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Ars quatuor coronatorum 

Freemasons. Quatuor Coronati Lodge, 
No. 2076 (London, England) 





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■ A A A A A A d 


• RITI8H MUSEUM, ADD. M88. 18.801 
CIROA. 1000 A.D. 


and W, J. SONGHUBST, P.A.G.D.a 


H. Kkble, Pbiktkr, Margatk 

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Friday, lOth January , 1908 

Friday, 6th Maroh, 1908 

Friday, Ut May, 1908 

Wednesday, 24th June, 1908, St. John's Day in Harvest 

Taesday, 14th July, 1908 

Thuraday, 16th July to Sanday, 19th July, 1903 (Summer Outing— Durham) ... 

Friday, 2nd October, 1908 

Monday, 9th November, 1908, Festival of the Four Crowned Martyrs 


The A.rmorial Bearings of the Grand Masters of the Order of Malta, from 

1113 to 1536 
Henry Yeuele, freemason to Edward III., Richard II., and Henry IV. 
St. John the Apostle— The Patron Saint of Freemasonry in Scotland 
F.R.S. and F.L.8. 

Chronology of Scottish Rite Masonry 
Naymus Grecus, a curious Mason 

The Connection of the Scott Family with Freemasonry ... 

Notes on the Heraldry of the Gastle of Bndrum 
Masonic Gravestone 
Henry Yeuele ... 
Swaffham Great Lodge 
Sharri Tephlia 

Cromwell and Freemasons — Irish Popular Belief 
Major-General Joseph Warren 

The Origin of the Pillars to King Solomon's Temple 
Early Philadelphian visits to Lodge St. David, Ediubnrgh 
Gregorian Galendar 


Achard, Dr. A. L. 

Allen, William John 

Armitage, Dr. Samuel Harris Tatham 

Atherton, Jeremiah Leeoh 

Baker, George Comstock 

Barchus, T. J. ... 

Beak, Henry ... 

Beu, John Charles Frederick ... 

Boswell, If a/or-Genera{ John James 

Braine, Woodhonse 

Bramble, GoL James Roger 

Brough, Bennett Hooper 

Burdon, Jfo/or Augnstus E. 

Burkitt, Hon. S»r William Robert 

Chard, Ernest James 

Cook, Thomas ... 

Crabtree, Charles 

Daley, G. J. 







































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Table of Contents. 

OBllV kRY.—Contlnued. 

Dalrjmple, Jamea D. 6. 

Dewell, James D. 

Dowsc, Francis 

Filliugham, Rev. Robert Charles 

Flather, W. T. 

Gilks, William J. 

Hovenden, Robert 

Jacoletto, Martin John 

Eemmie, Edward Bernhard 

Eing, George William 

Leighton, Alexander Robert 

Lightfooty Bruce 

Lombard, Major Graves Chamney Swan 

McGutcheoni Dr. Charles 

Main, Alexander M. 

Matveieff, Basil 

Micholls, E. B. 

Moutray, Rev.J&mea Maxwell ... 

Newton, James 

Falmer, Rev. James Nelson 

Patterson, Dr. John N. 

Sansom, Dr. Arthur Ernest 

Schoder, Anthony 

Sinclair, Hagh William 

Smith, John 

Southam, John Downes 

Thomas, John Douglas 

Thorley, James 

Trevor-Smith, James 

Watson, Daniel Ernest 

"Webber, Frederick 

Weigall, Rev. Edward Mitford ... 

Williams, Robert Jamea 

Willock, Col. George Woodford 





































New Light on the Oid Piilars which stood in front of the 

Porch of Solomon's Temple. By Canon J. W. Horsloy 
Description of the Tabernacle, 6 ; The Temple built to same design and 
proportions, 7 ; Piilars dt Tyre, Bethel, Goza, Larnaka, Wiirzburg ; Mr. 
Caldecott's views as to use of Solomon's piilars for cérémonial purposes, 8; 
Their names inscribed upou them ; Their height ; Their capitals, 9. 
Comments by W. J. Songhnrst, 11 ; W. Wonnacott, 12; W. B. Hextall, 16. 

An Old Minute Book of Lodge Perfect Unanimity, now No. 

150, Madras. By H.-rbert Bradley 

DÎBCovery of Minute Buok, 10; Fines for non-attendance, 20; a ballot 
taken for each degrce, 21 ; Master not necessarily a Past Warden, 
22; Wardens conferred degrees in the absence of the Master; Deacono 
mentionod in 1791, 24; Amicable relations with French Lodges, 
25; Financial position of the Lodge; Votes to Provincial Grand Lodge and 
Charity, 27; Quaint terms of expresaion, 29; Certificates granted for 
degrees, 30 ; Oratious, 31. 


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^ahle of Cimients. V. 


Some Old Suburban Taverns and Masonry. By J. P. Simpson. 38 

The rise and devolopment of Suburban London, 38; The Lodge afc the 
Swan, Greenwicb; lis members engaged in the building of Greenwich 
Hospital, 40. The Royal Magazine, The Mitre, The Ship, The Crown and 
Sceptre, The Blue Anohor, 41 ; Woolwich, The Crown aod Anchor, Royal 
Artillery Tavern ; Deptford, The Griffin, The Oxford Arms, The JoUy 
Potters, The White Swan, The Swan, The Jamaica HoQse, 42 ; Southwark, 
The George, The Buirs Head, The Three Tuns, Marshalsea Tap-honse, The 
KiDg's Arms>, The Queen's Head, The White Hart and Jack Cade, 43 ; 
Lambeth, The Three Marinera, The Old Crown and Cushion, The Crown, 
Cuper's Gardons and The Featheis, The Wheatsheaf, 44; Wandsworth, The 
Turk's Head and the Garratt élection, The King's Arms, The Red House, 45 ; 
Putney, The Bowling Green, Summer Meetings, 46 ; Richmond, The Red 
Lion, Origin of the sign, The Dog, The Talbot, The Castle, The Feathers, 
The Crioketerjj, The Greyhound, The Toy Tavern, Harapton Court, 47; 
Brentford, The Lion, The Star and Garter, 48 ; Hammersmith, The 
Windsor Castle, The Angel, The King's CofiFee-Honse ; The fonndation 
stone of Hammersmith Bridge laid by the Duke of Sussez, The Bell and 
Anchor, 49 ; Kensington, The Red Lion, The King's Arms, The Greyhound, 
The Rose and Crown; Chelsea, The Old Swan, 50; The Old Chelsea Bun- 
House, Don Saltero's CofiFee-Honse, The Old Eing's Arms, Cremorne 
Gardons, The Duke of York, The Old Cheshire Cheese, The Old Black 
Horse, The Magpie and Stump, The Duke's Head, The Cadogan Arms, 
The Mulberry Gardons, The Gun Tavern, The Flask, The Mooster, 51 ; 
Uyde Park Corner, The Sun and Falcon, The Running Horse, The Red 
Lion and Richard Steele; Paddingtoo, The Red Rion, The Wheatsheaf, 
^ The Horce and Sacks, The Pontefraot Castle, The Star and Garter, 

The Manor Hoise Tavern ; Marylebone, The Gardons, The Rose, and The 
Duel between the Duke of Hamilton and Lord Mohun, The Cannon, The 
Half Moon ; Totteuham Court, The Adam and Ere, 52; The Red Lion, The 
Talbot, The Coachmakers' Arms, The Carpenters' Arms ; Clerkenwell, The 
Priory of St. John of Jérusalem, The Gâte- House, The Jérusalem Tavern, 
The Red Lion, The Red Bull, The Three Cups, 53 ; Islington, The Old 
Queen's Head, The King's Head, The Crown, The Pied Bull, The Ship, 
TheKingof Prussia, Canonbury Tavern, 54; Highgate, The Gate-House, 
Swearing upon the Horns, The Castle and Lodge No. 79; Hampstead, The 
Wells Tavern, The Golden Spikes, The Flask, The Upper Bowling Green 
and the Kit-Cat Club, The King's Head, The Bull and Bush, Jack Straw's 
Castle. Comments by W. J. Hughan, 56; and W. J. Songhnrst, 67. 

Notes on Freemasonry in Cork City. By T. J. Westropp ... 59 

Papers in the possession of Mr. Dudley Westropp, 58 ; Letter from Lord 
Donoughmore to Dr. Thomas Westropp, 59; Théâtre tickets for Lee Sugg's 
benetit, Poem addressed to Dr. Thomas Westropp, 61. 

Two Editors of the Booi< of Constitutions. By £. L. Hawkins... 76 

John Entick, Editor of the 1756 Edition, His Life, 76; His writings, 
attacks on the Government and conséquent law suit, 77 ; His Masonio 
career, 79 ; His connection with the Sun Lodge at Shadwell, Dr. 01iver*s 
références to him, 8Ô; John Noorthouok, Editor of the 1784 Edition, His 
Life, 81; His writings, His Masonio career, 82; His membership of the 
Lodge of Antiqnity, 88. Comments by W. J. Chetwode Crawley and W. 
B. Hextall, 84. 

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VI. table of Contents. 

PAPERS AND ESSAYS.—Gontinued. paob. 

Notes on the Society of Gregorians. Bj w. H. Rylands ... 91 

Origin of the word Oregoriaii, "The Merry Grcgs" compared with "Roger 
the Grigg " in Tom d' Urfey's Wit and Mirth, 91 ; The Gregorians pro- 
bably exiated in London în 1730, A Chapter constitnted at St. Alban's in 
1730, 92; Références in Notes, and Queries^ The Cheap Side Chapter cun- 
stitated in 1736, The Constitutional Songin Bickham's Musical EntertaincTy 
1742, The Pope's Head Chapter, London, in 1742, Références in the 
Bunciad, 1742, 93; An engrared list of Chapters circa 1750, Sermon 
preached by Farmerie Maltus, 1752, 94; Références in Smollet's TraveU 
through France and Italy, and Crabbe's The Boroughy Dinner- ticket of 1787, 
95 ; The Gregorîan Arms, Bermondsey, 96 ; The Chapter at Norwich, 
Portrait of Sir Edward Astley, Grand of the Order, 97 ; Références in 
Norwich Newâpapers, 1761-1805, 98 ; Prince William of Gloacester, Grand 
of the Norwich Chapter, 100 ; Lord Nelson a Member, 101 ; The Wakefield 
Chapter Constitnted 1796, Raies and Régulations, 102; Bye-laws, 104; 
Medals, 107; Engraved sammons, 108; List of Members, 124. Comments 
by W. B. Hextall, 130; E. H. Dring, 132 ; S. T. Klein, 136. 

A Masonic Pantomime and eome other Plays. By W. B. 

Hextall ... ... ... ... ... 138 

The " Harleqnin Freemason '' at Covent Gardon Théâtre, December, 1780, 
Description of the Pantomime, 138; Words of the Songs, 139; The 
Coachman's Song, said to hav^e been introduced in 1781, 152 ; The Pro- 
cession of the Principal Grand Masters, 153; Probable Cast, 154; The 
" Gênerons Freemason " at the Haymarket, 1731, Masonic dedication. 
Performance at Bartholemew Fair, 1730, 155; William Rufns Chetwood, 
156; Masonic prologues and épilogues, "The Freemason," by John Lane, 
157; " The Freemason," by J. P. Hart, 158. 

The Henery Heade IVIS., 1675. By E. L. Hawkins... ... 161 

Description of book containing the MS., in Inner Temple Library, 161; 
Comparison with the William Watson MS., 162 ; Transcript of the Henery 
Heade MS., 163; Notes, 169. 

Freeman and Cowan, with spécial référence to the Records 
of Lodge Canongate Kilwinning. By Alfred A. Arbuthnot 
Murray ... ... ... ... ... 185 

Légal Statas and Constitution of Craft incorporations of Scotland, 185; 
Canongate a Burgh like Edinburgh, Admission of non-operatives to trade 
incorporations did not make the latter spéculative societies, 186 ; Free- 
mason Lodges arose by a process of bndding or ségrégation from the trade 
incorporations, The Records of the Incorporation of Wrights, Coopéra and 
Masons of Canongate from which sprang Lodge Canongate Kilwinning, 
187 ; Meeting places of the Incorporation, 188 ; The Freeraan's Oath, 189 ; 
Acts of Craft, with illustrative extracts from Minutes, 190; Classifications 
of workmen, 195; Status of the Cowan, 196; Meaning and dérivation of 
the word Cowan, 202. 

The Taylor IVIS. Préface, By William Watson ... ... 211 

Commentary, By W. J. Hugban ... ... 212 

Description of the scroll, Its former ownership, 211 ; Presentod to 
Provincial Grand Lodge of West Yorkshire, 212; Taylor MS. compared 
with Alnwîck MS. and Gateshead MS., 213 ; Transcript of the Taylor MS., 

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Table of Contents. ' vii. 

PAPERS AND ESSAYS.—Coritinued. page. 

Summer Outing, July, 1908. By S. Walehe Owen ... ... 218 

Masonic réception at Snnderland, 219; 6t. Peter's Church, Monlcwear- 
moath, The Phoenix Lodge, 220; Dnrharo, The Masonic Hall, The Cathedra!, 

' The Castle, 221 ; The Bede Mémorial ; Barnard Castle, 222 ; Baby Castle, 

Early Masons' Contracts at Durham. By E. H. Dring ... 225 

Gontract between the Prior of Darham and John Bell, Mason, dated 1488, 
225 ; Other indentures preserved in the Registry of the Dean and Chapter, 
Darham, 226. 

The Man of Taste ; a Satire of 1733. By W. B. Hextall ... 230 

The Building of Canons, Bivalry between the Duke of Chandos and the 
Earl of Burlington, Pope's Epistle, Hogarth's Caricatures, 230; James 
Bramston's " Man of Taste," 231 ; James Figg, prize-fighter, Dr. Desagniiers, 
Colley Cibber, 232 ; Freemasonry and Royal Society, 233 ; James Miller's 
" Man of Taste" at the Théâtre Royal, Drury Lane; Pope's référence to 
Freemasonry in oonjunction with the Royal Sooiety, 235 ; Comments by 
J. P. Simpson, 236; Canon J. W. Horsley, 237; W. J. Hughan and W. 
Wonnacott, 238. 

Henry Yveie, The King's Master Mason, 1320-1400. By W. 

Wonnacott ... ... ... ... 244 

Références in " Constitutions " of 1723 and 1738, 244 ; Tvele at work on 
St. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster; The Jury-list of 1356| His connection 
with William of Wykeham, 245; His work at Westminster Abbey; Owner- 
ship of a quarry at Purbeck, 216; Patents from Richard II., Work at St. 
Dunstan*s Church, Thames Street, and Cowling Castle, 247 ; His property 
in the City of London, 248 ; The West Porch of Westminster Abbey, 249 ; 
The tomb of Anne of Bohemia, 250; Westminster Hall, Yvele as a 
designer ; His work at King's Hall, Cambridge, and Queenboro' Castle, 251 ; 
His Will, 252. 

Installation AddreSS. By John T. Thorp. ... ... 257 

The Toast of "The WorshipfuI Master." By F. H. Goldney ... 261 

Two Anclent Legends concerning the First Temple, termed 

" Soiomon'S Temple." By John Yarker. ... 264 

Legends among the Arabs and the Accadians of Babylon, Références to 
the Insect Shermah, 261 ; The Fratres Lmcxs, Legends in the Babylonian 
Talmud, 265 ; Legends from the Book Yalkut, 268. 


Transactions of the Lodge of Research No. 2429, 
Leioester, for the year 1907-8 ... W. J. Hughan ... 177 

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Adoption, Gertificate of Lodge of 
Ancients, Banner with arma of Grand 

Lodge of 
Astley's Théâtre ... 
A thol Warrant of 176 1 
Audit Beport 

Bail, Résignation of Rev. G. J. 
Ballot, separate for each Degree 
Bartholomew Fair, Masouic Play at ... 
Bishops, Meeting of Mason ... 
Burlington, the Ëarl of, as an Archi- 
teet ... 

Ganonbury Tavernand Gountry FeastR 
Ganons Fark 

Chapters (R.A.) referred to:— 
Kiog Solomon. Louisville 
Kingston, Jamaica ... 
Eilwinuing in the Sast 
No. 9, Bristol 
Phœnix, Paris 
Ramsey, Lacknow ... 
Sandeman, Âllahabad 
Shakespeare, Dublin ... 
Sincerity, Bradford ... 
Gonstitutions of 1756 

„ 1784 

Gork, Freemasonry in 
Gountry Feasts 

„ Meetings of Lodges 
,, Stewards ... 
Gowan and Freeman 

,, MeaniDg of the Word 
„ Status of, in Scotland 
Gowling Gastle, Building of 
Graft Incorporations of Scotland 
Gromwell and Freemasons ... 
Gub t, Length of ... 

Deacon or Eirkmaster 
Degrees conferred by Wardens 
Desaj^uliers, Rectorof Stanmore Parva 
Durham, Early Masons' Goutracts at 
„ Summer Oating ... 

Election of Lodge Officers ... 
Engraved List of Lodges ... 


Apron, Gombination of R.A. and 
Red Gross of Babylon 
„ Engraved 
„ Engraved French 
„ Grand Lodge of Darm- 

stadt ... 
„ No. 244 
Banner of Prince Murât 
Bye-'aws, Mercian Lodge 
Gertificate, Lodge of Adoption 
„ Hyman Gohen 

„ Isaac Venu 

„ R.A. at Paris 

Gharts, Order of Misraim 
Engraved List of Lodges, Fac- 
similé of 1735 Edition ... 
Freemason's Accusation and 
Pçf ence 






















54, 55 
























Exhibits :- 


Gavel, Egyptian 


Glass Goblets 


Half penny Token, Masonic 227, 228, 229 

Jewel, Gryptic Degrees 


„ Engraved by Convict in 

in Tasmania 


„ Engraved, Lodge No. 410 


„ „ Presented to 

Wm. Bullmer, 1799 


„ Engraved, Thos. Dicken- 

son, 1788 


„ French Prisoners' Work 


„ Lodge Ganongate and 



„ Mark 


» M.M 


„ of 15*' 


„ P.M 


„ P. M., Scotch 


„ presented to Wm. Bigler, 



„ R.A. Scotch ... 


„ Southern Cross Lodge, 



Jewels, Officers ... ...4,5, 

37, 74 

List of Members of Lodge Sept 

Ecossais Réunis ... 


^eda\f Amitié Bievfainence 


„ Gount Goblot d'Alviella 


Dr. W. J. Chetwode 



„ Elisha Kent Kane 


„ Entrepreneurs de Maçon- 

nerie ... 


,, Lodge Ardente Amitié^ 

Rouen ... 


„ Lodge des F.F.F.,Havre 


„ Seb. Gramoisy 


Musr, Masonic "Toad" 


Patent of Provincial Grand 

Master of Andalusia 


Photograph of Meoting-Place 

of St. John's Lodge, Con- 



Prînt, Arrangement of R.A. 

Chapter, Mexico 


"Free Mason" 


Seal, Lodge Gololphin, Scilly ... 


„ Prin e Masons Chapter II., 



„ Shakespeare Chapter, 143, 



„ Shakespeare Lodge, 143, 

Dublin ... 


„ Unidentified ... 


Souvenir Badges 


Summons, Engraved ... 


Sword, Masonic 


Tobacco Box 


Token, Wm. Rusher, Banbury... 


Tracing Boards, Addiscombe 

Lodge No. 1556 


Tracing Boards, Old Goncord 

Lodge ... 


Trade Gard, John Hutcheson, 



Trade Gard, Matthews, Oxford 


„ „ Procter, Aldersgate 


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Warrant, " Anoîents," Lodge 
No. 87 

Warrant, for St. John's Lodge, 

Warrant, Order of Misraim 

Fines for non-attendance at Lodge ... 
Foundation Stone of Hammersmith 
Bridge laid hj Duke of Suasex ... 
Freeman and Cowan 
Freeman's Oath ... 
Freemasonrj and the Royal Society... 
Freemasou to the King 
Freemasons and Jaoobites ... 
F.B.S. and F.L.S. ... 

Gênerons Freemaaon, The ... 

Grave Stone, Masonic 

Greenwich Hospital, Freemasons oon- 

nected with Building of 
Gregorîan Calendar 
Gregorians, Chapters of the Society 
„ Society of 

„ Sir Edward Astley, 

Grand of the Society ... 
„ Prince William of 

Glouoester, Grand of the 
„ Medals of the Society ... 

Gregories, Society of the 
Gregs, The Merry ... 

Hammersmith Bridge, Foundation 

Stone laid by Duke of Snssex 
Harlequin Freemason 
Harodim ... 
Henery Heade MS. 
Heraidry at Budi-um 

Installation A^ddress, John T. Thorp.. 
Immédiate Past Master, Position of ... 

Jaoobites and Freemasons ... 

Eing's Master Mason, The ... 

Legends conoerniog Solomon's Temple 
List of Lodges, ** Âncients " 
Lodge at the Marshalsea ... 
Lodges in Scotland, Origin of 
Lodges, List of ^* Ancients " 

Lodges referred to :— 

Amity, London 

Anchor and Hope, Bolton 

Antiqnity, London ... 

Antiquity, Louisvillo 

Ardente Amitié, Kouen 



Bear and Harrow, Temple Bar 

Bedfqrd Head, Govent Garden 

Britannia, Sheffield ... 

Britannio, London ... 

Bull and Bntcher. Rag Fair ... 

Oaledonian, London ... 

Canongate and Leitb 

Oanongate KilwÎDning 

Castle, of Harmony, London ... 

Oaveac, liOndon 

Charle ville ... 

Clonakilty ... 

Gonstitntional, London 



74 ! 

90 ' 



185 I 

189 ' 

233 ' 

65 I 

66 j 


179 I 


40 i 

271 , 

94 , 

'' , 

100 I 






138 I 

84, 221 I 

161 I 

63,86 I 



244 I 

264 . 

43 I 

187 I 

263 I 



82, 237 












70, 185 






59, 221 

Lodges referred to :~ 

Corner Stone, London 


Cosmopolitan, Pondicherry ... 


County Stewards' ... 


Devil Tavern, Temple Bar 


Doneraile ... 




Faith and Friendship, Berkeley 


Felicity, London 




Fidelity, Leeds 

75, 212 

Fidelity, London 


Fountain, Monmouth Street ... 


Friendship, London ... 


George, St. Giles's ... 


Goat, flaymarket 


Godolphin, Scilly ... 


Good Intent, Stamford 


Great, Swàffham 


H.H.H., Havre 


Higbgate ... 


Hope, Bradford 


Independence with Philan- 

thropy ... 


Industry, Gateshead... 


Jérusalem, London ... 


Jubilee, London 


Justice, London 




Kent, London 

43, 54 

King's Head, London 




Leicester Militia 


Liberty, London 




Marches, Lndlow 


Marquis of Granby, Durham ... 


Marshalsea ... 


Masons' Company ... 


Mercian, Lndlow 


Merit, Stamford 




Népal, Gorraokpore .. 


Neptune, London 


No. 1, Philadelphia 


No. 2, Philadelphia 


No 18 


No. 72, Sheffield 


No. 79, Higbgate 


No. 208, Dewsbury ... 


No. 244 


No. 375, Romford ... 


No. 410 


Old Concord, London 


Old Eing's Arms, London 


Palatioe, Sunderland 


Perfect Uuanimity, Madras ... 


Phœnix, London 


Phœnir, Paris 


Phœnix, Sunderland... 


Port Natal ... 


Probity, Halifax 


Py thagorean, London 




Kesearch, Leicester ... 177, 


Royal Brunswick, Sheffield ... 


Royal Magazine, Greenwich . . . 


Royal Military, Woolwich 


Royal Naval, London 


Royal Somerset Honse, London 


Royal Snssex, Bath ... 


Royal York, Bath ... 


St. Andrew's, London 


St. DaWd's, Edinburgh 70, 

202. 270 

St, James, Tarboltop 


Digitized by 




Lodges referred to: — 

St. James's Union, London ... 52 

St. John'B, Connecticut ... 90 

St. John's, London ... ... 43, 56 ' 

St. Lake'a, London ... ... ^^ | 

Scientific, Binpley ... ... 183 

Sooon and Perth ... 60, 2L3 

Scots Arms, Hay Market ... 263 

Shakespeare, Dublin... ... 74 i 

Silurean, Ludlow ... ... 4 

Skibbereen... ... ... 59 | 

Star of the East, Capetown ... 37 

Sun, Upper Shadwell ... 80 . 

Swan, Greenwich ... ... 40 

Swan, Hampatead ... ... 55 | 

Swan, Lonp: Acre ... ... 233 i 

Tempérance, London ... 42 

Thirteen Cantons ... ... 263 

Three Grand Principles, London 54 | 

Three Sugar Loaves, Smithtîeld 263 

Tralee ... ... ... 59 i 

Triple Hope, Isle of France ... 24 

Two Brewers, Holborn ... 263 

Unanimity, Wakefield ... 211 

Union, Jamaica ... ... 37 

Union Waterloo, Woolwich ... 41 ! 

United Marinera, London ... 43 I 

United Traders', London ... 40 

Valentia ... ... ... 59 

Vedra, Sunderland ... ... 222 

Vernon, Bishopsgate Street ... 263 

"Westbourne, London... ... 51 

Westminster and Keystone, 

London ... ... 53 

White Hart, Shug Lane ... 263 

Wiltshire, Devizes ... ... 229 

Youghal ... ... ... 59 

Mal ta. Armoriai Bearings of Order of 62 

ManofTaste ... ... ... 230 

Masons' Contracts at Durham ... 225 

Master Mason, The King's .. ... 244 

Medals of the Gregorians ... ... 107 

Medal presented to Dr. W. J. Chetwocjle 

Crawley ... .. ... 254 

Mémorial to General Joseph Warren... 182 

Meyerbeer, Member of a Frenoh Lodge 37 
Misraim, Warrants isaued under 

Order of ... ... ... 34 

MS. Constitutions .. ... ... 161,211 

Nomination of Warden s ... ... 30 

Oath, The Freeman's ... ... 189 

OflScera of Lodges elected ... ... 24 

Old Charges ... ... ... 161,211 

Pantomime, Masonic ... ... 138 

Persons referred to:— 

Achard, A. L. ... ... 184 

Addey, George . ... ... 127 

Aitkine, James ... ... 192 

Allen, W.J. ... ... 71 

Anderson, Thomas ... 199 

Arbuthnot. Dr. John... ... 239 

Armitage, F. ... ... 270 

Arraitage, Joseph ... ... 127 

Armitage, S. H. T. ... ... 71 

Ashmole, Elias ... ... 46 

Astley, Sir Edward ... ... 97,108 

Astley, Phillip ... ... 69 

Atherton, J. L. ... ... 183 

Ayttonne, Hector ... ... 200 

Pain, G. W.... ... ... 178 


Persons referred to : — 

Baird, John ... ... ... 199 

Baker, G. Corastock ... ... 72 

Bail, Ber. C. J 255 

Barchus, T. J. ... .. 72 

Barker, John ... ... 127 

Barnard, Lord ... 223 

Bartone, Symon ... 245 

Bâtes, Col. ... ... ... 100 

Bauchop, John ... ... 199 

Baudwen, William ... ... 125 

Beak, Henry ... .. 272 

Beanchamp. Sir John ... 251 

Begemann, Dr. W. ... ... 66,244 

Bell, Capt. ... ... ... 28 

Bell, John ... ... ... 225 

Bell, Seymour ... ... 227,255 

Bennett, William ... ... 226 

Bernés, Bro. ... ... 25 

Berry, Ifr. ... ... ... 46 

Best, Godfrey ... ... 250 

Best, William ... ... 37 

Beu, J. C. F. ... ... 272 

Biggs, A. E.... ... .. 9 

Bingley, Robert ... 127 

Blake, Peter ... ... 252 

Bland, Joseph ... ... 240 

Bohemia, Anne of ... ... 250 

Bol ton, Duifce 0/ ... ... 44 

Bolton, Edmnnd ... ... 252 

Bornwlaski, Count ... ... 221 

I Bosanqoet. iîev. R. A. ... 75 

I Boswell. Gen. J. J. ... ... 272 

' Boutflower, Rev. D. S. ... 220 

Bradley, Herbert ... ... 19 

Braine, Woodhouse ... ... 71 

Bramble, Coi. J. R. ... ... 71 

Bramston, James ... ... 233.236 

I Brandon, Gregory ... ... 94 

Bredone, Thomas ... ... 245 

Broker, Nicholas ... ... 250 

Brooke, Edward ..> ... 126 

Brookhouse, J. C. ... ... 66 

I Brough, B. H. ... ... 272 

Bronn, John ... ... 197 

Brown, Harry ... ... 271 

Brown, William ... 126 

Brydges, James ... 230 

Bullen, William ... ... 127 

Bullmer, William ... ... 75 

Burdon, Major A. E. ... ... 272 

Burlington, Jïorï of ... ... 230,241 

Barkitt, Sir W. R. ... ... 184 

Burne, James ... .. 190 

Byrom, John ... 233, 236, 242 

Cade, Jack ... ... 43 

Calcott, Wellins ... ... 4 

Caldecott, Rev. W. S. ... 6, 178 

Campbell, Dr. A. E. ... ... 210 

Campkin, H. H. ... ... 2 

Carnarvon, Marquis of ... 230 

Carnatio, Nawah of the ... 27 

Chadwiok, Rev. Charles ... 180 

Charnier, Bro. ... 22 

Chamberlin, J. W. ... ... 2 

Chambers, W. ... ... 74 

Chandos, Dwfce of ... ... 230,240 

Chard.E.J. ... 71 

Charlesworth, John ... 211 

Charnock, Thomas ... ... 125 

Chaucer, Geoffrey ... ... 249 

Cherche, Richard .. ... 249 

Cherry, T. ... ... ... 2 

Chetwood, W. B. ... ... 154 

Child, Stephen ... ... 37 

Digitized by 



Porsons referred to :- 

PAGE. ! 

PersonS referred to:— 

Chiirch, John 


Cibbey, Colley 

231, 240 

Cibber, Gabriel 


Clarke, Ârchdeacon ... 


Cleghorne, James 


ClementHon, Bro. 


Clifford, John 


Clift, Francis 


Clyve, Goaselin 


Cobham, Lord 


Cohen, Hyman 


Colchester, William of 


Colvard, David 


Connaught, Duke of ... 


Cook, Thomas 


Copperthwaito, Samuel 


Corker, Thomas 


Cornewaylle, Richard 


Coumbe, Peter 


Cowan, John 


Cowan, J. B. 


Cowie, Andrews 


Cowpar, Robert 


Cowye, Andrew 


Orabtree, C. 


Cranstoun-Day, T. N. 


Craven, James 


Crawley, Dr. W. J. Chetwode 82 

, 240. 254 

Creuse, Bro. 


Crowder, William ... 


Crowne, William 


Crozier, Dr. J. B. 


Crystie, James 


Cuthbert, John 


Dagott, Bro. 


Daley, G. J. 


Dalrymple, J. D. G. ... 


Daniel, Sir F. 0. 


Danzas, Bro. 


Davis, A. 


Dawson, Alezander ... 


Daweon, William 


Daynivell, Robert ... 


Deats, H. E. 


IVEon, Chevalier 


de Hayes, A. L. 


Delafaye, Charles 


de Lanrens, Bro. 


de le Tang, Bro. 


Dermott, Lau. 


Desagulier s, Dr. J. T. 

232, 237 

Devene, John 


Dewell, J. D. 


Dibdin, Charles 


Dick, James 


Dickenson, Thomas ... 


Dickey, William 


Dimsdale, Harry 


Dodd, Dr. ... 


Donoujçhmore, Baron 


Dowie, William 


Dowse, Francis 


Doyle, Ifr. ... 


Dring, Bro. ... 


Dring B. H. 

132, 225 

Dring, Peter 


Dufourg, Bro. 


Dugdale, Sir William 


Daleep Singh, Prince Frederick 


Dunbar, Bro. 


Dunckerley, Thomas 


Dunstan, Jeffrey 


Do vée, Bro. ... 


Dnrward, James 


Edgar, Oliver 

191, 199 

Elwick, John 


Entick, John 


Estone, John 


Evans, Jereniiah 


Fellowes, Capt. P. P. 


FergusFon, James 


Figg, James 


Fillingham, Rev. R. C. 


Fisher, David 


Fitz Hugh, William ... 


Fitz John, Thomas ... 


Fiather, W. T. 


Fogg, Sampson 


Foljambe, John 


Folkes, Martin 


Forster, Thomas 


Fox, Hugh ... 


Francis T. ... 


Frankish, Sir William 


Franklin, Bro. 


Fraunces, Simon 


Freeman, J. W. 


Freir, George 


Frère, J. ... 


Gahagan, Bro. 


Gardiner, Alfonzo 


Gardner, Capt. 


Gardner, J. ... 


Garratt, William 


Geary, P. F. 


Geddes, Samuel 


Gerstenkorn, K. A. ... 


Gib, Thomas 


Gibson, Adam 


Gilkes, Peter 


Gilks, W. J 


Gill, Thomas 


Gledhill, Jonathan ... 


Gloucester, Thomas ... 


Gloucester, Prince William of 

99, 134 

Goblet d'Alviella, Count 


Godmerstone, John ... 


Godwin, George 


Goldney, F. H. 

20(i, L'55, 261 

Goiild, R. F. 


Gould, Thomas 


Gourlay, Archibald ... 


Gove, Dr. R. A. 


Graham, Robert 


Grant, David 


Gray, John ... 


<»ray, Robert 


Grayson, W. H. 


Greavea, Robert 


Green, H. G. E. 


Greenleis, John 


Gregory, Francis 


Gregory, Jeremio 


Gn^gory, Philip 


GriWths, Bro. 


Griffiths, T. G. 


Guy, Harry 

... 5,75,229 

Haket, John 


Hallilay, John 


Halliwell. John 


Hamilton, Bro. 


Hamiltonn, Gilbert ... 


Hamiltoun, J. 


Handel, G. F. 


Hardegray, Thomas ... 


Hardy, Thomas 


Harper, Thomas 


Harrison, George 


Harrison, Joseph 


nart,J. P 


Digitized by 




Perdons referred to: — 

Persons referred to:- 


HawkiDS, Edward 


Hawkins, B. L. 

... 5,76,161 

Heade, Henery 


Heart, Robert 


Hendrie. John 


Uenley, Orator 


Heriot, George 


Herland, Henry 


Herland, Hngh 


Herland, William 


Hextall, W. B. 

. 16,83,97,130,138, 

182, 230, 271 

Highmore, Joseph 


Highmore, Thomas .. 


Hobday, W 


Hogarth, William 


Holdsworth, Samuel .. 


Hoo, Thomas 


Horn, John ... 


Horsley, Canon J. W. 

... 6,68,237 

Hovenden, R. 


Howard, Léonard 


Hude, Alexander 


Hnghan, W. J. 


Hugo, T. W. 


Hurst, John 


Hutcheson, John 


Hyndeley, Thomas .. 


Jackson, John 


Jackson, William 


Jacolette, M. J. 


Johnson, Charles 


Johnston, Pro/. 8. P. .. 


Johnstone, James 


Johnstonn, John 


Jones, Bro. 


Jones, W. H. 


Jones, Stephen 


Joyce, Richard 


Kane, Dr, Elisha Kent 


Keator, i2«v. F. W. .. 




Kelsey, George 


Kemble, S. G. 


Kemmis, £. B. 


Kemsley, W. C. 


Kentbury, Robert 


Kerr, Bro. ... 


Kindness, W. 


King, G. W. 


Kinlooh, Thomas 


Klein, 8. T.... 


Knechenmeister, Dr, 


Lameton, William 


Landes, William 


Lane, John 


Langham, Archhishop 




Lee, John ... 


le Feuvre, J. B. 


Leighton, A. R. 


Leishman, James 


Leslie, Robert 


le Strange, Hamon .. 

... 37,91,227 

Levander, F. W. 


Levingtoun, Henry .. 

... 190, 198 

Lightfoot, Bruce 


Lightfoote, Dr, John 


Linley, Bro. 


Linnecar, Richard 


Lobingier, 0. S. 


Loftus, W. K. 


Logane Archîbald 


Lombard, Major G. C. 

S. ... 72 

Longmate ... 


Lote, Stephen 

... 250,252 

Lovekyn, John 


Lowe, Rtfv. John 


Lucas, Bro. 


Lyon, D. Murray 


Lyon, Jacob Juda 


McCoull. John 


McCallo, William .. 


McCutcheon, C. 


McFarling, James ... 


Ma cgregor, James ... 


Mackay,A. M. 


McKean, William ... 


McKenzie, John 


Main, Alex. M. 


Maisson, Hugh 


Maissoun, Paul 


Maltus, Farmerie 

94, 132 

Martin, William 


Mason, William 


Matveieff, Basil 

î)6, 272 

Maule, Col. 


Meggitt, John 


Mehiel, Bro. 


Melode, William 


Meyerbeer, Bro. 


Micholls, E. E. 


Middelton, John 


Miller, Alexander 


Miller, James 


Mold, C.T 


Monro, John 


Montagu, Viscount ... 


Moody, Mr. 


Moor,J. C 


Moore, James 


Moray, 8xr Robert . . . 


Morier, James 


Montray, Rev. J. M. ... 


Muir, John 


Munkhouee, Rev. Richard 

101 106,126 

Murât, Prince 


Murray. Alfred A. A. 


Murray, James 


Murray, John 


Naylor, Jeremiah 


Nelson, Lord 


Nelthorpe. H. C. 


Newton, James 


Nicholls, John 


Nisbet, Cloud 


Nixon, Sir Ecoles 


Noble, John 

... 126,128 

Nogur, John 


Noorthoack, John 


Norie, William 


North, C. N. Mclntyre 


Northampton John ... 


Oliver, Andrew 


Oliver, Dr. ... 


Osbern, Thomas 


Osborn, William 


Overton, F. 


Owen, Dr. S. Walshe... 


Oxley, John... 


PadingtoD. Thomas ... 


Palmer, John 


Palmer. Rev. J. N. ... 


Palmere, William 


Parker, F. H. 


Patersooe, John 


Pattersor., Dr. J. M. ... 


Patteson, J. ... 


Paytoun, George 


Pearson, James 


Digitized by 




PerSOnS referred to:- 

Persons referred to :— 


Peek, Rbv. Richard ... 


Smith, William 


Perry, Bro. ... 


Smith, W. Léonard ... 


Peterson, Andrew 


Songhurst, W. J. 


Phillips, Ebenezer S.... 


229, 263 

Pilîans Mr.... 


Southam, J. D. 


Pinkerton, William ... 


Soiithcote, John 


Pitt, Thomas 


Spencer, Lord Charles 


Polie, William 


Speth, G. W. 


Pope, Alexander 


Steer, William 


Pope, Seth L. 


Stott, Thomas 


Powell, Oecil 


Stukeley, Dr. W. 


PrestoD, William 


Sunderland, John 


Pyrah, John 


Sussex, Duie of 


Ragon, J. B. M. 

... 34,36,36 

Swalwe, John 


Ragon, Natalie. A. L. 


Sy mes, Bro 


Ramsbotham, John ... 


Syroe, Andrew 


Bawlinson, Dr. Richard 


Syme, James 


Raymond, Lord 


Tailzefeir, Henry 


Rayner, John 


Talbot, Captain 


Rayuer, William 


Talkar, William 


Raynor, Robert 


Tarbet, James 


Reid, Mark ... 


Taylor, Thomas 


Reinhold, Afr. 


Teale, James 


Reynolda, E. L. 




Richardson, Peter ... 


Tonnant, Richard 


Richardaon, William ... 


Thomas, J.D. 


Richie, William 


Thompson, W. R. 


Ridsdale, Edward 


Thorley, James 


Ridsdale, John 


Thornhill, 8ir James ... 


Rigler, William 


Thorp, J. T. 

139, 177, 227, 

Riley, Dr, C. 0. L. ... 


253, 261 

Robertsone, John 




Robin son, George 


Totenham, John 


Robson, Bro, 


Tottenham, John 


Roger», Thomas 


Tottenham, Loftus A. 


Rothynge, Adam 


Townend, W. 


Rasher, William 


Tradescant, John 


Rylands, W. H. 


Trevor- Smith, James 


Sachse, Dr. Julius F. .. 


Trotter, Bro. 


Sadler, Henry 


Tudenham, John 


St. Germain, Coimt ... 


Turner, — 


Sallynge, Richard 

... 245.249 

Twyford, Nicholas ... 


Sallynge, Walter 


Typerton, Nicholaa ... 


Salopia, Richard 


Tyryngton, John 


Sampson, Richard 


Venn, Isaac ... 


Samuel, Charles 


Vernicour, Bro. 


Sansom. Dr. A. E. 


Vipont, Bro, 


Sayce, Prof,.., 


Vipout, Andrew 


Schbracq, J, 


Vogeler, G. ... 


Scholefield, John 


Waldon, Watkin 


Schott, Counciïlor ... 


Walkar, Adam 


Scott, James 


Walker, W. 


Scott, Jonathan 


Walker, William 


Scott, Walter 


Walker, William 


Seman, Martin 


Wallwood, William ... 


Shackleton. John 


Walworth, William ... 


Shackleton, William ... 


Warren, General Joseph 


Shamdale, William ... 


Washbourn, Richard ... 


Shaw, Joseph 


Wastell, — 


Shay, Thomas 


Wataon, Charles 


Shirrefs, R. A. 


Watson, D. E. 


Shropahire, Richard ... 


Watson, James 


Sime, John ... 


Watson, William 


Simpson, H. Pal grave 


Watt, Thomas 


Simpson, J. P. 


Webber, Pred. 


Sinclair, H. W. 


Weigall, Rei;. E. M. ... 


Sirr, Harry ... 


Weir, Thomas 


S mal page, Daniel 


Weatcott, Dr. W. Wynn 


8 malpage, John 


Weatropp, Dudiey ... 


Smith, Bro ... 


Weatropp, Thomas ... 


Smith, CapU 


Weatropp, T. J. 


Smith, D. Crawford ... 


Weatropp, Col. W. K. 


Smith, Capt.Z, G. ... 


Wewitzer, Ralph 


Smith, John 


Whelan, John 


Smith, Thomas 

... 125, 128 

Whitaker, William ... 


Digitized by 




Persons referred to:— 

Whitoej, Thomas 

Whytehead, T. B. 

Wickham, William of 

Williams, R. J. 

Willock, Coi. G. W 

Wilson, George 

Wilson, George 

Wilson, Matthew 

WiUon, William 

Wilson, William 

Withey, T. A. 

Wonnacott.W. ... 12, 

Wren, Sir G. 

Wrewk, Thomas 

Wright, W. H. S. 

Wylot, John 

Yarker, John 

Yeaele, Henry 

Yvele, flenry 

Zeveley, Henry 
Pillars in architecture 
Fillars of Solomon's Temple 

}i • n u Origin of 

Plays, Masonic 
Présentation to Dr. W. J. Ghetwode 

Présentation to F. H. Goldney 

Qualifications for Master^s Chair ... 
Queenborough Castle, Building of ... 













239, 244 






65, 179 










Résignation of Rev. C. J. Bail ... 255 
Royal Arch worked in Paris nnder 
powers from Grand Lodge of 

PennsylTania ... ... ... 36 

St. John the Apostle ... ... 66 

Scott Family and Freemasonry ... 70 

Scott ish Rite Masonry, Chronology of 67 

Sharri Tephlia, The G rand . . . ... 1 80 

Solomon's Temple, Pillars in front of 6,270 
Spéculative Masonry in the Masons' 

Company ... ... 238 

Summer Meetings of Lodges ... 46 

„ Outing, Dnrham ... ... 218 

Tabernacle f ormed design of Solomon's 

Temple ... ... 6 

TaylorMS. ... ... ... 211 

Temple, Bnilt to Design of Tabernacle 6 

„ Legendsconcerning Solomon's 264 

„ Pillars in front of Solomon's 6, 270 

Tracing-Boards by John Harris ... 74 
Tracing Boards, Phœnix Lodge, 

Sunderland ... ... 220 

Trade Incorporations of Scotland ... 185 

Wardens nominated by Master ... 30 

Westminster Hall, Building of ... 251 

Will of Henry Yvele ... ... 252 

" Ancients " Lodges, Engravod List of 

Apron, French Ëngraved 

„ Grand Lodge of Darmstadt 
„ with design in Indian ink 

Astley, Portrait of 8ir Edward 

Barnard Castle 

Book-Plate, Dr. Dodd 
„ Peter Gilkes 

Burlington Gâte ... 

Byrom, Portrait of Dr. John 

Bye-Law8, Morcian Lodge ... 

Chandos Tomb 

Certificates, R.A. Paris 

Dodd, Book-Plate of Dr. 

Durham Castle 
„ Cathedral 

Ëngraved List of Lodges 

Eutick, Portrait of John 

Goblet, Silurean Lodge 

Goldney, Portrait of F. H. ... 

Gregorian Constitntional Song 

Gregorians, Ëngraved List of Chapters 

Henery Heade M S. 

Jewel, Oddfellow's... 

Jewels, Ëngraved ... 

Jewels, Mercian Lodge 

Lodges, Ëngraved List of 

Man of Taste 

Map of Southwark in 1542 ... 

Marshalsea Prison ... 

Mary lebone in 1750 

Masonic Token, Wm. Busher, Banbnry 

Medal, Amitié Bienfaisence ... 

„ Dr. W. J. ChetwodeCrawley ... 

„ Seb. Cramoisy 

„ Entrepreneurs de Maçonnerie ... 

„ Count Goblet d'Alviella 
Meeting.Place, St. John's Lodge, Con- 

Persepolis, Column at 
Pillar at Jérusalem, Capital of 



263 , Portrait of Str Edward Astley ... 97 

255 I „ „ Dr. John Byrom ... 236 

256 „ „ John Entick ... ... 76 

256 „ „ F. H. Goldney ... Frontispiece 

97 I Print of a " Free Mason " ... ... 4 

222 I Procession of St. James's Lodge, 

64 : Tarbolton ... ... ... 158 

176 Baby Castle ... ... ... 222 

230 j Richmond in 1720 ... ... ... 46 

236 St. Paneras in 1750 .. ... 52 

4 Seal of Budrum ... ... ... 88 

241 Seal, unidentified ... ... ... 228 

34, 36 Southwark in 1542, Map of ... ... 42 

64 I Summons, Ëngraved ... ... 256 

220 Sommons, Wakefield Chapter, Gregor- 

218 ians ... ... .. ... 105 

263 ' Taverns, London and Subnrbs : — 

76 Bell and Anchor, Hammersmith... 48 

4 I Gun, Pimlico ... ... ... 50 

Frontifipiece Jamaica House, Rotherhithe ... 42 

93 Eing's Arms, Southwark ... 44 

95 King's Head, Islington ... 54 

161,168 Queon's Head, Islington ... 54 

271 Queen's Head, Southwark 44 

5,74,75 Red House, Battersea ... ... 46 

229,256 Swan, Cheleca ... ... 48 

4 Swan, Deptford ... ... 42 

263 White Hart, Southwark ... 44 

230 Windsor Castle, Hammersmith ... 48 

42 TaylorMS. ... ... 212 

44 Temple, Caldecott's re-construction of 

52 ' Solomon's ... ... ... 8 

228 Temple, Pillars at Solomon's ... 8, 11 

228 Tobacco Box ... ... ... 4 

255 Trade Card, John Hutcheson, London 4 

228 „ ,, Mathews, Oxford ... 256 

228 , „ „ Procter, London ... 256 

34 Warrant, ** Ancients," Lodge No. 87 ... 74 

' „ St. John's Lodge, Connecticat 90 

90 I Westminster Abbey, Porch to N. 

8 Transept ... ... ... 251 

8 I Whitchurch, St. Lawrence ... ... 241 

Digitized by 







Armitage, F. 


Murray, Alfred A. A. 

69, 185 

Bejçemann, Dr. W. 

65 1 

Oliver, Andrew 


Bradiey, H. 

19 ' 

Owen, Dr. S. Walshe 


Brown, Harry 

271 ' 

Parker, F. H 


Crawley, Dr, W. J 

Chetwode ... 84 i 

Peek, Rev, Richard 


Dring, E. H. 

132,225 1 

Rylanda, W. H. 


Goidney, P. H. 


Simpson, J. P. 

38, 236 

Hawkins, E. L. 


Sirr, Harry 

• 181 

Hextall, W, B. 

16,84,130,138 ' 

Smith, D. Crawford 



Songhurst, W. J. ... 

. 11,57,180 

Horaley, Canon J. 

W, ... ... 6,68,237 , 

Thorp, JohnT. 


Hoghan, W. J. 

56, 177, 23S, 263 

Walker, Wm. 


HuRo, T. W. 


Wabson, W. 


Klein, S. T. 


Westropp, T. J. 


le Feuvre, J. B. 


Wonnacott, W. 

12, 238, 244 

Lobingier, C. 8. 


Yarker, John 


Mackay, A, M. 

270 1 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 



Quatuor Coronati Locige of A.F. & A. M. y London, 

No. 2076. 


FRIDAY, lOth JANUARY, 1908. 

HE Lodge met at Freemasons' Hall, at 5 p.m. Prcgent :— Bros. F. H. Goldnej, 
P.G.D., W.M.; J. T. Thorp, P.A.G.D.C., S.W.; E. L. Hawkins, J, Stew., as J.W. ; 
Canon J. W. Horsley, P.G.Oh., Chap. ; W. John Songhurst, A.G.D.C., Secreiary ; 
H. Sadler, G.Ty., S.D. ; E. H. Dring, S.Stew., as J.G. » Admirai Sir A. H. Markbam, 
P.Dis G.M. Malfca, P.M. ; G. Greiner, P.A.G.D.C, P.M.j E. J. Castîe, P.D.G.Reg., 
P.M. ; and S. T. Klein, P.M. 

Also the foUowing members of the Correepondence Circle : — Bros. W. H. 
HariMS, J. Ilarrison, Dr. T. W. Lemon, James J. Hall, Thos. Bargess, John Cburoh, G. H. Luetchford, 
P. J. DadgeoD, John Palmer, Lewis H. Maynard, G. J. Gissing, F. A. Rfcind, W. Howard Flanders, Thos. 
Oohu, P.G.St.B. ; L Solomons, Albert C. Grover, F. Louis Schneider, W. S. Campbell, W. M. Wilson, 
R. B. Sewell, H. Bernard Watson, Charles H. Watsoo, C. C. Barclay, Edward F. Pitkington, W. J. Evans, 
C. F. Knyvett, Alfred S. Gedge, E. Geo. Harvey, C. H. S. Baskerville, Thos. Taylor, P.G.D.; W. W. 
Mangles, E. G. Dru-Drury, W. T. Pegge, George Elkington, Oscar Timme, A. Y. Thurston, C. Isler, 
Chas. Âabert, J. Thomas Johnstone, W. S. Hotchkiu, William Chambers, Henry J. Dalgleish, William 
A. Tharp, Cecil J. Rawlinson, J. W. Tharp, G. Creusemann, B. Pflug, W. J. Newstead, Dr. A. E. 
Wynter, W. B. Hextalî, T. F. Isherwood, J. Walter Hobbs, T. Uff, W. Basbridge, P. W. Potter, W. W. 
Nobbs, G. Vogeler, W. Wonnacott, L. Danielsson, Arthur Gilbert, Charles H. Bestow, Thos. Shields, 
F. H. Nalder, V. 0. Crampton, Rev. 0. E. L. Wright, P.G.D.j J. Albert Richards, H. M. Baker, Dr. S. 
Walshe Owen, W. C. P. Tapper, George J. Light, Stanley W. Rodgers, Henry Hyde, Thomas W. Timms, 
Horace J. Rogers, F. R. Heath, Fredk. Raby, W. J. Home, 0. L. Thomson, Reginald C. Watson, îTerbert 
Burrows, G. Fullbrook, and D. Gunton. 

Also the following Visitors : — Bros. A. J. Campbell, P.M. Frederick Lodge No. 452 ; J. Boetham 
Wilson, W.M. Dorking Lodge No. 1149; Thomas Dixon, Royal Edward Lodge No. 1604; W. G. Newson, 
Ealing Lodge No. 2662; R. E. Beliloes, Empire Lodge No. 20()8 ; and W. A. Mill, Cannon Lodge 
No. 1639. 

Letters of apology for non-attendance wore received from Bros. E. Macbean, Dr. W. J. Chetwode 
Crawley, G.Tr. Irelnnd; E. Armitage, P.D.G.D.C. ; B. Couder, jun., P.M. ; Sir Charles Warren, 
P.Dis.G.M. E. Arch., P.M.; Hamon le Strange, Pr.G.M. Norfolk, I.P.M.; Col. S: C. Pratt, P.M. ; 
F. J. W. Crowe, P.G.O., J.W. ; W. Watson, J.D. ; W. J. Hnghan, P.G.D. ; L. A. de Malczovich; W. M. 
Bywater, P.G.S B., P.M.; G. L. Shackles, P.M. ; J. P. Simpson, LG. ; J. P. Rylands, and W. H. 
Rylands, P.A.G.D.C, P.M. 

Three Lodges, one Masonic Literary Society, and fifty-nine brethren were admitted tp the 
merobership of the Correspondence Circle. 

Digitized by 


2 Transactions of Hio Quatuor Coronati Lodgo. 

The Report of fche Audit Gommittee, ae followe, was approred and ordered to be entered iipon the 


The Committee met at the Holborn Restaurant, on Mondaj, the 6th day of January, 1908. 

PrMcnf .—Bros. G. Greiner, in the Chair; Admirai Sir A. H. Markhani, Canon J. W. Horsley, 
J. P. Simpson, E. L. Hawkins, W. J. Sooghurst, Secretary ; and A. S. Gedge, Auditor. 

The Secretary produced his books and tlie Treasnrer's acconnts and vouchers, which had been 
exarained by the Auditor, and certified as being correct. 

The Committee agreed upon the following 


In presenting our Annual Report, we must again conprratulate yuu upon the work done during 
the past year. 

We hâve had to déplore the loss by death of Bro. Thomas Bowman Whytehead, a Past 
Master of the Lodge. His name will be indissolubly oonnccted with the History of Freemasonry in 
York, as to whîch he was for long an accepted authority. On the other hand Bro. Henry Fitzpatrick 
Berry, Litt. Doc, bas been admitted, leaving the total number at 35. 

In the Correspondence Circle, death bas also removed a number of valued members, promînent 
among whom may be roentioned Bros. John Pyrah, of Hnddersfield ; K. A. Gerstenkorn, of Invercarg^ll, 
New Zealand ; W. H. S. Wright, of St. Paul, Minnesota; and C. Trevor Mold, of Buenos Aires; ail of 
whom hâve done excellent work as Local Secretaries in theîr respective districts. 

We hâve also to report with regret that Bros. R. A. Shirreffs, of Elizabeth, New Jersey ; F. H. 
Parker, of Nikosia, Cyprus ; W. Eindness, of Mackay, Queensland ; and J. B. Cowan, of Ha%vick, N.B. ; 
bave been compelled to resign their Local Secretaryships, and we take this opportunity of expressing 
to thèse brethren our gratef ul thanks for much labour expended on behalf of the Lodge. The following 
new appointments hâve been made during the year : Bro. Seth L. Pope, of Portiand, Oregon ; 
Bro. H. E. Deats, of Fleroington, New Jersey; Bro. T. Cherry, of Mackay, Queensland; Bro. 
H. H. Campkin, of Indian Head, Assiniboia; Bro. Royal A. Gove, of Tacoma, Washington; Bro. James 
Maogregor, of Inverc&rgill, New Zealand ; and Bro. J. W. Chamberlin, of St. Paul, Minnesota. 

Four hundred and seventy-seven names hâve been added to the Correspondence Circle. On the 
other hand 286 names bave been removed in conséquence of death, résignation, or non-payment of dues, 
making a net increaae of 192. We hâve now a total on the list of 3308, which is the largest that bas 
ever been reached. 

Notwithstanding this large accession to our numbera, the acconnts herewith submitted are not 
so satisfactory as they should be, owing to the fact that 673 brethren were in arrears with their 
snbscriptions when the books were closed on the 30th November last, £335 being due on the 
1907 acoount alone. Althoagh it is expected that a large part of this amount will eventually be 
collected, it is évident that many names will bave to be removed, but it is hoped that the wastage will 
be made up by the introduction of brethren who will take a real interest in our work. 

It is satisfactory to note that nearly 200 brethren hâve made use of the Banker's Order Forme 
whîch were recently distribnted, and it is hoped that others who bave Banking accounts in the United 
Kingdom will take advantage of this method of making their annual payments. 

The new joining fee of twenty-one shillings (which includes the first year's subscription) came into 
opération on Ist December, 1907, but it is too early yet to f orm any opinion as to its probable effect upon 
our accounts. 

The assets comprised in the accounts for last year, as in former years, do not include the stock 
of Tranaactiona^ of Antiquarian Reprints, of Facsimiles of varions copies of the Old Constitutions, nor 
the Library and Muséum, upon which alone nearly one thoueand pounds hâve already been expended. 

We désire again to call the spécial attention of members to the large stock of the publications of 
the Lodge, of which full particulars are given on the covers of the TranaacHons, The sale of thèse 
books would establish a f und which would enable the Lodge to extend its opérations greatly. 

For the Committee, GOTTHELF GREINER, in the Chair. 

Digitized by 


Audit Éeport and Èaîance Sheeï. 

BALANCE SHEET.^SOth November, 1907. 

LiàbUities, Asseta, 

JÔ s. d. £ 8. d. 

To Life Members (148 Members) ... 
„ Payments received in advance ... 
„ Correspondence Circle, 1907. 

Balance in hand 
„ Outstandiog Subscriptions as per 


,1 Summer Oating Balance 
f, Sundry Greditors... 
ft Sundry Publications 
n Lodge Account — 



Add Crédit Balance,1906 

967 16 
168 17 7 

306 12 2 

566 19 


B ... 21 7 


20 19 


20 16 


45 3 

44 18 11 

4 1 

32 19 1 

33 3 


£2106 11 


Jt 8. d. 

By Cash at Loudon and County Bank- 
ing Co., Oxford Street 

,, £1,300 Consols at 89 per cent. ... 
,f Sundry Debtors for Subscriptions 
in arreurs — 
1907 Correspondence 

Circle 335 1 1 

1906 ditto 127 3 3 

1905 ditto 48 7 

1904 ditto 32 15 

1903 ditto 19 8 6 

1902 ditto 3 4 

1901 ditto 110 

£ s. d. 

72 16 1 

Sundry Debtors for Publications 

Sundry Publications 

Profit and Loss Deficiency 

566 19 10 
45 8 10 
141 5 
123 1 7 

£2106 11 4 

BROFIT AND LOSS.-For the year ending 30th November, 1907. 

£ s. 





£ s. 


£ s. d. 

["o Balance brought 
„ Salaries 

... 375 




By 1907 Correspondence 


„ Beat 

189 9 

„ 1906 ditto 

215 4 


„ Gas & Firing 
„ Stationery ... 
„ Postages 
„ Oiiice Cleaning, 
„ Insurance ... 


5 4 

60 14 

264 9 

57 4 

9 10 

30 18 



„ 1905 ditto 

„ 1904 ditto 

„ 1903 ditto 

„ 1902 ditto 

„ 1901 ditto 

36 6 

21 10 

5 15 

3 14 



„ Purniture ... 

883 1 


„ Repairs 

2 14 

„ Back Transactions 

47 16 


„ Library 
„ Sundries 

80 13 
8 14 


1084 11 


„ Sundry Publications 

„ Life Members 

„ Interest on Consols 

36 14 

6 6 

30 17 



„ Discount 

14 17 




„ Whymper Fund ... 
„ Balance carricd to Bal 

105 15 


1125 8 10 
123 1 7 

auce Sheet 


S1248 10 

£1248 10 5 

This Balance Shect does not include tbe value of tbe Library and Muscum, Stock of Transactions 
and Office Furniture, and is subject to the realization of Asseis. I hâve examined the above Balance 
Sheet and Profit and Loss Account witli the Books and Vouchers of the Lodge, and certify the same to 
be correct, and in accordance therewith. 

Alf&ed s. Gedge, 

Chartered Accountantf 

3} Great James Street) 
8Uth Deceniber, 1907. Bedford Row, W.C 

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4 Trannactious of the Quatuor Cnrouuti Loâ<je. 

Bro. Canon Hobslby informée! the Brethren that the date of tho Meeting to welcome siich 
Moson-Bishops as moy be in London at the time of the Pan-Anglican Conférence had been fixed for 
Tuesday, 14th Jnly. 

The Secrctary called attention to the following 


By Bro. John Palmer, Ludlow. 

Glass Gohlkt, raade for thoSilarean Lodge Ko. 576, which was constituted at Kington, Hereford- 
shire, in 1791. Bro. Lane, in his ''Masonic Records," says *' About 1801 the Lodge separated, and 
"divided the fnnds amongst its members. The Lodge furniture was sold in the year 1804 by the 
" Treasnrer to a person in Ludlow for £22 lOs. 6d." This accounts for the appearance of the goblet 
at Ludlow. It was presented to the Lodge of tBe Marches in 18S7. The original warrant of tlie 
Silurean Lodge is also in ihe possession of the Lodge of the Marches, and appears to hâve been used for 
the création of a ncw Lodge at Ludlow in 1805, which was called the "Mercian," and was diseolved on 
the 2l8t October, 1828. 

ToBACco-Box, presented to the Mercian Lodge No. 485. 
number had been changed to 528. 

The box bears the date 1815, when the 

jKWEr^s, now in tho possession of the Lodge of the Marches. Thosc of the W.M., 8.W., J.W., 
Treasnrer, and Secretary are the original ones of the Silurean Lodge of Kington. The P.M. jewel in 
silver and paste was presented by the Brethren of the Mercian Lodge to Bro. J. B. Morris, W.M. for the 
first fourteen years of its existence. 

MS. Bye-Laws of the Mercian Lodge, dated 1805, and presented to the Lodge of the Marches in 


By Bro. Sampson Foqo, Manchester. 

" The Free-Masons Accusation and Defrnce. In Six Genuine Lettkrs. Between a Gkktlk- 
" MAX in the Country, and his Son a Student in the Temple. Wiikrkin The whole AfFair of Masonry is 
" fairly debated, and ail the Arguments for and against that Fhaternity are cnrioualy and impartially 
" handled. London : Printed for J. Peele, at LocfeeVHead in Pa^er-no«<cr- Rom;; and N. Blandfohd at 
" the London-Oazettey Charing-Cross. 1726. (Price Six-pence.)" This is a perfect copy of this rare 

Tradk Bill of John Hutchison, inserted in Calcott's ** Candid Disqnisition," of 1769. 




à ' 

>B. L^braries put in OiïlcrflOn reafonable Terms . 


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> KBWAl 




Byk-Laws of tlie extinct Mercian Lodge of Ludiow. 

Jewels in the pf)8^e88ion of the Lodge of tUt* \î h tri tes, Ludiow. 

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Ars Quatoor Coronatorum. 

Japanned Tobacco Box in the possession of the Lodge of the Marches, Ludlow. 

"Free Mason." 
From the print in the possession of Bro. Sampson Fogg. ^-^ j 

Digitized by VjOOÇIC 

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CoLOURED Peint of a " Free Mason "; published by S. and F. Fuller, London, 1823. 

Exgrave D Jewbl, inscribed on the rîm " William Wilson, Past Master." 

By Bro. Harry Guy, London. 

Leather âpron, edged with red ribbon, square and compassés in red silk in the centre, and 
" No. 244 " on the flap. 

By Bro. E. Lionkl Reynolds, Slough. 

Certificate, United Grand Lodge of England, issued to Isaac Venn on 3rd April, 1815, as a 
member of Lodge No. 875, at the Cock and Bell, Bomford, Essex. This is one of the E0-cal1ed '* St. 
Paul's" certificates. It was not signed by the récipient, and in the space provided for that purpose 
there bas been written *' Deceased. Obit 1827 A.D. 5827 A.L." 

By Bro. E. L. Hawkixs, St. Leonard's-on-Sea. 

Facsimile of Pink's Engraved List of Lodoes, from the original in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. 
This is the only copy known of the 1735 édition. Presented to the Lodge. 

By Bro. John Church, London. 

Old Eilver Collar.Jlwkls, of W.M., P.M., S.W., and J.W. 

A vote of thanks was passed to those brethren who had lent objecta for exhibition, and to those 
who had made présentations to the Lodge Library and Maseum. 

Bro. Canox J. W. Horsley read the following paper i— 

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6 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Loàge. 



T seems to me tliat the prominence from a structural point of view, and 
tlie importance from the ethical, or religions standpoint, of the two 
great pillars which stood in or before the porch of King Solomon's 
Temple hâve not been fully recognized. 

* * • « « 

Haviog now given a traditional account of the appearance and 
intention of the two pillars ; liaving next pointed ont what seems 
faulty in thit account ; the way is open to an examination of what they were actually 
in structure, in appearance and in nse. And hère let me draw your attention to the 
drawings I liave had raade, which are enlargements from some in a remarkable book on 
Solomon's Temple, lately sent me for review, some pages of which suggested, and indeed 
made possible, this paper. The book is by the Rev. W. Shaw Caldecott, M.R.A.S., a 
learned Wesleyan minister, lias a laudatory préface by Prof. Sayce, and is published by 
the Religions Tract Society. He is not of the Craft, but I hâve had some interesting 
correspondeuce with him, and he bas very kindly allowed me to nse his designs. 

In order to understand tlie pillars we must first go back to the Tabernacle and 
discover the relation borne to it by the Temple, and also must avail ourselves of 
comparatively récent discoveries as to the origin and value of the Systems of measure- 
ment adopted by Solomon. Not from the Volume of the Sacred Law alone can we 
dérive, as our predecessors thought, our knowledge of thèse pillars. 

The Tabernacle, however holy and awef ni, was, by the necessity of the wandering, 
insignificant in size, a gloritied Bédouin tent rather than a temple, only 40 cubits in 
length (or 48 feet), including its porch, which was an addition to the two Holy 
Chambers westwards of it. With this porch we are concerned as the precursor of the 
porch of the tirst Temple. While the Holy of Holies in the Tabernacle was an entirely 
dark chamber, only 12 feet square, a cube of thèse dimensions being the most perfect 
of ail figures of magnitude, and the Holy place eastwards of it was but two cubes of 
the inner chamber, the porch or portico was ampler, supported by five pillars. Into the 
Sanctum Sanctorum only the High Priest could enter, into the Holy Place only the 
priests, and when King Uzziah trangressed the threshold leprosy was his punitfhment. 
But the porch, covered by its teut-curtains, was the ordinary place of worship for the 
Judges or the earlier Kings before the building of the Temple. Into it David, as 
anointed, passed beyond the Soreg, or court of the laity, and stood between the altar 
and the Holy Chambers when he " came into the House of the Lord and worshipped " 
(il. Sam., xii., 20), or " went in, and sat before the Lord " (n. Sam., vii., 18). There in an 
unenclosed area of 12 feet square, the King or Judge would make his dévotions in public, 
while the priests passed by to minister in the Holy Place or at the altar. The poi*ch 
pillars were 15 cubits, or 18 feet, in height, but no spécial significance was attached to 
them, nor any unusual beauty of art or material lavished npon thcm. 

When the Temple was contemplated it was felt that the proportions of the 
Tabernacle (exteriorly but a squat black tent) must be increased to give dignity, and 

Digitized by 


Xe^c LtgJit on tlie Piîlars of Sohmons Temple. 7 

the increase took the form of duplication of ail measurements, while the essential design 
remained nnaltered. Severe in simplicity the two Holy Chambers rcmained, although 
oedar is to replace acacia wood, and gold everywlîere to take the place of brass. Even 
the floor of the Holy of Holies was to be of gold, so that the High Priest stood witliiii a 
oasket of gold. But still the new building would seem small compared with palace and 
fortifications that would arise around it, and, therefore, it was determined to magnify 
the porch, and to make of it a magnificent façade, on which splendour of architecture 
and détail should impress the worshippers in tlie courts below. The word porch to us 
suggests rather an érection a quarter or a third the height of the hou se or building 
before which it stands. This porch, however, is to tower above the Temple behind it, 
which still conformed to that tent-like construction, which was the dominating idea 
which flowed from Mosaic, through Davidic and Maccaba^an to Herodian days. And so, 
whereas the Tabernacle porch was only 36 feet high, that of the Temple was 144 feet 
(120 cubits), or not far short of half the height of the Victoria Tower at Westminster, 
or again, exactly thrioe the height of the Temple. This porch, or façade, was approached 
by steps leading from the level of the altar floor to that of the Holy Chambers, and was 
made the chief architectural feature of ail the Temples, since tradition or mie. allowed 
no altération in the size of the inner chambers. But prominent as one looked up to this 
façade, on a broad landing on the tenth of the twelve steps leading to the floor of the 
actual Temple stood two great pillars, or rather obelisks, with shafts of 18 cubits (or 
21f feet), bsLses of 3 cubits (or 3-J- feet) to help proportion, to give stability, and to guard 
the shaft from passers-by, with true capitals of 5 cubits (or 6 feet) and supra-capital s 
of 4 cubits (or 4>- feet). This gives a total height of 30 cubits, or 36 feet, which is 
exactly (as the rule followed throughout in the Temple building would lead us to 
expect) double that of the porch pillars of the Tabernacle. It may hère be noted that 
the proportions of 3 cubits for the base, 4 for the supra-capital, and 5 for the capital 
proper seems to follow the 3, 4, and 5 which w^as the foundation of the Babylonian 
sexagésimal System of arîthmetic with its unit of sixty and its legitimate fractions. 

Hère also it will be well to remember that comparing what is called the Rule of 
Gudea from a table of lengths inscribed on a slab found in Babylonia in 1881, and now 
in the Louvre, with the Senkereh mathematical tablet found at Larsa in 1850 by Mr. 
W. K. Loftus, we obtain a fundamental palm-breadth of 3.6 inches, from which are 
derived the three Babylonian cubits of 10.8, 14.4 and 18 inches respectively, the smallest 
being used for gold-work, the middle for building and the largest for the plotting of land 
spaces. The structure of the Tabernacle shows (as Mr. Caldecott proved in his earlier 
book on the Tabernacle) that Moses adopted and perpetuated the Babylonian System, 
while from the Tabernacle of Moses, Solomon reverentially adopted both the outline and 
the measnres which were to rule the Temple plan. 

In the outer line of the Tabernacle Porch there stood three wood en pillars simply 
for utility or necessity. Those that succeed them as supporters of a roof now become 
insignificant in comparison with the two great and ornamental obelisks that stand free 
before the Porch of King Solomon's Temple. Whence came this new idea? It has 
long been pointed out that Solomon's artist for metal-work was a Phœnician by training. 
Now before every Temple of Melkarth, the Tyrian Herakles, and of other gods also, 
stood two columns, monoliths, or of métal. Herodotus (ii., 44, 1) says that at Tyre 
there were two pillars, the one of refined gold, the other of smaragdus (perhaps a 
highly-polished green marble, perhaps of emerald glass), the latter lit from within at 
night. Josephus {Goubr. Ap. 1, 17, 18) says that the King Hirom of Solomon's 
day dedicated the golden pillar in the Temple of the Tyrian Zeus. Such sacred 

Digitized by 


8 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

pillars marked ail the old Canaanite sanctaaries, and were no mère supports for 
roof or architrave. Sach was the stone pillar, or maççëbâh, which Jacob set up 
at Bethel, and then poured oil upon it as an offerinc^. Such were the two pillars 
figured on the coins of Paplios with the représentation of the Temple of tho Ph(i»nician 
Astarte (see the illustration on p. 139 of our Transaiions, vol. v. pt. 2). Hence also was 
dcrived the name of the Pillars of Herakles, given to the rocky heights betwoen which 
the early Phœnician mariners eroerged from the Mediterranean on their westward 
explorations. Mr. Caldecott, to whom I am so much indebtcd, says in his Solomon's 
Temple that the phrase connoted '*The two pillars which stood before a Temple to 
Hercules built on a sky-line of the Rock of Gibraltar, which were visible to mariners 
when still a long distance at sea." The sumniit of the Rock on which I hâve been 
would hardly accommodate a temple of any size, nor would two pillars be visible from 
many points of view as two. It is more natural to believe that poetic and religions 
feeling thus named the African and Spanish heights which form the Straits of Gibraltar. 
One column still stands in the old Phœnician sanctuary at Goza, near Malta. Two 
huge ones stand at Tekkah, near Larnaka, in Cypras, having survived their temple. 
David therefore adopted a common custom of the land, whilc taking care that their 
names shonld dénote their monotheistic teaching as symbole of Jahoah, the God of 
Israël. Their names were probably engraved on the eastward faces of the pillars. So 
we read in Bro. Gould's " Concise History of Freemasonry " : — " The two famous pillars 
in the Cathedral of Wiirzburg, formerly the capital of Franconia, were originally on 
either side of the porcb, though they now stand in the body of the Cathedral. Tbey 
are inscribed respectively Jachin and Boaz on the abacus, but in moving them Jachin 
has been pat on the left and Boaz on the right.*' 

But they were not merely symbols and proclamations of the Almighty. They 
were associated probably (I speak with diflBdence as this will be a new point to most) 
with two religions cérémonies of great import to the nation. Jachin, on the right hand 
or south, " was the royal pillar " says Mr. Caldecott, ** and the name or phrase * He 
shall establish ' gi-aven on it was a continuons proclamation that the throne depended 
for its stability upon the favour of Jehovah." In six passages of Scriptnre we find the 
repeated promise to David that God would ''establish *' his kingdom or throne for ever. 
Whenever then Solomon or his successor-s passed by and between thèse pillars, as none 
else save the priests were entitled to pass, they would be remindedof their indebtedness 
to their God and of the neod of their constant reliance on Him. But there is more to 
be noted as to this Royal Pillar. There is évidence that before or beside it stood each 
sovereign for his consécration and coronation, to vow adhésion to the obligations of his 
high office. Thus when we read that the boy-king Joash stood " by the pillar " 
(il. Kings, ii. 14), defined also in ii. Chronicles xiii. 13 as ''his pillar at the entrauce " 
while they crowned and annointed him, we must especially lay emphasis on his pillar, 
which can only mean that it had an especial and well-known connection with Kings and 
King-making. Still more we must note the expression ** stood by the pillar, as the 
Tïianner was,'' i.e., as coronation précèdent required — what else could the phrase mean ? 
A précèdent by-the-bye antedating the Temple in some ways, for when before David's 
death the précaution was taken of re-anointing Solomon as King and Zadok as High 
Priest against the pretenders Adonijah and Abiathar, this second and double ceremony 
took place at the Tabernacle door. This double ceremony, for as yet there was dual 
authority, theocracy being administered throngh King and High Priest, the powers of 
both Chnrch and State being recognised as derived from on high. Therefore, though 
we may find no textual proof thOft Boï^z was the Priestly Pillar by which the High 

Digitized by 


Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. 

Elévation of Chapiter. 
(Enlarged from " Solomon's Temple," by the Kev. W. Shaw Caldecott.) 

Digitized by 


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Ar8 Quatuor Coronatorum. 

Cross Section thkolgfi Temple. 
(Enlarged from " Solomon's Temple," bj the Rev. W. Shavv Caldeeott.) 

Basket-work Capital of a Pillau 
in the Court of the Church of the Holy Sepuk-hre at Jérusalem. 

Digitized by 


Or , 

Digitized by 


Ars Quatlor Coronatorum. 



^cjtLE or rscr 



Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Ars Qcatuor Coronatorum. 







J— i 

r ^ ^i<icsc>ioi<:î 


Chtnnbe./ ' 





\ ' 


K — r 

-L -, . 1 




Front ELcvATion or Tsm/^le 

..//.• .. /;/».///-.// /. . / 

»//,• #î .V»-.//' 

(Bnlarged frotn " Soloraon's Temple," by the Rev. W. Shaw Caldecott.) 

Digitized by VjOOÇIC 


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New Light on the Pillars of Solomon^s Temple.. 9 

Priest stood for hia consécration in the sight of the multitudes below, yet analogy and 
probability would suggest it, and that at the two pillars, each with anointing, the highest 
digni taries in Church and Realni were publicly set apart for the service of God and His 
people. Thenceforward the inscribed word would remind the High Priest as he 
ascended the steps that in it (i.e., keeping the Law) or in Him (Jehovah) was his 
strength. Our Brother Woodford wrote long ago in the ** Masonic Cyclopœdia," " There 
can be no don ht that they had a symbolical meaning^ and probably referred alike to the 
Priestly and the Kingly power." 

To such a sacred use, more than to any symbolical meaning, which might easily 
be forgqtten, we may well ascribe their prominence and their abundant and exquisite 
omament, which made them to ordinary beholders the chief artistic glory of the first 
Temple. The glittering lofty shafts, rising to a height abore the ground level of 
26 cubits, were surmounted with square capitals five cubits high. It is from the 
description of Jeremiah, an eye-witness of the bumîng of the Temple when the pillars 
were puUed down with ropes and broken up by the soldiers, that we are able to repre- 
sent their design. Square, they bore 24 bosses or rosettes of pomegranate blossoms 
(five-petalled, and so fonned on the basis of the Pentagram) on each side, the number 
being made up to a huudred by one at each corner. The ground pattern upon the 
casting of the capitals or chapiters was of basket or network, and my leamed friend, Mr. 
Caldecott, was much interested when I sent him lately a photograph I cansed to be 
taken on my visit to Jérusalem last November. It is of an ancient pillar in the court 
before the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and as yon will see reproduces, by a local 
tradition that has not died ont, this perforated basket-work in stone as a capital. Less 
striking examples of the same kind of work I noticed elsewhere. The pomegranate 
blossoms or tive-petalled rosettes were probably placed at the intersection of the 
diagonal lines of the pattern. With the capitals and upon them were aiso cast wreaths 
of chain-work, or festoons of flowers such as were afterwards common in the noblest 
Greek omament. 

But above the capitals there was the striking addition of a supra-capital, 
separately cast in the form of a liliaceons or six-petalled flower, the "lily work" of 
I. Kings, vii., 19. Their Hebrew name would hegtillah, meaning a hoUow vessel, and it 
is translated *' pommels '* in the A.V., and ** bowls " in the R.V. The origin may hâve 
been the sacred lotus flower of Egypt, which provided architectural designs familiar to 
us in the Egyptian Court at the British Muséum. The cavity was probably used at 
consécrations and coronations as a réceptacle into which some of the sacred oil was 
poured, according to well-known Hebrew symbolical action. In conséquence of this 
sacred use the supra-capitals were preserved from défilement by the nesting of pigeons 
or ravens by there being placed before each a network of brass, which protected and, to 
a certain extent, concealed the two sacred bowls, which, after the example of the famons 
Persian column at Persepolis, surmounted the capitals. A drawing of this latter I 
exhibit by the kindness of Bro. A. E. Biggs, to whom also I am indebted for the 
enlargement to scale of the pillars, from Mr. Caldecott's book. Mr. James Fergusson, 
P.R.S., M.R.A.S., Fellow of the R. Inst. of Brit. Architects, who wrote the article on the 
Temple in Dr. Sraith's Dictionary of the Bible, remarks that " the columns of Persepolis 
are probably more like Jachin and Boaz than any other pillars which hâve reached us 
from antiquity, and give a better idea of the immense capitals than we obtain from any 
other examples ; but, being in stone, they are far more simple and less ornamental than 
they would hâve been in wood, and infini tely less so than their métal prototypes." If 
we refer to n. Çbron., iv., 13, we shall find that thèse free and removable networks 

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Transactions of fhe Quatuor Goronati Lodge, 

were adorned with the saine pomegranate blossora design as tliere were on the capitals 
below. Thus from below and afc their great height there would be a continuity and a 
nnity of design between the capitals and the supra-capitals. Thèse covering networks 
bore fonr hundred of thèse rosettes, raaking the total six hnndred. As Jereraiah speaks 
only of the two hundred on the capitals, the supra-capitals may bave been removed by 
some previous despoiler. Such floral rosettes by-the-bye are fonnd in many later 
temples in Assyria or Persepolis, and I saw their descendants, so to speak, on many 
buildings in the Holy Land. 

Considering the prominence and importance of thèse two pillars in the façade of 
Solomon's Temple, apart from any^ question of their religious significance or cérémonial 
use, it seems to me strange indeed, that no successors or substitutes for them appeared 
in any of the subséquent Temples, after their démolition before the eyes of Jeremiah. 
They were not accidentai, but essential to the Temple scheme of architecture, and 
as such would, we should anticipate, bave been reproduced in some form, albeit 
without their original glory of design. 

I hâve attempted to show how faulty and misleading are not a few of the state- 
ments concerning the pillars. I hâve endeavoured to make more clear to you what 
thèse striking obelisks really were in appearance. I hâve suggested that, perhaps, too 
much they hâve been regarded as merely architectural ornaments, whereas there is 
some suggestive indication of such religious use as that which prevents our speaking of 
the stone in Westminster Abbey, or St. Aagustine's Chair, in Canterbury Cathedral, 
as merely stones of a certain shape, apart from their connection with the coronation of 
our Kings or the enthronement of our Primates. I bave also indicated their connection 
in position, in form, in omament and in use, with allied objects in the Temples of other 
lands and other faiths. With ail my conclusions or suggestions I cannot expect that 
everyone will agrée ; but to hâve drawn f resh attention to objects so familiar to the 
Craft may be of advantage through the criticisms, corrections and additions of other 
brethren, even if my own contribution may prove to hâve been insignificant. 


Thickness of castings 

Bases of pillars 


Sapra capital 

Square capital 

Circumference of pillar 


Height, excluding stops 

Height, includingsteps, bases and capitals.. 

Height of porch 



" Four fîng 

ers '' 













(i. Kings 









(il. Chron 

. iii 



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Î7ew Light on the Pûlars of Solo mon s Temple. 


Bro. SoNGHURST called attention to the valuable paper on ** Eighteenth Centurj 
descriptions of Solomon's Temple," read before the Lodge in 1899 {A.Q,0.^ vol. xii., 
p. 135) by Bro. Professer Swift P. Johnston, and he produced several books from the 
Lodge Library which might reasonably be considered to hâve influenced later writers. 
Foremost among thèse was the Genevan Bible (familiarly known as the " Breeches 
Bible"), first printed in Geneva in 1560. Many éditions were subsoqnently issued,and, 
in spite of the numerous errors contained in the foreign printed copies, it continned to 
be the Bible of the English people for upwards of three-quarters of a century, while 
many of the marginal notes were added to the text of King James's Bible even solate as 
1810.^ Woodcnts of the Temple are given to illustrate the description in i. Kings, and 
one of the pillars is also shown separately, 

being described in the margin as follows : — 

A B — The height of a pillar eighteene cubits, the compalïe of a pillar was 
twelne cubits. 

D E — The height of the chapiter or round bail vpon the pillar of fine 
cubits height. 

F — In the middes were two rowes of pomegranates : the reft is the 
networke and flourdelices, or rofes. 

An attempt is made to reconcile the différent dimensions of the pillars as given 
in I. Kings vii., 15, and ii. Chron. iii., 15, by a marginal note to the latter text. 

Euery one was eighteene cubits long, but the halfe cubite could not be 
feene, for it was hid in the roundeuefle of the chapiter, and therefore he 
giueth to euery one but 17 and a halfe. 

Dr. Dodd, in his Commentary on the Bible (1765), bas the following note to 
I. Kings vii., 15 : — 

It is said, 2 Chron. iii. 15. that thèse pillars were thirty and jive cvihii^ tigh, 
which relates to the height of both of them together, without their 
pedestals, whereas the height of each is given hère with its pedestal. 
Thèse two pillars were called by the names of Jachin and Boaz, ver. 21. 
words which imply, that Godalone gavestability, or was alone the support 
and strength of the temple. Varions allegorical désignations hâve been 
given to thèse pillars, into which we shall not enter. They appear to hâve 
been designed as ornaments to the temple, and to hâve as little référence 

^ Dore's Old Bibles^ 2ad Ed., 1888. 

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là frarisactions of the Quatuor Coronati Loàge. 

to the pillar of cloud and of fire, as to the lightand the air. The Authors 
of the Universal History observe by way of conjecture, that one might 
suppose there was au inscription in some such sensé as that above, given 
upon the basis of each of the pillars ; that on the one beginning with the 
Word Jachin, and that on the other with the word Boaz, from whence the 
pillars might hâve their dénomination ; as we see the books of Moses 
called by the first words which they begin with. See Universal History, 
vol. iv., p. 206. 

The Models of the Temple by Councillor Schott and the Rabbi * Jacob Juda 
Lyon * were dealt with by Bro. W. J. Chetwode Crawley and Bro. W. H. Rylands in 
-4.Q.C, vol. xii., pp. 150-163. Schott appears to hâve considered that the two pillars 
were necessary in the construction of the Porch, as he refers to beams being laid across 
them, and in the drawing published wifch the description of his model they are shewn 
inside the Porch in such a position that they would not hâve been visible to any except 
the Priests. The Rabbi says that they " were erected at the front of the Temple/' 
and the context seems to shew that in his model he put them outside the Porch where 
they could hâve been seen bj ail the congrégation. The two men were fairly in agree- 
ment in their ideas about the length of the cubit. The former has it that " The Temple 
" must be measured by a Calamus (Rule, Measure, Reed), that contains six cubits, a 
" cubit is six FalmoSj or Hand-breadth, the Palni, of four Inches *' ; while Léon puts it 
as foUows : — '* The Cubit was 6 Fists long, and every Fist 4 Thumbs in breadth, which 
" is about 2 Feet and a quarter each Cubit." 

Bro. Wm. Wonnacott said he did not propose to deal with that portion of Bro. 
Horsley's paper which compare4 certain esoteric traditions with such parts of the 
Scriptures as referred to the varions matters dealt with this evening. In the portion 
of the paper which had been printed, there was a gi-eat deal to discuss, and he proposed 
to touch upon some of those points raised by Bro. Horsley in his review of the work by 
Rev. W. Shaw Caldecott, as well as upon some others lie had not mentioned. 

' The careful study of the scriptural history, and an analysis of the extracts 
referring to the parts of the Temple under considération, pointed to the fact that the 
passages as transmitted to us were written by scribes who were in no sensé archœologists, 
nor architects, nor were they mathematicians, for they hâve left us in the dark as to the 
exact length of the cubit, — their ordinary unit of measurement, — and their mensuration 
was queer, as expressed in the traditional dimensions handed down to us. Nor were 
the divines who translated the texts for us acquainted with the technical terms used in 
building to describe the varions parts. 

Modem scholars hâve pointed ont how the records were re-written from time to 
time, and edited again and again during the exile ; and in the course of the varions 
rédactions there was conspicuous in the narrative a tendency to exaggerate. As an 
instance of this, take the price paid by David for the threshing floor of Araunah which 
in II. Sam. xxiv., 24, is given as '* fifty shekels of silver," while tho i. Chron. xxi., 26, 
states it at " six hundred shekels of gold by weight." Dr. W. Robertson Smith has 
pointed ont in several passages in his own works, " the tendency of numbers to grow in 
" successive transcriptions is one that criticism must always keep in view, and which, 
" doubtless, was at work before as well as after the time of the Chronicler." This 
tendency has something to do with the height of the porch given in Chronicles, which 

Digitized by 


ifew ÎAght on ihe Pillarê of Solomofis temple. \o 

bas not been aatisfactorily dealt with bj Mr. Caldecott or bis reviewer. Tbe former 
bimself remarks, on p. 8 of bis work, " We bave thus (in Kings and Chronicles) two 
" parallel streams of bistory, one of whicb is of middle âge origin, tbe otber being of 
** comparativelj late date," — and again on p. 10, " Tbe MSS. were accordingly worked 
" over again, and rewrifcten from a fresb point of view, wbicb was tbat of tbe political 
'• situation of tbe day. Tbe reanlt we bave before us in tbe Books of tbe Cbronicles. 
" Tbese bear traces of tbeir Babylonian origin in 

" 1, a peeuliar vocabulary, 
" 2, an unusual syntax, 
" and 3, notewortby idiosyncracies of pbraseology." 

Hence in dealing witb tbe account of tbe temple, tbe possibility of altered texta bas to 
be borne in mind^ and allowances bave to be made for editorial cb anges, as we consider 
and compare tbe varions passages on tbe subject. 

To deal now witb tbe cnbit, it is sucb an important subject, tbat a wbole evening 
could be spent in tbe examination of tbe metrology of tbe ancients. But for tbe purpose 
of tbe présent discussion, it would be well to bear in mind tbat tbe proportional dimen- 
sions referred to in tbe paper would not be affected by tbe précise lengtb of tbe cubit 
used. Wben it is laid down by tbe autbor so empbatically tbat tbere were tbree 
standards of measurements in use at tbe same time, one must examine closely tbe 
grounds of bis statement, and tbey are difficult to find. In bis review, Bro. Horsley 
says " in comparing tbe * Rule of Gudea ' (an inscribed scale of parts on tbe tablet of 
" tbe sitting figure in tbe Louvre) witb tbe Senkereb matbematical tablet," we obtain a 
fundamental palm breadtb from wbicb is derived tbe tbree Babylonian cubits : but bo 
does not expiai n just wbat we are ail eager to siscertaiu, bow a grapbic scale inscribed 
on tbe plan of tbe Gudea tablet, can be or is compared and related to rows of cuneiform 
cbaracters — tables of figures or measures — on tbe Senkereb example, unless tbe dimen- 
sions of tbe building sbown on plan are known, or tbe scale set fortb. 

Tbe autbor too, sbirks description and leaves us witbout any explanation of tbe 
process of comparison, witbout a footnote, and witbout any référence to otber autbori- 
ties. On p. 216 be writes, " tbe fractions fomied by tbe cuts in tbe stone [of tbe Gudea 
"tablet] are those which are reprcsrnfcd by tbe figures and biei'Oglypbics of tbe clay 
" tablet [from Senkereb]." Are tbey P and wbat proof does be dcduce ? " By tbeir 
** collation it bas been establisbed, neviine contradicente^ tbat in Babylonia tbere were 
" tbree ells, respectively of 3, 4, and 5 palms' lengtb ; " (1) tbe 10*8" cubit for gold- 
sraitbs' and décorative work, (2) tbe 14'4'' cubit, used for building, and (3) tbe 18" cubit, 
employed in land surveying. 

A discrepancy is fonnd on p. 245 — for tbe 10*8" cubit, or goldsmitbs' cubit, is not 
employed for tbe pillars ; tbey are set out witb tbe 14'4" or building cubit. ** Tbeir 
" construction was not by tbe arfcistic cubit 10'8 incbes, but by tbe building cubit of 
"Ij- feet," Le., tbe 144" cubit. 

Doubtless tbe palm breadtb may bave been tbe root of tbe measures in use 
among Sémite nations, wbicb is not admitted, but it must not be forgotten tbat in 
antiquity ail tbe ordinary measurements were derived from some part or otber of tbe 
buman frame, sucb as tbe foot, band, digit, palm, nail, pace and ell (or ulna) — tbe digit 
of 0'729" being possibly tbe root dérivât ive. But in Egypt tbe building cubit was 20*6 
incbes, or tbereabouts, tbe mean Pyramidal cubit is 20'60It>", and tbe mean of ail tbe 
ancient cubits is 20*6109". 

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14 fransacHoTis of fhe Quatuor Ùoro7iati Lodge. 

Canina makes the sacred cubit 21*81"— or nearly 1' 10" English. Araong the 
Jews the 21 "6" cubit was much used. The Gemara names three Jewish cubits, (1) of 
five palme, or 18", (2) of six palms, or 21*6", and (3) of seven palms, or 25*2", and 
Oppert says of thèse there is a great amount of data showing this 21 6" cubit to hâve 
been familîar to the Jews. Lepsins supposes one of the two primitive cubits to bave 
been 20-63". 

The Senkereh table t h as the foUowing table o£ measare : 

Susi = U = 10 80" (or half cubit). 

Sakhum = ^U = 5-40". 
and cubit = 2U = 21*60" (Oppert). 
The Qudea plotting scale bas : 

Aspan = ^of 20-89" = 1044". 
divided into 16 digits of 0*653", a fraction of 
the cubit found also in Egypt. 
In Asia Minor we tind the cubits employed at 

the Temples of Ephesus = 20*55" 
of Samos = 20*62" * 
of Priene = 20*90" 
the stadia of 

Aphrodisias = 20*67" 
and of Laodicea zz 20*94" 

Ten buildings give an average of 20*63" 

Thus it will be seen there is ample évidence for supposing that the cubit of 
20*6 inches, and the " sboH cubit" of 18" were in use among the Jews. Fergnsson, 
in bis work on " the Temple of Jérusalem, 1865," says (p. 79) : " Let me say a few 
" words with regard to the cubit employed in thèse admeasurements. The Jews, 
** according to the Rabbis, first used a sraall cubit of 15", and applied it principally to 
" the vessels and furniture of the Temples. They next used one of 18",— the first- 
'^ named with a hand breadth added ; and, laatly, after the Babylonish captivity, it is 
" said they employed the Babylonian cubit of 21" .... For our présent purposes 
'^ it is suffîcient to know that for ail their Temple measurements they used tho cubit of 
" 18", and that oiilyV 

Let us now turn our attention to the précédents in architecture. Among the 
Jews, prior to Solomon's time, we learn of several temples, which wereeither (1) private 
like that of Micah (Judges xvii., 5), who set upan image andmade one of his sons to be 
his priest. " In those days there was no king in Israël, every man did that which was 
" right in his own eyes." (2) Public sanctuaries, like that of Shiloh, where, in its 
migrations, the **ark of the testimony " rested in the temple (i. Sam. iii., 3 and 15). 
(3) The Canaanites had large temples in the days of the Judges, such as the one of 
El Berith, at Shechem, where the hold (or vault) was of sufl5cient capacity to contain 
1,000 people (Judges ix., 46), and a vast temple of Dagou at Gaza (Judges xvi., 27), 
where the Philistines were making sport with Samson, with 3,000 persons upon the 
roof, and the temple of Dagon at Ashdod (i. Sam.v., 5 and 6). 

But the art of building was at a low ebb among the Jews themselves, and they 
cHd not know how to hew timber properly (i. King v., 6), Solomon claiming Hiram's 
help, " for thou knowest that there is not among us any that can skill to hew timber 
" like unto the Zidonians." This shows their lack of skill in woodcraft, and we know 
they were also far behind their Semitic neighbours in the constructive and décorative 

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New Lîght on the Pillars rf Solmnons Temple. 15 

arts, and had to call in their Tjrian allies ; so ifc must be admitted that tbe design of 
the temple was strongly iufluenced by the school of craftsmen of Tyre. But we must 
not exclude frora considération the possibility of Egyptian influence also. From their 
long sojonrn in Egypt the Jews mast bave been well acquainted and impressed with the 
art and architecture of that country. 

The plan of the bouse or " palace " (bckal) of Jehovah, was an extremely simple 
one, and consisted of four essential features : 

1. The Oracle, or Sanctnm Sanctorum (debir, oracle). 

2. The outer chamber, or floly Place, being the naos. 

3. The porch, or portico; the pronoas. 

and 4. The altar before the door, a common feature in ail countries, 

and the whole faced the East. The Temple of Hierapolis was very similiar, and is 
described by Lucian : so also was the Temple at Byblus and other Phœnician shrines. 
Bnt we know also from Lucian*s description (De Dea Syria) that the front of the 
temple at Hierapolis, built by Stratonice, was adorned by two tall and slender pillars, 
phallic emblems, with the inscription on them, " Thèse phalli, I, Bacchus, dedioated to 
my stepmother, Juno.** So many other shrines were similarly adorned with such 
emblems, and we bave abundant testimony in classîc writings of the far-spread pre- 
valence of phallic rites. Henee ît is easy to trace from sach a source the use of the two 
pillars before the porch. 

Architectural criticism demands another class of évidence, in addition to the 
written descriptions remaining to us, and the local indications, meagre as they are, that 
is, the considération of architectural propriety and commonsense. Fergusson, a critic 
we may vote as extremely compétent, points out that " the * litera scripta' alone is not 
"sufficient to enable the most leamed men to arrive at correct conclusions on the 
" subject ; while the local knowledge (as revealed by the surveyors and explorers) rather 
"tends to aggravate the différences betwecn the restorers. Neither alone, nor even 
" together, do thèse seem to sufiice, and, in order to obtain any satisfactory results, it 
"seems indispensable that the architect should intervene to supply what is inevit'ably 
'^ omitted from ail mère verbal descriptions, and to utilise those local indications, whîch, 
"in the présent instance, are unfortunatôly scant and not always easily recognisable.*' 
He q notes instances from Ezekiel, Josephus, the Talmud, and other sources, which must 
be rejected as whoUy improbable. " Where, it appears to me, most of the restorations 
" hitherto proposed bave broken down, is becaase thèse principles bave not been kept 
" steadily in view." (" Temples of the Jews.") 

We require for the best considération of the data a happy combination and care- 
ful coUoboration of Hebrew scholarship (to critically examine the technical terms and 
building descriptions) — a skilled explorer (with a précise knowledge of the local 
évidence) —and an architectural critic with wide archae^ological expérience, who would 
not théorise upon a preconceived idea of bis own. With ail thèse difficulties facing us, 
the author has not feared to step in and produce bis own reconciliation, which strains 
oar patience and severely tests our common sensé. The weak points of his scheme are 
too numerous to mention, but among them we may briefly touch upon one or two. 

The tower, 120 cubits high, as shown on the drawings exhibited, would hâve 
been only a monstrosity in design, and could not be termed a porch, or portico. It 
would hâve no stability in exécution, being only 80 by 15 cubits on plan, but 120 in 
height, and its immense openings on tbe East and West sides, as indicated, would bave 
rendered its points of support ej^trçmely weak. 

Digitized by 


16 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronatt Lodge, 

The winding staircase sbown in one corner of the portico certainly conld never 
bave been a spiral stair, for ifc would bc impossible to construct this in Masonry, un- 
supported by any waîls and carried only on its central newel, its diameter being 4 cnbits 
(4^ feet says Caldecott), and its rise over 100 feet. On p. 269 the author describes it as the 
final marvel of **the ascent by which he went up into the house of the Lord" (i. Kings 
X., 5), that left no more spirit in the Qaeen of Sheba — although the margin reads, ** bis 
burnt offerings which he ofFered in his ascent," etc. — and points to this winding staircase 
in this situation as ** partaking of the miraculous/' We think so too. It is extremely 
improbable that the priests used this narrow and perilous stair for access to the top 
storey, where (Caldecott tells us) the wine was stored for ritnai purposes; the labour 
of carrying it up and down would be enormous, they would bave to pass through the 
King's Oratory, and the beat of the Store Chamber in the roof would be extremely 
unsuitable for the purpose of storing the wine. 

The pillars must bave been either structural, or merely ornamental. If the former 
they should be so shown in the design, not standing free and placed in an archway : if the 
lattèr they probably stood before the porch, in which case they would retain tbeir phallic 

They are suggested as standing on bases, and the heights of thèse are given as 
3 cubits eacb, for which there is no authorifcy in the text. The argument for this 
is weak, almost puérile. We read first (ir. Kings xxv., 17) " The height oi one pillar 
" was 18 cubits, and a chapiter of hrass was upon it ; and the height of the chapiter was 
" 3 cubits." On p. 245, our author says " The * three cubits ' can only refer to such 
" bases, the word * chapiter * either being understood in this sensé, or as taking the place 
" of a word now lost." And, at the foot of the same page, he adds, " A simpler 
" explanation is that of a mère transposition of words allowing it to read, it was upon 
" a chapiter of hrass, instead of as above." — A most convenient gloss, but one we are 
unable to accept. 

The rhythm of 3, 4 and 5 sounds pretty, and if in related parts of a structure 
would form a harmonie proportion. But we fail to grasp it in this form : — 

Supra capital ... 4 

Capital ... ... 5 

Shaft ... ... nil 

Base ... ... 3 

Neither can we perceive the reason for the statement that the three cubits are 
required for the base, to make up the " association of the figures 3, 4, & 5, the foundation 
" of the sexagésimal System [of arithmetic] of early Babylonîa." There is no connection 
of thèse parts in the structure, nor with the Babylonian metrology ; but if the figures 
3, 4 and 5 must be worked in, there is no difficulty in working them in — somehow. 

Bro. W. B. Hextall ivrites: — 

Tn ** The Flower Shushan, or the Pillars of Solomon's Temple," from the German 
of Dr. Knechenmeister, London, 1861, it is contended that the pomegranates were 
merely caps, or coverings, to conceal the pins, or nails, which united the différent parts ; 
and that the "lily-work" of the supra-capital was really a pattern of white roses. 

The resemblance between the two pillars of the Temple and the columns of 
Persepolis was also remarked by Mr. George Godwin, who, in " History in Ruins," 
(1851), writes of the latter, " In thèse there is to be seen a coincidence both with 

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New Liijht on the Pilîars nf Solumnns Temple. 17 

E^jpiian architecture as we know it, and the Temple of Solomon, at Jérusalem, as 

described in the Bible The two brazen pillars niade by Hiram of Tjre, 

resemble very closely both Persepolitan and Egyptian colamns. The description of the 
position of thèse columns has led to much discussion. Perhaps it was analogous to 

that of obelisks before Egyptian buildings The fact that Solomon married 

one of Pharaoh's daughters, about 1013 b.c., shows his connexion with Egypt, and 

prépares us to find at ail events a coincidence in their buildings Moreover, 

the Tyrians, to whom Solomon sent for Hiram, are sapposed by some writers to hâve 
been extensively employed as architects by the Egyptians." Earlier than Fergusson or 
Godwin, James Morier, the Eastern traveller and novelist, in **Abel Allnutt" (1837), 
introdaced a serions essay to the same effect. He says (writing from Persepolis), " the 
conclusion I hâve come to is that thèse rains, in architectural and gênerai character, 
afFord spécimens of ihe architectural and gênerai character of the Temple of Solomon," 
and that the biblical descriptions of the two pillars " appear very much to illustrate the 
very singular, and I believe I may say, the only pillars of the sort in the world, which 

are seen hère erect in the building which I call the porch The pillars now 

before me to my mind afford an explanation which no other capitals that I hâve ever 

seen can give me Thèse columns .... may be fairly said to hâve 

originated in the same school as those described in the Bible.*' 

The question whether the two pillars were free or engaged is one on which opinions 
are divided. Dr. John Lightfoote, in his book on " The Temple," 1650, enumerated 
four separate reasons for supposing the pillars were within the porch ; and a récent 
Biblical Dictionary impartially gives two plans showing them, in one detached, and in 
the other as part of the building. 

May I hazai^ the following suggestions why no successors to the tw^o brazen 
pillars appeared in the later Temples ? That this was so seems accepted, though it 
may be noticed that the prophet Ezekiel, in his vision of the Temple restored, says, 
** And he brought me to the porch of the house and measnred each post of the porch 
. . . . aud there were pillars to the posts, one on this side, and another on that 
side." (Ezek. xL, 48, 49). 

(1) Dr. Oliver (Historical Landmarks, 1846, 1. 73^) writes, " At the time when 
the Temple was abandoned by Jehovah, he is represented, magnificently, as standing 
upon the altar, and commanding the angel of destruction tostrike the heads or chapiters 
of thèse two pillars to produce the total ruin of the Jewish State. (Amos, ix., 1). As 
their destruction was thus comprehensive and significant, so was their érection symbolical 
of the magnitude and splendeur of the Jewish nation under Solomon.*' And at page 
447, " They were considered of such importance as to be put for the Temple itself when 
its destruction was threatened by the Almighty.*' If the verse in Amos bears this 
interprétation (upon which commentators are not at one), the sélection of the two 
pillars as types of divine vengeance may hâve prevented their being included in schemes 
for the restored Temple. 

(2) If there be foundation for the theory (put forward by writers of very diverse 
types) that the two pillars had a phallic origin at the beginning, the knowledge of this 
would be likely to effectually bar them from restoration or replacement. 

A cordial vote of thanks was unanimously passed tp Canon Horslfy for his 

Digitized by 


18 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge, 

I am not compétent to folio w Bro. Wonnacott iuto the teclinical détails whicb 
he brings forward as an arcbitect, but the Rev. W. S. Caldecott writes that " at the base 
" of tbem ail lies the fallacj that the Egyptian cubit was that of Palestine. Tbis is not 
"so, as the civilization of the Hebrews was Babylonian, and not Egyptian. The 
" antiquities of Egypt bave been far more exbaustively stadied than those of Mesopoiamia. 
" Among the antiques discovered in the land of the Pharaohs bave been several yard-sticks, 
" or cubit measures. Thèse shew that the Egyptians, like the Babylonians, bad three 
*^ cubit lengths, and that their fundamental was a palm of 3*6 incbes. The distinction 
" was that, wbile the Babylonian multiples of tbis were 3, 4 and 5, the Egyptian were 
" 5, 6 and 7. The commonest Egyptian measure is a cubit of 21*6" or 3'6" x 6. It is 
" owing to the commensuration possible between the Egyptian and Babylonian measures 
" that Mr. Wonnacott doubles the length of Gudea*8 rule, and shows it 21*6", instead of 
" 10-8", by making the actual length visible on the slab a half instead of a whole. Tbis 
" is donc to bring it into harmony with the aforementioned Egyptian yard-sticks, which 
"shew a cubit of 21*6 incbes. For tbis duplication there is no authority, the true 
" exegesis being that the larger measure from Egypt gîves us the double of the Gudea 
" rule, and so removes any nncertainty as to its exact length. 

" Beginning with the Geneva Bible of 1560, Mr. Wonnacott collects évidence ail 
" down the intervening centuries as to the scale by which Solomon's pillars were built. 
" He seems to be unaware that with in the last 20 or 30 years the whole process of Old 
" Testament interprétation bas changed. The new science of Biblical Archa»ology bas 
" sprung into being, and bas altered nien's views of tbings recorded, giving us a juster 
" view of tbem, and adding immensely to our knowledge and their value ; for example, 
" thé late James Fergusson is thougbt by Mr. Wonnacott to be * extremely compétent as 
" a crîtic,' but while bis bistory of Architecture is a valuable work, bis théories as to 
" Bible facts are puérile, and bave no vaine." 

Nothing seems to me more improbable than that in the miud of Solomon and 

bis advisers anytbing sbould bave been tolerated, which suggested pballic worsbip, 

although, of course, a single pillar had been thus used elsewbere and of old. Solomon 

would not bave been deterred by this considération from the use of any obelisk any 

more than the early Christian s were from adopting the name of Sunday from the 

prœ-Christian Boman Dies Solù. 

J. W. Hors LE Y. 

Digitized by 


HhransacHons of the Quatuor Coronati Loâge. lô 


Now No. 150 MADRAS. 


BOUT a couple of yeai'S ago an old safe, the property of Lodge Perfect 
Unanimîty, the key of which had been missing for a long time, was 
opened, and its contents were found to be very much damaged by the 
climate and other causes. In it was found an old minute book, 
covering almost contiuuously the period between January, 1789, and 
Febniary, 1795, which was handed oyer to me. 

The history of the Lodge will be found in the History of 
Freemasonry on the the Coast of Coromandel, by Wor. Bro. Malden, an old member of 
the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. I do not propose, therefore, to refer more than quite 
casually to anything connected with the history of the Lodge, but there is plenty of 
interestiug matter in thîs old book, especially in so far as it illustrâtes the points in 
which the practice of Masonry 120 years ago differed from its présent forms. 

The book was in an almost hopeless state when it reached my hands, many of the 
pages being in imminent danger of falling to pièces from the ravages of the climate. 
My first step was to hâve it carefuUy re-written by a brother Masou, and its contents 
will, I hope, be available for many years to come. 

Other documents, which are still extant, show that at the date of thèse minutes 
a Gommittee sat continuously for the management of the affairs of the Lodge, but the 
proceedings of the Commifctee for the period oovered by the minute book are missing. 
This Gommittee appears to hâve undertaken many matters which at the présent time 
would be dealt with in open Lodge ; for instance, on one occasion it sent greetings to 
the Grand Lodge of England throngh Brother Golonel Ecoles Nixon (afterwards Sir 
Ecoles Nixon, Provincial Senior Grand Warden in 1796), a namesake curiously enough 
of the officer recently commanding at Bangalore. 

The Lodge itself has worked continuously for at least 120 years, and at first it 
met twice a month throughout the year, and the W. Master was elected, and installed 
twice during each year. The installations took place on St. John's day in winter and 
summer. At présent the Lodge, like ail other Lodges in Southern India, meets every 

It was the prectice to impose a fine upon any brother who absented himself from 
the Lodge without an apology, and this was done under the bye-laws. Instances are 
not uncommon in which a fine, once intlicted, was remitted by the Lodge when a 
reasonable excuse, such as absence on officiai duty, was fortlicoming at a subséquent 
meeting, and this course became so common that on the 7th March, 1794, the Lodge 
resolved to enforce fines for non-attendance when the minutes were read. In fact, 
the minutes show a continuons struggle by the Lodge to enforce pnnctual attendance. 
A list of members fined in this way follows the attendance roll in the minutes of every 

On the Ist October, 1789, an example was made of a brother, and it is recorded 
that the Lodge found itself " obliged coUectively to take notice of the inattention which 

Digitized by 


20 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati ïjoâge. 

** Bro. bas for some time past shown to the datîes of Masonry and to the by-laws 

" of the Society." It was accordingly resolved nnanimously to infiict a fine of two 
pagodas apon him, 

At the followîng meeting another brother managed to get bis fine remitted on the 
gronnd that bis servant throagb wbom be bad sent a letter of apology had faî 
deliver it. 

On the I7th December, 1789, what îs described as an exemplary fine of five 
pagodas (£2) was inflîcted on the Junior Warden, who was then Senior Warden elect. 

On the 15th November, 1790, it was resolved that the fine inflicted npon a certain 
brother for non-attendance sbould be expunged irom the minutes, which was not in fact 

This matter became a burning question in April, 1791, wben Bro. Symes wrote 
refusing to pay the fines imposed upon him, and it was ordered that a letter shonld be 
drafted saying that bis name wonld be erased from the list of members unless be paid. 
Owing to " thin " Lodges (the attendance about this time was bad), the case was not 
considered until the 2nd June, wben a prominent member of the Lodge, Bro. Miaule, 
undertook to admonish Bro. Symes, and the brethren suspended their former resolution 
•and indulged in the hope that they may shortly be able to entirely do away with it. 

On the 16th June, Bro. Symes attended and explained *' to the satisfaction of the 
'* Lodge that any offence be might bave given was unintentional on bis part." The 
fines were accordingly remitted, and the résolution of the 20th April was " also doue 
'• away." 

On August Ist, 1793, it was resolved to call upon Bro. Dunbar to attend the next 
meeting in order to explain bis neglect of bis duty i& attending the Lodge. He 
resigned by letter. 

In October, 1793, Bro. Smith was called upon to appear before the Lodge for 
disrespect fui behaviour towards the Lodge in not having attended for some time. Bro. 
Smith probably attended at the next meeting and explained, as he was présent in 
Lodge on the 7th and 21st November. The minutes of the second meeting in October 
are missing. 

On the 3rd April, 1794, the Lodge resolved that in future verbal apologies for 
non- attendance would not be received. 

On the 18th September, it was noted that Bro. Kerr had been absent without 
apology for four meetings, and it was decided to call upon him to explain. 

On the 2nd October, it was observed that Bro. Kerr had lef t the station, and bis 
case was postponed. 

On the 16th October, Bro. Kerr's apology for absenting himself and for leaving 
the Presidency without taking leave of the brethren was received. " The Lodge taking 
" the matter into long and serions considération, and adverting to the peculiar 
** circumstances of bis situation during the latter part of bis résidence hei^, and -v^hich 
" tliey are of opinion would alone bave excused an omission so reprehensible, accept of 
" the apology." 

The practice of addressing letters of farewell to the Lodge wbenever a member 
was leaving Madras for a lengthy period of absence, may be inferred from Bro. Kerr's 
case, and many auch letters and the replies made to them are mentioned in the minutes. 

Wbenever any degree was worked, it was the practice to call the Lodge from 
labour to refreshment at once, and driuk the health of the brother concerned. 

Digitized by 


An Old Minute Book of Lodge Perfect JJnanimity^ now No. lôÔ Cadras. àl 

The opening and closing of the Lodge was altogether différent to the présent 
practice. An E.A. Lodge would be opened and closed, and then a F.C. or a M.M. 
Lodge would be opened and closed. A F.C. Lodge would not be opened at ail unless 
there was work to be transacted in that degree, but a M.M. Lodge could be opened 
immediately after the closing of an E.A. Lodge, or the Lodge could be opened originally 
in the third degree. The final closing was of the E.A. Lodge, a Lodge in that degree 
being generally opened afresh at the end of the day's work for the purpose of taking 
the Treasurer*s accounts after the Lodge had been closed in the superior degrees in 
which it had been working. Occasion ail j the Lodge appears to hâve been closed in the 
second or third degree without being reopened in the tirst. 

An arrangement which is seldom considered necessary at the présent time was the 
practice of taking the ballot separately for each degree. A brother would accordingly 
be proposed for the second or third degree at one meeting, and balloted for at the next, 
precisely as was done in the case of initiâtes. As a ru le it was not until the meeting 
folio wing the ballot that he received the degree In some cases a candidate for the 
second or third degree was found not qualified, or he applied for an adjoumment on the 
ground that he was not prepared, but there was no case in which a ballot for thèse 
degrees proved unfavonrable. 

A typical day's work (Nov. 3rd, 1790) may be abstracted from the minutes. 

The names of the brethren présent are entered : — 

E.A. Lodge opened and Minutes of last meeting read and ap proved. 
Apologies received. 

The W.M. informs the Lodge that the Secretary bas had to leave Madras 
on the public service, and bas requested him to inform the brethren, 
expressing the hope that the urgency of the case will be admitted as a 
sufficient apology for not having taken a formai leave. 

Resolved unanimously that Bro. be requested to oflSciateas Secretary 

until next St. John's Day. 

E.A. Lodge closed, and F.C. opened. 

Bro. having been found duly qualified is ballotted for and unanimously 


F.C. Lodge closed and M.M. opened. 

The W.M. proposes that Bro. be admitted to the S.D. Agreed that 

it be taken into considération the next regular Lodge night. 

The W.M. proposes that Bro. belonging to one of the Lodges in 

Calcutta become a membcr of this Lodge. Agreed that it be taken into 
considération the next regular night. 

M.M. Lodge closed and E.A. opened. 

Bro. is now called in and informed that he will be passed to the 

second degree the next regular Lodge night. 

Bro. proposes that Mr. be initiated into the first degree of 

Masonry. Agreed that it will be taken into considération the next 
regular Lodge night. 

The state of the finances of the Lodge is laid before it by the Treasurer. 
The Lodge is closed. 

Digitized by 


2â transMitons of the Quaèuor Coronati Lodgè. 

There Avas the greatest want of aniformîty iu practice if tlie minutes are to be 
believed, but the minutes themselves are not always carefully recorded. Thus sorae- 
times a brother who was a candidate for the second degree was balloted for in an E. A. 
Lodge, and sometimes in a M.M., and similarlj with candidates for the third degree. 
Sometimes the minutes were read and confirmed when the Lodge was working in tho 
first, sometimes in the second, and sometimes in the third. On one occasion, in 1789, 
the Lodge was only opened iu the M.M. degree. 

AU sorts of business would be transacted at an émergent meeting, and émergent 
meetings were held with practically no notice given. 

On one occasion a certain brother was called away on daty. At the next regalar 
meeting he was proposed, and, contrary to the usaal practice, ballotted for at once, and 
three days later he received the second degree. No reason is given for the emergency 
in the minutes. 

The W.M. altered the day and place of meeting at his own discrétion, for instance, 
at the second meeting in April ib was decided to hold the meetings of the Lodge on 
Wednesdays instead of Thursdays for the convenience of Bro. Chamier, and the change 
was made at the next meeting without the resolution even having been confirmed. 

Any Mas ter Mason could become Mas ter of the Lodge. There was no necessity 
for him to hâve held any particalar office. Thus Bro. Linley was made a M.M. at an 
émergent meeting on the 14th Jaly, 17^1. His speech on this occasion is given in fall 
below, as reported in the minutes. He took his leave of the Lodge at once, and was not 
mentioned again until December, 1792, when he was made Secretary in anticipation of 
his return to Madras. In June, 1793, he was made Master. 

The I.P.M. had no recognized position in the Lodge. This appeai^s fiH)m the 
fact that the W.M. on one occasion had to leave Madras during his period of office, and 
suggested to the Lodge that the S.W. should replace him. The S.W. stated that he 
could not spare the time, and he and tho I.P.M. were requested to withdraw. On their 
return the Lodge requested the I.P.M. to accept the office, and he consented to do so, 
and he received the thanks of the Lodge " for his readiness in complying with their 
** reqnest, especially when they consider how much of his time is employed in attending 
** to the daties of the Stewards' Lodge." 

It appears to hâve been customary to read the warrant of the Lodge on the day 
of the Installation, but this was sometimes donc in an E.A's. Lodge, and sometimes in 
a M.M*8. 

Elsewhere in this paper cases are mentioned in which honorary members were 
made without any notice to the members of the Lodge, but a similar in-egularity, of a 
more serions nature, was committed by the W.M. on one occasion when a brother 
was proposed as a member of the Lodge and electcd without notice of any kind being 

In March, 1791, the W.M. explained that the last regular meeting had been 
postponed (it was really omitted) in conséquence of the Quarterly Communication of 
the local Grand Lodge, and, to avoid clashing, the day of meeting was again altered to 
Thursday, instead of Wednesday. By this time Bro. Chamier had left Madras. Again 
the change was brought into effect before the minutes were confirmed. Again, in the 
É.A's. Lodge, the W.M. annoanced that owing to " indispensable business arising from 
" the despatch of aship to Europe having prevented the attendance of most of the M.M's. 
" he proposed to postpone a raising." About the same time the attendance of meetings 
became very bad, often as small as only six members. The Secretary often acted as 
Junior Wai-den. One meeting in April, 1792, was " not attended." 

Digitized by 


An Old Minute Book oj Lodge Perfect JJnanimity^ mm No. 150 Madras. 23 

On the 2nd Febraary, 1792, the Lodge was first opened in the second degree, and 
the minutes were read and approved. The Lodge was closed and opened in the M.M's. 
degree, after which it was closed in that degree and an E.A's. Lodge was opened. 

The minutes of the last regnlar meeting were always read and confirmed at the 
ensuing meeting, even if it were an émergent one, and résignations were accepted, 
membei's proposed, and other business, not in the least of an émergent nature, would be 
transacted at émergent meetings. Once or twice candidates for a degree were examined 
in open Lodge after the Lodge had been opened in that degree, and on one occasion two 
brethren were so examined. 

On one occasion the Lodge was originally opened in the F.C's. degree, and, after 
a candidate had been passed, it was closed and opened in the E.A's. degree, and it was 
not until after it had been called ofF and called back to labour that the minutes of the 
previous meeting were read. 

At the Installation Meeting, in June, 1793, the Senior Warden designate was no* 
présent, at the next following meeting a Master's Lodge was opened for the express 
purpose of installing him. The Provincial Grand Master used to take about bis Grand 
Orator with him, and on one occasion was addressed by him as follow^s : — 

" Right Worshipf ni, and Most Respectable Provincial Grand : 

" I hâve received with a satisfaction to myself , only to be surpassed by the 
" sincerity with which they are dictated the commands of the Right 
" Worshipf ul Master in the chair, to assure you in his name as well as in 
" that of the officers, and Members of this Lodge, that the happiness we 
" feel at your présence amongst us is as great as it is unfeigned." 

This was followed by a long speech full of such fulsome adulation that one is 
inclined to think that the Grand Orator of those days must hâve been selected for his 
powers in this direction. The W. Master who is referred to as the Right Worshipf ul 
Master was Bro. James Araos, at that time Past Provincial Senior Grand Warden, and 
the fact that he was so addressed in the présence of the Prov.G.M. shows that this 
practice was considered correct. A similar form of address was nsed in the case of 
W. Bro. Harailton later on. Observe aiso the custom under which the W.M. delegated 
to some one else the duty of addressing the Prov.G.M. 

Shortly after this meeting the Prov.G.M. was made an honorary member of the 
Lodge, and this was done in a Master's Lodge, so that F.C*s. and E.A's. had no say in 
the matter. 

When the W.M. was absent from the Lodge the S.W. took his place, and when 
the S.W. was absent or in the W.M. 's chair, the J.W. acted as S.W., the chair of the 
former being occupied by another brother. Occasionally the S.W. gave degrees. 

When any officer of the Lodge was called away from the Presidency, another 
brother was proposed and elected in his stead for the remainder of the term of office. 
This was done even when the W.M. was ordered away, but in the only case in which 
this occured the I.P.M. was elected. 

