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BINDING LIST VIAR 1 1922, 



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ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

THE ARTS THROUGHOUT THE AGES 
An llliisl rated Monthly Magazine 

PuBUSHKD AT WASHINGTON, D. C, by 

THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE 
OF AMERICA 

VOLUME XI 
JANUARY— JUNE, 192 1 



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EDITOR-IN-CHIEF 
William H. Holmes 

BOARD OF EDITORS 

Virgil Barker 

Howard Crosby Butler 

Charles Upson Clark 

Albert T. Clay 

Charles T. Currelly 

H. R. Fairclough 

Edgar L. Hewett 

Morris Jastrow, Jr. 

FisKE Kimball 

David M. Robinson 

Helen Wright 



DIRECTOR AND EDITOR 
Mitchell Carroll 

BOARD OF MANAGERS 

Frank Springer, Chairman 

J. Townsend Russell, Vicc-Chairman 

James C. Egbert 
Ex-Officio as President of the Institute 

BuRWELL S. Cutler 

John B. Earner 

Charles Colfax Long 

Dan Fellows I'latt 



VOLUME XI (Nos. 1-6, JANUARY-JUNE, 192 1) 

CONTENTS 



The Chal-o Canyon and Its Ancient Monuments Edgar L. Hewett 5 

(Thirty-three Illustrations.) 

1. Introduction. 

2. The De<;ert, The Canyon and its Ancient Towns. 

3. The Chacones and their Contemporaries. 

The Emergence of Chaco Canyon in History Lansing B. Bloom .... 29 

(One Illustration.) 

The Economic Resources of Chaco Canyon Wesley Bradfield 36 

What the Potsherds Tell Kenneth M. Chapman ... 39 

(Ten Illustrations.) 

To Sipoph^, The Gate of Heaven (A Poem) John Peabody Harrington . . 44 

The Excavation of Chettro Kettle, Chaco Canyon, 1920 Edgar L. Hewett 45 

(Thirty-two Illustrations.) 

1. Scope and Method of the Field Work. 

2. Progress of the Excavations. 

A Marble Vase from the Ulua River. Honduras Zelia Nuttall 63 

(Six Illustrations.) 

A Sculptured Vase from Guatemala Marshall H. Saville .... 66 

(One Illustration.) 

A Ceramic Masterpiece from Salvador W. H. Holmes 69 

Marty-red Monuments OP France II: The Town Hall OF Arras. . Colonel Theodore Reinach . 83 

(Eight Illustrations.) 

Art's Demand Le Baron Cooke 94 

What the War Cost France in Art Treasures Stephane Laiizanne .... 95 

Still Life: Today and Yesterday Horace Townsend 99 

(Eight Illustrations.) 

Armistice Day (Poem) J- B. Noel Wyatt .... 105 

Playing Cards: Their History and Symbolism W. G. Bowdoin 106 

(Ten Illustrations.) 

The Memorials of Rome in the Italian Colonies Giiido Calza 131 

(Nine Illustrations.) 

Ave Roma Immortalis (Poem) . . Henry S. Washington . . . 144 

Smy-rna: "The Infidel City" George Horton i4,s 

(Eight Illustrations.) 

The Diggers (Poem) Han-ey M. Watts .... 154 

The Angel in American Sculpture Frank Owen Payne .... 155 

(Six Illustrations.) 

TuscuLUM, AND The Villa OF CicERO Clara S. Streeter 163 

(Four Illustrations.) 

The Arts of Czechoslovakia: 

Art in Czechoslovakia Ales Hrdlicka 179 

Folk Art Karel Chotek 185 

(Twenty-six Illustrations.) 

Architecture Oldrich Heidrich 199 

(Three Illustrations.) 

Sculpture Oldrich Heidrich 207 

(Four Illustrations.) 

Painting Ales Hrdlicka 213 

(Six Illustrations.) 

Sir Moses Ezekiel, American Sculptor Henry K. Bush-Brown ... 225 

(Nine Illustrations.) 

The Alban Lakes Mary Mendenhall Perkins . 235 

(Two Illustrations.) 

Some Literary Bookplates Alfred Fowler 239 

(Nine Illustrations.) 

William Rush, The Earliest Native Born American Sculptor . . Wilfred Jordan 245 

(Three Illustrations.) 

Rus IN Urbe (Poem) Harvey M. Watts .... 247 

Glimpses Into Greek Art Frederick Paulsen .... 248 

(One Illustration.) 

On a Sarouk Rug (Poem) H. H. Bellaman 250 

Caricature and The Grotesque in Art Alfred J. Lotka 251 

Piero di Cosimo (Poem) Robert Hillyer 253 

Creators of Costume Kathryn Rticker 255 

(Two Illustrations.) 



Current Notes and Comments: 

Old English Portraits at the Ralston Galleries 7i 

Claude Lorrain's "Rape OF Europa" AT THE Satinover Galleries 71 

The Lawrence Collection OF Gothic Stained Glass AT THE American Art Galleries 71 

J. Stewart Barney's Landscapes AT THE Ehrich Galleries ....'.... 73 

The Hankey Etchings on Exhibition at the Schwartz Galleries 75 

General Meeting OF the Archaeological Institute 76 

Mlle. Helene DuFAU. the Great French Portraitist 113 

Perronneau Pastel Portraits at the Knoedler Galleries 113 

■■The Flower Seller," by George Hitchcock 113 

Portrait of Robert A. Hay-Drummond and Brother by Benjamin West 117 

Portrait of Mme. Leopold Gravier by Henri Fantin-Latour "7 

America's Leadership in City Planning — Why Not Constantinople? 119 

A Sculptured Vase from Guatemala 121 

Illustrated Lecture on " Carillons in Holland and Belgium " before the Arts Club of Washington 121 

American Foundation in France for Prehistoric Studies 121 

General Meeting of the Archaeological Institute of America 122 

The College Art Association of America 122 

An Underground Tomb with Important Fresco Decoration Recently Discovered in Rome ....-.' 169 

An Apartment House of One Thousand Rooms 172 

Annual Meeting of the College Art Association 172 

"Death and Resurrection." by Ettore Cadorin 221 

Athenian Nights at Toledo Art Museum 221 

Annual Convention of American Federation of Arts 221 

Monticelli Exhibition at the VosE Galleries. Boston 222 

Madame Anie Mouroux, French Medalist 258 

A John Burroughs Art Exhibition at the Ehrich Galleries 259 

The American School in France for Prehistoric Studies 259 

An Unpublished Verestchagin 260 

Sir Moses Ezekiel, American Sculptor 261 

Exhibition of Whistleriana at Library of Congress 261 

A Rare Effigy Pipe from Tennessee 262 

Mrs. Nuttall and the Ulua River 263 

The Arts Club of Washington 264 

Book Critiques: 

From Holbein to Whistler. Notes on Drawing and Engraving, by Alfred Mansfield Brooks 77 

Attic Red-Figured Vases in American Museums. By J. D. Beazley 77 

Everyone's History of French Art. By Louis Hourticq 78 

An Economic History of Rome to the End of the Republic. By Tenney Frank 79 

Sketches AND Designs by Stanford White, with AN OUTLINE OF his CAREER. By Lawrence Grant White 123 

Dynamic Symmetry. The Greek Vase, by Jay Hambidge o 02140 

The Ideals OP Indian Art. By E. B. Havel 125 

Outlines of Chinese Art. By John C. Ferguson 125 

Wilderness: A Journal of Quiet Adventure in Alaska. By Rockwell Kent 127 

The Sorceress of Rome. By Nathan Gallizier 128 

The Medallic Portraits of Christ. By G. F. Hill. Fellow of the British Academy 128 

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Catalogue of Engraved Gems of the Classical Style. By Gisela M. A. 

Richter I73 

Fogg Art Museum, Harvard L'niversity. Collection of Mediaeval and Renaissance Paintings 173 

Decorated Wooden Ceilings in Spain. A Collection of Photographs and Measured Drawings with Descripttve 

Text. By Arthur Byne and Mildred Stapley - I74 

Modern Greek Stories, translated from the original by Demetra Vaka and Aristides Phoutrides, with a foreword by 

Demetra Vaka I75 

The Leopard Prince. A Romance of Venice in the Fourteenth Century at the Period of the Bosnian Con- 
spiracy. By Nathan Gallizier 176 

Modern European History. By Hutton Webster 176 

The Outline OF History, by H. G. Wells. Being a Plain History of Life and Mankind 223 

The New Stone Age in Northern Europe. By John M. Tyler 224 

Venizelos. By Herbert Adams Gibbons 265 

Discovery in Greek Lands. A Sketch of the Principal Excavations and Discoveries of the Last Fifty Years. 

By F. H. Marshall 267 

The Greek Theatre of the Fifth Century before Christ. By James Turner Allen 268 



APPRECIATIONS 



JJ'hat readers are saying of recent numbers of Art and Archaeology 



"Among magazines Art and Archaeology is conducted with the most distinguished 
courtesy." — Christine Swayne, Haverjord, Pa. 

"Many thanks for having sent me a copy of your Christmas number, which pars a splendid 
tribute to my country and will he deeply appreciated in France." — Stephane Lauzanne, Paris. 

"I appreciate very much your magazine and I thinlc that it has many higher qualities than 
any other art magazine in this country, and I will try to recommend it to all my friends here and 
abroad." — Ettore Cadorin, Nutv York. 

"I wish, also, to e.xpress my appreciation of the splendid articles and beautiful illustrations 
given in this number of the magazine, as well as for the unusually fine article in the December 
number, 'The Empress Eugenie and the .=\rt of the Second Empire,' bearing your signature. In 
fact, every issue of the magazine seems to have a charm of its own." — Mrs. Clar.^ S. Streeter, 
Denver, Colo. 

"I am herewith enclosing check for $4.00 covering renewal of my subscription for the year 
1921, and in so doing wish to express my appreciation of the artistic and attractive manner in 
which your publication is illustrated and printed." — Hugo A. Koehler, St. Louis, Mo. 

" I want to take advantage of this opportunity to tell you how much I admire and appreciate 
Art and .'\rchaeology. I receive it through the courtesy of The .Arts Club of your cit.v, of which 
I am a member. The magazine is a marvel pictorially, a perfect exemplar of the printer's art 
and the text is of unfailing interest. You are doing a wonderful service to moderns in presenting 
in such an attractive form the history of the ancients as told by their ruins throughout the world. 
Each number presents a mine of information, and constitutes a real joy." — Edwin Carlile 
Litsey, Lebanon, Ky. 

".\n and Archaeology is one of the most sumptuously illustrated publications in America. 
It deals largely with the civilizations of the past — particularly with those which existed in .America. 
On this account it is of especial interest to those who have travelled in the Southwest, and desire 
to keep abreast of the explorations and investigations in that section of the United States. To 
read it is to receive a liberal education in .Art." — Charles I. Taylor, Boulder, Colo. 



TRIAL SUBSCRIPTION FOR $1.00 
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Attached herewith is $1.00 for which send me Art and Archaeology for three months. 

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ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

An Illustrated Monthly Magazine 

Published at WASHINGTON. D. C. by 

THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

ART AND LIFE (new york) combined with ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



Volume XI 



JANUARY-FEBRUARY, 1921 



Numbers 1-2 



EDITOR-IN-CHIEF 
WILLIAM H. HOLMES 

BOARD OF EDITORS 

ViRGii. Barker 
Howard Crosby Butler 
Charles Upson Clark 

Albert T. Clay 

Charles T. Currelly 

H. R. Fairclough 

Edgar L. Hewett 

Morris Jastrow 

FiSKE Kimball 

David M. Robinson 

Helen Wright 




DIRECTOR AND EDITOR 
MITCHELL CARROLL 

BOARD OF MANAGERS 

Frank Springer, Chairman 

J. Townsend Russell, Vice-Chairman 

James C. Egbbrt 

Ex-officio as President of the Institute 

Burwell S. Cutler 

John B. Larner 

Charles Colfax Long 

Dan Fellows Platt 



Edgar L. Hewett 



Lansing B. Bloom 



CONTENTS 

The Chaco Canyon and its Ancient Monuments 

Thirty-three Illustrations 

1. Introduction 

2. The Desert, The Canyon and its Ancient Towns 

3. The Chacones and their Contemporaries 

The Emergence of Chaco Canyon in History 

One Illustration 

The Economic Resources of Chaco Canyon Wesley Bradfield 

What the Potsherds Tell .... Ketinelh M. Chapman . 

Ten Illustrations 

To Sipoph^, the Gate of Heaven John Peabody Harrington 

A Poem 

The Excavation of Chettro Kettle, Chaco Canyon, 1920 . . . Edgar L. Hewell 

Thirty-two Illustrations 

1. Scope and Method of the Field Work 

2. Progress of the Excavations 

A Marble Vase from the Ulna River, Honduras Zelia Nullall .... 

Six Illustrations 

Marshall H. Saville . 



A Sculptured Vase from Guatemala 

One Illustration 

A Ceramic Masterpiece from Salvador W. H. Holmes 

One Illustration 

Current Notes and Comments 

Seven Illustrations 



Book Critiques 



29 

36 
39 

44 
45 



63 
66 
69 
71 
77 



Instructions for renewal, discontinuance, or change of address should be 

Also 



Terms: S5.00 a year in advance, single numbers, .so cents 
sent two weeks before the date they are to go into effect. 

All correspondence should be addressed and remittances made to Art and Arch.^Eology. the Octagon, Washington. D. C 
manuscripts, photographs, material for notes and news, books for review, and exchanges, should be sent to this address. 

Advertisements should be sent to Chandler-Jennings. Inc., Advertising Managers. I West 34th St.. New York. N- Y.. the New 
York Office of Art and Archaeology 

Foreign subscriptions and advertisements should be sent to David H Bond. 407 Bank Chambers. Chancery Lane. London. W. C.-i. 

Entered at the Post Office at Washington. D. C. as second-class mail matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage 

provided for in section 1103, Act of October 3. 1917. authorized September 7. 1918. 

Copyright. 1921. bv the Archaeological Institute of America 



M f 

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ART mU 
ARCHAEOLOGY 

The Arts Throughout the Ages 



Volume XI 



JANUARY-FEBRUARY, 1921 



Numbers 1-2 



THE CHACO CANYON AND ITS ANCIENT 

MONUMENTS 

Bv Edgar L. Hewett 



I. INTRODUCTION. 

SOME centuries ago, a group of 
communities lived along a small 
waterway on the western slope 
of the continental divide in latitude 36 
north, longitude 109 west, a place that 
is now known as Chaco Canyon, New 
Mexico. No written Word of history 
exists concerning them. No convincing 
tradition^ of them had ever been found 
among living peoples until, on the eve of 
sending this article to press, when a rich 
field of Chaco tradition was discovered 
among the Tewa of the Rio Grande 
valley. The name by which they knew 
themselves and were known among 
their contemporaries is lost utterly. If 
the language they spoke still exists we 
do not know of it. Of all the peoples of 
the ancient world whose achievements 
have survived the ages, none have more 
completely attained oblivion. It is 
hoped that somewhere the blood, lan- 
guage and cultural potentialities of 

•Folk tales in which they figure have been found among the Na- 
vaho. One touching Pueblo Bonito has recently been recorded by 
Mrs. Lulu Wade Wetherill and Dean Byron Cuniniings. 

[3] 



these remarkable people survive to 
become available in the evolution of 
the coming American race, for it was 
virile stock. 

A strip of land seven miles long by a 
mile wide embraces the entire area that 
these communities inhabited.- It is 
probable that they never cultivated 
more than 3,000 acres of land at any 
one time and never numbered more 
than ten thousand inhabitants, but 
they left as their racial autograph evi- 
dences of great cultural power. In 
enduring architecture for residential 
use, indicating highly organized relig- 
ious life and social structure, they at- 
tained to levels not surpassed by the 
architects of the ancient world. The 
master builders of antiquity in Asia, 
Africa and Middle America excelled 
them in temples and mural embellish- 
ment but not in substantial residence 

-Two ruins, Kin Klizhin (The Black House) and Kin Biniola 
(House of the Winds) on tributaries of the Chaco, at a distance of 
five and ten miles to the southwest from the central group, and 
Pueblo Pintado (painted) fifteen miles east above the oriKin of the 
Canyon near the beginning of Chaco Arroyo, are treated as out- 
posts. They appear to be identical in culture with the central 
group. 



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Chaco Canyon: Chettro Kettle twenty years ago. 



building. In ceramics and some minor 
arts they reached a plane worthy of the 
greatest of their contemporaries. 

Such is the claim of Chaco Canyon to 
investigation. The ruins of twelve 
large community houses, numerous 
small sites and the accessories of com- 
munity life, such as sanctuaries, ceme- 
teries, stairways, trails, ditches; the evi- 
dences of economic resources, such as 
fields, plant and animal food, fuel and 
building material, together with cul- 
tural remains of industrial, esthetic, 
social and religious character constitute 
the material available for study. Addi- 
tional light may be obtained through 
the study of the somatology, language 
and culture of tribes inhabiting adja- 
cent regions — Pueblo, Ute, Piute and 
Apache. 



The writer began the study of the 
ancient communities of Chaco Canyon 
in the summer of 1902 under the 
auspices of the New Mexico Normal 
University. Among the results of this 
first visit were : (i) the first archaeologi- 
cal map of Chaco Canyon, prepared 
for the Bureau of American Ethnology 
in 1905, and made the basis for Presi- 
dent Roosevelt's proclamation by which 
the Chaco Canyon National Monument 
was established in 1907; {2) a short 
article on "Prehistoric Irrigation in 
Chaco Canyon," published in Records 
of the Past in 1905; (3) the articles on 
Chaco Canyon ruins in the ILuidbook 
of American Indians m 1905-6; (4) the 
description and discussion of Chaco 
Canyon ruins in "Historic and Pre- 
historic Ruins of the Southwest and 

[6] 




Chacii Canyon; Ni'ii 



tlri) KL-tlle. 



Their Preservation," prepared for the 
Department of the Interior in 1904; in 
"A General View of the Archaeology 
of the Southwest," prepared for the 
Smithsonian Institution in 1905, and in 
"Les Communautes Anciennes dans le 
Desert Americain" pubhshed in 
Geneva, Switzerland, in 1908, and (5) 
information furnished to Congress and 
the Department of the Interior from 
1902 to 1906 in connection with the 
proposed laws for the preservation of 
American antiquities. 

Owing to incessant duties incident 
to the founding of the School of Ameri- 
can Research and its affiliated institu- 
tions, the Museum of New ]Mexico, at 
Santa Fe, and the Museum of San 
Diego, California, no further research 
work was done in Chaco Canyon by the 



writer until the year 1916 when an 
agreement was entered into between the 
Smithsonian Institution, the Royal 
Ontario Museum of Archaeology-, and 
the School of American Research, with 
a view to making this a field of investi- 
gation for a term of years. The plan 
was accepted and the work authorized 
by the Department of the Interior 
June 19, 1916. 

Acting under this authorization a 
small party proceeded to Chaco Canyon 
for the purpose of making a re-exami- 
nation of the field and preparing de- 
tailed plans for the following year. 
This was done in the fall of 19 16. With 
the entry of the United States into the 
World War in the spring of 191 7 all 
work of the character proposed was 
suspended. The appropriations from 



[7] 



•;^75 




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Chaco Canyon: Pueblo Bonito, north wall, twenty years ago. 



the state of New Mexico for carrying 
out the part of the vSchool of Research 
in the project were continued from year 
to year and the funds pledged for the 
part of the Royal Ontario Museum 
were held available on call. The Smith- 
sonian Institution did not succeed in 
getting from Congress the necessary 
special appropriation for its part of the 
undertaking. 

In 19 1 9 preparations were made by 
the School to resume its research pro- 
gram including the Chaco Canyon 
project. The Canadian institution 
signified its readiness to proceed. Ac- 
cordingly, in the spring of 1920 new 
plans were made and work commenced. 
Provision has been made for not less 
than five years. The plan contem- 
plates a study of the physiography of 



the region ; its place in the Pueblo area ; 
a digest of everything that has been 
written about it; a collection of all 
photographic records that have been 
made of the ruins from the earliest 
times to the present; a thorough study 
of the architecture, art, economic re- 
sources and ethnological relations of 
the ancient inhabitants. 

In short, the undertaking is to un- 
cover such facts as are obtainable con- 
cerning these extinct communities and 
to produce as far as such facts warrant 
a picture of the life that was lived ages 
ago in this remote place. It is obvious 
that for this purpose the entire region 
with every factor of environment and 
ethnic relationship must be studied. 
Such excavations must be undertaken 
as are necessary to the purpose in view 

[8] 







Chaco Canyon: Pueblo Bonito from above 



and evety effort made to effect the 
preservation of this remarkable group 
of ruins. The physical, intellectual 
and spiritual development of a people 
capable of such achievements as that 
exhibited in the Chaco Canyon culture 
constitutes a priceless chapter in the 
history of the human mind, especially 
valuable as evidence of the character 
and attainment of the native American 
race. 

A decision on the question of site for 
excavation was not difficult to reach. 
Of the twelve ruins in the seven miles of 
canyon above mentioned, eight: Wijiji, 
Una Vida, Hungo Pavi, Kin Kletso, 
Casa Chiquita, Pefiasco Blanco, Pueblo 
Alto, and Tsin Kletsin are single, iso- 
lated buildings remote from water, and 
of secondary importance. Four: Pue- 
blo Bonito, Chettro Kettle, Pueblo del 



Arroyo and Casa Rinconada, constitute 
a central group which, with their acces- 
sories, may be considered as one town, 
the buildings and mounds belonging 
thereto being included in a circle of a 
quarter of a mile radius. Interest in 
the Chaco Canyon culture, therefore, 
is concentrated in this central group. 
Insofar as the story can be told by ex- 
cavation, it is to be uncovered here. 

Viewing the central group from 
purely scientific considerations, only 
one choice of site was possible. Pueblo 
Bonito, the largest of all, was for four 
years the scene of excavations on a 
large and expensive scale by the Hyde 
Exploring Expedition. Approximately 
$40,000 was expended on this work 
during the years 1897, '98, '99 and 1900; 
a sum which, because of the cheap labor 
and subsistence of those days, would do 



[9] 










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CiiALii Cawux: Pueblo ilul Arrovo. 



■•TIS!! ' . •vV-- 



1.. 5i«-.!\.: 



the work of more than twice that 
amount now. About one hundred 
Indian workmen were kept employed. 
The work was under the scientific 
supervision of Professor Frederick W. 
Putnam of Harvard University and 
the material secured was placed in the 
American Museum of Natural History 
in New York. Air. George Pepper, who 
was in charge in the field, informs me 
that Pueblo Bonito was about 6o% 
excavated. As that was in the days 
when neither government nor private 
excavating was done with a view to 
clearing out and repairing luins, the 
excavated rooms were, as was the cus- 
tom of the archaeologists of that time, 
refilled as the work advanced, this being 
considered the best method of preser- 
ving the walls. 



Accordingly, the excavation of Pu- 
eblo Bonito now would mean some 
years devoted to dead work; that is, to 
the re-excavation of rooms previously 
emptied, thoroughly examined, con- 
tents recorded and all museum material 
found therein removed to its final 
repository. Moreover, Mr. Pepper's 
report on this work has not yet reached 
publication, but will be issued soon by 
the American Museum of Natural 
History. Therefore, Pueblo Bonito 
seems unpromising as a scientific propo- 
sition. 

Pueblo del Arroyo, the nearest house 
in the group to Pueblo Bonito, about 
150 yards away, is a comparatively 
small ruin, much reduced by vandal- 
ism. It would naturally be the next 
considered. Its minor importance, to- 

[10] 




Chaci) Caxvc 



Huiiu 



I'.ivi. 



gether with a practical reason that will 
be stated later, dismisses it from con- 
sideration. Casa Rinconada, across the 
arroyo, a few hundred yards to the 
the south is not a house but simply an 
enormous kiva. It was probably the 
great sanctuary of the central group. 
It lies in the region that is supposed to 
have been devoted to the burial of the 
dead from Chettro Kettle, Pueblo 
Bonito, and Pueblo del Arroyo. It 
should be excavated in conjunction 
with Chettro Kettle to which it was 
clearly tributary. 

Chettro Kettle, the remaining hovise 
of the central group, is of equal im- 
portance with Pueblo Bonito. No ex- 
cavating has been previously done there 
excepting the vandalism to which every 
ruin in the region has been subjected. 
A great part of it is deeply buried, well 



preserved by the friendly soil. Not a 
specimen from it is known to exist in 
any museum. It is, therefore, an in- 
viting prospect for excavation, from a 
scientific point of view. 

In the midst of the Navaho desert, 
however, certain practical considera- 
tions will of necessity govern. The 
season for excavation in the Chaco is 
from spring to fall. During much of 
this time the heat is scorching, the 
winds high, and dust storms frequent, 
and at times well nigh intolerable. 
Living in tents is, therefore, extremely 
disagreeable. Maintaining any kind 
of living quarters in the immediate 
vicinity of the excavations is impossible 
on account of the dust from the digging. 
Writing field notes and drafting plans is 
kept up with great difficulty. At 
Pueblo Bonito, only forty feet from its 



[11] 




Chaco Canyon: Pueblo Pintado. 



walls, is the six-room stone house built 
some years ago by the late Richard 
Wetherill for a residence. This was 
found to be available for the permanent 
use of the School. It would be buried in 
dust from excavations going on at 
Pueblo Bonito, but entirely unaffected 
by work at Chettro Kettle, nearly a 
quarter of a mile away. At Pueblo del 
Arroyo, twenty-five feet from its walls, 
also on the Wetherill homestead, is the 
trading post on which the expedition 
depends for supplies. The dust caused 
by excavating at this site would simply 
put the trading post out of business. 

Therefore, after numerous trips to the 
Chaco at different seasons of the year, 
long study of the conditions above- 
described, and consultations with all 
who could be found who took part in 



the excavation of Pueblo Bonito, only 
a single decision was possible, viz: that 
Chettro Kettle was, for both scientific 
and practical reasons, the site to be 
chosen, with Casa Rinconada and its 
adjacent mounds as a place for col- 
lateral investigation. 

The season commenced with the estab- 
lishment of permanent headquarters. 
Through the kindness of Mr. Sargent, 
lessee of the Wetherill homestead, the 
expedition has excellent accommoda- 
tions in the stone house above referred 
to. This affords office, kitchen, dining 
room, field library and general confer- 
ence room, with space adjacent for the 
storage of museum material. In another 
stone building forty feet to the east, 
partly within the walls of Pueblo Bo- 
nito, are three rooms that have been 



[12] 







fitted up for photography, commissary 
stores and tools. With a number of 
supplementary tents for sleeping quar- 
ters the expedition is thus comfortably 
and efficiently sheltered. A well, one 
hundred yards from the house, affords 
an abundant supply of pure ccld water — 
a rare luxury in the Navaho desert. 
The surrounding country is treeless 
except for stunted cedar and pinon, 
but an out-crop of good lignite coal, 
a mile away, produces adequate fuel 
for camp use. The trading post at 
Pueblo del Arroyo is available for 
ordinary supplies. The nearest post- 
office is Crownpoint 38 miles away. 
Here is located the Pueblo Bonito 
Indian vSchool and Navaho Agency. To 
the superintendent, Mr. Stacker, the ex- 



pedition is under many obligations for 
cordial assistance and accommoda- 
tions. 

By the end of the season the entire 
regular staff of the School and Museum 
was in the field. As the work develops 
other specialists will take up the parts 
assigned to them. A preliminary ac- 
count of the excavations at Chettro 
Kettle and other activities of the first 
field season follows in the papers of this 
number. The complete report will be 
ready for publication by January first. 
The excavation season for 1920 closed 
October second, but repair work neces- 
sary to the preservation of walls con- 
tinued for some weeks longer. Ex- 
cavating will be resumed in May 1921, 
and from now on some phase of the 



[13] 

















s> -'ftil 



CiiAC) Caxviin; Kin Kk-tso. 



work will be in progress continually 
throughout the year. 

II. THE DESERT, THE CANYON AND 
THE ANCIENT TOWNS. 

Whoever reaches Chaco Canyon will 
have some experience with the desert. 
It is fifty miles in any direction to a liv- 
ing stream. From any point of ap- 
proach the desert barrier must be 
crossed. This is not a formidable mat- 
ter now, with trading posts every day's 
journey and Fords to take the place of 
weary beasts. In the old days one 
toiled across on horseback or by wagon, 
and it was a march for seasoned vet- 
erans only. It was safe only when 
accompanied by a trusty Navaho. 
These bedouins of America know the 
ways of the desert. Every spring. 



waterhole and rock-shelter is charted 
in their brains. They have matched 
their wits against scorching winds 
and smothering sandstorms and wintry 
blasts for centuries and have survived 
and made of the desert a hospitable 
home. It is no exaggeration to say that 
with all its seeming hardness they love 
it. You hear them singing on the 
desert trails with as wild a joy as ever 
did Swiss mountaineer or Alsatian 
peasant. 

To the white man, until he has fallen 
under the spell of the desert, it was any- 
thing but inviting. Food was scarce 
always. The iron ration was the cus- 
tomary thing. Cold springs existed, 
but only the Navaho knew where. 
Even with this help it often meant 
long days of hard riding to reach water. 

[14] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



But it must not be supposed 
that the Chaco region is al- 
ways a place of burning sands 
and suffocating dust storms. 
Like all other deserts it has 
its times of unearthly charm. 
The scene invites reflection 
upon the exchanges made in 
coming from metropolitan 
civilization into this. ; For the 
morning rush to business in 
the subway, the sunrise stroll 
to work along a desert trail; 
for the orchestral din at meal 
time, the quiet, unbroken by a 
real noise within sixty miles; 
for the movies, a pastoral of 
flocks rounding into the corral 
against an afterglow on red- 
brown cliffs ; and for the great 
white way, an indescribable 
moonlight over calm desert 
canyons. The majesty of si- 
lence and space that rests 
upon the land suggests the 
vastness in which Eternal 
Mind organizes the energies 
of the universe. The human 
spirit so immersed for gen- 
erations must live in a state 
of freedom that is unknown 
in crowded centers of popu- 
lation. Humanity, in this environ- 
ment for ages, would probably be 
content without rapid movement, in- 
stantaneous communication, the meas- 
urement of time into fractions of 
seconds, the incessant shock of ma- 
chinery, political campaigns, class ha- 
treds, industrial revolutions and world 
wars. Space is the first requisite of 
mental and spiritual tranquility. It is 
reflected in the imperturbable nature 
in the Indian race whose psychology 
was established in the freedom of limit- 
less plains and deserts, forests and 




Chaco Canyon: Tsin Kletzin. 

mountains. Contrast the history of the 
European mind — the crowded races 
perpetually fighting for the limited 
advantages of valleys and seas and 
natural boundaries. Taking by vio- 
lence, holding by force, organizing de- 
ception to supplement physical might, 
living through the ages under the 
shadow of impending conflict with 
crowding neighbors — Europe could 
hardly have had a different history and 
the European race could not have been 
other than it is — the race preeminent in 
war, industrial strife and cunning prop- 



[15] 




Chaco Canyon: Ancient stairway back of Hungo Pavi. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



aganda, with such tendencies as mur- 
der, stealing and lying pervading all 
social, political and international life. 

The mystery of the desert reaches its 
climax when, in the center of this area 
a hundred miles square without a flow- 
ing stream of any sort, we come upon a 
group of ruins such as Egypt and Mes- 
opotamia and Asia Minor and Middle 
America have been supposed to have 
a monopoly on. These are the long- 
deserted homes of the Chacones, the 
ancient communities which are the sub- 
ject of this article — a group of ruins 
which W. H. Jackson in 1877 declared 
to be "preeminently the finest remains 
of the work of unknown builders 
to be found north of the seat of the 
Aztec Empire in Old Mexico," an 
opinion which time has more than justi- 
fied. Only a brief description of these 
sites will be presented here. The 
photographs and drawings will be 
depended upon mainly to convey the 
picture of this desert land, the silent 
canyon and the ruined buildings. 

I. THE CENTRAL GROUP. 

The ancient communities of the 
Chaco had one principal focus of popu- 
lation, concentrated, as previously 
stated, within a radius of a quarter of a 
mile. To this place it may be proper to 
apply the indefinite term town. We 
have no name by which to designate it 
as a whole. Its component units will 
be described under the names by which 
they are best known: some of which, 
like those of the entire region, are 
Spanish, some Navaho, some of un- 
known origin; small village sites re- 
main nameless. 

Pueblo Bonito (Bonito-Beautiful) 
has long been considered the most 
important ruin in the Chaco region, if 
not in the United States. Certainly it 
is the most famous. Its excavation 

[17] 



from 1897 to 1900 brought it into note 
and its name came to stand for the 
group. Because of the excavations, 
more of it is in sight than of any other 
and it has usually been the one selected 
for description by writers. Its vast size 
and the magnitude of its ruined walls 
make it most impressive. It may be 
doubted if in the great days of the 
Chaco it was distinguished among its 
neighbors for its beauty. Several others 
surpassed it in this respect. A glance 
at its ground plan shows it to have been 
without unity in design. It grew to its 
great proportions by successive addi- 
tions that did not conform to any 
established plan. Its general form is 
that of a capital D. Its long diameter 
is 667 feet; the shorter axis 315 feet. 
It varied in its different parts from the 
one-story southern facade, to five sto- 
ries in height along its northern side. 
This vast sweep of curving wall over 
eight hundred feet in length, still 
standing almost fifty feet high in places, 
is, to my knowledge, unmatched among 
ruins of residential architecture in the 
new world ; nor can I think of anything 
with which to compare it in ancient old 
world architecture of similar purpose. 
About every style of masonry known to 
the Chaco is found in the walls of Bonito. 
Tliirty-two kivas (circular council 
chambers, or sanctuaries) have been 
found in the course of the excavations, 
all in the interior of the building. Up- 
ward of 500 rooms were excavated and 
mostly refilled by the Hyde Exploring 
Expedition. 

Bonito is only seventy feet from the 
canyon wall which here is a vertical 
rock, one hundred feet to the top of the 
first ledge. At this point, as in many 
other places along the canyon wall, 
a huge wedge-shaped mass of the sand- 
stone has become detached by erosion. 
This towers threateningly balanced 




y-^i>ts-- 






Chaco Canyon: Kin Biniola. 



ovej" Pueblo Bonito. One vast section 
of it has actually been thrown down at 
no very distant time, breaking into 
masses many tons in weight, some of 
which were cast perilously near to the 
Pueblo walls. One can imagine the 
terror this must have caused the people 
if the place was inhabited when the 
shock occurred. The same thing has 
been happening for thousands of years 
in this canyon and will continue to hap- 
pen as the work of nature proceeds. 
Small villages against the cliff lie under 
these fallen masses, whether covered 
before or after desertion no one can yet 
say. Herein may lie the secret of the 
abandonment of Chaco Canyon by the 
ancient people. They were not only 
prudent, but superstitious. It required 
mighty forces to cast down these great 
rocks. The Indian would readily sense 



the displeasure of deific powers in such 
a disaster, and when so convinced, the 
works of centuries would be abandoned 
in a day. 

A ledge of masonry reinforced with 
timbers was built under the balanced 
rock back of Bonito. It is often sur- 
mised that this was a childlike attempt 
to keep the cliff from falling; a device 
that would have no influence whatever 
in holding up that vast weight. The 
Navaho evidently so believe and from 
time immemorial have called the place 
Sa-ba-ohn-nei (place where the rock is 
braced up). But the wise Bonitans 
who knew enough to build stone walls 
that would stand through many cen- 
turies of exposure to the elements made 
no such mistake in judgment. These 
rock masses are eroded to the danger 
point by water and wind undercutting 

[18] 




Chaco Canyon: Wijiji. 



them in the soft strata at the base. 
Protect them from such erosing by 
shoring up with soHd masonry^ and the 
danger has been obviated in exactly 
the same manner that we today stop the 
deterioration of a heavy wall by shoring 
up at the base with concrete. 

The nearest neighbor to Pueblo 
Bonito was Pueblo del Arroyo, an 
average city block to the west. It is 
much reduced but has some very 
beautiful masonry remaining. It stands 
beside the arroyo, now dry except in 
flood season, and in places has been cut 
into by the water. This is one of the 
smaller houses and as will be seen by 
looking at its ground plan, was a good 
example of the most prevalent Chaco 
Canyon type of building, which in 
general took the form of our capital 

[19] 



letter E. The order of growth probably 
was first the straight linear mass, re- 
presented by the back of the letter. 
When needed one wing was built on 
giving the building an L shape. vSeveral 
of the Chaco pueblos remained in this 
form to the end. With the majority 
the other wing was added, and in some 
instances the central stem of the E. 
Whether this last member was added or 
not the extremities of the wings were 
usually connected by a curving front 
wall, or as in several of the larger 
pueblos by a series of one or two-story 
rooms, built on a sweeping curve, form- 
ing a fourth side of the building and 
inclosing a spacious court which in 
time was nearly filled with circular 
kivas. Pueblo del Arroyo has all these 
elements except the middle stem. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



It should be pointed out that this 
style of ground plan, (with the excep- 
tion of the curved front wliich might 
well be copied), is now widely used in 
hotel and office buildings in modem 
American cities, being dictated by 
economy and efficiency as to light, air 
and space. The Department of the 
Interior building in Washington, if it 
had the central stem shortened and the 
curved front added would be in good 
Chaco Canyon style as to ground plan. 
The Chacones would have spread it 
over more space, limited the height to 
four or five stories on the exterior, with 
a succession of terraces arotmd the 
inner courts. 

Chettro Kettle of the central group 
is nearly a quarter of a mile east of 
Bonito. By referring to the ground 
plan it will be seen that it varies from 
the type by having one of the wings of 
the E completely extended, the other 
only partially; the central stem is 
present and the sweeping curved front. 
As yet an accurate comparison of size 
with Pueblo Bonito can not be made for 
the reason that so much of Chettro 
Kettle is buried. The great curved 
front, not merely a wall as formerly 
supposed, but a part of the building two 
to three rooms wide and one to two 
stories high, is seven hundred feet in 
length — two average city blocks. It is 
entirely buried, showing only as a ridge 
of earth. The long north wall standing 
one to three stories above the surround- 
ing sand with a full story buried 
beneath, is over four hundred fifty feet 
long. If one starts at the southeast 
corner of this structure, at the point 
where the excavations commenced, and 
follows its outer walls clear around to 
the point of starting, he must walk 
1540 feet — between a quarter and a third 
of a mile. Here then was a community- 
residence (an ancient apartment house) 



which, if set down in a modern Ameri- 
can city, would pretty fully occupy two 
average blocks. As a dwelling house, 
built by people for their own domestic 
purposes, I know of nothing to compare 
with it in the world — ancient or modern. 
Chettro Kettle is rich in the variety and 
beauty of its walls. The striking 
banded effects, produced by courses of 
heavy stone alternating with layers 
made up of fine laminated plates, are to 
be seen here at their best. This device, 
of both artistic and structural merit, is 
characteristic of the Chaco Canyon 
ruins, being used in only the most 
elementary way elsewhere. 

Casa Rinconada, the remaining 
unit of the Central group, lies across the 
arroyo to the south. It was a great 
ceremonial chamber, sixty-six feet in 
diameter pertaining to the large Pue- 
los — a tribal sanctuary. Like all the 
kivas of the Chaco, it was circular in 
form. There are about it the ruined 
walls of probably thirty to forty rect- 
angular rooms. In the walls of the 
great circular chamber at regular inter- 
vals apart, are thirty-two niches, twelve 
by sixteen inches, by fourteen inches 
deep, probably recesses for ceremonial 
objects. The chamber may have been 
an open arena without roof. Excava- 
tion will be necessary to determine the 
character of this interesting ruin in 
detail. It is significant that it is iso- 
lated from the large dwelling houses, in 
what may prove to be the necropolis of 
the community. 

2. NEIGHBORING TOWNS. 

These will be only briefly mentioned. 
Their ground plans are given, with 
photographs showing the present con- 
dition of the ruins. 

Pueblo Alto is on the mesa north of 
the canyon, a little more than half a 
mile from Bonito. It consists of two 

[20] 




Chaco Canyon: Una Vida. 



buildings, Alto Grande and Alto Clii- 
quita. The former is the main one and 
is greatly reduced. Only a small per 
cent of the walls remain standing and 
not much of it is buried. The building 
stone was poor. The small house is in a 
better state of preservation. 

Tsin Kletzin (black wood, or char- 
coal, place) is a small ruin on the mesa 
nearly a mile south of Bonito. It has 
many interesting features, including an 
imusual ground plan. It has some 
excellent masonry in its walls. The fact 
that a point near this ruin could be seen 
from nearly every one of the Chaco 
settlements, even the distant outposts, 
suggests the possibility of this spot as 
an ancient signaling station. 



Down the canyon a scant mile 
below Bonito is Kin Kletso (the Yellow 
House) and another mile further on 
Casa Chiquita (Little House). Both of 
these are small houses that never got 
beyond the early stages of development. 
No wings were extended from their 
main axes. Interesting masses of their 
walls remain standing. 

Three miles below Bonito, on a high 
point south of the Canyon is Penasco 
Blanco (White Rock Point). It ranks 
almost with Bonito and Chettro Kettle 
in size and interest. In its ground 
plan it is a great ellipse, all its ex- 
terior walls being curved. It has been 
sadly vandalized and in some parts 
shows indications of having been vio- 



[21 



,„.;"■('. ,>'>"ll"ll„ ..lll'l"//;,, ,,,111//,, 

^-..«;.\'ii;;;.:.'.'.';i/ii\r ^' ^ / ""''i--. 



''"iinwm^ 



# 







S-^vWl'/ftj, 



•'<«. 



%.,Ai'//,.v\«ii////,,AMr:- 









■J- 'i>. 



t^ffiiit- 






--•? *'//iii*"'" 



%/iil# %//«# 



$:?"'/,,, Ill,, ,^i"'"/i('i"',, ,,'•= 
.■».,.ui»<--.ii./,.-,ill/;i Iii,.;.,ui,v- 



'^^/I'/llll*'^ 



'#i. 



%'.'.'.''rwil#%//iny' -„..-ii//,„ 

"I" ^///n^ '///in' ''/I- 



ilin"""///|i I'll ii//iii"''iiiin""' 

Surface Plan of Chettro Kettle 



", %nwu<^''''iih\'^^'%nu-%''''lm^^^^^^^^^ 



,,oti*''". . ■ 



;>%, 




*•■'• — .„„ 



After Hoi singer 



Ground Plan of PuebJo Bonito. 



•■aiiHiai|>ii»iMnr'^ai>li>li>)(ii>ii<li>',M>ilir<i<|i<>tr(i>*|C'"',"''<."''."% 




Pueblo del Arroyo. 







v\ 




Penasco Blanco. 



vrf'' „ »""""'"';!'i*j»,„„^ "x^ 






\. 



Hungo Pavi. 



Jwtl I «l ■•»■«■<■' ^ J^>"l"M"IH.l.M, 






no 




i i 



|IHIHIii|Ufl/WllfB*Illlll>lll'l>U/l|lll 






'"'""""•pfli.pi *^'"*'*-. 

Casa Rinconada. 



<«Mi|lli|llllii|t/</ 



vMMUtlllilllKiHn 



5V»Mp.(/'( irfMrOifn.tni'iMiiiiini.Mi .t >ii'(>iiMl''(.ii(n.riiiiiti.ti»(\i 



jlll'l|.'jlMu(ll»i(|p 

r :■■ 



L^^fi 



■ 8 







Kin Biniola 



r^% 






Pueblo Alto. 

Ground Plans of Chaco Canyon Community Houses. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 









,ul»iinN,w,„„„^^^^^^ 




v\«\n\lllg. ...»;iiHiljy^y^^y^j)jl)|i^i^jj|,j;hiiMMilMnHiinMa"^J]gj^^ 



f ■•■';■" I I"'-" ■!■■'■■£ Jf 



\^^"\'^. 



^1 

■ •^U1/W»(IUtlil|(|<l}MtMl»f|l'l"1H\ftlfi'i 

Ground Plan of Tsin Kletzin. 

lently overthrown as by an earthquake. 
It displays every grade of masonrs^ 
some extremely poor, and some of the 
most substantial sort, with some of the 
finest examples of banded walls to be 
seen in the Chaco group. 

Two miles above Chettro Kettle, 
close up to the canyon wall, is the ruin 
of Hungo Pavi (Crooked Nose?). It is 
one of perfect unity of plan, the E 
form, with both wings complete, central 
stem, and the wings connected by a 
curved front. The north wall stands 
thirty-feet high in places, and is built 
of small stone, closely and compactly 
laid. It lacks the ornamental effects 
that are so prevalent at Chettro Kettle. 
The whole building is dark brownish- 
red in color. One of the most interest- 
ing stairways to the mesa top, with 
which each pueblo was provided, is the 
one at Hungo Pavi. 

A mile farther up the canyon where 
the two forks, Chaco and Fahada join, 
is Una Vida. The ruin is not well 
preserved; it contains much poorly 
built wall. Its situation is particularly 
interesting. Across the canyon to the 
southeast is the great round Mesa 
Fahada, a landmark for all the sur- 



/ 



# 



§o..,.„vl""";"'"'|p»«i 



^///(em"|f\iiivJinii()ii(|niiriiii/,|iiiii 




Ground Plan of Kin Klizhin. 

rounding country. The Navaho call it 
Say-de-gil, the vSacred mountain. It 
is a cardinal point in Navaho myth- 
ology. Above Una Vida on a ledge 
about one hundred yards to the north 
west, is a circular ceremonial chamber 
of great size, only second to Rinconada 
above described, and one in the Court 
at Chettro Kettle. 

Wijiji is a small ruin about two miles 
above Una Vida. It is perfectly sym- 
metrical in its ground plan and has no 
unusual features. It is without the 
curving front wall. The main north 
wall is pierced with portholes in the 
second story, the apertures extending 
diagonally through the wall and alter- 
nating in direction from northeast to 
northwest. This may have been a 
device for archers in defending the 
place. 

3. THE OUTPOSTS. 

Pueblo Pintado is ten miles east of 
Wijiji, near the top of the continental 
divide where the Chaco originates. It 
occupies a high point visible from far 
distances and constitutes a valuable 
landmark in the desert. It is a large 
ruin, well preserved, and particularly 
important in being near the frontier of 

[24] 



^^' 

















- t' -^^ , *> >""- ' l^Kt r-i'— -^-V' -■.'r'>_ _jB ■'-/.■-.J*- ,->.-»■ 



•ic- 



iSm..- 



'_.,*':'■ 







S^lfef 






;^ 






CuAco Canyon: Casa Chiquita. 




the Rio Grande pueblos. Aluch desert 
legendry centers about it and its walls 
exhibit interesting evidence of historic 
changes. 

Kin Klizhin (the Black House), five 
miles south west of Bonito in a side 
canyon off the Chaco, is mainly a large 
tower-kiva, inclosed in the walls of a 
small pueblo. It could have accom- 
modated only a small clan. Near by 
are the remains of interesting prehis- 
toric irrigation works. 

Kin Biniola (House of the Winds) is 
ten miles southwest of Bonito in a 
branch of the Chaco. It is one of the 
important ruins of the region, mostly 
above ground and well preserved. It is 
surrounded by interesting outlying sites 
and was well provided with agricultural 

[25] 



land. It was probably the center of a 
considerable population. 

III. THE CHACONES AND THEIR 
CONTEMPORARIES 

Let us now note the location of Chaco 
Canyon in the southwest and consider 
the relation of these communities to 
their contemporaries in the ancient 
southwestern world. Consulting the 
accompanying map, showing the dis- 
tribution of sedentary population in 
the centuries of great building activity 
antedating the coming of Europeans 
to America, it is seen that this large 
culture province was composed of five 
sub-areas which correspond to the prin- 
cipal drainage basins of the region, viz : 
the Rio Grande on the east side of the 






•t -w^ ' 







CuAcu Canvun: PucIjIo Alto. 



continental divide, the vSan Juan, Little 
Colorado and Gila on the western slope, 
and the inland basin of Chihuahua. 
This region, a thousand miles north and 
south by eight hundred east and west, 
was one physiographic area. That it 
became in course of time a culture area 
that was co-extensive, speaks clearly 
of the coercive influence of environment 
upon human society. 

The groups of population that are 
indicated may be considered contem- 
poraneous. This must not be taken to 
mean exactly synchronous periods, but 
construed in the newer historic sense 
in which chronology has become less 
important and evolution the dominant 
factor in human history. A difference 
of a century or two in time is not taken 
into account in this use of the term con- 
temporaneous. 



Chaco Canyon is in the San Juan 
drainage near the southern rim of that 
basin, in southwestern New Mexico, 
one hundred miles in an air line slightly 
north of west of the capital of the state, 
Santa Fe. It is sixty- six miles north 
of the vSanta Fe railway at Thoreau, 
seventy south of the Denver and Rio 
Grande at Farmington, and one hun- 
dred and fifty miles northwest from 
Albuquerque. These are the principal 
points from which the place may be 
reached by passable wagon roads. 

In the days of the Chacones neigh- 
bors were far apart. To the northwest 
a lumdred miles were the cliff dwellers 
of Mesa Verde ; a hundred miles slightly 
west of south were the forebears of the 
"vSeven Cities of Cibola," the ancient 
Zuni towns. Within this circle were 
numerous minor settlements, as those 



[26] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



along the San Juan seventy miles north, 
Canyon de Chelly, fifty miles west, and 
isolated outposts of small population 
here and there in every direction. 
About a hundred miles west were the 
ancestors of the ancient Hopi ; the can- 
yons on both sides of the lower vSan 
Juan basin were inhabited by cliff 
dwellers ; the Little Colorado valley was 
the seat of many villages. In the Rio 
Grande drainage the communities were 
forming which developed into the set- 
tlements of Jemez, Taos, Pecos and 
Gran Ouivira. In southern New Mexico 
the people of the Mimbres lived, and 
along the Gila almost from its head- 
waters in New Mexico to its mouth in 
Arizona were settlements of cliff dwell- 
ers when geographical conditions so 
directed, and mesa and valley towns 
like Casa Grande in the level flood 
plain. Five hundred miles away in 
Chihuahua were the populous districts 
of Casas Grandes, Cave Valley and the 
cliffs and canyons of the headwaters 
of the Yaqui. All these may be con- 
sidered the contemporaries and cultural 
cognates of the Chacones. It may be 
reasonably supposed that 1 500 miles to 
the south on the Mexican plateau the 
pre-Aztecan towns were flourishing; 
that in Central America, the earlier 
Maya communities of Yucatan and the 
temple cities of Guatemala and Hon- 
duras were in their prime, and that 
in far-away Peru the Incas were run- 
ning their course. 

It must be remembered that chrono- 
logical exactness is not claimed for the 
above suppositions. It is an impression 
gained by a study of all these places. 
That there was an epoch of great build- 
ing in America from Colorado, Utah, 
Arizona and New Mexico to Peru, ex- 
tending over several centuries and 
finished long before the European inva- 
sion is an hypothesis that is advanced 

[27] 



with some confidence. It assumes that 
the period originated with the establish- 
ment of the sedentary communities over 
this vast region, all of which invited this 
mode of life as the great plains with 
their countless buffalo herds, the tem- 
perate forest and mountain areas with 
abundant game and fish, and coast re- 
gions with bountiful resources of sea 
food, would not. Where subsistence 
was derived mainly from the soil, and 
corn was the chief product it became a 
matter of vital interest to the people 
to secure land in permanence and insure 
its water supply and build permanent 
structures for residence, defense and 
religious practices. 

There is a similarity of resources 
throughout this entire region. It occu- 
pies the Cordillera, with its principal 
foci of population in high altitudes with 
the exception of where the continent 
narrows down to the connecting strip 
between the two Americas, and the 
Maya built their towns as far down the 
slopes as sea level. From its northern 
to its southern extremities corn was the 
common factor of cultural evolution, as 
metal was in Europe. With the excep- 
tion of the mid-tropical region it was 
necessary to farm by irrigation, rainfall 
being too unevenly distributed over the 
seasons to insure germination, growth, 
fertilization and maturity of corn and 
other food crops. The conditions of 
climate and subsistence were suffi- 
ciently alike to produce throughout a 
general type of social structure, dis- 
cernible in the building of the towns; 
and a religion based upon the Indian's 
view of nature which was practiced with 
great zeal. Pottery making and weav- 
ing of fabrics were arts that were gener- 
ally cultivated. 

vSo a building culture came into exis- 
tence in localities that invited perma- 
nence. The students of vSouthwestcrn, 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



JMexican, Central American and Peru- 
vian archaeology have tentatively as- 
signed to the sites under investigation 
an antiquity of from one to two thousand 
years. During this epoch the energies 
of the people were thrown into building, 
not altogether out of need for housing 
but as a development of religious ac- 
tivity. For example: in the town of 
Chettro Kettle, now being excavated, 
the indications are that not less than 
fifty kivas (sanctuaries) will be un- 
covered. Frcm the top of the pyramid 
of the sun at Cholula, Mexico, the sites 
of not less than ninety temple-pyramids 
may be seen. The period ran its course 
and was far into its decline when 
America was invaded from Europe. 
This decay would have been easy to 
account for had it not set in until after 
1492. The shock of the European con- 
quest could not fail to radically change 
the direction of the energies of the 
people. It would give them a new 
and dominating concern which would 
modify their entire history. But the 
movement reached its apex centuries 
before. It would seem that it simply 
ran its course and passed naturally into 
decline as did the epoch of cathedral 
building in Europe in the middle ages, 
and as such exuberance usually does. 

In Chaco Canyon the range of activ- 
ity was necessarily small, so that energy 
not employed in food production went 
into religious ceremonies, building, and 
ceramic art, all rather closely inte- 
grated. The result was such a pihng 
up of architectural monument as has 
rarely occurred in the world. Lieut. 
Simpson estimated that in the con- 
struction of Chettro Kettle not less 
than thirty million pieces of stone had 
been quarried, transported, shaped and 
laid in the walls. We now know that 



he might more accurately have made his 
estimate fifty million, so much more of 
the town being buried than he supposed 
and in a great part of the walls there 
being an average of eight hundred 
pieces to the square yard instead of the 
four hundred and fifty counted by him. 
In addition to this, the thousands of 
logs, poles and slabs that had to be cut 
in distant forests, transported by man 
power, prepared with stone tools and 
built into the structures ; the tons upon 
tons of mortar that had to be made — 
altogether it represents a prodigious 
task for the rather small population of 
Chettro Kettle. This, it must be re- 
membered, was repeated proportion- 
ately in each of the twelve large com- 
munities of the Chaco Canyon, and an 
unknown number of small villages. 
And it was no unwilling work under the 
lash of priestly or kingly task masters; 
the American Indians were never so 
ruled. It was the spontaneous, per- 
haps intuitive, impulse of a virile peo- 
ple, comparable to the heaping up of 
great mounds far in excess of actual 
needs, by insect communities. Other 
examples might be pointed out of the 
excessive activities of the human species 
as the building of the earth mounds of 
the Mississippi valley, the Eg>'ptian 
pyramids, the Great Wall of China and 
the European cathedrals of the middle 
ages. A parallel to it is seen in the 
present-day piling up of wealth beyond 
the needs or possible uses of accumula- 
tors. The endless repetition of money- 
making transactions characterizes our 
commercial age of today, which is being 
lived as unconsciously to the majority 
of people, so far as its real meaning is con- 
cerned, as was the building millennium 
of the aboriginal Americans in their time. 

School of American Research, Santa Fe, N. M. 



[28; 



THE EMERGENCE OF CHACO CANTON 



IN HISTORY 
By Lansing B. Bloom 



THE TERM "Chaco" is today re- 
stricted in usage to the canyon 
which bears that name. His- 
torically, however, it was of much wider 
significance, designating at least a large 
part of the drainage area in which 
this canyon with its mysterious and 
wonderful ruins is the central feature. 
Whether, as originally applied, it in- 
cluded any of the country north of the 
canyon is not known, but it did cover 
the mesa, or tableland, lying north of 
Mt. Taylor and extending from the 
continental divide westward for many 
miles. 

Whether the name of this area has 
come down from antiquity or simply 
from early vSpanish times cannot, un- 
fortunately, be stated definitely. The 
term " Chacra," now associated with 
the mesa above indicated, is a Spanish 
word meaning "a house of the field" 
and no doubt refers to the Navaho 
hogans which, from earliest historic 
times, were scattered over this region. 
The 2nd report of the U. S. Board on 
Geographical Names (1890-99) defines 
"Chacra: (not Chaca nor Chaco) Mesa 
in Bernalillo Co., New Mexico. " Maps 
and manuscripts of the i8th century 
and even later do not use either the 
word Chaco or Chacra; instead we find 
the terms Chaca, Chusca, "la mesa de 
Chaca," Chacat, and various refer- 
ences to the Navaho occupants of the 
region. 

A petition dated 1761, for example, 
for a grant in the Rio Puerco valley, 
recites the western boundary asked as 
"la sierra alta do fide siembran los 



Apaches Nabajoses." Another petition 
of 1766 drew forth the comment by 
Gov. Velez Cachupin that the peti- 
tioners might have joined the new set- 
tlements of San Miguel de Laredo and 
San Gabriel de las Nutrias (also in the 
Puerco) but they doubtless feared to do 
so as these were "frontier settlements" 
and they lacked courage, preferring to 
register for pasturage "in the peaceful 
region of the Navajo country;" but he 
made the grant, on condition that the 
natives of that district did not object 
and permitted them the use of their pas- 
ture grounds, they on their part to en- 
deavor not to injure the said Apache 
Indians. The commissioner, named by 
the governor to investigate the merits 
of this petition, reported among other 
things: "In regard to whether the 
Navajo Apaches have planted, or now 
plant, upon the land applied for, I 
state that I have seen in a branch of 
the little valleys scattered here and 
there a few corn stalks, but I have 
never observed that the Apaches lived 
near these small patches of com, but 
they mostly make their huts, owing to 
their dread of the Utahs, distant and on 
the highest and roughest parts of the 
mesas. " 

A petition of 1767 has similar refer- 
ence to "the fields which the Apaches 
de Navajo are accustomed to plant." 
Another, of 1768, asks for lands "un- 
cultivated, unsettled, situated on the 
slope of the Navajo country," and 
recites as northern boundary- "a white 
mesa called the Mesa de Chaca. " And 
still another, encroaching on the Navaho 



[29] 






1- v:i*tv^ -# :^^!-t>^T^?^? ^ 



^"'^^^^^^^^^^^ : ..v'^^^ 









-*4«- 



/' ^ i2/ 



.,>. . PK^"uC)\^..^ I ^7 CIK ■ DF .^ ^ 






V 






•■■a 

, ; ^ \ - .^1 Ui nui-iirn 



.A. 



,1.\ 



\ 



v'.'H 









o ur-^i)**' 



if;'- 5 
. / 









' ' t. 








./.>,V 



,4^"=* : 






■^ • 






* 'V 



Map 5y,^ Library of Congress 

Section of a Map by Don Bernardo Miera y Paciieco, dated Jan. 3, 1777 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



country and involving a spring called 
vSan M'iguel, asserted that, "altho some 
small parties of Apaches of said prov- 
ince are accustomed to live at said 
spring, this will not prevent them from 
so doing, but will rather serve to con- 
ciliate and gratify them, and con- 
tribute to their quietude whilst in our 
lawful friendship and good relations." 
The commissioner in the last case found 
no Navaho Apaches at the spring, but 
was told by other Navahoes that "usu- 
ally when out hunting a few come to 
reside a short time at said spring." 

All the above grants were in, or west 
of, the Rio Puerco valley and north of 
Mt. Taylor, and they show beyond 
question that "the Chaco" was then in 
the Navaho country. In fact, it always 
has been. Excavations of the past sea- 
son have uncovered typically Navaho 
cists, such as are today used by this 
people in parching com, and they ap- 
pear at levels in the Chettro-Kettle 
ruins which certainly antedate con- 
siderably the entrance of the first Span- 
iards in New Mexico. 

How, then, did the word "Chaco" 
become attached to this region? If we 
identify it as a Spanish word, it is of 
South American origin and means the 
"circle formed by Indians in hunting 
the vicufia." Describing the linguistic 
stocks of "the Gran Chaco" in vSouth 
America, Brinton states that the word 
"Chaco" is properly chacu, a Kechua 
word applied to game driven into pens, 
and he cites Lozano as authority for 
its metaphoric use in reference to the 
numerous tribes driven from their 
homes into the forests. Similarly Ban- 
delier, discussing the communal charac- 
ter of hunting as practiced by Pueblo 
Indians, says: "What in Peru has been 
described as the 'Cha-cu,' or great 
hunting expeditions of the Incas, could 
be witnessed in New Mexico as late as 

[31] 



this century," and he goes on to speak 
of the periodical "rabbit drives" a,s a 
survival of such communal hunting. 

It is known that certain of the early 
vSpaniards who came to New Mexico 
had had previous acquaintance with 
vSouth America. Governor Penalosa, 
for example, who held office from 1661 
to 1664, was born in Peru. He paid 
ofhcial visits to Zuni and to Aloqui, and 
he must have skirted close to the region 
now known as the Chaco, if he did not 
actually cross it ; but what similarity to 
the Gran Chaco he, or any other Span- 
iard, could have seen sufficient to apply 
this name is certainly not clear. If the 
word is of South American origin, the 
only reasonable theory would seem to 
be that the author of the name had 
been witness to an impressive, spec- 
tacular drive of game by the Apaches 
de Navaho — not on horseback and with 
muskets, but afoot and with only their 
primitive weapons, as described by such 
early writers as Villagra and Torque- 
mada. 

It is probable, however, that "Chaco" 
is the Hispanicized form of some word 
found locally. This is suggested by the 
variant forms "Chaca" and "Chacat, " 
both of which appear earlier than 
"Chaco." Indeed, it is an interesting 
fact that the spelling "Chaco" is not 
found previous to 1849, though of 
course this form may have been used 
long before that date. 

Doubtless no Spaniard of his time 
was better informed regarding the 
"Provincia de Nabajoo" than Don 
Bernardo Miera y Pacheco, who ac- 
companied Padres Domingues and 
Escalante on their exploring expedition 
of 1776, and who subsequently drafted 
the map which accompanied their re- 
port, a section of wliich is shown here- 
with. " Formerly chief alcalde and war 
captain of Pecos and Galisteo, " he was 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



commissioned in 1761 by Governor 
ToMias \^clez Cachupin to investigate 
tlie merits of a claim to what is now 
known as the Lagunitas Grant. Again, 
in the summer of 1769, his name ap- 
pears as a witness in the papers relating 
to the Agua Salada Grant. Both of 
these grants lay in the valley of the 
Rio Puerco, next to the frontier of the 
Navaho Province, and in all such grants 
is evidence of some knowledge at least 
of the country beyond that frontier. 
It is doubtful, however, whether Miera 
y Pacheco ever actually saw the pueblo 
ruins in Chaco Canyon, as the jour- 
ney of 1776, while it completely en- 
compassed the Navaho country, yet 
crossed only the southwestern part of 
it; and moreover his map particularly 
makes the ruins of the Mesa Verde area, 
whereas here it indicates simply hogans 
with accompanying springs as "Chus- 
ca, " "Chacat, " and "ojo de las casas 
de Navajoo. " 

"Chusca" as here used is probably 
of Navaho origin rather than Spanish, 
but "Chacat" is not. Yet the latter 
seems a more archaic form of " Chaca, " 
and this in turn could readily have 
been modified into the variants "Cha- 
cra" and "Chaco." That "Chaca" 
was not considered an adjective by the 
Spaniards is evident by the reference in 
the papers of the Ignacio Chavez grant 
to the high mesa west of the Rio Puerco 
as "una Mesa Blanca que comunmente 
llaman la Mesa de Chaca" (a White 
Mesa commonly called the Mesa de 
Chaca.) And in passing it may be said 
that the word "white" in this phrase 
indicates the Navaho origin of the name 
" Chusca " given by Miera y Pacheco to 
approximately the same part of the 
Navaho country. But as to "Chacat" 
and its derivatives all that can be 
affirmed is that they are not Spanish or 
Navaho, but presumably have been 



transmitted through the Navaho from 
some other Indian source. Whether any 
linguistic evidence of historic value 
along this line can be secured from 
Zuni, Moqui, Jemez, or elsewhere, 
is yet to be ascertained. 

The field of legend and tradition like- 
wise gives evidence which is chiefly 
negative. The Montezuma legend is 
certainly an anachronism, and the 
tradition of the origin of the Aztlans, 
whatever historic fact may underlie 
it, cannot be connected with the pueblo 
ruins of the San Juan drainage if present 
indications are corroborated by subse- 
quent findings in the research which is 
now being carried on. The cultural 
evidence thus far secured shows relation 
of the builders of the Chaco Canyon 
pueblos with the Pueblo Indians in 
New Mexico rather than with any peo- 
ple of Uto-Aztecan stock; and the 
somatic data presented by Louis R. 
vSullivan in the October number of the 
A?itJ!ropologist, altho tentative, is an 
indication in the same direction. 

Because of a curious similarity to the 
name "Chaca" it may not be out of 
place here to give a little of the Aztlan 
tradition as quoted in "Puchas His 
Pilgrimes" from the Jesuit writer, 
Acosta. The second settlers in Mexico, 
he says, were the Navatalcas (Nahua- 
tals) who "came from other farre Coun- 
treyes, which lye toward the North, 
where now they have discovered a 
Kingdome thev call New Mexico. 
There are two Provinces in this Coun- 
trey, the one called Aztlan, which is to 
say a place of Herons; the other Tucul- 
huacan, which signifies a Land of such, 
whose Grandfathers were divine. The 
Inhabitants of these Provinces have 
their houses, their lands tilled, Gods, 
Customes, and Ceremonies, with like 
order and government to the Navatal- 
cas, and are divided into seven Tribes 

[32] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



or Nations: and for that they have a 
custome in this Province, that every 
one of these Linages hath his place and 
private Territorie, the Navatalcas paint 
their beginning and first Territorie in 
figure of a Cave, and say that they came 
forth of seven Caves to come and people 

the Land of Mexico By 

the supputation of their Bookes, it is 
about eight hundred yeeres since these 
Navatalcas came forth of their Coun- 
trey, reducing which to our accompt, 
was about the yeere of our Lord 
720. 

"These seven Linages I have spoken 
of, came not forth altogether: the first 
were the Suchimikos, which signifie a 
Nation of the seeds of flowers. . . . 
Long time after came they of the second 
Linage called Chalcas, which signifies 
people of mouthes, who also built a 
Citie of their name. 

The same form appears in Clavigero's 
Ilistoria A ntigiia de Mejico in the name 
Chalcatzin, whom he lists as the second 
of seven chiefs under whom the Toltecs 
began, in 596 A. D., their migration 
from the "kingdom of Tollan, " lying 
northeast of Nuevo Mejico; but unless 
the pueblo-builders of "Chacat" had 
some affinity with the ancient Uto- 
Aztecans there can be no significance in 
these similarities. 

The earliest reference to an actual 
visit to the Chaco may be that given in 
Brinton's " American Race " : "When, 
in 1735, Pedro de Ainza made an expe- 
dition from vSanta Fe against the Nava- 
jos, he discovered tribes dwelling in 
stone houses 'built within the rocks,' 
and guarded by watch-towers of stone. 
The Apaches still remember driving 
these cliff-dwellers from their homes, 
and one of the Apache gentes is yet 
named from them, 'stone-house peo- 
ple.'" This is more applicable to the 
buildings in the Canon de Che-gui (now 

[33] 



spelled Chelly), but such an expedition 
might well have crossed the Chaca 
Mesa and perhaps visited the Chaco 
Canyon. Yet the maps of Miera y 
Pacheco, forty years later, indicate no 
acquaintance with these impressive 
ruins, and no reference to any of them 
is recorded until 1844. The Navahos 
were thoroughly respected by the vSpan- 
iards and Mexicans as lords of their 
own country, and even in the i8th 
century they were by far the better 
equipped, both in arms and horses. In 
1778 the Spaniards of New Mexico 
could report only 84 serviceable mus- 
kets and 8 guns, one of which had no 
carriage. 

To Gregg must be giv^en the credit of 
having introduced the reading public to 
the Chaco. His "Commerce of the 
Prairies" was published in 1844, after 
he had had some nine years' experience 
in northern Mexico. Discussing various 
ruins of the southwest, he gives the 
following with reference to Pueblo 
Bonito and the other ruins of this area: 
"There is sufficient evidence in the ruins 
that still exist to show that those 
regions were once inhabited by a far 
more enlightened people than are now 
to be found among the aborigines. Of 
such character are the ruins of Pueblo 
Bonito, in the direction of Navajo, on 
the borders of the Cordilleras; the 
houses being generally built of slabs of 
fine-grit sand-stone, a material utterly 
unknown in the present architecture of 
the North. Although some of these 
structures are very massive and spa- 
cious, they are generally cut up into 
small, irregular rooms, many of which 
yet remain entire, being still covered 
with the vigas or joists, remaining nearly 
sound under the azotcas of earth ; and yet 
their age is such that there is no tradi- 
tion which gives any account of their 
origin. But there have been no images 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



or sculptured workjofrany kind found 
about them. Besides these, many other 
ruins (though none so perfect) are scat- 
tered over the plains and among the 
mountains. What is very remarkable 
is, that a portion of them are situated at 
a great distance from any water; so that 
the inhabitants must have depended en- 
tirely upon lain, as is the case with the 
PueJalo of Acoma at the present day. " 

Col. A. W. Doniphan, in his expedi- 
tion into the Navalio country in the 
fall of 1846, seems to have traversed 
what is now called "Chacra Mesa." 
After receiving advices from Major 
Gilpin who had ascended the Chama 
River and entered the Navaho country 
from the north. Col. Doniphan started 
out from Cubero and marched for two 
days toward the sources of the Puerco 
River, into "a district of countr>^ occu- 
pied by that canton of Navajoes of 
whom Sandoval was chief." His com- 
pany then traveled over "a valley 
country in a westerly direction — gently 
rolling hills, rocky bluffs, bench lands, 
then crags and bleak knobs, and then 
barren naked giant masses of gray 
granite and dark basalt rising on the 
right, and a heavy forest of pines and 
cedars, always verdant, spreading over 
the lowlands to the left. The surface of 
the country continued uniform for the 
next two days' march ... to 
Bear Spring. " If this route took him 
down the Chaco Wash, he must have 
seen many of the ruins; it is probable, 
however, that he bore to the west before 
he had gone sufficiently to the north. 

Shortly before this, Captain Reid, of 
Doniphan's command, had gone on a 
mission into the Navaho country with 
only thirty volunteers ; but the general 
direction which he took was first west 
and then north. The author of " Doni- 
phan's Expedition" states that the 
New Mexicans were amazed at the 



temerity of Capt. Reid's proceeding, 
but the Navaho chief, Sandoval, proved 
a reliable guide; "besides, the New 
Mexicans have but a very limited 
knowledge of that mountain country, 
never departing from their settlements 
through fear of the Indians." 

To Lieutenant James W. Simpson is 
due the first account of the Chaco ruins 
in any official report, and it is worthy of 
mention also that he was the first to use 
the spelling "Chaco." He was con- 
nected with the corps of topographical 
engineers, and in August 1849 he accom- 
panied Governor John M. Washington 
on an expedition to the Navaho country, 
which started from Jemez and by way 
of the Nacimiento struck west to the 
head of Chaco Canyon. His descriptions 
and illustrations of Pueblo Pintado, Wi- 
ji-ji, Una Vida, Hungo-Pavi, Pueblo 
Bonito, and others are not only interest- 
ing but they are especially valuable be- 
cause of the data they give for compara- 
tive study of the same ruins today. 

At some time during the period 
1850-57 occurred what may be con- 
sidered the first scientific reconnais- 
sance of the Chaco ruins. L'Abbe Em. 
Domenech, who was both an apostolic 
missionary and a member of the Geo- 
graphical and Ethnographical Societies 
of France, returned to that country to 
interest others in his "beloved savages. 
One result of his seven years of travel 
and investigation in the United States 
was the publication of two works, and 
in "The Great Deserts of North Amer- 
ica" is reference to these ruins. 

This writer defines two roads from 
vSanta Fe to Zuni, diverging at Santo 
Domingo: "one passes northwest, trav- 
ersing the Navajos country." After 
fording at vSanto Domingo, the traveler 
goes down the Rio Grande to the mouth 
of the Jemez River, then up that stream 
to Santa Ana, San Isidro, Jemez, and to 



[34] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



the thermal springs and ruined Spanish 
mission 12 miles above that pueblo. 
"Going still deeper into the western 
solitudes the ruins increase in number. 
The first are those of the Pueblo Pin- 
tado, in the Sierra de los Mimbres, then 
those of We-je-gi, from whence you also 
perceive magnificent mountains, rocks 
piled one above the other, truncated 
cones, natural columns broken, and pla- 
teaux overgrown with cedars and pines. 
It is there that the desert truly appears 
in all its grandeur. Northwest of the 
Pueblo of \\x-je-gi is situated the Mesa 
Fachada, which is a very vast tableland, 
as smooth as a lake, and whose bound- 
less horizon reminds one of the immensity 
of the ocean. You next enter the canyon 
of Chaco; on the northern summit of 
this deep glen are the ruins of eight 
other pueblos, lying at a distance of 
nine miles and a half from each other; 
judging from their dimensions, the 
principal ones would be the pueblos 
of Hungo, Parie, Chetro, Kettle, Bonito, 
del Orroyo, and Penasca Blanca. The 
heart saddens at the sight of so many 
deserted towns which time is daily 
demolishing since their extinct popula- 
tions lie smouldering in their silent 
graves. " The misrendering of some of 
the above names must have been an 
oversight in proof-reading, as they are 
correctly given later in the same volume. 

In the year 1858 several autographs 
by members of "Co. E, R. M. B. " were 
added to the pictographswhich had been 
left on the walls of the canyon by its an- 
cient inhabitants. This was a year of 
serious trouble with the Navahoes,whom 
the Mormons were asserted to have sup- 
plied with firearms, and troops were 
brought in from abroad ; but what unit 
"R. M. B." represents cannot be stated. 

With the printing of the accounts of 
Gregg, a prairie-trader, of Simpson, an 
army officer, and of Domenech, mis- 
sionary and scientist, Chaco Canyon and 

[35] 



its ruins may be said to have emerged 
from the oblivion of centuries. Since 
their time, many have been the adven- 
turer, soldier, trader, and scientist who 
has either gazed on their walls with 
merely curious eye or felt his imagina- 
tion quicken as he stood before the 
stilled heart, as it were, of a civilization 
which had hushed into silence far out in 
the plains, many miles from the hvury- 
ing, resounding world as he himself 
knew it. Merely to name over the 
writings which have resulted from the 
impressions thus received would neces- 
sitate a bibliography of considerable 
length; in addition to those already 
mentioned, it would needs include the 
names of Bell, Bickford, Cope, Gushing, 
Hardacre, Hewett, Holtzinger, Jackson, 
Loew, Lummis, Matthews, Mindeleff, 
Morgan, Pepper, Powell, and Putnam. 

Once only since the coming of the 
Spaniard has the busy, commercial 
world of today crowded in upon the 
Chaco. From 1896 to 1902 the Hyde 
Exploration Expedition established at 
Pueblo Bonito the headquarters of an 
extensive trading enterprise. During 
this period great lines of freighters were 
constantly pulling in from Gallup or 
Thoreau, and others went out to the 
minor trading posts over the Navaho 
country; and Bonito itself (or Putnam, 
as the post-office was called) was a 
swarming hive of traders, Navahoes and 
other Indians, cowboys, adventurers, 
and an occasional scientist or investi- 
gator. But that time has long since 
past, and nothing remains of it all ex- 
cept a little store which is maintained 
by its owner simply for the benefit of 
his sheep-herders who winter their 
flocks in that neighborhood. The Chaco 
has dropped back into the brooding 
silence of centuries, ready to welcome 
those who come to learn the secrets 
still hidden within its ruins. 

Santa Fe, N. M. 



ECONOMIC RESOURCES OF CHACO CANYON 



By Wesley Bradfield. 



IT LS BELIEVED that the natural 
economic resources of the Chaco 
Canyon region, available to the in- 
habitants of its prehistoric pueblos, 
varied materially from those of the 
present day. The water supply was 
the foundation of the whole economic 
life. Upon the determination of the 
source and quantity of this water sup- 
ply rests the solution of many problems 
connected with the past history of these 
people, of whom we have as yet but little 
knowledge. 

Today, wells have to be dug to 
furnish sufficient water to enable this 
territory to be used as a winter range 
for sheep. The fall of snow with what 
water is available, is insufficient. In 
spring and summer the rains are too 
light to provide water enough for more 
than a very small number of animals. 
There are five or six springs within the 
region, each of which supplies only 
enough water for as many Navaho 
families. 

The great Chaco Wash, which carries 
water only after heavy rains, except in 
an underground flow, and which drains 
this fertile canyon, has been formed by 
erosion within the last few generations. 
It has broken through the deep clayey 
soil of the canyon floor, into the under- 
lying sand stratum. It is from fifteen 
to thirty feet in depth, and from fifty 
feet to one-fourth of a mile in width in 
its lower course. At the present time 
the erosion varies with the intensity of 
the periodic rains throughout the upper 
drainage area and along its tributaries. 
Visible effects of this erosion have 
greatly increased within the last twenty 



years. This Wash has become the great 
drainage canal of the whole valley, and 
deprives the soil immediately adjacent 
to it on both sides of the canyon of a 
great part of its underground seepage 
water. The Russian thistle and other 
desert plants abound. There are oc- 
casional bunches of grass, and some- 
times wild sunflowers grow in the low 
shallow spots in the upper part of the 
canyon. 

The character and number of trees 
growing in the region is strikingly seen 
by going from the upper to the lower 
parts of the canyon. They tell an 
interesting story and are a valuable 
record of the change in water conditions 
through the succeeding centuries. In 
the upper part of the canyon, there are 
scattered slow-growing yellow pines and 
a fair stand of cedar and pinon on some 
of the mesas. The cedars and pinons 
extend perhaps nine or ten miles down 
the canyon, more especially on its 
eastern mesas. Then, for four or five 
miles, one may find only scattered 
specimens, until, on the mesa's rim 
south of Chettro Kettle, there remain 
two lonely yellow pine sentinels which 
are barely able to exist. Below Chettro 
Kettle and Pueblo Bonito the last 
remnants of the stumps and roots of 
once flourishing cedars are now care- 
fully htmted for firewood. The last of 
the poplars save one, which stood below 
Pueblo Bonito twenty years ago, has 
disappeared, and one must go eight 
miles above Chettro Kettle to find the 
very last guard of poplars now slowly 
dying from lack of moisture. 



[36] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



Whether the present desert condition 
of the region originated in a rapid de- 
nudation of its tree growth, or was ac- 
compHshed slowly by gradual denuda- 
tion accompanied by continual light 
rain-fall through a period of years can 
probably be determined by further 
study throughout the whole territory 
in question. However, the evidence 
thus far obtained points to mesas 
covered in centuries past with a reason- 
ably good stand of cedar, pihon and 
yellow pine; to a canyon floor covered 
with abundant grass in its meadow-like 
openings among flourishing stands of 
yellow pine and poplar; to a naturally 
conserved abundance of soil moisture; 
to flowing springs; and to a small run- 
ning stream that had not yet formed 
the great Chaco Wash. It seems prob- 
able that in the centuries past water 
existed in plentiful supply for each of 
the fifteen pueblos of the region. 

Today, with the exception of rabbits 
and quail, the game animals which fur- 
nished a great part of the food of the 
people are practically extinct, and one 
must travel several days' journey on foot 
to find the natural feeding grounds of the 
larger game. Evidences of abundant 
game, however, have been found in the 
limited excavations of the past season. 
Bones of the buffalo, elk, deer, moun- 
tain sheep and bear, together with 
those of the smaller animals, varying 
in size from those of the dog or wolf to 
the squirrel have been found. Much of 
the bone material obtained has not yet 
been fully identified. 

