves the real drift and tendency of thefe interferences with 

the executive. Clarendon charafterifes their orders as to the 

Tower as " an aft of fovereignty even of as high a nature 

** as any they have fmce ventured upon." ii. 173. And fub- 

ftantially they did not themfelves deny this : but, according to 

D'Ewes, it was rendered abfolutely neceffary "in regard of 

Why ne- " the great jealoufies and diftra6tions of London, the citizens 

celTary. " everywhere fhutting up their (hops and giving over trade" 

in confequence of the infecurity of the Tower. 

§ XXXVIII. Flight of the King. 357 

rous and magnanimous minds upon their 
having committed errors. It was, fays a lefsHistrou- 
partial critic, the defpicable repentance which ^\^^y^ 
attends the man, who, having attempted to 
commit a crime, finds that he has only com- 
mitted a folly. 

His refolve at laft was taken fuddenly. He Takes 
might have liftened, comparatively unmoved, foive!" '^^' 
to the intelligence that the ftreets of his city 
were crowded with freeholders and yeomen of 
Bucks, who had ridden up by " thoufands" to Crowds 
defend their reprefentative Mr. Hampden. ^^^ ^™^' 
He might have heard in fullen filence, if not 
indifference, that fuch a gathering of the 
common people as had not been witnefled fince 
the day of Strafford's execution, were about to 
furround Whitehall with a petition to defend For Pym. 
Mr. Pym.* It would have mattered little to 

* As the copies of this petition, afterwards prefented to the 
King at Windfor, are extremely rare (it is not among the Popular 
King's Pamphlets, and I have indeed never feen but the Petition, 
fmgle copy in my own pofTeflion which was obtained for me 
by the late Mr. Rodd), a few lines may be here taken from it. 
It deals with each article of trealbn feparately ; and thus 
comments upon that which charged the endeavour to fubvert 
the fundamental laws : " This feems contrary, in regard that Pym'sfup- 
" hee hath laboured rather to ratifie and confirm the funda- port of 
" mental lawes ; in his diurnal fpeeches ever fpecifying his law. 
" reall intent, as the inftitution and not the diminution or 
" fubverfion of law." As to the alleged traitorous endeavour 
to fubvert the rights and veiy being of parliaments, this is 
the remarkable and emphatic comment: "To this we may 
" anfwer with great facility, Kee --was the chiefs caufe that Author of 
" this parliament -was ajfembled, and it feems very incongruous ^he Lon? 
" that he ftiould fubvert the fame. Moreover he is the fble Parlia- 
" man that (lands for the antient rights and liberties of parla- i^^nt. 
" ment, and it feems a ftupendous thing that he Ihould aflail 
" the fame." While on this fubje6l I am tempted to add, 

3S^ ^rrefi of the Five Members. 

Alarming him that Contemptuous cries and hooting from 
' the populace were audible at the very gates of 
his palace. But when it was told him that 
fedlions of every clafs of his fubjedls had 
offered allegiance and fervice to the men whom 
he had publicly branded as traitors ; that his 

before the D'Ewes Journal is finally clofed, fome evidence of 

the abufe, not lefs than the praife, of which the great leader 

had fo truly portentous a fhare as well now as to the end of 

Attacks the ftruggle. While, from this period to the outbreak of the 

on Pym. vvar, his vaft influence within the Houfe renders poor D'Ewes 

himfelf, as his diflatiffaftion with public affairs increafes, 

daily more and more peevifh and unhappy, in the Journal 

we alfo find almoft daily evidence of anaults to which he 

was fubjefted out of doors. Now (to take a few inftances 

from amid the events we have been defcribing) it is the 

** Examination of Jno. Sampfon a mean fellow who faid the 

" kingdom would never be in quiet till Mr. Pym & fuch 

*' others as he was were hanged. His excufe, that he was 

" in drink. Sent to Houfe of Corre6lion. Sir A. Brown 

" fhowed that Mr. Nelfon, a fcandalous Minifter in Surrey, 

*' had faid Mr. Pym was neither a gentleman nor a 

*' fcholar." Harl. MSS. 163, 377b, 385 a. On another 

day it is an *' Information given againft two men who 

" Not a " had faid the King was no King becaufe he did not 

gentleman *' take up arms againft the Scots, & that Pym was King 

or fcho- " Pym, and that that rogue would fet all the kingdom together 

lar.*' " by the ears." — lb. 163, ff. 322 a, 331 a. On a third day 

it is a " Report from the Committee of information of one 

" Thomas Shawberie, a graduate of Emanuel College about to 

" proceed a Do6tor of Phyfic this commencement, who had 

" yefter night at the Crofs Keys in Gratious Street called Mr. 

«, Rog-ue " Py'"' ^ Member of this Houfe, ' King Pym ' & ' Rafcal ' 

and Raf- " ^ *^^* ^^ would cut him in pieces it he had him." — lb. 

cal " ^^^' f- 4-^4- ^' ^^^ ™^ ^dd, that out of numberlefs fimilar 

teftimonies to Pym's unexampled influence in the State, and to 

the royalift hatred it infpired in a meafure almoft equal to 

the popular idolatry, one of the moft remarkable will be found 

in a long poem in Mr. Wright's Political Ballads of the Com- 

monnxiealth (pp. 30 — 38, Percy Society), which bears for its 

** Penitent title, " The Penitent Traytorj or the Humble ConfefTion of 

Traitor." " a Devonfliire gentleman who was Condemned for High 

" Treafon, and Executed atTyborne for the fame, in the raigne 

" of King Henry the Third, the nineteenth of July 1267." 

Pym was of Somerfetftiire, but he fat for Taviftock in Devon. 

§ XXXVIII. Flight of the King. 2S9 

mariners and feamen, " the water rats," had " Water- 
deferted him ; that the Trained Bands of 
London and Southwark were in arms againft Trained 
him ; that, for the men whom he would have ^^"^^• 
fent to a public fcafFold, fuch a public triumph 
was preparing as only waits upon Conquerors Triumph 
and Deliverers ; and that, finally, to proted: Jors"'^'^^*" 
and confolidate their triumph, and in his 
defpite to '*' guard the Parliament, the King- 
** dom, and the King," a military force had 
been created, and military rank beftowed — he a fudden 
appears to have yielded all at once to what j^"^^ °^ 

^ -T A J danger. 

is known to have been the counfel of the 
Queen, and to have given fudden directions 
for the flight. 

" The iflue is," wrote Sir Edward to Lady sirEdward 
Dering,* "that the King went . fuddenly out J|^''^"jfJ'' 
*' of town with the Queen and Prince, angered 
** and feared with the preparation of armes to 
" attend us the next day. Nor can I wonder 
** at his purpofe therein ; but approve it. ... 
" The Commons go high : and not only the Commons 
" Houfe, but a Committee of the Houfe, ^P'jJ^ 
" have armed and imbanded the King's fubjefts, 
" not only without his leave afked, but have 
" made a Serjeant Major General to the 
" King^s terror. For thereupon he went out o/" King's 
" towney and not till then. . . . Jealoufies are ^"°^' 
" high, and my heart pitys a King fo fleeting Pity for 
" and fo friendlefs, yett without one noted *^^ ■^'"^' 

• MS. Letter (is"" Jan. 164.1-2) already quoted : ante 48. 

360 Arreft of the Five Members, 

Noted ^^vice." It is not the " noted " vices which 

vices lefs ,, , • 1 • 

dangerous ^^^ molt Qangerous in kings, 
thanfecret. There was doubtlefs much, in the " noted " 
reafons for this flight of a king from the capital 
of his kingdom, to awaken fympathy from fuch 
minds as Bering's : but more fecret reafons 
and purpofes betrayed themfelves too foon, to 
permit the moft ardent of the gentlemen who 
remained loyal to the fovereign to deceive 
Reafon for themfelves as to the temper in which London 
London. ^^^ hz^n abandoned. It was not the fear of 
being deferted by friends, but the mortifica- 
tion of being difabled from ftriking further at 
Hope of enemies. For Charles the Firft, the hope of fo 
fupport ftriking; effedlively exifted now only in the pro- 

ellewhere. . ^ . , 

vinces of his kingdom. Away from London, 
he might purfue his fecret levies ; and, while 
the adlual outbreak of war was delayed, his ab- 
fence could not but diforganife the operations 
of Parliament. The Queen had now refolved, 

A projeft moreover, if fhe could but fcrew her hu (band's 

Queen courage to the flicking place, to carry herfelf 
and her children for the prefent out of Eng- 
land, taking with her the Jewels of the Crown : 
and to leave London was to accomplifh the 
firfl; ftage. The watchful vigilance of the Com- 

Vigilance mons Compelled the detention of the princes ; 

mons. but, in little more than three weeks from this 
day, fhe had fucceeded in that moft material 
part of her defign which fecured freedom of 
adtion and fafety to herfelf, until the war fhould 

§ XXXVIII. Flight of the King. 361 

really begin, and to her hufband the means Secret fer- 
of waging it when once his troops were in penning- 
the field. " By yours of this week," wrote ton- 
Sidney Bere to Admiral Pennington, " I 
" perceive you are ready to fett faile upon 
" fome fervice, wherein I pray God to blefle 
" you w^^' good fuccefle." That was on the 
13 th of January ; and the fervice for which 
the Admiral fo held himfelf thus early in 
readinefs, was undoubtedly that which on the 
23rd of February he performed, of conveying conveys 
to the coaft of Holland the Queen and her g^^^j^'^^^" 
daughter, and the Crown jewels of England. 
In little more than two months fhe had raifed 
two millions flerling. 

The fame letter of the under- fecretary tells Under 
us further what it well imports us to know to the Ad- 
of the circumftances of the King's departure. J^^Tfi; 

•• • iri/-. 13th Janu- 

After mentionmg the triumph of the Com- ary. 
mons in their return to Weftminfter, he con- 
tinues : " The King andQueene toke the day Reports 
"before a refolution to leave this towne, ^"J^^^ 
" wh was alfoe foe fuddaine that they could 
" not have that acomodation befitted their 
" Matie*. They went to Hampton Court that 
" night, next day to Windfor, whence its 
*' confidered they will alfoe departe as this day, 
'^ but whither is uncertaine. The Prince and 
" Pr. Eled:or is with them, but few Lords. 
" EfTex and Holland being here, who offered EfTex and 
" up both their places before his going, but ° ^"'** 


Arrefi of the Five Members. 

Secretary " His Maj*'" would not accept y furrender.* 
Nicholas, tt j^^^ Secretary Nicholas is likewije gone, and 

Refufals to 
pany the 

on Com- 

Final de- 

A libel 

and Pym. 

* Eflex, it will be remembered, was Lord Chamberlain of 
the Houfehold, and Holland Groom of the Stole. The fa6l 
mentioned by Bere confirms a portion of the ftatement of 
Clarendon {Hiji. ii. 163) that thefe officers of the King's 
Houfe had been aflced, and had refufed, to quit London with 
him. It was not, however, until the 15th they applied to the 
Lords, and received order that " to attend the high affairs of 
" the realme as required by their writs was truer fervice to His 
" Majefly than any they could do him at Hampton Court." 
Clarendon fays it was Holland who perfuaded Effex not 
to go : but I can find no evidence in fupport of what he 
adds, that, after leaving the King to his fmall retinue in a 
moft difconfolate perplexed condition, and in more need of 
comfort and counfel than they had ever known him, " inflead 
*' of attending their mafter in that exigent, they moent together 
" into the City -where the Committee fat, and where they were 
" not the leis welcome for being known to have been invited 
" to have waited upon their Majeffies." Holland was capable 
of the aft, but of ElTex it is not to be believed. I may add, 
as the point a/Tumed afterwards fome importance, that one 
of the mofl curious of many fimilar entries in D'Ewes's 
Journal of this date is one which marks the period of the 
final and complete defertion of the King by Holland and 
Warwick, when, caring no longer to refort to the excufe for 
non-attendance out of town, which their parliamentary obli- 
gations fairly fupplied them with, they ceafed to keep even a 
fair face to the King. On the day when the Houfe voted 
judgment againft the Attorney- General Herbert for having 
preferred the articles of impeachment, D'Ewes himfelf handed 
in a flip of paper purporting to contain the declaration of 
Walter Lumley, clothier of Lavenham, Suffolk ; fubfcribed 
feemingly in Lumley's own hand. He flated that he was 
fitting in the houfe of Mr. Ferdinando Poulton, with two 
others ; and that, they converfing together, the faid Poulton 
faid there were fome verfes made about the Parliament, 
namely — 

" One cuckold, two baftards, and a pack of knaves, 

Strive now to make fubjefts Princes, and Princes flaves." 

Who are thefe three, afked Lumley, the declarant, for he pro- 
tefted he knew not of what was meant. To which Poulton 
faid all the world knew Effex to be a cuckold, and Warwick 
and Holland to be baflards, and that they would make 
Pym prince. Having duly informed the Houfe of thefe 
fafts, and put it in pofTefTion of the document eftablifhing 

§ XXXVIII. Flight of the King. 2^3 

*' hath lefte mee here to attend fuch fervices Small 
" as fhall occurre, "uf", if the Kinge fhall per- for'^under- 
" fift in his refolution to retire,* will not be Secretary. 
" much. Howfoever I will expedl the ifTue, 
" and if I bee not fent for, thinke myfelfe 
" not unhappy in my ftay to be freed of an 
" expencefuU and troublefome journey. My 
" Lady Nicholas is much affile ed, and I believe , Grief of a 
'* as well as hee, would for a good round Jumme of staters 
^^ hee had never had the feales. My Lord""^^^- 
** Keeper refuftng to put the greate feale to the 
*' King*s proclamation ag^ the perfons accufedy Lord 
" did alfoe make tender of his charge, but how- ^^^f^l^ 
" foever remaines ftill w^*^ it. And thus. Sir, refign. 
" you fee to what heighth of diftempers thinges 
" are come." f In this fad condition, exclaims 

the fame, D'Ewes goes on to remark that he took an oppor- D'Ewes 
tunlty of telling the Earl of Holland what he had done : and Lord 
" who very well approved the fame with very fair expreflions Holland. 
" to me for it." — Harl. MSS. 163, f. 4.62 b. I need hardly 
add that Lord Eflex is by no means to be put in the fame 
category with fuch men as Lord Holland. EfTex had been 
confident throughout, and never concealed his popular views 
and wiflies. 

* This expreflion (by which the Under Secretary means 
perfifting in the determination to retire from Windfor and 
Hampton Court as well as Whitehall) fhows that the real 
defign of the King, not fimply to efcape the fight or neigh- King's 
bourhood of the Triumph of the Five Members on the nth, flight not 
but aftiially and wholly to quit London and its vicinity until temporary, 
he could return its mafter, had been difcufled at Court, and 
was already known in the Secretary's offices. The certain effisft 
of fuch entire withdrawal, it is alfo obvious from the remark of 
Bere, was well underftood as an abdication of the funftions 
of the fovereign. It will leave us little to do here, fays the 
Under Secretary to his friend the Admiral. 

f MS. State Paper Office. Bere to Pennington : 13 Jany. Union in 
164.1-2. In the fame letter the Under Secretary adds : " In Houfes. 
" the mean time they are united in the Houfes, and the 


Arrefi of the Five Members. 

Royal re- Clarendon, was the King fallen in ten days,* 
from a height and greatnefs that his enemies 


Letters not 

court at 

Porter to 
his wife : 
14th Janu- 

Very old 

'* accorde between the Upper Houfe and Commons grows 
" dayly more eafy .... I fend you herew'** divers printed 
" bookes of feverall ftiles, all w"^*" I leave for yo'^ entertaynm' 
" att fpare howers. Sir John Byron, Lieut' of the Tower, 
" it's thought will yett be difplaced : the Parliam' not being 
" fatiffied w'"" his carriage, and having, as I am told, voted 
" him a delinquent . . The Parliam', it feemes, having [have] 
" taken into confideration the fmall Gard isattprefent att fea, 
" and foe have voted 30 faile to be fett out forthw'*". This is 
" all I fhall trouble you w'** att prefent, in a time foe diftrafted, 
" and wherein is foe little affiirance into what handes letters 
" may fail. Yours I humbly kifle and reft, &c. &c." 

* H'lji. ii. 182. On that "tenth" day the King had gone 
to Windfor, and D'Ewes*s journal gives us a glimpfe of the 
interior of the palace, from the reported fpeech of a mem- 
ber of the Houfe who had accompanied a deputation with a 
meffage, which feems to bear out what is faid by Clarendon. 
" They found," faid Sir John Holland, " a defolate Court, 
" and law not any noblemen, and fcarce thirty gentlemen." 
{Harl. MSS. 162, f. 359 b.) A few days later, when the 
abfence of Endymion Porter from his feat (he reprefented 
Droitwich) was matter of remark, the fame Sir John Holland, 
D'Ewes tells us {lb, 162, f. 386 b.) "fhowed that when he was 
" at Windfor with his meffage, the faid Mr. Porter informed 
** him that he was at that time the only man attending upon 
*' his Majefty in his Bed-chamber to drefs and undrefs him : 
" which was the chief caufe that he could not attend the 
" fervice of the Houfe : and defired him to move the Houfe 
" in his behalf if anything Ihould be faid againft him." To 
which I am fortunately able to add, out of the rich unpub- 
lifhed ftores of the State Paper Office, a letter from Endymion 
Porter himfelf to his " deare wyfe Olive Porter," dated from 
Windfor on the January, that very "tenth" day from 
the arreft to which Clarendon refers. It prefents a picture of 
the ftraits of a married courtier during inaufpicious times, 
which is pleafing as well as highly charafteriftic ; and very 
curious is the view that is given us at its clofe, of the jealous 
care with which the King and Qjieen were now guarding 
their children. 

*' My dearest love, — As for monnies I wonder you 
" can imagin that I fhould helpe you, but you allwayes looke 
" for impoffibilities from mee, and I wi(h it were a tyme of 
" mirrackles, for then wee might hope for a Good Succefs in 
" everie thing. Whither wee goe, and what wee are to dooe, 
" I knowe not, for I am none of the Councell : My dutie & 

§ XXXV J II. Flight of the King. 2^5 

feared, to fuch a lownefs that his own fervants Gloomy 
durft hardly avow the waiting on him ! ^^ 

To the gloomy picture another touch is 
added by a letter of Captain Slingfby * to his 

" loyaltie have tought mee to followe my King and Matter, 

" and by the Grace of God nothing fliall divert mee from Troubles 

"it: I could wifliyou and your Children in a fafe place, but ^f ^ 

" why Woodhall Ihould not bee foe I cannot yet tell. I could courtier. 

" likewife wifh my cabinetts and all my other thinges were at 

" Mr. Courteenes — but if a verrie difcreete man bee not there, 

** and take the advife of the joyner to convaye them thither, 

" theye will bee as much fpoilde in the carridge as w"* the Fear of 

" rabble. Deareft love, to ferue God well is the waye in « rabble." 

