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In the Mail Bag of The News today 
[•Will be fotind an Interesting communica- 
tion from Mr. Rlchar4 D. Fisher con- 
cerning Anthony Stewart, whose eora- 
pelled burning of the Peggy Stewart 
has been accepted as a shining lllustra/- 
tlon of the Quality of Maryland patriot- 
ism In the troublous tlmesyjust 'preceding 
the Revolutionary War. Very little sym- 
pathy has been wasted on Anthony 
Stewart In this country, as little has 
been given to the, "loyalists" and "torles" 
of the period generally. But, reading be- 
tween the lines of Mr. Fisher's Judicially 
toned letter, It may be gathered that the 
writer holds serious doubts as to the 
Justification of the patriots in their sum- 
mary treatment of Mr. Stewart. Seen 
through the glasses of this Investigation, 
that gentleman looms up as a very esti- 
mable personage, and his fellow-towns- 
men somew^hat as union laborers putting 
the necessary screws on a scab. At any 
rate, it raises an Interesting question 
which the historians will doubtless find 
much pleasure In solving. 

The Anthony Stewart Paper* In 
British GoTernment Archives. 

To the Editor of The News: 

In view of our commemoration, last 
autumn, of the burning of the brigan- 
tlne Peggy Stewart at Annapolis on 
October 19, 1774, it occurred to me to in- 
quire as to the possible exigence In the 
British Government Archives of data 
bearing on that historical event. 

Through the State Department at 
Washington and the American Embassy 
In England, the Inquiry was laid before 
the Marquess of Lansdowne of the 
British Foreign Office, who suggested 
the Intervention of Messra. B. F. Ste- 
vens and Brown of No. 4 Trafalgar 
square, London, the well-known au- 
thorities on "Americana." These ex- 
perts, after diligent searches, have 
transmitted to me (partly through the 
State Department and partly direct) 86 
foolscap pages transcribed from the 
British records of the loyalist claims 
instituted by Anthony Stewart before 
the Paxliamentarj' Commissioners, for 
losses Incurred through the deprecia- 
tion, destruction and confiscation of his 
property in America. They have also 
complied therefrom a short jnemoir of 
the claimant in the form of "Notes," as 
iper cbpy appended hereto. 
■ Among these papers will be found An- 
thony Stewart's own narrative of the 
burning oE his brigantine, accompanied 
by affidavits of eye-witnesses, giving 
many Interesting details of the com- 
motion' whicli agitated Annapolis from 
the 14th to the 19th of October, 1774. The 
whole collection will be deposited, ere 
long, with the Maryland Historical So- 
ciety, and will then become accessible 
to the public. 

It Is noticeable In these papers that 
Anthony Stewart is mentioned by high 
British oflflcials In terms of marked re- 
spect. , Governor Eden of MarylancJ 
commends him to Lo'rd Germaine witfi 
the remark: "His character here has 
ever been Irreproachable"; Secretary 
Robinson of the English Treasury in- 
troduces him to General Howe by say- 
ing "His own merit will be his best in- 
troduction." and Lieutenant Governor 
Fanning of Nova Scotia Indorses Jilm to 
the Parliamentary Commissioners as "A 
gentleman of a very respectable char- 
acter, mncb esteemed by his acquaint- 
ances, and a man of Indubitable integ- 

BaJtJmoro, April 6. 

Notes concerning Anthony Stewart, 
taken from his claim as presented to 
(he Commission for Inquiring Into the 
losses and sei"vices of American loyal- 

That he was a native of Great Brit- 
ain; went to America first In 1753. 

Was a merchant In Annapolis, copart- 
ner and son-in-law to James Dick. 

An allusion to the will of James Dick 
shows that he had two daughters— one, 
Jean (Mrs. Stewart), the other Mrs. 
Mary McCulloch. 

In 1770 the brig Good Intent (con- 
signed to Dick & Stewart, at Annapo- 
lis), containing tea, was sent back with- 
out being able to unload. In October, 
1774, the Incident of the Peggy Stewart 
took place. He represents, in his claim, 
this latter vessel to be worth £1500. 

He had land In Londontown, Arundel 
county; also in Dorchester county. His 
farm at Annapolis was called Mount 
Stewart. His property was confiscated. 

In 1775 he was obliged to flee the coun- 
try, leaving wife and family, and came 
to England. Here his representation to 
the Treasury as an American sufferer 
iiWtaiiied for him a pension of £200. In 
1777 he was recommended to the com- 
mander in chief In America (by the Sec- 
rfitary of State and others) for some 
employment, and returned thither, where 
he remained with the army "as a pri- 
vate gentleman" till after its arrival in 
New Tork. In 1780 he was made a mem- 
ber of the Board of Associated Loyal- 
ists. On the' evacuation of New York, 
in 1783, he went to Halifax, Nova Sco- 
tia, with his wife and seven children. 

In another place ha Is stated to have 
nine children. 

In 1785 he came to England to prose- 
cute his claim before the Commission 
for Inquiring Into the Services, etc., of 

The date of his death is not given, 
but In May, 1788 (writing from Halifax), 
he asks for an increase of (pension) al- 
lowance, having only £135 (per annum) 
and being very HI with a "stroke of 

A brother— John Stewart— is mentioned 
in these papers; also a sister— Mrs. Wil- 
helmina Maitland. 

(From Messrs. B. F. Stevens & Brown, 
London, January 11, 1905.) 

The Anthony Stewart Papers In 
Britlah Government Archives. 

To the Editor of The News: 

In the communication which appeared 
in your columns on the Stli inst., allu- 
sion was made by me to Anthony Stew- 
art's own narrative of the burning of 
the brigantine Peggy Stewart at Annap- 
olis on the 19th of October, 1774. 

There exists in the British Public 
Record Office (.\udit Office, Loyalist Se- 
ries, vol. 6, p. 322) a memorial addressed 
by Anthony Stewart from Halifax, N. 
S., to the Commissioners of Parliament 
?it London, under date of November 15, 
1783. wherein r<>fr>rpnoe 's mndo to a pre- 
vious "Memorial presented to the Right 
Honorable the Lords Commissioners of 
His Majesty's Treasury, a copy of which 
is hereunto annexed with the copies of 
the affidavits in support of the same." 

The Memorial of which a copy was so 
"annexed" was "presented" jointly by 
-Anthony Stewart and Thomas Charles 
Willlajns, as given in full at foot hereof. 
It contains the narrative to which allu- 
sion was made by me. 

The affidavits "in support of the same" 
are those of RIcliard Jarkson, who 
"commanded the Brigantine Peggj- Stew- 
art belonging to Mr. Anthony Stewart 
& Co." and of Robert Ciildeleugh, who 
was "manager of a rope manufactory 
carried on by the said Stewart & Co." 
These two pipers are full of the excit- 
ing incidents of the six eventful days 
which culminated in the burning; but, 
as they cov(?r nine foolscap pages, their 
addition would unduly trespass on your 
valuable space. 


Baltimore, Ajprli 13, 1905. 
Copy '. 

To the Right Honble 
the Lords Commissioners of His Majes- 
ty's Treasury Ac &c &c. The Me- 
LIAMS late of the City of Annap- 
olis In the Province of Maryland in 
North America Merchants. 
Humbly Shewetli 

That your Memorialist Anthony Stew- 
art was Owner of the Brigantine Peggy 
Stewart on a 'Voyage from Annapolis to 
London in the Year 1774. That your 
Memorialist Thomas Charles Williams, 
who was in London In the Year 1774 did 
Bliip on board the said ship at the Port 
of London, among other Goods, seven- 
teen Chests and half Chests of Tea con- 
signed to, and tlie Property of your 
Memorialist Thomas Charles Williams 
and his Brothers Joseph and James 
Williams his Partners, then Resident in 
the City of Annapolis aforesaid. 

And your Memorialist Anthony Stew- 
art begs Leave to represent to your 
.Lordships that on the Arrival of the 
Brigsjitine Peggy Stewnrt nt th" Pnrf 
flf Annapolis which was in the Month 
of October 1774 he did regularly enter 
the said Brigantine and Cargo at the 
Custom house, paying the Duty on the 
abovementloned Tea, as Imposed by 
Act of the British Parliament. That 
this Step gave great Offence to the Peo- 
ple of Annapolis who had entered into 
divers Combinations to prevent the said 
Act from taking Effect, and a Town 
Meeting (as it was called) being sum- 
moned immediately to take this Matter 
into Consideration It was there debated 
in what Manner your Memorialist 
should be punished for the Crime, but 
at I/Cngtli It was agreed that this being 
a weighty Business no further Proceed- 
ings should be held on it til the sense of 
the County could be taken at large, or 
In other Words til' the Mob might be 
gathered from all quarters. That printed 
hand-bills were accordingly dispersed 
In the Country tor that Purpose, and 
on the Day appointed a Number fif dis- 
orderly People under different Ring*i 




I leaders (as get forth in the Affidavit 
hereunto annexed) did repair to Annap- 
olis and Joining with the Inhabitants of 
the Town did meet In a tumultuous 
Manner, and calling your Memorialist 
the said Anthony Stewart before Them, 
then and there with Threats both 
against his Person and Property for 
paying the Duties on Tea abovemen- 
tioned. did require Him to sign a Paper 
which they presented to Him declaring 
Himself sorry for the Offence he had 
given and voluntarily offering to de- 
stroy both the Tea and the Vessel as an 
Atonement. That your Lordships Me- 
morialist at first refused to sign such 
Paper, but his Wife being then ill in 
Child Bed, Apprehensions of the Conse- 
quence to Her and His Family, should 
he expose Himself any longer to the 
Fury of a lawless Mob, prevailed on 
Him to sign. That he waa then carried 
by the said Mob in Triumph aboard the 
Brlgantine and there In Conjunction 
With Joseph and James Williams Broth- 
ers to your Memorialist Thomas Charles 
■Williams were obliged with their own 
Hands to set Fire to the Brlgantine and 
Tea which were in Consequence soon 
consumed to the Waters Edge and 
wholly destroyed. The Amount of this 
Loss to your Memorialist Thomas 
Charles Williams valueing the Tea at 
First Cost, Freight, and Duty being 
Three Hundred and Ninety six Pounds. 
And the Loss to your Memorialist An- 
thony Stewart valueing the Brlgantine 
at Cost, as It was her first Voyage, be- 
ing Fifteen Hundred Pounds— malces in 
Ithe Whole Eighteen Hundred and Ninety 
Blx Pounds. 

\ That your Ixirdships Memorialist 
*Anthony Stewart after this Sacrifice 
iwas suffered to remain undisturbed for 
some little Time, but as he continued 
on all Occasions strenuously to oppose 
the Measures of the Enemies of Gov- 
ernment he at Length became so obnox- 
llous to Them that they sought every 
'opportunity to Hanass and disstress 
iHim, that he even could not without^ 
■feeing insulted travel in the Country 
about his lawful Business, that he was 
hanged and burnt in Efilgy in different 
Parts of the Province and many 
Threats thrown out against both his 
Person and Property, and at Length, 
after open Hostilities were begun against 
[Great Britain, being put to the Aiterna- 
!tlve of either taking up Arms or sub- 
jecting Himself to such Punishment, as 
Itlie Provincial Convention should think 
proper to inflict, he was fain to fly from 
the Country leaving his Wife Family 
and Property at the Mercy of the 

That your Memorialist Thomas Charles 
Willianis arrived from London at New 
York on the verf Day the Account came 
there of the Enti-j' of his Tea. that 
finding the Populace highly irritated 
and threatening to proceed with the 
[greatest violence against Him, he fled 
rout of Town in Disguise and concealing 
ftHlmself In the Woods, for that Time 
fescaped their Fury. That Parties were 
bent out after Him to take Him and a 
flPrice set upon his Head in the public 
Papers. That thus hunted about for 
near three Months ho was at last obliged 
to Surrender Himself to the Committee 
of Philadelphia upon a Negotiation be- 
gun by his Friends, by whicli he agreed 
'to sign a Paper such as they chose to 
dictate to Him. That from this Time 
i your Memorialist continued in America 
I till the open Rebellion broke out, when 
'he was obliged to fly or take up Arms 
against his Country. That a due sense 
of his Duty determined him to the first 
land that accordingly he contrived to 
make his Escape in the Night leaving 
all his Estate Debts &o behind Him. 

That your Lordships Memorialists 
having thus represented to your Lord- 
ships the signal sufferings they have 
undergone purely from their Obedience 
to an Act of Parliament relating to a 
Matter of Revenue, and that their bav- 
ins actually paid a Duty to his Majestys 
Collector as imposed by said Act di- 
rectly produced to your Memorialists a 
jjjgptructkm of Property to the Amount 

of Eighteen Hundred and Ninety Six 
Pounds, besides great Distress and In- 
Jury In its Consequences to Them and 
their Affairs as set forth in the above 
Memorial, They Htimbly pray your 
Lordships will be pleased to taJte their 
Case into Consideration and order Them 
Indemnification for the heavy Loss they 
have so sustained and such further Re- 
lief in the Premises as your Lordships 
in your Wisdom shall think meet. 

(Signed) Anthony Stewart 

Thos. Charles Wliliam.s. 

Two Aflldavits respecting burning of 
the Peggy Stewart annexed to this Me- 
morial each sworn to before Sir John 


Voloe, Rice And Old Shno \* Rnii. 

The Anthony Stevrart Pnpprs In 
British Government Archives. 


To the Editor of The News: 

"In support of" the memorial of An- 
thony Stewart and Thomas Charles Wil- 
liams, which I published in your issue of 
April 15, I mentioned the affidavits of 
Richard Jackson and Robert Calde- 
leugh, and I now append hereto that of 
Richard Jackson. As this voucher to 
the circumstances leading up to and 
eventuating in the burning of the Peggy 
Stewart on October 19, 1774. is both in- 
teresting and important, I give it to your 
readers in full copy, exactly as It comes 
to me from Vol. 6 of the Loyalist Se- 
ries, Audit Ofliice, British Public Record 
Offlce. Its length necessarily defers the 
companion affidavit of Robert Calde- 
leugh to a future communication. 


Baltimore, April 19, 1905. 

Richard Jackson, late of the Province 
of Maryland, in North America, mari- 
ner, voluntarily make oath that he, the 
said Richard Jackson, was employed by 
Mr. Anthony Stewart of the city of An- 
napolis In the year 1773 and 1774 as mas- 
ter of a vessel, and he commanded the 
brlgantine Peggy Stewart, belonging to 
Mr. Anthony Stewart & Co., on a voyage 
from Annapolis to London, and on or 
about the 14th day of October. 1774, this 
deponent arrived at the port of Annapo- 
lis aforesaid in the said brlgantine from 
London, having on board upward of 
fifty Indented servants, under engage- 
ments to the owners of the said brlgan- 
tine, and a cargo of goods upon freight 
consigned to Messrs. Thomas Cha Wil- 
liams & Co.. merchants in Annapolis. 
And the deponent saith that amongother 
goods consigned to Messrs. Thomas Cha 
Williams & Co. there were seventeen 
chests and half chests of tea. and this 
deponent sayeth that immediately on his 
arrival he waited on Mr. Antliony Stew- 
art and told him that the people were 
murmuring about tea being on board 
tlie brlgantine, as it is liable to a duty 
imposed by the British Parliament, and 
threatened that it should neither be en- 
tered nor landed, and on being informed 
of this, this deponent sayeth that Mr. 
Anthony Stewart went immediately 
with this deponent to the Custom-house 
and there entered the said brlgantine 
and her cargo, and lodged with the Dep- 
uty Collector a bill of exchange for the 
payment of the duty on the tea, and this 
deponent saith that on the evening of 
the day on which the brlgantine Peggy 
Stewart was entered at the Custom- 
house tiie committee of Annapolis called 
a meeting of the inhabitants to enquire 
into the transaction, at which meeting 
Mr. Anthony Stewart, Mr. John Muir, 
the Deputy Collector, and this deponent 
were ordered to attend; that accordingly 
I Mr. Muir and this deponent did attend. 
; but Mr. Stewart did not attend, and this 
deponent saith that after the meeting 
had chose John Hall, a lawyer, their , 
chairman, they proceeded to enquire 
into the circumstances of the arrival 
and the entry of the brlgantine, and this 
deponent saith that John Muif, the Dep- 
uty Collector, being called upon, was 
asked by the chairman who paid the 
duty on the tea. whereupon Mr. Muir 
informed the meeting that Mr. Anthony 
Stewart had paid on the tea, and this 
deponent saith that the said Mr. John 
Muir added that it was much against 
his inclination to do any thing against 
the interest of the Colonies, but as Mr. 
Stewart had insisted on the brlgantine 
being entered he was obliged to receive 
the duty on the tea, and this deponent 
saith that the meeting was much en- 
raged at Mr. Stewart's conduct, and 
some of tile meeting proposed that the 
tea should be immediately landed and 
burnt under the gallows, and this de- 
ponent saith that Mr. Mathias Hammond 
objected to that proposal, alleging that 
it was not proper to do any thing in the 
matter until the county was assembled, 
and this deponent saith that a day was 
proposed, and that the Wednesday fol- 


lowing, being the IStli, was fixed on for a 
meeting of tlie people, notice of which 
was given by printed hand bills being 
dispersed through the county, and this 
deponent saith that at the meeting above 
mentioned a guard was appointed on th« 
said brigantine to prevent the tea from 
being landed or removed from on board, 
and that the guard came on board every 
day untlU the brigantine was destroyed, 
and this deponent saith that on Wednes- 
day, 19th of October, a number of peo- 
ple from different parts of the Province 
met at Annapolis, and that he, this de- 
ponent, being present, heard a great 
many threats uttered against Mr. Stew- 
art's life and property on account of his 
having entered the tea, and this depo- 
nent saith that it was proposed at the 
meeting that the tea and register of the 
brigantine should be burnt and the brlg- 
antine's name altered from Peggy Stew- 
art to Wilks and Liberty, that Doctor 
Warfield proposed that the brigantine 
and tea should both be burnt, and Mr. 
Stewart obliged to build another and 
call her ^A'I^Ks and Liberty, and this 
deponent saith that, soon after the 
people assembled he, this deponent, 
went on board the brigantine Peggy 
Stewart, and that about two hours after 
he had been on board several ring- 
laders of the mob came on board and 
rought Mr. Stewart and also Messrs. 
5seph and James wyilanis with them, 
nd this deponent saiSh that soon after 
messenger came from the shore suaA 
told Mr. Stewart that some of the peo- 
ple were against burning the brigan- 
tine. but that Mr. Kezin Hammond and 
Mr. Charles Rldgley, who were then on 
board, told Mr. Stewart in this depo- 
nent's hearing that If he did not imme- 
diately set Are to the brigantine his 
house and family would be in danger 
that night, and added that if he did set 
fire to the brigantine they would pro- 
tect him from any further danger, and 
that this deponent saith upon these 
threats and assurances Mr. Stewart and 
Mr. Joseph and James ■Williams jointly 
set fire to the brigantine and tea, which 
■were consumed to ashes, and this depo- 
tnent saith that the said brigantine was 
'burnt, with all her sails and rigging 
standing and colours flying, and that 
he, this deponent, was not suffered to re- 
• move any of the apparel or furniture be- 
Uonglng to the said brigantine. 

' And sworn to before Sir John Field- 
ilng. The original deposition will be 
found In the Treasury, annexed to the 
[memorial of Anthony Stewart and 
'Thomas Charles AVilllams. 

^A^e,^_.ny '^^^ ^ /CSS^ 

The Antbony Stewart Paper* In 
Britlab GoTernment Archives. 

To the Editor of Thb News: 

I now redeem my promise, made in 
your Issue of the 22d instant, by handing 
you herewith the aflldavit of Robert 
Caldeleugh to the Incidents which cul- 
minated In the burning of the Peggy 
Stewart on the 19th of October, 1774. It 
goes to you Just as it comes to me from 
Vol. VI. of the Loyalist Series of the 
Audit Ofnce of the British Public Rec- 

The narrative of this eye-witness and 
ear-witness I beg you will reproduce "au 
naturel," in all its confusion of capitals 
and deficiency of punctuation. It is 
most at ease in its own homely dress. 

Baltimore, April 26. 