In 1789 a meeting of the Lodge should hâve been held on the 7th May, but it 
was called on the 14th, and the W.M. înformed the brethren that this had been done 
in order that they might be able to attend a dramatic performance " exhibited for a 
charitable purpose ** on the 7th. 

Provincial Grand Lodge met quarterley on the two St. John's days, and on the 
first Weduesdays in March and Septembçr. (Malden*s History, p. 35.) The meetings 

Digitized by 


24 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 


of the Lodge must hâve clashed prettj frequently with those of Prov.G.L. during the 

tinie whea they took place on Wednesdays. 

The practice in the matter of the élection of officera was very interesting, and 
shews that the Lodge was still workiug under the bye-laws drawn up by the " Athol *' 
Grand Lodge in 1771, although it had surrendered its "Athol" Warrant and accepted 
another issued by the " Modems." The W.M. invariably proposed the S.W. as his 
successor, and the Lodge proposed another brother. A ballot was taken, and the resuit 
declared. The W.M. elect took the chair and put forward a name for the S.W. 's chair. 
The Lodge proposed another name, and the ballot was again taken, and so on. On one 
occasion the Lodge proposed the J.W. as Master, and he was elected, although he had 
only held office for two months. The Wardens, Secretary and Treasurer were elected 
in this way, and the W.M. appointed the Senior Steward, and the S.W. the Junior 
Steward. The W.M. elect then vacated the chair, and the Master again took it. 

Deacons are first mentioned in 1791, when the W.M. appointed the Senior 
Deacon, and the S.W. the Junior. In 1795 the Deacons were elected by the Lodge. In 
1803 the bye-laws were reviaed, and during the ballot for the chair the W.M. 's nominee 
and the nominee of the Lodge were required to retire. Accordiugly on the occasion of 
the first ballot under the new bye-laws, as the Lodge proposed the W.M., and the W.M. 
the S.W., both those officers had to retire, and the J.W. took the chair. The Lodge 
met once more after the élection under the retiring W.M., when the minutes were con- 
firmed, and the installation took place at the foUowing meeting, which was on St. John's 
Day, a day more or less given up to Fi'eemasonry so far as the members of this Lodge 
were concerned. At the installation meetings, when the Lodge was called from labour 
to refreshment, it was the health of the outgoing, and not the newly-installed Master, 
which was honoured. 

It was announced in the Lodge that a payment of five pagodas quarterly from 
Lodge funds to Prov.G.L. had been agreed to at the Quarterly Communication, and thia 
was put to the Lodge for confirmation. This would seem to imply that it was only with 
the consent of the Lodges that contributions to Prov.G.L. were coHected from them. 
Two or three, and sometimea more articles of the bye-laws used to be read at nearly 
every meeting, so that the whole of them were gradually read through in Lodge. 

The W.M., on his installation, did not invest hia own officers, but thia waa done 
by the installing officer, and when the W.M. and his officers were reinvested for a 
second period of office, this was done by another brother, the W.M. vacating the chair 
in his faveur, and he reinvested ail the officers. 

The relations between Lodge Perfect Unanimity and the French Lodges were 
very amicable. The foUowing are the more important matters which came before the 
Lodge. On the 2nd April, 1789, an interesting addresa from the R. Lodge of Triple 
Hope in the Isle of France was read. This address was prepared in the Lodge of Triple 
Hope " Assembled in an open Lodge of the High degrees," and it bore the date, February 
16th, 5788, but it was received in Lodge Perfect Unanimity, in the Entered Apprentices* 

The term R. Lodge was applied in the correspondence both to Lodge Perfect 
Unanimity and to the Triple Hope Lodge. The French Lodge sent to the English a list 
of its brethren " who are advanced with the High degrees'* and commended them 
to the English Lodge. 

Prov.G.L. appears to hâve been consulted, and the W.M. announced that the pro- 
posed correspondence between the two Lodges had its approval, upon which a Committee 
was appointed to address the Lodge of Triple Hope. 

Digitized by 


An Old Minute Book of Lodge Perfed Unammity, now No. IdO Madras. 25 

On the 4th Jane in the same ycar, after the closing of the E.A.'s Lodge, a 
Masfcers' Lodge was opened for the purpose of receîving Bro. Dagott. The Masters' 
Lodge was then closed and the E. A.'s re-opened, and that Brother presented a packet 
from the Lodge of Triple Hope " containing a registry of their members " and recom- 
mending him. 

The replj prepared to the address receîved from the Lodge of Triple Hope was 
then approved, and the Committee which had drawn it up was reconstitnted fco reply to 
the présent communication. 

On the Ist October, 1789, the Cosmopoli tan Lodge of Pondicherry by letter 
annonnced to Lodge Perfect Unanimity its consécration nnder constitutions from the 
Grand Orient of France. 

On the 5th Noveraber the Lodge recorded a letter from Bro. Robson reporting 
the cordial and friendly way in which he had been received by the Cosmopolitan Lodge 
and on the 17th December the Secretary of that Lodge personally presented a packet 
from his Lodge. 

On the 17th January, 1790, Bro. de Laurens, who is described as a visiting 
member and who was apparently a member of the Pondicherry Lodge, received his 
third degree in Lodge Perfect Unanimity. He does not seem to hâve been proposed, 
nor was a ballot taken for him. A letter to that Lodge was entrusted to him. 

On the 4th March a letter was received from the Cosmopolitan Lodge at 
Pondicherry " acqnainting us of the zeal they hâve demonstrated for the Royal Art by 
" Promoting Bros. Robson and Griffiths [members of Lodge Perfect Unanimity] to a 
" high degree," and the Lodge orderèd that a letter be written to the Cosmopolitan 
Lodge " expressive of our attention for the regard they hâve demonstrated to Bros. 
" GriflBths and Robson, and further, that as a mark of our attention we bave referred 
" their letter to the Lodge of the Royal Arch." — From which it seems that the 
Cosmopolitan Lodge worked the Royal Arch Degree. 

On the 18th March a letter was received from the Grand Lodge at Calcutta 
addressed to the Grand Lodge at Pondicherry with a reqnest that it might be 
forwarded. So much importance was attributed to this correspondence that upon many 
occasions spécial committees were appointed to draf t the communications which were 
sent to the Lodges in Pondicherry and the Isle of France. 

On the 24th June it was recorded in the minutes that Bro. Dubée had presented 
a letter from Bro. Mehiel of Pondicherry reporting the receipt by Lodge Triple Hope 
of the letter from Lodge Perfect Unanimity but that the Lodge had been unable toshow 
any attention to Bro. Dubée owing to the shortness of his stay in Madras. 

On the 7th July the W.M. reported how kindly he had been received by the 
Cosmopolitan Lodge at Pondicherry, and a letter thanking them was ordered to be 
written. A letter was aleo received from that Lodge enclosing a list of their members 
and recommending Bro. Bernés to the attention of the Lodge. 

On the 5th January, 1791, a letter was received from "Ye Cosmopolitan 
Pratemity," with an " accompanying letter from that Lodge to the Grand Lodge of 
" Bengal requesting that the latter may be forwarded after we hâve perused it." It 
was sent through the Grand Lodge of Coromandel, with the request that " the wishes 
" of our French Brethren may be carried into exécution as early as possible." 

On the same date a letter was received from the Lod^e of Les Amù Réunis^ 
" lately constituted by the Cosmopolitan Fraternity." 

Digitized by 


26 Transactions of tJie Quatuor Coronatî Lodge^ 

On the 5th January, 1792, a letter was receivcd fiom the Lodge Triple Hope, in 
the Isle of France, requesting a continnance of the corrospondence between the Lodges 
and a committee was appointed to veply through the Cosmopolitan Lodge, Pondicherry. 

On the 21st February, 1793, " Bro. Hamilton in conséquence of the earnest zeal 
" with which the Cosmopolitan Lodge at Pondicherry bas oultivated the friendship and 
" correspondence of the Lodge of Perfect Unanimity and in conséquence of many wishes 
" expressed for an amicable and Brotherly continuation proposes that Brother Secretary 
" do draw up a letter of thanks addressed to the Cosmopolitan Lodge, and that it be 
" laid before the Lodge the next regnlar meeting." This was agreed to unaniraously 
and the draft Tvas approved at the next meeting. 

On the 2nd May Bro. Danzas presented a letter from the Cosmopolitan Lodge 
" expressing their wish that the friendly correspondence which bas long subsisted 
" between the two Lodges may be kept up." Bro. Danzas was promptly made an 
honorary member of Lodge Perfect Unanimity, witbout notice of any kind. 

On the 30th Aug^st an émergent meeting took place. It is clear that it was 
called in order to receive Bro. de le Tang, late Worshipfal Master of the Cosmopolitan 
Lodge, who was made an honorary member of Perfect Unanimity at this meeting. In 
returning thanks for the honour done to him, Bro. de le Tang begged leave ** to express 
" (in the warmest terms) the thanks of the Cosmopolitan Lodge for the very gênerons 
" manner in which they remembered the unfortunate monarch, Louis the I6th, on 
" last St. John's Day, and assured the Lodge that words are inadéquate to the task 
" imposed on him by bis Brethren, of declaring their gratitude for such a mark of 
" humanity and benevolence." 

The health of Bro. de le Tang and the Cosmopolitan Lodge was drunk " with 
" ail the bonours of Masonry " when the Lodge was called off, and it was resolved 
subsequently in Lodge to address a letter to the Cosmopolitan Lodge, " through the 
** médium of Bro. de le Tang, expressive of our fraternal regard, and the happiness we 
" expérience at the uninterrupted correspondence likely to take place between the 
" Lodges as heretofore." 

It will be observed that Bro. de le Tang made a distinctly political speech, and 
that Lodge Perfect Unanimity, at the last St. John's Day meeting, had showu 
"humanity and benevolence" towards the ex-King of France. The minutes unfor- 
tunately do not disclose what was done on that occasion. 

On the 3rd April, 1794, the Lodge was first opened in the third degree, and Bro. 
Cimfurgine of the Cosmopolitan Fraternity was received and made an honorary 
member. The Fellow Crafts and Entered Apprentices of the Lodge were allowed no 
say in the matter. 

On the 7th August, in the B.A's. Lodge, Bro. Lucas informed the Lodge that 
Visiting Bro Vernicour "who is in waiting bas attained a very high degree in 
" Masonry," and proposed that be should be received by the brethren with the bonours 
due to bis rank. A Masters' Lodge was therefore opened " for the purpose of admitting 
" Visiting Bro. Vernicour." The Masters' Lodge being closed, a Fellow Crafts* was 
opened, and Visiting Bro. Dring, who was introduced " as having three times filled the 
" chair in the Lodge at Calcutta," was admitted. The différence made between the 
two brothers is very marked. 

On the 2nd October, the Lodge was again opened originally in the third degree, 
and " the Visiting Masters " were admitted. One of them was named Dufourg, and 
on the 6th November, a " translation was read of the letter from the Lodge of 

Digitized by 


An Otd Minute Book of Lodge Perfect Unanimîty, now No. IBO Madras, 2^ 

** Triple Hope lafcely delivered by Bro. Dufourg, who from every considération, whether 
** npon the strong recommendation of our Brethren at the Isle of France, or in regard 
" to those of onr nation who may be now endurîng the miseries of captivity was entitled 
'• to the attention of our Lodge." TJpon this the brethren in the Entered Apprentices' 
Lodge made Bro. Dufourg an honorary member of the Lodge. 

The relations between English and French Masons in India and Mauritins, as 
shown in thèse minutes, are very interesting, and the référence to Louis XVI. especially 
so, as showing even in those days a political tendency in French Masons. 

Financially the Lodge may be said to bave been in a very favourable position 
during the period. At the beginning it had a balance of 160 star pagodas (about 
£64), and over 100 pagodas at the end. Its disbursements were considérable as may 
be gathered from the following facts. In July, 1789, a " gold medal " was voted to the 
outgoing Master. The Lodge had agreed to contribute 20 pagodas (£8)* per mensem, 
towards the discharge of the debt upon the Hall at wbich the Lodges met. This was a 
voluntary contribution, and as the funds of the Lodge were somewhat crippled by it, it 
was decided, in the same year, to reduce it by one half. Early in 1790 a remittance of 
£h sterling was sent to the General Charity Fund in England. 

It would appear that in 1787 a jewel had been voted to a certain brother. It had 
not been presented three years later, and, the inteoded récipient having died, the Lodge 
decided to présent it to his widow. Accordingly it was despatched by a ship leaving 
Madras for China, to a brother who was known to be going home — acuriously round 
way of sending it to England. 

Provincial Grand Lodge received 5 pagodas a quarter or £8 a year. 

It appears that the ''ballance" due to the Stewards for the expenses of the 
dinners on St. John's day was disbursed from the Lodge Funds. 

In 1791 a grant of 30 pagodas (£12) was made to a distressed brother on his 
proving himself a Mason, and the Senior Tyler Was given a pension amounting to his 
f uU pay. 

In 1792 it was agreed that the expenses of the St. John's Day festival should 
be made up from the Lodge Funds, as they had not been met by subscription, and 100 
star pagodas was voted to the Royal Cumberland Freemasons* School. In the following 
year the W.M. announced that the Prov.G.L. had proposed to pay the Rev. Bro. Kerr, 
who was to be appointed Prov.G. Chaplain, 30 pagodas per mensem, but their funds were 
inadéquate, and he proposed to pay 30 pagodas per mensem to Grand Lodge, which was 
agreed to. It was also agreed to pay 30 pagodas per mensem to the Senior Warden, 
until his affairs became better, and to remit his dues, as his troubles were due to the 
Nawab of the Carnatic having refused to pay him money due to him. 

At the beginning of the next year it was found that the number of suppers was 
too great a tax on the Lodge funds, and it was decided to i*educe them. It does not 
seem to hâve struck anyone that £12 a month was a considérable amount to pay a 
member. In March of this year the funds were rednced to 2 pagodas. 

In May thero was a déficit in the accounts. Nevertheless in June the family of 
the late Senior Warden, who had considérable claims against the Nawab of the 
Carnatic, was granted 30 pagodas per mensem, and a subscription to pay his funeral 
expenses and the arrears due to the Lodge was raised. The history of this case, and of 
another in which the Lodge did its best to obtain the récognition of claims on the 
Nawab, himself a Mason, by the children of Masons, is fully set forth by W. Bro. 
Maldeu. The déficit disappeared at once, but it is not clear by what meansi 

Digitized by 


2é Tfansactions of the Quabior Coronati Lodgè. 

The minutes thernselves are very carelessly recorded, and it would seem doubfcful 
whether they were read through before being confirmed. Thus Capt. Bell, who was 
proposed on the Ist April, 1790, was initiated on the 15th, bat the fact is not recorded 
in the minutes though it is stated that the health of onr newly admitted Bro. Bell 
was drnnk when the Lodge was called off. Again, there is no record of the meeting of 
the 15th December in the same year though it is clear that the minutes of the meetings 
of the Ist and 15th December were mixed up. The following is an abstract of the 
minutes of the Ist. 

An E.A. Lodge was opened and the minutes read and approved, apologies 
reneived, and certain brethren fined. Then there was an initiation, and the Lodge was 
called to refreshment. The Lodge was recalled to labour, and a candidate for initiation 
was balloted for. The W.M. proposed the postponement of a ballot for the second 
degree. The Lodge was again called to refreshment, and recalled to labour. 

The £hA. Lodge was closed, and a F.G. opened. No .business was done in this 
degree but the Lodge was reopened in the first degree. 

The élection of the Mas ter and officers for the ensuing year was held. 

Then two candidates for initiation were balloted for, and the Lodge was again 
opened in the F.C. degree, after which the brother whose ballot had been postponed was 
passed after ballot. The Lodge was again opened in the first degree, and three 
brethren who were only proposed at this very meeting were initiated separately, etc., etc. 

It is obvious that ail this work could not hâve been done at one meeting, and also 
that three candidates for initiation, and one for passing could not hâve been admitted 
to two degrees at the meeting at which their names were proposed. Mistakes as to the 
date and day of the week on which meetings were held are veiy common. 

On one occasion the speeches made when the Lodge was called ofE for refresh- 
ment were reported pretty f ully in the minutes, and on one there is no record of the 
Lodge having been opened in any degree except the third, and noue whatever of its 
having been closed. 

In 1789 it was recognized that the practico which had been followed with regard 
to applications for initiation was wrong, and the Lodge decided that in future 
candidates désirons of being initiated should pétition, and their pétitions should be 
presented by the brother who proposed them. What the préviens practice had been is 
not quite clear. 

On one occasion in 1790 the installation was postponed owing to the absence of 
the W.M. designate in Pondicherry, and he was not installed until the 7th July instead 
of the 24th June. 

In the same year a certain visitor stated to bave formerly been a member of 
Lodge No. 152 "wishes to be considered a member of No. 1 (Perfect Unanimity) 
" agreeable to a resolution passed at the union of the two Societys." His name was 
ordered to be "incerted " in the list. No notice of any kind was given. The facts as 
to the union referred to, and the position of Lodge No. 152, formerly an Athol Lodge, 
are giyen in W. Bro. Malden's history. 

On the 20th November, 1794, the place of meeting was changed from the 
Masonic Hall to the Panthéon. The former appears to hâve fallen into disrepair. No 
notice of the change seems to hâve been given. 

The dates of meetings are at first given Anno Mundi, and then Anno Domini 
until Mardi 1793. But in that month the date given is the 2 Ist March in the year of 
the true light 1794. The next meeting is said to hâve been held in the year of ti*ue 
light 5794, and the next in 1793. 

Digitized by 


An ôld Minute Èook of Lodge Perfect tJnaniviity, now iHo. 150 Madras, àô 

At the end of 1794 tlie Secretary was instructed to keep the minutes of each 
clegree separately, aud the minute book at once became more confnsed than ever. The 
book contains only the minutes of the third degree from and after January 15th, 1795. 
Thèse meetings appear to hâve been held on the 6th, 12th, 21st, and 24th February. 
The last is described as an Emergent meeting. On the 12th it was proposed that Bro. 
Jones should be balloted for at the next meeting, and reçoive the third degree at an 
Emergent meeting to be held by dispensatiou. Accordingly the ballot was taken on the 
21st, and he was admitted on the 24!th. If a.dispensation was obtained thè fact is not 

Quaint terms of expression and quaint practices abound. 

The W.M. read a paper on Masonry, and was tlianked by the Lodge *' for the 
** very excellent discouree which he had afforded.*' 

A lecture in the first degree was " passed round " by the W.M. 

On the 17th September, 1789, Bro. Gahagan, at that time Dep.Prov.G.M., and 
afterwards Prov.G.M. of Madras, was received as a visitor from the Carnatic Militaiy 
Lodge " with the honours of Masonry," in the M.M. Lodge. The Lodge was closed in 
that degree and opened in the F.C's., after which a lecture in that degree was passed 
round by Bro. Gahagan. The Masters' Lodge having been reopened ^* a lecture in the 
" sublime degree passed round with a most instructive discourse by Bro. Gahagan." 

It was resolved that when any brother résident in England applied for a certifi- 
cate one should be granted in payment of a pagoda, and an additional rupee " to be at 
" the disposai of the Secretary." 

Again '* an élégant discourse applicable to our Society " was read by the W.M., 
'* and at another meeting " a discourse on and illustration of the first plate of Masonry " 
was given by the W.M. 

A certain brother was married, and the W.M. cansed a congratulatory address to 
be delivered to him, and laid it before the Lodge for approval, explaining that it would 
bave been too late if lie had waited to consult the Lodge at the rogular meeting, and 
he thought it unnecessary to call an émergent meeting. The Lodge approved of the 
address and thanked the W.M. for his action. 

On the 18th Febriiary, 1790, the W.M. proposed that " the sisters be requested 
" to honour us with their company to supper at the Lodge when the members sup 
" together," which was agreed to unauimously. 

To be " incerted " in the list and "agreed unauimous" actually occur in the 

On more than one occasion the Tyler was dismissed for misconduct. His Lodge 
and Grand Lodge were informed on one occasion. 

The W.M. once proposed that certain brethren be ** rose " to the third degree. 
A brother resigning the Lodge requested that he might be " discontinued as a member 
" thereof." The Dep.Prov.G.M. attjnded the Lodge, and gave the third degree, and the 
minutes gravely record that at the proposai of the Dep.Prov.G.M., the health of our 
newly raised brother was ** drank with the honours of Masonry in fuU Lodge^ At the 
élection in June, 1792, the W.M. elect proposed Bro. C. as S.W. : the Lodge proposed 
Bro. B. The resuit is recorded thus : " negatived in favour of Bro. B." At the same 
meeting, " This being the first meeting since the marriage of our W.M. the Worshipfnl 
" Elect proposes to drink a Bumper to the health of our Right W.M., and his Lady our 
" fair sister wishing them health and every happiness which the Marriage State can 
" afford with ail the honours of Masonry." This was, of course, when the Lodge was 
at refreshment. 

Digitized by 


âO transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati ïjoâge. 

If the minutes ai"e correctiy recorded, it was not considered necessary for the 
W.M. to do more at an élection than propose that the Senior Warden should succeed 
him, for it woald appear that on one occasion the Lodge candidate was elected nnani- 
mously against the Senior Warden. This would imply that the W.M. had voted against 
his own candidate. Candidates for initiation are stated to hâve attended ^' by order," 
and to hâve been " proposed to become members of Masonry." 

The officers of Lodge No. 5 were admitted as visitors on one occasion, by vote, on 
the proposai of the W.M. 

By rcquest made in Lodge at one meeting, the W.M., at the next, indulged the 
Lodge with a lecture. On the 16th May, 1793, it was pointed out that " the canopy & 
*' curtains which are intended as ornaments of the Lodge are in a state of great decay,'' and 
it was proposed to replace them. 

On the 20th June the ballot for a candidate being favourable the Secretary was 
instructed to request his attendance next Monday moming at 9.30. Next Monday was 
the day of the installation and the meeting of Provincial Grand Lodge, so that the 
brethren would bave plenty of Masonry on that day. When the Lodge was endeavouring 
to recover for the S.W. the sums due to him by the Nawab of the Carnatic, the S.W. and 
visitors were requested to withdraw when the subject came before the Lodge. Brethren 
going to Ëngland used to apply to their Lodge for certificates from Provincial Gi'and 

In 1794 there was a very serions dispute between the W.M. and Bro. Smith. 
It would appear that the W.M. had turned Bro. Smith out of the office of Steward, and 
Bro. Smith by letter demanded a Gommittee to enquire whether the W.M. was riglit in 
doing so. The question was deferred as the attendance of M.Ms. was so small. Two 
meetings later the question was considered in open Lodge, the W.M. vacating the chair. 
The Lodge then requested Bro. Smith to withdraw his letter on or before the ensuing 
meeting " until when the minutes of the former Lodge are not to be decyphered." The 
minutes of the former meeting had already been approved. 

The W.M. apologized and absented himself from the next meeting, but Bro. 
Smith declined to withdraw his letter and the question was postponed as the W.M. was 

At the following meeting Bro. Smith's complaint was submitted to a Committee 
consisting of the M.Ms. of the Lodge. At the next meeting nothing was done. At the 
following meeting (the installation) thanks were voted to the W.M. for his services 
during the time "he bas so respectably filled the chair" but no further business 
relating to Bro. Smith was transacted. At the next following meeting, however, the 
Lodge unanimously resolved that the conduct of the late W.M. was marked by 
modération and a steadfast conformity to established usage. 

In this year it was resolved that certificates might be granted to the brethren of 
their rank and degree in masonry " and that 2, 3, and 5 pagodas be the value of the 
" respective certificates." 

" It was proposed that the thanks of this Lodge be given to Brother Creuse for 
" the able and obliging manner in which he bas executed a plate for Raising a Master 
*' Mason." It would be interesting to kuow what this plate was like and what it meant. 

In conclusion it may be of interest to quote a couple of speeches as recorded in 
the minutes. The tirst was made by Bro. Linley on the l^th July 1791. He was 
initiated on the 19th January in that year, and an émergent meeting had to be called in 
order to put him through the third degree as he was leaving Madras. 

Digitized by 


An Old Minute Book of Lodge Tei-fect Unanimify, now No. 150 Madras. 31 

The record runs thns : — 

" Lodge called to labour. Bro. Linley addrcsses tlie Lodge, and expresses 
"liis regret at beiog obliged to leave a Society, which whilst from its 
" Sacred institution he haa ever contemplated with révérence, he had 
"frequented with the warmth of a Brother, purified by the exemplary 
" conduct, and fîrm attachraent he had been a spectator of . That the 
"great and undeserved honor which the fraternity had conferred upon 
" him that night would always carry with it a double impression on his 
*' breast, as when he reflected on his situation as exalted to the dignity of 
"a Master Mason he could not but remember that he owed it to the 
" condescention of his Brethren, and consequently join in every opportunity 
" of testifying his gratef ail sensé of so high an obligation. If persevering in 
"thedutiesof Philanthropy — If making the charitable hand the responser 
"to the supplicating Tongue, If tempering mercy with justice, Forgiveness 
"with Pénitence, or, in our more social moments, Tempérance with 
" Conviviality, were the Characteristics of a Mason, altho in person 
" seperated from the enviable assembly, yet his heart should always be 
" with it, and whilst it followed the Example before it must emulate those 
"Virtues, and exult in the practîce of them. He hoped that the 
" Worshipf ail Master would believe him when he aflBrmed that to folio w 
" the doctrine he displayed in a late lecture, which he should never think 
" of but with deserved admiration, should be his firmest resolution, and 
" that he had only to regret his séparation from such a Monîtor. He 
" then took his leave, sincerely hoping that the Brethren should stand 
" upon the same basîs, supported by pillars, which [unadorned] with any 
" superficial grandeur, that would appear as an incitement to the ignorant 
" to partake of our Mysteries, stood solely decorated with the dignified 
" simplicity of real virtue." 

The second was delivered by the W.M., on the 6th September, 1793. The entry 
in the minutes is as folio ws : — 

" The Worshipful Master addressed the Lodge, and expressed his regret 
" on being called upon in his Public capacity to announce the death of a 
" worthy and valuable brother — Lient. Col. Maule — who had fallen at 
" Pondicherry in the cause of liberty, and his country. He observed that 
" were he to sum up the whole of those excellent qualifications that so 
" endearingly distinguished his character, and calls forth his own 
" private feelings in the pleasing though painful task of dwelling 
" upon them, he might possibly exhaust his own spirits, and throw 
" an unwelcome and an unnecessary damp on those of his Brethren : 
" that some tribute however was his due and that whilst he represented him 
" as lost to this Society, a warm, a zealous and an affection ate promoter of it, 
*' he hoped to be excused should the sentiments of his own private feelings 
" break through the formai cérémonials of a public Panegyrick. As a 
" Mason he observed that the Lodge had only to refer to those élégant 
" productions which Colonel Maule had occasionally favored the Fraternity 
" with, and which breathed the spirit of the Institution in every line. 
" That his respect and vénération for moral truths were thus forcibly 
" expressed in ail the purity of diction and strength of reasoning ; nor did 

Digitized by 


32 Transactions of flie Quatuor Coronatt Lodge. 

" he rest this assertion upon his own opinion, but referred it to those of 
" his Brethren, wlio witli him had been the admiring Hearers. As a Man 
" and a Oentlevian in the cheerful Orders of Society that he had been 
" still the Mason uniting the Philanthropy, and Benevolence of that 
" saered name, to the sweet and social converse of the friend, and the 
" companion, and proraoting every charm of rational conviviality, without 
" ever having lost himself in Its abuse. That his genius, originally pure, 
" had shone forth from an enlightened and cultivated raind, with an 
" élégance peculiar to itself and free frora the ostentation of snperior 
" leaming, and, that his Urbanity, both in public and private life, had 
" given an exemplary grâce equally to his actions, and his conversation. 
" As such a Man, the Worshipful Master had admired him, and he 
" sincerely hoped there was not a Brother in the Society — however little 
" acquaintedhe may hâve been with Colonel Manie when alive — but would 
" offer up that tributary regret to his memory, always due to intrinsic 
" worth, in whatsoever breast it résides. He then moved that the 
** Secretary do draw ont a suitable Mémorial, and that it be entered on 
" the Records of the Proceedings, moreover that the Hall be clothed in 
" black for the space of two months, as an additional proof of the 
" Brethren's regret.*' 

" The Lodge, in conséquence of what the Worshipful Master has said, 
" acquiesce unanimously in confirming his Eulogy, and joining with him 
** in every sentiment therein contained ; they feel with him the loss they 
" hâve sustained, and are thus happy in demonstrating their sincère 
** sorrow, and treasuring up Colonel Maule's memory with a gratefnl 
" sensé of his perfections, they leavo him to those heavenly blessings, and 
" that secure tranquillity which he now enjoys, and which can alone be 
" experienced in the Présence of the Most High." 

" Brother Hamilton proposes that the thanks of the Lodge be presented 
" to the Worshipful Master for the very élégant, and explicit address 
" to the Society which so pathetically detailed the many virtues once 
" exercised by our departed, and ever to be regretted Brother Lieut- 
" Colonel Manie." 

Thèse samples will make many of us congratulate ourselves that we did not live 
a hundred years ago. If they are fair spécimens of the speeches that used to be made 
in Lodge, it is not surprising that members submitted to fines rather than attend Lodge, 
though it must be admitted that on the whole the attendance was decidedly good. I 
am writing, of course from a personal point of view, but they would hâve bored me to 
death. The little touch which refers to Col. Maule's tempérance is a speakipg comment 
upon the times. The custom under which the Lodge room was put into mourning, 
while the brethren do not appear to hâve made any change in their clothing, is 
noteworthy. The florid oratory of Bro. Linley, a very young Mason, is an excellent 
example of the pedantic style of the period. 

Digitized by 


FRIDAY, 6th MARCH, 1908. 

1^^^^^2^J^1 HB Lodge met at Preemaaons* Hall, London, afc 5 p.m. Présent — Bros. F. H. 
.^^^■^^^Hl Goldney, P.G.D., W.M.; Hamon le Stranjçe, Pr.G.M.» Norfolk, I.P.M. ; H. Sadler, 
G.Ty.. S.D., as S.W. ; B. L. Hawkins, J.Stew , as J.W.; Canon J. W. Horaley, 
P.G.Ch., Chap.; W.John Sonjçhurst, A.G.D.C., Secretaryj W. Wataon, J.D.; J. P. 
Simpson I.G.; Dr. W. Wjnn Westcott. P.G.D., P.M.; Admirai Sir A. H. Markham, 
P.Dis.G.M., Malta, P.M. ; E. J. Castle, P.D.G.Reg., P.M. ; and G. Greiner, 
P.A.G.D.C., P.M. 

Also the following members of the Oorrespondence Cîrcle — Bros. J. 
Beetham Wîlson, Arthur W. Chapman, Tho3. Oohu, P.G.St.B. ; E. George Harvey, Horace Nelson, Wm. 
R. Thompson, G. B. Bolton, John Church, G. Vogeler, W. B. Hextall, Rev. H. G. de Lafontaine, R. E. 
Landesmann, A. M. Sutherland, Chas. H. Watson, Alfred Davis, T. J. E. 7aiighan, Maurice Victor, W. 
Metcalfe, P.G.St.B.; Rev. W. S. Hildesley, W. H. Richards. T. F. Isherwood, G. C. Williams, Oollingham 
Brunell, A. G. Forrester, A. E. Carlyle, J. C. Lyell, C. Isler, B. Pflug, C. H. Baskerville, Chas. Aubert, • 
James J. Nolan, Thos. Sponflr, Israël Solomons, W. C. P. Tapper. P. W. Potter, If. Hyde, W. Wonnacott, 
Dr. A. E. Wyntor, Ludwig Simons, Chas. J. R. Tijou, P.G.St.B.; D. Bock, Hy. Eaborn, Arthur H. Hooper, 
Dr. S. Walshe Owen, J. W. Eisenman, K. B. Rowell, J. Ingram Moar, Rev. H. G. RosedaTe, U. L. Hooke, 
J. A. Sweatman, C. H. Denny, A. T. Mayell, E. Giaeser, L. H. Dear, L. Danieisson, Arthur H. Laird^ 
W. C. Barnes, W. J. Spratling, P.G.St.B. ; J. K. Wiberg, W. R. A. Smith, A. Marchand, J. T. Phillips, 
Chas. H. Bestow, T. H. Dey, W. Basbridge, Pred Hall, A. Cadbury Jones, W. J. Horne, Harry PucketÉ, 
Regd. C. Watson, W. H. S. Humphries, H. H. Montague Smith and Percy Still. 

Also the foUowing visitors — Bros. Henry Garrod, P.G.P. ; H. E. Norton.. Lodge St. Chad No. 
3115; Arthur E. Stearns, P.G.D. ; Arthur Pemmar, Kingsland Lodge No. 1693; R. B. A. Hildesley, 
Henry Muggeridge Lodge No. 1679 ; J. J. Macan, Rahere Lodge No. 2546 ; Edmund Barrett, Sancta 
Maria Lodge No. 2682; C. W. Wilkinson, Panmure Lodge No. 720; R. T. S. Hughes, Wolsey Lodge No. 
1656; E. T. Creasy, Wood Green Lodge No. 2426; and Edwin Howard, Avondale Lodge No. 2395. 

Letters of apology for non-attendance were received from Bros. Dr. W. J. Chetwode Crawiey, 
G.Tr., Ireland ; E. Macbean, 'p.M. ; J. P. Rylands ; P. J. W. Crowe, P.G.O., J.W. ; J. T. Thorp, 
P.A.G.D.C, S.W. ; W. J. Hughan, P.G.D. ; E. Armitage, P.D.O.D.C. ; W. H. Rylands, P.A.G.D.C, P.M.; 
and L. A. de Malczovich. 

One Lodge, one Masonic Library, one Masonic Literary Society and twenty-three brethren were 
admitted to the membership of the Correspondence Circle. 

The Secretary called attention to the followîng : — 


By the Suprême Council, 33", Belgium. 

Bbonzr Medal, strack by the Suprême Couocil, A. & A.S.R., for Belgium, in commémoration of 
the General Conférence of the Rite held at Brussels 10-15 June, 1907. The medal is the work of Bro. 
Charles Samuel, one of the foremost of the Belgian sculptors. On the obversQ is the bust of the • 

Digitized by 



Transactions of the Quatiwr Coronati Lodge. 

Soyereîgn Grand Commander for Belgiam, Gount Goblet d'AIviella, who presided at the Conférence ; 
on the reverse the doable-headed eagle of the Rite, with an escutcheon bearing the names of ail the 
Sapreme Coancîls who took part in the Conférence.' Presented to the Lodge. 

By Bro. W. John Sonorurst. 

Warrant, dated 1816, for the establishment of a Sovereign Council of the 70° of the Order of 
Misraim in Seine-et-Marne. 

Warrant, dated 12th October, 1816, for the Oairis Lodge nnder the Order of Misraim. 

Warrant, dated 1816, for the Lodge of the Trinosophes under the same Bodj. 

Enoravrd Crrtificatr, of the Phœnix Royal Arch Chapter, Paris. The certificate reads 
as follows : — 


< de PARIS. 



*^ (Seal) HOLINESS TO THE LORD. fSeal) <3 


Wbere Silence, Union and Peace Reign : 

(at 48* 50' 14" north Latit .-.) 

To ail Enlightened, Entered, Passed, Raiaed and Exalted Sap .*. 

Excel .*. Royal-Aroh Mas .*. under the canopy of heaven 


WE, the high Priest and Off .*. of the Royal-Arch Chapter, York Rite, Charted Wîthin the Phœnix 
Lodge, held at the Bast of Paris, in TÎrtue of powers issued, in the year 5,799 from the Great Lodge of 
Pennsylvania, United States of America. 

DO hereby Certify that the Bearer hereof Uagon Jean Baptiste Marie, Founder Maater of the R^f [^ .-. 
of Trinoaophei East of Paris, High Athersata of his Sovereign Chapter and high Mast*; of the Supr .', 

1 Brothren who désire to hare copiet of this medal for their collections should communicate witU M, Celpès, 
Rue des Ursulines 15, Brussela, 

Digitized by 



'i'*^*'(.0 ''"'^Uî "^''^'" * 




■Il ^ ~ ; 

- - r- 'J 


u; -lia 




i î 


f : 









Digitized by 



Digitized by 




Oounsel of the Knights K /. H .'. 30th dcg«. estahf} /. near of the aforesaid [U our Brother, has been daly 
Made, Passed and Raiaed a Mason and a Member of our Gliapter ; ths seventh year ofthe last month and 
that his zeal for the Boyal-Craft înduces us to recommend him to ail faithful Brethren. 

We hâve caused our said Brother to write his name herein, to the eud that ît may be Known that he is 
the person to whom Ihis Gertificate was granted. 

Given under our hand, Seal, and Stamp of our Chapter; East of Paris, the •ight year of the first ÔAy 
of the moon ûve thousand Eight hundred and eighteen 

High Priest 

Right Worshipfnl Master 

By Power of the Chapter 

Worshipful Senior Warden 

Worsbipful Junior Warden 

Sealed and Stamped by me 
Master and Keeper of the Rolls 



Ou Régnent le Silence, l'Union, & la Paix, 
par les 48° 50' 1-i" Latit /. Nord."* * 

A Tous les F .'. F .'. Eclai .*. Reconnus, Elev .'. & Inst .'. Sup .*. Excel .^ Royal- Arch sous la Voûte Cél .'. 
du Zénith, 

S /. S .-. S .-. 

Les Gr .*. Pr /. et Off /. du Ch .'. de Royal- Aroh Rit d'York, établi près la R /. L /. du Phœnix séant 
à l'Or de Paris, en vertu des pouvoirs émanés en 6,799 de la Gr .'. L .*. de Pensylvanie, Etats Unis 
d'Amérique : Certifions que le porteur du présent Notre F /. Ragon Jean Baptiste Marie, V^^ Fondateur 
de la R^e [^ des Trinoeophea .'. de Paria ; 0<f Athereata de son Souvn Chap« et G^ .*. Maitre du Suprême 

Conseildes Chev ,\ K /. H .*. 30 f degré, établi près de la dite \Zj 

a été Fait, Passé, et Elevé Mac .'. et Membre de N .'. Chap .*. le et que son zèle 

pour l'Art» Royal, nous engage h le recommander a tous nos F /. F /. 

Nous avons en conséquence invité N .'. susd .'. F .*. à signer avec nous afin qu'il soit reconnu pour la 
personne à qui ce Certificat a été accordé. Eu foi de quoi Nous avons signé le présent et y avons fait 
apposer les Sceau & Timbre de N .'. Chap .'. 

Délivré à l'Or .'. de Paris, le premier Jour du huitième Mois dis Bul Cinq mil huit cent dix'huit ère 
vulg /. Premier Octobre mit huit cent dix-huit. 

Grand Prêtre 

101* /. Gr /. M . 

> /. Gr .-. M , 

3e.-. Gr ,-. M , 
Par Mandement du £h ,\ 

Bcellé, timbré, <Sb enregistré sous le No. 37 
par Noos Garde des sceaux & Archives. -^ 


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Getificatk (MS.) uf the same Chapter, to Bro. J. M. Bagon, dated 1818. The foUowing is a 
transcript : — 

• (Seal) (Seal) 




To ail Enlightened Enfcered, Passed, Raised and Exaltod Supr /. Excel /. Royal Arche mag /. under the 
Canopy of heaven. 

We the high Pri .'. and .'. Off .'. of the Chapter Royal Arche Supr .'.^Excel .*. mac .*. held, nnder 
Banction of the Lodge named Phénix Royal Hegisb .*. at East of Paris. 

DO HEREBY CERTIFY DBOLàRB AND ATTEST that the Bearer our faithfnl and well 
beloved brother Ragon (Jean Baptiste Marie) Venb .'. of the Trinosophes's R .*. Scotch [ZI Vally of Paria 
Great Athersata of hia Sonv .'. Chapter and great Commander of the Supr /. Council of C .*. K .'. sh .'. 
30th degree stablish'd in tho said Lodge, is a Member of our Chapter as having been raised to the 
Subi .*. degree. 

WE RECOMMANDED HIM to our true and Faithful Brothers of our ordor, recommaudable 
by hÎ8 Civil .*. and Mao .*. qualities. 

Given under our Sign Seal and Timb .'. of our Chapter at the East of Paris. 

The first day of the month named Bul 5818. 


Où Régnent le Silence l'Union et la Paix 

A Toas les F .*. F .*. Éclair .*. Reconnus Ëlev .'. et Init .'. Sup .*. Excel .*. Royal Arche sous la Voûte 
Cél /. du Zenith 

Les G^ .*. Pr /. et OÉf .*. du Chap .". Royal Arche établi par les Consitons .•. de la R.*. L .'. du 
Phénix séant a l'Or de Paris. 

CERTIFIONS ET ATTESTONS que le Porteur du présent notre Fidèle et bien-aimé 
F .', Ragon (Jean Baptiste Marie) V'>1« .". de la R .'. [H Écoss .'. des Trinosophes, Vallée de Paris, G^ .*. 
Athersata de son Souvn .•. Chape .-. et G^l .". Commandiiur du Supr .•. Conseil de C .*. K .*. sh 30® .'. 
Dég* .*. Établi près la dite îZî est Membre de notre Chap .*. comme ayant été élevé a ce Q^^ .'. Subi .". 

PRIONS en conséquence tous les vrais et Fîdcles F .*. de notre Ordre Subi .'. de le Reconnaître 
pour tel et l'accueillir comme mac .*. aussi recommandable par ses qualités Civiles que par celles 

Donné sous nos seings, sceaux et Timbre, Or .*. de Paris le premier Jour du Mois appelle 
Bal 6818. 

It will be noticed that thèse certiticates show the existence of a Royal Arch Chapter in Paris 
stated to be working under powers received from the Grand Lodge of Penusylvania. So far nothing 
has been found in the records of that Grand Lodge throwing any light upon the matter and it ia 
considered probable that the degree may hâve omanated from the Rite of '* Elect of Trath " or 
" Parfaite Union " which was introduced in Philadelphia by French omigrants from France and San 
Domingo. This Rite had nothing whatever in common with the Grand Lodge of Penusylvania nor wm 
it recognised hy the Masonic authorities there. 

Certificatb, îssuod in 1818 to Katalie Amélie Louise Ragon, wifc of J. M. Ragon, by the 
Lodge of Adoption V Amitié, of Valenciennes. 

Two engraved Charts, hand-coloured, formerly belonging to J. M. Ragon, and probably connected 
with the Order of Misraim. 

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Ëxhihits, 8Ï 

LtsT op Mbmbers, o€ the Lodge Sept Ecossais Réunis, 23rd April, 1846, which incladoB the Dame 
of Meyerbeer, who is described as " 33c, Directeur génl de la musique du Roi de Prusse, Membre de 
l'Institut de France, Officier delà Légion d'honn^. rue Richelieu, 111.'* 

AU thèse documents were formerly the propertj of Bro. J. M. Ragon, and are now presented 
to the Lodge by Bro. W. J. Songharst. 

By Bro. Hamon le Strange, Norfolk, 

Stone Gavel, found amoog the tombs of Béni Hassan, Upper Egypt, and dating from the period 
of the Twelfth Dynasty. Presented to the Lodge. 

By the Lodge. 

P.M. CoLLAR Jewkl, presented 9th Deoember, 1839, by the Domatic Lodge No. 206 to Bro. 
Stephen Child, P.M. • * 

CoLLAR Jkwel, dated 1816, of Provincial Grand Sword-Bearer of SufiEolk. 

CoLLAR Jewel, Provincial Grand Organist of Suffolk. 

Silver Apron Badge, Irish. 

Jbwel, of tVie 150, Ancient and Accepted Rite. 

Jbwkl, presented to William Best, P.M. of the'Lodge ,Star in the East No. 8^8, Queenstown, 
Cape of Good Hope, 16th June, 1864. This waa bought by a trooper from a Boer prisoner. (See 
" Masonio lUustrated," Vol. III, p. 33). 

Certificatie, Grand Lodge of Ëngland, dated 30th August, 1788, and issued to Hyman Cohen, a 
member of the Caledonian Lodge then No. 211. 

Certificats, of Caledoiiian Lodge No. 211, to same Brother, signed by A. L. de Hayes, Master, 
Clementson, S.W., Jo^^ Schbracq, J.W., and A. Ten Brocke, Secretary pro tem. 

Cbrtificatk, issued to same Brother on 18th April, 1796, by the Royal Arch Chapter, at 
Kingston, Jamaica. Bro. Cohen is described as a member of the Union Lodge No. 257, Jamaica, and as 
Grand Junior Warden of the Provincial Grand Lodge. 

Apron, and green silk 8A8H, with dagger attached, formerly belonging to same Brother. 

By Bro. H. C. Nelthorpe, London. 

Two glass GoBLETS, and one Rdmmer, or Sugar-basin; the largost glass has initiais "J.M.'' 
engraved upon it, and "No. 18, 1812." It would therefore appear that the former owner was a 
member of the Castle Lodge of Harmony, which at that date met at the Horn Tavern, Doctors' 
Gommons. Presented to the Lodge, 

A hearty tote of thanks was unanimously passed to those Brethren who had lent objects for 
exhibition or who had made présentations to the Lodge Library and Muséum. 

Bro» J.. P. Simpson read the foUowing paper :— 

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S in my two preceding papers, " Old City Taverns and Masonry " and 
'* Old London Taverns and Masonry," I hâve given some account of 
the ancient Masonic homes in what may be styled London proper, I 
thought it might complète our subject, and be of some interest to the 
Brethren, if I collected, in another paper, some facts with regard to 
the Masonic Taverns in the outlying districts adjacent to London. 

I hâve used the words * outlying districts * because I am afraid 
the title of ttis paper, " Some OUI Saburban Taverns and Masonry," is in some respects 
misleading. Of course, the subarbs of the eighteenth century hâve now become an 
intégral part of London, and other country villages hâve taken their places. 

Before visiting in détail the varions localities, I think it would add interest to 
our travels if I gave hère a very brief gênerai sketch of the rise and development of 
Suburban London. It will not be necessary to go back very far, for at any rate up to 
the time of the Tudor period, there were l'eally no suburbs at ail, and the Cities of 
London and Westminster stood in solitary grandeur. If we look, however, at Van de 
Wyngrerde*s map {clrca 1543) from the Sunderland Collection in the Bodleian Library, 
which is familiar to most of us, we shall see some scattered houses on the Fleet River, 
in Moorfields, and Finsbury Fields. The religions houses of Clerkenwell, and St. 
Martin's Church, were still, however, surrounded by pasture land and gardons, and 
Islington and Paddington were far removed, quiet villages. 

Still, there are slight indications about this period of the filling in, so to speak, 
of the spaces of ground between the villages to the north and west, and the two Cities. 
We see, at any rate, that the common fields began to be enclosed with hedges and 
ditches, and Kdward Hall, writing in the sixth year of Henry VIII., relates how the 
citizens of London sallied forth with the cry of " Shovels and Spades," and filled in the 
dit^îhes and broke down the inclosures which had been placed around what they considered 
their récréation grounds ; but, he adds, " after which time thèse fields were neverhedged 
but now we see the thing in worse case than ever, by means of inclosures for gardens 
wherein are buîlt many fair sammer houses ; and, as in other places of the suburbs, some 
of them like Midsummer pageants, with towers, turrets, and chimney tops, not so much 
for use and profit as for show & pleasure, betraying the vanity of men's minds, much 
unlike the disposition of the ancient citizens who delighted in the building of 
Hospitals and Almshouses for the poor, and therein both employed their wits and spent 
their wealth in preferment of the common commodity of this our City." Some of the 
above remarks of our friend Hall might well h ave been written in the seventh year of 
Edward VIL 

Under the reign of Elizabeth, the houses in the fields outside the gâtes gi'adually 
multiplied, and caused Her Majesty much alarm, as it was feared that the increased 
numbers of inhabitants would make provisions scarce and spread the plague. By a 
proclamation dated at Nonsuch in 1580, confirmed by another in 1602, it was forbidden 
to build houses within three miles of the City Gates. It does not appear, however, that 

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Some Old Suhurhan Taverns and Masonry. 39 

thèse régulations were strictly enforced, and in any case tliey were ineffectuai, for Stow 
says that about bis time tbere was not only a great number of buildings erected in tbe 
vicinity of the City, but that likewise in the City itself sites of old maiisions had been 
covered with lesser édifices. Except for a prohibition by James I. in 1610, against the 
érection of bouses in Lincoln's Inn Fields, no other act was passed dealing with the 
sabject, and London soon lost its old-world limits, and expanded on every side. 

I bave, however, a theory that suburban life, as we know and understand it, first 
came into being after the Great Pire of London in 1666, and was further promoted by 
the fire in South wark in 1676, and the later terrible City fires of 1748 and 1765. 

If we examine contemporary writers at the time of the Great Plague and Fire of 
London, such as Pepys and Evelyn, and tho realistic narrative of Defoe, we learn that at 
that period, a vast number of the inhabitants of the City migrated to the villages in the 
vicinity. Doubtless, many retumed to réside again in or near their old homes, but a 
considérable number of merchants and tradesmen had found from expérience that they 
could live in the country and yet carry on their business in the city. 

The roads, also, at the end of the seventeenth century, apart from the great 
highways, began to improve somewhat, and the first Act for the repair of the public 
roads was passed in 1678. Without doubt, the early part of the eighteenth century saw 
a marked advance in and facilities for travel to and from the city. For 
instance, in Kent's ** Guide to London,** 1740, we learn that numerous coaches started, in 
some instances three times a day, from " The Chequers,** Charing Cross, the " Goose and 
Gridiron,'* St. Paul's Churchyard, and the "Flowerpot Inn,'* Bishopsgate, for the 
western and northern suburbs. The citizens of London in the eighteenth century 
appear to bave resided in the City itself or the suburbs, and not in the west end of the 
town. Indeed, there was no period, perhaps, when the séparation of the Aristocracy of 
the west, and the Traders of the east, was more distinct and clearly defined. On rare 
occasions only, the upper classes invaded the City, as in the case of the South Sea 
Bubble. Thus we see a number of résidences began to he erected in Stepney, 
Tottenham, Islington, and even as far as Hackney and Hampstead to the north, and 
Kensington and Hammersmith to the west. So the country villages of the eighteenth 
century began to be more intimately connected with, and drawn into, the life of London, 
and the suburban System gradually developed. 

In 1791 Horace Walpole writes to his friend. Sir Horace Mann, " There will soon 
be one street from London to Brentford ; aye from London to every village ten miles 

In Sir Richard Phillips* " Morning Walk from London to Kew (1817),*' he views 
with interest in the early 'raorning the dwellers in the Suburbs hurrying to work in 
coaches and on foot, " I amused myself with a calculation of the probable number of 
persons who thus every day between eight and six pass to and from London within a 
distance of seven miles. In the présent route I concluded the numbers to be something 
like the foUowing 200 from Pimlico 300 from Chelsea 200 from Kings Road and Sloane 
Street, 50 from Fulham & Putney and 50 from Battersea & Wandsworth ; making 800 
per day. If theu there are 20 such avenues to the Metropolis it appears that the total 
of the regular ingress and egress will be 16000 persons of whom perhaps 8000 walk, 
2000 arrive in public con voyances and 6000 ride on horseback or in open and close 
carriages. Such a phenomenon is presented no-where else in the world ; and it never 
can exist except in a city which unités the same combined features of population, wealth, 
commerce, and the varied employments which belong to our own vast metropolis.*' The 
changes of meeting places of many of our older Masonic Lodges clearly follow and mark 

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42 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Tavern, in 1761. The other Lodge was founded in Gibraltar, in 1785, and subsequentlj 
had its home at the Royal Artillerj Tavorn, Woolwicli Comnion, in 1794. The union of 
the two Lodges took place in 1826. 

Passing westwards to Defiford (Deepford in the older maps), we arrive at a 
localitjr which, from the tirae of Henry VIII. down to 1769, was the birthplace of nearly 
ail the English Navies. ** This town," wri tes Lam barde, in 1570, "being a frontier 
between Kent and Surrey was of none estimation at ail, until that King Henrie the 
eight advised (for the better préservation of the Royal Fleete) to erect a Storehouse and 
to create certain office rs there : thèse he incorporated by the name of M ai s ter aud 
Wardeins of the Holie Trinitie for the building keeping à constructing of the Navie 
Royall." Lambarde is probably wronghere, however, as the Corporation of the Trinitj' 
had no connection with the Royal Navy and the charter does not mention any duties in 
connection with it. The Corporation was probably the successor with augraented 
powers of a more ancient Guild or Fraternity of Seamen. 

It is interesting to note that two of oar oldest Lodges had their birthplace at 
Deptford, namely, the Neptune Lodge No. 22 which met for the first time at "The Griffin," 
Back Lane, in 1750, and the Lodge of Friendship No. 206 at " The Oxford Arms," 
Church Street, in 1784. The oinginal founders of both thèse Lodges were workmen 
engaged in constructing the old " wooden walls " in the neîghbouring Dockyard. I see 
that there are also two other Deptford Lodges that still flourish, namely, the Lodge of 
Justice No. 147, which met at ** The JoUy Potters " in 1806, and the Lodge of 
Tempérance, which had its home at " The White Swan," High Street, in 1867. Another 
" Swan Tavern " {Plate I.) in this neighbourhood is to be noticed. It stood in a 
picturesque situation near the River, and was approached by a wooden Bridge. It was 
situated practically on an island, and in the stream near by the rather cruel sport of 
chasing ducks by dogs seems to bave been indulged in. A Lodge met hère as early as 
1742, but was erased in 1748. Others came later but only for a short time. Indeed, I 
find that in Taverns of, so to speak, "holiday resort," the stay of Masonic Lodges was 

Before finally leaving this locality we must not pass by a very famous old time 
house of entertainment, the "Jamaica House Tavern" at Rotherhithe. (Plato IL) 
This was a very favourite place of resort for nearly a century, the House containing 
good accommodation and pleasant garden. It is supposed at one time to hâve been 
tenanted by Cromwell, and Larwood says that after the Restoration it became a Tavern. 
Pepya notes in bis Diary that on the 14th April, 1667, he took his wife and her maids 
for an outing hère. " Over the water to Jamaica House where T ne ver was before and 
the girls did run wagers on the Bowling Green and thus with much pleasure spent but 
little and so home." Only one of the Lodges which met hère survive, namely, the 
Lodge of Sincerity No. 174, which met hère in 1790. The engraving shows the street 
and this old Tavern at that period. This House was puUed down in 1854. 

And now passing on to Bermondsey and Southwark, which can conveniently be 
taken together. And hère I must ask for some indulgence, for the old Taverns of this 
locality are so numerous, and they call up so many memories, historical, anecdotal and 
Masonic, that to do anything like justice to the subject would require a lengthy paper 
in itself. We can therefore only sélect a few with spécial Masonic association. 

Mr. Corner, the historian of "The Tnns of Southwark," writing in 1858, says: 
"The Borough of Southwark more especially the High S^ emphatically called the 
Borough by the inhabitants having for so many âges being the only outrance into 
London from Kent, Surrey, and Sussex, the chief road from France, and from the Shrine 

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I. — The Svvan Tavekn, near the Mill Pond, Seven Islands, DEPifORD. 
From a Drawing in the GardDer Collection. 

II. — The Jamaica House Tavern, Rotuerhithe. 
From a Drawing in the Gardner Collection. 

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Some Old Suhurhan faverns and Ma^onry. 43 

of St. Thomas à Beckefc at Cauterbury to wliich in olden times thousands resorted every 
year, it is not surprisiug that the borough became celebrated for its Inns which con- 
tributed miglitily to its prosperity." 

Stovv in liis " Survey of London'* (1598) says : '*From thence (the Marshalsea) 
towards London Bridge on the same side be many fair Inns for the receipt of travellers 
by thèse signs the Spurre, Christopher, Bull, Queens Head, Tabard, George, Hart, 
Kings Head, &c.*' The carions n\ap shown in Plate III. is taken from the Duchy of 
Lancaster Records cîrca 154î2, and shows the position of the Inns mentioned by Stow 
and many others. 

Of the Inns above recorded, " The Spur," " The Qaeen's Head," " The Tabard 
or Talbot," " The George " and " White Hart " remained in much of their ancient 
picturésque state till late in the last century, " The George," however, is now perhaps 
the sole survivor. 

Let us then commence with ** The George." It stood, as you will see by the 
map, close to " The Tabard," and had a courtyard and galleries. In 1676 it was burnt 
down in the great Southwark Fire which is referred to in the diary of the Rev. John 
Ward, published a few years af ter this event. " Go ver and his Irish ruffians burnt 
Southwark and had £1000 for their pains said the narrative of Bedloe. Giffard a Jesuit 
had the management of the fire. The 26th of May, 1676, was the dismal tire of South- 
wark. The fire beginning at Mr. Welsh's an oilman near S'. Margarets Hill betwixt 
the ' George * and * Talbot ' Inns as Bedloe in his narrative relates." It is to be 
noted that ail fires at this period were conveniently attributed to the Jesuits, and that 
Bedloe whom the Révérend diarist quotes was not an historian of strict veracity. 

" The George " was, however, rebuilt on the old site and according to the old 
plan. When Mrs. Scholefield, a descendant of Weyland, the landlord at the time of the 
great fire, died in 1859, it was parchased by the Governors of Guy*s Hospital. Hère the 
Gihon Lodge No. 49 had its first meeting place in 1810. " The BulFs Head" Inn close 
by appears in the List of 1723. 

" The Three Tuns Taveru " in the.High Street was the home of three well-known 
Lodges :— St John's Lodge No. 90, in 1820 ; the Kent Lodge No. 15, in 1852; and the 
United Mariners* Lodge, in 1858. 

If Southwark and Bermondsey were noted for their Taverns, they were also well 
sapplied with prisons, and Masonic Lodges seem for some years to hâve been associated 
with them, for one was held at the King's Bench Prison, Southwark, in 1752, and in the 
same year one met at the Marshalsea Tap House. Both thèse Lodges were under the 
Antient Grand Lodge. I hâve introduced hère an old view of the Marshalsea Prison 
(Plate IV.), as below it has a useful little plan of the High-street, and the situation 
of some of the Taverns about 1750. 

" The King s Arms " (Plate 7.), which afforded a home to Masonic Lodges, 
namely, an old Lodge which met there in 1732, and tbe Lodge of Constitutional 
Attachment in 1778, was a well-known coaching inn, and did a great business with 
waggons and caiTiers* carts. 

" The Queen*8 Head " (Plate VI.) mentioned by Stow was another quaint Inn 
having an inner yard and galleries on one side only, one to the first, and «nother to the 
second floor. The yard was approached by a high gateway from the street. Hère a 
Masonic Lodge met in 1759. And last but by no means least comes the famous *' White 
Hart Inn " (Plate VII.) where Mr. Pickwick first met Sam Weller. It had the largest 
sign except " The Castle " in Fleet Street. Jack Cade and some of his foUowers put up 
at this Inn during their brief possession of London in 1450. The original Inn was 

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44 Ttansactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

burnt down in 1676 but was rebuilt and was only finally pulled down about 1890. It 
consisted of several open courts the inuer one liaving fine gallerics on three sides. Hère 
several Masonic Lodges met but the onlj one now surviving is the Lodge of Amity 
No. 171 which met hère as late as 1830. 

The Royal Manor of Lambeth eau boast of many historical buildings, and 
clustered round them many ancient though perhaps not very noted Taverns. As late as 
1560, bowever, Pennant tells us there was not a single house standing between Lanibeth 
Palace and Sonthwark. Indeed the place was ail open country even in the reign of 
Charles II. Pepys, writîng in his Diary, July 1663, " Weut across the water to Larabeth 
and so over the fields to Southwark." Ralph Aggas' map of London shows only one 
house besides the Palace of the Archbishop and Lambeth Church. Still there must 
hâve been at least one Tavern existing in the days of Charles II. as he used to give 
little private parties at " The Three Mariners " uear the Church, coming over the water 
from Whitehall. The chair in which he is said to hâve sat on thèse occasions was 
preserved in the lun till it was pulled down. 

In the eighteenth century Lambeth mursh abounded in pleasure gi'ounds and 
gardons, and the Taverns near by did a good trade. Chief araongst thèse was " The 
Old Crown and Cushion '* Lambeth marsh. This Inn was sometimes the résidence of 
an eccentric adventurer known as " Duke of Bolton, King of Vine Street and Governor 
of Lambeth marsh." He had served in America and also in Admirai Hawke's fleet at 
the defeat of the French at Brest. He afterwards settled down hère and devoted his 
incomo to relieving the poor in the ueighbourhood. At ** The Crown and Cushion " the 
Constitutional Lodge No. 55 met in 1790, moving to "The Crown," Narrow Lane, in 

At this latter house the Vitruvian Lodge No. 87, met in 1831. At " The Crown " 
in 1735 Dr. Martin Van Butshell was born. Hc was an eccentric quack who afterwards 
practised with great success in Mount Street. He allowed his beard to grow down to 
his feet and rode a pony which he paiuted whitc with black spots. He died in 1810. 

Close by also resided our Masonic " Brother " the Chevalier D'Eon. Angelo, in 
his réminiscences, says he used to see the Chevalier walking in the neighbourhood. 
** He lived a few doors from Astley's Théâtre. He always dressed in black silk and 
looked like a w^oman worn out with âge and care." 

Cuper's Gardons, vulgarly called Cupid's Garden, once occupied the site of 
Waterloo Road. It was laid out by one Boyder Cuper, a gardener at Arundcl House, 
Strand, in 1682, and the amusements were dancing, music and fireworks. Cuper was 
succeeded by a Mr. and Mrs. Evans, but the Gardens became somewhat disreputable, 
and were closed in 1752. Mrs. Evans, theu a widow, then opened " The Feathers Tavern " 
on the same site. The présent " Feathers Tavern," stands back a little further fi-om 
the river than the old Inn. In 1822 the Constitutional Lodge No. 55 met hère. 

Another Lambeth Marsh Inn was known as ** The Wheatsheaf," and can boast 
that it was the birthplace of the oldest of ail the Lambeth Lodges, as it had a Lodge 
meeting there in 1754. 

Lambeth, more fortunate than other localities, has a manuscript lîst of the old 
local Taverns in 1810, and several of thèse were well-known coaching Inns, for it must 
be remembered that when only one Bridge existed the coaches to Portsmouth, Hamp- 
shire and Dorsetshire started from Lambeth. So Pepys, in his Diary under date 1660, 
"We took water to Lambeth and then coach for Portsmouth." " The White Hart," 
Fore Street, and " The Lion and Lamb," Prince^s Street, were alike coaching Inns and 
Masonic meeting places. 

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V. — The King*s Arms Tavern, Blackfriars Street, Southwark. 
From a Drawiog in the Gardner Collection. 

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Some Old Suhurhan favems and %tasonry. 45 

Till about 1830 there still survived in the South Lambeth Road, nearly opposite 
wbere the Library now stands, an old house known as the Turret Honse. Hère the 
eminent nàturalist and traveller, John Tradescant, lived in the reign of James I. He 
and his son ccrllected a wonderful muséum of curiosities, a catalogue of which was 
published in 1656. The father died in 1638 and the son in 1662. Bro. Elias Ashmole 
(whose house in Sbire Lane we noticed in my last paper) was a great friend of the 
younger Tradescant, and he records in his Diary, December 14th, 1659, " This afternoon 
they gave their scrivener instructions to dravv a deed of gift of the said closet of 
curiosities to me." On the deatli of Mr. Tradescant, his wife disputed the deed, but 
Ashmole succeeded, and went to live at Turret House. In 1683 Ashmole presented the 
muséum to the University of Oxford, and died at this house in 1692. 

Waxdsworth, which cornes next in our travels westward, is so called from the 
River Wandle, which, rising in Croydon, flows through Wandsworth and so into the 
Thames. This river was, Isaac Walton tells us, celebrated for its trout, though a later 
writer describes it as " the aiuk of the country." When Lysons wrote his " Environs 
of LondoD," in the year 1792, this hamlet consisted of about tifty houses by the side of 
a small common. It could, however, boast of two good Taverns, both of which were 
patronised by Freemasons. Of those two " The Turk's Head,*' South Street, was the 
best known, possibly because it was at this house that the " Garratt Election " was held. 
This curions custom had its origin from the inhabitants deciding to elect a représentative 
or ** raayor " to look after their interests, and prevent encroachments on the common 
rights, etc. It was decided to elect a fresh représentative at each gênerai élection for 
Parliament. Robert Chambers, in his " Bock of Days,*' gives a fuU account of the 
varions scènes enacted hère for the mock élections of the borough of Garratt. He has 
a shrewd suspicion that the local publicans, and, no doubt, especially the landlord of 
" The Turk's Head," found it to their interest to encourage the fun, the printed 
addresses and the mock processions of candidates. The two last members elected were 
an old wig maker called Jeffrey Dunstan, who was imprisoned in 1793 for séditions 
expressions, and Harry Dimsdale, a muffin seller, who died of drink. Foote brought ont 
a farce in 1761, entitled " The Mayor of Garratt," which had a considérable success. In 
a curions drawing, by Valentine Green, representing the starting of the mock pro- 
cession of candidates, we see " The Old Turk's Head " on the right. Hère a Lodge was 
meeting in 1753, and at the other principal Inn, " The King's Arms," a Lodge was 
constitnted in 1757. 

Before leaving the neighbourhood of Wandsworth we must notice one Tavem by 
the riverside at Battersea, " The Red House," {Plate VIII.). The Inn, as shewn on 
the eograving, is probably of about the begiuning of the last contury, but I think it is 
the successor of a much older Ta ver n. It had the distinction of being noted MasonicalJy, 
and also for the shooting matches held hère. It was in fact the headquarters of the 
Gun Club for some years. The promises were x)ulled down in 1850 for the Park 

PuTNEY, or Pottenheth, as it was called in the sixteenth century, is described by 
Strype, in 1720, as a place "graced with large and good buildings, well inhabited by 
gentry ; and the more for its good air and diversions it large Heath affords. Where 
there is a Bowling Green well resorted to in the summer months." Later, in 1750, 
Horace Walpole, writing as to the appréhension of one James McLean " the gentleman 
highwayraan," says " McLean had a quarrel at Putney Bowling Green two months ago 
with an officer whom he challenged for disputing his rank ; but the captain declined 
until McLean should produce a certiticate of his nobility.'^ The " Bowling Green " House 

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4é Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Loàge. 

is interesting to the Craft as it appears to hâve been a very favourite place in the first 
half of the eighteenth centurj for wbat are now known as " summer meetings." We 
read in the Baily Posty May 18th, 1739, an advertisement : — " Those Brethren who intend 
to wait on tbe Right Honourable Lord Raymond Grand Master of the Antient and 
Honourable Fraternity of Free & Accepted Masons to dino at Patney Bowling Green 
to-morrow tbe 19th înst : are requested to take Tickets in time that Bi-otber Parry may 
niake suitable arrangements for them. 

Tickets to be had at Mr. Moody's Sword Cutlor to His Majesty and the Prince 
of Wales near Temple Bar Mr. Berry's at tbe Théâtre Coffee House in Bridges S'. 
Covent Garden & Forrests Coffee House. 

N.B. Dinner on Table at 2 o*clock precisely and ail Brethren are required 
to come clothed." 

The above is the 'tirst notice that I can find of thèse " Summer or Country 
Meetings " in tlie suburbs, and, as we come across them again in Hampstcad and 
Islington, it may be interesting to glance for a moment at their origin and bistory. 
Tbey would appear to bave been informai meetings orgauized by the Deputy Grand 
Master for the time being, and Bro. Henry Sadler, some time ago, looking through 
the Minutes of Grand Lodge, found tbree références to them tberein under date 26th 
May, 1749. " The D.G.M. informed the Lodge that himself and several Brethren 
intended to dine at Bro: Viponts at Hampstead on Saturday tbe 17th June next an 
desired tbe Company of such as it suited to dine with hin." There is a similar notice 
given on 25th July, 1750, to dine at Bro. Perry's, at the Bowling Green, Putney, and 
again on the 18th June, 1752. The last notice in the minutes is in 1798, fora dinner at 
Canonbury House, Islington. Doubtless it was a yearly occurrence, but it was not 
always mentioned in Grand Lodge, and the notice was made by advertisement, or cards 
sent out to those eutitled to attend. 

Bowling Green House seems gradually to bave decliued as a place of entertain- 
ment, and became a private résidence aboutl760. Hère, afterwards, William Pitt lived 
fot several years and died in 1806, The old '' Castle Inn," in the High Street, was also 
tbe home of the Britannic Lodge No. 33, in 1758, and the " White Lion " had a Lodge 
meeting there in 1765. 

RiCHMOND is not mentioned in Domesday, it was probably then but a waste and 
included in tbe Manor of Kingston. It was known by the name of Sheen until about 
1500, when it was called Richmond, by command of Henry VIL, who, before tbe Battle 
of Bosworth, was Earl of Richmond, in Yorksbire. It seems to hâve been a Royal 
Manor from the time of Edward I., who resided there, and in 1300 received the Scotch 
Commissioners " at bis Manor of Sheen on the Thames." The Manor long continued 
to be the résidence of royalty, but Strype, in 1720, speaks of the Palace as " now decayed, 
and parcelled out into tenements." However, about this period it had become a 
fasliionable resort, and on the 4th of June, 1749, Horace Walpole writes to Sir H. Mann, 
" To-day as I passed over Richmond Green I saw Lord Bath, Lord Lonsdale, and half 
a dozen more of White's Club sauntering at the door of a house they bave taken there, 
and come to every Saturday and Sunday to play whist. You will naturally ask why 
they cannot play at whist in London on those days as well as on the other tive ; indeed 
I cannot tell you except that it is so established a fashioH to go ont of town at the end 
of the week that people do go though it be only into another tow^n. It made me smile 
to see Lord Bath sitting there like a citizen that bas left off trade." 

Tbe Plate IX. is from an old and very rare engraving now in the Public Library, 
Richmond. This engraving was discovered in Germany, and only one or two other 

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Some 01 d Snhurhnn Tavernff and Masonrtj. 47 

spécimens are known. By the courtesy of the Librarian, Mr. Barkas, and tlie Committee, 
I was allowed to take a Photograpli. Tts date is probably about 1720, and shows tbe 
situation of the varions Taverns referred to below. 

With the advent of the fashionable folk the old Inns of the Town and Green 
improved and Masonie Lodges bep^an to fréquent theni. ** The Red Lion," at Richmond, 
had the distinction of appearing in the Lists of 1725 and 1726. This Lodge took the 
name of the Richmond Lodge, in 1734, and lapsed finally at the Freemasons' Hall, in 
1797. The origin of the sîgn of " The Red Lion " is derived, no doubt, from the Badge 
of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lanoaster, and the original Tnn stood in the main thorough- 
fare, at the corner of George Street and Hill Rise. The site of the Inn was moved 
back, however, some distance up Red Lion Street about 1755, and this latter Inn 
was only pulled down some weeks ago. Chancellor, in his '* History of Richmond," 
states that hère, in 1638, one, William Crowne, was created Rouge Dragon Pnrsuivant 
of Arms in Ordinary, and Mr. Dugdale, the Antiquarian, was made Blanck Logon 
Pursuivant. He qnotes also the quaint ceremony of Investiture, There is a notice in 
the Evening Post of the 28th February, 1736, which runs as follows :—" Notice is hereby 
given that the Old Red Lion Inn, at Richmond, in Snrrey, kept by Henry Fudger, 
Pemke Maker of that place, is now opened where Gentlemen, Ladies, and others will 
be entertained in the best manner." 

" The Red Lion " had, however, a Masonie rival of a little later date, " The Dog," 
afterwards known as " The Talbot," further up the hill. A Lodge, first meeting in 
Clare Mark et, migrated there in 1739. 

"The Dog" is not an unfrequent sign, and /we find a Tavem of that name in 
Westminster, where Pepys often resorted. The word "Talbot" was an old, and now 
almost obselete, ter m for a large kind of hunting dog. 

The well-known " Castle Inn," Hill Street, afforded aJiome for a Lodge known 
as the Pythagorean Lodge in 1788, and it continued to meet hère till 1794, and a little 
further down, at the corner of King Street and Water Lane, nearly opposite ** The Red 
Lion," stood ** The Feathers." Hère a Lodge that had removed from Isleworth met in 
1770, and was erased in 1794. The Assembly Room and other apartments, including 
the original staircase, still form part of the premises in the rear of Nos. 1 and 2, King 

" The Cricketers" on Richmond Green no doubt derived its name from the game 
played on the space in front. I know of only one other old Inn bearing that name, and 
this was situated at Chelsea Bridge, and had a beautiful sign, painted by Morland. I 
wonder what became of this Sign ; it would now be very valuable. The Chelsea 
" Cricketers *' was pulled down in 1824, and, ouriously enough, the Richmond House 
was, I see from a newspaper cutting, burnt down on the 22nd of August, 1824. A 
Lodge met hère in 1784, but was erased in 1828. 

" The Greyhound," still one of the principal Inns in Richmond, bas had a varied 
career, and at one time it held a prominent position in Masonry, being the home of the 
Lodge of flarmony No. 255, a distinguished suburban Lodge. This was the last Lodge 
founded by Thomas Dunckerley, and was, possibly, first held in his apartments at 
Hampton Court Palace, as the Somerset House Lodge (now the Royal Somerset House 
and Inverness Lodge No. 4) first saw the light in his Rooms, at Somerset House, after- 
wards it met at " The Toy Tavern," Hampton Court. In Bro. Sadler's History of 
Thomas Dunckerley (pp. 126 to 129), five letters are set ont written by Dunckerley to 
the Grand Secretary, Bro. White, containing références to this Lodge. Bretbren who 
wish to get a clear insight into Masonry in the eighteenth century should read thia 

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48 TransdcMons of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

History. Hère, gathered round the personality of this great and " serions " MasoB, 
will be found much tbat is carions and much of trne romance in the early vicissitudes 
of our Lodges. 

Crossing Richmond Bndge, we now continue our travels eastwards, and must not 
omit a short visit to BREXTFORn, as it had in any case one fancious Masonic Inn. In Sir 
Harris Nicholas's History of the British Orders of Knighthood (Garter), p. 79, we find 
that " Henry VI. hekl a Chapter of the Order of the Garter at the Lion Inn (aft«rwards 
Red Lion Inn) at Brentford, when Sir Alvaro Vasquez d'Almada, a Portuguese Knight 
(whom for his great zeal and good love fhe King created him Earl of Avranches in 
Norraandy with a pension of 100 marks a year), and Sir Thomas, afterwards made Lord 
Hoo and Hastings, appears to hâve been eîected, and they as well as Sir John 
Beanchamp were installed on the 16th August foUowing." This Inn at any rate, as 
far as its interior was concemed, retained many of its historié features until late in the 
last century. It had the distinction with " The Red Lion '* of Richmond of a place in 
the List of 1725, the two first recorded Lodges of our présent suburbs. 

The town possessed two other famous Inns, "The Castle" and "The Three 
Pigeons," but they were not Masonic, and the only Tavern of interest remaining is 
" The Star and Garter " at the foot of Kew Bridge. Parts of the présent House are, I 
think, fairly ancient, and afforded a domicile for Lodges at the beginning of the last 
century. No doubt, however, this Inn is the successor of a much older house which 
stood on the sarae site. I think it is referred to by Pepys, under date 20th August 
(Lord's Day), 1665, and during the period of the Great Plague of London : — " And so 
away to Brainford and there at the Inn that goes down to the waterside I alight and 
paid off my post horses, and so slipped off my shoes and laid me bv, the tide not 
serving, and to church where a duU sermon, and many Londoners. After church to 
my Inn and eat and drank A so about 7 o'c by water & got betwcen 9 & 10 to 
Queenhive very dark. And I could not get my waterman to go elaewhere for fear of 
the plague." 

On the 16th of September, 1665, he further records that this waterman must 
hâve caught the plague at Brainford, for he died sorae eight days afterwards, an event 
' which much alarmed the Diarist. 

The ancient name of Hammersmith in the Doomsday Book is Hermoderwode, 
and it was originally part of the parish of Fulham, but the Parishes were divided in 
1834. Bowack, in his " Antiquities of Middlesex " (1705), describes it as a village 
situated on the Thames, and extending north as far as the Great Western Road, and 
having many good bouses in and about ifc, inhabited by the gentry, and persons of 
quality, and in the summer forming a retreat for the nobility and wealthy citizens of 
London. The town was not eut off from the outer world, however, as two important 
highways met hère, and the arrivai and departure of coaches and passenger waggons 
kept its many old inns gay and busy. In Murray's Environs of London (p. 80) we find, 
" In the early part of the 19th century there was a pleasant cottage called ' The 
Seasons,' an appendage of the Dover Tavern, and the favourite smoking resort of the 
Duke of Sussex (G. M,, 1813-1843), who is said to hâve kept htre a choice assortment of 
meerschaums." According to Lyson, " The Seasons " was latter known as " Sussex 

Apparently Masonry first appeared in Hammersmith in 1768, when an old city 
Lodge, known as " The Caveac Lodge," left its home at the Caveac Tavern, Thread- 
peedle Street, and started afresh at " The Windsor Castle Inn," Hammersmith (Flate X.). 

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Ars Qcatl'or Coronatorum. 

X.— The Windsor Castlç Inn, Hammersmith. 

XL— The Bell and Anchor Tavern, Hammersmith, 1869. 
From a Drawing by J. T. Wilaon, in the Gardner Collection. 

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Some Old Suhurhan Tavems and Masonry, 49 

A good old coacbing inn this, still standing with many signa of its antiquity in its 
interior and stables. The Lodges nsed to meet in a long room wHich is seen to the west, 
and abutted on the road. 

" The Angel," which stands close to the Windsor Castle, in King-street, was later 
the Masonic home of two Lodge. 

*'The King's Coffee Honse " has disappeared, bnt hère in 1825 a notable Masonic 
gathering took place. In Fanlkner's History (p. /)o) the following account of this event 
is given : — " On the 7th May, 1825, the fonndation Stone of the north Tower (of the 
bridge) was laid by His Royal Highness the Dnke of Sussex with Masonic ceremony. 
The cofFer-dam being fitted np as an amphithéâtre, in which the stone was snspended. 
At four o'clock the Royal Dnke arrived, and the officers of the Grand Lodge assembled 
at the Latimer School Room, and the Lodge was opened by the Master and Wardens 
of the Caveac Lodge, No. 292. The procession then walked from the School Room to 
the Broadway, down Angel Lane, in Masonic order. On arriving at tho entrance the 
procession divided and took their station right and left, and the Duke passed to the 
platform. The ceremony of laying the stone commenced after three cheers had been 
given for His Royal Highness. The Grand Treasurer delivered to him a bottle con- 
taining coins of the reigning sovereign ; also a brass plate to be placed over the cavity. 
On the stone being lowered, the Duke scattered the corn and said, " As I hâve poured 
the corn, wine and oil, emblems of wealth, plenty and comfort, so may the bridge tend to 
commnnicate prosperity and wealth from one end of the island to the other. God bless 
the King." The procession then retnrned in the same order, and His Royal Highness 
dined with the nnmerous company at the King*s Coffee Honse. And so, perhaps, as Mr. 
Pepys wonld say, to " The Seasons," where the meerschanms were kept for a quiet 

The " Bell and Anchor " (Plate XI.) was also a famous coaching inn on the North 
Road. In Faulkner's History this inn is thus described, as it appeared in 1839, when 
Masonic Lodges were meeting there, " Adoining the Tnmpike, on the west is situate the 
* Bell and Anchor ' Tavern. The honse has long been nsed by the magistrates for hold- 
ing the Petty Sessions of the Kensington Division of the Hundred of Ossubston, for 
which purpose it is particularly well adapted, being centrally situated, as regards the 
parishes of Acton, Brentford, Fulham, Chelsea and Kensington, and their Worships 
the Magistrates hâve even fonnd it convenient for business, the room being appro- 
priately filled up and arrauged. The varions rooms in the honse are omamented with 
Chinese and other oriental drawings, collected by the proprietor during his voyages in 
the Bast Indies. During the early part of the reign of George III. this honse was much 
frequented by the nobility and gentry, and several humorous caricatures respecting this 
place and its visitors were published by Bowler and Carver, Saint PauFs Churchyard." 

The Court suburb of Kensington next merits our attention. It is wrîtten in the 
Domeaday Book " Chenesiton " and the name is probably derived from the family of 
Chenesi who owned some manors in the reign of Edward the Confesser. " Kingly " 
Kensington as Swift calls it, was, according to Bowack, writing in the beginning of the 
eighteenth century, the resort of persons of quality, especially the Earls of Warwick 
and Nottingham. It seems to hâve been then a long straggling street of quaint houses 
extending from Kensington Gardens to the Earl's Court Road and Holland House, 
with the old Church (pulled down in 1869) to the north and Kensington Square to the 
south. As this was the main road to the west of England a séries of famous old 
Tavems and Posting Houses are to be found along the route from Hyde Park Corner to 

Digitized by 


50 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, 

Hammersmitb. The chief coaching Tnn in Kensington High Street was "The Red 
Lion " opposite the Palace, and just in front of the Tnn we rcad in Thackeray's 
"Esraond " the proclamation of George I., as King, on the death of Qiieen Anne, took 
place, and the hopes of the Stuart party were shattcred for ever. The road, however, 
seems not to hâve had a good réputation as a highway. In the Hervey Memoirs there 
is a letter frora Lord Hervey to his mother dated the 27th November, 1736. ** The 
road between this place (Kensington) and London is grown so infamously bad, that we 
live hère in the same solitude as we should do if cast on a rock in the middle of the 
océan, and ail the Londoners tell us there is between them and us a great impassable 
gulf of mnd." The worst part was probably near the old " Half Way Inn " now Princes 
Gâte. This Inn was pulled down in 1846. "The King's Arms Tavem" on the south 
side of the High Street was a good old House to which was attached at the beginning 
of the last century an assembly room. Hère the Royal Alpha Lodge met in 1824. It 
seems to hâve been a favonrite place for balls and other gatherings and is mentioned 
several times in the writings of eighteenth century. 

" The Greyhonnd " in Kensington Square was at one tîme a most aristocratie 
house of entertainment and frequented by many of the wits of the town. There 
Sheridan would break his journey to and from HoUand House. Pope stayed for some 
time in 1735 in an Inn in Kensington Square, probably this one. There the Constitu- 
tion Lodge No. 55 met in 1787. 

I see several Lodges met at Anderson's Hôtel, Kensington, in the middle of the 
last century, but I cannot find where this Hôtel was situated. 

Further westwards, in Knightsbridge, close to the corner of Sloane Street, the 
" Rose and Crown " ofFered entertainment to travellers westwards. Oliver Cromwell 
seems to hâve had a great variety of résidences in and about London, and tradition says 
this was one of them. At any rate it does appear that a party of his bodyguard were 
quartered for some time hère. Corbould painted the Inn in 1849 under the title of the 
" Old Hostelries of Knightsbridge." Two Lodges, now erased, met hère in the latter 
part of the eighteenth century. 

Going southwards towards the river again we pass through Chelsea, called in 
the Domesday Book Chelched. The name seems probably to hâve been derived from 
the Word " chesel," meaning pebbles or stones, which were cast up on the shore hère by 
the tide. The name of Selsey Bill, near Chichester, has the same etymology. A map, 
dated 1664, in Paulker's History of Chelsea, shows very few houses, and apparently no 
Inn at ail. Still I think there must havo been one or more there, particularly by the 
waterside. Indeed Pepy's in his diary, under date the 9th April, 1666, writes, 
" Thinking to hâve made merry at Chelsey, but being almost corne to the house by 
coach near the water side a house alone I think the " Swan " a gentleman passing by 
called ont to us the house was shut up because of the sickness (Plague)." In 1759 a 
Lodge which had been meeting there for many years lapsed. Later this old Inn 
(Plate XII.) was noted as the winning post of the contest for the Doggett Coat and 
Badge, and became a well-known sporting house. In 1780 " The Old Swan " was pulled 
down and the Swan Brewery built upon the site, a new " Swan " being erected a little 
nearer Cheyne Walk. 

J. T. Smith, in his "Book for a rainy day," p. 280, relates a conversation with a 
waterman, " Well there was the Old Swan at Chelsea, but that has long been turned 
into a Brewhouse. That was where our people (the Watermen) rowed formerly, as 
mentioned in Doggetts Will, now they row to the Sign of the New Swan beyond the 
Physick Garden." 

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Some Otd Subiithan Taverns and Masonry. 51 

Bowark, to whom I hâve before referred, writing in 1705, estimâtes the bouses at 
tbat time as 300, being, according to bis account, nine times as many as tbey were in 

No doubt tbe beginning of tbe eighteentb century saw a great change in Chelsea. 
People began to find that it was a pleasant walk across the fields from Westminster to 
Milbank. Two very famoas old housea of entertainmeut were established to satisfy the 
needs of pedestrians, namely, " The old Chelsea Ban Houso " and " Don Saltero's Coffee 
Honso,'* botb of which added to their attractions Muséums, and oddly assorted curiosities. 
The latter CofEee House was the home of the St. Luke's Lodge No. 144, in 1786. " The 
old King's Arms," near Chelsea Bridge, where the Lodge of Faith No. 144 met in 1808, 
supplied, in conjunction with " The Swan," refreshment for those coming by water. 

Later in the eighteentb century, namely in 1740, the Ranelagh Gardens and 
Eotunda attracted many visitors. Thèse were opened first on the site of the house and 
park of Lord Ranelagh, an Irish nobleman. Thèse Gardens were sncceeded by the 
Cremorne Gardens, laid ont on what was known as Lord Cremorne's " Chelsea Farm." 
The Taverns near by naturally benefited by the crowds visiting the entertainments, and 
Masonic Lodges began to be constituted in some of them, such as " The Duke of York " 
and " The old Cheshire Cheese." 

The Inns of Chelsea had the réputation at any rate of being the resort of Jacobite 
p.artizans during the first half of the eighteentb century. When Shrewsbury House 
was pulled down, in a circular room was found a trap door leading down to a passage 
underground, going to the river, and having a turning back to " The old Black Horse 
Tavern." In " The Magpie and Stump Tavern " secret passages and hiding places 
were discovered early in the last century. At "The Duke*s Head," at the corner of 
Robinson Lane, now Flood Street, Lord Robartes (afterwards created Earl of Radnor) 
entertained Charles II. at a famous supper, on 4th September, 1660, and Pepys visited 
Lord Robartes (then Lord Privy Seal), at bis home close by, on the 19th April, 1665. 

Passing a little f urther west w;e note the Cadogan Arms, erected about 1790, at 
which the Phœnix Lodge No. 173 found a home in 1803. 

The Mulberry Gardens occupied the position on which Buckingham Palace now 
stands, and close by were two noted Masonic Taverns, " The Gun Tavern ** and Tea 
Gardens (Plate XIII.) and " The Flask Tavern,'* iu Ebury Street, where the St. Lnke's 
Lodge No. 144 met as early as 1765. " The old Gun " is described as having behind it 
in the Gardens " most convenient arbours and costume figures." Thèse gardens were 
removed to make way for improvements in Buckingham Gâte. At the corner of 
St. George's Row and Buckingham Gâte once stood the " Monster Tavern," which 
Larwood states was a corruption from *'Monastery Tavern." 

Hyde Park Corner early in the eighteentb century boasted of a number of small 
Taverns, amongst others " The Sun and Falcon," where the Grenadiers met as early as 
1744, and at " The Running Horse," close by, in 1745. At " The Red Lion," Hyde 
Park Corner, the Royal Mecklenburgh Lodge was constituted in 1770, and afterwards 
removed to Croydon, where it lapsed in 1809. At this Inn Steele once took Savage to 
dine. To pay the reckoning Steele dictated an article to Savage, who took it ont and 
sold it for two guineas. Steele had retired to this Inn for the day to avoid bis nnmerous 
creditors, a custom to which he had often to resort. 

From Hyde Park Corner we may journey up Park Lane, which was really a lane 
in the days we are writing of, and passing Tyburn we find ourselves approaching the 
villages of Paddington and Marylebone. The map (cîrca, 1750) shown in Plate XIV. 
is iateresting, as it shows the locality about the time Masonic Lodges commenced to 

Digitized by 


52 TransacHons of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

meet in the seighbourhood. Thèse villages, at the beginning of the eightcenth centuiy, 
were aboiit a mile from the nearest London streets. Bond Street was then in the conrse of 
building, and this, I think, would be fonnd to be the nearest point. Dodsley, writing in 
1761, bas nothing further to say of Paddington than that it was "a village of Middlesex, 
situated on the north side of Hyde Park." George Barrett, R.A., about 1780, resided 
hère, and it seems to hâve attracted artists by its pleasant rural scènes. Morland laid 
the scène of bis popular picture of " The Wearied Sportsman " in an Inn at Paddington. 
We are told that there were several Inns, however, in the middle of the 18th centnry, 
some of which were, no doubt, of ancient origin, for "The Red Lion" of Paddington 
is mentioned by Swift in the "Taie of a Tab." This old Inn dates from 1620, and 
tradition asserts that Shakespeare himself acted in some of bis plays at this honse. 
Tradition in this instance rests upon some solid basis, as this Inn and " The Wheat- 
sheaf " close by were frequented in bis time by Ben Jonson and other dramatic authors 
and actors. The last of thèse old Inns, " The Horse and Sacks," only disappeared in 
1876 to make way for the Harrow Road improvements. The first trace of Masonry that 
I can find in Paddington is at " The Pontefract Castle," where the United Lodge of 
Prudence met in 1776, and soon af ter the Vacation Lodge moved hère from " The Star 
and Garter " by Edgware Road. A Tavern of later date, known as " The Manor House 
Tavern," stands on the grounds of the Paddington Manor House, and the Westbourne 
Lodge was constituted hère in 1858. 

Marylebone (St. Mary-on-tho-Brook) was formerly known as Tyburn, and still 
retaiued much of its rural character in the cighfceeth century, as we read in the JDatly 
Journal of 1728 that " many persons had arrived in London from their country bouses in 
Marlebone," but was graduai ly growing, as in 1739 there were 677 bouses, and 35 
" people who kept coaches." But it is a curions illustration of the condition of the roads 
round London that in 1746 the proprietorof the Gardens engaged "aguard of soldiers" 
to protect visitors to and from London, and as late as 1764 Mr. Low, the then lessee, 
offered a reward of 10 guineas for the appréhension of " any highwayman found on the 
road to the Gardens." The gardens were a great featui-e of Marylebone, as early as the 
middle of the seventeenth century, aud we read in Pepys' Diary, May 7th, 1668, " When 
we abroad to Marrowbone, and there walked in the Garden, the first time I ever was there, 
and a pretty place it is." By the Gardens was the famous " Rose Tavern," supposed to 
bave been the oldest house in Marylebone, dating from about 1600. In the map of the 
Portland Estate, dated 1700, it is shown with the bowling green at the back. In the 
London Gazette for 1691 appears the annoancement, "Long's Bowling Green at the Rose, 
half a mile distant from London." Prize fights and duels were common in the neigh- 
bourhood of " The Rose." Hère, on November I4th, 1712, the duel between the Duke 
of Hamilton and Lord Mohun was arranged by their seconds, and not at " The Rose," 
Covent Garden, as Cunningham states. At " The Rose " the Old King's Arms Lodge 
No. 28 met in 1728. This was their second meeting place. " The Cannon," Portland 
Road, was at one time a fashionable resort, and there the Jubilee Lodge found a home 
in 1781, and St. James' Union Lodge No. 180. At the " Half Moon," Cheptone Street, 
St. Andrew's Lodge No. 231 held their meetings in 1777. 

Passing to the East our journey brings us into Tottenham Manor which was in 
1768 transferred by the Ci-own to Charles Fitzroy, first Lord Southampton. The small 
Manor House stood at the north- west extremity of the présent road. This house ceased 
to be a private résidence early in the seventeenth century and was transformed into a 
public house known as " The Adam and Eve," with tea gardens adjoining. Hère in the 
front of the Tea Gardens Hogarth bas laid his scène of the " March to Finchley." The 

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I— I 


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Some Old Suhurhan Tavems and Masonry. Sa 

site of those Gardens is now occupied by Bden Street, Hampstead Road. The first 
notice of this old Inn and Gardens is in the Parish Books of St. Giles in the Fields for 
1643 : " Mrs. Stacye's maid and two others fined 1/5 for drinking at Tottenham Court 
on the Sabbath daie.'* 

Af ter " The Adam and Eve " the two most vénérable Inns in Tottenham Court 
Boad are " The Red Lion," whieh appears as a Masonic meeting place in the first List 
of 1723, and " The Talbot," where the Westminster and Keystone Lodge met in 1767. 

Two Inns of less repute, "The Coachmakers' Arms" and "The Carpenters' 
Arms," accommodated Masons at the latter end of the eighteenth century. 

The original village of Clerkenwell grew up around the Priory and St. John of 
Jérusalem, the site of which is now marked by St. John Street, and a portion still 
remains in the old Gâte House, which, as Timbs says, happily exists still, through the 
united exertions, in 1845, of "the Freemasons and the Church." The Gâte House 
was occupied as a résidence by Cave, the Founder and Editor of the Oentleman^s 
Magazine until his death, in 1753. In its rooms bave been entertained, from time to 
time, Dr. Johnson and most of the eminent literati of that pçriod. It was afterwards 
converted into a Tavern, and appears to bave been known both as the Jérusalem Tavern 
and the St. John*s Gâte Coffee House. The Jérusalem Lodge No. 197 was founded hère 
in 1771. There was on Clerkenwell Green another "Jérusalem Tavern," where the 
Lodge of Fidelity No. 3 rested for a time. In the latter part of the eighteenth century 
the antiquarian, John Britton, was apprenticed to his uncle, who was landlord of this 
Tavern and also carried on the business of a wine merchant. That learned writer speaks 
of thèse early days in his Autobiography, vol. L, p. 62 : — " Sadlers Wells, the Islington 
Spa, Merlins Cave, Bagnigge Wells Tea Gardens and Ballroom were ail places of resort 
in my apprentice days (drca 1785). On Clerkenwell Green I witnessed a man pilloried 
and whipped, and in Red Lion Street another flogged at the cartes tail." The Red Lion 
Street hère mentioned dérives its name from the old " Red Lion Inn," which had at one 
time extensive gai*dens and stables, and where a Lodge was held as early as 1739. Hère, 
too, was the " Red Bull Théâtre and Tavern, famous about themiddle of the seventeenth 
century. Davenant, writing in 1663, says, " The Red Bull stands empty for fencers, 
there are no Tenants in it but old spiders." Masonry flourished at différent times 
in other old Inns, in or near St. Johu's Street, for instance the" Three Cups," mentioned 
in Defoe's " Moll Flanders," " I placed myself at the door of the Three Cups in St. 
John*s Street. There were several carriers used the Inn & the stage coaches for Bamet 
and Totteridge and other towns that way stood always in the Street in the evening." 

Somewhat to the south, and nearer to London, we hâve the village of Islington. 
In the Domesday Book it is written Isendone, a compound of Saxon and British, 
signifying " the hill of iron," doubtless from the springs of water rising in the vicinity 
impregnated with that minerai. Fitzstephen speaks of this ncighourhood, in 1190, as a 
small village north of the City, " with fields for pasture and open meadows, very 
pleasant, into which the river waters do flow, and mills are turned about with a 
delightful noise." Cowley, in his " Solitude," referring to monster London, says : — 

" Let but the wicked men from out thee go, 
And ail the fools that crowd thee so, 
Even thou who dost thy million boast, 
A village less than Islington will grow 
A solitude almost." 

But Cowley was not one of the most cheerf al of mankind. 

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54 fransactions of the Quatiuyr Coronati Loâge. 

Mosson, writing abont 1697, describes Islington as '* a large village half a leagne 
from Londoa wliere you drink waters that do you neither good nor harm provided yoa 
do not take too much of them." No doubt the same might still be said of the refreshment 
afforded to visitors to the numerous aud interosting Taverns in the neighbonrhood. 

Islington was in thèse old days as famous for its cheese-cakes and milk as Chelsea 
was for its buns, and had, in its northern district, some eight Inns, mostly supported by 
summer visitors. 

First and foreraost amongst the old Taverns we hâve to glance at is the ** Old 
Qneen's Hcad,*' in Lower Street {Plate X7.),a fine spécimen of architecture of the time 
of Henry VII. Traditions fairly haunt this quaint remnant of antiquity. One is that 
it was licensed to Sir Walter Raleigh, and that Queen Elizabeth visited him hère. 
Another that it was the résidence of the Lord Treasurer, Burleigh. This latter con- 
jecture seems to be the more likely, as the Cecil Arms were found on a pièce of oak 
panelling taken from the house. The Lodge of Concord met hère in 1830. Nelson, in 
his " History of Islington " (1823), fuUy describes the old Inn as it stood then, and the 
elaborate oak carving, both of the exterior and interior. An engraving of the Inn is 
also given in his Book, p. 349. 

" The King's Head Tavern " (Plate XVL), in Upper Street, was of almost equal 
repute with '* The Queen*s Head '' This Tavern, and some houses opposite the Church, 
standing at the beginning of the last century, were no doubt as old as the reign of 
James I. The head of Charles I., painted on métal, was placed in the Tavern window 
as the sign of the Honse. There was formerly a street in front of this Inn, knowu as 
King Street, and the tradition is that King James used to pass through this street, on 
his way to Theobald's, and stop at this Inn (probably then called by some other narae) 
for refreshment. At " The King*s Head ** there was a Masonic Lodge beld as eai-ly as 
1766, and, later, in 1793, the Lodge of the Three Grand Prînciples met hère. 

Several other most interesting Hostelries flourished in merry Islington, in the 
eighteenth century, such as " The Crown," in Lower Street, and "The Pied Bull," near 
the Green. We find also the Kent Lodge No. 15, meeting at " The Ship," Camden 
Street, in 1838, aud the Lodge of Liberty at " The King of Prussia,'* in 1793. 

Just north of Islington stood "The Canonbury Tavern or House." It would 
appear to date from the beginning of the eighteenth century, and the first landlord was 
a private soldier, one Lowe. Its palmy days, however, were from 1785 to 1808, when 
it had for hostess a widow Sutton. She built on new rooms to the old house, and the 
fare seems to bave been substantial and good. It stood at this time within the old park 
walls of the Priory of St. Bartholomew. Hère Lodges met from time to time, and, as 
far as we can trace, the last ** Country Feast " was held hère in 1798. It was rebuilt 
early in the last century, and I see that the Canonbury Lodge had its first meeting hère 
in 1856. 

Travelling now to our f urthest limit north, we come to Highgate and Hampstead. 

The etymology of the names of some of London's old suburbs is often difficult, and 
the results sometimes arrived at are more than doubtful, but, with regard to Highgate, 
the matter seems fairly simple. The name is, doubtless, taken from the High Gâte on 
the hill, which, from time immémorial, was the Toll Gâte of the Bishops of London, on 
the summit of the hill. This High Gâte was arched over by buildings extending from 
the " Gâte House Tavern," which stood ncxt to the old burying gp^ound. An engraving 
of this Gâte and Tavern, a.s it originally stood, is shewn on page 12 of Prickett*8 
interesting "History of Highgate." The arch and buildings appear to hâve been 
polled down about 1769, and the Tavern entirely rebuilt. The présent "Gatehouse 

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Ars Qcatcor Coron atorum. 

|lii^V^«4>U;. 'V*^ 

XV. — The Qukkn's Head Tavekn, Lovver Street, (Essex Roai>,) IsuNviivx, 
From a Drawing by R. Shepherd, in the Gardner Collection. 

' / 

^Kif^y^^T^^^ '^ 


__ ' - -r-r ' r~t"! ""Hl- 11 . 



XVI. — The Kixg's Head Tavern, Upper Street, Tslington, ix 1828. 
From a Drawing in the Gardner Collection. 

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Some Old Suhurhan Tai'erns and Masonry, 55 

Tnn" saw the consécration of tbe Highgate Lodge, in 1871. Anotber Toll Gâte of tlie 
Bishop of London was at the Spaniard*8, Hampstead, and was known as the Park Gâte. 

The qnaint Highgate custoni of swearing " upon the horns " was practised at 
" The Gatehonse Tavern," " The Red Lion," and other Highgate hostelries. It is said 
to hâve originated by one, Joyce, the landlord of " The Goach and Horses Inn." It con- 
sisted in taking a rather ridicnlous oath, holding the borna (usnally stag horns) in 
either hand, and then distributing refreshment for the good of the honse. Tbis was 
snpposed to constitute you a " freeraan " of Highgate. I fancy the cnstom mnst bave 
arisen from the Bonifaces thinking that they might bave a toll of some sort as well as 
the Bishop of London. 

At " The Castle Tavern,'* in the High Street, a Lodge, No. 79, was constitnted 
in 1731, a number of influential Masons being the founders. Some mystery surronnds 
the fnture bistory of tbis Lodge. A Lodge No. 79 appears in the Dublin Pocket Com- 
panion of 1735, as meeting at " The Hoop, Water Street, in Philadelphia." Bro. Lane 
comments on tbis " That there is no évidence of the existence of such a Lodge on the 
English R-egisters." The Bi-otber adds that tbis particular Lodge was in fact incor- 
porated with one held at "The Swan," Hampstead (No. 4 of 17tb Jannary, 1721), in 
1733, now the Lodge of Friendship No. 6. Possibly tbis particular Lodge, not unlike 
several we corne across in thèse suburbs, combined with Masonry tbe pleasant and 
healthfnl récréation of bowling, for which tbe fashionable world at that date had con- 
ceived a grand passion. Certain it is that attaçhed to '* Tbe Castle Tavem " was a 
famous Bowling Green. Tbis bas long disappeared, and " The Castle Coffee House " 
marks the site, with some little remains, I believe, of the old Inn. 

Tbe Manor of Hampstead was for a long period ecclesiastical property, ^nd long 
remained in comparative seclusion. Later in the eighteenth century it passed for the 
most part into the hands of the Maryon Wilson family, who also held and still hold tbe 
Manor of Charlton, near Blackbeath. It was, however, towards tbe end of the seventeentb 
century that it suddenly emerged from its obscurity and sprang into famé from its 
waters and springs baving certain médicinal qualities. Not only could thèse waters be 
drunk at tbis source, but I see an advertisement that the chalybeate waters of 
Hampstead could be obtained at varions Inns in London, such as " The Sugar Loaf,'* 
Charing Crosa, and " Nando's Coffee House," Covent Garden. 

With the advent of the fashionable world to drink the waters, Tavems with their 
long roonos for dances and dinners, and bowling greens and gardens for summer 
récréations sprang up on the borders of the beath and in the village itself. 

The first of thèse places of entcrtainment was " The Wells Tavern," and its long 
room ou the hill-side, east of the village. At tbis Inn, apparently, several of the Grand 
Lodge " Country Feasts " were held, as mentioned before, in my remarks on Putney. 
In Bro. Gould's History, vol. ii., p. 338, be makes tbis note on the matter." ** Preston 
says that in Lord Montagu*s year (1732) the Brethren met at Hampstead and instituted 
country feasts. Tbis is slightly misleading. According to tbe Records (Grand Lodge 
Minutes, April 13th, 1732) Viscount Montagu, Grand Master, being Master of tbe 
Lodge at the Golden Spikes, Hampstead, desired such Brethren as pleased to dine with 
him there, and, accordingly, the Dukes of Norfolk and Richmond, Lords Strathmore, 
Carpenter and Teynham, and above a hundred brethren dined with the Grand Master 
at Bro. Captain Talbot's, being " The Golden Spikes," Hampstead, at which time the 
Grand Master resigned bis Chair, as Master of that Lodge, to Lord Teynham." Tbis 
Lodge, removed in tbe next year to " The Vine," in Long Acre, and was erased in 

Digitized by 


56 Transactions of the Quatitor Goronati Lodge. 

The popularity of " The Wells Tavern " seems to bave gradually diminished, and' 
the long room was converted into a chapel. Its place was taken in a great measnre by 
" The Flask Tavern," and its long room, sometimes known as ** The Upper Bowling Green 
House." It stood on liigber gronnd on the edge of the heath. This Inn became the 
snmmer resort of the Kit Kat Club, and is mentioned in many of the plays and in the 
literature of that period. Richardson, for instance, makes Clarissa Harlowe escape for 
a tinie from the too pressing attentions of Lovelace by retiring to " The Flask Tavern," 
at Hampstead. It was, in 1771, pnrchased by Steevens, the Editer of Shakespeare, as 
a private résidence. St. John's Lodge No. 165 was first constituted at " The King's 
Head," Hampstead, and afterwards met botb at " The Wells Tavern " and " The Flask." 
" The Bull and Bush," between the Higb Street and the heath, was also a Masonic 
meeting place. In 1797 the painter, George Romney, built a house next door, but he 
only lived two years to enjoy bis rural retreat. 

" Jack Straw*s Castle," where the St. John's Lodge met in 1826, still flourishes. 
It was much beloved by Charles Dickens, and hère he would entertain his friends. In 
the " Cabinet of Curiosities," Limbird, 1822, we find this référence : — 

" With best of food — of béer and wines, 
Hère may you pass a merry day ; 
So shall my Host, while Phœbus shînes 
Instead of straw make good his hay." 

And now we must rest from our travels on the breezy heights of Hampstead, and 
contemplate, as tradition says Whittington did from Highgate, the wonderful prospect 
that stretches beneath us. On a fair moming we could even see the route we hâve 
taken in our three successive journeys ; the City, the West End, and the river banks 
fading in the distance towards Richmond and its wooded hill. Truly a marvellous 
transformation bas passed over the scène since our ancient brethren journeyed merrily 
to the Inns of the old suburban villages. Still, for those who seek diligently, can be 
found many pleasant mementoes of the past. 

I should, indeed, be amply rewarded for my researches into the history of the old 
Masonic homes, in and around the Metropolis, if it should encourage provincial brethren 
to gather together also some memories of the Inns and meeting places in their towns. 
We should then bave a most interesting séries. Our late Bro. Whytehead informed me 
that he was carrying out this idea with regard to York. But, alas ! he did not live to 
accomplish the task. I sincerely trust some Brother will be found to complète the work 
which he so earnestly desired to accomplish. 

Bro. W. J. HuGHAN tontes : 

Bro. Simpson, in his admirable Paper, seems to hâve overlooked the ** Country 
Stewards' Lodge," which was an outcome of the " Country Feast " traced as far back as 
24th June, 1732, then held at the " Spikes," Hampstead, Lord Viscount Montagae, 
M.W.G.M., being the Président. The custom of thus assembling annually in the 
Country, appears to bave been observed down to 1798, and a wairant was granted to 
thèse Country stewards to hold a Lodge, which was so named, and to assemble at Free- 
masons' Tavern, Great Queen Street, the document being dated 25th July, 1789, and 
numbered 540 on the Régi s ter. 

A spécial Jewel was worn by thèse Country stewards, pendant to a green collar, 
a reproduction of which occurs in my article on the Lodge in the " Freemason Christmas 

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8ome Old Suhurhan Taverns and Masonry. 57 

Number" for Dôcember 18fch, 1886, with a copy of the Charter. The pétition of the 
m îinbera to weir greea ribbon oa theii* apraas was refased by the Grand Lodge, which 
was a 8ore dîsappoîatmeat, especîallj as the Jewel and the grreen oollar had been allowed. 
The handsome badge was exhibited at Shanhlin Masonic Exhibition, September, 1886, 
and has for many jears been one of the treasnres of the Worcestershire Masonic Collec- 
tion, originaUy made by Bro. George Taylor, when Prov. G. Sec. of that Province. 
Merzdorf mentions one as being in the BoHock Collection, and Marvin, later on, was only 
able to qaote from the German work on Masonic Medals. The Lodge fell through 
abont ten years after issue of the Warrant but the number and the Warrant were 
transferred to the Lodge of " Faith and Friendship," Berkeley, Gloucestershire. 
Bro. Henry Sadler wrote some most interesting brief articles on the subject, and so did 
Bro. E. L. Hawkins, M. A., in the "Freemason *' for 1886, and Bro. F. J. W. Crowe also 
noted it in our " Ars," vol. xvii., p. 5. 

Bro. SoNGHCTRST Tcfcrrod to several of the old Taverns in the North of London, 
of which Bro. Simpson had made mention. In particnlar he asked for information about 
Canonbury House or Tavern which stood between the Upper Street and what within 
his recollection was still known as the Lower Road, its présent name being Ë-ssex Road. 
Some fragments yet remain of the buildings erected by Prior Bolton, of St. Batholo- 
mews, Clerkenwell, and in the garden of Canonbary Tower is a Mulberry Tree, said to 
hâve been planted by him. The Tower was probably built in the sixteenth centnry and 
is traditionally stated to hâve been occupied by Queen Elizabeth as a hnnting box, her 
Ladies-in-Waiting being accommodated in some adjoining houses in which are ceilings 
bearing her monogram. The Tavern was .situated close by, and is described as a small 
ale-honse, its principal attractions being its fine gardens and bowling green. But the 
** Venison Feasts " which our ancient Brethren enjoyed must hâve required a larger 
room than could hâve been provided in the Tavern itself, and it seems possible that 
some of the rooms in the Tower were used for the purpose. 

A house bearing the sign of the " King's Head " still stands in the Upper Street, 
immediately opposite the Parish Church of St. Mary, Islington, but it is quite a modem 
building. Some old houses immediately to the North of the Tavern wero recently 
demoHshed for the purpose of erecting a new Post Office. Many early Georgian houses 
are still to be found in the neighbourhood, though for the most part they hâve been 
successfully masked by modem shop fronts. 

Comments on the paper were also made by Bros. Sadler, Horsley, Hawkins, and 
the W.M., a hearty vote of thanks being unanimously passed to Bro. Simpson. The 
thanks of the Lodge were also tendered to Bro. G. Vogeler, for his kindness in preparing 
and exhibiting the Lantern slides, apd to Mr. J. Gardner, who had again allowed Bro. 
Simpson to hâve access to his valuable collection of drawings and engravings. 

Digitized by 


58 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronatï Lodge, 



j N the dayfl when Ancient Craft Masonry had spread amoDg ail the 
otherwise opposed sections of the Irîsh nation, the Masons of the 
citj and county of Cork were able to boast a nu mérous brotherhood 
and Lodges of considérable antiquity. Cork itself, ail the more 
flourishing for the stress of the wars with France, was (and, 
even still, under less favouring circurastances, %s) strong in its support 
of Freemasonry. In examining a collection of family papers in 
possession of a relative, Mr. Dudley Westropp (whose works on the plate and art 
collections in the Science and Art Muséum of Dublin are well known to ail 
visitors to that institution), I was interested to notice several relies of a once 
prominent Freemason. By kind permission of Mr. Westropp I venture to givo 
copies (but little more than copies) of thèse documents, hoping that (owing to 
their sidelights on Provincial Masonry over a century ago) they raay afFord 
interest to a wider circle of the Brethren and fiU in some small gap when the 
history of our Provincial Grand Lodges comes to be written. 

Brother Doctor Thomas Westropp was the third and youngest son of Doctor 
Ralph Westropp, of Dunscombe Marsh, Cork, the scion of a family (long settled 
at Cornborough, Brompton and Stainsby, in Yorkshire) which had settled in 
Ireland in the last few months of Richard Cromwell's brief nile, and spread 
widely in the counties of Clare, Limerick and Cork. Thomas was born April 
18th, 1759, and studied in the University of Edinburgh. He obtained his degree 
as Doctor of Medicine in July, 1779 ; the diploma (Sept. 13th), with varions 
quaint tickets for lectures during 1776 and the three following years are among 
Mr. Westropp*s papers. He seems to hâve lived a leisurely life, so far as his 
profession was concerned. This tradition is borne ont by the complimentary poera 
given below : — " Though from the toil kind fortune keeps you free." He never 
married, and died on October 31st, 1808, being probably buried under the shadow 
of St. Finbarr's Cathedral, in the torab where the names of his father and eldest 
brother can still be read, though with difficulty. 

As for his Masonic career, I hâve not had time or opportunity to master 
the material. The loss of the Grand Lodge Records down to about 1812 leaves 
the most accessible archives an absolute blank. Ail the more on that account 1 
hope the fragments hère copied may be of use. It were well for our Cork 
brethren to try and compile a history of their ancient lodges and Provincial 
Grand Lodge, and to ascertain the date and existence of the oldest minute books 
thereto belonging. 

Copy of a letter from Richard, second Baron Donoughmore, Grand Master 

of the Freemasons of Ireland, 1789 to 1813 :— 

Pal m ers ton Hou se, 

18th April, 1808. 
Dear Sir, 

Your obliging letter and the very acceptable resolutions of the 

Provincial Grand Lodge of Munster I had the satisfaction of receiving 

Digitized by 


Notes on Freeviasonry in Cork City. 5& 

and communicating to the meeting of the Grand Lodge on the 7th inst., 
and I anticipate the pleasnre whicb will be derived to yonrself and 
to ail our wortlij Brethren in the South from my being enabled to 
state that the resnlt of that meeting bas been everything that I 
could bave wisbed, and that there is every prospect of the re-estab- 
lisbment of that peace and barmony throogbont the Order of 
Masonry in Ireland, whicb oitght never to bave been interrapted. 

You will receive herewith 52 printed copies of the proceedings 
of that day, whicb I reqnest of yon to canse to be distribnted 
amongst the several lodges in the city and co. of Cork,^ viz. — 

No. No. No. No. No. 

1 Cork 31 Kinsale 84 Bandon 221 Cork 383 Cork 

3 Do. 41 Cork 95 Cork 259 Kanturk 385 Ditto 

19 Yougbal 49 Charleville 130 Ditto 267 Cork 413 Bandon 

27 Cork 67 Cork 156 Kinsale 277 Ditto 514 Skibbereen 

28 Ditto 71 Ditto 167 Cork 325 Mallow 520 Cork 

347 Cork 742 Doneraile 

[page 2] and in addition to the lodges mention ed at the other side, 1 wisb 
that the proceedings sbould also be sent to a revived lodge, No. 99, 
whicb 1 sanctioned and signed that day, to be beld in Mallow, and 
of whicb Dr. Tnckey is Master. You will perceive No. 3 mentioned 
among the Cork Lodges at the other sidc, as 1 had much satisfaction 
in reviving the number, in the respectable name of Capt. John 
Travers as Master, and complying thereby with the wisbes so strongly 
expressed by our worthy brother, Sir Richard Kellett. 

Tbis warrant and that before mentioned (99) 1 bave left in the 
bands of John Catbbert, Esq., Surveyor, General Custom Honse, 
Dublin, whom I appointed to act as Secretary ^o Tempore at the late 
[p. 3] meeting of the Grand Lodge, and to avoid the doing of any 
act which coald affect the rights of any of the persons who bave 
been coutesting for that office and who bave chosen to resort to a 
Court of Justice, but whicb contest must be at an end for the time 
to come^ when the annaal élection of the New Gi*and Officers sball 
take place, iu May next, and at whicb I bave appointed my brother 
as my Deputy to préside, as 1 sball be in London attendiug my 
Parliamentary duty. 

Mr. Cutbbert will deliver thèse warrants to the persons properly 
autborised to call for them on the proper fées being paid to bim, 
if any are payable, whicb he will band over to the Grand Treasurer; 
I mean the parts of them which belong to the Order at large and 
retaining those whicb belong to the office of Deputy [p. 4] Grand 
Secretary, for the person who sball appear entitled to receive them. 

And now permit me to request that you will communicate to 
my worthy brethren of the Provincial Grand Lodge my best 
acknowledgments for the fresh proof whicb their late résolutions bave 

'Those Babsisling in the province in 1908 are as f oIIowb : — 1> 3, 8, 71, 96, Cork ; 16, Skibbereen j 
49, Charleville ; 62, Tralee; 67, Bantrj; 68, Toughalj 84, Bandon; 180, Yalentia ; 190, Queenstown j 
234, Kinsale; 386, OlonakiUy; 666, Fermoy. 

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éô ^transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Loâge. 

given me of their unabated confidence and kindness, and accept my 
thanks, yourself, for the kind part which yoa hâve had the goodness 
to take npon the occasion. 

Some circumstances interposed which I had not expected to delay 
the publication of the proceedings of the Grand Lodge, which were 
not at an end till Satarday last ; yoa should otherwise hâve heard 
from me before. 

Believe me, dear sir, with truth and regard, 

Your sincère Brother, 
Dr. Westropp, [Signed] Donoughmore, G.M. 

P.G. Master of Munster, 

The next document is one of a group of four tickets ; those to the boxes are 
prinled in red, those to the pit in blue. Both are identical save for the respective 
words "Pit" and "Boxes," and certain manoscript nnmbers and initiais. Mr. 
Westropp has two of each, and one of the box tickets was shown me by the 
late Colonel William Keily Westropp, of Folkestone, an enthusiastic Freemason in 
the English constitution and a «member of the Correspondence Circle of the Quatuor 
Coronati Lodge till his death in 1906. 

By désire and under the patronage of 

The Right Worshipful THOMAS WESTBOP, Esg., 
P.G.M. OF Ibeland (sic), 

The P.G.S.W., the P.G.J.W., and the Worshipful Masters, the S. and J.W.'s 
and Brothers of the Lodges of the City of Cork. 

For THE Benefit of 


TheAtre Royal. 

151 ' 


CL S. 

(No. written) . 

(Sugg's initiais written). 

One of the pit tickets has the number 146 and the initiais " CL. S." (Sugg) 
written on it, bat none hâve the date or snbject of the entertainment. 

The next is a dismally feeble and rugged " poem," of curions punctuation, 
probably reprinted at the oflBce of some local newspaper. Its fraternal afPection 
and the évidence of the '* repute " io which the Provincial Grand Master was 
apparently held may justify our labour in copying it, if not the publication in 
the pages of Â.Q.G. 


Provincial Grand Master of Munster. 

" Westrop, high in esteem who honor'd stands, 
To you whose worth, the muses voice demands ; 
From the fair repute that adorns your narae 
And from your présent just established famé. 

Digitized by 


Kotes on freemasonry in Cork Glty. 6l 

Honor*d as yon préside on tbe masonic tlirone 
An humble bard wonld make himself now kuown ; 
That with distingnisbed lustre as yon shine, 
Invokes yon hère to patron ise the nîne : 
On those like you the poet must ever wait, 
Respected, loy*d, whom merît bas made great. 

When borne down his genins sinks depressed 
To those like you whose goodness is confessed 
In whom philanthropy is known to dwell 
In life whose part is nobly acted well 
To those like you he must his ills disclose 
In whose tender breast soft compassion flows ! 

While the grand station which revered you bear 
Your high qualifications must déclare 
To characters greatly good like you 
The Muse must give every tribnte due 
By knowledge worth, well dignified to rise, 
Profound the art that in your bosom lies : 
By mystic ties cemented and by love. 
Sure sucL must ever a kind patron prove. 

Then while I feebly strive for to commend 
I hâve no talents worthy such a friend ; 
Impelled by the mère goodness of your name 
To your kindness I boast no other claim ; 
Than what I always may be sure to find 
From the gênerons heart and feeling mind. 

Well skilled in ail the art of soothing pain 
As bright repute with honor you sustain 
Esteem'd amongst our first rate faculty 
Tho' from tbe toil ; kind fortune keeps you free ; 
Rudely wild, quite artless as I strike the lyre 
While nature lends one spark of grateful fire ; 
For that kind friendly aid you may bestow 
My gratitude shall never dormant grow." 

Certainly this is a very roughly dressed block, however square the intentions 
of the poet may hâve been. " Borne down his genius sinks depressed," as he very 
truthfuUy remarks, let us hope that the cause was removed and the genius rose 
rapidly to those heights of the Irish Castalia where, in the words of another Irish 
ballad writer, ** the Nine " sit " drinkin* Parnicious strames in their Castalian 
pride," and that the poet, by the " truly Masonic virtues " of the Cork Masons, was 
removed from the ranks of "our poor and nécessitons brethren" for the rest of 
his days. 

Having shown a Provincial Grand Master as supporter of central government, 
pacificator, adrainistrator, and patron of poetry and the drama, I leave thèse 
unpretending notes to the " charitable coDstinction " and amendment of my brethren. 

Digitized by 



Transactions of the QtMtuor Goronati Lodge. 






N A.Q„G.^ vol. XV , p. 70, there will be found a paper bj Bro. George 
L. Shackles on *' The Coins of the Grand Masters of the Order of 
Malta," and it contains the armoriai bcarings, with but few excep- 
tions, of the Grand Masters of the Order from the year 1530 to the 
year 1795. 

The following notes deal with the armoriais from the date of 
the Founder and Master-Ruler, 1 113 (as it appears that the title of 
Grand Mas ter was first given to Raymond du Puy, 1118-1158, who succeeded Gérard 
Tune), up to the date when the list of Bro. Shackles commences : — 

1113-1121. Gérard Tunc, Azuré, a lion or, langued within a bordure gules. 

1118-1158. Raymond du Puy, First Grand Master. Or, a lion gules. 