*' eueriething that will leade us to a happie end, for then 

" hee will blefs, and deliver us owt of all troubles : I praye 

" you have a care of your felfe, and make much of your 

" children, and I prefume wee fliall bee merrie and enioye 

*' one another long. I writt to you and fent the letters by 

" Nick on tuefdaye, but that rogue is drunke, and I heare 

" not of him. If you remember my ferviceto M" Eures, and 

" tell her that I am her faithefull Servant, I will give you King and 

" leaue to kifs M" Marie for mee: I nvijh fvoeeteTonfu^ mee. Queen 

"yor the King and Siueene arejorced to lie -xu'* theire children lying with 

*' noijoe and I enuie their happines. I praye you lett this their chil- 

" berer cum to me againe, when you heare where wee reft : dren. 

" and foe Godnighte, fweete Noll. 

" Y"^ true frend and moft loving huftjand, 

" Endymion Porter. 

" Windfor this 14th of Januarie 1641." 

I may add a further very notable illuftration, from an un- 
publiflied letter of Dering's, of the difficulties and hardfhips 
now incident to the courtier's trade. ** The times," he writes Defperate 
to his wife, " are defperate, and £100 in hand may quickly times. 
" be worth £100 per annum. Will. Gibbes wrote yefter- 
" night for my advice. He would faigne attend the King 
" with his perfon, as other Cavaliers do : but his purfe is 
" empty, and the King foe poore that he cannot feed them King's 
" that follow him. I was told that the prince one night poverty. 
" wanted wine, and another candles." By the Prince rauft 
be intended the Prince Eleftor. 

* As this is probably the laft time I fliall have to refer to 
Captain Slingft)y, I may mention that on the Reftoration he Slingflay 
was made a Baronet and Comptroller of the Navy ; that he is and Pepys. 
frequently referred to in Pepys s Diary; and that, in recording 
his death at the clofe of Oftober i66i, Pepys fpeaks of him as 
" a man that loved me, and had many qualitys that made me 


Arrefi of the Five Members. 

to Pen- 
nington : 
14th Janu- 

ed change 

the King. 

at Kingf- 


Admiral one day later, on the 14th of January, 

which reveals fomewhat more of the alarm and 

danger of the time. He defcribes what had 

happened fince the famous day at Guildhall ; 

and how that he, and all who accompanied the 

King on the 4th, were now fet apart and 

" efteemed criminals," while the gentlemen ac- 

cufed of treafon pafTed with greater honour and 

applaufe than ever, having been brought back 

magnificently guarded to their feats at Weft- 

minfter. *' The King the day before," he 

continues (I omit his allufion to the Bucking- 

hamfhire horfemen who had ridden up to town 

to offer their fervice to the Parliament), " w*'^ 

' the Queene and all their children, went 

' away difcontentedly, attended not with 

^ many lords or old courtiers, but with the 

' officers of the late army in good numbers. 

^ He went firft to Hampton Court, then to 

' Windfor: this day removed from thence, 

' whither I knowe not: but fome fay to 

* Portfmouth, others to Woodftocke, and 
' from thence to Yorke. There was yefter- 
' day a great feare in the Cittie by reafon it 

* was reported that Coll. Lunfford had made 
^ proclamation in Kingftone for all of the 
'■ Kinge's party to come to him. If any fuch 

* to love him, above all the officers and commiffioners in the 

* Navy." Diary (ed. 1854) i. 229. Captain Carterett, though 
an older man, furvived Slingfby eighteen years. He did im- 
portant Royalift fervice during the Civil War, and obtained 
high rank as well as feveral lucrative employments at the 

§ XXXVIII. Flight of the King. 2^*^ 

" thinges were, I believe It was but fome "Drunken 
'^ drunken flourifh of fome of thofe fouldiers °"" * 
'^ that followed the King : yett the Houfe 
" hath fent order to the Sheriffs to apprehend 
" them, and have, as I heare, fent likewife to 
" Portfmouth to forbid the admittance of any 
" fuch into the towne, as may breed tumult 
" there."* 

Capt. Slingfby makes light of the Lunfford Sufpjdous 
proclamation as a '^ drunken flourifh," but he tions! " 
yet conneds it with the foldiers who were fol- 
lowing the court, j" and we have feen with 
what defigns at this time, at leafl; not unknown 
to the King, Clarendon couples Lunfford's and 
Digby's names. J Except for Charles the Firft's Digbyand 
exprefs difapproval on the fcheme being fub- ^"""°™- 
mitted to him, he tells us that the accufed mem- 
bers would either have been feized and taken 

•MS. State Paper office. Slingfby to Pennington : i4.Jany. 
164.1-2. The clofe of the letter is very charafleriftic. " All Agree- 
" thinges go now currantlyon in the Parlament with out any ment in 
" apparent oppofition : the malignant partie having all left Houfes. 
" the towne: only the Tower doth yett breede fomejealoufies. 
" The Left' refufeing to come to the houfe, being fent for : 
*' and refufmg to take the Proteftation w'^'' was fent to him. One ex- 
" Some Viftuals going to the Tower were flopped, and this ception. 
" day I heare it is abfolutely blockt up : the feamen have 
" offerd their fervice to batter it. A day or two fince it was 
" foe dangerous faying anything, y' a man could not be 
" affured of his life in fpeaking anything. Fa6lions were fo 
*' hott. But now the Language of the Par: is only currant. Faftions 
" I pray God fend us better unitie, but I can hardly expeft fubfiding. 
" it : though I thinke there are twice as many plotts dif- 
" covered and printed than are really contrived." 

f Clarendon alfo ftates (ii. 163) that befides his own 
gentlemen, " thirty or forty" of the officers of the Whitehall 
Guard alfo attended him. 

J Jute, 205, 288, 322. 


Arreft of the Five Members, 






to King 
for its re- 

Charles I, 
quits Lon- 

Never to 
return as 

to prifon, or left dead in Coleman Street ; and 
it is certain that the King's rejedion of either 
this, or fome other plan, which he had been 
difpofed to entertain on the firft failure of the 
arreft, was made matter of warning to him in 
later years. " You fee," wrote the Queen, 
urging him afterwards to as rafh an enterprife, 
"what has happened /r6?;>;^ not having followed 
" your fir Jl refolutions when you declared the Five 
" Members traitors. Let that ferve you for an 
" example, and dally no longer with confulta- 
" tions."* 

Under fuch advice is the ill-fated King 
abandoning the metropolis of his Kingdom. 
He confidently believed that he fhould foon 
return to it as its mafter, but he never again 
faw Whitehall until he was led through it to 
the fcafFold. Before 4 in the afternoon he 
ftepped into his coach with the Queen and 
their children, called to the window the 
Captain of the Trained Bands who had been 
in attendance at the palace during the laft two 
eventful months, thanked him for what he 
had done, and drove off to Hampton Courtf 

* Harl. MSS. 7379. Quoted in the Fairfax Corre- 
fpondence, ii. 335. 

f Let me refer the reader who is not acquainted with the 
Guizot's book to M. Guizot's lately revifed and enlarged edition of his 
Hiftory. Hijioire de la Resolution d' Angleterre. I know of no narrative 
of the incidents of Charles the Firft's reign, within the fame 
compafs, at all comparable to it for fulness, accuracy, and 
pifturefquenefs. The account of the incidents under notice 
is a delightful fpecimen of narration, clofe and fpirited j the 
obfervations are always thoughtful, confiderate, and tern- 

§ XXXIX. Return of the Five Members. 369 

And now, to adopt the expreflion of Cla- The Five 
rendon, it only remained to place the Five^hel^^ 
Members " on their thrones" "thrones." 

\ XXXIX. Return of the Five Members. 

Tuesday the eleventh of January, 1 641-2, Xuefday, 
was a clear bright winter day, and never had "thjanu- 
the great river, or either of its fhores, pre- 
fented fuch a fcene as had there been vifible 
fince day break, from London Bridge to Weft- March of 
minfter ftairs. By land, the City Trained j^JJ^^ ^ 
Bands on the one fhore, and on the other 
the Trained Bands of Southwark, lined the 
road up to the very avenues of the Commons' 
Houfe; and by water, guarding that filent Guard by 
highway through which the members were to '^^'^^'■• 
pafs, appeared on either fide, connedling both 
the bridges in two compact and glittering 
lines, a fleet of veflels and long boats, arm.ed 
with ordnance, and '^ drefTed up with waift- 
*^ clothes and ftreamers as ready for fight."* 
On all fides the afped: of a feftival ; eager Great 
animation, movement, light, and colour: but 
no mere holiday gaiety. Blendingwith whatever 
could give brilliancy to the fcene, were figns 
everywhere of the folemn and earneft work in No mere 
hand. The men who ferved the ordnance on ° ' ^^'* 
board the vefTels flood with their matches 

perately juft ; and the flyle throughout is charming. This 
enlarged edition has been fairly tranflated by Mr. Scoble 
(Ed. Bentley : 2 vols. 8vo. 1854.). 
* Clarendon, Hijl. ii. 164.. 


Arreji of the Five Members, 

pikes and 
mufkets : 

votes of 

tion at 
" Three 


lighted ; and, fixed upon the pikes of the 
foldiers, attached to their muflcets, flapping 
round their enfigns and colours, looped in 
their hats, or faftened on their breafts, were 
printed copies of the folemn Proteftation, 
which bound all who took it to the rendering 
up life itfelf on behalf of the liberties of Par- 
liament and the maintenance of the Proteftant 
religion.* Manned by officers and feamen of 
the navy who had volunteered this fervice, one 
of the largefl: and richeft: of the City Companies' 
Barges had been provided and fitted for the 
Five Members ; and in this, at midday, they 
embarked "from the Three Cranes," f and fo 
returned to the feats from which their fove- 
reign had vainly hoped to banifh them for 
ever. " They returned," wrote the Under- 
Secretary to Pennington, " with fuch multi- 
tudes as had " far more of Triumph than 
" Guard ; and the feamen made fleetes of boates 
" all armed with mufquetts and murdering 
" pieces, w'^'* gave vollees all the way they 


"There was one circumftance," fays Clarendon, "not 

Clarendon " to be forgotten in the inarch of the City that day, when 
faw. " the fhow by water was little interior to the other by land, 

" that the pikemen had faftened to the tops of their pikes, and 
" the reft in their hats, or their bofoms, printed papers of the 
" Proteftation which had been taken and enjoined by the 
" Houfe of Commons, the year before, for the defence of the 
" privilege of Parliament ; and many of them had the Printed 
" Votes of the King's breaking their privileges in his coming 
" to the Houfe and demanding their members." ii. i66. 
D'Ewes will be found to notice this aKo, pojif 364. 
f Rujh'worth, III. i. 484. 

§ XXXIX. Return of the Five Members. 371 

" went."* Arrived at Weftminfter, the en- Welcome 
thufiaftic applaufes of the people who had ^infter." 
crowded to give them welcome, outrang even 
the clattering difcharges of ordnance which 
faluted them as they landed. They pafTed up 
the jdairs, and into the lobby of the Houfe. 

The Speaker and the members ftood up Entrance 
as the Five entered and took their accuftomed ^0°^^^ 
places. The inftant after, all the Five arofe, 
and while Hampden, Hollis, Hafelrig, and 
Strode ftood filent and uncovered, Pym ten- pym 
dered in the moft earneft language their hearty ^^^"^^^ ^^^ 
thanks to the citizens of London. He faid 
that he could not but refer to the unexampled 
fcene they had that day witnefTed. Such had 
been the kindnefs, the affedtion, they had found 
in the City, that if the mode of exprefling it, 
on this extraordinary occafion, had been fome- 
what unufual, the honour of the Houfe was Striking 

•' expreiuons 

neverthelefs engaged to proted: and defend the ufed. 
citizens againft all poflible confequences thereof. 
The words (reported by Clarendon)f are ex- 
tremely ftriking ; and moft fignificant was the 
appeal they involved from one fupreme power 

* MS. State Paper Office. Sidney Bere to Pennington, 1 3th Bere to 
January, 1 64.1-2. The title begins : " The laft weeke I Penning- 
** told you but the beginning of thofe bad enfuing newes wee ton ; 
" muft now dayly expeft, unlefle it pleafe God to give a ftrange, 1 3th Janu- 
** if not miraculous change, whereby to fettle the diftraftion ot ary. 
" affaires. The Committee fitting all laft weeke in y* Citty, 
*• returned againe to Parliament on Tuefday, and the perfons 
" accufed w"* them, for whom both citty and country have 
♦* ftiown foe much affedion 1 " 

t Hijl. ii. 165. 

B B 2 

372 Arreft of the Five Members. 

Impreflion in the State, to another which was to afTume 
Royalift from that day a more than equal fovereignty. 
member. Some idea of the impreffion made upon even 
a member of the Houfe who fympathifed with 
the King, appears in what Sir Edward Bering 
Would now wrote to his wife. " If I could he Pym 
King " with honejly, I had rather be Pym than King 

Charles or cc Qharlesr^' 

Pym ? In the fame letter, written the next day but 

one after the great feftival, the member for Kent, 

after telling his wife that " heere have been five 

Letter of « thoufand petitioners out of Buckingham- 
Sir Ed- ,, -, . -T , . ,. ^ 
ward Ihire to ofter their hves to execute our com- 

Denng. cc niands," proceeds to tell her further, that by 

the help of God fhe was not to fear for his 

perfonal fafety, for that many thoufands had 

guarded them on the Tuefday, and that each 

day now the Houfe itfelf was provided with a 

Guard fufficient Guard "againft HO enemy." But fome 

enemy "° members of the Houfe had been in danger, 

and how could any fingle member in future be 

reckoned fafe ? In vain did even this loyal 

knight of the Ihire for Kent, notorious for his 

refiftance to the Remonftrance, aflure and re- 

aflure his friends down in his native county. 

Members " Mr. Bullock camc and offered," he writes, 

ftilHn ^ *^ with his friends, to be my perfonall Guard. I 

danger. f c refufed itt, but could not perfuade him from my 

" fidcy from morning to nighty unlefs in the 

*' very Houfe''' The incident better explains 

* MS. Letter before referred to, 48, and 358. 

§ XXXIX. Return of the Five Members. 373 

what the feeling was, which had brought thou- Why 
fands out of Buckinghamfhire to the fide of men came. 
Mr. Hampden. 

When Pym had ceafed fpeaking, and when Thanks 
there had been called in, fucceflively, the sLaker. 
Sheriffs of London, the Mafters and Officers of 
fhips, and Serjeant Major-General Skippon, to 
receive thanks from Mr. Speaker, Hampden's 
colleague in the reprefentation of Buckingham- 
fhire (Mr. A. Goodwin) arofe, and begged of Speech by 
the Houfe that fuch of the gentry of that 
county as had been appointed to bear their 
petition* might be called in to deliver it. 

* The opening fentences of this petition, which, if not written Bucks 
by Hampden, may be fafely taken as the exaft expreflion of his petition to 
views, are charafteriftic and worth quoting: "That whereas, Houfe. 
" many years paft, we have been under very great prefTures, for 
'■^ nxhich are clearly fet forth in the late Kemonfirance of the 
*' Houfe of Commons ; the Redrefs whereof hath for a long 
" time been by you endeavoured with unwearied pains, tho' 
"not with anfwerable fuccefs ; having ftill your endeavours 
** fioiftrated or retarded, and we deprived of the fruit thereof, 
" by a malignant fadion of Popifh Lords, Bifhops, & others ; Viewsheld 
" and now, of late, to take from us all that little hope which by Hamp- 
" was left of a future Reformation, the very Being of the den. 
" Parliament fhaken ; and, by the mifchievous practices of 
" moft wicked counfellors, the privileges thereof broken in 
" an unexampled manner, and the members thereof unaflured 
♦' of their lives, in whofe fafety the fafety of us and our 
" Pofterity is involved : We hold it our duty, according to 
" our late proteftation, to defend and maintain the fame 
" Perfons and Privileges, to the uttermoft expenfe of our lives 
" and eftates." The laft fentence is alfo remarkable. After 
ftating fuch meafures againft evil counfellors as they believe 
to be called for, they clofe thus : " Without all which, your 
" Petitioners have not the leaft hope of the kingdom's peace, 
" or to reap thofe glorious advantages, which the fourteen Petition to 
" months Seed-time of your unparallelled endeavours have Kin?. 
" given to their unfatiffied expeftations." A fimilar peti- 
tion was taken to the King at Windfor two days after 
this was delivered to the Commons. Nor was it the Bucks 


jdrreji of the Five Members, 


Its guard 
of 6000. 

Crowd and 
prefliire in 

in Weft- 

" Little 



the King. 

Whereupon, the fame being afTented to, the 
petition was brought in, and they who bore it 
informed the Houfe that it had been accom- 
panied to the town by above fix thoufand 
men, not one of whom but was ready with 
their lives and fortunes to defend them, the 
honorable members of the Commons, or, if 
need were, againft whomfoever fhould in any fort 
illegally attempt upon them, to die at their feet. 
" And then," fays D'Ewes, "they withdrew 
" out of the Houfe: but they were fo many, 
" and the prefs was fo great in the Lobby and 
" room next without the door, that they were 
*^ a good while before they could get out."* 

D'Ewes followed them, and went to walk 
a while in Weftminfter Hall. There, cluftered 
in various groups, ftood citizens of the 
Trained Bands belonging to the eight com- 
panies who had guarded the Members that day. 
And D'Ewes noted upon the tops of their pikes, 
hanging like little fquare banners in the now 
ftill and quiet air, copies of the Proteftation 
for defence of parliament and maintenance of 
religion, t 

men alone who thus followed the King to his retire- 
ment. Others, according to Clarendon, promptly followed the 
example: "Though the King had removed himfelfoutof 
" the noife of Weftminfter, yet the effefts of it followed him 
«« very clofe ; for befides the Buclcinghamftiire petitioners, who 
" alarumed him the fame or the next day after he came to 
" Hampton Court, fe'veral of the fame nature ivere every 
" day prefented to him, in the name of other counties of the 
" kingdom," — HiJI. ii. 176. 

* Harl. MSS. 162, f. 317 b. f lb. i6z, f, 318 a. 

§ XXXIX. Return of the Five Members, 375 

Meanwhile, before the Houfe rofe, between 
7 and 8 on that " ever to be remembered " Departure 
day, the departure of the King from London noted"^ 
had been remarked upon by honorable mem- 
bers, and the matter was referved for debate 
until the following morning. Accordingly, on Queftion 
that Wednefday the 1 2th, the Chancellor of the pgpe" " 
Exchequer wifhed to know if he ftiould move 
his Majefty to return to London, to come 
to a proper underftanding ? But Sir John 
Culpeper failed to elicit any fatiffadlory reply. 
Again, next morning, Thurfday the 13th, the 
queftion was renewed ; and, fays D'Ewes,* Queftion 
" Sir Henry Cholmely moved that we fhould Henry 
" fend to his Majefty to exprefs our grief C^°™^^y- 
" for his abfenting himfelf from us, and to 
" defire him to return, and to conceive that 
" we are his beft and fureft guard. But Mr. Anfwered 
^'- Denzil Hollis Jlood up , and /aid ^ that /^V/ hqIHs. ^' 
" himfelf and the other members of this Houje 
" accufed of High 'Treajon were clear ed, and the 
" violation of the privileges of this Houfe in their 

" per/ons were redrejfed '* 

My Narrative clofes here. The blank left is Clofe of 
D'Ewes's own; and what yet there might have 
remained to tell, is better expreffed in that elo- 
quent filence. Of one of the moft memorable in- 
cidents in ourEnglifti hiftory,more than enough 
will perhaps be thought to have been faid in 
thefe pages. But it had confequences which 

* Uarl. MSS. 162, f. 329 b. 