City ot Annapolis in the Province of 
Maryland In North America Ropemaker 
voluntarily maketh Oath, That he the 
said Robert Caldeleugh did for many 
Years previous to the breaking out of 
the present Rebellion in America, live in 
the Employment of Mr. Anthony Stew- 
art of the City of Annapolis as Manager 
of a Rope Manufactory carried on by 
the said Stewart and Company and 
thereby had an Opportunity of being in- 
timately acquainted with many other 
Transactions in Business carried on by 
the said Mr. Stewart, particularly that 
the said Mr. Stewart and Company were 
Owners of a Brigantine called the Peggy 
Stewart whereof Richard Jackson was 
Master That the said Brigantine arrived 
at Annapolis aforesaid on or about the 
14th Day of October 1774 having on 
Board to the Deponents certain Knowl- 
edge upwards of fifty Indented Servants 
under the usual Engagements as this 
Deponent verily believes to the Owners 
of said Brigantine and also a Cargo of 
European and East Indian Goods upon 
Freight Consigned to and as this De- 
ponent verily believes the Property of 
Thomas Charles 'Williams and Co. in 
Annapolis aforesaid. And this Deponent 
saith that among the Goods belonging 
to Thomas Charles Williams & Co. were 
several Chests said to contain Tea, which 
this Deponent verily believes did so, and 
this Deponent saith, that on the Day 
the said Brigann. arrived at Annapolis 
aforesaid, Mr. Anthony Stewart did en- 
ter the said Brigantine at the Custom 
house and Secured the Duty on the Tea 
to be paid to His Majesty's Collector 
as this J^eponent was Informed by 
Mr. Stewart, and this Deponent saith 
that on the Arrival of the said Brigan- 
tine and it being Known that the said 
Veesell was entered at the Customhouse, 
and the Duty of the Tea paid or se- 
curea to be paid, the Committee of An- 
napolis called a Meeting of the Inhab- 
itants to enquire into the Transaction, 
and the Deponent saith that the Meeting 
of the Inhabitants of Annapolis afore- 
said was on the Evening of the Day on 
which the Brigantine Peggy Stewart 
Arrived, and that he this Deponent be- 
ing present at the Said MeeUng, had an 
Opportunity of observing Every thmg 
which passed. And this Deponent saith, 
that after the people then Assembled 
had chosen John Hall a Lawyer Chair- 
man of the Meeting, they made Enquiry, 
who was the Person that had entered 
the Tea Imported in the Brigantine Peg- 
gy Stewart whereupon John Mulr the 
Deputy Collector who attended at the 
Meeting was called upon, and declared 
that the Brigantine Peggy Stewart was 
entered at the Custom House by Mr. 
Anthony Stewart, and that the Duty on 
the Tea on Board the said Brigantine 
was secured to be paid by the said Mr. 
Stewart, and this Deponent saith that 
sd John Mulr the Deputy Collector like- 
wise said that he eald Mulr did not like 
to do any thing against the Liberties of 
America:, but as Mr. Stewart had in- 
sisted upon entering his Vessell he was 
obliged In Virtue of hia Office to enter 

the Tea and demand Security for the 
Duty thereof which Mr. Stewart readily 
granted and this Deponent saith that 
after the Meeting had received the above 
mentioned Information from Mr. Mulr 
the Deputy Collector, Mr. Mathias Ham- 
mond made a Motion to the following 
Effect, as near as the Deponent can rec- 
ollect, That as Mr. Stewart liad Acted 
in Defiance of the Resolves of the Com- 
mittee in Entering of the Tea, and had 
made such a daring Infringement on the 
Liberties of America It was proper 
that a Meeting of the County should be 
called before they proceeded any fur- 
ther in the Matter then before them. Ac- 
cordingly the Meeting was ad.iourned 
till the Wednesday following being the 
19th Day ot October and printed Hand 
Bills were dispersed through the Prov- 
ince giving Notice thereof to the In- 
habitants, and this Deponent saith that 
he was present at Annapolis on Wednes- 
day the 19th Day ot October, and that a 
great Number of People from different 
parts of the Province of Maryland met 
at Annapolis on that Day, and that 
many of them threatened Mr. Anthony 
Stewart with Death to burn his House 
and himself in it, and such other Pun- 
ishment as their Rage dictated. And this 
Deponent saith that the parties from 
the different parts of this Province were 
headed by the following persons \izt. A 
Party from Prince George County head- 
ed by Walter Bowie a Planter, a Party 
from Baltimore headed by Charles Bidg- 
ly Junr a Representative in Assembly 
for that County, a Party from Baltimore 
Town headed by Mordecal Gist and John 
Deavor, a Party from Elk Ridge m 
Arundel County headed by Dr. Ephraim 
Howard another Party from same place 
by Dr. Warfield, a Party from the Head 
1 of Severn River headed by Rezen Ham- 
mond son of Philip, And this Deponent 
I saith that when the Mob was Assembled 
Mr. Mathias Hammond and Mr. Charles 
Carroll (Barrister) did Propose as an 
Atonement for the Crime Mr^ Stewart 
had Committed that the Tea Should be 
taken out of the Brigantine Peggy Stew- 
art and carried under the Gallows and 
there burnt, but this was objected to 
and not deemed Satisfaction enougli by 
the ^bove Ringleaders, and nothing 
would Satisfy the Mob unless the Brig- 
antine and Tea were both burnt, and 
this Deponent saith that after the Mob 
had rejected the Proposal of Mr. Ham- 
mond and Mr. Carroll, they sent Mr 
Charles Wallace and Mr. Mordecai Gist 
for Mr. Stewart who brought him from 
his own House to the Place where the 
Mob was Assembled, and '^s D^P°";'"' 
saith, that Messrs. Joseph "^'"'anj^s ^"^ 
James Williams Partners with Thomas 
Charies Williams were Present also, and 
this Deponent saith that a Paper was 
produced to Mr. Stewart and Messrs. 
Williams which they were Ordered to 
read Separately to the People then As- 
sembled which they did accordingly 
purporting that they were sorry for the 
Offence they had given the People 
j Messrs. Williams in Importing the Tea, 
and Mr. Stewart in having paid the 
Duty and that they now voluntarily Of- 
fered to destroy the Tea as an Atone- 
ment for their Crime, and this Deponent 
saith that he verily believes if Mr. Stew- 
art had not complied with the Order of 
the Mob that his Life would have been 
in irainent Danger their Rage was lev- 
elled particularly against him for hav- 
ing paid the Duty on the Tea, and this 
Deponent Saith that after the above- 
mentioned paper was read Mr. Stewart 
together with Messrs. Williams were 
carried off in a Boat and were obliged 
to set Fire to the Brigantine with all 
her Sails Rigging and Tackle of every 
kind and also the Tea belonging to 
Messrs. Thomas Charies Williams & Co. 
all -which were consumed in a few Hours, 
And this Deponent saith from what he 
heard among the People that day. he 
verily believes that if Mr. Stewart had 
not agreed to set Fire to the Brigantine, 
that his House and other Property in 
Anna.polis would have been destroyed, 
and this Deponent further believes that 
Mr Stewart's Person would have been 
much Maltreated and his Life in 1ml- 


Sient Danger, If he had not compiled 

with the Requisition of the Mob. 


I And Sworn before Sir John Fielding; 
[the Original Deposition will be found 

In the Treasury Office Annexed to the 
' Memorial of Anthony Stewart and 

Thomas Charles Williams. 



X ' ^ 

c/ Vl -1 ' 


Trom the Baltimore Ifews Kay 9, 190&. 

The Aathony Stewart Papers In Pritlah rTovermnont Archives. 


To the Mitor of The News: 

In your issue of April 15 last I made mention of Aathony Stewart '# 
Rallfa:& Moioorlal of 1763. That J'temorltvl craves rfiference to "the Copj^ 
of on T^xtrtiot frora aovemor Men's Letter tc the ^xg'^t " v- - -,| 

George (Jemaln, dated t>ie 18th of September, 1775, aid t- 

The said "copy of im Bxtract" I now hand you, tub join <^d .lust as 
it ocnwa tc ra** from Vol. vi., Tojuliat Series, Audit Office, British 
Public Record Office. One objsct of its present publication is to 
eall attention to the fact that ahortfiy after the burninR ^f tH« 
Peggy Stevjart, In 1774, an •Aoocimt" of thatevent was transmitted 
to the ^nlis^ uuthorii.ios by the aovemor. The hi:'h char:icter of 
this official, combined with the responsibility of his office, aho uld 
make this the most valuable of all contemporan' accounts. Search for 
it in this countrj' haviiv, so far proved xmavailinfi;, I am now s^^ckinfi; 
it in i^igland, with undertain hopa of success. Meanwhile, should 
any of your reader* know of it, directly or indirect , I shall be 
glad to" hear from them* 


Baltimore, Hay 6. 

The Orie^nal T.«tter from whence the following Extract ia 
taken will be formd In ^^"'^ ^lecretary of State's Office. 

Extract of a Letter' f r:^i aov-^racr -^. aji of !!a^^'land to the lUght 
Honourable ''■ord (Jeorga usrru^ai^ d;.i-'>^ V^jiapolla, loth SeptwSber ,1775, 
referred to in the foregoing 'Aen^rial. 

**Th« Bearer of this Mr. Anthony Stewart Merch<int of this City, ia 
the Sentleman to whon with :'r. Dick the Brigantina Good Intent Jthe 
first Veesell »«it back with Goods frora this province) was conaigned 
by Mr. John Bachanan of London. The particulars of *>»Joh Your Lordship 
may be informed of by Mr. 3t«wart or by referring to the Letters. I 
had the Honour of writing to and receiving from Lord Hillsborough on 

that Occasion. ^ ^ ^, « * -o^ 

Mr. Dick and this Gentleman were also Owners of the Brigg Poggy 
Stewart burnt here about a Fortnight b(5fore B\y Return to xsa^ -government 
last year; the moat impartial Accoxmt I could j roc are of tvo.t at-'ociouti 
Act I sent -^ome, soon after a^ A.-rival, to be laid before >our •?-ord- 
Ghip, and jOur Lordship wiU recr?ive ■■. fvdl autheiitic^t ai state of the 
Facta relative to both theae Affairs from Mr. ;5tewart viiho will have the 
Roncr of waiting on ;- our Lordship. Kia character h^re has ev<m been 
i rr «prochable, and the xmhappy F-isturbmces and violent Measurca pur- 
sued in this Country ho htti alwuvo bonn ;ai 'nnorft -o, anu i*^ 
Ovvcoor of. This haa drawn upon him tho Resontmmt of the ._ rs 

thereof. And Self preservation will easily account for his mvox'-citao' 
Assent to the Troiiductions abovem'^nis.ionftd, i5elf 'O 

carries "'im at this Tinn, out of the Country, h.^ : - 

having benn more than once in in Ds^i^bt or Aj^prehetiaed '.o be^ao. '"^d 
he noS leaves his Lao-, Children aryJ Propertv h^re vlth ^^r. .ic;: - 

tJ' -Ji 




ft 'A-*-^ ^-^f-t^—^^-^.- 


, ^f,A/^ Uifj^y<^. /^£i6^ 

The Anthony Stewart Papers In The 
British GoTernment ArchlTC*. 

To the Editor of The News: 
" In your Issue ot April 8 last I quoted 
from three epistolary testimonies to 
the character of Anthony Stewart. One 
of these, that of Governor Eden of 
Maryland, was published In full text in 
your issue ot the 9th Inst. I now hand 
you, likewise in full text, that of Secre- 
tary Kobinson of the English Treasury 
and that of Lieutenant Governor Fan- 
ning of Nova Scotia, both being from 
Bundle 62, Loyalist Series, Audit Office, 
British Public Record OfHce. 

Baltimore, May 11. 

(Copy of a Letter from John Robin- 
son Esqre Secretary of the Treasury 
written to General Sir William Howe 
and dated the 23d of May 1777.) 


I beg leave to introduce to you; Mr. 
Anthony Stewart a Gentleman of Prop- 
erty In Maryland who has been a great 
Sufferer in the Cause of Government to 
which he has been a .steady and active 
Friend and on that Account obliged to 
flv and take Refuge In this country. 
Being desirous of returning in Hopes to 
render some ser-vices in Maryland, I am 
directed to recommend that Gentleman 
to your Friendship and Protection, 
though I am persuaded that his own 
Merit will be his best Introduction to 
You and procure Him every Support and 
Assistance which may be in your Power 
to shew Him. 

I am with great Truth and Respect, 

Tour most obedient 

Humble Servant 


Halifax 30th July 1786. 

Having the Honor to be known by 
You, I beg I may be permitted on that 
Circumstance to take the Liberty of in- 
troducing to You my very intimate & 
worthy Friend Mr. Stewart, who will 
have the Honor of waiting on You with 
this Lretter. 

Mr. Stewart was, prior to the Com- 
mencement of the American Contest, 
settled In Maryland, where he had sev- 
eral vears been a Merchant of Note.— He 
was among the first of those who, for 
their Loyalty, and Attachment to the 
Mother Country, felt the Effects of the 
popular Re.^entment in that Province.— 
He was some time in New York; .and for 
near two vears past has resided, with 
his Family in Halifax.— He leaves Mrs. 
Stewart, and a numerous and very 

amiable of Children, In Halifax while 

He makes a Voyage to England for the 
purpose of substantiating before your 
Honorable Board his Claim to National 
Consideration as a Loyal ameriean Suf- 
ferer.— And it is with much Pleasure that 
I embrace the Oppertunlty which now 
offers of announcing Mr. Stewart to His 
Majesty's Commissioners, as a Gentle- 
man of a very respectable Character- 
much esteemed by his Acquaintances, 
and a Man of indubitable Integrity & 

I have the Honor to be, with very 
gVeat Esteem, 

Your most Obedient 

faithful Servant, 

The Honorable 

D. P. Coke & J. Wllmot Esqrs Com- 
missioners &c. &c. &c. 

The Anthony Stewart Papers In 
British Government .Archives. 

To the Editor ot Thb News ; 

We have heard what others say of An- 
thony Stewart, and something ot what 
he says ot himself; and we are yet to 
hear more. We will now diverge tor an 
Interval, and hear what he says ot the 
sharer of his fortunes. 

The attentive reader of Anthony Stew- 
art's own narrative ot the burning ot his 
brlgantlne, as published in The News of 
the 15th ult., will not have failed to 
mark its keynote In these words of the 
narrator: "That your Lordships Me- 
morialist at first refused to sign such 
Paper, but his Wife being then 111 In 
Child Bed, Apprehensions of the Conse- 
quence to Her and His Family should 
he expose Himself any longer to the 
Fury of a lawless Mob, prevailed on 
him to sign." Further on, he adds: "at 
Length (etc., etc.) he was fain to fly 
from the Country leaving his Wife Fam- 
ily and Property at the Mercy ot the 

In the Papers which I have derived 
from the British Government Archives, 
there are three more documentary ema- 
nations from Anthony Stewart. In which 
his wife is mentioned, as shown in four 
extracts hereto appended under their ap- 
propriate references. It will now be 
noted that he mentions her six times in 
all, and that in three of the six he 
strikes the keynote. 

I cannot find that this vital feature of 
the tragedy ot 1774— the precarious situa- 
tion ot the wife of the victim— has ever 
b^en given to the world by any histo- 
rian; nor can I learn that It has ever ap- 
peared in the public prints previous to 
this issue ot your Journal, and that of 
the loth ult. I admit that it Is acces- 
sible, to the student and the forager, in 
that repository called the Pennsylvania 
Magazine of History and Biography, 
where may be found, on Page 2B3 of Vol. 
XXV., a private letter of Thomas Ring- 
gold, dated Chestcrtown, Md., October 
25, 1774, from which I quote the follow- 
ing; "Mr. Stewart had it seems no In- 
terest in the Tea nor had he any Goods 
as was reported and the people would 
have been satisfied even with the Tea's 
being stored without paying the Duty. 
But Anto. Stewart obstinately went and 
paid It & contrary to the advice of all 
his Friends. This incensed the people 
and , a great number came In from all 
parts of the Country and nothing less 
than tarring & feathering would satisfy 
them. This they were diverted from by 
the Influence ot Barrister Carroll & oth- 
ers in pity to Mrs. Stewart who was then 
in Labor." RICHARD D. FISHER. 

Baltimore, May 16. 

(From a communication ot Anthony 
Stewart addressed to "My Lord, " under 
date No. B Edward Street, Cavendish 
Square, July 28th, 1776; taken from Bun- 
dle 62, Loyalist Series, Audit Office, Brit- 
ish Public Record Office.) 

At the Time the Brig was burnt it was 
proposed to destroy my House. The Sit- 
uation of Mrs, Stewart was urged to 
prevent It, as she could not be removed 
without an evident Risk ot her Lite. 
This Argument was listened to, though 
many Persons publickly declared that 
the Lite ot one Woman ought not to be 
put in Competition with the Liberties ot 
America which I had violated by paying 
the Duty on Tea. My Family was kept 
in continual Alarm. 

(Prom a Memorial of Anthony Stew- 
art to the Commissioners of Parliament, 
dated Halifax, N. S.. November 15, 1783; 
taken from Vol. VI., Loyalist Series. Au- 
dit OfBce, British Public Record Office.) 

At Length after open Hostilities were 
begun against Great Britain he was 
Obliged to Fly from the Country leaving 
his Wife, Family and Property behind 

(and again! 

This Obliged your Memorialist on the 
Evacuation of New York being an- 
nounced, to remove from thence to Hall- 
fax in Nova Scotia with his Wife and 
seven Children who formerly lived In 
Ease and Affluence but have lately de- 
pended on the slender support which 
your Memorialist for some Years past 
has received from Governmt. 

(From the Sworn Evidence ot Anthony 
Stewart before the Commissioners ot 
Parliament on February 10. 1786; taken 
from Vol. VI., Loyalist Series. Audit Of- 
fice, British Public Record Office.) 
As to the Brlgantine Peggy Stewart 

The Affidavits of Richard Jackson and 
Robert Caldeleugh are read— respecting 
this Business. 

Says he destroyed the Vessell and 
Signed the paper signifying his Assent 
to the Transaction, thro" necessity and 
by Cumpulslon— His wife had laid In 
about three days before the Vessell was 
burned— & he was afraid of having his 
House pulled down. 

The 15001 ls(the value of the whole Ves- 
sell— Mr. Dick was halt owner— He Is 
dead— and Mr. Stewart Claims one half 
in his own right, and the other as sur- 
viving partner and Representative of Mr. 


Ku<^-j, *^' 




British GoTepmnent Archive* 

VIII.— (Conclusion.) 
To the Editor of Thb News: 

The latest of the Anthony Stewart Pa- 
pers discovered In the British Govern- 
ment Archives Is a lengthy Memorial 
addressed by him to the Commissioners 
of Parliament, In which he rehearses his 
past services and sufferings, and depicts 
the sorrows of his situation. It Is cer- 
tified by Governor Parr of Nova Scotia, 
under data of Halifax, 31st March, 1788, 
and Is to be found In Bundle 62, Loyal- 
ist Series, Audit Office, British Public 
Record OfBce. As I cannot thrust Its 
bulk on your limited space, X append Its 
peroration only. 

At the time of this Memorial, some 
fourteen years have elapsed since the 
traeedy of Incendiarism. We now see 
hlra who has been portrayed to us by 
high authorities as the gentleman of 
property, the merchant of note, the man 
of Indisputable Integrity and irreproach- 
able character— wa see him, as por- 
trayed by himself In his advancing years, 
smitten with disease, stricken with pov- 
erty, crushed under the burden of a nu- 
merous family, while he "doth beg the 
aims of palsied eld," at the paltering 
hands of an ungrateful monarchy. What 
of the sharer of his fortunes? As he 
continues to sneak of his children, but 
ceasea all mention of the wife and 
mother W8 know not If she sOlHIves to 
piLrtaks of hla miseries, or. If "after 
life's fitful fever, she sleeps well," freed 
forever from the reminiscent horrors of 
a terrorized child-bed. 

Here we must leave Anthony Stewart 
"to drag out th« weak remains of life 
left him"— I use his own heart-broken 
words. 1/et us not leave him without 
Interweaving the tribute of respect with 
the tribute of pity. He was a sincere, 
fearless and consistent Loyalist; and, 
If on one occasion he seemed to falter, 
this Is Anally and honorably; explained 
by his devotion to his wife. In the Sev- 
enteenth Century English Loyalist sac- 
rificed themselves for a cause; in the 
Eighteenth Century American loyalists 
sacrificed themselves for a cause; in 
the Nineteenth Century American South- 
erners sacrificed themselves for a cause. 
We may* not think as they did— we may 
differ so widely as to thank God that 
in each century the cause was • lost— 
but we class ourselves with the Ignoble 
if we deny them the laurel which sac- 
rifice wins for sincerity. 

And now, to the evidence evoked from 
the British Government Archives In ee- 
tablishment of the facts of October 19, 
1774, let us adjoin the testimony given 
in the Baltimore newspapers of Oc- 
tober 20, 1904. I quote from the Araerl- 
Ipan this statement: "They erected a 
'gallows Immediately in front of his 
aiouse by way of intimidation, then 
■gave him his choice— either to swing by 
the halter or go with them on board 
and put fire to his own vessel." I quote 
from the Sun these words addressed to 
'the victim of tyranny: "Mr. Stewart, 
we have come to require you to do one 
of two things, namely, to go with us 
and burn your vessel or hang before 
your own door." X quote from both pa- 
pers the mention made of "that fear- 

lesil UMAM^ which forced Stewart to 
set Are to his own vessel and compelled 
the majority, composed of residents of 
Annapolis and the Immediate vicinity, 
to acquiesce." 

Here, then. Is the verdict of history: 

We may no longer uphold the doers of 
deeds which "make the angels weep." 
We may no longer traduce the memory 
of an upright man who suffered for sin- 
cerity. If we profess to teach history 
to our children, we are bound by honor 
to teaoh it In Its truth. We owe It even 
more to them than to ourselves to undo 
In the daylight of knowledge the wrong 
we have done In the darkness of Ignor- 
ance. We are admonished by the learned 
Selden that we are rather to be blamed 
for maintaining mistakes than for mak- 
ing them; and we are warned by the 
observant Montesquieu that degeneration 
begins rather with the parents thjji with 
the ohildren. 

We must abandon the celebration of 
Peggy Stewart Day. Not by riot, but 
by municipal ordinance; we must ex- 
punge the Idolatry of Crime from the 
walls of thb Temple of Justice. This Is 
the retribution which enlightened con- 
science demands of every supporter of 
law, of every lover of liberty, of every 
husband of the bosom— yea more, of 
every "man that's of a woman born"— 
In the City of Baltimore of the State of 

1420 Park avenue, Baltimore, May 26. 

(Note— The student who desires to con- 
sult the seven previous articles of this 
series will find them in The News of 
April 8, 16, 22 and May 6, 9, 13 and 22. 
The Documents from which they are 
taken are now in the hands of the bind- 
er, preliminary to deposit with the Mary- 
land Historical Society.) 


"By a sudden Stroke of the Palsy, 
your Memorialist has been for some 
time placed in that absolute State of 
Inability which totally unfits him for 
any Attention to his Concerns in Life. 
Entirely deprived of the use of the right 
side, he labours under every Inconveni- 
ence tliat can possibly operate as an ob- 
stacle to his Subsistence. His Commer- 
cial Views, the chief dependence of him- 
self and a numerous family, are in a 
great measure frustrated; his bad health, 
and consequent confinement render it 
impossible for him to look out for other 
means of Support, and his advancement 
in years banishes all hopes of a perfect 

In a Country like this, where the most 
active Industry and Diligence are barely 
competent to secure a Livelihood, Mis- 
fortunes such as these are attended with 
a double Grievance. Your Memorialist 
even in his present infirm state would 
exert every Nerve left him in order to 
his relief, had not experience convinced 
him of the utter impossibility to suc- 
ceed. Nothing but the melancholy, con- 

^HeraBon'oi' his Jncapabuity to suipporT 
himself by his Industry would have in- 
duced him to take the present recourse. 
Relying therefore on the humanity of 
Government, and trusting to your Hon- 
ours for a serious and candid considera- 
tion of his Case, he most humbly en- 

That you will be pleased to 
recommend an Increase of the 
Pension which he now enjoys, or 
suggest for his benefit any other 
mode of Relief which in your 
Wisdom and Compassion you may 
think fit, that he may be enabled 
to drag out the weali remains of 
Life left him with greater Ease 
to himself and his unfortunate 
Children who are totally depend- 
ent upon him 

And, as in duty bound will 
every pray— 



•'./' ' ' 

Tli« ' T laihony "S W iWaTt Papers In 
British Government Archives. 

To the Editor of The News: 

"One touch of nature makes the whole 
world kin." Sjnoe the publication In 
your columns of the evidence called forth 
from British Archives. I have yet to 
meet a man so disloyal to the filial mem- 
ories of a mother's fondling arms as to 
uphold the mohocks of October 19, 1774. 