Of vegetable foods, a small-eared 
com must have been the staple. Squash 
seeds, pinon nuts and beans were 
taken out of many of the rooms. Small 
bundles of plants and roots of various 
kinds, as yet unidentified, were recov- 
ered. These compactly tied bundles 
may have had a food value, or may 

[37] 



have been used for other purposes. At 
the present time the Navahos of the 
same region gather a yellow-flowered 
plant, which matures in late summer, 
tie the twigs and leaves into small bun- 
dles and use it throughout the year for 
brewing " Navaho Tea. " 

From the character of the ashes, both 
in the great refuse heap to the east of 
Chettro Kettle and the debris removed 
from the rooms, wood was the principal 
fuel in common use. There are traces 
of coal ash but not enough has yet been 
found to warrant an assertion that the 
people used coal for fuel to any great ex- 
tent. This point will be cleared up as 
excavation progresses. There is a heavy 
outcropping of coal on both sides of the 
canyon. One long used modem tunnel 
which extends for over one hundred 
feet into the south canyon wall one mile 
below Chettro Kettle runs through a 
vein seven feet thick. The coal used this 
summer at the excavation camp was 
obtained one-half mile nearer camp 
from the exposed face of the same vein. 
If the people of Chaco Canyon under- 
stood the use of coal there was enough 
within a stone's throw to last them for 
centuries. 

Clothing material thus far obtained is 
a negligible quantity. A few strands of 
twisted yucca, rabbit fur entwined with 
twisted fibre; and one finely woven 
sandal with a cord to pass over the 
great toe and other cords to tie the sides 
and heel to the ankle are the principal 
finds. Without doubt they practiced 
weaving of fine fabrics and the use of 
animal skins for clothing, but these 
inferences must be further developed. 

There was great abundance of excel- 
lent building material. Massive sand- 
stone cliff's form the canyon walls. The 
greater part of this is one solid mass 
which is constantly weathering and 
falling to the canyon below. On top of 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



the mesa above Wijiji one may find 
large quantities of weathered laminated 
sandstone capping the canyon walls. 
This is identical with that used in the 
greater part of the excellent masonry 
work of the Chaco Canyon pueblos, 
and was abundant everywhere through- 
out the region. Adobe for mortar and 
plaster was found in every pueblo door 
yard. The ceiling beams or vigas were 
principally of pine. These vary from 
eight to fourteen inches in diameter at 
the small end and also vary in length 
with the sizes of the rooms in which 
they were used. On the lower floor of 
an excavated room in Chettro Kettle 
were found three large logs with 
squarely cut ends, one of which meas- 
ured nineteen inches. In this day 
native timber of every kind with which 
to build these pueblos could not be ob- 
tained within thirty-five to forty miles, 
and for the smooth, gradually tapering 
logs that are found in the ruins indica- 
tive of growth under most favorable 
forest conditions, it would be necessary 
to go to the mountain forests many 
miles farther away. 

In building floors smaller pine poles, 
and in many cases poplar, were laid 
across the heavy vigas. On these rested 
the split slabs of cedar often six inches 
wide to six or eight feet long, closely 
packed straight rods a half inch in 
diameter, or long grasses in a heavy 
thatch. Over this was placed the pure 



clay which was often intermixed with 
cedar bark to form a good binding ele- 
ment. vSmall poles of pine, cedar or 
Cottonwood were used over the door- 
ways and window openings. For rein- 
forcing, poles and small logs of pine or 
cedar were imbedded in the walls dur- 
ing the course of erection. One can but 
conclude that the supply of timber for 
construction purposes, no matter where 
its source, was indeed plentiful. 

Clays of various degrees of purity, 
and of varying colors can be found on 
the mesas nearby as well as in the can- 
yon. These will be ultimately tested 
to determine their pottery making pos- 
sibilities. Red ochre is found in small 
deposits throughout the region, but 
more especially in the lower part of the 
canyon. Red pigments do not seem to 
have been used extensively in coloring 
or decorating pottery though some red 
is found. Obsidian and flint flakes are 
not abundant, but material of this 
character was used to make cutting 
edges, arrows and spears. It may have 
been obtained by barter, but probably 
was derived from the mountains to the 
northeast where it is to be had in un- 
limited quantities. 

Such, briefly, were the natural re- 
sources of Chaco Canyon and the 
adjacent territory available for the uses 
of the people in the days of their great 
activities. 

Sania Fe, N. M. 




[38] 



WHAT THE POTSHERDS TELL 



Bv Kenneth M. Chapman 



MUCH of the artistic impulse of 
mankind has been expended 
upon the making and decoration 
of useful objects so perishable or fragile 
that they are often destroyed before 
their service has well begun. Ever since 





Fig. 1. 

primitive man added ceramics to his 
list of accomplishments, the breakage 
of pottery must have been one of the 
household's most serious economic 
problems. 

One needs but walk over the shard- 
strewn site of an ancient pueblo ruin to 
realize fully the great waste of time and 
effort in providing for the simple culinary 
needs of a primitive community. Large 
storage jars, hidden in some safe comer 
of a room may have outlived the genera- 




FlG. 2. 



tion of their makers; but water jars and 
canteens, pitchers and dippers must 
soon have met the fate of the proverbial 
pitcher "that goeth often to the foun- 



tain." Food bowls, whose rightful 
place was upon the floor, must have 
been even more liable to accident. 

But though the fragility of pottery 
gave it so little permanence, it tended 
to perfect the art by making necessary 
the continual production of new ware 
to replace this steady loss, and thus 
ceramic art grew to be one of the 
ancient Pueblo woman's highest accom- 




FlG. 3. 

plishments. So breakage must have 
been taken as a matter of course; the 
fragments were gathered up in the day's 
sweepings and thrown upon the com- 
munal refuse heap which grew to be a 
depository of countless shards repre- 
senting each successive period of the 
pueblo's growth. 



[39] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 





mounds, for as the excavation of the 
plaza proceeded it was found that many 
abandoned kivas had served as pits for 
the deposit of refuse in which shards 
were strewn by thousands. At the close 
of the season's work it seemed advisable 
to make a test examination of the mate- 
rial from one kiva. For this purpose the 
large collection from kiva No. 1 1 was 
chosen. No appreciable difference was 
found in the types of ware separated 
from four successive levels, so this 
deposit may be taken to represent but 
one period in the life of Chettro Kettle. 
The test may therefore be considered 
as a study of the various types of ware 
of that one period. 

^ These shards taken from the stratified The potsherds were first separated 
deposits of refuse mounds afford the i"to ten distinct classes and each of 
best evidence of the development of a these classes was then further subdi- 
pueblo's ceramic art. Indeed, they may ^'^ded. This process was contmued until 
be the only record of earlier types. The 
custom of burying pottery with the 
dead may not have prevailed, and the 
ware recovered from the ruins of the 
building itself may represent only the 
period immediately preceding its aban- 
donment. 

Perhaps no group of ancient pueblo 
ruins has a more extensive series of ^^^^ 
refuse mounds than that of Chaco 

Canyon. The large mound of Chettro i n |(| | | i | i i|jj j M M M I I I I U 

Kettle, which was trenched during the • • 

excavation of 1920, proved to be made V J ,! 1 

up of a clearly stratified deposit fully ^ ^ 

fifteen feet in depth. A thorough test 

of its stratigraphy will be an important 

factor in determining the nature of the 

community's growth. However, this ^ V^' 

study need not be confined entireh' to "■ Fig. 5. 

[40] 




ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 






chosen for a detailed study. A restora- 
tion of some of these is given in the ac- 
companying figures. 

It is not always possible to determine 
the nature of a design from the small por- 
tion shown in one shard. An instance 
is given in Fig. i , a. This shard appears 
to show a portion of a simple decora- 
tive band placed just below the dotted 
rim of a bowl. But hundreds of other 
shards show that a hachure of oblique 



Fig. 6. 

the group finally chosen for special 
study contained only the rim shards of 
food bowls whose smoothed concave or 
interior surface bore geometric designs 
in black upon a whitish slip. Having 
laid out hundreds of such specimens, 
it was found that these geometric 
designs could be subdivided into several 
types. Of these only border bands were 







kkkkkkkkA 




Fig. 7. 



[41] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 










P^P 



m^m 






Fig. 8. 

lines is almost invariably used in mean- 
der patterns or swastika figures such 
as are shown in Figs. 2 and 3. Similar 
designs are indicated in even such small 
shards as those in Fig. i, b and c, so 
that in the absence of other portions of 
the rim of i a, we are justified in assum- 
ing that what is apparently a part of a 
simple border band is really but the 
rim portion of a much more involved 
design. Portions of two border bands 
^\•hich cannot be restored with any de- 





FlG. 9. 

gree of certainty are shown in Fig. 4. 
In the first we are in doubt as to the 



[42] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



manner in which the design was ex- 
tended at either end. In the second, 
apparently a part of a zig-zag pattern 
like those in Fig. 7, we have no means 
of determining its full depth. 

Having discarded all the shards 
which presented such complications, the 
collection was finally cut down'to forty, 
each with a distinct form of border 
design which could be readily de- 
ciphered. The restoration of these 
decorative bands, about one-third natu- 
ral size, is given in Figs. 5 to 10 inclu- 
sive. In Figs. 5 and 6, the relative size 
and shape of the shard is indicated in 
each design. In Figs. 7 to 10 inclusive, 
only the restored designs are shown. 
We find the simplest motives in Fig. 5 
and the most complex in the fret pat- 
terns of Fig. 10. Many variations of 
the same motive were produced by the 
use of hachure, dots, and even by slight 
changes in the relative proportion of 
black and white spaces. It will be 
noticed that the favored direction for 
oblique lines is upward from left to 
right, probably the natural result of 
drawing with the right hand. Having 
determined something of the variety 
of these border designs, it is also import- 
ant that we know which^'were most 
frequently used. Many other examples 
of some of these motives are found, 
their varying size and proportions show- 
ing that they were not parts of the same 
bowl. We find, for instance, several 
exact repetitions of the second band 
from the top in Fig. 9. This simple and 
effective arrangement of black and 
white spaces seems to have been a fa- 

[43] 



£3 



^ 







^[M]@@ 




I'K 



vorite for it also ajipears many times in 
other combinations with lines and dots. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



The origin and significance of these 
designs is yet to be determined. They 
represent but a small part of the decora- 
tive art that might be restored from the 
shards of kiva 1 1 . But the collection 
suffices to show one of the many things 
that may be learned by working with 
such fragmentary evidence. 

Potsherds tell of many other things: 
of clays and tempering materials, of 
slips and pigments. They record every 
process in their making and every vari- 
ety in form. They show the individual 
touch of their makers; the crude work 
of inexperienced hands or of hands 
grown old and infirm, as well as the 
deft touch of expert potters who sang 
as they moulded and painted, even as 
the Pueblo women of today. They 



r ecord the creative instinct which mani- 
fested itself in the modeling of birds, 
frogs and other animals to serve as 
handles, lugs and spouts. A few show 
by their composition, form and decora- 
tion that they must have come from 
other areas, thus giving a hint of Chet- 
tro Kettle's intercourse with the outside 
world. 

All this may be better learned later, 
on by the recovery of great quantities 
of perfect or restorable pottery. But 
by their numbers alone the hundreds of 
thousands of shards that must come to 
light as the work of excavation pro- 
ceeds will have great weight in deter- 
mining the character and growth of the 
ceramic art at Chettro Kettle. 

Satila Fe, N. M. 



TO SIPOPHH, THE GATE OF HEAVEN* 
By John Peabodv Harrington 

Not to the tomb, but to the H oinb 
Moves on this pageant strange — 
Sivept on, yet deeming that they guide 
Down to the great world's Womb they ride. 
The Womb of Change. 

That Womb where start all things of heart 

And all things else beside! 
Unshadoived are the thoughts they wear. 
And proud the visage that they bear; 

Lightly they ride. 

To Sipophe where all things stay. 

Rally, and rearrange — 
How lightly on the eternal tide 
Down to the great world's Womb they ride. 

The Womb of change! 

•Inspired by Julius Rolshoven's famous painting. "To the Land 
of Sipophe." for a reproduction of which see cover picture and full- 
page plate p. 30 Art AND Archaeology, Vol. IX, No. i.(Jan 1920.) 



[44] 



THE EXCAVATION OF CHETTRO KETTLE, 



CHACO CANTON, 1920 
Bv Edgar L. Hewett 



I. SCOPE AND METHOD OF THE 
FIELD WORK 

THE CHACO CANYON presents 
a concentrated group of problems. 
Except for the necessary study of 
environmental conditions, the search 
for traditions, and comparative culture 
studies among tribes in the surrounding 
country the area of investigation is only 
seven miles long and a mile wide. This 
omits three outposts, five, ten and fifteen 
miles distant respectively, none of 
which appears to be essential in the 
study. 

There was naturally great homo- 
geneity in culture throughout this little 
district. Doubtless all the communi- 
ties spoke the same language. While 
each had its own individuality, as shown 
in the building of the towns and prac- 
tice of ceramic art, all evidence points 
to identity in religion, social structure, 
symbolism and ordinary customs of 
life. No cross currents of alien culture 
are discernible. No indication of aban- 
donment, disuse or reoccupation by the 
original stock or by other peoples are 
found. On the contrary one gains the 
impression that a single tribe of people 
occupied this little valley, grouped 
themselves in community centers, 
availed themselves with exceptional 
intelligence of the resources about them, 
held their own against all invaders, 
developed through the stages of com- 
munity life, with agriculture and hunt- 
ing as the chief occupations of subsist- 
ence, grew physically and intellectually 
vigorous, and manifested its virility in 
unusual social, aesthetic and religious 

[45] 



activities — conspicuously in the build- 
ing of great community structures and 
religious sanctuaries which challenge 
the admiration and constructive ability 
of our modern civilization. One seems 
to be studying a people that matured 
its culture without serious interruption, 
that ran its course to the summit of its 
civilization and then suddenly went 
into oblivion. Evidences of decline 
such as one sees in modern towns or 
pueblos in New Mexico and Arizona 
are not visible. In the Rio Grande 
Valley we have actually seen com- 
munities die a natural death, the popu- 
lation shrink down to the last man as at 
Pojoaque. Almost the same thing 
occurred at Pecos where a once power- 
ful and populous town dwindled in three 
centuries to seventeen people and was 
then abandoned. The same process is 
now going on at Nambe and San Ilde- 
fonso. We are thus familiar with the 
appearance of a decaying Indian town 
and have a basis in actual experience for 
believing that nothing of this kind oc- 
curred at Chaco Canyon. It looks as 
though abandonment came at the full 
tide of life, except that there are no signs 
of sudden destruction. 

It must be understood that these im- 
pressions gained after some years of 
observation in this interesting region 
and comparison with other vSouth- 
western groups, ancient and modern, 
are by no means final but await the 
convincing results of more intensive 
study. They assist in determining 
what shall be the scope and method of 
the investigation to be pursued. In the 
first place, what we have undertaken is 




'///// 



a 



Chaco Canyon: Ground Plan of part of Chettro Kettle. 
Excavated 1920, 




Chettro Kettle : Excavation of the Great Refuse Mound, showing stratification. 



a study of an extinct tribe, its life and 
achievements together with all the 
factors, natural and ethnological, by 
which these were influenced. For con- 
venience this tribe will be called Cha- 
cones, for the same reason that we have 
called the ancient cliff and mesa dwell- 
ing people who inhabit the plateau 
between the Rio Grande and Jemez 
mountains Pajaritans. It is simply a 
term employed to designate a people 
from the region inhabited, in the 
absence of any ethnological relation 
from which they might be correctly 
named. The various lines of study 
have been assigned to members of the 
scientific staff according to the follow- 
ing plan: 



1. Chaco Canyon: its location, place 
in the ancient southwestern world ; dis- 
tribution of the communities and gen- 
eral description of their towns and other 
archaeological remains. 

2. Natural conditions: topography, 
geology, botany, zoology, climate. 

3. Economic resources: fuel, food, 
clothing material, clays, minerals, 
water supply, building material. 

4. The Art of Chaco Canyon com- 
munities: cultural stratification, clas- 
sification, design. 

5. Architecture: plans of community 
houses, construction, masonr\', sanctu- 
aries, stairways. 

6. Etlmic relations: traditions, leg- 
ends of the southwestern tribes (Pu- 



[47] 





CiiUTTRO Kettle; Kiva Area and Outer Wall and Defensive Trench, after excavation. 



eblo, Navaho, Apache, Ute, Piute), rela- 
tive to the ancient inhabitants of Chaco 
Canyon. 

7. Archive and bibhographic work: 
a digest of everj-thing heretofore writ- 
ten on the ruins of Chaco Canyon, and 
search in Spanish archives for early 
references thereto. 

Of the methods of pursuing the 
various lines of research above out- 
lined nothing need be said except with 
reference to excavation and treatment 
of archaeological remains. 

The waste and destruction of antiq- 
uities in the old world is matched by 
the same kind of vandalism in the 
southwest. There has been little ven- 
eration for the ancient places. Build- 
ings, shrines and sanctuaries have been 
wrecked in the path of progress — even 



in the name of science. The pot hunter, 
both scientific and commercial, has been 
scouring the southwest for fifty years. 
His particular field has been the burial 
places and refuse heaps about the great 
community houses, and so industriously 
has this nefarious work been carried on 
that no archaeologist of this generation 
has had the privilege of excavating an 
important site that had not been pre- 
viously looted. When it is considered 
to what an extent vanished peoples 
have left their records in burial places 
and refuse heaps contiguous to their 
dwellings the loss occasioned by the 
pot hunter can be understood. Along 
the important seven miles of the Chaco 
Canyon with its great central group and 
a large community house on each mile 
of the north side of the valley, not a 

[48] 





'^■^- 




Chettro Kettle: Wall and Ceiling Construction. 



refuse heap is to be seen that has not 
been dug over, and across the valley to 
the south where the dead from the 
great communities are supposed to have 
been buried, not a mound can be found 
that has not been pitted over and over 
in search for pottery. The principal 
museum collections in America have 
been secured by purchase from unscien- 
tific collectors working in this way. 
The Government has endeavoured to 
establish a perpetual closed season on 
pot hunting but without success. Even 
on the lands owned and controlled by 
the United States the evil practice goes 
on. 

It should be the rule that burial 
places and refuse heaps shall not be 
touched except in connection with the 
excavation of the buildings to which 

[49] 



they are related. In no other way can 
anything like a complete record be 
obtained of any ancient site. Graves 
are likely to contain the most important 
articles of ceremonial and domestic use. 
Refuse heaps are, theoretically at least, 
composed of the waste of the town 
swept out from day to day, possibly for 
centuries, building up in regular con- 
secutive layers and thus embracing in 
chronological arrangement, though in 
broken or worn out condition, remains 
of every description from every age of 
the existence of the place. 

The complete excavation of a site 
then includes the uncovering of the 
buildings and the exploration of all 
contiguous mounds. vSince the latter 
are likely to be so situated that some of 
them will be in the way of the dump 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



from the main excavation, they 
must be examined first. Such 
mounds are usually covered 
with shards which call for some 
examination, but it must be 
remembered that surface finds 
have a very limited value. 
Prairie dogs and pot hunters 
have so disturbed the contents 
of mounds that the original 
place of surface shards is in- 
determinable. The pitting of 
mounds, so largely employed 
by non-scientific excavators, is 
reprehensible, spoiling the 
mound for systematic exami- 
nation and record, and serves 
no purpose save the occasional 
yield of specimens. As a 
means of arriving at accurate 
conclusions concerning the 
stratification of mounds, pit- 
ting is altogether misleading. 
A pit sunk in one part of a 
mound may reach the oldest 
deposits of the mound within 
a few feet of the surface, while 
another pit ten feet away may 
at the same depth penetrate 
only recent refuse deposits. 
The method is worthless and 
destructive. The use of short 
and unrelated trenches is only slightly 
less so. 

A mound is not properly examined 
until it has been divided on both diam- 
eters by broad trenches extending clear 
through the mound and down to native 
undisturbed earth. The vertical sides 
of the trench then present perfect ex- 
posures which are almost certain to 
record the history of the building up of 
the mound and possibly enable the 
observer to locate the specimens ob- 
tained with reference to their chronolog- 
ical deposition. It must be remem- 




Chettro Kettle: Long Gallery, in process of excavation. 



bered, however, that no one mound is 
likely to afford a record of continuous 
growth from its earliest to its latest 
deposits; that numerous other refuse 
heaps were in process of formation 
contemporaneously about the town, 
probably none continuously used, there 
being great irregularity in formation, 
periods of disuse, and periods of exces- 
sive use; occasions of disturbance be- 
cause of the extension of buildings at 
which times refuse may have been so 
handled as to cause a complete reversal 
of its stratification. Many other con- 



[SO] 




Chettro Kettle: Interior of a Room, 



ceivable circumstances would interfere 
with the orderly arrangement of the 
material. 

vSince the geographical and chronolog- 
ical classification of pottery is being 
made a basis for important generaliza- 
tions concerning the movements of 
southwestern peoples, and the relative 
dating of the ancient centers of popula- 
tion, it is proper to point out the ex- 
tremely insecure foundation on which 
the structure rests. In practice, ancient 
technique often survives alongside of 
modem methods. In a single com- 
munity the art of one group of potters 
may be ascending and that of another 
descending at the same moment. In 
two adjoining towns during the same 
year pottery-making may be flourishing 
in one and dying out in the other. 

[51] 



Again the characteristic style of one 
pueblo may be engrafted upon another 
temporarily or permanently by the 
change of residence of a single indi- 
vidual. This will account for much of 
the so-called "trade pottery" found by 
excavation. On the whole, so many 
probabilities of error exist in the use of 
this method of study that one can not 
avoid the apprehension that there 
may be too ready an acceptance of the 
results by those who rely upon the re- 
searches of others. Therefore the limits 
of the method must be frankly stated. 
When it comes to the major task of 
the archaeologist, namely the uncover- 
ing of entire towns, one is confronted 
with a multitude of problems. Chief 
among them are the questions of pres- 
erv'ation and interpretation of archaeo- 




Chettro Kettle: Southeast corner, in process of excavation. 



logical evidence. Archaeology, like 
every other phase of history, invites 
conjecture and unwarranted conclu- 
sions, which, announced with an ap- 
pearance of finality or made permanent 
by the restoration or reconstruction 
of buildings, can only lead to the 
confusion of history. The archaeolo- 
gist, like other historians, best serves 
his science by recovering, describing, 
and preserving unaltered the evidences 
of human activity throughout the ages, 
calling attention to possible interpreta- 
tions of the evidence and allowing it to 
teach what it will. He is the observer 
of the mental processes of people of a 
different age and usually of a different 
race from his own. Until he can detach 
himself from his own time and race and 
attain the attitude of an impersonal 



spectator of activities proceeding over 
vast reaches of time, he will mislead by 
his conjectures and restorations. 

The vast literature of speculative 
archaeology and the amount of uncon- 
vincing interpretation and reconstruc- 
tion of past human achievements move 
one at the beginning of a new investiga- 
tion to adopt a procedure that will be as 
free as possible from the danger of false 
teaching. This calls for the careful 
recovery and description of buried 
material; the laying bare of evidence 
for study by contemporary and later 
students; the preservation of archaeo- 
logical remains as nearly as possible in 
the state in which found, with only such 
repair as is necessary for preservation ; 
restoration to a very^ limited extent 
after positive verification, and for the 



[52] 







-**»■ '■•' " "*w'*^.'' '*! ,'"' ^? 



#', - -', "^ ^*' ' ' y i ~, 1 "I'M, . 



o^-:>«^^^i^;jy»- 



.••'■■ J*r' 



^...*-- 





CiiETiRo Kettue: TIk 



TrLiiclus tliruuKli the Great Refuse Mound and the beginning of 
the excavation of the main building. 



presentation of our own conclusions; 
a liberal use of pictorial illustration 
offered subject to amendment with the 
accumulation of new facts. A great 
ruin is an object of veneration and may 
be a never-ending source of knowledge. 
A restored building is likely to be a 
sealed book, or what is worse, a ghastly 
imitation, from which the spirit of its 
builders, to which is due whatever of 
greatness it ever had, has been driven 
for ever. 

In the work in the Chaco Canyon we 
have the incalculable advantage of 
having the actual work of excavation 
done by Indians. They are not far re- 
moved in their cultural status from the 
people whose productions are being 
recovered. Their minds run in the same 
racial channels. Thev live on the 



ground and in the environment from 
which sprang the civilization that is 
under investigation. They see vestiges 
which are hardly discernible to other 
than Indian eyes, for they themselves 
are the product of many generations of 
experience on this their home soil. 
When it comes to interpretations, one 
can not fail to see that the philosophy of 
the Indian of to-day is derived from the 
same sources that shaped the beliefs 
and activities of the ancients of his o\\ti 
race. Indian psychology is peculiarly 
definite, a development that has come 
through ages of life ordered to conform 
to the great natural forces with which 
the race has been so intimately in con- 
tact. These forces have been constant 
for ages past and the human reaction 
has been identical in tlie ancient and 



[53] 




Chettro Kettle: Looking into excavated rooms. 



modern of the same race. Therefore, the 
Indian workman who readily becomes 
an observing student, is an invaluable 
aid in American archaeological re- 
search. 

The Navaho, who have for some cen- 
turies inhabited the region surrounding 
the Chaco Canyon, are a numerous and 
increasing tribe. They number approx- 
imately 32,000 at the present time, and 
are a people of great promise. They 
have successfully met the conditions of 
the desert. They have kept their blood 
pure, are comparatively free from in- 
fectious diseases and show a power of 
adaptation to changing conditions 
which promises survival and progress. 
Unlike the Pueblos who are communal 
in mode of life, the Navalio are indi- 



vidualists. With respect to vital and 
economic conditions, as well as for the 
development of personal initiative, the 
latter mode has every advantage over 
the former. The Navaho are indus- 
trious, good natured, susceptible to 
education, as honest as their white 
neighbors, capable of acquiring habits 
of thrift, and on the whole constitute 
a valuable element in our population. 
The expedition is extremely fortunate 
in having them for workmen. 

1 1. THE EXCAVATION OF CHETTRO 
KETTLE. 

The first step was to examine the area 
surrounding the ruin for refuse heaps 
and burial places, which unless ex- 
cavated first, might be lost under the 



[54] 




ChEttro Kettle: An excavated area. 



debris from the buildings. The large 
oval mound a few yards to the east of 
the walls was divided from end to end 
by a broad trench on its longer axis, 
going down to the undisturbed soil. A 
similar trench on the short diameter cut 
it into quarters. In addition to this, 
large sections on the side of the mound 
nearest the pueblo were completely ex- 
cavated, minutely examined and re- 
moved. The stratification of the 
mound from its beginning is thus laid 
bare, not only for our own information 
but for study by anyone else who wishes 
to undertake the reading of the story it 
has to tell. The successive layers are 
fairly clear, all carrying plentiful de- 
posits of cultural remains, bone im- 
plements, potsherds and the usual 



refuse of domestic life. Whatever has 
been unconsciously recorded from 
generation to generation by casting the 
waste of the community into common 
dumps, can here be disclosed by intel- 
ligent, patient, persevering study. To 
detect the gradual changes in culture, 
advancing or retrograding; the accelera- 
tions, retardations, dislocations, is pos- 
sible but full of possibilities of error. I 
suppose a perfect refuse mound (which 
probably doesn't exist) would show the 
response of the human .group to chang- 
ing conditions in much the same manner 
that the annular rings of forest trees tell 
of the seasons of prosperity, adversity, 
well-being, disease, etc., that the forests 
have experienced. 



[55] 



-»^^m^. 




Chettro Kettle: An excavated Kiva. 



The great mound at Chettro Kettle 
was not a place for the burial of the 
dead. It yields much material for 
study but little that is suitable for 
museum display. Other refuse places 
and possibly cemeteries may be found 
near, for no area will be used for dump- 
ing from the excavations, save low 
places which nature has laid bare, until 
thorouglily trenched. 

In determining the procedure at 
Chettro Kettle, it was assumed that 
many unfamiliar factors must be 
reckoned with — an assumption that 
was fully confirmed as the work ad- 
vanced. The most favorable approach 
seemed to be by way of the southeast 
comer. It was almost completely 
buried, suggesting a minimum of danger 



to workmen from shattered walls. It 
was at the end of one wing, presenting 
the only clearly exposed corner of the 
ruin. It was one point of origin of the 
great ridge, formerly supposed to be a 
buried wall, that sweeps in a bold curve 
from this point to the west end of the 
site seven hundred feet away. The 
examination of this corner then would 
probably reveal several important as- 
pects of our problem. 

Therefore, an area ninety feet square 
was laid off for excavation. The surface 
indication was that it would disclose the 
end of the east wing, the juncture of the 
curved front, and nine or ten living 
rooms on the ground floor of the wing. 
What was found will be understood best 
by referring to the photographs and 



[56] 



ART AMD ARCHAEOLOGY 



architectural plan of the excavated 
area. The curved front is a building 
with a massive central axis and rooms 
on either side. It may have been two 
stories high in places. The central wall 
is pierced by doorways, all securely 
closed with masonry, originally afford- 
ing communication between the rooms 
on the inner court and those facing 
outward. The exterior rooms are with- 
out outside openings on the level that 
remains. Outside this series of exterior 
rooms is a trench eight feet deep, two 
feet wide, between heavy walls of 
masonry that for solidity could not be 
excelled unless built of modem concrete. 
The floor is hard and smooth and 
shows much use. This trench, entirely 
unexpected, is without precedent in 
the ruins of the southwest. If it proves 
to be continuous with the curving ridge, 
as seems almost certain, it afforded a 
protected passage from the extreme 
southeast comer of the town to the 
northwestern quarter seven hundred 
feet away. 

The excavation of the southern ex- 
tremity of the east wing of the building 
disclosed two stories buried, instead of 
one as expected. The views looking 
down into the excavated rooms convey 
a fair idea of the situation as we find it, 
and reveal the knowledge of construc- 
tion possessed by these people. Parti- 
tion walls were sometimes reinforced by 
imbedding timbers in the masonry as 
we reinforce concrete walls with iron 
rods. Floors and ceilings were con- 
structed by first laying hea\y support- 
ing logs (vigas) across from wall to wall. 
Upon these were laid, longitudinally, 
smaller logs or poles, placed closely side 
by side. Upon these were laid thin 
cedar slabs and over this a layer of 
cedar bark. Upon this was a solidly 
packed layer of earth, kept hard and 
smooth by rubbing with smoothing 

[57] 



stones. The methods of timbering and 
flooring as well as of plastering may be 
clearly seen in the photographs. The 
views of some' of the cleared rooms 
show a remarkable state of preservation 
of both masonry and timbers. Many 
rooms are unexpectedly large, being 
considerably more spacious than those 
wliich I have enjoyed in the National 
Arts Club in New York, the Cosmos 
Club in W'ashington, or even in the very 
modem Alvarado Hotel in Albuquerque. 
Neither is the advantage as to fire 
hazard, light, warmth and ventilation 
altogether with these hostelries of Gram- 
ercy Park and Lafayette vSquare. 

The extension of the excavation into 
the plaza or irmer court brought other 
surprises. The perfectly level surface 
gave no sign of the labyrinth of kivas, 
shafts, cists and variously walled spaces 
that were uncovered. The views will 
partially explain it. Kivas crowding 
one another, cutting into one another, 
overlying one another are found as far 
as the digging has gone. Each one is a 
variant from the conventional type of 
the San Juan culture area. The com- 
mon characteristic is that all are circu- 
lar and solidly walled. 

The excavation of Chettro Kettle is 
at least well started. The pronounced 
impressions that one receives from the 
study of these ancient communities so 
far are : 

1. Exuberance in the building im- 
pulse. 

2. Predominance of domestic, com- 
munity life. 

3. Intense religious activity. 

4. Master}' in building in stone. 

5. Efficiency in ceramic art. 

6. Resourcefulness in meeting en- 
vironmental conditions, 

7. Dependence upon agriculture, 
with hunting as the secondary means of 
subsistence. 



■at,-- 



^i^^ 













•"-"'■'^•-' ^sss^ 







i 







i^: -■-.'-, 


'"' i:' ' 


^--vJt '^■■ 


/.,. . • 


'. V, •■■ 




^:^:^'... 


><-''-'' ' • ■ 


f" ;. .* 


' * 



L luttiM K. Ill, 





CllLtllU KlUIc 




CS7l.w<=-.-v 



Chaco Canyon: Specimens of Walls. 










NiHA, Syria: Ancient Baal Temple. 



Nippur: S. E. wing of Assurbanipal's Ziggurat. 





Eryx, Sicily: Carthaginian walls. 



Mycenae: Circular Precinct and Shaft Graves. 




Jericho: Crude Canaanitish wall in north anti 
west sides of the German excavations. 




Pkehi^toric Jericho: Living Room. 



Photographs by Frederick Bennett Wright 



^ 




Trov: Section of one of the oldest walls. 




Tkov: Ruins of the Citadel. 




Gizeh: Mastaba of the reign of Cheops. 



..i.-' 







Gizeh: Stone faced Mastaba with ruff-e cone. 
IV dynasty. 




Nippur; Drain in city wall of Naram Sin — 2750 b. c. 



Photographs by'Frederick Bemiell Wright. 



i% 







Babylon: A wall iu Ancient Babylon. 




Peru: Ruins of Pachacamac, Peru — entrance to the Municipal Palace of the town. 



4( 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



In closing this preliminary account of 
tlie ancient monuments of Chaco Can- 
yon, I have arranged a comparison of 
the achievements of these native Ameri- 
can builders with the much better- 
known works of ancient civilizations of 
the old world. Here are buildings which, 
abandoned, unroofed, exposed to the 
elements and vandals of centuries stand 
as very few specimens of walls (we are 
not comparing with pyramidal masses) 
in any land have withstood the ages. 
In wall masonry the Chaco builders 
were unsurpassed, and it may be 
doubted if our modem masonry will be 
as enduring. As to our reinforced con- 
crete, time has made no test. For the 
purpose of comparison, typical Chaco 
Canyon walls are shown in photo- 
graphs with illustrations of walls of 
ancient Troy, Mycenae Babylon, Nip- 
pur, Jericho, Carthage, Gizeh, Niha in 
Syria and Pachacamac in Peru. For 
the present, the illustrations must be 
allowed to speak for themselves. At 
some future time it is hoped that a com- 
parative study of new world and old 
world masonry may be made. 

Most interesting are the architectural 
remains of ancient peoples in relation to 
human life. Monuments of the old 
world are chiefly memorials of kings, 
priests and a miscalled "nobility" — 
palaces, fortresses, temples, tombs — 
built by myriads whose sordid lives 
were of no account, under the compul- 
sion of military and religious power. 
The common people whose hands made 
the vast structures built little for 
their own use. Those dynasties, courts, 
and priestly orders have been extinct 
for ages, but the races survive in the 



abject, servile, degraded humanity to 
be seen today in Egypt and the Near 
East. The great houses that have been 
the subject of this article are an expres- 
sion, first of all, of the domestic life of 
a race. They were built by free men, 
of their own volition, in their own time 
and way, as homes for their fatriilies. 
They represent the labor "of the peo- 
ple, by the people, for the people, " and 
they are not wanting in the qualities 
that make for endurance. They 
memorialize the lives of the people, not 
of kings. This culture, too, is in ruins, 
but the race survives; and whether its 
survivors prove to be Navaho or Pueblo 
or Yaqui or Aztec, or any other Indian 
tribe, it will be found that in spite of all 
the handicaps of conquest by a race of 
superior material resources, there sur- 
vives a dignity, self-respect and poise 
of a people who developed their culture 
under conditions of freedom — a genuine 
"nobility. " 

It is significant that only representa- 
tive government existed among the 
native American peoples. This fact is 
not sufficiently recognized, partly due 
to a misleading nomenclature that is 
still tolerated — even used — by his- 
torians. Such terms as "Indian prin- 
cess," "Aztec empire," "the Emperor 
Montezuma," "Old Empire and New 
Empire," (as applied to the epochs of 
Maya history), "Inca kings," "cliflf 
cities of the southwest," etc., are based 
upon a false conception of the social and 
political structure of the native Ameri- 
can peoples which all Americanists 
should unite in correcting. 

School of American Research, Santa Fe. N. M. 



[62] 



A MARBLE VASE FROM THE ULMA RIVER 

HONDURAS* 

By Zelia Nuttall 



THE following comments are in- 
tended to serve as a supplement 
to Dr. George Byron Gordon's 
article on "A Marble Vase from the Ulna 
River, Honduras," which appeared in 
Art and Archaeology (Vol. IX, No. 3) 
in March 1920. 

In his text he states that "the broad 
central zone (surrounding the sculp- 
tured vase) corresponding to the main 
field of decoration claims special atten- 
tion;" that "it is entirely covered with 
ornament of elaborate and curious com- 
position ; " that " in order to explain the 
elements or units that enter into the 
composition of this ornament it is neces- 
sary to have recourse to drawings and 
subdivide the contour into two semi- 
cylindrical surfaces . . . ." and that 
"What may be called the principal 
unit in the design is repeated with 
striking alterations on the other side. 
The unit of design next in importance 
occurs eight times, yet in no case is it 
repeated in the same form. The minor 
units of design are manifestly three in 
number, readily comprehended, each of 
which again passes through its conjuga- 
tion on either side of the vessel in mak- 
ing the composition of the ornament." 
In this analysis no allusion is made 
to the fact which is so vital and inter- 
esting, namely that the " principal units 
of design" are conventionahsed ser- 
pents' heads, front and side views of 
which are represented and combined 
with marvellous ingenuity. These ser- 
pents' heads are clearly discernible in 
the photographic reproduction of the 
vase which illustrates Dr. Gordon's 
article, but curiously enough, are barely 



•Comments on the article by Dr. George Byron Gordon, 



recognisable in the carefully executed, 
outline drawings. Figs, i and 2. 

To make this clear, the Mexican art- 
ist Sr. Jose Leon has made drawings 
from the published photographs in 
which the forms of the conventional- 
ised serpents' heads and the peculiar 
technique of the native sculptor who 
worked in low relief, are skilfully ren- 
dered. In Fig. I, the upper half of the 
central band is seen to consist of the 
front view of a serpents' head on either 
side of which and facing each other are 
other serpents' heads, seen in profile. 
Directly under the central head is the 
composite figure of two serpents' heads 
in profile, facing each other and so 
closely joined that their upper and 
lower jaws meet; their combined pro- 
files appearing to form a single face 
seen from the front. (Figs. 2, 3.) 

This effect recalls the identical result, 
purposely obtained by the joining of 
two serpents' heads so that a single one 
is formed in the famous statue pre- 
served at the National Museum of 
Mexico, which symbolises the native 
ancient philosophical theme of the 
Divine Twain or DuaHty, personified 
as "Quetzalcoatl." 

As in the Nahuatl language the 
word coatl is a homonym for serpent 
and twin, the name Quetzalcoatl liter- 
ally signified either the " precious twin " 
or " serpent." This fact must be borne 
in mind when the serpent is encountered 
in sculptured or painted native Mexican 
designs, which would be equally sig- 
nificant to the Maya people as the name 
of their deity, Kukulcan, also means 
"the Divine Serpent." 

Both Mexicans and Mayas would 



[63] 





Examples of Sculptured Designs, Mexican and Mayan, to illustrate Mrs. Nuttall's paper. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



probably have discerned in the narrow 
bands above and below the central one 
the sculptor's intention to repeat the 
sacred theme in another form, as both 
bands consist of a series of overlapping 
scales, broken at intervals by a curious 
duplicate symbol which may well pass 
as an attempt to symbolise the dualities 
(the Above and Below, Light and Dark- 
ness, Male and Female, etc.), and is 
repeated consecutively around the base 
of the vase. 

While the presence of the serpent 
motif and its treatment by the ancient 
artist appear to reveal his familiarity 
with the religious symbolism of the 
Mexican and Maya people, the shape 
and size of the sculptured vase link it 
to the sacrificial vessels of ancient 
Mexico, such as were found on the 
island of Sacrificios in 1827 by Sefior 
Luna and are now preserved in the 
National Museum of Mexico (see figs. 
4, 5 and 6) . Both of the latter are made 
of the tecali or Mexican onyx which 
Brantz Mayer and other writers have 
referred to as "white marble " or "white 
transparent marble," not realising that 
as yet no true marble has been found in 
Mexico or Central America. 

The prehistoric quarries which fur- 
nished the tecali of different kinds, of 
which the numerous ancient vases and 
vessels, unearthed in different parts of 
Mexico and Central America, generally 
at great depths, are made, have been 
located about Etta, in the state of 
Oaxaca. Until other ancient quarries 
are found and it is proven that a marble 
was obtainable in the region of the 
Ulna River, Honduras, one may be per- 
mitted to question Dr. Gordon's view 
that the vase in question is of marble 
and a product of Ulna culture. 

It seems more probable that like 
those found on the island of Sacrificios, 
it and the others found with it were 



conveyed to the Ulna river by water or 
land from the cultural region situated 
further north. On making a compari- 
son between the Honduras vase and the 
finest of the two found on vSacrificios 
where the chief temple was dedicated 
to Quetzalcoatl, it will be seen that 
whereas in the first the band that en- 
circles the base is executed in open- 
work, the second displays an elaborate 
ornamental band of the same technique 
around its rim. In the Sacrificios speci- 
men light is thrown on the purpose for 
which it was fashioned by the unique 
and ingenuous contrivance consisting of 
a tube made inside the vase and extend- 
ing up its side from within a short 
distance from its bottom to the top of 
the openwork rim (see figs. 4 and 5). 
It is obvious that as the ancient native 
ritual exacted the offering of human 
hearts to the idols and the anointing 
of the latter's mouths with the blood 
thereof, that in such a vessel as de- 
scribed the prescribed offering could 
not only be made, but the blood be 
poured from it without disturbing its 
gruesome contents or soiling the open- 
work border. 

It may be safely inferred that the 
Honduras vase whose handles facili- 
tated the pouring out of its contents 
and the second one found at Sacrificios 
with a single handle in the form of an 
alligator or "lizard" (fig. 6) and others 
of similar size and shape were planned 
for ritualistic purposes. 

It is hoped that the above comments, 
which throw additional light on the in- 
teresting vase from Honduras, will be 
found of sufficient interest to justify my 
objection to Dr. Gordon's statement that 
"it would be as useless to speculate con- 
cerning the symbolism of all this orna- 
ment as it would be to guess at the serv- 
ice for which the vessel was designed." 

Casa AlvjradJ, Coyjacm, D. F. Mexico. 



[65] 




Drawn'J>y William Blake 



Detail of the Design 



A SCULPTURED VASE FROM GUATEMALA 

By Marshall H. Saville 



THE truly splendid piece of ancient 
American ceramic art here illus- 
trated was found a few years ago 
in a tomb near the town of San August! 
Acasaguastlan, in the western part of 
the Department of El Progreso, central 
Guatemala. This region is at present 
occupied by people speaking Spanish, 
and the name of the particular branch 
of the Mayan family, builders of the 
now-ruined cities of Yucatan and Cen- 
tral America, who formerly lived here, 
is unknown. 

This vase was formerly in the collec- 
tion of the German Consul-General in 
Guatemala City, and its conservation 
in the Museum of the American Indian, 
Heye Foundation, is due to the gener- 
osity of Harmon W. Hendricks, Esq., 
a Trustee of the Museum, who provided 
for its purchase after special permission 
had been granted for its exportation 
from Guatemala by President Estrada 



Cabrera. It was obtained during the 
month of September, 19 17, a piece of 
great good fortune for science, for a 
little more than three months later 
occurred the series of devastating earth- 
quakes which practically laid in ruin 
the entire city, and there is little doubt 
that this precious object would have 
been destroyed at that time. 

The vase is without question the 
most beautiful example of earthenware 
ever found in either North or South 
America, and it is in a class by itself as 
a triumph of Indian art. The deco- 
ration is sculptured, that is, the designs 
were probably cut while the clay was 
still plastic, and before firing. This 
type of decoration is exceedingly rare 
in the pottery of Mexico and Central 
America. In technique it reminds us 
of the great stone sculpture known as 
" The Turtle," at the ruins of Ouirigua, 
Guatemala, which is only about fifty 



[66] 




Surrounding the Vase. 

miles distant in an air-line from the 
place where the vase was found. It 
also resembles in concept the well- 
known stucco reliefs of the ruins of 
Palenque and the beautiful carved 
wooden lintels and altar plates of the 
ruins of Tikal. These examples, and 
the vase, belong to the best period of 
Mayan art. 

The striking feature of the involved 
designs on the vessel are the two ser- 
pents which spread around the body of 
the vase in undulating folds, the tails 
terminating at the back, their tips being 
hidden by elaborate masks of mytho- 
logical personages. In the open jaws of 
each serpent are heads, the larger of 
which represents the Sun God, charac- 
terized by a Roman nose, and having a 
kind of helmet covering the forehead, 
bearing a four-lobed design, which is 
repeated on the protruding lower part 
of the eye ; it is a variant of the glyph 
Kifi, the sun sign. Opposite is a human 
head in the jaw of the other serpent, 
evidently representing a suppliant. The 
motive of heads and figures in the open 
jaws of serpents or dragon-like figures 



Museum of the American Indian. Heye Foundation 

is a familiar one in Mayan art, and is 
a feature of the famous Calendar Stone 
of the Aztecs of the Valley of Mexico. 

Above the two heads in the serpents' 
jaws is the figure of the Death God, 
shown by the sutured skull and the 
ribs. The lower part of the figure is 
represented as human, with flesh. On 
the other side of the vase, where tails 
of the serpents end, is another Sun God 
seated with the feet pressed flat against 
the hips. Each arm encloses a fold of 
a serpent. Intermingled and interlaced 
with the undulations of the serpents 
are mythological animal figures and 
heads, notably the crocodile, and hu- 
man figures and heads, and no surface 
was left unadorned, featherwork and 
masks filling the space. This is a char- 
. acteristic feature of a certain stage of 
Mayan culture, the artists being loth 
to leave plain surfaces. 

The accompanying drawing shows 
the intricate interwoven designs spread 
out in a panel. At some future time 
a comparative study and an analysis of 
the import of this vessel will be made. 



[67] 




A Ceramic Masterp iece from Salvador 



A CERAMIC MASTERPIECE FROM SALVADOR 



Bv W. H. Holmes. 



THE remarkable earthenware ves- 
sel presented in the accompany- 
ing figure was brought as a gift 
to the National Museum by vSeiior 
Emilio Mosonyi, who obtained it from 
a native in Salvador, Central America. 
It is exceptionally attractive in appear- 
ance, taking as a work of art a high 
place among ceramic masterpieces of 
the region represented. 

It is tubular in shape, twelve inches 
in height, biownish in color and uni- 
formly polished. It is embellished with 
a broad encircling band of ornament of 
unusual complexity, which comprises 
four rows of human heads modeled in 
bold relief and three lines of hiero- 
glyphs. The human heads are forty- 
eight in number and are inclosed in 
sunken panels formed by interlooping 
and interwoven filaments, the arrange- 
ment as a whole giving a somewhat 
textile suggestion to the embellished 
band. The heads are closely alike as if 
formed by pressing the plastic clay into 
a common mold, the eyes and mouths 
having been afterward emphasized with 
a pointed modeling tool. The heads are 
crowned in each case with a short 
scroll-like fillet of clay coiled upward in 
front which appears to connect with the 
plume fillets of the framewoik. The 
floors of the panels against which the 
heads are placed have been blackened 
and checkered with incised lines. 

The three lines of glyphs are skil- 
fully introduced, being inclosed in shal- 
low panels formed by the interlooped 
strands. The panel surfaces have been 
blackened and the glyphs incised on 
these with a sharp point. The lines of 
glyphs connect around the body of the 
vase and are inclosed in the border 

[69] 



filament loopings at the upper and 
lower margins, the third, in the middle, 
being inclosed in squarish fillet frames, 
and these again by two strands which 
rise above and part around the glyph 
frames joining again below. It is not 
assumed that glyphs, even thus used 
in the ancient time, are necessarily 
significant for Dr. Spinden* states that 
"The hieroglyphs which so frequently 
occur on vessels from {Salvador are 
probably no more than meaningless 
decorations, but the same may be said 
of many of those on vases from the heart 
of the Maya area. Learning was doubt- 
less in the hands of the priests and upper 
classes, and potters had to content 
themselves with outward forms. Some- 
times a single face glyph, with or with- 
out dot numerals, is repeated over and 
over again around the rim of a bowl. 
At best such a glyph could only stand 
for a name or a day." 

It should be mentioned that Prof. 
Marshall H. Saville, who is well ac- 
quainted with the fictile work of the 
ancient Mayas as well as with certain 
skillful imitations of the present period, 
has expressed a fear that the decorative 
band in this specimen may have been 
added to the manifestly ancient tubu- 
lar body ; but the most critical exami- 
nation of the specimen shows that this 
cannot be the case. It is, however, not 
readily determined whether the speci- 
men is of the period of greatest Maya 
development since it stands distinctly 
alone in its embellishment, or of some 
later stage in the history of this 
people ; but it is observed that the skill 
shown in the modeling of the plastic 
design is nowhere surpassed. 

'Spinden. Herbert J., Ameruati Atithropologist. (N. S.) Vol. 17, 
No. 3. p. 446. 




Ralston Galleries, New York 



"Portrait of Samuel Brandram, Esq.," by John Hoppner. 



CURRENT MOTES AND COMMENTS 

Old English Portraits at the Ralston Galleries. 

Notable works by the English portraitists continue to come to America, despite the scarcity 
of fine pictures on the London market, and the tenacity with which English collectors hold on 
to their possessions. xVmong the latest arrivals are three typical examples obtained in England 
last summer, by Mr. Louis Ralston, and which are now on view at the Ralston Galleries, in Xew 
York. There is Hoppner's portrait of Samuel Brandram, (1743-1812), London color merchant, 
which was obtained from Mr. Andrew Brandram, now head of the same ancient merchantile 
establishment — a most pleasing characterization, representing Hoppner at his best. The others 
are Gainsborough's portrait of the Duke of Rutland, purchased from Lord Canterbury, and 
Raeburn's portrait of Janet Mellville. 

Mr. Ralston also brought to America three Corots, among them being "The Sacred Fountain," 
which is accorded a place by critics among the master works of the master of misty hours and 
filtered light. It is in Corot's favorite mood, when, in late evening, the last rays of light from a 
delicate violet sky form an atmospheric background. There are four figures of girls in the 
foreground. The silence of the moment is enhanced by the many graceful trees glimpsed 
behind the figures. 

American admirers of the art of Lhermitte will be interested to know that the Ralston Galleries 
have "The Reapers," which was the artist's salon picture of 1920. 

Claude Lorrain's "Rape of Europa" at the Satinover Galleries. 

Outside of one picture in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, America heretofore has had no 
opportunity to study at home the works of Claude Lorrain, who ranks as one of the five greatest 
landscapists among the old masters, the others being Ruysdael, Hobbema, Constable and Turner. 
This has been due to the fact that Claude's works have been closely held by their possessors in 
Europe. Ninety-two of them are in public galleries, where they will always remain. Recently 
two superb examples have been brought to New York, and are being shown at the Satinover 
Galleries. 

They are "A Villa in Arcadia" and "The Rape of Europa." Their French owner sold them to 
Joseph Satinover just eleven days before the French law laying an embargo on the exportation of 
old masters went into effect. It is not likely that any more will ever cross the ocean; therefore it 
is hoped that their ultimate possessor will be an American museum rather than a private collector. 

These two works are fit companions for the group of Claude's in the Louvre and the eleven in 
the British National Gallery. One of them is more than six feet wide and the other nearly five 
feet. What is most important, however, is that they have never been marred by the restorer, 
and have the beautiful limpid aerial blues that characterize Claude's art. In this they diff'er 
from "A Seaport," in the Hearn collection at the Metropolitan, which is greatly darkened by 
restorations. 

Claude was the inspiration of Turner, who when he died provided that two of his own master- 
pieces should hang by the side of two of Claude's in the National Gallery. 

The Lawrence Collection of Gothic Stained Glass at the American Art Galleries. 

One of the most important events of the present art season will be the dispersal by the American 
Art Galleries, in New York, of the notable collection of Gothic stained glass and other medieval 
objects of art formed by ihe late Henry C. Lawrence. The American art world owes a debt of 
o-ratitude to this collector not only because of his ser\-ices in bringing so many rare and precious 
things to this country, but also because of the example he set in connoisseurship. This lousiness 
man (for he was one of the best known stock brokers in New York and a governor of the New 
York Stock Exchange) was an ideal collector. He acquired art not merely for the sake of col- 
lecting, but because he wanted to live with it and have its companionship every day. 

An instance of this is the way Mr. Lawrence arranged his collection of stained glass, of which he 
had examples of every period from the thirteenth century to the seventeenth. These glasses 

[71] 





From the Lawrence Collection of Gothic Stained Glass. 

were more difficult to assimilate into modern living conditions than were the furniture, the tapes- 
tries, the wood cartings or the stuccoes, but Mr. Lawrence assimilated them. He adjusted each 
panel of the glass into a mount that fitted some particular window pane in the house, where he 
could place it and remove it at will. On Sundays, or days when he could be at home to enjoy his 
possessions, the glasses would be all in place, and then the house was one of glory. Connoisseurs 
came from great distances to see and enjoy. It was an envied experience to hear Mr. Lawrence 
talk of the glasses. A play was inspired by the story of some of them. 

The Lawrence home was a repository of art throughout. From its front door, set with a fine 
thirteenth century stained glass panel, to the remotest bedroom, where the walls were decorated 
with Florentine and Italian polychrome stuccoes, everv'thing was part of the collection and the 
collection made the home. In the living rooms the genius of the collector had its highest expres- 
sion. The walls of the dining room were constructed as a background for his tapestries. Food 
was served from a priory table of the sixteenth century, and there were chairs, chests and cup- 
boards of the same period. 

In the drawing room tapestries were hung a bit more formally and in every available corner 
were wood carvings and dinanderies. The chairs were of various periods from the fourteenth to 
the seventeenth centuries, and two choir stalls served as a couch. An old lectern supported a 
table lamp which, with candles set about the room, provided a soft glow that brotight out the 
beauty of each antique treasure. In one corner stood a marriage chest, and credences were con- 
venient storage places. 

The sitting room was similar, but in lighter vein. The principal bedroom was in some ways 
the greatest room of all, the main tapestry being a mille-fleur frieze, with rabbits, dogs, deer and 
birds playing among the flowers — one of the finest of this type of tapestry in existence. 

The dispersal of a beloved collection like this has in it an element of sadness, but it is the true 
spirit of the connoisseur that provides a chance for others to taste the same joys of possession. 

/. Stcivart Barney's Landscapes at the Ehrich Galleries. 

For an architect to turn painter and do presentable work at his easel does not appear to be a 
remarkable thing; in fact, it would be expected of such a man that, being already well founded in 
draughtsmanship, he would be able to put upon canvas faithful presentments of facts. But for 
an architect to take up painting and in the short period of two years produce landscapes that have 



[73] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

great breadth and freedom of handling, and that reflect the spirit of nature rather than merely her 
lineaments, is an achievement that calls for more than passing comment. Such an accomplish- 
ment has taken many artists the greater part of their lives, for it is almost the rule in the develop- 
ment of a painter that he begins by representing things as he sees them and ends by revealing 
things as he feels them. 

That J. Stewart Barney, of New York and Newport, who first gained fame as a champion of 
progressive ideas in American architecture, has come fully equipped into the ranks of painters is 
proved by the collection of Scottish and Newport landscapes which the Ehrich Galleries, of New 
York, will show during the week of January 23. A preliminary view of the group displays 
for him both facility in his medium and a fine grasp of beauty, no matter whether seen in its rugged 
or its more quiet aspects. 

The paintings are about e\ enly divided between the Scottish highlands, where the artist has a 
shooting moor in the Ben Nevis country, and the countryside and shore near Newport, where his 
summer home is located. Of the latter series perhaps the finest is "Ofi' the Be?ten Track," 
which is remarkable for its breadth and synthesis. It is a glimpse of rocks and water and sky, 
set down with reticence and with great structural integrity. Next in point of interest is "The 
Piping Rock," in which Mr. Barney has accomplished brilliajitly the difficult technical feat of 
interpreting the play of waters as they break on rocks. "Summer Afternoon" reveals a stretch 
of sun-kissed pasture, extending over the crest of a hill, while in the foreground is a stream of 
limpid water mirroring the coolness of trees on either side. 

Of the Scottish series the most picturesque is "Old Ben's Nightcap," whose theme is Ben 
Nevis, seen in the distance beneath a crown of clouds, while in the foreground is a mountain lake 
and rugged slopes. This work breathes the verj- spirit of Scotland, as does also "Sunset Over the 
Moors" and "The Burn," both of which are very characteristic of color. 

Mr. Barney's career as a painter will be watched with much interest, both because of its great 
promise and because of the debt the art world already owes him for his stand, almost alone, 
against the adaptation of absurd old world styles to the steel and concrete of the American sky- 
scraper. The struggle he made for truth as regards the skyscraper is now history, but it waged 
fiercely more than a decade ago, when he denounced his brother architects for trying to make 
New York's tall buildings look shorter by means of horizontal treatment. His contention was 
that the skyscraper, by letting it look tall and adapting for it a Gothic treatment, could be made 
very beautiful. Time has completely vindicated his position, and now foreign artists visiting 
New York for the first time say that out of our modern steel and concrete has arisen an architec- 
ture which has no superior for beauty anywhere in the world. 



Among the interesting exhibitions of the month is the group of early Spanish paintings also 
at the Ehrich Galleries. The outstanding feature of the show and one which is drawing crowds 
of visitors to the galler>' is the superbly painted and exceedingly rare "vStill Life" by Velasquez 
( 1 594-1 793). When one realizes that there are less than one hundred acknowledged original 
paintings by this master, the interest in this example is easily understood. The composition is 
simple, direct and dignified. Among other paintings worthy of note are two Spanish Primitives 
of the 15th Century — "St. Jerome" and "St. Michael" — highly decorative panels, beautiful in 
color, rarely seen outside of Spain. 

The Hankey Etchings on Exhibition at the Schwartz Galleries. 

William Lee Hankey, whose work began to be known in this country only a few years ago, 
seems definitely to have joined in popularity the group of famous modern British etchers whose 
prints are so deeply appreciated by our collectors, and whose ranks include such men as D. Y. 
Cameron, Hedley Fitton, Frank Brangwyn and Axel Haig. Beyond coming into rank with them, 
however, there is no resemblance between Hankey's etchings and those of the four men just 
mentioned. Their reputations are based mainly on the presentation of architectural beauty, 
and, in the case of Brangwyn, the attainment of strength. Hankey is rather the interpreter of 
human feelings. Mothers and children are his favorite subjects, and even when he essays land- 
scape it is human feeling that guides his hand rather than abstract beauty. 

Sixty-four of his etchings, now on exhibition at the Schwartz Galleries, New York, afford the 
art lover opportunity for a comprehensive study of Hankey. Despite what has been said of the 

[75] 




Schwartz Galleries, New York 



"Two Sisters," drypoint etching by William Lee Hankey. 



preponderance of human emotion in his work, this collection presents a distinctly decorative 
aspect. A delicious virtuosity in color and quahty is obtained in these black and white prints 
because of the fact that Hankey used the drypoint method; that is he cuts his lines directly on 
the metal with an instrument instead of tracing them through a fill-in of wax and letting acid 
"etch" them on the burnished surface. The drypoint method leaves a "burr" where the metal 
is "ploughed" with the instrument, and this either produces a shading by the ink or, in case of 
masses, results in a rich, velvety black. 

The most famous print in the collection is "The Flight from Belgium," which is so great 
because the face of the woman bears in it a realization of all that has befallen and all that impends. 
"Sole Possessions " is another notable subject. A Belgium woman in whose arms is her baby and 
on whose back is a bundle. In depicting the normal feelings of motherhood and childhood, how- 
ever, Hankey is most amiable. "Two Sisters" and "Maternite" are especially good, and "Con- 
fession," which conveys the sense of spiritual control on the mother's part, is a remarkable 
expression. 

Of the landscapes the finest perhaps is 'Sur la Niege," a glimpse of a French farm in winter 
so true that the weight of snow on the roofs is actually felt, and an illusion of dazzling luminosity 
attained. "In Belgium" has the same sort of human appeal, with its group of slender trees, its 
low-lying village beyond, and its white clouds billowing up in the distance. 

General Meeting of the Archaeological Institute 

The General Meeting of the Archaeological Institute of America and the Annual Meeting of 
the Council were held at the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md., Dec. 28-30, 1920. 
Some account of the papers presented of especial interest to Art .and Archaeology readers will 
appear in our next number. 



[76] 



BOOK CRITIQUES 



From Holbein to Whistler. Xotes on Drawing 
and Engraving, by Alfred Mansfield Brooks. 
Neiv Haven, Yale University Press, ig20. 

A most valuable and beautiful book has been 
added to the large library of books upon 
engraving, by Alfred M. Brooks, of the Univer- 
sity of Indiana, Curator of Prints in the John 
Herron Institute of Indianapolis, therefore 
qualified to speak authoritatively on the sub- 
ject. 

From Hans Holbein in the early i6th cen- 
tury to Whistler in the 19th century, there 
is a world of art, of which the real fundamentals 
are drawing and engraving. Mr. Brooks 
cleverly shows "the ways by which the 
engraver and his art, or the engraver and his 
trade, have had a hand in the concerns of 
religion and the spread of knowledge, not to 
mention increasing the material and durable 
satisfaction and delights of civilized and culti- 
vated men." 

The object of the book, he says, is to make 
plain that engraving, which is but a kind of 
drawing, is one of the noblest of all the arts 
and one not imderstood by the majority of 
persons who pretend to an interest in art, and 
not regarded or understood at all by most 
persons. Beside the technicalities of engrav- 
ing and etching, the time of their invention and 
discovery, he gives small sections showing the 
lines made by the burin and the etching needle, 
which will be of great value to the student of 
these graphic mediums. 

The introduction is a clear and interpretative 
discussion of what constitutes originality in 
art, its understanding and appreciation and one 
is tempted to quote at length. 

Mr. Brooks says that " to distinguish between 
good work and that which is downright excel- 
lent, requires accurate powers of discrimina- 
tion, firm and abiding fairness, a thoughtful 
bent of mind, imagination and all the informa- 
tion that possibly can be had. The result is 
true appreciation, another name for profound 
understanding. It always implies sympathy. " 

The grouping of the subjects, of which the 
book treats, is quite unlike that of other writers 
and is all the more interesting and illuminating. 
Line engraving and wood-engraving in Italy 
and in the North, is followed by a chapter on 
the very important masters of engraving, two 
Itahans, Mantegna and Marcantonio; two 
Germans, Diirer and Holbein, and one Dutch- 

[77] 



man, Lucas of Ley den. They all lived during 
the Renaissance, that period, of great art when 
architecture, painting and sculpture came to 
"full bloom," an age which produced as well, 
great artist-draughtsm.en. 

They were painter-engravers and interpreta- 
tive engravers, their remarkable creations of 
Christian art, their sacred subjects represented 
with lovely landscape backgroimds, Diirer's 
manner in particular, are still the much sought 
prints of Museums and Collectors. 

Rem.brandt, Van Dyck and Claude Lorrain 
are the great m.asters of etching, Rembrandt, 
the greatest not only of the seventeenth cen- 
tury but of all centuries. They are a story by 
themselves. 

Turner's "Liber Studiorum" that wonderful 
collection of engraved, etched and mezzotinted 
landscapes which Mr. Brooks says surpass all 
works of landscape which the world has seen, 
forms another chapter with Wordsworth's 
poetry, both artist and poet possessing the 
rom.antic point of view, seeing nature and 
representing it in picture and poem, that are to 
"the realities of this world as visions of another 
world." "They accepted every aspect of 
nature, from the calm of a summer's day to the 
gale on a winter's sea." 

The making of the book technically is the 
most finished product of the Yale University 
Press and is the fourth work published by the 
Herbert A. Scheftel Memorial Publication 
Fund, which was established by the widow of 
Herbert A. Scheftel, of the Class of 1898, who 
died in 19 14. The gift was made "in recogni- 
tion of the affection in which he always held 
Yale and in order to perpetuate in the Univer- 
sity the memory of his particular interest in the 
work of the Yale University Press." 

A beautiful and unusual memorial, that of 
stimulating fine book making! 

The illustrations, of which there are nearly 
one hundred, are the finest possible reproduc- 
tions of wood and line-engraving and etching. 

The book is not only a contribution to art 
history, but to literature. H. Wright. 

Attic Red-Figured Vases in Atnerican 
Museums. By J. D. Beazley. Cambridge: 
Harvard University Press; London: Humphrey 
Milford, igi8. X+236 pp., 118 illustrations, $7. 

Mr. Beazley has done more than any other 
recent scholar m the way of identifying unsigned 



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vases. He has discovered more than fifty 
new vase-painters and although certain scholars 
such as Percy Gardner and Pettier have ques- 
tioned his methods, there is no doubt that his 
identifications, which often are the same as 
those made independently by others (Hoppin, 
Swindler, Frickenhaus, myself, and others) 
are in the majority of cases sound. He cer- 
tainly has an unusual knowledge of stylistic 
details and aesthetics and a familiarity with 
the original vases themselves, such as perhaps 
no other living scholar has. 

The present volume deals with a far greater 
field than its title indicates and represents a 
treatment of the whole red-figured style down 
to Meidias. There are many new attributions 
to artists already known, such as Epictetus, 
Oltus, Macron, and to those created by Beazley 
such as the Achilles and Pan Painters. Several 
new painters are identified, the best being the 
Niobid Painter, an artist of first rank. Some 
of the names of the artists such as the Flying 
Angel Painter; The Providence Painter, The 
See-saw Painter, The Painter of the Deepdene 
Amphora seem strange and the arrangement 
of the material might have been more practical. 
But there are very few errors in the book, which 
is one of the most important contributions ever 
made to Greek ceramics. Many unpublished 
vases in America and Europe are here illus- 
trated for the first time and there are several 
better reproductions of vases already published. 

D. M. R. 

Everyone's History of French Art. By Louis 
Hourticq. Translated by M. Herbert. With 
iSi illustrations, and practical information for 
artistic tours. Librairie Hachette et Cic. Paris. 

This admirable little handbook should be on 
the desk or in the pocket of everyone interested 
in French Art. It presents in a nutshell the 
information most desired by the traveler in 
France or the reader who wishes to familiarize 
himself with the salient facts in this long and 
interesting story. You have here, in brief 
compass, " the archaeologist's handbook to Paris 
and the Provinces," notes on the Paris and 
provincial Museums, and the annual Salons, 
and a chronological and topographical table. 
Then follow "Facts about French Art, " begin- 
ning with the sources, and briefly describing the 
Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance, Louis XIII, 
XIV, XV, XVI, Revolution and Empire 



Kindly Mention Art and Archaeology. 



periods down to contemporary art. "When 
you study the artistic record of a nation, you 
witness its progress toward the ideal," and of 
all countries, except Greece, this is most truly 
exemplified by France. M. C. 

An Economic History of Rome to the end of 
the Republic. By Tenney Frank. Baltimore, 
The Johns Hopkins Press, ig20. xi+310 
pp. $2.00. 

This book deals with Agriculture in early 
Latium, The early trade of Latium and Etruria, 
The rise of the peasantry. New lands for old, 
Roman coinage. The establishment of the plan- 
tation, Industry and commerce. The Gracchan 
revolution. Public finances. The Plebs Urbana.- 
Industry at the end of the Republic, Capital, 
Commerce, The Laborer, and The exhaustion 
of the soil. Great use is made of archaeology 
and the result is a very important as well as 
readable contribution to the study of Roman 
history and archaeology. There are excellent 
summaries of the economic conclusions to be 
drawn from coins, inscriptions, the excavations 
of private houses and shops, from the finds in 
bronzes, silver, glass, jewehy, bricks, pipes, 
vases, and other archaeological evidence. The 
book is full of interesting statements even for 
our modern age. For example, we learn 
(p. 81) that Cicero's house cost about $150,000 
(p. 280 the cost is given as about $200,000), 
but Sulla could have rented a flat for $150 a 
year and workmen could get miserable rooms at 
a dollar per month; that the rate of exchange 
between silver and gold was about 16:1, the 
gold bringing little more if any more than its 
present day equivalent. Again we read (p. 1 1 1 ) 
"In a thousand years of Rome's history there 
is not one labor strike recorded. " I remember 
an inscription which tells of a strike during the 
building of the Roman theatre at Miletus, but 
such things seem not to have existed at Rome. 
Those concerned with present day problems as 
well as those interested in Roman history or 
archaeology will receive much profit and pleas- 
sure from a reading of Professor Frank's original 
and scholarly book. The printing is well done 
and the book is one of taste. I have noticed 
only a few misprints, such as courage for coin- 
age (p. 83), satrapsies for satrapies (p. 131), 
wrong punctuation of p. 167, n. 4, open for opus 
(p. 1 73), wTong order of notes on p. 256. P. 102 
the Ficoroni cista is said to be silver whereas 
it is bronze. D- M. R. 



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ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

An Illustrated Monthly Magazine 

POBLISHED AT WASHINGTON. D. C, by 

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ART AND LIFE (NEW YORK) COMBINED WITH ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



Volume XI 



MARCH, 1921 



Number 3 



EDITOR-IN-CHIEF 
WILLIAM H. HOLMES 

BOARD OF EDITORS 

Virgil Barker 
Howard Crosby Butler 
Charles Upson Clark 

Albert T. Clay 

Charles T. Currelly 

H. R. Fairclough 

Edgar L. Hewett 

Morris Jastrow 

Fiske Kimball 

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Helen Wright 




DIRECTOR AND EDITOR 
MITCHELL CARROLL 

BOARD OF MANAGERS 

Frank Springer. Chairman 

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James C. Egbert 

Ex-o^cions President of the Institute 

Burwell S. Cctlbr 

John B. Larner 

Charles Colfax Long 

Dan Fellows Platt 



COHTENTS 



Martyred Monuments of France II: The Town Hall of Arras . Colonel Theodore Reinach . . 83 

Eight Illustrations 

Art's Demand Le Baron Cooke 94 

What the War Cost France in Art Treasures Stephane Lausanne .... 95 

Still Life: Today and Yesterday Horace Townsend .... 99 

Eight Illustrations 



Armistice Day 

Poem 

Playing Cards: Their History and Symbolism 

Ten Illustrations 



/. B. Noel Wyatt .... 105 
W. G. Bowdoin 106 



Current Notes and Comments 113 

Five Illustrations 

Book Critiques 123 



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Copyright. 192 1, bv the Archaeological Institute of America. 




n:. .:.■ lA, 




o 






ART &n3. 

ARCHAEOLOGY 

The Arts Throughout the Ages 



Volume XI 



MARCH, 1921 



Number 3 



MARTYRED MONUMENTS OF FRANCE 

II: THE TOWN HALL OF ARRAS 

B\' Colonel Theodore Reinach 



Membre de rin<!lilnt de France 



IN A former number of this periodical 
I gave a short account of the wanton 

destruction by the Germans of the 
far-famed castle of Coucy. Hardly a 
less odious crime against art, history 
and civilization was the annihilation of 
the town hall of Arras. If Coucy was 
the unparalleled specimen of military 
architecture in the Middle ages, the 
Hotel de Ville of Arras was one of the 
finest productions of civil architecture 
in the early Renaissance. As the keep 
of Coucy was the king of our Donjons, 
so was the clock-tower of Arras rightly 
termed the king of our Beffrois. 

Northern France, of which Arras 
marks about the center, is a singular 
compound of provinces and peoples, 
some of Teutonic, some of Romanic 
stock, little by little blended in that 
wonderful melting-pot of races, cus- 
toms, traditions and civilizations, our 
many-sided, but one-hearted, modern 
France. Their story is a perfect maze 



iArt and Archaeology. IX, No. 3, March 1920. 



of ever-changing lordships. Artois, the 
comte of which Arras is the chief town, 
although of French tongue and culture 
and depending in feudal law from the 
realm of France, formed, as a matter of 
fact, during two centuries (i 180-1384), 
a semi-independent state, connected 
sometimes with Flanders, sometimes 
with England. Later on, after the 
ghastly ravages of the English hosts, 
it became a part of Burgundy, the 
enterprising buffer-state, which had 
sprung up between France and Ger- 
many. After the dismemberment of 
Burgundy, towards the end of the fif- 
teenth century, it was French again for 
a short time, only to become for about 
one hundred and forty years a Spanish 
province, previous to its final reunion, 
in 1640, to the French crown. 

It is a notable fact that Arras, not- 
withstanding it having thus been a 
Spanish possession for a century and 
a half, does not show in its outward 
aspect, in its architecture or sculpture. 



[83] 




Arras: The Town Hall. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



the slightest trace of Spanish influence. 
The contrary has often been asserted by 
romantic archaeologists and in our own 
days by the poet Verlaine, who prettily 
described . . . "/a viUe anx toits foUets 
Poignardant, espagnols, les dels cpais 
de Flandre" . . . But poets are not 
bound always to say the truth. Now 
the plain truth is that whatever here is 
not purely French is decidedly of Flem- 
ish origin, for many and narrow were 
the political and commercial ties be- 
tween Artois and the neighboring cities 
of Flanders which, under the mantle of 
republican freedom, developed, during 
the last centuries of the middle ages, 
unequalled wealth and unrivalled splen- 
dor. 

Since Roman times there stood here 
a flourishing city, the chief mart of the 
corn trade in a fertile country and the 
seat of a renowned fabric of woolen 
stuffs, the luxury of which already 
scandalized the holy Jerome. In the 
later middle ages, when Arras, detached 
from the comte of Artois and nominally 
a part of the king's own dominions, was 
practically a free city, a thriving indus- 
try and a profitable trade developed 
here, hand-in-hand with a fine literary 
and artistic taste. Widely known was 
the skill of the goldsmiths from "Arras 
libiaus."^ The hangings or tapestries 
woven here were so highly valued that 
the name of the town became in several 
countries a generic denomination for 
fine tapestries, like in later times the 
word Gobelins. Who does not remem- 
ber the Galleria degli Arazzi in the 
Vatican, and in Hamlet, old Polonius 
hiding behind the " arras ? ' ' Music and 
poetry were also at home among the 
"Arrageois;" they were a joyful, I may 
even say a jolly people, and devoted 
admirers of the fair sex. The Jeu de 
Robin et de Marion, by a man of Arras, 

i"Arras the handy one" in the vernacular dialect. 

[85] 



Adam de La Halle, is the very first 
musical comedy in history, and more 
than one fanciful invention of the old 
trouvere has crept by unknown chan- 
nels from his jeu de la Feiiillee into the 
moonlit visions of a Midsummer Night's 
Dream. 

Hardly anything remains nowadays 
of mediaeval Arras. The beautiful city 
walls with their battlements, gates and 
turrets, the public baths, the fine 
private mansions, the huge abbey and 
Gothic cathedral, the carved tombstones 
and crosses, nay, the very altar screens, 
almost everything has disappeared, 
sometimes by brutal warfare, mostly 
under the hammer and chisel of the 
so-called embellishers of later times. 
For the modern visitor of Arras, the 
most striking features are the two large 
squares, about the middle of the old 
town, known as Petite Place and Grande 
Place. As they stand, or rather stood 
of late, they are a work of the seven- 
teenth century executed soon after the 
French reconquest of 1640; but their 
ground plan was due to the emperor 
Charles V, and they show even some 
remembrances of the old wooden dwel- 
lings of the XIHth century, one of 
which — la maison Deleau — is still stand- 
ing on the Grand Place. Moreover, the 
new houses have retained the old cel- 
lars, the so-called boves, spacious, deep 
and sometimes two-storied, which in 
the time of Guicciardino, as well as in 
our own, afforded a priceless refuge 
against the cannon of a barbarous foe. 

Both of these squares, as well as the 
wide street — rue de la Taillerie — which 
connects them, were lined with houses 
of a uniform type, though allowing 
some variety of size and ornament. Be 
it said to the praise of the mayors and 
municipalities of the ancien regime: 
they never allowed any facade to be 
repaired, unless brick was substituted 




Arras: Insiik \ie\v of the Cathedral. 




Arras: Inside view of the Cathedral (present state). 




Auras: The Palace of St. Vaast — court yard of the Museum. 



for brick and stone for stone. So these 
two huge places, with their hundred 
and fifty-five houses, kept their char- 
acter unchanged and unblemished down 
to our own days. The ground-floor 
recedes behind an open gallery, the 
narrow arcades of which are supported 
b}' monolith Doric sandstone columns. 
Two two-storied mansions are built in 
stone and brick, their lofty roof facing 
in the shape of a rounded gable, the 
base of which ends in a pair of heavy 
volutes; the facades, only two or three 
windows wide, are adorned with quaint 
sign-boards, carved in stone, mostly 
copies of much older ones. All in all, 
says one of our best authorities in 
archaeology, you have here an ensemble 
unique in the world. 

The Petite Place, the older of the 



two, was formerly the animated centre 
of the burghers' life, the celebrated 
forum of the town. In mediaeval days 
a charming chapel, the so-called "lan- 
tern of the holy candle," had been 
erected in the middle of the place as 
a sort of permanent record of the dead : 
it fell a victim to the revolutionists of 
1793. And on one of the small sides of 
the same place stood until yesterday 
the far-famed Hotel de Ville, the glory 
of old Arras, the chief subject of this 
paper. 

Town halls were very scarce in Nor- 
thern France down to the end of the 
fourteenth century. The cities were 
neither rich nor free enough to indulge 
in such luxuries; moreover the churches 
sufficed as a rule for the accommodations 
of such few public services as existed 



[88] 




Arras: The Grande Place as it is. 



and specially for the meetings of the 
burghers discussing their affairs. In 
this, as in other respects, the cities of 
Flanders showed us the way. Gradu- 
ally our northern towns followed in 
their lead, one of the earliest and finest 
specimens of this class of buildings 
being the town hall of Saint Quentin, 
another victim of the recent war. 

The present town hall of Arras, 
which replaced an older Halle des 
Echevins, was not erected before the 
first decade of the sixteenth century, in 
the days of Arch-duke Maximilian. 
Chronologically it belongs already to 
the Renaissance, but artistically it is 
still a Gothic structure of pure flam- 
boyant style, a style which persisted 
very late in our Northern regions and 
celebrated here, in contemporary times, 



a remarkable revival. No more than 
the houses of Arras does the town hall 
exhibit any trace of Spanish influence: 
it is a plant sprung from the native 
soil. The designer of the main building, 
Mahieu Martin, was an Artesian by 
birth, and so were his two most notable 
successors, Jacques Le Caron, the com- 
pleter of the heMrj, and Mathieu Tes- 
son, the architect of the left wing. 

Martin's work, which forms now the 
nucleus of the aggregate, was to a cer- 
tain extent inspired by the aforesaid 
town-hall of Saint Quentin. The low 
ground floor is screened by a vaulted 
portico opening towards the place and 
offering a shelter against sun and rain. 
The arches, of unequal sizes, alternately 
round and pointed, rest on slender col- 
umns of sandstone; they are elegantly 



[891 




Arras: The Museum and Cathedral (present state). 



decorated with flower-work. Then, 
above an elaborate cornice, rises the 
ver>^ lofty upper story, lit up by eight 
beautiful Gothic windows in the style 
of the later cathedrals and adorned 
with delightful tracery. In front of the 
two middle windows projects a hand- 
some balcony, originally of wrought iron 
and a work of the eighteenth centur^^, 
but, in our own days, clumsily rebuilt 
in stone. Between the high gables of 
the facade windows, ran a series of 
small round openings, so-called oeil-de- 
boeuf, quaintly divided into segments 
by muUions of varied devices. An open 
balustrade, also of an ingenious design, 
ended the wall of the facade, and above 
this balustrade, giving its peculiar char- 
acter to the whole building, rose a high 
slated roof, enlivened with three rows 



of sky-lights, each of which was framed 
with elegant metal open-work and 
crowned with gilt sundisks or with 
small quaint weather-cocks. The whole 
facade, including the Gothic niches at 
the angles, constituted a magnificent 
monument, the like of which was hardly 
to be found in any other French town. 

