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jMi, MM. ifti, tffy 



Pksfatokv Notb 


Book I 3 

Book II 124 

Book III 224 

Book IV 354 


Thb text of this editkm it that of Dobner, e<L 
Didot; and this In torn it that of the ParisUn MS. 
usually noted at B, but bj Dobner at A. B, GMlex 
Parlalnat gr. 17&3, Jllifth eodwy, it, with O 
(ConttantlnopoUtannt, flfteeoth centarj), ahnott 
certainly directly derived firtm a eopy 0/ A, fint 
hand ; and since the lacuna of VII. 13. 7 representa a 
kMt of an exact page of A, Root ii no doubt correct in 
fegafdlng A at the archetypal text. A, Codex 
Vindoboneniit, twelfth or early thirteenth century, 
wat eoneeted Uter, and the text of A* it repre- 
sented br k, the " Florentine best codex" of Gronow, 
abo utea by Doboery lo whon the agreenent of B 
and k it paramooot. A hat gape, owing to lost or 
danage ot pages; and the ** second group " of MSS. 
have m eommon a large number of smaller lacunae ; 
10 that B and C,with k (from A*).akme arc without 
lacunae (save for the oomnxm lacuna of Book VII). 

For the Itutiem, A with B give the best text. 
Arrian's attempt at Herodotean dialect is creditable, 
but not without errors. 

The task, therefore, of an editor of the Ammbasu is 
comparatively easy; but this does not mean that 
onUnary eritfeal methods can be omitted. There are 
two d ir ectlon t . In etpedal. In which editors have 
moved. On the one hand there is a natural tendency 
to *' attidxe " Arrian. His tenses are not always 
aecoffding to rule ; he uses the Imperfect of com- 



pleted actkm ; hk prepotitiont are fometliiict ttraage; 
ne eren uses mrii for ** op-ftre«iii "; * be teemi to 
misplace rt and y«, and M does not always corre- 
spond to its f^, KiHger and Sintenis hare done 
much to put hixn right ; but such corrcctioo to based 
on the idea that the Greeks alwajrs used their best 
toob. Then again, Arrian, desiring clearness, repeats 
liiiiiself modi and unneoessaritj, and thto leads to a 
crop of ** timiUr endingt,** from wbieh eltiier con- 
fusion has resulted (see I. 12 mi imL) or onlsiioiis, 
usually small, have been freelj snspeeted. A 
similar s o spick w i artoet from hto rather unusual use 
of Tt and fUi^,* Hj own view is on the whole agaln«t 
the proposed insertions, and whoUjr against the 
attlcising tendendea, of editors. B, C and k are, 
as bas been seen, fr«e from the many lacunae of the 
*' seeond group " of MSS., and we can hardly be 
wrong, in default of A, in adopting a consensus of 
A* (s k) BL (Laofcntian, fifteenth oentory, which 
according to Roos to the best repreoentative of the 
** second class " of MSS.). I have naturally mode 
moeh use of the apparatos of Roos, cd. Teubner maior, 
1907 ; but I do not reeord suncstions which, while 
interesting enough, appear (on Roos' own ettfanate of 
the MSS.^ unnecessary, nor varieties of proper names 
except where there is difference of penons (e.g. IV. 
19. 2 and IV. 21. 1, 22. 1), nor, as a rule, the evidence 
of Suidas and Eustathius, nor the variants found in the 
Poliorcetica (Sieges of Tyre and Gaza, from II. 15 
and 25). Again, while precision in word-forms to 
important, yet where one cannot do^^natise (e.g. as 
to ripuf>Br) and rip€uf>&rj, I. 21. 4) and the translation to 
not affected, I have not deserted the MSS. Thus 

> n. 1. S. • See «.#. L 7. 2. 



ArrUn s phiperfects form a coosUuit bone of contcn- 
tkm for Ibooe who desire to cootend, bat neither 
Cobet nor Lobeck cmn mmart us farther thiui that 
ArHanoaght to have written this and that; again even 
imcriptioot teen enoocoai at least in 
name, Hokw^wMtx^ (II. 11. i)^ and eertidi 
of parentage, and evea bittorieal 
notes, Appear to oontain enort of ArriaiT, and not of 
tlw oop y i ita , who, howerer, mistake now and then 
munerioal symbob (tee II. 27. S). 

Thoee wlio desire a full critical ap|>aratas will turn 
to Rooa, to whom due acknowledgment is here made. 
There is no lack there of sound and often brilliant 
(ladydfaHl thoae of Polak), but since 
Dehmga rather to a teit which it 
r diflicult to translate as it stands* than 
to a test which maj merelr lack 
the Amdbtmi of Anian hardly 
for this attracthre art. 

I have confined my own suggestions to a single 
of I. 1.6. 

EJiiioms, Trmulmiumtt He. 

Apart from Gronow's edition, we hare for the 
AmJmm. Abksht, 1875 and 1889, KrOger, 1835, 
Sintenis, 1867, Root, ed. Teoboer mau>r, 1907; 
there is a school editkm of Books I and II by H. W. 
Auden rBladcwood), 1902, otherwise a paucity of 
school editions of so interesting an authority. Ohin- 
nock's (B. J.) translation of Anahan» and Imdica, with 
useful notes, is oat of print. The Imdicm has appeared 
in the excellent Paris series (text and tranststion; 
Association G. Bod^). See abo Powell in Joaniai o/ 
HeUemk Stadicf 1999. 



Cotwidcrable pordom 6( A mab m mi mod In t ern a p p e T y 
In good tr«mUitiom» in the Brt Tohunet which iiMika 
up J. W. McCrindlc t Hisktry of Amdemi IrnHm. 8m 
aUo the Cambridge AmeUmt fiuiory. Vol. VI (W. W. 
Tarn), end the Cmmbridme HMry rf MImi; ebo 
Pelham In ErngUih Hut JUviem, Oet 1886. Anrien 
does not ettnet tchoUn to enj extent in the learned 
year-books; reeent wotmmm of 

Btinim's ] 

'# Ymt-Bcok have tome ibort notat. The 
Jkumwl ^f Hdkmo Slmitn within recent Tcan haa 
lut etc atln g notet (W. W. Tarn, vol. xlviii. (U.), L. R. 
Taylor, xTvU. (i.) and xlviU. (L), ** Dainion of the 
Pertian King"; A. D. Nock. xlviU. (i.), " Roler 
Colt," on the oaestion of ** prostration ** ( p rei ly—m ) 
before Alexanaer. This act naturally provokes con* 
troveray, but we may doubt whether even Alexander 
himself was quite clear what it did, or might, connote). 
Arrian's general trustworthineai eomes in for a good 
deal of discttirioB In these articles. 


The facts of Arrian's life are simple. He was a 
Greek, bom at Nioomedia about a.d. 96, and his 
fiontU therefore falls In the reigns of Hadrian, Anton- 
inus Pius and Marcos Aurelius. Hadrian appointed 
him Governor of Cappadocla (131 to 137), and tiM he 
•aw some military service, he writes as an expert 
This post was a most unusual honour for a Greek. 
He was Archon at Athens in 147, and died probably 
about 180. As a pupil of Epictetus he wrote up 
lecture notes or memtorabilia, and is an important 
authority for his master s teaching. 

His value as a historian of Alexander depends (as 


W. W. Tarn points ovt In Cumkridgt Ameimd Hisionf. 

\'oL VI.) oo the nthor fanohible oocstloo, bow far 
official hbtory it aocnraie hittorjr. For Arrian makes 
no secret of his sdherenee to two main authorities, 
Ptolemaevs and Aristobulos. Of the former, he 
naively remarks that, as a king, he was not Ukrly to 
falsify; OKMreover, that, wittnif lAer Alexandrr't 
death, he woidd not stand to gain anrthing !>/ flat- 
tery. This view does OMire cr^t to Arrian's regard 
for royalty than to hli oritleal 
might " 

** Ptolony's account ... in whieh no dovbt he gave 
no carping or Incomplete story of his own achieve- 
ments ; and in a footnote on the same page adds 
'* Ptolemy (Sotcr) has had curkMS fates as an auUiur. 
While Arrian pndsrn his jrssMirf of Alexander as the 
loberest and most vc rad o MS book, his name was 

have a good deal to gain after Aleiander's 
by glor ifyin g his own part in the expedition. 
ly (Gfmk t^€ mid TkmmJU, p. 205) spedu of 

afterwaids prefixed to the ikbles ascribed to CalUs- 
thenes, and there in extant (C. MoUcr'i FroefaHo in 
Ptemdo-Cmilitikfmem, p. xxvii) an epigram on his 
ignorance and deceit from a mediae vaJ reader." 

Let OS, however, put aaide any sus p i ci ons that 
Ptolemaeus was one of the JackaM who sought hb 
Utbits of gkiry from the leavings of the Uon's feast, 
and let os discoont mediaeval epigrams; the ques- 
tkm stm arises, if Pl n le meen i wrote what woukl be 
accurate oJldal htstorr of Alexander's 

marches and vfctories. Is snch oOdal hlstonr likely to 


be accurate from our present-diqr standpoint ? And 
Arrian clearly regards Ptolemaens as his diief 

Readers will liave opportunity of Ibrming theb own 



views on this question, ts thej will also be able to read 
Arrian's own little self-revelatioos and the expreniona 
of his own opinions. It is to his credit that where 1m 
feels it to be his doty he does not fear to critleiM 
severelir Alexander himself. Though he was tonfr* 
thing or a military expert, and describes the enstonary 
manoeuvres of /Jexander dear^ enough, he becomes 
rather obscore where anythmg onusual ocemv. 
Ordinarily he is a readable and rather dull historian, 
bat— In oonmion with other andeot hirtorisns he 
soanetimea nses two or more aathoiltiaa wluioiit 
making a very aucccwftil blend* 

That he soberly esdiewi, for the moat part, the 
romantle elements in Aleiander'a eareer» ghraa hfan 
an especial valne in view of the r egre tta bly inadequate 
documentation of one of the greatest ol all military 

AUjtander*i Troopi, Todiett '"^ Arrian's 


Alexanders Uctics were* fortunately, of the 
simplest kind, though most efeetlve, especially 
against " native " troops. His centre was the 
"phalanx," his right was his best and heaviest 
cavalry, his left was other cavalry, and outside the 
riffht wing, and possibly the left, were archers and 
oUier light troops. The exact employment of the 
whole force varied with the ground, but on normal 
ground, and Alexander could usually choose his posi- 
tions, the left wing at first merely held firm, ana the 
centre was a solid pivot for the right wing, which 
charged down upon the *' shield-side " of the enemy's 
troops and often even drove them on to the pikes of 
the phalanx in the centre and Uie thrusting spears of 



the caTairj on the left. The'*phAUnx inthccmtrc 
occopied Aod diverted the enemy, but would not 
osoaJl J advanoe far onleM the cut tomary awing firom 

the right wai a o m ehoir h n p ed cd , or beeMne irregular. 
Arrian'a aooounta oi Alesander'a tactfat and 
dcacriptioiia oi Ua tFOopa are oolf bowcwy particii* 
Urlj clear, nor indeed does he nee the tame tennt 
always in the same way. His osnal technieal terms, 
worldng downward, are arpmri^^ rr pa rrf g ^iSoy, and 
^dkay$, which shoold mean a part of the army, 
namely, that part of the infantry which was armed 
with long spMTS, hot sometimes seems to be used 
for the army itself; the sdidhriBioM of the ^^Xm^t 
are tditrnt a word also nsed s o metim es technJeally, 
s i Mnr t iiiifs not. These t^m were probably en- 
rolled on a tCRitorial basis. The word Im^ is 
espedaUr tiouMeseme. Often it apparent^ has no 
special ttgnificance ; it is osed, as in the compoond 
just aooled, as we use "territorials," Li. troops 
aoqnamted with one another, comrades, membcn of 
the same district. Bat sosne of these troops (who 
were indeed oraetieany the whole of the tnie-bom 
Macedonian forces^ were attached to Alexander's 
person as part of nis bodycnard. W'hcUicr Arriao 
means os to mderstand Companions (of Alex- 
ander) " when he so ases the word is not certain ; 
but be nses hmpm as a sort of title, just as he docs 
irmfim or w«a«f /SavtXuroi, *' Squires of the 
Kinir," or perhaps " Sons of (Macedonian) nobles." 
Besides the ImTptH proper, whether wt^mtpa or 
AoBrrutpo^t there were vcXramW, a general term for 
light-armed troops (that is, troops with light defensive 
protection), and cfnrtain auxiliary troops denoted by 
their speci6c titles, but also ^cvm or mercenaries, 



naroelj, ThrmHini, BoeotUns, mod otheity BoUbly 
the Agrianet, who were capital moontalnef fi and 

Now we oome to a Urge force, partly of IwawurroA, 
who formed Alexander's guards, and his actnal body- 
guard. Prokiablj nearest to hfan were the '* tqnfavs," 
who ibtmed his staff. Next would come any specially 
•eleeted 4«3^aMf, and next (also, in the wider tenae, 
iraipoi) the vmftnrtt^vkaMtt, called ri 'tW** ^ 
fiaatXtmott, and probably the same as the ifyvoirwiitt. 
But this quite Urge force of ** bodyguards " and 
** guards *' was not merelr a protec£m for their 
co urag eous and even rash leader, but rather fermed 
a special body of shock troops, easily and swUfUr 
manceuvred, and ready lor any sudden forced maren 
<ir hasardous 

The manceuvfiog of the army Is expressed thus. 
A phalanx Is always reetaagular. If not always a 
square. A dla^^ram gives the technica] terms; 




The phalanx was not the rigid bodr it is often repre- 
lented to be by historians. It could be elongated aa 
<thown sboire (the word is wXayim) to an oblong, that 
is, a column in line, or nanowcd (V^» when an 
enemf front waa to be nieveed. 

When, howerer, flank attacks were eipeeted the 
phalanx would be thrown into a long une (as at 
Gaugamcla) ; the centre micht be advanced ; it was 
then two-finonted (r%ht and left incline) ; or occa- 
sionally the line wooM be eoneaYc, not cooycx, if the 
phalanx waa Itaelf onfiankl ng an encmj. Some- 
times the phalanx was in wedge or anow-head 
formation, i^i^SsAof, but not, we araft remember, a 
closed wedge. Tlie cloaett poariblc order waa 
<rvnurr.^iMk, " shiehl hxked with ahiekL*' 

Dr. Hogarth IPiiBp md HtBtmiir) has a vahua>le 
passage on the Macedonian army, modifying certain 
riews of his earlier pamphlet. 

AtmemM TmeHam (and others), translated hi this 
Library, will give aomc help, but most be osed with 
caution. Th^ do not eiaetly rcprseant onr period 

Alexander's rontcs are for the most part easy to 
f<»IUiw in anjr aeriooa atlaa. It Is not always so eaay 

to see why ne choae Ida 

Great interest has been recently aroused by Sir 
Aurel Stein's poblicatkm (hi 7^ Otegmpkieml Jomrn&i 
for November and December, 1987, and in his work 
On AUjomUr't Track to Uk ImAus, MacmilUn, 1929) 
of his d i s cov e ry of the site of Aomoa, which he plaeca 
on the ridge of Pfar^'ar, sitnated fai the bend of the 
Indus, westward of its course, that ia, on the right 



bank, due north of Gtinangar and east by north of 

The ridge fits Arrian't deacHption well, save that 
(to a mere render, who has not seen it) it woukl not 
appear capable of supporting the popoUtkm which 
Arrian asoribcs to it. 

But a graver ouestion is whether Arrlan's deaerip* 
tion is nccewrarily precise. The divenk>n so far up 
the Indus appeait umeeeasarT ; and one may br 
ratlicr inclined to suspect toat Alexander went 
northward feeling his waj fat some valley or pass 
which he did not discover; was held up by some 
militant trilie, which manned its Acropoliji. and took 
a good deal longer to " smoke out *' tiian .\ r 

had expected. He returns southward, and hi y 

followers have to excuse both the dlverskxi and thr 
check br inventing particular reasons why Alexander 
should have dcsiiea to storm this particular rock. 

Perhaps all we can say is that, of Arrian is precise. 
Sir Aurel Stein is ahnost eertainly accurate in his 
diofee of the site. 






UroXt^ti s o Atiyov «ai WpiaroffovXo^ o 
'AfH^roffovXov oca fUv rairrm ifn^ W€pi 
*AXc(air£poi; rav ^iXi-nrov (vp4ypa'flra», ravra 
^yi» m wdwrri &kii$9^ itpafna^m, oca hk ov 
ravrd, rovrmp tA wiorortpa ifwl ^iM/io^a trail 

t OfAa afia^fjytrTortpa hrtXtfafifyo^, "AWm ^p 
hff SXXa inrtp 'AXtfdpipou ipiypayltap, ovB* 
icTiv tnrip 6tov irXtlopts ^ a(vfA^t»ar€poi i^ 
aWfjXotK' aXX* //ao2 llroXtpalo^ re xal Wpicro- 
ffovXo^ WiOTortpoi ^^ofojr d^ rrfp a^tjyffctp, 6 
uip Srri awtrrpdrtvct Paaiktl *A\tfdpSp^, 
ApiaroffovXo^' tlToXtfuaio^ Bi wpo^ r^ (varpa- 
TMvaai Srrt maX aur^ fiaciXtl Spti aia-vprntpov 
ti ry aXA^ yfrtvcaaOai ^v. &fAi^td hi, oti T€T€- 
Xmrrqitoro^ ijSri 'A\e(dvBpov ^irflpd^vaip ainoU 
fl Tf apoytcff icai o /uado^ rov dWw^ ri fj at^ 

S avPfpfiyBfi (vyypdy^ai dtrrjp. "Etrri Bi h ical 
irpo9 aXXA>y (vyy €y pa fi^ta, Brt xal avra 
d^taffiijyrjrd re fioi eoofe teal ov trdprt) dinar a^ 
fl»^ \ey6fifpa fiopop tnrep ^AXifdphpov dptypay^a. 




Wmnunm Ptalenjr kni of Lami and Amtc^lfulus 
•on of Arlrtob«h» nave agreed in Ihdr hliloriea 
of Alexander ton of Philip, I reooid tbeb story aa 
quite aecuraie ; where thef disagree I hare chosen 
what I feci to he more lilceljr and alw hettar worth 
the narrating. Othen have given various aoooonts 
of Alexander, in fact there is no one over whom 
liistoriant have heen more mnneroQS and less 
harmonioos. Mj own view is that Ptolemy and 
Aristobiilos are more truitworthv narratora, for 
Aristobalos took the field with King Alexander; 
Ptolemy not only did the same, bat, as he was a 
king Umself, falKhood woold have been more shame- 
fill to him than to anyone else. Besides, sinee 
Alexander was dead wlien thej both wrote their 
histories, there lay on them nettlMr any constraint 
nor any hope of gain in writing other than plain 
fact. Parts, however, of the records of others, such 
as appeared to me worthy of narration and not 
wholly un trust wor t hy, I have included as so much 
tradition about Alexander. Should anyone he sui^ 


atfyypat^fvci teal ifwl iwl povp ^\0€P ^^ 17 
91/77^0^17, rd r iienpmp vorra tiv omiXiM* 


I. A^yrrai S^ ^t^'Ximroy rfXcvr^oi #vl 
Aoyprroi^ IIv^o^ij/aou *A6iiitff<n' wapaXafiotna ^ 
rtip fiaaiXtUp * A\i(apBpoif, wal^a 6irra ^iXiV- 
irou, ^^ Tl€\oir6i^urjao¥ wap€\$€ur cImu S^ roTt 

S dfi/^l ra tlxociP friy *A'Ki(€U^pop, *Kinav$a 
(vpayayopra rov^ 'KXXi/vav S<ro^ ipro^ fltXo- 
mnnniaov i^ay, aifilp vap* auTMy r^y f/yt fiopiap 
T^ M Tovf 11 ^a« 9T/MiTiac, ffarriMi <^iX/wy 
4vif ISovojr iral alni^opra Xafftip wap imd^rmp 
wXJfp AoMf^fwpimp' AaM$BatfUfpUv^ M imoKpi' 
poaOtu fit) ftroA c^Mi wdrpiop dxeXovB^tp 

t ^EXXoK* aXX* avTOb^ ^DlX«»r ifrjytladat, Nfirri- 
^04 S^ clrra xaX rmp *AOrjpaU»p rifp woKiP' 
oKKk *A$ffpaiov^ 7c r§ ir/Mrri; ii^oB^* AXe(dpipav 
iinrXaytPTa^ xal wXtlopa €ti tAp ^iXlww^ 
hoBipT^tP WXtfdyBp^ €19 rt^r)» ^vyxmpriaai, 
*E,'wav€\$opTa 04 is MaM€iot'iap ip wapaaKtvj 
Ciitu rov i^ Tfjp *A<riap aroXov. 

4 "Afia hi T^ ^pi tkavptip iwi ^p^tcft^, is 
TpifiaWovs naX *l\Xvpiovs» 5r« t€ Ptt^tpi^iip 
ivvOero *l\\vptovs t« xal TpiffaWovs, »ca\ apa 
ofiopovs otrras ovk iB6/c€i {nro\€iTr€c0ai on prj 
irdpTTj rairtivtaOhnas ovrm patpap dtro rijs 

oUfias areXXopn'OP, 'OppijOarra Srj i( 'A/i^i- 
iroXetas ipfiaXelp is ^paKtjp rrjp ratp avrovoptap 
MoXovphmp Sp^tcofp, <I>iXiTrirov9 woXiP ip 


prited, wiien there ii meh ebnndence of writen» 
that it ihoold have oeenrrcd to ae abo to co m poee 
this hitloiy, I beg hiin to retenre hit torpriie tlQ 
he hae fint funrejed their work and niade the 

I. The death of Philip li plaeed to the afchonthip 
of PjrthodeoMM at Athens; Alexander, then about 
twenty, wweaeded, being Philip's ton, and eaoM 
into the PebpooncMi ; ao runs the ttory. Hiefe 
he gathered li^getiier the P el apo m w i m Oreds and 
reqoeeted fron tliem tiie leadership of the Persian 
«*xpeditioo, whieh tliej had already granted to Philip. 
All agreed eieept tlie L a cedaem o oi ana, wlio replied 
that tiMir eountey'a eostom did not permit them to 
follow otliert; it was theirs to take the lead of 
others. The Atlienians also made some sliow of 
violence; but they eoDapaed at Alexander's first 
a p proach and conceded to him a position even more 
honourable tlian had been given to Philip. Alex* 
nnder then returned to Macedonia and began to get 
ready ibr the Asian ei ped i tioo. 

In the spring he went Thraeewards, to the Triballi 
sr«d llljrrians, since he learned that they were rest- 
less: moreover, as tliey mardied with his borders, 
he did not tiiink well to leave them behind him, 
when going on an expedition so far from home* 
unlcsa tliey were tlioroughly subdued. Starting 
from Amphipolis, he invaded Thrace, tlut is, the 
territory of the independent Thradans, with Philippi 



Ataff^^* B^ rov Siaaop worafAOP Xiyov^ar 9r$ 
• Itgaralo^ a^Urro M ri Spa^ top AI/aov. Koi 
ipravBa aw^mmw airr^ gar it rk orttfk rrg^ 
ioMov T^ M T« Spo^ rmp t« ifmpmp ^ voXXoi 
wXi^/iivoi ira« oi %pfm9^ oi airroPOfifH, wafM* 
CKwaaikipOi €iprf§t9 TOV wpocm martiXiif^im 
rfip &Mpa¥ TOV AX§M» rhf ^roKop, wp hf ^if rm 

7 aTpar€vpar$ ^ wdpoiof, Bvpafjfaiyo»r€9 M 
apafa^ »di vpofiaXoptPOi wpo v^mp Sima pip 
Xiiptuti ^Xpmpro rol^ apdfai^ fif to iknopax^^^tu 
aw* avrmp, u ffia^oipro. Spa hi ip p^ «Ixoy 
iw^ihmi Am^tP 9 airoTo/M^OToy toD Sf)ov^ 
hrl ripf ^dkmrffa rmp MaJtMpmp t^k apa^a^. 
Vprnpt/p ei wtwoifiPTO Sr$ la^ wvKPfntp^ r^ 
^oKarffi nara^popMPOt avppi^vaip at apafat, 
too^{« paXXop ti liOffKtBoffovatP atnifp fiia 

8 *AXf{ay3^ H ffovXif yiyptrai Sww^ aa^- 
lUarara inftpfidXtf ro 5po^' Koi iwtthif ihoKH 
huuciphvptvria (ov ykp tlpoi ^XXiy rriP wdpoBop), 
wapayyikXti roi^ oirXiTOif, ovoTf xaroi^ipoipro 
xark rov opBlov al &pa^ai, oaoi'i pip o^of 
irXaTffia ovaa vapiYOt Xvaai rijp rd(tp, roinov^ 
5t hiaxtapriaai, ^ hi aintap imrtatiP rit^ dpdfa^' 

9 oaot hi irtpiKaraXapddpotpro, fupp€vcapra^, 
T0V9 hi tcai vicotrra^ €9 yv>^ avyxXttaai ^s 
oMpipi^ tA9 datriha^, rov xar avrSiv ^poptva^ 
rd^ dpd(a^ /roi t$ pvpfj tcard ro eUo^ xmtprrrj' 

1 i^ifw (Codd.) mA7 be oomot, itnoe the *«eMts** 
belofw smmI mi umed mx%ruL h iU^ tm Krflger, bat i w f i mv 



Ifoont Orbelos on hb left Tben— w the 
tefl Of — be crowed tlie river Nevut and 
in ten dajt reached Mount Heemus, where there 
met him In the defile of the approech to the roountaio 
maaj of the merchant! In arms and the indo- 
pendeot Uttaelaiit; they had oeenpled the he|ghl 
of Haemi»« and were aD ready to bar the p w grc m 
of the expedition, which moat needs pam the h^ght. 
Collecting carta, and throwing them In advanee, 
they ptopaa e d to oae the carts as a ttockade IWmb 
which to put tqp a defeoee* if they were premed; 
but it was also part of their strategy to launch the 
carts at the Macedonian phalanx as the troops 
mowited the slope just where the nxmntaln waa 
moat riicer. Thehr idea was that the doaer the 
phalanx when the df a eendlng earts charged it^ the 
more their violent deaeeot wonld aeatter it. 

Alexandery howevert eonsulted how he eoold 
most safely crom the ridge; and rinee he saw that 
the risk mast be ran, for there waa no way round, 
he sent orders to hb men-at-arms that at whatsoever 
time the carts swooped down the slope upon them, 
those who, being on level ground, eoold break 
formation, were to part to right and left, leaving an 
avenue for the carts; those who ahoold be caught 
in the narrow* were to fonn eloae together; and 
soose actually falling to the ground were to link 
their shleldB chisdy together so that the carts 
at them and (as waa to be hoped) boondfa^ 
by their gathered impetua ^lould pam 


S^a9 JifiXM^m^ iwtXBMiP. Kml o^m fupifiif 
oiraK wappmai rt *AXi{ar2pof igal Amaw. 
10 Oi iU¥ ydp hUffypp rf)¥ i^dXayya, ai ^ vwip 
rmp offirihmv htutvKioBtlaai 6\Lya iffka^^ir 
iifwWa9€ hk oyhtU ^o rah afidfat^, *Ey^a Bff 
04 MoiM^oPiv Oapaiicamt^ 5ti dffXafitU aCrroU* 
h^ fidXtara Hilitaay, ai afukfat ^y^yorro, avv 

Toi/f Toforav /i^ dw0 roy l«(iov xipm^ wpi r^f 
^lEXXif^ ^tiXayfOi, ota rai^ tirwoptir^pa ^», 

&Wfl wpoQ^ipoifno* avrh^ ti dwaXafimp rh ofplfia 
Mai rov^ inraaw^crd^ «ai rov^ ^Aypiapas Marii 

12 TO €impVfiop ^T^i'* 'Bi^a ^ 04 roforai ffaXXotnts 
rov^ ifpotK$tovTaK tS»» ^paK^tv aptorikXoP" koX 1) 
^oXayf wpoafU^aca ov x<*^^f^^ ift^atp €« rH^ 
ympa^ hwBpttfwov^ ^ikov^ /rai kok^ mwlacpivcv^ 
papffdpov^, tiffrt *A\i(apBpOP &ir^ rov tvmpvpov 
hrdywra ovtciri Mfatno, hXXA piy^turm •fi 
itcdaroi^ itpo\rv(dp€i rk BirXa Kara rov Spov% 

IS i^vyov. KaX arriBopov phf avritp i^ ^iXlov^ tcaX 
wanaKO^iov^, ^&pr€^ 3f iphp€^ fUP 6\iyoi 
ikrf^Ofiaop hi mtcvTffra xal rij^ x^P^^ ip.ntipiap, 
yvpahct^ Bk Batu (vptiiropro avroU iakmcop 
iraaat, xal tA waiBapta teal ^ Xiia it Sura 

II. ^AXi^avBpc^ hk rtjp ptp Xtiop omaet 
hirirrtpy^ev €9 rk^ rrokti^ rk^ M OaXdaffjj, 
Avaopia teal <PiXdna irapaBov^ hiariOtadcu' 
avro^ ok to dtcpop hirepffaXMV rrporjei Bid rov 
Aipov €f TpiffaXXov^, xaX &<t^tcpeirai ^rrl rov 
Avy ivov rrorapov' drrixti Bk ovro^ hrro rov 

AN.\liASIS OF ALKXANDER, I. i. 9-2. i 

throogfawftboot doing bann. And thus it happened, 
MeeoidiDg to Alexander's orden and anticipation. 
Ilie one lot parted tbdr phalanx, and the carta 
sliding over the thicldi of the others did little harm; 
not one man perished beneath the carts. The 
Maeedonfams now took heart of grace* finding that 
those most dreaded cbariols proved har ml ess, snd 
liting their cheer charged the Thracians. Alexander 
»ent for the Sfcberi from the right wing to the front 
of the other phaUinx — this being the more con- 
venieiit side— to shoot thence at the Thracians 
whenever they attacked. He himself took the 
shoek-troops, the Foot Guards, and the Agrianes, 
and led them to the left, where the arcbcfs bj their 
volleys held up anj advances of the Thracians, and 
the phalanx had no grave dificultj, eomiDg to ckise 
quarters, in driving from their positkio the lightly 
clad and ill-armed highlandcrs; who, in fact, did 
not await Alexander leadiof 00 his men from the 
left, bat casting awaj their arms helter-skelter fled 
down the moontain-side. FiAcen hundred perished ; 
few were captured alive, bjr reason of their speed 
and their kxral knowledge; the women, however, 
who had followed them were all taken, with the 
children, and all their impedimenta. 

II. Alexander sent the booty to the rear, to the 
cities on the coast, appointing Lysanias and Philotas 
to deal with it ; then himself crossing the ridge he 
marched through Haemos to the Triballlans, and so 
arrived at the River Lyginus; as yon approach 


wwdatfofitpo^ rov 'A\M(apBpov ro¥ criXop, 
Tvraurav ftkw xal w€uBa^ rmv TptffdXXAp wpo^ 
Wifiyfrtw iwl top "lorpov, Bia0aly€t¥ ntXtvaa^ toi^ 
worafiow i^ ftrjcotf nva T«r ^y t^ "larp^* lltvmfi 

irai ol H/MiTf^ M wpoaxt^poi tm? To$ akktli% 
wpoaayotno^ *A\M(dp$pov tfi//AVi^tV7»Tff i)^av, 
«a4 avTov o Si//>/AO« ^ ravnjp (vfim^€vyf$lltfm 
TOM ^#i^* avror* rd M voXv vX^ov rtN^ T^ 
/8aXX6r l^vyfv iwlam ^vl rov worafiOP, MnwMp 

vwocTpi^as TO ImvoXiit /vl roirt T/N/SaXXovv 
i)nrt, «a2 garaXafApoPH Karacrparow$B€votn€tt 
^i|. Kai 01 fAip, gaTaXrf^^iyrt^ wpo^ np vditH 
T^ wapa Toir worafiop vap€'rdacomo' *AXifai^ 
S^MK 5<f iral avTOV r^v /My ^aXa'vya ^t 0d$(K 
iicrdfa^ hrigy9, rov^ rofora^ M xai rovs 
c^tvlopffra^ wpo€M$iotrra^ ixiXfvetP itrro(tiMiP 
Tff xal a^€vho¥ap is roirs 0ap0apovs, cf irtK 
irpoiraXfVcTai ainovs is rk yfnXk iic rov pdwovs, 
5 Ol St tts itrros ffiXovs iyipomo, wtuofitvo^ ifWtop 
iwl rovs ro^oras, oirt^s is ytipas ^v/xfit^iop 
yvppois ovai rots roforais* AlU(av6pos ii t^ 
wooijyarftp avrovs iic rijs pdvtfs ^fo*, ^iXaarap 
pip dpoKoBopra roifs ix rtis &pt»$€P Maxt^puis 
lirirtas irpoaha^w ipfidWtuf icark to itipas rh 
^^iov, fiirtp ptiXia-ra frpovtctx^P^'^^*''^^ ^^ t§ 
ixipofij' 'iipa>cXeiSr)v Bi xal l,<iinro\ip rovs i/c 
Borruilas tc moI *A^iw6Xtws imrias xarii to 



HAcmiis, it is three dmyt nurch from the Ister. 
Sjrnnut, King of tlie TribftUijuis, learning tome time 
before of Alexander*! march, aeot 00 the women and 
children to the Isier, ordering them to cro« to 
an island in the river eallcd Peace. To this island 
the Thracians wlio are neighbours to the Triballians 
had fled 00 Alexander's approach, and Sjrrmus and 
his suite also ; but the mam of the Triballians (led 
back to the river whence Aleiander had started out 
the daj before. 

Hearing of thdr move, Alexander turned iMiek to 
attadc the Trttwiniana, and found them alreadjr 
enetmping. Tbej* caught at thej were, formed 
ttne near the glen bjr the river; but Alexander in 
penrni, throwing hit phalani Into deep formation, 
led it agalntt them, ordering the bowmen and 
sUngers to skirmish ahead and discharge their 
arrows and stones upon the tribeament to tee if he 
could entice them into tiie open from the glen. 
Thej, when In range, receiving these vollejs, rushed 
forward upon the bowmen to come to grips with 
tiiem, being unarmed at bowmen are. But Alex- 
ander having b roug ht them out of the glen ordered 
Philotat to take the cavalry of upper Macedonia 
and charge their right wing, where thej had advanced 
farthest In their outward rush. Heradeidet and 
SopoUt he ordered to lead the cavalry from Bottlaen 



TMv irfCMi' ical rffp iXXtjp i-wwop wpo r^ 
^dXaYfo^ vapartipa^ tcara fuaov^ ^*^7<* Kal 
loTf fuv oMOoffoXiafiO^ wap* ixaripmp ^p, ol 
TpiffdXXol ov fi€to¥ «Ix^^ «K ^ 4 r« ^d\ay( 
mf KPff MBdXXtP 4^ airrov^ ippmuip9t^» Koi oi 
iwirtU ov€ iutotntcii^ fn, aXX avroU rols 
twwot^ m$ovmf iXXg moX Hkkif wpociwiwrop, 
roTM h^ irptiwffaap Siik rov vovovt ^ ror iro. 
T TOMor* Kai owoOi^fiffKotfei fihf rp^c^iXun ip 
T^ ^vyj, f^ApTt^ ^ ilkiyot mal rovrmp ikij^Off' 
ffop, on v\ff Tt &M'Mfi wpi roO woroiicv ^ 
Mol iw{ iwijtifpfUmi rhp Jutplfitiap r^ fl u i f iti f 
o^<(Xrro Tovf MoM^OMit. Ai>rMir ik M««f- 
£oyt»v TfXtfirrvVo^ Xiyci UroXtfidun iww^s f»kp 

III. *Awi M T^^ f^X^ TpiraiO'i d^txyftrat 
*AX*'fai»5/)09 «'irl Tov irara^p top 'larpnp, nvror 
limp Tcay jrara rr^i^ Hi^/M^inyy ikk'-fiatop Srra ical 
wXticTftP ytjp iirtpj^op^pop ical tOpff fioyifMrrara 
d'K'tipyopra, rd fup voXXd KtXrticd, 6u€P y€ ical 
ai irriyaX avr^ dpiaypvaip^ tap TMXtvralov^ 

t KovdSov^ icai Mapicofidpov^' ivl Bi ^avpo- 
fiaridP tiolpapt 'lafirya^* iirX hk Vha^ rov^ 
ilwadapaTi^opraK* (frl Si 'S.avpo^ra^ rov^ iroX- 
Xoi>9* (irl Sk ^Kuda^ tart iirl to^ itcfioXd^, ipa 
iKBiBoi Kara wtpre ojoftara i^ top ECfttpop 

t woPTOP, 'CvraO^a icdraXafifidpti avrft r^icovaa^ 
vau^ fxaicpd^ iic Bufairrioi; hid rov irovrov rov 
EvfeiVov icard rop -norafidp, Tainan ^fiwXija'a^ 
ro(or<op T€ icai oirXiratp, tJ pi^atp iiriirXtt Ipa 
Oi TpiffaXkoi rt xal oi Spaict^ (vfint^uyorg^ 


and Amph^iolit agaiart tbe left wing. The foot 
phaknxt and the remaining cavalry, wliich lie 
deployed in advance of the phaUmx, he led againal 
tfaeeentre. While the battle was lUU at long range, 
the TribalUana lield firm, bat when the phalanx in 
doae ibrmatioQ diarged them stoutly and the 
cavalry, no longer ahwting, bat actually thrutiiig 
them with their horMs, fell on them here, there and 
everywhere, the enemy tamed and mshed through 
the glen to the river. Three thooMnd perished In the 
night, bat only a few of these too were caaght alive, 
owing to the density of the wood which lay In front 
of the river, and becaose n%htfall prevented the 
Mace do ni ans from any thonwgh parsolt Of the 
Macedonians, according to Ptolemy, eleven cavalry- 
men and aboat forty fixiteoldien perished. 

III. Three days after the battle Aleiander reached 
the later, the greatest river of Earope, draining the 
greatest tract of eoantry and acting as a barrier to 
very warUke tribes, Celts for the most part— its 
springs rising in Celtic territory; the farthest of 
these peoples are the Qoadi and Maroomanni; 
then it passes the lasugea, a branch of the Savro- 
matae ; the Gelae, who csU themselvea inwiortals ; 
the bulk of the Sanromatae; and the Scythians as 
far as the outlets, where through five months It 
rons into the DIack Sea. There Alexander finds at 
the OMmth of the river warships oome to join him 
from BysanUom through the BfaKk Sea. These he 
with archers and men-at-arms and sailed 
the island where the Triballians and Thracians 



^cap, Kol hntparo 0ta(996ai r^p awoffa^ip, 
4 Oi Bk ffdpffapoi ciirijrTMy ^l top woafiop owoi ^ 
al ptft^ wpo^wiwrotfp' at S^ 0X4704 tc i^aop «ai 
17 arparta ov woWi) fj* in^ avrAp, seal rtj^ p^iamf 
rk woXXk airorro/ia i^ wpoafioXijp, gal to ptvfiM 
rov worafiov to wap' aiVrijy, ola S^ ^ argp^ 
cvyKtKkMiouipop, 0(6 Koi dwopop wpoa^4ota$tu, 
§ "Epda Bff *A\4fa»6po^ awayaymp ra^ patk 
lyiN» h%afiaip€iP rip *l9rp99 hrl rov^ Pfrav rovs 
w4pap rav "larpav ^i^ftipov%, oti r§ avp§$- 
Xrf/Upov^ impa voXKovs htl r^ ^XPp ^ov 'lorpoy, 
m fljptbrrav, ft ^affaipot (fi^op yap ivircK puip 
4t rrrpaMtaxiXicv^, wtf^ol M wXtiov^ rmp fwpUfp), 
«al a/ia wo$o^ fXafftp ainap iw* ixttpa rou 
• *\0rpov iXBtlp. Imp flip hfi Ptup iiriSfi ainos- 
t^v ^ It^Bipa^ v^* aU ieKrit*ovp rtj^ xap^tj^ 
wXfipti^a^t Kal oaa fiopofvXa wXota im rik 
X^P^^ (vpayaymp {fip H koX rovrup eihropia 
iroXXi;, 0T4 Toi>roif XP^'^'^* ^' ^''poffOiKOi r^ 
"lorpy i^* aXttta rt rj iic rov^laTpov, teal tttrcrt 
map a\Kr\Ko\f^ apk top worofiop trriWotpJO, koI 
Xf/aTfiAOTTfv aw* ainitp oi iroXXoi) ravra «f 
wXniora (vpofptjmp httfii0a^€p iv avrAp t% 
arparta^ oaov^ Brparop ^ ip r^ roiff^ rpofrif, 
Kal yiypoprai ol hiafidprt^ afUL AXgfdpBp^ 
ivirtU p(P i^ x*^^^ ***• vtinaKo^iov^, irff{bl 
hk i^ T€T paxt^iXiov^, 

IV. Ai€^a\op hi tTj^ pvicto^ y Xifcov ^ virov 

fiaB\r ica\ ravrtj ftaXKop ti tkaffop irpoaaxoprt^ 

tJ ox^U' 'Tiro hi TTjp ew *A\€(avhpo^ hih rov 

Xtftov ^e, irapayytiXa^ roU V€(oU, vXayUus 

> fry A, text K; cf. ▼. 17. 4. • 4 Add. Kr«g«r. 


had tekeo feftage, and endeavoured to fiifoe a land* 
iojl^* ine tfibcnnent howevett kepi iwmplni^ down 
to the riTer«ide w hew i ei the thipa touched land; 
tbeae wete few in nomber, and earrjliig onlj * 
maO body of troops; the bland was for the noat 
part ttoep for kndlnf ; and the eunrent pant the 
tslandt M vaa natural in the narrowm, was %\rifi And 
iiflicolt to contend with. 

Therettpon Alexander withdrew hia troops and 
decided to ciom the Uter to attadi the Getae who 
were settled 00 the farther tide, both beoanae he 
saw a large fiirae of then gathered 00 the bank, to 
repel blm, thovld he er o at th e r e were about four 
thimwnd nounted men, and more than ten thooaand 
00 foot — and abo becauie he had been seised with 
a desire to land on the farther side. He himself 
embarked in the fleet; the leather tent coven he 
had flQed with the hay, and gathertag all the avail- 
able boatx, rut fn»m single trees, from the oountrj- 
skle (there were plenty, for the riverside dwellers 
nse then wt n s hfa g, lor up-river eip e ul lfcwis among 
themselves, and even more lor thieving), he ferried 
across on these as much of his force as was possible. 
About fifteen hundred cavalry and four thousand 
foot-soldiers crossed with him. 

IV. The crossing was made at night where there 
was a deep com6ckl, and this eooccaled them the 
more, aa they reached the bank. About dawn, 
Alexander led the troops through the field, ordering 


raU capiactus ^iri^Xivorrof rir alrop ovrm 

% irpod^uf h rk ovk ^pydaifia. Of S^ iinrtU, 
iar€ fiiv hik rov Xtftov irpo^i ff ^d\ay(, i^ti- 
iroirro' m^ h^ ix rmv ifrfo^ifiMP t(rj\aca¥, rtfp 
fuv Xmrop M to ht^iw xipas avro^ *AXifai^po« 
vapijjay^t rifp ^dkarffa ^ iv irXcuci^ Ni4rd- 

% 90pa &y€i9 iiciXtvctp, KaX oi Vh'tu ov^ rifp 
wptttnfp ^fAfioXffp rmp iwwimp ihi^oimr wapd* 
Bo(os flip ykp avroU 1} toX^mi i^dpfi tou 
*A\t^dphpov, OTi tbfAapA^ o{rra» tov fUytarop 
rAp irorafiAp Bitfl^fffjicn ip fua pvttrl rop 
loTpop, ov yt^vpmaa^ top wopop, ^^pk hk 
icai rii^ ^XoTTOf 19 (I'y/rXci^if, 0uua ^ ^ r&p 

4 imrivp ififioX^. KaX rk fikp wpmra h riip 
woXap Kara^tvyovctp, fj B^ dwttx^ avroU oaop 
jrapaadyyrjp rov 'larpov m^ Bi iwdyopra tlBop 
<rwovhj *AXi(apBpop rifp fnh ^dXayyti wapk rw 
worafiop, m M tvgX^tUp Wff oi W€(ol ipthotif 
adjnmp rmp Veritp, rov^ iwwiaK Ik mark furm- 
woPt \Miirovaip av /col i^p woXiP oi Virai MOMm 
Ttrttxi^fj^p^p* dvaXaffopTt^ rmp waihapi^p koX 
ritp yupoix^p iiri rovs iirirov^ Soa ^p€iP oi 
tmnn rjBvpapro' ^p li ainoU 17 opfitf aSpv woppt^ 

6 TaTM airo rov worafiou is ra tprjpa. *AX<fai^ 
Spos Bi njp Tf woXiP Xafifidpti icaX rtfp Xtiap 
iraaap oarjp oi Virtu vfrtXiTropro. Kal Tfjp p4v 
Xtiop MeXtdyptj^ ical <t>iXiinr^ iiravayaytht 
iiiBmaiP* avrbs di tcaTa<TKdylras rijp iroXip 6v€i 
T€ iwl tJ ox^V rov ^larpov ^u l^rripi Koi 
*V\paicXjil /rat ain^ r^ 'larptp, Sri oinc diropo^ 
avru> iyiftro, xai iwavdyti ainrfs rffUpas odwvs 
ovfiiravras <iri to orparovtBop, 


the infaotrf to mooUi down the corn with their 
fpeais* held obli(i«d]r, and to lead the waj to antilled 
gnNnid. As long at the phalanx was marching 

through the eom the eavalry followed; but when 
they e merg ed from the tilled land, Alexander in 
perMO took off the eavalrj to the right wing, oider- 
tng Nieanor to lead off the phalanx in oblong fbrma- 
tfam.^ The GeUe did not tottain even the first 
chaige of the cavalry ; for Alexander's bold stroke 
came at a great shodc to them, in that he to easily 
crossed the later, greatest of rivers, in one night 
without so much as bffidgtag the stream; thesolkiity 
of the phalanx was terrifyinir, and tiie onslaught of 
the eavahry violenL Fint the cnrmy took relbge 
in the ci^t ahoat a parasang awav from the Ister; 
then* seeM Alexanoer bring up nb phalanx along 
the river, that the itifAtitry mi|*ht not be caught by 
any ambush of the (ictae, with the cavalry on the 
front, the enemy deserted in turn their city, which 
was feebhr IbrtiBed, taking up on their cruppers as 
many of ttie women and rhiklren as the horses could 
earry; and then marched as fiv as possible away 
from the river towards tha desert. Alexander 
<?apturrd the dty and whatever phmder the Oetae 
had led In^hind. This plunder he ordered Meleager 
and PI ike to the base; ha raaad the dty 

and sa< r ^n the bank of the bter to Zem tlie 

Preserver and Herades and Ister himself, for per- 
mitting the passage. Then in davlight he took aD 
Us Ibive safe and sound back to tna eaa 

> Oa opm ariiMii ths varioas sails io nasd sq 
• wk«l0 plwisax SMMTvd mmrA mi^ma. \m 

tkaa it was ds»pw fits latrpdoetory Nol^ 

VOL. I. 


e *Eprav6a Jt^Umm wp^^fitt^ tt»9 *A\i(apBpop 
wapd Tff TMV AXXmw Sea avropofia iBmi irpo- 
aomd T^ "larp^, xal wapk ^vpiiov rov Tpi- 
/SaWwtf /9aaiXc«K* «al irop^ KeXrMy Si rwv 
M T^ *IoytV «oXir^ ^tciCfiiPttp ^icov /itfyoXoi 
M KcXtoI t^ etiffiara ical fuya fVl aSiai dpo' 
povtrrt^' ^Xia^ Si vdirrt^ r^ *A\tfdpopav i^U' 

7 u4¥0i ^€iy S^acop, Kal waaip t6mx€ wia^u9 
AXifaySpof ttaX t\a0€' rov^ KcXtov9 Bi «al 
^prro 5 r« /ioXiora &5/TTtTa« airroi^ tmv <ty- 
Bpmwipmv, iXwiaa^ Sr$ fiiya Spc^ul to a^roi; /roi 
^9 K«Xtov9 «a2 Iri vpocmriptt ^Miit ital 5ti 
avTov /MiX4aTa wdvrmv h^hUvai ^rfcovar r^ 5tf 
irop* iKitiha (upiffff rw KfXrwi' 17 dwoicpici^' 

% o\a yap itoppm r€ ^MiirfU^oi 'AXt(«Mpov teal 
X^pia hvaifopa oUoO^rt^, ical *A\t(dpSpov ^ 
aXXa rrj¥ opfAfjp optamt^, t^aaav MUpai fitjnrorg 
6 ovpapo^ airroU ipvicoi, Kal toOtov^ ^iXov^ t« 
ovofidaa^ xal (vpfm^ov^ woitfadptpo^ oiriVw airtf- 
trefiy^, roaourop inrtiirmp in dXal^oi^ KcXto/ 

V. Aino^ hk iv * Ay ptdptfitf teal Uaiopwp irpov- 
%w/)€i. ''Evda hi) dyytkoi d^Uotrro avrj> KXtlrop 
T< TOP hapSvXttt di^tardpai dyyiXkoprt^ /cal 
Vkaviciap irpoaKexbttniictpai avr^ top TavXap- 
rimp fiaatXia' 01 St xal roi^ Avrapidra^ tirt- 
OfjtTtaOai avr^ xark rrjp wopeiap i^rfyytiWov 
MP Brj ip€ica icark airovSrjp tSoKti dpo^evypvtai, 

S Adyyapo^ Si 6 rSiP * Ay pidptap ffaaiXev^ fri phf 
icaX ^iKiiriTov ^tiit^o^ datra^optpo^ * AXi^apSpop 
SrfKo^ ^p Kcd iSia iirpiafitvct trap* ainov, rore 
Si waprjp ain^ furk rwp inraafrio'r&p, 6<rov^ 


At this jttnelnre caaie eommJMinnfffi to Alexander 
from the olber telf-goTernlog tgtbm along the Ister 
and firom Sjnnnt, Kinf of t^ THballi ; others firom 
the Celts settled 00 the Ionian gulT The Celts 
were tiD end benghty ; bat ell p to f caeed desire for 
Aleseader's friendship, and he gmve to ell« end 
receiTed frvmi all, proper esstiranees. Of the Celts 
he enquired what, of mortal things, thej most 
dreaded, hoping that his own great name had 
reached as for as the Celts and forther, and that 
they would confess that thej dreaded him bejrood 
all else. Their answer, howerer, proved nnexpMted 
to him, for, liTing as thej did in dificiut country for 
fttmi Aleiander, end teeing that hit ioTarioo was 
really directed elMwhere, they said that their 
greatest dread was lest the sky should fall upon 
them. He declared them hit friends, made allianee, 
and tent them hooae, casaaDy remeridng, *' What 
braggarts these Celtt are t ** 

V. He then went towards the Agrianes and the 
Pacooes. There a message reached him that Cldtut 
son of Berdylii was in revolt, and that GUudet, 
Idi^ of tlie Taolantians, had joined him. The 
mettengers also told him that the Autariates were 
going to attack him on his march. For these leesont 
it was thought well to more off as soon as possible. 
Langaros, king of the Agrianes, was known to hare 
shown r^^ard for Aleiander even in Philip's Ufo- 
time; he had alto been od an embesty to him 
perK>nally; on the present occasion he was in 
attendance on Alexander with liis bodyguard, the 



re icaXXiVrow «al tvenrXindrm/t dt$4^* mvrim 

3 elx«- fcal eiretSif iiui$€» inr^f rm^ Avru^mmjim 
wpOapofuvov *A\i(aphpop, oinm Tf ««! imoaoi 
elev, ovK €<f>rj xprfvai iv Xo7^ riBt^mt Avt«- 
ptaTaf!' elpcu yap dwoXtfAmrdrov^ ru» ravTf 
fcai avro^ tfiffaXelv 4^ rijp X^P^'^ ayrAr, «pf 
dfiffi T^ a4>f'repa fidXXop r$ l)^oi«ir. K«4 ««- 
X€vaavT09 *AX<ftt*'5poi; ^ff/9aXXt« ^^ airrot^- cai 
ififia\(op ^t ical ^^Pf TtfP Xf^fi'^ •*7*!!* 

4 Avraptdrai flip Cff dfufi tA aUri^p •*JC«»^^ 
Adyyapo^ Bi rd Tf ^XXa <Ti^ij^i| /iry«tA«K Wf»if 
^AXffai'^^v /rai &u/ia IXo^fy Id^s fUyt0^m 
wapa ffaaiXei t^ Ma^etX^MMr trofufirmi' ««} 
T^y a^eX^^v r^i' A\€(dpBoov Kmhut tfal TAvripr 
d>fio\6yt)<Te hwttip ain^ i% lUXXm^ a ^ MWi ii V y 

6 *AXXa Aa77apo^ /a€v iwtu^XBmtf WiMlSf i49|» 
ereXeuTi/o-ey* 'AX^foi'^pov ^ vopA r^ *B^>ryi t w i 
iroTafiop iropevofUPiK is OifXior voXii* ioti\» 
XcTO. TairriTy 7ap iraTciXf)^<i o KX««to« m% 
6')(yp<ordri)p tf}? x^P^^' *** w^ rairnp «f 
^/C6i/ 'AXt-fai/S/9o^. «aTa<rT/NiToirfS€u9a« vpot r^ 
*Ko/>£a(iv<i) trorafi^, t^ vartpaia typmgti wpo^- 

6 /SaXXeii/ t^ rcij^ei. Oi £^ a/i^i Toy KX««Tor 
tA tcvKXto T^ TToXectfV opiy, tnrtplefid Tf 5rT« 
ical ^(r€a, /caTCi;^ov, ms vdmoBgp hriri0t90a* 
roU MaKeSoaip, el tJ iroXtf« wpocffdWoigir 
rXavxla^ Se ainA 6 ra>p TavXoprUtP 0a^t\tu% 

7 oirira} irapijp. 'AXe^apBpos fup Bif rj woKu 
Trpoarjyep' oi Be iro\€fuoi a^ayiaadfimHH voi^Of 
T/0€i9 tccu icopas i<ra<; top dptSpJop koX mptoin 
fU\apas rpels, ^ipfxtfpro fup ms &(o/a€PM ^ 


ANABASIS ot Aitv^vi^RR, I. k 

tiuofm Mtm Had; MM wbm be 

ti«l AlMito VM iqilili^ wbo and In 
wkU wtini tiMM AaUfftetct wcf«, Im told 
tiMt Im Med Ml timblt 
kMl mmWkM of Hm lilliiMifni lo 

tiMjr adflil rollMr bo owopiod wMli tMr 

Im loYodod tlMB,dovoiUUiif 

■Mttoft, Loofara* nadflt^ bigb boooor frooi 
r, Md oko vImI won ooMidorad ol thr 

of MooodM iIm MflMil fifb. juowMScr 

piOOMMd tOOFOd IH9 MrtOf CjTBO VO iv■^ WllCII 


AWtoadcr, OMioldaf tt^ong tlie liTrr 
Bf%om»odolbrFdhM; iMidlyacitittiliJKluken. 
m betef llio tUoi^ett la tiM ooontij. Wbm 
AlosoBdcf ffooMOd Rf bo oonpcd by tbo ifvof 
EntdebM oad liiridiid lo ■■■■■h Mit doy. Ooltw' 
forcco, boveirrr, beld tbe bo^bti wir i mm d h n tbo 
dly. wbleb wtn umminMMg oad obo tblcklj 

If Ibej ommIc tbe MMolt« fnM oil ildot. Gloadot, 
kiof of tbo TaobMittoiM, aoi jot befaif pfOMH. 

id to tbo oMioh; m wbteb tbo 
ly MtrtiBBd tbfoo boys and ibtM fMi oad 

■d tbM mmIo o rmb t 


i^eXiwov KaiToi icaprTtpk Stna r^ Karukj^i^Uim 
irpo^i a<f>6!)v X(»>pia, Start xaX rk 9^«iytm aMmt 
tcar€\iji»6rf cTi Ktifuia. 

8 TavTf) fuv Bf) Tj tffUpf «ar««XM«f «^T«^ 
i^ rrjp troXiv teal arparoww^odfimf^ wpit r^ 
Tct'xe* iyvoiKd ir€/MT€i^ia^ a-wogXalatu airtox^' 
rg 8i vcT€paia trapiiP furk voXX^t^ U nhi^amt 
rXavxia^ 6 rS»v 'VavXatrrlttv /Sa^iVrvf. *Eap#« 
£^ 'AXcfay5/>o9 T^y /lii' viikip &wirffm ikHP !# 
(ui/ rp irapowrtf hwafjLH, woXkmv fikp #f mMf0 
teal p.ayipMiv fvfivtiPtvyirrttp, itoXXm** B^ Hftrn 
T9» rXav/ria -npotrtcttaofUvrnp, ti airras r^ T«/yfi 

9 TrpoapAxoiro, <l>t\anap 6^ kpa\a0^m tm» 
iTnretov oaov^ i^ wpo^vXateijp Mai rk vwpfyyta 
rk itc rov arparowiBov i^ iwunrt^ftop hnfi^rttr. 
Kal o l^ai/icui^ fiaOatp rrfp opfUf" ^^f^ ^f^4^ 
4>iXo^Tav f^tXavptt err* avrov^t xal tcaraXaftfiihm 
rk tcvKXtp Sprj rov irthiov, 8$€p oi (vp ^tXmrm 

10 iirKTiriiltrOai (fitWop. *AXt(a9Bp99 U, iwiMl 
airfiYi^Kdi) avrtp on iciphvvtvovaip oT Tt iWfSt 
KCLi rk vrro^vyia, €i pv( atrrov-i caTaXi^^frrr«4» 
auT09 fX€P dvaXaffcav rofk n ifiraarriark^ col 
row; ro^ora^ teal rov^ 'Ayoiapa^ teal twwia^ h 
rerpaKoaiov^ iporjBct arrovc^' rk Bk &Kko arpd* 
revfia rrpb^ rfj w6\ei tiirtXiirtp, ms ^ff iixo- 
X<oprj(Tavro^ rrapro^ rou arparov teal oi in 
rfj^ TToXew? eTTiBpafiopre^ roU a^(f>l VXavMP 

11 (vfifu^eiap. "EvOa Bi) VXavtew rrpoaayatna 
*A\€^avBpov alaOofievo^ ^/rXeiVfi rk Soff oi hk 
(vp i>i\tara aa^aXcav irrl ro arparovtCop U§am» 
Orjaav, *EB6kovp 5* h'^ rop *AX((aplpott hf hva» 



hr "tinilnnliiiiii hH vImi Mm 
drrm orar, IIkj llM^rtliJ IIm •!!«« poMOM Ibcj 

Ob lirfi dby AWwMtrr tbirt them op in tliHr dty 
nd CM^pai ky IIm wan. Intmifiqg to 1mm IImb In Hy 
• flkwifribliMi; b«lor«tdAjrOI«MiM»ld«fort}K> 
TftoUntiaat, apprvrd wftli a Urfe Ibfce. There* 

ttpoa AkiMder gave vp Ike ides «f tekli« Hm «llf 
villi Mdb Ibftw M Im iMdt a 

as * 





tftKi|M pcvpoted to aolriii iMif won^gt* Al eim oefy 
ho»«vcr, viMa It wm icportod lo him that both tht* 
cavalry and iIm baggaga aolBMli »rre In gfte 
r, tboald nigbl ovtrtaka Ibcn, took his bodj- 
the AfHaaca and torn hundred 
at full speed lo Iba reKue ; the 
reft! of the annjr he left near the ally k at If iba 
whole foroa bad vitbdravo—lbe aiMB j bilba ally 
might bava aalllcd oal and jatead Ibieei wllb GbuMlaa. 

tba ba%bn, and PbdalM aad Mi ae«voj gal lafe 
hack lo Iba camp. Baas aa Ckllaa aad OlaocUa 


xiav'Ta t€ 7^^ ipn tk vwtplifia xarux^i^ wpkXm 

iifioivrro, rrj fiiw wpos rot) vora/iov imrn fyiprn m ^ 

Spov^» thTT€ ovhk iw\ -fw^dpmm irv^&ir k9 T^ 
arpaT€VfiaT^ 1} iru/>oSo« iy4p€T: 

VI. '^Ep^a ^ ^«Tairirf« to» oTMiTir *AX^ 
ai'^po^ ^9 itearop col flWo^i TO /S^of rff 
ifxiXayyoii. *E/wl to «i/Nif W Uar4pm0€P &•• 

2 TO irapayytXKofUvw 6f4mf iixpfuhfom- KtfU tA 
fi€P irpi>Ta i<nj^i)PtP hpBk ibniTCiMM t4 3 ^|p f 
T0V9 oTrXiTa^, hrtira ciiro f vi^iy/iaTOv ^mwiNM 
^9 trpopoXriv, koX wvp fiip it to S«{io» ^«Xi»«i 
Ta>i/ So/XiTMV Tr/y air)f«X«itfiv, a^«f 5^ ^i jk 
apiarepd, Kal auT^y 5i T^y ^cUiiTya If r« 
•npoaa o(€<»9 iKiprjcg xal iirl rk xipara iXK&rt 

3 aXXi; irapr/yayt. Koi o(rrM iroXXA^ Ta{tif Tufaf 
Te «ai p^raxoafiiiaa^ iv oX/y^ XP^^T* '^^'^^ ^^ *^*^ 
vu/ioi; oloy €fiffo\ov iroiiTO-ac t^ ^XayTOf iwfjy^f 
iirl rov^ iroXefuov^. Oi ^ vaXAi /iiy i$av^f9P 
rijp re o^vrfjra opttpre^ ical top Koafiop rmf 
Bp<DfjL€Ptop' roTC Bi wpoirdyoPTa^ ijBrj rov^ ^f*^ 
^AXi^apBpop ouK dBi^apTO, dWk Xtiirovci rovt 

4 irpcarov^ Xoif^ovt. 'O 6i xal iiraXaXd^tu ixtXtv^t 
TOU9 MaxeBopa^ teal roU Bopaai Bovnrjaai wpkf 
rkt dairiBat' oi B^ TavXaprtiH in iaoKKop imwXa* 


Vila ineir tPOOpt appsmd l» Iwvt raagni AksMider 
te • ifciJiirt^ioM podtieBi far they hM Um 

at'Anm, and tii« Hty fawt were rcAdjT to atUrk 

M tlM «M M« by tiw HY«r, ami 

cpli Igwdi tiw ■BMtili. to tilt Hit — y couWI 
otOy pMi llraifb fav a t i i M t 

tlM tan «r Irii pIhJmk •• M to fN« • 4iplii oT r3» 
ilcs. On cHtar wliV Im p«tod SOO iMMMm bia- 
hI VMilv* Mi tfikfi fmartlT : 
Im QuiwHl int to labc thrir ft|)cAr» 

A cMuyp, lnHtata|f toit to llM tfipM tlMNf icfiiftl 
potola, tiMti to Ihr IrA; the pililwn HttH hr 


bcra md $km9 am Mbm «tof . TImm W dtopUjcd 
and ■awfftJ variow fbrmatlocia fai • brief tlaM», 
— d tfc— ■■% <n<r • •pcarliead froi lilt ptoJmi m the 
tell h« M H to the attack. The cmmj. ahcedjr 
liewClclcfvd both at the nnartiMsa and the diwjipllnii 
of theee tmmu mmnm ^ did noi await the approach of 
the OvMht, but dactrtod the 6nt row of hilli. 
bade the llooodoohUM rabe thrir chrer 
thdf apcaiB opoa their thkicb; and the 



yayop cirovh^ top arparop, 

ov iroXXoif^ T«ir iroXfA'iMi'. ««^* W' «^f ♦ 
wapo&>9 iyiyprro, waprnftX^ roJf ^it^Mm^v- 
Xafi ical T04? rtM^' avror iraipo*s» apaXafiatnmt 
Ta9 d<rtri£a9 avafiaip^iP M roi^ rwovt ««2 
Aiit/i/€<v ciri Tov 7f;Xo^or Um9 Ik iXBotna^, 
el inrofitPOKP oi KartiXff^inm^ ri X^pUp, tov^ 
flpi<T€a<; Kara-niihiiacu awo rmp nrir«Mr «al «iMi^y- 
6€yTa^roUlTrirevanrt^ov^fia)((ia$ai* OiWwoXJ- 
/iioi T»;y o/9fi^v ToO *AX«f(iy5poi; /Sorrtt XWvoi^i 
TOP 7r;Xo^p «ai vaptKicXipovfftp Hf Umrtpm rm9 
opSiP. "^pBa hf) KaraXaBmP ^AXifopfym r^ 
yijXix^op avp roh rraipot^ tw t# *Aypii»m 
fi€Taw€/xir€Tat xal towv Toforac, Spra^ ^ ^*^Xf' 
Xiov^' rov^ ^i inraairirrkK Uafi€U9€%PThpwtrrmf$ib¥ 
itciXevae xal M rovroi^ t^^ Taffif rmtf M««i- 
Sopdjp' oirort hi Stafiaprts rvyot€P, hr li^vAl 
iKrda<r€<r0at, a»« irvicvf)p 9vBv^ otaffaprmp ^aipt^* 
Oat rrjp <f>dXayva- airro^ hk hf wpo^uXaM§ 4r 
OTTO ToD X6<pov at^ttopa tc$p iroXt^ump rifp opt^ffiP. 

7 Oi hit 6pC>PT€^ Biafiaipovaop rfjp Bvpafup, gmrk 
ra opt) apTCTrrjea-ap, a»9 roU ftark *AXt(tMpmf 
iiriOrjaofUvoi TeXfuratoi? avox^povatp, *0 ik 
ireXa^ovTtap ijBf} ainb^ itcOii avp to«? (</i^* ainop, 
KoX 1} <pdXay^, a»9 Bik rov wora^ov iwtovaa, 
iwfjXdXa^ev oi hk iroXifUOi vdmtap 4vl c^^ 
lXavv6vT(DP iyKXiPavrt^ i^vyop* xaX ip rovr^ 
iirriyev ^AXe^avSpo^ rov^ rt * Ay ptapa^ koX rov% 

8 TO^ora^ hp6fi(p OK iirl top irorafiop. Koi 
•nptoTo^ fi€P airrb^ ^6daa^ Staffalptr roU TfXfv- 


hMliljr vMldmr to Ike cHy. 

AltBMidar Mw MM fnr «r tlM 
<— cftiwhOkby wydHJipiHiji liy,i 
kb tndjrfMwds mhI te t^prfrat lo talM 

A; M MMM^f ft, rap 
ImU H tkoaU tlMidl tiMir fitwnd, 

JMJf fWHTB to diw I •ad, wii^ii^ wilii tiw onAry, 

iflumfeol. Tit — fy» ukjiMili^ iJiii dwii of 

cilWr of tlw iwwwtiim Akmaader 

tlie km villi Mi t^irfm, MH fcrtk« 

Ike Arrkrf«, to tkt MHikar of l«o tkooMod; 

fon^ ko ovdetod to 

tkoottko II I of tko liitnaniilM Hoopfc As 

tko MM m Ikot tkopkolMH 

fMfd, kept m cjo fton tko kiO 00 tko CMmj't 

aom tko ka vttk'tko Moo of oltaddBf AleiOBdar's 
kodygoani ot tkey wilh<lrrw U»t. He, *• ikry now 
O Mlly wHh hU Ironfm, ami tko 

to tko ollock ikrough Uic rivor 

ikey kcokc and Aed, ok< j < mwm Alesoadcr 
op Ike AgfUoei And ihe arcken at ike dooklo to tko 
of tko ffvor. Ho kkaielf got ottf fint, 
tka li^ to 


a»9 iropptararv aw avrmp Mk9V0tP imm mw^ 
fifjXaptav tSiXtf i^aKOPrifltTai* ami roin rofjkmn 
B€ U fieaov rov -norrafiov igrof^vtiP HmfiHunm 
/cal Toirrouv. Kai o* /lO a/if • rir rkmtmU» 
€i<T<o fiiXovs iraptXjfftlp ov« iroKfUNT m Ma— 
8oP€9 5€ cV Toirry <i<r^<iXi»« Mpaaop rap varm- 
/ioi/, a><rTe ouS«ic a-r i$CLV4» ip rj dvo;|^«^«j^f« 
9 Tpirrj Bk a-rr f««i»'7v 'if^Pf mtkJapkmBmP 
*A\€^avhpo^ KOM^ av\ilofA4P9Vf roin il^t^ 
KXelrov Koi VXaviciap, Kal our§ ^vXattif h rm 
rafci axnoU ^vXarrofAtpa^ oOrt x^P^^*^ 4 
rd<f>p0P irpo0eff\t)fUPoy^, ota 5i^ |yr 4«^ 
tt7n7\Wx^ai oiofUv^p 'A\4(ap9pop, ft |^«f M 
ovK a><l>iKifi,ou airaTtTay/AMpriP avroU rV ^^(tP, 
inro pvKTa hi \a6»p 6iafiaip€i top waruf/iop, 
Tovf re vrrcuTTriaraK ifut ot Srppp naX roin 
*Aypiai/a^ teal roi^ rofora^ gal r'qp flfpUr^ 

10 KoX Kolvov rd^tp, Ktu vpoajireurro ftip 
Oeip rijp dXXfjp arpartdp* tin Ik Matpop ttHfP ««f 
iirL0€a»,p, ov irpoa^eipa^ o/aoD fwiadai woman, 
iff>rjic€ Tou^ TofoTa9 tcai roin Ayptdpa^ ol S# 
dirpoah6Kf)roL re iwnrtaovres «ai ^dXayyt gark 
xipa^t ^irep daSeveardroi^ avrols xaprtpmrdrff 
TJ ififioX^ irpoapi^cip ifUXXop, roin fUP h't ip 
Tai9 eifval^ Karixretvop, roin Bk ^€uyopra^ 
tiffiapSi^ aipovpr€^, a>ar€ wcWoX fiip atnoif 
iy»caT€\t)(f>6Tjaap xal diridavop, wo%Xoi tk 4p r^ 
diroxf^P'Jf^^i draKnp iceu i^offepa y€Po/Upjf oifK 

1 1 oXiyoi Be icai (wvre^ iXiji^dfjaap. *&y«irrro Be tf 



kind of aWfe to bo JhcfcirgfJ fton Ibcm at otniool 
HMfft ; what ii MOfo, km wmmaadmd thm 
in mid^vrr, to rfwot foBtjt tiMBoe, tboj to 

GkodM* tioopt did Ml 

tiM Hv«r ftmfrlv mn^ toot not * man la IKa 
Thfoo dftjs Ulor AWioodor loora»d UmiI Oeiim 

>tiod— Older, no piUwidi,! 
they tlMMfbt that Alexander tiad rrtfvotcd ill poaio— 
and thdr Moo mtMtf dot^otodt ho eraacd tho 
tit^T oador oovcf oC Blfht with tho ipuwdtt tto 
Afriaooi, tho orohets, and the tioopt of Petdkcoa 
aadCotMM. HohodkliofdoiBferthoratoftho 
amj to fAnr, hot aochif tho thoo opportoao te 
attack, he dhl not await the enooiotiotion, hot aoai 
OS on the arrhm and the Agrimne* ; tboy BUmIo O 
■of prli e Attack, and In oohioui, a IbrmatkNi hi whleh 
th^ woffo likely to noho tho atnu^icfl ooolaoght 
on tho OBony Jost whora ho woa weokort; thoy 
•lew tovoffol Of they aleplt oorfly ooiBod tho fti|^HfOi> 
•o that aMoy wcfo eoofhl oikl kfled there and thoo* 
and many aim In their panle-atrleken and headkNig 
iight;afoodnaadMrwcretakeoallvo. Ale&aodrr*a 



84ft)fi9 T04? afx4»\ 'A\i(apfytm ttfhcP* ^P^ ^ ^ 
TO)*' TavXamrio*!'* o<roi 3^ iroi awt^Myor •HTM'* 
yvfivol ri>v owXmv BiMam&rf^ap, KXcIrof ^ ^f 
T»;v TToXiv TO wpihoP Mara^vymv, V^iv^^^Af 
T^v woX*y airfjWdyti wapk PXavKiop h TmvXtu^ 

riov^, , . , 

VII. 'Ev Tovry B4 rmp ^vyiOmp TiWf Tttr 4ti 
^fjfitav <f>€vy6irr»p wurrmp H Tikf Biffm^ va^X^ 
^o»rr€9, iTrayofUy»¥ TirAr avrovr Ari imn9(kmtt^ 
etc TV9 iroX««»9. 'A/M/rror /liv «al Ti/«oXAor t^ r^ 
Ka8/i«iav/yoirrMy ovW» vworow^iurrut vo\#M«oir 

2 «f« T^ Kaifnia^ airtirrava^ (uXXa^MrrfT #f M 
rtjp UKXriciav irap€\$6pTts iif^patf rovT Sf tf a (wt 
diro<rr!jvai aw 6 *AXt(dtfhpoVt iXmf$9fiUuf T«* 
irpolaxofuvoit irakaih koX MtCkk Of^oftam, «•! 
T^ 0apvTfjTO^ -ritv Ma«<3oPt»ir i|^ voTtf avaX* 
Xay^foi. IIi^afCtfTC/KM 5^ ^« to vX^^of i^mt* 
potrro, 'r€diniie(vai *A\i(aphpo» loYvpi^OfitPU h 

8 ^IWvpioW icai yap teal woXv^ o Xiryo^ ouT«f gmi 
irapa iroWSiv i<f>oira, on rt ;|^yoir awi^p o^ 
oXiyop Kcu on ovh€fua dyytXin wop* avTOir 
dff>lxTo, &are, oirtp if>t\tl i» tok toioi^S*, o^ 
yiv(i>a/copr€^ rd Spia rd fuiXiara Koff ifimr^ 
a^iaip etxa^op. 

4 UvOofieptp Bi *A\€^dpBp4p rd 7&¥ ^tiffaimp 
ovBaficj^ iBo/cei dfuXr^ria elrai, rtjp rt rm» 
*A0r}pal(i)P TToXtp hi imoy^ias €tc ttoXXoO fymni 
KoX Ttav Srj^aldfp TO ToX^rjfxa ov ^avXop wo%OV» 
fiipo), el Aaxeocufiopioi re vdXiu rj^rj raU yvm- 
fiat<: d<f>€aTrjfc6T€^ mai TtP€^ irol &XXoi ritp hf 
WeXoTTOPPriatp KoX AlrtaXol ov f^&aioi 4rTCf 

^ Powell adds «rat avroro^ar, KrUgcr tnl wappi^itiop. 



€i tlMlr mam. Ocltw, who at 
cHy, Mi ift tQ It nd ied to 

VIL llwwMi< MM OT the fugllffM 
dkH^J fate 1%^^tt bv 
fton tlic dtjr taivttli^ tlicn witli • view to • 

IIW w&m OlCtWfffml^ tlw 

pMoo of hnUte ■MfuiMil oirtiide) 
iHcii I Rcn •ppcorniil in iBr ASCBMNj uMj noioo 
tiM TbcbMM to rebel afaimt Alesoadcr* holdlnf 
oC frtcdlWil (and liberty of tprrrh)— 
•Itfaclhrc UUc»— and tiic thald^f 
o#— at long laai— of Maecdoo't bcaej joke. Thcj 


this waa ooaMBon talk, and from varloM toMccat 
bo iMid been lonf away and no word bad eooM 
Mm* ao tbat« fai ignoraaeo of bard fiwt, tbej 
Jeetnred (aa ao oAaa bappena) wbat tbejr oMal 

AleBoadar benrtag of wbat oemred at Tbebea 
took tbii^ acHowljr; for bo bad kmf bad bla 

A^^i^aUtfM^ ^tfcJMaf k frti^tta aomI ^nn m, ,, mti ■ n ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 1 

aboot tbe Theban attempt, abookl tbe Infectloo of 
at beart) and otber PdopoMarfaM, to aay notbiiif 


5 ''A7«y hff waptk rtfp *E4tpUUu^ T« «^ Tf»r 

Uapavata^: attpa, iffio/iMt J^MPtlrm ^ ll« 
vav T^ BrrraXuif. IBiP^cr 3^ ipf^^lt ^rr* 

wpoaBev oi ^0aloi ffiaBotf iUm llyXim v«- 
peXrfKvBoTa avroK ^ph^ ^ 'Oyx^^^ ym M m 

6 ^vv T^ c-rpana trdcff, K«l rorc M ot Miferrtf 
T^v dwoaraviv arpdnvfui it Ma — S tt Mi f Am* 
irdrpov difuxOai l^aaicov, ainbif M *AXif«i»V«r 
i^vdvai hutrxvplt^omo, «iil To« itv«y7«*XXM^ir 
OTi ovT<K airro^ wpo^dfyti *A\4(aplp9^ Ymkiwm 
clxov d\\ov ydp rum ^€ip 'AXi f a J^ riv 


varepaia irpo^rjrft wpas t^v voXiv tW Sf3*M*r 
/rara to rov *lo\dov rifititit^' ov Of col i^rpa- 
TOTrih€v<T€v, iptihoi/^ €Ti roU H»|/:Joioif rptfitjp, 
€4 fA€Tayv6tn€^ eirl roif «a4r^ 4ypm a fi490ii 

8 irp€aff€v<Taitno trap* airrop, ()i 2# roaoyrcv 
iSeijaap ivhoixtfiov ri wapaax*Uf ^ (vfAfiaatp, 
war €xO€otrr€s (te rrfi woXttt^ o7 rt iwwgU Mai 
ra>v yjnXMV ov/c oXiyoi tatM iir\ to arparimnho9 
rjtepofioXi^oirro €9 ra^ wpo<^v\aKds, Koi ruHt^ *a\ 

9 dir€KT€ivav ov iroWov^ twp MojrcSorwr. Ka« 
*\\€^apBpo^ (KwefiTrei rSiv ^iXiiv icai roforitp, 
&aT axnCiv dvacTcVKai rrjv iichpofirjp' koX otntn 
ov ;^aX€7ra>9 dpeareiXatf, yjSrf xA vxparcmib^ 
axnSi irpofT^pofuvov^. T^ hi v<rrtpai^ lUo- 
Xaffcjv rtjv arpaTtav iraaap tea* wtpttXBmp mara 
ra*; -rrvXa^ ra^ 4>^pouaa^ ew* *E\£uH€pd^ rt rai 

^v\i|ASlS OF ALEXAKDKU, 1. 7. 4-9 

part tiM bdglits oT 8 lj f w|i Uc > «mI PaniraM, mkI 
M yw wvcatli da/ widJiM PdhM In HmmI^. 
Thmm kk tU 6my Im fHprf Boeolfe, to tfttt llM 
TiMrbM M Bol Icmi oT Mi pMMf* oTllM Gata 
•irtfl Mi antvia, wHli all Mi Imt, al OMiM»ta«. 
THerrapon ^mm vIio iMid btw^ ika«l tka fvvoli 
«akl Uuit a fbfcc of AoUpatcr badcoaM finm Macadoo, 
• n aad Ateiiiitr'i daalli, grttinK 
al aoy who r c p a rta d Alasaadar'a aclaal 
at tkm hemd of Mi aMi: It wai. aaid tlier. 

wnt 6mj rrachcd 
^ lolaai; there he 
giving the ThebaM a period of grace. In 
Ihej ihoaU rrpctit and trtid an rmbaMy to 
Mni. They were far from ahoving aaj huiaiUt/ 
that might lead to an agmaiint; nay, the hawa 
mm and aeveral UglK Inwpa aalUrd oat tovaidt the 
ramp and Aarhargrd hw^ gangii volleys al the 
outpaala» even killing a t&m ^ Iha Mawdwdinii 
Alrsander aent oal aooM of Mi Ught troopa and 
•rrhert to hoM ap their aaOy; Ihry easily 
thr Thrbaaa, who by now ware aetoAUj a| 
the camp. Next day Alesaader nwvcd Ma whole 
farce and eaoM rohnd to the gatci Wadliig to EIra- 



10 MaxehoiKav roU ri)f KaButUm ix^f^u^* Oiy^ 
ei7/9aiO» T^i' KaBfifiap liwX^ X'^pami 44f9ii 
airoTtix^aatnt^, i»^ /iiyrt 9(^i9rum Toif f^ 

TToXefuoi^ wpoa^ipoiino, 'A\ii^€U^ip^ U (m 
yap roU H^;/9ai'oK &ik 4«Xuw MtW 0mKkU Ti 4 

8m icivBvvov fjOtXM) UhpiS^ wpk rf K a Wf 
1 1 /caT€<rTpaT0ire5€i/«<tff. *Ki^a h^i Tivr B#|/3ai»r M 

efeX^dv uippiivro trap* *\\if€Ufhp09 mid 9ifp^00tu 
<r vyy vtiifjL'qp rjt vXijtftt ritp Htifiaimp r^ IIV9> 
<rra<r€aK* oi ^vydUs 8« «al oao4 rovt ^ y yi l fci f 
itructicXfjp^voi r^ixav, ov5«yo9 ^i\ap0pmwov rv- 
;^eJv Av irof)* 'AX<faVSpow a(ioJ/rrfft, ^XXak t« 
/rat poitorapxovvrt^ eartv oi ainmp, naprawac^p 
ivTfyov TO irXrjSo^ i^ row iroXtf/Aoi'. *A\i(«iplpo^ 
B€ ovB* S>9 TJ7 iroXn irpoaifiaXtP. 

VIII. *AXXa Xcyei IItoXc/uuik o AaTouOTi flfp- 
hiicica^, irporeTayfUPO^ rtj^ f^uXamrfs rov arparo' 
iriBov aifv rfj avrov rafci /rai tov x**P*^*^ ^^^ 
iroXeplfDV ou noXv a<f>€orrjK(i>^, ov wpoofitiya^ 
Trap ^AXe^dvSpov ro €9 rijv paxjt^ ^vvOnfia, 
avro^ Trpa}To<: rrpoirepife r^ x^P*^^ *** ^^^^tr*!- 
<ra^ avrop €V€ffaX€P i^ rStv Hrjjtiaiwp rijp wpo^U' 
2 Xcucijv, TovTtp he erropevo^ *Afivpra^ o ^Aphpo- 
phfov^t on teal ^vvrrraypkvo^ r^ UtpUMxa ^p, 
ivijyaye Kal atno^ rrjv avrov rd^ip, m^ ille 
rov UepSiKKav vpoeXrjXvdoTa tlarn rov x^p^i^o^- 


llMfM and Allfoft, and j«t •vw tkoi did aol MMult 
tfct wall, hmt pHwind tmmf aol fcr ftw tJit Cadpf il^ 

«Hio Md the Cid^ria. For the Tbebeat 
iBveMBji^ the CeaMcie« hevfai^ bvut e < 
•o thel BO one fhMB wfthnrt cottid help thaw invested 
wfthiBt nor thej uSHf Mt ead hum the Thebene 
with thdr eacmlce withovt. Bat 

the note fmblkHiplrited dtiteat of Tbebei were 
easiow to fo Ibrth to Aleiender and win perdoo 
for the TMmmi poeple at a whole fer thek revolt; 
bot the eiilaa and thoM who had called thrm in 
woQid wolt eoBoaMCMl to feed re any 
Alriaadar, eapeeialljr aa MMoe of them 
ofthrConfrdmejrofBoeotia; they thir aftif ti aought 
tn aU wajrt to arge their ee witiyia en to war. Vrt 
even io Aleiaader did not attadL 

VIII. Ptoleaay aoa ef Lafw, howeeer, aajt that 
Perdlceaa, who was odker in duufge of the camp 
intard with bit own detaffhmgnt and lay not Ur 
(ram tkr enemy palhaclr. did BOt await Aleiaoder's 
Minuil for Uule, but hiwartf imt attached the 
iuili«ade and tearing it aaander broke in upon tlie 
Thebanadvaneegnard. AmyntaaionofAndromeaea 
foOowad, befaig brigaded with Fenlieeaa, and led 
on hii detachment to aeon aa he saw Pmliccas 
within the palisade. Thes Aletandcr, 


Tavra Si Ihi^v \\>J(aplpai, m ^ ft^m iwo^ 

Ta9 icai row ^AyptapaK iMfymfMSp Uj§iim9 tUm 
rov x<^paico^, rk hi ay^fuira mqI to^ yw mm wi^r^ 
hi ?(m Kartixw. 'E^a 5^ lUpiJMMmt $^ rmQ 
Swripov x**P^*^ *^^^ waptXBup /9ia (o/ai'Of 
adro^ fUP p\^€U wiwrti ai}rov, mii av««*- 
fii^trai koku^ Hvrnw M TO arparaw^^^Mml 
XaXtnit^ ht^amSfl avo rou rpavfuiro^ roin ftdrroi 
6rjPaiov^ i^ rfjv MotXfiP o^or T^ir mark to 
*HpdicXtto$» ^€povaa¥ oi afta aur^ dantcmnm 
Ofiov ToU trap* *A\t(aphp^ rofar 04 1 cypimKnomm, 

I Kai icT€ fup M TO ' H/NJ« Xfior uifmxt^p9Uetp, 
tiirovTO roU ^l3auH9' itn€if$4» S^ hn0'rp4* 
y^dintaif ttvOt^ 9W ffop rmtf ^ ffalmi f, 4*nr4 ^^^^ 
MoKtBovwv yiyvmu' tcaX Evpvfimra^ to o K/nf^ 
iTiTTTCi 6 rafdpYtf^ Moi adrmp tup rofoump h 
efiSofitjicovTa' oi Si Xoiwoi gart^vyop vpbf to 
dytjfia TO Ta>i/ Mo/rcSui^y «ai tovv irracwtcrat 

6 Tov^ /9a<riXiiroi^. Kai' tout^ 'AXifa»3pof toi^ 
/i^i' auTOv <^€vyotna^ Karihtav, tovv Htiffalovt Si 
XeWtcora^ cV t^ Sito^ti rtiv Taftp, ^ftflaKKn 
i^ avrou^ cvinrrayfUpff rp ^dXayyi* oi Si 
QtOovai Tov^ Sq/3aiou^ tlata ritp wvXmp' moI roU 
BiyySoiOK €9 ronopht ^fitpk ij ^vyij iyiffPtra, 
&<n€ Bta riav irvXoiv Oidovfifpoi c\ Tfjp woXiP ov€ 
€if>6i)oav avyKXiiaat ra^ irvXa^* dXXk avptia- 

iriTTTouo-* yap axnoi^ cicta rov T€t;^oi/^ ocfH 
Ma/ceBovoyp €77V9 ^evyoprtap ti-vopro, drt «al 
ra>p reix^v Std rd^ irpo<l>vXaica^ rd^ iroXAAf 
6 iprjfUDP oiT"!-. Kai vap^Xdopr^ «4f rijp 

A>A1 \-I^ or \1 \ • ^ 

wcin^ Oiv . %4> that thcj orifjit aoi be ttrandcd aod 

■o at th' ni<-rrj of the TWbiBlv iMflMmllt 1^1 IIm ml 

of thr annY. TTir arcliCfB ami the Affiaaat be 
ofdcred to «akg • di f w iioo JaiMc the p i H w d a ; b«t 
be ttfli retafaMd hit ihock troops oad hb goord 
ootihle. Thm Pctdtoeit, tijipf to foee hb waj 
Into the Mcoml peWwJr, was wo un ded ami Uy 
whcro he fen : he wot borne oC In aortj |il|fht« to 
the e— p oirf oniy with dKlwlty we boolod of hb 
Hit OMa* JohdM Aleiewder'i oichm. 


to bey with e alMMit, 

to i%ht. TKerr fell Emrf- 

of the errlieiO, end 

took reftige with 

end with the wojtd 

troops ftifitlvcs, end the Thebeas In j oosene d orUrr 
in the p«ri«it« chergcd then with phelenx in bsttlr 
ibnnetion. The Thebeas wcfc poshed Inside the 
KSlcs, their iigbl bsssnui to far s penie that while 
befaif thrast thfoogh the gates hito the ckiy titry 
coohl not shot tlie gates fai tfane. 80 there actually 
passed hi with then wtthin the wall snch of the 

walk beii^ now oadefended on eeeooni of the large 


KaB/itiap ol iikv iMlBmf «itA t© 'Afi^dm #dp 
T049 xarixovci rifw Kal/titU^ 4(ifimtP^ H rh^ 

irpo^ r&v avv€tairtff6mmp roif ^itfvtvro^ 

7 Kal oXiyov /i<i» Tim XP^^ f^ipsr W Ttm^- 
/i€t'Oi Tofi' HifffaU»p gar^ vi Am^^Sm^ ^ M 
iravraxo^fv axnoU oi yimm Mm% Ka\ ^hXifmwipt^ 
aWoTt a\\^ ivi^aiPQiMmtm wpoatMurro, oi fiip 
iTTTTCt^ rtav ^0aim9 2li«Vitf orrff > &i 7% 
7roXf6>9 ^^ TO «it2(ar ifSvtwroif, oi ik ««{M «f 

8 kttaaroi^ trpovY^ptt iatiiomo, *B»#S ^i^ ^fiy§ 
ovx ovT6»^ Ti 01 MoiCfSoMt, oXXik ^iMwSf Tf «•! 
II XaTai«i9 /roi oi tSXXoi 5< BoMrroi oM 4^W 
fiivov^ cTi Tou^ Hrfffaiov^ ov^ti goc/ta^ ltVTtlPiP» 
Touv /icv €V rai^ oUiai^ fVfiavivromff, #^ U 
teal i^ aXjcfjp rrrpa/i^povs, rovt Ik Mol Wf^ 
UpoU ltc€T€voirra^, oCrg yvpoiMmp oCrt vaiotty 

IX> Kal irdBo^ rovro 'FAXtfptM^p ftfTfilBu Tt 
T^9 aXoi/(7f;9 TToXcwv Koi ofvrtjrt to0 fyy^, ov)^ 
fJKiara Be teal r^ wapaXoy^ h t« tovv waBitnm/^ 
kclL T0V9 Bpdaama^t ov fiMOP r$ rov^ SXXoyf 
"EXXrfva^ Tj ical avrov^ roifq fujoaxotnt^ toO 
2 €fyyov i^iirXtt^e, la fikp fkp w€pl l4MtXtap 
A6f)vaioi^ ^vv€PexOema, tl ssal wXii$€$ rmp 
diroXofxeptov ov fieiova rijp (v/t^p^ T^ wikm 
TJpeytcev, aX\^ t^ t< troppm awh t% oinlm^ 
Bia<f>0aptjpai avroi^ top trrparop, mal top voXur 

> Roos niggetU with pUnstbilit^ ti««««(#srr«t ; Imi Um 
repetition — r«#irr«t . . . -4atwr»0 u Dot forvtMM to Arrktt** 

•tyle. ^^ 


ANABASIS OF AUOAKn^'- T 8. 6-9. a 

tkc lidUcfs of iIm Giteflls, Mid piMcd IbIo Um dtj 
proper; Umm bf the walk, tktmAj held by the 
troops llMt iMd powed te loftllMr vllh tlM f%Wf«t, 
peoMd over the wolb oad twhod to tlM loHrol 
piece. For e wiille tlM IVbea enaod fcroee flood 
bf tiM Aijiin— , bot M the Mace- 
lofli oD ridci. Mid 

eovalrjr, pwbl^f their way throofh the dtj, 
opoa Iho ploin; vith the kdkntrjr it 
wmmmmfmfmL Aikllhom io hoi Mood, it wm 

O ^''Ojr hrtO thcin I HNBO M0VIB|||^ 

ifhl; odMn •nm otypWint in the 

IX. TUi aiiilBt oT Orooho» both by the iIm of 
thoeopfroddty, end by the rfnipii— of the oclioa 
—end ttol Iceet by the geMrel ■mwpteHdoMi of 
the eTCfit« both to vidofo oad rielhHi— oeaeod as 
much horror to the other Greehe as lo thoae who had 
• haadhilt. The fWrillaii djaaatrr of the 
If teMHbor of the aiahi H brought • •! 
open the dly* yol, tkm teir anny was d e rtmyeJ 
fSv tnm hoaw— oad thot, loo, ao amy rather of 


iroXiv avroU vtpikt^^nmi^ m 9^ h IrrMr 
4firl iroXv T^ iroXtf/A^ (urriorvciv A a g jfc iy pfcgtf 

TToXf/ioOvTaf, otrrf auroit TOtf v«^«6#i9 tr^ 
T^p atadifaip rtf^ (vfi^m vpotfitffMP, •frr 
T0i9 aXXoiv^KXX^f rtfp m r^ w^fi IcrXi^if* 

3 ofioLav irapiayM' Kal r^ ^ A^y#t v«T«|Mk 
a^if WBtipaim9 wrat^fui wmmrmitf t« ^ mml i 
iroXif <n}3^v IXXo oti /a^ tm^ /trntprnf r mx ^ 
Ka0aipia€i icaX rfwr Ti»r voXXimt wmpmhimm mmk 

TO T€ (rxVH^ f^ wdrpiop Oftmt ^v\m(^ MM r^ 
hvvap.iv oi tik fuucpov rffp wdXmi Mkm0mt 
ctf^ rd re poMpk rtlx^ imrrnxj^ai gmk t% 
BaXdaarf^ aMi^ hrucpar^mi Uki tovv rm 
^o^pov^ a^iffi XaKthatfutviov^ moX ifttp iXiyop 
iXBovra^ wpdpurtu rifv woXiP aurovf iv r^ 
fUpei €ic TCtfy iaxdrttv Kivhvtmv ha^maaaBmA, 

4 AaK€B€upovU»v T< av ro xara Atwrrpa Mm* 
MavTiV€iav iTTcuapa tm wapaXirfm fMXXip 

T0V9 Acuc€B€upoviovs iftTrXffftP' fj T« f wr 'Ivva- 
peivwvSa Boiftrrwv irai ^Apuaimp y€»OfUp^ 
iK-poafioXrj wpit^ rrfv l,ifdprfjw koX avrif rf 
dtfisi rrjft oyjrjam fjidXXov ^ t$ iuepi$9U rmv 
Kivhvvdip avTov^ re tow? AoMtSatpoviov^ gal rovs 
(ufip€ra<Tx6vra^ avroU rAv rort wpar/fidnmw 

5 €>oy9i7<rfy. 'H £^ 5^ UXa-raiimv iXm^n rff 
7roX€a>9 tJ (TfUMpoTfrn* tAp iyKaraXfj^Bhrrmp^ 

*T«Codd. EIlMidiomita. 
> Bditon Add «U rf iJUT^nri. Ron marka 



•ilics thmn a( qimiM id tlMlr elty being irit 
lo them, M tkak llMy hM ovt mom tfane in the 
«ar igiiMt Sparta, tbdr alBct, aiid Piiila e f f 
tliK I My, gim ao mmIi mom of mlirity lo Um 
wfrrm, and did not ttiike tiM Ofwka gOMrally 

Or, ^rfm tiM AtlMdaa datel al 

at aaa, and the dtj radaead todmi to iMiaimt j by 

of Ha iMpa, and loM oTlUi fovora^iity, yet rataiatd 
iMpe, aad tooa vaaovarad ita fimnar 
1; bidll« hi fiMt, ooaa oMra ita Ih^ walk, 
woo 1^^ Ita aao-pover, aod actoaOy aatred lo tooM 

daa U oj Ii i f Atbw TW dcCeot of tba 
rr^^rr tiMBMdvca at Leoetra and llaotloca 
at a great dtock to Ibcoi ralber by the ooexperted- 
oa« oT the dboftcr than by the oombcr of the 
The Dwkifht of EpaithmndM wHh hit 
and Aioadtoaa opoo Sparta acarod the 
ihalraMea rather by the ttraiigcfie« of aoeb a a|ght 
than the gravity of the danger. The captore, agafai, 
of Plataaa, waa not a w^gf aeriooa aSair boeaaM 


6ri oi woXXol avrSiv h aw ff ^i y^am ^ wikm/^ h 

Mi;Xot; KoX l^iwimf^ dXaNTK, rti^tmrimd Tt fr#- 
Xia-fiara rjv k€u roU hpdtraciP aicxyrtji^ fuiXX6tf 
T« iTpo<rifia>A¥ 4 h to (vfiwop 'EkXiimM^ f^^y^ 
TOP irapoKoTfow iraf)^^^'* 

6 Hrjffaiot^ ^ T^ Tr}^ a'rotfr«t^«<»f ^^« ««1 jiV 

oXiyot' T€ /ral ov fvw wot^ rmif ixitfrmif ^viw- 
ve)(^€ura, ical 6 ^ovo^ woXv^, ola S^ Vf ifiO^vXmp 
T€ /rai iraXamv awtyStia^ iwtfUttrmp, Mtu o 
T^9 TToXcAK irarreX^^ ai^pawoli^ftof, h y ^ d ftti Tt 
ical 5o(i7 ^9 T^ iroX«/Aia tmi^ tot« wpo^XQ^^ ^ 
ToWEXXrjatVt ovic f(» rov tUoros ^ M'/mi* t^ 

7 OTTO rov Oelov ainji-txOtf, tit^ r^ T« /» tm Mi|li4B^ 
iroXifi^ irpoSo<ria^ t&p 'EXXi^i»t»r ^ /iggpt# 
ravrtfv £t/rT;v €irrl<rairra^ Hrfffaiov^, «al r^ 
nXaTai€<k>v cv Tc rai^ o"iro»^£aIf vaToXn^fiK dll 
Tov traimXov^ avSpavoBtafiov Tf)c voXfiK* c«l 
rrj^ rtav irapahomtav a^a^ airrovs AagtioiftiMftoif 
ovx 'EXXi7»'i^»;9 yevofthni^ Btii Sif^^^ a^«y%, 
Kal TOV X(opiov rff^ eprjfuout^^ ivonf oi*KXXi|i<«f 
irapara^dfuvoi Mrj^oif airtaaaino irfi 'VXKahas 
TOP icivhvvov, Kcu OTi * M^)vaiov^ a^roX tp i^n^^ 
dwtaWvov, ore \nrtp dvhpawohiaiMav riff wiiKim^ 
yva> fir) irpovriBrf iv toU AoM^^fUM^imp (v^- 

8 fidxot^' tnel teal irpo r^^ (vful>opa^ woXXk awo 
TOV Beiov iwia'fjfj.tjpai fXeyrro, & htf iw fikp rA 
irapavTiKa rjfUKriSfi, voTtpop hi i} funjiui al^k it 
XoyuTp.ov TOV imrdXai, i'wl roU fvpfPM'xfitlai 
vpo<Trjfuiv6rjvcu dvijvey/ce. 

Toi9 B€ fi€Ta<TXovai rov fpyov (vfifuixoit, ofc 


oT the mmO MHibar oT Umm cntarad te the d^r— 
the iiwUii tiwii tm r bsvlMr Md Ipm beftira to 
Athrm. FliMlljr, tkm mfiimn of Moloo ond Sctooo* 

hich were oierelj iriond ftiititf ■, rolher bioQgbt 

to tM CHBton tMO OOjf (p'OOl tnOck tO tM 

WUli TfirtKs. on the otlMr fcoad, tlM hitlmw 


S vlUi to Mttlo tioobb to the vietori. the 
lot ftoai Undral trflwt wrcohiiif 
tho conploto nminiiwuH J 
the cttjTt then OQO oi the ont fai Greece hi povcr ond 
mlhloffj pfOll%0» were qoitr naturally trt damn to 
dIvhM wroth: Thehot, »cn mA hMl th«t pokl the 
price, ot Icofth, of her hetroTol of the Ovook oo«m 
in tho Plenloa won. of her Mlnro of Flilooo doHpf 
the troeo, of her cuwylili ■■ihnaiiHl of tho 
PUtATAm. of tho ■—own lh« work of Thehoi, not 
of Gfcece— of moo who hod torrewlerod not to 
Thehet hot to SperU, of the devaototkn of the 
Plotoeoa eoontrjihict 00 which the Gferks, ranged 
ahoolder to ahooldrr ofoiact Ptenla, had rrprRed 
ofOioooc; oadlott^ofthevoto 

thai woe pot hrfore the alliet of SporU that tho 
AthcnhoM ahoyld be told into tloforT. People 
lold thot tho HHwhn dkwUm bmI Iti rfudow before, 
diffaM liBwhMi, Mgloctod them hot tho 

o i cw w r y thereo f lotgr OMdo people rool faothot there 
hod MHff DOOB proflDoeticotloaOf now cuiioruMd dt 
Iho olhoi who took port hi the oltoek. to 



Ka'r€X€i¥ i6o^, Ttfp woXiP a garae^ti^at ««f 
e&i^o^, ical rfi¥ Y^patf garaMlfimi to4« (vft^ 
fuixot^ oaff fifi Upa airrrf^' walia^ I4 moa ytn 
vaXica^ icaX oaoi vwtXtiwomo Hri^ai^p, wXifp tmv 

ironirov oUiav ica\ roif^ <ivo7oa«iff rm^ fiipitifimf 
\€yov<riv on Stt^vXaftP ^AXj^apBpm ml^2 rn 
HtfSdpov. *Eiri roifT04f *Opivo^iii4r -:• 


Twv Hfiffaitfp TO v<i^(K, *Kpgah^ {Up, 5#« 
fiot)Oiiffovrts ^fjffaioi^ tiiro r^ otVfMif mpfitj^f 
<rav, Odfarop xart^lnf^ieMno rm» hrapuprmp 
a(f>a^ €^ T^y Boifitiaw *I1X«uh M tovv ^ior«<^Af 
o-^i' ira7c8<|ajrro, 5ti /vfrii&ioA *AXf fairly 
2 V<''<^* AiTwXoA hk irptvfinAK tf^MV «aTii ^mp 

avToi Ti irpo^ ra irapa rmr Htiff^umw away* 
yeXdiina (Vca>Ttf/>«rav. *\Oi)paioi 64, it^WTfipimw 
rStv fuydXtnv ayofuvtop m^ ^kop r$P€K ri$p 
%ripaU»v if avrov rov epyov, ri^ fup fOf^riiptm 
iicirXayetne^ efeXiwop, €k ii rmp hypAp iagtva^ 
8 ydrfovv h rf)v irokiv, *0 hripo^ ^ iff ixxXtfaUuf 
avveXOatv ArjfidSov ypd^apro^ 64 xa wpiaffnf 
iK irdvTu^v reap WOfjpoiwp iwiXtfdfitPOf wifvwtt, 
wapk *A\€fatfBpop ovartpo^ iwtrti^undrovs 
*A\€fdvBpfp eyiypotaicop, ot« t€ amo^ if 'IXXy- 

A.NABASI8 OF ALEXANDKR, I. 9. 9-10. 3 

but to 
city evM vttii iIm fmoid, awl to 

tlM ante, Mv« iIm Mwred spots, 
to €Hlftv« wow en awl diildrai* and aa j Tbebaa 

Mp villi PlOUp 

Ff w "*"/ ^"""^ HWi wMB pat im a oi 

Tbe kowo of PlmUr, and mny of hli 

AlaiaiMtrr tavod— ao it It rrl 

§m PbMUr. BaMaa thh, tha 

to fobsill'aad tahHf 

X. Whan Iha lata oTTlMliao «aa nolliaa to tlw 
GvaalB, llw AioadUm who had Wit homo to 
halp Thahat BiiaiiawHi il to death thoaa who had 
to taha ihii atan. Tha 

witli AlasaBdv* loa 

iHbc bjr tfibe« aod b r m od IbrgiveiiCM, on the ifTPond 

that they had reniltcd only tiew of tha 

bmu||ht frooi Thebes. Tbe Athnriam 

brAtloK their frrrat mjslrHaa whaa 

fmoi Thabaa, hot foot Urom tha 

«tcnuitkMi thay a ban dop a d tha m/itoriai and begaa 

to get in thHr atolTftaai iha aoantry faito the dtj. 

Tha people caaM lato awaaMy, and 00 tha aiotloo 

body of cUiaaoa— D»en known to ba an tha aaal 
friendly tamt with Alruiiidif Mid aanl thaas to 



r&v ^KdfivaUtP oU iw KOtp^ awttyytXawna^ «fU 

4 on Brfffmou^ ToD p^wTMptafiov irifimpncmr; *0 
Be Tti fi€v aXXa 4>i\at$pmwm v/w^ rifir vp«#^MF 
aTr€Kpivaro, tvtcroXrjp Bi ypdyjtm wpif rir 
Bf)fju)v €(irrci rovs <k/4^i ^a^i^hnfif mmi A»- 
Kovfr/ov tcaVTwtp€iBfjp li i(ir€$ ittu noXwv«T09 
teai Xdptjra xal Xapif^rjfutp moI *t^4iXn|V ««! 

6 AioTi/ioi' /ceu MoipoicXia* TOirrovf T^p a«7^i^ 
€lvai -njs T€ ^i' Xoipmptlf (vfn^opi^ t| «iX«i 
yevofiiinj^: teal tmv Ccr€po9 M rf ^ixlwwmf 
tcXcutJ wXffp/itXrjOiprmp h Tf ain'oa* «•! #t 
<I>(XiiT7rov* iroi Hi;/9a40i« S« r^ i&vovTa^twf 
a'7r€^a4ify alriov^ ou fitiov 4 ^^^ aur^r 

6 ^ffaitov v€t»T€pi<r arras* 'A^mmm M TOVf jm 
avipas ouK i^hoaav, wpt^ffivatnoi M mi0&9 
wapa *AXe(ap6poVt a^tlviu Btofupot t^ ^pjk^ 
roU i^aiTffSelar leal *AXi(ap6pas a^^» ^^^ 
pJv alBol Tfjs iroXims, tvyov 6k ^woyif you h 
TTjv *A<Tiav aroXov, ovm iuiXmif oMp Cw9Wrw 
iv T0(9 '*VsXXf)aiv tnroXtiirta0ai. XapHUiftolf 
p-kmoit poi'ov Tutv i^airifdkprmw Tf «al ay 
hodimuiv, 4t€irf€iv iKtXivat' tcal^vytt Xaptrnuoi; 
is TTfv *A<Tlav irapa ffaaiXta ^apttop. 

XI. Tavra 8< Biavpafdfievos iiraptpiBtv wis 
^AaKehoviav xal t^ tc Aii t^ *OXvpiri^ r^ 
Bvaiav rijv dtr* * Apx^Xaov frt teaBearoMraP e^i/at 
teal TOP dytuva iv Alyats BiiOtjKt rk *OXvfAWUi' 
oi Be /cat rals Movaais Xiyowrip in ay^pa 

2 iiroiijae, Kal iv rovrtp dyyiXXtra^ to *Op^m^ 
Tov Oldypov Tov Spaxos dyaXpa to iv Witpihi 
iBpwrai (vvex^fS' teal aXXoi dXka i'W§B§iafatt 



00 life Mfe retaiB from Um lUyriMii 
nd on »• pwrf A mcn t of tKe 
renM. AlAaader tcplM lor the moil 
port la fHrndly tooe to tlM iwbiwy, but wrote o 
letter to the cHj 


thcoe be beU rvofioaolble ibr tlie dlMitcr ofOioeroiiM 
nd vvoiv ktcr iwittiil. at PbOp'o 
AffolMt blwiiilf and PbOlp. He •!» dbmre 

be icuilty of the Tbebaa rebenion not Wat tbon 
the Tbebon leoelf tncnodveo* Tne AtncniMMi did 

bcgfinf Urn to reins bio wrath towwdi 
bebeddanoadtd. Aksender dkl to- 
le^^nvd lor Atbenoy or Dccnnw ne woe 
to get on wHb bbi Alton ■■pidMoii nad 
hMrtb to lentm onytbtaf bebtod to Oinnon vbfeb be 
coold not troft. CbnrfclcaMM nloae« bowevrr. of 

beoideiedtobeexileds nad be toob rdbfe to Aidn 
«t the eonft of Ktaf Dordno. 
XI. When all thb hod beea let to order Aleuuider 
lumcd to MM-rdoola, where be Mcrlficcd the 
tfadMoanl »acn5cc (ntahlfabed bj ArdieUttt) to 
djailiiea Zena and kept the Oljaipftan gaaca at 
Aegne: oCben add that he bekl gamea to bononr 
of the Mooaa. Mcaawbfle, wmd ooaMa that the 
•tatne of Orpbeaat aoa of Oeagrna the TbracUn, 
to Plertov had sweated eoottonooaly ; the teeri 



0€u yip irt vonfralf iwm^ r^ *m fttXim mmk 
ocoi ai^X ifX^ ix'^* wpKin v^Mf krrm w^mIt 
Tff Mai ah4iP *A\i(aApo0 mI t^ *AX«|mpI^«v 


'EXXi^fworrov. ra /aiy «aTA Ma4r«o«i4Br rt ««• 
Tovv "KXXiyrav *ArTi»uT^ iwtrpi^s, avrof 

ou itoXXm vXf/ovt ymp rptafivpimt^, iwwimn M 

0-TOX4K iraf>A T^i' XifAPtip rij9 KtpMtmtnp m /v* 
*Afi^iwo\tP »al rov ^rpvfi^p^ w^rmp^ Tik 

TO 11(1770109 ^po« T^r m hr* *A0Uipm Mii 
MapMVfiav, -woXm^^ 'liXXifWS«f M #0Xii^#9 
^MTM^av. "V^tp li M rJHf *E0pm wtrmf^ 
a^iKo^upo^, htafialpti Moi tot "EfipQp tvwrrmt, 
*Etc€W€v 5< huk tij^ lIoiTum iwl tot M<X4U«i 
6 iroTafioif €px*^tu. ^afia^ oi gal Tor MiKmtm 
€9 I^i/o'Tot' li^t/ei^lrai iv fUoci rmh wm^tm 
rjfUpai^ diro tf}^ 01x0699 4(opfi:^9Wmf, *BX ^ >i» 
5^ €9 *KXaioi/KTa ^iWt Up^riCiXoft M t^ Ta^^ 
ToO UptyT€iTiXdov, ori «al Mpirrf^iXaof wpmrp% 
€h6't€i €ic0rjpai €9 T^y *Aaia¥ ri$¥ ' KXXi^imwv riir 
a/ia *Ayafi€fA»o¥i h *IX^v arpartvcdrrttp' «al 
6 voOv T^ Bvaia^ tfp limvxtartpap ol yiwi^Btu 
^ Tlp<aT€(Tt\dfp rr^v diroffaaiP, 

iraft r»;»« Tiriror hiaffifidctu trdxOfi Ik Hrfcrou 
h "AffuBov icai hii^ifaav ip rpi^ptat, tUP hcarop 

AN \1 V-I- • I AM \ WDF.H. I. If. t-« 

llOi mionUy, bvt ArklamlnM cf Tel- 
okw Al^wiorr vc oi hooq chccf t it was 
i%Blied,be Mid. that to makm oCcpfei and chork 
•01^ sad writan of odM tiM« vmdd b6 bmmIi toO 


la mAj ipriiv Aleiaadw ■Mirhri lo Um IIc1I«»- 
ImvIi^ liiniiinaiM mmI Gtcck aiaira la 
«f AaHpstiw. H« M dT, of InCuitrj, witli 
lad Mtfcm » Bol aMch above tldrtj 
of raralry ofcr tk« UMMttd. lUa 
pMl Lake CetvlaHit la tiM dk«cti«i of 
polbaadllMdelUoriltorhrcrSlmaMi. He 

It vith ra«e; theoot tiMOifll 
the lUack RiTcr, mmmA II, « 
after tvMilj da ja' aMiddpf la aB 
Arrivi^f at Blaaaa ha m a i lkt d to Pfeotarilaot at 
Prolaiaaat* lo»h. ifawa ha waa thoafhl lo ha the 
fifil Oreek of thoaa who wml with Agaawauwa lo 
Trojr to dboahark on Ailaa tolL Tha fartaatioa of 
the lacfiiaa waa that tha tattfaf Cwl oa Allan ton 
aright ha aaira pwMpa fu a i to Alasaadar than to 

lo Ma lo tha fcrryli^ 
to Abjdoa of the grrater part of 
tha fadhatrr and the cavalrjr; Ihay woMid la a 

tnt. u 

tcaX i^fjMotna, wXoiotx ^ iXXmf vAX«$f #T^9r 

*Axaii»v XifUpa Haraptu e wXtUuf kiy9t mmrix!^ 
xai avTov Tt Kvfi^fumrf r^ wrpmrrfOm Mi0r 
Btaffd\\tt9, gal iwu^ mmi iJinnf rim wipm^ 
rov 'E\\Tj<rir6inou iyhrf, w^dfrnvrm im&pmf 

7 6id\fr: i^ roy irorror. A^TOvri U «ai y ^ Artp 
Xc T^f ww^ airy tok 5vX«lf Igi9 < |l 1 A^^ h 

rhv yri» Tfjy *A<ruir, xmi fi m§ t9¥ t ii f i& m w im , 

7% *Aa(af. Aio« iiwodartipimf moI 'A^fu fc ««4 
'Hpa«X€oi;9- aytX^orra Stf A 'lX40r t$ rt *A^f»f 
^Oaoi r^ *IXi<iS<, iroi ri^y vai'ovXiai' r^r «£t«v 
ai'a^civai cV roy yf«iv, «al xaBtXilp iSrrl T«vriff 
TO)!/ /epcav Tii^a tirXmv Iri ^« toO Tp«>aroi; IjpTOV 

8 o'ay^o/i^i'a. Kai raxrra Xiyov^ip 5ri « frvo^wi^- 
Tai e<p€pov irpo atnov is rks fuLx^* ^O^ttt S^ 
ainov teal Uptdfi^ ivl rov ffmfioy to6 A«^ rov 
'Epiceiov \6yos icarix^h ptfiup Ilpia/Aoi/ wapat' 
rovfupov Ttp NfovToXi/iOV 7cvci, ft 5^ ^t avrop 

XII. *Aviorra 5* avroy ^ *IXior MrvMTiof 
T€ o tcv0epviirffs XP^^^ are^dp^ iojf^dpu9t 
ical iirl rovTtp X<ipvf^ 6 *A0ff¥au>s it ^tynav 
i\0a)V leai rti/€^ /rat dWot, ol pJkp *i*lXXi;rcv, oi 
h€^ iirixdapioi. ' Wifiataritapa hk XkyovciP irt 
rov HarpoxXov rop rd<f>op iart^o p m^ tP ' oi ^, 

* A rc«da •! M . . . Irr«f4(r»#«ir 'Hfm*0rim9m M . . . Irr*. 
f((r«#«r, transpoaed by Ellendt. The Uimporitioa don aol 
h«al the pMMge which h** beoooM oormptod bj 

ANABASIS OF *!PXAVnFH. I n. 6^»^. t 

bomlrf^ and Mitj inroBci wiii m • good 
ofengoboalk Matt ■■iliMiHIiii — y tiwil AtemaadMr 
•died ham Elagoii to Um Adiaraa li t bo w , and 
ftecrcd Hm adadnl't lUp IdMdr, Mcriicliif , when 
la IIm addrt of the ttralt« a bvD to Fotilduiit tad 

bowl to the foddwii of the tea. Farther, legeod 
Mjt thai ha dbtihartud inl oa Ailaa aoOt anaad 
eap4-pie,aad aet ap allais both whara he atartad 
fima Earope aad whete ha ka da d hi Alia to Zeaa 
oT 8td9 I^Mwiiiy, Atheaa, aad flaiaBki Thea 
ha airiadid la DhM, aad ■agHfaid la Atheaa oT 
nhm, dadtoalad hb IhM vawar, kyhif H up hi tha 
temple, aad tooh dova hi Ha plaea aaaM of the 
nae yal II II ii ■liiilin horn Iha TVojaa war; 
V lant ■■ oooygaani ootv oeiova aaa ano 
battle. Thea he aacritfccd alw to Priaan at the 
altar of Zcaa of Eac k a iircj to ram the legcod— 
prajrhv PHam aol to he wroth with the race ai 
SeoptokaMt, of which ha hhaaelf waa a adaa. 

MI When Alesaadcr reached iUttm Mcooetiaa 
the narigalor erow a a d bim with a goUea wreath 
aad ao did Charaa, the Atiieniaa, arriving froai 
with othera* Oiaeha or nativca of the place ; 
Hepbaestioci. they aay* plaeed a wreath on 
FatroehM* tomb; and Alesaadar iftewlw oa Achilles* 



5ti ital TOP *Ax«XXiiK [ipaj Ta^ t'«f rt*^ .r*^* 
*Ax*XX£a. OTi 'O^'ipoi' «fcw«#f if r^ Iwtiwi 

ouy ^Ki^ra rovrov hitta Mtuftonari^f A\^iX- 
\€v^, irt avr^ yt *AXtf(<ti4^^ 91^ c«Tik Tn» 
oKXfiv iitiTvxUtv, TO WP^ TouTo ^tfXivif 
|i/i^i7 oM dfn^ix^fl H itfp^i'wmn tA *AXi. 

otrre TIC ^ f^P^ 4woifie€9» ilXX* oW Ar iUXm 
179^17 *AX^fav2/>oc. ^ ^^'U^r Tf «al PiXw Ml] 
Hi7^y iral voXAoi aTXXiM oMp ri * AXffMPl^ 
^foiiroTff^, MtfTf woXy fUiop yty p mastrroi ta 
*AX€(cii^poi; f) T^ ^vXorara rwr vttV«4 ipymp» 
Z ow6t€ teal 17 ri»¥ fivpimp avp Kv^ S^pl^t M 
fiaatXta *ApTa(tp(rjp gal rk KXtA^f^PV Tt gml 
rSiv Ufia avT^ aXomttP jroB^fiara iral ^ /rarci- 

707^, iroXi; T« hri^iapi^^tpa if a9$pmwp9^ 
Sevoi^vTO^ ivtrnd ianv ^ 'AX<(ai^po« t« ma\ 

4 ra *AX€(ai/5/>oi; ^/>7a. KaiVoi *AX«(iaj^^pof oirrt 
f vi' aXX^ii i<Trpar€Vff€v, out§ ^uy«*y f^^uf 0a^^ 
\ea TO is T^ Kadoh^ rp iwl ^aXarra^ ifAWoimp 
ytyvofi€POU<: txparff^nr aXX* ovm tartp S^Ttt 
aXXo9 cU avf)p roiravra rj rfjXiMavra Spyu caTik 
Tr\r}6of: If fUyeBo^ €v "VXKrjciu ^ fiap0apot% 
airf^i^aro. "EvSep icai atno9 opfiijdffvai ^;/u 
^9 T1J1/& T^i' ^vyy pa<f>ijv, ovk awa^umaof ifUivr^ 
4>av€pa tcara<rTt)<r€iv €9 avOptoirovf rk *AXtff<ir- 

6 6poi/ €pya, "Oari^ hk i»v raura vwtp tfiatnov 
yiyvta><Tict», TO fjL€tf ovofia ovBiv hiofiat apaypd^tu, 
ovh€ yap oifhk dyvcoarop i^ apiSpmwovf iarU. 