It may be that we are not quite 
through with the story of that mob-and 
let It ever be borne in mind that a mob 
Is a mob. whether led by Jack Cade or 
Lord George Gordon. Unto "the patient 
search and vigil long," American Arch- 
ives are now yielding up a mass of orig- 
inal and damnatory evidence which has 
been suppressed or ignored. In part or 
whole, bv those pseudo-patriotic wrlt- 
crs-"blind leaders of the bllnd"--who 
call themselves Historians of Maryland. 
Any attempt In this community to dis- 
grace our dear old State by further cele- 
bration of the so-called "P^ggy bteyart 
day mav look to meet the publication of 
this evidence in supplementation of that 
already published from British Arciilves. 
Baltimore, June 20. ■ » 



Anthony Stewart's Heirs Living 

Man Who Burned The Peggy Stewart At Annapolis Has Had A Dis- 
tinguished Line Of Descendants, Some Of Whom Notu 
Make Their Home In Massachusetts. 

on the retired list. In the Civil War he 
was wounded at the second battle of 
Fort Fisher, and injured at the first at- 
tack on Charleston. 

Mrs. Cushman's youngest son. William 
Reynolds Cushman, now 30 years o£ ag«, 
graduated at the Academy in 1895. and 
is now a lieutenant. Her oldest grand- 
son, Tilton Ashlield Klmberly, is also a 
lieutenant In the Navy, graduating in 

1 "Tou see," says Mrs. Cushman, "we 
are still fond of the 'blue and gold,' and 
keep in the line of the U. S. N. My 

A great-granddaughter ot Anthony ^ jfj^^ g^^-^g^fg ^„. _ - . ,^ , son and grandson both fought in the 

Stewart, the central figure in that vlg- t^tlr^v^yard orAirHLl"ws'''chu?ck" fP-'f^ War in 1S98 my son on the bat- 

orous episode of October 19, 1774, which ^^^ Londontown, Md. Anthony Stew- t e-ship Indiana at the ba.ttle ot San- 

1 has lately received new light through ^rt is supposed to have been burled In "*S°' ^""^ Lieutenant Klmberly on the 

InvestlgaUons made by Mr. Richard D. Halifax. Their youngest daughter, Isa- ^J^^"' *' P""^^' ?'"'*''. ^,'^''' " 

Fisher of this city, and the publication bella, married Sir Jahleel Brenton, 

Mrs. Cushman has Anthony Stewart's 

,^,„ , .. tc n' -R of tho -Rfiv!.! nt-uich TMnv^r Hot- ''•''morlal book-plate, whlch also is shown 

in The News of evidence hidden In the K. C. B., of the Royal British Navy. Her 

„,.,._ J „„i,i„o= for o ren- grandson. Capt. Jahleel Brenton Cary "" "-"^ paec. 

British Government archives for a cen- ^^ ^^^ English Army, was with the Where Stewart Was Bnrled. 
tury and a quarter-a great-granddaugn- prjnce Imperial when the latter was One result of the recent investigations 
ter of this man who burned the Peggy j^me^ („ Zululand. Anthony Stewart's into the career of Anthony Stewart has 
Stewart with his own hand, is now sister, Wllhelmina, married Sir Thomas been the throwing of doubt upon the 
living at West Newton, Mass., at an ago Maitland of the Royal Navy. All In all, statement that he lies burled In Halifax, 
above the allotted three score and ten. the Stewarts were people of much con- Mrs. Cushman refers to this In a re- 
She Is the widow of Commander Charles sequence In those Revoiutlonai-y times cent letter to Baltimore, wherein she 
u r^r,>,h,^Jr, lato of *ho United States and since, with a special predilection for says: 

S;,!:;; onrt hir^ f„ii nnmi. U Nannie "a^y connections. Mrs. Cushman's "I know Mr. Stewart's people were all 
«,t3,Vt^f,.w»n ^*""'V eldest child is the widow of Rear Ad- strict Church of England people, and he 

Anthony Stewart had a son John, and ^}^f L«wls A. Klmberly of the United may have returned to Maryland with 
he had a son William, who was Miss States Navy. his wife. In that case he would be 
Nannie Stewart's father. Before she was By Copley. burled in the same All Hallows Church- 
old enough even to know sorrow, two Mrs. Klmberly has in her possession Jard, and perhaps t the inscription on 
great blows fell upon her. Her mother portraits of Anthony Stewart and his "i" ,S>-^''';^;"f"<*r!" "" ^ *3'',^°y'f.^^ 
Sled when she was two days old. When wife, painted by the celebrated artist, deciphered It might be found that they 
she was about three months old her father John Singleton Copley, which are repro- "" r'*' f"""';!" "o?,m to .n^i.=.f. 
sailed for Europe, but neither he nor duced on this page. Mrs. Cushman got 'The records would seem to Indicate 
the ship, nor the crew, nor the passen- these from an aunt, Mrs. Margaret tliat An hony Stewart did not consider 
gers were ever heard of again-all were Stewart Marriott. Annapolis a safe place for himsel and 
lost at sea. William Stewart had a sis- "My aunt told me." says Mrs. Cush- family after the Peggy Stewarneldent 
ter Margaret, who married a Dr. Rich- man, "that the portrait of Mrs. Anthony and perhaps he thought It s ill less so 
ard Marriott of Annapolis, and In their Stewart was painted when she was 19 after the war^ inasmuch as he was so 
household MISS Nannie Stewart waa years old. the year she was married. A strong a fo lower o he I^^^^^^^^^ 
raised. lady who vlsted my great-aunt. I also May It iiot be Po-'^s oie tnat Antnony 

Anthony Stewart's second daughter, remember, told me that Peggy Stewart ^,^Zw\t^ iL bSdy quietly to T" 

Mary, married a Dr. Shaaff of Annap- was very much like her mother." ta-l.y^ t^ook ^the^^^ody^^quietlj^ t^o^ An_ 

oils, who afterward "JPyed t° °^^^^' Mr.. Cu.hman'. Family. ^^^^^^^ g,^,.^ or in the grave In which 

town D. C, and Mrs. Cushman remem- Commander Charies Haddock Cush- afterward his widow's body was placed, 
bers her well. man, Mrs. Cushman's husband, entered doing this to avoid any possible dese- 

Remembers Pegrgry Stevrart ■ Sister, ^j^^ Navy in 1849, graduating at the oration of Anthony Stewart's grave or 
"I used to visit her frequently," she Naval Academy In 1855. He passed No. bouy on the part of some hotheads, of 
says, "and remember her as a very dig- 2 in his class. He was born In Maine which Annapolis and vicinity undoubted- 
nlfied. sweet old lady. She died about ^^^ ,g ^inth in descent from Robert jy had Its share? This Is merely a sug- 
1S59. and was about 90 years of age. Her Cushman. who was one of the financial gestlon on my part, and I simply offer It 
sister, Peggy Stewart, after whom the managers of the Mayflower. as a possible explanation of the fact 

brig was named, lived with her, but I Commander Cushman died In 1883 in^jj^t it seems impossible to locate An- 
never saw her. Peggy Stewart never j^jg ^-^^^^ y^^r. His rank at that time ti,ony Stewart's grave." 
married. She died in Georgetown and ^^s "commander." If he had lived un- Anthony Stewart's house Is still stand- 
was buried In the Congressional Cera- m now. his ran)c would b£_rea,r admiral. ,„ ^^ Annapolis, but will be torn down 
etery, in Washington, D. C. ,,^ shortly. 


^lA^ (yu ^/. /f <j 


Cnrthrr PegBV Stewart Se«rcUe» | will bo aeposlted vlth the Maryland His- ence. -where it Is stated to have been re- 

f„ ... ,. t „..!.<«>« — The Orlit- torlcal Society. ceived 10 March. 1777, by the Secretary 

In British Archive. - I h«- urifc ,„,,„ ^„„ '„,,.„„„„„,„„ „^...„ of the Treasury. John Robinson. (See 
mm Memorial And AffldaTlt. ,1" "«' •'oujs^ °f these searches oertan ^ur sheet of n6tes. IncloB.ire A.) The 
inai ."eii p],,^g ,,j^^.,, developed as to the filing In original set has no indorsement. On the 

1774 of two and perhaps three official other copy, which we may call tlie trip- 


Inal Memorial 

Brossht To I^lght 

To tlio Editor ot The News: 

accounts of the burning of the Peggy licate. is the indorsement, or memoran- 

to the British Treasury, bearing the loot- ijgiieved to lie side by side with other the oountersigrn ot Sir John Fielding or 

note: ""Two affldavit.s resppctmg i^^^ unpublished chronicles of S-cildine, or what we suppose to be so. 

?.rthll^uen!,n'af tSi^^swn'to'before Maryland Revolutionary history. -^ 

Sir John Fielding." , , RICHARD D. FISHER. 

(2 1 The affidavit of Richard Jackson. October 26, 1805. 
bearing the foot-note: 'Sworn to before 

Sir John Fielding. 'l"he original deposl- From B. F. Stevens & Brown; 

lion will be found in the Treasury an- London, W. C, 28 July. 1905. 

nexed to the memorial of Antliouy jfjchard D. Fisher. Esq., Baltimore. Md 

Stewart and Thomas $■''?''";>" „^''''?"'^;, Dear Sir— We are at last able to report & her carffo destroved hvlfhe nohoH.i 

<-^> ^^'i^^^'>^^^' Caldelcuglt, to youtherpu.tot^oursearc,, amongst iljf Rx'=!«X ^^^l^"^^^!} ^T '''''"'' 

(Indorsement on triplicate of Me- 

(Indorsement on duplicate of memorial 
of Anthony Stewart and Thomas Wil- 
liams to the Treasury.) 

Memorial of|Anthy Stewart and| 
Thomas Charles Wlliiarns| for indem- 
nification fori Brigantlne Peggy Stewart] 

bearing the like foot-note. (j,p Treasury series In the Public Record 

No trace ot a date to the memorial be- office, for permission to search which 
ing ascertainable in the open Public we (on receiving from the American 
Record Offlie, application was made to Embassy your letter of June 12, ad- 
tiie British Government," tlirongli tiie dressed to the Department of State) 
CitTtp Denartment at Washington, lor made special application to His Majes- 
permissiott to inspect files ordinarily in- ty's Treasury and obtained, after a 
'accessible. The result was the discov 

short delay, the necessary permit with 
remission of the usual fees. 

-ery In "Treasury Letters '•on oi tne ggveral days have been spent In search 


S. & W.i Memll of Ant Stewart fti 
Thos Charlesl Williams late of Annap- 
oiis| Merohta set forth That sd Stewartl ! 
was Owner of the Brigantlne| Peggy 
Stewart that came froml Annapolis to 
London in 1774. That| said Williams was 
then in London] & loaded sd Brigantlne 
with a| Cargo of goods. & Inter alia 

three originals of tlie papers cited above. \^„ these records, and some idea ot the with 17| Chests & »4 Chests ot Tea That 
as will be .seen from the copy of IMessrs. quantity may be gathered when we say .sd| Vessell returned direotlv to Annap- 
K F Stevens and Browns letter hereto that amongst other volumes, etc., we olis| therewith & in Octr 1774 on hisl ar- 
annended with its indorsements and au- examined 3fi large bundles, consisting ot rival there, entered sd Ship &| Cargo at 
appenaeo, wiim "- . . „, , , correspondence, accounts. vouchers, the Custom hs there, & pdl Duty for the 

tographs. ^he ''^'7'*^'\'8""'f'';'"" bills, memorials, etc., relating to Eng- sd Tea. That this] oceasioked a Town & 
Fielding is almost indecipherable by ,j,„j Scotland, Ireland and America, all aftorwarda| County meetings ot the Iii^ 
reason of his blindncsa. which infirmity niixed up together. habitantsl & sonie of the people Inl 

did not prevent hitii from becoming the We have found amongst these the consequence came on board &I set fire to 
most notable and useful magistrate of original memorial of Anthony Stewart the sd Brigantlne & Cargo] wch were to- 
J .. ""^" and Thomas Charles Williams, which ,„ti,. i^,,-«t jl .!„.._„ ^x\ »«=j .7 , 

h's time ,„„„„„, „f you were anxious to trace, with the two <hi\tl»^^f^/vi™^n?'i ^ Affidavits of 

The phrase "a duplicate in rebpect of affidavits annexed, the copies ot which J, f "^ i/*^ILta ?? le.ssell & another Serve 
Stewart," which appears in the second ^.p^e In the Audit Office papers. The „.f,'L?'^!^L^'^^'? /""'*'], th«. Facts; and 
Indorsement, is doubtless a recognition memorial and affidavits are In trlpli- I'^^I""/!^, ^'?/l ^?l. satisfaction for the 
of the fact that he had already uttered a ,,^,. „,. ,„ ^^her words, there are three 't"o''l896£|.'^TrfnU'''by*Ld"G' %"'°^?J{,! 
petition for relief on July 2%. liib, where- ggts, but only one sot bears the original Memls of] Cutler et al for considerni a 
of an extract was given in The News of signatures. The only date Is that in the Duplicate In respect to Stewart! but 
Mav 22. 1905. ] indorsement of one of the copies, which Williams's is an Original Application. 

The papers thus received from London we mav call the duollcate for convent- 






Farther Fecsy Stenart Searches 
AmonsT British Archlvea; Got- 
_ ernor Kden's Misslns "Impartial 
■; Acconnt." 

T"o the Editor of The News: 

In your Issue of May >, 1905, there ap- 
peared an extract of a. letter written by 
Governor Eden from Annapolis, under 
date of September 18, 1775, to the Secre- 
tary of State at London, In which he al- 
ludes to the Incendiarism of the Peggy 
Stewart on October 19, 1774, in these 

The most Impartial Account I could 
procure of that atiocious Act I sent 
Home, soon after my Arrival, to be laid 
before Your Lordship. 

At the time of the "Act" Governor 
Eden was absent from Annapolis on a 
trip to England, which began on May 
■J8 and ended on November 8, 1774. The 
".Sccotnit" must therefore have been 
writen in the last-named month, but it 
lannot be found either in the British 
Public Record OfUce or In the Dart- 
mouth Manuscripts, which two collec- 
tions comprise all the calendared corre- 
spondence of the Eden administration— 

With the exception of one misplaced 
paper, which is said to bo unimportant, 
transcripts of both the above-named 
collections have been faithfully made by 
Messrs. B. F. Stevens & Brown of Tra- 
falgar Square, and have lately, reached 
my hands. A careful examination shows 
that they do not contain a single line 
addressed by the Governor from An- 
napolis to the Secrctaiy of State 
at London between August 13, 1773, 
and May 6, 1775, a term of 624 days, 
deducting the 184 days ot the Gov- 
ernor's absence in 1774, there remain 
460 days barren of official dispatches 
from Annapolis to London, notwith- 
standing a critical political situation 
which must have dictated frequent re- 
ports to the home government. Very 
naturally, we are prompted to inquire 
what has become of the missing dis- 
patches, for wa surmiso that they cover 
ihlatorlcal data even more desirable than 
|lhe "Account" ot the incendiarism, in- as about a dozen chronicles 
jbearlng on that "Act" have recently 
•>)een brought together. The search.whlch 
lias already been long and laborious, Is 
now being extended into side channels, 
and promises to become laby^inthian 

-y ^ 

The Eden Correspondence, incomplete " 
though It be, Is unquestionably valuable 
as contributing new material to the 
coming historian ot Maryland, and will 
therefore find its eventual resting place 
In the flics of the Maryland Historical 
Society. In one respect it Is probably 
unique; It contains flotsam political lit- 
erature, such as the pamphlet and the 
handbill, which has drifted away from 
these shores to those of England, and 
is unknown to the leading libraries of 
this country. 


Baltimore, Nov. 23, 1905. 

Fnrthcr "Pcg;g;y Stewart" Searches 
AmoDK Arcliiven — Ed- 
ninnd Burke And The ° Mlssingr 
Maryland Dispatches. 

To the Editor ot The News: 

In your columns of the 21th ulto. at- 
tention was called to the lately Imported 
transcripts of the Eden Correspondence 
and the absence whicli they show of any 
official dispatches from Annapolis to 
London for the entire "Peggy Stewart" 
year 1774, and for months before and 

In the search for these estrays, we 
open the printed Parliamentary records, 
and find that, on January 20, 1775, the 
Premier, Lord North, laid before the 
House of Commons copies and extracts 
of letters— 52 in number— dated between 
May 4 and December 15, 1774, emanating 
from the Governors of Massachusetts, ' 
New Hampshire. New York. New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, Virginia, South Carolina 
and Georgia. The Clerk having read the 
title, Mr. Burke observed th,ere were no 
letters irom Mariiliind, and desired the 
noble Lord would Inform the House 
whether .any had been received, or 
whether they were kept hock for polit- 
ical reawnn; and whether these Papers 
contained all the intelligence the Minis- 
ters had received from America. Lord 
Nortli replied that he had brought the' 
Papers, but had not examined them; 
neither did he know whether there were 
any letters from Maryland or not; that, 
if there were any. they should he laid 
before the House; that, as to the Papers 
containing all the Intelligence from Amer- 
ica, he would not pretend to say they 
did, etc. 

On February 2, 1775. there were laid be- 
fore The Commons six like Papers from 
the Governors of Massachusetts. New 
York. Pennsylvania, North Carolina, 
South Carolina and Georgia, dated be- 
tween September 1. 1774, and January 4, 
1775, and one fragment from the Gov- 
ernor of Maryland, dated December 30, 

Struck by the anomaly that all the 
aforesaid 59 dispatches are addressed to 
the then Secretary of State for the Col- 
onies. The Earl ot D.artmouth, save only 
the one Maryland fragment, we appeal 
to the original of the latter as filed in 
the British Public Record Office, and dis- 
cover that it is in the handwriting of 
William Eden of London, and is mani- 
festly his excerpt from a personal letter 
written to him by his brother the Gov- 
ernor. It thus appears that "the noble 
Lord" kept the word of promise to the 
ear and broke it to the hope. 

These two Instalments of dispatches 
were duly laid before The Lords by Sec- 
retary Dartmouth, who was the proper 
recipient and curator of the official 
Colonial correspondence. The instalment 
on January 20 brought Lord Chatham to 
his feet, and he began his immortal 
Speech of that date by censuring the de- 
lay of communicating these Papers and 
the continuance of Ministers to delude 
the Country with misrepresentations of 
the state of the Colonies as an affair of 
Boston only. 

It is more than probable that Mr. 
Burke's Innuendo was justifiable, and that 
the Premier and Secretary and their col- 
leagues of the Ministry suppressed the 
entire ofBcial correspondence from Mary- 
land because they did not wish to con- 
firm the news of the "Peggy Stewart" 
Incendiarism, which had been published 
in the London journals as early as the 
middle of December, 1774. and had 
aroused political as well as commercial 
alarm. "That some such correspondence 
existed we have positive proof in Gov- 
ernor Eden's subsequent letters. That 
its importance precluded all possibility 
of its destruction we may s.nfely argue. 
We may conclude that it was secretly 
segregated and eventually forgotten, and 
that the hand ot time maj' yet pluck It 
forth from the du.sty alcoves of a quon- 
dam bureaucracy. 

Baltimore, Dec. 15. 

Farther Pegrgy Stewart Searches 
Amons British Archives— A Let- 
ter From Annapolis In l.ondon 

To the Editor ot The News: 

The editor of the London Times hav- 
ing courteously proffered the suggestion 
that examination of the files of the 
Morning Post, which was established in 
that city In 1772, might secure Informa- 
tion as to the Peggy Stewart affair 
of 1774, the matter was placed in the 
hands of Messrs. B. F. Stevens & Brown 
of Trafalgar Square, who entered upon 
Its elucidation with their usual acumen. 
In the British Museum they discovered 
not only the flies suggested, but those 
of other journals, of like local issue, so 
chronologically interbound as to enlarge 
and facilitate the area of inquiry, with 
the following results: 

The first notice found of the incendiar- 
ism in question appears as a two-line 
item in the Miscellaneous News Column 
of the London Chronicle of December 
,13-15, 1774, which is appended hereto 
under the caption "Item A." The same 
item appears In the Daily Advertiser of 
I December 16, 1774. 

I In the Public Ledger ot December 16, 
1774, under the heading of "News from 
America," Is reprinted the euphemistic 
account of the Incendiarism originally 
given In the Maryland Gazette of October 
20, 1774— which account has been the 
basic authority and pseudo-patriotic de- 
light of the Maryland historians until 
the present Idoloclastic year of our Lord 
1905. The same .appears in the Morning 
Chronicle and London Advertiser ot De- 
cember 17, 1774. under the heading "Ar- 
ticles ot Intelligence from the other 
Dally Papers of yesterday: The follow- 
ing ad\'ices were brought by the New 
Y'ork packet which arrived here on 
Wednesday"— that day being December 
14, 1774, or 56 days after the occurrence. 

In the London Chronicle of December 
,29-31, 1774, appears the "Extract of a let- 
ter from Annapolis, October 24." which 
is appended hereto as "Item B." This 
pithv narrative falls short of the full 
horror of the 19th day of October, 1774, 
while graphically exposing the tyranny 
of the mob as far more outrageous than 
the tyranny of the monarch. It is re- 
peated In the Daily Advertiser of De- 
cember 31, 1774; In Lloyd's Evening Post 
of December 30, 1774— January 2, 1775; in 
the Morning Chronicle and London Ad- 
vertiser of January 2, 1775: and. Anally, 
in the Morning Post of last-named date. 
It Is my duty to acknowledge that 
"Item B" was likewise discovered in the 
Congressional Library's flies of the Lon- 
don Chronicle by the Department ot 
Historical Research of the Carnegie In- 
stitution at Washington, of which Dr. J. 
Franklin Jameson is director. This de- 
partment was founded two years ago; 
its main purpose Is to plan and. so far 
as may be, to execute such general proj- 
ects of historical research as seem most 
likely to be of use to the profession In 
this countrj'. At the same time. Dr. 
Jameson Is very glad to be of service to 
individual Investigators, and these for- 
agers for facts In the despite of tradi- 
tion may well congratulate themselves 
on the facility and reliability of thlsl 
new roadway to the dear old truth. J 
Baltimore, Dec. 25, 1905. \ 

1 (Item A.) 

The Peggy Stewart. Jackson, is burnt| 
lat Maryland for having tea on board.-« 
^London Chronicle, December 13-15, 1774. l| 



' C^X -' 

'7 • '> "* *- 

(Item B.) 