Arrefi of the Five Members. 

of Com- 
Crown , 

Why fuc- 

Queftion were not determined even when the ftruggle 

not fettled . - . °f , 

in one of that generation cealed, and its adlors, noble 
Sn!"^^' ^"^ ignoble, were alfo pafled into filence. 
Every popular privilege won by the Commons 
in the long fubfequent ftruggle with the 
Crown, owed fomething to this firft grand 
conflicft : and if their rights and powers are 
at laft harmonioufly adjufted, it is becaufe, in 
the momentous fcenes which have been here 
defcribed, violence in the Chief of the State 
was at once met by prompt refiftance ; and 
allegiance to a fovereign who had broken the 
laws, was held of lefs account than that higher 
allegiance which all good men owe to their 
country and to pofterity. 

§ XL. Conclusion. 
Arreft of \^ ^^^y introdu(5tory remarks it was ftated 

members 3, 

deliberate that the Arreft of the Five Members was no 
• exceptional ad on the part of Charles the Firft, 

extreme and violent as it was, but fhowed 
a ftri(5l agreement with what had gone before 
it ; and, happily for thofe againft whom it was 
aimed, only baffled its own deliberate and well- 
planned defign by betraying it prematurely. 
The juftification of the leaders of the Com- 
mons for the courfe they immediately took, 
with all its daring refponfibilities, confifted 

Only to be folely in this. Force was to be met by force ; 

way. 1 and when Charles and his armed attendants 
I pafled through the lobby of the Houfe of 


§ XL. Conclujion, 377 


Commons on the 4th of January, the Civil '^^ ^'^'^ 
War fubftantially had begun. Clarendon him- gm by It. 
felf admits as much when he calls it '^ the moft 
" vifible introdu6lion to all the mifery that 
" afterwards befell the King and Kingdom."* 

The arreft of the Five Members was the final ne6Hon' 
ftage of the ftruggle againft the Grand Remon- with 
ftrance. That Appeal to the nation was de- ftrance. 
figned to exprefs the danger which had arifen to 
the popular caufe from defedlions of its former 
fupporters, to exhibit the paft as a warning for 
the future, plainly to fet forth the prefent in- Defign of 
fecurity of every conceflion that had been jti-aTce"^ 
wrung from the King, and to invoke the 
People to defend and keep what had been won 
for them fo hardly. The Arreft was a violent ^"1^*^°^ 
effort to reverfe the eleven votes by which the 
vidory was achieved, and to conftitute the 
leaders of the minority, to whom the higheft 
offices in the State had meanwhile been given, 
matters of the Houfe of Commons. The ^° '"^^^ 

the mino- 

iffue was a plain one, and admitted only of the rity maf- 
harfh arbitrament to which finally it was Houfc * ^ 

If, indeed, it had been pofTible to believe 
that it was in the nature of Charles the Firft to 
have left it honeftly to fuch men as Falkland, 
Culpeper, and Hyde to adminifter the Govern- improba- 
ment fubjed: to fuch conceffions and fafeguards 
as had been wrefted from the prerogative during 

* State Papers : Supplement to vol. iii. p. Iv. 

37^ Arreji of the Five Members. 

the paft year, there might have been a cafe 

Peculiar agalnft the adoption of meafures which forbade 

oF'Kin'g. ^^^ poffibility of compromife. But a peculiar ne- 

ceflity was created by the charafter and opinions 

of the King. It was not merely that his bad faith 

was ineradicable ; it was not even that he was 

underftood to hold the high monarchical theory 

Nullity of of the nullity of ftatutes in diredt reftraint of 

ftatutes in ^j^^ prerogative ; but that he was known to 

bar or pre- , . 

rogadve, entertain the belief, that, in reludlantly giving 
afTent to the moft important of the meafures 
pafTed by the Long Parliament, he was giving 
it under compulfion, and that fuch aflent was 

All recent therefore ipfo faBo invalid. With thefe views, 

3.ClS 1 11 

peril, let him once be relieved from preffure and 
everything gained for public liberty was loft. 
Clarendon himfelf informs us that his Attor- 
ney-General, Herbert, had encouraged him in 
the notion that the a6b againft the difTolution 
of the Parliament without its own confent was 
for fuch reafons void ;* and in mentioning his 
aflent to the Bill excluding the Bifhops from 
Parliament, he makes ufe of thefe remarkable 
Aflent exprefTions : j- " An opinion that the violence 
pulfion^'^" " ^"^ force ufed in procuring it rendered it 
void, " abfolutely invalid and void, made the con- 
" firmation of it lefs confidered, as not being 
" of ftrength to make that ad good, which 
Dangerous cc ^^s in itfelf null. And I doubt this lo7ic had 

logic. o 

* Life a]id Continuation, i. 206-211. 
f Hist. ii. 253, 

§ XL. Conclujlon, 379 

" an influence upon other a£is of m lefs moment 
" than theje.^^ How was It poflible to deal 
on equal terms with fuch an antagonift ? 

Let the pofitlon be confidered, too, in which Pofition of 
a charge of treafon fpecifically made, and which accufed. 
yet the accufer would neither profecute nor 
retradt, left thofe who were fo accufed. That 
ftartling remark of Hollis with which my nar- 
rative clofes, throws confiderable light upon 
this point ; and Whitelock has an obfervation 
to the effedt that the moft powerful of the Refufal to 
members accufed (he alludes to Pym and P''°^^.^il*'^ 

_ ^ /or with- 

Hampden) peculiarly refented the King's re- draw 
fufal fpecifically to withdraw the charge.* So '^ ^^^^' 
much indeed has been frankly avowed by 
Pym himfelf. In the Vindication which he 
publifhed when the war broke out, he does not 
hefitate to avow that from the hour of that " vindi- 
unjuft impeachment his own condu6l was ^Y^m. ° 
changed. " When," he fays, " I perceived 
'' my life aimed at, and heard myfelf pro- 
^' fcrlbed as a traitor, merely for my intirenefs 
*' of heart to the fervice of my country ; when 
** I was informed that I, with fome other 
" honorable and worthy members of the par- 
" liament, were, againft the privileges thereof. Why he 
" demanded even in the parliament houfe by 5^55^"^^^^^ 
"his Majefty, attended by a multitude of^fterar- 
*' men-at-arms and malignants, — while for 
" my own part I never harboured a thought 

* And see Memcrials, i. 158 (Ed. 1853). 

380 Arreft of the Five Members. 

Parlia- <c which tended to any diflervice to his Ma- 

ment his , , -, , - . . • j- • 1 

only *^ jelly, nor ever had any nitention prejudicial 

refuge. c t ^q ^^ State, — no man will think me blame- 
" worthy in that I took a care of my own 
" fafety, and fled for refuge to the protection 
" of the Parliament." But how much more 
intolerable fuch condud to a man who had 
Traitor or refufed, only a few days earlier, one of the 
higheft employments in the State, proffered 
to him by his accufer ! 
King will Xhe dogged obftinacy which was alfo a moft 
thing but material feature in the character of the King, 
chlr'^r"' '^^^ ^^^" ^^^^ indeed ftartlingly difplayed. 
The day after the return of the Five Mem- 
bers, he fent a meflage to fay that he waived 
Willwaive ^}^g impeachment begun on the ^d, and in- 

impeach- ^ ° , . 

ment : tended to proceed thereupon in an unqueftion- 
able way. The next morning, replying at 
Windfor to the petition of the Freeholders of 
Bucks, he told Mr. Hampden's conftltuents, 
not that the charge was withdrawn, but that 
he would much rather that worthy gentleman 

Hampden" ^^^^'^ prove innoccnt than be found guilty, 

is inno- and that meanwhile he jfhould not conlider his 
crimes as in any fort refleding upon thofe 
good fubjeds who had eleded him as their 
knight of the Ihire ! Eight days later, the 
Houfe afked for proofs of the charge : to 

will indift ^hich after three days he replied, that he could 

at common _ -' r * 

law : not difclofe his proofs, but that no time fhould 

be loft in preferring an indidlment at common 

§ XL. Conclufion. 381 

law in the ufual way. Nine days later, the "^^^^ 
Houfe demanded once more to be informed, all pro- 
before a fpeciai day named, as to the nature "^'^'"gs : 
and proofs of the alleged treafon with a view 
to early and legal trial thereof: to which the 
King replied by deferting the intended profecu- 
tion altogether, and by offering a general pardon, will give 

m~m~t cox ffcncrs.! 

The Houfe then fpecifically claimed as their pardon : 
right, under certain ftatutes which they cited, 
that the King fhould not only, in addition, clear 
the members perfonally, but give up the names 
of the counfellors under whofe advice they had 
unjuftly fuffered. Still he was immovable, but 
A Bill for the acquittal of the Members was nothing- 
thereupon pafled, and an impeachment of the 
Attorney-General voted. To fave Herbert 
from punifhment, he would at once have taken Attomey- 
all refponfibility to himfelf ; and he offered the \^_ 
Houfe any kind of fatiffadlion, excepting always Poached : 
that which they claimed. Immediately before 
the civil war broke out, the Attorney-General and 
was difabled from being a member afTiftant, or ^""^ ^^ 
pleader, in either Houfe of Parliament, and 
committed to the Fleet : but ftill the King yj^^t ftiii 
remained obdurate and unimprefTible as ever. ''"- 
Nay, after the civil war had begun, and when 
the firfl attempt was made to mediate at Ox- 
ford after the battle of Edgehill, '^ a bill to 
" vindicate the 5 members " was among the Qne of the 
propofitions fubmitted ; when again he refufed Oxford 
it, and angrily interrupted the CommiiTioners. fuions. 

382 Arrefi of the Five Members. 

The Earl So angrily, adds Whitelock,* that the Earl of 
King/ Northumberland, who led upon the Parliament 
fide, jfhowed a fober and ftout carriage, and 
on being once more interrupted, faid fmartly, 
" Tour Majejiy will give me leave to proceed?''^ 
'^ Aye, aye!" replied the King.f 

It need hardly furprife us, after this recital. 
Strong to be told by the memorialift that the moft 
difcon- ^^ moderate members of parliament held it 
tent: matter of great difcontent, that, except by 
general waiver and withdrawal of further 
ftated by proceedings, the imputation of treafon was 
White- never removed from men in whom the Houfe 


* Memorials y i. 196. 

f The greater portion of this paper war of petitions and 
replies which had enfued will be found in Rufliworth {Coll. III. 
Paperwar. i. 434-494)' Clarendon (//z/?. ii. 173-178) has alio largely- 
quoted them, and it is manifeft that fome of them bear the 
marks of his hand. Nor do I ever read one of Hyde's Hate 
papers of this kind without feeling the truth of that old 
courtier's comment on their new ally which is mentioned by 
Blunt Sir Philip Warwick {Memoirs, 217): "Our good pen will 

better "harm us:" or, as Sir Philip himfelf puts it, "A blunt 

than keen "would have ferved us better than fo keen a nib." An 
nib. ivory knife cuts paper better than a fteel blade (as Swift had 

occafion to remind a high-flying Secretary in later time), 
and it is quite poffible, both in the higher and lower depart- 
ments, to have the work of the State too fharply done. There 
Burleigh is a ftory told, fomething to the purpofe, of Lord Burleigh 
and Cecil, and his fon Cecil. Being at Council, and reading an order 
penned by a new clerk who was reputed a wit and fcholar, 
he flung it downward to the lower end of the table to his 
fon, the Secretary, faying, " Mr. Secretary, you bring in 
" clerks of the council who will corrupt tlie gravity and 
" dignity of the ftyle of the Board: " to which the Secretary 
replied : " I pray, my Lord, pardon this. The gentleman 
Tooclever " is not warm in his place, and hath had fo little to do, that 
Clerk of " he is wanton with his pen ; but I will put fo much bufmefs 
Council. " upon him, that he fhall be willing to obferve your woi-fhip's 
" direftlons." 

§ XL. Conclujion. 383 

repofed Its higheft confidence. But, in the Claren- 
face of fuch fads, what becomes of Clarendon's fence of 
affertion that the Arreft was a fudden ad as Charles, 
fuddenly repented of; that no circumftance of 
deliberation attended it ; and that it was 
followed, not by hardy and obftinate per- 
fiftence, but by the inftant trouble and 
agony which attends ufually the generous 
mind, upon Its having unrefledlngly com- 
mitted what it promptly perceives to be an 

It feems to me very neceflary, in clofing xhe truth 
this work, to fix attention upon fuch deliberate mif-ftated : 
perverfions of the truth, becaufe they con- 
ftitute for the moft part, with all writers of a 
particular clafs, the fole ground of attack as a 
againft the Commons for having treated the fffailing"'^ 
outrage of the 4th of January as a challenge Commons, 
to civil war. Nothing Is more certain than 
that, even while the outrage Itfelf was ftill in 
progrefs, there was time for refledlon pre- 
fented to its author ; and that If this had 
been properly employed, at leaft fome of the 
difaftrous confequences might have been in- 
tercepted. Let me here, therefore, briefly 
recall In what way it was employed. 

Without adopting Whitelock's view that Doubtful 
if Charles had promptly withdrawn the Im- ^"hije""^ 
peachment little more trouble might have lock, 
attended it (a view which makes too fmall 
allowance for the fettled dlftrufl which his 


Arrefi of the Five Members. 

^ff^a^^l"^ previous condud had infplred), it is yet very 

withdraw- far from impolTible but that, frankly done at 

charce ^^ ^x^^ it might Certainly have recovered fo 

much ground for the King as not wholly yet 

to have broken and difperfed his party in the 

City. Not only, however, did he fullenly leave 

the charge rankling in the breafts of fuch men 

Effeftof all powerful in debate as Hampden and Pym, 

obftinate whom it ever afterwards indifpofed to any 

refufal. mediation or compromife ; not only did he 

refufe to withdraw it, as we have feen, when 

finally compelled to withdraw all proceedings ; 

but, up to the day when the ftorm broke over 

him under which he had to yield, and which 

Perfiftence ^^th an obftinate impaflivenefs he had watched 

as from day to day it made darker the fkies 

above him, not a word was uttered by him, or 

an a6l done, of which the manifeft and unmif- 

takeable tendency was not to exaggerate every 

danger, and to confirm and extend all the fears, 

generated by his firft rafh attempt. 

There was but an interval of fix days 
between his entering the Houfe of Com- 
mons and his flight from Whitehall ; and 
in that interval, Clarendon tells us, he had 
renewed his commands to himfelf, Falk- 
land, and Culpeper, to give him conftant 
Good ad- ^^vicc what he was to do.* What, then, 
vifers pro- having the ineftimable benefit and advantage 
of fuch confefl'ed advifers, did he do? In 

in the 

for good 

Life and Continuation, i. 101-2. 

§ XL. Conclufton, 385 

full view of the danger efcaped by failure of 
his inftrudions on the evening of the 3rd of 
January for firing on the Citizens, and of the j^^^^j^ 
miftake committed by failure of his attempt upon the 
on the morning of the 4th for feizing on the '"^' 
Members, what were the fteps taken, under 
fuch advice as Hyde admits him now to have 
had the full opportunity to profit by — to ex- 
prefs regret or make reparation ? What, in a Events 

1^0 r f between 

word, was the courfe he took at that pomt of 4th and 
time which Clarendon fixes beyond queflion gjy ""' 
as " before he left Whitehall ? " 

On the night of the 4th, with thofe ominous 
founds of Privilege ! Privilege 1 ftill ringing in 
his ears which had followed him as he left the 
Houfe that day, he caufed a Proclamation to Prodama- 
be ifTued, declaring that certain members of *'°". „ 

' o _ againlt 

the Houfe of Commons were under accufation Members, 
of High Treafon, and ordering the ports of 
the kingdom to be clofed againfl any attempt 
they fhould make to evade juflice. On the j^ ^ ^ ^ 
morning of the 5th, he ifTued under his own King's 
hand Warrants for their arrefl addrefTed to the and vmt^ 
Sheriffs of London. On that day, alfo, he went ^° Guild- 
himfelf to the City, and in perfon demanded 
that the accufed, whom he knew to be con- 
cealed therein, fhould be delivered up to him. 
On that evening, he drew up with his own 5th : p. m. 
hand a fecond Proclamation againfl harbouring |^j.^°"^_ 
the men whom he defignated as traitors. On mation. 
the morning of the 6th, he difpatched a 

386 Jrreji of the Five Members. 

6th : A. M. Royal Serjeant into the City with orders to 
ientTo"' efFedt the arreft. On the 7th, the Common 
arreft. Council voted their petition in behalf of 
popular rights ; and on the fame day, fuch 
evidence was taken by the Committee at 
yth: A.M. Grocers' Hall ("upon queftions," fays Claren- 

Common j ,, i r • ^• 

Council don, " whereor many were very imperti- 
Petition. cc nent and of little refped to the King") 
as conclufively eftabliflied the danger to which 
the Commons had been expofed. On the 
gth: A. M. 8 th, the day when Lord Falkland was formally 
Mlnifteis fwom in before the Council as one of His 
at Council- Ma'i eft v's principal Secretaries of State, and 

Board. 1 . r 1 r 1 r- 

the mornmg arter that vote or the Committee 

which invited the accufed publicly to refume 

on the following Monday their places and duties 

as reprefentatives of the people, there came 

Same day: forth a third Proclamation from the King 

Proclama- reiterating againft the members the accufation 

*'°". o of high treafon, and commanding all magif- 

Members : trates and officers throughout the kingdom 

to apprehend them and convey them to the 

Tower. Moreover, on that fame day of the 

an^ 8th, a private order was fent from the Council 

order from Board, at which Falkland had taken the oaths 

Coxmcil ^.^^ j^jg feat \^^^ 2in hour or two earlier, 

lioard. .... . . 

giving inftru6tions for proceedings againft 
thofe (notorioufly the members for the City) 
who, upon the fudden alarm of two nights before, 
had called out the Train Bands for protection 
of the Citizens. Was it poflible that the 

§ XL. Conclujton. 387 

Houfe of Commons, how reluftant foever to 
enter on the ftruggle, could in fuch circum- 
ftances as thefe have declined or evaded it ? 

There was manifestly no alternative left. 
Such middle courfe as D'Ewes would have No middle 
propofed before reforting to an open defi- fibk.^^° ' 
ance, was fimply hopelefs. It had become 
clear that the attempt upon the Members 
could not be defeated without a complete 
overthrow of the power of the King. He 
could not remain at Whitehall if they returned 
to Weftminfter. Charles raifed the iffue, the Accept. 
Commons accepted it, and fo began our Great i/Tue 
Civil War. The King drew the fword upon '■^^^^^• 
the day when he went with his armed follow- 
ers to arreft the Five Members in their places 
in the Houfe. The Houfe of Commons un- 
furled their ftandard on the day when, declin- 
ing to furrender their members, they branded ^^^^n 
with the epithet of a Scandalous Paper the 
articles of impeachment ifTued by the King. 


Alison, Sir William (York,) 

Ipeaks againft Lunfltbrd, 36. 
Argyle, Archibald Marquis of, 

made Scottifh Chancellor, 17. 