Unfortunately this fine building, in 
its noble restraint, did not remain un- 
blemished throughout the centuries. In 
course of time, new wants, the ever 
growing expansion of public services 
caused many additions to be made to 
the old Gothic town haU; not all of 
these were felicitous, one of the last — 
the restoration of 1840 — being by far 
the worst. 

As early as 1572, a whole wing was 
erected to the left (speaking as one 



[90] 















Arras: Belfrey and Town Hall after the bombardment. 



looks from the place) and somewhat in 
the rear of the main building. This 
work of Mathieu Tesson was, all-in-all, 
a good example of the Flemish Renais- 
sance style, without any survival of 
Gothic elements. The tvsfo lower stories 
reminded of the Louvre with their 
belted pilasters, their bossages and large 
square windows. The "perron" had a 
cupola which was removed in the eigh- 
teenth century. A refined taste could 
hardly approve of the gorgeous little 
niches and twisted columns of the third 
story nor of the massive intricate gables 
above the windows of the attic. 

Still less satisfactory — I mean still 
more over-loaded with useless deco- 
ration — was the right wing, added 
under Napoleon III, by the romantic 



Grigny, one of the leaders of the Gothic 
revival: nowhere appears more glaring 
the mistake of Ruskin's formula "beauty 
in architecture is ornament." The same 
architect and his mate Mayeur planned 
the inner fittings of the town hall, in a 
profuse and exuberant style, flavoring 
of the so-called Alanoelic architecture 
in Portugal. 

I have still to mention what, in the 
opinion of many, was the most valuable 
pearl in the crown of the old city or, 
to use the phrase of Shakespeare, "the 
feather in her cap : " I mean the belfry 
or clock-tower. Standing close behind 
the town hall, it was not, strictly speak- 
ing, a part of it: so the campanile is 
distinct from an Italian Diiomo. Nay, 
the belfry was rather older than the 



[91] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



hall itself, having been built between 
1463 and 1499. Its airy structure, its 
buttresses, bell-turrets, niches, high and 
pointed twin windows, made it very 
like the tower of a Gothic cathedral. 
Originally it ended, like those towers 
usually do, by a balustrade and a long 
slender spire. However, towards the 
middle of the sixteenth century, the 
spire was pulled down and in its stead 
were raised by Jacques Le Caron of 
Marchiennes — the work was dedicated 
on July 2nd, 1554 — two more stories of 
octagonal design, tapering as they rose, 
gorgeously clothed with lace-hke carv- 
ing, and sheltering, among many mighty 
bells, one of the most famous chimes or 
carillons of northern France. The upper 
story culminated in a large closed 
crown formerly of stone, lately restored 
in cast iron, on the top of which a big 
heraldic lion of brass carried the glori- 
ous pennon of Artois: a quaint device 
inspired from the town hall of Aude- 
narde, but here far more effective, be- 
cause the belfry rises to more than 
twice the height of the hall. 

Thus, this king of French beffrois, 
shooting to the height of seventy-five 
metres, has a giant sentry of the city 
lying below, towered above the pic- 
turesque labyrinth of wide places, nar- 
now streets, houses squeezed together, 
of the many churches, the huge un- 
gainly cathedral of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, as a beacon beckoning from afar 
to the weary traveler, a herald of com- 
fort, beauty and joy, reminding of the 
lines of the French Heine : 

Belle, tres au-dessus de toule la contree, 
Se dresse eperdumenl la tour demesuree 
Attestant les devoirs et les droits du passe. 

Hall and belfry happily completed 
each other : together they were the pride 
of Arras, as the famous Cloth Hall, like- 
wise ill-fated, was the pride of Ypres. 
They testified, in a magnificent lan- 



guage, understood by all, to the civic 
spirit of mediaeval burghers and to the 
refined taste of the Renaissance; they 
presided over the thriving life which in 
the nineteenth centur}' permeated and 
revived the time-honored capital of the 
Atrebates and of Countess Mahault, the 
song-loving home of the trouveres and 
of the Rosati, the native city of Jehan 
Bodel and of Maximilien Robespierre. 

Several times already in the history 
of Arras has a period of peaceful and 
prosperous development been suc- 
ceeded by the hurricane and havoc of 
invasion or civil war. The old capital 
of the Atrebates was burnt in the fifth 
century by the Vandals and Attila; 
the new Arras of the holy Vaast was 
ransacked by the Normans in 881. 
Fearful were the ravages wrought by 
the wars of the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries from King Louis XI to Em- 
peror Charles. vStreams of blood were 
shed here in the time of the Revolution 
and Terror. But none of these calami- 
ties was comparable in point of destruc- 
tion, to the ghastly doom which befell 
the old city in our own days. 

The suddenness of the catastrophe 
added to its frightfulness. "Arras," 
writes M. Enlart, "was extending and 
developing her trade, confiding in a 
peaceful future, enjoying the present 
welfare. Thus lives a harmless bird, 
chirping and pecking close to the jaw 
and claws of a treacherous cat, which 
feigns to be friendly or asleep!" Who 
has forgotten what the waking of 
the cat was like, in the first days of 
August 1 9 14, the terrific leap of the 
wild beast, the flood of carnage and 
destruction; or, to use the word of a 
German professor. Doctor Clemen, the 
"measureless devastation" which 
spread for more than four years over 
our flourishing northern provinces? 
Five towns, two hundred villages, num- 

[92] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



berless churches and factories reduced 
to ashes, 172 works of art registered as 
historical monuments stolen from the 
sanctuaries where they were housed, 
hundreds of mines flooded, thousands 
of trees cut down, smiling fields and 
orchards changed into hideous deserts, 
the very earth turned out of its bowels 
and mimicking the craters of the moon, 
five of our finest departments plunged 
into a state of miser>^ and ruin which 
even now after two years of peace and 
deliverance, they are strenuously en- 
deavoring to overcome — such was the 
balance of the worst and, let us hope, 
the last of the barbaric invasions. 

Arras, although an open town, was 
one of the hinges of the gate, or rather 
the network of trenches coated with 
brave breasts, which, from the latter 
end of September 1914, protected the 
heart of France against the advance 
of the German foe. After a short occu- 
pation of four days, the Germans had 
evacuated the city. Not a soldier was 
within its walls, as Mr. Whitney War- 
ren has testified, when the so-called 
"preventive bombardment" began on 
the 5th of October; it lasted, with short 
interruptions until the month of Sep- 
tember 1 9 18, and the final discomfiture 
of the invaders. During these four 
years, the barbarians never ceased fir- 
ing at buildings, none of which could be 
of any military use : public monuments 
and private dwellings, churches and 
hospitals, nothing was spared; they 
went on blindly, as writes a witness,' 
"ruining ruins, reopening scars, killing 
the dying. ' ' 

As early as the 7th of October 1914, 
the first and noblest victim, the beauti- 
ful town hall, went up in flames. On 
the 2 1st of the same month, a shower of 
high explosive shells was poured upon 
the belfry and at the 69th hit the proud 



•Potez, Arras, p. 43. 



structure tumbled to the ground; on the 
helpless stump, the German batteries 
continued to vent their fury. Later on, 
came the turn of the railway station, 
of the fine Gothic church of John the 
Baptist, of the clock-tower of Saint 
Nicholas. In the unwarrantable con- 
flagration of the old people's hospital, 
thirty poor women were wantonly 
slaughtered. The fine palace of Saint 
Vaast sheltered the archives, the library 
and the museum ; this also fell a prey to 
the incendiary bombs. Some of the 
most precious treasures had been 
brought into safety, but nearly all the 
books and part of the provincial ar- 
chives were burnt, including the valu- 
able documents collected by Father 
Ignace and archivist Lavoine; also the 
fine paintings of Tattegrain and many 
pictures by local artists. Lastly the 
disaster overwhelmed the cathedral, 
formerly the abbey church of Saint 
Vaast. It was an unattractive build- 
ing, of stone and plaster, in the Louis 
XVI style, completed only in 1833, but 
remarkable for its colossal proportions 
and majestic regularity. Ripped up in 
its turn, it became day by day a gigan- 
tic ruin, more beautiful in its desolation 
than in its splendor. "Half over- 
thrown," writes an eye-witness, "it 
shows the sky between its massive pil- 
lars, reminding us of an etching by 
Piranesi. A few months have clothed 
it in the forlorn grandeur which it took 
centuries to pour on the Baths of 
Caracalla. Columns, capitals, frag- 
ments of arches, everything glares 
with the whiteness of snow. " 

What now about the private dwell- 
ings? It is heart rending to look on the 
Grande Place and Petite Place with 
the hideous gaps torn everywhere, 
some of them gigantic in size ; one single 
volley threw down nine gables at a 
time! In the center of the town not a 



[93] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



block has been spared; some streets 
have completely vanished. Seventy 
per cent of the houses haye been utterly 
annihilated or reduced to their wooden 
frame-work; even those that seem to 
be sound show, at a closer inspection, 
threatening wounds. Nor are pictur- 
esque scenes wanting: here has a house 
crumbled to dust, while its roof remains 
suspended as by a miracle between the 
projecting beams of its two neighbors; 
there an upper story shows, through 
the broken facade and shattered win- 
dows the inner fittings and forlorn fur- 
niture as on a film or on an uphol- 
sterer's model. Strange to say, among 
so many corpses the little house of 
Robespierre remained untouched, neat 
and tidy, as was its master of yore, the 
dandy of the guillotine. 

However, in that field of desolation, 
no sight is more dismal than that of the 
late town-hall. So sweeping has been 
the blow, that an untrained visitor can 
hardly trace the outlines of the old 
fabric, with its central structure and its 



two receding wings, buried among 
stretches of smouldering walls, heaps of 
crumbled stones and a perfect forest of 
wild herbs and plants shooting out 
from the thick layers of rubbish. On 
the left, a few arches and noble columns 
stand out in solitary majesty; on the 
right, a shred of lace glittering among 
the ashes is all that subsists of Grigny's 
romantic tracery. Of the king of bel- 
fries, of that time-honored treasury of 
joy and song, nothing remains but a 
shapeless stump, jagged and pallid as a 
ghost, pointing towards heaven with its 
mangled finger as if to protest against 
crime and appeal for retaliation. And 
the words of an old chronicler, quoted 
by my friend Enlart revert to our 
memory when, speaking of similar 
outrages committed by German sol- 
diery in the fourteenth century, he con- 
cludes thus: "Maudits soient-ils! ce sont 
gens sans pitie et sans honneur et aussi 
n'en devrait mil prendre a merci." 

Pan's, France. 



ART'S DEMAND 

By IvE Baron Cooke. 

Art is an exacting mistress; she demands purity of conception in all her spheres: 
Literature, Painting, Drama, Music, and Architecture; and if one proves himself 
inadequate, she flaunts before him one truly fine and meritorious Achievement 
worthy the privilege of sitting at her Board, thus implanting the Seed of Discontent 
in the mind of the one having failed; the seed, which, after all, will determine if the 
artist-spirit is an indwelling conviction in the ma?i by a renewal of consecration to the 
one Thing by which his soul can truly live and flower. 

True, the artist pays dearly for the aspirations for which he gropes, that is, of 
course, if we consider material sacrifices and privations; but the inner, spiritual 
satisfaction of the one -ivho proves himself the artist in his realization of Creation 
makes the reivards that follow mundane pursuits seem trivial and ephemeral indeed. 



[94] 



WHAT THE WAR COST FRANCE 

IN ART TREASURES 



By St^phane Lausanne 

Editor-in-Chief of the "Matin" 



THE world war cost France not only 
one million four hundred thou- 
sand human lives, entire cities, fac- 
tories, mines, and buildings: it cost her 
also a part of her magnificent store of 
art treasures. And that part can never 
be restored to her. Houses are recon- 
structed, mines are reopened, factories 
are reorganized, and cities are rebuilt. 
Other men are bom to take the place of 
those w^ho have disappeared. But we 
cannot replace a cathedral ten centuries 
old, with the memories attached to it; 
we cannot replace a chateau of the 
middle ages, with the epoch that it 
calls to mind; nor can we replace the 
stained glass which was the work of the 
greatest artists of the Renaissance. 

Frightful is the list of ruins of French 
art — as frightful, perhaps, as that of 
Rome or of Athens when sacked by the 
Barbarians. It is this list which I wish 
to place before the eyes of the American 
public which, more than any other, has 
always shown an affectionate respect 
and an enthusiastic admiration for the 
old historic monuments of France. 

Almost a century ago — in 1832, to be 
exact — France officially, by law, put 
under the protection and the control of 
the State, the most beautiful edifices of 
which the nation was proud. A service 
was created, the service of historic 
monuments, which under the direction 
of the Minister of Fine Arts, was 
charged with the care of these edifices, 
with their upkeep, and with their repair. 
All the projects and all the expenses are 
inscribed on the budget each year, and 



consequently are paid for by all the 
citizens. 

Before the war almost a thousand 
artistic or historic monuments in France 
were thus placed under the surveillance 
and care of the Department of Fine 
Arts. Of these, two hundred and fifteen 
during the war, have been either com- 
pletely destroyed or seriously damaged : 
there is, therefore, in considering only 
the figures, a decrease of more than a 
fifth in the art treasure of France; but 
the loss is even greater, for unfortu- 
nately some of the works destroyed con- 
tained what was of the highest value in 
art and in history. 

Let us consider in the first place what 
has been totally wiped out, that which 
will never be able to live again, that part 
which is definitely lost to the patrimony 
of civilization. 

To begin, we should cite the Chateau 
de Coucy, in the department of the 
Aisne.'^ 

A great French architect, who was 
also a great historian, VioUet-le-Duc, 
called the Chateau of Coucy "a veri- 
table city, conceived in its ensemble and 
built by a single effort, dominated by a 
powerful will." This splendid chateau 
was in fact a whole little city, built in 
the thirteenth century on a height from 
which can be seen on the horizon Laon, 
Noyon, and Chaimy — thirty miles of 
valley, of plain, and of forest. Behind 
the moat and the great towers there 
was a whole series of buildings : a Gothic 
chapel; a court house, called the hall of 

'Art and Archaeology, IX, No. 3, March, 1920. 



[95] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



the knights because it was ornamented 
with the statues of nine vahant knights ; 
shops; stables; modest httle houses for 
the ofhcers and majordomos ; and finally 
the dwelling of the master, he who was 
called the Sire de Coucy. All that was a 
marvelous restoration of a unique corner 
of the France of the middle ages, with 
its life, its habits, and its institutions. 
And all that has been annihilated, 
ploughed over, pulverized by the heavy 
German shells that rained upon it ; there 
remain just one fragment of the great 
round tower and the ruins of the ram- 
parts. But inside, the wreck and chaos 
are such that the Department of Fine 
Arts has been forced to give up any 
attempt even to clear away the debris. 
Of the Chateau of Coucy, whose princi- 
pal parts were preserved during eight 
centiuies, posterity will know only the 
enormous ashlers and the blocks of 
stone heaped up on top of each other. 

The Chateau of Ham, in the depart- 
ment of Somme, older by a hundred 
years than the Chateau of Coucy, was 
somewhat smaller, but was not less 
glorious. It, also, was enclosed within 
enormous towers, one of which measured 
thirty-three meters in height and in 
diameter, and was behind a fortified 
French. It had resisted all the wars: 
against the English, against the Spanish 
against the Austrians; but it could not 
resist the German bombardment, which 
put it in the same sta^e as the Chateau 
of Coucy. It also will remain a per- 
petual ruin. 

The belfries of Comines and of Arras 
are also lost forever. The former dated 
from the fourteenth century, and had 
a historic value great to every French- 
man, for it belonged to the charming 
chateau where was born the celebrated 
historian, Philippe de Comines. But 
how speak of the second, seventy-five 
meters high, which dominated the Hotel 



de Ville of Arras and which was a 
veritable artistic joy, with its carven 
colonnades, its wonderful chimes dating 
from 1434, and its beautiful platform on 
which stood a colossal lion? These 
belfries where of old, in the middle ages, 
guards were placed to watch over the 
countryside, and from which pealed a 
bell to summon to meeting the citizens 
and notables, existed hardly anywhere 
except in the north of France and in 
Belgium; practically speakhig, there 
are none to be seen south of the Seine. 
Their destruction, therefore, is all the 
more to be regretted. 

The Hotel de Ville of Noyon is 
another irreparable loss. Noyon, the 
bridge city closest to Paris, (M. Clemen- 
ceau kept repeating for three years, 
" We must not forget that the Germans 
are still at Noyon"), prided herself on 
two works of art: her Gothic cathedral,^ 
constructed in the twelfth century, 
which resembled the basilica of St. 
Denis and was the first Gothic cathedral 
built in France, with all its annexes, its 
cloister, its treasure room, and its 
library; and the Town Hall, which was 
part Gothic and part Renaissance. At 
the cost of great efforts, the cathedral 
can perhaps be restored; but for the 
Town Hall, which was reduced to bits, 
all work would be in vain: it must be 
considered dead forever more. 

Gone also is the delightful House of 
the Musicians at Rheims, with its five 
alcoves framing four high, wide win- 
dows. Each alcove contained the sil- 
houette of a musician, larger than 
nature. The first was playing a drum, 
the second a bagpipe, the third held a 
falcon in his hand, the fourth played a 
harp, and the fifth a violin. The five 
statues have been saved, but the charm- 
ing house, which belonged to the 
brotherhood of fiddlers of Rheims, has 



'.\rt and Archaeology, Vin, No. 4. July-.A.ugust 1919. 



[96] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



been reduced to bits by the heavy 
shrapnel fire. Never again will the 
statues return to their alcoves. 

To sum up, more than thirty 
churches, all classed as historic monu- 
ments, have been totally destroyed, 
and the Fine Arts administration has 
given up even the consideration of their 
possible reconstruction: let us cite 
notably the church of Ablain-Saint- 
Nazaire in Pas-de-Calais, the church of 
Tracy-le-Val in Oise, the church of 
Givry in the Ardennes, and the church 
of Lafi"aux in Aisne. Particularly tragic 
is the fate of the church of Laffaux, 
which, built in the twelfth century, was 
ornamented with ancient mural paint- 
ings. Misfortune willed that it be 
situated in the very centre of the plateau 
of the Chemin des Dames, and of it 
there remains not the slightest vestige. 
The grass and the weeds have grown 
over what once were the church, the 
mill, and the village of Laffaux. And a 
sign, stuck into the naked ground, bears 
this simple and terrible inscription : 

THLS WAvS LAFFAUX. 

Such is the list of the monuments that 
might be called the war's great dead: 
no trick of architecture will ever make 
them live again. 

The list of the great injured is not 
less painful, for here are to be found the 
most illustrious artistic glories of 
France — and among them the five 
magnificent cathedrals of Rheims, 
Soissons, Noyon, Verdun, and vSaint- 
Ouentin, the delightful Abbey of vSaint- 
Vaast, the Gothic churches of Peronne, 
of Roye, of Etain, and of vSaint-Mihiel, 
and the town halls of Arras, of Verdun, 
and of Saint-Ouentin. 

At the disposition of the five cathe- 
drals have been placed the most emi- 
nent architects of France and the best 
crews of workmen. All of the work for 

[97] 



fifteen months past has consisted prin- 
cipally in preventing the further de- 
terioration of such parts as are still 
standing. The basilicas have had to be 
protected against the rain and the wind ; 
the supports and the walls which threat- 
ened to crumble have had to be 
propped up; the scattered stones and 
sculptures have had to be brought back, 
catalogued, and labelled; in a word, it 
has been necessary to save the still 
healthy members of the glorious 
wounded. The work of reconstruction 
properly speaking will hardly begin 
before next year. But what should be 
remarked, from now on, is that even 
when we shall have succeeded in re- 
storing completely the cathedral of 
Rheims, the basilica of Noyon, or the 
collegiate of vSaint-Ouentin, there will 
always be lacking to these three historic 
marvels precious things, and things 
which cannot be replaced. The sculp- 
tured figures and the carvings that 
decorated the facade of the cathedral 
of Rheims will always be lacking; for- 
ever lacking will be the burned books 
of the library of the basilica of Noyon; 
there will be lacking the paintings which 
walled the Hotel de Ville of vSaint- 
Ouentin, and which were blackened, 
soiled, discolored purposely by the 
Germans during the four years of their 
occupation; above all, there will be 
lacking a great part of the panes of 
colored glass — perhaps the most beauti- 
ful in France — of the cathedral and of 
the church of vSt. Remi at Rheims, of 
the collegiate of Saint-Ouentin, and of 
the church of St. Jean at Roye. 

The art of making colored glass was 
an art essentially French and special 
to the middle ages All the patience 
of the monks and of the artisans of long 
ago was needed to give to this work th'j 
indespensable attention to detail and 
long-continued efi"ort. In fact, from the 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



ei^q^hth centiin', all Europe came to 
France to admire the work in colored 
glass, and the French glass workers were 
in demand in England, in Germany, 
and even in vScandinavia. It was in 
the fourteenth century that the dis- 
covers* of silvered yellow, which allows 
a brilliant yellow tone on a neutral 
background, brought to its height the 
art of making colored glass. The glass- 
workers then found new colorations 
and new motifs for decoration; they 
gave vigor to their figures, on back- 
grounds ever clearer ; they dressed their 
people in garments bedizened, embroid- 
ered, treated with a surprising skill; 
they tripled or quadrupled the panes of 
glass in order to multiply the shades. 
In a word, they obtained the effects of 
striking portraits. After that, the use 
of colored glass diminished or was lost. 
In the seventeenth century, there 
remained hardly any ateliers except 
those of Troyes which still produced a 
few interesting examples. In the eigh- 
teenth century these shops, too, were 
closed. Today, the artistic pane is still 
produced, but there is nothing to com- 
pare with the religious glasswork of 
four hundred years ago. We have not 
the time, and machinery has killed 
individual art. Thus, we understand 
what an irreparable loss is even the 
partial destruction of a rose-window 
such as that of the Apostles at Rheims, 
or the pulverisation of the glasses of 
Saint-Ouentin. This will never be re- 
placed, any more than we could replace 
a picture by Titian or a canvas by 
Michael Angelo. The cathedral of 
Rheims and the collegiate of Saint- 
Ouentin will never be more than pal- 
aces without windows — than bodies of 
women without expression. 



Let us sum up. And, to recapitulate 
as well as possible, it is best to give the 
floor to the director of French Fine 
Arts himself, M. Paul Leon. 

"We must count," he told me, 
"twenty years before the artistic ruins 
of the north of France can be restored. 
And for that we will need five thousand 
workmen, sculptors, molders, and ex- 
perts. The cost will be more than 
a billion francs. Forty monuments 
never can be restored and are lost for 
all time. A hundred and fifty cathe- 
drals, churches, and town halls will 
rem ain eternally mutilated . The cathe- 
drals of Rheims and of vSoissons will 
never again see some of their sculptures 
and all of their colored glass. The 
town hall of Arras will never again see 
its wainscoting, its chairs, its chandelier 
or its embossed chimneys. Three- 
quarters of the work of eight centuries 
in Flanders, in Picardy, and in Artois 
can be considered as totally destroyed. 
France is poorer by four hundred chefs 
d'cFiivre, which nothing can ever re- 
place." 

M. Paul Leon told me this, one warm 
spring morning, while the sun gilded 
with its rays the Louvre, that other 
artistic glor}^ of France. By the open 
window the birds were to be heard 
singing, and business men were to be 
seen reading the newspapers. Perhaps 
they were reading the latest important 
speeches of the principal statesmen of 
Europe, assuring us that we must aid 
the rehabilitation of Germany — of the 
Germany who has done all this, and 
who has not lost a pane of glass from 
one of her churches or a stone from one 
of her monuments. 

Paris, France. 



[981 




Game, Fruit and \'egetablEs: Franz Snyders (1579-1657J. 



STILL LIFE: TODAY AND YESTERDAY 



Bv Horace Townsend 



HANGING cheek by jowl with pic- 
tures by Ryder, Twachtman, and 
his own father, there is exposed 
to pubHc view in a New York gallery 
today a study in still life painted by 
a boy who has hardly emerged from his 
'teens. It is a little picture of a Brazier 
and Tea-kettle by Dines Carlsen, son 
of the National Academician Emil 
Carlsen, and its rich deep tones, its 
satisfying color and its picturesque ar- 
rangement unite to make it a truly 
remarkable painting. Here is a mere 
lad and yet he seems to be gifted with 
the secret of that imaginative realism 
which lies back of all the best still 

[99] 



life painting which the ages have to 
offer us. It is not difficult to realize 
when we regard it that the Academi- 
cians themselves, before the opening of 
each exhibition, are wont eagerly to 
contend for the canvasses signed by this 
gifted boy or that one of them was 
among the artistic treasures chosen in 
most cases for their technical accom- 
plishment which the late William M. 
Chase gathered together and which 
were dispersed at his death. 

Though a still life in the ordinary 
acceptation of the term, means a pic- 
ture which, like those of young Dines 
Carlsen, concerns itself entirely with 




Dead Game: Jan Weenix (1640-1719). 




Still Life; Jan Jansz Treck (1606-1652). 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 




Still Life: Jan Davidsy de Heem (1600-1674). 

the representation of metal-work, por- 
celains, potteries, fruits or other inani- 
mate objects, pretty nearly all paintings 
and certainly all those which deal with 
interiors and all portraits are, to a 
certain extent, pictures of still life. 

The primitives, who painted in the 
fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, 
Italian as well as Flemish, were great 
fellows for these still life attributes of 
their pictures. They lavished at least 
as much care and attention on the 
embroidered draperies of their Ma- 
donnas, and the carved, gilded and 
inlaid thrones upon which they sat, 
upon the shining armor of their war- 
rior-saints, or upon the music instru- 
ments carried by their angels, as upon 
the faces and figures themselves. 
Even in the elaborately worked gold 
backgrounds they were so fond of 
employing the decorative genius of 
the still life painter is manifest. 

Advancing a handful of years the 
fact that certain Asia-Minor rugs are 
today known to collectors as "Hol- 
bein" rugs, is significant. The use of 
the term is due to their frequent 
appearance in Hans Holbein's (1497- 
1543) pictures, as for instance in that 
masterpiece, the Meier INIadonna, 
now in the Darmstadt Museum. Not 



that the worthy Hans was the only 
painter who so incorporated these 
bits'f^of '^still life in his pictures for 
his Flemish predecessors from Jan 
van Eyck (i 380-1 440) and Memlinc 
(1430-1494) to Gheeraert David 
( 1 460-1 523) were all in the habit of 
doing likewise. Perhaps, however, it 
was in their portraits tl?at these early 
painters particularly loved to bestow 
their utmost technical skill on the 
rendering of the still-life accessories 
and whether it was a tall conical glass 
of flowers, a money-weigher's scales, 
a scrivener's inkstand, or some stray 
leather-bound books, each was limned 
with that loving meticulosity which is 
inseparable from the painter of still life. 
Indeed the portrait and even the 
subject painters of other schools, coun- 
tries and ages were just as fond as 
these old Flemings of introducing pas- 
sages of inanimate nature into their 




Still Life: Dines Carlsen. 



[102] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



pictures. Murillo, for instance has 
been called incomparable as a painter 
of still life, and whether he was deal- 
ing with a group of luscious peaches, 
a cluster of purple-bloomed grapes, 
some yellow oranges or fruits bursting 
with ripeness, whether it was an 
earthenware pitcher or a basket of 
plaited rushes he had to reproduce, 
he was wont to portray them with a 
realism, and depth of tone that none 
of his successors, save perhaps the 
Frenchman Chardin, could equal. 

It was in Holland and Flanders, 
however, in the seventeenth cen- 
tury that still life painting was ele- 
vated into a distinct and definite 
branch of the painter's art. In Flan- 
ders, especially, the encouragement 
given to its practitioners must have 
been most cordial, for men of acknowl- 
edged talent devoted themselves en- 





Still Life: Emil Carlsen, N. A. 



Fruits: Pieter Snyers (1681-1752). 

tirely to its pursuit. These are the men 
whose work has proved of such abid- 
ing excellence that today it hangs in 
favored positions on the walls of our 
public museums or in the homes of our 
leading collectors. There is the early 
work, for instance, of Franz Snyders 
(1579-1657) and of his favorite pupil 
Paul de Vos (i 600-1 654), the dogs 
and their inanimate rivals the " Dead 
Game" of Jan Fyt (1609-1661), the 
fruit, game and still life objects of 
Adriaen van Utrecht (1599-1652) and 
later the incomparable fruits of Pieter 
vSnyers (1681-1752). It is curious by 
the way to notice how these painters of 
dead nature reflected the exuberance 
of the full-blooded Flemish life of 
their day. The most casual study of 
the paintings of that day and country 
impresses one with the feeling that 
here was a community which delighted 
above all things in the pure and un- 
diluted joie de vivrc, and to this taste 
the artists, headed by Peter Paul Ru- 
bens (157 7-1 644), ministered to the 
full. With an epicurean imagination 
the still life painters did their best to 
titillate the appetites of those for whom 



[103] 




Still Life Group: Jan Davidsz de Heem (1600-1674). 



their pictures were painted and in pur- 
suance of this desire they crowded their 
canvasses with artfully disposed dead 
game, interspersed with lobsters, oys- 
ters and other shell fish and backed 
with groups of luscious fruits, so that 
even to this day one's mouth waters 
in their contemplation. 

Not altogether different was the atti- 
tude of their rivalling neighbors the 
Dutchmen. This was the hey-day of 
Holland's political and material pros- 
perity and the almost ostentatious 
luxury of its wealthiest citizens domi- 
nated the pictures painted for the decor- 
ation of the paneled rooms of their 
houses. Jan Davidsz de Heem (1600- 
1674) among others, the noteworthy 



son of a distinguished father, found his 
chief pleasure in the deft arrangement 
and admirable presentation of fruits 
and flowers, gold and silver vases, 
musical instruments and richly mounted 
jewel caskets, while he was especially 
happy in his rendition of glass ware and 
crystal which he hardly ever failed to 
introduce into his pictures. vSimilar 
recorders of their generation, to pluck 
but a few from a crowded quiver-full, 
were William Klaesz Heda (i 594-1 680), 
Jans Janszoon Treck (1606-1652), Jan 
Baptist Weenix (i 621 -1660) and Bar- 
end van der Meer (1659- ? ). But 
the Dutch of the seventeenth century 
were not only merchants and politi- 
cians, they were theologians as well, 



[104] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



and this other side of their charac- 
ters, its somewhat austere reUgiosity, 
is to be seen in another group of stiU 
Hfe pictures. Prominent among the 
painters of these was Pieter Potter 
(1600-1652), the father of the better- 
known and more capable Paul whose 
"Bull" is one of the world's great pic- 
tures. Potter gives us groups of skulls, 
prayer-books, crucifixes and guttering 
candles surcharged with an asceticism 
which seems to suggest the title of 
"Vanitas Vanitatum" to each of them. 
During the eighteenth century we 
have to look to France for the most 
notable of still life painters. Refer- 
ence has already been made to Jean 
vSimeon Chardin (1699-1779) whose 
"Kitchen Utensils" and "Silver Gob- 



let" are held in reverence in Paris col- 
lections, while his contemporary Jean 
Baptiste Oudry (i 685-1 755), though 
chiefly known as a Gobelin tapestry 
designer, was also an accomplished 
painter of still life. Among the later 
French painters may be picked out 
that Chardin of his time Antoine Vollon, 
( 1 833-1 900) as well as Augustin Theo- 
dule Rebot (182 3-1 891), Madeleine Le- 
maire and Fantin-Latour, while Eng- 
land has her William Hunt (i 790-1 864) 
and George Lance (i 802-1 864). In our 
country besides the youthful Dines 
Carlsen already referred to, perhaps the 
most noteworthy modem painter of 
still life is the late William M. Chase. 

AViu York, N. Y. 



ARMISTICE DAT 

Paris, Nov. 11, 1920. 
By J. B. Noel Wyatt. 

H'liose tomb is this, who lies beneath this pile? 

The stateliest arch that Art hath e'er conceived. 

Pointing to Heaven to tell each passing year 

Of power and empire once by him achieved 

If'hose dust, 'neath gilded dome, doth not rest here. 

ff'hose tomb is this, who sleeps beneath this arch? 

No need of carven letters to define; 

Unnamed, unknown, but here before this shrine 

The world bows doivn and brings its palm and ivreath 

For him and those who passed the gate of Death 

To give to men — 'twas all they had — their life. 

With legacy to earth of ending strife; 

Where weeping mothers, kneeling here alone. 

Rejoice for them that stand before the throne. 

And know not only now of armistice. 

But, past all understanding, God's own peace; 

H'hile wondering still we wait the Mystery, 

The "Arch of Triumph" looming to the sky. 

Suggested by the Cnver Picture of "La Belle France" Number 
of Art and Archaeology. A', No. 6. Dec. iq20 



[105] 




Xdliu'lal Library Prints 

Cards of Lyons known under the name of "Jeu de Piquet de Charles VII." Attributed originally to the 15th 
century, but published at Lyons at the beginning of the i6th century. 

PLAYING CARDS: THEIR HISTORY 
AMD SYMBOLISM 

By W. G. BowDOiN. 



PLAYING-CARDS have a history 
that is both ancient and honor- 
able. Certain writers have held 
that they were invented to divert 
Charles VI of France, who had fallen 
into melancholia. Other authorities 
have ascribed an antiquity to the ear- 
liest playing-cards that, to the most 
generally accepted present-day experts, 
is extreme. An historic age of at least 
five hundred years may, however, be 
conservatively assigned to them. So 
far as our present knowledge extends, 
the definite historj' of playing-cards 
certainly does not antedate the second 
half of the fourteenth century, other- 
wise and more precisely, according to 
W. H. Willshire, the year 1392. Other 
originating dates have also been ad- 
vanced by different writers on the sub- 
ject. Some of these trace a relationship 
between playing-cards and the inven- 
tion of wood-engraving. The Buxheim 
Saint Cliristopher of 1423, and some of 
the earlier known playing-cards, are 
indeed almost contemporaneous. 



Various legendary accounts credit 
the introduction of playing-cards into 
Europe, to India or to China. A com- 
mon origin for both cards and chess, 
has likewise sometimes been traced, 
and it has more than once been held 
that both games were jointly intended 
to figure the contrasts between the 
different social orders, classes, or castes, 
which compose a national state. 

The originators of playing-cards, 
whoever they were, are said to have 
pondered upon life's significance and to 
have decided that the symbolism of 
existence could well be divided like a 
disc into four quarters. Playing-cards 
were, in the early days, harnessed to 
this symbolism; which, first, concerned 
itself with the heart, the beginning of 
life, in the quarter of love out of which 
life was evolved. Secondly, there was 
the quarter of knowledge, by means of 
which man learned how to manage his 
life. Thirdly, the management and 
regulation of life having been learned, 
there came the time for accumulating 

[106] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 




l-^. . 

-^m^ 



-.■aT113S\lVWV aMlVHMO 

aa xioMD Yi3a3M9i3SNaiv 
3 N lOHiN V s ^^^o>^<^ ,l\ vvi Aa wa a 
aa n a zaj avjaod an S3 n la sa.i.MV3 





Muniiipat Anhives of Marseilles 

Envelope by Goury Fuzelier, 
master card-maker of Marseilles, 1676-1688. 

the riches, the good things, the 
worthwhile things of 1 if e . That was 
the quarter of affluence or weahh. 
Finally, all of these things having 
been acquired, there remained but 
death for contemplation. 

In their wisdom, the ancients de- 
vised symbols for these quarters 
and for the first quarter, that of life 
and love, they took the emblem of 
the heart. The second emblem was 
not so easy to standardize, but the 
clover- leaf or sham^rock leaf (as be- 
ing the first plant to be observed in 
the spring, and the last to linger 
in the fall), now the dub, was 
finally chosen. For the emblem of 
wealth, the J/fl;»o»f/ was selected; 
and for the last quarter the sym- 
bol now called a spade, was adop- 
ted. It was, however, not a spade 
when first used, but an acorn which 
is far more imaginative than a mere 
spade, and typified the final ripen- 
ing of life. The acorn on the oak, 
once ripened, falls into the earth 
and springs, like man, into a new 



existence. The spade of the playing 
card of today is, in consequence, merely 
a modification of the acorn, which per- 
sonifies death and resurrection. 

The most ancient cards that 
have been preserved to us are those 
which have been made by hand; 
and various records still exist of 
other early cards which were thus 
produced, together with such de- 
tails as the names of the artists 
who designed them, as well as the 
price paid them for their work. 
Certain stencilled cards, now in the 
British Museum collection, were found 
in the covers (or boards) of an old book. 
By chance they were used in the bind- 




Departmental Archives of Vieytfta 



I'rench card of the begimiing of the i6th century. 



[107] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 




Card of Lyons, end of 15th century. 

ing, and thus were preserved to us, 
becoming, indeed, museum treasures. 
The figures that appear upon cards 
vary considerably in difi"erent countries, 
and the number in a standard pack is, 
similarly, not always the same. Some 
of the Mexico-Spanish inhabitants of 
South and Central America, for exam- 
ple, have sometimes eighty cards in 
the pack and again as many as one hun- 



dred and four in other packs. The 
writer has a pack of cards obtained 
through the U. vS. Consul at Bom- 
bay, from the interior of India, that 
contains 120 cards, ornamented by 
the natives, and showing most in- 
teresting myth figures. These cards 
are round and have perfectly plain 
backs, and were placed in a square 
native box with pictorial embellish- 
ments. 

The pack number of cards with 
us, and with certain of the European 
countries, which is now fixed at fifty- 
two, has been subject to frequent 
change. Toward the end of the 
fourteenth century cards called Ta- 
rots were produced in Italy. The 
pack, or deck, then contained sev- 
enty-eight cards, of which twenty- 
two were emblematic, and fifty-six 
were numbered pieces, divided into 
four suits of fourteen cards each, 
the several suits consisting of ten 
pip cards, numbered as with us, from 
one to ten and of four picture or 
coat cards (subsequently corrupted 
into court cards), viz : King, Queen, 
Cavalier, and Man-servant. In some 
cases the Queen was wanting, the 
introduction of feminine symbols 
having been an afterthought. The 
series of twenty-two cards, to which 
the term Tarots applies, are charac- 
terized by whole-length figures, or 
other designs, emblematic of various 
conditions of life, and of certain vicis- 
situdes, to which humanity is subject. 
These figures varj' somewhat according 
to period, as well as in the various coun- 
tries where they occur, but taking an 
early, but lingering set, that was fre- 
quently found in Italy, some parts of 
Switzerland, Germany and the South 
of France, before the war, the symbol 
figures may be tabulated as follows : 



[108] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



I- A Juggler 

2. (Juno) Female Pope 

3. An Empress 

4. An Emperor 

5. (Jupiter) The Pope 

6. The Lovers (or Alarriage) 

7. A Chariot with warrior 

8. Justice with the scales 

9. A Cowled Hermit 

10. The Wheel of Fortune 

1 1 . Force (Rending a Lion) 

12. A man hanging by his foot, 

head downward 

13. Death (The unlucky 13 is thus 

possibly explained 

14. Temperance 

15. The Devil 

16. The Tower struck by Light- 

ning 

17. A Star (with nude female) 

18. The Moon (with baying dogs) 

19. The Sun 

20. The Last Judgment 

21. The World (Kosmos) 

22. A Fool. Generally unnumber- 

ed and sometimes placed first. 

This emblematic series was, in the 
process of time, withdrawn altogether, 
except where it was required for the 
old Tarots game, which still lingers in 
some corners of Europe. The complete 
pack of Tarots, with pip and emblem 
cards together, were part of the Egyp- 
tian mysteries, and particularly of the 
worship of Thoth. Court de Gebelin 
who wrote on this subject in 1773, 
traces the resemblances of the figures 
and the qualities or values attributed to 
them to Isis, Maut, Anubis, or other 
personages in the Eg>'ptian cosmogony. 
Confirmation of this appears in Tarots 




Museum Ccrnavahl 

A Revolutionary Playing Card. 

of the Bohemians , by Papus. The same 
author has tried to prove that the Tarot 
pack of Egypt was "the Bible of the 
Gypsies," and he has also stated that 
it was also the book of Thoth, Hermes 
Trismegistus of ancient civilization. 
Others who have studied the Tarots 
believe that they are the key to for- 
gotten mysteries. All the early games 
for the Tarots were arranged for two 
persons. Modifications that crept in 
after 1400 allowed other players to 



Suil 
Coeur (Hearts) 
Carreau (Diamonds) 
Trefle (Clubs) 
Pique (Spades) 


Kings 
Charles or Charlemagne 
Caesar 
Alexander 
David 


Queens 
Judith 
Rachel 
Argine 
Pallas 


Valets 
Lahire 
Hector 
Lancelot 
Hogier 



[109] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



join, when different names were 
given to the newly invented games. 

During the middle ages the play- 
ing of cards attained tremendous 
popularity in Europe, and the pas- 
sion for gaming was greatly aided 
and abetted by means of them. Not 
even the clergy were in all cases im- 
mune from the influence exerted by 
them. The custom of giving names 
to the figured cards is peculiar to 
France ; those anciently conferred are 
as given at bottom of page 109. 

Though not uniformly observed, 
these names have been reimposed 
in modem times. The four kings 
are supposed to represent the four 
ancient monarchies, of the Jews, 
Greeks, Romans, and Franks; and 
the queens, Wisdom, Birth, Beauty, 
and Fortitude. In some packs Es- 
ther, as an impersonation of piety, is 
substituted for Rachel. 

The dresses now commonly repre- 
sented on our court cards, are the 
same as those which prevailed about 
the time of Henr>' VH or Henry 
\TII. The lappets which fall on 
each side of the faces of the queens. 




£}£ 9&WL S>S: ROY , 

.it I'uMifit Siu„m Sr, <4A<. Cnjttt, ij^Ou«, 







iwvs^ 




^-^ «^- ^^-^^ . 




Collection Henry d'A 
Knave of Hearts and of Spades, of a revolutionary 



llemagne 
pack. 




KMrtej JuperfincJ eL, trea coulant&j 
'our JilrnainiLc eL>-pcnir .Ja^ 
nco Tabtinueea par ITloiidJin 



■co&TmrdeJ 



Miintiipal Arihivcs of Xanles 

Envelope for six packs, by Pierre Moussin, 1 760. 



in our standard packs, are in point of 
fact, a rude but faithful representation 
of the dress of the females of that his- 
toric period, or from 1 500-1 540. The 
crown or coronet, as placed at the back 
of the head, may be traced to a period 
as late as the reign of Elizabeth or James. 
Attempts have been made at various 
times to change these familiar figures, 
l)ut such attempts have never become 
popular. The same applies to ornate or 
harlequin cards, for the reason that your 
serious card player is against having 
his attention diverted from the game 
in any possible manner. A quaint 
custom, it would appear from a passage 



[110] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



in the GuWs Hornbook, published dur- 
ing the reign of James I was that the 
spectators at the playhouse amused 
themselves with playing cards while 
waiting for the commencement of the 
performance. The symbolism of the 
cards is highly interesting. Diamonds 
were, in the early days, used to typify 
wealth; hearts, the affections; spades, 
industr}-; and clubs, physical force. 
Applying the symbolism directly to 
the social grades as then organized, 
diamonds stood for the tradespeople, 
the merchants and others in gainful 
occupations ; hearts were the personi- 
fication of monks, priests and ecclesi- 
astics; spades represented the nobility 
and soldiers; while clubs or trefoils 
signified the peasants or lower classes. 

During the time of Charles II a 
pack of Cavalier playing-cards was 
issued that contemplated a complete 
political satire of the Commonwealth. 
The achievements of Cromwell as 
Commander-in-Chief in Ireland, con- 
stitutes the motif for the cards and 
the illustrations they carry. Crom- 
well's retainers and contemporaries 
enter into the pictorial embellish- 
ment of these cards, and they have 
much historical interest, altogether 
aside from their value as playing- 
cards, pure and simple. 

Napoleon whilcd away the tedious 
hours of his captivity at St. Helena 
with playing-cards. His favorite games 
are said to have been Vingt-et-un, 
Piquet and Whist. It is recorded that 
even when he was at the zenith of his 
fame and power he never entered upon 
any enterprise or military operation 
without consulting a pecuhar pack of 
cards, not provided with the custom- 
ary m.arks or suits, in fact not divided 
into suits at all. These cards have been 
carefully preserved. They are smaller 
than those generallyused and were print- 

[111] 




German round-shaped cards with the monogram T. W. 

(i) King of Parrots. (2) Queen of Carnation. (3) Knave of Colum- 
bine. (4) Knave of Horse. (5) Three of Parrots. (6) Ace of Carna- 
tion. Bibl. Imp. of Paris. 



ed in black on yellow pasteboard. They 
were surrounded with Zodiacal signs 
which had a cabalistic significance. 
Each card was divided by a black line 
drawn through its center. Two little 
pictures were printed on every card, 
one of which was above and the other 
below the line. Rings, Hearts, Roses, 
Cupids, Ladies, Kings, and Queens 
were thus displayed on the cards. They 
were useful only for divination and not 
for gaming. 

The British Museum has specialized 
in playing-card collection and its Cata- 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



logue of Playing-Cards and other game 
cards, issued in 1876, constitutes a 
bulky volume of nearly five hundred 
pages. The illustrations in this convey 
an illuminating idea of the beauty of 
some of the old cards and of some of 
the very beautifully designed cards of 
later periods. 

In recent years many attempts have 
been made to render playing-cards ca- 
pable of communicating information 
and instruction, while ordinary games 
were being played. These attempts 
have uniformly been received with dis- 
favor, their novelty alone temporarily 
receiving attention. Packs of cards 
having the ordinary suits and symbols 
more or less distinctly marked have 
been devised again and again by which, 
through the addition to them of illus- 
trations and inscriptions, the most va- 
ried fonns of knowledge were sought 
to be conveyed. Cards with such sec- 
ondary purpose may be met with, in- 
tended to teach arithmetic, grammar, 
geography, history, heraldry, mythol- 
ogy, astronomy, astrology, the use of 
mathematical instruments, and the 
principles of military science and en- 
gineering. Besides such cards as these, 
others of a satirical, proverbial, carica- 
ture, and amusing kind have been 
manufactured, provided with the marks 
of the usual suits so that they might 
be employed in the ordinary way. In 
all these endeavors it appears to have 
been forgotten that those persons who 
desired to learn grammar, etc., did not 



want to play at cards; and that such 
as would willingly play at cards, might 
be blind to the blandishments of gram- 
mar. Even were such not the case, it 
is extremely doubtful whether gram- 
marian or card-player would be more 
confused in the double duty he under- 
took to perform, since the definition of 
the "points" and figure cards was 
generally so imperfect or so subser- 
vient to the other illustrations as to 
render ordinary play more of a penance 
than a pleasure, while the grammatical 
or other knowledge was given in so 
concentrated, terse, or tabular a form 
as not to be intellectually digestible at 
a moment's notice. Be this as it may, 
such cards have, as a finality, generally 
found a resting-place in the cabinets 
of the curious, but little favor has been 
shown them by either the student or 
the player. 

In recent years playing-cards for the 
blind have been devised. The marks 
or pips of such cards are stamped 
slightly in relief so that their distin- 
guishing marks may be known through 
the sense of touch. It is a matter of 
incidental interest to know that the 
amount of capital invested in the manu- 
facture of playing-cards in the United 
vStates, is very large; some years ago 
it exceeded $10,000,000 with yearly 
sales of more than 13,000,000 packs. 
It is quite certain that these figures 
are largely increased by contemporary 
production. 



[112] 



CURREKfT NOTES AND COMMENTS 

Mile. Helene Diifau, the Great French Portraitist. 

The first woman, after Rosa Bonheur, to be decorated by the French Government with the 
Legion of Honor, Mile. Helene Dufau, perhaps the greatest living French portraitist and painter, 
is now visiting America. Her work includes strong and beautiful portraits of men and women, 
striking mural paintings, and studies of the nude out of doors, in which last she was an innovator, 
being the first woman painter in France to essay the nude in the open air. Greeted at first by a 
storm of protest, this work was accepted a little later, and she received many commissions from 
the French Government, including four panel decorations for the Sorbonne. 

Several of Mile. Dufau's pictures are in the Luxembourg, among them a self-portrait. Others 
are in museums of Rouen, Bordeaux near her own early home in the south of France, in Buenos 
Aires and Cuba, and scores of collections public and private in Europe including the magnifi- 
cent villa Anagra of the French poet Rostand, of whose son, Maurice Rostand, she made several 
fine portraits, besides mural decorations for the villa. 

Mile. Dufau is at present in New York, engaged upon a portrait of Miss Anne Morgan. Another 
American picture, of a young American girl, whom she met on the boat coming over, has been 
exhibited at Knoedler's galleries. This will form the February cover page of the new French- 
American magazine. La France, the editor of which, Madame Claude Riviere, is an intimate 
friend of Mile. Dufau. 

French reviewers speak in highest praise of Mile. Dufau's work and temperament. "The 
beautiful women of the world flock to her studio, " says one writer, "anxious to have a portrait 
by this poet of feminine splendor. " . . . " Her portraits of men show rare penetration and 
perfect execution. " 

When asked the secret of her painting. Mile. Dufau replied, "An artist's work is only the ex- 
pression of his personality and of his life. I put into my pictures what I observed, my thoughts, 
my reading." 

The cover picture reproduces Mile. Dufau's portrait of Mme. Maubrac in the Luxembourg. 

Perronneau Pastel Portraits at the Knoedler Galleries. 

The Knoedler Galleries of New York have recently brought from France two beautiful and 
typical pastel portraits by Jean-Baptiste Perronneau (1731-83), one of the most renowned por- 
traitists of the eighteenth century. The subjects are Monsieur and Madame Braun, who lived 
during the second half of the eighteenth century at Strasbourg. She was a lady of honor and he a 
chamberlain at the court of Furstenberg. The portraits were obtained from their direct de- 
scendents. 

Perronneau's genius was never fully recognized until after his death. He never caught the 
favor of the French court, either that of Louis XV or Louis XVI, and his fine art of portraiture 
was exercised among the middle class, "who have no history. " He flitted from city to city, living 
in each as long as orders were plentiful. This makes his portraits invaluable commentaries on 
the times. 

"The Flower Seller," by George Hitchcock. 

Last Autumn the French government bought a picture by a dead American artist for the Lux- 
embourg Museum. The picture was "The Vanquished" and the artist was George Hitchcock, 
who passed away in 1913. The subject was a Dutch soldier, wounded, astride a heavy horse that 
picked its way unguided through fields of flowers, toward the home of its master. The picture 
is remarkable for its representation of the bright flower culture and the gentle atmosphere of 
Holland. It is thoroughly typical of the art of a painter who was better known in Europe than 
at home, and who was the pioneer of the alien artists who went to Holland to paint that land. 

America never got very well acquainted with Hitchcock — not as well acquainted as Germany, 
Austria, France and England. After his death the war came on and the world had no time for 
artists' reputations. Now that peace has come, New York is soon to see a memorial exhibition of 
George Hitchcock's paintings and the nation will have the opportunity to become better ac- 
quainted with his gentle and picturesque art. 

[113] 




Conrlt'sy of (he Knocdler Gtilleries 



'Mine Brauii." by Jean-Baptiste Perronneau. 




Courtesy of Henry Reinhardt ^ Son 



"The Flower Seller," by George Hitchcock. 



The American museums, however, have not been unmindful of Hitchcock, and possess some of 
his most beautiful pictures. The Metropolitan Museum has "The Hour of Vespers" ; the Chi- 
cago Art Institute "The Last Moments of Sappho" and also the beautiful "Holland Morn; a 
Dutch Flower Seller"; the Indianapolis Art Institute possesses "Calypso"; and other works 
are in the public galleries of Providence, Buffalo, St. Louis, Savannah and Minneapolis. But 
Hitchcock's best recognition came from the Central Empires. Berlin, Dresden and Munich 
bestowed their medals on him, and Vienna, besides conferring its medal and its officer's cross 
of the Franz Josef order, elected him a corresponding member of its Academy. He is the only 
American who has received the last two distinctions. France, in turn, made him a chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. Pictures by him hang in the Imperial Collection of Vienna, in the Dresden 
Gallery, in the Luxembourg and in the municipal galleries of Alkomaar and Egmond, Holland. 
In England his works have places in distinguished private galleries, including Blenheim, the seat 
of the Duke of Marlborough, and the McCulloch Gallery, which possesses his well known "Ma- 
ternity, " Whistler and he being the only American representatives in that great house. 

George Hitchcock was the seventh in direct line of descent from Roger Williams, and he was 
born in 1850 in Providence, R. I., the city founded by Williams and his little band of five exiles 
that were banished from Narragansett Bay. Destined for the legal profession, he was graduated 
in law from Harvard in 1874. Going to Chicago to take up practice, he became interested in an 
exhibition of water color paintings and forthwith turned artist. He struggled along by himself 



[1151 




'Portrait of Robert Auriol Hay-Drummond, 9th Earl of KinnouII and of his next brother, Thomas 
Drummond. " Painted by Benjamin West, P. R. A. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

for a few years, but in 1879 went to Paris to study at Julien's Academy; thence to Dusseldorf and 
finally to the studio of Mesdag, at The Hague. By this time he had mastered the technicalities 
of painting. Giving up entirely all instruction, he went to Egmond, a little village on the coast 
of the North Sea, to work out his own salvation. 

Here he cut loose from academicism and did the then extremely bold thing of painting peasants 
and fisherfolk and a commonplace, though picturesque world. He produced picture after picture 
characterized by sincerity, refinement and gentleness of color and a remarkable achievement of 
atmosphere. The gentle Holland sunlight and the fields of flowers were his ever recurring themes. 

Many of Hitchcock's paintings have been made familiar to the public through countless re- 
productions. Among them are "Maternity, ""The Flight into Egypt," "Mary at the House 
of Elizabeth," "Hagar and Ishmael," "St. George," "The Promise of March," "Hyacinths," 
" The Annunciation, " "Proserpina," "Ariadne" and "St. Genevieve, Patron Saint of Paris." 
The latter four will be included in the memorial exhibition, together with others that are equally 
typical and cover the artist's whole career. 

Portrait of Robert A. Hay-Drummond and Brother by Benjamin West. 

Although he left his native home in the colony of Pennsylvania while still a young man, never 
to return, and became in all reality an Englishman, art lovers in America have always taken pride 
in the career of Benjamin West and have somehow regarded him as an American painter. This 
feeling will probably always exist, in spite of the fact that not the least American influence can be 
traced in his work and that he was wholly a product of Italian and British training. Early in his 
career in England he was so fortunate as to attract distinguished patronage. He was one of the 
founders of the Royal Academy and succeeded to its presidency — the most honored position in 
English art — on the death of Reynolds. 

Because of the many reproductions made of them, Benjamin West has always been best known 
for his representations of Biblical and mythological subjects. These have a picturesque and 
decorative quality. They are noble illustrations, following Italian tradition, but have a gran- 
diloquent and theatrical element that exclude them from consideration as the highest art expres- 
sions. By his contemporaries he was adjudged to be a better portraitist than anything else. 
Many of his portraits attain the beauty and high decorative quality one expects in the works of 
the six immortals who were his contemporaries — Reynolds, Romney, Gainsborough, Raeburn, 
Lawrence and Hoppner. This gives peculiar importance to the bringing to this coun'^ry of a 
work which is one of his finest achievements, "Portrait of Robert Auriol Hay-Dn,mmond, 
Ninth Earl of Kinnoull, and of His Next Brother, Thomas Drummond. " 

This picture, which is now on exhibition at the galleries of Scott & Fowles, in New York, has 
additional interest because its subjects are the eldest two sons of the Archbishop of York, who, 
as West's first great patron, was instrumental in obtaining for him the favor of Gejrge III, for 
whom he painted "The Departure of Regulus from Rome." The archbishop wsi the soul of 
old English hospitality, and such a great royal favorite that he preached the coronation sermon of 
George III. Walpole referred to him as "a sensible, worldly man, but addicted to his bottle" 
and Lecky as "a liberal patron of English artists." 

Undoubtedly West sought to repay the kindness of his benefactor when he pai.ited in 1767 the 
double portrait of his two sons, Robert, aged seventeen, and Thomas, aged sixteen. He put into 
it the beautiful architectural treatment of the old English school. The two brothers are posed 
before a green curtain ; at one side is a statue of Minerva and at the other an open window through 
which the heir points to a classical building, probably the Pantheon. With his arm on his bro- 
ther's shoulder, he seems to be discoursing to him on some lesson of the past. One is attired 
in rich red, the other in scholastic black, which, taken with the green of the cuvtain and the blue 
of the open sky, make an effective color scheme. 

The elder lad succeeded to his uncle as the Ninth Earl of Kinnoull. The portrait has been in 
the possession of the Kinnoull family until recently. 

Portrait of Mme. Leopold Gravier by Henri Fantin-Latoiir. 

"Portrait of Madame Leopold Gravier" by Henri Fantin-Latour (1836- 1904), on display at the 
Kraushaar Galleries, in New York, is notable because it is one of the few portraits by this famous 
artist that have made their way to this country. Americans are most familiar with Fantin-Latour 

[117] 




Courtesy of Kraushaar Gjller'.i 
"Portrait of Mme. Leopold Gravier," by Henry Fantin-Latour. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

through his idealistic landscape groups, those misty and mysterious compositions with their 
charming nudes by the side of fountains that are as dream-like as glimpses of fairyland. 

Himself the pupil of Couture, from whom he inherited his characteristic "scraped canvas" 
technique, in which filmy effects are obtained through applying pigment, then removing part of 
it, he was the friend and companion of Corot, Courbet, Legros and Whistler. He belongs in 
art definitely to that group of artists who looked at nature through idealistic eyes and prepared 
the world for the atmospheric vision of Impressionism. 

As can be expected there is less of the fanciful in a Fantin portrait than in a Kantin landscape 
group, but still in this example the substance is idealized and its quality of texture is the pic- 
ture's supreme point for admiration. It was first shown at the Salon of 1890 and belongs to the 
artist's ripest period. Madam Gravier, mature and pleasing of face, is seated in a square chair 
of the Louis XIII tvpe, attired in evening dress, wearing bracelets and carrying a fan. The velvet 
of the chair, the black panels of the waist, and the glimpse of tulle and mousseline figure in the 
artist's gently decorative scheme. 

America's Leadership in City Planning — Why Not Constantinople? 

When Mr. Balfour was visiting New York he voiced, more or less unconsciously perhaps, but 
nevertheless very accurately, the changed attitude of Europe toward our public art in so far as it 
is expressed in current architecture, by referring in terms of unrestrained admiration to "these 
great cathedrals which you call business buildings." Earlier Blasco Ibanez had declared that in 
the presence of New York's skyline and the magnificence of its great structures he felt "a new 
pride in the achievements of man." This is all very interesting, since it is a direct reversal of the 
opinion usually expressed by the visiting foreigner a generation ago. For came he from Latin or 
Teuton or Anglo-Saxon Europe, as a rule, he felt quite privileged to dismiss American archi- 
tecture by asserting, before he even landed at New York, that he knew it was bad and that all 
skyscrapers were "ugly" per se. But what are the facts today? Not only has America been 
invited to plan the restoration of Rheims, but Whitney Warren, who built the Grand Central 
depot. New York, has been asked to supervise the rebuilding of the University of Louvain, and, 
more than this, the greatest problem of all that confronts European specialists, the planning of a 
new Constantinople, has just been referred to American architects, who are asked by Professor 
Francis W. Kelsey, of the University of Michigan, to come to the aid of a city that, next to Rome, 
stands nearer to the great historic past of Western peoples than any other, and take the grave 
issue of its replanning in hand. 

So pressing does Professor Kelsey consider this Constantinople "commission" that his article 
laying the issue before this country is printed in the current numbers of Art and Arch.^EOLOGy 
and The Journal of the American Institute of Architects. And in this article he asks that the 
Institute, in association with the Archaeological Institute of America and the American Historical 
Association, and possibly other kindred associations, shall send representatives "immediately" 
to New York to join in a conference in order to attack the problem of Constantinople in an effective 
way. Aside from the fact that part of the problem is to plan the rebuilding of a city one-fourth 
of which has been burned over within the last twelve years and lies "unrestored and desolate," 
the dramatic thing is that it is to the American expert, the American architect, the American 
city planner, that this most celebrated of cities turns in its present plight. What a revenge of 
time is here! The Sydney Smiths of the European architectural world, who have been asking 
for years who studies an American building or looks at an American plan, are routed horse, 
foot and dragoons. They have been routed for years, but with a colossal impertinence until 
very recently were fond of asserting the old superciliousness. But now, confronted with the 
part America is to play in the replanning of Rheims. the rebuilding of the LTniversity of Louvain, 
they must at least t)e respectful; while that the New World's artificers and architects should be 
urged to take in hand the great archaeological prize of Europe and Asia Minor is something that 
cannot be easily overestimated. — Henry M. Watts, in Public Ledger, Philadelphia, Sunday Jan. 

2, 1Q21. 

[119] 





x'^-aibiMifiUMi 



A Sculptured Vase from Guatemala. 
See Art and Archaeology XI. Nos. 1-2, Feb. 192 1. pp. 66, 67 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

A Sculptured Vase from Guatemala. 

It will be remembered that in the preceding issue of Art and Archaeology there appeared an 
interesting article by Dr. M. H. Saville, on "A Sculptured Vase from Guatemala," which is 
accompanied by an illustration of the remarkable design which covers the entire periphery of the 
vessel. Unfortunately through inadvertance, the illustration of the vessel itself, here reproduced 
was omitted. This specimen commands attention not only because of the intricacy of the design 
and the skill of its execution, but especially on account of the unique method employed. Almost 
universally the potter's art is a plastic art, but in this case the entire design is sculptured. The 
clay has been allowed to become rigid and in this state was carved, as is clearly shown in the 
accompanying illustrations. The second figure is so posed as to show the two human faces pro- 
truding from the open jaws of the two marvelous feathered serpents, the coils of which encircle 
the vessel. The bold profile of the sun god on the right and the smaller and weaker profile of the 
supposed suppliant on the left. The faces as well as the many other features of the complicated 
design are executed with a boldness and precision and a decorative appreciation amply illus- 
trating the virile artistic genius of the Maya race. 

Illustrated Lecture on "Carillons m Holland and Belgium'' before the 

Arts Club of Washington. 

The Carillon Committee of the Arts Club, which is promoting the plan for the erection of a 
National Peace Carillon in the Capital City, launched their movement in an effective manner 
Thursday evening, February 12, 192 1, at a meeting in the auditorium of the Corcoran Gallery 
of Art, when Colonel William Gorham Rice of Albany, N. Y., a recognized authority on the 
carillon, gave an illustrated lecture on "Carillons in Holland and Belgium." 

Colonel Rice urged the commemoration of a great epoch in our h'story by a memorial in which 
the 48 states of the Union, and the 6 territories should be each represented by a bell attuned in 
perfect unison with its fellows. These 54 bells would form a great carillon to be placed in a noble 
tower that should be built in Washington. 

He reassured the Arts Club of the cooperation of Mrs. Rice and himself in its plans and made 
the promise to secure the funds for the bell that is to represent New York State. Mr. Rice then 
gave an interesting description of his journey last August to Holland and Belgium, undertaken to 
see how the Belgium carillons had stood the five years of war. He found that so great had been 
Belgium's industry since the end of the World War, and so fearful were the Germans of the 
penalty promised them by President Wilson if, when evacuating the great Belgion cities after the 
Armistice, they destroyed any property, that all the finest carillon towers — Bruges, Ghent, 
Antwerp, Malines — had been spared. In fact, only two important ones — Ypres and Louvain — 
had been destoryed. 

An illustrated article on this subject by Mr. Rice will appear in a future number of Art and 
Archaeology. 

American Foundation in France for Prehistoric Studies. 

At the meeting of the Governing Board of the American Foundation in France for Preliistoric 
Studies, held at the Hotel Plaza, New York, on February 3, 1921, Professor George Grant Mac- 
Curdy was elected first Director of the Foundation. Dr. Charles Peabody is Chairman of the 
Board and for the present will also serve as Treasurer of the Foundation. 

The year's work will open at La Quina (Charente) on July ist. After a stay of some three 
months at La Quina, there ^\-ill be excursions in the Dordogne, the French Pyrenees and to the 
Grimaldi caves near Mentone. The winter term will be in Paris; and the work of the spring term 
will include excursions to the important Chellean and Acheulian stations of the Somme valley, 
to Neolithic sites of the Marne or other suitable locality, and to Brittany for a study of mega- 
lithic monuments. 

Students may enroll for an entire year or for any part thereof. Those who contemplate enter- 
ing either for the year or for the first term, should communicate immediately with the Director, 
at Yale LTniversity Museum, New Haven, Conn.; or with Dr. Charles Peabody, Peabody 
Museum, Cambridge, Mass. 

[1211 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

One Foundation scholarship of the value of 2,000 francs is available for the first year. The 
special qualifications of the applicant, together with references should accompany each applica- 
tion. The Foundation is open to both men and women students. 

The address of the Director after June 15th will be care of Guaranty Trust Company, Paris. 

General meeting of the Archaeological Institute of America. 

The Twenty-second General Meeting of the Archaeological Institute of America was held in 
conjunction with the American Philological Association and the Maya Society at the Johns 
Hopkins University, Baltimore, December 28, 29, 30, 1920. The first day was devoted to a 
meeting of the Executive Committee of the Council of the Institute and to a meeting of the Coun- 
cil itself. Interesting reports were read by the officers and chairmen of the different man- 
aging committees. In the evening there was a joint meeting, with the annual address by the 
president of the Philological Association, Professor Clifford H. Moore of Harvard on the sub- 
ject " Prophecy in the Epic. " On December 29, papers were read by Mr. Stohlman on "A Sub- 
Si damara Sarcophagus"; by Professor Charles Upson Clark on "The Treasure of Pietroasa and 
Other Gothic Remains in Southeastern Europe"; by Professor Michael T. Rostovtzeff of Wis- 
consin on "The Origin of Gothic Art in Jewelry," which he believes the Germans got from 
Southern Russia; by Ernest Dewald of Rutgers on "Carolingian Initials"; by Professor Henry A. 
Sanders of Michigan on "A Papyrus Manuscript of Part of the Septuagint." The members of 
the Institute paid a visit to the very interesting private galleries of paintings at the house of Dr. 
and Mrs. Jacobs, to the Walters Art Gallery, and also to the archaeological collections of the 
Johns Hopkins University. In the evening Dr. T. L. Shear of Columbia read a very interesting 
paper on "A Marble Head from Rhodes" which has been published in the last number of the 
American Journal of Archaeology; and Professor Peabody of Harvard told about the new school 
recently established for studying prehistoric archaeology in France. On December 30, papers 
were read by Prof. Emerson H. Swift of Princeton on "Imperial Portrait Statues from Corinth"; 
by Prof. D. M. Robinson on "Terra-Cotta Antefixes at The Johns Hopkins University"; by 
Dr. Stephen B. Luce of the University of Pennsylvania on "A Group of Architectural Terra- 
Cottas from Corneto"; by Prof. George W. Elderkin of Princeton on "Dionysiac Resurrection in 
Vase Painting"; by Miss vSwindler of Bryn Mawr on "Greek Vases"; by Miss Richter of the 
Metropolitan on "The Firing of Greek Vases"; by Prof. Kent of the University of Pennsylvania 
on "A Baffled Hercules." The Maya Society gave an interesting dinner in the evening of De- 
cember 30, and addresses were made by Professor Laing of Chicago on "Archaeology and Phil- 
ology," and by Mr. WiUiam Gates on "The Maya CiviHzation. " 

The College Art Association of America. 

The next meeting of the College Art Association will be held at the Corcoran Art Gallery in 
Washington, D. C, March 24-26. A large attendance is expected and an attractive program is 
being prepared which will include many papers in the field of art and also there will be much dis- 
cussion of problems connected with the teaching of art and art history. Arrangements are being 
made for visits to some of the important collections in Wasliington. 

Some of the speakers who have already consented to present papers are as follows : Professor 
Edgell of Harvard on "the American Academy in Rome"; Professor Churchill of Smith College 
on "Post Impressionism"; Mr. Zantzinger of Philadelphia on " The Work which the Committee 
on Education of the American Institute of Architects is doing"; Miss Harcum of the Royal 
Ontario Museum on the "Statue of Aphrodite in Toronto"; Mrs. E. S. Kelley of Western College, 
Ohio on "Creative Artists Fellowships"; Dr. Luce of the LTniversity Museum, Philadelphia, on 
' ' Art at Newport. ' ' Mr. Kelsey of Philadelphia will give an illustrated address on ' ' That Spititual 
Craving which so few of our Colleges ever Try to Satisfy. " Other speakers will be Mr. Zolnay 
the sculptor of Washington, Duncan Phillips, Dr. Kelley of Ohio State University, and Mrs. 
Braun of the LTniversity of Tennessee. There will also be informal discussions of subjects to be 
announced later. 

Every one who is interested is cordially invited to attend the sessions. Headquarters will be 
at the Powhatan Hotel. ' D. M. R. 

[1221 



BOOK CRITIQUES 



Sketches and Designs by Stanford White, with 
an outline of his career, by his son Laivrence 
Grant White. Architectural Book Publishing 
Co., New York, igzo. 

"To have grasped the spirit of the masters of 
the Renaissance and brought the living flame 
of their inspiration across the Atlantic to kindle 
new fires on these shores," is a great achieve- 
ment for any man. To have had the broad 
understanding and appreciation of things 
artistic and above all to have possessed an 
unbounded enthusiasm for them — is an enviable 
possession for any man. 

A sumptuous volume that records the 
remarkable accomplishment of Stanford White 
is recently published by his son Lawrence 
Grant White. It is made up of his sketches 
and designs and includes drawings made in 
France (the frontispiece a lovely water-color of 
the Cathedral of Laon), charming bits of the 
old chateaux, doorways, courts and towers — 
some of them finished drawings, others the 
briefest records for his note book. 

As a member of the great firm of architects, 
McKim, Mead, and White, he designed some of 
the most notable residences, clubs and churches 
in the country, principally in New York, a list 
of which is given. His own house in New York 
and the one on Long Island are beautifully 
illustrated with large plates and innumerable 
memorials are shown in monuments, fountains, 
and windows. As a designer of picture frames 
he was unsurpassed. He knew just the proper 
frame for each particular picture, whether 
portrait or landscape. 

Perhaps it is not generally known that 
Stanford White made the designs for the covers 
of the well-known magazines. Century, Scribner 
and Cosmopolitan — those quiet, dignified and 
thoroughly artistic covers, made to survive the 
flaming colored covers of most of the periodicals 
that scream from the news stands. 

Stanford White's influence upon art and 
architecture in New York was very great and 
most of his wealthy clients gave him absolute 
liberty not only in the architectural plans, but 
in the furnishings. Consequently he made 
frequent trips abroad and brought back quanti- 
ties of beautiful material, doorways, carved 
mantels, rugs, and furniture, combining these 
acquisitions with the greatest skill and success. 

A letter written to his mother from Bruges in 
1878, reveals his characteristic enthusiasm for 



painting, which branch of art he might have 
pursued with equal success. "The architecture 
and the old town are enough to set you wild; 
but when you add to these the pictures, all 
there is to do, is to gasp for breath and die 
quietly. Here Hans Memling and his school 
plied their handicraft and in one hospital alone 
besides the shrine of St. Ursula, there is a whole 
room crammed with pictures by him and them. 
Full of lovely faces, simple and quiet, and all 
modeled up in beautiful flesh tints without a 
shadow; hair that seems to blow in the wind, 
and green embroidered gowns, that make the 
nails grow out of the ends of your fingers with 
pleasure. To think they have so many, and 
that we have none and that at Douai — a 
wretched little French town — there could be a 
portrait by Paul Veronese, that nearly squeezed 
tears out of my eyes; . . . And above all, 
Raphael's wax head at Lille — the loveliest face 
ever conceived by man. Architecture seems 
but poor stuff compared with things like these. ' ' 
The book is dedicated to William Rutherford 
Mead, "my Father's Partner, Counselor and 
Friend and Mine." 

Helen Wright. 

Dynamic Symmetry. The Greek Vase, by Jay 
Hamhidge. New Haven: Yale University Press; 
London: Humphrey Milford, ig20. Pp. 161. 
Illustrated. Plates and Figures. $6.00. 

This volum.e, the first published on the Trow- 
bridge Mem.orial Publication Fund, is another 
very im.portant book in the field, of Greek ce- 
ramics. Mr. Ham.bidge thinks that he has re- 
covered the m.athem.atical principles under- 
lying the form.s of Greek Art and especially 
Greek vases. He has rediscovered the laws 
governing so-called Dynam.ic Sym.rr.etry. Dy- 
nam.ic Sym.metry deals with com.mensurable 
areas which represent the projection of solids. 
The sym.m.etry of m.an and plant is dynam.ic; 
the sym.m.etry of the entire fabric of classic art, 
including buildings, statuary, and the crafts is 
dynam.ic. The sym.m.etry of all art since Greek 
classic times according to Hambridge is static. 
But to prove this for even one design is almost 
impossible since the number of figures to be 
examined is almost endless One of my mathe- 
matical friends, Mr. Kdwin M. Blake, who will 
publish a review of the theory in The A rt Bulle- 
tin, believes that any design whatever can be 
analyzed by the Hambridge method. Most of 



[123] 



STfe"- 






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OXFORD books and Oxford 
scholarship are synony- 
mous. All bookmen know 
this and unhesitatingly recom- 
mend them, confident that the 
reader will be pleased. 

c/1 selection of those recently issued. 

HELLENISTIC SCULPTURE 

■By Guy Dickins f^t ^8.00 

A scholarly monograph, beautifully illust- 
rated, for the art lover and student. 

MEDALS OF THE RENAISSANCE 
'By G. F. Hill '^t $25.00 

Covers the entire field of medallic art in 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, valu- 
able alike as a reference work and for its 
fine illustrations which figure for the most 
part pieces not previously illustrated. 

MOSLEM ARCHITECTURE 

"By G. T. RiVOIRA "^t ^21.00 

A pioneer work describing the develop- 
ment of the Mosque in Syria, Egypt, 
Armenia and Spain from its birth down 
to the twelfth century. 158 plates. 

HISTORICAL PORTRAITS 
1400-1850 

■By C. R. Fletcher 4 vols. ^22.60 

A splendid collection of 491 portraits by 
masters of all periods selected by Mr. Emery 
Walker, with an interesting biographical 
sketch of each subject. 

RAJPUT PAINTING 

'By Ananda Coomaraswamy 

2 vols. '=A(_e*^126.00 

Probably the greatest work on the subject, 
with a large number of exceptionally fine 
plates many of which are in color 

INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH 
CHURCH ARCHITECTURE 

By Francis Bond 2 vols, '^f ^25.00 

A standard work covering the subject 
from the eleventh to the sixteenth centuries 
with upwards of 1400 illustrations. 

A HISTORY OF FINE ART IN 
INDIA AND CEYLON 

By V. A. Smith ^38.00 

The result of a lifetime of study both 
from the archaeological as well as the art 
point of view with nearly 400 illustrations. 

c/lt all booksellers or from the publishers. 

OXFORD UNTVERSITY PRESS 

•^American Branch 
35 WEST 32nd STREET, HEW YORK 



py 



■y-^^ 




the Greek vases in the Metropolitan and Bos- 
ton Museums have been studied with the 
assistance of Miss Richter and Dr. Caskey; 
and Mr. Hambidge's book contains be- 
sid.-s many photographs, many drawings of 
vases showing the Hambidgian principles. 
Mr. Hambidge has certainly shown that the 
best Greek vases are based on mathematical 
principles such as the whirling square root, 
rectangles, etc. But the question is whether 
the Greek potters really drew a plan of every 
vase before they fashioned it. Is it not pos- 
sible that the Greek's love of rhythm and 
proportions and his knowledge of mathe- 
matics were so innate that he could m.ake these 
beautiful shapes unconsciously? Otherwise 
why such infinite variety am.ong the Greek 
vases? If the principles were mathematical 
and the Greek potter had a drawn plan, we 
should expect to find exact duplicates in great 
num.bers and such is not the case, until the 
tim.e of such late and poor vases as the Faliscan 
ware. These principles do seem., however, to 
exist in Greek art but there are so m.any possi- 
bilities that it doesn't follow that all works of 
art that have these principles are beautiful and 
all that haven't, if there are such, are ugly. 
A statue of Michelangelo is a work of art even 
if not made on these principles. A mod- 
ern coffee pot of no great beauty can be 
seen to have them, and some of the things, 
including a Gothic clock, made recently by 
Tiffany and other artists on these princi- 
ples, are not great works of art. There is 
no doubt, however, that Ham.bidge has m.ade 
an important discovery and we m.ust conclude 
that one secret of Greek art is that the Greeks, 
unlike later races, were m,ainly geom.etricians 
and did their arithm.etic in geom_etrical surfaces 
in space instead of line, as Plato indicates in the 
Theaetetus where the boys are working out 
root-rectangles which seem, to have been 
fam.iliar to the elder Socrates, who, before he 
becam.e a philosopher, was a stone-cutter. 
Whether these principles are based on nature 
and phyllotaxis is doubtful, and I understand 
that many botanists are skeptical about Ham- 
bidge's theories of phyllotaxis. So the aes- 
thetic excellence claimed for them is not certain ; 
and I do not feel that the Greeks designed in 
the way Hambidge says. The number and 
variety of figures in geometry is so enormous 
that the same design may be analyzed in many 
ways; and we cannot be sure which design the 
potter used, if he used any at all. 



KinJIy Mi-tition Art and .Ircliaeology. 



[124] 



The work is also a contribution of the very 
first im.portance to the whole field of art and 
offers valuable material for designers, crafts- 
men, advertising illustrators, and all interested 
in artistic expression. Many such have adopted 
the Hambidgian principles. They are being 
tried with success for exam.ple by Howard Giles 
in the New York School of Fine and Applied 
Arts and if they are fully realized, will revolu- 
tionize the present methods of art instruction. 
Let us hope that Mr. Hambidge may soon pub- 
lish similar books for sculpture and architec- 
ture, especially now that he is studying the 
application of his principles in Europe and 
especially Greece. Dr. Caskey is also abroad 
and will soon publish a voluro.e on The Geometry 
of Greek Vases, treating of the Ham.bidgian 
principles as applied to the vases in Boston 

D. M. R. 

The Ideals of Indian Art. By E. B. Havell. 
New York: E. P. DiUton and Company, ig20. 
32 plates. Pp. xx-\-i8S. 

This is a new edition of a work by Mr. Havell, 
formerly Principal of the Government School 
of Art and keeper of the Art Gallery, Calcutta, 
whose first book on the subject " Indian Sculp- 
ture and Painting" is now out of print. Indian 
art has now obtained a wider recognition and is 
now treated respectfully by American and 
European scholars and museums. London has 
recently established a School of Oriental Studies 
and a lectureship in Indian Art is to be endowed 
in that school. In this book Mr. Havell reviews 
the main achievements of Hindu art, especially 
sculpture, and explains the leading ideas of the 
mythology which inspired Indian art. Many 
interesting problems which have troubled 
archaeologists for many years are discussed and 
solutions proposed. The art of India is spir- 
itual and is still a living thing with vast poten- 
tialities, of such unique value to India and all 
the world that it should be regarded as a great 
national trust which Great Britian is bound in 
honor and duty to guard and maintain. The 
book is a good one for the general reader as well 
as for the student and is illustrated with thirty 
plates well-chosen and well reproduced. 