;:_ "a my last I advised you of a vessel 
being arrived here from I^ondon, having 
tea on board. You will see the fate of 
It m the newspapers. The people from 
the country niPt here; some insisted on 
hanging Mr. Anthony Stewart, the gen- 
tleman who paid the duty of the tea- 
lOthers were for tarring and feathering 
him. and a gi-eat many were for destroy- 
ing his house, etc., and with difficulty 
they were appeased with the burning of 
the vessel and tea: Notwithstanding 
when the question was put to the mob' 
whether they were for having the ves- 
sel burnt or not, a great majority were 
agamst burning her, yet the minority 
threatened so much, that most people 
thought it best to comply to prevent 
worse consequences. From this you may 
Judge what small security people havo 
for their property here."— London Chron- 
icle, December 29-Sl, 1774. 

•Anthony Stewart In Nova .ScotlSV 
HIb Prominent Citizenship— His 
Great-Grandiion Lltlna;. 

To the Editor of The News; 

In the Anthony Stewart papers which 
were disentombed from British Govern- 
ment archives in 1905, and which have 
contributed copious extracts of their con- 
tents to your columns, it is stated by 
Mr. Stewart that he expatriated himself 
from New York to Halifax, N. S., with 
his wife and seven children in Septem- 
ber, 1783. Thenceforward he appears In 
the said papers as a Nova Scotian until 
March, 17S8, and there the record abrupt- 
ly ends, leaving him at Halifax in im- 
paired health and reduced circumstances. 

Impressed by the character of this re- 
markable man as delineated in the afore- 
said papers, and convinced that he must 
have asserted himself in any subsequent 
environment, I have sought him In Nova 
Scotian tradition for many months and 
through various channels. At last, I am 
able to lay before your readers the here- 
to-appended copy of a letter addressed to 
me under date of December 4, 1903. by 
Mr. George C. C. Nichols, corresponding 
secretary of the Nova Scotia Historical 
Society, ' wherein it appears that -An- 
thony Stewart was for nearly 30 years a 
prominent citizen of Halifax in all pub- 
lic and charitable affairs; that his oldest 
son, a Marylander, was also prominent; 
land that one of his lineal descendants is 
living at Dartmouth. N. S., in the person 
of Mr. Douglas Stewart. I am now In 
correspondence with this last-named gen- 
'tleman, and expect to obtain from hira 
further family data of historical interest. 

Baltimore, Jan. 23. 

Nova Scotia Historical Society, 
Halifax, N. S.. Dec. 4, 1905, 

My Dear Sir— The following notes may 
be of some assistance in your researches 
regarding Antliony Stewart. 

He is said to have come to Halifax in 
17S2. and was for nearly 30 years a prom- 
inent citizen in all public and charitable 
nftalrs. He was born and educated In 
Aberdeen, Scotland; was a clever and 
enthusiastic speaker, and was president 
of the North British Society of Halifax 
In 17S4. He was associated In many busi- 
ness enterprises with Alexander Brymer 
(a very wealthy merchant), and made a 
large fortune. His residence was on 
Grafton street, and the house Is still 

Hon. James Stewart, son of Anthony, 
was born at Annapolis, Md., In 1760, was 
educated at Halifax and Edinburgh, and, 
later, was admitted to the bar of Nova 
Scotia. He became a Member for Hali- 
fax County, 'and, later. Solicitor General 
.ind a Member of the old Council of 
Twelve. He was thrice president of the 
North British Society. In wliose annals, 
published in 1905, is a portrait of him. He 
married a daughter of Hon. John Halli- 
burton. His residence, built In 1790, is 
still standing, and is now occupied by 
Lieutenant Colonel Stewart: the present 
owner and occupant is of another family. 
Two of his sons were Dunbar D. Stewart 
and James Stewart, Lieutenant, Seventy- 
fourth Regiment. 

Anthony Stewart's great-grandson is 
Mr. Douglas Stewart, Assistant Post- 
office Inspector, Halifax, and resides In 

Like many of the Loyalists, Stewart's 
residence at Shelburne, N. S.. was brief, 
and I feel sure this is the same man. I 
have learned that he did not settle at 
Annapolis, N. S.. and none of his de- 
(Scendants are known to be there. 

I have not the pleasure of knowing Mr. 
iDouglas Stewart, but doubtless he would 
possess considerable information about 
his ancestry, which might be obtained. 

Yours truly, 

Corresponding Secretary. 
Richard D. Fisher, Esq., 1420 Park ave- 
nue, Baltimore, Md. 

Anthony Stewart In Xova Scotin— 
•'A Bom Leader." 

in the Editor of The News: 

.Supplementing the data publislied in 
your issue of tlie 26th ult. concerning 
Anthony Stewart's residence in Nova 
Scotia, I now hand you copy of a letter 
from his great-great-grandson. Mr. Doug- 
las Stewart, dated Dartmouth. January 
16. 1906. together with a biographical 
siimmao' from Mr. James S. Slacdonald, 
the historian of the North British So- 
ciety of Halifax, from which we derive 
further details of the life and character 
of the "born leader" who is the subject 
of these letters. 


Baltimore. Feb. I. 

Dartmouth. N. S.. Jan. 18, 1906. 
Richard D. Fisher. E.sq.. Baltimore: 

My Dear Sir— I inclose an entract from 
the "Annals of the North British Society" 
bearing on tlie history of Anthony Stew- 
art. Mr. Macdoiiald, historian of the 
>Soeicty. tells me that it is the fact that 
.Anthony's house is still standing on 
Grafton street, Halifax, and that, al- 
though it has been altered by successive 
owners, there is still enough of the 
original erection to identify it as a large 
mansion in the early days of the town. 
He says, also, that Anthony brought 
with lilm in 1783 five slaves, who were 
subsequently llbei-ated by him and sent 
to Bermuda. He died in December, 1812, 
and was buried in the old St. Paul's 
churchyard. Yours very truly. 


Extract from "Annals of the North I 
Britisli Society." compiled by James S. 
Macdonald. historian, Halifax: 

Anthony .Stewart, born in Aberdeen 
and educated there, had tor years pre- 
vious to the Revolution conducted a 
great business in Baltimore, with branch 
house at New York. He was acquainted 
with Halifax and its people, and at 
once, after his .settling here, was re- 
ceived by all classes as a born leader.. 
He soon proved his value to the place?' 
and was looked up to for advice and di- 
rection. He was a. fearless, outspoken 
man; vigor and enthusiasm maiked his 
every movement; and. in addition to 
[amassing a large fortune, he gave freely 
ito Church and State, and his name crops 
up continually in our local Halifax rec- 
ords as taking part in all good works 
projected for the public good. At the 
Society's meeting.'^ he was seen at \i\r 
best— a clever, enthusiastic .'(peaker. with 
a well pronounced Scottish accent; Sti 
addition, a good singer, he made himself 
essential to the success of the quarterly 

He lived Foi- many yeai-s on Grafton 
street, then a most fashionable locality, 
and entertained largely. 

■ ..^ ,...-> v^^-ji, ... .^ 


t^ c-r^y (T , /fO u 

Antbony Stewart In !Vovi» Scotla- 
His Family Record— His Deatb 
In 1812. 


To the Editor of The News: 

In addition to the data published In 
your issue of the 6th instant, I have re- 
ceived from Mr. Douglas Stewart of 
Dartmouth, N. S.. many other family 
details, including: his own line of descent, 
whereby it appears that he is a son of 
James Stewart, born September 21 1820, 
who was son of Dunbar Douglas Stew- 
art, born April 10, 1794. who was son of 
James Stewart, born November 1, 1.6n, 
who was son of Anthony Stewart, born 
July 1738. deceased December, 1812. And 
thus we know that Anthony Stewart was 
a young man of 36 years at the time of 
the incendiarism of the brigantlne, and 
that he lived to the advanced age of 74 

^Mr Douglas Stewart has also brought 
to my notice the Nova Scotian family 
record hereto appended, which gives us 
the births of the seven children who ac- 
companied Anthony Stewart from New 
York to Halifax in 1783. Of these, James 
married in Nova Scotia, and his de- 
scendants are living in British America. 
Great Britain and the United States. 
Margaret, who gave her name to the 
Peggy Stewart, was a child of 7 years 
when her namesake was destroyed; she 
returned to this country and died un- 
married. John returned to this country 
and married, and his descendants are 
still living in the United States. Isabella 
married in England, where her descend- 
ants still exist. Mary returned to this 
country and married, but we do not 
learn of any descendants. All we know 
of Wilhelmina is that she was brought 
into the world amid the riot which be- 
gan at Annapolis on the 14th and cul- 
minated on the 19th of October. 1774, her 
birth on the 16th corroborating the testi- 
mony of Anthony Stewart before the 
Parliamentary Commission, that "his 
wife had laid in about three days before 
the vessel was burned." Of Alexander 
Leslie no information Is to be had. 

It will be seen that the family record 
of Anthony Stewart, as preserved in the 
register of All Hallows Parish. Md.. and 
as presented in the copy hereto ap- 
pended, exactly agrees, so far as it goes, 
with the Nova Scotian record. 

Baltimore, March 5. 1906. 

(Anthony Stewarts family record as 
preserved by his Nova Scotian descend- 
ants.) . „ 

Anthony Stewart, sixth son of Mr. 
James Stewart, attorney in the King's 
Exchequer in the city of Edinburgh, was 
born the - day of July, 173S. Jean Dick 
of Londontown, in the Province of Mary- 
land, was born the 14th of March, 1742, 
and was married to Anthony Stewart at 
Londontown on the loth day of March, 
1764. In 1765, on Friday, the 1st day of 
November, their first son was born, and 
was christened on the 12th of December 
by the name of James. Their first daugh- 
ter Margaret, was born the ISth of Au- 
gust 1767. Then, John, born June 10, 
1769; Isabella, born 22d of February, 1771; 
Mary, born March 1st, 1773; Wilhelmina, 
born October 16, 1774; Alexander Leslie, 
born January 17, 1782. 

<Anthony Stewart's family record as 
preserved in the register of All Hallows' 
Parish, Md.) 

Mr. Anthony Stewart of Annapolis, 
merchant, son of James Stewart, Esq.. 
of Edinburgh, in Scotland, attorney in 
His Majesty's Court of Exchequer, was 
married to Miss Jean Dick, daughter of ] 
Mr. James Dick, of Londontown. mer- 
chant. In Anne Arundel county, by the 1 
Rev Mr. Hugh Deans, rector of St. 
ijohn's Parish, in Baltimore county, on 
the 1.5th day of March, 1764. 

James Stewart, son of the said Anth- 
ony Stewart and Jean, his wife, was 
born November 1. 1765. 

Margaret Stewart, daughte r of said 
(Anthony Stewart -and Jean, his ' 
■•was born August 18, 1767. 
j John Stewart, son of the said Ant 
Stewart and Jeati, his wife, was 
Tune r ■'■69 

Tlie Pegsry^te""'* >" American | 
Chronicle. - The Maryland Hl«- 
torlcal Society-The Brisrantlne- 
"Thc General Cargroe." 

To the Editor of The News: 

There exists In this city an instltutiOTi 
called the Maryland Historical Society. 

which, though P'-=^^""^»"y,';'"'?"°';" ,w 
many of the community and Ind'fferently 

appreciated by others, may ^f^l^ ^^■ 
with Othello, "I have done the State 
some service." It has long and patiently 
be^n garnering the evidences of the past, 
and if now offers to historical students 
to genealogists and to foragers seneralb 
a vast and varied store of Maryland and 
other lore, which is easily accessible 
through the medium of Its efllclent and 
courteous librarian. Mr. George W Mc- 
creary He It Is who has pointed out to 
me most of the chronicles which your 
ever-open columns are about to lay be- 
fore your readers in this series and 
which! though old. will prove new to the 
public in so far as they have been Ig- 
nored or suppressed by superficial or 
pseudo-patriotic historians. 

Though the brigantlne is sometimes 
called brig, half-brig and hermaphrodite 
brig, the brig is never called brigantlne. 
In fact, they are conspicuously different 
vessels, the brig being square-rigged both 
fore and aft. while the brigantlne is 
square-rigged forward and schooner- 
rigged aft. And yet the brigantlne of 
the Eighteenth Century differed from its 
successor of today in that it carried a 
square topsail aft and a spritsall under 
its bow as shown In the subjoined plate, 
taken from Falconer's Marine Dictionary i 
of 1780, which plate may be accepted as 
the type of the Peggy Stewart-for that i 
vessel was a brigantlne, and Is so styled 
in all the official testimony. 

The brigantlne has served its time, ana 
is now passing away. We might trace 
its story back to its Mediterranean ori- 
gin in the Middle Ages, in proof of the 
assertion that philology is the handmaid 
of history, suffice it to say for the 
present, that a name now applied to the 
peaceful merchantman once signified tne 
brigand of the sea. 

Among the time-tinted manuscripts of 
the Maryland Historical Society there Is 
a parchment-bound volume entitled A 
List of All Ships and Vessells Which 
Have Entred Inwards in the Port or 
iVnnapolis in Maryland," covering the 
period between April, 1756. and October. 
1775 We learn therefrom thai: the now 
deserted wharves of the Ancient City 
were once the scene of an extensive 
commerce. In exposition of this, we 
analyze the list tor the year 1(74. and 
find that it records 257 arrivals of vessels 
from ports in the sister colonies. Nova 
Scotia Madeira. Bermuda and the West 
Indies generally, England, Scotland, Ire- 
land the Channel isla,nds, France, Spam, 
Portugal and Italy, bringing into the 
i Chesapeake bay the divers products of 
'these many countries, in addition to 
nearly 3000 Immigrants, who are classi- 
fied as travelers, servants, redemptioners 
and convicts. 

From the said list we extract the en- 
try of the brigantlne (called brig) Peggy 
• Stewart at Annapolis on October 14, 1774. 
as per copy appended hereto. We are 
surprised at her diminutive size— 50 tons— 
Ibut. on examining the Massachusetts 
! State House record of vessels built in 
New England between 1096 and 1714, we 
find it to Include 238 brigantines whose 
average measurement is less than 52 
tons, some of them being as small as 30 
• ■ ' ttetw. The "53 Servants" are properly en- 
tered under the head of "The General 
Cargoe," Inasmuch as they are elsewhere 
called by the captain "indented serv- 
ants," and these were virtually slaves | 
for a term, whose general status has 
bfon historically treated by McCormac's , 
"White Servitude in Maryland.'' The 
reader who is curious as to their per- | 
sonal condition should ask the librarian | 
of the Maryland Historical Society to 
take down from its.shelvcs the musty 
"Lives" of Thomas Anderson and Bamp- 
fylde Moore Carew, from which may 
Jso be learned something of the kld- 
inppcd and the convict In early Mary- 

land story. The "Cockets" mentioned 
were probably Custom-house documents 
similar to the Shippers' Manifests of the 
present day, and Indicate that there 
were seven London laders. The entry 
does not tell us how many Annapolis 
consignees there were, nor what were 
the quantities, qualities and values of the 
••European & East India Goods of th? 
lading, but we learn from other sources 
that among these goods were 17 pack- 
ages containing 2320 pounds of tea valued 
at £396 steriing, and we know that this 
tea furnished the pretext for a demon- 
stration of outrageous popular tyranny, 
Uie cruelty of which has recently been 
brought to light from British archives, 
and is again to be evidenced _tromAmer^ 
lean chronicles, /e^^*^-^^ -/-.^/i-t^ 

Baltimore. March 19. 

(TTpe of the Peggy Stewart, a BrigRntlne.) 



if,?p%°/^e"sST Na°m\^-Brir^'eggy Stew- 

Master's Name-Richd. Jackson. 
Kind of Built— Sq. stern. 
Tons— 50. 

WhlTe'and When Built-Mai-yland. 17n 
wSere aSd When Reglstered-Patuxent. 13 

The'^Namel'of the Owners of This Pres- 
ent Voyage-Anthy Stewart & 3 othere. 

ThlGeneral Cargoe-European & East 
India Goods pr. 7 Cockets. 53 Servants. 

23 July. 1774. 



The Pegrerr S«evrart In American 
Chronlcleii — The Maryland Ga- 
zette And The Chnluiers Mnun- 

To the Editor ot The News: 

Among the journalistic Incunabula ot 
the Maryland Historical Society is a set 
of the Maryland Gazette of Annapolis, 
beginning with the year 1728. and in the 
issue headed "Thursday, October 20, 
1774," is to be found the story of the In- 
cendiarism of the Peggy Stewart, which 
occurred on the day before. A copy of 
this story is hereto appended. The state- 
ment therein made that "Mr. Stewart 
then voluntarily offered to burn the ves- 
sel and tile tea in her" was our accept- 
ed history until, at the commemoration 
of October 19, 19(H, it was disclosed from 
tradition that "they erected a gallows di- 
rectly before his house by way of intim- 
idation, then gave him his choice: either 
to swing by the halter or go with them 
on board and put Are to his own vessel." 
That the 19th day of October, 1774, was 
a day of tyranny is now matter of fact. 
Forth from British archives have come 
Stewart, himself, and Jackson and Cal- 
deleugh, and Eden, and the London 
newspapers, to assert and reassert the 
truth. Forth from American chronicles 
have come further corroborative v/lt- 
nesses who are about to open their long- 
eealed lips. So unanimous and over- 
whelming is the testimony which con- 
futes the Gazette that we cannot avoid 
asking the question: Why did that 
Journal publish a falsehood so flagrant? 

The Lenox Library of New Tork is the 
possessor of 25 volumes ot rare manu- 
ecrlpts elucidative of early American 
history, which were collected by George 
Chalmers, the distinguished author (In- 
ter alia) of "The Political Annals of the 
United Colonies." This collection in- 
cludes two volumes of "Papers Relat- 
ing to Maryland." and in "Vol. I. 1619- 
1777," Is to be found a paper Indorsed 
"Anecdotes ot Mars-land, 1774-5, by 
J. C." from which are taken the data 
hereto subjoined. These answer the 
question. They show that the Gazette 
was terrorized by men who revelled in 
tyranny, while rebelling against it— men 
who forced the journalist to sacrifice his 
freedom to his property, as they forced 
the merchant to sacrifice his property 
to his life. 


Baltimore, March 29. 1906. 

The brig Peggy Stewart, Captain Jack- 
eon, from Ix)ndon, having on board sev- 
enteen packages, containing 23201b. of 
that detestable weed tea, arrived here 
on Friday last. The Tea was consigned 
to Thomas Charles Williams and Com- 
pany, merchants In this city. Those of 
the committee for Anne Arimdel coun- 
ty who were in town, hearing of the ar- 
rival of said vessel, met in the after- 
noon, and were Informed the said ves- 
sel had been entered In the forenoon of 
that day, and the duty on the tea paid 
to the collector by Mr. Anthony Stew- 
art, one ot the owners ot said brig.— 
Four only ot the committee being pres- 
ent, it was thought advisable to call a 
meeting of the people— Notice was 
thereupon immediately given.— Many of 
the inhabitants, together with a number 
of Gentlemen from Anne-Arundel. Bal- 
timore and other counties, who were at- 
tending the provincial court, met, and 
having called before them the Import- 
ers and the captain of the ship, together 
with the deputy collector— the question 
was moved and seconded, whether the 
tea should be landed in America or not: 
and the question being put, was unani- 
mously determined In the negative. A 
committee of twelve persons was there- 
upon appointed to attend landing the 
other goods on board said vessel, and to 
prevent landing the tea. After which 
the meeting adjourned to Wednesday 
the 19th, at 11 o'clock. At which time 
the members of the committee, and other 

the Inhabitants ot the county, were re- 
quested to attend at this place. In con- 
sequence ot this adjournment, a great 
number of very respectable gentlemen 
from Anne-Arundel, Baltimore, and 
Prince George's counties met here, and 
amongst others, eight of the commit- 
tee tor Anne-Arundel county. Those ot 
the committee proceeded to examine into 
the affair, calling before them Messrs. 
James and Joseph WilllamB, and An- 
thony Stewart, and also took into con- 
sideration, an offer made by said Wil- 
liam's and Stewart, to de.<!troy the tea, 
and make such concessions as might be 
satisfactory to the committee and the 
people assembled. The committee were 
of opinion, it the tea was destroyed by 
the voluntary act ot the owners, and 
proper concessions made, that nothing 
further ought to be required. This their 
opinion being reported to the assembly. 
was not satisfactory to all present. Mr. 
Stewart then voluntarily offered to burn 
the vessel and the tea in her, and that 
proper acknowledgements should be 
made and published in the Maryland 
gazette. Those acknowledgements were 
accordingly made, and are as follows. 
We James Williams, Joseph Wil- 
liams, and Anthony Stewart do 
severally acknowledge, tliat we 
have committed a most daring in- 
sult, and act ot the most perni- 
cious tendency to the liberties ot 
America; we the said William's in 
importing the tea, and said 
Stewart in paying the duty there- 
on, and thereby deservedly in- 
curred the displeasure of the peo- 
ple now convened, and all others in- 
terested In tlie preservation of the 
constitutional rights and liberties 
of North America, do ask pardon 
for the same; and we solemnly 
declare, tor the future, that we 
never will infringe any resolution 
formed by the people for the sal- 
vation of their rights, nor will we 
do any act that may be injurious 
to the liberties ot the people: and 
to shew our desire of living in 
amity with the friends to Amer- 
ica, we do request this meeting, 
or as many as may choose to at- 
tend, to be present at any place 
wliere the people shall appoint, 
and we will there commit to the 
flames, or otherwise destroy, as 
the people may choose, the de- 
testable article wiiich has been the 
cause of this our misconduct. 

After which Mr. Stewart and Messrs. 
James and Joseph Williams, owners of 
the tea, went on board said vessel with 
her sails and colors flying and volunta- 
rily set flre to the tea, and in a few 
hours, the whole, together with the ves- 
sel, was consumed in the presence of a 
great number of spectators. 
"Baltimore, Oct. 25th, 1774. You will 
"hear from the Newspaper^fThat a quan- 
"tity ot Tea (value about £400) and the 
"vessell that brought It were burned in 
"open day under the nose of the Presl- 
"dent and our Provincial Magistrates t' 
"other day at Annapolis. The owners 
"were obliged to burn Vessell & Tea 
"themselves and some of the Mob were 
"for putting them to death." 

"Do. 27" October 1774. Stewart had a 
"vindication ready to be printed, and 
"promised to be Inserted in the Maryland 
"Gazette by the printer, but Green was 
"threatened with destruction to his 
"Press if he dared insert It— and Stew- 
"art waited upon and desired to with- 
"draw it." 


The PegBT Stewart In American 
Chronicles— The GalloTvay Letter. 