■b; Ale» « Mi er> mk 

It wcO 
), whter, fortSMito m 
«•§ in oIlMr wsjft, tlicrc wm a fiMt fip kfl iMre, 
Aod Alrumirr*! etploMi vcft ttcvcr vorthflj 
Dnmra mhvimi s bo otw on lo hi MVfsnw praM« no 
one M«f of Iriai to v«fM; ooj* sol even to choral 
Ijrrfo WM Aleioodcr okonloil at wofo Hioro, Colo, 
Thorn* ood nooj othofs* Men not of AWsanclcr'o 
tlotoio; whcnco Alrioadert eiploils an* fmr Im 
kiMrnnlhoatboMtoordocaiorpoolofco. Whj.tho 
AiuuNHii Of tho Tm ThoMOod with Cjrwt og^otott 
Artaxonct, tho Miffringi of Ckoichw and thoao 
capturrd with him, thdr detcctit to tho aea, lod 
by Xonophon, aio, thaaka to loiwphon, tor bettor 
known to the world thaa Atesaader and Akiaadar^t 
exploits. Yet AleEaodar did not meidy take tho 
Md wHh MBeoBo olw; ho did not ran ew.r fnan 
tho Oraal Ktaf and oidjr eooqner tfwee who tried to 
•top the le a w af d nuueh; no ooe man gmtc pntd 
of ao mmnj or rach w u n dium deeds, whethar to 
mnnber or g rcatnce i, i m a n g Ctoeka and Orientals 
alike. That, I declare, b whj I baire »et forth to 
write this hkitory, not jw%iiY njaelf onworthjr to 
bbaoo betoro mankfad the doeds of Alexander. 
Thb at l i as t w b o arti 1 am — I know to my favcmr; 
1 need not wrHo WKf naoM-— il la no(t natosown •p'i'T'h 

oM warpiBa ^tk fu>i ^artp oM T^Mf ri imi^, 

U€lvo dpaypa4m, Iht ifuH warpit ft mmk ytm^ 
Koi apxai oiSf ol Xor/Oi ^ai Tf ««! Jtwi a4tv 
fri iyivovjo, Kal M r^3tf ovm awaftm i^uunt^ 
TMV wpmrmp h rf ^r$ tj 'EXkdBi. dw€p ^Ir 
ical *A\i(aplpo^ rAp h ro4« 5vXott. 

6 *£( iXiou Sa ^t 'Api^rfffiP ^M€P, a vAm 4 
2wa/iic a^M Btafftfffptvta ritf 'EXXifrMrrtr 
icTparoirthfvietit koX t$ vcrtpaif /f flt^Miniir 

IlpoiCTi^ irorafi^ ia'rpa-roitih4vamf. If ptmif im 

fura^if Tou 'BXAi^vorrov t« «a« rov Eiuft imy 
wotrrov, "Bi^fy 5^ ^Y*Ep/M»roir i^Urro, KoX«N4f 

7 iroXii; irapatuiy^a^. ^Ofwoi Ik airr^ hfi§MiW9in9 
irpo rov arpajiufiaro^' teal rovrmp ^yt^im hf 
^Afivvra^ 6 * Aopiiffaiov, Ix^' ^^^ ^ kraipmp rip 
tKrjv rriv i( AwoXXmpia^, ^ tKdpX^ ^p S«h 
Kpartf^ 6 2^0*1^09, teal ritp wpoipiitmp miX«v- 
pUpoDv rXa9 riaaapa^' tcari^ Bk ri/p wdpoBop 
llpiavov iroXiP ivhoSticav wpo^ ritp ipoimovprmp 
rot^ irapa\f)'^onivoit^ atrtartiXt cvp Uaprijop^ 
T^ Avicayopov, ivi rotv iraipwv, 

8 llepaojif Bi arparrjyol ijaap *Apcdfi^ teaX 
'PeofuSpTj^ teal Urriprj^ teal Ni^tij^ teal (itp 
Toirroi9 'S.iriOpiBdrff^ 6 AvBia^ te€u *lmpia^ ca- 
Tpdirrj<: xal ^Apairrf^ 6 t^ irpo^ 'EXXty^wo r r y 
<t*pvyia^ inrapxo^* Ovroi Bi wpo^ T^Xtia T^ 
voXei teaTeaTpaTOTreBtvteore^ 4^ay (vf tJ imr^ 
T€ T§ fiap^apiK^ xal roU 'EXKfici roU ^ucBo- 

9 ^opoi^. Qov\€vofi€voi^ Bk ainoU vwkp rmp 


ANABASIS OF ALt.XA.NUl i: I i:. 5-9 

oor WKj UmSkf nor may 
InaylMiveliddMMNifBijaraCEilk; lliitldotet 
00 paper, Uiat thit h irtwy !•, tad was fron bj 
bojhoodt sj eumBlffjt flunfljr, aad oAeet. That it 
wiiy I do Dot sliriiik Atm tctUaf Bijadf akni^rfda 
of tha ■■altta oTOfaak iptBtii, ijaea wy aatjact was 
ifit aaMM^ Um aMsten of Greek warfare. 
Froaa Uhtm AJ^tmndcr came to Arkbe, where hii 
force, aAer aaonl^f tha HcOaapoot, had 
; nest day to Piroola; tha Bast, ha 
nrto the aea 
and tha Eoshia 
Sea. Thanca ha caMa to Hannoloa* naninff hv 
Ha aaot teoata ahead of the Amy; 
Aoijslaa, aoo of Arrahaeaa, led thrtn, with tha 
territorial aqaadro o from Apolloohi, whose tqiiadroo- 
leadcr wat Soerataa aoo of Sathoo, with Cmt tqaadrooi 
of toe advanaad aooalaf aa tney ware calleoi Od Ub 
paMaga tha dtj Priapoa was awrendered to hfaa 
hj the cltiaaaa» and ha aeot a party to take it ovar 
ander Paacforaa eon of Lyeagoraa, one of tha 

mithrca, Pattnaa, Niphataa, and with then Splthii- 

af Ha B aapa a t ln a Phrygia. Tliey had 
already nnn ai pii i i by the dty of Zelela with the 
Pcniaa aawahy and tha mer ea uary Oiaaks 
they hdd a aovnefl of war, Alasaadar'a 



Uyai -npoii Tovii MoMMmt, rf tc vfC^ w#Xif 
ai>ro49 hi awovTo^ AaMCir vpoi^rac S^ r«r Tf 

XiXov a4>aviitt¥ garawarovprm% ^ TJ nnr* mml 
TOP cV tJ tJ MapwM ^^wtw/Humt, M^ ▼«• 
7roX€(tfy avTwr d«i&fUi«vr o^ 7^ /Mrtir ^t* r^ 
y«pa *AX4fapl^v ^vop^ ▼••' i'^^rff^imv, 
10 ^p<r4Tt;v &€ Xi7€Ttti Wwci* ^ Tf tfvXXo7^ tAt 
Ilc/xrwy OTi ouic ^ vtpuloi /a^ ommv V^ 
irpffirOiuTap tAp vwh ol rtrmj f i h mv hSpmmup" 
ical roifs llipaa^ * hpclr^ wpoaBMm, It* mi! 
tmomrov T4 avT049 ijp it top SU/unPO^ rptfi^ 
€/jL7roMi» tKOPra r^ woKifi^ t^ iff /ia^iXiiff 

XIII. 'Ev Toin-y W *AXifaj^lpo« wpovx^J^ 
(irl TOP rpavticop worafiop (vprrraytUv^ r^ 
orpaT^t hiirXrjp futv rrjp ^dXaYfa rmp owXirmp 
Ta^a9, rots Bt iirirea^ icara ri aipara lytpr, 
T^ <nc€vo<^6pa hk tcaro-nip iwird^a^ hi90$tu^ 
roift hi vpoKara<Ttc€^0fi£POvt rk rmp woXtfump 
rrf€v avTot *H7€Xox<K. linriat fiip ^«y rov% 
aapiaao^opovs, r&p hk -^IriXitP it wnnaMoaiovt. 

2 Kal ' A\€^avBp6t t€ ov iroXv ufrtix^P ^wo toD 
TTOTa/iot; ToO Vpapitcov xai oi diro ritp cKommp 
atrovSj iXavpopTtt dwTTTfXXor ori t^ VpoptM^ 
wipav rovs Hepaat iif>€ardpai rrrayfjLiPOvt m 
it fidxv^* *Ep0a &f} *A\i(apBpot fup rrjp arpa^ 
nap iraaav avvi-raTrep wt paxovfupovt, llap^ 
fUvUov h€ irpo<T€\du»v \irf€i * Wi^dphp^ tdit' 

t "*E/i04 hoK€l, fiaaiXev, dyoBop flwoi ip t^ 


hftvtaf becB reported* Utmnom ot i 

far iMr ■■pertow bi laCuitry, ctpeeUOy 
wlifa Alewder MtoHOIjr OB Um ipol, wMIe 
woo nr ows]f flosi tMii » otf]f mmI fiv betl 
aottroyin^ tno lodoeT« by trMnpwif n witli tnoir 
covalrjrt mm Iminii^ iIm ipwl^f oropoy not tpoil^^ 
even thdr cllioo. For Mnmnitt w^M Ml tfwa 
tUy fai the eoantfy tor want of p f uthi oo t . Atiitco. 
r, ii reportod to Imtv arid te Hm 

to hli ndijocta to bo 

Anatca* bavtai^ 

be wmdtUyk^ 

the olRce be beld hvm tbe kb^. 

XIII. Meanvbilr, AlciamJcr waa advaaci^ to 
tbe riirer Grankw vitb bla faoa all raodj tar batdo, 
haviflf doobkd bli pbalaas of tbo ■wttHH^onna, 
witb Ibo cavalry on tbo wii^i, and oidaftaf tbo 
to toXkm bcbtod. HcfoiodM lod tbo 
I f ooo oa o iti fay portioi witb tbe laoccri» 
and §m bwdiod ttglit tfoops. Alexander w« aot 
far hmm tbo river OvaoiaM, wbm tbe looota, ridfa^ 
in at full speed« reported tbat tbe Peiiiani 
arrayed far battle oo tbe fitftber fide of tbe 
Alexander tben IbraMd bottle order; and 
came fcvward and aald 

" My Wew. ifar» fti tbat wc .boold eocamp at 


wap6rri KaraarpanrwtM^mi M rov wimptB 

&>«rw ToX/ifffffiir voXv TMT vffMi' X«i««yi|pMPt 
wXiyaioy ijfutfv auX4tf^9MU, col taut^ wmptfrntf 
M€v €vntrik r^ arparf iiaffaXtU r^ wmmim 
tnro^BdcofUP ykp atrrol wtpdatumf wpip imd* 

olop Tc ^v /irravir^ M rov woraMoO Sym9 rS 
arparop, IloXA^ fUp yJkp ainov oparoi /SsMit 
oi Si Sx^ai alrtu od^« fn tnnpvf-^KH mk 
6 icpfifuMti^ uahf at avr^ i/rdMrmf Tt •!» mU 
4MiT^ «^9» i^tp ^tfta4n«Tor» infimtwmmw 

voXtfUMV Oi imrffK* Mil r^ wpinop a^Xftm h 
T€ T^ irapovra yaX«voy irol ^ r^ yv4p voi^^ 
Tou TToXc/AOU lepiauf e^Xipcp** 

6 'AXtfoplpa^ hi, "TaDra >a#v, I^i;, £ flap/M- 
viQ>v, yiyp<»aK»' ai<rxvt^fiai 64, «i to» /uy 
'EXXifiTTrorroy Biiffrjp tinrrrif^, rolho h4, 9fU' 
icpop p€vpa (olrrm r^ opofutri top Tp€k9%M^ 
iKif>av\l<Ta^), tip(u tifta^ rov /*n ov ?liaj?f)wii 

7 a>f €YOfji€P. Koi toDto ouTf wpo^ MogM^mif 
rrj^ o6(n^ ovre vpo^ t^ ifitf^ 4^ rovs MtMmim 
o^vTTjTO^; woiovfiar dvaSapptjatiP hi 5o«« rovf 
Hepaa^ a>9 a{iO/i^;^oi/9 Slaxthocip Sirras, &r$ 
ovBfp dPtop rov a^p htov^ ip r^ wapavrUa 

XIV. TaOra ciTra>y UapfUPittpa flip M ri 
tvwvvfJiOP K€pa<: -rrifiirci rjyffffofitpop, avro^ hi 
iwl TO hf^ioy iraprjyep, WporrdyBf^aap hi atrr^ 
rov flip ht^iov <t>iX<tfTa9 o 11 a/>/i«vu»vof, hc^'^ ^^^ 



Ill WllMl tiy» Wfll BOV OHPO to 

dawn; mm! vt tktM be mvom bdbre iImj get faitp 
ofdcr. At tiii^ avt, I fed tbat w« tbodd nm 
great HA to taldiy Mtioe, rfaM «• etMot take ea 
anajT acraM a ffrcf on a wida iiast« aw asa aao taa 
that tbeie are maajr deep parta af tlM rhrar; Ha 

At araaaafga to 


to good taBd ofoav wiD 

woald bagf fa foai i 

lor tbe general retalt of tile war/' 

r* iMwevar, laplM: ** Thb I know, 
tort I dMtfd IM ariuuoed if aAct otir 
> eariljrtiM HcBcspoot, thii petty •trram 
(•0 dIvMpaetlUljr did iM ipeak of tlia CrmiikiM) shall 
I9 Jwl aa va are. ThU I 
althar of tlM proti^ of the 
or of ly owa awtfl daaUng with danger ; 
I bettera iba Pifiiini woakl ploek up 
tktotoiy tlUBwhrai m good gghtata ae tjia 

ea op to tka prMeol tbey tonra not 

aojrthlsig to eaoee thca aUrm." 

XIV. 80 tpake Alesaader; aod at oooe acnt of 

to lead the left wfay; ba bliaulf pnitJ 

to tbe right. At rotnmander of the right ha 

a ha a dy a p pa tot ad Pbflatot eea ^ Parmeoto, 



iraipov^ rov^ iwwiat c«2 fo^ r^flrm mI T9^ 

fiaiov lov^ rt aapia^o^pay^ I'mrw lj(«»r ^iXi»- 
ra (wrrdx^ ««« roitq Umopa^ «ai iV '^ ▼♦>[ 

imaairiaral twv rraipmp, mif i^«*t© Ni«ipi»p • 

fiOKpdtovs' iirl ^ 17 Kparipov rou 'AXtfdif^fmv 
iwl bi ^ *Afivirrov roO *A^/»/iii»oif * M M ^ 
S OiXimro^ o *A/*vrTOv ^^f. Tow 1^ t&mt^ft^ 
irpinoi fiiv ol B^rroXoi iir»fjf ird)(0fiaat'. mit 
tiy€iro kd\a^ 6 'Apwdkov M hi rovrotf m 

iirl Be Touroi^ ol Bpoivft, «» ^PX^'' *Ayd0mtr 
ixofieioi hi ToyTMv vttbc i| Tt Kpmrripmt ^oKarf^ 
ical 17 M€Xca7pou «al 4 VtX/wov I^TC M ti 
fi€(TOP rtf^ (t//AVa«f|V TiifciK. 
4 ric/xroiy 5« IwrtU fiip ^cop it It^fWfUmt 
Pepoi hi ve^ol fuaOo^opot oX^Tor a«oWprr«t 
oi<rfjLvpU»P' irdxOifcap he rtip fUP Twoar 

Te^yain-cf t^ trora^ tcard rifp SxI^p M ^ d Ktl f ff m 
fiatcpuv, Toif^ hi irc(ov« Korowuf rmp iWMNr 
/ral 7^^ xnrephePia ^p tk vwip rifp ^xl^^ X^P^ 
*H< hi * AXe^avGpop axnop icaBtmpmp (htfiCot ykp 
^ rStP re oirXtav r^ XafAtrporyjr^ mai rStp dft^^ 
axTTov tJ <tvv imrXfj^ei depaw^) mark rd 
ewavvfiov tn^atp iwexoma, ravrjf irvmkf iwirafop 
TJ ox^u ra? rXav tAp Xirwmp. 

Xpopop fiiv hrf dfu^T-'fia rk crparevfiara hr* 
djcpov rov TTorafiov i^'crine^ inro rov to fUXXow 
OKPeiv ri<Tvxiap ^op xal atytf ^ woXXif di^* 

with tl>e trmicwiai r«\aifj, %k»c aiiurm, ami the 

AgftencBv JavdbhMcn. Mest to PhilolM was drawn 
up AaijrvlM MB of Arraboevi, vHh the Uncm, the 
Socrates' wqmmdtvtL Next to them 
tiM teffftotwl swoif led oy 
•OB or ranMMO{ dmhw imm wm tae 
pholoBX of PcfdtoMO MB of OraBtco; alw thol of 
CoeBoa too of Polroiorratei ; and those of Craterot 
MB of Alevondrr, Amjmtos wb of AndraaMact» aad 
the tioope mder PhlUp toB of AnjBtat. Ob tlie 
leH vtef coBM irsi the ThoMolteB cavahy, eoBi- 
numdcd bj Coki mb of llarpofa»; Brit the allird 
eoralrjr, Bodet Philip mb of iloBaliitt, thru tiie 
ThndLm. midrr Agrtho; ob thdr right vera the 
kduitrf. the pholaox of Craterao, of Mcki^pr, ol 
Philip, op lo the eestra of the whole feiCB. 
The Puiiiowi kmd oboBi lOjOOO ooraby, md iHtle 

of the MBM BBBter of fadSuittjr, feralgB BMT- 

Their d hp o d tioB wm, the eorahj draws 
iqp pvaBel to iIm Hfcr, aad tlMS BMhhif OB cxtCBdod 
pbokBx; ihBlB&BtfyhddBdthaB; thol«idobof« 
the beak wm high end rnmBHiidiiy. Whera thej 
ptrad te d AlexoBder hlBvelf'— yoB ondd Bot mivtake 
bfaB, ftoBi the ■pUndow of hli miipBiiiit and the 
ohecqBlow otteBdoBoo of hb tBllB oppwitu thdr 
left wh«. they iiMfj bera ob the boBk Ibdr 
eovrnhj MittedraBe. 

Por MBM tioM thr t«t* nMoeo» OB the river's brink, 
to precipitate the eireat, rCBMbwd Ol eose, 



SoMK, oiroTf iaffiicomai is Tor vo/wr. «« ^vi4r«i##- 
6 fK^voi iitPalt'Ovoitr *AXi(a9^pot W i&MMn|vfrMf 

/A<v ir/H)5po/ioi;^ iwWof ««1 M" «•* ▼•*« I T a / tPa f 
irpoifAjSdkttp h rop woraMW fx^^ ^Aiutmrntf 
ro¥ *AppaPaiov xal Twr wtfitw fUmP ▼«f«<^* «ii 
irpo Toi>rwy rijv ^wg parous fXiyy nroXf^Str t^ 
^PiXiv-rrov ayoma. ^ *9 «ai M^mM r^r 
rfytfiovLav rov imriMOv warris ^(rm^« /r Imr irfy 

ifi^alvtt ts TOP w6po¥, Xof^ a«i wap mrd^ mf tV 
Taf IV f; TrapfiXiTc to prO/ia, uni &i^ ^ ia fimlw m f t 
avr^ M IleV><Ta4 «aT^ «tff>av w pou w l w rm ttf, dXKk 
teal avros m awarhw ry ^akmrfp wpoafufy 

XV. Oi hi Uipffai, j 'wpmroi oi JLfi^ ^Afivmtuf 
Kal lutxparrfp wpoa€<T^ov tJ ix^D* ▼««'TJf ««i 
avTOi av^ivl^aXKov, oi pkv airrmw awo rffs ^x^iff 
i( vnepSt^lov is rov ifoiapjov iaaicoirrifyrrtt^ oi 
h\ Kara ra ySaiiayMrrtpa a\rrt\s lor% hti to t^p 
2 icara^aivovTt^, Kcu ^v twit t« iwwimp u$gfffi6s, 
rSiv fi€v €Kffali'etv ix rov worafAOv, rmp ^ tlpytip 
rrjv e/cfiaaip, xal rraXriap awo fUP rmp Tlip^mr 
rroWr) d<f>€(Tis» oi MaicehoPts H (vp rois hopeiCiP 
ipAxovro. *AXXa r^ t« wXti$€i iroXu iXarroV' 
fuvoi, oi Ma/rcSoi'Cf iicaicomdBovp ip rp wpmTff 
vpo<T0oXy, teal avroi (( a^ffaiav t« gai Afta 
tcdrtoOep eic rov irora^iov dpAfpopitPOi, oi hk 
Hipirai ef vrrtpSt^iov rfjs Sx^ffs* SXXms t« mal 



The Peikuuvi awaited Um 
to fidl 00 them 
rhreTt to toon as tlMy 
Dst Aksmmot Mn^ 

hli MiHe to fellow umI abow th«m- 

bniVO BMB MM tnM» M WBt €B Mi 

of AMjntM ma of Afrmbo c w, on 
of tbo inloaliy; bofeto tiMM Im 

8l|S0dP0Bt mtottWKy SOB Ol ^«Bip OOM* 

:; tlrft woo on th« Uil •• loodhif oovolry 
fcr tlMit do J ; [then bo liMMlf teoding the 
riglit w to f bofl o i oondky, omI tlie bottle cry 
gobif op to tbo God of BotUoo— boldly tokco to tbo 
ttfooin, locUfiiBf Mf tioopi oMK|ool]r to tbo cofFcnt* 
00 tbot tbe Pcfiioiis tboold M>l fiiQ on bfan fai exteiidcd 
fioot, bot tbot be blaitoif mUbt att^k thrm. Ai fmr 
OS BBlf bt bOf 10 dOSO OfOCI 

XV. Tbe Pcnions, ol tbe pamt wi.*^ U.i: 

bonk, ftboi their volkjs flon ^bovo, somo barltaf 
tbrlr imreUm (nm tboir lOM M smlhm posHloo oa 
tbe ntsnMlt of tbo bonk* otben 00 tbe more level 
KToond, or eireo odvoBCfay domi to the fftrc«m. 
Tbere was o greot ii ibiiMijn of tbo cavalry, the 
Gfeeks trjiag to load, tbe PertUm to f top them ; 
gieot sbowon of Pofiiao Javelins ; mocb thntsttof 
of lloeodooloa spcofs. Bat tbe Mooedonions, OMcb 
ootBMiiboiod, cooio off bodlj fai tbo ftfst oosloflfbl; 
tbejr vofo iasoeavo, oad befew, tbo oacn J on o Strang 
posMoa above ; bssidcs, tbo iovcr of the Penian 



TO Kpartarov Tr}v llcp^rur^V fwwov ratrry 4w€Tw» 
ratcro, oi re M(/m»vo¥ wtuUs ««1 a^Of • Mifumif 

MoKtBotmy (ufifuftunn tote Mpamif Mmrmi wf 
<ra¥ voo^ auTMr, Mpt^ mytMi y m 4fi 9 pm u ^^ 7« 
urj irpo9 'AXi^apfyw v€X«i(orrai«AvXii«F««Tiir. 
AXe(apSf>ov 7ap ^ irXif^ior ^, i^ •! iyiN^ 
TO Kipa^ TO 5<(ioy. «ai dfiffaXku it rout lUpmm 
wpwrot Ipa TO iruy arl^^ 1% Anrov mU Avroi 
oi t)y€fAoi^ts ritv XUpai^p rrrayfthm ^atur ami 

4 wipl ainov ^uvtia-rfimu ^Xt ^^pr*^* ^ ^ 
TotrTf> aXXa4 /ir* cSXXoi^ Tt»ir rd(utp roSf ll««f- 
^OO-l hU&€U»OV ov x^^"^^ V^ '^ 4*^ 1*^ 
aTTo Toiy iirirmv ti fuix"!* v«(b/«a)^ 3^ |i<iXX<r Tt 
<^«ei. Ht/ycYo/Myoft «fi^ nnroi tc nrrMf Mii 
avhp€^ at-Bpaaiv wfymnfettro, m m^v ifmaat th 
aira¥ airo rrft ^x^'l^ '^^^ ^^ '''^ Vfdior ffta^aaOiU 

6 Tov^ ricpaa^t Oi MtucM¥€S» Oi a tlp(mi t< 
ainitv rrjv €x0a<Ttp, oi Wtpaat, tai if top vota* 
/ioi/ avHt^ airuxraaBai, KaX ix rovrov ^wXto^Sm* 
TOW iiStj oi ai/v WXefut-Bp^ rjrt aXXjf pii^ 
ical ifinttpia xal ori (varoU KpamtpOit v^of 
iraXra ifia^ovro, 

6 ''E^vOa hi) Kol *AXe(aifhp4» ftnnpiffrrai r^ hopp 
€P tJ fjuixif' o Bi^'Aperip r/rti hopv h€p09t ibw- 
fioXea To>v ffaoiXtxiltv' rjt ^ xal avr^ wpoc^■ 
fUv<p cvtrreTpififiivov ro hopv 'V* <> ^^ ^^ rffuati 
icetcXeurfievov rou hopaTOt ovk dtpat'i^ ifmYtro, 
teal TovTO 3ei(d9 'AXcfoySp^ aXXor airttp 
ixiXeve' ArjfuipaTot h€, avrip KopitSiOt, tw 
a;i4^* axnov eralpctp, SUttatP atnif ro ainov 

7 £opi;. Kai &9 avaXafiiop ical ihmv M^Bptiartiif 

ANAB.^F?*? <^^' ALEXAKDFR. ! 

then. The ini oC UMMMdaaiMS caae late 
cooAkt vfttJi Um PiiiriiM Mid wtf mk dowi 
M pd i g fai of valov» aO lo a sms, mv« thorn who 
docIl on AWsMMCf m m onMoocbod* For ho 
AtmAj near. IrMUnf on ttie r|ffhl vhif , mmI he 
chofgod the PetvUnt, hl—ulf the fifil to attock. 

iiiol where wm tho prw of eovahy owl where tho 
rOnion ooBOBOBdMO wore pottr^L A fierce fi|rht 
ntfedohoothtai; oad Meanwhile the MacrflonUnf, 
line after* llnr. kept MiwoJi^, o talk now not 
difteult. It VM a 

wHh oMlhor. Oraoki 

tfjrh^ to poih, oQoe & all, the Per^ane fron the 
bank and Coree them oo to the level frottod« tho 
Perriam trrtaf to hor thoir kidh^ and horl thoai 
baek Into the river. Aheody, howorer, Akiaiider 
a«d hb foardt were fcttiog the heat of It, not only 
thiofh thoir JanMLum aod thoir dl wiphy, hot 
beeaoM tiwjr were Ifhtlnii with ftooit ootWH'Wood 
Unco agalwl thort jatrliraL 

In dko BMllay Alciandrr't laneo waa hrokeo; ho 
cmllrd oo Aretia» one of the roral «klc», for another : 
but Aretii had abo hrokeo hit lancet and was hard 
pvewed. thoofh pottiof op a bravo IMit with the 
half of hit broluni wcnoo. Shon ing tlii« to 
AW-tander he ericd oot to him to call upon another 
aide, hot Drmarattti, of Coiinth» one of A lea and er 'a 
•quires, gave Kisn hit own laneo. Aloiander 
it and iiiJM Mithridatca, aott-in-law of 


TOP ^ptiov jaftffpoif voXy wp# tmt ShXm¥ 
vpoitnrtvoirra seal iwdyoma ifta ol H^wtp 
§lifio\op tAp iwiriup, iftXavPti mI Avm wp^ 

T&p dXKmp' ical waicaK h to wp wr mwmr rA 
Sopan /raTfl/SaXXtfi rer fAtBpMrnr. *Br A 

/ral ira/€i *AX«(aV5pov r^ar fff^«X^ rf irovAi* 
/KOi ToO flip xpapov^ Ti ^wi$pavct, r^r vXfyV 

8 5< ^0^x' '''^ xpdpo%. Kol ff«T«^aXX«i «M 
toDtoi' *A\ifcufip9f 9miam% rA t^^^^^ ^ ^^ 
BiapoKO^ (9 T^ 9rkpm9* ImtipMnit 4i hrrr^ 
raro fiip f}Bfi /v* 'AX^foj^^v iwwB^v tV 
KOirLhat vwoi^Bdaa^ hi airrop KXtfiroc o Amv/Sov 
ireuei iraTd tou <tf/M>v «a4 dV04ravr«i rov i»^i«p 
roO ]£ir«^/M^aTov (vp rp M9wiU' mmX hf rwirp 
iir€tcffal9etnt^ dt\ tmv mii»ir ^oif vpo^«^ 
/rara rov irorafiop wpocrfiypopro Tolf i^* 

XVI. Kal 01 rifp^ai watofupoi t« wtunmx^l^ 
ffifj h T^ irpoadnra a^oi Tf «al m rrvof roSi 
^varoK ical irpoc rt»p imrimp i^mBovfitPOi^ voXXi 
hk icai wpo^ Tbtp ^iX^r apafitfuyfUprnp TMf 
linrevai 0\aTrr6fi€POi, iyxXiPovci ravrjf wpmrop 
ff *AX€^av3po9 irpo€KiphvP€V€P, 'CU ii rh /Uaop 
iv^BcSoiitcet avToU, wap€ppt}ypvro Bij xaX ri i^* 
iKUTepa Tf}9 iirvovt xtu fjp Brj ^vyt) Kaprtpd. 

2 Ta)v fA€v hrj imritov tmv litoai$p dwi$apotr if 
X^^ov^. Ov yap iroWij tf cimfi^ iyiptro, 9r$ 
i^erpaTrtj *A\€(apBpo^ M tou^ (ipovf Towf 
fu<rOo4>6pov^' &v TO arupos } to wpArop hdyfifi 
iicrrXri^ti fiaXKop ri rov irapaXorfov ^ XtrftCft^ 
/Seffaloa IffUPt, KaX rovroi^ rnp rt ^dXoffya 


CMrOi te 

f«ee Md iMtfb lite to iIm gmoid. B«t 

ide a t Aksaiite* «id wmaUm Mm 00 Um bc«l vitJi 

.is ciwiiif: ht iliewed o# part of the br)met« IniI 

!{tt tiM Mnet panted IIm blow. Alesandrr harlcd 

«lw to dM ffomd, ptefcinf wHk Ids kan 

>^ ?he odvMi into hk breMt SpitkridotM 

i V ralMd MitelHdtAr to cot down Alesoodw» 

'<m of DiflptdM, MMffUf i^phg te. 

imiiar ami aQ; and now tlMHC of the covolry who 

• ad made ifood their way on the rlTer bonk kept cofl»- 

itf op oad JoMof thr little band roond Alowader. 

XVI. The Prrriana were oow bd^f f OWghly 

«mfled from all qoarten; they oad their h o in i 

^ingttroekfaithe(ace«ithlaiim; they vere dftvca 

to nfoot Of tho ootralryf ood wo bmii hipwii i owmBOOd 

bj tho tighl tioopa, who bo0HM oodbMd wHh the 

cavalry • aad to thoy bcgas to gNo way, ftrvt at the 

very point whcro Alevandar wat bearing the brunt 

of the afrajr. Bot whos thair oan tre b^an to tag, 

then thr cavalry vinga alM were pierced, aod they 

turned to flight in earnest. Upwanb of a thoaaand 

Persian ImrMingn pcrlihcd; for there was not moch 

povMilt, ilaea Alaiander tomod agalnat the lbf«%B 

i n a r o coar y troops. The oMOi of these stood thdr 

gfoond, rather rootad to tha spot liy tha aaexpaeted 

catastropha thsa ftoai sarioas lasc lutl oa. Briagiiig 

hia phalaox to twar 00 thaai and bidding tha eavalry 

iirayaymp md ray^ iwwimt virrf 

3 Xioi/9. 'Kirfffov M «a4 oi ^ytiUtMt tmv nt^np 

Ni^ClTf;^ T€ Kol n<T4l^ mmii £vi^/N^Tiyf j 

AvBia^ aarpdwffq, »ml • Ti»r luivval««i»r 
irirapxp^ fAt$pofiw(dmi^ gmk Mi^pMmft i rw^ 
Laptiov yafi^pot tud *A^y80wiXjff i \mfidm¥ 

ifftprnv 'ilfiapfi^, Wpainit M <« |ii» r^ M4«X^ 
^€ir/ci ^^ <t>/>trytay, /««i ^ av^arifvcM avrdf «^ 
auToO, <k*v o XoTO^, or 4 olriof /M«f« Uip^mm 

*>/€V€adai rov i» r^ rorrt wrai^futro^* 

4 MaiciBoimv Bi rm¥ fiip haipmm 4^*^ v*^ 
cf«o<r« 4ca2 v^KTf /y rj wpmrrn wpo90oX§ ^«^ 
davoir Koi rovrw ^aXucoI tUoP€t h A(f» ^^t£« 
o-iy, *AXc(uV5/>oi; «<X4Ft;<Tarrp9 Ai^iwor vo4^«i. 
oa-nep koX 'AXcfai^por /Mro^ ftpompiBd^ 4wmin* 
rmv 5e aXX«»v lirirUiV inrhp rov^ if^imowra, vff{!bl 

5 Si fV Toi^ TpuUntna, Kal rovrov^ tJ v^itpai^ 
eOayjrev ^AXi^atfBpo^ Pvif toJv 5irXoiv Tt gmi 
aXXip icoapM* yov€Viri oi avritp moa iroi^ i rmp rt 
Kara rrjtf \wpav artKtiav t^xt Mai ocai JLXXmi 
4 T^ aiopari Xeirovpyiat tj icar^ ras CTif^tif 
eKatrrtDv €i<T<f>opai. Knl rmp rrrp^pMPUP 5« 
iro\\i]v irpovoiav €ax€P, (ireKBatp rt avrov tMti^' 
rov'i Kal ra rpavpara IBc^v koi owws ti« irpw0tf 
€p6fi€Po^ Kal o rt rrpdrr^p €iifflp rt Kal aXa{o- 

6 P€WTaadai ol vapaa^wp. '() hi Koi rStp Wtpcmw 
roif^ ^€fi6pa^ edayfrtp* «^a^< hi Kal roi/^ fua^o- 

fan <Mi tiMM ham aD . . 


of DwrcfaK, AriNipalM 
AffUxcnw** Mid 

flf DwrdM. m of 



tfoopo. Anita 8cd firoM Uw bottle Into PIvTiia 
and thrrr. it It Mid* diod bj Ml own bond* biBWi 
tbe bUme of tbo Ffeiiioa fUhno wcsKd to Bo ol Ui 

Of the MMxddDoiii. aoKiiif tbo tcfritofiol 
Aboot twcntx-ifo M lo Ibo im dMck. 
tutor* of then bovo boos iol op ol Dion ; 
gave the ofdcr to Ljiippot, wbo oof of o cvowd of 
w o y c Uto >i bod aurt the •t«tocs of Alevoador Uoi- 
•rtf. Of tbo ml of tbo oovoby Mto tbon itacty 
pcHibed« ood oboot tbfarty bdbotiy. ADtboMAlox- 
•ndcr borkd nnt dojr wftb tbdr arms and other 
; to their pofcnlioodcbiklRO be gave 
of loeal toiee and of all otber penoool 
ood pcopettj tasea. He showed moeb 
aboot the woooded, iMtiog eacht eiewiniiy 
their woondi. add^c bow tbej were reedvod* oad 


orriv &w4$a¥0¥' o<rovf ^ mMh 
ikafi^, rovTOv^ hfjcaK iv wUmm h 

hofatna tok "EXXff^Uf 'BXXifPff Urm itmtnU 
ri 'EXXa& bwkp rm9 fiafifidpmf iim^mf* 
* Kwinritk'wu hi KoX f«V *A^nMif rmmM^etm 
wtuwwXia^ UtpatM^ JkwAJhifM tUmi rf A^ifvf h 
woXtr teal jiriypaft^m JWif fi U^ ^ M i4 l«£u«rf tMt 
*AX<(av8po9 ^iXiwwov gal oi ''BXX^pMf vX^ 
Aairf&u/AOMwy avo TiMr fiapfidpmtf t6ip TfV 
*AcUuf tcaTotMovmrnv, 

XVII. Karoan^af N KiIXm^ 9arp«vffv«i9 
4f ^Aocirn^ 4p)^ mU rod? ^iponn Tovt a^tmH 
<^iro^^fv ra^^ oCcTtp ^apdf lf«par, I^M ^ 
r«»y 0apfidpt»p gariomt^ ig rmp hpmp h^Yfdp^p 
a^^, rovrov^ fUw awakXarr§9$tu M rS alrrim 
iKacTOV^ igiXttm- ZtWraf hk i&^9«t T% mMm» 
on irpo^ piap fpm avcrparw^tu rotf ffmp0ipmr 
Aacicv\io9 hi vapaXi|^/Myor UappMimtm 
iinr4fiw€r xal wapaXafiffoPtt ^aamCXiow T\ap^ 
pupUtp itcXiworrmp twv ^povpitp. 

Avro^ Si ivl XdpS€ttP wpovxfifpti' xai «7r<j^or- 
ro^ avTov oaov ifihofir^Korra aralUmn XdpUmp, 
^Kov Trap avrov MiOpiptf^ Tf o ^paypapx^ ▼% 
oKpo-rroXtta^ rr/^ iv '^idpleai xal Tap&awAw m 
BvvaranaTOi, ipBihoirre^ oi flip rijp irokip, o hi 
MiSpimjii rrjv dxpav ica\ rk xPVf^'^f^* 'AXifor- 
hpo^ hi airrb^ piv tcartarpaToirihtva^iP iwl r^ 
'Eppy TTorap^' dirixfi hi o^Eppo^ diro IdphntP 
araSiov^ 6aop eitcoaiw *hpvpra» hi rhp 'Aphpo* 
fuvov^ r^p dxpav irapaXtjyjroptpov ixwipwu h 

•ad tilt ■iffiiniiy Orwto wi» fcl fcitiw wpjbi of 

to Ifoecdooiji to hard Uboor, bccooto they had 
violslod CHvdi pabno opWoa bjf w^pbUti^ wnh 
Orieateb ofpdail Oiooln. Bo Mol to AtlMOf tittoo 
hoodred Perrioa ponopHw m oa ofcHag to Atliciui 
ai Athoat; Im bad tirfi JWDiJUIflii ottachod: 

la Alio. 

XVII. Aloiaadv tiMa aMdo Uko Mtiop oT tbo 
•otffspy vtadi AiMtot aod addt ovooHa^ tao laaibi 
taati to pay tlio taoic taxat at thej wed to pay to 
Daniats tadi 01 tao aatlfOi aa caaM dowa ftoai 
tba UDi aad favo tlMaadvoa mp hm bada ratara to 
tlidr boaMa. Tba cHy Zekia ba aniaiptffd ftoai 
blaaie. kaoartaf tbal tbay bad boaa JipiiiMiil to 
figbt vitb tba Pwriani, Ba aaat P to aiaa l o oIm to 
take over DiieyboB, aad tbk be doly did— the 

be was still aboat aavcaty ttadca away tbeie 
to hiro MitbfiMi, finaiBi 1111111 of tba Actojwdia 
guard, and witb bte tbo cMaf dtlaaaa oT Saidaa; 
tbeae gave np tba city* aad MltliHiica tlie fbrtfCM 
Alesaader himself caaiprd oa 
ifvcf « this river runs aboat twaaty 
ttadea fifooi Saidea; bat be aeot Amyntaa, aoa of 
to Saidca to take orer tbe fortrcM; 



'^Ltipbfi^ Mil Mt$piinif9 fthf Ir Ti#i9 ci|Mi •! ^, 
HapBiOpov^ Bi Mol TM^f 4IXX0VV AvMt T«St 

«i9 T^v djcpatf, Tmi to ^pviptOP 4^ tmv fltp^iMr 
ical €Bo(€¥ avrm 6xvpo9 to yupio9' irvfpi^^X^* 
Tff 7^p i}v ical ivoTO/itfi^ wdtmi mal rptwX^ ^^X^ 
TTt^parfiupov auT09 tk i'wX rj dmpf MM» rt 
oiicoBo^f)aai i^o^ *OXi//Airiov ^vti4«t mml fimmk^ 

6 ihpifaaaBai, ^«avourri 3i avr^ t% l«p«f feijp 
hriTftB€i6Taro¥ x^P*^» ^Pf ^*^ H^^f^ 
yci/Mi»y iwtyiyprrai col /^/mttaI aMXtfpmlt MtU 
?(8«p ^f ovpaiou wi'TTu vb Til TiMT AvMt 
i9cur(X€ia* ' AXt^dphp^ li Hofw U $m^ •ymp- 
0r)vtu iva xpr) oiMoloiUiaBa^ rm ^ t^ iwr» ««1 

7 oirrctfc ^/rcX^vat. KaTcXiVt M r^ fthf JMpm 
rrfi SdpBtmp iwtfMtXffriiP UauaaHOP rmtf hmipmp* 
Twy S^ ^po*9 T^ 9vrra|ff«f rt iroi ilyp^yif 
NiJCMir "Acray^poy 5< roy 0«XjiTa At4uif 4m1 f% 
aXXi79 Ti}^ '^trtdpihdrov "pv^. ^ik avT^ /■■iaf 
re «rai ^1X01)9 o<roi i/rovo* Trpo^ t^ wapoma MMmm, 

8 KaXay 6< icoi 'A\<{aySpov Tor *Atpcwov ^vl tTfr 

Swpay T^v Mifwotfo^ ixwif^wti, dyoma^ rov% rt 
eXairovvrfiriov^ teal tAp aXXwi^ ^v/a/au v«ir to^ 
7roXXou9 TrX^y *Ap7eto»y* ovroi M ^r Za/i&Wft 
Kar€\€l(f>6f)<rav rrjy axpav 4>v\dTr€tp» 

9 'By Toirr^ 5^ dt^ r^ vwip t^ i-rwofrnxl^ 
^f'rry^X^'7. J*' tc t^it 'C^c<rov ^povpowrn 
fua0o<^6poi wxovro ^iryorrev, 5i;o rai^iq rmm 
*E(f>€<jUav \aj36vT€^, xal f w ainoU Afiwras i 
*Avri6xov» 09 eipvyev ix MeucgBovia^ *AX«{ai^por. 
7ra0Mv flip ouBip irpo^ \W€^dphpov, Bva^pcia Sk 


Mltkrincs be took with him. with the hoootm of hii 
rank; bot tbc SanlUit% uul the other Lfdiaoe he 
to follow the okl Lyd ton BM tMwe, and 

nJtKiLMuioitw wutUHtu eseeiioeci 

•eat tiMB ewe J ftee« 
••> the foiticet , where wee the Pcfiieii gerriioo; he 
funned no nenn opinion of the atrroKth of tlie 
petition, whieb wnt very hiffh. fthrer. and IbrtUled 
ftO nmnd with a triple walL Alexander was ndnded 
to bond a tnnple on the hc%hl to CNjn^pian Zeot, 
altarnearit. Bnt ai he waa tnrvejr* 

ii^ Hm bd^bl to tiM bnii plaee. •uddmlir (it 

brakn a atonn, with bnayy 


palnee of tlM 

■oerf ano vioiem mn« joac over vm 
Lydian Um; §nm thb Alemnder 
here waa a ilvtoe hrtioMlion where he 

■aatl bnild tiM fylH to Zona, and lo be gave ocdera 
aeaei dhi f ty . He left aa eonwnandant of the fertrei 
raianlai. a territorial oUcer; Nieiaa bBcnme over> 
•ear of the taxea, co n tri bnt iona, and tribote, and 

aoeofPhflotaa^fOfe t norof Igrdiaand the 
rent of SpUhndatea dtolnat} and to Mni lie gave 

cavalry and Idbl tfoopa in gol B ut for p r a aeni needa. 
CmhtB and Altiandar aon 

of A&np m he aent to 
Mrmnoo'a cowitfy, with the P^Vipcawaiiani and the 
irrratrr part of tlie aOtoa Moept the Afgirea; tliey 
were kit In Sardcs to g ar riion the fbrtroM. 

Meanwhile, when tiie newt of the eara hy <m ga|[e- 
ateot eaoM tbro^clh tiM mtrrcnary troopa gaiiituiirng 
Ephcaut ied« with two Bpheaian triraBea, and mUnxg 
artth them Amyntaa aon of Anti o eb i wlio had run 
away ftoaa Macedon to avoid Alexander; not thut 
Alexander bad done blm any harm, but from a 



T$ wpo^ 'A\t^ap6p99 gal «vrbf awa^mem r$ 

10 ttoBmiv trap airrov ^X*^ TrrdpTf U 4^i4pf 't 
''E^aoy o^OftMPO^ rovi r^ ^ v y U m tern V 
a\no¥ iffirtaop r^ woXftK ««r^y«yf, ««! r^ 
oXi7apx^<' «aTaXyaav Si|/M«paTiair gar^^niar 

11 T9 'Kfnifuhi ivpT9\A imikivc^ 'O M ftL«f i 

oX47«y ^0o9,Tov% Tf Mi/iMPft /v«7«yMUMvt 
iroi rov^ ro Uf>0¥ avXii^turra^ riff 'Aprt/uMf Mmi 
rov^ i^v ftVoyo rov ^Xiirwpv t^p i¥ r^ i«^ 
/raraySaXoKra^ /roi roir rd^r ^« r^ ^hf^P^ 
avopv^avra^ top *Upawi 6 &o v T9^ iktv^Mpm^mtn^i 

12 T^y iroXiv. tapfi^aaw ihrttrrtiMU. Koi Si/o^«Mi 
/i^y rol Tov irai^a auToO XUXurfmrm «ai ro^ 
rwv a5«X^«tfy toO ^t;/>^a4ro^ iroiSaf ^« roi; ifpo^ 
^(ayayotnt^ xaTtXtvaaf' rov^ Bi <IXXm^ ^fM- 
Xi/aev 'AXcfai'S/HK wpoc^ripm iirtttfrup gal 
Ttfuop€i<r6a$, ypov^ &ri ofiov roU oatuhk moa ov 
fvp BUff Ttvd^, TOW fU¥ Kar fyj^pap, rov% Ik 
Kara apTrayrjp j(firffidTt9p airogrtPtl, (vyx^PV^^ 

IS ainA, 6 hrjfw^, Kal ei ^ij r^ <(XX^, /roi to«v iw 
*E^€a^ irpayBilciv *A\i(apSpo^ iw r^ rart 

XV^III. *Ejf rovT^ hi iic Maywjjaia^ Tt luti 
TpdWewp Trap* ainov ^kop ivhhoprt^ rk^ iroX«ir 
ical hi; TTCfiTrei Uapfi€vUi9pa, Bov^ avr^ 5ur viX/oi/f 
teal irepraxoffiov^ Trefoil tcuv (tpmp xal Maxt- 
Bopa^ irapairX'nclov^^ iTrirta^ B^ r&p halpt^p if 
BtaKoaiovs* *A\Kifuixop Bi top WyaBogXiovf 
em ra^ AioXiBa^ t€ iroXtt^ (vp BvpapLti ova 
iXdrropi i^iirefiylrt Kal oaai *lmpiMal vwi roU 


g«oml Mtkm toradi Akndbr nd a dWadina. 
tSoa to ndcfgo aoj Aiiginilih i Mummf i m at hb 
httiidt. Alesamkr rcMhod Bpliw 00 Um fburth 
dftj, tamight bMk aay MdlM who hod ho« tvnod 
o«t of the dtj 00 hit oeeomt, and hfcohhif up tho 
oligvehy restored the denocrocj; ho obo hodo 
them oootfiboto to tho Toonple of Artooyt MMh tosot 
- thqr hod hcoa poyhy to tho Pwiiowi 80 tfM 
PphTiJMi people* hel^f aov leBercd from feor of 
the ollgoiehs, ircfe ei^cr to p«t to deoth oil ihoM who 
hod colled hi M< 
the Teanple of ArteiriS 
down the stotso of Philip hi the 
dog op In the BMrhet-pleee the tooih of Heropjrthct 
thehheratorofthecl^. Sffphos, Me tea Pdefon, 
end the chUdroi of the hiothwe of S^plws thej 
forth fttMo the teonple end etesed; bat Alei- 

woold m^ortlj pot to dcoth, together wfth the guilty, 
cetteln others, sooie Aom hetred« end some for plun- 
der of their goodik S el dom md Al eien d er wm greoter 
popolerity then he dU by hii tioetiMHit of EphOMH* 

XVUL Abottt thb thoo oome fspieeentothres of 
Megncsle end Tralles to Alexander to band over 
theb dtks; so he sent Peimeido with 2600 allied 
faifiuitry aod as wunj lleee do ideos , and 900 terri- 
torisl hone. He sent also Alkimaehos son of 
Agathoeles. with an equal fbffoe« to the Aeolian 
cities ead to enj lonieo towns stiD sobieet to Perria. 



2 0apl3dpoi^ «T» j)oi*r. Kai rmt ithf •Xi^fW^Mflf 
trav^axov KAJa\v^t9 ixiXtva^. Itif/^ompmria^ M * 
iytcaSiaropai Mai tov? POftmn Tovt 0^mp <g a #Ttf 

iwtfiy^t (up rp arpaita wdajf mwXiCfUi^ rt «4i2 

3 T^ 5* vartpaia d»Hi\a0m0 rmw t« Vffiir To^ 
XoiTToi^ «al Tovv Toforac «al rovf *AypuuNK^ Mi) 
Tov^ B/>a«a« iwwia^ gal tmt hoLpmw Tifp Tt 
/SoffiXncffP rXiyv col v^ ravTff rpf if ^IXXaf M 
MiXifTot; ^orAXrro* «al r^i^ /lia^ f(« wiXi>|iAwfr 
TToXiv ^f iit>6^u fXafftp ^«Xi vovviff T^f ^ifXadlr 
ivravBa hk teaTaarparowtltv^m Sypm A w9 T m 

4 Yi{c(v rf)v €tcm w6Xt¥, ' Hfffaiarpmra^ ydp, &r^ 
fj ^povpk 17 Mi\rfaim9 im ^o^iXitK J-mrrhpuwro, 
irp6a0€v ypd^^ra itap 'AXi^Oi^hoatf finfAWtp 
ivBiSov^ rrjv WiXrjrw tot« 6i JufoBappriaa^ hrl 
rjt Hepciiv arpar^ ov pampkw Sirrt, inaamfup 
roU Tlipireu^ imtvou rriu wcXiW. SiMOPmp H r^ 
'EXKrjvucbv vauTiKW Srf%tv tnro^dpti rov% Uipaa^ 
rpialv rifup€u^ wpartpos tcarawXtv^aK ^ Tovf 
Uipca^ Nf 1X7x99 vpoaax^^t'^ol opfuf^rra* ravahf 
e^ijtcovra xal i/carov tv rj infc^ t% AdBjf Ktlrtu 

5 he aurtf eVl rrj M1X17TM. Ai M ritp lUpcmp 
ir^ ifareprjaaffcu, itrtiiri IffioBop oi pavapX"^ 
TUiP dp^i Ni/cdpopa rr)tf ip t§ Xdhji irpOMaraym- 
yrip, irpo^ t$ MvfcdXfj r^ 6p€i tupfuaOfjaap. 
lijv yap AdSr)p ttjv pPjaop vpoicarttX^iSti *AXi{- 
apSpo<:, ov Ttov Pt Jv fioi'op rj tyKoBop^uaUt &kXk 

> M Tf Codicoii. 


Hconkrad tiic o%mtdii» cmij i w bc i c to be brokco 
mi, Jw oi wrin to be mM kk t^ 9mA Id Imw tfcajr 
«iwo bi«r» and to rrwH vbatrvfr tasct thcjr had paid 

RBBCMB flBQ SBCRBCBCI vO ^mMvttUt^ aOQ DdO tk fl!l^0tt% 

f^oecailoo with hit tmopt armed ca|>^-f4a fai Ml 
battle ofder. 

Nest day be took the mnalndef of the biCuitrj 
and tbe aidicfi and the Agriaocn, vitb tbe Thradan 
hofic, and tbe mjwJi aqnadfoo of tcrrHoHal cavalnr, 
•nd three aqoedfom b«ideSt *Bd ■etcb c d again%t 
MUetoa. He eeplwcd hi bit stride what thej called 
the Ooler Otj— fer tbe gwrimi bad retitcd— and 
caiiipiiy tbete be oeeldca to Invest tbe InoeT City* 
For Ilrgcslstnitos, eoauDsadant, oader Darrins, 
of the hiilcdan f arrfaoo, bid aaUdpated BMittrrs hy 
isiijiwf m letter to Alemandcr swtcnderinf thr nt \ 
hot then, takhif beait sgobi» btssnsB the Persian 
foree was no distsnes sway, s ube i e d to save the 
city (or PenfaL Mesnor, however, brin g fa ^ «p the 
Oieck ieet, fcscbed Mfletot three day« ahead of 
the Persians, end snebored et tbe Ishmd of Lade 
with leo ships. LsdeboversfofaMtlilletns. Tbe 
I'emian fleet veto too late, and when their eoas- 
of NIeanor's arrival already at Lade, 
MoontMycale. For Alexander 
rtad by ttlring Lode forestalled then, not only by 
fleet tberot hot also by transporting 


col roif^ HpoMa^ xat rinf akAmy ^r^gm 4t rrrpm" 

vavfULXflv, ra rt SXXa Kpmr^up r^ mirrur^ 

avToy, oTi cicTo^ <»^^ «a^4/ftOOf ^1 roi; m7MiX#9 
/raTa wpvfiya^ tm^ *AX«faV5pov MMr. Kai y^p 

rk o\a, vunfBwi H ov wapk i^irfm ic$e0a$ ri 
irraicfia* xal ^ ykp BaXarroKprnrtm rovf 
mpca^. Kal aino^ Bi !i^fi /vi/94m4 iMX«ir 

7 r&¥ P€mp Kol Tov ku^wou /MT^ir. *AXif> 
M^po^ Bk rp rt ypiifAff ii/mfrri^mv l^i| flap/i^* 
vlmva icaX roi) <nitttiov rp ov «aTik to tJii^ 
(vfA0\i^w oXi7€M9 Tff T^p 9avci vpdf voXV^ 
7rX€(0i;v (vy ovBt^ Xoyta/af pavfiax^^tt^ ttu 
ov fi€fi€XeTrjic6ri r^ a^w pavriJtA wpof i^irif 

8 pevop^ TO TMV Kvwfiit»9 Tc «ai <i*oiyi«oiir n(r 
T€ ifLir€ipiaif rmr MamM^mif mU ri^ r«X^tfMr Ir 
a0€0ai^ Xmpim^ o{nt iBikmtf wapaMhMU rem 
fiap^dpoi^' teal fjmfiMi rj wavfUL^^a ov fUMpop 
Tffv pXAfifjv €<T€c6ai i^ rov woXipov rrj¥ wpmrtf^ 
B6(av, rd T€ oXXa icai row "EWtfpa^ 9€mr§pt§i0 
irpo^ rov vavriKOv irraicnaro^ rf}9 i(ayyt\is9 

9 €7rap$€vra^. Tavra flip r^ Xoyicfi^ (vmiM^ 
ov/c tV Kcup^ dir€^€U9€ vavfiaxilir ro Buop tk 
avro^ dWrf ifrjytiadai' tipai fik9 yitp wpi^ 
avrov ro9 d€r69, aXX* ori hrl yr)s KaBtjfi€9Q^ 

> watni9KmU999 Codion ; Roos v^t wf^^wmthmk 
* KrOger deletM x«^ 


"; OF ALEXANDER, I. ift. 5-9 

OiiUici the llttMiam and abovi 4000 of the 
naceoarlct. Tlie PoiImi ieet was of abovl 100 

■ •mcfilOt ootwitint aHwoy » vjucd AHsasdflr to 
attack, both bccaate hm opeeled the Gredv to 
win. and beeaate of an oaea; llMra bad baan aaoi 
aa cacia pctcblaff 00 Iba tbora aatani ci Alaaandar't 
t—eh. If tbay fwe» ba aig a cd t H woald be a great 
belp to toe a ipe oHiott fanataDjr i a oc le at wooid not 
be verj eeHoat ; tor efca aa tbfaifi vcfo tba PanlaM 
bdd tba aapfcaMcy at aca. Ha said thai ba wae 
fbartr bfaaaelf and tbare all perfb. 
r, boar e r er t taSd that Pannetdo's jad|nnent 
waf at fault ; hb tntrrpretotioo of tbe omen not loM 
•o ; it would be luoacj to 0gbt a moeh greater fleet 
with aa fafcrlor one, and face the trained crews of 
tbe Cypriaat and P boeidrian a with hit own, who 
bad not jet e ei p l eta d tbalr naatical exerdaca. Ha 
fMi aacriiciBf tba akill and oum^ of 
o to aneertala an alcaMot to tbe 
■boald tbej loae tbe enfafCHmit H wooM 
be a aerloaa blow to their formar warUka pt <al% a » 
with the Greeks alto ready to blaae into remit at 
the Bni wbiepar of a naral defeat. Arguing that 
he made dear that It wae no time to fight; and 
^ekrcd that he interpreted the onuen dlier e ntl y ; tor 
the eagle was indeed 00 hit own tide; bat» itoaa 



XIX. Kai ^r TovTf nuiiWiwwof. i^^f t^ 

fnaBo4>6omK olf iifiXX^ ri iwrrhpmwr% 4 v^Xjf , 
ra re rtix*! 1^ I^IUn' t^vv MiXi^MVf ««1 t«^ 
Xi/i«Fa^ irap^X"*' «<»*owf ' AXtfW^ ««l n/p#«ir 
irai T^y TfoXioogiaw M rovrm^ XtMUf iffiov. 

2 'AX^'fai'^/XK « I^Xai^^ww^i |Uy wpo^uaau 
airaWaTTiaf^ai Kara ra^o^ #f T^r v^Xiir 9tU 
MiXf/aiOK <irary<XX«ir va/Mi<r«fvit{>9#0l ^ 
fiaxovfUtfov^ Mof. AvTOf i' /vitfTi{^«f T# 
Tfixci /inx^a>, iriil r^ m^ «aTai9«X»r &* ^XiyMr 
TMi' rtix^p, rk ^ Kvrao^at iw\ voX^ wpoafjrft 
rri» <rrpartap m iwi0fia9ftho¥f | Mar^piipiwrm 
fj ia€<Td\€\rro to TtiVOf, i ^ / t mf rrovrrup Mol 
fiot'ov ov Btm^Upmw yu9 UMpcm^ avo rff% My«ilXf|f 
woXtop/cov/Upov^ roifs ^iXm^ e^p xat (vfifidymn* 

S *Ev rovr^ hk irol oi <l/i^ Niv<iVopa ^v^r^f 
Aa^ T^y o/9/i^v TMF {yy 'AXtfoi^p^ cariUrrtf 
€« TOP Xi^pa ivtwXtop TMir MAif^iwy. wmpk 
yijp rrjp dptclap iroiovfupott «al mark Td orifaM 
Tov Xifxipo^ i'^^^P "f^o artptitrarop ^ apttrrfi^^povt 
Pif^ffP Ta9 rpiTip€i% opfuaapres awoK€M\MU4aa9 
T^ fihf UepaiKA p€unuc^ top XifUpa, roTt 
Mi\f)aloi^ hi rtpf ix rAp Utp^itp m^Xttap, 

A "Ri/^a o< MiXf/cTiOi re koX oi fuoBo^opot, wapra* 
')(pd€v yjBtj irpoafC€tfi(PWP a^iVi tmv .%lairf5oM»r» 
Oi fUP airroiv otrrroOvrf^ oi^a^ ip rj BoXda^p 
iiri rw a<nrio<op {nrrimp i^ ptf^lhd Tipa Mm* 
pvfiop, r$ voXu hritctifUpTjp, Bup^opto^ oi t^ 


tt wat Moiilttiiif on the laid, li BMMit (lie thoi^) 
thai he wm^ beet the Pcnlea ieel horn the hwd. 

XOL M cenwhile. Gkied|ipw. ene oT the Boteblee 
of Miletm, vat scsii to Aleien d cr by the people 
eod the inriMeriei, to vheee eere the cM^ 
cMeif tmtgwKM. end dedeicd fkat the 
fpeve p wpei ed le open their welb en 
Alexamlcr And the PcnlaM In c o mm o n ; end be 
00 thcee ■ttp^latfajMi that he ehoald 

pot to be gooe with all ipecd to the dt)r and tell the 
dtlMM lo be feedjr to flght at dawn. HepenoneU/ 
Mv to eoghMe befa^ eel egaimt tii€ walk, ead, pertly 
by boerfMfdfaif the van at dote qoertrn, and partly 
by betteitaf It over a greet dlrtaaee, he brooght op 
his imee to be reedy to rwh la oi me i ei the vaU vas 
behea. 1W Pwdem hum Mycele weta 
by* eod alBioat behdd thefr frlemk and aIIIm 

Bat aov hicanori fleet from Lede liglitcd 
Alenader't etteek, ead teUed farto the herboar of 
MOetoa, rowfaif aloog the coett, and, jaaaafaif their 
titicmca , bovt teevardt at the narrowest pert of the 
eotranee bed bottled up the harbour afainet the 
Pcniea ieet, ead eat of Peniaa help fer Ifiletas. 
the liOcdana ead the meieeaeriee, heid 
D eU ddce by the IfeeedoahuBe, tome threw 
hrto the tea ead arf^ their ihieldi et 
peddled over to a little nameleei bland 


vou t. D 

T^9 TfH^ptt^ ru9 \itunhmm9 jyw<X ^^w H 

T^ OTO/iaTI TOW X4/AirOf W/W Tl»r T^llpiMr* Ol Ik 

K€\tvca^, ttK «aT^ T^ avoro/iA t^ pmnw^mmBiiw^ 
irpo^ f'^yo^* ^« tAt rtiir T^r avo/Sstftv VMif^o- 

rp yrja^ it^pa, olmio^ \afA0ar0i mirror rmr JMpmtf^ 
OTi y€vvaioL Tf ica\ wiotttX airr^ i^mbmwf, ami 

rpuucoclov^' avrovt ik MiXi^iovf, l#M ftif h 
T$ iraTaX>/^« r^^ voX«Mt Htepp, i ^ ^w ««U 

Oi M fiapfiapot awo r^ IIimmIX^ 6pftmf»tPO$ 
raU p^p ifp^poi^ hriwXiov rj^ *EXktfnM^ pavrtmrn, 
wpoica\e<raa0ai i^ vavpaviop AviforTtt, r^f M 
vu/rra^ Trpov t,7 Mi/CttX|^ ov« ^y ^^a^^ mppifotrn, 
on vhptvtaOcu avo rov Waiavhpov warapov tmt 
i ixfioXatv Bia patcpov rjvayKtil^orro. *AXtf(aripof 
3€ TOK fUv pat/o'i roy Xi/A€ya 4^0\arr§ rim 
MiXi7<7ici>v, a»9 ii^ fftdooiirro oi 0ap0apoi ror 
€OTrXoi;i'. 'Kicw€/iir€< S* ^v Tiyi^ MviCoXi^ ^tX^ap, 
ayovra rov^ t€ tirirw *cal rStp irf(iwir Tiifci^ 
Tf)€r9, vapa^/yfiXa^ €ipy€ty rij^ awopda€9t^ Toyf 
diro TOiv i'€u>v. Of 5€, vharo^ t« virdp^i iroi 
Toiv aXXo)!' cViTT^Scicuv oifhkv a\Xo Bri ptj woXtop- 
Kovp€Poi €v raU vavaip, (9 Sa/AOi^ a-r^vXcv^ar* 
€K€i6€P Bi iwianiadptpoi av6i^ iwewXs^p r§ 



OMurtlM «ity,otJieftfotfailDpiBBMCSMidliarijlqf 
to get la liroot of tlie Miocdoiiim tritoMt wwe 
oMflit by tiMMOttiMlMboweatfMwe; Imt tiM 
gicotcf wibff pcfWMa ia tlw dtj Hseif. 

Aloaadar, tiM dtj bdi^ now la bana, mOM off 
agaiaH Hhm wIm bad ied to Hm lUd. onkriof 
Uddm to be bfoagbl 10 the bofvt of tbe tffifCMt to 
as to dbcniberk ftooi tbe tblfM 00 tfM eMb of tbe 
Iskndi at If 00 a dtj weO. B«t teriitf that tbote 
00 dM Island were goby lo igbl to the drath, be 
felt coaipMrioa lor tbem, ae noble and loyal loldlant 
and BMMie tenat with tbrm thai they tboald Jofai 
bla feieca; there were aboot 300 of tbeae Oieeb 
mrrofnarka Tbe Mile^ianf tiMaHebrea, iOTe torh 
aa feU at tbe inal aMault, he dtaadMed with their 

Tbe Peniaaa wring Myeale aa a bate by day* 
tiaM eaed lo aail taeraidi tbe Greek aavy, bopb^ to 
proTokc an enp^af^emmt ; but at night they did nol 
ride In comlbrt at Myode, becaaw they were obUfed 
to get water from the aMMlbt of tbe llaaaader, aoaM 
way off. Alexander with hb fleet gaarded the 
harboor of Miletttf, that the Peniaai adgbt not 
force the entrance, Irat he tent Phlfelaa to Ifycale 
with the cavalnr and three eohnani of iaiSuitryt 
liidding him hinder the Perriana ftoai diaeaibarbtog. 
So they, fron want of water aod other thlngt, were aa 
good aa baalaged fai tbefar dripa, aad tailed off to 
Samot; pr o fltloa h y tbere* tiiey aMde far Mlletat 


9 MiXtjTO). Kal Ta9 fJ'CP iroWa^ tmv vewv irpo 
rov Xi/ji€PO<; iv /jLereoopq) irapera^av, el tttj i/CKaXe- 
aaivTO €9 TO TTeXaryo^ roi)^ Ma/ceSoi^a?* irevre he 
avTMP ela-eirXevcrav eh rov fiera^v tPi<; re Art 8779 
vj](JOV Kal rov (rrparoTreSov Xi/Jieva, eXnTiaavTe'^ 
Keva^ KaTaXrjy^reaOaL Ta<i 'AXe^dvSpov vav<;, on 
TOv<; vavra^ airocTKehavvvcyOaL to ttoXv airo tmv 
vewv Tou? jiev eVt <l)pvyavia/jLa>, roi/? Be iirl 
^vyKOfiiBrj TMV eiTLTrjheicov, tov<; Be Kal €9 Trpo- 

10 royLta9 TarTO/JL€vov<;, 7re7rvap,evoL rjaav. ^AXXa 
fxepo^i /JLev Ti airrjv tmv vavrcou, eK Be tcop irapov- 
Twv ^vfjLTrXrjpaxra^i 'A'Xe^avSpo<; BeKa vav<;, 0)9 
irpoairXeovaa^ ra<i Trevre tmv Hepacov KarelBe, 
irefjurei eir avra^ Kara (TirovBrjV, e/Jb^aXXeiv avri- 
7rpQ)pov<; KeXevaa<;. Ol Be ev raU irevre vaval 
roiv Wepaoiv, 0)9 irap eXwlBa dvayo/iievov<; tol'9 
MaKeBova^; eirl o-^a9 elBov, inroarpe^^avre'^ eK 

11 TToXXov e(j)6vyov 7rp6<i rb dXXo vavriKov. Kal 77 
fiev ^laaa-ewv vad<i dXiaKerai avrol^ dvBpdaiv ev 
rfi (f)vy7], ov ra^vvavrovaa, at Be reaaape^ e^6a- 
aav Kara(f)vyeLv eh rd<; olKeia^ rpirjpet^, Ovrco 
fiev Bij dTreirXevaav arrpaKroi €k McXTJrov ol 
He pa at. 

XX. ^AXe^avBpo(; Be KaraXvaai eyvco to vav- 
riKov ')(^pr)iidT03v re ev rw rore diropia Kal dpua 
ovK d^iopiaxov opwv ro avrov vavriKov rw 
llepaiKcp, ovKovv ou8' eOeXcov pepei rivl t?}9 
aTpartd^ KLvBvvevetv. *AA-Xco9 re errevoei, Kare- 
p^«;>' t^Bt) TO) Tre^w rrjv ^Aalav, on ovre vavnKOV 
en Beoiro, rd^ re TrapaXiov; iroXei*; Xa/Scov Kara- 
Xvcrei ro Hepacov vavnKov, ovre oiroOev la^ 
viT7jpeaia<; avjjUTrXijpcoaovaiv ovre ont] rrj^ *Acrta9 


again. The mass of their vessels they drew up in 
hne out at sea opposite the harbour, hoping to provoke 
the Macedonians to action in the open ; but five 
ships slipped into the harbour between Lade and the 
camp, hoping to capture Alexander's ships unmanned, 
having learned that the crews had for the most part 
scattered, some to fuel, some to convoy stores, and 
some detailed for foraging. There was indeed a 
certain number away from the ships ; but Alexander 
manned ten ships with the available hands, and when 
he sighted the five Persian ships bearing down, sent 
these to meet them at full speed with orders to ram. 
The crews of the five Persian ships, seeing the Mace- 
donians making for them (the last thing they 
expected), doubled back, while still at safe distance, 
and tried to flee to the main fleet. One ship (manned 
by lassians) was captured with its crew in the retreat, 
being a slow sailer ; the other four got safe to their 
own triremes. Thus the Persians left Miletus with 
nothing done. 

XX. Alexander now decided to disband his navy, 
both from want of money at the time and also 
perceiving that his fleet could not face an action 
with the Persian navy ; he had no intention to risk 
disaster with even a portion of his armament. Further, 
he reflected that as he now held Asia with his land 
troops, he no longer needed a navy, and that by 
capturing the Persian coast bases he would break 
up their fleet, since they would have nowhere to 
make up their crews from, and, in fact, no seaport 



TTpoai^ovcriv €Xovra<;. Kal rov aerov ravTrj 
(TVvepaWev on earj/irjvev avrat e'/t t^9 7% 
Kparrjaeiv to)V vewv, 

2 TaOra he BLa7rpa^d/jL€vo<; eVl KapLa<; eVreX,- 
Xero, OTL iv 'AXiKappaa-aw (TVvecyrr)Kevai ov 
(f>av\7)v hvvafxiv rcop re ^ap^dpcov /cat ^evoiv 
i^rjyyeWero. "Ocai he iv fieao) TroXe^? MlXtjtov 
T€ KoX ^ AXiKapvaacTOV, TavTa<; e'f ecpoBov Xaficov 
KaracrTpaTOireSevei Trpo? 'AXiKapvaaa-w, aTre^coi^ 
TTy? TToXeo)? €9 Trevre fidXiara arahiov^;, 00? eVt 

3 ')(povia) iroXiopKia. ''H re <ydp (J)V(Tl<; tov %ft)/3/oL» 
ox^pov enoLei avro Kal oirr) rv evhelv o)? 7r/)09 
dacpdXetav ec^atVero, ^vpLTravra ravra Me/jLVcov 
T€ avTO^ irapcov, 7]8r] d7roSeBeiyp,epo<i 7rp6<; ^apeiov 
T?}9 T6 Kdroa 'A<7La<; koX tov vavriKov 7ravro<; 
Tjyep^cov, eK iroXXov irapeaKevaKei, koX (npaTiMTai 
TToXXol p^ev ^evoL paaOof^opoi iv ttj iroXei iyxare- 
XeL(l)Or)(Tav, iroXXol Be Kal Hepacjv avrcov at re 
Tpiijp€L<; €cf)(oppovv ^ T(p XipbevL, &)9 Kal diro twv 
vavTOJV TToXXrjv a)(f)eX€iav yiyveadai €9 rd epya. 

4 T^ piev Br) irpcory r^puepa 7rpO(TdyovTO<; 'AXef- 
dvBpov TO) reix^i Kara Ta9 eVl M.vXaaa (^€povaa<i 
7rvXa<;, iKBpopLtj re ylyverai tmv iK t% 7roXe(o<; 
Kal aKpo^oXia-po^' Kal tovtov^ ov %a\67rft)9 
dveareiXdv re at irap ^AXe^dvBpov dvreKBpa- 
pLOvre^; xal 69 rrjv iroXiv KareKXetaav. 

5 Ov 7roXXac<; Be varepov rjpepaif; ^AX€^avBpo<i 
dvaXa^oDV tov^ re v7Ta(J7ri(TTd<i Kal rr]v tmv 
eraipwv lttttov Kal ttjv ^Apuuvrov re Kal HepBiKKOv 
Kal MeXedypov rd^iv rrjv ire^LKrjv, Kal irpo^ rov- 
roL<i T0U9 T0^6ra<; Kal rov<; *Aypiava<;, irepLTJXde 

* i<pu)piJ.ovv A* and other MSS. B read i(l>a>pfirivTO. 


in Asia. Thus he took the eagle to mean that he 
should conquer the ships from dry land. 

When he had settled this he marched towards 
Caria, having had reports that a considerable force 
of Persians and mercenaries had assembled at 
Halicarnassus. Such cities as lie between Miletus 
and Halicarnassus he captured on the march, and 
then encamped against Halicarnassus, at five stades 
distance, settling down for a long siege. For the 
position of the place made it very strong, and if 
anything was needed to strengthen it, Memnon had 
personally seen to this long ago ; from the moment 
he was marked out by Dareius for command of '^ 
all lower Asia and of the whole fleet ; a large force 
of mercenaries had been left in the city, with many 
Persians also; the triremes guarded the harbour, 
so that the sailors too lent much assistance. 

On the first day it fell out that as Alexander was 
approaching the wall near the gates leading to 
Mylasa there was a sally from the city and volleys 
at safe distance; this attack Alexander's troops 
had no difficulty in driving back by a counter sally, 
and also safely shut up the attacking party in their 
walls again. 

A few days later Alexander led off his guards, the 
territorial cavalry, and the infantry battahon of 
Amyntas, Perdiccas, and Meleager, with the archers 
and the Agrianes, and went round the city to the 



T?}9 TToXeCO? TO TTpO? MvV^^OV fxipO^, TO T€ TCt;^©? 

KaToy^rojievo^, ei TUVTrj eTTi/uLax^^Tepov Tvy^dveL 
ov e? Tr)V TTpoa^oXrjv koI dfjca el ttjv MvvBov ef 
eTTihpofirjf; SvvaiTO \a6oDV KaTaayelv* eaeaOai 
fyap ov afiiKpav Trjv ocx^ekeiav e? Tr)V t% 
'AXiKapvaaaov iroXiopKiav t^i^ Mvvhov olKelav 
y€Po/jL6i>7jv' Kal Ti Kol iveSlBoTO avT(p eK tS)v 

6 yivvhioiiv, el XdOoL vvkto<; TrpoaeXdcov. Auto? 
/iiep Stj KaTCL TCL ^vyK€LfJL6va d/ji(j)l fiiaaf; vvfCTa^ 
TTpo(jrfK.6e T& TCt^et* &)? 3e ovhev evehihoTO diro 
TMV €pBov, at T€ jjiT^'^aval Kol a I /cXtyLta/te? avTO) 
ov iraprjaavy ola Sr) ovk eVt iroXtopKiav aTaXevTt, 
a)OC CO? eVl irpohoaia iv8iSo/jLevy<; tt)? 7roXea)9, 
TTpoaijyaye kol o)? twv MaKeBovcov ttjv (pdXayya, 

7 viropVTTeiv K€\evaa<; to retyo?. Kal epa ye 
TTvpyop KaTefiaXop ol Ma^eSoi^e?* ov fiipToc eyv- 
fjLP(0(T6 ye TO Te?%09 TreacoP' koI ol €k t^9 7roXea)9 
d/iia evpco(TTCi)<; d/iivpo^epoi kol ifc T7]<i ^AXtKap- 
vaaaov kuto, OdXaacrap ttoWoI 7]8r) irapa^e/Sorj- 
drjKOTe^i diTopov eTToirja-ap tw ^ AXe^dphpw Tr)P 
avToa-^eSiop re kol ef e7nBpo/jLrj<; /caTdXrjyjrtp T779 
MvpBov. Outoj /jl€p Bt] eirapep^eTcu ^ AXe^apBpo<; 
ovBep 7rpd^a<; mp epexa CDp/jurjOr}, kol ttj iroXLOpKLa 
T779 ' AXiKappaaaov avOL<; irpoaelx^- 

8 Kat TCL irpcoTa fiep ttjp Td(j)pop, r) irpo t^9 
7roXeft)9 opcapvKTO avTol^, irXdTO^ fiep Tpid/coPTa 
fidXiaTa nrri'^ewPy ^d6o<; Be €9 irePTeKalBeKa^ 
e^wppve, Tov paBiap elpai ttjp irpoa-aycoyrjp tcop 
T€ TTvpyoiP, dcj) wp efjueXXe tov<; dKpo^oXiorfiovf; 
€9 T0U9 irpo/jLaxofJLepov^i tov Tel'xpv<; TroielaOai, 
KOL TCOP dXXoyp firj^apcop^ ah KUTaaeUip iirepoei 
TO Tel'xpfi, Kal rj re Td(j)po<; avTcp i'XjcoaOri ov 


side that lay Myndus-ward ; his idea was to recon- 
noitre the wall in case it should prove more open to 
an assault there, and also to see if perhaps he could 
capture Myndus by a sudden raid. The capture of 
Myndus, he thought, would be a great help to a siege 
of Halicarnassus. A proposal of surrender had been 
received from Myndus, provided he could arrive 
there by night. He therefore approached Myndus 
about midnight, as agreed ; but there was no sign 
of surrender ; his engines and ladders he had left 
behind — naturally enough, since he had not come 
to besiege, but to receive a treacherous surrender 
of the city. None the less he brought up the Mace- 
donian phalanx with orders to sap the wall. One 
tower they did throw down ; yet in its fall it did not 
strip the wall; the defenders stoutly resisted, and 
numerous troops by this time had sailed up from 
Halicarnassus and prevented Alexander from rushing 
the capture of Myndus. So Alexander retreated 
with this project a failure, and he kept once more to 
the siege of Halicarnassus. 

First he filled level the moat which they had dug 
before the city, about 30 cubits broad and 15 deep ; 
this was to facilitate the approach of the towers, 
from which he intended to bombard by volleys of 
missiles the defenders of the wall, as also of the other 
engines intended to batter the walls. The ditch was 



9 %aXe7rco9 koI ol irvp'yoL TrpoarjyovTO rfhrj. 01 Be 
ex tP)^ ' hXiKapvaaaov vvkto^ iKhpa/jiovre^, o)? 
ifXTTprjaat tov<; re 7rvp'yov<{ kol oaai aXkai /j,r})(^aval 
7rpO(T7jyp,€vaL t) ov Troppo) rod Trpoa-dyeaOat rjaaVf 
VTTO Tcop (puXaKfpv re rodv M.aKeh6v(i)v koX oaoi iv 
avTO) Tft) €py(p e^eyepOevre'i irapeffoi^Orjaav ov 
^aXeTTw? fcaTCfcXeLorOrja-ap €9 ra rei-^^^rj avOi<;. 
10 Kal aireOavov avreov dWoL re €9 etShofirjKOVTa 
Kol CKarbv /cat Neo7rToX6/i09 6 'AppaffaloVf rov 
^AfjLvvTou ttSeX^o9, r(ov irapa Aapelop avTO/juoXrj- 
aavTcov. Tcov S' ^AXe^dvSpov aTparicoTOJu airi- 
6avov fiev 69 e/CKaiBe/ca, rpavfjiaTiat Be eyevovro 
69 TpLaKoaiov<i, on ev vvktI y€PO/jLepr]<; T7J9 
eKBpo/Jirjf; dcpvXaKTOTepoi, €9 to rirpcoa/cea-dai 

XXI. Ou 7roXXat9 Be '^fiepaifi varepop Bvo rcop 
MaxeBovcop oirXcTai ex t^9 UepBiKKov Td^€(o<i, 
^V(Tfcr)PovPTe<i re koI d/jLa ^vpLiripopre^;, avrop re 
Kal rd avrov €/cdrepo<; eirl fxeya ra> Xoyrp rjyev. 
"EipQa Br) (piXorifiCa re eairlTrrei avrolf;, Kai rt 
KoX 6 olpof; hired epfxaipep, ware OTrXiad/jLepoL avrol 
€7rl (T(j)(ji)p Trpocr/SdXXovai ra> relx^t fcard rr)P dxpap 
rr)P 7r/3o? MvXaaa fidXtcrra rerpa/JL/jLeprjp, 0)9 
eirlBet^cp rrj<; a(f)(OP pci)fjLr)<; /jloXXop rt rj 7rpo<i 
'7roXe/JLLOv<; /juerd kipBvpov rop dywpa Trotrjao/jiepoL. 
2 Kat TouTOi'9 KariBopre^i rtph rcop etc rrj<; 7roX,ea)9 
Bvo re ovra^ kol ov ^vp Xoyia-fiM irpoa-cjyepojjLePGV'i 
r& reCxet eireKOeovatP. 01 Be rov<; fxep eyyifi 
TreXdcrapra^i direKrevpap, irpo^; Be rov<; dcpearrj- 
Kora^; rjKpoffoXl^opro, TrXeopeKrov/iepoi rw re 
irXrjdeL kol rov ^((jdpiov rfj 'x^aXeTTorrjri, on. ef 
virepBe^iov rot<i 7roXe/jLLOi<; r) imBpopLrj re Kal 6 


filled up without difficulty and the towers soon were 
brought up. The Halicarnassians, however, made a 
night sally, to burn the towers and the other engines 
which had been brought up, or were in position 
shortly so to be. But the attackers were easily 
enclosed again in their city walls by the Macedonian 
guards and others who, waking up in the course of 
the action, rushed to their help. The city lost 170 
men, including Neoptolemus son of Arrabaeus, 
brother of Amyntas, one of those who had deserted 
to Dareius : of Alexander's troops there fell about 
sixteen, but three hundred were wounded, since — 
the sally being at night — they were less protected 
against wounds. 

XXI. Not many days after, two Macedonian men- 
at-arms of Perdiccas' battalion, bivouacked together 
and drinking together, were each exalting his own 
prowess and deeds : rivalry arose, assisted by the 
heating fumes of wine ; so they armed themselves 
and attacked the wall by the height which looks 
Mylasa way; their idea being to exhibit their 
strength rather than to force a perilous encounter 
with the enemy. Some in the city sighted the 
rash pair approaching the wall, and made a dash 
out upon them, slaying both these two men, who 
were close up, and showering volleys on the more 
distant troops, having advantage in their number and 
in the difficulty of the ground, since the Halicar- 
nassians had the benefit of height for their charge and 



3 aKpo^oXiajiio^ ijivero. Kal ev tovtw avreK- 
6eovai riV€<; kol oXXol rSiv rov TlepBiKKov 
<TT par LOOT o)v, Kal cltto ttJ? ^ AXtfcapvaaaov dWor 
Kal ^v/nTriiTTeL pi'dx^ Kaprepa irpo^ tw reix^i. 
Kal KaraK\eiovTai avOi^^ 7rpo<; rwv M^aKehovcav 
eiGw TMV TTvXwv ol e7reKSpa/j,6pT€<;, Tlap^ oXljov 

4 Be rjXOe Kal oXoovaL rj TroXt?. Ta re yap t6lxV 
ev Tw Tore ovk ev uKpi^el (jyvXaKj} rjv Kal Bvo 
TTvpyoi Kal fieaoTTvpyiov e? eSacjjo^i KaraTreTrra)' 
Kora ov ;\;aXe7r?7i^ av rw o-Tparev/jiart, el diravre^; 
irpoorrjyjravTo rov epyov, Tr)v e? to rel^o^; irdpohov 
'irapea')(e. Kat o T/otVo? 7rvpyo<i KaTa(Teaei,(Tp,evo<^ 
ouSe ovTO<; ^aXeTrw? dv rjpei^Or] VTropvaaofievo^i' 
dXXd e(f>Or)aav yap dvrl rov TreTrrcoAroTO? Tei')(^ov<; 
eacodev ttXivOlvov fX7]V0€ihe<^ dvroiKoBojuLrjcrd/jLevoi 
ov %aA,e7rco9, vtto iroXux^tpLa^;. 

6 Kal TovTcp eirrjye rfj varepaia ra? fjLr))(^avd<; 
^AXe^avSpo<;' Kal iKBpofirj av0t<i yiverai twv e/c 
T^? nroXewf; eirl tw e/XTTprjaai Td<; fjLrj)(^avd<;. Kal 
fiepo^ liev TL Tcov TrXrjaLov rod Tet;^0L»9 yeppwv 
Kal evo<i rwv Trvpywv rcov ^vXlvcov KareKavOt], 
rd Be dXXa Bie(f)vXa^av ol irepl ^iXcorav re Kal 
'EXXdviKov, oh 77 (pvXa/cr) avrcov eireTerpaino' 009 
he Kal ^AXe^avBpo^ iTrecftdvrj ev rrj eKSpo/jLjj, rd^; re 
8a8a^ 6o-a<; e)(pvre^ iK^e/SorjOrJKeaav d<^evre<; Kal 
rd oirXa ol rroXXol avrcjv pi'^avre^; elaw rov rei- 

6 ')(pv<^e<^evyov. Kairoirdye irpwra rfj ^vaeirerov 
XcopLou, vTTephe^iov 6vro<;, eireKparovv Kal ov Kard 
fiircoirov [lovov rjKpo^oXil^ovro €9 toi'9 it po fxaxp' 
jxevov^ r(av pbrj-^ai/MV, dXXd Kal ck ro)v vvpycDv, 
ot Br] eKarepcdOev rov eprfpL/jL/jLevov reixov; avrol 
vTToXeXeLfjifxevoi e/c irXayiov re Kal fiovov ov Kara 


their volleys. On this more of Perdiccas' men hurried 
up, and others from the city too, and a stiff fight 
raged about the wall. Once more the Macedonians 
drove the sallying force back into the city, and indeed 
the City was not far from being captured. For the 
walls were not then carefully guarded, and as two 
towers and one intervening curtain had fallen, the 
approach to the wall had become easy for the army, 
had they all attacked together. The third tower, 
moreover, had been badly shaken, and if undermined 
would easily have been brought down, but the 
besieged had smartly built out opposite the breach 
from within a crescent-shaped brick wall, and as 
they had plenty of builders, they did so with ease. 

Alexander next day brought up his engines against 
this wall ; promptly a sally was made to burn them. 
Part of the fence of mantlets near the walls and 
one of the wooden towers were burnt ; the rest was 
saved by Philotas and Hellanicus and their men, 
who were entrusted with the care of them. But 
when Alexander also appeared in the assault, they 
threw away the torches with which they had rushed 
out, and most cast away their arms and made within 
the wall. Yet at first, from the position, ^vhich 
was commanding, the besieged had the best of it, 
and did not only volley straight ahead along their 
line at the advance guard of the engines, but also 
from the towers left standing on either side of the 
breach, which enabled them to volley on the flanks, 



vcoTov 7rap€LXov aKpopo\i^€<j6ai e? rou? t« 
avT(pKoBo/jirj/jL6va) Tet%et 7rpoadyovra<i. 

XXII. Ov TToWah 3e varepov r)/jLepai({ eird- 
yovTo^i av6L<i ^AXe^dvSpov ra? fjurj-y^ava^ tm ttXiv- 
6iv(£> Tw ivTO^i relx^f' ^^tl avrov €(f)r]ar7jK6TO<; tw 
epyo), eKhpofir] yiveraL TravSrjfiel ck t7}<; TroXeco? tmv 
fxev Kara to iprjpL/jbfjiivov reixo^, y avro'i 'AXe- 
^avhpo<; iireTeraKTO, rSiv he Kara to TpurvKoVy 
y ovBe irdvu ri TrpoaBexo/^evoif; TOt? MaKeSoacv 

2 yv. Kal 01 pev BdSd<; re Tat? p,r)xcLi^aL<; eve^aX- 
\ov Kal oaa dXXa e? to e^dyjrai, re (j)X6ya Kal eVt 
p,eya irpoKaXeaaaOai' rwv he dp<j)* * AXe^avSpov 
avrcov re ep.^aXX6vrwv e? avrov^i eppwpevw^ Kal 
ral<i p^rjx^J^CLL'; dirb rodv ixvpywv XWwv re pueyd- 
X(t)v d(f)i,epLev(ov Kal ^eXwv e^aKovri^opevcov, ov 
p^aXeTTw? d7rearpd4>riadv re Kal ec^vyov e? rr]V 

3 itoXlv. Kat (f)6vo<; raurrj ovk 6Xiyo<; eyevero, oarp 
rrXeiove^ re Kal ^vv piei^ovL rfj roXpur} e^ehpapov. 
Ol pev yap eU x^^P^^ iXOovre^ Tot? MaKeB6(rtv 
direOavov, ol he dp,(f)l rw T6t%€t ro) KararreTrrw- 
Korit arevcorepa^i re rj Kara ro ttXtjOo^ avrwv 
rr}<^ irapohov ovarj<; Kal rwv Kareprjpippievwv rov 
reixov^ ;\;aXe7rr/j' rr)v virepfiaaiv avroi^ irape- 

4 Tot? he Kara ro T pLirvXov eKhpapLOvaiv dirrjvra 
IlToXe/xato? o acopuarocpvXa^ 6 0ao-iXt,K6<;, rrfv re 
^Ahhaiov Kal Tipudphpov dpua ol rd^iv dycov Kal 
eariv ov<; rcov ^^lXcov Kal ovrou ovhe avrol ^^^aXeTrw? 

5 erpe-y^avro rov<; €K rr)^ iroXeco^. "Bwe^rj he Kal 
TouTOt? ev rfj drrox^^p^f^^^ Kara arevrjp ye<f)vpav 
rrjv eirl t?}? rdcjypov TreTTOCTjpuevrjv (f)evyovcri rrjv re 
ye(j)vpav avrrjv vtto ttXyjOov^; ^uvrplyfrai Kal ttoX- 


and almost at the rear, of those who approached the 
new-built wall. 

XXII. A few days afterwards Alexander again 
brought up his engines to the inner brick wall, 
taking charge of operations himself, and there was a 
sally in full force ; some of the enemy attacked near 
the breach, where Alexander was, others at the 
triple gate, the last place the Macedonians looked 
for a sally. Some flung torches at the siege engines, 
and anything else which might light a flame and 
spread it to the utmost ; but Alexander's immediate 
supports counter-attacked vigorously ; large stones 
were hurled by the engines from the towers, bullets 
were showered in volleys, and the besieged were 
fairly easily repulsed and fled back to the city. 
They suffered a good deal of loss, proportionate to 
the number of the attackers and the boldness of their 
sally. Some fell in hand-to-hand fight with the 
Macedonians, others about the fallen wall, the 
passage being too narrow to admit such a number 
and the fallen parts of the wall making it difficult 
to pass over them. 

As for those who sallied by the triple gate, 
Ptolemaeus, captain of the bodyguard of Alexander, 
met them, bringing up the battalions of Addaeus and 
Timander, and some of the light troops ; these too 
fairly easily drove back the sallying party. This also 
suffered in the retreat over a narrow bridge thrown 
over the moat; the bridge gave way under their 



Xou9 avTcov 69 T^i^ Td(j)pov ifiTreaovraf; tou? fiev vtto 
a<p(ov KaTa7raT7]0evTa<; hLa^OaprjvaL, rov^ he koX 

6 avwOev vtto twv MaKehovwv ^aXkofievov^. 'O 
7rX6t(7T0? he (^6vo<i irepl ral^ TTv\ai<s avral'^ 
^vveffrj, OTi T) ^vyKXeia-i<; tS)V ttvXcov (jyo^epd re 
Kal TTpo rod Kaipov yevop^evrj, heiadvTwv pur} 
avveiarreaoiev TOt? (ffevyovaip exopLcvoL avrcov ol 
M.aKeB6pe<;, ttoXXou? kuI tmv (jaXiwv Trj<; elaohov 
d-neKXeLO-ev, om irpo^ avroL<; rot? reix^aiv ol 

7 Ma/ceSoj^e? Bcecpdeipav, Kal irap oXiyov rjxev 
dXoivav rj TToXt?, el pur) ^ AXe^avhpo^ dve/caXidaro 
TO (TTpdrevpia, ert hiacTMaaL eOeXwv rrjv ' AXiKap- 
vaaaov, ei n ^IXiov evhodeir} €k twv ^AXiKapvacr- 
aewv, ^KireOavov he tcov pep eV t% TroXew? e? 
%tXtou9, T(op he ^vp ^ AXe^dphpw dpLJn toi'9 
reaaapdKovra, koI ep tovtol^ VLjoXepalo^i re 6 
acoparo^vXa^ Kal KXeap^o^ 6 To^dpxv<; Kal 
'A8Sato9 X''^^^PXV^' ovTOL Kal dXXoi tcjp ovk 
rjpeX7]pLep(op M.aKeh6p(OP, 

XXIII. "Ei/^a hrf ^vp€X06pTe<; ol r)yepb6p€<; tmp 
Ilep(T(op, 'OpoPTO^dTT)<i T€ Kal Meppcop, Kal eK 
Tiop TrapoPTCDP ypopre^ a^d<; re ov hvpapuepov^ 
eirl TToXv dprex^tP rfj iroXiopKia Kal rov T6t%of9 
TO p,ep TL KaraTreTTTcoKo^; rjhr) opcoPTe*;, to he 
KaTaaeaeiapepop, ttoXXov'; he tcop aTpartcoTcbp ep 
TaL<; eKhpopal<i T0v<i pep hi€(f)Oappepov<;y tou9 he 

2 Kal VTTO Tov TCTpwaOaL aTTopdxpv^ 6pTa<;, Tavra ep 
po) Xa^6pTe<; dp(f)l hevTepap ^vXaKrjp t^9 pvkt6<; 
TOP T€ ^vXlpop TTVpyop OP avTol dpTWKohopbrjaap 
Tat9 pbrjxavcu^ tcop iroXepiwp epTmrpdai Kal tcl^ 

3 <7Toa9 ep at9 tcl ^eXrj avTol<; direKeLTO. ^F^pe^a- 
Xop he Kal Tat9 olKiai^i irvp rat? irXrjoriop tov 


numbers, many fell into the moat, some were trampled 
by their comrades, some the Macedonians shot down 
from above. The greatest slaughter was round about 
the gates themselves; for the gates were shut 
prematurely in panic, the defenders fearing lest 
the Macedonians, pressing hard upon the fugitives, 
might enter also ; thus many friends were shut out, 
to be destroyed by their foes close to the walls. The 
city indeed came near to capture, had not Alexander 
sounded the retreat, desirous even now of saving 
Halicarnassus if the citizens would surrender without 
further hostility. About a thousand of these 
perished, of Alexander's forces about forty ; among 
these were Ptolemaeus, captain of the bodyguard, 
Clearchus, in charge of the archers, Addaeus, a 
captain of thousand, and other Macedonians of 

XXIII. On this the leaders of the Persians, 
Orontobates and Memnon, met and decided that 
as things were they could not long hold out against 
the siege, with part of the wall gone, as they saw, and 
part badly shaken, many soldiers lost in the sallies, 
many disabled by wounds. Reviewing all this, 
about the second watch of the night they burned 
the wooden tower which they had built to oppose 
the enemy engines, and also their armouries. They 
fired as well all houses near the walls, others caught 



rei')(pv^' T(ov Se koI it pocnj^jraro rj <^\o^ airo re 
Twr arowv Ka\ tov irvp'yov iroWrj iireve^Oelaa 
Kai Ti Kol TOV avi/iov ravTjj eVt^e/joz^TO?* avTOOv 
Se 01 fiev €9 T7JV ^ApKOVvrjcrov tt7r€%a)/3?7crai/, ol Be 
69 T^i^ ^aXfiaKiBa uKpav ovtco KaXovfieprjv. 

4 ' AXe^dvBpw Be a)9 airrjryyiXdrj ravra €k riva>v 
avTo/JLoXrjadvTcov eic tov ep<yov, Kai to irvp ttoXv 
fcaOecopa avT6<;, KaiTOi dfjucjn /jL€aa<; irov vvKTa^ 
7)v TO r^uyvofievov, 6 Be Koi ft)9 i^dycov tov<s MaK€- 
B6pa<; T0U9 fi€v eTt ijJLinirpdvTa^ ttjv itoXlv cktci- 
vev, oaot Be iv Tat9 oiKiaL^ fcaTaXa/uL^dvoivTO 
Twv ' AXi/capvaaaecov, tovtov<; Be a-cio^eiv Trapijy 

6 "HSt; t6 60)9 virecjyaLve koX KaTtBoav Ta<^ dxpa^i 
a<; oX Te Yiepaai koI ol /xiaOocpopoL fcaTecXij^ecrav, 
TavTw; fiev aTreyvco iroXiopKelv, TpL^rjv tc ein- 
vowv ovtc oXiyqv ecreaOai ol dp^cf)* avTa<; Trj (pvaet 
Twv 'X^coplcov Kol ov TTapcL p^kya elvai e^eXovTi ol 

6 Tr)V ttoXlv i]Br) irdaav. Sdyjra<; Be tov<; drro- 
6av6vTa<; iv ttj vvktl, Ta9 p^ev p.rj^^avaf; 6? 
TpdXXei'i aTTayayelv exiXevcre tov<; iir avTol^i 
T€Tayp.evov<;' avTo^ Be ttjp ttoXiv €t9 e5a^09 
KaTaaKdy\ra<;, avTTj^ re TavTr)<: koI Trj<; aXXr}<: 
Kapia<; (f)vXaKr]v iyKaTaXcirayv ^€vov<; puev 7refoL'9 
T/3tcr%tXtoL'9, linrea^i Be 6*9 BiaKoai,ov<; koI IlToX-e- 
p,alov r^yepova avTcop, iirl ^pvyia^ icTTeXXeTO. 

7 T^9 Be KapLa<; ^vp^-rrda-r)'; aaTpaireveiv era^ev 
"KBav, OvyaTepa p,ev 'E/caTOytti/co, yvvaiKa Be 
^iBpieax;, 09 Kai dB€X(f>o<; avTrj wv KaTa vopbov Ta>v 
Kapcjv ^vvcpKei. Kat 6 p,ev *lBptev<; TeXevTcov 
TavTj} eireTpe-y^e to, irpdypuaTa, vevopnap^evov iv 
TI] 'Aala eTL dirb Xep^ipd/jceco^; Kai yvvaiKa^ dpxeiv 


fire from the armouries and the tower, where it 
burned furiously, the wind wafting it in this direction l 
as for themselves, part retreated to the citadel on 
the island, part into the height called Salmakis. As 
soon as this news was reported to Alexander from 
some who had deserted after the disaster, and as he 
himself saw the fire spreading, though it took place 
about midnight, none the less he called up his 
Macedonians and put to the sword any incendiaries 
caught in the act, while advising that any citizens 
found in the houses should be saved. 

Dawn was breaking; and observing the heights 
which the Persians and the mercenaries had seized, 
he decided not to besiege these, considering that 
it would mean much delay round about them, owing 
to the nature of the ground, and no great advantage 
now he had captured the whole city. He buried, 
therefore, those who had fallen during the night, and 
ordered the troops detailed for the purpose to with- 
draw the siege engines to Tralles. Then he razed 
to the ground the city and left as a garrison for this 
city itself and for the rest of Caria three thousand 
mercenary foot and two hundred horse under Ptole- 
maeus; then he set out for Phrygia. As satrap of 
entire Caria he appointed Ada, daughter of Hecatom- 
wife of Hidrieus. who according to Carian custom 
was both brother and husband. Hidrieus on his 
death had handed over affairs to her ; from Semiramis 
down, the Asians had been used to women rulers. 



avhpSiV. IIi^(oBapo<; Be Tr]v fiev eK^aXkei t^? 
ap)(^fj<;, auTO? Se Karel^e ra Trpdyfiara. TeXev- 
TrjcravTO'^ he Hi^coSdpov, ^Opovro^dr't^'i rr)V 
KapMV dpxv^ ^K^ fia(rL\€(o<; Trefx^Oel^ ^^X^» 
yafM^pb^ MV fJi^coSapov. "A8a Be "AXtvBa fiovov 
Kar€L)(^e, 'X^coploj/ t^? Kapla<^ ev toI<; 6')(vp(i}TaT0v, 
KoX i(T^a\6vTi ^ A\e^dvBp(p e? Kapiav diri'^vra, 
rd T€ ^'AXivBa evBiBovaa zeal iralBd ol riOe/jiivrj 
^AXe^avBpov. Kat *A\€^avBpo<; rd re "AXtvBa 
avrfj eVeT/oei/re koI to ovofia rov 7rat5o9 ov/c 
dirrj^lcoae, kol iTreiot) * AXiKapvaaaov re i^elXe 
Kol T^9 aXkr)<; K.api>a<i eTTCKpdrrjaev, avrfj apx^cv 
dirdaTj'; eBcoKe. 

XXIV. Tft)i^ MaKeBovcov Be eariv ol avvearpa- 
reufievot * AXe^dvBpw rjaav veooarl irpo rrj<i arpa- 
reia^; yeja/jL7]K6T€<;' koI rovrcov eyvw ov/c d/uLeXyrea 
etvai OL AXe^avBpo<;, dXX^ eKTrepbirei yap avroif^ 
€K Kapta? Bia')(^ei/jLdaovra<; ev MuKeBovia dfia ral<i 
yvvai^LV, €7rird^a<i avrol<; liroXefxalov re rov 
^eXevKov, hva roiv aw/j,aro(pvXdKcov rwv ^aaiXi- 
KMV Koi ra)v arparrjyoiv \s.olv6v re rov lloXefxoKpd- 
rov<; KoX MeXiaypov rov NeoirroXe/uLOu, on /cal 
avrol ro)v veoyd/jicov yoav, Trpocrrd^af;, eireiBdv 
avroL re eiTavKoai koI rou<^ fierd crcfycov iK7r€/ji(f)dev- 
ra^ eiravdywai, KaraXe^at tTTTrea? le koI 7re^ov<; etc 
rrj<; x^pa^ oaov^j irXeidrov^. Kat rw epyw rrpBe, 
etirep rivl dXXo), evBoKi/jbrjae irapd MaKeBoaiv 
^AX€^avBpo<;. ^'Eiirepu-y^e Be kol KXeavBpov rov 
UoXefiOKpdrov; eirl ^vXXoyfj arpariwrcov el<; 


Ilapp,€VLo)va Be TrepLTrec eirl ^dpBecov, Boix; avrw 
ro)v re eralpcov l'mrap)^iav koI tol'9 %erraXov<i 



Pixodarus, however, turned her out of her position 
and assumed the throne himself. On his death 
Orontobates, as envoy from the king and brother-in- 
law of Pixodarus, took over. Ada meanwhile held 
Alinda only, the strongest fortress of Caria; and 
when Alexander entered Caria she went to meet 
him, surrendering Alinda and adopting Alexander 
as her son. Alexander gave Alinda back to her in 
charge, and did not reject the adoptive title, and on 
the capture of Halicarnassus and the rest of Caria, 
put her in command of the whole. 

XXIV. Some of the Macedonians serving under 
Alexander had been recently married before taking 
the field ; Alexander thought he ought not to neglect 
these men, but sent them off from Caria to spend 
the winter with their wives in Macedonia, putting 
in charge of them Ptolemaeus son of Seleucus, one 
of the royal bodyguard, and attaching to him, of the 
officers, Coenus son of Polemocrates and Meleager 
son of Neoptolemus, being themselves bridegrooms. 
He directed them, when they should return and bring 
back their convoy, to collect horse and foot from 
the country, as many as they could. Alexander 
gained as much popularity by this act among the 
Macedonians as by any other. He sent also Oleander 
son of Polemocrates to collect troops from the 

Parmenio he sent to Sardes, giving him a squadron 
of the territorial cavalry, the ThessaHan cavalry, and 



iTTTrea^ /cat tov<; dWov^ ^v/jUfjbdxov^ koI ra^ 
dfjLd^a<; dyeiv koI Kekeveu irpolevaL cltto XdpSecou 
eVt ^pvyiav. Auro? Be iirl AvKia^i re /cal 
IIa/ii(f>v\La<; fjei, ax; ttj^s TrapaXlou fcparrjcra^; 
d'X^pelov KaTaaTTjaai rotv iroXefiloi^ to vavTL/cov. 
Kat TTpMTov fJL€P 6V TTapoBo) "TiTapva, %«/0tOJ/ 
6}(yp6v, (f)v\aKr)v €)(^op ^€vov<; pLLado^6pov<^, i^ 
icpoSov eXa^€V' ol 5' eV r?}? dicpa^ ^evoi viroaTTOvBoL 
i^rjXOov. "EireLra elafiaXoov e? Av/ciav TeX/jbta-- 
aia^; p^ev 6p.oXoyLa Trpoarjydyero' Trepdaa^ he tov 
Btdvdov TTorapov Uivapa /cal AdvOov rrjv itoXlv 
KoX Udrapa evSoOevra eXa/Se Koi dXXa iXdrrco 
'iroXi(rp,ara eV rpid/covra. 

6 Tavra KaTa7rpd^a<i iv aKp^fj ijSrj tov )(€Lp,(OP0^ 
e? TTjv MiXvdSa KaXovp^evrjp ')(^u)pav ela^dXXec, f) 
ecTTi p,ev T^9 peydXr)<i ^pvyla^, ^vveriXei he e? 
rrjp AvKiap rore, outco? iK ^aacXe(o<; peydXov 
rerayp^epop. Kal ipravOa ^aa-qXiTcop '7rpea/3ei,^ 
rjKOP wepl (f)LXLa<; re fcal ')(^pv(Ta) arecfjdpu) are- 
(^avoiaai ^AXe^apSpop' /cal virep rwp avrojp 
i7nK7]pvKev6p,€Poi, eTTpea^evop Av/clcop ra)P /cdrco 

6 ol TToXXoL 'AXefai/S/jo? Be (PaarjXiraf; re /cal 
AvKLov<; irapaBovpai rd^i 'jr6Xef,<; toI<; iirl rovro) 
aTeXXopL6Poi<; eKeXeuae' /cal 7rapeS6dr]aap ^vp^ira- 
aai. Auto? Be oXiyop varepop e? rrjP ^aarjXLBa 
irapayepopevos: avpe^aipel avrol^i (ppovpiop 
6)(vp6p, i7nTeT6LXi'O'P'€P0P r^ X^P^ 7rpo<; Iliat- 
Bcop, 69ep 6pp,oipi€POL ol ^dp[3apoL iroXXd e^Xair- 
Top TOdv ^acnjXtroiP tov<^ Tr)P yrjp epya^op.€POV<;. 

XXV. "Ert Be avTW irepl rrjp ^aarjXlBa optl 
i^ayyeXXerai ^ AXe^apBpop top ' Aepoirov eiri- 
^ovXeveip, rd re dXXa tcop eraipcop opra /cal 


Lycia and Pamphylia, so that he might control the 
coast, and thus render useless the enemy's navy. 
First then on his route he took in his stride Hyparna, 
a strong place, with a mercenary garrison ; but the 
mercenaries, receiving terms, marched out of the 
citadel. Then entering Lycia he took over, by 
surrender, the Telmisseans ; crossing the Xanthus, 
he received Pinara and Xanthus city and Patara in 
submission, and thirty smaller strongholds. 

When he had completed all this, in the height of 
winter, as it now was, he attacked the Milyan terri- 
tory, as it is called ; it belongs to Greater Phrygia, 
but was reckoned then as part of Lycia, according 
to the great king's orders. There envoys from 
Phaselis come to offer friendly relations and to crown 
Alexander with a gold crown ; taking the lead from 
them the greater part of Lower Lycia also sent 
envoys. Alexander bade both the envoys of Phaselis 
and the Lycians to hand over their cities to those 
whom he despatched to take them over; and they 
were all duly handed over. He came soon after 
to Phaselis, and took, in conjunction with these, 
a strong outpost, built to threaten this district by 
Pisidians, and from which the natives often did 
much injury to those of Phaselis who were tilling 
the ground. 

XXV. While Alexander was still busied about 
Phaselis, he received news that his namesake, son 
of Aeropus, was meditating treachery — one of the 
** Companions," ^ and at the moment commanding 

' See Introductory Note. 



ev rw TOTE SecrcraXcov t?)? Xttttov ap^^ovra. Hv 
fjL€V Br) 6 ^A\6^avSpo<; outo? aS6\cl)o<; 'Hpofievovf; 
r€ Koi ^Appa/3aiou tcov ^vveircXa^ovTcov ry<i 

2 (T(l)ayrj<; t?}? ^iXIttttov' koI Tore alriav a')(0VTa 
avTov 'AXi^avSpo^ d(j)rj/c€Vy on ev 7rpa)T0i<i re 
d^LKCTO T(ov (f)L\a)v Trap avrov, eTreiSr} ^^/XtTTTro? 
ireXevrrjae, fcal top OoopaKa avvei'Sv^; avvyjKO- 
XovOr)(T€v av7(p eU ra ^aaiXeiw varepov Se kol 
iv TL/my dp,^^ avTov eZ^^e, aTpaTr]y6v re eVl 
SpaKi]<i arelXafif koI iireLBr) KaXa? o toji^ 
SerraXMv 'iinTapxo^ eirl aaTpaireia i^e'iTep(fi6r), 
avTov direSei^ei^ apyeiv tt)? %eaaaXLKrj<; 'iinTOV. 
Ta he T% eTTC^ovXrjf; e^TjyyeXOr) ci)Se. 

3 AapeLO<i, eireiBr} 'Ayuwra? avTopoXr}aa<; Trap 
avTov X6yov<; re nva^ koi ypdppara irapa rod 
^AXe^dvSpov TOVTOV CKopiae, KarairepTTeL iirl 
OdXaaaav XiaLvrjv, dvhpa Ueparjv rcov dp(f> 
avTov TTLdTov, TTpoipaaiv pev irapd ^ArL^vrfv, top 
Opvyia<i aaTpdirrfp, tjj Be dXrjOeia tm ^AXe^dp- 
Bpcp TovTM avpeaopepop koX Trtaret? ScoaovTay 
el diTOKTeipeL ^aaiXea ^ AXe^avBpop, avTOP /3a- 
aiXea KaTaaTi]cretP t?}? Ma/teSoi'ta? koX ')^pvaLov 
TuXavTa Trpo^ Tjj ^aaiXeia eTTcBayaeiP ^tXta. 

4 *0 Be ^Laipi}^ dXov<; tt/jo? VLappepiwvo^ Xeyei 
Trpo? Wappevicdpa (op eveKa d-jreaTdXr]' kol tov- 
Tov [avTiKa^ ip (jyvXaKr} irep^Tret Ylappeptcop irap 
^AXe^apBpop, kol irvvOdveTai TavTa Trap avTOV 
*AX€^apBpo<;, XvpayayoDP Be tou? ^iXov<; povXrjv 
nrpouTiOrj 6 TV ')(^pr} virep 'AXe^dpBpov yvoopai. 

5 Kat eBoKeL toI^ eTaipoi^ prfTe irdXai ev ySe- 
^ovXevaOat to KpdTicTTOV tov LTririKov dpBpl ov 
iriaTM e7rtT/36A^a9, vvp re ')(prjpaL avTOP xaTa 


the Thracian cavalry. This Alexander was brother 
to Heromenes and Arrabaeus, who had a part in 
the murder of Philip. Though he had incurred 
blame Alexander let him off for the nonce, since he 
had been among the first of his friends to rally to 
him on Philip's death, and had put on his cuirass 
and accompanied Alexander into the palace ; later 
Alexander had even held him in a post of honour near 
his person, and liad sent him to command in Thrace, 
and when Galas, commander of the Thracian cavalry, 
had been transferred to a satrapy, Alexander 
appointed him commander of the Thracian horse. 
The story of the plot was reported as follows. 

Dareius, when Amyntas deserted to him bringing 
overtures and a letter from this lesser Alexander, 
sent Sisines, a trusty Persian from his suite, to the 
coast. The pretext was that he was to visit Atizues, 
satrap of Phrygia, but in fact he was to meet this 
Alexander and give him certain assurances, if he 
would assassinate Alexander the King, that the 
Persian king would give him the throne of Macedonia 
and a thousand gold talents to boot. Sisines fell 
into Parmenio's hands, and revealed to him the 
cause of his mission ; and Parmenio sent him under 
escort to Alexander, who heard from him the same 
story. So he called together his friends, and held a 
council to see what should be decided about the 
traitor. The Companions held that Alexander had 
originally done unwisely in giving over the best of 
the cavalry to an untrustworthy officer, and that 



Tamo's eKiroScbv iroietaOai, irplv Kot iTrirrjBeio- 
repov y€v6/jL6VOv rol<; ©erraXol^ ^vv avrol^i ti 

6 vecoTepiaau, Kat ri xal delov e^o^ei avTOv<;, 
"Kti yap iroXiop/covvTO^; avrov ('AXe^civSpov) 
* AXiKapvaaaov avairaveaOai fxev ev p^eay/jL^pia, 
')(6kih6va he TrepLirereaOai virep tt}? K6^a\rj<i 
rpv^ovaav^ p,€ya\a fcal t^9 €vvri<^ aWrj kol 
dWj] KaOl^eiv, dopv^wheaTepov t) kutol to elcoOb^; 

7 aSovcrav, Tov Be vtto /cap^drov eyepOrjvaL p,ev 
dSwaTCi)^ e%€iz/ ix tov virvoVy ivo'xXovpevov he 
irpo^i Trj^ (pcoprj*; tt} %€t/9t ov ySapeco? aTroa-o^TJaaL 
TTjv 'xeXihova' ttjv Be toctovtov dpa Berjaai diro- 
(j^vyeip irX'qyelaav, wcrre eirl t/}? Ke(f)aXr]<; avTrj^; 
TOV ^AXe^dvBpov KaOrjpLevrjv p,r} irpoaOev dvelvai, 

8 irplv TravTeXoj'i e^eyep9i)vaL 'AXe^avBpov. Kal 

AXe^avBpo<i ov (f)avXov iroLrjcdp^evo^ to Trj<; 
^e\fc5o7''09 dveKOLVcocrev ^ApiaTdvBpw tm TeXp^iaael, 
p,dvT€r ^ApiaTavBpov Be ein^ovXrjp pev etc tov 
T(ov <j)iX(DV (Tr]p,aLV€aOai avTa> elirelv, crrjpaive- 
a$ai Be kuI otl KUTacpavrj'^ earaL' ttjv yap 
')(^eXiB6pa avvTpo(f)6v re elvai oppiOa kol evvovv 
dv Op (OTTO If; Kal XdXov p^dXXov r) dXXrjv opviOa. 

9 TauTtt Te ovv Kal to, diro tov Hepaov ^vvOeU 
irepTrei o)? Happ^evicova *Ap.^0Tep6v tov *AX,6- 
^dvBpov p,eu iralBa, dBeX(f>ov Be K^paTcpoV Kal 
^vp^irepireL avTO) t<ov UepyaCcov Tivd<; Tr)v oBou 
'qyrjaopevov'^. Kal o 'A/x^ore/ao? aToXrjv evBv<; 
iircx^copiov, ft)? p,rj yva)pLp.o<i elvai KaTo, ti^v oBov, 

10 XavOdvei dcfuKopeuo^i irapd Uappevicova' Kal 
ypdpp,aTa pbev ov Kop^L^et Trap' AXe^dvBpov ov 
yap eBo^e ypd<f)eLV virep ovBevo^ toiovtov i<i to 

^ TpiCovaav more accurate. Lucian, Tim. 21, 


he should now get rid of him as soon as possible, 
before he got too familiar with the Thracians and 
headed some revolt. They also were troubled by 
an omen; for while Alexander was still besieging 
Halicarnassus and was taking his midday rest, a 
swallow circled over his head chattering noisily, 
and perched here and there on his bed; its note 
showed more alarm than the usual swallows' twitter- 
ing. Alexander, from weariness, could not be 
awakened, but troubled by the twittering he gently 
brushed away the swallow; but the bird would not 
fly off when touched, rather it perched on Alexander's 
very head and kept on till Alexander fully awoke. 
Alexander, taking the incident seriously, reported it 
to Aristander of Telmissus, the seer; he replied 
that it meant treachery of some friend; but also 
the meaning was that this should come to light. 
For the swallow is a domestic bird, friendly to man, 
and a greater chatterer than any other bird. 