(See Montrofe.) 
Arreft, privileges of Commons 

againft, explained and aflerted, 

213 14., 304-5, 307-8. 315- 
Arreft of the Five Members. See 

Fi-ue Members. 
Attorney-Gen. See Herbert, Sir E. 
Authorities cited or referred to : 
MS. See Bere. Carterett. Bering. 

Do-ixjfe. Latche. Marjion. Ni- 

cholas. Porter. Slingjby. Smith, 

(T/iomas). IVindebank. Wifeman, 


Printed. S>tt Bramjion. Bruce. 

Butler. Clarendon. Echard. Eikon 

Bafilike. Filmer. Forjler. Guizot. 

Racket. Hall. Hallam. Heath. 

Heyljn. Hobbes. Hoivell. Hume. 

Hiitchinfon. Lenvis. Lilly. Ma- 

caulay. Nalfon. Napier. Pepys. 

Rujh-worth. Rujfell, {Lord John). 

Sandford. Verney. War-wick, 

(Sir P.). Whitelock. Wright. 
Ayleftjury, Mr. writes from Rome 

to Hyde, 224, 225 note. 

Baal, or Ball, Peter, Queen's At- 
torney, 129 note. 

Balfour, Sir William, removed 
from governorftiip of the Tower, 
34. Clarendon's Note thereon, 
and on his Succeffor, 35 note. 

Balgony, Leftie, Field Marftial of, 
made an Englifh Earl, 17. 

Banks, Sir John, to be Lord 

Treafurer, 30 note. 
Barberino, Cardinal Francefco, 
makes " particular mention " of 
Pym and his friends, 225 note. 
Barrington, Sir Thomas (Col- 
chefter), 37. Named on Com- 
mittee of Safety, 280. 
Bates, Dr. on Lady Carlifle's con- 
nexion with Pym and his friends, 
137. On Advifers of the King's 
Vifitto the Houfe, 137. 140. 141. 
Bath, Earl of, to be a Privy Coun- 

fellor, 58. 
Baxter, Richard, on the term 

"Roundhead", 136 — j notes. 
Baynton, Sir Edward (Chippen- 
ham), on fecret communications 
to the King, 210. 
Bedford, Earl of, joins in Proteft 
relative to Lunfford's removal, 
36 note. 65. 
Beedham, Mr. 87 note. 
Bellafis, H. (Yorkftiire), motion of, 
relative to the Biftiops, 102 note. 
Suggefls attempt at accommo- 
dation with the King, 201 note. 
Bere, Sidney (Correfpondent of 
Admiral Pennington), ap- 
pointed Under Secretary, 5. De- 
fcribes Oppoiition to printing 
the Remonftrance, 5, 6. On 
Charles's Vifit to City, 22. 
Fears and diftraftions daily in- 
creafmg, 26. On Secretary 
Nicholas's worth, 26, 27. notes. 
Court difmiflals and appoint- 
ments, 30 note. Difmiffal of 



Young Vane, 53. Further on 
Official changes, King's move- 
ments, and his own probable dif- 
miffal, 56 and 7iote. On Com- 
motion arifing out of the Lunl- 
ford affair, 69, 70. On the 
Bifhops and their Proteftation, 
96 note. Reports their Com- 
mittal to the Tower, 98. His 
fears and hopes on the occafion, 
99 and note. On King's Vifit 
to the Houfe to feize the Five 
Members, 194, 195, notes. His 
dread as to ultimate refult : fly- 
ing rumours, 203, 204. Why- 
he declines a Chriftmas Invita- 
tion, 204 note. Rumours againft 
Lords Briftol and Digby, 206. 
On Secret Service amgned to 
the Admiral, 361. King'sflight 
and difquietude of his Counfel- 
lors, 361 — 363. Union between 
the two Houfes, 363, 364 notes. 
Defcribes Return of Members, 
370. 371 note. 
Biron, Sir John, appointed Tower 
Governor, ^ice Lunftord, 70. 
*' Little better accepted than the 
other", 77, Called before Com- 
mons' Committee, 334. 341. 
His Meflage to them, 355. Su- 
perfeded, 355 note. '^64. note. 
Bifliops, Petition againft enforce- 
ment of Liturgy by the, 32 note. 
Courfe taken by them on ac- 
count of the Tumults, 89. Pur- 
port oFtheir Proteftation thereon, 
89 — 91. Real Author of Pro- 
teftation : objeft contemplated 
by him, 91, What might have 
followed had Proteft been ad- 
mitted, 92. Provocation given, 
92, 93, Biftiop Hall's account 
of what led to the Proteftation, 
93,94. Clarendon's Account : 
Courfe taken by King, 94, 95. 
Prompt aftion of Commons, 95. 
Cromwell as to Epifcopal 
Spirit, 96. Sidney Bere's ftric- 
tures on the protefting Prelates, 

ibid, note. Their conduil: con- 
demned by Clarendon, 96, 97. 
His opinion of their Impeach- 
ment, 97. View taken by Pen- 
nington's Correfpondents, 97 — 
100, Real drift of Proteft, 100, 
Glyn fent up to impeach them, 
loi. Hacket's Lament for 
them : feelings of the Lords, 
ibid, note. Tower Gates clofed 
upon them, 102. Civilities ex- 
changed while in durance, 103 
note. D'Ewes's comments, 104, 
105. Tower preferable to Black 
Rod's Cuftody, 105 and note. 
Delight of Commons at their 
folly, 105, 106. See alfo 173. 
174 and notes. 341. 
Bodvill, Mr. John (Anglefey), 

and the Clerk's Journals, 231. 
Bolingbroke, Earl of, 36 note. 
Bofwell, Sir John, 204 note. 
Bramfton on Attack on Arch- 
bifliop Williams, 71, 92. His 
account compared with Claren- 
don's and Hacket's, 89 note. 
« Bridle " the, for too reftlefs 

Citizens, 33. 
Briftol, John Earl of: to be Cham- 
berlain, 30 note. Commons' 
Charge againft him, 78. 82, 83. 
Spanifti Match expedition, 82. 
Beft account of that mad freak, 
Sz note \. Cromwell denounces 
him, 83. Rumours againft him 
and his fon, 206. See Digby. 
Brooke, Lord, 36 note. Honour 

defignated for iiim, 58. 
Brown, Mr. Clerk of Houfe of 

Lords, 303. 
Brown, Mr. R. (Romney), brings 

up Lincoln's Inn reply, 176. 
Brown, Sir A. (Surrey), reports 

flander on Pym, 358 note. 
Bruce, John, Efq. Note by, 20 

note *, 
Buckingham Freeholders come to 
London, 338, 339. 357, 373. 
Their numbers, 339 note. 
Hampden's ftiare in their peti- 




Charles I. 

tion, 34.0, 341 notes. 373 note. 
Debate as to receiving them. 
353. 35+- 373- Called in, 374. 
King's reply to their Petition, 
380. See Goodivin. Hampden, 

Buckle, " One Mr." ; Threat ut- 
tered by, 169. 

Bullock, Mr. 372, 

Burleigh, Lord, Anecdote of, 382 

Butler, Samuel, couplet quoted 
from, 344 note. 

Byron. See Biron. 

Camden Society Books rich in 
illuftrations of period comprifed 
in this work, 49 note. (Rota- 
tions therefrom. See Bramjion. 

Carew, Alexander (Cornwall) 279. 

Carlifle, Earl of, 36 note. 37 note. 
See Hayy Lord. 

Carlifle, Lucy Countefs of: has 
Intercourfe with both parties, 15. 
Communicates Court Secrets to 
popular Leaders, 16. Caufes of 
her betrayal of the King's party, 
133 — 135. Sir P. Warwick's 
Scandal about her, 135, 156 and 
notes. Dr. Bates's more com- 
plimentary interpretation, 137, 
Refult of her clofetings with the 
Queen, 138, 139. Gratitude 
exprefl'ed for her fervices, 140. 
Dangers averted by herwarning, 
144. 145 note. 195. Precife 
moment of her communication 
of King's intentions, 175. 

Carterett, Captain, Correfpondent 
of Admiral Pennington, 51. 
Clarendon's teftimony to his 
eminence, 52. Reports difmiflal 
of the two Vanes, ibid. Parlia- 
mentary appreciation of his fer- 
vices, ibid, note. Announces the 
publication of theRemonftrance, 
60. His refleftions on affairs, 
60, 61. Confirms fa6l of Lunf- 
ford's knighthood and penfion, 
70 note. On caufes of popular 

difquietude, 287. 296, 297, His 
later career, 366 note. 

Cavalier, firft ufe of the epithet, 
62. Senfe in which it was ufed: 
inftances cited, 62, 63 notes. 
William Lilly on the fame fub- 
jeft, 64, 65 notes. See 341. See 

Cave, Sir R. (Lichfield) named on 
Committee of Safety, 280. 

Cecil's excufe for a Clerk's "wan- 
ton pen", 382 note. 

Chadwell, William (St. Michaels), 
munimental trick attempted by, 
244, 245. His narrow efcape, 
245 and note. 

Chambers, John, depofes to vio- 
lence of King's Guard, 327. 

Chandois, Lord, 37 note. 

Charles, Elector Palatine, accom- 
panies the King into the Houfe, 
184, 185. Joins him in his 
flight, 361. A Prince's pri- 
vations, 365 note. 

Charles the Firft, fatal day in the 
life of, I. His attempt on Five 
Members correftly ftated in 
Eikon Bafilike, 2. Services ren- 
dered to him by Admiral Pen- 
nington, 3. Was Lord Digby 
fole advifer of the arreft ? 10. 
Charges intended againft Pym 
and Hampden, 12. His ways 
of dealing with opponents : al- 
ways too late, 12, 13. Refults 
of hisobftinacy, 14. Clarendon's 
verfion of his confultations with 
Lord Digby and their betrayal, 
15 note. Nicholas's communi- 
cation relative to Lord Kimbol- 
ton,i5, 16. H is conduft towards 
avowed Rebels and popular 
Leaders contrafted, 17, 18. En- 
larges fcope of his accufation 
againft the latter, 18. His 
" confident and fevere look", 
20, His felf-deception on 
ftrength of Royalift party in 
City, 21. Contemporary ac- 
counts of his reception there, 



Charles I. 

21, 22. Confers honours on 
City Magnates, 22. Adulatory 
Reports, ibid. note. Probable' 
efFe6t of Lenthal's defire to re- 
fign, 22, 23. 25. Inftances of 
hisfbolhardinefs, 29. Aflails pri- 
vileges of Commons, 30, 31, 
His double provocation of the 
Puritans, 31. Confequences of 
his reprieve of condemned Je- 
fuits 31, 32 note. His Warrant 
appointing Lunfford Tower 
Governor, 34. «o/f. Refponfibility 
for that zSi, 35 note. Alleged 
reafon for difmiflal of Lord New- 
port, 37. Gives Lord Newport 
the lie and retrafts, 38, 39. En- 
deavours to win Pym to his fide, 
42, 43. Why his efforts failed, 
42 note. Pym's fecret influence 
over him, 44 — 46. Renews oflPers 
of place to Pym, 47. Dering on 
his overture to Pym, 48. Effefl 
on Commons of his difmifl!al of 
young Vane, 53. Propofal of 
Regency during his fojourn in 
Scotland, 56-7 note. Negotia- 
tions in London with popular 
leaders, and fudden change in 
Scotland, 57 — 8. His ill-advifed 
aft on the Faft day, 61. Its fatal 
confequences, 62. His indifcre- 
tion relative to Volunteer Guard, 
72. 73 — 75. How he received 
Declaration of both Houfes, 75. 
Juftifies his acceptance of the 
Guard, 75, 76. Anticipated 
refult of his noncompliance with 
Commons' defires, 80. His con- 
duct on receiving Bifliop's Pro- 
teftation, 95. Commons' De- 
mand for Guard, 109, no. His 
expedients pending his anfwer, 
no, III. His reply and its ac- 
companiment, 112. Impeach- 
ment of Five Members laid folely 
at his door, 113. Anfwer, in his 
own hand, to Petition of both 
Houfes for Guard, 1 14. note. His 
choice of Commander a proof of 

Charles I. 
infmcerity, ibid. His Interview 
with the Commons' Deputies, 
126. Quellion of his relponfi- 
bility further difcuffed, 127 — 
129. Pernicious fruits of the 
Queen's interference, 129 — 139. 
(See Henrietta). His abettors in 
renewed attempt on the Com- 
mons, 139 — 142. Alleged evi- 
dence in fupport of his charge, 
142, 143. Clarendon's view of 
the matter, ibid, notes. Incapable 
of a wife Fear, 145. Iflue raifed 
by his attempt, 145. Its alleged 
" gentlenefs," 150 note. His 
ftyle of writing, 151. His ad- 
vifers and their fhare of refponfi- 
bility, 153, 154. Attempts to 
induce the citizens to aid him, 
155 — 157. His Warrant for that 
objeft, 157. 158. Whitehall 
clocks too late, 156. 159. Goes 
to the Houfe to demand the Five 
Members, 179. Number and 
equipment of his attendants, 180 
— 184. Enters "where never 
King was but once", 184, 185. 
His reception by and bearing 
towards the members, 185 — 187. 
His Speech to the Houfe, with 
correftions by his own hand, 188 
— 190. Lenthal's Reply to his 
appeal, 191,192. William Lilly 
on his manner of Speaking, 192 
note. His Speech on finding his 
"birds flown", 193. His bearing 
on leaving the Houfe, 193 — 
195. Accounts of the fcene by 
Slingfby and Bere, 194 note. 
D'Ewes's account of what took 
place on his departure, 195 — 
200. Mifchief let loofe by the 
aft, 206. Hyde his private 
advifer, 208. Clofeted with 
him, 209 note. Lilly's verdift 
on his " rafli aftion", 217 note. 
Money folicited for him from 
Foreign Rulers, 224. How 
the Commons met his Pro- 
clamation againft Eflex, 240. 



Charles I. 

Sir Peter Wentworth's plain 
fpeaking, 242. Sends for Rufh- 
worth, 251. Their interview, 
252. IflTues Proclamation againft 
Five Members, 253. His War- 
rant for feizure of arms in City, 
257 note. Announces intention 
of addrefling City Authorities, 
258. His reception in Guildhall, 
and how he fared by the way, 
258 — 263. Wifeman's account 
ofthe affair, 264 — 267. Citizens' 
anfwer to his demand for Five 
Members, 267. Their advice to 
him, 268. His firft aft on return 
from City, 269. 297. Its refpon- 
libility entirely his own, 270, 
271. Commons' Proceedings 
arifmg out of Arreft, 271 — 281. 
Apprehenfions natural to the 
times, 283. Montrofe's offer to 
affaffinate Argyle and Hamilton, 
284, 285, 286 notes. Pym's 
heavieft charge againft him 
proved, 299, 300. Commons' 
Declaration againft his conduct, 
319,320. His Order in Council 
on pofition taken up by the City, 
324, 325 notes. Evidence as to 
intended violence by his follow- 
ers, 3i6 — 329. Further procla- 
mation againft the Five Mem- 
bers, 333. Threatens a Vifit to 
Commons' Committee, 337. 338. 
Determines to quit Whitehall, 
35^> 357- His terror and its 
caufes, 359. His reafons for leav- 
ing London, 360. MS. references 
to his flight, 361—368. (See 
Bere— Bering— Slingjby.) Off 
to Hampton Court, 368, 369. 
Cafe between him and the Com- 
mons fummed up, 376 — 387. 
(See Clarendon. Commons. Fi've 

Charles II. Glyn's accident at 
Coronation of, 344 note. 

Chaucer, Bifhop Hacket's eftlma- 
tion of, 91 note. 

Chomley, Sir Henry (Northal- 


lerton), objeft of Motion by, 243 
note. Queftion put by him, 375. 
]!ity ; ftrength of Royalift party in 
the, 21, Hopes founded by 
King on his reception there, 21, 
22. Honors conferred on City 
Dignitaries, 22. Reappearance of 
" faftious Citizens" at the Houfes 
of Parliament, 26. "One of 
the Houfe" catechized by them, 
ibid, note *. Their anti-royalift 
feelings further manifefted, 27. 
Lord Mayor's unpopular afts, 
28. Agitation by reafon of re- 
prieve of Popifh Offenders, 31, 
32. Petition againft enforce- 
ment of Liturgy and offenfive 
proclamation thereon, 32. Re- 
fult of Attack on Newgate, ibid, 
note. Indignation provoked by 
King's Acts, 32, 33. City 
'Prentices attacked by the Sol- 
diery, 68, 69. Citizens affailed 
by King's Guard, 73, 74. Atti- 
tude alTumed by them : Slingf- 
by's apprehenfions, 80. Soli- 
cited by Commons for Military 
Aid, 124. 155. 157. Efforts 
of the King to foreftal Com- 
mons in this matter, 155 — 159. 
Five Members' place of Refuge, 

253. Charafterof the City and 
habits of its Merchants, 253 — 

254. Its Military Organization: 
Duties impofed on Aldermen, 
254 note. Its fortifications and 
other defenfive appliances, 255 
note. Its enrichment by trade : 
caufe of Clarendon's lament, 

255. 256. Its adherence and 
fervices to the popular caufe, 

256. Comes in for its fhare of 
Court Lampoons, 256 note. 
Scene prefented on night of 
Arreft, 256, 257. Apprehended 
Seizure of Arms, 257 and note. 
King's felf-invitation to Lord 
Mayor, 258. King's progrefs to 
and reception in Guildhall, 258 
— 263. (See Ru/h-wort/i. Slingf- 



Cinjil War. 

by. Wifeman, T.) Anfwer to 
King's demand for the Five 
Members, 267. Advice tender- 
ed to him therein, 268. Meet- 
ing of Commons Committee at 
Guildhall, 300, 301. How the 
Committee was welcomed and 
treated, 301, 302. Proceedings 
of Committee, 302 — 316. (See 
Commons.) State of City on Pub- 
lication of Commons' Decla- 
ration, 320, 321. Caufes for 
alarms afloat, 322. Number of 
armed men within call for de- 
fence, 323. Judicious arrange- 
ments of Lord Mayor : Pro- 
ceedings of King and Council, 
323, 324. King's Order againft 
thofe who " put the Trained 
Band in arms", 324, 325, notes. 
One caufe for increafe of Civic 
alarm, 325,326, 333. Appear- 
ance of City on ^t/i January, 
338. Its march with the Mem- 
bers, 369. Pym's thanks to the 
Citizens, 371. 

Civil War, Great, firft blood fhed 
in the, 64. Who were the firft 
aggreffors, 66. Afpeft of the 
Elements on its eve, 67, 68. 
Captain Slingfby's apprehenfions 
80. Refponfibilities incurred 
by its inftigators, 80, 81. Its 
real beginning, 377, 387. 

Clare, Earl of, 36 note, 37 note. 