D. M. R. 

Outlines of Chinese Art. By John C. Fergu- 
son. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 
igig. Illustrated. Pp. .xi-\-26j. 

In this book are published the Scammon lec- 
tures given at the Art Institute of Chicago in 
1918. The author, Dr. Ferguson, knows China 
well. He has been president of Nanking 
University and of Nanyang College in Shang- 



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The selection of such pieces at Sloane's is a series 
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[125] 



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hai, counsellor of the Chinese Department of 
State, 1915-17, and in 191 7 adviser to the presi- 
dent of China, and has held many other posi- 
tions in China. The first chapter is an intro- 
duction, where the treasures of the government 
museum at Peking are discussed and the art life 
of China is said to have been determined by 
China's devotion to ceremony — family and 
tribal. "China, therefore, must be studied as 
an artistic entity. The laws and principles 
which today control criticism or production 
are those which have come down from the 
earliest period of China's national life. Art 
is now decadent in China, as far as products are 
concerned, but considered in the light of adher- 
ence to principles it flourishes with a strength 
equal to that which characterized it in the 
golden age of the T'ang dynasty. It is found 
in every man of culture and struggles to assert 
itself in every new collector. Its sway is not 
even distributed by the incoming of modern 
education. ' "• ■ 

The second chapter deals with Bronzes and 
Tades and much emphasis is laid on the de- 
lights of jade to a sensitive touch, a form of 
artistic feeling new to our occidental con- 
sciousness. "The beauty of good specimens 
of jade, especially of ancient jade, is not only 
appreciated by the eye, but also, as has been 
pointed out, by the sense of touch. It is unique 
in making this double appeal to the aesthetic 
taste. It may readily be granted that it is 
not a branch of art that can become popular 
with a large number of people. Its subtlety 
restricts its enjoyment to the few, but to them 
it provides, in every sense, the refinement of 
artistic feeling." 

The third chapter discusses Stones and Ce- 
ramics. " Whatever may be the position to which 
China has relegated pottery and porcelain, 
they will always remain for the occidental the 
most favorite field of Chinese art. The richness 
of colors found in the Clitin Yao, the purity of 
the Ting Yao, with its graceful incised decora- 
tions, the charm of the pale green of the Luiig- 
ch'tian Yao — these show an appreciation of 
color combined with skillful modeling which 
has never been equaled in pottery by any other 
nation. The black-grounds, green-grounds, 
and yellow-grounds of porcelain, together with 
the apple-greens, peach-blooms, clair-de-lunes, 
sang-de-boeufs, and pure whites, are a splendid 
exhibition of high artistic spirit." 

Chapter four is devoted to Calligraphy and 
Painting, and chapters five and six to Painting. 
The book is well printed and makes interesting 
reading, though it does not give a history of 
Chinese art such as one would like to have, and 
has many omissions. D- M. R. 



Kindly Mention Art and Archaeology. 



[126] 



"Wilderness: A Journal of Quiet Adventure 
in Alaska," by Rockicell Kent. New York. 
G. P. Putnam's Sons, iq20. 

Because of this volume's essential character 
one can write about it at a late date without 
apology. In reviewing the ordinary book, 
timeliness is admittedly an important factor, 
for publisher and reviewer and reader all three. 
The reader wants his liook fresh, the reviewer 
wants to get on to something else, and the pub- 
lisher wants to sell while he can. But with 
"Wilderness" these considerations are for- 
tunately not paramount; and while it is too 
late to write the i:sual review, it is not too late 
to write an appreciation. 

The book is of enduring stuff. The man is 
not a mere painter mildly practising a pleasant 
profession, but an artist who has wrested some- 
thing vital from life itself; and his book is not 
just so many pages of text to accompany the 
drawings, but a definitely original addition to 
both literature and art. 

It required a distinguished foreigner, Mr. 
C. Lewis Hind, to call attention to the true 
significance of Kent's sojourn in Alaska. He 
did not hesitate to name one of the greatest 
of all the sojourners in the wilderness, not by 
way of placing Kent on a level with John of 
Patmos, but by way of identifying the nature 
of the experience. Kent went to that lonely 
island impelled by an inner and compulsive 
urge to contact with primary things. It is 
not a new manifestation in this country; 
indeed, this strain of wildness, this lure of the 
further wilderness, has probably had about as 
much to do with our westward growth as the 
more easily detected push from behind of 
crowded populations. The most notable pre- 
vious expression in our literature of this hunger 
for the elemental is, of course, "Walden;" 
and it is not too much to say that this book of 
Kent's has enough quality of its own to go on 
the same shelf with that of Thoreau. 

The book's appeal to the eye through its 
drawings is quite as strong as its appeal to the 
ear through its words. Most illustrations are 
by other individuals than the writers of books, 
and there is in such cases as inevitable differ- 
ence of personal interpretation. "Wilderness" 
is in every detail emphatically Rockwell Kent 
and no other. He reaches the same part of 
us, by two ways, through two senses; and the 
two-fold expression of the same experience 
comes home with so much the more emphasis 
and sense of reality. It is pleasure to pay 
tribute to so splendid an achievement. It is 
a hearty gale of wildness that for a time dis- 
perses the miasmas of a mercantile civilization. 

Virgil Barker. 



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[127] 



Kindly Mention Ail and .Archaeology. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

And many other high grade 
magazines, catalogues and 
booklets are printed with 
Doubldone INKS (registered 
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THE SIGMUND ULLMAN 
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POWELL ART GALLERIES 

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New York 

announce an exhibition of 

PORTRAITS 

h 
WILFORD S. CONROW 

To March 12 

Daily 9-6 — Tuesday and Friday evenings 



NOTICE 

Owing to the rapid growth of the mailing list of 
Art and Archaeology, and the unusual demand 
for special numbers, our stock is almost exhausted 
of the following: 

V, No. I (January, 1917); 
V, No. 4 (April, 1917); 
VI, No. 6 (December, 1917); 
VIII, No. 5 (September-October, 1919) 

25 cents per copy will be paid for any of these 
numbers upon delivery at this office. 

ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 
The Octagon, Washington, D. C. 



Kindly Mention Art and Archaeology 



The Sorceress of Rome. By Nathan Gallizier. 
Pictures by the Kinneys. Decorated by Ever- 
burg. The Page Company, Boston, Publishers. 
Second Impression, ig2o. 

This historical romance of the Eternal City 
at the close of the tenth century when men were 
awaiting the End of Time, illumines a period 
whose darkness is dissipated by no contempo- 
rary historian. The seat of empire had been 
for several centureis transferred to the shores of 
the Bosporus, and the state of civilization in 
old Rome had reached its lowest ebb. Rome 
had become the prey of most terrible disorders. 
The halo and prestige of the Papacy had de- 
parted. The German Kings, as Emperors of 
the Holy Roman Empire, tried in vain to con- 
trol the turbulent spirit of the nobles. The 
story has to do with the third rebellion of Cres- 
centius. Senator of Rome, and the doom of the 
third Otto, gransdon of Otto the Great, of 
whose love for Stephania, the beautiful wife of 
Crescentius, innumerable legends are told in 
the old monkish chronicles. 

The author possesses historical imagination 
in high degree, He has used the love story of 
the boy emperor and the fascinating woman 
who drew him to his doom, as the main theme 
about which he has grouped sumptuous word- 
pictures of tenth century Rome. Descriptions 
of the city with its ruined grandeur, of the 
gorgeous ceremonials of the Vatican and the 
court, abound. The Page Company is to be 
congratulated on the beauty of the letter- 
press, the colored illustrations, and the careful 
editing of this volume. M. C. 

The Medallic Portraits of Christ. By G. F. 
Hill, Fellow of the British Academy. Oxford 
University Press, ig20. 

The three essays included in this volume — 
The Medalhc Portraits of Christ, The False 
Shekels, and The Thirty Pieces of Silver, 
which have appeared in earlier publications, 
are reproduced in response to constant inqui- 
ries concerning these subjects addressed to the 
British Museum. The 68 illustrations, and the 
careful descriptions of the medals reproduced 
add greatly to the value and interest of the 
text. The first of the three esssays is of the 
most general interest. The author limits him- 
self chiefly to the medallic portraits of the Re- 
naissance, only incidentally mentioning earlier 
representations and ignoring altogether the 
question whether the numerous portraits 
bear any resemblance to the actual 
countenance of Christ. The volume exhibits 
in every respect the high standard maintained 
by the Oxford University Press. M. C. 

[128] 



/>l 



JS.OO THE YEAR 



50 CENTS THE COPY 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

An Illustrated Monthly Magazine 

Published at WASHINGTON. D. C. by 

THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

ART AND LIFE (new york) combined with ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



Volume XI 



APRIL, 1921 



Number 4 



EDITOR-IN-CHIEF 
WILLIAM H. HOLMES 

BOARD OF EDITORS 

Virgil Barker 
Howard Crosby Butler 
Charles Upson Clark 

Albert T. Clay 

Charles T. Currelly 

H. R. Fairclough 

Edgar L. Hewett 

Morris Jastrow 

FisKE Kimball 

David M. Robinson 

Helen Wright 




DIRECTOR AND EDITOR 
MITCHELL CARROLL 

BOARD OF MANAGERS 

Frank Springer. Chairman 

J. Townsend Russell, Vice-Chairman 

James C. Egbert 

Ex-officio as President of the Institute 

Burwell S. Cutler 

John B. Larnbr 

Charles Colfax Long 

Dan Fellows Platt 



CONTENTS 



The Memorials of Rome in the Italian Colonies Guido Calza 131 

Nine Illustrations 

Ave Roma Immortalis Henry S. Washington 144 

Poem 



Smyrna: "The Infidel City' 

Eight Illustrations 



George Horton 145 



The Diggers Harvey M. Watts .... 154 

Poem 

The Angel in American Sculpture Frank Owen Payne .... 155 

Six Illustrations 



TUSCULUM, AND ThE ViLLA OF CiCERO 

Four Illustrations 



Current Notes and Comments 

Three Illustrations 



Book Critiques 



Clara S. Streeter 163 

169 

173 



Terms: ?5 00 a year in advance: single numbers. 50 cents. Instructions for renewal, discontinuance, or change of address should be 
sent two weeks before the date they are to go into effect. 

All correspondence should be addressed and remittances made to Art and .\rchasology, the Octagon. Wa'^hington, D. C. Also 
manuscripts, photographs, material for notes and news, books for review, and exchanges, should be sent to this address. 

Advertisements should be sent to Chandler-Jennings. Inc., Advertising Managers. 1 West 34th St.. New York. N Y. 

Foreign subscriptions and advertisements should be sent to David H Bond, 407 Bank Chambers, Chancery Lane. London, W. C.-i. 

Entered at the Post OfSce at Washington. D. C. as second-class mail matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage 

provided for in section 1103, Act of October 3. 1917. authorized September 7, 191S. 

Copyright, 1921. bv the Archaeological Institute of America. 




Statue of Aphrodite discovered by the Italians at Cyrene in North Africa. 

delle Terme, Rome. 



Now in the Museo 



ART mx3 

ARCHAEOLOGY 

The Arts Throughout the Ages 



Volume XI 



APRIL, 1921 



Number 4 



THE MEMORIALS OF ROME IN THE 
ITALIAN COLONIES 

By GuiDO Calza, 

Inspector of the Excavations and Monuments of Ancient Ostia. 



LEAVE one's country without leav- 
ing one's fatherland! Yes, this 
is what we Italian archaeologists 
do when we climb mountains and cross 
over seas in search of the memorials of 
Rome. No joy can be more vital, no 
pride more just, than that of tracing the 
foot-prints left by Rome during her 
vast, world-wide dominion. A Latin 
inscription that repeats names we hear 
even to-day ; a tomb that makes the soil 
of the most distant and most desert and 
savage regions sacred to us ; an aqueduct 
that, in the remotest parts of Africa or 
Asia, brings before our eyes long files of 
arches in the Roman Campagna; the 
paving-stones of a road that makes us 
re-live a thousand years of Latin con- 
quests and Latin triumphs — all these 
are discoveries having the double fasci- 
nation of scientific conquests and moral 
victories. Therefore, Italian archae- 
ologists could not fail to be interested in 
the historical and archaeological re- 
searches, which the nations have been 



making in the Italian colonies by means 
of scientific missions. Though poorer 
than the others, Italy has been second 
to none; and, with that perfect good- 
fellowship, characteristic of Italian men 
of letters, she has tried to carry her 
scientific researches to places of which 
none have yet thought. And I take 
especial pleasure in describing to the 
readers of Art and Archaeology the, 
for the most part unpublished, studies 
and discoveries made by Italians in the 
Colonies of Libya, in the ^Egean and 
in Anatolia. 

Libya, the new colony that Italian 
arms gave back to us ten years ago, was 
the first field of exclusively Italian 
archaeological exploration outside our 
peninsula. The actual conquest of 
Libya was even hastened by this first 
Italian mission, which was led by our 
illustrious scientist Prof. Halbherr, the 
successful explorer of the Island of 
Crete, because the obstacles and perils 
encountered bv the Italian mission were 



[131] 




Tripoli: Marcus Aurelius'Arch, after the Italian restoration. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



so many that the Government deter- 
mined on the armed occupation of the 
country. 

As soon as the country had been 
conquered we continued the excavation 
and restoration of its most important 
monuments, as well as the archaeolog- 
ical exploration of Tripolitania and 
Cyrenaica — already initiated by that 
distinguished and lamented American, 
Mr. Richard Norton, whom Art and 
Archaeology fittingly commemo- 
rated in December 1919. Valuable 
objects of art, that bear witness to the 
work accomplished by us, are now being 
collected in the two Italian museums at 
Tripoli and at Benghazi. One sole piece 
of sculpture, among the many found, 
has been taken to Rome, carrying a 
greeting from the ancient colony — the 
statue, that alone, might, perhaps, suf- 
fice to re-pay the expenses and perils of 
our war. The beautiful Aphrodite 
from Cyrene, now in the Museo delle 
Terme, is, perhaps, the most beautiful 
in the whole world — were it possible to 
draw a comparison between the god- 
desses of beauty. According to the 
learned essay by Prof. L. Mariani, chief 
of the Italian Archaeological Office in 
Libya, this masterpiece is an original by 
a Greek artist of the IV century before 
Christ, perhaps Euphranor of Corinth. 
The goddess, carved in a block of the 
choicest Parian marble, transparent 
and warm in color, is represented nude 
in the style of the Anadyoniene, rising 
from the sea-waves at the moment of her 
first appearance to moitals, and all wet 
and just pressing the water fiom her 
hair, and combing it. A sense of 
shame, a tremor of the body at contact 
with the air because of its nakedness, 
makes the delicate form shiver a little ; 
and it is this ingenuous movement that 
renders the virgin nudity of the goddess 
perfectly chaste. This exquisite sculp- 

[133] 



ture was found in the great hall of the 
recently excavated baths, along with 
many other beautiful and interesting 
statues: two groups of the Graces, an 
Eros drawing his bow, a Satyr with the 
child Bacchus, a Hermes in the manner 
of PolycUtiis, and the colossal statue of 
Alexander the Great. This whole fig- 
ure, cast in a solemn mould, breathes 
force and power, and is animated by 
the genius of the hero. It is an inter- 
esting sculpture both because it may 
perhaps be a copy of Alexander with 
the lance by the sculptor Lysippus, 
and also because the face shows us the 
portrait, not of the idealized Alexander, 
but of the great leader, thoughtful, yet 
daring in action, who meditates his 
great undertakings, his battles and 
conquests. 

All these sculptures were overthrown 
by one of those earthquakes that were 
among the causes of the decadence of 
Cyrenaica toward the close of the IV 
century b. c. The splendid Hall of 
the Thermae, which was divided in 
three parts by beautiful Corinthian 
columns with transenne formed by the 
two groups of the Graces, must have 
been like a museum; and it was here 
that the people loitered while waiting 
for their baths. 

These excavations and discoveries 
have thrown light upon every aspect of 
history and life in ancient times, as well 
as upon art. An inscription tells of a 
road from Cyrene to ApoUonia that was 
re-built by the Emperor Hadrian in 1 18, 
because it had been tmnulto iudaico 
eversa et corrupta; that is: broken up 
and destroyed by the Jews from Egypt 
and Cyrenaica during an insurrection 
when 220,000 Greeks and Romans were 
massacred. 

These excavations — among them 
that of a Temple of Jove with a beauti- 
ful statue of the god — have been sup- 




Aghhk.mi> ' C \ iinaica; : Roman Tombs. 



plemented by scientific studies in the 
City of Benghazi, the antique Berenice. 
The vast necropoHs, rich in tombs and 
funeral ornaments, has been explored 
with the result that the history of this 
city, which existed for ten centuries, 
may now be seen in the light of the 
various civilizations under which she 
developed — the indigenous, Hellenic 
and Roman. Teuchira, the city on 
which Anthony tried in vain to impose 
the name Cleopatris, after the Queen of 
Egypt whom he madly loved, and 
which still displays her solid walls even 
to-day; Barce with her magnificent 
tombs; Ptolemais with the imposing 
ruins of walls, gates and cisterns and 
the beautiful arcades of the Agora and 
harbor; Apollonia, which was also 
destroyed by an earthquake, yet, like 
the others, displays the ruins of an 
aqueduct, a theatre and a mole; and, 
last of all, Cyrene, with rich tombs cut 
in the rock and immense cisterns, 
have been systematically investigated. 
Each and all illustrate for us the politi- 
cal history and the life of the people of 
these countries. 



The archaeological offices at Tripoli 
and in Tripolitania have not only 
executed the more pleasing part of their 
task — that of searching out and exca- 
vating monuments — but they have 
also been active in restoring and pre- 
serving those already existing. Thus, 
the Arch of Marcus Aureliiis at Tripoli 
has been restored; considered as a 
whole with its sculptures and its daring 
architectural form, it is the most 
beautiful and important monument in 
the colonies. It was built by the 
municipal magistrates to celebrate the 
glory won by Marcus Aurelius and 
Lucius Verus in their recent victories 
over the Parthians. This arch was 
earthed up to the height of three 
meters; the interior transformed into a 
cinematograph, and, to further dis- 
honor it, the niches used as vegetable 
stalls. However, it has now been freed 
from all these barbarous disfigurements ; 
and Apollo in his chariot drawn by 
griffins, and Athena in her car with the 
winged sphinx surrounded by trophies 
and arms, again tell the glory of the 
Antonines. And the excavations in the 



[134] 




Rhodes: The Cavalieri's Hospital, after the ItaUan restorations 



Christian cemetery of Ain Zara serve to 
illustrate a whole period of religious 
history, limited until now to a simple 
list of bishops. 

But still more marvelous is the birth- 
place of the Emperor SeptimiusSeverus, 
Septis Magna, which, sepulchered in 
sand, has reserved for us the surprise of 
discovering a city all of marble, with 
temples, a forum, a theatre, public 
baths and magnificent palaces, and 
among them that of Septimius Severus 
himself, built by him to commemorate 
his good fortune. There are testi- 
monials of ancient prosperity every- 
where: Sabratha, the last of the three 
cities of Tripolis, was the grain market 
of the coast of Sirtica, and presents an 



imposing group of ruins. The mosaics 
found near Zliten are the most beautiful 
yet discovered on the African coast. 
Their variety of design and vivacious 
coloring make the small squares with 
fishes and scenes of animal life, the 
battles of dwarfs, and the larger com- 
positions showing litdi gladiatorii and 
venationes worthy of having figured in 
the most splendid house of Imperial 
Rome. 

The dominion of the Arabs over these 
countries has led to no artistic develop- 
ment, and has dimmed all this splendor 
of life and art; but Latin civilization 
has returned, throwing light upon the 
past and continuing the glorious tra- 
ditions of Rome. 



[135] 




Rhodes: The Castcllania. 



RHODES. 

A new history has also begun for the 
group of charming islands in the 
^gean, known as the Sporades, of 
which the largest and most lovely is 
Rhodes. These islands were occupied 
by Italy in May 191 7, and we at once 
began to restore that artistic beauty 
which is their greatest fascination. 
The energy of a vital civilization has 
accomplished marvels in spite of the 
traditional sluggishness of the Turkish 
Government. The most beautiful and 
interesting street of Rhodes, the via dei 
Cavalieri, commemorates in its name, 
which has always been Italian, the 
dominion of the Order of Knights of 
the principal Catholic States of Europe 
( 1 308-1 522), the object of which was to 
keep the civilization of the Occident 



alive in the Orient. The old hospices 
of the various nations, which are in this 
street, have recovered the lines of their 
original architectural style, an archi- 
tecture that has, here at Rhodes, a 
typical local physiognomy, and indi- 
vidual characteristics which distinguish 
it from its parent-style, the French- 
Gothic. It was chiefly the French, 
Spanish, and Italians who influenced 
the special character of the public 
buildings of the city; but the military 
architecture of Rhodes is Italian, 
because it was directed and inspired by 
Italian military architects and based on 
Italian models. The hospital which 
the Knights erected as worthy to 
shelter their pious mission, undertaken 
for the entire Christian world, is, with 
its grandiose proportions and indi- 



[136] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



vidual architectural style, the most 
conspicuous public building in Rhodes ; 
and is also one of the most notable 
examples of that hospice-architecture 
which was transplanted into the Orient 
by the Latins. It was used as a 
military garrison by the Turks; but 
extensive and accurate restorations 
have now been completed, giving it 
once more the architectural lines of the 
XVI century. And our learned Prof. 
Maiuri has transformed it into a 
historical and archaeological museum, 
in which all the material illustrating 
the most antique civilizations of the 
Sporades is being collected. This mu- 
seum is divided into three sections : the 
Classic for Greek and Roman pre- 
historic, artistic, numismatic, and epi- 
graphic material ; the Mediaeval for the 
material belonging to the period of the 
Knights; and the Ethnographical for 
the study of customs, art, and litera- 
ture, and the conditions of life down to 
the present time. So, this splendid and 
characteristic edifice has not only been 
saved as an artistic whole, but a new 
element of beauty has been lent to it. 
This museum, which is being con- 
tinually enriched by the explorations 
and excavations at Rhodes and on the 
islands, is one of the most characteristic 
and interesting museums in the Levant ; 
it is, moreover a new beacon of Latin 
civilization, signalizing the marvelous 
energy of our race. 

Pindar's song may, indeed, be sung 
again to-day: for Rhodes (the rose) 
blooms once more in all her matchless 
beauty, that daughter of the Sea and 
the vSun, whom the Sun begged and 
obtained from Jove, and who expanded 
from the waters like a flower. 

ANATOLIA. 

Before the War absorbed all the 
energy of the nations, we began to 

[137] 



open up another fruitful field of archae- 
ological exploration — Asia Minor, or, 
more precisely, Anatolia. An Italian 
commission had initiated active re- 
searches on this wide peninsula that 
juts out from the center of the Asiatic 
continent like a bridge between the 
Occident and the Orient, under the 
direction of a scholar of high standing, 
Prof. Roberto Paribeni, to whom I owe 
these interesting, unpublished details. 
Not only were there memorials of Rome 
to trace in this region, but all the long 
history of the peoples and kingdoms 
that succeeded each other in the pos- 
session of this marvelously beautiful and 
fertile land, from the almost fabulous 
Empire of the Etheii to the kingdoms of 
Lydia and Phrygia and Persia, and, last 
of all, the Greek and Roman colonies. 
This country, which saw the bloom of 
the first fruits of Hellenic ganius, repre- 
sented to the Ancient World of the 
Mediterranean what America is for 
Modern Europe. But it is after its 
conquest by Alexander the Great, 
that, open at last to Hellenic civiliza- 
tion and culture, it enters the sphere of 
the Western World, and until the end 
of the Roman domination continues 
to be the land of wealth and happiness, 
the land of pomp and splendor, that 
neither knows nor measures nor spares 
her inexhaustible gold-mines, the goal 
dreamed of by the Roman governors 
who seek here the reward of the 
labors and fatigues of office. Very 
beautiful cities flourish on every hand, 
springing up, innumerable and im- 
mense either from the growth of the 
capitals of the small native states, or 
from the new metropolis founded by 
new sovereigns. It is quite natural 
that such a rich country should attract 
the dominating power of Rome. The 
most valorous generals try their arms 
against it, Sulla and Marius, LucuUus 



i7>i 




ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



and Pompey , Caesar and Crassus ; and a 
horde of Roman merchants and traders 
invade it. But one must trace all these 
glorious memorials of the Past through 
the misery and desolation of the 
Present; for the end of the Roman 
domination signalized, for these coun- 
tries, also ruin and desolation which the 
Turkish government has always more 
and more accentuated. Though one 
sees at every kilometer the richest 
ruins of cities, and of castles and 
fortresses, of churches and monasteries, 
it takes a whole day's hard walking to 
find the few houses of a wretched 
village, or a loathsome camp of jurukJa 
with only a cafe under a shelter built of 
branches. 

AD ALIA. 

The researches of the Italian Archae- 
ological Mission were made in the 
antique provinces of Pamphylia, Pisidia, 
Caria, Lycia, and Cilicia, that is: in the 
present vilayet of Konia and Adana. A 
fertile field of work and study has been 
found in these provinces, although they 
were not the richest and most populous 
of Asia Minor. A base of operations 
was established in the most important 
center of this zone at Adalia, the 
antique Attalea, which looks out to sea 
from the summit of a rock, like a 
charmifig Haniim on the mysterious 
balcony of her house. The beautiful 
walls, which were originally Roman, 
have been partly demolished, in spite 
of protests from the Italian mission. 
There still remains, however, a monu- 
mental gate, which the city built and 
decorated in honor of the Emperor 
Hadrian, with the towers that stand 
beside it. Since the wall that hid it has 
been demolished, this monumental 
record of Rome triumphs over the little 
Turkish city with the splendor of its 
architectuie and ornamentation; only 

[1411 



the gilded letters of the inscription are 
lacking, having emigrated to Constanti- 
nople some few years since. But the 
very first greeting one receives on land- 
ing at the little port of Adalia comes 
from another splendid memorial of 
Rome: the mausoleum of a Roman 
governor of the province, built on the 
line of the walls, so that other explorers 
have thought it a fortress. It has, 
instead, a well-known form and in 
many respects, recalls the tomb of 
Cecilia Metella on the Via Appia. A re- 
lief on the sides of this monument shows 
the fasces of the lictors, symbols of the 
empire attributed to Roman magis- 
trates. He was then a child of Rome, 
this un known magi strate , who , buried f ar 
from his country, wished that the very 
architecture of his tomb should at once 
awaken the memory of the fatherland 
in those who disembarked on this 
distant shore. Many interesting Greek 
and Latin inscriptions have also been 
found at Adalia ; and our mission is now 
studying the mosque at Giumzin, an 
excellent example of Byzantine art, also 
a minaret covered with azure-colored 
majolica which records the dominion of 
the sultans of Iconium. There are also 
beautiful ruins in the four other great 
antique cities of Pamphylia, which is 
now a desolate, uncultivated plain, 
although it has a wealth of water. At 
Perga, celebrated for a sanctuary of 
Artemis, there are the ruins of the walls 
and a theatre, and of a stadium that 
still has its tiers of seats in position, and 
of the vast necropolis with large carved 
sarcophagi. Prof. Paribeni has found 
an interesting inscription here dedicat- 
ed to a physician on whom Perga, his 
native city, and vSeleucia conferred high 
honors, either for his unusual bravery or 
for the lectures on health and public 
hygiene that this follower of ^scul- 




Adaua: Door of a Madrasa, or Moslem Seminary. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



apius gave in the gymnasium. In this 
way, Sillyum, now at last identified 
beyond a doubt by numerous inscrip- 
tions, has been brought back to hfe, 
and Aspendus with her splendid, well- 
preserved theatre, carefully built after 
the Greek model. The floods of the 
Cydnus, the impetuous river that put 
Alexander the Great in peril of his life, 
have destroyed much in Cilicia, which 
was the active center of study during 
the Roman period. But mountainous 
Cilicia is beautiful and interesting 
beyond all others — aspera, as it was for 
the Greeks, and as Cicero found it, for 
he was its governor in his old age. 
High up in these mountains, whence, 
across low hills covered with flowering 
broom, the Island of Cyprus is seen 
smiling on the horizon, an antique city 
has been discovered near the modern 
village of Adana. This city, unknown 
until to-day, is completely hidden in a 
thick wood, but numerous inscriptions 
have been found in the vast necrop- 
olis, in which are many small mortuary 
temples and colossal sarcophagi with 
inscriptions and carvings. This is 
Soli, afterwards called Pompeiopolis for 
Pompey, who repopulated it with the 
pirates infesting the coast. vSimilar to 
Cilicia in nature and appearance is 
Lycia, characterized by tombs cut in 
walls of rock like the cells in a bee-hive, 
and by tall sarcophagi of several stories 
in imitation of the wocden houses of the 
first inhabitants of this region. 

PISIDIA. 

The most important discovery has, 
however, taken place in Pisidia; Pedne- 
Jissos, quite a large and wealthy city, 
sought for in vain by former explorers, 
has been found and identified by the 
Italian mission. 

The site of these ruins is on the top of 
a mountainous group in the high valley 

[143] 



of theCestrus about ten hours northeast 
of Adalia in the center of a zone that has 
been left desolate until now in the maps 
of ancient Asia Minor. The city was 
divided into two parts: the lower city, 
the only accessible portion in the whole 
area of the antique city ; and the upper 
city with imposing ruins hidden by 
thick, impenetrable undergrowth. The 
city, which was fortified within a poly- 
gon of walls, built on the irregulatities 
of the soil, stiU preserves the double 
circle of walls surrounding the acropolis; 
the towers and gates, the principal one 
of which is buried in sand, show us the 
defensive system of a Greek, not a 
Roman, city. The most important of 
the existing edifices, and also the best 
preserved, is the Agora, which occupies 
a plateau in the highest part. It was 
converted into a church during the 
Byzantine period; and there are still a 
few columns dividing it into three 
naves. Adjoining it was an arcade, 
and a temple of which there remain 
beautiful architectural fragments. 
Further on is a Sacellam Lamm, a 
shrine cut in the rock, and the ruins of a 
temple built of stone blocks. Outside 
the city is what still exists of the Greek 
necropolis: two Heroa, like little quad- 
rangular temples in an elegant style of 
architecture, and a few sarcophagi. 
Without the walls are a few cisterns and 
the ruins of two Byzantine churches. 
Though no great work of art has yet 
made the discovery of these ruins even 
more gratifying, a beautiful stela in the 
Attic style of the IV century has, 
however, been found, with a figure of 
Helios Apollo, and a large sarcophagus 
with six columns, separating three 
niches, each of which contains a statue. 
The city, which must have sprung into 
existence after the time ot Alexander, 
that is, during the p.-riod of the greatest 
prosperity of this country, is built on a 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



plan corresponding exactly to that of 
the Hellenic fortified cities. After more 
than ten centuries of death, she has 
come back to life offering hospitality to 
the representatives of the Latin race. 

Our mission has, then, in the briefest 
space of time, opened quite a new 
horizon for history and for archaeology. 
But it is not the Roman world alone 
that re-awakens and reveals itself to 
him who peruses these pages of a 
remote and glorious past ; the period of 
the Crusades also returns to us — that 
admirable expression of Latin energy 
and of Christian faith. Here, also, 
are found the maritime records of the 



great republics of Venice, Genoa and 
Amalfi stamped on the walls and 
castles, and also on the maritime dia- 
lects, which, even among the Greeks 
and Turks, have always been Italian. 
It is, then, beautiful and holy that 
Italians should return to these lands, 
armed only with science and learning, 
to protect the monuments and search 
out and revivify the memorials of past 
civilizations. And it should be per- 
missible even to preserve this, which is, 
perhaps, the most beautiful form of 
civilization, and to assure its triumph. 

Rome, Italy. 



AVE ROMA IMMORTALIS. 

(On seeing tixo butterflies in the Forum). 

Around old Rome's most hallowed things, 

Festalian court, Juturna's springs, 

Eager to spread their yellow wings 

Roam two small butterflies. 

O'er Caesar's pyre they are at play, 

Much as they were in Trajan's day, 

All ignorant that their life so gay 

Is gone with summer skies. 

Musing within the historic place, 

Methinks a symbol one can trace 

Of what befell that lordly race 

Rome nurtured in her youth. 

Though people die the race persists, 

And Romans, winning well the lists, 

Let the world know Rome still exists 

In deeds of valor that, forsooth, 

Seem those of Rome in Rome's proud youth. 

Henry S. Washington. 

Rome, April, 1919. 



[144] 



SMYRNA: "THE INFIDEL CITY" 

By George Horton, 

American Consul General in Smyrna.. 



SMYRNA has been called " Ghiaur," 
or "Infidel" by the Turks ever 
since it came into their possession, 
to denote its non-mussulman charac- 
ter. The fact is that this ancient city 
is, and always has been, essentially 
Greek. 

I was somewhat surprised to learn, 
on a recent visit to the United States, 
that many intelligent Americans do not 
know where Smyrna is. I was asked 
the most extraordinary questions as to 
the route by which I expected to return 
there, and one charming lady who was 
well posted on most questions, acci- 
dentally disclosed to me that she was 
laboring under the illusion that Smyrna 
was the capital of Siam. Fortunately I 
discovered her error, as my wife is look- 
ing forward to the pleasure of corre- 
sponding with her. 

Professional archaeologists have long 
ago discovered that the laiety of the 
Archaeological Institute are most 
familiar with places that are mentioned 
in Holy Writ. I shall begin then, by 
remarking that Smyrna was one of the 
seven cities of the Apocalypse. Ephe- 
sus, where St. Paul fought with beasts, 
is but a short journey from there by rail, 
and is a favorite excursion for Smyrni- 
otes. 

I am writing this on board the Megali 
Hellas, a Greek steamer that makes the 
journey from Brooklyn to Piraeus, the 
harbor of Athens, in 14 days. Inci- 
dentally, the Megali Hellas is rolling so 
that I am holding my Corona with my 
left hand to keep if from sliding off the 
table while I pound it wnth my right. 
From Piraeus to Smyrna is over night 



on the ^gean Sea, zigzaging through 
the Cyclades islands, sprinkled like 
stars in the sky. North of vSmyrna, in 
the same sea lies Lesbos, (now Mity- 
lene) where Sappho loved and sung, and 
to the south is Samos, whose wine Byron 
counsels us to dash down. 

A learned treatise on Smyrna would 
bristle with references to the classic 
poets and other writers. I believe that 
I can safely say, writing here from 
memory and without a library handy, 
that Smyrna is one of the oldest cities 
in existence, in the sense that organized 
communities have inhabited the present 
site, or sites in the immediate neighbor- 
hood, since the dawn of history and 
before. 

The antiquity of vSmyrna is attested 
by the fact that ancient legend gave as 
its founder the mythical hero Tantalus, 
whose memory is perpetuated by the 
word "tantalize," recalling the punish- 
ment to which he was condemned in the 
lower regions. It is said that the first 
name of the city was Navlochon, or 
harbor for ships, and the same name 
would apply equally well to the magnifi- 
cent, land-locked harbor of the modern 
city, in which the biggest merchant 
craft and giant battleships find safe 
anchorage. Recently many American 
merchant ships, as well as battle fleets 
of the Entente, have been coming into 
this harbor. The American Arizona, 
one of the largest warships in the world, 
sailed into Smyrna harbor not long ago, 
and made an extended visit. 

The name of the mythical founder of 
the city is still preserved at Smyrna. 
An ancient construction, not far from 



[145] 




Smyrna: The Grand Aqueduct. Photograph by Edmund Boissonnas, from the collection exhibited 

by the Greek Government in New York. 




Smyrna: Entrance to the harbor. 



the town, is familiarly known as The 
Tomb of Tantalus. 

The origin of the name " Smyrna " is 
a subject which might well give rise to 
much interesting discussion. Tacitus 
mentions Theseus or one of the Amazons 
as the founder of Smyrna. The "Life 
of Homer" affirms that Theseus gave 
the name of Smyrna to the city which 
he founded, in honor of an Amazon who 
conquered him by her attractions. 
Those wishing to harmonize these two 
legends can consider the city as having 
been rebuilt and rechristened by the 
Attic hero. 

It is interesting to note that the 
word "Smyrna" is closely allied to 
"myrrhe," or perfume, and that the 
wise men offered to the infant Jesus 
"gifts, gold, frankincense and myrrh;" 
{Smyrnan, in Greek). 

It would be difficult to convince a 
visitor to the modern city that this 
latter is the correct derivation of the 
name, unless ideas about perfumes 



have greatly changed since the days of 
Tantalus and Theseus. 

During its long history Smyrna 
passed through several periods of splen- 
dor and influence and decline, had its 
sieges, its changes of sovereignty, its 
massacres. For a long time the second 
city of the Byzantine Empire, it was 
besieged by Tamerlane in 1402, who is 
said to have built a sort of tower of 
the skulls of the murdered inhabitants. 
Later it passed definitely into the 
hands of the Turks, who have held it 
for nearly 500 years. 

It is the boast of the inhabitants of 
Smyrna that the actual city of today, 
situated on the slopes of Mount Pagos, 
was founded by Alexander the Great, 
who found in the vicinity various 
settlements, remnants of the ancient 
town, and collected them on the pres- 
ent site. This contention is based on 
statements of Pliny and Pausanias. 

A burning question in the Near East, 
a really vital one, is that cf the place 



[148] 




Smyrna: Old Roman Aqueduct. 



of the nativity of Homer. It will not 
be difficult for our city rooters and 
boosters in America to understand how 
live a question this is to the Greeks. 
What better advertisement for a town 
than the claim, once established, that 
the immortal bard was born there? 
After the great name of Christ, there 
is none other better or more generally 
known than that of Homer. 

We are told that in antiquity seven 
cities disputed this honor, but more re- 
cently the contention seems to have 
narrowed down as between Chios and 
Smyrna. In support of their case, the 
partisans of Smyrna cite: a so-called 
"Epigram of Homer;" the "Life of 
Homer," attributed by some to Hero- 
dotus ; the Third Idyll of the poet Mos- 
chos on the death of Bion, in which 
appears the line, "This is a second 
grief for you, O River Meles, who 
formerly lost Homer ; " Plutarch; vari- 
ous inscriptions and medals for which 
there is not space in an article of this 
kind ; Pausanias, who mentions a grotto 

[149] 



at Smyrna in which Homer wrote his 
poems; and various Latin authors, 
among them Cicero, who refer to the 
author of the Iliad as a Smyrniote. 

On the whole, Smyrna seems to have 
the weight of the argument, and as I 
remember having once heard the late 
Herbert DeCou, one of the soundest 
archaeologists that America has pro- 
duced, say that the man who collected 
the ancient legends growing out of the 
Trojan war into the so-called "Poems 
of Homer," probably lived in Asia 
Minor, I am inclined to accept the 
statement that he was born in Smyrna, 
and be done with the matter. It now 
rests with our friends the Greeks to 
resurrect the grotto where he wrote 
his poems and show it to wondering 
tourists. It should be an even greater 
attraction than the "Prison of Soc- 
rates," at Athens. 

Another burning question at Smyrna 
is: which one of two streams is the 
rightful River Meles, sacred to the 
great bard? 




Smyrna: Amphitheatre where St. Polycarp was burned. 



One of these streams, about 9 miles 
long, takes its source near the village 
of Sevdikeui, flows the length of the 
beautiful Valley of Saint Anne, where 
it serves to irrigate numerous gardens, 
and empties into the sea, after having 
passed through one of the humbler 
quarters of Smyrna. In summer its 
pools are much frequented by naked 
urchins, and its waters turn a pictur- 
esque mill or two. Unfortunately, a 
tannery has recently been erected on 
its banks. It should be mentioned in 
this connection that legend locates the 
last resting place of St. Anne in this 
valley, on what authority I know not. 
Commuters from Smyrna to Paradise, 
the village where the International 
College, an important American insti- 
tution, with imposing buildings erected 
by money raised in the United States, 
is situated, skirt this delightful valley 
all the way. The ancient "Bridge of 
Caravans " over which countless strings 
of camels, plodding patiently to and fro 
between the great mart of Smyrna and 



the heart of the East, laden with figs, 
tobacco, raisins and oriental carpets, 
have been passing for no one knows 
how long, spans this river at its lower 
end. 

I can easily imagine a poet writing 
in one of the gardens or in a grotto on 
the banks of this stream, but it is sug- 
gestive rather of the peaceful reveries 
of a Theocritus than the martial in- 
spiration of the author of the Iliad. 

The other stream issues from a pow- 
erful spring whose pure waters form 
the principal supply for Smyrna. Issu- 
ing first in a large lake or basin, they 
flow away into the sea in a clear river 
about a mile in length. This spring 
and its lake are the so-called "Baths 
of Diana" and there is much to be 
said in favor of this little river as the 
veritable Meles of Homer. The ancient 
aqueducts shown in the 
span the longer stream 
through the valley of St. 
illustration with the leafless trees on its 
bank, is from a photograph of the 

[150] 



illustrations 
which flows 
Anne. The 




Smyrna: Meles River. 



stream which issues from the "Baths 
of Diana." 

I leave to the reader to pursue the 
investigation and decide for himself. 

The patron saint of Smyrna is Poly- 
carp, who was burned alive in the old 
stadium back of the town on the 
slopes of Mount Pagos. His tomb, in a 
corner of a Turkish cemetery not far 
from the place of his martyrdom, is 
held in much veneration by Orthodox 
and other Christians. The situation, 
and the stone wall enclosing it, are 
shown in the photograph. Unfortu- 
nately, there has been a steadily grow- 
ing doubt of late years as to the authen- 
ticity of this tomb, and even as to 
whether St. Polycarp was buried at all 
at Smyrna. 

The martyrdom of St. Polycarp is 
said by Rohrbacher, in his Histoire 
Universelle de I'Kglise Catholique to 
have taken place February 26, in the 
year 156 a. d. Various authorities 
give the hour as half past two in the 
afternoon and the age of the Saint at 



the time of his death as 86 years. The 
fact of his martyrdom at Smyrna and 
the place appear to be matters of au- 
thentic history. In the picture given 
with the accompanying text, the author 
of this article is shown sitting on the 
green slopes of the ancient stadium 
gazing at the spot where the agents 
of an organized and highly civilized 
government burned alive a venerable, 
learned and holy man because he would 
not deny his Christ. To the mind of 
one sitting in such a place, the centuries 
roll up like a parchment, and Polycarp 
stands there again among his torment- 
ing flames that robe him in immortal 
glory. 

Mount Pagos was the acropolis of 
ancient and mediaeval Smyrna, and a 
considerable portion of the old walls 
still exist, in a fairly good state of pres- 
ervation. By a study of these walls 
and foundations I am convinced that 
one could trace the existence of the 
town from prehistoric times down to the 
days of the Turk. 



[1511 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 




fc.MVKNA: I'ortion of AnciLiit Wall. 

Reliable statistics as to the popula- 
tion of Smyrna in recent times are 
difficult to obtain. The latest figures 
given by the American Consulate Gen- 
eral, which are doubtless near the 
truth, are as follows: 

Greeks 155,000 

Turks 165,000 

Jews 35.000 

Armenians 25,000 

Italians 10,000 

French 3,000 

British 2,000 

Americans 150 

Total 395.150 

Since the Greek occupation there 
has been a large influx of that element, 



which is now greatly in the ascendency, 
and the population of the town has 
increased by at least 100,000. The 
city is now so congested that it is 
practically impossible for a newcomer 
to find a house, or even a room, and 
rents have reached a New York scale. 

To understand the Greek character 
of Smyrna and indeed of the whole 
Asia Minor coast and of many towns 
in the interior, one should not consider 
the population solely from a numerical 
point of view. The Turks are mostly 
government officials, day laborers, por- 
ters and small retail dealers in the 
Turkish quarters. They have little 
touch with the outside world and have 
made no progress mentally or in their 
style of living for 500 years. The 
Greeks are bankers, exporters and im- 
porters, architects, electricians, doctors, 
cooks, domestic servants, employees 
in business houses, ship builders, school 
teachers. They travel continually and 
bring home new ideas especially from 
America. In the few months since 
the Greeks occupied Smyrna, American 
automobiles have appeared in large 
numbers in its streets— a thing hitherto 
unknown since the time of Tantalus. 
Many thousands of chilkd steel plows 
have been ordered in America to re- 
place the wooden plows of the days 
of Homer, and American tractor plows 
are already humming in the Plain of 
the Hermus. Up till the time of the 
Greek occupation only one tractor 
plow had been brought to Smyrna 
since the epoch of the Amazons, and 
that by a Greek naturalized American 
from Washington, D. C. It was de- 
stroyed by the Turks on the road to the 
farm, and its ruins still lie by the side 
of the highway a little distance out of 
Smyrna. 

Whenever Greeks have been col- 
lected in communities throughout the 



[152] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



Turkish Empire during the long years 
of that subjection, they have formed 
oases of European civiUzation of re- 
markable excellence, when one takes 
into consideration the difficulties under 
which they have labored. These oases 
have been characterized by houses of 
better construction, hospitals, churches, 
charitable organizations, and above all 
schools, in which the light of that 
Hellenic culture, to which the Western 
world owes, in large measure, its own 
civilization, was kept burning. In 
this respect Smyrna has always been 
well in the front rank. 

The Hospital of Saint Charalambos, 
supported by the Greek community, 
would do credit to any town. It has 
wards for surgery, pathology, gyne- 
cology, ophthalmology, mental diseases, 
besides an old peoples' asylum and a 
maternity department. In the year 
1916-1917 it had 2500 patients treated 
within the hospital, and about 16,000 
outside patients. 

Among these were many Mussulmans 
and Jews, as well as Greeks. 

The most important schools of 
Smyrna are those of the Evangel, for 
boys; and St. Photeine and the Homer- 
eion, for girls. 

The Evangelical school has a re- 
markable library of over 30,000 vol- 
umes, which has fortunately come 
through the war intact. 

To keep up the Greek schools of 
Smyrna costs about 150,000 dollars 
annually, no small tax on a community 
of that size, but there is never any 
difficulty in finding the money. 

The hinterland of Smyrna, the terri- 
tory naturally tributary to it, is one of 
the richest regions in the world, and it 
has lain practically fallow since the 
fall of Constantinople. Miserable 
Turkish villages now occupy the sites 




Smyrna : Tomb of St. Polycarp. 

of once populous and splendid Greek 
cities. History, that has a habit of 
repeating itself, has shown that Asia 
Minor is the natural soil of the Greek. 
During the last quarter of a century 
the Greeks had, up till the outbreak of 
the European war, made great progress 
along the entire coast of Asia Minor, 
and their civilization was gradually 
penetrating into the interior, building 
schools, churches and hospitals, and 
respectable and cleanly quarters in the 
towns. They were dotting the whole 
country with pretty farm houses, and 
were introducing European — and more 
especially, American — up-to-date 
methods of farming. The broad state- 



[153] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



menl that the Greek is a trader , and the 
Turk is a farmer, is an erroneous one. 
The Greek is cmnipresent throughout 
the Near East as a trader, it is true. 
The Turk has no ability to speak of 
for commerce. He is a hard worker 
in the country districts and it is hoped 
that he will not emigrate in large num- 
bers from the Greek occupied area. 
The Greek peasant, however, is just 
as hard a worker as the Turk, and he 
differs from the latter in that he is 
enterprising and progressive. He goes 
to America, gets new ideas about phyl- 
loxera, grafting, agricultural imple- 
ments and comes home and applies 
them. 

In 1914 practically all the Greek 
farmers were driven out of the Smyrna 
district, and Turkish refugees, to the 
number of 25,000 put in their place. 
The amount of damage done by those 
25,000 Turks in so short a space of time 
is incredible to any one who has not 
seen it. An extensive region that re- 
sembled, in its intensive cultivation 
reaching even to the tops of the moun- 
ains, the best parts of Italy, has been 
laid in ruins. Villages, towns, farm- 
houses, for miles, have been so thor- 
oughly destroyed that they look like 



the walls of Pompeii. Vineyards have 
been uprooted for the wood of the roots, 
or are overgrown with grass. But the 
Greek farmers are coming back. They 
are living in the cellars of their de- 
stroyed houses, or in rooms covered 
with boards or canvas, or in tents 
furnished by the Greek government, 
and they are working like bees at the 
task of restoration. 

What they have done in the fields 
in a few months, is almost a miracle, 
but it will take them a long time to 
rebuild their farmhouses and villages 
torn down for the sake of the firewood 
they contained — for the Mussulman 
refugees were few and the houses 
many. 

What the return of the Greek to 
Smyrna means is that the vast and im- 
mensely rich region tributary to it has 
been again thrown open to that civiliza- 
tion which the Greek gave to the West- 
ern world. Thus, the proud province 
of the Roman and Byzantine empires, 
where flourished the cities of Sardis, 
Phocis, Colophon, Ephesus, Pergamum, 
Thyatira, Laodacea, Philadelphia, and 
others, will again teem with industrious 
millions. 

Smyrna, Asia Minor 



THE DIGGERS 

TROY — MYCENAE — KNOSSOS 
They seek the broken fragments of the past, 
The wreck of palace and the loot of kings, 
The jumbled heap of long forgotten things. 
Aeon-encrusted, till the diggers cast 
From la3'ered pit, after a lapse so vast 
That memory halts, as spade thrust loudly rings, 
The golden spoil of which blind Homer sings; 
Tombs of the great, heroic to the last! 
And lo, before the thrilled, astounded, gaze 
Of those who delve beneath these massy quoins, 
Atreus and Priam and their splendid line 
Live once again! Famed Minos and his maze! 
Yea from these sherds we may their ways divine 
Proud of our rise from out these mighty loins ! 

Harvey M. Watts. 



[1541 



THE ANGEL IN AMERICAN SCULPTURE 

By Frank Owen Payne 



PROBABLY there is no one theme 
in all the realm of art which has 
figured more conspicuously than 
the angel. Miracles of mediaeval 
stained glass in Gothic churches, mo- 
saics that glow in Italian basilicas, 
paintings of all the great masters of 
the brush, triumphs of the chisel in 
niche and sanctuary, and sombre 
memorials on tombs and sarcophagi — 
all these have contributed to the 
prominence of angelic forms in art. 
That the angel is among the most 
ancient conceptions is evidenced by 
the golden cherubim wrought by the 
inspired Bezaleel, which bent their 
wings above the mystic mercy seat 
on the Ark of the Covenant. Indeed, 
from that remote day until the present, 
to every age and to every phase of 
human life has been granted its angelic 
representatives. Angels of birth and 
of death, guardian angels and minis- 
tering angels, bearers of comfort and 
messengers of love, rejoicing angels 
and mourning angels, angels of peace 
and of war, angels of darkness borne 
on batty wings from the gloom of the 
pit, and angels of light that bask with 
seraphim about the Throne Eternal — 
all these have been depicted by the 
audacious pencil of sublime art. 

And yet, beautiful as is the idea of 
the angel so far as its spiritual signifi- 
cance is concerned, and exquisitely as 
it has been delineated by all the imple- 
ments of art, there is an incongruity 
about it which does not make it articu- 
late in the groove of modern thought. 
The angel is the last of that race of 
hybrid monstrosities to survive the 
centuries and milleniums. It belongs 
to the brood of monsters which adorned 

[155] 



the temples and royal palaces of Nine- 
vah and Memphis — the sphinxes, 
griffins, winged bulls and lions, and 
various hybrid combinations of eagles, 
lions and bulls with men. It is the 
last survivor of a race of monsters. 

To the Arab, an angel is a dove; the 
Babylonian conceived it as a winged 
bull. Christianity with characteristic 
elevation of thought, has forsaken the 
groveling traditions inherited from a 
remote heathen ancestry and has given 
to the angel the human form and super- 
human intelligence. Thus, beautiful 
though it be in form and feature, and 
hallowed as it is by the fervor of re- 
ligious belief, the angel is none the less 
an absurdity. It is about the most 
incongruous creation of art. It defies 
the laws of biology and contemns the 
most obvious principles of physics. 
To manage a pair of wings demands a 
definite anatomical structure, namely 
a breast bone and a wishbone like a 
bird. It also demands a muscular de- 
velopment quite out of all proportion 
with that of human beings. Thus, no 
matter how beautiful the idea of the 
swiftness of angel ministrations, there 
is nevertheless an incongruity which 
naturalists and modern realists must 
deplore. We have yet to see an angel 
anywhere in art where the wings seem 
to belong to the body. They invaria- 
bly appear to be fastened on, and never 
to be the property of the wearer, be- 
coming, as Ruskin suggests, "A spe- 
cies of decorative appendage," the 
mere sign of an angel as the halo is 
symbolic of a saint. 

Not all angels, however, need to be 
represented with wings, although artists 
have usually seemed to think that they 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 




Angel with scroll, by Herbert Adams, on the Pratt 

Memorial in Emanuel Baptist Church, Brooklyn, 

New York 



must be thus represented. Had the 
three angels, who visited the tent of the 
Hebrew patriarch, been equipped with 
such accessories, their angelic nature 
would have been promptly recognized 
by Abraham and his good wife Sarah 
during that momentous visitation. 

Again, the human body is not well 
adapted for representation as if in 
flight. When thus depicted, it is apt 
to present either a sprawling attitude 
or else it appears to be merely sus- 
pended without visible support. When 
shown in relief, it seems to be pressed 
flat to the background like a specimen 
in an herbarium. The flight of angels 



can not be described either as soaring, 
or hovering, or flitting. Their so-called 
flight is in open defiance of the laws of 
aerial navigation. Thus, contemplated 
from any and every point of view, 
whether it be the anatomical structure, 
or the principles involved in aviation, 
or from the yet more difficult problem 
of picturing to mortal eyes the immortal 
conception of a celestial being — the 
angel in sculpture is manifestly absurd. 
In short, the utter impossibility of giv- 
ing to the world a convincing picture 
of an angel, is evidenced in holy writ 
where we read that "Eye hath not 
seen' ' these things. Thus, it will appear 
that there are at least three insuperable 
difficulties in the way of convincing 
representations of the angel in sculp- 
ture. These are its anatomical incon- 
gruity, the absurdity of depicting a 
terrestrial creature in flight, and the 
futility of trying to portray to mortal 
eye what eye hath not seen. 

Yet, in spite of these incongruities 
and these other difficulties, the angel 
stands among the most popular sub- 
jects of artistic delineation. What 
more stimulating or fascinating theme 
could be found for the artist than this 
most ethereal subject? What else 
could be moie appealing to the imagi- 
nation or more remote from the exhaust- 
ing cares and tensions of our nerve- 
racking generation? It is doubtless 
for some such reason as this, together 
with the ever upward look of the human 
race, that the angel has always been a 
popular theme for artistic representa- 
tion. 

Popular as it is, there are but few 
who have been able to give any thing 
more or less than conventional forms. 
Tradition has also hampered the artist 
more probably, in this theme, than in 
any other for the belief in the nature 



[156] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



and offices of angels has descended to us 
from the most remote antiquity and it 
has moulded human thought and ham- 
pered it. No one, not even Fra An- 
gelico was able to escape the earthly 
and present anything remotely sug- 
gesting the unearthly — the celestial 
being. That is why most angels in art 
are merely beautiful ladies or effeminate 
gentlemen like the models who posed 
for them, to whom the ubiquitous sym- 
bol of flight has been attached. Even 
the cherubs which accompany the Sis- 
tine Madonna and those that fill the 
background of Murillo's Immaculate 
Conception are children well fed, hu- 
man children quite earthly in face and 
feature, and not more spiritual than 
choir boys! In spite of all such facts 
as these, the angel has commanded the 
supreme genius of the world's greatest 
artists. That justifies its consideration 
here. 

A theme which makes such appeal to 
the heart of the ages and which has 
been essayed by the foremost artists 
of every age, can scarcely present any- 
thing new or original in our day. 
American sculptors have in the main 
followed tradition in their portrayal of 
angels. That they should do so is 
obvious. The demand for traditional 
angels for churches, and the almost 
universal popularity of the angel as 
an ornament for tombstones will ex- 
plain the creation of about all the angels 
in the plastic art of America. The 
adaptability of the conventional angel 
form to fit into such spaces as spandrils 
over arches, and lunettes and tympani 
over doors, have doubtless added 
greatly to the popularity of angels as a 
purely decorative feature on secular 
buildings. MacMonnies' angel figures 
over the Washington Arch and the 
Brooklyn Arch are purely decorative 




Angel of the Resurrection, by Couper, in Chicago. 

Note the beautifully modeled hands and graceful 

draperies. 

without one whit of spiritual signifi- 
cance. Apart from the sacred charac- 
ter of the angel, the idea of victory is 
probably the most significant example 
of the winged figure in art. The preva- 
lence of the angel upon tombstones, the 
laborious efforts of stone cutters, has 
cheapened such works to the extent of 
making them ridiculous, if studied 
apart from the solemn sunoundings 
where they are foimd. 

Let us consider a few of the works by 
American sculptors on the angel theme. 
These examples are representative of 
the best that has been done on this 
most venerable of all subjects of art. 



[157] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 




Guardian Angel, by William Couper, on a clock tower 
in Methuen, Alass. 

Although for the most part these works 
have been conceived and executed in 
strict accord with artistic conventions, 
it is pleasing to note that our artists 
here as elsewhere have not been ham- 
pered as regards many details which 
might otherwise make their works 
stiff and uni)leasing to the beholder. 
We believe that our artists have given 
rather more attention to the human 



aspects of angels and less to the archaic 
and strictly conventional treatment of 
the theme. There are certain symbols 
such as the pen, the scroll, the trumpet, 
and the sword which have been found 
necessary for the proper interpretation 
of certain angel forms in sculptural art. 
Without such symbols there would be 
nothing to signify the special function 
of an angel in a work of art. 

The angel with a scroll which Herbert 
A-dams placed on the Pratt memorial 
in Emanuel Baptist Church in Brook- 
lyn, has been much admired. It 
probably portrays the function of an 
accusing angel or a herald who reads 
from a scroll the deeds of some saintly 
life. The expression on that sweet 
uplifted face, the direct look in the eyes, 
and the ineffable smile on the lips, 
make this one of the most satisfactory 
angels in American sculpture. It pre- 
sents as near an approach to the spiri- 
tual as we have yet seen in marble. 

Many angelic forms have been de- 
picted by the facile chisel of Daniel 
Chester French. For the greater part, 
all these angels have been modeled with 
the same care for truth as regards 
draperies and textures of flesh and 
feather as that artist gives us in all his 
works. They are all beautiful figures 
but they are all with one exception 
merely beautiful women. In one of his 
angels, however, French has reached 
the high- water mark of all his works. 
This is Death and the Yomig Sculptor, 
which marks the tomb of Martin Mil- 
more, a young sculptor of great promise 
who died at the very beginning of his 
artistic career. In Death and the 
Young Sculptor, French has portrayed 
a handsome youth in the act of carving 
a relief of the sphinx. The angel of 
death heavily hooded, comes to arrest 



[158] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



the sculptor's hand. In her other hand 
she holds a spray of poppy flowers, 
emblematic of sleep. Upon her half- 
concealed countenance there is an in- 
scrutable expression. In its fine con- 
ception, in its execution, and in its 
forceful handling, this work deserves 
to take rank as the greatest creation 
of its versatile author. In its other- 
worldliness it approaches the Adams 
Memorial by St. Gaudens, in Rock 
Creek Cemetery, Washington, D. C. 

Adolph A. Weinman has produced a 
vast number of angels, most of which 
belong to the purely decorative type. 
Among these decorative angels are the 
reliefs in white and blue formerly on 
the pediment of the Madison Square 
Presbyterian Church, now on the li- 
brary of the Metropolitan Museum of 
Art to which building they were re- 
moved when White's masterpiece was 
razed recently. Weinman's angels are 
executed with the same masterly tech- 
nique as characterizes all his sculptural 
creations. 

Reference has been made to the 
Adams Memorial in Rock Creek Ceme- 
tery by St. Gaudens. Although not 
intended for an angel, it surpasses all 
other sculptural works in mystery and 
spiritual feeling. It is the most spirit- 
ual work in all the realm of American 
sculpture. St. Gaudens was the 
author of the splendid reredos figures 
in the Church of St. Thomas which 
represented angels adoring the Cross. 
That superb work of art was destroyed 
in the fire which laid waste that im- 
posing Gothic building. No replica of 
it is known to exist. But the best 
known of all St. Gauden's angels is 
Amor Caritas which belongs to the 
Luxemburg, replicas of which are the 
property of many other art museums. 

[159] 




Amor Caritas, by Augustus St. Gaudens, in the 

gallery of the Luxemburg in Paris. It is one of the 

best known renderings of the angel theme by the 

greatest of American sculptors. 

For angels of the strictly conven- 
tional type, the works of Lee Laurie are 
probably most numerous. Laurie has 




o 
a 



■73 

3 



m 



XI 
O 



JS 

H 



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"3 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



specialized in ecclesiastic sculpture. 
His latest, and by far the most pre- 
tentious, work of its kind in America, 
if not in the world, is the new rere- 
dos of St. Thomas Church, New York 
City. 

The art of William Couper has dis- 
played itself to a greater degree in 
angel portrayal than in any other field 
of sculptural art. We are permitted 
herewith to present examples of 
Couper's work on the angel theme. 
The Recording Angel is in Norfolk, Va., 
of which there is a replica in marble 
in the Montclair Art Museum. The 
Angel of the Resurrection is in Chicago, 
and the great relief or rather applique, 
known as The Guardian Angel, is in 
Methuen, Mass., where it ornaments 
the entrance of a memorial clock tower. 
Couper excels in the modeling of drap- 
eries and the realistic rendering of 
hands. His works betray the influence 
of Italy where Couper spent many long 
years in study and work. 

In portraying the angel there has 
often been a funny side. Serious as 
must ever be the theme, and sacred as 
is its association with the sadder aspects 
of life, it is amusing to read of the 
absurd discussions which have from 
time to time disturbed human thought 
regarding the nature of these sublime 
beings and their specific functions in 
the economy of human existence. Per- 
haps there is no more amusing discus- 
sion than that concerning the sex of 
angels and the acrimony with which 
polemical wars have been waged con- 



cerning that most absurd of all con- 
siderations. Forgetting that there is 
neither marriage nor giving in marriage 
in heaven, that angels were just created 
to fulfill divine commissions, that they 
never grow old but always remain ex- 
actly as they were created — that the 
question of sex should ever have come 
up for consideration is preposterous. 
And yet because of that very discussion, 
Gutzon Borglum was constrained to 
demolish the angels which he had been 
commissioned to carve for the Cathe- 
dral of St. John the Divine in New 
York. We regret that no pictures of 
those much abused angels are available 
for presentation here. 

Whether around about us all unseen 
by mortal eye these celestial creatures 
minister to our needs, or whether on 
tireless pinions they fathom empyrean 
abysses or wing their flight to supernal 
altitudes, we may not know. Indeed, 
whether they exist at all, or if existent, 
whether they possess the form which 
has been attributed to them since the 
world began — all this is of little moment 
to us. It is enough that as Clara Ers- 
kine Clement has well said : "Angels and 
archangels, cherubim and seraphim, 
and all the glorious hosts of heaven, 
were a fruitful source of inspiration to 
the oldest painters and sculptors whose 
works are known to us ; while the artists 
of our own more practical, less dream- 
ful age are from time to time inspired 
to produce their conceptions of the 
guardian angels of our race." 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 



[161] 





-■■■ ■■ \ 


^i 




1 


. 1 ffn' ' K^^^^^^^^^^^^^l 



CI 



TUSCULUM, AND THE VILLA OF CICERO 

By Clara S. Streeter 



IT IS MORE than a thousand years 
since the spiked helmets of the con- 
querors of Rome first glistened in the 
sunshine on the Campagna wastes, or 
the tramp of their mailed feet sounded 
along the old Roman roads. But their 
pathways are still marked by half- 
buried ruins that stand like grim- 
visaged sentinels, keeping guard over a 
mighty past, where, under the maul of 
unappreciative power, "Temples and 
towers went down," never again to 
rise. Lord Byron and other gifted 
writers have grown eloquent over that 
"double night of ages" and Rome "in 
her voiceless woe," while over the 
verdure-clothed debris on the Tusculum 
hills only the nightingale has told, 
through forgotten centuries, the story 
of life and of conquest in the lovely 
villas that once crowned those splendid 
heights and gave bits of local color to 
the themes of classic writers who loved 
to find seclusion there. 

After the fall of Rome, six centuries 
of changing conditions and disintegrat- 
ing forces made the ancient city of 
Tusculum an easy prey to the com- 
bined forces of the attacking Romans 
and Germans, and in the year 1191 it 
was razed to the ground. Then, with a 
gentle hand, pitying Nature shrouded 
its desolation with woods and tangled 
thickets. Situated in a commanding 
position on one of the eastern ridges of 
the Alban hills, a mile and a half from 
modern Frascati, and with Rome lying 
fifteen miles to the northwest, Tuscu- 
lum lures the traveler, not so much by 
its ruins as by its atmosphere, its vistas 
of memory, and its vivifying impres- 
sions of buried greatness. 



"Why go there?" asked my Roman 
friend, when I expressed a desire to see 
Tusculum and the Villa of Cicero. 
"There's nothing to see! Are there 
not ruins enough in Rome?" 

"If ruins were all, Rome would 
suffice," I replied. "But now that we 
are in Cicero's own land, both my com- 
panion and I feel that we must gratify 
our desire to look over the hills he loved 
and frequented long ago, and to see the 
spot where so many of his great works 
were written. " 

"My wife and I have called," he 
returned suavely, smiling at my en- 
thusiasm, but including both my com- 
panion and me in his glance, "to invite 
you to go with us for a drive on the 
Aventine at four o'clock tomorrow 
afternoon. Later we will have tea on 
the balcony of the Ristcronte dell Cas- 
tello die Cesari, overlooking the Pala- 
tine — a view of enchantment in the 
light of the setting sun. On this popu- 
lar balcony you may indulge in a bit 
of sentiment over our renowned Cicero, 
if you wish. It will be a more com- 
fortable way than taking a long tire- 
some ride out to the Tusculum hills 
and wandering over the supposed re- 
mains of his once beautiful villa." 

"A ride of fifteen miles will surely 
not be long and tiresome," my com- 
panion laughingly affirmed, "and we 
will enjoy our drive with you and our 
tea far better if we have first been to 
the hills." 

It was arranged, therefore, that we 
should go to Tusculum as we had 
planned, and at an early hour the next 
morning we were a-top a double- 
decked tramcar, passing rapidly 



[163] 







— 4«i^jl, 




r holograph by Clara S. Streeter 
On the Tusculum Hills, not far from the ruins of Tusculum and its famous villas. 



through the Principe Umberto. We 
caught gHmpses of the traffic along the 
way — of workmen hurrynng toward the 
city, of women with prayer books 
going to early mass, of vehicles rattling 
over the cobblestones, of newsboys 
crying their papers — until presently 
our thoughts were turned from these 
scenes to the magnificent basilica of 
San Giovanni in Laterno, founded by 
Constantine the Great, and around 
which so much of history and art have 
centered. Bells from the campanile 
pealed out, then grew fainter and 
fainter as our car sped on beyond the 
old Roman wall into the gardens and 
villas surrounding it. Here we lost the 
impressions of urban life with its noise 
and strife, for olive groves, vineyards 
and blossoming trees, still wet with 
morning dew, extended around us in a 
of refreshing beauty. 

Tusculana, the 



maze 



Following the 



V'ia 



old road to Tusculum most frequented 



by wealthy Romans in going to their 
country homes on the hill slopes, we 
passed through an arch of the Aqua 
Felice, called Porta Furba, thence 
to the station of Ostria del Curato, six 
miles out from Rome, where the road 
forks, and the tramway turns to the 
right, proceeding the rest of the way 
along the still more ancient Via Latina. 
The imposing ruins of the great aque- 
duct constructed by Claudius stand as 
silent testimonials of the wealth and 
mechanical skill needed for such a stu- 
pendous work, but cur modern tram- 
car, clanging its right of way over a 
"no-man's-land" of tombs, crumbling 
columns, and fragments of ancient 
walls, seemed in marked contrast to 
the prevailing desolation; for the Cam- 
pagna, except for a herdsman's cabin 
or a slow-moving train, was what 
Charles Dickens has aptly called it — • 
a graveyard; but a graveyard that 
showed " the vanishing footprints of a 



[164] 




Photograph from Chicago Art Institute 

The remains of the large amphitheatre, showing the wildness of the approach, and the desolation now 
surrounding the ruins of the Villa of Cicero. 



once mighty race that has left our earth 
forever. ' ' Lifting our eyes to the Alban 
hills, banked snugly against the Sabine 
mountains, with the azure sky and mel- 
low sunshine over all, we felt the 
glorious springtime enfolding us, as it 
had enfolded the great and buried past 
in its ever-living embrace. 

As we ascended, however, the sense 
of desolation lessened and we found the 
approach to Frascati very beautiful. 
There were little fields of grain and fine 
orchards on the hillsides; hamlets with 
weather-stained cottages, and villas 
that nestled in rose gardens under large 
beech trees. There were men and wo- 
men in bright-colored dress, toiling in 
the sunshine or cultivating vineyards 
where little children ran in and out 
trellises. All were 



among the rude 



needed for our kaleidoscopic view of 
fair Italy in May time ; and they helped 
us to appreciate the extensive garden 
operations of the Frascatese whose 
very name seems the equivalent of 
Garden girl. The gardens and the town 
itself we found alluring even at noon- 
time, when we descended from our 
high seat and lofty thoughts into a 
throng of frantic cab drivers, all eager 
to take us to Tusculum. Eluding these, 
we went to the Plaza Romana to secure 
a permit to drive through the private 
grounds by which the old road to 
Tusculum now is reached. Afterward 
we spent a pleasant half-hour noting the 
interesting features of the place among 
which are two old churches said to 
have first been mentioned in the ninth 
century, and to have been built on the 



[165] 




Photograph from Chicago Art histit:ite 
A partial restoration of the theatre among the ruins of Tuscnhtm, 



ruins of a Roman villa, overgrown with 
underwood (frasche), whence the name. 
The Cathedral of San Pietro, founded 
about 1700 by Innocent III, is com- 
paratively new. Like Tu senium of old, 
however, the chief interest of Frascati 
is due to its palatial villas, each of 
which has its own historical setting and 
appeals to the traveler as a unique 
blending of the antique with modern 
conveniences of life. 

Finding a driver with a bright boyish 
face, who, also, was possessed of a clean 
carriage and a decent -looking horse, we 
bartered with him to take us to Tus- 
culum and back in two or three hours. 
And such a ride of delight as it was! 
After leaving the shady highway and 
passing through the grounds of the 
Villa Aldobrandini, with its terraced 
gardens, grottos, and fountains, we 



came to the ancient road that led to 
Tusculum. A grey stone Capuchin 
church partly covered with vines stood 
on a green knoll, and a little farther we 
saw the historic Villa Ruffinella almost 
hidden in a bit of shady woodland. 
The air was filled with fragrance as we 
ascended by this unpaved road through 
meadows flecked with daisies and red 
poppies, and dells where ferns and val- 
ley lilies seemed hiding in the cool 
mossy shade. Snowy clumps of bridal 
wreath grew in the hedgerows and 
mingled with the pink petal? of the 
wild roses, making a most delightsome 
harmony of color effects, and a charm- 
ing nesting-place for the little birds 
that flittered around us and sang in the 
joyous morning sunshine. Some shep- 
herds driving their sheep toward; rich 
pastures on the other side of a deep 

1166] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



ravine, seemed to complete the sweet 
pastoral beauty of those quiet, verdant 
hills 

After we left our carriage, the road 
was steep and lonely and a guide with 
a pretty fox terrier went with us the 
rest of the way. Following a footpath 
through woods of elm, ash, ilex, and 
chestnut trees, and creeping under 
tangled thickets, we came to the re- 
mains of a large amphitheatre, re- 
cently excavated, but still partly filled 
with earth and overgrown by shrubs 
and grasses. This amphitheatre with 
its central arena and backward sloping 
seats, capable of seating three thousand 
people, we were told, was one of the most 
remarkable remnants of the once proud 
city of Tusculum. As we stood fDy its 
crumbling walls I remembered that 
Tusculum was noted for its command- 
ing position; that according to tradi- 
tion it was founded by Telegonus, the 
son of Ulysses and Circe; that histori- 
cally it was a prosperous and powerful 
city in the days of Imperial Rome and 
that, during the Republic, wealthy 
Romans had built their villas there, 
beautifying the grounds with gardens 
and fountains, and adorning the walks 
and loggias with sculpture and art from 
far-off Greece. I knew, too, that after 
the Western Empire fell, this city, safe 
on its height, survived until, at the 
close of the twelfth century, it, too, 
fell before its conquerors. I turned 
suddenly, from the evidences I found of 
the tragic wreck of war, and tried to 
picture how the city looked in her first 
pride and glory and wondered where 
the famous villas had been built. 

LucuUus, we are told, had a large and 
very magnificent villa, here, with parks 
and gardens extending northward for 
miles. Similar country homes were 
built by Cato, Julius Caesar, Crassus, 
Brutus and others. Near Tusculum, 

[167] 



on the way to Rome and close to Via 
Latina, we know that Tiberius erected 
a palace. But the most interesting 
associations of this once famous city 
cluster about the great orator, Cicero, 
whose favorite residence for study and 
disputations was at Tusculum. Here 
many of his philosophical works were 
written, and tire charming dialogues, 
so universally known and loved. 

We knew that the location of his 
villa is not definitely known, but we 
readily followed our guide for aborrt 
three-quarters of a mile to the left of the 
amphitheatre where some extensive 
ruins, largely concealed by brushwood, 
bears the name of Villa of Cicero. Our 
friend was right. There was nothing 
to see save bracken, turf and wildwood. 
But if this were the site, the environs as 
well as the villa must have been an 
inspiration to the great scholar. 

Near the ruins we found the remains 
of the forum arrd a large open air 
theatre, excavated in 1839. Following 
a narrow footpath to the right and bend- 
ing under tangled vines for a quarter 
of a mile, we reached, on higher ground, 
the site of the castle. It was built 
on an artificially hewn rock, now sur- 
mounted by a rude cross held in place 
by a pile of stones, half hidden in shrub- 
bery. With difficulty we climbed this 
pile of rocks, and, startling a thrush 
from her nest at the foot of the weather- 
beaten cross, we looked out over an 
expansive and most magnificent view. 
In the distance the purple shadows of 
the Sabine mountains blended with the 
depths of misty blue above and melted 
into the fresh green of the woodlands, 
fields, and vineyards below. Against 
these Tivoli and Mintecelio seemed like 
cameos wrought on emerald. Soracte 
arrd the Ciminian mourrtains shimmered 
in the scintillating rays of the rroonday 
sun; the wide Campagna, with its 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



aqueducts, stretched towards the sea; 
and Rome, with the dome of St. Peter's 
shining above it, could be seen in the 
distance. At our left lay Grotta- 
ferrata, Marino, Castel Gandolfo, and 
Monte Cavo with Rocca de Papa below 
it. Close at hand, fertile valleys and 
wooded hills shone resplendent in the 
sunshine. 

But the sunshine on the hills is less 
subject to change than are the works 
of man. We may trace the scenic 
beauties of the natural world that must 
have charmed the eye of Cicero, but 
only through the writings of himself 
and his contemporaries may we know 
the plan of his villa and its comparative 
value and beauty. Cicero tells us that 
it was not so large as that of his neigh- 
bor, Gabibius, the consul, but it must 
have been of considerable size for it 
had two gymnasiums with covered 
porticoes for exercise and discussion. 
One of these, on higher ground, was 
called the Lycciuji and contained a 
library; the other, shaded by trees, 
was called the Academy. The main 
building contained a covered portico 
or cloister with recesses for seats. It 
also had bath rooms and contained a 
number of works of art-pictures — and 
statues in bronze and marble. 

We like to think of Cicero as the fore- 
most voice of the senate; to feel the 
passionate patriotism with which he 
frustrates such conspirators as Catiline. 
But we knew, too, that his humane and 
scholarly life often seem unfitted to 
the time in which his lot was cast — the 
wildest century in the grim annals of 
Rome. Cicero was pre-eminently a 
pleader, but when his ill-starred politi- 
cal alliances forced him into retirement, 
other literary activities were his em- 
ployment and his solace. The Villa 
and its environs are important because 
they furnish the background for Ci- 



cero's best known works. It was under 
the porticos of his gymnasium that he 
discussed with his friends the topics of 
wisdom, pain, good and evil, virtue, 
and the meaning of death. These 
conversations he perpetuated in the 
charming dialogues known as Tuscidan 
Disputations. It was here that most 
of his philosophical works were written ; 
here he sought letirement when his 
tempestuous public career drew toward 
its close; here that he wrote the mas- 
terly essays which everj^ student of 
literature learns to love : the De Senec- 
tiitc in which he praises the worth of a 
wise old age; and De Amicitia in which 
he explains his ideas of friendship. 
Surely Cicero must have loved this 
charming spot! Many of his writings 
reflect the harmony and beauty of 
nature which he felt, and an atmosphere 
of retirement that reflection upon the 
ultimate issues of life requires. 

As we took a last lingering look from 
the heights and turned to retrace our 
steps, I tried to realize that nearly two 
thousand years had passed since Cicero 
had sojourned there. I thought rever- 
ently of his life; his fine oratory, his 
statesmanship; his finished rhetoric; 
his many and varied works. I remem- 
bered, too, that in his career he had 
known the full gamut of public opinion, 
having been exalted as a god — a "Sav- 
ior of Rome" and having met enmity, 
proscription and death. The villa 
where he lived is gone. The plaintive 
dove coos to her mate; the lark soars 
and sings in the blue above the hills 
he loved; the city of Tusculum, 
strong, prosperous and influential for 
centuries is a ruined waste; but, the 
great scholar's thoughts live on and 
many of his works are no more subject 
to death and decay than are the moun- 
tains or the stars. 



Denver, Colorado. 



[168] 



CURRENT NOTES AND COMMENTS 

An Underground Tomb With I)iiporta)it Fresco Decoration Recently Discovered in 

Rome. 




Medallion, representing different animals feeding near rustic cottages. 
Below probably Ulysses after his return to Ithaca. 

In November 1919, an important archaeological discovery was made in Rome near the Viale 
Manzoni in the Esquihne region, about 300 meters from the Porta Maggiore, where is situated the 
subterranean basilica of which an account was given by Mr. C. Densmore Curtis in Art and 
Archaeology for June 1920. 

As often happens in the case of striking and important archaeological discoveries, this, too, 
was due to chance. During the construction of foimdations for a great auto-garage the workmen 
came upon traces of early walls which were not thought worthy of preser\'ation. During their 
demolition, however, they came upon the vault of an underground room covered with frescoed 
decoration. At this juncture the government Bureau of Excavations took charge of the work 
which was carried out under the direction of the author of the present article. 

The discovery was soon found to be of much more importance than was at first supposed, and 
in a short time the excavators disclosed a spacious room, nearly square in form, with sides 4.50 
meters in length, covered with a vaulted roof in the center of which is a square opening com- 
municating with the outer air. The walls and vault are entirely covered with fresco decoration. 
In the walls on either side of the staircase which gives entrance to this room are arched niches, 
or arcosolia, clear proof that the monument was used as a tomb, and still further evidence is 



[169] 




Fresco with a row of twelve human figures. 



given by the inscription in the mosaic floor, formed of black letters on a white ground and giving 
the name of a certain Aurelius Felicissimiis who dedicated the tomb to others of the same family, 
both brothers and fellow freedmen. 

In the wall opposite the entrance a monumental doorway, built of cut bricks, with tympanum 
and columns, was added at a later period. In its construction one of the arcosolia was destroyed 
and also some of the original frescoes. The door gives access to a descending staircase from which 
one enters into galleries formed as a result of successive enlargements of the tomb, with loculi 
excavated in the tufa as in the catacombs. The entire tomb was plundered in ancient times. 