Putting this together with the Persian's story, he 
sent to Parmenio Amphoterus son of Alexander, 
brother of Craterus, and at the same time some 
Pergaean guides. Amphoterus wore a native dress, 
so as not to be recognized on the journey ; and so 
came safe to Parmenio. He brought no letter from 
King Alexander; it was thought unwise to commit 
anything to writing in a matter of this sort ; but he 



i^(f>ave<;' ra Se cltto <y\co(7<Trj(; ol ivreraXfjieva 
i^rjyyeiXe. Kal ovrco ^vWa/uL^duerai 6 'AXe- 
^ai'Spo<i ovTO<i Kal ev ^vXaxfj rjv. 

XXVI.^AX6^az/S/)09 Be dpa^; i/c ^aa7j\[8o<i, 
fxepo^ flip Tt T?}? aTpaTid<; Si a rwv opwv TrefiireL 
eVl Uepyrjf;, fj (hBoTreTroLrjKeaav avrw ol %paK€<: 
')(a\eiTr)v d\Xco<; Kal fiaKpdv ovaav rqv irdpoBop' 
avTO<; he irapa ttjv daXaaaav Sia rov alyLoXov 
Tjfye Tou? dpL(j> avTov, "Ecrri he ravTy y 6hb<s 
ovK dWco(; on jxrj rcov dir dpKTOV dvificov 
TTveovTOdV el he votoi KaTeyoiev, airopcd^; evet 

2 hid Tov alyiaXov ohoLiropelv. Tore S' eV votwv 
aKXrjpcov ^opeai ^ eirnTvevcravTe^, ovk dvev tov 
0€Lov, CO? avTo^ re Kal ol d/jLcf)' avrov e^yyovvTO, 
evjiaprj Kal ra^^elav ryv irdpohov Trapea^ovTl 'E/t 
ne/07779 he 609 Trpoyec, evTV'y')(^dvovcnv avrw Kara 
Tr)v ohov irpeapei'i ' Aairevhiwv avTOKparope^, rr)V 
fxev ttoXlv evhihovre^t (ppovpdv he jjlt] eladyeiv 

3 heojievoL. Kal irepl fiev t?79 <f>povpa<; TTpd^avre^i 
aTTTjXOov oaa ^ftouv, irevTrjKovTa he rdXavra 
KeXevet ry arparta hovvai avroU e'9 /iiaOov Kal 
Toi'9 LTTTTOvf; ov<; haa/LLov ^aaiXel eTpecpov. Ol 
he virep re tov dpyvpiov Kal tov^ Xirirov; irapa- 
hcoaecv ^vvOifievot aTrrjXdov. 

4 ^AXe^avhpo<; he eVt Xlhrj^ fjei. EtVt he ol 
^ihrjTaL KvfialoL €k Kv/xtj^; t7}9 AtoXiSo9' Kal 
ovTOi Xeyovaiv virep a(f)(bv Tovhe tov Xoyov, otl 
0)9 KaTTjpdv T€ 69 TTjv yrjv eKelvTjv ol irp&TOL ex 
Ki;/x?79 <TTaXevTe<i Kal eirl OLKLa/iia) i^e^rjaav, 
avTLKa TTJV p,ev 'EXXdha yXwaaav i^eXdOoPTO, 
evOv^ he fidpfiapov (peovrjv leaav, ovhe t(ov 

^ $oppcai A ; fioppat Suidas. 


gave a verbal message as directed. Thus Alexander 
was arrested and kept under guard. 

XXVI. Leaving Phaselis, Alexander sent part 
of his force through the mountain passes towards 
Perga, where the Thracians had made him a road, 
the round journey being difficult and long. He 
himself led his immediate followers along the coast, 
a route practicable only with north winds blowing; 
south winds make the passage along the shore 
impossible. There had been heavy southerlies, but 
a north wind had set in — this by divine interposition, 
as Alexander and his staff interpreted it — and made 
the passage easy and swift. As he went on from 
Perga there met him on the way plenipotentiaries 
from Aspendus surrendering the city, but begging 
it might not be garrisoned. This point they won; 
but Alexander exacted from them fifty talents for 
the army as pay and all such horses as they bred 
as tribute to the King of Persia. They agreed to 
hand over both, and so departed. 

Alexander now went towards Side, whose inhabi- 
tants are Cymaeans from Aeolian Cyme ; they give 
this account of themselves, that as soon as they 
reached that land, the first to leave Cyme, sailing 
thither to colonize, they forgot their native tongue 
and talked a foreign language straight away, and 



irpotrYtaptifp fiapfidpmv, aWk ihia¥ a^mp ouwm 
vp6<ru€v ov^atf rifp ^vtjp* leal itcrort ov Mark 

6 KaraXiifoiv Bt ^povpav iv [r^] Hitfit wpo^i 
iirl ^vWiOv, x^piop oxypcp koX ^poup^p iyop 
f€PMP luaBo^opmp icaX airriap rtap iwi^f^pimp 
ffapffdpwp, A XX* oirrt to ^uXXioy tff i^oSou 
avroaxthiov rjBvvif6ff Xafitlp, firn t« ^yy4k09i 
ain^ tca-^a rtjv ohop touv *Acir€phiovs Bn ov^p 
TCtfv (vyic€tp€PWP vpafai iBtKoitP, otir€ rovt 
tmrovs irapaBovpai roU wtfi^tlatp oirrt <&m/N- 
6firi<Tai rk XP7A<ATa, xal tA ix r^ X^*^* ^^' 
dpaffiCivatTdfitpot (^ rijp iroXip rds Tf wvXa^ 
dirotceKXdtcaat roU irap *AXi(dphpov, gal rk 
TfiYt; oirr) imroptjtcoTa ^p iwiaM€vdl^ovffi, lavra 
itvSofitPO^ iirl *\airiphou dp€(tvypv€P. 

XXVII. "iJticioTai S< T^ *A<rviphov ta fi9v 
iroWk iizl dicpa o^vpi Koi dworofA^, ical trap* 
auTTiP rijp dicpap 6 EvpvfUhmp irorapo^ p€i' 
tjaap Bk airroU Kal trtpi rj ojcpf ip r^ xOaiiaX^ 
ovK oXiyai oiVi^eif xal rtixo^ irtpitffiffKrfro 

t ainaU ov fUya, To pip Brj Tei;^©^ tvdv^, «V 
TTpoadyopra *A\«(avBpop tyvtoaap, ^KXilnovaip 
oaot iiroiKovp Koi ra? oUla^ oaa^ ip r^ X^cl' 
peCK^ tpKi<Tp€va^ ov/c iBoicovp Bia^vXdfai &p 
Bupacdai' avTol Bk i^ rr)p dxpav (up<f>€vyov<riP, 
*AXifoi Bpo*! B€ d><: d<pliceTo ^vp rj Bvvdpti, tiatt 
Tov iprjp^ov Teixov^ TrapeXOatp Karearparowi- 
Bevacp €p rat^ ol/ciai^ rai^ xaTaXeXtipfUpoi^ 

S irpo^ r(op ^AairepBitav. 0« Bi * AairivBun io^ 
elBov airrop re * AXk^apBpov irap iXirlBa rjxopra 
/cat TO arparoweBop ip icutcX^ a(f><op Trdprrj, 


thiit not the PersUn of the oatiYCS there, but their 
own idion, in fact, a new dialect; henceforward 
the dtiseni of Side had been to many ibreigiiefs, 
co otrai y to the wajrt oftbetrael ghb o uft . Alexander 
left a ipiard at Side and went on to Sjlllum, a 
fortified place with a fj^arriaoo of mercenaries and 
also of the natives of thoae parts. But he could 
not take Syllium in his stride, and, berides, H was 
reported 00 his march that the Aflpendlans were 
not minded to IbUil their obUgation a n ei ther to 
hand oirer the horaea to the par^ aent to fetch them, 
nor to pay the money ; naj, th^ had ^t their stuff 
n from the fields, had shut their gates upon Alex- 
ander's envoja* and were ffipa i riBf weak places in 
their walk. LeafBtay tiiia» Alexander marched 
towards Aapendaa. 

XXVII. This citj la boflt, ibr the moat part, on a 
strong height, sheer, looking over the River Eury- 
medon. Round this height* on the flat, thej had a 
numher of dwrlUngs and a nnall wall built round 
thrsr. This wall, so soon as they were aware of 
Alexander's approaeb, the inhsbitants deserted, and 
also the houses boflt on the level such as they thought 
t not possible to safeguard ; they all took refuge on 
tiie height. Alexander, arriving with full force, 
e nter e d within the deserted wall and camped in the 
empty booses. But the dtisens as soon as they saw 
Alexander himself arrived — ^just what they had not 
looked for — and his anny aD round them, sent 



wifAylratnt^ wpeafftK ihiovro «^' oUrtrtp ro wpo- 
repop (vfJiffijvai. Kal *AX<(av£po9 to Tt X^P^ 
oxvpov IBufv tcai avro^ Fok] ovk ivi ypQvtow 
woXioptciav iraptatcMvaa^iivc^t ^Vi to»9 aifrol^ 

4 fikv oifhk i^ (vptffy) irpo*t avrovr ofitjpov^ Bi 
Bovvai a^a>v rov^ hwaTtararovs iKtXMvat koX 
Toif^ iirirov^ otf^ irpoaBtv ^fio\6yi)aav leal iicarw 
rdXama atrrl r^v tnyri^icoirra, «ai wtiBiadai 
Ty carpdirp ry vw 'A\«(dtfSpov rax$ivri teal 
<p6pous airw^ipeiv oca fni MaM€S6<Ti, tcai Uwip 
rtp: "xiapa^ Siatcpi0TJinUt fjw ritv irpocx^p^i^ o^a¥ 
pia tcariX^iv iv alria ^av. 

ft n^ hi irdtna oi itrtx^p^op, dpi(€v(t¥ h 
mpyrfPt KuxtWiP 4^ ^Vpuyiap cap/i'/TO* tjp Bi 
ain^ Tf iropua wapa 'VtXfuaaop^ iroXip, Oi 
Bi dpBpunroi ovroi th fUP ytpo^ lltaiBtu tial 
ffdpffapoi, ;^(tf/Mov B^ oUovctp inrMpir^Xop xal 
wup-n) diroTofiop' Mai f) 6B6^ wapa rifp woXit* 

6 x'^^^^V' Ka^iJiC€< yap iic tyj^ iroXtta^ 6po^ €<rre 
iirl rrjp oBop, teal rovro flip ainov ip rj oBtp 
dvoiravtrai' dprinopop Bi avr^ opo^ aKXo iartv 
ov fuiop dtroTOfiOp, Kal Tatrra ra Bpnf Stairtp 
irv\a^ iroul eirl r^ oB^, koX tarip oXiyrf i^vXaMt/ 
tcarixopra^ ra oprj ratha diropop irouip r^f 
irdpobop, Kal Tore oi TeX/i«TO'ei9 irapBrjfiti 
iicffeffotjOqicoTe^ dfjuf>6r€pa r^ Sptj icareixop. 

7 Tavra Brj iBcap * AXifapBpo^ crpaToirtBevtadat 
avTOV 07ra>9 eI;^oy ixiXtve rov^ MatctBopa^, ypovs 
or I ov fiepovai 7rapBrjfi€l oi TcXfuaaeU avXt^o- 
fupov^ a<f>a<: iBopre^, dXX* dirox'^P'n^ovaiP i^ rr)v 

* Coins give Termeatiu, and Sintenis oorrecU to Ttf- 
ft^^vis, but the error ia |io«ibly Arriao'* (ao Kuoe). 



cAvojs and beg|^ to be allowed to nurfender 
on the old tennt. Alexander, teeing that tiie 
poaitioo was strong, and being himself not ready 
for a long siege, yet refused the original terms. He 
demanded their most Inittential men as hostages, 
and that thejr should hand over the horses they had 
pretionsly promised and a hmdred talents in place 
of fifty; that they should give obedience to the 
^atrap appointed by him, and pay yearly tribute 
to Maoedon ; an enquiry to be held, moreover, about 
the territory of their neighbours whkh they were 
aceused of having taken by violenee and now 

An now satisfactorily arranged, Alexander moved 
to Perga and thenoe began his march to Phrygia, 
which led past Tehnissus. The Tchnissians are 
Pisidiana in origint undvilixed, and inhabit a very 
lofty poaitioo, pre dplt o u s all round ; the road past 
the city b an awkward one. A height runs from the 
dty up to the road, and there ends ; but opposite is a 
height equally abrupt. These heights make natural 
gates on the road, and a small guard can cut off all 
approach by holding them. The Tchnissians on 
this occasion came out in full force and oocupied 
both heights. Alexander, seeing this, bade the 
Macedonians camp where they were, knowing that 
the T ehnt s si s n s» seeing them bivouacking, would not 


VOL. t. S 


iroXiv, w\i)<Tiov ouaav, ol iroWol avTVtPt ^trov Aw- 
\£ucf)» KaraXiTtoprt^ iirX roU ^/Mai. Kai (vi^iffti 
oiratf: eitca^tv^ oi fuv yap woXKtn avTMr awf)\0O¥, 
8 ai <^v\atcal Si iyxaTtfmvtuf. Kxu iwl rovrov^ 
tvOu^ dvaXafitinf rov^ Tf Tofarac teal rac tA> 
dxovri(rr»¥ raftK ttal t«»i» oirXtrAp Saot kov» 
^orepot, iirrp/ayw. Oi Ik owe KfiMtvap fiaW^- 
luvoi, aXKk iKiirop to xtupioy koX *A\Jfa¥hpa^ 
virtp0a\»p T^ artvik wpo^ rj woXn Martarpa- 

XXVIII. Koi imavBa a6iKou»rtu nap avrop 
SeXTCwv irpiafi€i^, Oi 5tf tiCi xal airro^ UteLla^ 
/3dp0apoi ical ttoXiv fuyoKffp oUoOai teal fui- 
%i/io^ ffiViv 5ti £c iroX€fUoi tok TcXfAio'tf'fO^iy 
€ic iraXaioO irvy^apoy, inrip ^iXia^ wpa^ 'AXi- 
(aphpo¥ ir€Trp€aP€VfU90i ^ay. Kai irpov toi;- 
T0U9 air€i^5rrai * KXl^avSpo^, koX iic rovrou iri<r- 

2 T049 ^9 awaina ixfirjaaro, T^i» TtX/iia^roi' S< 
dirtypw eXctv Av ^i* 0X17^ ypoy^, aXX* ^irl ^070- 
Xa<7<rot) (areWtro. *Hi/ d< /rai atrri; ov fUKpk 
iroki^' Hiaihai leal raurrjv ^tcovv, teal ihoicow 
irdirrtov WiaiSctv fia^ifuav ovrtav avtoX elvai ol 
fiax^fjuoTaror /cal tot* top \o<^ov rotfirpo rfpi tro- 
Xcw^, OTi teal ouro^ ov fUiop rov tmixov^ ox^po^ <V 
TO dirofuix^cOiu ^v, »caTit\rj<f>6T€^ TtpoctfUvov. 

3 *A\e^ap^po^ Si rrjv fuv <f>d\ayya r&w Ma/re- 
Sovw rdrrei uihe. 'EttI fuv rov Se^tov fciptos, 
iva icaX 01/T09 iTTtriraierOt tov^ vnaafrtaras 
elx^Pf €Xop-€vov<; Sk rovrtotf rov<; Trffirrotpovs 
lo"T« iirl TO €va>vvfiov irapareLva^, «iK kicdaroifi 

* Sintenia tUtka^r, but here m elsewhere ArrUn does not 
obaerve Attic preciaioiL. 



wait there in force, but would, for the most part, 
drift away to the dtj close bj, leaving on the heights 
only a guard. Hit goeaa proved right; moat of 
them moTed off, the guards remained. At once 
briagiiif iq> against them the aichers, the javelin 
b a ft^ltens, and the Ughler-dad men-at-arms, he led 
them against the eoemj, who at the first voUejs 
gave ground, leaving the podtioo, on which Alexander 
passed the narrow passage and eneampcd near the 

XXVIII. At this point arrived envoys from the 
Belgians, who are also native Pisldians with a large 
city, a warttke people ; they had been lor some time 
at enmity with the Tetmlssians and fo had sent an 
embassy to Alexander to ask for hit fricndihip. 
Alexander grantrd their wish, and found them wholly 
trustworthy allies. He condoded that a siege of 
Telmi»us would be a long one, and 10 moved on 
to Sagalassus, also a fairly large city, inhabited by 
PisidianB, the most warlike of this warlike tribe; 
they then occupied the hill in front of the city which 
was as strong for defensive operations as the wall 
itself, and held their gioand. Alexander therefore 
thtts deployed the Macedonian phalanx; on the 
right wing, his own post, he had the bodyguard, and 
in touch with tliem tlie territorial foot, right up to 



riitf arpartfywp ij tirft^via tij^ to^mk hf Tf T^i 
I 'jfnepa Tjv, 'Kiri hi r^ tCtf^vfi^ i'wrra^w ifftfiova 
'AfiiWav Tov * kpoa^aiov, \\pO€TdxOfiaa¥hk avrty 
rov fuv B€(iov ictp»^ OA TC ro^oTOi xtd ol *Aypt 
av€^, rov Bi 9vt»vvfiov oi aKOtrrtaraX oi Sp^ictx, 
tov riytiTO ^irdXxrj^' ol y^p iwwtU avr^ aCn 
oH^XifiOi iv ry hvayt^f^a ^a¥, Toif HiCihiU^ tk 
KoX TtXfuaatU npocff€ffini0^6r9^ avwrra^amo, 
b *\\hri hk oi ufju^' ^AXtfop^pop wpoc/3€0\fiKort^ 
T^ 6p€^ oirep xartixov ol Flitf'iSai icar aino r^ 
dwoTopMrarop rij^ apohov ^cop, xal ip rointa 
hnri$€PTai avroU ol fiapfinpoi Xo^oi^ Kata 
icipa^ iKartpop, ff c^ai fUP tvwpocohmrarof 
tV, TOif woXtfuo^^ hk x'"'^'^^^*'^^^') 4 ^poafiaai^, 
Kal roif^ pip ro^ora^, ola 5^ otrrt atcpi/BA^ 
uiirXiapivov^ icai irptlrrov^ ir€\dcravra^t irpi- 
C y^aPTO, ol Bk *Ayptapt^ Ifptirop, 'Erjryi^ yikp 
ifStf Koi ff <f>d\ay( TtiP WaKthoPttP wpocrjyt icai 
irpo avrff^ * Kkt^aphpo^ i^aiptro, 'Hf Bi ip 
X€p<rip Tf pdxv f^kprrOt yvpvoi t« ol ffdpffapot 
opre^ oirXiTOi? irpoa(ff>€popro Kal irdprrt Kara- 
Tirp€ja/c6p€P0t eTTiwTOP, tpravSa Srj iytcXiPovai 

7 Kal dirkdavop pkp avrwp ^9 irevraxotrlov^'^ kov- 
<^oi yap 0PT€^ teed ifiweipoi rt^p ;^o»piMy od 
^^aXcTTOK d'rr€X<i>povp* teal ol MaxtBope^ Bik 
0apvTTjTa rSiP oirXtap xal direiplap t<op 6h<ap 

8 ov dappaXkoi €9 to Bi(o/ceip vjaap. *A\€(apBpo^ 
Bk ixopevo^ rojp ificvyovroiv rrjp iroXip a^Ap 
alpel Kark icpdro^. Teoi^ Bk (vp avTw KXkapBpo^ 
T€ 6 arpaTfjyos rwp ro^ortjp aTToOptjatcei xai rutp 

* Aft«r w^mtLxoeiovt KrOger and Root mark a lacuna, 
supplying ^rnvrn M ikiyi iK M fH^a^ (R.). 


the left wing, all under the iMtUlkm officers In the 
order of precedenoe Ibr tKe day. On the left he 
pUeed Amjntas ton of ArrslMietts in command. 
Then in advance on the right wing were potted the 
archen and the Agrlanet, on the left the Thracian 
javcUn-men, under Sitakes ; for the cavaby were of 
no OM to him in this narrow apace. Along with the 
Plaldiana were ranged TehnlMiant who had come to 

Alreadj Aleiander's JminHtaf^ troopa had thrown 
thoMdvci oo the hdgbt held by the Pitldiattmnd 
were now at the moat tteep part of the ateent; 
w her eon the Pftidiana attacked in amboteadet on 
either wing, where tbejr eoold best approach, and 
the Maeedoniana were moat hampered. They drore 
baek the archers, being lightly armed and in the 
advanced line; but the Agrianes held firm. For 
the Maeedonlan phalanx was eoming up, and 
Alexander himtelf waa vWble al Ha head. The 
battle becoming hand-to-hand, the unarmed natives 
charging hoplites were wounded, and falling on all 
sides, at length gave way. Some five hundred 
perished. Being light and knowing the country 
they got away easily ; the M a cedoni ans, from weight 
of armour and want of local knowledge had little 
heart for the pursuit. Alexander, however, kept 
on the heela of the fugitives and stormed the city, 
kiaing Cleandms, the commander of the archers, and 



Tovs dWov^ Utaiha^ ^r teal ri fiiv timi tup 

«fipovpiu)v Bui t^fiKt, Td Si OfAoXoyla vpotrtf* 

XXIX. v.i'jevOtv 3< ^€1 fVi ^lyi/yiav napa 
Ti7» Xifivtjv f oyofia ^Aaxavia, ip f Xkt^ 
irrfypvirrtu ainofidToi, koX rotnoi^ x/Avrai oi 
<Tri;^Mpioi, ovhi daXdaari^ ti ^i toi/t^ hiovrai' 
Koi d<^ttcv€irai h KtXaivd^ irf/iirraiof. *Ep Bi 
Ta49 KeXau'aU dxpa tjv irdyn) dworofAO^, md 
ravTfjp ^uXaMtj t€aTti)(tP isc rov aarpdirou ti}9 
<t>pvyia^, Kdp€^ fiiv xiKttH," EXXtjt'i^ 5i fuaBo^u 

2 poi iicarot', Kcu outoa wp^aff^voprai ira^j 
* KXi^fivhpop, iiraYY9W6fA9PO^, c* fifj di(>iJ€oir6 
a^iat fiorfitia ip ^fUpa f (vpixtiro, ^pdaaprt^ 
TTjp fjfitpap, 6t^ wapaid^coua^ to vm/noi/. Kal 
ISofe raura 'A\((dpBp^ v^cXi/iorre/Mi A iro- 
Xiopicilv dnopop irdpn) wpo<r^p€<T$ai r^p ampap, 

% Upo^ pk4P Bt) TaU KtXaipai^ <f>v\aKrjp /cara' 
Xc&TTCi arpaTiwTa^ i^ x^Xiov^ teal irtpratcoaiovs* 
Mciva? Si avTov tjfiipa^ hina ical aarpdirtfp 
aTToSf&faf ^pvyla^ * \vTvyopop rov <t>iXi7nrot;y 
€irl 8i T0V9 (vfifiaxov^ dpr itceivov arparrjyop 
hdXaxpop TOP *ApiVPTOV iirnd^a^, avTos iirl 
TopBlov i<n€\\€TO, Kal II a p^iti/itapi iTriareiXtp, 
dyopra dfia ol ttjp Bvvafup tfceurt dnavrdp* xal 

4 dirrjvra (vv rj BvpdfA€t Uapfiepitov, Kal oi 
peoyafioi 5< ol iwl MafceSopla^ araXiprts €49 
FopSiop r}KOP xal (vp ainoU dXXfj arparni 
KaraXex^^laat ^v rjye XiroXepalo^ t€ 6 SeXcuxfOf 
Ka\ Kolvo^ HoXefiotcpaTov^ xal M.€X€aypo<; 
6 NeoTTToXefiov, Trcfol fM€P Ma/ceBope^: rpiaxiXioi, 


•ome twenty otben. Then he attacked the remain- 
ing Pialdians, eaptoring many of their Ibrts and 
receiring the surrender of others. 

XXIX. Thence he paaMd bito PhrygU by Lake 
Ascania, where salt gathers naturally, and fit used 
by the inhabitants, who thus need no sea salt; in 
five days he reached Celaenae, where is a steep 
acropolis, held by a g a rriaon under the satrap of 
Phrygia, a thousand Cariaoa mud a handled Greek 
mercenaries. They sent envoys to Alexander, 
offering — in case help did not come to them on a day 
prerionsly appototcd this date they specified— to 
•arroider the posHioo. That Alexander thovght 
better than a siege of this unassailable position. So 
he left 1500 troops as a guard over Celaenae. Then 
he wttitcd there ten days and appointed Antigonus 
son of Philip satrap, and in his place as commander 
of the allies Balacrus son of Aroyntas : then he set 
out towards Gordium, ordering Parmenio to meet 
him there with his force, and so he did. The recently 
married Macedonians who had gone to Macedonia 
also made their rendexvous at Gordium, and with 
them a freshly levied army, led by Ptolemaeus son 
of Seleucus, Coenus son of Polemocrates and Meleager 
son of Neoptolemus ; there were 3000 Macedonian 



iwirtU hi i^ rptOMoaiov^ teal StcaaXAp IwwtU 
Btaxoaioi, 'HXciwi* Bk ticaTov maX mprtfMoma, 

9 To W VopBioif iirrt, /liv t^ ^ftvyia^ t^ i<^* 
'EXkTftnroyrov, ictirai Bi M rA livyyapi^ 
worafA^' rov Si lLaYf<iP^v ai fUP irifTai iic 

htBv^v x*^P^^ iflfjffty «K Toy EC(uro9 wotnop. 
*Ejnav6a xal 'KBfiwaimv wp€9fi€ia trap *Aki(ai' 
Bpop a^icrro,' Bto/t^PM *AXt(dpBpov Ji^wai 
a4>iCi Tov^ aixf*A>Mnovs, cS iwl Vpopuc^ worafif 
ikri^Bfiaav A&fiPaU»p (vcrpartvofupot roU 
Uipaai^ teal rort iw MaictBom^ ^ifv T049 Wx«- 
Xioi9 B€B€tUpoi ^cav KoX birto avrmp dwptucro^ 
6 ip r^ TOTC ainjXdop, Ov yap iB6ic§$ <i^^aXif 
civcu *A\M^dphpip, er* avptarino^ rov wpo^ top 
H^pfffjp iroXtfioVt aP€ipai t« tou ^ffov roU 
"EWtjffip oaoi ivainia tJ 'EXXa^i arpafMaBai 
tnrtp Twv fiappdp«»p ovtc dtrrj^Uaaap* iXX" 
dwoicpiPtrai, iirttBmf tA irapovra tcaXm yhnfrai . 
TOTC iitc€ip xnrip twp avritp irpi^fftvofUpov^, 


ANABASIS OF AT '^^X A Vi>«^^»> f 29.4-6 

foot, 300 bone, 200 Thrsviu.^n M.>r.o, 150 FJeiaiu 
under Alcias the Elean. 

GoffdiaiD, Tou mutt know, it in HcDcqpo n tine 
PhrjgU.on the river Sangarint, tiie tprinct <n whldi 
are in Phnrgia; it runt tfarongh BiliiTiiian Thrace 
into the Knxine. There alto an embaaay arrived 
from Athent begging Alexander to release to them 
Athenian pritoneri captured on the Granicus fighting 
on the Pertian tide and now under arreat in Mace- 
donia with the 9000 captlYCt. Tbdr requctt wat 
not, however, granted, and to they departed* 
Alexander did not think it wise, with the Pertian 
war itill in progrett, to relax anj terrort for the 
Greeks who had actually fought with for cigpcf t 
against Greece ; but he answeml that when ^Mt 
proved satisfactory they were to approach him a^aln 
on the same subject. 




I. *E/c Bi rovTov Mtf/*i^«»y rov Tt Murriirot' 
iravro^ ^€/im¥ iic fiaaiXitt^ Aaptiov KaBtartfic^^ 
teal rrj^ irapaXiov (v^Awd^ff^, m^ is MoMiBoviai' 
Tt ical rffv 'ILXKdha amcrphjtwv -rov woXtftov, 
Xiow fiiw \afA0dpti wpoBoaif ipMtteap* Mtp 
Bk M Aitrffov wXtv^as, ms ov wpoctlxop avr^ 
ol MiTuXv/yaibi, r^s aXXas woktts r^ hiafiov 

1 trpocfjydytro, Taxnas 6i wapacrrjadfttvins ical 
irpoffcx^v TJ MiTwXiTrn, rij» fUp woXtp \dp4itci 
hiirX^ itc BaXdaa^ eiv $d\aaaa» dirrrtix^at, 
arparoirtha h^ irant iironcohofitiadfitvos rffs 
yrjs itcpdrti ov ;^^aX€va»v. Kai fUpos fU» n rAv 
vtSiv lov XtfUva avrSiv i^vkaaatt ras hh iir\ 
r^v Sjcpav T^ Aiaffou to liypiov, Xva r) 
wpo<rfio\i) fuiXiffrd iart rais diro t€ Xiov xal 
Ttpaiarov icai MaX<a9 oKjcdatv^ dtroatttXas rov 
irapdirXovv iv ^v\a€J clj^cr, a>s fiij riwa axfii- 
\€iav tcarei ddXaaaav yiyptaOat tok M«ti/- 

t Xrjpaiois, Kal ip rovr^ avros fiiv voaip rcXcirra, 
KoX ettrep ri aXXo, ical rovro iv r^ rort efiXay^t 
ra ffaaiXetas irpdyfiara, Avro<f>paBdTrfs hk xal 
^apvd^a^os 6 *Apraffd^ov, ortp tcai iirerpt^ 
reXeuTtav 6 MiptKav ttjv avrov dpyrjv €<rr€ 
^apelov ri Inr^p avrrjs yva>vat, dB€\4>iO^ avrov 
ovrit ovroi rj rroXiopicia ovk uppdxrrtos wpoo-i- 

4 K€tvro. Kal ol Mirv\T)vaioi rijs re yfj^ tiprfo- 



I. It wm aAcr the above ercnts that Mcmnon. 
appointed by Dardoi cowmuiiider-in-ehief of the 
whole nary and of aO the eoMt-line, to at to divert 
the war into Macedonia and Greece, captured 
Chio*. delHrefcd oftr by tieaebefy; thence he 
tailed to L4sbot, and thoagh Mitjlene did not 
eooie over to him, he became master of the remaining 
citiet of Letbot. Ditpoting of thete. he put in at 
Mltjlene, and fenced otf the dt j by a double ttockade 
from tea to tea ; then he built five ttrategic campa 
and had no trouble in holding the ooantrj. Part 
of hit fleet guarded the Mit/lenean harbour; other 
thipt he despatched to the promontory of Leaboa, 
Sigrium, where cargo vfttcli trcm Chiot and Geraittut 
and Malea utuallj pot in, and to he patrolled the 
coatt, to prevent help from coming to Mitylcne bj 
tea. While thut engaged he fell ill and died ; the 
teverest blow during thb period to the hopes of 
Persia. Autophradatct, however, and Phamabaiut 
ton of Artabaxus, to whom, being his nephew, with 
his djring broath Memnon handed over hia command, 
till Dareius should take further measures, carried 
on the blockade vigorously. Mitylene thut barred 



fi€POi tctu airo OaXaacrj^ woXXai^ pavctp i^o- 
fxovaai^ ^povpcufifpot, wifi'^am^s wapa ro¥ 
^apvdffat^ov ofioXoyia^ iwoiriaavro, roi^ fuv 
^€vov^ rov^ wap* *A\((ayBpov 9^iV« Mark avfi- 
fiaxlav tiKOPja^ air§\fi€Uf, MtrvXtfvaiov^ ^ 
Ka0t\€i¥ pjkv Tk^ wpo^ *A\i^at>lp6i' c^iai 
y(vofi€va^ ajffXa^, fu/i/iuyot;^ Ik tli^ai Aaptlov 
Kara rrjv €iptjpriv rrjv iw* AuraXxiBov ytPOfUpffP 
wpo^ fiaciXia /^aptlop,^ rov^ ^vydBa^ Bk avrAp 
learUvai iirl roU t)fuatai ri»v r6r€ 6vrmp ore 

6 €4>vyop, 'Eirl rovroi^ fuv Br) »; (v^aat^ roU 
MiTuXfjvaioi^ vpo^ rous Uipaa^ ^vpijSfj, ^apvd- 
ffal^o^ Bt Koi Atnoi^paBdrif^, tifs irap!)XBop awa^ 
cfaM T^ iroX<M9» ^poupdp rt i^ avrifp tlar}- 
yayov teal ^povpapxop iw* aurj AvMOfit'fBtjp 
*Po6iov, fcal rvpoppov iyxariffrrfaap rp iroXtt 
^myitnjpt fva rvp ^vydl^v \pripard rt tlai- 
irpafap rov^ MirvXtfi'uiov^ rd fUy ffia u<^- 
Xoficpoi Touf l^otrra^, rd Bk i^ ro koivop 

II. Taura Bk Biawpa(dp€Poi ^appuffa^o^ fM4P 
irrXei cVi Avicia^ dytav rov^ (epov^ rov^ iuaOo<l>6- 
pov^, Avrod>paBdrrf^ Bk trrl rd^ dXXa<i vt)aov^. 
Kal €P rovrtp Karairefiirei Aa/xio^ SufuopBav 
rop Mifropo^, aurop pip rov^ (ipou^ irapd 
^appaffd^ov 'rrapaXrjy^optPop teal dpd^opra rrapd 
6aat\€a, ^apvafid^<p Bk ipovpra dp^eip oatov 

2 Me/xi/ctfi/ Vpx^' J^"* rrapaBous rovruy rov^ fci'ouv 
^apvdffa^of; crrXet rrap Avro<f>paBdrr}p irrl rd^ 
paifS' 'ft? Bi opov dyipopro, Btfca pip vav^ 

* Av«r«r Ellendt omiU ; the error \m pueeiblj Arriao'a. 
So aUo in IL 2 below. 



from the UodwarH side and watched 00 Uie seaward 
fide by a floHOa of blockading shipt tent to Phama- 
basot, and undertook that the mercenaries whom 
Alexander had despatched to fight for them thoukl 
be tent about their buslnett, that the Mityleneant 
should remore the pillars on which were inscribed 
thdr agrecmcfit with Alexander, and become allies 
of Darelai 00 the basit of the peace of Antalddat 
with King Dareittt, and that the exiles should return 
into poasewton of half the property heM at the time 
oftheirexile. Such were the tcrmaof the Mitylenetn 
agreement with the Perriant. Phamabasos, how- 
erer, and Autophradates, once within the city, 
brought in a garrison and set Lycomedes of Rhodes 
in command of it, and made Diogenes, one of the 
exiles, tyrant over the dty : they also exacted a fine 
from M ityleoe, taking part from the rich citixens by 
force, and the rest by a general tax. 

11. When they had made these dispositions, 
Phamabasus sailed towards Lycia with the mer- 
cenaries, Autophradates to the other islands. At 
this time Dareios sent Thjrmondas son of Mentor 
to take over the mercenaries from Phamabaxus and 
lead them to Dareios, and to instruct Phamabaxus to 
take over Memnon's command. Phamabaxus duly 
handed over the mercenaries to Thymondas, and 
sailed to join the fleet and Autophradates. On 
rcjoiniiig they sent ten ships to the Cyclades under 



ariXXovatp iwl r^f KvttXaSa^ vrfaov^ ^rdftifp 
dtfBpa Htpffffv ayotna, avroi Bk paviriw ixarop 
^l T€i4Bov €irK§vaav' icaT<uco^a0i¥r€^ tk rt}<: 
TtviBov (9 rov \l6p€ioif tcaXovtupop \ifuvu 
irifLirovci irapa roi^ 'Vtp^hlov^ «ai MtXtvovai 
T^9 ari^Xa^ ra^ wpos *AXi(a»BpO¥ teal roi^ 
"EXXijpa^ ytPOfiiPa^ a^iVi, ravra^ fihf KoB^Xtuf, 
wpo^ ^ap€lo¥ hk &ytt¥ rfjp €ipfivfi¥ ^y M 

9 ^KinaXtcilov Aapii^ aw^Buno. 'Vwthloi^ hk yk 
fitv rrj^ tvvoia^ h ^WifapBpop t« teal rovs 
"EXXffva^ hroU^ fiaXKop* iv 5^ t^ irapouri 
uTTopov aWm^ ihoKti ort /a^ wpoax^piiaapTan 
ToU XUpccu^ cm(§a6ai* ^irtl oM 'lly€\6x^$ 
ory wpoctTrroKTO inr *A\M(ap^pov atBi^ {i/ya- 
yay€ip hwaptp vatrrtKijp, rocaimj (vPfTf^i^ ^» 
ut^ Si* oXiyov irpoahoicaw iir€<T$tu &p <r^tai trap 
avrov rtfa uH^iXtiai', Otrrc» fA0P Si) oi afi^l 
^apt'dffa^ov rovs TtviSiov^ ^0^ fiaXXop tj 
iOiXovra^ irap€ari}aairro, 

4 *Ev Si TovT^ II/>o»Tea9 o *ApSpovitov irvyvavt 
fUP (vvayayupv (( Evffoias rt iceu II €Xowovutfcou 
pav^ fiatcpti^, vtro *Avriiriirpov rtraypiifo^, oK 
tipai riva raU re ptjcoi^ ^uXatcrjp icai aurfj rrj 
'RXXaBi, el, KaOdirep ifrjyyiXXero, itnirXeoiev oi 
fidpffapoi' irvOofi^vo^ he Aardfirjp irepi Hi^voi 
opfulp Seica pavclp, aino^ Vi"^^ rrepreicaideica 
puicTO^ updyerai ^rrl XaXxiSo^ rtj^ iirl ry 

6 Bv/7(7ra>* fcal irpoaa^^tov ^toOep KvBp^ t§ p^<r^ 
rijv pkv ijfi^pav avrov avXl^erai, a>9 aatf^earepop 
re hiairvd^adai ra rrepl rStv Sexa veiav xal ifta 
€P wKrl 4>off€p<t>T€pov TTpoaiTeaelp T049 ^oiPifiP' 
€09 Be epaOe aa<t>a>^ rop Aardp,Tjp (vv rai^ 



DaUmes, a PersiAo, while they proceeded with a 
huodred sail to Tenedoa. They reached the ** north 
harbour " of Teoedot and sent to the dty and ordered 
the destmctioo of the fancribed pillars of the agree- 
ment made bj Tenedos with Alexander and the 
Greeks, and the obsenrance of the Peace of Antal- 
ddat made with Dareios. The whole inclination of 
Tenedoa was towards Alexander and the Greeks; 
but at the moment there seemed no other hope of 
safety save in acceptii^ the Persian terms, since 
Hegelochus, who had ordera fifom Alexander again 
to assemble a fleet, had not raised a sufficient force 
to expect from him any speedy help. It was in this 
way rather by terrorism than by their will that 
Phamabaios received the surrender of the island 
of Tenedoa. 

Meanwhile Proteas son of AndnmicuB had col- 
lected from Euboea and the Pelopoonete certain 
ships of the line, as ordered by Antipatros, so as to 
be a naval guard to the islands and the mainland of 
Greece, supposing — as reports suggested — that the 
Persians should descend upon it. But learning that 
Datames was andiorcd near Siphnos with ten ships 
he pat to sea with (ifleen sail by night towards 
Clialds on tJie Euripus. Then at dawn putting in 
at the island of Cythnus, he lay there during the 
day-time, to get surer intelligence about the ten 
ships, and also to swoop down on the Phoenicians at 
night, which woukl scare them the more. Finding 
for certain that Datames was anchored at Siphnos, 



pavalif iv '^i^t'^ opfAovma, hrtw\tvaa9 ir$ 
pvitro^ %nr avrrj¥ rrjp /m xal dwpochox^TPtt 
iinii€ciap oKrit fuv vav^ ainoU avhpaav ikafi^^ 
^ardfU)^ hk furk hvolv rpifjpoly iy r^ wp^trjf 
wpoa-fu(€t rmv Sfta UptitTif kcmv ifw^M^vymv 
dwiaudfj wpo^ TO dXko va\mico¥, 

III. *A\iiavhpo^ hk tt^ U V6pB$w waprjXBt, 
iroOo^ \apfidv€i ainw di^^XBotna h rifp tUpa^, 
iva Koi Tti fiaaiXMta ^v rk Vophiov nai rot) 
iroiSov ainov Mi3ov» rffw a/taftuf IBtuf rov 
Vophiov KoX rov f^vyov rtj^ afuifrfs thv 1*9 fU», 

t Aoyo^ Bk w§pi T^ dfuifff^ iwmiq wapk ro«f 
wpoax**pOi^ woXv^ xaTMixi, VopSiop tliHU rmtf 
traXai ^pvyi»¥ &»tp<g wtt^ryra koX 6\iyffP fZwcu 
avri^ yrjp ipyd^€aBtu xal (tvyri 0<m9 Ivo* xal 
T^ fAtp dporpidp, T^ hk afAa(€V€ip top Vop^tow, 
]ai iroTff dpovtrro^ a^ov iinirrifpai ^wl top 
(uyop d€TOP /cal iirifulpoi iaT iirl fiovXurop 
Kadi]fi€vop' TOP hk iKirXayipra TJ Sy^ti Upoi 
Koiviixjopra tnrtp tov Btiov irapa tov^ TtXfuatritu 
Tov^ /uivTeif* tipai yap tov9 TcX/iiaacas. ao^v^ 
Ta deia iirfytlcdoi, iced ai^urip diro ytpov^ 
^Boadai avToU teal yvpai(l leal iraurl Tffp 

4 fiavTtiap. Tlpoadyopra Be ictop,^ rivl Totp TfX> 
fuaaivp ipTir)(€lv wapOtvtgt vBpevOfUprjt kcu irpo^ 
TavTtjp elireit' o7ro)9 04 to tov derov e<rx*' ''"'?■' 
hi {tlpai yap xai avrrjp tov fiaPTtKov yipov^) 
6v€tP iC€\€v<Tai T^ Ail T^ PaaiXtl, iiraptXBoina 
€49 TOP Torrov avTOP. Kal SerjOfjpat yap avrff^ 
VopSiop, TTjv dvaiap (vpeirKTirop^mfp oi avTrjp 
(^TjyijaaaBai, Ovtrai re oirtD^ (tceiprj vTTfTLOtro top 
VopBiop ical (vyy€P€a0ai iiri ydfi(p t^ jraiBi icai 

S kL 

ANABASIS OF ALRXAfa>ER, II. 2. 5-3. 4 

he sailed to tlie mtUck, night though it was, attadiing 
just at dawn wliea the eoemj expected nothing, and 
capturing eight ihlpt with their crewt; Datamcs 
with two triremes Bed nnofaaenrcd at the first charge 
of Proteas* thlpt and safely joined the rest of the 

III. Alexander, then, reached Gordiom, and was 
seised with an ardent desire to ascend to the acropolis, 
where was the palace of Gordius and his son Midas, 
and to look at Gordius' wagon and the knot of the 
chariot's jroke. There was a widespread tradition 
about this chariot around the countryside ; Gordius, 
they said, was a poor man of the Phrygians of old, 
who tilled a scanty parcel of earth and had but two 
yoke of oxen : with one he ploughed, with the other 
he drove his wagon. Once, as he was ploughing, 
an eagle settled on the yoke and stayed, perched 
there, till it was time to loose the oxen; Gordius 
was astonished at the portent, and went off to consult 
the Telmissian prophets, who were skilled in the 
interpretation of prodigies, inheriting — women and 
children too — the prophetic gif^ Approaching a 
Telmissian village, he met a girl drawing water and 
told her the story of the eagle ; she, being also of the 
prophetic line, bade him return to the spot and 
sacrifice to Zeus the King. So then Gordius begged 
her to come along with him and assist in the sacrifice ; 
and at the spot duly sacrificed as she directed, 



5 f€V€aBeu a\no7v iralha Midair 6vofUi. "Whti rt 
aphpa €lvcu Tov MiSav ita\o¥ maX ytpvaiop, tcai 
€v Tovjtp ardait tricffff^ai cV (T<f>i^$ tow9 ^pvya^, 
teal yeveaOai ainoU XP*f^f*^^ ^'''^ (i/iafa < 
ainoU ffaaiXia xal ori ovro^ ainoU tearawavati 
Tffp crdai9, *Eti 5^ irc^ avrSw rovrtaif fiov' 
XtvofUpoi^ i\0€Uf TOP Mifiay 6^0 r^ war pi 
xai T^ f^^pl ff^l iwtarTjyai t§ iicK\t}aitf avrf/ 

6 dfidfp. Tov^ Si ^fAfiaXopra^ to iiavrtlov tov- 
TOP iKtufOP ftfitPOi Spra opt tpa 6 Bto^ avroU 
€^pa^€P 6ti afti 17 a^^a* teal Karaarrjcai pAP 
avrov^ ffaffiXia top MlSap, WiSap Si ainoU r^i* 
ffjdaip Karawawrat, teal rtfp &fui(ap rov irurpo^ 
ip rj dtepa apa$upai xaptati^pia r^ Aii rj) 
0aciXti ^irl rp rov derou Trop^irrj. IIpo^ hi Bif 
rovrot^ teal r6S€ wtpl rff^ dpd^rj^ ifAvBgvrro, 
6c ri^ \vc€it rov (vyov t% dptd^tis rop Biaftop, 

7 rourop x^yoi ap(at r^v *Aaia^. *Hv Bi 6 
S«r/i09 €tc ^Xotov tepapia^, teal rovrov o&rt r^Xov 
ouTC dpxh if^prro. *A>J(aphpa^ Bi 09^ dwopta^ 
flip €tx€P ii€vp€iP Xvatp rov B^afiov, dkvrop 
Bi V€piiB€itf ovie rjdtXtt fjuij rtpa teal rovro h 
rov^ iroXXovv teiprjatp tpydarjrat, oi pip Xiyovaiv 
on iraiaa^ r^ (^^^ Buteoyfrt rop BiopLOP icai 
yjikwrOai ex^rj' *Apiar60ov\o^ Bi Xiyn i(e\6pra 
rop taropa rov pvpiov, h^ ^p rv\o^ BmffiffXrj- 
fUpo^ Bid rov pvpov Biaprrd(, trvvexeiap rov 
Beafwp^ €^€\Kvoai e^at rov pvp^v ro ^vyop. 

8 "Oiroi^ P'ip Br) irrpd^Orf rd dp^l rjt Btapto 
rovrfp * AXeidpBptp, ovtc ^« ItrxvpiaaaOai. 
*AirriXkdyrj B* ovv drro rPf^ dfid(ij<; avro^ re /cai 
ol dpL^ avrop tt»9 rov Xoylov rov ivl rj Xvan 


nuuried the girl, and had a son called Midas. Midas 
was already * grown man, handsome and noble, 
when the Phrygians were in trouble with civil war ; 
they received an oracle that a chariot would bring 
them a king and he would stop the war. True 
enough, while they were dlteofring this, there 
arrived Midas, with his parents, and drove, chariot 
and all, into the assembly. The Phrygians, inter- 
preting the oracle, decided that he was the man 
whom the gods had told them would come in a 
chariot ; they thereupon made him king, and he put 
an end to the civil war. The chariot of his father 
he set up in the acropolis as a thank-offering to Zeus 
the King for sending the eagle. Over and above 
this there was a story about the wagon, that anyone 
who should untie the knot of the yoke should be 
lord of Asia. This knot was of cornel bark, and you 
eouki see neither beginning nor end of it. Alexander, 
unable to find how to untie the knot, and not brooking 
to leave it tied, lest this might cause some dis- 
turbance in the vulgar, smote it with his sword, 
cut the knot, and excUimed, *' I have k>osed it! "^ 
so at least say some, but Aristobulus puts it that he 
took out the pole pin, a dowel driven right through 
the pole, holding the knot together, and so removed 
the yoke from the pole. I do not attempt to be 
precise how Alexander actually dealt with this knot. 
An3rway, he and his suite left the wagon with the 
impression that the oracle about the loosed knot had 



rov 5e<7/Aoi; avfAfftfirfKoro^, Kal yikp xal r^ 
pvtcro^ ^Kfivrf^ l^povraL tc ica\ oi\a^ t( ovpavov 
4w§<rijfxrjtfay teal iwl rovrot^ iOvt r§ vcrtpaif 
*AXi(afBpo^ roU ^tjva^i Otoi^ rd re afffuia icai 
rov B€afiov t^v Xvtny, 

IV. Ai/TO^ hi tJ v<rrtp<ua iir *\ytcvpa^ rik 
TaXartxtj^ iarikXtro* /rci««i avr^ wptfffitia 
a<f>ncv€irat Hai^Xayoifwv, to Tf fOpo^ iphihoirrt^v 
/col i^ ofAoXoyiap (v/A^aiyomttp* is Bi r^y vw/iay 

fl avv Tff Bvpd/i4i fi^ iaffaXtiv ihiorro. lovrois 
fiiv tri irpocrdcaei *AX<(avBpos vwatcovnp KoXf 
Ty aarodwjf rrjs ^pvyia^, At>TO^ Bk M rijs 
Kamraooicw iKdcas (vfiwaaav rijp ipro^'AXva^ 
worafMOu wpooffydyrro teal h$ vwip rhp "AXtm 
iroXXip. Karaani^as hi Kawwahoicmp l^Urop 
aarpdfTfjp, avros irporfygp €irl riv irvXas tA? 

t KiXiivuif. Kal d^ucopMPo^ inl to Kvpov rov 
fvv Eeyo^Mrri arparowihop, «9 KarrxofUifa^ 
T^9 vvXas ^vXa*cai^ icx^pdis tlht, Uapfitpimpa 
flip ainov garaXilirti ovp raU rd(€ai r&p 
vtl^Siv oaoi fiapvrtpop tarrXur^poi ^<rap' avro^ 
hi dfif^i vptirr)P ^vXaxtjp dpaXafitop rovs t« 
xmcurirurrk^ icaX rovs * Ay piaua^, trporjyt rrjs 
wicros fVl ras wvXa^, »? ov jrpoah€X0fUPOis 

i T0t9 ^vXa^iP iwiwiaetp, Kal irpoadytav pip ovtc 
eXa0€P, i^ taop hi avr^ xariarrj 17 roXpa. 0« 
yiip <^vXaM€S aicBop^poi *AXi(aphpop avrop 
tr pocdyopra, Xiiroyre^ rrjp <f>vXatcfjp (^^opro 
^€vyoPT€^, TJ hi varepaia &fia tJ Iftp (vp rj 
cvpdp^i irdorj tnrepffaXwv ra^ -rrvXa<i tcariffatvev 

6 is rrjp KiXixiap, Kal ipravBa dyyeXXerai av-rtp 
'Apffdfiris 0T4 irpoaBep flip iir€p6ei hiaacal^eip 


been duljr fulfilled. It is certain that there were thmt 
night thunderingt and Ughtningi, which indicated 
this ; so Alexander fai thanksgiving offered sacrifice 
next day to whatever gods had sent the signs and 
certified the undoing of the knot. 

IV. Next day Alexander set forward towards 
Ancjrra In Galatia; there an embsasy of Paphla- 
gooiant met him, giving snhmJmioo of their tribe 
and a gr e ein g to terms; they begged him not to 
enter their coantrj In foiee. Alexander instmeted 
them to take orders from Galas, satrap of Fhrygla. 
He himself marched to Cappadoda, received sur- 
render of all this country thb side of the River 
Halys and a good deal of the far side. He made 
Sablktas satrap of Cappadoda and poshed on to the 
GOiclao gates. When he reached the camp of 
Cjrros, who had been with Xenophon, and saw the 
Gates strongly hekl, he left Parmenio there with 
heavier-arnied foot battaliooSf while he himself, 
about the first watch, took the bodyguard, archers 
and Agrianes, and marched by night to the Gates, 
meaning to take the guards unawares. But his 
march was observed; none the lem, the enterprise 
raeeeeded; ibr the guards, finding that he was 
leading in person, left their posts and fled. Next 
day at dawn he pessed the Gates with his full force 
and descended into CQIda. There H was reported 
to him that Arsames, who had all along been anxious 



TlipiTtu^ Tfjp Tapcop, m^ Bi (nrtpff^ffXriMarra tjBrf 
T^9 iri/Xav ^vvOrro *A\t(apSpof, 4M\iirtl¥ tp p^ 
tlyt TVfP iroXip' Sthitpai ovp towv 'Xapcia^ fiff 
i^ ap^ayr)v rpawtU ourt rrfp cliroXfi^iy t^ 

6 Tapffov tro^tja-fjTOi, TciDra anovaa^ BpofA^ ^f 
i'nl TTjp Tape OP tow t« iirvia^ tral ri»p ^t\&p 
5aot KOtHhoraroi, &crt 6 *Apcd^ijs futSmp dirrov 
T^v opfiffp irwov^ ^vytt iit r^ Tap^'ov wapk 
fiaaiXia AapcSbr. oMp 0\dyfra^ rifp iroXtP, 

7 *AX<(ajr3po« B4, tk flip *AptCTO0ovkm X^ 
XtKTiu, (two xafiarov ipoatfatP' ol tk ti^ top 
Kvhpop irorrapop Xiyouai piy^avra pijfaadai, 
hfiBvprfcapra rov v^ro^, tipoupra icaX mavpan 
ivofiitpop. '() Bi KvBpos p€l hik ptfftf^ TT/f iroXcMC 
oLa S^ ^tc rov Taupov Spov^ rc$p fn/yw oi dwo-yoi/- 
aitp icaX hih X^P^^ xaBapov pi^p, >ltV)(po^ ri ian 

8 KoX TO 0&»/> tcaBapo^. ^iraa/i^ t< o^p txtaSai 
*A\i(apBpop leal Otppai^ iayvpaU xal Aypvwpt^ 
fi/w)^€i. Kal TOU9 pip aXXoi/9 tarpovs ovtc 
oUaBeu elpai ^uinnpop, ^tkimrop hi * Aicappapa, 
iarpop, fvpopra *A\t(dpBp(p tcai rd re dpi^l 
larptxTjp €9 T^ pdXiara marevofi^pop teal rk 
a\\a ovtc dhoKipop ip rip arpar^ Spra, KaBtjotu 
iOiXeip *A\e(apBpop ^appoM^' ical rop ict\tv€^p 

9 KaOfjpai. Top phf htf irapaa/eevd^etp rqp KvTuKa* 
4p rovTip Si *A\e(apSpip SoOrjptu iirtaroKrjp irapik 
l\apfi€vC<avo^ 4>v\d(aa6a$ ^Xnr'trop' uKOVtip ykp 
hu^dpBai inro Aapfiov ypripaaiv, taare <f>appdM^ 
airoicretpat ' AXi^apBpop. Top 5c. ttpaypoma rrjp 
iirtaroXrjp teal ert, p€jk xeipa^ exovra, ainov pip 
XafieiP rrjp tcvXuea €P p ^p ro ^dppaxop' ttjp 
imaroXrjp hi r^ ^iXxirtrtp Bovvai uvayviavai. 


to save Tmnus for the Penians, learning that he had 
paned the Gates, was minded to desert the dty; 
%o the Tarsiana were afraid be would plunder the 
dty before deserting it. Learning this, Alezandcr 
brought up at full speed the cavalry and the lighter 
mobile tioops, so that Arsames learning of his onrush 
fled to King Dareius without harming the dty. 

Here Alexander fell ill from fatigue; so at least 
Aristobulus says; others relate that he dived into 
the River Cydnos and had a swim, anxious for the 
bathe since be was forworn with sweat and hrat« 
The Cydnw rma right through the dty, and as its 
springs are in Mount Taurus, and it runs through 
open country, it is cold and dear. Alexander there- 
fore caught a cramp, and sofered from violent fever 
and <«*•""»"*• AH his physidans gave him up 
save Philip, an AcamanJan doctor, who attended 
him, very much trusted In medical matters, and, 
moreover, a brave man in the field ; he proposed a 
itrong purge; and Alexander bade him administer 
it. He made up the draught therefore; at the 
moment a note was given Alexander from Parmenio, 
'*Bewsr Philip! I learn that Dareius has bribed 
him to poison you." Alexander read the letter, 
held it in his band, took the gUss with the draught, 
and gave the note to Philip to read. At one and the 



10 Kal ofioO TOP Tf *\\i(apBpop mvtiP teal top 
^Kiwwop apayiPto<Ttc€iP rk irapk rov Hap- 
ftMPimvo^, ^iKiinrop Bi €v6v^ hftfjKop y€P€<r6ai 
Sri tcaXA^ 01 l^\€i rk rov i^pfidtcov ov ykp 
imrXayrjpai irpo^ rrjp iwiaroXrip, uWk roaopBe 
fiopop napaKoXtirai * AXi^apSpop, ical ^9 ra &XXa 
01 irtlBtaOai oaa iwtvYyiXXoiTO' ataSrivtffBtu yikp 

11 irnOofUPop. Kal top flip tcaBapOnpai r< Ka\ 
pataai avr^ ro poarjfui, ^PtXlvyr^ Bi dwiBtl^at 
on irtaTO^ iarip airr^ ^iXo^, Kal toiv i!XXoi9 Bi 
TOif afi^* atrrop on avroU t« toU ^'Xoi? 040iuo^ 
§ls TO apvwoirTOP rvy^dpn &p ical vp6^ to 
avoBaptiP ipptopApo^, 

V. *E4r Bk rouTov llaofMyM*ya fiip irifiwei M 
rk^ SXXa^ in/Xav. at orj opi^ovai rijp KiXitcvp 
Tf teal *Aaavpimp ympaPt wpoicaTaXafftip teal 
^vXtia<r€tp Tfjp wapoiop, Bov^ avr^ rSiP Tf 
(vfifiax^P T0V9 irf{b^ seal roif^ ^EXXtjpa^ tou9 
fUc6o<^6pov^ KoX T0V9 Spa/ca^t &p ^iraXjetf^ 
vfy€iTo, Kal T0W9 imria^ 5f rov^ ie^taaaXov^, 

t AvT09 W vartpo^ &pa^ tx Tapaov rj pip irpomri 
i^ *AyylaXop woXtp oi^iKptirai. Tavryfp Bi 
^apBapairaXop Krurai top *Aaavpiop X0709* KOik 
T^ iTMpi^oXtp Bk Kal roU SttitXioi^ twp ttixStp 
BrjXfi tori fieydXfj Tf iroXi^ KnaStlaa Kal iirX 

S fiiya (XBotwa Bvpaptta^. Kal ro fiprjpa roB 
^apBat^atrdXov ^77^9 ^i* ra>p rtixSiP ti}^ ^Ay-^id- 
Xov Kal avro^ i^tiarrjKd iir* ain^ "^apCavd- 
iraXo9 evfiffiffXrjKot^ t^9 X^i/>a9 dXXi/XoiV 
ik fioKiara i^ mporop avpfidXXoprai, koX 
iwiypap^fui iireyeypairro avr^ ^Aacvpta ypdp^ 
nara- oi fup *Aa<rvpioi kcu pArpop i^acKOP 



same moment Alexander drank the dose and Philip 
read Parmenio's note. At once Philip made clear 
that an was well with his prescription; he showed 
no gniltj conscience at the letter, bnt bade Alexander 
foDow out his remaining instntctioDt ; obedience 
would mean recovery. The ptnrge worked and 
eased the illness; and Alexander gave proof to 
Philip that he was his firm friend, as also to his 
suite generally that he trusted and did not suspeet 
his friends ; and he showed ako his bravery in hot 
of death. 

V. Next be sent Parmenk) to the other Gates 
which divide the Cilician and Assyrian territories, 
to seise and occupy the pass, giving him the allied 
infantry, the Greek mercenaries, and the Thradans 
under Sitakes, with the Tbessalian horse. Later 
OB, he left Tarsus, and in one day reached Anchialus, 
founded, as legend says, by Sardanapalus the 
.\ssyrian. The circumference and the foundations 
of the walls show that the city was, when founded, 
a large (me, and grew to great power. Sardanapalus' 
tomb was near the walb of Anchialus; over 
it stood Sardanapalus himself, his hands joined 
as if to clap, and an epitaph was inscribed in the 
Assyrian script; the Assyrians said that it was in 



4 imtvoi r& iwiypdfAfiari, 6 h^ pov^ ^v avr^ hi' 
i^pa^€ ra hrrj, 6ti l,apBapdwaXo^ 6 *K»aKvv- 
Sapafov irai9 *A7)^iaXov /cal Tapaov iv ^fUpa 
fu^ dStlfiaro. l,v Bt, & (eve, taSit xal whft xat 
wai(€, ctff T^XXa rk avBpttmtva ovk ovra rovrov 
dfta* TOP ^6<^op €uvitTcrofi€Po^ opwtp al x<tlp€^ 
iir\ rji KpoTfp voiovar tcai to iralfy hifhiovpyort' 
pop iyytypai^ai iS^aaop r^ *Kaavpi«f cpofiaTi. 

6 *C« ^ T^ *Ayxia\ov ^9 SoXoi;^ a^nrro* /rol 
^povpap iirrffaytp U TLoXov^ koX iirifioKtP 
ainoU roKapra BiaxoauL apyvpiov (rjfu'ap, on 
wpo^ rovs mpca^ fiaWop ti top poOp tlxop* 

6 *£if^cir Si apaXa/Botp riap fup jrt^itp tAp Ma4Cf- 
iopmp rptU Taf€i9, rov^ Toforav W irarrav icaX 
T0W9 *Aypiapa^ t(«\avP€i iiri rov^ tA Sprj xari- 
yopra^ KiXuca^. Ka\ ip hrrtk raU wti^tu^ 
rifUpcu^ TOV9 tikp pia ^(iXtop, rovs Si ofioXoyla 
irapaaTqauftJtPO^, iirap^Kiv ^9 rou^ TioXov^. 

7 Kal ipravOa ^lapBapti l\ro\tp.aiop Koi "Kaaphpop 
frt ^Kpdrtjaap 'Opoproffdrov rov Utpaov, ^9 rrip 
T« ^ &icpap T^ * AXiKappaaaov i6v'Kaa<T€ tccd 
Mvphop ical Kavpop ical Hrjpap iccu KaXXiVoXiy 
^areixe* trpoaiJKTO Bi teal K« ical Tpioiriop, 
ToOrop tjrrriadai €ypa<^op tidxV t^°^V *<*^ 
airoOapiip fi^p rSiP a/i^* aviop ire^ov^ ^9 
iirraicoaiov^ tcai tTnrea^ ^9 ireprrjfcopra, aX&pcu 

8 Si ovK iXdrrov^; ratp ;^iAia>i'. *A\€(apBpo^ Bi ip 
S0X019 Ovtra^ T€ T^ * AaKXffTTi^ ical wofiwev' 
<Ta^ axno^ re teal t) arparia irdaa, xal Xap.- 
irdBa iirneXcfra^ koX dyfava BiaSei^ yvp,viKov 
KoX fJMvaiKOP SoX£t)<rt fiiv BrjfjLOKpaTelaOai eStatcep* 
avTos Be dpa^ev^af; h Tapaop tov9 fJt€P ittttw 


verse. In anj case the general meaning was: 
" Sardanapalus son of Anakyndarazes bailt Anchialus 
and Tarsus in one day ; ^ do thou, stranger, eat and 
drink and be merry, since other human things are 
not worth iku " — the idea being the hand-clap ; 
and (it was said) the word " be merry " bad a less 
(idicate original in the Assjrrian. 

From Anchialus he reached Soli ; he took a guard 
into Soli, and fined them two hundred silver talents, 
because they were still inclined towards Persia. 
Thence he took three battalions of the Macedonian 
infantry, all the archers, and the Agrianes, and 
nuurched upon the Cilicians who held the heights. 
In seven days — do more — he partly drove them out, 
partly received surrenders, and returned to Soli. 
There he learnt that Ptolemaeus and Asandros had 
conquered Orontobates the Persian, who was guard- 
ing the citadel of Hatteamassos and held Myndus, 
Cannus, Thera, and Callipolis, and had won over 
also Cos and Trioptum. The message was that they 
had beaten him in a pitched battle with a loss of 700 
of his foot and 50 cavalry, and at least 1000 prisoners. 
At .Soli Alexander sacrificed to Asclepius, and held a 
review of his whole army, with a torch relay race 
nnd athletic and literary competitions. Soli he 
allowed to continue democratic. He then proceeded 
to Tarsus and sent the cavalry under Philotas, to take 

1 8eeArislolmliMan.8trabo,p.e7S; Atheoaeos zii. p. StO. 
Airiaa hart seems to foUow Ptolenaeos. 



dwiartiXt ^iXtitTa Soits &y€tv Sid tow *A\fjtov 
9 W€^ov iirl rov rrora/iov rov Wvpaiio¥» avro^ hi 
avv T049 irefoiv teal rj iXrj rj ffaaiXitcp i^ 
Mayap<rov ^Kt xal rn *K6ijva r^ }AayapcLhi 
iOvatv. "EofOtw Bk fi MaXXo*' d^Uero icat 
*A/A^iXoy^ Sea ijp^i itnjytcv icaX araaidfoma^ 
tcara\a0i»» ri)if artiaiv avroU nariifavav tcai 
Touv i^opovs 0&9 ffaaiXel Aa/>€i9* dwi<^pop dyrjtctVt 
&n ^koytimv fU¥ MaXXo>Tai diromoi fi<ra¥, axno^ 
W ttir "KfypnfS rAv 'UpaxXtihiaf tifai fjfiov, 

VL *Eti hi iv MaXX^ 6tm ain^ dyyiXXtrat 
Aap€lo¥ hf itliXOi^ i^^ "^ trdarf hvvdfjLH arpaTo- 
ir€0(vttv. *0 hi X^P^ ovTov Han fiiv rif^ 
*Kaavpla^ 7^9* dirix^i Bi rmp irvXStv rwu 
*AaavpUt¥ i^ 8vo fidXiara crafifiov^. "V^vSa 
hri ^vpayaymp roifS hraipou^ ^pd(ti airroh ra 
iffiyy^XfUpa virip Aap€iov rt tcai rrj^ aTparid^ 
7% ^ptlov, Oi hi aindStv ms tlxov ay up iici- 
S Xtvop. *O6ir6r€fUpiweuf€aa^avT0v^SUXv<r§r6p 
(vXXoyop, TJ Bi vartpaia irporjrftp euv iirl Aap€i6v 
T€ teal Tov^ Uepaa^. Attrrc/Mub? Bi uwepffaXwv 
Ttt9 iruXa^ itrrparoiriBtvct irpo^ }AvpidpBp<p TroXct* 
KoX rrj^ vviero^ x^^f^" tinyiyv€Tai axXyjp6<: fcai 
6B<ap T€ if ovpavov ical irP€vpa fflaiov roino 
tcareax'sv 4p ry arparoiriBtp ^KXifavhpop. 
3 Aapeio^ Bi T£a>9 p^p fvp ry arparia BUrpiffcp, 
iiriXefdp€Po^ t^ *Aaavpia^ yip; ireciop irdpTtj 
dpaireirraptpop ical tip re TrXiJ^ei t^ arpartdfi 
iinri]B€iop fcal ipnriTdaaadai, rfj Xtrrrtp fvpf^opop. 
Kol TOtrro TO ;^ft>/xov (vpc^ovXevaep avrjt prj 
dwoXiireip^ *ApvpTa<i 6 rov *Apti6xov, 6 trap 

^ Text B. A^ AvoXt I vctv which though leM exact may well 
be originaL 



them to the River Pjrmmus through the AleUn 
plain. Then he, with the infantry and the royal 
{oadron, went to Magarsus and sacrificed to 
Athena of Magmnut. Thence he came to Mallus 
and made doe offeringt to Amphilochus, as a hero ; 
lie found the Mallians in dvil oommotioQ and pnt a 
stop to it ; he remitted the tribute paid to Dareius, 
since Mallus was a colony of Argos, and he himself 
claimed detoent firom the Argive Heracleidae. 

\'I. Alexander was still at Mallus when a report 
came that Dareius with his full force was encamped 
at Sochi, a place in Assyrian territory, two marching 
days from the Assyrian Gates. Alexander there- 
re assembled his staff and told them the news of 
Oareius and his march, on which they urged him 
to lead straight on. He thereupon thanked them 
and dismissed the Council ; and next day he marched 
to attadc Dareius and the Persians. In two days 
he passed the Gates and camped near Myriandrus, 
and in the night there came a severe storm, heavy 
rain, and riolent gale, which kept Alexander in his 

Dareius meanwhile dallied with his army, since 
he had selected a plain in the Assjrrian land as being 
open all round, convenient for the multitude of his 
host, and suitable for the manceuvres of his horse- 
men. Amyntas son of Antiochus, a deserter from 



*AXe(avBpov avrofAoXo^* tlvat yhp rrjtf tifpuywpiai 
vpo^ rov irXtfiov^ rf ital n}^ atcfviiK riuf Htpouv, 

^p cV TapaA rpi/ifj cVa rj fo^^ iylyvtro, ov€ 
oXirpi 8^ tp ^oKoi^, ipa iBvi rt ical iwofivevt, teal 
iwl T0V9 optivov^ KlktKa^ hiirpiy^tp i^tXaaa^, 
rovTo Utr^ffXt iiapuov t»V yptofir)^' trm avro^ re 
onirtp tjhiarop ^p So^aaOtp, d^ rovro ovtc lucovaiw^ 
i'^'iTC^'it ^oX ^o Twy teaB^ tfBoyrjv (vfoprmp rt 

KOX (uPiffOfAhmP 4iri KOK^ T04V dtl ^CUTtXtVOVOiV 

hraipoiupo^ fyptt /ATftciri *A\^favBpop id^Xt 
6 trpoUpoi Tov upoa^t* &\K* otcptip yip nvpOopv 
fitpop Sri, atna^ wooouyor Karawarrjatip Tf rj 
tww^ tAp MaiTfdovMy rtfP arpaTiap dXXo^ 
d\Xo$€P avr^ iwtupoprt^ iwiKtyop- xairoi^ yt 
*AfiuPTa^ vf*'" T€ *A\i(ap^pop icxvpil^tro orrov 
hp irvdrfTOi Aa/Wibv 5pra, xal airrov irpocfUptiP 

6 iic€\tV€P, *AXX^ T^ X'^P^ ^Wop, OTi leal ip 
T^ vapamiica tfBiv axov<rat rfp, ftrtiSg' teal Ti 
Kal haifjMPiop rv\op ^€P avrop etV ixtlpop top 
XupoPt ov fifjrt 4ic rrj^ iirtrou iroWff a><f>€\ita 
ain^ €y€PeTO, fitjre iic rov irXrfiov^ ainov ra>p re 
up0pw7r«ap xal rtjp aicovrUap re koX rofiVfuirtop, 
firj^i rrjp XafiJrporrjra airrifp rij^ arparta^ im- 
^i^ai rjhuptjOq, dXka *A\€(dpSpip Tf teal roiv 
dfi/^* avrov evfiap^ rtjp pltcrjp irap4^(atc€P. 

7 *Exptjp yap ijSij teal II e pa a^ trpo^ MaxeBopeop 

d<f>aip€Orjpai T^ *Aaia^ rrfp apxrfv, tcaOdrrep ovp 

^Tihoi n€P TFpo^ riepacjp dprjpidqaap, rrpo^ 

Mi^Sctfv hk er* efivpoaOcp ^Aaavpioi, 

> ffoiTM I Tf SinUnis with probability ; ArriAD it inezaot 
in position of y* t« 8^. yet does not osuAlIy follow c«/tm by 
these directly, but with tome word interpoimL 


Alexaxidcr, advised him not to lemve this country; 
there was, he said, elbow-room favourable for the 
numbers and the equipment of the Persians. Dareius 
then abode where he was. But Alexander having 
!>cnt much time in Tarsus on account of his illness, 
and a good deal at Soli, where he sacrificed and held 
the review, and again spent toaie dajrs in his raid 
'\ the Cilician hillmen, all this delaj made Dareius 
wiver in his decisions. Moreover, Dareius' wishes 
■nerally oolmured hk thoughts, and he liked the 
pleasanter thoughts ; and lake ooortlerB, such as will 
alwajTt haunt kings, led him 00 to decide that 
Alexander had no wish to proceed further. In 
fact, thej M^f he was heifttiiting on hearing of 
Dardns* own approach. On all tides they egged 
him on, telling him that he would trample underfoot 
the Madeconian force with his cavalry. Amyntas, 
however, pertitted that Alexander would come 
wherever he found Dareius to be, and bade him 
remain where he was. But it was the pleasanter, 
and so the worse, counsels which prevailed ; more- 
over, some evil genius led Dareius into the very 
position where his cavalry did not much help him, 
nor indeed his numbers, his store of javelins, and of 
archery; where he could make no display of the 
splendour of his army, but made a mere gift of the 
victory to Alexander and his force. Fate indeed 
hud resolved that Persia should forfeit the sovereignty 
r Asia to Macedon, as Media had lost it to Persia, 
'id Assyria, even earlier, to Media. 


VOL. I. F 



VII. 'TwtpfiaXoiV hif TO 6po^ tiapfio^ to lea 
T^9 irvKa^ Td9 *\^iavtKk^ icaXovpAva^ ak iir 
*\aaov irporjyt' tctu dyii'tTo Karoinv *A\efdvBpov 
XaOwp, T^y Bk *laa6v ieaTa<r)^mp, 6cov^ JiA 
pocov trtroXtXtifmhov^ avrov r&¥ WaiC€B6v<»*v 
xariXafft, tovtov^ x"^^^^^ aUtadfUPO^ aTr. 
KTtiVtV h hk rr)v vaTtpaiav irpovxii^p*i ivi rov 
irorafiov rov lllyapov, Keu 'AX^aySpof m^ 
Tftcovatv iv r^ SirurBw alnov Spra [top] Aapciop. 
^ei ou trior o^ avr^ 6 X0709 i^divrro, dpajSiffii- 
o-a9 h rpiaKOPropop rmp iraipotp Tiva? dwonriii 
irci oirlam /irl *Ioc6p, Karaaicr^^ofiipov^ <i tu 
Spra ifajyiWrrai, Ol 5i, apawXtvaaprts r^ 
rpitucoprop^, 5ti xoXwwBfjs ^p tf ravrvj ddXaatra, 
fiaXXop ri €vwrrA^ tcari/iaOop ainov arparoire- 
Btvopra^ roif^ llipca^' teal dirayyiXXovon 
'AXtfdpBp^ ip X'P^**' tlvai ^aptiop. 

'O B4 avygaXtaa^ arpartfyov^ tc moX lXdpxtH9 
ical rStp (vfifidx^i^ tov^ T}ytp.6pa^ wapttcdXti 
dapptlv pAv €tc rAp ff^ (T^iVi /ra\a»v xextphvpev- 
fiipttp ical on vpo^ pepttcfjfUvov^ 6 dywv ptPiKyj- 
Koaip ainoU €crai ical on 6 ^<09 inrtp (T<t>o}i' 
arparrjy€t a pet pop, ivl povp ^apeitp drforfu^ 
tca0€ip(ai rT)p Bvpaptp ix t^ tvpvxtopia^ i^ ra 
<rT€Vowopa, ipa a^itri ptv (vpp^rpop ro x^P^^ 
dpaTrriffat rtjv <^dXayya, roU di dxpelop ro 
vXtjOo^ on earai rj pdxv* ovre rk ata- 
fiara ovre t^9 yp<»>pa<{ irapatrXfjaioi^, Ma/re- 
hova^ re yap Tlepacu^ teal MijSoi^, ^k irdvv 
iroXXov rpvipSxTip, avrov^ ip roU irovoi^ rol^ 
rroXepiKoU wdXai ij&rj perk Kivhvvtov daKovpevov^^ 
aX\o>9 re koX hovXoi^ dp6p<ii>iroi^ iXevBepov^, €9 


VII. Dareius, then, crossed the height by the 
Amaiuan Gates and marched towards Issus; and 
he slipped in unpercei ved behind Alexander. Seisinc 
IstQt be grievously mutilated and slew all the inva^ 
Macedonians left behind there whom he captured* 
Next day he advanced to the River Piiuurus. Alex- 
ander* hearing that Darelus was in his rear, but not 
credithig the report, embarked some of the terri- 
torials to a thirty-oared ship and sent them back 
to Ittos, to verify the report. Those who sailed 
n this Teasel d ia e o v er ed the more easily the Persians 
encamping there, sioee the coast takes the form of 
a bay, and they reported to Alexander that Dareius 
was at hand. 

He, samBOoing commanders, squadron leaders, 
and allied ofllcers, bade them be of good cheer in 
view of dangers successfully surmounted in the past ; 
besides, the coming battle was to be between them- 
selTes, already proved victors, and the Persians, 
already once vanquished; more than that, heaven 
iUelf was a better strategist on their own side, 
aring put it into Dareius mind to hem his force 
: J to the narrow pass, leaving to them the open country 
>chind, so that they had a space of just the size 
tor the deployment of their phalanx, while the 
Persians would have no benefit from their numbers, 
while their strength and resolution were no match 
for those of the Greeks. *' We Macedonians," he 
conHnocd, *' are to fight Medes and Persiaps, 
nations long steeped in luxury, while we have long 
been hardened by warlike toils and dangers; and 
above nil it will be a fight of free men against slaves. 



y^tlpa^ lifiiv 6ao$ rt "EWtfPt^ 'EXKffatp, ov^ 
inrtp tAp airrifp fiax^*^'^* a\\k rov^ fiiv (vp 
^ap€l^ tirl fuaS^ koX ovhi rovr^ iroXX^ icivSth' 
ptvotrra^, rovs S< (vy a^Latv, virip rrj^ rXKdha^ 
6 iicovra^ afiupofiivov^, Hapffap^p n av Bpa/rac 
ical llaiova^ xal *l\\vptov^ koI *Aypidpa^ roi 
Mvpfoarorrarov^ Tf t«v icara rtfp \\vp<innjv /cai 
fAaxtfJUurdrov^ trpo^ ra dTroiturard tc koI 
fAoXajcanara r^ *Aaia^ W^*^ ayrtrafaadax' m 

6 S^ *A\i(aphpOP apTiarparrjytip ^ap€i^» Tavra 
fiip oup i^ wXeoptfiap rov dywo^ lw€(rf€t' 
tA Si dSXa or^ firfoKa earai a^ai -rov 
KUfhupov hrthtiicpvfp, Ov ykp rou^ aarpu 
wa^ rov^ £iaptiov ip r^ r<n9 tcpanicttp, obh€ 
rrjp ttrnop rtfp /irl Vpaptx^ rayOtiaav, ovhk 
rov^ hiofivpiov^ (ivov^ rov^ uia&o66pov^, dXXi 
U€paafv re oriirtp o^tkas »cai Mi^ocuv /Seu oaa 
oKXa iOp^i Hipaai^ itaX Mi^Sof? inrriicoa iiroixtl 
TfiP ^Aalop teal avrop fUyav ffaaiXea irapopra, 
teal a»? ovih inroXei^driat'rai a^iaip itn t^S« 
T^ arf wpi on fitf tcparttp rij^ *A(Tia^ (vfiwuffrj^ 

7 xal iripa^ roU woXXoU vopoi^ iiriddvai, 'Enl 
rovroi^ S< T«v T€ i^ to koipop (vp XafAwponjrt 
TJBfi treirpajfiivtap {m€fUfiprjaK€ teal el Brf r^ ISLa 
T* Biairp€n€^ (^ koXXo^ reToXfirjfiepop, opofiaarl 
eicaarov iir\ r^ ^pyy dvatcaXAp. Kal rb ainov 
ovK dxiphvpop ip raU fidyat^ d>^ dpcrrax^eaTara 

8 i-rrefijei. Aryrroi Bt icai E.€i'<Ht><atrro^ fcai TotP 

&fJUl "EcPO^CJPTl flVpiwV ^9 ^iPrjfirjP iXffciP, 099 

ovSep Ti ouT€ Kara ro ttXtjOo^! oure icark rtfP 
dXXyjv a(ito(Tiv <T<f>iaiP iircoiKore^, ovBk Iwnitap 
avroU TrapovTfDv SeaaaXatp, ovBe Boiatrwp fl 


And so* far ms Greek will meet Greek, we shall not 
be £ghting for like causes; those with Dareius 
win risk their lives for pay, and poor pay too; our 
troops will 6ght as volunteers for Greece. As for 

>ur foreign troops, Thracians, Paeonians, Illyrians, 
Agrianes, the stoutest in Europe, and the most 
warlike, will be ranged against the feeblest and 
softest hordes of Asia : nay, further, you have an 
Alexander engaging in a duel of strategy against 
a Dardut." Thus he drew out their superiority in 
the coming struggle ; he showed that the stakes of 
their hasard were great too. It was not Dareius' 
satraps of whom they were to be masters now, nor 
the cavalry that lined the Granicus, nor the twenty 
thousand foreign troopa, but the flower of Medes and 
Peniaiis and their subject nations in Asia; the 
Great King was there himself; nothing remained 
after this final struggle but to lord it over all Asia 
and set an end to their many heroic labours. Besides, 
he reminded them of all they had already achieved 
\%itli brilliant success for their common cause; any 

oble individual act of bravery he cited, both the 

iced and the man ; with some delicacy he mentioned 
1 1 is own personal risks in previous battles. He 
alluded, we are told, to Xenophon and his Ten 
Thousand, far below themselves in number or in 
repute, with no cavalry, neither Boeotian nor Pelo- 



ncXMTMViytfMiP, oM MatctBovmp ^ SpatcAv^ ovS* 
6cfi SXk^i a^auf Twwos {vvriraicraty ovBi rofo- 
TMV 4 a^tfiotnfrmp, OTi fifj Kpfjrtiv ^ 'PolUtv 
oXiytay, teal rourmv <V t^ Kiphvv^ into ^tvo^Siv- 

9 T(K atrro<T)(tBtaa6iyrmp, oi Bi fiaaiXia n (vp 
wdap rf) Bvtnifi€i irpo^ Baffu\i»Pi aCrrp irphltapro 
ical iSpfi oaa aWa tcariopruv civ rov iSufttPOP wop- 
top ttoB* oBop a^iCiP hrryiptro piK^vrt^ hnj\6op' 
Sea Tt dWa ip r^ toi^5« wpo rmp ^c^pBvptiP ^s 
wapoMXtjcip dpBpdeiP ayaOoU i( dyadov i^<- 
fMOPO^ irapaiP€iauai m6^, Ot Bi <!XXo9 AXXodtP 
U^tovfitpoi T« Toy SaetXia ical r^ ^07^ iwal- 
porrtv ^<9 ^Sif ixiXwop. 

VIII. *0 si TOTf /Mih B$iwpairottlff$tu trapay 
7<XXci* irpoirifAWtt Bi m iwl rit^ irvXa^ rotp Ti 
imrimp oXiyov^ iceu trnp roftnAp irpotcaTaatcgyfrO' 
fihov^ Tffp oBop rtfp owiam' leal auro^ rtj^ pvicro^ 
ApaXaffmp rijp crpankp iraaav rfci, »f Kara- 

t ax€tp avBi^ r^9 wvXa^. 'Cl^ Bi dfi^ fUtra^ 
puicra^ (Kparrjaep avOi^ twv vapoBtiP, &p(rav€ * 
Tiyr arpariap rh Xmitop rtfi pvicro^ ainov inl 
rifP iT€Tpo»v, TTpo^vXatca^ axp^fftU xaraarrja'd- 
pxvo^, "Tiro Bk rrjp Hot tcarr/ei arro T<av ttvXmp 
Kara rfjv 6B6v teal 6W9 fiiP wdprrf arepoiropa ^ 
ra xtopia, iirX icepm^ ^cf* «9 Bk Bi€x<ii>pti i^ 
itXJtck, dpefrTva(T€P a«i to tcipa^ i^ 4>dXayya, 
aXXqp icaX aXXr)p r&p oirXnSiv rd(iv irapdycav, 
rp fikp a»9 iwl ro Spo^, €v dptarepa Bi a>9 iirl 

8 TT}P daXaaaav, Oi Be IwrreU avr^ t€«9 fi(P 
KaroTTiv Ta>i» Trefoil' Tcrayfievoi ^aav, 'Cl^ Bt is 
rifp evpvxcdpiav irporitaav, avveraaaev YiBrj rrfp 

^ k^iwmy^t Kriiger. See on I, 27, S 7. 


ponncrian, ndtfaer Macedonian nor ThracUn, nor 
such other horM as they now had; no arcfaerB nor 
slingen, save a few Cretans and Rhodians, and those 
hastilj scraped together bj Xenophon when in sore 
ttraiU. Yet the Ten Thousand turned to flight the 
Great Kii^ himself at the very gates of Babylon, 
and marched Tictorloosl j agahist the Tarious tribes 
which barred their way as they descended to the 
Kuxine Sea ; of all this he told them, and whatever 
else, at such a time, in face of dangers, a brave 
general would by way of encouragement tell brave 
men. They crowded round and clasped their 
king s hand, and cheering him to the echo bade 
him lead on wfthoot delay. 

VIII. For the moment, however, Alexander bade 
his troops take their meal, but he sent on towards 
the Gates a few horsemen and archers to reconnoitre 
the road that lay behind them ; then he himself at 
nightfall with hte whole force marched off to seise 
the Gates again. When, about midnight, he held 
the passes once more, he halted his army for the rest 
of the night on the crags, having carefully set out- 
posts. Just upon dawn he deseended horn the 
Gates along the road; and as long as the narrows 
lasted he led in colunm ; but when it grew broader he 
deployed his column into phalanx, bringing up 
battalion after battalion of men-at-arms, on the 
right, up to the ridge, on the left, to the sea. The 
cavalry so far had been ranged behind the infantry ; 
hut when they got into open ground, at once he 


arpartkp m^ i^ fidxv^t irptirov^ ftip /irl rov 

Bt^iOU tcipIO^ WpO^ T^ 5/MI TMI/ V€(Alf TO TC 

S^fia Mtu T0V9 inFaaviard^, mv tfyttro Sucdwp 
o Uapfifpimtfa^, ixofihniv hi rovrtav rffv KoLvov 
rd(iy, iirl B^ rovroi^ Tf)p TliphlxKov, Otrroi fjkiv 
icTt hr\ TO fLtaov rStv ontXirSiv dirh rov ht^iov 

4 dpfafUiftf rrrarfiuvoi liaav. 'Eirl hi rov tvttpu- 
fiov rrptmi ftiP tf *Afivirrov rd(i^ ^p, iwl Bi ^ 
UroXtfuuov, ^j^o/A<iri| hi ravTTf^ ^ M€\€dypov 
Tov hi €iwpv^v roU irtl^oU fitP Kpdrtpo^ 
iwrrkT€Ucro dpxtii^, rov Bi (vfiiravro^ tiHavvftov 
TiapfAtPiMP ffftlro' KoX irapriYf€Kro avr^ fir) 
utroXtlfTdP rrfp OdXacaap, oIk firj icvic\m0€Uiv itc 
rmp fiap^pttp, 6ri wdvrrf vtrtpi^XaYYn^tiP 
avrAp Biii wXtfOo^ tjfiiXXop, 

5 Aap€io9 B4, ivtiBt) ifrffftkBi} avrjf irpoedywv 
^^7 *AXifayi8po9 *»9 is p4xx*)P* twv p4P Imrittp 
tiap^Pdt^ti wipap rov vorafiov rov lUvdpov ^ 
rpKTfivpiovs fidXtara rop dpidfiov^ koX fura 
rovrtop ri>p y^iXStv h Bi<rp.vplovs, Bwto^ rrjp 

Xoiirtip hupaiup icaB* iicttytap ovprd^ete, Kal 
irptinovs fup rov oirXinicov rov< r^Wrfpas rov^ 
fUaOo^povs era^tp «9 rptafivplovs fcarii rrjp 
i^dXayya rtop Ma/rcSoio)!/* iirl Si rovrois rS)v 
KapBdxo9P /ca\ovfi€Pttp tvBtv koX HvOep is e^a- 
KUTfivpiovs' oirXlrai hi ^trap icaX ovroi, To<rov- 
rov^ yap iwl <t>d\ayyos dirXt^s iBe^ero ro xoapiov 

7 Xpa ird<T<Topro' *E'tt'eTa(e Be ical r^ opei rip iv 
dpiarepa <T<f>cl}p tcara ro * AXe^dvBpov Be^iop is 
Biap,vpiovs' icaX rovriop earip ot Kara p<orov 
iyepovro t^ *AXe^dpBpov arparias. To yhp 
opos tpa i'Trerdx^Tjaap inj p^p Bi€X<*>p€i' is ffdOo^ 


drew up his army in battle order ; first on the right 
wing towards the mountain ridge, in front, he placed 
the picked infantry troops and his bodyguard, under 
Nicmnor ton of Parmenio, next to them Coenus' 
battaUoD, and then that of Perdiccas. These, right 
to left, stretched to the centre of the men-at-arms. 
On the left, first came Amyntas' battalion, then 
Ptolemaeus*, and next MeleagerV Cratcrus was 
put in command of the infantry on the left, but 
Parmenio of the entire left wing, under orders not 
to edge away from the sea, lest the Perrians should 
surround them, since from their great numbers they 
were likely to overlap the Greeks in extended line. 

Darcius for his part, when the approach of Alex- 
ander in battle order was reported to him, sent 
about 30,000 of his cavalry over the River Pinarus 
and 20/X)0 light infantry with them, that he might 
at his leisure deploy the rest. Foremost of his 
heavier troops he placed the Greek mercenaries, 
JO/XX) of them, facing the Macedonian phalanx; 
next, on either side, 60,000 of the Kardakes, who 
were also heavy-armed troops ; this was the number 
which the ground where they stood allowed to be 
posted in line. He stationed also about 20,000 by 
the ridge on his left to face Alexander's right ; some 
of these actually got to the rear of Alexander's 
force, since the mountain ridge where they were 
posted opened here and there to some depth and 



ical tco\ir»Sh T* aihov tacirtp iv OaXdffatj 

iyiyiftro* lirtira <9 iinmafiirfiw irpoiov rov^ iwl 

rai^ vwotpeiat^ rtrayfUvov^ tcaroTriv rov B€(mu 

8 WpdK rou *A\t(dvhpov iiroUt, To hi J^XXo 

owrtraytiivov i^ 0d$o^ o^m m^iK^fUtv, B-niaB^p 
riv Tcav 'EXXiJi^y tmv fua$o^p«itw /ctd rov iirl 
^Xayyo^ rrrajfUpov 0ap0apttcov. *EXeyrro y^p 
^ iraaa ^ (v¥ £kap€i^ arparik fiaXiara i^ 
k^rjKOvra fivptdha^ paxifutv^ ^Ivai. 
• *AXifayS/M^ hit ^ ai^r^ vpoatt loim ro 
X^piov hUa^tP iiXJyop i^ wXaro^, waptfyayg to us 
iirWa9, TOi^ TC rraipov^ KoXovfUpov^ ical rovs 
StauaXo^ Koi rovs f McucfSdwu f.* Keu 
rovTov^uh^ iiri rtp h€(uL 'f^pa ofui oT ifro^c* rou? 
5c <ic ITcAoTroi'ki^aov #rcu ro oAAo ro avp^iax^ov 
irtl ro fvwi'Vfiov W/xttci co9 riapficvtcoKa. 
10 Aa/Wib? 5<, a>? avvrerayfiturj ijhrj ^v avr^ i} 
^d\ay(, TOV9 iintw otanva^ rrpo rov rrorafiov 
(vi r^h^ rrportrd\u hrr^^ da^aXSt^ atVr^ { 
€Krti(i^ rt)^ arparw ytvoiro, dp€ied\t<r€v dtro 
(vvOrjfiaro^. Kai roirroft' rov^ fitv iroWov^ iirl 
r^ h^(i^ ic€pari trpo^ rrj da\da<rrj tcarii flap- 
pevitDPa €ra(«p, on ravrtf pdWop n imrdaipa 
^p' fUpo^ hi rt ainoiP ical iirl ro eiffopvpop irpo^ 
11 r^ 6prj rrapriyaytp. Tl? £€ dxpcloi ipravSa hia 
arepoTtjra ra>p j^tapl^p €<f>cupopro, ical rovrcop 
rov^ TToWois irapiTTirevcai cVt to Sffiov xepa^ 
ai^SiP iK€\€va€P, Airros Be Aapeio^ ro peaop 
rrj^ irdfffj^ rdfeta^ irrelx'^t icaOdnep popo^ rot? 

' Who wen these ^ax^iiw^t if not iToTpet ? Root lu^etU 



had, in fact, bays like the sea ; then trending out- 
wards again it brought those posted on the heights 
to the rear of Alexander's right wing. The general 
mass of their light and heavy troopa arranged bj 
their territories and to an unserviceable depth was 
behind the Greek mercenaries and the Persian 
phalanx. Historians put Dareius' fighting force 
at some 600,000. 

Alexander, however, finding the ground opening 
iomewhat as he went forward, brought on hU cavalry, 
the so-called *' Conradet,*' and the Thessalians, 
and the Macedonians. These all he posted with 
himself on the right wing ; any Peloponnesians and 
other allies he sent to Parmenio on the left. 

Dareius, his phaUmx once in due order, recalled 
by signal such cavalry as he had thrown in front of 
the river to cover his deployment. Most of these 
he posted over against Parmenio on the right wing, 
by the sea, because it was rather better ground for 
cavalry; part, however, he sent to the left, near 
the hills. But as they proved useless there from 
want of space he ordered the greater number of tliem 
also to ride round to his right wing. Dareius him- 
self held the centre of his whole host, the regular 



Htpamtf BaaiXtvai rrraxBtu* koX top povp t^ 
Ta{<tK rayrtf^ S^po^Ap 6 rou VpvXXov apoyi" 

IX. *Ey rovT^ B^ *AXi(apBpa^ teanh^ oXiyov 
waaap rffp tAp Htpcitp iwwop fiMTaicr)(mpfjicviap 
iirl TO tvwpvfiOP to iavrov m9 wpo^ T^y 6dXa<r- 
cap, avr^ S^ Toi^ UtXaw opp ficiov^ /iovouv tccu 
TOl^' aXXoi/v tAv (vfituiymp imria^ ratrrij rtray- 
fupcifs, wifiirti Kafk Ta;^o9 rov% %€aaa\ov^ 
iwiria^ hrl to tviitPV/iOPt xtXtvcaK /*j^ tt/to toO 
firrtowov rrj^ vdcfi^ rdf^^^ wapiwmvcatt rov 
fAtj icara^aptU roU woXtfUoiK ytpicOtu ftrrax^' 
povpta^, dXKk learowiP rtf^ ^Xayyoi 6^ap&^ 

t Bi€\04iP. Upoiraft Bi ritp fi^p Iwirtmp /eara to 
Biftop roif^ irpoBpo/Aovs$ &p rjytlro Wpmrofiax^* 
icai Tov^ Heucpa^, ip futlro ^Kpiartop' twv tk 
vf{My T0V9 ro^ora^, &p ^px^ *\prloxo^' rov^ 
B( ^Aypiapa^, mp ^PX^ 'ArraXo^, tcdi rUtp 
iwwittp ripa^ ical fStp rtf{ora>p cV ^irncafitrtjp 
wpo^ to Spo^ TO tcaT^ pwTov eraftp, <!hjt€ Kark 
TO ht^iop ovTo) Tf)p ^dXayya h hvo ictpara 
hi*xpvcap TrraxOai, to fUp cik npo^ ^aptiop t« 
icai T0V9 vipop Tov irorafiov tovs irdpTa^ IXipaa^, 
TO hk m^ vpo^ Tov^ eiri t^ opei xaTk vdtrov <t^o»p 

t TtToyfUPOv^, ToO hi evwvvfiov irpoerdx^V^^^ 
Twv /Ji€P irt^cjp oi T€ KpffT€^ To(6rai xal ol 
Spaxe^, Sip ff^iiTO ^iTaX/ri;^' irpo Tovrtap hk ij 
iirtrov rj Karii to ivatpvfiop. Oi Bk fuaOo^opOi 
(epot iraaip hr€Tdx6f)(Tap. 'EttcI hk ovt€ mvicvfj 
avrjt 17 <f>d\ay( /cark to Sefiop to eavrov €(f>ai' 
V€T0, tioXv re TavTrj vTr€p<t>aXayy^(T€ip ol Tlepaai 
ihoKOVP, €K Tou pJaov etceXevae Bvo tXa^ tcjp 



position for Persian kings; Xeaophon son of Gryllns 
hss accurately described the general idea of this 

IX. Meanwhile Alexander, observing nearly all 
the Persian cavalry transferred to his left, resting 
on the sea, while be had only the Peloponnesians 
and the other allied horse on this side, despatched 
at fun speed the ThevaUan cavalry to the left, with 
orders not to ride in front of the line, so as not to be 
sighted by the enemy, but to pass unseen at the rear 
of his phalanx. But he pushed forward the cavalry 
patrols on his right, under Protomachus, and the 
Paeonians under Ariston; while of the infantry the 
archers under Antiochos, and the A^anes under 
Attalus and some of the cavalry and archers, he threw 
bacic at an acute angle towards the foothills in 
his rear, so that on his right wing hU line forlccd 
into two parts, one facing Dardus and the main body 
of Persians across the river, the other towards the 
force posted in hb rear in the hills. On the left 
wing, of the infantry, foremost were the Cretans 
and Thradans, under Sitalces, with the cavalry of the 
left wing in advance of these. The foreign mer- 
cenaries were distributed among all the troops. But 
as his line did not seem very solid on his right, and 
the Persians seemed likely to overlap them con- 
siderably there, he ordered from the centre two 
territorial squadrons — the squadron from Anthemus, 

* Xfli».i4iMi6. i.8.21. 



rralpmp, nip Tt ^AvOMfiovaiop, ^^ l^PXV^ ^tf 
n«poi&i9 o MfV€0'^<W, icai Tffv Aivyaiav koXov- 
f^v^v* 4^ i^tTO Htunophavo^ 6 KXtdphpov, iirl 

4 TO ^^(tov a^apA<i waptXBtZv. Kal roif^ rofora^ 
Bi Kal fUpo^ T»p * Ay pidpttv teal rStv 'EXXi^i^y 
fucdo^op^p icrip ots icark to Biftop to avTou 
iirl fitTiuwov irapayaytov i^htiPtv imkp to tAp 
Htpcmp xipa^ rrjp ipdXayya, *Evtl ykp oi virkp 
rov 6oov^ rrraypkivoi out€ tcarrjiaav, ifcBpofxrj^ 
T« hr ainov^ riap *Ayptdpwp leal twv r(.(ora)P 
okiy^p xark wpourafiv *A\((dpBpov ytpo/uptfs 
l>ahim^ awo rrj^ vwmptia^ uwi^TaXcrrfv i^ ro 
OKpop dp€^vyop, ffpm xal roU /ear ainov^ 
rrrayfAtPOi^ Bvparo^ tap \priaatidai i^ ttvaTrXiJ- 
pttciP Trj^^ti\ayyo^,€ictipoi^ hi Iw-irwrpuaeoaiov^ 
iwird^ai ((^pieta€P, 

X. Ot/TM hi) Trraryfihftws xpopop fUp rtpa 
wpoffytp dpavav^p, tMrr€ teal irdpv iho^t axdkaia 
ytpiadai aur^ 17 wp6<yoBo^. Tov^ ykp /3ap- 
JBdpov^, ovm^ ra TrpHtra iraxOriaav, ovxiri 
dprtiTi}y€ ^ap€io^, aXX* (Vi tou irorap^v raU 
6\Bai^, iroKKaxn f*^^ dtroxpijfipoi^ ouaai^t ^^ri 
oi oirou Kal p^apaira irapartipa^ ainaU, Xpa 
€V€4>oh<ar(pa €<ftaiP€ro, olrrtD^ eft€P€P. Kal ravrrj 
evOvs hi)\os iyiv€TO T0i9 a/*^' *A\((aphpop ifj 

5 yptoprj h€Bov\tii)fi€vo^, 'Hf hk opov rjhrj ^p ra 
arparoirehatfpravSa irapnrirevuiP Trdprr)* AXi^av- 
hpo^ rrap€Kd\ti dphpa^ dyaOov^ ylyp€a$ai, ov 
rtjp Tjyepopfap popop rd opopara (vp r^ irpeTTopri 
Koaptp dpaKaXoJp, d\\a Kal l\dp\a^ Kal Xoxa- 
yov^ opopaarl koI rS»p (eptop rS)P pi<T0o<f>6p(OP 
6<roi Kar dfUaaip 17 ripa dp€ri)P ypcapipaartpoi 



whose aqaadixm leader was Peroedas son of 
Menettheofl, and that called the Leugaean, under 
PantordanasaooofCleaiider; the word being passed 
that thej were to transfer unobserved to the right 
wing. The archers and some of the Agrianes and 
of the Greek mercenaries he led to the front of his 
right wing and so extended his line to outflank the 
Persian wing. For tinoe the troopa posted in the 
hUb had not deseeoded — nay, on a raid of the 
Agrianes and a few archers, at Alexander's order, 
thej had been easily dislodged and had fled to the 
summit — Alexander understood that he could use 
thoise who had been posted to hold them in check to 
deepen his phalanx. To watch the hill troops he 
reckoned it enough to tell oiT three hundred horse- 

X. His forces thus marshalled, Alexander led 
them on for some time with halts, so that their 
advance seemed quite a leisurely aflair. For Dareius 
did not yet lead on the Persians, arrayed as at the 
fint, but remained on the river banks, which were in 
many places precipitous, in some parts building up 
a stockade, where they appeared more accessible. 
It was here that Alexander's staff* perceived Dareius 
to be a man of no spirit. But when the two armies 
were ckMe, .\lexander riding along his front bade 
them be good men and true, calling aloud the names, 
with all proper distinctions, not only of the com- 
manders, but even squadron leaders and captains, 
as well as any of the mercenaries who were oon- 
spicnotts for rank or for any deed of valour. There 



^av KoX airrA iratnaxoBtP fioif 4yi¥m ftff 
iiarpifiup, aXkk iafiaXKtip i^ rov^ woXifiiov^, 
t 'O M ^€P 4¥ ra(ti in, rk fUv irptara, tcaimp iv 
airovrtfi f)Br) ^^^y rif» Aaptiov hvvafuv, ffa&tpf, 
rov fifj SiaavaffOfjpoi t« if r^ (vrroimrip^ woptif 
KV^fjpap rtf^ ^Xayya^* m9 Bi ivro^ fiiXov^ 
iyiyvovTo, irptrroi £f) ol tear *Wi(a¥Bpop teal 
atn<K *A\((apBpo^ tirl rov Bt(tov rrrayfiivo^ 
BpOfi^ ^? TOP worafiop Mfia\o¥» ttK t^ Tt ofvrrfTi 
T% i^ohov €tnr\fj(ai roif^ llipaa^ ical rov Saa^ 
aop 4^ X^Ip^^ iXBopra^ oXiya wpo^ ritv ro(ora>9 

4 ffXdirrteOat. Kal (uvififf ow^ eixaatv* A\((ap- 
Bpo^* €v$v^ yap «»9 ^p ;^€p<riv t; fuix*) €y€P€TO, 
rpiwoprai rov lUpci/cov <rrpar€vparo^ oi r^ 
ipt<rr€p^ tttpa iwtrerayutpoi' teal ravrjj pip 
Xaprrpm^ ipiica *\XJ(aphpo^ rt ictu oi ap4> avrop* 
oi 5« ^'EXAi/ffv Oi pAcBo^poi ol (vp ^aptiip, f 
hi€<rx€ rmp MatctBwt^p tf ^a\ay( ok (Vi t^ 

5 B€fiop K€pa^ irapappaytleat ori *A\((avBpo^ pkv 
tnrovBj ^f rop worapop ipffaXiup icaX ip XtpaX 
rtjp pa^^p wotfj<Ta^ ((utOti rjhrj rov^ ravrtj 
rrraypApov^ ratp WtpirSip, oi Bk tear a piaov rwp 
MasctBopttp ovre tJ ta^ avovBj rjylrapro rov 
ipyov KoX woXKa^^ teprjppdoSttri raU S^Oai^ 
€Prvyxdpopr€^ ro ptrenrop rrj^ <f>d\ayyo<: ov 
hvvarol iytpopro €P TJ avrrj rd^d StaauxraaOai, 
ravrrj ^pddWovaip oi "EWrjpe^ roi^ MaxeSoaiP 
J pdXiora hi€(nra<Tp€prjp avrol^ rrjv (f>d\ayya 

tcareiSop, Kal ro €pyop ipravOa xaprepop rjp, 
rStp pep €? rop irorapop drrdxraadai. roif^ Ma/r€- 
hopa^i Kal rrjp pitcrjp T0t9 ^Bt) <f>€vyov(Tt. a<f>cap 
dvaadxraadcu* ra>p MaxeBopti^p Bcrrj^ re *A\e(dv- 


came an answering cry to him from all sides to tarrj 
no longer, but to charge the foe. He continued 
to lead on in line, at first slowly, though with Darcius* 
force in full view, desiring that no part of the phalanx 
should fluctuate in the more rapid advance and to 
become separated; but once within range, first 
Alexander's suite and himself too, in his post on 
the right wing, took the river at the double, ifi 
order to confound the Persians by the swoop of their 
attack, and by joining in the melUy the sooner to 
rcceiTC the less harm from the Persian archers. All 
fell out as Alexander had gnened. For the moment 
the battle joined, the Persian left gave way; and 
here Alexander and his immediate following scored 
a triumphant sooeeM. Bat Dareius' Greek mei^ 
cenaries, where the M acedo n ian phalanx showed a 
i:ap, having broken away to the right wing — for 
Alexander had flung into the river in hot haste and, 
engaging in a hand-to-hand struggle, was already 
1 riving back the Persian posts there, while the 
Macedonian centre did not get to work with like 
rnthusiasm, and finding the banks in many places 
steep could not keep their firont unbroken — the 
Greeks, I say, at this point charged the Macedonians 
just where they saw the phalanx most agape. There 
the action was severe, the Greeks tried to push off the 
Macedonians into the river and to restore victory to 
their already retreating wing ; but the Macedonians, 



7 4^ TO TOTC BiafieffotjfUi^, /i^ a^avia^eu* Kai 
T# teal ToU 'ytvtai r^ t€ 'EXXi^pi/r^ teal r^ 
MeuciBoviMA ^iXoTi/ua9 iv4it9a€v <V dXXy;Xoi;v. 
Kal imavua wiWTit UToXtfialo^ re o S«X«i;«ot;, 
^r^p 6ya$a^ yevofuvo^, teal aXXoi i^ ttieoai 
fioKiara KaX itcarop r&v ovic ifffuXtffA^tmp Mare- 

XI« *Ey rovTf Bi at dwh rov B^fioO tc4ptt^ 
Taffi?, rtrpaf/Lfirpav^ ffBt) rots leark at^^ tS»p 
JJtpccitp o/NtfrrcVf 4wl rou^ (tpov^ r€ rovs 
luaSoi^opov^ rov^ ^ap€iOV Kal to iropovfupov a(f>(ot' 
4intctifiyjr€un€^, avo rt rov irorafAov cnrataaPTo 
avrov^, teaX xark ro 'waptpporyo^ rov lltp^iKOv 
arpartvfiaro^ inrtp^Xayyijaavre^ tf9 r^ irXdyta 

2 4pfitff\r)tcoT€^ rih) iKVtrrop rov^ (tvov^' teal oi 
lirirtU hk Oi rayp rif/Hrwv icar^ rov^ Be<r<7aXov^ 
rtrayfjUpoi ovtc 4fi€tpap ivro^ rov iroraftov 4p 
avr^ T^ 4py^, aXX' 4irtBia0dpr§s evpuxrraf^ 
4p€ffa\\op €1*9 ra^ fXa? rwv S€aaa\o>p* teal rainrj 
(vpcarv) iTTtrofia^ia xaprtpd' ovBi vpoaBcv 
(vixXivap ol Y\ipaat, irplv ^ap€i6v re ir€<^€vy6rTa 
TfcOovro Kal irplv diroppayrjtfai *Tif>^v rov^ futrdo- 

8 4>opovf: cvyteoirevra^ viro rtj^ if>d\ayyo^. Tore 
Bt rjBfj Xafiwpd T« teal 4te irdprtav tf <f>vyrj 
iyiyptro' teaX oX re rS»p HepaStp Xinroi iv rfj 
dpa\(i)pri<T€i (teateorrrddovPf fiapeta^ u>ir\ic p,€vov^ 
roif^ a^Sdra^ a<t>S>v (f^epopre^, xal avrol ol iTrnel^, 
tear a artvd^ oBov^ irXrjOei re ttoXXoI teal 'jr€<t>o^ri- 
fuvto^ avp dra^ia diro^capovvre^, ov fulov air' 
dXkrJiKtov KarairarovfUPOi ^ irpo^ t^ Bi€a^€(a^ 


seeing Alexander's sooccM AMiired, did not mean to 
be a whit behind, nor to suffer anj eclipse of their 
prestige and their proud title of " invincible." 
There arose also a racial rivalry between Greeks 
and Macedonians. Here it was that Ptolemaeus son 
of Seleucus fell, a good man and true, and about a 
hundred and twenty distinguished Macedonians. 
XI. Now the battalions on the right wing, seeing 

he Persian! opposed to them already turned back, 
inclined t o w awb Dareius' mercenaries and their 
own hard-preMed eentre, and drove these from the 
river, and then overlapping the now broken Persian 
Icf^, by an oblique move, attacked and were in a 
trice cutting down the mercenaries. However, the 
Persian cavalry posted opposite to the Thessalians 
did not keep their ground on the river bed in the 
action, but crosMd manfully and charged the 
Thessalian squadrons, and here there was a desperate 
cavalry fight; the Persians did not give way till 
they saw Dareius in flight and till their mercenaries 
were cut off, mowed down by the phalanx. But then 
the rout was open and universal. The Persian 
horses suffered much in the retreat, with their 
riders heavily armed, while the riders too, hurrying 
by narrow roads in a crowded horde, in terror and 

in disorder, were as much damaged being ridden 



TMV wo\tfdt$¥ ipXdirroirro, Kal ol %€9ira\oi 
wpm r rm^ avroU ^frc/renn-o, a><rrc ov fitlop ^ t«v ^ 

4 ^ap€lo^ h4, m^ avTif to trpStrop inr ^AXtfav- 
hpov i^offtfOrj TO tcipa^ to €v^inffiO¥ icaX ravrrj 
awopprjyyvfjitpov icartiS^ rov dXXov arparairiBoi 
€vOvs ^ ^^X^ ^^ ^^^ ipfiaro^ (u» roU wpwrrois 

6 l^cvyf. KaX coTf /i^y o/iaXoi9 ;^«/a^«f ^i^ t,^ 
^tryj hrtrvyyavtv, ^irX rov apfutro^ 5ic^«»trro 
ftK & ^apay(i tc /rai aXXoiC Si/avM/iuuc MxypOf. 
to /«€V ^Ofia iivoX«iir€C auroO «ai t^p a<r7ri&i ivai 

T^y tCOpivP 4kIv^' 6 Bi ttal TO Tofoi' d'H'oX^iVct 

iwl TOW ipfiaro^* airro^ B^ Iwwov iirifi^^ €^€vy€' 
Kol tf vv( ov Bik fuuepou iiriytPOfUmf a^iXrro 

6 avTov TO irpo^ *A\€(avBpov oXmmu. *AX<(ay- 
£/»>¥ «y^^ ^orrc /uy ^<io9 ^ di^ Kpdro^ ^SUtittv* 
m^ M ffV9€aicoTal^€ Tf ffSiy «al t^ irpo iroBAp 
a^tni ^y, ^ to ipiraXLV awerpdvrro m iwl ro 
ar par 6w thaw, ro fUpTOi apfia to ^ptiov Ikafft 
Kal T^y aairtSa iw avrA icai rov Kiivhvv ical ro 

7 rofop. Kal yiip /ecu rf dio»fi9 fipahvripa avr^ 
hftyopth on iv rj trpwrff irapappfjPti t^ 
if>d\ayyo^ iiriarph^a^ ical avro^ ov rrpoadev ^9 
TO Btdttcttv trpdtrero, irp\p rov^ t€ fuadoi^opov^ 
rov^ ^€uov^ KoX ro rttv VltpaSiv Ittitukop dtro rov 
irorapov diraaOitnaf; teareiSt. 

8 Teap St llf p<T<i}p airiSavop *Ap<Tdfirj^ fitp teal 
'Ptofudpfj^ tceu *Ari^vf)^ ra>v ivi VpapiK^ rfyrjaa- 
fUptop rov linnKOV' dfroBvritTKti ht Koi ^affaxr}^ 
6 Aiyvwrov aarpdmf^ koX Bov^dxtf^ rS»p iprlfuov 
Tlepaoap' ro Be dWo trXfjBo^ 6*9 S^xa fidXtara 

* T«»r for MS (A), a ooojeoture meotionod bj Krflger. 



oTer bj one anotiier as by their pursuers. The The*- 
saBans ttouUj preated them, and there was as much 
slaughter in the cavalry as in the infantry flight. 

Dardos* for his part, the moment his left wing was 
panic-stricken by Alexander and he beheld it thus 
ut off from the rest of his army, fled just as he was 
in his chariot, and in the van of the fugitives. So 
long as he found level ground, he found safety in 
his chariot; but when he met defiles and other 
difficulties, he left his chariot and threw away his 
shield and his ooter mantle, nay, left even his bow 
in the chariot, and fled on horseback ; night, speedily 
falUng, saved him from becoming Alexander's 
captive. For Alexander pursued with all his might 
as long as daylight held; but when it grew dark 
and he could not see his way, he turned back towards 
the camp, taking, however, Dareius' chariot, and 
with it his shiekl, bow, and mantle. The fact is 
that his pursuit was the slower, since he had wheeled 
back at the first breaking through of the phalanx and 
had not himself turned to pursue till he had seen 
the mercenaries and the Persian cavalry driven back 
from the river. 

Of the Persians fell Arsames and Rheomithres and 
Atixyes of the cavalry commanders on the Granicus ; 
Sabakes the satrap of Egypt, and Bubakes, of the 
Persian nobles ; as for the rank and file, some 100,000, 



fwpmSa^ xal ip rovroi^ imrtU tnrkp rou^ fivpiovs , 
&ar€ Xeyci UroXtfuilo^ 6 Adyov, (vv€iriaTrofJi€Po<i 
ror€ ^AXefdpBp^, rov^ firrti a^oiy Bi<a>/copra^ 
Aap§lo¥, m M ^dpayyi T11/4 ^y t^ Buofei 
iyifomOt ^l f^ yticptav Bta/Si^vai rtju ^dpayya. 

9 To Tc arparowtBov rb ^apuov €v$v^ i{ i^oSov 
idXm Kol ff fiijrffp ical ^ yvptj, aMf Bi teal a&rX^^ 
^p€iov, «ai t/<09 ^aptiov vi')vio^ xal Bvyaript^ 
hvo idXmaap mal aWtu a/i^* auT^9 Htpc&p tAp 
OfAorlfimp yvpahc€^ ov woXXaL, Oi ykp &k\iH 
tiipctu ra^ yvpouea^ a^p {vp r^ dXXn Kara- 
10 a/e€vfi ^9 ^ftaaxop Itv\op iora\«6ir9^' iml ical 
Aap<u>9 T«y TC XA^/^Twy tA ttoXX^ «al Sera dXKa 
luydkm PaciXtl h woKirrtXfi hiairop Koi arpa- 
rtvofUP^ Sfim^ evphrrrai vrrroft^M i^ ^afuur- 
KOP, &art ip T^ arpar€ijfuni ov wXdopa ^ 
rpiaxikia raKoina taXM, *AXX^ xaX rk ip 
Aa/iaa«M \pijfiaTa oXiyop {janpov idXa irtrh 
HapptvitaviK iir* avro roOro araXipro^. Tovro 
TO T<Xo9 tJ fidxv itctltnj iyivrro iir\ apxomo^ 
*K6fjpaioi^ NiKOKpdrov^ fifjpo^ MatfiaKTtjpiMvo^, 

XII. TJ W va-rtpaia, tcaiirip rerpttfUvo^ top 
fAJ^pop *A\i(aphpo<: (i^ei, o 6< toi>9 rpavp/iTui^ 
iirfj\$€, ical tow vexpovs (wayaytop eOay^€ firya- 
Xov/MTTOK (vv r^ hvvdfui irdcfj itcTera^fiiprj 
\afiirp6rara ok eV iroXepiOV' /tat \oy<p rt iiretcoa- 
p,i)(T€v oaois T» hiairptirh epyop iv tJ fJMxrj ^ 
avT09 (uptypm elpyeurfUvop ^ dxoj avfjufiiopov- 
pevop €pA0e' Kal XPVP^'^f^v iniBoaei a»9 eKdarov^ 

2 ii/p TJ d(la €rCfir)a€. Kal Ki\iiCLa<; p^v dirohei' 
KVV€i aaTpdirrjp BdXaxpov top NiKavopo^, h^a 
rtop <T(apaTO(Pu\djc<ap to>p BaaiXi/cc^i/* dprX ti 

ANABASi-^ Ob ALEXANDER, II. ii. S-12. 2 

among which were over lOfiOO cavahy, to that 
Ptolemaeos son of Lagos, who then was with 
Alexander, says that the pursuers of Dareius meeting 
a deep gullj in the pursuit crossed it on bodies of 
the dead. Dareius' camp was stormed and captured, 
with his mother, wife, who was sister also of Dareius, 
and his infant son ; two daughters also were taken, 
and in their suite some few noble Persian ladies. For 
the other Persians had sent their women-folk and 
baggage to Damascus ; Dareius too had sent thither 
the greater part of his monej and all else that goes 
akiog with a great king, even on campaign, to meet 
his extravagant way of living ; they found, therefore* 
in the camp not above three thousand talents. Yet 
even this wealth at Damascus was captured soon 
after by Parmenio, who was specially detailed to do 
so. So ended thb battle, fought in the archonship at 
Athens of Nicocrates and in the month Maimak- 


Xll. Next day, despite a sword wound in his 
thigh, Alexander went roond to tee the wounded; 
and the dead he gathered together and gave them a 
<«plcndid military funeral, the whole army marshalled 
rt their finest battle array. He praised all who, 
by his own personal witness, or by the agreed report 
of others, he knew had done valorous deeds in the 
battle ; these one and all he honoured by a donation 
suitable to their desert. He appointed as satrap 
of Cilida Balacrnt too of Nicanor, one of the royal 

» VovMBUr S3S. 