Clarendon, Edward Hyde, Earl 
of; mifreprefentationsof, relative 
to Charles's attempt on Five 
Members, i. His charafter of 
Admiral Pennington, 3, note. 
Mifftates caufe of Palmer's Com- 
mittal to tlie Tower, 8. Afferts 
Lord Digby was fole advifer 
of King's attempt, 10 — 12. His 
character of and friendfhip with 
Digby, 1 1 note. His Opinion of 
guilt of the Five Accufed, 

14. AfFe61s ignorance of Lord 
Kimbolton's complicity, 14, 

15. His verfion of Charles's 

Confultations with Digby, 15 
note. EfFc6l on the King of 
tone adopted by him and his Col- 
leagues, 18. His character of 
Lenthal, 23 and note. His com- 
ments on Windebank's flight a 
key to his views on the Popifh 
Reprievals, 32, 33 notes. Ex- 
plains objeft of Lunfford's 
appointment, 34, 35. His dif- 
ingenuous note on Balfour's 
difmiflal, 35 note. Throws ref- 
ponfibility of Lunfford's ap- 
pointment on Digby, ibid. His 
eftimate of Captain Carterett, 
52. His opinions and admiflTions 
relative to King's Guard, 72, 
73. His verfion of their attacks 
on the Citizens, 73, 74. On the 
epithets " Roundhead " and 
" Cavalier ", 74. His account 
of attack on Archbifliop Wil- 
liams contrafted with others', 89 
note. Way in which Bifliops' 
Proteft was concofled, 94, 95. 
His opinion thereon and on their 
fubfequent punifliment, 96, 97. 
His charge againft Digby in re 
Kimbolton's Impeachment, 116, 
117. Abfent from Houfe during 
debates on arreft, 121, Qjaeen's 
part in Impeachment of Five 
Members, 132, 133. His apo- 
logy for Lady Carlifle' s defeflion, 
13-4. On the legality of the 
King's Proceedings, 150 and 
note. 151, 152. Imputation 
againft him and his friends, 153. 
Their way of getting out of the 
dilemma, 153, 154. His charges 
againft and eftimate of Hampden, 
168 — 170. Hampden's fignifi- 
cant remark to him, 171. Bear- 
ing of Pym and Hampden 
towards him, 172 note. On 
numbcrand equipment of King's 
Guards, 181. Falfe ifl"ue railed 
by him on King's failure, 202, 
203. Period at which he be- 
came King's private Advifer, 

208. A double dealer by his 
own confefTion, 209 and note. 
Sulpefted of Treachery towards 
the Gammons, 210 — 212. Ac- 
cufed of advifing the Arreft, 
212. Reafons for difbelief as 
to alleged Speech by him, 212 
— 214. Why Falkland excufed 
his abfence from the Houfe, 
215 note. No evidence of his 
prefence during debates on Ar- 
reft, 215, 216. 293. Letter to 
him from Rome, 224, 225 notes. 
Why he laments abforption of 
Wealth byCity,255. Notnamed 
on Committee of Safety, 280. 
Queftion raifed on his ftatement 
of Montrofe's murderous offer, 
284, 285, 286 notes. Liberties 
taken by his Sons with his MSS : 
1826 Edition, how made up, 
ibid. His inferences relative to 
fears excited by King's conduft 
contrafted with his own admif- 
fions, 286, 287. 294. 295. Plans 
of himfelf and Digby for feizing 
Five Members, 288, 289. His 
faithleffnefsasan Hiftorian, 289. 
Comparifon of his Statements of 
Proceedings of 5th January with 
thofe of D'Ewes, Verney, and 
Rufhworth, 289— 293. Hisfole 
Argument of any weight, 303. 
His infinuations repelled by 
D'Ewes, 310. Real points at 
iffue evaded by him, 310, 311. 
Conftrui5tion put thereon by im- 
partial byftanders, 311 note. 
Value of D'Ewes's Notes as 
correftives of his mifllatements, 
317. Recapitulation of fuch 
mifreprefentations, 317, 318. 
Anfwers thereto furnifhed by 
D'Ewes, 318, 319. Truftworthy 
when not mifled by his feelings, 
320. What he fays of the 
"great change in all forts of 
People", 321 and note. Alarms 
traceable to the threats of his 
friend Digby, 322. Too keen 

Index. 29 S 

a pen, 382. Deliberate perver- 
fion of the Truth, 383. See 
alio 369, 335, 353, 356, 362, 

364. 367. 370, 371, 374- 
Clarendon, Henry Hyde, Earl of. 
Liberties taken by him and his 
brother, Lord Rochefter, with 
the MS. of their Father's Hiftory, 
284, 285, 286 notes. 
Clotworthy, Sir John (Maiden), 
38, calls attention to Irifli Af- 
fairs, 276 ; Perfills in his objeft, 
282. Service performed by him, 

349> 350- 

Coke, Sir Edward, 39. 

Coke, Sir William, Anecdote told 
by, 126. 137,138. Credit given 
to it by Hafeirig, 140, 141. 

Commons, Houfe of; growing 
alarms amongft Members of, 20. 
Proceedings of the Lord Mayor 
refented by them, 28. Their 
difTatilTaftion at Young Vane's 
difmiflal from Office, 30 note. 53. 
Their privileges affailed by the 
King, 30, 31. Houfe much 
diftrafted at " reprieve of the 
Priefts," 32 note. Courfe taken 
on Lunfford's appointment, 36. 
Their fupporters and opponents 
in the Lords, ibid, and note. Ad- 
drefs voted for Lunfford's Re- 
moval, 37. Their requeft to 
Lord Newport to take command 
of Tower, 37, 38. Their re- 
ception of Old Vane on his dif- 
miffal, 52. Time fuppofed ripe 
for deftruftion of their Leaders, 
67. Their proceedings on Lord 
Newport's Difmiffal, 82. Courfe 
taken with reference to Lords 
Briftol and Digby, 82, 83, 84. 
Long filences in the Houfe ; 
Officering of the Army debated, 
84, 85. Members alarmed by 
a fuggeftion of Pym's, 106. 
D'Ewes's Propofition, and the 
Speaker's rider to it, 106, 107. 
Pym's remedy for apprehended 
dangers, 107, io8. D'Ewes's 




troubles and doubts on the oc- 
cafion, io8, 109. Demand for 
Guard for the Houl'e, 109. How 
the King received and anfwered 
fuch demand, no — 112. Joined 
by the Lords in demand for 
Guard, 115. Refult of Proceed- 
ings on feizure of Members' 
Papers, 120 — 126. Aid. Pen- 
nington and Captain Venn fent 
to City for Guard, 124. 155. 157. 
Courfe taken by King to defeat 
this ftep, 155 — 158. Refolution 
adopted in confequence of King's 
tampering with Inns of Court, 
161. Refult of Meflages fent 
to the four Inns, 176, 177. Re- 
entrance of the Five Members : 
King^s Secret difclofed to the 
Houfe,i77. Further difclofures, 
178. Five Members depart, 179. 
King's approach to the Houfe 
4M January, his retinue, 179 — 
1 84. Appearance of Houfe on 
his entry, 184—187. Speaker 
Lenthal's memorable Speech, 
191, 192. King's Speech and 
departure, 193 — 195. Siingfby 
andBere'sAccountof the Tranf- 
a6tion, i<jj^ note. Copy Entry 
of this day's proceeding in 
Journals of Houfe, 196 note. 
D'Ewes's minutes of what pafled 
after the King's departure, 195 
— 200. DifcufTion on anfwers 
to Royal meffage, 221 — 223. 
Why Sir R. Hopton incurred 
difpleafure of Houfe, 223 — 227. 
Proceedings in Sir Edward 
Bering's Cafe, 228 — 231. Con- 
fli61s between Speaker and Mem- 
bers, 236. 238. 241. Caufe of 
Houfe's laughter " amid fad ap- 
prehenfions ", 247. Refult of 
attempts to enforce Members' 
early attendance : The Shilling 
Fine, 247 — 249. Precautionary 
fteps taken on reaflembling of 
Houfe on ^t/i January, 271, 
272. Mr. Grimfton's telling 

fpeech, 272 — 275. Refult of 
motion thereon, 275. Upfhot » 
of DifcufTion of Declaratory 
Refolution, 275 — 279. Num- 
bers on two important Divifions, 
279, and note. Conllitution of 
Committee then named, 280. 
Motions by Lord Lifle, Sir P. 
Stapleton, and N. Fiennes, 281. 
Caufe of Houfe's abrupt rifing, 

281, 282. Reafons for alarm, 

282, 283. Clarendon's report 
compared with contemporary ac- 
counts, 290 — 293. Point gained 
by adjourning Sittings to Guild- 
hall, 294. What Slingfby" heard 
fome Parliament men difcourfmg 
of", 298, 299. No hitherto 
known report of Proceedings 
at Guildhall, 300. Value of 
D'Ewes's Notes, ibid. 
Committee at Guildhall, {6th 
Jan.). Rufhworth's and Ver- 
ney's notices : Clarendon's con- 
fufion, 300, 301. Subjefts treated 
of at this Sitting, 302 — 313. 
Difpute between D'Ewes and 
Wilde, 314, 315. Refolutions 
ultimately adopted, 315, 316. 
Hyde's afperfions read by the 
light of D'Ewes's Journals, 317 
— 319. Declaration of Breach 
of Privilege, and Publication of 
fame, 319, 320. State of public 
feeling, 320 — 326. 
Firji Sittingat Grocers'' Hall{jth 
Jan.). Abftraft of evidence as 
to outrage of the 4///, 326 — 329. 
Proceedings thereon : another 
difpute between D'Ewes and 
Wilde, 330 — 332. Effe6lofRe- 
folution to invite return of Five 
Members, 332. How the King 
met that refolution, 332, 333. 
Second Sitting at Grocers^ Hall, 
(Sth Jan.) Meafures on King's 
further Proclamation, 333 — 336. 
King's threat to attend Com- 
mittee, 337. Orders iflued there- 
on : its upftiot, 338, 

Lajl Sitting at Grocers' Hall. 
Glyn's communication, 340. 
Alderman Pennington's fulpi- 
cions relative to the Tower, 340, 
341. Relblutions againft Killi- 
grew and Fleming, 341, 342. 
The like againft Evil Counfel- 
lors, Proclamations, and War- 
rants, 343. Maynard's efFeftive 
Speeches, 344 — 346. Sailor Vol- 
unteers and their offers, 347 and 
note. Dire6tions given to the 
" Water Rats ", 347, 348. Ar- 
rival of the Five Members, 348. 
Common People's offers at this 
jun6ture, 348, 349. Defenfive 
arrangements made for return to 
Weftminfter, 350 — 352. Hamp- 
den's 4000 men from Bucks, 
353> 3 54* I'^ft ^^s of Com- 
mittee, 354 — 356. 
At Wejlminjler again. Re- 
fumption of their feats by 
the Five Members, 371. Pro- 
ceedings on the occafion, 371 
— 373. Bucks Petition and its 
Guard of 6r;oo, 374. Qu^eftions 
about the King anfwered, 375. 
Fruits of Struggle between 
Commons and Crown, 376. Cafe 
between the two parties fum- 
medup, 383 — 387. See Sj/7/o/ij, 
Charles I. Clarendon, D^EiueSy 
Fi've Members, Lenthal. 

Compton, Lord (Warwickfhire) 
communicates King's anfwer to 
Houfe's Meffage, 210. 

Coniers, Sir John, made Lieutenant 
of the Tower, 355«(j^^. Ground 
of King's exception to him, ibid. 

Coningfley, Captain, Lieutenant 
of Ordnance, examined before 
"Commons' Committee, 334. 

Conway, Vifcount, 37 note. 

Cooke, Sir Robert (Tewkefbury), 
named on Committee of Safety, 

Coppley's Cafe, temp. Q^Mary, 

Corbet, Miles (Yarmouth, Nor- 

Index. . 397 

folk), purport of relation made 
to Houfe by, 79 note. 

Cotton, Sir Robert, one of the 
earlieft Martyrs of the Stuarts, 
40. His Sufferings at the Seizure 
of his Books and MSS. ibid. note. 

Cromwell, Oliver (Cambridge), 
addreffes House on Lord New- 
port's difmilfal, 82, Grounds of 
his complaint againft Lord Brif- 
tol, 82, 83. His advice on the 
officering of the Army, 85. His 
complaint relative to Captain 
O'Connel, ibid. note. What he 
faid of the Bifhops and their Pro- 
teftation, 95, 96. Reflefted on 
in Dering'sBook, 229. Suggefts 
that D'Ewes write an aniwer to 
fame, 230. D'Ewes's recom- 
mendation, per contra, 231. Not 
named on Committee of Safety, 

Crown Jewels carried acrofs the 
Channel, and w'hy, 3, 4. 132. 
Pawned by the Queen, 361. 

Culpeper, Sir John (Kent), ap- 
pointed Chancellor of Ex- 
chequer, II, 48. 49. III. 267. 
His obligations to and inti- 
macy with Lord Digby, 11 and 
note. Sufpicionsagainlihim and 
his coadjutors, 12. iii, 112. 
Influence on Charles of the 
courfe taken by him and his 
Parliamentary affociates, 18. Si- 
lent on an important occafion, 
121. Has audiences with the 
King, 126, 140. What he and 
his friends would have done with 
the Five Members, 149 note. 
His confidence to Bering, 152. 
How he and his affociates en- 
deavoured to evade refponfibility, 
153, 154. Holds fecret meetings 
with Hyde and Falkland, 209 
note. His horror at Sir Peter 
Wentworth's plain fpeaking, 
242. Named on Committee of 
Safety, 215. 279, 280. "Dif- 
pleafed anddejefted", 292,293, 



His unanfwered queftion, 375. 
See alfo 279 note. 377, 384. 
Cunningham, Mr. Letter of Marl- 
ton found by, 87, note. 

Dandie, Serjeant, fent to appre- 
hend the Five Members, 296. 
His reception by "the worie 
fort of people", 297. See 34.3. 

Dering, Sir Edward (Kent), in 
trouble "for fomething he hath 
fpoke in the Houfe ", 26 note*. 
His note on Charles's overture 
to Pym, 48. His MSS. to be 
publifhed by Camden Society, 
4.% note. Source of his Informa- 
tion, 152. A(5l whereby he in- 
curred Houfe's difpleafure, 228. 
D'Ewes's reafons for voting his 
expulfion, 228, 229. Sentence 
pafled on him and his Book, 
230. Cromwell's fuggeftion as 
to anfwering fame, 230, 231. 
On Bucks Petitioners, 353 note. 
King's flight and Commons' 
Proceedings, 359, 360. Cava- 
liers' diftreflcs, 365 note. " Ra- 
ther be Pym than Charles ", 
372. His friend Bullock, zi/i^. 

Derry Plantation, zijnote. 

D'Ewes, Sir Simonds (Sudbury), 
Signs of danger, 19. Notes the 
King's look, 20. His Character 
of Lunlford, 34. His mifgivings, 
36, 37. Recounts Cotton's fuf- 
ferings at feizure of his Library, 
40 note. King's intentions, 79, 
note. Houfe's proceedings on 
firft day of tumults, 81, 82. 
Character and condition of his 
Journal in the Harleian Col- 
Jeftion, 81 note. "Long Si- 
lences" in the Houfe, 84. French 
Papiftical Threats, 85. Makes 
merry over Bifhops' fall, 103 — 
105. On fubfequent Proceed- 
ings of Commons, 105, 106. 
Much troubled by Pym's pro- 
pofition, 108. His Remarks in 
oppofition, 109, no. Com- 

mons' Proceedings on King's 
refufal of a Guard, 118, 119. 
Seizure of impeached Members' 
Papers,i20. Ufagesof the Houfe 
in his day, 129 note. 223 note. 
Proceedings on the 4th of 
January, 160. 161. 164. 169. 
173. 174. 175. On number of, 
and terror excited by, the King's 
Guards, 181. 183. 184. Charles's 
Vifit to the Houfe, 185, 186, 
Expreffive break in his Narra- 
tive, 187, 188. On Charles's 
Corrections of his Speech, 190, 
191. King's afpeft as he left 
the Houfe, 193, 194. Proceed- 
ings after King's departure, 
1 9 5 — 200. His ufe of the term 
"Young Man", 198 and note. 
279 note. His fenfe of danger, 
how marked, 201 and note. Not 
a mere party man : his ways of 
life, 202. 219. Light thrown 
on Hyde's double dealing, 209. 
210. 211. 212. 215. Claim of 
his Journal to be received as 
authentic, 218. Sir W. Lytton's 
compliment to him, 219. His 
Service to Sir Williair., ibid, 
note. Epithets beftowed by 
him on Popular Leaders, 220. 
Mutual tolerance between him 
and Pym, ibid. His Pofition in 
the Houfe, 221. Debates where- 
in he afted as moderator, 221 
— 227. 236. 238. 240. 303 — 6. 
Young Lord Strafford, 227 
note. His Part in difcuffion on 
Dering's conduft, 228, 229. His 
reply to Cromwell's Suggeftion 
that he anfwer Dering's Book, 
230,231. Further proof of his 
accuracy : How he makes up his 
Journal, 231 — 233. Stands up 
for Note-taking, 233. His po- 
fition towards and opinion of 
Lenthal, 233 — 235. Rebukes 
Sir Arthur Hafelrig, 236. 
Avoids Chair of Committee, 
239 note. How vote of alle- 



glance to Parliamentary General 
was carried, 24.0, 24.1. His note 
on Sir Peter Wentworth's " fol- 
ly", 242. Detefts Chadwell's 
attempt to impofe upon the 
Houfe, 244, 245. His ftiare in 
efforts to enforce early attend- 
ance : how the divers expedients 
worked, 245 — 249. Oppofes 
Motion for Call of Houfe, 250. 
A Stranger in the Houfe, 251. 
Proceedings on realTembling of 
Houfe, 5M January, 272. 275 
— 281 , Explains canfe of Panic 
in the Houfe, 282, 283. Sole 
Recorder of Guildhall Sittings 
of 6/^ January, '^oo, 301. City 
hofpitalities, 302. What was 
firlt debated, ibid. His argu- 
ments againll Motion to iend 
for warrants, 303 — 305. 307, 
308. Cafes in point cited by 
him, 305. Why applaud him 
and objeft to Hyde ? 305, 306 
notes. His Speech commended 
by the Houle, 308. Pofition 
achieved by his Argument, 310. 
Iflue raifed by Serjeant Wilde, 
314. 315. Reports Houfe'scon- 
clufion and departs, 315, 316. 
Value of his Journals as Cor- 
reftives of Clarendon's mifllate- 
ments, 317. Proofs furnilhed by 
him towards that end, 318, 319. 
Civic Alarms and defenfive pre- 
parations on 6/// Jauuary, 321 
— 323. One caule for increafe 
of Alarm: 325, 326. His ab- 
ftraft of evidence as to Outrage 
of 4/A January, 326 — 329. 
Speech and Motion then made 
by him, 329, 330. Again dif- 
conifits Serjeant Wilde, 330 — 
332. Avoids Voting on Motion 
tor return of Five Members, 332. 
On number and objeft of Bucks 
Petitioners, 353, 353 note. 354. 
374. Proceedings of Committee, 
354 — 356. Commons ufurpa- 
tions why neceflary, 356 note. 


On Pym's traducers, 358 note. 
Lumley's Story, 362 »o/^. Earns 
Lord Holland's approval, 363 
note. On forlorn al'peft of Court, 
364 note. Soldiers' Pikes, 374. 
Abrupt clofe of his narrative, 
375. Hopeleflhefs of middle 
courfe, 387. See alfo 88. 206. 
289. 290, 291. 292. 293. 312. 
313. 370 note. 