The most important feature of the discovery consists of the frescoes on the walls of the main 
sepulchral chamber. There we find executed on the low plinth a series of eleven (originally 
twelve) standing male figures each clad in a long robe or pallium, and varying from 1.04 to 1.13 
meters in height (Fig. 2). Some are bearded and some are of younger aspect with smooth face. 
Some hold in the hand a roll or vohimen while others are speaking with animated gestures. The 
preservation of the frescoes is good and shows the skill by means of which the artist with the use 
of but few fines was able to give life and character to his figures. Later research may disclose 
the identity and purpose of the individuals represented, but even now we can without hesitation 
say that this portrait gallery is the most important Roman monument of its kind, and is therefore 
of inestimable value. 

Above the eleven male figures are numerous friezes and lunettes, and above these is the richly 
frescoed vault in which we find four symmetrically arranged medallions each with a representation 
of the "Good Shepherd." Surrounding these are masks, baskets, peacocks and other birds, 
between garlands and other floral motives. On the wall to the left as one enters, within a 
medallion, is represented a bearded sitting man with an open roll in his hands and at his feet a 



[171] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

flock of sheep. In the frieze below is a man on a prancing horse followed by a crowd of persons 
and received near the gate of a city by a procession of citizens. The town is shown in most novel 
manner in a bird's eye view. On the central wall is a crowded assemblage of persons within a 
quadriporticus or forum. On the right as one enters is another medallion with a banquetting 
scene, and a great lunette (Fig. i) in which is skillfully represented a large number of different 
beasts such as oxen, horses, asses, and goats, feeding near several rustic cottages beneath the walls 
of a city which appears in the background. Below the lunette is a scene which probably represents 
Ulysses after his return to Ithaca but before he is recognized by Penelope. In the center is a 
weaver's loom. 

Still another staircase leading to the right from the one descending to the main chamber gives 
access to still another sepulchral room with arcosolia. It has the same orientation as the main 
chamber and is enriched with interesting pictures which are not, however, as important as 
the first described. Figure 3 gives an example of these frescoes and represents the rear wall of an 
arcosolium on which we see a row of twelve human figures. From this room also one can descend 
to 'a still lower gallery which was excavated at a later period and furnished with loculi and frescoed 
arcosolia. 

The date of the tomb is in the second half of the II century A. D., about the time of Marcus 
Aurelius. The meaning of certain of the frescoes is still in doubt. Was it a Christian cemetery? 
Does the series of twelve figures represent the Apostles? The hypothesis most worthy of credence 
is that we have a hypogeum belonging to the members of a Christian but heretic community. 
Wliatever may be the final decision, however, as to the meaning of the different frescoes, it is 
certain that we have in this tomb a most important example of the decorative art of Imperial 
Rome. GoFFREDO Bendinelli, 

Inspector of the Government Excavations, Rome, Italy. 

An Apartment House of One Thousand Rooms. 

Under the above caption. The Boston Evening Transcript, January 22, 1921 gives a full page 
review, with reproductions of 7 illustrations of the Chaco Canyon Double Number of Art 
AND Arch.veology (Jan.-Feb., 1921). 

The writer of the review, Theodore G. Joslin, summarizes the account of the excavation of 
Chettro Kettle by Dr. Hewett, in the opening paragraph as follows: 

"Great community structures and religious sanctuaries, which challenge the admiration 
and constructive ability of our modern civilization, are being slowly unearthed b)' archae- 
ologists operating in what is known today as Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. Centuries 
ago these buildings were occupied by a race which has attained complete obhvion. In 
recent years the desert sands have been swept aside, revealing one wonder after another. 
The greatest wonder of all, however, came to light only a few months ago, when forces 
working at Chettro Kettle, under Edgar L. Hewett, director of the School of American 
Research at Santa Fe, excavated an ancient apartment house containing one thousand 
rooms. In enduring, residential architecture the unknown people who constructed the 
building attained to levels not surpassed by the architects of the ancient world. The 
apartment, which has been entirely buried for centuries, would occupy two average blocks 
if set down in a modern American city. Its great curved front extends for seven hundred 
feet. In its walls are fifty million pieces of quarried stone, not to mention thousands of 
logs, poles and slabs, which were cut in distant forests, transported by man-power, and set 
in their respective p'aces with the aid of implements of stone. The building, archaeologists 
are satisfied, was erected, not by unwilling workers, who labored under the lash of priestly 
or kingly taskmasters, but by a virile people, who took pleasure in what they were doing." 

Annual Meeting of th3 College Art Association. 

The Annual Meeting of the College Art Association of America was held at the Corcoran 
Gallery of Art, Washington, D. C, March 24-26. An account of the papers of especial 
interest to Art and Archaeoi^ogy readers will appear in the next number. 

[172] 



BOOK CRITIQUES 



The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Catalogue 
of Engraved Gems of the Classical Style. By 
Gisela M. A. Richter. New York, iq20. Pp. 
Ixxiv, 2J2. Illustrations and plates. $j.oo. 

This ideal catalogue continues the high 
standard set by Miss Richter's catalogue of the 
Greek, Roman and Etruscan Bronzes and by 
her Handbook of the Classical Collection (see 
Art AND Archaeology, p. Ill, 24; VIII, p. 240). 
It is beautifully printed and beautifully illus- 
trated with eighty-eight plates on which is 
reproduced practically every one of the 464 
gems in the exact size of the original, the more 
important repeated in enlarged form and those 
especially attractive reproduced from enlarged 
drawings. 

Gems have had an interest for collectors 
from the earliest times and even in the ancient 
day as nowadays collectors deposited them in 
temples, which were really museums, for the 
public to enjoy. Scaurus had a cabinet of 
gems. Pompey placed the collection of Mithri- 
dates in the Capitol at Rome. Julius Caesar, 
who was especially fond of collecting gems by 
old engravers, deposited as many as six cabinets 
in the temple of Venus; and many other ex- 
amples might be cited. So it is a pleasure to 
see an old custom revived today and many fine 
private collections going into museums, and we 
hope that the Lewes collection of which Mr. 
Beazley has published a catalogue simul- 
taneously with Miss Richter's catalogue will 
be purchased for a public museum in America. 
Classical gems combine exquisite workmanship 
with beauty of material, and their artistic 
excellence lifts them out of the class of decora- 
tive objects and puts them on a par with the 
products of the higher arts. The study of 
Greek and Roman gems is the study of classical 
art in miniature, since they reflect faithfully 
the styles of the various periods to which they 
belong, giving an accurate picture of the de- 
velopment, prime, and decadence of classical art. 

The Introduction of seventy-five pages gives 
the best short account of ancient gems of which 
I know in English. This supplies a need which 
is not supplied by Beazley's recent catalogue of 
the Lewes collection and makes Miss Richter's 
catalogue much more than a catalogue of the 
Metropolitan collection. It is a good general 
handbook for all interested in the subject of 
gems and because the collection is so repre- 



sentative covers the whole history of art. 
Here can be found an excellent treatment of 
gems as works of art and as seals (I miss a 
reference to Bonner's article on The Use and 
Effect of Attic Seals in Classical Philology III, 
1908, pp. 399-408), of the choice of designs on 
gems, of gems as ornaments, as amulets, of the 
appreciation of gems, of gem engravers, of 
forgeries, of the technique of gem engraving and 
of materials used for ancient gems. 

The Introduction is followed by a bibli- 
ography and a list of collections and then comes 
the catalogue proper arranged according to 
periods from the Minoan to the Post-classical 
of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. 
For the Graeco-Roman, Later Imperial and 
Post-classical periods the gems are divided into 
intaglios and cameos and discussed under such 
subjects as deities, heroes, mythological animals 
and monsters, portraits, scenes from daily life, 
animals, grylloi, objects, symbols, etc. 

The text is extremely accurate, though 
scholars may dispute the genuineness of a few 
of the gems. There are very few misprints. 
Dio Cassius should be Cassius Dio (p. xxi). 
P. XXXV Dexamenusis from Paros; p. xxxviii he 
is from Chios (which is correct). P. xxxix 
the gems of Delon and Sosis are intaglios not 
cameos. P. xlii Nicomacus should be Nicoma- 
chus. P. 37 there is a mistake in the Greek 
word for seal rings quoted from Aristophanes. 
In no. 177 the forms of the letters in the inscrip- 
tion are wrongly given and in no. 345 the last 
letters of the inscription cannot be seen in the 
illustration. P. 54 for the mutilation of limbs 
to prevent vengeance, a reference to Rohde's 
Psyche-, i, p. 326 and especially to Matthies, 
Die Praenestinischcn Spiegel, p. 23 would be 
profitable (cf. ApoUonius Rhodius, Argonaulica 
IV, 477 f.) P. 116 Adriasteia should be 
Adrasteia. D. M. R. 

Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University. Col- 
lection of Mediaeval and Renaissance Paintings. 
Harvard University Press, Cambridge. 

This, the first Fogg Catalogue of early paint- 
ings, is far more than a Catalogue, and sets a 
standard well worthy of emulation by other 
Museums. It represents only one department 
of the Fogg Museum's rich collections, but that 
on which it has laid especial emphasis from the 
start, namely, the gathering of masterpieces of 



[173] 



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Whether applied generously or spar- 
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These painstaking efforts have been rewarded by 

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early religious painting. This volume is con- 
fined to pictures dated before 1700. 

As the catalogue is designed, among other 
purposes, to be a handbook for Harvard and 
Radcliffe students, its plan is an exposition of 
the various historic fchools Reproductions of 
the sixty-seven paintings are divided into 
eleven groups, each with an introduction and 
descriptive matter. Especially deserving of 
mention are the accounts of Byzantine in- 
fluence on later schools by the director Edward 
W. Forbes, that of Florentine painting by 
Arthur Pope, and that of the Sienese School bv 
George H. Edgell. The Umbrian, North 
Italian and Venetian Schools, and Spanish, 
German, French, Flemish and English Painting 
are next discussed in the order mentioned. 
The paintings are described in unusual detail. 
Mention is made of examples of the work of 
each of the painters in other American collec- 
tions, and the bibliographies make it possible 
for the student to pursue the subject to his 
heart's content. Thus the volume is more than 
a mere catalogue or handbook. It is a com- 
prehensive and scholarly treatment of im- 
portant schools of Mediaeval and Renaissance 
Painting based upon the study o;' the examples 
in the Fogg Art Museum. M. C. 

Decorated Wooden Ceilings in Spain. A 
Collection of Photographs and Measured Draw- 
ings with Descriptive Text. By Arthur Byne 
and Mildred Stapley. The Hispanic Society of 
America. G. P. Putnam's Sons. igso. $ij. 
Supplementary Volume of Text bv same authors. 
$1.50. 

This handsome portfolio with the small 
volume of text, on "Decorated Wooden Ceilings 
in Spain," is one of the series of publications 
issued by the Hispanic Society of America, for 
whom G. P. Putnam's Sons are the publishing 
agents. The wooden ceilings of Spain are 
unique in Europe, save for a few Sicilian 
examples dating from the Saracenic occupation, 
and this is the first time that they have been 
presented in collected form. 

The duodecimo volume with its 16 full-page 
il'ustrations, after an introduction giving some 
general facts about ceiling-making, devotes 
single chapters to Mudejar Ceilings (the 
Mudejar style being that evolved by Moorish 
artisans working for Christians) ; the Christian 
Ceiling and its History; Structural Classifi- 
cation; the Renaissance Coffered Ceiling; and 
the Painted Decoration of Ceilings. The 
authentic history of this subject begins with 
tlie Moorish occupation of Spain, and con- 
cludes with the latter part of the sixteenth 
centurv. 



Kindly Mention Art and .ircliaeology. 



[174] 



The Portfolio of Plates contains 56 repre- 
sentative examples, both as to structural form 
and applied decoration, of Spanish Ceilings. 
Patrons and lovers of architecture are greatly 
indebted to the Hispanic Society and the 
publishers for the production of this rare and 
beautiful work, which places a comparatively 
unknown field of art in the reach of all. 

M. C. 

Modern Greek Stories, translated from the 
original by Demetra Vaka and Arislides Phoii- 
trides, with a foreword by Demetra Vaka. 
Duffield Company, New York. ig20. 

"Take Greece to your heart and you will 
feel grandeur quivering within you," says 
Solomos. But it is only the "Glory that was 
Greece" that the world has taken to its heart. 
Byron and the Revolution awoke a momentary 
interest but it remained for Venizelos to make 
us think of Greece in the present tense. Per- 
haps the quickest way to know a people is not 
through history but the contemporary fiction 
which reflects its daily life. Those who have 
had only a traveler's glimpse of the picturesque, 
hospitable peasants among the golden hills of 
Hellas, will be grateful to Demetra Vaka and 
Aristides Phoutrides for the opportunity of 
becoming better acquainted. The "Modern 
Greek Stories" they have translated, tho 
written by Intellectuals, are vivid pictures of 
village life. One story, by Palamas, begins 
with a dedication to his old nurse: "It was 
from your mouth that I heard it first and I 
tried to be just your echo. For when you talk, 
a whole people whispers your words, and tho 
you don't know it, every story you tell is a 
poem of the race." It is interesting to see in 
these modern peasant tales, racial traits of the 
old classics — the poetic personification of 
Nature, and a melancholy sometimes carried to 
the point of fatalism but always lightened by 
the Greek love of beauty and joie de vivre. For 
example, "Sea" by A. Karkarvitsas suggests 
Sing's "Riders to the Sea" in its characteriza- 
tion of the ocean as man's tragic and irresistible 
fate. But there is none of the gray Celtic gloom 
in the Greek tale. The young sailor knows 
that the Sea "has no faith or mercy, " that her 
call may mean death. But she comes to him as 
his first sweetheart, to lure him from home and 
human love, he sees her as "a young bride, 
clothed in blue, young, glad and tenderly;" 
he remembers the touch of her waters "like 
warm kisses;" he hears her call, "Come! come!" 
And he goes to his fate with joy as well as 
regret. AnxE Charlotte_D.\rlington. 








■^ 



^XFORD books and Oxford 
scholarship are synony- 
mous. All bookmen know 
this and unhesitatingly recom- 
mend them, confident that the 
reader will be pleased. 

cA selection of Aose recently issued. 

HELLENISTIC SCULPTURE 

"By Guy Dickins fiet ^8.00 

A scholarly monograph, beautifully illust- 
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MEDALS OF THE RENAISSANCE 
■By G. F. Hill "^et ^25.00 

Covers the entire field of medallic art in 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, valu- 
able alike as a reference work and for its 
fine illustrations which figure for the most 
part pieces not previously illustrated. 

MOSLEM ARCHITECTURE 

% G. T. RivoiRA ^^H^t ^21.00 

A pioneer work describing the develop- 
ment of the Mosque in Syria, Egypt, 
Armenia and Spain from its birth down 
to the twelfth century. 158 plates. 

HISTORICAL PORTRAITS 
1400-1850 

'By C. R. Fletcher 4 vols. ^22.60 

A splendid collection of 49 1 portraits by 
masters of all periods selected by Mr. Emery 
Walker, with an interesting biographical 
sketch of each subject. 

RAJPUT PAINTING 

'By Ananda Coomaraswamy 

2 vols. "^V^e/? 126.00 

Probably the greatest work on the subject, 
with a large number of exceptionally fine 
plates many of which are in color 

INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH 
CHURCH ARCHITECTURE 

'By Francis Bond 2 vols, "^t ^25.00 K]f 

A standard work covering the subject 
from the eleventh to the sixteenth centuries 
with upwards of 1400 illustrations. 

A HISTORY OF FINE ART IN 
INDIA AND CEYLON 

'By V. A. Smith ^38.00 

The result of a lifetime of study both 
from the archaeological as well as the art 
point of view with nearly 400 illustrations. 

c4t all booksellers or from the publishers. 

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The Leopard Prince. A Romance of Venice 
in the Fourteenth Century at the Period of the 
Bosnian Conspiracy. By Nathan Gallizier. 
The Page Company. Boston, igzo. 

This is an historical romance of Venice, the 
Queen of the Adriatic, beginning with the year 
1355. of which the central figure is the Prince of 
Lepanto, Zuan Costello, known as the Leopard 
Prince from his coat of arms, a dramatic hero 
who combats the conspiracy headed by Lucio 
Strozzi to betray Venice to the Ban of Bosnia 
and Louis of Hungary. The "eternal triangle " 
is completed with the two heroines, Fulvia the 
young wife of the Leopard Prince, and the 
Princess Yaga, secret emissary of the Ban of 
Bosnia. The author gives a vivid picture of the 
artistic splendor and autocratic government of 
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interest because the author has chosen scenes 
for his story which figured in the World War. 

Modern European History by Button Webster. 
D. C. Heath Co. ig20. 

This school text book of Modern European 
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the manner in which the author has set forth 
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{(\ 



Volume XI 



MAY, 1921 



Number 5 



EDITOR-IN-CHIEF 
WILLIAM H HOLMES 

BOARD OF EDITORS 

Virgil Bareer 
Howard Crosby Butler 
Charles Upson Clark 

Albert T. Clay 

Charles T. Currelly 

H. R. Fairclough 

Edgar L- Hewbtt 

Morris Jastrow 

FiSKE Kimball 

David M. Robinson 

Helen Wright 




DIRECTOR AND EDITOR 
MITCHELL CARROLL 

BOARD OF MANAGERS 

Frank Springer. Chairman 

J. Townsend Russell. Vice-Chair man 

James C. Egbert 

Ex-officio as President of the Institute 

BuRwELL S. Cutler 

John B. Larnbr 

Charles Colfax Long 

Dan Fellows Platt 



CONTENTS 

THE ARTS OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA. 

Planned and Edited by Ales Hrdlicka. 
Art in Czechoslovakia Ales Hrdlicka . . . 179 

Folk Art . Karel Chotek .... 185 

Twenty-six Illustrations 

Architecture Oldrich Heidrich . . 199 

Three Illustrations 

Sculpture Oldrich Heidrich . . 207 

Four Illustrations 

Painting Ales Hrdlicka . . .213 

Six Illustrations ' 

Current Notes and Comments 221 

Two Illustrations 

Book Critiques 223 



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Copyright. i92i.bv the Archaeological Institute qf America 




u 



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< 



ART dnS. 

ARCHAEOLOGY 

The Arts Throughout the Ages 



Volume XI 



MAY, 1921 



Number 5 



ART IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA 

Introduction bv Ales Hrdlicka. 



IN vSPEAKING of Art among mod- 
ern peoples of the white stock, we can 

hardly do so any more in the com- 
prehensively subjective sense and say 
American, or English, or even French, 
Russian or Czechoslovak Art; it is, 
rather, art in America, England, France 
Russia, Czechoslovakia. The pristine 
time, when a people such as the Egyp- 
tians, Assyrians or Greeks, could de- 
velop an art realm of their own, is past, 
and the more modern nations must be 
content with a more or less secondary 
role . For art , however broadly we take 
it, is after all limited. It is limited by 
our resources, but especially by the 
scope of our senses and our intellect. 
Once the available field is fairly covered 
and the main possibilities have been 
utilized, there remains not much more 
for art than amplification and refine- 
ment. Later historic nations develop 
details, styles, peculiarities, "schools," 
but, in the main, upon already well 
known principles. 

However, as each people differs more 
or less in mentality from all others, so 
will their art differ. Given the same 

[179] 



ideological proposition, no two scholars 
will achieve the same literary produc- 
tion, and the same applies to art and to 
nations. It is thus that art in America 
will some day be shaded "American," 
that art in France is tinged by some- 
thing distinctly "French," and that art 
in Czechoslovakia has acquired and 
is developing the flavor of "Czecho- 
slovak," which might be difficult to 
define in so many words, but which is 
well appreciated by those of developed 
art knowledge and sense in other 
countries. 

Artistic tendencies are inborn in all 
peoples, they are a pan-human quality, 
but they differ from group to group in 
volume, warmth, color, directions and 
effects. Again, as with individuals, 
there are peoples in whom artistic 
tendencies on the whole are poorly de- 
veloped, or at best remain quite sec- 
ondary to the routine mental manifesta- 

NoTE. — The Bohemian alphabet has a number of 
letters not occurring in English ; they are pronounced as 
follows: c=ch in "child"; s = shin "she"; z =j in "jour" 
or z in" azure ;"ch=ch in "Nacht";and r, which can 
be approached by the combination of "rzh." The 
accent ' makes the letter long. \'owels are all pro- 
nounced full, as in continental Latin. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



tions, the routine life ; in others they are 
well represented in the mental complex, 
but yield readily to a cool coordination 
with the rest of the intellectual pur- 
suits ; and then there are those in whom 
the love of beauty, of form, of live color, 
of sound, of rhythm, are of the strongest 
life attributes, and in whom art in some 
form or other is a constant efflorescence, 
at the expense even sometimes of the 
more utilitarian functions. These are 
the favored of the Muses, to whom ap- 
preciation and love of beauty in its 
whole gamut are soul essentials. Such 
people create in art, and in all directions 
where creation is still possible; with 
nature's tools they embellish and intone 
more sober natuie, and if general con- 
ditions are not forbidding, they give 
from their plentiful cup to the rest of the 
world; they produce painters, sculptors, 
architects, musicians of world reputa- 
tion. 

The Czechoslovaks must belong 
somewhere near this last category of 
peoples. With the rest of the Slavs they 
are people of sentiment, of natural and 
pious idealism, of predominating love 
of beauty in all its forms. Their 
villages blossom irrepressibly with folk 
art ; their cities reflect the best arts of 
modern Europe; while music, a higher 
than ordinary music, from ancient 
poetic folk song to modern powerful 
hymns and opera, pervades everything. 
As a witness to their riches in just one 
direction — there is now in press a col- 
lection of their folk chants, to the 
number of twenty thousand. They 
have given the world, notwithstanding 
their relatively small numbers and their 
debacle during the Thirty Years' War, 
with the subsequent three paralyzing 
centuries under Austrian subjection, 
many a composer, musician, painter and 
others in art, not to speak of poetry and 
literature, of more than local and in 



some cases of truly world reputation. 
Names like Dvorak, Smetana, Fibbich, 
Sevcik, Kubelik, Destinn, Manes, 
Brozik, Mucha and others are well 
known wherever art is cherished. 

The innate qualities of the Czecho- 
slovaks in relation to art are an in- 
heritance of the far past, and have their 
source doubtless in the original Slav 
stock from which these tribes during the 
earlier part of the first millenium b. c. 
began to separate. In the course of 
their subsequent existence however, the 
Czechs in all lines of intellectual pur- 
suits are subjected to considerable out- 
side influences, especially in Bohemia; 
but the effects of these influences may 
always be traced and discounted. They 
merely give another direction now and 
then, and usually a general impetus, to 
the art pursuits in the country. There 
are noticeable in Bohemia in turn strong 
Byzantine, Roman, Dutch, Italian, as 
well as French and German influences. 
These influences introduce the classic 
styles and modernized art, and at times 
prevail; in the end, however, their 
results are essentially always but a 
stimulation and strengthening of the 
native qualities; the new is largely as- 
similated rather than grafted on. As 
soon as the pressure of circumstances 
relaxes, the native artists, the native- 
bred art begin to reassert themselves. 
Moreover the foreign influences remain 
limited to the cities and their spheres of 
influence — the country, in the main, 
remains as it was. That there was 
never respite enough, outside of folk art, 
fully to develop the native tendencies, 
was wholly a matter of the vicissitudes 
to which the country was subjected. 

The history of art in Czechoslovakia 
may be roughly divided into (i) the 
Early Historic; (2) the Mediaeval; and 
(3) the Modern. The Early period is 
that before the Christianization of the 

[180] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



rulers of Bohemia in 874 ; the Mediaeval 
may well be conceived to begin with the 
year 874 and to end with the Thirty 
Years' War and the long prostration 
that followed it; while the Modern 
period, though beginning properly with 
the commencing reawakening of the 
nation towards the end of the XVIII, 
does not actually set in before the 
middle of the XIX century. 

The art of the Early Historic period 
was the Czechoslovak art proper; but 
it was perishable art which left little if 
anything to posterity, except in sur- 
vivals. It was the art of the frame 
dwelling, of the carved statue of the 
pagan deity, of possibly some carved or 
painted utensils and furniture, and of 
the woven, embroidered or painted 
decoration. There was also some art 
in pottery, weapons and jewelery, but 
this was probably less truly native, and 
belongs also more to the field of archae- 
ology. There were surely abundant 
folk dances and folk songs with poetry 
and mimicry. Survivals of much of 
this can be traced, and that in wide 
distribution, to this day, but records are 
very fragmentary. 

The christening of the Czech Duke 
Bofivoj in 874, by the Macedonian 
apostles, Cyril and Methodius, which 
was soon followed by the Christianiza- 
tion of the whole nation, makes a sharp 
boundary in art development. Under 
Byzantine and then Byzantine-Roman 
influence, characteristic church and 
later on monastery and convent struc- 
tures arise, remnants of which may be 
found in Czechoslovakia to this day; 
and architecture is soon followed by 
church painting, sculpture and carving. 
In the course of time as cities grow there 
is also a development of lay architec- 
ture with decoration and artistic work 
in metals. The Dukes and then Kings, 
the nobles, the wealthy merchants, 

[181] 



foster art in all directions. Where 
native training does not suffice, they 
call in temporarily renowned architects 
and other artists from other countiies. 
The transitional or old, and then the 
true Gothic, follow upon the Byzantine 
and Roman, exerting a profound and 
widespread influence. Prague the 
capital, other large cities and the 
country, become studded with re- 
markable churches, castles and man- 
sions, many of which (seme still well 
preserv^ed, some in ruins) exist to this 
day in the "hundred-towered" city 
above the Vltava and elsewhere in 
Bohemia. And the smaller towns, then 
as later, reflect the prevailing art in the 
fafades of their houses, in their roofs, 
their causeways and ceilings, their 
furniture, and in other particulars. 
Even the better class of rural houses 
show the changing tendencies. The 
prosperous period of art lasts from the 
XIII to the XV century. The time of 
Karel IV (1333-1378), in particular, is 
the " golden age " of art in all branches, 
in what then represented the Czech 
countries. 

The XV century, however, brings a 
serious reversion. It is the time of the 
stern spirit of early Reformation, and 
engenders the terrible Hussite wars 
(141 9-1436) which are attended with 
vast destruction. Many of the castles 
are ruined, churches burned, much in 
all forms of art destroyed, and but little 
constructed. 

The main work for many decades 
after the Hussite wars is that of 
repairs. With the gradual advent of 
more peaceful times Art, however, 
reasserts itself, and that with the so- 
called Vladislavian or late Gothic, and 
then with the Renaissance (15 10 on- 
ward) ; and also in illumination. But 
the nation never fully recovers. It is 
beset with increasing internal as well as 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



external difficulties of religious and 
political nature, which forcibly pre- 
occupy the minds and which eventually, 
in 1620, culminate in the abrogation of 
Bohemia's independence, in the scourge 
of the Thirty Years' War, the exile of 
nearly thirty thousand of the best 
Czech families, the systematic destruc- 
tion under Jesuit- Austrian guidance of 
the literature of the "rebel," "heretic" 
people, with a vast loss of life and ma- 
terial ruination. 

It is long after the Thirty Years' War 
that Art in the Czechoslovak countries 
really begins again to prosper, and little 
wonder that once more it is the subject 
at first of considerable outside assist- 
ance, favored by the enriched enemies 
whom indebted Austria has rewarded at 
Bohemia's expense. Only slowly do the 
innate qualities of the people begin again 
to reassert themselves. Some of the 
damage is repaired and some new work 
furthered. The baroque and rococo, 
introduced by the now dominant Cath- 
olic church, are adopted, and are greatly 
modified into more pleasing forms 
which gain a wide dispersion. History, 
literature, poetry, painting, especially 
painting al fresco, and sculptuie begin 
again to be cultivated. But on the 
whole, the nation is recuperating, and 
preparing for its future cultural as well 
as political liberation. 

The Revival or jSIodern art period is 
delayed until the XIX centur>^ When 
it finally comes, it is characterized in 
Bohemia as everywhere by a variety 
and mixture of styles, with adaptation 
to modern requirements and resources. 
Painting, which hitherto has been 
almost wholly church, portrait cr 
decorative and ilknninative painting, 
extends now predominantly into the 
natural and humane spheres, to cul- 
minate in the beautiful wall paintings 
of Zenisek and Ales in the National 



Theatre, the ^sceneries of Mafak, the 
portraits of Svabinsky, the exquisite 
sketches of Marod, and the great 
historic tableaux of Brozik and Mucha. 
The old "Fraternity of Painters," 
established in 1348, is succeeded (1796) 
by the "Association of Friends of Art," 
which exists to this day. Art work in 
metals and carving rejuvenates, only 
however almost to yield later to modern 
machinery. Sculpture assumes a 
healthy, virile progress, and has reached 
already some striking composites, such 
as Palacky's, St. Vaclav's and the Jan 
Hus monuments in Prague. 

Aroused by Manes the national 
spirit finds increasing favor and for a 
time it seems as if at last it would be 
permitted to develop fully — when at the 
very end of the century it is temporarily 
no doubt, but seriously blighted once 
more by the "official," made-to-order, 
art "regulations" of Austria. Austria, 
increasingly jealous of its provinces, 
and controlling absolutely all art as well 
as other instruction, abuses its position 
for the introduction of regulations 
which do away on the part of the Czech 
art scholars with national originality or 
tendency, replacing it forcibly by a 
banal, cold art of the Austrian "em- 
pire." This results in a progeny of 
"ex-nationalists" whose art is out of 
sympathy wich the warm national Slav 
tendencies. Only the masters have 
escaped, but their whole example and 
influence, as well as time, will be re- 
quired for undoing the harm done. 
Austria has left to Czechoslovakia 
many a burden of malheritage, of which 
that in Art is not the least. 

Notwithstanding all, to-day Art in 
every branch, in the purely aesthetic as 
well as in the applied and the industrial 
arts, is once more fully alive in Czecho- 
slovakia, and as in the past so now, it is 
willingly or unwillingly modifying the 



[182] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



foreign, the weak " internationalistic " 
and the abnormal " hypermodern " ten- 
dencies, in accordance with the inherent 
poetic, sensitive individuahsm of the 
people. If times are propitious, a rapid 
and fruitful development in all lines 




Example of native ceramics — the plate on right 
from 1770. In front, a dishful of "kraslice" 
— Easter eggs decorated by country girls. 



may confidently be predicted, and it will 
not be long before, in painting and 
sculpture particularly, the Czecho- 
slovak artists may give to the art world 
new classics, radiating the pure spirit 
of the nation's individuality. 

Czechoslovakia is rich in art instruc- 
tion, and rich in museums devoted ex- 
clusively or partly to Art. It is a 
country of museums, for there are over 
350 of these scattered over the larger 
and smaller cities, and established 
mainly for the preservation of local folk 
art and artistic antiquities. At the 
head of these stand the Modern Art 



National and Ethnographic Museums 
in Prague, and the vState Museum of 
Moravia in Brno. As to art schools, 
Prague has the Academy of Arts, the 
Schools of Architecture and Industiial 
Arts, the Conservatorium of Music, 
and a vSchool for Organ Music; in 
addition to which there are the Govern- 
ment School for Sculpture, the Govern- 
ment School for Ceramics, a Govern- 
ment School for Arts in Metal, a School 
for Art Industries in Bronze, etc., and 
additional ceramic schools also in other 
large cities. Besides which Czecho- 
slovak students are to be found in all the 
most renowned art schools in Europe. 

America itself is not wholly a stranger 
to Czechoslovak art, even if we omit 
music. There are several of Brozik's 
pictures in this country ; there are now 
being exhibited here a series of those of 




A painted linen chest from a village in Moravia. 



Mucha ; and there exist here already a 
number of noted young native-born or 
Gallery with the older Art Gallery naturalized painters and sculptors of 
"Rudolfinum," in Prague, the Art In- Czechoslovak derivation. 

dustrial Museum in the same citV, the U. S. National Museum, Smilhsonian Institulion. 



[183] 




>.ORTHERN' I:i.o\-.\kia: a villagt; house with decorated gable. 



FOLK ART 
By Professor Karel Chotek, 

In charge of the Ethnographic Museum, Prague. 



pOLK ART, it is now generally re- 
cognized, deserves a much greater 
attention by artists and art students 
than it has been receiving, for as far as 
it goes it is a faithful index of the men- 
tal qualities and endowments of the 
respective peoples. 

Folk art of Czechoslovakia, though 
as yet but little known outside of its 
boundaries, is of the richest and most 
interesting in the whole of Europe ; and 
it is interesting not only from the 
standpoint of antiquity and local dif- 
ferentiations, but also from that of the 
results of various influences which, in 
the course of time, have affected its 
evolutions. 

These influences relate, in the first 
place, to the nature of the habitat of 
the Czech population. Their territory 
is long and narrow. From its western- 
most portion, Bohemia, which forms 
the heart of Europe, it stretches far 
eastward along the southern slopes of 
the Carpathians. In western parts 
the people were surrounded by other 
neighbors than the eastern, and the 
cultural differences of these neighbors 
were of a radically different nature. 
Bohemia and Moravia, since the be- 
ginning of their history, were in con- 
stant contact and struggle with the 
Germanic tribes, while eastern Czecho- 
slovakia, the home of the Slovaks, had 
for its neighbors the Carpathian Slavs, 
the Rumanians and the Magyars — 
groups of different culture from that of 
the Germans. Even the natural en- 
vironment of the two main parts of 
the territory is not the same. The 
western portion is represented by two 
well-defined basins — the Bohemian and 
the Moravian — while the eastern por- 

[1851 



tion, bounded by mountains on the 
north and facing openly towards the 
south, is marked by a series of cross 
valleys which divide it naturally into 
a series of small districts. 

In addition the internal political 
conditions of the two main portions of 
the territory differed for many centu- 
ries. While Bohemia and Moravia con- 
stituted, up to the XVII century, a 
kingdom of their own whose history 
was deeply interwoven with that of 
Europe in general, the land of the 
Slovaks succumbed in the X century 
to the Magyars and constituted since, 
until the termination of the World War, 
a part of Hungary. 

It may well be expected that dif- 
ferences of such a weighty nature could 
not but have had an important bearing 
on the life of the two portions of the 
Czechoslovak people and their culture ; 
and it is interesting to observe how the 
originally homogeneous tribes reacted 
to these agencies. 

The western portion of the nation, 
the Czechs, subjected since the earliest 
time to all the cultural influence of 
western Europe, has come to reflect 
these in its folk as well as professional 
arts. Thus, it is possible for us to see 
in the Czech folk art now the spiiit of 
Renaissance, now that of Baroque, 
Rococo, Empire, etc. This, however, 
does not mean a mere thoughtless imi- 
tation. On the contrary, the new styles 
were absorbed and made to subserve 
the native needs and tendencies. They 
assisted without changing the native 
artist. 

In the more eastern parts of Czecho- 
slovakia on the other harrd, where the 
intense political and cultural currents 




Bohemia: A frame house in a village, showing influence of the baroque style. 




Bohemia: A strongly built large mIUik"-- 'l»t 




Carved chairs, from rural Bohemia and Moravia. 



were felt much less, the folk ait re- 
mained in a large part faithful to its 
old Slav traditions; and its neighbors, 
Slav, or with a considerable Slav blood 
in their composition, tend in the main 
only to sustain it in these lines. That 
there is no intellectual passiveness or 
inferiority is best seen from the fact 
that these regions gave Czechoslovakia 
already a whole line of noted writers 
and artists. 

The differences, of course, are no- 
where sudden, but show gradual transi- 
tions. Even in a detailed study of the 
various units of native art, it is impos- 
sible to find any definite boundaries. 
The central portion of the territory, 
comprising a large part of Moravia, 
forms a broad transitional belt between 
the west and east. Its folk art shows 
many archaic motives, and many con- 
nections with the more eastern regions, 
but it also shows many reminders of the 
historic and western styles, especially 
the renaissance and baroque. The 
ethnic unity of the Czechoslovak people 
is, however, still indicated everywhere 
by the sameness of fundamentals, which 
increase in numbers and clearness as 
we proceed backward. 



Before the separate lines of the 
Czechoslovak folk art are approached, 
it may be well to say a few words as to 
regional distribution. This, fortunately, 
is still possible, though many of the 
western parts of the country are already 
quite modernized. It is possible, 
through the fact that every larger, and 
many even of the smaller towns in 
Czechoslovakia, has its own museum in 
which folk art finds the foremost repre- 
sentation; in addition to which, there 
are a number of important private 
collections. This permits us to recog- 
nize that in Bohemia there existed 
about five distinct territories of folk 
art. They were that of the centre, 
not only the most fertile part of 
Bohemia but also the district con- 
taining the capital; and the northern, 
western, southern and eastern regions. 
To the western district we may add the 
southwest, in and near the Bohemian 
Potest, the only place in Bohemia where 
the native dress still fully survives and 
is worn as a sign of national and local 
pride. This is the territory of the tribe 
of Chods, the age-long defenders and 
guardians of the important Sumava 
passes against German invaders. 

[188] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



In Moravia, the distribution of the 
main varieties of folk art follows the 
old tribal boundaries which are better 
preserved than in Bohemia. As in 
Bohemia, there may also here be dis- 
tinguished four or five folk art regions. 

As to Slovakia, which comprises the 
eastern lands, there is no tribal dif- 
ferentiation, but a series of geographi- 
cal cultural districts. In fact, each 
valley here constitutes a native cul- 
tural district of its own. They all, 
however, may be grouped into four 
large areas: the northern, or Carpa- 
thian; the western, extending into 
Moravia ; the central and southern ; and 
the easternmost, which already shows 
a considerable Russian influence. How- 
ever, the creative spirit of the people 
is such that hardly two villages in the 
better preserved regions show art of 
exactly the same nature. 

And new as to a few details. 

The student of Czechoslovak folk 
art, whether a stranger or a native, 
can not but soon be forcibly impressed 
by the extraordinary natural art en- 
dowments of the rural people, as well 
as by their originality. They receive 
nothing, even of their predecessors or 
friends, without impressing upon it 
their own character and elaborating it 
in their own manner. There is no mere 
imitation, but always more or less crea- 
tion. Aloreover, they are always logical 
and in harmony with their conditions 
and environment. In studying district 
after district and locality after locality, 
it will be seen even in the same cultural 
territory, that definite variations stand 
in direct relation with the material con- 
dition of the people and with their en- 
vironment . Thus, in the richer districts 
the folk art will be not only more profuse 
but usually also richer in brighter 
tones; while in the poorer districts it 
is less abundant as well as more sober. 

[189] 




A painted wardrobe from Northern Bohemia; 
the work of a village artisan. 

Another striking quality, apparent 
everywhere, is good taste. It is safe to 
say, except where modern industrial 
conditions have unfavorably affected 
the people, we shall never find an object 
lacking in taste. The student will often 
be surprised by the venturesomeness in 
the arrangements of the native dress, 
in the figures of the ornamentation, and 
especially in the choice of colors; but 
the results are never eccentric or vulgar. 
Even in the choice of colors, the 
innate love of color is never misused. 

In addition, one becomes conscious of 
another constant phenomenon, which is 
the absence of all effort at cheap effect. 
On the contrary, there are found in the 
older pieces, and in the always deeper 
and more serious work of the mountain 
people, decorations so fine and thorough 
that they cannot be viewed but in ad- 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



miration. An aversion to superficiality 
and looseness, together with a sort of 
artistic modesty, are traits met all over. 
In connection with the above stands 
frequently a high technical skill in the 
execution of the various decorations. 
This is shown especially in the laces and 
embroideries. In both of these lines 
the Czechoslovak folk art offers not 
only all the known variations, but also 
some that are not known elsewhere in 
Europe. Occasionally, the skill rises 
to the degree of virtuosity, and we see 
plainly that the woman has intention- 
ally chosen the most difficult work just 
to pride herself with her cleverness. 
An example or two will suffice. In the 
western parts of Bohemia it is the fash- 
ion to embroider with silk of one color ; 
but the worker again and again will 
endeavor to pile the stitches so as to 
give the figures a beautiful plastic or re- 
lief effect. Another exquisite but labo- 
rious process is the so-called "knot" 
(allied to "French knot") embroidery, 
by which the surface of the cloth is 
covered with fine knotted stitches 
slightly different in color from the 
base fabric, leaving among them lines 
which constitute a fine and complicated 
pattern. In such embroideries, the 
beauty of the ornamentation and the 
difficulties that have to be overcome 
can often be appreciated only by a 
detailed inspection. In the eastern 
parts of Czechoslovakia the women 
excel in native forms of the so-called 
au jour embroidery, producing pieces 
up to three yards in length by one-half 
broad with rich figures. As an acme 
of technique, it may be mentioned 
that in some distiicts even the very 
finest patterns are embroidered from 
the obverse. And it is necessary 
to add that all this is done by women 
of the people who are not formally in- 
structed in these arts and who in Slo- 



vakia, at least, often grow up without 
the influence of even common schooling ; 
and that their artistic work has often to 
be done in the sparse whiles of freedom 
from hard farm and household work. 

We may now approach some of the 
special applications of the Czecho- 
slovak folk art. In the first place 
should be named the dwelling. The 
fundamental type of dwelling is the 
type of central Europe in general. For 
the most part, the house is of but one 
story, and subdivided into three rooms 
besides the antechamber — the kitchen, 
the living room and the store room. 
In richer districts and with better social 
conditions of the owners, the living 
rooms may be more numerous, and the 
house may rise to another story above 
the ground floor. The building material 
is both wood and stone. In the richer 
districts, the house, as a rule, is of stone ; 
in the mountain districts it is almost in- 
variably of wood. The details show 
many characteristic features. The 
country builder worked essentially in 
the spirit of native culture, and his 
motives for detail and ornamentation 
were generally taken from the native art. 

In the line of rural stone houses the 
most interesting are those of the central 
district of Bohemia. The palatial 
architecture of Prague did not remain 
without a considerable influence on the 
country styles, and it is exceedingly 
interesting to note how the rural builder 
was often able ingeniously to adapt or 
incorporate the styles he saw in the 
palaces and mansions of the capital to 
the country constructions on which he 
was engaged. As a result there may be 
found in the central districts of Bohe- 
mia, and even beyond, a whole series of 
handsome houses reflecting the Re- 
naissance, baroque, rococo or Empire 
styles. In Moravia and Bohemia the 
influence of these western European 

[190] 




upper: A man from southern Slovakia on a holiday. 

Lower: Type of a young country woman in ordinary 
dress, Bohemia. 



Upper: A woodsman of the Carpathians on Sunday. 
The broad heavy leather belt serves as a protection. 

Lower: A young Moravian woman on Sunday. 



X 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 




A Slovak woman in her finery, from the vicinity 
of Bratislava (Pressburg). 

styles is much less; and the stone house, 
in consequence, is in general much 
simpler. But the simplicity of the 
architecture in these territories is often 
compensated for by the external as 
well as internal painted ornamentation. 
There may be noted a universal en- 
deavor to beautify the simple walls, 




Kmbroideries from western Slovakia. 

especially about the doors and windows. 
All this painted ornamentation is the 
work of the ordinary countrywoman, 
who imitates her friends and creates 
here as she does in her embroideries; 
and it is very interesting to note how in 




Man's shirt richly embroidered with yellow silk, 
western Slovakia. 



fl94] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



some cases the fine patterns of embroid- 
ery may be adapted or applied to the 
room and the dwelhng. 

The wooden houses are even more 
interesting than those of stone. They 
are by no means Hmited to the small 
simple mountain dwelling, but the type 
may be found occasionally even in the 
multiple structures of large estates. 
Such a cluster of dwellings, with per- 
haps a two-story main house, reminds 
one somewhat of the ancient wooden 
fortresses. This variety of archi- 
tecture, which today is rapidly giving 
way to more modern conditions, carries 
much more than the stone house the 
imprint of the native spirit. Except 
among the very poor, the wooden 
dwelling is highly decorated. It is 
picturesque, partly on account of its 
general plan and its main details, but 
also because it usually shows parts 
where the village artisan endeavored 
especially to show his taste and in- 
genuity. This is particularly so in the 
gables where, by an artistic combina- 
tion of painted and carved laths, there 
are produced nice geometrical figures. 
On the gables, also, are found various 
ornamental inscriptions, usually ex- 
pressing the seriousness and deep piety 
of the people. Furthermore, there are 
various porches of more or less carved 
wood, frequently decorated also in 
colors, and supported by nicely modeled 
posts. The doors and the windows 
are also often surrounded by carvings 
or paintings. It is interesting to note 
that this frame architecture, which in 
these countries is much older than 
architecture in stone, shews many 
similarities and identities from one end 
of the Czechoslovak territories to the 
other, pointing to the original identity 
of the people. 

A special chapter might be devoted 
in this place to the old wooden churches. 

[195] 



They are scattered all over the Czecho- 
slovak territory. In Bohemia they 
reflect mostly the various styles that 
changed Bohemian architecture in gen- 
eral; but in vSlovakia they show onh' 
the earliest Byzantine influence. There 
may, also, be included in this category 
some of the small wooden castles. 
Modern architecture in Czechoslovakia 
appreciates highly the native art, and is 
utilizing its motiveson many occasions. 

If the building of the houses received 
so much care, it is natural that it was 
even more so with the finishing of the 
interior. The ornamentation of the 
interiors consists especially of painting. 
This is again all done by the women ; 
the vSlovak women, in particular, deco- 
rate whole sections of the interior with 
bright ornaments. These ornaments 
are always tasteful, not loud, and in- 
crease greatly the coziness of the dwell- 
ing. They are painted freehand, with- 
out any preliminary pattern. And 
these interiors are harmoniously fur- 
nished with more or less carved, painted 
or inlaid furniture. In the west, and 
among the well-to-do, the furnituie is 
essentially of hardwood with a rich 
inlay or rich decoration in paint. The 
more usual native furniture is generally 
brightly colored and decorated with 
figures. In the east, the painted fur- 
niture is usually more simple. 

To supplement the house decoration, 
some of the young women add, on 
holidays when weather conditions are 
propitious, a form of sand painting in 
front of the dwelling. Tasteful scrolls 
or figures are laid out in different col- 
ored sands and the colors are freshened 
by water. 

As is natural, however, the greatest 
variety and ingenuity of nativ^e art 
is manifested in the dress. The various 
fabrics and articles of dress give not 
only ample opportunity for decoration, 












Southern Bohemia: Embroidered head kerchief. 



but also they are made at home by each 
individual owner and afford the great- 
est field for individual variation. 

The dress offers for consideration, on 
the one hand, the general composi- 
tion or style, and on the other the spe- 
cial ornamentation of its parts, par- 
ticularly in embroideries and laces. 
In both, there may be noted in Czecho- 
slovakia regional differences of which 
we have already spoken. In the cen- 
tral parts of Bohemia, the dress of the 
country people has already approached, 
very considerably, that of the city peo- 
ple which is cosmopolitan; but even 
here we see that the countryman, and 
particularly the countrywoman, are 
not satisfied with a mere adaptation, 
but that they modify the city dress in 
many interesting details, which on the 
one hand serve practical purposes and 
on the other demonstrate the innate 
artisljic taste of the people. The fur- 



ther we go from the capital and the 
other large cities, the weaker the mod- 
em influence becomes, and the more 
frequently we may note the presence 
of the native elements, which in general 
show a fundamental similarity with 
those of the largely rural and least 
affected eastern parts of Bohemia. As 
we proceed into Moravia and then into 
Slovakia, the variety of native dress and 
native art in dresses increases, to 
reach a climax in the more eastern parts 
of Slovakia, where every little valley 
has its own style, every village its own 
taste in dress. There are even instances 
where the Catholics and the Protestants 
living in the same village have each a 
native style of dress of their own. 

The main decorative elements of the 
dress are the embroideries and the laces. 
Bohemian embroideries are in the 
main white and marked by fine tech- 
nique. If the patterns or figures are 

[196] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 




Embroidered winter coat, western Slovakia. 

colored, as they are exceptionally, 
they are as a rule in one color. Many- 
colored embroideries are found only 
along the outskirts of Bohemia, par- 
ticularly in the north and in the south. 
The products of both of these regions 
show much similarity with the multi- 
colored embroideries of Moravia. 
Richly colored embroideries, however, 
are found in Slovakia. Here the 
countrywomen have reached sucn per- 
fection in geometric as well as curved 
line ornamentation, and such art in the 
selection of colors, that they exceed in 
these points anything else to be found 




in Europe. The local museums pre- 
serve many examples of dresses showing 
how the choice and combination of 
colors has intentionally produced a 
special "tone" to the attire. Thus, 
there are dresses for a cheerful and 
dresses for a sad effect — just as we have 
among the same people cheerful and 
sad folk songs. 

Lace is common throughout the 
Czechoslovak territory and, in its best 




An example of native Czechoslovak ceramic. 



Native ceramics in Slovakia. 

examples, reaches the limits of techni- 
cal perfection. This, of course, does 
not apply to the commercial lace- 
making of northern Bohemia which is 
regulated by the nature of demand. 
A specialty to be mentioned are the 
native multi-colored Slovak laces. 

A component part of the folk art of 
Czechoslovakia is also the native deco- 



[197] 




VariouN kitchen utensils nf wood ciecorated with carvings. 



rated ceramic. The ornamental plates 
and pitchers are of course not made by 
the people at large but by native potters 
in the small towns; their ornamenta- 
tion, however, is that of the people in 
whose territory they are produced, and 
the better pieces form a part of the 
interior decorations of the dwellings. 

A real high-class specialty of Czecho- 
slovak folk art is that of the so-called 
"kraslice" ("beauties") or decorated 
Easter eggs. Every country girl takes 
pride in decorating her own Easter 
eggs, which are to be used as valued 
gifts, and chooses her own designs and 
color. A variety of ingenious methods 
is used for the decoration, such as en- 
graving, etching, painting, etc., and 
many of the best class products are 
genuine works of art. 

Finally, mention should be made of 
the flowers which, in season, decorate 
everywhere the windows, and which 
serve for both the satisfaction and in- 



spiration of the art sense of these folk 
to whom beauty means so much. 

This brief survey shows that folk art 
in Czechoslovakia is, in general, both 
highly represented and highly de- 
veloped. It belongs unquestionably 
among the most important similar 
manifestations in Europe. Its princi- 
ples, which are the principles of Slav 
folk art in general, are reflected in the 
art of the neighboring countries, par- 
ticularly Hungary and Rumania, the 
blood of both of which, like that of 
Greece in the south, contains important 
Slavic additions. It differs in many re- 
spects from the folk art of the non- 
Slavic nations in Europe, particularly 
that of the Germans and other more or 
less nordic nations. And it is an index, 
on the one hand, of the original unity 
of the Czech population, and, on the 
other, of the partial effects in the course 
of centuries of differing foreign con- 
tacts and introductions. 



Prague, Bohemia. 



[198] 



ARCHITECTURE 



By Dr. Oldrich Heidrich, 

Cultural Attache, Czechoslovak Legation, Washington. 



'THE PAGAN Czechoslovaks built, 
*■ so far as we can judge, exclusively 
in wood. Even fortifications were of 
piles and logs. And as there were no 
pretentious "temples," the cult of the 
old deities being essentially a cult in the 
open, the ancient native architecture 
must have been restricted to the dwell- 
ings. What it was, and that it was by 
no means devoid of the artistic element, 
may be safely judged from the prevail- 
ing folk constructions of historic times, 
which doubtless perpetuate many of the 
older features. 

The first important outside archi- 
tectural impulse that reached the 
Czechoslovak territories, was that of 
Byzantium. It came with the Mace- 
donian apostles who Christianized the 
nation towards the end of the IX cen- 
tury ; and it soon manifested itself in a 
series of moderate-sized characteris- 
tic round churches, which remained a 
strict specialty of Bohemia and Moravia 
not extending farther westward. The 
earlier of these churches were still frame 
structures, but the usa of stone was not 
long delayed. Kosmas, the first Bo- 
hemian historian, some of whose writ- 
ings have been preserved to our times, 
notes that already in the X century the 
Czechs had structures of stone, and that 
these were built in the Roman style 
(opere romano). This doubtless refers 
to the gradual extension into Bohemia, 
in the wake of the purely Byzantine, of 
the more western Roman influences, 
which may be well observed on the 
regrettably only too scant architectural 
remains from these periods. These 
influences came in all likelihood with 
the first Roman monks, whom the 
bishop, St. Vojtech, toward the end 

[199] 



of the X century, brought to the 
first Benedictine Monastery, located 
near Prague; and they were doubtless 
strengthened through the voyages which 
the Czechoslovak Abbots carried out 
from time to time for the purpose of 
keeping up direct relations with their 
Orders in France and Italy. The 
church, and particularly the monaster- 
ies and convents in Bohemia, as else- 
where, must receive due credit for both 
the introduction as well as the fostering 
of art in many branches, even though 
it was essentially church art in the 
beginning. 

As the Roman influence advanced, 
the originally simple rotund church 
became enlarged by a semi-circular apse. 
The most typical and interesting ex- 
amples of this wider-spread style re- 
maining in Czechoslovakia, are the 
Chapel of the Holy Cross in Prague; 
the Chapel of St. Martin on Vyse- 
hrad — the myth-clad fortress, religious 
centre and abode of the earliest Czech 
rulers; and the little church of St. 
George on the hill Rip, standing on the 
old site where, tradition tells us, once 
stood with his people the patriarch 
Cech, who was leading his tribe " across 
three rivers" into the Bohemian terri- 
tory, which from the Rip appeared all 
that could be desired. 

In course of time, the Byzantine- 
Czech, later Roman-Byzantine-Czech 
rotunds, became supplemented by basil- 
icas with a single nave or a nave with 
two aisles, and of a larger size. The 
noblest reminder of this style is the 
Church of St. George in Prague, 
founded in 12 15 and reconstructed, in 
the style of a Roman basilica, in the 
middle of the XIII century. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



The Roman architectural style in 
general reaches its highest development 
in Bohemia during the XI and XII 
centuries, and is especially favored and 
furthered by Vladislav I, the first Czech 
ruler with the title of King. 

Towards the end of the XII century, 
architectural construction begins to 
change in style. The simple harmoni- 
ous lines are affected by the approach- 
ing "old" Gothicextending into Bohemia 
from western Europe. The pointed 
arch appears — a form destined to have a 
powerful influence on further Bohemian 
architecture. The transitional period 
to a pure Gothic lasts from the end of 
the XII to about the middle of the 
XIII centuries; after that reigns the 
age of the Gothic. 

More or less artistic architecture by 
this time has extended to public struc- 
tures, as well as to the richer dwellings; 
but its main representatives are still 
the churches. These now become char- 
acterized by inspiring high towers, 
by rich ornamentation, and by beauti- 
ful, daringly vaulted roofs, characteriz- 
ing so faithfully the contemporaneous 
powerful wave of religion feeling. In 
Bohemia, the Gothic blossoms out 
especially during the reign of Karel IV, 
culturally the most active of the Bo- 
hemian kings, and the one who to this 
day is lovingly remembered by his 
people. Karel was educated largely in 
France; he there became deeply en- 
thused by the monumental, elevating, 
pure art of the Gothic cathedrals, and 
his endeavor when he became King of 
Bohemia, was to give his country works 
of the same nature. 

Due largely to his fortunate, peaceful 
and long reign, Karel's intentions were 
realized in an abundant measure. In 
1344, he laid the foundation of the cele- 
brated St. \'itus Cathedral of Prague, 
which, built on a high elevation and 

[201] 



offering from all directions a view of 
beauty, remains to this day the foremost 
ornament, and almost a symbol of the 
capital city. The construction of the 
cathedral was entrusted at first to a 
Frenchman, Mathias of Arras, and after 
his death to Petr Parlef and then to his 
son, Jan Parlef, of Prague. 

The establishment in Prague during 
Karel's reign of a native archbishopric 
checked in a ver^^ large measure a 
threatened German influence in church 
architecture. The people even then 
were very suspicious of any such influ- 
ence, feeling well that it was liable to be 
only the forerunner of foreign meddling 
in politics and national life in general. 

Petr Parlef built also the church 
"Karlov" in Prague, whose great cupola 
is arched so daringly and ingeniously 
that it remains to this day an object of 
admiration. In the XIV century, when 
built, the vault seemed so wonderful 
that before long the church became 
woven about with superstition. It is 
told to this day that the builder suc- 
ceeded only by the aid of the infernal 
powers ; and it is further said that even 
he himself finally lost faith in his suc- 
cess, and at the termination, after hav- 
ing fired the scaffolding and hearing 
from a distance its crash, took this for 
the crash of the dome itself and com- 
mitted suicide in desperation. 

At the bidding of Karel IV there was 
also built the castle "Karliiv Tyn," 
which an eminent professor of Art 
History characterizes as "a monu- 
mental construction in every' respect, 
impregnable in its time and indestruc- 
tible." The castle became the de- 
pository of art, of religious relics, of the 
most important state documents, and 
of the crown jewels. It stands well 
cared for to this day as one of the pearls 
of architecture and decorative art of the 
XIV century. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



Karel's son, Madislav IV, was also a 
friend of art and of the Gothic style; 
but his reign is marked rather by atten- 
tion to luxurious detail in art than by 
monumental construction. A splendid 
example of this tendency may be seen in 
the gable of the old building of the 
University. 

The Hussite wars of the XV century 
paralyzed architecture, as well as other 
arts, and were attended by widespread 
destruction. A multitude of churches, 
monasteries, convents and castles fell 
prey to the religious effervescence and 
warlike operations. Vandalism was 
severely punished, but a religious war is 
a poor protector. There is a tradition 
that the incendiary of the beautiful 
church in Sedlec was punished by the 
famous Hussite leader Zizka, by having 
melted metal poured into his throat. 

The Gothic blossoms out once more 
in its latest phases during the reign of 
Vladislav. It is largely limited to the 
repair and restoration of ruined 
churches, but in details produces 
valuable and original innovations. The 
best examples of these are the complex, 
richly-ribbed vaulted ceilings. This 
period produced at least two noted 
architects whose names have been pre- 
served to our time, namely Benes of 
Loun, and Alatyas Rejsek. 

The XVI century is essentially that 
of the advent of the Renaissance. In 
1534, under the direction of the Italian 
master Terrabosco, there is constructed 
the wonderfully beautiful little castle 
of Queen Anne, indisputably the finest 
example of Renaissance art north of the 
Alps. It is quite impossible in a few 
lines to describe the harmony, and the 
attractive gentle elegance of this con- 
struction, which fortunately remains to 
our day in an excellent state of pres- 
ervation. 

[203] 



This century, as a whole, may be said 
to be marked by the influence of noted 
Italian architects, called into the 
country by the Bohemian nobility. The 
Italian masters everywhere worked, 
however, hand-in-hand with those of 
native derivation, and after a more or 
less temporary stay left architecture in 
the hands of the latter. Moreover, 
the influence of the native builders 
resulted in such modifications of the 
Italian style, that we are justified in 
some instances, at least, in speaking of 
the Renaissance of Bohemia. These 
conditions persist until the end of the 
century, when some influences from the 
northwest of Europe begin to manifest 
themselves. 

The best architectural remains of the 
XVI century comprise the Schwarzen- 
berg's castle in Prague; the castles in 
Litomysl, Opocno and Krumlov, and 
the city halls in Plzefi and Prachatice. 
Another remarkable construction repre- 
senting the old Gothic is the Church of 
St. Barbara in Hora Kutna, erected by 
the proud inhabitants of that rich city 
with the object of exceeding in both size 
and luxury the St. Vitus Cathedral of 
Prague. Still other monumental struc- 
tures from this period are the well- 
known Most Tower, erected for the 
defence of the Karel Bridge; and the 
great Vladislav Hall in the Prague 
Castle , which used to serve for banquets 
and even for knights' combats. This 
remarkable hall and the equally re- 
markable T5'n Church, are at the same 
time the two structures which in Bo- 
hemia show the first traces of the 
coming Renaissance, which reaches Bo- 
hemia at least two decades earlier than 
it does any part of Germany. 

The XVII century is essentially that 
of the Thirty Years' War, with its 
great destruction and paralyzing con- 
sequences. Architecture as well as 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



the other arts were naturally among the 
pursuits that suffered most. As a 
result there are but few noteworthy 
architectural remains from this period. 
The brightest is the castle constructed 
in Prague during the war for Valdstyn 
(Waldstein), the famous general. The 
palace encloses an admirable loggia, 
which is as if transplanted from the 
very heart of sunny Italy. 

After the Thirty Years' War and its 
immediate consequences, architecture 
in Bohemia begins again to revive, this 
time through the influence of the 
Jesuits — the same Jesuits who did so 
much for the destruction of Czech 
literature and art during the war. The 
role of the Jesuits in the Czechoslovak 
countries was to recatholicize, to bring 
back to the fold of Rome, the popula- 
tion. To further this purpose they now 
began to build new showy churches, the 
form and riches of which were to in- 
fluence the mind of the people and 
create due respect for the Catholic 
religion. In addition the estates of the 
executed or exiled true Czech nobles and 
rich families, were during and at the end 
of the war distributed by the victorious 
Hapsburgs to foreign adventurers and 
Austrian tools, who, finding themselves 
with valuable possessions were now, on 
the ruins of the old, building their new 
mansions and castles. Whatever art 
was manifested in these movements was 
outside art, generally more or less 
mediocre and not connected with the 
native population. The latter, crushed 
politically, deprived of its best blood 
and reduced to little more than a 
remnant in numbers, had now no means 
or inclination for artistic pursuits in any 
direction. 

The essential contribution of the 
Jesuits to the architecture of Bohemia 
was the introduction by them of the 
baroque, which in the course of time 



became the prevailing style in the 
country, and was eventually so de- 
veloped and generalized that many of 
its remains may still be seen in the 
Bohemian cities. Of the most notable 
is the St. Nicholas Church in Prague 
which, with its picturesque dome, 
characterizes the whole part of the city 
between the Vltava (Moldau) and the 
Hradcany, the present seat of the 
Parliament and Government of the 
Czechoslovak Republic. Another in- 
teresting construction, belonging to 
this class, is the so-called Russian 
Church in Prague; while a similar 
structure, but a real jewel of archi- 
tectural art, is the little "Castle" now 
known under the name of "America." 
If we enter some of the crooked streets 
of Mala Strana, in Prague, we are in a 
regular museum of baroque architec- 
ture ; and similarly in parts of some of 
the smaller cities. 

Besides the baroque, later Prague 
reflects also some of the cold "empire." 
This style was never sympathetic in 
Czechoslovakia, and it remained es- 
sentially an " official " style utilized by 
the Austrian Government for its own 
constructions, which fact only added to 
its unpopularity. 

The introduction of the empire left 
certain unfavorable effects which are 
perceptible to this day, and which mani- 
fest themselves in monotony. It is 
really a subjection of art. The only 
objects of consideration are "practical 
purposes ' ' and the results are unattrac- 
tive. 

It is only in the sixties of the XIX 
century that a real turn to the better 
may be noticed. There is, in a way, a 
revival of the Renaissance. This is 
marked first on public structures. They 
gradually reach their acme in the 
National Theatre a truly national insti- 
tution built for the nation and by the 

[204] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



nation, as one of the means of pre- 
serving the Czech language and culture 
and of combating German oppression. 
It was built by the Czech architect 
Zitek, and represents one of the finest 
modem structures in all Europe. 
Viewed from whatever direction it 
represents a pure, ideal art which pro- 
duces a deep impression. The stones 
of its foundation — as those of Washing- 
ton's obelisk — were brought from the 
various districts of the Czechoslovak 
territory. The enormous cost was de- 
frayed wholly by voluntary contri- 
butions of the Czech people, in which 
even the beggars participated; and 
when during the finishing touches, due 
to the carelessness of a plumber, the 
first building burned down, the whole 
nation grieved and wept; but com- 
menced at once new collections, and in 
a short time built even a better struc- 
ture. (See cover picture.) 

Another monumental structure, dat- 
ing from the latter half of the XIX 
century, and showing the influence of 
the Renaissance, is the National Mus- 
eum, standing at the head of the square 
of St. Vaclav in Prague. 

The Renaissance as modified in 
Czechoslovakia has in the course of 
time become very popular, and there is 
hardly a small town in which either the 
town hall or the Sokol Hall, or some of 
the schools do not reflect this style 
which dates back to the XVI century', 
but which during the XIX century has 
been modernized and still further de- 
veloped. 

At the present time the Czecho- 
slovak architects are following the 
modem tendencies. As a rule, they 
supplement their studies outside of 
Czechoslovakia, more particularly in 
France, and are applying their endow- 
ments as well as possible under modern 



technique, material and requirements. 
There is no definite, unique, national 
tendency — there has been no time as 
yet for its development; but the best 
minds are searching for a true way in 
that direction. 

Of the most remarkable recent pro- 
ductions in architecture may be men- 
tioned Panta's Station in Prague, 
known since the armistice as the 
"Wilson" Station — in slight recogni- 
tion of the aid extended to Czecho- 
slovakia by the American President, 
whose true greatness will perhaps only 
be appreciated by the historian; and 
also the "Representative Prague Hall," 
the work of Balsanek and Polivka. 
Both of these are structures that well 
deserve the attention of the art student 
visiting the capital of Czechoslovakia. 

On the whole, we see from this brief 
and very incomplete survey that while 
the wars of the XV and XVII centuries 
have brought about widespread de- 
struction of architectural remains, 
Czechoslovakia, and in particular Bo- 
hemia, with its capital Prague, still 
possesses many memorable and inter- 
esting structures, representing prac- 
tically the whole evolution of European 
architecture, with native modifications. 
These tendencies are most marked in 
the capital of the country, but they are 
reflected all over in the larger and 
smaller towns, and even in the higher 
class of rural constructions. Some of 
these structures represent veritable 
jewels, dispersed over the country. 
They are witnesses of the inherent 
qualities of the people. 

Taking into consideration the relative 
smallness of the nation, Czechoslovakia 
may well be proud of its architectural 
record. 

]\'ashington, D. C. 



[205] 




"The Pastoral Madonna" bv B. Kafka. 



SCULPTURE 

• B\ Dr. Oldrich Heidrich 



CCULPTURE, in the proper sense 
•^ of the term, was unknown in 
Czechoslovakia before the introduction 
of Christianity in the IX century. 
According to the old chronicles, the 
pagan Czechoslovaks had statues or 
statuettes of their deities, which they 
called "dedki;" but all these were 
carved in wood. The first efforts at 
true sculpture date from about the 
X and XI centuries, and were made by 
the monks of the famous Sazava Mon- 
astery, in which native church art, 
in all forms, was fostered from the 
beginnings of the establishment. 

During these earlier centuries, sculp- 
ture was intimately associated with 
architecture, which it served, and can 
hardly be said to have existed as a 
separate art. It manifested itself par- 
ticularly in bas-reliefs and decorations, 
of which some interesting remains are 
preserved. 

With the advent of the Gothic, all 
plastic arts and sculpture in particular 
assumed a great development in Bohe- 
mia. Petr Parlef, the builder of the 
renowned St. Vitus Cathedral in 
Prague, was also a famed "artist in 
stone," who left us the statue of St. 
Vaclav which is still preserved in the 
cathedral, and participated in the sculp- 
tures of the " tombs of the Pfemysls " — 
the kings of the Pfemysl dynasty. 

A whole series of valuable sculptures 
remain from the period of Karel IV 
and his son Vaclav, in the XIV centur}'. 
The triforium of the St. Vitus Cathe- 
dral bears a row of marble busts, 
portraits of the kings, queens, notables 
and architects who patronized or as- 
sisted in the construction. Somewhat 
coarser are the stone statues of the 



Old Town Bridge Tower in Prague. 
There is a beautiful piece of sculpture 
in the Tomb of Ste. Ludmila, in the 
Church of St. George. The expressive 
reliefs on the portal of the Tyn Cathe- 
dral in Prague are also from this period. 

The XVI century brings with it the 
beneficial influence of the Renaissance. 
Italian builders and artists are called to 
Bohemia to introduce the style, and the 
country is enriched by a number of 
masterpieces of architecture. With 
the builders come also prominent sculp- 
tors, whose places, however, are soon 
filled by native scholars. 

This period marks, too, a high devel- 
opment in artistic sculpture in metal. 
Unfortunately, much that was pro- 
duced during this and the earlier periods 
was carried away or destroyed during 
the Thirty Years' War. Of the sur- 
viving works of plastic Renaissance art 
one of the most interesting is the so- 
called "Singing Fountain," the work of 
Jaros or Brno, located in the former 
Emperor's garden in the Prague Castle. 
Besides the handsome sculptured form 
of this fountain, as the water falls back 
on it, it emits a series of melodious 
tones, wherefore the term "Singing 
Fountain. " 

The period of the baroque in Bohe- 
mia and Moravia of the latter part of 
the XVII and the XVIII centuries 
left also, especially in the churches, a 
series of sculptural remains, both in 
the capital and in the smaller cities. 
But the end of the XVIII century, 
under the influence of the Austrian 
Emperor, Joseph II, was very unpro- 
pitious to art in general. Many of the 
monasteries, and convents in particular, 
were confiscated and turned into bar- 



[207] 




Can-ing in wood, "Weep not for Me," from the famous Via Dolorosa at Kolin by Bilek. 




The "Second Fall," from Via Dolorosa by Bilek. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 










-— -"-'^^cr 



■•^- ] . J 



Kamciiy Dum (the "Stone House"), XIV Century. 
Kutna Hora. 

racks or used for other purposes, which 
was attended by extensive dispersion, 
if not destruction, of art objects of 
every nature. The nobihty of Bohemia 
who up to this time, outside of the 
churches and monasteries, constituted 
the main support of art in all its 
branches lost temporarily, under the 
influence of the Court, interest in these 
directions. And the renowned art 
collections of Bohemia, brought to- 
gether particularly under the Emperor 
Rudolph II, were in the main sold in 



order that funds might be obtained by 
the Austrian Government for more 
" practical " purposes. It is little won- 
der that this period is marked, in 
sculpture as well as in other branches 
of art, by mediocrity as well as scarcity 
of production. 

The modern revival of sculpture in 
Czechoslovakia belongs to the XIX 
century. During the earlier part of 
this century there are still to be noted 
the depressing and binding influences 
of the old traditions and conven- 
tionality, but before long and simulta- 
neously with the cultural revival of the 
nation in all directions, a number of 
young sculptors appear who gradually 
raise the art to the level of other 
contemporaneous standards. The 
cold empire style, as well as the baroque 
sculptures of the saints and of church 
decorations, are gradually abandoned. 
That progress was not even more 
marked and rapid was due wholly to the 
repressive influence of the Austrian 
Government which, in the characteriza- 
tion of Gen. Marlborough, "was always 
behind the rest of Europe by one army, 
one thought, and one century." We 
know that, so far as thoughts and ideas 
are concerned, Austria was behind by 
far more than one; only a future im- 
partial study of the baneful influence 
of Austria on its "provinces" will 
show how unwholesome, not to sav para- 
lyzing, this influence was in the direc- 
tion of a free inspiration and unfet- 
tered development of all branches of 
fine arts as well as of literature. 

Among the modern pioneers of sculp- 
ture, in Czechoslovakia, may be men- 
tioned Vaclav Levy ( 1 820-1 870), whose 
teacher, Schwanthaler of Munich, wrote 
that he was "his best scholar, but 
without a hair of his (Schwanthaler's), 
being just his own and original. " Levy- 
also spent twelve years in Rome, where 

[210] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



his fame grew so that some of his works 
were purchased by Pope Pius IX. His 
sculptures, largely of a religious nature, 
show a sincere piety with a deep appre- 
ciation of antique beauty and harmony. 
It would be difficult in this place to 
mention the individual Czechoslovak 
sculptors of the transitional and modern 
periods — they have mainly a local 
significance. One who rises considera- 
bly above this is Josef Vaclav Myslbek 
( 1 848-1 909), for many years a profes- 
sor of the Prague Academy of Arts. 
Myslbek was a sculptor of high indi- 
viduality, fine technique and origi- 
nality. Breaking away from all that 
was oppressive in the tradition of 
sculpture, he blazed his own way. His 
statues breathe with freshness, whole- 
someness and inspiring heroism. The 
realities and beauties of nature are his 
teachers and models. His love of 
faithfulness is such that when he 
modeled the great monument of vSt. 
Vaclav, the patron of Bohemia, he lay 
on the ground and had a horse repeat- 
edly pass over him in order that he 
might properly study the action of the 
animal's muscles also from that direc- 
tion. The monument in question, 
standing now in the foremost square of 
Prague, is his most popular production, 
for outside of the high artistic value of 
the work, its subject St. Vaclav, is a 
national hero. It is St. Vaclav, who 
the people believed up to the World 
War, slept with his knights in the hill 
"Blanik," from which, when Bohemia 
was in direst straits, he would emerge 
for its salvation. When the Czecho- 
slovak army, led by the Sokols, ap- 
peared suddenly in Siberia and Russia 
and did wonders which contrilsuted in 
so large a degree to the liberation of 
Czechoslovakia, many of the common 
unsophisticated people were inclined to 
accept that these were the Blanik 

[211] 




The Woundi'd Soldier, by Jan Stursa. 

knights of St. Vaclav. The monument 
in question is a symbol of the more 
fortunate future of the Czechoslovak 
nation; the statue itself exhales 
strength, confidence and hope in the 
events to come. 

The latter part of the XIX century 
marks the emancipation of the Czecho- 
slovaks' sculpture from the art of Ger- 
many and German Austria. The ideals 
are now French, besides the best of old 
Greece, Rome and Italy. Rodin, in 
particular, exerts a marked influence. 
But throughout all there is manifest 
a desire of the sculptors of "being 
their own. " 

Among the most noted of the later 
generation are Josef Mouder, whose 
works embellish the Vysehrad Pan- 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



theon; Antonin Prochazka, a sculptor 
of eminent technique devoted to slavic 
types; and others. The foremost after 
Myslbek, however is, Stanislav Su- 
charda. His statues, for the ideals of 
which he delves into folk lore and folk 
life, are full of warmth and gentleness. 
Sucharda is a poet-sculptor, but a poet 
who does not slight faithful technique ; 
also, he may be strong dramatically. 
His chef (Toeuvre is the granite and 
bronze composite monument of Palacky 
the "father of Bohemian history," 
in Prague. This striking and symbolic 
monument, to which illustrations do 
scant justice, is justly a j^ride of the 
Czech capital. It represents Palacky 
the historian, listening to the voice of 
the historic current of events; while 
some of the subsidiary figures point to 
the nation's subjection and hope for 
liberation. 

Still another living Czechoslovak 
sculptor of note is Ladislav Saloun. 
He is the sculptor of the third greatest 
monument in Prague, that of Jan Hus, 
standing in the memorable square of 
the "Old Town. " 

In addition, the present generation 
of Czechoslovak sculptors is represented 
by a whole series of names, some of 
which are already well known beyond 
the boundaries of the new Republic, 
but which it is impossible to mention 



within the scope of this paper. And 
the progress of the art of sculpture in 
Czechoslovakia, with minor exceptions, 
is a healthy progress full of promise for 
the future. 

Notwithstanding the vicissitudes of 
time, and the serious disadvantages 
under which sculpture labored in 
Czechoslovakia until the latter part of 
the XIX century, the appreciative 
visitor to Prague can not but be 
pleasurably, and here and there deeply, 
surprised at what remains. The 
churches, the cemeteries, the squares, 
the museums, the castles, many of the 
old rich mansions, the ancient Gothic 
towers, and last but not least the 
Karel's Bridge, show far more in the 
line of sculpture than can be found in 
any modern city of similar size to the 
Czech capital. They are the accumula- 
tions of art remains of ten centuries, 
and they represent a book of the history 
of sculpture and related arts which 
deserve a much more attentive perusal 
than it has yet received from outsiders. 
Some day, we may hope, these and the 
other art treasures of Bohemia, to which 
these scant few lines can barely call at- 
tention, will be suitably described in the 
English language and shown in illustra- 
tions which are not yet available. 

Washington, D. C. 




[212] 



PAINTING 

By Ales Hrdlicka. 




.4 Honeymoon in Hand (rich district of Moravia), by Joseph Manes. 



•yHE HISTORY of the art of paint- 
^ ing in Czechoslovakia has really but 
two subdivisions, the old and the mod- 
ern, the latter beginning strictly only 
with the later half of the XIX cen- 
tury. 



The long old period is characterized 
especially by church art. The first 
painters mentioned in Czech history 
are the first two abbots of the Sazava 
Monastery. The art is partly orna- 
mental, partly representative; and the 



1213] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 







J, 



tu-cty JprocK^-VWd-l". * 



_^J2>"'<'^>^»I^ 



PTACEK. 
Illustration to the Folk Song "A Birdie." 
By Mikulas Ales 

latter appears for a long time restricted 
or almost so, to paintings on cloth, wall 
or wood, or religious scenes, of saints 
and of madonnas. Of the earlier pro- 
ductions but very little remains to 
our day, and we are unable to judge of 
their standards. 

As for all arts, so for painting in 
Czechoslovakia, the "golden days" 
are those of the XIV century. In 1348 
the painters are already numerous and 
important enough to associate into a 



Fraternity. It was, also, during this 
time that painters and other artists 
were elevated to a'special dignity at the 
Court. 

It is of interest to note that the 
Painters Fraternity embraced painters 
in general and the heraldry painters, 
batween whom there was kept a clear 
distinction which is not now fully 
understood. The patron saint of the 
fraternity was St. Lucas. 

During this century there is an in- 
flux into Bohemia of painters from 
Germany, some of whom remain tempo- 
rarily, while others settle permanently 
in the new country ; and with these new- 
comers are brought in German and 
Dutch influences which are very per- 
ceptible in the Bohemian art remains 
of the period. In conformity with the 
spirit of the time, and the piety of 
Karel IV, the sphere of painting re- 
mains still very largely religious, but 
there is also som.e portrait and 
" worldly " painting. There is a marked 
development of painting "al fresco." 

The survivals of painting from this 
period are quite numerous and afford 
interesting material for study. Besides 
the western there are noticed seme 
Italian and even still some Byzantine 
influences. The quality of work reaches 
in some instances a high standard with- 
out, however, constituting masterpieces 
which would equal the best Flemish or 
Italian. It is plain that circumstances 
have as yet not been sufficiently pro- 
pitious to develop a school of charac- 
teristic painters of Bohemia itself. 

Simultaneously with the develop- 
m.ent of painting at large, a very con- 
siderable progress has also been realized 
during these earlier centuries in the 
development of miniature paintings 
and especially in the illumination of 
bibles, breviaries, psalters, and books 
of the gospels. An effort was also made 

[216] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



during the reign of Karel IV in art 
mosaic. 

During this period the painting of 
church interiors reached its maximum 
development, and there are accounts of 
whole series of churches and castles 
that were filled with paintings in this 
manner. Unfortunately a large ma- 
jority of this painting has, in the course 
of time, been destroyed. Some good 
examples have been accidentally re- 
covered in recent times during repairs 
to old churches. 

During the reign of Vaclav IV, the 
son of Karel, the favorable period for 
the development of art and painting 
continues, but the latter is now marked 
by more boisterousness and less re- 
striction. The art of illumination has 
progressed extensively, and has left a 
series cf valuable examples. 

The Reformation and the Hussite 
wars of the XV century not only 
stopped art progress, but resulted in 
widespread destruction. What this 
produced follows very largely old tra- 
ditions. The art of illumination, how- 
ever, shows a decided advance still 
further, as witnessed by the number of 
precious remaining examples, some of 
which begin already to show the in- 
fluence cf the Renaissance. 

In the XVI century painting is 
especially favored during the reign of 
Rudolf II. AsaHapsburg, Rudolf called 
in a number of Dutch and German mas- 
ters, the foremost of whom is Bartholo- 
mew Sprangher of Antwerp, who even- 
tually settles in Prague for the rest of 
his life. The new impetus given to the 
art of painting extended, however, all 
over the country^ and resulted in the ap- 
pearance of a series of native painters, 
some of whom become especially noted. 