1158-1161. Ogier de Balben, Sable, on three bars wavj argent, as many martlets of 

the first, 2 and 1. 
1161-1167. Arnold de Comps, Gules, an eagle displayed checky argent and sable. 
1167-1169. Gilbert d*Assalit, Azun, semée of étoiles argent, ovcr ail a lion of the 

1169-1173. Gastus, Gules, a cross sable and argent. 
1173-1179. JouBERT, Or, a cross sable, charged with five cockles argent. 
1179-1187. Roger de Moulins, Argent, a cross ancrée sable, charged with a cockle 

shell or. 
1187. Garnier DE Syrie, Sable, a cross argent. 

1187-1192. Ermengard d*Aps, Argent, a tower azuré. 
1192-1201. Godefroy de Duisson, Azuré, a bend argent. 
1201-1204. Alphonse de Portugal, Gules, eight towers argent, over ail, an escutcheon, 

bearing Argent, semée of five hearts azuré. 
1204-1207. Geoffrey le Rath, Or, a stag azuré, a unicorn argent. 
1207-1230. Guerin de Montagu, Gules, a tower or. 
1230-1231. Bertrand de Texi, Or, a fess gules, 
1231-1236. Guerin, Argent, a two headed eagle sable. 
1236-1241. Bertrand de Comps, Gules, an eagle checky sable and argent. 
1241-1244. Pierre de Ville, Bride checky, argent and gules, 
1244-1259. Guillaume de Chateaunecf, 1. Gules, three chevrons or; 2. Gules, three 

towers or, 2 and 1. 
1259-1278. Hugues de Revel, Or a demi wing azuré. 
1278-1289. Nicolas Lorgues, Argent two bars gxdes. 
1289-1297. Jean de Villiers, Or (or argent) three chevrons azuré. 
1297-1300. Odon de Pins, Gules, three pineapples or. 

Digitized by 


The Armoriai Bearings of the Grand lî asters of the Order of Malta, 63 

1300-1306. GuiLLAME DE ViLLAiiET, 1. Beiid}^ of six, or and gules; 2. Or, three mounts 

gales, sarmouuted by three crows sable. 
1306-1827. Foulques de Villaret, deposed 1319. 
1319-1346. Helion dk Villeneive, Gules, fretty of lances or, and semée of escutcbeons 

of the second. 
1346-1353. DrEUDO.vNÉ de Gozon, Gules, a bend argent cotised azuré. 
1353-1356. Pierre de Cornellan, Gides, a bend argent charged with three martlets 

1356-1365. RoGRR de Pins, Gules, three pineapples or. 
1365-1374. Raymond db Berëngër, Gules, a saltire coaped, or. 
1374-1376. Robert db: Julhiac, Argent, a cross flenry Gules, in chief, a label of four 

points azuré. 
1376-1396. Ferdinand d'Heredia, Gules, seven towers argent, 3. 3. 1. 
1396-1421. Philibert de Naillac, Two lions passant or (or argent). 
1421-1437. Antotnk Fluvian, Or, a fess wavy gules. 
1437-1454. Jean Bompar de Lastic, Gules, a fess argent, bordée gules. 
1454-1461. Jacques de Milly, Gules, a chief dancette argent. 
1461-1467. Pierre Raymond de Zacotta, Three bars wavy, gules, within a bordure sable, 

charged with eight points argent. 
1467-1476. Jean Baptiste des Ursins, Gules, three bendlets argent, a chief per fesse of 

the second, charged with a rose of the iîrst. 
1476-1503. Pierre d'Aubusson, Or, a cross ancrée gules. 
1503-1512. Emery d'Amboise, Paly of six, or and gules. 
1512-1513. Guy de Blancheport, Or, two lions passant, gruZe/î. 

The folio wing list of the Arms of the Captains of the Castle is extracted from 
Helicama^sus, by 0. T. Newton. 

1437-1454. Bendy of six, in chief a rose between two doves. 
1455. A lion rampant, in chief three fleurs de lys, a bordure. 

An eagle displayed crowned. 

Three lions rampant. 

1464. Jkan de Chateadneuf, Azuré, a castle, on the dcxter a tower upon a mount, 

ail argent. 

1465. De Caste llan, Gules, a castle argent, .surmounted of three towers, or. 

The arms of Castile and Léon are hère shown because the King of Spain 
was the Grand Prior of the order in Castile. 

1472. F. de Bossols, or Buxols, Ist and 3rd, a tree fructed, quartering 2nd and 4th. 

Castile and Leox, quarterly of four, Ist and 3rd, Gules a castle or (for Castile) 
2nd and 3rd, or, a lion purpuro (for Léon). 

1481-1495. Edward de Carwardino, Sable, a bow between three pheons. 

1496-1498. ToMAsso Provana. 

1505-1506. Constantine de Operti. 

1510. (?) Pantonia of Castile. 

1512-1513. Jacques de Gastineau, three bars gemelle, above the shield a rose sur- 
mounted by a fleur de lys.^ 

1514. Thomas Sheffield, Ist and 4th, Argent, a chevron between three garbs. 

Gules. 2nd and 3rd, Azuré, a fret Argent for Lound. 

^ Bro. Markham only gives a portion. *' Anotber which had a rose and a fleur de lys above the 
shield was in ail probability the emblem of thejFrench Langue." 

Digitized by 


64 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

1517. Cornélius db Hambkouck. Ist, three lozenges each bearing a fleur de lys. 

2nd and 3rd, "parti coupé" — (1) A lion rampant. (2) Three pales. 
(3) Three mascîes for ** Bergs de Walaim." 4th, On a Canton Ermine 
parts of four for " Hambrouck." 
Emericus de Manselle. 
1522. Bernardb o'Ariasha. 

Varions coats unidentified. 

A lion rampant, in chief two fleur de lys, within a bordure engrailed. 
A fess paly of four, in chief the cross of the order. 
A chevron indented, between three roses, in chief the cross of the order, checky 

a bend. 
A cross bottonnée within a bordure engrailed. 
A cross voidée and pommettée, in chief the cross of the order. 


Bock Plate of Dr. Dodd. 

Digitized by 


Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, 


ENRY YEUELE, freemason to Edward IIL, Richard IL, and 

Honry IV. — In writing a book for Gerraan Masons on earlj English 

Freemasonry I felt indaced to look at the passage in Stow's Survéy of 

London, where he refers to Henry Yeuele as I hâve given it at the 

head of this note. As ail those who hâve written on this désignation 

appear to think that Stow took the name " freemason " from his own 

fancy, I beg to propose another explanation of his words. In order to 

obtain a firm basis, I give the passage as it is in Sfcow's éditions of 1598 and 1603 

according to Henry Morley's and William T. Thoms' Reprints. The fall reading is as 

folio ws : — 

" On the east side of this Bridge Ward hâve ye the fair parish chnrch of 

" St. Magnus ; in the which chnrch hâve been baried many men of good 

" worship, whose monnments are now for the most part ntterly defaced. 

" I find John BInnd, mayor 1307 ; Henry Yenele, freemason to Edward 

** III., Richard II., and Henry IV., who deceased 1400 — his monument yet 

" remaineth ; William Brampton ; Johnilbithell, mayor 1436 ; John 

" French, baker, yeoman of the crown to Henry VIT., 1510; Robert 

" Clarke, fishmonger, 1521 ; Richard Tnrke, one of the sheriffs, 1549 ; 

" William Steede, alderman ; Richard Morgan, Knight, chief justice of the 

" common pleas, 1556 ; Mauritius Griffeth, Bishop of Rochester, 1659 ; 

" Robert Blanth, girdler, 1567 ; Robert Belgrave, girdler ; William 

" Brame ; John Couper, fishmonger, alderman, who was put by his turn 

** of raayoralty 1584 ; Sir William Garrard, haberdasher, mayor 1555, a 

" grave, wise, and discreet citizen, equal with the best and inferior to 

" noue of our time, deceased 1571 in the parish of St. Christopher, but 

^* was buried in this chnrch of St. Magnus as in the parish where he was 

** born — a fair monument is there raised on him ; Robert Harding, salter, 

" one of the sherifFs, 1568 ; Simon Low, merchant tailor, esquire, &c," 

It is clear from this quotation, beginning with the words "Ifind," that Stow had 

been in the chnrch himself and had gathered this séries of particulars from the monuments 

'\\Qfound in the church. They were/o?* the most 'part utterly defaced, therefore, in some 

cases, he does not give the year of death, because he could not make it out from the 

defaced monnments. Only in two cases ne expressly points out that his monument yet 

remaineth, and that a fair monument is there raised on him, The first of thèse is that of 

Henry Yeuele, and, in my opinion, there cannot be any doubt, that Stow found on his 

monument what he inserted in his séries of inscriptions about this mason, sculpter and 

leading master mason. I think it quite impossible or, at least, most improbable, 

that Stow could hâve added the désignation of freemason from his own fancy. 

He says : I find, and then names in the second place Henry Yeuele, freemason, etc. ; 

besides he adds his monument yet remaineth, in order to indicate that the inscription on 

the monument was still decipherable and that he could read it in full. Therefore, we 

may conclude the inscription was: Hère lieth the body of Henry Yeuele, freemason to 

Edward III., Richard II,, and Henry IV. He deceased, A.D,, 1400, 1 do not know 

whether the church of St. Magnus still stands or was burnt down in the great fire of 

1666, or if, by chance, the parish registers are still in existence. If 30^ wç might be 

Digitized by 


66 Transactions of the Quaiuor Coronati Loâge. 

able to verif j the inscription, which is of great importance as shewinp^ that at so early 
a date as tbe second half of the fourteenth centurj the term freemason was employed to 
signify a leading mas ter mason, for if Henry Yeuele could be styled so on bis tombstone 
in 1400, certainly he must bave been styled a freemason during bis lifetime. 

Cbarlottenburg, Dr. W. Bkgemann. 

7tb Marcb, 1908. 

St. John the Apostle.—The Patron Saint of Freemasonry in Scotland.— 

Surprisingly little is known of the -life of St. John. He was tbe son of Zebedee, and, 
like bis brotber James (called the less), he was a fisherman. When he found bis tme 
vocation he immediately left ail and followed Jésus. He was called the beloved 
Apostle, and in faithfully serving bis Master he grew to be like Him. The traditions 
connected with the name of St. John are many, but tbey are not reliable. Altboogh tbe 
material for tbe life-bistory of St. John is scanty, it is fortunate that bis lovincr 
character is amply portrayed in the contributions be bas made to Holy Writ. The 
Apostle waa, in bis old âge, banisbed to the lonely Isle of Patmos, where he wrote tbe 
Book which is called " The Révélation." He was afterwards re-called to Ephesus, then 
tbe great centre of Cbristianity, where be died at an advanced âge. 

St. John is tbe chosen Patron of Freemasonry, and especially in Scotland tbe Craft 
bas been designated (to distinguish it from tbe " higher grades ") " St. Jobn's Masonry." 
Nearly ail the old Lodges of Scotland took for a distinctive name that of St. John. 
Tbe Lodge of Scoon and Pertb (before 1658) in the old records is frequently called tbe 
Lodge of St. John. Dnnblane (before 1695) is named St. John, as are tbe Lodges at 
Dunkeld, Auchterarder, Co. Angus, Blairgowrie, Muthill, Thornbill, and tbe dormant 
Lodge of Dunning. Tbis is a fair record for Pertb sbire. Scoon and Pertb bas a beauti- 
ful mural painting of St. John on tbe east wall of tbe Lodge. The Saint is always repre- 
sented by tbe old Masters as holding in one band a scroll, and in the other a cbalice, 
from which is seen issuing a dragon or serpent, wbile bis symbol, an eagle, is shown 
standing at bis feet. Tbe cap in bis left band commémorâtes tbe tradition. of his having 
been made to drink of a poisoned Cup, which, bowever, in bis case, proved innocuous. 
In the Scoon and Pertb wall picture the eagle is not shown, but it is depicted on a 
Medallion dating from 1807, attacbed to the Jewel worn by tbe Master, and also on the 
old diplomas wbicb used to be issued by tbe Lodge. A curions différence occurs in the 
Scoon and Pertb représentations in as much as three serpents instead of one are seen 
issuing from the Cup. Wo are left to guess tbe meaning of tbe Pertb Artist in tbis 
departure. Freemasonry could not bave a more appropriate patron than St. John, 
tbe burden of wbose message was love. Çharity sbould be the distinguishing 
characteristic of a Freemason's heart, not in tbe modem meaning of the word — the mère 
giving of alms— but in tbe old one of love. D.C.S. 

F.R.S and F.L.S.— On page 370 of A.Q.G., vol. xx., Brotber Brookbouse 
seems to be at a loss concerning tbe words which in his article are abbreviated into the 
lettei-s " F.R.S. and F.L.S. " ; I am not so sure about tbe ** F," but am very sure tbe 
other letters stand for " Right Supporter " and ** Left Supporter," and the " F " 
probably for " First." It is of no account whether the " Bucks " took tbeir nomencla- 
ture from tbe Oddfellows or vice versa^ but both used the title " Noble Grand," or eke 
bow explain tbe title given by Bro. Brookbouse " Past Noble Grand " ; the Oddfellows 
certainly use that title, and also bave Right and Left Supporters among tbeir officiai 

Duluth, Minnesota, T. W. Hcgo. 

Digitized by 


îfotes and Quêries. &7 

ChronoIOgfy Of ScOttish Rite Masonry.— For some years past the writer 
has beeu wont, in the course of desultory réadiugs, to make notes of chronological data 
relative to Scottish Rite Masonry. When thèse notes were taken there was no thought 
of publication, but they were recently called into use by, and coUected and arranged 
for, our local Scottish Rite Lyceum, of whose work I may hâve a word to say in a 
future number of the Transactions. Knowing the value of A,Q.G» as an international 
clearinghouse of Masonic lore, I venture to submit to tlie scrutiny of its readers the 
chronological table thus prepared. The writer would be glad to receive additional 
data or other suggestions looking tov/ard the amplification or correction of the 
following ; 

1686-1743. Life of Andrew Michael Ramsay, "one of the great scholars of his 
day,"i a loading founder of Scottish Masonry. . 

1737. Early traces of the Kadosh degree.- 

1743. Rite of Strict Observance at Paris. 

1754. Chapter of Clermont established at Paris by Chevalier de Bonneville.^ 

1758. Council of " Emperors of East and West*' at Paris in control of Rite of 
Perfection (or Heredom) with 25 degrees. 

1761. Commission from said Council to Stephen Morin, who carried Scottish 
Masonry to the New World. 

1762. Adoption by said Council of the " Constitution " in 35 articles. 

1767. Lodge of Perfection organized at Albany, N.Y., by Andrew Francken, 
deputy of Morin. 

1782. Grand Chapter General, successor of Council of Emperors, formed. 

1783. Lodge of Perfection organised at Charleston, S.C. 
1786. Grand Orient of France constituted. 

Adoption of " Grand Constitutions " attributed to Frederick the Great* ; earliest 
récognition of the " Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite." 

1797. Council of Princes of the Royal Secret instituted at Charleston j first in 
the United States. 

1801. May 31. Southern (Mother) Suprême Council founded at Charleston. 

1804. Suprême Council of France established. 

1805. Suprême Council of Milan (Italy) established. 

1806. Consistory organized in New York City by Bideand. 

1807. Arrivai of Joseph Cerneau at New York. 
1809-1891. Life of Albert Pike. 

1811. Suprême Council of Spain organized. 

1813. Northern Suprême Council of United States org^nized.^ 

1817. Suprême Council of Belgium established. 

1822. Suprême Council of Brazil established. 

1824. Suprême Council of Ireland established. 

1828. Division of American territory between Northern and Southern 

1830. Suprême Council of Peru established. 

1833. . Suprême Council of New Granada established. 

* II. New Age 68 ; c/. 30 Encyc.Brit. 367. 
' XVIII. Ara Quatuor Coronatorum 49. 

' II. New Age 69. 

* Transactions Southern Suprême Council (1884), p. 38; vi. New Age, Nos. 1, 3. 

' For list and dates of Constitution of Suprême Councils see Graud Commander Hichardson's 
Allocution (1905) pp. 41 et eeq. 

Digitized by 


éà Transaciions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodg^. 

1845. Suprême Council of England and Wales established. 

1846. Suprême Council of Scotland established. 

1855. Revision of rituals undertaken by Albert Pike.^ 

1856. Suprême Coancil of Uruguay constituted. 

1857. Suprême Council of Argentina constituted. 

1858. Suprême Council of Turin, Italy, constituted. 

1859. Suprême Council of Santo Domingo constituted. 
1859. Suprême Council of Colon (Cuba) constituted. 

1859. Albert Pike elected Grand Commander, Southern Suprême Council. 

1865. Establishment of Grand Orient of Venezuela from which présent Suprême 
Council of that country was formed.^ 

1868. Suprême Coancil of Mexico established. 

1869. Suprême Cpuncil of Portugul established. 

1870. Suprême Council of Chili established. 

1871. Suprême Council of Central America established. 
1871. Suprême Council of Hungary established. 

1871. Pike's " Morals and Dogma " published. 

1872. Suprême Coancil of Greece established. 

1873. Suprenie Council of Switzerland established. 

1874. Suprême Council of Canada established. 

1875. International Congress of Suprême Councils (7 or more) at Lausanne, 

1878. Suprême Council of Egypt constituted. 

1880. Suprême Council of Tunis constituted. 

1881. Suprême Council of Roumania constituted.* 

1885. Suprême Council at Constantinople constituted.^ 

1886. Institution of lodges in Paraguay from which a Suprême Council for that 
country bas since been formed.^ 

1907. International Conférence of Suprême Councils (20) at Brussels. 

Manila P.I. Charles S. Lobingiek. 

April 8th, 1908. 

Naymas GreCUS» a CurioUS MaSOn.—" Curions," as applied to things, meana 
properly, "wrought with care and art" (Latin, cunosus), hence applied to objects of 
elaborate workmanship, as in Exodus xxvîii., 8, the '* curions girdle" of the ephod, 
Exodus xxxY.., 22, "curions works." So 3 Henry VI. ii., 5, 53, " His body couched 
in a curions bed" ; " Cymbeline," v., 5, 361, " In a most curions mantle." 

But this is later Latin. In classical Latin it seems almost exclusively applied to 
persons in the sensé of " careful " (from cura), " thoughtf ul, painstaking, diligent." So 
in omni hùtoria curiosus (Cicero, Tusc. 1, 45) ; ad învestigandum curiosor (Cicero, Fam. 
4, 13). So curiosus inedidiUB (Pliny 25, 2, 2) ; curiosus memoriœ (Aur. Vict. Cœs, 20 
fin. ; curiosissimus famœ suœ (Capitol, Anton. Philos. 20) ; and non quidem doctusy sed 
curiosus (Petr. 46, 6), 


' Transaotîons, Southern Sapreme Coancil (1878 p. 30). 
' See 0hr<i6 Masonicas Oficiales (Madrid 1006), vol. iiî., p. 211. 
s Id. p. 173 ; Transactions 1878 pp. 22 et seq^ 1880 p. 9. 
^ Ohras Mtuonicas Oficiales p. 180. 

* Id. p. 217. 

• Id. p. 205. 

Digitized by 


Notes and Queries. 69 

" Astley'S." — It is not so long ago that this disappeared from the Westminster 
Bridge Road. It existed in 1880. Astley fîrst exhibited equestrian performances at 
Halfpenny Hatch, where St. John's Church, Waterloo Road, now stands. In " Rejected 
Addresses " we find — 

" Base Buonaparte, fiUed with deadly ire, 

" Sets, one by one, our pi ay hou ses on fire. 

" Some years ago he ponnced with deadly glee on 

" The Opéra House, then barnt down the Panthéon. 

*' Nay ! Still unsated in a coat of fiâmes, 

" Next at Millbank he crossed the river Thames. 

" Thy Hatch, ! Halfpenny, pass'd in a trice, 

" Boiled some black pitch, and burnt down Astley's twice.*' 

The fii-st Amphithéâtre, a mère temporary érection of deal boards, was set up in 1774 
by Philip Astley, a light horseman in the 15th Régiment. It stood on an open pièce 
of ground in St. George's Fields, to which a halfpenny hatch led. Astley himself, the 
handsomest man in England, was the chief performer, assisted by a dram, two fîfes, 
and a clown named Porter. At fîrst an open area, in 1780 it was converted into 
a covered amphithéâtre and divided into pit, boxes and gallery. In 1786 it was 
newly fitted up and called " The Royal Grove," and in 1792 " The Royal Saloon or 
Astley's Amphithéâtre." Johnson, in the " Life," says : — ** Whitfield never drew as much 
** attention as a mountebank does ; he did not draw attention by doing better than 
" others, but by doing what was strange. Were Astley to preach a sermon standing 
'*upon his head on a horse's back, he would coUect a multitude to hear him, but no 
" wise man would say he had made a better sermon for that." 

Horace Walpole wrote to Lord Strafford, 12th September, 1783 : — " London at 
" this time of the year is as nauseous a drug a's any in an apothecary*s shop. I could 
" find nothing at ail to do, so I went to Astley's, which, indeed, was much beyond my 
'* expecfcation. I do not wonder any longer that Darius was chosen King by the 
** instructions he gave to his horse ; nor that Caligula made his consul. Astley can 
'* make his dance minuets and hornpipes. But I shall not hâve even Astley now ; Her 
'* Majesty the Queen of France, who has as much taste as Caligula, has sent for the 
" whole of the dramatis personas to Paris." 

In 1794, August 17th, the Amphithéâtre was destroyed by fire In 1803, 
September 2nd, it was again burnt down, the mother of Mrs. Astley, jun., perishing in 
the fiâmes. In 1841, June 8th, it was a third time burnt down, the manager (Ducrow) 
dying insane from his losses. Old Astley, who was born at Newcastle-under-Lyme in 
1742, died in Paris, October 20th, 1814. He is said to hâve built 19 différent théâtres. 

J. B. leFeuvre. 

Mémorandum as to connection of SCOTT family with Freemasonry, 

WALTER SCOTT (Beardie)-Not a Mason. 
He had three sons — 

1. Walter — not a Mason. 

2. Robert of Sandyknowe— not a Mason. 

3. William — not a Mason. 

Digitized by 


70 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

ROBERT had four sons. 

1. Walter, who afterwards became W.S. 

He was initiated iu Lodge St. Davids oa 4th Janaarj, 1754, and 
affiliated in Lodge Canongate Kilwinuing, on 4th February, 1767. 

2. A son, name nnknown. 

3. Capt. Robert Scott, initiated in Lodge Canongate Kilwinning on 

2nd Maich, 1786. 

4. Thomas, who died in 1823 at the âge of 90 ; not a Mason. 

WALTER SCOTT, W.S., had a familj of 12, of whom six died in infancy. The 
others are: — 

1. Robert, a sailor, initiated iu Lodge St. Davids on 7th December, 1785. 

2. John, not a Masuu. 

3. Anne. 

4. Walter, afterwards Sir Walter Scott ; initiated in Lodge St. Davids 

on 2nd March, 1801. 

5. Thomas, afterwai*ds W.S., initiated in Lodge Canongate Kilwinning, 

on 18th November, 1807. 

6. Daniel, not a mason. 

THOMAS had only one son. 

Walter, a Captain in the Engineers, H.E.I.C.S., Bombay. He was 
initiated in Lodge Canongate Kilwinning on 6th April, 1836. 

SIR WALTER SCOTT had one son. 

Walter, 2nd Baronet, who was initiated in Lodge Canongate Kilwinning 

on 30th November, 1826. 
The son-in-law of Sir Walter Scott, Ist Baronet, was J. Gibson Lockhart, 

initiated in Lodge Canongate Kilwinning ou 26th Jannaty, 1826. 

J. GIBSON LOCKHART had one son. 

Walter Scott Lockhart Scott, who, as a Lieutenant in the 16th Lancers, 
was initiated in Lodge Canongate Kilwinning on 9th February, 1848. 


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Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 71 


T is with regret tliat we hâve to record the deaths of Brothers :— 

Col. Georgre Woodford WillOCk, of Junior United Service 
Clab, London, S.W., on let March, 1906. He joined the Correspon- 
dence Circle in March, 1895. 

Samuel Harris Tatham Armitage, M.D., Past Jnnior Grand 

Deacon, Past Assistant Grand Sojoumer, of 39, Grosvenor Street, 
London, W., on the 15th Jannary. He joined the Correspondence Circle in 
March, 1902. 

William John Allen, of 57a, Farrinp:don Road, London, E.C., on the 2ith 
Jannary. He joined the Correspondence Circle in January, 1906. 

The Rev. Edward Ititford Weigrall, P.Prov.G.Ch.,P Prov.G.So., Lincolnshire, 
of Frodingham Vicarage, Doncaster, on the 30th January. He joined the Corres- 
pondence Circle in March, 1889. 

Alexander M. Main, of 6, Kelvinside Gardens East, Glasgow, N.B., on the 9th 
August, 1907. He joined the Correspondence Circle in November, 1906. 

Ernest James Chard, of Fort, Bombay. He joined the Correspondence Circle 
in May, 1905. 

William J. Gilks, of 15, Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, W.C, on the 22nd May, 
1907. He joined the Correspondence Circle in November, 1894. 

Charles Crabtree, P.Prov.G.D., P.Prov.G.So., W.Yorks, of Hillside Villas, 
Bradford, on the 29th October, 1907. He joined the Correspondence Circle in 
March, 1888. 

Col. James Rogrer Bramble» F.S.A., J.P., Past Assistant Grand Director of 
Cérémonies, Past Grand Sword Bearer, Provincial Grand Master, Bristol ; of Seafîeld, 
Weston-super-Mare, Somerset, on the 3rd February. He joined the Correspondence 
Circle in February, 1887. 

James Newton, Past Grand Sword Bearer, of 23, Silverwell Street, Bolton, 
Lancashire, on the 2nd February. He joined the Correspondence Circle in February, 

Woodhouse Braine» Past Grand Deacon, Past Assistant- Grand Sojoumer, of 
76, Wimpole Street, Cavendish Square, London, W., on the 28th October. He joined 
the Correspondence Circle in March, 1892. 

James D. G. Dalrymple, F. S.A., (London and Scotland) ; of Meiklewood, 
Stirling, N.B., Past Grand Master Députe, Past Deputy Grand Zerubbabel, Scotland. 
He joined the Correspondence Circle in June, 1888. 

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72 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronatt Lodge. 

T. J. Barchus, of 72, Exchange, Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.A., ou the 26th 
September, 1907. He joined the Correspondence Circle in May, 1895. 

Martin John Jacolette, of 40, Harrington Road, South Kensington, London, 
S.W. He joined the Correspondence Circle in October, 1907. 

Edward Bernhard KemmiS, of The Rectory, Conington, Cambridge. He 
joined the Correspondence Circle in June, 1905. 

Bruce Lightfoot, of Shoreham, Kent, on the 28th September, 1907. He joined 
the Correspondence Circle in March, 1889. 

George William Kingr, of Linacre, Worcester, on the 24th December, 1907. 
He joined the Correspondence Circle in October, 1907. 

Dr. Arthur Ernest Sansom, of 84, Harley Street, London, W., in March, 1907. 
He joined the Correspondence Circle in June, 1902. 

Major Graves Chamney Swan Lombard, of Homewood, Worcester Park, 

Surrey, on the 3rd January. He joined the Correspondence Circle in October, 1905. 

James D. Dewell, of New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A., on the 19th April, 1906. 
He joined the Correspondence Circle in January, 1888. 

John Downes Southam, of Linslade, Shrcwsbury, on the 14th May. He 
joined the Correspondence Circle in March, 1906. 

George ComstOCk Baker, of 444, Broadway, Albany, N.Y., U.S. A., on Ist 
Febmary. He joined the Correspondence Circle in June, 1887. 

James Thorley, of Lichfield Road, Southtown, Great Yarmouth. He joined 
the Correspondence Circle in March, 1907. 

Dr. John N. PatterSOn« of Lismore House, Earlestown, Lancashire, on the 2nd 
April. He joined the Correspondence Circle in March, 1901. 

John Smith, B.E., M.I.C.E., County Surveyor of Ballinasloe, Ireland. He 
joined the Correspondence Circle in March, 1892. 

Frederick Webber, of Washington, D.C , U.S.A., on 4th November, 1907. 
Our brother was born in the City of Cork, Ireland, in 1827, and went to Lonisville, 
Kentucky, in 1843. During the Civil War he served under Gênerais Andersen, 
Sherman, Rosecrans and Baell, and after'its close held appointments successively in the 
War and Treasury Departments at Washington. He was initiated on his twenty-first 
birthday in the Antiquity Lodge at Lonisville, and subseciuently became a member of 
the King Solomon Royal Arch Chapter, and of many other bodies connected with 
Masonry. His great work was with the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, which he 
joined in 1852, becoming an active member of the 33^ seven years later. For fourteen 
years he held the office of Treasurer General of the Suprême Court (Southern 
Jurisdiction) and was appointed Secretary General in 1886. This position he continued 
to hold to the time of his death. Our brother took a great interest in the work of 
this Lodge and was always ready to fnrther its interests, not only by advice, but by 
active help, cheerfully and willingly rendered. 

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FRIDAY Ist MAY, 1908. 

HE Lodge met at FreemaBons' Hall at 5 p.m. Présent: — Bros. F. H. Goldney, 
P.G.D, W.M.; J. T. Thorp, P.A.G.D.C., S.W. ; F. J. W. Crowe, P.G.O., J.W. ; 
Canon J.W. Horsley, P.G.C., Chap. ; W. John Sopghursfc, P.A.G.D.O., Secretary; 
H. Sadler, G.Ty., S.D. ; J. P. Simpson, T.G. ; B. H. Dring, S.Sfcew. ; E. L. Hawkins, 
J.Stew.; E. J. Castle, P.D.G.R., P.M. ; and G. Greiner, P.A.G.D.C, P.M. 

Also ihe foUowiog memberd of the Correspondenoe Cirole ; Bros. William 
Chambers, John N. Blood, Thos. Cohn, P.G.St.B., W. H. Harris, H. H. Montagne 
Smith, Jas. Johnstone, Bev. M. Bosenbaam, W. Howard-Flanders, Théo. Michell, W. B. Heztall, W. R. 
Thompson, W. A. Tharp, W. B. Phelps, G. W. LawD, Charles E7es, 0. Isler, Horaoe J. Bogers, L. 
Danielsson, W. G. Aspland, A. Simner, P.A.G.D.C, H. Bernard Watson, Chas. H. Bestow, Geo. Y. 
Montagne, J. Ingram Moar, B. G. Harrison, Maurice Victor, Chas. Anbert, A. V. Davis, W. B. A. Smith, 
F. W. Levander, Dr. S. Walshe Owen, D. Bock, B. E. Landesmann, G. Yogeler, Sydney Meymott, 
William W. Mangles, Frank E. Lemon, Wm. Hammond, Col. B. S. Ellis, John Palmer, W. Busbridge, 
Bev. H. C. de Lafontaine, P.G.D., Beginald C. Watson, Edward T. Dearing, L. N. Stean, Sir John E. 
Biagham, D. Ganton, Major John Rose and John Chnrch. 

Also the foUomng Visi tors : —Brothers Prebendary Arthur J. Ingram, P.G.O. ; Chas. W. 
Adams, Isaac Newton Lodge No. 859; E. J. Norman, Dorio Lodge No. 933; John M. Knight, P.M., 
Eastern Star Lodge No. 95; A. J. Abrahams, P.M., Jordan Lodge No. 901; and A. Brooks, Horos Lodge 
No. 3155. 

Letters of apology for non-attendance were received from Bros. E. Conder, Jnn., P.M. ; Dr. 
W. J. Ohetwode Crawley, G. Tr., Ireland; J. P. Bylands; E. Macbean, P.M. ; Col. S. C. Pratt, P.M. ; 
Hamon le Strange, Prov. G.M., Norfolk, P.M., Treas. ; E. Armitage, P.D.G.D.C., W. Watson, J.D. ; L. A. 
de Malczovich ; S. T. Klein, P.M. ; W. J. Hughan, P.G.D. ; G. L. ShaokleSi P.M. ; Admirai Sir A. H. 
Markham, PJ)is.G.M., Malta, P.M.; and R. F. Gould, P.G.D., P.M. 

The Secretary annonnced that at a Meeting of Past Masters held earlier in the day, Bro. 
Sydney Tamer Klein had been chosen for recommendation to H.R.H. the M.W. Grand Master, who 
had been empowered to confer npon a certain nnmber of Past Masters of London Lodges^a distinction 
for long and meritorious service, whioh will be known as " London Bank." 


One Lodge and thirty-five brethren were admitted to the membership of the Correspondence 

A vote of Congratulation was passed to Bros. Lord Ampthill, Bight Hon. T. F. Halsey, Arch- 
deacon G. Hodges, Dr. W. Briggs, E. H. Cartwright, Bichard Bigg, B. Newton Crâne, W. P. Eversley, 
Dr. C. Wells, A. Bnrnett Brown, C. W. Cole, F. W. Hancock, J. T. Spalding, Lt.-Col. Astley H. Terry, 
Lt.'CoI. G. T. Carpenter, J. B. Wilson, Wm. Lake, J. M. Hamm, H. Salder, Imre Kiralfy, Bev. H. C. de 
Lafontaine, Alfred F. Bobbins, B. P. Sumner, and C. J. B. Tijou, on their having received Grand 
L>dge hoDoqrs at the Grand Festival held on the 29th April. 

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74 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge, 

The Secretary called attention to the following 

By Bpo. W. CHAMBICE8, London. 

Tracinq.board, deaigned by John Harris about 1840, in possession of the Old Concord Lodge 
No. 172. 

By Bro. T. J. Wkstropp, Dublin. 

Seals. Wax impressions of seals nsed by the Shakespeare Lodge No. 143, the Shakespeare 
Chapter No. 143, and the Prince Masons' Chapter IL, Dublin. Présent ed to the Lodge, 

By Bro. A. Davis, Croydon. 

Ooloured Peint showing the arrangement of a Chapter rooni of the Royal Arch in Mexico. 

By Bro. W. H. Geayson, London. 

Jewbl, engraved in Hobart, Tasmania, by a convict nndergoing a life sentence for forgery. 

By The Lodgr. 

Banner of Prince L. Murât, Grand Master of the Grand Orient of France, 1861. 
Collar-Jrwel of Provincial Grand Standard Bearer, Sussex. 
Bseast-Jewbl of Lodge Canongate and Leith. 

By Bro. H. Sadler, London. 

Patent of appointment by the Lodges at Gibraltar of John Sweetland as Provincial Grand 
Master of Andalusia in 1799. 

By Bro. W. R. Thompson, London. 

Masonic Sword, reoently discovered behind some wainscotting at the Angel Inn, Highgate, 

By Bro. Percival P. Gbary, Westcliff-on-Sea. 

Warrant, issued by the Grand Lodge of the Ancients in 1761, for a Lodge attached to the 
Leicester Militia. The warrant was transferred in 1803 to the Good Intent Lodgo at Stamford which 
appears to hâve ceased workiog a few years later, and was erased in 1827. A fragment of the original 
wax seal still adhères to the parchment under the o in '' No. 87." It probably showed a hand graeping 
a trowel. The seal on the blue and orange ribbon is the one engraved for Grand Lodge by Kirk, and 
raay hâve been attached when the warrant was transferred in 1803 although at that period a later die 
was generally nsed. The following is a transcript of the Warrant : 

kelly Grand AUster; 

Wm. Diokey S : G : W. Wm. Osborn D : G : M. Wm. Dickey J : G : W. 

in the abstance of David Fisher. 


No. 87. We the GRAND LODGE of Free and Accepted Masons (according to the old Constitu- 

(Seal) tions Granted by PRINCE EDWIN of York) in Ample form assembled (viz. the Right 

Worshipful and Right Hononrable Thomas Erskine Earl of Kelly, Viscount Fenton, 

Lord Pitten Weem, &c., Grand Master ! of Masons ! Mr. Wm. Osborn Deputy Grand 

Master, Mr. David Fisher Senr Grand Warden and Mr. Wm. Dickey Junr Grand Wardn 

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Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. 


5 Ç Tsj**? 





0) s 

c ce 

o ^ 



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by and with the approbation and Consent 61 the Regular Lodges held within the Citties 
& Subarbs of London and Westminster) Do herebj Nominate, Constitute, Appoint, and 
Impower our Trasty and wellbeloved Brethren Mr. William Garratt .... Master 
Mason Mr. John Nicbolls . . . Senr. Warden, and Mr. Mark Beid Junr. Warden 
(with proper Assistants) To form and hold a Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons In 

and in sucb Lodge when daly congregated To admit, enter, and make Masons according 
to the most ancient and honourable Custom of the Royal Craft in ail Ages and Nations 
throughout the known World. And We do hereby further Impower our said Trusty and 
welibeloved Brethren Mess. William Garratt John Nicbolls and Mark Reid (with proper 
Assistants) To nominate Chnse and Install their SuccessorSi whom tbey are to inrest 
with their power and Dignity, <&c. and such Successors shall in like manner Nominate 
Cbuse and Install their Snccessors &c &c &c such Installations to be npon (or near) every 
St. John's day during the Continuance of this Lodge for ever. Providing thattheabove 
named Brethren and their snccessors always pay due Respect to this Right Worshipfnl 
Grand Lodge : otherwise this Warrant to be of no force nor Virtue. Given under our 
hands and the Seal of the Grand Lodge London this 29th day of May In the year of our 
Lord One thousand Se7en hundred sixty and One. and in the year of Masoniy 5761. . . 

Lau Dermott G. Secretary 
This Warrant transferred to certain Brothers at Stamford Whereof Bro. William 
Jackson is Master, Hugh Fox Senior Warden & James Pearson Junior Warden According 
to and undec the Rognlations as aforesaid. 

Robt Leslie G. S. Thos. Harper D G M 

By Bro. Rev. Reoinald A. Bosanquet, St. Martin, Scilly. 

Seal. Wax impression of seal used by the Lodge Godolphiu, St. Mary's, Scilly, warranted in 
1768, and erased in 1851. Preaented to the Lodge. 

By Bro T. A. Withey, Leeds. 

P.M. Jbwel, set in paste. 

Ëngraved Jewël, attached to original silver chain, presented January, 1799, to William 
Bullmer, Secretary of Fidelity Lodge No. 512 (now No. 289), Leeds. 

By Bro. Harry Gur, Yarmoath, I.W. 
Masonic Muo, Leeds ware. 

A hearty vote of thanks was unanimously passed to those Brethren who had lent objects for 
exhibition or who had made présentations to the Lodge Library and Muséum 

Bro. E» L. Hawsxns read the following paper :-^ 

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/é trànsacHons of tke Quaiuor Ûorohati Lodge. 




I HE name of the Rev. John Entick, M. A., is familîar to ail Ma^onic 
students as that of the second Editor of the Book of Constitutions, 
for the issue of 1756 is described on the title-page as " Carefullj 
Revised, Continued and Enlarged, with raany Additions, 
By JOHN ENTICK, m.a." 
Doubtless manj who hâve read this title-page hâve wondered 
who John Entick was, and what was his position in the world, so I 
hâve been at some pains to bring together ail the information I conld gather about him, 
and I will first describe his life apart from Masonry as it was known to the outer world. 
A fairly fnll account of our Brother*s life is given in the Dictionary of National 
Biography, of which I will give the chief détails, supplemented with such particulars 
as I hâve obtained from other sources. 

He is supposed to hâve been born about 1703, but neither the place nor the date 
of his birth are certainly known, and no records are to be found of his parentage or 
early years beyond his own statement that he was for t«n years at Collège. Apparently 
he had to make his own way in the world, for he seems (also from his own statement) 
to hâve begun teaching when about seventeen years old. In his later years he lived in 
Stepney, where he died on May 22nd, 1773, being about 70 years old ; he was then a person 
of sufficientnote in the world for his death tobe recorded in ** The Lady's Magazine " for 
June, 1773. He was buried at Stepney on May 28th according to Lysons, who gives a 
brief account of him in his " Environs of London *' (vol. 3, p. 457), calling him, however, 
Entiwck. I hâve not been able to ascertain whether he was a native of Stepney, or, if 
not, when he weut to live there, but Lysons (on page 437) mentions the tomb of 
Elizabeth, wife of the Rev. John Entinck, 1760, as being in the churchyard of Stepney 
Chuixîh, so he was presumably living there at that tirae, as he undoubtedly was in 1762. 
In the registers of Stepney Church the name appears as Entick, so Lysons is responsible 
for the error in spelling. 

He seems to bave lived a most laborious life, incessantly employed in either 
teaching or writing for the press, chiefly for a publisher named Dilly. 

In 1728 his first publication appeared, of which I append the title-page taken 
from a copy in the Bodleian Library at Oxford : — 

Spéculum Latinum: 



Made easy to 



English Grammar only; 
Tedious, nor obscure ; composed on 
Natural Principles, and instructing 

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Ars Quatuor ,Coronatorum. 

Portrait of John Entick. 
From his "History and Sui-vey of London." 

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î'wo Éditors of the Èootc of Constitutions. 7? 

the young Beginner in Latin, by 
English Raies, adapted to the meanest 
Capacities, for the Use and Benelit 
of Bchools and Families. 

By John Entick, 
Printed by R. Tookey, in St. Christo'per' s Churchyard, near 
the Royal Exchange, for the Author ; and Sold by George Strahan, 
near the Royal Exchauge in Goruhill ;. /. Batley, at the Dove in 
Pater -noster-row ; R. Williamson, near Grays-Inn-Qate in Holhourn ; 
and J. Pote, at Sir Isaa^ Newtons Head, at Sicffolk-street End 
near Chearing Cross. 1728. 

(Priée Six Pence) 

There is a préface addressed 

" To ail 

Gentlemen, Masters, Ushers, Tutors, <fec." 

in which the aatlior saya, "It was my lot to be perplexed with a very du 11 Boy," and 

explains that he compiled "this natural order of Grammar, and it had its desired effect, 

instracting the Yoath in three Months space, with ail necessary raies of Agreement, 

and Government, so that he coald write trae» Concord withoat Difficalty, to the 

Admiration of his Friends, and my own Commendation." 

The work consists of forty pages, and is a sort of English and Latin Grammar 
eombined in the form of question and answer ; I examined the book with interest, bat 
did not feel tempted to adopt his system with my own pupils. 

At the end is the announcement : — " N.B. The Author of this Grammar has 
ready for the Press, and designs to publish, if encoaraged, The évidence of Christianity, 
abstracted from the Great Huetias, Easebias &c." and in 1729 this book appeared, the 
aathor styling himself on its title-page " Stadent of Divinifcy." In 1736 he issued a 
proposai, which fell through, to print " Ghaacer " in two vols, folio, with explanatory 
notes; and there and thenceforth he put M. A. after his name, though there is no 
évidence where he obtained his degree. In 1754 he published his "Phœdri Fabulœ" 
with accents and notes. In 1755 he agreed with Shebbeare and Jonathan Scott to 
Write for their anti-ministerial paper, " The Monitor or British Freeholder," appearing 
every Saturday (priée 2d.), at a salary of £200 a year ; and his attacks on the Govern- 
ment in the year 1762, in Nos. 357, 358, 3ô0, 373, 376, 378 and 380, caused his house to 
be entered and his papers seized undér a gênerai warrant. He claimed damages for 
this, and a very full account of his suit is given in T. B. HowelFs State Trials (vol. xix., 
pp. 1030-1074), from which I hâve extracted the foUowing : — 

** The Case of Seizare of Papers, being an action of Trespass by John Entick, 
Clerk, against Nathan Carrington and three other Messengers in ordinary to the King, 
Court of Common-Pleas, Mich : Term : 6 George lïl., a.d. 1765." 

The plaintifE declared that on November llth, 1762, the défendants, with force 
and arms, broke and entered his dwelling house in the parish of St. Dunstan, Stepney, 
and continued there four hours without his consent, broke open his doors, boxes, etc., 
pried into ail his private papers, and carried away 100 printed charts, 100 printed 
pamphlets, etc., etc., and he claimed £2000 damages. 

The défendants pleaded that they were justified in their action by a warrant from 
the Secretary of State. 

The cause was tried at Westminster-Hall before the Lord Chief Justice, when 
the jury found a Spécial Verdict, giving the plaintifE £300 damages, if the Conrt should 

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?8 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

hold that the défendants were guilty of trespass. This Spécial Verdict was twice 
solemnlj argned at the bar, and finally Lord Camdeu, Lord Chief Justice, delivered the 
judgment of the Court for the plaintifE, on the gronnd that a *' warrant to seize and 
carry away the party's papers in the case of a seditious libel is illégal and void." 

And thus Entick was successf al in bis suit, though he only got a small part of 
the damages which he claimed. 

Previously to this occurrence, while engaged on " The Monitor," he published, in 
1757, a handsome folio volume of 887 pages with 6 Illustrations, entitled, " A new 
Naval History : or Compleat View of the British Marine. In which the Royal Navy 
and the Merchant's Service are traced through ail their Periods and Différent Branches : 
with the Lives of the Admirais and Navîgators, who bave honour d this Nation, and 
Distinguish'd Themselves by their Conduct, Courage, Victories and Discoveries. 
Includiug the most considérable Naval Expéditions, and Sea-Fights : our Higlit to the 
Dominion of the Sea, and the Dignity of the British Flag : the Laws and Régulations 
for the Government and Oeconomy of His Majesty\s Navy : and^ the Business and 
Management of the several Royal Y'ards and Docks in this Kingdom. To which are 
added Our Right and Title to the British Colonies in North- America: and an Abstract 
of the Laws now in Force for regulating our Trade and Commerce. lUustrated with 
Copper Plates. By John Entick, M. A. London 1757." 

On January 7th, 1760, he married a widow nanied Eliza (as given in the 
register, not Elizabeth as given by Lysons) Fisher, who died in September of the 
same year, and, as previously stated, was buried at Stepney; in 1763 he published 
a "General History of the Late War" (with a second édition eorrected in 1765), 
which reached a third édition in 1775, two years affcer the death of its author; 
In 1764, he issued his "" Spelling Dictionary," each édition of which comprised 20,000 
copies ; and in 1766 he brought out " A New and Accurate History and Survey of 
London," which contains his portrait, and on the title-page of which he is described as 
the **Rev. John Entick, M. A." I hâve been unable to ascertain how and when he 
became " Révérend," or whether he held any bénéfice, but as the sermons attributed to 
him by Kloss {Bibliographie der Friemaurerei, Nos. 815, 816 and 820) bear dates fi-om 
1750 to 1762, it seems probable that the clérical part of his career occupied the eighteeu 
years between 1736 and 1754, which are otherwise unaccounted for. In 1771 he 
published a " Latin-English Dictionary," as to which J. Nichols, in his " Illustrations of 
the Literary History of the 18th Century," quotes from a letter written by Mr. 
Joseph Cockfield, nnder date March 9th, 1771, " Mr. Entick is another enterprising 
genius in the employ of Mess" Dilly ; his new Latin Dictionary is said to contain ail the 
words necessary for reading classic authors ! Gredat Judœus Apella.** However, in spite 
of Mr. Cockfield's sneer, our Brothers dictionaries continued in réputé, and were 
frequently re-edited by varions persons down to 1836. The Latin-English Dictionary 
contains " An Address to the Teachers of the Latin Tongue," signed " John Entick," 
and dated " Stepney, Dec. 1. 1770." From it I extract the following: — "In a course of 
iifty years, Gentlemen ! the compiler of this work has been constantly employed either 
as a private tutor, a schoolmaster, or a writer for, and a corrector of, the press. In 
thèse employments, and prepared by a regular Academical Education for ten years at 
Collège, he has had great opportunities to reason both upon the manner of Education, 
and upon the means, or books used in the Schools of this Kingdom." It seems odd that 
in this summary of his life he makes no mention of any employment as a clergyman : 
he is described on the title-page as " John Entick, M.A., Editor of Schrevelius's Greek 
LexicoU) Littleton and Cole's Latin Dictionaries, and Author of the New Spelling 

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Two Editors nf the Book of Cotistitufions. 79 

Dictionary, etc." ; in the same book is an ad verti sèment of the New Spelling Dictionary 
by the "Révérend John Entick, M. A.*' Also in 1771, appeared bis " English 
Grammar/* and be is likewise credited with a " Ready Reckoner/* and with a share in 
both the new " Week*s Préparation " and tlie new " Whole Duty of Man." On bis death 
in 1773, be left a large work in four volâmes, " The Présent State of the British 
Empire,'* nearly completed, in which be bad been belped by other banda, and wbich 
was bronght ont in 1774; and in 1776 a new édition of bis " Snrvey and History of 
London " was issued. From the foregoing enumeration of bis works it will be seen 
that our Brother was a most assidaous compiler of books during the last twenty years 
of bis life. 

We may now turn to the Rev. John Entick, M.A., as a Freemason. Of bis 
Maaonic career very little can now be ascertained ; there is notbing in Grand Lodge 
records to show when or in what Lodge he was initiated, and be is first mentioned by 
name in the account of the proceedings of Grand Lodge on June 27tb, 1754, when at a 
meeting beld at the Devil Tavern : — 

**A mémorial presented by Brother Jonathan Scott to the last Gommittee of 
Gharityy being referred to this Quarterly Communication^ showing the necessity of a 
new Edition of the BooK of Constitutions, with necessary Corrections and Additions, and 
proposing that the same might be benceforward printed by the Suhscriptions of such 
Lodges as it suited, and the Profits tbereof applied to the use of the General Charity; 
and that a Committee might be appointed to revïew the said Book of Constitutions, 
formerly prepared for the Press by the Rev. Brother Anderson, and to make the necessary 
Altérations and Additions, it was Resolved, That the said Book of Constitutions sbould be 
revised, and the necessary Altérations and Additions made consistent with the Laws and 
Rnles of Masonry, And 

That the Right Worsbipful Grand Master, the other présent Grand Officers; 
George Payne, Esq. ; the Earl of Loudoun, Duke of Chandos, Lord Ward and Lord 
Cakysfort, late Grand Masters ; Sir Robert Lawley, Bart., Edward Hody, M.D., late 
Deputy Grand Masters ; Thomas Smith, Esq., late Junior Grand Warden ; together with 
the Rev. John Entick, M. A., Arthur Beardmore and Edward Bowm/in, Gent., be the said 
Gommittee. And that the Grand Monter or Deputy Grand Monter, with any three others of 
the said Gommittee, bave power to proceed to Business, and to call in to their Assistance 
any other Brethren, tbey might from time to time think proper." (Constitutions Ed. 
17Ô6, p. 262.) 

Of the three private Members of this Committee Arthur Beardmore bad been a 
Steward at the préviens Assembly and Feast on Marcb 25th, and be was appointed Junior 
Grand Warden on November 29th, 1754, and subsequently became Senior Grand Warden, 
so be was a Brother of some note at that time ; but there is notbing to account for the 
inclusion of Brothers Entick and Bowman on the Committee. However, we find the 
Rev. John Entick among the Stewards for the Feast on April lOtb, 1755, and be was 
appointed Junior Grand Warden on February 14th, 1758, in the room of Brother 
Vandevelde, deceased. 

Obviously the lion*s share in preparing the 1756 Constitutions was performed by 
Entick, for bis name alone appears on the title page, and it is stated in the Sanction 
that " this new book bas been publiahed with great Care and Fidelity from the Records of 
Masonry, by our Brother the Rev John Entick, M. A." 

After bis appointment as Junior Grand Warden, Bro. Entick attended the meet- 
ings of Grand Lodge on May 24th, 1759, January 24th, May 24tb and June 5tb, 17G0, 
and is last mentioned as présent on May 3rd, 1762. 

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80 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

The next issue of the Book of Coustitutions (1767) also has his name on thetitle- 
page as successor to Di*. Anderson, and is often attributed to him, but as it is called ** A 
New Edition, with Altérations and Additions, by a Comnjittee appointed by the Gi^and 
Lodge,** it would not seem that he had any hand in its compilation, and, indeed, his 
Masonic position at the time of its préparation, as I shall describe, renders it extremely 
improbable, that he was one of the Committe appointed to bring ont the Edition of 1767, 
the names of which Committee Brother Sadler informs me are not recorded in the 
minutes of Grand Lodge. 

For information as to the concluding épisode of Entick's Masonic career I am 
indebted to Bro. Sadler, who, with his nsual willingness to assist, has supplied me with 
ex tracts from the records of Grand Lodge, from which it appears that at one 
time Entick was Treasurer of the Lodge at the Sun, Upper Shadwell (No. 227, con- 
stituted 3lst October, 1757, and erased April lOth, 1782), and on October 29th, 1765, 
the Members of the Lodge presented to Grand Lodge a mémorial against their Treasurer 
" for not settling his Account and paying the Balance to the Fund of the Lodge," and it 
w^as ordered that the parties be summoned to the next Charity Committee, a body which 
at that time corresponded to the présent Board of General Purposes. Accordingly 
on January 22nd, 1766, at the Committee of Charity, " The complaint preferr*d against 
Bro. John Entick . . . was candidly heard, and a lettèr from Bro' Entick in Justifi- 
cation of himself read, and the afFair taken into due considération ; (and it was) 
Resolv'd, unanimously, that a Letterbe wrote by the Grand Secretary to Bro' Entick to 
inform him, that he is directed thereby to require him to appoint a Day and Time within 
a fortnight from the date of the said Letter, to meet the Committee appointed by the 
Sun Lodge to settle and adjust the Treasurer's (accounts), and then and there to settle 
and adjust the same accordingly, or infailure thereof, That his name will be eras'd from 
among the Grand Officers, and he will ever after be deemed unworthy to enter the Grand 
or any other regular Lodge." He does not seem to hâve complied with this resolution, 
and his name does not appear as a Grand Warden for 1757, in the Table of Grand 
Officers given in the 1784 Constitutions, though whether this is due to its eras^re from 
among the Grand Officers, or to the fact that he only held office as Junior Grand 
Warden for part of a year, seems to me a doubtful point. 

I can discover no other détails of our Brother's Masonic career, so I will conclude 
my account of him with a quotation from Dr. Oliver's " Révélations of a Square." 
(p. 98) :- 

" At this perïod our Rev. Bro. Entick engaged in the laudable design of counter- 
acting the repeated attempts that had been made to throw Masonry into confusion, and 
contributed several valuable additions to Masonic literature. He was, in his turn, the 
Master of our Lodge^, and P glittered on his breast for three consécutive years. His 
habits were grave and sober ; but he was a good Master, and a fair disciplinarian, popular 
amongst the Craft, an expositor of Masonry in m any printod works^, and at the same 

* This is the imaginary Lodge to which, according to Oliver's romance, ail the noted Masons of 
the eighteenth century belonged. 
' The Square is speaking. 
' Dr. Oliver mentions four, viz., " The Free and Acoepted Aiason described, in a Sermon preached 

by J. Entick, A. M." " A Caution to Frfte and Accepted Masons, a Sermon preached at St. Mildred, in the 
Ponltry, Cet. 26, 17.52, by J. Entick, A. M," London, Scott, 1752. I find thèse foor works only, besides 
the Constitutions, attributed to Entick by Kloss, so it seems probable that Dr. Oliver copied the titles 
from Kloss. The third of them is printed at length in Cole's Constitutions of 1751, which also contains 
^n advertisemçnt of the second, 

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Ttoo Editors of the Book of Constitutions. 81 

time he preserved hia status in the Grand Lodge, whicb is more than Capt. Spiith^, 
Preston^, Whitney', and some other popular Brethren, were fortunate enoagh to accom- 
plish at a subséquent period. He published two* several éditions of the Book of 
Constitutions, and preached many sermons on Freemasonry, which ought to hâve been 
preserved, as they did honour both to his head and bis heart. I must confess T had 
agréât respect for Bro. Entick. He was an active man and a dear lover of Masonry, 
and I was exceeding sorry when fate, in the shape of a vote of the Lodge, threw me 
into other hands." 

In conclusion, I think that, like the Square of Dr. Oliver's imagination, we must 
ail feel a respect for Bro. John Entick as a hardworking man of letters throughout his 
whole life, and we must ail be sorry that he tarnished his otherwise honourable career 
by his mîsconduct (whatever it was) as Treasurer of the Sun Lodge. 


The next Editor of the Book of Constitutions, whose name has been handed down, 
is John Noorthouck, who edited the 1784 édition, which is in many respects the best of 
the eighteenth century éditions. Entick's name is omitted from the title-page of this 
issue, which is described as " A New Edition revised, enlarged and brought down to the 
year 1784, under the direction of the Hall Committee, by John Noorthouck,'* and 
contains a préface, signed " J. N.," explaining the improvements and altérations that 
hâve been introduced. 

As with Entick, I will first give some account of the non-Masonic career of the 
subject of my sketch, which account is raainly drawn from the Dictionary of National 

John Noorthouck was born in London about the year 1746, being the son of a 
bookseller of some note, Herman Noorthouck, who had a shop named the Cicero's Head, 
Great Piazza, Covent Garden, which, however, he seems to hâve given up some years 
before his son's birth. During his early years, John Noorthouck was patronized by 
William Strahan, the printer, of whose character he afterwards wrote a poetical sketch, 
which has been preserved by Nichols (Literary Anecdotes, iii. 395). Onr Brother, like 
his predecessor Entick, may be described as a hard-working literary hack, gaining his 
livelihood as an index maker, and corrector of the press ; he was a liveryman of the 

* Capt. J. G. Smith, Prov.G.Master for Kent, pnblished " The Use and Abase of Freemasonry " in 
1783, and 1785 he was expelled from the Society for having forged a certificate of Grand Lodge, recom- 
mending two dîstressed Brethren ; he had previonslj got into troable for holding a Lodge in the King^s 
Bench Prison. (Gould ii. 479, 480.) 

' William Preston, author of the ** Illnstratîons of Masonry," became embroiled in a dispute wîth 
Grand Lodge as to the rights of the Lodge of Antiquity, and was expelled from the Society in 1779, bat 
restored to its privilèges in 1789. (Gould ii. 424-428.) 

' By the kindness of Bro. Sadier, Sub-Librarian of Grand Lodge, I am able to qnote from 
Grand Lodge Beports the story of Thomas Whitney. He was a P.M. of the Boyal York Lodge 
at Bath, which was erased by order of the Grand Lodge, in conséquence of internai discord, on 
Becember Ist, 1824 ; he was accused of *^ various irregularities and breaches of the gênerai laws 
of the Craf t, and particularly for illegally initiating into Masonry in the said Lodge two indiTÎduals 
without dispensation and withont the regulated considération," and on December 22nd, 1824, he 
was Buspended from ail Masonic functions and' privilèges for twelve months; other charges were 
brought against him. but they were not prooeeded with, and on Jane Ist 1825, it was resolved 
unanimously " That Bro. Thomas Whitney was censured by this Grand Lodge for a breach of Masonic 
discipline, and that there is no imputation whatsoever npon his conduct in référence to his interférence 
in the fijiancial concerns of the late Boyal York Lodge." Subsequently on September 5th, 1827, 
Whitney attended Grand Lodge for the purpose of being reinsiated ; " be was introduced by the Deacons, 
and the M.W. Grand Master addressed him at considérable length, remarking upon the serions and evil 
tendency of a violation of those laws which had been made by the common consent and for the gênerai 
good of the Craft, especially as the Master of a Lodge initiating Masons without préviens notice." His 
Masonic clothing was then restored to Bro. Whitney, '* who was now permitted to résume his seat in 
the Grand Lodge as a Past Master." 

^ l hâve shown above that he probably had nothîng to do with the 1767 édition. 

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82 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

Company of Stationers, and spenfc nearly ail his life in London,i with rooms in 
" Bernard*s Inn, Holborn," certainly from 1773 to 1784 (as sbewn by tbe préfaces to 
bis books), and probably for much longer, since it is not until 1814 that be is fonnd 
living at Oundle in Northamptonsbire, wbere be died in July, 1816, aged about seventy. 
An obituary notice of him appeared in tbe Gentleman' s Magazine for Angust, 1816; and 
tbere is a similar account of bim in Nicbols's " lUastrations of Literary History " (vol. 
8, p. 488) ; wbicb are pi*actically onr only sources of information abont bim apart from 
bis connection witb Freemasonry. His principal work appeared in 1773, and is entitled 
" A New History of London, including Westminster and Soutbwark. To wbicb is 
added, A gênerai snrvey of the wbole ; describing the Public Buildings, Late Improve- 
ments, <&c. lUustrated witb Copper-Plates. By John Noorthouck, London, 1773." 
Tbe book is a tbick quarto, witb a dedicatîon to tbe Lord Mayor, Aldermen and 
Commons of tbe City of London, signed " John Noortbouck, Citizen and Stationer," 
and a Préface dated "Bernard's Inn, Holbom, Marcb 28tb, 1773." Its price was 
£1 Ils. 6d. I can find in it no référence to Entick's London, thougb several previous 
writers are mentioned. Soon after be published "An Historical and Classical 
DiCTiONART: containing the Lives and Charactera of the Most Eminent and Learned 
Persons, In every Age and Nation, From the Earliest Period to the Présent Time. In 
Two Volumes. By John Noorthouck. London. Printed for W. Straban ; and T. 
Cadell in tbe Strand. mdcclxxvi.*" This work is in two octavo volumes, with a 
préface dated "Bernard's Inn, Holbom. June 23d. 1776." Price 128. In "Notes 
and Queries " (Ist Séries, xii. 204), tbere is mention of an Autogi'apb MS. life of John 
Noorthouck, " author of the History of the man after God's own heart,'^ which MS. was 
ofFered for sale, in 1852, in a bookseller's catalogue issued by John Russell Smith in 
London, and was tberein described as ah unprinted autobiography containing many 
curions literary anecdotes of tbe eigbteenth century. But Peter Annet (1693-1769) is 
more generally considered to bave been the author of " A History of the Man after 
Grod's own Heart," and the work is attributed to bim in the British Muséum Catalogue ; 
and I bave been unable to trace tbe subséquent fate of the MS. 

Turning now to Noortbouck's Masonic career, tbe earliest fact about it that I 
bave been able to discover is that hejoined the Lodge of Antiquity in 1771, but Bro. 
Sadler informs me that be bas been unable to trace our Brotber's former Lodge : be 
was Treasurer^ of tbe Lodge wben some of its members, on December 27 tb, 1777, after 
bearing a sermon from their Chaplain, tbe Rector of Bow, walked back from St. 
Dunstan's Churcb, in Fleet Street, to the Mitre Tavern, in their Masonic clothing. 
Noorthouck objected to their baving done so, wbile Preston defended the proceeding ; 
tbe dispute grew warm, and was referred to the " Committee of Cbarity," which upheld 
Noortbouck's view of the irregularity of the performance, and called upon Preston to 
withdraw his contention that the Lodge of Antiquity possessed spécial privilèges of its 
own in virtue of its original constitution, and, on his refusai to do so, expelled him from 
the Society (January 30th, 1778). However, on February 4th, Preston presented a 
mémorial to Grand Lodge at its Quarterly Communication, ezpressing regret and 
promising never again to claim any spécial privilège for Lodge No. }, and so bis 
expulsion was rescinded. Then tbe majority of the Lodge of Antiquity, headed by 
Preston, expelled Noorthouck and two otbers from tbe Lodge : again tbe Committee of 
Cbarity intervened, and on October 30tb, 1778, made an order for the restoration of the 

* He aays in the Préface to his History of London ** the writer was born a citizen of London, 
and has spent the greateat part of his life in the metropolis.'' 

' Preston, in his " State of Facts," a pamphlet issqed in 1778, describes Noorthouck a» 
" Présent " Treasurer of the Lodge of Antiquity. 

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Il^wo Êditors of the Book of Constitutions. 8È 

three Brethren to their membership of No. 1 ; to this order the majority of the Lodge 
refused obédience, seized the books and furniture of fche Lodge, and, in spite of the 
opposition of the minority, formed themselves into ** The Grand Lodge of Englandsouth 
of the river Trent," which continued in existence nntil 1789, when Preston and his 
partj made snbmission, and were restored to their privilèges in the Society, from which 
they had been expelled on Pebruary 3rd, 1 779.^ It is noteworthy that no allusion to 
this dispute occnrs in Noorthouck's Constitutions, so far as I can discover. 

In 1782, the Grand Secretary reported to Grand Lodge that the Books of 
Constitutions were ail sold, and it was resolved that the reprinting of the book be left 
to the management of the Hall Committee, which had been first appointed in 1773, and 
constantly re- appointed up to this time ; presumably Bro. John Noorthouck was a 
member of it, and being a man of some literary ability, the task of editing the new Book 
of Constitutions, which appeared in 1784, was entrusted to him. He performed his 
task with considérable skill, reducing the " tumid expressions ** of his predecessors 
** nearer to the unafPected stile of simple narration," to quote his préface, and adding a 
full index " without which no publication beyond the size of a pamphlet can be deemed 

This appears to hâve been a standing remark of our Brother's, for in the Préface 
to his *' History of London " he says " no literary performance beyond the size of a 
pamphlet can be deemed compleat, in the usual sensé of the word, without a good index ; 
yet the labour of making and digesting it is a duty that f ew authors will submit to 

I regret that I can f urnish no further particulars about Noorthouck's Masonic 
career ; I cannot find his name among the Grand Officers for any year ; and Dr. Oliver 
sums him up in a brief sentence as " a clever and intelligent man, and an expert Mason " 
(^Révélations of a Square, p. 249), though he considers his conduct during the dispute 
between Preston and the Grand Lodge as open to censure. It may be observed hère 
that Noorthouck and Preston were both employed by Strahan — the former to correct, 
the latter to print for him ; and it is possible that some dispute apart from Masonry 
may hâve been at the bdttom of their trumpery quarrel over the Church parade. 

I hâve seen it suggested (Freemason, 25 th Septemher, 1869) that the real cause 
of their quarrel was Preston's jealousy of Noortbouck on account of the employment of 
the latter to edit the new édition of the Constitutions, but as the quarrel broke ont in 
1777, and tho new édition was not required until 1782, there cannot be much probability 
in this suggestion ; though very likely, since he compiledthe Appendix of 1776, Preston 
would bave also prepaaed the 1784 édition if he had not fallen ont with the authorities. 

Our worthy Brotber was something of a poet as well as a compiler of books, for, 
besides his poetical sketch of Strahan's character previously mentioned, Jones* " Masonic 
Miscellanies " (1797) contains three poetical effusions by Bro. Noorthouck, from the first 
of which (p. 45) I should like to quot^ : — 

" When Bucks^ and Albions are forgot, 
Free-masons will remain ; 
Mushrooms, each day, spring up and rot, 
While oaks stretch o'er the plain." 

* I am indebted to Bro. Gould'e " History of Freemasonry,** ii., 424-428, for my accouût of thèse 

«See an article by Bro. W. H. Bylands in 2I.Q.C., vol. iii. p. 140. 

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84 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

The second (p. 90) was sung in the Provincial Grand Lodge at Margate, in Kent, on 
June 12th, 1786, and is in honour of Colonel Jacob Sawbridge, Prov.G.Master of Kent, 
1785-94 ; the last two Unes may serve as a spécimen of it : — 

" Fill, fill yonr glasses ; let Sawbridge be the toast, 
Long may we his protection boast ! " 

The third (p. 137) is an ode " performed at every Meeting of the Grand Chapter of 
Harodim," an order started in London by Preston in 1787, apparently a glorified Lodge 
of Instruction masquerading as an old Order revived ; so the two brethren seem to hâve 
made up their dispute, and probably Noorthouck had joined Preston's new Order. This 
ode is given in Prèston's Illustrations, and need not be quoted, 

Snch are ail the particulars I hâve been able to collect of thèse two Editors of 
the Book of Constitutions, but I hope they may be deemed worthy of a place in the 
Ars Qicatuor Coronatorum. 

Bro, W. J. Chetwode Crawley writes: — 

Bro. Hawkins's article is an excellent contribution, and the détails supplied by 
Bro. Sadler are really valuable. 

Curiously enough the first school Latin Dictionary I ever used was Entick's 
Tyronis Thésaurus, and a very good working vocabulary I found it, though ludicrously 
behind the modem standard of philology. Still, I hâve ever since had a sneaking regard 
for the author, who certainly knew what the schoolboy of hîs day wanted. I fancy the 
use of his Dictionary survived in Irish Classical Schools a full quarter of a century 
after it had been superseded in his own country. 

Bro. W. B. Hextall said : — 

Bro. Hawkins' interesting paper is capable of but small addition. Entick was a 
warm partizan of the notorious John Wilkes, and gave an account of the latter's 
proceedings with the City of London in his Hisiori) and Survey of London, which was an 
enlargement of an earlier work by Maitland. Allusion is made to '* the révérend Brother 
Entick," at page 14 of The Complète Freemason, or Multa Paucis for Lovers of Secrets 
(1763). A notice of the death of "Rev; Mr. John Entick, aged 60, at Stepney," 
appeared in the Qentleinans Magazine for 1773, aud the volume for 1774, page 229, in 
" Catalogue of New Publications," gives " The Présent State of the Pritish Empire 
. . . . By the late Rev : John Entinck, M. A.," so that Lysons was not alone in so 
spelling the snrname. A\\\honQ'& Dictionary of English Literature, I., 560, says "John 
Entick or Entinck." I believe a like latitude formerly applied to the spelling of the 
better known family name "Bentinck," which is so similar as to suggest a common 
origio. The Freemason^s Magazine, 1859 (page 1026) erroneously gives the year of 
Entick's death as 1780. 

Bro. W. J. Hughan has pointed out that although the Sanction to Entick*s 
Constitutions, 1756, contains a warning *'to ail Brethren against being employed or 
concemed in writing and spreading, printing and publishing, any other books relating 
to Masons or Masonry, and against using any other Book in any Lodge as a Lodge- 
Book, as they shall be answerable to Grand Lodge," yet the printer and publisher, Bro. 
J. Scott, also printed and sold " The Pocket Companion, and History of Free Masons : 
Contaiuing their Origin, Progress, and Présent State ; an Abstract of their Laws, 
Constitutions, Customs, Charges, Orders and Régulations, for the Instruction and 

Digitized by 


Two Editors nf the Book of Constitutions. 85 

Condacfc of the Brethren .... for the use of the Society down to this Time," and 
boldlj advertised the same at back of pao^e 339 of Entick's volume. (Whymper's 
Reprint of Articles on the Constitutions^ 1889). Both Mackenzie's (1877) and Woodford's 
(1878) Cyclopœdias attribute the 1767 Constitutions to Entick, as does A,Q,C.y xiii., 181 ; 
but Bro. Hughan agrées with Bro. Hawkins that Entick does not appear to hâve had 
aught to do with that revision (ihid.) 

The obituary notice of John Noorthouck, in the Gentleman's Magazine, 1816, says 
he was for nearly fifty years a liveryman of the Company of Stationers, and such long 
service seems to justify inqniry about him in that quarter. 

In the Freemason^s Magazine^ 1859 (page 116), a correspondent stated that 
Noorthouck ** was a native of Oundie," and suggested inquîry by members of the Lodge 
of Merit, then No. 687, which was warranted at Stamford Baron in 1840, held at Oundle 
from 1856 to 1865, and then moved back to Stamford Baron. Lane*s Masonic Records 
gives no other Masonic history to Oundle, and no further référence to Noorthouck 
appeared in the Magazine, though the letter mcntioned was again printed in the volume 
for 1861. 

Woodford's Cyclopœdia, page 517, mentions an unpublished autobiography of 
Noorthouck, probably the same as that catalogued by John Russell Smith, in 1852. 
None such is in the British Muséum. 

Noorthouck's Constitutions, 1784, contained a leaf, paged 67, 68 (page 67 headed 
" In Italy,") which was cancelled in most of the copies, and for it were substituted 
pages 67, 68, [67] [68] usually fonnd ; the new page 67 headed " Gothic Architecture." 
The cancelled leaf is consequently rare. 

The proceedings against Thomas Whitney, which occasioned loss of its warrant 
to the Royal York Lodge, Bath, in 1824, are recorded at length in the Minute Book of 
the Royal Sussex Lodge, now No. 53. (Craft Masonry in Bath,hj Bro. R. E. M. Peach, 

Commenta were also offered by Bros. T. Conu, Canon J. W. Horslet and the 
W.M. and a hearty vote of thanks was passed to Bro. Hawkins for his paper. 

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86 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Loâge, 




T is possible that a reason for tlie appearance of the various shields of 
arms at the Castle of Badrom, described by our W.Bro. Markham 
in A.Q.C.y vol. xvii., p. 74, maj be found in a document at the Britisb 
Maseum, kuown as Cottonian Charter iv. 31. 

This is a letter granted to William Fitzhugh and Margery his 
wife, for contributing to the re-building of the Castle of Budrum, 
dated U14. 

There can be no doubt but that this document was given to a member of the 
Fitzhugh Family, whose name appears upon the document in question, together with 
that of his wife, for the reason that they contributed towards the re-building of 
the Castle. 

It was a common custom to place upon the walls and other parts of buildings, 
the armoriai bearings of persons who contributed towards their érection or rebuilding, 
and from this we may infer that the Kiug of England and many of the nobles gave 
assistance in this mauner and for this reason their arms are displayed on the Castle 

The letter granted to William Fitz Hngh is in Latin and bas attached to it the 
seal of the Hospital of St. John, Clerkenwell. 

It is as folio ws : — 

Universis psentes bas inspectis ffratres Johannes Seyvill & Willius Hullis 
ordinis sancti Johannis Jerlimitan procuratores hujus indulgencie salutem 
in dôo Nouit universuas via qd cum sanctissimus in xpo pater & 
Dominus nr dominus Alezander digna dei provindencia papa quintus ex 
sua ineffabile clemencia pro & patemo affectu compaciendo considerius 
sumptuB importabilis & espensas quas dominus noster magister nosqc 
fratres firi conuentus Rodi circa capcionem edificatoem & custodiam 
Castri sancti Pétri nup de manibs inimicos crucis xpr licet absque non 
modica sanguin is effnsione vi armore graciose capti & conquesti 
snstininmus & indies non modica cum penuria sustinemus Omnibs & 
singulis qui ad defensionem fidei fortifîcacionem & custodiam Castri 
pda paupum magistri & fratrum hospitalis ac hospitalitatis subuencionem 
ac confusionem hostinm huiusmodi eisdem magro fratribs & hospitali 
pdcis vel illi seu illis qui ad p'cipiend subuencionem ipam pmagros & 
fratres pdcos fuerint deputatis manus porrexerunt adinterces secundum 
facultates a deo eis collatas ut confesser quem quilt eorum duxerit 
eligend, omî peccaminu & suor de quibs corde contriti & ore conf essi fuerint 
vel de quibs confitri vellent et eorum occurrerent memorie plenam 
remissionem semel tantum in mortis articnlo eis in sinceritate fidei & 
unitate sancte Bomane ecclie psistentibs concedere valeat phas suaA 

Digitized by 


Notes on the Heraldry at the Gastle of Budrum, 87 

aplîcas misericordiier dignatus est indnlgere ; Proviso tamen qnidem 
confessor de suis de quibs f uerît alteri satisfaccio impendenda ; eam illis p 
ipos si Bupciexerint vel p heredes aut ezecutores si forte tune obierient 
faciend iniungat quam ipi vel eorum ut psertur heredes sine executores 
face teneantur. Et si quis qd absit ppter confîdenciam remissionis 
huinsmodi aliqua forte imposterum committeret illicita; quo ad illa 
remissio huiusmodi illi vel illis ea committentibs missatenus sufPragetur. 
Et quia nobiles & strenui dominus Wills Fitzhugh miles & margeria uzor 
ejus quedam caritatis suffragra eidem bospitali nid in huiusmodi fidei 
catholice defensionem ac Castri fortificacionem predci ceterosqe pros usus 
ut prebertur nominatos caritature donarnnt, cuicumque cappellano ad hoc 
peum eligendo ipius confession em audrendi ac semel penitns ut prefertur 
absolvendi auctoritate aplica supradicta licencia conceditur spécial is 
presentium ptenorem. In quorum ommu testimonium sigullnm quo 
utimur in hac parte presentibus est appensum Dat in domo de Clerken- 
well Anno domini millésime Quadringentisimo Quartodecimo. 

In the other shields of arms a family connection may be traced amongst the 
members. Especially is this to be found in the family of Neville, who were connected witb 
Holland, Percy, Grrey, and the Royal Family, while the HoUands had connection with 
Stafford, Fitzalan, Beaufort, Courtenay and Montacute. 

In vol. xiv., Trafisactïons of the Socipfy of Antiquaries (N.S.), a paper on the 
Heraldry of the English Knights of Budrum, by Sir Cléments Markham, F.S.A., will be 
found with the folio wing blazons : — 

BoRLEY, Oty three bars in chief two palettes sahle, over ail an escutcbeon barry 
of six, gules and or, 

^ ( Ist and 4th, Qules, a fesa or, between six cross crosslets, or, 

BKiUCHAMP, ^ ^ , , « , , , n , . ^T 1 1 N 

C 2nd and 3rd, checky or and azuré, a chevron ermiTie (Newburgn). 

Holland, England within a bordure of France. 

C Ist and 4th, or, a lion rahipant azuré. 
' l 2nd and 3rd, guleft, three luces hau rient, argent (Lucy). 

Nevillr, Qules, a saltire argent. 

r Ist and 4th, Azuré, a fess between three léopards' faces or. 
' ' (. 2nd and 8rd, Argent on a bend gules, three pairs of wings argent 

ZouCHE, Gules, twelve bezants or, a canton ermine. 
Gray, Barry of six, argent and azuré, 
Strange, op Knockix, Two lions passant guardant. 
FiTZ Alan, Azuré, a lion rampant or, within a bordure. 
Stafforp, Or, a chevron gules. 

( Ist and 4th, Argent, three fusils conjoined în fess gules. 
' C 2nd and 3rd, An eagle displayed* (Monthermer). 

Vere, Quarterly gules and or, in the first a muUet argent. 
Courtenay, Or, three roundels gules, a label azuré with three annnlets argent on 
each of the three points. 

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88 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

FiTZHUGH, Âzure, fretty and a chief or, 
Halestowe (?), Paly of six, over ail a chevron. 

Under the central shield, which bears the Royal Arms, are three other shields. 
The one on the left side bas the followiug arms : On a bend, three lions rampant, for 
John Kendal (?), Turcopolier, 1477-1500. That on the right bas : Three bars gemelle, 
on a canton 5 billets, for " English " of SufFolk (?) ; while the one in the middle bears : 
Two wolves for Wolfe {?). 

"Indulgence" Seal op Bddrum. 

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^t» ^o\^n*6 ^at) in gurttest* 

WEDNESDAY, 24th JUNE, 1908. 

HE Lodge met at Freemasons' Hall at 6 p.m. Présent: — Bros. F. H. Qoldney, 
P.G.D., W.M.; J. T. Thorp, P.A.G.D.C, S.W. ; H. Sadler, G.Tj., S.D., as J.W.; W. 
John Songharst, P.A.G.D.O., Secrefcary ; J. P. Simpson, l.G. ; B. H. Dring, S.Stew.; 
E. L. Hawkins, J.Stew.; W. M. Bywater, P,G.S.B., P.M. ; W. H. Rylands, 
P.A.G.D.C, P.M. : Sydney T. Klein, P.M. ; and B. J. Castle, P.D.G.B., P.M. 

Also the following members of the Correspondence Circle : — Bros. Thos. 
Oohn, P.G.St.B., H. H. Montagae Smith, John Ohiirch, J. Ingram Moar, W. 
Howard-Flanders, J. Procter Watson, Chas. H. Bestow, W. Fisher, P.A.G.P., J. J. Nolan, W. B. Hextall, 
P. Armitage, F. W. Levander, Archdeaoon F. E. Clarke, Pr.G.M., North Connaught, D. Bock, P. Wriede, 
H. G. Warren, H. J. Dalgleish, T. Vincent Smith, L. Danielsson, John Weir, R. E. Landesmann, W. F. 
Keddell, B. J. Hennings, Re7. H. F. Gillespie, D.D., D. S. Moiison, D. Mackintosh, Albert Henning, G. 
J. Cresswell, W. Howard Webb, Rev^. Morris Rosenbaum, G. Isler, A. Simner, P.A.G.D.C, Chas. Aubert, 
Walter H. Brown, P.G.S'tew., Harry Tipper, P.A.G.P., C W. P. HoUingbery, Alfred A. Milliard, Col. 
R. S. Ellis, Major John Ros-, G. G. Lean, Dr. S. Walshe Qjven, L. Wild, Rev. H. C. de Lafontaine, 
P.G.D., Re7. W. E. Scott-Hall, R. C Watson, Herbert Burrows and Sir John E. Bingham, Bart. 

Also the foUowing visitors :— Bros. Howard R. Justice, P.M., Philo Lodge No. 444, Philadelphia ; 
C J. Thomson, P.M., Lombardian Lodge No. 2348; Chas. H. Nicholson, P.M., Evening Star Lodge No. 
1719; E. A. Wheeler, S.W., Brent Lodge No. 3292 ; A. C. Palmer, J.W., Mornington Lodge No 1672; R. 
C Yoang, J.W., Celtio Pioneer Lodge No. 40, W. Australia ; J. Klootsema and E. C Brnens, Alkmaar 
Lodge HoUand ; Henry Harrison, Thomas Ralling Lodge No. 2508 ; and J. Grange Rud, Star of Bnrma 
Lodge No. 614. 

Thirty-eight brethren wore admitted to the memberahip of the Correspondence Circle. 

Apologies for non-attendance were received from Bros. G. Greiner, P.A.G.D.C, P.M. ; B. 
Macbean, P.M. ; Dr. W. J. Chetwode Crawley, G.Tr., Ireland ; J. P. Rylands, Admirai Sir A. H. 
Markham. P.Dis.G.M. Malta, P.M.; B. Conder. junr., P.M. ; Dr. W. Wynn Westcott, P.G.D., P.M.; E. 
Armitage, P.D.G.D.C; F. J. W. Crowe, P.G.O., J.W.; W. J. Hughan, P.G.D., W. Watson, J.D.; L. A. de 
Malczovich, and R. F. Gonld. P.G.D., P.M. 

The Secretary reminded the Brethren of the Spécial Meeting of the Lodge which was to be 
held on 14ih Jaly. It was hoped that there woald be a good attendance in order that a hearty welcome 
might be given to the Mason Bishops who were expected to be présent. 

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The Secretary aUo announced that ail the arrangements were compleied for the visit to the 
Province of Durham on 16tb July, and that the oames of thosc wishing to take part in the Outing must 
be in his banda before the end of June. 

The Secretary oalled attention to the following 


By Bro. Ebknrzbr S. Phillips, Bridgeport, Conn., U.S. A. 

Photooraph of Warrant, issued 12th Pebruary, 1762, by George Harrison, Provincial Grand 
Master of New York for the St. John's Lodge, " Oountry of Fairfeald, and in the Colleny of Coneticut." 

Photooraph of first Meeting-place of St. John's Lodge. The hoase was palled down about 
fifteen years ago. Preaented to the Lodge. 

By Bro. W. Léonard Smith, London. 
Masonic " toad" Muo. 

By Bro. F. Overtox, Beckenham. 

Photooraph of Tracing-Boards belonging to the Addiscombe Lodge No. 1556. PreRtnted to 
the Lodge, 

By The Lodge. 

Silver-gilt Jrwbl, attachod to original silver chain, presented in 1811 to William Rigler by the 
members of the Lodge of True Felicity, now the Lodge of Felicity No. 58. In the early part of 1810 this 
Lodge was resaaoitated by Francis Columbine Daniel and other members of the Royal Naval Lodge, and 
was removed from the Bail and Gâte Tavern, Kentish Town, to the Salutation Tavern, Newgate Street, 
and at a meeting on 6th Febrnury, Bro. Rigler was appointed Junior Deacon. The jewel was presented 
to him in the following year in conséquence of his '* animated zeal to Masonry.*' It is of precisely the 
same form as the one presented in 1806 by the Royal Naval Lodge to Bro. T. I. Tobias. (See il.Q.O , 
vol. xviii., p. 66.) 

Merabership Jewbl of the Southern Cross Lodge No. 398 (S.C), Capetown. 

A hearty vote of thanks was unanimonsly passed to those brethren who had lent objects for 
exhibition, or who had made présentations to the Lodge Muséum. 

Bro, W. H, Bylands yead the following paper : — 

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Transdctionê of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 




HE above title fuUy expresses the contents of tbis paper. It is nothing 
more than a séries of notes ojathered from varions sources, largely by 
the assistance of several friends, among whom I must mention 
Bro. Hamon le Strange, Bro. William Watson and Bro. W. H. Jones, 
of Norwîch. 

My hope, in bringing this paper before the Lodge, is that others 
will add to the information, by sending to the Secretary, for publication, 
any n©tes they may now possess, or obtain ; and thus coUect together ail that is kuown 
about the Gregorians. 

There are several références to the Society in the old volumes of 'Notes and 
Quertesy and of thèse I hâve taken fuU advantage. 

Notiiing appears to be known of the carly history of the Society. They were 
called the Merry Gregs, according to the heading of tbeir Constitution al Song, *' Let 
Poets and Historians, Record the brave Gregorians,** etc. If it were certain that the 
saying, as merry as a Grigg, took its origin from the Gregorians, or that Trimmer the 
Farmer referred to in Tom D*Urfey's Wit mid Mirth or Pills to purge melancholy 
(1719, p. 9), was a member of the Society, a very respectable antiqnity might be 
claimed for them. Unfortunately, however, there are several other explanations of the 
Word Grigg, which may be more readily accepted. 

The foUowing is the text of this semi-political song : — 

Thk Modérât e M AN. 

To a pretty tune. By thefanwus Signior Gorelli. 

A Tory, a Whig, and a Moderato Man, 

O'er a Tub of stroug Aie, 

Met in Aùleshury Vale, 
Wh^re there liv'd a plump lass they call'd buxom Nan, 

The Tory a Londoner proud and high, 

The Whig was a Tradesman, plaguy Sly ; 

The Trimmer a Farmer, but merry and dry, 
And thus they their suit began. 
Pretty Nancy weVe come to put in our claim, 
Resolv'd upon Wedlock's pleasing Game ; 

Here's Jacoh the Big, 

And William the Whig, 

And Roger the Grigg, 
Jolly lads, as e'er were buckled in Girdle fast ; 

Say which you will chuse, 

To tye with a noose, 
For a Wife we must carry what e*er cornes on*t, 

Then think upon*t, 


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&2 Transactions of the Quattwr Gùronati Lodge. 

Youll ne ver be sorry when y 'h ave don't, 
Nor like as the worse for oar Wooing bo blunt, 
Then tell us wlio pleases best. 

The Lass who was not of the motion shy, 

The ripe years of her life ^ 

Being Twenty and Five : 
To the words of her wooer straight made reply, 

I find you believe me a Girl worth Gold, 

And I know too you like my coppy-hold ; 

And since Fortune favours the biisk and the bold, 
One of ye I mean to try. 

But I am not for you, nor S *8 Cause, 

Nor you with your H y's Hums and Hawes ; 

No Jaœb the Bigg, 

Nor William the Whigg, 

But Roger the G ri gg, 
Wifcli his mirth and mildness happily please me can. 

'Tis him will I choose, 

For th* Conjugal noose ; 
So that you the Church Bully may rave and rant, 

And you raay cant, 

Till both are Impeacht in Parliament ; 
'Tis Union and Peace that the Nation does want, 

So l'm for the Moderate Man. 

It bas been stated that the Society of Gregorians existed in London in the year 
1730 : aud it might be added that they survived longer than most of the imitators of 
Freeniasonry. It will be well to arrange a few of the notes in chronological order. 

In the Daily Journal, May 8th, 1736, occurs the foUowing: — ** On Monday last 
was constitutod at the FJower de Luce, in St. Alban's, a new chapter of the ancient 
and honourable order of Gregorians, at which were présent the Grand, Vice-Grands, 
with their proper Officers, together with a large number of the Bi'ethren. At their 
entrance into the town they were received with the greatest acclamations of joy that 
could be expressed by the populacô. The bells rang, and continued ringing till the 
Grand left the town." 

The icontributor of this to Notes and Queries (3rd séries, ii., 1862, p. 447) asks : — 
What was this "Order"? and how was it, that the solemnity described was looked 
upon as an occasion of public rejoicing by the people of St. Alban's ? 

Another contributor to the same journal (2nd séries vii., 1859, p. 157) ealls 
attention to " The Gregorian Constitution Song," in a collection of single-sheet Music, 
bearing the erased name of a former owner, with the date 1745, quotes the first verse 
beginning, " Let Poets and Historians," and states that it is set to two voices, and 
there is a transposition for the fiate at the foot. The Kditor adds the following note : 

'* The single sheet referred to by our correspondent is a copy of a song contained 
in the following work: — The Musical Ccntury, in one litmdred English Ballads, the Words 
and Mtisic of the whole by Henry Carey, 2 vols. fol. Lond. 1737-40; 2nd edit. 1740; 3rd 
edit. 1743. The work itself is not a uniformly printed book, but mei^ely a collection of 

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^ar^i ùA^i/r cUétéAl^ û^^tu^ Jlha ArriA tAe^^ duLé/U^ û^^i^c . 


The Merry Gregs. 
From George Bickham's "Musical Entertainer." 

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Notes on ihe Society of Gregorians. 93 

songs struck off from plates engi-aved and published by Carey at différent periods from 
about tlie year 1720." The following is the full title of the book, from the earliest 
édition ia the British Muséum. No doubt it is simply a re-issue of the first édition : — 
**The Musical Century, | in | One Hundred English Ballads, | on | Varions 
Subjects and Occasions ; | adapted | To several Characters and Incidents in Human 
Life, I and calculated | For Innocent Conversation, Mirth, and Instruction. | The | 
Words and Music of the Whole Work, | hy Henry Carey. | . . . . The Second 
Edition. | London : | Printed for the Author, and sold at the Musick-shops, 1740. | " 

The GiiEciORiANS* Constitution Song. 
(Music). (For two voices). 

Let Poets and Historians, 
Record the brave Gregorians, 

In long and lasting lays ; 
While hearts and voices joining 
In gladsome songs combining, 

Sing forth their deathless praise. 
If innocent variety. 
Content and sweet society, 

Can make us mortals blest ; 
In social love united, 
With harmony delighted, 

We emulate the best. 
Onr friendship and affiuity, 
Surpasses consangninity. 

As Gold surpasses Ore ; 
Success to ev*ry Brother, 
Let's stand by one another 

Till time shall be no more. 

The Cheap Side Chapter of Gregorians was constituted in the year 1736. (See 
undor " Medals.") 

In the Musical Entertainer^ published by George Bickham, the engraver of the 
plates, about the year 1742, the Constitutional Song is headed *' The Merr}' Gregs," and 
is headed by a nnmber of singing people after Hogarth. 

The Daily Advertiser of the 18th of February, 1742, contains the follo'wing: — 

" The Brethren of the Pope's Head Chapter of the An^tient and Honourable Order 
of Gregorians are desir'd to meet at the Fountain Tavern on Lndgate Hill, this Evening 
at Six o'Clock, to proceed from thence to visit the Globe Chapter in Fleet Street." 

They are mentioned in the often quoted lines in Pope's Dunciad (Book IV., lines 

572, etc.), which was first printed in 1728. The fourth book first appearcd in the 

édition of 1742. 

Next, bidding ail di-aw near on bended knees, 

The Queen confers her Titles and Degrees. 

Her Children first of more distinguish'd sort, 

Who study Shakespear at the Inns of Court, 

Impale a Glow-worm, or vertu profess, 

Shine in the dignity of F.R.S. 

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Some, deep Freemasons, join the silent race, 
Wortliy to fill Pjthagoras's place ; 
Some Botanists, or Florists at the least, 
Or issue Meiubers of an annual feast, 
Nor pass*d the xneanest nnregarded, one 
Rose a Gregorian, one a Gormogon. 
The last, Dot Içast, in hononr or applause, 
Isis and Cam made Doctors of her Laws. 

A note in some éditions ex plains Gregorian and Gormogon as a sort of lay 
brothers, slips from the root of the Free Masons. 

Another note by the Editer of Pope's Works, 1882 (verse 676), may be quoted, 
if only for the purpose of stating that it is entirely misleading. 

** Throughout the eighteenth century there was a mania both in England and on 
the Continent for joining secret societies, some of which were formed merely for 
convivial, but others for political purposes. The Gregorians formed a Society which 
seems to hâve had its headqnarters at Norwich. They appear to hâve taken part in 
politics, proceeding to the hustings in regular order, and full costume. Tbey were also 
distinguished for their deep potations of port.. (See Notes and Queries, 2nd séries, 
vol. vi., p. 273). It is not improbable that they may hâve voted on the Whig side, as 
the Royal Family were Masons, so that Pope may hâve had a political motive for his 
satire. I think that there may be also a second meaniug for the word ** Gregorian,'' 
which is the cant name for a hangman, the term being derived from Gregory Brandon, 
whom Grose (Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue) calls '* a noted finisher of the law," 
and who was granted a ooat of arms throngh a mistake of Sir William Seagar, a 
former Garter King-at-Arms. In this case Pope would hâve intended to ridicule the 
Heralds' Collège. The Gormogons were another secret society, which ezisted in 
England from 1725 to 1738, being dissolved in the same year that the fîrst Papal Bail 
was isBued against the Freemasons. They derived their mysteries from China. There 
is a very rare print of Hogarth's called " The Mystery of Freemasonry, bixjught to 
light by the Gormogons," representing in a ridiculous light the initiation of a novice 
into the rites of the order. Henry Carey also ridiculed them in some verses called, ' A 
Moderator between the Freemasons and the Gomorgons.' " 

In the engraved List of Chapters acting under the Grand Chapter in London, 
in the Gardner Collection, and brought to light by Bro. J. Percy Simpson (Traus.^ vol. 
xix., 1906, p. 19), Pope*s Head and Globe Chapters are both ^ntered. I think it must 
be dated before the year 1750, and it is, perhaps, worth noting that it contains a Chapter 
at St. Alban's, probably the one mentioned above ; one at Peckham, Surrey, and another 
at Crewkerne, in Somersetshire. 

A sermon by Farmerie Maltus^, preached before the Gregorians, was published 
in quarto in London in 1752. 

Mackey, in his Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry, gives the following : — 

" Gregorians— An association established early in the 18th century in ridicule 
of and in opposition to the Freemasons. There was some feud between the two Orders, 
but the Gregorians at last succumbed and long ago became extinct. They lasted, 
however, at least until the end of the century, for there is extant a sermon preached 
before them in 1797. They must, too, by that time hâve changed their character, for 

^ The Rev. Former Maltus, son of William Maltas, of ScottoD, co. Lincoln, was of Lincoln 
Collège, Oxford. He matriculated Ist Februarj, 1723-24, aged 18. Was lectnrer of fiermondsey, 
Sarrey, and died the 26th March, 1782. 

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ÇMn\^yai'r/7i,f ^'^kJ/^^^^ 

/^f/ Çkm'^ Zm , rrA frr/f/i/r /// , • A^/'n/, ^a/r/nm f/ 

List of Chapters of the " Gregorians." 
From an Eograving in the Gardner ColIeotioQ. 

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Notes on the Society of Qregorians. 96 

Prince William Frederick of Gloucester was tlien their presiding officer ; and Dr. 
Mankhouse, the aathor of that sermon, wlio was a very ardent Mason, speaks in bigh 
terms of the Order as an ally of Freemasonry and distinguished for its benign tendency 
and salutary effects ! " 

SmoUet, in bis Travels throiigh France and Italy, printed in 1766, furnisbes tbe 
next référence. Vol. ii., pp. 53-4, Letter xxvii., dated frora INice, January 28th, 1765 : — 

" Amidst ail tbe scenery of tbe Roman Catbolic religion, I bave never yet seen 
any of tbe spectators affected at beart, or discover tbe leaat sign of fanaticism. Tbe 
very disciplinants, wbo sconrge tbemselves in tbe Holy Week, are generally 
peasants or parties bired for tbe purpose. Those of tbe confrairies, wbo bave an 
ambition to distingaisb tbemselves on sacb occasions, take care to secure tbeir backs 
from tbe smart by means of secret armonr, eitber women's boddice or quilted jackets. 
Tbe confrairies are fraternities of devotees, wbo inlist tbemselves under tb© banners of 
particalar saints. On days of procession tbey appear in a body dressed as pénitents 
and masked, and distingaisbed by crosses on tbeir habits. Tbere is scarce an 
individaal, wbetber noble or plebeian, wbo does not belong to ono of thèse associations, 
wbicb may be compared to tbe Free-Masons, Gregorians, and Antigallicans of England." 

Tbe late Mr. William Pinkerton, writing to Note^ and Querïes (4tb séries, v., 
1870, p. 127), quotes a dinner invitation card tben in bis possession. 

" Tbe Committee appointed by a cbapter of tbe ancient and bonourable society of 
Gregorians request tbe bonour of yoar company to celebrate the festival of the Glorious 
Révolution in 1688, at tbe Swan Inn, on Wednesday tbe 5tb day of November, 1787. 
Dinner at three o'clock. Tickets sevexi and sixpence eacb. Wine included." 

Tbis may possibly explain tbe peculiar festivities at St. Alban's mentioned above 
in tbe year 1736, and suggest that tbe Gregorians were a semi-political Protestant 

Another référence to the Society is fonnd in " Tbe Borougb : A Poem in Twenty- 
four Letters, by tbe Rev. G. Crabbe, LL.B. . . . London : . . . 1810." 

Letter X. , 

Cluhs and Social Meetin(}s. 

Masons are ours, Free-Masons — but, alas ! 

To tbeir own Bards I leave tbe mystic class ; 

In vain sball one, and not a gifted Man, 

Atterapt to sing of tbia enlighten*d Clan. 

I know no word, boast no directing sign. 

And not one Token of tbe Race is mine ; 

Wbetber witb Hiram, that wise Widow's son, 

Tbey came from Tyre to royal Solomon, 

Two Pillars raising by tbeir skill profound, 

Boaz and Jachïn tbrougb tbe East renown'd : 

Wbetber the sacred Books tbeir Rise express. 

Or Books profane, 'tis vain for me to guess ; 

It may be, lost in Date remote and high, 

Tbey know not wbat tbeir own antiquity ; 

It may be, too, derived from cause so low, 

Tbey bave no wisb tbeir or î gin to show : 

If, as Crnsaders tbey combine to wrest 

From beatben Lords tbe land tbey long possess'dj 

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96 Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge, 

Or were at first sonie harmless Club who made 
Tlieir idle meetings solemn by Parade ; 
Is but conjecture — for the task unfit, 
Awe-struck and mute, the puzzling thème I quît ; 
Yet, if 8uch Blessin^ from their Order flow, 
We should be glad their moral code to know ; 
Trowels of Silver are but simple things, 
And Aprons worthless as their apron-strings ; 
But if, indeed, you hâve the skill to teach 
A social spirit, now beyond our reach ; 
If Man*s warm Passions you can guide and bind. 
And plant the Virtues in the way ward mind ; 
If you can wake to Christian love the Heart — 
In mercy, something of your Powers impart. 

But as it seems we Masons mnst become 

To know the Secret, and must then be dumb ; 

And as we venture for uncertain Gains, 

Perhaps the Profit is not worth the Pains. 

When Bruce, that dauntless traveller, thought lie stood 

On Niîe's first Rise ! the Fountain of the Flood, 

And drank exulting in the sacred spring, 

The Critics told him it was no such thing ; 

That springs unnumber'd round the country ran. 

But none could show him when the first began. 

So might we feel should we our time bestow 

To gain thèse secrets and thèse signs to know ; 

Might question still if ail the Truth we found, 

And firmly stood upon the certain Ground ; 

We might our Title to the mystery dread. 

And fear we drank not at the River-head. 

Qriggs and Oregorians hère their Meetings hold. 
Convivial Sects, and Bucks alert and bold ; 
A kind of Masons, but without their sign ; 
The bonds of Union — Pleasure, Song, and Wine. 

Man, a gregarious créature, loves to fly 

Where he the Trackings of the Herd can spy ; 

Still to be one with many he desires, 

Although it leads him through the Thorns and Briers. 

A few ! but few there are, who in the mind 

Perpétuai source of consolation find ; 

The weaker many to the world will come. 

For comforts seldom to be found from home. <fec. 

In Notes and Qneries (2nd séries, vi., 206), 1858, it is pointed out that a Public 
House in James Street, Bermondsey, is called the " Gregorian Arms," and Bro. Basil 
Matveieff has kindly inforraed me that it still exists at the corqer of Jamaica and 
St, James* Roads. 

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(Prom tbe engraving in the British Musenro.) 

[ ^fr>r(wU> ^flflni^^mot^ ancient .^' bonorable ] 

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Notes on the Society of Greqortans. 97 

Bro. W. B. Hextall reminds me tliat in The Freemasons Magazine^ 1859, the 
followiDg occurs on p. 107 : — 

" A new warrant, No. 1,067, granted for a Lodge to be held in an ancient tavern 
in Bermondsey, whîch was originally occnpied by the ancient and extinct fraternity of 
the Gregorians, and is atill naraed the * Gregorian Arms.' "^ 

• Some time before 1761 a Chapter was founded in the City of Norwich. 

In Notes and Qnertes (2nd séries, vj., 1858, p. 273) is the following: — "The 
Gregorians h ad numerous lodges or Chapters. One exercised great influence at Norwich, 
it bespoke plays, and the members attended with ail their décorations ; at contested 
élections for the city they proceeded to the hustings in regular order, and in fuU 
costume. The large room at the principal inn is decorated with their arms. Towards 
the close of their existence, for they are supposed to be def unct, they were mémorable 
for their deep potations of Port wine. Sir Jacob Astley of the day had his portrait 
painted, wearing the insignia. The engraving is dedicated to him as * Grand ' of the 

The portrait hère referred to by the la te Mr. Edward Hawkins is that of Sir 
Edward Astley, which bears the following inscription : — " Sir Edward Astley, Bart., 
Représentative in Parliament for the County of Norfolk, and Granâ of the Most Ancient 
and Honourable Order of Gregorians in Norwich, 1771. Taken from the original 
portrait in possession of the Society. B. West, Pinxt, R. Erlom, Sculp*.** 

Bro. le Strange tells me that at the break-up of the Society the original paint- 
ing by Sir Benjamin West was presented to the great-grandfather of the présent Lord 
Hastings, and is now preserved at his Norfolk seat, Melton Constable. 

I must hère express my grateful thanks to Bro. le Strange for ail the trouble he 
has taken to search through books and newspapers , as also to Bro. W. H. Jones, the 
editor of the Norfolk Ckronicle, for a number of transcripts ; to them I owe the whole of 
the following notes, with référence to the Norwich Chapter. 

Bro. Jones points ont a curions distinction in the newspaper accounts. " Where- 
as," he says, " the proceedings of the Gregorians were reported with some amplitude, 
the proceedings of the Freemasons were eut very short, when noticed at ail, and when 
the opening of a new Lodge took place in 1797, the Editor thanks a correspondent for 
a lengthy report of the proceedings, but states that it is not usual to give publicity to 
more than the most meagre outline of matters relating to Freemasonry." (!) 

In the Norwich Gazette (afterwards the Norfolk Ghronicle)^ July 18th, 1761 
(No. 1) the following advertisement appears : — 

" The Brethren of the most Antient and Honourable Order of Gregorians are 
desired to meet on Thursday the 30'^ of July at Sandling's Ferry, by ten o'clock in the 
forenoon, and then proceed to Postwick Grove, to hold the anniversary venison Feast. 

By order of the Grand 

Andrew Vipond, Sec. 
N.B. The Brethren are desired to take Tickets." 

Noriaich Gazette, August Ist. 

"On Thui'sday last the Chapter of the Antient and Honourable Order of 
Gregorians attended by a band of music, in barges and boats, made a 
joyous appearance on the water, and went in procession to Postwick Grove, 
where they held their annual venison feast. After dinner his Majesty's 

* Lane's Records agrées with this. The Lodge wns held at the " Gregoriaq AtW9 " tiH 1861, 
then l'çmoved. It W4S the Lodge of Si, James, now No. 765, 

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98 Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge, 

health was drank, accompanicd with a discharge of cannon, as were those 
of the Royal Family. The whole was conducted with deceucj and order, 
and the evening concladed with great harmony."* 

Norwîch Gazette, January 16th, 1762. 

" By the Norwich Company of Comedians, 
By Désire of the Most Antient and • 
Honorable Order of Gregorians 
At the Théâtre in Yarmouth on 
Monday January 18*^ will be 
Performed a Play called 
Measnre for Measure 
written by Shakespear." [(fec, <fec.] 

Norwich Gazette^ January 23rd, 1762. 

" Norwich, January 18th, 1762. 

" The Brethren of the Antient and Honourable Order of GREGORIANS, 

are desired to meet at the Chapter Room, on Wednesday the 3"* Day of 

Febrnary next, at one o'clock in the afternoon, for the Choice of officers 

for the ensuing year, and upon other spécial affairs. 

By Order of the Grand, 

Andrew Vipond, Sec. 

N.B. Dinner to be on the Table precisely at Two." 

Norwich Gazette, February 13th, 17G2. 

" We, the poor confined Prisoners in the City Gaol, return thanks to the 
Honourable Society of Gregorians, for eight Stone five Pound of Boef, 
twenty-four Groat Loaves, sixteen shillings and sixpence worth of Béer, 
and Twelve Shillings in Money ; which was carefully distributed by the 
Governor to our great relief, being 24 in Number. 
N.B. We had both Roast, Boiled and Baked." 

Norwich Gazette, February 27th, 1762. 

" At the Concert Hall near the Assembly House. [àc] a Concert of Music 
[&c] (By Désire of the Antient and Honourable Order of Gregorians) \ 
[<fec., &c.] ^ 

N.B. The Brethren are desired to meet at the Chapter-room, at four , 
o'clock, in order to go in procession to the Concert-hall." 

Norwich Gazette, July Slst, 1762. 

The Annual Venison feast of Gregorians was held on the préviens 
Thursday. ** At night the brethren proceeded to the Chapter room, at the 
White Swan, where they concluded the evening with the greatest 

Norwich Gazette, July 28th, 1764. 

" On Thursday last the antient and honourable Order of Gregorians held 
their annual venison-feast at Bramerton Hills. — Tho appearance on the 
water was highly agreeable, the day was spent in a chearfulness and 
unanimity peculiar to that .society ; and the evening was concluded at the 
Chapter-room, where many loyal and national healths were drank with 
great joy and décorum." 

Digitized by 


Ifotes on the Society of Gregorians, 9Ô 

Norwich Gazette^ August 4th, 1764, a late advertisement. 

** On Thursday last the Cliapter of the Antient and Honourable Order of 
Gregorians, attended by a band of music in barges and boats made a 
joyous appearance on the water, and went in procession to Postwick 
Grove, where they held their annaal venison feast. After dinner his 
Majesty's heaith was drank, aocompanied with a discharge of cannon, as 
were those of the Royal Family. The whole was condacted with decency 
and order, and the evening concînded with great harmony." 
[Postwick Grove is an error, the meeting was arranged ai Bramerton Hills ; 
see the previous advertisement.] 

" You gentlemen Gregs, 
Ye unmannerJy prigs, 
Who for years past hâve taken 
Your cabbage and bacon 
In my Grove, withont leave : 
YouVe no right, I conceive, 
Nor shall you corne there, 
At least for this year, 
Without full satisfaction ; 
Or l'il bring my action, 
For yonr nonsense and fun, 
And the damage you've done, 
By tumbling your lasses 
In my corn-fields & grasses : 
Therefore take this for warning ; 
^ 'Gainst next Thursday morning ; 

At Postwick 1*11 hâve no more swilling & swigging, 
Or the law shall at once put a stop to your grcgging. 

Postwick, July 18, 1764." 

In the General History of the County of Norfolk published by John Stacy 
at Norwich in 1829, is the following: — ^^ Posimick — Four miles, Ail Saints, p. 254. 
This town is situate ou the banks of the Yare. Hère is a pleasant and shady grove, 
where in the month of July the society of the Gregorians held their aunual venison 
dinner ; they usually assembled at Sandlin's ferry, and went down the river in barges 
and wherries, with music, and colours flying. This was contînued till 1764, when oue 
of the farmers at Postwick, thinking himself or his lands injured, wantonly put an 
end to the custom : after which time the venison feast was held at the Chapter-room 
j at the White Swan, St. Peter's, but the Society was finally dissolved in 1806." 

In the Norfolk and Norwich Bemembrancer, published at Norwich in 1822, 
p. 19, is the following : 
I 1764, The annual venison dinner of the Gregorian Society, at Postwick Grove, 

^ discontinued. 

Norfolk Chronïcle, May 6th, 1797. 

" Visit of H.R.H. Prince William of Gloucester. 

On Tuesday the Prince was initiated into the ancient and honourable 

Order of Gregorians, at their Chapter-room in this city ; at the same time 

his two Aide-de-Camps and Brigade- Major, with seven other gentlemen, 

were admitted into the same society. After a most excellent dinner, the 

Digitized by 


lOÔ fransadwns of the Quatuor Ûoronaii Lodge, 

healths of his Majestj, the Dake of York and the Army, Lord Bridport 
and the Navy, and that of his Royal Hi^huess were drunk with 
enthnsiasm. The Prince not only entered into the spirit of the Chapter, 
which was most numerously attended, but contributed greatly to render 
it " the feast of reason and the ilow of soûl." He expressed great satis- 
faction in becoming a brother, regretted ezceedingly that his engagements 
woald 80 soon oblige hini to leave a city he should ever révère, for its 
loyalty to its King, its attachment to the Constitution, and its 
distinguished hospitality ; the marked attentions he h ad experienced in 
this city, neither time or circumstance could ever efface. He then gave 
the Archduke Charles of Austria, of whom, from personal acquaintance, 
he spoke in terms of the highest praise. * But while we are thus toasting 
foreign Gênerais, let us not be nnmindful,' said the Prince, 'of our own 
gallant Admirais.* He then gave Sir John Jervis, who, he was happy to 
inform his brethren, was at that time blocking np the Spanish fleet in 
Cadiz ; this toast, the health of Admirai Nelson, the Norfolk hero, and 
several other local ones, were drunk with infinité glee. Almost every 
toast was accompanied with an appropriate song, which added much to 
the conviviality of the day." 

Norfolk Chronïcle, August 12th, 1797. 

" Return Visit of the Prince." 
[Arrived Aug. 8th. Reviewed local troops on the lOth. ToUcwing the 

référence to the parade, this account is given of the Gregorian 

** On his return his R.H. attended a chapter of the ancient and honourable 
order of Gregorians. After a most sumptuous dinner, the Prince honoured 
the Society by accepting the office of Grand, and took the chair amidst 
the reiterated applauses of the numerous brethren. The Prince appointed 
Capt. Smith, of Topcroft, his deputy, and the other officers were elected 
for the ensning year. Lord Charles Spencer, Colonel of the Oxford 
Militia, Colonel Bâtes, of the Inniskillings, Capt. Gardner, son of the 
brave Admirai, and several other gentlemen were admitted into the 
Society, increasing both in its numbers and its respectability. The day, 
the proudest in the annals of the Society, was marked with its leading 
features, loyalty, sentiment, and conviviality, which the présence and 
vivacity of their illustrions Grand carried to an acmé, which those who 
were présent will never cease to remember. His R.H. more than once 
repeated his sincère wishes for the prosperity of the Order, and of the 
city at large, from the inhabitants of which he had received attentions 
that were indelibly engraved on his heart. — The Prince left Norwich 

Norfolk Chronicle, December 9th, 1797. 

" The meeting of the Gregorians on Monday last was numerously attended. 
After dinner, his Royal Highness Prince William of Gloucester, Grand of 
the Order, expressed his satisfaction that his military duty permitted him 
to re-visit a city where he had received so many flattering mai^ks of 
attention, and particularly from the Society over which he had the 
honour to préside. The conviviality of the day was mnch heightened by 

Digitized by 


Ifotes on the Society qf Gregorians. lOl 

tlie manj loyal sentiments delivered from tbe chair, and amongst several 
appropriate songs the following was given by one of the officers of the 
Norwich Military Association. 

"The Invasion, or the British War Song." 
*' Whîlst Happy in onr Native Land," etc. 

Bro. le Strange tells me that Prince Frederick Duleep Singh, who is now 
writing a book on the portraits existing in Norfolk Country Houses, has found a 
portrait of William Frederick, second Duke of Gloucester (by Mary, Lady Waldegrave) 
born in 1776, in which he is represented wearing somo regalia very like those in 
Sir Edward Astley*s portrait. The picture represents him at about the âge of twenty 
years, and was no doubt painted soon after he was elected " Grand " of the Norwich 

Norfolk Chronïcle, lOth January, 1801. 

** The Brethren of the most Ancient and Honourable Order of Gregorians, 

belonging to the White Swan Chapter in Norwich are desired to meet 

at their Chapter Room on Thni-sday the 15th daj of January 1801. 

By order of the Grand. 

Tarner, Secretary. 
Dinner on the table at 4 o'clock." 

Norfolk Ghronicle, 25th Julj, 1801. 

" The Brethren of the Most Ancient and Honourable Order of Gregorians, 

belonging to the White Swan Chapter in Norwich are desired to meet at 

their Chapter room on monday the 27^** day of July, 1801, being the 

Anniversary Venison feast, and the Choice of OflBcers for the ensuing 


By Order of the Grand. 

Dinner on the table precisely at four o'clook." 

No further notices appear in 1801, but the advertisement is repeated on the 2nd 
of January, 1802, "by Order of J. Frère Esq'. Grand.'* 

In July, 1802, there appears to hâve been no meeting, probably on account of the 
General Election. 

In 1803, there seems to be no advertisement. 

21st July, 1804, a similar advertisement, referring to the Venison Feast and the 
Choice of Officers. 

20th July, 1805, a similar advertisement, ** J. Patteson, Esq., M.P., in the Chair. 

The Society ended in 1806. 

In Palmer's Perlustratïon of Yarmouth, etc., 1872-1875, vol. iij., p. 138, note, is the 
following interesting statement : — 

" Nelson also addressed a letter from Tarmouth Roads to Mr. Pillans, * Grand- 
master of the Ancient Order of Gregorians,* at Norwich, with thanks for his élection 
into that Society." 

So far as I hâve been able to discover, there is no record known of the early 
usages of the Society. 

In the Lodge Library is a MS., presented by the late Bro. Woodford to Bro. R. F. 
Gould, from whom it passed into the possession of the Lodge. The watermark in the 
paper on which it is written, is 1798, and it is in the handwriting of the Rev. Richard 
Munkhouse, D.D. The opening lines describe the reason of its production : " We, the 

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102 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Grand Commititee of the most Ancient and Honoarable Order of Gregorians, being 
appointed for the express purpose of revising, re-modelliDg, and re-eoacting the 
Constitutional Laws of Gregorism, do enacn and déclare the following to be the 
Fundamental and Constitutional Laws of our Order." Under thèse circumstances we 
can hardlj expect to find in it more tlian a bare oatline of the original usages. From 
this MS. I hâve taken the following notes : — 

The title at this date was The Most Ancient and Honorable Order of Gregorians ; 
and the System was called Gregorism. 

The Fandamental and Constitutional Laws of the Order express the objects to be 
the establishment and permanent continuauce of Unitj in Society, and Christian 
Charity, and.a Gregrorian must be a man of honoar, sound morals and trne loyalty. 

The Officers were The Grand of the Order, who was the Grand of the oldest 
Chapter known and existing : but he had no greater authority in his own Chapter, 
than that of other Grands in their respective Chapters. 

The Prelate of the Order was the next in rank to the Grand of the Order. 
The Grand Secretary of the Order took the next place. 

The Oi'der was ruled by a Grand Committee which cousisted of not less than 
fifteen members, and was composed of the following, who were the Constitutional 

The Grand of the Order for the time beiug. 

The Prelate of the Order. 

The Grand Secretary of the Order. 

The several Grands 

The several Frelates 

The several Grand Secretaries 

The several Pro Grands 

The several Deputy Grands 

The several Secretaries 

for the time being 

, of each Chapter 

in the Kingdom. 

It will be noticed that there were no Grand Wardens of the Order, but that two 
other Officers, the Prelate of the Order, and the Grand Secretary of the Order, occupied 
the offices immediately following the Gi'and of the Order 

Meetings of the Grand Committee were held at the time and place ordered by 
the Grand of tho Order at the instance of any particular Chapter. 

The exclusive duty of this Committee was to make Laws, and to superintend 
the conduct and interests of the Society at large. 

The Grand of the Order was empowered to give a casting vote when requii^ed. 


AU Charters and Deputations for the establishment of New Chapters were 
granted by the Grand of the Order with the consent of the Grand Chapter of the Order, 
which consisted of ail the Officers and Brethren. 

The Chapter was to appoint on each Anniversary the Grand, Wardens and 
Committee Men, by confirming those who had passed a ballot in the Committee : 
or by nominating such Brethren as were eligible, and who on such nominations had 
passed a favourable ballot in the Committee, to £111 those offices. 

To confirm or reject the Bye-Laws proposed and the Orders and Résolutions 
made by the Chapter Committee. 

To consider and décide about objects of charity. 

Digitized by 


Xotes nn the Soêiefy of Gregonans. 103 

The Chapter Committee was to consist of not less than five officers and was 
composed of the Prelate, the Grand Secretary, the Pro Grands, Deputy Grands, and 
the other officers of each Chapter for the time being. The senior Pro- Grand alwajs 

The daty of the Committee was to form Bye-Laws with regard to proposing, 
ballotting for and initiating new Members, the rules of the ballot, the snm to be paid 
to the Chapter Fond on each Initiation, the «proportions in which the Fund was to be 
disposed of for the purposes of Initiation, Fines and Penalties, Pass Acconnts, arrange 
for the hours of meeting, and other matters for the " local benefit " of the Chapter, and 
most condncive to the ends of the Institution. 

On the moming of the Anniversary the Committee was to nominate and ballot 
for (but not appoint) The Grand, Wardens, and Committee Men, to serve the Chapter 
for the ensuing year. 


The Grand was to préside at ail Chapters : he was the Treasnrer of the 
Chapter, and acconntable for the Fands. 

Xo Brother was eligible to be appointed Grand who had not served the office of 
Committee Man, and the offices of Senior and Junior Warden. 

The Grand was ballotted for and elected in the Committee and if approved by 
the Chapter was installed into his office (after the business of the Chapter on the 
Anniversary) by his Predecessor investing him with the Medal and resigning the Chair 
to him. 

He appointed his own Deputy Grand ând Secretary. 

The Deputy Grand assisted the Grand, and supplied his place in his absence. 
The Post of the Deputy Grand was at the lower end of the Table both in Committee and 

The Prelate was nominated and ballotted for in a Committee and appointed by 
the Chapter for life, but he might resîgn at pleasure. His duty was to exhort the 
Brethren on every anniversary to voluntary libéral contributions to the Fund of the 
Chapter. His Post was on the Left Hand of the Chair both in Committees and 

The Grand Secretary was nominated and ballotted for in a Committee, and 
appointed by the Chapter : he hcld office for life, with the power of resigning at 
pleasure. His duty was to superintend the Secretary in the exécution of his office, and 
to assist and advise the Grand and his officers. His Post was on the Right Hand of the 
chair in ail Committees and Chapters, and at the lower end of the Table in the absence 
of the Grand in Committees, or his Deputy in Chapters. 

The Secretary kept ail the accounts of the chapter, entered the Resolutions and 
Orders of the Committee and read them to the succeeding chapter : kept* a list of the 
members, sent ont the notices of ail meetings : and had custody of the regalia and books. 
His Post was on the Right Hand of the Grand Secretary. 

The Pro Grands. The Senior Pro Grand présent presided in chapters in the 
absence of the Grand and his Deputy. 

The Senior and Junior Wardens. None were eligible to the office of Warden 
who had not been of the seven Committee Men. Their exclusive duty was to secure 
the Committee and Chapter Rooms against intrusion, for which purposes the Sergeant 
of Arms was their Deputy. They invested the Secretary, Wardens and Committee 
Men with their proper Medals on the Anniversary. 

Digitized by 


104 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge 

The Post of the Senior Wardeu was on the ^^^^^ of the chair at the centre of 
the table. 

The Post of the Junior Warden was opposite. 

The Seven Oommittee Men. There were two Senior and five Junior Committee 
Men. They superintended the ballot, the duty falling on the juniors présent. 

The Sergeant-at-Arms was initiated without the payment of fées. His duty 
was to guard the passes of the Chapter Room that no strangers approached save such as 
were prepared formally to enter as candidates for Gregorism, and to be otherwise 
aasisting as the convenience of Committees or Chapters might require. 


There were fées for Initiation. At the Anniversary on which the Grand 
passed ont of office he was to ** collect from the Bretbren individually their voluntary 
g^fts towards the support and increase of the Fund." 

Every Brother on his marriage paid one guinea. 

There were also fines and penalties. 