Digby, George, Lord : conveyed 
out of England, 3. Aflerted 
fole advifer of Charles's Attempt, 
10, II. His Friends and Col- 
leagues: Clarendon's analyfis of 
his Charafter, 1 1 note. His in- 
timacy with Lunfford, 34, 35, 
Extent of his refponfibility for 
Lunfibrd's appointment, 35 «o/^. 
Confequence of his Speech on 
Strafford's Attainder, 54. Em- 
ployment defigned for him by 
the King, ibid. Singled out for 
Royal favour, 60. Hollis's com- 
plaint againft him, 83. Extent 
of his complicity in King's ob- 
noxious proceedings, 83. 84. 
His Impeachment refolved on, 
84. How he conduced himfelf 
on Kimbolton's Impeachment, 
1 1 6 — 1 18. Further note on the 
difloyal conduft of the Digbys, 
119. Clofeted with the King, 
129. Not unwilling to pufh 
matters to extremities, 205. His 
offer to take Five Members, 
dead or alive, 205. 288. 322. 
Rumours againft him and his 
father, 206, Not the only 
guilty one among the King's 
prompters, 208. One probable 
refult of his intimacy with 
Hyde, 212. Civic alarm pof- 
fibly due to his murderous pro- 
jeft, 322. Charges againft his 
father. See Brijiol, ^rl of. 

Dorfet, Earl of, on Col. Lunfford's 
antecedents, 34. 34 note. 

Dowfe, Capt. (Corrcfpondent of 
Admiral Pennington), folicits 

400 Index. 


a place for the Admiral, 51 

Dungarvon, Lord, 38. 
Dunlmore, Lord, 34 note. 
Durham, Bifhop of, at the door of 

the Houfe, 102 note. Lodged 

in " clofe air," 104, 105. 

Earle, Sir Walter (Weymouth), 
Service rendered to Mr. Strode 
by, 179. 200. His motion rela- 
tive to Sir Ralph Hopton, 226. 
Why D'Ewes refifted his motion 
for " calling in Dering's Book", 
229. Named on Committee of 
Safety, 280. 

Echard, the Hiftorian, Source of 
anecdote publifhed by, 126. 

Eikon Bafilike, Charles's Attempt 
on the Five Members correftly 
interpreted in the, 2. 

Eliot, Sir John, 39, 40 note. 147 
note. 217 note. 

Elizabeth, Qjieen, 33 note. 305. 

Ellis, Mr. William (Bofton) brings 
Gray's Inn Reply, 176, Made 
Chairman of Committee, 239 

Ellyng, Henry, Clerk of Commons, 
who copies from Journals of ? 
232. His explanation to D'Ewes, 


Eflex, Robert, Earl of, joins in 
the Lunfford Proteft, 36 note. 65. 
Military appointment conferred 
on him, 57. Commons demand 
Guard under his command, 109. 
Refufed, 1 12, See alfo 116 note. 
His advice to the Five Members 
and to Kimbolton, 175. 200. 
Difcovers Hyde clofeted with 
the King, 209 note. How Com- 
mons afted when he was pro- 
claimed traitor, 240. Refufes to 
attend King out of London, 361, 
362. What Clarendon fays of 
him, 362 note. Libel upon him, 
ibid. Honefter man than Lord 
Holland, 363 note. 

Evelyn, Sir John (Bletchingley), 

84. Propoles Hopton's expul- 
lion, 225. Comes into coUifion 
with D'Ewes, 226. 

Falkland, Lucius Cary, Lord 
(Newport, Hants): his afferted 
ignorance of intended Arreft, 

11. 12. His intimacy with Lord 
Digby, 11 note. Sufpicions 
againft him and his Colleagues, 

12. III. 112. Influence on 
Charles of tone adopted by 
them, 18. Appointed Secretary 
and Privy Counfellor, 27 note. 
50. Ill and notes. 324, 325 
notes. Silent on an important 
occafion, 121. Only Member of 
Commons Deputation fpoken 
to by the King, 126. Clofeted 
with the King, 140. What he 
and his Colleagues would have 
done with the Five Members, 
14.^ note. Reports King's Reply 
to Commons' Meflage, 160. At- 
tends private Meeting at Hyde's 
lodgings, 209 note. Excufes 
Hyde's abfence, 2 1 5 note. Copies 
from the Clerk's Journals night- 
ly, 232. Named on Committee 
of Safety, 215. 280. As to Cla- 
rendon's afl'ertion of his being 
"difpleafedand dejected", 292. 
293. See alfo 332. 377 384. 

Fane. See Vane, 

Fettiplace, John (Berks), over- 
awed, 241. 

Fiennes, Nathaniel (Banbury), 38. 
Believed to be "for root and 
branch", 47 note. Caufe of 
fudden clofe of his fpeech, 119. 
Appointed a manager in Confe- 
rence with the Lords, 121. Ob- 
jeft of another Conference on 
which he was named, 173. Re- 
folution moved by him, 174. 
His relation about armed crowds 
near the Houfe, 177. Com- 
municates Intelligence brought 
by Langres, 178. 195. 329. 





Qjialifying epithet beltowed 
upon him by D'Ewes, 220. 
Named on Committee of Safety, 
280. Purport of Meflage to 
Lords propofed by him, 281. 
Prominent in Guildhall Com- 
mittee Debates, 303. 309. 316. 

Filmer, Sir Robert, and his fol- 
lowers, 166. 

Five Members, arreft of the, mif- 
reprefented by Clarendon, i. 
Interpretation put on the aft in 
the Eikon Bafilike, 2. Summary 
of the Seven Articles of Treafon 
againft them and Kimbolton, 

113. 114. Copy of the MS. 
Articles in State Paper Office, 

114, 115 notes. Seizure of their 
papers by King's Warrant, 1 20. 
Their perfons demanded by 
King's Serjeant, 122. Courfe 
taken by Houfe on this de- 
mand, 123. Ordered to attend 
Houfe daily, 124. Reafon why 
they withdrew, 145. What 
Charles's new Minifters thought 
of their guilt, 149. How Falk- 
land, Culpeper, and Hyde would 
have difpofed of them, ibid. note. 
Views of the arreft held by King's 
party after its failure, 150 — 152. 
Members fucceffively defend 
themfelves, 161 — 168. Im- 
peachment voted a "Scandalous 
Paper," 172. Lord Eflex's Mef- 
fage and advice to them, 175. 
Proceedingson their re-entrance, 
177,178, Leave given to them 
to abfent themfelves, 179. Dig- 
by's offer to feize thein dead or 
alive, 205. 288. 322. What 
William Lilly thought of their 
arreft and of the King's inten- 
tions, 217 note. Their place of 
Refuge in the City, 253. City's 
anfwer to demand for them, 267, 
268. New Proclamation againft 
them, 269 — 271. Credibility of 
aflertion that they were in no 
danger, 289. " Five Members' 

March", 306 «o/i?. Vane's mo- 
tion with regard to them, 316. 
Commons' Declaration againft 
their arreft, 319, 320. Exclama- 
tion of a King's Guard on not 
finding them in the Houfe, 328. 
Purpofe aimed at by way in 
which King came to demand 
them, 329. Their attendance 
at Committee refolved on, 332. 
How the King met this defiance 
of his threats, 332, 333. Order 
for their public appearance re- 
newed, 333. Further Procla- 
mation againft them condemned 
by the Commons, 333, 334, 
London invaded by their Con- 
ftituents, 338, 339. No greater 
breach of privilege than their 
accufation, 345. How greeted 
on their return, 348, 369 — 371. 
Thanked by the Committee, 
349. Hampden the firft to 
break filence, 353. See Com- 
mons. Hampden. Hafelrig. Hoi- 
lis. Pym. Strode. 

Fleming, Sir Wm. ordered into 
Cuftody, 125. Court Guards 
put under his command, 147. 
177. 328. Delivers Meflage 
from King- to Inns of Court, 
176. Charged with Confpiracy, 
341, 342. 

Fleuiy, a Frenchman, nature of 
warning given by, 86, 329. 

Francis, Mr. King's Serjeant-at- 
Arms ; how received by the Com- 
mons, 121, 122, 123. 124. 302. 

French Interference threatened 
againft Englifti Liberties, 85. 
Infolence of a French prieft, 86. 
Obligation of the popular Lead- 
ers to French Informants, ibid. 

Forfter's Hiftorical and Biographi- 
cal Eflays : references to, i. 8. 
20. 23. 63. 88. 92. 198. 208. 
219. 230, 235. 284. 289. 299. 
321. notes. 

Fuller, Dr. Subjeft of Petition 
againft, 249. 

402 Index, 


Garrett, Sheriff Charles's mo- 
tive in offering to dine with, 262. 
Entertains the King, 263, 266. 

Gerbier, Sir Balthazar, 56 note. 

Gerrard, Sir Gilbert (Middlefex), 
fpeaks againft Lunfford, 56. 

Gibbes, Will and his empty purfe, 
355 "<^te. 

Glyn, John (Weftniinfter), fent 
up to impeach Bifhops, loi. 
Watch duty impofed on him, 
no. A Manager in conferences 
with the Lords, 121. 173. 
Epithet beftowed upon him by 
D'Ewes, 220. Committees on 
which he was nominated, 275. 
276. 277. 280. 316. His com- 
pliment to D'Ewes: 308. 310. 
Follows D'Ewes : purport of 
his Speech, 308, 309. Leader 
in Pym's abfence, 309. Reports 
Lord Herbert's loyalty, 340. 
His bafenefs at the reftoration, 
344. Pepys's glee over his 
accident, 344, note. See 342. 

Goring, George (Portfmouth), ob- 
je6l of Confpiracy with Percy, 

Goodwin, Arthur (Bucks), ap- 
pointed a Teller, 279. Moves 
admiflion of Bucks Petitioners, 


Gourney, Sir Richard,Lord Mayor, 
made a Baronet, 22. Solicited to 
fend Military Aid to King, 156. 
How his Inllruflions were car- 
ried out, 7,^^ note. His extra- 
ordinary Powers, 259. Supprefles 
alarms, 323. 

Grays Inn, Copy of Royal Letter 
to Benchers of, 147. 148. notes. 
Their Reply to the Commons 
Meflage, 176. See Inns of 

Grey Anchetil, 126. 137, 138. 

Grey de Wei k, Lord, 36 note. 

Grimfton, Harbottle (Colchefter) 
309. 316. Leads debateon breach 
of Privilege, 272. Summary of 
his Speech, 272 — 275. Named 

on Committee of Safety, 280. 
Subject of his Speech handled 
in detail, 302. 

Grocers Hall Sittings. See Com- 

Guildhall. See City. 

Guildhall Sittings. ^^^ Commons. 

Guizot's Re'volution d' Angleterre, 
merits of, and of Mr. Scoble's 
Tranflation, 368. 369 notes. 

Hacket, Bifhop, Story told of a 
Hampfliire Vicar by, 63 note. 
His account of the Weftniinfter 
Tumults, 89 note. His Scrinia 
Referata worth reprinting as a 
Curiofity of Literature, 90 note. 
His whimfical vituperation of 
Milton, ibid. Extent of his ac- 
quaintance with Englifh Poets, 
91 note. His lament for the Im- 
peached Bifhops, 1 01 note. 

Hall, Jofeph, Bifliop of Norwich, 
Account by, of what led to the 
Biftiops' Proteft, 93 — 95. Hour 
at which " we were voted to the 
Tower", loi note. Thankful 
at not being Black Rod's 
prifoner, 105 fiote. 

Hallam, Henry, View taken of 
Charles's conduft by, not con- 
fonant with King's Charafler, 
127 and note. Scope of His 
note on Qjieen's intended 
Journey to Spa, 132 note. In- 
advertent mil'quotation by him, 
170 note. His view of Impeach- 
ment of Five Members, 216 
and note. 

Hamilton, Marquis of, "to be 
difplaced ", 30 note. Finds 
Hyde clofeted with the King, 
209 note. See Montrofe. 

Hampden, John (Bucks, one of 
the Five Accufed), Claren- 
don's infinuation regarding, 12. 
Charles's contemplated charge 
againft him, 12. 14. 15. Cla- 
rendon as to refult of offer of 
place to him, 13 note. Songs 

and libels on him i6, 17. 119 
note, 335 note. State-Offices to 
which he was defignated, 54, 
55. 58. His papers feized by 
King's Warrant, 120. Juftifies 
reliltance to an unconftitutional 
King, 166. His Confeffion of 
Faith, 167, 168. "Acrimonious 
condition of his blood", 168 and 
note. His "Serpentine Subtlety": 
what he really was, 169 — 171. 
Clarendon's eftimate of his cha- 
ra6ler, 169, 170 and«o/f. Unity 
of purpofe between him and 
Pym, 171, 172. Their opinion 
of Clarendon : Hampden's 
*' Snappifhnefs", 172 note. Epi- 
thet beftowed upon him by 
D'Ewes, 220. Petitioners for 
him, 339. Firftofthe Five to 
break, filence after Arreft, 353. 
Determined fpirit, 354. King's 
hope concerning him, 380. See 
Buckingham/litre. Fme Mem- 
bers. See alfo 47 note. 177. 
178. 182 note. 198. 213. 225 
fiote. 245. 267. 270. 271 note. 
281. 295. 311 note. 320. 348. 

357- 371- 373- 
Harley, Sir Robert (Herefordfhire), 
reports as to Captain Hide, 

354. 355- 355 »o(e- 
Hafelrig, Sir Arthur (Leicefter- 
fhire, one of the Five Ac- 
cufed), reports infolence of a 
French pritft, 86. His account 
as to Lady Carlifle and the 
Queen, 140. 141. Clarendon's 
contemptuous allufion to him, 
149 note. Defends himfelf 
againft Impeachment, 165. His 
age at the period, 198 note. 
Allufions to him in Royalift 
Songs, 199 note. Epithet be- 
ftowed upon him by D'Ewes, 
220. Rebuked by D'Ewes for 
taking tiie Speaker totaflc, 236. 
See Fi-ve Members. See alfo 177, 
178, 179. i%7.note. 198. 269. 271 
note. 311 note. 320. 348. 371. 

Index. 403 


Hay, Lord, Lady Carlifle 's huf- 
band, 136 note. 

Heath, Chronicler, on movements 
of the Five Members, 178 note. 

Henrietta Maria, Queen of 
Charles I., by whom conveyed 
acrofs Channel, 3. Windeliank's 
Secret Underltanding with her, 
49 note. 50 note. William Lilly 
on Secret Counfels of herfelf 
and Party, 65 note. Ufe made 
of their knowledge of Court 
Secrets by French people about 
her, 86. 88. 130, 131. 138, 139. 
King's unconftitutional a6ts, how 
far due to her i^ifluence and 
intermeddling, 129 — 131. Her 
defigns truly fulpe6led by the 
Commons, 131, 132. Five 
Members' impeachment trace- 
able to her own fear of accu- 
fation, 132, 133. Lady Carlifle's 
poflible motives for betraying 
her Secrets. (See Carlijle). Words 
wherewith fhe is faid to have 
incited the King, 138. 140. 
Mifleads herfelf and betrays her 
Secret, 139. Source of her felf- 
reproach on the King's failure, 
146. Accompanies King in his 
flight, 359- 361. 366. 368. 
Courfe refolvtd on by her, 360. 
Carries off and pawns Crown 
Jewels, 361. Lying with her 
Children, 365 note. Reproaches 
King for abandoning fii-ft refolve 
againft Five Members, 368. 

Herbert, Sir Edward (Old Sarum), 
Attorney-General, delivers Im- 
peachment of Five Members 
to the Lords, 112. Difdaims 
having advil'ed fuch Impeach- 
ment, 113. 128. 113. 128. 312. 
What credit Strode gave to his 
denial, 12S note. 313. See 348. 
371. 379. 

Herbert, Sir Henry (Bewdiey), 
fpeaks in mitigation of Hopton's 
Offence, 225. 
Herbert, Lord, a Catholic Peer, 

404 Index. 

why complimented by Com- 
mons, 340. 

Hertford, William Seymour, Mar- 
quis of, gives note of alarm to 
the Bifliops, 93. Inference de- 
ducible therefrom, 95. 

Heylyn, Dr. Peter, chara6teriftic 
extra6ls from Laud's Life by, 
102, 103 and note. 

Hide, Captain David, with his 
fword upright, 185. His cha- 
ra6ler and career, ibid. note. 
Lord Lieutenant willing to dif- 
able him, 354, 355, -^ss »ote. 

Hill, Roger (Bridport), brings up 
Inner Temple Reply, 176. 

Hippifley, Sir J. (Cockermouth), 
named on Committee of Safety, 

Hiftory, how it may be written, 
289 — 294. 

Hobbes, Thomas, on fliarers in 
King's refponfibility, 140, 141. 
On King's refufal to difclofe his 
Advifers' names, 141 note. 

Holborne's R, (St. Michael's), 
Argument for giving weight to 
a minority, 20. Another argu- 
ment of his, 299 note. 

Holland, Sir John (Caftle RIfing), 
in conflift with Speaker Lenthal, 
237,238. Finds defolate Court 
at Windfor, 364 note. 

Holland, Lord, 36 note. 75. 209 
jiote. In difgrace with the King^ 
29 note. How " the fpeech 
goes " with regard to him and 
others, 30 note. Offers up his 
place, 361. Refufes to attend 
King, 362 note. Libel upon 
Iiim, ibid. Contrail between 
him and Effex, 363 note. 

Hollis, Denzil (Dorchefter, one of 
the Five Accufed), Clarendon's 
Speculations on pofTible refult of 
offer of place to, 13 »o/f. Office 
propofed to be conferred on 
him, 54. 55, 58. Denounces 
Lord Digby, 83, Delivers to 
Charles the Commons' Demand 

for a Guard, 109. His Papers 
feized by King's Warrant, 119, 
120. 302. Defends himfelf 
againft the Impeachment, 165. 
Inquired for by the King, 191. 
His age at this period, 198 note. 
Allufions to him in Royalift 
Songs, 199 note. How D'Ewes 
charafterized him, 220. His 
motion in favor of young Lord 
Strafford, 227 note. His motion 
for Call of Houfe, 250. Anfwers 
Chomley's Queftion, 375. See 
Fi've Members. See alio 47 note. 



ij^. zSj. note. 198. 



232. 269. 271 note. 



311 note. 348. 317. 


Hopton, Sir Ralph (Wells), 136 
note. 215. Incurs cenfure of the 
Houfe, 223, 224. Clarendon's 
verfion of his Charge againft the 
Houfe, 224 note. His expulfion 
moved, 225. D'Ewes fpeaks in 
mitigation, 226. Determination 
come to, 226, 227. His reafon 
for oppofmg Dering's expulfion, 
228. Attempts an Excufe for 
the King's condufl, 275. 277. 
278. Nominated on Committee 
of Safety, 280. Epithet given 
to himbyRufhworth,293. Duty 
afligned him in anticipation of 
fecond Vifit from King, 338. 

Hotham, John (Scarborough), be- 
haves difrefpeftfully to the 
Houfe, 249. 