The XVII century and the Thirty 
Years' War were on the whole a most 
unfavorable period for the art of paint- 

[217] 



ing in the Bohemian territories. A 
number of the foremost native artists 
were among the exiles from the countrv ; 
and there was no incentive for the de- 
velopment of others. In addition to 
which there was a wide destruction. 
After the Thirty Years' War the new 
nobility and new rich owners, mostly 
of foreign extraction, in repairing the 
partly ruined and in building new 
mansions, called in again numbers of 
foreign painters, the foremost of whom 
was Peter. Brandl, whose paintings were 
characterized by unusual power. The 




-'<5j^^ .vcjcAcn. iy.^Acc^ u fcbe ?a.l>y*vff. 



>vJJJd..,a wuiKiTia J^«»;ka tawt ,fraiC 
5Tj3.hxH.cL J,y,Ulli.i>.^ >fitfUAl. brAtn<:^l^ 



BITVA U KOLI.N'A 

Illustration to Folk Song relating to Battle of Kolin. 
By MikulaS AleS 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



art that showed the most rapid advance 
toward recovery was painting al fresco, 
represented by a new progeny of native 
painters, among whom excelled especial- 
ly Vaclav Reiner (died 1745). The de- 
velopment in this direction is such that 
it is possible to speak of a Czech School 
of fresco paintings of the XVIII cen- 
tury. The subjects of the paintings 
were partly religious, partly battle 
scenes, either historical or allegorical, 
besides which there appear also land- 
scapes, paintings of flowers, etc. 

The reign of Joseph II, as a complete 
antithesis to that of Rudolf II, directly 
interfered with all progress in art, in- 
cluding painting. By the decree of 
1782, the Painters Fraternity was dis- 
solved. Rudolf's art gallery, and many 
privately owned pictures were sold 
abroad ; and nothing was now produced. 
This curious state of affairs can only be 
regarded as one of the manifestations of 
abnormality which here and there have 
been observed in the different Haps- 
burgs. Fortunately, in 1796 conditions 
have so changed that the establishment 
of an "Association of the Patiintic 
Friends of Art" became possible, 
which was soon followed by the founda- 
tion of a permanent Art Gallery and 
Art School. This, properly speaking, 
was the beginning of the modern period 
of the art of painting in Bohemia, 
though for a long time yet the art was 
laboring under foreign influence. 

The rest of the history of painting in 
Czechoslovakia is that of a steadily 
accelerating development toward the 
best of modern standards and an 
equally augmenting emancipation from 
traditional and foreign influences. The 
main pioneer in this direction is J. 
Manes (1821-71), whose excellent 
studies of the native types and illus- 



trations from old Czech history have 
exerted a strong infli'jsnce on a line of 
followers. Jaroslav Cermak (181 1-78) 
devotes himself to scenes from the life 
and environment of Slavs in the Bal- 
kans. F. Zenisek and Mikulas Ales 
follow ingeniously and originally in 
the same direction (in Bohemia and 
Moravia). It is these two who pro- 
duced in the main the exquisite wall 
paintings of the National Theatre. 

Historic painting is represented fore- 
most by Vaclav Brozik (1851-1900), 
known the world over by his great tab- 
leaux "Jan Hus before the Council of 
Constance," "Columbus before the 
Court of Isabella," etc. ; and at the pres- 
ent time by A. Mucha who, since 1890, 
is working on twenty great tableaux that 
are to illustrate the main events of vSlavic 
history. Eleven of these huge tableaux , 
18 X 28 feet, have been completed and 
a number of them have, within the last 
two years, been shown in the Art Insti- 
tute of Chicago and the Brooklyn 
Museum. Scenery in all its forms, 
genre, and all other forms of the art of 
painting, have today in Czechoslovakia 
able and noted representatives. 

The older national collections of art 
are housed since 1882 in the beautiful 
and extensive Rudolfinum in Prague, 
while the more recent art treasures are 
housed in the "Modern Gallery." Also, 
there are a number of important private 
collections, and, taking the arts to- 
gether, the great old churches and man- 
sions of Prague, and the old churches, 
monasteries, castles and mansions scat- 
tered over the country, are similarly 
as in Holland, Belgium, France and 
Italy, so many parts of one vast art 
museum. 

U. S. National Museum. 



[219] 




"Death snd Resurrection," Group in Bronze, by Ettore Cadorin. 



CURRENT NOTES AND COMMENTS 

"Death cuid Resurrection," by Ettore Cadorin. 

This photograph represents the bronze group "Death and Resurrection" by the sculptor 
Ettore Cadorin. It will shortly be erected for the Karagheusian family of New York Citv, in 
Woodlawn cemetery. 

The group represents the symbol of the Christian belief, according to which death is considered 
but a passage from this life to the Eternal Life, through the resurrection of the spirit. 

The two figures emerge from the massive block with a calm and large movement, especially of 
the torsos, while a part of the bodies remain enveloped and melted in the block. One of the 
figures expresses a complete attitude of lethargic sleep like death, which is not the end of every- 
thing, but a temporary rest. The other figure is animated by a movement of deliverance and life 
and the face expresses a rapture of serenity and beatitude. 

The hair of the two figures descends along the bodies in floating masses which further down 
shapes themselves into the block so as to envelope the figures and add to the poetic mystery of 
the ensemble. The artist aims with this work to give a new character to the sculpture of ceme- 
teries less conventional, and with a deeper and more symbolic meaning. A number of his works 
done in the same style, stand in the cemeteries of France and Italy. 

Athenian Nights at Toledo Art Museum. 

Would you like to spend some time back in old Athens with the filleted maidens and bronzed 
athlete of the Parthenon frieze ? Would you care to see a play of Sophocles or Aeschylus given just 
as the ancients viewed it? Would you catch a bit of the real flavor of Greek art and civilization? 
Impossible! you say. Not at all! Toledo is doing it through her Museum of Art and it is one 
of the many things which mark this museum as no mausoleum, but a living, pulsating community 
center of art appreciation. 

It all began when someone realized the possibilities of the steps of the museum as a stage for a 
Greek play. The dancers were members of a High School gymnasium class, and the actors came 
from a class in Public iSpeaking. The play chosen was Sophocles' Antigone, so different from the 
problem-plays of today, yet containing the world-old and ever-new conflict between duty and 
desire, and bringing home the truth of that truth the world seems able to learn through individual 
experience, "What a man sows, that shall he also reap." 

It was a perfect June night. A silver thread of a moon in a real Aegean blue sky floated over 
the dark tree-tops and hung, poised, over the Ionic columns which form the stately entrance to 
the museum. Seats for the spectators were placed along the broad, flagged portico, while the 
actors played their parts on the marble steps. The Parthenon itself could not have formed a 
more classic background. 

Between the acts, a group of girls, their white tunics caught with silver bands, danced as the 
old Greek chorus used to do. Girls of the twentieth century were they? Oh, no! They were 
devotees of Athene, once more offering their gifts to their patron goddess, and delighting to do 
her homage. 

When the spectators demanded an encore, the dancers became gleeful children, dancing in the 
courtyard of their home, and bounding balls to the accompaniment of their delight. Finally, 
running dov\'n to the fountain in the middle of the square, where the waters of the pool flashed 
in the mellow moonlight, they raised graceful arms in adoration of Artemis, the moon-goddess. 

It was the scene, in the flesh, that is to be found on many a Greek urn. The entire performance 
had that elusive charm which marked it as "a thing of beauty," and the remembrance of it in 
the minds of the audience will be a "joy forever." C. L. Pray. 

Annual Convention of American Federation of Arts. 

The twelfth Annual Convention of the American Federation of Arts will be held at the 
Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D. C, May i8, 19, 20. Special sessions will be devoted 
to "Art and the People," "The Artist's Point of View," "Professional Art Problems," "Educa- 
tional Work" and "The Art Museum." 

[221] 




'Fete Champetre," by Adulphe Monticelli. 



Courlesy of Vose Galleries, Boston 



Monticelli Exhibition at the Vose Galleries, Boston. 

The Vose Galleries, of Boston, on March 1 7, celebrated the eightieth anniversary of the founding 
of the house by opening one of the most remarkable exhibitions that has ever been held in this 
countr}' — a display of twenty-one paintings by the immortal French colorist and romanticist, 
Adolphe Monticelli (1824-1886). Professor Churchill, of Smith College, delivered a lecture on 
Monticelli before a notable assemblage of connoisseurs. 

vSuch another exhibition, for brilliancy and beauty of color, has probably never been seen in 
this country. Critics have come to accept MonticeUi as the leader in his field, as richer and more 
vibrating than Watteau, and as the superior of Diaz both in color and in composition. The Vose 
display ser\-ed to confirm this estimation of the master. 

The outstanding picture in the exhibition was "A Summer's Day; Idyl," which is regarded by 
many as Monticelli's greatest work. It was lent by R. B. Angus, of Montreal, who is one of 
Canada's biggest collectors. Cool, joyous and lightsome, in it the artist reached the very heights 
of idyllic painting, with its group of happy figures surging like music amid a wood, under a 
romantic sky. Another masterpiece, also from the Angus collection, "A Garden Fete: Sunset," 
is in some ways the antithesis of the other, because it is intensely warm and glowing. 

Monticelli's pictures all have the qualities of precious gems, but especially jewel-like is 
" Romantic Scene," also in the exhibition. This work has the beauty of rubies, emeralds and gold. 
Another extremely fine subject, "Woodland Dance," lent by the Hillyer Gallery of Smith College, 
was a prized possession of the late George Fuller. Other superlative examples in the display was 
"Fete Champetre," brilliant and positive; "In the Woods," cool and exquisite with its cameo-like 
faces, and "The Star of Bethlehem," with oriental splendor flaming through the duskiness of 
night. "The Pet Dove" and "The Peacock Garden " were large subjects belonging to the series 
that Monticelli painted for the Empress Eugenie, and that introduce her portrait. Earliest of all 
in point ol date, was "The Lark," that reminded one more of Watteau than any of the others. 

[222] 



BOOK CRITIQUES 



The Outline of History, by H. G. Wells. 

Being a Plain History of Life and Mankind. 

New York : The Macmillan Co. ipso. 2 vols. 
$10.50. 

It is obvious that so clever and calligraphic 
a ready writer as Mr. Wells can, if he shuts 
himself in his study with thirty or forty recent 
books and a stock of reference works, compile 
in a few months a history of the world, inferior 
as a history to the book that any one of a score 
of historians, if unhampered by scholarly 
inhibitions, could produce, but more likely 
to be read by the man in the street. As 
the reverend William Sunday wins souls, so 
Mr. Wells is said to be winning to the study of 
history many hitherto innocent readers. And 
timid preachers, and scholars who can be 
intimidated by Mr. Wells' denunciations of 
"the bent scholarly man as intolerant as a 
priest, as obscurantist as a physician," will 
fear to criticize the methods of either. But 
there is no reason why any serious critic should 
take seriously this propagandist pamphlet and 
book-making enterprise, except as a symptom 
of the intellectual decadence that threatens our 
civilization. It is for Anglo-American post- 
bellum culture what the sale of forty thousand 
copies of Spengel's " Downfa'l of the West, or 
Morphology of World History" is for the more 
pessimistic reading public of Germany. And, 
if European civilization really were fore- 
doomed to another secular eclipse, prophecy 
might salute Mr. Wells' work as the Orosius of 
the New Dark Ages. The chief hindrance to 
such an unenviable immortality would be its 
bulk. Mr. Wells calls it an Outline, and it is 
made a very meagre and spotty sketch by the 
space wasted in explanation of its choices and 
apology for its rejections; or on those thumb 
sucking disquisitions of cosmic introspection, 
with which we are already too familiar in "The 
Research Magnificent," "Anticipations" and 
other of Mr. Wells' eleven "books on social, 
religious and political questions. " But thirteen 
hundred large pages economically used would 
hold more history than Mr. Wells had time to 
get up, or than his shrewdness would inflict 
upon the reader who wants "plain statements 
that he can take hold of comfortably." With 
no larger expenditure of paper, the publishers 
could have reprinted an orderly presentation of 
three or four times the amount of historical 
facts given by Mr. Wells; and, in addition, 
Macaulay's, Carlyle's and Frederick Harrison's 
essays on history. Mill's review of Guizot's 

[223] 



"History of Civilization," Bryce's "Holy 
Roman Empire," Henry Adams' "Mont iSt. 
Michel and Chartres, '' Jebbs' "Primer of 
Greek Literature," the best parts of Mackails" 
"History of Roman Literature," equivalent 
sketches of the chief modern literatures, and a 
brief authentic history of science. But where 
in such a collection would be the unity, the 
stamp of Mr. Wells' demiurgic mind? There 
would be quite as much real unity as there is 
now. For what complaisant reviewers call the 
unity of this book, is an illusion created by 
repetition and cross references and the reitera- 
tion of Mr. Wells' prepossessions and prejudices: 
his socialism; his affectation of a Tolstoian 
Christianity, which his way of life gives him no 
right to preach; his disdain for the past; his 
exultation in the progress that has substituted 
the conveniences of his study for the defective 
library of Alexandria; his Shelleyan prophecies 
of the dawn of happiness and science on the 
world ; his uneasy contempt for scholarship and 
culture; his antipathies to patriotism, the 
University of Oxford, the Romans, Demos- 
thenes, Rudyard Kipling and Gladstone. 

There is no unity, either, of artistic composi- 
tion or of critical apprehension of the causal 
sequences and interrelations of history. The 
separate chapters were obviously composed by 
the method of diluting a capricious abstract 
of whatever modern book on the subject pleased 
Mr. Wells best, with the reflections and happy 
thoughts that flowed into his pen as he wrote. 
His nominal coadjutors, Mr. Ernest Barker, 
Professor Gilbert Murray, and the rest, profess 
to discuss these happy thoughts seriously with 
the author in the foot notes. But why should 
any other scholar concern himself with Mr. 
Wells' prejudiced estimates of literatures, 
which he has not read, and his jaunty pro- 
nouncements on historical problems which he 
knows from the hand books open before him? 
A professor in a great American University pro- 
fesses to be awe struck by Mr. Wells' accuracy, 
and says that, though he himself is a life-long 
student of history, he can detect no errors. If 
he will find an arena for joint debate, I will 
begin by presenting him with a score of 
"howlers." Or does he merely mean that Mr. 
Wells and his corps of experts have succeeded 
in spelling most of the proper names, and have 
correctly copied out the comparati\-ely few 
dates given? 

But the chief defects of the book are the 
faulty perspective and proportions, and the 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



preposterous valuations. Nearly three hundred 
pages are wasted on geologic aeons and con- 
jectural prehistoric human histor>% for which a 
brief chapter would have sufficed. More space 
is given to Philip and Alexander of Macedon 
than to the civilization and literature of Greece 
from Salamis to Chaeroneia. The literature 
and law of Rome and their influence are alto- 
gether ignored. The Renaissance is lost to 
sight and the entire political history of modem 
Europe from 1400 to 1800 muddled and skimped, 
in two confused and confusing chapters on the 
"Renascence of Western Civilization" and 
"Princes, Parliaments and Powers." The 
two chief topics of 19th century history for Mr. 
Wells seem to be the scholarship of Karl Marx 
and the bad education of Gladstone. 

WTiile professing to write a history of the 
ideas and the mind of man, he omits the pre- 
Socratics, and Thucj'dides; is ludicrously in- 
adequate about Plato and Aristotle; says 
nothing of stoics, epicureans and neo-Platonists, 
does not mention Chaucer, Dante, Shakespeare, 
Alilton, Spinoza and Kant; has for Demos- 
thenes only a sneer ; has nothing to say of Grotius 
Burke, Alexander Hamilton and Lincoln. 

To make up, he has eleven references each to 
Nabonidus and to the Neanderthal man; is 
copious on Roger Bacon, Loyola, Machiavelli 
and Confucius; praises the erudition of Karl 
Marx and the scatological psychology of 
Freud and Jung; gossips for several pages each 
on the stor}- of Croesus, the scandals of the 
Alacedonian court and the abdication of 
Charles V, and quotes three pages from an 
essay on modern Hindu life by one Mr. Basu. 

Such are the proportions and the estimates 
of value in the Philosophic History on which 
the reconstruction of our civilization is to be 
based. Paul Shorey. 

The New Stone Age in Northern Europe. By 
John M. Tyler. New York. Charles Scrihner's 
Sons. jgsi. 

It is one thing to collect facts concerning pre- 
historic times and to draw the true deductions 
from them, and quite another thing to present 
the information in an interesting way so that a 
man, who has not specialized on the subject, 
finds pleasure as well as profit in perusing the 
student's writings. To combine the two is an 
art. Professor John I\L Tyler has exhibited 
this art in his recent book. The New Stone Age 
in Northern Europe. 



The author begins with a brief, though com- 
prehensive, review of the types of man appear- 
ing on earth prior to the Neolithic Period, with 
which those interested in primitive mankind 
have been made delightfully familiar by Pro- 
fessor Osborn in his Men of the Old Stone Age. 
Dr. Tyler, after devoting a chapter to the 
transition between these two periods and the ge- 
ological changes affecting the European fauna 
and flora, takes up in orderly sequence the re- 
mains, which have been unearthed, throwing 
light on the life and industry of the New Stone 
Age. Through undetermined and undetermin- 
able millenia the reader is led from one stage 
of culture to another, up from the crude state 
of the cave-dwelling hunter to the community 
life and tribal organization resulting from agri- 
culture and to the nomadic life which came later 
with the domestication of herbiverous animals. 

The migration routes of prehistoric peoples 
under the pressure of populations and the relig- 
ious concepts bom of new and changing condi- 
tions are treated in an attractive way. The 
reader sees a continual progress in the indus- 
trial, social and intellectual life of these ancient 
races. He sees the rudiments of modern 
civilizations gradually take form and develop. 
He is led on and on, step b}' step, through 
thousands of years until he at last emerges into 
the dim twilight, which we term "the dawn of 
history," when man invented the means of re- 
cording events for future ages. 

Taken as a whole The New Stone Age in 
Northern Europe is, to use a paradoxical term, 
a fascinating history of a prehistoric period. 
It is a story which, when one begins to read 
it, he will find it hard to lay aside. The 
attractive nature and the sustained interest 
are due in large measure to the skillful treat- 
ment of the subject and the author's talent as 
a writer. Eliminating the scientific value of 
the analysis of collected data, and the years 
evidently given to the comparative study of 
authorities, the excellence of the literary style 
would make the book well worth the reading. 
There is a deftness of touch which clothes the 
driest facts with a charm which holds the atten- 
tion and gives them life. The work is a fitting 
sequel to The Men of the Old Stone Age which 
brought to its writer so much favorable com- 
ment a few years ago. 

Professor Tyler has enhanced the value of 
this decided contribution to archaeological 
literature by appending to the work an excel- 
lent bibliography. Robert Lansing. 



1224] 



$5.00 THE YEAR 



SO CENTS THE COPY 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

An Illustrated Monthly Magazine 

Pdbushed at WASHINGTON. D. C. by 

THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 



ART AND LIFE Cnbw york) combined with ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

Volume XI JUNE, 1921 



Number 6 



EDITOR-IN-CHIEF 
WILLIAM H. HOLMES 

BOARD OF EDITORS 

Virgil Barker 
Howard Crosby Butler 
Charles Upson Clark 

Albert T. Clay 

Charles T. Currelly 

H. R. Fairclough 

Edgar L- Hewett 

Morris Jastrow 

Fiske Kimball 

David M. Robinson 

Helen Wright 




DIRECTOR AND EDITOR 
MITCHELL CARROLL 

BOARD OF MANAGERS 

Frank Springer, Chairman 

J. TowNSEND Russell, V ice-Chairman 

James C. Egbert 

Ex-ojicio as President of the Institute 

BuRWELL S. Cutler 

John B. Larnbr 

Charlbs Colfax Long 

Dan Fellows Platt 



CONTENTS 

Sir Moses Ezekiel, American Sculptor Henry K. Bush-Brown . . 225 

Nine Illustrations 

The Alban Lakes Mary Mendenhal/ Perkins . 235 

Two Illustrations 

Some Literary Bookplates Alfred Fowler .... 239 

Nine Illustrations 
William Rush, the Earliest Native Born American Sculptor . . IVilfred Jordon .... 245 

Three Illustrations 

Rus IN Urbe (Poem) Harvey M. Watts . . . 247 

Glimpses Into Greek Art Frederick Paulsen . . 248 

One Illustration 

On a Sarouk Rug (Poem) H. H. Bellaman . . 250 

Caricature and the Grotesque in Art ... Alfred J. Lotka 251 

PiERo Di CosiMO (Poem) Robert Hillyer .... 253 

Creators of Costume Kathryn Rucker .... 255 

Three Illustrations 

Current Notes and Comments 261 

Six Illustrations 

Book Critiques . ' 267 



Terms: ?5.oo a year in advance: single numbers, 50 cents. Instructions for renewal, discontinuance, or change of address should be 
sent two weeks before the date they are to go into effect. 

All correspondence should be addressed and remittances made to Art .\nd ARCtnaoLOOY. the Octagon. Washington, D. C. Aho 
manuscripts, photographs, material for notes and news, books for review, and exchanges, should be sent to this address. 

Advertisements should be sent to Chandler-Jennings, Inc., Advertising Managers, i West 34th St., New York, N. Y, the New 
York Office of Art and Archaeology. 

Foreign subscriptions and advertisements should be sent to David H Bond, 407 Bank Chambers, Chancery Lane, London. W. C.-i 

Entered at the Post Office at Washington. D. C, as second-class mail matter Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage 

provided for in section 1103. Act of October 3. igiy. authorized September 7, 1918. 

Copyright. 1921, bv the Archaeoloiical Institute op America. 




Confederate Soldiers' Monument by Sir Moses Ezekiel in the Arlington National Ctmetery 

Washington, D. C. 



ART mid. 

ARCHAEOLOGY 

The Arts Throughout the Ages 



Volume XI 



JUNE, 1921 



Number 6 



SIR MOSES EZEKIEL: AMERICAN SCULPTOR 



By Henry K. Bush-Brown.^ 



WE ARE assembled this day to do 
honor to one who by his own 
genius has gained the recogni- 
tion of the world and the love of many 
friends, and we naturally pause to in- 
quire on what food was this man nour- 
ished that he became so great. Born 
of a family of trades people there was 
certainly a vision in his mind as a 
child, and it is the vision of childhood 
when coupled with courage which 
makes for greatness. 

Moses Jacob Ezekiel (known as 
Sir Moses Ezekiel), American Sculptor, 
was born in Richmond, Virginia, on 
October 28th 1844, the son of Jacob and 
Catherine de Castro Ezekiel. The first 
of the family in America was Ezekiel 
Jacob Ezekiel and Rebecca Israel Ezek- 
iel, who came to this country from 
Amsterdam, Holland, and settled at 
Philadelphia, Pa., in 1808. These were 
the parents of Jacob Ezekiel, the father 
of Sir Moses Ezekiel. In early boy- 
hood Moses Ezekiel manifested the 
greatest interest in the primary fields of 
art and when scarcely ten years of age 

'Address made on Wednesday evening, March 30th. 192 1. at 
the Memorial Services in the Scottish Rite Temple. Washington, 
D. C. 

[227] 



gave expression to his innate talent in the 
painting of panoramas and making mov- 
ing figures and scenic dioramas, for the 
amusement of his family and friends. 
At the age of fourteen he had received 
an ordinary common school education, 
having devoted his spare time day and 
night in drawing, painting and writing 
poetry, and some of these early effusions 
were quite remarkable for such a mere 
youth. About this time he stopped 
school and determined to follow a 
mercantile life, but after a few years he 
tired of the monotony and usual routine 
of business affairs. In the year 1861, 
becoming imbued with the military 
spirit of that period, he entered the 
Virginia Military Institute at Lexington 
as a cadet, remaining there until the 
Institute was burned by the Union 
General Hunter in 1864 when he left 
with the Corps of Cadets for the field 
of action in the valley of Virginia and 
participated with them in the Battle of 
Newmarket, remaining in the Con- 
federate Army until the close of the 
Civil War. In 1865 he again returned 
to the Institute and graduated with 
honors the following year. The re- 



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famous corner of the studio of Sir Moses Ezekul m tlK- Hath-> dl liuaiLtian, Rome, Italy, 
spicuous are the "Homer" group, the statue of "David" and the bust of "Longfellow." 



Con- 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 




Bust of the composer Franz Liszt, by Sir Moses Ezekiel . 

verses met with by his family on 
account of the Civil War induced him 
again to re-commence his mercantile 
profession. On returning to Richmond 
in 1866 he soon tired of commercial 
affairs. He determined to adopt paint- 
ing as a profession and executed some 
very creditable canvasses, among which 
was the "Prisoner's Wife" for Mrs. 
Mary Custis Lee, wife of the leader of 
the vSouthern armies, whose friendship 
and encouragement he had enjoyed 
while studying at Lexington where 
General Lee and his family resided. 
He soon, however, turned from the 
study of painting to that of sculpture, 
his first efforts being a bust of his 



father and an ideal composition of 
"Cain, or, The Offering Rejected," 
His knowledge of anatomy being in- 
adequate to the necessities of his future 
requirements for the study of art he 
entered the Medical College of Virginia 
for the regular course of lectures and 
study in "Anatomy and Dissection of 
the Human Body." 

His removal to Cincinnati, Ohio, 
in 1868 gave his purpose a new oppor- 
tunity. There he studied drawing at 
an art school for a short period and 
worked in the studio of a local sculptor 
where he made a statuette entitled 
"Industry," which was publicly ex- 
hibited and favorably criticized. 

It was but natural that his aspira- 
tions should direct his steps to Europe 
for his further training in what he in- 
tended as a profession and in the spring 
of 1869 we find him sailing for Germany, 
for it was in Berlin at the Royal Art 
Academy that his study and success 
brought him honor and a still broader 
opportunity. In the summer of 1873, 
at the age of 29 years, he gained the 
Michael- Beer Prize of Rome, which 
had never before been awarded to a 
foreigner, for his basso-relievo of 
"Israel," giving him two years study 
in the "Eternal City. "He thereafter 
made Rome his home, with an occa- 
sional visit to Berlin his foster mother, 
to Paris where he had a studio also, 
and to America his native land. 

While in Berlin, during his four years 
of study he executed several ideal works 
in marble for patrons there and also 
fulfilled quite a number of commissions 
for America. Thus, it may be said, 
he was the product of American free- 
dom of thought and purpose plus the 
patronage of Germany and the inspi- 
ration of Italy. 

It was then but natural that his 
art should follow the choicest classical 



[229] 




Colossal Marble Group of "Religious Liberty", by Sir Moses Ezekiel 'in front of Horticultural Hall, 
Fairmont Park, Philadelphia. Unveiled at the Centennial Exposition in 1876. 




Recumbent Marble Statue of "Christ In The Tomb," in the Chapel of the Consolation, Rue Goujon, Paris, 

France, by Sir Moses Ezekiel. Deeply religious in his nature, it is quite synificant that he, an Israelite, should 

give to the world one of the best interpretations of Christ. 



lines and find its best and noblest ex- 
pression in ideal subjects. The first 
and greatest one was the incarnation 
of an abstract idea as exemplified in 
the colossal marble group of "Religious 
Liberty" for the Centennial Exposi- 
tion of 1876, which was permanently 
erected inFairmount Park, Philadelphia. 
His other most important works of this 
character are "Eve Hearing the Voice ;" 
" Homer Reciting the Ihad; " "Apollo 
Listening to Mercury;" "David Re- 
turning from Victory;" "Art and Na- 
ture;" "The Fountain of Neptune;" 
"Christ in the Tomb;" "Napoleon at 
St. Helena;" "The Martyr, or Christ 
Bound to the Cross;" "Pan and Amor;" 
"Ecce Homo;" "David vSinging his 
Song of Glory;" "Judith vSlaying Holo- 
fernes;" "Jessica;" "Portia," and 
others. He made eleven decorative 
heroic portrait statues of the greatest 
painters and sculptors for the old 
Corcoran Art Gallery building of Wash- 
ington; the "Stonewall Jackson" 
statue for Charleston, West Virginia, 
and a replica for Lexington, Virginia; 
the allegorical Jefferson Monument for 
Louisville, Kentucky, and a replica 
in front of the University of Virginia at 
Charlottesville; "Virginia Mourning 

[231] 



Her Dead" at the Virginia Military 
Institute at Lexington; the "Con- 
federate Outlook" at Johnson's Island, 
Lake Erie; the Lord Sherbrooke Mem- 
orial in Westminster Abbey, London, 
England; bronze seated public sta- 
tues of Anthony J. Drexel inFairmount 
Park, Philadelphia, of Senator Daniels 
at Lynchburg, Virginia , of Edgar Allan 
Poe (his last work) for Baltimore, 
Maryland, and others. 

He excelled in portrait busts and 
executed many of them in marble and 
bronze; that of "Washington," now in 
the Cincinnati Art Museum, giving 
him his professional start in Berlin. 
Those of Franz Liszt and Cardinal 
Gustave von Hohenlohe gained for 
him the Knighthood for "Science and 
Art," and many other very notable 
men and women sat to him for por- 
trait busts and relievos. He was ac- 
corded the rank of "Chevalier" by 
King Victor Emmanuel and later re- 
ceived the title of "Officer of the Crown 
of Italy" from King Humbert. He re- 
ceived medals from the Royal Art Asso- 
ciation of Palermo, the Raphael Medal 
of Urbino, medals of honor and honor- 
ary membership from many other Art 
Institutions, Societies, and Expositions. 




Thomas Jefferson Monument by Sir Moses Ezekiel, in front of the University of Virginia, at Char- 
lottesville. A replica of this monument is also in front of the City Hall at Louisville, Ky. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 




Marble relievo— "Confession. " M. Ezekiel, Berlin, 
Professor Leo's Collection, Potsdam, Germany. 



While these successes 
brought him deserving recog- 
nition from the highest art 
authorities, it is nevertheless 
the man and the artist to 
whom we are paying tribute 
today, for what he was is 
quite as important as what 
he did. 

He established his studio 
in the ruins of the Baths of 
Diocletian, a most spacious 
place, and the simplicity and 
greatness of the man was 
manifest everywhere in the 
Eternal City. Here he wel- 
comed all alike whether great 
or lowly, and he was always 
ready to give aid and en- 
couragement to young stu- 
dents who came to him for 
advice. 

Every Friday afternoon 
Ezekiel kept open house for 



873. 



his friends and here one heard 
the finest music by the great- 
est talent and met not only 
the best people of Rome, 
but also eminent strangers 
who might be visiting the 
city from all parts of the 
world. Therefore, an invita- 
tion from him was one of the 
prized artistic opportunities 
of Rome. Here the Queen 
Mother and other members of 
the Royal Household were 
frequent visitors. It was in 
this quaint and unique abode 
that he liked to show to his 
friends and visitors remark- 
able rare examples of ancient 
art, including many Greek 
and Roman fragments, which, 
together with this part of the 
Roman Baths themselves, 
contributed in no little degree 




Marble relievo — "Consolation." M. Ezekiel, Berlin, 1873. 
Professor Leo's Collection, Potsdam, Germany. 



[233] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 




Virginia Mourning Her Dead. 

Colossal bronze statue by Sir Moses Ezekiel, Rome, 
erected on campus in front of main building of the 
Virginia Military Institute at Lexington in memory of 
the Cadets of the V. M. I. who fell at the battle of New- 
market, Va. in 1864. 



to the nobility of the setting in which 
art, music, and beauty were most hap- 
pily combined with living forms of 
foliage, flowers and birds. 

Early in this Roman life he made the 
acquaintance of Franz Liszt, the emi- 
nent musical composer, and Cardinal 
Gustave von Hohenlohe, the Papal 
representative of Austria. An intimate 
friendship grew up between these three 



which lasted throughout their lives. 
They formed in themselves a lovely 
trinity of Art, Music and Religion, as 
between man and man, and it is quite 
natural that his portrait busts of these 
two notables should be among his best 
works. Besides the winters in "The 
Eternal City" these three famous 
friends had frequently their summers in 
the Villa d'Este at Tivoli, that sump- 
tuous palace and home of the Cardinal. 
In such a soil and in such an atmos- 
phere was the sensitive soul of Ezekiel 
nourished. What more could a pro- 
found artist ask, greater than these, for 
the growth of the spirit? 

After a residence of over thirty years 
in the Baths of Diocletian it nearly 
broke his heart to have the Govern- 
ment demand the possession of this 
part of the ruins as an adjunct to the 
National Museum. On leaving there 
he was given by the municipal author- 
ities the Tower of Belisarius on the 
Pincian Hill overlooking the Borghese 
Gardens, which furnished him a home 
for the rest of his years, while he took 
a studio and work rooms in the Via 
Fausta just off the Piazza del Populo. 

However, this disappointment had 
its redeeming side, for in consequence 
at this time he took occasion to visit 
America and while in his native country 
received the commission to execute 
the Confederate Soldiers Monument, 
which has served today, in a measure, 
as his tomb, in the Arlington National 
Cemetery — this monument and that of 
Edgar Allan Poe,' for Baltimore, being 
his last important works. 

Ezekiel was helpful and generous to 
the poor, a friend to everyone, and by 
his works calls all who follow after 
him to the service of man for better and 
higher ideals. 

Washi'iiglon, D. C. 

•See Art and Archaeology, vol. V no. 5 (May 191 7) pp. ^06- 
jios. 

[234] 




Lake of Nemi in the Alban Hills. It was in the bottom of this lake that the ruiiiams of the two ships 

belonging to the time of the Roman Emperor Caligula were found. The banks are 330 feet in height 

and the waters of the lake are over 100 feet in depth. 



THE ALBAN LAKES 

By Mary Mendenhall Perkins. 



I 



SAW something in the Museo 
delle Terme yesterday, of singular 
interest," observed my compan- 
ion, as we chatted about our recent 
respective Roman wanderings. 

"What was it?" I asked. 

"Those bronze mooring rings and 
ornaments from the two ships which 
were discovered in the bottom of Lake 
Nemi, in the Alban Hills." 

"Yes, I saw those, and I saw, too, 
some heavy beams of larchwood, one 
of them eight)'-five feet long, which 
came from one of these same 
ships." 

" Let's take a day off from museums 
and churches and visit the Alban 
lakes tomorrow," she suggested. 

[235] 



"Agreed," I replied gladly. 

The Alban Mountains, with their 
extinct volcano of Monte Cavo, are 
still frequently reminded of their vol- 
canic origin through the medium of an 
occasional earthquake, while the two 
lakes, Albano and Nemi, without doubt, 
occupy the beds of two craters. 

The region about Frascati, has 
always, owing to its height and situa- 
tion, been a healthful district, abound- 
ing in springs, and enjoying the benefits 
of luxuriant cultivation. Alban wine, 
as we know, was famous even in antiq- 
uity. Both Frascati and Albano, near 
these lakes, have been surrounded since 
the most ancient times, with the coun- 
try houses of wealthy Romans. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 




Bronze mooring-ring from one of the ships sunk in 

the bottom of Lake Nemi in the time of Caligula. 

It is of perfect workmanship and may be seen today 

in the Museo delle Terme, in Rome. 

"No wonder the region is so full of 
fascination for the student," I said. "It 
is the human interest, after all, that adds 
the greatest charm to these scenes." 

"Yes," replied my friend, "it makes 
very real the great men who once were a 
part of it all, who belonged to this very 
soil." 

As we left Frascati behind us and 
took the road to Lake Albano, we 
passed a fountain with a large reservoir, 
at which a number of the country 
women, wearing the picturesque Alban 
costume, were washing and beating their 
clothes, talking, laughing, exchanging 
the gossip of the day, and making a 
pleasure of their labor. 

We drove along this beautiful road, 
in the early spring-time, with Monte 
Cavo towering above us, and came sud- 
denly into full view of the Lake of 
Albano. Its deep, clear, oval basin, 



flowering banks, rich, green ilex and 
cypress trees made a picture of endur- 
ing beauty. We passed Castel Gon- 
dolfo, the pope's summer residence, 
which he never visits now, and entered 
Albano by a long avenue of noble ilex 
trees. It is said there is no more re- 
markable antiquity in the world than 
the emissarium, or outlet of the Alban 
lakes. This was made four hundred 
years before the Christian era. It is a 
tunnel a mile and a half long, bored 
through solid rock of the mountain of 
Albano, and built of masonry. It was 
made to carry off the waters of the lake 
which had risen to such a height that 
they threatened the whole plain of 
Latium, and Rome itself, with in- 
undation. 

At this time Rome was besieging the 
Etruscan city of Veii, twelve miles to 
the north. The Delphic oracle being 
consulted, said that Rome would never 
be safe or Veii conquered, 'til the waters 
of the Alban were made to flow into the 
sea. As it occupied the bed of an old 
volcanic crater, it had, up to this time, 
no visible outlet. So the Romans 
inspired by fear of defeat and destruc- 
tion, undertook, and carried through, 
the gigantic work within a year. After 
the lapse of twenty-three hundred 
years, it still carries the surplus waters 
of the Alban lakes to the sea. As the 
channel is only six feet high and three 
and a half wide, it is said but three men 
could work in it at one time. Piranesi 
says they must have bored deep pits, in 
several places in the mountain, to the 
proper level and let men down to work 
at it. The strong arch of masonry at 
its mouth is a proof that the structure 
of the arch was known to the Romans 
as early as 400 B. c. 

A little farther on we saw along the 
shore of the lake, some high artificial 
caves or grottoes, hollowed out of the 

1236] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



rocky, steep banks, called by the 
natives, the "Bagni di Diana" or the 
"Baths of Diana." They are thought 
to be the remains of a nymphaeum, or 
summer retreat, constructed by the 
Emperor Domitian. 

The nymphae of ancient times were 
usually made in the sides of steep hills ; 
certainly no more delightful place for 
one could be found than the shore of 
the Alban Lake. 

The Emperor Domitian had a magni- 
ficient villa on this lake ; portions of its 
ruins being visible yet in the extensive 
grounds of the Villa Barberini. The 
villa of Domitian included those of 
Clodius and Pompey. The most curi- 
ous part to be seen today is a long 
crypto-portico, or underground pas- 
sage-way. Cicero called the villa, 
■'Clodius's insane structure." 

The present Villa Barberini follows, 
in its general plan, the outline of the 
glorious villa of Domitian. Many of the 
ancient walls, terraces and other ruins 
are so concealed by a thick growth of 
ivy, ferns and evergieens, that one feels 
rather than sees, the antiquity of the 
place. It is said that no tree, flower or 
bird that is not purely of classic times 
seems to be allowed to live in this once 
imperial domain. No flowers adorn 
the emerald green of the lawns, except 
the classic rose and violet. 

Lanciani, the greatest archaeologist 
in Rome today, says that the view 
from the Villa Barljerini, commands 
more classic history "as it stretches far 
away from the foot of the Alban Hills 
to the Mediterranean, from the pro- 
montory of Circe to Mt. Soracte, 
from Ostia to the Tiber and Rome, 
than in all other districts of Italy 
together." 

To reach Lake Nemi, we followed an 
ancient road which led over an impos- 
ing viaduct spanning the gorge betwene 

[237] 



Albano and Ariccia, two hundred feet 
to the bottom of it! Ariccia was the 
fifth station on the Appian Way, which 
is remembered as the place where 
Horace spent the first night of his 
journey to Brundusium. The women 
of Ariccia and Genzano, on Lake Nemi, 
are famed for their beauty. 

The beautiful little Lake of Nemi, 
was once the crater of an active vol- 
cano. It is somewhat smaller than the 
Lake of Albano, more nearly round, 
and sunk more deeply in its woody 
banks; so deeply indeed that it is said 
no wind ever ruffles its glossy surface. 
The ancient poets called it, " Diana's 
Mirror"; this from a temple to the 
Scythian Diana, on the north side of 
the lake, where, at that time, was only 
a dense forest. Of this temple only 
ruins remain. 

The rule of this sanctuary by the Lake 
of Nemi, was truly barbaric, and worthy 
of the Scythians, for no one could be 
elected High Priest of the Temple, 
unless he had slain, in single combat, 
with his own hands, his predecessor, 
who had won the office in the same 
manner. Imagine the state of terror in 
which the pagan priests must have 
lived. This dreadful rite was con- 
tinued down to the time of Marcus 
Aurelius, in the second century of the 
Christian era. 

Archaeologists tell us that this lake 
was formed hundreds of years before 
the extinction of the last volcano in the 
Alban Mountains. One can imagine 
what an awe-inspiring place it must 
have been to the worshippers in the 
Temple of Diana. The borders of the 
lake, covered with its thick forest 
must have echoed and re-echoed to the 
rumbling and frightful outbursts of the 
nearby Monte Pila. We are told that 
the ashes and smoke filled the sky and 
the echoes from cliff to cliff and from 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



mountain to mountain were heard as 
far as Rome. 

Perhaps the most interesting thing 
connected with this lake today, was the 
discovery some years ago, of the two 
ships at the bottom of the lake which is 
over one hundred feet deep. The 
ships, relics of which had formed the 
immediate cause of this pilgrimage of 
ours, are of great size and rich in va- 
rious kinds of ornament. They were 
doubtless launched in the luxurious 
time of Caligula, nearly two thousand 
years ago. Many attempts have been 
made during the last five hundred years 
to bring them to the surface, but so far, 
without success, as they are deeply 
imbedded in the silt and mud of the 
lake. By an ingenious arrangement of 
floaters, tied to strong cords, the other 
ends of the latter fastened around the 
sides of the sunken ship, the exact 
shape and outline of these boats were 
obtained. One of the ships was thus 
found to be two hundred, the other two 
hundred and fifty feet long. 

For the fourth time, the raising of the 
submerged craft was tried in 1895, with 
better results than formerly. The 
decks of the first boat examined by the 
divers must have been a marvelous 
sight; evidently money had not been 
spared to make them wonderfully 
beautiful. They were paved with disks 
of porphyry, and serpentine, two of the 
rarest marbles, about a quarter of an 
inch thick, framed in lines of white, 
gold, red and green enamel. The 
parapet and railings were all heavily 



gilded ; the lead pipes which had carried 
the water to the fountain on deck, were 
inscribed with the name of Caligula, 
Roman Emperor. The beautiful 
bronze mooring-rings from the first 
ship, to be seen in the Museo delle 
Terme today, include lions, wolves and 
tiger's heads, also a fine head of Medusa, 
in bronze. A large number of Larch- 
wood beams, which we saw in the same 
museum, were brought up partially 
broken. 

On the second ship, marble terraces, 
enameled decks, shrines and fountains, 
were discovered, with what had once 
been hanging gardens. 

"How," asked my friend, "were two 
such large ships ever launched on this 
small lake, with its steep banks, 
hundreds of feet to the waters' 
edge?" 

"No one, even among our learned 
archaeologists, has answered that ques- 
tion yet," I replied. 

"Of course there are many opinions 
and theories, but thus far they are only 
surmises. The wisest of them all, 
Lanciani, says he believes the ships 
were used for religious ceremonies con- 
nected with the Temple of Diana, and 
for combined processions on land and 
water." 

When these ships are floated again, 
if they ever are, perhaps discoveries will 
be made, then, which will reveal to us 
the mystery of their origin and, it may 
be, tell us, too, what fates conspired to 
bring about their end. 

Los A ngeles, California. 



[238] 



SOME LITERARY BOOKPLATES 



By Alfred Fowler. 



THE HIGHWAYS of Literary Book- 
plates have been well and truly ex- 
plored but many byways of untold 
charm and happiness are still uncharted. 
The bookplates of literary people are 
usually "association copies" but some of 
them bear more clearly than others the 
sign manual of individuality. Tower- 
ing head and shoulders above the 
majority of its fellows — always pro- 
vided a bookplate may have head and 
shoulders — may be found the design 
used by A. Edward Newton of Ameni- 
ties of Book-Collecting fame. 

For bookplates some people choose 
posters, others choose engravings after 
the fashion of their silver plate, whilst 
still others seem to prefer merely to 
enhance the decoration of their books 
by adding some conventional ornament. 
But, whatever the motif, whatever the 
mode, a wise man like Mr. Newton 
chooses a design he will always cherish. 
The wise man's bookplate has an in- 
dividuality and permanency which, like 
his choice of books, reflects his own 
character. 

As one would expect, Mr. Newton's 
bookplate is of Johnsonian interest and 
depicts an incident in Boswell. John- 
son and Goldsmith were standing in the 
Poet's Corner of Westminster Abbey 
when Johnson quoted, " Forsitan et 
nostrum fjonien miscebitur istis." (Per- 
haps some day our names will mingle 
with these.) On their way home they 
noticed the heads of some traitors 
spiked on Temple Bar and, probably 
with thoughts of their own Jacobite 
tendencies in mind, Goldsmith para- 
phrased the quotation, "Perhaps some 
day our heads will mingle with those!" 




The bookplate of Algernon Charles 
Swinburne is typical of his attitude 
toward his books during those last 
years "the little old genius and his 
little old acolyte" (Watts-Dun ton) spent 
in their "dull little villa" in Putney. 
When Fitzmaurice-Kelly complimented 
the poet on his collection of Elizabethan 
and Jacobean dramatists Swinburne 
said, "Yes! not bad for a poor man," 
and so it was with his bookplate except 
the bookplate would not have been bad 
for a rich man who really loved his 
books. 

Being a severely simple typographical 
label, the bookplate's interest lies purely 
in its association with its genius owner 
who withdrew more and more into his 
books as deafness and the beneficent 
tyrarmy of Watts-Dunton overwhelmed 



[239] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



•:• Fr6m tfie CiBfary of" 




Mgefhon Chaffes SwinGuihe 



him at "The Pines." No far stretch of 
the imagination is required to visuaUze 
the poet pasting his emblem of esteem — 
for was he not giving it his own name ? — 
into a newly acquired and much be- 
loved Elizabethan quarto just added to 
that select company which had become 
such a real part of himself in those last 
years of seclusion. 

That Swinburne was a great admirer 
of Victor Hugo is attested by the fact 
that he called Hugo "the greatest man 
bom since the death of Shakespeare." 
Whether or not we fully agree with that 
opinion, most of us will admit being 
very much interested in Hugo's life and 
work, although all too few of us are 
acquainted with his bookplate made in 
July, 1870, by Aglaiis Bouvenne and 
sent to him as one of the countless gifts 
received during his "glorious exile" in 
Guernsey. We may well believe that 
such a staunch advocate of the utilty 
of the beautiful made good use of the 
bookplate in the small but select work- 
ing library of "The Lookout" on the 
roof of Hauteville House. Here the 
red-robed figure worked incessantly, 
standing before a little shelf high on the 
wall, magically transmuting bottles of 
ink into golden fruit. 

The bookplate is a result of the 
artist's admiration for Les Chatiments, 
"a book written in lightning" as Swin- 
burne says, and shows Notre Dame de 
Paris in a storm-shadowed background 
with a streak of lightning flashing across 
the foreground and bearing the name 
"Victor Hugo." There is also an im- 



aginary bookplate in existence which 
Hugo never saw or used and which 
depicts a frog on a ledge over the water, 
looking at the setting sun in which 
appears the name "Hugo." 

vSpeaking of Shakespeare calls to 
mind the two superb bookplates the 
late C. W. Sherborn, R. E-, engraved 
for the Shakespeare Memorial Library 
and the Shakespeare's Birthplace Li- 
brary at Stratford-upon-Avon. These 
two bookplates were engraved by Mr. 
Sherborn in his best style, that for the 
Birthplace Library reproducing the 
interior of the room in which the bard 
is said to have been born whilst the 
bookplate for the Alemorial Library 
reproduces the Droeshout portrait per- 
fectly in a space less than an inch and a 
half high! 

Around the portrait is a frame of 
beautiful roses and leaves from the forest 
of Arden and just above the portrait are 
the Shakespeare arms with the old 
motto, " Non sans droict." A Baconian 
with 



fair degree of confidence 



m 




[240] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 




Shakespeare's integrity must find con- 
siderable food for thought in that 
motto — " Nothing without Right " ! 

Mr. T. Sturge Moore, that genius so 
talented in poesy as well as art, has 
made only a few bookplates but all of 
them are rare examples of what a vital 
piece of art a bookplate can be in the 
hands of a master. Mr. Moore always 
combines his own ideas with those of 
his friends in making bookplates for 
them. Thus the bookplate of W. B. 
Yeats is doubly interesting as a literary 
bookplate since it combines in a "sweet 
wedding of simplicity" the ideas of its 
poet owner and its poet-artist maker. 
The design has precisely the feeling one 
would expect to find in the personal 
mark of the author of Deirdre and The 
Host of the Air. 

On one side we see a full-formed 
maiden reaching for the overflowing 
flagon of life whilst, on the other side, 
the empty bowl is being reluctantly put 
down by a hooded, wasted figure of age, 

[241] 



symbolical of life and of its fullness and 
emptiness at once. A vignette in the 
center recalls the Rose of Shadow where 
"suddenly the thatch at one end of 
the roof rolled up, and the rushing 
clouds . . . seemed to be lost in^a 
formless mass of flame which roared but 
gave no heat, and had in the midst of 
it the shape of a man crouching on the 
storm." 

The bookplate Mr. vSturge Moore has 
made for Campbell Dodgson is another 
particularly fine creation, this time com- 
bining the ideas of two ardent enthu- 
siasts of wood-engraving with the happy 
results one might justly expect. Mr. 
Dodgson, who is the Keeper of Prints 
and Drawings at the British Museum, 
has written a great deal about wood- 
engraving and other branches of art, 
especially the work of Albrecht Diirer. 
" Diligence Taming the Passions " is the 
subject of the design in which the poet- 
artist has given full play to his mastery 



, ^^^^^SS^. 




ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 




of design and of the art of engraving on 
wood, resulting in a little masterpiece 
that will rank with the chosen few as 
time goes on. The lettering and border 
were added when the bookplates were 
printed at the Eragny Press. 

A shepherd in a leafy bower whiling 
away the dreamy noontide charmed by 
the piping of Pan was Edmund Clarence 
Stedman's idea of an idyllic existence. 
The motto on the bookplate of this 
anomalous genius who once character- 
ized himself as " a man of letters among 
men of the world, and a man of the 
world among men of letters," gives 
another interesting glimpse of his real 
character. The motto " Le coeiir an 
metier," which may be freely translated 
"With your heart in your work" 
echoed his heartfelt sentiments and 



reflected a hidden strength which drove 
him to wrestle with Commerce to gain 
the leisure to woo the Muses. When 
he sought refuge at Kelp Rock from the 
stormy existence at the Stock Exchange 
it is easy to believe that he derived an 
immense amount of satisfaction from a 
possession which so constantly re- 
minded him of his ideal. On opening 
a book, even a glance at the little book- 
plate would do much toward establish- 
ing that peaceful state of mind he 
sought. 

Stedman's verse and criticism testify 
to his abihty as a man of letters whilst 
his popularity with his business asso- 
ciates led them, after his death, to 
subscribe a fund to furnish a room in the 
Keats-Shelley house at Rome in per- 
petuation of his memory. The Keats- 
Shelley Memorial, in this connection, 
has an unusual bookplate engraved on 
wood by Timothy Cole after a design 
by Howard Pyle which is one of only 
eight designs for bookplates by that 
artist. 

A comprehensive paper on Literary 
Bookplates would include an almost 
endless list of authors' bookplates and 




tt?T^EX/LIBRIS CAMPBELL DODGSON»>^ 



[242] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



EX 



BRIS 



B 




— i.E COEUR' 




STEDMAN 



hearts of collectors. In this small space 
the attempt has been to deal with a few 
exceptional devices which stand out 
from their fellows as affording otherwise 
closed vistas of their owners' lives and 
characters. The field has not been 
exhausted — indeed the surface has 
^_ . . - .■^^ ^_— -—-----_ barely been scratched ! — and it may be 

Fr'AT ^"SHF LLrniFTIORlAL ' \ possible to deal with additional ex- 
f^t.^l_^^rmJ^u^^i^_i:^Ll- ) ^^pi^g ^^ ^^^ future if the subject 



would be about as useless as those should be found of sufficient interest, 
check-lists which are so dear to the Kansas City, Mo. 




[243] 



WILLIAM RUSH 



THE EARLIEST NATIVE-BORN AMERICAN SCULPTOR 
By Wilfred Jordan. 



WHEN OUR ancestors came to 
America they brought with them 
only a few essential household 
goods and for a considerable period were 
unable to supplement these, except with 
the plainest and most necessary things 
of their own manufacture. Later, as 
conditions became more settled our 
early craftsmen found opportunity to 
beautify their work and these efforts 
mark the beginning of American Art. 
The craft of the wood carver in early 
times being a luxury rather than a 
necessity, its development was slow, 
and only became stabilized when our 
cities began to grow and general pros- 
perity was established. 

The names of the most of these 
artists in wood have long been forgotten 
but one stands out preeminent as the 
master of them all, William Rush. 
Bom in Philadelphia, in 1756, he was 
apprenticed while a mere lad to Edward 
Cutbush, a carver from London, and 
developed such remarkable aptitude 
that it was not long before he was 
"rewarded by a large and lucrative 
business in the designing of figureheads 
for ships." 

In such times as Rush could snatch 
from his occupation, he executed a 
creditable number of pieces of sculpture. 
Of these the best known are his figures 
of "George Washington" and "Leda 
and the vSwan" (sometimes called the 
"Nymph and the Bittern" and "The 
vSpirit of the vSchuylkill. ") Both of 
these examples of his work are in the 
National Museum collection at Inde- 
pendence Hall. 

In more than forty biographical and 
historical works in which William Rush 

[245] 



is mentioned, the name? of his parents 
or descendants are not given. "The 
son of a ship carpenter," "Third child 
of a family," "The only child of a ship 
carpenter," so his biographers state; 
agreeing, however, that he was bom in 
Philadelphia July 4, 1756, and died there 




Liberty cruvvning Washington the latest Rush find. 

Now on exhibition in the Metropolitan Museum of 

Art, New York City. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



Januan' 17, 1833. Few of the details 
of Rush's life have been preserved in 
any form. The best sketch of him, 
though very brief is to be found in 
William Dunlap's Arts of Design. 

To see any of the work of Cutbush, 
to whom Rush was apprenticed, is to 
realize that he was chiefly self-taught, 
and in spite of his limitations his work 
displays a depth and breadth of artistic 
feeling and understanding that are truly 
remarkable in view of his restricted 
opportunities. 

His figurehead of the "Indian 
Trader" for the ship William Penn was 
so true to life that the wood carvers of 
London would come in row boats and 
lay near the vessel and sketch designs 
from it, they even made plaster casts of 
the head. His figure of "The Genius 
of the United States" for the frigate 
United States, his "Nature" on the 
frigate Constellation, and his 
"America," a female figure crowned 
with laurel decorating the frigate 
America launched in 1782. All were 
of chaste design and of great strength. 
Of his "River God" on the ship 
Ganges, Charles Willson Peale said, 
" Its beautifully proportioned moulding 
forms a face that seems 'petrified by the 
sentiment of the Infinite;' one is im- 
pelled to reverence." 

Besides numerous real and mythical 
characters. Rush also executed ad- 
mirable busts. 

What is interesting and not generally 
known is that many of his works are 
still preserved, and in a remarkable 
state of preservation, considering the 
usage many have received. 

A list of his carvings which have been 
identified by the writer and not already 
mentioned, follows: 

Full-length figures of "Wisdom," 
"Justice," "Winter," "The Schuylkill" 
(river), "Chained," "The Schuylkill 




Original head of Leda from the wood carved figure of 

Leda and the swan by WiUiam Rush. The rest of the 

figure has been destroyed. 

Freed," "Comedy," "Tragedy," "The 
American Eagle," "Commerce," "La- 
bor," "Peace," "War," and "Liberty 
Crowning Washington" — a recent dis- 
covery, now on exhibition at the Metro- 
politan Museum of Art, New York City. 
The biggest group of these is at the 
Old Fairmount Water Works, Phila- 
delphia, now the New Municipal Aqua- 
rium. Here repose "Wisdom" and 
"Justice," both colossal figures carved 
for the occasion of Lafayette's visit to 
Philadelphia in 1824. Originally these 
were placed on a triumphal arch in 
front of Independence Hall. "Justice" 
leans on a shield with balance and 
scales; "Wisdom" looks into a mirror, 
which she holds in her right hand, a 
serpent coils down her left arm its head 
within the grasp of her half-closed 
hand. 

[246] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



Rush gave an exhibition of his work 
at the Philadelphia Academy of the 
Fine Arts, in 1812, which included busts 
of Linnaeus, William Bartram, Henr}' 
Muhlenberg, two busts of William Penn, 
a bust of himself, and busts of Voltaire, 
Franklin, Rousseau and Lafayette ; also, 
statues of ideal figures: "Architecture," 
"Exhortation," "Praise," "Cherubim," 
"Agriculture," and "Christ on the 

ross. 

It is very easy to analyze Rush's 
style and to pick hall-marks for identi- 
fication; he had his favorite motifs and 
designs; his proportions were nearly 
perfect, his details fine. In almost 
every case his figures were hollow, where- 
ever the proportions admitted, even in 
the arms and feet ; and each section was 



carefully fitted with long wooden dowels 
and then glued together. There is 
evidence that he treated the hollow 
parts of his figures to help preserve 
them, using cedar oil or bees' wax for 
that purpose. 

Dunlap tells us: "His time would 
never permit or he would have worked 
in marble. He used to say it was im- 
material what the substance was, the 
artist must see distinctly the figure in 
the block." 

It is impossible to find in America 
better expressions of the woodworker's 
art than the work of this genius who 
may be truthfully called the earliest 
native-bom American sculptor. 

Independence Hall, Philadelphia. 



RU5 IN URBE 

Song for City Folk in tKe Spring-time. 

/4nd, oh, "where'er the Sunset trails 

Beauty inheres, 
Whether o'er land the daylight fails 

Or on shimmering meres; 
E'en these small squares of city grass, 

Emerald and gold. 
In magery of web surpass 

Famed meads of old. 
And, oh, where'er Youth doth abound 

Love hath delight, 
Whether of low, near to the ground, 

or of the height! 
Humble, indeed, who, hand in hand, 

Walk through the streets; 
Yet glance and touch make fairyland 

As the heart beats! 

H.ARVEY M. Watts. 



[247 J 



GLIMPSES INTO GREEK ART 



By Frederick Poulsen. 



I 




N ONE of the cabinets of the Met- 
ropoHtan Museum of Art in New 
York is exhibited a gold ring with an 
engraved bezel, representing a young 
woman who has thrown her dress over a 
chair and now stands, lifting her arms in 
sheer joy of the pliant strength of her 
young body. Judging by its style it 
was executed in the fifth century b. c. 
by a Greek artist, 
but there is some- 
thing so fresh and en- 
gaging in the figure 
that after two thou- 
sand years its charm 
is still felt by the 
spectator. I wonder 
how many persons in 
the busy and rest- 
less crowds of New York know of the 
existence of this little work of art which 
after many travels has come to rest in 
the heart of their city, reminding them 
of the joys to be gained from the 
memory of their past. No one can 
escape sorrow, but it is in the power 
of everyone to fill his leisure hours with 
the pleasure to be found in the artistic 
creations of man. It is the dream of the 
artist that his work shall lighten the 
daily life of the generations to come. 
But the artist is powerless without the 
help of others who guard and transmit 
what he has made. A poet's songs will 
not be remembered and treasured by 
generation after generation unless 
lovers of poetry, year by year, bear 
witness to the worth of their treasures. 
As with poetry, so it is with painting. 
During the period of the Renaissance it 
was seen that life became more vivid, 
that new sources of pleasure were 
opened through the study and appre- 



ciation of the art of antiquity, study 
aimed not at imitation, but pursued 
for inspiration in art, and for the adorn- 
ment of everyday life . And to this very 
day intellectual Europe is living on that 
inheritance. Its historians are the 
enemies of corruption, the servants of 
immortality, the steadfast, chivalrous 
guard of the great memories of life and 
art. 

But the muse of history is like the 
fairy who lures her knight deeper and 
deeper into the charmed mountain. 
Imperceptibly it leads the inquirer from 
art to life, from the great events and 
persons of the past to the common- 
places of its everyday life. In this 
change of view the excavation and re- 
discovery of the lost ancient cities Her- 
culaneum and Pompeii formed the turn- 
ing-point, by bringing to the investiga- 
tors of the eighteenth century the prob- 
lem of interpreting life as lived in these 
old towns, in the artistic dwellings of the 
aristocracy as well as in the mean gar- 
rets of the common people. The dis- 
coveries did away with the erroneous 
conception of the Greeks as a chosen 
people, endowed by the gods with 
superiority both in art and in science. 
And how much has been added by later 
investigation, how much both of light 
and shade has been brought out in the 
picture? What a revelation it is when, 
through the inscriptions from the tem- 
ple of Asklepios in Epidauros, we learn 
of a popular ignorance and superstition 
against which the contemporary works 
of a Plato and an Aristotle are thrown 
into strong relief. That students have 
sometimes gone too far in recording 
commonplace facts must be admitted, 
but the final decision in this matter does 



[248] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



not rest with the layman. He must 
content himself with the assurance that 
not all secrets, not all peccadillos are 
recorded, and it is possible to commit 
even a great many follies which will 
disappear into the common grave of 
time, leaving no trace behind. But 
does anything remain of special and 
exclusive value in the Greeks and in 
Greek art when the soul of their peo- 
ple is thus placed under the microscope 
of scientific investigation? Greek 
sculpture cannot be denoted simply as 
classical and contrasted with realism 
and romanticism. Art was only classi- 
cal in the fifth century and during a 
small part of the fourth century b. c. 
During the remainder of the fourth 
century and the whole of the Hellenis- 
tic period we see Greek art pass through 
all stages from extreme realism to 
romantic pathos, from charming, often 
superficial, conventionality to the ex- 
pression of the most intense feeling, 
thus including as many living and in- 
dividual forms as are possible within 
the limits of the art of sculpture. 
Hellenistic art embraces not only rep- 
resentations of street characters and 
intoxicated crones but also the theatri- 
cal contortion of Laocoon. The con- 
trast between ancient and modem 
sculpture lies not in the style or tech- 
nique, since we find styles ranging from 
the baroque to dry classicism, and we 
find great variety both in the treatment 
of material and in the employment of 
tools. The contrast, as the English 
archaeologist Guy Dickins, who lost 
his life in the World War, has so well 
said, lies only in the psychological rela- 
tion of the people to art. In modern 
times, which we may consider as be- 
ginning with ancient Rome, the mass of 
the people are indifferent to works of 
art. It would be no punishment to 
exile a man of the people to a town de- 

[249] 



void of statues and paintings. He 
would not suffer consciously either 
in his spiritual or his bodily well- 
being. Even in the time of the Re- 
naissance, which was much keener in 
its enthusiasm for art than the present 
time, it did not make any difference in 
a man's emotional attitude toward 
life whether he lived in a town full of 
paintings or in one where there were 
only a few, for even paintings, which 
the present time understands far better 
than sculpture, are only considered a 
handsome supplement to good furni- 
ture, not as a vital necessity. Art is a 
beautiful by-product of human activity, 
but can be dispensed with in modem 
opinion. But to the ancient Greeks 
art was more than a luxury and an 
ornament of life ; and even to a common 
Greek exile to a city without statues 
would have been a terrible punishment. 
It would have meant to him banishment 
to a desert of ungodliness, and a life 
without religion. The religious feelings 
of the Greeks were not satisfied by 
ceremonies and edifying speeches. The 
temples of the gods and their glorious 
images were to him the real edification. 
Again the local patriotism of the Greek 
demanded statues of the heroes of 
the city, the strong and mighty men 
whose power endured even after death ; 
and how could the city's pride, the 
victors in the games, be remembered 
unless there were statues representing 
them in their triumphant youth? The 
Nike of Samothrace was to the Greek 
not only a masterpiece of sculpture, 
but victory itself which produced in his 
mind the emotion which prayers and 
hymns bring to the mind of a Christian. 
There is, then, in Greek art a nucleus 
of deep seriousness. Of course, one 
smiled at caricature, just as one laughed 
in the theatre at the misfortunes of 
Herakles and Dionysos in a comedy of 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



Aristophanes. What could not be 
endured was frivolity in the deeper 
sense. There were dogmas in Greek 
art which were just as Httle shaken by 
caricature as the dogmas of the Middle 
Ages were touched by satires or comedies 
in which the devil played a comic part. 
But just as the Church showed a stern 
face if too many liberties were taken, 
so the Greek would hav^e felt the 
modern pursuit of various styles, from 
impressionism to futurism and cubism, 
to be blasphemy, and would have heard 
with anger the constantly recurring 
phrase of modern critics: "the sensa- 



tion of this exhibition. " For this rea- 
son Greek art is like a spacious and 
cool temple free from the contamination 
of the people as well as from the scented 
air of the boudoir. Good and evil were 
to the Greek equivalent to beauty and 
ugliness, and there was no good taste, 
because bad taste was altogether un- 
known. And that is why we shall 
always fall back upon Greek art, how- 
ever much modern art may strive and 
experiment to the farthest bounds of 
extravagance. 

Ny-Carlsberg Glypiothek, Copenhagen. 



ON A 5AROUK RUG 



Rose and blue and ffold/ 
It lies under the lamps 
And carpets my room 
Jf itii the evocation 
Of gardens long dust 
And hours long dark. 
Rose: 
. Edge of dawn 
Above black trees. 
Blue and gold: 
If hiie-starred midnights 
And smoke of desert fires 
Lance-straight on guard 
By sleeping caravans. 
Pottiegranates forever out of reach 
Of gilded tortoise, 
Roses of Iran 

And ghost-pale almond branch 
Forever still in a breezeless close. 
***** 

Thrum, 

Thrum. 

The sitar's empty voice in tune — 

Thru the dissolving years 

Breaks the high, thin tinkle 

Of many bracelets. 



Gleams the white flutter 

Of ardent feet 

Like seeking butterflies 

In the soft rose and gold 

Of this Sarouk garden place. 

O lotus-white and pink, 

O breeze-bloivn curve of open arms! 

The Eastern sun 

Slants thru palace ivindows 

Lights your siveet, child mouth. 

Your rose-tipped hands; 

Lights your ivaving grace 

As you sivay 

Like some wondrous passion-flower 

Sprung from the glowing garden 

Of this ancient Sarouk rug. 

* * * » " # * 

O Persian love of mine — ■ 

Hoiv long ago your little feet 

Pressed this rose and blue and gold! 

And still you answer dream with dream 

And keep your nightly tryst 

W hen an imagined sitar 

Thrums its fevered beat 

In the heart of your IJ'estern lover. 

Come too late. 

H. H. Bellamann. 



[250] 



CARICATURE AND THE GROTESQUE IN ART 

By Alfred J. Lotka. 



IT HAS been remarked that most dis- 
quisitions on humor bear the stamp 

of having been written by persons 
themselves somewhat lacking in the 
sense of humor. Schopenhauer, to 
whom we owe a classic on the subject, 
cites, as an example of the ludicrous, the 
appearance presented by the tangent 
meeting the circumference of a circle. 
Having delivered himself of this bril- 
hant example of the ludicrous, he pro- 
ceeds to analyse why it should be so 
funny. In justice to Schopenhauer be 
it said that some of the other examples 
which he condescendingly adduces "in 
order to come to the assistance of the 
mental inertness of the reader," are gen- 
uinely funny and elicit a hearty laugh. 

The fact, of course, is that the comic 
is one of those things which it is difficult 
to analyze or define, though most of us 
have no difficulty in recognizing it when 
we meet it. Not that the sense of humor 
is at all uniform. The musical "comedy" 
which draws a large and seemingly much 
amused audience may arouse, in one 
critically disposed, nothing more than 
a smile of pity for the feeble attempt at 
humor, and perhaps some resentment of 
the insult offered to his intelligence in 
expecting him to laugh at such in- 
anities. On the other hand, some of us 
who lately attended the rendering of 
John Ferguson, were much annoyed by 
the malformed sense of humor of certain 
persons in the audience ; a correspondent 
writing to one of our daily papers and 
commenting on this, suggested the 
founding of a "Society for Extermi- 
nating Audiences Who Laugh at the 
Wrong Time . " Of course , in such cases 
the fault may not lie wholly with the 
audience — but as to this let the critic 

[251] 



decide. The fact is, the line between 
the tragic and the comic is not so very 
clearly defined, and for this reason the 
playwright or actor who seeks to appeal 
to our sense of the tragic is always in 
danger of breaking through thin ice and 
calling forth laughter out of season. 
The descent from the sublime to the 
ridiculous is perilously easy. Even in 
real life we occasionally meet with 
terrible illustrations of the close neigh- 
borly relation between the emotions 
associated with the comic and the tragic. 
There is an instance on record of an 
entire funeral procession being con- 
vulsed with laughter started by one of 
the mourners recalling a witty saying of 
the deceased ; and history related how a 
certain frontiersman, returning to his 
home, and finding his wife and children 
murdered, burst into a fit of uncontrol- 
lable laughter, exclaiming again and 
and again "It is the funniest thing I 
ever heard of"; and so he laughed on 
convulsively until he died from a 
ruptured blood-vessel. 

In the graphic arts the comic finds 
its most marked expression in the carica- 
ture and the grotesque. Here also we 
find a mixture of the solemn and the 
ludicrous. In his characteristic style, 
which is singularly adapted to this 
topic, G. K. Chesterton remarks: 
"Caricature is a serious thing; it is 
almost blasphemously serious. Cari- 
cature really means making a pig 
more like a pig than even God has 
made him. But anyone can make him 
not like a pig at all; anyone can create 
a weird impression by giving him the 
beard of a goat." 

We are accustomed not to take 
Chesterton too seriouslv. Yet there 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



is always an element of truth in his 
over-statements. And that there is 
some quite serious motive behind the 
frolics of the artist let loose, venting 
his humor in caricature, is evidenced 
by the sketches of such great masters as 
Leonardo da Vinci. Vasary tells us 
that Leonardo, if he chanced to meet a 
face of extraordinary character, would 
follow its owner for a day at a time, 
until the features were thoroughly 
impressed upon his mind ; on his return 
home he would then draw his model from 
memory as if he were present to view. 
Lomazzo tells an amusing story, which 
shows how keen was da Vinci's interest 
in the humorous side of life, and which 
at the same time illustrates the origi- 
nality of method of this wonderful 
genius. Leonardo on the occasion nar- 
rated gave a dinner to which he invited 
a number of peasants. He amused his 
guests by telling them funny stories, 
until he had them all convulsed with 
laughter. He then withdrew, and when 
he returned to his company he brought 
with him a collection of sketches of his 
guests which, by their grotesqueness, 
only renewed the merriment. A little 
gruesome is the report that da Vinci 
made a custom of attending executions 
to watch the facial contortions of 
criminals in their death-throes. It is 
supposed that his interest here was 
largely anatomical. 

Next of kin to caricature is the 
grotesque. The term has been some- 
what variously used. Without enter- 
ing into a discussion of its history, or 
attempting a precise definition, we may 
accept Ruskin's statement that the 
grotesque is composed of two ele- 
ments — the ludicrous, and the fearful. 
"As either of these elements prevails, it 
becomes the sportive or the terrible 
grotesque." 

The psychology of the grotesque in 



art is something of a riddle. We com- 
monly conceive of the beautiful and the 
true as the theme and essence of crea- 
tive art. But in the grotesque we fre- 
quently have the hideous, and always 
an exaggeration, distortion, or a curious 
jumble of the truth. In gargoyles, for 
example, the stonecutters seem to vie 
with each other to see just how ugly a 
thing each can produce. Speaking of 
the gargoyles of Weatherby church, 
Thomas Hardy, in the novel "Far from 
the Madding Crowd," says: "A be- 
holder was convinced that nothing on 
earth could be more hideous than those 
on the south side, until he went round 
to the north." 

So far as the element of the terrible 
in the grotesque is concerned, its 
raison d'etre is probably seen in the same 
instinct which causes children to take a 
peculiar delight in terrifying masks and 
in stories of witches, blue-beards and 
ogres; the same instinct which lends 
even for grown-ups a peculiar attraction 
to ghost stories and spiritualistic 
seances. We like to be frightened just 
a little. We enjoy that "creepy feel- 
ing" of the graveyard atmosphere. In 
like manner the element of danger is the 
spice of sport — whether it take the form 
of scaling the precipitous side of a 
towering mountain peak, or the more 
commonplace form of automobile speed- 
ing. 

In the more extreme forms of the 
terrible grotesque it seems likely that 
another instinct plays a part — the 
instinct of cruelty, a survival of our 
primitive animal nature. The reader 
will readily call to mind figures of 
eastern idols which have this character- 
istic strongly marked. But it would 
not be difficult to find striking examples 
of this class also among modern pro- 
ductions of the Occident. 

If the grotesque is related on the one 

[252] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



side to the caricature, its relative on 
the other side is the mystic. Art draws 
its themes in part from the real world, in 
part from fictions of the mind. Not 
only the furniture of earth, but the 
choirs of heaven and hell also have 
inspired the artist. The great master- 
piece in this field of art is surely that 
wonderful prose poem, the Revelation 
of Saint John the Divine. Its popula- 
tion of strange creatures, uncouth in 
their mixed anatomy, forcibly brings 
out the relation of this type of artistic 
creation to the grotesque, where, also, 
hybrid monsters are of constant oc- 
currence. 

What Saint John, Dante, Milton and 
many others have done in this field with 
the pen, has been rendered for us with 
pencil and brush in unsurpassed excel- 
lence by Dore and Blake. 

As for caricature in secular fiction, it 
is impossible to frame these words even 
without thinking of Charles Dickens 
and his inimitable illustrator, Cruik- 
shank. And though life in a world 
peopled wholly with caricature would 
be an unendurable nightmare; though 



none of us would choose Dickens for our 
sole literary- diet, any more than one 
should attempt to live on salt alone; 
yet, like the pepper and salt in our 
food, a judicious seasoning of humor 
and caricature adds zest to life. Often 
it may serve to point a serious lesson 
where the solemn preacher has striven 
in vain. Laughter has proved one of 
the most powerful allies of the reformer. 
Ridicule will pierce many a hide too 
thick to yield to more gentle persuasion. 
With one dart from his acid quiver 
Dickens found the vulnerable spot of a 
multitude of Squeers. Caricature in 
this case proved indeed a serious thing, 
for the benefit of many a British school- 
boy of that day. 

But that caricature is not wholly 
serious, that it has its refreshingly amus- 
ing side, for this we, living in a world 
not devoid of much real sadness, are 
duly thankful. For, most of us agree 
with Robert Louis Stevenson in that we 
do not want to pay for tears anywhere 
but on the stage; though we are "pre- 
pared to deal largely with the opposite 
commodity." 



PIERO DI COSIMO 

Piero di Cosimo, 

Your unicorns and afterglow, 

Your black leaves cut against the sky, 

Black crosses where the young gods die, 

Black horizons where the sea 

And clouds contend perpetually, 

And hanging low, 

The menace of the night. 

They called you madman. Were they right, 
Piero di Cosimo? 

Robert Hillyer. 



[253] 




Pamleil by Hans Holbein. 

An English Lady of Fashion. Probably Margaret Wyat, Lady Lee. 



CREATORS OF COSTUMES 

By Kathryn Rucker. 



CHANGEvS in the social and politi- 
cal structure that followed one 
after another in mediaeval times, 
growth of wealth and power, and the 
development of the industrial arts of 
weaving, embroidering, and jewel-craft, 
created not only alone a love of luxury, 
but new intellectual vigor and alert- 
ness — a broadening of the mental hori- 
zon. 

All the minor expansions of art that 
preceded the high tide of culture of the 
Renaissance exhibited an increase of 
individuality. The possibilities for its 
expression in costume gave opportunity 
to the rulers of men to attract atten- 
tion, to win new admiration and social 
conquests, or inspire awe. Lords and 
ladies of the court were ever ready to 
practice that art of sincerest flattery, — 
imitation, and innovations in dress were 
eagerly adopted. The trick of invent- 
ing new modes eventually became so 
desirable to leaders of fashion and so 
profitable to costumiers that strange 
novelties succeeded each other with 
such swiftness that the fickle goddess 
exhausted her treasure houses, and 
soon had to metamorphose old into 
new. 

Sponsoring Fashion, each new royal 
head thought to ring in her changes 
with greater eclat than had yet been 
known. Favorites, too, were given to 
sway the magic wand; and by high 
patronage artists in numbers and arti- 
sans galore played their part in the 
creation of costumes until theirs was 
the prerogative to determine the mode 
and dictate Fashion's mandate to less 
mighty sovereigns. 

The king's chamberlain and queen's 
inaitresse de la robe had in charge Their 



Majesties' wardrobes. They sum- 
moned to their service the best sartorial 
talent, expertest jewelers, most skilled 
hairdressers and finest bootmakers. 
With these, crowned heads conspired 
to create attire suited to their tastes, 
their times and their high estate. 

Inspiration came not always from 
Beauty; personal and princely Pride it 
was that prompted those ancient auto- 
crats of style to clothe themselves in 
splendor. Feminine coquetry has 
usually acted to enhance natural 
charms or conceal physical defects by 
dress; but masculine vanity often dis- 
played no such wisdom. Bow legs and 
gros ventre are as boldly paraded in knee 
breeches and short jerkin as though 
Apollo strode within them. 

It must be admitted, however, that 
scrawny necks and corpulent arms and 
ankles are today no deterrent to decol- 
letage or brief skirts. But the graceful, 
trailing robes of the thirteenth cen- 
tury were created to effectively hide 
unshapely limbs, the unfortunate pos- 
sessions of daughters of Louis VIII; 
while, later in the period, Philip Ill's 
wife adopted the genuine because of 
her long throat and flat chest. 

Among early arbiters of dress in 
merry England was one Robert, who 
earned the epithet of "Cornadu" for 
setting the fashion by wearing shoes 
having their points stuffed till they 
curled like a ram's horn. Henry II of 
the succeeding epoch was dubbed 
"Short Cloak" according to his de- 
parture from previous styles in mantles. 

Pronounced types of dress had been 
chosen by vivid personalities, and it is 
these that are the crescendos in the 
song of fashion. Queen Elizabeth was 

[255] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



surely one of the noblest. She was a 
clever adaptor, exaggerating all the 
foreign details of her mode into cos- 
tumes strictly Elizabethan. But did 
not Fashion play a prank upon the 
virgin queen when captivating her with 
that evil device, the hooped skirt? It 
was originated by a wicked Spanish 
Senora as a means of adroitly con- 
cealing her lover when need be. Eliza- 
beth was truly a creator of costumes, 
and no more characteristic dress is 
vouchsafed in all Fashion's category. 
The maiden queen died possessed of no 
fewer than eight thousand gowns. 

The King Charles costume, in which 
king and cavalier of the seventeenth 
century were so picturesque, bore all 
the stamp of him who gave it vogue. 
It was elegant, gallant, debonnaire; 
it gathered ornament from Flanders 
and Spain, from Rome and Geneva, 
representing cosmopolitan culture and 
refinement. Van Dyck painted so 
many portraits of these brave figures, 
that the style of dress often is spoken 
of as "Van Dyck." 

Louis XIV and XV each left his 
mark upon the world of fashion, and 
their various feminine favorites made 
no small stir by their surpassing cos- 
tumes. De Montespan, de Pompa- 
dour, and even du Barry, one time 
midiuette, wore the diadem of Vanity 
Fair. But not until Louis XVI gave 
Marie Antoinette to the French Court 
as queen, had beau monde beheld such 
marvels in modes, nor had the heads of 
women been so turned by dress. 

The real creator of the Marie Antoin- 
ette fantasies was but a country lass 
who one day took a notion to find her 
way to Paris. Quick of eye and ready of 
hand, the captivating garden Rose be- 
came the famous Mile. Bertin, milliner 
and dressmaker to the Queen, with easy 
access to Her Majesty's private apart- 










Cartoon, of unknown authorship, caricaturing the 
crinoline. 



ments. Unwittingly Rose did her bit, 
to the extent of millions, toward taking 
France to the guillotine. 