To the Editor ot The News: 

Although the Pennsylvania Magazine of 
History and Biography is comparatively 
unknown to readers apart from the stu- 
dent class, the whole of that valuable 
repertory Is acce-sslble at the library of 
the Maryland Historical Society. In Vol- 
ume XXV., beginning at Page 248, is to 
be found a letter written by John Gallo- 
way ot Tulip Hill, Anne Arundel Co., Md., 
to his father, Samuel Galloway, on the 
day after the Incendiarism of the Peggy 
Stewart, as per copy appended hereto, 
which is worthy of serious perusal. What- 
ever ot this letter has been heretofore 
given to the newspapers was precau- 
tlously clipped or sifted, and I believe 
it Is now tor the first time reproduced, 
verhoHm et literatim, in all its reference to 
an event which the indignant eye-witness 
chronicles as a "most infamous and ras- 
cally aftalr." 


Baltimore, April 9, 1906. 


Tulip Hill, Thursday morning 
Octr. 20, 1774. 
Hond. Sir 

I am now set down to give you an Ac- 
count as well as Is In my power of Yes- 
terdays transactions ot the committee ot 
the County and the mob assembled at 
Annapolis relative to the 17 Chests ot 
Tea Imported by Thos. Williams & Co., 
and the Peggy Stewart. 

It seems by Capt. Jackson commander 
of the brigg affidavit he refused Kelly 
Lot & Co. to bring any 'V^a. to America 
In his Vessel, and that Mr. Thos. Wil- 
liam who was then in London without 
his knowledge put 17 Chests on board 
and that he did not discover it till at sea. 
When the brig arrived at Annapolis Mr. 
Anthy. Stewart ordered him to enter his 
Vessell and all his Cargo except the Tea 
the Custom house officer would not ad- 
mit him to a partial entry. Mr. Stewart 
having not considered the matter well 
and to save his Vessel from being libeled 
went himself and entered the whole cargo 
and paid the Duty on the Tea. In thurs- 
day paper their was an ad\irtizement for 
a meeting ot the County as Yesterday 
but on Friday Eveng when it came to be 
known that the Tea was entered and 
might if the owners thought proper be 
landed the Committee of Annapolis met 
and also on Monday following and the 
results ot their meeting was that the Tea 
should be burnt but they deterod doing; 
It tell the County Committee had a meet- ' 
Ing which was on yesterday. After the 
Gentlemen ot the County Committee had 
met and determined what should be done, 
they called the Inhabitants together to 
Mr. Jacques porch & Mr T. Hammand 
as one ot the Committee stood forth and 
made a speech to the people (to be sure 
it was the most shockg one I ever heard) 
and read the Concessions that Messrs. 
Stewart & Williams was to make pub- 
lickly to the people for the infringements 
they had made on the Liberty ot the 
People after this was over Mr Charles 
Carroll B. desired to know the sense of 
the Gentlemen in regard to what was to 
be done with the Tea and it was the 
unanimous opinion ot all present that it 
should be burnt, the Committee then or- 
der'd the Tea from on board the brigg 
but some ot the Mob called out that it 
should not come on shore that the Vessel 
should also share the same fate. Mat- 
ters now began to run very high and the 
people to get warm some ot the Gentle- 
men from Elk Ridge and Baltimore Town 
insisted on burning the Vessell. Mr. Car- 
roll then went and consulted Mr. Dick 
who immediately consented to the de- 
stroying of the Vessel Mr. Dick was 
fearfull that If they did not give up the 
Vessel that it would be attended with 
worse Consequences to Mr Stewart as 
the mob had threatened to lay violant 
hands on him. Mr Carroll then declared 
to the people that Tea & Vessell should 
both be burnt. Mr. Quyn then stood 
forth and said that it wag not the sense 
of the majority of, the people that the 





Wessell should be destroyed and made a 
I motion whicii was seconded that there 
should be a vote on the Question. We 
had a Vote on it and a Majority of % 
ot the people, still the few that was for 
destroying the Brigg was Clamorous and 
insinuated that If it was not done they 
would prejudice Mr. Stewart more then 
: If the Vessel! was burnt, the Committee 
: then with the Consent of Mr. Dick de- 
clared that the Vessell and Tea should 
be burnt then Doctor Warfleld fa youth 
that practice under Doctor Thompson at 
tlie Ridge for some time) made a motion 
that the Gentlemen should make their 
concessions on their knees, there was a 
vote on it and carried In favour of the 
Gentlemen, they then came and rend 
their concessions to the Publick and then 
Mr. Stewart went on board his Vessell 
and set fire to her with his own hands 
■.nvl she was a burning when I left town. 
I think Sir I went to Annapolis yes- 
terday to see my Liberty destroyed which 
was done when the fire was put to the 
brig. Every body allows that Mr, Stew- 
art was to blame in entering the Tea, he 
was Advised by many not to do it and 
made two attempts and was persuaded 
from it before he did do It, but after 

making such concessions as he did do 
(Which I shall send you) and agreeing to 
pay for half of the Tea it was monstrous 
-o destroy his Vessell which Is worth £900 
Currency none but madmen could do 
such a thing, they have not onlv pun- 
ished the Guilty, but the Innocent must 
also suffer. Capt. McGachen was Vs 
owner of the Vessell, he did not enter 
her nor was he privy to any part of the 
transaction. If this is Liberty, If this 
is Justice, they certainly must have found 
a new code of Laws on Klk Ridge; but 
they must be very different from any 
others ever was pened by man or even 
appeared heretofore on the face ot this 
Earth. Whilst they were preparing to 
go on board the Vessell sober sought of 
people begin to think what a Scandal it 
would be to suffer an Action to be put 
into execution against The sense of the 
mnjorlty of the people. Stephen In par- 
ticular began to declare his Sentiments 
very freely, Mr C. Wallace Mr. G. Hop- 
kins, Mr. Jos. Cowman my Uncle and In 
short every person present who had any 
sense of honour & Justice cryed out 
Shame and determined immediately to 
prevent It but as they were going down 
to the water side with that intent they 
met poor Mr. Dick who beg and en- 
treated for God sake not to meddle in 
the matter, but let her be burnt, he said 
that if they were prevented, they would 
certainly destroy Mr. Stewarts house and 
prejudice him more than the A'alue of 
the Brig, on this the Gentlemen desisted 
from proceeding any farther, but It is 
my sentiments that the Gentlemen ought 
to have proceeded, tor If they were able 
to prevent the burning of the Vessell, they 
certainly might have prevented any in- 
sult being offer to Mr. Stewart or preju- 
dice done hts house. Some of the Gentle- 
men from Elk Ridge and Baltimore when 
they came to Town was very much ex- 
asperated against Mr. Stewart they talk 
of taring and feathering him thev were 
persuaded from it with a good deal ot 
difficulty. Mr. Thomas Williams the ship- 
per of the Tea would have under gone 
that dl.sclpllne if they had him. Mr. John 
McLure and others have made oath they 
heard him say In London. They the As- 
sociation in America was a mere bug 
bear and that he would import what 
goods he thought proper to that Country 
he is now on his passage to Philadelphia 
from London. I would not advise him 
to come to Annapolis. I shall send vou 
the News paper and Mr. Stewarts hand 
bill. I am apt to believe the Committee 
will meet with some difficulty in putting 
this affair in print as they cannot say it 
was with the Consent ot the major pai^ 
of the people that the Vessell was burnt.. 
It Is not proper for me to make remarks 
on a Committee chose by the people of 
Ann Arundel Cy. but for the future I 
would not give a Copper for all that their 
committee can say or do 

Thus Sir I have related you tJte whole 
and in as full manner as Is In my 
power this most Infamous and rascally 
affair which makes all men of property 
reflect with horror on ther present Slt- 
."ation to have their lives and propertys 
at the disposal & mercy of a Mob is 
Shocking indeed the whole Province are 
t^^SF °l" against the proceedings and 
ine Ring leaders begin to be ashame ot It 
themselves. I heard one of them who 
call himself a Gentleman a hour after 
tne affair was over say that It was not 
his Sentiments to burn the Vessel!. Mr 
btewart has agreed to pay for half of the 
Tea before this matter happened, the 
Ring-leaders were Mr. Charles Ridgelv 
son of Doctr. Howard, Dr. Warfleld & 
Walter Bulor of Prince Georges (please 
not to mention these names) 

/TT - „ "^""P "'" I^riday Morning. 
(Here follows a long account of farm 
affairs, ending with the valedictory 
Your Dutiful! Son 
and then comes a P. S. anent family 
matters. R. D. F.) 

The PesKy StCTvart In AmerfSSS 
Chronicles— The GalloTvay Letter: 
Again. J 

IV. ] 

To the Editor ot The News: 

That part of the Galloway letter which 
was omitted in your issue ot the 14th Inst 
has no bearing on the incendiarism of the 
Peggy Stewart, hut it presents so wel- 
come a transition from storm to calm' 
and so pleasant a portrayal of farm and 
family life in Colonial times as to .sug- 
gest its reproduction herewith More- 
over it helps us to discern the writer 
We have seen him as the upright and 
judicious citizen denouncing that mon- 
slniw horrcmlum. informr. inricns. cui lumen 
fi "f- '.""■ the mob. We now see him as 
the diligent planter, the dutiful son, the 
affectionate brother. Perhaps we see him 
also as the lover, in his kindly allusion j 
to the lady of the postscript, since he 
subsequently wedded one of her name. 
Take him for all In all, we see him as 
that combination of the gentle and the 
manly which constitutes the gentleman, 
and we believe every word which he ut- 
ters. So irresistible is his Intelligent sin- 
cerity that, at our commemoration of 
October 19, 1904, we adduced him as his- 
torical autliority, though we did not quote 
him in full. 

There is one feature of Mr. Galloway's 
narrative, as published in The News of 
the 14th Inst., which merits attention, and 
that is theindiscriminatevengeance which 
is ever characteristic of the mob. He tells 
us that '•Capt. McGachen was 'a owner 
of the Vessell," and we know, from the 
evidence before the Commissioners of 
Pariiament, that Mr. Dick also was one 
of the owners. In fact, the Annapolis 
entry of October 14, 1774, records "The 
Names ot the Owners of This Present 
Voyage— Anthy Stewart & 3 others." 
Thus, while Mr. Stewart was only part 
owner, the rage of riot fell on friend and 
foe alike. Yet. after all. this is but a side 
issue. The main point is that when, un- 
der the alternative "Your property or 
I your life," we dispossess a man of his 
i property we commit robbery. Whether 
we succeed by putting a pistol to his 
head or by erecting a gallows in front of 
I his house, we commit robberv. Whether 
i we appropriate this property to use or to 
abuse, we commit robbery. And robbery 
is not heroism, but crime. 

Let the reader note another feature of 
that narrative— the bated breath of the 
petitional injunction "(please not to men- 
tion these names)." We have already 
seen that a free press was throttled, and 
we now see that free speech was muzzled 
by men whom we have enshrined as apos- 
tles of freedom. 

Baltimore, April 17, 1906, 

Tulip Hill Friday Morning (Oct. 21, 1774). 
It seem that Mr. John Brice has been 
trying to persuade Duval! not to leave 
him and has not succeeded in it which 
has been a means of breeding a Quarrell 
between them. Duvall has appl.ved to 
me to send a Boat for him immediately. 
I told him I should do it on my return 
from the Eastern Shore are you to be at 
the Expence of the Boat hire, please to 
inform my next post. I have seen Mr. 
[Waters he is to come down tomorrow, to 
look at Tanner and if he thinks he is 
!able to travel as far as New York he 
[will take him he has more flesh on his 
I'Bones than when you left home tho' still 
ivery thin. Old Silim thrives fast I must 
have some oats got for him he does not 
eat Corn kindly. Mr. Heath certainly 
must have been running the old Horse 
to have made him so thin. 

Our People has been two Days longer 
than I e.vppcted in securing the Fodder 
they have been very lasy (torn) out of 
sight and I have not been able to attend 

■>A>^- ;.>?»'■/:-■; ^ •%*!'*»««)«, 



to them so closely as I could wish being 
engaged in putting yr. papers into some 
kind of order. We set about the potatoes 
on Wednesday, in some places they yield 
very well In others but poorly. I still 
have Fires kept in the Old Toll-house at 
home the rest of the Houses I think are 
sufficiently cured. I am fearfuil it will 
be very late before the wheat will be 
put into the potatoe Ground as diging 
the potatoes is very tedious and our Ne- 
groes does not much wlien I am absent 
which I must be next week. I have 
spoke to Mr. Pyle for some early Wheat 
for to soe in that Ground. We have not 
had any rain Since my last it is the dry- 
est fall tliat ever was known the Wheat 
Suffers very much. The warm weather 
rots the keeping apples very fast we had 
gathered this year more than I have ever 
known so that I hope there will be a 
sufticient quantity to last the Winter. I 
make the Gardener put them over every 
now and then. The Cyder we made last 
is very good. 

I am sorry to hear that you have been 
indisposed I hope the bark will prevent 
a return of the fever that you will be 
reinstated in your usual Health which 
Sir is always the sincere desire and anx- 
ious wish of Hond. Sir 

Your Dutifull Son 


P. S. I shall write my Sister on Mon- 
days post tho' I have not had the pleas- 
ure of a letter from her since her leaving 
home my best love & wishes attend her 
and Miss. Chew hoping the latter will be 
lightly marked with the Small Pox. 

J. G. 

The Pegrgy Stewart In America^ 
Chronicles— The Letter Of "Amerf 

To the Editor of The News: 

Allusion has heretofore been made in 
>these columns to the ancient file of tlie 
Maryland Gazette of Annapolis, now in 
the possession of the Maryland Histor- 
ical Society. In the Issue of that jour- 
nal, dated April 13. 1775, Is to be found a 
letter, signed "Americanus." taken from 
tlie London Public Ledger of January 4 
preceding, and republished under the 
violent denunciation of the Committee 
of Observation for Anne Arundel County. 
A copy of the letter is appended hereto, 
and a copy of the denunciation will ap- 
pear In the sequel. 

Baltimore, May 18. 

(From the Public Ledger.) 
Nothing but a civil war at home can be 
so pernicious and detrimental to this na- 
tion, as a contest with the Colonies, 
driven to too great a length, as they are 
connected with the mother country by 
every social tie subsisting between sub- 
jects of the same empire divided by so 
great a distance, the commerce of the 
one and the defense of the other depend- 
ing in a great measure on a mutual har- 
mony and good understanding with each 
other; in a word, they may be said to be 
linked together by the strongest inter- 
ests, those of protection and profit. 

This being the case, it is not surpris- 
ing that every piece of Intelligence on a 
subject 80 important and consequential 
to the community at large should be re- 
ceived by every Individual with the ut- 
most avidity, for it Is next to impossible 
for any British subject to be so neutral 
or disinterested. In a matter so momen- 
tous as the present unhappy situation 
of our affairs on the continent of Amer-' 
ica, as not to wish to be acquainted with 
the proceedings there, however limited; 
and confined they may be In their na- 
ture and private in their consequences. 
I hope, on this account, the following 
narration, taken from the best and most 
authentic authorities, will be agreeable 
to the public, as from it may be deduced 
the real source and primary causes of 
the riot at Annapolis, in Maryland, In 
which the brlgantine, called the Peggy, 
,laden with teas, was burnt; but I imag- 
ine some will scarcely believe than "an 
officer in His Majesty's revenue" was the 
principal abettor and promoter of the 
friot, though this was actually the case. 
At the first public meeting at Annapo- 
lis on American affairs, after the passing 
the Boston port bill, a resolution was pro- 
posed and zealously supported by many 
members at the meeting, "that the gen- 
tlemen of the law should decline bringing 
any action for debts due to persons in 
Great Britain." The passing so dishonest 
a resolution, however necessary and con- 
venient it might appear to some people 
In trade, was too pregnant with injus- 
tice to meet with general approbation; 
for the honest and thinking traders plain- 
ly foresaw that this measure, calculated 
only to serve the private purposes and 
views of a few individuals, would. In 
the end, greatly prejudice and Injure the 
general credit of the province and prove 
extremely prejudicial to tho commerce; 
therefore, a strong opposition was formed, 
■and a spirited protest was entered against 
\ !the resolution, in both of which Mr. Stew- 
art, one of the owners of the brlgantine, 
distinguished lilmself and bore a very 
active share therein. 

But, notwithstanding that the opposi- 
'tion of the protestors against this dis- 
honest and illegal resolution seemed to 
give general satisfaction, and met with 
almost universal approbation, as appeared 
by that measure never having again been 
proposed to be adopted at any of the 
future meetings; nevertheless. Mr. Stew- 
art's conduct therein procured hira manv 

enemies among those whose interest was 
injured, and it afforded matter for cal- 
umny and complaint to many of the 
neighboring merchants, wlio did not fall 
to embrace the first opportunity, which 
happened by the arrival of the brlgan- 
tine with teas on board, of gratifying 
their spleen and malice, and satiating 
their diabolical resentment and revenge 
by endeavoring the ruin, perhaps the 
death, of the man who had honestly 
dared actively to oppose those dishonest 

By the brlgantine Messrs. Williams, 
the gentlemen to whom the tea was con- 
signed, had also fortunately received a 
splendid supply of other goods from Lon- 
don. This gave umbrage to some of their 
neighbors, who had been disappointed of 
the goods they Intended to lay in before 
the Association or non-importation agree- 
ment, which was then generally expected, 
and which has actually taken place, 
should operate; among these there was 
one house, a branch of a mercantile one 
in London, and of which Mr. Davison, 
Deputy Collector and Deputy Comptrol- 
ler, is a partner, to wliicli tlie Messrs. 
Williams were likely to become formi- 
dable rivals in trade, who had the mis- 
fortune to have a vessel, on board of 
which the goods were shipped, stranded 
in the JSnglish channel. Chagrined at 
their own disappointment, and deter- 
mined that Messrs. Williams should not 
reap the benefit of this seasonable sup- 
ply by the Peggy Stewart, resolved also 
to wredk their vengeance on Mr. Stew- 
art. They used every means to infiame 
the populace, not only to prevent the 
landing of the tea, but also to procure its 

! In this dilemma Messrs. Williams adopt- 
' ed tlie only prudent method they had 
left, to extricate themselves frbm the 
impending danger; aware of the machi- 
nations of their enemies, they wisely re- 
fused to enter the teas, or pay the duties, 
imagining that thereby the people would 
be satisfied, and that the teas being 
seized for non-payment of the duties, the 
officers of the customs would in that 
case be obliged to land them, even at 
the risque of tarring and feathering. 

But Mr. Stewart, as an owner of the 
vessel, anxious for dispatch, in order that 
she might proceed to another port, too 
precipitately, as appeared by the issue, 
settled the matter otherwise. He agreed 
to deposit a bill of exchange at the Cus- 
tom-house, as security for the duty of 
the teas, which was the very point his 
enemies wished; for by this measure he 
laid himself open to the most virulent 
attacks malice could invent to excite the 
populace against him, which would end 
in his destruction. 

To forward their malicious and infer- 
nal designs, the officer of the revenue be- 
fore mentioned, although the house of 
which he was a partner had, unmolested, 
three months before landed teas, used 
every means in his power, personally and 
by the interest of his partner, who Is 
undertaker of the public buildings, and 
by the means and assistance of every 
friend and dependent they had in the 
neighborhood, endeavored to stir up the 
populace against Mr. Stewart, in which 
they proved but too successful; for hav- 
ing depicted his proceedings as a crime 
of the most atrocious nature, giving out 
"that It was done intentionally to entail 
slavery and heavy taxes on the Ameri- 
cans, and to strike at the root of, and 
tear up, every privilege British subjects 
possessed on the continent of America," 
the minds of the people were so Inflamed 
that they threatened death to Mr. Stew- 
art, and desolation to his store and dwell- 

The "mob" of Maryland, like the com- 
mon people of all countries, are ever 
ready to receive the first impressions, 
and, being too lazy or too ignorant to In- 
quire or examine into causes or com- 
plaints, they are ever violent In their 
proceedings; and when a notion Is once 
impressed on them it is scarcely to be 
effaced by reason. Can it then be sur- 

S;*-.-rr^ /;;.'- v.; 




prising that the committee who tnet 
to inquire into the merits of the af- 
fair (Inflamed as they were by the in- 
cendlarles who set them on) could not I 
put a stop to their rage, though a 
great majority of the committee were 
Of the opinion that tlie destruction of the 
tea and a public acltnowledgment of the 
fault from the parties was a sufficient 
atonement for the trespass? Is It sur- 
prising that this should not appease, 
when the death or destruction of Mr. 
Stewart only could have satiated their 

To avert so great a calamity some of 
Mr. Stewart's friends proposed "that the 
vessel, with the tea on board, should im- 
mediately be burnt," which was executed 
almost as soon as proposed, and the 
happy expedient had the desired effect. 
The mischief they had perpeti-ated ,and 
the blaze of the vessel pleased and ap- 
peased the populace, and in some meas- 
ure, though it may be presumed not to 
the extent of their wishes, gratified the 
malicious and interested, and saved Mr. 
Stewart, if not from death and destruc- 
tion, at least from ruin, tar and feathers. 

This disturbance happened In the ab- 
sence of the Governor, who was then on 
his passage from England; but had he 
been on the spot it could not have been 
prevented, for the civil power in Annap- 
olis, though the Capitol of Maryland and 
the residence of the Governor, is unable 
to cope with or curb the fury of an ex- 
asperated people; there are no military 
In the province. AMERICANUS. 