TOVTov i^ rov^ at»naT<H^v\aKa^ tear€\((€ MeinTTa 
rov ^toyvaiov at^i St riroXtfiainv tov ^tXtvscov 
rov airo6a¥6ino^ iv tJ M^X!? HoKvairip'xoirTa^ 

TOV ^IfAfUOV &pX€iV aWthtl{€ T^ ^K€iVOV TO^fMV. 

Kal ^oXev^i rd t< irtintjicoina rdXapra h iv^d 
ti» iic rutv ^idXfjOantav atplffi xptjfuiTa}v dy^t 
tcdi Tot^ ofifjpovs diriBtatctv. 

8 *0 W ouh4 rrj^ fifjrpo^ t^9 Aap€iov ovW t^ 
yupouch^ 4 rvv waiB^tp fjfUXyiatv, *AXXA 
Xiyovai rtpts rwp rd *A\t(dp6pou ypa^dtntav, 
rff^ vvKTo^ ainT]^ p dwo rij^ Btm(99^ t^ ^ptLov 
^atnjxw ^K rf)v axfjvijv iraptXdovra avrov riy 
^aptiov, ffTi^ aur^ ^(pPVf^^ ^*'» dKOvaai yupai- 
kAp olfinypju Kdi d\\op toioOtop dopvfiov ov 

4 woopm rif^ aKtiprf^' wvdiaOai ovp atrivi^ yvvaucf*^ 
Kci dps* orrov ovrtts ^77^ wapacKtfPovffr tea 
ripa ^(ayytikat, 5ti, *n fiaeiXiv, t) fjLtjrtfp re 
Mai tj yvprj Aaptiov teal oi iraZ^, ok ^(nTY^^^V 
ainaU on to r6(op rt rov ^aptiov ex'i^ *"** '*'' 
xuphvp TOP paaiXtKOp ictu t) dairl^ oti xeKOfuarai 
ofriaa y dkaptiov, a»f ittl TC^vcoiri iiaptifp 

6 tti'Oi/icu^ouo-i. TaOra dtcowrapra ^ Wi^avhpov 
irefxylrai trpo^ aind^ \t6pvarov, epa rStu iraiptav, 
ipreiXd^fpoP if^pdaai ori ^fj Aa/>e((K* t^ Be on\a 
xal TOP xdpBvp 0T« <f>€vy(ap aTreXiirev iirl r^ 
ap/uirt xai ravra on p.6va evci *A\€(apBpo<;. 
Koi Aedpvarop nrapeXdopTa h rr)p axrji'Tjp ra rf 
vtpl Aa/MM>v eiireiv koX on rfjp Sepairdap avral 
(uyXtntpel * We^avBpo^ Tr)p jSaaiXttcijv teal rov 
dXXov Koafiop Kcu KoXtladcu ^aai\Laaa<;, errel 

^ UmKviiipX**^ A and inacriptiona, despite which -vw- of B, 
•to., teems certjunly oorrecfc. The adj. is wkv^m^pxk** 


bodygiuund ; and chose to take his place in the guard 
Menes, son of Dionysius ; and in place of Ptolemaeos 
son of SeleucQS, who had fallen in the fight, he 
appointed Poljrtperchon ion of Simmias commander 
of his battalion. To the citizens of Soli he remitted 
the fifty talents still due from the 6ne he had imposed* 
and restored their hostages. 

Nor did be neglect Dareius' mother, queen, or 
children. Some of the biographies of Alexander 
relate that the night after his return from the pursuit 
of Dareius he entered Dareius' pavilion, which had 
been put aside for his own use, and heard a lamenta- 
tion and other confused sound of women's voices 
near the paviUon; he enquired what women they 
were and why they were aooommodated so near him ; 
and was told, " Sire, it is Dareius' mother, wife, and 
children ; hearing that you poMcas his bow and the 
royal mantle and that his shield has been brought 
back, they are wailing for him as dead." Alexander 
thereupon sent Lconnatus to them, one of the 
Companions, bidding him tell them that Dareius 
still lived ; that he while escaping left his arms and 
mantle in the chariot, and that Alexander had no 
more than these. Leonnatus entered the tent and 
gave Alexander's message about Dareius, adding 
that Alexander granted them the right of royal 
state and all other marks of royalty, with the title 



ov tcark iyBpav oi ytvicOai ro¥ woXtftov wp^ 
Aapfiby, aXX' tnrip rfj^ ' dpxn^ t^ 'A<yu»^ 

6 BiawtiroXffiTJcOai ivvofiM^, *taina ukv IItoX«- 
fuilo^ Koi *Apicr68ov\os Xiyovar \oyo^ Bk fyet 
teal avrop »\\((ai^po¥ rp vartpaC^ irap^kuw 
Mtam (u» *H^iaTM»vi fiovy TMV halpttv* icaX 
rijp fAtfTipa TffP ^aptlov, afi^iyvorjtraaav ounq 
o ffaaiXtif^ ffiy avroip, iarakdai ykp &p,(^(o rjt 
avTff tcocfj^, rtfp hi *Hf^aicrittPi irpoc€>jfftip ical 
wpoctcvprfceu, Sr^ fitit^tip \avr^] ii^dptf iicttpo<:. 

7 ^n^ hi 6 'l\<^anrTU»p T« owlato inrtyoiprjat icai 
TIC "riiP afA^* aini^p, top 'Wt^avSpop Stifa^, 
ixtlpop i^fj tlvai *A\((aphpop, rijv pip tcarcuBttr- 
Otlaop rj Btafiaprria {nro\o»p€lp, 'AX^fapBpop 3« 
ov ^tuuu auTfjp afLapTtip' ical ykp imtivop clyoi 

8 *AXi(ap6pop. Kai ravra iyw mtff m9 aXr^Bt) ovrt 
m iropTt) Hinara aptypayfra. 'AXX' tht oCrta^ 
hrpdyOq, iiraiptti *AXi(apBpop t»/c ti i^ t^9 yvval- 
Ka^ icarotKrur€^»^ xal rff^ i^ top eraipop friar tta^ 
KoX Tifiijs' «ir€ TTiOapo^ hoK€l T049 (vyypdy^aatp 
*A\((apSpo^ a»c teal ravra &p vpd(a^ tcai tirrwv, 
ical €n\ rj>B€ irratpit * AXi^aphpop, 

XIII. Aapeu>9 hi rrjp fup pvtcra (vp oXlyoi^ 
TOif dfi^* avrop t^vyt, rfj Bi fip^pa dpaXappdvtop 
dti rS>p re WepaStp rov<; hiaatidtpra^ i/c rrj^ 
fidxv^ »cal r<op (epctp rwp p4a0o<p6p(ap, i^ 
rrrpaKiaxtXLov^ eX^^ "^^^^ tfdpra^t ft>? *Vl 
Ga^Oicov T« rroKip Koi top Kv<f>pdTtjp irora- 
fiop arrovBfj i^Xavpcp, w^ rd)^iara piaop avrou 
re Koi rov *A\€(dvhpov rop Ev<f>pdr7jp iTOifjaai. 



of princesses of the blood, since he had made war 
with Dsreios from no personal enmity but had 
legitimately fought for the sovereignty of Asia. This 
is the account of Ptolemaeus and Aristobulus; 

here is, however, a story that Alexander himself 
next day visited the tent with Hephaestion alone 
of his suite; and Dareius* mother, mktaking the 
king — for both were accoutred alike — approached 
Hephaestion and prostrated herself before him, for 
he appeared the taller. Hephaestion, however 
withdrew, and one of the Queen-mother's attendants 
pointing to Alexander said that he was the king ; 
whereupon she also withdrew in confiision at her 
mistake ; Alexander remarking that she had made 
no error, for HephaestioD was also an Alexander.^ 
This I have included not as necessarily true nor yet 
altogether untrustworthy. If it so happened, I have 

othing but praise for Alexander for (lis compassion 
lowards these women, and for his thus trusting 
and honooring his comrade ; if it is the sort of thing 
that the historians thought Alexander would have 
said and done, and hence they accept it, I still have 
nothing but praise for Alexander. 

XIII. Dareius meanwhile fled through the night 
with a handful of his suite ; but in the daylight he 
kept picking up such Persians as had got off safe 
from the battle and also some of the foreign mer- 
cenaries; and with a body of about 4000 in all he 
rode at full speed to the River Euphrates, meaning 
to put the river between Alexander and himself as 

^ Presunubly Alexander refanwl to the eiymo*ogy of Ills 
name: a *'driVpr-*way of unen^V or r<»^*>ly* ^lu^ would 
beet unit the cootcxi, a ** prol«ot«r of mankinii/* Hrphaostioo 
vac bb flilir 4psb 



2*AfftiVra? Bi i *Ami6xov xtu Sv/itMa^ 6 
Mimopo^ Kol *Api<rTo/A»;Si7v o ^pato^ ma 
hidpmp o *A.tcap»dy, ^vfivaints oxnoi airrofioXot , 
furk rmp a^i^* avrov^ arpariwrtap m^ htcratcia' 
XiXimp €v6u^ «k TtrayfAiwoi ^au tcark rk Spt) 
$€i^yrcv a^Uorro V^ Tpijro\i¥ t% ^oipUif^- 

3 Ktu ivravBa ttaraXaffoirrts r^9 vav^ »€»€mXjcff' 
fUva^ ^* mv wpoadtv in Ai^ffou Biojcitcofuafihoi 
^aa¥, rovTMP oaai lUv Utu^ai a^Miw h rtfv 
xofuBrjif ihoKovv, ravra^ KaBiKMvcatnt^t T^f 3^ 
^XXa9 avrov iw tok yntpia^ KaraMavcamt^, m9 
fAff wapaax'^ raytta^ a^¥ rtfp Bi^fnf, hrl 
KvwpQV i^vyop KtuimuBn €iV Alyinrrw, tpawtp 
ikJi^f99 tay^pop woXuwpayfiOPmp t$ *A/ivina^ 
imi^ptfaicu inro rmv iyx^pl^p. 

4 ^appofiat^o^ hk koX Auro^paSdrrf^ rit^ piv 
irtpi Tffp Xiop Bi4rptffop- Karaarrjaatrrt^ Bi 
^povpap r^ Xiou r^r ptp npa^ rSiv pt&p h 
Km ical * AXucapvaoc'op iarttXav, ainol Bi 
iicarop pavci ral^ dpiara vXtovaai^ dpoyo- 
pmvoi i^ "m^pop Ka-riayop, Kal trap avrov^ 
<juf>iicpf IT tu^ Ay t^ 6 [twv] AaKiSaip/ivto^p ffaaiXev^ 
hrl fjud^ Tpiijpov^, XP'IH^^^ tc €urtjctav i^ rov 
woXtfiov Koi Bvpapiv vavrncrjv re ica\ iret^iKrjv 
6ariP ir\€urTrjv uftaxTtop avpTtep-y^ai oli^rrjv WeXo- 

6 woPVffiTov, Kui cV rovrtp dyytXia avroU epxerai 
rr/^ pdxp^ '''^ ^P^ *I<ra^ ytPOfUi^Tj^. *Etc'Tr\a- 
y€Pr€^ Ci irpo^ rd ifayyeXOipra <Pappd0a^o*: 
piP aify Bu>S€ica Tpirjp€<Ti teal rwv ptad(Hf>6p(au 
^tpmp (up yiXiOi9 teal irepTaKoaloK; ^irl Xiov 
iardXrj, Betaa^ prj rt irpo^ ttjp dyyeXiap t^ 

6 rirrfj^ oi Xioi Pitarepiataaip, *Ayi^ h4 trap* 



soon M might be. AmjnUs, however, son of 
Antiochiit and Thjrmoiidat ton of Mentor mnd 
Aristomedes of Pherae and Bianor the Acamanian, 
all deserters to Dareius, with their troops to the 
number of 8000, when posted in battle formatioo, 
fled straight to the hills and reached Tripolis in 
Phoenicia.^ There they picked up the ships which 
had been hauled ashore; the same ships which had 
brought them from Lesbos. Tbej launched as 
many of these as thej thought enough for their 
cooToy; the rest they burnt in the dockyards, to 
•fvoid a speedy pursuit, and made for Cyprus and 
hence to Egypt, where a little later Amyntas, 
stirring op trooble» was killed by the Egyptians. 

Meanwhile Phamabasns and Autophradates for 
their part had been waiting at Chios; they had 
appointed a guard for Chios, and they now sent 
part of their fleet to Cos and Halicamassos ; they 
themselves with the hundred swiflest ships put to 
sea and arrived at Siphnus. Agis king of Sparta 
met them there with a single trireme to beg for 
funds for the war and to ank that as many ships and 
men as possible should be sent to him in the Pelo- 
|x>nnese. Just at this moment came the news of 
the battle of Issus« Utterly dumbfounded at the 
news, Phamabasus with twelve triremes and fifteen 
hundred of the mercenaries made for Chios, fearing 
lest the Chians, on the news of the defeat, might 
rebeL Agis, meanwhile, getting thirty silver talents 
* A dij 00 a spar of Uu Lebaaoo. 


Avro^paBdrov rdXatrra apyvpicv Xaffiitp rpia- 
KOtna ica\ rptrip€t^ hisca, ravra^ fUv 'limiav 
dfotrra atroaTcXXtfi wapa rov aS^X^P rov avrov 
*Ayrfci\aop Iwl Taiyapoy xal wapayytWtiv 
MXevatP *AyTfci\d^, BiBotna roU vauraK 
im§\fj Tov fuaSop irXc*y rtip raxi^rrfp hri 
l^pfifTTf^t W9 T^ iictl icara^rrfaouiPOP, Avro9 h( 
TOTC ^p avTov ip raU p9jeot^ xnti^iwtp, wntpop hk 
ii« * Wticappaacop vap Aino^pahaTfiP a^Urro, 

7 *A\i(apSpo^ W aarpdirrip fiip ^vpi^ t^ tcotkn 
Mifttva TOP KtpBififia hrira^Mt Bou^ airr^ /? 
^vXaMffp T^ ^tipa^ roiK r&p (vf^^d^^p Imrw* 
ainro^ Bk M ^otPitcfj^ jTCi. Kal dwcuna avrtfi 
Kara rifP oSop '^rpdr^p 6 VfjpoaTpdrov iral^ rov 
*Apahimp rt ral tAp *ApdBtf wpocoUtav 0eun\i^s 
o S^ Vrfpoarparo^ aiVrof firr* Avro^pahdrov 
IwXti iiri rifp WMf, Kal oi d\koi oi r« ra>p 
^oipucofp xal oi rt^p Ktnr pltt^p fiaaiXtU nal 

8 aurol A^OiftpaBdrfj (vpitrXtop. ^rpdrtop St 
*A\€^dphpif ipjv)(iitf aT€<^vol XP^^V ^"^^^dvip 
a^ov, icaX rtjp t€ "hpahov avT^ r^p pittrov xai 
rrjp Wdpafiop rrjp icaraimicpv t^ * Apdhov €v rrj 
^velp^ xtifihnjp TToXiv, fieydXrfp teal tvhaipova, 
icai ^lytiiva koX ^\apidp,fiqp iroXtp teal rdWa 
oaa tt)^ a^iap iiriKpaTtia^ (vhihtoaiv. 

XIV. "Eti hi ip WapdOtp * AXefdvBpov Svro^ 
a<plKOPro irapk iiaptiov irpicffd^t iinaroXriv re 
icofu^opr€^ Aap€tov teal avrol d-tro yXdxrarf^ 
Berjaofievot d^lvai ^apeifp rrjv firjrepa »cal 
2 rijp yvpaiKa ical rov^ rralBa^, *K5ijXou hk ^ 
<7riaTo\>;, ot« OtXiTTTToj re rrpo^ ^Apra^ep^rjp 
<f>iXia *cal ^Vfifiaxla eyevero' xaX iTreiBrj "J^paj)*; 


from Autophradates and ten triremes, despatched 

Ilippias to take them to his brother AgesiUus at 

I aenanim. He ordered him to tell AgesiUus to pay 

lie crew in full and sail by the shortest route to 

rete, to put all there in order. But Agis remained 

here for the present among the blands, joining 

Autophradates later at Halicamassus. 

Alexander appointed as satrap of Lowland SyrU 

Menon son of Kerdimmas, giving him, to garrison 

lie country, the allied cavalry. He himself went 

owaidt Phoenicia. On his way Stratoo too of 

< ie r o etr atii i met him ; Gerostratus was sheik of the 

Aradians and those near Arados; and sailed him- 

«lf in the fleet with Autophradates, and the rest of 

lie princes of Phoenicia and the kings of the Cyprians 

ailed with him too. But Straton meeting Alexander 

crowned him with a golden crown, 3rielding up to him 

7 fie island of Aradus and Marathus which lay opposite 

r on the mainland, a great and pro s pero u s dty, with 

-igon and Mariamne and all else under his sway. 

XIV. While Alexander was yet at Marathus, 
envoys reached him from Dareius, bringing a letter 
rom him, and themselves under orders to beg 
Alexander to release to Dareius his mother, wife, 
and children. The letter ran : Philip and Artaxerxes 
were in peace and alliance; and when Arses son 



aBttela^ wpAro^ ^ ffaetXAa "'Apatjv >}p|ep o^hiv 
&X^P^ ^^ Tlfpo'My wadmp, *E{ ov d« aiKo^ 
Pa<n\€V€i Tltpaw, ovrt iri^u^'^ai nvk ^AXi^av- 
hpov trap* athoif i^ ffiffaUnritf rfj^ 'wttXa* ovarf^ 
^iXia^ re teal (vfifia\ia^, htafiiivai rt (vv 
arparia ^9 rtfp *Affiap tcai iroWa Ktutk iprfdtraa- 

3 $ai IXipaa^, Toi/rov tvtKa tcaraff^poi aiVro^ 

iuMurmattw, T^y /i<v hi} /la^vv/v ok Btity r^ 
^Sofev, otrrw leptBijpar atho^ hi ffaaiXeu^ 
wapik /Sa^iXioK Tvyaiira t« t^v aurou airtiv teal 
fitfripa KoX waZha^ rov^ aXoinas, xal ^iXiav 
iBiXtip woiiicturdai wo^ *A\i(apBpop teal 
{uufAaxo^ theu *AX«(<irop9»* teal inrip rointup 
Wi^irup r^^iov *A\t(aphpop Trap axnov (vp 
M€i'i<7/rf» Tf teal *Apalfji^ roU ayyt\oi^ roU itc 
ll€p^&p Htcovai roif^ rk iriark Xtjy^Ofiepov^ re 
xai vvip *A\t(dphpou hmaovra^. 

4 l\po^ raura duriypd^i *AXt(apBpo^ teal 
(vp.irefiiret roU irapa Aap€tov iXOovai Hepam- 
irop, irapayyttXa^ tijp ifnaroXf)^ hovpai Aapel^t 
auTOP he fii) htaXiyeaOai inrep fi*)h€v6^. *H he 
^TTiaroXr) *AXefdvhpov tahe eyci. " Oi vfiirepoi 
TTpoyopoi iXBovre^ el^ Ma»ceCopiap teal el^ rijv 
dXXijp 'EXXdha tcatcat^ eiroir^aav rifid^ ovhtp 
irporjhtKTjfUPOt' ^yu> he "rSiV 'EXXr/rcDV rjyep^v 
tearaaraOfU teal rifuoprjCTaadai ffovXofievo^ 
Tlepaa^ hteffrjp ^9 rrjv *Aaiap, tnrap(dpT(ov vp,<av, 

6 Koi yap UepipOioi^ effarfOrjaare, ot top efiop 
irarepa rfhlteovPt teal 6*9 ^patef)Pt 1/9 flfieU ypxo- 
fup, hvpafitp eir€p.y^ep 'Hj^ov. Toi) he Trarpo^i 


^VAp^cic OF ALEXAKDER, II. 14. 25 

of Ariaxi r\i > n r.-iinc kiii^, Philip took the fmt 
wrong step towards King Arses, having suffered no 
ungracious treatment at his hands. But since 
Dareius had been King of Persia, Alexander had 
sent no envoy to him to confirm this ancient friend- 
hip and alliance, but had actually crossed in full 
:orce into Asia and had done much harm to the 
Penians. Dareius therefore bad come down to 
defend hb country and to recover bis ancestral 
overeignty. The battle had gone as some god 
had willed it; but he, a king, begged from a king 
his captive mother, wife, and chiklren; and was 
cady to make friendship and an alliance with 
Aleicander ; and for these things he begged Alexander 
to send to him ak>ng with Menisciis and Arismas, the 
ys (rom Persia, duly authorised persons to receive 
ies from him, and to give him sureties from 

Alexander replied to this, sending with Dareius' 
envoys Thersippus, bidding him deliver the letter 
to Dareius, but to discuss no point with him. This 
is how Alexander's letter nms : " Your ancestors 
invaded Macedonia and the rest of Greece and did 
us much harm, though we had done none to them ; 
I have been duly appointed Commander-in-Chief 
of the Greeks, and invaded Asia desiring to take 
vengeance on Persia ; but it was you who began the 
mischief. You assisted Pcrinthus, which wronged 
my father; and Ochus sent a force into Thrace, 
which was under our sovereignty. My father was 


VOU I o 


awoBapovro^ \nfo r&v iirtfiovXtvadirrmp, ots v^AtU 
cvvrrd^art, ek ai^roi iv raU hnaroXaU wpos 
itratna^ itco/Awda^arit teal "Aparfy airoimivatrros 
90V lurk BoYMOv, icaX rrjv dpxh^ tcara^xovro^ 
ov 5i/raittK oiBi tcard rov Uipaiii^ vofiov, dWa 
uBiMovvTo^ lUpaa^, ical (nrip ifiov irpo^ rovs 
"EKkfft^a^ ypdfi^ra o^sc (wtrij^ta Bunrifiiroirro^, 

6 Swt^ wpo^ liM iroX</M^i, icaX ypi^fuira diroarik' 
Xotrro^ wpa^ AaxthaifAoviov^ Ktu ixXov^ rivd^ rc^v 
'EXktfvmp, teal Tw fU¥ aXXMP iroXimp odS€^a^ 
htxP^Uvfi^, AaxtBaifwyUtP hk Xafiovrmv, ica\ ro}v 
wapk cov vtfK^Oivrttv rov^ ifioif^ <pC\ov^ Bta- 
^$€$pdyTt»p »al Tfjp tlpiipfjp f^p roU "EXXiyai 
KartaKtvaca BioXvtiP itrix^ipovprttp, iarpdrevo'a 

1 M eit inrdpfopro^ aov rtf^ iy^pa^. E-wtfl S( 
fidxij ptpUrjKa TT port pop fi^p rov^ oou^ or parr) 
jov^ Kol oarpdira^, pvv hk «al ok icai rtjp prrd aov 
dvyafup, xal rvfp X'^P^^ hc^» "^^^ Bt&p fun 
hopTttp. "Oooi r»p fi€Td <rov waparafafitptov fiij 
ip tJ P^XO dirtOapop, dWd vap ipk xaT€4>vyov, 
rointap iwifUXopai ical ovtc dtcoPTis trap* ip^'i 
tloip, aXXA ical avrol iicoprt^ (vorpaTtvoprai 

8 per* ipov. *Cl^ ovp ipov ti}^ 'Acria? dtrdiTTj^ 
KVpiov Syro^ ^«f trpo^ ipi. Ei hk 4>^Pfi prj iXOoiv 
wdBff^ Ti i( ipov dx^ipit irtpirt Tipd^ ro)v <f>i\(ov 
rd wtord XriyfrofUpoi/^. 'E\Bd>p Be irpo^ p€ rrjp 
ptfrepa /ral rrjp yvvauca icai rov^ •nalha^KoX €1 &\\o 
Ti ^Oikei^ airei xai \dp0ape. "O rt ydp dp TreiOrjf: 

9 €pe eartu aoi, Kal tov Xoitrov orav TrepTrrj^: Trap* 
ipj, to>9 trpo^ fiaaiXia t^ * Aoia^ irepire, prfhi 
h 4( Xaov hrioreXXe, aXX' <»v icvpitp 6pri Trdprtop 



murdered by conspintora, whom you instructed, as 
you younelves boasted in your letters, before all the 

vorld; you assassinated Arses witli the help of 
iiagoaa,^ and seised the throne unjustly and, accord- 
ing to Persian law, illegally, doing grievous wrong 
to Persiaiis ; you sent improper letters to the Greeks 
about me, urging them to declare war upon me. 
You despatched sums of money to the Lacedae- 
monians and certain other Greeks, and when no 
other dty received these, save the LacedaemonlanSy 
and when tout envoys oomipted my friends and 
sought to destroy the peace I had made in Greece, 
I took up arms against you; but it was you who 
started tne quarreL And whereas I conquered in 
battle first your generals and satraps, and now your- 

clf and your own force, and hold the country — by 
the gift of heaven — I hold myself responsible for all 
of vour troops who did not die in the field but took 
rrftige with me ; indeed they are with me of their 

•vrn free will and of their will serve in my army. 
Regard me then as Lord of all Asia and come to me. 
If you fear lest by coming you may receive some 
ungracious treatment at my hands, send some of your 
friends to receive proper pledges. When you come 
to me, request and receive your mother, wife, and 
f^hildren, and what vou will. You shall have what- 

«>ever you persuade me to give. And in future 
when vou send, send to me as Supreme Lord of Asia, 
and oo not direct what you require as on equal 
lerms, but tell me, as lord of all your possessions, 

* Airaander wmm» inaeevate. Bagoaa apparenUy mnr- 
i'Ted Anes indepeodentfy and then plared l>Areioa on the 
tUrone, later attenpliQf to poison him, but wm ** hout with 

his own po|Md,**Mf^ oo«psikd to drink the poison himsell. 



rmp ainf ^pal^9 §1 rov hij^ §1 Bk fkri, M» ffovXtO- 
oofuu irtpi aov W9 ahucovino^, Ei h cimX^7««v 
W€pl T^ fiaciXtia^, itwofuLpa^ rr^ dymviaai irtpi 
airri^ ital fu) ^vyt, «9 ^yM ^irl ak woptvco^un 
ov Ap p^.** 

XV. Upo^ fihf ^apflow ravra iwicrtiXtP. 
'Evfl h* ifUL0€ Ttt T« x/^i7fu»Ta 6a a ovv Kw^j;vi 
T^ 'A/>Ta^a{bv avoir tiro fi^t CiV ^fiaaxoy 
^ap€ios Sn id\MK€, Ktd Scot Utpirifv ufA4^* airr^ 
iy/caT€\ti^r)cap (uv r^ &\Xp ffaciXiicj tcara- 
atc€t/p Sri K€u ovroA idXmaav, ravra flip iwLatt 
KOfuaapra <f ^auaamop HapfAMPi^pa ifevXdaatiP 

2 cV<X€ve. Tow9 ii wpiaff4i^ rwp 'liWiftfcap ot 
wpo^ ^apuop irpo rrj^ ^XV^ d^iyfUPOi ^ai 
hrtl Kal Toirrouc ia\MK€vai ffiaBt, wap* aOroi 
vt/Air€iir ixtXtvcMP, *H<rai' Si EvOvxXri^ fiiv 
^wapudrf^^t ^<raa\iaico^ hk 'Icfirjpiov teat 
^iOPVcoS^po^ *0\vfiinovuttj^t Biy/SoToi, *\4>i 
Mpdrif^ B4 6 'l4>ii€pdrov^ rov errparrfyovt *\0t)' 

S pau>^. Kal ovTOi ^ ^kop irap *A\i(apBpop, 
StaadXurteop fUP ical £ktopv<r66o9pop, Kai,irtp 
^rfffaiov^ 6pra^, €v$v^ d^ifxe, ro pAv n tcaroiKri- 
C€i ro»p ^i)QS»Pt ro hi oti (vyyvaxxTa BeBpaxivai 
i^aipopro, riphpairohia pipf)^ tnro MaxtSoPVP tt/v 
warpiBo^ atpiai re fjpripa i^Bvi^apTo un^tXeiav 
MvpiaKOfitvoi icaX tl Bij ripa ical rj irarpiBi €k 

4 Uepaiap teal Aaptiov^ ravra p,ip tnrep dfuf>oip 
iirieitct) €P$vfii)6€i^t IBia Bk HetraaXiaicov pip 
alBol rov 'yivov^ d<f>i€vai elirep, on twi/ i7ri<f>a- 
votv ^ripaitap ^p, Aiowa6B<itpop Be iirl tJ pUrj 
rotp *0\vp,'jri(op, 'ItfuxpaTfjp Be <f>i\la re rij^ 
*A6ifpaU»p voXetai: ical p^firj t% Bo^rjs row 


if yon have need ci aught; otlierwiie I shall take 
steps oonceming joa as a mis d emea nant. If you 
cUihn your kingdom, stand yoar ground and fight 
for it and 6ee not, since I will pursue you whither- 
soever you go.** 

XV. This was Alexander *s letter to Dareius. As 
soon as he learned that the moneys which Dareioi 
had sent with Cophen son of Artabasus to Damascus 
had been seised, and that all the Persians \e(i to 
j^uaid them with the rest of the royal equipage had 
>cen telied alto, be bade Parmenio take the spoil 
ack to Damaacnt and guard it there. But as for 
lie Greek envoys who had reached Dareius before 
he battle, wben he learned that these also were 
• aptm«d, be ordered them to be sent to him. They 
were Euthycles the Spartiate, ThessaUscos son of 
Ismenius, and Dionjrsidonis, Oljrmpian victor, of 
Thebes ; and Iphicrates son oflphicrates the general, 
of Athois. Wnen these envoys reached Alexander, 
he at onee dismissed ThessaUseos and Dionysidorus, 
Thebans though ther were, pertly from compassion 
for Thebes aiSl parthr because it seemed that they 
>ad acted pardonabqr, since their city had been 
nslaved by Macedonians, and they were kx>king 
for what help they eould get for themselves and for 
their country too from Dareius and Persia; Alex- 
ander thererore took a kindly view of the doings of 
l>oth ; but privately he said that he released Thessa- 
'^cus from regard for his family— since he was one 
f the Theban nobles — and Dionysidorus of 
14 athletic victory at Olympia. Iphicrates, from 
triendship for Athens and remembrance of his father's 



warpo^ (Atnd rt afi4> Avror fy^w ^ rk fAakiara 
^Ti/iT^f mal ¥09^ rtktmrffratrro^ rk oar a i^ 
rk^ *KBrpKL^ rois wpo^ yhov^ aw^tfiylrtv. 
EvBuxXia hi» Aoirf&ii/iOPiov rf 6tna, woXtto^ 
vtyM^ai^ ix^P^^ ^^ ^^ tot«, ital avrov ovBiv 

iSif 9Vpi9K6fiM¥09 h (iTffPtiflfJV 6 Tl [7^] Kol 

\6yov &(to», rk lihf wpmra iv ^vkasc^ u^eV^ 
fix*!'* Oartfiw M iw§l fi€ydXa§vrvxtit »^f^^ tovtov 

*Eic MapdBov Bi opfitfB^U BvffKov tc Xaf^dt^t 
ofioXoyif Modiiaay, teal ^dAva, avrStv XihmyUiv 
iwiMalUaafiipmp leark ^x^^ "^^ Utpa&v /cai 
Lap€iov, *Em€v6€¥ Bi wpovx"^^ ^ ^^ Tvpoi 
leal itnvyxttpovcip aur^ Kara rijp ohop wpiafftt^ 
Tvpimp d-wo rov KOiPov iaraX^Upoi m^ iyvt^Ko- 
rmp Tvpimp wpdaatiP S r« Ap iirayyiKXTj 
*AXj(apBpo9* 'O hi Tqp Tf woXtP inatptca^ icai 
roi^ wpi<rffttK (ical yip ^<rap rAp iiri^avQiv ip 
Tvp^ o7 T« <!XXoi Koi 6 rov 0aaiXU»^ rt»p Tvpimv 
iroir airro^ hk 6 ffaciXw *A{«/i<Xirof /irr* 
AvTo^pahdrov hrXti), iietKtvatP iiravtXBovra^ 
^pdaai Tvpioi^ Sri iOtKoi vap€\$wp h rtjp 
iroXiv dvaai r^ 'll/xurXcL 

XVI. "E^TTi yap €v Tvp<p itpov ']\paK\€ov^ 
wakaiorarop &p tivrip,r) dpOpe^irimj hiaaca^erai, 
ov rov *Apy€iov 'HpateXtov^ rov t^ "* AXtCfirjmjs 
iroXXa*^ ykp y€V€aU vportpov riftdrai iv Tvp(f) 
'HpaxXrj^, ^ KdBfiOP ix 4>ou'iKTj^ opfirfOivra 
^t)0a^ i€araax€ip teal rrjp iraiBa KdSfup rrjp 
'S.ffieXijp ytviauai, if fi<: /cal 6 rov A<o9 ^iovvco^ 
ylypcrai, ^i6w(To<: fuv hrj rpiro^ &v hiro KdBfiov 
€irj, Kara AdffBafcov rop lloXvBtopov rov Kdhnov 


fame, he reUined about hit penon with eipccUil 
honour; when at last Iphiormtea died he sent his 
bones to his relatives at Athens. Euthycles, how- 
cTer, as a Lacedaemonian, dtisen of a city of bitter 
hostility to him at the moment, and unable to 
produce any resjonible claim to pardon, at first he 
kept under open arrest; but later, when sttocesses 
crowded in upon him, he released him also. 

Alexander marched from Marathus and received 
the surrender of Bybliis, SUon abo, Invited by the 
Sidoolant t h emse l ve s , who loathed Persia and 
iJareiQS* Tnence be proceeded towards 1 yre, and 
on the way Tyrian envoys met him, sent by the 
oommonity to say that Tyre had dedded to accept 
Alexander's orders. He commended both the city 
and its envoys — lor they were not only Tyrian nobles 
but numbered among them the son of their king, 
who himself was at sea with Autophradates' fleet — 
and bade them return and tell the Tyrians that he 
proposed to come to Tyre and sacrifice to Heracles. 

XVI. There is, you must know, at Tyre the most 
ancient temple of Heracles ^ of which there is any 
record ; not the Argive Heracles, son of Alcmena ; 
for Heracles was hoooored at Tjrre many generations 
before Cadmus sailed from Phoenicia, occupied 
Thebes, and had a daughter Semele, mother of 
Dionysus son of Zeus. For Dionjrsus would appear 
to be in the third generation fitmi Cadmus, in the 
line of Labdacos son of Polydorus, son of Cadmus ; 

' Known as 



walha* 'HpagXij^ h^ 6 *Apy€io^ itar OlBliroBa 
fidXic^ra rov Aatov, lLi0ov<n Si koI Alyirtmot 
dXkov 'H/xurXia, ovx o»w€p Tvpioi ^ "EXKtfvt^, 

5 *AXX^ Xt7«« 'HpoBoTO^ iri rwv SmB€Ma Stuv 
'WpakKka Ayova^v Aiyvnrtot, gaOdwep teal 
*AOfiPaun ^iowcop rhm duo^ Koi Kopif^ ai^ovatv, 
&\\ov TOVTOv ^opwrotr xal 6 *lair;^ o fivari- 

4 Srroi. *h« Tor yt h Taprtfaa^ irpo9 *l0iipmv 
rtftmftMPOP 'HpamXia, tpa icai or9)\ai rii'cc 
'HptucXiov^ mpofioff fiipai tioi, hoKm 4ym to/ 
Tv/MOP €lp(u *\\paxXea, on ^oipUmp mricfui tj 
To^nia^of leal r^ ^tpucmp POfi^ 6 tc mok 
w§iroifirtu r^ 'HpaxXtt Tf» /««? /ral at Ovaiai 

6 Bvoprau Vffpvopffp Bi, ip Svripa 6 Wpytlo^ 
*Hp€uc\rj^ iardXfj wpo^ VtvpvaOiia^ rk^ /Sov^ 
dirtXdatu rd^ rtjpvovov teal dyaytip^^ Mvtcijva^, 
oviip Ti irpoanKnv rn yj rtjp ^Xfiriptap Kirarato^ 
o XorpnnHO^ X€7<i' ovhk iirl ptfaov riva *EpvOtiap 
Iffm T^ firyaXi;^ OaXdaatf^ araXfjpai 'il patcXia, 
aXXd T^ fjwiipov 7% wtpl *ApffpaiCiap t« xa 

* Afi^iXoyov^ 0aaiXia ytplaOai Vfipvoprjv teal itc 
rrji^ rprtipov ravrrj^ dviXtiaai 'HpaxXia rk^ 
^6a^, ovSi rovTOf 4>avXop dSXop ridifKvov. 
6 Olha Si iyw ical ciV roxno ert eijfforop Trji> 
ffn€ipop ravrrjp ical 0oik rpi^ovaap xaXXiara^ 
KOi €f KvpvaSia rS>p pip i^ ^Hireipov /3o(t}i^ 
mXw a^i^^ai teal rov ffaffiXeta^ t^ ^Hweipou 
TO Spofia TOP Vrjpvoprjp ou*e Ifw toO tifcoro^ 
riSepai' tAp Be €V;^aTa>i; t^ Evpcrirrf^ *Iffijpa>p 
ovr* &p rov /3aatX€(a^ to 6popa yiyvaxrxeip 
Evpvadia, ouT€ c* ffov^; xaXaX ip rij x^P9 "raurij 


while the Argive Heradet was probablj In the line 

of Oedipus son of Laiut. The EgrpUant worship 

another Heracles, different firom toe Heracles of 

Tjrre and Greece ; Herodotus says that the Egyptians 

reckon him one of the Twelve Deities, just as the 

Athenians worship a different Dionysus, son of Zeus 

and Kore. It is to him— not the Theban Dionysus— 

that the mystic chant '* lacchus " is sung, so also 

I think that the Heracles honoured at Tartessus by 

the Iberians— where are the '* Pillars " called "of 

lierades "—Is the Tyrian Heracles, since Tartcssot 

a Phoenician nossfwion, and the temple to the 

ilerades there nas been built in the Phoenician 

style and the in cr ll ice s are oiered in Phoenician 

ritual. Geryones, moreover, to whom the Argive 

! leracles was sent by Eurystheus, to raid the oxen 

f Geryones and bring them to Mycenae, has no 

(^onneetion with Iberia — at least so Hecataeus the 

< hronicler says ; nor, according to him, was Heracles 

«*nt to some Island, Enrtheia, beyond the Great 

^••a; but rather that Geryones was king of the 

lainland round Ambrada and Amphilochi, and that 

from the mainland here Heracles drove off* the oxen ; 

And that was in itself achievement enough. What 

I do know is that eren now this part of the mninland 

' capital pasture and rears excellent oxen; and I 

reckon it quite likely that Eurystheus got nind of 

^ he fame of these mainland oxen and of the name 

f the khtf, Geryones; but I feel sure that Eurys- 

hcus wouM have no knowledge of the name of the 

ing of the Iberians, right at the ends of Europe, 

or whether there were fine cattle or not in those 



wifwwrai, €l ^ii TIC Tfj¥''Hpa¥ rovrot^ ^ayw, t^ 
avTfjv ravra '\\pa/c\«i Si* Evpv<r6ito^ inayyiX- 
Xovcav, TO ov trioTov rov \oyov airoKpinrrtiv 
i6i\oi Ty ikvBfp, 

Toi/r^ T^ 'ffpaicXci r^ Tvpi^ f4*V tOiXtUf 
Ovaai *A\J(apBpo^, 'He W awifyyiXBtf ravra 
wpos r&p wp€a0€m¥ €K rijy Tvpov* rik fiiv a\\a 
9oo(i a^^ict iroMiv S ri irep hrayyiWn WXl^av 
Bpo^, is 3^ T^ woXiP fLrjir§ tivA lltpaSiv fifjrt 
Mat(€B6tmp hix;tc0ai, «f toOto h rt ra irapwra 
TM Xoy^ tvwpnrlararov ica\ is rov woXifxov 
rtfv tcpi<rip, dBfiXop fn ovcap, &c^\€arar6v 
aiptai y€pt)ff6fifPOP. 'flc Bi ifvjji^^ *AXe- 
(dpBp^ rk itc Tijs Tvpov, rovs flip irpia^a 
TTpos opyrfp oiri^o» a-niirtfi^fp, avros hi avpo 
yaywp rovs t« iraipovs ical rovs tfytfiovn 
Tw crpartas xal ra(tdpx<^^ fcal IXdp^^as eXtftf 

XVII. *'*ApSp€s <^Xoi ical (vfifiaxoi, fjpXp 
ovr€ rrjp hr Alyvirrov iropdav d<T<^a\ri opw, 
BaXaaaoKparovprtdp TltpaitPt ^ptiop rt Biwtccn 
\mo\tirofUPovs * avri^p rt omiata rijp rStp Tvpio> 
voXiP dfjupiffoXop teal Aiyvnrop teal Kvirpo. 
iXOfUvas trpos Tlepirijp, oifBi rovro d<7<^X€9 €* 
TC T^ dXXa teal fidXtara Brj €9 t^ 'EXXrjpi/cd 
irpayfxara, fiiproT* apa i-rrttcpan^aapres avSi^ 
r&p iirl OaXdaerrj \topi(av oi Hepirai, -rrpoxtapy] 
adprwp f}fiAp (ifp r^ Bvvdfui ws iwl BaffvXcjr 
r€ teal ^ap€t0Pj avrol ^vp wXeiopi ar6X<p fura 
yayoi€P rop voXenop €9 rrjp * VXXdBa, AaKeBai 

* ^•x«rv. SintenU; and A ao readu Here, howerer, 
the Miitt it clearly more preoisei 



parts, nnleM anyone cares to bring in Hera, as 
passing on the news of them to Herades throogfa 
Eurjstheus, and thus veil bj the myth the general 
unlikeliness of the tale. 

It was to this Tynan Heracles that Alexander 
said he wished to sacrifice. Mlien this was announced 
at Tjrre by the envoys, the Tyrians were prepared 
to obey all Alexander's other behests, but would 
have no Persian nor Macedonian within their city, 
for this resolve they felt to be most honourable for 
the present and safest for the future, looking at the 
yet uncertain issue of the war. When Alexander 
received this answer he angrily sent back the envoys, 
but assembling the Companions and the commanders 
of the army, with battaUoo and squadron com- 
manders, he made the following speech. 

XVIL ** My friends and allies, so long as Perria is 
supreme at sea I cannot see how we can march in 
safety to Egypt Nor, again, is it safe to pursue 
Dareius, leaving in our rear the city of Tyre, of 
doubtful allegiance, and Egypt and Cjrprus still in 
Persia's hands, espedaDy in view of the state of 
'reek afTain. There Is a fear lest the Persians, 
again seizing the coast places, when we have gone 
in full force toward Babylon and Dareius, should 
with a larger army transfer the war into Greece, 



liovimp fih ix rov €v$€0^ ^fuv iroXtfiOvrrmp, rfj^ 
hi *AOfjvaU»p iroX««K ^0^ fiaWop ri ^ nfvoio 
Tji vpo^ ^fta^ w/w TO irapov Kar€xofihnjs 

3 *E((Up€$(i<rft9 W Tvpov Hj T€ ^oivitcrj iyoi-ro hv 
waaa tcdi ro pavrttcop 6w€p irXtlcTov rt teal 
tcpdrnrrop rov UtpctieoVt ro ^oipUo^p, tfap ^fia^ 
fttraxmptftrup mos' ov yikp av4(oprai ovr€ oi 
ipirtu ovrt oi iinffarai <Poivn€t^t ix^f*^^^ a^lci 
ritv rroKtmp, avrol tnrkp SXXmp wXiorrcf iTivSv- 
p€V€iy Kvwpo^ U M T^5f ^ ov X'''^^^^ ^A***' 
wpoax^P^*^ 4 H ^'irXou tvfULpAs Xtf^Oiicrrtu, 

4 Kal raU t« ^/r Maxiiopia^ pavorl teal rai^ 
4>oivi^orai9 wXtoprmp ^pAp r^p ddXaaaap ical 
Kvwpov ifta wpoaytPOfiiipif^, $a\aaaoic parol p4v 
T« h» fitfialm^ icaX o h AXyvrrrov aroko^ tvfuipwi 
flpXp ip ravrA yiyprrat. Ktyvrrrov Bi irapa- 
(mjcatiipoi^ vwip rt rtf^ 'EXkaBo^ teal rrj^ 
oUiia^ ovSkp fri Cirawrop vrroXelwerah rop t« 
iw\ BafivXApo^ aroXop lurk rov i^ rk ottcoi 
Jur^dKov^ teal (vp fmljopi &fia d(ito<Tt^ trotrfao- 
fi€Oat dirorrrfLfifUPoi n^v rt BdXaaoav Yltpa&p 
(vfivaaap icoi rifp iwl rd^ rov Evi^pdrov yrjp" 

XVill. Tavra Xiyt^p ov Xf^Xtwrn^ irrtidtp 
hrixtiptiP T^ Tvp<p' aXXA icai t« Btlop apt- 
wtiVtP avrop, 6ri ipinrptop avr^v itctiprft rfj^ 
PVKro^ ihoicti aino^ fUP ry rtixtt "rrpoadyetp rAp 
Tvpiwp' rov hh 'Hpa/cXia he^iovaOaL rt avrop 
Koi dpdyttp h rtfp irokip. Kal rovro ifrjyttro 
^ApiaravSpo^ m (vp iroptp dXwtrofitprip rrjp 
Tvpop, on teal rei rov ' HpaKXiov^ tpya (vp irovtp 
2 iytPtTO, Kal ykp icaX pAya tpr^op rr\^ Tvpov 
tf troXioptcla i4>aLp€ro, N^o? rt ykp avroU rf 


where the LacedAemonians are at the moment 
fighting us ; and Athens is kept in its place for the 
present by fear rather than goodwill towards us. 
But with Tjrre once destroved, Phoenicia could all 
be held, and the best and strongest part of the 
Perdan navj, the Phoenician element, would most 
probably oome over to us. For neither the rowers 
nor the marines of Phoenicia will have the courage, 
if their dties are in our hands, to sail the sea and 
run its dangers for the sake of others. After thfo 
Cjrpms, moreover, will either come readily to our 
side or be captured easily by a naval raid. Tlicn if 
we hold the sea with our Macedonian ships, and the 
Phoenician navy too, and with Cyprus ours, we 
should firmly bold the sea-power, and in virtue 
'hereof our expedition to Egypt would be easy, 
llien, when we have poMCwJoo of Egypt, we shall 
have DO cause for uneadnen for Greece and our 
own home, and we shall make the expedition to 
Babylon, with security at home, and with our enhanced 
prestige, with the whole sea cut off from Persia and 
all the country this side of Euphrates." 

XVIII. With words like these Alexander easily 
won over his staff to the attack on Tyre, and he 
had an omen to help him, for in a dream tliat night 
he found himself approaching the wall of Tvre, and 
there was Heracles, stretching out to him his right 
hand, and conducting him into the dty. Aristandroa 
interpreted the dream thus: Tyre would be taken, 
but with much toil, for toil was the mark of Heracles' 
achievements. The plain fact is that anyone could 
see that the siege of Tyre would be a big business. 
The city was an island, and strengthened all round 



iroXif ^P icat T€4Y<aiir iyjnjXoU ireumf mxvpttro' 
Koi tA airo OaXaaart^ irpo^ ranf Tvpitou fiaWov 
T# i» Ty TOT* €<^tuP€TO, Twj' T* Tlepa&w hri 
BakaacoKpa'TovvTtav koX axnol^ to<9 'VvpioiK vtSiv 
hn itoXKmv ireptova&v. 
S 'Ov Bi rain a Ofiw^ iKpdrrj^t, X^f*^ fyt^ 
X^vvvvtu ix tw fjirtipov ta^ iirl rtjv •rroXii'. 
BaTi hi wopO/AO^ rtvaytitSri^ to \wpiov leal tu 
fiip wpa^ T$ i)wtlp^ t^ OaXacatj^ ppay^a icai 
WfiXmOff avrov, ri Si wpo9 ain^ r% voXti, iva 
TO poBinaTOv tov htawXoUt rpimw p^lXuara 
ifijvimp TO pddo^, *AXX^ XiBmv ' tc woXKAv 
i^Oowla ^¥ teal vXffs, ^yripa roi^ XLBoi^ AymBw 

Karrwfjfyvvmo koX avro^ 6 nr^Xoc (vvStafio^ roU 

4 XiBoi^ is TO iirifiivtiv iyiyvtro. Kai •irpoBvp.ia 
rmw MaJtMimp is to tpyov ical *A\t(dvBpov 
woXX^ ^, wapomos t€ xal airrov ftcaaia 
i^fjyovfUpov Kai rii ftip Xo70» iircupovros, ra Vt 
icaX ;^^/xa^i rovs ri iKvptntcrtpov icar aper'tji' 
irovovfiepovs iiriMOV^if^omos. 'AXX* eo-T* p4P r<j 
vpos T§ rprtiptp ^«v»'irro, ov ;^aXm'W9 irpovxui- 
p€i TO €pyop, iirl pdBos T€ oXiyop ^^o^pi'i/ftci'oi/ teat 

5 ovStPOS iftipyopTos. 'fl^ Bi Ty padureptp i]hrf 
hrika^op /cai apu ry itoXmi avr^ iyyi/s iyyytfOVTOt 
airo T€ rSiP T€iX^P» vy^\ct>p Stnap, fiaWoptvoi 
itcaxowddovv, &t€ teal iir" ipyaala p^Wop t« ^ 
tats €9 P^XV*^ cLKpipSiS earaXpevoi, teal rais rpuj- 
p€<Tiv dXXrj teal oXXi; toD x*'*^^'''^^ iirnrXeovTe'; 
ol Tvptott art hrj daXaaaoteparovims erit dnopop 
iroXXaxV '''V^ irpoaxoxrip roU MaKcSotriv iiroLow, 

6 Kai Ol Ma«c5ove9 irvpyovs indvta rov ;^a)/iaT09, 

ANABASIS OF ALEX.\Nui:.K, II. i8. «-6 

with high walk; moreover, any movements from 
the seaward side were in Tyre's favour, as the 
Persians were still supreme at sea and the Tjrrians 
had plenty of ships left. 

But Alexander's arguments, none the less, winning 
the day, be deckled to build a mole from the main- 
land to the dty. At this part b a shallow strait; 
owards the mainland are shallows and patches of 
mud; but next the dty where is the deepest part 
of the croving is a depth of about three fathoms. 
But there was plenty of stones and wood, which 
they heaped above the stones ; then it was easy to 
6x stakes in the mud, and the mud itself made a 
good and safe binding for the stones. The Mace- 
donians were eager for the work, and Alexander 
too; he was himself present, explained each step, 
and encouraged the workers, besides rewarding with 
a gift those who did any specially good work. As 
long as the building of the mole was near the main- 
land, the work went on without difficulty; for the 
depth was not great for the structure, and no one 
hindered. But when they got into deeper water 
and also nearer the dty, they were in great distress 
by reason of vollcjrs from the high walls ; since the 
workers were clad rather for work than for warfare ; 
and the Tyrians sailing up in their triremes on this 
•^ide and on that, being still masters of the sea, 
uadc in many placet the buikling up of the mole 
inpossible for the Macedonians On this the Mace- 
lonians built two towen above the mole, which had 



6 rtntp npotc€)^«^ptjicu avroU M no\v ty/9 
Oa\iurfftl^» Marrjirav Bvo leal fAfJxafa^ ivl roU 
nvpTfOi^. ripoiraXv/i/iaTa hi B4pp€i^ teal Bt<p6(pai 
airroi^ ^ay> oK f^^rt irvp^opoi^ fiiXtciv dnb rov 
rtixov^ fioKktaBai, to49 t€ tprfat^ofuvois irpoffo- 
Xffif iv T^ a\rr^ tlvai nph^ ra Tofei//iaTa* a/us Tf 
oaoi rrpocnXeotrrg^ twi* TupUtv ifiXawrov tov^ 
Xoi>pvvyra^, dtro twv nvpy^p fiaXK6fA€voi ov 
^aX4frcaf dvaaToXriciaBai ifuWov* 

XIX. Oi hi Tvpioifrpo^ rain a avri/Ai^aywi^ai 
roiovht, NaDy iimaytiryov KXrjfuirti^v tc (^pAp 
Ktu dWff^ t/Xi7f tui^XitcTov ifiirXr^cavT^ hvo 
laroifs M t^ nptjopif KaTatrrjyvvovai teal i» tcvteXn 
irtpt^pdaaovaiv ^v oaoy funcporarov, i»^ i^pvrov 
TC ravTjf KOi h^ha^ oca^ TrXcioraf hiPaadar 
wpo^ hi ifLccay t§ teal Stiov ica\ oca aWa ^ 
TO irapaKaXiaai fuydXrjv ^Xoya iirl ravrij iirt' 

S ^opijaav, UapiTtit^av hi teal Ktpaiav hnrXriv 
iirl TOK ttrroi^ dfi^xnipoi^, icaX dtro ravrt)^ 
ifj^prtfaav iv Xi0r)<rtv oca iirixvBima t) cVi- 
0Xtj$€pra i^l fieya rrji^ <^Xoya i^dy^tiv tp^XXtV 
fpfiard T€ i^ ttjp npufipav iviOicav^ rov i(dpai 
i^ vy^o^ Trjv irp^pav iru^ofuvf^^ tcard Trpvfxpav 

8 T^ p€(Mi^. "Ktreira avtfiov rrjptjcavrf^ wv iwl to 
^a>/xa €iriif>€poirra, i^dy^atnes rptijpec^ rrjv vavv 
tear ovpdp elXxop, 'fl? hi ^iriXa^ov ijhr) Ty Te 
Xd>fiart teal roU nvpyoiii, rrvp efifiaXoprff; <9 rr)v 
vXffP KOi <tt9 I3undrara dfia raX^ rpirjpeaiv 
iiraveXxvcapre^ rrjp paup epceiovctv dxptp r^ 
;^ck>/iaTi' ai^Tol hi oi ip ry pr)t icaiop,€Vfj yjhtj 

4 i^€Pi}(apro ov ^aX€'irak. Kal €P rovr<p fj t€ 
<^\6( TToXXrj ipiinirre roi9 irvpyoi^ teal ai X€pa2ai 


now run far over the sea, and engines on the towers; 
they placed hides and sldns to cover them, so that 
they could not be pelted with 6re-dart8 from the 
wall, and that the builders might have also a screen 
against arrows ; besides, any Tjrrians who rowed up 
and tried to damage the builders of the mole, receiv- 
ing volleys from the towers, would probably be easily 

XIX. The Tyrians, however, took counter steps 
thus ; they filled a cavalry transport with dry boughs 
and a good deal of other combustible wood, fixed 
two masts in the bows, and built high bulwarks 
round, extending as far as possible, so as to contain 
as many chips and shavings and torches as possible ; 
to say nothing of pitch, sulphur, and anything else 
to stir a great blase, which they liberally added. 
Then they lashed a double yardarm to each mast, 
and from it hung, in cauldrons, anything which 
either poured or thrown on would increase the flame, 
and they ballasted the stem to lift the bows as high 
as possible by the weight afl. Then they waited 
for a wind blowing towards tlie mole, and making 
fast hawsers towed the transport astern with 
triremes. When they came near the mole and the 
towers, they lighted the material and as violently 
as possible hauled with the triremes and dashed the 
ship on the edge of the mole. The crew of the ship, 
already burning fiercely, easily swam off. Soon 



irtpiic\acB€laai (fe;^cai' <9 to irvp oca i^ t(ay^i¥ 
Tff^ ^Xo709 irap€Oic€vaa fuva i)v, Oi £* airb ritv 
rpitfpw irXficiov rov ^j^ctf/Aarof <ivai(6»;^€voirr«f 

TTcXo^ai oaoi a0€<rTrjpi6v ta t^ ^Xo7l iiri^tpO¥» 
6 Kol ^y TOirrfi icaT€\ofi€voiv ^Si; <V toO Ttvpo^ rS>¥ 
irvpTft^p, ixBpafiotnt^ iic ti)v ttoXco^v TroXXoi iral 
^9 iccXifria ififfaprt^ &K\fi koX aXXri tTTO/etlXairrt^ 
Tov xtopATo^ Toi' TC \apcuca ou XaXnrciK Siia-tra- 
aav ro¥ wpo airrov wpofitpKi)fUvov Koi rk^ 
fArj)^ava^ (vfxirdiTa^ tcari^Xtfav oaa^ firf to awh 
6 Ti/f vfOK iri)/> iiriax^v. *A\t(apSpo^ Bi to tc 
;(^M/ia airo T79 f)v€ipov apfapivou^ irXaJinMpop 
^j^Mi^i/yai, «»f irX<oya9 B*(aa(fai irvpyov^, teal Touf 
/ifr^ai'Oiroiov^ pjiXava^ 6X\a^ xaraaKtvalinv 
ii€t\tva€v, 'n^ M ravra vap€<rttva(tro, avro^ 
Touf Tf irwacmaTa^ dpoXa/Bmp teal rov^ * Ay pid" 
pa^ iwl XiHtPOS iardXrf, toq dBpaia^p ixtl oaai 
^f^ ^ap avT^ rptt)p€iSt on dwopmrgpa rik rij9 
woX t o p s cl av i^alprro, BdkaaaoitpaTOvvTmp tAp 

XX. *Ey Toirr^ M Tfipoirrparo^ Tf o *Kpdhov 
fiaciXtu^ teal *Eyv\o^ 6 Bvffkov w^ tfiaOov rd^ 
irdXti^ a^S>p vrr* *A\€(d¥Spov ixofUfa^, dtroXi- 
w6vT€^ Avro^^pahdrrjv rt tcai rd^ (vp avr^ via^, 
wap* *A\((a»Bpop (vp ry pavritc^ r^ a^rtptp 
d<^LKOPTo tcai ai rS»p ^iBtapitov rpitfpti^ a up 
avToU, &ar€ <PoivU<ov fikp pr}€^ o^/SotjKOpra 
t fidXiara avr^ vap€y€t'OPTO. *Htcop Si ip raU 
ainaU rjfupai^ ical €k 'Vohov rpitjpei^ Ij re Trepi- 
TToXof KaKovp.€Pfj ical (iip rainrf dWai ippia, tcaX 
itc XoXa»v iroi MaXXou rpel^ icaX Avxia^ Be/cUt 


enough a great fire fell on the towers, and as the 
yards broke, they poured into the fire anything that 
had been made ready to feed the (lame. The men 
in the triremes lay to near the mole, and shot at 
the towers, so that it was not safe for anyone bringing 
materials to quench the fire to get near. At this 
stage, the towers being well alight, the citizens 
sallied in large numbers, and jumping into small 
boats put in at different parts of the mole and easily 
tore down the palisade set up to protect it ; besides, 
they burned all the engines which had not been 
caught by fire from the ships. Alexander, however, 
bade his men to build the mole broader from the 
mainland, to as to hold more towers, and the 
engineers he bade construct more engines. While 
these were being got ready, he with the bodyguard 
and the Agrianes made for Sidon, to collect all his 
triremes there, since the siege seemed more difficult 
as long as the Tyrians held the sea. 

XX. .Meanwhile Gerostratus king of Aradus and 
Enylos of Byblus, learning that Alexander held their 
cities, left Autophradates and his fleet and arrived 
with their own contingents, and with them the 
Sidonian triremes, so that a total force joined him 
of some eighty Phoenician sail. There arrived also 
at the same time triremes from Rhodes, nine, in 
addition to their state guardship, three from Soli and 



ix MaxtBoviaK ^4 v€prffK6vTopa^» «^* ^ Thmriat 
I o *AvSpopiMov cvrirX«i. Ou iroW^ hi varepop 
/ctd oi r^ Kvnpou ffa<ri\€U i<: rrjp ^hwpa 
naTiaxop vavcXp imarop fidXAara icaX tlxoc^p^ 
iwtiBvf rijp Tf ^aaap rtfp xar* 'lo'aoy ^aptiov 
hrvOo^ro Kol ^ ^oipi/crj jraaa €^om<i^ ff^ ^* 
*AXi(d96pav i^ofiu axnov^, Kai roxrroi^ wao'tv 
ISaMBfF *A\i(€Ufipo^ dB^iap riap wpoaOtp, on \nr 
apuyxrf^ fiaXXop t« ^ xar^ TVm/a^v rtfP a^ifP 
ihomovp ^vprax^^tMU tok llipaai^; i^ ro vavn- 


4 *Kp 5$ S^ af Tf fAfjxayal ain^ (vve'rrrjyin/vro 
Mtd ai pfft^ m^ tU iiriirXovp Tf Ka\ pavfiaxia^ 
chrovwiMur iffiprrvopTo, ip rovr^ hk apaXatiitp 
rmf Tt t uu imp tXas iarip &9 teal tov9 {nraavurrii^ 
xal roif^ * Ay ptapd^ r« mal rov^ lofora^ iir* 
*Apapia^ ^riXXirai tU top *ApTi\i0€LPOP xaXov- 

ptpop ro Spo^' icdi rk pip fiia tmv ravrjf iftXtip, 
T^ £f opoXoyia vapaartfcdfifpo^ ip Bixa rjpipai^ 
iirapfjytp fiV rtfp l,$^Apa, xaX tcaraXapffdpet 
KXiatipop TOP lloXtpoxpdjou^ iit WtXtywopptjirov 
^Kopra icaX (vp atn^ fuaOo^opov^ "EkXtipa^ ^ 
Ttrpaicia X^Xio i/^. 

• '^^hkavv€T€TaKT0 avr^ ro paxmicoPt iirifiiPd- 
aa^ roU tear aar out p^ai ra>p vircunri<TTS>p 6<roi 
licapoi ihoKOtfP h ro llpyop, tl prj ZuicttXoi^ 
paXXop rt 4 ip \tpa\p i) pavpa^ia yiypoiro, apa^ 
iic T179 SiStZpo^ iwevXti tj Tvpt^ (vprtraypApai^ 
TOK pavffip avro^ pip icark ro Biftop /cepa^, 
h Bvf cV TO iriXayo^ avr^ dpelxe, teal (up avr^ 
oX T€ Kmrpitop fia<TtX€U fcai oaoi ^oiviKtav, rrXrjp 
TlpvTayopov ovro^ S€ xal Kpdrepo^ ro €vwvvpov 



T ia, mod a fifty-otr from Maccdon, its captain 
i r roas son of Androniciis. Soon also the kings of 
Cyprus pot in at Sidon with about 120 sail, having 
learnt of Dareius' defeat on the Issus, and scared by 
Alexander's hold over all Phoenicia. To all these 
Alexander let bygones by bygones, supposing that 
it was rather from necessity than choice that they 
had joined naval fbroes with the Persians. 

While Ui engines were being fitted together, and 
his ships were being equipped for the attack and for 
tr3ring the Israe of a naval battle, Alexander nith 
some of the cavalry squadrons, his bodyguards, the 
Agrianes, and the archers marched towards Arabia to 
the moontain called Antilibanus. Part of this country 
he captured, part he received in surrender, and in 
ten days retomed to Sidon* and found Cleandrot 
son of Polemocrates arrived from the Peloponnese 
and with him four thousand Greek mercenaries. 

When his navy was in due array, he put on deck 
as many of his bodyguard as he thought sufficient 
for the action — unless, of course, the engagement 
should rather be a matter of breaking through and 
charging than of hand-to-hand fighting — and weigh- 
ing anchor sailed from Sidon to Tyre with his ships 
in dose otder; himself on the right wing, that is, 
seaward, and with him the Cyprian kings and all 
the Phoenicians, except Pnytagoras, who, with 
Craterus, commanded the left wing of the whole 



BdXaaaav (iriirXioi a^cuf *A\i(aphpo^, tot€ S^ 
irXn^of v€mp wo\v dirpovh»crfTw^ tcarthotnts {ov 
yap VM wtirva-fUpot ^aav Ta^ re Kvnpitiv vav^ 
KOI ra^ ^oiPiMtitv (vfiirdtraK *A\i(ai^Spov e;^oia'a) 

8 iceu afjui (vtrrtrayfUp^t^ rov iwivXov yiyvofiivov 
{6\iyo¥ ykp wplv wpaaaxtuf tJ iroXtt avticat^ev' 
aav en wtXdytoi at (v¥* AXefdpSp^ wrft^*^ hrtira 
otTTM (uvTa(du4v<H, «K oifx dtnopiffotrro, iroXX^ 
T^ poOi^ iwiw\€0¥% ravra optt^rt^ oi Tvpioi 
pavftax'^ f^^ awiyvm^iur rpitiptai Ik Sca^ rStp 
Xifiipmp T^ orofMara <^;^oirTO fiv(ffp top HowXovp 
^pafdfittpoi i^vkavaop, «k p>^ <9 rStv Xi^iipwp 
TUfk iyisa0opfUcOfjt'ai rStp iroXepitav rov aroXop. 

• *AXi(a9ipo^ B4, «»9 otfM dvravTjrfoi'ro oi Tvpiot, 
hriwXu T§ woXti' xal ^s fifp rov \ifUpa top 
wpoi ^Bmpo^ fitdl^tcBai dwiyp» Biti arrgporrjra 
rov arofiaros xaX ipa dpriirp^poK rpirfpeci 
woXXal^ opAv we^payp4vop rop eavXovp* tdck 
6k T^9 i(o»rdrtt i^p^iovoa^ r^ arofian rpirjpti^ 
wpocweaoprg^ oi ^ivtxt^ teal dprtwptvpots tfiffa" 
Xorrf9 xaraBvovaiv oi Bi ip raU vavalv ov 
XaXmSi^ djr€Pt)(apro h rrjp yijv, ^iXLap ovcap. 
10 Tore fUP Btf ov woppta rov rroitfrov xdtparo^ Kara 
TOP alytaXop, 7i'a axerrf rS>v avtpMV iif>aiv€To^ 
oi avv * AXt^dphpip mppltravro. TJ he varepaia 
rov^ flip KvTrpiov^ (vp rai^ at^erepat^ vaval kcu 
* AphpOfid)(ip r^ pavdpx^ Kara rov Xifiepa rop 
' ritf * Stntenia after Hertlein and from ■ fi gives rir«ff, 




armada. The Tjnians first decided to give battle 
bj sea, should Alexander attack them there. But 
then tigbtiiig a host of ships far beyond their estimate 
— for they were unaware so far that all the Cyprian 
and all the Phoenician ships were with Alexander — 
and observing the attack coming in regular order — 
I must note that just before dosing on the city 
Alexander s ships while still in the open had lain to, 
hoping to draw out the Tyrians to an engagement, 
and then as they did not put out in their original 
order came on at great speed — the Tyrians, I repeat, 
observing this, refused battle ; but with so many of 
the triremes as the mouths of their harbours would 
hold they blocked the entrance and guarded them, 
so that the enemy's armada oo«ild not anchor In any 
of the harbours. 

Alexander, however, on the Tyrians' refusal, sailed 
towards the dty ; he would not force an entry into 
the harbour fodng Sidoo because of the narrowness 
of the entry ; and also because It was blocked with 
several triremes, bows on; still the Phoenidaas 
charged, bow to bow, the three triremes which were 
moored farthest out, and sank them; their crews 
swam comfortably to the friendly shore; and on 
this Alexander's fleet came to anchor near the new- 
made mole along the shore, where there seemed to 
be protection from the winds. Next day Alexander 
ordered the Cyprians, with their contingent and 
with Andromachus the admiral, to blockade the dty 



roi/^ ^ <t>oivi«raf xarik top iir* €K€iva toO xto^ia- 
T09 rov irpos Atyvirrop ap^xovTa^ Tva icaX airr^ 
ij axriinf ^v, 

XXI. "H^i; £^ teal fifixavoiroiSiP a\n^ iroWSav 
ix T« Kvnpov Kal ^otpitcrj^ airuatj^ auWtXry- 
pthmp, /A'/Yapai ttoXXaI avfiimrffffiivai ^ap, ai 
ftkp iwl rov YMu/iT(K, ai hi iwl rttp tmraytoyiiv 
P9&P, ^9 ^M iioApo^ &fia ol iieofuofPt oi hi 4it\ 
tAp TptfjpAp Seat alrufp ov raxvpavrovtrai ^aav. 
S 'Ov hi wap€aK€vaaro ^17 (vfivapra, irpoaffyof 
T^9 fivjxop^^ Kara Tf to woitfrop X^/ui /cai 
awo rifP ptAp <(XX7 ical &Wrj rov rtixovs 
wpoaopfut^OfUPttp Tf iea\ airoir€tpmfUpt»p rov 


% Ol hi Tvpuu Iwl Tf rAp 4wa\(tttp ritp Kara 
rh X^f^ wvpyov^ (vXipov^ trrianjaaPt ok avo- 
fULXtaSat air* airritp, xal ti wr) dWtj al fjLtjx^pai 
irpocijyopro, fftXtai t« ijfiupopro teal rrvp^opoi^ 
oiaroU effaXkop avra^ rk^ pav^, &ar€ i^offop 
irap€X€ip T0«9 Maxthoai irtXdftiP r^ T€i\€i, 

4 ^i\p ci avroU teal t^ ftiXV fcark ro X^H^ "^^ 
Tf ^yf^ fiV ir€prTiicopra Kal iicarop fidXiara 
woha^ iroi ^9 irXdro^ (vp^fierpop XWoi^ fitydXot^ 
ip yv^^ K€ifi€POi^ (ufiTremjyora, TaU hi iinra' 
Ttryoif Tf ical rai^ rpufpta rS>p Matcehopcjp, 
S<rai rd^ firixtiph^ irpoarfftsp r^ relx^tf »cal 
ravrrj ovic tvrropop iylyptro treXa^etp ri) troXei, 
on XiOot rroXKol €^ ro irfXayo^ 'rrpoffepXrjp.epoi 

A ^(eipyop ai/rSiP rrjp iyyvs rrpocfioXrjp, KaX rov- 
TO 1/9 ^AXi^aphpo^ eypto i^eXjcwrat iK t^9 OaXda- 
<nj^' ^pvero hi ;^aX67ra>9 rovro ro epyop, ola hrj 


at the harboor that faced Sidon, and the Phoenidans 
to do the same at the harbour on the other side of 
the mole, ilMing towards Bjgpt, where was his own 

XXI. By this time a good many engineers had 
collected from Cyprus and the whole of Phoenicia, 
and a large number of engines had been built, some 
on the mole, some on the transports which Alexander 
had biottght with him from Sidon, and some on the 
slower triremes. When everything was ready, they 
brought forward the engines at the end of the new- 
made mole and from the ships which lay to alongside 
the waDs at all points and which now began to 
attad( them. 

The Tjrrians set wooden towers on the battlements 
which faced the nnole, so as to fight therefrom ; and 
wherever else the engines were being brought to 
bear, they defended tbemsehres with missiles and 
with fiery arrows assaulted the ships themselves, so 
that the Macedonians feared to approadi their wall. 
The walls facing the mole were about 150 feet high 
and of eorresponding breadth, stoutly built of big 
blodcs of stone fitted in mortar. Even at this point 
the Macedonian transports and triremes, which 
brought up engines against the wall, found it not 
easy to approach the dty, since heaps of stones 
cast into the sea prevented their approaching closely. 
These stones Alexander determined to drag out of 
the sea ; bot this work went on with difficulty, being 



ilvo i^MV teal ovK owe yrji^ fi^fiaiov ytyv6fi€VOP, 
SXXm^ t€ leal oi 'VvpiOi fatk xara^p<t(aprt^ wapa 
ras ayxvpa^ iiriyyov tiav rpifipHtv xaX irtro- 
rifUHftrrt^ ra^ a^oit^ovs riȴ ayxvpAv dwopop rrjt' 
wpoeopfua^uf rai^ woXtfuat^ povahf iiroiovv. 

• *A\((aphpo^ Bk rptoKovropov^ froXkk^ i^ rov 
ainop rpowop ^pa(rt^ iTricrrjatp iyicapcia^ irpo 
tAp ayKvpt^p, 00^ inr* axnSiP dpatrriW^aOai top 
iwivXovp r&p yfwy. *AXXa xal $ts C^aXoi /co- 
\vfJL0fjTal Td9 ^x^^*^^ avrol^ {nrtTtfiPOV, Oi £e 
iXvata^p #i\ T^9 oyKvpa^ aprl avoiPttv )(pmuevoi,oi 
MaxtBoPt^, KoOUerap^ wrrt fitiSof hn irXiop roU 

7 tcoXvfiffffraU yiypiaOeu. *E,(dirTOprt^ ovp l3p6xov<! 
rt»p \i$t»p dwo rov ;(^etf/iaT(K dptaimp atrrov^ e(m 
T^ $a\uaaff^' eiMtra fifjT(apaU fi€rn»purayr§^ 
Morm ffdBov^ A^Uaop, ipa ovxiri T'poSgffktifUtfot 
0Xa^frtt» l/i«XXov. "Owov Si tcadapop nrmUvjro 
tAp irpofioKmp to rtlxo^t ov x^^^^^ ^1 ravrrj 
ai inj€^ irpoa€lxp9, 

8 Of hk Tvpioit vdtmf iiropoi yvpfopMPOi, f/M». 
«raf iifiirXovp TroitjtraoOai raU Kvnpieu^ pavalp, 
ai icara top \ifupa i^dppjovp top i^ ^ihApa 
TtrpafAfUPOP* iic woXKov Brj KaTairrrdcapTt^ tou 
\ifx€PO^ TO OTo/jLa iVt(oi9> TOU fiff xaTat^apfj 
y€PtaOai to>p TpitjpAp ttjp wXijpcaatp, dfJL<pl fiiaop 
rjfjiipafit oiroT€ oX t< painai iirX Tk dvayicala 
i<ric€Ba<rp.ipoi ^<rap icaX *A\e^apBpo^ ip Tointp 
fiaKioTa diro tov iirl duTtpa ty^ 7roXea)9 patniKov 

• iwl TTJP ctcfjprjp a7re;^c0pei, tr\ffp<oaapT€^ trePTij- 
p€i^ flip T/>€i9 naX T€T pijpei^ iff as, Tptijpets Bi 
€irT^ dfs dtcpiPtaTaTOis T€ toU wXtfpwfiaai teal 
T0i9 dwo Ttjp KaTaaTfKafiaTtap udx^ffOai fuXXov 


carried on finom ships and not from land ; moreover, 
the T3rrians protected with armour certain of their 
ships and bore down on the anchors of the triremes 
and cut the cables, thus making it impossible for 
the enemy's ships to lie near by. But Alexander 
protected several thirty-oars in the same way, and 
laid them athwart in front of the anchors to repel 
the attack of the Tyrian ships. Even so, divers 
plunging in cut the cables. So the Macedonians 
used chains for anchor cables, and k>wered them, 
so that the divers were made useless. Then standing 
an the mole they cast running knots round the 
stones and drew them out of the sea, and then 
hurled them with their enginet Into deep water, 
where there was no moie dumoe of tiidr being 
thrown in the way and doing any more harm. Thus, 
when they had cleared the approach to the wall, 
the ships lay akmgfide quite easily. 

The Tjrrians, now hard pre«ed all round, deter- 
mined to attadc the Cyprian vesseb which were 
bk>ckading the harbour that fronted Sidon. For a 
kmg time they kept sails stretched in front of the 
harbour mouth, that the manning of the triremes 
might not be seen, and about midday, when the 
Greek sailors were scattered in search of necessaries 
and Alexander normally retired from the ships on 
the south of the city to his pavilion, they manned 
three qninquiremes and quadriremes, and seven tri- 
remes, with theb smartest crews and the best-armed 
marines, to fight from the dedcs, and — what 



9Uf 9v<nr\craT0t^ ical Si/ta ^vOaptrtardrot^ 4^ 
rov^ vamiKov^ arfttpa^, rk fUw wpAra arpifia rfj 

iirl Tovv l^vwpioif^ ical iyyif^ rov KoffopaaOai 
^ap, roTM 5^ (vp fiofj T€ iroWh ical i^tctkavafiA 
#9 ciXXi/Xoi/f KoX Sfia r^ «*/>€ ata (vptop^ iirtli^i' 

XXI r. Btvpififi Zi iictiprj p,h rfi fffiipa 
*A\€(aplpop airox^pn^tu ^irl r^v a-mjvtjv, ov 
Buirpi^pra h^ icark r^ 9lm$o^, hi iikiyov M 
% r^9 pav^ hraptXBtip, Oi Bi Tvpiot irpoairt- 
aomts A'WpocBoic4^t&^ raiv pav^lp opfiowrai^, KaX 
TttK pip irdpTfi K€paU iTnTvxovrt^, tAv h* tnr 
avrijp rtfp ffaifp gai top iirinKovp \a\tirm^ iic 
rmp wapoprmp wXqpovpipttp, rijp rt ilpvrayopov 
rov 0Mi\i»^ wtPTiipfj €v6v^ tnro tJ '"'p^ff 
tpfioX^ icariBvcap /col rifp 'ApSpoteXeov^ roO 
*SfAa6ovaiov Koi rrjp Tlaaixparov^ rov Sou* 
pUta^, ra^ hi aXXaf ^9 top aiyiaXop if^Oovprts 


t *AXi(aphpo^ hi m^ faOero top imrXovp r&p 
TvpUtP rpitjpwp, T^f pip troXXa^ rStp (vp avr^ 
P€i^Pf hrrat^ iKooTfj wXTfptaOtlrj, i-rrl t^ aropart 
rov Xtpipo^ dptucmx*v^tP erafep, a>9 M^ «al dWai 
^KirXewretap rSipTvpimp ptf$^' avro^ hi irtvrripti^ 
T€ Tfl? fin/ avr^ dpaXa^p icaX rStv rpirjpAp is 
iriprt pdXtara, oaat t^B-qaap avr^ tcark rd^os 
irXrjpiaddtrait ircpirirXtt rijp iroXip a>^ iirX rov^ 

4 tKireTrXevtcoTa^ rStp Tvpiwp. 0« hi dwo rov 
retxov^, rop re iirLirXovp rSiP iroXefiLfap icari- 
hoin-es teal ^AXe^aphpop ainop iirl rdp peCtVp ^ofj 


b more — their bravest sea-fighting men, and first 
geotlj rowed out in single file, rowing without 
anyone to call the stroke; but when they were 
turning towards the Cjrprian sliips and were on the 
point of being seen, then, with shouting and calling 
of tlie time and with orderly and regular strokes, on 
they came. 

XXIL On that day, as it fell out, Alexander had 
retired to his paWUon, bat had not rested there, as 
his custom was, but returned to the ships quite 
^oon. The Tjrrians falling all unexpected on the 
anchored ships, finding some quite empty, and others 
being hastily manned from any who chanced to be 
there at the noise and the attack, at the first charge 
sank the pentereme of King Pnytagitras, witli Uiose 
• »f Anclroclet of Amalbus and Pasicrates of Thurion ; 
the rest they drove ashore and broke up. 

Alexander, however, learning of the sally of the 
Tyrian triremes, bade most of his ships to lay to at 
the harbour moolh as sooo as each was manned, 
that no other Tyrian ships might sally; then he 
took what quinquercmes he had and some five 
triremes, which had got their crews on board in all 
haste, and sailed round the city against the Tyrians 
who had broken out. Those on the wall, seeing the 
enemy attack and Alexander himself aboard, bade 



Tff hrapdytiu ^PtKt\€votrro roU ^« r&p ir^rripmp 
p^ii¥ Koi m ovte ifaxovcrw ^r vwh dopvfiov 
ivptxofiamv hf r^ ^py^» afjfi€ioi^ <!XXoi9 teal 
iXXot^ iwiKoXovv h rrfp apaxmpfi<riv, Oi 5t- 
6i^i iroTC aia06fi€¥O$ rov i-wiirXovv ruv a^i<p* 
*A\4(aMBpO¥ {fwocrpiy^aprt^ ^9 tov Xi/iiva i^tv- 
• fov, Koi oXirfoi fUp tAp P€mp ^dpovaiv {nrttc- 
i^uyoOciu, rais ^ vXiioatv ififiaXovceu ai (ip 
*A\*(apBpm rit% fikp avrmm dwXov^ iwoiffcap, 
W€tn^f}ff^ 04 TI9 teal rrrprfpvj^ avrwf iir avr^ 
T^ erofiari rov XtfUpo^ iX^i^ficav, ^opo^ M 
t6i» hrtfiarmp ov woXv^ iyiprro. 'iU yap 
pa$aPTO iyOfUpa^ r^C uavw u-rrevi'iPauTo oy 
%aX<<rM9 K TOP XifUpa. 

6 n^ Bk OvBtfUa in Ti;iv iv^nuis tK tuiv Pt&P 

w^iXtta ^p, iirrfyop vfit) oi ^nXaxthopt^ rk^ t^^"^ 
pk^ lY Ttixti aintav. Kark pip htj ro 'xStpa 
wpoaayofjufoi Stk i<T\ifp rov rct^oi/^ ovBip tjwop 
6 Ti Kal Xoyou a(iop' oi hk xark to vpo^ ^iSApa 
rrrpappipop t% woXiMS TtfP pt&p Tiva? tmv 
^ f^X'^^'^^P**^ TrpotTTjiyop, 'Hf hi ovBi ravrff 
iljvv€P, h TO jrpo^ POT OP av apt pop /cal wpo^ 
AtyviTTOP aptxov T€4Yo9 perptt, irdprt) aTronn- 
pi»fupo^ ToO ipyov. Kal imavOa irpwrop /cart' 
9€i<r0fi T* TO Ttlxo^ ifrl piya iceu ti koX xarr^ 
p€i<l>Srj avTOV irapappayof. Tort fUp Saop 
imffaXmp y€4>vpa^ rf iptfpiirro tov Teixov^, 
direirttpd$ff ^9 oXiyop rfj^ nrpoapoXifi' xaX oi 
Tvptoi ov ^^aX^-JTW? dir€icpovaapTO tov^ Ma/rc- 

XXIII. Tpirrj Bi drro ravrij^ Vt^P^ prjpepiap 
T€ iftvXdfa^ icai irapaxaXiaa^ rov^ tfyfpova^ tmp 



their own men with shouts to put about, and as no 
one ooald hear from the general noise, they used 
various signals to insure their retreat. The seamen, 
obienring too late the attack of Alexander's ships, 
went aboat, and hurried back to the harbour. A 
few of the Tyrian ships managed to get to safety, 
but Alexander's ships charged the bulk of them and 
pot some oot of actkm, y/fhUe a quinquiremc and a 
quadrireme were captured at the very entrance of 
the harbour. There was no great slaughter of tiie 

rews, for they, as soon as they saw that their ships 
were bekl up, swam off without much difficulty into 
the harbour. 

Now that the T3rrians could kwk for no help from 
their ships, tlie Macedo n ians began to bring up their 
engines against tlie walL When brought along the 
mole, they did nothing worthy of remark, owing to 
the strength of the waDs ; but, on the side of the 
city looking towards Sidoo, the Greeks brought up 
some of their ships whidi carried engines. But as 
they did not succeed even here, Alexander turned 

» the south and the harbour fadng towards Egypt, 
testing the wall from all sides. There first the wall 
was badly shaken and a part broken down, and 
thereupon Alexander made a slight and tentative 
attack so far at least as throwing bridges over the 
broken part of the wall : the Tyrians, however, easily 
repulsed the Macedonians. 

XXIII. The third day afterwards, having waited 
for a calm, and urging his battalion commanders to 



ycMV TAv fi'ix*^^**^' ^^ wpina fuv /cartattat 
TOW Tf/voi^ M fiiya. *iU W airoxp^v f'- 
vXaT09 i^am) to wap€pp9fy^ivotf, t^9 fU¥UfjXii 

t wo^opov^ paO^ hriUH»y€i¥ iiciXtvatv' 6 M Oyo 
lXXa« 4Wfjy€¥, at t^v yt^vpa^ avr^ K^tpov, &9 
^ iw$/3dk\ttp i'wwo^i T^ KaT€pprff^€Vfp roO 
rtlxov^. Koi T^y fUi^ /aav twv ycttv oi vtra- 
oiriaral iXaffow, i iirrrrreurro "A^fitfro^, rijr 
irip€Uf Bi ff Ko(rov tu^i^ oi ntf^iratpoi^ koXou- 
Itgpov KoX a\n^ (vv roi^ (nraairtaraU iwiffif' 

% 9^9$€ti Tov rtixQu^ j waptUoi ^/i«XXf. T^9 
rpufpti^ S^ Ttf 9 ^Uv 4wiw\Mlv Kara tov9 Xifiiua^ 
ifii^oripoi^ iiciXtvctv, tl voK iroov o^c Trrpa^i- 
lU9m¥ rup Tvpuap ffidtratpro top tairXovp' oacu 
^ aurmp ffiktj dno p^ri^apStp ffaWofitpa mIxop 
4 5oai TofoTdf hri ri^p MaraaTprnfuira^p i^pop, 
ravra^ Bk txtXtvctP tp tcuxX^ irtpnr\(ov<ra^ to 
T<4;^o« ivomiW^ip tc oirfj iraptUoi Ka\ dpa- 
tctax^veiP hrro^ ffiXov^, tart to ^TrotcMtkai a-rropov 
ylypoiTO, Mf irapraxoBfP ffdWofUPOVs roi^ Tvpiov^ 
ip T^ BtiP^ ofA^ffoXov^ yiypeadai, 

4 *flv W at T« r^ at avp Wtidvhp<p irpoaiaxov 
rfi iroXfi Kol ai yii^vpai hrt^ifii^aap r^ reixa 
air avTctp, ipravOa oi inraairia'Tal €vp(oar<o^ 
tcard ravra^ dpifiaipop errl ro TCt;^o9* o tc yitp 
"'ABfiTfTO^ dptfp drfado^ ip Ty tot€ eycpero, xal 
ipa *AXi(apSp<K elirero ainoUt rou re epyou 
avrov leaprepo}^ dtrrofievo^ teal Oearrf^ rutp 

> kHir^pot (read, however, •^cup<N), A a 7, is poMibly 
eorreei~**civiliAu Toluntcert" — Uia word reotm IV. 23. 1 
and •laewhere. 



actkiOy Alexander brought up agminst the dty the 
enginet on board the ships. First he battered down 
the wall for a good space. But when the breach 
seemed wide enough, he ordered the withdrawal of 
the engine-eanying shipa; besides, he sent in two 

thers, fitted with gangways, which were to be let 
iall 00 the breach of the wall. One of the ships the 
bodyguard took over, Admetus being its captain; 
the other was manned by G>enus' battalion, called 
the territorial infantry. He was ready himself with 
his bodyguard to rush in wherever the wall gave. 
A part of his triremes he ordered to sail round 
about either harbour, to see if perhaps (the Tyrians 
being busy with the attacking troops) they might 
force an entrance. Otiier veMek which carried 
ammunition for the engines or had archers on deck, 
Alexander ordered to circle about the wall, and put 
in wherever it was possible, and lay to within range, 
so long as it should be impossible to lie alongside; 

• that the Tyrians should be attacked from all sides 
■iiid become distracted by their danger. 

As soon as Alexander's ships closed upon the dty 
and the gangwajrs were thrown upon the wall from 
the ships, the guards stoutly mounted the wall by 
these ; not only did Admetus behave valiantly that 
day, but Alexander was with them, both taking a 
conspicuous part in the action and keeping his eyes 

^ «o9 


SXXmp, &r^ Ti Xafiirpop xar dperrfv hf rA 

5 icn^i/i^ iroXfiaro, Kal ravrjj irp^rup rj twiri' 
raxTO *A\i(a¥Bpo^ Ai/^iy to tci;^©?, ou X^^' 
WMf awoKpovcBtPTtttf av* avrov tAv Tvpiw, 
iweiBn wpinop 040ai^ Tf leal &fia ov wdimj 
Aworofif TJ irpocPdau ^^^i^aa^ro oi Maic€B6p€s. 
Kal "AofiT/Tos fUift wpAro^ iinffii^ roO riiyovs 
Kai TOK dui^* airroy iyiC9\tv6fi€PO^ hriffaivtiVt 
/9Xi|^<k ^'Oy)Q§ dwii$ini9K€i avrov* ivl Bk avr^ 
*A\t(a¥Bpo^ €(JX' '''^ T€4X<K (w roU haipoi<: 

• 'n« B^ €ixopro avrA wvpyoi t« Io'taf ot kh 
furawvpyiat avro^ niu irappti Btk tS>¥ iwdXfeiuv 
m^ iwl rk ffaaiXfia, Sri ravrrj txnropmrtpa 
i^aiptTO ^^ rifv rroXiw rj icdOoBa^, 

XXIV. Oi Bk iirl rw ¥€it» olrt ^olvnct^ Kara 
ro¥ Xtfupa r0¥ vpof Alyvirrov, Koff oinrtp /cal 
i^opfAOvtnt^ irvy\avo¥, 0ia<rdfi€VOi icdi rh 
KXtlBpa Biaarrdaatm^ ticorrrov t^9 vav^ iv r^ 
XifUvi, raU flip ^urtdapoi^ ififfdX\o¥T€^, tA? Bi 
€f rffp yriv i^t»$ovvr€^, xaX oi Kvwpioi icarii row 
aXXov Xtfuva top iic ^BAvo^ ^€povra, ovhk 
xXtiOpoP rovrop 7t iYOPrn, tl^rirXivaairrt^ elXop 

t €vBu^ ravrjf rrjv voXip, To Bi wXi)(fos rwv 
Ivpitdp TO pip rdxo^t d>^ ^;^o/i€i^i' tlBop, (kX€i- 
rrovaip* dOpoiaOivrf^ Bi xara ro *\yfjv6ptov 
tcaXovfUPOP irriarpe^av ravrjj irrl rov^ Matct- 
Bopa^, Kal *AXe(apBpo^ (vp roU inratrmaraU 
irrl rovrov^ y^ptjaa^ rov^ flip avrov pA\opApov<i 
Bu<p0€tp€P avrtaPt rol^ Bi <f>€vyovaiv ^^cittcto. 

S Kal (f>6vo<: ifP TToXv^, riav re iitto rov Xifiifo^ 
exoprcov yBij rrjv ttoXip xal r^ Koivov rdfeta^ 
iraptXrfXvdvia^ eV avrrjp. *Opy^ yap (xdipovp 



open for any brmve or brilliant action of the rest. 
And the part of the wall captured first was, in fact, 
just where Alexander had posted himself; the 
Tjrrians were rather easily beaten off from it, since 
now for the first time the Macedonians had an ap- 
proaeh that was solid and not precipitous on all sides. 
AdmetoSy first on the wall, and cheering his men on, 
was woooded by a spear and died there ; after him 
Alexander followed up and seized the wall with his 
followers. Holding then some of the towers and the 
curtains between them, he passed on through the 
battlements towards the royal quarters ; this way it 
appeared that descent into the dty would be easier. 
XXIV. To turn to the ships and their crews, the 
Phoenicians near the southern harbour, where they 
were moored, forcing their way and tearing asunder 
the booms, played havoc with the ships in the 
harlx>ur, attacking some afloat, and driving others 
ashore ; the Cyprians by the northern harbour, which 
had not even a boom, sailed in and captured the 
dty on this side. The main body of the Tyriaas 
deserted the wall when they saw it was in the 
enemy's powewion ; but they mswed together at 
what It called the Shrine of Agenor, and there 
made a stand against the Macedonians. There 
Alexander with his bodyguard came upon them, and 
some he slew there, still fighting ; the rest he turned 
to flight and pursued. There was a bloody massacre ; 
now that those coming from the harbour were already 
masters of the dty, and Coenus' battalion had passed 
inside. For the Macedonians fell furiously on every- 


hri wav ol Ma««Sove?, r^ re iroXiopiela^ rfj 

01 Tvpioi wXiovra^ iit ^^voc ^irl to Tet;^o9 
a¥afiifidaawr9^, t'wms ^wwroif tttf diro rov 
arparowihov, a^d(a¥r€^ fpp^yftav i^ r^p daXaa- 
4 oa¥. ^AiriOaPOP Si TMy /a^ Tuplmv i^ oxra- 
nwxikLov^^ TMK 'M€ucth6vm¥ 3^ i» rj totc 

WpO<r0O\i *A6/4I7TO^ Tf, O V/M0TO9 iXoJir TO Tfl^O?, 

tunfp OTfoBo^ 7«vof4fMK, ical f uf avr^ tlicoai rtjv 
inraaif iCTw, iv hk rj wdajf woXiopmi^ fAaXurra 
^ rerpaKOirlov^, 
6 ToU Bi h TO Itpov TOW 'Hpa«Xiot/9 tcara^v- 

3'0v<ri¥ (^a¥ Bi avrSiv tc rSty TvpU^v ol fidXttna 
9 rlKfi Kol 6 /3aofX«u9 *A(ipi\MO^ /cai KapXH' 
Sopimp TiW« 0Mmpoi is rififfv rov 'HpoJcXious 
«aT^ ^ r$pa w6fu>¥ waXaiop ei\ rtjp fAftrpojroXiP 
a^ueofAtPOi) rovrois (vfiiraatp &Bttap BiSttiriP 
AXi^ap^pos* roifs ^ <!XXot;9 rfpSpairoBiat, xaX 
hrpaBfi^oP Tvplmp tc koX reap (ipmp 6<roi iyxar- 
6 tXrABfjcap, pdkiffra tU rpte/wpiovs. AXi- 
(apcpos Si r^ 'HpaxXiZ iBvai t« xal wofitrrfp 
hrrMikt <rvp TJ hvvdfiti tnr\t<rpipfi' icaX ai vrje^ 
(vP€w6fiJr€v<rap r^ *\\p<uc\ti, icaX dySiva yvfivt- 
KOP €P r^ Up^ teal Xafiwdha iiroir^at' Koi rrjv 
firp^apTfP ^ to T€«;^oy KartaeiaOrf dvidrjKep is 
rop P€ti>v ical rtjv vavv rtfv 'Vvpiap rrjv Updp 
rov 'UpaxXiovs, fynipa ip r^ itriirXtp e\aff€, 
teal ravrtfp r^ 'HpojcXtl dp€Of)tc€ /cal itrL'ypap.fUi 
iir* avr^, tf avros irotijaas ^ orov 8tj dXXov 
iroii^aaproSt ovk d^iov fivijfifjs rb iiriypap.^ia' 
hia rovro icaX iya> avro dvaypdy^cu dirrj^Uooa. 
Tvp09 p€P ^ o(nt^ €aXo» iirl dpxovros *AvitcijTou 
*A6»}pff<Tt p.rjpbs * EjcarofiffaicjvoS' 



thing, enraged at the length of the aiege, and abo 
becanse the Tynans having captured some of their 
men sailing from Sidon had dragged them up on to 
the wall, so that the Greek camp might see them, 
and slew them and east them into the sea. Eight 
thousand Tjrrians fell ; of the Macedonians, in this 
actual attack, Admetus, the first to mount on the 
wall, after proving himself a brave num, and with 
him twenty of the guards ; in the entire siege the 
loves were about (bur hundred. 

As for those who fled to the temple of Heracles — 
these were the more important Tynans, King Aae- 
inilcus, and some Carthaginian visitors, come to their 
mother^ty to pay honour to Heracles, according 
to tome ancient custom— to all these Alexander 
granted complete pardon; the rest he sold into 
slavery; there were told, what with Tyrians and 
foreigners captured at Tyre, some 30,000. Alex- 
ander sacriflced to Heradet and held a processioo 
in his hoooor, with hit whole army under arms; 
there was a naval review also in honour of Heracles, 
and Alexander held games in the Temple enclosure 
and a torch-race; the engine which battered the 
wall he dedi c a t ed in the temple; and the Tyrian 
sacred ship, oontecrated to Heracles, which he cap- 
tured in the attack, he hallowed to Heracles with 
an inscription, either of his own composition or of 
somone else's not worth recording; that is why I 
did not trouble to copy it. T3rre then was captured, 
in the archonship at Athens of Anicetus in the month 
I lecatombacun. 



XXY. "^T* hi ip TJ woXiopieif rrj^ Tvpov 
(v9r)(OfUpov *A\tfdphpov d^iVoi'To irapa ^aptiov 
ir/Wa/Scif m avrov, airayytWotrn^ fkvpia fikv 
rdXatrra irwkp rrj^ fi^rp^ Tt nal ri)^ yvituieo^ 
teal Twv walhmp hovpai tSiXtiv *A\9(dphp^ 
^aptlop' Tfjp hi X'^P^^ vdaap r^ ipro^ 
Eif^pdrov worafiov Kcrt iwl OdXaccop rifp 
'EXXfjpucffp *AXitfdphpov tlpar yrtftapra hk TffP 
^aptiov iralha *Wt(aphpop ^ikop t« mIpoi 

i ^apti^ teal (vfkpaxop, Kai tovrmp ip t^ 
(vXXiy^ tAp heupmp dwayytXBiprmp, Uap- 
fi4pU»pa flip XiyovffUf *A\t^dphp^ ciVcZy, on 
avTos Up 'A\i(aphpo^ Ap iin rovroi^ rfydirrjat 
KaraXvaa^ top woXtfUtp fitficrri irpoa^ Kiphv- 
P€V€ip' *AXi(aphpop hi llapfupitapi dtrotcpi- 
poaBai^ Sn moI avra^ dp, €itr€p Uapfitpitjp ^p, 
oirr«K htpa^€P, iw€\ hi *AXi(dy£/>o9 iativ. 
d-woKpiPuaOeu ^aptl^ &wtp hij koX avttcpiparo. 

% "E^i; yap otrrt '^fn^fidrmp htiaBai wapa ^piiov 
oirt rrj^ ^dpa^ Xaffttp dprl rrj^ irdatf^ ro 
fUpa^' elyai yap rd r§ ;^f7/uiTa teal r^p y^atpai 
ainou Jtacap* yrinai t€ iip iBiXri rrjp t^apdov 
irai5a, yrjfiai Ap ical ov hihopro^ ^apeiov (/c€- 
\€V( Te atnop rj^tiP, et t« tvp4aOai iSiXoi 
ifitXdtOpwnop trap* alnov, Tavra ctK ijtcovffe 
i^aptio^, Tflv ptP (ufifidati^ direypia ra^ vpo^ 
*AX((aphpop, iv 7rapaaic€uj hi rov iroXifjiov 
avSt^ ^p. 

4 *AX((avhpo^ hk iw* Alyinrrov iyvtd woieladat 
TOP aroXop. KaX ^ aifrat tA p.€P dXXa rij^ 
UaXaiaTlmj^ xaXovp-ivrj^ ^vpia^ 7rpo<TK€X'^pV 
tcora rjhrj* eviovxos he t<9, ^ ovofia ^v lldri^, 



XXV. While Alexander was still busied unth the 
siege, envojs from Dareius came to him ofiering, 
from Dareius to Alexander, 10,000 talents for his 
mother, wife, and children; with the proposal that 
all the country within the Euphrates to the Greek 
sea should be Alexanders; that Alexander should 
marry Dareius' daughter and be his friend and ally. 
On these sugge s tioo s being read in the staff council, 
Parmenio (so we are told) affirmed that were he 
Alexander he would close with these terms and stop 
tlie war without further risks; then Alexander 
answered Parmenio that he would indeed have done 
this were he Parmenio, but being Alexander he 
would reply to Dareius in the words he actually 
used; he needed no money from Dareius, nor to 
receive a part of the country in place of the whole ; 
tor all the country and all the treasures were already 
liis; if he chose to marry Dareius' daughter, he 
would marry her, even if Dareius did not give her ; 
and Dareius, if he desired friendship at his hands, 
must come to him. When Dareius received this 
reply he cancelled all proposab to Alexander and 
l>egan to prepare again for war. 

Alexander now determined to make his expedition 
to Egypt. The rest of Syrian Palestine (as it is 
called) had already come over to him, but a certain 



Kpar&v Tij^ Val^aiMV woKtt^s, ov wpoa^€ixtP 
*AX€favBp<ii, aXX^ "Apaffd^ re /iiaOarrow hra- 
'^Ofitvos icai airop ix ttoXXou 'irap€aictvaM^<: 
otaptcij ^9 XP^*'^^^ JToXioptctav teal t^ X^P^T 

tXmoai fiaXiara araUov^^ ical iari yjtafAfititBrj^ 
Mol 0a6€ia ^v avrffp 17 dpoBo^ ical ^ SdXaaaa 
17 Kark rf)p iroXiP rmmyMtfs wa<ra, MtydXrj hi 
iroXif 4 Val^a i)r koX hrl ^mfiaro^ tn^fjXov 
pteiffTO Mol r€ix<K w§fH90iffkfiro atrry 6x0 pov 
E^;^aTv; ht tpKil^o ttf hr* Ktymrrov iic ^onLtci)^ 

t *A\i(apBpas hk tt»9 d^tctro wpos -njv 7ru\ii', 
rj flip ^P^V icar9aTparoirih§V9€P 17 fidXtara 
hrlfULXOP atn^ i^aivero r6 Tfi^o?, teal firjx'^^kq 
avfimjypvpiu imiXtvotp. Oi hi /if7;^ayo7ro/ol 
ypdtfitfp airf£c/«yvrro airopop ^Ipai 0i^ iXelv 

t TO Tfi^o? hia {r^fro^ rov xu>paro^, 'AXXk 'AXt- 
{oyfip^ ihoKti alptriop itpai oaip diropdntpov' 
imrXijftuf yap rov^ iroXtpiov^ rb Hpyop r^ 
vapaXoy^ ^irl firya, teal rb fit) iXtip aiayjibp 
ttvai oi XtyofUPOP I9 rt rov^ "EXXrjpa^ teal i^ 
£kap€iop. *E3oir€i htj x^M^ (V KVKKtp t^9 iroXeo}^ 
Xtappwai, OK if taov dirb rov ;^«i><r^€VT09 itrd- 
yeadai rk^ p,r)xapa^ to«9 r€iX€(Ti, Kal ^x^^vwto 
Kark rb vbriov fidXtcra rrj^ iroXeio^ reiyo^, iva 

4 €mp,axf^T€pa iif>aiv€ro. 'XI9 ht (hotcet e(fjp$ai, 
avfip.€Tp€i}^ rb x^f^^* f^VX*^^^^ imarriaavj€<: oi 
M<uce5ot^e9 iTnjyop ci? iirl rb T«i;^09 reap Ta^aCwp. 
Ked ip rovrtp Ovovri *AX<fav£/>^ /cal iarei^ava}' 

ANABASIS OF ALEXANDEH. 11. 25. 4-26. 4 

eunuch, Batis, who was matter of Gaza, did not 
jom Alexander, but brought against him a force of 
Arab mercenaries, and having got ready some time 
before fm>\ision for a long siege, trusting, moreover, 
in the fortress, that it ne%'er could be taken by 
assault, decided not to admit Alexander into the 

XXVI. Gaza is about 20 stades from the sea, and 
the approach is over deep sand, and the sea over 
against the city is broken into poob. llie city of 
Gaza was large, and built on a lofty mound, with a 
strong wall built round it. It was the last town on 
the edge of the desert as you go from Phoenicia to 

Alexander reached the city, he encamped 
the first dair where the wall teemed easiest to attack, 
and he ordered siege eoginet to be made up. The 
engineere, however, suggested that it was hopeless 
to take the dty l^ force owing to the height of 
the mound. Alexander thought, on tlie contrary, 
that the more impracticable it was, the more it 
must be taken ; lor the miracle of the achievement 
woukl strike terror into hit enemies, while not to 
take it would be a blow to his prestige when noised 
abroad to the Greeks and Dardos. It was decided 
to raise a counter-mound round the city, and so 
bring the engines to bear on the walls, from the 
new mound, on the level. I1iey built Uiis mound 
ehieflv against the city's southern wall, where the 
assault seemed most likely to succeed. And when 
the Macedonians thought they had built the mound 
of the pnmer height, thev set up engines upon it 
and brought them up to the city wall. Just at this 
time, as Alexander was sacrificing, wearing garlands, 



fUv^ Tf ical tcarapxtaOai fUXkouri rou irporrov 
itptlov Kark wopLoy^ titp ti^ craptco^aytjv opplOw 
{nr§pmr6fi€Po^ inrip tov ffmfiov \Wov ip$d\\t^ 
^ T^r ic€^\rfp SirritHi rohf woBoip t<f>€p€. Kai 
*A\(^apBpo^ ijpero Wpieravhpoy top uainiv o ti 
pool o olttpo^, 'O hi airo/cpiprrat 5ti, D BaciXtv, 
Tffp flip w6\iP alpiicti^, airr^ Bi aoi i^vXaMria 
icup hrl Tf75€ rj ^^lipa, 

XXVII. Tairra a/covaa^ *A\i(apSpo^ rim^ flip 
wpo^ TOi^ fit))^apaU ^(m /SiXov^ atrrop flyfv* a»9 
£^ imhpofifi Tf ix rtf^ iroXtm^ xaprtpti tyiyP€ro 
mtu irvp Tc iwi^pop Tah /av/x^''^^^ ^' ''Afta^cv 
Koi rov^ IJiaKthopa^ a^ivpofUpov^ xdr»$€P avrol 
4( {nrepht(iov rov ;^ft>/Hou ^/SaXAov t« fcaX &6ovp 
Kara rov iroifjrov xtatiaro^, iprauSa ^ Cira>i/ 
dirtidtl *AXifaphpo^ r^ fidprn ^ ixirXaytU iv 
T^ 1^7^ ovx ifi¥rifiop€vc€ T^ fiaprtla^t aXX* 
oMiXapttiv Toi^ tnraairicra^ irap€0oij6et 7pa 

S fuiXio'Ta IwUl^oPTO oi MoMtBopts. Kal rovrovs 
flip e<7Yf rov fif) ovK auryp^ ^^V ^^'i>'*ii /cark 
rov xtofuiro^t atrrop hi ffaXXrrai tcaraTriXrtj hta 
rrpi tunriBo^ Biafirraf teal rov Oaapatco^ €9 top 
&fiop, 'n^ Si typto rd dti4>i ro rpavpu dXijOev- 
aapra top ^Kpiaraphpop, ixdptj, on teal rrjp woXiP 
hrj €upij<T€iP ilotcti * Kfnardphpov ev€/ca, 

S Kai avro^ flip ro rpavfia ideparrivrro X"'^' 
irw9' d^itcpovprai h* avr^ furdirffirrrot dtro 
6a\d<r(TTj^ ai fi-qxapal ah 'Xvpop elXe* Ka\ x^f^ 
X<uippvt>ai ip icvK\(p rrdvToSep rrf^ rroXeta^; ixi- 
Xcvatp, €VfX)^ flip £9 Bvo araBiov^t ir^o^ Bi i^ 

4 TToBa^ rreprtjtcopra xai Biatcoalov^.^ 'Hf Bi at 
* For tMMoetttn Krflger plausibly vtrrt (f' for oO. 


and just aboat to initiate the fint victim according 
to the ceremonial, a carnivorous bird hovering over 
the altar dropped on his head a stone which it was 
carrying in its talons. Alexander asked Aristander 
the seer what this omen of the bird meant, and he 
answered, " O King, you will capture the dty ; but 
for to-day you must look to yourself.*' 

XXVII. On this advice Alexander remained for a 
time by the engines, out of range ; but on a strong 
sally from the dty, the Arabs trying to set fire to 
the engines* and pelting the Macedonians, who were 
milting bek>w, from their commanding position, and 
even poshing them over the new mound, Alexander 
cither disobeyed the seer's words on purpose or 
carried away in the action did not give them a 
moment's thought, but bringing on his guards helped 
the Macedonians where they were most hardly 
prevcd. He did, in fact, hold them from being 
driven down the mound in ignominious flight; but 
he was hit by a shot from a catapult right through 
his shield and his corselet, into the shoulder. But 
perceiving that Aristander had been right about 
the wound, he was glad, since he felt that Aristander 
also guaranteed the capture of the city. 

Alexander was not easily treated of his wound; 
but there arrived, sent for by sea, the engines with 
which he captured Tyre. He ordered a mound to 
be erected the whole way round the dty, two stadea 
broad, two hundred and fifty feet high. Then at 



mark ro X^A^ Kariauaa^ rov riixpv^ M voXv, 
intoPQfkmv t« &\Xff koX &KKji opvaaofUimp teal 
rov x^O o^tLPm iie^pOfUvov to rcixof iroXXax^ 
tiptiwrro vSif^dpov Kara ro ictvoviuvov^ roU rt 
fii\M9Uf hri woXif xartlxop oi Mtue^lopfs, ova- 
ariXXotrrt^ rov^ irpofiaxoiU¥Ov^ iit rwy wvpn/t^v, 
if fihf rptU wpocffoXk^ oi iic rtf^ troXcMV. 
^woOwfilCKovTtiv rt avroU iroXXct>y xal rirp^Krxo- 
$ fUpmp, Ofut^ atntlxoir r^ rrrdfnjf Ik ruw Mojm- 
Zcufmw rti¥ ^aXayya wdtnoOtv irpocayarptif 
*Wi(avhpo^ TJ fiiv uwopvaoofktvov ro rttxo^ 
Mar€i0a\Xn, rj Bk wai6fuvc¥ raU fifix*^*^^^^ 
MarafftUt iwl itoXv, ^ fiif x^^^^V^ "^^^^ tcXifjta^i 
rifv ftpocrfioXtfy xara rk ipn/jpififUva ivhovvai. 

6 Ai TC ovp icXifULMi^ irpoavfjowro rtft rtix^t xal 
iptS woXXt) rjv TMV Ma«c2oM»y S^oi ri aptrij^ 
IM/trtiroiovpro, oar is wptyros aip^u ro rtlxos' 
ical aiou wpmro^ NtoirroXf /iov tmv iraipttv rov 
AlaiciOmv ytvov^' iwl Bi atrr(L aXXat ical dXXai 

7 rd(fis Ofiov TOi9 ffftnomv avifiaivov. 'ti<i ht 
awa^ if€LprfK06v rivts *vr6s rov rdx^^^ '^^*' 
}Aaic€h6vm¥t tcaraax^tfat^fs dXXas leai aXXas 
TTvXas, oaois t/catrroi twervyxavoi', Bixovrai etata 
rijp arpartkp irdaav. Oi ok Fafaloi koX rip; 
iroXtti^ a^KTiv Tiht) ^ofiitnjs (vv€(Trtjic6r€S 6pMS 
ifidyovro* icaX dviOavov rrdvrts avrov fiaxof^^voi 
OK €Kaaroi irdx^V<'^*'' fralBas hk xal yvvatxas 
i^ffphpairohiatp avratv *AXi(avSpo^. Tr)i> ttoXiv 
Bk (vpoixiaas iic rStv vtpioUtov ixP^'^o oaa 
i^povpitp «-9 rov iroXefWV. 



soon as bit engines had been set up and being 
brooght np to t&e moond had considerably battered 
the wall, tunnels were driven here and there and 
the earth below secretly withdrawn till the wall 
gave, subsiding on the gaps, while the Macedonians 
cleared a great space with their volleys and drove 
back the defenders from the towers ; the defenders, 
nevertheless, though with many dead and wounded, 
held bravely out against three onslaughts. But in 
the fourth Alexander brought up his phalanx of 
Macedonians on all sides, threw down the wall, now 
ondennined, at one place, and breached it for a 
great stretch in another, battered as it was with his 
engines, so that it was not hard to make the assault 
with ladders on the fallen portkms. So the ladders 
were set against the wall, and then was much rivalry 
of the Macedonians, such as laid claim to valorous 
qualities, who would be first to mount the wall ; the 
first proved to be Neoptolemus, one of the Com- 
panions and of the family of the Aeaddae. After 
him, battalion after battalion climbed up with their 
officers. As toon as the first few had entered into 
the wall, they tore down gate after gate, as they 
found them, and so admitted the entire army. The 
citizens, though their city was already in enemy 
hands, held together and still resisted ; and they all 
perished there, fighting each man at his post. Their 
women and chiklren Alexander sold into slavery; 
the dty he populated with the neighbouring tribok 
men and used it aa a fortress town for the war. 




I. *A\i(ay^p^ 6k /ir* AlyvirTov, Xwairtp to 
wpArov mpfiri$fi, ^ariXkrro, teal ifihofiri rffiipa 
air 6 rrf^ TafiT^ iXav¥m»f ^t€t¥ tU IliyXoi^AOv t^^ 
Aiyvwrov* 'O Bk pavruco^ <rrparo^ iraptvXtt 
ain^ iic ^oipUf)^ m^ Iw* Atyinrrotr leal tcara^ 
\afi0aMi rks yatk h WriXovai^ opfiowra^, 

t Ma{a4ri7^ Zi o Tiipari^t ^ 4^ carpdmi^ Alyvnrov 
im liaptiov MoBtarriiem^, rifv re i¥ *lae^ H^XV" 
Swtt^ awiffff wtwvfffUwff^ Mai ^aotiov 6ti ai^xP^ 
^vyj l^i^ff, Kol ^oiHJerjp Tf koI ^vpLav ical r^ 
*Apaffia^ rik woXXA tnro *A\t(aplpov iy'^fiMva, 
avj^ Tc ovK ownj^ hvvdfittt^ tltpiriKrf^, itiyrro 
raU iroXcai ^1X1^9 leal rij x^P9 *A\i(apcpop, 

S *0 Bk €49 /i^v HfiXcv^iov i^vXatetjif €ictjryay€, rov^ 
Bk hrl TW ¥€^9 (iMiirXciv xark top iroraphv 
K€\€vaa^ €ar€ M M^fi^tp iroXtp, aino^ i4> 
*HXioviroX€W9 i5«i, ip B€(ta ^o»v top irorafiop 
TOP NetXoy, leai 6<ra tcaff oSop xtopiatphihovrtntpT^v 
€Poucovpr(ap tcaraa^wPt Sia rij^ iprjpov d<^Kero 

4 is 'HXiovTToXij/. *Eic€l0(p Bk htafias top iropop 
^X€P €9 Mifi<pip, Kal 0v€i itcei roU rt aXXoi9 
dfois xal r^ "AmBi teal dyifpa iTroirja-e yvfiPiicop 
re KoX fiovatxop* ^kop Bi avrat oi ap^l ravra 
TCXPiToi etc rrjs *EXXa5o9 0/ BoKifjuoraroi. *Ex 
Be M€/i^(09 /careirXei Kara top iroTaphp a)9 cVt 
BdXaaaap, rovs re vfraamaras cVi ruiP vecop 


I. AixzAimm DOW set forth for Egypt — hb original 
goal ^ — and marching from Gasa he arrived on the 
seventh dav at Pelusium in Egypt. His fleet was 
coasting aiooB with him from Phoenicia towards 
^'STP^ * "^ ^ found them already at anchor at 
Pefurium. Masaces the Persian, who had been 
appointed satrap of Egypt by Darcius, when he 
learnt both the result of tlie battle of Issus and the 
shameful flight of Dareius, and also that Phoenicia, 
Sjrria, and the greater part of Arabia were in Alex- 
ander's hands, being, moreover, without any Persian 
force, received Alexander in a friendly way into the 
cities and the country. Alexander for his part 
brought a garrison into Pelusium, and bade the 
oflieers of his fleet sail up the river as far as Memphis ; 
he meanwhile went towards HeliopolLs, with the river 
Nile on his right hand ; all the districts on his route 
he took over, by surrender of the inhabitants, and 
through the desert he reached HeliopoUs. Thence 
he craned the river and came to Memphis. There 
he sacrificed in especial to Apis and also to the other 
gods ; and held a contest both athletic and literary ; 
the most famous artists fai these branches came to 
him there from Greece. From Memphis he sailed 
down-stream towards the sea, taking on board the 

> That is, the original ch^mi/i of his •oatberiy marob, held 
op for a time at Tjn, 


\afiat¥ ical roif^ rofora^ tcaX rov^ *Ayp$ava^ tcai 

*EXSm9 Bk 4^ Kavt»0op xal icark rr)v \ifiyijv rr)i> 
MaoUuf w§piwXivffa^ hiroffaiptt iirov vvv *AX«- 
f^yo^Mia iroki^ ^Mtartu, *A\€(dpSpov iirwvvpM^, 
KaX iho^tv avr^ 6 Xf^po^ xdWicno^ /crlaat iv 
airm wiikip icaX ytPt auai &p tvhaiftopa rtfp iroXtp, 
Hcffo^ ovp XafiffoMi tivrop rov fpyov, xal avrb^ 
rk <rf)fitia r$ iroX«i fOtfictp, tpa r§ ayopkp ip 
avrj htifiaaSeu USti xal Upk 6a a xal Bt&v 
&pripwp, tAp ftip 'EWfiPtgAp, lo'i^^ ^ Atytnr- 
TUI9, ffol TO Ttlxo^ i 'ir€pt040\ffa$at, Kal iirl 
rouT<M« tOvtro, xal ra itpa «aXA i^aiprro, 

II. A^yrroi hi T19 koX roilaht X070V, ovk 
^wttfTOf ittov^ i0ikitp flip *AXi(apBpop icara- 
X4ircir airop rk aiifuSa rov TfiVKTMoC rots 
riicToaw, OVK thftu H Sr^ rffp yrjp iiriypdy^ovat' 
rup h^i r^KTOPUP TUfk iwi^paa$€pra, oca ip 
rtvytaip Sk^ra oi crpaTtitrai iicofntop (vpaya- 
yopra hnffaXXtiP rj y^ Xpairtp o fiaciXev^: 
v^Tfytiro, ical top kvkXop ovrw trepiypaifiTjpai rov 
wtpirttxiafiov omipa r^ iroXii iiroiti, 'Vovro hi 
iwi\t(afUpov^ T0V9 fuiprti^ xal fjLoKiara Brj 
*Apicraphpop rop TtXfuacta, ^ hfj iroXX^ u}p 
leal &Wa aXtfOeva-tu iXjyero *A\e(dpBp^, ^ap€U 
tvhalfiopa ictoBcu rtfp woXiP rd tc &XKa Ka\ r&p 
im yrj^ KapVMP €iP€ica, 

*Eir rovr^ hi xal 'HyiXoxo^ KariwXevaep e/f 
Atyvnrop, koX uirayytWt^ * A\€(dphp^ T€Pthiov<; 
re dirocrdpra^ UepaAp <r^L<n rrpoautaOcu («ai 
ykp icaX dscopra^ llipaai^ wpoax<op^at) /cat 



thipt hit guards, the archers, and the Agrianes, and 
of the cavahy the royal touadron of the Companions. 
When he had reached Canobus and sailed round 
I^ake Mareotis he came ashore just where is now the 
city of Alexandria, named after Alexander. It 
struck him that the position was admirable for 
founding a dtj there and that such a dtj was bound 
to be prosperous. He was therefore filled vnth 
eagerness to get to work, and himself marked out the 
ground plan of the dty, both where the market-place 
was to oe UUd out, how many temples were to be 
built, and hi honour of what gods, some of these 
Greek, and Isis, the Egyptian ; and where the wall 
was to be built round it In riew of all this he 
offered sacrifice, and the sacrifice proved favourable* 

II. A story of the following sort is tok), and I see 
no reason to disbelieve it ; Alexander desired to leave 
behind for the builders the ground-plan of the forti- 
fication, but had notiiing wherewith to mark the 
around. One of the builders, however, had the 
nu»y thought of collecting the meal which the 
soldiers carried In vessels, and of dropping it ujpon 
the ground wherever the king led the way. Inus 
the circle of the surrounding wall which he proposed 
to make for the dty was marked out. The sooth- 
sayers, and among them especially Aristander the 
Telminian, who was reported to nave made many 
other correc t prophedes to Alexander, reflecting 
upon this, said that the dty would be prosperous in 
all respe cts , but especially in the fruits of tiie earth. 