She it was who conceived and directed 
the minutiae of the Queen's dress, out- 
rivalling all competitors in the origina- 
tion of extravaganzas, she retained the 
Queen's patronage until that hapless 
lady paid France for her follies with her 
frivolous head, leaving Rose's account 
unsettled. 

So extraordinary a personage was 
Mile. Bertin that she not only suc- 
ceeded in pleasing the Queen and Court 
with her creations, but in writing her 
own name indelibly in annals of suffi- 
cient importance to be preserved in the 
archives of the nation. And to her we 
doubtless owe our thanks for establish- 
ing a precedent — for records of later 
creators of costume. None before her 
had attained equal prominence, and 
none after quite echpsed her fame. 

Rose Bertin's success was not wholly 
a matter of taste and talent. Tact she 
frequently ignored, but she knew the 
value of advertising, and she was by no 
means content with but a single queen ; 
she drew from all Europe, and had luck 
with queens. According to a custom 
prevailing in Paris after the fifteenth 
century. Rose sent dolls dressed to 
show the Bertin modes to every Euro- 



[256] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



pean court, subsequently receiving or- 
ders for entire wardrobes for queens and 
princesses. 

Later, the younger ]\Ioreau, a notable 
artist, collaborated with the milliner 
and dressmaker in the production of 
engraved fashion plates which por- 
trayed her creations together with 
Beaulaud's. Fredin, Ouentin and Picot 
were among her distinguished rivals, 
but Bertin's star waned only with the 
passing of the ancien regime, when she 
saw the rise of the new star that was to 
shine in her place — the celebrated Leroi, 
costumier for the Court of Napoleon. 

During the brief period before Jose- 
phine rose to supremacy, Madame 
Tallien, that unscrupulous beauty who 
won for herself the title of "Queen of 
the Directoire," was high priestess at 
the pagan shrine of Fashion, offering 
upon its altar her bewitching charms 
unhidden by her neo-Greek garment of 
Egyptian gauziness. 

"It was in no inaccessible Olympus 
that she held her court, but in public 
places amid the throng and press of the 
common herd. She was the Aphrodite 
of the people," says her biographer, 
Gastine, who further styles her "Queen 




of shreds and patches." She it was who 
inspired and personified the mad Mer- 
veilleuses. 

The time was ever ready to acclaim 
new fashions with new favorites, and 
Josephine's gowns were soon the models 
for all Europe. Leroi replaced the 
Bertin shawl with a sho alder drapery of 
rich brocade, and the Directoire folds 
with the straight narrow Empire skirt. 

Though so largely adopting French 
and Continental styles, English sover- 
eigns and social elite have originated 
native fashions that likewise found 
their way across the Channel. Bucking- 
ham, Beau Brummel, Spencer and 
Chesterfield afforded some rather last- 
ing models,' and the Byron collar and 
Prince Albert coat still are being copied. 

The renowned artists, Watteau and 
Gainsborough, are claimed by Fashion 
in the name of a pleat and a hat, and our 
own worthy Gibson may be known to 
some chiefly through the medium of a 
shirt waist. In Titian's incomparable 
blondes we may behold one reason for the 
perpetual vogue for red hair, while Velas- 
quez, Goya and Rembrandt gave life 
without end to the fashions of their days. 

New York, N. Y. 




[257] 



"America Enters The War" by Mme. Anie Mouroux. 



CURRENT NOTES AND COMMENTS 

Madame An ic Mouroii.w French Medal is!. 





"Fraternity uu the Battlefield" by Mme. Anie Mouroux who won the I'l ;\ u^ 1;i,i:.l, October, 1919. 

The first woman to win the Prix de Rome, Madame Anie Mouroux, designed a striking com- 
position for the subject assigned, " Fralernile sur le champ de bataillc." The five other contestants 
were all men. It was the first time that a woman had even been admitted to the competition, 
since 1666, when the Prix de Rome was established. The successful design of Madame Mouroux, 
which won for her the Prix, a year's travel and study in Rome, was an ideal and classic interpre- 
tation of "Fraternity on the Battlefield." This was bought by the French Government and 
presented to Madame Mouroux's home town of Cosne, not far from Paris. 

As is well known, those who compete for this historic prize are secluded during ninety-six days, 
each in a little cell-like room alone, where they must prove their ability for original creation. 

In France Madame Mouroux has made many medals to commemorate anniversaries. An 
idealistic delineation of Jeanne d'Arc portrays the young peasant girl as a symbol of patriotism 
and suff'ering. 

"More than any other event of the war," we are told in La France for March, "the coming 
of the Americans inspired Madame Mouroux. . . . She began to make studies of Americans. 
To this period belong: 'Medal dedicated to the American Soldiers: The hour has come (obverse), 
To save humanity' (reverse), 'Medal dedicated to the American Mothers,' 'Medal to honor the 
American Soldiers killed in France,' and 'The Guardian Angel of the United States.' " 

General Pershing, who saw Madame Mouroux's portrait of Colonel H. H. Whitney, chief of 
the general staff, expressed a wish to have his own made by the same artist. He gave several 
sittings to Madame Mouroux, the only medalist thus honored, and she completed a very suc- 
cessful medal of the General, and another of his son Warren. General Pershing's letter of 
appreciation is one which Madame Mouroux prizes most highly. On the reverse of the Pershing 
portrait is the General's masterly phrase, "LaFayette, nous voila," with dates 1917-191S. 

Madame Mouroux is now visiting America and has recently completed a portrait cf the 
Honorable Maurice Casenave, Minister Plenipotentian,' and Director General of the French 
Services in the United States, a strong and impressive face. Her medals have attracted much 
favorable attention at the Wildenstein Galleries. She has now taken a studio on the top of the 
Woman's Exchange at Madison Avenue and Fifty-fourth Street, New York, where she adds 
interior decoration to her many other achievements. Madame Mouroux's thoroughness in 
everything she undertakes is illustrated bv her exceptional master}^ of the English language 

— G. R. Brigham. 

[258] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

A John Burroughs Art, Exhibition at The Ehrich Galleries. 

Artistic Fifth Avenue has seldom if ever before enjoyed an individual exhibition exactlv 
comparable to the one now installed at the Ehrich Galleries. This is a gathering of portraits of, 
and sketches of , scenes intimately associated with the poet-naturalist John Burroughs, author of 
"Winter Sunshine," "Birds and Poets," and countless others writings that for more than a genera- 
tion already have helped make the great heart of Nature literally an open book to men, women 
and children wherever the English language is read. All these pictures, from the academic pre- 
sentment lent by Yale University to the fragmentary pencil notes of some fleeting characteristic 
pose or gesture, are by one artist, Orlando Rouland, a portrait painter of national reputation, 
Thus we have in a double sense an individual or "one-man" show, yet full or varietv and interest. 
There is a literary tang to it, as attractive as unusual. Burroughs the man, quite independently 
of the literary savant, was a lovable and picturesque person, and no one knew him better in 
such engaging aspect than did Orlando Rouland. (See cover picture.) 

The artist was a neighbor and intimate companion of Burroughs during almost a score of years. 
He lived beside him in the log cabin, "vSlabsides" by the soft-flowing Esopus in the foothills of 
the Catskill Mountains, and entertained him on return visits at his New York home and studio, 
or in the Long Island "Fish-house," which the naturalist re-christened "Slabsides-by-the-Sea." 
More than once the two roamed together around Washington, the National Capital, where in 
Ci\'il War days Burroughs and Walt Whitman worked together in the Treasury Department, 
and where "Wake Robin" was written. During a hundred walks and talks, in woods and fields, 
in library and studio, the "documents" were gathered for these serial portraits, so to speak, of 
John Burroughs in his habit as he lived — and talked and wrote. For nearly every one of Rou- 
land's portraits, some of which were brushed in at a single sitting, others sketched surreptitiously 
without the genial or meditative philosopher knowing of it at the time, carries some special note 
of reminiscence or comment. 

One of the finest of the finished oil studies, quite the peer of the standard Yale portrait, and 
which ought to find a Museum niche as companion to Alexander's Walt Whitman, is the contem- 
plative pose bearing date of 191 1. Burroughs specially favored it, and wrote: "It sums me up 
pretty well. That's how I feel most of the time." 

Further back (1903), and reflecting more relaxed moods, are: "Seated in Log Cabin, Twilight 
Park, Catskills — "Telling of Trip Through the Yellowstone with Colonel Roosevelt," and "Painted 
at Slabsides — Discussing and Cussing Nature Fakirs." The picture-record of 1907 shows Bur- 
roughs as a convalescent, visiting in the artist's home in New York, on which occasion he wrote 
a letter to President Roosevelt expressing his joy at the recovery of his friend's son, Archie: 
"When such a danger as that threatens one's child, how vain and empty seems all the applause 
of the world. Your affectionate, OOM JOHN." 

There is a homely view of the bouldered field at Roxbury, N. Y., showing Woodchuck Lodge 
and the old gray barn where "Barndoor Studies" were written, and the farmer-vagabond coming 
up the road is Burroughs himself. Then we have a view of the old Burroughs farm, his birth- 
place, with the veritable "little red schoolhouse" over the brow of the hill in the middle distance, 
and on the right the "Maplebush" of many sugared passages in his writings. 

Henry Ttorell. 

The American School in France for Prehistoric Studies. 

Professor George Grant MacCurdy has leave of absence from Yale University for the academic 
year of 1921-22. With Mrs. MacCurdy he sails for Europe on June i8th as the first Director 
of the American School in France for Prehistoric Studies. The School opens at the rock shelter 
of La Quina near Villebois-Lavalette (Charente) on July ist. 

An Unpublished Verestchagin. 

Among the Russian "purpose painters" of the nineteenth century Verestchagin stands supreme. 
The great Tretiakoff Gallery in Moscow contains three rooms devoted to his works. There are 
many of his canvasses in the Gallery of Alexander III at Petrograd and numerous examples of his 
work in private collections in Europe and this country. Among them all there are few in which 
he does not indict the old Russian regime and in most of them he portrays the horrors of war as 
they are nowhere else painted. His pyramid of grisly skulls from which the sated vultures rise, 

[259] 







An unpublished Verestchagin, "The Morning Cloud", Toledo Art Museum, L. E. Lord. 

entitled, "The Apotheosis of War dedicated to all conquerors, past, present and to come," is but 
a single example of his well known st\-le. 

"The Morning Cloud," reproduced here for the first time, is an example of this Russian artist's 
work in an entirely new field. It is the property of the Toledo Museum of Art. To the artist's 
signature is added the date, 1903. In 1904 Verestchagin went to the Japanese front to secure 
material for a new series of war pictures. He was killed that same j-ear when the Russian battle- 
ship to which he was assigned was sunk by the Japanese. This picture is, then, one of his last 
works if not the final canvass. 

The dawn is breaking and from the embrace of the rugged mountain rises the cloud which has 
rested there during the night. The spirit of the mountain is the drowsy giant whose immobilitv 
seems to unite him indissolubly with the crag on which he sits. The Cloud Spirit floats upward 
on the "wings of the morning" wrapped in all the delicate color that the "rosy fingered dawn" 
flings forth. From the abyss below where sable night still lingers, an eagle rises up to greet the 
dawn and join the Spirit of the Clouds as she drifts lightlj' from her couch on the breath of the 
morning wind. The drawing may not satisfy at every point but the harmony of colors, shading 
from the heavy black of the rocks to the delicate blues and pinks of the clouds that half envelope 
and half expose the figure, is masterly. The whole spirit of the painting is indeed new for the 
painter of the horrors of war. Louis E. Lord.' 

Sir Moses Ezekiel, American Sculptor. 

We publish as our leading article this month the address of Mr. Henr\- K. Bush-Brown, de- 
livered at the memorial service in honor of the late Sir Moses Ezekiel by the Arlington Confederate 
Monument Association and the Daughters of the Confederacy at the House of the Temple, 
Washington, D. C, March 30, 192 1. This service followed in the evening the Commitment 
Ceremonies in the afternoon when the body of Sir Moses Ezekiel was laid to rest in Arlington 
Cemetery close by the base of the Confederate Soldiers Monument, Ezekiel's own masterpiece, 
and the Secretarj' of War delivered the principal address, reviewing the life of the American 
artist , and a letter from President Harding was read h\ Mrs. Marion Butler, representing the United 
Daughters of the Confederacy — "Ezekiel will be remembered," said the President, "as one who 
knew how to translate the glories of his own time into the language of art w-hich is common to 
all peoples and all times." The occasion was notable as being the first time an American artist 
has been interred with military honors in the National Cemetery. 

1 This note is supplementary to Professor Lord's article on "Some Modern Russian Painters" in Art and Arcbaeouogy, vii. pp. 
301-12, Sept. -Oct. 1918.] 



[260] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

Whistler iana i)i the Library of Co>igress. 

A rare and unique exhibition has lately been installed in the Galleries of the Print Division of 
the Library of Congress by Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Pennell. 

It consists of a part of their great collection of Whistleriana which they have generously 
presented to the Government and which has been thirty years, a large part of their lives, in its 
accumulation. 

It is very unusual that so much of a man's history, the artistic, as well as the personal side of his 
life, can be set forth in so comprehensive, so sympathetic a manner, as this has been done by Mr. 
Whistler's biographers and close personal friends. The Catalogue which is issued of this exhi- 
bition is very skillfully arranged as to case and numbered items, enabling one to follow the artist's 
checkered, exciting and picturesque career. 

There is a beautiful showing of Whistler's etchings, lithographs and pastels, books containing 
illustrations bv him, various editions of his own publications, the famous "Ten O'Clock" and the 
"Gentle Art of Making Enemies," catalogues of his exhibitions, letters to friends, original docu- 
ments in the Whistler-Ruskin Trial, the Eden Case and the Greaves affair, photographs of his 
paintings and of himself, caricatures, posters, the Rodin Memorial photographs, and the letters 
from the subscribers thereto — the whole an intimate and interesting history of an accomplished 
artist and a peculiar personality — that can rarely be gathered together. 

The Collection reveals the tireless and exhaustless work of the Master's biographers, whose own 
accomplishment exceeds that of the artist whose dramatic life they so cleverly portray. 

Their gift to the Government is a generous one and will supplement that made by Mr. Freer, 
whose Gallery contains Whistler's paintings and drawings, thus making Washington the Mecca 
for students of Whistler's Art. H. W. 

A Rare Effigy Pipe From Tennessee. 

Primitive man took to sculpture earlier than to any other form of the fine arts. This was true 
of the cave man in Europe and was no doubt also true of the American Indian. Figures in the 
round of animals were the favorite models. The impulse to reproduce figures of animals familiar 
to man was so strong that utilitarian objects in general were made to take on effig>' forms. 

It is not known when the American Indian first made use of tobacco as a narcotic. We know 
that its use had become a fixed habit before the advent of the European as indicated by the 
remains of elaborate apparatus for utilizing tobacco smoke. Any one who has come under the 
spell of this narcotic can understand why the red man should have se'ected his pipe as a special 
object of ornamentation. Moreover, its uses were ceremonial as well as personal. 

An unusually fine example of what is evidently a ceremonial pipe recently came into the posses- 
sion of Mr. W. O. Whittle of Knoxville, Tennessee. It had been ploughed up in the bottom land 
not far from the ]McBee Mound (explored nearly fifty years ago by the Rev. E. O. Dunning and 
described in a recent publication by the author *) . 

This bird eflfigy pipe is remarkable not only for its artistic form and finish, but also for its 
great size. Its length is i8 inches (45.75 cm.) and it weighs 7 pounds (3.18 kilograms). The 
material of which it is made is a compact, fine-grained greenish-gray steatite, blackened and 
polished by long usage, except for the slight scars made by the plow. The effigy is that of a 
water bird, presumably the duck. In representing the wings, the short feathers are differen- 
tiated from the quill feathers and the tips of the wings overlap. The legs are cut in relief and the 
feet are brought together in a median ventral plane. It is difficult to account for the lump on the 
breast and the longitudinal ridge on the throat. The eye is indicated by a shallow round de- 
pression. Mr. Whittle has just located another effigy pipe from the same locality and almost 
identical in shape with, but only about one-third as large as, the one here figured. 

The art of the mound builder reached a high stage in the shaping of effigy pipes. These are 
particularly fine and numerous in certain Ohio mounds, for example the Tremper Mound and 
Mound No. 8 of the Mound City group, near Chillicothe. From a cache in the latter, the early 
explorers, Squier and Davis, took about a hundred examples which were later sold to the Black- 
more Museum at Salisbury, England. In the Tremper Mound, Mills and Shetrone took 136 pipes 

G. G. MacCurdy, Some Moun is of EastL-rn Tennessee. Proc. XlXth Intern. Congress of Americanists. Washington. 1917. 

[261] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 




from one cache and 9 from another. All the pipes from the first cache were intentionally broken 
on the occasion of their deposition; those in the second cache had been deposited in a perfect 
condition. The pipes from the Mound City depository had likewise been broken intentionally. 
All these broken pipes have been skillfully repaired. Those found by IMills and Shetrone 
may be seen at the Museum in Columbus, Ohio. George Grant MacCurdy. 



Mrs. Nuttall and The Ulna River. 

In Art and Archaeology, Vol. XI, No. 1-2, Mrs. Nuttall offers some comments on a vase 
from Honduras described and illustrated by me in the Holmes Anniversary Volume (Washington, 
19 16), and afterwards reprinted with some verbal changes and with the omission of five explana- 
tory' drawings in this magazine. Asa sincere friend of Mrs. Nuttall I must express my regret 
that she did not consult the original article, for the volume in which it appeared is one of a serious 
character, with which Mrs. Nuttall cannot be unacquainted. On the other hand, it would 
appear that the article, even in its original form, was not sufficiently explicit to forestall the 
errors into which Mrs. Nuttall has imfortunately fallen. These errors are indeed quite natural 
for they are based in the main on misconceptions that are ver}- prevalent and on methods that 
find much favor. 

Mrs. Nuttall obser\-es that I made no allusion "to the fact which is so vital and interesting" 
that the principal units of design which I described "are conventionalized serpents' heads." 

It is true that I made no such allusion for I was under the impression that these units of design 
are something quite different. So clear was this impression in my mind that I contented myself 
with giving accurate drawings, together with a photograph of the vase and the statement that 
the units of design are abstractions borrowed from one of the animal forms represented on the 
handles. Mv thought was that anyone who would be likely to read my article would need no 
further help in identifying the units of design with these animal forms. 

Mrs. Nuttall proceeds with this statement: "These serpents' heads are clearly discernible in 
the photographic reproduction of the vase which illustrates Dr. Gordon's article, but curiously 
enough, are barely recognizable in the carefully executed outline drawings." She then offers 
as a substitute for some of the drawings that accompanied my article certain other drawings to 
which she refers as follows: "To make this clear, the Mexican Artist, Sr. Jose Leon has made 
drawings from the published photographs in which the forms of the conventionalized serpents' 
heads and the peculiar technique of the native sculptor . . . are skilfully rendered." 

Now, only one photograph has been published, and this, the one that accompanied my article, 
was the only one to which Sr. Leon could have had access. It shows one aspect of a cylindrical 
surface. The drawings published by me were made from the original object by ]Miss M. Louise 
Baker under my direct supervision and criticism. They are accurate and strictly literal. More- 

[262] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

over, they reproduce faithfully the character of the can-ing which is vigorous, free and sponta- 
neous. 

On the other hand the illustrations that Airs. Xuttall reproduces are inaccurate in drawing and 
fail to show the character of the original workmanship. The fact is that there are no serpent 
heads at all on the Honduras vase. The devices that Mrs. Nuttall calls serpents' heads are 
different ways of showing the heads of the animals that are represented with more realism in the 
handles of the vessel. These animals are quadrupeds and the whole design on the body of the 
vase is made up of parts of one or the other of these animals as follows: the front face, the profile, 
the paw, the ear and the jaw. 

Having started with a wrong identification, Mrs. Nuttall was quite naturally led into an erro- 
neous interpretation, for being subject to this correction the meaning which she ascribes to the 
design loses its only support. 

In her next argument, Mrs. Nuttall makes the statement that no true marble has been found 
in IMexico or Central America. It is evident that Mrs. Nuttall has been generally misled on the 
subject of marble for she claims that the substance found in the State of Oaxaca and locally 
called tecali is not marble but onyx and that this is the material from which "numerous ancient 
vases and vessels unearthed in different parts of Mexico and Central America .... are 
made . 

Therefore, the argument runs, the vase which I call marble is in reality made of onyx, and 
since that material comes only from Oaxaca it follows that the vase itself cannot be a product of 
Ulua culture, and must have been imported from Mexico. 

Here are three fallacies combined to support each other. First, that the material found in 
Oaxaca and locally called tecali is onyx; second, that there is no marble in Honduras; and third, 
that the object of which I wrote is made of onyx. 

As these errors of Mrs. Nuttall are based on popular notions and a habitual looseness in the 
use of language by writers generally, and on a confusion of terms, they had better be set right 
for the sake of general accuracy. The substance called tecali found in Oaxaca, and used bv the 
ancient Mexicans in the practice of their arts and industries, is marble and not onyx. It is popu- 
larly called Mexican onyx and also onyx marble on account of the banded appearance that gives 
it a superficial resemblance to onyx. It is a carbonate of lime with a compact crystalline structure 
and a true marble. Onyx is a hard silicious mineral quite distinct from marble and unrelated 
thereto 

Geologists tell us that the Mexican marble found at Tecali in Oaxaca was deposited in the form 
of stalagmite and belongs in the same class of marbles as the socalled onyx marble of Algeria, 
the stone that was largely used in the building of ancient Rome. 

I repeat that the stone found in the Tecali district in the State of Oaxaca in Mexico is marble 
and not on^'x. Mrs. Nuttall's statement that it is onyx and not marble evidently arises frojii the 
popular practice of calling it on}'x marble or IVIexican onyx on account of its supposed resemblance 
to onyx. But these facts do not fully disclose the error of Mrs. Nuttall's statement that "as 
yet no true marble has been found in Mexico or Central America. " True marble has been known 
within these regions for a long time. Besides the deposits of marble in Mexico alread}' men- 
tioned, there is a well known deposit in Honduras near Omoa, adjacent to the Ulua River. This 
deposit was described by E. G. Squier in his book, "The vStates of Central America," published 
in 1858, in the following words: 

"The hills and mountains back of Omoa have exhaustless quarries of a fine compact white 
marble remarkably free from faults and stains and well adapted for statuary and ornamental 
use." (Page 189.) 

The same words are repeated in Squier's book on Honduras, published in 1S70. (Page 125.) 
The deposit of marble at Omoa is not of the banded variety found in Oaxaca and is easily dis- 
tinguished therefrom. The material from which the Ulua marble vases are made is identical 
with the marble of Omoa. 

These considerations would seem to dispose of ]\Irs. Nuttall's contention that "Until other 
ancient quarries are found and it is proven that a marble was obtainable in the region of the Ulua 
River, Honduras, one may be permitted to question Dr. Gordon's view that the vase in question 
is of marble and a product of Ulua culture." 

[2631 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

The following facts are quite clear: namely, that Mrs. Nuttall's identification of the figures on 
the body of the vase fails to be supported by an appeal to the figures themselves; that her drawings 
of these figures are incorrect and indicate an entire want of comprehension; that her interpreta- 
tion of these figures is without foundation; that her proposals about the material of the vase are 
made regardless of the facts; that her suggestion as to the origin of the vessel is inadmissible in 
view of these facts, and .finally since her description of the use of the vessel is based on a com- 
bination of the foregoing errors, it is clear that her ideas on that subject must also be rejected. 
In short, Mrs. Nuttall's article has confirmed in my mind the conviction that I formerly expressed 
in the following words: 

" It would be useless to speculate concerning the symbolism of all this ornament as it would be 
to guess at the ser\-ice for which the vessel was designed. We are at liberty to assume that so 
elaborate and refined an object had a ceremonial function and that its symbolism corresponds to 
ideas associated with its use, but its interpretation is quite beyond our reach. " 

George Byrox Gordon. 

The Arts Cliih of Washington. 

The Arts Club of Washington whose activities are attaining national importance showed its 
approval of last year's administration by re-electing at its annual meeting Mr. George Julian 
Zolnay, President, Dr. Mitchell Carroll, Vice-President, Dr. W. E. Safford, Corresponding 
Secretary, Mr. Roy L. Neuhauser, Treasurer, with Mr. George H. Dawson, Recording Secretary. 

The reports of the various committees evidenced that never in the history of the club had its 
activities been so manifold and it is doubtful if any other club in the countrs' provides functions 
equal in number and quality. 

There were 37 concerts during the year in which 69 artists took part. Eight plays, in addition 
to several scenes from Shakespeare presented in costume, were produced by the Arts Club 
Players. Exhibitions of paintings, sculpture, architecture, and the applied arts succeeded each 
other in which many of the foremost artists of the country were represented. 

Among the innovations initiated during the year, the most noteworthy were the Saturday 
evening Forums which provide the broadest opportunity for open discussion and interchange of 
id«as concerning the great fundamental questions in art, of interest to the laymen no less than to 
the artist. 

Through the regular Tuesday Salons and Thursday discussions the Club has heard messages 
from many American and foreign speakers and the almost unlimited range of artistic and intellec- 
tual subjects touched upon may best be gathered from the following partial list of addresses, most 
of them illustrated by slides. 

Modern English Poetr}-, by Charles Edward Russell; The Arts of China and Japan, Dr. A. 
Hrdlicka of the Smithsonian Institution; ]Music and Drama of the American Indian, Miss Alice C. 
Fletcher and Mr. La Flesche; "In A Persian Garden," song cycle by Elsa Lehman, under direction 
of Mr. Paul Bleyden; The Reconstruction of the Parthenon^ Mr. G. J. Zolnay; The Architecture 
of India, Mr. R. B. Prendergast; The Spirit of Gauginism, Mrs. F. E. Farrington; Hawaii, Dr. 
W. E. Safford; The Vale of Cashmere, Rev. F. Ward Denys; Shakespeare as a Philosopher, Dean 
W. A. Wilbur, George Washington University; Problems of Journalism, Geo. P. Morris; The 
History- of the Cartoon, C. K. Berryman; The Bell Towers of Belgium, Mr. W. G. Rice; The Lure 
of the South Seas, Dr. L. A. Bauer; How to Build and Judge a Play, Dr. G. W. Johnston; How to 
Appreciate Sculpture, G. J. Zolnay; How to Appreciate Architecture, Mr. A. B. Bibb; What is 
Interesting? W. A. DuPuy; The Hopi Indians of Arizona, Mr. Will C. Barnes; China Past and 
Present, Dr. Paul Reinsch (U. S. IMinister to China) ; What is Beauty? by G. J. Zolnay ; What is 
the Important Thing in Art? by Prince Bibesco (Roumanian ^Minister) ; Czecho-Slovakia, Dr. 
Bedrick Stepanek (Czecho-Slovaikian Minister) ; The Psychology of the Aesthetic Judgment, Dr. 
Tom Williams; The Island of Yap, Mr. Claude N. Bennett. 

In lighter vein was the Spring Carnival, in which a street in the old Latin Quarter of Paris was 
built in the club rooms, and in which ever\-one appeared in costume; it was an unqualified success 
and has demonstrated that such a carnival, conceived and carried out artistically in the best sense 
of the word, could and should be made a yearly event in the life of the National Capital. 

[264] 



BOOK CRITIQUES 



Venizelos, by Herbert Adams Gibbons. Hough- 
ton Mifflin Company, Boston and Xew York. 
The Riverside Press, ig20. 

All those who love Greece will read this book 
with the same thrill they experienced in learn- 
ing the Classics. The adventures of Jason and 
Theseus live again in the personality of the 
Cretan hero of modern times who is silhouetted 
against the sky of history like some ancient 
God on the apex of his own temple ; albeit no 
Medean magic, no desertion of Ariadne led 
or marred the clear vision which pierced 
through difficulties to prophesy results which 
it would bring about without the aid of the 
machinery of the Gods on which the ancient 
sooth-sayers relied. The labors of Hercules, 
the agony of Prometheus Bound seem but alle- 
gories of his undertakings, and remind one 
that the Greek dramatists and artists ever 
employed their mj-thological scenery as a 
setting for actual events. No where on the 
Earth has human character and political pas- 
sions remained so true to types as in Greece. 

Mr. Gibbons has outlined the biography and 
described the stages in the life of a remarkable 
rnan— one of the greatest statesmen of modern 
times He has told us everything about him 
except why he was unable to hold the Greeks 
at the altitude of patriotism to which he had 
led them. For about the time Mr. Gibbons' 
book was issuing from the printing press 
M. Venizelos stepped down from power, went 
out from Greece — an exile \\-ithout personal 
stain still beloved of his own party, admired by 
the whole world, and openlv venerated by even 
thousands of those who voted against him in 
the elections which restored King Constantine 
to the Greek throne. 

It has been always a fatality of the Balkan 
peoples to overthrow at repeated intervals 
whatever of real progress they have acquired 
through their own prowess or' the luck of cir- 
cumstances, in which their geographical posi- 
tion is the prize they are allowed to keep be- 
cause its possession by any other one nation, 
or group of nations, would upset world equi- 
librium. One reason why so few even of the 
closest observers of Balkan events can grasp 
the paradoxes of volte-face which result from 
the pressure of any strong outside influences 
on these intensely democratic peoples is be- 
cause whoever studies them closely enough to 
be drawn into association with them almost 

[265] 



irivariably becomes so intensely partisan that 
his judgment is clouded and his utterances 
grow to be as intemperate as those of the 
native politicians and writers, which is saving 
a great deal! 

Mr. Gibbons has not fallen into this Scylla 
nor been shipwrecked on that Charvbdis. 
His book reveals clearly the mainspring of his 
hero's high purpose, his ardent desire for free- 
dom of every Greek community from alien 
domination. It was against the intolerable 
thralldom of the Great Powers quite as much 
as against the Turks that Venizelos was chosen 
as leader. 

In 1 909 the Royal Family of Greece including 
Prince George of Crete were little more than 
the executors of the Great Powers who sent 
them orders and instructions as openly, if more 
diplomatically, as ever Rome did its Consul 
Herodes Atticus after whom was named the 
street on which stands the palace of King 
Constantine. 

The Balkan Accord of 191 2 was an un- 
pleasant surprise to the Great Powers. Russia 
guided by one of her ablest diplomats merelv 
looked over the agreement, reserving the right 
to restrict territorial changes and arbitrate dif- 
ferences. But of this not even Bulgaria took 
any real heed. Serbia and Greece in the second 
war acted on their own judgment for their 
common safety and aspirations. Germanv 
was the first to recognize that these cadets 
among the nations had attained their majoritv. 
She sought the alliance of Greece and Bulgaria 
the better to make war on Serbia and Rou- 
mania. Russia already tottering in the dotage 
of her institutions began to lean upon her now 
grown up daughters for whom she had sought 
to obtain popular liberties greater than those 
she had accorded to her own subjects. Onlv 
the Latin and Anglo-Saxon States still treated 
the Balkans as inferiors who were not to be 
allowed a voice even in their own aflfairs. 

It was with the ready consent of the Greek 
people that Venizelos led them to war in 19 12. 
At his bidding they forgave the Royal Princes 
their previously bad stewardship, delighted to 
find them conscious at last that they were 
Greeks. This idea became the slogan of the 
Greek Court. Even Queen Sophia hurled it at 
her brother the German Emperor when hastily 
departing from Berlin in July, 1914. For 
nearly a year King Constantine endeavored in 



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vain to wrest from the Entente a treaty of 
alliance on equal terms. Indignation at being 
treated like a vassal drove him to accept the 
contract with the Germans and to dissent 
from the policy of Venizelos who urged patience 
with the Allies and good faith with Serbia. 

Venizelos' opponents declared that an inde- 
pendent Greece was a greater glory than the 
most brilUant alliances. When King Con- 
stantine arose as the champion of that inde- 
pendence, even against Venizelos himself, he 
took that place in the hearts of his people re- 
served for the high priest of their creed of 
Liberty. His mistakes and weaknesses were 
forgiven, his helplessness except for their 
lovalty and acclaim appealed to them a 
thousand times more than Venizelos' title of 
the Just. 

As to the principle of the thing, dislike of 
Constantine and Sophia's pro-Germanism, it 
must be understood that only the merest 
minority of Greeks ever detested the Germans. 
Turkey and Bulgaria had been restrained by 
Germanv alone from massacring Greeks as they 
never had been by the whole Concert of the 
Powers. Of the security which the Entente 
might give them there was little guarantee 
after Serbia had been left undefended and her 
whole population delivered over to martyr- 
dom and pillage for three years. 

The victorv of the Allies and Greece's share 
in the spoils of war should have confirmed their 
confidence in Venizelos' leadership. The faults 
of the partisans and appointees of his regime 
were the active cause of its defeat. The perse- 
cution of anti-Venizelists and finally the 
assassination of Jean Dragoumis, a rival Liberal 
leader, in August of last year, for which bar- 
barous crime M. Venizelos was in no wise per- 
sonal! v responsible, horrified and outraged 
Peloponnesian and Athenian public opinion as 
much as the murder of Agamemnon must have 
provoked the anger of the Argive people. The 
younger leader's brothers and sisters, his aged 
statesman father, and the wide public to 
which his books (written in the popular tongue) 
appealed cried for vengeance. The story calls 
for a new Euripides or Sophocles to paint its 
horror and sadness. No real account of it ca.n 
be given in the space of a book re\new, but it 
was an event which future historians cannot 
fail to give note in any analysis of the causes 
of the fall of Venizelos. The return of Con- 
stantine was the only alternative that could 
give peace to the nation. Mr. Gibbons himself 
compared the murder of Jean Dragoumis to 
that of the Duke d'Enghien which was the 
beginning of the end for Napoleon. 

[266] 



Art and Archaeology, 



The tragedy unnerved Venizelos more than 
anything his opponents could have done. He 
rebuked all those who were even indirectly 
responsible, and ordered the punishment of the 
assassins. Thenceforth he refused any show 
of authority, submitting his party and himself 
to the people's judgment at the polls. No cen- 
sure of the result has come from his lips or pen. 
In exile he has pleaded for Greece as earnestly 
as when he was in oflice. Venizelos the man 
will be honored in himself wherever he goes. 

Venizelos' form will be the shadow in which 
Constantine must walk unless his own can 
surpass it by superior dimensions. Is there 
place in Greece for both? Jean Dragoumis' 
heresy was to declare that there could be a 
liberal policy in Greece without Venizelos. 
His aspirations to lead that policy committed 
him to two years of exile before his death. 
Conscious of the failure of his Cabinet to 
govern well in his absence, Venizelos preferred 
to make no real effort to gain a new victory at 
the polls. Spiritually listless he acquiesced for 
himself and refused to lend his sanction to any 
revolt of his party. Socrates himself can have 
drunk the cup of hemlock with no steadier 
hand. M. G. D. G. 

Discovery in Greek Lands. A Sketch of the 
Principal Excavations and Discoveries of the last 
Fifty Years. By F. H. Marshall. Cambridge: 
at the University Press, igzo. Pp. xi + isy. 
Illustrated. 8s 6d. 

This is an attractive little sketch, with well 
selected illustrations of the results of excava- 
tions since 1870, written for the Cambridge 
Manuals of Science and Literature. It gives 
much information about vases, sculpture, and 
other art finds, as well as about archaeology' and 
topography. The specialist will probably turn 
to Michaelis, "A Century of Archaeological 
Discoveries" (translated by Miss Kahnweiler) 
and to the detailed reports in the journals, but 
the general reader who would like to know 
something of the progress of discovery in Greece 
and Greek lands will find this a very useful 
book; but even the archaeologist will profit by 
this good brief resume and find it a useful intro- 
duction to the subject. The material is 
arranged chronologically and the main sites are 
treated under an earlier (before 1000 B.C.) and 
later prehistoric period (1000-700 B. C), an 
earlier (700-500 B. C.) and later historic period 
(500-150 B. C.). There are special chapters on 
Temple Sites and the Great Centers of Greek 
Life, Delphi, Olympia, etc. There is a useful 
bibliography and a list of the more important 
excavations in chronological and topographical 
order. D. M. R. 




THE BISHOP'S LODGE 

Santa Fe, New Mexico 



CITUATED three miles north of the city, this unique 
'^ resort offers its hospitality both to the leisure-loving 
tourist, and to the archaeological investigator. 

Readily accessible are all of the points comprised 
within what has been called. "The most interesting 50- 
mile circle in America." 

Because of 6o-guest capacity. The Lodge necessalily 
caters to a limited clientele. It appeals especially to 
those who appreciate the good things of life, and is 
totally unlike any "hotel." 

Open the year around. To insure accommodations 
reservations should be made well in advance. 

Rates and other information upon request. 



Czecho 

Paintit 


-Slovak Art & Craft 


JgS 




Photographs 




Slides 


Costume Cards 




Pictures 1 




B li s 


M u s 


i c 




Embroideries 




Hand Carved Articles 


RAF. 


D. SZALATNAY 




IMPORTER 


542 East 79th Street. R-llO 


' 


NEW YORK CITY. 



[267] 



Kindly Mention Art and .4rchaeology. 



ANNOUNCEMENT 

Messrs. Winsor & Newton 

the well-known manufacturers of 

ARTISTS' COLOURS 
AND MATERIALS 

have frequently had their attention drawn 
to a rumor which would appear to have been 
widely circulated, to the effect that the Own- 
ership of their business has changed hands. 

This announcement is to 
emphasize the fact that 

No Change Whatever 

has been made in Ihc Ownership and thai 
the business is still being carried on as 
heretofore, their various products being 
manufactured by them at their London 
factory, as in the past. 



LONDON 

38 Rathbone Place 



NEW YORK 
31 East 17th Street 



NOTICE 

Owing to the rapid growth of the mailing list of 
Art and Archaeology, and the unusual demand 
for special numbers, our stock is almost exhausted 
of the following: 

V, No. I (Tanuarv, 1917); 
V, No. 4 (.April, 19:7); 
VI, Nc. 6 (December, 1917); 
VIII, No. 5 (September-October, 1919) 

25 cents per copy will be paid for any of these 
numbers upon delivery at this office. 

ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

The Octagon, Washington, D. C. 



The Cliff Dwellers 

Four sepia half-tone pictures of typical pre- 
historic ruins in Mesa Verde National Park, 
Colorado, may be obtained by sending 25 cts. to 
Frank A. Wadleigh, Passenger Traffic Manager, 
Dept. B, Denver & Rio Grande Railroad, Denver, 
Colo. The prints are 6x8 inches with wide mar- 
gins, and the subjects are of great archaeological 
and educational interest. 



The Greek Theatre of the Fifth Century before 
Christ. By James Turner Allen. Berkeley: 
The University of California Press. ig20. Pp. 
x-\- iig. Illustrated. $1.25. 

Many books and articles have been appearing 
on the Greek theater and drama in the last few 
years, the most important being Flickinger's 
"The Greek Theatre and its Drama." Pro- 
fessor Allen has been interested in the Greek 
drama for many years and has already pub- 
lished several articles and reviews on literarv 
and archaeological problems connected with 
the Greek drama. But the problem of the 
reconstruction of the fifth century theatre at 
Athens has had for him a strange fascination 
and he has devoted many hours to it and finally 
got a clue to its solution in the spring of 19 18 
when he published his short article "The Key 
to the Reconstruction of the Fifth Century 
Theatre at Athens." The nature of this clue 
is set forth in Chapterlll, and illustrated by Fig. 
20 on page 30. Here the inner corners of the 
paraskenia of the Lycurgean scene-building, 
nearest the orchestra, coincide exactly with the 
inner edge of the retaining wall of the old 
orchestra terrace, and it is shown that the inner 
sides of the paraskenia and the wall connecting 
them at the rear exactly fit the circle of the old 
terrace. The north-south diameter of the 
remaining portion of this terrace is the 
same as that of the fourth-century orchestra, 
for if a line be drawn between the paraskenia 
and at the same distance back from their front 
line as the Hellenistic proskenion stood back 
of the Hellenistic paraskenia (about four feet) 
this line is an exact chord of the outer circle of 
the old terrace wall. These certainly are 
striking coincidences, so that it would seem 
that Professor Allen has really made an im- 
portant discovery. He draws the conclusion 
that before the position of the theatre was 
moved, the scene building had been erected 
both on and about the orchestra terrace. 
In other words the Lycurgean orchestra was 
merely a counterpart of the Sophoclean and 
Euripidean orchestra, which was probably used 
also for the last plays of Aeschylus. Professor 
Allen further thinks (see especially Chapter 
\'III. "The Origin of the Proskenion") that 
the fifth-century scene building served as a 
model for the building which replaced it later. 
He thinks (Chapter IV, "The Evidence of 
the Dramas") that the ske^ie (hut or booth) 
which was at first a flimsy structure, came 
in the fifth century to be a substantial building, 
two stories high. The book is written in a 
readable, interesting and attractive style. 

D. M. R. 



Kindly Mention Art and Archaeology. 



[268J 



/O 



> 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

An Illustrated Monthly Magazine 

Published by 

THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
OF WASHINGTON 

Affiliated With 

THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE 
OF AMERICA 

VOLUME XII 
JULY— DECEMBER, 192 1 




ART EDITOR 
William H. Holmes 

EDITORIAL STAFF 

Virgil Barker 

Peyton Boswell 

Howard Crosby Butler 

Charles Upson Clark 

Albert T. Clay 

Charles T. Currelly 

H. R. Fairclough 

Edgar L. Hewett 

Fiske Kimball 

David M. Robinson 

Helen Wright 



DIRECTOR AND EDITOR 
Mitchell Carroll 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

J. Townsend Russell, President 

Frank Springer, Vice-President 

Mitchell Carroll, Secretary 

John B. Earner, Treasurer 

James C. Egbert 

Ex-Officio as President of the Institute 

Robert Woods Bliss 

Mrs. B. H. Warder 



H. B. F. MacFarland, Counsel* 



•Died October 14, 1921 



VOLUME XII (Nos. 1-6, JULY-DECEMBER, 192 1) 

CONTENTS 



The High Priest of the Lost Temple 

A Study of the "Sarcophage Anthropoide" of Cadiz" 
(Twelve Illustrations.) 

The Investigations at Assos 

(Ten Illustrations.) 

The Broadmoor Art Academy 

(Three Illustrations.) 

The Czars Summer Palace in Warsaw (Poem) 

(One Illustration.) 

The Marble Bath of Jerome Bonaparte 

(Three Illustrations.) 

The Carillons of Belgium after the Great War .... 

(Eleven Illustrations.) 

The Reconstruction of the Nashville Parthenon .... 

(Seven Illustrations.) 

Home of the Arts Club of Washington 

(Four Illustrations.) 

Activities of the Arts Club of Washington 

(Three Illustrations.) 
Prologue — Ideals of the Arts Club — Exhibitions — Tuesdays and Thnrs- 
days^Musical Evenings — The Arts Club Players — The Club in 
Lighter Vein. 

The National Peace Carillon 

Promoted by the Carillon Committee of the Arts Club. 
Chicago as an Art Center: 

Introduction 

The Plan of Chicago — Its Purpose and Development 

(Six Illustrations.) 

Architectltre in Chicago 

(Eight Illustrations.) 

The Monu-ments of Chicago 

(Seven Illustrations.) 

Chicago Painters, Past and Present 

(Ten Illustrations.) 

The Art Institute of Chicago 

(Nine Illustrations.) 

Some Collectors of Paintings 

(Fifteen Illustrations.) 

Friends of American Art . 

(Four Illustrations.) 

Field Museum of Natural History 

(One Illustration.) 

Art at the University of Chicago 

(Two Illustrations.) 

Art at Northwestern University 

(One Illustration.) 

Municipal Art I,eague of Chicago 

Eagle's Next Camp, Barbizon of Chicago Artists .... 

(Six Illustrations.) 

Artistic Nature (Poem) 

Housekeeping in Primitive Hawaii . 

(Seven Illsutrations.) 

The Aesthetics of the Antique City 

(Three Illustrations.) 

Sappho to Her Slave (Poem) 

The Debt of Modern Sculpture to Ancient Greece .... 
Philip A. de Laszlo 

(Five Illustrations.) 

Lorado Taft, Dean of Chicago Sculptors 

(Eight Illustrations.) 

The Fountain of Time (Poem) 

Motherhood in American Sculpture 

(Six Illustrations.) 

Madonna and Child by Luini (Poem) 

The Shepherds and the Kings 

(Seven Illustrations.) 

Notes from the New York Galleries 



B. Harvey Carroll 

Howard Crosby Butler 
Theo. Merrill Fisher . 
John Finley .... 
Mary Mendenhall Perkins 
William Gorham Rice . 
George Julian Zolnay . 
Susan Hunter Walker 



George William Eggers 
Charles H. Wacker 

Thomas E. Tallmadge 

Lorado Taft 

Ralph Clarkson 

Clarence A. Hough 

Lena M. McCauley 

Lena M. McCauley 

Fay -Cooper Cole . 

David A . Robertson 

Stella Skinner . 

Everett L. Millard . 
Josephine Craven Chandler 

John H. D. Btanke 
Ernest Irving Freese 

Guido Calza 



Agnes Kendrick Gray 
Herbert Adams 
Helen Wright . . 

Robert H. Moulton 

Emma Schrader 
Frank Owen Payne 

Agnes Kendrick Gray 
Georgiana Goddard King 

Peyton Boswell 



17 
27 
32 
33 
51 
75 
82 

85 



94 



99 

lOI 



121 
129 
145 
155 
173 
179 
181 
187 

189 
195 

204 
205 



218 

-2i 

243 

252 
253 

263 
265 

273 



Current Notes and Comments 

An Exhibition of American Art Objects 37 

Incorporation of "American Schools of Oriental Research" 37 

Addition to the Whistler Collection in the Library of Congress 37 

National Gallery of Art Commission Formed 38 

Discovery of a New Prehistoric Site in Greece at Zvoouries 38 

Investigations at Assos • ■ • • 39 

The Aztec Studio. San Francisco 40 

American Classical League 40 

The Votive Hand of Avenches 41 

Louis Comfort Tiffany Foundation 42 

Summer Galleries and Summer Exhibitions 43 

Summer Program of the School of American Research. Santa Fe. N. M 44 

The Chicago Academy of Fine Arts 190 

Sir George Frederick Watts' Picture "Love and Life" 223 

When Critics Disagree — The Metropolitan's French Exhibition 225 

The Congress on THE History OF Art AT Paris 226 

The Adventure of A Painting 228 

Winter Exhibition of the National Academy of Design 273 

Annual Exhibition of the New Society of Artists 274 

Hay*' Water Colors AND Prints AT the Brown-Robertson Galleries 275 

The Two "Blue Boys" 275 

Frans Hals' "Portrait of A Man" 278 

Sir John Watson Gordon's Contemplation at the Fearon Galleries 278 

General Meeting of the Archaeological Institute OF America 279 

The American School IN France for Prehistoric Studies 279 

University OF Pennsylvania Excavations at Beisan 279 

Stonehenge 279 

The National Peace Carillon Proposed by Arts Club of Washington 280 

Biennial Exhibition of the Corcoran Gallery of Art 28c; 

The Benjamin West Exhibition at the Art Alliance, Philadelphia 280 

Book Critiques: 

The Empire of the Amorites. By Albert T. Clay 25 

Delphi by Frederick Poulsen. Tran'^Uted by G. C. Richards with a Preface by Percy Gardner 45 

The Charm of Kashmir. By V. C. Scott O'Connor 46 

Albert Pinkham Ryder. By Frederick Fairchlld Sherman 47 

Daniel H. Burnham; Architect, Planner OF Cities. By Charles Moore 229 

J. J. I.ANKEs; Painter-Graver ON wood. By Bolton Brown 230 

College Teaching — Studies in Methods of Teaching in the College. Edited by Paul Klapper 230 

"When Turkey was Turkey — In and Around Constantinople." By Mary A. Poynter, with an introduction by the 

late Sir Edwin Pears 230 

Macedonia: A Plea for the Primitive. By A. Goff and Hugh A. Fawcett. with illustrations by Hugh A. Fawcett . . 231 

"The Spell op Alsace." By Andr6 Hallays. Translated by Frank Roy Fraprie 232 

Art Principles with Special Reference to Painting. By Ernest Govett 281 

Furniture of the Pilgrim Century. By Wallace Nutting 282 



THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON, AFFILIATED WITH THE 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 



Offices: The Octagon, 1741 New York Ave., Washington, D. C. 




OFFICERS, 1921 

President 
Hon. Robert Lansing 



Col. Robert M. Thompson 
Hon. Henry White 

Secretary and Director 
Mitchell Carroll 



Vice-Presidents 



Miss Mabel T. Boardman 
Mrs. Henry F. Dimock 

Treasurer 
John B. Larner 



Charles Henry Butler 
Wilbur J. Carr 
F. Ward Denys 
Albert Douglas 
W. P. Eno 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

The above-named officers and 

Gilbert H. Grosvenor 

William H. Holmes 

Martin A. Knapp 

Charles Colfax Long 

H. B. F. Macfarland 



James Parmelee 
J. Townsend Russell 
George O. Totten, Jr. 
Mrs. B. H. Warder 
Miss Helen Wright 



THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY of Washington was organized as the Washington 
Society of the Archaeological Institute of America in April, 1902, and was incorporated January 
18, 1921. It is first in point of membership of all the Affiliated Societies of the Institute, and has 
participated largely in all its scientific and educational activities, contributing an aggregate of 
over $60,000 in the 20 years of its history. The objects of the Society are "to advance archae- 
ological study and research; to promote the increase and diffusion of knowledge in the fields of 
archaeology, history and the arts; and to contribute to the higher culture of the country by en- 
couraging every form of archaeological, historical and artistic endeavor." It contributed to the 
American Expedition to Cyrene in 1910, 11, and during 1919 conducted the Mallery Southwest 
Expedition in New Mexico. The Annual Meeting of the Society is held in November, and six 
regular meetings at the homes of members are held from November to April, when illu; rated 
lectures are given by specialists in the various fields of archaeology and art. To conduct the 
affairs of the popular illustrated magazine, ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY, committed t" ' by the 
Institute, the Society has organized a subsidiary corporation known as the 

ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY PRESS, 
capitalized at $50,000. 

Members are classified as Life, $200; Sustaining, $15, Annual, $10, and Associate, $5 per 
annum, subscription to Art and Archaeology being included in the annual fee. All who are 
interested in the work of the Society or the magazine are requested to communicate with the 
Secretary, The Octagon, Washington, D. C. 



$5.00 THE YEAR 



50 CENTS THE COPY 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

An Illustrated Monthly Magazine 
PuUisKed by THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON. AFFILIATED WITH THE 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY PRESS, Inc. 



Volume XII 



JULY, 1921 



Number 1 



ART EDITOR 
WILLIAM H. HOLMES 

EDITORIAL STAFF 

Virgil Barker 

Nathan Boswell 

Howard Crosby Butler 

Charles Upson Clark 

Albert T. Clay 

Charles T. Currelly 

H. R. Fairclough 

Edgar L. Hewett 

FisKE Kimball 

David M. Robinson 

Helen Wright 




DIRECTOR AND EDITOR 
MITCHELL CARROLL 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

J. TowNSEND Russell, President 

Frank Springer, Vice-President 

Mitchell Carroll. Secretary 

John B. Earner, Treasurer 

James C. Egbert 

Ex-o^cio as President of the Institute 

Robert Woods Bliss 

Mrs. B. H. Warder 



H. B. F. Macfarland, Counsel 



CONTENTS 



The High Priest of the Lost Temple B. Harvey Carroll .... 3 

A Study of the "Sarcophage Anthropoide" of Cadiz 
Twelve Illustrations 

The Investig.\tions at Assos Howard Crosby Sutler . . . 17 

Ten Illustrations 



The Broadmoor Art Academy 

Three Illustrations 

The Czar's Summer Palace in Warsaw (Poem) 

One Illustration 

The Marble Bath of Jerome Bonaparte 

Three Illustrations 



27 



Theo Merrill Fisher . 

John Finley 

Mary Mendenhall Perkins . . 33 



32 



Current Notes and Comments 37 

Three Illustrations 

Book Critiques 45 

Tbrms: S5 00 a year in advance: single numbers, so cents. Instructions for renewal, discontinuance, or change of address should be 
sent two weeks before the date they are to go into effect. 

All correspondence should be addressed and remittances mile to Art ano Arch^Souooy. the Octagon. Washington. D. C. Also 
manuscripts, photographs, material for notes and news, books for review, and exchanges, should be sent to this address. 

Advertisements should be sent to S. W. Frankel. Advertising Manager, 786 Sixth Ave.. New York. N, Y.. the New York Office of 

.^RT AND ArCH.\EOLOGV. 

Entered at the Post Office at Washington. D. C. as second class mail matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage 

provided for in section 1103. Act of October 3 iQt7. authorized -September 7. 1918. 

Copyright. 1921, by the Art and Archaeology Press, 



ART mxB. 

ARCHAEOLOGY 

The Arts Throughout theA^ 



Volume XII 



JULY, 1921 



Number 1 



THE HIGH PRIEST OF THE LOST TEMPLE 

A Study of the "Sarcophage Anthropoide" of Cadiz in its Relation to the Phoenician Temple of Hercules. 

By B. Harvey Carroll, 

Consul of the United States at Cadiz, Spain, with original Pencil Drawing Illustrations 

By Carl N. Werntz, 

President of the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts. 



PONCE DE LEON is the name of 
the island peninsula whose rocky 
promontory, projected into the 
Atlantic, is crowned by the white city 
of Cadiz. In early modern times the 
island was a part of the ancestral estate 
of that family which sent a son adven- 
turing into the everglades of Florida in 
search of the fountain of youth. 

Back through many a brilliant page 
flutters the history of the city itself 
until history is merged into tradition 
and tradition is illumined with myth. 

Cadiz claims Hercules as founder. 
Its coat of arms shows Hercules be- 
tween the columns, equipped with mace 
and mantle of lion skin and subduing a 
rampant lion with either hand. Its 
motto is "Cadium Dominator qve 
Hercules Eundator" while the inscrip- 
tion that twines around the pillars is the 
famous "Non Plus Ultra" that Charles 
V. amended by ehminating the "non," 

[3] 



after Columbus had discovered a new 
world. 

Perhaps it is best not to smile too 
quickly at the claim. Nothing is 
wholly false, not even tradition, and 
back of the myths are the great deeds of 
great men. 

Modern Cadiz is the great Atlantic 
port of Spain, especially for its trade 
with South America. The island pe- 
ninsula is an arm that makes a land 
locked port of the Bay of Cadiz, the 
first port of Europe outside the straits 
of Gibraltar. The city is now sur- 
rounded by high walls, walls that served 
to keep out the armies of Napoleon, and 
within the walls of resistant and defiant 
Cadiz were formulated and uttered in 
i8i2 the brilliant paragraphs of the 
Constitution that is a Charter of 
Spanish Liberties until today. The 
stor>" of that period would make 
pleasant and patriotic reading and a 



r^ 



■^{ 



^4Z^* 



'■••'■».-.-^^ 



F^ 



•» ,^r*- 










The "Puerta de Tierra", City Gate of Cadiz. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



huge painting in the Municipal Art 
GaUery of Cadiz, by Ramon Rodri- 
guez, shows how the summons to sur- 
render, sent by Joseph Bonaparte in 
19 ID, was received and answered. 

Cadiz has but two entrances, the gats 
of the sea and the great gate that opens 
through the walls known as the Puerta 
de Tierra, the gate of the land. Through 
this land gate all who approach Cadiz 
other than by boat must enter for there 
is only one road. Under the great 
portal pass the endless streams of 
donkeys whose panniers are filled with 
fruit and garden produce or with what- 
ever wares the country offers to the 
town. Shawled women and barefooted 
children often top the load. Some- 
times the donkey seems to have about 
two cords of wood upon his back but it 
is only the rough bark of the quercus 
that we know as cork. Besides the 
donkeys there flows in and out of the 
big gate all the picturesque life of 
vSpain, pleasure-seekers in honking auto- 
mobiles ; wedding parties complete as to 
veils, flowers and costumes occupying 
the handsome "coaches" whose horses 
have their harness adorned with scores 
of silver bells; brown gypsies, barefoot; 
trim soldiers on horseback, their scab- 
bards or gun barrels gleaming and their 
red and yellow trappings lending color; 
naval officers in blue and gold braid, 
uniforms almost identical with those 
worn by officers of the United States 
Navy; civil guards, in pairs, on foot and 
on horseback, distinguished by their 
triangular cocked hats of patent leather, 
and by their readiness to shoot; work- 
men in blue smocks and red sashes; 
carriages with bevies of Andalusian 
beauties wearing characteristic gaily 
colored, embroidered shawls, pinettas 
or high combs of tortoise shell and 
creamy lace mantillas and manipu- 
lating brightly painted or feathered 

[S] 



fans, and, inevitably accompanying the 
beauties, prim duehas in black silk and 
black lace rebosas; coaches filled with 
foreign sailors, drunk and happy, with 
legs swinging over the sides of the 
vehicle and raucous voices singing some 
chanty meant to accompany a pull on 
the halliards; military motorcycles 
carrying hurrying orderlies; cowled 
friars; beggars and mendicants of both 
sexes and all ages; peasants of Anda- 
lusia wearing the big, broad and stiff 
brimmed hats that mark them as being 
of the caste of bullfighters, friends, some- 
times a bullfighter in person, distin- 
guished, when not in costume, by the 
little pig tail or coleta which he ap- 
parently tries to keep concealed under 
his hat but which always artlessly 
manages to reveal itself; silk hatted 
and prosperous gamblers going to try' a 
turn at the roulette wheel at the casino 
on the beach; concave young dandies 
with modish garments; a group of 
priests, acolytes and choir boys with 
church banners, gilded ecclesiastical 
emblems, candles and incense lamps; 
fishermen, with trousers turned up 
above the knees revealing corded mus- 
cular brown legs; officers on prancing 
Andalusian chargers; goat herds pre- 
ceding and following their flocks of 
milch goats entering the city to deliver 
milk direct from goat to consumer; 
wooden wheeled carts, with hoods of 
plaited straw bulging out like the 
canvas tops of the American prairie 
schooner, drawn by patient oxen with 
heads sagging beneath the yoke; 
"Gitana" fortune tellers garbed in 
bright colored rags, their necks encircled 
with strings of gold and silver coins; 
porters; peddlers; mules, and more 
"burricos," all showing at pack saddle 
or bridle latchet.a silver half moon, or a 
colored tassel or a bit of wolf or badger 
skin, as charms against the evil eye; 




,p£I2fepl 



The Cathedral of Cadiz, sketched from the Atlantic side of the island. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



hawkers of fish, their wares displayed in 
flat baskets, burricos loaded with pot- 
tery visible under rope woven panniers ; 
venders of pink shrimp, ware that 
appeal loudly to eye and nose ; holy men 
and unholy women unwittingly jostling 
each other at the barriers; in short all 
the color-rich life of leisurely Spain, 
prince, peasant and pauper converging 
to and congesting the city's gate. 

Mr. Carl N. Wemtz, head of the 
Academy of Fine Arts in Chicago, has 
caught the spirit of that flow of life into 
the portal as well as the beautiful pro- 
portions of the old gate tower itself and 
his wonderful pencil sketch, (repro- 
duced on page 4) suggests the color 
which is the one thing lacking. Outside 
the gate, a hundred yards on either side, 
one sees the blue of the Atlantic and 
the blue of the bay and down the sand 
spit the white ribbon of road that is the 
only avenue to the main land 10 miles 
away. This road is the old Avenue of 
Hercules that led to the temple in pre- 
historic days. 

Equally characteristic as a glimpse of 
Cadiz is the sketch of the Cathedral 
whose twin towers dominate the city 
whether viewed from land or sea. The 
sketch is made from the parapet of the 
city's wall on the Atlantic side and over 
the wall the eternal casual fishermen 
watch their lines and the eternal gulls 
maneuver about them. 

With gate and cathedral one sees the 
heart of the present city, and Spanish 
cities change their customs and out- 
lines so slowly that a matter of a 
hundred years or so makes but little 
difference, but Archeology gropes back 
not through the cycles but through the 
millenniums, and, sifting out sagas and 
myths and the dust of dead men, reads 
its stories amid the stones and bones of 
the prehistoric past. 

Reversing the centuries we pass un- 

[7] 



heeding the days when the Duke of 
Albuquerque defended the city against 
Marshal Soult until the Duke of Wel- 
lington came and lifted the siege in 
August, 1812, until we reach the time in 
1596 when Elizabeth's favorite, the Earl 
of Essex, destroyed a Spanish fleet, 40 
treasure galleons and looted the city 
only 9 years after Drake had "singed 
the beard of the King of Spain" by 
burning the shipping in the harbor. It 
was then that the present walls began 
to be constructed about the town and its 
prosperity returned until it was richer 
than London, the wealth of Mexico, 
Peru and the West Indies pouring an 
average shipment of $25,000,000 a year 
into its coffers. 

Before the discovery of the New 
World, Cadiz, under the Arabs, had 
sunk to slight importance and was 
plundered by the corsairs of Barbary 
but it was one of the early conquests of 
the vSpanish arms, Alonso the Learned 
capturing it in 1262. R. Balaca, a 
modern painter has a large picture in 
the Cadiz Academy of Fine Arts show- 
ing the entry of Alonso. 

Before the Arabs it had languished 
under the Vandals who, coming about 
410 A. D., remained in power until 711, 
leaving little trace beyond the beautiful 
name of Andalusia and a strain of fair 
hair and blue eyes in the population. 
Here as elsewhere the Vandals drove 
out the Romans who had named the city 
Gades. Csesar and Pompey had fought 
for it. Scipio Africanus had used it as a 
base of operations and supplies in the 
Second Punic war as Hamilcar and 
Hannibal had done in the first war 
between Rome and Carthage. The 
Carthaginians had held the town since 
about 500 years before Christ, and ruled 
it nearly 300 years. 

But a thousand years before the 
Carthaginians came, their mother 




Metropolis ol Cadiz: Group of Tombs, discovered July 1914. 



country of Phoenicia had sent ex- 
plorers and colonists and these sun 
worshippers, finding already a race of 
sun worshippers, had erected a temple 
to Hercules Melkarte or Hercules, the 
city god. 

• So far as history goes we are told that 
the Greek Pytheas had studied its 
tides in the days of Alexander the 
Great. As the Mediterranean is tide- 
less (but not the Adriatic) it may be 
that this was the first time in the history 
of man that this disconcerting pheno- 
menon was ever studied. On the light- 
house reef at Cadiz there is still a 
modern hydrometer and hydrographic 
station. 

Of the early Carthaginian period 
and of the Phoenician period little is 
known. It is not even known when the 
famous temple to Hercules disappeared. 
One of Murillo's great paintings at 
Cadiz shows Caesar visitin? this temple. 



Now there is no trace and the leading 
archaeologist of Cadiz, Don Pelayo 
Ouintero Atauri, Director of the Acad- 
emy of Fine Arts, who as delegate of the 
Junta vSuperior of Excavations in Spain 
has supervised all the excavations that 
have been made in Cadiz under scienti- 
fic observation and who had discovered 
two groups out of the five discovered 
groups of ancient tombs, and who has 
carefully excavated and studied many 
tombs of the Ibero-Roman period, is of 
the opinion that this temple was not at 
Cadiz but at the other extremity of the 
peninsula, that is at its base near San 
Fernando. 

In company with Don Pelayo I have 
visited and studied the tombs that re- 
main and with .great appreciation I have 
read his scholarly book "Cadiz Primitive 
Primeros Plobadores Hallazgos Arqueo- 
logicos" (Primitive Cadiz, Its First 
Inhabitants and Archaeological Sur- 

[8] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



vivals) in which he makes an exposition 
of the facts and the theories, and if I 
modestly venture to differ with him on 
some of his important conclusions it is 
yet largely on the basis of scholarly 
evidence adduced by him. 

The testimeny of Strabo shows that 
in the days of Augustus this temple was 
flourishing. Strabo's evidence seems 
clear enough as to the location of the 
temple of Hercules. A free translation 
would be : "There is much to say of the 
Gaditaneans since it is they who send out 
ships many and beautiful, who navigate 
not only our sea (the Mediterranean) 
but also the ocean. ... At the 
extremity of this island (the island 
peninsula of Cadiz) there is a temple 
dedicated to Saturn, and at the opposite 
part, that is to say toward the East, is 
the temple of Hercules, and this is the 
point where the island is nearest to the 
continent in such a manner that it is 
only separated from it by a canal of the 
sea of only a stadium. There are those 
who say the temple is distant from the 
city 1 2 miles so that the number of the 
miles may equal the tasks of the god, 
but in fact the distance is the length of 
the island from West to East." 

After a reference to the fable of 
Geryon, Strabo recites in detail the 
tradition held in Cadiz at that time 
according to which an oracle gave the 
Tyrians instruction to send a colony to 
the columns of Hercules. After two 
expeditions, which by the disapproval 
of the auguries were shown to have 
failed to locate the columns of Hercu- 
les, a third expedition finally settled at 
Cadiz (Gadir), the mountains at the 
Straits of Gibraltar and an island near 
Huelva being the places tried and 
rejected by the first expeditions. These 
expeditions had, however, found a well 
established cult of the primitive Iberian 
Hercules. According to Strabo most 

[9] 



of the Greek writers held that the pillars 
were at the entrance of the Straits but 
the Iberians and the Libyans held that 
the true columns were at Cadiz, and 
Pindar and others seem to hold with 
them. 

Strabo's geography and topography 
would fit the present island peninsula 
like a glove but there is a most interest- 
ing reference in Pliny the Younger (78 
A. D.) which describes a small island 
between Cadiz and the continent at. a 
distance of one hundred steps from the 
main island and about a mile long in 
which was the primitive city of Cadiz. 
This small island, he says, was called 
Erytrea by certain Greek writers and 
Aphrodisia by others, but the primitive 
inhabitants named it after Juno. 

While Strabo does not mention this 
island by name he incidentally confirms 
its existence. After describing how 
flourishing Cadiz is and how it numbers 
among its inhabitants by a recent census 
500 patrician knights, a number greater 
than any other cities except Rome and 
Padua, he adds that the city in ancient 
times was small but Balbus the Gadita- 
nean (Balbus the younger who had 
been granted a triumph and was the 
son of L. Cornelius Balbus) had built 
near it another city called Neapolis and 
the two, united into one, called itself 
Didyma (the twin). Many, he said, in- 
habited the nearby coast and many 
more inhabited a little neighboring 
island where there had been built 
another city that competed with the 
"twin" and where one might live with 
great pleasure because its soil was of 
great fertility. He tells later how 
Phericidas thinks that Cadiz was called 
Er>'thia and narra tes how there occurred 
in it the fable of Geryon and says others 
suppose that Geryon inhabited an 
island near to Cadiz and separate from 
it by only a narrow canal of the sea one 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 




Necropolis of Cadiz: Front of the Anthropoid 
Sarcophagus. 



stadium in width, in which island such 
was the abundance and quahty of the 
grass that when the sheep ate it their 
milk became so rich that much water 
had to be added before cheese could be 
made from it, and after 30 days pas- 
turaee on it cattle had to be bled to 
keep them from suffocating. 

There seems to be no room for doubt 
that on this little island was the legend- 
ary site of the ninth labor of Hercules 
and that it represented a primeval cult 
of Hercules. 



At the present time there is no island, 
the railroad now following the low sandy 
stretch that represents the fiUed-in 
canal between the island and the main 
land but the projection that on modern 
maps is represented as the ship yard 
of the Astilleros Gaditanos is, I think, 
without doubt the core of the former 
island, the site of the oldest civilization 
and settlement near Cadiz and the 
natural place at which one might expect 
to encounter remains of the pre-Roman 
period. 

There is a large, unexplored mound 
within the limits of the ship yard and it 
was near this mound where the first and 
most important archaeological find was 
made in Cadiz, to-wit, the tomb with 
the marble sarcophagus known as the 
anthropoid sarcophagus, and near this 
first tomb and also within the limits of 
the former island were found other 
tombs while across the railroad and on 
what were once the terraced slopes of the 
the coast line of the main peninsula, 
distant a stadium, were found the other 
groups of prehistoric tombs. 

In June, 1887, while levelling the 
ground for a Maritime Exposition- it 
was necessary to remove a little emi- 
nence that jutted into the waters of the 
bay, and there was uncovered a .group 
of three sepulchres one of which con- 
tained the beautiful marble sarcopha- 
gus, apparently made of the white 
marble ol Almeria or a marble similar to 
a marble found there. In the sarco- 
phagus was the well preserved and 
perfectly articulated skeleton of a man 
while of the two sepulchres at the feet 
of the one containing the marble casket, 
one was found to contain the bones of a 
man and the remains of iron weapons 
and the other the bones of a woman. 
The marble casket was apparently that 
of a priest so that the strange group ap- 
parently gave the triangle of priest, 

[10] 




The Sculptured head on the Anthropoid Sarcophagus. Detail by Carl N. Werntz. 



warrior and woman. Some of the 
trinkets, jewels and weapons in these 
tombs passed into the hands of indi- 
viduals and have never been recovered. 
The tombs themselves were destroyed 
but the sarcoghagus and its content 
constitute one of the archaeologist's 
greatest discoveries. 

The sarcophagus follows the general 
outlines of a mummy case but there is 
no reason to believe that the body 
whose bones remain had ever been 

[11] 



embalmed. The cover of the case sug- 
gests the outlines of an heroic figure and 
the head is perfectly modelled and 
presents an appearance so striking that 
one cannot resist the impression that it 
is a portrait. The coiffure oi hair and 
beard is Chaldean or strikingly suggests 
the curls of Assyrian heads. The cast 
of features is Semitic. So Abraham 
might have looked. The face is full of 
dignity and power, high cheek bones, 
curved (but not hooked) nose, beard 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



exuberant and long, down drooping 
mustachios curled, as if by a barber of 
Babylon. The lips are full, sensual and 
arrogant. Once in real life I have seen 
such a face, and it was that of the 
Samaritan high priest who still on 
Alount Ebal sacrifices annually in full 
accord with the Mosaic ritual. These 
Samaritans are lineal descendants oi 
the colony that Nebuchadnezzar 
planted in Samaria which were Juda- 
ized to the extent of accepting the 
Pentateuch alone of the Hebrew Holy 
Books. The faces of these Samaritan 
priests as I saw them nearly 20 years 
ago, brought vividly to my mind the 
faces of Assyrian sculpture, hair, beard 
and features the same. These vSamari- 
tans are the closest living kin perhaps of 
the Ninevite and Phoenician race and 
it is one of their faces that appears on 
this sarcophagus lid. 

\\'hile the head and face are in almost 
the three dimensions of complete sculp- 
ture the outlines of the body are indi- 
cated by light bas-relief scarcely a 
quarter of an inch high. The figure is 
shown wearing a short sleeved tunic 
that drops to the instep but leaves the 
shoulders and arms bare. In those 
almost suggested lines of arms and 
shoulders, as in the structure of the face 
there is, however, shown a perfect 
knowledge of anatomy as well as a fine 
command of art. The muscles of the 
neck, shoulder and arms are not only 
beautifully but correctly indicated, 
sterno-mastoid, trapezius, deltoid and 
biceps showing beauty and strength. 
The feet, shown from the insteps down, 
are bare and are firmly planted, the wide 
interval between the first two toes sug- 
gesting that the feet had been accus- 
tomed to sandals, although no sandals 
are shown. Silius Italicus says that the 
priests of Hercules wore white tunics 
and that the feet were bare. The 



position of the feet and the general 
form of the sarcophagus and cover as 
well as the attitude of the figure carved 
thereon clearly indicate that this casket 
was intended to be placed not hori- 
zontally, as it was found in the primi- 
tive tomb, but upright, perhaps in a 
niche in the temple. 

The right arm is dropped full length 
down the side of the figure and the 
fingers of the hand are closed as if 
upon the hilt of a sword or knife, th? 
back of the hand being to the front. 
Don Pelayo think'; that this closed 
hand held a wreath of laurel which was 
painted on but I think that in such a 
case the palm would have been turned 
hah way outward and the last two 
fingers would have been more relaxed 
and not tensed in a grip as they are. A 
laurel wreath would have been held 
between the thumb and the first two 
fingers. The knife or sword is only 
indicated, as, carved at right angles to 
the body, the beauty of the lines would 
have been affected, or perhaps the 
dimensions of the marble did not admit. 

The left hand is brought forward to 
the center of the body and holds a 
human heart. The significance of this 
seems not to have been appreciated 
although the sacerdotal character of 
the figure is conceded by all. But to 
my mind it seems clear that we have 
here not only a priest but a high priest 
depicted in the supreme moment of his 
career and at the climax of his ritual, 
when, having torn open the breast of a 
human sacrifice with the curved knife 
that he held in his right hand, he lifts, 
as an offering to the Sun God, the 
bleeding, smoking heart that he has 
plucked out with his left hand. 

This would not be out of accord with 
what we know of Canaanite, Hittite, 
Chaldee or Phoenician. Even Abra- 
ham approached to the very verge of 

[121 






Amulet of the Lioness 
Headed Goddess, with 
Moon Disc. Found in 
a primitive tomb. 



Amulet of a Ram Headed 
God. Found in a prehis- 
toric tomb. 



Funeral seal ring with Scarabaeus and Fragment 
of Sidereal collar showing agate, gold and bone 
beads with golden sun emblem. 



human sacrifice when he was ready to 
offer up Isaac, and Jahveh's method of 
seaUng a promise to man was by ' 'cut- 
ting a covenant." Moreover it would 
chime perfectly with the sun worship in 
the new world as Cortes found it and as 
Lew Wallace describes it in "The Fair 
God . ' ' The Samaritans have continued 
until the present time to offer living 
sacrifices of animals in accord with the 
instructions given by Jahveh to Abra- 
ham that animals should substitute 
human beings. 

The feet and garments of the statue 
recall and resemble those of the As- 
syrian king taken from Nimrud that is 
found in the British Museum, the slop- 
ing projection on which the feet rest 
being identical. This foot rest and 
the shape of the sarcophagus as well 
as the coiffure of head and beard are 
markedly like those of the sarco- 

[13] 



phagus, unquestionably Phoenician 
found in Sidon and now in the 
Louvre. 

Only the shape of the sarcophagus 
reminds one of the sarcophagus of 
Echmunezar which is as Egyptian in 
sculpture style as the Cadiz tomb is 
Greek. (See sketch of head of the 
figure carved on the Sidon sarcophagus.) 
The statue sarcophagus of Echmunezar 
however, besides being found in vSyria, 
contains an inscription in Phcenician 
that pronounces a curse against the 
profaners of tombs. 

These differences in the sculpture 
lead one to believe that the Phoenicians 
ordered their tombs in advance and 
invoked the aid of famous artists who 
carved, each according to his art, 
traditions, and nationality. 

I can not agree with my friend Don 
Pelayo that the Sarcophagus is Hittite 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 




Sketch from Sarcophagus of Echmunezar, 
Phoenician Tomb in Egyptian Style of 
Sculpture. 

and precedes the Phoenician period but 
I think it more likely that when the 
Phoenicians set up the temple to the 
worship of the sun in honor of Hercules 
they possibly left some great high priest 
to serve it and that this priest imported 
hip monument which was carved by a 
Greek artist in accordance, or in partial 
accordance, with Assyrian traditions. 
The excellent anatomy, the fore- 
shortening of the left arm and hand, 
and the suggestion of Greek art, despite 
the lightness of the bas-relief of the 
figure are impressive. I am most 
fortunate in being able to present che 
detail sketches of feet and left hand by 
Mr. C. N. Wemtz made ac the Archseo- 
logical Museum in Cadiz, especially 
to accompany this study. 




* 1 







J 



Bas-Relief Sculpture Drawing of the Feet of the 
High Priest. Detail. 



Articles found in the first group of 
tombs were lost or passed into private 
possession. It is probable, however, 
that a sidereal collar emblematic of sun 
worship, a scarabeus set in a liturgical 
ring so as to revolve and having the 
underside engraved, and two rings or 
ear rings of soft pure gold were in 
this tomb. No inscription and no 
written word was found save the as yet 
untranslated engraving on the scara- 
beous seal ring. The absence of money 
in these early tombs is significant that 
the period was still one of barter. In 



■^ 




Light Bas-Relief Sculpture Drawing of the Left Hand 
of the High Priest, holding a Heart. Detail. 

other tombs of the period were found 
similar objects such as sidereal collars 
adorned with sun emblems, the petals 
of the sun medallion varying from 8 to 
12 and the beads of the collars being 
alternate agate and pure gold, some- 
times also alternating with bits of 
enamel and sections of finger bones. 

The agate beads are not rounded but 
are short sections of drilled cylinders. 
There is shown a sketch of a section of a 
collar, of a scarabeus and of two of the 
four amulets or funeral emblems that 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



seem almost purely Egyptian but that 
are connected with the worship of the 
sun and moon. One is that of a lioness 
headed god and the other is of a ram 
headed god. The disc over the head of 
the lioness, the huntress of the night, is 
the moon disc, with the cobra in front, 
and the vertical rays of the sun form 
the disc over the head of the ram, 
emblem of vigor and fertility. It does 
not seem necessary to identify these 
two meticulously with the funeral 
genii of the Egyptians although amulets 
with the head of the hawk and of the 
jackal were also found and in one tomb 
a golden bee, one of the fecundity 
emblems of Diana of the Ephesians. 
The many breasted ancient statue of 
Diana at Naples shows the mantle 
covered with bees. The heads of these 
amulets are of purest gold modelled 
with a skill that the expert jewelers of 
today could not surpass. The shafts 
of the amulets are of copper, now badly 
corroded but once hollow and filled 
with some substance now indistin- 
guishable, perhaps a tiny cylinder of 
inscribed papyrus or parchment. 

Perhaps over the subterranean tombs 
there were originally inscribed tablets 
but at present one has to lament the 
complete lack of inscriptions whether 
in Hebrew, Aramaic or Phoenician, 
hieroglyphs or Greek. Of these primi- 
tive tombs a number have been found, 
clearly distinguishable from the Cartha- 
ginian and Ibero-Roman periods. 

Suarez de Salazar, writing in 1610, 
describes 3 classes of sepulchres, (one 
of them corresponding to these ancient 
tombs,) which were found while build- 
ing the walls of Cadiz. 

The discovery of the group contain- 
ing the carv^ed sarcophagus took place 
in June 1887. In 1890 a group of four 
similar sepulchres but without sarco- 
phagi was found very near this group 

[15] 



while laying out the shipyard now 
known as the Astilleros Gaditanos. In 
Jan. 1 89 1 another group of four was 
found but this time on what was once 
the shore of the island peninsula and 
across what was the canal of a stadium 
in width. In April 1891 another 
double group, verj^ near, and in 1892 
another group of four. All of these save 
the 1887 group were perfectly oriented 
and all contained skeletons that 
crumbled on being touched. The 
measurements of the skeleton in the 
sarcophagus have been very accurately 
taken in detail. A sketch showing the 
contour of the skull is given. I think 
all three of the tombs in the first group 
were priestly, two priests and a 
priestess. The rusted weapons in one 
of the tombs were sacrificial knives. 