To the Editor of The News: 

In the Maryland Gazette of April 13, 
1775, and immediately preceding the let- 
ter of "Amerlcanus" therefrom reprint- 
ed in your Issue of May 30, is to be found 
tiie denunciation of that pseudonymist 
by the Committee of Observation for 
Anne Arundel County, as per copy ap- 
pended hereto. We have had abundant 
evidence in these columns that the Com- 
mittee, though supported by the vast 
majority of the citizens of Annapolis, 
was impotent to control the small mi- 
nority of "lewd fellows of the baser sort" 
and reckless aliens of the upper class 
who constituted the mob of October 19, 
1774. The Annapolis newspaper having 
euphemistically shown that black was 
white and that everything was lovely on 
that fateful day, it was disconcerting to 
find a London newspaper calling a spade 
a spade and showing that everything 
was vile. The Committee was now in a 
pitiful predicament before the world. 
Utterly unable to disprove or dispute 
the indictment of "Americanus," it 
must either confess its impotence or de- 
fend Itself by general denial. It adopted 
the latter procedure, with the addition 
of diatribe, and in so doing it placed a 
forced construction on that remark of 
the pseudonymist which reads "there 
are no military in the province," and 
which simply meant that the city of An- 
napolis, in 1774, was destitute of the 
xiltimn ratio of the law— Just as the city 
of Baltimore was in 1SB9, when a com- 
paratively small number of ruffians, ably 
ring-leadered, overawed and outraged 
our entire population, 

Listen, O reader, listen once more to 
the prophetic verdict of the authoritative 
Mr. John Galloway, as rendered six 
months before the denunciation, and as 
recorded in No. III. of this series, thus: 
"I am apt to believe the Committee 
i "will meet with some difficulty in put- 
"ting this affair in print, as they cannot 
"saj' It was with the consent of the 
"major part of the people that the Ves- 
"sell was burnt. It is not proper for me 
"to make remarks on a Committee chose 
"by the people of Ann Arundel Cy., but 
"for the future I would not give a Cop- 
"per tor all that their committee can 
"say or do. ' 

To "Americanus" we owe the Infor- 
mation that a foresworn "Officer in his 
majesty's revenue" added to the in- 
iquities of the 19th of October. 1774, that 
feature of the perjurlum which Is known 
as oath-breaking. From the detail with 
which the pseudonymist prosecutes this 
delinquent, and from his avowal that 
his "narration" is "taken from the best 
and most authentic authorities," we are 
led to believe that he had access to the 
account of the incendiarism which was 
transmitted by the customs officials of 
Annapolis to the Customs Commissioners 
at London. Unfortunately, that account 
was lost by the burning of the London 
Custom-house and its records in 1814, 
but a copy or synopsis must have been 
included in the regular reports of the 
Commissioners to the Lords of the 
; Treasury. The published Calendar of 
Treasury Papers already comes down to 
the year 1745, and we must have a little 
patience until it comes down to 1774. It 
may happen that Governor Eden's miss- 
ing account of what he calls "that atro- 
cious act" also found its way to the 
Lords of the Treasury, and may yet find 
its way to the light— although the mass 
of evidence already accumulated is so 
crushing that it would seem superpon- 
derous to pile Pellon upon Ossa. 

Baltimore, June 15, 


At a meeting of the committee of ob- 
ncrvation for Anne Arundel County, held 
at Mr. Uaac Mrllarifa, the 10th Inst., 
were present 43 niembers. , 

It being moved that a paper printed ii^ 
the Public Ledger of the Ith of last 
January, Intltled "Facta relative to the 
Riot at AnnapolU in Maryland" be read, 
and the motion being seconded, the 
paper aforesaid was read accordingly 
by the clerk: 

On motion, renolveil. That the said 
paper be reprinted in tlie Maryland 

2. Resolred vnanlmou«lv. That the said 
paper contains a false, scandalous, and 
malicious narrative of facts invented by 
the autlior, or so disguised, and misrep- 
resented, that when they border upon 
truth, and even seem to assume its sem- 
blance, they are devoid of Its reality. 

3. Resolved unaiumously. That the AU- 
THOR of the said paper has designedly 
injured, against the conviction of his 
own conscience, the characters of the 
gentlemen mentioned and alluded to In 
his publication, gentlemen of approved 
worth: that he has cast unjust and in- 
vidious aspersions on a great number of' 
very respectable inhabitants of this and 
two adjoining Counties, by represetiting 
them as a lawless mob, ignorant of ttieir 
Interests, or too lazy to be at the trouble 
of investigating them. 

4. Remhed uiianimouslii, That the AU- 
THOR has manifested an inveterate 
enmity to the liberties of this province 
In particular, and of British America la,^ 
general, by insinuating the necessity o^. 
Introducing a military and mercenary, 
force to support the civil government,.^ 
and to secure obedience to the laws or 
this colony: That, by a suggestion so 
false and so malicious, he has inadver- 
tently discovered his political opinion, 
that these colonies ought, and Ills secret 
wish that they may be forced to submit 
to the arbitrary decrees of a despotic 
ministry and a servile parliament. 

ISAAC McHARD, Clk. Com. 



^ .' ^6(> 


To the Editor of The NewS: 

"There's a divinity that shapes our 
ends, rough-hew them how we will." 
When the Committee of Observation for 
Anne Arundel County republished the 
letter of "Americanus" with the object 
of denouncing its writer— as set forth 
in your columns of 30th May and 'th 
July— It unwittingly made itself the con- 
servator of important historical evi- 
dence. For be it known that a copy of 
the London Public Ledger of January 4, 
1775, in which the letter originally ap- 
peared, has been sought, thus far un- 
successfully, throughout Great Britain 
and the United States. Doubtless the 
letter produced a profound Impression 
on both sides of the water; and on this 
Bide so affected the status of the Com- 
mittee that public opinion demanded a 
reply, despite "some difficulty In putting 
this affair In print." There can be no 
other explanation of the brutum fulmen 
which finally fell from its authority, and 
which prompts us to inquire who was 
the man that "fluttered your Volscl In 

Caleb Evans, D. D. (1737-1791). was a 
Baptist minister, a native of Bristol, 
England, who was at one time principal 
of the Baptist College of that place. He 
was the author of a number of pub- 
lished sermons and other pamphlets, in- 
cluding several disquisitions on the po- 
litical rights of his fellow-subjects In 
America, of which he was a sturdy and 
able defender. Of these papers the most 
effective was a letter addressed in 1775 
to Rev. John Wesley, In refutation of 
the latter's "Calm Address to the Amer- 
ican Colonies," the first edition having 
appeared under the signature of "Amer- 
icanus" and the second under his own 
name of Caleb Evans. If the reader will 
take the trouble to compare the leading 
paragraph of the Ledger letter with 
Pages 19 and 20 of the Wesley letter, he 
win find In the coincidence of topic and 
treatment Internal evidence of the one 
authorship of the two papers. For fur- 
ther proof of the Identity of "Ameri- 
canus" with Caleb Evans attention is 
called to the accompanying communica- 
tions from the Library of Congress and 
the British Museum. 

Caleb Evans was alike Intolerant of 
the violation of the liberties of the peo- 
ple by the Government and the violation 
of the liberties of the individual by the 
people, and he was quite consistent in 
reprobating the mob who maue Mr. 
Stewart the target of a brutal tyranny. 
In his Wesley letter he espouses such 
sentiments as these: 

"I am equally afraid of being misled 
"in the mists that are raised by violence 
"or interest on either side of the ques- 
"tlon. I contend not for men's prej- 
"udlces. It Is the rights of my fellow- 
"subjects in America that I only mean 
"to defend." 

And let us note what is said of hlra In 
KIch's "Blbliotheca Americana Nova," 

"Mr. Evans Is a lively and sensible 
"advocate of the freedom of the Colo- 
"nles, a spirited controvertlst, and a 
"zealous asserter of those liberal and 
"noble principles to which we are In- 
"debted for the glorious revolution." 

This Is the man whom the Committee 
of Observation rashly accused of "an 
"Inveterate enmity to the liberties of 
"this province in particular and of Brit- 
"Ish America in general." 

We rightly honor John Wesley and 
Samuel Johnson for the good they have 
done to the world, but let us not forget 
that while they were upholding a des- 
potic king and a servile Ministry in the 
suppression of our liberties there was 
in all Great Britain no braver or better 
friend of British America than Caleb 
Evans. He received his degree of D. D. 
from Providence University, Rhode Is- 
land, In 1789. 


Baltimore, July 11. 

Library of Congress, 
Washington, June 24, 1905. 
Dear Sir— In response to your letter of 
recent date, the Librarian takes pleas- 
ure in sending you the inclosed memo- 
randum furnished by the chief bibliog- 
rapher. Very truly yours. 

ALLEN R. BOYD, Secretary. 
Mcmoramlum.—'Vhe Public Ledger re- 
ferred to in this letter Is probably the 
newspaper of that name published in 
London. As the Library does not con- 
tain the files of the paper for that date, 
1775, we cannot verify this. It is very 
likely that "Americanus" was Caleb 
Evans of Bristol, England, who pub- 
lished a work over this signature in 1775 
entitled "Letter to Rev. J. Wesley, oc- 
casioned by his 'Calm Address to the 
American Colonies,' Bristol, 1175." 

Chief Bibliographer. 
Mr. Richard D. Fisher, 
1420 Park Ave., Baltimore, Md. 

Department of Printed Books, 
British Museum, 
London, W. C, 15 Feb., 1906. 

Dear Sir— I regret not to be able to 
give any satisfactory answer to your 
letter of the 3d February. It is the "fact 
that the Museum set of the PubUc 
Ledger Is very defective, and does not 
contain the number for 4 January, 1776, 
and I cannot suggest the name of any 
library where a more complete set is 
likely to be found. 

As to the Identity of "Americanus," It 
seems reasonable to assume. In the ab- 
sence of any evidence to the contrary, 
that the name designated the same per- 
son in both cases, and that Caleb Evans 
was the author of the letter in the Pub- 
lic Ledger as well as of the reply to 
Wesley. Tours faithfully, 


R. D. Fisher, Esq. 


VIII. '; 

To the Editor of The News: 

We have not quite exhausted the Penn-^ 
sylvanla Magazine of History and Blogpi 
raphy, heretofore mentioned as amon|^ 
the flies of the Maryland Historical So.w 
clety. On Page 253 of Vol. XXV. Is tcj 
be found a letter written by Thomas. 
Ringgold of Chestertown, Md., under 
the date of October 25, 1774, to his father- 
in-law, Samuel Galloway of Tulip Hill, 
Anne Arundel county, Md., who was at 
the time on a visit to Philadelphia. A | 
copy of this letter is subjoined. Not- 
withstanding the writer's avowed politi- 
cal inlmicality to Mr. Stewart, he Is too 
honorable to suppress or pervert the 
truth, and he gives us fact after fact 
bearing on the tragedy which was en- 
acted at Annapolis six days previously. 
He sets aside the falsified account of the 
local newspaper, the Gazette. He shows 
how Williams, the shipper of the tea at 
London, deceived the captain of the brlg- 
antlne by smuggling It on board. He ac- 
quits Mr. Stewart of all Interest in the 
importation. He states that the vessel 
was burned against the will of the ma- 
jority. He frankly confesses that Mrs. 
Stewart "was then In Labor," and that 
the husband of her bosom and father of 
her babe scantly escaped the vile defile- 
ment and brutal abuse of his person. 

It has been remarked of him who "was 
not of an age but for all time" that he 
has provided In his writings a formula 
for every contingency. Let us see what 
provision he has made tor the recurrence 
of the 19th day of October, 1774. We 
turn to "King John" ill., 1, and we read 
as follows; 

The yearly course that brings this day aboBt 
Shall neyer aee it but a holyday. 

A wicked day, and not a holyday! 

What hath this day deserved? what hatB It 

That It lu golden letters should be set. 
Among the high tides, in the kalendar? 
Nay. rather, turn this day out of the week; { 
This day of shame, oppression, perjury; 1 

Or, If It must stand still, let wires with child 
Prey that their burdens may not fall this day! 


1 Baltimore, July iO, 1906. 


Chester Town, Maryland, 25th Oct., 1774. 

Dear Sir 

I have the pleasure to tell you that 
! we reached home yesterday very well 
and found all so here. 

You have no doubt an Annapolis Paper 
giving an Acct. of the Burning of An- 
thony Stewarts Vessell. As the account 
does not satisfactorily Justify the vio- 
lence I win shortly tell you how It hap- 
pen' d as I have it from People at Annap- 
olis. Upon the Arrival Oil the Vessel It 
was made known that the Tea was on 
board. Tom Williams who Is now In 
England had It put up In Blankets and 
the Captain declared he did not know It 
was In the. Vessel until his Papers were 
put Into his Hands at Gravesend. Mr. 
Stewart had It seems no Interest In the 
Tea nor had he any Goods as was re- 
ported and the people would have been 
satisfied even with the Tea's being 
stored without paying the Duty. But 
Anto Stewart obstinately went and paid 
it & contrary to the advice of all his 
Friends. This Incensed the people and a 
great number came in from all parts 
of the Country and nothing less than 
tarring & feathering would satisfy them. 
This they were diverted from by the In- 
fluence of Barrister Carrol & others In 
pity to Mrs. Stewart who was then in 
Labor. Anty. then proposed to attone 
for his offence by having the Tea burnt 
on his own loss. This was not thought 
sufficient and it was put to vote whether 
or not the Ship should be burnt. A Ma- 
jority determined she should not but 
many appearing discontented old Mr, 
Dick Insisted that In order to give gen- 
eral satisfaction which he thoiight was 
due to the people that the Vessel too 
should be hnrnt Sh« wm accordingly 



BV;,fiV-' .; ■ ■'^Jfl'''*''';, .' '•'* 



connltted to the Flames. From the whole 
of Mr. Stewart's conduct I have no 
dovibt but he lias premeditated the Ex- 
ploit to endear himself to th^ Ministry 
and I am glad the people have shown so 
much spirit. We shall be glad to hear 
from you by the post and with our best 
I am dear sir, 

Trs. most affectt. 



To the Editor of The News: 

In the library of the Maryland His- 
torical Society there is a most interest- 
ing volume, which, though not so well 
known as it should be, is not altogether 
rare, inasmuch as it Is to be found in a 
few other libraries of this city, public 
and private. It bears the title: 

"Letters From America, Historical 
and Descriptive. Comprising Occurrences 
From 1769 to 1777; by William Eddls.Late 
Surveyor of the Customs, etc., at An- 
napolis, in Mai-yland; London; Printed 
for the Author; 1792." 

Of this scries of letters. No. XVIII., 
bearing the date of October 26, 1774, con- 
tains a narrative of the Incendiarism of 
the Peggy Stewart, which Is reproduced 
in full text, as follows. The high char- 
acter of the accomplished writer en- 
titles him to the most respectful hear- 

Baltimore, Aug. 3, 1905. 

(From Letter No. XVIII., dated Annap- 
olis, October 26, 1774.) 
A serious transaction took place, a few 
days since, in this city. The affair is 
partially represented in the Maryland 
Gazette. I attended the whole progress 
of the business, and was active in my 
exertions to prevent the extremities to 
which some frantic zealots proceeded. 

On Saturday the fifteenth instant, the 
brig Peggy, Stewart, arrived from Lon- 
don with servants, and an inconsiderable 
quantity of goods, among which were 
seventeen packages, containing two 
thousand, three hundred, and twenty 
pounds of tea, consigned to Thomas 
Charles Williams and company, mer- 
chants, in Annapolis. This intended im- 
portation was immediately discovered, 
and the citizens were summoned to a 
general meeting. On examination it 
appeared, that Messrs. Williams had, on 
this occasion, imported a larger quan- 
tity of that detestable plant, as It Is here 
termed, than by any former opportunity; 
and that Mr. Anthony Stewart, the pro- 
prietor of the vessel, had paid the duties 
thereon; tliough he was not. In any 
shape, conserned in the property. This 
was deemed a submission to the con- 
tested claim of the British Parliament. 
Very severe censures were accordingly 
passed on the parties concerned, and a 
general spirit of resentment appeared to 
predominate. After various modes of 
proceeding had been proposed, and dis- 
cussed, it was determined to appoint a 
committee to attend the vessel, and pre- 
vent the landing of the tea, until the 
sense of the county could be fully col- 
lected. The ensuing Wednesday was ap- 
pointed for that purpose, and proper 
measures were pursued to give the nec- 
essary information. 

Mr. Stewart, apprehensive of the con- 
sequences likely to ensue, with great 
propriety solicited a previous meeting of 
the citizens on the following Monday; 
trusting that, by a timely submission, 
measures might be taken to prevent the 
assembling of so numerous a body as 
were expected to come in from the coun- 
try; from whom he hail much to fear 
■with respect to his person and his prop- 
erty. ■ 

At this meeting It was proposed, by 
the moderate party, that Messrs. Stew- 
art and Williams, who were desirous to 
make atonement for the offence they 
had committed, might be permitted to 
land and burn the tea. In any place that 
should be appointed for that purpose.', 
This motion was, however, strongly op- 
posed by others, who, insisted on mat- 
ters remaining as they were, until the 
time appointed for the county meeting, 
in order that a more public acknowledge- 
iment and satisfaction might be made. 

Mr. Stewart, with a view to moderate 
the resentment which his conduct had 
tmhapplly occasioned, distributed the 
following hand-bill and afBda\it, which 
were also publicly read; but without any 
apparent effect in his favour. 

(Note— With the object of shortening 
the present publication the "handbill" 
and the "affidavit" which Mr. Eddls 
here Inserts will appear in the sequel.— 
R. D. F.) 

On Wednesday, the appearance, agree- 
able to expectation, was numerous; and 
the delegated committee were attended 
iby Messrs. A. Stewart and Williams, who 
acknowledged the impropriety of their 
proceeding; and signed the humiliating 
paper, of which the following is a copy. 
(Note— The "humiliating paper" which 
Mr. Eddis here inserts was printed in 
full In The News of April 5, 1906.— 
R. D. F.) 

Mr. S , on account of what was 

deemed a cheerful and ready compliance 
with an unconstitutional act of the Brit- 
ish legislature, was particularly ob- 
noxious: and though he publicly read 
his recantation, expressed in the most 
submissive and penitential terms, there 
were frantic zealots among the multi- 
tude, who warmly proposed the Amer- 
ican discipline of tarring and feathering. 
Others, with less vindictive spirit,, were 
clamorous for the destruction of the 
brig, which had imported the ^hateful 
commodity: whilst many others, who 
were indeed the more numerous party, 
candidly declared, "that the paper signed 
by the offenders, with their xmextorted 
consent to burn the tea. was a sufficient 
punishment, and satisfaction." But to 
determine this point with certainty. It 
was proposed and assented to, that a 
division should take place on the follow- 
ing question: "Whether the vessel 
should, or should not be destroyed?" 
when it was carried in the negative by 
a considerable majority; the citizens, In 
general, appearing averse to violent 
measures. But as the minority were 
chiefly persons who resided at a distance 
from Annapolis; as some of them had 
great influence in their neighbourhood; 
and intimated a determined resolution 
to proceed to the utmost extremities, 
the instant they could collect sufficient 
numbers to support tiiem, Mr. Stewart 
was induced, from an anxious" desire to 
preserve the public tranquillity, as well 
as to Insure his own personal safety, to 
propose setting fire himself to the ves- 
sel; which being immediately assented 
to. he instantly repaired on board, ac- 
companied by several gentlemen who 
thought it necessary to attend him, and 
having directed her to be run on ground, 
near the wind-mill point, he made a sao- 
rlflce of his valuable property to In- 
temperate zeal and clamour; and in a 
few hours the brig, with lier sails, cord- 
age, and every appurtenance, was ef- 
fectually burnt. 

By comparing the foregoing account 
with the circumstances stated in the 
Maryland Gazette, a manifest differ- 
jcnce appears. Every step that Messrs. 
Stewart and Williams took In this trans- 
action, to the prejudice of their property, 
seems, in that publication, to proceed 
from a voluntary election, unawed and 
unintimidated by the multitude: but I 
need not comment on the absurdity of 
such an opinion. The trutli is, they de- 
stroyed property of great value, to pre- 
vent worse consequences. 





/a (f i 




To the Editor of Thb Nbwb: 

The Eddls narrative of the Incendiar- 
ism of the Peggy Stewart, which was 
reproduced In your Issue of the 6th Inst., 
Is so calmly and judicially set forth as 
to carry conviction to the intelligent and 
equitable mind. As the great aim of 
pseudo-patriotism Is to defeat this enu 
by the perversion of unpalatable truth, 
it need not surprise us that the copy 
^ven In Rldgteley's "Annals of Annap- 
olis," 1841, is guilty of some twenty ex- 
cisions, interpolations and transmuta- 
tions more or less flagrant. For ex- 
ample, the first and last paragraphs of 
the narrator— his essential preface and 
conclusion— are entirely omitted by the 
annalist; In the paragraph preceding 
the last the words "By the advice of 
Charles Carroll, of CarroUton, Esquire, 
and" are wantonly inserted after the 
word "Induced"; and In the handbill 
(which Is yet to be published) Stewart's 
expression "I am sincerely sorry my 
conduct, on this occasion, has been the 
cause of so much uneasiness" Is mali- 
ciously deformed to read "I am sincerely 
sorry ior my conduct on this occasion, 
viMch has been the cause of so much un- 
easiness." It is true that this work Is 
done In a bungling way, but the wrong 
does not stop here. Strange as It roay 
seem, the much-quoted McSherry, In his 
"History of Maryland." 1849, accepts the 
annalist as his authority for his account 
of the Peggy Stewart affair, without tak- 
ilng the tr.oubla to go back to the narra- 
tor, and the result is a second edition of 
misrepresentation, which is the more de- 
ceptive because the more deftly done. 

One would infer from McSherry that 
the Incendiarism was the decree of the 
whole community, whereas Eddls states 
that It was negatived by a considerable 
majority, and was the deed of some 
frantic zealots, chiefly aliens— that Stew- 
art "offered" to destroy the vessel, 
whereas Eddls states that he "was In- 
duced" (and we now know that "In- 
duced" means "led toward" the gal- 
lows)— that Stewart went on board the 
brigantlne accompanied only by the 
Importers of the tea, whereas Eddls 
states that he was accompanied by sev- 
eral gentlemen who thought It neces- 
sary to attend him- and that Stewart 
alone applied the torch, whereas Eddls 
states that they (Messrs. Stewart and 
Williams) destroyed property of great 
value to prevent worse consequences. 

That the Importers of the tea and the 
part owner of the vessel jointly and In- 
voluntarily destroyed their respective 
properties, while the committee of the 
"zealots" stood by— themselves immune— 
to see that the destruction was effectu- 
ally done. Is a well-authenticated and 
significant aspect of the Incendiarism 
which we cannot discuss at present be- 
cause we must confine ourselves to the 
mutations of the Eddls narrative. That 
version is now offset by the McSherry 
perversion as per copy subjoined. When 
we "look here upon this picture' and on 
that, we cannot blame Byron for as- 
serting that "History lies like truth 
and still most truly lies/' .^___„ 

I Baltimore, Aug. 20. 