Hotham, Sir John (Beverley), de- 
puted to carry meffage to King, 
123. 126. Named a manager of 
conference with the Lords, 173. 
His remark on King's Speech 
in Houfe, 19 5. Named on Com- 
mittee of Safety, 280. Charged 
with Confpiracy, 341, 342. 

Houfes of Commons and Lords. 
See Commons. Lords. Parlia- 

Howard de Efcricke, Lord, 36 



Howell's Letters, beft account of 
the Spanifli Match contained in, 
82 note. 

Hume, David, mifled by Claren- 
don, 289. 

HundlUon, Lord, 37 note. 

Hungerford, Sir Edward (Chip- 
penham), named on Committee 
of Safety, 280. 

Hutchinfon, Mrs. on number of 
King's Guard, 181. 

Hyde, Edward (Salta(h). See 
Clarendon, Edivard, Earl of. 

Impeachment of the Bifliops. 
See Bifliops. 

Impeachment of the Five Mem- 
bers. See Fi'ue Members. 

Inns of Court, Armed Afliftance 
fought from the, 147. King's 
Letter in 1628 for Volunteer 
Guard, 147. 148 notes. Pro- 
ceedings in Houfe before the 
arreft, 160. Meflage refolved 
on, 161. Anecdote related by 
Ludlow, 161 note. Anfwer of 
each Inn to Commons' Meflage, 
176, 177- 

Irifh Affairs, references to and 
motions on, 276. 281. 282. 290 
note. 299. 300. 354. 355. 

James the First's welcome to 
the " twal Kynges", 40. 

Jenkin, Lieutenant, what Captain 
Langres heard from, 328. 

Jeflbn, Alderman W. (Coventry), 
called to account for his fierce 
looks, 239, 240. Incurs Mr, 
Speaker's anger, 241. 

Jefuit Priefts reprieved from exe- 
cution, 3 1 . Commotion excited 
thereby, 32 and note. Prifon 
for offenders of this clafs, 

Jonfon, Ben; Bifhop Hacket's ef- 
timation of, 91 note. 

KiLLEGREW, Harry (Weft Looe), 
novel doftrine propounded by, 

243, 244. Anecdote of him 
related by Clarendon, 243 note. 
Trouble into which his incon- 
fideratenefs brought him, 244. 
Trick attempted by his friend 
Chadwell, 244, 245. His obli- 
gations to D'Ewes, 245. Ex- 
tent of his pimifhment, ibid, 

Killigrew, Sir William, or- 
dered into cuftody by Com- 
mons, 125. Mafter Longe's dia- 
mond hatband and ring, ibid, 
note. Sent round to Inns of 
Court by the King, 147. 148. 
176. Charged with Confpiracy, 
341, 342. 

Kimbolton, Lord (^See alfo Man- 
deville. Lord), 36 note. Why 
charged with Treafon, 14, 15. 
Clarendon's objeflion to his 
being included, 15 note. 149 
note. His doings watched : His 
confultations with Pym and 
others, 15, 16, 37. Warning 
fent to him by Marfton the 
Dramatift, 87. 117. Copy of 
Marfton's Letter, ibid. note. 
Source of Marfton's informa- 
tion, 88. Articles of treafon 
againft him and the Five Mem- 
bers, 113, 114. How he met 
the charge, 116. EmbarrafTment 
and flight of his expefted accu- 
fer, 116 — n8. Lady Carlifle's 
intercourfe with him, 133. 
Lord EfTex's warning to him, 
200. Omitted from King's 
Proclamation, 269. See alfo 
pp. 205. 269. 

Kirton, Mr. (Milborne Port), 279. 

Langres, Captain, fource of war- 
nings received by, 86. Nature 
and fcope of his evidence, 147. 
His communication to Fiennes, 
178 and note. 197. 200. Fuller 
report of his Evidence, 328. 329. 

Larking, Rev, Lambert ; Surren- 
den Papers to be edited for 





the Camden Society by, 48, 49 

Latche, John, recounts his failure 
to enforce obedience to the 
King's Warrant, 159. 

Laud, William, Archbifhop of 
Canterbury, tyranny of, broken 
down by Pym, 41. His rule, 
not the Church itfelf, obnoxious 
to Pym, 47. He and his old 
rival in prifon together, 102. 
Makes merry over a caricature 
of his rival, 103. Civilities 
between him and his fellow- 
prifoners, 101 note. 

Leicefter, Earl of, 37 note. 54.281. 

Leighton, Dr. relieved by Mem- 
bers' Fines, 249. 

Lenthal, William (Woodftock), 
Speaker of the Houfe of Com- 
mons, 22. His apprehenfions 
of the refults of his continu- 
ing Speaker, 23. Clarendon's 
portraiture of him, ibid. note. 
His obfequious Letter to Secre- 
tary Nicholas, 24, 25. His 
fecond thoughts on fame fub- 
jeft, 28. His fecond Letter to 
Nicholas, ibid, note f . His me- 
morable reply to Charles's de- 
mand for the Five Members, 
191, 192. Amenities between 
him and D'Ewes, 229. 231. Im- 
preflions of his charafter as in- 
dicated in D'Ewes's Journal, 
232. His conduft at the Refto- 
ration contrafted with North- 
umberland's, 234 and note. 
Always a time-ferver, 235. His 
conflifts with Members of the 
Houfe, 236. 238. 241. Violates 
precedent by voting in a divi- 
fion, 237. Inftances in which 
D'Ewes fets him right, 238. 
239. 247. His deficiencies as 
Speaker, ibid. Rebuked for 
coming late to the Houfe, 248. 
Effeft of his example on another 
Member, 248, 249. See alfo 
178. 219. 252. 

Lewis, Lady Therefa; her " Cla- 
rendon Gallery", 55 note. 

Lichfield, Bifliop of, at door of 
Houfe, 102 note. 

Lilly, William, on outbreak of 
Weftminfter tumults, 64 note. 
Puritans and Courtiers, 64, 65 
notes. On the tumults, and on 
King and Queen's doings, 65 
note. On Charles's manner of 
Speech, 192 note. On arreft of 
Members, King's conduft, &c. 
217 note. Afpeft of London on 
Sunday, ^th Jan. (1641-2), 

Lincoln, Earl of, 37 note. 

Lincoln's Inn Reply to Common's 
Meflage, 176. ^et Inns of Court. 

Lindfay, Robert Earl of, chofen 
Commander of Guard to Par- 
liament, 116 note. 

Lifle, Lord (Yarmouth, Hants), 
moves refolution on I rifli affairs, 

Littleton, Sir Edward (Stafford- 
fhire). Lord Keeper, receives 
Bifhops' Proteftation from the 
King, 95, His ftiare in impeach- 
ment of Five Members, 112, 113. 
Attorney-General Herbert's re- 
queft to him, 312. 

Liturgy, City Petition againft en- 
forcement of, 32 note. 

London, City of, mul6led of its 
Plantation of Derry, 217 note. 
See City. 

Long, Mr. Walter (Ludgerftiall), 
named on Committee of Safety, 

Lords, Houfe of, refiife to join in 
Petition for Lunfford's removal, 
36 note, 65 and note*. Protefling 
Peers in this and D. of Rich- 
mond's cafe, 36 note. 37 note. 
Their prompt afVion on im- 
peachment of Bifhops, 100. 
Vote come to by them, 100, 
101. Bifliop Hackett on their 
" anti-epifcopal fournefs ", 101 
note. Afpeft of Houfe after 





Bifhops' Committal, 104. Im- 
peachment of Five Members 
delivered to Houfe, 112. Join 
with Commons in demand for 
Guard, 115. Copy of King's 
reply, 116 note. 

Ludlow, Edmund, anecdote re- 
lated by, 161 note. On number 
and equipment of Charles's 
Guards when he entered the 
Houfe, 180. Anecdote of Lord 
Northumberland, 235 note. 

Ludlow, Sir Henry (Wiltftiire), 
moves Vote againft Killegrew 
and Fleming, 341. Refult of 
Difcuifion thereon, 342. 

Lumley, Walter, fcurrilities heard 
by, 362 note. 

Lunfiford Sir Thomas, appointed 
Governor of the Tower, 34. 
His charafter and antecedents, 
34, 35. Objeft in appointing 
him, 35, 36, Clarendon's ver- 
fion of his appointment, -^ 5 note. 
Commons iblicit his removal, 
37. Day on which his War- 
rant was figned, 61. His ap- 
pointment cancelled, 62. Lords 
decline to petition for his dif- 
miflal, 36. 65. and «o^^. Sidney 
Bere's report thereon, 69. Su- 
perfeded, knighted, and pen- 
lioned, 70 and note, EfFeft of 
his dilmiflal on the people, 71. 
Captain Slingfby on fame fub- 
jeft, 77. Led aflault in Weft- 
minfter Hall, 82. 185 note. 
Willing to help in any defperate 
affair, 205. 322. Stapelton's 
farcaftic allufion to him, 322 
note. Excites fears in the City, 
366, 367. His name and Dig- 
by's coupled, 367 note, 

Lytton, Sir William (Herts), 
compliments Sir Simonds 
D'Ewes, 219. D'Ewes's fcr- 
vices to him, ibid. note. His 
Suggeftion to Houfe, 276. No- 
minated on Committee of Safety, 

Macaulay, Lord, authority cited 

in EfTays of, 312. 
Majorities and Minorities, their 

refpeflive rights, &c. 9. 18. 20. 
Manchefter, Earl of, 16. 34 note. 

94. . 

Mandeville, Lord, puts in his claim 
for office, 54. Withdraws in fa- 
vour of HoUis, 55. Impeached 
with Five Members, 182 note, 
311 note. See Kimbolton. 

Manuscript Authorities cited 
or referred to : See Bere. Carte- 
rett. Bering. D^Eives. Do-ivfe, 
Latche. Marfton. Nicholas, 
Porter. Slingfhy. Smith {Thos.). 
Windebank. Wife man {Thomas). 

Markham, John (Chief Juftice 
temp. Edw. IV.) on King's 
right of arreft, 312. 

Marlton, John, warns Lord Kim- 
bolton, 87. 117. Copy of his 
Letter, ibid, note. His fources 
of information, 88. 

Marten, Harry (Berkfhire), carries 
Houfe's Meflage to Lord New- 
port, 37. How D'Ewes cha- 
rafterifed him, 220. 

Mary, Queen, 305. 

Mafham, Sir W. (ElTex), oppofes 
Luniford's appointment, 36. 

Maxwell, James, Ufher of Black 
Rod and his Epifcopal prifoners, 
105 and note. Sent by the King 
for Rufhworth, 251. 

May, Thomas, on King's Vifit to 
City, 1 30, 131 notes. On King's 
right to withhold names of his 
advifers, 141 note. On number 
and equipment of King's Guards 
on entering Houfe, 180, 181. 
Miftakes made by him, 1 98 note. 

Maynard, John (Totnefs), aftive 
in debate, 309. Able Speech 
by, 344 — 347. His bafenels at 
the Reftoration, 344. 

Merchants of London in Charles's 
time, 253, 254. 

Milton, John, vituperated by 
Biihop Hacket, 90, 91 notes. 
B E 2 




Mildmay, Sir Henry (Maiden), 
complains of Mr. Jeflbn's^fierce 
look, 239, 240. Rebukes 
Speaker Lenthal, 248. 

Montreuil, French Ambaffador, 
warns popular Leaders, 86. 131. 

Montrofe, James Graham, Lord, 
made a Marquis, 17. His offer 
to kill Argyie and Hamilton, 
284, 285, 286 notes. 

Moore, Mr. and the Clerk's Jour- 
nals, 232. 

Morton, Father, has a great mind 
to accufe Secretary Windebank, 
224, 225 notes. 

Motteville, Madame de, a fuf- 
pefted Betrayer of Court Secrets, 
86. Incidents ftated in her 
Memoirs, 130. 138. 139. 146. 

Murray, William, fufpefled of 
betraying Court Secrets, 15 
note. Clofeted with the King 
and Queen, 139. Queen's de- 
fignation of him, ibid. note. 

Murrayes, the, 27 note. 

Nalson, John, on the caufe of the 
Weftminfter tumults, 65 note* 

Nelfon, Rev. Mr. fneers at Pym's 
Scholarfhip, 358 note. 

Napier, Mr. on Montrofe's mur- 
derous offer, 284, 285, 286 

Newburgh, Lord, 34, note. To 
be Mafler of the Wards, 58. 

Newgate, attacked by the Citi- 
zens, 32 and note. 

Newport, Lord, 36 note. 37 note. 
Requefled to take Command of 
Tower, 37. Difmifled by the 
King, ibid. Nature of Charge 
againfthim : Charles's demeanour 
towardshim,37 — 39. Hisdifmif- 
fal debated in the Commons, 82. 

Nicholas, Sir Edward, Secretary 
of State j appoints Sidney Bere 
Under-Secretary, 5. Communi- 
cates Lord Kimbolton's doings 
to the King, 15, 16. Vengeful 

purport of the King's letters, 
17, 18. Speaker Lenthal's ob- 
fequioufnel's, 24, 25.28 note\. 
Sidney Bere's teftimony to his 
worth, 26, 27 note \. "Sworne 
Secretary ofState and knighted", 
28 note. 49. Communicates 
Court GofI5p to Admiral Pen- 
nington, 54, 55. King's letters 
to him from Scotland, 57. 
Further news on Official 
changes, ibid. Why he objefts 
to Ecclefiaflical Reform, 58. 
His lift of Popular Leaders de- 
fignated for office, ibid. Pre- 
mature in his anticipations of 
Difmiffal, 59. Iffues new Pro- 
clamation againft Fi've Members, 
269. His Inftruftions, 269, 270. 
His precaution in taking King's 
Orders, 271. 271 note. His con- 
nexion with Order relative to 
Trained Bands, 3 24 note. Griefs 
of felf and wife, 362, 363. See 
alfo 49 note. 140. 155. 257 note. 

North, Lord, 36 note, 37 note. 

Northcote, Sir John (Afhburton), 
bold avowal by, 242, 243. Oc- 
cafion on which fame was made, 
243 note. 

Northumberland, Algernon Percy, 
Earl of. Lord Admiral : In- 
tended fuccefTor to, 4. Joins in 
Proteft relative to Lunfford's ap 
pointment, 36 note. 65. Dowle's 
Vifits to him on Pennington's 
behalf, 51 note. Leads the Lords 
in the Bifhops' cafe, 100. His 
change to the popular fide, 135. 
His conduft contrafled with 
Lenthal's, 234, 235 notes. Re- 
torts on the King, 382. See 
alfo 37 note. 76 note. 100. 297. 

Note-taking, D'Ewes's comment 
on propofal for preventing, 

O'CONNEL, Captain Owen, Crom- 
well's complaint relative to, 85 



Ogle, Captain, depofes to hoftile 
intention of King's Guard, 327. 
Oudart, Mr. 204 note. 
Owen, Captain, 76 note. 

Paget, Lord, 37 note. 

Palmer's, Geoffrey (Stamford), 
Proteft againft the Reinon- 
ftrance, and its Refult, 7, 8. Ef- 
feft on Charles of courfe taken 
by him and his aflbciates, 18. 

Palmes, Sir Guy (Rutland), on 
propofal to alter a meffage, 232. 
Awed into a Vote, 241. 

Paris, fierce froftin Paris (i 641-2), 
67 note. 

Parliament, Firft great Divifions 
in, 7. Refult of firft Party 
Struggle, 10. The People's 
only hope, 65 note. Foreign 
aid againft it folicited for 
Charles I. 224. Expofition of 
its powers, 273. See Commons. 

Parry's Treafon, temp. Q^ Eliz. 

Party. See Parliament. 

Peard, George (Barnftable), nature 
of errand confided to, 174. 
Reproves members for inter- 
rupting D'Ewes, 222. 

Pemberton, Subftance of Exami- 
nation of, 79 note. 

Pembroke, Earl of, joins in the 
LunfFord Proteft, 36 note. 65. 
How he bore his lofs of Office, 


Penningman. See Pennyman. 

Pennington, Admiral Sir John. 
Value, for purpofes of this Nar- 
rative, of Letters addreffed to, 
3. Services rendered by him to 
the King and his party, 3, 4. 
Clarendon's charafter of him, 3 
note. Fate of his appointment 
as Lord Admiral, 4. Declines 
to aft on Bere's hint, 30 note. 
Further on fame topic, from 
Captain Dowfe, 51 note. Makes 
Secretary Nicholas's Wife a 


"Proude Woman", 57. Se- 
cret fervice undertaken by him, 
361. His Correfpondents : See 
Bere. Carterett. Do-ivfe. Nicholas. 
Slingjby. Smith (Thomas). Wife- 
man {Ihomas). 

Pennington, Alderman Ifaac (Lon- 
don), charged with important 
duty by the Commons, 124 — 
155. 157. 174. Prominent in 
debate under Glyn, 309. Suf- 
pefts tamperings with Town 
Guards, 340, 341. 

Pennyman, Sir William (Rich- 
mond), defignated Succeflbr to 
Vane the younger, 30 note. 51 
note. 52 

Pepys's glee over Glyn's accident, 
344 note. His tribute to Slingf- 
by's memory, 365 note. 

Percy, Henry (Northumberland), 
objeft of Confpiracy of, with 
Goring, 246. 

Pierrepoint, Francis (Notting- 
ham), endeavours to exculpate 
Attorney-General Herbert, 128 
note, 312, 313. 

Pierrepoint, William (Great Wen- 
lock), named on Committee of 
Safety, 280. 

Pope, Foreign aid folicited by the, 
for Charles I. 224. 

Porter, Endymion (Droitwich), 
why abfent from Parliamentary 
duties, 364 note. His cha- 
rafteriftic Letter to his wife, 
364, 365 notes. 

Poulton, Ferdinando, repeats a 
Scurrilous Couplet, 3 58 note. 

Prentices of London attacked by 
the Soldiers, 68. Exafperation 
of the people thereat, 69. 

Price, Charles (Radnorftiire), duty 
affigned to by Commons in ex- 
peftation of Second Vifit from 
the King, 338. 

Price, Herbert (Brecon), Teller in 
Divifions, 279 and note. Named 
on Committee of Safety, 2 1 5,280. 

Priefts condemned, commotion 



Prince EleSlor, 

caufed by Reprieve of, 31. 32. 
and note. 

Prince Eleftor. See Charles, 
EleSior Palatine. 

Privilege not claimed by Com- 
mons to bar a juft Charge, 320. 
See Commons. 

Pye,Sir Robert (Woodftock), duty 
impofed upon, no. Wifhes for 
fome way of accommodation 
with the King, 201 note. 

Pye, Sir Walter : Subjeft of his dif- 
courfe with the Pope's nephew, 
225 note. 