Meanwhile Hecelochus arrived by sea in Eg3rpt 
and reported to Aleiander that Tenedos had revolted 
from the Persians and joined the MarrHontan<>, in 
fact they had joined the Persians against their will; 



Xm»v irt ^ o Bfffio^ hnfyaytro <r^a9 I3la rvtv 
icartxo^rttp rifp iroKiv, ot^ AiVro^pa^aTt;^ rt teal 

4 ^apvafia^o^ ^Kari<nft<Tav aX&voi 5^ airodi 
maX ^aprdfia(op iyicara\f)4t0irra leaX * Kpiaro^ 
¥ueop Mff0VfiPaiop top rupa»¥Ov t(nr\tvaavra i^ 
row XifUva rtj^ Xlov (vv ^fuoXUnK \jf<rrpucal^ 
whrrt, vwo a^mp ixo^upov r6v Xifiiva ov yvovra, 
^XX* i^warridima ykp irpos t^v rk KXtWpa 
Ixprrmp rov Xtfupo^, 5t4 to ^appaffdl^ov &pa 

ft pairriKOP op^l iv airr^' /eat rov^ flip Xrjarik^ 
wdpTa^ athov tearatcoirfiptu irpcs a^iap* *Aptar6' 
piKOP hk 47« irap *\\i(apSpop teal Awo\\MpiSr)p 
TOP \lop Kol <Ptaipop KoX Wtyapia xal rovs 
aXKov^ 6a oi r^ tc dirocrdat^^ r^ \i<ap 
(vptw€\dffoPTO ic4mI 4p ftp TOTC TA wpdyfuira rrj^ 

• pijcov fiia clvoir* Koi M ir i/Xi/i^v hk Xdfnjra 
^Xopra 6ri a^^CKtro koX rk^ &K\a^ rk^ dp 
Aiaff^ woKti^ teal airrk^ 6/io\oyU^ wpoatiydytro, 
*AfMi^ar€p6p Bk aifp ((ifKopra pavclp itrl K& 
hnfiyfrtp* hrtKakturOai ykp a<^a^ rov^ Ku>ov^' 
Kal adro^ tcaravXtvca^ ori €vp€ Ttjp Koi trpos 

7 * Afi^cTFfpov tihffi i-vofiipijp' ical tovs flip d\\ov^ 
oaoi aixt'^'^'roi rjytp *\\yi\oxo^t ^appdffa^o^ 
Bi dirthpa 4p K^ XaBwp rov^ ^i;Xa«af. *AX^- 
(aphpo^ hi rov^ rvpdvpov^ piv rov^ itc r&p 
TToXettP i^ rk^ woXet^ irifiwet, XP')*''^^^'^ oiria^ 
iOiXottP* Tov^ Bi dfu^* * AiroWMPiBfjp rov^ XLov^ 
i^ 'CXc^arrii^v iroXtP Airfvmiap (vp (fevXaxtj 
dxpifiti €Tr€p,ylr€P. 

III. *Evl rovToi^ Si woOo^ Xafiffdpei avrop 
i\B(l» trap "AfifiMpa i^ A^ffvrjp, to pJp rt rat 
Btut xprjiTOfitPOP, OTi drptici^ ixjyero (lpa^ to 


the people of Chios too had invited him and his men 
into the dty, despite those whom Autophradates and 
PhanuibasiM had settled in the city, and who now 
were in poMfirion of it ; moreover, that Phamabazus 
had been captured there, and with him Aristonicus 
the despot of Methymna who had sailed into the 
harbour of Chios with five pirate ships, not having 
learnt that the Macedonians had possession of the 
harbour; he had also been misled by those who 
guarded the entrance of the harbour, who asserted 
that Phamabaxus' fieet was in the roadstead there ; 
the pirates indeed had all been cut down by his own 
men, but Aristooicttt he brought to Alexander, with 
Apollonidet the Chian and rhUauM and Megareus, 
and all the rest who had iMitted the revolt of the 
Chians, and, at the time being, were tyrannically in 
command of the ffovcmment of the bland. He 
reported abo that he had captured Mitylene from 
Chares who was holding it, and had received in sur- 
render the other dties in Lesbos also. Amphoterus 
with sixty ships he bad sent to Cos ; for the people 
of Cos asked Uiem to come ; and he had sailed him- 
self to Cos and found it already in the possession of 
Amphoterus. All the remaining captives Hegel- 
ochns brought in, except Pharnabasus, who bad 
slipped his guards in Cos and eseaped. Alexander 
sent the despots who came from the cities to their 
cities, so that the dtisens might take such justice 
upon them as they pleased; but those with Apol- 
lonidcs, the Chians, he sent to the city of Elephantine 
of Kg}'pt, with a strong guard. 

III. After this an overmastering desire came upon 
Alexander to pay a visit to Ammon in Libya ; partly 
to consult the oracle, since the oracle of Ammon was 



fuuntiop ToO "A/i/AMVOf mal vpTo-ao^oA adr^ 
ll€pa4a Tff Kal * II paxXia^ top fiiv hrl rff¥ 
Vopyotfa oTf wpo^ WoXvUktov iariWtro, rov S^ 
irt wap* *\vTaiov ^€i «49 Atfivfjv leal irapk 

5 Bovatpuf #49 Ar<yiMrroy. *A\f (tipBpM B^ ^Xortftia 
^¥ vpo^ Hipcia «al *\lpatc\ia, aw6 fivov^ rt 
6wri rov afi^ohf icai rt xal avT09 rrf^ ytviattt^ 
T^9 iavjov h "AfAfM^^a iivi^9p€, tcaBdwtp oi 
fAvOoi rijp 'HpaxX^ov^ t« kqI iltpcim^ ^ Ala. 
Kal oj/v irap* "AfAfuafa ravrv t^ yy^ujj iariX- 
Xrro, ftK Mol rk ainov arp€H€a'rtpov tico^ya^ ^ 
^qamp yt iypmxoKU* 

i Mixp* M^ ^ TlapaiTopiov irapk ddXaoaav 
jfff« hi iprifAOv, ov fUpTot Bi* avvBpov rffs xmpa^, 
arahiov^ is X''^^^^^ '^^ i^tucociovs, ft>9 Xiyti 
'ApioroffovXos* *EitT€V0€P M h rijv fitaoyaiav 
irpavtro, tva to fuuntiop ^ 7ov ''Afifunvos. 
"l&trrt Bi ip^fiff rt tf oB&s ical ^<i/A/A09 y iroXXr) 

4 avTffs Kal imfhpos. "TBwp B^ t( ovpavov 
*AXM{dpBp^ woXv iytptro, koI rovro is to Ottop 
amprixl^rj, ^AvtiviyBfi B4 is rb StZov xal To8r 
&P€fAOS poros iirav trptvarj iv iKtlvip r^ X^PV* 
TTj^ y^dfifiov iin<pop€i tear a T179 oBou cVt fUya, 
xal 'i^a»t(cTai t^ oBov ra arjfjitia ovBt earip 
tiBivat Tva XPV rroptvtaOai tcaOdirtp iv weXdyei 
T$ y^dfifup, OTi Cfffitut ovK tan icar^ rrjv oBov 
ovr€ TTov opos ovre BivBpov ovre ytjXo<f>ot ffiffcuoi 
avtarrjieores, olariaiv oi ohlrai retcfuiipoipro Av 
rf)v tropeiav, icaOd'rrtp 01 pavrai rots darpois- 
dXXti iirXaPUTO yap rj arparta * AXe^dvBprp koX 

6 0/ fjy€fi6v€S rijs 6B0V dfi^iPoXoi ^aav. IItoX*- 
fiaios fJL€v Btj 6 Adyov Xrye# Bpdxopras Bvo iivcu 


to be infalUble, and Perseus and Heracles 
were both said to have consulted it: Perseus when 
he was sent by Polvdectcs to destroy the Gorgon, 
and Heracles when he was journeying into Libya to 
find Antaeus, and into Effypt to find Busiris. then, 
besides, Alexander felt akind of rivahry with Perseus 
and Heracles, being descended from them both; 
nay, be abo traced Us descent in part from Ammon, 
just as the legends traced the descent of Heracles 
and Perseus mm Zens. In any case he set out for 
Ammoo with this Idea* hoping to learn about him- 
self more accurately, or at least to say he had so 

As far as Paraetonium he advanced along the coast 
through country which though desert is not wholly 
wateiieas, a distance of sixteen hundred stades, as 
Aristobulns tells us. Thence he turned into the 
interior, where the oracle of Ammon was. The 
way thither it desert; most of it is sand, and 
waterless. Alexander, however, had plenty of rain, 
and this too was attributed to the divine influence. 
This also was attributed to divine power ; whenever 
the south wind blows in that country, it makes a 
great heap of sand upon the route and obscures the 
marks of the road, and one cannot get one's bearings 
in the sand any more than at sea ; since there are no 
marks along the route nor any mountain anywhere 
nor tree nor solid hillocks standing up, by which the 
wayfarers mifht get some inkling of their proper 
course, as sailors do from the stars; the fact was, 
indeed, that Alexander's army fairly went astray, 
and the guides were in doubt as to the route. Now 
Ptolcmaeus soo of Lagos says that two serpents 



irpo ToO arpartvfiaro^ ^mytfp U^ra^, seal rovrotK 
'AXifa^hpop tc€\€uaat hrtcBai rov^ ^fytfiopa^ 
witrrtwrtuna^ r^ Otl^' tov^ &€ tfytfatLvOtu rr^p 
ihop rijp T« ^v TO fUipT€iop teal oirlom avBi^' 

6 * KpitrrofiovXo^ ^, Kal o wXti^p X0709 ravrrj 
tcartx^t, Koptuca^ Bvo irpoirrrofiipov^ wp^ ri}^ 
arparta^, rovrov^ y€p4c6a$ ^AXtftipSp^ rov^ 
f/ytfiopa^. Kol Sr^ flip Buop ti (vprwiXaff4P 
avrtp JfvM iff)(vpt^raa$at, 5ti koI to tUo^ ravrrj 
^ffi* TO 3« arp*tci^ rov Xayov a^CKotno oi dXXjf 
KOA &\\ff vwip atnov ifrjyfjudpfpoi. 

IV. 'O M X^P^ iPawtp Tov "'KfipMPfn^ ro i§p6p 
ian, rk /Up kuicX^ wdwra ip^fia koX yjrdfifiop ro 
wa9 ix"^ '^^ dpvhpop' avro^ hi ip fiia^ 6\iyo<i 
UP (6aop ykp wXtiarop a^ov h wXdro^ Bitx^^' 
4s rtaoapdmopra ftdXiara arahiovs fp\rrat) scaTu- 
irX««K iarufff/Upmp Siphpvp, iXattap fcal ^ivUtov, 

t KoX Mpoao^ ftOPOS rAp v4pt(, Kaiirrjyrj4( a vro 
dWo'^^ri (M4p n ioiicvla raU rrtiyals oaai aWai 
4k ytfi dpia\oviriP, *)^v ptP fkp fuarjfi^pia 
"^vXpop ro Chvp ytvaapipfp tc koI in fiaXXop 
ay^apivM olop yjtv)(porarop* iyteXivapros Bi rov 
TfXlov is iarrtpav BtppMrtpov, teaX diro ti/v 
iair4pas fri Oipfiortpov tare (trl fxt'aas vvtcras* 
fUattP Bk pvKr»p iavrov dtpporarop' diro Bi 
fi€a»p pvicrmp -^trxercu 4p rdfti, teal itoOev 
^^ypop tjBri 4ari, ^v\poTarop hi fjLe<Tf)p,0pia<;' 
xaX rovTO Brj dpMifia 4p rd((t 4iri ticdaru rjfUpa. 

S Tiypovrai Bk icai akts ainopxiroi 4v Tf> X'^P^^ 
rovrtfi opvKrol. Kai rovrtov eartp otfs 4s Aiyvrr- 
rop ^4povai rSiP ieptotp rip€s rov "A/i/u^i/o^. 
*Eir€iSrf ykp i-ir' Alyinrrov ar4KKoprcu, 4s 



pteeeded the armv uttering speech, and Alexander 
bade bJt leaders follow them and trust the divine 
giddanee; and the serpents did actually serve as 
nidet for the route to the oracle and hack again. 
But Aristobulus, with the more common version, has 
it as follows: two crows flying in advance of the 
army acted as guides to Alexander. That some 
divine help was given him I can confidently assert, 
because probability also inclines this way; but the 
story hat been deprived of exactitude by the way 
in whieh various writers about Alexander have given 
▼arioos aoooonts. 

IV. The district in which the Temple of Ammon 
lies Is desert all round, covered with sand, and 
without water. But the site, in the centre, is small 
(its broadrst stretch only oomes to about forty stadcs) 
and is full of garden trees, olives and palms, and it 
alone, of all the surrounding country, catches the 
dew. A spring, too, rises from it, not at all like 
ordinary springs which rise from the ground. For 
at nUdday the water Is coU to the taste and even 
more to the touch, it is at cold as can be, then when 
the sun sinks towards evening it is warmer, and from 
evening on It grows warmer and warmer till mid- 
night, and at midnight it is at its warmest ; but after 
midnight it cools off in turn, and from dawn onwards 
it Is aEneady cold, but at midday ooklest. This goes 
on in due rotation day by day. Then there are 
natural salu in this district, to be obtained by 
digging ; some of these salts are taken by priests of 
Ammon to Egypt. For whenever they are going 
towards Egypt, they pack the salt into baskets woven 



4 tA fiaaiXtl aito^povatp ^ cf Tf> ^XX^. "Etrri 
Bi fiOMpS^ Tc o x^^P^ 'A* ^^V TiP^ avT&if /cal 
vnip rptU BaxTvXov^, xal KaBaph^ caafrep 
MpvcraXXtK" «ai rovr^ iirl rai^ $v<Tim^ xpSivrai, 
<»9 icaBaomrip^ tmv airo $a\iiaotfs a\ti»v, 
Alyvwriol re moI 6c oi dXkoi rov $€iov o^k 

• af*M\A^ fvoi'ffir. *Crrav^a *A\i(<uflpo^ Toy re 
VM/wy iuavfiaat mal rtp $t^ iyjiriaaro* icaX 
oMovca^ Sea aih^ wph^ Bvfiov ^w, ^ iXtyty, 
a¥i(€v(tp /ir* Alyvwrov, t»^ fUy * ApiaroffovXo^ 
Xiytt^ TfiP a&rijy onrtata ohov, m^ 5^ lit oXtpalo^ 
O A^iffov, dX\:rjv t^Miap CK iifi \iip^i». 

V. EiV Mip^tw Ik aih^ wpwfitiaL rf iroXXal 
ix T^ 'RXX^i^o^ ^KOP, KoX of^K iirnp opTiva 
aTt/;^i7aarra tap tBilro awfirtpy^f teal crpank 
wapayiyprroi irapk pip *A»rijrarpov ptaSo^opot 
*EXXi7i«€V h rtrpaMociov^, &p tfytlro MtplBa^ 6 
'WyffcdpBpov, €K f!^p^iCff^ hk iirircif i^ ircirra- 
Koaiov^, t$p ^PX^^ *AaK\»firt6B^po^ 6 EvpUov, 

5 *EpTav$a 0v€t tm ^il rA ffaatXii xai tropirtvei 
(up rfj CTparia iv roU oirXoi^ teal ayitpa wot€i 
yvpviKOP Koi povattcop, Kal ra tcark rr)P 
Aiytnrrop ipiavBa ixocpr^cf hvo pkp popapx^^ 
Aiyvnrov Karitrnjatp Alywriov^, tikoKoaairip 
KoX WirtaiPt KoX rovroi^ Si€P€ip€ rfjp ;^w/>ai^ rrfp 
Aiytnrriap' Tlrriato^ Be afretirapepov rrjp apxh^ 

S AoXoo^TTiv cV^^^cTOi vaaaf, ^povpdpxov^ Bi 
Twv eraipofv ip M€p<f>€t pip WapraXiopra xarear- 
Tfjae TOP llvBpdiop, ip HrjXovaLi^ Bt WoXeptava 
TOP ^eyamXtov^, YitXXalop' tS>p (iptap Bk apx^iP 
AviciBcaf AiTwXoy, ypappaT^a Bi hrl t&p (tptap 


of palm lemves and Uke them as a present to the 
king or to Mmeone else. The grains of this salt 
are large, some of them have been known to be 
more than three fingers' breadth ; and it is as clear 
9M crystaL Both Egyptians, and others who are 
particular about religious observance, use this salt 
in their sacrifices, as being purer than the sea-salts. 
There Alexander survejed tne site with wonder, and 
also made his enquiry* of the god ; he received the 
answer his soul desired, as he said, and turned back 
towards Egjrpt, as Aristobulus sa3rs, going the same 
way back, but as Ptolemaeus son of Lagos says, 
another way direct to Memphb. 

V. There came to him at Memphis a good many 
embaHies from Greece, and lie sent no one away 
disappointed of his request ; and also a force from 
Antipater joined him, Greek mercenaries four 
hundred strong, under tiie command of Mcnidas son 
of Hegcsandros; from llirace came cavalry, about 
five hundred, under command of Asclepk>dorus son 
of Eunicus. Thereupon Alexander sacrificed to 
Zeus the King and hekl a procession with his force 
under arms and held an athletic and literary contest. 
He also put Egyptian affairs in order; he appointed 
two Egyptian governors of provinces, Dok>aspis and 
Petisis, dividing the whole country of Egypt between 
tliem; Petisb, however, declined the office, and 
DoloMpIs took it all over. As garrison commandants 
at Memphb he appointed Pantaleon of Pydna of the 
territorial troops, and in Pelusium, Polemon, son of 
Mogacles, of Pella; to command the mercenaries, 
Lycidas, an Aetolian, and as cleric in charge of the 



B^WriMTov ro9 Sepo^arrov tmt iraipmv iin- 
CKoicov^ hi aihAy Aio^uXoy re teal "E^wirow T0P 

4 XaXjethta. Aifiurf^ Bi rtj^ trpoax^pov &PX*^^ 
hihuaiP *KiroXKm¥i09 XapUov, 'Apapias hi rfj^ 
irpov 'HiMMtfy woKn KXtOfUtnj^ top iic Savxpa- 
no^* Kal Toirr^ wa^MfyT^XtTO rov^ ^v pofuipxa^ 
iap fyx^uf rmp vofiSiw ri»v xar^ c^^ tcaOdwtp 
im waXtuov KoBuanixgi, at^rw hi 4KXiy€iy trap 
ai^Mv Tovf ^/MVf * Of hk diro^p€i¥ athip if^X' 

$ Srfcaif, ^Toariffov^ hi r^ arparia tcariartiagv 
Htnipa h Ai7i)irTM vw^kMiirrro WtvKicrav t€ tov 
iAattaprdrov xaX oaKascpop rw *AfAvyrou, vavap- 
XOP hi iwl rmw MWf lloXifimpa top Htipapivov^' 
amparo^vXeuca hi lurrl *Appv0a top Atovvarop top 
*Opdaov^ fraf^p* *Appv0a^ yhp poatp diriSapw, 

6 *Avi^ayff hi «al *Arrio;^(K o &px»p ritp rofortaPt 
maX ibrrl rovrov &pxf^* 4iri^TTjff€ roU rofoTat^ 
*Ofil3pU$pa Kpfjra. *£iri hi rov^ (v^pdxov^ 
Tov^ vfCoik. &P hd\aMp<K rfytlro, ivel BdXatcpo^ 
hf Atrfinmp tnrtXtiwrro, KdXapop Kariartfirfp 

7 ifytpopa. Karaptipoi hi X^yfTOi i^ iroXKou^ 
rijp dpxhp Ttf^ Atyvnrov, rrfp rt ^vaip t^ 
VM/M^ aavfuitra^ xal rrjp oxvporrjra, ori ovic 
a^^X<9 oi €^aiv€TO hH rriTpc^ai dpx€tp 
Alyvwrov trdctf^. Kal 'Pt^/taioi /xo« ho/covci 
wap ^AXtfdphpov paBoPTM^ ip ^vXcucfj ex€iv 
Atyvirrop xeu fitjhtva rStv diro ffovXtj^ hri r<ph€ 
ixirt flirt IP virapxop AlyvTrrov, dWa tup «9 Toi/^ 
ivrrta^ a^Lai (wt€\ovvtwv, 

VI. ^AXe^ophpo^ hi apa r^ ^pi vTro<f>aLPoinri 
ix Me/i^«09 ^€1 cVi <l>oiM/cv79* xal iy€<f>vptoOrf 
* "On^Mr, Krfiger giv« 'Arr««v, ooafMrtiig VX 2& t. 



mercenaries Eognoetos son of Xenophantes, one of 
the territorisb, and as their oveneers, Aeschylus and 
Ephippus of Cha l cis. As govemor of the neigh- 
bourinff country of Libya he appointed Apollonius 
son orCharinns; and of Arabia about Herodpolis, 
deonienes from Naocratis. He instructed him to 
permit the district governors to goYem their om-n 
(iistricts as had been their way aU along, but that 
he was to exact from them the tributes, while they 
were ordered to pay these to him. As generals of 
the army which be was leaving behind in Effypt he 
appointed Peooestas son of Macartatns and Balacrus 
soQ of Amyntas, and as admiral of his fleet, Polemon 
son of Tberameiies; and as bodyguard in place of 
Arrhybas be appointed LeoniMilas son of Onasus; 
Arrhybas having died of disease. Antiochus also the 
commander of Uie archers had died, and in his pUce 
Alexander appointed as commander of the archers 
Ombrion a Cretan. Over the allied infAiitrv, of 
which Balacrus had been commander, he set Calanus 
as general, since Balacrus was being left behind in 
I^rat. It b stated that he divided the government 
ofEgypt between many officers, both from his sur- 
prise at the nature of the country and its strength, 
since it did not appear to him safe to entrust the 
command of all Egypt to one man. The Romans, 
too, I think, learnt a lesson from Alexander and keep 
y^gypt under guard, and never send anyone from the 
Sooate as procon su l of Egypt, but only those who 
are enroUea among them as Knights. 

VI. \\1ien Spring began to show itself, Alexander 
started from Memphis in the direction of Phoenicia ; 



avrA 6 tc xark Mc/i^iy nopo^ rov f^ttkov teal 
ai oimpvxt^ ainov naaai. 'Ov 3€ a^itcrro <V 
Tvpop, tcaraXafiffdyti imavBa IJKOv avr^ r;£r; 
ical TO pavTiKOP, *Ey Tvp^ B^ avOt^ Ovtt t^ 
'HpiucXtt Koi aympa woMi yvfuHKop tc «al fiov- 
t ciKov. ^FjrravOa a^ixitlrai trap* ovrov ^{ 
'ABffimp f) UdpaXiK wp€c0€i^ djovaa ^lo^atnoi 
Mai 'A;^iXXtfa* (vytwp4^0€vo¥ M a^oiv «ai oi 
HdpdKoi (vfAwatrrt^, Kal ovroi ratv t« <(XX«I' 
frv^op itv fptxa icraXfiatuf icai lov^ aixfidXmrov^ 
dSiiMMP *A^i|Mi4bt« Scoi iwl VpapiM^ ABtjvaiwi' 

5 HtXm^op. Ta ^ iv IlcXoiroyyf^^ 5ti aintfi 
9 €mm r tpiaOtu a'7ri777eXTo, *Kit^err§o6v irtfiwtt 
Smi$M litkomowmfaimp oao$ h tc rov Uepatteov 
woKtiAOW fiiPaun ^aaw maX AaniBatfAOPitov ov 
leariJKOvop, <t>oiMfi ^ teal Kvwptoi^ irpocrrd\6ri 
i^a-rov vaw dXKa^ wpo^ aU fyovra *Afi^oTtp6p 
l[ire flirt orcXXtiy hri TltXairoppijaov, 

4 Avro^ Si fjBff Jbm Apfiaro tk iwl Sdy^ateov 
rt xal TOP Eif^pdrriP irorafxop, ip ^oipUrj p.€v 
iir\ ritp ^opotp rj) (vXXoyj xaraarriaa^ Koipaiov 
l^potalop, ^iXo^tPOP hk T^ *Aa(a9 t^ itrl rdht 
Tov Tavpov €K\iy€ip, Tiap (vp avr^ Si TCfiV' 
iuLrmp rtjp ^vXaicrjp dprl rovrtap iirirpe^tv 
ApnrdXtp rtp Maydra dpri iic r»)^ ^t^T^ rJKovrt. 

6 *ApiraXo^ yap ra pip vpatra t<l>vyt, ^tXiTTTrov 
Uri 0aai\€vopro^t on iriaro^ ^p, /rcu 11 roXe/xatbf 
o Adyov iwl rat atnat e^vye teal "Siapxo^ o 
*ApBporripov Kal *E»piyvio^ o Aaplxov teal Aao- 
p4Bwp 6 rovTOV dS€\<f>6^, on CiroTrra f^v *AXef- 



t bridce was nude for him over the River Nile at 
Memphis and over all its canals also. When he 
reached Tyre he found there his fleet already arrived 
to meet him. At Tyre he sacrificed a second time to 
Heracles and held an athletic and literary contest. 
There the Paraims from Athens met him, bringing 
as envojTS Diophantus and Achilles ; the entire crew 
of the Pmralms ^ were associated with them in the 
tmhmmy. These achieved all the objects of their 
mission, and Alexander gave up to the Athenians all 
the Athenian captives taken on the Granicus. 
I icing informed that revolt had broken out in the 
I'cloponnese in his favour, he sent Amphoterus to 
help Auch PeloponnesUnt as were quite sound as 
regards the Persian war and were not inclined to 
listen to the Lacedaemonians. Orders were, besides, 
inven to the Phoenicians and Cyprians to send to the 
i'cloponnese a hundred ships over and above those 
he was despatching under command of Amphoterus. 
Alexander himself was afareadr starting inUnd 
towards Thapsacus and the River Euphrates, having 
set Coeranus, a Beroean, over the collection of taxes 
in Phoenicia, and Philoxcnas to be oollector in Asia, 
this side of the Taurus, llic guardianship of such 
moneys as were with him he entrusted (in lieu of 
these officers) to Marpalus son of Machatas, just 
returned from exile; for this Ilarpalus had in the 
first instance been sent into exile while Philip was 
still on the throne, because he was loyal,' and 
Ptolemaeos son of Lagos was exiled on the same 
acoount* and Nearchos ton of Androtimus and 
Brigyios ton of Larichus and Laomedon his brother, 
since Alexander fell under Philip's tnspieion when 

> Being all froe dtiMns. * To Alexander. 



^offtro <t>iX4irirof, *OXvfiindBa ^ r^v *AXtP- 

6 dpBpov fiffripa tirifiaat. TcXcimT^avroc tt 
^tXimrov KartXBorran iSiro rtj^ ^^O^ ^^ ^' 
airro¥ f^vyov TlroXtfAaiop /i^y am/jLar<Hl>v\axa 
Kafiarrictv, "AfiwaXop B^ hrl tAv xF^H^'^^^* 
on atn^ rh cAfta ^ t^ woXi^a aypuov ^i . 
*Epiyv$ow Bi iiriraf>xrf¥ rmv (vfifAav^v, AaofU 
5crra 3i tov tovtov ahtX^ov, Sr^ UyXm^ao^ ^v 
h tA fiaofiaptM^ ypdi^^ra^ M roiv ai;|^fui- 
X«T04f pap$dpoi^, Siaffxof 3^ aarpawtvtuf 
Avxias Kal rr)% IvofUrfi^ AvKia^ XJ^P^^ ^^^* 

7 iw\ row Tavpov to 6po^, *OXiyopok wpoadtp 
T% I^Xt^ ^^ ^ *\ovilt ytPOfUtni^ aifOwtMBtU 
wpo^ 'VavpiCKov, avBpo^ momov, " ApmaXo^ ^vy€i 
(w TavpioKip, Kai o fiiv Tavpi4neo9 wap 
*A\4(ap6pop rop *Htrci/Mrn^ 4^ *lra\iatf craXtU 
€ietl 4r€\tvrffO€9' 'ApwdX^ hk iv tJ MeyaptJi 
>7 ^^h ^^< *AXX* ^A\i^ayhpo% irti$€i ainop 
MariXOgiPt irt^TCff Sov9 ovSip oi fitlop l^ataOat 
iirl TJ ^vy^' ovBi iyhtro iwaptXBopri, aXX* 

8 M tAi' xofipkormp alOt^ irdyBri "ApwaXo^, *hs 
AMop 04 aarpditfip Mipavhpov iintip,irti tmv 
haiputv M W TOiv f /voi?, &p ^y€iro MiuavBpo^ , 
KXiapxo^ avT<p irdxiff dprl 3^ *Api^pa (rarpa 
WTjp ^vpia^ *AffM\Tfin6lttpop top EvvUov dvi- 
^t(€v, on *Apippa^ 0XaM€u<rai ih6ic€i ainip iv 
tJ irapacKivh ijvriva irdydrf vapaaMvdacu TJ 
arparia /cara T^v ohop rtjp apta, 

VILKol d^Utro i^ Sd^uxov *AXi(apBpo^ 
fAffPO^ ' ExaTOfifiaiofPO^ iwl apxoprof 'AOiimjap 

* ypoMttori* M . . . Sintenia. 


Philip had taken Eorydice to wife, and had treated 
with co ntu m e ly Oljrmpiaa the mother of Alexander. 
On Philips death thoae who were in exile on 
Alexanders account returned, and of them he 
appoi nt ed Ptolemaeus one of the bodyguards, 
Harpalnt an officer of finance, since his bodily 
stmgth was not equal to fighting, Erigyios com- 
mander of the allied caTahry, and Laomedon his 
brother, since he knew, beskles his own, the Persian 
Unguage, ofioer in charge of the Persian captives; 
Nearchoi be made satrap of Lycia and the country 
bo r d e rin g upon Lycia as far as Mount Taurus. To 
return to Harpalus; not long before the battle of 
Issus he was led astray by Taoritcus, an evil man, and 
fied with Taurisctts, who made his way to Italy to 
Alexander of Epims, and died In Italy ; Harpalus, 
however, took refuge In the Megarid. Alexander, 
however, persuaded him to return, giving him assur- 
ances that he would not sulTer at all for this flight of 
his ; and sure enough he did not suffer, but was set 
again in charge of the tf eaauie . He sent to Lydia 
as satrap Menandroa, one of the Companions, setting 
Qearchus in command of the mercenaries of wliom 
Menandroa had charge. In place of Arimmas he 
iiiade satrap of Syria Asclepiodorus son of Eunicus, 
since he oonridered Arimmas to have malingered in 
the matter of soppljring such things as he had been 
ordered to supply for the army detailed for the march 
into the interior. 

VII. Alexander arrived at Thapaacnt In the 
in .ti'h Ilcciitonibaeoii, when Aristophanes was 


V. . I. I 


*Api4rrotpu¥ov^' aui m.ura\aiLffdvti hvolt^ -jtipv 
pai9 <{irv7^A€vov Toy wopov, Kal yap Ma{a£o9> 
&r^ ^ ^Xatff Tov worafjLov <V ^paov iirrri- 
rpawTO, litwia^ pkp ly«i» irff>i r^o^iAiovv icai 
rovrm¥ ^'EXXt/Mif fua^o^pov^ £ioX'^^^* ^^^^ 
t flip avTov M iy worafup i^vKaaat, itaX iwX 

Tiyy atrrtwipatf ijC^tP roU Meucthoci, 5«f/*a/vovoi 
fAfj hriBouno oi dfi/^l Slafalop rj yt^vp^ Tvo 
^ovrro* Mo{auK 5^ «>f ifieovatu ff&tj wpo<rdyotna 
*AXifap^p09, ^Xt^o ^\fytt¥ (Oy r^ arpana 
wdajf gtd ttfOt/s «9 i^tfy€ M afaio^, imp\.rfif)cav 
ai yi^vpoi rp Sx^Jf t^ wSpop xai Bidfif) /ir* ainmy 
(vp tJ ffrpartd *A\i(ayhpo^, 

t *Ep6t¥ Bi 9Xf^p^^ ^y^t i^ dpiartp^ ^«»y rov 
Ev^pdrtiP worafAOP «ai rrj^ *App4yia^ tA ^piy, 
Bik rrj^ Miaoworafua^ KdKov^tnf^ ;^ctf/Miv. Ovk 
wB^lav hi iwl 3a0v\MPo^ hy^ ^''^^ ^^^ ^v^pdrov 
opjMf0^, >T« T^ kripav iotni €\nropttrrtpa rd 
fv/Awatna r^ arpar^ ^¥, nai X*^^ "^^^ t-mroi^ 
Kal rd hnTrjS€ta <« r^ X^P^^ Xa^ffdvav, teal 

4 TO xavpa ovx ^cavrta^ ini^Xiyof, 'AXoi^€V 
Bi rtv€^ tcard rtfv 6Bc¥ roiv uTro tov Aaptiov 
oTpariVfiaro^ xaraaicoirTf^ fp€>ca dwtatceBaafiivttv 
i(^yy€i\aPt on Aap«i09 €trl tov Tlypifro^ irora- 
fiov tcd$Ttrat, ^vt^icw^ tipyav *A\€(apBpop, ei 
Bia^aivor teal elvat ainw arpartdv iroXv pci^ova 

6 4 (ifP ^ cV KiXi/ria ipd\€ro. Taina *A\€(avBpos 
dxovaa^ ^ti airovBfj tov iirl top Tiyprjra, H? 
Bi d<f>iK€TOt oCre airrbv ^aptlop icaroKatifiupei 
ovT€ rrjv <l>v\tucr)p rfpripa dTroXeXoiirei Aapeio^t 
dWd Biafiaipei top iropoPt X^^'^^^ ^^ ^^ 
b^inrjTa tov pov, ovB€po^ Bi €tpyoPTO^, 


archoD mi Athens. There he found the river bridged 
br two bridges. The fact was that Mazaeus, to 
whom Dareitis had entrusted the guarding of the 
river, with about three thousand cavjdry, and of these 
two thousand being Greek mercenaries, for some time 
kept his guard over the river, and so the bridge had 
not been eooipleted bv the Macedonians right up to 
the opposite bank, tor fear that Maxaeus' troops 
wouU attack the bridce at its extremity; but 
Masaeus on learning that Alexander was already 
iiarchinff up hurried off with all his forces. So soon 
as ever Masaeus fled, the bridges were thrown right 
over to the far bank and Alexander crossed over with 
his troops. 

Thence he continued inland, keeping on his left 
the Kuphratrs and the mountains of Armenia, 
through the country called Mesopotamia. But on 
leaving the Euphrates he did not lead direct on 
Babylon, since going by the other road he found 
cver)-thing more convenient for the troops, and it 
was cany to obtain fodder for the horses and any 
necessities from the country, and, what is more, the 
heat did not bum so stronffly. Some few men cap- 
tured from those who bad oroken off from Dareius' 
army for scouting, reported that Dareius was en- 
camped on the River Tigris, determined to check 
Alexander should he try to cross. Dareius, they 
Haid, had a much larger army tlian that with which 
lie had fought in Cilicia. On hearing this Alexander 
hurried off towards the Tigris, but on arriving there 
he found neither Dareius himself nor the guard which 
Dareius had left behind. Yet he crossed the river, 
with difficulty, it is true, on account of the swiflness 
of the current, but without any attempt at hindrance. 



• *Eirrav$a opawavti rw arparov* ical ri}v 
o'cXiji^ TO wokv imXi-wh iyivrro* icaX 'A\<f- 
opBpo^ i0V€ r$ T« atXtjtfff koI t^ 4Xif» teal rj 
yp, irmp to Spyo¥ rovro X0709 tlytu tcar^x'^' 
Kal iBoKti * Apicravhp^ wpo^ MaxtBoi^my ical 
*AXcfai^pov «iKi4 Ti/9 a«\r;iri/9 TO wdOfffAa zeal 
iKWi¥ov ToO fki}vh^ iataOai ^ /^X^* 'a^ (''^ to)!' 

W uiro TOW Tiypfiro^ J€i 5ii t^ *ATot;^Ha9 Yt»/Ni9. 
^y afHcup^ fAttf ^X^^ ^^ To/T^voiwy o^ty, ^y 
€«{if £< aiVroy toi^ lirfpifra^ 'XrrdoTfi S^ ^t^^pa 
dwo T^ hitk ffd atm^ oi wpoBpofMH avrtp ifayyiX" 
Xov^i¥ ^Ti iwcK [ovToi] woXi/Aioi dya to wtBiov 
^aii^omai, oaoi i4,ovx l;^f<y titcdaoi, Evvrdfa^ 
ov¥ rti¥ arpankw wpovx^^^P^ ^ ^ f^X*^^' ^^^ 
JFXXoi av rit¥ wpolpouMW wpoctXdaamt^ ditpi- 
ffiartpov oinoi tcarihotrrt^ i^aatcov Boictiv tl^ai 
a^civ ov wXtiov^ v; ;^iXioi/9 toi^ iV-irfav. 

VIII. *AyaXa/3a»v ovp n^v Tf ffaaiXtscrjv iXiff 
teal TUP krtupmv fiia¥ xal ritv irpohpopiov rov^ 
llaiova^ ^Xai/vt awovB^, rtjv 5^ aXXv7v arparikv 
fidhfv fwta0{u ixiXtvatv, Oi 5^ raȴ lltpatinf 
iwirtU, MartBotng^ tovv <iM^* ^AXi^avSpov o^iu^ 
iirdyomai, i^xr/ov dvd tcpato^, Kai *AX^f- 

S aySpo9 himicmv ivitctiro' /cal ol pkv 7ro\Xoi 
dv€4>vyo¥, rov^ ht ri¥a^ icaX dfritcT€i¥a¥, oaoi^ 
oi 7-rtroi i¥ T§ <^vyj fxapop, roi/^ hi ical (i!>¥Tas 
avToU iinroi^ eXaj^ou* xal irapd rovToȴ tfiadov 
on ov woppu eiTj Aapcibf (v¥ hvvd^i ttoXXi}. 

% B€l3oi]6f]K€aa¥ yap ^aptitp 'Ii'5ei>i' t€ ogoi 
haicrpioi^ OfAopoi xal ainol lAdtcrpioi Kal ^oyBi- 
a¥or rovTU¥ p€¥ irdvrtav tfytlro Bz/ao-o^ o t^ 

ANABASir. o^ ALKXANDRR, III, 7. 6^. 3. 

There he gave his annj a rest ; there too there was 
an ahnost total eclipse of the moon. Alexander 
sacrificed to the Moon, to the Sun, to the Earth; 
who are all said to be conccmrd in an eclipse. 
Aristandros concluded that the eclipse was favour- 
able to the Macedonians and Alexander, and that 
the battle would take place during that selfsame 
moon, and that the sacrifices portended victory to 
Alexander. Then, leaving the Tigris, Alexander 
passed through the country of Aturia with the 
Gordjaean roountaim on his lefl, and the Tigris on 
his right. On the fourth day after the crossing, hit 
advance scouts reported that enemy cavalry were 
sighted here over the plain, but thev could not guess 
their numbers. So drawing up his rorce he advanced 
as to battle ; when other eeoute rode Id, and those 
having had a more precise view reported tliat they 
thought the cavalry to number not above a thousand. 

Vni. Alexander, then, taking with him the royal 
squadron, one squadron of territorials, and, from 
among the advanced scouts, the Paeonian^, moved on 
rapidly, ordering the rest of the army to follow at 
walking pace. But the Persian cavalry observing 
the troops with Alexander coming up rapidly, lost no 
time in flight. Alexander pressed on pursuing, and 
thouffh the greater number of them got on, the 
Greeks slew some whose horses wearied in the flight, 
and captured others alive with their mounts. From 
these they learnt that Dareius was not far off with 
A large force. 

TMm was because there had come to the help of 
Dareius such of the Indisns as border upon the 
Bactrians, with the Bactriant and Sogdians them- 
selves ; all these were under the command of Bessus 



fUncrpimw X^P^^ aarpdwff^» ICnroyro hi aurot^ 
ic<u ^tcai {^MvBiKOP rovro to yiro^ rotp rtfV 
*\aLav hroneoxftrrtiv ^KV$i»9\ o\f\ tnrtJMooi ouroi 

Tfyalro Bi ainHfp MawLnf^' avrol hi lirrroTo(6rai 

4 ?Vay. Bapaaim/K W 'Apavarrwi' aarpdirff^ 
*Apax^ovs re ^71 xal rovs 6p€iov^ *lv£oi^ KaXoiH 
tUyotf^. liaTifiiapf^dpff^ Bi o *Ap€U»tf carpdinf^ 
*Apnov^ ^ff. Hap$vaiov^ hi xal ^Tpxaviov^ xai 
'Vawovpov^} Tovf vajrrav iwwia^, ^para^ipvr^ 
^rt*P* MijS«M» hk i}7«iro 'Ar/KnTttTi^' (vprrdr- 
Totrro Bi Mi^^oic KoBovaioi t€ xal *A\ffavol 

5 cai ^tctaiiHki. Tov^ Bi wpocoUovs rfj *Epv$pd 
BaXdccji ^OmowBofidrt^ Koi *Apio0apl^titnj^ tctu 
*OppPff% 4k6cudvp. O0(toi Bi xai ^iwiavol 
riytfimm irooci^^oi^o *OPaBpffP rov *Affou\irov, 
Bovwdpni^ ik Ba0vXmPU0¥ tfytlro. Oi B* dpd- 
(TwaffrtH Kapts xal UtroMiiPol evp haffvXtapioi^ 
htrdxaro. *ApfUplmp Bk 'Opwrrf^ Mai Viidpav- 

oTfj^ flPX^t ^A4 *AptdMfi9 KawwaBoKmp. l,vpov^ 

5f T0V9 T« ix Ttj^ Motkrj^ KOX OCOl Ttf^ fAtTofv 

rSfP worafAWP '^vpi'aq Mat^alo^ ^y^^* 'BXiyrro 
Bi 17 iraaa crpartk 17 ^aptiov itnrtU tiht h 
rerpaxKTp.vpiov^, irf{bl Bi <V licarop fivpidBa<s. 
Mai apfiara BpewoPff^pa BtaKoaia^ iKi^avre^ 
Bi ov iroXXoi, ^XXA ^9 irtvrtKolBtMa fiaXuna 
^\vBoi^ TOi9 ciTA rdB4 rov *\vBov ^cap, 
7 Hyv ravrtf r$ Bupdfiti iarpaToir€B€VMti Aap^io^ 
iv VavyafirfKoi^ trpo^ irorap,^ SovfiufBtp,* diriytav 
*Apfftj\«i>p 79/9 iToXito^ oaop k^axociov^ aroB^ovSt 

1 A here mad UI. 11. 4. T^ti^M. 
• Rom BMyi^Ay from VI. 11. 6. 


the —tnp of BactrUu With thew tbere came abo 
certain Saeae, a Scjrthian people, of the ScTtht who 

ihabit Asia, not ai ftubjects of Bessus, but owing to 
alliance with Dardus; Maaaces was their com- 
mander, and they were mounted archers. Barsaentet 
satrap of the Arachotians led Imth the Arachotiaasand 
the Indian hillmco, as thejr src called. Satibarsanes 
satrap of the Areians led the Areians. But the 
Parthyaeans, the Hjrrcanians and the T«purians, who 
were all eavalry, were c om m a n ded by Phratsphemes. 
Atiopatet led the Modes; along with the Medea 
were ranged Cadwriant, Alhaniani, 
The tribes botdering on the Red Sea 
by Oooodobatea, Ariobananes, and Orsioes. The 
Uxians and Soarianians acknowledged the leadership 
of Oxathres ton of AbooUtes. Bopares was in eom- 
mand of the Babylonians. The Carians who had 
been transpUnted and Sitacenians were brigaded 
with the BabjlooiaDS. Of the Ameniant, Orootet 
and Mithranstes were eommandets; of the Cappa- 
dodansy Ariaces. The Sjriaat of Lowland-Syria and 
an from Mesopotamian Syria were onder Masaeos. 
The number of Dareios' fbrees waa given as 40,000 
horse, IJXOJOCO foot, SOO teythe-^ariota, a few 
elephants, the Indians 00 this side of the Indot 
having some 6fteen. 

With this army Dareios had eneampcd at Gauga- 
mela by the River Bumodus, about six hundred 
stades from the dty Arbela, in a position level on all 



ip X'^P^ o/iaXf* wdmrf, Kal y^p leai 5^a <&y«- 
ftaXa airroO i^ Iwiraaiav, tairra 64 iit iroXKov 
oi lUp^tu roU Tff &piiaci9 iwtXavptUf €vwm) 
wnraif)Mtea¥ nal rf iwir^ iwwdaifAa. *H<7ai 
7^ oi Ju4w€iOo¥ i^optZoy (nrkp rijs wpof *\a^ 

T^ artPOTfirr icai Aaptio^ ov ;^aXrirM^ hntOrro, 
IX. Tavra tn^ ifyrn^^^ *AXt(iUfBom wpo^ 
tAp Maraaicowmp rAp UtpaAp oaot taXmaaw, 
ffutpw avrov tpa i^^TTt^^ VfUpa^ ri^aapa^- 
gal rifp Tff ffrpartAp ix r^ ohoif dytiravat, to 
M erpariwtZov rd^p^ rt xal xdpatei irfix^oii'. 
''Erpfm yikp T^ fiip axtvo^opa airoXtiirtttf tcai 
Bcoi rmp crpart m rmf inopaxoi ^av, atrros 
5f (ifP roU fiaxipoi^ oMv iXXo on fiff oirXa 

S ^tpova^p Upai 4^ TOP dyAva. *Apa\afimp ovi' 
T^y BvpafAtp pvMTo^ 4yy dp^l Bnnipap <^v\aMrjv 
fidXicra, ttK a/i* fffJLtpif wpoafufai tok ffap- 
ffdpoi^. Aa/»i09 ^$ 1*9 wpocfiyyiXBrj aviw 
trpoadymp ^ffii/i 'AXifcu^pof, iicrdao€i rtjp arpa- 
nkp m i^ ftdx^ to* 'AXM^apBpos ^jyw i>4rauTVi 
rrrofffupov^, Kal dirtix* P^ dWrjXMP to, 
ffTparow€^ oaop ifi^tcoma araSiov^, ov prjv 
wt$ Ka0€mpwp aXXifXoi/v* yijXo^oi yhp ip picif 
iwiwpoo'Bep dp^ip ^op. 

S 'n? Stf awttx^if *A\((apSpo^ ocop is rpidjcovra 
araSiovs xai /car airrAp tfirj rAv yrjXoifytap jfci 
airrtp 6 arparos, ivravOa, ok fflSff rovs fiap- 
fidpovst €arTfiT€ rrjp avrov <t>d\ayya' ical (vytea- 
Xiaa^ ainoik rt rovs^ eralpovs teal arpairyyov^ 
maX iKdpxa^ «a^ tAp avp.fuixo>v tc tcaX tAp 
*■ «l r0^ Tf Roos. 



rides. For what few uneven parts for cavalry there 
had hetn the Pernans had long ago made cooTenient 
both for chariot driving and for cavalry to ride over; 
ton certain persons persuaded Dareios that in the 
battle of Isios be had, all said and done, suffered 
disadvantage from the na iio w n eas of the battle- 
field; and Dareina very readily assented 

uL On receiving this lunirniation uPom the cap- 
tured Persian scottts» Aleiander st opped where be 
had received it, for lour days; he rested his army 
after their march and strengthened bis eamp by a 
ditch and palisade. For he had decided to leave 
behind the baggage animals and any non-combatants 
among his men, and himself with the combatant 
troops to advance to the battle burdened with 
nothing bat their arms. He the r e fo re marshalled his 
force at night and led them off jnst about the second 
wateh, so as to meet the enemy at dawn. Dareios 
for Us part, on hearing that Alexander was already 
advancing, arrayed his army for battle; while 
Alexander was bringing up his army also in due 
battle array. The forces were about sixty stades 
apart, but did not as yet sight one another, lor there 
were hills intervening in front of both. 

When Alexander was about thirty stades away 
and his army was already descending these hills, 
sighting the enemy he drew up there his phalanx ; 
and summonin g the Companions, the generals, the 
cavalry commanders, and the commandants of the 



avroStv iirdyoi ^htj rrf¥ ^XaT^a, m^ oi irX«£aTO« 

4 6fy€Uf iniXtvov, ^ tcaOdirtp HaptAwimvi KaKM<f 
IX^Uf ^ ihomt^ roTf /*^v ainov Kayaafparowthtimn 
KoracKh^^aaBtu hk rw re xStpov (vfAiratna, ci 
Si; t« (rwowrop atnov ij &wopop, ?; fl m; rd^po* 
4 o'coXmrcv irarairnnfyoTcs d^op^U, ical to 
rdfti^ TMr woXtfAimp OMpiffiar^pop caTiSfiv. Ku 
iriirfS naf>M«m»y t^ ypm/Ajf, xal icaraarparonn 
Itvovctp ainov 5irtK rrrayfUpoi l/i«XXov iii^a^ 

5 *AXi(dvdpo« i4, dpaXaffmp rov^ ^fnXov^ leal 
rmp iwwimp rov9 haipov^, wtpi^jtt iv KVK\ip 
agoirAp rtfp X^P'^ wdaap Xpa ro ipyov axn^ 
icMaOcu IfptXXfp, *EiraP€\0c$p hi col (uyicaXiaa^ 
avdi^ roi^ ainoi^ ^fy€fi6pa9» avroiK p4v ovk 10?; 
^^p^poi wapamaiktiiaBoA wpo^ ou i^ top dyiapa 
wdkai fkp tlpoi St* dprrffp tc Trjp a^v irapa 
KiKXTjpivov^ xal inrh Ti»y voXXdMi^ ^Si| tcaXoav 

6 ISpymp dwohthtiy phfmp* tov^ leaTk a^d^ h* 
imdcrov^ i(oppdp ^(iov, Xoxoyop rt Xax^Ta 
leal l\dp)(Tjp Tfjp tkfip Tf)p ainov fteaaTOP /rai 
Ta^uipxov^ T^? Taf€i9, tovs t€ ^ytfiova^ TOiv 
irff{(MV TriP ^dXeirfya ^Kaarop rrfp Oi iiHTrrpap.- 
fUpffP, OK 4p t^Sc t^ f^XV ^hC i^^p KoiX?;^ 
]£t;pui? ii <t>otpixrj^, ovSi inrip XiyvirTOv, C09 
itpocOtP, fiaxovfUpov^, dWd inrtp t^ (up,Trd<nj<; 
*Aaia^, oi/cmpa^ Xph dox€iP, iv t^ totc Kpidrj- 

7 aofupop. OvKovv ttjv c9 t^ xaXd d^opfirjciv Bid 
TToXXwp dpayxaiap ainoU tipcu oitcodep tovto 
expvaip, aXXd Koepov t€ ip r^ tcufBvp^ 07ra>9 

* tx«*^ tiipplied by Krflfar, 


allies and the merceiuinr troopt, he dtaciiMed the 
quectioo whether he should adranee his phalanx at 
oooe horn that pointy as most of them urged, or, as 
Pannenio thought beat, camp ibr the time being, 
make a eomplete sonrej of the whole ground, in case 
there should be any part m sp i eto ut or impaasable, or 
perhaps ditches, or hidden slakes fixed in the soil, 
and make a thorough reeotmaSasance of the enemy's 
dispoaitkms. Parmenk> s advice prevailed and thej 
camped there, but in the order in which they were 
to engage. 

But Alexander, takii^ with him the light-armed 
troops and the territorial cavalry, rode all round 
sur fc yiu g the ground which was to be the battle- 
field. Tben he retained and again sonmoned the 
same oOeers, and said that there was no need for 
him to inspire tliem to tlie fight ; they had kmg ago 
been inspired by their own bravery and by thdr 
many splendid exploits already done ; but he called 
on each of them to eneo ui age his own men ; tlie 
infantry captains their companies, the cavalry com- 
manders tlieir own squadrons, the brigadiers their 
brigades, and the infantry commanders each the 
phalanx placed under him. In this battle, he pointed 
out, they were going to fight, not as they had before, 
for Lowland-Syria or Phoenicia, nor even for Egypt, 
but tlie sovereignty of all Asia was there and then to 
be decided. There was then no need for him to stir 
them to noble deeds by a long specdi — such valour 
was inborn in tliem — but rather that each in his own 



TK Koff auTOP iwifiMX^trtu leal etyrj^ aKpi0a(k 
imim otffuvraK iwUvtu hiot, koX ai Xafiwpa^ 
Ttf^ 0<nfi iPa 4fi0orjctu tcaXop, teal AXaXayftov 
8 m ^ofi^pmrarou owvrt iwaXaXafa* xtupor aurol 
T« 5viK o(^«K Karajeovoi€v Tftty tc vapayyeX- 
Xofihfmp, Kol wap axrrStv av Sir 90^ i^ ra^ rd(ti^ 
o{«ttK wapaliBtfinai rik frapayyiXpara* fp Tf 
T^ «a^ avrop ha^rop xal ro irdp fAtpptjcOai 

i'vyitipZwmfW TC aptXovpip^ maX hi IwiiUKtla^ 
MirOPOVfA4P^ fvPOp$OVp€POP, 

X. Tavra ical rotavra HXXa ov iroXXA wapa 
maXi^a^ rt gal apriwapaKXfjB^U ^po^ r&p rfyt 
pApmp 0aptMiP iwX a^ai, h^iwpoirottiadai re /cai 
hwwavtcBoi MXtvcM rhp erparw, llapptplmp 

^mpffiPt w^KT^p map ipu hn0Mai roU Uipaat^' 
ifWpoatogffTOi^ re yip mU ivarrrapaypipoi^ mtu 

S il^ ip pvirrl ^fi^pmripoi^ iwiB^taSai. 'O S< 
imtip^ phf atroapiprrai, Srt xal HXXot icarrfKOvo 
rmp Xiymp, alaxP^* clvai irXi^cu rtfp pUtji', 
aXXA ^oPtpA^ /cal dvtv ao^iaparo^ ^prpnu 
piKTJaeu ^AXtfaphpop, Kol to payaXnpfopov av- 
rov rovTO ovx inripoyicoy paXXop rt rj (vOapah 
ip roU iciyhvvoi^ i^ivtro' hotctiv 6* epotyt, xa 

I Xayurp^ cucpifitl ixpr^caro ip r^ roi^B€' cV 
pvktI ykp Toh TC aifoxptSiprt^ ical rol^ iphti^ 
irpo^ T^9 paxa^ 7rap€<ri€€va<Tfi€voi^ iroXX^ ix 
rov wapaXoyov (vpfidpra rov^ pip eat^Xjt, rov^ 
icptiaaopa^t TOi? y^lptxri Si irapa rk i^ dp/polv 
iXwtaOepra rrp^ ptxijp irapiB^^tcev avr^ re kiv- 
hvp€vopri TO iroXv ip raU pAx^i^ a^aXepit, 17 
pv( tcaTe<f>aip€To, xal &pa rfcatfOan-i re avBift 



heart would think of dttdpttne fai danger, and com- 
plete sUeooe when they mint go forward in silence, 
and of a ringing ebeer when it wai right to cheer, 
and of the most frightful hattle-ery when it was time 
to raise it ; and that each should smartljr obej orders, 
and pass on smartly too the orders to the ranks; 
one and all remembering, and the armj as a whole, 
that in his own neglect there was universal danger, 
and in his own diligent achievement universal success. 
X. With these and similar words, though brief, he 
exhorted them, and was in torn mged by the com- 
manders to relj on them. So he bade his armj take 
their meal and rcst« It is related that Parmenk> 
came to him to his tent and advised him to attack 
the Petsiaas at night, for lie would thus foil upon 
them unready and oonlused and more open to panic 
in the night-time. Alexander, however, replied— 
since others were Hsti^ing — that it was a low thing 
to steal the victory, and that Alexander must win hb 
vkrtory openly and without sleight This bfUness 
of his did not seem mere excess of vanity, but rather 
e o oli d en ce amid dangers ; and as I fancy he reasoned 
weD in this matter; for at night many unforeseen 
occ ur r en ce s have happened as much to those who 
were well prepared as to those who were ill prepared 
for battle, and have caused failure to the stronger and 
, thrown the victory into the hands of the weaker, 

(contrary to the expectations of both. Alexander « 
A rule ran risks hi his battles, but yet he thought 
■%lit wac too risky, and beskies, given one more 


3^€«poM#r fi^laStu 4i XaBfKua t« /eaX tnfirrtpipr) 
M 9^m9 iwiBtat^ a^jjptlTO, ff tc ri ^te rov 
woftaXoyov wituafia a^ai (vfiwiaoi, roU fiiv 
woXtfAUH^ rk icvkX^ ^i\$a ical atrrol r^ xatpa^; 
ifiirtipor adtU l4 iwgipoi ip voXtfuoi^ roU 
iraatp, mp ov fUMpa fAolpa ol aixM*^^*^oi faap, 
fyp€Wi0rfa6fMPOi ip pvkt\ firj ort wraiaaaip, 
aXXA Kol CI fAfi mapk woXv ptxilunt^ ^ipotpro, 
Tovrmp r« ritp Xoyi^fAmp htjca hratpta *AXV(dy- 
Bpop ical rov is to ^a»tpop innpayKOv ov fA^lop. 
XI. Ao/>€<09 hi Kai 6 (vp ^aptl^ arparo^ 
o^ftK &rms TfiP apxh*^ rrdfamo ifntpap rij^ 
pvicros (vprrrt^fUpoi, Srt oUrt arparowt^p 
avrols wtptiPiPXtyro oMptffks xal &fia i^o- 
fSovpTO fifj a^Ci pvKrmp iiri0€tpro oi woXtfuoi, 
t Kal uw€p Ti ilXXo, xal rovro inatcttae tok 
lUpaoiS ip T^ ToTf ri wpayfiara, tf ordais V 
froXX^ ^ (vp roU owXoiS xtu to Bios, 6 rirrtp 

JUXtt vpo rmp fuyaKmp KtpBvpwp yiyptaBai, ovsc 
K rov napavTuca cxthiaaSip, ciXX* ip iroXK^ 
ypor^ fiMXtrffStP t« Mai rijp ypwfirjp avrols 

t *Erd)(iff B4 avrm rf arparik fltfSf* id\M yap 
{nrrtpop 17 rd(ts IjpTtpa tra^t ^ptlos ytypa^jL- 
fUvTf, 109 Xiyti *Apt(rr6ffov\os» To fihf tvwpvfiov 
ath^ teipas 01 tc Bdxrpioi lirireU el^op xal ^vv 
rovrots ^dai xal *ApaxSrro^' iirl ht rovroi<: 
Uipaoi irtrdxaro, linrtls T€ ofiov *cal fre^ol dva- 
fuefUfffiiPoi, xal ^vaioi ivi Tlepaais, irrl he 

4 '!E,ovaioiS KaBovaioi, Avrtf fihf ri rov €v<itvvfiav 
tcipcjs ear€ i-rrl to fUaop Tfjs ndarfs ^dXayyos 


defeat of Dareius, the secret attack by the Greeks 
under cover of night wooM excuse Dardus from any 
coofesrion of being a wone general with worse 
troops; while should any unexpected disaster happen 
to tnemsehres, the enemy had a friendly country 
round them, with which they were familiar, while 
they themselves were in an unknown country full of 
encanies, and of these a good number were prisoners 
who would be sure to make an onslaught at night, not 
only in ease of failure but even if they did not dearly 
win a preponderating victory. For these re aso n s I 
commend Alexander, and equally so for liis bold 
resolve for a daylight action. 

XI. Darcius ami his army remained during the 
night marshalled in the order which they had drawn 
up at first ; for tlicy had no pro|>cr entrenched camp 
surrounding them, and ako tney feared all along that 
the enemy would make a night attack. This more 
than anything else hamper^ the fortunes of the 
Persians at tms crisb, their long stand under anna 
and their fear, such as usually oomes before great 
dangers, not suddenly created from the crisis <M the 
moment, but long dwelt on, and having long since 
unnerved their minds. 

The army was drawn up thus ; for, as Aristobulns 
tells us, the written arrangements as Dareios 
arranged it were aAerwards captured. The left 
wing the Bactrian cavalry held, and with them the 
Danans and the Arachotians; next to them were 
arrayed Persians, cavalry and infantry mixed, and 
alter the Persians Susians, and after the Susians 
This was the disposition of the lad wing 



rd(i9 t}»* leark li ri S^ftw of t« i* KoCktf^ 
l^pia^ Mai oi ix rtf^ fUcni^ ritv 'rtnaftAw 
h-mixaro, koX M^^ ^i xark ro Bt^top, /vl 
Bi WapBvaioi xal ^ioMOi, 4ir\ Bi Tdvovpoi xaX 
'TpKOPioi, M Bk *A\fiaPol Kid Sa««9(yai. oinoi 
fikv iart iwl rh fUffOP r% irdafj^ ^XaYyo^, 

6 Kar^ TO fUco¥ U, &a ^y ffaaiXtv^ djgptta^, 
•T Tf ^VTTtvffK 01 ffaaiXim^ hrrd'va'ro nai oi 
fiffXo^poi Uipcat Ktd *lySol tcai Kap«9 ot 
iidaw€iC'roi MoXavfitPOt «ai oi MdpBoi TO^Oi* 
Ofi(i«* hi «al Ba/9vX4Mr«o< «ai oi wp09 rj 
*Bfif$pf 0aXdaajf gal ^ragrj^ 4^ 0dBo^ iiri^ 

• TormyfAoi ^caw. il porrrrdxaro Ik htl i^iw rov 
ti^pvfiov mark ri 5ffior rov 'AXtfdwBpov ot re 
X^vBtu twirtU Kml rmtf HaJtrpiaimif h YiXlov^ 
gml ipfiara Bptwmmf^pa ixarop, Oi M iXj- 
^orrfv fartjaap Mark rtfp ^ptiov tKrjv rhv 

7 fittatXtMffP gai Spfiara ^ wtpnjteoma, Tov Bi 
BffMV at TC *ApiumM9 koI Kairvahogmv ivrrtU 
wpotrrrdyaro xal Spfiara hpnravfi^oa wtinfj- 
KOtrra. Oi Ik "EXktiwt^ ot fua$o^opo* irapa 
^aptiop Tf avroy imatip^tv icaX rov^ a^ia 
air^ Hipoa^ tcark rrf¥ ^dXayya aurrjp riiv 
McuMJoMvy, m p^voi Bi) durippoifoi rj ^dXayyi, 

8 *AXM(dpBp^ hk ff or parted iKoofAijOfj otBe. To 
fthf Btfiov ain^ tlxov ri>» iinrittv oi iraipoi, 
Ar wporreroMro tf iXtf r/ ffaaiXucij, ^^ KXeiro^ 
o ^ipmwihov iKdpxv^ ^t^t ^^l Bk ravrtj tf VXav/ciov 
Tkff, ^ofihnj Bk avTfT^ rj ^Apia^rMvo^, iirl Be r} 
'SmwoXiBo^ rov ' EpfjLoBmpov, /vi Bk i) 'HpaxXelBov 
rov *Aprt6xov, iwl ravrtj Be tf ^f)^rfrpiov rov 


up to the centre of the entire phalanx. On the right 
were manhalled the troops from Lowland-Syria and 
Mesopotamia ; and next, on the right, were Medee» 
and within them Partfajacans and Sacians, then 
Tapariaaa and H y re anlan i» and then Albanians and 
S a crrinl a n a, right up to the centre of the entire 
phalanT In tlie centre, where was King Dareius, 
were posted the kill's kinsmen, the Persians whose 
spears are fitted with golden apples,^ Indians, the 
** transplanted " Carians, as tbef were caDed, and 
the Mardian bowmen* The Uxians, Babylonians, 
iled Sea tribes, and Sitaccnians were in deep forma- 
tion behind them. Then, in advance, on the left 
wing, facing Alexander's right, were the Scythian 
cavalry, some thousand Bactrians, and a hunclred 
scythe-chariots. The dephants were posted ahead 
of Dareitts' royal squadron, and fifiy chariots. In 
fVont of the right wing were posted the Armenian and 
Cappadocian cavalry and fifty scythe-chariots. The 
Greek mercenaries, dose by Dareius, and his Persian 
troops, on either side, were stationed exactly opposite 
the Macedonian phalanx as being the only trocfw able 
to meet the phalanx* 

Alexander's army was marshalled thns: his right 
wing was held by the mounted Compankms, the 
royal squadron being in advance of them; it was 
commanded by Qeitus son of Dropides ; next 
came Glaocias' squadron, next Aristo's, next tluit 
of Sopolis son of Hermodorus, next that of 
Meradeides son of Antiochus, then that of Demetrius 

* TIm " applas " wart poMibly pomsgranatsi or qnlasis. 
ApplM. bow«v«r, wars tynibob ol Um sua. g** 


TtXtvTOia hi rmp fiaatXtnw iXi^y 4^ ' Hy i\ox^ 
6 'Iwm^rpdrov tXapx^ ^^' Hv/iiro«^ hi r^ 
nnrov Tt»v haipmv 4>iX«rra9 ^PX**' ^ ilapfi€- 
9 VM#yof. Tffi 6i ^dXayyo^ ritp MiurfSovoiir ^o- 
^i«yor rmw imrimv wptlnoif to dyfj^ia iriratm 
TMV Inraawtarmif tral iwl rovr^ oi SXXoi 
irwaaina'Tai' 177CAT0 hk a^ri^p Stxaymp 6 
llappMfititpo^' rovrmp tk ix^fUmi 17 KoiVou rov 
lloXtfiOM parous Ta{i« ^i', /irrA hi rovrov^ 1) 
UMphUxov rov ^OpoVTOv, lirfira 17 MtK^offpov 
t*v NiOVToXi/AOv, M 2^ if lloXvajripxomo^ roO 
iififiUv, iwi hi i *Af^vmov roO * ApopopUpov^' 
ravTfi^ hi ffyuro ^/A/Ma«, 5r< *A/Ai/rra« iwl 
MoMthopla^ is fvWoyifp arparia^ io'raXfiipas 
10 l^p. To hi €^PVfAotf T^ ^uXayyo^ Titfi' Mairc- 
2oM»F 1} Kparipov Tou *AXt(dphpov rdfis €lxt> 
mml odrof K^Tf/Mv ^(*ipX^ "^^^^ timpv/Aov rAp 
fr«tM»* «a4 iv^cK e)^ofi«ro< a^oD 01 (vufiaxoi, 
«v ^7f«T0 'KfH7vi09 6 Aapixov* rovrttp hi 
iXopMfOi a»9 ^1 TO f^PVfiop icipas oi B«4f- 
aaXoft iVtrci^, <»v ^PX* ^^'"^os o MtPtXdou, 
Hu/iirav hi ro rd^pvfwp ^« llapptpUtp 6 
<S>iXc*Ta, «al a/i^' ajroi' 01 riav <t>ap<Ta\l(op 
iinrcK OI MjxATtCTOi T€ teal vXelaroi rfj^ 
^taaaXitnjs iwov dp€<rrpi^opro. 

XII. 'H pip iirX ptranrou rcifiv 'AX<{av$/>^ 
ti>h( Kticoa prjro' iwera(t hi xal hevrepap rd^ip 
ms €lpeu Tfjp ^Xayya dp4>i^'fopov, Kai irap- 
riYftXro T049 tfftpwri rS>p ivirrraypipatp, ei 
KVicXovfUpovs T0U9 o<^i»p irpo9 rot; ll€paiKov 
QTpaiivpaTo^ marihoup, itncrpi^apra^ i9 to 


too of Althaemenet, next Meleager's, and finally 
of the royal aquadrons that commanded by Hegel- 
ocfaua too of Hippostratus. Of the mounted Com- 
panloot ■• a whole Philotaa sod of Parmenlo was 
oommander-iii-diief. Of the Maeedoitian infantry 
phalanx, next to the cavalry was ttatiooed first the 
picked corps of the bodyguanis and then the rest of 
the bodyguards; they were under Nieanor son of 
Parmenk) ; after them came the brigade of G>enus 
son of Polemocrates, next that of Perdiocas son of 
Orootes, then that of Meleager son of Ncoptdemas, 
then that of Polysperehon son of Sinunias, next that 
of Amyntas son of Andromenes; this was led by 
Sinunias, since Amyntas had been sent to Macedonia 
to collect troops. The left of the yfi*tdftnian 
phaknx was held by the brigade of Cratems son of 
Alexander, Cratenis himself commanding the left of 
the infantry. Following on them came the allied 
cavalry, under Erigyins son of Larichus; beyond 
them, right up to the left wing, were the Thessalian 
cavalry under Philippos son of Menelaus. The 
commander of the entire left was Parmenio son of 
Phiktas, and round him rode the Pbarsalian cavalry, 
the finest and most numerous of the Thessalian 

XII. This was the order in which Alexander had 
arranged his finont; but he posted a second line so 
as to dapUeate his phalanx. The commanders of 
this reserve line had been ordered, if they should see 
their own front line bein;; surrounded by the Persian 



mmimr^ Si, tl wov d^ayicti learaXa^fiAvoi i) 
iMiVTvfoi 4 fvyxXdctu rifM ^dXayya, icarti 
fihf TO &{ior Mipa^ ix^tAHPoi rifi ffaa$\AMtfs 
fXi|9 tAp *hypid»m9 hdx^^l^t^ oi iffUatt^, mv 
ffpiiro 'AttoXos, koX furk jovtup m Ma^Mtf^t 

TofoTMy Of apvmioi maXov^yot ^€¥oi xal ^x*^ 

5 ToiTTMir KXi<i»opo9. IlMrrd;(^v/aai' hi rmw re 
*Aypidim¥ Kal ritp roformw oi t« wpoBpotiOi 
iwwtU Mai oi rioioyfv. <»y *Kphfi^ koX 'Api^rmp 
^vourro. Eu/iirurrMV M wporrray^i^oi ^aav 
Oi iU0$o^poi iwirtU, &p Mci'i^av 4^'* ^ V^ 
3^ fiaciXani^ fXiy^ jroi tmit iXX4»i^ iraipmy 
wpanrayfUtnH ^av tmv t« *Ayptdpm¥ gat rwy 
TofoTiMT o« i7/iiac«^, «al 01 BaXa«/>oy duomta-roL* 
o^Oi irarik appara rk hptwtutti^opa irtrdxaTo. 

4 M<y^ 5^ teal roU <&^* auror vapijyytXro, 
W wi^uwtvoMy 01 voXi/ooi to xipa^ ^^mi^* ^v 
vXa7(oo« ifA0dXX€tp avrov^ iwiMd/A^jratrra^. Ta 
/uy ^l Tov Sffioi) «</>iK ovTiK hiraKTO *AXc* 
fojrS^* «a7^ 5^ TO eiMawfiop Vf iirucap,irf)p ot 
Tf Bp^«cv /TrravaTO, cui' 77CiT0 XiroXin;^. kul 
iwi rovTOt^ oi (v/iiiavM imrtU, i»v ^PX^ ^^^' 
popo^, <Vl hi oi Oopvaai ivir€U, S>» i^eiro 

6 KydSt^p o Tvpippa, Hvfivdprtap hi ravrrf 
irpo€'rdx^V V S^vikij iwvo^ tj tS»p fuaBo^ptop, 
mp *Aphp6fjuixo^ o \ipo»po^ ^PX^' *^^^ ^i ^<>^^ 
CK€%f0^6poi^ oi dirh Hpatcti^ if€^oi h ^vXatctjv 
irdx^o^ap. 'H jrdaa d< arparia *A\t(dvhpov 
imrei^ flip ^f iirraMtax^^^^* 'f^iol hi dfi^ 
rd^ T€<raapa^ fivpidha^, 



liost, to wheel round and receive the Persian attack. 
In caae, however, need tfaonld arlM either to extend 
out the phalanx or to contract it, the half of the 
Agrianes tinder Attains next to the royal squadron, 
OD the right wing, along with them the Maeedooian 
ardiers under Brifo, were posted at a slightly inclined 
angle ; next to the archen were so-called old guard 
ci the mercenaries under Geander. In advance of 
the Agrlaoes and the archers were the mounted 
•oouts and the Paeooians, under Aretes and Aristo. 
In front of the entire bodj were the mercenary 
cavalry under Menidas. In advance of the royal 
squadron aiil the other Companions were stationed 
half the Agrianes and archers, and the javelin men 
of Balacrus who were opposed to the scythe-chariota. 
Menidas and his troops had been ordered, if the 
enemy should try to ride round their wing, to wheel 
and attadi them on the flank. This was the dis- 
position of Alexander's right wing: on the left had 
been posted, also at an Inclined angle, the Thraclans 
under Sitalces, and next the allied cavalry, under 
Coeranus, and then the Odrysian cavalry, under 
Agathon son of Tyrinmiet. In front of the whole 
body, at this point, was posted the pakl foreign 
cavalry under Andromadius son of Hiero. The 
Thracian foot had been posted to guard the baggage 
animals. The entire army of Alexander numbered 
7000 cavalry and about 40,000 infantry. 



XIII. '£U ^ ofiou ifirf rk orparvwtha iyi- 
yprro, ^^fr ^t^p^lo^ tc koI oi tkft^* avrop, ot 
Tf fi^fiXo^pot U4pffai xal *IiM Ko* 'A\fia¥ol 
ical Kap€^ Oi apacwacroi xal oi Mdp6oi roforat 
Kar avTotf *A\4(«u^po» rrray/jUyoi teal rrfp TXtj^ 
Tffp ffaaiXtiCiip. *\lyt W ^ 4wi to Bi^tow 
TO axnov * KXi^phpo^ /laXXoy, icaX ol Hipaoi 
atrrtwaprjjop, vwtp^aXayyovprt^ woXif ^vl t^ 
1 a^Aw tvmpvfi^, "n^ Tf 01 rmp I^vOmv twwtU 
wapiwwtvotnt^ fjwrorro ritw wporrrayfihmp t^ 
*AXi(d9^pov TaffaK xal *AXi|aj^/Mf ir^ SfAm^ 
jJtcf M Bopv, xal iyyif^ ^p rou i(a\XdcetiP top 
Hownrotti/itpop wpo^ tmp litpamp ympcp, *Ep0a 
S^ ^iaa« Aaptio^ ><» wpax^fn)ad90't»p i^ ru 
ovx OA^iX^ ritf MoMiBoprnp axpfid a^iai yitn/frai 
rk Spfiara, /rcXcwi tov^ wporrrayfuifov^ rov 
tvwpvfiov irtpiiwwevttp to xipas ro B^ftop, ^ 
*A\i(apBpo^ tfyt, rov /a«;«<ti wpocjaripta avrov^ 

3 efofyttp TO Ktpa^, 'Voinov hk y€Pop4POv * AXi- 
(<ipBpo^ ^fiffdXXttp tct\tv€i i^ avTov^ rov^ 
fUffOo^pov^ iwwia^, mp tfy^lro Mtviha^, * Apt- 
gxBpafioPTt^ Bi €ir' at^rot^v oi rt ^tcvOai twirtl^ 
Ktu rAp V^airrpi^p oi (vpr€rayfuuoi T019 ^tev- 
0ai^ Tpiwovaip oKiyov^ Si^a^ iroW^ v\€iov€^, 
*AX€(apBpo^ ii Tov^ wtpi ^Apiarttpd t#, rov^ 
Uaiopa^, teal tovv (tpov^ iiifiaktlp roU 'ZtcvBcus 

4 iiciKtvat* icai ^ygXipovaip oi ffdpffapoi. Bax- 
rpUH Si oi dXXoi iriXdaavre^ roU Tlaioai re 
xal (fpoi^ rov^ re a^^p ^vyovra^ rjSrf dui' 
CTpr^av €9 rrjp pMytj^ teal rrjp Imro^xiap 
^vcrfjpcu iTroirjiTap. Koi ewiwrop fikv irXdovt^ 
fStv ^AXM^dvhpov, T^ T€ irXiJ^f* TWf ffapffdpttp 


XIII. When the annles now were nearing one 
another, Dareius and his immediate followert were 
fai full sight ; there were the Persian ** spearmen of 
the Golden Apples," Indians, Albanians, the '* trana- 
planted " Caiians, and the Mardian archers, all 
ranged over against Alexander and the royal squad- 
ron ; Alexamfer, however, led olT his men rather in 
the direction of his right, on which the Persians 
moved accordinfflj, their left far outflanking the 
Greeks. Alrea<fy the Scythian cavalry, riding 
parallel with the Greeks, found touch with the troops 
posted in front of Alexander's main body; but 
Alexander still continued steadily his march towards 
h{« right, and was nearly clear of the ground which 
lind been trampled level by the Persians. On this 
Uardos, afraid lest— if the Maccdoniana reached the 
uneven ground — his chariots woald be of no service, 
o rd e red the troops which were in advance of his left 
wing to wheel round the Greek right which Alexander 
was leading, so that the Greeks might not prolooff 
their wing any farther. Upon tills Alexander ordered 
his mercenary cavalry under Menldas to charge 
them. At once the Scythian cavalry, and tne 
Bactrian which was brigaded with the Scythian, 
dashed oat to meet them, and by sheer weight of 
numben drove them back. But Alexander ordered 
Aristo's brigade, the Paeonians, and the mercenaries 
to charge the Scythians, 00 which the Persians 
wavered, tlie rest of the Bactrians, however, ap- 
proaching the Paeonians and the mercenaries, at 
once restored to the bnttte those of their own men 
who were turning to flight, and thus made the cavalry 
engagement a close one. Alexander's men fell in 
greater numbers, overwhelmed with the number of 



fiukt^ofitvQi KOi 5ti ainoL t« oi Sci^a* koX ol Tir- 

^or. *AXXA xai 2k rd^ rt wpoafioXiK ainmv 
ih4xor7o Oi MtuctSoM^ Kol 0if ttar* fXav 
wpo^wiinoirr€^ i^mBovp iit 7% rd^t»^, 
5 KaX 4p rovr^ r^ Spfiara r^ Bpnrapf)^pa 
i^Tficap oi ffdfiffmpoi tear* airrop *A\ifafBpop, 
m dparapd^oimt a\mf rifp ^Xayya, Kai 
ravrjf fidki^ra i^tvcBftaap' rk fth 'vikp €vOvs 
m^ wpoat^iptTo MartjMotrrtaap ot rt AypioPMs 
Mil 01 (ifP BaXoMp^ aMOPTtoTal oi wporrray^Upoi 

T% IWOV TMT htUprnP' Tlk hk TMV ^VTflpmP 

d»rriXafi0ap6fi€PO$ rovf r€ Jumfidras Kar iawmp 
KoX Tovf nrvovf wtpa^rdfiMPO^ ixorrrop, *Ea7i 
6k h MoX &«frrfa« &A rmp rdftmp- lUffxOP 
ym^ A^wtp wapijyytXro aiiroU, 7pa wpoahrtirre 
rk ip/mra* xal ravrfj fidXtara (vpkfifi aina 
Tf oma KoX oL^ iwffKaB^ dffXafitU BitXBtiv 
&KXA Mai rovrmp ot t< imtOMOfiO^ rif^ *AX«- 
(dpBpou arpanas xal oi inra^wicral oi fia^i- 
Xoroi impdrtiaap, 

XIV. 'n« ik ^apuo% Mjrf€P ^6tj Tfjp ^dXayya 
waaap, hnavBa *AXi{aySpo^ *Apirfjp fUp K9\tv€i 
^/tffaXtip TOif wMpwrwMVQVCi to xipa^ o^mp to 
Senior m^ h KwcXmaur airos 6k rim^ fUP iftl 
S xipm^ Toirf dft/^* airrop ^r Tmp hk i/cfiorj^fj- 
ooPTt^p iwwimp T0i9 KvxXovfUPOt^ ro icepa^ to 
B€^iop iTftpappnfdprttp Ti T^ wpanif^ ^dXayyo^ 
rutp ffapffdptap, dvurrpe^jras tcara to hUxov, 
icai wnr€p tfiffoXop iroirjiTiK rrj^ t« tntrov rrj^ 
krcuptKri^ xaX rif^ ^aXayyo? t^ ravr^f rtraff' 
/icn;^, fjyt BpofAtp tc koI dXaXayfx^ m^ ii/i avrop 



the PenUnt, and alto becauae the Scythians, riden 
and bones alike, were better ptoteeted by ddTentive 
armour. Yet even so the Macedonians stood op 
against their onsets, and falling on them stoutly, 
squadron after squadron, broke their formation. 

Meanwhile the Persiana lamcbed their acythe- 
chariots direct upon Alexander, in the hope of 
throwing his phalanx also out of formation ; but in 
this they failed tignallT. For in the first place, as 
•OOQ at they appttMcned, the Agrianes and the 
jaTelin-men trader Balacms who had been stationed 
forward to sereen the CompaiiioiiB' cavabr met them 
with volleys; and secondly, they saalcned at the 
reins, pulled down the drivers, and erowdloff round 
the hones cut them down. One or two &d pass 
right through the Greek liiiea« for, as they had been 
ord er ed, they parted asunder where the chariots 
attacked ; and thereby it fell out that the charioti 
passed through unscathed and the troops Ajghiat 
which they were driven were unscathed also. These 
chariots too were afterwards overpowered br the 
groooiB of Alexander's army and the royal body- 

XIV. A^lirn now Dareius brought on his com- 
plete phalanx, Alexander or d ere d Aretes to charge 
the Persian cavalry which was wheeling round 
the Greek right wing to enclose it; he himself for 
a short time led on his army in column; but when 
the cavalry had been sent off* to help those who 
were trying to turn the (ircrk right and had left 
a gap in the Persian front line, he wheeled towards 
the gap, and making a wedge of the Companion 
cavahy and the part of the phalanx which was at 
this point, he led them on st the double, and, with a 



4 M^X'' iy^^wro' m^ hi oX r€ iinrtit o« a/i^' 
*A>ifaiKS/Mr «a2 at$rof *K\i^aphpo^ tipmvrm^ 

fwoToi? T^ wpocmwa rm» Htpauv icvwrovn^ 
if TC ^Xayf 4 Ma«tSovi«^ irvici'^ ital raU 
caoicatu^ w^pixvta ifiPtpk^K^i ^ a^roU, 

6wr$ £kap€(^ i^aUrrOt womro^ a^rh^ iwiCTphfta^ 
l^cuytv* i^opri$riaa9 M maX oi wtpttinrtvoprt^ 
Ti*v riff^tMr TO K4pa9 ififiaXirrmp i^ a^ov^ 
ffi}/N«aTiK rw9 wtfX *Aphff¥, 

4 TavTff pAf M TMT Ilf/>9My ^vyii icaprtpk 
^, «al (N Ma««Mi«f i4tw6fitPO€ i^wtvov rov^ 
^tvyotna^, Oi S^ '^A'^i ^fifUop ical ^ rovrov 
rdii^ ovstirt avpffopfirfaai *AX€(tip6pjt Bwarol 
^ yw oPT O is rrjp hU^tv, aXX* lwiaTf)vamts rrjv 
^dka^jpM airrov f77w»^{brro, Sr^ to tvutvvfjLOP rS>p 

6 MaiBtoo P i M > woptlaStu rjyyiXXero. Kal ravrn 
trapaaparftlcrfs ainoU t^ Td{«tt»f, /rara to 5i«- 

YOV 0^€KltaiOV^^ TMV Tt *ll^y TIVf9 KOX T^ 

Ucpoiir^ Twov »« M rk axtvo^pa r&v 
MoJCtSovmp* seal rh fpyop ixtl xaprtp^ iy(yvtro, 
or TC yap Uip<r<u Bpaaims Mxtuno ^voTrXots 
roU woXXoU teal ov irpoahoicriaa<Jiv ivl a^% 
Bi€KV€ff(lff0ai rivas Bta/eoy^avras SiwXrjp rtip 
^akar/ya^ icaX oi aixM^Xmroi ffdpffapoi ipfiaX- 
Xmnmp tAp Utpciap (vpeirtOtpro teal atrrol roU 
6 MaMeBoatp hf Tip iprfta, Imp hk iwirtrayph^ttp 
Tw wptirff ^Xayyt oi tfytfiopt^ ofim^t fiaJdoprts 
TO yiypofitpop, furaffaXopTts, i^tp trapiffyeXro 



kmd bftttk crj, strmigfat at Dareiot. Now for wanm 
little time it became a hand-to-^iand fight ; but when 
the cavalry with Alexander, and Alexander himself, 
itoatlj fell 00 the enemy, actually hustling the 
Persians, and striking their faces with their spean» 
and the Mace do ni an phalanx, solid and bristliiw 
with its pikes, had now got to ckise quartrn wiu 
them, and Darrios, nenrous as be had been all along, 
saw nothing but teiron all around, be was himself the 
first to turn and ride away. Those too of the Persians 
who were trying to e o vetop the Greek right took 
fright at the rigoioas cbaige of Aretes and nis men. 
At this place indeed the Persians' roat was com- 
plete, ana the Macedonians following up kept 
slaughtering the fugitives. But Simmias* staff and 
the brigade under him were unable to ioin up with 
Alexander fiw the pursuit, but halted their pnalanx 
where it was and continued the struggle, since the 
Macedonian left was reported to be in diAettlties. 
And at this point the Greek IbrmatkiD was broken, 
and into the gap there thmst some of the Indians 
and of the Persian cavalry right up to the Mace- 
donians' baggage animals ; and there the action was 
beooming severe. For the Persians boldly fell upon 
their adversaries, being mostly unarmed men, and 
having never dreamt that anyone would make a 
cleavage through the phalanx, doubled as it was, 
and force their way right up to them ; what is more, 
the Persian captives themselves, as the Persians 
broke in, joined vrith them in the action and fell upon 
the Macedonians. However, the eommanders of 
the troops which formed the resenre to the first 
phalanx, learning what had happened, smartly turned 
about face, according to prevkMis orders, and so 


avroU, Tff¥ ra(ip iirirfiyvomai mark tmrov tok 

ToU cMtvo^poi^ (vpfxofiiipov^ awiicnam^ ol ek 
ainmp iyic\i»<un9^ H^wyop, Oi £* MroO ^(tov 

^0flfA4pot, w9puirw€vaapr€K to *AX§(dpfyov 
nmwiiO¥ icark xdpa^ roU af^l rop Hapfitpimpa 

XY. Kol ip rovr^ afn^tfioXmp rk wpiha 
ftypo/iihmp tmp \iamMimp, wifiiru WapfUpimp 
wmp 'AXi(ap6pop ewov^ iyy^Xovpra 6ri iv 
ipfmn (vpijfrrtu rk mark a^t ical ffotfdtip M* 
T«9m m KTTfMfi *AX§iMpm, rov fikp ^mmmut 
Iri kw€To6ew€T0t iwtarMta^ tk avp r§ fvir^ 
r&p iraLpmp »f iw\ rd ct^thp rmp ffapfiaprnp 
^t Bpofii^, KaX wpitra pip ro49 ^vyovai rA» 
woXtftimp iwwtvat, roU t€ Uap^valoi^ teal tAp 
*lpS«ir 9artp olc xal llipcat^ roU wXtlarot^ teal 
t Kpariaroi^ ipffdKktu Kal imropaxiA aOrrj 
MOfntpmrdrfi roB woprh^ foyov (vpi<rnj. 'R^ 
/So^Of Tf yap, ola S^ tkacop rrrayptpoi, avi- 
^rpe^op ol 0apffap<H xal dprip^rtnrot roU dpi^* 
*A\((aphpop (vfAWtffOPTt^ o&T€ ojcotniffpip fri 
ovr* i(€\iyfioi^ rilfp imrcty, firtp itnTopa^la^ 
hunj, ixP^''^^* ^^^ Btt/rwaura* wdq ri^ to iccJff 
avroPt «K popfjp ravTfjp at^Ttjpiav a^iaw oinrav 
iwtiyofupoiy hcovrop rt kqI ^xoittopto a^eiBw^, 
ola 5^ ovx vwtp pUtf^ aXKorrpla^ h"*, aXX* 
vwip atifTtjpia^ oUiia^ dytdvi^optPOL KaX 
ipravSa irimown phf a/i^i ifrjxovra t«i> irai- 
pmp rov * AXtfdpSpoVt /cal rirpaxrKereu *U<f>at- 
OTiwp T€ avro^ KoX Koipo^ KaX Mfvlha^' dWa 
iicpdTf)a§ leal rovrcfp *A\((avBpo^. 


appeared in the rear of the Persians and slew large 
numbers of them, crowded together ^m thej were 
round the baggage animak. Some, however, gave 
waj and to escaped. The Persians of the right wing, 
meanwhile, not having wind jet of Dareiua' flight, 
wheeling round Alexander's left, were making a 
flank attack on Parmenio's troops. 

XV. At this, since at first the Macedonians were 
between two fires, Pannenio sent to Alexander a 
despatch rider to report with all haste that his troops 
were in a desperate position and needed help. 
Alexander receiving this message turned back from 
further pursuit, and wheeling round with the 
mounted Companions came galloping down on the 
Persian right and charged first such of the enemy's 
cavalry as were in flight, the Parthjraeans, some 
Indians, and the main host (and the strongest) of the 
Persians. Here raged the fiercest cavalry engage- 
ment of the whole action. For being drawn up by 
squadrons, and so in column, the Persians wheeled 
round and clashed with Alexander's troops front to 
front: there was no javelin-throwing and no 
manoeuvring of horses, sneh as are usual in a cavalry 
engagement, but each tried to break his way through 
whatever opposed him, pressing on as if this were 
their one hope of safety. So they oontinued beating 
and battered, with no quarter given, as men now no 
longer fighting for someone else's victory, but for 
their own very lives. There about sixty of the 
Companions of Alexander fell, and Hephaestion 
himself, Coenus, and Menidas were wounded. 



I Kai TouTMir fikv oaoi Su((wt<ro¥^ hik rmp 
afii^* *AX«{iay6^>op i^trptp aya jr/xiriK* *K\i- 
fav^po^ Sk 4yY^ ^ wpOiTfu^iu ^»; rtp ht(t<ft 
M4par$ rm¥ woKtfumv» Kal ip rovr^ oi Bfa- 
eaXol iwirfK Xafiwpii^ uympiaafUPOi oyy vwt- 
Xtiwomo *A\t(dpSpift rov tfrfoV aWa yap 
l^ttafoir ^^ oi awo rov itftou mipm^ rt^p 
fimppofmp, ovOTC *A\i(apBpo^ ainoU (vptfit^^p, 
uar€ aworpawoptpo^ *A\i(ap6o<K i^ to fii«Mr««y 
aj^i9 Ao^iby t^tifpurjaf gal tBimftp trrt ^do^ 

4 ^p' Kcd oi afi/^l UapfUPittpa to icaB* ainov^ 
iimtcopTt^ MiwopTO, *AXXA ^WifopBpo^ fiip 
hmffa^ TOP worafAOP top Avkop xartarparowi' 
l€ua€P avToVt m^ dpawauoai 6\iyop rou^ t« 
dpBpa^ ttal rov^ tmrov^' Happ^pi^p 6i to Tt 
OTparowtBop Tt»p fiapffdpmp flXtf xal rk 
OK€vo^6pa MU TOi^ iXi^pras naX ra^ tcafiif- 

5 *AXi(apipo^ Bi Jipairavtra^ rot^ dfi^"* aurop 
iww4a^ llar€ hrl fUoa^ putcra^ •trpovx''^P^^ avOif; 
Kork awovSffp iw* "Apffv^t ^ ^apilop re 
aipfiamp iictl xaX ra xpripara Koi rtfp &\\fjp 
KatoiTKtvfjp rffp ^aaiXucrip* ica\ d^Urro i?^ 
"ApffffKa r^ v<rr€paia, Si<i>(a^ roi^ irdpra^ ifc 
T^ lidx"!^ irraliov^ fidXtara is i^atctxTiovs. 
Kai ^apilop p4P ov xaraXapfidpu ip ^ApfirfKots, 
dXKk l^<(>€vy€P ovBep ri ikipvan^ Aa/>eu>f* ra 
yfirifiafa he iyi€ar(\ri<^Bri col 17 xaraaieevrf iraaa, 
maX TO dppa ro ^apelov avSi^ iyxaT€\ij<f>0tf xal rf 
davls avOis xaX rd ro^a kdXta, 

^AveBapop Si tS»p dfuft* *A\e(apBpop apBpes 
» Si«e/'«<#«r PoUk, tee I. 8. & 


X . . ^ . cii these £ot» did Alexander overcome, and 
those of the Perdims who oootrived to pass through 
Alexander's troops took to hradlonf^ flight But 
Alexander was now ready to come to blows with the 
enemy's right wing, and here the Thessalian cavalry, 
who fought gloriously, had been no whit behind 
Alexander in the action, in fact those on the enemy's 
right were ahready taking to their heeb when 
Alexander approached them, to Alexander turned 
back again uid began onee more his pursuit of 
Dareius, and he pursued as kmg as the light hekl ; 
and Pannenio's troops folkiwedt porsuing their Ute 
opponents. But Alexander crossed the river Lycus 
and there encamped, to rest a little both his men and 
hones, but Parmenio took the Persian camp with 
tlie baggage trains, elephants, and camels. 

Alexander rested his cavalry till towards midnight, 
and hurried 00 to Arbela, hoping to seiie Dareius 
there and his treasure and all the other royal belong- 
i tigt. He arrived at ArbeU next day, having covered 
in all, since the battle, six hundred stades in the 
pursuit. However, he did not catch Dareius at 
Arbela, for Dareius had continued his flight without 
delaying; yet the treasure was captured there and 
the other belongings, including the chariot of 
Dareius, wliich was again captured, and his spear too 
and bow and arrows were taken a second time. 

Of Alexander's troops upwards of a hundred 



ftkp ^ kicarw fuiXiffra, Tmrof M Ic Tt rfir 
rpavfmrtap xal rtj^ KateonroBeia^ rryv «V t$ £i«tfffi 
yircp Toi^ YiXiouv, «ai tovrmv ti;v kraipuctf^ 
Xwirov a;^ff5oy Ti o« fifuat^, Tmv ffapffdpw Bi 
9€MpAtf fUP iXiyomo i^ rpidicovTa fAvpidBa^^ 
ISkmcav Bi woXXtp xXciov€9 tmv airoOavotntay 
Mtd Oi iK^arrt^ teal riȴ apfiarvp Baa fi 

7 ToOto to r4\o^ tJ fi^XD ^ai^ii iy^vrro iv\ 
Jip)(oma9 * AOffPoiot^ "Aoioro^vov^ fifjvo^ Wva- 

^y T^ airrcp aai;i4 ^v 5t9» 17 acXf^Kiy ^«Xiir^ i^uinj, 

XVI. Aa/MMf /A^ Bfj €vOv^ iic Tfk fiaYffK 
irapk tk 6pff rk *\ptitvU^v ^\avv€v iiri MiySiav, 
KaX (v¥ atrrw ot r« Bdicrpioi iVirtK, a»9 rore 
iv r§ p^XO (vprrax^fiaar, i^€uyotf teal UipaAv 
of Tf airff€V€U oi 0a9iXit»^ leal rtaif firf\o^6p»y 

t KoXoufUpttP ov iroXXoi. II poaeyiifomo S4 aimp 
Korii Tfjp ^vytfw ical ritp fuaOo^opiav (ivtop V« 
SioxtXtovf, 069 Udp^v Tf o ^attceu^ xal VKavico^ 
6 AiTMXof ^7<"'* TavTff Bi avroj 9) <f>vyfj iwi 
MffBia^ l^ypcro Bri iBotcu rrjv ivl Xovatav re 
KoX BuffvXmpo^ ^^o' *KK€^avBpov iic r^ pd^tj^* 
Bri oUovpipfi Tc ixiivri waaa ^p fcal oBo^ roU 
CKtvo^poi^ ov ^aXnri;, icaX &pa rod iroXepou 
TO iSXop if Ba/9t;X«0y koX ra ^vaa iiftaivero, 
fl ^ hrl MrfBia^ ptydXtp (TTpaTtupari ovk 

3 Kal OVK h^twrOt) Aaptlo^. *A\€^avBpo^ ykp 
i( *Apffrj\*tp oppjfiil^ TffP ivl haffvXwtfO^; evdi^ 


perished, but of hones, from woonds and distress in 
the pursuit, orer s thotttsnd, and among these nearly 
half of the Companions' horses. Of the Persian dead 
were counted some three hundred thousand, but 
even a greater number of prisoners were made than 
the slato, and the elephants and such chariots as 
had not been destroyed in the battle were also 

So ended this battle, in the archonship at Athens 
of Aristophanes and in the month Pyanepsion.^ Thus 
Aristander's prophecv came true, that in the self- 
same month in which the moon was eclipsed Alex- 
ander's battle and victory should occur. 

XVI. As for Dareius, he Bed stra^ht from the 
battle by the Armenian moontains to w ar d s Media, 
and with him the Bactrian cavabry, as ther had been 
posted to him in the battle ; and abo of tne Persians 
the royal kinsmen and a small number of the "spear- 
men of the Golden Apple." Tliere joined him dur- 
ing the flight also some two thousand of the foreign 
mercenaries led br Paron the Phocian and Glaucus 
the Aetolian. The reason why he fled towards 
Media was because he imagined that Alexander 
after the battle would take the road to Susa and 
Babvlon, since all that part was inhabited and the 
road itself was easr for the baggage trains, and 
besides, Babybn and Susa naturally seemed to be tlie 
prise of the war. The road to Media, on the con- 
t rnry, was not good for a large force. 

Dareius was not mistaken, for Alexander leaving 
Arbela at once took the road to Babylon. He was 

> October, 331. 

VOL. I. K 


wpovx^pfi* 11^ Tff ov iroppm Ba/3v\wnf9 i)v, 
iroi T^ hvva^up (vprerayfAttnjp m^ ^^ f^'^XV'^ 
^jy€, xal oi l^afivXmPMi irapSvffitl airifrrwi^ airrtp 
(v¥ tiptv^l Tc a^Aw Kol Spxovat, hupd rt «9 
imaaroi ^pomts xal rtfif w6\iP iphititn^ ical 

4 Tfjp Hicpaw KcX rk ^^f^M^ra. *AX^fai»Sp<K 5^ 
iraptXBmp fK t^9 UaffvXApa, rk Upk h Htp^tfS 
KoidtlKtP AvoucohofitiP wpoaha^ BaffvXvpioi^, 
rd Tfl SXXa tud rou DrjXou to Upop, 5y udXitrra 
$9mf T«/M»ai BafivXminci, ^arpdwffv M mari' 
tfn^f BaffvXmpo^ MafoSby. *AiroXXo&»pov 5^ 
Tov *A/A^ivoXin^y arparttyop tmv ucrd Ma{aiot; 
vvoXcivo/A^Mti^ arpan^yritp, teal AaKXffinoBw- 

6 por Tor 4>/X4[»vo^ Tou« ^pov^ V^Xeyfiv. KaW- 
w€fiyftt B^ teal ^ *Apfi€Piap VLiBpitnfw ffarpdmpf, 
5f rrjp ip ^apStfftp dscpowoXtP *A\«fdpipip M- 
B^K€P. 'Rpda Brf xal roiv XaXBalot^ ip€Tv\t, 
maX Sea thoxt^ XaX^ot^ a/i^l ra Upk rk ip 
BaffvXmpt firpa(€, rd rt dXXa xal Ttp Bi;X^ Ka£^ 
k ixtiPOi i^iffovpro Wvatp. 

6 Avw 6 ^iri Xoi^My icTiXXtro* Ka\ iprvyx- 
P€i axntp icark rrjp oSop 6 rt irai^ rov lovaiwp 
aaTpiiirov koI irapk ^iXofepov (wiaroXtv^. 
^iXoftPOP ykp €v0v% iK T^ P^xn^ ^irl ^ovatap 
iirrdXictt *AXi(apBpo^» TJ Bi iinaToXrj rp irapk 
^iXofa-ov iptyeypairro, ori tiJi/ t« troXiv ol 
^v(Ttoi irapahehwKaffiP xal rk xPVt'^'^^ wdirra 

7 aSfd i<mp *AX€(dvBp<p. *A<f>l€ero 5« i^ ^ovaa 
*AX4(ap8po^ i/c BafiuXa>vo^ ip rjpipai^ tiKotrr 
KoX Trap€X0o9P eU rrjp troXtp rd rt xprip.ara 
wapiXaPtVt Spra apyvpiov rdXavra <9 trepra' 
Kia-pvpui, KoX rtfP dXXrjp tcaraafcevrjp rrjp ffaatXi- 


DOW not fur from Babylon, and was leading his force 
in battle order, when the Babylonians came to meet 
Um in OMUi, with their prietti and chief men, each 
Metkm of the inhabitants brioi^tDg gifts and offering 
surrender of the city, the dtadel, and the treastire. 
Alexander entering Babylon bade the Babylonians 
build op again tlie temples which Xerxes destroyed, 
and c^edally the temple of Bel, whom the Baby- 
lonians honour before all gods. He appointed 
Masaeus satrap of Babylon and Apollodonis of 
Amphipolis guard of the troops U(i behind with 
Masaeus, and Asdepiodonis son of Phtb to eoDeet 
the tAxes. He sent also as satrap to Armenia 
Mithrines, wlio had given up the acropolis of Sardis 
to Alexander. It was at Babylon he came across 
the Chaldaeans, and he carried out at Babylon all 
that the Chaldaejuis suggested in regard to sacrifices, 
saari6ciiig especially to Bel, according to their 

He himself, Iniwever, set oat to w ar d s Sosa, sod 
there met him on the way the son of the satrap of 
Susa and a letter-carrier from Philoxenus, whom 
Alexander had sent to Susa dhrectly after the battle. 
In Philoxenus' letter it was stated that the people 
of Susa had yielded up the city and that all the 
treasure was in safe-keeping for Alexander. In 
twenty days from Babylon Alexander arrived at 
Susa ; he entered the dty and took over the treasure* 
about fifty thousand talents of silver, and all the rest 



«i7r. TIoXX^ 5^ Kol SXXa KartXij^Stj avrov, 

Sea Stpfff^ ^iro rij^ 'EXkaBo^ &>yt»» ^\^f, to. 

Tff 6Xka Koi * Apfiohiov koX *ApiaroytiTOPoq 

8 j^aXjcal CiVoit^* Kai ravra^ *A$ff¥aioi^ ovivm 

ip Ktp4^im«^ ai tUotft^, j &Hfi€P i^ t^v woXap, 
Kafiunucpv futXtrra rou Miftp^v, ov fiattpiiv 
TMT Ei^2aW/utfv ToO fft»/iotr im^ hk fU^vT)Ttu 
Toiv dfolp ip *¥XtvaiPi, oI£« top Evhapifiov ffvfjMp 
hrl Tou SawiBov Sprtu 
f *EpTavOa 0voa% rtp warpltp po^^ *k\iia»hpo^ 
icai XafLwdha wonjaa^ kcu ayt>i>a yv^pixop, 
KaraXiwitp fforpawfip fitp t//s ^ov<rutptfs *A/3ou- 
Xirtfp, Sphpa llipeyp, ^povpapxov hk ip r^ ^*^P9 
rup Hovamp Mdl^apopritp iraipvp leal erparrfyop 
'Ap^Aaoi^ TOP Stohmpov, wpovx^P** ^^ ^^^ 
Tlipeav iirl BaXaacap I4 xarhrtfA^tp (hrapxop 
livpiiK teal ^otpUrjs Mol KiXiicuif M^s^To. 

10 Knl TOin'M i^Bw/ctp apyvpiov rdXavra i^ rptcx^Xia 
^€p€ip hri SdXacaop, /cai dir avratv diroaTttXai 
wap ^ApTiwarpop Samp hp Sirrrcu WpjLiraTpo^ U 
TOP wpo^ AoMitoipapiov^ ir6\€px>v, ^EvravOa 
ical *A/*i/in-a« o *ApBpOfUvov^ (i/v ry hwdp^i 
dif>iiC(ro fjp iic WaxtZopLa^ ijyt, Kal rovrtav 

11 Toif^ fUP 4irjrea9 i^ rtjp Imrop rijp eraipitcrjv 
icariraftp *A\i(apBpo^, tov^ ve^oif^ Bt wpoiriOrjKi 
raU rdfeai raU dXXais, xard eOprj €Kd{rrov^ 
(vtrrd(a^, Kariarrfet Be xal Xoxov^ Bvo iv 
iKuarrj rXj/, ov irpocSev cpra^ \6yov^ itririKOv^, 
icaX Xoxayov^ iirecrtjae tovs tear dperrjp wpo- 
Kpt0€pra^ iic rwp eralptop, 

XVII. 'Apa^ C€ €K lovawp xal Ciafid^ to* 


of the royal bekmgings. A good deal else was cap- 
tared there, all that Xerxes brought back from 
Greece, and among this bronse statues of Harmodius 
and Aristogeiton. These Alexander sent back to the 
Athenians, and thej are now set up at Athens in the 
Cerameicns, on the waj by which one ascends the 
Acropolis, just opposite the MetroOn, not far from 
the altar of the Kudanemi. Anyone who has been 
initiated into the mysteries of the Twain Goddesses 
at Eleusb is aware that the altar of Eodanemoa it 
in the plain. 

There Alexander sacrificed with the traditkmal 
ceremonial, and held a torch race and an athletic 
contest. He left behind as satrap of the district of 
Susa Abulttcs a Persian, and as garrison commandant 
in the citadel of Susa, Mazarus one of the Companions, 
and, as general, Archclaus son of Theodoms; and 
then he advanced towards the Persians. Seaward 
he sent Menet as governor of Svria, Phoenfeia and 
Cilida. He gave him upwards of tnree thousand silver 
talents to t^e to the sea, and to send of these as 
much as Antlpater should require for the Lace- 
daemonian war. There too Amynta.^ son of Andro- 
menes arrived with his force which he was bringing 
from Macedon. Of these Alexander detailed the 
cavalry to join the Companions* cavalry, but the 
infantry he distributed among the various brigades, 
arranging them racially. He also formed two com- 
panies in each squadron of cavalry; there had 
formerly been no cavalry companies ; and as captains 
he appointed those of tne Companions distinguished 
for valour. 

XVII. Leaving Susa and crosdng the river Pasi- 



fffv. Oi'^tMV ^ 04 flip rik mhia oitcovyrt^ rov 
T« aarpdirov rtitv Yltpautv ^kovo¥ koX ro7€ 
'AXit(tMp^ a^a^ MBocaif oi Bi 6p€toi iraXov- 
fifyoi Ot!(io« Tlipatu^ T€ ovy vw^icoot ^ap, teal 
rort wifA^jreunts trap *A\diapBpO¥ ovic a\\m^ 
W€^niau9 i^aaop rifp M lUpca^ ioma (v¥ r^ 
twapm 4 Xa^&v Sea moI '"'o/m rov lUpawp 

S /So^ftXiiK Vwi T^ wapo^ iXdfApoPOP, Kol rov- 
rov^ awowifiwii 'AXiftuopo^, ^«ffy xtXevaa^ ^iri 
rk arwk mt Kparovrrt^ irrl ^ ^iViy iho^ovp rt^p 
wdpahom fZp«4 r^v U Hipca^, Xpa xal trap 
•VT«6 Xdfiomp r^ rrray^pa, Avro^ hk Apa- 
Xafimtf Tovc 0'«/AaTo^i;Xa«af rou^ fiaatXiicou^ koI 
roift vwncwterk^ gal rtf^ iXXtf^ arparta^ 'V 
^«Ta«i^;(^iXiouv riji^ pvmro^ ]Sfci ^IXXi/y ^ Tr 

S ^€kP€odp, frpiatLfUofrnp aintp r&p ^Lavaimp. Kat 
cUXump OMP r/M;^ffiav «al tvcwopop ip ^u^ 
ifUpf iwiwlwr€$ TOif Kmfuu^ ritp Ovflmp, ical 
Xdiuf r« ifoKXfiP i\aff€ ical avrAp fr« ip raU 
tvpoi^ Spr»0p woXKov^ caWcrtivfir* oi Bi atrt^i 
yop ti^ T^ Bpff. AuT09 5« i7f« airovSj iwi ra 
artpd, ipa urrarrriataBcu Oi Ov(ioi rropSrjfitl 

4 ihoKovp, Xrjylro^voi rii rtrayfupa, K part pop H 
fri wpoaOtP airiartiKM rk &mpa tcaraXtpfrofitpop 
Ma f^o $iat^OfA€Pov^ tow Ou(iov^ airoxtopri' 
0'eip, Avro^ 6i iroXKut Ta;^ei ^€i* ical ^Bdpti 
rt Kpartfca^ rS»p irapohmv icaX (uprerayfUpov^ 
TOU9 dfju^ air OP e;^o>v i^ vwep^futp x<iapiwp 

irrrgy€P t»^ irrl tow ffapfidpov^. ()« Bi, r^ rt 
rdx^t^ T^ *AXt(dpBpov itnrXayiprt^ xal roU 
X^pioi^, oU paKiara hfj hr€iroL$€aav, rrXto^ 


tiffres, Alexmnder invaded the land of the Uxians. 
Of these toine, who dwelt in the plain lands, had 
obeyed the Persian satrap, and now surrendered to 
Alexander; but the Uxian hillmen, as they are 
called, had not owned allegiance to Persia, and on 
this ocearion sent to Alexander and stated that they 
would 00 no other terms permit him to pass that way 
towards the Persians with his army unless they should 
receive what they usually received from the Persian 
king whenever he made a prog icss that way. 
Alexander sent them away, bidding them oome to 
the pass ; which, while they held it, made them feel 
that the way through ioto Peisia was in their liands, 
tliere to recdre the •ec u s t omed payment finooi 
himself also. Then be, taking with him the royal 
bodyguards, and the other gturds, and some eight 
t h ou M t n d of the rest of the army, during the night 
marched by another than the obvious road, being 
guided by the Susians ; tlicn passing along a rough 
and difficult path in one day, he fell upon Uie Uxian 
villages, captured a great deal of plunder, and slew 
many of them, being yft in their beds; the rest 
iped to the hills. Then he marched swiflly to 

tbeJMSS where the Uxians were likely to oppose him 
in roll Ibvee, in order to exact the customary toll. 
But he sent Craterus even further in advance, to 
seise the heights, whither he imagined the Uxians, 
if forced away, would retreat ; but he himself came 
on at full speed and got first to the paas and held it, 
and with his men in due battle order he led them 
from a commanding position to attack the Uxians. 
They, however, astounded at Alexander's swiAness, 
and overmastered at the very position in which they 
had chiefly put their trusty fled without so much as 



ol fi^if a%nit¥ tnth tAp itft^ *A\i(avBpop ip r' 
^vy^ iitiOapov, iroXKtk hk koX isark rtiv oBot , 
itpflfipMff otwair ol wXtZaroi Bk M tA Spn 
ctMi^tvyorrtf^ ifiwlwrovatp i^ rotf^ afi^l K/xi- 
S rtpov teal vwo rourtnv airi#Xorro. 'Xatna rk 
yipa wap 'AXtfat^Bpov Xaffoim^ ^^aXtvMf ci^ 
porno hto/MPOi wap* airrov rr}P Xfi»pav rr)p a^v 
fyoarrct ^pov^ Soa fni ^AXtfdpBp^ airo^pttv. 
llroXtpalo^ ^ o Aayou Xiyti rifp liaptLov iit^ripn 
i€¥f$f)yai vwip airritp *A\€(aphpov Sowed o^ta 
T^ X'^p^Uf oiMtip, 'O ^opo^ 6i 6 ovyra^tU V 
twwoi H fros ixaroff irai tnro^vyia wtwraxoata 
ital irpofiara rpiafivpta' \pripaja ytip outc ^p 
Ovfioi^ ov^ *f yfj Ota 4pyat^€a0ai, oKXJi popjth 
airrutp oi woWol ^aap. 

XVIII. *Ejc Bi rourov r^ flip ox€vo66pa Kai 
rov^ %€aoa\ov^ Iwvias iceu tou^ (vfi^uixov^ ku i 

T0tr9 fUaSo^OpoV^ T0V9 (ipOV^ ICal ScOi &XXoi TOU 

OTpartvfiaro^ fiapvrtpop mwXioiUpOi Wioav] (up 
UapfUPMPi hnrifiifu, ck hr\ Tiipca^ aytip tearh 
2 TtfP ofiaftrop T^v i^ II tpca^ ^ioovcap, Atrro^ 
Bi roi^ vc{bi^ rov^ WatuBopfK ai'dka ffu>if 
/rol rtfp tirwop rrfp kraipixfjp icaX rovs irpohpo- 
/ioi/9 imfia^ KOi row Aypiavas /cai rov^ 
To(ora9 ^€1 cirovBp rtfp Bta ri>p optap, 'fi<i 
Bi iirl T^f trvXa^ r^? lltpalBa^ affiUero, xara- 
\apfiaP€i avTov * Apioffap^dprjv rhp YYtpaitv 
aaTpdtnjp, ve^ov^ piv U t€t paKi<rp,vpiovs exo^ra, 
imrw Bi is €TrTa€o<Tlovs, BiaTtretx^fcoTa ra<; 
iruKas Kol avrov rrpos tA t€IX€i, iarpaToireBgu- 
icora, As etpysip rrjs wapocov *A\€(avBpop, 


oomiDg to close quarters. Some of them were tUin 
by Akzaoder • troops in the flight, and many alto 
beside the road* which was predpitoiis. The greater 
number, however, escaped to the hills, where they 
encountered Craterus' force and were by this 
destroyed. These then were the "gifts'^ thev 
receired from Alexander; and it was only with 
(Ufficulty that they obtained their request from him 
that they misht retain their own territory and pay 
tributes to Alexander every year. Ptolemaeus son 
of Lagnst however, teDs as that the mother of 
Osreitis implored Alexander 00 their e eco on t to gitre 
them beck their territory to dwell in. The tribute 
appointed was a hundred hones erery year with 
five hundred transport animals and thirty tlKMisand 
sheep. For the uxians had no money nor arable 
land, but they were for the most part herds- 

XVIII. After this, Alexander sent off the baggage 
trains, the Thessalian cavalry, the allies, the mercen- 
aries, and all the other heavier-armed troops of his 
army with Parmenio, to lead them agsinst the 
Persians br the main road which leads into their 
country. He himself took with him the Macedonian 
foot, the Companions' cavalry, the mounted scouts, 
the Agrianes and the archers, and marched at full 
speed throuffh the hilb. When he arrived at the Per- 
sian Gates he found there Ariobarxanes, the satrap 
of Persia,' with not less than forty thousand infantry 
and seven hundred horse, havinff already built a wall 
across the Gates and encamped there by the wall, 
to bar Alexander's progr es s. 

> Poffsia bora -• ihm PlroviiiM of Peraia. 