The Fund of the Chapter could not be appropriated to other purposes than 
such as were charitable; save for the purchase of medals, books and necessaries 
for the use of the Chapter. 

The Fund was not to be reduced below the sum of Twenty Ponnds, without 
the spécial order of the Committee consisting at least of nine Members, and also of a 
Chapter of at least fifteen Members. No part of the Fund could be disposed of 
without the consent of a Committee and Chapter. 

There were strict régulations about the grants of money to charitable uses. 

Thèse Constitutional Laws, as they are called, are followed in the . MS. by the 
" Bye-Laws calculated for the Régulation of the Wakefîeld Chapter of Ancient and 
Honourable Gregorians." 

From thèse more light is thrown on the usual customs of the order, if it may be 
concluded that the actions of the Wakefîeld Chapter were fairly in accordance with 
those of other Chapters. 

A candidate was nominated and seconded at one Chapter and ballotted for at 
the Chapter immediately following, and in case of a favourable ballot he was bronght 
forward for initiation as soon as convenient, but any candidate not residing in the town, 
might be nominated, seconded, ballotted for and initiated at the same Chapter. 

It was necessary that ten Members shoald be présent at a ballot, and the following 
scale was arranged : — 

Two négatives when the Chapter consisted of ten Members, 

Three „ „ „ „ morethan ten and less than twenty, 

Four „ „ „ „ twenty and less than thirty, 

and so upwards in the same proportion, excluded the candidate. 

Each Brother was to pay to the Fund one guinea at his Initiation, and two 
shillings and sixpence to the Sergeant-at-Arms. 

If a successful candidate neglected to come forward for Initiation his proposer 
was fined ten shillings and sixpence. This was returned if the candidate offered himself 
for Initiation at the next subséquent Chapter. 

Part of the Funds might be expended in purchasing Medals for such Brethren as 
passed the chair with the thanks of the Anniversary Chapter in which the office 
expired. Each Medal was not to be of greater coat than one guinea. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


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>',-^-^ s > 





Engravkd Summons of THE Wakefield Chapter of Gregorians. 
(From the original in the collection of Bro. William Watson.) 

Digitized by 


Xntes on the Society of Greqorians. 105 

A.lso in parnhasîug such othcr Medals as the Chapter might think proper to 
bestow in grateful acknowledgement for extraordinary services, so that the expense 
did not exceed two guineas. 

The Sergeanl-at-Arms was paid fîve shillings for his attendance at the Anniversary 
Meeting, two shillings and sixpence at Qaarterly Meetings, and one shilling and six- 
pence at the Ëvening Meetings. 

The officers, from the Grand downwarda, were to be fined for non-attendance 
withont satisfactory excases in writing, or if they withdrew before the business of the 
Committee was over without leave of absence. 

The form of Initiation on the introduction of a new Member was to be repeated 
by rote by the officers officiating. In default each officer was fined 28. 6d. 

The Pro-Grands had their particnlar Medals in their own keeping, from which I 
suppose they were in a position equal to that of Past Master. 

Officers were fined if they did not wear their proper Medals in Committees and 

Stringent laws were made about the attendance of Members. 

Ail fines were collected by the Secretary and placed to the crédit of the Fund by 
the Grand. 


The Anniversary was always to be held on the Tharsday next foUowing St. John 
Baptists' Day (24^** Jane), unless that Festival fell on Thursday, in which case the 
Anniversary was to be held on that day. 

Notice of the Anniversary was to be thrice inserted in the Leeds IntelUç^encer 
préviens to the day. 

Other Chapters were to be held as appointed by the Committee. "The 
Committee on the day of Anniversary shall assemble at ten in the morning and open the 
Chapter, Divine Service to commence before twelve o*clock. The Chapter shall close 
at 7 p. m., when the Bill shall be called and the Brethren shall withdraw." 

There were to be four meetings in the year when the Brethren were to assemble 
in the morning. ** On qaarterly meetings the Committee shall assemble at one o'clock 
(unless particnlar business demand an earlier attendance). The Chapter shall open 
as soon as convenient, be closed at geven, and the Brethren (be) requested to withdraw." 

In addition to the Quarterly Meetings there were tobe as many Evening Chapters 
as were thought necessary. Ten days notice to be gîven by the Secretary of the 
Qaarterly Meetings, and seven days of the Evening Meetings and Spécial Committees. 
"On Evening Meetitigs the Chapter shall assemble at seven and be closed at eleven, 
when the Brethren shall wîthdraw." AH formai business was to be transacted before 
dinner at the Anniversary and Quarterly Meetings, and before supper at the Evening 

The only liquors allowed in the Chapter Room were Red Port, Sherry, Brandy, 
Rum and Geneva ; if any Member called for a more expensive liqaor he was to pay for it 
in addition to his quota of the bill. 

The Junior Committee Man, or in his absence the junior officer présent took 
account of the liquors brought into the Chapter Room. 

It was suggestedtbat the ordinary on Anniversary and Quarterly Meetings s h ould 
not e^ceçd 2s. 6d. Also that as many bottlçs of wine as therç were members présent 

Digitized by 


106 Transactions of the Qtiatuor Coronati Lodge. 

should be iutroduced, and that tliis qaantity should be diminislied in proportiou as 
the expeuse of beverage might otherwise be incroased by the int-roductiou of spirits or 
other liquora. 

At the Evening Meetings the ordinary was not to exceed Is. 6d., and no more 
than half the qaantity of liquor (as above) was allowed. 

The third stroke of the Grand's (or his representative's) hammer on the table 
was at ail tiraes to hâve the authority of calling to attention and order. 

No Political question might be debated, nor any subject whatever agitated dnring 
Committee and Chapter hours, which might be thought likely to produce unseemly 
warmth of argument, or occasion disseutions amongst the Brethren. 

It was also suggested that the old constitutional song (" Let Poets and 
Historians, Ac") should regularly be called for by the Grand (or his Deputy in his 
absence) on each Anniversary and Quarterly Meeting immediately after hononring the 
aeventh & last Constitutional Toast (t.e. The Prosperity of Gregorism ail over the 

The remaining songs might folio w at the discrétion of the Chair, and none but 
Gregorian songs were to be sung in Chapter. 

The first, sixth and seventh (i.e. 1, The King^ 6. Gregorians and their bamSy ^c.) 
were at ail times to be superlatively honoured. In ail instances the Wine rising to 
the centre of the Initiais W.C. was deemed high honour. It is probable that the 
letters W.C. (Wakefield Chapter) were engraved on the glasses. 

The Constitutional, and Bye Laws were to be read in f ull chapter at loast on every 
Anniversary, by the Grand, his Deputy, or the Grand Secretary. 

The suggestions are marked R.M. (Richard Munkhouse) the writer of the book. 


So far as can be judged, to become a Gregorian, or to be Initiated into Gregorism, 
consisted of one degree only : and of that ceremony as it was written down in or about 
the year 1798, by the Rev. Richard Munkhouse, D.D., some idea is presented in the MS. 
now in the Lodge Library. 

Every person desirous of becoming a Gregorian must at least be gênerai ly esteemed 
a man of honour, sound morals and tme Loyal ty. He had to be elected by a fair 
ballot, according to the discrétion of each Chapter, both as to the time of proposing the 
new Brother, the time of his being ballotted for, the nuniber requisite to elect or 
exclude, and the time of his Initiation. 

The candidate having been accepted on the ballot, and being présent, the Serjeant- 
at-Arms, whose duty it was to guard the passes to the Chapter Room, and was, there- 
fore, outside the door, allowed " such as are prepared formally to enter as Candidates 
for Gregorism." 

" The Candidate shall at the time appointed for his Initiation, be introduced 
" by the Brother officiatingin the Office of Junior Warden, who shall attend 
" with the sword of his office, & being come to the door of the Chapter 
" Room, shall announce to the Officers and Brethren the désire of the 
" Stranger to enter the Order, by three loud &> délibéra te raps at the door. 
** Upon this the Grand, Officers, <fe Brethren in the Chapter Room shall 
" instantly rise, et the Grand shall express the consent of the Society to 
" admit the Stranger- to the privilèges of the Order by three loud & 
" deliberate raps on the Table. The door sh[a]ll then be opened, & the 

Digitized by 


Notes on ihe Society of Oregorians. 107 

*' StraDger admitfced, foUowing the Brother officiating as Jnn^ Warden, 
" who sliall attend on the left, whilst the brother officiating as Sen' 
" Warden shall stand on the Right Hand; when the Grand shall demand 
** of such Stranger — whether it be of his own free will & accord that he 
" présents himself a Candidate for Gregorism. This question being 
" answered in the affirmative, the Jan^ Warden shall put into the Right 
'* Hand of the Stranger the Sword, & request him to repeat the following 
" words after the Sen'. Warden. 

" I. A. B. &c. 

[I may mention that perhaps it is a little suggestive to find on the engraved 
Hummons of the Wakefield Chapter the sword only there a représentative sjmbol rest- 
ing on the closed Bible.] 

*' Then the Brother îîlect [it must be noticed that after the ob. he became 
*' a Brother], in token of snbmission shall deliver the sword of the Order 
*• to the Grand, who shall direct him to attend to the admonition of the 
" Grand Secretary, if présent, or to the Brother officiating as Deputy 
" Secretary, who shall address him in the following terms — 
" Sir ; You hâve &c. 

" After this, the Grand shall require him to be particularly attentive 
'* to the Instruction of the Prelate ; or in his absence, of the Brother 
" officiating as Deputy Grand, who shall say ; 

. " Sir ; To distinguish &c. 

'* The Sigu Manual being given by the Grand, he shall give in charge to 
" the New Brother, that — in ail cases (for fear of discoverj) he sh^. chuse 
" rather to receive than give the Sign. Then the Grand shall finally 
" accost him in thèse Words, 

" Brother &c. In ail cases &c." 


One of the duties of the Grand on his élection was to invest the two Officers (hia 
own Deputy Grand, and Grand Secretary) chosen by him, with their proper Me dais. 

To see that ail the Officers wear their respective Medals in Committees and 
dnring Chapter honrs. 

As stated above, the Secretary, Wardens and Committee Men were invested with 
their proper Medals on the Anniversary by the Wardens. 

The Regalia of the Order is mentioned in the rule about funerals, where it is 
directed that on the death of a Brother, the Brethren and officers in particular of the 
Chapter to which he belonged were to assemble in the Chapter Room, and thence 
proceed to attend the Corpse to the Grave (provided it be agreeable to the friends of 
the deceased) in the Regalia of the Order. 

It is perhaps strange that few of thèse Medals appear to hâve survived, but as a 
fact we do not know exactly what form they took. 

In the ceremony, it is clear that the Sword, was the badge of the Junior Warden, 
who bas " to attend with the Sword of his office." Some at least of the simple jewels 
representing a sword, now attributed to Free Masonry, may just as well bave been 
Medals of Gregoiîau Chapters. 

Digitized by 


l08 transactions of tke Quatuor Coronati Loâgê, 

Sorae very interesting partie alars are found in a letter from the late Mr. Edward 
Hawkins, then keeper of the Antiquities at the British Muséum, printed in Notes and 
Querïes (2nd Séries, vj., 1858, p. 273). He writes of the Gregorians, 

" Their arms are azuré, a fess wavy, between in chief, a dove volant ; in base, 
two snakes entwined (caduceus fashion). Crest, Time, with his hour-gla^s and 
Scythe. Supporters, a wivern, and a dove, with the olive branch. Motto, in Hebrew 
characters, " Shalom," i.e. Peace. I hâve three différent medals or badges of the 
Society, probably belonging to différent chapters. One, diameter two inches, bas the 
arms, supporters, and motto, but not the crest. The Serpent of Eternity forms à 
border. Another, about the same size, bas the crest, but not the serpent. The third 
bas the arms, supporters, crest, and motto. On the broad rim is PONTE FRAOT, 
probably the place where the chapter existed, and on a band below bas been some- 
thing, now purposely obliterated, probably the name of the member to whom the badge 
belonged. On the reverse is a philosopher seated, pointing with one hand to the sun, 
which occupies the whole field, and with the other to a scroll lying on a globe, and 
ex'plaining something to three youths who stand before him. Behind him is a pyramid. 
On the rim of the mcdal above are some signs of the zodiac, and below the word 
FUIMUS. I bave also a large state sword ; the boss of the handle bas on each side 
the Serpent of Eternity. On the handle, two figures of Time like the crest. The guard 
is composed of two serpents or wingless dragons. The sheath is of velvet, richly 
decorated with embossed gilt bands, whereon appears the hour-glass. On one side is 
the arms of the society, on the other the folio wing inscription : * William Smith, Firsfc 
Vice-Grand of Cheap Side Chapter, 1736.'" 

Brother le Sfcrange ttjUs me that on the original painting by Sir Benjamin West, 
of Sir Edward Astley, Bart., the colour of the ribbon to which his jewel is suspended is 
red : it will be noticed also that it bears, indistinctly, the sitting figure of a philosopher, 
as described above, or of a woman. 

XJpon the engraved summons in Brother Watson's collection, and the Engraved 
list of Chapters in the G ardner collection, are the same symbols as found on the Medals. 
The arms, crest and motto appear on the latter, where at the feet of the dove supporter 
is the globe, the entwined serpents are in the top corners. 

On the Wakefield summons, the word Shâlôm in Hebrew letters is found on the 
leaves of the olive branch carried in the beak of the dove ; Father Time, pointing to the 
rising sun, is balanced by the pyramid on the other side. The sun is overshadowed by 
an arc containing five signs of the Zodiac ; the sword and Bible are represented, and 
below is the Terrestiial globe over which is thrown a scroll bearing the words 

This symbol may simply indicate that the Wakefield Chapter was regularly 
constituted, but I am inclined to think from the fact that the same arrangement 
is found upon the Medal, it refers to a legendary history, of which no record seems to 
bave survived. This idea seems to be supported by the use of two forms of the date. 

I must leave the explanation of the sun rising beneath the five signs of the 
Zodiac to our astronomical or astrological Brethren. 

The date is expressed in two forms, according to the somewhat absurd fancy of 
the time, a.d. 18 . . , is made to correspond with A. g., or the year of the Society of 
Gregorians (not the Gregorian year) 52 ... ; If the usual system is adopted, of 
deducting the a.d. from the A.G., the différence is 3400. Of course, neither of the dates 
is complète, and it is only by the discovery of a copy of the Summons with the other 
figures filled in, that the supposed date of the beginning of Gregoriam can be recovered, 

Digitized by 


ïfotes on the Society of Oregorians, l0& 


The Grand annouuced the Constitutional Toasts, which he desired should be 
honoured at each Chapter. 

The tollowing are the Constitutional Toasts which were to be honoured at 
table in ail Chapters at the discrétion of the Chairman : — 

1. The'King, Familj, and Friends. 

2. The Grand of the Order. 

3. The Grand Secretary of the Order. 

4. The Prelate & Pro- Grands. 

5. Absent Brethren. 

6. Gregorians, & their barns, Those that 

lie in Gregorian's arms, & those that wou'd do. 

7. Prosperity to Gregorism ail over the world. 

In one of the suggestions, Bro. Gledhill is mentioned. Jonathan Gledhill was 
an Inn Keeper. 

When many years ago I first began to collect notes for this paper, Bro. William 
Watson, of Leeds, very kindly lent me the book of Members of the Wakefîeld Chapter 
of Gregorians. 

It is much to be regretted that the custom was to keep the Book of Minutes 
separate from the List of Memberd. Had it been otherwise they would probably hâve 
been found in one of the two MS. now exhibited. Bro. Watson*s MS. volume supplies 
an iuteresting list of the Members belonging to the Wakefîeld Chapter. 

From it we also learn that the mother Chapter of tho Wakefîeld Chapter was 
held at the neighbouring Town of Pont^fract. The prime movers in the fou n dation 
of the Wakefîeld Chapter were four Members of the Pontefract Chapter, two of them 
being the Rev. Richard Munkhoase, D.D., and Richard Linnecar, both well-known 

Six other Wakefîeld men were initiated at Pontefract on the 8th of June, 1796, 
preparatory to the institution of the Wakefîeld Chapter, which took place ou the 24rth 
of June, 1796. 

The last date of initiation, given in the list is 18Q5, with some others without a 
date : and the death of one member is entered as having taken place in the year 1811, 
so perhaps we may suppose that this Chapter was in existence after that date. 

In Bro. William Watson's collection is also the copy of an engraved summons 
already referred to, calling the members of the ancien t and honourable society together 
for the qaarterly meetings, at the Strafford's Ai'ms in Wakefîeld. It will be noticed 
that the word Society is used instead of Order. 

Digitized by 




Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 
The foUowin^ is the f uU texfc of the MS. in the possession of the Lodge : — 


The Grand Committee of the most Ancient & Honourable Order 
of Gregoriaus, being appoiuted for the express purpose of 
revising, remodelling, & re-enacting, the Constitutional Laws 
of Gregorism, do enact, & déclare, the foUowing to be the 
f undamental & constitutional Laws of our Order. 

First That the Objects of oar Order are the establishment, and 

permanent continnance of Unity in Society, à Christian 
Charity : 

For the attainment of which oar Predecessors in their 
prudence & wisdom judged the exclusion of improper persons 

(p. 2) primarily & absolu tely necessary : And from a persuasion that to 

make a solemn impression on the minds of persons disposed to those 
praise-worthy ends by an appeal to their honour as men, & to 
their memory as brethren, wou'd in the establishment of forms 
& cérémonies greatly further the purposes of the Institution, they 
did enact, & We with due révérence do confirm & déclare — that 

Second Every person désirons of becoming a Gregorian sliall 

at least be generally esteemed a man of honour, sound morals, 
& true Loyalty : That he shall be elected by a fair ballot, 
according to the discrétion of each Chapter, both as to the time 
of proposing a new Brother, the time of his being ballotted 
for, the number requisite to elect & exclnde, and the time 
of his Initiation. That 

(p. 3) Fann Any person, having been duly elected shall, at the time 

of Initiation appointed for his Initiation, be introduced by the Brother officiating 
in the Office of Junior Warden, who shall attend with the Sword 
of his Office, & being come to the door of the Chapter Room, shall 
announce to the Officers and Brethren the désire of the Stranger 
to enter the Order by three loud & deliberate raps at the door. 

Upon this the Grand, Officers, & Brethren in the Chapter Room 
shall instantly rise, & the Grand shall express the cousent of the 
Society to admit the Stranger to the privilèges of the Order by 
Three loud & deliberate raps on the Table. The door sh^^ 
then l^e opened, & the Stranger admitted, following the Brother 
officiating as Jun"^ Warden ; who shall attend on the Left, 
whilst the Brother officiating as Sen^ Warden shall stand 
on the Right Hand ; when the Grand shall demand of 
(p. 4) such Stranger — Whether it be of his own free will & accord that 

he présents himself a Candidate for Gregorism. This question 
being answered in the affirmative, the Jun' Warden shall 
put into the Right Hand of the Stranger the Sword, & request 
him to repeat the following words after the Sen^ Warden. 

Digitized by 


Notes on (ho Society of Oregorians. 


Theii the Bi-other Eleet, in token of subniissîon, sliall deliver 
tlie Sword of the Order to the Grand, who shall direct him 
to attend the admonition of tho Grand Seeretary, if présent, 
or to the Brother oflRciating as Deputj Secretary, who shall 
address him in the following terms — 

"SiV; Youhave^c' 

After this the Grand shall require him to be particularly 

attentive to the Instructions of the Prélat e ; or, in his 

(p. 5) absence, of the Brother ofiBciating as Depnty Grand, who 

shall say ; 

" Sir ; To distïngmsh ^c " 

The Sign Manual being given by the Grand, he shall give 

in charge to the New Brother that — in ail thèse cases (for fear 

of discovery) he sh^ chuse rather to receive than give the 

Sign. Then the Grand shall final ly accost him in thèse 


" Brother, JJ'c." In ail cases &c. 

For the sake of Order, & the better to efEect Ihe enacting, & 
carrying into exécution the Laws & Régulations of Gregorism, 
& for the more bénéficiai & regnlar attainment of the gênerai 
objects of the Institution, our Predecessors appointed, & We do, 
from having enjoyed the benefits arising from their fore- 
sight & prudent régulations, raost heartily déclare A confirm 
the Oonstitutional Offices of the Order to be 

(p. 6) 

Offices, ^x. 

The Grand Commit tee ; w<=^ sh^^ consist of the Grand 
of the Order for the time being ; the Prelate & Grand- 
Secretary of the Order, & the several Grands for the time 
being : — the several Prelates & Grand Secretaries ; the 
several Pro-Grands ; the several Deputy Grands, & 
the several Secretaries for the time beicg of each Chap- 
ter in the Kingdom. This Grand Committee shall 
meet, or otherwise communicate, on réquisition, afc the time 
& place, & in the manner to be appointed by the Grand of the 
Order at the instance of any particular Chapter ; w^^ Chapter 
is permitted, in case the Grand of the Order shall refuse to 
comply with such réquisition, to convene, or communicate 
(p. 7) with such Grand Committee by their Grand, or Grand- 

Secretary. The exclusive duty of this Committee is to make 
Laws, & to superintend the conduct & interests of the Society 
at large. The resolutions & acts of the Grand Committee, w*'* 
shall be taken & determined by the majority attending or acting, 
shall hâve relation to the gênerai interests of the Order, & 
f™ them there is not, nor can be, any appeal ; their mea- 
sures being the Acts of, & binding on ail Gregorians in this 
Kingdom. The Grand Comittee shall not consist of 
less than fifteen Members. 

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112 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

2d The Grand of the Order ; Who is the Grand of the 

oldest Chapter known & existing, and who — as such — has the 
sole privilège, with the consent of the Grand Chapter of the 
Order, to grant Charters & Deputations for the Estabiish- 
(p. 8) ment of New Chapters. He présides in ail Grand Committees 

w'^^ he may attend, and is empowered to give a castiiig 
vote, where the numbers on each side of a question are 
equal. But his Anthoritj in his own Chapter is not 
greater than that of other Grands in their respective Chap- 

3d The Prelate of the Order: — He takes precedence 

after the Grand of the Order. 

éth The Grand Secretary of the Order: — He takes 

the next place in precedence. 

5th The Chapter Committee, w"^** shall consist of the Grand 

of each Chapter for the time being ; The Prelate ; The Grand 
Secretary ; The Pro-Grands ; Deputy Grand, & the other 

(p. 9) OflScers of each Chapter for the time being. In this Comittee, 

the Sen' Pro-Grand always présides ; and the business & 
duty of this Body are First — To form such Bye Laws for 
the Government of the Chapter as in their judgeraent shall best 
promote the good ends of the Institution, provided the same 
are not répugnant to the Constitntional Laws of Gregorism : 
The principal points for their attention in the formation 
of such Laws are — The time of proposing, ballotting for, 
& initiâting New Members : — The number necessary to ex- 
clude a proposed Member : — The sum to be paid to the Chap- 
ter Fund on each Initiation : — The proportion in w*^^' the 
Fund is to be disposed of for the purposes of the Institution : — 

The imposing of fines, or penalties for breach, or neglect, 
of any Law, or Resolution : — The hours of meeting and 

(p. 10) dissolving in Committees & Chapters: — The Books of the Laws, 

Proceedings, & Accounts of the Chapter ; — The mode of keeping 
them ; — The periods for auditing Accounts, if to be balanced 
oftener than once a year: — The mode of honouring at the 
Table the Constitntional Toasts of Gregorism ; and gene- 
rally to form such Bye Laws as are for the local benefit 
of the Chapter, & likely to be most conducive to the ends of 
the Institution. And— Secondly — The Chap- 
ter Committee are, on the morning of every Anniversary, 
to nominate & ballot for (but not to appoint) the Grand, 
Wardens, & Committee Men to serve the Chapter for the 
ensuing year : — To nominate & ballot for Officers to fill 
up any vacant Offices in conséquence of Death, résignation, 
or dégradation ; (except the Offices of Prelate & Grand- 
Secretary, w*^^ can only be supplied by a vote of the 

Digitized by 


Notes on the Society of Oregorîans. 113 

(p. 11) Chapter :) To suspend OflScers for sufficient cause till the 

judofement of the Chapter can be taken : — To audit the accounts 

of the Grand : — To receive pétitions ; — to hear, détermine, 

& redress grievauces, & to form such resolutions Sd make 

such Orders, as shall be thought by them requis îte to answer 

the exigences, & local cire ums tan ces of the Chapter, pro- 

vided always the same be not répugnant, or injurions to 

the Constitution al Laws & interests oî Gregorîsm. 

The mode of proceeding in this, as in the other Coramittee, 

is for the Chairman to propose the person or matter for 

considération :-— To take (if a ballot be called for) the 

décision bj the majority, He himself having a casting 

vote, where the ballot is equal. The Chapter Room 

Committee shall not consist of les s than ûve Offîcers. 

(p. 12) 

6th The Chapter : — This consists of ail the Officers & 

Brethren ; the business of vr^^ is to appoint on each anni- 
versary the Grand, Wardens, & Committee Men, by con- 
firming those who bave passed a ballot in the Committee, 
or by nominating such Brethren as are eligible, aud who 
shall on such nomination pass a favorable ballot in the 
Committee, to fill those offices : — To confirm, or reject 
the Bye Laws proposed, <fc the Orders à Resolutions made 
by the Chapter Committee. In the Chapter the Candi- 
dates for Gregorism are to be proposed, ballotted for, & 
initiated : — Objects of Charity are hère to be proposed, 
& allowed or ref nsed Relief. The proceeding of the Chap- 
ter is by the Grand proposing the matter for judgement, 
'w*''^ is supported by a shew of hands. Any Brother may 
(p. 13) move an amendment to be orderly debated, or may require 

a ballot ^^ the question, w«^ shall in no wise be refused. ' 

The Grand & Officera hâve no niore than single votes in the 
Chapter ; and if there be not a majority for the question 
it is of course negatived, 

7th The Grand of the Chapter. No Brother is eligible to 

be appointed Grand that bas not served the Office of Com- 
mittee Man, & the Offices of Sen' & Jun' Warden. The 
Grand is ballotted for & elected in the Committee ; and if 
approved by the Chapter is installe into bis Office (after 
the business of the Chapter on the Anniversary) by his Prede- 
cossor's investing him with the Medal, & resigning the chair 
to him. 

Of the Power of the Grand. — He appoints 
(p. 14) his own Deputy Grand and Secretary. — He présides in ail 

Chapters with absolute Authority to préserve Order, Sobriety, 
and décorum. He is Treasurer of the Chapter, & accoun- 
table for the Fund. 

Of the Duty of the Grand. He is to 
inveat the two Officers cbogen by him with their proper 

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114 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge 

Medals, & to see that ail the Officers wear theîr respective 
Medals in Committees, & diiring Chapter hours. He is 
to announce the Constitutional Toasts, w*'^ he chuses to he 
honoured at each Chapter. After the state of the Fund has 
heen made known, & and the Brethren reqnested to ma^ke contri- 
hntions, He at the Anniversary on which his Office expires 
shall himself coUect f™ the Brethren individually their 
voluntary gifts towards the support & increase of the Fund ; 
And his Accounts shall be made out, balanced, and signed, 
(p. 16) at least once a year. 

The Deputy Grand. His Power & Duty, in pré- 
sence of the Grand, are To assist the Grand ; & to supply 
his place in his absence. The Post of Deputy Grand is 
at the lowèr end of the Table both in Committees & Chapters. 

8th. The Prelate. The Prelafce is nominated <&ballotted 

for in a Committee, & appointed by the Chapter. His Office 

is for Life, but he may resign at pleasure, His Duty is 

To exhort the Brethren on every Anniversary to voluntary 

libéral Contributions for replenishing the Fund to effect the 

purposes of the Institution ; & generally to interest himself 

in the Establishment & Extension of benevolence & good Morals 

throughout the Chapter. His Post is on the Left Hand 

of the Chair both in Committees & Chapters. 
(p. 16) 

9th The Grand Secretary. The Grand Secretary is also 

nominated & ballotted for in a Committee. He is appointed 
by the Chapter, <fe holds his Office for Life, with the power 
of resigning at pleasure. His Duty is to superintend 
the Secretary in the exécution of his Office. And to assist 
, & ad vise the Grand, & his Officers, in ail matters relative to 

the welfare of Gregorism in gênerai, & of his own Chapter 
in particular. His Post is on the Right Hand of the 
Chair in ail Committees & Chapters, & at the lower end 
of the Table in the absence of the Grand in Committees or 
his Deputy in Chapters. 

The Secretary. The Office of Secretary is to keep an 
account of the receipts & disbursements of the Chapter : — 
To enter ail resolutions & orders of Committees ; — To 
(p. 17) communicate them to succeeding Chapters, & to enter their dis- 

sent f°* them, or assent thereto ; — To keep a correct list of the 
Members ef the Chapter ; — to hâve the custody & safe keeping 
of the Begalia'& Books of the Chapter ; to summon ail Com- 
mittees & Chapters agreeable to Orders, & generally to re- 
cord the proceedings & correspondence of the Chapter. — 
His Post is on the Right Hand of the Grand Seci*etary. 

The Pro- Grands. The Sen' Progrand présent 
présides in Chapters in the absence of the Grand 4; his 

Digitized by 


Notes on the Society of Qregorians, 115 

lOth. The two Wardens. None are eligible to the 

Office of Wardens, who hâve not been of the seven Com- 
mittee Men. Their exclusive Dutj is to secure the 
(p. 18) Committee & Chapter Booms ^^^^ intrusion ; for w^^ purposes 

the Serjeant at Arms is their Deputy : — To receive, & 
acquaint the Committee with complaints & grievances :— 
To take care that the décisions of Committees & Chapters 
are duly carried into effect : — To invest the Secretary, 
Wardens, & Committee Men with their proper Medals on 
the Anniversary, — The Post of the Senior Warden 
is on the ^?^^^ of the Chair at the Centre of the Table :— 
The Post of Junior Warden is opposite. 

llth. The seven Committee Men. The exclusive Duty 

of Committee Men is to deliver a Bail to each Brother 
préviens to the Ballot ; & generally to assist the Grand 
A Sen' Officers in the exécution of their Duty. There are 
two sen' & five jun' Committee Men. The duty 
(p. 19) falls upon the juniors présent. 

12. The Serjeant at Arms. The Serjeamb at Arms is 

initiated without the payment of Fées. His Duty is To 
guard the passes to the Chapter Boom, that no Strangers ap- 
proach save such as are prepared formally to enter as 
Candidates for Gregorism ; And to be otherwise assisting 
as the convenience of Committees, or Chapters may require. 

Fourthly In case any of the above specified Officers die, or 

are removed to a distance, so as that their attendance shall be 
altogether inconvénient, their respective Offices thus virtually 
becoming vacant, shall be fîlled up as soon as convenient, pro-> 

ceeding to the élection of New Officers in their stead, according to 

[Constitutional Laws. 
Or, in case any one is careless & remiss in the 

(p. 20) discharge of his Duty, or shall so coqdact himself as to 

induce a Member of the Committee to propose his being 
removed from his Office, this shall be the proceeding. — 

Af ter a motion to this effect, the party accused shall hâve 
fourteen days notice in writing from the Secretary of the 
accusation. He shall then be deprived of his Vote on the 
question, but may attend the Committee during the in- 
vestigation of the particulars of the Charge brought against 
him, & any conséquent debate there upon. Provided the 
facts contained in' the allégation are not substantiated, the 
accused shall be honourably acquitted, & the Member bringing 
the accusation shall be subject^dto such censure, as the Com- 
mittee may think fit, in case tbey perceive ooght frivolous 

(p. 21) or vexations in the nature of the charge, or manner of pro* 

ceeding. But shou*d the charge be made good to the 
satisfaction of the majority, the Committee may then 

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M6 fransactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

indîvidaaily sng^est their sentiments ; and (if présent) 

the accQsed shall be heard in bis defence. If, after 

due notice, tbe accused absent bimself, witb^ urging anj 

satîsfactorj apology for such absence, tbis appearance of 

contempt sball be considered as an aggravation of miscon- 

dnct. The accusation shall now be laid before the Chapter 

by the Secretary, & the Members shall finally décide whether 

the Party accused be eligible, or not, to romain in Office, or 

fît to continue on the RoU of the Society. If inéligible 

he sball be superseded proceeding in the élection of a Member 
inhisstead according to [the] Constitutional Laws. — If he 

(p. 22) be permitted to remain in the Society, the Delinquent may 

nevertheless be fîned, if the Brethren shall deem it expédient 

at the discrétion of the Chapter. 

Fifthly. The Fund ; which is formed à support ed—first 

By Fées of Initiation : Secondly ;— By Voluntary 
Contribations : Thirdly ; By Donation of one 
guinea from a Brother on his marriage : Fourfchly ; 
By fines, à penalties. The fund of the Chapter 
can not be appropriâtes to other purposes thàn such as 
are charitable ; save for the purchase of Medals, 
Books, & Necessaries for the use of the Chapter. 

The ^und shall not be reduced below the sum of 
Twenty Ponnds, without the spécial Order of a Committee 
cousis ting of at least Nine Members ; & also of a 

(p. 23) Chapter, consisting of at least fifteen Members. No 

part of the Fund can be disposed of witboat the consent 
of a Committee and Chapter. 

In applying the Fund, the Grand shall state what 
necessaries are wanting for the use of the Chapter, & the vote 
of the greater number présent, shall be bis. authority for the 
order & payment. The Grand shall demand of the 
Brethren assembled in Chapter (one by one) if they bave 
any objects to propose for relief. No Brother shall pro- 
pose more than one object of Charity at one & the same Chap- 
ter; and that Object shall be mentioned by name together 
with the usual place of abode, & the peculiar & accompany- 
ing circumstances of distress ; whetherof sickness, acci- 
dent, or misfortune. Provided no reasonable objection 

(p. 24) be alleged, such object so proposed shall be relieved subject 

to the following régulation. — A Gregorian proposed 
as a proper object to be relieved, shall be considered as having 
a prior claim to one not a Brother, & to any amount the 
Chapter, in its discrétion, shall think fit : 

A Gregorian of one Chapter is admissible into any other on 
producing a Certificate from the Grand Secretary of his 
Initiation Chapter, & upon answering ail due signs & 

Digitized by 


îfotes on the Society of Gregorians, 

Sîxtbly. The Secretarj îs obliged to call a Gommittee & Chapter 

at the reqaesfc of the Grand, the Deputj Grand, any of 
the Pro Grands, or any two Brethren. In his absence, 
or if the Secretarj neglect or ref ase to issue notices accor- 
dingly, any of the above mentioned Officers, or any two 

(p. 25) Brethren may summon sach Gommittee or Ghapter, first 

giving due notice of the same. 

Seventhly. Of the Demeanor of Brethren. The Brethren 

of this ancient & honorable Order are bound to promote each 
others interest, welfare & happiness as mnch as in them lies ; 
and to communicate in Ghapter, whatever may be thonght 
for the édification of the Society in gênerai, & of every Brother 
in particalar. They shal) not discover, nor cause to be dis- 
covered any of the secrets belonging to this Order, nor any 
conversation or proceedings of the Ghapter, w^^ may be to the 
préjudice of a Brother; but shall on ail occasions promote 
the honour of Gregorism in gênerai, Sd the interests of their 
respective Initiation Ghapters in particular. 

(p. 26) On the death of a Brother, the Brethren, <fc Officers in par- 

ticular of the Ghapter to which he belonged shall assemble 
in the Ghapter Room, & thence proceed to attend the Gorpse 
to the Grave (provided it be agreeable to the friends of the 
deceased) in the Regalia of the Order. This is only obli- 
gatory in instances where the Fanerai is \tL the Town 
where the Ghaper is held ; & of this the Prelate shall cause 
notice to be given. 

Eighthly. Gauses of Exclusion of Brethren. Any contempt 

of the Gonstitutional Laws of Gregorism, or of the Bye 
Laws of the Ghapter : Disrespect of Lawful commands f™ 
the Grand, or Ghairman for the time being ; Or, a 
refusai to submit to the fines & penalties legally imposed 
by the Grand, & Gommittee, & Ghapter, are causes of 

(p. 27) exclusion. 

Ninthly. A Ghapter cannot be dissolved but by the Grand 

Gommittee of the Order, or by uatural death. 


Tenthly. The following are the Gonstitutional Toasts to be 

honoured at Table in ail Ghapters at the discrétion of 
the Ghairman. 

1. The King, Family, and Friends. 

2. The Grand of the Order. 

3. Grand Secretary of the Order. 

4. Prelate & Pro Grands. 

5. Absent Brethren. 

ç Gregorians, <fc their bams. Those that 

6. < lie in Gregorians arms, & those that wou'd 


Digitized by 


Ils Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 

( Prosperitv to Gregorism ail over the 

C World, 
(p. 28) 
Eleventlily. The foregoing are the Constitutional Laws of 

Gregorism not subject to any altération, but by 
the Grand Oommittee of the Order. 

[After several unpaged blank leaves the pagination begins again.] 

(p. 1) Bye Laws 

calculated for the Régulation of the Wakefield Ghapter 
Ancient & Honourable Gregorians. 


It shall not be lawful to proceed to ballot for any 
Candidate for Gregorism, unless the Brother proposing him 
be seconded at the time of Nomination of such Candidate 
The ballot shall take place at the Chapter immediately 
succeeding thatj on w^^ the Candidate is nominated, & in 
case of a favorable ballot, he shall be brought forward for 
initiation as soon as convenient. The ballot shall im- 
mediately succeed to the nomination at the instance of 
(p. 2) any Candidate for Gregorism not residing in the Town, or 

neighborhood of Wakefield : And it shall be lawful to 
proceed in the same Chapter, as expeditiously as may be, 
through ail the forms. 

2. Two Négatives in a ballot, where the Chapter consists of 
ten Members ; Three négatives, where the Chapter con- 
sists of more than ten, & less than twenty ; Four néga- 
tives, where the Chapter consists of twenty, & less than 
thirty ; & so upwards in the same proportion, shall exclude 
the Candidate. No ballot to take place, when the 
number of Brethren présent does not amount to ten. 

3. Each Brother on Initiation shall pay to the Fund one 
guinea as his Initiation Fee, & two shillings & sixpence 
to the Serjeant at Arms. 

(p. 3) 

4. Any successful Candidate (after'having been dnly elect- 

ed) neglecting to come forward for initiation at the time, 
or at the Cbapter next ensuing^ shall subject the Brother 
who proposed him to a fine of ten shillings <& sixpence, 
to be paid into the Fund, as part of the Initiation Fee. 
The sum to be returned, on the Brother elect offering him- 
self for initiation at the next subséquent Chapter. 

6. Where a Candidate bas been duly proposed & elected, 

& does not présent himself for Initiation, within the 
space of one year after such élection, having due notice 
thereof, he shall not be admitted a member at any fu- 
ture period without a fresh ballot. 

Digitized by 


Notes on the Society of Gregorians, 119 


6. If the Grand be not an in habitant of Wakefield, 

(p. 4) the Fund shall be entrnsted to the care of a Brother rési- 

dent in the Town, to be appointed by the Chapter. 

7. In addition to the pnrposes specified in the Constitution- 
al Law (5*^^y p. 22) the Fund may be applied— In 
pnrchasing Medals for snch of the Brethren as shall 

pass the Chair with the thanks of the Anniversary Chap- 
ter in w*^ the Office expires ; Each of thèse medals shall 
not be of greater cost than one guinea. Also in pur- 
chasing snch other Medals as the Chapter may think 
proper to bestow in gratef ul acknowledgement for ex- 
traordinary services, so that the expence do not exceed 
two gaineas ; & do not in any case rednce the Fund 
below the sam of twenty poands. — Also in giving 
the Serjeant at Arms for his attendance — On the 
(p. 5) Anniversary, five shillings ; At quarterly meetings 

two shillings & sixpence ; At Evening meetings one shilling 
& sixpence. 

8. It shall not be lawf ul for any object of Oharity to 
reçoive a greater benefaction at one time from this 
Chapter than seven shillings & sixpence, nor to be relieved 
oftener than once in six Months, unless he be a Brother 
who may be relieved at the discrétion of the Chapter accord- 
ing to Constitntional Law (5*^'^ p. 24) Nor shall a greater 
sum than seven poands be distribnted at any Aniversary ; 
four pounds at any quarterly Chapter, and two pounds in 
any Evening Chapter, taking care in ail instances, that 

the sums distribnted be as much as possible in proportion 
to the greater or less number of Brethren assembled 
(p. 6.) in thèse respective Chapters & with due regard at ail times 

& on ail occasions to Law (ut supra) 7. p. 4. L. 13. &c.) 


9. The Grand shall be liable to a forfeit of five shillings 
for non- attendance on the Anniversary ; of two shillings 
& sixpence on each quarterly Meeting, & one shilling on 
each Evening Meeting ; unless he be ont of the Riding 

of the County at those periods, or shall send a suffîcient 
excuse in writing for his absence to the Committee du ring 
their sitting in the Committee Room. 

10. The Prelate & Grand Secretary each shall be liable 

to a forfeit for absence at the above mentioned respective periods 
of three shillings, two shillings, & one shilling. 

The remaining Officers — of one shilling & sixpence 
(p. 7) ooe shilling, <fc^sixpence. 

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120 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronatt Lodge. 

11. The above forfeîts sball eqnally & respectively be levied on 
tbose, who bein^ présent at the openîng of the Committee, 
shall prematnrely, & before the business of the Committee 

is over, withdraw without leave of absence. 

12. The forme of initiation on the introduction of a New 
Member shall be repeated by rote by the Officers offici- 

atin^ : (See Constitutional Laws — For m of Initiation p. 4 &c) In 
case of default herein each Officer shall forfeit two shillings 
& sixpence. 

13. Any Officer or Pro-grand neglecting to wear the 
Medal of bis Office during bis présence in Committees & 
Chapters, shall forfeit for each neglect one shilling : And 
any Member (not a Pro-grand, whose particular Medal 

(p. 8) is in bis own keeping) taking a Medal from the Ghapter 

Boom shall forfeit two shillings & sixpence. 
[a pencîl note on the margin of the last sentence records 
"Jany Ist. T.B."] 

14. If the Officiating Secretary neglect to give due 
notice of Meetings, he shall be answerable for the forfeits 
of such of the Committee as, in conséquence of bis neglect 
do not attend. 

15. If the Grand, Prelate, or Grand Secretary do absent 
himself from Chapters during one whole year, without 

a satisfactory apology to the first succeeding Anniversary 
Chapter that shall properly take cognizance thereof, ho 
shall be divested of bis Office. 

16. Any Brother résident in the Town of Wakefield, who 
after receiving proper notices shall neglect to attend at the 
Anniversary & two more Chapters in the year, such 

(p. 9) Brother for such neglect shall thenceforth be denied ad- 

mission into the Chapter Boom, unless he can satisfy the 
Brethren by a sufficient apology. 

17. Every Brother who shall be in the Biding on the dey 
of the Anniversary, & shall not attend divine service 
shall for such neglect forfeit one shilling. 

18. Ail forfeits shall be collected by the Secretary, paid to 
the Grand, à placed to the Crédit of the Fund. 


19. The Anniversary shall always be held on the Thurs- 
day next following St. John Baptist's Day, unless that 
Festival shall fall on the Thursday ; in w^^^ case, the 
Anniversary shall be held on that Day. Other 
Chapters shall be held at such periods as the Committee 

(p. 10) may appoint, with due regard to the gênerai convenience 

Digitized by 


Notes on the Society of Qregorians, 121 

of the Brethren. There shall be four meetings in the 
year ; when the Brethren shall assemble at a fixed hour 
in the Morning. In addition to thèse qaarterly Meetings 
there shall be held as many Evening Chapters, as maj 
be thought necessary to the due discharge of Gregorian 
business, or to the advancement of the interest & pros- 
perity of the Order. 


20. The Secretary shall give ten days Notice of Anni- 
versary & qnarterly meetings. 

21. Notice of the Anniversary shall be thrice însorted 
in the Leed's Intelligencer previous to the day. 

(p. 11) Seven days notice shall be given of Evening Meetings & 

Spécial Committees 

22. The Committee on the day of Anniversary shall assemble 
at *?^ in the morning, & open the Chapter : Divine service 

to commence before ^^g ^ oClock. The Chapter shall close 

at ^^"ij^"^ P.M. when the Bill shall be called, & the Brethren shall 


23. On qnarterly Meetings the Committee shall assemble 
at ®?® o'Clock (unless particular business deman^ an earlier 
attendance.) The Chapter shall open as soon aâ conve- 
nient, be closed at ^^^J'^^ and the Brethren requested to with- 

24. On Evening Meetings the Chapter shall assemble at ^®^®", 
and bo closed at ® j^®**, when the Brethren shall withdraw. 


26. The Books of the Chapter shall be (1«*) The Book of Laws ; 

in w^i» shall be entered the Constitutional Laws of Gorgorism, 
& the existing Bye Laws. (2) The Chapter List of 
Brethren ; containing a correct ^°J?^^*^ of the Members ; their 
Christian à surnames ; Of what profession, or trade ; 
their places of abode ; by whora proposed ; when pro- 
posed ; when initiated ; their removal f™ the neighborhood 
of the Chapter Boom to such a distance as to make their 
attendance incompatible with their convenience, & the 
period of their death. (3) The Cash Book ; containing 
a transcribed account of ail Beceipts, & Disbursements ; 
specifying the objects relieved, the time when rolieved, 
the names of the objects, their place of résidence, by 
(p. 13) whom proposed ; in what sums respectively relieved ; & 

containing also the balance of the Grand's Acconnts, <& a 
Beceipt for the same from each successor. (4) The Minute 
Book containing the Besolutions & Orders of Committee^ 
& Chapters, 

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122 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronatt Lodge. 


26. It is incumbent on the Grand openly in Chapter to reprove 
Brethren neglecting duly to attend Chapters, whenever the 
Committee shall see good cause for his so doing. 

27. The Serjeant at Arma mast punctually attend at ail 
Chapters from the difficulty of supplying his place in 
case of absence. 

28. The Jnn' Committee Man, or in his absence the 
(p. 14) jun' Officer présent shall take an acconnt of Liqnors 

brought into the Chapter Room. 

29. AU Chapter business, such as proposîng, ballotting for & 
initiating New Members, proposing objects of Charity, & 
appoint ing New Officers shall be transacted before dinner 

at Anniversary & quarterly Meetiugs, and before supper at 
Evening Meetings. 

30. No question whatever relative to any altération of the Laws 
shall be moved after dinner, or after supper ; And no 
Politïcal question shall be debated, nor any subject what- 
ever agitated during Committee & Chapter hours, w*=^ 

shall be thought likely to produce unseemly warmth of 
argument, or occasion dissentions amongst the Brethren. 
(p. 15) 

31. The Grand shall not insist on any toasts being drank in 
burapers, except the Constitutional Toasts ; & thèse (as well 
as ail others) each Member shall be at liber ty to drink 

in what liquor he chuses. 

32. No liquors shall be called for in the Chapter Room more 
expensive than Red Port, Sherry, Brandy, Rum & 
Geneva, nnless the Member calling for such more expen- 
sive liquor shall pay for it himself in addition to his 

quota of the Bill. 



1. In the Nomination & appointment of Officers regard 
shall be h ad not so much to the seniority of Brethren, as to 
the frequency with w<^^ they attend Chapters ; their orderly 
deportment thereiu, & generally active endeavors to further 
(in Chapter & ont of Chapter) the salutary ends of the 

Institution. (N.B. — This Régulation is not meant in any degree to 

j militate against Constitutional Law. 7. P. 13. L.6 <fc<;. 

2. The Members are requested three days préviens to the Anni- 
versary, & early on the morning of the day appointed for 
quarterly meetings, to signify to Brother Gledhill their 

(p, 17) intention of dining with the Brethren on such days respectively. 

Digitized by 


Notes on the Society of Oregorians, 123 

In case of neglect herein, each Brother so ofPending shall 
forfeît to the Fnnd one Shilling. And in case of absence 
after notice given of such intention, sach absent Brother shall 
pay his portion of the Bill for the day to the amount of the 
Ordinary. (N.B. Satisfactory apologies will be admitted in excuse.) 

The Ordinary on Anniversary & quarterly Meetings shall 
not exceed two shillings & sixpence. 

3. So many Bottles of Wine shall be introdaced on the days 
above mentioned as there are Members présent, and no more : 
And this quantity shall be diminished in proportion as the 
expense in beverage may otherwise be encreased by the 
introdaction of Spirits or other Liquors. 

(p. 18) 

4. On Evening Meetings the Ordinary shall not exceed one 
shilling & sixpence ; & no more than half the qaantity of 
liqnor (as above) shall be allowed. 

5. The Secretary is enjoined to cease issning f arther notices 
of intended Ghapters to any Brother who shall withhold 

his attendance from the Chapter Boom three succeeding 

6. The third stroke of the Grandes (or his representative's) 

hammer on the Table shall at ail times bave the aathority 

of calling to attention & order. Any Brother ofEending a- 

gainst this Rule shall be opeoly reprimanded by the Ghair, 

& shall forfeit to the Fund one shilling for every such 

(p. 19) 

7. The Old Gonstitutional Song (" Let Poets à Historians &c.") 
shall regalarly be called for by the Grand (or bis Deputy in 
his absence) on each Anniversary à Quarterly Meeting, im- 
mediately after honouriner the seventh & last Gonstitutional 
Toast. (See Gons^ : Law, P. 27) The remaining songs shall follow 
at the discrétion of the Ghair, & none but Gregorian songs 

shall be sung in Ghapter. 

8. The first, sixth, & seventh Gonstitutional Toasts shall 

at ail times be superlatively honoured. In ail other instances, 
the Wine rising to the Gentre of the Initiais W.G. shall be 
deemed high honour. 

9. In agitating any subject relative to the forms, régulations, & 
interestâ of the Society, whether in Gommittee or Ghapter, the 
Brethren shall be heard in Order as they are placed at 

(p. 20) Table after the Progrands, à Officers of theyear bave delivered their 

sentiments according to their degrees. The Brother désirons to be 
heard shall signify his wisb by a stroke npon the Table ; <fc on leave 
being granted by the Ghairman, be shall rise f™ his seat, & 
address himself respectfuUy to the Chair. He shall not be liable 

Digitized by 


124 TranscLctions of tke Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 

io interruptioii, whilst he is complimented by the attention of 
the Chairman. 

10. No Brother sball speak more than once on the same snb- 
ject, unless to explain hîmself, or when called upon by the 
Chairman to speak. 

11. In case of obstinate disobedience, & contempt of thèse régula- 
tions, the Chairman s hall be snpported in peremptorily com- 
manding the refractory Brother to quit the Chapter Room ; 

& not to be re-admitted bat npon making due submission 

to the Chairman, apologies to the Brethren, & paying 

a fine of five shillings to be carried to the Fund. 
(p. 21) 

12. It is a Régulation strongly to be insisted npon, & greatly 
necessary in the observation of it to the prosperity of our 
Honourable Order & the increase of Members, that no 
Candidate for Gregorism shall be rejected from merely pri- 
vate, Personal, or indirect considérations. Ail that is 
constitutionally binding on the proposing Brother in the 
nomination of a Candidate is — that he be satisfied in his 
own mind of the morals & loyalty of the Candidate. 

If thèse be undisputed the ballot ought to be unanimous- 
ly favorable. 

13. The Constitutional & Bye Law [sic] shall be road in 
fuU Chapter at hast on every Anniversary by the Grand, 
his Deputy, or the Grand Secretary. 

The following list of members of the Wakefield Chapter is copied from the MS. 
in the possession of Bro. William Watson. 

A List of the Members of y® Wakef^ Chapter of ancient & honorable Gregorians. 
Institnted June 24*»» — 1796. 

Munkhouse Grand à Prelate 

Rogers Depy Grand 

Lee Grand-Secy 

Linnecar Sen^ Warden 

Brown Jun' Warden 


Dawson Secretary 

> Committee 

Digitized by 


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Digitized by 


130 Transactions of the QtuUuor Goronatx Lodge. 

Bro, W. B. Hextall lorites : — 

Under " Gi'egory," as a surname, I find in the Dictionary of National Biograpby, 
xxiii., 97 : " Gregory, Francis, D.D., 1625(?)-1707. Divine and schoolmaster, an ardent 
Royalist, he was chosen to preach the thanksgiving sermon for the Restoration, at St. 
Mary's, Oxford, 27th May, 1660. Pablished several works, appointed Chaplain to 
the King, and in 1671 presented to the living of Hambleton, Bucks., which he kept 
till his death in 1707. He published . . . and printed several sermons, inclnding 
• . . The Qregorian Account, or Spiritual Watch, 1673, preached at St. Michaers, 

A copy of the sermon is in the library of the British Mnseum, whence I take 
the folio wing particnlars.: — 

The Gregorian Account or the Spiritual Watch. — A sermon preached 
to the Society of the Gregories dwelling in abont the city of London, and assembled in the 
Church of St. Michael, Cornhill, June 19th, 1673. By Francis Gregory, D.D., Rector 
of Hambleton, in the Coanty of Backs., one of his Sacred Majesty's Chaplains in 
Ordinary. London : Printed by E. Flesher, for Richard Royston, Bookseller to his most 
Sacred Majesty, 1673." 

The sermon is prefaced by an Epistle Dedicatory — 

" to my esteemed friends, Capt. Jeremie Gregory, Citizen and Goldsmith 
of London, and Mr. Philip Gregory, Citizen and Mercer, Stewards of the 
Gregories Feast, the 19th of June, 1673, and to the rest of that Loving 

" I am one of your number, and hâve the hononr to wear your Arms, 
and bear your name, for the Hearers being Gregories, . . . and 
there being a young Gi'egory to be Baptized, . . . some Gregory or 
other should wash the Infant's face and (though no Pope nor Papist) sign 
its forehead too. . . . 

" . . . That it may produce this blessed effect upon you and every 
Gregory shall be the constant prayer of 

" Your friend and Servant, 

"Francis Gregory." 

Then foUow some verses " To the Society of the Gregories, upon the Name and 
Meeting at St. Michael's, Cornhill, the 19th of June, 1673." 

" . . a complexion 

Of men whose Humour with their name is one. 

Th' Saints' influence and this good Companies' 
Hâve made St. Michael^s a St. Gregories. 
Aut QregoriuSj aut nullus. 

Jer. Gregory." 

The text of the sermon was Mark xiii., 87, " And what I say unto you, I say unto 
ail: Watch." 

Page 23. There is . . . one argument . . . that I must press apon 
myself and you who are my Namcsakes 

Page 25. I could mention several Namesakes of ours that were no sleepers. 

Digitized by 


Ifotes on hh^Society of Gregorians» 13l 

Page 26. Let us remember that thei-e is in our Coat of Arms a Lion, who is 
. . . the most watcbfall créature, and this Lion not Dormant, not Coacliant, but 
Passant, and upon his Legs too 

Let us so order . . . tbat we may one daj meet again . . . bis faitbfnll 
Gregories, for ever and ever. [End.] 

Hère we bave a cleric, distinguisbed by bis loyalty to Cbarles II., and promoted 
to bonour at tbe Restoration, in 1673 preacbing and publisbing a spécial sermon on a 
spécial occasion to ^^the Society of the Qregories dweîUng in ahout the City of Lo^idon" 
witb epistle dedicatory to tbe ** Stewards of the Qregories Feast . . . and to the rest 
of that Loving Society.'* G-ranted tbat tbis Society was in 1673 confined to members of 
a family, or, at most, to persons bearing tbe name of Gregory, is not tbe development 
or évolution from this to tbe larger Society of " Gregorians," more likely tban tbe 
unsatisfying attribution of tbe latter's name to Pope Gregory tbe First ? From 1673 
to 1730 is practicaily 60 years. Tbe " Epistle " refers to " a young Gregory to bo 
Baptized," so tbat tbere were young members to carry on tbe " Gregories " Society, 
probably for long after Francis Gregory 's deatb in 1707. Tbe mère fact of 
tbere being a " Gregories " Society actually in existence would make its extension 
and enlarged scope, as well as tbe change of name (wbicb is but sligbt, from 
*^ Gregories'* to *^ Gregorians*')^ easy, and 60 years would afEord ample time for tbe 
transition from tbe family to the more gênerai institution. Assuming tbe " Gregories" 
existed up to (or to a time not long before) tbe first mention we find of " Gregorians," 
we bave a coincidence significant enougb to dcserve attention. 

I am indebted to Bro. Songburst for reminding me tbat tbe Gregorian 
Constitutional Soug says, 

** Our Friendsbip and Affiuity 
Surpasses consanguinity 
As gold surpasses ore." 

Sometbing may be due to the exigencies of rbyme, but from tbe word 
"consanguinity" may also be inferred a référence to family relationship sucb as 
existed amongst tbe Gregories. 

As to Pope Gregory tbe First ; so far, I know of no suggestion wby tbe name 
sbould be derived from bim except tbat be is traditionally credited witb baving sent 
St. Augustine to England. But the " Gregorians" were not a religions bod y ; and, if 
tbeir name really came from a Pope Gregory, it was more likely taken from Gregory 
tbe Tbirteentb, wbo reigned 1572-1585, and in 1582 introduced tbe " new style " of 
reckonîng tbe caleudar, to supersede tbe Julian calendar wbicb bad prevailed from 
B.c. 46. This " Gregorian Calendar," adopted in Germany in 1700, was well known in 
Ëngland long before its formai adoption hère, after many years of discussion and différence 
of opinion, in 1751, and (amongst otber appellations given to it) was mentioned by 
Thomas Fuller, in bis " Holy and Profane State " (1642), as " the Gregorian Account," 
— that being tbe identical phrase witb wbicb Dr. Francis Gregory beaded bis Cornbill 
Sermon of 1678. Tbere was great excitement in England over tbe compulsory adoption 
of the " new style," and ** Give us our eleven days " figure in tbe first of Hogartb's 
" Election Prints " as " one of tbe élection cries of that time, wbicb gives us no very bigb 
conception of tbe intelligence of tbe créature tbat calls itself tbe Britisb public." 
(Hogarth and his Pîctures, by the Rev. Hagb Stowell Brown, 1860). Dr. Francis 
Gregory was a contemporary of Fuller, and appears to bave sbared tbe latter's love for 
a quip, and even for a pun, wben we read tbe title of bis sermon, "Tbe Gregorian 

Digitized by 


132 fràngactions of the Quatuor Coronati Loâgë, 

Acconnt, or the Spiritual Watch," rememberÎDg that, amongst proper names, to 
" Gregory " is given the meaning, " watchman." 

It seems to me probable that some kind of succession, or connexion, did ezist 
between the Society of the " Gregories '* of 1673 and earlier, and that of the later 
*' Gregorians ** ; and also possible that the " new style," as a prominent topic of the day, 
had au influence in snggesting the latter name : any personal référence involved in the 
Word being to the thirteenth, and notto the first, Pope Gregory of Rome. 

In the British Muséum is a pamphlet of 32 pages, entitled ''The Hint, or A Free 
Thought or Two " [etc., etc., long title]. , , . By a Gregorian. It bears no date, 
but the British Muséum Catalogue suggests 1750. There is nothing distinctive in it, 
and it consists of a diatribe against the habit of nsing oaths and curses in 
conversation ; the only noticeable feature is the " Gregorian " as author. 

The sermon mentioned in the Freemason's Magazine for 1858 as having been 
preached to the Gregorians by Farmerie Maltus in 1762 is not in the British Muséum, 
but I hâve seen the foUowing : — "A Sermon preached at Sfc. PauFs, Deptford, 
Kent, on June 24th, 1752, before a select number of Gentlemen who stile themselves, ' The 
Order of Ubiquarians.' By Farmeiy Maltus, LL.B., Lecturer of St. Mary Magdalen, 
Bermondsey. London : J. Kippax, 1752." The only distinctive feature iu it is the title. 

Bro, E. H. Dring wriUs : — 

Bro. Rylands is to be congratnlated on having drawn attention to a snbject 
"which not only has a great Masonic interest, but one that for more than a century has 
baffled literary students. In the British Critic of 1805 (vol. 26, pp. 649-651) a reviewer 
begs for more knowledge of Gregorism and in volume 77 of the Gentleman s Magazine 
(pp. 231-2) he is referred authoritatively to Francis Gregory. 

I am sorry that, although it was known to him, Bro. Rylands did not refer to 
Frarxis Gregory's sermon of 1673, for a record of it and the reasons for repudiating it 
as being connected with the Gregorians, may be helpf ul to later students. 

The Title is as follows :— 
SERMON / Preached to the Society of the GREGORIES dwelliug in and about the / 
City of London, and assembled in the Church / of St Michael Comhill, June 19. 1673. 

By Francis Gregory D.D. 
Rector of Hambleton in the County of Bucks, one pf his Sacred Majestie*s Chaplains 
in Ordinary. 

It is dedicated : — 

*'To my esteemed Friends, Capt. Jeremie Gregory, Citizen and Gold-Sraith 
of London and Mr. Philip Gregoiy, Citizen and Mercer, Stewards of the Gregories 
Feast the Nineteenth of June 1673, and to the rest of that Loving Society." 

and it is prefaced by a poem, "To the Society of the Gregories." The text is taken 
from Mark xiii., 37, " Watch." 

It is of the usual type of Restoration sermons. At the end of the discourse after 
mentioning the four great Gregorys, one is led to infor that the Society was named not 

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ïfotes on ihe Society of Qregoriani. l3â 

after any spécial one of thèse Gregorys; bat becaase the name in G-reok signifies 
" watchf q1." 

He, bowever, mentions that a lion is one of the charges in the society*8 coat of 
arms. Althoagh I was at firsfc inclinée! to think that Qregorism was a direct descendant 
of the Society of Gregories, this fact finally precludes such a possîbility. We know 
from Mr. Hawkîns' note the arms of the later society in ^?hich there is no lion, and had 
there been any direct connection betvsreen the two socîeties it is not possible for such an 
important charge to hâve been dropped. 

The next item I bave been able to uneartli is : — 

The flint OR, A Free Thoujht, or Tivo Offered to the CONSIDERA.TION Of AH those 
MAGNANIMOUS British HKROES, WSO HAVE Boldly AUack'd Routed, and 
Ooercome The FEARof an Oath, or a OURSE — More Particalarly, Coach-men, Car-men, 
Porteps, VVater-men Etc. WITH A short H [NT at a new method of gênerai Beform ; 
hambly proposed to the Considération of the Législature, 

No, not an Oath : . . . Snch Créatures as Men Doubt : — (Bratas in SHAKE- 
SPEAR\S Julius Caesar). By a QBEOORIAN. LONDON, Printed for T. Cooper at 
the Globe in Paternoster-Row. (Price Fonr Pence) 

It is undated, bat I bave good reason to date it between 1740-42. 

It is a remous trance of a religions tone, against profane langnage as nsed in the 
London Streets, apparently written by a person ivho was not a born Londoner. On 
page 2 be writes: — "I hâve for many Years liv'd within the Confines of this Great 
City, . . . And there is not any Thing more évident than that the Vice oiprophane 
Cursing and Swearing is hecome habituai and cmtomary among you,*^ 

Although the tract gives us no historical information it is interesting as shewing 
that a Gregorian exerted what infinence he possessed in advancing Christian morality. 

The next item I bave met with is a sermon by the Rev. John Lowe, M. A., Vicar 
of Botherton : — " The Daties of Man as a member of Civil Society. A sermon preached 
before the Ancient and Honourable Society of Gregorians at their Anniversary Meeting 
at Pontefract on Wednesday July 11. 1792" (printed at Haddersfield). This again 
gives no historical data. 

I now come to the Rev. Richard Munkhouse who in addition to being a 
Gregorian was a well-known Freemason. In bis Occasional Discourses, 3 vols., 8vo., 
1805,^ are a sermon preached before a Masonic Lodge and two sermons preached before 
the Society of Gregorians. He was a prominent Mason, and, as will be seen from the 
extracts below, lie lived a génération or two before his time, for he doubted much of the 
'Megendary history.*' He appears to hâve made some attempt to ascertain the early 
history of Gregorism. 

In the préface to vol. 1 oocars the foUowing passage : — " Of Freemasonry many 
and éloquent hâve been the panegyrists : — Of Gregorism, not a few. Thèse are Sister 
Societies no less upright and amiable in their principles than vénérable for their 
antiquity. With certain characteristic peculiarities in their Constitutions and Laws 
and such as readily distinguish them from other Societies they are admirably adapted 
to the purposes of their respective Institutions and well calculated to promote the 

1 In the liât of Babscrîbers appear : 

Gregorians, Norwioh Ghapter of , 2 copies 
„ Pontefract „ 2 „ 

,, Wakefield „ 6 „ 

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l34 î'ransactions of tke Quaiuor Oor&nati Lodge, 

comfort and supply the wants of men in the spirit of a disinterested and diffasive 
benevolence. The satisfaction and advantages which hâve followed the récent 
admission of Gregorism into this place are too well nnderstood, too sensibly felt to 
require a laboured or arfcificial eulogism and for any exerfcions which hâve been made 
towards forming and supporting it thèse will be fully recompensed by an observation of 
the gooi ejïects and (if it shoald forfcanately happen) by the formation of new Chapters 
in the neighbouring places.'* 

The first sermon is as foUows : — 
" A / Discoarse / delivered in the / Church of St. John Baptist, Wakefield, / Jane 26. 
1797 / Before the Officers and Brethren of the Wake- / field Chapter of Gregorians, on 
commemo / rating their First anniversary." 
It is dedicated : — 

" To the illastrious and very excellent personage William Frederick Prince of 
Gloster Grand of the Ancient and Hon curable order of Gregorians this Discourse is with 
permission and in the spirit of Gregorism humbly dedicated by . . . . 

the Aathor 

* On the Daty and Pleasnre of relie ving our brethren in Penary and Affliction. 
Heb. xiii., 1-3.' 

. . . . " From thèse reflec tiens I pass to the subject of the ancient and 
honoarable society the anniversary of which we are this dayassembled to commemorate. 
How shall we accoant for the darkness that is spread over the earlier periods of its 
history ? or to what shall we attribute the slender influence of its charms among a 
people so extolled for their philanthropy — so prone to acts of kindness and beneficence. 
Is it not surprising that an Institution which professes to strengthen the bonds of 
brotherly affection, to supply the wants and make light the burden of adversity should 
be so little known, its blessings so very partially distributed .... 

" We hâve indeed seen a sister society industrionsly traced (in its operative qaality 
at least) from âge to âge and existing in every climate from the period of création to 
the présent hour. Its records are closely interwoven with the Annals of holy writ ; 
and its traditions must be allowed to assume an air of soberness and authenticity. If 
amid the silence that prevails on the subject of Gregorism, we hâve to regret the 
darkness in which much of its history is absolutely involved, we may however securely 
felicitate ourselves on this, that it is not rendered ludicrous by the minute and 
laboured détails of an intricate narrative, nor fondly perplexed by the busy meddlings 
of vague and fanciful conjectures — such for instance as commonly accompany the 
fabulons historiés of the primeval establishments of the Earth. Ail that we are enabled 
to collect at this day concerning the probable era of our vénérable order, is to be sought 
for in its mystic symbols ; in that curions display of hieroglyphic leaming, which amid 
the révolutions of time and the wreck of âges has descended to us. Thèse emblems, 
indeed, it is to be apprehended, hâve undergone material modifications. They may not 
I grant hâve been faithf ully derived from the very period of the Institution whilst it is 
obvions to remark that some of them are coeval with time itself, and ail may boast of 
antediluvian antiquity .... 

^ ? Grand, Wakefield Chapter. This dedicatiou was doubtless composed some time after the 
date of the sermon, os we know, from the Norfolk Chronicle, Prince William did not accept the office 
of Grand of the Order until August, 1797. 

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Notes on the Society of Qregorians, 135 

" Scarce are yon become members of this ancient and honourable Society, than we 
receive the most satisfactory communications of its increasing influence and numbers 
among distant brethren. Scarce bas the sun performed his annual révolution, before we 
reckon on the rolls of our Order and proudly acknowledge iw our Head, a virtuous and 
an amiable Prince^ of the ancient and Royal House of Brunswick. Such are the 
auspicious circumstances connected with the commencement of this Chapter 

" You bave if I may so speak hereby set yourselvea apart in the cause of philan- 
thropy .... The duties which you owe to one another as Gregorians are 
nniformly those of affability attachment and confidence.'' He also draws attention to 
the motto of the Order, " Peace." 

Munkhouse delivered a second sermon before the same chapter, at the same 
church, on June 27th, 1799, taking for his text i. Peter, iii., 8, ** Love as Brethren," etc. 
In it he refers to the Act 39 Geo. III., cap. 79, and hopes that it will not affect the Society 
of Gregorians, and claims for the Society perfect loyalty to the King and the position of 
our more modem " Charity Organisation Society." 

There is, however, a three-page Appendix detailing the Proceedings of the last 
meeting of the Wakefield Chapter, from which I make the foUowing extracts : — 

• March 22. 1798 

At a Gommittee held in the Chapter Room this Day at one o*clock P.M. 
Officers présent etc. etc. 
The Grand in the chair, after suggesting the Propriety of the Brethren of this Chapter 
contributing toward the support of Government in the présent critical situation of 
affairs, moved 

. . . . 4. We do voluntarily dévote as Gregorians this our donation* 
to the service of our Oountry ; without any design of narrowing thereby a future and 
more gênerai Contribution. 

5. That thèse our Proceedings be forthwith notified to our Elder and much 
respected Brethren of the Norwich and Pontefract Chapters in a full assurance that 
they will be pleased to express their approbation of them. 

Althongh the grounds for forming any definite conclusion as to thepolitical aims 
of the Society are slender, I think Bro. Rylands is correct in saying they were in support 
of the Hanoverian Succession. Consequently the members were upholders of the 
English Church. In fact I am inclined to go further and suggest that it was originally 
a Protestant Church Society with political aims, and that having served its purpose it 
died a natural death when Cardinal York, the last of the Stuarts, died in 1807, for it is 
a curions coincidence that about this date the Gregorians seem to disappear. 

If thèse conclusions be correct, I cannot help thinking an inference may be drawn 
regarding the earlier Society of Gregories, as shewn by Francis Gregory's sermon.* 
The date of it is 1673, which at once reminds us of the Test Act, and the state of public 
opinion at that time. Green writes " What overpowered ail other feelings was a vague 
sensé, which we know now to hâve been justified by the facts, that liberty and religion 
were being unscrupulously betrayed. There was a suspicion that the whole armed 

* Prince William of Gloaoester initiated at Norwich, May 6th, 1797. 

' The collection amounted to £80 178. 

' That Oregory was a strong anti-Bomanist is shewn by the titles of two sermons qnoted in 
Wood's Fasti OxonienseSf viz : 1. The Trial of Religions, with Cautions to the Members of the reformed 
Charoh against Défection to the Roman, London, 1674 75. 2. The grand Présomption of the Romish 
Charch, in equalling thoir Traditions to the Written Word; and their Jealonsies of themselves, in 
refusing to admit the Holy Scriptures as the Rule for the Tryal of their Religion : in two Piscoarseg. 
London, 167^» 

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136 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

force of the nation was in Catholic hands." And it is not nnlikely that a Society was 
formed to safegnard Protestantism, and the most appropriate text for a* sermon 
addressed to such a Society in such troubloas times would be "Watch.'* This Sociefy 
of Gregories might well hâve become dissolved with the advent of William and Mary, 
and when a Church anti-Jacobite Society was formed in the early years of George II., 
having somewhat similar religions objects, it is quite likely they selected, from the same 
motives as the carlier Society, the name of him who, rightly or wrongly, has for 
centaries been looked npon as the fonnder of the English Church, viz : Pope Gregory. 

Bro. S. T. Klein writes : — 

Bro. Rylands has done good service in bringing before ns ail the known facts 
connected with the Society of Gregorians. In the eighteenth and early nineteenth 
centnries there were many Societies existing which apparently claimed affinity to 
Freemasonry or, at ail events, pretended to be worked on similar lines, and many 
stndents of our Graft must hâve felt the want of some such tabulated information 
concerning thèse Societies as Bro. Rylands has given ns in connection with tho 

The Astronomical aspect given to the Wakefield Sommons by the introduction 
of five signs of the Zodiac and the figure of Father Time pointing to the Sun as it risea 
nnder each of thèse signs is, I think, very suggestive that the Society of the Gregorians 
may hâve owed its very initiation to that sharp controversy which raged throngh 
Europe during the first half of the eighteenth centnry and culminated in the Julian 
Calendar being supplanted by the Gregorian in a.d. 1762, an Act of Parliament being 
passed in this country in that year to drop 13 days from the Calendar, and also one day 
at the beginning of each century in future. Ali European nations adopted the change 
except Russia, where the Julian Calendar is still used, and where the date is conseqnently 
différent from ours. 

The five signs of the Zodiac depicted on the Shmmons may refer to the dates of 
meetings, though they can hardly represent the quarterly meetings. The first sign 
from the left is Cancer (The Crab), which is entered by the Sun on about June 21st, 
and it appears that the anniversary meeting was actually held about that time, namely, 
on June 24th if that day was a Thursday, otherwise a week later. The other four signs 
are as foUows: — 

Libra, which is entered by the Sun about September 22nd. 
Léo, „ „ „ „ July 23rd. 

Taurus, „ „ „ „ April 20th. 

Virgo, „ „ „ „ August24th. 

Apart from the question whether thèse signs regulated the dates of the other four meetings 
is the curions fact that they are not placed in their proper order, bnt become so if tho 
whole five signs are placed at the points of a 5-pointed star and the line forming that 
star is folio wed, a not uncommon proceedure among the Alchemists in the Middle Ages 
and Hermetics of to-day. 

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Notes on the Society of Qregorians. 


Remarks followed from the W.M., Bros. E. L. Hawkins, G. J. Crkswell, 
Archdeacon F. E. Clarke, Dr. S. Walshb Onven, Sir John Binoham, Rev. W. E. 
Scott-Hall and the Seceetary ; and a hearty vote of thanks was unanimously passed to 
Bro. Rylands. 

I am very greatly obliged to Bros. Hextall and Dring for having so kindly, and 
with 80 much research, supplemented my paper. I gave up the Society of Gregories 
becanse it was ont of my power to make the later Order or Society of Gregorians 
descend from them : and no proof was forthcoming which continned the Gregories, np 
to the time of tke Gregorians. They may hâve been more or less identical, but at the 
présent time I cannot think that it was so. Nor do I suppose that the Gregorian 
Calendar was conneoted with the name of the Society of Gregorians. At the same time 
I trust that this is only the beginning of our researohes, and that other points will be 
broaght to light in future pages of the Transactions, 

To Bro. Klein I would offer my thanks for having devoted time to the considéra- 
tion of the Zodiacal signs on the Arch. One would think that the arrangement of the 
signs had some spécial meaning, though, like Bro. Klein, I qui te failed to find it. 

I am sorry no one bas tackled the Gregorian Chronology, or the A.G. of the 

Summons ; I may repeat my suggestion that it may hâve been connected with Enoch, 

about whom a legend connected with two pillars is found in The Book of Constitutions 

issued in 1738. 

W. H. Rylands. 

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Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 



N The Moming Ghronicle^ The Morning Herald^ The Gazetteer, and 
probably in otber London newspaperô of Friday, Deceraber 29th, 
1780, an advertisement appeared as follows: — " At the Théâtre 
Boyal in Covent Garden, This Day will be présente^ The Suspicions 

Husband To which will be added (first time) a new 

Pantomime caird Harleqnin Free-Mason. To conclnde* with a 

Procession of the Principal Grand Masters, from the Création to the 

présent Century, dressed in the Habits of tbeir respective Ages and Countries. With 

new Mnsic, Scènes, Dresses, Pageants, and Décorations. Books of the Songs, with an 

explanation of the Pageant, to be had at the Théâtre." 

The next day, December 30th, the newspapers named gave, in commendatory and 
practically identical terms, ealogistic notices of the Pantomime, from which we gather 
that the words and mnsic were written and composed by Charles Dibdin, the song 
writer, and that the vocalists included Mr. Reinhold and Mr. Wewitzer, ail well-known 
names of the time.^ The following is the acconnt of the plot or story, somewhat abbre- 
viated, but otherwise given Verbatim from thèse contemporary journals : — 

** The opening scène is conformable to an Opinion held by ail Freemasons, 
namely, * that the Original of Architecture is taken from that great Building, MAN.' 
Conformable whereunto three Masons are discovered at work on a Figure, representing 
a man, composed of the différent Ordera of Architecture, as, The Head, of the Composite 
— The Arms, of the Corinthian — The Body, of the lonic — The Thighs, of the Doric — and 
The Legs, of the Tuscan. On the signal for leaving Work they départ, when the shade 
of Hiram Abbiff (Grand Warden to King Solomou, and his Assistant in building the 
Temple) rises. From the aforesaid Stone Figure he produces an Harlequin ; gives him 
a Mason*s Apron, instructs him in the use of Tools, and endows a Trôwel with Magic 
Power which is to assist him in ail his difficulties ; then he leaves him. Harlequin*s 
first sight of Columbine (who is the Daughter of a Jew) is with her Father while he is 
surveying a hoase which he is about to hâve built : and the first proof Harlequin gives 
of the virtue of the Trowel is by shewing the Building compleated at a touch .... 
The second Exerfcion of Harlequin's Trowel is among a group of Peasants at the Alps, 
by raising a Temple of Bacchus ; and the next by a Représentation of the Wooden 
Building in Covenfc Garden where the Aloe was shown. Many more Adventures are 
introduced, and Changes of Scenery ; partie ularly a Frost Scène in HoUand, with 
Skaiters, to a tumultuous Sea, a Court of Justice to the Market at Billingsgate ; and the 
whole interspersed with occasional Airs, Catches, and Chorusses, till Hiram Abbiff 
again appears, and obtains the old Jew*s assent to the Marriage of Harlequin and his 
Daughter. This Point setfcled, he signifies the necessity of his Attendance at a Grand 
Lodge ; it being the Anniversary Feast to install a new Grand Master of the Autient 

and Noble Order of Free and Accepted Masons. This naturally introduces 

* The song, " Hail Masonry, thou craffc divine," is, however, much older than Dibdin's time, and 
is attribnted in the Constitutions of 1723 to Bro. Charles Delafaye, " To be Sung and Play'd at the 

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A Uasonic Pantomime and some other Ptays. 13Ô 

a Procession, wherein, bv a regular Succession of ail the principal Grand Masters, from 
Enoch to the présent time, the Antiquity, Advancement, and Dignity of Masonrj are 
illustrated in a pleasing and instructive Manner." 

A rather discordant note, however, was struck by The Moming Post of the same 
day, which, after some remarks derogatory to pantomimes generally, went on to say, 
" we shall content ourselves with laying before our readers a faithf ul narrative of the 
incidents and scènes exhibited in the new pantomime, without pretending to pass any 
censure on a kind of performance the absurdity of which no one in his sensés ever 
disputed " ; and gave an account of some minor incidents in the pièce, one being, " A 
Dutch Gentleman, whom the Jew has designed for his Son-in-law, sends him a pig 
which makes him fly into a violent passion.'* Possibly a key to the disapprobation 
expressed by The Moming Post may be found in the circumstance that the Stage 
Manager at Covent Garden Théâtre— from 1774 to his death in 1820— was Thomas 
Harris, who, " was accused of sacrificing to spectacle the best interests of the drama ; "^ 
though of the laudatory notices in ail the other newspapers it may be truly said that 
their unanimity of sentiment was only equalled by the identity of the language which 
gave expression to it. 

We are indebted to Bro. Edward Armitage, who has unearthed and sent us the 
following copy of a pamphlet' in the Library of the Suprême Council 33°. This may 
perhaps be called the Third Edition, as two différent prints dated 1780 are known to 
exist, one in the collection of Bro. J. T. Thorp, of Leicester, and the other in that of Bro. 
T. Francis, of Alresford. In Bro. Thorp's copy the Order of Procession is foUowed by 
the songs, etc., while that of Bro. Francis is arranged in precisely the same manner as 
the Suprême Council Copy of 1781, which is now given in full. 












Harlequin Free-Mafon, 

As performed at the 




^ " Dictionary of National Biography," xxv., 24# 

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14Ô Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Loâge. 


PrintedforG. Kearsly, Fleet- Street. 


SONGS, &c. 

Air I. Mafon^s Glee 

Behold the model of onr art, 

Work on whatever plan, 
Masons must borrow still some part 

From that great structure Man. 
Hère, 'well to captîvate the sight, 

The orders ail agrée ; 
Proportion, strength and force unité 

With ease and symmetry. 
But see, the sun rides down the West, 

And hark our sign from work to rest. 

Eecit. Hîram Abiff, 

Lo, from amîdst those sacred glades 
Where rest grand heroes, statesmen, kings, 
And othcr antient Masons* shades, 
The ghost of Hiram Abifî springs. 


Chief of the Mason's noble art, 
While of a Master they make choice, 
Shall I not take an active part, 
And loudly join my brethren's voice ! 

FalL mystic figure — to oar eyes 

Présent a motley child of mirth ; 

Whose featly pranks shall ail surprize 

And give to vacant laughter birth. 
Move, kneel, stoop, stand, spring, dance, leap, ran, 
Now mark me, for the charm is done. 


In ail y our dealings take good care, 
Instructed by the friendly square, 
To be true, upright, just and fair, 

And thon a fellow-craft shall be ; 
The level so must poise thy mind, 
That satisfaction thou shalt find 
When to another Fortune' s kind : 

And that*s the drift of Masonry. 

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A Masonic Pantomime and some other Flays. l41 


Tlie compasB t*otlier two componnds, 

And says, thoagh anger^d on jast grounds, 

Keep ail jour passions within boands, 

And thon a fellow-craft shall be. 


Tbas, symbols of onr order, are 
Tbe compass, level, and tbe square, 
Whicb teacb us to be just and fair, 
And that's tbe drift of Masonry. 


Use this, and tbis, in evil bour, 
And tbou sbalt wonder at tbeir power • 
Tbou'lt see me yet, ère it bo nigbt, 
Begone, and revel in deligbt. 

.Aie III. Maater Mason, 

Thb Sun's a Free-mason, be works ail tbe day, 

Village, city and town to adorn, 

Tben from labour at rest, 

At bis lodge in tbe West, 
Takes witb good Brotber Neptune a glass on bis way. 

Tbence ripe for tbe fair 

He Aies from ail care, 

To Dame Tbetis's cbarms, 

Till rous'd from ber arms 

By tbe morn. 




So do we, our labour done, 

First tbe glass, 

And tben tbe lass, 
And tben 

Sweet slumbers give fresb force 

To run our course, 
Tbus witb tbe rising sun. 

Tbe course of tbe sun ail our mysteries defines ; 

First Masonry rose in tbe East, 

Tben to no point confin'd, 

His rays cbeer mankind, 
Besides, wbo'U deny tbat be well knows tbe signs ? 

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142 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, 

The Grand Master he 
Then of Masons shall be, 
Nor shall aught the Craft harm, 
Till to ahine and to warm 
He has ceas^d. 

Then like him, our labor done, &c. 



Air IV. In the Temple of Bacchus. 

At a jovial meeting of Gods once on high, 

Ere Bacchus was hatch'd from old Jupiter's thigh, 

This one told his story, and that sung hîs song, 

And did what he could lest the time shonld seem long. 

ApoUo read verses, the Grâces wreath'd flowers, 
The Mases of harmony sung for the powers, 
Bully Mars cracked his joke, and slj Momus his jest ; 
Yet their mirth wanted something to give it a zest. 

Says Jove, our assembly to-day's pretty full, 
Yet I don't know how 'tis weVe horribly dull ; 
We hâve ail the ingrédients that mirth should inspire, 
Btit Bome clay-born alloy damps our heav'nly fire. 

I bave it — in this l'U a mixture inclose 

Of ail the delights whence good fellowship flows 

And we*ll taste of its produce, for mirth's bad at best 

When there's anything wanting to give it a zest. 



So saying, so doing, he buried the shrine, 
Which quickly sprung up in the form of a vine, 
The leaves broad and verdant, the fruit deepest blue, 
Whence a juico flow*d that health, love or youth might renew. 

Its influence to feel, they came round it in swarms ; 
Mars took draughts of courage, and Venus drank charms ; 
Momus swallow'd bon mots, Cupid love, — so the rest, 
While Jove spurning Nectar, cry'd, — This is the zest. 

DuETTO. Skaiters. 

This bleak and f rosty morning^ 
Ail thought of danger scorning, 

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 Mdsonïc Pantomime and some other Play s. I43 

Our flpirits briskly flow, 

WeVe ail in a glow, 

Thro* the sparkling snow, 

While a skaîting we go, 

With a fa, la, la, la, 

To the sonnd of the merry horn. 



From right to left we're plying, 
Swifterthan winds we're flying, 
Sphères on sphères surronnding, 
Health and strength abounding. 

In circles we sleep, 

Onr poise still we keep, 

Behold how we sweep 

The face of the deep, 

With a fa, la, la, la, 

To the Sound of the merry horn. 


Great Jove looks on us smiling, 
Who thus the time beguiling, 

Where the waters he seal, 

Still rove on onr keel, 

Our weapons are steel, 

And no danger we feel, 

With a fa, la, la, la. 
See, see our train advances, 
See how each skaiter lances, 
Health and strength abounding, 
While horn s and oboes sounding 

The Tritons shall blow 

Their conch-shells below. 

And their beards fear to show, 

While a skaiting we go, 

With a fa, la, la, la, 

To the Sound of the merry horn. 



Catch. Latoyers. 

Lawyer Brief , why ail this stir ? 
XJpon my word you wrong me, Sir, 
I am not, (as you say) a thief , 
Jn truth, you wrong me, Lawyer Brief, 

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144 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronatt Lodge. 

Who was it took a double fee ? 
Who rapp'd ? Who put in a sham plea ? 
Who should be pillor'd ? Who*B a thief ? 
Who should be hang'd Y Cheat, Lawyer Brief ! 

Corne, be friends, nor make this roui, 
Brothers as we are to fall out ; 
Besides, thief should not cr y out thief ; 
Tou understaud me, Lawyer Brief. 

Récit. Hiram Ahiff, 

Thy périls are ail past, thy toils are o'er, 
Nor ever shall hard fortune vex thee more ; 
Leave me thy jarring foes to reconcile, 
And foUow where in wonder lost the while, 
The Mason^s noble science now shall see 
In ail the pomp and pride of pageantry, 
Where brothers, gracing Hiram's memory 
Upon the ancient stock a scion graft, 
Cbusing a master to the royal craft. 

■ ! 

>ry, J 




Hail masonry, thou craft divine, 
Glory of earth from heaven reveal'd, 

Which does with jewels precious shine, 
From ail but masons eyes conceard : 

As men from brutes distinguish'd are, 
A mason other men excels : 

For what's in knowledge choice or rare. 
But in his breast securely dwells P 
His silent breast and faithful heart 
Préserve the secrets of our art. 


From scorching heat and pieroing cold, 
From beasts whose roar the forest rends, 

From the assault of warriors bold 
The mason's art mankind défends. '' 

Ensigns of state that feed our pride. 

Distinctions troublesome and vain, 
By masons true are laid aside, 

Art's frec-born sons such toys disdain. 

Ennobled by the name they bear, 

Distinguish'd by the badge they wear. 


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A Masonic Pantomime and some other Play s. 145 

Sweet fellowship, from envy free, 

Priendly converse of brotherhood, 
Tbo lodge's lasting cément be, 
Whicb bas for âges firmly stood. 

Be justice donc in every lay, 

To tbose wbo bave enricb'd tbe art ; 
Down to tbe master of tbis day, 

And let each brotber bear a part. 
Let noble masons bealtbs go round, 
Tbeir praise in lofty lodge resound. 

Chorus. In the procession, 

Your cymbals tune, yonr voices raise, 

Sing tbe name, 

And migbty famé 
Of Solomon in ever living lays. 
He our Grand Master sball remain, 
Wbile lofty pile and boly fane, 
Vestige, or monument of taste, 
Or glorious masonry sball last. 


Récit. Hiram. 

I am come to crave admittance for 

A brotber and a visiter : 

One from bis duty never swerving, 

Wbo will prove faitbful and deserving ; 

And wbo would fain tbe bretbren greeting, 

Be présent at tbe gênerai meeting. 

Chorus. The Last. 

Pill a capacious bowl, 

Wbile we proclaim, 

Tbe mason's famé. 
Wbicb ever sball extend 
From East to West, from Pôle to Pôle, 
In spite of Envy's poison'd sbaft, 

Let Cowan's wbat tbey will prétend, 
Let tbree times tbree, 
The signal of our plaudit be, 
Wbile we to&st to tbe King and Craft. 


Digitized by 


146 Transactions of the Quatuor OoronaU Lodge. 







Enoch — Two Men heartng Pïllars, 

The first mason Enoch, son of Jared, erected 
two pillars, one of stone, the other of brick ; 
he carved also the arts of geometry and masonry 
Anno Mandi 987. Josephns afBrms the stone 
pillar remained in Syria tîU his time. 


Nimrod^Four Hunters 

Two Men heartng the Tower of Bahel. 

Grand Master Nimrod, son of Cash, built 
the stately city of Babylon, and its tower Babel, 
the largest work the world ever saw ; he built 
also Nineveh where he long reigned ; and an- 
der him floarished many learned mathematicians, 


whose successors were long after called Chaldees 
and Magi. The dispersion and confusion of 
tongnes at Babel gave rise to the masons facul- 
ty and universal practice of knowing each other 
by signs and tokens, which became the source 
of symbolical ieaming throaghont the East. 


Mitzraim — Two Attendants 

Two cairyïng the Pyramid. 

Mitzraim, the second son of Ham, bailt 
many magniûcent ediûces in Egypt. The fa- 
mous pyramid, the first of the seven wonders of 
art ; 360,000 masons were employed on it 
twenty years : he also assisted at the building of 
Thebes, which had a hundred gâtes, aud formed 
the colossal sphinx, whose head was 120 feet 
rçund, Anno Mundi 1816. 

Digitized by 


A Mdsonic Pantomime and soms other Plays, 147 

rVfcli BANNER. 

8ÎX Soldiers—Four Trumpets 

Six Singera, Bitto 4 Boys—High Friest, 

Thro7ie, vnth Solomon ; on eue side Hiram Abiff, 

the other, Hiram, King of Tyre, 
Solomon, Great Grand Mastor of masonry, 
foanded bis temple, tbe second wonder of the 
world, Anno Mnndi, 2993, assisted by bis De- 
pntj Grand Master, and most accomplisbed 
designer, Hiram AbifP, sent by Hiram King of 



Qusen of Sheha 
Four Egyptian Virgins hearing Vases, 
Four Men hearing the Temple, 
Solomon divided the fellow-crafts into certain 
lodges, witb a master and wardens in eacb, that 
tbey might reçoive commands in a regnlar man- 
ner, might take care of tbeir tools and jewels, 
migbt be regnlarly paid every week, and be 
dnly fed and clotbed, <fcc., and the fellow-crafts 
took care of tbeir succession by edacating enter* 
ed apprentices. Thus a solid fonndation was 
laid of perfect barmony among the brotber- 
bood ; the lodge was strongly cemented witb 
love and friendsbip ; every brother was dnly 
taught secrecy and prudence, morality and good 
fellowship ; eacb knew bis pecaliar business, and 
the grand design was vigorously pursued. 


Darius Hystaspes — Zoroaster, 

TwOj hearing the Temple of the Sun, 

Darius Hystaspes, wbo married the daugbter 

of Gyrus, confirmed bis decree of rebuilding 

the temple of Jérusalem : and in the 6tb year 

of bis reign bis grand warden Zerubbabel, 

finisbed it. In bis reign Zoroaster flourisbed, tbe 

Arcbimagus, or Grand Master of tbe Magi, 

wbi)se disciples were great improvers of geome- 


try and tbe libéral arts ; and wbo erected many 
famous temples dedicated to tbe Sun. 

Digitized by 


148 Transactions of the Quaiuor Ooronati Lodge. 

Augustus Gassar — Agrippa — Two So Idïers 
Two^ hearing the Panthéon. 
Grand Master Angustus Csesar, with bis 
deputy, Agrippa, built the grand portico of 
the Panthéon at Rome, the Temple of Mars 
the Avenger, the Temple of ApoUo, and manj 
other édifices. Augnstus dying, said, " I foand 
** Rome bnilt of brick, bat I bave left it built 
'^ of marble." Hence the Angustan stile, the 
union of wisdom, strength and beautj. 

Titus Vespasian 
A Soldier bound, whofired the Temple 
Ttvo Ouards — Two, hearing the Temple onfire 
Grand Master Titus Vespasian built the 
Temple of Peace, and raised bis famous Amphi- 
théâtre, where the rich composite order was first 

Constantine — Tioo Bo7nan Senators 
Four y carrying the Trinmphal Arch. 
Constantine erected at Rome the last triumphal 
arch in the Augustan stile, and at liis new me- 


tropolis Byzantium, (which he called Constanti- 
nople) the amazing serpentine pillar, with bis 
own eqnestrian statue. 

William the Gonqueror — Britannia — Gundolph 
De Monigomery 
Two, hearing the Tower of London. 
William the Gonqueror appointed Gundulph 
Bishop of Rochester, and Roger de Montgo- 
mery, Earl of Shrewsbury, to be at the head of 
the fellow-crafts, building for the King the 
Tower of London and tbe castle of Dover, <&c. 


Edward III — Black Prince 

King John of France and his Son Philip in Ghaina 

Lord Audley — Two, hearing Windsor Gastle. 
Edward the llld became patron of arts and 
sciences. He set up a table at Windsor 600 

Digitized by 


A Masonic Pantomime and s<yine other Plays. 14Ô 

feet in circQmference, for feasting the gallant 

knights of ail nations, and rebnilt tbe castle and 

palace of Windsor : lie was bimself a Royal 

Grand Master, meliorated ihe constitation, and 

died after building many stately édifices, the 

2l8t oî Jane, 1377. 



Xlltb BANNER. 

Elizaheth — Essex — Sir Waltcr Raleïgh 
Four Mas ter Masons with Aprons. 

Ëlizabeth, in wbose reign tbe trae Aagnstan 
stile revived in England, bearing tbe free-masons 
bad certain secrets wbicb could not be revealed 
to ber, and being jealous of ail secret assem- 
blies, sent an armed force to break np tbeir 
annual lodge at York, on St. Jobn's day 1561 ; 
but Sir Tbomas Sackville, witb otber free-ma- 
sons, making an bonourable report of tbe Soci- 
ety to tbe Queen, sbe after esteemed tbem as a 
peculiar set of men, wbo cultiyated peace and 
friendsbip, arts and sciences, witbout meddling 
in affairs of cburcb or state. In ber reign 
Grand Master Sir Tbomas Gresbam built tbe 
first Royal Excbange, 1570. 


Pope Julitis II — Michael Afigelo — P ramante 

Raphaël — Jocunde — San Oallo 

Two, bearing St. Peter' s 

Pope Julius, Second Grand Master of Rome, 
rctained Bramante as bis arcbitect, and Grand 
Warden, in 1503, wbo drew tbe grand design 
of St. Peter's in Rome. The Pope witb Bra- 
mante, led a solemn assembly of Cardinals, 



clergymen, and craftsmen, to level tbe foot-stone 
of tbat great Catbedral in due form, A.D. 
1507. Raphaël of Urbino, Jocunde of Verona, 
Anthony San G allô, Michael Angelo, thèse four 
succeeded each otber till tbat lofty temple 
was finisbed by Michael Angelo. Julius died 
at Rome, aged 90 years, on Pebruary 17, 

Digitized by 


150 Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronatî Lcdge. 


James I — Inigo Jones — Two, heartng Whïtehall 
Quy Vaux — Sir Thomas Pervit — A Nohleman. 

James I, a Royal Brother Mason, Grand 
Master, establîshed tbe Aagnstan stile in Eng- 
land ; he appointed Inigo Jones his Grand 
Surveyor and Grand Master of ail the lodges in 
his kingdom ; he ordered him to draw the plan 
of a new palace at Whitehall. The King, with 
his Grand Master, Jones, and his Grand War- 
dens, William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, 
and Nicholas Stone, the scnlptor, attended by 
many brothers in due form, and other eminent 
persons, walked to Whitehall gâte, and levelled 
the foot-stone of the new Banquetting-Hoose, 
with three great knocks, and lond hnzzas, soand 
of trnmpets, and a parse of broad pièces of 
gold laid apon the stone for the masons to drink 

" To the King and the Craft." 


Charles II — Sir William Davenant — Killegrew 
Général Monk — Dutch Oaptain 
Four Dutch Sailors — L'trd Mayor 
Two, hearing the Monument. 
Charles the Ild in his travels h ad been 
made a free-mason ; he encouraged the Aagns- 
tan stile. In the year 1666, the King, with Tho- 
mas Savage, Earl of Rivers, and his Depnty, 
Sir Christopher Wren, levelled the foot-stone of 
the new Royal Exchange, October 23, 1667, 
the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, <&c., attending. 
The King, with Grand Master Rivers, his 
architects and craftsmen, nobility and gentry. 
Lord Mayor and Aldermen, bishops, clergy, 
(fec, in due form, bevelled the foot-stone of the 
new St. Paul's, designed by Deputy Grand 
Master Wren, a.d. 1673. In this reign was 
erected the Monument, Ghelsea Hospital, Green^ 
wich Hospital, <&c. 

William IIÏ. — Queen Mary, 
Two to carry the Ohélish, 
William the Illd was privately made a 
Free-Mason j his Grand Master Wren built the 

Digitized by 


A Masonic Pantomime and some other Plays. 151 

palace at Kensington, and finished Chelsea Hos- 
pîial, also Hampton Court, and Greenwich 


Sir Christopher Wren — Two Nohlemen. 
TwOj bearing 8t. PauVs. 
Sir Christopher Wren finished St. Paurs, 
London, and celebrated the capestone when he 
erected the cross on the top of the cnpola in 
July, A.D. 1708. The Church of Walbrooke 
is famous ail over Europe, and justly reputed a 
master-piece. Perhaps Italy itself can produce 
no modem building that can vie with it in taste 
or proportion. Hooke has comprized the cha- 
racter of Sir Christopher Wren in thèse few but 
comprehensive words : " I must afl&rm," says 
he, " that since the time of Archimedes, tLere 
scarco ever has met in one man in so great a per- 
fection, such a mechanical hand and so philoso- 
phical a mind." He died Feb. 23, 1733. 

TtoOj hearing Insignia — Six Knights Tempîars, 


Boyal Arch — Six Gentlemen Masons 

Tiao, bearing the Pageant. 


Modem Mcbsons — a Tiler. 

Two Masons hearing Solomons Pillar. 

Four Stewards toith Wands. 

Grand Marshal toith Truncheon. 

Secretary toith Cross Pens. 

Grand Treasurer with Keys, 

Six FelloW'Grafts drawing the Throne. 


The Oentleman's Magazine for 1781, vol. li., 58, printed in its columns, an 
'* Order and Explanation of the Procession of the principal Grand Masters, as given in 
the Pantomime," and thus proceeded, " To give magnificence a meaning, and unité 
Antiqnarian knowledge with polite entertainment, was a task hitherto unattempted by 
the contrivers of our Pantomime exhibitions. Such praise, however, the acting 
manager of Covent Oarden Théâtre may justly claim, on the score of Harlequin 
Freemason, which is now representing before greater crowds than perhaps were 

ev©r attracted by Perseus and Andromeda, the Râpe of Proserpine, or the 

Digitized by 


152 Transactiong of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, 

celebrated Sorcôrer. The beauty of the first scène, in which a setfcing sun is 
admirably contrived, the Datch winter pièce, with nnmberless skaters moving in the 
niost natural attitudes, and above ail, theimperfect building, finished in a moment at 
the oommand of Harlequin, can be excecded only by the pomp of the historié procession 
which closes the whole, and offers the richest and most intelligent spectacle that ever 
yet appeared on an English stage.*' 

Itwillbeseen that the setting sun accords with "Airs I. and III.," and the 
skating scène with the ** Duetto," in the Book of Songs. The introduction of the 
skating élément inclines one to suspect that the Covent Garden Management of that 
day in a measure proceeded on the Unes so candidly laid down by Mr. Vincent 
Crummles, in " Nicholas Nickleby,"^ and adapted their productions to existing 
" properties " ; especially as in notices otherwise eulogietic it is incidentally mentioned 
that portions of the scenery used in the skating scène had appeared in some previous 
production. The pantomime, however, seems to hâve been fairly successful, and The 
Moming Chronicle of January 20th, 1781, had an advertisement : " On account of the 
great demand for places at each night's performance of the new Pantomime call'd 
Harlequin Freemason, ladies and gentlemen may dépend on its being represented every 
night till further notice." This continued to be the case until February 6th, 1781, after 
which date it wasplayed at irregular intervais until December lOth, 1781, when it made 
its last appearance, being played for the sixty-third time. It was throughout played as 
an after-piece. 

In March, 1781, there was advertised as in a few days to be published, " Number 
2 of the Monthly Lyrist, Containing favourite Songs, including those of Harlequin 
Freemason." As a fact, some, but not ail, of the songs, etc., in the " Book of the Songs," 
were included, whilst an additional one is added, as being sung by Mr. Doyle. In " A 
Collection of English Ballads," vol. iii., 1790, the same song is described as " The 
Coachman's Song, in Harlequin Freemason, Sung by Mr. Doyle ; Composed by Mr. 
Dibdin." The words of it are. 

Hère I was my good Masters, my name's Teddy Clinch, 

My Cattle are sound and I drive to an Inch, 

From Hydô Park to White Chappel I well know the Town, 

And many's the time Fve took np and sot down. 

In short in the Bills^ l'il be bound for't there's not - 

A young youth who like Teddy can tip the long trot. 

Oh the notions of life that I see from my box 
While fares of ail kinds come about me in flocks ; 
The Sot, who I drive home to sleep out the day ; 
The kind one who plies for a fare at the Play ; 
Or your gents of the law, there, who, four in a lot, 
To Westminster Hall I oft tip the long trot. 

My Coach receives ail like the Gallows and Sea, 
So I touch but my Fare, yoa know all's one to me, 
The men of the Gown, and the men of the Sword, 
A Ma'am or a Gambler, a Rogue or a Lord, 
To wherever your'e going I well know the spot, 
And do you tip a tizzy, l'il tip the long trot. 

* Knd of Chap. XXII, ^ Bills of Mortality ; prac^ically, London. 

Digitized by 


A Masonic Pantomime and some other Plays. 153 

This song was, no donbt, a new featare introduced to kcep alive pnblîc înterest 
in tlie pièce, whicb, after it liad rnn some fîve weeks seems to bave a little declined in 
popalarity, tbougb it was played at intervais nearly throu^^b 1781, and acbieved at 
least a respectable success. 

Beverting to tbe " Procession of the principal Grand Masters," wbicb was sncb 
a prominent part of tbe spectacle, tbe descriptions sbow tbat tbese were mainly 
eitber taken bodily, or were parapbrased, from tbe Book of Constitutions, of wbicb tbe 
tben current édition was tbat of 1767, tbougb some portions of tbem seem to 
point to " Tbe Complète Freemason, or Multa Paucis for Lovers of Secrets," (1763) 
as tbeir source. In tbe description under " XIII^ Banner," tbe âge and date of deatb 
of Eapbael of Urbino, tbe Artist, are erroneously given as tbose of Pope Julius II. of 
Borne. Witb tbis exception tbe descriptions are pretty correctly taken from one 
or otber of tbe sources quoted. Tbe symbolioal omaments borne witb tbe varions 
pillars comprise tbe pillars of Enocb, tbe Pyramid, and Solomon's pillars ; wbilst tbe 
XVP^ Banner was attended by " two to carry tbe Obelisk." Wbat especial référence 
was intended by " tbe Obelisk ** is not easy to surmise. Tbere were tben in London at 
least tbree obelisks ; one in Fleet Street, mentîoned in contemporary advertisements in 
tbe Moming Chronicle^ relating to, " No. 1, at tbe corner of Fleet Street, opposite tbe 
Obelisk," and " tbe Warebouse, No. 98, Fleet Street, six doors from tbe Obelisk " ; 
a second in Red Lion Square, witb a tradition attacbing tbat it marked tbe burial 
place of Oliver Cromwell ; and a ibird in St. George's Cirons, Soutbwark, erected in 
1771 in bonour of Lord Mayor Crosby, for baving, witb bis coUeagae, Alderman Jobn 
Wilkes, obtained tbe release of a printer wbo was imprisoned for publisbing tbe 
Parliamentary debates. Wbefcber eifcber of tbese suggested tbe obelisk in tbe 
pantomime must be regarded as doubtful ; if tbere was any local meaning, tbe 
association would ratber seem to be witb Kensingfeon Palace, Cbelsea Hospital, 
Hampfcon Court Palace^ or Greenwicb Hospital, wbicb are ail named witb tbe particnlar 
Banners under wbicb tbe obelisk was ranged in tbe Pantomime. Witb tbe X LX'^ Banner, 
devoted to tbe " Royal Arcb," are " two bearing tbe Pageant." Tbe advertisement 
quoted at tbe commeucement of tbis paper names *^ Scènes, Dresses, Pageants, and 
Décorations," foUowed by *'an explanation of tbe Pageant," tbe last being used to 
signify tbe elaborate displays wbicb bave become fréquent in tbe last few years, and an 
imposing examp^e of wbicb many of us saw in 1907 at Bury St. Edmunds. For 
tbe meaning of '* pageant " in its lesser seuse, tbe following passage from '* Literary 
and Qrapbical Illu*:)fcrations of Sbakspeare and tbe Britisb Drama," 1831, may assist : — 
" Tbe stages of tbe ancient religions mysteries and miracle plays, called ' Pageant- 
bouses,' consisted of large and bigb frame*carriages, mounted on wbeels, and formed 
like dwellings contaîning two stories. ... A décoration, or Pageant, representing 
tbe gênerai scène of tbe pièce, was erected on tbe stage. . . . Tbe Tbeatres were 
drawn from one street to anotber in appointed order as eaob pièce concluded, . . . 
and nine separate Pageants were exbîbited in one day." Probably tbe ^' pageant," as 
bere used, was a painted représentation of some kind, borne alof t ; being, in fact, itself 
a banner, but, of course, mucb smaller in size tban tbe X[X^^ Banner to wbicb it was 

No cast, or list, of tbe performera is given, eitber in tbe advertisements, play- 
bills (wbicb are virtually complète for tbat period of Covent Garden at tbe Britisb 
Muséum), or newspaper notices; but a play-bill of "A New Pantomime: Tbe Cboice 
of Harlequins," produced at Covent Garden on December 26tb, 1781, bas a MS. cast 
writton in tbe margin \ and tbe date and class of tbe pièce is so ne^r to our pantomime 

Digitized by 


154 Transactions of the Quatuor GoronaM Lodge. 

as to jastify the inference that at least sorae of the performers took part în the last- 
named. Their names are: — Mr. Bâtes, Bdwin, Darley, Doyle, Stevens, Mrs. Martyn 
and Mrs. Morton, and this is sapported by the nearly identical cast given in Genest's 
" English Stage," 1832, for " The Mirror or Harleqain, Every-where," played at Covent 
Grarden, 1779-80. Doyle, we know, daring the rnn of the pièce, sang "The 
Coachman*s Song;" and the newspaper notices farther tell us that Reinhold sang, and 
Wewitzer played, in the pièce. 

The pantomime having been played for the last time on December lOth, 1781, 
the Covent Garden playbills show that, in conj anctîon with several other pantomimes, 
it sapplied matcrial for " Harleqain's Chaplet," described as " a collection of favourite 
scènes from the foUowing celebrated pantomimes," which was played 34 times between 
December, 1789, and Febraary, 1790 ; and the " Skaiter*s Doet," beginning ** This 
bleak and frosty morning," was sung by Mr. Gray and Mr. Linton in "Harlequin's 
Muséum, or Mother Shipton Triumphant," played 46 times between December, 1792, 
and April, 1793. No masonic characterg appear to be introduced in either of thèse 

That " Harlequin Free-Mason " was well received and thought of appears from 
" The History of the Théâtres of London," 1796, vol. i., 100, which, after referring to 
it as " contrived by Mr. Missink," says : — " This being the best and grandest panto- 
mime exhibited for many years, brought cro.wded honses ;" whilst the BiograpMca 
Dramatica, 1812 (edited by Stephen Jones), speaks of it as " this splendid and very 
successful pantomime." No mention is made of it either în Q-enest's " English Stage," 
1832, or in ** The Annals of Covent Garden Théâtre, from 1732 to 1897," by H. 
Saxe-Windham, 1906. 

Ail the songs noticed as sung in the pantomime are contained in " The Songs of 
Charles Dibdin," 1842 ; but the " Coachman*s Song " appears there under the name of 
"The Long Trot," and in a différent part of the collection. This work states that 
Dibdin received only £70 for his work in " Harlequin Free-Mason," and ** 1 therefore," 
says he, " determined never again to hâve any concern in a pantomime." Missink, who 
superintended the production, is described as having formerly been " Garrick's 
pantomimical factotum." 

It may be considered a rétrograde step, — perhaps, in a double sensé, — to go back 
from 1780 to the year 1731, when on January Ist, tbere was presented at the 
Haymarket Théâtre, for the third time, " The Gênerons Freemason," of which Geoest's 
" English Stage " gives the following description : " An Opéra in three acts, written 
by Chetwood. Sébastian, a Freemason, and Maria run away together — on their 
voyage to Spain they are taken prisoners by Mirza, and carried into Tunis — the King 
of that place falls in love with Maria, and the Qaeen with Sébastian — Mirza tums ont 
to be born of British parents, and to be a Freemason — he eflfects the escape of the 
levers and himself — thèse scènes are serions and written in blank verse or rhyme — the 
other part of the Opéra is quite comic — Old Moody is resolved that his danghter, 
Cœlia, shall marry Squire Noodle — she is in love with Claremont— his servant, Davy, 
plays tricks with Noodle, under colour of initiating him in Freemasonry — at the 
conclusion Claremont is married to Cœlia, and Noodle to a kept mistress — thèse scènes 
hâve a considérable degree of low humour." The text of the production thus described 
was notodin A.Q.G.y vii., 87 and 190, and we shall hâve no difficulty in agreeing with 
the opinion expressed by the late Bro. G. W. Speth that " the play itself is of no 
value." But there are one or two points of interest arising upon it. The fnll title of 

Digitized by 


Ji Masonic Pantomime anà some other Play s. 155 

the published play (of wbich there are two copies at the British Muséum) is "The 
Gênerons Freemason, or the Constant Lady. With the Humours of Squire Noodle and 
bis man Doodle— a tragi-csomi-farcical ballad Opéra. In three acts , i . Bj the 
author oî the Lover's Opéra. . . . London, printed for J. Roberts in Warwick 
Lane, and sold hj the Booksellers of London and Westminster. 1731. Price one 
Shilling." This was the same J. Roberts who, in 1722, had published from the same 
address, " The Old Constitutions Belongîng to the Ancient and Honourable Society of 
Free and Accepted Masons." To "The Gênerons Freemason" a dedication was 
appended as follows : — 

" To the Bight Worshipf ul the Grand Master, Deputy Grand Master, 
Grand Wardens, and the rest of the Brethen of the Ancient and Honour- 
able Society of Free and Accepted Masons, This Opéra is Hnmbly Inscrib'd 
by your most Obedient and Devoted Servant, The Author, 

A Freemason." 

The noticeablo resemblance of this dedication to the opening words of the well- 
known dedication of " Long Livers . . . . By Eugenius Philalethes," 1722, will 
be remarked. 

It would seem that " The Gênerons Freemason " had been presented to a larger, 
if not more critical, audience at Bartholomew Fair, before being played at a permanent 
Théâtre, and probably its stay at the Haymarket was but short, for Bïographtca 
Bramatica (1812) quotes, " the complier of Whincop's catalogue says it was only per- 
formed at Bartholomew Fair." The f oUowing is extracted from " Meraoirs of Bartholomew 
Fair," by Henry Morley, London, 1880.—" In the Baily Post for August 21, 1730, and 
following days, it is announced that at Oates and Fielding's great Theatrical 
Booth, at the George Inn Yard, Smithfield, during the time of Bartholomew Fair, 
will be presented an entire new Opéra, caird the Gênerons Freemason or the 
Constant Lady, with the comic Humours of Squire Noodle and bis man Doodle, by 
persous from both the Théâtres. The parts of the Ktng of Tunis by Mr. Barcock ; 
Mirza, Mr. Paget ; Sébastian, Mr. Oates ; Clerimont, Mr. Fielding ; . . . Queen^ 
Mrs. Kilby ; Maria, Miss Oates .... Ail the Characters newly dress'd with 

several enter tain ments of Dancing Beginning every day at two 

o'clock." A feature of this somewhat indiffèrent spécimen of the drama was that it 
contained no less than 25 songs, the only one of them having référence to the Craft 
being the concluding one, commencing with the lines, 

" By Masons Art th' aspiring Dôme 
In varions Columns shall arise :" 
and being sung, with a fitness which is not easy to appreciatc, by Neptune, and a 
chorus. Perhaps it may be a redeeming feature that the air was " set by Mr. Hen. 
Carey." Most, if not ail, of the songs appeared in a communication signed by Bro. 
Alfred F. Robbins in The Freemason volume for 1906. 

The author of the "Gênerons Freemason," William Rufus Chetwood, 
seems to bave been fairly well-known; indeed, it is hardly uncharitable to 
say that he appears to bave been better known than respected. Works of 
référence say that, in addition to the " Lover's Opéra," of 1729, allusion to which 
is made on the title-page, he published two plays called the " Stock-jobbers " and 
" South-Sea or the Biter Bit," in 1720. Morley's " Bartholomew Fair," already 
quoted, says that in 1731 there was presented a new Dramatic Opéra, called the 
" Bmperor of China, Grand Vulgi," or "Love in Distress," and " Virtue Rewarded " 

Digitized by 


156 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

written by the anthor of the " Generoas Freemason " with the comical hamonrs of 
Squîre Shallow in his Treatise of Marriage, and his man Robin Booby, intermixt with 
varietj of songs, Old Ballads and Country Dances." It may well be that " The Emperor 
of China, Grand Yulgi " was a production similar in its leading featares to *^ The 
Gênerons Freemason," but I hâve not been able to see any copy of it.^ It was 
apparently a fashion in plays of the class to introdace by way of comic relief a master 
and his servant. " Social Life in the Reîgn of Qneen Anne," by John Ashton, 1897, 
mentions as being presented at Bartholomew Fair, '* a new droll called the Siège of 
Barcelona .... containing the Pleasant and Comical Exploits of that Benowned 
Hero Captain Blnnderbnss and his man Sqnib ; " and this featare may well hâve been 
a snrvival or imitation of snch prototypes as Don Qaixote and Sancho Panza ; Hndibras 
and his man Ralpho ; or, at a later period, Mr. Geoffry Wildgoose and Jeremiah Tngwell 
of " The Spiritual Qnixote." 

Ghetwood at first combined the occupations of a bookseller with writing 
for the stage ; and it is snrmised that Roberts, who published the " GeY)erous 
Freemason," had sncceeded him in the former business.^ There is " A 
General History of the Stage .... coUected and digested by W. R. 
Ghetwood, Twenty years Prompter to his Majesty's Company of Comedians at tbe 
Théâtre Royal in Drury Lane, London," 1749. Why, we do not know, but Ghetwood 
seems to hâve been distrusted and disliked. George Steevens, the Shakespearian Gom- 
mentator, called him " a blockhead and a measureless and a bnngling liar,"' whilst a 
quite récent writer guards a certain statement with the remark that it is " according to 
Ghetwood, .... but it requires more than Chetwood's uusupported authority to 
render it probable," and again '* this addition is apparently due to Ghetwood, and is 
therefore to be accepted with caution."^ 

Whilst Ghetwood foUowed the calling of a bookseller he issued a play, " Love 
in a Forest, a Comedy. As it is Acted .at the Théâtre Royal in Drury Lane, By His 
Majestys' Servants. By Mr. Johnson. London. Printed for W. Ghetwood at Cato's 
Head in Russel-street, Govent-Garden ; and Tho : Edlin, at the Prince's Arms, over- 
against Exeter-Exchange in the Strand. 1723," which is only noticeable as containing 
a dedication " To the Worshipf ul Society of Free-Masons," more conspicuous for flattery 
of the Order than for grammar, and subscribed, " With the greatest Respect and Duty, 
your most Obedient and devoted Brother and Servant, Charles Johnson."^ I regret to 
hâve to say that the play thus heralded is, throughout, an unblushing plagiarism— indeed, 
substantially a mère transcript — of Shakespeare's " Asyou like it," with the Pyramus and 
Thisbe interlude from his " Midsummer Night*s Dream " thrown in ; no effort being 
made to disguise the fraud, and the address of Adam to Orlando, and the *^ Seven Ages " 
soliloquy of the melancholy Jaques, being copied in without the altération of a single 
Word. The ostensible author seems to hâve had implicit confidence in either the 
forbearance or the ignorance of his brethren : whilst the direct connexion of Ghetwood 
with this impadent publication tends to show that George Steevens' outspoken criticism 
of him was not far wide of the mark. 

Prologues and Epilogues of a Masonic character were fréquent in the days when 
a particular play was bespoken and patronised by the Craft, but additional attraction 
was provided at the Dublin Théâtre on the occasion of the benefit of Bro. Thomas 

* See, as to ** the ^cumenioal Volgee in Ohina," in connection with the Gormogone, Bro. R. F. 
Goald'a paper on ** The Duke of Wharton," etc., A,Q.C,t viii., 114. * 

' D.N.B. X. 211. « Allibone, Dict. Bng. Lit. I. 377. 

* Pastoral Poetry and Pastoral Drama ; by Walter W. Greg. 1906. 

* This dedication is printed in«M uU, with a note by the late Bro. G. W. Speth, at A.Q.C* vli., 57. 

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A Masonic Pantomime ahâ some other PÎays, 15/ 

Griffifch, a comedian, and Past Secretary to tlie Grand Lodge of Ireland, in November, 
1733, when the play was *' The Twin Rivais, with a Free Mason's Song between erery 
Act, and a Prologue and Epilogue proper for tho Occasion."^ 

A considérable interval of time séparâtes the pantomime of 1780 from "The 
Freemason ; a Dramatic sketch in one act, in verse. Imitated from the German," which 
will be found in " The Freemason's Quarterly Review," for 1836, pages 299 and 432, 
and consists of some 700 lines in rhyming couplets. The dramatts personœ are but four; 
Caroline, a young lady sought in marriage by the Baron, who is a Freemason ; her Uncle ; 
the Count — who being inquisitive about Masonic secrets bas, by a stroke of genius 
which compels admiration, boaght the lease of a house in which a Lodge meets, in order 
to become possessed of them, He says, 

** I pack the pondérons parchment in my chest, 
" Thinking the Mason's secret I possessed ;" 
and on finding the desired arcana are not included in the purchasé uses somewhat lurid 
language; — and Hans, servant of the Count; the latter pair being in legitimate 
succession to Squire Noodle and his man Doodle, of Chetwood's " Gênerons Freemason." 
Some portions are a little prosaic, for instance, 

" Scène II. 
Enter the Count. 
Count, Good morning, Caroline ! 
Caroline. 1 hope you're well. 

wherefore so sad ? 
Count. Oh ! griefs I may not tell." 

The Count is disgustedat finding that he cannot satisfy his curiosity, and induces 
his nièce to attempt to obtain the information from the Baron, who, however, defeats 
the conspiracy and gains the hand of Caroline, the baffled Count being left lamenting. 
The production is signed at the end " Latomus," the pen-name of Bro. John Lane, 
D.C.L., P.Prov.J.G.D. Oxfordshire, who died in October, 1850^. It is due to his memory 
to say that in his dramatic sketch there are to be found some passages quite worthy of 

Entreated by Caroline to reveal to her the secrets of the Craft, the Baron 

" So dearest Caroline, reject not now 

The man who dares not break a solemn vow ; 

For could I yield, you would yourself disdain 

The man who basely sought your heart to gain ; 

And he who bas to Masonry been true 

Will also be most faithful, love, to you." 

And almost the closing lines of the play are, 

'' A Mason is a man whose sole delight 
Is to be honourable and upright ; 
To be a really honest man's his aim, 
Ue sees but vanity in rank or name ; 
To ail who are in distress, in every land, 
He is a friend, and gives a brother's hand ; 
His word's a sacred pledge of truth, and he 
Ne'er utters, e*en in jest, a falsity." 

• Bro. Dr. Chotwode Crawley ; A.Q.C. xiii., 147-8. 'F.Q. Review, 1850, 49, 507. 

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158 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati ijoàge. 