("History of Maryland," 1849, Pages 

On the 14th of October, the brig Peggy 
Stewart arrived at Annapolis, having In 
Its cargo a few packages of tea con- 
signed to Thomas Williams and Com- 
pany. The duty was paid by Mr. An- 
thony Stewart, the owner of the vessel. 
This submission to the oppressive en- 
actment of Parliament, called forth the 
deepest feeling. A Public meeting was 
held; the owner of the vessel and the 
Messrs. Williams, the consignees. In the 
most humble manner, apologised for 
their offence, and consented to the burn- 
ing of the tea. But the people were de- 
termined to exact a more signal vindi- 
cation of their rights; the easy compli- 
ance of Mr. Stewart with the act, had 
aroused their anger, and threats were 
poured out against his vessel and him- 
self Alarmed at the Impending dan- 
ger Mr. Stewart, by the advice of 
Charles Carroll of CarroUton, to soothe 
the violence of the people and make 
amends for his fault, offered to destroy 
the vessel with his own hand. The 
proposition was accepted; and whilst the 
people gathered in crowds upon the 
shore to witness Its consummation, Mr. 
Stewart accompanied by the consignees, 
went on board the brig, ran her aground 
on Windmill Point, and set fire to her In 
the presence of the multitude.* 

(^-•"Annals of Annapolis." ^ 


To the Editor of The News; 

We come at last to two most im- 
portant documents which Mr. Eddls 
rescued from oblivion by inserting them 
in his narrative of the incendiarism, as 
noted in your issue of August 6 ult. 

Your readers will now have the op- 
portunity of hearing from Mr. Anthony 
Stewart, part owner, and Capt. Richard 
Jackson, master, of the brigantlne Peggy 
Stewart, whose declarations are appended 

Baltimore, Sept. 4. 

To the Gentlemen of the Comm4ttee, 
the Citizens of Annapolis and the in- 
habitants of Ann Arundel County: 

Gentlfimen— Ifind by a handbill thatyou 
j are requested to meet to take into con- 
sideration what is proper to be done 
with the tea, the property of Thomas C, 
Williams & Co., now on board the 
brig Peggy, Stewart, and, finding my con- 
duct censured for having paid the duty 
on that tea to the collector, I take the 
liberty to present a plain narrative of 
the part I have acted therein, and the 
motives by which I was actuated. Deep- 
ly interested as I am In the peace and 
harmony of this country, no man would 
be farther than myself from taking any 
steps to disturb them. I am not In the 
least connected with anything that re- 
lates merely to the Importation; indeed, 
so cautious have I been of infringing in 
the least, any of the resolutions of Amer- 
ica, that I did not order a single farth- 
ing's worth of goods by that vessel, 
though I could have done it on such easy 
terms as to freight, and shipping charges; 
much less should I have thought of or- 
dering any tea, after the disturbance 
which the importation of tliat article 
had occasioned on the continent. When 
the brig arrived, the captain Informed 
me she was very leaky, and that 
the sooner she was unloaded the better. 
I told him to enter his vessel, but not 
the tea. which I found, on enquiry of the 
collector, could not be done. Under these 
circumstances, the brig leaky, and 53 
souls on board, where they had been 
near three months, I thought myself 
bound, both In humanity and prudence, 
to enter the vessel, and leave the desti- 
nation of the tea to the committee. The 
impropriety of securing the duty did not 
then occur to me. neither did I know tiie 
tea would be suffered to be lodged as a 
.security for the payment. I had nothing 
in view but to save the vessel from a 
seizure, and of having an opportunity 
of releasing the pas.sengers from a long 
and disagreeable confinement. The duty 
on the tea has been paid hitherto, both 
in Virginia and Maryland, by every im- 
porter of goods: in this case I am not 
the importer. If I have erred in my part 
of the transaction, I declare, upon my 
honour, it is without the least intention; 
I have Infringed no rules prescribed by 
the general resolutions of this province. 
It happened unluckily, that the tea was 
put on board of Captain Jackson's brig. 
In the manner, as will be seen by the 
annexed afllidavlt; and It can be Incon- 
testlbly proved, the captain refused tak- 
ing tea on board: 

Mr. Wilflams was in London when the 
tea was shipped, and must have known 
that many merchants had refused to 
ship that article. I have only to add, 
that I am sincerely sorry my conduct, 
on this occasion, has been the cause of 
so much uneasiness, and freely submit 
It to your candid consideration. I am, 
gentlemen, your most humble servant, 
Annapolis, Oct. 17, 1774. 



Captain Richard Jackson, master of 
N ■■ brig Peggy Stewart, deposeth and 

That immediately after the landing 
of his cargo in L,ondon, he applied 
for, and obtained a gtmral permit from 
the Custom-house, to receive India awl 
other goods on board for exportation; 
and (as is always customary in such 
cases), gave security, and took an oath 
not to reland the same In any part of 
Great Britain. But having great reason 
to believe any importation of tea would 
be unfavorably received In America, he 
was fully determined and had resolved 
not to receive any on board; and publickly 
on the Change of IjOndon. In the month 
of July, refused to receive tea, which 
was offered to be shipped to Kelly, Lott 
and Co. This deponent further salth that 
by the method- of shipping goods from 
London, tea may be put on board any 
ship without the knowledge of the mas- 
ter. All goods are examined at the 
Custom-house, and sent by the shipper, 
in lighters, on board the ship, with only 
a common bill expressing the parcels, 
and not the quantities contained or the 
qualities of them; these are received by 
the mate of the ship, wlio gives a re- 
ceipt on the lighter-bill, which is again 
returned to the shipper, and the master 
signs his bills of lading at ImiiiIoiI by 
the lighter-bill specifying, the parcels, 
without knowing the contents, and 
clears out the ship at the Custom-house 
with merchandize, without knowing or 
mentioning of what nature. The cockets 
containing the particulars of each par- 
cel, are sent by the officers of the Cus- 
toms at London, to the Custom-house at 
Gravcsend, and there lodged to be called 
for by the captain or master of the ship 
on his passage to sea. In this manner 
the goods shipped In the Peggy Stewart, 
were received on board. And this de- 
ponent further salth that he saw Thomas 
Charles Williams, to whom the tea 
Is consigned, and Amos Hayton, who 
shipped the same, frequently in London, 
neither of whom ever mentioned to him 
their intention of shipping any. That he 
did not know of any tea being on board 
until after he had received his cockets 
at Gravesend, and that he would not 
have received the same had he known 
thereof. RICH. JACKSON. 

Sworn before me this 17th Oct. 1774— 
Phil. Thos. Lee. 



To the Editor of The News: 

On Monday, October 17, 1774, Anthony 
Stewart, anticipating that "he had much 
to fear with respect to his person and 
property" at the hands of some of the 
people who had been convoked for the 
coming Wednesday, put forth in hand- 
bill form what may now be termed his 
preliminary defense, and confirmed it by 
the afBdavlt of the captain of the brlg- 
antlne, Kepublished in your columns of 
the 6th Inst. These two declai-ations, 
which have never been impugned, are 
characterized by a frankness of state- 
ment and a fullness of detail so con- 
vincing and explicit that they cannot 
fail to surprise and enlighten the gen- 
eral reader, who has hitherto been de- 
nied the privilege of their perusal and 
even the knowledge of their existence. 
Is it not a commentary on our boasted 
love of fair play that, at our commem- 
orations in 1904 and 1905, and In the 
newspaper sketches therewith connected, 
the 'audi alteram partem 'was utterly ig- 
nored by the suppression of these two 
pieces of evidence and of all reference 
thereto? Seduced by pseudo-patriotism, 
we dragged from his repose and held up 
to obloquy one whose courage was com- 
mensurate with his humanity, one who 
has been attested by unimpeachable wit- 
nesses as a gentleman of property, a 
merchant of note, a born leader, a 
prominent citizen In all public and char- 
itable affairs, a man of indisputable in- 
tegrity and irreproachable character— 
and we refused him the right to plead 
his own cause. 

As we think of this preliminary de- 
fense and its confirmation we are re- 
minded of the unfulflUed sequel, dis- 
closed by the Chalmers MSS., that 
"Stewart had a vindication ready to be 
printed and promised to be inserted in 
the Maryland Gazette by the printer; 
but Green was threatened with destruc- 
tion to his press If he dared m- Insert 
itr-and Stewart waited on liam and de- 
sired to withdraw It." After outraging 
the liberty, ravaging the property, dese- 
crating the home and terrorizing the 
wife of their victim, the men whom we 
have blindly acclaimed as heroes frus- 
trated the publication of his "vindica- 
tion" by intimidating the press! Verily, 
they had good reason for the suppres- 
sion of the'audi alteram partem! What 
reason have we? 

Baltimore, Sept. 13. 


-'■n (hf Editor of THE News: 

In the NfW York "Magazino of His- 
tory" for March. 190G, may be found an 
article entitled "Letters from Virgmla, 
1774-81," wherein the Peggy Stewart 
tragedy figures in a fragmentary way 
among other Revolutionary events. Ihe 
said article having been contributed by 
Mr A. Francis Steuart of Edinburgh, 
Scotland, I wrote for the full text of 
the matter, and that gentleman has 
courteously favored me tlierewith, as 
will be seen by the annexed extracts 
from tlie letters of Mr. James Parker of 
Norfolk, written in 1774, the manuscript 
copies whereof are to be filed with the 
Maryland Historical Society. -, 

It will be noted that Mr. Parker s In- 
formation is comprehensive, and Is cor- 
rect in all particulars except as to the 
time of the childbirth. We know that 
the threats against the husband began 
on October the 14th, and that the wife be- 
came the mother of the child Wilhelmma 
on the 16th; consequently, when the hus- 
band and father was forced, on the mh, 
to choose between his property and his 
lite under the incentive of a gallows 
erected "opposite her cliamber window, 
the wife and mother was clasping to her 

"distrjioted" bosom a babe of three days 

Mr Parker, recognizing that "affairs 
are bad enough without any addition, 
naturally shrinks from the liorrlble 
"story of the gallows." and is willing 
to leave it in doubt; but his hesitancy 
would be dissipated were he living today 
to read its full corroboration in two re- 
cent Maryland histories from which ex- 
tracts are given below. Both of these 
books are accessible in tho library of 
the Maryland Historical Society. 

Baltimore, Oct. 25, 1906. I 

Note —The previous articles of tht8 
series may be found in The News of 
March 21, April 5, 14, 21, May 30, July i.i 
19, 26, August 6, 23, September 6, and Oc-, 
tober 4, 1906. There is material for an- 
other series. 

Letters of James Parker to Charles 
Steuart Receiver General of Customs In 
British North America. Extracts made 
by A. Francis Steuart, 79 Great King 
I Street, Edinburgh, in whose custody the 
letters are at present; 2, ix., 190G. 

Norfolk, 26 October, 1774.^ 
We have also news from Annapolis 
that a Brig belonging to our friend An- 
thony Stewart has arrived trom London 
with goods shipped by Mr. Russel,. 
amongst which was some tea. Letters' 
were soon wrote to different committees 
of correspondence & a number collected 
who took out all but the tea & set the 
vessel afire & burnt her up. This we 
have by a ship carpenter from the place 
who says he was present & f'om^'^f 
complexion of the times I do not doubt 

the truth of it. 

Novmr, 1. 

There is a particular account of the 
Destruction of Mr. Stewart's Brige in 
the Maryland paper, by which it appears 
he consented to all that was done but 
by a Gentn from thence on whom 1 can 
depend, I am informed that about two 
i hours before the , mob assembled Mrs. 
Stewart was delivered of a child, they 
gathered round the house and erected a 
Igallows opposite her Chamber window 
and in terms which distracted h'-r com- 
manded her husband that ho inight go 
& burn his vessel or be hanged, his 
Father in Law Mr. Deck seeing how 
matters were going, went out and gave 
orders to burn her. , 

Norfolk 5 Ifov. I,i4. 

It Is said the story of the gallows in 
lAnthony Stewart's affair was not trew. 
ibut everything else. Some hideed still 
mention it. I wish howev* to write 
vou nothing that will admit of Doubt. 
Affairs are bad enougli witlinui any ad- 
dition. ' 



"Stpwart at first was boM and defiant. 
By way of Intimidation a gallows was 
erected in I'ront of his /lOuse. Major 
Warfleld then said: 'Mr,' Stewart, Ave 
have come to offer you, the choice of 
two propusilions: You must either go 
with us and Are your own vessel or hang 
by the halter before your door.' " 
(From Warlield's "Founders of Anne 

Arundel and Howard, Counties," 1305, 

Page 445.) 

"They, under the leadership of Major 
Charles Alexander Warfield, a young 
physician, commanding the Whig" Club 
of Howard District, in Anne Arundel 
County, a military organization, re- 
paired to Stewart's residence on Hanover 
Street, Annapolis, and erected a gallows 
in front of his house. Steuart was most 
Indignant. He came out upon his front 
porch, and, denouncing the company as 
rebels, in a vehement speech threatened 
them with the vengeance of the King. 
Major Warfield, sitting upon his horse, 
waited in silence imtil Stewart had fin- 
ished his protest and threat, and then, 
in a tone that has rung down the corri- 
dors of Maryland's history in patriotic 
empliasis, said, as he pointed ills finger 
to the gallows: 'BURN OR HANG.' " 
(From Riley's "History of the General 

Assembly of Maryland," 1905, Page 302.) 



Teach Yonng; People Of Slarylanil 

Heroic Incidents From Statc'^s 

History, He Snys. 

To the Editor of The News: 

In the Maryland Historical Society's 
collection of newspaper clippings there is 
an editorial from the Baltimore American 
of October 19, 1874, as per copy annexed, 
by republisliing which you will render a 
service to parents, guardians and teach- 
ers In general and to the teachers of our 
public schools in particular. On that in- 
felicitous date the commemoration of the 
deplorable Peggy Stewart affair was 
pseudo-patriotically inaugurated, after a 
century of significant silence! Our fore- 
fathers were too prudent to refociUate 
an event which was both a blunder and 
a crime. They realized that a few of 
their number had disgraced the cause of 
liberty by subjecting manhood, childbed 
and property to the tyranny of outlawry, 
and their prolonged reticence manifested 
the hope that time would blot the tale 
of shame from the calendar of story. 
Well were It for the good name of Mary- 
land had we inherited their prudence! 

It is not yet too late, for those of us 
who recognize our Inevitable responsi- 
bility for the future of "the youth of 
America" to gather wisdom from the 
warning of this discriminative and dis- 
passionate editorial. Bearing in mind 
that "history Is philosophy teaching by 
examples," let us put away pseudo- 
patriotism. When we seek to uphold our 
Revolutionary sires to the admiration 
and emulation of their posterity, "let us 
celebrate those incidents that show the 
heroic side of their character rather than 
those which illustrate the spirit of intol- 
erance and violence that so frequently 
cropped out during the struggle for In- 
dependence."! If we would surely pro- 
vide for our young people a career of 
usefulness and self-respect, of honor and 
patriotism, in their coming citizenship, 
■ we must impress upon them the Inter- 
dependence of obligation and privilege. 
I We must instruct them that "Liberty Is 
the union of law and freedom; law with- 
out freedom Is bondage; freedom without 
law Is license,' but freedom regulated by 
law— this, and this alone— is Liberty." 

Baltimore, Oct. 2. 

[Baltimore American, Mondar, Oct. in. 1874.] 
The burning of the brig Peggy Stewart 
in Annapolis harbor on the 19th of Octo- 
ber, 1774, although mentioned by the his- 
torian^ of the Revolution, has not here- 
tofore been classed with those heroic ac- 
tions that illustrated the patriotism and 
courage of the colonists in resisting the 
unjust demands of Great Britain. We do 
not know whether this was a mere over- 
sight on the part of the men who wrote 
out the narrative of events after the pas- 
sions aroused by the struggle for inde- 
pendence had subsided, or whether there 
was something connected with the Inci- 
dent that prevented It from becoming a 
popular tradition. We shall give a brief 
account of the affair, collated from the 
files of the Maryland Gazette, and other 
sources equally authentic, and if the 
American people detect anything in this 
account . of the burning of the Peggry 
Stewart that Is not compatible with their 
Ideas of right and Justice, perhaps they 
will understand why the story has been 
allowed to slumber In old newspapers and 
musty books until the Centennial excite- 
ment brought It Into light. 

AVe need not reifer to the action of the 
colonies In resisting the payment of du- 
ties on importations from the mother 
country, and the determination of the 
Maryland colony especially to pay no du- 
ties on tea. These are matters with 
which all who have read our revolution- 
ary history are entirely familiar. There 
were "Committees of Safetj'" who were 
charged with keeping up tho spirit of 
resistance. Our revolutionary fathers and 
mothers, like ourselves, were fond of tea, 
land the merchants of those days had no 
scruples about importing such commodi- 
ties as were in active demand, in spite 
of the non-Importation resolutions. The 
Williams Brothers, in Annapolis, had Im- 
ported and sold tea up to May, 1774, with- 
out opposition from their fellow-citizens. 
About this time one of the brothers went 
to London, and in the month of July 
some two thousand pounds of tea were 
purchased In that city and put on board 
the brig Peggj- Stewart, a vessel owned 
by Andrew Stewart of Annapolis. There 
is some dispute as to whether this tea 
was purchased by Mr. Williams himself 
or was ordered by his brothers during 
his absence and purchased by their IjOH- 
don agent. When the ship arrived at 
Annapolis, and It became known that she 
had a ton of tea on board, there -was 
much excitement, and the "Committee of 
Safety" called a general meeting of the 
people, to be held on Wednesday, October 
19th, to determine what action should be 
taken in the matter. The Peggj' Stewart 
had about sixty Immigrants on board, and 
in order to permit the vessel to be en- 
tered at the Custom-house and to alio* 
the passengers to land, Mr. Stewart, her 
owner, paid the duty on the tea, although 
he had no interest whatever In the Im- 
portation except the claim against the 
Williams Brothers for the money thus 
advanced In paying Custom-house fees. 
As far as can be learned from the cotem- 
Iporaneous accounts of the affair, the con- 
'duct of Mr. Stewart dictated by the 
best of motives and with the sole inten- 
tion of relieving the people on board 
(principally "servants") from further in- 
convenience. He certainly had no desire 
to raise the storm which was scarcely 
appeased by the destruction of his ship. 

The Messrs. Williams, to whom the tea 
was consigned, and Mr. Stewart, the 
owner of the ship, became alarmed at 
the mutterlngs of the, popular wrath, 
which they feared might culminate ia 
the destruction of their property, andj 
possibly In violence Against their persons'. 
They dreaded an assemblage of people 
from the country districts, against whose 
indignation their high character and per- 
sonal worth would avail nothing, andf 
were anxious that the matter should b* 
disposed of before the day of the general 
meeting. Four members of the "Com- 
mittee of Safety," Including Charles Car- 
, roll of CarroUton, happened to be in An-', 
Inapolis on the 14th of October, and at 
the suggestion of Mr. Stewart and the 
I Messrs. Williams a meeting of the com- 
mittee was held at three o'clock In the 
afternoon, at which the Interested parties 
made a full statement of the circun*-, 
stances attending the importation of the 
tea and the payment of duties thereon. 
They proposed to make whatever dispo- 
sition of the tea the committee shoul* 
direct. The committee did not care tW 
take the responsibility of acting in th* 
matter, and It was referred to a general 
meeting of the citizens of Annapollsjij 
which was held in the "playhouse" o^ 
the same evening. At this meeting it wa* 
determined that the tea should not V4 
landed, and a committee of twelve cltW 
zens was appointed to surpervise the un^ 
loading of the remainder of the oargp, 
Charles Carroll proposed to Mr. Stewart 
and the Messrs, Williams thai' they should 
land the tea themselves and burn it in 
the presence of the citizens, and to tbl% 
suggestion they readily assented; butt 
Mr. Mathlas Hammond, another mcmbeil 
of the committee, was anxious to make 
as much out of the affair as possible, and 
wotild not agree to anythi ? except the 



humiliation of the Importers in the pres- 
ence of a great assembly of the people. 
We see Mr. Carroll quoted as advising 
the burning of the ship, but we think 
that this is a mistake. Mr. Carroll be- 
longed to the moderate party, who de- 
sired to see tlie non-importation resolu- 
tions enforced, but who had no desire to 
subject reputable citizens to Insult. Ham- 
mond, however, distributed handbills far 
and wide, calling upon the people to come 
to Annapolis on Wedne.sday. the IDth of 
October. But even in this assembly there 
was a large majority of moderate men 
who deprecated violence, and the parti- 
sans who wanted to proceed to extreme 
measures were outvoted wlienever a 
"division" was called. It is needless to 
say that the men of influence and char- 
acter who afterwards became conspicu- 
ous in the patriot cause were on the 
moderate side. Tlie offer to burn the tea 
was deemed satisfactory, and a large 
majority decided that this was sufficient 
reparation for the wrong committed by 
the importers. Mr. Stewart, who seemed 
to fear for his life from the time the 
trouble first began, read the very humil- 
iating paper (published in another col- 
umn), but this did not appease the hot- 
headed young men from the country. 
After the majority had passed upon the 
matter they got up a dissenting party 
and acted in such a temper that Mr. 
Stewart, as a last resort, proposed to 
burn his ship. A vote was taken on this 
proposition, and it was decided in the 
negative by a large majority. But the 
rough fellows who were determined on 
violence paid no attention to the counsels 
of older and wiser heads, and, coerced 
by threats of "tar and feathers," Mr. 
Stewart directed the vessel to be run 
aground and fired, which was accord- 
ingly done. And this is the story of the 
Peggy Stewart. 

Whether the destruction of this ship is 
an event that illustrates the highest vir- 
tue in the men concerned in it we shall 
not undertake to say. It certainly was 
not approved by those who afterwards 
gave dignity and weight to the revolu- 
tionary movement. Viewed apart from 
the patriotic spirit of resistance to the 
acts of the British Parliament which 
were deemed oppressive, this transaction 
cannot be commended. Perhaps it is 
worthy of being celebrated once in a 
hundred years, but we should not like to 
be compelled to repeat the story at each 
recurring anniversary. There is nothing 
in it that is calculated to give the youth 
of America a higher respect for the law 
and larger toleration for difference of 
opinion. Our revolutionary fathers had . 
a great deal of rough work to do. and 
they sometimes did It in a very rough 
way. Let us celebrate ftiose Incidents 
that show the heroic side of their char- 
acters rather than those which illustrate 
the spirit of intolerance and violence that 
so frequently cropped out during the / 
struggle for Independence. 


V€?^-i^c ^ 

^1 2.^ 



In the LilJrary of the MaryQajid Historical Society there 
is a little volume, published in 1895, "bearing the title 
"Life and Times of the Rev. Walter Dulany Addison," which 
gives us interesting glimpses of political, ecclesiastical 
and social conditions in Maryland during the days of our 
forefathers. This memoir is "based largely on ffjnily records 
and letters, which still eyist in their original MSS., and 
among these letters may he found, on pages 45-45 of the 
volume, one which was written to Walter Dulany, by his 
brother Grafton Dulany, from Annapolis, immediately after 
the Peggy Stewart affair of October 39, 1774, as shown by the 
copy hereto apj^ended. 