5 Tort fi€¥ ^ avTov xartirrparowtBtva'aro* rfj 
hi vcr€paia (vpafa^ rtiv arpariikv hrtjyt r^ 
rtixti* 'Hv ^ dwopov T« 5iA hv<r)(<u>plap i^ipf-ro 
alp€$fjpai xal woXXA^ wXtjyik^ m dfjL^* avrov 
iXufjiffayop cf vwtp^fiov Tf xmpiov xaX airo 
fAffxapifP ffaXXo^voit tot« fikp awoxt^pti ^ to 

4 arparoirthop' rtap 5« alxjui^Kirrmv ^paadpr^v 
aXXi;r otw wtpid(€i¥ airrop, m9 cf^M iraptXBtUf 
ri$p wvXmp, hrtl rpaxMP rijp oSoy ical crtpijv 
hrvBrro, Kpdrtpop fip avrov KaraXtiirti ^i 
rrparoiMov, njv re avrov rdftp l^x^*^^ ^^^ ''^'^ 
McXMypov cflU TMV ro(ori$p oXiyov^ tcai rwv 

Iwwimif 4% wmnamoaioif^, Koi wpoardrru avr^, 
hrtMtf iMit€pi€XijXv$ora avrop aiadfjrai leat 
wpoadyopra t;Siy r^ crparowiB^ riap UepcAv 
(oiaBricMcBai hk ov ^a^^^* vrffiavMiP fkp aur^ 
T^9 adXwiyja^), rort B4 wpoafiaXuP rA rtlxtr 
avTo^ ^ irpo(^«pci PVMrtap, xal BitXui^p 6<tov 
igarop arahtov^ dpaXafi0dp€i roi^ {nraairtaras 
ica\ rrjp Htplixxov rd(iP xal rmp roforiav roi/v 
xov^rdrov^ ical touv *Ayptdpa^ icai Ttap kralpfov 
TffP tXfjp TffP ffa4rtXiiCf)p xal rrrpapxiap irphs 
ravTjj fuap iinrucrfp, koa (up tovtoi^ jfe* im- 
xdfiyfra^ «»^ ivl rd^ wvXa^ 7v oi aiXM^Xtaroi 

6 ^op, 'Afivmap Bi ical ^tXtarop xai Kolvov Tr)v 
dXXfiP arparidp cIk cVi ro irehlop dyup kox top 
worrafiop hp ixP^)^ irtpdaai Iopti iirl llep<ra^ 
y€<^vpovp iiciXevaw avro^ 5< p€i oSop x^^' 
WffP teal rpax^lav leal ravnjp Bpop^ ro voXv 
^T*. Trjv fikv hi) irpdrryjp i^vXa^rjp rS»v 
fiapffdptap irpXv ^uov^ (Trt-rreatov Sii<f>$€tp€ icai 

7 ra»p BevTipcap ruv^ woXXovi' rfj^ rpirij^ Bi 01 


For the time bein^ Alexander encamped there, but 
next day he marshalled his troops and led them to the 
assault of the walL But as it appeared to be difficult 
to attack bjr reason of the awkwardness of the ground, 
and as his troops were suffering much damage, beinff 
assailed by volleys finom commanding heights and 
even from catapults, he for the moment fellback on 
his camp. His prisoners, however, undertook to lead 
him round by a different road, so that he could make 
his war within the gates ; but gathering from enquiry 
that this road was rough and narrow he left Craterus 
there in charge of the eamp with his own brigade and 
Meleager's, a few of the archers, and about five 
hundred horse, biddfaig him, so soon as he shoukl 
perceive that he himself had managed to get right 
round and was nearing the Persian camp (of ttiis 
Craterus would easilv be aware, for the buglers would 
signal it to him), to ull upon the Persian walL So he 
advanced by night, and aher traversing some hundred 
stades, brought up the bodyguard, with Perdiccas' 
brigade, the lightest armed of the archers, the 
Agrianes, the royal squadron of the Companions, and 
over and above this one double squadron of cavalry, 
and with them made a turning movement towaros 
the gates, by the way in which the prisoners guided 
him. Amyntas, meanwhile, and Phiiotas and Coenus 
he had instructed to march the remainder of the army 
towards the plain, and to bridge the river ' which he 
must cross to enter Persia ; but he himself traversed a 
difficult and rough path, and yet for the most part 
took it at full speed. He fell upon the first Persian 
guard before dawn, and destroyed both this and the 
greater part of the second ; most of the third fled, yet 

* The Araxes. 



wMmf9 hUi^tfyop, «ai oM olrroi h to arparo- 
w%U)¥ rh Apio0ap(dpov S^vyop, aXK* auroOw 
»f clyor ^ ra Spv) vc^^Sii/iiiwi, cSffrc iXaOtp 
vwo rtfp Hm iwiwtc^w r^ trrpnrowihfp ritv iroXc- 
fAimP. Kal ifiA tuv wpoatffaWi r^ rd^p^, &fUL 
hk ai tfilXviTTfff iarifUMfOv toU dp^t Kpartpop, 
8 Moi Kpdrtoo^ wpoaifft t^ wpornx^afian. Oi 
wttkifuoi tk wdrroOtP dfi^ffoXoi yvypofitvoi oM 
i^ X^H^^ A^orrffv $^%r>iO¥, dXKJk wayraxoOtp fkp 
€lprfOtno, T^ i»hf 'AXtfop^pou iwiM€ifUpov, dXX^ ok 
rii¥ dfi^l KpuTcpoar wapaBtomuv^ &ar€ iiutuynda" 
$ficap oi woXkci aurmp i^ rk "f^^X^ diroaTphfrturrt^ 

^€vy€Uf «i>X^^ ^ ^^ "^^ '^^^X^ ^A^ ''^^^ 
• MoMMpmp ^i|. *AXi(aifiipo^ yap tovto aM 
iw€p (vpififf vwcrowiica^ IlroXtfiaiov diroXtXol- 
irci aurou, fx^'^^ ^^ v«{(»r h Tpia;(^i\/ov9, 
A^Tf OI flip wXtiaroi r&p ffapffdptfp ip X'P^^ 
wpo^ Twr MommBopup xartKowrjaap, oi Bk xaX ip 
T$ ^t^$» ^fitp^ ytPOfUvjj, Kaik tAp leprffUfrnp 
pi^aiTff^ dwmkopTO' avro^ li 6 * KptoPapt^dpfj^ 
(ifp 0X47019 iwir€VCiP U rk Sprj dwi^vy€P, 

10 *A\i(aphpos Bk awoi^j aZBi^ ^€v w^ itrl top 
wora/AOP, Koi KaraXapSdpu ffiti v€frokrifUvffp 
kw ainov yk^vpap, icai BiaffcuPMi (i/p rp arpari^ 
nnrrrit^, 'litntvO^p hk avOi^ cvovh^ i)\avP€P C9 
nc^a9» &aT€ €4>dtj d^ttciaOai irpiv ta ^^if/xara 
BtapvdaaoOai rou^ ^uXa/ra^. "EXaffe hk xal ra 
ip UaaapydBai^ XPVf^^'^^ ^'^ '>'<'*'? Kvpou rov 

U irpunov Or)<ravpoi^. Xarpdtrtjp fup Btf Uipaifv 
KUTiaryae ^paaaoprfjp top *P€Ofii0pov walBa, 
rk Paai\€ia hk rk Htp^nck kpiirprjctt Hap- 


not eren these fled to Ariobananes' camp, but ran 
in terror from the qpot joat aa they were to the hills ; 
so that quite tmobaenred, just at dawn, he assaulted 
the enemy's camp. At the same moment as he 
attacked the trench, the bugles sounded, notifying 
Cratents' troops, and Craterus assaulted the wall. 
So the enemy, caught on all sides, never so much as 
came to blows, but fled ; eren to they were hemmed 
in 00 an sides ; Alexander was pretsfaig hard upon 
them here, Craterus' troops wese flattening up there, 
to that the greater number of the Perslaiit were 
foreed to torn back to the walk and aeek escape there. 
But by this time the walls thwnaeWes were in Mace- 
donian hands. For Alexander had expected to 
happen just that which did happen ; and so had Icfl 
Ptolemy there with some three thousand infantry, 
so tiut the greatest part of the Persians were cut 
down by the Macedooiana at dose quarters. Even 
those who were attempting fliffht, and the flight had 
become a panic, threw themseiYea over the cuiTs and 
; but Ariobarsanes himself with a liandful of 
escaped to the hills. 
Alexander once more at full speed led on towards 
the river; and he found there the bridrc already 
made, and crossed without difficulty with his host. 
Thence once more at full speed he hurried on towards 
the Penianii ^ and arrived there before the garrison 
had plundered the treasure. He captured also the 
treasure which had been at Pagarsadac * in the 
treasury of Cjrrua the First. As Mtrap of PersepoUs 
he appointed Phrasaortcs the son or Rhcomithras. 
The Persian palace he set on fire ; > though Parmenio 

> Thalli,loFHssMlis. • Tbs forsMr oapital. 

• Arriao ommm daUbetmlaly. He does not agrae with the 
' story (Diodoroa, Oartius, Plutarch). 



/imWrpf <ru>l^€t¥ (vfAffovXtvoyro^, rti rt dXXa 
[^rai] Sri ov ica\o¥ avroO «rnj/uira ^^ diroX- 
Xwai, Kal 6ri ovv maavrt^ vpoai^ovauf avr^ 
oi Kork Tfjp 'Kaiav Sp0pt0wo*, mv ovM ai)T^ 
iypmxort learix^tp t^ *\ata^ t^i» aflXV^* aXka 
11 iinK$€ip fiovow vitmrra, 'O hk rtfU0pvjaaa$ai 
4$ikMtP llipaa^ i^aaK€v aWT ^r M rfjp 
*¥Xkata iXacaim^ rd^ r€ *A^i;i^9 xarivKa^Wf 
KoX tA i«/>A hnwfif^vtuf, KoX 6aa dWa ictuck roift 
"Ekkf/vas tipydaatno, vwip rovrmv hixa^ Xa- 
0tuf. *AXX* ov^ iuoi hoKu aif» r^ hpiUrai roOro 
Tff ^AXffatfSpo^ 01^ tJpal tk alrrti \\tpai!>¥ tmv 
vciXa« Tt/impla* 

XIX. Tairra M Btawpa^dfi€Po^ wpo^x^^P^^ '^^ 
MvySia^* ^«f4 7^/» hrvi^di^tro cZrai Aaptiov. 
Prctf/iv;!' 5^ wrrolfjro Aap«iO«. ci /<^v /irl ^oucvp 
teal WaffvXmt'o^ fiivoi *AXi(ap^po^, avrov irpo^- 
fiivtiP Ka\ atrro^ ip Mij^v, fi Sif ri ptttrr^ptcBtitj 
TUP dft/^* *\Xt(apipop' fi S* iXavpoi iw* avrov, 
at}ro9 5tf (!m* iVmu t^v ^ir^ WapBvalot^ rt icai 
'ToMOMP, iort hri WaKrpa ri^p t« ^wpap 
^dpmp waaop ical dwopop woitap *\Xi^dp- 
S hpm ripf wpoam oSof. Td^ flip hif ywahca^ 
KOi rifp dXXfjp rrjp cri afu^' alrrov Karaa/ctvfjp 
teal ra^ apfiapd^a^ ivX rk^ Kaatria^ tcaXov- 
fupa^ irvXa^ wtpittr avro^ ^ (up rtj Bvpdfiei 
fjri^ itc rmp wapoprttp (uP€iXt€ro adrA irpoiri' 
fiti'tv hf *Kie0ardpoi^. Tavra aicovtav AX((ap- 
Bpo^ irpov\(op€t hrl Mv/^m?. Kai HapatrtiKa^ fxkv 
€9 rijv \(iipau athwp ififiaXutv tcartcrrph^aro teal 
trarpamvttp Iha^ep dintap ^O^ddptjv rop *Affov- 
Xi'rov rov [wporepop] ^oua-fop trarpdirov 'rral^a' 


urged him to save it, arguing, among other thin^^, 
that it was not leemlj to destroy what was now his 
own property, and that the Asians would not thus 
be induced to join him, if he seemed determined not 
to hold fast the sovereignty of Asia, but merely to 
pass through it in triumph. Alexander, on the con- 
trary, replied that he proposed to punish tlic Persians 
in recompense for what toey bad done in their inva- 
sion of Greece; for their wrecking of Athens, their 
l>uriii[ig of the temples, and for S\ the other cruel 
things they had done to the Greeks ; for these, he 
said, he took vengeance. Yet I do not myself think 
that Alexander was politic in doing this ; nor can I 
r*»j»ard it as n»«v r..»riKii»;.»f. ntwtti tii/. Persians of 
j-arlicr days. 

XIX. AAcr tiiiH Aicxandrr inarriicd towards 
Media, for he had learnt that Dareius was there. 
Dareius had determined, if Alexander should 
remain at Susa and Babylon, to wait there himself 
also, in Media, In case there thouki be some new 
inove of Alexander's. But should Alexander march 
•straight against him. he proposed to go inland towards 
the rarthyaeans and rlyrcanla, as far as Bactra, 
ravaging all the country and making any further 
projnr^s impossible to Alexander. The women and 
nil the )>rIonp'ngs he had still with him and the rl<»srd 
waggons he sent to what are called the Caspian rates ; 
then he, with the force he had collected from what he 
had left, waited In Eebatana. Alexander, learning 
tUi, also advanced towards Media, and subdued the 
Paraetaeae, invading their territory, and appointed 
Mtrapovcr tliem Oxalhres son of Abulites, the [former] 



cfiy Aapcioc axairray rt avr^ m i^ f^^X^f^ ^O' 

«€U TOi^ rovrmw ^vXoMa^ nal ri}P aXXri^ Kara' 
ag€Vf)P hr^oBai itikivav rrjp arpartikp B^ r^y 
dXKfjp apt^Kaff^ ^jytp iaraXftipovs m h t^Tt^- 

4 Koi a^iMimra$ iml€KdTff ^fUp^ ^ Mrjot'af. 
^EifOa iitoBw ovx ovaav afiofiax^P Bvt'a^n 
Aapffi^ ovSi KaBovclovs 4 ^^^vBa^ avr^ avfi- 
fuixovs iJKorra^, aXX* oti ^fvyfijr ^jimxm^ ttff 
^fMta^* 6 Bk fr$ fioXXop ijjt awovij, 'il^ Bk 
Jtwux^p *EK0^Ta9»m¥ Sffop t/h^p rf^pwf o^or, 
iyiavBa ain^pra aint^ }^ia$apf|^ o *Clxov wah, rov 

$ wpo ^ptiov fiaatXtv^avroi^ W^pai^v* ical ohro^ 
awijyy€iKtp oti Aapciov h wi^wnip t}ti4pap tttf 
wt^ivyttt^, fx^" '*'<* ^^ XP'i'*^"'* ^* MffBmp 4^ 
firro^iffj^iXia ruXapra «ai arpankp iwwia^ utv 
i-; rpiaxtXiovs, vff{bvv B4 is ^fairiaviXiOi;^. 

^EXBtlttp i^ is *ExBdrapa *\\i(apop<>s rovs /*»f 
f^erraXovs Iwfrias koI rovs &X\ovs (vpfid^ovs 
dwowifiwti oiria^ iirt OdXaaaav, rop re fuaOop 
awohovs avrols hntXrj top (utrrtrayfupop ical 

• Bi^x^^ va/>* ainov rdXavra ivtBovs' oaris Bi 
iBia fiovXoiTO h-i fua6w^op€iP trap atn^, diro- 
^pa^taBai itciXfVfTM' teal iyipopro ol dvaypayfrd- 
p/tPOi oifK oXiyoi, 'EirociXXoi' Bi rov lloXv€iBovs 
€ra(€ xarayaytip airrovs oK irrl BdXaaaav, 
iirrrias aXXovs exopra is ^vKaicrjp avrdv a 
ykp HeatraXoX revs itrwovs ainov drriBovro. 
*Eir€OT€«X€ B^ icaX ManfTi, irrtiBap d^Utoprai 
irrl BiiXaaaap, i/nfuXrjBfjpai oirtDS irri TpttjpCyp 



satrap of Susa. Then he himself, learning on the 
road that Dareius had decided to gire battle to him 
and 6ght it oat again — for he had had an acceaa io B 
of Scjtiiiam and Cadusians as allies — hade the Imi|^ 
gage trains and their keepers and all the rest of the 
stores to follow ; and taking the rest of the army he 
led them manhalled for battle. On the twelfth daj 
he reached Media. There be learned that Dareiui«' 
force was not worth figbtiiig with and that the 
Cadusians and Scythians had not arrired to help him> 
but that Dareius had resolved on flight On this 
Alexander led on all the more rapidly. But when 
he was about three days' journey from Rcbatana 
there came to meet him Bistanes son of Ochus, the 
predecessor of Dareius as King of Pervia ; and he 
reported that Dareius had fled five dnys back, with 
his treasure from Media of seven thousand talents 
and a cavalry force of three thousand and infantry 
about six thousand. 

Arriving at Ecbatana, Alexander sent back to the 
sea the Thessalian cavalry and the rest of the allies, 
paying each the agreed pay in full, and himself making 
a largess of two thousand talents ; but anyone who 
wouki continue to serve him for pay on his own 
account he ordered to be enlisted, and a great 
number were so enrolled* He appointed Epodllus 
son of Polyeides to lead the remainder seaward, with 
cavalry bestdei to guard them, for the Thessalians 
had sokl their horses on the spot He instructed 
Menes also, so soon as they should reach the coast, 
to sec to their being embarked 00 transports for 



7 MOfAiaOiiaoinai h RCffotop, Uapfi^pimva ^ 
wpoa4ra(€ T^ ^(fnniarn rk ist lUpaAv tcofu^o- 
ftmm «4« r^y imptuf T^y iv ^Exfiardpot^ Kara- 
BioBmk KoX 'AfrwaX^ wapoMvat, "ApwaXov y^p 
ht\ rmp ')(fniiMafTm9 ihriXrvt xaX ^vXaxifv ruuf 
Xpffipdrmv Ma4r«SoMi« ^ i^oKtcxiXioif^ koX 
imrcav 4ra4 ^iXovv 0X4701/9* avrhphi WapfUvLtn 
TOt>9 (wovs dpdkafiovra koX tou9 ^pd^a^ xa 
Saoi dXXoi iwwtU i(m t*/9 twwov rtf^ kratpiKt. 
wapk rfi¥ Xii^p<uf t^v Katovaimv ikavvtiv i% 

8 'TpMariatf. KX«iT^ 6i r^ r^ fiaa$\tMrk rXi^ 
ffytpcvi tirtarn\€P, ^fiSay ^« Xouvatv ^ K/r)9a- 
Topa d^Urfroi {MaraXiktirro y^p iv ^1^019 
d p om^yuy), dpoXaff^jpra tovv Macc^oya^ rov^ 
4wi riuf Xpijpd'Ti^w ToTf inroXtttftOttrra^, livcu 
r^y ^iri Ila/^i/oioi/v* Tya irai aiVrof V^'iv iptWti 

XX. AuTo^ M dpaXafimp rf)v rt nrtroy twv 
iraipttv ical rov^ wpoSpofAov^ ical rotf^ pucBo^opov^ 
iitrtia^, m9 *B^>4yi/MK irytiTO, /roi rijv ^dXayya t>, 
Mairc^Mir^y rfw rAp hrl roU xpripaai Tax$ii 
rmv KoX Tovv Tofora? irai rov^ * Ay pidpa^ ffXavpt ; 
iȴ iitl ^aptiop, Kal air^ /card rrjp oBop 
ffWOvBj yiypOfUPTjp tAp Tf ^rpaTtwrAp iroXXol 
xdfiPOPTts imtXtiiropro koX Xirtroi diriOmfO'Koi 
t dXXd ical ^K ^e, xal d^ucp€trai €9 * Vdy(t 
€ph€icdrfi ^lUpa, Ai<v<( Si 6 ^Apo^ ovro^ (\t 
tAp Kaaint$p irvXAp Hop rjfUpa^ pud^ iXavpov- 
M9 *AX€^aphpo^ rfyt, ^aptto^ Si i<^dicei iji^j' 
wapeXrjXvOw^ €iV» t««p wvXAp twp Kcunriaiv. 
TAp hi (vfi/^€uy6pr^p £^ap€itp iroXXol piv 
dvoXtiroPTt^ avrop ip rp ^vy^ iirl rd avrAp 
exaaroi dwexApoup, ovk oXir/oi hi tccu *AXm- 


Eoboe*. Parmenio also he ordered to oonvoj the 
I'enUn treasure to the citadel in Ecbatana and hand 
it orer to Harpalus; for he had left Harpalus in 
charge of the treasure, and with him as guard over 
the treasure some six thousaixi Macedonians, with 
cavalrj and a few light auxiliaries; Parmenio him- 
self he instructed to take the mercenaries and the 
Thradans and anj other cavalry besides the terri* 
tnrial cavalry through the Und c^ the Cadnsians and 
arrh into Hjrcania. Cleitus also, the commander 
jf the royal squadron, he ordered, so toon as he 
should reach Fxrbatana from Susa — for he had been 
left at Susa side— to take the Macedonians who had 
been left to guard the treasure and go tow ar ds the 
Parthyaeans, where he himf^lf also proposed to go. 

XX. Alexander then taking the Companions* 

cavalry and the mounted soouts and the mercenary 

horse under F.rigyius, and the Macedonian phalanx, 

save those detailed to guard the treasure, and the 

archers and the Agrianes, began his march against 

Darcius ; and by reason of the speed of hb march 

many of his troops were left behind, worn out, and 

lany Imrses died; but Alexander went on unde- 

' rred, and reached Rhagae in eleven days. This 

• rritory is one day's journey from the Caspian gates 

>r anyone marching as Alexander did. Dardus, 

lowever, had contrived to pass already within the 

Caapian gates. Of those who shared his flight, many 

had deserted him during the flight, and had gone 

away to their homes, and a good number had surrcn- 



atnov wim€ rffUpa^ aal tkniwavaaK top 
erparop, Mif2ia9 fihf aarpdwtfp uwiBtiftP 

/^ptiov {vrfiXif/i^iiMf Mol h 2ov^o4f Mlprfo- 
^Mpor t«6to avrm h wicrip ^p wpa^ *AX4- 

4 (mpfytm* mvrh^ ^ m^ fwl llapdvaiov^ 47<* Kal 
rj fUP wpmr^j vpo^ rtuif Knawioi^ wvXoi^ 
iarparawiitvaf rj B^vrip^ hi §tcw wap9)\$9 
rmp wvXmp l^rc olmovftMPa r}y. *Eiri^iTi^o^yof 
hk •VTO^t irt^ ^M'^ ''^h'^ wpocm X'^pop fi^ovtp, 
h wp090f^ iMwitifWti Koipop (vp iww€vai n 
Kuik ji*p vc{^Mi> oXlyots* 

XXI. Kal ip 7ovT^ u^iMPMirai irap airrotr 
Awh Tov £Uip4iov arparawitov Wayiardtnj^, 
TiaffpXmnQS upijp, rw ypmpi^utp, icaX (Op tovt^ 
*AFT(|9ifXo¥ rikP Ma{aA0i; waiZwp* ovroi airify- 
y4iktP ir$ f^affapf^Mnj^ r€, X^^opxf^ Ttap (up 
tkap^Lf ^iTfoPTttp iwirittp, ttal Br)<rao^ 6 
Ba«rpM*y earpdwrj^ moI Bapirahmf^ 6 *ApaY«»- 
rmp JTol ^kpdyytitp aarpd-rtjs ft/rfiXi/^ortf iltp 
t ^ap€ioP. Taura ojcowra^ AXifawSpo^ h'i 
ftaXXop ^€ avovhj, rou^ iralpov^ ftopov^ ^X^^ 
(i/i^* ainop teal rov^ irpoSpofiou^ twww xal tmp 
wtl^mp T0U9 €vpt0^rardrou^ t« xal Kov^ordrovf 
iinXt(dfitJH)^, oM Toif^ a/i^) KoIpop wpoa- 
fniva^ iic rrj^ wpopofiij^ iwaP€X0€ip. *Eirl 5« 
T0i9 vTroXtiTOfUpot^ ivtarii<ras K part pop wpoir' 

5 rarrrei e-rrtaSai ^ fiff fuucpd^ ohou^ dyopra, Oi 
S^ OM^* avTOP tA ovXa tlxop fiopop moL Byo 

^ lv<##u Qrooow from K. 



dered to Alexander. Seeing, however, that he should 
not DOW catch Darcius by hot pursuit, Alexander 
remained there five days and rested his force; he 
appointed Ozodates satrap of Media, a Persian who 
had been arrested by Dareius and imprisoned at 
Susa; this caused Alexander to rely upon him. 
Alexander then marched towards the Parthyaeans, 
and the first day be encamped by the Caspian gates, 
but on the second he passed within the gates as far 
as the district was inhabited. Then in order to get 
provteknit thenee, stnoe be beard that the country 
beyond was desert, he sent Cocnus to forage with 

he cavalry and a few foot-soldiers. 

XXI. Meanwhile there arrived to visit him one 
Ragistancs from Dareius' camp, a Babylonian and a 

<ible, and with him AntJbelus, one of Masaeus' sons. 
Iliey reported that Nabarr^nes, commander of the 
cavalry which had shared Dardos' flight, and Beasns 
satrap of Bactria and Barsaentes satrap of the 
Arachotlans and the Drangians, had arrested Dareius. 
On learning this Alexander pressed 00 faster than 
ever, with only the Companions, the mounted scouts, 
and the strongest and %htest of the infantry, care- 
fully selected, and he did not await even Coenus and 
his men to return from their foraging. He posted 
Craterus to command those left behind and ordered 
him to follow, bat not by forced marches. His own 
men had nothing but their arms and two days' rations. 



fffiMpwf etria* *BX0m9 5^ r^ t€ wwcra Sktiv ««1 

yi>0M9 ^Mivaiwav Toy atpafov av6i^ fu SXijv 
rtt9 vwtrat kqX &fta ^/Up^ inro^ai¥OV9ff waptjv 
§is TO crparoirtlop, oBw a^pfirimu owiam 

4 Ba7iaTai^. KaX rov^ p4» woXiplou^ ov xari- 
Xa/3f, ^Aptlov B4 iript iwvBrro, airrov pkp 
avi^iXtlfifUpop arf€c$tu H^ apfAafiufff^, Hrj^a^ 
hk ini ^nptiam «Zmm t^ gpuro^ xal t^y^po^a 
^^•ftdf€90€u B^^oy wpo^ T« rA¥ UaxTpimp 
Iwwimp mml rim JiXXmp iaoi ffapffapoi (m4^€uyoif 
AoM^, wXffP *Apraffa(ov Mai tmv ^Kprrafiat^ov 
wmtZmp icoi riuf 'EkXii^mtf tmi^ piado^Qprnw rov- 
rmn hk vi^rov^ §Uiu ^ptl^, «al Mipyttp pkw 
rk ytyp^fitva ov Ivwaroi^ <Imu, itrrpawima^ B^ 
K«# Tf|« Xtm^pou oBov m hfl rA Sprf Uvai xa-rik 
9^t$ ov lurixopra^ roU ap4^ {Sifaaov rov 

• ip^l9V. Vpmpffp Bk wnrotifaBtu roif^ (vWa- 
p m nm t Ampiimf, mI pip Umnoma a^a^ *A\i' 
(av^ptm WP0dpotirro, wapaiovpai ^pMP 
*\\t(dplp^ xal a^iai ti ayaBop MvpiatctaOai* 
ci li TO ipiraXiP i'wapfXfiXviora paSottp, rov^ 
B^ crparttip rt (vXXiy€tp o^rjp wXgi<rTrjv 
Bvptutno seal Btaatlt^tiP is to moipop rijp ap\ri»» 
B^O'aov 3^ ip T^ wapopTi ififyturScu tear olicno' 
Tfird TC rijp ^pdov tcai Sri ip rp avrov 
aarpawtia rh ipjop iyiyprro. 

6 Tavra ojcovaapri KXt^dphpip &pk icpdro^ 
ti^xfta i^aivrro. Ka* ^£17 pkp iftKappov oX 
TC dpBp€s icai oi iviroi iirl rj raXaiirtapla rj 
(vv€X^^' oXXa Kiu i^ tjyt, xal BUXBwv oSop 
woXXfjp Ttjs rt pv zeros >ccu rrjs itri ravrrj i) pi pas 


TrmTelUng all night mnd the next day till noon, he 
rested hit troops a short time and then again hurried 
on «n night, and at dawn he reached the canip, whence 
Bagistanes had come. But he did not catch the 
enemy ; about Dareius he learnt that he had indeed 
been arrested and was being carried in a closed 
waggon, and that Beasus had been given the 
sovereignty in pUce of Dareiiis and had been saluted 
as leader by the Bactrian cavalry and the other 
Perrians who had fled with Dareius, save Artabasos 
and hit tons and the Greek mercenaries. These, he 
learnt, remained faithful to Dardas, bat being unable 
to prevent what had occurred had tamed off the main 
road and were making for the hills by themselves, 
refbting to participate in the action of Bessus and his 
foOowers. Those who had seised Dareius had 
decided that if they should learn that Alexander was 
pursoing them they would give up Dareius to Alex- 
ander and make good terms for themselves. Should 
they learn that Alexander had tamed back they woaU 
coDeet as large an army as they could and join in 
preserving their empire. Bessus was in command 
for the time being both from his relationship to 
Dareius and because this event took place in his 

Learning this, Alexander decided that he must 
porsae with the utmost vigour. Already his men and 
hotset were growing utterly wearied k>eneath this 
conHimcd exertkm ; none the less, Alexander pressed 
on, and aeoooipllihiiig a great distancr during the 



2mi t^ wpOTtpaif iarpa-rofw^htvK^aav oi ^ptlop 
1 ^(vorfffv. *B0Tmf$a aMov^a^ on vvtcro^ mHtiaOm 
Tip wptiwf 4ypucfi4ifO¥ tfiy roU fiapfidooK 

tktfXM TOVV WfiO^mOOV^ Ci Slj time CiOtIf: 

iwtrofimTipap Mp rwl rov^ ^wvyopra^, Ol £< 
^Ihhmi fihf i^cop, ipiffAffp hi cii^ai Tfjp o^y £4* 
J^pw^plap, 'O I4 ravTfjp iyup tKiXtvav koX 
ypov^ OTi oifX f^rcPiai oi vf{(M airr^ airov^- 
Aai/yorri, ri^p pip Iwwimp i^ w€praico<Tiov^ xa-rt 
fiifiaatp airh tmp X-wwrnp* rov^ vrftpopa^ 6i ri$p 
vt{M*' '^^ ^^^ ^XXity iwiXt^aptPO^ rov^ icpa- 

Ti^Tf UQKTA^ hufiffHH TMF iWlfUP itiXtVatP OUTei* 

• JirtK oi vf{;oi lirvXi^/uvM 4^01^. l^iMapopa 6t 
T^ TMif Uwaawtarmp tfygpcpa xal "ArraXop tov 
tAv *\ypiap^p Kark rijp oSor ^rriMi oi dp4'^ 
Bffaaop wpovK^xupriKMaap rov^ vwoXH^tpra*: 
iiytiP ^KiXtvat, gal rovrov^ m^ Kov^orara iara\ 
P4POVS, rov^ hi aXkov% v«(bt^ ^p Ta{«i hr§a6ai, 
9Kvro^ M ap^X B€iXffP Sjup apfdptpo^ ^P^P^ 
iffuro* hUkSmp S^ TJ79 pvkto^ arahiov^ i^ trrpa- 
KoaiovK inro ripf im iwirvy^dpti loU 0apffdpot<: 
ilrcurraK lov^i col dpoirXoi^, mart 6\iyoi p* 
rtP€K ainAp m^ apupovfitpoi &ppfiaav' oi Cc 
voXXoi €\f6v^ i^ *A\iPav^pop aurop tcareihop^ 
oM i^ yci/Hic IkfiopTts i^vyop* xal oi rpaiript' 
h dkKtjv oKiyup wtffoprmp xeu olnot *^"yoi 
10 B^a<K ^ *cal oi (i/p avr^ rims pip i^* dppa- 
pd(ti^ ^aptiop perk <r^Ap imopi^ov <09 ht opov 
^5i7 Tip Wi^ophpo^, ^ap4iop p4P Na^p^dptfi: 
iral llapciUPTt)^ Korarpmaatnts avrov dvikiirop* 


night and the following dmj till noon, he arrived at 
a village where the day before Dareius* conductora 
had bhnmacked. Hearing there that the Peniant 
had determined to continue their joumej by night, 
he enqoired of the inhabitants whether they knew of 
anj shorter way to take him to the fncltiTet. They 
replied that they did ; but that the road was desolate, 
having no water. But he bade them lead 00 by this 
road, and seeing that his infantry would not keep up 
with him if he mished on at full speed, he dismoonted 
some 6ve hunared horsemen, and selecting from the 
officers of the infantry and the rest those whoae 
strength was best maintained, be bade them moimt 
tbehofMt, earrying their ntnal Infantry anns. 
Vieanor the commander of the bodyguard, and 
Attaint commander of the Agrianes, lie ordered to 
lend those who were left belmid alooc the road by 
which Bessus and his party had alreaay proc e eded; 
these were to travel in the lightest possible order, 
and the rest of the infantry was to follow in ordinary 
formation. Alexander then himself started off at 
dusk, and led on hb troops at full speed ; during the 
night he traversed tome four hundred stades, and 
just at dawn came upon the Persians marching at 
case and without arms, so that only a few of them 
Inmed to hinder hb passage, but tne greater part, 
M tooQ as ever they saw Alexander himself, not 

ig to come to close oaarters, took to flight ; 

who tamed to make a nght of It, on losing a few 
of their number, also fled. Beaim and his Immediate 
followers for a time took Darelns with them In the 

rl waggon ; but when Alexander was now right 
them, Nabanan e s and Banaentes woonded 
ind left him where he was, themselves 

Ht. turned t 



ainol S^ K^vyo¥ aw Iwwgvaiif ifaxoalo*^. Aa/Mio^ 
hk awo0tn^KH oXiryov Caitpop 4k tmv rpavfuirtnf 

XXII. *A'ki(aphpa9 M to flip amfia tov 
^ptiov ^9 Uipaa^ hr^iMr^t^ Oa^tu tetXtvaa^ iv 
raU ffaatXiMaU Brfmai^, KaBdwtp xal oi SXKot 
oc wpo ^p€iOV ffaatXtU* carpairrjtf S^ airiS€t(t 
UaftBvaimp «al *Tp*a»imp *\^tu»dwriy Wop- 
BvmUm* ^ M ovto9 tmt Kly%nmm iMwrmp 
*AXi^9Mptf lura Mafcuroy. TXiproXcAio^ fi^ 
WvBo^diMiv^ rmp iraipmw (vptrdxBo avr^ aico- 
wu¥ rk iw WapBvaioi^ rt mal "tpicapiot^, 

S TouTO TO riXot An/wiy iyiptto iw\ dpxopros 
*A $ ^pm i o i% 'Api wn ^ m t j o i AMiroc '£«aTo/i^a««yo«, 
4b^ tA fihf waKi^tm, cTvc^ tii^I iI[XX^ iuCKBom^ 
TC iral ou ^pwnpfi, fiV S^ T<l?XXa oi^y i&itVMiiri s 
IJpTOV axo^«i{a/UiY 4 ov^ iyytPOfitPOP avr^ 
iw^iUfaaBm, oti o/aou /a<v ciV t^v ffaffiXtiap 
waptXuthf, ofAOv Si wpocwoXtfuloBtu wpo^ r€ 
MaxtBcpmp ffoi rctfy 'EXXi;ra»v (wiffff. OCkovp 
ovli iBiXopri 4(fjp fri vfipi(np 4^ rov^ trmj/coou^, 
ip /Uifoyi KipSvy^ ^^P iictlpoi KaOtarrj/coTi. 

S 2U»yri /i€v S^ fufi/^opal ain^ aXkai hr aWais 
(vpriP^xBrjaop, ovht ti^ dpojc^xv iy^prro iirtiht] 
wpmrop i^ Tfjp dpxh^ vapr)\B€P' dXXJk tifdifs p^v 
to rmp ffaTpairi$p <irl Vpopuc^ m-ala^ia (upt^rf 
rh imrtnop, €v6v^ Bi *lt§pia Tf koL AioXi^ €iXOPTo 
ical <t>/>i>y€V dfA^crtpoi xal AvSia kcu Kaocv trXrji 

4 * WiMapvaaaimp* oXiyop Si Cart pop teal AXucap- 
paaao^ t^ptfro, cVi Si rf irapaXia ifaaa tare 
iwl rf)p KtXi/eiap' ivOtP Si ri ainov cV* ^laary 
^aaa, ipa rtfP t« prjrtpa aix^uiXt^iadturav /cm 



with ilz hundred honemen. Dareins died of hit 
wound toon after, and before Alexander had seen him. 

XXII. Alexander lent Dareius' body to PerMpdUs* 
ordering it to be buried in the royal tomb, at were 
tlie otlier kings before Dareins. He appointed at 
tatrap of the Parthjraeant and H jrcaniant, Ammin- 
aspet, a Partlijaean ; he was one of those who, with 
Masacos, liad surrendered Egypt to Alexander, 
'riepolemiit son of Pjrthophanet, one of tJie Com- 
paniont, wat appointed oireneer of Parthyaea and 

Thus died Dareius, when Aristophon was archon 
at Athens and in the month Hecatombaeon.^ He 
was a man above all weak and incapable in warfare ; 
but in other regards lie had given proof of no harsh 
act, or perhaps had no chance to do to, tinoe the 
moment of his accession was also the moment of the 
dedaratioo of war by Macedon and Greece. Even 
had he desired, therefore, he had no chance to play 
the tyrant over his subjects, being set in the midst of 
greater dangers than they. His life was one series 
of disasters, nor, from his accession, had he any 
respite ; at once there befell the cavalry disaster of 
his satraps on the Granicus, and then at once Ionia 
and Aeotis were in the enemy's hands, with Greater 
and Lesser Phrygia, Lydia, and Caria save Hali- 
camasstts; soon followed the capture of lUlicar- 
natiui, and over and above all the coast-line as far as 
Cflieia. Next came his defeat at Issus, where he 
behckl hit mother made captive with his wife and 
* S30B.a,Jaly. 


r^ yvwtuiea koI roif^ waiSa^ ^caScv* iwi r^^ 
<PoiPucri Tff awmXero ical Atyvwro^ waaa* hri B^ 
avT09 ip *Ap/9i7Xoi« t^vyi rt iv wpmroi^ aiaxptk 
lud arparidp vW^nyv wturro^ rov 0ap0apiicou 
• 'fhovt ilvt»X«0^r ^vyds rt V« roirrov r^ aurou 
apXn^ vXtu^fUPo^, Koi T«X4inrMf» irpo9 r&¥ ufi^* 
atrrop is rJk icx/BLta wpoBoBfiK, 0aat\tvs rt iw 

rtXas Bi wpos tmf oUttordrmp iwtffovXtvOtU 
awmktro. Zmtrrt fiiv ^tiptiifi roiaina ^vtn^vix^v 
TtKtvriiaatnt ^ ra^i; rt tf fiaatXitci) leal ratv 
waiimp owoia xtd fitLCiktvorros aurou rpo^ri 
Tf *k\9^dplpcv^ maX walhtvci^t koX yaflffpo^ 
*AXif€UfBpas, 'OvoTff S^ hnX^vra iyty6v€t a/i^i 

XXIII. *AXi(apSpos Bi roi/s InroXtn^hrras iv 
rp Buif^i T^ arparias dvaXa^v h 'TpKCLvlav 
wpavx^^i' Kfirai M 4 'Tpteavia x*^P^ ^^ 
dpurrtpa rij^ oSov rfjs iw\ huKrpa 4>€pov<n)^' 
ical TJ fiiv SptaiP dwtlpyrroi haaiai ical \p^\oU, 
rh wthiop hk avrris icaO^KU Hert iwl rtfp fi€yd\fjv 
rijp ravTff BdKaooap. Tainrip Bi VY'i'. on to 
rois (ttfovs roifs dfi(^l Aap€ibi' Biair€<lnv', 
h Tck rAp Tawovprnp Spvf iwvdrro teal ainois 
t &fia Tovs Tawovoov9 wp«»ff6fUPOs, '^P*XV ^^ 
BttXitp TOP arparop avros pip rrjp hnfoptardrvv 
Koi xa\€irt»rdTffP ^ijaaro, ro 7r\€hrrop /cal apa 
TO Kov4>oTaTOP T^ Bvvdp£c^ dyotp' Kpdrtpop ^t 
Tfjr T€ atnov rdftp ixopra tcai rrjv \\pvvrov xai 
T«v roforratv earip ots xal oXiyovs to»p iirvttai' 
hti 'VaiTQvpmp €<n€i\€P* 'Epiyutop hi rovs tc 

> vo^* 'AJU(. SchniMder. 


children; then Phoenicia and all Egypt was lost; 
and then again followed his own flight at Arbela, a 
slianieful flight among the foremost, and his loss of 
the greatest host of all the Perrian Empire ; and now 
a fugitive ftom his own kingdom, and a vagabond, at 
last he was betrayed bj his own guards to the worst 
of fates, both king and prisoner, harried off* with 
everj mark of shame and finally perishing by 
splracy of those who were moat bound in duty to 
These were the tragedies of Darcius' life. His lot in 
death was the royal tomb, his children nurtured and 
educated by Alexander as if he were still on the 
throne, and Alexander for his daughter's bridegroom. 
At his death he had reached about fifty years of age. 
XXIII. Alexander, takin(i^ over those of his force 
who had been led behind in the pursuit, advanced 
into Hyrcania. This country lies on the left of the 
road leading to Bactria; on the one hand it is 
lK>unded by high and wooded mountains, but the plain 
land in it stretches to the Great Sea which lies this 
way.^ Alexander niArchcd in this direction because 
he found out that tlic mercenaries who had been with 
Dareius had escaped this way to the Tapurian hills ; 
besides, he Intended also to subdue the Tapurians 
themselves. He divided his army into three parts, 
and himself led on by the shortest and hardest road 
with the greater part, and the lightest armed also, of 
liis force ; but Craterus with hb own brigade and that 
of Amyntas, some of the archers, and a few horse- 
men, he sent against the Tapurians. Erig3rius, on the 



flpotff irol fffp Xoiir^v nnroy JMkaffmna ri)i' 

rk% ofuifaK xed rk trxwo^opa leai rw 4UAor 
6fu\o» dyotna. 

3 'TwtpffaXmp li rk wpAra Spff ttai garaarparfh 
vcStuaac airov, Juf€kka^» rov^ Tf inraainark% 
ami rrj^ Nf a4rf3ori4r^ ^Aayjon rov^ teov^ortirov^ 
gal rmp rofarw f^rtv oik* pi* x^Xnr^y o^i^ irai 
hv9wop09, ^vXojcaK ruw ohitv ica,rakjirm9 Tva 
a^ttXfpop Ti avT^ i^aiwrro, m^ /i^ tok iwofkivoi^ 
ttar UmIpo iww€un% oi rk Spri fx'^tnt^ tm^' 

4 fiapffiipmp. Atnh^ ^ park TMr ro^yiip huXBmv 
T« OTfi^ iv rtp wtU^ garter parowiB€V0€ wp^ 
woraptp ov prfok^, Ka\ ivravBa Swro^ ainov 
fiaffapiayn^ n 6 ^ptlov Yi^apxv^ xal ^para- 
^4pP9f^ Q 'T/Mrai*uiv TC Kal Xlap$uait»p oarpairf^ 
KoX S^Xoi TUP k^l An/Mibr TltptrAp ol im^- 
piffraroi a^teoptPOi itapiBocap c^% avrou^* 

• 'Twoptipa^ 5* tV T^ arparorwtt^ ricaapa^ fjpipa<i 
apiXaffe rov^ irwo\tt^$€vras gark rifv ohop^ rov\ 
fthf diXov^ aa^aXif^ et€\06pra^, roU Sf *Aypiaaiv 
ifWtado^vXaxotwiP hriOtpro ol Spttoi r&p 0ap- 
fidpmp, gai futop fy^prt^ r^ kgpoPoXtati^ 

6 'Apa? Sf iprtv$€P wpo^u i? f ^' 'Tpgapia^ ck 
ZaBpagapra, iroXiy "TpgavU»p, Ka2 ip rovrtp 
Oi irtpi Kpdrtpop avv4fu(ap avr^, roU pip ((Poi<: 
T049 ^apeiov ovg iprrrvxtjgort^, rt^p \<apap he 
6infP hiairtrroptvpivoi yjaav rrjv pip fiia, rrjv he 
iphthovrt^p rtfP garoixovprtap irpo<nrtwoiffp€POi. 
'EvravOa gal ''Epiyvio^ ^g€ (vp roh og€vo<^6pois 

7 gal raU apa^ai^. *0\iyop hi vcrepov * Aiprdpaljo^ 


other hand, he ordered to take the mercenaries and 
the rest of the cavaky and bring them along the high- 
road, which was longer, cop¥oy i ng the waggons, the 
baggage trains, and the rest of the host. 

After he had crossed the (int hills and had en 
camped there, Alexander took the bodyguard and the 
lightest armed of the Macedonian phalanx and some 
of the archers, and marched along a rough and diiS- 
cult road, leaving behbid troops to guard the roads 
where he thought there was danger, so that the 
enemy who held the heights might not at any such 
spot attack those who were coming after. He him- 
self with the archers crossed the pass and camped in 
the plain by a small river. While he was there, 
Sabarxanes, Dareius* cavalry general, and Phrata- 
phemes the satrap of Hjrrcania and Parthyaea and 
other most highly placed Persian officers of Dareius, 
came and gave thensehres up. After waiting four 
days in the camp, be picked up those who had been 
left behind on the march, most of whom crossed with 
safety ; the native hiUmen, however, had attacked the 
Agrianes, who were the rearguard, but getting the 
worst of a kmg range skirmish withdrew. 

Moving thence Alexander advanced towards 
Hyreania to Zadracarta, a dty of the Hyrcanians. 
Meanwhile Craterus and his troops had joined him; 
they had not fallen in with Dareius' mercenaries, but 
they had, partly by force and partly by the surrender 
of the natives, taken over all such territory as they had 
traverMd. There ak» Erigyius arrived with the 
baggage trains and the waggons. Soon after, Arta- 


^Mtttrm wop 'AXifaphpop icaX rmp waiimp o^om 
Km^ifp mal 'Aptofiap(iunf^ *al *Apedfif)t icai (i 
rwTOtt wapk rmp ftrMv tmv {vv Aa^i^ irpiafftt^ 
MoX Airra^oaUnit o Tawovp$tp carpdmi^. Aino- 
^paidifp ^ ^ rV ^arprnwdrnp ihrifitNrty, Wpro 
fiafotf M M^ Touv watBa^ tifUL tX hf ri^ ^f , t" 
Tt ^UXa ^9 TOK wpmroi^ UtpaAp 6ina^ xtu rij^ 

8 #f ^/MiOir yfy r tiit htica. To«f irptcfftai hi 
rmf *E)ikijiH$p hfOfuhom aw^Laaadtu a^tcip inrip 
rov varrof ftPiMtQ ihrf^/Myaro, 0/40X0701 r uiy 
ov« ^ voAif^c^oi vpov ai>rov9 ov^^uair 
JtBiMthf 7^0 firfdXa rov^ aroarwofnepovs dt^atnia 
T$ 'BXX/1^ vap^ TOif papfidpots irapk tA 
So7/«aTa^ T4» 'BXXiji^y* ^WXtvo'C Si ^^fiy (1//*- 
warraif md wapaBiBoPtu o'^v a£rrovf hrtrpi- 
W9Pra^ *AXt(d»ip^ 'VpiiaBai S ri /rai /3ovXoirr> 

• A amfyoBai owif Si/miikto. Oi Si Iwtrpkwn 
i^a^mp ^^^ Tff auTouf «cU rov^ ^(XXoi/« 'AX^ 
forSp^* (vfAwifiwttp TC ixikfvop r^ ^fyr)a6/i4P'> 
avroU, Mf ^^«X«»f ^KOfU4r6€i€P wap* ainoi 
cImu Si ikSyoPTO 4s x^^^^ ^^ wtpraMoaiov. 
Kal *A\J(apopos witiirti Wvhp6v%KOP top 'Ayippou 
icaX *Aprdffa(op wap' airrovs, 

XXIV. AvTOK si wporiytp ms M MdpSoiK» 
dpoXafimp rovs rt tnraewtirrk^ Kid tow? roforav 
«ral *Aypia»as ical r^p Koipov ical 'Afivmovrd^iv 
4rai reap traipetp iwirittp rovs rffUffta^ xal rot 
iwiraxopTiards* ^Si| yiip airrt^ ical iirtrcucopruna 

2 rdfis ^op. *EdW€\0mp Si to ttoXu pipo^ rf/ 

X«»^9 tAp MdphtfP iroXXoirV fUp dw€XT€lP€i^ 
* rk after Ujfiarm aaded bjr Dfilmer. 



to join Alexander, and of his sons Copben 
and AriolMursanes and Anames, and with them envoys 
from the meroenaries who had been with Dareius and 
Autophradates, satrap of the Taporlans. To Auto- 
phradatcs Alexander handed back the satrapj; but 
Artabasiis and his sons he kept by him in honourable 
podtkms, especially as they were among the highest 
of the Perrians and becaote of their kiyalty towards 
Dareius. To the eofoys of Uie Greeks, however, who 
begged him to grant them terms for the whole 
mercenary force, he replied that he would make no 
compact with them whatever ; those who fought with 
foreigners against Greeks were doing grievoos wrong, 
and flying in the face of Greek traditions. But he 
bade them come in a body and surrender themselves, 
leaving it to him, Alexander, to do what he would 
with them, or, if not, take what steps they coukl for 
tiieir own safety. They replied that they placed 
themselves and the rest in Alexander's hands; and 
bade him send an officer to lead them, that they 
might have safe conduct to his camp. They were 
reckoned to be about one thousand five hundred. 
Alexander sent Andronicus, son of Agerrhus, and 
Artabasns to them. 

XXIV. Then be himself proceeded against the 
Mardians, takii^ the bodygoards, the archers, the 
Agrlanes, the bri gad es of Coenus and Amjmtas, half 
of the Companions' cavalry, and the mounted javelin- 
men, for by this time he had a brigade of these. 
Passing through tlte greater part of the Mardian 
country, he slew many of them attempting to escape, 


VOL. t. L 


auTMf ^vyoma^, ot^ ^ riwi^ ^ aXxijp rrrpafi- 
fUpov^, woKKov^ hi (iMrrav li\a0€P» Ov yap 

M woXifk^tia Tf hvax^P^ i^oX art whnfrt^ 
oi Mapiot Koi fiaxifiOi iwl rp frma ^ay. 
Oi;«ouv oM 'AXifoplpop iiifiaXiip a» wort 
SMorm, ^XXjk t« xal wpoicgx^pritoTa ijBrj i^ 
T^ wpoam, ravrp fuLKkw ti d^vXoMroi rfXiaxoirro, 

t rioXXol S^ avTMy ca4 ^« ri^ Spfi xari^vyop, A 5^ 
vw€pvylrriKd Ti «al avoTO/ia ayrolf i¥ rfi X^p^ 
ioTiP, m^ wp^ ravrd y€ oux ^foma * AXi^aiipow, 
'Evfl hi maX ravrjf wpoaintp, oi U wifiylramt^ 
wpia0€t^ 9^&^ Tc AUTOVf ipiloaaif itaX riiw xmpaw 
«iu *AXi{ar2po« ainov^ iU9 a^9««. carpdwr/p 
Bi awihtiffp ainitp Avro^paharJip, Spwtp «al 

4 AvTiK S^ iwtUMXBmp i^ ro arparawthop Matnrtp 
mpfAtj^ i^ rmp Wdph^p rijp yffif, xariXafft tovv 
*EXA»7i«« rov^ fuo$o^6pom fi^opra^ koX rov^ 
AaM9BaifAopit0p wpiafftts m wapk ftaaiXia ^ptlop 
hfpiafitvop, KaXXiKpa^ihap rt teal Havtriwirop 
Kai M6p^ftop Kai *Op6fAairra, teal *\0ffpaiwp A^- 
wiBtfp. Tovrov^ fup hrf (v\\a0i»p ip ^vXtucj 
ti^f. Tovv ^ipunrtup hi dff>^)M€u, Sri ^tvonrtis 
oirrf TOW KOiPov rmp 'EWtjt^p fwrtlxop, virn 
lit p^at^ T« rrray/Upot ovk dtrMucora wouip ic< 
Kovp wapk rop ffa^iXia a^p wptafigvoprts- 

6 *A^rjg€ hi xai rim SXXt^p 'KXXiyvoov 6<roi wpc 
T^ €ip9Jptj^ T€ xai T^ (ufifiaxui^ rrj^ irpo^ 
hloM^hopa^ ytPOfiivT)^ irapd Wtpaat^ tfuado' 
^opovp, KoL KaXxnhoputP 'Hpa/cXeihrfP top irpea- 
0€vrffP a^cf* roi/^ h* dWov^ (varpaTtviaOai 



nod tome turning to bay ; a gremi number be cap- 
tured alive. For no one bad for a long time invaded 
tbeir country, owing to tbe difficulties of transit, 
and because tbe Mardians were both poor and, besides 
being poor, warlike. So they never imagined tbat 
Alexander would have invaded tbeir country, especi- 
ally as be bad already marcbed far out of bis course, 
and tbns were all tbe more caugbt unprepared. But 
many of tbem took refuge in tbe biUs also, wbicb are 
very lofty and precipitous In tbeir countnr ; feeling 
sure tbat Alexander would not reacb so far as tbat. 
But wben be did approacb even in tbis direction, tbey 
sending envoys surrendered tbemselves and tbeir 
country; and Alexander dismissed tbem, and 
appoininl as tbeir satrap Autopbradates, also made 
satrap of tbe Tapurians. 

He bimself returned to tbe camp wbence be bad 
set out to tbe Mardian territory, and received tbe 
mercenary Greeks wbo bad arrived, and tbe Lace- 
daemonians* envoys wbo were on an embassy to tbe 
court of King Dareius, namely, Callicratides, Pausip- 
pus« Monimus, and Onomas, and, of the Athenians, 
Dropides. Tbese be seised and kept under arrest. 
Tbe envojTS from Sinope be dismissed since the 
Sinopeans were not pirt of tbe Greek comity of 
nations, but being subject to Persia did not appear to 
have done anything outrageous in going as envoys 
to their own suxerain. Of tbe remaining Greeks he 
dfamisMd so many as before tbe peace and the con- 
ehision of tbe alliance with Macedon bad been serving 
witli the Persian force ; be dismissed also Heracleides, 
envoy of tbe Calcbedonians ; tbe rest be commanded 




avToif Ar^poruror, in9p Viyayi t9 ovtou9 mo 

XXV. Tavra U luLwpaiafAMi^ i^ytv m^ i-r . 
ZaBpdMapra, r^ utyCarrfp woXiW r^ 'TpxaUas, 
fya mal tA fiaviKtia roU 'Tp4raWoi9 ^v. Kal 

Bvaas TOK OioU m t^ho^ 'a^ 6^pa yvupitdv 
voiffaac «^ ^l UapOvaiovs iy€¥' itc€Wtv Bi 
iwl tA rrk *Aptla^ Spia xal Xowriap, w6\i¥ rij^ 
*Apda^, iMi K4U Sari/SopCtu^ ^xg trap axnl 

S k rmw *Ap€im¥ oarpawti^* ^oinif itiw h^ ri^hr 
aafpawtUuf i&voSovc (vfAwifiwtt atntp *Ava{iinroy 
rmp haipmp, Bov^ aimp rmm itrweucorrurrmv t\ 
TtaaapaKoma, «pv fvoi ^vXaxaK teoBtardptu ru}i 
rommp, rov /a^ dhiMtiaOat rov^ *Ap€iov^ wpof r^ 
crpartaK Kara rfjw vdpoBop, 

t Ejf TOVT^ hi d^iK¥o%hncu irap avrov Tltpaclttf 
TiWv, ot iJYftXKop Btfaaop ti;i» t« rtdpai* opSi]i 
lytijr Koi T^y litpaiKiiv aroXfjv <^po{hna *Aprra 
(Ip(flP rt KaXtlaSai dtnX Wt)aaov koX fiaaiXia 

TltpaAv rt Tovv . h hujcrpa tuL^vyoma^ tea i 
avrAw haxrpuip&p woXkov^ wpoahoKaadeu h^ 
^(civ atrrcp KaX iLxvOa^ ^vfL^iaxov^, 
4 *AXi(ai^pp9 ^ o/ioC Tihtj fX<i)P rrfv waaav 
BvpafiiP p€i ^vi BdjtTp<D», Xva icaX ^PiXtinro^: 6 
McvffXoov irop* auTOv eupixero (k MrjSia^f r)(<uv 
rov^ rt fiurSo^opov^ imria^, &v rjyeiro avroR, 
KoX %€aaa\Ap rov^ iOtXovrk^ xnrop^lvavra^ xai 
roif^ ftpov^ rov^ *Aj^/>o/ia;^ou. t^ixdvcop Bi 6 


to serve under him at the tame rate of pay ; and he 
set Androoleiis over them, who had led tiiem and had 
made it erident that he had made it a matter of 
considerable moment to presenre his men. 

XW. When he had put all this in order he 
marched towards Zadracarta, the greatest dtr of 
Hrrcania, where was also the Hjrcanlan palace. 
There he spent fifteen dajrs, and sacrificed to the 
gods as custom directed, and held an athletic contest, 
and then he marched towards the Parthyaeans, and 
thenoe to the borders of Areia and Souiim, a dtj of 
.\reia, where also Satibanancs mat Urn, the satrap of 
the Areiant. Alexander eonfifnied hfan in his 
satrapy, and sent with him Anazlppos of the Gmi- 
P*nions, giving him about forty of the moanted 
jaTettn-flnen, to that he might hare guards to set at 
various places, and that the Areians might not sulTer 
harm firom the army on the passage. 

Meanwhile certain Persians met Alexander, report- 
ing that Bessus was wearing his cap royal fashion ^ 
and clothing himself in Persian royal garb,' called 
himself Artaxenes instead of Be«iis, uid gave out 
that he was King of Asia. He had about him, they 
said, those Persians who had fled safe to Bactria and 
a good number of the Bactrians themselves ; and he 
expected that Scythian alUes would also join him. 

Alexander with his whole force now reassembled 
advanced to Bactria, where Philip son of Menelaus 
met Um ftan Media with the mercenary cavalry led 
by himself and the TheasaUan volunteers, who had 
remained behind, and thoae under Andromachus. 

* Tba oonleal Fnilaii oap wm worn with the apex drooping 

• A parpto tonio with whita stdpss. 



TlapfiitpUtifOS o T«i» viraavi<j70H T .^/.m- t^tA^- 

6 Ti;«€i ^^ roa^. *Iom Si 'A.\' ;.<: - . fi» Tf/i' t- 
WuMTpa i^TTt^^^^ ^rtBap(dtn)^ 6 *Ap€U> 
catpdin^ *A¥afiWiro¥ fikv koX ivwtucovTieras 
rovs (vp avrtft airtrroytif, oirXi{«i' 5i rov^ 
*Apmovs tal (vvaymif fi9 *ApTa«oara iroXir, &a 
TO finatktiov fjp TMV *Aptim»' iicti$€v B4 ir$ 
SyimxtPp iwtt^p wpwttx^fniKOira ^AXi^ivtpov 
wvOffra$t Uttu (vp t$ SvpdfA^i wapa JAtjaaoy, 
m^ (vp 'mm[P i'wt$tia6fi€PO^ owff Ap rvxp '>'<>^ 

iirl UaKTpa o^v ovk ^Irt^y' dpoKaffutv Bi rov^ 
Tff kraipov^ ImriaK «al roif^ iinra«omo-7^« «al 
Touv Tof orav /rai Totrv * A7piuya9 itaX r^ * A^i/ktoi; 
Tff «rai Koipov rd(tp, r^v £« iSXXiyy ivpafup avrov 
caraXivoiM «a4 fr* avrj Kpdrtpop ^tfiova, 
owov^ ^tp m^ /vl SaTi/9ap{ai^y tc «ral toif^ 
*Ap€ioi*^, xal ^\0itp €P hvaip tffiipoi^ cratlov^ 
ii iPaKociov^ wpo^ * Aprcucoava i)Kt, 

7 ianffap^dv^ pkp ovv, «k eyvtd #771^ ^vra 
^AXifaphpoPt Tp ofwrip-i t»/9 44>6Bov i/cirXaytU 
fur 0XA701V linrMvci rmp * Ap^imp t^irft* irpc^ ykp 
TMV 'woKXmp crparimrStp /cartXti^tf ip t$ <l>vyj, 
M9 irav€ir<M €fui0op wpoadjopra ^AXifavhpop, 
*AXc(avS/MK ^> o<roi;9 (uwMTioi/V t^ dwoardffiof^ 
KarifUiSt teai ip Tf» tot« aTroX<Xo<iroTa9 t^9 
iCM/ia9t rovrou^ hi dXKtj teal aXXi;, 6(€ia^ t^ 
Si«l>fc«« irotrjadfiepo^, rots fi€P diriicrttP€t roif^ 
S< r)vBpa'rr6BuT€' <raTpdw7jv 5i *Ap€U»p airiZei^fP 

8 * Apadfi-qvt dvhpa Wipaijp, Avrb^ 8k (up toU 
dfi/^l Kpdrepov trrroXeXtififiipot^, ofiov ovaip 
tfBrj, m^ hrt rtfp Zapayyaimp ;^w/7ay ^€* teal 


Nicanor* however, son of Parmenio, commander of 
the bodyguardt, had already died of sickness. But 
as Alexander advanced towards Bactria, news was 
brought that Satibananes* satrap of Areia^ had 
massacred Anaxippos and the moonted javelin-men 
with him, and was arming the Areians and leading 
them in a body to the city Artaooana, where was the 
palace of the Areians ; and that he had decided, on 
teaming that Alexander had advanced forward, to 
go thence with his troops to Bessus, and with him to 
attack the Macedonians where o pp or tu nity should 
offer. When this was reported to Alexander he did 
not continue his mareh to Bactria ; but he took the 
Companions' cavalry, the mounted javelin-roen, the 
archers, the Agrianes, and Amjmtas' and Coenus' 
brigadetf and leaving behind there the rest of the 
aimy and Craterus in charge, he advanced swiftly 
against Satibarxanes and the Areians, and traversing 
in two days the distance of six hundred stades 
arrived at Artaooana. 

Satibarxanes for his part, learning of Alexander's 
proximity and astounded at the swiftness of his 
approach, fled with a few Areian horsemen ; for in hit 
flight he had been deserted by the majority of his 
sokUers, since they too learnt that Alexander was 
pressing 00 towaras him. So many as Alexander 
found to have had a hand in the revolt and had at the 
time deserted their villages, with swift pursuits, he 
slew some here, some there, others he enslaved. As 
satrap of Areia he appointed Arsames a Persian. He 
then with the force left under Craterus, which had 
now joined him, marched towards the territory of the 



^t^rrvfrcu 7pa r^ ff^urCkfia roav /lapajyaimp 
^. Bo^airriTv hi, h^ t6t€ /rarcl^^t t^p xmpaw^ 
db ^ TM*' (vprwtSt pk hm w £kapdm h r$ ^ir/«, 
wpo^twra *A\i(eu4ipoif fia0m¥ A *lr&>u« roi/c 
M rdht rou ^l^hou wara^wv Min^t. Hi/XX^z 
/9o9Tflv M ai^^y M *\vhol wop AXcfavSpoi' 
air€0T««Xaj^ cai awoSt^ijatctt wp6^ ^AXt^dvBpov 

XXVI. *ErraJ}^a teak r^v <l>iXMTa 4w^0ou\»iv 
rov T\apfii¥im¥a^ l/ia^fv *AXi{ay<5i)Of, Mil X^i 
IlToXcAiaiov «ai *Apiar60ov\a^ in wpofrfftX' 
/Mnp^ ^Si| oi «ai wportpop i» Alyvirr^, ov 
fUrrm wiart} y§ i^ami T99 t« ^\ia^ r^ ir<iXai 
«&t«a «al T^ ^f tkvrov i^ llapfMMpUtvd tc roy 
waripa r09 ^iXmra rtfAtj^ xal h atnw <t>iXjrrn 

S v^ffTftK. YlroXtfiaw^ h^ 6 Adyov Xtyti mIcu 
j($rtpai i^ Ma^fSoHi^ <t>iX4^ar leal KaTftyopt'ian 
U4P avTov la^x^pm^ * AXi^at-hpov, diroXcy^acBai 
ci avrotf^iXfirrav irol rovs ^'tri/iiji'irr^V tow fpyov 
waptXBovra^ t^eXiyftu ^iXtiray t€ teal roif^ 
^/«4^* avrop dXXot^ re Ary;(Oif ou« d^viai icaX 
fidXurra Btf ori auro^ <t>iX«rra9 V€irwr0ai fihf 
ijTtffovXrfP Tiva *AXtfdvBp^ irapcuiKtvat^ofuttfiP 
ffvpt^rj, i^fiXiyyvro hi /caTeunttvijca^ ravrijv 
irpo9 *AX€(avhpo»t xairoi lU i^i rrjp atcrjprjp 

S ocTjfupai Ttjp *AXe(di'Spov <f>oir<op. Kal <t>iX(a' 
rap flip KaraKOpriadfjpat irpo^ t&p Majc€h6pttP 
teal haoi aXXcM pMriaxop avr^ rrj^ tvtffovXrj^' 
hrl Wapptpimpa hi araXrjpai TloXvhdfxapra, eva 
TiM» iraipmp, ypdp,fiara ^ipowra wap *AX€- 
* Root vf^r^TTttA^^ ftkw ^9 : PoUk parhiM bottor v^awTf' 



Zarangaeans; and arrived where their palace was. 
But Banaentes who then held the country, being one 
of those who had joined in attacking Darcius on the 
flight, learning that Alexander was approaching, fled 
to the Indians oo this side of the river Indus ; but 
the Indians seised him and sent him to Alexsnder, 
who put him to death for his treachery to Dareius. 

XXVI. It was there that Alexander learnt also of 
the ooMpiracy of Philotas son of Parmenio. Ptole- 
maeiis and Aristobulus say that tome report of it had 
been already made to him In Egypt, but he did not 
think it credible, both because of their long friend- 
ship with him and because of the honour he had 
shown to Parmenio, Philotas' father, and the trust 
he had reposed in Philotas himself. Ptdemaetas too 
of Lagtis states as follows ; Philotas was sommoned 
Ixrfore the Macedonians, and Alexander vigorously 
accused him, Philotas making his defence ; snd then 
those who had reported the plot came forward and 
convicted Philotas and his feUows with many manifest 
proofii, and chiefly this, that while PhiU>tas himself 
sgreed that he had heard of some sort of plot being 
laid against Alexander, he was proved guilty of having 
uttered no hint of it to Alexander, though he visited 
Alexander's tent twice daily. Philotas for his part 
was shot down by javelins by the Macedonians, and 
with him the other conspirators; but as for Par- 
menio, Polydamas, one of the Companions, was sent 


fdfiptm wp0^ rov^ arpartfyov^ roir^ h MffBi^ 
KXmuf^pw T« ical lATaXMijv xal MtviBatr oj^oi 
ykp M Tr}9 arparta^ ^ ^px^ UapfA€pU»v 

4 rrrayfUpot ^cop, Kal wpo^ rovrmv awo$a¥tU> 
llapp€pi^pa, rvx^ f^i^ ^< ov Wiarop iBoicMt 

(vfif»€raax*^'^ UapfA4vim¥ti r^ irai^i rov /9oi;- 
XiUftaro^, rvxotf M ^i, tl xal p^i (v/ifirria^yt, 
ff^aXtpi^ ^^ ^ wtpimv UapfAepimr, rov waio^ 
ainov apppfi^Aivov, iw roaavrjf itp a(ia»tffi wapd 
Tt ain^ AXtfap^o^ xal d^ to aXXo arpdrtvfia, 
fiif ^Ti TO MoMttowiMOPt aXXa itak tmv JxXa»v 
( hfm p , mp woXXoMiK Kal ip t^ P^p^^ icaX wapk 
tA lUpdK icark vpoorafiv T^y *KKi^dphpov (vp 
^opiTt ^flfyCiTO. 

XXVII. A^ot^i 3^ MoX *AfAVPrap rhp 'Ap^po- 
pjpovs Karik TOP aurop ypopop vwa-xOtjpai 4s 
lepiaiPt Kal TloXjpmpa Kal ArraXov koI iipfJap 
rovs *Apvprov oB^X^vs, i»f (vpperaaxovras 
Kai adrovs rijs iwiffovXr/s rtfs Kar AXt^avhpov 
t Kara viartp rt Kal iraipiap rtfp <t>iX«rra. Kal 
i^Kit iriaroTipa ^ i'Wi^ouXij is to trXrjOos, ot« 
IIoXcfM^y. eU TMV aBtX^wp tmv *Apvprov, (v\- 
\ff^€PTOS ^iXtira, e^vytp €s rovs voXipiov*;. 
'AXX' *ApuPTat yt (uv roU aStXf^is xnropdvas 
T^y Bucfjp Kai awoXoyyfirdptPos iv MaxeSoiri 
mapmpms d^Urai rrjs alrias' koI evOvs «v 
im4^vy€P, ip Tj iKK\ff<ria rj(ioKr€v d4f>€0Tfpai 
ol iXdilp wapk TOP ahtXi^p koX iwapayay€ip 
avTop irapa top *A\i(apBpop' Kal ol MeuceBopts 

5 (vyxttpovaip. 'O Si d-ntXBcop avrj rj ti/'^P9 
TOP TloXipMPa iiravijyayt* koX ravTjf iroXv It* 


' o him wHh a letter firom Alexander to the generals in 
^Icdia,Geander and Sitalccs and Menidas; for they 
iiad been posted to the force which Pannenio com- 
manded. Bj them Parmenio was put to death, 
poasiUY because Alexander coald not believe that 
when Phflotas was eonspiring Parmenio had no share 
in his own son's conspiracy; or possibly becausey 
eren supposing he had no such share in it, Parmenio 
was already a crave danger, if he vunriTed when his 
own son had been mat to death, being to highly 
thought of both by Alexander himself and throughout 
all the army, and that not only the Macedonian army, 
but the mercenaries also, whom he had so often com- 
manded both in his ofdinarr turn of duty and also in 
e K tf a ot din ary commands by Alexander's exprem 
order and with Alexander's approbation. 

XXVII. It is said that Amrntas son of Andro- 
menes was brooght to trial about the same time, 
with Polemon and Attalus and Simmlas, brothers of 
Amyntas, on a charge of haWng joined also in the 
cons pi racy against Alexander, through their faith in 
Phflotas and their friendship with him ; nnd the 
consp i racT won more credence among the multitude 
beeanse Polemon, one of Amyntas* tmythers, as soon 
as Phflotas was arrested, deserted to the enemy. 
But Amyntas at any rate with his brothers stood his 
trial, and made a Tigoroiis defence before the Mace- 
donians, and was a«|uitted of the charge ; and the 
moment he was acquitted, he asked leave to go to 
his brother and bring him back again to Alexander ; 
this the Macedonians permitted. He departed, 
therefore, that venr dav and brought back Polemon ; 



AXkA hXiyaw y€ fortpov KmftffP rtw^ woXxopic&v 

wXiop avT^ yiyvrr^ rtjp Kpiav dwo^vyom't &n 
/i^ irfoB^ po fiiiofUp^ awoOap^ip. 

*AXi(aj»&>0¥ Bi, garamjcaK M rovi haipovs 
iwwapxti^ ivo, 'H^aiffrimpd rt top ^Afiwrropo^ 
mal KXaItop top ^pmwi^v, ttai Blya BUki^v rrjv 
rd^tp rifp heupttp, iri ouS^ ^tkmp * Ap ^fiovXiro 
Spa Tocovrmp iwwimp, ^XXm^ t* iroi tmv Kp i 
ricrmp tow irorro^ Iwkucov icard Tf d(itt»ai. 
leal rifp SXXijp dprr^ iftiytiadai, d^ucpurm 
h Tovt wdKtu fUp *Apuurwa^ KaXovpifov^t 
6rr9pop ^ Evtpyha^ htatM>fia^ipra^, Sn 
Kvpf rf Kafiffwrov (vpnrtXdfiopro r^ /? 
S«vrac Aatf«M^. Kal rovrov^ *AXj(apBpo^ &v 
Tf if Kvpop inrijpfap oi wpiyopoi avrmp rifijja - 
Kol avTO^ Karafuidmp avhpa^ ov xard rovs 
SXXov^ rov^ ravrn ffapffdpov^ froXirtvopra^, 
dXkii rov BtKalov tea ttal Totc tcpariaroi^ tAp 
*EXXjji>wr furavoiovpipov^t fKMvSipov^ t« d^rjice 
KoX xwpop T^ opopov Saijp aiVrol c^ffip ^Tffao 
(ov iroXX^r h^ ovi* avrol ^rrfaap), irpotrfffffKti-. 
*RpTavOa $vaa^ r^ 'AvoXXcapt ^ffpifrpiop piP 
fpa Twy ffmparo<Pv\dM»p, inroirr€v<ra^ p€ra<rx€ip 
^iXtana rrj^ ^iri/9ovX^, (vp€Xa0€' aajparo- 
^vXaxa Bi d»rl ^yjprjrpiov dwiStift IlroXepaiop 
TOP Adyov, 

XXVIII. TaOra hi hiairpa^dp/tpof irpo^i tof 
hrl Bdtcrpa t€ xaX Brjaaop, ^pdyya^ r€ fcal 
raBp«Hrots ip rj irapohtp irapa<Trr)adpMPO^, 

* ^mv Freinshemioa, fiA^cr A. 


and thus AmjnUs tfiwned more clear of guilt than 
before. Sooo after, however, when besieiring tome 
village he received an arrow wound, of whk» he died ; 
■o that all he gained from his acquittal was that he 
died with his good name tmsmirched. 

Alexander now appointed two officers over the 
Gmpaniofis, Hephaestioo son of Amjntor and Geitus 
SOD of Dropides, and dividing the Companions' brigade 
in two Darts, since he did not wish any single man, 
even of his friends, to command so laive a bodjr of 
cavalry, especially as it was the best of allhis moimted 
force in reputation and vakmr, he arrived among the 
people called formerly Ariaspiansy bat later sornamed 
also Benefaetovs, beoiase they assisted Cjrms son of 
Cambyses In hb Scjrthian expedition. Alexander 
showed r^ard for tms people, both for the services 
their forefathers had dione to Cyrus, and from his 
own observation that they were not governed like 
the other tribesmen of these parts, but also claimed 
to practise justice, like the best of the Greeks ; he 
therefore lei them so free and gave them as much as 
they asked for themselves of the neighboming 
oomitry; and yet they only asked for a modest 
portion. There he sacrificed to Apollo; and also 
nrrcsted Demetrius, one of the bodyguards, suspect- 
: \g that he had a hand in Philotas' conspiracy ; and 
III his place he appointed as bodyguard Ptolemaeus 
son of Lagus. 

XXVIII. After setting aO this hi order Alexander 
proceeded towards Baetria and against Bessus, 
redodng on the way the Drangians am! Gadrosians,^ 

1 Bolk ttvwl la the soiith-mstanimosi ooniar d tka PtaiiaB 
EmpirB. towaids tht ladas. 



fla/xaTijaaro ^ koI rov^ ^Kpax^i^ov^ koX 
carpawff¥ Mar4<mia€P iir avroh Wivttva, 

*Apax!i»rot^, Svfiirairra hi raura ra Wmj Bta 
yioyo9 T€ woXXt^ koI (up avopia r&p iirnfj- 
otimp Kol Tw arpaTiMTMV raXaiwt^pltf ^fjXBt, 
t MoBmp Bi rov^ *kp€iOv^ aZBi^ a^ardvai, laTi- 
fiapfdpou is rff¥ Xfl^ptuf airrm¥ ipfiaXoyros avv 
IwwMxwi 5i0')^iXioiv, ohs wapa Btjcaov tkaffa 
uwoariXXti irap* avrovs Aprdfiat^op rtf Tor 
Tiiparip KoX *Eplyvtop xal Kdpopop rw iraipwv* 
wpo^^aff hi xal ^para^tpt^v, top t&p Ilap- 
Ouaimp aarpdwfip, (vp^fiffaXtlp aCnoU 4s rov^i 

3 *Ap€iOVS» Kai yiyprrtu fuixi "^ots dfn^l *K/j. 
yvtcp mal Kapavop wpos l^rtffapfdyiip xapr^pi 
oiihk wp6a$tp oi fidpffam iviicXiPap irp\p la- 
fiapXdtnjp fv^wtaopra Epiyvi^ wpos 'Eptyviov 
irX»/7<V ra Sopari is rh mpocwwop dirodaptlp, 
ToT« Bff iygXipapTfs ol ffupffapoi wporpinrdBfjp 

4 *Ep Tovr^ Bk ^AXifapBpos irpo9 top Kauicaaotf 
TO Spos hy^t ^'^ "^^ voXiP tKuqt Koi i»p6paa€» 
*AXe(dpBp€tap' xal Bvcas ipravBa rots $€ots 
Bcois POfAos auT^ inrtptffaXt to 6pos rov Kai 
Koaop, aarpdwqp pip rn ydtpq iiriTufas Ilpocfr;; 
aptpa WipariP, tmv ci artupttp NeiXofci^op t*/ 
^rvpov iirUrscoirop (up arparia diroXunav. 

6 To ht opos 6 KavKuaos in^tjXov p€v iariP 
&9ir€p ri dXXo rijs *Aalas, d»s Xeyti ^Apia-Tn 
fiovXos, yfriXop Bi ro voXv ainov to 7* ravr' 
Maxpop y^p Spos vapaTcrartu 6 Kavxaan 
ciMTTC KoX TOP Tavpop TO opos, hs Bfj Ttjp KiXucLa^ 


and abo the ArachoUans, appointing Menon satrap 
over them. He reached also the Indians who were 
nearest to the Arachotians. All these various tribes 
he invaded through deep soow, with lack of provisions, 
and with much distrew of his men. But learning 
that the Areians had again revolted, since Satibar- 
tanes had invaded their oountrj with two thousand 
horse, whom he rece i v e d from Beasus, he sent to them 
Artabasus the Persian and two Companions, Erigjrius 
and Caranns; be ofdered Phrataphemes also, the 
satrap of Parthjaea, to help them in their attack 00 
the Areians. A severe battle took place between 
the troops of Erigyius and Caranus against Satibar- 
sanes; indeed, the Persians did not give way till 
Satibarsanes in single combat with Krigyius was 
struck in the face with a spear and killed. Then the 
tribesmen turned and fled headlong. 

Meanwhile Alexander led his army to Mount 
Caucasus,^ and founded there a dty which he called 
Alesandreia. There he sacrificed to the gods to 
whom he usually sacrificed, and then crossed Mount 
Caucasus, appointing as satrnp of the district Proexes, 
a Persian, and Neiloxenes son of Satyrus, one of the 
Companions, overseer; and left him tliere with a 

Mount Caucasus is, according to Aristobulus, as 
high as any in Asia ; most of it is bare, at least on 
this side. For Caucasus is a long mountain range, 
so that they say that even Mount Taurus, which is 

* Tk0 Indiaa Cisocswii, or ** Hindu-Koosh.** 



Tf rai riaft^i'Xtap awtipyttt uvo rov Kavica<rov 
€Jpa$ Xiyov^i xal SXXa Sfifi firfdXa air 6 rov 
KavKoaov htaKt/cpifiitHi SXXfi xal iWwf ivt^vv^un 

• Kark ffii^ ra kKoarup, *K\\k iv y€ rovr^ tuj 
KavKoo^ 9Mw JXXo 5ri /i^ ripfuvOoi ww^vvaai 
KOi aik^wPt m^ Xtyfi *Apicr6fiovXo^' dXXA «a» 
iW iw^tiro wcXXoU dvBpmwoi^ koX wpoffara 
woXkk Koi iCTfini MfLOtno, an mal ;^a4^vtfi Try 
aiX^i^ rk wpofiara, itaX u im woXXov wpoffarof 
atXi^iav al^6oiro, Mtd Otl iw* avro xai ro t« 
^Mof httpiittrai mal ripf ^iCtu^ dvopxnrov ical 

7 Tairrr;v KartaBUu *Evi r^i% i» Kofni^ff m 
fuuepordrm dw^Xawov^i rAf woi^ipa^ tmv ympimv 
&a avToU TO aiX^iOP ^vrrav oi 14 xal wtpi- 
^pdaaovai Tor ^wpor, rov /ii|£* §1 wtXdatuv 
atmft wpofiara, hvpard y€i4a$ai ttam wap€k6tip, 
0T< voXXou dftop KvpritHuois ro atk^iow, 

• B^aOf hi, fx^^ <*M^* a^OV Ilf/>0-My TC TOVV 

firraaxoyra^ avr^ rSj^ Aopfiov ayXXif^eoK teal 
ainrmv Bagrputw is iwroMiax^^ovs xal Aua^ 
roifs iirl rdBt rov Topdiias worafiov hroiKovvra^, 
i^0€tp9 rtfv Inro rtp Sp€i rt^ Kav/cdcip, ok 
if^lda T€ rtf^ X'^P^^ ^V^ ^*' f*^^T autoD tc /rat 
'AXt^dpBpov Kai dwopia rttv imrrfS^UtP dveip 

• (mw *A\i^tLvhpop rov fiij eXavptiv irpoam, *AXX' 
'AXifavJ/xK tiXavv€P ovSip fitlop, ;(^aXnrM9 fikp 
htd Tf vfOMK troXXt}^ Aral ivhtia rStP dpayicaitov, 
fm ti ifims. Brjaaos Si, iirel ((rjyyiWtro atrrui 
ov voppm ffhri i^p 'AXifavSpo^, Siaffds rov 
^Clfop vorrofiOP t^ fiip vXoia i4» &p BU/iirj 
Karixavaep, avrbs Bi is Savrojca t^ XoySiavr)<; 

10 x^P^^ dir€x<»p*i' EXwopTO Bi airri^ ci rt dpAfn 



tlie bonndaiy of Cflida and PamphylU, is really a part 
of Mount Cancwiit as well as other great mountains 
which have been cBstingiiislied finom Mount Caucasus 
by various nomencUturcs according to their geo- 
grapUeal positions. In this Mount Caucssos, £>w- 
ever, there grows notiiiiw save terebinths and asafce- 
tida* aocorang to Arlstooolus. But even so it was 
inbslrfted bj a large number of people and many 
flodcs and herds graxed there, since the 6ocks like the 
asafcrtlda, and iithey are aware of it ever so far away 
they hurry to it and nibble off its flower, and also 
dig up and eat the root For this reason In Cyrene 
they drive their flocks as fiur as possible from the 
places where this plant jnnows; some even hurdle off 
the plaee, so that the nodes even if they approaeh 
cannot get fn* sinee the plant b very valuable to the 

But BessQS with such of the Persians about him as 
had joined in the arrest of Darelus, some seven 
thousand of the Bactrians themselves, and the Dahae 
who dwell on this side of the river Tanais, ravaged the 
country lyhiff under Mount Caucasus, honing bv this 
desolation of the country lyinc between nimseif and 
Alexander and by want of provisions to keep 
Alexander from proceeding farther. But Alexander 
came on none the less, with difficulty indeed, through 
thick snow and owing to want of necessaries, but still 
he came on. But Bosus, as soon as he was tokl that 
Alexander was now not far off, crossed the river Oxus 
and burned the boats on which he had crossed, hut 
himself moved off towards Nautaka of the country 
of Sogiana. There went with him the troops of 



Oi Si r»p BcurrpiM*' I'mrcK mv ^vytiy iyvt^tcom 

ixairroi awfiWdytjaap. 

XXIX. *\\M(avBpo^ S^ i^ ^pdylraica o^imo- 
/i€POS KO* dparravaa^ T^y crpariap i^ "Aopvov 
Tfl ^TC Moi WuHTpa, at Bij fjUyiarai tiai wo\€i9 
hf Tfj UncrpiMy X^^ ^'^^ ravra^ rt i^ i^otov 
fka^ Mai ^vXoMffp ip rj dtcpa r^^ *A6pvov 
dwiXiwt ir<u ^wi rtwrtft *A/)j^«Xaoy rop *ApBp6' 
xXov lifp haipttp' tok B4 &K\oi^ V^atcrpioi^, ov 

A/rra/3a(b» top lUpcffp. 

2 Avro^ hi ^lytp m M toi^ ^CI^op wora^p* 6 Bi 
*ti(o^ pitt fikp in rov 6pov^ rov KavKoaov, ean 
Bi worafutp fA^yicro^ rAp hf t» Wcltf, Saovs 
«y<f Bfj *A\i(apBpo^ iral oi (vp *A\€(dpBo^ 
iwrjjKdoPt irX^v rtip *\pBAp irora^tap' oi Bi *lvoot 
wdvrttp worafiwp fityiaToi tiaip' initial Be (> 
'ft^o^ i^ rrjp fuydkffp BdXaaaap rtfp ttaO 

3 'Tpxapiap. ^t€LffdXKeip Bi iinx^ipovpri auruj 
rop vorafiop rrdtntj dwopop ij^aiptro* ro fup 
yap €vpos ^p i^ l{ ^Xiara araBiov^, ffoBv^ m* 
wpo^ \6yop rov tvpov^, dWa iroXv Bi] n fiaOv 
r€po^ Kal ^afjifuaBfj^, xai pevfia 6(v [ex^*^]* <^v 
ra Karavtfypvfupa rrpo^ ainov rov pov ixarpt- 
^aOoi ix T^ yij^ ov x^^^^^» ^^^ ^ ^^ 

4 fftfiait^ Kara rtj^ yjrdfifiov iBpVfUpa, *A\Xa>v 
Bi KoX diropia ijXff^ ip toI^ roiroi^ ^v xai rpifirj 
woWfj €i^aip€ro, €i pxiKpoOev furioup oaa cv 
ym^vp^^aip rov iropov. Zvpayaywv ovv ras 


Spitamcnet and Ozy artcs, and with them the hone* 
men from Sogdiana, and Dahae fmin the Tanais. 
But the Bactrian cavalry when they learnt that 
Be«iis had determined 00 flight went off, each party 
their own way to their homes. 

XXIX. Alexander now arrived at Drapsaca, and 
after he had rested his army led them on to Aomos 
and Bactra, the greatest cities of Bactria. Tliese he 
took at his first attempt, and left a garrison in the 
citadel of Aomos, and in charge of it Archelaus son 
of Androclcs, one of the Companions. Over the rest 
of the Bactrians, who readily gave in, be set as satrap 
Artabazus the Persian. 

He then marched towards the river Oxus. The 
Osns flows from Mount Caucasus and is the greatest 
of those Asian rivers which Alexander and his army 
reached, except the rivers of India; they are the 
greatest of all rivers. The Oxus flows, however, 
into the Great Sea > which is in Hyrcania. When 
Alexander attempted to cross the river it appeared 
impossible to pass in anv direction. For its breadth 
was about six stades, and its depth disproportionatelr 
great for its breadth, with sandy btd, and a swift 
current, so that piles fixed into the bed were easily 
twisted out of their ground by the stream alone, not 
getting a firm hold on the sand. Apart from this 
there was want of timber in the district, and it was 
clear that there would be much delay if they went 
to fetch from a distance enough for the bridging of 
the stream. He therefore collected the hides whidi 

A TtMOMpiao. 



di^Bipaif u^* «X« iaKtitHtvp oi arpartan-at, ^pv* 
rov ifiirXrjaai iiciKtvcw m^ (fipordrov «al tear a- 
hrjaai Tff KoX (vppd^ftoi iucpifiA^ rov /i^ iff- 
hvtaSai i^ avrk^ rov CSaro^. *KfAir\ffff$€lcat 
3^ xal (vppa^laai Uaifol iyipotrro Buiffiffdaai 
Tor crparw iw wimg tjfUp€u^. 

• UpHp M haffm(9m9 r^p worafioy, rm¥ tc Ma/ct- 
ictmp iwiXi(ai9 rev« wpteffvrarov^ ttaX ijBrj 
awoXifiov^ Mai tmit StacaXt^p roif^ iB^Xourk^ 
Karafnipapra^, hr* oUav dwi^rtiXtP. *KKwip,' 
iri« Bk Ktu ^raffopopOt ha rwr haipmp, ^9 
'Apdov^, wpoartifat *Apcafif)P fihf top aarpdmjp 
rmv *Ap€U0p (vXXaff€ip, on idtXoKaittlp avr^ 
*Apadfiif^ iSoftp, avrhp ^ aarpdirffp tlptu dtn* 
im^ipov *Ap€itp, 

• UtpdaaK S^ TOP *Cl(op irorafi^p ^t xark 
awovtijp ipa Bffaaop tlvai fOp r^ Bwdfigi 
hrvpBdprro. Kal ip Tovrtp d^iKvovvrai irapd 
^wirafUpov^ Mai ^ara^ippov irpo^ ainop dy- 
ytXXoPTt^ 5t« Svito/Wi^ moI Aara^pyi/^. <i 
wtfM^tlfi auroU Mol iXiyfi cTpaTik koX i^f/ia>i/ 
r^ CTpaTia, fvXXn^mu B^aoy mqX wapa- 
omaovff^p AXMfdpcp^' iw€l xaX irt)y dBiff/t^ 
<^Xa*j ^vXd<r<r€<r$at vpo^ airrAp Brjaaov, 

7 Tajrra ok tJKouaep * AXi^apBpo^, airro^ p^v 
dpawavwp ^jyt Tfjp orpaTidp <r)(pXaiT€pop f) 
itp6c0€V UtoXmuuiIop tk TOP Adyou dwoa-riXXei 
T«»ir T€ iraipwp ivirap\ia^ Tp€U arfovra icaX To^s 
iiriraKOPrund^ (vwrravra^t wefwi' Bi ti/v re *Pi- 
Xwra rdfip ical twv inraawtarCtp xiXuLfy)(iav fiiav 
teal TOW9 *Aypidpa^ irdma^ maX tCjv to^otwv tovs 
TffAia€ait, avovBj iXavptip MtXevaa^ taq XviTa- 


the troofM used for tent ooren and o r de r ed dieni 
to be filled with the driest povible diaff, and then to 
be tied down and stitched neatlj together so as to 
be watertight When thej were filled and stitched 
together thej were efficient enough to take the army 
across In fhredajs. 

Before crossing the river Alexander selected froni 
the Maeedooiaat the oldest men who were no longer 
6t JT terviee and the T hf Ms B i n iro lont ee rs who had 
remained behind and sent them on their waj home. 
He sent also Stasanor, one of the Companions, to 
Areia* bidding him arrest Arsames satrap of the 
Areians b eca u se Arsames appeared to have ill-win 
towards him; and he bade Stasanor take over the 
satrapj of Areia in Arsames* place. 

Then after crossing the river Oxus he mardied 
rapidlj to where he had learned Bessns and his 
wvoe to be> Meantime uiere met him messengers 
finom Spftamenet and Dataphemes telling him that 
they two, if quite a small force were sent them, and 
a man to cooimand it, would seise Bessns and hand 
him over to Alexander; in fact thej had Beasos 
alreadj voder open arresL On hearing this, 
Alexander tor his own part rested his army and 
led it on more leisurely than before. But he sent 
Ptolemaeos son of Lagos with three re^^ments of 
the Companions' eavahry and all the mounted javelin- 
men, from the infantry, the brigade of Philotas and a 
regiment of the bodyguard, all the Agrianes, and half 
the archers, bidding him lead them rapidly to Spita- 



^liriyr Tf ttai ^Mra^prffp, KaX UroXtfiauK riti 
m irhroKTO, maX hi9\Bi»v hf ff^pat^ rtavapai 
9raBiiOu^ hiita ti^ucvtlrat i^ ro orparowtBop ov 

Xir g Ti Mifa fr pdp/3€LpOi. 

XXa. *Emali$a if»a$€ Uroktitaio^ irt ov 
fitfiala T^ ^wirafMiiy^ teal Lara^pyjn i) yptofirj 
^0Tlir d/i^i r§ wapahocti rov Bi^^oi/. Tor? 
/A^y Bif wt(ov^ KaTi\iW9, trpocrd^a^ hrgaOai ft 
rd^ttt airro^ Bi (vw roU iinrtv<Tt¥ i\daa^ d^Uero 
wpo^ KmfAtiv rtpd, Ti** o Wljcao^ ^^ (vy 6\iyoi^ 
crparimrais* Oi jitp dfn^l ror ^mrattivrjv 
fitroMtx^p^ieMirav ^Brj iieMiBwt learaiBgaOtint^ 
avTci wapaBouwai rw Bffctrop, UroXiftaio^ Bk 
frtptariiaa^ iv kvkXi^ T79 *«/i»7^ toi/^ tiririas (?» 
ydp Ti «ai T€i)(0^ n€pt/3€0XtjfUvop xal vvXai »car 
aur6)t hr€ierfpvie(V€TO roU iv rj icm^ijf ffapffdpot^, 
dfraBtU <r^ii^ dwa\\daff€aOai irapaBovra^ B^. 
eop. Ol Ik iBrxotno rov^ (ifv UroXtfiaitp is 
rtfp temfiffv, Kal UroXtpaitK fvWa/Smv Brjatrov 
Air^flf iwainj^r wpowifiijras Bk fjprro* AXifapBpov 
S-wm^ yjni is Sylriv dyttp 'AXtfdpBpov Brjaaov. 
Kal *A\i(apBpos yvfivop ip tcXoi^ Bi^aaprn 
oirrtos dynp iieiXtv^M leal Karaarii<rapTa ip Bt^tn 
rris oBou f avros re xal ^ arparih iraptXdataOai, 
tfuXKe. K.a\ WroKtpaXos o(h»s iiroirj<r€P, 

*K\i^avBpos Bk iBitP top T\fj^aop iirtarijtras 
TO apfui riptro dp0* orov top Patrikia top ainov 
teal dpa oitc€top teal €v€pyiTTjp y€v6p€POP ^apeior 
T^ ^tp irpwTa (vpiXafft teal Bijaas ^fPt eirtiTa 
aire/trcivt. Kal o Brjertros ov fiovija ol Taxha 
Bo^aPTa vpdfcu c^, aXXA (int toU rent dfufn, 


and DaUphemcs. Ptolemaeus went as he 
was ordered, and traversing ten dajrs* marches within 
the qMoe of four davs he arrived at the camp where 
oil the fonner day the Persians with Spitamenes had 

XXX. There Ptolemaeus learnt that Spitamenes 
and Dataphemes had not quite made up tneir mind 
aboat the surrender of Bessos. He tnerefore left 
the infantfj behind, bidding them follow in ordinary 
maiddng order, and he hhnself rode off witii the 
cavabT, and arrived at a village where Bessus and a 
few soldiers were. For Spitamenes and his men had 
afaeady withdrawn thence, their oonsdenee not per- 
mitting tbemto be themselves the betrayers of 


But Ptolemaeus stationing the cavalry in a 
cordon round the village — it had some sort of wall 
thrown round it, and gates in the wall — made a pro- 
clamation to the Persians in the villa^ that tney 
would be allowed to depart unscathed if they yielded 
up Bessus; and they received Ptolemaeus and his 
troops into the village, and Ptolemaeus seised Bessus 
and retired. Then he sent a mesitfnger ahead and 
asked Alexander in what way he shouM bring Bessus 
into his presence. Alexander bade him bring Bessus 
bound, naked, and wearing a wooden collar, and thus 
conduct him, stationing him on the right of the road 
by which he and his army were about to pass. And 
so Ptolemaeus did. 

But Alexander on seeing Bessus stopped his car 
and asked him why he had first seised Daretus, who 
had been his king, his relative, and his benefactor, 
then led him about in chains, and then murdered 
him? Bessus replied that he had done this not by 
any private decidoo of his own but in union with aU 



AapfM>y ov<rtp, m amrrjpiap tr^laip €vp4c$tu 

• wop* *A\t(dvBf>ou. *A\€(avBpo^ B^ M roiaS€ 
fuiariyov9 MXiV€P avJO¥ ical iiriKh/tiv rov 
KijpVMa ravrk ixflva oca avro^ r^ Biy^o'M iv 

aUiaBtU awowifiir€Tai 4^ Baxrpa airoBaifov- 
IM€¥o^, KaX ratrra HjoXMiialo^ inrio B'jaaov 
a¥iypaylt€P* * Aptar6/3ov\iK hi, touv ap/^l ^vi- 
ratAMPrfy rt Mai ^ara^ptnfv llroXtfuU^ ayayMiP 
Bfjacop mal wapaBoufai *A\€fd9^p^ yvfUfow iy 
mXoi^ ^carra^, 

• *AXifai^po« ik dpawXripmaa^ ro liririKov itc 
tAp avro$€p Iwwmp (woXXol ykp aCn^ ttrwoi if 
T« r^ tfirtpffoXd rov Kavtcdaov xal iw rfj ivl 
r^p *il(6p Tf gal dwi rov 'il(ov rroptla iiiXiwop) 
mi iwl Mapdtcap^ ^r t^ Bi iart fiaaiXtta 

7 T^ ^trfhiopmp ;(^«f>av. l&pOtP hi iwl top Tdvaif 
worafAcp wpop€i, Tm hi TapdiBi Totrrip, dv 5^ 
HoX *la(dpTfjy &W^ opofiart wpo^ tAp iwtx^P^^^ 
fiapffdpmp KoKiiaBtu Xiyn Api<rr60ov\os, ai 
Wffyal fiip i/e rov Kavxdaov Spov^ical avr^ ticiv 
ifitjffi Bi Kal ovTO^ 6 irorap,6s i^ rtjp *TpKaviaf 

8 ddXacaap, 'AXXof £* iip €if) Tdpai^ inrip oto> 
Xiyf* 'HpoBara^ 6 Xoyawoio^ SyBoop tipai tStv 
wmapAp rmp XMuOixitp Tdpaip, xai pitip pkv i/c 
XlfAvrf^ fitr/dXtpi dviaxopra, ixBiSoPtu Bi i^ paLl^to 

en XlfiPujv rijv KoXovfUvrp^ Maiarrw $cai rov 
Tdvaiv rovrov cuxiv oi opov vouovoi rifs 'Aaia? 

• KoX rfi^ Kvpannj^, oU Btj d-rrb rov fiv^ov rov 
iroprov rov Kvftivov tj Xifitnj rt 17 Slaitan^ xal 
o i^ ravrrjp i^itU irorapo^ 6 Tdpaip ovro^ 
Buipy€$ rtfp *Aaiap r§ xal rrjp Evptarrrjv, KoOdrrep 


the attendants of Dardas at that time, that they 
might themseWes win safe-eondoct from Alexander. 
But Alexander at this bade them acourge him and 
the herald to proclaim during the soouiging these 
same refMnoaches he had directed to Bentis in his 
enquiry. Bessus then after this torture was sent to 
Bactra to be pat to death. This is Ptolcmaeus' 
account of Bestos; Aristohulus, however, alBrms 
tliat it was the followers of Spitamenes and Data- 
phemcs who led Beans nakeo and bound, wearing 
a wooden collar, and to banded him over to 

But Alexander, when be had brought his cavalry 
to full strength with the hones in the vicinity, for a 
good many borses had fallen from exhaustion during 
the eitMsing of Mount Caucasus and on the marches 
both to and from the Ozus, led his troops towards 
Maracanda, the royal city of that part of Sogdiana. 
Thence he advanced to the river Tanais. The springs 
of the Tanais too, which Aristobulus says is called by 
the natives another name, the Jaxartes, rite on Mount 
Caucasus; and this river also flows out into the 
Hyrcanian Sea.* The Tanais. of which Herodotus the 
historian telk us that it is the eighth of the Sc>'thian 
rivers, rises and flows out of a great lake, and runs 
into a greater lake, called Maeotis, will be a different 
Tanais. Some authorities regard this Tanais as the 
boundary between Asia and Europe ; they imagine 
that from this comer of the Euxine Sea upwards the 
Lake Maeotis and this river Tanais whicn runs into 
the lake do actually part Asia and Europe, just as the 

> Anian {with Strabo) is bara in tfror. 



ff icaiiL VdS€tpa t« ttal ro^ iamwipav Tohupt^ 
Ail3vaK roif^ No/mi&iv BdXaaca rifv Ai/3vffif a^ 
gal rifp Evpmm^ ittipyt^, oU f€ B^ ri Aiffvti htt ' 
T^ *Aaia^ 7% iltXXiy^ r^ Nfi\^ iroraii^ Sta 

10 *EjrravOm dwocKthaaShrrt^ rti'h r&p Mcurc. 
Bo¥mp h wfiotfOfiffy Karaxowrotnai irpo^ rAv 
0ap0upmtr oi ^ hpdaatn^^ to iorfoy d-nt^uyif 
4^ 6poK rpa^vrarov mal wtunif airorofiow ^m 
Bi Td wXtjOo^ 4^ Tpifffwpiov^, Kal iirl rovrovs 
*A\4(a¥Bpos Tou^ Kov^ctrdrov^ t^ orpana^ 

11 dva\afim¥ ^iv. I^a 5^ 'wpoa0o\ai voXX" 
iyifporro tok Maxthoc^v tfv t^ 5/>o«* /ral rk fikv 
wpina dwtKpovomo fiaW6fi4vot iic rmv /Sap* 
fidpmp, xal dXXoi rt woXXol rpavfAariai iyivomo 
Ktu avT9^ *A\4(apBpo^ ts T^r icvrififfp rofivrrai 
BiafAiriif koI t^ irtpoi^ r^ diroBpavtrai avrA 
ix rov Toftvfiaros. *AXXA teal &v IfXaffi rt m 
X^piop Kal rmv fiapfidpmp oi fup ainov tcar€Mo 
mjiray irpo^ riap MaMtBoptfP, woXXol Bi icai 
tcara rmv wrrpttp pi^amt^ 0^9 dwWavoPt &aT( 
ix rpifffivpimp ov wXtiov^ dwocmSrjpai oxra 



■ea near Gadeira and the nomad libjans opposite 
Gadeira ^ parts Libya and Europe ; imagining aim 
that Libya if parted from the rest of Asia by the river 

It was here ' that some of the Macedonians who 
had scattered for foraffinc were cut down by the 
natives. Those who did this deed took refuge in a 
very nigged and completely predpitoos mountain, 
being in number about thirty thousand* Alexander 
took his lightest troops and led them to attack the 
fugitives. Then the M a ce d on ians attempted several 
assaults upon the momitaio ; and at fint they were 
driven back by the voHers from the natives, and a 
great manv were wounded ; notably Alexander him- 
self was snot right through the leg with an arrow, 
and a part of the small bone of the leg was broken. 
But even so he captured the podtloo, and of the 
tribesmen some were cut down there and then by the 
Macedonians, but many perished by throwing tiiem- 
selves down the rocks, so that from thirty thousand 
not more than eight thousand saved themselves. 

•TlMfltoaiU of Gibraltar. 
• On ths Jaxariw. 




I. Ov voXXaK S^ ^fUpai^ {fcr€pO¥ ai^ttcvovtrrat 
wop *AXi(€Uflpatf irpN^/SfK <&iro t« ^kvOAv ri^p 
*AJUmp MoXov^Upmp (o6f moX ^Ofiffpa^ Buctuord' 

tLt^Xfoi ok 4p rn *\aif icai oxnoi ainipoiAOi, ovx 
iJMt^ra Bia W99uuf tm maX BtxtuoTffra), ical wapk 
rmp ig rtj^ Ei/p«rr7f 'SMvOt^tr, at Bfj rb fUywrop 

{vpwifAiru *AXi(a9Bpo^ rmp iralprnw, wpa^aaiv 
laiv xaik wp9900Mf ^iXiap (updrfCOfUpov^, 6 hi 
P9v^ rij^ wopwi^ i^ tearaaxoir^p ti puXXop f^tp€ 
^i^fiK Tf T^ X^P^^ '''V^ ^tcvBucrj^ seal trXfjBou^ 
minitp KoX popai^p col oirXicet^ ijvTipa i^omt^ 
ariXXotnai €v t^^ pd\a^, 

% AuTo^ hk irpo^ rip TapdiBi worapip rwfPtMi 
woKiP oUiaai, Ktu ravTtip iavrov hrwvpov, 
'O Tt yap x**P^ /iriTif^io^ avrtp i^oLvrro 
aufrf^as rifp iroXtp iirl p4ya xal iv icaX/p 
oixiaBriataBai t^ iirX "ZKvOa^, tiirort (upffaivoit 
Ao^ftK tcai TTfs vpo^vXaietfi r^^ ;^<tf/M»f irpo^ 
T^9 KaraSpopa^ rmp wipav rov irorafioif ttroi* 

4 Ktivvr^p /Sapffup^p. *RB6/cei £* &p ical piydXij 
*/€P€(T0ai 17 iroKi^ wXrfiti rt rStv i^ aurijp 
(vpoixi^opip^p Kai rov ovoparo^ r^ XapTrporrfri, 
Kal ip rovT^ oi wpoaxt^poi rat irorapw fidp- 
fiapoi T0V9 TC rk ^povpia ip TOi? iroXeai oi^otp 
txopra^ cTparimia^ rip Ma/rc£oi^v (vXXa- 



L Not manj dajri after, envoys eame to Alexander 
from the Abian Scythians* as they are called, of whom 
I lomer spoke higfaJy in his epic, calling them " justest 
of men " ; they dweU in Asia, independent, chiefly 
through their poTerty and their tenie of justice. 
Envoys came too from the European Scythians, who 
are the greatest nation dwelling in Europe. With 
these Alexander sent some of the Companions, giving 
out that they were, by way of an embastyt to ooo- 
clude a friendly agreement with them ; but the real 
idea of the mission was rather to spy out the nature 
of the Sc]rthians' territory, their numbers, their 
customs, and the arms they use on their warlike 

He himself was minded to found a city on the 
Tanais, and to call it after his own name. For the site 
seemed to him suitable for considerable development 
of the city ; he also thought that it would be built 
in an excellent position for his invasion of Scythia, 
should that ever take place, and for an outpost of the 
country against the raids of the tribesmen dwelling 
on the other side of the river. He felt also that such a 
dty would become great both from the number of 
settlers and the splendour of its name. Meanwhile 
the tribesmen near the river seized the Macedonian 
troops who garrisoned their cities and slew them, and 



/S^rriv aifiKTUvav ica\ rk^ wq\u^ i^ d^^aXtuuf 
I rufa fioXXop u-^ypovv. Svvrwt\a0orro M avroU 
r^ airoffjaaim^ xai rw ^(»yhaym¥ oi woXXoi, 
htap0hrrt^ vpo^ tAp (uXXafiom^tp Bi}<T<rop, Statt 
KoX TtMf \i€un'ptapmp fcrtp o(k o^taiP ouro* 
(vpawicTff^ap, ttrt 6if col Idvtun^ KXi^aphpop, 
§ir€ irol \6yop M tJ avoaraVfi 5i3orrcv, 5ti 
If fpa (vXkoyop iwrfffi\KMi *A\ifapBp<K (up* 
tXB^iP T0W9 vwdpxov^ rfjs X^P^^ ^ttuni^ t*V 
Sopoiaira. T^r lAtjtaryiP woXtp, ak iw* iyo^ 
o^itpl Tov (vXXoyov jvypOfUpou, 

n. Tavra m awfiyyixBri* A\t(dpBp^,wap4Pyyti' 

Sou imd^r^ ^X^ iwrr/yf^n^'ap, avT09 A^y Vwl 
rj^v vpirrif » dwo rot) arparoiriSoi; opfifjOtU iroX^v 
vpoi^M/Mi, ^ ^ro/ia ^F Fajla* ^v 7^/) rrrii iroXc 
(vfAwi^€vy^ai ikiyopro oi iic rff^ X^P^ ^^P' 

t ffapoi' Kpartpop hi iKwifiirti xpov rrjp koXov' 
l»mnip KvpovwoXip, rfirtp fuyicrfi wacAp moX h 
mM^P oi wXtiarot (vv€$\4yfUpoi ^atf rmp ffap" 
Pdpmv. IXaprj^tXro Ik avr<ft cirparoir^MfCcu 
wXfioiop TY/f voXcttK Kol rd^pop rt ip icvKXtp 
avrfj^ opvfai gai ^dpoMa vtptfiaXiaBai Ka\ r^c 
/At7)^ay^9 ioeu^XP^^^^ [wpo<rrJKOp](vfnrffypvva' 
m wpo^ Tov^ d/A^l Kpdrtftov rr)V ypa> firjp rtrpa^i 
fitPO$ oi ix rrf^ voXco^^ Tainri^ dhmaroi Sun rai^ 

S J[XXa49 ir6\€Ct» itro^tXtip, Aor6^ S^ ^i rrjp 
Td^op hrtl d^uTf TO, C09 c^X^ ^( i<f>6Bov c^^iaipti 
wpoaffdWtip T<J> T€i;^€i, yrjtvtp rt teal ovx if^^^Xw 
^m, irpoaOipra^ iv KvicXtp irdmoBcv rd? kXi- 
fiaxa^' oi Si €r(f>€pBoyfjrrai avrat xal ol To(6rai 
re tcaX dtcopnaraX ofiov r^ t^ohfp rotp V€(w 



tlien began to strengthen the dties more than before, 
for their security. There joined with them in this 
revolt the mass of the people of Sogdiana, stirred up 
to do to by the party which had arrested Bessus, so 
that these drew into their revolt some of the Bactrians 
too ; it may be that the Bactrians were terrified of 
Alexander, or it may be that their tedoeers gave •» a 
reason lor their revolt that Alexander had instructed 
the chief men of that coantry to come to a joint con- 
ference at Zariaspa the capital ; and that this con- 
ference boded no good. 

II. When this was reported to Alexander, he 
orde r ed the infantry, section by section, to make 
so many ladders mm were appointed to each section ; 
and then he advanced to the first city you meet with 
on leaving the camp, called Oata ; for the tribesmen 
were said to have taken refuge in seven cities. Then 
he sent Craterus to that called Cyropolis ; it was the 
greatest of them all, and the greatest number of 
refugees had collected there. Craterus was ordered 
to encamp near the dty and to dig a ditch and to build 
a stockade round it, then to fix together such siege 
engines as he required, so that the defenders of this 
dty might have their minds fully occupied with 
Cratems and his troops and so be unable to help 
those in the other dties. When Alexander himself, 
meanwhile, arrived at Gaza, on his first approach he 
at once ordered his men to attack the wall, which was 
made of earth and of no great height, and to place 
their ladders against it on all sides ; while his slingera 
and archers and javelin-men, at the moment of the 


▼OL. I. U 


IviyiTomCbv I9 Tovv wpofAaxofi^vov^ J^wh rot) 
rtiYov^ Koi /9/Xi| <liro /tJfxavAr tj^trOt wrrt 
o(tm^ ^v tnro rov TrXtjOov^ rAy fitXitw iyvfju^mSt) 
TO Tfi^of TMy irpofiaxofuvt^if, rayfta Bk ^ 
wpwrStCi^ rSt¥ kKapAkiup koX ^ avdpaat^ rSiv 
4 yiam^hwup 4i ht\ to T««;^Of iyiyvrro, Tov^ fxkv 
^ IpS^mk watna^ aw^scrtuHtP, ovrnt^ i( *A\((dv- 
fyov wpovrtray^iipotr yvpahca^ Bk teal iralBa^ 
Mol Tfjp Sk\ff¥ Xtiop hitjpTraffatf, 'E^StP Bi 
€vOv^ ^jj€P iwl rifp h€vrtpaif dir* igtlmj^ woKip 
^Ktefidttfitr teal ravrrfp ry ai^rcp Tf rpoir^ ical 
TJ airr^ Vh^P^ Xafiffapfi xal rov^ aXoma^ rik 
avrk fwpa(€P, 'O Bi ^ytv ^iri rtju rpirrjv troXtw^ 
Kal ravrrip r^ vcrtpai^ iwl 7% irptir^ wpocfioXp 


6 *Ep 5S Bk avro^ (vp roU irt(oU dfi^l ravra 
tlx^t ^^^ imtia^ ixirifiwn i^ ra^ Bvo t^9 
wXffcicp iroX<i9f irpoffrd(a^ iraptt^vXarrtip tov<: 
apOpmwov^ roif^ UpBop, firprort rtfp &X(oa < 
miaBoiJutPoi r&p vXtjaiop iroX^wp icai ifia itji' 
avrov ov Biik funepou e^oBop, ol Bi 4^ i^vyrjp 
rpavarrt^ awopot avrtp Btdncup yipttprai. Kai 
(vpiffii T« ojrrw? oiro»^ €XKaatt xaX it> Biopri 

• iyeptro avrtft 17 nofiTrj reap imrttop. 0/ ykp 
rk^ Bvo rk^ ovirot iaXettcvla^ woXti^ iypPT€^ t&p 
fiapfidptap, «v icairvop rt elBop awo t% trpk 
a^Stp iroXtto^ ip.Tnirpap.€ur)^ iced rtP€^ teal diro 
rov irddov^ avrov Bia^Pvyovre^ aindyyeXoi rrj^ 
kXmatca^ iykvomo, a>9 rdxov^ CKatnoi elxop 
oBpooi ix rS>p TToXcav ^evyovre^ (p.^Lirrovaip i<; 
ro ari<f>o<: rS>p iitiritov (vfrerayfupop iceu tcarc- 
tcomjaap oi frXetaroi avr&p, 



infantry attadc, showered volleys upon the first line 
of defence on the walls, and missiles were hurled from 
the catapults, so that the wall was soon cleared of 
defenders by the great shower of missiles, and thus 
the setting up of the ladders and the ascent of the 
Macedonians to the wall were rapidly accomplished. 
Hiey put to the sword all the men, according to 
Alexander's orders ; they carried off the women, and 
children, and the general plunder. Thence Alex- 
ander led on at once to the second city, which lay next 
to this one ; it too he captured in the same fashion 
and on the same day, and treated his captives like- 
wise. He advanced then to the third city, and this 
he took next day at the first assault. 

While he himself was thus busied with his infantry, 
he despatched the cavalry to the two next cities, 
bidding them watch the inhabitants carefully lest 
learning of the capture of the neighbouring cities, 
and also of his own impending approach, they might 
take to flight, and pursuit might be impracticable. 
It fell otit juHt as he anticipated, and the despatch of 
the cavalry came none too soon. For those tribes- 
men who held the two yet untakcn cities, seeing the 
smoke rising from the city next in front of them, 
when it was fired, and when a few who escaped its 
catastrophe gave first-hand information of the 
capture, attempted as fast as they could to escape 
from these cities in a mass, but ran straight into the 
ckMe oordoD of cavalry, and the greater number of 
them were cut down. 



III. OSri* Bff T^« irfKrf ir oX«if i» Svtrlp ^fUpat^ 
ikmm re xal ifat^pam^tcdfitpo^ jffi iwl Tr)v 
fi/tyianip airritp rtfp KvpovwcXiP, 'H fi^ t^- 
TCi;^i^/4C»^ T< ijp irjru'ko'rifHf r^lx^i ^^p " 
iUXoi, oXa htf irwo Kvpov tHMta$€laa, teal rov 
wXdarov ical ftaxtf^^^TUTov rmw ravrjf 0ap0d^ 
pmw is ravTfjp avfAwt^tvyoros, ovx •^^avrws 
if^ i( i^66ov iXtiP roU Maxt^ocip iyiyvrro, 
AXX^ ftjriXB^^ If^p wpoffdyttp r^ T«iwi *AXi- 
(opBpos ravrjf fUP Karaatiuv iirtpoti to rtlx^' 
KoX icark to dtl wapapfnjyinjfitvop avrov t</ 

S wpoaBoXks wotticOai, AiVro^ ^ ms xarttB^ rov^ 
iMoovs Tou TTorafAoO, hs Sta rqs voXfaK Yi^f- 
pJippovs &¥ Biipxrrai, (fipoifs iv T<p Tort vi>o 
TO^ KOi ov (vp^x^^s roU rtix^ff^^, aXX* oroi;^ 
wapaax'ip ifapohop roU crparicgTaiS hiahvvai /v 
T^i' woXup, dpoXafimp rovs rt aM/iaTo^t/Xo^rav 
Kal T0V9 (rwti^iriarks xal rovs roforas xai rovs 
* Ay fHapas, rrrpafAfUpttp ri$p 0ap0dp0$p wpos rks 
/is;;^ai4c xal rovs ravrp irpooftAxotUpoifs \ap$n- 
pti Kark Tovs itcpovs (ifP oXiyoiS ro trpirri 

% w€kp€XBmp is T^r iroXtP- dptippiifas Si iphoStv 
TWP wvKitp at Kark roOro ro x^P^>^ ^a-av, S^X^' 
rtu xal rovs aXXovs arpartunas tvmrok. "Ei^a 
Brj oi 0dp0apoi iyofUvffP i)Syj rrjp iroXiP alado- 
fttPOi firl TOtr? u/i^ * AXifauSpop Sfi4^ irpdwrjira : 
Kol yiperai irpocfioXff ainS»p leaprtpd' teal fidX- 
Xtreu XiBfp avros *AXi(apBpQS ffiaitfis rijp rt 
mt^aXfiP teal top avx^*'^ '^^^ Kpdrepos roftvfiar^ 
/ral iroXXol aXXoi riap rjytpoptdp* dXXa icaX tus 

4 ifitaaap itc rijs dyopas rovs fiapffdpovs. Kal ip 
Toirrf> OI /car a to rtlx^^ vpoa/SeffXTjicores eprjfiop 


in. And thus after capturing the Avt cities in 
two days and enslaviog the rarvivort, Alexander 
marched against the greatest of them, Cyropolis. 
This was walled with a higher wall than the rest, 
since Cjrus had founded it; and as the greatest 
number and the most stalwart of the tribesmen of 
the district had taken refuge in it, it was not so easy 
for the Macdonians to capture it straight off. How- 
ever, Alexander brought up engines to the wall and 
proposed 00 this side to batter Uie wall, and then, as 
breaches occ ur red, to make his assaults through them. 
But when he personaDy obsenred that the channeb 
of the river which, being a winter torrent only, 
runs through the city, were dry at the time, and did 
not reach up to the wall, but were low enough to 
permit a passage to soUiers by which to pass into the 
dty, he took toe bodyguards and the shield-carrying 
guards, the archen and the Agriaoes, and while the 
tribesmen were engaged with the siege-engines and 
those assaulting on this side, he slipped through the 
channels, at first with only a few men, and pene- 
trated into the city ; then breaking open from within 
the gates whkh were on that side, ne easily admitted 
the rest of the troops. Then the tribesmen, seeing 
that their city was already in the enemy's hands, 
none the less turned apoo Alexander and his force, 
and they msde a vigorous onslaught, and Alexander 
himself was struck violently with a stone upon his 
head and his neck ; and Cratcrus was wounded by an 
arrow and many others of the officers also. Yet 
none the less they cleared the market-place of the 
Meaowhile those who had assaulted the 



fihf ^ T^ wpmrfj xaraXfi^i rrj^ iru\cM9 airiBu 
POP tAp woXtfUCfP fidXiara ^v oxra/citrxiXiov^ 
ei Bk Xoiwoi {r^aap ykp oi wdprt^ ^9 fivpiov^ xa 

Korm^tvyovcip V9 T^y tUpap, Kai roirroi/v wipi 
9Tparvw€h9vca^ *A\J(apBpQ^ ^fiipap fiiop i^pov- 
pfja€P' oi Bi M€if Charon ip9Xtipiiatk¥ a^a^ 

T^y Bji iffBo^fiP woXap ^( ^i^oBov f}ia0t, 
flroXf/AauK fUP \iy€i 8ti aitrovs ff^av (pB6yra<t' 
' Apiar6ffov\o^ Bi 5ti fii^ xal ravTtjp i(€i\€ tea 
5ti wtuna^ rov^ KaraXrf^ipra^ ip avrj a-rn 
grtiP€. UroXtfiaia^ B^ xarapglfiai \ffn avrop 
roif^ apSpmitoif^ ij arparta xai BtBtfihov^ 

awaWarrtfrtu auro^, «»9 fj^ffB^pa dwo\€int<r0ai 
TMy rifP d'K'OaraaiP wpa(aprmp. 