The latest play with which I attempt to deal in any détail is " The Freemason, 
or The Secret of the Lodge Koom! a domestic drama, in two Acts; by J. P. Hart, 
aathor of *Mary le More,' *The Bell-Ringer of St. Paiirs/ &c., Ac, &c. ; as performed 
at the Queen's Théâtre. London : J. Pattie, Brydges Street, Covent Gardon.** No date 
is gîven, bat the pièce is stated to hâve been first performed> Jane 3rd, 1839 ; the action 
taking place in a village in the West of England, and the costumes being those of the 
reign of George II. Some anachronism is évident in the setting for Scène I., which 
inclades an Hôtel, ** The Masons* Arms," as well as " The Tempérance Coffee and Cook 
Shop "; the latter, at any rate, being bat an intelligent anticipation. It is Saint John*s 
Day (presamably in Summer, as there is dancing on the green), and the landlords of 
the rival bouses of entertainment follow np a wordy war with a bout at fisticuffs, after 
which arrives " The Procession of the Lodge, in the following order. 

Two Tylers, with drawn swords, 

Band of Martial Masic, 

Two Brethren bearing flags, on which are painted emblems, 

The Brethren two and two, 

The Stewards with White Rods, 

Grand Masters in Dress, 

Past Grand do do. 

Présent Grand Officers, with Badges, &c., 

Secretary with his Bag, 

The Square and Compass, 

Book on Cash ion, 

The Level borne, 

The Plumb Raie, 

Flag— TAe Eye, 


White Banner on Two Pôles, on which is inscribed, 

Know Thyselft 

A Canopy, under which is the Grand Master, 

Mr, Thomgrove ; 

The whole closed by 

A Triumphal Arch, with the Figures of 

Faithy Hope, and Gharityy 

It may, in passing, be worth calling attention to the marked similarity of this 
" Procession of the Lodge " to the " Procession of St. James' Lodge, Tarbolton," as 
shown in an engraving after D. 0. Hill, R.S.A., contained in "The Land of Bums, a 
séries of Landscapes and Portraits," 1840; but representing an incident contemporaneous 
with the poet. 

The 80-called " Grand Master ** (Mr. Thomgrove) delivers an al fresco address 
in which, speaking of the origin of Freemasonry, he says, 

" Wisdom and Truth sank the foundation ; Friendship hew'd the quarry ; Unity 
brought cernent ; Charity and Pity shed holy tears to mix it with ; Virtue, with her 
white apron of purity, toiVd as a laborer ; Justice held the level ; Love, the rule ; 
whilst the Guardian Angel of Peace, standing on the Scaffold of Grâce, dropp*d in the 
key-stone of Religion, to complète and bless The Masonic Arch.'* The Grand Master's 

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Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. 

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A Masonic Paniomtme and some other Plays, 159 

son, Frederick, is in, love with Ellen, a simple village maiden, who will never rest till 
she is told the secrets of the Craft, and who sings a song, " The Ladies' Lodge," in 
whicb occar the startiing lines, 

*' Then women's delight shall be ail the night, 
To riot, talk loud, and be boozing." 

The Grand Master, for no reason that is apparent, confides to bis son that be bad 
some tirae before, and under circumstances of the extremest provocation, murdered bis 
wife in the Lodge room, with the Tyler's sword, so that ifc is not surprising to find him 
represented in the following scène — a Masonic Bail — as "absorbed in melancholy," 
whicb is not alleviated wben bis long-lost brother, George, rushes in, denounces him as 
a mnrderer, and on tearing down a panel of the wall, discloses a female corpse, thus 
occasioning the stage direction, "A gênerai bnrst of borror, on whicb a tableau of 
curiosity and terror is formed, and the Act quicklj drops." 

In the second Act, the brothér, who alludes to bimself as " the bligbted tree of a 
family orchard," and appears to bave lived up to the description, bopefully proposes to 
blackmail bis eldcr brother, the Grand Master, to the tune of one balf of bis propertj, 
and bints at the révélation of ''a yet more awful secret connected with the Lodge 
room." After some of the tallest talk ever beard on tbis side of the Atlantic, between 
the bligbted tree and bis nephew, the landlord of the Tempérance establishment sings 
an appropriate and cheerful ditty to the tune of " The Mistletoe Bougb," with a refrain 
to each verse of *' Oh, the Lodge-murder, oh !" and the villain brother, now describing 
bimself as " a black monster," confesses to bis nephew that, in addition to committing 
a murder as yet undiscovered, be bad robbed the Lodge of jewels, plate and money, and 
présents a written confession for the purpose of clearing the Grand Master. The 
nephew leaves the room, and the villain is in the act of taking back the con- 
fession, wben the village maiden darts out from an old clock case, seizes a pair of 
pistols, whicb the murderer and thief bad convenlently placed upon a table, — but the 
situation must speak for itself : 

[Musîc. Ellen stands in an attitude between the table and George. He 
recoils to the corner.] 

" Ellen (ezclaims) : Now, you villain, I bave you ! Stir not, or with thèse weapons 
of death, l'il level you humble as the dust I trample on. 

George : Foil'd, and by a woman ! 

Ellen: Yes, by a woman! a feeble woman:. in virtue's cause a cbild can beat 
a giant ! The strengtb of heaven nerves my arm — the copfession is 
mine! " 

George attempts to fly, but is intercepted by the united force of the rival, but 
now friendly, landlords, both of wbom he knocks down ; Ellen fires at, wounds him, and 
" seizes him by the throat with one hand, the loaded pistol leveled at bis head with the 
other, and backs him off H."^ 

The final scène is the Lodge Room — " with spectators, — soldiers, Masons with ail 
the insignia of the Craft — Jury, Judge, etc. — Mr. Thorngrove in black, pale and resigned, 
leaning on bis son — The Judge in centre, Clerk, etc. — Plaintive music."^ 

The Grand Master is in the act of pleading guilty — (it is not clear to what, or 
wby, as bis speech is wholly spontaneous, and provides the only " business " of the scène, 
30 far) — wben Ellen leads George in with the pistols still to bis head (presumably 

* Stage direction in the te?(t, ' Ihid, 

Digitized by 


160 Transacttfms of the Qtuituor Coronati Lodge, 

she had re-loaded the one slie had fîred), the confession in her hand, and dcDonnces hîm 

as the real mnrderer. George objects that the writing is no proof, when Margaret, 

yfho had incidentally appeared as a hawker earlier in the pièce, déclares he]*se]f the 

supposed mmrdered wife of the Grand Master, Mr. Thorngrove, and with her closing 


" There stands^ the only mnrderer and robber of the Lodge !" 

we corne to the final stage direction. 

" A burst of delight fills the room— George is secured— Mr. Thorngrove lifts his 
hands in thanksgiving to heaven — his wife prostrat^s herself at his feet — Frederick 
and Ellen kneel at each side of him, with hands nplifted — the landlords, with their 
wives, jamp for joy hand in hand in each corner— ail the Masonic emblems are arranged 
behind and on — a picture of pleasnre in ail but the guilty George. 

The cnrtain Falls." 

I ask to be forgiven if I hâve lingered too long with this glittering gem in the 
diadem of English drama. 

On 12th September, 1901, there was prodnced at the Shaftesbury Théâtre, 
London, a farce, entitled " Arc you a Mason ?." I am told by some who saw it that 
it was adapted from the German, and that it sufficed to amuse the audience. 

I can say but little as to other anthors or actors of thèse plays having been 
members of the Craft. Both Charles Johnson and Chetwood, as we hâve seen, claim to 
be so in the dedications of their respective works ; and in Stephen Jones* " Masonic 
Miscellanies," 1797, the song, '* By Masons' art the aspiring dôme," appears as *' Snng 
by Brother Oates in The Gênerons Freemason, 1731." From Bro. Henry Sadler, who 
bas with accustomed kindness referred tothe Lists at Grand Lodge, I leam that in 
1730 a James Oates was member of London Lodges 21 and 39 ; bnt beyond this the 
Lists fail to assist ns. 

Of persons in actnal or conjectural association with " Harlequin Freemason," 
Charles Dibdin's name was long a household word for his naval and patriotic songs ; 
John Edwin played at Covent Garden from 1779 till his death in 1790, one of the old 
bibulons school, whose adventures may be read in " The Eccentricities of John Edwin, 
Comedian," 1791 ; and Ralph Wewitzer had a réputation for his performance of Jews 
and old men in character. He compiled " The Theatrical Pocket Book," 1814, and " The 
School for Wits," 1815, and it is sad to find that " on 1 January 1825 the old actor, 
Ralph Wewitzer, died in great destitution. "^ 

An acknowledgment is due to Bro. Thomas Francis for his kind loan of the plays 
by Charles Johnson and J. P. Hart. To Bro. W. John Songhurst I am indebted for 
suggesting to me the subject of this paper, and for his valuable collaboration in 
preparing it. 

* Notes aruL Queries, 9. S, xi., 247, 1903. 

Digitized by 



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Digitized by 


Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 161 



HIS MS. is contained in a collection of miscellaneons papers and notes 
on varions subjects, curions and scientific, among which maj be 
nientioned, "Notes on Gunnery," " Djalling,'* " Of Organs,'* some 
mathematical puzzles, varions recipes, bnilding formnlœ, and specially 
at the end détails and sketches illustrating the construction of roofs. 
They appear to be mostly, if not entirely, in the same handwriting, 
which is very neat and legible (as i\\G fac-similé pages given herewith 
will show), and the sketches are drawn with great accuracy and précision. Sandwiched 
into the middle of this heterogeneons collection is a copy of the Masonic document of 
which I am going to présent a transcript to the readers of A.Q.G. ; it commences 
abruptly without any heading or indication of its nature on folio 136, and is continued 
on one side of the paper only down to folio 156, where it ends with the signature, 
" Henery Heade, 1675." 

I can find nothing to indicate who and what Henery Heade was, whether he was 
the owner and writer of the collection of papers or not, or with what object he transcribed 
this Old Charge, but I imagine the date given (1675) to be the actual date at which the 
copy was written, because at the end of the volume is a sketch described as " A framed 
Roofe (of Irish oake) very antient at East Coker 1677-8 January y« 23," so presumably 
the writer made his notes straight on through his book irrespective of their subjects. The 
first page, which may, psrhaps, hâve borne the writer s name, bas unfortunat«ly been 
eut ont. There are several différent watermarks on the paper, of which the most 
fréquent is what seems to be a bugle or horn, surrounded by a curved Une like an um, 
with Q A below. I sent a tracing of it to the keeper of the MSS. at the British Muséum, 
who told me that it was certainly in use in 1675, though he was unable to fis its date 

The papers are contained in one folio volume, handsomely bound in calf with 
gilt-edged leaves, which is now in the Library of the Inner Temple in London, having 
been bought by that Society, in 1859, at M. Libri's sale of MSS. ; it had previously 
belonged to the late Mr. J. 0. Halliwell-Phillips, F.R.S , whose library stamp it bears ; 
it was mentioned in Cochrane's Catalogue of 1826, and hae in it the bookplate with arms 
and crest of Pennell Hawkins, an ancestor of the présent writer, who was born in 1716, 
and became body-surgeon to George II. and serjeant-surgeon to George III. The book 
has apparently been re-bound by its présent owners, for it bas their device impressed on 
the cover. 

The MS. has never been printed, so far as is known, and I consider myself very 
fortunate to bave been able to obtain leave from the Masters of the Bench of the Inner 
Temple to print it at length, and to give the fac-similés of two of its pages which 
accompany this article. It is classified by Bro. Hughan in his " Old Charges " (2nd Ed., 
1895) as XIO, because at that time its locality and contents were unknown to him, but 
on the discovery that the MS. was in the Inner Temple Library, and on perusing a copy 
of it made for Grand Lodge Library by Mr. Rogers, Sub-Librarian of the Inner Temple, 
he designated it 04, though it is reall^ the oldest of thç C class or Plot Family, and is 

Digitized by 


162 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

probably a copy of tho "parchmenfc volnm" referred to by Dr. Plot. It is identical in 
arrangement with the "William Watson" MS , and botli foUow closely the first 600 
lines of "Matthew Cooke," but diverge at that point. 

So far as is known as yet, the ** Henery Heade " and " William Watson " MSS 
are the only ones that contain the statement that Henry VI. perused and approved the 
Charges, and neither of them contains any mention of the mysterious " Naymus 
Grœcus," and, eo far as I can ascertain, thèse two MSS. alone allnde to a punishment 
for going ont at night unaccompanied by a witness. Great importance was attached to 
the " William Watson " MS. on its discovery by both Bros. Hughan and Begemann, but 
it seems to me that the " Henery Heade " MS. is even more important, since it is the 
earlier of the two by twelve years. 

Bro. Hughan, who has made a spécial study of thèse " Old Charges," and whose 
opinion carries with it the greatest possible weight, writes : — " Although the MSS. 
hâve much in common, and represent the same Family of MSS., I feel assured that the 
"William Watson " was not copied from the ** Henery Heade MS.," and that probably 
they were not transcribed from the same original ; for, after allowing for the vagaries 
of scribes, it appears to me that the variations in the two documents are referable to 
différent prototypes, both of which hâve long been missing. 

" The older ScroU lacks the Coat of Arms and the motto, " In the Lord is al our 
Trust," which are spécial features of the Roll of 1687. 

" There are quite a number of omissions, différences and additions which prove 
that the "Henery Heade MS. " is an independent version, so far as the " William Watson " 
is concerned. There are several blanks in the " Henery Heade " which are not to bc 
found in the " William Watson," the latter being usually complète as to ail points, e.g.^ 
the minimum mileage for obligatory attendance is left unwritten, and so as to the 
" theif " or " theives " in one of the Charges, and so other portions of less conséquence, 
such as the King in St. Alban's day being a Bagan, the last word being omitted." 

After a careful comparison of the Henery Heade and William Watson MSS., I 
hâve arrived at the same conclusion as Bro. Hughan, viz., that they were not directly 
transcribed from the same original, though I think there can be no doubt that they are 
descended from a common ancestor, but through how many intermediate steps it is now 
impossible to say. 

I am rather puzzled by the inconsistent spelling of the Henery Heade ; sometimes 
a word is modernized, sometimes it is not, and one would hâve thought that an educated 
architect, as the writer of the scrapbook would seem to bave been, could bave avoided 
some of the errors into which he has fallen, but perhaps his object was to copy his 
original exactly, which has been my object in presenting the foUowing transcript, 
orîginally made by Mr. Rogers and carefuUy corrected by me fiom the original MS. 
1 hâve marked where each page begins in the MS., and I hâve numbered the lines of 
each page for convenience of référence :— 

A Transcrïpt of the *^ Henery Heade M S.'* in Inner Temple Lïhrary. 

(p. 136) Thankes be to our Gracions God, fatlier and former of Heaven and Earth, & of 
ail things that in them is, that he would vouchsafe of his of his Glorious Godhead for to 
make so many things of divers vertues for Mankinde, for he made ail the Worldly 
things to be Obedient and subject to man, and ail things y* be Commendable & of 
6 wholsome nature he Ordainned for mans food and sustenaacc, and allso he hath given 
to man will and Understanding of divers scinciices and Craffts by the w^hich wee 
may travell in tl^is world to cet our liuinç with : to niake diuers things to Gods Glory, 

Digitized by 


The lienery Heade MS., 1675, 163 

and pleasare <fc allso for oar Base and profitt ; the which things if I would rehearse 
them ifc were to lon<y for me to fcell or to write, wberefore I will leave. but I will sbew 
10 and fcell yo* part of thera how and in whafc manner thafc Science o£ Géométrie firsfc 
began and wbo were the founders thereof, and of other Crafffcs more as it is nofced in 
je Bible & in otber Storyes more how and in what manner this worthie Science of 
Géométrie first begann I will tell yoa as I said before yo^ shall Undorstand that there 
be seaven liberall Sciences by the which seaven scinences and Graffts in the world 

15 were first fonnded and Espacially ont of Géométrie for he is the cause of ail the other 
the which seaven Sciences be cJklled thns for the first he is called fandament of 
sciences his name is G rainer he teacheth a man right fully to write and to speak 
truely; the second is Rhetorick and he teacheth a man to speak formably and faire ye 
third is for the teaching a man to descerne trath from falshood and most Commonly 

20 y* is called the Art of sophistry the fourth is called Arithmetick w'^^ teacheth a 
man y*^ Crafft of number for to reckon and make account of ail manner of things 
{p, 137) the fift is Géométrie which teacheth a man meefc <fc measare dnd pondération 
or weightiuess of ail manner of CrafEta the sixth is masick y' teacheth the Crafft of 
Songs of Organs & haw-boyes trnmpe and harp and ail other appertaining to them 
the seventh is Astronomy that teacheth a man to know the hours of the Sann & of 

6 the Moon & of ail other Planetts and Starrs of heaven our Intent is principally to 
treat of the first foandation of y® Worthy science of Géométrie & who were the 
founders thereof as I said before, y' there seaven Liberall Sciences y' is to say Seaven 
Sciences or Craffbs y^ be free in themselves the which seaven Scinces bee ail by one y* 
is Géométrie A Géométrie that is much as to say the measure of y° Earth et sa ad quid 

10 il et terru lat et me tror mensure unu Géométrie mensuram terra nos fri y* is to say in 
English y' Géométrie is as I said of Geo in Greek is Earth & that is to say measure, 
this is this name of Géométrie Compounded and is said the measure of the Earth 
marvell yea not that I say ail Sciences leane only by the Science of Géométrie for 
there is no Artificiall or handy Crafft that is wrought with mens hands but is wronghfc 

16 by Géométrie and a notable Cause for if a man work w^** his hands he worketh with 
some manner of toole, and there is no Instrum^ of materiall things in this world but 
Cometh of the Kinde of Earth and to Earth it will returne againe and there is no 
Instrument y^ is to say a toole to work but it hath some proportion Eïher more or less 
and proportion is measure and the toole Earth and therefore every Instrum^ is Earth, 

10 and Géométrie is said the measure of the Earth wherefore I may say that Géométrie 
ail men And by Géométrie for ail men in the world liue by the labour of thcir hands, 
many more probàtions I would tell yo** wherefore that Géométrie is the Science that 
(p. 138) resonable men liue by wherefore I leaue it at this time for the long praise 
of writeing, and now I will proceed further on my matter yo" shall understand thafc 
amoungsfc ail the Craffts in y® World of manual Craffts Masonrie hath the most 
nofcabillity and most part of this Science Géométrie as it is noted and said as well in 
5 the Historys and in y« Bible and in the mass-Storys and y* is a story 

provided & allso in Doctors of Sbories y' be not named bedaste immagine me imagine 
mundi et hellidore et Ethimolligoniura methodus Exus et manton and others 1 suppose 
it way well be said for it was found as it was noted in the Bible in the first Book of 
Génisses Adam y' linely maie af ter the sun decended downo the Seventh 

10 âge of Adam before Noahs ttood there was a man called Lamech the which had two wives 
the one height Adalla the other Zillah by the first wife that was called Adalla he gotfc 
fcwo sons fche one was named Jabell the other the other height Juball the Elder son 
Juball was the first was the first that Ever found Géométrie intentdon ut utquie pastor 

Digitized by 


l64 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronaii Lodge, 

thafc is to say ye father of men came tlie raaster maison & Governour of this world 
13 when he made the Citty of Ezenoch that was the firsfc Citty that Ever was made & 
that made Gaine Adams Son and gaue it to his owne Son Zenoch and gave the Citty 
y® name of his owne Son and called it the Citty of Zenoch and now it is called Esram and 
there (p. 139) was the Science of Géométrie and masonrie first Occupied and Contrived 
for A Science and for A Craft and so may wee say y* this was the first Cause & 
foandation of ail Sciences and Craffts and allso this man Jabell was called Pastor 
Pastororu and as the master of y° storys saith & Bede de de imagine mundi 
6 plenonicon and other more saith y* he was the first j^ ever made pétition of Land that 
everj man mighfc know his owne Ground & laboar thereapon as his owne he parted 
flocks of Sheepe so that euery man might know his Owne sheepe and wee may say that 
he was the founder of y* science and his Brother Jabell was the first founder of musick 
as Pitagores saith in Pollicroniton. And the same Isadore in his Ethiraologus in ye 
10 sixth book he saith that was the first foand' of mnsick in Songs & of Organs & of 
Trump and he founded ye Science of Smiths Crafft & pondération of his Brothers 
hamers and that was Tuball-Cain as the Bible saith in the same 

Chapter of Genesis that Lamech begatt on his other wife. y* height Zillah a son 
and a Danghter whose names were called Tnball Cain and his danghters name 

15 Mahemah and as PolUtronicon saith that (p. 140) Snme men did say that she 
was another mans wife wheither it be so or no wee aflBrme it not but this 
Tnbal Cain was the first founders of Smiths Craft and of the other CrafFts of 
Metall that is to say of Iron and Brass of Gold and of Silver as forreign Doctors 
do Intreat and his sister Mahemah was y* first founder of Weauers Crafft for 

6 before that time there was no Cloath woven but then they did spinn yarn and Knitt 
and made tliem such cloathing as they could gett : but as that woman Mahemah 
found that Crafft of weauing and therefore it is called womans Crafft and thèse his 
Brethren had Knowledge before that God would take Vengeance for Sin Either by fire, 
or water, and they had great Care how they might do to save the Sciences that they 

10 had there found and to take their Councill together and by ail other Witts they said 
that there were two maner of Stones of such vertue y^ tke one would not burne and y* 
is named mai*ble and another stone that would not Sinke in waters and that stone is 
named laterus and so they Uivised to write ail the Sciences that they had 
found in thèse two stones so y' if God should take vengeance by fire y* then the 

16 marble stone should not Burne and if God send vengeance by Water that then 
(p. 141) the other should not Drown*d and so they Provided their Elder Brother 
Jubell that he would make the two Pillars of the two stones that is to say Marbel and 
Laterus and that he would write in the two Pillars ail the Sciences and Craffts that 
they had there found and so he did and therefore may wee say that he was the 

6 Cuninest in Sciences for he first began and performed the last and before 

knowing of that vengeance that God would send whether it should be by fire 

or water the Brethren knew it not by manner of Prophesie they wisht y* God would 

therefore they writt their Sciences in the two Pillars of Stone and 

Sume men do affirme that they writt ail the seaven Sciences in the said Stones and as 

10 they had in their minde that Vengeance would come so it was that God sent it by 
water for y* there came such a flood that ail the world was Drowned and ail men were 
dead therein save onely Eight Persons y* waa Noah and his wife and his three 
Sons and there wives of the which three sons ail the world came and their 
names were in this manner Shem, Ham, and Japhet : and This flood was (p. 142) 
Called Noah's Flood for he and his wife and there Ohildren were saved and 

Digitized by 


T'he Henery Eeade MS., 1675, l65 

no more and many yeares after as Cronicles telleth thèse two Pillars were foand 
Pollicroniron saith that a great Clerk that men call Pythagoras found y® one and 
Hormes the Philosopher found the other and they taught forth the Sciences y* they 
5 had their found euery Cronicle and Story and many other Charges and the Bible 
Principally do Wittness of the makeing of y® Tower of Babilon and it is written in the 
Bible Genesis the Eleventh how that Gain Noahs son Nimrod and he waxed a mighty 
man upon the Earth and he was a Strong man like unto a Gyant and he was a great 
King, In the Beginning of his Reign and Kingdome he was the true king of Babilon 

10 the Land of Shinar and thèse same mens Brethren Built the Tower 

of Babilon and he taught to his Brethren and Workmen the GrafPt of Masonerye and 
had with him many more Masons y" forty thousand & he loved thera & Gherished 
them well and as it is written Polïcon and in the mas storys and in other S tories 
more and a part of this wittnesseth in y^ Bible and in the tenth Ghapter where 

15 he saith that Ashur was nere of Kinn to Nimrods seed (p. 148) out of the 
Land of Shinar and he Built the Citty of Nineveh in places and other more 
and this he saîth ve itu terra mse mare egresus est Ashur et eddifficauit 
niu set in places ammatates et caleth et resy que ij Nineveh et caleth h'est diuitas 
magn reason wonid that wee should déclare openlie how and in what raanner the 

6 Gharges of Maisons y* first was found, and who gaue first to it ye name of Masonrie and 
yo^' shall know well that it is plainly Opened in Policonicron and in Methodus 
Episcopns et manter that Ashur that was a worthie Lord sent to Nimrod the King to 
send him Maisons and workmen of Graffc that might helpe him to make his Gitty the 
which he was purposed to make and finish, and Nimrod sent him Thirty hundred of 

10 maisons and when he should go and send them he called them forth and said yo^ mush 
go to my Gozin Ashur to help him to Build him a Citty but look yo^ be well 
Governed w'** such a Charge that it may be profitable both for yo** and me, 
and truely do your labour and your Craft and take reasonable for your paines 
according as yo** may deserve and I would that yo* loue together as y® were (jp. 144) 
Brethren and hold together truely and he that hath most Gunning tcach it to 
his Brother or fellow and look yo" govern your selves well towards your Lord and 
amongst yo' selves so y* I may hâve worshipp and thanks for sending yo^ and touching 
the Craft they Received their Charges of tbe King that was their Lord and master; and 

5 went forth to Ashur and Built the Citty of Nineveh in the County of Places and another 
Citty more that men call Resin that is a great Gitty between & Nineveh and in this 
manner Craft of Masonerie was preferred and charged for a Science 
and a Craft Reason would that wee should shew yo^ how and in what manner the Elders 
y* were before that time had there charges written in Latin and in french and how that 

10 Euclidus came to Géométrie wee shall tell yo" as I said as it is noted in y® Bible and 
other Stories in Did dccîmo carpitillo Genesis he telleth how y* Abraham came into 
the Land of Canan and the Lord appeared to him and said I will giue this Land 
unto thee and to thy seed but there fell a great hunger in the Land and Abraham 
tooke Sarah his wife w*^ him & went into Egypt in Pilgrimage while {p. 145) 
the hunger Endured he would abide there and Abraham as the Story saith was 
a wise man and a great Clerk and he called ail y^ Seaven Sciences and taught y® 
Egjptians y® science of Gramer, this worthy Clerk Euclidus was his SchoUer and 
learn'd of him Masonrie and he gaue it first the name of Géométrie but it is said in 

6 Isodus Ethimollogus in the book Ethemoligo carpitullo p' saith Euclidus was one of the 
f ounders of Géométrie and he gaue it name of Masonrie for in this time there was a water 
in the Land of Egypt that is oalled Nilo aad flowed in so farr in that Land y^ men 

Digitized by 


l66 transcictions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 

migbt not dwell therein and Euclidus taught them to make great Walls and Ditches to 
hold ont the water and he by Géométrie measured ont the Land & deplanted it into 

10 diners parts and made every man to know his owne parte and to close it with Walls and 
Ditches and then it became a plentifnll Conntrie of ail manner of fruité and young 
people botb men and women tbat there was so mncb people of yonng fruité y* tbe 
Country migbt not well line and the Lords of tbat Countrydrew tbera togetber & made 
a Councell how tbey migbt belpe tbeir Cbildren tbat bad not livelybood (p. 14.6) 
Compétent and able to finde tbem and tbeir Cbildren for tbey baue many amongst 
tbem & tbey beld a Councill and there was tbis wortby Clerk Euclidus and 
when he saw tbey were nofc able to bring about y*^ luatter he said to tbem will yo^ gine 
to me yo^ sons in Governance and I shall teach tbem in such a Science tbat tbey shall 

6 liue thereby Gentlemen like under a Condition yo" will be Swometome toperforme tbe 
governm^ y^ I shall set yo" so reason would y* euery man should grant to the tbings tbat 
are best to tbemselves and tbey put tbeir sons to Euclidus to govern at bis owne will 
and be taught them the Craft of Masonrie & gaue it tbe name of Géométrie because of 
parfcing tbe Ground tbat he bad taught tbe people in makeing tbeir Walls and Ditches 

10 before to hold ont the water and Isodus saith in bis Ethinnoliges tbat onlie caleth tbe 
Craft Géométrie and tbis wortby Clerk gaue it name and taught the Lords Sons of tbe 
Land y* be bad in bis teaching and he gaue them Charges y' tbey should call each other 
fellow and not otherwise because tbey were ail of one Craft and of Gentile Birtb borne 
(p. 147) and of Lords sons and allso he y^ was of most Cuning should be Governor over 
tbe work and should be called Master and other Charges more tbat be not written in 
the booke of Charges and so tbey wrougt with tbe Lords of that Land and made 
Citties, Castles, townes, and Temples and Lords and did liue honestly 

5 and truely by the said Craft, when tbe Cbildren of Israël dwelled in Egypt tbey learned 
ye Craft of Masonrie and afterward tbey were driven ont of Egypt tbey came into tbe 
Land of bebeast wbich now is called Jérusalem and there it was Occupied and tbe 
Charges holden and Kept and at the making of Solomons Temple that King David 
began and King David loved well Maisons and be gaue tbem Charges right nere as tbey 

10 be now & tbe making of Solomons Temple as it is said in tbe Bible as it is said in ye 
tbird Book Regu in tertio Regu Capitulo quinto tbat Solomon bad four tbousand 
Maisons and tbe Kings son of Tyre was bis master maison and in other Cronicles as it 
is said in Old Bookes of Mwonrie tbat Solomon Confirmed y® Charges y^ bis father 
David bad maisons and Solomon (jp. 148) bimselfe taught them tbeir manners very 
little difEering from the manners that are now used and from thence tbis Wortby 
Science was bronght into France & by the grâce of God into many other Wortby 
Régions and in ffrance there was a Wortby King y* was named Carolus Secundus tbat 
is to say Charles tbe Second and tbis Charles was Elected King of France by the 

6 Grâce of God and by lineage & yet sume will needs say y^ be was Elected only by 
fortune w*^^ is false and untrue as appeares by ye Cronicles plainly for he was of the 
Kings blood Royall and tbis same King Charles was a Maison before be was King and 
af terwards when he was King be loved well Maisons & Cherisbed tbem and gaue tbem 
Charges and maner of bis devise wbereof S unie be used now at tbis présent in France 

10 and Ordained tbat tbey should bave Reasonable pay and allso tbat tbey should 
Assemble once in ye yeare and Comune togetber of such tbings as were amiss and tbe 
same to be Received by Masters and and euery honest maison or any 

other Wortby workman y* bat h any loue to the Craft, and would know how ye Craft 
of Masonrie first came into England and by wbome it was Grounded & Confirmed 
(p. 149) as it is noted in S tories of England and in Old Charges of St Al bans time 

Diaitized bv 


The Henery Heade M S., 1675. 167 

& King Afchelstone declared that Amphabell came oufc of France into England and he 
brouglit St Alban into Christendome and he made him a Christian man à be brought 
w*'' him y* Charges of Maisons as they were in France and in other Lands and at that 

6 time the King of the Land y* was dwelled there as St Al bans is now 

and he had manj Maisons working on the towne walles and at y* time St Alban was 
the King's Steward, pay M' and Governour of the Kings work and loved well Masons 
and Cherished them well and made them good pay for a Mason tooke bat a penny a 
day moat and drink. and St Alban got of ye King y' euery mason shonld bave xxxt a 

10 weeke & iiijt for their none findeing and got them Charges and manners as St Amphabell 
had taught him and they do bnt a little dïfer frora ye Charges that be used now at thîs 
time and so thèse Charges and manners were used many yeares afterwards, they were nere 
hand lost nntill the time of King Althelstone and ye said Edwin loved well Géométrie and 
applyed (p. 150) himselfe busillie in the learning of that Science and allso he desired to 
bave y« Practise thereof wherefore he called unto him the best Masons that were in the 
Realm he knew well y^ they had the Practise of Géométrie best of any Craf t in the Realm 
and he learned of them Masonrie and Cherished tham & loued them well and he tooke 

5 upon hîm ye Charges and learned the manners and afterwards for the loue he had nnto 
the Craft and for y** good Groanding that it was found in the pnrchased of the King bis 
father that they should haue saoh a freedome to haae Correction within themselves and 
that they might haue Communication together to Correct sach things as were amiss 
within themselves and they made a great Congrégation of Masons to Assemble together 

10 at Yorke where he was himselfe and called ail the Old Masons of the Realm to that 
Congrégation and commanded them to bring to him ail the Writings of the Old Books of 
the Craft y' they had out of which Books they contriued the charges by ye Divise of the 
wisest Masons, that there were ; and commanded that thèse Charges should be Kept ; <fc 
he Ordained that such Congrégations might be called Assembly and he Ordained for 

15 them good pay that they might liue by honestlie the w^^ Charges I will hereafter and thns 
the Craft (p. 151) of Masonrie and their Grounds Confirmed in England. Right Worship- 
full Masters and fellows that be at divers Assemblys & Congrégations with the Consent 
of the Lords of this Realm hath Ordained and made Charges in the best wise that ail 
manner of men that shall be made and Allowed masons must be sworne upon a Booke 

6 to to keepe ^ keepe y" same in ail that they may to the uttermost of their Power and 
allso they bave Ordained that when any fellow shall be Receiued and Allowed that 
thèse Charges should be Read unto them and he to take bis charge and thèse haue been 
seen and perused by our late Sovereigne Lord King Henery the Sixth and the Lords 
of his Honorable Councell and they haue allowed therein and said y' they were right 

10 and good and reasonable to be holden and thèse Charges haue been drawne out of 
Divers Antient Books both of y^ Old law and new law and they were made & 
Confirmed in Egypt by the King and by the great Eclidus and at the makeing 
of Solomons Temple by King Solomon Davids son : and in France by Charles 
King of France and in England by St. Alban y* was the Steward to the King, 

15 that was at that time and afterwards by King Athelstone (p. 152) that was 
King of England and by his Son Edwin that was King after his Father as 
it is Rehearsed in divers Storys and Charges as Ensueth as the charge foUowing 
Particularly y*' first and Principall that yo^ shall be true men to God and the 
Holy Church and that yo^ shall neith' Error nor Herisie by y our owne Understanding 

5 or discreet or wise mens teaching and allso that yo" shall be trne leidge meu to y« King 
w%ut Treason or falshood and if yo" Know Either Treason or Treachery looke yea 
amend it if yo" can or else warne Privilly the King or bis Ruler or his Deputy or his 

Digitized by 


168 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Ijodge, 

Officers and allso y* yo^ shall be true one to another that is to say to euery Master and 
fellow of y° Science and Craft of maaonrie that be allowed maisons and to do unto them 

10 as they would tbey sbould do anto yo" and that euery mason Keepe true Councell both 
of lodge and Chamber and ail otber Councells that ought to be kept by way of Masonrîe 
and allso that no Mason shall be or for as farforth as 

he knowes and allso that he shall be true to his Lord and Master that he doth serve and 
truely look to his Masters Profitt and yo^ shall call masons yonr fellows or your 

16 Brethren and by no other foule name nor shall take yo' fellows wife in (p. 153) 
Villany nor further désire his daughter or Servant and allso y* you may pay 
for yo' méat and drink wheresoeuer you go to Board allso yo** shall do no Villany in 
the house whereby the Craf fc may be slanderred thèse be y« Charges in Generall and 
that euery mason should hold by Masters and fellows : now other singular Charges for 
a Masters and fellows firsfc that no Master, or fellow take upon him any Lords worke or 
other mans but he knowefch himselfe able and of Cunning to performe that so the Craft 
be not slandered nor disworshipped so y* the Lord may be well and truely served and 
allso y* no Master take no more worke but that he take it reasonably so that the Lord 
may be well and truely served with his owne good and pay his fellows truely their pay 

10 as the manner of Craft useth and allso no master or fellow shall supplant 
others of their work that is to say i6 he hauo taken a worke or stand master of a 
Lords work or other he shall not put him ont, Unless he be unable of Cunning 
to end the same and allso y* no master or fellow take no Prentice to be allowed 
his Prentise but for Seaven yeares and that Prentice to be able of Birth and (p. loi) 
of Liueings as he ought to be, and allso that noe allowance to be made Mason 
w^^out y or yi of his fellowes at least & he that is to be made mason to be a man on ail 
aides that is to say that he be f ree borne and of good Kindred and no Bondman that 
he haue his right Limbs as a man ought to haue ; and allso y^ no master or fellow put 

6 no Lords work to taske that hath been accustomed to be Journey work and allso that 
every one that shall giue pay to his fellow but as he may deserve so that yo** nor the 
Lord of the work be not deceiued thro fooles workmen ; And allso no workman or 
fellow do Slander other behinde his back, to make him loose his good name or his 
worldlie goods and allso that no fellow w*^in Lodge or without do minister Eveil 

10 Answre to other Ungocily with unreasonable Cause, allso that euery Mason shall do 
révérence to his Betters and shall put at Worshipp, And y* no mason shall play at 
Hazard or at the Dice or any other Unlawfull Games whereby the Craft may be 
Slandered. And allso y' no Mason should be any Ribauld in Letcherie to make the 
Craft Slandered : And that no fellow go into the towne in the night time w%ut 

15 a fellow to beare him Company and wittnesse that he hath beene in honest 
Company for if ho so do there A Lodge of fellows to punish him for (p. loÔ) 
that Crime. And allso euery Mason & fellow shall come to the Assembly and 
it be within and if he haue to stand there at y« 

Beward of Masters & fellows And allso that every Master and fellow if they haue 
tresspassed to stand at the Reward of Masters and fellows to make them accord there 

6 and if they may not accord them then they go to the Comon Law. And allso that no 
Master make any mould to leier ne square ne ralle to leier. And allso no Master- 
workman shall set a lier within Lodge or without to shew any Mould it stone with any 
mould of his owne makeing. And allso every mason shall Receive and Cherish 
strange Masons when they come out of the Country and sett them to worke as the 

10 manner is ; that is to say if they haue worke in Stones in place ; yo^ shall set them a 
forfcnight at the least and giue him his pay, and if he haue iiq stones for him to worke 

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From THE Original in the library of The inner Temple, London, 

foy Google 

Digitized by 


The Hemry Ileade HfS., 167o. 169 

thafc then he sball refresh bim to the next lodge. And allso jo^ sball and every 
mason truely sevve yo' Lord for your pay & Justly and trnely make and End yonr 
worke bo it task or Journey if yo** may haue your pay truely according as yo** 

15 ougbfc to haue. And allso that every mason shall worke truely upon the working 
day so y' he may receive bis pay and deserve it so that he may liue honestly 
upon the Holy-day. And y' euery Mason sball Receive yo' pay Qodiy of your (p. Iô6) 
Master and that yo^ sball Keepe due time of travell in your wages and in your 
rest as it is Ordained by the Masters Councell and allso if y^ any fellows sball be at 
discord and decension you sball truely treat between them to make accord and Agree- 
m* and shew no favour unto neither partie but Justly <fc truely for botb parties and y* 

c it be done in sucb time that tbe Lords worke be not bindred, and if yo^ stand Warden 
and haue any power under the Master yo* serve yo" shall be true to yo' saîd master 
while yo" be w^** bim and be a true Mediator between y« Master and bis fellows to tbe 
tJttermost of yo' power. And if yo" stand Steward Either of Lodge or Chamber or of 
Comraon bouse meeds, you sball giue a true ace* of tbe fellows good how it is dispenc*d 
10 and at w* time and at what time tbey will iake acoount And allso if yo^ baue more 
Cunning then your fellow that stands by yo^ in bis or your worke and see him in 
danger to spoyle bis stone and ask councell of yo^ you shall informe & teacb bim 
honestly so that the Lords worke be not Spoyled. 

Thèse Charges that wee haue declared & reccomended unto yo" you shall well & 
15 truely keepe to ye uttermost of your power so helpe yo** God (i; boUy Dame and by 
tbe boly Contents of this Book. 



(W.W. = The William Watson MS. M.G. = The Matthew Cooice MS.) 

P. 136 line 1. W.W. bas " Thanked be our glorious God <fec." 

„ „ 4. W.W. ** ail things that been Conmble of wbolsome nature." 

„ „ G. W.W. " wit & understanding." 

„ „ 7. " Travell " (also in W.W.) This is an obsolète use of tbe word, in tbe 

sensé of " to labour." 
„ „ 9. W.W. " whereof I will leaue.*' " To leave " = to stop, or desist. 
„ „ 10. W.W. "bow & in what wise." 

„ „ 11. W.W. " of y« other craf ts moe, as y* is noted in y« Bible & in otber 

stories moe." " Moe " is fréquent in Elizabethan Englisb for " more." 
„ „ 14. W.W. **by y* wbich seaven sciences ail y® sciences & Orafts in y® 

world wore first found." 
„ „ 15. W.W. " be is y® causer." 
„ „ 16. " Fundament " = foundation. Obs. in this sensé, but so nsed by 

Chaucer. W.W. " foundament." 
„ „ 18. " Formably " = in a formable (obsolète) or formai manner. W.W. 

„ „ 19. W.W. " The tbird is Logicke for be teacheth a man to discerne y® 

truetb from y® false." 
„ „ 21. W.W. " accounts." 

Digitized by 


170 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

P. 137 line 1. **meet" = mete {Obs. = measure). W.W. "mette." 

„ „ 3. W.W. " yc craf fc of songs of boyes & organs trump & harpe." 

„ „ 7. W.W. **y* therebeen seaven." 

„ „ 8. W.W. "y« w«*^ seaven sciences lean ail by one." M.C. bas "the 

whiche vii lyven (live) onle by Gemetry." Probably both the Henery 
Heade & William Watson readings are variants of Matthew Gooke. 

p „ 9. " A Géométrie" appears to be an error for "A Geometria" (= derived 

from Geometria). It seems to me that the writer of the original was 
hère explaining the dérivation of the word " Géométrie," for he adds 
" that is much as to say the measure of the earth," and then gives the 
source of the word " Geometria," as coming from the Greek. 
M.C. bas "And Geometry." W.W. bas "A Geomitro," which Bro. 
Hughan explains as standing for " Ad hoc Geomitro," but, with ail 
respect, I snbmit that my explan ation above makes the whole passage 
quite intelligible, -which I do not consider bis does. 
" et sa <fcc." A collation of the Matthew Cooke, Henery Heade and 
William Watson MSS. suggests the following restoration of the Latin 
qnotation in the original text from which each is derived. " Et sic 
dicitur a geo [ycw (y?)] quod est terra Latine et metron [/utérpoi/] 
quod est mensura. Unde Geometria est mensura terrœ vel terrarum." 

„ ,. 12. W.W. " and thus is this name." 

„ „ 20. " Wherefore &c." This passage should run " wherefore I may say 

that ail men live by Géométrie for ail men in the world live by the 
labour of their hands." 

„ „ 22. " Probations " = proofs. 

P. 138 line 1. "Praise." M.C. bas " presse " ; W. W. " pfesse." Obviously "press" 
is the original word. 

„ „ 3. W.W. "amongst ail y« coasts in y® World of manuell Crafts." 

M.C. " amonge ail y'' craftys of y'' worlde of mannes craf te.*' 

„ „ 4. W.W. " this science of Geometry." 

» „ 5. " mass-Storys." M.C. " in the master of stories." It is by no means 

clear who it is that is meant by " the master of stories " hère and also 
in P. 139 line 4. Herodotus is well-known as/* the Father of History," 
but he cannot bo the historian referred to. Dr. Begemann bas 
unhesitatingly identified the "master of stories" with Petrus Comcstor, 
author of "Historia Scholastica" (A.Q.C. xix. 67), a French theologian 
who died in 1183 ; but Bro. Dring, who bas devoted some time to 
trying to clear up the point, is of opinion that Josephus is meant 
(ibïd, p, 61), 

The missing words " and in Policronion ** may be supplied from 
W.W. The référence is to a work named ** Polychronicon " or 
General History from the beginning of the world down to the year 
1342, which was written in Latin by Rannlf Higden, a monk of 
Chester, who died in 1364 ; it was translated into English by John of 
Trevisa in 1387, and printed by Caxton in 1482. It had great 
popularity in England and a large circulation both in MS. and in 

>} n 6. "provided." No doubt an error for "proved" (î.e., irustwortht/) as in 


Digitized by 


The tienery Seade MS., 1673, l7l 

"àallso . . . manton." This extraordinary jumble maj be thns 
reconstracted by the aid o£ M.C. & W.W. " and also in the doctors 
(l'.e., loarned aufchors) of stories that be named Beda De Imagine 
Mundi and Isidore Etymologiarum andMethodiuB episcopus et martyr." 
Of the writers hère referred to the Vénérable Bede is well-known; 
Isidore was àrchbishop of Seville in 600, and wrote a book called 
Etymologies treating of the whole circle of the sciences; and Methodius 
was Bishop of Olympns and afterwards of Patara at the beginning of 
the 4th century. He is described by several writers as " bishop and 
martyr," as hère, but the évidence of his martyrdom is weak. He 
wrote a great many works, of most of whicb only fragments remain. 
He is said to hâve written a commentary on Genesis which is 
probably the work hère referred to. The référence to such persons 
proves that the author of the original history of which the Matthew 
Cooke, Henery Heade and William Watson MSS. are transcripts was 
no mean scholar. 
P. 138 line 8. '* way " is obviously an error for " may," which W.W. bas. 

„ „ 9. "Génisses," M.C. continues hère, "in the iiij chapter. And also aile 

the docteurs aforsayde acordeth therto And sûme of hem seythe hit 
more openly and playnly right as hit seithe in the bybulle Genesis." 
Clearly the copyist of Henery Heade lost his place and resumed at the 
wrong " Genesis." 

„ „ 9. "Adam . . . downe." This passage appears hopelessly corrupt, 

both in H.H. and in W.W. ; the latter reads " Adam this linely maili 
soon ast y° son descended downe." M.C. has "Adam is line lynyalle 
sone descendynge downe." Probably a new sentence commences with 
"the Seventh âge of Adam." 

„ „ 12. " the Elder son . . . father of men." This passage is very 

imperfect both hère and in W.W. ; according to M.C. it shonld rnn 
thus : — " the elder son Jabell was the first that ever found Géométrie 
and masonry, and he made houses and is named in the Bible Pater 
habitantium in tentoriis atque pastorum that is to say y^ father of men 
dwelling in tents y* is dwelliog houses." The Vulgate (Gen. iv. 20) 
has "Gennitque Ada Jabel, qui fuit pater habitantium in tentoriis 
atque pastorum.'' 
„ 13. " Juball " should be " Jabell." 

„ „ 14. " came . . . Ezenoch." We may correct this passage by the aid 

of Matthew Cooke ; it then runs " He was Cain's mas ter mason <& 

Govemor of his works when he made the city of Enoch." 

„ 17. "Esram." W.W, "Ephrarae." M.C. "Effraym." No doubt"Esram" 

is due to confusion between the long s and/. 

P. 139 line 3. For " Pastor Pastororu " should be read " Pater Pastorum" as in M.C. 

„ >, 4. See note on P. 138 line 5, : " ^v- 

„ „ 5. " Plenonicon " = Polychronicon. - - 

p'tition = partition. 

„ „ 8. " Jabell " should be " Juball." 

„ „ 9. Pitagores = (?) Pythagoras. 

W.W. " & the same saith Isidore." 

,, „ 10. W.W. " that he was." 

Digitized by 



„ 7. 


„ 10. 


line 1. 


» 5. 


„ 6. 


„ 7. 


line 4. 


„ 5. 

l72 transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati todge, 

P. 139 line 11. W.W. " he found y® science of smitlis Craftby y*^ sonnd & pondération." 
„ „ 12. The word hère omitted may be supplied from M.C. & W.W., " Soothly 

as the Bible &c." 
„ „ 16. " Mahemah." The name in the Anthorised and Revised Versions of the 

Bible is ** Naamah." 
P. 140 line 1. " Another mans wife." M.C. bas "Noe's wife." This idea may bave 

beeu sug^esled by ber name in the Vulgate being Noema. 
„ „ 3. " as forrcign . . Intreat." M.C. " as some doctars seyn." 

W.W. "as forreine doctordoe entreat." 

Perhaps the long s is responsible for some becoming foreign^ but it is 

hard to acconnt for the word intreat^ thongb it may be an obsolète use 

of entreat in the sensé of discourse. 

W.W. "thèse her brethren." 

W.W. "by ail their witts." 

" Provided" is probably an error for "prayed " which M.C. bas. 

W.W. " performed the last end before Noahs flood." 

M.C. and W.W. bave "kindly knowing," which Bro. C. C. Howard 

snggests means "naturally " or "instinctively knowing." 

W.W. " they wist y* God would doe one thereof & therefore." 

W.W. " the sciences y* they found therein written." 

Witb " every Cronicle '* a new sentence sbould begin as in M.C. 

Instead of " Charges *' both M.C. & W.W. bave " Clerks." 
„ „ 7. Both M.C. and W.W. refer more corectly to Genesis Chapter 10. 

" Cain . . Nimrod " sbould read " Cham Noahs son begat Nimrod." 
„ „ 8. "like uuto a Gyant." This seems to bave come from the LXX., in 

which Nimrod is said to bave been a " giant on the eartb." 
„ „ 10. Witb the aid of W.W. and the Bible (Oenesis x. 10.) we may fillin this 

blank " and Erech and Accad and Calneb in the land of Sbinar." 
„ „ Instead of " Built " both M.C. and W.W. hâve " began." 
„ „ 13. M.C. bas " is written in policronicon and in the master of stories." 

(See note on P. 138 line Ô.) 
,, „ 14. W.W. " in y'' said tenth Chapter." But the H. H. scribe having quoted 

ihe Chapter before as " tbe eleventh " has to omit " said." 
P. 143 line 1. Before " out of the Land of Shinàr " wc may insert " and went fortb " 

as in Genesis x. 11. 

" in places." W.W. " in placeas." But M.C. appears to hâve the 

original text " and plateas," which means " and its streets," (from tbe 

Lat. platea = a wide street). Thus the margin of the A.V. (Gen. 

X. 11.) Buggests " the streets of the city *' instead of " the city Robobotb." 
„ „ 2. With the aid of M.C. and the Vulgate the Latin quotation may be 

thus restored " de illa terra, i.e. de Sennare, egressns est Assliur et 

edificavit Nineveh et plateas civitatis et Calah et Resen quoque inter 
'\'' : Nineveh et Calah ; hœc est civitas magna." In the Vulgate "Sennaar " 

: 1= the land of Shinar 

„ „ 5. W.W. "y® charges of Masons Craft was first found." 

„ „ 6. For "opened*' M.C. has " told & written." This variation would 

suggest that H. H. and W.W. are not copies of M.C. 
„ „ 9. M.C. " that he was in wylle to make " instead of "purposed to make 

and finish." 

Digitized by 



143 line 10. 


„ 14. 



line 3. 


.. 5. 


„ 6. 


„ 7. 


» 11. 



line 5. 

The Heriery Iteade M S., 1675. 173 

" mnsh " is an obvious error for " must." 

M.C. " and takjt resonabulle your mede therfor as ye may deseme." 

For " touohing" shoald be read " teaching" as in M.C. and W.W. 

^'inthe Coonty of Places " seems to be a mistranslation of *' plateas 

civitatis " (See noies on Page 143 II. 1 Sf 2). W.W. bas "in y° Conntry 

of Placeas." M.C. " in tbe conntry of plateas." 

Tbe text shoald be "between Calah <fc Nineveb." 

W.W. ** preferred first & charged." 

The text shoald be " in duodeoimo capitnlo." 

Both M.C. and W.W. refer to the 5th Book of Isidore's Etymologies 

" Capîtulo primo." Bro. Dring says that Isidore does not mention 

Eaclid once in bis Etymologiarum. (/l.Q.O. xix.^ 60.) 
„ 6. Neither M.C. nor W.W. bas "of Masonrîe." 
„ „ 7. " Nilo " appears to corne f rom the Greek NetXoç. 

„ „ 9. " deplanted " is probably a copyist's error for " departed," (i.e. divided) 

as in M.C. W.W. bas " parted." 
„ U. For " plentifall " W.W. bas " plentious " and M.C. " plentnos." 
„ „ 13. M.C. " that they coathe not welle lyae.'* "Conntry" seems to be an 

P. 146 line 1. We should read "to find (i.e. to sapport) themselves " as M.C. 

„ „ C. " y* I shall you so." M.C. gives the true text " that I shall set you 

to '' and adds " and them botbe and the kynge of the londe and ail the 

lordys by one assent graanted therto." 

W.W. bas " yt I will tell yee." 

" grant " == consent to. 
„ 7. Instead of " best *' both M.C. and W.W. bave " proOtable." 

" Dut " " tnolc " 

„ „ 10. W.W. " beforesaid to close oat y° water." M.C. " afor seyd to clawse 

owt the watyr." 
„ „ „ Instead of " onlie caletb " we may read with M.C. " Eaclid calleth." 

„ 12. M.C. " a charge." 
„ „ 13. For " Gentile " we may read " Gentil," a Chaucerian word for 

" Wellborn.'' M.C. bas " gentylle." 
P. 147 line 2. For " be not " read " ben " ( = are) with M.C. W.W. " been." 
„ „ 4. The Word omitted is " places," as in M.C. and W.W. 

" and did liue . . . Craft." This is not in M.C. 
„ „ 7. "the land of baheast " {behest) z: the land of promise. 

" it was occupied " = it (Masonry) was followed as a business. A 

Chaucerian use of the word. 
„ „ 10. read " & at the making" with M.C. 

„ „ 11. For " Rega " read "Regum." The référence appears to be to 

I. Kings V. 
„ „ 14. read " David had given the Masons " with W.W. 

P. 148 line 3. W.W. " a worthy Knight." 
„ 9. W.W. " manners." 
„ „ 11. M.C. "and corne and speke to gedyr." 

„ „ 12. The missing word is "fellows." M.C. "and for to be reuled by 

masters à felows of aile thyngys amysse." 

Digitized by 


174 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge, 

" And euerj &c." At this point we take leave of the Matthew Cooke 

MS., and hâve onlj the William Watson for comparison. 
P. 149 line 1. W.W. "notcd à written." 

„ „ 5. In W.W. the words hère omitted are " a Panem " ; probably the word 

in the original was " Painim ** (= pagan), 
„ „ 9. With W.W. we shoald read "and méat and drink.*' 

No doabt we should read ** xxx^ à iiij*^ " with W.W. 
,, „ 10. ** none findeing " = dinner provision. "None" (the ninth hour) is a 

Chaucerian word for the dinner hour. 
„ „ 13. After " lost " W.W. has " bargarie ware," bat it would seem that this 

mysterious phrase was not in the original of the Henery Heade M S. 

" ye said Edwin." Thèse words point to an omission, as Edwin has 

not yet been mentioned. W.W. ** ye same Edwine." 
P. 150 line 5. For " the purchased " read with W.W. " he purchased.'* 
„ 10. W.W. *• & let call y« old Masons." 
„ „ 12. " Divise " is probably an error for the Chaucerian word " Devise ** 

(z= direction), 
„ „ 15. W.W. " y* they might Hue honestly." 

with W.W. read " I will déclare hereaf ter.'* 
„ „ 16. Probably this should be "thus was the Craft of Masonrie there 

grounded and confirmed in England," and so Dr. Plot has it. W.W. 

has " this was y® craft of Masonry there grounded and considered, In 

England right worshipful &c. " ; but the Henery Heade punctuation 

seems préférable. 
P. 151 line 2. W.W. " fellowes y^ been of divers Semblies." 

Inst«ad of " in the best wise *' W.W. has ** by their best advise." 

W.W. " and thèse charges haue been &o." 

The Henery Heade and William Watson MSS. are the only ones now 

known which contain this statement about Henry the Sixth, thus 

agreeing with Dr. Plot's version of 1686. 

For " allowed therein " W.W. has " allowed them well." 

W.W. '* haue been drawne à gathered." 

W.W. " as they were conûrmed and made in Egypt." 

W.W. " by y« great Clarke Euclidus." 

W.W. " by King David & by Salom his sonn " ; obviously the Henery 

Heade text is hère correct. 
P. 152 line 2. W.W. "in many and divers historiés à stories and Chapters & ensueth 

as y® charges following perticularly and severallyy^first and principall 

charge is." Then the charges folio w in numbered paragraphs. 

W.W. " That ye shall be true man or true men." 

W.W. " ye shall use neither erreur." 

W.W. "or else privately warne y*' King or his Rulars or his deputies 

& officers." 

" as they would " is a manifest error for " as ye would," as W.W. has it. 

W.W. has the missing words " Theif or Theives." 

W.W. " profitt and advantage." 

W.W. " pay truely." 

With W.W. read " both Masters and fellows." 

W.W. ** noe Lords worke nor other mans." 

line 2. 


















,. 3. 


., ^• 


,. 7. 




„ 12. 




line 1. 


» 4. 


,. 6. 

Digitized by 


p. 153, 

Une 6. 


.. 8. 


„ 9. 


„ 10. 


„ 12. 


„ 13. 

P. 154 

iine 1. 

The Henery Eeide MS., 167Ô. 175 

W.W. '* of cunning enough to performe it, soe y* y® Craft hane noe 

slaunder nor disworshipp.'* 

W.W. " That noe master take noe worke but he take it reasonable." 

After **good" W.W. bas "and y*^ Master may live honestly and 

pay &c." 

For " useth " W.W. bas " asketb." 

read " ye shall not put bim out." 

W.W. ** y* end y* worke." Here H.H. seems more correct. 

W.W. "ofliveing." 

W.W. ** Tbat noe Mason nor fFellow take noe allowance to be made 

Mason without y® consent of v or vi <fec." 
„ „ 2. W.W. " to be anena witbin ail sides." Bro. Rylands* guess that anena 

was an error for a man is tbus proved correct by tbe Henery Heade 

„ „ 6. read " every one shall giue." 

W.W. " soe y* y® worthy Lord of y'' work may not be deceived tbrougb 

false workmen." 
„ „ 7. W.W. " That noe ffellow doe slander." 

„ » 10. W.W. "ungodly without reasonable cause." 

„ „ 11. W.W. "shall put bim at worsbipp." 

„ „ 15. W.W. " to bear him witnes " omitting " company and." 
„ „ 16. W.W. " for if be soe doe tbere a Lodge of ffellows to punisb y* sinne." 

Thore is obviously sometbing wrong with tbis sentence in botb H.H. 

and W.W., but as no othor MS. (so far as I can ascertain) but thèse 

two bas anytbing about punishing one wbo goes out alone at night, I 

am unable to snggest an amended reading. Bro. Hugban suggests 

" tbere is a Lodge, &c." 
P. 155 Iine 2. supply from W.W. " and it be witbin five miles of bim and if be baue 

any warning to stand &c " {And = if), 

Probably " reward " is an error for ** award." 

After " accord tbere " W.W. bas " if tbey may." 

" accord " = make to agrée (a rare use). 

W.W. " Tbat noe Master make noe mould nor sware, nor rnle to lare." 

Apparently " leier," " lare," and " lier " are ail variants for *• layer " 

(= a course of masonry). 

From W.W. we may correct " Mould it stone " into " moulded stones." 

W.W. ** every Master shall receiue &c." 

W.W. ** if tbey baue moulded stones in place." 

W.W. " Tbat y^ shall truely serue y« Lord." 

W.W. ** y* ye and every Mason receiue Ac." 

W.W. bas " paymaster" iostead of "Master." 

" travell " = labour, as in p. 136 1. 7. W.W. " travaile." 

For " wages " W.W. bas " worke," which seems more correct. 

" decension " is clearly an error for " dissension." 

W.W. " under tbe Master where ye serue." 

W.W. " needs," which seems more correct than " meeds." 

" and at what time" seems to be repeated in error. W.W. omits "and," 

W.W. " in bis worke," omitting " or your," 

W.W. " wants councell" 


„ 3. 


„ 4. 


„ 5. 


„ 6. 


» 7. 


„ 8. 


„ 10. 


„ 12. 


,. 17. 

'. 156 

Iine 1. 


„ 3. 


„ 6. 


„ 9. 


» 10. 




„ 12. 

Digitized by 



Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge: 

P. 156 line 14. W.W. " record ed " instead o( " reccomended." 
„ 15. W.W. " keep to yo^ power." 

W.W. "Holidome." Both this and "hollj Dame" are variants of 
Halidom, an Anglo- Saxon word denoting anything specîally boly, on 
which oaths were wont to be taken, as a holy relie, the gospels etc. ; 
hence " by my halidom " became a common forra of adjuration. 

J-^tmêém* Vf f J^i 

Book-Plate of Petek Gilkes. 

Digitized by 


Transdctions of the Quatuor Coronaii Lodge, 177 



HIS is a very infceresting volume, and fally up to the high standard 
set by its accomplished Editor, Bko. John T. Thorp, F.R.Hist.S., 
F.R.S.L., etc. 

At the 78th Meeting (loth Anrnversary Festival) Iwenty-two 
brethren were elected to the C.C., and the Financial Report was most 
satisfactory. Bro. John Russell Frears (P. M. 2081) was Installed as 
W.M., and the three officers, tho Rev. H. S. Biggs, B.A., F. W. Billson, LL.B., and 
John T. Thorp, F.R.S L., happily continue as Chaplain, Treasurer and Secretary 

At the Installation Meeting, the R.W. Bro. Archdeacon Clarke, LL.D., etc., 
Prov.G.M. o£ North Connanght, read a Paper on " Old Masonic Certificates." Our 
leamed Brother exhibited thirty-six Certifieates of the Eighteenth Century, and fifty oî 
the following Century (ten of which were issued by Grand Lodge). The remarks 
ofFered as to several of thèse rarities were of a very interesting character. Reproduc- 
tions are given of the " Gillooly " Certificate, Boyle, of 1760 (?) ; the ** West" spécimen, 
of 1778 (Sligo), one of the Grand Lodge of Ireland, a.d. 1786, and a fine example of a 
High Knight Templar's diploma, in English and Latin, of 1789, granted at Boyle. 

The first mentioned is dated, apparently, " 8th of January, 1760, and in Masonry, 
6762," but since the lecture was delivered Dr. Ciarke has been reloctantly forced to con- 
clude that the year should be 1768 and not 1760, which thus reduces its value very 
considerably from an antiquarian stand point. The discovery of the later date was 
due to the zealous Archdeacon*s researches, John Whelan, the Master who signed the 
Certificate, being in the Chair of No. 338 in 1768. Dr. Clarke immediately announced 
the fact, and has thus set our minds at rest. I had communicated with my dear Bro. 
Dr. Chetwode Crawley thereon, who agrées with the later date, and informa me that 
^^ Brian Gillooly \% entered in Dep.G.Sec. Thomas Corker's unmistakable handwriting 
as admitted 13th December, 1768, and certified on same date." Tho altération from 1768 
to 1760 was comparatively easy, especially as the Scribe made the A.M. Ô762 instead of 

The third noted is a scarce issue of 1785 (G.L.), but the chief attraction, to my 
mind, in ail the séries, is the one of 1789, devoted to the H.K.T. and signed by the E.G.M. 
(i.e., Early Grand Master), of the " Grand Lodge of High Knights* Templars held in 

The collection makes one's " mouth water," and I am glad it is in such good 

The Paper by Bro. Cecil Powell (the able Historian of Bristol Freemasonry) on 
" The Royal Arch Chapter of Gharity,'' is enriched with a reproduction of the original 
Warrant of No. 9 Bristol, 8th December, 1769, granted by the " Modem " Grand Chapter 
formed in 1767. Bro. Powell gives the By-Laws of 1785 (I présume). A fine plate 
of H.R.H. the Duke of Sussex, M.W.G.M., by Bro. W. Hobday,an artist of considérable 
abîlity, is also inserted. For fuU particulars I must refer my readers to the very 
interesting article. 

Digitized by 


178 Transactions of the Qtiattior Coronati Lodge, 

At the 79th meeting Dr. James Johnstone, P.M. (of Richmond, Snrrey), gave a 
Lecture on " The History of Freemasonry," illustrated by nnmerons slides. The 
synopsis proves that the lecturer covered considérable ground, "the prominent and 
uncommon feature of the address being a aplendid séries of slides." Dr. Johnstone's 
name is noted as the first of seven raembers elected to the Correspondence Circle of No. 
2429 at the 80th Assembly of the Lodge. The meeting was in the capable management 
of Bro. John T. Thorp, the secretary, whose Paper concerned some interesting Masonic 
Relies ; the first being an electro of an " Antique Jewel," in the muséum of the Grand 
Lodge of New York, and explained by Dr. Julius F. Sachse, the courteous librarian of 
the Grand Lodge of Penna., who states that, " so far as known, it was wom from 1650 
to 1577." Fortunately an illustration is appended of the décoration — the sun in full 
splendeur, enclosed by compassés and segment, etc. The legend is, Deus nohis sol et 
scutum, I hâve long been familiar with this design, as used in Scotland by the extinct 
" Mnsselburgh Lodge." A set was in the Worcestershire, Shanklin and Plynionth 
Masonic Exhibitions, 1884-6-7, nnmbered and sent by the late Bro. T. Lamb Smith, of 
Birmingham. As Bro. Thorp most discreetly observes, " If the original Jewel is really 
of the antiquity which is claimed for it, it will certainly prove a very valuable link 
with our operative brethren of the sixteenth century." 

Another curious item exhibited was a "report of a meeting of the Grand Lodge 
of England, 1732" (etched by the well known John Pine, now in possession of the 
" Anchor and Hope Lodge" No. 37, Bolton), in facsimile. The original is unique, and 
bas been ably described by the Secretary, whose notes add greatly to the value of the 
exhibit. There were also an Irish Dimit of 1796 (reproduced) and a very old Apron, 
used by the Ancien t Stirling Lodge, Scotland, besides other curios. 

Bro. Alfonzo Gardiner's Paper on " Symbols and Words of the Fii'st Degree " 
was read by the zealous author at the 81st meeting, who well deserved the hearty vote 
of thanks passed by the members. Bro. Thorp also gave an important address on *' The 
Two Pillars of Solomon*s Temple," based upon the work recently issued on the Temple 
by the Rev. W. Caidecott, M.R.A.S. (R.T. Society), and the illustrations inserted 
are most helpful, and the concluding Paper by Bro. G. W. Bain, of Sunderland, 
on "The Early Literature of Freemasonry," addressed to the Brethren at the 82nd 
meeting, was most valuable, curious and accurate, so much so tliat I much regret not 
being présent. A capital digest, however, of its chief points is presented to the 
subscribers by the Secretary, who is always on the alert on behalf of the "Lodge of 
Research." This wonderful volume of Transactions can be had by only subscribing 
a croum to the " Correspondence Circle.^^ I hâve left other features unnoticed, fearing 
to occupy more space. 


Digitized by 


Transactions of the Quatuor CoroHatt Lodge. 179 


ASONIC Grave Stone.— In the old Militarj Cemetery at Morne Bruce, 

Dominica, Leeward Islands, is a tombstone which was evidenily 

erected to mark the grave of some member or members of the Masonic 

fratemity. From the appearance of the stone it seems as if a brass 

plate h ad been affized originally, but this bas disappeared, and the 

stone itself bas been broken, no doubt in the great hurricane which 

wrecked the en tire cemetery many years ago. At the upper part of 

the stone on right and left are représentations of two goblets, one bearing the Masons' 

Arms and the other the square and compassés, with other Masonic emblems, while 

below are the following lines : — 

Long Long this Stone and pointed Clay ; 
Shall melt the mnsing Briton's Eyes. 
Oh ! vales ; and wild woods, shall they say. 
In jonder Graves some Masons Ues. 
May each Freemason Good and trne : 

In Britain's Isles be found : 
And in Eemotest Régions too. 

May love and Harmony abonnd. 
And ail confess true Wisdom's Power. 

Till Time and Masons are no more. 

The disappearance of the plate is a matter for regret, as we bave now no means 
of ascertaining any particulars concerning the deceased brother. 

Roseau, Dominica. F. H. Pabker. 

Henry Yeuele.— The following is an extract I bave taken from the lecture I 
give when explaining the things of interest to parties who periodically visit this Church 
by my invitation : — 

" In the Chapel of the Holy Virgin in the Old Church, was buricd Henry 
** Yevele, described by Stow in 1663, as Free-mason to Edward m. 
** Richard ii. & Henry iv. — This Yevele (or Zeneley) assisted to erect the 
" Tomb of Richard ii. in Westminster Abbey and constructed the monu- 
" ment to Anne of Bohemia, the Queen, 1395 to 1397, and abont the same 
" time was employed to prépare plans for raising the walls of Westminster 
" Hall. He founded a Ghauntry in the Chapel of St. Mary in this Church 
" and died in 1400 a.d." 

Beyond this account I bave discovered nothing so far. 

Should there bave been any tomb with inscription to this Yevele it would no 

doubt hâve perished in the Great Fire of 1666, with the old St. Magnus* Church. 

Our registers do not go back to 1400 a.d. 

RiCHÂBD Peek, 

Hector of St. Magnus-the-Martyr^ 

London Bridge. 

Digitized by 


l80 Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 

Swaflbam Great Lodg^e. — So fall and interesting an account of tlie Constitu- 
tion of a Lodge as that communicated by R.W. Bro. Hamon le Strange, is of very 
great valae to students, and in going carefnlly througb the names of the Brethren 
présent on the daj of Constitution, I find (il.Q.C, xx., 233) the name of Charles 
Chadwick, A.M. I tbink that I may identify this Brother as the Rev. Charles 
Chadwick, B.A., wbo became Master of the SheflBeld Grammar School, 1776-7. It 
is stated that he was born in the Isle of Ely, and after his arrivai in SheflBeld, 
and certainiy until 1797, he, in his oflBce as a clergyman, acted as Chaplain not 
only to the Modems, to which it would appear he belonged, bat also to the Ancient 
Lodge, No. 72, as from the Records of this Lodge it is stated " On June lOth, Bro. 
Chadwick be asked to preach a sermon, and the Brethren to walk in procession to the 
Church." He does not appear to hâve been either a meraber or a visiter to Lodge 
No. 72 Ancients, or to Britannia, which Lodge also invited him to perform the same 
ceremony. He was publicly connected with Freemasonry at the functions connected 
with the foundation stone laying of the SheflBeld General Infirmary, when the three 
Lodges of Freemasons, — Lodge 72, Ancients, Britannia and Royal Brnnswick, Modems, 
formed an important part of a grand procession, and greatly assisted in the ceremony, — 
the Rev. Mr. Chadwick actîng as their Chaplain. In Jaly, 1794, Bro. Chadwick also 
preached to the Brethren of the Britannia and Royal Brunswick Lodges at the constitu- 
tion of the latter. He was also présent and acted as Chaplain at the opening of the 
SheflBeld General Infirmary, October 4th, 1797. He was also Vicar of Tinsley, a sraall 
village about four miles from SheflBeld, and there he is buried. He appears to hâve had 
one son, who acted as second master at the Sheffield Grammar School, and who pre- 
deceased him. Many stories about him are still extant. He was for many years 
Président of the SheflBeld Library, and at his death his comparatively large library, of 
over 1,000 volumes, was disposed of. He was highly esteemed, and a silver cup, valued 
at 100 guineas, was presented to him by his old scholars and inhabitants of this town. 
He died in 1809, but there is no référence to his connection with Freemasonry in the 

obituary notices in the papers of that time. 

William Walkkr, 
SheflBeld. J.W. 1239. Scribe E. 1239. 

Sharri Tephlia.— An organization, whose fuU oflBcial title was '* The Grand 

Sharri Tephlia of the Grand Inner Te in pie/' appears to hâve been in existence in 

London in the year 1900. Its chief oflBcer was styled " Right Worshipful Grand 

Chaplain," and he ruled by the aid of a Grand Council. A ritual was printed, with 

General and Provincial Régulations, and the " Officiai Organ " refers to a new Temple 

in course of érection. From this paper we also learn that a Provincial Grand Temple 

of the Order was in contemplation at Birmingham, but in ail probability nothing definite 

was done in this direction. According to an article in the Croydon Guardian (quoted 

by the Freemason, July llth, 1903), the Temple, which was to be erectcd as the head- 

quarters in London, was partly built in Beulah Road East, Thornton Heath. It was to 

cost £10,000, and the plans included a hall capable of seating about 250 people. The 

work seems to hâve been stopped for want of funds, and the unfinished building was 

eventually sold by auction. The organization is described as "of a mock-Masonic 

semi-religious kind," and was stated to be of American origin. SuflBcient time bas not 

yet elapsed to warrant the publication of the names of the membcrs but perhaps some 

brother may be able to f urnish additional particulars which it would be well to record 

in olir pages. 


Digitized by 


Notes and Quertes* 181 

Cromwell and Freemasons— Irish Popular Belief.— " The Popuiar Songs 

of Ireland," coUected bj Thomas Croffcon Croker, was first published in 1839, but 1 
give the foUowing quotations from the édition in "Morley's Universal Library " 
(Rontledge), 1886. 

! Blarney Castlb, My Darlinq. 

Verse 2, 

Bad cess^ to that robber, Old Cromwell, and to ail his long battering 

Who roUed over hère like a porpoise, in two or three hookers,^ from 

Spain ! 
And becanse that he was a Freemason, he mouuted a battering-ram, 
And he loaded it up of dumb-powder, which in at its month he did 


Verse 6. 

The old Castle, it trembled ail over, as yon'd see a horse do in July, 
When jusfc near the tail in his crapper, he's teased by a pestering fly. 
Black Cromwell, he made a dark signal, for in the black art he was 

So, thongh the eyes in the people stood open, they found themselves 

ail fast asleep. 

Crofton Croker remarks that the song originally appeared in the South Cork 
Reporter newspaper, about April, 1827, nnder another title. Among other observations 
he gives this explanation : — " Upon the allusion made to Oliver Cromwell in the second 
and sixth verses, it is necessary to remark that, accordiog to the popular belief of the 
Irish peasant, Cromwell was endowed with supernatural powers; and that the fratemity 
of Freemasons, which was said to be founded by him, were supposed, from the secrecy 
and cérémonies observée! by them, to be dabblers in the black art. Among the pièces 
of magical skill that Cromwell is asserted to hâve acquired, was the knowledge of a 
powder for throwing balls from cannon withoat makiôg any report, and hence termed 

* dumb-powder,* in distinction to gun-powder. It is also tradifcionally asserted that a 
spell, of which Cromwell was master, could make his opponents become powerless as 

Croker*s final comment is as follows : — " In a curions French work, entitled 

* L'Ordre des Francs-Maçons Trahi,' printed at Amsterdam in 1754, it is stated that 

* Cromwell was the first who gave the name of the Order of Freemasons. Willing to 
reform mankind, and exterminate princes and kings, he proposed to his party the 
re- establishment of the Temple of Solomon.' Whether this account be true or false, 
the coincidence between it and the tradition current in Ireland is remarkable." 

Harrt Sirr. 

^ A oommon malédiction in Ireland, originally itnporting " heavy taxation." 

' A description of fishing or pilot boat pecaliar to the sonth-west coast of Ireland. 

Digitized by 


1Ô2 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Hajor-General Joseph Warren.— A rare pamphlet recording the ''Pro- 
ceedîngs of the Town of Charlestown, în the Connty of Middlesez and Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts, în respectfal testimony of the distingaished talents and pre-eminent 
virtues of the late George Washington," puhlished in January, 1800, gives the foUowing 
description of fche cérémonies in connection with a monument erected to the memorj of 
Major- General Joseph Warren. 

King Solomon's Lodge of Free Mafous, in Ample Form. 


Paril'h Treafurer, and Clerk. 

Truflees of the Free Schools. 

Minifier and Deacons. 

Town Treafurer and Clerk. 

Magiftrates. Beprefentative. 

Selectmen. Band of Mufic. 


A DETACHMENT of ArtiUcry, pofled by the 
MONUMENT,* fired minute guns nntil the proceffion 
entered the meeting honfe, where the propofed 
folemnities were performed, to the entire approba- 
tion of a crouded audience. 

* A Tufcan pillar, Eighteen feet high, placed on a briok foun- 
datioD, ten feet from the ground, eight feet fquare; inclofed by 
fonr poftB. On the top of the pillar is a gilt nrn, with the letters 
" J. W. aged 36." entwined in mafonic emblème. On the fonth 
nde of the pedeftal is the following infcription : 

"Erected, A- D. m,dcc,xciv, 

Bt Eino Solomon's Lodge of Fbee Misons, 

Conftitated in Charlestown, 1783, 

In memory of 

Major General JOSEPH WABREN, 

and his Associâtes, 

who were flain on this mémorable fpot, 

June 17th, 1775 

** None bat they who fet a juft value apon the bleff ings of Lis- 
KRTT are wortby to enjoy her. In vain we toiled; in vain we 
fought; we bled in vain; if yoa, oar Offspring, want valor to 
repel the affaults of her invaders." 

"Charlestown, fettled 1628. "Burnt 1775,— rebnilt 1776. 
**The enclofed land given by the Hon. James Raffell, Efq." 


Digitized by 


Transoettons of the Quatuor OoronaJti Lodge, 183 






T is with regret that we hâve to announce the deaths of Brothers : 

Hugrh William Sinclair, of 443, Chancery Lane, Melbourne, 
on 14th May. He was a well-known and highly respected Freemason 
in Victoria. He devoted a considérable amount of time to Masonic 
research, and was for some years the Ediior of the " Australasian 
Keystone." He had held the oflSces of Grand Treasurer and Senior 
Grand Warden nnder the Victorian Constitution, and Grand J. in the Royal Arch. He 
was also Secretary of the Freemasons* Chaintable Institution, Victoria, in which he took 
very great interest. He joined our Coirespondence Circle in October, 1895, and was 
for several years onr Local Secretary for Victoria. 

W. T. Flather» of The Elms, Ranmoor, Sheffield, on the 30th May. He joined 
the Correspondence Circle in March, 1905. 

Anthony Schoder, Past Grand Hîgh Prîest, of Woodbridge, New Jersey, 
U.S. A., on the 12th June. He joined the Correspondence Circle in June, 1897. 

Thomas Cook, of Durban, Natal, on 22nd June, aged 76. He joined our 
Correspondence Circle in March, 1889, and was Local Secretary for Natal. He was 
initiated in the Port Natal Lodge No. 738 on the 9th Augnst, 1860, and served the 
office of W.M. in 1883, was P.Dis. G.W. and P.Dis. 3rd Principal, Natal ; Dis. G. Mark 
Mas ter for Natal f rom 1895 to 1907, and on his retireinent was presented with his 
portrait in oils ; Inspecter General 33°, A. <fc A. Rite ; Provincial Prior of the Temple 
for South Africa j District Grand Suprême Ruler, Order of the Secret Monitor; P.G.S. 
Wai-den, Royal Order of Scotland ; Intendant General, Red Cross of Constantine ; and 
held high offices in the Allied and Cryptic Degrees ; being also a member of Lodges 
under both the Irish and Scottish Constitutions. He was a prominent light in South 
African Masonry and endeared himself to ail. A large circle of friends mourn the loss 
of one who entertained a lofty idéal of Masonry and was ever ready to render help to 

Jeremiah Leech Atherton, of Beech Grove Bingley, West Yorkshire, 
suddenly on the 14th August, 1908. The son of the Rev. Wm. Atherton, Congregational 
Minister, he was born at Hurst Brook, Lancashire, October 14th, 1838, and edncated at 
Bingley Grammar School and Silcoates School, Wakefield. He had a long expérience 
of the worsted trade in Bradford and was justly held in high repute as an efficient and 
npright man of business. He was initiated in the Scientific Lod^e No. 439, Bingley, 
February 13th, 1873, and installed Master 20th December, 1874, and again 28th December, 
1881, also rendered valuable service in other Lodge offices. Exalted in the Chapter 
of Sïncenty No. 600, May 7th, 1874, and installed Z. April Ist, 1879, sabsequently becom- 
ing Z. 23rd December, 1891, of No. 387, which chapter he had joined. He was a 
P.Prov.G.p.C. (Craft) and P.Prov.G.H. (R.A.) of West Torks. A prominent figurç 

Digitized by 


184 Transactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge. 

and active participator in the meetings of a nnmber of Degrees and Orders in the County 
(too manj for even mention in the brief space hère available), he had a fine and éloquent 
deliverj of ritual. He was also one of great attainments on the subjects of symbolism 
and occnltism. 

He joined the Correspondence Circle December, 1887, and soon af terwards became 
the first Local Secretary for West Yorkshire, doing good work for many years. His 
retil'ement in conséquence of ill health in 1903 was rauch regretted and in appréciation 
of his valued services an illuminated vote of thanks from the Lodge was presented to 
him in the following year. 

A very large gathering of brethren assembled in token of their deep affection 
and respect, to take part in the interment at Bingley Cemetery. At the close of the 
service an impressive address was delivered by Bro. Thos. Norfolk onbehalf of theOrder 
of Light, of which the deceased was a distingaished member. 

6. J. Daley, of Mossel Bay, Cape Colony. He joined the Correspondence 
Circle in October, 1902. 

James TreVOP-Smith, of North Parade, Parsonage, Manchester. He joined 
the Correspondence Circle in October, 1905. 

The Eev. JameS Nelson Palmer, Past Grand Chaplain, and Past Grand 
Sojonrner, England, of Bera bridge, Isle of Wight. He joined the Correspondence 
Circle in November, 1888. 

A. L. Achard, M.D., of 34» Gloucester Place, Portman Square, London, W., on 
the 4th September. He joined the Correspondence Circle in May, 1899. 

Robert James Williams» of 29, Eastgate Row North, Chester. He joined 
the Correspondence Circle in October, 1904. 

The Hon. Sir William Robert Burkitt, I.C.S., Judge, High Court of 
Judicature, N.W.P., on the 16th June. He was at the time of his death one of the 
oldest Masons in India, having been initiated in 1862 in Lodge St. John No. 486, 
Calcutta. In 1888 he joined the Lodge Népal No. 2018, Gorrackpore, and became its 
W.M. in 1891. In the following year he filled the chair of Lodge Morning Star, 
Lucknow, and that of Lodge Independence with Philanthropy, Allahabad, in 1894 and 
1900. He was appointed District Junior Grand Deacon in 1891, Senior Grand Warden 
in 1893, Deputy District Grand Mas ter in 1898, and on the retirement of Sir Henry 
Thoby Prinsep was appointed District Grand Master of Bengal. In Royal Arch 
Masonry he filled the principal Chairs in the Ramsey Chapter No. 552, Lucknow, and 
the Sandeman Chapter No. 391, Allahabad, was appointed District Grand H. in 1894 
and 1898, and succeeded Sir Henry Thoby Prinsep as Grand Superin tendent; in 1904. 
In other degrees he also held high rank. He was génial and sympathetic, and 
deservedly popular among ail classes, and his Masonic rnle in Bengal was markcd by 
steady progress. He was a life member of our Correspondence Circle, to which he wag 
elected in October, 1898. 

Digitized by 


Transactions nf the Quatu*^ Gortmati Lodtje. 185 




BV BRO, ALFRED A. ARBUTHNJDT MURRAY, Prov.GM., Kincardineshire. 


1. Légal sfcataa and oonstitution of Craffc Incorporations of Scotland. 

2. Canongate a Bargh like Edinburgh. 

3. Admission of non-operafcives to Trade Incorporations did not make fche latter spéculative 


4. Freemason Lodges arose by a process of budding or ségrégation from the Trade Incor- 


5. The Records of the Incorporation of Wrights, Coopéra and Masons of Canongate, from 

whioh sprang Lodge Canongate Kiiwinning. 

6. Meeting places of the Incorporation. 

7. The Freeman's oath. 

8. Acts of Craft with iilnstrative extracts from Minutes. 

9. Classifications of workraen. 

10. Status of the Cowan, with îUustrative extracts from Minutes. 

11. Meaning and Dérivation of the word " Cowan." 

I HESE Dotes on the position of the Freeman and the Cowan in the old 
Trade Incorporations of Scotland hâve been somewhat loosely thrown 
together for the purpose of illnstrating some points of interest npon 
which fuller light is désirable. Thej hâve been made in the course of 
research into the early history of Lodge Canongate Kiiwinning, moie 
especially into its connection with the Craft Incorporation. of the 
Wrights, Coopers and Masons of the Canongate, of which body the 
Lodge was a direct and immédiate descendant. 

In the days of James I. (1424) a Statu te was passed empowering handicraftsmen, 
in their différent branches, to elect a preses, who was called a " Deakonor Kirkmaster." 
The words of the Act ara as folio w : — " That in ilke Towne of the Reaime, of ilk sindrie 
" Craft used therein, be chosen a wise man of that Craft and be the layff of that Craft, 
*^ and be consent of the offîciar of the towne, the qahilk sali be halden Dekyn or 
"Maisterman owre the layff, for the tyme till governe, and assay ail werkis that beis 
'* made before the Craftesmen of that Craft, swa that the Kingis lièges be nocht 
" defraudyt and scathyt in tyme to cum, as thai hâve bene in tyme bygane through 
** untrew men of Craftes." Canongate was a Bargh or Town and accordingly had trade 
incorporations similar to those in other towns. 

Thèse Trade Incorporations were formed from a désire for union, self -protection, 
and self-government among the members. They also, in pre-reformation times, had 
religions duties strictly to fui fil and were frequently dedicated to a patron saint. The 
members in some were bound to pay, in addition to other contributions, the " ouklie 
[weekly] penny" for the maintenance of the craft's altar, and sastenance of the priest 
attached thereto. Their charter of incorporation usually consisted in a ** Seal of Cause " 
{dgillum ad causas), granted by the Town Council, on the réquisition of the body ; and 
in the earlier charters there were strict rules laid down for the observance by the 
Mçmbers of their religions duties. It mav be remarked further that it does not appear 

Digitized by 


1 86 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

that the King*s Master of Work had any jurisdiction whatever over thèse Crafts beyond 
charge of any work for his Majesty ; and that it is exceedingly doubtfal if the Warden 
General for Scotland had at any time any concern with the Incorporations in Royal 
Barghs, or with the trades in gênerai. There were many Barghs in Scotland which 
were Burghs of Regality or Barghs of Barony, and of which the corporate privilèges 
were in a sensé independent of the King, and from which any jurisdiction of the Warden 
General waa still more remote. 

It may be recalled that up till about 50 years ago the Bnrgh of Canongate and 
the Bnrgh of Edinburgh were two separate and distinct towns. Each community had 
separate administration and officiais, jast as Edinburgh and Leith are still separate and 
distinct though topographically united. The Incorporated Crafts of each, plying their 
trades within each Bnrgh, were, up till modem times, exceedingly jealous of their 
privilèges and prone to resent any invasion of qualified workmen from one adjacent 
Burgh into the other. The Bnrgh of Canongate was by far the larger in extent, and its 
" liberty," or territory, embraced a considérable section of the new town of Edinburgh 
and most of what is now Leith. 

So much explanation is necessary to enable one to understand some of the motives 
which evidently actaated the raembers of the Craft Incorporation in Canongate in 1677, 
in putting themselves in direct relation with MotherKilwinning. It was in their option, 
had they so chosen, to proceed with and develop spéculative work, and to admit non- 
tradesmen to the privilèges of their Craft with snch cérémonial, secrets and moral 
lectures illustrated by the tools of the Craft as were usual. Graduai ly, in that case, the 
Lodge as a spéculative body would hâve grown, while, in course of time, as commerce 
broke down trade privilèges and monopolies, the Craft Incorporation would hâve shrunk 
into a mère benefit society. This is what actually happened with the Lodge of 
Edinburgh. As a purely spéculative Lodge, apart from and independent of the trade 
or working Craft (i.e., apart from the Mary*s Chapel Incorporation, which still exists as 
a Trade Benefit Society), that Lodge did not exist till the eighteenth century was well 
begun. But long before tbat the Craft in Edinburgh admitted non-tradesmen as 
members. So also in the Canongate, of which the following Minute is évidence : — 

Twentie ane September 1649. 
The quhilk day In pus of Georg Freir deacone of the wrichtis of the 
Cannogait & Robert Grahame boxmr. and haill maisters & brethrene 
convenit compeirit Johne Patersone burges of the Cannogait and put 
baiLlie yrof Quha being sworne wes adraittit and receivit freeman of the 
said trad to use & exerce the samyn and everie poynt priveledg <fe libertie 
belonging to the said trad within the Cannogait and haill Regalitie of 
Brochtoun als frielie in ail respectis as anie uther frieman within the 
samyne In swa far as the sd. Jon Patersone can work with his owin hand 
Whairupon the said Jon Paterson askit instruments. 

George Freir, 
Andréas Cowye N.P. et 

clericus dict vocationis. 

It cannot be too clearly kept in view that the early Scottish Lodges were not 
spéculative Lodges but trade societies, to which, for feudal or personal reasons, honorary 
members, such as John Paterson above, were frequently admitted. Apart from trade 
business, and settlement of trade questions or disputes, with a large amount of cou- 
viviality, there was nothing transaçted, 

Digitized by 


tTréeman and Coxoan. l87 

The tiodge of Canongate, however, had a différent expérience, and entered npon 
its career as a purely spéculative Lodge, several décades earlier than its sister in 
Edinbnrgh. It so happened tbat a nnmber of tbe members of tbe Graft organization in 
Canongate were west country men. Tbey desired to engage in spéculative Masonry 
separately from tbe Trade Craft. Had they siraply elected oflBce-bearers, held separate 
meetings and kept distinct minutes, no question would bave arisen. Tbeir existence as 
a spéculative Lodge would bave de facto been recognized. But in tbese days feudal 
notions still influeuced procédure. A document of some sort from somebody was tbougbt 
essential to constitute thom into a definite body. Tbey must bave a. warrant or cbarter 
just in tbe same way tbat tbe owner of a pièce of land did not feel secure till be got a 
cbarter from some superior. To wbom sbould tbey apply ? Not to Edinburgb, for tbe 
Mary*8 Cbapel Craft Incorporation of tbe Wrigbts and Masons there was tbeir keen 
rival in trade and on a level witb tbem, not baving any bigber autbority or jurisdiction, 
besides tbere was not tbere, as yet, any separate spéculative Lodge in existence ; not to 
Stirling, Aberdeen or Glasgow, but to tbe traditional bome of Masonry, at Kilwinning, 
witb wbich district some of tbem already bad personal connection. 

Several of tbose wbo applied from Canongate to Kilwinning in 1677 for récogni- 
tion of tbeir rigbt to admit Freemasons bave recently been traced back and identified 
in tbe books of tbe Incorporation of Wrigbts, Coopers and Masons, &c., of tbe Burgb of 

Tbe books tbemselves, moreover, on furtbtr examination, bave been found to 
contain mucb interesting material. Tbey are tbree in number. 

The first is a stout leather-bound volume with tbree iron clasps and bands and 
tbree locks. Tt bears tbe inscription inside, " Tbis Buik is ordinit for tbe Weill of tbe 
** Craft and tbeir successoris 1629," and a further inscription, " wisbingtbe evil willaers 
** of tbe Craft or wrongeris of tbis buik in ony poynte any evill success in ail tbeir 
" bussines." 

It contains, in order, tbe " Ri tuai " of élection, a préface or exhortation, tbe 
prayer at tbe opening of tbe meeting, tbe Freeman*s oath, a table of tbe acts of Craft, 
tbe minutes of admissions, and élections of office bearers, 1630-1638 ; tbe Solemn League 
and Covenant, 1638; tbe names of tbe Deacons and tbe admissions from 1585 to 1638, 
and tbe gênerai minutes of proceedings. 

Tbe second volume of minutes, 16tb February, 1630, to 2nd May, 1690, is leatber 
bound and seoured by a- leatber thong. Inside thecover is a sentence, written evidently 
by a pbilosophical member in an idle moment, " Money maks men gUad and William 
John AUan," and again be writes, " A god h and of vrit is verey comendabl 

John Allan." 

The title page states tbat "Tbis Minute Buik perteins to tbe wrichteis and 
couperis of tbe Cannogaite." Tbe book contains tbe names of tbe Freemen from 1585, 
witb tbe Deacons, wbom they entered under, tbe names of tbe " freemen of tbe nortb 
" syde of tbe brig of Leith wtin tbe liberty," tbe acts of Craft, tbe préface and prayer, 
" The Aythe of ane Frieman," and minutes, 1630 to 1690. 

Tbe thirà volume is similar to tbe second, and contains minutes from 1670 to 
1750, witb tbe Deacons* names, entries and acts. It bears at tbe beginning tbe text, 
** Timor domini initium sapientiae est." Mucb of ail tbe books, especially in tbe earlier 
years is written in tbe antique running caligrapby wbich, even to an expert, is some- 
times by no means easy to decipher. 

From tbese books it appears tbat tbe Craft met in divers placer (among wbich 
were Holyrood Abbey), but principally in tbe Tolbooth of tbe Canongate, tbe Parisb 

Digitized by 


l83 fransactions of the Quatuor Ooronati Lodge, 

Chnrcli, and the room near Sb. John's Cpojs, which, enlarged in 1735, is still tbe Cbapel 
ol Lodge Canongate Kilwinning. AU thèse places are within a few yards of each other 
in the High Street of the old bnrgh, and the site of the Gross, which lias disappeared, 
is marked in the paving by a pattern of a circle with a cross within it. The conventng 
home of the Incorporation is mentioned expressly on llth November, 1670, at the 
heading of the minute of that date apparently for the first time. We quote some of the 
minutes illnstrating the above and some other incidental points : — 

" At ye kirk of Halyruidhons the 

"sevent day of October 1630. 

" The qlk day the deacone mrs. & haill brethrine being convenit consentit 

*'to ye granting payt. of XIV capoun grantit to bis ma.tie as they were 

*' accastomat of befoir. 

"J. Hamiltoun 


" At ye Cannogaite in McNeilIis 

** Craigis the saxt day of Maij 

" 1637. 
(Members were elected to certain offices and, among other dnties, to keep 
the Keyis of ye Kist, Keyis of ye box, Keyis of ye buik, & Keyis of ye litill 

" and alro they electit Alexr. hude to be overseer of ye north syde of leyth 
** and In lyke maner Robert Grahame f uUer oflBcer for ye said yeir to come 
"promittit & obligit him be his aith to performe ail dewty in his office 
"and to be reddy ilk Sunday befoir and efter noone attending at ye 
" Craftis seate in ye Kirke at ye first bell ringing under ye penalty of sex 
" shillingis ancht pennies.'* 

Not only did the trade o^casionally meet in the Chnrch, bat they had sittings in 
the Parish Chnrches within their jurisdîction. Thus, on 20th December, 1C42, Stent 
was assessed on the means and ability of the brethren in North Leith for defi^aying 
the charges '* deburset in the bigging and repairing of a seat within ye kirk of northe 
" leithe & for * the perfecting thereof .' " The total cost appears to hâve been about 
20 merks. 

As the obligation taken from the intrant is almost the first point of inquiry and 

interest, we quote it in full : — 

The aythe of ane frieman to be 

taken of him at his admission n. 

1. Ye sali protest and swear befoir god your deacone and his maisteris of the 
craft convenit for the pnt That ye sali withe yonr lyf landis and gndis 
mantaine and défend the trew Relagioun pntlie professit establishit and 
allowit wtin Yis Kengdom as Ye Infallibill and indoubtit trewth Groundit 
npon gods word reveillit nnto us In the olld and new Testamentis 
authorized be the Lawis and actis of parliament of Yis Kingdome and to 
which ye and we hâve publiclie and solemnlie sworne befoîr god & his 
peopill and subscryvit in co venant, and dois be thir pntis swear and 
subscryve Yairto And that ye sali renunce the contrarie religioun of our 
adversaries the papistis, wt ail schismes and hérésies as erroneous super- 
stitions and idollatrous being Ye traditionis of men inventit by the Brains 
and Imaginatiouns of ma having no solid nor sound ground or warrand 
frome gods word. 

Digitized by 


Preeman imd Cowau, 1Ô9 

2. Ye will be obedient to my Lord superior baillies and Counsall of Yis burghe, 
Deacone and mrs of jour Craft pnt and to come and be Ijabill to Yair 
lawis actis and statutes & observe and obej Ye same. 

8. Ye will be ane faithfuU brother to jour craft conceill the affaires Yairoff and 
nawayis reveill Ye same by your craft. 

4. Ye will not difforce the craftis officiar nor theis quha sali be comandit to goe 

and assist bim in poinding of Yew for onie act transgressing or disorder 
comitting and concurr with tbame against rebellions and obstinât persons 
of Ye craft in poinding of Yame at Ye deacone and maisteris demand for 
Ye lyke causes. 

5. Ye will serve his maj lièges according to yoar skill and abilitie & faith fullie 

and trewlie bnt frand or falsett. 

6. And finallie ye will promis and swear to fnllfiU and obey ail Ye Statutes 

injunctiones and actis of craft contained in the craft books and to be sett 
donne Y intill in ail tyme coming, and sali anser to god and be god bim 
selff Swa helpe me gud lord to obey and performe Yis my othe. 

The Acts of the Craft were tabulated and nnmbered, that is to say, the Acts 
making régulations, as distinct from the Acts of Admission of Friemen. There are 
several of thèse Acts very interesting, among which are the following : — 

4. That na servand fecht wtin his mrs hous or workhons under pane of XL shs. 

6. That ail prenteisses & servandis waite upoun ye mais ter on ye sabbothe day 

under ane unlaw of VI shs VIII d 

7. That na servand be fund out of his mrs hous under clude of nicht under ye 

pane of XX shs. 
20. That ye last f rieman serve as officer. 

38. That na brother tak his brotheris hous over his Ifead under ye pane of Ten 

merks and confineing. 
40. That na burges of Edr. bear office of craft. 

52. That no meassonis friemen wtin ye libertie tak upoun hand in tym cuming 
To Sparge with lyme and sand nor whyt with lyme and watter nor chalk 
nor glew bot onlie to tak up the wark in als good fashioun as thei can and 
that under ye payne of ten merks Scottis money. 

57. Ye Craft taking to conside ration n that in tyme theis quha cam in friemen of 
the trad gave ane donner to the trad at their admissioun and booking as 
friemen which denner wes great expcnse to the incumming frieman and 
the craftis box was nothing profittit thairby for remeid yrof The craft 
statuts and ordaines that in tyme cumming everie ane that shall cam in 
frieman shall pey a sowrae of money for their denner to ye said craft such 
a sowne as ye deacone and maisters modifi and think fit. 

58. That the pnt boxmr George Wilson and his successors boxmaisters of this 
Incoi-poration shall sit in ye craft yr seat in ye kirk nixt to ye deacone 
except there be ane old deacone of ye said trad in ye seat and ordains that 
na frieman of ye said trad présume nor tak upon them to sit abone ye 
said boxmr nor his successors except ye pnt deacon and old deacones wha 
shall happin for ye tyme in ye kirk at anie tyme heirefter under ye pane 
of 40 shilling Scottis money swaoft as they failzie. 

Digitized by 


1^0 î'ramcLCtions 0/ the Quatuor Coronati Loàge. 

Illnstrative of the working of the raies and régulations laid down by thèse Acts 
of Craf t, the conditions of admission and the penalties of contravention, we quote a few 
of the minutes : — 

XIIII Julij 1630. 

The qlk day Henry Levingtoan Deacone Wm. Kichie boxmr. and haill 
mrs and brethrine being convenit anent Ye wrongis committit be James 
Potter In sufFering ane unfrieman to work in Ye liberty he not being mr 
of ye worke nor working yrwt him selff and in abuseing Ye Deacone for 
reproveing him yrof The Craft unlawis him in Thrie punds for permittin^ 
ye unfrieman to work wtin Ye liberty and in XL shs for abuseing ye 
Deacone And unto Ye payt yrof to injoy na liberty nor haif voice of 

J. Hamiltoun 


At ye Cannigait ye XXVI day 
of Sepr. 1630 

The qlk day In pns of Henry Lovingtoun deacone Wm. Richie boxmr 
James Burne <fc certaine of ye brethrine com périt Johne Darward sone to 
James Durward wright burges of ye Oannogate and is fiet servand to 
Archibald Gourlay wright burges yr fra this day to Michaelmes Jajvic 
thretty ane yeiris and to serve his mr. dewtif ully wtout absence of dayes 
and to enter daylie at fyve hrs. and continew to aucht hors, at evin except 
thrie half hors, in ye day and incaise of absence (o incur ye hichest penalty 
of craft for the qlk ye said Archibald sali pay to him Twenty shillings 
oulklie of wages for f urnishing him selff in méat drink and uyr necessaries 
except bedding and to geve him ane stane of grey claithes Twenty dayes 
efter Martinves nixt cum and gif ye said Jon. sal be absent wtout libertie 
any day he sali serve twa dayes for ilk Dayes absence and his mr. to geve 
him ane new bonnet and new sark and pair of new schoone. 

Johne Durwrd 

Archebald Gourlay 

J. Hamiltoun, NOrias 

ac scriba etc 


the said last day of Marche 1635 yeiris comperit 

James Crystie maissoun and is admittit frieman of ye maisson craft 

within the burgh of ye Cannogaite and haill regality of Brochtoun wha 

gave his aith for professing ye trow religioun pntlie profest "within this 

Kingdom for obédience to his matie the civill magistratis deacone & mrs. 

for mantenance of ye brughs libertie and yt he sali do nathing to ye craftis 

préjudice fPor fulfiUing of thair actis and ordinances maid and to be maid 

and doing ail dewty as becometh ane frie brother and geve werke to do 

and exerce ail utheris frie as ony uther frie brother does or sali do Lykeas 

ye craft permittit or exerce to ye said James Crystie whereupon he askit 


J. Hamiltoun 


Digitized by 


Freeman and Gowan, 191 

4tb December, 1647. 

The qlk day In pns of George Preir Dacone James Scott boxmasters and 
maisters eonvenit for tbe tyme compeirit Andro Leishman son lawll to 
James Leishman in the parosh of Stirlin and is bookit prenteis to the sd. 
George Freir for ffyve yeiris and ane yeir for méat and fie conforme to the 
indentores of the dait the twentie day of Novr. last Lykeas the sd. James 
Leishman hes maid payment to the sd. James Scott conforme to the order. 

George Freir. 
Andro Cowye N.P. 

and Clark. 

20 Junii 1648. 

The craft nnlawis Archibald Logane Cowpar for any unlaw of ffonrtie 

shillingis money for abuseÎDg James Scott desicone with nnreverend 

speitches and ordaines him to geive the sd. deacone satisfaction Lykeas 

the sd. Ard. hes comed in the crafts will and tane the sd. deacone be the 

hand and craved him pardonn and prmttit to pay Rd. Grahame boxmr. 

the sd. 40 shs of unlaw. 

Archibald Logane. 

At the Kirk of Halyrudhons the 
thrid day of Maij jajViO 
ffonrtie nyne yeiris. 

Samuel Geddes hes payit Robert Qraham boxmr. Ten merkis for bis 
exonération of the officership. The samyue day The haill craft ail in ane 
Toite Statuts »nd ordains that everie wright wha shall cum in frieman in 
tyme cuming within the Cannogait or Regalitie shall mak ane of the 
severall peices of wark folio wing for bis essay viz a dois bed ane almrie 
ane draw beord a press a dressr and the first new incuming frieman to 
begin at the dois bed the nixt frieman at the almrie and so fnrth 
successivelie And thet the esay maisteris be swome and the pairtie maker 
of the essay to be lookit in a chop qll the same be finishit. 

Andro Cowye N.P. and Clerk 
of Craft. 

Tent day of May 1649 
The qlk day In pns of George Freir deacone Rot. Graha"' boxmr. and 
haill mrs. & brethrene eonvenit They ail in ane voice electit & choisît 
James Dick to be offr. of craft for ane yeir to corne quha maid faith for 
discharging of bis office and ye craft promittit to pay him Ten merks 
money and ane pair of shoone of fee. George Freir. 

28 Jarii 1650. 
Oliver Edgar hes payit 30 sh for bis hallowmes qrter comptis and ten 
shillingis of unlawto Rot. Graham boxmr. 

Item Jo*^ Jo'^stoun hes payit the boxmr 24 shs. to put bis name in the 
lockit book. 

In 1656 Matthew Wilson was admitted a Mason freeman, bis essay was a paste- 
board house of three bouse height being square, ** having a jamb with a tumpike in 
the angle." 

Digitized by 


192 Transactions af the Quatuor Goronaii Lodge. 

On 9th May, 1657, James Tarbet was uniawed becanse at the élection be said 
tbere was " falsebood among y ou." Some, among wbom Tarbet was, bad promised to vote 
for an unsnccessfal candidate as boxmaster, bat the officers elect-ed, while accepting 
bis excuse, censured him for bis behavionr in the meeting. 

In 1658 fréquent fines are minuted for abusing the deacon ; the offences seem to 
bave been verbal abuse. 

On 20th Pebruary, 1668, John McKenzie, bowar, was admitted a freeman. His 
essay was as " leat prenteis to umqle Wm. McCullo bowar barges & frieman of the sd. 
burgh . . . any gowf club and ane Arrow." 

Cannongate 2 Jally 1698. 
The wbich day James Mcfarling wright Deacon, David Gisant wrigbt 
Boxmaster masters & brethren of trade mett and convened for the tynie 
taking to ther consideratione that John Robertsone offîcer to tbe trade is 
altogether anfitt & incapacitat to discharge his dewty as officer so 
suffîciently as is reqnisit by reason of sickness and âge, weakness & 
infirmities <fc thereby the trade is at ane disadvantadge by ther 
inchapterlie meetings & otherwayes and therefor hes deposed and heirby 
déposes ye sd John Robertsone of his oflSce as officer in ail tyme coming. 

Tbe Deacone IW his ordinar 


Hu Maifson Clerk. 
(This deacon usually signed by mark.) 

Att Canongate the tenth day of Aprîle 
Jaj vii c atd Therty four years. 
The wbich day the Deacon boxmaster and rémanent masters and members 
of the Incorporation of the wrights Coapers &c. of Canongate being meett 
and COMPEARED Cloud Nisbet, Masson resedenttr in Canongate Who 
baveing Given in a bill to the Trade Craveing to be admitted to ane essey 
and being found qualiUed to receave him a free Brother masson witbin tbe 
Canongate and priveleges thereof upon his paying what upsett and otber 
dews tbe trade shall please name qch being Considered by the Trade They 
remitted him to ane essey VIZ To make the modle of a bouse Thei-ty foot 
long and Twenty four foot and a balf bredith within the walls with a 
skeall stear and doors and Windows Conforme and to draw a draught of 
the samen within the conveening before he begin to his essey botb to be 
done within the said conveening bouse before the nixt quarter day wbich 
Pétition with the suffitiancey of the Draught and essey & the report of the 
essey masters being Considered by the Trade They admitt and receave 
the said Cloud Nisbet to be a free Brother Masson wtin ye Canongale and 
priviledges thereof who being présent made faith for professing the true 
protestant reformed religion obediance to the majestrats of the Canongate 
Deacon and Masters of Trade présent and to corne made and to be made 
and shall doe nothing to ye Contrair therof directly nor Indirectly in tyme 
comeing qre upon the said Cload Nisbet asked and took Instruments He 
haveing payed his upsett & dew to the Trade. 



Digitized by 


Freeman and Cowan, 193 

Canongate 28 March 1740. 

WHICH DAY the Corporation haveîng ccnsidered tho many dobates & 
Inconveniencys tbat Hâve happened on their aunuall Elections on the 
Third day of May or Beltain day THEREFORB in order to prevent à 
remove some of Them in time comeing They ail in one voice nnanimously 
FIND & DECLARE That it bas been the Antient and most constant 
Castom and practice of this Corporation at their annaal Elections on 
Beltain day To make a Leet of four Members and then to confine them- 
selves to that Leet and ont of thèse only to choise a New Deacon & a new 
Bozmaster The Leets being Separate for each ofiQce and That the manner 
of make in g np thèse Leets bas been thus YIZ Imo The person then 
ezerceing the office of Deacon and presideing in the meeting called by him 
for the New Election is firstplaced down in the Leet, 2do The person whom 
that Deacon names or takes by the hand for bis successor is nixt placed in 
the Leet, 8tio The Trade by majority of votes choise other Two persons 
who are Lastly placed in the Leet and The Same Method is folio wed in 
Eiecting a Boxmaster AND The Corporation nnanimously Statnte enact 
& ordain That the above method of Leeting & Eiecting of Deacon and 
Boxmaster be exactly & f ally observed in ail time coming and That no 
other person can bo elected or enjoy the office of Deacon and Boxmaster 
Except ONE of the foar in the Leet; That the person of the four on the 
Leet haveing the Majority of free & an contra ver ted votes when compared 
wt the other three on the Leet, Shall bave the alone right & title To enjoy 
& exerce the saids offices of Deacon & Boxmaster nntill the nixt Election 
thereafter AND FURDER They Enact <fc ordain That in ail time comeing 
No Member of this Trade Shall bave voice or vote at the Election or in any 
other of the Trades affairs who are or shall be resting & owing any Sum 
or Sums of money To the Trade by bill bond Tickett Decreet quarter 
accotds absents Charity or any other manner of way whatsoever either 
with or without Writte ay & while They make fuU payment thereof, and 
They ordain This whole act & every part thereof, To be duely <fc strictly 

observed in ail time comeing. 

Alexander Miller. 
Wm. Wilson Clk. 

Att Canongate ye VIth Febry 1741. 

WHICH DAY the Corporation of Wrights Coupers &c. of Canongate 
takeing into their serions considération that for want of a stated Rule, 
The dues paid at the admission of Strangers to be Freemen, bave for thèse 
many years by past been unequall and ail of them too small Which 
practice bas been prejudiciall Not only to the publick funds of the 
Corporation but also to every individuall member thereof THEREFORE 
the Majority of the Corporation ENACT and ORDAIN That in ail time 
comeing, Each Stranger who shall be admitted & received a Freeman of 
this Corporation Shall pay THREE HDNDRED merks Scots of Upsett 
money and twenty two pound as the usuall dues whereof fourteen pound 
ten shill to the Trade three pound to the Clerk, three pound to the 
Conveenry <fe one pound ten shill to the Officer AND That no person 
whatever shall be admitted to exercise any Trade or Art in North Leitb 

Digitized by 


194. Transactions of ihe Quatuor Goronatt Lcdge, 

Coalhill & Pleasants Unless Tliey be likewise admitted at tbe same time 
for the Canongate AND FURTHER They Enact and Ordain That 
Freemens Sons & Sons in law Shall be admitted and received for payment 
of the Antient upsett money of Fourty ponnds and Apprentices for payment 
of one hundred merks and tbe usnall dues as aforesaid AND this Act 
They Will, appoint and ordain to be faifcbf nlly & strictly kept and observed 
in ail time comeing from and after this date. 


Wm. WILSON Clk. 

Att Canongate the Seventeenfcb 
day of Febraary JajVII and 
Fourty one years 

Whicb Day In présence of the Deacon Boxmr and rémanent Masters & 

Members of the Corporation of Wnghts Coupers &c. of Canongate Com- 

peared John Gray, Jonrneyman Couper in Canongate & Son in Law to the 

deceased John Muir wright and late Deacon of this Corporation WHO 

haveing given in a Pétition craveing to be admitted a Freeman and 

haveing made bis Essay according to order viz Two Nine Gallon Trees out 

of New Oak Scows which Essay being Inspected by the TradeTheyfonnd 

the samein Sufficient And Therefore Hâve admitted and hereby Admitt 

and reçoive the Said John Gray to be a Free Brother Couper within the 

Burgh of Canongate & privilèges thereof who being présent made faith as 

usnall whereopun be took Instruments and payed fourty pounds Scots 

money of upsett money and other Dues. 


Wm. WILSON Clk. 

Att Canongate the sixth day of 
July JajVII and fourty two. 

Which Day In présence of the Deacon Boxmaster and rémanent Masters 

& Members of the Corporation of Wrights Coupers <fec. of Canongate 

being mett Compeared Andrew Syme masson in Edinbr. & Son of ye 

deceased Jas. Syme, Sclater & freeman of this Corporation craving to be 

received a free Brother with them in ail their priviledges Whicb Pétition 

being considered The Trade uuanimously found the petitioner qualified and 

in respect be had made an Essay in Marys Chappell of Edr. They dis- 

pensed with bis makeing one to Them and for which he payed Twelve 

pound Scots And They hereby admitt and receive the said Andrew Syme 

a free Brother in bis art of Mason Craft within their whole bounds and 

priviledges who being présent made faith for professing the true protest. 

Religion obédience to his Majesty, the Magistratea of Canongate our 

Superiors Deacon & Masters of Trade Acts made & to be made by ye Trade 

and shall do nothing contrair hereunto directly or indirectly in time 

comeing whereupon the said Andrew Syme asked and took Insts. and he 

paid Fourty pounds Scois money of upsett money and his whole other dues 

in common for m. 


Wm. WILSON Clk, 

Digitized by 


^reevian and Gotoan. l95 

The ofiScers of the Corporation were nnmerons, but ail Corporations were nofc 
alike, some had more, some fewer. We hâve not been able to find anything to justify 
Bro. Haghan's suggestion that the ** eldest entered apprentice " had the duty of 
presiding at meetings of the Apprentices. He states that " this custom althongh 
obsolète is nevertheless, I fancy, récent, as the first mention of it hitherto discovered 
dates from 1721." The practice of apprentices haviog separate meetings may be true 
as regards Lodges, but seems apocryphal as regards Incorporations. At Haughfoof, he 
says, we find a "youngest entered apprentice.** " He is occasionally called * Officer,' 
" whence we may conclude that his duty was to tyle the Lodge, the * Officer ' being 
** of ten mentioned elsewhere and always in such a way as to lead to the conclusion that 
"he was équivalent to onrTyler." 

There was no tyler in the masonic sensé in the old Trade Incorporations. The 
Officer was the factotum who went messages for the Deacon, called meetings and so on, 
just like the Beadle of the Kirk Session. A spécial appointment was usually made, but 
if the Craft chose they could compel the latest intrant to act or to pay for a substitute. 
There hâve been instances of spéculative Lodges having both an Officer and a Tyler. 

The craft was divided into several ranks or divisions. There were several 
classes of members. The distinctions thus made appear hitherto to hâve been only 
partialLy understood, and the light thrown upon them by the Minutes before us is both 
interesting and impartant. The building trade permits of specialization— indeed, 
good workmanship almost demands it,— and the classification in olden times is still to a 
large extent the classification adopted by the division of labour of the présent day. 

In respect of the work itself there were the quarrier, the waller or rough mason, 
the hewer, and the builder, and any workman might dévote himself to one or other of 
thèse as divisions of the trade of construction in stone. Theoretically it was possible to 
hâve a guild or f raternity for each, but practically the quarrier and rough mason were 
looked upon as of the labouring class, while the builder and especially the hewer were 
looked upon as the skilled artisans, and in more intimate relation to the designer or 
architect, whose sphère they frequently trenched upon and occupied. 

The hewer and builder were both masons par excellence^ though the hewer was 
spécial ly the freemason " lathomos vocatos ffre maceons " in contrast to " lathomos 
vocatos ligiers " (1396 vide Bro. Rylands in Masonic Magazine, 1882). The English 
statute of 1459, ii. Henry viii., G. xxii., shews that the rough mason or waller or builder 
with unhewn stone and without lime, i.e., the Scottish cowan, was a lower class trades- 
man according to the wages then fixed. This is borne ont by the English statutes 
7 Henry viii. C.v. 1515, and 2 and 3 Ed. vi. 1548. 

See also the Westmorland notes of Bro. Conder, A.Q,G., x., 32. To this day 
the hewing mason and the building mason get différent wages. 

For further illustrations of the différent classes of workmen we may refer to 

(1) the English Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland, A.Q C. vu., p. 137, which 
quotes a record in 1508 in regard to 5 freemasons, 20 rough masons and 25 labourers 
employed by Sir William Conyers, Oaptain of the Town of Berwick on Tweed, for the 
repair and bailding of the Town and Castle. 

(2) Rule 13 of the Alnwick Lodge, A.Q.G. xiv. 8. :— 

" Thatt noe Rough Layers or any other thatt has not served theîr time 
" or been admitted masons shall work within the Lodge any work of 
" mason ry whatsoever (except under a Mastr).'' 

Digitized by 


196 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge, 

(3) Leicestershire Masonry by Bro. Conder, A.Q.G. xiy., 129 : — 

" Besides thèse Masons workîng ai the Bridges and Gild Hall there were 
" others known as Marators or wall builders. They are accounted for 
" when workÎDg on the garden wall behind the Gild Hall, their wages 
" were SJd per day." 

(4) Mr. Tingey's notes on the craft Gailds of Norwicb, A.Q.G, xv., 199, and specially 
the foUowing : — 

" In the autamn of 1512 the rongh masons complained of persons 
" apprenticed for 7 years redeeming their bonds at 4 years and even 
** less, and others not apprenticed at ail. It was therefore decreed that 
" no one should work as a rough mason but such as had fnlly served his 
" apprenticeship or else be approved by the mayor and warden of the 
*' craft ; also that no one shonld take it upon him to do any task work 
*' within the city but such as were sworn citizens." 

The skilled and privileged craft as a body was conrentionally divided into 
members as foUows : — 

1. Honorary, or non trading, afterwards the dominating feature leading to 

spéculative freemasonry. 

2. Freemen of the craft in full membership and with full privilèges of trading 

and employment. 

3. Servants or operative and skilled employées, permanently retained by certain 

freemen as employées. 

4. Journeymen, free of the craft, operatives duly skilled and open for employ- 

ment day by day, but travelling from one mas ter to another and not in 
business for themselves. 

ô. Apprentices. 

6» Cowans or cowaners, z.e., freemen or journeymen restricted to one class of 

It must be kept clearly in view that in England, as appears from the 
statu tes of Henry and Edward already referred to, the freeman of the craft, whether in 
full standing or only potentially so as a joumeyman or apprentice, was of a différent 
and higher class than even a master rough mason or master cowan : a lad might be 
apprenticed to a cowan for that class of work as well as to a mason. Only the latter 
had a craft guild or incorporation. The former being nearer the sphère of unskilled 
labour, like the carter or scavenger, did not require a guild to protect privilèges, as he 
had few or noue to protect. 

The remainder of our notes will deal with the position of the cowan, an 
almost purely Scottish term to which is almost invariably now given an entirely 
erroneous meaning. The word in ordinary usage bas lost ail its original signification. 

It is provided by the Shaw Statutes : — 

" The Statutes and Ordinances to be observed be ail the maister maîssonis 
" within this reaime of date xxviir. day December the zeir of God ImVo 
" four seoir auchtene zeirs." 

" 15. Item. That na maister or fallow of craft ressave ony cowains to 
" wirk in his socîetie or cnmpanye nor send nane of his servands to wirk 
** with cowanis under the pane of twentic pounds sae oft as ony person 
" offendis heirintill." 

Digitized by 


Freeman onâ Cowan. 197 

ïn 1707 in lis ordinance against tbe employment of cowans, the Lodge of 
Kilwinning described a cowan as a Mason *' without the word *' — a member of the craft 
withoat full privilèges. But tbe employment of cowans by Master Masons, for any kind 
of work, when no regnlar craftsmen could be foand within fifteen miles, was allowed by 
the Lodge of Kilwinning in the early part of last centnry. The employment of 
"Kowans" was probibited in 1600 by tbe Glasgow Incorporation of Masons, but a 
minate of the same Court, in February, 1623, contains the record of a person booked 
and received as a cowan being autborised to work stone and morfcar, and to " build 
" mortar walls, but not above an ell in beight and without power to work or lay hewn 
" work, nor to build with sand and lime." The records of the Lodge of Haddington 
(1697) shew that apprentices indentured to Lodges were taken bound " not to work with 
" nor in company nor fellowship of any Cown at any manner of building nor mason 
" work." 

Cowans were regular recognized members of craft. There was no prohibition 
against their admission as being qualified for their particular work. It was a late 
and mistaken idea to use the word in the ritual of Spéculative freemasonry, when 
it sprang up, as a term of opprobrium, and to class cowans with eavesdroppers, or to 
particularize them as uninitiated persons who might abtempt to obtain admission to the 
Lodge itself in contradistinction to the eavesdropper, who was merely a clandestine 

What in the first place was the Cowan or Cowaner ? This is abundantly plain 
from the records available. The earliest minute in possession of the Lodge of Edin- 
burgh (Mary's Ohapel), as is so well known, records its deliverance on a breach of the 
statu te against the employment of Cowans : — 

" Ultimo Julij 1599 The qlk day George Patoun maissoun grenttit & 
*' confessit that he had offendit agane the dekin & mrs for placeing of any 
" cowane to wirk at ane chymnay heid for tua dayis and ane half day for 
'* the wlk offenss he submittit himself in the dekin & mrs guds willis qt 
" unlaw thay pleass to lay to bis charge, and thay having respect to the 
*' said Georges humill submissioun & of bis estait, thay remittit him the 
** said offenss, Providing alwayis that gif ather he (or) ony other brother 
" committ the lyke offenss heireftr that the law sali stryke vpoun thame 
** Indiscreta wtout exceptioun of psonis this was done in pns of Paull 
** Maissoun dekin Thoas Weir warden, Thoas Watt Johne Broun ïïenrie 
" Tailzefeir the said George Payoun & Adame Walkar ITa est Adamus 
'* Gibsone norius Paull Maissoun dekin " (the Wardens mark is also 

Though Bro. Murray Lyon states that the offence of employing uninitiated 
craftsmen seems occasionally to bave formed the subject of complaint to the Lodge, he 
points ont that a hundred years had nearly elapsed before the epithet " Cowan " again 
occurs in the Edinburgh records. Under date December 27th, 1693, he finds : — " It is 
" also condesended that if aney Master imploy a Couan or Couans he shall pay tuelue 
" pound scotts for each breach of this our actt to the warden : for the use of the poor." 
The pen appears, Bro. Murray Lyon adds, in correction to hâve been drawn through 
the last clause of this minute, as if the ultimate destination of such fioes had been 
changed. That the " pious uses" to which Shaw in bis Statutes directs Lodge fines to 
be applied referred less to acts of piety in the strictest sensé than to almsgiving, 
appears from subséquent minutes, where considération for its own poor is shown in the 

Digitized by 


198 transactions of the Quatuor Goronatï Loâge. 

devoting of a portion of its funds to theîr relief — a virtue which still more or less 
characterizes the Lodges of the présent day. 