In the fraternal frankness of this "plain, brief narra- 
tion" Mr. Dulany delivers a round tinvaraished tale which 
commends itself to our full acceptance. Its most scathing 
paragraph is that v/hich introduces the quaternion of pseudo. 
patriots whose names are curtailed. T^ese are the gentry 
of whom v/e heard from the Chalmers MSS., as published in 
The News of April 5, 1906, to wit: 

"Stewart had a vindication ready to be printed, 
"and promised to be inserted in the Maryland Gazette 
"by the printer, but Green vms threatened with destruction 
"to his Press if he dared insert it - and Stewart waited 
"upon and desired to withdraw it." 

When we note how the one account corroborates the other, 
and how the 19th of October 1774 v/as disgraced by the tyranni- 
cal suppression 

it:^.- ■.'■ vjalooa iisox. 

7;j \ri>^ iJivi 9riv fxl 

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cal suppression of personal access to the press and of the 
press itself, there comes to mind the old saying of the Vicar 
of Croydon "We must root out printing or printing will root 
out us"; and every lover of freedom may well join with 
Mr. Dulany in the indignant exclajnation "If this is Liberty 
and this America my motto shall not "be Lihe rtas et Uatale 
Solum." .-^'/"' . <:~N 


Baltimore, ^ ^ a^ JL<^. 1908. 

d.fiv. nio[, i.idw v,j3iii iuobea'i :9Vo£ ^^Tsve ijn..- •"' 

. ,; jj ■, u' i ^; . .; 

e ; r.u d 

iTTx srCi- nx yna£i/rt ,i\j 

-■-■-i ^1., 'J 







Annapolis, Oct. 1774. 

C Dear Watt: 

XV m liTo thing can I think, talk, hear or write of but 
the Tumults in this town occasioned hy the Tea. This is 
the 3rd letter I have v^rrote on the same Topic. A plain, 
brief narration without any remarks is what you would 

Veil, Anthony Stewart's brig arrived here the other 
day, with a very large quantity of tea, imported by 
Willisjns according to orders sent before any association 
at all in this Province. 

Stewart (as he says) accordinc to the practice here 
and in Virginia entered his Vessel and paid the Duty upon 
the Tea. The people of the Town were very much incensed 
and resolved unanimously the Tea should not be landed, 
but in this important affair it vms thought proper to call 
in the Coun-ty that they might proceed with the best ad- 
vice. Notice was given accordingly and yesterday they 
came to Town inflamed to the highest Degree determined 
to tar and feather Stewart and bum his Brig. 

Upon the meeting they became cooler and they re- 
solved to burn only the Tea at the expense of Stewart and 
Wins and pardon them on their making concessions. Their 
acknowledgments were received, and a Vote put whether or 
not the Brig should be burned - carryed in the negative 
by a great Majority - notwithstanding this - as there was 
a parcel of people who came resolved to do mischief, it 
was tho't prudent to sacrifice the Brig to appease them 
ana keep them from something of more value. 

Thinking Mr. Stewart might have the Hardiness to 
endeavor to vindicate his character in the Gazette, four 
Blackguards, Capt. H. , Dr. S., P.. H. and R. chief Coxcomb 
Of our town, went to Mr. Stewart and made him bind him- 
self not to publish an account of his conduct - by way of 
Apology, which he had set about in Hand Bills - and fore- 
warned the printer from publishing anything in his favor 
at his peril. 

X J^^ .V^^^ ^^ Liberty and this America my motto shall 
not be 'Libert as et ITatale Solimi.* 

Yrs Affect ly 


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. II» 

In the Maryland Historica] Society's set of Sanderson's 
"Signers of the Declaration" (7 toIs. 2820-1827), the biog- 
raphy of Charles Carroll of Carrollton "bears a foot-note 
pencilled and signed "by the late John H. B. Latrobe under the 
date of Baltimore April 24, 1836, which reads as follows: 

"The foregoing "biographical sketch v/as written "by 
"me in 1826, from raemoranda (autograph) furnished "by Mr. 
"Carroll and from nxnaerous conversations. When finished, 
"I read it to him, and his remark, ver"batim, was 'Well Mr. 
"Latrobe, you have certainly made me out a much greater man 
"than I ever fancied myself to be; and yet, really, I hard- 
ily think that the facts you have stated are otherwise 
"than strictly true.' He was then I think in his 90th 
"year, cheerful, vivacious even, and carefully attentive 
"to his business matters." 

Thus this "sketch", being virtually an autobiography, comes 
into the category of contemporary chronicles, and the reader 
will find appended hereto all the story of the Peggy Stewart 
affair as given by Mr. Carroll. 

We may safely assume that Mr. Carroll was in the privacy 
and propriety of the backgroujid when Mr. Stewart's friends ap- 
plied to him to protect that gentleman, for whom, by the way, 
he expresses his "personal esteem," while sending him his ad- 
vice to burn his vessel and, just here, we may take note 

that Mr. Stewart did not act on this advice, for it is cold- 
bloodedly certified by our tviro most recent historians* that 
he was defiant and threatening \«)til the gallows brought 

*Warfaeld and Riley. 



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him to terms. There is nothing in Mr. Carroll's story to 
indicate that he came into Immediate intercourse with Mr. 
Stewart, or v/ith any of Mr. Stewart's outragers, or that he 
eren appeared in p ublic , on the 19th of Octoher 1774; nor is 
there such indication in any known contemporary narratlre. 
The men, whether active or passive, who are identified hy 
the other chroniclers as features of the day, are fully 

comprised in the following summary, viz: Stephen , 

Walter Bowie, Charles Cari^oll (Barrister), Jos. Coijvman, 
Mr. Davison, John Deaver, Mr. Dick, Mordecai Gist, Mathias 
Hammond, Rezin Hammond, T. Hammond, G. Hopkins, Ephraim 
Howard, Mr. Quyn, Charles Ridgely, Anthony Stewart, Charles 
Wallace, Dr. Warfield, James Williams and Joseph Williams, 
twenty in all. Besides these, four men are alluded to 
whose names are suppressed, "but v/hose initials are given 
as Capt. H. , Dr. S.^R. H. and R. -Charles Carroll of Carroll- 
ton is not once referred to, directly or indirectly; while 
Charles Carroll (Barrister) is mentioned repeatedly and con- 
spicuovsly, ar)d seems to have done what one man could do 
in "behalf of decency and humanity. So far as Charles Carroll 
of Carrollton was concerned, it is conceivahle that he real- 
ized the incendiary temper of the mot, and sent word to 
Mr. Stewart that nothing could protect him save the sacri- 
fice of his property; hut, in view of his character, and in 
further view of his expressed "wish to prevent violence", 
it is utterly inconceivahle that he was art and part in a 



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nov :! a£--}l i »!>& fa 9:1.8 a&iiisa o^ouv; 

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i' I -^7 


violence which culminated in the menaced murder of an 
overwhelmed hushand, the harrowing distress of his puerperal 
wife, and the wanton arson of his harmless property. 

This "brings us to the Court House picture of "The Burn- 
ing of the Peggy Stewart." How comes it that Charles Carroll 
of Carrol !! ton is there placed in the foreground of the concourse? 
Hfhat place has he there at all? Has he, perchance, "been con- 
fused with Ciiarles Carroll (Barrister)? Or is there some au- 
thority for his presence which is yet to "be hrought forth? 
If such authority there he, its production is imperatively de- 
manded; in the light of the evidence we now possess, this 
picture is an affront to the memory of "the last of the signers." 

Baltimore, c CL^<^ ^ d ^ 1908. 

■-■1 '."^ ursr^^^is 

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OOf.L ,«-io.--J:.ti:,PS 

\' ' -^7 


(Prom Sanderson's "Lives," Vol. VII. , pages 248-9.) 

When the "brig Peggy Stewart imported into Annapolis a 
quantity of tea, (an article forbidden lay the resolution of 
the delegates of Maryland, JUne t-v/enty-second, 1774,) the irri- 
tated populace, then collected from the neighboring counties at 
the provincial court, threatened personal violence to the master 
and consignees of the vessel, as v/ell as destrviction to the 
cargo. The comioittee of delegates imjnediately met, and ap- 
pointed a suh-committee to superintend the unloading of the 
vessel, and to see that the prohibited article wr:,s not landed. 
Still the excitement of popular feeling continued unabated, 
and the friends of Mr. Anthony Stewart, the owner of the 
vessel, applied to Mr. Carroll, as one most able to protect 
him from violence. Mr. Carroll's advice was concise and 
determined. "It will not do, gentlemen, to export the tea 
to Europe or the West Indies. Its importation, contrary 
to the known regulations of the convention, is an offence 
for which the people will not be so easily satisfied; and 
whatever may be my personal esteem for Mr. Stewart, and 
my wish to prevent violence, it will not be in my power 
to protect him, unless he consents to pursue a more de- 
cisive course of conduct. My advice is, that he set fire 
to the vessel, and burn her, together virith the tea that she 
contains, to the water's edge." The applicants paused for 
a moment; but they saw no alternative, and Stewart, appearing 
iffiiaediately before the committee, offered to do v/hat 
Mr. Carroll had proposed. In a few hours after-wards, the 
brigantine Peggy Stewart, with her sails set, and her colours 
flying, was enveloped in flames, and the immense crowd 
collected on the shores of the harbour, acknowledged the 
sufficiency of the satisfaction. 

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In No. II of this Series, dated May 30th 1908, inquiry 
was made for any evidence justifying the interpolation of 
Charles Carroll of Garrollton in the Court House picture of 
the burning of the Peggy Stewart. Let us see if vve can help 
along the inquiry. 

The said picture has heen reproduced, panegyrized and 
heralded abroad in a "book, published in 1905, which combines 
all the excellence of photographic and typographic art, and 
which bears on its title-page the imprint "Issued by the 
Municipal Art Society of Baltimore." Its narrative of the 
event thus re- commemorated is founded on an isolated "old 
clipping" v/hich (as stated on page 50 of this picture-beck) 
"was published in the Balti more Pat riot , shortly after the 
death of Dr. Warfield, January 29th, 1813," and v;hich connects 
Charles Carroll of Garrollton with the Peggy Stewart aftfair 
through the medium of an Article contained' "in the Sale m 
Registe r of September 20th." That Article v;e must have. It 
will no longer serve to write historj^^ after the manner of 
McSherry. In this day of original research, we expect to 
lay hand on every authority quoted. It now devolves en The 
Municipal Art Society to proauce the issue of the Baltimore 
Patr iot in which the "old clipping" was published, ana thus 
lead us to the issue of the Saiem Register which contained 
the Article on Charles Carroll of Garrollton. 

It may here be mentioned that the picture-book copy of 


^C^i;uprri ,3091 ri*0£ ^-sM b^f&h ,ga.t-X93 airit "to ILoT'T rrl 

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qLbd asio aw 1i 5»aM a^j J'al .iTjbwaJ'3 ^aga^ arit to gnimi/cf ari^ 

bna bssii.-XY.'Soasq ,i)^ouJ30^q^'l nsacf sad aiu^toiq faisa srfT 

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<-n- , J■^i5 oiriq^isogy.^ oirfqjBigotoxfq to DonsIIaoxd aril II« 

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ms I^S arii' nx" banx.itnoo alottiA n^ to rrruxbaxn ailt ^[3.'J0^riJ■ 

tl .Dvj:r[ t3ir.f; sv/ sIoitTA t^riT ".r'''0:? •Taa'nTa.tqsS to Tata i-^aH 

to tsrin-ism ont -i^j-t-o "lort-airf attiM o./ avTas Ta^nol on Iliw 

ut toaqxs 9\v ,rloia3Soi L^inL-gi-to to -csi) axxfit nl ,^:^^oxf3oM 

&"iv>.ui_j_I«JcL arit to ai/a^i sJiiJ" aojjuoiq «jj" -[J-ixouri snA lisqioinuM 
auxft cnjB ,b9r£axlcfuq aew "gnxq^rxlo bio" arid" rfoxrfv/ nx 'toJ:ji_lb^ 

r>?il^f p + r* >n ffo rr-r.,- -I&J-aX^Sfl -^^1^8 9l^t T".. ;^rf-,,j5;. j^^.t oi S'J b£o L 

.no tXIoTisC to IIo"n*iC a^l'^iwric no aloxJ-iA axlJ" 
to ^^qoo sfood-aiutoiq arit d"£rit banoxtnani ad ataxl vaxn J-I 

the "old clipping" is devoid of ite first paragraph - which, 
however, is given in the h roadside cops'- now hanging in the 
rociES of the Marj'-land Historical Society - and this paragraph 
shows that the Article in question was a "biography." As no 
such biography of Charles Carroll of Carrollton is known to 
his latest biographer (Miss Kate Mason Rowland) or to his 
oldest living descendant (Ebc-Gov. John Lee Carroll) , ite dis- 

covery may be important to history. 


Baltimore, June 6, 1908. 



On further consideration, I deem it pertinent to 
reproduce, as hereto appended, the above-mentioned broadside 
copy of the isolated "old clipping" - and to remark thereon 
as follows: 

Ist. Search has been made of the files of the daily 

Patriot in the Maryland Historical Society and the 
Library of Congress, throughout the year 1813, 
without finding the original publication of the 
clipping. It is proper to add that the Patriot 
also printed a thrice-a-week edition for country 
circulation, the extant files of v;hich are v&rj 
2d. Search has been made of the files of the Salem 

(Mas s. ) P.egister. in the Salem office and in the 
Library of Congress, throughout the year 1813 and 
several years before and after that year, without 
finding the biography of Charles Carroll of Carroll- 




,f£oxrfift - liqai^aiiiq JyTX^ ati lo oxovaij ax "giTiq^ilo bio" arfJ 

sxiJ- nx gnxsnsri won y^qoc dxjxalj^otcf silt nx 'ly-vx^ ai ,T3r9'.vorf 

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,\;ijj"3xx{ jf tn-oJToqxnx ad ^jj^m ^n^^oo 

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:3AroIIo*t 3B 
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tK/oxltXtv ,Ti;si7 tarf.t naltfi brm oiotacf atj»9^ iBTsvsa 

■ nXo-tifiO to XlotnjiO aaXtiirir' to vriqiiTsoxcr odi gnxbnit 

^' - \ .nof 

{ zs 


(Being an exact cop3' of the "'broadside" in the 
Maryland Hietorical Society) 

To the Editor of the Baltimore Patriot: 

Sir: In the Biography of the venerable Charles Carroll, 
of Garroilton, taken from the Salem Register of 20th of Sep- 
temher, and published in your paper of the 24th, wherein ie 
portrayed his just and eminent services from the commencement 
to the termination of our revolutiona.ry contest, and v,hose 
euhsequent and distinguished course has rendered him a hless- 
ing to his Country, and placed him in rank and estimation 
not to he surpassed "by the renowned sages of the world; he 
stands now the beloved friend and father of the American 
people, loaded v/ith honor, age and goodness of heart. There 
is, however, one circumstance connected with the Burning of 
the Tea at Annapolis that should not be forgotten, and in v/hich 
a highly respected and valued friend of Mr. Carroll partici- 

The late Dr. Charles Alexfinder Warfield, of Anne Arundel 
County, who but a short time before had obtained professional 
honors in the University of Pennsylvania and had been appoint- 
ed Major of Battalion, upon hearing of the arrival of the brig 
"Peggj'- Stewart," at Annapolis, loaded with Tea, and which ves- 
sel belonged to Mr. Anthony Stewart (a Scotch merchant) , put 
himself at the head of the "'V-'hig Club," of which he was a dis- 
tinguished member, and marched to Annapolis with a determina- 
tion to burn vessel and cargo. 

TRhen this party arrived opposite the State House, the late 
Judge Chase met them and harangued them, (he had been employed 
as a lawyer by |Tr. Stewart). Dr. Warfield, finding that he was 
likel3'' to make some impression upon the minds of his company, in- 
terrupted him \)ij observing, that Chase had by fonner patriotic 
speeches made to the ""Whig Club" inflamed the v/hole country, 
and novv wished to get off by his own light; and pronounced it 
submission or cowardice in any member of the Club to stop short 
of their object; and called upon the m.en to follow him, that he 
v;ould himself set fire to the vessel and cargo; but it is stated 
upon the best authority, that the Doctor carried in his hand 
the chunk of fire in company with Stev/art whom he m.ade to kin- 
dle it. 

When the party first entered the city and was passing on 
they met Stewart, who was bold in opposition and threatened 
them v^ith the vengeance of his king and government, but his 
threats seemed only to increase their detennination. They 
erected a gallows immediately in front of his house, by way of 
intim.idation, and then gave him his choice either to swing by 
the halter, or go with them on board, and put fire to his own 
vessel. He chose the latter and in a few mom^ents the whole 
cargo with the ship's tackle and apparel were in flames. Short- 
ly after this Mr. Stewart left the country. This act aecided 


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the couree Marj'-land was to pursue, and had an extensive influ- 
ence upon public opinion. The v^riter of this v/as in company 
v/ith judge Chase and Doctor Warfield a few yeare "before their 
death, and heard them conversing upon the above subject, when 
?'^r. Chase remarked in a jocular manner: "If we had not suc- 
ceeded, Doctor, in the Revolutionar;^ contest both of us v/ould 
have been hung; You for burning the ship of tea, and I for de- 
claring I owed no allegiance to the King, and signing the 
Declaration of Independence." 

There were other movements and occurrences attending this 
early expression of a Eevolutionary Spirit. Our departed friend, 
but a short time before he m^^rched to the city of Annapolis to 
fire the tea, was parading his battalion in Anne Arundel County, 
in the vicinity of Mr. Carroll's residence, when he took upon 
himself the privilege of printing some labels with the following 
inscriptions "Liberty and Independence or Death in pursuit of 
it;" and placed one on the hat cf each man of his company, many 
of the older neighbors who were present, were sti-uck with as- 
tonishment, and endeavored to persuade him to have them taken 
dov*n; for the idea of independence at th:i,t time had entered 
the mind of but few men. 

The venerable 
present Patriarch, 
ander Warfield and 

Mr. Carroll, the elder and father of the 
rode up to the father of Dr. Charles Alex- 
exclaimed: "My God, Mr. Warfield, what aoee 
your son Charles mean? Does he know that he has committed 
treason against his King and may be prosecuted for a rebel?" 

The father replied with much animation and patriotism, 
"We acknowledge no King, the King is a traitor to us, and a 
period has arrived when \\e must either tamely submit to be 
slaves, or struggle gloriously for 'Liberty and Independence.' 
The King has become our enemy and we must becGm.e his^ Mv son 
Charles knows what he is about. 'Liberty and Independence, 
or Death in pursuit of it,' is his motto, it is m.ine, and 
soon must be the sentiment of every in this Country!" The 
mighty word "Treason against the King" sounded from one end cf 
the Battalion to the other, and in a few minutes not a label 
was seen in the hats of any cf the men, except Dr. Warfield and 
Mr. James Connor, late of Baltimore County, who were too stern 
and undaunted to be intimidated by words, and they wore their 
labels to their homes. Thus, those great Patriots moved al- 
ternately between hope and ■f'ear, until they accomplished the 
great object of their lives." 

ITo t e : 

This "broadside" has the following Caption: 



Departed this life January 29, 1813." 


Y.naqrnoo ni SiSiV dxri^ to latlTiv 3x17 .noxniqo oilduq noqw aorta 

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" to noi tiiTaloef^ 

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I have at last brought together, in this ccljection, 

all contemporary chronicles, hearing directl:/- or indirectly 

on the "Peggy Stewart'? affair, vmich I have "been able to 

uncover in England, Scotland, Canada and the United States, 

after long and exhaustive investigation. It yet remains to 

bring to light three pertinent and important documents, for 

which search is still being made, to v/it: 

1. The Account sent home by Governor Eden ^:30on after 
his return from England on Nevember 8, 1774; which 
Account (with other Maryland dispatches) was probably 
suppressed by the British Government-- See Letters to 
The News dated November 23 and December 15, 1905. 

2. The Report v/hich must have been made by the Anna- 
polis Customs Officials to the British Commissioners 
of Customs; which Report was probably destroyed at the 
burning of the London Custom House in 1814-- See Letters 
to The ITews dated May 13 and JUne 15, 1906. 

3. The Vindication which Anthony Stev/art prepared 
for the coluians of the Maryland Gazette-, which Vindi- 
cation was debarred publication by the leaders of the 
mob, and probably passed into oblivion — See Letter 

to The News dated March 29, 1906 and Article dated May 
23, 1908. 

These three testimonies v/ould doubtless be further 



• . ' - I 

,8 --i. 


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darrjiatory of the event in question, but they are nowise 
essential to the verdict in view of the like overwhe lining 
evidence already educed frorri Stev/art, from VTilliams, from 
Jackson, fron Caldeleugh, from Eden, from the Parliaraentary 
Commissioner?, from the London Chronicle, from the Chalmers 
MSS., from Galloway, from Evans, from Ringi::old, from Eddis, 
from Ps-rker, from V/arfield, from Riley, from Dulany and from 
Carroll. Over against the one witness for the defence. The 
Maryland Gazette, (whose utterance is shown to "be the dicta- 
tion of intimidation), here we have seventeen witnesses for 
the prosecution congruously proving that the men v/hose pictor- 
ial apotheosis smirches the walls of the temple of justice-- 
the men whom we have thus idolatrously exalted in the highest 
of the high places of the city for the adoration of our 
children-- that these men were hrow-'beaters of the authority 
and majority of the community, were self-constituted gallows- 
"builders and hangmen, were tarrers and featherers, v;ere 
roTDbers and incendiaries of property, were throttlers of 
private speech and of the public press, were desecrators of 
the home a.nd terrorizers of child-"bed-- in short, were 
assassins of the Lib u'ty of which they professed to be apostles. 

Baltimore, August 10, 1908. ^ / 

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".-Ma A»a<J 3HT -^o aai* iO 

eunevA 3ii3*I OS* I 

Library of Congress 

Office OFTME Librarian 

Septernb-r 9, 1007, 

Hy dear Sir: 

I timnk you for your courteous note 
of Saturday, We shall sincerely value the laounted 
sot of tlie clipjjings.anu appreciate your friendly 
interest in presorv-ng and preparing 'ciie.j for us. 

Ve ryyt r uly_ y-^tKB^ , 

Librari&i; oi Congress 

Mr. Richard D, Fisher 
1420 Park Avenue 

Baltimore Ku, 


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