*Ep rovr^ Bi rAp im r^ *Kaia^ X/n/^oj. 
rrparik d^KPflrai wpo^ tA^ Sxl^a^ roO -norapoL 
ToO TnpdiBo^, aMovaaPTi^ oi iroXXol ain&p Srt 
icTiP ot KoX iStp iir* isetit^a rov tronapou $ap 
Pdptap dv * A\t(dpBpov d^taTaaiP, ttK €i B/j 11 
XoTfOv &p ^ 6(taif Ptmrtpil^oiro, icaX avroX iiri0riao- 
fitpot TOif MoMtBoaip. Kal oi dp4^ 'Z'wi.'rapivrjv 
Bk dm/yytkOff on rov^ ip MapoiCupBoi^ /caTa\(t4)- 
Bhna^ hf rj ^P<f troXiopKOViJip. "EpOa Bt/ 
*AXi(apBpo^ iirl pip rov^ dpiftl ^trirapJpijif 
*ApBp6fiaxop re diroareWti /roi MfPtBrjpop tea 
Kdpopov, iinrea^ pip exopra^ ratp iraipc^p t\ 

* ir Menu impoMibU t PtoUk MiggefU fr | Kriigv •b* 
A^mt; Abicht Jm^MT. 


wan seised it, now denuded of defenders. In the 
first capture of the city about eight thousand of the 
enemj perished; the rest — the whole number 
gadiered together there was some fifteen thousand 
fighting men — took refuge in the citadel: these 
Alexander watched, camping about them, the space 
of one day ; and then they, from want of water, 
surrendered to Alexander. 

The seTcnth dty he took without trouble. Ptole- 
maeus sajrs they surrendered ; but Aristobulus, that 
Alexander captured this also by force, and slew all 
whom he found within it ; but Ptolcmaeus also says 
that he distributed the men among his army and 
ordered them to be bound and under guard till he 
should leave their country, so that none of those 
responsible for the revolt should be left behind. 

Meanwhile an army of the Asian Scythians arrived 
on the banks of the river Tanais ; most of these had 
heard that some of the natives on the far side of the 
river had revolted from Alexander and had the inten- 
tion, should any important rising occur, to join them- 
selves also in attacking the Macedonians. News was 
also brought that Spitamenes and his troops were 
hesieging those who had been left behind in Mara- 
kaoda in the dtadeL On this Alexander sent against 
the tvoops of Spitamenes, Andromachus, Menedemas, 
and Caranus, with sixty horsemen of the Companions 



y4>iov9 wtpraMociovs* itrird^ffti ^ avroU 
Vmfitwvx'J'^ ^^ fp/iiyWa, TO fikv yipo^ Avkio¥ 

ravrji fiappdpmv fxoma xal ra dXXa ofitXtfaai 

IV. Ainro^ hi r^ iro\i¥ fjp iittPOH rt^x^^a^ iv 
fllUpai^ tJgoct «al fvifotMiaa^ 4^ avr^y r&v t« 
'£AXifM»ir /u^o^pmv ital 6art^ rmv wpaaoi 
KOwnm9 fimpBaprnv iBfiKonn^ furiax* rrys 
(vpo»sd99m% KoL TIMI9 Koi TC0V iic TOW ffTparo- 
«l^ Mtucthopmw, Scoi Jiwofiaxot ffjiy i^o^, 
BvaaK roU OmoU tK ro/MK avr^ ttal «^i0¥a 
linttMOif Tf «al yvfunmhp iroiifaaf, Mf ovir diraX 

t ToO vora/ioi;, «iXX' 4KTo(tvomts i^ top trarafAot 
impmtro, ov wXari/w ravrfj 6ma, xai Tiva icai 
wp^ CfipiP rou *AXt(apBpov ffapfiapixtt>s iOpa 
<rvpoyTo, «f ovtc Ap ro\^iij<rapTa *A\i(apBpot^ 
i'^adai '^KvBmp 4 fioBopra &p 6 riircp to 
htai^pop ^vOtUK Tf xal roU *AaiapoU fiao- 
fidponf, (nro roirrtp vapo^vvoptpo^ iv€Pott 
tiafituptip inr atnov^ ical t^9 ti^Bipa^ irapea- 

S K€va(€P iwl TM trop^, Svopipf hi M t^ Sia- 
0aa€i T^ itpi ovk iyiyptro* o 5^ 0ap€<a^ fitp 
(^€p€9 ov yiyvopiviaVt 6p<a^ hk itcapripti koI 
l/MVtv. 'n^ 3e ovtc avUaav oi ^/cvBai, av6i^ i-rrl 
ry hiafida€$ idvtro* icai av i^ iciifhvvov avrw 
arjpalptadcu *ApicravBpo^ 6 p^ivri^ e<ppal^€V' 6 
Bk Kp€iaaop i^ i^ iaxo-TOP iciphvpov iXBtlp 4 
KaT€0Tpafifi€»OP (vfiwaaop oXlyov Bup tvjv 


and eight hundred of the merceiuuries under Canmus, 
and meroenarj infantry up to fifteen hundred ; and 
he attached to these Pharnuches the interpreter, a 
Lycian br race who knew weU the apeech of the 
natives of this eountrv and in all other ways appeared 
skilful in dealing with them. 

IV. Alexander himself now spent twenty days in 
building the wall of the eity which he proposed to 
found, and arranged to settle there any of the Greek 
mercenaries and any of the neighbouring tribesmen 
who had as volunteers shared in the settlement, with 
some of the Macedonians too from the camp, so many 
as were no longer 6t for active service. He then 
sacrificed to the usual gods and hekl a cavalry and 
athletic contest; and seehig that the Scythians dkl 
not leave the river bank but were observed shooting 
arrows into the river, which was not very broad here, 
and besides uttered rough braggart taunts to insult 
Alexander, to the effect that Alexander would not 
dare to touch the Scythians, or, if he did, would learn 
what was the diflerenoe between Scjrthians and the 
barbarians of Asia, beinc much irritated bjr these he 
was minded to cnm and attadc them, ana began to 

Set readv the hides for the croMing. However, when 
e sacrinced with a view to the crossing the sacrifice 
was not favourable. At this Alexander was much 
annoyed, but yet he restrained himnelf and stayed 
where he was. However, as the Scythians still con- 
tinued, he sacrificed again with a view to crossing, 
and once more Aristander the prophet said that 
danger was signified to him. But Alexander replied 
that it was better to go to any extremity of danger 
than, after subduing almost all Asia, to be a laugh- 



*Aaiay ylXttra clvai Xtcv$aiK» KoBdwMp ^aptlo^ 
o B4p(ov warifp wdXtu iytt^ro. * Apiartufhpo^ 
^ ovic 1^ irapii r<l 4m rou diiov atifuupofitva 
SXKa dwoSti(aa$tu, Sri JlXXa 40i\€i OMOvaat 

4 'O Zip m^ at rt Bt^Btpai aCrrA wapta-- 

^wwXsafUpo^ i^tarriic€i r^ trora/A^, at rt 

^vOa^ wapiww€voin'aK iirl rp ^X^V '^^ io^riv 
Oi ainitp iTirpmamotrro 4k tAw fftXAp, civ 5t 
^ 5ak rot) ytppov t« «al rot; dmpaico^ Btap.rra( 
wXtu^K iriwrti dwo rov iirirov, oi fikw iftirXdytf- 
ca¥ vpa^ Tc rm¥ ff4\m¥ t^v ht^ fuucpoO &^9<ny 
KoX 5ti dwiip dffoBoi atnoU rmXMvr^Kttt teal 

5 6\i/yo¥ ap€X^p^tuf dwo r^ ^X^V^ *A\t(avhpo^ 
Sk rrr«Lparffii90V9 wpo^ rd 0i\f) lBo»v viro aaX- 
wirffuv htipa rov irorafiov aino^ tpfovp^vo^' 
tXirrro hi avrat gal rf dWrj arparid, llpa)rov 
ftiv h*! rov^ To(6ra^ teal roi^ a^cySorifra? diro- 
ffipdo'a^ c^€vho¥dv tc icaX i€ro(tvtiif MXtvatv 
is roifs ItcvOas, ^ fiff V€\d(€iv avrov^ rfj 
^XaT^i TMV irt^Ap iKpaivowr-n irplv trjv Xinrov 

f a\n^ CiaBffPtu irdaav. *ils oi ddpooi iirl tIj 
1^0 fi eYtPomo, dtpTJK€v t-rrl rovs 'S.KvOas to /t^v 
irporrop fuav iirtrapx'M*' twi/ (iv<av teal Ttav 
<raptaao<f>6pti»v VKas riaaapa^' koi rovrov^ 
ht^dfui'oi oi ^xvOai ical i^ kvkXovs trepwrrevovTe*: 
effaXkof T€ troXKol oXlyois, avTol Bk ov ;^aX€7ra>9 
hit^vyyavov, *A\€(apBpos ^ roik re TO^ora^ 
icaX Tovs ^Kypidvas ical rovs dWov*; ^i\ou9, 
i>v 6aXair/H>9 ^PX^* dvapi^as roU iinr€v<TW 


ig-stock to ScjihUns, as Dareius the father of 
\erxes had been long ago.^ But Aristander refused 

>> declare otherwise than the sacrifices had por- 
tended, mereljr because Alexander desired a different 

So as soon as the hides had been got ready for him 
for the crossing, and the armj in full marching order 
was drawn up on the river bank, and after the cata- 
pults, when the order was given, had hurled their 
volleys upon the Scjrthians who were riding along the 
bank, some of them being wounded by the missiles, 
and one actually pierced right through his shield 
and oorslet fell from his horse, the S^thians were 
amaifd at the long-ranM discharge of the missiles 
and at the death of one of the best men and retreated 
a little from the bank. Alexander thereupon, seeing 
them in disorder because of the missiles, sounded h^ 
bugles and began the crossing of the river, himself 
leadinff the way; the rest of the army followed 
him. lie disembarked first the archers and slingers, 
and bade them sling and shoot at the Scythians, to 
keep them from approaching the phalanx of the 
infantry as it was disembarked, before the cavalry 
had all crossed. When they were all in a body on 
the bank, he launched at the Sc3rthians first a regi- 
ment of the mercenaries and four squadrons of 
spearmen. The Sc3rthians, who were in strong force, 
awaited them, and then rode round the smaller party 
of the enemv, which kept shooting at them, while 
they themselves easily managed to escape by flight. 
Alexander then maned together his archers, the 
Agrianes, and the other light troops, under Balacms, 

> 8ss Harod* iv. Itt flbO. 



^Yvyporro. fkdaai ixiKtiwtP h avroth rAw rt 
hraipmif rp€U iwwapx'^^ '^ ^^^ IwitoKOvna* 
rk^ fvfiiramai^* xal avrh^ S^ rtfp Xoiwrfp tinrop 
Sy^w awovhy iviffaXtP opBUu^ raU tXtu^. 
06»ovp hi ouU T< icap ^€\iac€ip r^v iwiraaiav 
h xvmXovi, m "wpooBtP Irr ofiou fup ykp r) 
firvov wpoffhtwro auroiv, o/ioj) I4 oi yjtiXol 
JkpafUfuy^pa roU Iwwtvai, moX m)« ^i^ t^9 

• htiarpo^k^ aa^aXiU wottiaOoi, "Epda Xafifwpk 
V"! ^^h ^^^ ^€v$itp ^P' KoX wiwTovai fUp 
whmp is YiXiovs moI tU tup ^ftopmp, lATodMifs, 
idkm^apM is htarop xal wtprriKorra^ ils ^ 
^ him^is oftid rt maX hik gav^unos itoKKov 
raXiuwmpms iylyprro, Bl^lru t« 17 orpank waaa 
fij^rro «ai avros *Aki(tufhpos iKavpmp wipei 

9 OToSor 4*^ (fimo ip r% y^ ixd^, KaX ^p ykp 
wotnfpkif rh tomp, p€Vfia oBpoop xaraaxtjwrti 
mdr^ is r^y yaaripa' icaX iw\ r^it ^ 
ilmfis ovK ivl wavrttp %gv6Ap iyiprro* el 
3^ /Aiy, Bot€Ovatp &9 $A0i KoX wdtrrts Bui^aprjptu 
ip rf ^*^t <* M^ 'AXt(dpBp^ rh amfia ticafit, 
YiaX airros is iax"'''''*^ iu»hvpov i\0i»p iicopiaOf) 
Intiam is to a^parvwthov. Kai otrm (vpiffrj ^ 
fioirnla 'Apiardphp^, 

V. *OXi70P B4 uartpop vapd rtatf '^icvOoiv teal 
wapk rov ffaatXitPS ^Sjcvdatv d^iicvovv^ai map 
*A\^(apBpop irpiafitis, inrep tAp irpayOiprttp is 
airoXoyiop iKirtfuf>$€VT€Si on ovic diro rov xoivov 
tAp ixvOAp iwpdxOrj, dXXii icaff ap'7rayr)p 
XrjffTpnc^ rpvwfp aTa\(pra>p, ical aino^ OTi ideXti 
iroieiP rk iwayyeWofiepa. KaX rovr^ ^Xdp- 



with the emrahrj, and led them agminst the Scjrthians. 
Then« when they were quite dose, he ordered three 
regiments of the Companlont and all the mounted 
javeliiMBeD to charge tnem ; and he himself brought 
up the reat of the cavalry at full speed and charged 
with hit squadrons in column. So tne Scythians were 
no longer able to wheel round in circles as thej had 
been doing just before; for the Greek cavalry was 
now pressing them at doae quarters, and at the same 
moment the light troops, mmgUng with the cavalry, 
prevented their wheeling about to the attack with 
any security. In fact the flight of the Scythians was 
by now manifest; there feu of them about a thou- 
sand, with one of thefar ^'iwnmMid ei s , Satraces, while 
about a hundred and fifty were captured. The pur- 
suit was sharp, and was distressing because of the 
great heat, lo that all the army was consumed by 
thirst, and Alexander himself as he rode on drank 
whatever kind of water there was in that district. 
The water was, however, unwholesome, and so a 
constant diarrhoea sodden^ seised him ; and for this 
reason the pursuit did not extend to the whole body 
of Scythians. Otherwise I am inclined to think that 
they would all have perished in their flight, had not 
Alexander had this selsure. He fell indeed into 
serious danger, and was carried back into the camp, 
and In this way Aristander's prophecy came true. 

V. Soon afterwards envojrs reached Alexander 
from the king of the Scythians ; they had been sent 
to express regret for what had occurred, on the ground 
that It had not been anv united action of the S^rthian 
state, but only that of raiders and freebooters ; the 
king himself, moreover, was desirous to perform 
what was laid upon him. Alexander gave a polite 



rmhrra ft^ iwtfthmt ma\o¥ avrA i^tdvtro, otrrc 
Kark Kcupcv ^¥ iv r^ rort imfiti'at* 

t Ol hi iv Siapaxophot^ i^ r^ <<^Pf ^povpov- 
fAtPOi MaxMif^, irpoaffoXfj^ ytyofiiptj^ rf «^P? 
ig ItWirafJvmf^ re «al ritv <iM^* axnov, hrtithpa- 
fAomi^ awiterttpap rt ritv iroKM^ii^v tartv ots teal 
airmaamo ^vfiirarra^, itai avtoX dwa6tU ciirfyw- 

S pffaop is Ti)P &Kpa¥, 'tis ^ Koi oi vw *Wt(dpCpov 
iaraXM^Poi is MapoMopSa ^^ irpotrdyoprts 
^inrap^Pii iffrfyiXXopro, rifp fiip woXiopKiav 
iKXtiirti Tf^ Xc/HK, avTos hk ms is rk ffatriXtta ' 
T^ ^oyhiapffs dpty^mptt. ^appov^fS hk Kai oi 
(ifp aimp arpartfyoi awtvioprts i^Xdaai ainov 
woprdwaaiP iwl n rk opta r^ ^oy^ugpij^ 
fvptlwmrro vwoympovvn xaX fiv rovs l^opAhas 
roifs IjtvBas ovJcva Xim^'/A^ (vmffffdXXouap, 

4 "EpOa iff wpocXaffmp 6 ZwirafUPffs tAp ^scv0Av 
/virility is ifaxotriovs vpocnrripBfi tnrb rrjs (vfipa- 
X^S Ttjs ^vOtKtjs hi^aaOai iinovras rovs Ma^r*- 
hopas' waparaPdptPOs Bi iv X^P^T opaX^ irpov 
rff iprip^ Tr/^ 2,KvBtKifS inro^ipoi fi4P rovs woXt- 
piovs 4 avros is avrovs ipfiaXtip ovtc ^eX«, 
wepuwmvptp Bk frof<V€J» is rtjp ^dXayya riav 

5 rrtlfip* Kal imXavpoprmp pip avrois ra>p a/i^i 
^appovXV* i^^^ €VW€rS>St ola Brj wievriptov 
re avrois icaX ip r^ rore djcpauniptav Sprtov 
rSiv iwirvPt rois Bk dp^l * ApBpopaxop imo rt rtjs 
(uptxovs iropuas ical dfia ytXov dfropla tce/cdictaro 
^ Tmros* ptpovat hk ff viroxotpovcip irriictivro 

' BmU«i« a, bQt MAracand* wm the eapiUL PoUck 


antwer, ffaice it seemed dishonourmble not to continue 
the expedition, if he dittrutted the king, and yet it 
was not exactly the beat moment to make the 

The MacedonlanB, meanwhile, who were being 
watched in the citadel at Maracanda, on an assault 
being made on the dtadcl by Spitamencs and his 
troMia, made a sally and killed some of the enemy, 
white they drore off the whole bod¥, themselves 
retiring unharmed to the citadel. As soon, how- 
erer, as Spitamenes beard that the force sent by 
Alexander to Maraeanda was already drawing near, 
he left the siege of the citadel and himself retreated 
as if to the diief dty of Sogdiana.^ Phamuches, 
however, and the officers with him, hurrying on to 
drive him off altogether, pursued him as he retreated 
towards the frontiers of Sogdiana, and unheedingly 
made a general attack on the nomad Scythians. On 
this Spitamenes, adding to his foroe some six hundred 
Scythian horse, was encouraged by this alliance of the 
Scythians to await the Macedonians as they came 
on ; he drew up his men on a level space near the 
Scythian desert, but had no intention of merely 
awaiting the enemy or himself making a charge upon 
them, but wheeling round and round shot vohejrs of 
arrows into the infantry phalanx. Then when 
Phamuches' troops charged tiiem, they had no diffi- 
culty in riding off, their Dorses being swifter and at 
the moment fresher, while the horses of Andromachus' 
troops were distressed by the forced march and want 
of fodder, so tliat wlietber tliey stood their ground or 
withdrew, tlie Scjrthiant swooped rigoroiisly upon 

* 8oas error, poHibly. Marsflanda (Samaroaod) was 
iUelf tha oapitaL 


• w^pmarm oi IgvOmi.^ 'Ev^ 5^ itoXXmv fi^p 
rtrpmexofUvrnp i^ tmv ro(€Vfiarmp, Ifan S* i»v 
Mol wiwroprmp, h wXtU^iOP laowXtvpop rdfaint^ 
roif^ arparimra^ op^Xt^povp m M top worafiop 
rof HoXMnifAtiTop, on pdwa^ ravrrf ^r, mk /a'/t* 
T049 fiapffdpoi^ «uirrr#9 fn §7 pat iicroPtvtiP ^9 
avTois* a^i^i rt oi irf{bi m^XifAwrtpot ua* 

1 ¥iapapo^ hk o iwwdpxn^ ovk dpamoumaa^ 
*hwhooitaxf ^afiaipfiP t'wtxfipv^t "rhp irorapop 
m U da^dKjks ravTjf maracrijamp rifp imrop' 
Moi M w€fol mnr^ hn^MokovB^op, ovtc ix irapar/' 

ry A PTO airtU 4 Ii^/Ss^k fj it top wcrrapiop tcara 

• MpiifuMttt T^9 ix^"^^' K'*^ ^* ffdofiapoi alaSo- 
fiMPOi TffP dpapriop rmp Ma4rfM^i»v, aiVrois 
nnro<9 li^ci' ««! Ir^fy ifffidXXovatp it to< 
wopop, Koi M ;iiy Tc»r ^St; ^a0€0fpi6rmp /cal 
noympevrrmp ttvopro, oi M rovv Bioffaipoprat 
dpTifUrmwoi y^xy^mtt dptiXovp is top worafiop, 
oi &€ dwo rmp wXoffimp irofevop it aurovt, ol hi 

• roit €T$ iaffoipovaip iwMtpro, Aart diropia 
wdpToBgp tfi;yf;(^ofi€PO« oi Matcthoptt it prjcov 
ripa tAp ip r^ vorap/^ avp^vyovaiP ov /xrya- 
Xffp, Kfld irtpiardpTtt ainovt oi "ZkvBcu rt Kal 
oi (ifp ^irtrapiptt iwwtZt ip xvxXm irdprat icart- 
Tofftwttjr oXiyovt W TiphpawohiaapTO aurclfp, 
Mai Tourovt vdprat dirixrtipap. 

VI. * KpiorofiovXot hi ipiBpt^ rh iroXv rrj^ 
vrparuit hia<^0apfjpai Xfyci, r&p S«rt;^a>y ip 
wapahfia^ KpiH^armv, at itc rot) a^apovt ifre- 
yhfOPTo roit Matcthoaip ip avr^ r^ ^PIV ^'^ 
TOP pip ^appovxqp irapax^piip t^ fjyt^iovia^ 


them. And now as a good number of men were 
being wounded bj the arrows, and tome actually 
lallhig, the officen formed their men into a square 
and withdrew towards the river Polytimetns, where 
was a wooded ff len near bj, so that the Scythians could 
no longer eas^ ihoot at them, and they themselves 
oould make more use of their infantry. 

Caranus, howerer, the commander of the cavalry, 
without notifying Andromachus attempted to cross 
the river, hoping to get his cavalry into safety on 
this side, and the infantry followed him, not receiving 
any i n atru ctions to do so, bat making a panSc-stridien 
and dimderly descent into the river from the 
precMtoai banks. The Scjrthians seeing this error of 

moonted at they were» dashed 
from all dlr ect l oo s into the stream. Some prcMcd on 
after those who had already crossed and were retreat- 
ing, others ranging themselves athwart puUed down 
into the river those who were trying to cross, others 
again from the flanks showered arrows at them, and 
others pressed on such as were just entering the river. 
Then the Macedonians, helpless every way, took 
rcfrm In a body on a small island in the river. The 
Scythians flocking round them, with Spitamcnes' 
cavalry, in a circle, shot them all down ; a few they 
took as prisoners, bot killed aD these also. 

VI. Aristobulos, however, states that the greater 
part of this force was destroyed by an ambush, the 
Scythians having hidden themselves in a park ; then 
they suddenly ourst forth upon the Macedonians 
from their concealment just at the beginning of the 
action, just at the moment when Phamuclics was 



oai Tov^ 0ap/3apovs fiaXXo^ rt wpo^ WtftMpov 
4 hrt TM ip raU ^^049 iiyrt^laBai iaraXfUi^p, 
Tovf M McurffSoyoc rf cZmm «ai haipmn 

Ti m M^ So«f£y vo^ rk iwf/yytKfUpa inro 
'AXi(di4pov ai^TOi^ ri irarik a^ac Pfmrtpif^tiP, 
TO S« «a2 <V ai>r^ t^ 2f4i^ ov« ^^cXi^^arraf, 
CI £9 TI wraiatiav, ^ff 6aop Kar JMpa fi/opov 
Iiirrix^i9 airmutt ^XXik maX m t^ irai* aiVroi^ 
Muri*^ iffTfi^afUmv^. *Ey tovtm ^^ Tf» Oopuff^ 
Tf «ai T$ ataiUf 4wi$€fAipovs avroU roin $afy 
fidpov^ Kartutoyfrat irdrra^, MOTf iwiria^ flip 01) 
vXiriora^ tmi^ TtaaapaMoma dwo^mdijpai, irt^ov^ 
h^ is rpuuMcUwt. 
t Tavra Bi m ^Tf^^^ *AXt(dpiptf, HXytfci rt 
T^ wd6u ritp arparttrritp «al eyptt airovBrj 
iKavP€tP ms M ^wtTUfUmfp rt xal rous dfi^* 
a^op ffapffdpovs. *\pa\afimp ovp r&p rt 
iralptfP imrimp rovs fjfuatas xal rovs inraa- 
wurrks (vfiwapras xai rovs ro^oras /cal rovs 
^Aypiopas ical rijs i^dXayyo^ rovs tcov^ord- 
TOV9 ^1 «»9 iirl Mapdicapla, ipa itraprj- 
M€iP iwira/Aonfp iwvpOdpero xaX aZBis iroXiop- 

4 iceiy rovs ip Tff dxpa. Kal avros p,tp iv rpiaiv 
TffUpats Bt€X$t0P xiXious xal irtP'raKoaioifS ara- 
HovSt tJ rerdprTfj wo rrjp Ua frpoirrjyt t§ iroXei. 
^wirafi€PffS Bt teal ol dfi^* avrop, a>9 i(vTY^^V 
wpocdytav ^AXifapSpos, ovtc ifuipav^ aXX' ikXi- 

5 iroirrev rrjp woXip if>€vyov(rtp. 'O Bi ixop^vo^ 



retiring from hb cicwninanH in faToar of the Mace- 
dooiaM wlio bad been tent with him, on the ground 
tliat be was not skilled in mihtarj actions, but had 
been sent bj Alexander rather to treat with the 
natives than to act as leader in battles, while thej 
were both Macedonians and Ow n p anl oos of the kiqg. 
Andromacbits, however, and Caranus and Mcne- 
demos did not accept the command, partlj that they 
might not appear to take anj fresh action on their 
own account over and above the commands of 
Alexander ; and partly becaose in the fi^e of this 
danger ihry did not wish to take any individual share 
in defeat, thouki this happen ; much less to bear the 
blame, as a body, of having proved bad generals. 
In this confuskm and disorder the Scjrthians charged 
down and cut them down in large numbers, so that 
of cavalry not more than forty escaped, and of foot- 
soldien about three hundred. 

When thb was reported to Alexander he was much 
distressed at this disaster to his men and decided to 
march at frill speed upon Spitamenes and the tribes- 
men with him. Accordingly, he took half of the 
Companions* cavalry, the archers and the Agriancs, 
and, of the phalanx, the lightest-armed, and marched 
on Maracanda , whither he had learnt that Spitamenes 
had returned and was again besieging the garrison in 
the citadel. Alexander traversed fifteen hundred 
stades in three day^, and 00 the fourth about dawn 
approaehed the city. But Spitamenes and his troops, 
Iraminff that Alexander was drawing near, did not 
await him but Icfl tlic city and fled. Alexander pur- 



at^Twv ilU»K€ir m^ hk M top x^P^" ^'^^ ^^ 4 
fuixv iyhfrro, 6d^^ towv erparulna^ ol>^ iK 
TMV wapotnttp tlwrro l^rt iwl rffp Ifpfiuov rol^ 
^vycvoiP, *EgtW€P r aiNiarpi^¥ hropBu rrfp 
X«^MU^ '«^ Tovv ^ T^ ipv^ara xarawt^vyora^ 
TiMr fiapfidpmp imruvtw, on (wnrtSiaOai ^^777^- 
Xorro «al aiVrol roiv Ma«c5o0'i* gal iwrj\0§ 
iratrav rrfp ^mpap 6afi¥ 6 irorafio^ o IloXtrr** 

6 fitiro^ iiriipimp iwtpxrrai, "Ipa £c oAtud^rrai 
Tip worafi^ ro Cl^p, 4intv$€P ij^ ro tw* iictlva 

woXXov ii¥ vtato^, is rfjw yjrtifi^op. Kal JLXXoi 
irora/AOi woavrtts itctl a^i'ifoi^rai prydXoi teal 
Jihnmm, 6 rt "EnrapBos, is jt^g hik Mdphttp rijs 
^tipav* Mai *Ap§tos» irov hrmpvfios ti rmp ^Kptimv 
ffi ioTi, xtu 'BrvfuufBpos, hs I* KtW/ryrrwy piti. 

7 Kal tlal (vfifraprts ovroi TtjXniovToi irorafioi 
«k>^TC ouhtls avTtap fuittp iarl roO Urji^ttov roi 
%€ff9akiKOv worapov, ^ Stk fitv 'Vtpiritp pimp 
imiiiot €s SdXaeeoP' o Bi UoXvrlprfros voXv 
Iti pti^otp 4 Karii top Ufipaop worapop iffrt. 

VII. Tavra Si hawpa(dp€vos is Zapiaoira 
a^urcTo* teal airrov tcariptp^p tart wapeXBtiv 
ro dxpaiov rov xci/««»m>«. *Ev roint^ oi a0t- 
Koyro trap* avrop ^^para^ptnjs re 6 \\ap6vai<av 
aarpdirtfs xal ^raadpmp 6 is *Ap€lovs dtro- 
W€p4>^tls a»9 *Apadprjp <rvWrjylr6ti€Pos, rov re 
*Apadprjp heltpipov dyovrts ical hap^avrfv, 
opriva Brjaaos t^ HapOvaivp aarpdfrrjp tcari- 
tmf<r€t teai ripa^ aXXot;^ twv tot* Pvv Bff<r<rf» 
2 d-noartivrtap. *Y\icop hi ip rip avrio Etto/tcXXo^ 
ica\ WtXapviha^ icaX {\ro\e polos 6 rAv Sp^Koau 


sued him dosely; and when he reached the place 
where the battle took place, he buried the soldiers as 
best he could and followed the fugitives right up to 
the deaert. Thence he turned back, and ravaged 
the district, and slew such of the tribesmen as bad 
taken refuge in the forts, because they too were 
reported to have joined in the attadc 00 the M ace- 
ckmians. He traversed the entire country which the 
river Polytfanetas waters, but when the water of the 
river comes to an end, thence bcvond the eoontry 
is an desert: the stream, though of considerable 
volome of water, vanishes into the sand. Other 
rivers, great and perennial ones, disappear there in 
the same way ; the Epardus, which runs through the 
Maidian country, the Areins, which gives its name to 
the co untr y Areia, and the Ebrmandrus, whkrh runs 
through tbe country of the Eueigetae. All these 
rivers are of a siie such that none is smaller than the 
Peneius, the river of Theasaly which ruas through 
Tempe and discharges into the sea ; the Poly timctus, 
however. Is out of all comparison larger than the 

VII. When Alexander had completed this, he 
arrived at Zariaspa; and there he remained till the 
depth of winter should pass. Meanwhile there 
came to him Phrataphemes the satrap of Parthyaea 
and Stasanor who had been sent to Areia to arrest 
Arsames, bringing Arsames in chains, and Barsanes, 

whom Beams nad made satrap of Parthyaea; and 
others also of those who had revolted with Bessus. 
There arrived at the same time from the seaooast 
Epodllus and Mclamnidas and Ptolcmaeus the 



rrpaTfrt^ orwo $a\a<raff^, ot rd rt XP'if^'''^ 
[ra] fv9 MhnjTi it€fA^6ivra koX rov^ (vfifsaY^v^ 
m htl BdXoffeap ieartiyayo¥, Kal 'Aaawipos 
Si ^v rovr^ 4'f MoX Siapvo^, arpankv 'BXXi;- 
9UP fuado^ptdv dyotrrt^tKa^ Bffaao^ rt o ^vpia^: 
aaTpdmj^ gai *Aa«\f^io5Mpo9 o Oirap\o^ ano 
6aXdcaif^, xal ovroi arparikp dyoyrt^, 
S 'Eifda hff (v\\oyo¥ iic rity wapotrrttv ^vpa- 
yaym^ *A\ifa¥^po^ waprjiyaytp h airroif^ HSjaaotf 
KoX tcartiyoptica^ r^y dap^lov irpohoaiap rt')¥ r# 
fihta Bi^aoi; awvr^BfiiHU maX r^ Stra ax pa 
iKikMvatp, avTOp B^ is *Eg0draia SytaOeu, ak 
dm ip T<fi MifSiiar re koX \\9pcw ^vXkorfip 

4 dwaOtunuftMPOP. K«U iym o&r€ rrjp dytuf ravrijv 
Tifimpiap Biiaffou iwaum, uWd papfiapiKiji' 
cZmu rtSt/AOi TUP oMpmrripimp rifP Xmffffp «a< 
{nrayfiijipa$ *A\i(€Ufipop (vft^tffu i^ frjXop rov 
MffCiMov Tff col iltpaucov irXovTou moI rfj^ tcard 
Tovs ffapfidpovs fiaaiXias ovtc laijs is touv 
{mrjMoovs fi/i^iaiTi7<rfoK* iaOCfrd rt on MrjBttcr)P 
dtnl rrjs McurcSoi^ic^ rt xaX warplov 'Wpa- 
k\(1^ &p fAtr€\a0€P, ov^firj iircupm, xaX rnp 
xirapip rrfp Htpancfjp rwp p€PtiCT)fUp«tP ami tap 
ainos o pikAp irdXai i^6p€i dfuv^ai ovk hrp- 

5 BiaBfj, ovBtp Tovr^p ivaipA, dXX^ tl-ntp ri dXXo, 
Kol rd *AX((dphpov fnydXa irpdyfiara is reicfirj- 
piwaiP ri6€fULt ^ ourt to awfia or<p girf tcaprg- 
pop, oCrt oatis yhti iiri^<iptjs, ovrt icard iroXt- 
pop tl Sij Tts Bitvrvx^^V ^'''^ pdXXop ij *AXi(apBpoSt 
ovhi Ci rrjp Aiffvfjp T19 trpos rj *Aaia, tcaOdirep 
citfP iwcpoei i/c€iPOS, imrtpiirXevaas tcarda-x^it 
ovSi c/ rrjp Eifpwrmjp iwl r^ ^Aaia rt xal Ai^vrj 



generml of the Huradans; they had escorted the 
tfeasnre teat with Menes and the allies down to the 
sea. Asander also came at this time and Nearchus, 
bringing a Greek mercenary force, and Bessos the 
satrap of Sjrria, and Aselepiodonis the depaty, from 
the sea, they also bringing an amy. 

Then Alexander summioned a conference of those 
with him and brought oat Bessos before them, and 
accusing Bessos of treachery towards Dareios and 
commanded that his nose and tips of the ears shoold 
be cot off, and that he shoold be carried to Ecbatana, 
there to be put to death in the full gathering of Medes 
and Perrians. This over-punishing of Bessus I 
cannot approve ; I regard as barbaric the mutilation 
of the extremities, and I agree that Alexander was 
carried away to the extent both of copying Medio 
and Persian splendour, and also the fashion of barbaric 
kings to treat their subjects as lower creatures. Nor 
do I at all commend his taking to Median garb instead 
of the Macedonian traditional dress, especially since 
he was a descendant of Heracles. Moreover, he did 
not blush to exchange the head-dress he had long worn 
as a conqueror for the tiara of the conquered Persians. 
I commend none of these things, but I hold that 
Alexander's own splendid achievements prove, if 
aught can prove, that neither vigorous bodily strength 
nor splendour of birth nor greater fortune in war than 
Alexander's own, nor if anyone might sail round 
Libya and Asia and subdue them both, as Alexander 
intended, nor if one might add Europe as a third, 
over and above Libya and Asia — that not one of these 



rpirtip, rovrmw ovSitf ri 6^X9^ /? MeuftovUip 

rmur^ ry &9$pmW^ rut ra um'^uXa, tlu: ^meti, 

wpayfiarA wpafarrt. 

VIll. *Kj^a oif xal to KA.fiTOf tov JkpwTrioov 
waBtifia Koi rrj¥ *A\t(dy6pov /tr* avrCt (vfi/^opdv, 
m ttal oXir/op vcrtpop hrpdi($fi, ovk If^ rov 
Mupov d^fiy^ofuu. KZmu /«£ 7^ fffJp€Uf Upitv 
raO ^topucov Ma^tB^i xai $vtip iL^opva^ oca 

S frif hf avr^ *A\4(ap6po¥' rhw hi rov ^ovvaov 
ftkv iv r^ TOT« <l^x4va4 Xiyovat, ^oatcovpotf 
Bi $y9at, i^ Srov ^ iwt^paaBima rolp Aio- 
9m9VfiOi9 ryiv Bvcuuf* wippm Bk rov worov 
wpoloirro^ (col ytip nal t^ tmv worup ^ly *AX«- 
(dpBpy ^ T^ ffapffapiMmrfpop p€P€mr 4 ptaro), 
cUX* ip ft r^ ^^¥ ^^* vwip roip ^toa/covpotf 
X070V9 yiypwBait vwm^ h Ckia JuntpiyBrt avroh 

t 4 yiPtat^ J^^€Up9$€tca TvpBdptm. Kai riva>i 
rmp wap6prmp koXomm r^ *A\t(dpBpov, oloi iij 
JMpt^ Bii^itpdp Tf omI xal ovwort iravaoprai 
hrirpiffoprt^ T<k rmp fiaaiXimp vparffiara, tear 
ovBhf d(iovp av/tffdXXttp *AXt(dpBpip re teal roU 
*AXt(di^pov fpyots TOP UoXvMKtfP xal rov 
Kdaropa, Oi Bi ovBi rov 'WpeucXiov^ air«i;^oyTo 
ip T<p voT^* dXXa TOP ^opop ykp ifiiroBotp 
urrturOeu rol^ (iwai to /Atf ov r^^ Bixaia^ rtfiit^ 
avToU €« rAp (vpoprmp yiyvtaSai, 

4 KXciToy Bk hrfKop flip tlvai wdXai rfBrj d\$6' 
fAtPOP rov Tf *A\e(dpBpov rjj i^ ro fiapPapiKut- 
rtpop fi€TaietPii<rei kcu ratp KoXaxevoprtav avrop 
T0i9 \6yot^' Tore hi icaX avrop irpo^ rov otpov 
irapo(vv6fUvop oinc iap ovrt h ro dtlop vffpi^eip, 


things it of any use to mmke a man's happiaeta, 
iinloi the man that has done, in the eyes of the world* 

hese mighty deeds, has learnt the mastery of hioMelt 
VIII. At this point it wiO not be ontrasonable to 
relate abo the death of Cleitus son of Dropides and 
wliat happened to Alexander sAcr it; even though it 
actually ooeurred later. The Macedonians kept a 
festival of Dioojrsus and Alexander sacrificed to him 
vcarlj on the festival ; it \s said that only on this par- 

icular occasioo Alexander neglected Dionysus bat 
saerificed to the Dioscuri, haviiy^ for some reason de- 
cided thus to sacrifice to the DicMcuri. However, the 
drinking was prolonged (and, in fact, Alexander had 
already taken to barbarie ways in drinking as well), 
and in the oonrse of the drinking bout talk occurred 
about the Dioscuri, and how their Csthcrhotxl was no 
longer attributed to Tjrndareus but referred to Zeus. 
Some of the company, that tjrpe of men who alwajrs 
have spoiled and always will continue to harm the in- 
terests of the reigning monarch, out of flattery to 
Alexander, save oot as their opinion that there was no 
comparison between Castor and Pollux and Alexander 
and Alexander's achievements. Others being as 
they were in drink, did not e%'en stop short of 
Heracles; it was only envy, they said, which stood 
in the way of those vet livins and kept them from 
receiving their due honours nom their contempor- 

Cleitus, however, had clearly, for some time past, 
been dist re sse d both with Alexander's change to- 
wards the more barbaric style and the expressions of 
his flatterers ; and now under the stimulus of wine he 
could not permit them to offer these insults to divine 



kImu ykp ovif qM r^ *A\t(di^pou oOrtt r^ 
tt/TfoXa KoX BavfULork m9 i^tiwoi iwaipovau^- 
oCicoirp /MMT ft gmrawpa(ai avrd, d\\A to 
iroXir yif lUfo% MoMMtmp dy<u rk ipya, Kai 
roOroy tm» xiyop dmaetu *KKi(apBpa¥ Xt^hna 
OM iym iwoitm tov X^tov, dXXa Itcaiip fkp 
cZmu rtOtfiOi ip ToiaB^ wapmUa th naff* atnof 
Wfmrrm l^''*^ M<7^« '^^ airra roU iXXoi^ €<? 

• MOknMtUuf »X»;/4/*«X«Ar. 'H^ Bi ttal ritv <l>iXiV- 
wov TU^^ fpy^Pt ^T« ov firfdXa oM Bavfiaara 
^tXlww^ garewpaxBti, ovS^fua (i/p UMjf iv^fipij- 
cBijaaw, Ya^{o/*#i«i «al o^oi 'AX«(ay3^, rov 
KXtlrop tjifi ovxhi ip katnov Spra irp€C0€V€tv 
fiip Tik roO <t>iXiinrov, KaraffaWgiP ^ *A\i(av- 
hpop T€ Koi rk rovTov ipya, irapoipovpra ^jlv 
TOP KXmItop, rd r§ iXXa xal woXvp tlvai 
i(oP€$Bi(ot^a *A\t(dpBp^ Sri wpa^ ainov dpa 
iemBfi, owort ^ iwwo/iaxuL i iirl Vpapnc^ 

7 {vMianf/rffi wph^ Tlipirav xal ^ icai r^v ^(ikv 
Tf/P avTov aojSapik apartipapra, ACrff <ye rf X^^P* 
Sapoit M *A\t(apSp€, tp T^ TOT« /(TAxrf. Kai 

Uii^uftpop ovMtri ^€p€Uf rov KXdrou rrjv 
wapoipiap T« teal CffpiP, dXXJk dvamfhap ykp 
(up opyi iw* avrop, /caTiYiaOeu 5i viro rtav 
(vfifwipoprmp, KXmItop Sk ovx dpttpai vffplfovra, 

8 *AAifay5iK>9 Si iffoa dpaxaXStp rovs vwaairiard^* 
ovUp^ ii uwascovopro^, i^ raink eif>rf tcaOearrj- 
icipai ^ap€i^, owort rrpo^ hi^aov t« teal rtav 
dp/^ ^fjaaop (i/XXi7^eU fiytro ovht ri dWo on 
prj Spopa ^p fiamXiws. Ovkovp eri oiov^ re 


bdngt, or, bj belittling the deeds of the heroes of ok), 
to do to Alexander this kindness that was far from 
kind. He felt that Alexander's achievements were 
not so great and wonderful as thej exaggerated them 
to be; nay, Alexander had not achiered them bj 
himself, but tbej were for the great part Mace- 
donian achievements. When he uttered these 
thottffhts, Alexander was deeply hurt. I do not com- 
mend Cleitus' words, either ; I rather think it enoogh, 
amid such drunkemiew, for a man to keep his own 
views to himself, and so avoid the errors of flattery 
of the rest. However, when some even referred to 
Philip's achievements, quite uignstly tugseiting that 
Philip had done no creU or wonderful oeeds* these 
also trying to fnU^ Alexander, Cleitus could no 
loncer contiol nfanself and spoke up on behalf of 
Phflip's sc h teycBi en ts, making little or Alexander and 
his ; and being now heated with wine, among other 
things he even became voluble in reproadies to 
Alexander, that alter all Alexander owed his life to 
him, when the cavalry battle on the Granicus wst 
fought with the Persians ; and, what is more, holding 
out with a superb air his right hand, cried, " This very 
hand, Alexander, saved you then ! " On this Alex- 
ander could no longer brook the drunken arrogance 
of Cleitus, and leapt up in anger to strike him, but 
wss hdd back by his boon companions. Still Cleitus 
did not restrain his insults. Thcrrupon Alexander 
shouted out, calling on his bodyguard ; but as no one 
obeyed, he cried that he had come to the same pass 
as Dareius, when he was led prisoner by Bessus and 
his confederates, and that he had nothing now left 
of king but the name. No longer could his friends 


fflwii KariyMiv avrhv rov^ iraipov^, dXX* ^Ua- 
Wff^^turra ykp ol fUw \oyxi)9 apwdaai \4yov<rt 
rmp cmfiaroipvXiUmp tim^ teal ravrp iraicat^ra 
KXflrop awtMcrtufoi* oi hi adptaaatf itapk rm' 

% ^vXojcmp r^po^ xal ravrp} *Kfnrr6fiov\o^ tk 
oOtP lUw 17 wapoivla mpfirjOfi ov Xiytr KWtoi; 
6i y€p4c$ai ftopov rifp dfuifrriap, op y€, mpytafU- 
pov ^Kkt^dphpov KoX dpawffBijcapTo^ iir aurop 
•9 Itay/nfaofUpov, tLwayOrjpoi fikp Bt^ Bvpitv 
S(m vw4p TO T««YOf r« KturtiP rdi^pop rif^ Mpa^, 
ipa iyiprro wpo^ UroXtfuUov rov \dyov rov 
^mftATO^XoMOf ov Kapnrtpfiaapra h4 opa- 
9r pi ^ m $ mi$»/9 maX wynwrrii 'AXi^opBp^ yf- 
pivBtu KXtlrop apoMaXovtni, kqX ^optu 5ti 
OvTo^ Toi ^M o KX«iTo^, ft» *K\A(a»ipf iceX iv 
rovrm wXifyipra rj aapiaaji dwoOapuv. 

IX. KaX iym KXtlrop pip r^ C0ohp^ r^ h rhp 
fiaaiXia top alnov p^yaXmarl pip^opoi, *AXi- 
(tUfBpop Si TTf^ avp^pd^ oiicrtipm, ort Bvoiv 
MucoiP hf Tip rort tfrrrfpipop iwiBaftP aurov, 
^* 5r»y S^ KoX rov hipov ovk hrioiM€P &phpa 
am^popovpra i^ifrrdaOcu, opyij^ t« itaX wapoipia^. 

S *A>JUk tA iwl TotaBt av iwaum *AX$(dvBpov, 
irt wapamUa iyptt ayerXiOP Spyop ipyaad- 
/«cyo9. Koi XtyovoiP §iaip ot top *AXJ(apBpof 
5ti iptUra^ Tfjp adpiaaav wpo^ rov rolxov itn- 
wivrg^p iypMU atnj, m^ ov tcaXop auT<p (fjv 

S dwotcrtipopri ^LKop alnov ip oIp^, Oi iroXXol 
Bi (vYfpa^U rovTO pip ov Xiyovap* dwtXBopra 

' rmi^ (from Siiitenu) ■iiwim naoeMAry : bat tbert i» mj 
Bead to rMMBt 9m(p. Kx. AvMrr. Arriba oao um hmckjlogy 

wh— ho en p o t fc 



hold him back ; but he leapt up and, as some saj, 
soatdied a spear from one of the guaxd and therewith 
smote and slew Clcitus ; but, according to others, a 
long pike from one of the guard, and with this slew 
liim. But Aristobulus, while not telling us the origin 
of this drinking bout, holds that the entire fault laj 
in CleitiiSy finoe he, as Alexander broke into pastkm 
and leapt up to slaj him, was hurried away through 
the doors over the wall and ditch of the citadel^ 
where all this happened, by Ptolemaent ton of I^agus, 
one of the bodyguards; and yet he did not stay 
there, but hurried back; and arriving just as Alexan- 
der was calling out " OeitiisI " himMlf cried, '* Be- 
hokl, ber« b Clcitus, Alexander! " and there and 
then was wnfttrn with the pike and so died. 

IX. I myself strongly blame Geitus for his insult- 
ing behaviour towards his king ; Alexander I pity for 
tMs miihap» rinoe he showed himself therein the slave 
of two vieesy by neither of which any self-respecting 
man should be overcome, namely, passion and drun- 
kcnncM. But for the sequel I coounend Alexander, 
in that he immediately perceived that he had done 
a foul deed. Some say that Alexander leaned the 
pike against the wall, intending to fall upon it him- 
self, as no longer worthy to live when he had slain a 
friend through drunkenness. But most historians do 
not relate this. They tell us that Alexander took to 



Bk i^ r^r €MfP K€te0at oBvpofitPOW, avrop r§ rot- 
KXtiro9 opofutarl dt^axaXovvra xal t^p KXtirov 
flip a£cX^i;y, a\no» hk dpaSpr^afUtnfw, Aoi'iV'/i 
Tffp AptrwiSou watBa, mc «<iX4 apa avrj rpo^la 

rov^ iairnj^ uwkp avrou fiaxofUvov^ hrtl^v 
awoBoPowra^, rhtf 6UX^p ^ avr^ airro^ atrro 
X^^pif l«TtiM* ^ot4a Tff t6v ^^X«»y ou SiaXfiVtfif 
avrhp oMuraXot/rra, Hatrotf rw Mai Hmroy leap- 
rtp4Uf I^Tf /wl rptU fffiipa^, oM t^p dWriv 
$€pawtlap $tpaw€vcai to aitpa, 

• Koi hr\ rouroK tmi^ fiotntmp Tiy<f u^»'ii' ^« 
Aiori^oi; ^^v, irt rj $vala t(t\ti^fi AX(f<ii'- 
^Plf 4 '''^ Aiovvtfoi/. Kal *AXi(ar^>o^ /^<^ 
vpov TMv halpmv wtte0€i^ aitov t« ^aro /rai 
TO eitpa Kottm^ ^ i$€p«nnvar koX t^ Aioiwp Ti^t^ 
dvaiap aW&»«#v, ^irtl ovS^ aur^ &KOvr$ ^v ^v 
/A^v Toi) f'fioi; fMoKXop ti ^ t^v alnov Ktucortfra 

• Aia^ptaBai rijp (vfi^pdp, Taura firyaXmarl 
iwaipm *AXf(dpBpov, to fii/rf diravBahd^aoBtu 
iirX KOM^, MT^ wpoardrfip re col f^vpr/yopoi 
KomUupa <hi ytpiaBai rov dfiaprfiBtpro^, dkkd 
^VftMcoi ykp hrraiieivai dvOptairop yt 6pra, 

7 Ei<ri 8# o< Xryovffip *Apd(apxop top ao^tcrrip 
iXOfiP U4P irap *A\i^at'hpop tcXffdtpra, «« wapa- 
fivOff^op€vov €vp6vra hk K€ip€POP ical iinari 
poprat* ^7rty€\d(rapra, dyvoeip, ^dpoi, iiori i-m 
t^3c oi irdXai ao^X dpBpe^ rijp Ai/n/v irdp€hpop 
T^ Ail ivoiffaap, «9 o Ti Av wpo^ rov Aio^ 

1 nurdff, *'grodgingljr,** m%y be riglil. Rohl givM iAA»i. 



his bed and Uy there Umenting, crying out the name 
of CkHas and of Cleittis' sister, Lanice daughter of 
Dropides, who had nursed him : '* What a fine gift for 
her nufting had he given her, now come to man's 
estate ! she had seen her sons die fighting for him, 
and now with his own hand he had murdered her 
brother." He kept again and again calling himself 
the slayer of his friends, and Uy three dajrt without 
food or drink, and carele« of all other bodily needs. 

Here u pon tome of the prophets kept uttering hints 
of wrath from Dionysus, beesnse Alexander had 
neglected the sacrifice to Dkmysus. With some diffi- 
culty Alexander was brought by hU friends to take 
food, and took some slight care of his person ; then 
he paid the due sacrifice to Dionysus, since indeed 
he was not unwilling that the disaster should be 
referred to divine wrath rather than to his own evil 
nature. In this I have high commendation for 
Alexander, that he did not braxcn out his evil act, 
nor degrade himself by becoming champion and 
advocate of his misdeed ; but confessed that, befa^ 
merely human, he had erred. 

Some authorities say that Anaxarchus the Sophist 
came by si i mmnni to Alexander to console him, and 
folding him lying moaning, laughed at him and said 
that Alexander had not learnt that the old philoso- 
phers made Justice to sit by the throne of Zeus just for 



KVom$%, rovro f vv ^17 wrwpayfUpotr leal o ^ 
Ktu rk im ffactXit^ fAtydKov ytypofitpa iUata 
Xprfpai pofuf^ioOoi^ irpmra ^ikv wpo^ ainov 

8 Tatha «tvorr« wt^pafwBtioaaBai /i«v *AX<^ai^poy 
hf T^ TOTf* teaMW ^ /a^to, mi iym ^n^t, i^pya- 
vaoBai *A\«(dpip^ xal fAti(o¥ fri ^ ^"^^ t<^^ 
(vmixrro* ttwtp oIp ao^v up^po^ rnplt iypm 
T^r B6^€u^, m od rk iUma ipa xM ^irovl^] 
iwiXtyofi€PC9 wparrttp rop fiaaiXla, iXKk 6 ti 
ibf «a2 iwmi ovp im ffm ^ tX im^ wpax^j, rovro 

• lUtuop pofii^tip. *Em'd Mol mpoaKvpu9$(u 
MXtiP *A\J(ap6pop XoyoK xarix^^ tnrovatfi fiip 
avrm KoX rr/i ufn^t rov *AfiftmPOi warp&i fioKKop 
r« ^ <t>iXiWoy Sofi;^, Savfidfopra 2^ ^^ r^ 

KOI r^ iXXi^ 6kpawMi rj /icroiroo'/iii^ci. Ot>iv 
Mtf^OA 5^ oi^Stf v;w« roi>ro a^^ rovi KoKatc^in 
^ atrro ipiilctna^, XXXov^ ri ripa^ leal Brj tea 
rmp ao^i^rmp rmp afi^'* f^^op 'Apafap\6p t< kq i 
^Aytk *Apj9ie¥, iwowotop, 

X . YiaXkicBhnip hk top *OXup$wp *Apiaror4\ovs 
r< tAp XtTfUP Stojcif/toorra xal top rpawop 5pra 
inraypoiKortpop ovk ivaittXp ratha. Tourov piv 
hfi iptKa KoX airroi KaWtaOipti (vp/^tpopar 
iictipa hi oifKrri iirt€nei) Box A rov KaXXiaBtPov*: , 
tlw€p a\ff$rj (vyyiypaimu, on v^* ainjt [tc] thai 
airt^tpt Kal tJ ainov (vyypa^^ *AXi(auSp6v re 
S Kal ra WXtfaphpov tpya, Ov€ovp atnoi a^lxdai 
i^ *AXt(dphpov ho^ap xrrieopMPOi, aXXJi ixtipor 
€VM\€a cV apBpfSnrovi votij^mp. Kal ovp teal rov 
Oeiov rrjp ptrovalap *A\e(dpBp^ ovx i^ iiv 



this reason, that whatsoever is done by Zens b done 
with Justice ; even so what is done bj a great King 
should be held just, both by the King himself and by 
an the world. With these words he consoled Alexan- 
der for the time but I say that he did Alexander a 
wrong more grievou s than the trouble which beset 
him; if indeed be gave this opinion as that of a philo- 
sopher, that the King need not really give all diligence 
to choose out and dojiistdee(b,bat that we must hold 
whataoever the King does, in whatsoever way it may 
be done, to be just. For the tale goes that Alexander 
<*ven desired people to bow to the earth before him, 

<im the idea that Ammon was hl<i father rather than 
Philip, and lince he now emulated the ways of the 
Persians and Medea, both by the change of his garb 
and the altered arrangements of his general way of 
life. It b said that he had no ladi of aealoos flatterers 
who jrielded to him in thb, and not leaft among them 
AnaxarchoSt one of the Sophbts at hb court, and 
Agb of Argoa, an epic poet. 

X. Callbthenes of Oljmthus, however, a pupil of 
Aristotle, and with lomething of the boor in hb 
character, did not approve all thb, and herein I agree 
with Callisthmet. But I think quite out of place the 
remark of CaUlsthenes (if correctly reported), that 
Alexander and hb achievements were all dependent 
OQ himeelf and hb hMory. He himself (he said) 
hoped for no glory fai eoming to Alexander, but 
rather to make Alexander famous in the sight of 
men ; and again, that Alexander's share in divinity 


VOU t. M 


'OXtz/AViAc uwip T^ y€via€ta^ airrou ylr^v^ai 
^t nifnifedoi, aXX* ^f mv &p airrou vwkp *A\ti^ n 

S fyov (vyy pdyfra^ i^wrfKjf h atfOpiintov^, I . . 
ti oi Koi rdh4 dptypayfrav, <k &pa »;prro wore 
ai^Tov <l>iX4rrac, omya ofoiro /iaXi^ra TifAtjBrjifai 
wpo^ rrk *A0fi¥ai^p iroXttts' ro¥ Bk dwotcpt- 
imaBtu \pfMi6hio9 koX * Aptaroytiropa, Sri rot 
frtpo¥ roi¥ rvpdmHHP iitrtiHU^ Kal rvpayviSa 6ti 

4 KariKvctLV, *Epi^ai atOiK rop ^iXmrop h t^ 
rvpapvop tcruptuni inrdpxti irap* oCarufa^ idikti 
ritp 'EXXi^y ^vyoma cmt^taStu* mai diroicpl- 
poaBai auBi^ KaXkiffdirvfp, c* xal fifi vap* 
JLXXov^, wapd 7« *A6fiPaiov^ on ^vyovri irrrdpvfi 
ffml^€a0ar rovrov^ ykp koX wpo^ Kvpuaffta 
woXtfiffcat irwip ri»¥ wmh^p rm¥ '\\pak\iovs, 
rvpavpovvra iw r^ rort rrj^ 'EXXa5o9. 

• Twip Bi T^^ wpaaicvy^ttt^ 5irttK ffpatniioOtj 
*AXiPapBpm, tcaX rot6aB€ narixti \6yo^, s,vy 
Ktiauai fUP ykp t^ *A\t^d»hp^ wpo^ toi/v 
ao^urrds tc xaX rov^ <'/^* tLvrow HtpcSiy tcai 
Mt&vv rov^ hoictfutrdrov^ ^vijfir)v rov \6yov 

• roiSt iv iroTfi iliSaXthf dp(tu hi roO \6you 
^A^dfapxop, m iroXv hucaiortpop ^ Oiop vofut^o- 
fifpop *A\i^apBpop Aiopvaov tc xal *HpaK\(ovii, 
fUf Sri rStp Spymp SpMxa Sea icaX ^Xiira icara- 
whrpaxrai *A\t(dphpfp, dXXk teal Sri £^i6waos 
/tip ^tffidios tfp, ovhtp ri irpo<ri^tc»p Ma«e- 
B6<ri, icai 'WpaKXfff *Apy€lo^, ovSi ouro^ trpo- 
atjtctitp, Sri fit) Karh yivo^ ro *AX((dvSpov 

7 'HpaxXfiSrfv ydp elvai * AXtfapSpov MtueeBopa^ 
B( av rov a4>^P WaaiXia hiicaiorepov Oeiai^ ri^aU 
tcoafiovvra^, Kai ydp ovBi itceivo cImu dp.*f>i- 



did not depend on Oljmpias' fanciful story of his 
birth, but upon his own account of Alexander which 
shoold be given to the world in his history. Some 
relate too that Philotas oooe asked him whom he 
thought to be held in highest honour by the Athen- 
ians; and he replied, Hannodius and Aristogeitcm, 
because they slew one of the two tjrrants, and 
destroyed the tyranny. Then Philotas asked him 
again if a tyrannicide could 6nd a safe refuge among 
any of the Greeks he wished ? and Callisthenes again 
answered that if not elsewhere, at least if he fled to 
Athens such a one would be safe, since the Athenians, 
on behalf of the children of Herades, had even fought 
against Eurysthenes, who was tyrant then over 

And •» to CallUthenes* opposition to Alexander in 
the matter of bowing to the ground before him, there 
is a story as follows. It had been agreed between 
Alexander and the Sophists and the most illustrious 
of the Persians and Medes at his court that tliere 
should be mention made of this topic at a wine- 
party; Anaxarchus began t^ '. ct, saying that 
it would be far more just to r Mexnnder a god 
than Dionysus and Heracles, not so much because of 
the many great achievements of Alexander, but also 
because Dionjrsus was a Theban, and had no con- 
nection with Macedon, and Heracles an Argive, also 
unconnected with Macedon, save by Alexander's 
descent, for he was a son of Heracles; but that 
Mneedonians were more justified in honouring their 
own U^ with divine honours. For in any case there 




XI. \tyfihnmp tk rovrmw t< koI roiovrnv 
Xoyt*!' wp<K *Apa(dpxov, rov^ /Uv /«rrfo^«oTav 
T^ /Soi/X^v iwtui^ip Tov Xo7oir col 6^7 iOiXttp 
fyxt^at rif^ wpocxyptjatt^* tov^ Mcut«5oMi« 5t 
rovs woXXovs iAaxpfUiioy% r^ ^^71* ^*yp ^^<*'' 

S KaXXia^<*^/y M inroXa^orro* *AX^ayopor /a«i/, 
uwtip, m 'Apd^apxft ov^fuas dvafiop utto- 
Stupm Ttfiff^ Scat \vfiftrrpoi ayOpmw^* AkKa 
ouuc^KpiaBai yao roU apdpmwots oatu t« i»$fm- 
iriMu Ti/Aa2 ical 5aa« ^€uu iroXXoif /i^*^ «ai 
aXXoK. MaBdwtp vamp t« olxohofkn]a9i tcai dyaXfxd- 
rmp dpaardati «al rt^mj 5ti Toif ^fOiv i(atptiTat 
Kol Ovrrcu txtivotK xal awit^Brroi, Mai (ftuH>i fuv 
i^ T0V9 6€ov^ wotovtnoi^ i'WMPoi ^ ^ ayupmirovs, 
arip oux *J*ctara r^ rij^ trpoaxvpiictm^ pop^' 

t T0V9 pip yttp dpSpmnov^ ^tXtloBeu wo^ twp 
dawal^Ofiip^p, to 0«Iop 14, Sri &»m irov lopvpivov 
Kcd oM yfrav^ai ainov 6ipn^» iwl t^5c dpa rfj 
irpoatevpijff€i ytpalptrai, teal x^pol roU OtoU 
larapra* xal waiOPt^ hrl roU 0€oU fboprat. 
Ka\ ovhkp Savpoirrop, onrart yt leal ainutp rSiv 
6fo»p dXXoi^ d\\ai rtpal irpoffxttprat, xal pal 
pa Aia ffpwatp dWat, icai atrrai diroictKpipivai. 

4 rov Btiov. OttKOVP tlico^ (vp,irapra rain a dpa 
rapdtr copras rov^ pip dp6p<oirov^ i^ ^np^ 
tnrepoyxop KaSiardpoi rStv ripAp raU vtrtpfio- 
XaK* TOV9 dtov^ Se ro y€ tVi a<f>i<np 4^ ra'neipo- 
rrjra ov rrptwovaap xarafidXXiip rd laa dpOpdt- 


WM DO doubt that when Alexander bad passed away 
from men they would honour htm as a god ; how much 
more just, then, that they should honour him in 
life rather than when dead, when the honour would 
profit bim nothing. 

XI. When then Anaxarchot bad spoken thus, and 
to thit purpor t , those who were In the plot approved 
bis ftatement and indeed desired to begin tlie eere- 
mony of prostration. The Macedonians, however, 
for the most part disagreed with these remarks, and 
kept silent. But Cafiisthenes broke in and said: 

Anaxarchus, I bold Alexander unworthy of no 
honour fit for mankind ; but, in point of fact, lines 
have been drawn for men between honours fit for 
mortals and honours fit for gods faa many diverse 
ways, as by the building of tonples and setting up 
of imaget* and since enclosures nave been set apart 
for the gods, and since we sacrifice to them, and offer 
libatkMiSy and hymns are composed to gods, while 
eulogies are composed for men ; but chiefly in this 
very custom of bowing down before them. Those 
who greet their fellow-men kiss them, but as for the 
gods, since they are set far above us and we may not 
even touch them, hence ther are honoured by our 
bowing down before them ; aances, too, are hekl in 
honour of the gods, and pseans sung before them, and 
this Is nothing out of the way ; since among the gods 
themselves some have these honours attached, and 
sooie those; and what Is more, they are again 
dUTerent for the heroes, and these distinct from those 
paid to gods. It Is not, therefore, proper to confuse 
aQ this, and to raise mortals to an extravagant grade 
by excesses of honour, and to reduce the gods, as far 
as can be dooe« to an unseemly humiliation, by honour- 


WMt rifiAirras. Oumoup ovh^ *AX^aySpoi» 

raSr /So^iXi/rai^ rifUkU Yviporoy^ ^ ^^P ov 

• ^ gg / ^ . rioXu ^jr 0V9 6tMaiar€pop rov^ atou^ 

0*^9 elairotovatp ^ vpof rM»» ^XX^y Mtrotov- 
finpoi a¥i\oirrat. *A\i(apBp9P S^ woppm tov Itcavov 
Jufhpttv dyaSitp J0¥ ipiorop t Zmu tc itaX iosctlv, xal 
fiaaiXimv ror fiaatXiMt^raTOw gal rrparrjiymw rov 

• a^iocrpaTtrfCTarov, KaX ai, ffvip tii*^ &K\ov, 
«» *Apa(apx*$ tlofiyffr^p Tf roirrttv riiy X^mi' 
^)^v yiy¥tcBtu KaX mmXintip rmp ivwnlttv, iw\ 
^e^if Tf «ai vai5«i^fi *AXff(aySp^ (tfpoma. 
OvMovp Spx*^ 7' Tov^f ToD X070U wpiwop ^p. 
iXKk ft€funfa$ai ykp oif Kafifivajf ouS^ ^^piv 
(viWfTa 4 (vfAffovXtvatrra, J^XXA ^iXimrov flip 
iraiSi, 'HptucXMff h^ <kro 7^1;^ leal AiaxUjf, 
&rov oi woirfOPOi i( ^Apyov^ €\ MaxtBoplap 
^\0op, ov^ fiiot oXXA i^M4* yXeucMhop^p dp^opn^ 

7 iitriKtaap, iwxovp ovti avr^ r^ 'HpaicXd 
(wKTi fri Btlai rtpaX irap 'EXXi/yw iykpoirto, 
oXX* olXk rt\€VTtjaapTi irpoaOfP ^ vpo^ rov 0(ov 
rov ip dktX^oh iifiBtairiaBripai m Btop n^iav 
'HpOMXia, £* B4, on ip rj fiapfidptp yj oi 
X6yoi yiypoproi, fiapfiapiMa yo^ ^X^^'^ '^^'^ 
^poptjfAarOt ical iym rrj^ 'EXXadof fitppijadai 
at dftatt M *A\i(apSp9, ^ hftica o rrd<; aroXo^ 
aoi €y€P€ro, irpoaOtUHU r^p *Aaiap r^ 'EXXo^i. 

8 Kol ovp €p6vfirj$fjri, iicturt irrap€k0i»p ipd ye 
roi rov^ "EXKffpa^ rov^ iX^vOtp^rdrov^ irpoa- 
avayxatrti^ eV rrjp rrpofrKVPtjciP, ^ *E\XijvMv piv 
d^ifif, Masc§B6a$ 64 wpoa6^a€i^ ri^pBt rrjp 


loff them oo tlie same level m men. Alexander him- 
ten would not brook it for a moment* if tome private 
penoo laid claim to the royal booouft bj right of Mme 
oncopft i t tt tiooal election or tote. Mudi more rightly 
then would the gods be angrj with anj mortals invest- 
ing themselves with divine honours or permitting 
others so to invest them. Now Alexander both is 
and is thought to be above all measure the bravest of 
the brave, most Idngly of Kings, most worthj to 
command of all commanders. As for yoo, Anaxar- 
chtts, jOQ above all should have taken the lead in this 
diseoime and put a stop to the opposite argumentf 
being as you are attachea to Alexander as phiwiopher 

fastmctor. It was most Improper that jou 
should take the lead In this Hne of aignment ; you 
should rather have remembered that you are not 
attending nor advising some Cambyses or Xerxes, 
but a son of Philip, br race a descendant of 
Heracles and of Aeacos, whose forefathers came from 
Argos to Macedonia, and long held sway there, not 
as tyrants but as cotistitutiooal monarchs of Mace- 
donia. But not even to Herades himself were divine 
honours paid by the Greeks while he yet lived ; nay, 
even after his death they were not paid before an 
orade was given by the gDd of Delphi that Heracles 
was to be honoured as a god. If, however, we must 
think in foreign fashion, since our discussion takes 
place in a foreign counby, yet even so I beg you, 
Alexander, to remember Greece, for whose tSke aQ 
▼our expedHion took place, to add Asia to Greece. 
Moreover, eooslder this also, oo your return to Greece 
win it be Greeks, the most free of all mankind, wliom 
you will compel to bow down before you, or will yoo 
perhaps exempt the Greeks, and shiickle the Mace- 


ifniUav, 4 BuuctmpifUwa tartu aoi ovrm r^ rAw 

• fiapimm ; ^i ^ \nrkp Kvpov rov Kafiffvcov 
X^yrroi ror wpArrow irpo^MVPffOfjpai ip^pttwrnv 
Kvpop xaX M T^Sf ifi^u^ai Uipaoi^ Tf ical 
Mffloi^ ri7vS« Ti^y ravfivonfra, xph MvfitiaOat. 
6ri TOM Ky/Mr iicii¥ow Srv^cu iamt^povitrai . 
wirfirts Sphpts »al avrwofAOit icaX ^puov &XKoi 
alf ^vOai, col 34p(rfp *A$fitHMWi mal Aatct^M- 
fio9ioi, Kal *ApTa(€p(^p KXSapx^^ «ai ^€vo4>a»v 

gal oi (lf¥ TOVTOK fAVpUHt ICal ^aDfloi' rouroi/ 

*A\f(apSpo^ fiff wpoamvpovfupo^ . 

XII. Tavra 5^ «al rotaOra n-nuyra i\aA,A,ta 
Ohfffp amaaai ftip ft^yaXm^rl * A\i(atf^poi' . 
MmmM^t Bk wp6^ Bufioo §lir€i¥, Kal rovro 

t coi^a^ fi€fApffa0tu fri rrj^ wpoaxvtn^iti^, 'AXXA 
ffifff^ y^p ytPOfUrtf^ iirl roU Xoyofv apotrrdtna^: 
l{€pamv rov^ wptafftrrdrov^ ^^*i'J^ irpoaKvvth 
Atopparop ^, ha rw kmiptop, iir€thri Tf9 ihoict 
TMV WtpaAp airr^ ovk iv Koafup vpoaicvvijaai. 
TOir hk iwiy€\datu r^ axnfuni rov Wtpaov, u>^ 
ramipop* ^ icaX rovr^ ^aXtirtjpopra tot* *A\(- 
^ophpop (vpaXKayijptu avOt^, ^Avayiypairrai 

Z ti Btj teal TOiO0-d€ \oyo9. Ilpawipttp ^^idXijv 
^varjp €P kvkX^ *AXji(avBpop wpmroiK piv 
TOVTO*9 ftp^ ovaripa^ ^vv€K(iro avr^ r^ t^ 
irpooKVPria€9t^* rov Bt irpo)rov ixfriovra rrjv 

* EUenHt rmnu^, but TMfir^r wOl oonstriMu PerhaiM 



ckmUns with this whamt ? or will you draw a line thus 
in the matter of hooocirs for all the world, that by 
Greeks and Macedonians you shall be honoured as a 
man in Greek fashion, but by foreigners only in this 
foreign fashion ? Butif it is said of Cyrus son of Cam- 
b]rscs that Cjrrus was the first of men to receive this 
homage of bowing to the gitmnd, and that therefore 
this httmiUatioQ became traditional with Persians and 
Medcs, yet you must remember that this very Cyms 
was brooght to a better mind by Scythians, a poor but 
free people; Darehis too by other Scythians, Xerxes 
by Atfaoilans and Lacedaemonians, and Artaxences 
by Cleardms and Xenophon and their Ten Thousand, 
and Dardtts now by Alexander, as yet unworshipped 
by prostrations. 

XII. ThU, and to this effect, spake Callutthencs; 
and while he irritated Alexander exceedingly, he 
found favour with the Macedonians, and, perceiving 
this, Alexander sent and bade the Macedonians to 
take no thought for such prottratioiis In future. 
When, however, a silence fell aAer these words, the 
senior of the Persians arose and one by one bowed low 
beCore Alexander. But Lconnatus one of the Com- 
panioos, thinking that one of the Persians made his 
bow ongracefuUy, mocked the Persian's attitude, as 
sometliliig abject, at which Alexander was very angry, 
tfaoogb lie was reconciled with him again. A story 
also oocors as follows : — Alexander sent round a loving 
eop, a golden one, first to those with whom he had 
made the arrangement about the prostrations ; then 
the first guest drinking of it rose up, prostrated him- 



^tdXriP wpocKwniirai t« imavrdwra koX ^iXi^ 
$ff¥ai vpo^ avrov, ral rovro i^«(ff^ ^ wavrmp 
X^pff^at, 'n^ Bi ^ KaWtaBivrjv ^k€W ^ wpS- 
iro0'i9» opoarrfptu ftip KaWiaOtPffP ical itcwitip 
rifp ^idXfiP, Mol wpo^tXBopra i6i\tiP ^iXri^ai ov 
itpoatvpriaapTtL, Top hk Tt/^***' H^v tot* h^a' 
X ty ^ ftM Pop '\\4>at<rrimpr ootcovp irooaixup top 
p^, «4 ical tA r^ wpooKVPfiotm^ tfiriTcX^ airr^ 
KaXXtaSipti iyivrro. *K\Kk ^^firgrfHOP fkp top 
Hv$mpaxro^, ha rmp irtupmp, m wpoa^ptt avr^ 
i Km\Kte0hnf^ ^«Xi|0'i»r, ^dpoi on ov wpoc- 
K¥mi9ai9 wp6c9ta$, Kal top *A\ifaplpop ov 
wapmax^uf ^iXS^aoA iavrop' top S^ KaXKiaOtvfjf, 
^iXi^/iari, ^dpiu, fXarrop ix^^ Swufu, 

Kal rovrmp ^yv 6<ra ^9 OffpiP Tt rf)v *A\«- 
(dpBpov rijp hf T^ trapavrtKa xal h c/catorfjra 
r^v KaXXui^ipovs ^tpopra, oMp ov^prj iiraivv> 
iXkjk TO icaB* avrop ykp KOcpUts rlBtcOat 
4(apKtiy ^yfpi, av^irra ttK a^uoroy rk ffa<rt\itt^ 
wpdyfiaia otm ris (vptipai ovk dmffiwarv. 
OvKovp awtiMorm^ Si' a'rtxBtias y«p4^ai *A\( 
(dphp^ KaXki^hnfp rWtpai iwl rg iuealptp 
Tf frapprjffla icol vrnpoyx^ dffeXrripia, 'E^* 
6r^ TMK^iaipopai pij ;^aX€7rfli>^ trurrti^rivai rov^ 
KorMiwovra^ KaKiaaBipov^ oti prreax^ ""^f^ 
^ifiovXri^ r^ ytpophnj^ *AXt(dpBp^ im ritp 
waiimp, rov^ B^ irn koX iirriptv aino^ h ro 
hufiavkfvcai. Sup^ffti Bk tA t^^ iw^ffovXij^ 

XIII. 'E« ^tXiinrov ^p ^St; tcaBeartjico^, rS>p 
hf riXei Maxthovtav rov^ iralBa^ oaoi ^9 rfXixlav 
iptipaicicapro, tcaraXeyeaBat ^v Btpairtiav rov 



setf, and received a kiss from Alexander, and so they 
did one by one in order. But when the turn to drink 
' ame to CalUstlienes, he rose up, drank from the 
up, approached, and made to kiss Alexander with- 
out having pfostrated himself. Alexander at the 
moment was talking to Hephaettkm, and therefore 
was not attending to see whether the ceremony of 
TOostration was auly carried out by Callisthenes. 
But Demetrius son of Pythonax, one of the Com- 
panions, as Callisthenes approached to kiss Alex- 
ander, remarked that he was cooilnff without having 
himself. Alexander dkl not permit 
therefore to kiss him ; and Callisthenes 
remarked, " I shall go olf short of a kiss." 

AU this, as far as it bears 00 the arrogance of 
Alexander at the time and the rudeness of Callis- 
thenes, I in no sort of war approve. It seems to me 
enoui^h that a man as Ur as himself is concerned 
should behave in a seemly way, and that when a man 
has consented to serve a King, he should exalt the 
King's doings in every possible way. Rightly there- 
fere, fai my indcmentv was Alexander angrr with 
CaPisthenea botn for his onseaaonable fir^dom of 
speech and for his foolish arrogance. I gather that 
this is why people easily credited the detractors of 
Callisthenes who suggested that he had a part in the 
pkit laid against Alexander by his squires; some even 
said that Callisthenes incited them to the pk>t. The 
story of the plot is aa follow*. 

XIII. PhiHp had kmg ago ordahied that the sons 
• >f Macedonian notables who had reached adolescence 
shouki be attached to the service of the King; and 



puaOJm^, rd n wtpH r^v ^l[XX«p Uatrop rov 

^vXdcattp Toirroi9 hrrrirpawro* leal oiroTf 
iftXavpo* ffaatXtv^, roi^ Xwwov^ nap^ t<»» 
iwwQMOfimp BtXOftfPOi ^Ktwoi wpoarjyop xal dpi- 
fiaXKvp oiroi ffacikia toi^ Wtp^i^op rpowop ical 
TTfS <Vl Oiifif ^tXoTifua^ ffoffiXti icotpupol ^aav 
t Tovrmp Mdi 'lipftokao^ ^p, ImwoXtBc^ fthf iraU. 
^iXoao^ia Bk iSofffi irpocix^tp top povp ica 
KaWta$4tfjp Btpaiftvttp iwl t^£c. 'Tv#p rov- 
rov XoTO^ Karix^* ^"f"^ ^<^ ^'iP9 yfpoa^pofupov 
*AXt(dpfy^ wa% J^o ffaXmp tot avp 6 'KpMo- 
Xoof * Kol o fiip av9 wiVTfi ffkffOtl^, *A\t(aphpo^ 
Bi Tov Ka$pov v^rtfMa^ ix<^Xt^rfi^ ^T '^Z^- 
Xo^ tfoi K9Xtv€i aurop wpo^ ^pyh^ wXtfyd^ 
Xa0€tp, opmprmp rmp JXX^i» waii»mp, teal rop 
twwop avrov d^tiXiro, 

5 Tevrop rh» *Ep^6\aop dXyi^aapTa t§ Cffpti 
^pd^tu wph^ ^Marparop top 'Afivprov, rfXtMiwrrtjp 
T< avrov xal tpaarifv Spra, on ov ^imrop oi iari 
fitf rifi^pff^afUp^ *AXj(apBpop r^ C/Speu^, tea 
rov ^oHrrparopov vaXnrw^ avptrtlaai furaaxelv 

4 rov tpyov, art Optoma* 'Tro rovrmp Bk dva- 
vturBtjpoi *Aprivarp6p rt rop *AaKXifwuiBmpov 
rov ^vpia^ aarpairevaapro^ xal *Eirtfiipffp rop 
*ApC€Ov KoX *ApriicXia rop (^otepirov ical <t>tXa>- 
rap rov KdpaiBo^ rov Spaxo^. 'O? ovp frepirjtcep 
h * AvrLirarpop ^ pv/mpivrj <^v\atcij, ravrrj rp 
pvtcrl (vyteeifi^vov tlvai drroKrtlvai *AX€(avSpov, 
Kotfiw^€v^ iiriwtaovra^. 

6 "Bv^fjvai B^ Oi fiof avTopdrta^ Xeyovaip icrt 
TffUpop wip€ip ^AXJfavBpop* * ApiaroffovXo^ Bi 



bcsldet general attendanoe od hit person, the duty of 
guarding him when asleep had been entrusted to 
them. Again, wtienerer the King rode out, they 
reodved the horMt from the grooms and led them 
up, assisted the King to moont in Persian fashion, 
and were his eompaaiooi in the riTalry of the chase. 
Among them was one HermdaQs a son of Sopolis ; 
he was reputed to be a tealous student of philosophy 
and to be a follower of Callisthenes to this end. 
About him there is a story that once in a hunt a wild 
boar charged Alexander and that Hcrmolaus hast- 
ened to pierce the boar, whidi indeed fell from the 
stroke ; but Alexander, too late for his chance, was 
angry with Hcrmolaos and in his passion ordered him 
to be whipped in the p r etence of his feDow-pages, 
and took hit horse from him. 

Thit Hermolant, feeling bitterly the degradation, 
told Sostratut son of Amyntas his comrade and fast 
friend that he foond life no longer worth living until 
be had avenged himself on Alexander lor this Injus- 
tice. Sottratus for his part was easily enough, by 
reason of his infatuation, persuaded to join in the 
buiincts. Then the two won over Antipater son of 
AtdcpJodoms, who had been satrap of Sjrria, Epi- 
menet ton of Arseus, Antides son of Theooritus, and 
Phik>tas son of Cartis the Thradan. So when the 
turn of keeping guard by night fell to Antipater, it 
was resohred to assassinate Alexander by attacking 
him in his sleep. 

It so fell out that Alexander, not firom any outside 
say, kept on drinking till daylight. 



Ht JMypayjr^' ^vpav yvpauca tt^opiaprruv *AXf- 
(dpBp^, xdroxov <« rov Otiov ytyvouhnjir ical 
rauTfjp TO fAi¥ irpwo¥ yiKmra tlvat ^AXtfdtfhp^ 
Tff ttai T04« <<M^* atrrow m^ Bk ra wdtrra ip rj 
Karoxi d\i^9vovaa i^auf€To, ovKht dfAtXtiaOtu 
vw* *A\«(difSpou, aXX* tlptu ykp rj Si/pf irpoco- 
hop wp(K TOP 0a0iKia xaX pwrrmp xai i^^ff 
ffftipop, gal Ka6tv6cprt woWdxi^ ^Bff iwiarifHii, 

6 Kal Bif Kai rorc dwdXXacaofUpov ix rov worov, 
KarrxpfthniP ix rov Buov iprvx^tP* «al htloBoA 
iwap^XBopra ifiptiP oXijm t^i» pifK-ta' ital *Wi' 
foflpOP Bttoy Ti fivai fofuoapra 4iraP€\0tiP rt 
««1 wIpup, Mai o&Tt0 ToU vaial Btainatip to 

7 TjBi voTtpaia * Ewt fupt)^ 6 *Kpaiov rutp /a«t«- 
\6prt»p rif^ iwtffovXif^ ^A>a{V< T^y irpd^tp 
XapiteXti T^ S\€pdphpov, ipaorj iatnov yeyo- 
pori' XapttcXij^ B^ ^A<*t<" KCfpuXoxf f^ &5fX^^ 
T^ *EwtfUPov^. Kal o EvpvXoxo^ i\Bi»p iwl rijp 
aictjwffp rffp *A\tfdpBpoVt IItoX«/uu^ t^ Adyov 
T^ ot0fAaro^v\aMi KaraXeytt dvap to v pay pa' 
o fi« *AX€(dpBp^ i^paat, Kal o ^AXiPaphpo^ 
(vXXafitiP /rcXcuff &p ra opopara ctircy o 

ainup Kardirop rtjp iVi^ovXrjv icai. Tuav tcul 
dXXovs inpopaoap, 

XIV. *Aptar60ovXoK pkv Xeyti oti kui Ka/v- 
Xiadivrjp tirdpai c^^ t^aoav i^ to roXptjfia* 
tea* llroXe^aios OKratrro)^ Xfyti, Ol Bk TroXXoi 
ov ravTfj Xiyovoiv, d\Xa hia piao<; yap to IjBij op 
irpo^ KaXXioOatrjp i( *AX((dpBpov xal on 6 
'EpfioXao^ i^ T^ pdXtara cviTi^^ciof ^p r^ 


Aristobalus, however, says that a Syrian woman with 
a spirit of divination followed Alexander, and that 
she was at first a laughing-stock both to Alexander 
and his friends ; but when everything in her divina- 
tion seemed to come true, Alexander no longer made 
light of her, but the Syrian had access to the King day 
and night and often watched over him as he slept. 
On this occasion then when Alexander rose from his 
potations she met him, while under the spell of her 
inspiration, and begged him to return and continue 
drinking all night long ; Alexander therefore, believ- 
ing this warning to be prophetic, returned and con- 
tinued, and so the plot of the squires came to nothing. 

Next day, however, Epimenes son of Arseus, ono 
of the ooospirators, told Charicles son of Menander, 
whose favourite he was, of the plot, CHiaricles told 
Eurylochus brother of Epimenes, and Eurylocfaos 
entered Alexander's tent, and revealed to Ptole- 
maeus son of Lagus the whole affair, on which 
Alexander caused all whose names Euryk>chus had 
given to be arrested ; and they in turn being put to 
the question revealed both their own plot and impli- 
cated others also. 

XIV. Aristobulus indeed declares that they said 
that it was CalUsthenes who had urged them to the 
plot ; and Ptolemaeus agrees. But most authorities 
do not say so ; but only that by reason of Alexander's 
dislike for Callisthenrs and because Uermolaus was 



xal To^f ai4ypayfratf, rop 'Ep/ioXaoy wpoaxBima 
h TOV9 MaMtBopa^ 6iAo\oju¥ re iitt0ov\tvaai 
(«ai 7^p ovic cImu fr< iktvBip^ ophpX ^ip€t¥ rrfv 
tfipi¥ Tfjp *AXt(dpBpov), wtuna xaraXiyopra, rnv 
Tf <S>iXi*Ta ou« hit MOP rtXtVTf)P /cal rov irarpcK 
ainov llapfUpUfPO^ hi iitpoitmripap icaX r&w 
iXXmp rmp rort dwoBoPOPrt^p, xai rifp KXdrov 
h fMp apaip€atp, seai rtfp ivStira rSfP Mffhtic^, 
jmI Ti^r wpo^KvPffaiP T^y ffov\tvO€iaap xal otWro» 
wrwavfUptiP, ital worou^ t« xtu Owpov^ rovs 
*A\t(dpBpov' ravra ov ^popra hi iXMvdtpStatu 
gdtXffatu iatnop Tf ical roif^ aWov^ Matcthopa^, 

S TouTOif fiip S^ airrop t« xal Toifs (up ain^ 
(vXXrf^tpTa^ MaraX€vc$fipai wpa^ rw wapov- 
rmp, KaXki^ipf/p Si 'ApioroffovXo^ iUp Xiyti 
MtfUpop h wiitu^ (vtAW€ptay€ff0ai rn arpana, 
hrtira poc^ rtXtvrijaai, tlroXtfia'to^ & o Adyov 
orptpkmBhna mal KpiiiaaBtpra dwodaptiP, 
Oi^Mf oi/hi Oi wdpv wtarol i^ rifp d^tjyrjcip koI 
(uyytPOfitPOi h rtp rort *A\e(dpBp^ inrip tS>p 
ypmpifUiv Tf KoX ov XaBoprwv a^d^ hrt»^ itrpd- 

4 x!^fi (vfA^t^a dviypay^av, IloXXA tt icai dWa 
vwip TOintiP ainiiv d\\oi aXAa»^ d^r/yijaapro' 
aXX* ifioi rain a diroxp^P^'^ iarta dvaytypap,- 
pApa. Tatrra piv htf ov iroW^ tartpov ^pax' 
Bhra iyti> iv rourBt roU dfi^l KXtirov (vv€vcx' 
$€iaip *A\€(dpBp^ hviypa'^a, rovroi^ fidXkop n 
oUtia inroXafimp i^ tjjv d^rfytiaiv, 

XV. Ilop' *A\i(aphpop hi rjK€ icaX avdi% 
^Kv0Sȴ Ttap iic T^ Ev/MtfTTi^^ fTpetT^eia ^vu 



io closest cooUct with Callisthenes, Alexander easily 
beUered the worst story about Callisthenes. Some 
also have ere now written that Hermolaus, summoned 
before the Macedonians, confessed that he had con- 
spired, for no freebom man could endure longer the 
arrogance of Alexander ; and went over the whole 
story, how Philotas had been unjustly put to death, 
and the still more illegal execution of hU father 
Parmenio and of the others who suffered at the same 
time; themurderof Cleltns at a drinking party ; the 
wearing of Median garb, the prostration ceremonies 
decreed, and not yet revoked, and Alexander's 
drlnkinffs and heavy slumbers; unable to bear, he 
asserted, all this, he had desired to free both himself 
and the rest of the Maeedonians. UermoUus him- 
self and the others arrested with htm, Uiey say, were 
stoned to death by those present at tiie coii^rence. 
As fior Callisthenes, Aristobulus relates that he was 
bound with fetten and led about with the army, but 
at length died of sJcknew. But Ptolemaeus son of 
Lagus says that be was tortured and then put to 
death by hanging. Thus not even those who'.e 
narrations are entirely trustworthy and who actually 
accompanied Alexander at that time afrce in their 
accounts of notorious events of which they had full 
knowledge. In many other points different writers 
told different talet about these very events ; what I 
have written nivft suffice. At anv rate all this which 
took place not long afterwards, I have related as part 
of the story of Cleitus, regarding it as really akin to 
Cleitus' story for the purpose of narration. 

XV. Now a second time envoys came to Alexander 
from the European Scythians, together with the 



'O fUy hif roTt ffoffiXjtvs rm¥ TLmvOAv, Srt 
ovroi inr ^AXtfatfhpov iirtfAWOino, r«rt\tvrr)tca>^ 
S hirfxavtw ahtK^oiq M ixtivov ifiaaCktv^w, *Hp 
Ik 6 povs Tfjs wp^fffftlas, i6i\9i» iroUiv irav 
ro i^ *K\M^d»hpov hraYttXKofiMPOp '^KvBas* icaX 
Bmpa S^€pop ^AXtfdtflp^ wap^ rov fiaaiXitts 
rim ^jtvBmif 6<ra fuytara vofu(tra4 iw ^itvBais' 
Ktu Tfjp dvyaripa ori iOiku 'AXtfat^p^ Soi/vai 
yviHihca fftfiaiortfros oCi^Ka t^ wp^ *AX4- 

5 (at^lpop 6i\ias rt moX (vf^taxias. Ei hi aira- 
(id rffw 2Mv$it¥ ffaaCkicaaw yri^un *A\ifai^pas, 
iXkii rim 7f aarpawim ritw rijs ^tcvBttcffs X^P^^ 
Mtd Scoi dXXM hwuar€u xark rijp 'pp r^¥ 
^SMvOiJba, ravrup riis wdilas iSiXiUf Bovptu roU 
wiorordroi^ ri$p dfn^* *AXi(apBpop* ijftip S^ teal 
avros i^axtPt €i K^Xtvaro, its irap* avrov 

4 *A\t(dpipov oMOvctu Saa iirarfyiKKoi, *A^Urro 
3* ip roirr^ itap ^AXifat^Bpop xal ^apatr fuiprfs 
6 Xmpofffiimp paciXtifS (vp Iwntvci viXtoK xal 
wtPTOMociots* ^'E^o^iTf hi o ^apa<rfiain)s Ofiopos 
OiMtip Tip Tc KoXymp yipti Koi tok fVpai^X rah 
*AfUi^6ah tai «i iuiXoi * AXifeufhpas, iwl KoXxovs 
TC xal *Afial^opas iXtiaas xaracrpi'^aadai rk 
iw\ rop TFomop top Ku(€iPOP ravrrf tcaB^Kopra 
yimi, oBiitf tc rfytftitp hrtoBeu imjyyiWtro koX 
rk iwirvfitui rj arparta irapaaicfvdctip, 

6 loU TC ovp vapk ritp '^KvBStP ^ova ^iXai^ 
Bpftira airoicpiPtrcu *A\((apBpos leal is top 
rar€ xaipop (vfinfMpa' ydpov hi ovhip Bturdai 
'S.KvOiKov' Kcu ^apaa/jLatnip i'rraipeaas re teal 
^i\iap ical (vfifuixuip wpos axnop (upBifitPOS 



omys whom he himself had sent to Scy tiiia. For the 
king of the Scythians at the time when these had been 
sent by Alexander had died ; and his brother was 
now King. The purpose of the embassy was to 
express the readiness of the Scythians to «> whatso- 
ever Alexander commanded ; and ther broiurht gifts 
for Alexander from the King of Scjrthia su<m as are 
^freatly accounted of in Scy thia ; and they said also 
'hat the King wished to give to Alexander his 

Liughtcr to wife, to confirm his friendship and alliance 
with Alexander. If, however, Alexander should not 
care to marry the Scythian princess, yet he was 
dcsfarmis to give the daughters of the sovemors of the 
Scythian territory and of the chief personages in 
Scytliia to the most trusty of Alexander's followers; 
he added also that be woiud come to visit Alexander, 
shoald be be sammoned, to receive Alexander's 
ccmrnands in person. There came also to Alexander 
at the same time also Pharasmanes the King of 
the Chontinians with fiAeen hundred horsemen. 
Pharasmanes said that he lived on the borders of tiie 
Colchians and of the Amaion women; and should 
Alexander desire to invade Colchis and the territory 

f the AmaiOQS and subdue all the races in this direc- 
tion which dwelt near the Euxine Sea, he promised 
to act as guide and to provide all necodtles for the 
expeditionary force. 

Alexander therefore replied courteously to the 
Se3rthian envoys, and suitably to the occasion. He 
had, be said, no need of an alliance by marriage with 
Scjrthia; be then thanked Pharasmanes and made 
fHendship and alliance %rith him, but said that it was 



avr^ ftip ToTc ovk i^tf h xoip^ thai 4\avP€iif 
iwl TOP Uomoir *AfrralSdf^^ ii r^ Uipirjf, ot^ 
tA Harrpimp i( *A\t(di^pov irtrrirpairro} xal 
taoi aXKoi irpocywpot tovt^ earpdirai (vartjaa^ 
^apaa^yfjp dwawt^wtt i^ tA ffBrj tA avrov. 
AvT^ M tA ^lM$p 9^fl ip r^ TOTff fiiXtip' 

• rovrov^ ykp KaTacrpfyjrufUPa^ wdcap ip ^17 
iX^ip rrip Affiap- ixo/utnf^ M n}^ *Aaia9 iwa- 
ptivat Ap d^ ri/p 'EXXdBa* imuBtp hk i^* 'KXAi^o'- 
woprw T« Ktu jifi UpomapJil^ (up t^ hvpdfiti 
wdaji TJ Tf ^ pamiMJ xal r^ VfCiurw iXdatip 
^Xam rov Tl atrrov gal i^ to Tor« ^iov diro' 
$ia0ai ^apa^fuutrfp oaa ip rjt vapavrUa 

1 Avrh^ Bk iwl rhp ^tt(6p t« wora^p ^« aiOi^ 
mml h r»iP ^ioyhttunfp wpox^ptur iypiinett, &ri 
woXXav^ TMT XoyBiotrnp /v tA ipvfutra (vfitrt- 
^wyimu ^ry^XXrro Mi iOiXtip Kajoxovup rou 
carpdirov Sm^ avroi^ i( 'AXtfdpBpov iwiri- 
raxro, ^rpaToirtStvopTa^ W atrrov iwl r^ 
wora/jL^ T^ 'Hfy, ov fiaxpdp t^ CKfipri^ rrff; 
avTOV *A\t(dp^pQv wrjyrj t/Jarof xal dWri iXalov 

8 wfr/h wXqalop aui% optax^ Kai llroXtfiaiip 
TM Adyov r^ o'at/iaTo^i/Xa^i iwiiBif iaftyyiXBrj 
TO T£/>a(, IlToX^/ialov 'A\i(dpBp^i^pa<rtp. *AXi' 
(aphpo^ Sk i0v€P iwl Tip ^dtTfia-n oca oi pdmtis 
i^trt^vpTo, 'Apiarop^po^ ^ woptap glptu etffulop 
rov iXaiov rifp wrjyifP (i^aaictp* dXKk icaX vUrjv 
iwl roU wopaiK ar}pmv€i», 

XVI. Cuafik^ ovv (vp pipti t^ or partus i<i 
T^p SoT&ayify, WoXvcwtpxovra hi ical "ATTaXo* 
* ^Ptrtfrwrr* from A Root, raggMttng to add c«#/i««r. 



not JQSt then convenient to make an expedition to 
Pontus. But he commended Pharasmanes to Arta- 
basns the Persian, to whom Alexander had entrusted 
affairs In Bactria, and to all the other neighbouring 
satraps, and be dismissed him to his own home. He 
said that for the time being be bad India In ooo* 
templation; for bj subduing India be would tbeo 
have -an Asia ; but when be was master of Asia be 
would return to Greece ; and thence In the dlreetkm 
of the Hellespont and the Propontis would make an 
expedition into Pontus with all his forces, navy and 
infantry alike ; Pharasmanes must therefore reserve 
his promises which he now made to that future time. 

He himself returned now to the river Oxus, and 
determined to proceed to Sogdiana, since It was 
reported that many of the Sogdianians had taken 
refuge in their forts and would not obey the satrap 
set over them by Alexander. Now while he was 
encamped on the river Oxus, not far from the tent of 
Alexander himself a spring of water, and another of 
oil near it, came up from the ground. And when this 
marvel was rcUted to Ptolemaeus son of Lagus of 
the royal bodyguard, he told Alexander; and 
Alexander sacri6ced, on aoooont of this portent, what 
the ■ooCbsayera r eco mm ended. Aristander said 
that the spring of oil was a sign of labours to come ; 
but that It portended victory after the labours. 

XVI. So when be bad paased with part of his force 
into Sogdiana, leaving behind Poljrsperchon and 


KoX Topyiap gal MtXiaypop avroO iw B<urrpoit 
vwo>uw6iU¥0^t rovTot^ fuv iraprf^fytikM r^v T9 
X^tpop ip ^vXeucj ^X'"'* ^ M*? '''< ¥€mTtpi9mai» 
ol raurp fiapffapoi, xal tov9 4^ a^«<7Ti7iroTaf 

TffP iifia ot arpanap, r&p fiip 'Hf^atarUava 
dp^ftif fra^f , 7tap Bi UroXMfiaiOf top Auyov roy 
^mfAaro^vXaxa' roU rpirot^ Bi TigpBitCicap iiri' 
ra(t' rif^ W rrrdprtf^ Ta(«ti»^ Koimk «ai *A/yro- 
ffaf^as tfjothrro ainttp* rijp Si irifAWTffP fiolpap 
itfoXmftmp airraq iwptt rtip Yo*/>a^ ^ ^^ Map<l- 

iwjimap, rov^ fJLtv tipa^ tmv i^ rk ipuftara 
(vfAW9^€vyirmp fiif i(aipovrTt^, rov^ Bi /ral 
ofAoXoylf wpoaympaShrras a^tatp apaXapfii' 
popT§^. 'O^ hi (vfAwaaa avrtp ^ Bvvafu^, /ttcX- 
6o(wa ri»p ^Myhtapi$p rrj^ \(»pa^ rijp iroWifp, 
h MapdxapBa a^Utro, 'll^atarUitpa fUp itirifi^ 
wu rk^ hf rf ^ATfhtopp iroX«i9 avpoixit^tiv, KoIpop 
M KoX *ApTd0a(op «f h S«i^a9. on ^9 jL*cv0a^ 
Korairt^tvyivai t,'wiTafUpf)s aintp ifi/yyiWeTo' 
atnos Bi (vp rjj Xoiirp arpanf iintov r^ 
XoT^iar^ B^a h'i wpo^ tAp d^arrjicoTwv Karti- 
;(^eTO, ravra ov x"^^^^ ^ivP*^' 

4 *¥»p rovroi^ hk *AXt(dpBpou Spto^, IttnTafUmfi; 
TC ical avp avrtp r&p ^LoyBtapHtp rtvt^ ^vydB<ov i^ 
rmp 'Zicvdtltp r&p Maaaaytr&v icaKovpAptav rijv 
X»pap (vfiTTt^evyore^, (upayayoprt^ r&p Ma<r- 
aay€ra>p iirtria^ k^aicociov^, d^iKovro irpos ri 

5 ^povpiov rS>p Kara rrjp hatrrptauijv, Kal rat 
re ^povpdpxi^ ovBip woXepiov 'rrpoirBexofiip^ 
iimreaopre^ iccX to»9 ^vv rointp rrjv ^vXok^p 


AtUlns and Gorgias and Mekager there in Bactria, 
he bade them keep good watch over the country to 
that the tribemen in thoae parts might not give 
trouble, and to destroj todi at had already revolted ; 
then he himself divided the force with him into five 
parts, and appointed Hephaestkm to command one, 
Ptdemaeiis tiie tea of Lagos, his personal guard, 
another; over the third he set Perdiccas, and the 
fourth brigade wat led by Coenos and Artabasus; 
and the fifth he took himself and invaded the district 
towards Maracanda. The others also advanced as 
they could, and stormed such as had taken refuge in 
the fiorts, and took over others who came and off*ered 
themselves in surrender. But when his whole force, 
having traversed the greater partof Sogdiana, arrived 
at Maracanda, he sent Hephaestion to plant settle, 
ments in the cities of Sogdiana, and Coenus and 
Artabasus in the directloo of Scythia, since news 
came that Spitamenes had taken refuge there ; and 
himself with the rest of the troops went on to such 
part of Sogdiana as was still held by the rebels, and 
subdued it without trouble. 

While Alexander was busied about this, Spitamenes 
and some followers, fugitives firom Sogdiana, had fied 
for icfage to the part of the Scythians called the 
Masssgetae; there they collected six hundred horse- 
lien of the Massagetae and arrived at one of the forts 
in the Bactrian region. Attacking the commandant 
of the garrison, who suspected no enemy actkm, and 



l^uo-i roif^ flip arftanmra^ ^S^Ottpav, rip 
^tpovpoffvpp ^ i\iipt9^ ip ^vXiucff tlxop, Hapct) 
#«yrcv 0} iwl roO ^pavpiov rp «aTaXi7^i 6\i 
ytm ifUfMU^ Ccrtpop Zapidawot^ ircXaaarrfv, 

TJ fiip WoXtt Wpoaffuktip aW&fPt^av, Xftav ^ 

voXXi^ WifH^akkofUPOi 4j\avpop» 

^W^ap li ip ToU Zapiaavo4V, poa^* vrroxtxufM- 
fUfOi, rup iyaipmp iww^p ov woWol icai (vu 
TovTOic UMmp Tff o ^mcucXJov^, M Tr}^ 0aat 
XiMiis $€pawna^ r^ ip Zapntffwoi^ rrTayfAtPo<. 
maX *Kpi9r6ptKo^ o KiBtLpf!^. KaX ovro* al 
c06fifPOi tAp ILrnvBup rifp xarahpofirip (^£7 70/9 
iK T^ po^ov dpappmcBhnw^ fvXa t« l^tpop xal 
Tm9 fwwv hrifiaipop), (vpmyayoprtK roik t« 
fiueOo^ipov^ iirwian h oy^aif ^ rgrr a , ot ^l ^1/- 
XojT^ Ttfir Za/wo tfy twp tnro\t\€ififUpo$ ^aop, xal 
rmp waihmp tim^ t^p fiaaiXucmp iK^offiownp 
iwl Tovv Ma^tf'OTtfra^. Koi rj fUi^ ''^P^Jf 
wpoafioXf ov^p trworawiiaaat roU ^tcvBoi^ 
hrtw^amnt^ r^p rt Xeiap (vfiiraaap d^tiXopro 
ainov^ Mol rAp ar/oprmp r^y \tlap ovk oKiyov^ 
awexrupap, 'E-rafioirrc? H airrol aTatcrta^, &r€ 
ou&vof ifffyovfUpov, ip€hp€v6ipT€^ irpQ^ 2iri- 
rafUpov^ Kol TMr 1Lxv$Ap tAp fih irtuptop 
aifO$d\XjovciP ifrrd, rw hk fUcOo^opmP iwwimp 
tfifcorra* xtd * ApurroviKO^ o ictdap^M^ airrov 
awcBpiiaxtt, ov tcara /ctOap<p^p dpifp dyaffo^ 
y€p6fi«po^. UMatp Bi rp»$9i^ (iwv Xafifidverai 
irpo^ tS>p ^KvBSiP, 

XVII. Kal ravra m Kpariptp i^rrrfixBij 
airovh^ iirl roit^ Mturaayira^ ij\avp€v, Ot 64 
OK (trvOovTO wXffaiop iwwXaupoprd ai^uri Kpa- 



the gmrrison with hhn, thej dc iU u jc d the soldiers 
and kept the commandant to euslodj. Tbey them- 
•ehres then, after capturing this ttroiighold, feeling 
eneooraged, approaebed Zariaspa a few days later, 
and thoogh thej decided not to assault the city, thej 
iOf ro un dcd and drove oC much booty. 

In tiie dty of Zariaspa were some of the Com- 
panSons' caTalry, left there on account of ill-health, 
and with them Peithoo son of Sosicles, set over the 
general attendance on the King, and Aristonlens the 
harpist These learning of the Scythian raid, and 
being now recoTcred, and able to bear arms and 
moont on horseback, assembled the mercenary cavabry 
op to the number of eighty, who had been left 
behind to garriion Zariaspa, and some also of the 
King's squires, and made an attack on the Maasagetae. 
\t the first charge, fjillfng on the Scythians when 

ley sospeeted nothing, they robbed them of their 
ntire plunder, and slew a good number of those who 
were driving it off. Then, however, when they were 
retiring in some disorder, with no one in command, 
SpHamenes and the Scjrthians caught them in an 
amboA, where they lost some of the Companions, 
and sixty of the mercenary cavalry. Aristonicus, too 
the harpist, perished there, having fought not as a 
harpist might, bat aa a good man and true. Pciihon 
was wounded and captured by the Scythians. 

XVII. MOien this was reported to Craterus, he 
harried at all speed to the Massagetae, and when 
they learned that Craterus was approaching them, 



Kal KpartpiK ^^intva^ ainmv avroh re iicelvotii 
irfpiiriirrei ov w6p/>m rrj^ tprniov ical <!X\oi9 
% iwwfvci Ma^aayrrAp vwkp rov^ ;^iXioi;v. Kal 
fMax") yiyprroi ruv [tm] MaxtB6vo»p xal ritv 
MV0mp KOprtpd' ical ipimmv oi MoMtBoyt^, Tofv 
Bi 1mv6S$¥ awiSoPOP fiiy iiearop xal irtvrrfKovra 
iwirtU' oi S^ ^XXoi ov ;(^aXnrflik <9 t^p «V")/^V^ 
h%99m0ficap, 5t4 iwopop ^p wpoattripm roh 

I Kal ip rovT^ 'AXi(apSpo^ ^Apraffa^op fUp 
Ttk aarpawnuK r^ hoMrpimp awaXXdrrti h€ff' 
$ipra OiA T^pac. 'Afiwrap Bi top SitcoXaov 
^arpawftp dtn* avroO KaOlarriai, Koiuov Bi 
ifwoXtimt axnoif Tijr Tf airrov rd(tp teal r^p 
MtXtdypov fyopra xal rAp rroLpmp iiririttp li^ 
rtrptucoffiov^ «al rov^ ilrvaxopT^aTii^ irtivra^ 
Kol rmp Baterpl^tp rt seal ^oyhiavAp xal 6<n>i 
JlXXoi fAitrd *AfkVProv ird\dfiaap, irpoard^a^ 
iwaaip dieovup Koiptn/ leal tiaxf^f^t^ttp avrov 
ip TJ ^oyhiovj, rfj^ Tt j((apa^ ^vtiea t^ ^vXojci)^ 
icaX 9I Wff ^ dpa ^inraiiivrjv wtpi^epofuvop icarti 
TOP ;(^ei/A««pa ip^hptvaavra^ ^vXKaPtlv. 

4 l.vtrafUpff^ S^ xdl oi dfi^* avrov tt»c ^povpaU 
T€ itdpra martiXfjfifieva iwptov (tc rwp MaK€- 
fioPMr leal a^iaiv dwopa vdyra rd rrj^ ^^V^ 
iyiyprro, a»9 iwl KoU'ov rt xal rrjv (vp tovt^ 
crparidp h'pdiropro, dt^ ravTfj fidXXop Ti d(io- 
fM^oi iaofAtPOi, * A<Pnc6fi€voi £< ^9 Ba7a9» 
X»piop T^ l4yyBiaprj^ oxvpov, ip fieOopl^ ti}^ 

' PoUk addi («r vi|) tU. Sohmieder <r«a^«^«rrfff (vAA«- 
^«r. Ndtlier HMM neoeMuy. 



thej fled hastilj into tiie detert. Then Cratenis 
pwing upon them fell in with them not far from the 
desert and with other MaHsgetaean hortemen, over 
a thousand in number. A terere battle took place 
between the Maeedonians and the Scjthians, and the 
Macedonians had the better of it Of the Scythiani 
a hundred and 6fty horsemen perished, but the rett 
easily got away into the desert, since it was impractic- 
able for the Macedonians to pursue further. 

Meanwhile Alexander had permitted Artabaxos 
the satrap of Bactria, at his request, 00 account of 
old age, to resign his satrapy ; and now appointed 
Amyntas son of Nicolaos in his place. Coenus he 
left there with his own brigade and Meleager's, and 
up to four hundred of the Companions' cavalry, all the 
mounted javcUn-mcn, and of the Bactrians and Sog- 
dianians such as were attached to Amyntas, com- 
manding them all to take their oiders finom Coenus, 
and to go into winter quartans there in Sogdiana, 
partly to keep an eye on this region and partly to try 
to ambush and capture Spitamenet, should he come 
raiding in that direction in the winter. 

But Spitamenes and his troops finding every 
place o cc up ie d by Macedonian garrtooos and no likeli- 
hood of eaeape anywhere for themselves, turned 
towards Coenus and his troops, thinking that in that 
direction they wookl make a better fight of it 
Arriving at Bagae, a stronghokl of Sogdiana, Ijring 



Tff ^oyhiopAp ytf^ xal rij^ MaaaayrrA^ XttvOmp 
^Ki^fUpow, a9Hi'Wti$ovaip ov xaXtwu^ raȴ ^,mv- 
$Ap iww4a^ i^ Tptaxikiov^ avM^dXKup a^aiv 

A is TijP ^ioyhtamip, Oi hi ^Kv^ai ouroi dwopia 
Tff voXX^ ix"'^^^ ^^ ^/'^ ^^' ^* voXtis tlclv 
avTOK ot/Tff ihpaloi oiKovctp, ms Stifiali/ttp &p 
wtpH r&p ^iXrdrtoPt ov ;^aXfiro2 dpawuaOiffal 
tlc^ip is aXXop teal dkXop woXtfAOP, 'Cls ^i 
KoiPos Tff irai oi dfM/^* ai)roy ffAofiop irpoaiovras 
rovs (ifP 1,'K'irafUpff Imfias^ tLwtjprmp xal airrol 
lurrk rm erparias, KaX yiyprroi aihAp fuixv 

• KOprnpa* irai ptrnmaip oi Siattgl6p€Sf wrrt rwr 
fiih ffapfidpmp iwwimp inrip rovs oxroMoalov^i 
wtfftip ip rj fu^Xp* ^^^ ^ i^ KoiM» iVvias 
Itkp is tUoat KaiMhnMt m^oi/s hi Ittitma* 01 
Tf oZip ^LcTftiapoX oi (hi inroXntrofiMPOi (vp 
SwirafiipTf gal ri»p Biucrpimp oi woWol diroXti- 
woviTtp ip rff ^vyj ^irirafUt^p xal dt^igofitpoi 
wapa KoIpop irapiloaop a^s avrous Koip^, 

7 04 Tf Maaaayirtu oi ^vOai icaici»s irnrpayorrts 
rd fUP axMuo^pa tAp (vfiwaparafafUp^p atftiai 
BaxTpimp Tff xal ^4>yCiapw Sirjftiraaap, airrok 
5ff ^ifp ^virafA€pp is fijp epfifiop t^vyov, 'Ov 
Bi ff'f'hryffXTo avrdis *A\i(apBpos ip op^fj o»v 
iw\ rrfp iptjfiop iXaupttP, inrortfioprts rov ^Trtra- 
fupov rrjp x€^a\T)p irapd * AXifapBpov tripfroV' 
<np, ms dvoarpr^opres dnh a^S>p ainop tovt^ 
T^ (pyv- 

XV'Itl. KaX ip Tointp KoIpos Tff i^ ^avraica 
wap* *AXi(aphpop itrafipx^f*^^ ^Ai oi dp4f>l 
KpdT€p6p Tff teal ^paTaft>€pprjv top rwv Hap- 
Ovaitap aarpdirrjv xal ^Taaravtop 6 *\p€L(i)iff TTff- 


between the Und of Sogdiana mnd that of the 
Mawigrfaran Sejrthiaos, they tmdkf faidoccd up to 
three thoofand hofsemen of the Sejthlans to join 
with them in a raid on Sogdiana. Now these 
Scjthiane are in great porertj, and abo, since they 
have no dtlet and no settled habitations, so that they 
have no fear for their homes, they are easy to persuade 
to take part in any war which may offer, and when 
Coenos and his force learned that the cavalry with 
Spitamenes was approaehing, they with their troops 
went to meet them. There was a severe battle, in 
which the Macedonians had the upper hand, so that 
of the tribesmen's eavahry over eight hundred fell in 
the battle, but of Coenus' troops about twenty- 
five horsemen and twelve feot«>ldiers. So the 
Sogdhmians still left with Spitamenes and the greater 
number of the Bactrians deserted Spitamenes during 
the flight and came to Coenos and surrendered them- 
selves to him. The Massagetaean Scythians after 
this disaster plundered the baggage trains of the 
Bactrians and Sogdianlans who had fought along with 
them, and themselves with Spitamenes fled to the 
desert. When they learnt that Akiandcr was 
already on the move and marching towards the 
desert, they cut off Spitamenes' head and sent it to 
Alexander, to divert him. by this action, from 

XVI 11. Meantime Coenun and Cratcrus with his 
men had returned to Alexander at Nautaca, and 
Phrataphemes the satrap of Parthyaea, with his 
troops, and Stasanor satrap of Areia, after accom- 



irpayfUpmp a^i^i wdmuw iaa if *AXt(d¥^pov 

2 irrroMTO* *\Xi(apSpo^ Si, wgpi Savroica dpa- 
wavmp T^ arpari^¥ oriircp oMfialow ^p rov 
Viliiftim, ^para^ipytjp ^¥ dwoariXXti i^ 
mapiavi koa Tawovpov^, Kxno^pahdrt^v iwa- 
Miforra t^ aarpdwrfp, ori woXXaKi^ ^B^ furd- 
W€fkwros i( *AX«(dpipou yiy i^fnyo^ ovx ^*ifou€ 

t «aXoJ>m. Xraad^opa hi it ^pdyya^ aarpdirify 
imwififtnit it Mi|5evY ^ *AroawdTf)¥ iwl aarpa- 
wdf Mol roOTO¥ rf M^fMiv, on 'Ofohdrtjt 
iBtXoMOMtip avT^ i^aiy€ro, ^rafUmj^ hi iwl 
Bai9vXi»ro9 criXXn, Sri \ia(alot o Bo/Si/Xwi^iof 
virapxot rrrtXtmrjxivtu avr^ ifffyyiXXrro, 
l^moXuf Bi Kal 'EwomiXXop xai McyiSav i^ 
MoM^SaUai^ ixwifiwn, t^v arparUiv rtfif iic 
WtLMtSwnat avTf dpd(oma^, 

4 *AfMi Si r^ npi into^aitfoyri wpovx<^p*i ^ 
iwl T^p ip rn ^LoySuufj wirpap, it fjp woXkovt 
flip TMV lEoyCtapiaf fiz/iVf^ttryiVai avr^ ^TtT 
yiXXrro' Ktu if 'OPvdprov Si yvph rou Baxrpiou 
Kol ai wdlS^t ai 0(vdprov it Tf)P wirpap rav- 
rriP fvfiwt^vyipai ixjyotrro, *0(vdpTov avra^ 
mt it dpdXmrop SfjOtP to ;^«/>ioy i^tlpo imtK- 
Otutpov, Sri xal ainit d^€tari]X€i dtr* *A\e- 
fJufSpw. TavTTft yap ifatptOeiarft oviciri ovSip 
vwokM^ffOMoBai iSoKti rttp XoySiapAp roU 

ft yftrrc/w{c<y idikovaip. 'Clt Si iwiXaaap rj 
wirpi^ Kara\afi0dp€i wdyrtj dvorofiop it rr^p 
wpoc0o\ijPt ciria rt (uyxtKOfuafitPOVt Toy« 
fiapfidpovt «K it XP^i^'oy troXiopxiap* teal xiiap 
rroXkif iwirrtcovoa rr^p rt rrpoa^aoip diropwri" 
pap iwaUi roit MommSo^i ical dpu ip d^opta 


pUthliig all that Alexander bad commafMled them. 
But Alexander, resUng his force at Nautaca, since 
winter was at its depth, despatched Phrataphcmes to 
the Mardians and Tapurians, to bring back the satrap 
Autophradates, because he had oAen hitherto been 
sent for bj Alexander but had not obeyed the 
sommofis. Statanor be sent to the Drangians as 
satrap, to the Medes Atropates, as satrap of Media, 
since be had heard that Oxodates had ill-will against 
himself. Stamenes he sent to Babyloo, dnee Maiaeot 
the governor of Babjkm was reported dead. Sopollt 
and Epoefflos and Menidas he sent to Macedonia, 
to bring thence to him the army due from Macedonia. 
With the first appearance of spring Alexander 
marched forward towards the Rock of Sogdiana, to 
whk;h, as he was told, a good many of the Sogdianians 
)umI fled for refuge ; and the wife of Oxyartes the 
Bactrian and his daughters were also reported to 
hare taken refuge in thb rock, Oxyartes having 
secretly sent them thither as to a place too strong to 
be captured ; for he himself abo had revolted from 
Alexander. Once this was taken it seemed that 
nothing would be left any bnger for those Sogdianians 
who wished to rebcL But when they approached the 
rock, Alexander found it sheer on all sides against 
atteckf and that the tribemen had stored there pro- 
vteSoQi lor a long siege ; and deep snow having fallen 
made the approach OMire difficult for the Macedonians, 



C^ro^ T0U9 fiapffdpov^ Siijjfp, *AXX^ icai t>\ 

• wpoafiaXkuv ihoKU t^ ympL^, Yiai yap n 

KoX inripoyMOP vw^ tmw papfidprnp Xnfi^p ^ 

fiiKlntfUap (v¥ opy^ iii0€fi\fiicti 'AXi^aifBpov. 
pomXriOitrr€K yap 4^ (vfiffacty xal irporrupo- 
fiipov o^iaw OTi omoi^ vwapfgi hrl ri a^rtpa 
dwaXXayf^HU wapalovc^ rh x^plop, oi tk avt^ 
yikmrt fiapfimpit^orr^ wruft^vs iitiXtvov f^firthf 
arparittrra^ *A\i(apfyoy, oirivfv avrA ifoipi^' 
aovai TO 6po^, ft»9 rmp yt &K\mp iufdomwttv 

7 ovStfUOP mpav o^ictw ovcap, ^Ep$a Btf iicri- 
Dv^fy 'AX«(ai^piK t^ p49 npwr^ awafiutni 
OM^ica ToXarra ttva^ to ytoaK, Btvrip^ 3^ ^i 
Toin*^ rk htvTMpa Ka\ t/mt^ t^ i^^irf^, m^ 
rnXMhralov tlvag r^ rtX^mai^ a¥4\6omi rptaico- 
aiovs hap€tMov^ to yip^t^* Kal roiho to 
mripvyaa wapmfuvtP fn paXXov •''»* /Tx\/.k toi\ 
Ma4rc00Mi9 mpi^tifUpov^, 

XIX. Hwnm(dfi€PO* 5J^ ^oi frirpopaTiiv tv 
rmk woXioo mi m t ^ ainmm fiMfUkm^Ktaap, ^ rpia- 
moaimn top omOpop, xaX iraaadXov^ fuxpov^ 
^tinfpov^, oU 04 eKfjpal icaTairtTn'jytcap ainoU. 
TrapaaietvdaapTt^t tov /eaTatrrrypvpat avroif^ ts 
Tff T^p \iopa &M-OV wrwrjyvla ^ap^Lrj ical it ttou 
ti t^ ;^m/ni9 IfpfffiCP xioviK (nro^aiPOiTo, teal 
rovTov^ KaXtoBioi^ ix Xipov laj^vpoi^ iichrf<ravTt^, 
T^ pvKTO^ TTpovxotpovp icoTa TO afTorofjuHnaTop 

t T€ Tfj^ wirpa^ Kal Tavrrf a^vXairroTaTov, Kai 
TovTOu^ Tovv waaodXov^ KaTaTrrffpinnt^ toi/-, 
pkp €»« TtfP yt)p, orrov hw^aiv^rOt tovs Bi /cai 
Ttj^ X*oPO^ €v Ta pAXujra ov Spv^tjaofuva, 
aP€iKKOv a^a^ airrov^ dXXoi dWrj ttj^ irirpa^. 


while it assured to the tribesmen abundant water. 
Yet eren so Alexander decided to assault the posi- 
tion. For some arrogant insult of the tribesmen had 
stirred Alexander to angry rivalry. For when sum- 
moned to a parley, and receiWng the offer that they 
would be allowed to go safe to th^ homes if they gave 
up the position, they with barbarie laughter bade 
Alexander find winged soldiers to capture the height 
for him, since they eared for no other kind of men. 
Then Alexander proclaimed that the first to scale the 
height should have a first prise of twelve talents, the 
second, the second orixe,* the third, the tliird prise, 
and the last prise for the last to reach the top was 
three hundred darics.* Eager as the Macedonians 
already were, this proclamation incited them even 

XIX. So then when all those had assembled who 
had practised rock-climbing in their previous sieges, 
up to the number of three hundred, and had got 
ready small iron pegs, with which their tents were 
pegged down, in order to fix them into the snow, 
where it appeared firoxen fast, and also if any space 
bare of snow showed up, and had bound tnese to 
strong Unen ropes, they set out at ni^^ht to the part 
of the rock which was most sheer, and so unguarded. 
These pop they fixed, some into the ground, where it 
was virib^, and some into the snow, where it seemed 
least Ukely to give way, and hauled themselves, one 
one way and one another, up the face of the cliff. 