In the Statistical Account of Scotland bj Sir John Sinclair, Part XIX. ; Parish 
of Halkirk, Caithness, by the Rev. John Cameron, Minister, pnblished in 1797, in 
speaking of the population of 3180 in the Parish, he says, *' Of this number there are 
380 bachelors, maideus 400, widowers 40, widows 89, menservants 308, womenservants 
321, tradesmen such as tailors, weavers, shoe or brogue makers, sraiths, wrights, coopéra, 
cowans 73," and the note is added 

" Coîcans, masons who build dry stone dikes or walls." 

In the account of the Parish of Morven, published in 1794; Presbytery of Mull, 
Connty of Argyle, by the Rev. Norman McLeod, we find *' a day labourer earns 1/- per 
day, taylors are paid by the job from which they earn from 1/6 to 2/- per day exclusive 
of maintenance, a boat carpenter, joiner, cowan (or builder of stone without mortar) 
get 1/- at the minimum and good maintenance, a shepherd has from £7 to £10 per 
annum, besides maintenance and shoes, weavers are paid by the measure and according 
to quality of stuff." Cowanor was the term used in the same sensé in the Lothians. 

At the Cannogaite the XXVII of 
May 1636. 
The qlk day Henry Levington deacone and haill mrs. being convenit 
compeirit Johne McCoull cowane and is admittit during his lyftyme To 
worke as ane cowane any work with stane and clay allenarly wtout lyme 
wtin ye haill regality, and barony of brochtoun for the qlk he faithfuUy 
promittit to pay to ye said craft or ye boxmr. in their names, The soume 
of ffoure ponnds money yeirly during ye said space of his lyftyme quarterly 
viz. at foure severall tymes yeirly To witt Ïambes hallowmes candlemes 
and beltane And geve he failzeis at eny tyme at ye leist twenty dayis efter 
ony terme that he sali pay ye doubill at ilk tymes failzie as said is viz. 
forty shillings for ilk twenty shillings but ony objectionn. 

J. Hamilton, Scr. 

At the Canuogait the penult day 
of Maij jajYiO fourtie ni ne 
The quhilk day In pns of George Freir deacone Rt Grahame boxmr. and 
haill mrs. & brethrene convenit compeirit Williame Reull cowaner and 
is admittit dnreing his lyftyme To work as ane cowane anie wark with 
stane and clay allenarlie without lyme except onlie to cast with lyme 
timber doir cheeks and timber windowis and clay chimney heidis without 
and that wtin the Cannogait & haill Regalitie of Brochtonn for the qlk he 
promittit faithfullie to pey to the sd. Craft or yr boxmr. in yr name The 
soume of sic pound Scottis moY yeirlie dureing the space of his lyftyme at 
four severall tymes viz Lambes hallowmes candlemes & beltane beginand 
the first termes pay t. at hallowmes nixt In respect the sd. Wm. has pntlie 
payit 30 shs doe his Ïambes qrter compts and gif he failzie anie tyme at 
least wtin twentie dayis efter enie terme That he shall pey the double at 
ilk tyme failzie as sd. is viz thrie pound for ilk 30 shs But anie objectioun. 

George Freir. 
Andro Cowye N : P. 

Digitized by 


Freeman and Gowan, 199 

Oliver Edgar was admitted a cowaner on the same day, and on tlie same 

From tbe Canongate records we again find : — 

3 March 1650 — John Sime admitted as cowaner. 

18 June 1653 — John Baird, cowaner, admitted. 
11 July 1655 — John Banchop, cowaner, admitted. 

He signs the act of admission with his mark. In other cases those admitted do 

not sign. In this case the deacon, John Hendrie, & the clerk Andrew Cowye both sign. 

6 Jnly 1658 — Robert Heart, admitted cowaner. 

In this case Andrew Cowye adhibits his notarial mark in place of Heart's 


25 May 1659 — James Marray, yoonger son of James Mnrray, wright in 

Muthell, entered prentice to James Scott burgess & freeman of 


19 Sept. 1660 — James Cleghorne cowaner, indweller in Canongate, 


William Dowie ,, indweller in Leith, Admitted. 

13 Nov. 1660 — William Wallwood, cowaner at Inverleith, Admitted. 

20 Dec. 1G60 — Francis Clift, cowaner in Cannogait, Admitted. Clift signs 

the minute, but not the others. 
11 April 1661 — John Halliwell, Burgess of the Cannogait admitted as a 
cowaner in usual form. He signs the minute : — 
John Haliwel 
His father-in-law, Robert Gray, is in the minute as cautioner, and he signs by 
his initiais, thus : — OC Q 

He seems to hâve left the town. His first paymeDt was due on Ist May, 1662. 
The minute has a marginal note : — 

" Margaret Gray, Spons to Jon. Halliwell hes payit Patrick moyse boxmr. 
" in fuU payment of ail bygone qrter comptis and is 

" now deleit ont of this book and never to pay anie moir qrter comptis 
" heirefter except he be found working in Cannogait or barronie." 

18 June 1661 — Robert Cowpar, cowaner, admitted. 

7 May 1664 — Andrew Sime, cowaner, admitted. He signs the minute 
with his cautioner John Greenleis. 

27 Sept. 1664— Gilbert Hamiltoun, cowaner, admitted. He has a 
cautioner and signs notarially. 

3 Feb. 1608 — Thomas Andersen, Cowaner. He was recommended by 
George Heriot, Bai lie, conform to a letter subscribed by the Bailie 
of the above date, and admitted a cowaner. His cautioner, William 
Mason, is designated *' Meason burges & fricman of C." 

5 March 1669 — John Sim, admitted cowaner. The minute states: — 
** comperit personally John Syme ane honest old man and cowaner 
and is admittit & receaved dareing his lyftyme to work àc " A 
Notary signs for Sim. 
10 March 1669 — Wm. McKean admitted as a cowaner. He signs thç 
minute with his cautioner. 

Digitized by 


200 Transactions of the Quatuor OoronaH Lodge, 

Ifc is worib noting that there are separate entries of " servants " to the freemen for 
the period of this minute book, at the end of it. Thus : — 

17 Sept. 1669 — And sicklyk John Cowan Mason is bookit servand to 
William Mason Meson barges & frieman of Cannogait and he 
hes satisfiet and Moîr boxmr. conforme to the order. 
9 May 1677 — Thomas Gib maisson is booked servant to John Hamilton 
& payed his booking money. 
26 April 1677 — James McLean booked servant to Andrew Syme. 

One other minute as to a case against a cowan deserves quotation. 

Cannogait the 3 day of July 1691 years. 
The qlk day the said deacon boxmr. maisters & haill rémanent brethren 
mett & convened for the tyme considering the great encroachment done 
be John Monro, Cowen, to the incorporatione of the wrights of the said 
burgh by working of severall pièces of worke not concerned nor contained 
in his act of admissione wherfore they hâve amercat & fyned him in Ten 
merks Scots for bygones and farder inacts & déclares that in caise he 
committ & doe the lyke in tyme comeing he shaU forfeitt & omitt the 
benefeitt of his freedom for the lyke actings and this particularlie Becaose 
he hes bein working be himselfe & servants seuerall sleat slabes & other 
farniture to the présent forces on lie belonging to the wrights & not to the 
cowens as is cleir by his act of admissione. 

This was under Thomas Kinloch, Deacon, and Hector Ayttonne, Bozmaster, and 
refers to some work which evidently James Watson, the Laird of Saughton, was having 

Bro. Gould, in dealing with the Cowan, gives as an instance : — " James Bitchie 
** was accused of feeing a cowan . . . . it is stated in his faveur that * he was 
" entered loith a Lodge, and had a discharge of a Master in Paisley.' " ^ This took place 
in Glasgow, 1<)22. He proceeds : " Kilwinning, 20th December, 1725. Two of its 
** brethren were *discharged from entering the societie of honest men {cf. with the 
" E. A.Ob.) belonging to the Lodge of Kilwinning, and also discharge every frieman to give 
" no strocke of worke under the penaltie of £20 Scots until they be convinces of their 
" cryme.' If nofc actually called cowans they were at least in exactly the same position. 
" This Lodge in 1705 defined a cowan as a * mason without the word,' but the occurrence 
" above noted at Glasgow shows that a non-affiliated mason, having the word, was also 
" called a cowan. At Edinburgh, fchose who had lawfully served their apprenticeship 
" were prohibited from obtaiuing work, or from employing other apprentices or servants 
" until they had taken up both the freedom of the Lodge and that of the burgh, which 
" latter was granted by the Incorporation. Whether called cowan or not, it is évident 
" they were treated as such." 

It is abundantly évident from thèse extracts that this word cowan, or cowaner, 
likemost of the operative terms in raasonry, is of Scottish origin. Scotland is naturally 
a land of stone building, and it need not be a matter of surprise that the employment of 
cowans was more fréquent in the Burgh of Canongate than the Burgh of Edinburgh. 
The latter was a walled city. The former was a suburban communifcy. The latter 
delighted in closely huddled together houses and tenements. The former was a wide 
area of houses with gardens and cultivated ground attached. It was evidently in the 

» Gould, Eistory of Freemasonry i., 428, 414, 40?. 

Digitized by 


Freeman and Ootoan. 201 

former that tbe drjsfcone djker and rongh stone mason wonld be most in demand. The 
earliest use of fche word cowan ia Eaglish misonry, operative or specalative, appears to 
be in the Second Edition, 1738, of the Book of Coustitations. It is possible that the 
équivalent in the MS. Constitutions or elsewhere was lajer or lowen, but this line of 
enquiry has not been pursued. 

Bro. Gould is wrong in saying that a non-affiliated Mason having the word was 
called a cowan. He clearly misundorstands the Glasgow entrj, which simply means, as 
is so évident fi'om the Canongate Minutes, that the cowan was entered as a cowan. The 
distinction he draws between the freedom of the Lodge and the freedom of the Burgli is 
also by no means accurate. The freedom of tbe ti'ade, te , membership of one of the 
Incorporated Crafts was itself freedom of the Burgh in early days. 

Brother Speth (A.Q.G. i., 145,) is also in error. Cowans were not, as he states, 
irregalar Masons. He says:— " It has been generally supposed that the term applied 
only to those undertaking Mason's work without having been regalarly apprenticed to a 
Mastor Mason. I think its meaning may be widened to include apprentices regalarly 
bonnd, but who had never been booked or entered, as also those who had been duly 
entered, but failed to get themselves passed ; those who, being passed, had removed to 
another district and omitted to join the local Lodge ; those who had been expelled the 
Lodge, and, in fact, every Mason guïlty of any irregularity whatever." If he had had 
the old minutes of the Canongate Craft before him, it is quite certain he would hâve 
been compelled to take a différent view. 

It may be added that in many Lodges in Scotland it is impossible to say definitely 
when they lost theîr character as mainly or entirely operative and took on that of a 
spéculative society. Indeed, in the North, there are Lodges which, though spéculative, 
still restrict their membership to actual operatives. Even whero this was or is not 
doue, the cowan or rongh builder was gradually recognized as entitled to become a 
member of a Craft Lodge. We may instance the Stonehaven Lodge which during the 
eighteenth century was a trade corporation in form, but admitted the spéculative 
élément. Quoting from its minutes we find a cowan or waller (who as an initîaie signs 
the minute) admitted at the same fee as a Mason, other persons paying a higher fee. 

Stonehaven Lodge, 4th September, 1797. 

In présence of the Master Wardens and brethren assembled — John 
Murray, stonedyker at Invercarron upon his own pétition and proper 
recommendation was regularly entered apprentice and paid into the funds 
the sum of seventeen shillings and sixpence sterling two shillings and 
ninepence as Grand Lodge dues with Clerk and Officers dues. Paid lOd 
for 1 Ib candies and one shilling to the officer for this and the former 

William Norie Mr. 
Alexr. Dawson, Secry. à Clk. 

John Murray. 

Having dealt with the status of the Cowan, it may not be ont of place to deal 
with the dérivation of the word regarding whicb some very absurd conjectures hâve 
been made. Some of thèse are so very ridiculous that one would apologize for 
mentioning them were it not that they hâve been gravely quoted, with respect at least, 
if not appi'oval, by more than one Masonic historian, evidently in ignorance of the 
history and position of the cowan and without knowledge of Scots or Scotland. 

Digitized by 


202 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronatt Lodge. 

1. The fi rst of thèse spurious dérivations is from the Greek verb oicovo), I listén. 
As the ordinary Scotsman does not and never did speak Greek, and the cowan was 
neither an eavesdropper, nor a listener, but a simple tradesman, we need say no more 
about this fanciful suggestion. 

2. The second dérivation, quoted with some approval bj Bro. Murray Lyon, is 
from the Greek again, kvo»/, a dog. Evidently with a lingering notion that cowan bas 
in some way a Gaelic connection, he says, " It is worthy of notice that eu is the Gaelic 
" Word for dog. May the epithet, as one of oontempt towards Craftsmen * without the 
" Word ' not hâve been derived from the Celtic word, eu Y A Grael would so express 
" himself by the term, a choin, * You dog.* And may it not be in this sensé that we ftnd 
" it employed in Rob Roy by the great novelist, who, in the dispute between the Eaillie 
" and Major Galbraith in the claohan of Aberfoyle, makes the Highlander, whose broad- 
" sword had in a préviens brawl the same night been opposed by Nicol Jarvie's ' red- 
" het culter,' speak thus superciliously of the Duke of Argyle : * She*ll speak her mind 
" and fear naebody — she doesna value a Cawmil mair as a cowan, and ye may tell 
** MacCallum More that Allan Iverach said sae.' Rob Roy was written in 1817, — Sir 
" Walter Scott was made in the Lodge St. David, Edinburgh, March 2, 1801, and to his 
" acquaintance with Masonic technicalities his use of Cowan as an epithet of contempt 
" may be ascribed." Unfortunately for this theory, up till a comparatively late date in 
spéculative Masonry cowan was not a term of contempt at ail, but merely an operative 
term applicable to an excluded class. The phrase used in Rob Roy has been misunder- 
stood. The martial Highlander was expressing his disdain for the Campbells and for 
tradesmen, and he is made to use the appropriate English word cowan (meaning just a 
poor dyker), which was archaic enough for the novelist's purpose and had a Gaelic 
ancestry, to stand for trade. 

3. A third suggestion is that the " chouans " of the French Révolution were the 
source whence " Cowan " is derived. The epithet was applied to the " Insurgent 
Bretons," chiefly, as is supposed, from the circumstances of their movements being 
generally made, like those of owls, in the night. Chouan w^as the screech owl, the 
nickname of Jean Cottereau, the original leader of the party of insurgent Royalists of 
Brittany and the West of France, consisting almost entirely of peasantry who rose in 
1792 against the French Republic, and carried on a guérilla warfare of great bittemess. 
They were not repressed till 1800, and even after that occasional insurrections occurred 
down to the first years of the reign of Louis Philippe, 1830-48. Old French choue, a 
daw, our word chough. The use of the word by Incorporations long before the French 
Révolution, cou pied with the fact that formerly the craft held their meetings in broad 
daylight, demolishes that theory. 

4. Still a fourth dérivation has been proposed by Bro. C. N. McTntyre North, 
viz., that Cowan may be derived from Comh hliann (pronounced Kovhann) implying 
one who is bonded in some way or another. But there was no spécial binding in 
regard to cowans, and nothing of this sort was ever such a feature of the classas to give 
a narae to it. The suggestion has no apparent ground or reason and nothing whatever 
can be adduced in its support. 

For similar reasons we dismiss the idea of any connection, as has been suggested, 
with : — 

5. Suedo Gothic Kujon, a silly fellow. Homtnem ïmhellem et cujus capitt omnes 
tuto illudunt Kujon appeîare moris est. 

Digitized by 


Freemàn and Oowan. 2Ô3 

6. French coyon, a coward, our cullion, a scoundrel or base fellow, as in Shakes- 
peare, Henry v., m., ii., 22, " Up to the breach you dogs ! avaunt'yoa callions." 

7. Italian Coglione^ a fool, or a person deserving the utmost personal contempt. 

The truth is that the word is an exact parallel in use and an antithesis in 
meaning to "square." Square is an adjective, verb and Doun, and the person who 
makes a thing square can be called a squarer. Cowan raeans round or hollow as an 
adjective, a hollow or something hollow as a noun, and a cowaner is the hollow builder 
or the man who uses round unsquared stones for building parposes, whether walls or 
buts. In the west of Scotland the word bas received a collatéral meaning coUoquially 
in being applied to large hollow fishing boats. Thus : — " When the Earl (Argyll) came 
" to Allangreg in this critical juncture he resolved to man ont four prizes he had got to 
** sea and thirty cowans or fisher boats " <fcc. (Woodrow's Hist. ii. 535.) 

I bave Prof essor Mackinnon's authority for saying that ** The word caban, later 
" cabhan, is a well established word in Gaelic literature with the meaning hollow, 
"crevice, &c. Tn dialect the sound easily becomes cobhan, co*an, the first a being 
"short. In Gaelic *air,' like the English * er,* indicates a personal agent, so that 
*' cowaner is thus a very natoral phrase for a hollow builder or drystone diker." In 
Welsh the word takes the form of cwm, a combe or dingle. There are several places in 
Dumfriesshire and Galloway called cowan, caven and cavens. In Ireland there is 
Connty Cavan. The original stem is Ku^ to contain, whence come the Latin cavea, 
Greek kvuv, to s well, and the English cave, Oam referring to a curved wheel, Camher a 
curved surface, cameo, caméra, and a whole host of words relating to curvature or 

In connection with this enquiry it might be interesting to trace the origin and 
locus of the word Cowan as a surname, but this bas not been taken up. 

Digitized by 


TUESDAY, 14th JULY, 1908. 

SPECIAL Meeting was held ia order to o£Fer a fraternal weloome from the Lodge 
to the Mason-Bishops and Delegates to the Pan-Anglican Conférence, which was 
then takÎDg place in London. 

The Lodge met in the Grand Lodge Boom at Freemasons' Hall, at 5 p.m. 
Présent— BroB. F. H. Goldney, P.G.D., W.M. ; K. F. Gould, ^.G.D., P.M., as S.W. ; 
F. J. W. Crowe, P.G.O., J.W. ; Canon J. W. Horsley, P.G.C., Chap. ; W. John 
Songhurst, P.A.G.D.C, Secretary; Henry Sadler, G. Ty., S.D.; W. Watson, J.D. ; 
W. M. Brwater, P.G.S.B., D.C. ; J. P. Simpson, I.G.j E. H. Drinç, S. Stew.j B. L. 
Hawkins, J. Stew. ; Dr. W. Wynn Westcott, P.G.D., P.M. ; Admirai Sir A. H. Markham, P.Dis.G.M., 
Malta, P.M.; Sidney T.Klein, L.B., P.M.; W. H. Eylands, P.A.G.D.C, P.M.; Dr. W. J. Chetwode 
Crawley, G.Tr., Ireland ; Geo. L. Shackles, P.M. ; and Edward Armitage, P.D.G.D.C. 
There were also présent : — 
H.B.H. The Duke of Connanght and Stratheam, K.G., &c., M.W. Grand Master. 

The Eight Hon. Lord Ampthill, G.C.I.E., M.W. Pro Grand Master. 

The Eight Hon. T. F. Halsey, B.W. Deputy Grand Master. 

The Bight Bev. C. 0. L. Biley, D.D., Lord Bishop of Perth, M.W.G.M. of Western Australiai 

The Bight Bey. W. P. Swaby, Lord Bishop of Barbados and the Windward Islands. 

The Bight Bev. W. W. Perrin, Lord Bishop of Colambia. 

The Bight Bev. J. B. Crozier, Lord Bishop of Down, G.C., Ireland. 

The Bight Bev T. Stevens, Lord Bishop of Barking, P.G.C. 

The Bight Bev. Frédéric W. Keator, Bishop of Olympia, Washington. 

The Eight Bev. F. Goldsmith, Lord Bishop of Bunbary, P.G.C. 

The Bight Bev. F. A. Gregory, Lord Bishop of Maaritias. 

The Bight Bev. A. E. Campbell, Lord Bishop of Glasgow and Galloway. 

The Bight Bev. G. H. Frodsham, Lord Bishop of North Queensland. 

The Bight Bev. James Henry Darlington, Bishop of Harrisburg, PenDsylvania. 

The Bight Hon. Lord Addington, Prov.G.M., Bucks. 

The Ven. Archdeacon G. Hodges, G.C. 

The Bev. Prebendary Arthur J. Ingram, P.G.C. 

The Bev. Bichard Peek, P.G.C. 

The Bev. J. Nelson Palmer, P.G.C 

The Bev. Vitruvîus P. Wyatt, P.G.C. 

The Bev. H. G. Morse, P.G.C. 

The Bev. Canon C. V. Childe, P.G.C. 

The Bev. F. M. Burton, D.D., P.G.C. 

The Bev. Canon F. J. Foakes- Jackson, D.D., P.G.C. 

The Bev. H. B. Cooper Smith, DD., P.G.C. 

The Bev. S. J. W. Sanders, P.G.C. 

Sir Edward Letchworth, F.S.A., G. Secretary. 

Arthur E. Stearns, P.G.D. 

Bev. C. E. L. Wright, P.G.D. 

Bev. H. C. de Lafontaine, P.G.D. 

Pecival A. Nairre, P.G.D. 

Arthur E. Aasten, P.G.D. 

Digitized by 


transactions of tke Quatuor Ooronati Loàge. 205 

Wm. Dawes, P.G.D. 

The Rev. 0. M. Holden, P.Asst.G.O. 

Frank Bichardson, G.D.G. 

R. Peroy F. W. Simpson, P.Dep.G.D.C. 

Chas. W. Cole, A.G.D.G. 

A. Bimner, P.A.G.D.C. 

Thos. J. Ralling, P.A.G.D.C. 

W. F. Lamonby, P.A.G.D.C., P.Dep.G.M., Victoria. 

R. Clay Sadlow, P.A.G.D.C. 

W. Alfred Dawson, P.A.G.D.C. 

J. M. Prichard, P.A.G.D.C. 

Col. F. J. Stohwasser, P.Dep.G. Sword Bearer. 

Col. G. T. Carpenter, Asst.G. Sword Bearer. 

Thos. Cohu, P.G. Standard Bearer. 

John F. Roberts, P.G. Standard Bearer. 

F. A. Powell, P.G. Standard Bearer. 

J. Leach Barrett, P.G. Standard Bearer. 

Wm. Lake, Asst.G. Secretary. 

Harry Tipper, P.A.G. Pursuivant. 

W. Kipps, P.A.G. Pursuivant. 

W. Fisher, P.A.G. Pursuivant. 

Also thefollowing members of theCorrespondence Circle:— Bros. Col. J. H. S. Craigie, P.Q.W., 
AU Scottish F.M. in India; Andrew Ellor, H. Bernard Watson, Charles H. Watson, H. H. Montagne 
Smith, Albert Henning, P.Pr.D.G.D.C, Surrey ; W. H. Harris, Pr.G.Stew., Surrey; D. S. Morison, John 
Churcb, Sibert Saunders, Albert Evan Bernays, Frank W. Ward, Albert C. Grever, Chas. fi. Bestow, 
Alezander C. Forrester, Rev. B. T. Gardner, P.Pr.G.C, Bucks ; J. Albert Richards, Henry J. Dalgleish, 
J. C. Lyell, R. Warren Merriok, Walter C. Williams, C. J. Wilkinson-Pimbury, H. Hyde, Maurice Victor, 
C. L. Morgan, Alfred Fairley, Horace Nelson, Fred C. Cooper, Hugh Legge, C. F. Knyvett, Thos. 
Burgess, R. J. Harrison, John Ingram Moar, T. Fred Isherwood, A. Havelock Case, Israël Solomoos, 
J. F. H. Gîlbard, Edward Phillips, F. Inskipp, Col. C. H. L. Baskerville, J. Procter Watson, G. Vogeler, 
Dr. S. Walshe Owen, Henry Northcroft, A. V. Davis, J. H. Pocklington, Reginald C. Watson, Arthar 
H. Laird, David Hills, Wm. Chambers, A. Y. Mayell, J. T. Phillips, J. William Stevens, P.Pr.G.Sup.W., 
Surrey; W. L. Hotchkin, Herbert Burrows, Col. R. S. EUis, L.B. ; Henry Burgess, G. Creusemann, Edmund 
Poole, Alfred A. Milward, Major John Rose, E. Glaeser, Rev. H. G. Rosedale, D.D., Alex. Marchand, W. 
Hammond, George Robson, W. Busbridge, P.Pr.G.D., Kent; G. J. Cresswell, Rev. H. W. Yorke, 
P.Pr.G.C, Jersey; Edward L. Shepherd, P.Pr.G.W., Berks.; Jas. J. Nolan, W. Howard Flanders, 
P.Pr.G.Stew., Essex; W. Wonnacott, A. J. Solomon, F. A. Rhind, J. H. Retallack-Moloney, 
P.Pr.G.Sup.W., Essex ; G. H. Luetchford, Chas. Aubert, B. Pflug, A. Cadbury Jones, L. A. Engel, 
Geo. C. Williams, C. J. Ashdowu, W. I. Hawkins, J. Everall, Erskine Edmonds, A. J. Thnrston, Cecil J. 
Rawlinson, W. A. Tharp, H. N. James, E. A. Mansell, Rev. A. G. Lennox Robertson, P.Dis.G.C, 
Argentine; W. Léonard Smith, J. A. Tharp, L. Danielsson, W. J. Newstead, W. R. A. Smith, W. Howard 
Webb, W. G. Aspland, J. Walter Hobbs, Stanley L. Powell, C. L. M. Eales, I.C.3., P.Di8.G.S.W., Bengal; 
R. J. Harrison, Walter Hancock, Fred. Armicago, J. C. Brookhouse, F. W. Levander, P.Pr.G.D., 
Middlesex; James Castello, H. H. Hann, Walter H. Brown, P.G.Stew., and R. E. Landesmann. 

Also the foUowing visitera :— Bros. John H. Hughes, P.M. Halsey Lodge No. 1479 ; William Fox, 
East Surrey Lodge No. 2769; A. B. Wilkins, United Marinera Lodge No. 30; Robert Fairclongh, 
P.Pr.G.Tr., Surrey; Murray Winstanley, Corinthian Lodge No. 1208; Philip Lawford, Progress Lodge 
No. 1768; H. M. Dove, P.Pr.A.G.Sec, Herts. ; W. L. Allen, P.M. St. George in the East Lodge 
No. 1526; R. W. K. Godden, Scientific Lodge No. 88 ; P. N. Craigie, MorningStar Lodge No. 559; John 
L. Goldstein, P.M. Playgoers Lodge No. 2705; J. D. B. Lewis, Albion Lodge No. 9; F. J. Smith, 
P.Pr.G.Sup.W., Surrey ; W. A. Stimson, W.M. Eclectic Lodge No. 1201; E. Heisch, P.M. Universal 
Lodge No. 181 ; Charles R. Enever ; Major Malcolm D. Murray, Bard of Avon Lodge No. 778 ; F. J. 
King, Pr.G.C, Essex; W. J. Wood, Avon Lodge No. 2627; S. C. Gore, P.M. Wellington Lodge No. 14, 
W.A.C.j Charles G. Mumby, P.M. Raymond Thrupp Lodge No. 2024; William G. Mille, P.M. Strong 

Digitized by 


206 transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

Man Lodge No. 45; Albert 0. Palmer, Mornington Lodge No. 1672; M. Steiner, MoDtefiore Lodge lîo. 
1017 ; H. B. Wallen, St. Martin Lodge No. 2455 ; W. B. Brîacomb, Granité Lodge No. 132&; Rev. 
Charles E. Cooper, United Service Lodge No. 24, British Colambia ; Gordon W. J. Dearmer, Eton Lod|jre 
No. 2458; George Wickham; Saml. E. Homfray, W.M. Old Cheltonian Lodge No. 3223; Robert Bdkin s, 
John Carpenter Lodge No. 1997; Rev. W. R. Finlay, P.M. Sterndaîe Bennett Lodge No. 2182; Alfred 
Packer, Purley Lodge No. 3136; W. Wilkinson, Persévérance Lodge' No. 1166, Hong Kong; Rev. Shaw 
Stewart; E. E. Johnston, Cathedral Lodge No. 2741; Dr. 8. Joël, P.M. Lodge No. 4, W.A.C. ; H. B. 
Justice, Lodge No. 444, Philadelpbia ; H. J. Barton, Edward Terry Lodge No. 2722; Frank Rogerson, 
Cathedral Lodge No. 2741: W. A. Hazel, St. Botolph Lodge No. 2020; Henry Cattaneo, Piccadilly 
Lodge No. 2550; Thos. C. Barralet, W.M. East Surrey Lodge No, 2769; Otto Schlnechter ; Chas. T. 
Szlamper, W.M. Aberystwith Lodge No. 1072; Chas. Nicole, P.M. Kîngsway Lodge No. 2278; S. 
Qaincey ; and the Rev. Andrew Gray, of Springfield, Illinois. 

The W.M. said : " M.W. Grand Master, with profound respect the Quatuor 
Goronati Lodge desires to welcome yoa and to express to your Royal Highness the deep 
sensé of obligation at the high honour conferred in being présent this evening to assist 
in according hearty greetings of goodwill to those distinguished Brethren from many 
distant lands who came hère to take part in the Pan- Anglican Gonference. Thememory 
of this gracions récognition of those Brethren and of this Lodge will be long treasured 
in oar hearts, and will forge an additional link in that golden chain which binds Masons 
in ail parts of the world. On behalf of the Lodge and the Visitors, I beg most 
respectf uUy to express their welcome." 

The M.W. Grand Master, replying, said : " Worshipf al Master and Brethren, I 
hâve corne hère this day and hâve most gladly accepted the invitation to assist the Lodge 
and to prove to the members how much I appreciate the occasion on which we hâve met. 
We are hère to give the right hand of fellowship to Brethren from far over the seas : 
Brethren united to us doubly — in the Ghurch and the Graft. As Grand Master of 
England, it aft'ords me tho greatest pleasure to be présent on an occassion which will ever 
live in the annals of this Lodge. We appreciate most f ally those who come from distant 
lands and are united to us in longue and in affection, and we most warmly welcome them 
hère amongst us, and assure them that we look upon them as those who maintain the 
great principles which govern Preemasonry, and we trust they will ever look with 
pleasure and affection on the Mother Lodge in England. As Grand Master of England, 
and in the name of ail the Grand Officers, I assure them of the goodwill and of the 
constant interest we take in those Grand Lodges in the farther parts of His Majesty's 
dominions and in other parts of the world, and we are assured they will promote, as we 
are trying to promote, the great principles of our Craft." 

At the request of H.E..H. the Grand Master, the Bishops were then presented 
to him by Bro. Frank Richardson, G.D.C., and were cordially greeted. 

The W. Master then, addressing the Brethren, said : " After the very charming 
expressions used by H.R.H. in addressing the distinguished Brethren présent, and in 
according them a hearty welcome on behalf of the Grand Lodge, the Grand Officers and 
the Masons of England, there remains but very little Ican say to supplément those kind 
and gracions remarks. I wouid call attention to the Quatuor Goronati Lodge as having a 
peculiar claira to welcome those distinguished Brethren who hâve come from across the 
seas. The Quatuor Goronati Lodge, which numbers some 3,500 members, was founded 
about a quarter of a century ago with a particular object, to encourage Masonic research 
and archeeology amongst the Fraternity in ail parts of the world. Enrolled amongst 

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Transactions of the Qiiatuor Goronatt Lodge, 207 

îfcs members are men of distinction, ability, energy and enterprise in ail ranks of Societj, 
and in ail parts of the world, who by their upright conduct are following the best tradi- 
tions of Freemasonry, and they hâve done much for the benefit of the Craf t, and deserve 
well of their conntry. The Transactions of our Lodge, which are liberally illustrated 
and contain a report of the discussions and the papers read, find their way into the 
bands of Brethren in ail parts of the world, and for m a happy link between those who 
are working in distant parts and those who are working for Masocry at home. This 
large body of Masons, scattered throughout the globe, hold allegiance to every recog- 
nised Grand Lodge in the world, and therefore we welcome them as united in the 
Correspondence Circle — Masonry universal. It is a happy coincidence that w^e hâve 
sach a gathering of the Hierarchy and Church Dignitaries, to whom we feel gratitude 
is due for having done so much to promote the best interests of Freemasonry. They 
openly acknowledge Freemasonry. They also encourage those who belong to their 
respective Lodges to act up to the principles of the Craf t. We hâve hère distinguished 
Bishops from many parts of the world. I will read ont the names of the distinguished 
Bishops, and ask them to make some remarks with regard to the countries in which 
they réside, and the efEect and influence Masonry bas upon those amongst whom they 
dwell. As there are, happily, a large number, perLaps some of them will address a few 
words in the Lodge room, and those able to stay to the banquet will give us their 
remarks then. I cordially express a hope that when they return, they will take back 
kindly feelings and pleasant thoughts of the Fremasons of England, of London, the 
Provinces, and of this Lodge in particular/' 

Bro. the Right Rev. C. 0. L. Riley, Lord Bishop of Western Australia, M.W, 
Grand Master of Western Australia, said : "I and the other Bishops are only too 
delighted to accept the kind invitation to visit this useful Lodge, and partake of yonr 
hospitality afterwards. I corne from West Ausiralia, and I am sure when I go back and 
tell my Brethren there of the wonderful réception given us, and the condescension of 
H.R.H. in coming to meet us, who hâve come so far, they will be truly delighted. The 
W.M. hasbeenkind enough to ask me to say a word about Masonry in my part of the 
world. There is no country where it does so much good as where I come from. There 
are many mining camps, and the men generally come there without their wives and 
families, and I bave over and over again said that I hâve a deep conviction that there is 
no part where Masonry does so much good as in the far-lying districts where men from 
the old country meet, and, finding a Lodge, feel at home. This testimony from one who 
cornes 10,000 miles may be of some advantage to those in the old land. Once more, 
allow me to tell you how pleased they will be in West Australia at the spendid réception 
to-daj, and the kindly présence of H.R.H. the M.W. Grand Master." 

The Rt. Rev. the Bishop of Olympia, Washington, Bro. F. W. Keator, said they 
had heard that there was probably no place where Masonry does more good than in 
Australia. He was in the position of a Jewish gentleman, transacting business with 
another gentleman in Boston, who gave the former to understand that one of bis 
ancestors signed the Déclaration of Independence. " That is very good," said the 
Jewish gentleman, " but one of my ancestors subscribed to the Ten Commandments." 
He therefore felt he could go one better than the Bishop of Perth. One of the most 
splendid things about his own country was to see the hold that Freemasonry bas already 
attained. If they went into the smallest hamlets they would find a Masonic body, 
and in each there was the deepest interest in their working. He could tell them that 
certainly the ancient landmarks were preserved in his country. It would be a great 

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208 Transaetiont of the Quatuor OorantM Lodge. 

pleasnre to tell them at borne of thîs splcndid réception. He bad been bononred by 
being a member of tbe Correspondence Circle, and in coming to tbe Lodge be was in a 
sensé coming borne amongst bis own Bretbren. It would please tbem at borne, and 
from bis heart he thanked H.R.H. and tbe W.M. for their kindly welcome. 

Several otber Bishops and Churcb dignitaries also gave interesting addresses, 
amongst tbem being tbe Rigbt Rev. W. P. Swaby, Lord Bisbop of Barbados and tbe 
Windward Islands ; the Rigbt Rev. J. H. Darlington, Bisbop of Harrisburg, Penn- 
sylvania; tbe Right Rev. T. Stevens, Lord Bisbop of Barking ; the Rigbt Rev. J. 
B. Orozier, Lord Bisbop of Down, Grand Chaplain of Ireland; the Rigbt Rev. F. 
Goldsmith, Lord Bisbop of Bnnbury, Western Aostralis ; tbe Rev. Andrew Gray, of 
Springfield, Illinois, and the Rev. Charles E. Cooper, of Esquimault. 

Bro. tbe Right Rev. J. B. Crozier, Lord Bisbop of Down said that it was bis 
fortune to be Secretary to one of tbe most important Bishops' Committees, and it bad 
been diffîcult to get away to attend the Lodge. As an Irishman he could say that be 
came before he could get away. He attended with great pleasnre, and thanked them 
for tbe opportnnity of conveying tbe greetings of tbe Bretbren in Ireland. They 
yielded to none in their enthnsiasm and lojalty to God and King. In connection with 
their Order they bad three great objecfcs, the moral, social and religions significance of 
Preemasonry. Tbey were very social in Ireland, and Masonry gave tbem in a splendid 
way an opportnnity of displaying their social instincts, where they got to know tbe 
sympathies of one anotber better. In Ireland, Masonry was a great unifying influence, 
and ail Christain folks desired unity. It was a terrible thing once said by a little girl 
who was asked abont wild beasts. She said : " Wild beasts used to roam at will througb 
Engiand, but tbey are now found in tbe United Kingdom only in tbe tbeological 
gardens." He drew attention to tbe excellent Masonic Schools in Ireland, to whicb 
H.R.H. the M.W.G.M. bad reudered great service by recognising. 

Letiers of apology for non-attendance were received from the Right Bev. Lord Bishops of 
Ohiohester, Barrow-in-Farness, Goulbourn, N.S.W., New Goinea, Limerick, and Bath and Wells, and the 
Bight Bev. Bishops of Pennsylvanîa, New York, and Pitfcsburg, Pa.; also from Bros. Bev. H. W. Turner, 
P.G.C.; Very Rev. Dean W. Lefroy, P.G.C.; Rev. Darrell H. W. Horlock, P.G.C.; Bev. J. Watson, G.C.; 
Bev. H. Kynasfcon, P.G.C. j Bev. Augnstas Jackson, P.G.C. ; Bev. S. T. H. Saunders, P.G.C.; Rev. T. C. 
Smyth, P.G.C; Rev. Edward R. Parr, P.G.C. ; Ven. Archdeacon W. Sinclair, P.G.C; Rev. H. T. 
Hayman, P.G.C ; Rev. W. 0. Thompson, P.G.C. j Rev. A. R. Wigram, P.G.C; Rev. 0. J. Grâce, P.G.C,; 
Bev. A. G. Grisewood, P.G.C; Very Bev. Dean B. B. Currie, P.G.C; Hon. and Bev. the Barl of 
Strafford, P.G.C ; Bev. F. B. N. Norman Lee, P.G.C; Very Bev. Dean A. P. Purey-Cnst, P.G.C; Ven. 
Archdeacon W. Canningham, P.G.C; Bev. F. D. Macdonald, P.G.C; and Bev. J. Holme Pilkington, 
P.G.C ; also from Bros. E. Macbean, P.M.; G. Greiner, P.A.G.D.C, P.M.; W. J. Hughan, P.G.D. ; Bev. 
C J. Bail, P.M. ; Sir Charles Warren, P.Dis.G.M., E. Arch., P.M. ; H. F. Berry ; Col. S. C Pratt, P.M. • 
E. Conder, jun., P.M.; J. T. Thorp, P.A.G.D.C, S.W.; E. J. Castle, P.D.G.B., P.M.; Hamon le 
Strange, Pr.G.M., Norfolk, P.M. ; and L. A de Malczovich. 

The bretbren subseqnently adjonrned for refreshment tothe Holborn Restaurant, 
where in addition to the usual Loyal and Masonic toasts, the W.M. proposed that of tbe 
** Sister Grand Lodgcs.** He pointed ont that it was not nsually given in Englisb 
Lodges, but certainly none the less welcome, as the visitprs présent ipclnded représenta» 

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Transactions of tJie Q^iatuor Coronatt Lodge. 209 

tîves from tho Grand Lodges of Treland, Scotland, Sonth Anstralia, Western Anstralia, 
Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Washington. He extended to ail of thcm a cordial 
welcome and rejoiced at the opportnnity of which they had been ablo to avail themselves 
in visiting a Lodge having such world-wide rami 6 cations. 

In reply to the toast, Bro. Right Rev. C. 0. L. Riley, Lord Bisbop of Perth, M.W. 
Grand Master of Western Australia, said he was asked to speak as a Bishop, not as a 
Grand Master ; y et he could not forge t that he was a Grand Master, a distinction of 
which he was very prend, and also that he was a Past Grand Ohaplain of the Grand 
Lodge of England, which he represented in the Grand Lodge of Western Anstralia. 
He pointed ont that his Grand Lodge covered not a Province, nor a District, but was a 
Grand Lodge havîng sovereign jurisdiction— in fact as good as their own. He had been 
asked to testify to the faith that was in him as to Masonry, and he would do so in two 
ways. They had had a diflScalt task in Western Anstralia. At one time no fewer than 
three Grand Lodges were working in the terri tory over which he now rnled, but, 
fortunately, he had been able to see practically ail the Lodges amalgamated, and the 
last document he sîgned before leaving Perth for the Old Oountry, was an agreement 
with the Grand Lodge of Scotland to end ail diflSculties and arrange matt^rs for the 
future. In many respects Masonry had a trying time in Western Anstralia. Some 
members had to travel 1,500 miles from the North to come to Grand Lodge Com- 
munications; many had to come 600 miles, yet they had not failed. In the mining 
camps masonry had been of great service. He had asked himself, *' Why am I a 
Mason ?" For two reasons ; he found people divided by social, political, religions, and 
other causes ; Masonry enabled them to meet on a common platform, and without 
fear of division, for ail sources of division were left outside the Masonic Lodge. 
Secondly, he found that he wanted to do something for men, some of whom were afraid 
of Bishops, some of whom looked down on Bishops, though they could not well look 
down on him, and some of whom would not open out and talk to him as man to man ; 
but when they found he was a Mason they were one and ail ready to treat him as a 
Brother Mason and brother man, so that he could work with them as he had wished to 
do. He looked upon Masonry not only as cementing men of the British Empire, but as 
making men brothers who Hved under différent Governments. There was no use talking 
about the Empire to the U.S. Masons, to whom he extended the right hand of fellow- 
ship ; and he thought Masonry was more a world-wide affair than an Empire affair. 
He had been asked to go back to Western Anstralia by way of the United States, bat 
the difficulty was not the going there, but the getting away from the United States, so 
hospitable were they. He recalled an incident that had happened to him in New York. 
Travelling on a tramcar he found himself in an accident, for the tram was run into and 
badly smashed. An American who had been sitting near him before the collision said : 
"Guess youVe a stranger ?" to which he replied " I am." "Wall, if you take my 
advice you'll scoot. They may be wanting you as a wit.ness, and it'U be very incon- 
vénient for you, so scoot." " I scooted," said the Bishop. Such an incident would not 
bave been possible in England, though it might hâve occnrred in the Colonies, where 
they were more wide-awake. Ooncluding, Dr. Riley said that in Western Anstralia 
Masonry had done much good, in a small population. They had some people who 
grumbled that it was too much of a knife-and-fork business, but he preferred that men 
should meet together even for knife-and-fork business, under the supervising eye of the 
W.M., and with the Junior Warden to see that they were moderate in ail that they did, 
ratber than to meet together without anjone to overlook them, 

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210 Transactions of the Qwituor Coronati Lodge, 

Bro. the Right Rev. A. E. Campbell, Lord Bisbop of Glasgow and Ot^lloway, also 
responded, althongb be professed to feel some trépidation in speaking before a Lodge 
wbicb bad a membersbip roll of 3,500. On the preyioas Tbnrsday he had taken tbe 
chair at bis Collège dinner and one of tbe nndergradnates wbo responded to a toast 
said he had been np to Lord's tbat day, and saw two Bisbops wbo bad broken ont of 
Lambetb. He had broken ont of Lambetb tbat night in order to be présent, and was 
only too glad to corne. He had had some very happy expériences in Masonry. One 
learns a good deal by going about, especially in Ireland, wbere behad had some amnsing 
questions put to him which he could not answer. He could also speak of Masonry in 
South Africa, wbere ail the whifce men had to hang together and Masonry was of great 
assistance in keeping them together. He once visited a small townsbip named Butter- 
wortb, and no sooner had he landed there than, by some means or other, it was fonnd tbat 
be was a Mason, and he was taken o£E to tbe Lodge, wbere be fonnd men wbo badridden 
in 40 and 50 miles. Never bad be seen tbe ritual better done than in tbat small town- 
sbip. There was not a Brother présent wbo could not at a moment's notice take bis 
place and carry ont ail the cérémonies. 

The evening will be remembered by everyone présent as of singnlar interest, and 
as likely to prove of great value in cementing the bonds of brotberly love between 
Masons of ail coud tries. 

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Transadiofis of the Quaiuor Goronati Lodge. 211 


HE discoverj of ^1)9 ®aQloir ^$« brings anotber important 
accession to the now considérable number of the documents known to 
be extant, vénérable bj âge, bearing on the Ancient Charges and 
Constitutions of the Craft, and the Lodge bas now pleasnre in intro- 
dncing to the notice of its members and the Fraternity generally, not 
onlj a faithfnl and fnll-sized facsimile of a portion of the original 
(accompanied bj tjpographical reproduction of the text), but aiso a 
valnable and interesting disquisition thereon by the world-wide known vétéran 
writer and authority on Masonic MSS., Bro. William James Hughan. 

Bro. Hughan bas edited bj far the greater proportion of the known MSS., and I 
esteem it a great privilège to be associated with him (as in a number of other instances 
in former years) in the editing and publishing of the Taylor M 8,^ and take the 
opportunitj, now afPorded, of expressing the deep obligations I am under to Bro. 
Hughan for bis unwearying kindness, help, and encouragement during mj fortj jears 
pursuit of Masonic knowledge. 

In bis report on the Taylor M8. Bro. Hughan refers to the déplorable — and I maj 
add barbarous — mutilation of the Scroll. 

Fortunatelj the text is inscribed on both sides of the parchment, and not, as 
often happens to be the case in thèse MSS., on one sîde only. We hâve thus preserved 
to us the " ^tticltSi anb (Sixitxe" which Bro. Hughan bas noticed with his usual 
masterlj grasp of the entire subject. Nevertheless the absence of an important portion 
of the Scroll is most regrettable and vexations. 

Very little is known so far of the history of the MS. It was formerly in the 
possession of the late Thomas Taylor, Esq., sometime Coroner of the West Biding of 
Yorkshire and the Honor of Pontefract. He was a man of considérable attainment-s as 
an Antiqnary and the author of ** The History of the Rectory Manor of Wakefield." 
After his death the Scroll came into the possession of John Charles worth, Esq., of 
Horbury, near Wakefield. 

Mr. Taylor died some years ago, and was not known to be a Mason, but his 
f ather, Bro. Thomas Taylor, was initiated into Freemasonry in the old Lodge of 
TJnanimity No. 154 Wakefield, June 4th, 1821. He does not appear to bave taken 
any active part in the Craft. Wakefield being an old Masonic centre, possibly the 
MS. may bave been handed down for générations back in that city, but this is merely 
conjectural at présent. 

I may mention, by the way, that the TJnanimity is one of those lodges of the 
" Modems " which, during the latter half of the eighteenth century, gave the Royal 
Arch Degree on its own authority to brethren who applied for Exaltation. 

The existence of the Taylor MS, was first made known to me by Bro. H. G. E. 
Green, Prov. Grand Secretary of West Yorkshire, and Bro. W. Townend, P.M., Lodge 
of Unanimity No. 154. On my communicating with Mr. Charles worth through thèse 
brethren, and commenting on its interesting character archœologically, he very kindly 

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212 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Loâge. 

gave me permission and ample opportunity to hâve the MS. examined. Mr. Charles- 
worth, unfortnnately for the Craft, is not a member of our Fraternitj, as he possesses 
an extensive range of knowledge on the subject of old manuscripts, but on hearing that 
this document woald be held in high estimation by the Craft he most generously 
presented it to the Provincial Grand Lodge of West Yorkshire, in whose possession 
it will remain in perpetuity, and by whom it will be most carefuUy preserved and 
greatly valned. 

The Province of West Yorkshire may be congratalated on possessing ten of thèse 
precious ancient Masonic MSS., viz., the Thos, W, Tew 17th Centnry, William Watso9t 
1687, Glapham 1700 (circa), Waistell 1(393, Hughan 17th Centory, Stanley 1677, T. TT. 
Emhleton 17th Century, Mac Nah 1722, H. F. Beaumont 1690 (or ante), Taylor 17th 
Century. In addition to thèse there are in private holding the Probity, early 18th 
Century (Probity Lodge No. 61, Halifax); the Hope 17th Century (Hope Lodge 
No. 302, Bradford) ; and the Bain I7th Century, owned by Bro. Reginald A. Wilson, of 
Fidelity Lodge No. 289, Leeds, the last-named MS. having been recently published ia 
the Third Part of the Transactions of our Quatuor Goronati Lodge No. 2076 for the 
year 1907. 

William Watson. 


The "Taylor MS." belongs to the " Sloane Family," and so I bave numbered it 
E 19, placing it with the new " Thorp Branch (a) " necessitated by the discovery of the 
"John T. Thorp MS. (E 16)*' of a.d. 1629. The latter MS. was reproduced in the 
Transactions of the " Lodge of Research," 1898-9, and in the " Ars Quatuor Coronatorum," 
vol. xi., 1898. Had it been found earlier, I hâve no doubt but that Dr. Begemann would 
hâve placed the MSS. of this group under the " Thorp Family," rather than the 
" Sloane E " ; being the senior by several years, and evidently a prototype of the 
" Sloane MS. No. 3848 "; two documents being used in the transcribing of fche " Sloane " 

It is impossible to décide how long this Roll was originally, but only a third is 
preserved, if the usual " Charges " or Régulations were given on the ob verse, but if 
thèse were omitted about half is missing. The Scroll leaves oif while reciting that a 
Parliament was convened toconsider the pressing claims of a superabundant population. 
The " Alnwick MS." gives the Charges, gênerai and spécial, though the " Orders *' 
(somewhat similar in character) are likewise iuserted, so it is quite probable the " Taylor 
MS." also did, and thus is only now represented by about one-third of its former length. 
" The Alnwick MS., E 10," was reproduced at Nevvcastle-upon-Tyne, by the Province of 
Northumberland and Durham, Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia, a.d. 1895. 

After the MS. proper, in the " Alnwick Lodge " Records, corne the " Orders to be 
observed by the company and Fellowship of Free Masons att a Lodge held att Alnwick 
Septr 29, 1701, being the Geu^^ head meeting day." They are numbered one to fourteen, 
and signed by the members. In like manner the " Articles and Orders, Condescended, 
Concluded & agreed vpon by ye Company & Fellowship of Freemasons " folio w the 
regular portion of the Taylor MS., only thèse additional rules are written on the 

' Hughan'fl *' Old Charges of British Freemasons 1896," and the "Supplément 1896-1906" 
{Freemason, Jane 16th, 1906). 

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Digitized by 


Digitized by 


tJie fayhr Ma. 


fevefse of the ScroU, which in fchis respect differs f rom ail other MSS. known. Owing to 
the regrettable maiming of the MS., thèse Articles shared the fate of the regnlar RoU, 
the twelfth and a part of the thirteenth being fortunatelj preserved. 

In the " Masonic Magazine " for August and September, 1875, is an interesting 
article by the Editor, on the " Minute Book " of the Lodge of Industry, Gateshead. Onr 
lamented member, Bro. the Rev. A. F. A. Woodford, M.A., was the author. Some time 
since I had the pleasare of ezamining thîs valnable " Book of Constitntions, a.d. 1723/' 
with the additional sheets on which the oldest preserved Records of the Lodge are 
written. Thej well deserve reproduction in facsimile, so that their character maj be 
more widely known. The ordinary Régulations for operatives, which foUow the 
traditional History of the " Old Charges," are styled " Orders of Aniiquity,'* and mn 
from one to twenty-one, and there are also the " Apprentices Orders,*^ followed by the 
" General Orders " and " Pénal Orders," the last two agreeing in several respects with 
the " Articles and Orders " of the " Taylor MS.," and those of the " Alnwick MS." In 
order to exhibit their substantial agreement, I append a table of the articles in the three 
MSS. which are mostly alike. 

" Tayl 

or MS." 

"Alnwick MS." 

"Gateshead MS." 





(Mas ter Mason) 


(Master) 2 
















7 & 8 

5 & 6 


4 & 5 






















Some of the laws are to be foand in other portions of the MSS., but they are ail 
suggestive of a common origin. The General Meeting Day was either on the Feast of 
St. Michael the Archangel (" Taylor" and ''Alnwick'' MSS.) or St. John the Baptist's 
Day {'' Oatevhead '' MS.), the "Taylor" ScroU alone providing that an apprentice not 
observing its conditions ''shall be defratuîed of his Freedome.'* It is much to beregretted 
that we know not the name and location of the Lodge which used the "Taylor M S.", but 
doubtless it was of a similar character to the other two Lodges, held at Alnwick and 
Gateshead respectively. 

A paper of great interest on "The Alnwick Lodge Minutes" was read by Bfo. 
W. H. Rylands, F.S.A., on the 4th January, 1901 (il.y.C, vol. xiv., pp. 4-26), in which 
mention is made that the Rules which immediately follow the copy of the " Old Charges 
are difEerent from those usually found in other MSS., but some of them are modelled 
upon the original ones." Bro. Rylands, in studying thèse Records, discovered that on 
December 27th, 1748, the Minutes probably refer to the formation of a *p«ct*Za^it;e Lodge, 
separate from tbe one mainly, if not wholly, operative ; which as our lamented Brother 
G. W. Speth pointed ont, was of importance " as beariug on the transition period of the 

The old Charter of " Scoon and Perth Lodge " of a.d. 1668 should also be con- 
Bulted as to thèse additional Régulations or By-Laws ; f nll information being given in 

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âl4 transactions' of the Quatuor ùoronati Lcdge, 

the History of that vénérable Atelier by the Historian of Perth, Bro. D. Crawford 
Smith (Oowan Sf Oo,^ Perfch, 1898), a work of considérable vaine and importance. 

For additional information as to the " Tajlor " version, the reader is referred to 
the interesting Préface bj my esteemed Gollaborator, Bro. William Watson, who bas 
secared the ScroU for the Librarj of West Yorkshire for which he bas done so mnch 
from its inauguration to the présent time. 


1 * * • mîgljtn tl|e ffat\)ev uf Jteatuen ^î*^ ^^^ wisdom 

of bis glorioas sone throngh the goodnefs of the holy Ghoft three perfons in one 
Godhead be with vs at onr beglning and give vs grâce Soe to goveme in onre 
Liveing y* wee may come to His Blifs y* never fhall bave ending Amen. 
^00l^ ^VieitfVJ^n and fFellowes onr pnrpose is to tell you how and in what 
manner this Craft of Mafonry was begun & afterwards how it was ffonnded 
by worfchy Empereurs and princes & many other worfhipfnll men & alfoe 
to them y^ be hère wee will déclare them. 
Œljje ^IjaVj^ that doth belong to every trne Mafon to keep, for in good faitb 

10 if yon take heed therefco, it is well worthy to be kept for a worthy Craft & 
a Gnrions Science for there be Seaven liberall Sciences of the which it is 
one of them they be thèse followeing firft is ^vatn^v that teacheth 
a man to Speake traely & to write traely the Second is ^^tljorijcfe that 
teacheth a man to Speake fair and in Subtil! Termes, the third is 
SOf^lch that teacheth to defeme tmth from falf hoôd, the fourth is 
3lvitl;matf cfe that teacheth to Eeckon & number ail manner of Numbers 
the ffif th is Galled &e0ntetvy[ aod it teacheth to Mett & Meafure j^ Earth 
and other things of which Science is Mafonry the Sixth is Galled 
^uffjcH that teacheth the Graft of Song Organs and Harpe the Seaventh 

20 is Galled glfiron^mu that teacheth to know y« Gourfe of the Sun & Moon 
& other Omaments of the heavens 

^\j00 seaven liberall Sciences y® which be ail by one Science y* is to Say 
Geometry thus may a man prove y* ail y« Sciences in y« World are 
fonnd by Geometry for it teacheth Mett & Meafure ponderacon & 
weight of ail manner of kindes of the earth And there is noe man y^ 
worketh by any Graft but he worketh by Some Meafure nor noe man 
y* buyes & Sells but by Meafure and weight & ail this is Geometry 
And Craftsmen and Merchants finde noe other of the Seavene Sciences 
& Efpecially Plowmen & Tillers of ail manner of graine both Gorne feeds 

80 Vines plants Sellers of ail other fruité, for Gramer neither Aftronomy 
nor none of ail thefe Gann find a man one Meafure or Mett without 
Geometry wherefor I thinke that Science is moft worth y* findeth out 
ail other 

Q0W this worthy Science firft begun I fhall tell you, before Noyés flood 
there was a man Galled Lameck as it is written in y*' fourth Ghapter of 
Genefis and this Lameck had two wifes y® one was Galled Ada <fc y* other 
Sella by y* firft wife Ada he begotfc two Sones y* one was Galled Jabell 
& y® other Juball and by y^ other wife he had one Sone & a daughter & 

Digitized by 


The TayU/r M8. 215 

thefe IFour Childer found the begining of ail Crafts in y" world tbîs Jnball 
40 was the Blder Son à be found tbe Craft of Geometry à he parted fflockes 
as of Sbeep & Lambes in y« feilds & first wrongbt boufe of Stone & tree 
as it is noted in tbe Gbapter above faid And bis Brotber Jnbell found 
Mufick of Songs Organ & Harpe tbe tbird Brotber found out Smitbes 
Graft to worke Iron and Steell and tbere Sifler found out tbe Art of weaveing 
tbefe Children did know j* God would take Vengeance for Sin eitber by 
fire or water wberefor tbe writt tbefe Sciences wbicb tbey bad found in 
Two Piliers of Stone y* tbey migbt be found after y" fflood y* one Stone 
was Galled Marble y* Gannot burne witb fire y® otber was Galled 
Laturns y* Gannot drowne in y" water our latent is to tell you truely 
60 In wbat manner tbefe Stones were found y* y* Graftes were written in 
Greek Habmrrivbs y^ was Son unto Gbufs & Gbnfs Sone unto Sem 

Wbicb wad Son unto Noyé tbe faid Harmebives was afterwards Galled 
Hermès y« fatber of Wifdome & found out tbe two Piliers of Stone and 
y® Sciences written tberein & taugbt tbem fortb & at tbe makeing of tbe 
Tower of Babilon tbere was tbe Graft of Mafonry firft found & made 
mucb of and tbe king of Babilon y^ was Galled Hembkoth was a 
Mafon & loved well y* Graft & is Soe reported of by Mafters of tbe 

5 tory es and wben y« Gitty of Ninevy & otber Gittyes of Eaft Afia fbould 
be made Hembroth y® king of Babilon fent tbitber Sizty Mafons 

eo at tbe defire of tbe king of Ninevy bis Gofen & wben tbey went fortb 

be gave tbem a Gbarge in tbis manner ®l^at tlî^t| sbould Serve y^ Lord 
Truely for bis payment Soe be migbt bave worf bîpp for Sending tbem 
to bim & otber Gbarges be gave tbem & tbis was y^ Firfl time y^ any Mafon 
bad any Gbarge of bis Graft Moreoveb wben Abrabam & Sarab 
bis wife went into Egypt & tbere taugbt y* Seaven Liberall Sciences 
to y« Egyptians A; be bad a wortby Scbollar Galled Euclid & leamed 
rigbt well & was Mafler of ail y® Seaven Liberall Sciences and in bis 
dayes it befell y^ y^ Lords & Eflates of tbat Reaime bad Soe many Sones 
tbat tbey bad begotten Some by tbeire wives & some by otber Ladyes 

70 of tbat Reaime for y^ Land is wbole Laid & a replenifbed generacon 
and tbey bad not Liveiug Gompetent for tbeire Gbildren wberefor tbey 
made mucb Sorrow and y« King of tbat Land Afsembled a great 
Gonncell att a Parliament to know bow be migbt tbeire Gbildren 

6 tbey Gonld finde noe good way & Gaufed a Grye to be made tbrougb 

tbe Reaime ......••« 

(Oonclusion of the ohverse side of the remuant of the M8.) 

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216 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronatt Lodge. 

article» attb ®VheVS Condefcended 
coQcladed <fe agreed upon by y« Company & ffellowrhîpp of 

^ S^tnpvixni^ It is agreed amongffc the s** ffellowf hipp y* there 
fhall be yearely two Wardens Chofen upon ye day of the 
feaft of St. John y* 27*'* day of December which two fhall 
be elected & appointed by the moft Confentof y* fellowfhip 

* iJCijent tbat y« fl two Wardens shall Leavy & receive ail fuch 
ffines & penaltyes as fhall in any wife be amongft the faid 
ffellowf hip & fhall render & yeild a Jaft Account at the 
yeare end of ail fuch ffines & receîpts as fhall Corne unto 
their hands or oftner if the Mafber Mafon & y*' Company 
Lifb to Call them 

01 : 00 : 00 

^ $ient that there fhall noe Mafon take Apprentice except 
he hath been Seaven yeares a fPree Mafon it is agreed 
with the Company paying for fuch offenfes 

* ^ietn That there fhall noe Mafon except the Mafter 
Mafon take any more Apprentices but every Seaven 
yeares one that as y^ firft hath Served Six yeares that 
then it fhall be Lawfull for him or them to take an 
other to enter before the former yeare be expired 

& if any offend to y® Contrary to pay y® ffine of 

* Sietn that noe Mafon fhall take any worke by taf ke or 
by day other then the Kings Ma*'" Worke but he 
fhall make at the Leaft three or ffour of his fPellowes 
Acquainted therewith for to take his parte payeing 

for every fuch offence y® Sume of 

^t0tn that noe Mafon fhall take noe worke y* any of 
his ffellowes is in hand with ail payeing for every 
fuch offence the Sume of 

^ ^tetn that noe Mafon fhall take any Apprentice but 
he fhall enter him within fEorty dayes & foe 
for to pay for his entring 

8 ^tent that the Apprentice fhall hâve his Charge given 
him for which if the Mafter doe omitt to pay for 
the famé the fume of ... 

03 : 06 : 08 

02 : 00 : 00 

03 : 06 : 08 

01 : 06 : 08 

00 : 00 : 06 

00 : 03 : 04 

^ijent If he doe not Shew his Indenture to be 
Reoorded in the Regifler booke within one quarter 
of a yeare in foe offending fhall pay for every 
fuch offence ... 

. 00 : 06 : 08 

Digitized bv 


The Taylar M8. 

^^ S^ittn That every Mafon when he is Warned by the 
Warden or other of the Company & fhall not 
Corne to the place accuflomed à appointed except he 
hâve a reafonable Caafe to fhew the wardens 
to the Contrary if not foe doeing fhall pay 

Il S^t^tn that noe Mafon fhall Thou his ffellow or give 
hîm the Lye in reproachfnll manner ivithin the 
accnfbomed place of meeting npon paine to pay 
for every fnch offence ... 

1' ^tent that there fhall noe Apprentice after he hath 
Served yeare be admitted or Accepted bot npon the 
feaft day of St. Michaell the Arch Angell 
being the Generall meeting day & that he fhall 
pay Six f hillings eight pence to the Company 
ait other Dutyes at y« difcretion of y* Mafter and 


. 00:06:08 

00 : 03 : 04 

00 : 06 : 08 

1' ^tib the faid Apprentice in not foe doeing fhall be 
defranded of his ffreedome 

1* jti^nt That if any Mafon either in the place of 
meeting or at worke amongft his ffellowes 

(The remaïnder of the M 8, has heen eut off.) 

Transcrihed hy me from the original document in the possession of the Provincial 
Grand Lodge of West Yorkshire. 


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218 Transaction» of the Quatuor Coronatt Lodge, 



M y BRO, DR. 5. WALSHE OWEN, PM., çoi. 

URHAM being the objective of oar Sammer Outing this year, 

we met on the moming of July 16th at Kings Cross Station. 

"While mustering, oar Secrel'âry was àpparently distribating " bntton- 

holes " to the members, but as each brotber in tarn came onder 

notice, he foand it was a badge, which he was expected to wear 

throughoat the whole dnration of his visit to the North. It bore 

the initiais, " Q.C.," the légal meaning of which, during the reign of 

otir late Qaeen, being now obsolète, some brethren, remembering the Labour difiBculty 

at Sunderland, suggested that it was, like the badge worn in Paris during the 

massacre of St. Bartholomew, to proteôt us from the fary of the populace. 

The Brethren who took part in our Masonic pilgrimage were as foîlows : — Bros. 
P. H. Goldney, Camberley, P.G.D., W.M. ; J. T. Thorp, Leicester, P.A.a.D.C., S.W. ; 
W. John Songhurst, London, P. A.Q.D.C, Secretary ; F. J. Asbury, London ; G. W. Bain, 
Sunderland, Ï^.Pr.G.R., Durham (our excellent and indefatigable guide during the 
whole of our visit) ; T. A. Bayliss, King's Norton, P.Pr.G.D., Worcesters. ; Col. Sir 
John E. Bingham, Bart., Sheffield, P.Pr.G.W., W.Yorks. ; G. E. Bolton, Pegu, Lower 
Bnrma ; P. E. Briers, Salisbury, Rhodesia ; F. Brown, London ; Walter H. Brown, 
London, P.G.Stew. ; Herbert Burrows, London; W. Busbridge, Plumstead, P.Pr.G.D., 
Kent; G. S. Criswick, London ; B. W. Donovan, Prestwich, P.Pr.G.W., E.Lancs. ; Col. 
R. S. Ellis, London, L.R. ; W. B. Fendick, London, P.G.St.B. ; J. W. Gieve, Portsmouth, 
P.A.G.D.O. ; J. P. H. Gilbard, London ; William Hammond, London ; W. B. Hextall, 
London, P.Pr.G.W., Derby ; David Hills, Beckenham ; R. H. Holme, Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
P^Pr.G.W., Northumberland; John Holt, Yarm-on-Tees ; Alfred Joyce, Birchington ; 
J. Macdougall, London ; W. Metcalfe, Cheshunt, P.G.St.B. ; Théo. Michell, Boume- 
moutb, P.Dis.G.Sap.W., Madras; A. Monk, London, P.Pr.A.G.D.C, Middlesex ; J. C. 
Moor, Sunderland, P.G.St.B., Pr.G.Sec, Durham; D. S. Morison, Madras; Dr. S. 
Walshe Owen, London; R. Orttewell, Maldon ; T. Pearson, Belf ord ; W. E. Phelps, 
Sevenoaks ; F. A. Powell, London, P.G.St.B. ; T. J. Ralling, Colchester, P.A.G.D.C. ; 
J. H. Retallack-Moloney, London, P.Pr.G.Sup.W., Essex; H. H. Montagne Smith, 
London ; E. J. Steinberg, London ; J. W. Stevens, London, P.Pr.G.Sup.W., Surrey ; R. 
C.M.Symns, Rangoon, Dis.J.G.W., Burma ; W. H. Tarrant, Witney, P.Pr.G.O., Oxon. ; 
Col. W. P. Thomas, Sheffield, P.Dis.A.G.D.C, Madras ; Harry Tipper, London, 
P.A.G.P. ; Col. G. Walton Walker, West Bromwich, P.G.S.B., Dep.Pr.G.M., Staffs. ; J. 
Procter Watson, Bombay ; and Rev. C. E. L. Wright, Bexley, P.G.D. 

It had been found impossible to obtain accommodation for our whole party in 
the Cathedral City itself, so that our destination was Sunderland, and leaving London 
at 11.30 a.m. we arrived, after seven hours* travelling, on a rainy, cheerless evening, at 
" the largest Borough in the Coanty of Durham, situated at the mouth of the River 
Wear." Our welcome at the Grand Hôtel soon dispelled the gloom that had settled on 
some of us during our long journey ; and, " powerfully refreshed," we started, at 8, for 
thç Masoniç Hall, Park Terrace. Hère an Emergency Meeting of the Sunderland 

Digitized by 


Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. 

Plate I. 













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Digitized by 


Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. 

Darham Catbedral. The Galilée Ghapel. 

Plate II. 

Darham Castle. The Black Staircase. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Summer OuHng, 2*19 

lodges was held in oar lionoar, and a brave sbow it made. The hnmbler Tnembers of the 
Q.G. Lodge were marshalled in tbe Norfch ; facing ns were ail tbe Provincial GrantL 
Officers of Darham— at least i£ thej were not ail there they most be like tbe sand of 
the sea-shore for multitude —and on a raised dais were the Sanderland W.M*s and 
the Officers of the Grand Lodge of Ëngland, of whom we number so many in our 
Q.C. Circles. 

The W.M. of the Palatine Lodge No. 97 made a grand speech of welcome on the 
parfc of ail the Sanderland brethren (for every Masonic the town was repi-é- 
sented on the Réception Committee), while Bro. J. G. Moor, Prov.G.Sec, addeda like 
welcome on behalf of the Province, and they told us how mnch the Pro.v.G.M., Lord 
Barnard, regretted that indisposition prevented him from being présent to receive us, 
but that one and ail of the Masons of Sunderland would see that nothing wasleft nndone 
for the instruction and improvement— ay, and even the amusement, of their brothers 
from London. Our beloved W.M. made a most suitable reply, winning tbe bearts, 
surely, of ail our Northern Brethren, and endearing himself even xfiore to those of . bis 
own Lodge ; many of whom could not refrain from admiring bis versatile qualifications, 
when we compared bis cheery friendly speech of this evening with the dignified.and 
graceful réception he had given, but a couple of days before, in tbe Temple pf Grand 
Lodge, to n.R.H. the Grand Master of Ëngland. 

Some of us ^^ Ritualists " were keenly interested in tbe little différences we 
observed ; the peculiar sainte, unfamiliar to many of us ; the " Attend to it," from one of 
tbe officers ; and a species of Charge which was sung to a piano accompaniment, with a 
chorus, in which, to the surprise of those of us who did not know it, we still found that 
many of our own Q.C. were able to join. 

Bro. J. D. Todd gave us an interesting account of the Phœnix Lodge, and a most 
urgent, pressing invitation to alter our programme for the next morning, give np the 
Bede Mémorial, and, instead, visit what be said were the '* slums '' of Sunderland and 
see tbe Phœnix Lodge. Two more solo songs followed, and the brethren's voicés, à rich 
ténor and a most beautiful bass, augured well for the musical entertainment to wbich we 
knew we were invited for tbe "coming morrow " evening. Then our Bro. Secretary 
gave a short address, speaking up for tbe faith that is in us as a Researcb Lodge, but be 
found we were so well known — and appreciated — in the Connty of Durham, that very 
few woi*ds from him were necessary. (I wonder if any of us bave heard that phrase 
before — it sounds familiar.) Then we ** closed," and the wéll-known prayer to the 
G.A.O.T.U. sounded specially sweet to us far away from home, as it came in tbe soft 
" burr " of the Northern speech (intensified, we verily believe, for our benefit) ; and one 
of the most deeply interesting Masonic meetings was o ver. 

But the evening evidently was not — for we were conducted down to what seemed 
must be '^ Domdaniel " caverns in the bowels of the eartb, and found ourselves in a 
most élégant spacious room in the basement. Hère we soon began to know each other 
better, and found ont how tbe W.M. of the Palatine Lodge could put that Northern 
burr ou bis tongne, when he told us about a certain Sunderland *^ kewk " (it is tbe 
nearest way one can reproduce bis pronunciation of cook). We also learnt the pride of 
tbe local citizensbip, for one brother, also putting on tbe burr, told us that " If Loondon 
wern*t Loondon, Soonderland would be.'* And so, for ail the rain and the gloomy streets, 
our first night was a most enjoyable one. There was a club in the vicinity, to which we 
were invited, and some of our more energetio — and wakeful — members finished up the 
evening witbin its hospitable portais. 

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2à0 Transactions of tke Quatuor Coronati Loâge» 

Friday, the 17tb. After breakfast we visited the Ghnrcb oi St. Peter, 
Monkwearmonth, where the Yicar, the Rev. D. S. Boutflower, M. A., received ns, and 
gave ns a most interesting address on the historj and vicissitudes of the Church. '* Is 
it not ail written in the Guide Books ?" — No, mj captions Brother, not one half of it. 
Onr Rev. gaide pointed ont to us how the original Church was planned on the propor- 
tional dimensions of Solomon's Temple at Jérusalem ; how the Western " porchway 
entrance " was the original arch under which, twelve centuries ago, the Vénérable Bede 
passed in to worship. Onr attention was drawn to some curions carvings of snakes on 
the arch, the " beaks *' of which were certaiolj not ** Ophidian '* — as we know the 
OphidifiB now at the Zoo. Âlso some panels, with animais carved in low relief; one of 
which mtght be taken to mean a bear — or a hog. We were shewn évidences of the fire 
that had destrojed most of the Church in, perhaps, 867 a.d. Snnderland, of course, is 
a shipping town, and a curions illustration was given us of how some of the old work 
bas been preserved. In days before water ballast was thonght of, the vessels taking 
coal South used to retum with very substantial ballast of stones, earth and mbbish. 
This had been shot into, and around, the Church, so that the surface of the soil was 
raised some ten or twelve feet, thus burying much of the original work under débria. 
This tended to préserve the old carvings ; the débris bas ail been now removed, but 
of the Utile carving that remains, there wonld probably be none, had it not been tbns 
protected during the periods when, alas ! it was not valued. Much time might most 
profitably hâve been spent hère, but we had to burry away— and were conducted down 
winding streets to a steam ferry, in which we crcssed the river, and then up more 
winding streets to an outwardly unpretentious building, erected in 1785, which we 
fonnd to be the home of the Phœnix Lodge. It is the oldest Lodge in Snnderland, 
dating back to 1755, and had fully justified its name.for when in 1783 its first Hall was 
bumt down, this présent one rose glorions from its ashes. The inside was, indeed, a 
révélation ; the carved oak chairs were greatly admired — some vandal had once painted, 
or gilded, them —but tbis bas now fortunately been scraped off, and they appear in their 
■ virgin beauty — ** Black* burcoWêly." We hocicod on the W.M's ohai**^the Arms ot the - 
Orand Lodge of the ** Modems," from which the Lodge received its first Charter, whilo 
on a large banner, banging almost from the ceiling more than balf-way to the Hoor, 
were the arms of the " Ancients," the why and wherefore of which we could not ascertain, 
perhaps becanse onr time was so limited. On the walls also were the T.B.'s of the Lodge ; 
most deeply interesting. Ail were very différent to those we know in the South, and thongb 
the différences, for obvions reasons, cannot be explained in détail, it is to be hoped that 
onr Q.C. Lodge may be able to obtain photographs of them. The third was what might 
be oalled (by a Zoologist) the most "aberrant" from the normal. A recumbent figure 
was upon it, but the artist had apparently copied it from a Crucifix, and simply altered the 
extended arms and put them to the side, parallel with the body. Beneath was an " Arc 
rule," or Sector, with the numbers 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 15. Our hospitable brethren wonld 
make us bave some light refreshment before we left — and then off again through more 
winding streets to the railway station. Hère we took train for Durham ; on the way onr 
conducting brother called our attention to the Penshaw monument, and some of ns got 
confused as to whether it was put up in memory of the Earl of Durham, or of a Dragon 
— locally called the " Worm." Arrived at Durham, we had a fine view of the town and 
Cathedral from the railway platform, but the day was so misty, and raining every few 
minutes, that our photographers were not able to secure much. Over the Elvet Bridge 
we were taken, what seemed a long walk, to the Masonic Hall. Hère a good repast was 
served in a large room, decorated ail round with names of those who had presided over 

Digitized by 



Plate III. 

















Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Abs Quatuor Gobonatorum. 

Plate IV. 

Dnrham Castle. 

Darham Gastle. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Sùmmèr Outing-, 2âl 

the Marquis of Qranby Lodge since 1739. Some, we noiiced, only served half a year, 
bat one brother held the office for nearly twenty years in succession. We were par- 
ticularly interested in observing the name of the Bev. A. F. A. Woodford, the Master 
in 18tô-G, as he was a founder of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge, and one of the foremost 
of the Masonic students of his day. We were taken upstairs to the Temple, a really 
splendid place, where many items of Masonic interest were laid out for our inspection. 
Amongst thèse were the Lodge Minute Books, from 1738, containing références to the 
'' Harodim/' similar to those we had seen earlier in the day at the Phœnix Lodge, and 
also the second earliest known record of the Mark degree, which was worked in the 
Durham Lodge in 1773. Then we were shown the furniture, dating from 1756-60 ; the 
collar jewels of 1775 ; the chair of Bro. S. G. Kemble, the actor, who was W.M. in 
1818-9, and the clearance certificate from Lodge 28, Cork, of Coant Borawlaski, a man 
of diminutive stature (3ft. 2in. in height), who died in 1837, in his 99th year, Bro. 
Kemble, who was his great friend, both inside and outside the Lodge, was nearly six 
feet in height and weighed 30 stones. Truly a remarkable contrast ! Then — what 
seemed back again — but we did not know our Darham — and a steep climb up 
précipitons streets and we were at the goal of oar expédition — Darham Gathedral. The 
long-threatening clouds, however, now burst upon us, and we should hâve ^ot soaked 
had we attempted to examine the outside ; a hasty look at the " Sanctuary knocker," 
and we sheltered within. Hère we were taken in hand by The Yerger (those who were 
présent will understand why we place this emphasis upon our guide), and, in the 
gathering darkness, jast made out St. Cuthbert*s Tomb, the Ghapel of Nine Altars and 
the Masonic window. Then we were taken down the Nave to the '* Galilée," which 
hère, unlike Ely, is a closed Ghapel, so that Darham Gathedral bas the somewhat 
unique distinction of having no West doors. Hère we saw, dimly, the Tomb of the 
Yenerable Bede, and some of us, from the small Windows in the West, which overlook 
the steep descent to the river, had the saperb spectacle of a thunder-storm over the 
Wear. So that the memory of Darham Gathedral, to those of us who saw it now for 
thofirst time — is that 9f the grandest of-^pir Norinan structures bnried in gloom and 
illuminated by lightning fiashes. Service was at three o*clock, but, much as we should 
hâve liked to hear Heaven's thunder mingling with that of man's organ, we had again 
to harry away, this time to the " Gastle," now used as Durham University. Hère there 
was mach oî great interest to see, the Norman Doorway being particularly fine. Also 
a splendid black oak well staircase, with Pendentives at the corners ; the larger number 
of which hâve, however, had to be removed, as it was found necessary to put in struts 
in order to support the structure. The Norman gallery above shewed the older style 
of architecture to great advantage, and from its Windows we had a fine view over the 
Gourtyard to the Gathedral beyond. A welcome cup of tea was provided for us in the 
University Lecture Boom, and then once more the Old Hnstler, with the Scythe and 
the Hoar-glass, speaking through the médium of our much-esteemed Secretary, ordered 
us off back again to the Bailway Station. Some of us were able to vary our route, and 
cross the river by the Prebend*s liridge ; and the rain having temporarily ceased, one 
photographer, at least, amongst us exposed a plate from the bridge parapet. 

The evening found us ail again in Sunderland, and eight o'clock being the time 
that " the local Brethren kindly invited us to meet them at the Beception Boom of the 
*' Town Hall, where they had arranged to give us a smoking concert," we ail tumed up 
more or less punctually und, perhaps, rather more than less tired. The Mayor of 
Sunderland, Conncillor W. Walker, was there to reçoive us. He made us a speech of 
welcome, and at the first sound of his ringing periods ail traces of our fatigue vaniahed, 

Digitized by 


222 'transactions of the Quatuor Coronaii ïjoâge^ 

and we literally " hung upon his words " with rapt attention. He allnded slightlj to the 
hard times throagh which the town was passing, bat with a manljr hopefulness that was 
invîgorating to listen to ; and then passing on to what he was pleased to tell us was the 
event of the Snmmer— Our Visit, — he bade us so hearty a welcome, and assnred ns of 
sach gennine friendship, that one, at any rate, of the London members gazed at his Q.C. 
'badge and woadered how he could hâve thought it was intended for protection in a 
possibly hostile city. 

Oar W.M. replied again most appropriately, an excellent concert foUowed, and 
again some of oar members found their way to the Clnb. Our W.M:, however, set as a 
good example, he refcumed to our hôtel, and, gathering aroand him those of as who were 
there, he addressed as in the *' Coffee Room." At least it was the CofFee-room jnst then, 
though by the siga in the centre of the ceiling (to which oar Ancient Brethren had 
their attention particularly directed), we knew it was really the home of the Vedra 
Lodge. Our W.M. told as that as we had departed from oar programme to-day 
he woald hope to meet as at 7 a.m. in the moming, when we coald inspect the Bede 
Mémorial before starting on our Barnard Castle expédition, and we promised. 

Satnrday, Jaly 18th. The morning broke (like some of oar promises), and a 
-harricane blew the rain against the Windows. One poor Q.C. member crept down the 
deserted stairs at 7 a.m. and himself anbolted the hôtel door, and, rnshing across the 
road, sheltered in the first tram he saw. The condactor said it went to Boker, and as 
near the Mémorial as any other tram, but it stopped half-a-mile from the sea, and in 
déluges of rain, along anfinished roads, that poor Q.C. member tradged. Then the rain 
ceased, and a large beautiful Irish cross was on the Esplanade before him. The Bede 
Mémorial is quite récent, but it is a splendid replica of an Ancient Stone cross. On his 
way back along the sea-front he met some belated brethi'en, and told them they migbt 
ail go back for he had seen the cross and could tell them ail about it. And, such is the 
weakness of h aman nature, that with the rain again beating in their faces, they were 
ail almost willing to do so. However Bro. Moor, jan., was in charge of the party, and 
he nrged them on ; and so the Bede Cross was thoroughly inspected by some dozen of 
us — including our W.M. 

Oar programme stated that we should leave Sunderland at 9.13, but there was a 
Miners* Conférence at Darham to-day, and this delayed our train, and it was past 11 a.m. 
when we reached our destination — Barnard Castle. It is a pleasant town — it calls 
itself a '^ town" — and the sun, which had so long neglected us, shed a few gleams as 
we made our way to the Castle's chief entrance, through the yard of the King^s Arms 
Hôtel. The Castle is now in ruins, but most picfcuresque. The most of what remains 
stands on the edge of a steep rock, with a sheer descent of 80 feet to the River Tees 
below. Two ruined towers remain and some of the walls. One of the towers, Baliors 
Tower, so said the caretaker — (No, no, Wardress sounds more appropriate) — bas a 
"half-worn winding stair, that gives ascent fco upper air," — (it is impossible to avoid 
the words of Sir Walter in such surroundings) — and though the " upper-air," when we 
reached it, threatened to blow us off the tower into the Tees far below, it was worth 
risking for a sight of the glorious panorama that extended as far as eye could see. 
The Yorkshire Moors to the south and the Darham Hills to the north, for the Tees hère 
is the boundary of the Counties, seemed to extend in inimitable expanse, and it was with 
a sigh one returned to the lower earth, and the inévitable reminder that one would be 
late for lancheon. However, our W.M. and some of the rest of us, would explore the 
doorway in the wall, which led out towards the river, and which had a very old wrought 

Digitized by 


Aes Quatuor Coronatorcm. 

Plate V. 

Barnard Castlè. 

Raby Castle. 

Digitized by 



Diaitized bv 


Ars Quatuor Coronatokum. 

Plate VI. 

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Diaitized bv 


Summer Outtng. 223 

iron knooker, already daniaged, and likely bood to he ntterly desirojed, if onr W.M.'s 
suggestion be not actcd upon and the knocker removed to tbe inner side oî the door. 
Going ont, our soft-spokon '* Wardress " (she came from Southern England, thongh now 
" gaarding " a Northern fortress) sbewed us another iron knocker, and our W.M. advised 
the making of little modela of it for sale, remembering, perfaaps, ihat such models of the 
Saçctuaiy knocker, at Durham, can be purchased in London. After ** Lunch " we 
inspected tbe Church, and were much intercsted in an old font, whicb bas upon it wbat 
we are sure is a Merchanfc's mark, in spite of the fact that William Hutchinson, the 
Durham historian, and others following bim, claim that it is a symbol of the Trinîtj. 
The same mark appears on a tombstone in the Church, but as, unfortunately, the 
inscription bas been erased, we bave no clae whatever by whicb we can identify the 
" Merchant." 

And then — well then it rained again " Heaven's bard," and the " open " carnages 
that were waiting to take us to Raby had ail been rigged up with tarpaulin covers 
(" waggon vaulting,*' as it is aptly termed in architecture) and those of us wbo, 
perbaps selfishly, sheltered well in tbe interior, might as well bave been travelling in 
a *' Black Maria," for ail we could see of the country throagb which we were passing. 
After a drive of some seven miles we stopped at the village of Staindrop, aligbted, and 
getting tbe keys of tbe Church — (after a time, during whicb we got a wetting) — we saw 
over the old building. It was in a very untidy, transition, stage, some repairs or 
altérations were going on; but tbe effigies, in stone, and some whicb " peculiarly 
attracted onr attention," in wood, of bygone Vanes and Dukes of Cleveland, were well 
wortb ail the inconvenienco we had endured. 

A very short drive then took us on to Raby Castle, where we aligbted in the 
Courtyard and were ushered into the magnificent hall with groined roof, where Lord 
Barnard was waiting to reçoive us, with Lady Barnard beside bim. We were formed 
into parties, each with a condactor to show and explain the marvels of the place ; bis 
Lordship taking a few of us a little way, but bis healtb would not permit bis going very 
far, and from the spacioas kitchens to the magnificent Baron's Hall, ail was thrown 
open to us. 

The Castle is very large and in splendid préservation ; Sir Henry Yane, its owner 
in earlier days, spoke of it modestly to bis King as *' a mère hillock of stone," and 
James the First is said to bave replied, " Call ye that a hillock of stone P By my faith, 
I bave not such another hillock of stonos in ail my dominions." 

We returned from onr survey to the Qreat Hall, where Lord Barnard had pro- 
vided sumptaously for onr entertainment, and was there bimself, again with Lady 
Barnard, graciously looking after us, as if we were the seyen bundred knights who 

" . . . . retainers ail 
Of Nevill, at tbeir Master's call, 
Had sate together in Raby 's Hall." 

AU too soon it was time to be moving ; a group was formed on the Terrace out- 
side, where we, more or less unflinchingly, faced tbe caméra, and then again to our 
" Black Marias," and very reluctantly we left the magnificent " hillock." 

Indeed, so impressed were we with it ail, that we connt our time from that yisit, 
and, of the brethren who were fortunate enongh to be of that party, when any two meet, 
they greet each other as Sir Hngh the Héron bold addressed Lord Marmion : — " When 
last in Raby's towers we met." A drive of some four miles brought us to Winston 
Station, and an hour's train joumey brought us back to ganderland. 

Digitized by 


224 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Eigbt o'clock found the Sanderland brethren gathering, at our invitatioD, at tlie 
Grand Hôtel, and a right merrj evening we had, with songs and taies, and the 
tîntinnabnlation of Bro. Tipper*s bells. Instead of onlj asking ns to corne again, the 
Sanderland brethren sangit. 

" Will ye no corne back again P 
Will je no corne back again P 
Better looed ye conld na be — 
Will ye no corne back again P '* 

Snnday morning, Jnly 19th. Some of ns had a last harrîed look at the town and 
the Wear before breakfast ; but 9.30 had to see ns at the station, where many of oar 
kind hosts of the past few days had assembled to wish ns weli. 

" And let what will cheer our onward way 
Farewell is still a bitter word to say." 

We had to change at Dnrham, and ihe wait there gave ns tîme for a last look 
at the magnificent view from the rail way platform. Indeed, some of ns tnmed onr 
caméras apon it, and the resnlting picture, thongh misty from the smoke — for '' every Inm 
reeked '* — was very like the one, magnificently païnted, now hanging, as this is written, 
in the British Section of Fine Arts in the Franco-British Exhibition. 

It bas been said, by the opponents of Malthusianism, that when Providence sends 
mouths, it also sends food to put in them. The Bail way Company acted as our 
providence, for it sent our mouths by one train and our splendidly appointed dining 
saloon by another. Still we managed to get something, and we had been so petted and 
feasted up North, that had this Snnday been a véritable fast day, none of us wonld bave 
been much the worse. King*s Ci*obs — and we scattered, like bullets from a Shrapnel 
shell — another Summer Outing over, and ne ver, in ail human probability, aU of ns will 
meet together again. 

" Some are in a far countree, 

And some ail restlessly at home, 

But never more, oh never, we 

Shall meet to revel and to roam.'* 

(The photographs of Dnrham and Bamard Castle are roproduced by the kind 
permission of Messrs. W. H. Smith & Son.) 

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Transactions of the Quatuor Coronatt Lodge, 225 



N connection with onr vîsit to Dnrham, it may be well to draw attention 

to a contract between the Prior of Dnrham and John Bell, Mason, 

dated 1488, which is still preserved in the Registry of the Dean and 

Chapter. Although not the earliest in existence, it is mnch fuller 

and more interesting than the generality of snch documents, and is, 

moreover, written in English. It is printed in the Historiae Bunelm- 

ensis scriptores très (Sartees Society, 1839), p, ccclxxiii.^ and extracts 

from it were printed in an article in the Trans., BI.B, Architects, 1887, by Wyatt 

Papworth. As thèse works are not always available to Masonic studenta, I think the 

présent a fitting occasion to reprint the docnment in extenso, 


Thys indenture made bitwix the révérend fadre in God John the Prior of 
Daresme the cathedral churche of Duresme of that one parte and John Bell maf on of that 
othre parte, witnesseth, that the said John is reteynd and sworn to serve the said Prior 
and Chapitre and ther saccessours wele and trewly in hys science of masonry, daring 
hys lyfe, fro the fost of Penticost next commyng after the date of this indentnre, in 
maner and forme folowyng : that is to say, that the said John shall be speciall mason to 
the said Priore & Chapitre aud thcir saccessours, and ail their works of masonry with 
ymagre, and other, newe and olde, shall be take on hande at their costes and expenses. 
And to the goode spede performyng and ending of the said werk shall geve hys dne 
labour and diligens> to hys power, with hys counsell, help and bodyly labour, as far as 
pertneth to hys craf te ; and aftir the witte and cunnyng gevyn to hym of almygty God, 
withowte any fraude decyte or raale ingine, to be ministred and gevyn faithfuUy, as 
oft as he shall be requiryd therto, be the fore said Priore and C h api tour, or their 
successeurs, or ony in their name, except that he hâve lawfull excuse or impediment. 
Also he shall concele the secrètes and counsell of the said Prieur and Chapitre and their 
successours, and their goodes and catalles, and fer as in hym is wele and trewly kepe, 
nor them to ony person or persons shall delyver or len, withowte their speciall license ; 
hurt he shall not do them, ne knawe to be done of ony other, bot he shall therof make 
them hâve knawledg à to hys powes lette it to done ; from hys occupacion in dew tyme 
he shall noght départe withowte their speciall licence ; and one yong man their 
apprentice, to be hyrid for terme of x yeres in the mason crafte, one aftir one other, 
duryng hys life, well and trewly shall teche, & informe, to his cunnyng and power, 
without ony fraude concelement malyce or collusion. Also he shall be obedient & 
buxom to the forsayd Priour & Chapitre and their successours in almaner of thyng 
lefuU and honest : for the which service, wele and trewly to be done and performyd, in 
forme afore rehersyd, the said John shall receyve of the foresaid Prior & Chapitour 
and their successours, yerly, during ail the terme of ly ve that he may bodely performe 
ail thés prémisses for gret âge and sekenes, x marcs at viij tymesof theyere ; and every 
yere, at the fest of Saynt Martyn in wynter, xs. in money for hys marte ; to be payd be 
the hands of the sacristane of Duresme for tyme beyng by even percions ; and yerly one 

Digitized by 


2*26 Transactions of the Quattwr Coronatt Lodge. 

^arment of the said Priour and Chapitour & their soccessours compétent to hys degré ; 
and one house ferme free, to inhabyte in during hys lyfe, in the which house some tyme 
inhabit Thomas Barton mason, while he levyd. Also it shall be lefuU to the said John 
to hâve one prentice of his owne for terme of x yeres in the foresaid mason crafte, one 
aftir another, daring hys ly ve, to wirke and labour in the werke of masonry of the said 
Prior Chapitoar and their saccessours, for the which prentice he shall recyve of the 
sacristane of Duresme, for tyme beîng, as is aforesaid,every yere of the iij frist yeres of 
hys prentecehede iiij marcs, and every yere of the iij yeres next folowing after that vj 
marcs, & the x & last yere vi] marcs, at viij tymez of the yere by equall percions. And 
when it happyn that the said John hâve continuall infirmités or gret âge, so that he 
may not wirke ne labonr, nor exercise hys crafte and cunnyng, he ehall then be content 
with iiij marcs yerly ; to be payd at viij tymes of the yere by even percions by the 
handis of the sacristane of Duresme for tyme being. In witnesse herof the foresaid 
parties to thees indentures entrechangeably hath sett to their seales. Teven at Duresme, 
the first day of Aprill, the yere of our Lord mcccclxxxviii***. 

In this same volume of Hist, Dunelm. scrtptores, on pages CLXXXVir.-cxc, there is 
another long indenture between Peter Dring and the Prior of Durham for the recon- 
struction of the walls of the Dormitories at Durham Cathedral, date d 1401 . It is too long 
to reprint, and has little interest except from a builder's point of view, and the 
record of the Masons* names. It begins : — 

Haec indentura facta inter Johannem Priorem ecclesiae Dunelmensis et ejusdem 
loci Conventum ex una parte, et Petrum Dryng cementariura ex altéra, testatur, quod 
praedictus Petrns promisit et manucepit, ac se firraiter obligavit, per praesentes, ad 
edificandum et de novo construendum muros Dormitorii infra AbbathiamDunelmeiisem 
situati . . . Data Danelmi in festo purificacionis beatae Mariae anno Domini 
M^'cccc™ primo. 

Willielmus Lameton — Willielmus Talkar — Thomas Forster — Willielmus Melode 
(apparently bondsmen). 

Petrus Drynge, cementarius— Dominus Willielmus Bennett, vicarius de Meiyng- 
ton — Robertus Daynivell, cementarius — Willielmus Landes, cementarias. 

There are also in the volume two other indentures of a similar character between 
the Prior and John de Middelton (p. clxxx.), and between the Bishop and Thomas 
Hyndeley, and others (p. cciv.) for building varions parts of the cathedral and cl oisters, 
as well as several accompt rolls detailing the cost of wages paid, etc. They are hardiy 
worthy of reprinting, and a record of their existence is sufficient. 

Digitized by 



HE Lodge met at Freemasons* Hall, London, at 5 p.m. Présent: — Bros. F. H, 
Goldney, P.G.D., W.M. ; J. T. Thorp, P.A..G.D.O., S.W.; B. L. Hawkine, as J.W. ; 
Canon J. W. Horaley, P.G.Ch., Chap. ; W. John Songhurst, P.A.G.D.O., Seoretary ; 
H. Sadler, G.Tj., S.D. j W. M. Bywater, P.G.S.B., D.O. ; J. P. Simpson, I.G. ; B. H. 
Dring, Stew. ; and Dr. W. Wynn Westcott, P.G.D., P.M. 

AUo the following members of the Correspondence Circle:— Bros. W. 
Howard-Flanders, Harry Brown, D. S. Morison, W. G. Aspland, H. H. Montagne 
Smith, Arthur F. Malliner, G. W. Lofthoase, John Glass, T. Morgan, G. E. Bolton, 
T. W. Chant, P.A.G.D.C., R. B. Rowell, W. A. Tharp, W. Wonnacott, Archdeacon F. E. Clarke, Pr.G.M., 
N. Connaught, W. Parker, Charles Aubert, Duncan Mackintosh, G. H. Luetchford, H. E. Justice, F. W. 
Levander, W. B. Hextall, John Church, J. Albert Richards, John I. Moar, F. B. Fuller, Lionel Vibert, 
P.Dis.G.D., Madras, W. Léonard Smith, R. P. Emmant, F. Mella, W. H. Harris, D. Bock, L. A. Engel, 
H. J. DalgieiBh, A. E. Smith, H. Hyde, A. Y. Davis, G. J. Gissing, 0. L. Thomson, R. E. Landesmann, 
Fred Armitage, Col. R. S. Ellis, L.R., E. A. Wheeler, John P. Robinson, W. C. P. Tapper, W. W. Mangles, 
Henry Machin, G. Yogeler, Harry Tipper, P.A.G.P., H. J. Eaborn, James T. Phillips, L. Danielsson, 
William Hammond, Dr. S. Walshe Owen, Reginald C. Watson, Hngh James, W. Busbridge, Herbert 
Burrows, George A. Crider, and G. W. Lawn. 

Also the following visitors : — Bros. W. F. Gee, Inanda Lodge No. 1102 ; H. J. Barton, Edward 
Terry Lodge No. 2722 j Chichele Nourse, St. George's Lodge No. 870; W. C. Fenn, Lindsey Lodge 
No. 712; A. E. Biggs, Mornington Lodge No 1672; Thomas H. Goldup, Victoria Lodge No. 1066; 
Ramsden Walker, United Northern Counties Lodge No. 2128; and John E. Tapper, Cator Lodge 
No. 2266. 

Letters of apology for non-attendanoe were reoeived from Bros. F. J. W. Crowe, P.G.O., J.W. ; 
G. Greiner, P.A.G.D.C, P.M.; E. Macbean, P.M.; J. P. Rylands; Hamon le Strange, Pr.G.M., Noi-folk, 
P.M. ; Admirai Sir A. H. Markham, P.Dis.G.M., Malta, P.M. ; Sir Charles Warren. P.Dis.G.M., E.Aroh., 
P.M.; E. Conder, jr., P.M. ; W. Watson, J.D.; S. T. Klein, P.M.; W. J. Hnghan, P.G.D.; R. F. Gould, 
P.G.D., P.M. ; and G. L. Shackles, P.M. 

One Masonic Club, two Lodges, and fifty>nine brethren were admitted to the membershîp of the 
Correspondence Circle. 

Bro. John T. Thorp, P.A.G.D.C, was elected Worshipfnl Master for the ensuing year, Bro, 
Hamon le Strange, Pr.G.M., Norfolk, was elected Treasarer, and Bro. J. W. Freeman was re-elected 

The Seoretary called attention to the following 


By Bro. Sictmovr Bell, Newcastle^on^Tyne. 

Medal, Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, great Arctic navigator, U.S.N., 1859. (H.Z-C. 1294). 

Medal of Lodge Ardente Amitié, Rouen. (H.Z.C. 660). 

Mkdal, Lodge Des H, H. H., Havre, 1813. (H.Z.C. 509). 

Masonic HalfpbNnibs, I. Sckichley, 1790, and J.H.B., Bast Grinstead, 1796. 

Digitized by 



Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

ToKRN, Wm. Rasher, Hat ter, Bookseller, and Stationer, Banbary. Onreyene thesun in eplendoor 
and Deus est nohis sol et scutum. 

Medal, Réunion des Entrepreneurs de Maçonnerie de Paris, 1810. On the obverse are the com- 
pa8f'.e8, level, and mie, while the reverse bas the foUowinK inscription :—8ous le règne de Napoléon le 
Qrand Protecteur des Arts. 

Medal, Seb. Gramoisj Dir. de Limpr. Royale. Pkr. Eschevin. On the reverse is a band proceed- 
ing from a starry sky, and holding a square and plamb-Iine. The inscription is Hœc pondéra iusti, and 
date 1643. 

MedalLette, Amitié, Bienfaisance^ with sqaare and compassés, etc. 
Club de V Asile Lyon Mars 1848, 

On reverse, Rue 8t, Georges, 

Seal, métal impression. On a shield the square and comparses cnclosing a heart. Above, an 
îrradiated five-poioted star and three equilateral triangles interlaced. 

Digitized by 


l'ratisactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, 


By Bro. Dr. Royal A. Qovr, Tftcoma, Washington, U.S.A.. 

Souvenir Badges : — Grand Lodge, Tacoma, Washington, 1908. 
Grand Chapter, Tacoma, Washington, 1908. 
Grand Commandery, Tacoma, Washington, 1908. 
Grand Coancil, Tacoma, Washington, 1908. 
Souvenir, Grand Lodge, Grand Chapter, Grand Commandery, Grand Oouncil, Taooma, Washing- 
ton, 1901. Presented to the Lodge. 
By Bro. Harry Guy, Yarmoath, I.W. 

Oval Jewel, moanted in locket form, French prisoners' Mork. 

By Bro. W. J. Songhurst. 

Star, Red Cross of Babylon, Scotch. 
K. T. Jewel, Dunckerley pattern. 

Engraved Je WEL,formerly belonging to Thos. Dickenson, M.M. Wiltshire Lodge No. 523, A.M. 5788. 

Presented to the Lodge, 

By Bro. Oapt. P. P. Fellowes, Port Elizabeth. 

Photographs of Gold jewel, Cryptic degrees. 

R.A. jewel. Scotch, engraved RM.J, to H.F, 
P. M. jewel. Scotch, engraved H. P. from C.L.M. 
Mark jewel. 

Old apron, of R.A. Chapter Kilwinning in the East No. 64. Thîs is réversible, 
the other side being nsed for the Red Cross of Babylon. 

Presented to the Lodge, 

By Bro. T. N. Cranstoun-Day, Port Elizabeth. 

Photooraph of Masonic half-penny token, 1790. 

Presented to the Lodge, 

By Bro. W. C. Eemslby, Port Elizabeth. 
Photooraph of M.M. jewel, pierced. 

Presented to the Lodge, 

By Bro. T. G. Griffiths, Port Elizabeth. 
Photograph of P.M. jewel, Scotch. 

Presented to the Lodge, 

A hearty vote of thanks was nnanimoasly passed to those Brethren who had kindly lent objecta 
for exhibition, or who had made présentations to the Lodge Masenm. 

Bro. W. B. Hextàll read the following paper :— 

Digitized by 


âàO Transactions of ihe Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 



OON after thé Masonic revival of 1717 and the establishment of Grand 
Lodge, the fashionably artistic and literary world which bore the 
appellation of ** the Town " became mnch exercised over the building, 
bj the first Duke of Chandos, of his stately but short-lived mansion of 
Canons, near Edgware.^ Smollett, in his continuation of Hume's 
History of England, relates in a matter-of-fact way that the Duke, 
when the Hon. James Brydges, heir to his father. Lord Chandos, and 
Paymaster General to the Forces abroad, " accounted tor ail the money that had passed 
through his hands, excepting three millions." The Rev. Frédéric Barlow's " Complète 
Peeragfe "(1772), mentions his holding of theappointment, but is silent as to défalcations, 
and speaks of the Duke's life as ** spent in the exercise of every virtue reqnisite to the 
character of a great and good man " ; so that posfcerity also in this instance finds the 
diflBculty which usually besets its judgment. 

Commenced in 1715, the érection and corapletion of Canons occupied several 
years and absorbed vast sums of money ; it is said that *' the locks and hinges to the 
doors of the state rooms were of gold or silver."^ 

It does not appear that this Duke, who died in 1744, had himself aught to do 
with Freemasonry, but his son, afterwards the second Duke, was, as Henry Marquis of 
Carnarvon, Grand Master, 1738. The son's boundless ambition and extravagance 
brought about the destruction and sale of Canons in 1747, subséquent to which date his 
eldest son, James Marquis of Carnarvon, was Grand Master from 1754 to 1757. 
Although the family fortunes were greatly impaired, the second Duke attended Grand 
Lodge frequently as a Past Grand Master, and presided, in the absence of Lord Blayney, 
then Grand Master, at the Assembly and Feast held May 21st, 1765. He died in 1771. 

An almost bitter rivalry existed between the first Duke, as owner of Canons, and 
the Earl of Burlington, the possessor of Burlington House as it then stood in 
Piccadilly ; this had not been rendered less acute by their patronage of competing — not 
necessarily always very compétent — architects of the day, and culminated with the 
publication, in 1731, of ** An Bpistle to the Right Honourable Richard, Earl of Burling- 
ton. . . . By Mr. Pope," the re-issue being entitled *' On Taste," and later " On 
False Taste," afterwards altered to " The Use of Riches," and included in Alexander 
Pope's collected works as the fourth of his "Moral Essays.'* Pope's intervention at 
once raised the squabble to fever-heat, and large quantities of paper and print were 
expended in the fray, which went on merrily for some years. Pope's " Epistle " supplied 
Hogarth, the painter, with material for his trenchant picture, " The Man of Taste, or 
Burlington Gâte," prints from which, engraved by himself, had a large sale, and which 
Mr. Austin Dobson, in his work on Hogarth (1879), thus describes, " The diminutive 
figure of Pope on a scafPolding is seen vigorously whitewashing the gâte, and bespatter- 
ing the passers-by, among others the Duke of Chandos, while Lord Burlington briugs 

* " Since palled down,'* Constitutions, 1756, p. 203. •* In 1747 the mansion that had cosfc half-a» 
million to bnild was sold in lots as baildinpc material for £11,0CX).'' Walford's ** Greater London,'' i., 203. 
' Walford, op. ciU 

Digitized by 


Aks Quatuor Cokonatorum. 

The Man ov Taste. 
(Burlington Gâte— No. 2.) 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


'* The Man of Taste;' a Satire of 1733. 231 

the whitewash. This is an allnsion to Pope's epistle to Lord Burlington, in whicb, 
under the name of Timon, the Duke of Ohandos and his seat of Canons were held up to 
ridicule. The prînt pave great offence to the persons attacked, for the impression is 
said to hâve been recalled and the plate destroyed." Hogarth is also said to hâve 
drawn a satirical frontispiece for " Mr. Tas te, the Poetical Fop, a comedy, 1732," 
written in dérision of Pope, by one James Miller, of whom more hereafter. Pope, 
waspish and pugnacious as he -was, for some reason refrained from openly resenting 
Hogarth's caricature of " Burlington Gâte " ; perhaps the suppression of the print was 
accepted as sufficient. If Pope had attacked in retum, a very pretty quarrel must hâve 
followed, for both he and Hogarth were " first-class fighting men," and almost too ready 
to meet their enemies in the gate.^ 

In 1733 was published the work with which I am more directly concerned : " The 
Man of Taste, occasioned by an Epistle of Mr. Pope's on that subject. By the author 
of the Art of Politicks. London, Printed by J. Wright, for Lawton Gilliver, at Homer's 
Head, against St. Dunstan's Church, in Fleet Street, 1733." On a copy in the British 
Muséum is a manuscript note that the work was entered for copyright at Stationers' 
Hall by the publisher on March 5th, 1732. Why the entry preceded the actual publica- 
tion by something like a year we can only guess ; possibly there was a temporary lull 
in the quarrel between the Duke and the Earl ; no doubt the publisher had some good 
reason for the delay. 

The printed poem occupies nineteen folio pages. It sets forth in considérable 
détail the pursuits, and frequently the foUies, of a man of fashion, désirons of being 

thought a VtrtuosOy eager to create a sensation of any kind so long as it drew public 

attention to himself, and caring nothing whether he pleaâed or disgusted provided he 

astonished. As a spécimen, I will take thèse lines : 

" Without Italian, or without an ear, 
To Bononcini's musick I adhère : 

To boon companions I my time would give, 
With players, pimps, and parasites l'd live; 
1 would with jockeys from Newmarket dine, 
And to rough riders give my choicest wine ; 
My evenings ail I would with sharpers spend, 
And make the thief -catch er my bosom friend ; 
In Figg,2 the Prize-fighter, by day delight. 
And sup with Colley Cibber evVy night." 

The contemporary allusions are not diflficult to folio w. Bononcini is remembered 
less for musical talent than as coupled with George Frederick Handel in the lines, some- 
times attributed to Dean Swift, but really written by John Byrom : 

" Some say, compar'd to Bononcini, 
That Mynheer HandeVs but a ninny ; 
Others aver that he to Handel 
Is scarcely fit to hold a candie. 
Strange ail this différence should be 
'Twixt Tweedledum and Tweedledee." 

^ Whether Pope was aFreeniason, see Bro. Sadler's Masonic Reprints and Révélations, 1898, and 
Bro. B. F. Gould at A.Q.G., xi., 193-4. Hogarth was a Freemason, and Grand Steward in 1735. 
' Fi^j in the original. 

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James Figg, prizeBghter, who în fact performed more with sword and quarter- 
staff than with bis fists, was at that tirae prominent enongh to be introduced into tbe 
second pictnre of " Tbe Rake's Progress," and it is said also into" Soutbwark Pair," by 
Hogartb, who designed bis business card, an impression of whieb, describing bim as 
" Master of the Noble Science of Defence," bas been sold for eight guineas, and to bave 
his portrait mezzotinted by Faber. An illaminative note is contained in "William 
Hogartb," by George Angnstns Sala (1866) respectiog Figg, to whose prowess some 
minor poet of the day paid compliment in thèse words, 

" Rash and nnthinking men, at lengtb be wise, 
Consult your safety, and resign the prize : 
Nor tempt snperior force, but timely fly 
The vigour of his arm, tbe quickness of his eye.*' 

and John Byrom, already quoted, wrote of hîm, 

" Long live the great Figg, of the prize-fighting swains, 
Sole monarch acknowledged of Marybone plains." 

I bave referred rather fully to this bero of the day, not only becanse it 
is well to appréciât^ tbe gênerai nature of the poem we are dealing with, but also 
becaase Bro. Henry Sadler, to whom I am indebted for kindly searching tbe rolls at 
Grand Lodge, informs me that according to the list for 1725 the Masonic Lodge meeting 
at the Gastle Tavern, St. Giles's, had a James Figg amongst its members : and thongb 
descriptions and addresses were not then generally given, it seeras probable that this 
was the same man. Hogarth^ was more merci fui in his presentment of his brother- 
Mason Figg in the " Progress " than in that of Past Grand Master Desaguliers in the 
" Sleeping Congrégation," if the received tradition that the Révérend Doctor there 
figures in the pulpit be correct. Desaguliers, by-the-way, had been Ghaplain to the 
Duke of Chandos, and from bim received the living of Edgware, or, as Lysons bas 
it, of Whitchurch, close by.^ 

Colley Cibber, the plavwright, had througb political influence been appointed 
Poet Lauréate in 1730; a biographer writes of him, somewhat unkindly, that "bis 
lyrical effusions were celebrated only for their absnrdity."^ 

Returning to our poem, " The Man of Taste " ; after a discourse upon, and upon 
foUies concerning, the Drama, Architecture, Gardens, Coins, Sculpture and Music, we 
come to thèse lines, supposed to be spoken by the aforesaid man of taste and fashion, 
posing as an arbiter and exponent of the pursuits and foUies of the day : 

" Bears, Lyons, Wolves, and Eléphants I breed, 
And Philosophical Transactions read. 
Next Lodge, l'U be Free-Mason, nothing less, 
Unless I happen to be F.R.S." 

The poem is frankly satirical throughout, and it may at first sight seera that this 
allusion to the Craft was meant to express contempt and dérision, but I am by no means 
sure that such is the correct view. The letters " F.R.S." can,in the présent connexion, 
only indicate " Fellow of the Royal Society," and the " Philosophical Transactions," are, of 
course, the coUected papers of that Society, which was foanded in 1660 and incorporated 
in 1662 ; the " Transactions " being first issued in March, 1664-6, and amounting to 496 

* As to Freeraasonry in Hogarth'e Works, see A.Q.C. ii., 116, 146, 158 ; viii., 138; xvî., 39. 
' Gould*B History of Freemaaonry ii., 349. 
QortoD'B Biog. Dict., 1828, i., 490, 

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" The Man of Taste;' a Satire of 1733. 233 

numbers, or 46 volumes, in 1750. Wifchoafc dwelling upon the circumstance that there 
was a Masonic strain observable amoDgst tbe earliest members of tbe Royal Society, — tbe 
first Président, to wbom its establishment was in great part due, being Sir Robert 
Murray (or Moray), wbose admission into the Craft at Newcastle-on-Tyne on May 
20th 1641 is the earliest recorded initiation of a non-operative Mason on English soil — 
we may remember that amongst the Fellows of the Society in 1733, were, Dr. 
Desaguliers, a Past Grand Master; Martin Folkes, Deputy Grand Master, 1724-25; 
Dr. William Stukeley, the Antiquary, made a Freemason in 1721 ; and Dr. Richard 
Rawlinson, the donor of valuable Masonic documents to the Bodleian Library at Oxford,^ 
a Freemason in 1726. John Byrom, too, of whose verse we hâve had spécimens, was a 
Fellow of the Royal Society, and appears to be identical with John Byram, whose name 
appears in the list of 1730 as member of a Ijodge held at the Swan, in Long Acre. 
Bro. Annitage, at A.Q.C. xi., 116, tells us that, taking the list of Fellows of the Royal 
Society in 1722, and the Grand Lodge MS. Lists of members of private Lodges in 1723, 
1725 and 1730, there are 47 names apparently common to both ; and itis a mère truism 
to observe that to associate Freemasonry with the Royal Society does not, presumably, 
imply contempt for the former, but the contrary. Résides, about 1733, the social 
position of the Craft was practically at its zénith for that period: the aristocracy 
joined its ranks and took part in its assemblies, inclading the public processions which, 
fifteen years after, came to an end under the attacks narrated by Bro. Dr. Chetwode 
Crawley in his paper on " Mock Masonry in the Eighteenth Century," at A Q.G. xviii., 
29. In 1729, seven lords of high degree, besides the Earl of Kingston, G. M., are 
recorded as walking in the ** Procession of March," and similar conditions obtained in 
succeeding years. We hâve already seen that two heirs-apparent to the dukedom of 
Chandos were Grand Masters somewhat later. 

The author of " The Man of Taste " was James Bramston, who also wrote " The 
Art of Politicks," and is credited with " The Crooked Sixpence," the latter being an 
imitation of John Philips' " Splendid Shilling." Bramston was born in the last years 
of the seventeenth century, graduated at Christ Churcli, Oxford, became Vicar of 
Lurgashall in 1723, and in 1725 also of Harting, both in West Sussex. Little remem- 
bered as his writings are now, his satires are described as "holding an honourable 
place in eighteenth century verse,''^ and Dallaway's " History of Sussex" (1815), says he 
was ** a man of original humour, the famé and proofs of whose colloquial wit are still 
remembered in that part.** He died in 1744. His first- published work, ** The Art of 
Politicks," contains two lines which hâve sometimes been quoted, 

" What's not devoured by Time's devouring hand ? 
Where's Troy, and where's the Maypole in the Strand ?" 

" The Man of Taste " seems to bave retained its vogue to the end of the 
eighteenth century, and passages from it adorn " The Life of James Lackington," the 
bookseller (1791), and " Anecdotes of Hogarth " (1803) : from the latter work G. A. Sala 
appears to bave taken the lines relating to Bononcini, as well as the blunder (which he 
repeats) of giving the author's name as Brampton, instead of Bramston. 

The poem bas two lines which are not unfamiliar, relating to the trial of King 
Charles the First : 

" So Britain's monarch once uncovered sat,' 
While Bradshaw bullied in a broad-brimmed hat.'* 

* 4.Q.0. xi., 11. « piot. Nat. Bîog., vî., 207. ' Bate^ in the original, 

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234 Transactions of tke Quatuor Coronatt Lodge. 

While yet two others bear very hardly upon traditioDal fathers o* the Craft : 

" Sure wretched Wren was tanght by bungling Jones, 
To murder mortar and disfigure stones." 

And " The Man of Taste " terminâtes with tbe following strenuous commination : 

" Thus from my birth l'm qualified, you find, 
To give tbe laws of Taste to bumane kind. 
Mine are tbe gallant scbemes of Politesse, 
For books and buildings, politicks and dress. 
Tbis is True Taste, and wboso likes it not, 
Ts blockbead, coxcomb, puppy, fool, and sot." 

Tbe passage in Bramston's poem baving référence to Freemasonry was not long 
in being followed by a paraphrase in prose. *' The Man of Taste, or tbe Guardians, a 
Comedy. As it is acted at tbe Théâtre Royal in Drury Lane, London," was first 
published in 1735, with a third édition in 1744. Possessing little else to distingnish 
the play from numerous productions of its kind, Act IV. bas a dialogue between two of 
tbe characters, Martin and Reynard, wbo are lackeys engaged, by their masters* 
orders, in personating individnals moving in a higher sphère, and for that purpose 
assuming the naraes of Lord Apemode and Colonel Cockade. After much boasting of 
their prowess and aocomplishments in war, music, dancing, gaming and fighting, they 
proceed : 

Martin : " As soon as I had finisbed settling with thèse polite aocomplishments, 
I resolved to crown ail with a Smattering of Philosophy ; and for that purpose am now 
Fellow of the Royal Society." 

Beynard : " And I am a Free-Mason, which is the same thing, you know." 

The adapter for the stage of Bramston's poetical satire was the James Miller 
previously mentioned as author of *' Mr. Taste, the Poetical Fop," in dérision of 
Alexander Pope. He was about fifteen years younger than Bramston, and died in the 
same year, 1744. Miller was a member of Wadham Collège, Oxford, and after holding 
clérical appoint ments in and near London, with in a year before bis death received the 
living of Upcerne, Dorset, which bis father had held before him. It is said that Miller 
took to dramatic authorship to increase bis income wben in London, but ofPended bis 
Bishop by bis efforts in that direction. ** The Man of Taste " was produced at Drory 
Lane Théâtre in Mai'ch 17i^6, and bas been described as " a successful mélange from 
Molière." Miller appears to bave written eight or nine other plays, and bis death took 
place on what was to bave been bis first benefit night of an adaptation from Yoltaire'a 
" Mahomet " at Drury Lane.^ 

His comedy, " Tbe man of Taste," is throughout an imitation of Bramston's 
poem ; for instance, Bramston w ri tes, 

" In Figg, the Prize-fighter, by day delight," 

and one of Miller s characters exclaims, 

" I bave fought Goodman Figg wûth ail his weapons." 

Beyond the passages relating to Freemasonry in conjunction with tbe Royal 
Society, there is nothing in either work — or, so far as I bave found, in the works of 
either author— in any way referring, or relating, to the Craft. 

^ Bict Nat. Biog : xxxyii., 411, Thespian Diotionary 1805, 

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•* The Man of Taste^' a Satire of 1733, 23^ 

Brotber Sadler tells me he finds nothing in the varions lists to show that either 
Bramston or Miller were Freemasons, and we must assume, for tlie présent purpose, 
they were not ; this may increase the likelihood of their allusions to Freemasonry indicat- 
ing dislike or contempt, but, seeiug that the référence occurs only once in either poem 
or play, it appears as though the allusion were rather accidentai than premeditated on 
the part of Bramston, from whom Miller may be regarded merely as a copyist. I do not 
overlook the fact that, at that period, élection to the Fellowship of the Royal Society 
was not confiued to persons of proved scientific acquirements ; and the passage may 
possibly be a double-thrnst at the Royal Society as well as at the Craft. But 
Bramston was a beneficed Clergyman who in 1733 had been for ten years residing at 
one of his two Sussex livings. He does not seem, like so many poets and poetasters of 
the âge, to hâve possessed a patron for whom to write to order ; certainly he was not a 
needy man, for the chancel of Lurgashall Church was rebuilt partly at his expense ; ^ 
and we hâve seen the good réputation which survived him in his own county. His 
Works are at the most but three in number, and it would appear that he wrote in a 
condition of more or less dignified ease, and for his own gratification ; possibly, also, 
with no particular reluctance to accept such profit as might accrue to him from publica- 
tion. Such a man, unless for reasons unknown to us, would hardly bepersonally hostile 
to the leading scientific body of the day ; and his allusions to the Royal Society and to 
Freemasonry hâve to be judged together. He was apt to call a spade a spade, and he 
wrote plain and forcible lines, as you hâve heard, but we must not forget that thèse 
express the sentiments of such a person as the ** Man of Taste " is intended to pourtray, 
and not those of Bramston himself ; and also that the satire is not directed against the 
pursuits themselves, but only against their exaggeration and misuse by pretenders 
posing as connoisseurs. In 1733, publications hostile to the Craft were but few ; 
Prichard's " Masonry Dissected," and the " Defence of Masonry," the reply to it by 
Martin Clare, had been issued in 1730, and until "Masonry f arther Dissected " foUowed 
in 1738 there was little to draw attention to Freemasonry beyond the public processions 
and such like exoteric marks of its existence. 