Pym, John (Taviftock : one of 
the Five Accufed), refult of 
Court Offers of Place to, 9. 
Clarendon's infinuationsrefpeft- 
ing him, 12. Offence intended 
to be charged on him by Charles, 
12. 14. 15. Clarendon's regret 
at his non-acceptance of office, 
13 note. 42. Objeft of Conful- 
tations at his Chelfea Lodgings, 
16. His praftical reply to paral- 
lel between him and Strafford, 
19. Suggefts exiflence of Con- 
fpiracy to get up charges of 
treaibn, ibid. Caufes of his 
great popularity ; his earlier 
fervices and endurances, 39,40. 
His rife to the Leaderfhip, and 
qualifications for fame, 41. 
Clarendon's tribute to his popu- 
larity, ibid. Why Charles's 
efforts to win him over failed, 
42 note. Specimens of Royalifl 
Lampoons on him, 43 — 46 notes. 
199 note. His fecret influence 
over the King, 45 — 46. Ufe 
made of his Speeches by the 
King after his death, 46. His 
laft Refling-place, ibid, note. 
Renewed offers of Place made 
to him, 47. Points wherein he 
was lefs extreme than Hamp- 
den, ibid. Clarendon's tefti- 
mony on this head, ibid. note. 
Why Charles's Offers came too 
late : Sir Edward Dering's 

Minute on the fubje6l, 48. 152. 
Proximate date of the King's 
Offer to him, 49. His reception 
of old Vane on the latter's dif- 
miffal, 52. Former offers of 
place to him and his party fur- 
ther difcufled, 53 — 58. Charles's 
poffible motive in his later offer 
of Place to Pym alone, 59, 60. 
Had timely Information of 
King's Intent againft him, 88. 
Paffage on this topic from one 
of his Speeches, ibid. note. 
Members alarmed by a fug- 
geftion of his, 106. Charafter ' 
and obje6l of his Speech, 107. 
His fources of information, 108. 
His Plan : how received by the 
Houfe, 108, 109. On King's 
refufal of Guard : fragments of I 
his Speech, 118, 119. Seizure 
of his Papers by King's War- 
rant, 119, 120. 302. His con- 
nexion with Lady Carlifle, 133. 
Scandal and Libels to which 
this Connexion gave rife, 135, 
136 notes. Queen's Queflion 
about" that roundheaded man", 
136, 137 notes. Defends him- 
felf againfl the Impeachment, 
161 — 165. Away to the City 
by Water, 179. Looked for in 
the Houfe by Charles, 186. 189 
note. 190. 1 91. His rejoinder to 
King's Complaint againft him, 

210. Communicates to the 
Houfe anonymous warning of 
Treachery received by him, 210, 

211. Tolerant feeling between 
him and D'Ewes, 220. Ob- 
jection taken to Anfwer to 
Royal Meffage drawn by him, 

221. His " difcretion and mo- 
defty " commended by D'Ewes, 

222. His heavieft charge againft 
the King proved, 299, 300. 
Thoufands of Petitioners for 
him, 338. 357. Juftificatory 
paragraphs from Petition, 357 
note. Sample of attacks upon 


him, 358 note. Thanks City 
for proteftion, 371. Dering's 
charafteriftic expreflion, 372. 
Avowal made in his "Vindi- 
cation", 379, 380. Seealfo 13 
note. 37. 177. 178. 182 note. 
198. 215. 225 note. 233. 245. 
246. 267. 269. 271 note. 272. 
295. 311 note. 320. 328. 348. 

Reformadoes, what they were, 
180 note. 

Remonftrance, Debates on the, 4, 
5. 6, 7. Palmer's Proteft, 8. Tac- 
tics of the Minority, 9, 10. Its 
publication, 60. Its objeft, 377. 
Referred to, 113, 154, 163, 253, 


Richardfon, junior, and John 
Walker find anonymous letter 
addrefftd to Pym, 210. 

Richmond, James Stuart, Duke 
of, appointed Lord Steward, 30 
note. His fally : Proteft of 
Peers on the occafion, 36 note. 
279 note. Windebank's liking 
for him, 50 note* . 

Rigby, Alexander (Wigan), pur- 
port of Motion made in Com- 
mons Houfe by, 160, 161, 

Robartes, Lord, 36 note. 

Rochefter, Earl of. See Claren- 
don^ Henry, Earl of. 

RoUe, Sir Samuel (Devon), named 
on Committee of Safety, 280. 

Rome, letter on Englifli politics 
at, 224, 225 notes. 

Romilly, Sir John, Matter of the 
Rolls ! Services rendered to 
Engllfti Hiftory by, 3 note. 

Roundheads and Cavaliers, firft 
ufe of the epithets, 62, 63. 
Hampfhire Vicar's antipathy, 
how exprelTed, 63 note. Wil- 
liam Lilly on this topic, 64 
note. Clarendon on origin of 
the two epithets, 74. Baxter's 
anecdote of the " roundheaded 
man", 136 — 7 notes. Rufliworth 


on the "firft miniting" of 
'* Roundheads", 185 note. 

Rous, F. (Truro), moves prefen- 
tation of Members' Fines to 
Dr. Leighton, 249. 

Rowley's Evidence as to threats 
of French interference, 85. 

Roxborough, Earl of, keeps the 
Commons' door open, 185. 

Rudyard, Sir B. (Wilton), named 
on Committee of Safety, 280. 

Rupert, Prince, 1^6 note. 185. 

Rufliworth, John, as to Guard ac- 
companying King to Houfe, 
180. On the term Roundhead, 
185 note. Takes down Charles's 
Speech, 187, 188. Charles's 
correftions and erafures therein 
'verbatim, 188, 189. Sent for 
by the King, 251. King's re- 
joinder to his excufes, 252. 
What took place after he quitted 
the King, 253. His account 
of Charles's reception in Guild- 
hall, 258, 259 notes. His ftate- 
ment of Houfe's Proceedings 
on 5//i January, 290 note. Ex- 
tent of his notes of Guildhall 
Sitting on 6tA January, 300. 
On number of Bucks Petitioners, 
353 note. 347 note. 351 note. 
See alfo 289. 290. 292. 293. 

Ruflell, Lord John, quoted, 40 
note t- 

Ruflell, Sir William, Joint Trea- 
furer of the Navy, 51. Made 
Sole Treafurer, 52. 

Sailor Volunteers, Services of 
accepted by Commons, 347 and 
note. 348. Epithets beftowed 
on them by the King, 348. 359. 

Saint John, Lord, 36 note. 

Saint John, Oliver (Totncfs) ; 
Clarendon's Speculations on pof- 
fible refult of offer of place to, 1 3 
note. Not on Committee of 
Safety, 280, 

Sandford, Afr. J. L. argument of, 




as to Strode's identity can- 
vaffed, i9g note. 

Savile, Thomas, Lord, appointed 
Treafurer of Houfehold, 30 note. 

Saye and Seale, William, Lord 
(Old Subtlety), 36 note. 37 note. 
38. Office propofed to be given 
to him, 55. 58. 

Scot the Regicide and Speaker 
Lenthal, 234.. 

Scottifli Covenant and City of 
London, 256. 

Selden, John (Oxford Univerfity), 
40 note. 14.7 note. 

Shakefpeare, William, unnoticed 
and unknown, 91 note. 

Shaw^berie, Thomas, afperfes Pym, 
358 note. 

Shepherd, one Mr. in the wrong 
place, 251. 

Simmons, S. Publiflier of Paradife 
Loft, 91 note. 

Skippon, Major, and his Trained 
Bands, 256. Invefted with 
Command of Tower, 335. His 
character and fubfequent emi- 
nence, ibiJ. Anecdote told by 
Whitelock, 334, 335 notes. 
Office created for him : its ne- 
cefTity, 336. Made Sergeant- 
Major-General of City forces, 
351, Duties afligned to him, 

35i> 35^- 
Slingfby, Captain Robert (Cor- 
refpondent of Admiral Penning- 
ton), prefumed defign of, in 
coming to London, 4.. Letters on 
the Remonftrance Debate, 4, 7. 
Anticipates great things from 
King's Vifit, 21, 22. Change 
wrought in his views, 25, 26. 
News of the King, the Houfes, 
and the Citizens, 26 note. On 
altered afpeft of affairs, 27. 28. 
On Commotion excited by re- 
prieve of condemned Priefts, 
32 note. Animus of " fome of 
the Parliament" towards him- 
felf, 76 note. His account of 

the Weftminfter tumults, 77. 
On charge againft Earl of Brif- 
tol, 78. Iflue predicted if the 
King yield not, 80. His account 
confirmed by D'Ewes, 81. His 
apprehenfions as to the Biftiops' 
Proteftation, 97,98. "Extreame 
tempeftuous weather ", 99 note. 
On number and equipment of 
King's Guard, 181 — 183. De- 
fcribes Impeachment of Five 
Members, 182 note. How the 
King came into the Houfe, 184. 
What the King did and faid, 
194 note. Charles' reception at 
Guildhall and how he fared by 
the way, 260 — 263. Curious 
incident related by him, 268 
note. Further on pofition of 
Affairs between King and Par- 
liament, 298, 299. His words 
a confirmation of Pym's Charge, 
300. On Return of Five Mem- 
bers and King's flight, 366, 367. 
Clofeof his letter, 367 «o/^. His 
after career : Pepys' tribute to 
his memory, 365, 366 notes. 
Smith, Mr. Philip (Marlborough), 
brin gs up Middle Temple R eply, 


Smith, Thomas (Correfpondent of 
Admiral Pennington) : On dif- 
ferences between King and. 
Commons, 61, 62. Attack of 
Soldiers on 'Prentices, 68, 69. 
On <' the laft plott of the 
Bifhopps", 99. Compares Arch- 
bifhop Williams to Achitophel, 
100. Troubles confequent on 
the King's Attempt, 206 — 208. 
How matters ftand between 
King and City, 297, 298. 
His View of King's Stretch of 
power, 311, 312 notes. 

Soame, Alderman Sir Thomas 
(London) joined with Venn and 
Pennington in deputation to 
City, 174. 

Songs and Libels on the Popular 
Leaders, and their friends, no- 



ticed, 17. 43 — 46. 199,256 note. 

306 note. 355 «o/^. 362 »o/f. 
Southampton, Earl of, made Privy 

Councillor, 267. 
Southwark Trained Bands, 34.9. 

359- 369- 

Spencer, Lord, 36 note. 

Spenfer, Edmund, Bifliop Racket's 
efteem for, 91 note. 

Stamford, Earl of, 36 note. 

Stapleton, Sir Philip (Borough- 
bridge), appointed a manager in 
Conference with the Lords, 121. 
Nominated on Committee of 
Safety, 280. Moves refolution 
on Irifh Affairs, 281. His 
farcaftic allulion to Lunfford, 
322 note. See alfo 126, 309. 

Strafford, Thomas Wentveorth, 
Earl of, 2. 4. 13. 19. 39. 41. 
51. 51 note. 52. 54. 55. 76 note. 
77. 134. i2S»ote. 1^6 note. 137. 
162. 251. 256. 355 note. 357. 

Strafford, young Earl of, Gene- 
rofity of Houle of Commons to, 
227 note. 

Strode, William (Beeralflon, one 
of the Five Accufed), in- 
credulous as to Herbert and 
Littleton's affertion, 128 and 
note. 313. Clarendon's uncivil 
allufion to him, 149 note, His 
declaration as to real obje(5t of 
Impeachment. 165. Dragged 
out of the Houfe by his friend, 
179.198 — 200. On his identity 
with the Strode of James's Par- 
liament, 198 note. Contempt 
of the Royalifts for him, 199 
note. Epithets bellowed upon 
him by D'Ewes, 220. Gets the 
worft in an altercation with 
D'Ewes, 222, 223. See alfo 
177, 178. 182 note. 198. 270. 
271 note. 311 note. 320. 348. 
371. See Five Members. 

Suffolk, Earl of, 36 note. 

Sunday in London, gtA Jan. 
(1641 — 2), defcribed 338, 339. 



Swift's reminder, to a high-flying 
fecretary, 382 note. 

Tory and Whig, 62. 

Tower ; name beftowed by Cour- 
tiers on the, 33. Qualifications 
required in its Governor, ibid. 
Steps taken by Commons for 
its fecurity, 334. Clarendon's 
admiflion, 334 note. Skippon 
invefted with its command, 325. 
Pym's later reference to this 
fubjeft, 325 note, Sufpicions 
communicated by Alderman 
Pennington, 340, 341. Its 
Lieutenants and Governing 
Officers. See Balfour. Biron. 
Coniers. Lunfford. Neniuport. 

Temple, Inner and Middle, Re- 
plies of, to Commons' MefTage, 
176, 177. See Inns of Court. 

Trained Bands of London, 254. 
323. 336. See City. South- 

Valentine. Mr. 27 note. 

Vane, Sir Henrythe elder (Wilton), 
fuperfeded, 27 note, 30 note. 50. 
His Treafurerfhip of the Houfe- 
hold given to Lord Savile. 
Windebank's fellow feeling 
towards him, 50 note*. Wel- 
comed back by Pym, 52. Takes 
up extreme pofition in debate, 
242, 243. 

Vane, Sir Henry, the younger 
(Hull), difmiffed from Office, 30 
note. 51. Believed to be for " root 
and branch ",47 note. Candi- 
dates for his poft, 51 note. 
His pofition in the Opinion of 
the Commons, 52. Their dif- 
pleafure at his difmiffal, 53. 
Conference and committee on 
which he was named, 173.316. 
Exception to Harry Killegrew's 
Speech, 244. His addition to 
Guildhall Refolution, 315, 316. 



319. Bafenefs of his former 
friends, 344. See 173. 316. 

Vaughan, Mr. John (Cardigan 
Town), Supported by D'Ewes, 

Venn, Captain John (London), 
duty impofed by Commons on, 
124. 155. 157. 174. 

Verney, Sir Ralph (Aylelbury) : 
Notes of proceedings of Long 
Parh'ament (Camden Society 
Book) by, quoted or referred 
to, 20 note*. 37 note. 84. 180. 
183. 184. 185. 193. 289. 290. 
292. 343. 347. 347 note. His 
Statement of what took place 
ith January, 290 note. His notes 
of Guildhall Sitting on the 6th 
Jan, 300. His miftakes, 351 

John. See Richardfon, 
between Pym 


Waller's parallel 
and Strafford, 19 

Walfingham, Sir Thomas, Kt. 
(Rochefter) named on Com- 
mittee of Safety, 280. 

War. See Ci^il War. 

Warburton,Bifliop,on Lunfford's 
appointment, 36, 

Warrants, Royal, Debates and 
Refolutions on, 303 — 308. 313 

—315- 330—332- 343- See 
Charles. Commons. 

Warwick, Earl of, 36 note. Scur- 
rilous Couplet on, -^^Snote. 

Warwick, Sir Philip (Radnor 
Town) J Scandal againft Lady 
Carlifle, 135, 136 and notes. 
His opinion as to Hampden's 
death, 168 note. Suggefts that 
Commons are guilty of Treafon, 
350. Anecdote told by him, 
382 note. 

"Water Rats", 348. 359. 

Wentworth, Sir Peter (Tamworth), 
241. Horror of Culpcper at his 
"folly", 242. 

Weftminfter Tumults ; William 

Lilly on, 64 note. Their real 
caufe, 65 and note*. Prologue 
to the Civil war, 66. Objeft 
aimed at, 66, 67. Soldiers' 
attack on Prentices, 68, 69. 
Caufe of King's acceptance of 
Volunteer Guard, 76. Slingf- 
by's Verfion of thefe Tumultsj 
77,78. Aftion taken by Com- 
mons to prevent their recurrence, 
85. Courfe adopteil by Bifhops, 
89, 90. 
Wharton, Lord (Beverley), 36 

note. 38. 
Wheeler, Mr. (Weftbury), Watch 
duty impofed upon, no. Named 
on Committee of Safety, 280. 
Whig and Tory, 62. 
Whitelock, Bulftrode (Marlow), 
on Queen's influence in King's 
Counfels, 129, 130. His View 
of Lady Carlifle's Warning, 
145 note. Named on Committee 
of Safety, 280. His queftion- 
able aflertion, 383. See 354, 
354«o/f. 382. 
Wich, Sir Peter, breaks open the 

Arms Cheft, 217 note. 
Wilde, Serjeant (Worcefterftiire), 
fits as Chairman of Committee, 
■309, 310, Wrong ifTue fuggefted 
by him, 314. Set right by 
D'Ewes, 314, 315. See 330. 
Williams, John, Archbifhop of 
York, roughly handled by the 
Prentices, 71 and note f. 
Slingfby's account of his treat- 
ment, 77. His part in the 
affray next day, 78. A fighting 
Archbifhop, 79. Bramfton's, 
Hyde's, and Hacket's Accounts 
compared, 8 9 note. Real Author 
of Bifhops' Proteftation, 91, 92. 
Proceedings had on the matter 
at his Lodgings, 94. Bifhops 
furprifed by him into concur- 
rence, 95. Dubbed Achitophel, 
100. How his Intrigue was 
baffled, ibid. He and Laud in 
prifon together, 102. Caricatures 

upon him : Laud's enjoyment 
or fame, 102, 103, 103 note. 
Apprentices provoked by him, 
185 note. 

Willoughby de Parham, Lord, 37 

Windebank, Sir Francis, Claren- 
don on flight of, 32, 33 notes. 
His fecret underftanding with 
the Queen and grief at lofs of 
Office, 49, 50 notes. His fellow 
feeling for a caft Courtier, 50 
note *. Defires to return to 
England, 67, 68 notes. , Con- 
cerning his conneftion with the 
Roman Catholics, 224, 225 

Wifeman, Sir Richard, flain in 
the Weftminfter Tumults, 64. 
Further references to the oc- 
currence, 70. 78. 80 note. 185 

Wifeman, Thomas (Correfpondent 
of Admiral Pennington), cha- 

Index, 415 

Young Man. 
rafter and pofition of, 7. On Pal- 
mer's committal to the Tower, 

8. On clofe of Remonftrance 
Debate, and ftate of Houfes, 8, 

9. On the King's reception in 
the City, 22. On Changes of 
offices, 29, 30. notes. On 
King's Second Vifit to the City, 
264 — 267. 268. His defpairing 
View of affairs, 287. 295. 

Wray, Sir C. (Great Grimfby), 

Wray, Sir John (Lincolnlhire), 
both named on Committee of 
Safety, 280. 

Wright, Edward, Alderman, Sub- 
ftance of Pemberton's Examina- 
tion before, 79 note. 

Wright, Thomas, Political Ballads 
(Percy Society Book) edited by, 
358 note. 

Young Man, Queftion raifed by 
' D'Ewes's ufe of the term, 198 
and note. 279 note. 

I HAVE to thank Mr. Henry Campkin for the great care and flcill 
with which this Index has been compiled. 

J. F. 




I for "Archetil" read " Awchetil." 


91. 5 from bottom (»c/^) : for " J5. Simmons " read " .S". Simmons." 
126. Laft line 
137. Laft line 
147. 4th marginal note, for "1828 " read " 1628," 
280. Line 12, for " Cockerwor//;; " read " CockerOTOwM." 

370. Laft line but one {note), for "/>o/? 364" read "/o/? 374." 

371. Line 8 from bottom (note), for " title" read "letter." 
382. Laft line but one («o^£'), for "worftiip" read " lordftiip." 

389. {Index) under "Authorities cited": MS. after Bering infert 
D^Enjoes. Printed, after Lilly infert Ludloiv. 

403. {Index) under "Herbert, Sir Edward," for " 348. 371," read 
"378. 381," and ^f/f 379. 


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