> Thai is, alsvsa talsots, ths third tea, sod so 00. The 
firei twvlY6 only (oi prisfls. 
• TbffMbandiwlfolddariosBMdsatalaak 

VOL. I. O 


Kal rcvrmp h rpttUotna fUv 49 r^ ava/Sdcn 
im^dfiff^ap, mart oM r^ ciiftara avrmf is 
TM^j^ MvpWff, ifLwnvopra iXXjy «al XKKn r^ 

t x*0P9^» Oi Bi Xoiiroi dtfafiamt^ ^o rtfp h 
Kol rh &Mpo9 rov Spovs tcaraXafiomt^ avhova^ 
Mariattop «K M TO arparawtiap rA» MomMp^p, 
oin>«K airroU 4( *AXt(apBpov irafnjyyMKfihop, 
n</i^af hk KtipvKa i^offaoi MXtvat roU 
wpo^Xacaovat tmv fiapfiapttp fiij hiarpifitiv 
fri, AXXa wapaliloPOA a^as' i(4vprjcdai yikp 
Bfl roifs WTffPov^ iwBptlnrov^ Kai ix^^Bai inr* 
ainmp rov Spov^ tA iUpa* xal &fia ihtUpvtv 
rou^ irwip rrjt MOpv^rjs arpartana^, 

4 Oi S^ ffdpfimpoi iKwXayiyres r^ wapaXoy^ 
rtj^ Syjrtm^ ««! wXtiopd^ tc inrorowricaprts f 2mii 
TOV9 Kari-^opra^ rk htpa icaX d«pi0m mtXia- 
fUpov^, tytioaop aSa^ ovtouv* oOrm wpo^ rtfp 
inf^p rmp oXiymp ixtiprnp Maxt^prnp ^fftpol 
iytpopro. 'Bi^a ^ iiXXMP r§ woXKAp ywauct^ 
Koi iraiSfv i\rj^$r}aap «ai 17 yvpff if *0(udprov 

B teal oi walBt^, Kol ykp ^p 'Ofudprou waU 
wapOtPO^ ip &pa ydftov, 'PMfdvi; opofiart, fjv 
if) icaWiorrjp rmp Aoiaptap yvpaucAp Xiyovaiv 
oi^ijpai oi (up *A\t(ddfBp^ arpartvaavrt^ ^rd 
y€ rrjp ^aptiov yvpoisca, Kai raurijp IBopra 
*A\i(npSpop h tpmra iXBtiP avr^* ipturOevra 
dc ovic iOtXtfCai vffpiaai leaBdirMp cuxfidXwroPt 

6 aXXA yrjfuu ykp ov/c dira(iA<rai, Kal rovro 
iym *A\€(dpSpov ro Hpyov iiraivm paKKop ri ^ 
pipf^pai, KoiToiTC rij^ ^aptiov yvpaiico^t 4 
icdKKicTri hrf iXtyero rStv ip r^ * Aaia yvvcuKutPt 
ri ovK ^\$€v is iTTiOvplap ^ xaprepos avros avrov 


Some thirty of them perished in the aseent, and their 
bodiei were not even found for burial, having fallen 
in different placet into the snow. The rest* how- 
ever, reached the top about dawn, and seiaed the 
•mnmit of tiie crag, and waved linen flags to the 
Macedonian camp, aa Alexander had commanded 
them. Then Alexander wnding a herald bade him 
aboot to the advance gnanl of the tribesmen, bidding 
them delay no further but give themMlvea up forth- 
with ; for he had found rare enough the winged men 
and tlie tunmiit of their rock was already in their 
hands; and with that he pointed to the soldiers on 
the top. 

The tribennen were astounded at this miraculous 
fight, and suspecting that those who held the summit 
were more numerous than in reality, and fully armed, 
•urrendered ; so terrified were they at the si^^ht of 
thoae few Macedonians. Wives and ehiUlren of mnny 
of them were captured there, and also among these 
the wife and daughters of Oxyartes. Now there wns 
a marriageable daughter of Oxyartes called Roxatie,' 
and thoae who served with Alexander said that .she 
was the loveliest woman in Asia next to Darcius' 
wife ; Alexander when he saw her fell in love with 
her, but captive though she was, and deep in love as 
he was, he would not offer any violence to her, but 
deigned to mnrry her. This in Alexander I approve 
rather than blame. Yet for Dareius' wife, who was 
said to be the most beautiful woman in Asia, either 
he felt no love, or mastered himself, yomig though he 
» Tbe pnMMBsiatiQB is Bteiai. 



iyivrro, Wof re Av koX rk fidkivra iv tucfi^ r% 
turvyia^, owon v0pi(ouauf ol dtfOpttmr o Stf 

^y/M»/i€PPY Kal 2ofi|9 ^fui 070^^ ova Jiraw^ 

XX. Km Toiirvir gal Xoyov xarrx*** oKlyaif 

'AX«{aif6^ (vi^9, JiwoBpama iXBtiP wapk 
A a^ o » T^ §v¥ovxop rw ^vXaxa avr^ rij^ 
ywtUMit, Kal rovrop «•« cl^t Ao^cof . wptina 
fiip wvBicBeu tl (uatp ainA oi iroijff «ral 1} 

S 7vi^ Tff /ral rj ^LrjfTtip, 'Hv M {M<fa9 Tf ivuOrro 
Koi fiaaiXiaaai 5ti /raXoOi^cu «al 17 Ogpawiia 
^Ti <«/i^* a^dc ^OTtv f^rriva «ai firi ^kaptiov 
iOtpawtvomo, iwl T^5f av wuOicdtu u ctt^popti 
atn^ 17 ytnnf frt. 'CIk Bi am^povovaav hrvBrro, 
avBi^ ip€9$tu Mifri fiUuop iP ^AXtfdvBpov avrj 
^ Cffptp (vpiffri* Kol T09 €V¥Ovxo¥ iwofioaaina 
^Jufoi 5ti. *n 0aai\4v, oCrm roi m^ d'wiXiwg^ 
rvit 17 ofi yvtnf, ttal ^AXifapBpo^ iuftpAv ipicro^ 

S Tf iati KoX at0^poi4araros, *Bvl Toor^f ava- 
TfiMu Aapfiov 4^ rhp ovptipop ra^ xttpa^ xal 
€v^a4T6ai &h€* *AXX*, fl» itv ffaaiXtv, or^ iirt- 
rirpawrtu PtfUiP t^ ffaa^tXJw vpdyfiara iv 
&9$pmwtH^, <rv vvv pAXiara piv ipoi <^v\a^o» 
\l9p9m9 Tf KoX Wrfitav rf)V dpXi^P, &air€p ovp 
Mai ISttcav* fi ^ ^ €7a> ovk€ti aoi fiaaiKtu^ 
T^ ^Aaia^, av Si prjBepl aXX^ on p,fj *We^dvhpip 
ifapahovvai to ipov Kpdro^, Oirrw^ ouSe irpo^ 
rSiP iroXtpitap apa dp^XeZrat oaa ado^pova epya, 

4 *0(vdpryj^ Bi axovtra^ ra^ iraiBa^ ixoptpa^, 
dtcovaa^ hi ical inrkp 'k*w(dprj^ rrj^ Svyarpo^ ori 


was and in the very flush of his prosperity — a period 
wheomcoactTioleDtly; but he pitied and spared her, 
both showing much restraint and also a proper 
ambition for good repute. 

XX. There is indeed also a story that soon after 
the battle of Issus be tw e en Dardos and Alexander, 
there escaped the chamberlain who had charge of 
Dareius' wife and fled to Dareius. When then 
Dareius saw him, he first asked if his children and his 
wife and mother were alive. N^lien he learnt that 
they were, and that they had the title of princesses, 
and that the court paid to them was the same as 
when he was on the throne, Dareius next asked if his 
wilSe still remained true to him. Learning that she 
was, he enquired again whether any violence or insul 
had been offered to her by Alexander. The cham- 
berlain with an oath replied, '* O King, your wife is 
as you left her, and Alexander is the noblest and most 
self-oontroUed of men." At this, Dareius stretched 
his hands to the heavens and prayed thus : " O Zeus 
the King, to whom it has been given to order the 
affairs of Kings among men, do thou guard safe for 
me, if so it may be, the sovereignty of Persians and 
Medes, as thou didst give it me ; but if I be no longer 
King of Asia, do thou give my power to none but to 
Alexander. So much does he care for honourable 
conduct even towards enemies." 

Now Oxyartes when he learnt that his daughters 
were captives, and also that Alexander cared for his 



oiXfi avrHf *AXM(dvSp^» Sapaijaa^ a^Urro wap 
AXifopBpav, koI ^w ip ti^J wap avr^, fw€p 
tU^ M (vrrtfx^a roiavrff, 

XXI. *AXifaidpo9 hit m r^ ip l^rfUapoU 
avTM UrwiwpaKrOt ixofUinf^ ^fi^i «al r^ wirpa^ 
h tlapt$rdxa^^ wpouv^i^pti, Sri leal ip Tiapu- 
roMtu^ Xmpiop ri 6xvpa¥, dtXXifv wirpay, Kart)(§i¥ 
iKiyomo woWoi rmw 0a p 0dpm». *Exa\tiro Bi 
aCrtf Xopitjpov ^ whpa* xaX h avrijy aino^ t« 
o Xopifimis ivfLW^tivyti meX SXkoi tmv virdpxmv 

2 otfK 6\iyot, *Hv Bk rh fiiw C^o^ rij^ wirpa^ 
^9 ffraliov^ fticoat, /ri/«Xo9 3^ i^ iftixoyra* avrtf 
Bi dircnotun^ irdpro$€», dpoBo^ B^ /« airrrjp fila 
icai auTi) arcKi; Tf ical ovk tvwopo^, ola Bif wapk 
•Tfiv ^uat¥ Tov \mpiov wtvoifffiiinf, «9 ^oXrr^ 
tiPtu cat fAfjBei^ ttpyotrro^ ical nait (ha dpt\Bt7p, 
^dpayf Bi kvk\^ mpnipyti rtfw whptuf 0a0€ia, 
MOTf 5aTK wpoffdftiP arpari^Uf rj wrrp^ l/i«XX#, 
iroXv wp6^6€P ain^ ri/p i^dpayya cZmm ;^»9tcov, 
ft»9 if o/iaXot) opfioadai wpov^ff ow ra h wptw0o\f)f 
rop arparop. 

t *AXX^ mal tt^ *A>J(apBpa^ ^wt€To tov ipyov 
oOtm jrdpra ijUro x/^'P'^'^ fiard t€ avr^ teal 
ifatprria tlyai, h roc6pB€ roXfiff^ r€ teal tvrvxia^ 
wpoxtx^PV'^^^' T(fiPti»p Bif rd^ iXdra^ {woXXaX 
yitp ical uw€pvy^rjX(H iXdrai ^aap ip tcvicXtp tov 
Bpov^) xXifjiaica^ tic roirrttp ivoiti, <09 icadoBop 
CiMU h rrjp <^dp€iyya rj arparca' ov ydp ^p 

4 aXXM9 icaTtXBtlp i^ avrijp. Kal ra^ flip rj^upa^ 
avT09 *A\i(apBpo^ i^€t<Trtjic€i r^ ^pyv* to rjfuav 
TOV arparov ^X^v ipya^ofupop* rd^ 5c pvxra^ ip 

^ UmpuriMmM A. Not the mum m nmfotrdmmi TV. 22. 1. 


dAoghter Boxane, took ooarage and cunt to A 
ander and was held in honour bj him, as was mec t 
after this happj event. 

XXI. After completing his work in Sogdiana, and 
being nam in poaspirion of the rock, Alexander 
advaneed to the Pafeitaeae« since manj of tlie tribe*- 
men were reported to be holding a strong place in 
the eoontrj of the Pardtacae, another rock, called 
the Bock of Chorienea; and Chorienet himself and 
many others of the authorities of the countrr had 
taken refbge there. The height of this rock was 
about twenty stades, its circuit, some sixty ; it was 
sheer on all sides, and there was only One way up to it, 
and this narrow and difficult, made as it was despite 
the nature of the ground, so that it was difficult, even 
if no one prevented, to ascend even in single file. 
A deep ravine abo protects the rock all round, so 
that anyone desiring to bring op an army against 
the rock would be obliged beforehand to do nrach 
filling up of the ravine, so that he might start from 
level ground when bringing up his force to the 

Undeterred, however, Alexander took the work in 
hand ; so confident was he that everjrthing should be 
accessible to him, and that everything could be cap- 
tured ; and to such a height of boldness and success 
had he reached. Felling the pines, therefore (there 
were many tall pines all round about the hill), he made 
ladders of them, so that the army might be able to 
deaeend into the ravine, for there was no other means 
of deteent. During the days Alexander himself 

*^ his army 


•apetintendcd the operations, keeping half h 
•I work ; during the nights his bodyguards 


fiipfi 01 a»fAaro^vX£UC€K avrjt tlpyd^ovro Uep- 
BUxa^ rt nal Atowwdro^ teal llro\tfiaU>^ o Adyov 

6fttp airnp U rff9 pwtra hrrrirairro, "Hiorroi' h* 
7% rffUpa^ ov w\io¥ ^prtp tUoci iriJ^^fK ittu tt}s 
pvxro^ 0\iyo¥ dwMoi^, tcairoi fvfiwdatf^ ri^i^ 
or par M^ ipyafo^tnf^' ovrta ro Tf X^P^ iwopot 

£* ^9 T^y ^dpoffya wacadXous icarrtrifpnfOP ^v 
Ti ofvraTOF t^ ^payyo^, Biixoma^ dXkifkmv 
loop (u^fjurpaif wpa% i^yyif t« «a* (woxh^ "^"^^ 
iwifiaXXofiiwmp. *Emi0aXkop Bk wXiy/jMra U 
XiTfmp «aV yt^vpaK ftdXMrra lUop, xal raOra 
fvrioOrrcv X^^ &pm$f» iw^^opovp, ^ i^ ofiaXov 
yiypicStu rp orpan^ t^v wpocohop rrjv wftof; rijv 

• Oi li ffdpffapoi rk fiip irpttra ttartippopovp 
m^ dwopov wdpTff rov iyxup^^Mfo^' ^ ^^ roftV' 
ftara i}5i| h rfjp wirpap i^iMPOVPro teal airrol 
dBvparoi ^op &pwB€p i^upyup rov^ MaxtBopa^ 
{w€WOifiro ykp axnoU wpoicaXvfifiara irpo^ rk 
fiiXfj, a»f inr airroU dfikaffi^ ipyd^€<rd<u)t 
imrkayti^ o Xopiijn;^ vpo^ rk yvypopttpa /cijpvxa 
ire fiv€i irpo^ *A\€(avBpov, htoptvo^ *0(vdpTrfP oi 
dpairep'^rai' ical Tre/xirei *0(vdpTTjv ^AXifopBpo^, 

1 *OB^ d^itcofuvo^ W€i6€i Xopti]pfjv iTTiTpe^lrai *AXe(- 
dpSp^ avrop t€ xeu ro ^^pioy. hia fi€P ykp ovBhf 
6 ri ovx dXcrrov eJpoi * A\e(dpSpip xal rfi arparia 
tJ iictipov €9 rriarip he iXBopro^ icai ^iXlav, rrfp 
wicnp re ical Bucaiortira p^aXcaarl irf^pu rov 



in relajs* Perdirra<i and Lconniitus and Ptolcmacus 
■00 of LagQSt with the rest of the army, divided into 
three seetiom, ai Alexander had commanded, for the 
night work. By daj-time they could not aocooiplish 
a dialanoe of more than twenty cubita, at night 
rather leaa, even though all the army was at work ; 
ao dUBcolt waa the ground, and ao hard the work 
there. First deaeending into the ravine they fixed 
•takes into the narrowest part of the ravine; the 
stakea being just as far apart firom one another as 
waa proper to give the neeesMury strength and to 
bear safely the bad piled upon them. They then 
fixed upon the stakes hurdlea of willow and osiers in 
bridge faahkm; then bindii^ theae doaely together 
they heaped earth upon them, so that the approach 
ibr the troopa to the roek might be on the level.' 

At first the tribesmen Uughed at these attempts 
as if quite hopeless ; but when at length arrows began 
to find the range of the rock and they proved unable 
firom above to dbfedge the Maceclonians who had 
made screens against the missiles, so that they worked 
beneath them unharmed, Chorienes was aghast at 
the achievement and sent a herald to Alexander 
begging him to send Oxyartes to him ; and Alexander 
did ao. And when Oxyartes came he tried to per- 
soade Chorienes to surrender himself and his strong- 
hoM to Alexander. For nothing, he said, could not 
be taken by force by Alexander and his army ; if, 
however, Chorienes should make terms of good faith 
and friendship with Alexander, he was able to 
highly the good faith and justice of the 
* 8m Appendix. 



fimfftkim^, rd r &>Xa xal ro ainov iv womii^ 

8 h fitfitdmciP TOW XoTOW^ irpo^ifmp. jtouroi^ 

Qpipop xal TMr olictimw riWv icaX rraipmw ainov. 
*EXS6pt$ B^ Xopiiptjf ^iXai^pflnru t« airoMpufii 
fitpo^ col wi^TtP h ^\ia» lov^ avrop fikif icarhyfi 
miiti^oi M Ktknm tmv ovyKarnXBommp Ttva 
ain^ i^ r^P frhpa» rov^ xtXtvcoma^ iylowui 

9 TO x^piop. KaX iplilcmu %nrh rmp (ufAWW^w- 
yoT^p, M^T« jrol ainh^ 'AXifapBpa^ dpaXafiiuf 
ritp irwaawiari^p ^ mmntu(09iev% J^0ff icarii 
Biop rti^ wiTpa^, gtd roaovrov ihiifatp &P€Wi9Uci^ 
rt h TOP \opirjpnP ^PJOp awoUlfaeOai, «»aT€ xal 
avro TO X!*pU>p imtlpo hrtrpiwti Xopitfpjf /cai 
tma(y)(op «imu Sampirtp Ka\ irpoaBtv iUttct, 

10 Hvpififi Bk x**f^^^ T^ KOKOwaB^aeu atn^ rifp 
arpariap, voXX^ X*^**^ iwnrtcov^ff^ ip t§ 
woXiopKu^ Koi &tia kwoplf rAp hrvTffidmf 
hrtiaBrfaap. 'AXXA Xopujprfi: i^ hlf^tjvop airla 
fS^i hticMiP T$ arpart^ xal Hhmict alrov rt ical 
0&09 T«#r ip Tg ^^Pf ^iroOirmp icpta r§ rapt- 
vi|pA xark aKtjvtjv, Kal Tatna &>i^ ovm i^aaicty 
aMiX«<rai Tttv irap€<TK€vaa pukpwv i^ rtjp woXiop- 
miap ovhi rtfp 5e«aTi7v iiolpap. ^EsvBtp ip rifij 
/AaXXoy Tift *A\t(apSp^ r^v C09 ov irpo^ ffiop 
fiaXXop ij Kara yva>fif]P ivBov^ rfjp irtrpap. 

XXII. Tavra B4 Karavpa(afJi€vo^ * AXi^apZpo^ 
airro^ fikv i^ lAaicrpa ^r Kpdrepop Bi t&p 
iint€t»v iroLpt^v exoma k^oKocLov^ Koi rStp 
ir€((wv rriv rt ainov rdftp icaX ttjv HloXvatrip' 
Xovro^ Kol *ArrdXov icai rrjp ^AXxira iirl 
KaTavrjp rt teal Avardpffv ixirifAirti, ot Btj fi6po$ 


King, ^Mog numy examples, but chiefly adducing his 
own tiealmeot in proof of his argument. Choctenes 
was overborne by these arguments, and himself eame 
to Alexander with some of his kinsfolk and friends. 
And when Chorienes arrived Alexander replied to 
Um courteously and gave him assurance of his friend- 
skip, retaining Choiiraes himself, but bidding him 
send soBse of those who came down with him to the 
rock, to order the stronghold to be gi%'cn up. And 
civen up it was by the refuge e s , so that Alexander 
himself actually took 6ve hundred of the bodyguard 
and ascended tosee the rock; and so far from snowimr 
any unldndnrss to Chorienes, he actually entrusted 
the stronghold to him and made him governor of the 
district he had previously administered* 

The army, as it happened, had suffered much in 
the winter, a great deal of snow having fallen during 
the siege ; ai^ also they were d istress e d by want of 
provisioos. But Chorienes said he would give two 
months' supplies for the army,and gave them com 
and wine fiom the stores in tlie rock, and distributed 
dried meat among the tents. Even after all these 
gifts he said he had not expended a tithe of what 
they had prepared for the siege. Alexander there- 
fore regarded him with the greater respect, since 
he had given up the stronghold not so much perforce 
as from good-will. 

XXII. After this achievement Alexander himself 
marched towards Bactria; but he sent Cratcrus, 
with six hundred of the Companions' cavalry and of 
the infantry his own brigsde, that of Polysperchon 
and Attains, and that m Alcetas, against Catanes 
and Attstanes, who alone were left of those who had 



tcaprgpa^, viicStaiP ot afi^l Kpdrtpop r$ f^XV 
xal Karoinj^ fiiv awo$yrja€tt airrou /iaYo/ifro<? 
Avirraint^ W (vWfj^6€U avrjx^^ trap *A\4^ 
aifhpour rm9 hk (w avroU 0ap0dptp linrtU 
fikp J^'wi0at^op h itiarop xal tXitocit irf {bl 5^ ufxi^X 
rov^ X^'^^ov^ vgyrattoaiov^. Tavra W wv iffpt^X^^ 
TOi^ <i/i^4 Kptirtpov, KoX oxnoi i^ Wattrpa ^taai 
Kal i¥ Iki«TpoK TO a/i^i KaXXja^cVvyv t« «Ui 
Toir^ iraSSav wdBrffut *A\t(d¥Sp^ (vpffi4x^^» 

) *E« Bcurr^y Bk i^rj^omo^ ^^ toO ^ptK 
dpaXafitHf Tffw arpanikp wpovxd»p€t m^ 4r 
^Iplov^, *Afivtrr<ip awoXiwrnp iw r§ X'^Pf ^^'^ 
BaMrpimp teai (irp a\n^ twww phf rpi^iXlow 

4 icai W€PTaKoaio%f^, irtt^ov^ Ik fivplotf^. Tnep- 
/3aX4»y hk TOP Kavtcaaop iv hiica tifUpois d^Utro 
^ *AKt(dpBptuuf iroXiP, r^p lertaBturap ip Uapa 
ira^uadBat^ Srg rh wpmrop iirl Wditrptfv ^^tA- 
Xtro, Kal TOP iikp Cvapxop, o<rrt^ avrA itrl 
Tiyv iroXtt^ TOTf irdyOfi, irapaXvti t^ apx^» 

6 oTt ov caXftk iirrftiadai (So(€, llpoatcaroniiaa^ 
hi icdi d\\ov^ r&p irtpioUtav t« ictu oaoi ratp 
orpartotTifP diro/Aa^oi ^av i^ rrjp * A\f (dvSp€iap, 
'Sixdpopa fUP, h'a r&p tratp^p, rrjp iroXiv aCrrjv 
Moafuiv ixtkivat' aarpdirrji/ Bi Tvpidaintv Kar! 
<m)a€ T^ T€ x*^P^^ ^V^ Uapawa^aaBiJv mul 
rij^ dWfj^ Ikrrt ^l top Koxftifpa irorafiop. 

6 ^A^f^ro/iCfo^ B4 C9 SUatap v6\ip teal rfj ^AOijpa 
Ovaa^ irpovx»p€i ok ^irl top KM<l>rjpa, trponrifv^af; 
tctjpvxa 09^ TafiKrjp t* teal roi/^ ttrl rdBt rov 
*\vBov TTOTafiou, x€\€vaa^ dtrap^dp oiru^ &p 


rebelled in the territory of the Pareitacenae. There 
was a aeTcre battle fought against them; but 
(VatrnM* troops won the day; Catanes perished on 
the t\rU\, but Austanes was captured and taken before 
Alexander; of the tribesmen who fought under them, 
up to a hundred and twenty caYalry perished, and of 
infantry about fifteen hundred. And when Craterus' 
force had aoeomplldied this, they too marched to- 
wards Bactria, where it was that the plot of Callia- 
thenes and the squires against Alexander took place. 
From Bactria, now that spring was ending, 
Alexander took his force and marched towards India, 
leading Amjrntas behind in Bactria and with him 
three tlioasand and five hundred cavalry and ten 
thousand infantry. Crossing the Caucasus,^ in ten 
days he arrived at the dty of Alexandrcia, which he 
had founded in the district of the Parapamisadae 
during his first expedition into Bactria. The governor 
whom he had set over the dty then, he now (fismissed 
from his office, as he appeared to have proved an 
inefikient ruler. He toen settled in Alexandrcia 
tnore settlers from the neighbourhood and of the 
troops also such as were past fighting, and ordered 
Vicanor, one of the Companions, to take charge of 
the dty itself; and as Mtrap he appointed Turiaspes, 
both of the country of the Parapamisadae and of the 
rest as far as to the river Copncn. Then reaching 
Sicaea and aAcr sacrifidng to Athena he advanced 
towards the Cophen, sending a herald in advance to 
Taxiles and the Indians this side of the river Indus ; 
bidding them meet him, each at their earliest con- 

As bsfbca, Ihs Hiada-Koosh; also eaU«i the Parapa- 



SXKm (hrapxo^ awtivrtap, hupa tA ftiyiara wap* 
*lpioU pofu(ofi€pa KOful^ofnt^, gal roif^ iki^ma^ 
Bmatuf l^affOF roi/K wapk a^atp Sma^, afH$fAOP 
#¥ whn§ Mtu tJtcoctp, 

*2jf6a hf) hUkmp r^p crparikp 'H^ivrimpa 
fj^p KoX UtpUMKOP iKwifkiru i^ rtfp UtVMtXaSfrtp 
X^P^^ ^ ^^ ^^^ *li^v warafUp, ivopra^ ri^p 
Tf Vopyiov rd(uf gal KXtlrov koI MMXtaypov 
gaX TMV iraLpmp iwwimp rov^ tffU94a^ ica\ roi^ 
iu9$9^fi9v% iwwioif (vfivayra^, wpocrtifa^ rd 
Tf Kark rj^ o^ X^P^ 4 P^ ifoiou9 4 ^/m>- 
XoTfif wapiarme^Oi* Moi M rip ipB&p worafu>p 
A^KOfUpmf^ wapaaM€vd(€iP 8^a h rifp hidfiaaiP 
rov irorafwO (6fii^opa» ^vp rovroi^ hi teai 
Ta(l\ff^ Koi M SXXm Ihrapxoi irriKXotrrai, Kal 
o&roi m^ d^iMOtno wphf^ top *\phop trorafiop, 
htpaaaop Sea i( *AXt(dpfyov ^ rrrajfUpa. 
'AoTff^ Bi T^ llevKtXamriBo^ X^P^^ Owapyo^ 
p ^ mrtpiO'a^ airr6^ rt airoXXi/rai teal rffv -troXiv 
noocatrmKt^fP i^ ^prtpa (vfiirt^vyti, *E(ffiXof 
^p avTffP ip rptdicopra rffjupat^ irpocicaBripMPOi 
oi (vp 'H^aiffrU^pu Kal avro^ fup 'kartf^ 
awo6priaK€i, r^ iroKt^^ hk fra;^iy ivtfuXtlaOat 
Sa7>ya409» h^ fri irp6c$€P ir^^vym^ "Aartiy vapa 
TafiXi/y TjvrofAoX^tr ted rouro ^ avr^ to 
wte rop wpo^ *AXi^apBpop. 

XXni. *AXi(aPCpo^ Bt, Sfft^p Tovf vira<rm<r' 
rk^ teal rt»p eraiptap Iwirimp 6coi fir) avp 'H^<- 
ffrUtPi h-erdxaro teal rmPir€^€Taipa>v^ xaXovfuvtop 
rk^ rd^ti^ leaX rov^ rofara^ xai rov^ ^Aypiavat 



Tadenee ; Taxiles and the others did come to meet 
him, brii^^liig tncfa gifts as the Indians roost prise, 
and thej promised to give Alexander the elephants 
tfaej had with them, five-and-twenty in number. 

Here he divided his army, and sent Hephaestion 
and Perdioeas to the territory of Peucelaotis towards 
the river Indus, with the brigade of Gorgias and of 
Qeitits and of Meleager and half of the Companions* 
eavalry and all the mcro cn ary cavalry ; bidding them 
either to take by stoCBt or to receive in surrender, 
aO towns on their march; then, when they had 
reached the Indus, to get everything ready for the 
cromfng of the river. Taxiles and the other authori- 
ties were sent with them. They duly arrived at the 
river Indus and carried out Alexander's commands. 
But Astes the governor of the dbtrict Peucelaotis 
attempted revolt, and was himself put to death, 
while he involved in his fate the dty also to which he 
had fled for refuge. For Hephaesticm and his troops 
blliifn<iid it for thirty days and captured it. Astes 
himself baring been put to death, Sangaeus was 
appointed to govern the dty; he had previously 
escaped from Astes and had gone over to Taxiles : 
this guaranteed hb good faith with Alexander. 

XXIII. But Alexander, tailing the bodyguard and 
soeh of the Companiom' cavalry as had not been 
detailed with Hephaestion and the brigades of the 
Gxnpanions' infantry, as it is called, with the archers, 



gal roifK iwwoMomKrrd^, wpovx^P^^ ^ ^^ 
*Aawaaim¥ t« icai Vovpaimp X'^P^^ '^ ^Kaaa- 

1 inyMtfr. 11 opcv^tK hk wap^ rhp Xoi^v teakov- 
fttpop warafioif op^i^ijp re Hop tcdi rpax«uuf, leal 
rovrop Btaffa^ x^^^^^» ^^ M^ vt(itp v\fj$<K 
fidhrip hrtcBoL Oi iKiXtvatP* airrh^ Bk dpdKaffi»P 
T0V9 imr^ac (vfAirapra^ «al ritp irt(a>p rwf 
Waxfhopmp ^9 oKraKoaiot^ iirifitfidaa^ rStP 
iwitmp (ifp raU dawi^i raU irf(iirai« ewov^ 
9fyfp, &Tt rov^ ravrp oiicovpras ffapffdpcv^ 
^vfAWt^€vyipai h tc ra 6p9j rik ttar^ rifp ympap 
iffiyytWtro ovr^ gtu is rks woXtts oatu oxypaX 

S ainmp is ro dirotuiv€a$ai, Kal rovrmp r§ 
wptinjf «a^ o3av voX«i f»ci^/Wi7i wpocfiaKmp 
TOW itkp wpo T^ woXtms rrrayiUmnn •t^ •^X*'' 
if i^i^v hpr^aro «al KariicXtia^p is rfi» iroXii 
tkinos Bi mpmCMrrai ffiXt^ &^ rov Brnpamos c\ 
roar ctt/Aov. To Ik rpavpa ou xf^Xew^ atn^ 
iyiprro* 6 ykp 0^pa( ^X* ^^ ^^ ^^ Biap.iraf 
tik ToO a»;iov iXBtip ro ffikos* teal llroXtfuiios 6 
Adyou irpm0 ri mai Atoppdras* 

4 Tore fiip Bff um /iri^iax<0TaTov tov rtixov^ 
iSaip€TO iarparofW€h€vca'ro irpos tJ v6\tr r^ 
B4 vartpaia Owo Ttjp tm, hiirXovv yap itlyos 
mp40€0krfTO TJ woXti, €9 fJiip ro itpwrop, art 
ovK dxpiff^ Trr€ix^P^^o^' o^ yaXtftrc^ i/3id- 
aavTO 01 MaKeB6v€S' irpos Bi ry detrrrpfi oXiyop 
dpri(rx6pT€s Oi fidpffapot, »s aX t< jc\ipaK€s 
wpofrtKdvro tjBtj teal viro tStP ^\SiV irdproBtp 
irtTpto<T/copro oi irpopaxopepoi^ ovic epetpap, dXXA 
Kara t^ 1111X419 •K (irl ra oprj i/cTrltrrovaiP ix 

5 T^ 9roX€o»9. Kai rovro»p oi ptp ip rj 4>^i 



the AgrUnes, and the mounted javelin-men, advanced 
to the diftiict of the Aspasiant« Guraeans and Astm- 
cfiniant. Marching along the river Choes by a 
mountainous and rough route, and crossing the river 
with tome difficulty, he bade the infantry force to 
foDow him at normal pace ; but himself taking all the 
cavalry and up to eight hundred of the Macedonian 
foot-aoldien, whom he mounted, with their infantry 
thieldi, marched at full speed, having learnt that the 
tribeanen in this direction had fled for refuge to the 
liills of the district and to the cities which were strong 
for the purpose of defence. The first of these cities 
which lay on hb route he assaulted, and without any 
special effort drove back the advance guards of the 
dty, and shut them up in the city ; but he himself 
received a wound by an arrow through his breast- 
plate in his shoulder. The wound, however, was not 
a serious one, for the breastplate prevented the dart 
passing through his shoulder; Ptolemaeus son of 
Lagus also was wounded, and Leonnatus. 

On this Alexander placed his camp by the dty 
where the wall appeared easiest to assault ; and next 
day about dawn, there being a double wall about the 
city, the Macedonians easily forced their way through 
the first, as it had not been carefully built; but at 
the second wall the tribesmen made a short stand, 
and yet when the ladders were now put up and the 
advance posts were being wounded on this side and 
on that by the missiles, they did not stand their 
ground, but dashed out of the city by the gates in 
ttic direction of the hills. Of them some perished in 



iiro$wTf9KOvct9' tcov^ Bi (ctft^oc ^Xofiow mifpmv, 
{vfurarra^ awo€rm99va» m MomMp^, on 
4rpm$fl inr* aMm *AXi(m¥^pof ^pytf^ofntvoi, oi 
woXKeH l^ h rk 9^ Iri ou fiagpav rik wiiKtw^ 
rk 6f^ Ay, iv^ft^. T^v w6\t» M Kara- 
aM^a^ h 'ApioMa iXXtiP woXuf i^. Tavrtiw 
hi o^AoXoyif Mo$€laa» Korncx^ K^chi^or ia4» 
(vp TO«9 iXXoi^ ffiytfUMi TMir vff{iMr MiroXfi'irf* 
ainov i(atp€iP 69 tu Ap SXXmt voXcif mi^ htouaat 
wpoayuf>i^i KoX yk Kark r^» X**^" lir^>s 
fy gtif ^p m r arop h rk wapotna xo^iUiv, 

JlXIV. Auto« Stf, Ayup rov^ vvaoinark^ koX 
rov9 rofara^ mal rov^ *Aypiapa^ «ai rtfp Koipov 
r« irol 'ArroXov rafuf moX ritp iwwimp to dytj^ia 
mal rifp iXXmp iraipmp ^ ricaapas fidkiaia 
iwwmpxi^ Mii rmp iwwarofoTW rov^ i)tuatas 
<tfC M rip wvrofLOP r6p EManXa ^ noo^xutpti, 
ivo 6 TWP *AinraaiW vnafi)(09 i)i^ fcu SicA^cIm' 
ToXX^y •!•» ^fifTi^MMOf k^Utro wp^ r^y iroXii' 

t Oi 5^ 0apfiapoi wpocoffopra alc$6fAtp<H *AX< 
jaip^ov ipwprioayr^^ rtfp w6\ip f^€vyop wpo^ 
rk ip^. Oi &i api^* *A\J(apipop ttyoPTO rStp 
^€vyoprmp icf iwX ra 6pti, itaX ^mk iroXv^ 
yijprraA r&p Pa p fiap m pt Wfip it rat Svax^^p^t 
i^uacai awt'kBoprmt. 

S T^ Bk fjytfiova ainov rt$v ravTfj *\pht»p 
IlroXffUub^ o Adyov irpot rtpt ^^17 717X0^ Spra 
gariBmp teal rmp inraamaTcap icrip oht ap^ 
avrop (vp woXv ikarroaip avrot &p opms iButxtt^ 
fri ix rov imrov mt W X""'^^^^ ^ 717X0^0^ t^ 
tww^ opaBpaptip ^p, Tovrop pip ainov Kara- 



the escape; and the Macedonians slew all they 
captured alive, angry that Alexander had been 
by them; the greater number, howeT c r, 
iped to the hiUs, which were not far from the dty. 
Alexander, rasing the dty to the groond, went on to 
another dty, Andaea. This he r eec l fc d in surrender, 
and left Cratems with the other infantry officers to 
destroy soeh other dties as should not surrender of 
their free-will, and to put ererything in ofder in this 
district as was most expedient for the present 

XXIV. Alexander himself then took the body- 
guard, archen, and the Agrianes, with Coenus' and 
Attains' brigade, and the guards' cavalry squadron 
and Kiroe four regiments of the other Companions 
and half the mounted archers, and advanced towards 
the river Euaspla* where was the governor of the 
Aspasiana; and pMdng throngfa a considerable 
stretch of territory in two dajrs he arrived at the 
dty. When the tribesmen, however, learnt of 
Alexander's approach, they fled to the mountains. 
But Alexander's troops followed close on the fugitives 
up to the mountains, and there was a great slaughter 
of the tribesmen, until they managed to escape into 
the more diifieult country. 

The aeteal leader of the Indians of this district 
Ptolemaens son of Lagos saw aheady dose to a hill, 
and some of his bodyguardsmen near him, though he 
had a much inferior force with him, yet con- 
to pursue him on horseback ; but when the hill 
proved diflknlt for his hone to ascend he ltd it there, 



XmIwu, irapa^vs rivi tup irwaawtcrAif itytti 
4 auTO« B^ MK fl^f irt(o^ r^ *\ph^ corrro. '< * 
hi mi wtXa^orra rj^ «arciS« rw \lTo\4fialoi 
turroi T€ fMtraffdWMi ii roVfAira\i¥ teal v. 
inracwtcraX itfp airr^. Kol o /uv *Iv5o9 rot 
TlroXtfuUov oiA Tou Bupaicoi waUt im X'^P^ 
h TO arifBoi ^v^r^ 9**^Pf» '^aI ^ Ompa( lo^^f 
T^y vX^iir* UroXf/iAiov M ro¥ /iiy/ior Biafiwiif 
fiakmif rov *lphov MaraffaXXn t« atoI atfvX«w< 

6 avToir. 'Hv £^ Toy tfytfAOva a^m¥ icutit¥0¥ oi 
^/*^* ai^Tor ff25or, o^roi /«iir oMriri ifitvov' oi hi 
im rmif opAw aipofitpop row ptKpov rov tnrdpx^^ 
U6m§s wo^ riuf wo\tfum¥, ijXyrfadv rt xal 
Maralpafiomti (vpdwrov^tw fir* ath^ I^Xf* 
Kaprr$p^ vp^ t^ 717X0^^. Il^i; ykp koX 
*AXifai^/MK ^X"*^ ^^^ ^'*'^ '''^'^ Xwirmv tear a- 
fitfff^Koras vc{bv9 v/>of rm fffKo^ ^v. Kol 
0VT04 ^wtyfpofitpoi fioyii ifimaav rov^ *lr^^ i^ 
rk Spfi Kol rov Ptrnpov iicpdrrfcav, 

e 'TwtoffaXmf M rk Spp 'AUfayhpo^ h woXiP 
mari)>j9t9 f SifOfia ^ *AptyaU>^ nal ravrrfv 
tcaraXafifiJu^n iiMfwntpffCfthnpf inro rmv ivoi- 
Kovmttw Koi roifi dvOpwwov^ wt^tvyora^, *£»" 
ravSa Ik d^Uovro airr^ ical oi dfi4>l Kpdr€pO¥ 
(u¥ rn arpari^, wnrpayfUpmv c^dai (vp^wdtnttp 

7 o<ra vwo rov ffaatXimq irirtucro, Tavrrfp fihf 
hrj rrjv ir6\i¥, 5tc It hriicaip^ X^P^ iBotcu 
msciadoi, iKr€ixi<ff^ t« rrpoardaati Kparip^ xaX 
gvpoiMiatu 4i avrrfp rov9 tc vpoax^pov^ oaot 
iOtXomal xal «i 5i; t<kc9 dirofiaxoi rrj^ arparta^. 
AvTov Bi •irpovxd>p€i iva (€^€vy€Pai iirvvOd- 
PCTO roifi iroXKovi T«y rainrj fiap^dptaw, *£X^o»v 


hAnding it to one of the guards to lead ; but he him- 
•elf, OD foot as he was, followed hard upon the Indian. 
He then, teeing Ptolcmaeus drawing near, himself 
turned round to bay, and his guards with him ; and 
the Indian with hit long tpear struck at close quarters 
through Ptolemaeut' eortelct to his breast, the 
eortlet checking the blow; but Ptolemaeot tmote 
right through the Indian 't thigh, drove him to 
the ground, and detpoiled him. Hb followers, 
tedng their leader lying there, no longer remained, 
but oUiert from the hilb teeing the enemy carrying 
off their goremor t body, were bitterly grieved, and 
mthing down joined hi a severe battle with them 
near the hilL Now Alexander, with his cavalrj-men 
dismounted, wat already near the hill. They coming 
to join the fray only with dilhculty drove back the 
Indiant to the mountaint, and got pnttcwJon of the 

Cratdng the motintaint Alexander descended at a 
dty called Arigaeus, and captured it after it had 
been set on fire by its inhabitants, but found the 
inhabitants tbemtelves had fled. Here there met 
him Cratems and his men with the army, after carry- 
ing through snooessfuUy all that Alexander had com- 
manded them. This city indeed, since it seemed to 
lie in a convenient position, he bade Cratems to 
strengthen with a wall, and settle therein the neigh- 
bouring tribesmen, at many as volunteered, and any 
of the army who were past fighting. He himself, 
however, advanced to where he had learnt that the 
greater part of the trit>esmen of this district had 



6i wpo^ T« 6po^, xaT€CTparow4Uya€if inro rah 
vwmpdtu% Tov ipov^. 
• KaX ip Tovr^ IlroKtfuua^ i Aayov inrt/i^fW 
fthf vwh *AXf(di^pov is irporoM>;v» wpotXiSw Bi 
wpoamripm avros (v9 oXlyots m is Karacic<rwTip, 
iewmyyiKXMt 'AXtftii^p^ irvpk tcartStlp r^v 
ffmpfidpm^ vX«/oMi ^ iw r^ *\\t(d¥Bpou arparo- 

wvpmp ^iarvicnr «Zmi hi ri (vP99rf)Kos ritw 
ravrrjf fiapffdpmtf tua06fA4PifSt Mp^ fUp rt)s 
arpanas avrov caraXciirfi vpos r^ Spu ms 
91%^ ^^rparovc^fUvovr ainhs hk dpokaffitp 
S^oi d wojf fi &WT€s is Tik awffyysX^Upa i^tUpopro, 
i^S irXffciop H^ti d^tupmp rk mfpd, fP^x/H hta- 
10 pifui Tffv arparuuf. Kal r^ flip ^yi twirafi 
Atoppdrop TOP amfiaro6vXaxa, (vprdfas avr^ 
Ti(r Tt ^ArrdXou koI rtfp HaXatcpov rd{$p* rtfi^ 
i€trripap S^ fuipav IXroKMiuii^ r^ Adyov Hrftiv 
Hmsn , ri»p re vwa^mari^p ritp ffoffiXtxitp ro 
rplr9P lUpos KoX rtfp ^PtXiinrov icai ^iXtira rdfip 
teal Bvo )^iX4a/>;^ta^ rUfp roforiap teal rovs * Ay pta- 
pas xal ritp linriup roi/s fffiiatas' rijp ^ rpirrfp 
fioipap airros ^fp tpa oi irXti^roi ritp ffapffdpttp 


XXV. Oi Si ms ^aOopro wpocdyovras rovs 
Ma4rcSoMi9, KaTti')(op yap xtipia imtpti^ia, r^ tc 
mXffiu a^p 0apar}aapT€S ical tSbp MaKthopttP, 
ir$ iXiyoi i^ipot^o, /caroi^popijaapres, is to 
wMop vwagariffrjffeuf' xdi fuixv yiyptrai tcap- 
rtpd. *AXKk rovrovs fifp ov (up iroptp ipUa 
S *A\i(apBpos' ol Bi a^<^l UroXefuitop ovtc ip rtp 
OfiaX^ vaptrd^apTo, dWa y^Xoiftop ykp xartixop 


taken rdage; and reaching a mountain he camped 
there at Hs loot. 

At tiiif tame time Ptolemaens too of Lagos whom 
Alesander had sent foraging, and who had advanced 
fitrther ahead, himself and a few others, to scoots 
reported to Alexander that he had sighted fires of the 
tribesmen a good deal more numerous than in Alex- 
ander's own camp ; yet Alexander was incredulous 
about the number of the fires ; but perceiving that 
it was a device of the tribesmen of this district, he 
left part of his force behind eaeamped* as thej were, 
and himself takinf^ what appeared to be a soflicient 
force, in view of thb report, when they saw the fires 
from close at hand, divided his men into three parts ; 
and he set over the first part Leonnatus, member of 
the bodyguard, detailing for him the brigade of 
Attalus and that of Balacms ; and the second portion 
he gave to Ptolcmaeos son of Lagus ; namely, a third 
part of the royal guards and the brigade of Philip 
and Philotas and two regiments of archers and the 
Agrianes, and half the cavalry ; then he himself led 
the third division to where the greatest number of the 
tribesmen appeared to be. 

XXV. They, as soon as they saw the Macedonians 
approach, holding as they did the heights, confident 
in their numbers, and despising the Macedonians, as 
they appeared to be few, descended to the plain ; a 
battle foUowed. Still Alexander had the 
of them without much difficulty. Ptole- 
1' troops were drawn up not on the level ; but 



01 fiapffapot, opOiov^ iroiijaa9 roif^ \6xovs IItoX*- 
fitua^ wpoafjy€¥ iirtp iirtfAax^^krov rov \6^v 
i^aUfrro, ov iromy top Xo^op icvicXt^afUPO^, 
aXX* airoXiirctfv, #« ^vy*i» iOiXonu oi ffdpffapoi, 

5 X**^^ atnoU i^ T^y ^^n^' Kal yirfprroA tud 
Totrroif futxyi icapTtpd, rov x<tf/Hou r^ yaXrrOTiTTi 
«rai 5ti ov carA touc <?XXoi;v touv ravrt) ffapfid' 
pov^ oi *lp6oi, <&XX^ woXv hij ri aX^i/Muraroi 
rifp wpoaympmv tiaip. *E(wa$fiaap ^ ^rai othoi 
awh rov ipov^ inri ri$p MoMtBopmp' ical ol ap^\ 
A§oppdro9 rp rpiTf) fioipii rn^ arpartas tltaavrw^ 
hrpafap* ipUmp ykp col omoi tov9 xark c^a^. 

4 Kid \iy€i TlroXMfuuo^ at^ptSnrovs tikp Xti^fjt^ai 
Tov^ wdrra^ (nrkp rrrpa/a^fivpiov^, 0oAp ^ 
intkp rk^ rotU xal tUo^i fAvpioBa^' xal rovrttp 
rif KaXkiata^ iviXt^atAtpop * AXifaptpop, Bri 
iiO^ipotwoA atn^ kuXXm^ r€ xal fuyiuMi i^alpopro, 
wifi^fai iBiXtiP h Ma4(fSoWay ipydftaOai ri^y 

6 Epr«v$€P hrl ri^p rmp * KaaamfiPttP \<iopav 
^Tfir roirrotf^ ykp ((tfyyiXXfro iraptaictvdaSai 
m^ ftaxovfUpov^, itrtrcav /up i^ BicxiXiov^ 
l^oyTa^, v«Covf Bi vwip rov^ rpiafivpiov^, Tpid- 
mopra hk iXt^apra^. Kpdrtpo^ fikv htj, iicrt- 
TCix<««K ^hf} rrfp woXiP 4^* {v r^ oliaafi^ 
tcartXiXiijrrOt rov^ t« fftipintpov anrXurfttPOVs 
TT/v arpaTid^ *AX€(dpSpip ^« teal ra^ fitf^apd^, 

6 cf wou voXtopxia^ htr/ctitv. Airro^ Bi *AXi- 
PopBpo^, rov^ T€ tralpov^ imria^ drfwp icaX roi^ 
imraKovriark^ xal rtfp Koipov koI HoXia- 
awtpxoyro^ rd(w kcu tows 'Ay/>iai^9 [rous x^^^l 
Koi TOW Toforay, tq€i dts cVt tovs * AaoatcrpfoOs* 



since the tribesmen held a hill, Ptolemaeus throwing 
his lines into columns led them up to the point where 
the hill seemed most open to assault, not investing 
the hill on all sides, but leaving a space for 6ight, 
should the tribesmen elect to escape. With these 
there followed a severe battle, both because of the 
difficulty of the position and because these Indians 
were not of the same kind as the rest in this district^ 
but much the most warlike of all the neighbouring 
tribes. Yet even these were driven down from the 
moimtain bjr the Macedonians ; and Leonnatus and 
liit troops were eqaalljr sooeessfnl with the third part 
of the army ; for their too eonquered those ranged 
acainst them. And Ptokmaeos savs that the total 
01 men captured was mrer forty thousand, and of 
oxen over two hundred and thirty thousand; and 
of these Alexander chose out the finest, because they 
seemed to be of unusual beauty and sise, and was 
anxious to send them into Macedonia to work the 

Thenoe he proceeded to the territory of the Assa- 
cenians; for these were reported to have prepared 
for battle, with two thousand horsemen, over thirty 
thousand infantry, and thirty elephants. Craterus 
then, who had finished the walling round of the city 
of whose settlement he had been put in charge, took 
to Alexander the heavier armed troops of the army, 
and the siege engines, in case he had need of a siege. 
But AlexaiKler himself with the Companions' cavalry 
and the mounted javelin-men and the brigade of 
Coenos and Polysperchon, the [thousand] Agrianes, 
and the archers, marched towards the Assacenians; 



1 ^ W Suk T^ Vovpaimp X^^^* KaJ rw wora- 

VMV hUfiti, hk 0m0vnfTa t« iroi art 6(v^ o ^»i)v 
V •^f «ii •• Xi^ rrponrfvKoi ip r^ irora/i^ 
Irrtf ^^oXtf^ ToSf iwiffaipotwip iylypmno, O/ 
ii fidpfiapoi m wpovayorra ^cBopto *A>J(ai 
hpw, aBpooi fikp h fuiymp /saraarHptu ovk 
4r6\/Affaap' haXvBhrr^ M ik fttaaroi Mark 
fToXiy Tttirrgy ^-rnwovr itwofAaxofi€POi Bio^t^^ftv. 

XXVI. Kai *AXif«yipo« irpmra ^v M M<i<r- 
9070 ^, rriv iWficTffp rmp rainji woXtttp, 'flf 
W vpoo^^Tffv ^5i; T0« Ti»x<tfi. Oappi^caprts oi 
0do6tgpoi TotK u^aSo^poi^ T04« ^ir tmi^ wpoam 
*ltimp, ^tu^ y&p otrroi it cmra^ucrvftXiow, mt 
9Tparaw€itvofUwovt cISop tovv Mtu€tcwat,Bpoum 
1 iwa^ift imrop. KaX'AX4iapBpotUi^wXf,ciop 

igmaXicaaBtu mvrovt ffauXfiitU rwp rtix^p, m^ 
m roowfi yiyptHTO (4y i y p m a K€ ykp iaopipfip), firj 
&* iXijmf it Tffp woXiP Kara^vyoprtt Mvpapm 
3fatft»{iMrT0. m iM$4orrat cI5« rovt 0ap0apovs, 
ptraPaXkofUpmn mXmi rovt MoMtBopat o-wiam 
anoympuif m wpo^ y^iXo^op ripa, awixopra awh 
rov x^P^^ Tpavtp arparaw€B€V€ip iypwKti iirrd 
% wov fuiXiara atahiovt. Kol ol iroXipioi apa- 
Bapa9/atuntt, m iytctrnXiicorttp ijSrj tAp Ma/re- 
£oM»v, hpopi^ Tf ma\ (ifp ovSepl icoap^ i^ipovro 
it atrrov^, 'ilt Bi ifucptlro fjBtf rk roftvfiara, 
ipTav6a*AXi(apSpot avo (vpOfjfiarot irrt<rrpt^^aq 
it airrovt rifp <^dkayya Spofup aprnrtfft, llpm- 
TO* 5€ (N ImrtucoPTicrai re airr^ xal oi Wy ptaP€t 
mdi 0! TofoTOi €ichpafiovT€t (vpifu(ap toU 0ap- 


mnd hs went through the country of the Gurmeans. 
And the river Gurmeus, which slures its name with 
the country, he croased with difficulty, both because 
of its depth, and because its current was rapid, and 
the rounded stones in the river proved very slippery 
to anyone stepping on them. But the tribesmen, 
learning that Alexander was approaching, dared not 
take their stand in mass for a oattle, but breaking 
off in parties each to their dty they purposed to 
defend and save tiiem. 

XXVI. Alexander then marched first against 
Massaga, the greatest of the cities in this district. 
When be alreidy was ap proac hin g the walls, the 
tribesmen, reiving on mercenary Indians brought 
from fiirtlicr India, about seven thoosand men, as 
soon as they saw the Macedonians pitching camp, 
charged into them at the double. So Alexander 
seeing tiiat the battle would be near the city, being 
anzioos to draw them out further from their walls, so 
that if a root took place (and he was sure it would) 
tliey should not have their dty dose at hand for 
refuge and so come off safe ; as soon as he saw the 
tribomen saDying oat, bade the Macedonians turn 
rigbt*about and withdraw towards a hill, about seven 
stades away from the site on which he had decided 
to camp. So the enemy, plucking up courage, 
thinking that the Macedonians had already given 
way, rushed upon them at full speed and in disorder. 
But when the arrows were just reaching his troops, 
then Alexander by signal turned his phalanx towards 
them and led it on at the double. First the mounted 
javelin-men, the Agrianes, and the archers dashed 
ferward and attacked the tribesmen ; but Alexander 



40/5^ *Iy3ol T^ Tff wapoXoy^ d/nrXayiprt^ «al 

Jti^nrpnif h rff¥ iroXiv, Kal Hw^avop ftkp ainitv 
6fi^l rov9 BtoMoclov^, oi Bi Xoiwol i^ rtk rtixt 

Tfi'x** T^K ^\ayya^ koI ivrwBmr roftvrrtu /Ui» 
awo rou Tfiyow^ ^ to v^vphtf ov x^^^^^* 

Tfij^Mir T4 gvfiapm^ igariffuav fftaf^OfUvov^ Bi 
ravTff T0V9 Mtuc§Bo¥a^ f wapipfniKTO rov rtixov^ 
ovtf ttToX^MK M 'lp6oi ^fiwom, M^Tf Tai^Tn fUy 
rp nt^fif lUMtMiX^Ofro r^ crpartdif, 'in Sk 
vanpait^ rmf rt MoMtBopmp avrinf ^ wpocpoX^ 
icaprtpmT^pa iyivtro, «al wvpyo^ ^trt'tX^V (v^po^ 
Toi? rtlxtaip, SOwp iirro^tvamnt^ oi roforat ko 
0iKtj awo fiifvapAp d^t^fjupa dp^artXkop tni 
woXif roi^ *li^i^. *AXX* oM tn fftdaaa0at 
f faftt rou r€ixovs oloi t« i y hfo p ro, 

6 TJ Si rpirjf irpoaayayup avOi^ rtjp ^dXayya 
teal diro fAtixaptf^ yi^vpap tiriffaXatp rov rtixov^ 
jj rraptpptoTfo^ ^i», ravrjf iirrjyt rov^ vwaatrKTrd^:, 
oliftp avr^ Kal Tvpop maavrw^ i^ttkov, \\o\- 
Xmp hi inro wpoOvfua^ at$ovfiipt»v, &x^^ Xaffovaa 
fuifop ff yi^upa /cartppayfj xai viwrovai (vp 

7 avr^ oi MaK€d6p€^. Oi 6i fidpffapoi ISoints ro 
yiypofupop XWoi^ t€ (vp ffo^ arto rotv reixwv 
Kol ro((VfUM4ri xal &XX^ 5t^ ti^ ptrit yeipafi 
^wv frvyxiUf€P ij or^ tk ^p t^ tot« €Xaff€P 
ifrtKOPTi^op h rov^ MoictSova^- oi Si teal lear^ 
Bvpa^, airtPt^ airroU icara tA ptaowvpyia pifcpai 
fyrap, €K0€OPr(s tfc x^^P^ eiraiov rtrapaypivov^;. 


hiuvietf led on his phalanx In due order. But the 
Indians, upset bj the unex|)ortccl attack and also the 
battle being now hand to hand, turned and fled back 
to the dtj. Some two hundred of them perished* 
but the rest were shut up inside their walls. Alex- 
ander brought up his phalanx to the wall, and thence 
was wounded, not seriously, by an arrow from the 
wall OQ his ankle. But next day bringing up the 
' ngines he easily destroyed a part of the wall, and a» 
lie Macedonians pressed in here at the breach of the 
vail, the Indians bravely resisted, so that for this 
lay Alexander recalled his troops. But next day the 
MaoedooSan attack was more efficient ; and a wooden 
tower was brought up against the walk, from which 
the archers shot volleys, while from the engines they 
hurled missiles, and so they much repressed the 
Indians ; but not even so could they force tfaefar way 
inside the wall. 

Bat 00 the third day bringing up again the phalanx 
and throwing a bridge from an engine to the breach 
of the wall, over this Alexander led on his bodyguard^ 
who had helped him in the same way to capture Tyre. 
Many pressed forward in eagerness, and the bridge 
receiving too great a weight broke, and the Mace- 
donians fell with it But the tribesmen seeing the 
oe cur r cD CC, raising a shout, with stones from the 
walls, and arrows, and anything they had in hand, or 
anything they picked up, shot at the Macedonians ; 
and othos by the smaU gates, which they had in the 
spaces between the towers, broke forth and at ckise 
quarters struck at the Macedonians while in this 

I I. P 4«9 


XXVII. ;AXifii^p<K li iti^wti 'AXiT^av fi^ 
TJ avTov ra(tt rov^ Tt MararrrpmfUtfOV^ dvaXa- 
P€w maX 6c oi rrpoatfuixoino i^a^aicaXicaoBat 
m iwl TO arparaw€^, Kal rp rrrdprjf mcav 

wpocfjyrro v/>o^ to Tfi;^o^. 

S Kal oi 'lifSoi, fm^ fiiv airroi^ 6 ^fy^funp rov 
X^fpiov^ WMpifiP, dwtfidxovTO Kaprrtpm* tt»9 ti 
/^iX«« dwo /Atfyai^}^ Tinrtlf dwoipriaK^i UmIpo^ 
avrmw Tt oi fA$¥ tim^ vcvrwicoTcv ^^ t^ ft't^X** 
voXiop^/f , 01 voXXoi ^ rpavfiarUu Tt iroi diro 
MAX<M ^^Ai'* i^€€nfnf€€voirro wph^ ^KKi^avhpoi 

3 T^ ^ dcfUv^ yimrtu Si^oas dyaOovs Biaatacat 
MmL (vftfimimi M t^^ AXifat^po^ roU fuc- 
Ba^opPif *lpSoif «f Mararax^iirra^ is rtjp dXXtfp 
orpafthf fvp avry arpar€V€cOai, OI fikp Btf 
iftjXBop (vw roU SwXois, xal MartcrparowiBtV' 
aop tcard a^s hrl yff\6^ hs ^v dmiwopos rov 

poovp Bpa^fi^ Biaxpffcdfi€POi h t^ a^Mpa fjdv 
dwopaarfipai, ovk i$i\ovr€S ipauria aXptaSai 

A reii &KXots *lphoU SwXa. Kal raina ^ i(ny- 
yi\0tj *AXcf<iVS/>^, wtptari)iras rrjs pv/ctos to- 
yvXd^ rtjp afpaiikv wacap, /caraMoirrei roi . 
*lphovs hf fiiatp dwoXafimp, rrjp t« iroKip aipti 
xard KpdtoSt ipfifu^Oturap rotp irpofiaxofuptoi', 
Koi Tfjp fiTfripa Tffp *AffaaKtfPou xai rrjp walBa 
eXa^Sffy. *Awi0apop S^ €p rj trdati jroXiop/cU^ 
rwp (up 'AXtfdphp^ h frepTt xal eiKo<riP. 

5 *E^€P hi Koivov fiip a»9 (frl Bd^ipa imrtfiirfi 
ypwfirjv trottjadfiMPOS ori futOotnes reap Maaau 
ytap rrjv aXtocip ivBotaovai a<fia^ avrov^, "Attu- 


XXVII. Alexander now sent AlceUs with his 
brigade, both to pick up the wounded and to recall 
to the camp any who were still engaged; and the 
fourth dajr similarly from another engine another 
bridge was brought up to the wall. 

The Indians, as long as their chief survived, 
resisted stoutly ; but as soon as he was hit by a missile 
from a catapult, and killed, they, with part of their 
number already fallen in the close siege, and part now 
wounded and unfit for service, sent to Alexander to 
ask for a truce. He was glad enough to be able to 
p t escj nr c such valiant men; and it was here that 
Alexander agreed with the mercenary Indians to 
join the rest of his army and take the field with him. 
They passed out witli their arms, and encamped by 
themsehres on a hill, which lay facing the Mace- 
donian camp; and they intended, at night, to slip 
away and escape to their own tribes, not being desirous 
of taking up arms against the rest of the Indians. 
When this was reported to Alexander he threw his 
whole force during night-time round the hill, and cut 
down the Indians whom he had thus enclosed ; their 
city he captured by assault, deprived as it was of its 
chief defenders, and took there also Assacenus' 
mother and daughter. In the entire siege there 
perished some twenty-five of Alexander's men. 

Thence he sent Coenus to Bazira, considering that 
on learning of the capture of Massaga they would 



wafXV^ M *npa 9T<XX«i, iSXXi/v iroXiv* irapa-j 
yHkmi^ irc/MTfi vifciy r^y voXiy lar* Aj» a^i^TTa^ 

6 ai>ro«. Kal yiywrroi inhpofLfi Tc#y ^« r^ iroXco»f 

^kd^m^oi avToif^ oi MatcMi^t^ Hem rav rtixov^ 
#f rV voXiy airoarpi^wt, Kal Koiv^ ou 

yitp rav X^pi^v ry ^xvpcmfri, 5t« innpvy^Xi 

7 Tairra /io^itr *AXi{arSpof &pfifiTO ^¥ co^ M 
Da{>/>a* TTOVV S^ 5Ti r^y irpoaoUt^v rtvU ffap- 
fidpmp wapih^oi #f tA *n^ t^v woXiv XaBovrt^ 
ftiXXmwtt wp^ *A0tcdpou M rtp^f icraXfUvoi, 

wiXu ru» Baiipt$¥ Kaprtpop ri x^P^^ wpoaira(e, 
Mtd hf TOVT^ ^vXastrjff KaraXmowra airoxp^frop, 
^ /M^ Sina ilfi roU ip r-j w6\4i ;^/>r}a-^a« rjj X'^P9* 
oMtr Srpurra rr/q crparM^ rrfp Xoiwrfp trap 

8 avTW Uptu. Oi 6k im titv Ha(i/)wv m €lhi< 
awwma (up rtp vXticr^ rifi arparia^ rov 
YioiPOp, Kajo^popTicawrt^ tAp MatceBoptap, ok 
ou yfPOfJwmp i» c^urip a^iOfuix^Pt iirtKdiovai 
h TO wtBletr Kol yCyverai avrofp pax^ Kapnrtpn 
Kal tp ravrjf wiwrovai pip ri>p ffap0dpwp ^9 
wtPTtucoaiov^, (wKTc^ Bk iXij^Tfaap inrkp rov^ 
iffBoptjieopra' oi Bi Xoivol dp rp iroXti (vfuftv^ 
70irr«v 0«0ai6T€pop ^rfBrj tipyopro rfj^ x^P^** ^^ 

9 ritp itc TOW ^xiTei^to'/^TO?. Kal *\\€(dvBpf[> Bk 
ri»p "Clpwp Tf iroXiopmia ov vaXnr^ iyivtro, aXX* 
€vBv^ i( d^oBou wpoafiaXtap roU T<i;^£<ri t^ 


Bat Attalus and AlceUs And Demetrios 
lie ooomuuider of the cavalry he sent towards another 
citTt Ora« bidding them strengthen the city with a 
wall doling the time of his own approach. The towns- 
men made, however, a sally ag^ntt Alcetas' forces. 
But the Macedonians essUy repulsed them and 
turned them badL from the wau into the dty. Coenus 
was not su ee cssftt i at Basira, but the townspeople 
trusting in the strength of their site, since it was very 
high and fortified carefully all round, showed no 
rigns of surrend eri n g . 

Alexander on learning this started towards Baiira ; 
but hearing that some of the neighbouring tribesmen 
were preparing to slip unseen into the city of Ora, for 
AbisaVtts had sent them expressly for this, he 
advanced first towards Ora; and he commanded 
Coenus to fortify near the dty of Bazira a strong 
po si tioo and in this to leave a sufficient garrison, so 
that the populaee might not feel at liberty to use the 
neighbouring country, and then to bring the rest of 
the army to join him. But the tribesmen in Basira 
seeing Coenus departing with the majority of the 
army, made light en the Macedonians, as not likely to 
prove worthy opponents, and sallied out from the 
dty ; and there was a severe battle. In the battle 
as many as five hundred of the tribesmen fell, and 
over seventy were taken alive ; the rest were driven 
bade into the dty and were now even there closely 
hindered firom gcrfng into the country by those who 
heU the stronghold fadng their wall. Alexander 
found tiie siege of Ora not difficult ; but at once 
attaddi^ the waDs be took the dty at the first 



il. Kal ravra oi iw rol^ Ba(»poi9 «v 
f/iotfoif, ctiroyvorrfV T<k c^rtpa wpayfiara afA^i 

KoX oi ^XXoi ffdpffapot iirparrov iLwoXiirofr^ 
ric iroX«if (vfA-woirrt^ l^ftryor ^^ T^y wtroav rf}v 
iv rp x*^P9 "^^f^ 'Aofmc9 KoXovfiimp^, Mrya ydo 
Ti Toirro XP^i^ wirpa^ ip tJ X^/'? rairrji ^^r*, 
«ai XoTO^ irv^^ a\rn\^ Kaikyti oM ' 11 p€uc\tl rw 

S ^^ aXarrov y€p4c6tu rifp wrrpav, ki likv tfi 
«ai h ^IvhovR i^Urro o 'llfNurX^ o B»;;3aib« 4 o 
Tvj^ov 4 o A»7inrTioc, ^v ov^Tt/M lvt» Icvvpi- 
mmoBtU' iiaXKop tk homu Sri ovm d/^urro, aXXk 
vorra ykp S^a x«X«irA oi SipBfmwoi is roaoySt 
ipa aviovaiw avrmif r^ ygXtworrtfra m zeal rw 
'HptucXti ^r dwopa ynioBtu ^uW^futiv. Kirfta 
vwip rm wirpas ravrtis odrm yiptiifctctt, rov 
'HptusXia is KOfiwov rov Xoyov itri^rffju^taOn' 

t Tip fthf ^ kvkKo¥ t^ wrrpa^ \iyou<np is ^la 
Moeiovs o'TaSiot^ fiaXurra cZmu, ^njfrov Bk airrffs, 
Tpaw€p \0afMaXmTaTOP, arahU^p Mtxa, icai 
dpdfiofftp x^tpowoiifTOP fuap xoXnri;!'* thai ^ 
itaX vB^p ip &Mp4f rj wirpa iroXv ical KoBapop, 
mrfifp dputxovcaPt ms «tu dtropptlv dtro rrfs 
WTfytjs vSwp, Mai vXfjp /ceu yrjp dyaurjp ipydamov 
Sffijp ical x^Xiots AvOpwirois diroxp^t^p &p ^Ivai 

4 Koi raura uicovopTa *AXi(apBpov woOos Kaf*.- 
fiopn i(€X€tp Kal rovro to 6pos, ovx ijiciara iwl 
Tb> an4>l rov 'llpatcXta p.vO^ wt^fuafUP^, Td 
fi€v Bt} *flpa icai rk Mdaaoffa ^povpia iwoltfatP 



attempt, and captured the elephants which had been 
left there. 

XXVIII. When the inhabitanU of Baaira learnt 
tldt, they loat confidence in their poaitkNi, and about 
dcMrted the dty; and thus did all the 
ribeanen; dcMrting their cities they all 
fled to the rock in thb neighbourhood called Aomo8.^ 
It It an nnusuaUy large rock in this ooiintry, and the 
ftory about it is that even Heracles tiie son of Zeus 
was unable to capture it. Whether indeed Heracles, 
either the Theban or the Tjrrian Heracles, or the 
Egyptian, ever reached India I cannot state con- 
fidently ; I rather incline to think that he did not, but 
rather that whatever difficulties men meet, they 
exaggerate this difficulty so far as to relate a legend 
that Herades himself could not have overcome them. 
This at any rate b my view about this rock, that 
Heracles has been brought in to make more of the 
story. In any case they give the circuit of the rock 
as about two hundred stades, its height, at its lowest 
part, at eleven stades; and there is said to be one 
way up only, a made way, and a rough one. On the 
top of the rock is plenty of pure water ; it comes from 
a spring, and in fact even runs oiT the rock ; there is 
also wood and good arable land there, enough for a 
thousand men to till. 

At toon as Alexander heard thU, he was seised 

with a desire to capture this mountain also, and not 

least by reaton of the legend about Heracles. Ora 

and Matsaga he made fertrettes in the district ; but 

» OnilssHssesl B trodoctkiii. 



Ka\ oi (j/i^2 'H^Oi^TiWa re «al TltphiKKav 
avn^ &KXjfi9 woKuf iKT€iX^cawrt% (OpoffuTi^ 

Komo, hrpaceum ffi^ tea h to {^vfoi Th» *\ifiop 
into *A\t(ib^pov irfra/ero. 

rov 'Ii^fov vora/AOi) carpdwtip marieitfct l^utd* 
popa rmp hotpttp, Avto9 hi r^ ia^v wpAra «k 
^irl Tor *Ii^v wcraftop iWf« «a2 voXiy re lUutet- 
XaArrur o^ iropp^ rov *lrOot) ^i^fUitfitf ofAoXoyi^ 
waptarffcaro leal iv avrj ^povpkp xaraar^a^ 
rm9 MoMMmtp koI <S>iX4iriror M if ^povpa 
i^/i^»o, • M xal iWa wpocfiy dj rro futcpn 
iroXia/iara wpo^ rtft *Ii^ worafi^ ^te^iifa 
Htnmwomo hi avrtft Km^tuo^ re «al *Aeaayrnf^ 
oi (htmpx'f* '■'^ X^P^^* *A^4ro/MMK M I9 
*B^A/3oXiAia iroXii^, ^ fiWyyi/^ t^ whpaK rtj^ 
*\op¥av «f€uro, Kpdrtpow fUp (up l^pn rrfi 
crparw KaraXtiwgi avrov, atrop rt is rtfp 
woXiP tts wXturrop (updytip Mok Sea dWa is 
XpoPiOP rptfftjp, tt»9 ipTtvOfP oppMfUpovs rous 
Max€h6pas XP^^^f woXtopKia iicrpvxSKrai rov^ 
Karryptrras rijp vrrpap, tl fiff if i^ohov XtiipOeirj. 
AvTos hi roifs roforas t€ dva\affc»p teal roi/s 
*Aypiapas teal ttjp Koivov rdfip koX diro t^ 
aXXi79 ^aXa7709 iwiXifas rovs Kov^tdrovs tc 
icaX ofAa tvowXardrovs teal rStp kraipmp iinri«»p 
is hiaxoaiovs ical iiriroroforas is itcarop irpoa- 
ijj€ tJ werpa, Kal ravrrj fup t§ fffJ^pa xare- 
arparvuehtvaaro ipa iirirrihtiop avr^ i^aivero' 



the dty of B«zirm he cncloted with a wall. And 
llcphaestion and Perdiccas and those with them built 
a wall round another dty, called Orobatis, and leaving 
there a garrison went on towards the river Indus; 
and on arrival, they took tiich steps as Alexander 
had ordered for the bridging of the Indus. 

Of the region this side of the river Indus Alexander 
appointed Nicanor as governor, one of the Com- 
panions. He himself first went towards the river 
Indus and took over by surrender the dty of Peuce- 
laotisy situated not far from the Indus, and set a 
Macedonian garrison there with Philippus com- 
mandant of the garrison; and he also took over various 
small towns lying on the river Indus. With him 
followed Cophaeos and Assagetes, the governors of 
the country. Then reaching the dty Embolima, 
which lay near the rock of Aomos, he lef^ there 
Craterus with part of the army ; bidding him get in 
as much provision as possible into the dty and all else 
necessary for a long delay, so that the Macedonians, 
using the dty as a base, might wear out the holders 
of the rock with a long blockade, should it not be 
captured by first assault. Then he himself taking 
the archers and the Agrianes and Coenus* brigade 
and choosing out the lightest firom the rest of the 
phalanx, but at the same time the best armed, and 
with two hundred of the Companions' cavalry and a 
hundred mounted archers, approached the rock. 
For this day he encamped where it seemed to him 


T§ ^ icr§paia oXUfw wpo^XBmtf m wpc^ rifv 
XXIX. Kai iv rovr^ ^ttO¥ wap avrw rAv 

TO x^P^' ^^ {^ rovTOi^ Jtifivti WToXtitaio 
TOP Adyov rO¥ cmfAora^vXaMa, rov^ t« * Ay ptana 
Syopra gal rovs ^IrtXavs roi^ dWotfS nal tmv Inraa 
wi^rifp iwiXiMTOv^, wpocrdfa^, iwnB^¥ tear a 
Xdfip TO x^piO¥, KartYtttf flip atrro itryyp^ 

t ^vXtut^t ol M 9tiiMai9tiv in l;(^rrai. Kai FlroXt- 
fuuc^ iXBirnf oUp rpaxMidp rt tedi Bvarropop 
XtwOdpii rov^ ffapffdpov^ gara^xmif rw rowoi 
iral rovTO¥ ^dp^^i ip kvkX^ xai ra^p^ oyvpi^n 
irvoaoi^ alp€i dwh rov 6povs MtP o^brfatoBa 
vw 'A\t(dplpov l/*«XX«. Kal t$^fj t« &fui rj 
^ko( «ai 'A\i(apfyo9 i^Tf^ ^P vartpiU^ rifP 
rrparuip' dfwpouhmp hk rm» ffapffdpmp ovh< 

S wXiop avr^ tnro Ivv^piaK tyiyprro. '£U <> 
*A\t(dpBp^ dwopop Tfjp wpo<rffo\ffp MarifiaBop 
Oi ffdpfiapot, dpaarphlrapT€s roU dfi^ llroXt- 
palop avrol wpoaiffaXKop* /eal yiyptrat avroyr 
Tt leal TUP MoMt^opmp fuix^j gaprtpd, rinf fUP 
hiacirdaak top xdpaxa avovlijv wotovfUpttp, rmp 
*lpUtP, UToXtfuuov W ^ai^vXdfiu to ^w/xW 
leal /ulop axopr€^ oi ffdpfSapoi ip r^ oKpo- 
fioXiap^ pvxTO^ hriytPOfUpff^ aprx<»Pl<rap. 

4 *AXi^aphpo^ hi rS»v *\ph^p riva rwp avro- 
fiiiXmp, iriarop rt dXX^^ /ecu twv X'^P^^ ^^V' 
fwpa, hriXtfdfUvo^ irefiwd trapa W7oX£paiov rrfi 
pvmro^, ypdfipara ^ipovra rov '\vhov, iva iyi- 



eonreiiient; but next day he advanced a little 
towards the rock and camped again. 

XXIX. Meanwhile some of the neighbouring tribes- 
men came to Alexander surrendering themselves and 
piomisiDg to lead him to the part of the rock which 
ooold best be assaulted, whence he could without 
dUBcohj capture the position. With these men he 
sent Ptolemaeus son of Lagos, his personal guanl. 
with the Agrianes, the rest of the light troops and 
cbosen men of the bodrgoard, ordering him as soon 
at be should capture the position to hold it with a 
•tioog garrison, signalling to him that it was so held. 
Ptolemaeat thai prnined a rough and difficult track 
•ad aelaed the place without the tribesmen's know- 
ledge: then he strengthened it by a stockade all 
RNtnd and a trench, and showed a fire-signal from 
the height where Alexander was sure to see it. At 
ooee Alexander saw the flare, and next day he 
brought up his army ; but as the tribesmen ottered 
ODpotltkm he made no advance, owing to difficulties 
01 tiie fnoond. But as soon as the tribesmen saw 
that Alexanders advance was ineffective, they 
turned and attacked Ptolemaeus and his troops; 
and a aevere battle took place between them and the 
Maeedonians, the Indians eagerly seeking to pull 
down the stockade, but Ptolemaeus to keep his hold 
on the position; in the exchange of long-range 
volleirs toe tribesmen had the worst, and at nightfall 

Alexander, however, selected a deserter of the 
Indians, tru s tworthy, and (what is more) with exact 
knowledge of the localities, and sent him by night to 
Ptolemaeus with a letter, in which it was written 



hrthmi tok BapfiJipoi^ mark ri HfM^, ft^< 
6yawi9 h ^vXam^ fxotrra to 'vmplw, m iii^o- 

roO arparowihov wpocifyt rrjp rrpanhf Kara 

'jnm fAt fif wotovftMPOS «K m ravrjf fftaadfunMK 
(ufAfiifg^ TOK tf/A^ tlroXtfUiiOP, oi ;^aXrvoi» fri 
4a6fU9€tf avTtL TO Kayop, Kai (vvi$fi o^a>9 

• *i!^TC uhf *fkp M fitc^ftfipiav (vpnaTtjMti 
xaprrtpa fuixt ^oU rt *ly3oK gal toTv Mtuet^c^^, 
rmp ftip ixfiiatlofUpi^v h r^ wpoafiaat^ rAw ii 
/SoXXimfP ibvorrar m ^ od« JktfUaap o! Ma«c- 
^om, Skkoi hr &KXtHK hr%o9m, oi ik wpoaBtp 
Jkpowavotitpoi, i^yt^ Brj dft^l ^iXi^r ixparfftrtuf 
rtf^ wapo^v gai (ut4fu(ap roU (vp UroXf/iai^, 
*EKtt0€P hi ofiov ^fi yfPOfUyri tf arparik wa^a 
hrtfyrro ai^if i»f tir' avrrjp rtfp irirpap' oKXa 
*fkp irt iwopcs ^ alh-ri tj wpocffoXij. Tai'mj 
ft^p hfi rn ^fUpa rovro to t^Xo^ yiyprrat . 

t 'Tiro 6 TffP im wapayyiXKn aroarulrrrj tKutrrtp 
Ktnrrup x^paxa^ imarop icar dtipa. Kal olroi 
KtttofifitpfH tjcap, Mil oi^T^ ixminnf€P dpfd/Atvo^ 
dwo rrjs Mopv^TJ^ rov Xo^av Xpoi^rparowMh^vic^nrf^ 
^09 «9 iirX rvfp wirpop X^fia fiiya, ip$€P to^cu- 
pard T€ h» ifucpeltrOoi i^ rov^ irpoftaxoftipov^ 
hvpark aur^ i^aiptro xaX diro fitfxapAp /9/Xv7 
d^iifi€pa' leal ix'P»vwop av-ro ird^ ri^ dpriKafi- 
fiap6f*€PO^ rov (pyoV »rai avrb^ i^iarrjicti 0€a- 
T^ iccki (voivirrf^ rov (vp irpoSvpia trepoiPOfUpov, 
KoXaarff^ Bt rov h rip irapaxpfipa i/cXiirovs* 


that to aoon as Alexjunier himself should approach the 
rock, Ptolemaeus was to attack the tribesmen from 
the height* not contenting himself with merely hold- 
ing the podtion, so that the Indians attacked from 
both sklet might be between two fires. Then 
Alexander at dawn moved from his camp and brought 
liis army to the incline bj which Ptolemaeus had 
secretlj aaoended ; reckoning that if he could force 
his waj in this direction and join Ptolemaeus* force, 
the action would be a simple one ; as indeed it fell 
oat. For to middaj there was a severe battle 
betw e en the Indians and the Macedonians, these 
trying to force the approach, those shooting as their 
encmj approached. But at the Macedonians kept 
eoQttantfy coming up, detachment after detachment, 
whUe the earlier ones rested from the attack, with 
mncfa difBcol^ aboot dusk they mastered the ascent 
and joined the force of Ptolemaeus. Thence the 
now united forces attacked again the rock itself; 
bat even thus the attack faile£ This was the close 
of operations that day. 

At dawn Alexander bade each soldier to cut a 
hundred stakes; these were all cut,^ and then he 
raised a great mound beginning from the top of the 
crest on which they had encamped up to the rock ; 
from this arrows could reach the defenders, as he 
ealcnlated, and missiles hurled from the engines. 
All hands took part in the work and built the mound ; 
Alexander himself stood by, watching and approving: 
anyone who worked sealously; but punishing an) 

* A ilt|i^ flhaafs hi ths Greek would give the aieaning 



XXX. -T^ lihf Hi wfM^Tff ^f*^P9 ^ M <rrdSto0 
ivi^atv aihip 6 erpara^. *E« M r^v vcrtpaiap 
of T« e^€9f!otnjrnu a^tpfioMirrcv h tovy *Jr6o^ 
^K Tov (fiti K^x^t^i^ifW kpX <liro TMy fUfvapAp 
0iXfi a^iifupa MartXktr&p *liMtf ri^ Mpo- 
^mU rAf iwl rov^ ^^Mi^rvoarrac. Rol ^xmppuro 
awry /f Tyw« ^fitipa^ fvvf%M9 to x^p{^^' '^V 
rrrapTji M fftaedfUPOi ruv MaKtoopmw oy 
wokXaH xaricxop oKiyop yrjKo^p iaownhwf r% 
whp^' KoX *A\4(apfy9^ Miv ti AuriMvy /v^ 
TO X^A^A* (vpa^rai ^ikmp to xmppvfAMPOP 7^ 
yflXo^u SpTipm oi 0X1701 aiViy ^^ MiTf i^or. 

S Oi M *liM wpo^ Tf T^v aittiyfjrop toXmop 
rmp h T^ TijXo^i' fitaeafkhmp MoMtBoprnp 
^rrXAT^rrct «ai to x^/ui (uptiwrop ^^ 6pApr€^, 
rov fiiP airofid)(tu6a$ tn ^wtivopro* wifiyjtapTMS 
hk K^pvKa a^mp wap* *AXi(apipop i$ikMW l^oo-- 
K9P ipMfPOi rifp whoop, ff efi^t ^wMiotro. 
TprnfiiiP S^ wrwoinjrro ip r^ fr^ ciafUXXopri r&p 
9WO p imp BtayayoprtK rrfp ^fiioap pvicro^ Mf 
Ira^TOf haamttdppv<r6ai eirl rk a^ij9pa ffiui. 

t Kal Toirro 1^ hrvBtro 'AXifap^po^, ipUUnnp 
avToU XP^vov Tc h rifP Jnrox^^pV^uf «al t^ 
^vXaicfj^ TffP KVxXmaip rifp wdtm) a^tXtip. Kal 
auT09 l^fi€P€P lo-Tf tipfapro t^ airox^pv^tfi^^' 
ical iv rovT^ apdXafitip rmp omfiaTo^vXdtctnv 
mai Twv tnrtur friar cap i^ ewrojcoaicv^ kut^l to 
(K\€\ttfifUPOp rrj^ irtrpa^ apipytrcu i^ avr^p 
irpitTo^t Kol oi lAaicthoPM^ aXko^ aXAi; apipAvn^ 

4 ttXXiJXoi/9 apTJtaop, Kai ovtoi hrl rovs arro- 
X^povpra^ rmp fiapfidpmp rpatroptpoi dwb 
(vpdfjparo^, woXXov^ pip ainmp ip r^ ^*nV 


XXX. On the first day the mrmy had built the 
mound to about a stade in length. But on the next, 
the tUngen using their slings from the moimd so far 
built, and the missiles flung from the engines, kept 
down the sallies of the Indians upon the builders ot 
the mound. In three days the mound had covered 
the whole space. But on the fourth a few Mace- 
donians made a rush and held a small hill of the same 
level as the rock, and Alexander witliout a moment's 
delay extended the mound, anxious to make it con- 
tinuous up to the hill which this small party was 
already holding. 

The Indians were amaxed at the incredible bold- 
ness of the Macedonians who had seized the hill, 
and seeing the mound already continuous began to 
desist from any defence, but sent an officer to ask 
Alexander for a truce, and said they would surrender 
the rock, on terms being granted them. They had 
formed a plan of spending the day in the delays 
incident to these terms and then, at night, scattering 
all to their own tribes. But when Alexander dis- 
covered this he gave them plenty of time for their 
withdrawal and for the removing of the investing 
patrols. Then he himself waited till they began their 
withdrawal ; and meantime taking his bodyguards up 
to seven hundred to the now deserted part of the rock, 
he himself was the first to mount it, and the Mace- 
doniana pulling each other up, followed. These then 
at a signal turned upon the retreating tribesmen, and 
slew many of them in their flight ; some in the panic 



airiicrttpap' ot B^ mal wti^ofifj^ttm^ drroYtapovm^^ 
irarik rmw xpfftip^p j^i^avrt^ a^« awiSavov. 
EX^^rro r« *\\€^dvho^ ti wirpa tj r^ 'HpoicXcA 
dmpa^ ytpOfUmi, xal i0vfp ht airrj *A\t(apBpo^ 
Mul iWTMCKMvaat ^povptO¥, wapaBov^ l^aucorr^ 

VttXai ffVT9i»oKf)K4i h l^wrrpa irapk V^qaaop, 
WXt^opBpav Bi xaracx^'^^ "^hf^ X^P^^ ''V" 
hoMTpUuf (uv4arpdrw4 t« airr^ ttal wurro^ U t^ 

'Apaf Bk im 1% wfrpa^ is rtfp rmp * Aacaterjvotv 
Xiipop ififidXkti* To¥ ydp aBtX^¥ rhp *Aaaa' 
g^ifov ^fTyytfXXrro roik t< iXi^arras fyoirra teal 
rm¥ irpo^ii|Ni»r fitkpfidfmw iroXKovs ivfiwg^w 
fipoi /t T^ ravTff Bptj, Kal d^iKOfUpos is 
^vfna woXiP, rm¥ fuv ipoiMovmrnw ovBipa mara- 
Xafiffdpti ovBi €P rp X"^^ "^ '"'P^ ''V ^oKn' is Bk 
riiP vartpaiap liiapxop t< tcai *\trru»x^'^ "^^^ 
YiXi<t/>;^ot/9 TMV vwaawi^r&p iKvifiw€i' teal 
ritdpxg f^if Tovv * Ay piopas xal rovs ^iXovv 
SrfSiPiomictP, 'Atniox^ Bi Tifv rt avrou x^^^^ 
yia» Kol Bvo M raimj SXKaS' ^EtariXKotno Bk 
ta Tf X^P^ xaroYOfAMPoi xai «t irov Tii-as ruv 
fiapfidpftp (vXXafi€iP is iktyyop ratv Kara rtjv 
X<i»pttP, rmp TC JUXXmp xaX paXiaTa Bfj rd dfu^l 
roifs iX^opTos ipaXtp avr^ paBtip. 

Autos ^ m9 i^l top *IpB6p woTaphp ^^Brf ^€, 
teal Tf oToaTtd avr^ ^tBowouiTOwpotrv lovaa dwopa 
dkka^s opra tA rai^ji X^P^' ^^yrauda (vWap- 
pdptt oXiyovs Totp fiap0dp^p, xal irapd tovtmp 
ipa0€P OTi ol pip ip TJ X^P9 *^pBoI trapd 
APiadpjf dvov€^€tryoT€S tUp, ToifS iXe^tunas 


of their escmpe threw themselves down the cliffs 
and BO perished. Thus Alexander now held the rock 
that Heracles could not take, and he sacrificed there, 
and then established a guard there, appointing to 
command the guard Sisicottus, who had some time 
ago deserted from Bessus and come to Bactrim; 
then when Alexander took Bactria he served under 
him and proved very tmstwortajr* 

Alexander now left the rock and invaded the dis- 
trict of the Assacenians. For it was reported that 
AsMeenus' brother with the elephants and many of 
the neighbouring tribesmen had taken refuge in 
these hills. Arriving at a dtj Dyrta, he found none 
of the inhabitants there, not even in the neighbour- 
hood of the city; but the next day he sent out 
Nearehnt and Antiodius the conunander of the 
guards* regiments ; to Nearchus he gave the Agrianes 
and the light troops, and to Antiochus his own regi- 
ment and two besides. They were sent to spy out 
the land and to seise any of the tribesmen they might 
6nd for interrogation ; especially he was anxious to 
find out all about the elephants. 

Then he himself now went on to the river Indus, 
and Ms army was sent in advance to prepare the road, 
since the country here was difficult. There he seized 
a few tribesmen, and learnt from them that the 
Indians of the district had fled to Abisarus, but that 



M 5ti avTou KariXiwoif p4fit<T$at wpo^ tw 
worafAM rjf 'IvS^* xal rovrov^ ^^aa0ai ol 

t lutfi Ik *lpt^¥ woXXai Kvimrrtu rAif iki^dprmi . 
Koi rovrov^ awovi^ au^ aOrop ^lyw *AX« 
(awfyof, «ttl rort iOripa (up tovtoi^ rov^ M^op- 
TiK* Ktd Bvo fihf avruv awoXXvmtu xark 
KpflfAPou a^% ^'^frorrtf ip r^ £m*(«<i ol ^ JfXXoi 
(yXXff^'^hnt^ i^pop Tf rovs nfA0ura^ lud rtj 

f crpartf (vptrdceotno. *Ew§l hi ical v\fj 
ifrtaaifi^ ipirirvt wapk top wora/iop, mal aCrvj 
ixowq atrrtft vwi r^ orpartaK teal rotk iwoii^- 
OifCOP. Kal airrat xark top *\p6op worafAOW 
fjyopTQ m M T^r yi^vpaf ^prtpa *H^ai0rlmp 
Kal lUpiUxa^ aCr^ if^tcohofArfMort^ wdXui 



he had left his elephants at |>asture near the river 
Indus. These men he commanded to lead him the 
way to the elephants. Now many Indians hunt 
elephants, and Alexander made much of such in his 
following. And with them he hunted the elephants, 
and two of them threw themselves over cliffs in tlie 
pursuit and perished; the rest were captured, and 
}>crmittcd riders to mount them, and were taken into 
the army. And finding a wood, good for felling, near 
the river, Alexander had it cut down by his troops, 
nnd ships built. These saikd down the Indus to the 
bridge which Hephacttloo and Perdiccas had long 



Tit Bridgt or Cmuemtm in Book IF, ssi. 

8 3/ 

Arriam mntJIj ibOowB hit milttaiy authorities 
closely. Somc Um ai there It a raspicioii that they 
(perhapa under orders, or from motives of flattery) 
magnincd Alexander's difficulties. Sometiines we 
oaoDot but suspect that Arrian has not properly 
g rasp ed his authorities, or tries to blend two different 
aeeoonti. On the other hand, Sir Aurel Stein's 
i d cnUfaitfcm of Aomos by means of Arrian 's de- 
■ c ilpUun » if oorrect, must IndiDe us to take Arrian at 
iDB wora dwwDere* 

In the pteaent paasaire, however anxious we may 
be to do tOt there are difficulties. 

There was a ravine all round the Rock of Chorienes ; 
but there was only one way up the Kock. Alexander 
caused abundant trees to be felled : (here we expect 
to be tokl that, as before the Rock of Aomos (chs. 
zxix-xxx), he cast the trees into the ravine, where 
stakes had apparently been fixed, to hem in the tree 
trunks as they fell, so that they formed a bridge 
which, bcinff piled up constantly, became a solid 
causeway. Yet the stakes at Aomos are not actually 
stated to have been fixed* and each man cut as many 
as 100 stakes; possibly, therefore, the Aomos 
''•takes" were themselves the timber thrown in 



to fin the ravine. Here, however, we are actuAlly 
told that these trees were made into ladders, by 
which the troops eould descend into the ravine. 
They did so descend ; and fixed stakes or pegs (not 
the same word as in the Aomos contest) into its 
" sharpest part *' ; these pegs or stakes were to be 
kMids, and so were prestmiably driven horiaontallv . 
on them were thrown hurdles or bundles of wilbw, 
ete., **brklge-lashion*'; earth was heaoed on them, 
and a bridlge or eanseway thus formed. QnestkNis 
ariae % — If the wnrk was done from befew, why the 
stakes or pegs? If It was done in the narrowest 
part of the ravine, how eould so many troops (half 
the army at a time) be used? Why no mention of 
tree trunks or brandies vsed to fill the ravine? Was 
the nanowest part of the ravine also its bottom? Or 
did it widen out below, where its stream ran ? The 
best amwer we can give to all these questions is, 
perhaps, that the ravine did so widen below; that 
the pegs or stakes were necessary beeaose, at its 
narrowrst point, it had actnally to be bridged ; that 
the wilbw-nondles were pQed open the stalws or pegs 
in rude eantOever fashion, tiD they met In the centre ; 
and that upon this stru c tur e earth, not trees, was 
thrown from above by tlie troops (of whom only a 
few can have deseended), and that the completed 
structure was thus both bridge and eanseway. At 
Aomos Alexander not only filled the ravine, at the 
point of approach, but also built a mound up to a 
hiUock of the same height as the Rock itself. 

FrinUd im Ormi Bnimm Ay 
JUdUrtf Cfaf (7At CAmmt iVMt). lO^ 



Latin Authors 

bj J. a Rolf*. SVols. 

t Tbs Ooijowm Am (MsTAiioarBOMi). W. Adling- 

tMi(l6M). R«TiMd by 8. Cm*1m. 

9r. Avmnnvn: Cnr or Ooo. 7 Vols. Vol. L O. B. 

MoQwBiwn. Vol. IL W. M. Qnmi. Vol. IV. P. Lovjno. 

▼oL V. B. M. tenfoni oad W. U. Orrm. Vol. VI. W. a 

W. Wotta (1631). 2 Vols. 
B. O. EvoljB Vn»Hm, S Vok. 
J. B.KIi^ tVoto. 
ti TmAOfs and Da ConoLsnomu PanxMonoAB. 
lUr. H. F. B%mnH ood B. K. RmmL 
CAMABt AmAin>BU«, AMmaoAM aod SrAmn Wam. A. O. 

CABiABt Cnm. Waw. a. O. PiMkott. 
CABiuuit Gaixio Wab. H. J. Edwards. 
Cato: Dm Rs RcsncAt Vabboi Db Rs Rubtioa. H. B. Aab 

•Bd W. D. HoofMT. 
Cawudb. P. W. Oornkb) Tnvxxim. J. B. PoatcBtot Pbb> 
▼MiuvM VflnBM. J. W. MaakBil. 

II DbMbdkiiia. W. O. Spaoear. S Vola. 

»t Bbotvb, aad Obatob. O. L. HaodrkkaoD and H. M. 

i]t Ad Hbb bbbiuii. H. OapUn. 
»i Db Obatobb. alo. S Vola. Vol. I. Db Obatobb, 
L aod IL B. W. SbMob aad U. Rackham. Vol. IL 
Db Obatobb, Book IIL Da Fato; Paradoza Btotoorum; 
Da PartiUoDa Oratoria. H. Raekham. 
CicBBOt Db FDOBOb. H. Raekham. 
CicsBOt Db iMmmmmm, etc H. M. Hubball. 
CkcBBOt Uu Natvba DaoBim and Aoadbmica. U. Raekham. 
n DBOmcn. Waltar Millar. 

Db RarvBUOA and Db Lboibob; Soianvif Scinovis. 


Db AvKtfU, Da 

n Im CATiuii4ai. Pbo Flaooo. Pbo MtmniA, Pao 8(nx4. 

»t LnmaioAmooa. M. a Wtetodl. BVoh. 
>t Lsnm TO Ha ftaWM. W. 0|yM WiUhiM. S 

W. a A. K«. 

Poar RiDRVii, !>■ Domo^ Da BAaoa* 
PaoPuuwM. N. H. WaMi. 
n Two CAScniA. Pao Laaa MAanj4, Paa Ctoaane. 

H. Onm Hodf*. 
»i Pao C4BJ0^ Da Pao f iacu i Cihiiiti ■■lau^ Pao 

Pao SeAimo. Pao Foviwo. 
Pao MianwiiK Pao ljaiaio>i Pao 

II Pm Qoivonow Pao Romso Aiobb 
Ooirnu Houjcu, J. B. F^iiHb 
»t Pao tavno. In VATomm. R. 
»i Tmovlaii DwrvTAfiOM. J. E. Kia^ 
II ▼■aaora OaAtvoM. L. B. O. Oi— aood, t Tali. 
Oavoiaii. M. PtelMMMT. t Vob. 

OdunnuAi Da Ra RovncA. Da Aaaoatsoa. B. B, Adk, 
B.S.FamlarMHlB.B«AMr. 1 Vote. 

Q.t BMimnr oa AuBAiniaa. J. a Rolf*. S Vote. 
m. iL Foialvi Md OoaraMiw Nvot. J. a Rolls. 

B. & MflOvala. 
FkOMTOt OoaaavosMMB. O. R. H i hm . S Volt. 
Oaunw, J. e Rolfow S Tola. 
BoaAOBt Ooai avd Efooai. C R. BiniH 
Boaaiaii BAnaai^ EnvruH* Aaa Pobiujia . B« R. FMftioagli. 

JvraaAL aad Pbmhw. O. O. 

LiTT. B. a Toutm. F. O. Boof% Evui T. Bam, Md A. a 

aad R. B. Owr (Ow— I ladaa). 14 Volt. 

LooAM. J.D. Dafl. 

Locanroa. W. B. D. Roomw j 

Babtiau W.aA.KAr. S Vol*. 

Bmom Latv Posnt Irmb Pomutra 8Tam to RirnLrm 
NAMATiAinw, iinlintim OaAmvs, CALrvamoa Biovuia, 
Kaaiaaujnm, ATiAava. oad oClMta with " Aacaa ** aad tha 
«*PkaMis." J. W^bt Doff aod Arookl B. Dad. 

Onax Itei Aar or Lora aad Oraxa Poaaia. J. H. Boalajr. 

Ornt: FAflfTi. Fir JamM 
Ormt Mmmommma 

Orwt TnmA and Ex Poirro. 


Pvnoimri. M. Hwltiiwt Sbubca} ArocoLOorvtottt. 

W. H. D. Room. 
FiUBDBVS AitD Babbivb (Ofwk). B. E. Ptrry. 
PtAonm. PiMil Nbcoo. 6 Vol*. 
Puirrt Lvrnow. Metntoth'a TniMUtioQ w r in d by W. If. L» 

BvlabinMo. S VoU. 
PuvTs Natitbai. BmOBT. 

!• Vote. Vols. I^V. mnd IX. H. RmUmub. Vote. VL- 
Tm. W.H.aJoQM. VoLX D. B. Biehholi. 
B.B. Bolter. 
H. J. TbowioB. SVote. 
QonmuAa. H. E. Butter. 4 Vote. 

RsMAiM ov Old Latiw. B. H. WArmingtoo. 4 Vote. VoL I 
lEmnm Ain» CASCiLnm.) Vol. II. (Limm, NAsnrH. 
pAcomm, Aocnm.) Vot III. {Lvauv mad Laws or XII 
Tablm.) Vol. rv. (AacsAio hncmmmn,} 

BmtomuM Aooovtab. D. Moftew t Vote. 
AfOOOMKiiywiOMo. Of. Pvraoinvs. 
^1 BrwTVLAB MfWALW. R. M. OumiiMro. I Vote. 
u MOBAft Bmato. J. W. BoMiv. S Vote. 
^1 TBAonni. F. J. MUter. t Vote. 
II PbBMo oad LnrsM. W. B. Amnwii. S Vote. 
Btuv iTAUCtm. J. D. Dttfl. t Vote. 
BrATtv, J. H. Mottey. SVote. 
•oOTonvo. J. O. Rotfo. S Vote. 
TAOiVii DiAUMiTBi. Sir Wm. Pttorwo. Aobioola and 

O—imA. lUarteo HoUoo. 
TAoavot HisTOBni Ain> AwALo. C.H.MooffOMKlJ.JMkMO. 
4 Vote. 

rs ArotXMtA oad Da Spsctaoous. T. R. OloTer. 
MnrooRM Fbuz. O. H. RmkUII. 
VAimiw FlAOCVo. J. H. Mostey. 
VAsaot Da LmouA Latiiia. R. O. K«ii. S Vote. 
VauJBiia PATSBOOLiTi and Raa QarTAB Din Auotrnn. F. W. 

R.Faifoteagh. SVote. 

Da AarafTScnmA. F. Qnngm. S Vote. 


Greek Author9 

Acmxixjm Tathm. S. 

AatuMi Chi nn Nmohi or AimiAtA. A. F. 

MMl r. rf. FobM. 

I. or. Umom Ame O«4vo«». 
mO. FtaM». tVolik 

FAfOM. KliMppUkiu tVola. 
ti Boimi Batoinr. B«m»WMi«. 4 Vote. 


S Volt. Vi 


m AmmjOM, A. L. FmIl 
AniuuvM. A.L.F^«lu Vol. I. 
H. TViilwlA. STok. 
B. D. P. Lmw 

W. a. lUu, Ob O o I o wi > Ob 

Oa PlMta. On MtfvvlloiM 

Ob ladiYWbte Uam, 


tt NieoHAanuMi Bnooa. H. 
JLumntM'. O mv mMmt O A «mI Maova ***^^Tf , G. C Arm> 
ti (with MiUBliyiiB>. YoL n,l 
It On TnBBATm. W. K. a Oolhri*. 
ti 0« vma 800U Pabva NATinuLiA. On Brsats. 
Aaanonji: Ca iwwm ^ Ov I wi— tmw atiow. Fbios 

AsALrnoA. H. P. Oooh* tad H. TVtdaoaialL 
ABVToruii P oa iMwa AaALrno*, Tonoi. H. TnAaaakk 

u Oh SonDMKMX RanrrATVOMt. 

OaOnaiMtoU—dPiMiicAwmy, Ob th> Op—hi. &■. 

ABMioiuit PABn ov AmiiAic. A. L. PiMk; Monoii ajtd 
ov AraiAtA. B. 8. FocsUr. 


AmmrxniMt Pbtucs. R«t. P. WiAiNml sad F. M. Ooraford. 

ABMronji! row If and Lononnm. W. HMnflton Fyfe; 

D MiUMmm » o« Sttlb. \V. Kbj« Roberto. 
Abutotui: PounoB. H. R*ekham. 
Anmnu: Pbomjcms. W. 8. U«tt. S Vote. 
ABaroTLS: RarromtCA Ao SLiMXMMDwnm (with PBOBtsm. 

Vol. U.) B. lUekham. 
AsaiAiit Umtomt ov Aubavobk ukI Imoioa. K&w, B. Uilb 

RobMO. S Vote. 
Armmankmvi DmnKMorauTAB. C. B. Gouoc 7 Vote^ 
Bamuvs a»d PaABDMm (Latin). B. B. Pmry, 
Hv. BAMLt Lbttsm. R. J. IMmwi. 4 Vote. 
CALUMjyrmvmi VnjMmmwn. O. A. TfTpoate. 
CAMXiMAcnvm, Urmtm aod BptejraoM, oad LvoonnOH. A. W. 

Moirt ABATVik O. R. Uaib. 
CiMimm of AuBAKDmiA. Rov. O. W. Bo ttoi wo u lu 
Ooujom*. or. Orruv. 
Damdho Alto Cbu«. Thoratey** TwiiMtetfan mteid bj 

J. M. BdBMMMte) ond Paktuniiio. 8. O— teo. 
Dmmo&rmmtnm I.t OLvimiiAoa, Pnumco ond MnoB Oba- 

TKMto. I..XViI. AMD XX. J. H. Viae*. 
DmoonmnM II.: Vu Coboha and Ds Faiaa LaoATKanL 

C. A. VinM ond J. U. Vino*. 
Dtcmommmiam III.: Mkioiaa. Aitdbotioh. AuaTOOfBATM, 

TwocaATai oad AawrooKirox. I. akd II. J. H. Vine*. 
to m man u manm IV^VI.: ruTATB Oaatioms mtA I« NBABaAM. 

A. T. Umrmj, 
D — u a iam i VP.t PvinnuL8pB»rv,EiKynoBMAT, Ezobdia 

MidLmmik N. W. oad H. J. DaWitt. 
Dio CAiotvst RoMAii Hi«TO«T. B. Out. • Vote. 
DtoCnYoonoii. J. W.CobooooadH. LomArCrMby. SVola. 
DMNKMicm Siouum. IS Vote. Vote. I. -VI. C. U. OldrAther. 

Vot VIL C. L. BhOTBMUi. Vol. VIII. C. B. Welteo. Vote. 

IX. And X. R. M. 0«*r. Vote. XI^XIL F. Wolton. 

CteMral Indn. R. M . Ooer. 
DMMSirai LAOumia. R. D. Htefcs. S Vote. 
Dioiirnvo or IlAiJOABKAaAOA: RoMAii AMTiQormi. 8pel. 

mBa's tnuMlAtioti rvrtewl bj B. Quy. 7 Vote. 
Xnennvs. W. A. (NdfAtbw. S Vote. 
B UMfiu as. A. 8. WAy. 4 Vols. VerM tnmii. 
Bimssnrat ErrLauAanrAi. Hutobv. Kiraopp Lake and 

J. E. L. Oultoo. S Vote. 
OAtm: Om t«b Natvbal Faci7I.tibr. A. J. Brock. 
Tn Obsbx Avmoioar, W. R. Paton. 6 Vote. 
Obsbs Kumt ABO Iambus with tba Abaobbobtba. J. M. 
S Vote. 


(T um ue u t v , 
J. M,- 

Owmm. MAVSmATKAL Wo«b«. Ivor Hmmbm. t Volt. 
Hwwwii or. Tlnnmu«Tr»t CBASAcrvM. 
A.I>.O0dl^. 4 Vote. 

Htiim. H.O.Iv«9y«Wyitw 

Mtf B. T. WMiiiVlM. 4Voiiu 
II lLU». A. T. Mamv. t Vol^ 
u OBTMmr. A. T. Ummf. t Vote. 
B. W. Wmmm. 

ll«fliB Md URm Vm Book. S Vote. 

It ^rr?**" Alto lOAAAMI. lUv. U. R. 

•ad D. M. L«i«. 
a<mir«r«. f V«li. V«li. I^IT.| H« Tkukm^f. VoL V.| 
II. TUHi»f«v m4 B. IUmm. V«li. VL-VU.i R. Umtvm, 
Vol. VULi R. Mmow Md ABmi Waifra^ Vol. IX. L. II. 

WttMrOi^Wf^te. tVolo. 
• Vote. Vol*. l^V. A. M. Ho««M». Vol. VL K. 
Uabmrn, Vote. VIL-Vin. M, D. M«ol»od. 
Liiowoii. CI. CsMxauemv, 
LTMOaABQA. J. JL rilwBoili, tVolh 
LvHAft. W.R.lf.Uab. 
lUitmM. W. O. WoddoUi Piounnri TOTmAoauw. F. B. 

Aimauiio. C R. 
F. O. AIUmoi 
Atne Obatom {i 
lABomv, Hi 
J.O. Bwft. tVota. 
Komioot PwinrwAC A. W.H.P.B o«w. t Vols. 

Fattm. llov4jnBABT aBflonoM. A. 8. Baal and C. C. 
BdfBr. tVoli. LnvuMraBaoffMMCFioolfjDb D.L.Pli«i. 

FAOOAnAOt Pwniiiiiw ov OnoKS. W. B. S. Joom. 4 

Veil, oad Oniiyonfaw Vol. omafod by R. B. Wyolwrtty. 
FULO. 10 Vote. Vok. I.-V.I F. H. OoImmi and Bar. O. H. 
VoliL VIv-lX.t F. H. OolMia. Vol. X. W, H. 
M two iMiniliaiiiHify Vote. (lVaa«li«iM Md|r.) Ralph 

t Tbs LtVB oa Arotxoania or Ttama. F. C. 

TmajomtwAttrnt iMAoomi (UtumnATVt DaMoumons. A. 
itmdKauAmni LiwrnwrmmBtormmnm, WUmar 

PnroAa. flfr J. 1. 8«Mlya. 

PL4T0: CiiiMnpM, ALouaAOM, HtrrAacmxf, Taa Loi 

TnuoH. MoKM Md Etaioiiu. W. R. M. Umb. 
Plato t CBArrum, PAMOonDai, Obsatbb HirptAi. 

HirrtAa. H. N. Fovtor. 
Plato: Bvrvmnow A»oumt, Cmn%K Pmamdo, PaAsoMMu 

H. N. Fowl«r. 


Platoi Laws. IUv. R. O. Bury. S VoU. 

PiATOt Lrsta, Bnaouvm, OoaoiAs. W. R. If. Lamb. 

Plato: Rarosuo. PmiI Hhovvjr. 1 VoU.* 

Plato: »tatwmaii» Pnunot. IL N. Povlari low. W. R. M. 

Plato: TnAsnRvi md Sormr. H. N. Powl«r. 

Plato: TiMABoa. OnsiAa, Qurorao^ If Bunnnn^ ErmvLAB. 

Rav. R. O. Bonr. 
PLOTOmti A. H. Armatroof. VoU. I.-I11. 
PurrAMM: MomAUA. 16 VoU. VoU. L-V. P. a BobbiM. 

VoLVL W.aHolmbold. VoU. VIL aod XIV. P. H. D* 

Uqr— daWoawao. VoLIX. E. L. Minar. Jr.. P. H. 8and. 

hmJi W. a BaJMboM. VoL X. U. N. PowUr. Vol. XL 

L> PlMwoa — d F. H. fcaitliaBh VotXlL U. CbarniM aod 

PLOTAaoBi Tbv Pasauju, Lra. B. Parrin. 1 1 VoU. 
POCTBTO*. W. R. Paloo. 6 VoU. 

i: HuToav or rum Wam. U. B. Dawing. 7 Volt, 
't TsTmABiBUia. Gf. MAinrrao. 
BMYBjiABoa. A. 8. Wav. Vena tram. 
~ r. R.O. Bory. 4 VoU. 
F. Slorr. S VoU. Vaiaa traaa. 
HrmABO: OaooBApaT. Horaoa L. Jo«iaa. B VoU. 
Tasomuarva: CHAaAcraaa. J. M. RdmotwU. HsaoDM, 

He. A. D. Kaos. 
TtiKoraaAarvat StogoniT nrro PLAim. Sir Arthur liorK 

ll«rt. S Vok. 
T M T . YDtDaa. a F. Seaith. 4 VoU. 
I n I rNioDoaoa. Cf . OrrtAit. 
Xaaonmii CraoTAaDtA. Waliar Millar. 2 VoU. 
Xaaonwi HaixaincA, AiiABAaa, Atoumt, aod Smroanm. 

a U BrovBMB aad O. J. Todd, f VoU. 
X aao raoat Maiwan iA aad Oaooa oiu o w a. E. C. Marohaat^ 
Xanoraoai BcaovA MiaoaA. S. C. Maiahaai aod O. W. 

Pi.S(iiiVTi\i I'liosi't ( 1 1 s ii\ iri'//r if/oA 


ArrlMios, n*Tl« ^, 

Arri«. -^