Taking ail circumstances together, I think we may fairly regard the lines referrîng 
to the subject as a récognition by Bramston of Freemasonry as a reputable and even 
meritorious pursuit, and not as intending any slur on his part upon the Craft or its 

Nine years after the publication of " The Man of Taste," Alexander Pope, who 
had issued the first three books of the " Dunciad " in 1728, foUowed them, in 1742, with 
the fourth book, containing yetone otherconjunction of the Craft and the Royal Society, 
in the foUowing lines^ : — 

** Next bidding ail draw near on bended knees, 
The Queen confers her title and degrees. 
Her children first of more distingnished sort, 
Who study Shakespeare at the Inns of Court) 
Impale a glow-worm, or vertu profess, 
Shine in the dignity of F.R.S., 
Some, deep Free^Masons, join the silent race, 
Worthy to fiU Pytbagoras's place : 
Some botanists or fiorists at the least, 
Or issue Members of an Annual Feast. 

* Hotseaeld'B SaBsex^ 1835, ii., 182. ' Qaoted A.Q.C, xi.» 116 1 xix., 70 1 also p. 93 ante. 

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Nor pass tlie meanest unregarded, one 
I Rose a Gregorian, one a Qormogon. 

' Tbe last, not least in honour and applanse, 

Isis and Cam made Doctor of her Laws." 

Without accnsing Pope of plagiarîsm, it seems likely enongh fchat his allnsîou to 
the Craft would not hâve been made but for the earlier lines by Bramston. How far 
the appropriation of the latter's thème by Pope may affect the view I hâve ventured to 
express as to the estimation in which Bramston held the Craft may well be open to 
argument ; but the interval of several years, and the différence in the personalities and 
tempéraments of Bramston and Pope, seem to me to place them in différent catégories ; 
and even if it be thought that Pope*s lines were not written with charitable meaning, I 
am not myself convinced that a conclusion in favour of Bramston need be altered or 
modified in conséquence. 

It is a coincidence that of persons whose names are mentioned in this paper, 
four — the 6rst Duke of Ghandos, Alexander Pope, James Bramston and James 
Miller — should ail hâve died in the same year, ITéé. Sic itur ad ahtra. 

Bro. J. p. Simpson said : — Brethren, in reading throughBro. Hextall's interesting 
Paper I come across one or two names which recall to my mind past researches into the 
byways of Society in the eighteenth century. 

With regard to the R-ev. James Bramston, the author of " The Man of Taste," one 
can add but little to the varions biographical détails in the Paper. I hâve, however, 
fonnd in a Book, mostly in manuscript, which I presented to the Lodge a few years ago, 
another poem of Bramston's, entitled " The Prescription," and commencing : — 

" H. — T. — N., old Friend, accept from me 
The foUowing Rules without a fee." 

This Book was probably owned by, and in the handwriting of Bro. Moses Mendez, 
Grand Steward in 1738 (see A.Q.G,^ vol. xviii., pp. 104-109). Bro. Mendez was a minor 
poet of some note, and a wrîter of Plays, and it would appear very probahle that he 
was a friend of Bramston. 

Another name I see quoted twice in the Paper is that of Dr. John Byrom (1692- 
1762) and in the same little Book there are several of his poems in manuscript, amongst 
othera the famous Jacobite toast given, "over the water": — 

"God bless the King, God blessthe Faith's Defender, 
God bless (what harm in blessing) the Pretender. 
Who the Pretender is, and who the King, 
God bless us ail, that's quite another thing." 

The form in which this toast was given is, I think, preserved in one of onr 
" Higher Degrees." 

The Toast is preceded by a satirical poem commencing : — 

" Arise George, why sleepest thou P Awake 1 " 

In another instance, namely, a Poem entitled " Rules for preaching," we find the 
Author's name spelt Byram not Byrom, and this confirms the conjecture that the Doctor 
was the Brother appearing in the list of 1730 as a Member of the Lodge held at the 
Swan in Long Acre. Dr. Byrom was a native of Manchester, and a Graduate and 

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" The ifan of Taste,'' a Satire of 1733. 23? 

afterwards Fellow of Trinity Collège, Cambridge. He seems io hâve been a prime 
mover in ail the Jacobite intrigaes in the early part of the eighteenth centnry. It is 
curious to note that in addition to conspiring and writing poetry, he claimed to be the 
trae inventor of the art of shorthand writing. Possibly the ciphers used by the 
Jacobites may bave suggested this to him. He had niany pnpils, amongst them Lord 
Chesterfield, and thèse formed themselves into a Society and elected Byrom as first 
" Grand Master." 

One so often 6nds that Freemasons in the first part of the eighteenth centnry 
were prononnced Jacobites, or friends or partizans of the exiled Family, that, apart from 
other évidence, we are forced to the conclnsion that our Society was then identified with, 
and held the views of that political Party. Nor do I think there was any discrédit in 
their being the last to acknowiedge the change of dynasty, loyalty being then, as now, 
one of the ancien t land marks of the Order. 

One Word more as to Dr. Byrom. He wrote amongst other poems one containing 
a curions argument that St. George was identical with Gregory the Great. This 
suggested to my mind that possibly the Gregorians, — whose history Bro. Rylands gave 
us at the last Meeting — might be the successors of the " Georgian Society," suppressed 
I think about 1707. At any rate both were ardent supporters of the Hanoverian 
Succession, and celebrated the " Glorious Révolution." 

In the latter part of the Paper, Bro. Hextall bas given us some particulars of the 
life of the Rev. James Miller, and a few further facts may be gleaned from the 
" Biographica Dramatica," originally compiled in 1764 by David Erskîne Baker, and 
re-edited in 1811 by Bro. Stephen Jones, P.M. of the Lodge of Antiquity, and Author 
of Masonic Miscellanies, etc. Miller appears to hâve been unfortunate in his Plays, and 
managed on every occasion to arouse the hostility of some powerf al person, or class of 
persons. When at Oxford he wrote a Play — perhaps his best effort — entitled "The 
Humours of Oxford," which exasperated the Dons. Later, in London, he brought out 
one named " The Coffee Hoase," which equally incensed the Lawyers and Templars, 
who expressed their détermination to attend and wreck any play of his if acted. 
Ërskine Baker, I think, must hâve been a personal friend of Miller, as he adds a number 
of détails of his wife and family, which are, however, not of gênerai interest. 

I entirely agrée with Bro. Hextall that the quotations given in the Paper were 
not meant to be derogatory to Masonry. I consider, for another reason, that it would 
be extremely unlikely, for dramatists and actors in the eighteenth centnry. were in very 
many instances Freemasons, drawn to our Society in a measure perhaps by the Ritual 
being given in " a somewhat dramatic form," bat principally for a truer, stronger 
reason, namely, the regard for those principles of Fraternity and Charity which hâve 
always distinguished the Dramatic Profession. 

Bro. Canon J. W. Horslet wrïtes : — 

I bave ascertained défini tely that the Rev. Dr. Desaguliers was never Vicar or 
Rector of Edgware, but that he was Rector of Stanmore Parva, alias "Whitchurch, 
Middlesex (near Edgware), in the year 1730, but only for twelve months. This will 
dispose of several inaccuracies in varions places. My authorities are the présent 
incumbents of Edgware and Stanmore Parva, who bave searched their records. 

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Bro. W. J. HuGHAN lorïtes : — 

I am very pleased with Bro. W. B. HextalFs paper on " The Man of Tasfce," and 
consider it reflects mach crédit on hira for writing snch an interesting article with snch 
slender sources and so fe>v facts for his guidance. 

Any information that can be discovered relative to the Craft dnring the first 
half of the Eighteenth Century is of great value, and I hope my friend will contînne 
his well-directed researches. 

Since the publication of our esteemed Past Master Conder's " Hole Crafte and 
Fellowship of Masons " (ISQ-i) it cannot be truly said that Sir Robert Moray's admission 
into the Craft at Newcastle-on-Tyne, on May 20th, 164!l, "w the earliest recorded 
initiation of a non-ojperative Mason on English soiV^ 

The Records of the Masons' Company testify to the admission of many spécula- 
tives some years prîor to IG41. "As early as 1620, and inferentially very much 
earlier, there were certain members of the Masons' Company and others who met from 
time to time to form a Lodge for the purpose of spéculative Masonry " (p. 9). This 
class of gentleman were admitted to the Company, after joining the "Acceptance" or 
Spéculative Lodge, and were called on to pay one pound each, representing the gratuity 
extracted "from the apprentice when made free," besides the £3 fee and £6 Stewards' 
fine, making £10 in ail. Bro. Conder quotes several instances of accessions tq the 
" Acception " earlier than the year 1641. 

Bro, W. WoNNACOTT writes : — 

I hâve nothing to remark on the Satire nnder considération by Bro. Heztall, but 
some of the characters mentioned in the course of the paper are deserving of doser 

When Pope fired off his " Epistle on Taste," he was naturally shot at in return, 
and Hogarth in particular showed little mercy in his biting caricatures. The plate by 
Hogarth, ** Burlington Gâte," was issued as a frontispiece to a spurious édition or 
re-issue in 1732 of the Epistle (to the Earl of Burlington) — and, in his private corre- 
spondence, as well as in the public press, Pope indignantly repudiated his alleg^d 
ridicule of the Duke of Chandos, his friend and patron, as we find on referring to his 
letters to Lord Oxford, Aaron Hill, and to his friend Caryll, while there is also a 
letter to the poet Gay, signed by his friend William Cleland, in the newspapers of the 
day. It was Léonard Welsted, a venomous opponent of Pope, who published the 
libellons statement that the Duke of Chandos was mentioned under the name of Timon, 
with several other mendacities. 

" FuU ten years slandered, did he once reply ? 
**Three thousand suns went down on Welsted's lie." 

says Pope (Epîstle to Dr. Arbuthnot, 374) ; and again he hits hard at him in the 
Dunciad, III. 169 :— 

" Elow, Welsted, flow, like thine inspirer. Béer, 
" Tho' stale, not ripe ; tho* thin, yet never clearj 
** So sweetly mawkish, and so smoothly dull ; 
" Heady, not strong j o'erflowing, tho' not f uU.'* 

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. " The Man of Taste,'* a Satire of 1733, 239 

The Duke of Chandos accepted Pope's explanation of the lines in the poem, which 
were said to refer to Canons, and tbe two men lived together after ihis in the same 
harmonions relations as before. " Thus gracions Chandos is belov'd at sight " is the 
poet's référence to his noble acquaintance's nrbanity. 

Hogarth's ** Taste of the Town " was afterwards changed to " Masqnerades and 
Opéras — Burlington Gâte." " Masqnerades and Opéras " was a fine satire on ail the 
contemporary follîes, and the best of the séries was his production aimed at the architect 
painter, William Kent, the protégé of Lord Burlington, in which he is represented on 
Burlington Gâte, supported by Kaphael and Michaelangelo. Kent was the rival of Sir 
James Thornhill, whose daughter Jane, Hogarth subsequently married. It was Hogarth 
who was instrumental in suppressing the shameleas piracies of the print-sellers of the 
day, by assisting in the passing of " the Act " (8 Geo. ii., cap 13), in 1735, and from 
this time the prints bore the now familiar legend, " According to Act of Parliament." 

The références in a footnote to Pope as a Freemason deserve careful notice. 
Since the passages noted were first printed, no further évidence bas corne to light bear- 
ing on the connection of this worthy with the craft, and the conclusions of Bro. Dr. 
Chetwode Crawley remain unassailed. The 'Alex. Pope' and * Jon. Swift* on the 
roU of the Lodge held at the Goafc, at foot of the Haymarket (1730), must un- 
doubtedly hâve been the poet and the Dean, both of them intimate associâtes and 
colleagues of Dr. John Arbuthnot, of the Lodge at the Bedford Head, Covent Garden, 
in 1725, and ail of them cronies of the Scriblems Club. Pope was so closely connectcd 
with many of the nobility, and the foremost characters of the literary and artistic world, 
that it is reasonable to présume that it is his name we see in the 1730 list of the 
members of the Goat Lodge, and not that of a namesake who moved in a far inferior 
circle, and whose only claim to notoriety was that of an eccentric rake. There is one 
passage in Pope's Dunciad in which he mentions the four virtues known to us in con- 
nection with the practice of every domestic as well as public virtue, and this passage 
seems to point to some knowledge on his part of the moralisation which is impressed on 
oiir newly-admitted brethren. They are represented hère in a distorted sensé, appro- 
priate to the goddess of Dulness, as pillars of ber throne, but the connectiou referred to 
is obvions : — 

** In clouded Majesty hère Dulness shone ; 
Four guardian Virtues, round, support her throne; 
Fierce champion Fortitude, that knows no fears 
Of hisses, blows, or want, or loss of ears : 
Calm Tempérance, whose blessings those partake 
Who hunger, and who thirst for scribblîng sake : 
Prtidence, whose glass présents the approaching jail : 
Poetic Justice, with her lifted scale, 
Where, in nice balance, truth with gold she weighs. 
And solid pudding against empty praise." 

(Dunciad, Book i., 45.) 
Giovanni Battista Bononcini was better known than is suggested by Bro. Hextall. 
He was a rival of Handel, certainly, and well known at the time as a gif ted composer, 
having published his first opéra, " Camilla," as early as 1720. He also set to music 
some of Pope's words, — "Two choruses to the Tragedy of Brutus," performed at 
Buckingham House. By his own clique he was declared to be infinitely superior to 
Handel, but when he left London for some myeterious reason, the German was left in 
sole possession of the musieal field. 

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240 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

The Cibbers. There were three of fchis name, father, son, and graDcLson. The 
eldest, Caias Gabriel Cibber, 1630-1700, was the sculpter (foreman scalpfcor to Nicholas 
Stone) and is the one referred to in Auderson's Constitutions of 1738 (p. 106), where 
he is said to hâve been appointed S.G.W. in 1685 bj Sir G. Wren, Grand Master — " the 
Lodges met andelected Sir Christopher Wren Grand Master, who appointed Mr. Gabriel 
Cibber and Mr. Edward Strong, Grand Wardens, and while carrying on St. PauFs, he 
annually met those brethren that could attend him to keep up good old usages." His 
sculptures are well known, many spécimens of his work being found at Chats worth, 
where for a long time he worked for William the 4th Earl and Ist Duke of Devonshire. 
Wren commissioned him to exécute the large bas-relief panel of the Phœnix over the 
south door of St. PauFs. He also did the bas-relief panels of the Monument on Fish 
Street Hill. He died in 1700, and was buried in the Danish and Norwegian Church in 
Well-close Sq^uare, Whitechapel, of which he was architect in 1696. 

The second Cibber, Colley Cibber, jun., (1671-1767) was the eldest son of the 
sculpter, and was born in Southampton Street, Bloomsbury. He was a member of the 
Lodge which first met in 1730 at the Bear and Harrow, Butcher Row, Temple Bar, (the 
Corner Stone Lodge, now No. 5) of which in 1731 Dr. Desaguliers, Past G. M., William 
Hogarth the painter, and James Quin the actor, were also members. Needless to say 
hewas the hero of the later éditions of Pope's ** Dunciad." 

The third Cibber was Theophilus, the grandson, of no particular importance. 

Desaguliers — private chaplain to the Duke of Chandos — is too well-known a 
figure in the masonic world of the day to be dealt with hère in détail. " Prom the Duke 
he received the living of Edgware," we are not sure of this, it may hâve been the 
adjoining parish of Stanmore Parva, now known as Whitchui'ch. One authority, 
Nichols (in his " Literary Anecdotes," vi., 81) says Desaguliers was appointed to the 
living of Edgware in 1714; another, Lysons, (in his "Environs of London," iii., 674) 
states that he was vicar of Whitchurch in 1714 — while the minutes of the Lodge of 
Edinburgh (24th August, 1721) describe him as " Chaplain-in-ordinary to his Grâce 
James, Duke of Chandois," on the occasion of his visit to that Lodge when he had 
recently retired from the position of Grand Master (of England), and altho' a P.G.M., 
was " duly examined before being admitted," so that there appears to be a great deal of 
confusion as to his preferment. But there is a probability that du ring his connection 
with the Duke of Chandos he formed a Lodge at Edgware, which is mentioned in the 
1723 Engraved List of Lodges, ** a Lodge at Edgeworth, at the Duke of Chandos 
Arms every Thursday " — which is evidently an error for Edgware. It was inaugurated 
25th April, 1722, and removed in 1730 to the " Devil Tavern, within Temple Bar," 
and was finally erased in April, 1744. 

Canons Park was a really magnificent structure, although so short-lived, and is 
interesting to members of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge because the summer outing in 
1890, organised by our late Bro. Speth, was to this district, when visits were paid to 
Whitchurch, Edgware Church, and perhaps to the Chandos Arms also. Of the 
enormous cost we are aware, and we are told one of the ablest accountants in England 
superintended the expenses, while three architects were employed on the work. There 
are several descriptions of the mansion ; Defoe describes it in his ** Tour through Great 
Britain," 1724; also Gildon, in his poem of 1717, "Chandos, or the Vision," and S. 
Humphreys', 1728, " Chandos." The materials when sold by the auctioneer Cook were 
widely scattered, the staircase, with its massive marble steps — about 24ft wide (said to 
hâve cost £ôO,000), is now in Chesterfield House, May f air. The " fine toned organ hj 
Jordan " still exists in Trinity Church, Gosport ; a typical fireplace is to be found in the 

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Aes Quatuor Coron atorum. 

The Chandos Tomb in the Church of St. Lawrence, Whitchurch. 

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Ars Quatuor Goronatorum. 













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" The Man of Taste;' a Satire of 1733. 241 

Chandos Arms, Edgware ; the stained glass Windows of the private chapel went to Great 
Malvern, while the gilt equestrian statue of George I. stood for many years in Leîcester 

The church of Stanmore Parva (Whitchurch) was rebuilt in 1716, the satne year 
that Canons was commenced, and was similar in style to the private chapel, and the 
same artists were employed on both works. 

The Earl of Burlington referred to as the bitter rival of James Brydges, first 
Duke of Chandos (1673-1744), was the third of that name. The first Earl was 
Richard Boyle, 2nd Earl of Cork (died .15th January, 1698), who was made an Bnglish 
peer in 1644, as Baron Clifford of Lanesborough, and in 1664, for having assisted 
Charles II. with large sumsof money, he was created Earl of Burlington, or Bridlington, 
in the West Riding of Yorks. He was succeeded by his grandson, the second Earl of 
Burlington, and 3rd Earl of Cork, who died 1703. 

The third and last Earl, the one under notice, Richard Boyle, fourth Earl of Cork, 
was born 1695, succeeded to the title in 1703 and died 1753. He himself was a noted 
arohitect, and there is no doubt (among those acquainted wilb his works) that if he had 
been born in a humble station, his attainments would hâve lifted him into a high rank 
certainly with Inigo Jones, and probably with Wren himself. He preserved and 
restored the church of St. PauFs in Covent Garden and the York Gâte on the Thames 
Embankment ; he built the Dormitory of Westminster, completed in or about 1733, 
while among the other works that are due to his taste are the Assembly Rooms at York, 
Kirby Hall, also in Yorkshire, Chiswick House, and Burlington House, Piccadilly. 
Among those now destroyed are General Wade's house in Cork Street, Lord Harrington's 
House at Petersham, and the Duke of Richmond's in Whitehall. 

The Dormitory of Westminster is his best preserved, but least known work. For 
this Wren prepared designs in 1718-19 but they were never carried ont by him, as he 
died in 1723, the year in which the building was commenced. On January Ist, 1723, we 
iind in the Westminster records the folio wing entry : — " Resolved that Dr. Brodrick do 
** wait on the Right Honourable the Earl of Burlington, and in the name of the Dean and 
*' Ohapter return their humble thanks to his Lordship for the care and trouble he bas 
" already taken in building the Collège Dormitory, and désire his lordship that he would 
" be pleased to proceed with the same according to his Lordship's plan." 

Chiswick House was built by him in 1729 on the site of an old house bought in 
1685 by the First Earl, wbo pulled it down in 1688. 

Burlington House (now the Royal Academy) was an older house refronted by 
him, and a striking and solitary exception to the bastard and commonplace work of the 

Sir William Chambers described it (with ail its faults) as " one of the finest 
pièces of architecture in Europe." 

Gay's Ettlogy describes it : — *' Beauty within ; without, proportion reigns." 

Colin Campbell took the crédit for this, and Walpole contemptuously rejects his 
claim. The colonnade in front was removed when the présent Royal Academy was 
housed there, and the stones left to decay on the river bank. 

The Earl was a very modest man but of great taste aud refînement aud has left 
us a nnmber of his drawings, signed " Burlington — architectus." He was a studious 
admirer of Inigo Jones, who died nearly half-a-century prier to the Earl's own birth. 
A bound volume of Vitruvius (Venice 1567) is in the British Muséum, con- 
taining numerous notes in the writing of Inigo Jones, as stated at the end of the book 
in a mémorandum in the hand writing of the Earl of Burlinçton himself. Willian^ 

Digitized by 


242 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge, 

Kent was one of his protégés, whom he had met in 1716 do ring bis visit io Italy, 
and who returned to England in 1729. For nineteen years he lived with the Earl 
as his warmest friend, and died 1748 at Burlington Hoase, being bnried in the famîly 
vanlt of the Bojles, at Chiswick. Kent was enabled, thanks to the munificence of his 
noble friend, to pablish his two volumes of Inigo Jones's designs. 

The only surviving daughter of the Earl raarried the fonrth Dake of Devonshîre, 
and thns Chiswick and itsheirlooms came into the Cavendish family. It is owing to 
this alliance that we now bave prcserved to us that remarkable collection of drawings by 
Burlington and his contemporaries, with a collection of Falladio's designs, that was 
hauded over iu 1834 by the late Duke of Devoashire to the keeping of the Royal 
Institute of British Architects, to be known to posterity as the " Burlington — Devon- 
shire Collection." If anyone doubts the leai*ning, taste, refinement and originality of 
the 3rd Earl of Burlington he should make acquaintance with the portfolios of this 

Remarks were alao made by Bros. Dr. S. Walshe Owen and the W.M., and a 
hearty vote of thanks was unanimously passed to Bro. Hextall for his interesting paper. 

Bro. Hextall writes in repîy : — 

1 much appreciate the vote of thanks, and am pleased to find my paper has 
elicited so much interesting comment. 

Bro. Dr. Chetwode Crawley has kindly conveyed to me his view that Bramston 
was not impelled by admiration for the Craft, and that the latter's mention of it was in 
truth ironical. 

I am under obligation to a Derbyshire brother^ for the reminder that probably 
the best known work of John Byrom is the hymn, 

*' Christians awake ! sainte the happy morn 
Whereon the Saviour of the world was born ; " 

which was first sung by choristers from the Parish Church of Manchester, at Kersal 

Cell (Byrom's family seat), on Christmas Eve, 1750. The MS. is in the Cheetham 

Library at Manchester, and is headed, *' Christmas Day for Dolly," having been written 

as a Christmas gift for a little daughter of the author. 

A further search through the works of Alexander Pope has resulted in finding 

another allusion to the Craft, and 1 believe thèse two passages comprise the whole of 

his références to Freeraasonry. In the "Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot"^ (1734)occur the 


" Whom bave I hurt ? has Poet yet, or Peer, 

Lost the arch'd eye-brow, or Parnassian sneer ? 

And has not Colley still his Lord and Wh . . e ? 

His Butchers Henley, his Free-masons Moore ? " 

and, later on, are the following separated lines : — 

** Has drunk with Cibber, nay, has rhym'd for Moore," 

" Hear this ! and spare his family, James Moore.*' 

* Bro. Joseph Bland, P.Pr.G.D. ; see also Rev. Dr. Julian's Dictionary of Eymnology, London, 

' Arbuthnot was a Freemason : see Bro, Dr. Chetwode Crawle^ in Sadler's Masonic Ref>rint8 an4 
^ev^l^tionSf page i^iv. 

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" The Man of Taste;' a Satire of 1733. 245 

The allusiuus to Colley Cibber and " Orator " Henley^ are sufficientlj obvious. 
James Moore, 1702-1734, was a short-lived littérateur who formally assumed the 
additional name of Smythe under the will of bis grandfather, and with whom Pope 
qaarrelled violently over an alleged misappropriation of verses in a comedy, the ** Rival 
Modes," which Moore wrote for Drury Lane Théâtre. The only feature I need notice 
is that more than one publication which followed bore the familiar imprint, " J. Roberts 
in Warwick Lane," whose Press seems to hâve been largely patronisedbyrecriminating 
anthors. James Moore Smythe was a Freemason, and bis name appears as Grand 
Warden at the Assembly and Feast held in 1732 and also in the following year. 

We are indebted to Bro. Canon Horsley for bis trouble in settling the hitherto 
moot point as to Dr. Desaguliers' preferments, which is referred to in the account of the 
Summer Outing of the Lodge in July 1890, at A.Q.O. iii., 113, where some interesting 
détails are given of Canons, Whitchurch, etc. 

Bro. Hughan's fraternal criticism with regard to Sir Robert Moray's admission 
into the Craft, in 1641, is thankfully received and will be faithfuUy remembered. 
Instead of " the earliest recorded initiation of a non-operative mason on English soil," 
I shonld bave written (to quote Bro. Haghan's words in A.Q.O, x., 129) "The earliest 
initiation in England of which a Lodge minute is extant." 

Bro. Wonnacott's remarks on Hogarth*s "Burlington Gâte" arie principally 
directed to the print known as " Barlington Gâte No. 1," published in 1724, and 
called by G. A. Sala "the Taste of the Town, otherwise the first Burlington Gâte— not 
the Pope and Chandos one." The print mentioned by me in the paper was " Burlington 
Gâte No. 2," published in 1731, also koown as " The Man of Taste, or Burlington Gâte," 
and now hère reproduced. Amongst Hogarth*s miscellaneous prints is a " f rontispiece 
to ' the Humours of Oxford,' a Comedy by the Rev. James Miller " ; the play alluded to 
by Bix). Simpson. 

Since the reading of this paper in Lodge, on October 2nd, "De Libris," by 
Mr. A us tin Dobson, bas been published by Macmillans. I bave not as yet had the 
advantage of its perasal, but I learn from reviews that amongst its contents is what 
will no doubt prove an interesting andinforming essay on " James Bramston, theauthor 
of ' The Man of Taste.' " 

> A paragraph in Read's Joarnal, 9bh Jane, 1733, asserbs that " bhey [the Freemasons] hâve also 
made choice of Rev. Mr. Orator Henley as their Chaplain." (A.Q.C. xi., 31.) 

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244 Transactions of the Qicattwr Coronati Lodge. 








N -4.Q.6\, xxi., 65, I notice Bro. Dr. Begemann quotes Stow's mention 
of this worthy from the ** Sarvey of London " (éditions 1598 and 
1603), and from this statement infers that the title " freemason to the 
King " was applied to and possibly used by Yvele daring his lifetime. 
Although Stow says " his monument reraaineth," he does not record 
the inscription, and no transcript of the epitaph hasbeen handed down 
to us. Strype, in his édition of Stow, gives a few extracts from Yvele's will. 

Master Henry Yvele, " mason, citizen and freeman," was a noted craftsman of 
the latter half of the fourteenth century, and, as he was engaged on numerous works of 
great importance as Master Mason to the King, particalarly the Abbey Church and the 
Great Hall of Westminster, a brief sketch of his career may be of interest. 

" We read King Edward m. had an Officer call'd the King's Free-Mafon^ 
" or Général' Survey or of his Buildings, whose Name was Henry Yevele, 
" employ'd by that King to build several Abbies, and St. Stephen's 
" Chappel at Westminster j where the House of Gommons now sit iu 
" Parliament." (Anderson's Gonstitutiotis, 1723, p. 31.) 

In the 1738 édition Andersen varies this statement. Yvele is there mentioned 
as one of several deputies or Masters of work to Edward III., " A Royal Grand Master." 

" 4. Henry Yevele (call'd at first, in the old Records, the King's Free- 
** Ma/on) built for the King the London Char 1er -house ^ King's'Hall Vam- 
" bridge, Queenborough Castle, and rebuilt St. Stephen's Chapel, now the 
" House of Gommons in Parliament.'* (p. 70.) 

There is no trace in ihe records I hâve searched, of his work at either the Gharter- 
house or at Gambridge, and it is improbable that here-built St. Stephen*s Ghapel. That 
work was begun in 1330, for the Westminster Records tell us : — 

" May 27, 1330. To Master Thomas the Mason, coming first to West- 
** minster and beginning there npon the New Ghapel of St. Stephen's, 
" * et intrasura super moldas operanti * — for his wages for six days, by 
" order of the Lord Treasurer and Gonncil, 6s." 
This was Master Thomas of Ganterbury who commenced the work, receiviog, as 
we see by the accounts, a weekly wage of 6s. 

Yvele's cognomen appears in many guises and picturesque forms, ranging from 
Yeule, Yevele, Yvele, de Yeeveele, Iveleghe, Zyveley and Zeveley. The initial Z in the 
last two forms is inexplicable, unless the s is prononnced as among the Geltic races, with 
the Sound of y, as in Gilzean, Dalzell, etc., but from the remainder I gather his name was 
prononnced " Iveleigh " or " Eveleigh," and not as it looks, " Yeeve-leigh," or as " Yewell,'* 
or " Yew-leigh." I am inclin ed to prefer the first of thèse forms. We know his father*8 
and mother's names to hâve been Roger and Marion, as they are mentioned in his will, 
but we hâve no other record of his parentage, and nothiug as to his place of birth. He 
was probably born in the year 1320, and was twice married. 

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Seriry Yvele, the Kincfs Mdster Mason. 245 

Teinp, Edward III. 

Master Henry Yvele appears first as the colleagne, and later the snccessor on the 
Royal Works at the Palace of Westminster, of Thomas of Gloncester, who, in 1355, is 
mentioned (alone) as working on the Chapel of St. Sfcephen. In 1358 and 1359 he is 
again noticed as in charge of the Palace works, being called " Cementarius and appau'itor 
working and ordering masons work," and doubtless was the King's chief Master Mason 
at that time.^ 

Yvele must even then, at the âge of 36, hâve been a person of eminence in his 
Craft, and perhaps of importance ontside it, for in the thirtieth year of Edward III. 
(1356) a dispute among the Masons was settled at tbe instance of the Lord Mayor of 
Londou, beforo the Court of Aldermen, by 12 arbiters, and the articles agreed on were 
signed by six of them ** on behalf of the Mason hewers " (or Freestone Masons), and six 
" on behalf of the Layers or Setters." The deed of arrangement consisted of eight 
articles in French, and from a translation in Conder's Hole crafte and fellowship of 
Masons^ I quote the following : — 

"Whereas Simon Frannces, Mayor of the City of London, bas been given to 
** understand that divers dissensions and disputes bave been moved in the said City, 
" between the masons who are hewers, and the masons who are setters or layers, .... 
" caused ail the good folk of the said trade to be summoned before him, to hâve from 
" them good and due information how their trade might be best ordered and ruled for 
" the profit of the common people," etc. Among the names " on behalf of the Mason 
hewers " occurs that of Henry de Yeeveele. 
On behalf of the Mason Hewers. On behalf of the Layers or Setters. 

Walter de Sallynge. Richard Joyce. 

Richard de Sallynge. Symon de Bartone. 

Thomas de Bredone. John de Estone. 

John de Tyryngton. John Wylot. 

Thomas de Gloucester.^ Thomas Hardegray. 

Henry de Yeeveele (or Yevele). Richard de Cornewaylle. 

After the mention of his name in the jury list of 1356 just referred to, we nexfc 
meet him in 1362, a document in the Exchequer accounts naming him with two other 
Craf tsmen : — 

Mistre W"* Herland, chief carpenter (died in 1375) .^ 
Henry Yvele, deviser of masonry, 
and William of Wickham, clerk * 

(Excheq. a/cs. 472, 10 and 8.) 

We learn from the will of the William Herland hère alluded to that he lived in 
the parish of St. Peter's, PauFs Wharf, and was buried in his parish church. (Sharpe's 
Calendar of London Wills.) His brother, Hugh Herland, was also living on the sonth 
side of Thames Street, and both thèse Herlands were near neighbours of Henry Yvele, 
who owned some property in this and the adjoining parish. (See Anno 1384) 

In 1365 Henry de Yvele was Master Mason of the King's works at the Palace of 
Westminster, working under Nicolas Litlington (Abbot in 1362, died 29th November, 

* Exchequer Accounts, 471—9, 15, 16. 

' This is the same Thomas of Gloucester referred to above, Anno 1355. 

* Wm de Herland was appointed in 1350 Surveyor of Works at Windsor Castle, with power to 
press hewers of stone and other workmen, and to supply necessary materials. 

* William of Wykeham, whose works at Windsor and Winchester are too welUknown to 
mention hère. 

Digitized by 


246 Trqnsactlofis of the Quatuor Coronati îjoclge, 

1386), who completed the south and west aides of the cloister, and most of the domestic 
buildings of the Abbey ; and at the Tower of London, receiving Is. a day as his wages.^ 

" Masons. Henry Yeveley, mason, director of the works for his wages f rom Sept. 28 
an 39 to Sept. 27 in the following year, viz., for 364 days at Is. par day. 

£18 48. Od." 
In 1370 he was granted Is. a day for the term of his natural life, and on the accession 
of Richard II. this latter grant was confirmed. (See Anno 1378.) 

We find during the period he was Master Mason at Westminster he sapplied 
materials for the works, as well as super vising them, one entry during the year 1365 
being as foUows : — 

" 7000 Flanders tiles bought for the pavements of the courts and other 
** works at 6s 8d. the 1000, and six mouncells of plaister of Paris at 12s. 
" the mouncell." ^ ^ 

In the following year, 1366, he snpplied some of the stone for the works at 
Roches ter Castle. 

** 18 tons of Stapleton freestone at 8s. a ton : and 32 tons of Thomas 
" Fitz-John.*' » 

and again in the account (now in the Public Record Office) for 1368-69 : Compotus 
of the Master of the Works, of Roches ter, 

" Paid to He-nry de Yeflee, for 13 tons of Stapleton freestone bonght of 
" him for the said works, at 8s. per ton. £1 18s. Od." 

How the amount is made up it is diffîcult to see. 

There is also an item in the same account (1368), 

" To Master William Herland for four little brass wheels to put in the 
" hoisting engines for drawing up the stone and timber. £0 13s. 4d. 

Edward III. began about this time to expérience a shortage of skilled labour, and 
in the year 1371 Henry Y vêle, Cementarias, was " sent to varions parts to retain divers 
" masons to be sent in the retinue of the King beyond seas," and " In money delivered 
** to him, by his own hands, for the wages of twenty 6ve masons, coming to London, 
** there dwelling and awaiting the passage and will of the King for nine days, each of 
" them receiving 6d. per day, by command of the Chancellor, Treasurer, and others of 
" tho Council, by a gênerai writ of Privy Seal, amongst the mandates of Michaelmas 
" Term, last past, £5 12s. 6d."* William de Wynford, Cementarius, was charged at 
this time with a similar mission ; he became architect to William of Wykeham at 
Winchester Cathedral and Collège. 

Temp, Richard IL 

On the Ist of July, 1377, we find Y vêle was then tenant in possession of the 
manor of Langeton, in the Isle of Purbeck, and on his réquisition an inspeximus was 
granted of the record in Chancery of the liberties of that manor, as determined by quo 
warranta before the King's Justices at Sherbourn in the 6th year of Edward I.^ This 
appears to indicate further that, in addition to being a mason of eminence, Henry Yvele 
was also a quarry owner. 

* Brayley*8 Westminster Palace, 196 et seq, 
« Ihid. 189. 

B Fabrio Roll. 40 Edw. III., in Archœologia CarUianay ii. 12. 

^ Issue Boll of Thomas de Brantingham, Bishop of Ezeter, and Treasurer. 4A Edw. III., Deron's 
édition, 1835. 

* Rot, Pat. 60 Edw. III., m. 13. 

Digitized by 


Henry Tvele^ the King*s Master Mason. 247 

In 1377 Richard II. succeeded to the throne, and Yvele received from his royal 
master a patent to take Masons and put them on the King^s works at the Palace and 
the Tower, with power to imprison the disobedient. 

In 1378 another patent from the King — naming him " Director of the Works in 
** the Art of Masonry at the Palace and Tower in the late reign " — confirmed the grant 
which he had received in 1370 of Is. a day for life. In this year he and his colleagne, 
William de Wynford, were directed to take Masons, and set them to work at 

In 1380 four eminent city craftsmen were appointed a Committee of Defence, to 
consider the proposai of erecting a fortified tower on either bank of the Thames, with a 
chain boom to protect the shipping in the Pool. Thèse fonr were (1) William 
Walworth, (2) John Worthampton, (3) Nicholas Twyford, goldsmith, and (4) Henry 

In the following year, 1381, Henry Yvele was again commissioned to impress 
thirty stone-cntters (latomos)' for service in Brittany. At this time he designed the 
south aisle of St. Danstan's Chnrch in Thamea Street, near which he resided. In an 
agreement of this year, betweon John Lord Cobham and Nicholas Typerton, mason, the 
latter nndertakes to build the aisle of this church " selon la devyse de Mestre Henry 
Iveleghe." The indenture is still preserved in the British Museam, and is dated the 
eve of Christmas, 5 Rich. II.* 

Daring this same year he received from Lord Cobham, at Michaelmas, the sum 
of £20, due to Thomas Wrewk, mason, and William Sharndale, for the works in course 
of exécution at Cowling Castle, near the confluence of the Medway and Thames ; and, 
in the course of the following year, under the date of the 23rd of July, he was again 
employed to measure and value the work at this place donc by William Sharnhale, 
which amounted to £156, of which the sum of £275 10s. 4d. was that day paid. In 
both documents he is designated *' Masoun et citezein de Loundres." 

The former document exists in the Surrenden Collection of Papers, and was 
printed in the Freemasons* Magazine, May 1862. It is as follows : — 

Receipt of Thomas Wrewk (by Henry Ivelegh) £20 Os. Od. 29 Sept. 
5 Rie. II. (1381). 

Sachount toutez genz, moy Henry de Ivelegh, Masoun, et citizein de 
Loundres, avoyr ressu de Monsr. Johan de Cobeham et par ses maynz 
payez de xx libres desterlyng, en le nom de Thomas Wrewk, masoun, des 
queux XX li., come avaunt est dit, moy avaunt dit Henry reconuzestre per- 
payez et lavauntdit Mous. Johan, ses heyrs et exécuteurs quites atouz jours. 

En tesmoyaunce de quele chose, a ceste lettre d'aquitaunce, moy 
avauutdit Henry ay mys monn seal. 

Done a Coulyng, le jour seynt Michael Tarchaungele, lan du rengne 
le Roy Richard secounde puis le conqueste quintte. 

(Seal, red wax, a dog seiant. "S ") 

(Indorsed) Aquitance, Henry Ivelegh de xx li. 

paye par Thomas Wrewk. 

(Rev. L. B. Larking. Surrenden Collection,) 

^ Riley's MemoriaU. 

s Ihià and Harl. MS. 4592. 

> Harl. Gbarterfl 48 E. 43, also printed in Bey. T. B. Marraj's acoonnt of St. Danstan's, 1859. 

Digitized by 


248 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronatt Lodqe, 

The second docnment is still more interesting, as it points to the antiquity of the 
castom of calling in one inason to settle the measnrements and amoant dne to another 
mason for work done. 

23 July. Rie. II. (1382) Geste indente fait parentre mons. Johan 
de Cobeham, seigneur de Cobehame, dune parte, et William Sharnnale, 
dantre part, tesraoyne qne lavauntdit mons. Johan et lavauntdit William 
ount accompte et mesure les murs et tours deinz le mote de Coulyng, par 
mestre Henry Yevele, masoun. 

Cestassavoir, del tour en le Southest corner taunk al mur del grand 
chambre en le north corner, oue les deuz rondes tours del hautesse 
de deux perches oue crest et toup, qui amounte a cynkaunte et quatre 
perches, prenaunt pour le perche viij li. 

Et le hautement de les deux tours viij pees et j quart dun pee plus 
haute que les murs, q'amonte treys perches, issuit que la somme des perches 
amounte, en tout, a Cynkaunt et sept perches, qui amounte en argent 
quatre Centz Cynkaunt et Sys libres. 

De quele somme lavauntdit mons' Johan ad paie al dit William 
Shambale, en partie de paiement de la somme suisdite, deux centz 
cessannt et dys livres, dys south, et quatre deners ; des queux cclxx li. xs. 
iiijd. lavauntdit William Sharnhale soy reconuz estre paiez, et lavauntdit 
monsr. Johan, ses heires et executours, quites a touz jours par cestes 
présentes aquitances endentes, et entre chaungeablement enseales et baillez 
entre les parties suisdites. 

Done lendemayne de la maudeleyne, lan du règne le Roi Richard 
secounde puis le conquête sisme. 

(Indorsed) Endentur corne aquitannce de Schamhalle de payment de 
CCLXX. li. xs. iiijd. 

In 1383 Yvele was one of several surveyors for making a bridge at Stroud. His 
friend, Henry Herlaud of Thames Street, was, like himself, granted r2d. daily, with a 
robe once a year, as he (Herland) was " verging on old âge.** 

Yvele, by letters patent dated 20th Feb. 1383-4, under the désignation of 
" Henrïcus Yevele latomus,*' was conOrmed in the possession of two shops and 4s. yearly 
rent, in the parish of St. Martin Oteswiche (or Outwich), formerly the property of 
Master Excestre, and which he had recently purchased of John Totenham, carpenter. 
Nichols explains^ this confirmation was rendered necessary by the action of certain 
rivais who endeavoured to procure the escheatment of the property to the Crown. The 
King's favour in the matter was conceded in considération of the great labours which 
the said Henry daily sustained in the royal service. " Nos de gracia nosira speciali ad 
** supplicacionem prefali Henrici, consideracione magnorum laborum quos ipse in 
" servicio nostro indies sustinet, statum quem ipse in shopis &c. &c.'* The original 
patent, with the seal in white wax, is preserved in the British Museum.2 

The John of Totenham above referred to was appointed City Carpenter in 1365, 
and was the son of another John do Totenham, sworn in 1325 as a surveyor of tenements 
in the City in place of Adam de Rothynge (Letter Book E). In 1363 the younger John 
of Totenham was sworn as a member of the commission of surveyors for the City, 
consistingof himself and Richard de Salopia, (lateronhe was called Richard Shropshire 

» Trans.— i. <^ M, ArcK Soc, loc, cit. ' Uarl. Charters. 43 B. 28. 

Digitized by 


Henry Yvele, the King*8 Master Mason, 249 

1369) carpenters, and Bichard de Salynge (one of the Mason Hewers named on p. 245 
ante) and Richard at Cherche, masons. 

From a list of properfcy belonging to London Bridge we find that a tenement held 
by Henry Yvele, mason, was sifcaate bekween the street on the east and the Oyster Gâte 
on the west, and was subject to a charge of 6s.^ 

A further detailed description of Yvele*s property at London Bridge will be 
foand in bis will, to be given presently. 

By an indenture dated 20th April. 7 Rich. II. (1383) between Henri Yevele, 
citizen and mason of London, of the one part, and William Palmere, citizen and horse- 
dealer (merchant des chiveaiix) of the same city, and Isabella his wife,^ of the other, 
the former party gave to the latter a yearly rent of 408. issuing from his lands and 
teneraents in the parish of St. Martin Oteswiohe, on condition that if Margaret the wife 
of Henry^ should survive her husband, and ask her dower of a tenement with four 
shops, together with 4s. of quit rent issuing from the tenements once belonging to 
John Tudenham carpenter, which the said William and Isabella held for tbeir lives, 
of the grant and lease of the said Henry by the service of 20s. per annum, then the 
said annuity should be in force, but other wise void.* 

The accounts of the year 1388 kept by Brother Peter Coumbe, Keeper of the new 
work of the Church at Westminster, of ail receîpts and expences from tbe Vigil of St. 
Michael, 11 Richard IL to the same f east in next year, speaks of " Wages of three 
" labourers breaking down the walls of the old church " ; and we see that Yvele was 
employed on the nave works, which heprobably designed. The same account refers to , 
the " Fee of Master Yevelee, chief mason, 100 shillings per annum, and for his robes and 
" furs, 15 shillings ; do. of Robert Kentbury, 13s. 4d. : tunic of Thomas Padington, lOs." 

"Five masons for 17 weeks (£15 Us. 8d.), one for 5 weeks, 6 labourers for 17 
" weeks at 20d. each, four bedders of stone for three weeks, three others for four weeks, 
" two others for ten weeks." 

** 4,400 sacks of slacked lime, 52 carts of sand, luncheons for the masons, 
" bedders and labourers, 238." 

The other item, 13s. 4d. to Robert Kentbury, refers to an undermaster to 
Henry Yvele, and in 1381 we find he held a croft at Westminster so he must 
hâve been permanently engaged there.* 

In 1390 Yvele was exempted from jury service and similar civic duties in con- 
sidération of being the King's mason and Surveyor of the Works within the Palace of 
Westminster etc., and "on account of his great âge." (Calendar Patent Rolls). His life 
pension of Is. a day, granted in 1370 and 1378, was cancelled, as he was now a man of 
property, and the King had granted him the manors of Fremworth and Vannes in 
Kent. Geoffrey Chaucer was appointed in this year ** Clericus Operationum " of the 
Royal Palaces, (Patent 13 Richard IL), so Yvele and his colleague, Henry Herland, must 
bave been in close contact with him on thèse works. 

In the year 1394 he is mentioned as " Henry Zyveley," and at that time was still 
chief mason at Westminster, and probably remained there in charge of the nave and 
lower part of the west front down to the date of his death, somewhere in 1400. The 
west porcb carried out under bim closely resembles that of Westminster Hall, and of 
Winchester Cathedral. 

* Lethaby's Westminster Ahhey, 220. 

' Sister of Katherine his second wife, and ns^med in his Will dated 1400. 

* His first wife. 

* Harl. Charters. 58 D. 30. 

* Bentley 's Cartulary^ 

Digitized by 


250 Transactions of th?. Quatuor Coronatt Lodge, 

In this year the queen of Richard lî., Anne of Bohemîa, died, and was burîed on 
the south side of the Confessor's Chapel. We still hâve two agreements, in the fîrst of 
which, dated tho Ist of April, Henry Yvele and Stephen Lote "Citiens et Maçons de 
Londre " nndertook to well and faithfullj erect and carve a torab of fine marble like to 
that of Edward III., which it adjoins, and according to a model bearing the seal of the 
Treasurer of England, tobe completed within two years from Michaelmas 1395 for the 
aura of £250, with £20 additional, *' if it gave satisfaction "^ It was to " occupy in 
"length ail the space between the pillars where the said Queen was interred," and 
to be raised to the same height as the tomb of King Edward III. 

" Mem«ï'»°» qnod XXYIII° die Angusti anno r. R. Rie. secundi XVIir 
dominns Johannes Innocent clericus liberavit in Thesaurariam alteram 
partem ciijusdam indenturœ factœ inter dominnm Regem ex una parte 
et magistro Henricum Yevele et Stephannm Lote latomos ex altéra 
parte, pro una tumba raarmorea facienda et reparanda pro Anna nuper 
Regina Angliœ et pro dicto domino Rege, <fec."- 

The bronze figures, or images, for the tomb *to cost £400, are mentioned in 
another agreement with Nicholas Broker and Godfrey Best, copersmythes of London. 
This tomb is precisely like that of Edward III. in ail respects but its width, being a 
trifle wider as it supports two effigies instead of only one. The total cost £670, represents 
about £10,000 of our money. 

As the resemblance both in workmanship and materials between the two tombs 
of Richard II. and Edward III. is so remarkably close, there can be little donbt that 
Yvele had the larger share in both^ ; and also in the tomb of Archbishop Langham (o6. 
1376) ; this we know was undoubtedly the work of Henry Yvele and Stephen Lote also, 
for araong the Westminster papers is preserved the receipt for £20 on account of this 
tomb* and for which Yvele executed the busfc of the Archbishop. Sir Gilbert Scott 
mentions, in his Gleanings from Westminster Ahhey^ an item under the year 17-18 
Richard II. (1394), ** wages £86 Ils. 6d. of Henry Zyveley, chief mason, with six 
regular and named masons, three casual and three casual setters." The pillars of 
marble for the nave arcade were wrought at Corfe at a cost of £40 each. An item (often 
recurriug) reads, " Paid to a mason of Couf, in part payment of £40 for a marble 
piUar, £10." 

** Paid for a marble column £70 ; carriage of same from the Thames 10s." 

In 1395 a new lodge for the masons was built, and we also find later (in 1413) 
** Repair of two lodges within the church aforesaid, one covered with tile, the other with 
" reeds, 26s. 8d." — " Paid to the dauber of the lodge for the masons and the house in 
" Tothill Street, los. 6d." In this year his staff cônsisted of, according to the certified 
accounts, — *' one chief (himself ) ten regular aud six casual masons, the table expenses 
of one mason's apprentice Is. per week, two casual setters, two carpenters w^orking upon 
the new house for the masons, and another house in Tothill Street for 22 weeks, at 
2s. 6d. each." Richard II., a great benefactor to the abbey buildings, for which he 
made large provisions in his will, raust hâve completed beforehis death in 1399 some of 
thèse biys of the nave designed by Henry Yvele, for it is known that the window 
adjoiuing the doorway into the western walk of the cloister had his badge of the white 
hart in its glazing. 

* Rymer's Fœdera^ &c., vii., 795. 

' Palgravo Oalendars, cj'c, of the Erchequer ; Devon's Extracts from the Issue RollSf 1837. 232, 264. 
' Archœologia xxix., 32.59, gives détails of the monument of Anne of Bohemia, (ind particularl^ 
of its heraldic devices. "* Hist. MSS. Com. iv., 179. 

Digitized by 


Henry Yvele^ the King^s Mas ter Mason. 


• He alao caused the projecfcing porch to the North Transept known as Solomon's 
Porch to be builfc, a work which masfc also be attributed to Henry Yvele. HoUar 
shows this in his engraving of 1654, and f rom this Lethaby has prepared a drawing 






AirrEfi HOLLAB. 

gîven in his " Westminster Abbey," p. 215. A plan of this is in " Dugdale's Monas- 
ticon" dated 1682, but cannot be reconciled with the view given by Hollar, probably 
having been altered in the interval between the two dates. 

The walls of Westminster Hall, Yvele's last and greatest work, were now arising 
from the ground under his supervision, but as he was of great âge, Watkin Waldon was 
associated with him in the work of his design, and his friend Henry Herland, the 
master carpenter, was executing the magnificent roof. Richard II. had issued letters 
patent, dated 21st January, 1394, to John Godmerstone, clerk,appointinghimto" repair 
** the Great Hall within the palace of Westminster, to take masons, carpenters, and 
" other workmen, and set them to the said repairs, &c." 

An interesting document, dated the 18th March, 18 Rich. II. (1395) only a fort- 
night previous te the indenture concerning the tomb of the Queen, refers to the works 
of Westminster Hall, and apparently gives Henry Yevele a status superior to that 
which he previously occupied. It is an agreement between the King on one part, and 
Richard Washbourn and John Swalwe, masons, on the other, for making well and 
faithfuUy ail the tahle ôf the walls of the Great Hall within the Palace of Westminster, 
on one side and the other, raising them for two feet of assise, and inserting 26 souses^ or 
corbels, of Caen stone. 

The work was to be done according to the purport of a form and model made by 

the advice of Master Henri Zeveley, and delivered to the said masons by Watkin 

Waldon, his warden. 

" Selonc le purport d'une fourme et molde 

" faite par conseil de niestre Henri Zeveley."^ 

Taking this, with the référence to the word *' devyse " already given of the aislo of St. 

Dunstan's Church, it can only be concluded that Yvele was the designer of both works, 

as in each case other masons were employed to exécute the structures under his 


He appears to bave worked also at varions times on the King's Hall at Cam- 

bridge, and at Queenboro* Castle, the latter, though, is by some attributed to William 

of Wykeham, for which there appears to be no authority. It is probable also that he 

worked for Sir John Beauchamp. 

* Bymer's Fœdera, 8fc,y vii., 794 (The name is there misprinted '* Zeneley.") An abetract is given 
in Brayley's Wwtmin^iet Palace, 437. 

Digitized by 


262 Transactions of tJie Quatuor Corœiati Loâge. 

Temp. Henry IV, 

In the accession year of the fonrth Henry, (1399) Henry Yvele mnst hâve been 
almosfc incapable of work by reason of his advanced âge, and now passes ont of notice. His 
will, which mentions him as '* mason, citizen, and freeman, parishioncr of St. Magnns, 
London Bridge," w&a proved in 1400, and he was bnried in the church of tbat parish 
where Stow fonnd his tomb, and apparently quotes the inscription. Froin his will it 
appears that he built his own tomb in St. Magnns. The execators he appointed were 
John Clifford, mason, Stephen Lote, mason, his partner and coUeagne at Westminster, 
and others. Clifford was, with Yvele himself and his wife Katherine, a party to a 
deedof 1389 still preserved, and must bave also been a partner with Yvele in his 
nnmerous works. Yvele's will is dated 25th May, 1 Hen. IV. (1400), and is enrolled 
in the'Conrt of Hnstings at Gaildhall, by John Clifford, mason, and Martin Seman, 
Clerk, two of his executors.^ He devised a tenement with bouses, shops, <fcc., on Oyster- 
gate, in the parish of St. Magnns at London Bridge, parchased 43 Edw. III. of the 
execators of John Lovekyn, once Mayor of London, and certain tenements with a quay 
adjoining Fish Wharf at the Hole in the aforesaid parish of St. Magnas, parchased 14 
Bich. II. of John Horn of Northfleet late citizen and fishmonger of London, and also 
another tenement with a qaay adjoining annexed to the said Fish Wharf within the 
Hole aforesaid on the east part once belonging to Thomas Osbern son and heir of 
Gosselin de Clyve and afterwards to William Polie fishmonger, parchased of John 
Devene and his fellows 17 Rich. IL and an annual rent of 13s. 4d. ont of a corner tene- 
ment sitnate npon Oyster Hill opposite the church of St. Magnns and in the said parish 
parchased of John Southcote esq 21 Rich II : ail which he devised to Katherine his 
then wife for her life, on considération she remained sole and unmarried and that she 
should provide two sufficient chaplains to celebrate divine service at the altar of St. 
Mary in the said church of St. Magnns during ail her life for his soûl and the soûls of 
his late wife Margaret, Roger and Marion his father and mother, his brother and sisters, 
his lord King Edward III, Sir John Beanchamp knt., John Haket, and ail to whom be 
was in dnty bound, and ail faithful soûls. 

And after decease of said Katherine or her not keeping sole, nor maintaining 
such two chaplains, he devised ail the said promises to Sir William Frankish parson 
or rector of St. Magnns and his snccessors and to Edmund Bolton and Peter Blake 
wardens of the fabric of the said church and their snccessors for ever for maintaining 
two chaplains to celebrate divine service at the said altar of St. Mary for the soûls as 
aforesaid and to maintain a laïup perpetually buming day and night before the 
salutation of the blessed Mary in the aforesaid Chapel and to pay yearly to the parish 
clerk 12d. for keeping and lighting the said lamp when necessary and to the rector of 
the said parish 2s. yearly for saying or singing with the said chaplains placebo and 
dirige^ cum nota^ and one mass on the testator's anniversary for his soûl and the soûls 
aforesaid and 5s. yearly among ail the other chaplains of tho said church to hâve his 
sonl and the soûls aforesaid in their memory, and to the master clerk of the said church 
12d. and to his under-clerk 8d. to do their offices in due manner as to a year's mind 
belongs ; and for bread or victuals and drink 6s. 8d. to be spent among the parishioners 
coming to his dirige in the night and lus. among the poor to pray for the soûls afore- 
said, and 3s. 4d. for two new wax candies burning, one to wit at bis head and another 
at his feet at the time of his anniversary, and afterwards to burn before the image of 
St. Mary in the said chapel so long as they lasted. 

> HastingB RoU. 1 Hen. IV. memb. 3. 

Digitized by 


Senry ïi'e/e, tJic King^s Master Mason. 253 

And he willed that the said two chaplains should receive at the hands of the said 
rector and wardens £14 yearly ont of the rente of the said tenements, id est, each of 
them £7 for their salary or stipend. 

And if it should please the rector and parishioners to charge the chaplains of tho 
said church or their compétent assistants to say daily a mass of St. Mary with note, or 
on every Saturday he desired his said two chaplains might hâve the appointment and 
also to assist in singing nightly the anthem called Salve Regina with note before the 
same altar, with saying a coUect and de profundis, The two chnrch- wardens to receive 
for this service yearly 13s. 4d. 

If his tenements, Ac, were hereafter let at an advanced rent the excess was to be 
placed in a box for their repair. In case of failure of his foundation at St. Magnas the 
income to be transferred to the use and maintenance of London Bridge, and to find two 
chaplains in the Bridge Chapel. He desired that Thomas Hoo, his chaplain, might be 
one of the said two chaplains, and that he should not be bound to be présent at the said 
canonical hoars nor other charges aforesaid except according to his power. 

To Katherine his wife he left for life his tenement called la Glene in the parish 
of St. Magnus, and ail his teqements in Basynglane and Cordwaner Street in the parish 
of St. Martin Otyswiche provided she keptherself sole, otherwise slie to hâve her dower 
only ; the reversion (when accruing) to be sold and the money to be distributed for the 
benefit of his soal and the soûls aforesaid in celebrating masses, distributiug to the poor, 
mending of ways, marriage of poor maids, and other deeds of charity. 

His wife Katherine to hâve also for life ail his lands, &c., at Wenyngton and 
Alvythele or elsewhere in Essex, with ail his store alive and dead ; the reversion as 
before and especially in aid of the rebuildiug of the old isle where the sick poor be 
within the church of the hospital of St. Thomas the Martyr of South wark ; but be 
wished that Isabella his wife*s sister should hâve for life that mansion in which she 
lived in the said parish of St. Martin Otyswiche rent free. 

He appoints as executors his wife Katherine, John Clifford mason, Stephen Lote 
mason, Bichard Parker his cousin and Martin Seman clerk, and as overseer John 
Warner alderman. 

Yvele's successor at the abbey works was Master William of Colchester, " chief 
mason," who was receiving in the year 1399 and subsequently, a fee of 100s. per annum 
with his dress and furs. 

So the active career of this fine old craf tsman must then hâve been closed, and 
he died early in 1400 full of years and honour, and he and his school of masons hâve 
made a lasting mark on the Perpendicular style then coming into vogue. His works 
live after him. 

Digitized by 


4fe$titYcti 0f tire $0nv ©vomnclr plttrtijv*» 

MONDAY, 9th NOVEMBER, 1908. 

I HE Lodge met at Freemaaons' Hall, at 5 p.m. Présent : — Bros. P. H. Goldnej, 
P.G.D., W.M. ; J. T. Thorp, P.A.G.D 0., S.W. ; F. J. W. Crowe, P.G.O., J.W.; Canon 
J. W. Horsley, P.G C, Chap. ; W. John Songhurst, P. A.G.D.O.,' Secretary ; H. Sadler, 
G.Ty., S.D. ; W. Watson, J.D.; J. P. Simpson, I.G. ; E. H. Dring, S.Stew.; E. L. 
Hawkins, J.Stew.; Dr. W. Wynn Westcott, P.G.D., P.M.; G. L. Shackles, P.M. ; 
Admirai Sir A. H. Markham, P.Dîs.G.M., Malta, P.M. ; G. Greiner, P.A.G.D.C., 
P.M. ; and Edward Macbean, P.M. 

Also the followîng members of tlie Correspondence Circle : — Bros. L. 
Danielsson, Edward Phillips, H. H. Montagne Smith, W. Léonard Smith, I. Gundelfinger, Geo. P. 
Simpson, B. E. Landesmann, F. W. Billson, Alfred S. Gedge, Alexauder C. Forrester, G. E. Bolton, Col. 
0. Justice, Edward T. Dearing, W. B. Hextall, Cbas. H. Waison, W. C. Barnes, C. Isler, Chas. Aabert, 
C. H. Denny, H. W. Morrieson, Israël Solomona, H. Eaborn, W. Fisher, S. Maier, J. C. Lyell, F. W. 
Hancock, A.G.D.C. ; Alfred Lole, Chas. H. Bestow, A. C. Palmer, J. Chas. McCuUagh, Dr. Andrew Ellis 
Wynter, D. Bock, W. Howard-Flanders, W. Jacobsen, A. V. Davis, H. Hyde, J. Clarke, R. F. Wallis, 
Dis.G.J.D., Transvaal ; D. Gunton, W. F. Keddell, Percy A. Legge, M. Thomson, W. H. Harris, Dr. S. 
Walshe Owen, Charles Davies, J. Elston Cawthorn, W. A. Barker, Reginald C. Watson, William W. 
Mangles, Hugh James, F. W. Levander, W. Wonnacott, J. F. H. Gilbard, H. J. Grâce, Rev. B. T. 
Gardner, R. J. Harrison. 0. Léo Thomson, Herbert Barrows, Col. C. H. L. Baskerville, W. R. A. Smitb, 
Malcolm J. R. Dundas, Major John Rose, John Church, John Anley and W. R. Poole. 

Also the following visitors : — Bros. J. R. French, St. Edward's Lodge No. 966 ; Chas. Dearing, 
P.M. St. John's Lodge No. 795; Chas. Szlumper, W.M. Aberystwith Lodge No. 1072; H. Sparks, Tele- 
graph Cable Lodge No. 2470; W. R. Palgrave, W.M. Electric Lodge No. 2087; J. W. Draper, S.W. St. 
John's Lodge No. 795; J. Jellis, S.D. Hiram Lodge No. 2416; H. Barter, W.M. High Cross Lodge No. 
754; John Tucker, Duke of Cornwall Lodge No. 1839 ; Frederick Reeves, P.M. Bisley Lodge No. 2317; 
and H. Watson, Golden Square Lodge No. 2857. 

The Secretary read a lotter from the M.W. Grand Master, the Duke of Connaught, in which His 
Royal Highness graciously expressed bis willingncss to becorae an Honorary Member of the Lodge, and 
he was duly elected accordingly. 

One Masonic Research Society and twenty-fivo brcthren were admitted to the membership of 
the Correspondence Circle. 

Apologies for non-attendance were received from Bros. B. Conder, junr., P.M. ; Sir Charles 
Warren, P.Dis.G.M., E.Arch., P.M. ; J. P. Rylands; Dr. W. J. Chetwode Crawley, G.Tr., Ireland; 8. T. 
Klein, P.M. ; E. Armitage, P.D.G.D.C. ; E. J. Castle, P.D.G.R., P.M. ; L. A. de Malczovich; W.J. Hughan, 
P.G.D.; R. F. Gould, P.G.D., P.M.; Hamon le Strange, Pr.G.M., Nofolk, Treas.; W. M. Bywater, 
P.G.S.B., D.O.; and W. H. Rylands, P.A.G.D.C, P.M. 

The W.M. announced that in récognition of the valuable services reudered by Bro. Dr. W. J. 
Chetwode Crawley, not only to the Grand Lodge of Ireland, of which heis sucha distinguished^member, 
but to Masonry in gênerai, a medal had recently baen struck at the Government Mint, Hamburg, under 
the auspices of the Hamburgische Zirkel-Correapondenz. Taklag advantago of this circamstance t he 

Digitized by 




Digitized by 


Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. 

Fbench Apron ezhibited by Bro. Seymour Bell. 

Digitized by 


Transactions of the Quaftior Coronati Tjodge. 255 

Lodp;e had caused a spécial oopy of the medal to be gtrack in silver, and the members desired Bro. 
Crawley to accept this as a token of their affection and appréciation. 

W. Bro. John T. Thorp, P.A.G.D.O., the Master Elect, was then regularly installed as Worahîpful 
Maater of the Lodge by Bro. P. H. Goldney. 

The W.M. appointed his officers as foUows : — 

8.W. Bro. P. J. W. Crowe, P.G.O. 

J.W. „ Henry Sadler, G.Ty. 

Chaplain „ Canon J. W. Horsley, P.G.Ch. 

Treasurer „ Hamon le Strange, Pr.G.M., Norfolk. 

Secretary „ W. John Songhurst, P.A.G.D.C. 

8.D. „ W. Watson. 

J.D. „ J. P. Simpson. 

D.O. „ W. M. Bywater, P.G.S.B. 

I.G. „ B. H. Dring. 

8tew. „ E. L. Hawkins. 

Tyler „ J. W. Freeman. 

The W.M. proposed and the S.W. seconded " That Bro. Frederick Hastings Goldney, P.G.D., 
having completed his year of office as W.M. of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076, the thanks of the 
Lodge be and hereby are tendered to him for his courtesy in the Chair and his efficient management 
of the affairs of the Lodge, and that this resolution be suitably engrossed and presented to him," whioh 
was carried by acclamation. 

The résignation of Bro. the Rev. Charles James Bail, a Past Master of the Lodge, was received 
with regret. 

The Secretary called attention to the following 

By Bro. Seymour Bell, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Small French Apron, 12îin. on the waist-band and 12^in. in extrême centre depth, the bottom 
being circular; triangular flap. Printed from engraved plates and the design elaborately hand-coloured. 
The main design is a circular temple of Justice approached by seven steps and having eight colnmns to 
support the dôme. Withiu the temple is a small altar snpporting a balance, a skull and cross-bones, 
surrounded by stars on the front of the altar, and large pillars to right and left, astone balustrade form- 
îng a YÎsta and enclosing the temple. A Mosaic pavement in black and white, in the foreground a 
perfect ashlar, level, sarcophagus, trowel, gavel, square and rough asblar. A large pair of compassés 
extend from the base of one of the large columns to the other over the temple, together with two 
branches of acacia intertwined with a cable tow. In the top left corner a sun in splendour, and in the 

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Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, 

right a moon snrroanded by clouds. On the flap is a fi^e-pointed star with a flamboyant *' G " in the 
centre, and aroand it a serpent with tail in month, and floral scroU work to right and left. The apron 
is printed on white satin and bonnd with narrow white satin ribbon, with strings of the same. 

Under the flap close to the band, is the following inscription in French, only partly legible, but 
evidently the noaker's name was along the top of the plate used for the apron, as distinct from the fiap, 
and partly covered from stitching together, ail in one line : — 

Imprimé à la Bibliothèque nationale A Paris chez 

QueHnj Bordeurf palais du Tribunal No. 170. 

By Bro. F. W. Levander, London. 

Trade-card, of Mathews, Oxford, issaed abont 1788. 

By Bro. Henry Sadler, London. 

ÂPRON, and Jewel, belonging to a Brother in the South of England. The design on the apron 
is not printed from an engraved plate, but is very beautifally drawn by hand in Indian ink. It is nofc 
known to what degree thèse belong. It is possible that they are not Masonio. 

By Bro. H. Palgrave Simpson, London. 

Engraved Jewel, originally owned by A. Riley, Lodge No. 410, no doubt an Irish Lodge. (See 
Â.Q.O. xi. 137, and xix. 91.) Presented to the Lodge. 

By Bro. G. Voqeler, 

Apron, worn under the Grand Lodge of Darmstadt. 

By The Secretary. 

Photograph of an engraving, possibly the heading of a sommons to a Lodge meeting at a tavern 
called the " Greyhound." 

Photograph of trade-card of " Procter, No. 16, St. Ann's Lane, Aldersgate, Painter to the Honble 
Society of Free-Masons.*' 

Thèse two photograpbs are from engravings in the Victoria and Albert Muséum, South 

A hearty vote of thanks was passed to those brethren who had lent objects for exhibition or who 
had made présentations to the Lodge Muséum. 

The W.M. delivered the following Installation Addrcs^. 

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Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. 

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O' - \ 

OF . 

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Ars Quatuor Cobokatorum. 

Hand-painted Apron, exhibited by Bro. H. Sadler. 


■■ "^^W 



PiERCED Jgwel, exhibited by Bro. H. Sadler. 

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Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. 

Apron, as worn nnder the Grand Lodge of Darmstadt. 

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Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. 

Engrated Headinq of Lodge Summons (?) 
from the original in the Victoria and Albert Museam. 

! m V . \^: r r o c t 4; /^^ ^ 

- ^' ^V aÎ X T E~K t7tlieiron''l^SH)cTKT.Y or ^ * 

A ; 

. :: Jr ^Mi'^qaÉ-r '-^J^ir. '\^,r^ '^^ 
Tradb Card, from the original in the Vicforia and Albert Mnsenm. 

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Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge, 257 


S the years roll by, it becomes increaeingly difficult to find a snbject 
saîtable for an Inangural Address, wbich bas not already been 
selected for that pnrpose by a preyious occiipant of ibis cbair, or bas 
not formed tbe snbject of a Paper read in tbe Lodge. I bope, tbere- 
fore, yon will grant me yonr indulgence if, in what I propose to say 
to y ou this afternoon, I travel along a path wbicb is more or less 
familiar to ail of yon. May I then ask yonr forbearance wbile I 
address yon briefly npon tbe snbject of " Advancement in Masonic Knowledge ?" 

It must, I fear, be generally admitted tbat the Charge to " make some daily 
advancement in Masonic knowledge," bas been obeyed by comparatively few of tbose 
to whom it was addressed. 

If we include in "Masonic knowledge," as I think we sbould, not merely a 
familiarity with the degree ritaal, but also some knowledge of the history of Free- 
masonry, its origin and development, its objects, its tenets and principles, its symbolism, 
its points of resemblance to and différence from other similar Societies, as well as some 
acquaintance with tbose worthy men who helped to baild up the Society, and bring it 
to the degree of prosperity which it now enjoys, then we must sorrowfuUy confess that 
Masonic knowledge bas not in the past been a distinguishing characteristic of ail 

Down to the last twenty-five or thirty years very few Masons, comparatively 
speaking, either knew or cared to know anything of the past history of the Society of 
which they were members. Except in a few isolated cases, the spirit of enqniry was, if 
not dead, then sleeping, and any attempt to aronse it into activity met with no resnit 
commen surate with the efforts put forth. 

This gênerai want of interest in Masonry, apart from the Lodge work, which 
characterised the Craft for at least a century after the foundation of the Grand Lodge 
of England, may be attributed to several causes. There was a great difficulty, for 
instance, in finding brethren who were sufficiently acquainted with Masonic history to 
be able to act as guides and instructors ; there were no Masonic libraries, as there are 
now, to which enquirers could obtain access for reading and study, and, in addition, 
there was the very apparent unreliability of much of the early literature of the Craft. 
This must bave had a very doterring effect npon many enquiring Masons, damping their 
enthusiasm and forcing them to the conclusion, either that the Craft had no history 
worthy of their serions study, or that any attempt to bring order ont of the existing 
chaos would be pure labour in vain. 

But whilst this was nndoubtedly the prevailing condition of Freemasonry down 
to about the middle of the nineteenth century, the ignorance was not qnite nniversal. 
Already early in the previous century efforts had been put forth, hère and there, to 
dispel the surrounding gloom, and croate a désire for an intelligent knowledge and 
understanding of Freemasonry, and for a hnndred. years attempts had been made, from 
time to time, to stimulate tbe Brotherbood into some litorary activity. Martin Ciare, 
who wrote the famous ** Defence of Masonry," lectured in the year 1738, at Lodge No. 
4 — now No. 6 — London, and this practice, we are told, was not unusnal among the 
higher class of Lod^es at that time. Many of thes^ lectures, it is true, dealt with 

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258 Tranêoctions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, 

Bubjects which hâve but a slender connection witb Freemasonry, sucb as Education, 
General History, Literature and Science, but still the fact that Masons wonld listen to a 
discourse upon such subjects, was évidence that some of the Brethren were even then 
interested in matters quite apart and distinct from the ordinary work of the Lodge, 
which augured well for the future. Minutes of many eighteenth century Lodges con- 
tain instances of this laudable custom, which was, however, neither so gênerai nor so 
long-continued as it shonld bave been, in order to permanently benefit the Fratemity. 

For the greater part of the eighteenth century, the varions éditions of the Con- 
stitutions, Ahiman Rezons and Pocket Companions were virtually ail the literature 
available for the instruction of our aneient Brethren, for it was not nntil tbe years 1772 
and 1775 respectively, that Preston and Hutchinson produced their well-known books. 
The numerous éditions, however, of the works 1 bave mentioned, indicate clearly that 
there was some demand for Masonic knowledge, a demand which the writers succeeded 
probably in stimulating, but which their books certainly failed to satisfy. 

Toward the close of the eighteenth century, a growing désire for Masonic 
knowledge manifested itself, which several Lodges in this country, and also on tbe con- 
tinent, seeni to hâve donc their utmost to satisfy. 

In France the Lodge ** Des Neuf Sœurs " of Paris, which enjoyed the distinction 
of having initiated the philosopher Voltaire in 1778, and the Lodges of tbe Rite 
Ecossaise Philosophique of the same period, niay be mentioned as among the foreign 
Lodges which early devoted tliemselves to a stady of Masonic literature, interspersed 
with lectures on philosophy, gênerai history, science and art. But the wave of révo- 
lution which swept over Western Europe during the last fe'.v years of the century put 
an end to what might, and probably wouîd hâve been a movement for tbe gênerai 
élévation and enlightenment of the Masonic Fraternity. 

During the early part of the nineteenth century men were too much occupied 
with war and its terrible conséquences to bave much time or désire to décote themselves 
to the study of Masonic literature, but towards the middle of the century évidences 
were not wanting that more intorest was beingtaken in Masonic history and archaeology. 
Students were, however, bampered in their work by the scarcity of reliable books. 
A gênerai history of Freemasonry did not exist ; the treasure-house of old Minute-books 
and other Lodge records was as yet unexplored, but, in spite of every drawback, efforts 
were put forth by many Brethren to stimulate research, and cultivate a désire to know 
more of the past of the Masonic Brotherhood. 

The Masonic Press of 1840 to 1860 contains many évidences of activity in this 
direction, and many of the brethren wbo were the pioneersin this intellectual movement 
were the instructors of the older Masons of to-day. 

In the year 1861, a Society of Gerraan Masons (Verein Deutscher Maurer) was 
established " to advance the Masonic science in its whole extent by promoting the know- 
ledge of the history, law, symbols and doctrine of Freemasonry," and this Society was 
probably the earliest forerunner of the "Quatuor Coronati'* Lodge. It consisted of 
regular aud corresponding members, and published its transactions annually. Bro. J. G. 
Findel, a well-known German Masonic writer, was a prominent member, and tbe Rev. 
A. F. A. Woodford, a founder of this Lodge, was a corresponding member. Much 
useful work was done, but the Society was not appreciated and was only short-lived. 

Ten years later a distinct advance in the intellectual study of Masonry was made, 
by the establishment in London of a Masonic Archœological Institute, " to promote tbe 
interests and to elevate the standing of Freemasonry, by systematic and scientific 
investigations into the early history of the Craft, and theorigin and meaning of Masonic 

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Inaugural Address. 250 

sjmbols, rites and traditions." Inasmuch as two of tlie founders of this Lodgo were 
among the early raembers of this Institnte, it may justly be claimed as the principal 
pioneer of the " Quatuor Coronati" Lodge. The programme put forth, however, failed 
to attract members, and in two or three years the Society had ceased to exist. Only a 
few papers were read, none of which were printed, although it was originally intended 
to issue an annual volume of transactions. 

But the greatest impetus ever given to Masonic research was the consécration of 
this Lodge, the " Quatuor Coronati," No. 2076, in the year 1886, a Lodge, which, although 
it has done excellent work in the twenty-two years of its existence, has yet, I think, a 
very glorions future before it. More tban any similar Masonic institution that has 
ever existed, it has responded to the appeal of Brethren ail over the world for light and 
knowledge upon Masonic history and archœology, with a readiness and a completeness 
which deserves, and has received, the sincerest and warmest thanks of ail genuine 
Masonic students. Its individual members bave done much to strengthen the historical 
foundation of Masonry, freed it from many of the absurdities and impossibilities with 
which Andersen and others had associated it, placed it upon a more worthy platform as 
a subject deserving the thought, considération and study of educated men, and taken 
from it Henry Hallam*s stigma, that ** the curious subject of Freemasonry has unfortu- 
nately been treated only by panegyrists or calumniators, both equally mendacious." 

Tho twenty volumes of the Lodge Transactions, which bave found their way to 
the uttermost parts of the earth, are in themselves a splendid contribution to the 
knowledge and appréciation of Freemasonry, and haveserved to stimulate Masons every- 
where to prosecute the study of the archœology of the Craft. 

Prompted by so excellent an example, several Lodges hâve already been estab- 
lished, which work in close imitation of the " Quatuor Coronati," while many others in 
England, and also in the Colonies, hâve done, or are still doing, some excellent literary 
work. In addition to thèse Lodges, Masonic Literary Societies bave been founded in ail 
parts of the country, which, together with the numerous Past Masters' Lodges, bave, 
more or less, ail the same object in view, viz., to stimulate Masonic research, and to 
induce the Brethren to study the history and archaîology of Freemasonry. Surely much 
of the work done by thèse Lodges and Societies may be ascribed to the example set 
them by the *' Quatuor Coronati," to whom they look up with respect and révérence as 
their leader in the work. 

What is the condition of Freemasonry to-day ? More respected, more honoured, 
perhaps, than ever before. But is not the Oraft also more enlightened ? Never, 
perhaps, in the whole history of spéculative orphilosophical Freemasonry, has the Craft, 
as a whole, been so well-informed as to its past as it is to-day, and never, perhaps, were 
Masons, in conséquence of tliat knowledge, so proud of the Fraternity. And yet never 
has there been a greater demand for information on Masonic subjects, never has light 
on Masonic problems been so eagerly sought for as now, never havo so many questions 
been asked as to whence and why as are now being asked, and never has there been so 
much craving for Masonic knowledge as is the case at the présent time. 

But while we rejoice at the progress already made in the acquisition of Masonic 
knowledge, and at the demand for further knowledge which manifests itself in many 
quarters, there is still very much to be done for the instruction and enlightenment of 
the whole body of Freemasons, and of those who year by year are attracted to the 
Fraternity. We boast of the large and wide-spread membership of tihis Lodge, and yet 
in some Provinces not one per cent, has yet joined our OuterCircle, for although a large 
mass of information has been acquired by individual Masons, there is still much lack of 

Digitized by 


260 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronatï Lodge. 

Masonic knowledge to be dealt with among the Masonîc rauk and file. In spite of tbe 
work of ail the literary Lodges and Societies which hâve been established, it is sur- 
prising how many Masons there still are, who are entirely ignorant of ail the Masonic 
archœologîcal treasure which has been discovered. Thej hâve never heard of the 
" Old Charges,'* the Engraved Lists, " Universis " Certificates and Ahiraan Rezons; the 
names of Ashmole, Plot, Anderson, Dermott, Preston and Hntchinson, call np to them 
no yisions of the past, while of the wonderf al discoveries of the présent génération of 
Masonic students thej are in absolu te ignorance. Thej live in the atmosphère of a 
century ago, their Masonic librarj consisting merelj of a Book of Constitutions. 

Whilst ail will probably agrée that the last word has not yet been spoken upon 
any of the différent branches of Masonic research, there is no doubt that the gronnd 
has been well worked during the last twenty-five years. Many temples bave been 
searched through ; ail the known MSS. haye been stndied, compared, coUated ; the 
remains of many ancient mysteries and of many by-gone Systems of morality haye been 
ezamined for traces of resemblance to the Masonic System ; ail références to early 
Fi'eemasonry bave been songht oub, in order to ascertain what the world has thonght 
of it ; and the Masonic past generally has, by constant systematic search, been made to 
yield much valuable treasure. This being so, and in yiew of the growing demand for 
Masonic knowledge, bave we not almost arrived at a point, when, without in any degree 
discontinuing our search among the ruins of the past, some of our efforts may well be 
directed to disseminating, among the Lodges generally, the yaluable knowledge which 
has already been acquired ? 

How can this laudable objcct be best accomplished ? How can the désire for 
increased Masonic knowledge be farther stimulated and then satisfied P 

At a Masonic Congress held in Brussels in the year 1904, an elaborate plan for 
extending the knowledge of the history of Freemasonry was presented. It was pro- 
posed thereby — 

a. To croate in every Lodge a section for historical study. 

b» To advise every Lodge to prépare its own history and publish it. 

c. To publish a Masonic bibliography. 

d. To organize lectures on Masonic history in every Lodge by compétent 

Masonic scholars. 

This was a large scheme, and probably difficult of accomplishment in its entirety, 
but could not something be done in this direction for English-speaking Masons, if not 
by this Lodge as a Lodge, then by the iudividaal members of both the Inner and the 
Outer Ciroles ? Masonic Literary Societies are already flourishing in many towns in 
England, but there is room for many more. There should be at least one in every 
Province, and in the larger Provinces one in every large town. If only the Local 
Secretaries, who now render such excellent service to the Lodge, could be prevailed 
upon to undertake the formation of such Societies, and extend thereto a fostering care, it 
"would be a long step t.oward the inculcation of further valuable Masonic knowledge. 
Such societies would in no way injure this Lodge, or dethrone it from the proud position 
it now ocoupies, but they would serve rather asfeeders to it, by making its work more 
generally known and by stimulating in the Brethren a desii'e to qualify for membership 

By means of thèse local Societies, Brethren would first become educated, and 
subsequently stimulated to visit the Lodges in their immédiate neighbourhood, reading 
papers, answering questions, establishing libraries and directing Masonic study and 

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The Toast of the WJt 26l 

reaearcli, so that everj Mason, wherever located, should bave the opportanitj, if he 
desired it, of making " some daily advancement in Masonie knowledge.'* 

Yoa will not think, I feel sure, that I am travelling beyond the sphère of my 
office if I appeal, not to yoa only, who to-day hear my voice, but also to the larger body 
of members who may, perhaps, read my words, to take in hand this dissémination of 
Masonie knowledge for the graduai instruction and enlightenment of the whole Craft. 
Your association with this Lodge gives you a qualification and a position in the Fra- 
ternity, which should enable you to render valuable services in this spécial work. The 
Lodge bas gi^ven, and is still giving to you, the resuit of its labours in every department 
of Masonie lore. It bas opeued to you a treasure-house of Masonie knowledge, which 
your attendance hère to-day proves that you value and appreciate. And may it not ask 
you in return to hand on the knowledge you bave received hère to other members of the 
Craft, that they, in their tum, may interest themselves in Masonie investigation and 
researcb, for the further enlightenment of the Masonie Fraternity? Do not for a 
moment think that the work is doue, for altbough much bas already been accomplished 
in the realm of Masonie archœology, there is still ample scope for further researcb. 
There are whole domains still to be explored, there are historiés of vénérable Lodgea 
to be wntten, records to be searched through, muniment chesta to be ransacked, many 
problems to be solved, many difficultés to be overcome, and much self-sacrificing work 
to be donc, before a complète history of Freemasonry can be written, and Masonie 
knowledge become a characteristic feature and an abiding distinction of the Craft. 

Let us then ail unité together in a strong détermination that this Lodge shall 
still continue to take the lead in disseminating the discoveries of Masonie students, and 
in contributing to the graduai spread of gen uine Masonie knowledge. 

At the snbseqaent Banqaeb, Bro. F. H. Goldney, I.P.M., proposed the " Toast of the Worshipful 


As the Installing Master upon this interesting occasion, the privilège bas been 
accorded to me of proposing the toast of the distinguished Brother whom it bas to-day 
been my good fortune to proclaim Worshipf ul Master of Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Seldom can we find a Brother of nearly forty years standing in Freemasonry so 
keen, so active, so constant in the work of the Craft as Bro. Thorp of Leicester. 

His persevering labours and earnest thought for the advancement of knowledge of 
the history, traditions and antiquities of our great Institution continue unabated, and 
as fresh as when he first saw the light. 

To enumerate his great services to Freemasonry would be indeed a formidable 
task — we can only touch upon his public record, and refer to the numerous offices 
which he bas so honourably filled, togather some iusight into the devoted interest which 
he bas displayed in furthering the great cause which we ail bave so much at heart. 

Bro. Thorp, whose * Grand Climacter * is still, happily, some years distant, f rom 
the outset of his Masonie career to the présent time bas been an assiduous student 
of the traditions and written évidences of the Craft, and an analytical observer, and 
critical examiner of the antiquarian sources of our ancient history. 

For this purpose he bas devoted much time during his Continental travels in 
close observations and enquiries upon the spot, in master in g foreign languages, and in 
noting past and présent history and customs of the varions nationalities with which he 
came into contact. 

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262 Transactio7is of the Quatuor Coronati Loâge. 

Two leading features in his liferary career hâve been his becoming an active 
member of the Inner Circle of this Lodge (to which he bas contributed many valuable 
treatises, and in which he bas ably discussed the papers of others), and in his being a 
Founder and the first Master of the Lodge of Research No. 2429, Leicester, a kindred 
Lodge to our own, whose useful work in searching ont the origin, traditions and 
symbolism of mach that is interesting in Freemasonry bas been thoroughly recognised 
and appreciated. 

Bro. Thorp, who, notwithstanding his snccessful parsuit of important mercantile 
undertakings, and his being the head of one of the large textile industries of the Mid- 
lands, bas made the time to dévote himself to his Masonic daties in such a thorong'h 
manner that they bave been publicly recognised by his promotion to high rank in four 
of our principal Orders. 

H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught, our beloved Grand Master, bas bonouredhim by 
his appointment as Past Assistant Grand Director of Cérémonies of the Grand Lodge 
of England ; wbilst similar distinctions bave been conferred upon him in Suprême 
Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of England, in Grand Lodge of Mark Master 
Masons of England, and by the Suprême Council of the Ancient and Accepted Rite. 

In his own Province, too, the high estimation of Bro. Thorp bas been evinced by 
his appointment to varions Grand Offices, culminating in his becoming Provincial 
Senior Grand Warden of Leicestershire in 1883. 

The préviens year he had been appointed Third Principal in the Grand Chapter 
of that Province. 

In 1878 he was appointed Grand Senior Warden in the Mark Degree of the same 

As a member of John of Gaunt Lodge No. 623, Leicester, Lodge of Research 
No. 2429, Leicester, whose Transactions , edited by Bro. Thorp for the last sixteen years, 
form so valuable an addition to Masonic literature, Chapter of Fortitude No. 279, 
Simon de Montfort Lodge of M.M.M. No. 194, and St. Margaret*s Chapter Rose Croix 
No. 92, he bas won, and retained, the esteem and affection of his Brethren. 

In addition to his writings, Bro. Thorp bas ably promoted the best interests of 
Freemasonry by his well-known lectures, and thereby brought himself into personal 
contact with a large number of Brethren in différent parts of England and America. 

His membership of varions learned Societies, such as the Royal Historical 
Society of England, the Royal Society of Literature of Great Britain, the Royal Society 
of Antiquaries of Ireland, the similar Society of Scotland, and other erudite and 
scbolarly Institutions shew the universality of his attainments and the attractiveness of 
bis disposition. 

In America, too, he is personally well known and highly spoken of, and his 
Masonic lectures and published works much sought after. 

Bro. Thorp, as author of numerous Masonic publications, is recognised as an able 
and accurate writer, f ull of interest and imparting much information. 

His splendid collections of Masonic books, manuscripts, certificates, medals, 
jewels, clothing, pottery and curios are the outcome of consummate knowledge and 
excellent taste. 

Brethren, in proposing the toast of the evening — Bro. Thorp, our W.M. — I give 
it as of one whose past brilliant record assures us that in him we bave a typical W.M. 
for Quatuor Coronati Lodge, and that we may feel confident that nnder his rnle 
our Lodge will not only hold its own in universal esteem and numbers, but will 
be strengthened in its value to Freemasonry, and in the increase of the Outer Circle. 

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Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. 

From the orisrinal in the 

Victoria and Albert Muséum, 

South Kensington. 

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^ ->^ 

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Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. 


From the original in the 

Victoria and Albert Muséum, 

South Kenhington. 

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Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. 

Fi*om the original in the 

Victoria and Albert Musenm, 

SoQth Kensington. 

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Transactions of tke Quatuor Goronatï Lodge. 


"ANCIENTS," A.D. 1753. 


I our esteemed Secretary we are indebted for the information that 
there is another issue of an engraved List of " Ancient " Lodges, 
preserved at South Kensington Muséum, " Engrav'd & Publisli'd by 
Bro^ Evans, in Bear Street, Leicester Fields Anno Lap. 5753," and 
prepared by the famous " Lan. Dermott, Sec." The one which was 
presented to the Library of No. 2076, by Bro. W. J. Songhurst, "was 
apparently the first of its kind issued, and at the time I described its 
character in vol. xix. of Ars Quatuor Coronatorum^ 1906, was the only copy of the kind 
known. Since then, however, another bas been traeed, as herein noted, and apparently 
it was a second édition for the year 1753. The first left off with No. 16, constitnted 
January lOth, 1753, page 9. This one contains three more pages but the fourth is 
missing, containing Lodges Nos. 5 and 6, that of the tenth having *'No. 17 Cous? 
March 13^^ 1753. [a Lion] Scots Arms, St. James's Hay Market, 2^ Sf 4'* Monday'* and 
" No. 18, Cons? May 4^^ 1753, Vernon [figure] Bishopsgate Street Withont, 1*^ ^ 3^ 
Friday''; the eleventh has "No. 19, Cons? May 15*^ 1753 [A fountain] Monmouth 
Street P^ ^* 3'^ Mondy-'' ; the other chaste design being hlank^ as also the two designs 
on page twelve. It wili be seen that as No. 18 asserabled at the same House as No. 10, 
the same design is used in both instances, but otherwise thèse artistic borders or 
enclosures are ail of différent desigus. 

Thèse are ail duly noted in the Morgan-Dermott Lists, 1752-4. No. 17 of the 
" Scots Arms " had three places in 1753, the first being as noted, followed by the " Whïte 
Hart,'* Shug Lane, and then the " Thirleen Canto7is^' which has not been traeed. This 
Lodge lapsed about twenty years later, an entry in an officiai record stating that it 
" had not assembled for sometime past.*' Its last known place of meeting was the 
" Ttvo Brewers, Mid. Holborn," in 1755. 

No. 18 also assembled at the " Three Sugar Loaves, S*- John's St., Spitalfields " 
and the " Bull and Butcher, Rag Fair," in 1754, lapsing during the following year. 

No. 19 removed from " Seren Dials," where the " Fonntain" was situated, to 
the " Qeorge, Broad St., St. Giles's, Holborn," in 1754. It was " declared vacant, null 
and void " on August 7th, 1754, according to the excellent authority of Bro. John Lane, 
in his indispensable " Masonio Records 1717-1894." 

It is remarkable that no référence has been discovered to thèse little gems during 
the long period of one hundred and fifty years. 

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264» Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 



HROUGH the favour of a London friend, the preceptor of a Jewîsh 
Lodge, I hâve obtained translations from learned Rabbis of two 
legends, which may be added to the interesting document entitled the 
Testament of Solomon, of which an account was given in vol. xiv. of 
A.Q.G., ail of which hâve référence to the érection of Soîomon's 
temple ; of coarse legendary matter added at a much later date. 

The Jewish Rabbis, and their co-religionists, seem to attach 
some importance to thèse legends, but in the remarks which I hère briefly attach to 
them I am afraid that I shall be considered unorthodox both by Jew and Gentile. 
Lord Sandwich being anxious to obtain an ex-cathedra définition of orthodoxy and 
heterodoxy, applied to the learned Bishop Warburton, and that libéral minded cleric 
replied : " Well, my Lord, orthodoxy is my doxy, but heterodoxy is another man's 
doxy," — and so I will leave that part of the question. 

There was a very ancient legend carrent in the Aryan East that mankind were 
at first of an ethereal nature, that is they had not yet gathered the protoplasm ont of 
which our présent gross bodies are formed. Of thèse there were seventy-two kings 
named Sulieman, or Solomons, the lasfc three of whom reigned each 1000 years. The 
Arabs of our time consider them the rulers of the génie and afreets, and many an 
eastem storyteller laments the departed glories of Sulieman-i-takt, or the tbrone of 
Solomon, a structure to the south of the désert of Gobi, and we hâve also, still further 
south, the Sulieman Mounfcains. The Accadians of Babylon had knowledge of this 
legend, and one of our archaBologists informs us that they had a god named Solymo. 
The late Dr. Kenealy was a Persian scholar and held that this word, or this god, was 
the équivalent of King, Khan, Pharaoh, etc. Whether Jedediah, the beloved of Jah, 
who was King over Israël in succession to David, was known as Solomon previous to 
the time of Ezra, the Scribe, and editor of the présent sacred writings of the Jews, I 
will not venture to say, but I hâve no hésitation in expressing my belief that the 
Jewish Captives in Babylon hâve added the legends of the pre-historic Suliemans to the 
history of their ancient King Jedediah, the son of David. 

The " Old York Lecture," as Dr. Geo. Oliver terms it in nearly every volume 
in which he quotes the ritual, told us that the secret which was lost by the joint 
compact of the three G.M.*s was that of ** the ïnsect Shermah used to give a very high 
polish to the stones." Our learned contributor Bro. W. W. Westcott bas made several 
suggestions upon the point, the most probable of which is that Shermah is a corruption 
of another Hebrew word, applied to the emery stone. 

The second translation, which I append, is taken from the book Yalkut, which 
is a compilation of the Midrashy which former in Hebrew signifies " to gather together,** 
and is the word used for the bag in which David " gathered together " the pebbles with 
which he slew^Goliath, 

Diaitized bv 


Two Ancient Legends Conccrning Soîomon's Temple. 265 

In tlie latter part of the eighteenth century there was iu existence an Hermetic 
and Alchemical Rite of seven degrees termed the Fratres Lucù, or Brothers of Light. 
Its 3° gave a short outline of this legend of Hiram, King of Tyre, and taught the 
Candidate that the legend of H.A.B. was suggested by it, or compiled ont of it, and 
then went on to say that ail the points of a M. M. was intended to point ont the 
necessary opérations to be used in developing the philosopher's stone. Of conrse this 
is pnre nonsense, bnt the Bite had some really eminent Hermetic Freemasons, inclading 
that extraordinary man the Connt St. Germain, a man of whom it is said that he 
possessed dnality of braîn and could write on two subjects with the two hands at the 
same time, and could repeat the whole of a newspaper with one reading. However this 
may be, the only account of the Connt that is worth a moments thonght is one by 
Mrs. Isabel Cooper-Oakley, who treats him as a Transylvanian Prince under the snbjec- 
tion of Austria. I snggested she should print it as a pamphlet for Freemasons, and was 
in hope it wonld appear as snch, bat it has not been done. 

In my opinion the Gnild considered the legend of H.A.B. as an actual fact and 
commemorated it annually, and it is ont of that commémoration, followed in England by 
the Masons of the Classical revival of Inigo Jones, that we dérive what we know of it in 
our présent M.M., incomplète thongh it is. But Qnild Masonry is the caste équivalent 
of the ancient Mysteries of Osiris, Dionysis, Bacchus, Serapis, etc., and its commémora- 
tive legend runs with thèse. It may date even from the érection of the Second Temple 
by the Babylonians, and the old York Ritual, which possesses much of Guild Masonry, 
points to a connection with the so-called Mysteries. It will be noted that the obliging 
translater of Yalkut says that there was another legend by which H.K.T. had 600 
years of paradise for providing cedars for the Temple. Probably this may be the 
original form on which the Yalkut legend was engrafted by the sufferers under 
Nebuchadnezzar who had his seven storied tower, the topraost chamber of which was a 
cube with a golden bed in which reposed a young virgin waiting the embraces of the 
god Bel. The end of H.K.T. is horrible in the extrême but I hâve not thonght myself 
jnstified in toning it down. 



The Talmud is particularly rich in demonology and many are the forms which 
the evil principle assumes in its pages. Enough now to mention the circumstance of 
their existence and to introduce the story of Ashmedai, the King of the Démons. Six 
things are said respecting them. In three things they are like Angels, and in three 
they resemble men. They hâve wings like Angels, with which they fly from one end of 
the world to the other, and they know the future as Angels do, with this différence that 
they learn it by listening behind the Veil, to what is said within it. 

In three respects they resemble men : — they eat and drink ; they beget and 
multiply ; and like men they die. 

In Ecclesiastes ii., 8, we read : *^ I gat me men singers, and women singers, the 
delights of the sons of men, as Mtmcal instruments^ and that of ail sorts.** Thèse last 
seven words represent only two in the original Hebrew, n^E^I mE^» Shiddah veshtddoth. 
Thèse two words in the original Hebrew, transi ated by the seven already given, hâve 
been a sonrce of great perplexity to the critics, and their exact meaning is a question of 
debate to this hour. They in the West say that they mean severally carnages for 

Digitized by 


266 Transactions of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

lords, and carrîages for ladies, whilst we (eays the Babylonîsli Talmtid) interpret them 
to mean maie démons and female démons. Whereupon if this last is the correct 
renderinjç, the question arises for what pnrpose did Solomon require them ? The 
answer is to be found in i. Kings, v., 7, where it is written : — " And the honse when it 
was building, was built of stone, made ready before it was brooght thither,'* etc. For 
before the opération was commenced Solomon asked the Rabbis, " How shall I accom- 
plish this witbout nsing tools of iron ?'* and they, remembering of an insect which had 
existed since the création of the world, whose powers were such as the hardest sub- 
stance could not resist, replied, ** There is the Shameer with which Moses eut the precious 
stones of the Ephod." Solomon asked, " And where, pray, is the Shameer to be found ?" 
To which they made answer, j^ni^K^*! m^K^ ^n^^N — " Let a maie démon and a female 
démon corne, and do thou coerce them both, mayhap they know and will reveal it to 
thee." He then conjured into bis présence a maie and a female démon, and proceeded 
to torture them, but in vain, for said they, " We know not its whereabouts, and there- 
fore cannot tell. Perhaps Ashmedai, King of the Démons, may know." On being 
further interrogated as to where he, in turn, might be found, they made this answer, 
" In yonder mount is bis résidence, there he bas dug a pit, and after filling it with 
water, covered it over with a stone and sealed it with his own seal ; daily he 
ascends to heaven, and studies in the school of Wisdom there, then he comes down 
and studies in the school of Wisdom hère ; upon which he goes and examines the 
seal, then opens the pit, and after quenching his thirst, covers it up again, reseals 
it, and takes his departure." Solomon thereupon sent Benaiah, the son of Jehoiada, 
provided with a magie chain and ring, upon both of which the name of God was 
engraved. He also provided him with a fleece of wool and sundry skins of wine. 
Then Benaiah went and sank a pit below that of Ashmedai, into which he drained off 
the water, and plugged the duct between with the fleece. Then he set to and dug 
another hole higher up, with a channel leading into the emptied pit of Ashmedai, by 
means of which he fiUed the pit with the wine which he had brought. After levelling 
the ground, so as not to arouse suspicion, he withdrew to a tree close by, so as to watch 
the resuit andwait his opportunity. After a while Ashmedai came and examined the 
seal, when, seeing it ail right, he raised the stone, and to his surprise found wine in the pit. 
For a time he stood muttering, and saying, * It is written,' (Prov. xx., 1), "Wine is a 
mocker, strong drink is raging, and whoever is deceived thereby is not wîse." And 
again, (Hosea iv., II), " Whoredom and wine, and new wine, take away the heart." 
Therefore, at first, he was unwilling to drink, but being thirsty he could not long resist 
the temptation. He therefore proceeded to drink, when, becoming intoxicated, he 
lay down to sleep. Then Benaiah came forth from the ambush, and, stealthily 
approaching, fastened the chain round the sleeper*s neck. Ashmedai, wben he 
awoke, began to fret and fume, and would hâve torn ofF the chain that bound him 
had not Benaiah wamed him, saying, " The Name of the Lord is upon thee." Having 
thus secured him Benaiah proceeded to lead him away to his royal Master. As they 
journeyed along they came to a palm tree, against which Ashmedai rubbed himself 
nntil he uprooted it, and threw it down. When they drew near to a hut the poor 
widow who inhabited it saluted them, upon which he suddenly bent his back and 
snapped a boue of his body and said, — * This is that which was written,* — (Prov. xxv., 
15) — " A gentle answer breaketh the bone." Descrying a blind man straying ont 
of his way he hailed him and directed him aright. He even did the same service 
to a man overcome with wine, who was in a similar predicament. At sight of a 
wçddinç parfcy which passed along he wept. But he burst into uncontroU^ble laughter 

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Two Âncient Légende Concerning Solomons Temple. 267 

when he heard a man order at a shoemaker's stall a pair of shoes that wonld last 
seven years ; and when he saw a magician at his work, he broke forth into shrieks 
of scorn. 

On arriving at the Rayai City, three days were allowed to pass before he was 
introduced to Solomon. On the first day he said, — " Why doth the King not invite me 
to his présence ? " ** He hath drunk too mnch," was the answer, " and the wine has 
overpowered him.*' Upon which he lifted a brick, and placed it npon another. When 
this was communîcated to Solomon he said, — " He meant by this * go and make him 
drunk again.* " On the following day he asked again, — " Why doth the King not 
invite me to his présence ? " They replied, — " He hath eaten too much." On this he 
removed the brick again from the top of the other. When this was reported to the 
King he interpreted it, — "Stint him in his food." After the third day he was intro- 
daced to the King, when, measuring off four cnbits upon the floor, with the stick which 
he held in his hand, he said to Solomon, " When thon diest thou wilt not possess in this 
world, more than four cubits of earth." (He referred to the grave). " Meanwhile 
thou hast conquered the world, yet thou wert not safcisfied until thou hadst overcome me 
also." To this the King replied, — " I want nothing of thee but this, 1 wish to build the 
temple and hâve need of the Shameer." To this Asmedai answered, — " The Shameer 
is not committed in charge to me, but to the Prince of the Sea, and he intrusts it to no 
one except to the great wild cock, and that upon an oath that he return it to him again.*' 
Whereupon Solomon asked, — " And what does the wild cock do with the Shameer ? " To 
which the Démon replied, — " He takes it to abarren rocky moantain, and by means of 
it he cleaves the mountain asunder, which formed into a valley, into the cleft of it ho 
drops the seeds of varions plants and trees, and thus the place becomes clothed with 
verdure and fit for habitation." This is the Lapwing (A.V.), Hoopoe (R.V.),nientioned 
in Lev. xi., 19, which the Targum renders, K^IÛ ^JJ Nagger Tura, "Mountain 

They therefore searched for the nest of the wild cock, which they found contained 
a young brood. This they covered with a glass through which the bird might see its 
young, withont being able to get at them. When, accordingly, the bird came and found 
its nest impenetrably glazed over, he went and fetched the Shameer, and just as he was 
about to apply it to the glass, in order to eut it, Solomon's messenger caught it np and 
made off with it. The cock thereupon went and strangled himself, because he was 
unable to keep the oath by which he had bound himself to retnrn the Shameer. 

Benaiah asked Ashmedai why, when he saw the blind man straying, he so 
promptly interfered to guide him ? He replied, — " Because it was proclaimed in heaven 
that such a man was perfectly righteous, and that whosoever did him a good turn would 
earn the title to a place in the world of the future." " Bot when thou sawest the man 
overcome with wine wandering ont of the way, why didst thou put him right again ? " 
Ashmedai said, — " Because it was made known in heaven that the man was thoroughly 
bad, and that he might not lose ail, I did him this service in order that he might receive 
some good in the world that now is." " Well, and why didst thou weep when thou 
sawest the merry wedding feast pass ? " " Because," said he, " the bridegroom was 
fated to die with in thirty days, and the bride must needs wait thirteen years for her 
husband's brother, who is now but an infant" (see Deut. xxv., 6-10). "Why didst 
thou laugh so when the man ordered a pair of shoes which would last him seven years ?" 
Ashmedai replied,— " Because I knew that the man would not live seven days." 
" And why," asked Benaiah, " didst thou jeer when thou sawest the conjurer at his 
tricks ? " "Because," said Ashmedai, " the man was at that very time sitting over a 

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â6â transactions of the Quaiuor Goronati Lodgè. 

princely treasure, and he did nofc, with ail his pretensions, know that it was under him.** 
Having once acqnired a power over Ashmedai, Solomon detained him tîll the bailding 
of the temple was completed. One day, after this, when they were alone, it is related 
that Solomon asked him, — ** What, pray, is your superiority over ns, if it be tme as 
it is written (Numb. xxiii., 22), He bas the sfcrength of a Unicorn, and the word 
* strength,' as tradition allèges, means * ministering angels,' and the word * nnicorn ' 
means 'Devils* " ? Ashmedai replied, — *' Take this chain from my neck, and give me thy 
signet ring, and I will soon show thee my snperiority." No sooner had Solomon done 
this, in compliance with the reqnest, than Ashmedai snatched him np and swallowed 
him, and stretching forth his wings — one tonching the heavens and the other the earth 
— he Tomited him ont at a distance of four hundred miles. It is with référence to this 
time that Solomon says (Eccl. i. 3, ii. 10) " What pro6t hath a man of ail his labour 
which he taketh under the sun p This is my portion of ail my labour." What does the 
word thù mean hère ? Upon this point Rav and Samuel are at variance, for the one 
says it means his staff, the other holds that it means his garment^ or his waterjug, and 
that with one or other Solomon went from house to house beggîng ; and wherover he 
came he said (Eccl. i., 12) — " I, the preacher, was King over Jérusalem." When, in 
his wanderings, he came to the house of the Sanhédrin, the Rabbis reasoned and said, 
— ** if he were mad, he would not keep repeating the same thing over and over again. 
Therefore what does he mean ? " They therefore enquired of Benaiah,— " Does the 
King ask thee into his présence ? " He replied, " No." They then sent to enqnire 
whether the King visifced the Harem ? And the answer to this was, — " Tes, he comes." 
Then the Rabbis sent word back that they should look at his feet, for the Demon's feet 
are like those of a cock. The reply was, — " He comes to us in stockings." Upon this 
information the Rabbis escorted Solomon back to the palace and restored to him the 
chain and ring, on both of which the name of God was engraven. 

Arrayed with thèse Solomon advanced straightway into the presence-chamber. 
Ashmedai sat at that moment upon the throne, but as soon as he saw Solomon enter he 
took fright, and raising his wings, flew away shrieking back into invisibility. Tn spite 
of this Solomon continued in great fear of him and this explains that which is written 
(Song of Songs iii., 7, 8), " Behold the bed which is Solomon's, three score valiant men 
are about it, of the valiant of Israël. They ail hold swords, being expert in war, every 
man has his sword upon his thigh, because of fear in the night." 

Note. — The Shameer, ^^ÔB^, is mentioned in Jer. xvii., Ezek. iii. 9, Zech. vii. 12. 


The End op Hiram King of Tyre, according to Midrash. 

Hiram, King of Tyre, was a man of exceeding great pride. What did he ? He 
came to the sea, and, in the depth of the sea, made himself four long iron pillars of 
enormous strength, and placed them one over against the other rectangularly ; and he 
made himself seven heavens and a throne, and the Hayoth thundered with lightnings. 
The first sky he made of glass, of 500 cubits, and he placed therein sun, moon and stars. 
The second sky he made of iron, 1,500 cubits by 1,500 cubits, and a volume of water 
separated the one from the other ; he made in it round stones crashing one against the 
other, with the sound of thunder. The third firmament he made of lead, 2,000 cubits 
by 2,000 cubits, and a volume of water separated it from the other. The fourth was of 
métal, 2,000 cubits by 2,000 cubits, and a sheet of water separated it from the other. 
The fifth was of copper, 3,000 cubits by 3,000 cubits. The sixth he made of silver, 

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^ïwo Ancient iegends Goncernirig SolomoiCs Temple. 269 

3,500 cnbits by 3,500 cnbits, aDd placed thereîn precious stones and pearls. The 
seventh he made of gold, 4,000 cnbits by 4,000 cnbits, and he placed therein theHayoth 
and tlie Chembim, and also a golden bed, and at its head rubies (red stones) illnminated 
on each side ; he cansed lightnings to flash, by the movement of one thing against 
another, there was thnndering and lightning. Then the Almighty said to Ezekiel, 
" Son of man, go and say to Hiram, wherewithal art thon extolling thyself, son of 
woman ? " Ezekiel said, *' How can I go to him when he stands in the air ? " Then God 
sent a wind and Ezekiel was carried bythe fringe of his head right up to Hiram, and 
at once Hiram became agitated, and when he heard the words, '* Wherewithal pridest 
thon thyself, son of woman ? " He demanded ** How didst thou corne hither ? " he said, 
" Throagh the help of God, who bade me speak thns." Hiram said proudly, ** I am a 
child of woman, but I live for ever ; even as God has His seat in the midst of the océan, 
80 I, even as God, hâve a seat in the seven heavens ; nay more, innnmerable Kings 
hâve died, but I live for ever. David reigned 40 years and died, not so I. Solomon 
reigned 40 years and died, not so I, and 21 Kings of Israël hâve been bnried, bat I live 
on. So the Kings of Judah, 10 prophets, and 10 high-priests hâve I outlived, and I live 
on. I am a god and I sit in the seat of the gods." " Truly," said Ezekiel, ** great Kings 
were, and hâve not done so much. It is like a servant who made a noble garment for 
his master, whereof he prîdes himself saying, * I made it.* What did the King ? 
He said * I will rend the robe, so that the servant can no longer boast.' " Then Hiram 
boasted that his cedars made the building of the temple, so God said, ** I will destroy 
my temple, that Hiram may no longer boast." Then He said, " Open, ! Lebanon, 
thy gâtes, and let its cedars consume thy cedars." What was the end ? God brought 
Nebuchadnezzar against him, who ravished Hiram *s mother before his face; then 
dragged him from his throne, and eut f rom his flesh, two Angers breadth every day, and, 
dipped in vinegar, ate thereof, till he died a fearf ul death. And what became of those 
palaces P The earth was rent asunder and they sank down therein and are reserved 
as treasure for the righteous to come. 

In Midrash, Bereshith Rabba, we are told that death came into the world becanse 
God foresaw that Nebuchadnezzar and Hiram would think they were gods. There is 
another legend that Hiram was rewarded for providing cedars for the temple with 600 
years of life in Paradise. 

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TrAnsactions of the Qtiatuor Goronati LoAge. 


I HE Origin of the Pillars to Kingr Solomon's Temple.— Ooe thing 

is perfectly clear about the design of the Temple, and that is tliat the 
plan of it was not an original one, for it was designed to be only a 
copy on a larger scale of the Tabernacle. This want of originality in 
design was also reflected in its ornamentation, for the King of Tyre 
being appealed to for assistance, which was evidently lacking in 
Jérusalem at the time, an artificer was sent from Tyre itself to supply 
those ideas which were needed at the headqnarters of the building. One can imagine 
Hiram the Architect gazing at the plans which merely attempted to translate into 
the more lasting form of stone the temporary woodwork of the Tabernacle, and 
wondering in what way it could be improved. His thoughts woald naturally turn to 
the Temple which stood in Tyre itself, and which is thns described by Herodotus, the 
Greek Historian (B. ii., c. 44), "And being desirous of obtaining certain information 
from whatever source I could, I sailed to Tyre in Phœnicia, having heard that there 
was there a Temple dedicated to Hercules ; and I saw it richly adomed with a great 
variety of offerings, and in it were two pillars, one of fine gold, the other of emerald 
stone, both shining exceedingly at night." The Temple was probably open to the air, 
and the historian is picturing the magnificent view of the pillars as they appeared by 
brighfc moonlight. 

Hiram, when summoned to Jérusalem, might naturally hâve bethought himself 
of thèse magnificent pillars of the Tyrian temple, and designed two others of différent 
shape and différent materials, but yet intended by him to be as noteworthy as those of 
his native city. 

It will probably be remarked that Herodotus viewed the Temple at Tyre in 
443 B.c., or about 550 years after the temple at Jérusalem had been built, but on this 
question he expressly tells us that the priests at Tyre assured him that their temple 
had stood for 2,300 years, and consequently it must hâve been in existence prior to 
King Solomon's time. 

Whether the two pillars in King Hiram's temple had any spécial religions 
significance, or were merely architectural necessities, remains to be seen, but it is 
worthy of attention that amongst the Egyptians, who were the earliest builders of the 
world, and from whom other peoples, and probably also the Tyrians, derived their ideas, 
pillars were held in great honour, and that the Egyptian gi'eat god Osiris was known 
as the " Lord of the Pillars.'' One of the familiar scènes in Egyptian sculptures was 
the great festival of " setting up the pillars,'' in which the Kings took a prominent part. 

F. Armitage. 

Early Philadelphian Visits to Lodge St. David, Edinburgh. 

12th December, 1757. Visited by " Br. Trotter M'- of the First Lodge in Philadclphia." 

lOth October, 1759. „ „ " Br. Franklin Secretary of the Grand Lodge of 

17th March, 1772. „ „ "No. 2 Philadelphia." 

A. M. Mackay. 

Digitized by 


Notes and Quenes. 


Gregrorian Calendar.— Readers of A.Q.C, vol. xxi., pp. 130-136, will doubtless 
notice a discrepancy in the statoments made hy Bros. Hextall and Klein in regard to 
the introduction of the Gregorian Calendar into thia country. 

The Act, 24 Geo. II., 1751, came into force in September, 1752, when the day 
foUowing the 2nd of the month was called the 14th, so that 11 days were dropped and 
not 13 as stated by Bro. Klein. The members of the Greek Church in Russia, Greece, 
etc., still observe the Old Style, and the différence between O.S. and N.S. now 
amounts to 13 days, as the years 1800 and 1900 were not considered Leap Years 
by ns. 


ige 8, line 38. 

iJ J» > 

9 if 

» 47, , 

, 14 

„ 72, , 

, 36 

,,153, , 

, 11 

,,155, , 

, 21. 

,,157, , 

, 8. 

,,167, , 

, 39. 


For II. Kinga^ ii., 14, read II. Kïngs, xi.^ 14. 

„ II. Ghronicles, xiii., 13, read II. Chromcles, xxiii., 18. 

„ Blanck Logon, read Blanch Lyon. 

,, Suprême Court read Suprême Gouncil. 

„ Baphael of Urhino, the Artist, read Michael Angelo. 

„ compiler, read compiler. 

„ lier Uncîe ; the Count, read lier JJncle, the Count. 
After Eclidus, insert clerh. 

Oddfellow's Jewel. 
Dag up in a garden at Ingestre, Staffordshirç. 

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272 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 


T is with regret that we hâve to record the death of Brothers: — 

Major-General John James Boswell, C.B., P.Dis.D.G.M, 

Punjab, P.Sub.Pr.G.M., Roxbnrgh and Selkirk, P.G.D.C. (R.A.), of 
Darnlee, Melrose, N.B., on the 8th October. He joined the Corres- 
pond ence Circle in March, 1892. 

Alexander Robert Leighton, P.Pres.Dis.B.G.P., of Calle 

Florida 183, Buenos Aires, on the 2l8t Jane. He joined the Correspondence Circle in 
October 1898. 

Charles HcCutcheon, M.D., of Tacoma, Wash., U.S.A., on the lOth Angust. 
He joined the Correspondence Circle in May, 1908. 

John Doug^las Thomas» of Eton, Mackay, Qaeensland. He joined the Corres- 
pondence Circle in October, 1895. 

John Charles Frederick Beu, of Box 203, G.P.O., Wellington, New Zealand. 
He joined the Correspondence Circle in January, 1903. 

E. E. HichollSy of 39, Princes Gâte, London, S.W., in October. He joined the 
Correspondence Circle in March, 1908. 

Francis Dowse» of Wolseley Boad, Godalming, Snrrey, in October. He joined 
the Correspondence Circle in May, 1905. 

Bennett Hooper Brough, F.G.S., F.C.S., F.C.I.S., of 28, Victoria Street, 
London, S.W., on the 3rd October. He joined the Correspondence Circle in November, 

Rev. John Maxwell Houtray, LL.D., P.Pr.G.Ch., of Richmond Glèbe, 
Ballygawley, Tyrone, in July. He joined the Correspondence Circle in March, 1895. 

Basil Hatveieff^ of 36, Victoria Road, Upper Norwood, London, S.E., on the 
6th November. He joined the Correspondence Circle in May, 1905. 

Henry Beak, of Pennard, Rockhampton, Qaeensland, on the 18th Jaly. He 
joined the Correspondence Circle in June, 1891. 

Robert Hovenden, F.S.A., F.R.Hist.S., Past Grand Steward, of Heathcote, 
Park Hill Road, Croydi^n, Snrrey, on the 23rd November. He joined the Corres- 
pondence Circle in Jane 1897, and was elected a fall member of the Lodge on the 24th 
June, 1901. 

Rev. Robert Charles Fillingham, of Hexton Vicarage, Ampthill, Bedford- 
shire, on the 9th December. He joined the Correspondence Circle in Jane 1890. 

Daniel Ernest WatSOn, of 6, Larline Gardens, Battersea Park, London, S.W., 
on the 20th November. He joined the Correspondence Circle in January, 1898. 

Major AugfUStUS E. Burdon, J.P., Prov. Grand Master, Northumberland, of 
Hertford House, Bedlington, on the 29th December. He joined the Correspondence 
Circle in October, 1906. 

Digitized by 


cr . , 

Digitized by 



Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of England "aocording to the Old Institution," 

1775-1781 and 179M813. 

Digitized by 









A.D. 1908. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 



Oua^uor Cotomii &o^ç^t, Qto. 2076, 



CIRCA. 1500 A.O. 

S^rtli I>eoemlDer, lOOS. 

H. KxBr.K, Pkiktkr, Maroatk. 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Recjent Hoad, LeicesteR, 

St. John's Day in Winter, 1908. 

NE of the first, as it is one of the most pleasing daties of the newly- 
installed Master of this Lodge, is to seud a Greeting to the Members 
of both Circles. And so, Brethren, in conbinuance of the tîme-hononred 
custom, and on behalf of the Officers of the Lodge, I greet you ail 
right well. 

For most of you, résident in distant lands or provented by 
varions causes from visiting the Lodge, this annnal Greeting mnst always be a verbal 
one only, and yet it is far more than a mère expression of good-will between those who 
meet and part in the journey of life. For are we not boand together by ties, which, 
although invisible, are stronger than iron bands ? Are not onr aims and objects in life 
similar ? Are wo not ail interested in like pursuits, associated together in an effort to 
enlighten and elevate the Brotherhood ? The word of greeting, then, is mnch more than 
a word, it is sympathy, brotherly feeling, an expression of mu tuai faith and trust 
between those who are working together with a common purpose. 

Many of you bave already found an opportunity of visiting the Lodge, and 
personally associating with the Brethren — niay the number of those who are able to 
visit us during the comingyear be largely mnltiplied. Let us grasp one another by the 
haud, and in so doing gain fresh courage, hope and inspiration, with a renewed 
détermination to work together for the lastingbenefit of the vénérable Craft. 

It would be a matter for sincère congratulation if during the coming year it sbonld 
be possible to associate more of you in the spécial work of the Lodge. There must be 
many who are well able to assist, by communicating short papers or notes of interest to 
the pages of the Transdctions, and thus materially enhance their value to the Masonic 
student. Will you not help in this good work ? The Secretary will gladly hear from 
you, and second ail your efforts to increase the excellence of our annual volume. 

You can also further assist the Lodge by obtaining recruits to the ranks of the 
Correspondence Circîe. The list is already a splendid one, testifying to a generous and 
wide-sproad appréciation of the Lodge's work; but every year there is an unavoidable 
wastage which requires making good, and in this direction every Brother may render 
excellent service to the Lodge. 

Let us then ail work together, that the coming year may be one of unexampled 
prosperity, profit and pleasure. 

Once more I greet you, Brethren in the North, East, South and West, and trust 
that there may be abundance of joy and gladness in store for you ail, in the day s which 
lie before. 

Believe me, 
Tours faithfully and fraternally, 


Digitized by 


John, Duke of Atholl, Knight ot thé Most Ancient and Most Noble Ûrder of the 
Thistle, etc, etc , Grand Master 1775-1781 and 1791-1813, of the Grand Lod£^e 
of English Freemasons, According to the Old Institutions. 

The subject of our Frontispiece, John Murray, Fonrth Duke of Atholl, K.T., 
Marquess of Tullibardine, Earl of Stratbtay and Strathardle, etc., etc., was born Jnne 
30th, 1755, and sacceeded his father (tlie Third Dnke) November 5tb, 1774. 

His Grâce was initiated, passed and raîsed in the Grand Master's Lodge, No. 1, 
Febraary 25th, 1775, and Installed Master of that Lodge on the same evening. On 
the Ist March ensuing he was elected Grand Master, and on the 25th of that mont h he 
was formally Installed at the Half Moon Tavern, Cheapside, in the présence of the 
Duke of Leinster, late Grand Master of Ireland, Sir James Adolphus Oughton, late 
Grand Masser of Scotland, and several of his Grace's relatives and personal friands. 
The more serions business of the day being ended, "The R^ Worshipful Grand 
Master gave the proper signal for calling the Lodge to Refreshment which w^as 
instantly obey'd, and accordingly the Brethren adjourned to Dinner, The usnal Healtfas 
was drank in form, and after the day was spent in great harmony, His Grâce gave a 
purse of Twenty Guineas for the Charitable Fund, and at 9 o'clock retired with his 
friends, ordering the Grand Lodge to be closed in good time."^ 

The Dnke was re-elected Grand Master each year till the end of 1781, when, in 
reply to a letter frora the Grand Stjcretary conveying the thanks of the Grand Lodg^e 
for past services, and soliciting a conti nuance of his patronage, the following letter was 
received : — 

" Dunkeld, Nov. 29th, 1781. 
'* Right Worshipful Grand Secretary 

" I had the honour of receiving a copy of the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge 
on the 6th of Sep. and your Letter ycsterday. 

" I should ace «pt with the greatest pleasure of the honor the Grand Lodge hâve 
donc me by re-electing me their Grand Master ; but as my Résidence is chiefly in 
the Country it has not been (nor will it I fear be) in my power to give that attendance 
which is the due of the Ancient Fraternity. I trust that during the time I hâve had 
the honor of being Grand Master, the Honor and Interest of the Craft hâve no way 
diminished, but for the reason above menfcioned, with many thanks to the Grand Lodge 
I mnst beg leave to resign the high offirie of Grand Master, at the same time the 
Fraternity may rest assured of my best wishes for their wellfare, and the Prosperity of 
the Ancient Craft. 

** I remain 
*' Right Worshipful Grand Secret ary, 

" Your faithf ul B' in Masonry, 

(Signed) " Atholl, Grand Master." 

Meanwhile his Grâce had been elected Grand Master of Scotland — 1778-1779, 
but apparently took no further paît in English Masonry nntil the year 1791, wheii, in 
conséquence of the death of the Earl of Antrim, who had succeeded hira in the Grand 
Mastership, he consented to be again nominated as the head of the Ancient Craft. He 
was, of course, unanimously elected, and, on the 20th January, 1792, at the Crown and 
Anchor Tavern, he was duly " Installed and proclaimed Grand Master of Masons in 
England, According to the Old Institutions, with ail the Honors and Forms according 
to Ancient usage." He continued in office until Noveraber 8th, 1813, when, in 
conséquence of the projected union of the hitherto rival Grand Lodges, he resigned in 
favour of the Duke of Kent, whose brother, the Duke of Sussex, had been elected 
Grand Master of what was known as the *' Modem " Grand Lodge, in order that 
thèse two royal brothers might hâve the crédit of cementing an union between the two 
great Masonic Fraternities which, for a period of 60 years, had been fiercely 

During his Grace's second Grand Mastership he evinced the warmest interest 
in Masonry— more particularly in ail that appertained to the body over which he so 
ably presided. It was under his auspices that in 1798 the Noble School, now known as 
the Royal Masonic Institution for Boys, was eetablished, and in 1801 he is described 
as Patron of the Institution, but whether or no that distinction was conferred upoa 
him prior to that year I bave no means of ascertaining. The estimation in which the 

^Qrand Lodge Minutes, March 25| 1775. 

Digitized by 


Duke was held by his brethren is clearly evinced by the folio wiug vote passed in Grand 
Lodge on tho 8th Novomber, 1813, when his résignation was tendered and accepted : — 

"Resolved Unanimously — That the thanks of this Grand Lodge be given to our 
Most Noble Brother His Grâce the Duke of Atholl, for his zealous, enlightened, and 
snccessf al exertions as Grand Master of Masons in England, to promote, extend, and 
setîure the welfare of the Craft. That they feel, with the most lively sensibility, 
the recollection of the cheerfulness with which, in a moment of difficulty, His Grâce 
took upon hira the important office; and that also, on another trying emergency, when 
the existence of the Fraternity, as a rc-cogoized establishment was at stake, he supported, 
by his high narae, power, and influence, the just claims of the Body to be secured 
by a specîial provision from the enactments of a statute, which the safety of the State 
rendered necessary for the restraint and régulation of popular Societies. And it is 
with the most heartfelt gratitude that they make their acknowledgments to His 
Grâce for his long and unshaken patronage, nnder the encouragement and sanction of 
which they hâve advanced to their présent high, respectable and flourishing condition. 
And they fervently pray to the Almighty Architect of the Universe to protect and 
bless their Noble Brother and his Race." 

The ** trying emergency ** mentioned in the foregoing résolution referred to the 
Act of Parliament passed in 1799, known as the Secret Societies Act, in which, at the 
instance of the Duke of Atholl and the Earl of Moira, certain clauses were inserted 
exempting Freemasons* Lodges, under stated conditions, from the penalties of the Act. 

A complète list of the titles and distinctions borne by our eminent Brother wonld 
be beyond the scope of this paper, suffice it to say that they were mauy, ancient and 
honourable, and may be found in the ordinary books of référence. Full particulars of 
his domestic relations and much other information are given in the Annual Begister for 
1830. He died at his Palace of Dunkeld, after a short illness, on the 29th September, 
1830. The foUowing incident in the life of the Duke may be of some interest, as I think 
it is not generally known : — " On the Tuesday (the 18th inst.) an attenipt was made by 
amannamed James Murray to assassinate his Grâce the Duke of Athol. Murray, under 
a pretence of important business, had procured an audience of his Grâce, at one of the 
lodges leading to Dunkeld-house, where he handcd his Grâce a letter, containing some 
unreasonable demands, and which farther stated, that unless his Grâce complied with 
them in a few minutes, he would shoot him. The Duke, wiih singular fortitude and 
great présence of mind, seized the pistol as Murray drew it from his pocket, and,calling 
on some of his attendants, Murray was immediately secured and taken to tho gaol at 

The noble family of Atholl appear to hâve been connected with Freemasonry 
from an early period in its history — the Second Duke was présent in the Grand Lodge 
of England on the 17th of April, 1735, in company with several other noblemen, at the 
Installation of Lord Weymouth as Grand Master— -the Third Duke was Grand Master 
of the Ancient Grand Lodge from 1771 untii his death in 1774 — when he was followed 
on the Masonic throne by the subject of the présent sketch; he was also Grand Master 
of Scotland in 1773, and the Sixth Duke was Grand Master Mason of Scotland from 
1843 to 1864. Whether or no the présent Duke is a member of the Order I hâve no 
means of ascertaining, and, as my enquiries at the headquarters of Freemasonry in 
Scotland hâve not hitherto had a satisfactory resnlt, I hâve refrained from pursuing 
my researches in that direction. However, I learn from the reports of the Grand Lodge 
of Scotland that the heir-apparent to the dukedom (the Marquess of TuUibardine) is 
Grand Master Députe of that Grand Lodge. In addition to the lineal chiefs of the 
Murray family numerous other members of that ancient clan hâve been warm supporters 
of oiir Order in Kngland as well as " over the border." Indeed, one of the earliest 
recorded instances of the admission of a non-operative into the Craft of Masonry is that 
of Robert Moray (or Murray), Quarter-Master General of the Scottish Army, who was 
made a Mason at Newcastle, by some members of the Lodge of Edinburgh, on the 20th 
May, 1G41. Coming to more récent times, there were présent as visitors at the 
initiation of the Fourth Duke in 1775, the Hon. Col. Murray and the Hon. Captain 
Murray, both members of the Dunkeld Lodge. 

The portrait of the Duke of Atholl is reproduced from an engi*aving (in the 
Library of the Grand Lodge of England) by Charles Knight in 1811, after a painting 
by John Hoppner, R.A. 

Henry Sadler. 
^Ewropean Magazine^ Augast 1820. Page 180. 

Digitized by 


^onnhevii anh IfiaM ^ta^ijcv» t 

• SIR 0HARLE3 WABREN, G.C.M.O., Lieat.-General, P.Di8.G.M., Eastern Archipelago, Past Master. 

• WILLIAM HARRY RYLANDS, F.3,A,, P.A.G.D.O., Paafc Master. 

• ROBERT FREKB GOULD, P.G.D., Paet Master. 

• RBV. ADOLPHUS F. A. WOODFORD, M.A., P.G.O. (Died 28rd December, 1887.) 

• SIR WALTBR BESANT, M.A., F,8.A. (Died 6th June, 1901.) 


• SISSON OOOPER PRATT, Lieut.-Col., R.A., Past Master. 


• GEORGE WILLIAM SPETH, F,R.Hist.d., P.A.G.D.O. (Died 19th Apriï, 1901.) 
WILLIAM SIMPSON, R.I., M.R.A.8., Past Master. (Died I7th Augast, 1899.) 

THOMAS HAYTER LEWIS, Professer, F,8.A., F.R.Î.B.A., Past Master (Died lOth December, 1898.) 



EDWARD MACBEAN. F.R.Q.8. Past Master. 

QUSTAV ADOLPfl O^iSAR KU PFERSC H MIDT, A.O.S.G.C, Past Master (Died 30th Oct., 1901.) 

SYDNEY TURNER KLEIN, F.L.S., F.B,A.8. Past Master. 


THOMAS BOWMAN WHYTEHEAD, P.Q.S.B., Past Master. (Died oth September, 1907.) 

EDWARD GONDER, Janr., JP., F8.A,, Past Master. 


EDWARD JAMES CASTLE, K.C., P.D.G.Reg., Past Master. 

SIR ALBERT HASTINGS MARKHAM, Admirai, JT.C.B., P.Dis.G.M., Malta, Past Master. 



HAMON LE STRANGB, M.A., F.8.A., PrG.M., Norfolk, P.G.D., Past Master. 


®ffîcev0 of ti)« Sobj5« anh Committ^«: 

Worshipfal Master 

Senior Warden 

Junior Warden 




Senior Deacon 

Junior Deacon 

Director of Cérémonies 

Inner Gnard 






HAMOM LE STRANGE M.A., F.8.Â., Pr.G.M. Norfolk. P.G.D. 









JOFTN W. FREEMAN, P.M., 147. Freemasons* Hall, Great Queen Street, W.O. 

* Founders» 

Digitized bv 




la Warren, Sir Charles. 0,G,M.Q., K,C.B., F.R.8,, Lîeut.-General. 10 Wellington Creseent, Rantëgate, 
278, 1417, 1832, P. M. Founder and First Worshipfal Masfcer. Past Grand Deacon, 

Past District Grand Master, Eastern Archipelago. 

Ib RylandS, William Harry, F.SM. 61 LincolrCs Inn Fields, London, W.C. 2, P.M. Founder and 

First Senior Warden. Past Master. Past Assistant Grand Director of 

le Gould, Robert Freke, late Slst Regt.,BarrÎ8ter-at-Law. Kingfield, Woking, Surrey. 92,153,570, 
743, P.M. Foander and First Junior Warden. Past Master. Past Grand Deacon. 

1d RylandS, John Paul, Barrister-at-Law, J'.S.i4. 96 Bidston Rcad, Biricenhead. 148,1354. Founder. 

le Pratt, Sisson Oooper, Lieafc.-Colonel, Roy*l Arbillery. The Ferns, Charminster, Doraet. 92. 
Founder. Past Master. 

I f Hughan, William James. Dunacore, Torquay, Devon, 131, P.M. Founder. P.Pr.G.Sec, P.Pr.G.W., 

GornwaU. Past Grand Warden, lowa. Past Grand Deacon. 

7 Bywater, Witham Matthew. 33, Telford Avenue, Streatham EiV, London, 8.W. 19, P.M. Past 

Master and Director of Cérémonies. Past Grand Sword Bearer. Joined 7th April 

8 WestCOtt, William Wynn, If.B., Lond., J.P. 396 Gamden Road, London, N.W. 814. P.M., 

P.Pr.G.D.C, Somerset. Past Grand Deacon. Past Master. Joined 2nd December 

9 Crawley, William John Chetwode, LL.D., D.G.L., F.R.G.8 , F.G.8., F.R.Hwt.S. Member of the 

Senate, Dublin University. Ely Place, Dublin. 357 (I.C.), P.M., Blected Grand Secretary of 
the G.L. of Instruction, and Paitt Re^istrar of the Grand Ghapter of Instruction, Ireland, 
Grand Treasurer, Ireiand. Momber of Permanent Oommittee. Joined 2nd Juue 1887. 

10 Bail, Rev. Charles James, M. A., Oxon., Clerk in Holy Orders. Blechingdon Reetory^ Oxford, 1820. 
Past Master. Joined 8th September 1887. 

II Castle, Edward James, late Royal Ensfineers, Barrîfiter-at-Law, JT.O. 89 Hareourt Terrace, 8outh 

Kensington, Londnn, 8.W. 143. P.M. Past Dep. Grand Registrar. Past Master. 
Joined 4th May 1888. 

12 Macbean, Edward, F.R.G.S. 31 Athole Gardena, Kelvinaide, Glaagow, W. 1 (S.O.), 2029, P.Z. 

Past Master. Joined 4th May 1888. 

13 Goidney. Frederick Hastings. Camh^rley, 8urrey, 259, 335, 626, P.M., Pr.G.Treas , P.Pr.G.W., 

Wiltshire. Past Grand Deacon. immédiate Past Master. Joined 4t h May 1888. 

14 Clarke, Sir Caspar Purdon, C./.E., F.S.i4. Metropolitan Muaeum, New Torh, U.8,A, 1196. Pasfc 

Master. Joined 4th January 1889. 

15 Klein, Sydney Turner, F.L.8., FM.A.8. Hatherlowy Raglan Road, Reigate, 8urrey. 404, L.E. Past 

Master. Joined 8th November 1889. 

16 Marllham, Sir Albert HastinfiTS, Jr.O.B., Admirai, A.D.G., F.R.0.8. 12 Peteraham Terrace, South 

Kenaington, London, 8.W. 257, 1593, P.M. Past District Grand Master, Past 

Grand Superintendent, Malta. Past Master. Joined 24th Jnne 1891. 

17 NinniS, Belgrave, M.D,, Inspecter General. R.K., F.R.G.S., F.8.A. 89 High Boad, 8treatham, 

London, 8.W, 259, 1174, 1691, P.M., P.Dis.G.D., Malta. Past Grand Deacon. Joined 
9th November 1891. 

Digitized by 


18 MalCZOVich, Ladislas Aarèle de. Beliigyminiaieriumf Budapest^ Hungary. Lod^re Szent iBtzFan. 

Member of the Conncil of the Order, Hungarj. Représentative of Grand Lodg'e, 
Ireland. Looal Secretary for Hangarj. Joined 5th Janoary 1894. 

19 Conder, Edward, jun., J.P., F.8.A. The Conigref, Neioent, Qloucestershire. 1036, 1074, 280. 

Past Master. Local Secretary for Ozfordshire aad Gloucestershire. Joined 5th Jannary 1894. 

20 Greiner, Gotthelf. lO ^ 12 Mdton Street, Cripplegate, London, B.C. 92, P.M. Past Assis- 

tant Grand Director of Cérémonies. Past Assistant Grand Secretary 

for German Correspondence. Past Master. Joined 24th June 1896. 

21 Horsiey, Rev. Canon John William, If. 1., Oxon., Clerk in Ho]y Orders. 8t. Peter's Reetory, 

Walloorfh, London, 8.E, 1973. Past Grand Chaplain. Past Master and Chaplain. 
Joined 24th June 1896. 

22 Shacides, G'^orge Lawrence. WicJceraley, Brough, Eaat Yorks. 57, 1511, 2494, P.if., 15Î1, P.Z. 

P.Pr.G.D., P.Pr G.R., North and East Yorkshire. Past Master. Local Secretary for the 
North and East Ridings of Yorlcshire. Joined 7th May 1897. 

23 le Strange. Hamon, M.A., F.8.A. Hunstanton Hall, Norfolk. 10, 16, 52, 2852. P.M., 10, 52. 2852, 

P.Z., P.Pr.G.W., P.Pr.G.TreaB.. P.D.Pr.G.M., Pr.G.H., Norfolk. Provincial Grand 
Master, Norfolk. Past Grand Deacon. Past Master. Treasnrer. Joined 
Ist October, 1897. 

24 Amitage, Edward, M.Â. Qreenhilhy Tilforâ, Famham, Surrey. 859, 1074, 1492, 2851, P.M., 859, 

1074, 1 (S.C), P.Z. Past Deputy Grand Director of Cérémonies. Member of 
Permanent Committee. Joined 7th October 1S98. 

25 CrOWe, Frederick Joseph William, P., F.B.Hw^a. 8t. Peter*8 House, Chichester, 328, P. M., 

7/0, P.Z., P.Pr.G.Reg.. P.Pr.G.Sc.N. Past Grand Organist (Craft .and R.A.) Senior 
Warden. Joined 8th November 1898. 

26 Thorp, John Thomas, F.R.Hist.8., F.R.8.L., F.R.8.A.I. 57 Régent Road, Leicester. 523, 2429, P.M., 

279, P.Z., P.Pr.G.W., P.Pr.G.J., Leicestershire and Rutland. Past Assistant Grand 
Director of Cérémonies (Craft and R.A.) Worshipful Master. Joined 8th Nor. 1900. 

27 Hovenden, Robert. F.8.A., F.R.Hist.S. Ueathcote, Park Bill Road, Croydon, 8urrey. 21, 2140, 

P.M. Past Grand Steward. Joined 24th June 1901. 

23 Sadler, Henry. Free}ni,^on9* Hall, Oreit Qieen Street, London, WC. 147, 2148, P.M., 7, 169, P.Z. 
Grand Tyler. Sub-Librarian Grand Lodge of Eiigland. Junior Warden. Joined Ist May 

29 RobertSOn, John Ross. 291 8herbourne 8treet^ Toronto, Canada. 28, 369, P.M. Past Grand 

Warden, England ; Past Grand IVIaster, Canada. Joined 6th May 1904 

30 WatSOn, William. 105 Victoria Road, Headingley, Leeds. 61. P.M., P.Pr.G.W., P.Pr.G.So., Librarian, 

West Yorks. Senior Deacon. Joined 3rd March 1905. 

31 Songhurst, William John, F.C.L8, 61 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, W.C. 227, 2647, 3040, P.M.» 

7, 720, P.Z. Past Assistant Grand Director of Cérémonies (Craft and R.A.). 

Secretary. Joined 2nd March 1906. 

32 Simpson, John Peroy, B.A. 4 New Court, Lincoln's Inn, London, W.C, 176, P.M., 176, P.Z. 

Junior Deacon. Joined 25th June 1906. 

33 Dring, Edmund Hunt. Cadeleigh, Ouildersfield Road, Streatham Comm-iU, London, 8,W, 1297. 

Inoer Guard. Joined 25th June 1906. 

34 HawkinS, Edward Lovell,, Oxon. Barham Houae, Lnndon Road, 8t. Léonard' s-on-Sea. 357, 

478, 1842, P.M., P.Pr.S.G.W., P.Pr.G.Sec, Oxon. 357, P.Z., P.Pr.G.Sc.B., Oxon. Steward. 
Re-joined 8th November 1906. 

35 Berry, Henry FitzPatrick, I.8.O., Lit. Doc. 51 WaterUo Road, Duhlin. 357. (1.0.) P.M., 83, {I.C.) 

P.K. Joined 3rd May 1907. 


H.R.H. The Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, K.Q., &c. M.W. Grand Master, 

England. Honorary Member. Joined October 1908. 

H.R.H. Prince Friedricll Leopold of Prussia. Berlin. Ordens Meister. National Grand 
Lodge of Gerniany. Past Grand Master, England. Honorary Member. 
Joined 4th January 1901. 

Digitized by 


























Uaibed Grand Lodge of England, Lîbrarj 

Grand Lodge of Ireland, Library 

Grand Lodge of Sootland 

Provincial Grand Lodge of Staffordshire 

Provincial Grand Chapter of Staffordshire 

Provincial Grand Lodge of West Yorkshire, Librarj 

Provincial Grand Lodge of Norfolk 

District Grand Lodge of Gibraltar 

District Grand Lodge of Malta 

National Grand Lodge of Norway 

District Grand Lodge of Natal 

District Grand Lodge of Piinjab 

District Grand Lodge of Burma 

Distiict Grand Lodge of Madras 

District Grand Lodge of the Argentine RepubHo 

District Grand Lodge of Eastern Archipolago 

District Grand Lodge of Northern China 

District Grand Lodge of Queensland 

District Grand Lodge of Soath Africa, W.Div. 

Grand Lodge of Alabama 

Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia 

Grand Lodge of lowa, Masonic Librarj 

23 *Grand Lodge of Kansas 

24 Grand Lodge of Kentaoky, Library 
Grand Lodge of Maine 
Grand Lodge of Manitoba 
Grand Lodge of Massachusetts 
Grand Lodge of Montana 
Grand Lodge of New York, Masonic Library 
Grand Lodge of New Mexico 
Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, Library 
Grand Lodge of Virginia 

33 «Grand Lodge of Florida 

34 Grand Lodge of Wisconsin 

35 *Grand Lodge of British Colambia 

36 Grand Lodge of Canada 






Staff or d 










Buenos Aires 




Cape Town 


Washington, D.C. 

Cedar Rapids 


Louis vil le 





New York 






Victoria, B.C. 

Hamilton, Ontario 

September 1887 
November 1903 
June 1905 
May 1889 
May 1890 
October 1889 
November 1901 
March 1889 
January 1890 
March 1904 
June 1889 
May 1888 
June 1890 
May 1894 
January 1891 
October 1890 
May 1895 
June 1895 
June 1899 
May 1904 
October 1903 
October 1888 
October 1903 
May 1889 
January 1905 
September 1887 
January 1890 
March 1898 
November 1890 
March 1907 
May 1900 
January 1893 
January 1902 
October 1906 
January 1903 
October 1903 

* Owing to the continually inoreasing length of our member-list, it has become impossible to 
await the November élections before going to press. The list has, consequently been drawn up 
immediately after the October meeting, and Correspondence Members admitted in November will be 
found in a supplementary list. Âny altérations for subséquent issues should, therefore, reach the 
Secretary before October of each year. 

Digitized by 



37 Grand National Lodfçe of Germany, Library Berlin 

38 Grand Lodge of Hambiirg, Library Ilambnrg 

39 Provincial Grand Lodge of Lowor Saxony, Library Hamburg 

40 Grand Lodge of the Netherlanda The Hague 

41 Provincial Grand Lodge, Netlierlands, South Africa Cape Town 

42 Grand Lodge of the liepablic of Costa Rica San José 

43 Grand Lodge of New Zealand Wellington 

44 Grand Lodge of South Anstralia Adelaide 

45 United Grand Lodge of Victoria Melbourne 

46 United Grand Lodge of New South Walos Sydney 

47 Suprême Council, A. and A.S.R., England London 

48 Suprême Council, A. and A.S.R., Belgium Brussels 

49 Suprême Council, A. and A.S.R., S. Jur., U.S.A. Washington 
60 Suprême Council, A. and A.S.R , Canada Hamilton 
51 The Grand Council of the Order of the Secret Monitor London 

in England 

May 1887 
May 1895 
January 1894 
October 1899 
January 1899 
June 1902 
November 1R91 
January 1890 
November 1890 
June 1894 
May 1888 
May 1887 
March 1892 
March 1896 
June 1888 


52 No. 








































































Royal Athelstan Lodge 

St. John the Baptist Lodge 

Lodge of Industry 

Humber Lodge 

Lodge of Probity 

Lodge of Love and Ilonour 

Philanthropie Lodge 

Salopian Lodge of Charity 

Mount Sinai Lodge 

Lodge of Harmony 

Lodge Perfect Unanimity 

Lodge of Sincerity 

Lodge Hengist 

lonic Lodge 

York Lodge 

Pilgrim Lodge 

Tyrian Lodge 

Lodge Rock 

Salopian Lodge 

Lodge of Friondship 

Witham Lodge 

Lodge Unity Peaco and Concord, 2nd 

Battalion The Royal Scots 
Lodge Persévérance 
Susses Lodge 
St. PauPs Lodge 

Lodge Independence with Philanthropy 
St. David's Lodge 
Menturia Lodge 
Yarborough Lodge 
Lodge of Ilarmouy 

Cornubian Lodge, " Coombe " Library 
Lodge Goodwill 
Lodge Zetland in the East 
St. Martin's Lodge 
StHart Lodge 



Gateshead, Durhara 


Halifax, Yorkshire 

F al m ou th 

King's Lynn, Norfolk 


Penzanco, CornwuU 

Faversham, Kent 








Trichinopoly, Madras 




Kamptee, India 

Kingston, Jamaica 
Montréal, Canada 
Allahabad, X.W. Prov. 
Berwick-on -Tweed 
Hanley, Staffordshire 
Gainsboro', Lincolushire 
Cawnpore, Ben gai 
Hayle, CornvvaU 
Bellary, Madras 
Liskeard, Cornwall 


January 1890 
October 1890 
June 1895 
May 1889 
November 1890 
November 1901 
October 1890 
January 1889 
January 1903 
November 1890 
October 1893 
March 1894 
March 1891 
June 1895 
October 1888 
November 1905 
January 1888 
October 1908 
January 1889 
October 1888 
March 1891 
October 1901 

May 1897 
May 1906 
June 1888 
Januaiy 1896 
October 1896 
May 1889 
March 1890 
January 1901 
November 1887 
October 1893 
October 1890 
March 1890 
May 1900 

Digitized by 



87 No. 















































































132 4 


















13 j 



Lodge of Philanthropy 

Ëtruscau Lodge 

Yurborough Lodgo 

Lodge Fidel ity 

Lodge St. Germain 

Lodge of the Marches 

Lodge Star of Bui-ma 

Ëxcelsior Lodge 

St. Cuthbert's Lodge 

Portland Lodgo 

St. Bartholomow Lodgo 

Goodwill Lodge 

Staffordsliiro Knot Lodge 

Port Natal Lodge 

Pelham Pillar Lodge 

Carnarvon Lodge 

Lodge of Uoited Goodfellowship 

St. John'a Lodge 

Lodge Victoria in Burma 

British Kaffrartan Lodge 

Isaao Newton University Lodge 

Acacia Lodgo 

Eoyal Alfred Lodge 

Midland Lodge 

Lodge of Loyal t y 

Pbœniz Lodge 

Boy al St. Edmund Lodge 

Kingston Lodge 

Rising Star Lodge 

Lodge Star of the South 

St. Juhn's Lodge 

Marmion Lodge 

Dorking Ludge 

Lodge St. George 

Lodge Pitt- Mac Donald 

Denison Lodge 

Lodge Pioneer 

Lodgo of Faith, Hope and Charity 

Brighouse Lodge 

Okeover Ludge 

Jordan Lodge 

Campbell Lodge 

United Service Lodge 

Wharncliffe Lodge 

Meridian Lodge 

Wellington Lodge 

Mount Ëdgcumbe Lodge 

Charters Towers Lodge 

Lodge Light of the South 

136 „ 1554 Mackay Lodge 

Moulmein, Burma 
Longtori, Staffoidshire 
Ventnor, I.W. 
Framlingham, Suflfulk 
Selby, Yorkshire 
Ludiow, Shropshire 
Buenos Aires 
Howden, Yorkshire 
Wednesbury, Staffordshire 

October 1890 
October 19C6 
May 1893 
June 1903 
October 1893 
January 1889 
June 1890 
May 1890 
January 1905 
October 1888 
January 1889 


1596 Townsvillo Lodge 

13S „ 


Worcoster Lodge 

13J „ 


Ëboracum Lodge Library 

i^ ,. 


Aima Mater Lodge 

141 „ 


Natalia Lodge 

Port Ëlizabeth, South Africa June 1887 

Stafiford March 1888 

Durban, Natal May 1908 

Grimsby, Lincolnshire May 1890 

Havant, Hampshire November 1887 

Wisbech, Cambridgeshire March 1892 

Grahamstown, Cape Colony March 1895 

Rangoon June 1890 

King William's Town January 1907 

Cambridge May 1891 

Monte Video June 1890 

Jersey January 1897 

Graaf Reinet, South Africa May 1906 

St. Helen's, Lancashire November 1888 

Rotherham, Yorkshire January 1891 

Bury St. Edmunds May 1902 

Huli November 1889 

Bloomfontein October 1900 

Buenos Aires June 1890 

Lichfield, Staffordshire January 1890 

Taraworth, Staffordshire May 1889 

Dorking, Surrey October 1907 

Singapore October 1890 

Vepery, Madras October 1893 

Scarborough November 1889 

Gympio, Queensland May 1898 

Ootaoamund, Madras January 1895 

Brighouse, Yorkshire November 1902 

Ripley, Derbyshire May 1905 

Torquay, Devonshire January 18S8 

Hampton Court, Middlesex November 1891 

Landport, Hampshire January 1889 

Penistone, Yorkshire March 1888 

Cradock, Cape Colony June 1889 

Wellington, New Zealand November 1887 

Cambourne, Cornwall March 1891 
Charters Towers, Queensland January 1894 
Rosario de Santa Fc, 

Argentine Republic May 1898 

Mackay, Queensland May 1894 

Townsville, Queensland October 1895 

Worcester, Cape Colony January 1899 

York May 1887 

Birmingham November 1891 

Pietermaritzburg, Natal March 1889 

Digitized by 




142 No. 


Cornet Lodge 

Barcaldine, Queensland 

June 1892 




Manawatu Lodge 

Palmerston, New Zealand 

March 1897 




Lodge Fraternity and Persévérance 

Benares, India 

March 1900 




Tador Lodge of Rifle Yolunteers 

Wolverhamptoni Staffs. 

January 1889 




Chine Lodge 

Shanklin, Isle of Wight 

March 1888 




Aadley Lodge 

Newport, Shropshire 

January 1888 




Grayfltone Lodge 

Whitstable, Kent 

March 1889 




Sfcewart Lodge 

Rawal Pindi, Punjab 

May 1889 




Agricola Lodge 


November 1887 




Pradence Lodge 


November 1887 




St. Clair Lodge 

Landport, Hampshire 

January 1889 




Cango Lodge 

Oadtshoom, Cape Colony 

Jannary 1899 




Frère Lodge 

Aliwal North, Cape Colony 

May 1891 




Prince Edward Lodge 

Heaton Moor, Lancaahire 

May 1891 




Gordon Lodge 

Hanley, Staffordshire 

November 1902 




Makerfield Lodge 

Newton-le-Willow8, Lancs. 

May 1889 




Bosoombe Lodge 

BoBcombe, Hants 

May 1899 




Lodge Karala 

Calioat, India 

October 1900 




Horsa Lodge 

Bournemooth, Hampshire 

January 1888 




Lodge Perak Jabilee 

Taiping, Malay Peninsula 

October 1890 




St. Leonard*s Lodge 

Sbeffield, Yorkshire 

January 1896 




Lodge Laidley 

Laidley, Qaeensland 

October 1898 




St. Paul'a Lodge 

Limassol, Cypros 

May 1899 




Sitapar Lodge 

Sitapnr, India 

October 1896 




Aorangi Lodge 

Wellington, New Zealand 

November 1891 




El Dorado Lodge 

Zeerust, Transvaal 

June 1892 




Read Lodge 

Kwala Lumpor, Selangor 

May 1895 




Lodge Pandyan 

Madura, India 

November 1896 




Minerva Lodge 

Birkenhead, Cheshire 

November 1892 




Quilmes Lodge 

Q ail mes, Buenos Aires 

November 1906 




Gold FieldB Lodge 

Johannesbarg, Transvaal 

May 1895 




Rhodesia Lodge 

Salisbury, Rhodesia 

November 1904 




Hamber Installed Masters Lodge 


May 1898 




Lodge St. John'a 

Buenos Aires 

June 1898 




Metropolitan Lodge 

Cape Town 

January 1899 



2546 «Bahere Lodge 


October 1898 




Lodge Waltair 

Yizagapatam, Madras 

May 1898 




Lodge Manica 

Umtali, Rhodesia 

November 1900 




Poster Googh Lodge 


May 1899 




Lodge Light on the Sarma 

Silchar, Assam 

October 1900 




St. Audrey Lodge 


Jannary 1905 




Lodge United Service 

Bangalore, Madras 

March 1901 




Blyth Lodge 

Butterworth, Cape Colony 

May 1906 




Lodge St. Miohael 


October 1904 




East India Arms Lodge 


May 1907 




Brand Lodge 

Rouxville, O.R.C. 

May 1906 




St. Qeorge's Lodge 

Nikosia, Cypras 

May 1906 




Mid-Kent Masters Lodge 


January 1907 



190 Acacia Lodge, No. VIT. (I.C.) Belfast May 1905 

191 Lodge Temple, No. 318 (I.C.) Mackay, Qaeensland January 1897 

192 Prince Frederick William of Prassia L., No. 431 (I.C.) Ballymena January 1889 

193 Saltcoats à Ardrossan St. John's R. A.L., No. 320 (S.C.) Ardrossan, Ayrshire Jane 1893 

Digitized bv 



lOl Southern Cross Lodge, No. 398 (S.G.) 

195 St. Andrew's Lodge, No. 651 (8.0.) 

196 Lodge Dalhoosie, No. 679 (S.C.) 

197 Lodge Caledonian, No. 737 (S.C.) 

198 Golden Thistle Lodge, No. 744 (S.C.) 

199 Moant Morgan Lodge, No. 763 (S.C.) 

200 Moont Morgan Royal Arch Chapter, No. 227 (S.C.) 

201 Mylne Lodge, No. 769 (S.C ) 

202 Lodge Pretoria Celtic, No. 770 (S.C.) 

203 Dooglas Lodge No. 799 (S.C.) 

204 Lodge Braemar, No. 816 (S.C.) 

205 Lodge Warrego, No. 835 (S.C.) 

206 Lodge Gympie, No. 863 (S.C.) 

207 Lodge RoBewood, No. 878 (S.C.) 

208 Lodge Heather, No. 928 (S.C.) 

209 Concordia Lodge, No. 952 (S.C.) 

210 Simon's Town KîlwinnÎDg Lodge, No. 960 (S.C.) 

211 Lodge de Goede Hoop (D.C ) 

212 Star of the Rand Lodge (D.C.) 

213 Lodge Oranje (D.C.) 

214 Lodge San Jan (D.C.) 

215 Lodge de Goede Trouw (D.C.) 

216 Lodge Frère (D.C.) 

217 Lodge de Ster in het Oosten (D.C.) 

218 Lodge de Vereenigîng (D.C.) 

219 Lodge La Flamboyante 

220 Lodge de Noord Star 

221 Lodge La Compagnie Durable 

222 Anglo-Belge Lodge 

223 L. Les Amis du Commerce et la Persévéranoe Réunis 

224 Lodge Archimedes zu den drei Beissbrettern 

225 Lodge Indissolubilis 

226 Lodge Cari znr Gekronten Saule 

227 L. zu den drei Cedern 

228 Lodge Nos Yinxit Libertas 

229 Lodge Union Royale 

230 Lodge Ultrajectina 

231 St. John's Olaf Kyrre til de gyldne Kjoede 

232 Lodge Baldwin zar Linde 

233 Bow River Lodge, No. 1 (Alberta C.) 

234 Medicine Hat Lodge, No. 2 (Alberta C.) 

235 Battle Lodge, No. 19 (Sask. C.) 

236 Mountain Lodge, No. 11 (B.C.) 

237 Palestine Lodge, No. 357 (Mich. C.) 

238 Mankato Lodge, No. 12 (Minn. C.) 

239 McMillan Lodge, No. 14i (Ohio C.) 

240 Lodge of Fidelity, No. 5 (S.A.C.) 

241 Clare Lodge, No. 12 (S.A.C.) 

242 Lodge of St. John, No. 15 (S.A.C.) 

243 Emulation Lodge, No. 32 (S.A.C.) 

244 Lodge St. Alban, No. 38 (S.A.C.) 

245 Naracoorte Lodge, No. 42 (S.A.C.) 

246 Barunga Lodgo, No. 43 (S.A.C.) 

247 Duke of Leioster Lodge, No. 3 (Q.C.) 

248 Lodge of Otago, No. 7 (N.Z.C.) 

249 Southern Cross Lodge, No. 9 (N.Z.C.) 

Cape Town 

Grabamstown, Cape Colony 
Carnonstie, N.B. 
Mackay, Queeosland 
Johannesburg, Transvaal 
Mount Morgan, Queensland 
Mount Morgan, Queensland 
Charters Towers, Queensland 
Pretoria, Transvaal 
Johannesburg, Transvaal 
Gympie, Queensland 
Cunnamulla, Queensland 
Gympie, Queensland 
Rosewood, Queensland 
Muuaor, South ludia 
Pretoria, Transvaal 
Simon*s Town, Cape Colony 
Cape Town 

Johannesburg, Transvaal 
Paarl, Cape Colony 
Malmesbury, Cape Colony 
Cape Town 

Riversdale, Cape Colony 
Batavia. Java 

Graaff Reinet, Cape Colony 
Dordrecht, Holland 
Alkmaar, Holland 
Middleburg, Holland 

Altenburg, Saze-Altenburg 

Brunswick, Germany 
Stuttgart, Germany 
Utrecht, Holland 
Leipsic, Germany 
Calgary, Alberta, Canada 
Medicine Hat,Alberta,Canada 
Battleford, Sask., Canada 
Golden, British Columbia 
Détroit, Michigan 
Mankato, Minnesota 

Gawler, South Australia 
Clare, South Australia 
Strathalbyn, South Australia 
Norwood, South Australia 
Adélaïde, South Australia 
Naracoorte, South Australia 
SnowtowD, South Australia 
Brisbane, Queensland 
Dunedin, New Zealand 
Inveroargill, New Zealand 

October 1889 
March 1895 
Jannary 1908 
January 1896 
March 1895 
June 1891 
June 1891 
May 1897 
October 1894 
January 1895 
October 1901 
June 1899 
May 1898 
November 1901 
January 1903 
October 1908 
January 1904 
September 1887 
June 1896 
Jannary 1899 
January 1899 
Jannary 1899 
October 1899 
November 1899 
May 1907 
June 1905 
June 1905 
Jane 1905 
January 1897 
June 1898 
November 1890 
June 1889 
May 1896 
January 1908 
March 1902 
November 1906 
March 1902 
June 1901 
March 1901 
October 1903 
May 1901 
May 1906 
June 1907 
October 1898 
May 1900 
January 1907 
May 1892 
October 1906 
May 1892 
January 1907 
October 1890 
October 1900 
March 1900 
June 1894 
January 1894 
January 1903 

Digitized by 






Lodge Ashley, No. 28 (N.Z.C.) 
Lodge Victory, No. 40 (N.Z.C.) 
Lodge Ponsonby, No. 54 (N.Z.C.) 
Lodge Dunstan, No. 103 (N.Z.C) 
Lodge Winton, No. 108 (N.Z.C.) 
Lodge of Ilope, No. 4 (T.C) 
Zeehan Lodge, No. 20 (T.C.) 
La Luz Lodge, No. 3 (C.R.C.) 
Phœaix Lodge, No. 5 (C.R.C.) 

Rangiora, New Zealand 
Nelson, New Zealand 
Auckland, New Zealand 
Clyde, New Zealand 
Winton, New Zealand 
Laanccston, Tasniania 
Zeelian, Tasniania 
San José, Costa Rica 
Port Limon, Costa Rica 


Masonic Hall Library 

Bureau of Ethnology, Sniithsonian Institute 

The Anthropological Institute of Great Britain 

and Jreland 
York Collège of Rosicrucians 
Newcastle Collège of Rosicrucians 
Glasgow Collège of Rosicrucians 
Portland Masonic Library 
Masonic Library and Ilistorical Society 
Masonic Library Association 
Masonic Library 
Masonic Library 
Masonic Library 
Masonic Library 

Bourneniouth Lodge of Instruction 
Holmesdale Lodge of Instruction 
General Lodge of Instruction 
Ottawa Masonic Library 
The Tyler-Keystone 

Sussex Masonic Muséum and Research Association 
United Lodge of Instruction 
Masonic Temple Board of Management 
Masonic Library Association 
The Acacia Chapter (University of California) 
Germantown School of Instruction 
Masonic Library Board 
Freimaurer-Krânzchen im Remstal 
Logenkrânzchen Eos 
Uoited Masonic Library 
Alexandra Masonic Club 
South- West Lodge of Instruction 
Sheffield Masonic Literary Society 

January 1903 
January 1889 
Mareh 1908 
March 1902 
October 1905 
January 1908 
November 1902 
November 1901 
November 1902 

Washington, D.C. 




Portland, Maine 

Duluth, Minnesota 

Tacoma, Washington 

Walla Walla, Washington 

Los Angeles, California 

Détroit, Michigan 

Quotta, Baluchistan 


Tunbridge Wells 


Ottawa, Canada 

Ann Arbor, Michigan 


Pietcrmaritzburg, Natal 


Des Moines, lowa 

Berkeley, California 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Seattle, Washington 

Schwablsch-Gmund, Germany 

Nuremberg, Bavaria 


Leonora, West Australia 

Bunbury, West Australia 


November 1887 
November 1889 
June 1900 

March 1890 
October 1890 
March 1899 
October 1891 
June 1892 
January 1894 
January 1898 
March 1898 
March 1899 
October 1902 
October 1897 
May 1899 
May 1900 
May 1895 
October 1899 
January 1901 
October 1901 
March 1905 
May 1905 
October 1905 
March 1906 
May 1906 
January 1908 
March 1908 
March 1908 
October 1908 
November 1907 
November 1907 


(*The aaterlsh before the namc signifies that the Brother is a Llfe-Member ; 
refer to Zodges, and those in Italics io Chapters, 

the Itotnan numbers 

290 Abdui-Rahman, The Hon. Dato Sri Amor Raja. C.M.G. cjo J. A. Anderson, Esq., 25 Old Broad 

Street, London, E.C. 1152, S.W. November 1893. 

291 Abud, Lt.-Col. Henry Mallaby, I.C.S. 9 Paîl Mail, London, S.W. 456, 90 (S.C.) June 1896. 

292 *AburrOW, Charles. P.O.Box 534, Johannetihurg, Tranavaal. Past Grand Deacon, Past 

Grand Standard Bearer (R.A.) October isss. 

293 AckerS, Arthur E. QUI Street, Charters To^ver s, Queeiisland. 815 (S.C.) October 1900. 

294 Acworth, E. Cecil B. The Cairn, Anstey Road, Umhalla mil, Bombay. 549,P.M., 549. March 1900. 

295 Adams, Alfred John. Htldesay, '6rd Avenue^ East Adelaidef South Australia. 47, 32. May 1905. 

Digitized by 



290 AdamS, Alfred W. P.O.B. 467, Kimherley, South Afriea. 2383, P.M. Dis.G.TreaR. Local Sec. 

for Kimberley. March 1897. 
297 Adams, Arthur W. Holmleigh, Westley Rond, Acock's Grcen, Binninjham. P.Pr.G.S.W., Î.'W, P.Z , 

Local Socrntary for Warwickshire and Worcostcrshire. Janiiary 1892. 
293 Adams, Charlei Fredi*rick. Hôtel DiUer, Seattle, Wash., U.S. A, 9. November 1907. 

299 Adams, Thomas Smith. Maen Teg, Mold, North Walea. P.Pr.G.S.B., 72U PZ. January 1896. 

300 Adamson, Ebenezer. Kirk Lea, Sejton Carew R.S.O., Durham. 139, P.M. January 1903 

301 Adamson, Dr. Kilgour. P.O. Box 22, Springft, Transvaal. 2Go3, W.M. June 1906. 

302 AdcOCk, William Henry. Herberton, North QueenHland. 68ô (S.C), P.M. October 1901. 

303 Addin^ton, Right ïlon. Lord. 2^ Prince^s Oate, London, 8.W. Provincial Grand Master, 

BuckS. October 1908. 
301 Adkin, W. Rylaad D. Springfield, Northampton. 1911. January 1894. 
305 Adier, Elk*in N. 15 C'^pthall Avenue, London, E.C. 1997. March 1895. 
30(3 Adrianyi, Kmilo. NUelungen Str. 1, Narnherg, Bavaria. Lodgo Sonnenrose. Local Secretary for 

Bavaria. October 1893 
307 Agar, A. P. D.8.P., St. Thoma»' Mount, Madraft. 1198. May 1905. 
303 Aitken, Thomas. Stewart Villa, Barone Road, Rothesay, N.B. 510, 163. January 1906. 

309 AlCOCk, John White. 21 St. Peter's Roady Handsworth, Stajffs. 1782, P.M., 1016. October 1901. 

310 AlcOCk, W. D. Box 1248, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 268 (I.C.) Octobor 1902. 

311 Alexander, Major William Patrick, R A. Fort St. George, Madras, India. 1394. October 1901. 

312 *Allan, Ebenezer, F.R.C.S. Duke Street, Barrow-in-Furness^ Lancashire. 0, W.M. May 1901. 

313 «Allan, Francis John, M.D., F.R.S.E. Lincluden, Fairfajc Road, .Teddington. 1768, P.M., 2029, P.Z. 

January 1897. 

314 Allan, Walter Thomas. The Poplars, Beamish, R.8.O., Go. Durham. 2929, P.M., P.Pr.G.S.D., Durham, 

Pr.G.A.Sc.E., Northumberland. January 1903. 

315 Allen, George. 163 Ram.sden Road, Balhain, London, 8.W. 144, P.M., 1S6, P.Z. September 1887. 

316 Allen, George Herbert. 9 Bonham Road, Brixton Hill, London, S.W. 2395, 7. October 1906. 

317 Allen, Harry. Umtali, Rhodcsia. 2678. October 1905. 

318 Allen, Percy James. Equitable Buildings, Sydney, New S'tith Wales. 2613, P. M., 1546, P.Z. 

October 1900. 

319 Allen, Piiilip Spelman. Tne Forehill, Ely. 2727. January 1904. 

320 Allen, Samuel. We-ft Oak, Hajley Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 2654, P.M. January 1905. 

321 Allen, William. The Ferns, Brighton Road, South Croydon. 2741, 2741. June 1907. 

322 Allsop, T. W. H'dywell, Madeley Road, Ealing, London, W. 2429. March 1899. 

323 Ambler, Thomas. 2d Cookridge Street, Leeds. 1311. January 1905. 

324 Amherst Of Hackney, The Right Hon. Lord. Didlington Hall, Brandon, Norfolk. Past 

Grand Warden. May 1894. 

325 Amphlett, George Thomas. Standard Bank, Capetoun. Goede Uoop Lodgo. October 1891. 

326 *Ampthlll, Tho Right Hon. Lord, G.C.I.E. Milton Ernest Hall, Bedford, Bedfordshire. Pro 

Grand Master, Pro Grand Z, Past District Grand Master, Madras, 
Provincial Grand Master, Bedfordshire. May 1904. 

327 Amsberg, S. E. Messrs. G nthrie cj" Co., Singapore. 2933. March 1904. 

328 Andersen, A. Phamong, Quthing, Basutoland, South Afriea. 2089. November 1897. 

329 Andersen, A. Salisbury, Rhodesia. 2479. October 1906. 

330 Andersen, Edward John. Box 76, Qrahamstoxcn, Cape Colony. 389, SS9. May 1906. 

331 Andersen, George Reinhardt, F.R.C.S. 18 Houghton Street, Southfcrt, Lancashire. 2505, P.M. 

January 1902. 

332 Andersen, James. Box 122, Kaslo, British Columbia. 25, S.W., 120, 2nd P. May 1908. 

333 Andrews, John. Homewovd, Rondehosch, C&petown. 398 (S.C), V.U.,86 (S C), P.Z. Oct. 18S9. 

334 Andrews, Michael Corbet. 52 Elmrvood Avenue, Belfast. YU. (I.O.), VIL March 1905. 

335 Andrews, S. Box 78, Roodepoort, Transvaal. 2539. Local Secretary for Roodepoort. May 1898. 

336 Andrews, Samuel, cjo Dr. A Andrews, Albury, New South Wales. 694, P.M., 694, P.Z. 

January 100 t. 

337 Andrews, William Henry. PortUnd, Connecticut,V.S.A. P.Dis.Dep.G.M., New York. No v. 1897. 
333 Andy, s. Pulney, M.D. 1 Ritherden Road, Egmore, Madras. P.Dis.G.D., P.Dis.G.J. October 1S93. 

339 Aniey, John. 34 Colvestone Crescent, St. Mark's Square, London, N.E. 177, P.M. May 1901. 

340 AnniSOn, John. 19 Azalea Terrace, Sunderland, 80, I.P.M., 80. October 1908. 

Digitized by 



341 Apeit, Emil. 49 Lichfield Grove, Finchley, LondoUj N. 186, P.M. Jane 1894. 

342 Appleby, Frederick Henry, M.D., J.P. Barnhy Oate, Newark-on-Trent. P.Pr.G.W.,P.Pr.G.J.,NottB. 

January 1900. 

343 Appleton, Charlee Frederick. Portugal HousCj Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, W.C. 2722. 

October 1903. 

344 Appleton, J. 29 Bridge Street Row, Chester. 721, P.M., 721, P.Z. October 1905. 

345 Apps, Frederick. 26 Rafles Place, Singapore. 508 W.M., 508, J. October 1908. 

346 Apsey, John, R.C.N.C. 2 The Parade, H.M. Doekyard, Portamouth. 349, 966 (S.C.), P.M., 407, H., 

525 (S.C), H., Di8.G.S.B., Malta. May 1907. 

347 Archbold, Robert. 49 Dock Street East, Sunderland, 94, I.P.Bi. October 1908. 

348 Arien, Charles Bufus. 5 Arundel Street, Strand, London, W.O. 2763, 1538. October 1906. 

849 Armltagei Frederick. Monument Station Buildings, King William Street, London, E.C. 2278. W.H. 
June 1908. 

350 Arnnitage, W. J. Dove Moore House, near Shefield. 859. October 1896. 

351 *Armington, Arthnr Herbert. City Hall, Providence, R.L, U.S.A. Représentative of Grand Lodge 

of Loui8iana,and GrandOhapterof Colorado. Past Grand Master, Past Grand Hîgh 
Priest, Rhode Island. May 1893. 

352 «Arnnstrong, Thomas John. 14 Hawthorne Terrace, Neiocastle-on-Tyne, P.Pr.G.W., P.Pr.G.R. 

(R.A.) Febmary 1890. 

353 Arnold, Arthur William. Rhine/ield, Arlington Road, Easthoume, 2676, W. M. October 1896. 

354 Arnold, Henry George. 131 Bit^hop'a Mansions, Fulham Palace Road, London, S»W. Di8.G.Sec., 

P.Di8.G.Trea8., Gibraltar, P.Dis.G.D.C. (S.C), S. Africa, W.Div. May 1907. 

355 Arnold, John. 3144. October 1907. 

356 Arthur, John. P.O. Box 176, Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. Past Grand Master, 3 P.S. 

January 1908. 

357 ^Asbury» Frederick John, F.C.l.S. Finshury Pavement House, London, E.C. 3010. March 1905. 

358 Ashdown, Charles John. 19 Lombard Street, London, E.C. 1427, P.M. Jane 1898. 

859 Aspinall, John Squire. Mary Street, Gympie, Queensland. 863 (S.C), P.M. November 1906. 

360 «Aspland, W. G. 50 Park Hill Road, London, N.W. 1138. May 1899. 

361 Atkins, Rot. Alfred Cuthbert. CUff House, Hove, Sussex. 706. November 1904. 

362 Atkins, Henry John. The Firs Glen, Bournemouth. P.Pr.G.W., Northamptonahire and Hunting- 

don?hire, P.Pr.G.J., Hants and Isle of Wight. March 1887. 

363 Atkinson, Rev. Christie Chetwynd, D.D. Ashton-upon-Mersey, Cheshire. P.Pr.G.Ch. June 1894. 

364 Atkinson, George. Victoria Buildings, St. Mary's Gâte, Manchester. 1458, J.W., 1182, 1458. 

March 1906. 

365 Atkinson, John Wilson. 142 Powis Court Road, Clapton, London, NE. 65. Jannary 1906. 

366 Atthill, Capt. Anthony William Maunsell. Vaalbank, Clarendon Road, Norwich. 943. March 1907. 

367 Attwell. Benjamin Booth. Grahamstoum, Cape Colony. 828, P.M. March 1895. 

368 AttwOOd, Jabez. Hagley Road, Stourhridge. 564, P.M., Î03Î, P.Z. January 1906. 

369 Atwell, George Washington. Lima, Livingstone Co., New York. Dis.Dep.G.M. October 1897. 

370 Aubert, Charles A. G. 8 Store Street, Bedford Square, London, W.C. 1672, S.W. October 1907. 

371 Audagna, Antonio. 28 Panton Street, Haymaiket, London, W. 2687, P.M. June 1904. 

372 Austen, Arthur Elvey. Cradock, Cape Colony. Past Grand Deacon. Dep.Dia.G.M., E.Div. 

South Africa. May 1887. 

373 Austen, Rev. Edward Gilmore. Berrow Vicarage, Burnham, Somerset. P.Pr.G.Ch., Dorset. 

June 1890. 

374 Austen, William Henry. 58 Broad Street, Lvdlow, Salop. 611. October 1908. 
875 Austin, William. Dennistoun, Holton, near Leeds. 27,50. January 1898. 

376 Ayllng, Robert Stephen, A.R.I.B. A. 8 Dartmouth Street, Westminster, S.W. May 1894. 

377 Ayres, George V. Deadwood, South Dakota, U.S.A. Past Grand Master, Past Grand 

High Priest, South Dakota. October 1894. 

378 Ayres, Gustav. lOOO F Street, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 9, 1. October 1907. 

379 Bâche, T. Foley. Churchill House, West Bromwich, Staffs. 2784, S.D. March 1903. 

380 Bachert, Augustus Ellsworth. Rohertsdale, Pa., U.S.A. 327, 201. May 1906. 

381 Backhaus, Fred. Crag Side, Beurhydding, Wharfedale, Yorks. 2669, 600. October 1908. 

382 Bacon, Col. Alexander S. 101 Rugby Road, Prospect Park S., Flatbush, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.A. 

656. May 1897 

Digitized by 



383 Bacon, Henry M&tihew John, Sanitary Engineer. Rangoon, Burma. 2645, 832, May 1902. 

384 Bacon, Uobert. Waverley Terrace, Goleraine, Ireland. 235 (I.C), P.M., 414 (I.C.), K. .lune 1ÎK>4. 

385 Baddeley, V^illiam. C.S.R. Co. Ltd., Lautoka, Fiji. 2238. October 1904. 

386 Badman, Harry Alfred. Sd Highhury HiU, London, N. 1298, P. M. J une 1906. 

387 BaelZ, Robert. The Mount, Que»n*8 Road, Forest Bill, London, 8.E. 238, P.M. May 1897. 

388 Bagshaw, Oscar Gatherall. 2 CheUea Road, SheffieU. 1239, S.D., 1239. Ist A.So. March 1908. 
3S9 Baildon, James Oweu. Suprême Court, Rockhampton, Queensland. 677 (S C). November 1900. 

390 Bailey, B. Sykes. 96 Caledonian Road, Leedg. 2369, P.M. March 1898. 

391 Bailey, Frederick W. 25 Glaremont Road, Cricklewood, London, N.W. 2398, S.D. May 190*. 

392 Bailey, Henry Granfc. Wadenhoe, Hough Qreen, Chester. 1199, 121. March 1905. 

393 Bain, George Washington. Tunstall View, Ashbrooke Road, Sunderland. P.Pr.G.E., P.Pr.G.S.N., 

Durham. Local Secretary for Province of Durham. Mareh 1889. 

394 Bain, J. Wilson. 45 Hope Street, Glasgow. 510, P.M., 296, P.Z. January 1894. 

395 Bain bridge, T. H. Wavertree, Hurat Road, Eaatboume. 2434, W.M. January, 1906. 

396 «Bai nés, Arthor. Lichfield Eouse, Hanley, Staffs. 2149, P.M., P.Pr.G.D., 418, P.Z., Pr.G.Reg. 

March 1901. 

397 Baird, D.M. 35 Henry Street, St. John's, Newfoundland. 454 (S.C.) May 1907. 

398 Baird, Hugh. Box 191, Bulawayo, Rhodesia. 86 (D.C.), J.W. June 1906. 

399 Baird, Robert Craig. Box 359, San José, Gosta Rica. Past Junior Grand Warde n. Bepre- 

sentatative of Grand Lodge of Scotland. May 1902. 

400 Baker, Alfred. Brenda, Woodlands Road, Moseley, Birmingham. 2034. January 1905. 

401 Baker, Henry M. 10 Gale Street, Ghelsea, London, 8.W. 1539. January 1906. 

402 Baker, William. The Bank House, West Bromwich. P.Pr.G.Treas, P.Pr.G.N. May 1905. 

403 Baker, William King. Tredorwin, Towednack, Penzance. P.Pr.O.W., P.Pr.G.J. January 1890. 

404 Baker, William Ray. Golville, Washington, U.S.A. Senior Grand Warden. 20. January 


405 Baker, WiUîs Edwards. GasUla 42, Rosario de Santa Fé, Argentine Repuhlic. P.Dis.J.G.W., 

Dis.P.G.Soj. May 1902. 

406 Bakhsh, Shaikh Miran. Distillery Road, Bassein, Burma. 2645, Dis.A.G.P., 832. October 1903. 

407 Baich, Gaptain Charles Augustus John Albert. R.A.M.O, Mess, Rawal Pindi, India. 1960, Sec. 

May 1908. 
403 Baich^ Ralston. 10 Stonecutter Street, Lmdon, E.G. 1671, November 1905. 

409 *Baifour, Captain Charles Barrington. Newton Don, Kelso, Scotland. Substitute Grand 

Master, Scotland. March 1892. 

410 Balfour, Keîth M. Agent, Allahahad Bank, Juhbulpore, G.P., India. 1065, W.M. November 1905. 

411 Bail, Fraucis William. 55 Grah Tree Lane, Fulham, London, S.W. 2029. January 1906. 

412 Bail, William Thomas. Harhledown, The Avenue, Beckenham, Kent. 435, P.M., L.R., 1260, P.Z. 

November 1893. 

413 Bal iam, Edward John Clark. Maple House, Woodhridge Road, Ipswich, Suffolk. P.Pr.S.G.D. May 


414 Baliantine, Thomas J. Ault, Golorado, U.S.A. March 1896. 

415 Bailantyne, Henry Norman. Innerleithen, N.B. 856, P.M., Sub.Pr.G.M., Roxburgh, Peebles and 

Selkirkshire, 56. March 1899. 

416 Bamford, William Brokaw, CE. Gomer of Ghestnut and Hamilton Avenue, Trenton, New Jersey, 

U.S.A. 5. November 1900. 

417 Bamiet, William Henry. Floradale, Argyle Road, Westcliff-on-Sea. 183, P.M. Local Secretary 

for Essex. October 1897. 

418 Banliam, Joseph. Galle Belgrano 650, Buenos Aires, 2517, P.M, 617, J. May 1902. 

419 Banker, S. M. Helvellyn, Brownlow Road, London, N. P.Pr.G.St.B., Herts. June 1894. 

420 Banks, Arthur Henry. Gity Engineer's and Surveyor*s Office, Council House, Birmingham. 2897, 

J.D. January 1908. 

421 Bannatyne, Brice MoAlister. Springfield, The Hyde, Kingsbury, London, N.W. 216, P.M., 216. 

May 1891. 

422 Barber, Albert Duncan. The Rookery, Dronfield, Sheffield. 2268. January 1908. 

423 Barchus, T. J. 72 Exchange, Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.A. May 1895. 

424 Barclay, Cyril Charles. Trinity Gollege, Gambridgc. 859, 859. June 1907. 

425 Barclay, George. 30, Glifton Road, Ponsonby, Auckland, New Zealand. 844, P.M., P.DiB.G.W., 

Di8.G.Sec. October 1906. 

426 BarefOOt, James William. The Bank House, Enfield, Middlesex. 2536. October 1900. 

427 Barkçr, Glande. 37 We9lb<yurne Road, Sheffield, 2558, P.M., P.Pr.G.Tr., W. Yorks. January 1905, 

Digitized by 



423 Barker, Emeat Marriott. 33 Marina, 8t, Léonard' s- on-Sea. 1842, P.M. October 1906. 

429 Barker, Jacob. Higk Stanners, Morpeth, Northumherland, P.Pr.Q.O., Durham, P.Pr.G.S.B. 

(R.A.), Northumberland. January 1895. 

430 Barker, Major John. The Laurels, Bolton-le-Sands, Carn/orth^ Lancashire. 1715, P.M., 995, P.Z. 

October 190i. 

431 Barker, Thomas Edmund. 6 Norfolk Row, Shejffield, P.Pr.G.D.C, P.Pr. Ist A.Soj., W. Yorks. 

October 1907. 

432 Barker, William Arthur. 48 New Road, Whitechapel, London, E. 933, W.M., 933. Jannary 1907. 

433 Barlet, Stéphane. 97 St. Marh's Road, North Kensingion, London, W. 2060, L.R. June 1904. 

434 Barley, J. E. 2694. March 1906. 

435 Barlow, Capt. John, J.P. Weiifield, Bttry, Lancashire. Past Grand Treasurer. 42, P.Z. 

May 1902. 

436 Barlow, Thomas. 18 Trent Boulevard, West Bridgford. 3219, S.D. May 1908. 

437 Barlow, William, LL.D. Morialfa Chamhers, Victoria Square W., Adélaïde. 38, P.M. Jan. 1896. 

438 Barlow, W. Tillott, A.R.I.B.A. Willowmead, Bognor, Sussex. 1464, P.M., 829, P.Z. Jane 1903. 

439 Barnard, The Right. Hon. Baron. Rahy Gastle, Birlington. Past Grand Warden. Pr.G.M. 

Pr.G.Sup., Durham. June 1907. 

440 Barnard, George Sidney. Eigham Orove, Norwich. P.Pr.G.D.O. March 1907. 

441 Barnard, George William Girling. 4 Surrey Street, Norwich. Past Assistant Grand 

DIrector of Cérémonies. June 1890. 

442 Barnes, John Walter. 27 Clémente Lane, Loridon, E.G, 19. June 1895. 

448 Barnes, William Chapman. 89 Brigstock Road, Thomton Heath, Surrey. 19. June 1895. 

444 Barnett, Ernest George. 1 Oliver Avenue, South Norwood, London, S.E, 2262. November 1907. 

445 Barreil, William Henry. 114 High Street, Portsynouth. 309, P.M., 309, U. October 1907. 

446 Barrett, J. Leach. 70 Belaize Park Qardens, Hampstead, London, N.W. Past Grand Standard 

Bearer. June 1892. 

447 Barron, Edward Jackson, F.S.A. 10 Endsleigh Street, Tavistock Square, London, W.C. Past 

Grand Deacon. May 1890. 

448 Barrow, Charles James. Stalbridge Ghamhers, Chancery Lane, Melbourne, Victoria, Past 

Deputy Grand Master. 8, P.Z. March 1894. 

449 Bartiett, George. 10 Buckingham Oate, London, 8.W. 2030, P.M. January 1900. 

450 Barton, H. J. 29 High Street, Barnes, London, S.W. 2722, S.W. October 1908. 

451 Bascll, E. Bulawayo, Rhodesia. 2792, W.M. June 1905. 

452 Basliam, Septimus. 3 Higham Place, Newcastle-on-Tyns. 2995, 2260. October 1906. 

453 Baskerville, Lieat.-Col. Charles Herbert Lethbridge. 11 Buckingham Mansions, West Hampsfead, 

London, N.W. 1174, P.M., 2736, ii74, P.Z. October 1907. 

454 Baskett, Samuel Russell. Evershot, Dorchester. P.Pr.G.W., Dorset. March 1887. 

455 BaSS, William Henry. 6 Millicent Road, West Bridgford, Notts. 1179, P.M., 506, Z., P.Pr.G.A.P., 

Pr.G.2ndA.So., Derbyshiro. January 1906. 

456 Bassett, John. Endcliffe Crescent, Shefleld. 296, P.M. January 1905. 

457 Bastone, John Millard. Qoodrest, St. Botolph's Road, Sevenoaks. 186, P.M., P.Z. March 1897. 

458 Bâte, Odborne Hambrook. Standard Bank, Cape Toion, Cape Colony. P.Dis.G.W., P.Dis.G.S.N. 

South Africa E.Div., Pr.G.M., South Africa (D.C.). June 1889. 

459 Bâte, Thomas Frederick. Ribhesdale, Wilpshire, near Blackburn, Lancashire. 345. Janaary 1895. 

460 Bateman, George Henry Barton. Osborne Lodge, Grove Park, Ghiswick, London, W. 862, Org. 

November 1907. 

461 Battersby, Charles. Qeorgeto^vn, Queensland. P.Dis.G.St.B. October 1894. 

462 Baxter, Frederick Alfred. 22 Qleneldon Road, Streatham, London, S.W, 2500. May 1908. 

463 Baxter, Roderick Hildegar. 97 Milnrow Road, Rochdale, Lancs. P.Pr.G Sup.W., E. Lança. 

October 1907. 

464 Baxter, Sidnoy R. South Eaetern Wharf, Stoney Street, Southwark, London, S.E. 3077. Oct. 1906. 

405 BayliSS, Thomas Abraham. The High House, King's Norton, Worcester. P.Pr.G.D., 587, P.Z. 
November 1899. 

466 Beak, Henry. Pennard, Rockhampton, Queensland. 767 (S.C), P.M., 205 (S.C.). June 1891. 

467 Beaman, Harris Samuel. 61 St. Quintin's Avenue, N. Kensington, London, W. 227,P.M. Oct. 1905. 

468 Beamisll, Robert Jeffreys. Qrove House, Gravesend. P.Pr.A.Q.D.C, P.Pr.G.St.B. (R.A.). 

November 1903. 

469 Beamisll, William H. Cooleen, Glanmire, Co. Cork, P.D.Pr.G.M., Munster. June 1898, 

470 Bean, Harold. Kelsey House^ Burstivick, near HulU 2134. May 1899. 

Digitized by 



471 Bearman, Fred Jacob. 6 Dalgarno Oardené, North Kensington, London, W. 227. May 1907. 

472 Bebbington, George William. Bexton Road, Knutsford, Cheahire. P.Pr.G.O. (0. & R.A.). 

May 1902. 

473 Bebrouth, A. P. 9 Savage Oardens, Tower Hill, London, E,C. 781, P.M., L.R., 2411. Oct. 1907. 

474 Beck, Radoiph Cari. Uhlandstrasse 2, Gassel, Oermany, Past Grand Orator and Librarian, 

Saxony. March 1887. 

475 Becker, Pitt. 18 Fenchureh Street, London, E.C. 238. January 1896. 

476 Bedford, Jamea P., I.C.S. Tanjore, Madras. 150. March 1900. 

477 Bee, Julian T. Holme Lea, 7 Tatton Road North, Heaton Moor, Lance. 163, S.D. January 1907. 

478 Beech, Col. Rowland J. Brandon Hall, Coventry. 2614. October 1908. 

479 Béer, William A. Oarth View, Pen Bill, Cardiff. P.Pr.S.G.W., 2547, January 1896. 

480 Beerendy Franz Philipp. Jena, Qermany. Zur Akazie am Saalstrande. Dep.M. March 1896. 

481 Beever, Cyril Howard. 27 Palatine Road, Withington, Manchester. P.Pr.G.Reg., P.Pr.G.J. 

March 1893. 

482 Begemann, Dr. Georg Emil Wilholm. Charlottenhurg, Wilmersdorfer Strasse 14, near Berlin. 

Past Provincial Grand Master of Mecklenberg. February 1887. 

483 Belcher, William Henry. Newbury, Berkshire. 574, P.M., 574, P.Z. January 1905. 

484 Bellllos, Raphaël Emanuel. 134 Piccadilly, London, W. 2108, 2108, P.S. June 1908. 

485 Bell, James Richard. Hazeldene, Ljhtham, Kent. P.Dis.G.W, Panjab. June 1898. 

486 Bell, Seymour. 7 Summerhill Qrove, Newcastle-on-Tyne. P.Pr.G.W. June 1891. 

487 Bellamy, The Hon. Charles Vincent. 12 Thomhill Road, Plymouth. 3065, 2649. October 1906. 

488 Bel lew, Thomas Acheson. Underwriter s' Association, Liver pool. 1380. May 1892. 

489 Bellingham, Augustus William Harvey,A.M.I.C.E. Tientsin, North China. 1951, P.M. June 1896. 

490 Belstead, Aithur Henry. 10?. Nov. 1903. 

491 Belton, William. Yewtree Lodge, The Mount, Shreioshury, 262, 117, P.M., P.Pr.G.W., 262, P.Z. 

October 1906. 

492 Bender, Lewis Albert. Bremerion, Washington, U.8.A. 117, P.M., 27, P.H.P. March 1906. 

493 Bendie, Frank. 36 Springwell Avenue, Harlesden, London, N.W. 973, 1602. November 1903. 

494 Bennet, William Royiance. J25 Ferme Park Road, Uornsey, London, N. 2580, P.M. Jan. 1907. 

495 Bennett, George Eric Oliver. Eaton, Rosehank, near Capetown. Past Dep.DIS.G.M., W.DIv., 

South Africa. Past Grand Warden, England. January 1901. 

496 Bennett, William Henry. Education Office, Pietermaritzburg, Natal. P.Dis.A.G.D.O., Dis.G. 2nd A.So. 

October 1897. 

497 *Bennlon, Thomas. Ophir Cottages, Croydon, North Queensland. 768 (S.C), P.M., P.Z. Local 

Secretary for Croydon and Vicinity. June 1892. 
493 Bennison, William J. 67 Southampton Row, London, W.G. 173, P.M. May 1904. 

499 Bentley, Frederick Richard. Lautoka, Fiji. 1931. March 1907. 

500 Bergann, Otto F. C. Hydro Hôtel, Eastbourne. 2434, W.M. March 1906. 

501 BerkS, Henry Woodside. Champaigv, Illinoii, U.8.A. 240, P.M., 50, P.H.P. Dis.Dep.G.M. 

November 1906. 

502 *BernayS, Albert Evan, M. A. 3 Priory Road, Kew, Surrey. 2851. January 1905. 

503 Berry, Clément Harris. Devonia, Stopford Road, UptonManor, London, E. 660,P.M., P.Z. Oct. 1899. 

504 Berry, Frederick Gorton. 10 Swinton Avenue, Plymouth Orove, Manchester. 44, P.M. May 1900. 

505 Berry, Mattîas. Burghersdorp, Cape Colony. 2828, P.M. January 1903. 

506 Bertram, John. S7 Millbrook Road, Southampton. 1461, J.W. October 1907. 

507 Best, Richard, M.A. 88 Lower Baggot Street, Dublin. Grand Master's Lodge, P.M. October iCOu. 

508 BestOW, Charles Horton. 43 Upper Clapton Road, London, N.E. P.Pr.G.Pt., P.Pr.G.S.B., Essex. 

March 1894. 

509 Beu, John Charles Frederick. Box 203, Q.P.O , Wellington, New Zealand. 32 (N.Z.C.) Jan. 1903. 

510 *Bevington, Richard George. P.O.B. 1091, Johannesburg, Transvaal. Sub.D.G.M., Transvaal 

(S.C.) October 1892. 

511 Bey non, John Henry. Qarfield House, Liscard, Cheshire, 2657, P. M., 2^35. May 1900. 

512 Bhawanidas Batra, Rai Bahadur Lala, M.A. Ravenue Minister, Jammu and Kashmir State» 

1485. May 1906. 

513 Blanchi, Antonio. Lincoln House, Woodford, London, N.E. 49, P.M. May 1907. 

514 Bice, w. P. 415 Lonsdale Street, Melbourne, Victoria. Past Senior G. Warden. 6, P.Z. May 1898. 

515 Blebuyck, Julien François. P.O. Laingsburg, Cape Colony. 1469, 2379. May 1902. 

516 BIggS, Rev. Henry Sylvanus, B.A. 51 Highfield Street, Leieester. 523, P.M., P.Pr.G.S. W. May 1902. 

Digitized by 



517 Billinghurst, Henry. 13-22 Wig more Street, London, W. 2508, P.M., Pr.A.G.Sec., Essex. May 1901. 

518 Billson, Frederick William, LL.B. The Bungalow, Gotha Street, Leiceeter. 1391, P.M. Jan. 1902. 
619 Bilson, John. 23 Parliament Street, Bull. 1010, P.M., 1010, P.Z. March 1889. 

520 Bindon, George. Box 226, Pretoria, Transvaal. Lodge de Goede Hoop. March 1907. 

521 Bingham, Frederick Henry. 5 Bolton Street, Piccadilly, London, W. 1669, P.M., L.B. May 1905. 

522 Bingham, Col. Sir John E., Bart. WeH Lea, SheJBUeld. P.Pr.Q.W. Jane 1906. 

523 Bîngham, Sydney Clifton. 210 Durham Street, Ghristchurch, New Zealand, Past Assistant 

Grand Secretary. i, P.Z. Local Secretary for Chrisfccharch. October 1901. 

524 Binney, Joseph. Bank Street, Shefeld. 139, P.M., P.Pr.G.R. Local Secretary for Sheffield. 

October 1890. 

525 Binning, J., CI B , V.D. 12 DUhou'ti^ Sq'iare East, Calcutta. 218, P.M. March 1907. 

526 Birdseye, Sidney George. 9 Sherrard Oardens, Eltham, London^ 8.E. 1275. Jane 1907. 

627 Bishop, John Herbert. 117 Mount Pleasant Lane, Clapton, London, N.E. 2823. November 1900. 

528 BIshop, R. Winsor. Beech Lodge, Norwich. 93,W.M. March 1907. 

523 Bissell, Ernest. Elmcroft, Tamey Road, Dulwich, London, S.E, 1339. October 1896. 

530 Bithell, Walter. Biekly Wood, Malpaft, Gheehire, 2932. May 1905. 

531 Bixby, Charles Sumner. Osawatomie, Kansas, U.8.À, Dis.Dep.Gr.Master, Représentative Grand 

Chapter, New Zealand. June 1897. 

532 Black, Charles William. Mossel Bay, Cape Colony. Dis.GS.B. May 1899. 

533 Black, William. Falkirk, N.B. Provincial Grand Master, Stirlingshire ; Past Grand 

Archltect; Past Députe Grand Zerrubabel. October 1888. 

534 Black, w. P. M. 136 Wellington Street, Glasgow. 510, 296, (S.C.) March 1905. 

535 Blackbeard, C. A. P.O. Box 118, Klerkndorp, Transvaal. 1832, P.M., P.Z. October 1890. 

536 Blackden, Marcas Worsiey. 16 Alllson Road, Acton, Loudon, W. 2430. March 1902. 
587 Bladon, Harry. 16 Clerkenwell Road, London, E.C. 2523, 2501. October 1901. 

638 Bl air, George. Glenrossal, 56 Langside Road, Newlanâ s, Glasgow. 344 (S.C.) October 1906. 

539 Blair, William Robert. Wood Gâte, Vttoxeter, Staffs. 2706, W.M., P.Pr.G.W. May 1899. 

540 Blake, Arthur. 2 Halkin Road, Rartgoon, Burma. 1362 District Grand Treasurer. May 1898. 
6il Blake, Col. Charles John, R.A. 4 Sergeint's Inn, London, E.C. P.Dis.G.J.W., P.Dia.G.Re^'. (B.A.) 

Malta. March 1892. 

542 Blake, Frederick William. Ashley, L'idlow. 611, I.G. January 1907. 

543 Blake, Henry Daniel. Annacy, OverhiURoad, Dulwich, London, S.E. 2729, P.M., L.R. November 


544 Blaker, Dr. Walter C. 63 St. James' Street, Londort, S.W. P.Pr.G.W., Surrey. October 1900. 

545 BleweS, Alexander. Kelvin Cottage, Maryhill, Glasgow. 510, 296. March 1906. 

546 Blinkhorn, Edward. 64 Coleman Street, London, E.C, 1471, P.M. October 1898. 

647 Bllzard, John H. Landsdowne Eouse, Castle Lane, Southampton. 894, P.M. May 1904. 

548 Blood, John Neptune, M.A., B.C.L. Huntley Court, Gloucester. 839. November 1899. 

549 Bluett, Rev. Charles Courtney. Longhurst, Wigan, Laneashire. 2326, P.M., 1335. October 1895. 

550 Blunden, Arthur Edward. 9 Strada Mercanti, Valetta, Malta. 2755, P.M., P.Dis G.W., P.Z., 

P.Dis.G.J. Jflnuary 1902. 

651 Board, George. Whalley Avenue, Sale, Cheshire. P.Pr.G.D , Bast Laneashire. March 1894. 

652 Bock, Johann Daniel. Houghton, Colney Hatch Lane, Muswell Hill, London, N. 238. Jane 1903. 

653 «Bodenham, John. Edgmond, Newport, Saiop. Past Assistant Grand Director of 

Cérémonies. November 1887. 

554 Bodilly, R. T. H., M.R.C.a., L.R.C.P. Woodhury, South Woodford, Lcnlon, N.E. 453, P.M., 

P.Pr.G.S.W., 453, 2410, P.Z., P.Pr.G.S E., Essex. January 1903. 

555 Boffey, Harry Sutton. Box 796, Capetown. De Goede Trouw, P.M., 334. March 1901. 

556 Bolton, George Edward. Supt. of Excise, Pegu, Lower Burma. 542, 542. October 1904. 

557 Bolton, Samuel. 61 New Road, Yfoolwich, London, S.E. 2262. November 1906. 
658 Bomeisler, Louis Edwin. 27 Pirhe Street, New York. June 1898. 

559 Bomeisler, Paltiel R. East Orange, New Jersey. 124. Jnnn 1898. 

560 Bonar, William Macadam. Herberton, North Queensland. P.Dis.G.S.B. October 1895. 

561 Bond, E. E. 7 Wood Lane, Eighgate, London, N. 1232, P.M. P.Pr.G.D., Lines. March 1898. 
662 Bond, G. M. Alrewas House, Ashhoume, Derby shire. 850, P.M., P.Pr.G.S.W. March 1903. 

563 Book, Dr. R. D. Corning, Ohio, U.S.A. 485, P.M., 149. October 1904. 

564 Booth, A. B. Santoy^ Salisbury Road, Moseley, Birmingham. 2034. March 1905. 

Diaitized bv 



565 Booth, Major John. Hazel Bank, Turtor, Bolton, Lancaahire. P.Pr.G.W., P.Pr.G. A.So. Nov. 188Ô. 

566 Booyson, I. J. QraafReinet, Cape Colony. 882. March 1902. 

567 Bo8U8tOW, Henry. P.O., Fimision, Western Australia. 896 (S.O.), P.M. November 1902. 

568 Boswell, Arthur Georore. SI Tankerville Road, Streatham, London, 8.W, 1339, P.M.^P.Z. May 1894. 

569 Boteler, William Stewarb. cjo Capt Bower, O.P.O., Butterworthf Penang. P.Dîs.G.D.C. Bastern 

Archipelago, P.Dis.Q.St.B. (R.A.), Madras. October 1893. 

570 Bourne, John Kemp. The Qrove, Ath^rstme^Warwiehahire. P.Pr.G.W. OoLober 1896. 

571 *Bourne, Robert William. 18 Heraford flfguare, London, 8.W. 32 P.M., 32. Jane 1890. 

572 •Boutell, Frank Hepbnrn Chevalier. 6 i5 Avenida May Oy Buenos Aires. Dis.G.M., 6i7. Oc fc. 1901. 

573 Bowe, William Fairbanks. 541 Broad Street, Augusta, Oeorgia, U.8.A. 412, 2, P.II.P. Local 

Secretary for Georgia. October 1897. 

574 Bowen, John Evan. Appietons, Stoke Oreen, Slough. Past Assistant Grand Director of 

Cérémonies. Dep.Pr G.M., Backs. May 1905. 

575 BowleSp Major-General Frederick Aagasba, R A. O wernm^nt House, Davonport. D.Dep.Dis.G.M., 

P.Oig.G.H., Pnnjab. October 1891. 
676 Boyd, Rev. Thomas Hunter. Waweig, New Brunswick. 28 (S.C.) Jannary 1893 

577 Boyer, Aagast. 1112 Clinton Place, Everett, WasK, U.S.A. 95, P.M., 24. January 1908. 

578 Brading, George Williim. 26 High Street, Deptford, London, S,E. 171, P.M. January 1907. 

579 *Bradley, Herbert, I.C.S. Tke Albany, Numgwnhaukum, Madras. District Grand IViaster, 

District Grand Superintendent. October 1893. 

580 Braithwaite, Dr. £dv?ard A. Edmonton, N.W.T., Canada, Past Grand IViaster, IVianitoba. 

November 1900. 

581 *Brand, Koeniglicher Jastizrath Alfred. Herford, Westphalia, Oerma/ny. Zur Rothen Erde, W.M. 

March 1903. 

552 Brand, Dr. A. T. Driffield, Yorks. 1040, P.M., Pr.G.S.W., N. and B. Yorks. Jane 1904. 
583 Braund, Ilenry. 201 Lindon Road, St. Leonards-on-Sea. 2692. June 1907. 

5S4 Brayshaw, John Lund. Settle, Torkshire. 209, 265. Jannary 1889. 

585 Brazili Frank W. 12 Hijh Street, Deptford, London, S.F. 192*, P.M., 140, Z. January 1905. 

553 Bremner, Morrlson Gardiner. 18 St. Oiles Street, Korwich. 943, W.M. Marcb 1907. 

587 *Brentnall, Ernald James. 80 Clarence Road, Wimhledon, London, S.W. 2513. March 1905. 

588 Brewer, Charles Samuel, L.R.C.S., L.R.O.P. 7 Park Road, E. Birkenhead. P.Pr.G.D., P.Pr.A.G.So. 

January 1895. 

589 Brewster, William Henry. Middlehury, Vermont, V.SA. 2, P.M., Past Grand Deacon, 22, P.H.P. 

March 1900. 

590 Briant, William. 32 Churton Street, Belg rave Road, London, S.W. 101, P.U.,Î329. January 1896. 

591 Brice, Albert Gallatin. 7733 Maple Street, New Orléans, Louisiana. Past Grand IViaSter. 

March 1891. 

592 Bricl<hiil, James. Zeehan, Tasminia. Past Dep. Grand Secretary, Tasmania. P.Z. 

May 1895. 

593 Bridge, Robert. 3 Mayfleld, Manchester Roid, Castleton, Manchester. 2320, J.W. June 1908. 

594 Bridgeford, Charles Stewart. P.O. Box 412, Bulawayo, Rhodesia. 851 (S.C.) October 1907. 

595 Bridger, Percy Louis Grey. c/o Qas Co., Ltd., Caiilla Correo 164, Bahia Blanea. Dis.G.P., 

P.DÎS.G.D.C. March 1902. 

596 Bridgman, John Henry. Avon Cottage, Harpenden, Herts. P.Pr.D.G.D.C, Essex, 1326. Oot.1903. 

597 Briers, Frank Ellis. Box 17, Salishury, Rhodesia. 2479. November 1900. 

598 BriggS, Herbert James. Box 101, Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.A. 1 Providence, Sec. 1, P.H.P. 

Norember 1902. 
699 BriggS, John, M.A. 32 Red Lion Square, London, W.C. 45, P.M., 45, P.Z. November 1906. 

600 BriggS, William, LL.D., D.C.L. Owlhrigg, Cambridge. Grand Treasurer. October 1906. 

601 Bright, John Henry Robert. 10a Oreat Portland Street, London, W. 194, P.M. October 1904. 

602 Brindiey, Charles Frederick. Beechwood, Brincliffe, Shefield. 2491, P.M. May 1898. 

603 Briscoe, Edward John, P.C.I.S. Ué Caixa, Pernamhuco, Brazil. 1601, P.M. March 1900. 

604 «Broadhent, Claude Davos. Nicola Lake, P.O., British Columhia. 10 (B.C.C.), 2738. June 1902. 

605 Broadbent, F. W. 3 Mawdsley Road, Bolton, Lancs. 37, P.M. November 1907. 

606 Broadsmith, Frederick. Somer Leaze, Ashley Road, Haie, Altrincham. Assistant Grand 

Registrar. P.Pr.G.W., P.Pr.G.P. January 1904. 

607 BrOCltaway, Charles A. 792 Lincoln Place, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.A. 719. November 1905. 

608 Bromwich, Joseph, clo J. Crook, 61 Chiiwell Street, London, E.C. 424 (S.C). November 1902. 

Digitized by 



609 BrOOkhouse. John Charles. 7, New Square, Lineoln*8 Inn, London^ W.C. 26Ô3, 79, May 1905. 

610 BrOOkIng, William. Northlew, near Beaworthy, Deron. 2486. October 1895. 

611 Brooking, William Francis. Brougham Street, New Ply7nouth, New Zealand. P.Pr.G.W. (I.C). 

October 1895. 

612 Brooks, Arfchur David. 15 Waterloo Street, Birmingham. 587, P.M., P.Pr.G.Reg. June 1899. 

613 BrOOk8, Francis Augnstus, M.D. St. Félix, Felixatowe, Sufolk. 2371, P.M., P.Pr.J.G.W., 576*. 

October 1895. 

614 Brooks, Harry T. 60 Baring Road, Lee, London, S.E. 65, P.M., 65, November 1907. 

615 «Brough, Bennett-Hooper, F G.S., F.C.S. 28 Victoria Street, London, S.W, 777. November 1895. 

616 BrOUgh, James B. 29 Alexandra Villas, Seven Sisters' Road, London, N. 2397. L.Hr. January IS99. 

617 BrOUghtOn, Henry, jun. 21 Nicholaa Road, Ghorlton-cum-Hardy, Manchester. 1458. October 1905. 

618 BrOWn, Albert. 19 Fairholt Road, Stoke Newington, London, N. 1024. November 1894. 

619 Brown, Alexander Barnett, F.S.I. Amherley House, 12, Norfolk Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

Grand Superintendent of Works. Past Assistant Grand Director of 
Cérémonies (R.A.). January 1901. 

620 Brown, Cony Thomas. Socorro, Socorro County, New Mexico, U.S. A, 9, 8. October 1907. 

621 Brown, Charles Rhodes. Marine Building, Oalveston, Texas, U.S A. 16, PM. June 1906. 

622 Brown, Frederick. 10 Fairholt Road, Stoke Newington, London, N. 1365, W.M. October 1899. 

623 Brown, George Hernaman. Park Lodge, Alperton, Middlesex. 1216. May 1S04. 

624 Brown, G. W. Hull. 1511, P.M. October 1906. 

625 Brown, H. E. Suffolk Villa, Lower Edmonton, London, N. 1237, P.M. March 1907. 

626 Brown, Uarold E. Haig. County Hall, Lewes, Sussex. 2885, P.M. November 1903. 

627 Brown, Harry, I.S.O., H.M. Inspecter of Schools. 6 Ravensivorth Terrace, Durham. Pr.J.G.W., 

Pr.G.J. (R.A.) May 1896. 

628 Brown, H. Weber. 4 Cleveland Road, Ealing, London, W. 2625, P.M. January 1908. 

629 Brown, James. Oratwicks, Ashurst, Steyning, Suasex. 1960, P.M. Jane 1888. 

630 Brown, James Marshall. Thames Street, Oamuru, New Zealand. 52 (N.Z.C.), P.M. Past Grand 

Zerrubabei. January 1906. 

631 Brown, Hon. James W. Keystone Bank Buildings, Pittshurg, Pa , U.S.A. Past Grand Master. 

268, P.H.P. November 1905. 

632 Brown, Julius L. 1^2 Brown Block, Atlanta, Oeorgia, U.S.A. 96, 16. June 1892. 

633 Brown, Macdonald, P.R.O.S. 2 Frognal, Hampstead, London, N.W. 2408, P.M. January 1900. 

634 Brown, Robert Smith. 75 Qaeen Street, Edinhurgh. Grand Scribe Ezra, Scotland. Local 

Secretary for Edinburgh and Vicinity. May 1889. 

635 Brown, Thomas. Linthorpe, Middleshorough, Yorks. 602. January 1901. 

636 Brown, Thomas, Surgeon. 236 Kenningion Park Road, London, S.E. 1597, P.M. June 1904. 

637 «Brown, Walter Herbert, P.B.G.S. 236 Kenningion Park Road, London, S.E. 23. Past Grand 

Steward. 720. June 1900. 

638 Brown, William Alban Haig. cjo King, King ^ Go,, Bombay. 549, P.M., 549. March 1901. 

639 Brown, Major William Henry. Rock Life Insurance Company, Capetown. 398 (S.C.) Jane 1902. 
6iO «Browne, Bernard Frederick. Galle Guyo, 947, Buenos Aires. 2329, 2329. May 1906. 

641 Browne, Dr. Herbert Henry. The Bungalow, Bethlehem, O.R.C. 2522, P.M. Local Secretary for 

Orange River Colony, North. June 1895. 

642 Browne, Major Henry Buxton. Box 17, Durban, Natal. P.Di8.S.G.W.,Dis.G.J., Natal. Nov. 1859. 

643 Browne, John. Parr's Bank, Wigan. 1335, 2226, P.M., P.Pr.G.D. June 1894. 

644 Browne, Matthew Frederick. Burlington, Kansas, U.S.A. 66, P.M., 77, P.H.P. May 1906. 

645 Browning, Charles W. R. 7 Buddle Park, St. Thomas, Exeter. 1254. May 1903. 

646 Browning, NeviUe F. The Postures, Caxton, Gambs. 2283, I.G., 373. May 1908. 

647 *Bruce, Alexander. Glyne House, Pollokshields, Glasgow. Past Second Grand Principal. 

June 1894. 

648 Bruce, J. McPhail. 83 Osborne Road, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 481, P.M., 481. October 1898. 

649 *Bruennich, Johannes Christian. Dahein Taringa, Queensland. 2694, P.M., P.DiB.G.Sup.W. 

October 1893. 

650 Brummerstaedt, H. W. 29 Sarre Road, West Hampstead, London, N.W. 238. March 1902. 

651 Brunot, Hilary Breton. Brevard, North Garolina, U.S.A. 267. June 1905. 

652 Brunton, Gerald Henry. 756. October 1905. 

Digitized by 



653 Bruton, James. Wotton Hill Cottage, Qloucesfer. Past Assistant Grand Director of 

Cérémonies (Graft and R.A.) Jane 1890. 

654 Bryant, James. 48 Oshorn Road^ Souihsea. 10G9. Jane 1900. 

655 Buchanan, Jamea Isaac. Conestoga Building, Pittshurg, Pennsylvania, 219, P.M.,162. Nov. 1896. 

656 Buchanan, John, l Moselle Villas, 8t. Pcter*8 Road, Margate, 1853, P.M., Î928. March 1901. 

657 Buchanan-Duniop, Capt. A. U. The Bar racles, Bury, Lança. 1022. October 1901. 

658 Buck, Edward H. 25 New Road, Chatham. 2153. October 1892. 

659 Buckeridge, Edward Henry. Bancroft Road, London, E. 15, P.M., 219Î. March 1898. 

660 Bucklands, William Prico. 8 Loughhoro Road, West Bridgford. 1623. January 1908. 

661 *Buckiey, Llewellyn Edison, l.C.S. Madras. 150, 150. Jane 1896. 

682 Budden, Charles G. Orove Street, Beeaton, Notts. 47. November 1907. 

663 Budden, Horace. Boscastle, Iddesleigh Road, Bournemouth. P.Pr.A.G.D.C, Dorset. Nov. 1895. 

664 Bugler, Thomas. 43 Morley Road, Lewisham, London, 8.E. 171. March 1895. 

665 Bullen, John Henry. 3 New China Bizaar Street, Calcutta. P.Dis.G.R., Bengal. October 1905. 

666 Bungay, Edward H. 160 Âstonville Street, Southfields, London, S.W. 2740. May 1905. 

667 Burdon, Major Ang. E., J.P. Hartford House, Bedlingion, R.S.O., Northumherland. PrOV. Grand 

Master. October 1906. 

668 Burdon, Charles Sambrook. Albuhera, 45 Derwent Road, Palmer's Oreen, London, N. 2738, P.M., 

L.E., 2738, P.Z. October 1898. 

669 Burger, Daniel Pieter. Graaf Reinet, Cape Colony. 882. October 1906. 

670 Burgess, Henry. Craigengillan, Layton Road, Hounslow. 1556, P.M. January 1900. 

671 Burgess, Thomas. 12 Fouherts Place, Régent Street, London, W. 201, P.M., 23^6, P.Z. March 1906. 

672 Burgoyne, Frank J. Tate Central Lihrary, Brixton Oval, London, S.W. 2941. Jane 1904. 

673 Burlingham, Joseph Cooper. 12 Stanthorpe Road, Streatham, London, S.W. 2272, 1624. May 1906. 

674 Burn-Callander, Edward. 23 High Street, Warwick. P.Pr.G.S.W., Pr.G.So.E. Janaary 1905. 

675 *Burnand, Alphonse A. 806 So. Bonnie Brae Street, Los Angeles, California, Past Grand 

Master, Past Grand High Priest. March 1891. 

676 Burnett, George Henry. 385 High Street, Salem, Oregon, U.S.A, 50, P.M. P.G. Lecturer. 

October 1907. 

677 Bu rrell, Laurence E. Alarie, Kew, Surrey, 3012, P.M. Janaary 1908. 

678 Burrell, Walter C. 6S Barclay Street, Neto York, U.S.A. 42, P.M. October 1908. 

679 BurrOWS, Herbert. 99 Sothehy Road, Highhury Park, London, N. 2920. Janaary 1904. 

680 BurrOWS, Horace Gififard, A.C.I.8. 29 Olive Road, Cricklewood, London, N.W. 2920. Jan. 1904. 

681 BurrOWS, Silas Enoch. Administracion F. C. B. B. y N.O., Bahia Blanca, Argentina. 3196. 

October 1907. 

682 Burtchaeil, George Dames, M.Â., LL.B., B.L. 44 Morehampton Road, Dublin. Pr.G.Sw.B., 

Wicklow and Wexford, 25, P.K. Janaary 1895. 

683 Burton, William. 1608. June 1906. 

684 Busbridge, Walter. Qrasmere, Herbert Road, Plumstead, Kent. 913. P.M., P.Pr.J.G.D., Kent, 

October 1893. 

685 Bush, William Walton. Augusta, Qa., U.S.A. 166, J.W., 2. May 1908. 

686 Butcher, Charles. The Qranje, Tressillian Road, St. John's, London, S.E. Past Assistant 

Grand Pursuivant. Past Assistant Grand Director of Cérémonies (ll.A.) 

March 1906. 

687 Butland, E. J. Brighthelmstone, Stanley Road, Lower Edmonton, London, K. 2664. March 1907. 

688 Butler, Charles. 7 Craven Park, Harlesden, London, N.W. 2489, P.M., 24S9, P.Z. March 1898. 

689 Butler, Charles McArthur. Staple Inn Buildings {South), Holborn, London, W.C. 195, 195, 

May 1897. 

690 Butler, J. Dixon. Qreenford Oreen, Harrow, Middlesex. 34, P.M. Jane 1904. 

691 Butterworth, John. Easingwold, Smedley Lane, Manchester. 2387, P.M., 204. May 1901. 

692 Buttery, Dr. G. B. Oldbury. Pr.G.J.W., P.Pr.G.Treas. January 1907. 

693 Buxton, Frank C. 2528, P.M. June 1906. 

694 Byatt, John. Education Dept., Melhoumey Victoria. 90, P.M., 13, 2nd P. November 1907. 

695 Byles, Francis Wyman, F.C.I.S. 13 Olenton Road, Lee, London, S.E. 2005, P.M. March 1904. 

696 Byrne, William Samuel, M. B. Anne Street, Brisbane, Queensland. D.Pr.G.M. (I.O.) Nov. 1892. 

697 Byrnes, Ralph Boy. P.O. Box 605, Savannah, Qa.^ U.S.A. l, P.M., 3. May 1908. 

Digitized by 



698 Caddick, A. A. NicholU Street, West Bromwich, Staffs. 2784, J.W. Jane 1903. 

699 Cadmus, Henrj C. 1261 Waverley Place, Elizaheth, New Jersey, U.8.A, 33, P.M., Î6, P.H.P. 

January 1906. 

700 Caliaghan, Samuel William. I7th D.C.O. Lancers, Meerut, India. P.Dîs.G.S.B., P.Dis.O.Soj., 

Punjab. October 1906. 

701 *Cama, Dorabjee Peatonjee. 3 Oreat Winchester Street, Londcn, E.C. Past Grand Treasurer. 

September 1887. 

702 Camoran, 8ir Charles Alezander, M.D. 51 Pemhroke Road, Dublin, Past Grand Deacon. 

May 1896. 

703 *Campbeli, Arcbibald Yonng Gippe, I.C.8. Qovernment House, Madras, 150, P.M., 150, P.Z. 

Jnne 1906. 

704 Campbell, Henry. ShanJcill, Co. Dublin. XXY. (1,0), XXV. June 1907. 

705 Campbell, John Lomé. Melita, Manitoba, Canada. P.M. Janaary 1899. 

706 Campbell, John MacNaufçht, CE., P.Z.S., F.E.S.G.S. 6 Franklin Terrace, Glasgow. Past Grand 

Bible Bearer; Grand Représentative, Dakota; Paet Grand Joshua ; Grand Bepre- 
sentative of G.C. of Maryland. March 1889. 

707 Campbell, John. 230 33r(i Street, Milwauheet Wis., U.8.A. 265, 73, S. November 1907. 

708 Campbell, W. s. il Qray's Inn Place, London, W.G. 2029. June 1907. 

709 Campbell - Everden, William Preston. Suffolk House, Gannon Street, London, B.C. 19. 

May 1901. 

710 Camplon, H. Gilmore. 23 Old Broad Street, London, E.C. Past Grand Steward. Jannary 1907. 

711 Campkin, Harry Herbert. Indian Head, Assa., Canada. P Dep.Dis G.M. Local Secretary for 

Saskatchewan. Maroh 1901. 

712 Caney, Stanley. 41 Cheapside, London, E.C. 1415, 720. October 1899. 

713 Canham, George Masters. 19 Oreat Winchester Street, London, E.C. 269*. May 1902. 

714 Capel, George William. 186 Strand, London, W.C. 19, P.M., L.R. May 1904. 
716 Carew, Walter Alexander. Christchureh, New Zealand. 4. October 1898. 

716 Carey, Frank BuBsell, L.D.S. 22 London Street, Basingstoke. 694, 694. January 1904. 

717 Carlyie, Albert Edward. The Firs, Kew, Surrey. 3012. March 1907. 

718 Carnell, James. Ormond, Florida, u.^.A, Past Grand M aster, Past Grand High Priest. 

May 1894. 

719 Carnes, Arthur Augustus. 20 Spring Mount, Harrogole. 2695. January 1906. 

720 Carpenter, A. J. 49 Havelock Road, Brighton, Pr.A.G.Sec , P.Pr.G.So. January 1901. 

721 Carpenter, Arthur. Elmsleigh, Staines, Middlesex. 2536, 135. June 1900. 

722 Carpenter, Lient.-Col. G. T. l Northumberland Avenue, Chàring Cross, London, W.C, Assistant 

Grand Sword Bearer, Past Deputy Grand Sword Bearer (R.A.) Jan. 1906. 

723 Carpenter, Colonel John Anstin. 15 Belsize Creseent, South Hampstead, London, N.W. PaSt 

Grand Sword Bearer. June 1900. 

724 Carpenter, Robert Were. 14 High Street, Ludlow, 611. January 1907. 

725 Carr, Buckley. 41 Oldham Road, Miles Platting, Manchester, 1161, P.M., P.Pr.G.W., Pr.G.J, 

E.Lancfl. March 1906. 

726 Carr, Riley. Tapton House Road, Sheffield. 1779. November 1907. 

727 Carrick, William Lowther. OdkLands, Slokesley, R,8.0., Yorks. P.Pr.G.R., North and East Yorks. 

March 1897. 

728 Carroll, Walter J. 4 Park Terrace, Westcliff-on-Sea. 1227, P. M., L.R., 1227, H.Treas. Jan. 1907. 

729 CarrutherS, John. 8 Firpark Terrace, Dennistoun, Glasgow. Past Senior Grand DeaCOn; 

Représentative of Grand Lodge of Connecticut; Past Flrst Grand Sojourner ; Repré- 
sentative of G.C. of Dakota. May 1892. 

730 Carsberg, George Risden. Aberamffra, Hornsey Lane, London, N. 19. May 1893. 

731 Carson, B. T. Battlefields, Rhodesia. 2479, P.M. June 1903. 

732 Carstens, 0. Moulmein, Burma. Dis.G.S B. Maroh 1899. 

733 Carter, C. A. 36 Clyde Street, Port Elizabeth, S.A. P.Dis.G.W., P.Dis.A.G.So., E.Div. Oct. 1888. 

734 *Carter, Elmer Josiah. Box 496, Missoula, Montana, U.S.A, 40, 25. October 1899. 

735 Carter, Frank Bird. Forest Chambers, St. Oeorge*s Terrace, Perth, Wesl Australia. 39, S.W. 

October 1908. 

736 Cartwright, Emest H., D.M., B.Ch., Oxon. Myskynf, Ticehurst, Sussex. Senior Grand 

Deacon, Principal Grand Sojourner (R.A.) January 1891. 

737 Cartwright, Rev. Canon Harry Beauchamp. Si, Augustine's Collège, Canterbury, Kent. 776. 

October 190^. 

Digitized by 



738 CaruS-Wilson, Edward Willyams. Penmottn^ Truro, GornwalL 331, P.M. Maroh 1889. 

739 CaSBi Albert Uavelock. Coniatotif Epping. Janaary 19()8. 

74'j Casier, C. C. 302 Butlei- Street, Port Huron, Michiaan, U,8.Â. 58, P.M , 27, P.U.P. May 190k 

741 «Casioni Harold Arthur. 42 Woodberry Duwn, Pinshury Parle, London, K 569. June 1906. 

742 Cass, Rev. Frodorick Charles Guiso. Nethercoarf,Chri8ichurchRoad,Bournemouth. 622. May 1888. 

743 Cassai, Col. Charles Edward, V.D., P.I.C., F.C.S. 56 Oxford Gardene, Kenaington, W, P.Pr.G.W., 

Middiesex. 145, P.M., 2060, P.Z. March 1891. 

74Jr CastellO, James. 35 Porcheeter Terrace, Hyde Park, London, W. 227, P.M., 7, P.Z. Jan. 1891. 

745 Caster, Frank. Alcroft, Fletton Avaaae, Peterborough. P.Pr.A.G.D.C , P.Pr.G.So., Northa. and Hunts. 

May 1898. 

746 Caster, G. C. Meiehamsted, Peterborough, Northamptonshire. P.Pr.G.W., Pr.G.J. March 1892. 

747 Cauthorne, Edward Everett. 217, Hawthome Street, Brooklyn, New York, U.8.A, 106, 76. 

March 1902. 

748 Cave- Browne, William Charles. Trichinopoly, Sojith India. 260, P. M., P. Dis. G. A. P., Madras. 

October 1906. 

749 Cave, William Henry. 4 The Triangle, North Kensington, London, W, 1767. Jannary 1899. 

750 Cawley, Richard. Seagirt Cottage, Deal. May 1902. 

751 Cawood, Horace. 68 Eyre Street, Shefield. 2558, P.M., 1239, Z. October 1907. 

752 Cawthorn, John Elston. Eimete House, Sherhum, South Milford, Yorks. 1221, P.M., 289, P.Z., 

P.Pr.G.D.O. (Craft and R.A.) May 1897. 

753 Chabot, Clément. 50 Old Broad Street, London, E. G. 11, P.M. Jane 1900. 

754 Chamberlin, Dr. Jehiel Weston. Lowry Arcade, St, Peter Street, St, Paul, Minneeota. 163, 45. 

Local Secretary for Minnesota. Maroh 1893. 

755 Chambers, James. 123 Broadway, New York, U.S.A. 746, P.M., 8, P.H.P. June 1903. 

758 Chambers, Paul Bell. 564 Gangallo, Buenos Aires. 2517, P.M., 617. May 1902. 

757 Chambers, William. Gapel-Cot, 8>uth Ealing, London, W. 2662. Jannary 1901. 

75S Chant, Thomas Whitemore. Clarendon Lodge, Glarendon Road, Watford, Herts. Past Assistant 
Grand Director of Cérémonies. June 1896. 

759 Chaplin, W.J. 4iDevereuxRoad,GlaphamGommon,London,S.W. 199. May 1906. 

760 Chapman, Arthur. Durban, Natal. Dis.G.Tr., East Afrioa. October 1895. 

761 Chapman, A, C. 38 Primroie Hdl Roid, Hanpstead, London, N.W. 2397. Novembor 1898. 

763 Chapman. Arthur W. 11 Oloucester Roxi, Régentas Pjirk, London, N.W. 289, P.M , P.Pr.S.G.W., 
W. Yorks, 2397, P.Z. November 1906. 

763 Chapman, John Midelton. 40 Hutt Street, Springbank, Hull. 907, P.M., P.Z. May 1898. 

764 Charan, Isa, L.B.O.P., L.R.C.S. Général Uospital, Rangoon, Burma. 36 (B.C.). November 1903. 

765 Chard, Emest James. Messrs. King, King 8f Go., Fort, Bombay. 490 (S.C.) May 1905. 

766 Chard, Gerald Lionel. Yeravdo, via Poona, India. 1100,757. May 1906. 

767 Charles, Cornélius Miller. Puyallup, Pierce Go., Wash., U.S.A. 38, S.W., 14, P.H.P. Jan. 1908. 

768 Chariesworth, Edwin. Groft Villa, Gomersal, Yorkshire. 603. May 1906. 

769 Charlton, William Franklin. Manly Terrace, Colombo Street, Wellington South, New Zealand. 122, 

25. October 1908. 

770 Charnoclt, John A. 82 Willows Road, Birmingham. 1692, W.M. June 1907. 

771 Chatterton, Francis, cjo Messrs. Best Sf Go., Madras. 150. June 1906. 

772 Chatterton, William Lincoln. 10 South Street, Pawtucket, Rhode Island, U.S.A. Grand 

Master. Représentative Grand Lod^re of New Zealand. 4. June 1905. 

773 Cheese, John Edward. Pownall Crescent, CoUhester. 51, P.M., P.Pr.G.D. March 1905. 

774 Cheesman, William Henslowe. 63 Bealey Avenue, Ghristchurch, New Zealand. Past Grand 

Deacon. 1. November 1907. 

775 Cheesman, William Norwood, J.P., P.L.8. The Grescent, Selby, Yorks. P.Pr.G.W., P.Pr.G.J. 

Jannary 1893. 

776 C h ester, Alfred. Dingham, Ludlow. 611, Seo. October 1907. 

777 Chesterton, Lewis Biroh. Box 2210, Johannesburg, Tranevaal. 72. October 1891. 

778 Chicl<, Frank. 83 Queen Street, Exeter. 2659. June 1899. 

779 Childe, Rev. Canon C. y., LL.D. 8 York Gâte, Regent's Park, London, N.W. Past Grand 

Chaplain. Past Grand Scribe N. Jannary 1898. 

780 Childs, Frederick John. 4 Leathwaite Road, Battersea, London, S.W. 1269, P.M. October 1908. 

78 L Chilllngworth, George. Foleshill, Beacontree Avenue, Forest Road, Walthamstow. 1228, P.M. 
May 1902. 

782 Chinn, Thomas Morton. 75 Sharia EmadEl-Din, Ahdin, Gairo. J.G.D., G.Sc.N., Bgypt. March 1902. 

783 Chipman, Eion E. Casio, B.C., Canada. Past Grand IViaster, Past Grand Superin- 

tendent. June 1907. 

Digitized by 



784 Chirgwin,PerC7 Teagae. Market Placé, Penzanee, Corntoall, P.Pr.G.W., P.Pr.G.Treaa. (B.A.) 

May 1890. 

785 Chisholm, Edward A. 96 Qeorge Street, Edinhurgh. Grand Treasurer. October 1900. 

786 Chiver8| George Charles. 12 High Street, Popîar, London, 8.E. 66, P. M., 65. November 1907. 

787 ChOWn, Harry. 47 Inglehy Road, Ilford, Essex. 1421, S.W. Jane 1906. 

788 Christison, James T. Endecott Building, St. Paul, Minn., U.8.A, 363, P.M. October 1906. 

789 Church, John. 17 Winchendon Road, Teddington, Middlesex. 3L7. May 1907. 

790 Citroen, David. Melrose, Shoot-up Hill, Brondesbury, London, N.W. 1681. March 1905. 

791 Clark, Charles Crabb. Durban, Natal. 731 (S.C.), P.M. November 1898. 

792 Clark, David R , M.A., F.S.A., Scot. 8 Park Drive, W., Glasgow. O., P.M. Jane 1890. 

793 Clark, Owen Aly, J.P. 12 Abbeygate Street, Bury St. Edmund's. P.Pr.S.G.W., P.Pr.G.O. Oct. 1907. 

794 Clarke, Allan Aiken. Sharrow Lane, 8heffi.eld. 2268. January 1904 

795 Clarke, Ven. Archdeacon Francis Edward, M.D., LL.D., M.R.l.A. The Rectory, Boyle, Ireland. 

Pr G.M., North Connaught. March 1892. 

796 Clarke, George Henry. 544 Galle Venezuela, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Dis.S.G.D., 3rd Dis.G.P. 

October 1907. 

797 Clarke, Louis Gaylord. Corner of 9th and Hoyt Streets, Porthmd, Or., U.8.A. 55, P.M., 3. 

November 1907. 

798 Clarke, Matthew Herbert. Kingsbury Road, Gravelly Hill, Birmingham. 739, W.M., 739, S.E. 

Jane 1908. 

799 Clarke, Samuel David Thomas. 21 Barclay Terrace, James Lane, Leyton, London, N.E. 1227, J.W. 

March 1907, 

800 Clarke, Sydney Richard. 18 Orove Terrace, Highgate Road, London, N. Iil5, 142. January 1904. 

801 Clarke, William. Sidmouth, Uolmdene Avenue, Herne Hill, London, S.E. 190, P.M. March 1905. 

802 Cleghorn, Edward D. Orilla, Ontario, Canada. 1387. March 1907. 

803 Cleland, John B. 175 East I6th Street, Portland, Or., U.S.A. Past Grand Master, 5, P.H.P. 

November 1907. 
801 Clément, Charles Maxwell. 22 Ist National Bank Building, Sunhury, Pa., U.S.A. 632, 174. 
May 1905. 

805 Cléments, James. The Ark, Foxrock, Co. Dublin. 232 (I.C), 93 (I.C). May 1903. 

806 *Clendmning, James Hermon. 95, Hill Street, Lurgan, Ireland. 134 P.M., 602 P.K. May 1890. 

807 Cleveland, Arthur. St. MkhaeVs House, Basinghall Street, London, E.C. 1728. May 1905. 

808 •ClifPord, Henry John. Morrinsville, New Zealand. 52. October 1898. 

809 Clîft, William Edwin. Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony. 711. March 1901. 

810 CluneSS, William Ross, jun., M.D. Union Sjuare Building, Port Street, San Francisco, Califomia, 

U.S.A. 260, 5. November 1905. 

811 Coates, Arthur Robert. Suva, Fiji. 1931, P.M. October 1899. 

812 Coates, Harold Oliphant. 103 Hornby Road, Bombay, B.L 737, P.M., Dis.G.Treas., 1100, P.Z. 

October 1906. 

813 Coates, Thomas Charles. 337 Park Street, Akron, Ohio, U.S.A. 57, 11, P.H.P. May 1904. 

814 Cobbold, Major Ernest C. York and Lancaster Régiment, Quetta, Baluehistan. 691, (S.C). 

March 1908. 

815 «Cobham, George W. 4 Woodville Terrace, Qravesend. 1464, 829. January 1902. 

816 Cochran, Sam P. Box 119, Dallas, Texas, U8.A. 760, P.M., Past Grand Scribe. High Priest. 

June 1899. 

817 Cochrane, William Percy. Rezzola, Lerici, Sarzana, Italy. 1448, 602. November 1890. 

818 Cock, William, M.D. Hazeldene, Salcombe, South Devon. Past Assistant Grand DIrector 

of Cérémonies, Past Grand Standard Bearer. November 1889. 

819 Cockburn, Sir John Alexander, K.C.M.G., M.D. 10 Gatestone Road, Upper Nortoood, London, S.E. 

Past Deputy Grand Master, South Australia. Past Grand Deacon, Past 
Assistant Sojourner, England. November 1900. 

820 Coffln, Surgeon-Major R. J. Maitland, M.D. 9 h Sinclair Road, London, W. Past Assistant 

Grand DIrector of Cérémonies (Craft and R.A.). October 1900. 

821 CDhen, Arthur P. 40 Colville Terrace, Bayswater, London, W. 395. March 1902. 

«22 Cohen, Isaao. 20 Craven Park Road, Harleaden, London, N.W. 188, P.M., 1615. March 1906. 

823 Cohen, S. Charles. -^2 Kensington Palace Mansions, London, W. 185. January 1903. 

824 ÇQhn, Albert. 84 Canfield Qardens, West Hampstead, London^ N.W. May 1907. 

Digitized by 



825 Ûohu, Thomas. 06 Lansdowne Road, Bromiey, Kent. Past Grand Standard bearer, Past 

Assistant Grand Director of Cérémonies (B.A.). November 1890. 
823 Cole, Charles William. 62 Ritherden Road, Upper Tooting, London 8.W. Assistant Grand 

Director of Cérémonies. May 1899. 

827 CoienSO, Lieut. J. E. 7th^urJcha8, Quetta, Baluchistan, 691, (S.C). Jnne 1908. 

828 Coles, Samuel 6. Casilla 69, Talcahuano, Chile, 2599, 2599. October 1903. 

829 Coles, William James. 34 Denman Street^ London Bridge, Londoriy 8.E, 2663. January 1907. 

830 CollenSi William James. 2 Qresham Buildings, GuHdhaU^ Londwi, E.C, F.Pr.G.Sc.N., Kent. 

Jannary 1896. 

831 Collier, William Harold. PorJfc View, Alexandra Roady Edghastonj Birmingham. 2654. March 1907 

832 Collingridge, John. VSO Coldharhour Lane, London, 8.E. 2191. May 1904. 

833 CollingS, Herbert. 16 Philpot Lane, London, E.C. 134. May 1907. 

834 CollingWOOd, David Foulk. 203 Columbia Bank Building, Pittahurg, Pa., U.8.A, 576, P.M., 

257, P.H.P. October 1904. 
833 CoilingWOOd, Charles Meadows. 8t, David's Hill, Exeter. 1437. Jone 1899. 

836 Coi lins, Algernon Lionel. 246 Qloueeater Terrace, Hyde Parle, London, W. 1460. Janaary 1902. 

837 Collins, George Sherrington. 149 High 8treet, Notting Hill Qate, London, W, 2192, F.M., 1471, 

January 1897. 

838 Collins, Howard J. Général Hospital, Birmingham. P.Pr.G.D.,P.Pr.G.D.O. (R. A.). January 1894. 
889 Colman, Thomas W. 19 Macondale, Norwich. 93 P.M., Pr. 8. G. D., Norfolk. October 1902. 

840 Colman, Waker Stacey, M.D. 9 Wimpole 8treet, London, W. 2870. March 1902. 

841 Coiseii, Robert. 98 The Gommon, Upper Glapton, London, N.E. 2694, P.M. January 1905. 

842 Colton, Charles Maxwell. ManUa, P.I. 342. January 1907. 

843 Comber, Frank P. Cavehill ^ Whitewell Tramways Co., near Belfast, 2083. May 1905. 

844 Condell, Thomas de Renzy. Ghristchurch, New Zealand. Dis.G.Sec. June 1899. 

845 Conder, Edward. New Court, Colwall, Maluern, Herefordshire, 1204. May 1893. 

846 «Conner, William Tate, A.R.I.B.A. Box 5615, Johannesburg, Transvaal, 510 (S.C), 50 (B.C.). 

January 1902. 

847 Connor, James Alexander. P.W.D , Tavoy, Burma. 834 (B.C.), 832. October 1903. 

848 Conor, Col. Cecil. Elmhurst, Feating Road, Southsea. 61, P.M. March 1905. 

849 C on way, Charles. 18 Latnmas Parle Road, Ealing, Loruion, W. 1423. June 1907. 

850 Coolc, James W. 6 Hamilton Buildings, Portland, Oregon, U.8.A. 2, P.M., 3. June 1907. 

851 Cool<, John Oliver. Wrottesley Road, Plumstead, Kent. 913, P.M., 913, P.Z. May 1898. 

852 Coolc, Joseph. The Poplars, Codnnr Parle, Alfreion, Derhyshire. P.Pr.G.W., P.Pr.G.J. March 1905. 

853 Cool<, R. J. Hadleigh, 8uffolk. 376, W.M., 376. January 1908. 

854 Cooice, I. 7 Dawes Road, Walham Green, London, 8.W. 144, 3113, 1321. October 1907. 

855 Cooper, A. J. Bullen. Grimsion Lawn, Ealing, London, W. 2394. March 1904. 

856 Cooper, Rev. Charles E. 8t. 8aviour'8 Church, Victoria West, British Cvlumhia. 24, Ch. 

October 1908. 

857 Cooper, Edward, Staff- Surgeon, R N. H.M.8. 8wift8ure, Channel Fleet. 278. January 1897. 

858 Cooper, Edwin Ernest. Berrydown Court, Overton, Hants. Past Grand Deacon. Past 

Grand Standard Bearer (R.A.). May 189^ 

859 Cooper, Frederick Albert. Box 344, Krugersdorp, Transvaal, 1747, 1747. June 1905. 

860 Cooper, Fred C. Kingfield House, Kingfield, near Woking, 8urrey. 1667, 1657. March 1907. 

861 Cooper, Percy Stephen. 258 Trinity Road, London, 8.W. 1694. May 1901. 

862 Cooper, Raymond Willoughby. Karachi, 8ind, India. 767, W.M. May 1906. 

863 Cooper, Richard Edward. Box 1877, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 2481, 2481, June 1905, 

864 Corbett. John W., M.D. Camden, 8ou1h Garolina, U.8,A, 29, P.M., 4. June 1896. 

865 Corcoran, William St. Clair Denny. The Etchange, National Bank, Pittsburgh, Pa., U,8.A. 221, 

P.M. October 1906. 

866 Cordner, Edward Ellis. Casilla 1386, Buenos Aires. P.Dis.G.P., 2329, H. March 1905. 

867 Cork, Robert Charles. 15 8eething Lane, London, E.C, 157, P.M., L.R. January 1906. 

868 Corl^iii, F. P. New Plymouth, Taranaki, New Zealand. Grand Superlntendent, Past 

Grand Chancelier, Représentative Grand Lodge of Indian Territory. May 1902. 

869 Cornish, William Delhi. Warren Lodge, Bury 8treet, Lower Edmonton, N. 1579. October 1906. 

870 Corsham, Reuben. 28 Kingsland Road, London, N.E. 183, P.M. November 1891. 

871 •Cory. Wright, Dudley. Caen Wood Towers, Sampstead Lane, London, N.W. 875, 875. Oct. 1897. 

Digitized by 



872 Cosgrave, E. MaoDowel, M.A., M.D. 5 Oardiners Row, Dublin. P.M., P.K. October lOOô. 

873 CostellOi Frederick. Eversley, Heasle, KS.O., Hull. 250. January 1907. 

874 Couch, James. Roe Hyde, St. Albanie, Berts. 1601, P.M., 1293, Z. June 1907. 

875 Couison, T. Egmont.Tankerville Road, Sireatkam Common,London, 8.W. 1297. May 1906. 

876 Court, Scephen 0. 40 Harrison 8ireet, Victoria, Briiish Columbia. 1 (B.C.), 120 (G.B.S.), let P. 

October 1907. 

877 Coveney» A. E. 76 Park Road West, Claughton, Birkenhead. 605, P.M. March 1905. 

878 Coveney, Frank. The Brents, Vicarage Road, Hoole, Cheater. 721 P.M. October 1906. 

879 Cowan, James Bryce. Commercial Bank, Colinaburg, Fifeshire, N.B. 111, P.M., 89. Pr.G.Treas., 

Rozbargh, Peebles and Selkirk. Jannarj 1892. 

880 Coweli, Sidney George. Eroica, Harcoart Street, Brisbane, Queensland. P.A.Dis.G.D.G. March 189i. 

881 Cowern, Walter. Qlendene, Musters Road, West Bridgford. 3300, J.W. November 1907. 

882 CowinS, Henry SomerBeld. Bound Brook, New Jersey, U.S. A. 3, 27, October 1897. 

883 Cowiey, Dr. Arthnr Ernest. Magdalen Collège, Oxford. 357. January 1902. 

884 COWX, William Fairfield, 93 Westboume Avenue, Bull. 1511, P.M. November 1903. 

885 COX, Capt. Arthnr D. 69/;i