Beginning with September, 191 2, 
orderly excavations have been made 
under the direction of Don Pelayo 
Ouintero Atauri who has uncovered 
twenty-three prehistoric tombs and 
many of the Carthaginian and Roman 
period. The Roman cemetery was on 
the Atlantic side of the island and just 
outside of the present walls of the city, 
and the tombs are pottery funeral urns 
containing the cremated remains of the 
dead and other objects such as coins, 
amulets of clay, small clay masks, idols 
and vessels, which discoveries, valuable 
as they are, lie outside the scope of this 
stor}\ 

The story that seems to coincide with 
the tombs and with the traditions is 
that long before the dawn of recorded 
history some Syrian tribe of sun wor- 
shippers, coming perhaps from near 
Tarsus, perhaps from the shores of the 
Red Sea, but having traversed Eg>'pt 
and Northern Africa en route, arrived 
at the bay ol Cadiz and found inside the 
island peninsula a small sheltered island 
of great fertility separated by the stad- 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



ium wide canal from the island and by 
the bay from the mainland, and used as 
an enclosed pasture by some mainland 
aboriginal chief. The migration was 
led by some sturdy hero whom tra- 
dition has identified as Tubal Cain. 
The newcomers dispossessed the original 
inhabitants, after a struggle, perhaps a 
duel, between the old chief and the new, 
and we have a reminiscence of that 
combat in the story of the ninth (some- 
times listed as the tenth) labor of 
Hercules in taking the huge red bulls of 
the Giant Geryon, by the significant 
aid of the ocean nymph Callirrhoe. 

With the lapse of years hero became 
demi-god and demi-god became deity 
and along the Atlantic coast of Spain 
there was a well developed worship of 
Hercules, a primitive temple begin 
located at what is now known as the 
Punta Canteras in the Bay of Cadiz and 
another near Huelva, which facts were 
discovered by the two abortive Phoeni- 
cian expeditions sent out to locate the 
pillars of Hercules. The third expe- 
dition found in the bay of Cadiz a 
protected harbor and a shelter for their 
boats under the lee of the little island. 
They no doubt also found the settle- 
ment there at war with the shore tribes 
and the)' found a welcome by announc- 
ing that they had come to seek the 
pillared shrine of Hercules and to 
found a temple to that god, now ele- 
vated by Egyptian influence to a sun 
god. They were welcomed and took 
possession. The time was perhaps 1400 
B.C. 

With the coming of the high carved 



galleys of Phoenicia to Cadiz the 
history of Spain began. I think the 
sarcophagus is that of the first high 
priest of Hercules introduced by the 
Phoenicians. I would expect to find the 
remains of the old temple of Hercules 
within the hmits of that smaller island 
perhaps in the unexplored and un- 
explained mound that exists in the ship- 
yard crowned with a few fragments of a 
far later edifice were it not for the 
explicit testimony of Strabo. Perhaps 
when the temple was destroyed the 
sarcophagus of the high priest was taken 
from its niche to the safety of the 
smaller island or perhaps on that 
island a smaller temple was erected. 
Certainly within its limits will be found 
other objects going back to the most 
primitive period of Spanish history. 
The ruins of the temple of Hercules 
itself should be found at the base of the 
present island peninsula near the canal 
that unites at that poin<" ocean and bay. 
That bayou-like canal has no doubt 
shifted its location somewhat in the 
centuries but the ruins should still be 
easy to find and when they are found 
there will no doubt be found with 
them the great stone altar of human 
sacrifice. For the rest one can only 
quote the words of Emil Huebner, 
written prior to any of these dis- 
coveries: "The discovery of the treas- 
ured riches in the famous temple of 
Melkarte, the Tyrian Hercules, in the 
island of Cadiz, is the opus magnum 
reserved without doubt to a Schliemann 
of the future." 

Cadiz, Spain. 




[16] 



THE INVESTIGATIONS AT ASSOS 



CONDUCTED BY THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 
B\ Howard Crosby Butler. 



EVERYONE who is interested in 
Classical archaeology, everyone 
who cares about Greek architec- 
ture, and many others who have only a 
love of Art in general will hail with 
enthusiasm the long delayed appear- 
ance of the final parts of the publica- 
tions of the Investigations at Assos. 
These investigations, which were the 
first of the kind undertaken by Amer- 
icans in the field of Classical archae- 
ology, were begun forty years ago under 
the auspices of the Archaeological In- 
stitute of America, as the result of the 
untiring energy and skill of the late 
Joseph Thatcher Clarke, and with the 
cordial cooperation at home of the late 
Professor Charles Eliot Norton. The 
first installments of these publications 
appeared twenty years after the exca- 
vations had been undertaken, and 
vicissitudes such as the absorption of 
the architect of the expedition in the 
business of his profession, lack of funds 
for publication, and a world war, have 
delayed the completion of the work 
until now. The earlier parts of the 
publications have been of great scien- 
tific value and interest; now we are to 
have a folio containing carefully meas- 
ured map-plans of ancient Assos, re- 
storations in perspective of parts of the 
city, scale-drawings of plans, elevations 
and details, and restorations of the 
principal monuments, together with a 
wealth of large reproductions of photo- 
graphs of the ruins. ]Most of the plans 
and drawings of elevations, details and 
restorations are the work of Mr. 
Francis H. Bacon, in his peculiar and 
most beautiful style as a draftsman, a 

[171 



style which is one of the most, if not the 
most, satisfactory that has ever been 
attempted for the rendering and in- 
terpretation of ancient Classical archi- 
tecture. One is by his brother, Henry 
Bacon, the gifted architect of the 
Lincoln Memorial in Washington. No 
picture or word description could be 
more illuminating to the youthful or to 
the experienced student of Greek archi- 
tecture and of Greek life than Mr. 
Bacon's Restoration of the Agora at 
Assos, a cut of which is presented here- 
with. No rendering of any sort, or in 
any medium, could better depict the 
delicate, artistic charm, and the logical 
constructional processes of the archi- 
tecture of Greece than the accompany- 
ing pen-drawing of the Vaulted Tomb. 
These drawings give us not only a 
sense of the refined and dignified beauty 
of the monuments of Greek and Hel- 
lenistic architecture; but are proof in 
themselves of the accuracy and fidelity 
to truth with which they were executed. 
Nodetail, however minute, is lostin these 
restorations, and the large-scale draw- 
ings of various details will be of great 
value, not only to the architect, but to 
all students of Greek architectural 
ornament. The verbal descriptions 
which accompany the drawings are con- 
cise, clear and to the point. The in- 
scriptions have been drawn and edited 
with great care. The coin types have 
been published by Mr. H. W. Bell with 
his usual pains and accuracy. The 
publications throughout are of such a 
high quality of scholarship, technical 
presentation, and artistic execution, 
that American archaeologists and 



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y^ 





Western Transverse Wall, showing a high grade of stone-work, and a Gateway with a corbelled arch. 



lovers of art may well be proud of 
them. 

Thi s work , so long in preparation , is at 
last completed and a short account of 
the book may interest our readers. 
The first part of the work was issued in 
1902, but owing to various delays the 
final parts have only been completed 
this year. The expedition to Assos was 
sent out by the Archaeological Institute 
of America in 1881 and carried on 
excavations during 1881-1882 and 1883. 
The present work is intended to be a 
book of plates giving exact drawings of 
all the buildings investigated including 
the Temple, Gymnasium, Agora with 
the adjoining Stoa, Bouleuterion and 
Bazaar or Market building, the Forti- 
fication Walls and gateways and the 
interesting street of Tombs with its 
many Sarcophagi and Monuments; 
brief descriptions accompany the plates 
with exact drawings and measures of all 



fragments. Assos was a provincial 
Greek city in the southern part of the 
Troad, built on terraces around a steep 
hill directly on the sea and facing the 
island of Lesbos. Along the narrow 
paved streets that ran around the sides 
of the Acropolis were the dwellings and 
public buildings placed in picturesque 
relation to each other, the whole en- 
closed by massive fortification walls. 
High above all was the Temple of 
Athena which formed here, like the 
Parthenon at Athens, a quiet sanctuary 
far removed from the bustle of the city 
below. Its pavement is nearly eight 
hundred feet above the sea level, and so 
steep is the ascent that from the edge 
of the cliff one can look into the holds of 
the small vessels clustered in the port 
below. The temple, a very early Doric 
building of the VI Century B.C. has 
long been of interest to archaeologists on 
account of the sculptured epistyle 

[20] 




' J- - 

Large Urnamented Sarcophagus, No. XV'l, raistd upon a high Podium. Paved Street in foreground. 



blocks which had been noticed by early 
travelers. In 1838 the French Govern- 
ment removed eleven of these blocks to 
Paris. Eleven more fragments were 
found by the American expedition. 
The plan of the temple was definitely 
established and enough fragments found 
to make drawings of the elevations 
possible. The Agora was on a terrace 
below the temple. An arched gateway 
formed the Western entrance, at the 
North was the Stoa, a long, open, two- 
storied portico, over three hundred feet 
long, with the Bouleuterion at the East. 
On the South was the Bazaar or Market 
building with a row of small rooms for 
shops on the lower floor; the second 
floor was probably for store-rooms; 
while the upper story formed an open 
portico entered from the Agora level. 
The Stoa formed a shelter from the rain 
and sun and, being in the public square, 
was a place of general resort for the 
merchants and business men of the city 

[21] 



as well as for others. An interesting 
passage in Strabo illustrates this use 
of the Stoa in the life of the Greeks, and 
also the fact that all jokes are old. In 
speaking of Cyme, a city fifty miles 
south of Assos, he says: 

"And another storv^ is that they 
borrowed the money to build their Stoa, 
and, not paying up on the appointed 
day, were shut out from the building. 
But, when it rained, the money- 
lenders, for very shame, sent out the 
crier to bid them come under; and, as 
the crier made proclamation, 'Come 
under the Stoa,' the story got abroad 
that the Cymaeans did not know 
enough to go in when it rained, unless 
they were notified by the herald." 

The principal Avenue of Tombs was 
evidently laid out with great care. A 
level unpaved terrace about 13 m. 
wide and 250 m. long extended from the 
city wall to the paved road leading to 
the upper gates. This avenue was 



^3 




A Vaulted Tomb, partly restored, showing perfection of construction and high finish. On all sides 

Sarcophagi and Stelae are crowded together. 





Li-irj^^^ 



^r 



'i ■ Its --If; 4^/^ -•--■A-ft^^-?-r^S^ 

.^.- T .^/■l -.I.---,-— j :;— -^ 

.S':'-V " "^- 




■HENRY BACON DEL / 



Tomb of Publius Varius, outside the western gate of the city, facing down the long Street of Tombs. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 




Mcirljlc IVduital from Tomb of Publius Varius. 

lined with monuments on each side, the 
large Tomb of Publius Varius facing the 
center. Between the monuments were 
many buried sarcophagi. In several 
places were found small jars containing 
charred bones, the ground thus used 
through successive ages became full of 
graves and later comers had difficulty in 
finding places not already occupied. 
Ever}^ available space was filled and 
later sarcophagi were placed in the 
exedras and many tombs were re- 
appropriated. It seemed to be against 
their scruples to remove any buried jar 
or sarcophagus, and in several instances 
buried sarcophagi were found around 
which walls had been built as a founda- 
tion for a later tomb. Altogether in 
different parts of the Necropolis were 
found over a hundred buried sarcophagi 
with the lids still on. These were 
simple stone coffins, large enough to 
contain a human body. Most of them 
had been opened in later times and 
other bodies placed inside. In some 
were the remains of five or six skeletons, 
one over another in as many layers. 

[25] 



Most of the larger monuments had 
seats or exedras in front and, owing to 
the proximity to the main gate, the 
place must have been one of general 
resort, as there is a beautiful view of the 
sea and of the island of Lesbos opposite. 
It is especially pleasant at sunset, for 
at this time the wind which generally 
blows steadily all day ceases, the 
laborers come in from the fields, the 
goat bells tinkle and the shepherds are 
heard calling to their flocks in the valley 
below. 

A graphic picture of the neglected 
condition of a Greek Street of Tombs 
as early as 75 B. C. is given by Cicero 
in his Tusculan Disputations, Book V. 
He went to Sicily as Quaestor and when 
at Syracuse endeavored to find the 




Capital from the very early Doric Temple of 
Athena at Assos. 



f 



^'^aifmmfmmmmmm 



wniiwi 



Dog Inscription from Mytilene. 



tomb of Archimedes, which no one 
remembered, and some even denied its 
existence. Cicero's account of its dis- 
covery is as follows: 

"I searched out the tomb, shut in on 
all sides and enveloped in briars and 
brushwood ; for I held in my hand some 
iambic verses which I had heard were 
carved on his monument, and which 
showed that it had at the top a sphere 
and a cylinder. When I had personally 
inspected that great throng of grave- 
monuments just outside of the Agri- 
gentine gate of Syracuse, at last I 
noticed a small column, a little rising 
above the brushwood, on which were 
carved the figures of sphere and cylinder. 
Sending there a squad of men with axes 
and pruning knives, I soon had the place 
opened and cleared; then we went to 
the base of the shaft, and there was the 
epitaph, though the ends of the verses 
were almost half eaten off. Thus it was 



seen that an illustrious Grecian city, 
formerly eminent in science, had for- 
gotten the tomb of its one most 
learned citizen, and must learn its 
existence from a man of little and 
remote Arpinum." 

One of the last illustrations in the 
book is that of a figure of a dog cut on a 
marble slab, above an inscription — a 
touching tribute of a Lesbian youth 
named Anaxeos to the memory^ of his 
dog Parthenope. The stone was found 
in Mytilene in 1880 and is now in the 
Museum at Constantinople. A free 
translation of the inscription is as 
follows. 

"Parthenope his dog, with whom in life 
It was his wont to play, Anaxeos here 
Hath buried; for the pleasure that she gave 
Bestowing this return. Affection, then, 
Even in a dog, possesseth its reward. 
Such as she hath who, ever in her life 
Kind to her master, now receives this tomb. 
See, then, thou make some friend, who in thy life 
Will love thee well, and care for thee when dead." 
Princeton University. H. G. C. Jr. 

[26] 



THE BROADMOOR ART ACADEMY 

By Theo Merrill Fisher. 



IN THE Broadmoor Art Academy at 
Colorado Springs the West boasts 

an art institution which in the brief 
span of a year has estabUshed itself as 
one of really national consequence. 
This is possibly a daring verdict to 
offer as the judgment of only a twelve- 
month's activity but consideration of 
the record herewith presented will, we 
are confident, bear it out. 

The organization of the Academy in 
the fall of 19 19 was in reality the coming 
true of Mr. and Mrs. Spencer Penrose's 
long cherished dream of giving their 
attractiv^e and spacious town house as 
the foundation for and the center of an 
art institution for the city where they 
resided. At the same time they pro- 
vided the nucleus of a five year main- 
tenance and development fund which 
will insure financial needs. The name 
"Broadmoor," it might be noted, is that 
of the dehghtful residential suburb 
where these donors now have their 
home. 

In true western spirit the organizers 
of the Academy decided against the 
usual policy of small beginnings and 
half hearted programs, concluding that 
the fate of this altruistic venture — be it 
happy or dismal — were determinable 
quickly and surely if boldness in at- 
tempting the realization of their pur- 
poses was their guiding principle. 
Although the central idea is to make the 
Academy in everj^ possible way a com- 
munity center for all the arts — really 
an "Akademeia" in the original Greek 
sense, as we shall presently see — the 
focal point of its interests is found in the 
field of the line arts and particularly in 
what it offers as a school of art. The 
significance of the institution from the 



standpoint of the country at large is 
found too in this connection. The 
amazing response which immediately 
followed its initial announcement last 
spring, is largely accounted for, it 
appears, in the attractiveness which art 
students in all sections found in the 
summer art school program. The com- 
bination of instruction of unsurpassable 
quality in an environment of rare 
climatic and scenic charm was the 
magnet wisely calculated to draw, and 
draw it did more powerfully than 
fondest anticipations had deemed pos- 
sible. John F. Carlson, one of 
America's most eminent painters and 
long known as one of the country's 
foremost teachers, especially through 
his work at Woodstock, New York, was 
presented as the instructor in land- 
scape painting and for study of the 
figure and portrait painting, Robert 
Reid, member of the National Academy 
and Society of Ten American Painters, 
who besides holding a very high place 
as a portraitist and mural decorator 
also has been distinguished as a teacher. 

The summer school opened June 
1920 for a three months' term. Be- 
fore its conclusion eighty were attend- 
ing its adult classes with an additional 
fifteen to twenty youngsters enrolled 
for instruction under Alice Craig, a 
pupil of William Chase, Robert Henri 
and Robert Reid. 

The Great West is just coming into 
its own as a field for the landscapist, 
needing but acquaintance to become 
established, as it is now doing, as one of 
charms peculiar to itself; a land of 
infinitely varied aspects, color and 
atmosphere. The hope of making the 
Broadmoor Academy of vastly more 

[27] 




-• :- 4 "■■ ■■'^-'" 




Photograph of H. L. Standley, Colorado Springs 

Broadmoor Art Academy, from Monument Valley Park. 



than local consequence, aside from the 
place that first class instruction alone 
would give it, is found then in what we 
may term its strategic position. Colo- 
rado vSprings as it happens, is in the 
exact railroad center of the United 
States, being by fast train service just 
forty-eight hours from both coasts and 
the Canadian and Mexican borders. 
More important than convenience of 
access though, is its pictorial resources, 
for situated as it is, where the Great 
Plains in their westward rise abruptly 
terminate in the tremendous upthrust 
of the Front Range Rockies, the art 
student, novice or adept, here has the 
choice of and ready access to these two 
fields of work widely different in char- 
acter, and each in its way offering him 
a superb challenge and inspiration. 

[29] 



The Academy itself is most at- 
tractively situated, just off of one of the 
town's principal residential thorough- 
fares, its grounds whch cover half of a 
city block and its frontage on the rim of 
Alonument Valley Park across whose 
meadows and tiny lakes it looks to the 
far-flung panorama of Pikes Peak and 
many lesser summits, give it seclusion 
and rare setting. 

To the new uses the dwelling and 
other buildings were readily adapted. 
What was formerly the green houses 
having been metamorphosed into 
studios for the two principal instruc- 
tors, lecture and class rooms and a 
small exhibition gallery. The second 
and third floors of the residence and the 
loft of the garage are now living apart- 
ments and studios for local and visiting 




Photograph of Theo M. Fisher 

Broadmoor Art Academy, Colorado Springs Galleries, Art Society Exhibitions of Gorham Bronzes and display. 



artists. The salon, conservatory and 
dining room that were, have been 
thrown together to make a large as- 
sembly room, — the setting for many 
delightful affairs, including the meet- 
ings of the several organizations which, 
through its purpose to serve as a center 
for so many as possible of the com- 
munity's artistic groups, the Academy 
affiliated with. Among others The 
American Music Society and the 
Musical Club, to name the two most 
important of musical interests, and the 
Drama League, now enjoy this hos- 
pitality, the latter on occasion of its 
performances, with curtains and port- 
manteau stage, converting the room 
into a little theatre that comfortably 
seats two hundred. It is used also as a 



studio for Mrs. Grace Milone's classes 
in interpretative, classical and other 
dancing. 

Aliss Laura Gilpin, a graduate of the 
Clarence White School of pictorial 
photography of New York City, one 
of whose pictures we are privileged to 
reproduce herewith, has her work rooms 
in the building. 

The summer session is of course at 
the outset the chief feature of the art 
school phase of the Academy's activi- 
ties, at least in point of popularity. 
Teaching during the winter was, how- 
ever, continued by Mr. Reid and JNIiss 
Craig and new courses in design, in- 
terior decoration and various crafts 
were offered under ISIiss Helen Finch, a 
graduate of the Chicago Art Institute. 

[30] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



As it is the intention of the directors 
to have an art exhibition of some kind 
on display at all times, the past year has 
seen in its gallery one interesting col- 
lection after another and all available 
for visitors' enjoyment without ad- 
mission charge. 

These have included decorative de- 
signs by Leon Bakst; monotypes by 
John Anson James ; two of old masters — 
one group a small but choice assemblage 
from local, private homes and another 
from the Ehrich Galleries of New 
York — pastels and oil paintings by 
William P. Henderson; examples of 
Henry Golden Dearth's work; bronzes 
by noted American sculptors, through 
the courtesy of the Gorham Galleries; 
during the summer a showing of Mr. 
Carlson's landscapes including a num- 
ber of his first depictions of far western 
themes which, although the artist 
named them but experimental sketches 
were so appealing as to make one im- 
patient of the time when he will offer 
more ambitious work from this vicinity. 
More recently art lovers were favored 
with the chance of seeing Mr. Reid's 
studies of the mountains and plains 
near Colorado Springs, with a group of 
his "moonlight motives" in the Garden 
of the Gods, confirming the impression 
that in taking up permanent residence 
in Colorado as he has done, the far west 
has gained a great addition to its 
artistic assets and art the enrichment 
that has come from such attractive 
canvasses, representing a new and 
radically different phase of his interests. 

For many years the Colorado Springs 
Art Society served its community un- 
selfislily and effectively, bringing to the 
city art collections of the highest rank, 
most of which are rarely shown this far 
from eastern art centers, and too 
always offering them without admission 
fee. With the inauguration of the 

[31] 



Broadmoor Academy the Society felt 
than in the interest of the objects it had 
at heart and because of greater achieve- 
ment possible through the newer organi- 
zation, it were wise to give place to it. 
In reality the two have been amalga- 
mated, the executive committee of the 
former becoming the latter's exhibition 
committee and its members the active 
or artist members of the Academy. 

One of the most valuable and inter- 
esting of collateral activities is the free 
musical study available for young 
people. Edwin A. Dietrich directs a 
junior symphony orchestra which at- 
tracts forty or more every Saturday 
morning during the school year and 
Mrs. H. Howard Brown's instruction in 
musical appreciation and choral singing 
draws at least an equal number. 

The Academy has recently been 
given what promises to be an important 
impetus and enlargement of scope 
through the arrangement whereby it 
has been made one of the centers for 
the artistic, vocational training of 
former service men. This has neces- 
sitated the organization of a distinct 
department of industrial arts, compre- 
hending the courses formerly in Miss 
Finch's charge, other craft instruction, 
particularly in pottery together with 
commercial illustration and photogra- 
phy. C. P. da Costa Andrade, formerly 
of Philadelphia, has been made director 
of this new division with Lloyd Moylan 
and Wilfred Stedman his immediate 
assistants and Miss Gilpin in charge of 
photographic instruction. 

An initial assignment of twenty men 
was made by the Government in April 
and it is anticipated that before fall the 
number will have increased to fifty or 
more. Because of the unusually favor- 
able climatic conditions, men desiring 
industrial art training will be sent here 
not only from the states of the Rocky 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



Mountain "division" but as well from 
all sections of the country. 

The second year of the Academy's 
active history began June 15th with the 
return of Mr. Carlson from the east for 
the opening of the summer school. He 
will remain for a year and continue his 
classes through the school's winter 
term. 

The enrollment for the summer 
school at this writing is so greatly 
ahead of that of the same time a year 
ago it is anticipated an assistant will 



be imperative for the work afield. Mr. 
Reid will of course continue his classes 
as in time past" '-^t 

For an insignia the Academy has 
adapted an antique seal which was once 
probably used by some ecclesiastical 
organization in Old Mexico ; the device 
showing an angel with torch and globe, 
in this latter connection appropriately 
signifying Art's supernal meaning to 
the world. 

Colorado Springs, Colo. 




The Czur'i iMuniiiLT I'alacL- lit Wurs.iw. 



THE CZAR'S SUMMER PALACE IN WARSAW. 



The great ivhite palace waits in vain 
The host ivho ne'er will come again 

To Varsovie; — 
To Varsovie, To Varsovie, 

The great ivhite Czar 

Journeys afar 
And sleeps no more in Varsovie. 



Warsaw (Varsovie), Poland. 
May 14, 1921. 



JOHX FiXLEY. 



[32] 




The Lowenburg: the small castle built by Jerome Bonaparte in the grounds of the Castle Wilhelmshohe, 

at Cassel, Germany. 



THE MARBLE BATH OF JEROME NAPOLEON 

By Mary Mendenhall Perkins. 



THE youngest brother of the great 
Napoleon I, can truly be said to 
have had an exceptional career, 
from almost the very beginning to the 
end of his life. 

Whenever his name is mentioned we 
naturally recall his famous — or shall I 
say infamous? — American romance, the 
result of which reflects but little credit 
on either Jerome or his illustrious 
brother. 

After Napoleon I, who was greatly 
displeased with his brother's marriage 
to Miss Elizabeth Patterson, had passed 
a decree annulling the marriage, Jerome 
returned to France in submission to his 
brother's wishes. He was rewarded 

[33] 



with a high command in the navy, later 
being made a brigadier-general in the 
army. But the highest honor remained 
to be bestowed upon him by his royal 
benefactor, Napoleon I, when he was 
handed the crown of the Kingdom of 
Westphalia in Germany. 

With the crown went the hand of the 
daughter of Frederick, King of W^uer- 
temburg. There is but little doubt 
that he left his heart in America, in the 
keeping of the beautiful Miss Patterson 
of Baltimore, as he is said to have led 
a rather reckless, dissolute life ever 
after his return to France. It is cer- 
tain that he cared little for the happi- 
ness of his German wife. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



While King of Westphalia he made 
Cassel, the lovely old town on the 
Fulda, in the province of Hesse, his 
place of residence. He built a fine 
opera-house on the Friedrichsplatz, a 
small but very beautiful castle, perfect 
in every detail, in the grounds of the 
great castle of Wilhelmshohe, where 
he spent much of his time. This later 
became famous as the prison, for seven 
months, of the ill-starred Napoleon IH, 
after the debacle of Sedan. 

But what clings closest to the name 
and fame of Jerome Bonaparte in the 
Cassel of today is his Marble Bath. 
This was a wonderful creation, wholly 
of white Carrara marble, with a flight of 
steps leading down to the great sunken 
pool. In Cassel they say that the dis- 
sipated Jerome used to have this filled 
with wine in which he bathed to re- 
store his depleted energies. Report 
says further that he afterward gave the 
wine to his valet, who bottled and sold 
it for his own profit. The walls were 
covered with fine bas-reliefs of myth- 
ological subjects suggested by the 
Metamorphoses of Ovid, and wrought 
out by the French sculptor Monnot, all 
in Carrara marble. There were ten of 
these large allegorical groups done in 
bas-relief. The accompanying illustra- 
tion of one of these will serve to give an 
idea of their artistic value. It repre- 
sents Daphne and Apollo. In the 
legend it appears that Apollo, seeing 
Cupid playing with his bow and arrows, 
taunted him, saying he should leave 
warlike weapons for hands worthy of 
them and content himself with the 
torch of love. At this Cupid replied, 
"Thine arrows may strike all things 
else, Apollo, but mine shall strike thee." 
So saying he took his stand on a rock of 
Parnassus and drew from his quiver two 
arrows, one to excite love and one to 
repel it. With the latter he struck 




Uiie of the bas-reliefs in Carrara marble on the wall of 
Jerome Bonaparte's Marble Bath at Cassel, Germany. 

the nymph Daphne, the daughter of 
the river-god Peneus, and with the 
other one he struck Apollo through the 
heart. At once Apollo was seized with 
love for Daphne, but she abhorred the 
idea of loving him. Her delight was in 
woodland sports and in the spoils of the 
chase. Apollo saw the charming dis- 
order of her hair; he saw her eyes as 
bright as stars; he saw her lovely lips; 
he longed for Daphne. He followed 
her, but she fled. She heeded not his 
entreaties, but ran as swiftly as the 
wind. He called to her that it was 
for love that he fallowed her, but still 
she would not listen. Even as she ran 
she charmed him. The wind caught 
her hair and unbound it so that it fell 
in streams behind her. At last her 
strength began to fail; ready to sink, 

[34] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



and with Apollo's breath upon her, she 
called out to her father: "Help me, 
Peneus! Open the earth to enclose 
me, or change ?ny form, which has 
brought me into this danger!" Im- 
mediately a stiffness came upon her 
limbs, and gradually she took on the 
appearance of a laurel tree. Apollo 
embraced the branches; they shrank 
from his lips. Kissing the wood, he 
said: "Since thou canst not be my wife, 
thou shalt be my tree. I will wear 
thee for my crown. I will decorate 
with thee my harp and my quiver. 
When the Roman conquerors conduct 
the triumphal pomp to the Capitol thou 
shalt be woven into wreaths for their 
brows. And as eternal youth is mine, 
thou shalt be always green, and thy 
leaf know no decay." The laurel tree 



bowed its head in grateful acknowledg- 
ment. 

The sculptor shows us Daphne at the 
moment Apollo has overtaken her. 
Peneus, the river-god, is seated on the 
bank. The metamorphosis is taking 
place slowly in the foreground, the 
nymph's lower limbs becoming encased 
in bark, her long lovely fingers trans- 
forming into leaf-covered twigs, while 
in the distance stands the laurel tree 
which represents her completed change 
of form. 

Jerome Bonaparte and his whole 
dynasty have long since passed away, 
but the lovely Marble Bath, with its 
charming allegories in snowy stone, 
remains to tell us of the glories of his 
fitful reign. 

Los Angeles, California. 



MORRIS JASTROIV, JR. 

Morris Jastrozv, Jr., of the University of Pennsylvania, 
one of the Board of Editors of ART AND ARCHAE- 
OLOGY, died in Philadelphia, June 22, 1921. Of Profes- 
sor Jastrow's academic career and important contributions 
in the fields of scholarship and letters, other periodicals have 
spoken at length. To his breadth of vision, his devotion 
to the humanities, his wide sympathies, his helpful coopera- 
tion as an editorial colleague, we wish to give brief testi- 
mony. Probably no scholar of the present day in America 
was -more familiar with the entire field of Oriental culture 
than Morris Jastrow. These gifts, combined with great- 
ness of soul and charm of personality, made him most help- 
ful in his relations with ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY and 
other activities of the Archaeological Institute, and won for 
him the abiding affection of those zvho came in contact with 
him. 



[35] 



CURRENT NOTES AND COMMENTS 

An Exhibition of American Art Objects. 

The Burlington Fine Arts Club of London has recently held an exhibition of objects of indig- 
enous American art. The pieces on view were selected from the collections of forty-one private 
individuals and from the museums at Oxford, Cambridge, Liverpool, and Warrington. An 
elaborate catalogue, containing a useful summary of the archaeolog}' of Middle America and 
western South America by Mr. T. A. Joyce, has already been published, and an illustrated edition 
is contemplated in the near future. 

Of special importance were the Maya and Peruvian exhibits. The former included objects 
from the remarkable collection of Mr. C. L. Fenton, who for many years was British consul in 
Guatemala, and also Mayan ceramics collected by Dr. Gann and now in the Li^ erpool Museum. 
Tliis institution also loaned the Mexican Manuscript known as the Codex Fyervary-Mayer. 
The Peruvian exhibit, which contained many fine specimens of Nasca ware, was based largely on 
the collections of Mr. J. Guthrie Reid and Mr. L. C. G. Clarke. 

The American visitor was impressed not only by the importance of the specinfens shown but 
also by the fact that the greater part of these objects were in private hands. That the Burlington 
Fine Arts Club should undertake such a show may be regarded as mute testimony to the growing 
appreciation of the artistic value of American antiquities among lovers of the beautiful. 

Incorporation of "American Schools of Oriental Research." 

The American School of Otiental Research in Jerusalem, which was founded in 1900, has 
followed the example of thfe sister Schools affiliated with the .•^.rchaeological Institute by securing 
legal incorporation. This was effected on June 14 under the laws of the District of Columbia 
under the name of the "A.merican Schools of Oriental Research." This broad title was adopted 
so that the institution may plant schools in other regions of the Near Orient than Palestine, and 
with special thought of the proposed school in Bagdad, plans for which are in active progress. 
The new corporation will definitely continue its long established work and also its former rela- 
tions of closest affiliation with the Institute. The first meeting of the new Board of Trustees 
was held in New York, June 17, and organization was effected. The Trustees, numbering 
fifteen, are as follows: 

James A. Montgomery, University of Pennsylvania, and Philadelphia Divinity School, Presi- 
dent; James C. Egbert, Columbia University, e.x-officio member as President of the Institute, 
Vice-President; George A. Barton, Br>'n Mawr College, and Philadelphia Di\-inity School, 
Secretary and Treasurer; Wilfred H. Schoff, Commercial Museum, Philadelphia, representative 
of the American Oriental Society, Associate Treasurer; Cynis Adler, President of Dropsie College; 
Benjamin W. Bacon, Yale University; Howard Crosby Butler, Princeton University; Albert T. 
Clay, Yale University; A. V. Wilhams Jackson, Columbia University; Morris Jastrow, Jr.,* 
University of Pennsylvania; Warren J. Moulton, Bangor Theological Seminary, representing the 
Society of Biblical Literature and Exegesis; Edward T. Newell, of the American Numismatic 
Society, New York; Dr. James B.Nies,of New York, President of the .Ajrierican Oriental Society; 
James H. Ropes, Har\'ard University; Charles C. Torrey, Yale University. Dr. W. F. Albright 
who has been ser\-ing as i^.cting Director of the School was appointed Director for the coming 
year. With him will be associated next year Prof. Wm. J. Hinke, Auburn Theological 
Seminary, as Annual Professor, and W. E. Staples, of Toronto University, as Thayer Fellow. 

Addition to the Whistler Collection in the Library of Congress. 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Pennell, ha\'« recently obtained all of thfe Whistler papers in the suit 
of Whistler vs. Ruskin, and deposited them in their Whistler Collection in the Library of Con- 
gress. Extracts and facsimilies will be published in The Wliisilcr Journal, which the J. B. Lippin- 
cott Company will issue in the autumn. The Whistler Journal will also contain photographs 
of the proposed memorial by Rodin to Whistler. 

•Died June 22, 1921. 

[37] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

National Gallery of Art Commission Formed. 

The board of regents of the Smithsonian Institution at a special meeting held May 27 created 
the National Gallery of Art Commission, whose primary functions "shall be to promote the 
administration, development, and utilization of the National Gallery of Art at Washington, 
including the acquisition of material of high quality representing the fine arts, and the study of 
the beet methods of exhibiting material to the public and its utilization for instruction." 

The National Galler>- of Art, administered by the Smithsonian Institution, is the legal reposi- 
tory' of all art works belonging to the United States not legally assigned to other departments of 
the Government. The collections already acquired by the Gallery have a value of about seven 
million dollars and with reasonable encouragement the development of Washington as a great 
art center is assured. The work of the Commission should meet with earnest support on every 
hand. 

The Commission as constituted by the Smithsonian Regents consists of five public men inter- 
ested in fine arts, five experts, five artists, ajnd the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, who 
will be ex-officio a member of the Commission. The five public men interested in the arts named 
are W. K. Bixby of St. Louis, Joseph H. Gest of Cincinnati, Charles Moore of Detroit, James 
Parmelee of Cleveland, and Herbert L- Pratt of New York; the five experts are John E. Lodge of 
Boston, Frank Jewett Mather, Jr., of Princeton, Charles A. Piatt of New York, Edward Willis 
Redfield of Center Bridge, Pa., and Denman W. Ross of Cambridge; the artists named for the 
Commission are Herbert Adams of New York, Edwin H. Blashfield of New York, Daniel Chester 
French of New York, William H. Holmes of Washington, Director of the National Gallery', and 
Gari Melchers of Falmouth, Va.; and the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Charles D. 
Walcott. 

At the meeting of the Commission on June 8, special committees were appointed to take up 
various phases of art, as follows : American painting, modern European painting, ancient European 
art. Oriental art, sculpture, architecture, ceramics, textiles, prints, mural painting, and the 
portrait gallery. The chairmen of these committees will be ex-officio members of the Advisory 
Committee. 

The Commission will at once proceed with its work of developing and increasing the usefulness 
of the National Gallery of Art, and one of the very important matters which will receive attention 
is the provision of a suitable building to house the valuable art works already in the custody of 
the Nation, and to provide for the future expansion of the collections. The Gallery is a present 
inadequately installed on the first floor of the Natural History Building of the National Museum. 

The National Gallery of Art is an institution in which every American citizen should take 
interest and pride. Its proper development and utilization will insure America's standing among 
nations in the field of art. 

Discovery of a New Prehistoric Site in Greece at Zygouries. 

Last autumn the members of the America^. School in Athens, on one of their trips, were lunch- 
ing on a hill which interested Mr. Blegen as a prehistoric site, when two of the members discovered 
that they were sitting on a small prehistoric marble idol such as have been found in the islands 
but never before on the mainland. An examination of the site disclosed Helladic potsherds 
and remains of early walls. So it was decided to excavate, especially as there was a village near, 
and the excavators could live in a villa put at their disposal by the monks who owned it. Work 
began in April and continued to the end ot May under the direction of Mr. Blegen assisted by Mr. 
Wace, director of the British School in Athens, Dr. Harland, Mr. Holland and Mr. Young, the 
son of Professor Young of Columbia University. This natural mound is called Zygouries from 
a bush named Zygouria which grows on it in places. It is about 125 metres by 50 metres, and 
is on an average eight to ten metres above the surrounding plain, a short distance from the 
modern village of Hagios Basilios (St. Basil) about 10 miles north of Mycenae, near the ancient 
site of Cleonae, a mound to which Baedeker probably refers, but which curiously has been 
neglected hitherto by archaeological explorers. The excavations have brought to light an early 
Helladic settlement, "(about 2500 B. C. or earher) clearly labelled by the pottery, where in some 
cases the early Helladic house walls appeared less than half a meter below the surface and had 
never been built upon in later times. There was also a Middle Helladic settlement and a late 

[38] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

Helladic town, which as at Tiryns and Mycenae, was below the mound to the east. Here are 
many Mycenaean house-walls which had been revealed by a stream which had cut through the 
soil that "had been washed down from Mt. Fretos. From the period of Late Helladic HI (about 
I loo B. C.) the site was uninhabited till Mediaeval times, from which time dates also a so-called 
Venetian castle with Mediaeval towers and walls on a crag above St. Basil. The most interesting 
discover)- was a two-roomed pottery shop on the east slope of the mound, loaded with Late 
Helladic HI cylices, jugs, saucers, cooking-pots shaped like craters, and pithoi which have never 
been used. Some ii entire cooking-pots, 12 jars, 30 cups, and 20 painted cylices were found and 
fragments of more than 250 cooking vessels. There are good examples of Early, Middle and 
Late Helladic wares and many new shapes, and our knowledge of Early Helladic vases has been 
greatly increased. Many houses of this early period were unearthed and several Middle Helladic 
graves, two of which were infant burials. Another, enclosed in an irregular ring of stones was 
almost complete with the corpse in the bent up contracted position. In the grave were found 
beads, bronze circles and spirals of wire about the head of the corpse, two Middle- Helladic 
matt-painted vases, a whorl, and a bone pin. Some Mediaeval graves with their skeletons were 
also opened. This site of Zygouries ought to be uncovered entirely so that it would serve as 
as example of an early Helladic site, as Tirvns does for a late Helladic or Mycenaean site. 

D. M. R. 

Investigations at Assos. 

The first American excavations on Greek soil were made by a little expedition sent out in 1881. 
They were conducted by Joseph T. Clarke, Francis Bacon, and Robert Koldewey, but a great 
number of men who have since made their mark in American scholarship had connection of 
longer or briefer duration with the site. The excavations were conducted with a care and skill 
that makes them even after the lapse of many years the admiration of archaeologists. 

The work and the publication will always be associated with the memory of Charles Eliot 
Norton. The founding of the Archaeological Institute of America and of the American School at 
Athens, as well as our first excavation on Greek soil were all made possible by him ; his foresight, 
his zeal, the great influence he possessed through his large body of friends, were forces of invaluable 
strength. He was ably seconded by John Williams White. The two of them would take an 
honest pride in the appearance of the long delaj'ed book on Assos. They both knew of the many 
obstacles to its publication, and they would be the first to congratulate Francis Bacon on the 
splendid and patient work he has done. To carry on the occupations of a busy life, and in hours 
which most men would devote to pleasure and relaxation to decipher notes taken by others many 
years ago, to edit a great book which he never dreamed would be his task, to find the time to 
make repeated visits to Assos in order to solve puzzling questions, confirm new theories, and to 
verify or correct old ones — these Bacon has done. And he has created a book of beauty such as 
those who have seen it and have a right to an opinion pronounce a work of art. His modesty 
everyA\'here conceals his own part, but archaeologists, architects, scholars, and lovers of beauty 
are under deep debt to him. He has been prodigal of his own time, money, and ability. 

There are many others to whom the great publication owes a debt of gratitude, for advice, for 
encouragement, and for work contributed, as well as for financial aid. I want to thank those 
many friends of scholarship who have already subscribed for the book and paid their score in 
whole or in part these many years, and waited patiently all the time. They have a slight reward 
in the fact that while their cost was but twenty-five dollars, it is necessary to charge forty dollars 
to the subscribers for the few remaining copies. They will doubtless receive still further reward 
from the value which bibliophiles will shortly be putting on this imique example of archaeological 
research. 

I must add the gratitude which his friends Norton and White felt towards James Loeb for his 
financial support of the undertaking, in which he has been equalled by Francis Bacon. 

For the two remaining members of the committee I take a smiling farewell of a task that has 
covered many vears, brought a great deal of work, some reproaches, a large amount of bantering, 
a lot of solid'pleasure and many friends. William Fenwick H.\rris. 

Cambridge, Massachusetts, July IQ21. 

[39] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

The Aztec Studio, San Francisco. 

On one of the busiest streets in San Francisco, lined with stately buildings and filled with the 
rush and noise of commercial life, stands the Aztec Studio. The name alone recalls visions of 
races and cities whose origin is lost in the night of time and to the searcher after the artistic, 
the curious or exotic, this studio will prove a mine of interest. 

Entering and ascending the stairs we find that we are indeed in a new realm of ideals and 
projects far removed from the busy world outside. The walls of the hall are covered with 
strange and mysterious decorations which hold the gazer's attention with the strength and beauty 
of the design. These are copies of the famous tablets of Palenque, that mysterious city which 
was old before the discovery of America. They are one of the finest achievements of primitive 
American Art, in which the strength and beauty of their work is well illustrated. These won- 
derful colored drawings of priestly figures surrounded by strange symbolic designs strike the 
beholder with a feeling of awe. This hall decorated in every detail with motives derived from 
Mayan Art impresses one with the wonderful advancement made by that race. 

Entering the main hall we find it a veritable museum in itself. Replicas from the most famous 
monuments found in ancient America, original carvings, and superb pieces of antique and modern 
Mexican pottery, textiles and interesting curios adorn the shelves or repose in the cases. The 
walls are covered with strong and brilliant designs which are different from any seen before. 
They are not Egyptian nor Chinese, nor do they bear any resemblance to any other ancient 
nation. They are purely American in origin, a legacy we inherit from that pre-Columbian Art 
and culture which once flourished in the new world. 

This truly wonderful studio with its splendid collection is the work of Francigco Cornejo, the 
Mexican artist, who has devoted fifteen years of study and toil to illustrate and further his ideals 
in reviving these arts of the ancient civilization of this continent. Gifted with a fine artistic 
sense, and having access to the splendid public and private collections in the City of Mexico, 
he was powerfully influenced by the treasures of art and architectural relics to be found in that 
land of romance and mystery, and early in his career he came to the conclusion that the works 
of these ancient people would be an inspiration for the development of a pure American Art. 
Though these arts were known to the scientific world, yet no artist had made use of them to an 
extent before. If American artists would be influenced by any form of Art, why not make use 
of the wealth of decoration inherited from our primitive sources? 

To carry out his ideals and to illustrate them more graphically, Mr. Cornejo planned that the 
large room in the studio should be the apex of the whole decorative scheme. This room he 
calls the Temple of the Sun, and his motive was to impress one with all the strength and force 
combined with line and color to be found in Aztec and Mayan art. This is felt immediately 
upon entering the room. The subdued lighting effects, the richly harmonious color schemes and 
subtle combinations, interposed with symbolic designs, all have a solemn influence. The main 
motive is the famous Aztec calendar stone, reproduced for the first time in its original colors. 
This combined with the unique furniture, hangings and rugs, all show the artist's fine use of 
color design and proportion. 

Let us hope that the artists and decorators of today wnll take a deeper interest in the encour- 
agement and development of this movement, as it is likely to form the impetus for a genuine 
renaissance in American Arts and Crafts. D. Cartuel. 

American Classical League. 

The Second Annual Meeting of the i\.merican Classical League was held at the University 
Museum, Philadelphia, July 6 and 7. Dean West's Annual Report as President on the organi- 
zation of classical investigation authorized by the General Education Board, and Vice-President 
Coolidge's address on the value of classical studies, were events of national significance. 

Professor Gonzalez Lodge's paper on "A six-year secondary school course in its bearing on 
Latin and Greek" emphasized the importance of an archaeological background as a factor in 
classical teaching. 

[40] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



The Votive Hand of Avenches. 

Avenches lies on the old road leading from 
Berne to Lausanne. It was a very flourishing 
Roman colony in the first and second centuries 
and there is still a Roman theatre to be seen in 
the village today. 

Avenches was raided and the theatre closed 
definitely in the second and third centuries, 
by the hordes of the Alemans sweeping down 
into Switzerland and laying cities and countr\-- 
side to waste. One single column still stands 
in Avenches, all that remains of the Temple of 
Apollo, and of this column Bvron writes in 
Childe Harold: 

"By a lone wall a lonelier column rose, 
A grey and grief -worn aspect of old days." 

But although the Roman colony disap- 
peared; although the country round about lay 
ruined and uninhabited for two centuries or 
more; although a new culture finally grew up 
on the ruins of the old, certain objects belong- 
ing to the Romans and speaking of intimate 
details in the lives of those far-off settlers, lay 
deep in the ground, patiently awaiting the 
moment when the pick of a workman and the 
trained eye and pen of the scientist should 
reveal them to an interested world. The mu- 
seum at Avenches is full of such treasure-trove 
in various stages of preservation. But the 
pearl of the collection is a little bronze Roman 
votive hand, dug up in the year 1854 and per- 
fect in every detail. 
If other archaeological finds in Avenches point to certain details in the housing of the Roman 
colony there, in the shape of their household utensils, in the manner of setting hobnails in the 
Legionaries' sandals, this little hand goes much deeper and reveals the maternal love of some 
young Roman mother for her baby and the steps she took to propitiate the Phrygian and Roman 
gods to whom she prayed to look after her child. It has been my good fortune to get hold of a 
description of the hand written shortly after it had been found. The explanation of the man 
of science of the various symbols with which the hand is covered seem so interesting, coming from 
aji eye witness of its resurrection, that I hesitate to consult a later authority, and will stick to 
his conclusions. 

The hand is of bronze and stands aljout four inches high. It is the right hand, and the hand 
of a woman, presumably that of the baby's mother. In size it is smaller than life, but it is a 
lovely hand, well-groomed, and with dainty tapering fingers. Two of these fingers, the little 
one and the ring finger, are bent down into the cushioned palm. The thumb, first and 
middle fingers are standing. This is the gesture of the oath or blessing. 

The little hand is ornamented with tiny busts of gods and their attributes. Every one of 
these gods has been called upon by the young mother to protect her child, and she herself is 
portrayed on the back of the wrist, nursing the little fellow in question. Around the wrist is 
coiled a snake, his head reaching to the palm. The serpent means health, as everybody knows. 
On the tip of the thumb there stands a pine-comb. On the knuckles of the two bent fingers there 
is a youthful head of Mercury. Just behind, and also on the back of the same two fingers, a 
ram's head. A small bust of Bacchus with his arm flung over his head is placed on the outside 
of the two standing fingers, and just inside is a bearded bust of Sabazius, wearing a Phrygian 

[41] 



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The Votive Hand of Aw 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

cap. The object directly under this last-named god looks like a cake and is often seen on decor- 
ated vases. Almost nose to nose with the ram, a frog is seen creeping up the outer rim of the 
hand, and behind him a tortoise. Next to the tortoise, on the back, is a vase with two handles, 
and below this vase, to the left, is a lizard. On the outside of the thumb near the wrist is the 
bust of Cybele, easily recognized by her crenelated crown, and above this Asiatic goddess hangs 
her tambourine. Below the serpent's head one sees a bell and next to the climbing tortoise an 
oak branch waves its leaves and acorns. 

At the time the hand was made, somewhere in the first century, the religion of the Romans 
was sadly confused. Some were sticking to the old gods, some were for taking up the new, others 
had given up all religion entirely or were timidly turning towards Christianity. The young 
Roman matron whose hand is upheld in blessing of her child was unwilling to take any chances. 
The Christian religion was too new and untried, but there were two kinds of gods to choose from. 
She therefore picked out a couple of Roman and a couple of Phrygian gods, and assembled them 
on the votive hand she was having constructed. 

Cybele and Sabazius were the mysterious gods of nature worshiped by the Phrygians. Cybele 
was the creator of the earth and all earth's treasure, while Sabazius was the god of the sun and 
his life-giving rays. The Phrygians believed that these gods slept in winter and awakened in 
summer. It was in the late spring, therefore, that the great festivals took place, like, yet far 
more gorgeous than the Bacchus and Mercury festivals of the Romans. Bacchus was worshiped 
as a god who poured down the wine of pleasure on mankind, while Rlercurj' meant good crops, 
healthy herds and freedom from care. 

These four gods, united in one little hand to bring all good things to the child, were accom- 
panied by the attributes of their godhead. The tambourine, the bell and the pine-cone belonged 
to Cybele, and probably too the oak branch. The pine tree was the special tree of this goddess 
and on its branches her devotees hung gifts and offerings. Sabazius is recognized by his beard, 
his Phrygian cap and his serious expression. His attribute is the sacrificial cake above referred 
to. Bacchus, crowned with grapes and dra,ped in his supple chlamys is characteristically 
accompanied by a huge two-handled beaker. Mercury is accompanied by the ram's head to 
indicate the fact of his being the patron of the herds. The other figures, the lizard, the frog 
and the tortoise, are all identical with the creatures with which the Romans decked arms, 
neck, breast and fingers to keep off the evil eye. 

Thus we can attempt today to reconstruct the prayer of that mother almost twenty centuries 
ago, and I think it would go somewhat like this : 

"I lift my hand in blessing on my little son, and I call on you, Mercury, Bacchus, Cybele 
and Sabazius, to take him under your special care. 

O Mercury, give him worldly goods! 

O Bacchus, give him pleasures! 

O Cybele, let the earth yield him her treasures! 

O Sabazius, let the sun pour on him his life-giving rays! 

O Serpent, grant him health! 

O Frog, O Tortoise, O Lizard, keep him from the power of the evil eye! 

Amen." 

As we look at this touching ex voto in the museum at Avenches we cannot help hoping that 
the owner of the taper fingers and the plump little palm was safely landed on the other side of 
the Styx before the savage hordes rushed down from the north, destroying her lovely home in 
"Aventicum," the capital of Helvetia, and perhaps her baby too, and buryang in the ashes of 
her ravaged city for a sleep of twenty centuries the beautiful little bronze votive hand. 

Ethel Hugh-Camp. 

Louis Comfort Tiffany Foundation. 

The Third Annual Meeting of the Louis Comfort Tiffany Foundation was held at the home of 
Mr. Louis C. Tiffany, Laurelton Hall, Oyster Bay, L. L, on Sunday, June 19th, 1921. The 
members present were Louis Comfort Tiffany, Founder; Daniel Chester French, Vice-President; 
Francis C. Jones, George F. Kunz, and A. Douglas Nash, Trustees; Gurdon S. Parker, Mrs. 
W. A. W. Stewart, Robert Vonnoh and Harry W. Watrous of the Advisory Art Committee; 
Stanley Lothrop, Director of the Foundation; and Gegrge F. Heydt, Secretary. 

[42] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

Besides the routine matters discussed, Mr. Edwin H. Blashfield was elected a Trustee of the 
Foundation, and Daniel Garber, Philip Hale and Frederic C. Clayter were elected members of 
the Advisory Art Committee. It was resolved to supplement the seal of the Foundation with 
the words Art Guild to better explain the nature of the Institution. The Foundation aims to 
bring together artists and craftsmen, and it is proposed that in the same way the alumni should 
grow into an association or guild to help each other in art endeavor and to bind the various arts 
more closely. 

The Director reported that with the concurrence and advice of the Founder a gallery had 
been acquired for the purpose of the exhibition and sale of the work done by the present and 
former resident artists, in the building secured by the Art Centre Inc., at 65-67 East 56th^Street, 
New York City. 

It was also resolved to include as resident artists in the Foundation, a small number of women 
on the same terms and conditions as the men. For this purpose a separate dormitory has already 
been prepared in the wang of the main building of Laurelton Hall. It was further voted to limit 
the residence of artists in the Foundation to a period of two months with the understanding that 
in case their work meets the approval of the Advisory Art Committee they will be granted extra 
time. 

Summer Galleries ajid Siunmer Exhibitions. 

Summer Galleries and Summer exhibitions have become quite important in the Art world. 
Good juries, good prices and a large leisure audience makes them worth while and artists can 
transfer pictures from their studios to these galleries with very flattering chances of sales. 

The little Gallery on the Moors at East Gloucester, Massachusetts, with the big, altruistic 
purpose, has a rare program of activities for this summer. The whole general plan of the Gallery 
work is primarily Art — Art Exhibitions, talks, theatre, literature and music. 

The Art Exhibitions are not held for Gloucester exclusively, but for the whole North Shore 
region; not for the benefit of the artist alone although great pleasure is felt over the sales that 
are made, but the purchaser is considered fortunate too. It is believed that the individual 
effort, however small, manifsted in Art Galleries and Exhibitions, love of pictures, small theatres 
with high ideals, people's pageants, fused into a living current by community spirit — in these 
lie the great, perhaps onlv hope, of inculcating a love of Art in the younger generation. 

Another aim of the Gallery is that it shall be entirely free from favoritism or even friendly 
preference. Each picture is admitted solely on its merit and not because of the artist's name or 
reputation. Last year the exhibitors chose their own jury and a very successful exhibition was 
hung. This year a new plan is to be adopted, a Committee will be appointed consisting of five 
people, two from out of town to judge the paintings, and two to judge the sculpture. The 
Exhibition is held from August 3rd to August 21st. Opening day for artists and press, in which 
they are invited to meet the Jury, is August 2nd. 

Ever\-one who has been fortunate enough to be in Gloucester during these Exhibits, knows 
that they represent work as fine as any shown in the larger and more pretentious exhibitions and 
many of the pictures are to be seen later in the New York Museum shows. 

The Gallery on the Moors is also the scene of the Plays given by the "Community Dramatic 
School," being equipped with stage, scenery, dressing rooms, excellent lighting, and all the neces- 
sarv' theatre requirements. 

This School and the "Boston School of Public Speaking" at Gloucester, offer rare advantages 
this year. The course of instruction includes Acting, Play Directing, Interpretation, Public 
Speaking, Voice, Physical Training, Dancing and Delcroze Eurythmics. 

Miss Florence Cunningham, the theatre Director, spent last winter in Paris studying at Copeau's 
theatre. She found there very earnest, sincere work that is beginning to show results which are 
recognized by all Paris. 

Others on the Staff are Mrs. Florence Evans, Principal of the Boston School of Public Speaking, 
also instructor for Boston Business Corporations; Miss Ester V. vShultz, Leon Sturtevant and 
others. 

The first group of plays will be given from July 20th to the 26th. The second group from 
August 25th to the 31st. The School opens the first of July and continues until August 29th. 

[43] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

Some special performance for the children is planned, which has an educational basis, as a protest 
against the poorer class of "Mo\nes." 

Lyme, Connecticut, another artist colon}', has now a fine Gallen,^ which has been built through 
the generous subscriptions from artists and public spirited citizens cos-ting $20,000. Charles 
H. Piatt is the architect which insures the perfection of arrangement for the purpose. The sale 
of pictures last year amounted to $8,000 and the location of the Gallery on the Boston Post Road 
must attract the many automobihsts who daily pass on their way to Xew London, Newport and 
the resorts in the neighborhood. 

The Newport Gallery also has summer exhibitions held this year during July. Prizes are 
offered for the best picture and there is a "People's prize," for the picture receiving the popular 
vote. 

This new summer interest may be a wholesome diversion, an up-lift from the summer hotel 
piazza rocking chair, resulting in an art fashion that may develop into an art enthusiasm that 
will work to the great advantage of artists. H. W. 

Summer Program of the School of American Research, Santa Fe, N. M. 
I. Archaeological Survey of Jcmez Mesas. 
An archaeological sur\-ey of the little known, forested mesas lying between the Jemez mountains 
and the Navaho Desert will occupy the time of a party of six men during July and August. The 
School has previously conducted excavations at two sites in this region, in collaboration with the 
Royal Ontario Museum of Toronto and the Bureau of American Ethnologv'. The ruins of this 
area are prehistoric sites of the Jemez people, now reduced to one pueblo, but formerly occupying 
numerous towns and villages. Sites in the \-alley are particularly valuable on account of yielding 
evidences of the consequences of first contact with the European race. The staff for the survey 
will include Lansing Bloom and Wesley Bradfield of the School; Roger Goodland, Peabody 
Museum; Major J. C. Troutman, Military Institute of Roswell; Randolph Carroll, University of 
Virginia; Anderson Hill, Pomona College, California. 

2. Studies in Chaco Canyon. 
It is expected that a fall campaign will be put on in Chaco Canyon from September ist to 
December, if working conditions are agreeable. The January-February number of Art and 
Archaeology caused the previous work of the School on this great group of ruins to become 
widely known. Publication by the American Museum of Natural History of the long delayed 
reports of the Hyde Exploring Expedition's excavation of Pueblo Bonito is now going through the 
press, and several recent magazine articles by earlier investigators here have brought these ruins 
to the fore. The work that the School has set itself to do has already been made known in detail. 
The School has its headquarters in the seven room stone residence built years ago by the late 
Richard Wetherill. Its equipment here for scientific field work, including drafting, photo- 
graphing, cataloguing, color work, librar\' and conference rooms, with commissary and living 
quarters, will soon be the most complete that any archaeological expedition has been able to 
establish. It will be to some extent a realization of an early dream of the late Dr. F. \V. Putnam 
of Har^-ard University, who often expressed a hope to see a well equipped training school in 
ethnolog}' and archaeology established in Chaco Canyon. 

J. Worli on tlie Early Franciscan Missions. 
The School and Museum at Santa Fe are coming into possession of the principal ancient mis- 
sion sites of New Mexico, for preservation and custodianship. These great structures are approxi- 
mately a hundred and fifty years older than the oldest Californian Missions, and their massive, 
archaic style of architecture make them priceless landmarks of the early civilization of the South- 
west. Pecos (1617) is in process of excavation under the direction of Dr. Kidder of Andover. It 
is now the property of the School of American Research. Jemez (161 7 ) has recently been deeded 
to the School and wih be fenced and cleared during the present summer. A custodian has been 
employed and put in charge. Gran Quivira (1629) around which clusters so much early romance 
of the days of the Spanish conquest, belongs in the main to the School, but in part to the U. S. 
Government. Steps are being taken to fence this site and place it under proper custodianship 
during the present year. These three great monuments, contemporaneous in settlement by 
Europeans with Plvmouth Rock, are to be developed into small archaeological parks. 

[44] 



BOOK CRITIQUES 



The Empire of the Amorites, by Albert T. Clay. 
New Haven: Yale University Press, igig. 192 
pages. 

Archaeology is bringing to light long lost 
nations. How true this has been of the Egypt- 
ian, Babylonian, Assyrian, and Hittite empires. 
Our foremost American assyriologist, Prof. A. 
T. Clay, of Yale University, has now put upon 
the map, Amurru, the empire of the Amorites. 
Formerly our knowledge of this people was 
limited to scattered references in the Old 
Testament. By the scholarly researches of Dr. 
Clay we now know the territon,', culture and 
religion of the Amorites as far back as the 
third, fourth and fifth millenniums. 

The empire of the Amorites, at its greatest 
extent, included Syria, Palestine and Meso- 
potamia. The capital was Amurru — Ur — prob- 
ably Mari on the Euphrates some 400 miles 
northwest of Ur in south Babylonia and about 
220 southeast of Harran. This site. Dr. Clay 
regards as Abraham's Ur of the Chaldees. 
The Amorites were a vSemitic people and seem 
to have inhabited Amurru as far back as pre- 
historic times. They reached their highest 
civilization about the fourth millennium B.C. 
From Amurru they radiated in many direc- 
tions. Long before 3000 B.C. the Amorites 
entered Babylonia, settled there and gradually 
absorbed the non-Semitic Sumerians. An 
Amorite civilization per\-aded Babylonia. Even 
the traditions of creation, flood, sabbath, and 
ante-diluvian kings came from the Amorite 
land into Babylonia. 

Prof. Clay's argument rests upon an exhaus- 
tive study of the names of deities, persons, 
countries, cities and temples. In these names 
he finds Amorite elements and so he rightly 
infers that where such names abound it betrays 
the influence of an Amorite civilization. Thus 
in regard to most of the gods of the Semitic 
Babylonians, Dr. Clay shows that they had 
their origin in the empire of the Amorites. The 
supreme god of the Amorites was Amurru- 
Amar-Ur, which by certain modifications be- 
came in Babylon the supreme god Marduk. 
The first Babylon dynasty was Amorite as well 
as the dynasties of Opis, Kish, Nisan, Larsa 
and perhaps Erech. The famous Hammurabi 
code goes back to Amorite sources. 

Prof. Clay's volume is of great value in 
showing that the prevalent opinion of Assyri- 
ologists regarding early Babylonian civilization 
must be modified. The common view is that 

[45] 



non-Semitic Sumerians entered Babylonia as 
eariy as 7000 B. C. and attained a high civiliza- 
tion. As early as 3500 B. C. waves of Semitic 
nomads from Arabia gradually entered Baby- 
lonia, conquered the vSumerians and appro- 
priated their high ci\'ilization. From Baby- 
lonia this civilization then spread west to 
Mesopotamia, Syria and Palestine. Dr. Clay's 
researches show that a high civilization, from 
the northwest, that of the Amorites, entered 
Babylonia at a very early period and pervaded 
this land. The difficult problem of Sumerian 
civilization is not discussed. 

Dr. Clay's book is a most valuable contribu- 
tion to the early history-, religion and geog- 
raphy of Syria, Palestine, Babj'lonia and 
Assyria. The Biblical student will find much 
matter of great interest. Thus the name 
Jerusalem is shown to be from Uru-salim, i.e., 
"the god Uru is appeased." Bethlehem is 
derived from Beth-Lahamu, i.e., "the shrine 
of the god Lahamu." Bethany comes from 
Beth-Anu, i.e., "the shrine of the god Anu." 
Uru, Lahamu and Anu were Amorite gods. 
Abram is a shortened form of Abraham, and 
both forms are found on tablets. 

The whole volume is a masterly contribution 
to American oriental learning. The paper, 
printing and binding are of that high standard 
which we always expect from the Yale Uni- 
versity Press. George S. Duxc.'^n. 

Delphi by Frederick Paulsen. Translated by 
G. C. Richards, with a Preface by Percy Gardner. 
London, Glydendal, igzo. Pp. x/-|-jjr?. 21 
sh. net. Illustrated. 

The famous firm of Gyldendal, established in 
Copenhagen as long ago as 1770, has recently 
established a London branch and is making an 
excellent start as well as rendering an im- 
portant service to archaeology^ and the classics 
by issuing an English translation of Dr. 
Poulsen's book on Delphi, which appeared in 
its Danish form in 1909. The book is beauti- 
fully printed on fine paper in large type with 
164 excellent illustrations, at the very reason- 
able price of a guinea. Delphi was one of the 
most important places in Greece and in many 
ways the history of the oracle and the shrine of 
Apollo is the history of Greece. Plato 
believed in the oracle's great influence on 
religion and morality. Aristotle and Plutarch 
were in the service of the oracle. Even in 
Roman times Cicero consulted the oracle and 



Do YOU TIRE of the superfi= 
cial things you read about 
the theatre? Do j'ou want 
something better, something more 
entertaining, yet something that 
instructs? Then read 

THE DRAMA 

A monthly review of the 
allied arts of the threatre, 
beautifully illustrated. 

Here is a magazine that is not packed with 
press-agent puffs or back-stair gossip about 
vamps and scandals. 

The Drama is edited for people who like to 
think, for folks whose brains haven't yet lost 
their nimbleness. For eleven years it has 
pioneered, bringing to its audience the best 
from all lands. 

It has talks about and talks by some of the 
foremost actors, play-wrights, and scenic 
revolutionists; yet it never hesitates to give 
space to the brilliant articles of unknown 
authors. 

Each issue contains one or two plays In 
reading form. They're more fascinating 
than short stories because they retain the 
dramatic punch. 

No magazine can compare with The Drama. 
It occupies a unique position in the world of 
the theatre. Once you begin to read it, 
you'll become one of its devoted admirers. 
You'll enjoy its stimulating contents. You'll 
keep each issue on file, for each is like a 
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To Introduce The Drama to new readers, 
we make a special offer. Send only $1 and 
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TRIAL SUBSCRIPTION FOR $1 

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Name 
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City 



State- 



Hadrian placed his favorite Antinous among 
the statues of gods in the precinct where one of 
the most stately statues of Antinous has 
actually been found. Delphi was a colossal 
intelligence bureau, a permanent court of 
arbitration of a league of nations, the guiding 
spirit in Greek politics, active in numerous in- 
centives to colonization, fostering art, giving 
strong impulses to great men to echo her words, 
planting in the human mind the universal 
yearning for the lofty and supernatural and 
showing to all mankind the way to honorable 
effort in the arena of life. It was a foregone 
conclusion that the excavation of Delphi in view 
of the enormous catalogue of treasures men- 
tioned by Pausanias, even after Nero's plunder 
of 500 bronze statues, would yield many im- 
portant results, and so the Germans (one of 
whom Ottfried MuJler in 1840 suffered a fatal 
sunstroke copying the manumission inscrip- 
tion, vengeance of Apollo perhaps for his denial 
that he was a sun-god), Americans, and French 
all vied with one another to get the firman to 
undertake the work. The French finally got 
the grant, though delayed by the Greek demand 
for a lowering of the duty on Greek cmrants, 
and excavations began in 1892, after removal of 
the village of Kastri, which covered the site, to 
its modern location. The villagers, fearing 
they would not get the money for their homes, 
attacked the workmen, but finally the riot was 
quelled by soldiers and excavations continued 
every spring and summer from 1893 to 1900, 
under the direction of Homolle. The publica- 
tion has been very slow and while many hand- 
some important volumes of plates of the 
"Fouilles de Delphes" appeared before the war, 
only a few volumes of text have been published. 
The "Fouilles de Delphes" is an expensive 
publication, for specialists, so that we are very 
glad to have a comprehensive and interesting 
account of the excavations in readable form in 
a single volume, well documented and beauti- 
fully illustrated. It is the first good account in 
English of Delphi and will long remain the best 
treatise on the aesthetic appreciation of 
Delphi, for the book is full of the most fasci- 
nating and suggestive and original observations 
on Greek art, and lays more stress on that side 
than on topography or history. D. M. R. 

The Charm of Kashmir, by V. C. Scott O'Connor. 
London, New York, Bombay, Calcutta, and 
Madras: Longmans, Green and Co. igzo. 16 
colored plates and 24 illustrations from photo- 
graphs. Pp. 182. $2J.§0. 

In this book the charm of one of the most 
beautiful spots in the world is pictured with 
beautiful illustrations, and with a text that is 



Kindly Mention Art and Archaeology. 



[46] 



exquisitely printed on the very best of paper. 
The place of honor is assigned to the paintings 
of Abanindro Nath Tagore who was the founder 
of the modem school of Indian art at Calcutta. 
The softness and beauty of line that character- 
ize his paintings have made him well known not 
only in India but also in Europe and America. 
There are included colored interpretations of 
the very soul of Kashmir; there are also re- 
productions of the paintings of Mrs. Sultan 
Ahmad, and Miss Hadenfeldt and the late 
Colonel Strahan. The many colored plates 
and the photographs really illustrate the text, 
and help make the country known in a very 
original and entertaining manner. The pic- 
tures are all symbolic of the East and any one 
who is interested in this very important and 
charming section of the world will do well to 
look through this volume which, in every way, 
is a work of art in itself. It is no wonder that 
the Queen of England allowed the book to be 
dedicated to her. D. M. R. 

Albert Pinkham Ryder. By Frederick Fairchild 
Sherman. New York: privately printed, iq20. 

Simply as a material possession, this mono- 
graph is a thing to treasure. The maroon 
binding, the texture of the paper, the type and 
margins, the quality of the illustrations, the 
very proportions of length and breadth and 
thickness — all these things render the book a 
delight to hand and eye. Charm of format has 
all along been a characteristic of Mr. Sherman's 
privately printed volumes, and in these days of 
costly production it is no little merit in a 
publisher to maintain an established high 
standard of workmanship. 

But surface beauty is in this case fortunately 
subordinate to both subject and treatment. 
The real significance of this volume consists in 
its being an adequate tribute to a great artist. 

The scale of the book is nicely proportioned 
to Ryder's peculiar position in the history of 
our painting. For Ryder, whatever his essen- 
tial originality and true genius, is too limited in 
appeal and influence to require a tribute in 
folio. The panel on which his name is carved 
in the temple of our culture is in the first rank 
of honor, but it is neither large nor striking 
enough to attract the attention of the majority. 
The modest five divisions of Mr. vSherman's 
essay sufficiently set forth all the important 
aspects of his subject, and any further con- 
sideration of Ryder must be what Mr. Frank 
Jewett Mather, in The Weekly Review for Janu- 
ary 26, justly terms ". . variations . . upon 
the critical themes announced by Mr. Sher- 




THE BISHOPS LODGE 

Santa Fe. New Mexico 



CITUATED three miles north of the city, this unique 
^ resort offers its hospitality both to the leisure-loving 
tourist, and to the archaeological investigator. 

Readily accessible are all of the points comprised 
within what has been called, "The most interesting 50- 
mile circle in America." 

Because of 60-guest capacity. The Lodge necessarily 
caters to a limited clientele. It appeals especially to 
those who appreciate the good things of life, and is 
totally unlike any "hotel." 

Open the year around. To insure accommodations 
reservations should be made well in advance. 

Rates and other information upon request. 



FINE PRINTS 

For the collector 
For wall decoration 




f Color wood block by Charles W. Bartlett, 
"The Hawaiian Fisherman," published in 
limited edition. Each proof signed, price 
$25.00. Portfolios sent for inspection. 

Brown-Robertson Gallery 

415 Madison Avenue, New York. 



[47] 



Kindly Mention Art and Archaeology. 



INVESTIGATIONS 

AT — 

ASSOS 

Drawings and Photographs of the Buildings 

and Objects Discovered During the 

Excavations of 1881, 1882, 1883 

BY — 

Joseph T. Clarke 
Francis H. Bacon 
Robert Koi.dewey 
Edited with explanatory notes, by 
Francis H. Bacon 
Published for The Archaeological Insti- 
tute of America 
By a Committee originally consisting of 
Charles Eliot Norton 
John Williams White 
Francis H. Bacon 
William Fenwick Harris 

TABLE OF CONTEXTS 

History of Assos. 

Account of the Expedition. 

Agora. 

Mos.-Mcs Below Agora. 

Theatre Photographs and Plans. 

Greek Bridge. 

Roman Atrium. 

Acropolis — Plan. 

Turkish Mosque. 

Gy.mnasium. 

Byzantine Church. 

FoRTiFicAi'iON Walls. 

Street of Tombs — General Plan. 

Dog Inscription from Mytilene. 

Inscription from Pashakieui. 

Coins from Assos. 

The magnificent volume is now ready in 
a portfolio, the five parts together. 

Five hundred and twenty-five copies have 
been printed. Subscriptions for the remain- 
ing two hundred and forty copies will be re- 
ceived at 

FORTY DOLLARS EACH. 

The rate to original subscribers remains 
twenty-five dollars. The book will not be 
reprinted. Cheques should be sent to 

WILLIAM FENWICK HARRIS, 

8 Mercer Circle, 
CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS. 



In one instance, indeed, he seems somewhat 
too liberal; for the section on Ryder's poetry, 
brief as it is, might well have been spared. All 
of the painter's literary productions are flawed 
by traces, sometimes whole paragraphs, of the 
"polite " writing of a bygone era. The mistress, 
whose lover constantly lifted her "in and out of 
conveyances and over objects that destroy the 
grace and harmony of woman's movements," 
can not be made poetic by any device of words ; 
and the mature man who thought to accom- 
plish that by the extraneous quality of high- 
flown language could never have become, as Mr. 
Sherman claims, "a poet or a philosopher." 
Let Ryder be left secure in his fame as a painter ; 
his occasional literary felicities remain unim- 
portant. His limitations and deficiencies as a 
writer are such as ought to preclude any 
separate consideration in that capacity. 

The biographical section is thoroughly 
adequate to the uneventfulness, the simplicity, 
and the dignity of Ryder's outward life. He 
was one of the rare few who have no biography. 
The nearest he came to making something hap- 
pen was when he proposed marriage to a pre- 
viously unintroduced violinist neighbor, and 
was, in consequence, carried off to Europe by a 
friend. His life was not a series of incidents so 
much as a continuous artistic effort. A true 
account of it is not a narrative, but a descrip- 
tion — a description such as he himself once 
made in impersonal and inspiring language: 
"The artist must buckle himself with infinite 
patience. His ears must be deaf to the clamor 
of his insistent friends who would quicken his 
pace. His eyes must see naught but the 
vision beyond. He must await the season of 
fruitage without haste, without worldly am- 
bitions, without vexation of spirit." A life 
thus barren of outward occurrences requires no 
formal chronicle; it is enough to indicate 
sympathetically its mental attitude and spirit- 
ual atmosphere. And this JMr. Sherman has 
discreetly and successfully done. 

However, since his volume is professedl}' a 
critical one, it must stand or fall mainly by the 
sections on Ryder as an artist ; and it is by the 
last three parts of his study that the author 
justifies himself. Just as Ryder's own literary 
efforts do not show a real mastery of words, so 
Mr. Sherman's writing lacks that final con- 
densation of style which marks the writer 
foreordained. But his comments on the indi- 
vidual pictures are helpful, even to those who 
may occasionally doubt or disagree; and his 
"estimate of the Artist and his Art " is sane and 
well balanced, emphasizing just the right 
ciualities. Virgil Barker. 



Kindly Mention Art and Archaeology. 



[48] 



15.00 THE YEAR 



SO CENTS THE COPY 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

An Illustrated Monthly Magazine 
Published by THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON, AFFILIATED WITH THE 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY PRESS, Inc. 

AUGUST, 1921 



Volume XII 



Number 2 



ART EDITOR 
WILLIAM H. HOLMES 

EDITORIAL STAFF 

Virgil Barker 

Peyton Boswell 

Howard Crosby Butler 

Charles Upson Clark 

Albert T. Clay 

Charles T. Currellv 

H. R. Fairclough 

Edgar L. Hkwett 

FiSKE Kimball 

David M. Robinson 

Helen Wright 




DIRECTOR AND EDITOR 

MITCHELL CARROLL 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

J. TowNSEND Russell, President 

Frank Springer, Vice-President 

Mitchell Carroll, Secretary 

John B. Larner, Treasurer 

James C. Egbert 

Ex-o£icio as President of the Institute 

Robbrt Woods Bliss 

Mrs. B. H. Warder 



H. B. F. Macfarland, Counsel 



CONTENTS 

ARTS CLUB OF WASHINGTON NUMBER 

Cover Picture: Ghent, with Cathedral and Bell-Tower 

Colored Aquatint in Library of Congress. Engraver, Anonymous, 19th Century; Artist, S. Prout, 
1783-1852. 

The Carillons of Belgium after the Great War . . . William Gorham Rice .... 51 

Eleven Illustrations 

The Reconstruction of the Nashville Parthenon .... George Julian Zolnay .... 75 

Seven Illustrations 

Home of the Arts Club of Washington Susan Hunter Walker ... 82 

Four Illustrations 

Activities of the Arts Club of Washington 85 

Three Illustrations 
Prologue — Ideals of the Arts Club — Exhibitions — Tuesdays and 
Thursdays — Musical Evenings — The Arts Club Players — 
The Club in Lighter Vein 

The National Peace Carillon 94 

Promoted by the Carillon Committee of the Arts Club 

TSRMS: ffs.oo a year in advance; single numbers, .so cents. Instructions for renewal, discontinuance, or change of address should be 
sent two weeks before the date they are to go into effect. 

All correspondence should be addressed and remittances marie to .\rt Arao Arch \30t,0GV. the Octagon. Washington, D. C. Also 
manuscripts, photographs, material for notes and news, books for review, and exchanges, should be sent to this address. 

Advertisements should be sent to S. W. Frankel. Advertising Manager, 786 Sixth Ave., New York, N. Y., the New York Office o 
Art and Archaeology, 

Entered at the Post Office at Washington. D. C. as second-class mail matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage 

provided for in section iio,^. Act of October 3 1017. authorized September 7, 1918. 

Copyright, 1921, by the Art and Archaeouogv Press. 



i^-O 







Home of the Arts Clib of Washington 
(See pp. 81-84) 



ART mxd 



y[ 



ARCHAEOLOGY 

The Arts Throughout the Ages 

Volume XII AUGUST, 1921 Number 2 

THE CARILLONS OF BELGIUM AFTER 
THE GREAT WAR 

By William Gorham Rice, 

Author of " Carillons of Belgium and Holland" and" The Carillon in Literature." 

Prologue 

COMMEMORATION of a great epoch in our history and of the service 
of thousands of patriotic men and women, is proposed by a memorial 
carillon at the National Capital, in which all the states, the District of 
Columbia, and afhliated territorial possessions would be represented, each by 
a bell tuned in perfect accord with its fellows. The bells thought of would crown 
a noble tower — a tower which, following Ruskin's idea of architectural sugges- 
tion, would recall, but not rival, the neighboring Washington monument. This 
new structure possibly might be placed at one terminal of the axis about which 
some space along the Potomac levels south of the White House could be sys- 
tematically arranged. Or it might be on some height in Rock Creek Park where 
already existing natural beauty and peaceful surroundings make appropriate 
setting. Not only would such a memorial celebrate days of national rejoicing 
but awakening deep emotion it would bear a part in days of national sorrow. 
The tower would be enduring ; and dignified yet democratic would be the appeal 
of the music. 

The Arts Club of Washington has been a pioneer in promoting the idea of a 
carillon as a truly noble and distinguished tribute to those of the United States 
who gave their best to the contest for the preservation of civiHzation. Honor 
is due that organization for the energy and intelligence with which its members 
are devoting themselves thus to the setting up in Washington of a memorial 
which shall justly and fittingly record in majestic and satisfying artistic form 
the aspirations of our people in the Great War. 

Lecture delivered at the Corcoran Gallcrv of Art under the auspices of the Carillon Committee of the Arts Club of Washington, Feb- 
ruary 10, 1921. 

[51] 




Antwerp: The Cathedral from the Grand' Place. 
In the Spire is a great Carillon of 47 bells. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



T DREAMT that people from the land of chimes 

Arrived one autumn morning with their bells 
To hoist them on the towers and citadels 
Of my own country, that the musical rhymes 
Rung by them into space at measured times 
Amid the market's daily stir and stress. 
And the night's empty starlit silentness. 
Might solace souls of this and kindred climes. 
Then I awoke: and lo, before me stood 
The visioned ones, but pale and full of fear; 
From Bruges they came, and Antwerp, and Ostend, 
No carillons in their train. Vicissitude 
Had left these tinkling to the invaders' ear. 
And ravaged street, and smouldering gable-end. 

Thus Thomas Hardy wrote in his 
Sonnet on the Belgian Expatriation. 
And it was with thoughts awakened by 
these verses that we sailed on a Dutch 
ship at the end of last July for a brief j our- 
ney chiefly through the Low Countries. 

In Holland, in Belgium, in England, 
the countries visited in our 29 days 
abroad, deep as have been the changes 
in aspects political, overwhelming as 
have been in England and Belgium grief 
and loss, yet, except in the immediate 
battle line and in some few places along 
the path of the invaders' march, on the 
surface, scarcely a scar appears. 

Our ship touched at old Plymouth 
and at Boulogne, and then, on a Friday 
night, about nine o'clock, we found our- 
selves at the mouth of the River Maas, 
waiting for the high tide at two in the 
morning, to make it possible for the 
great ship to steam slowly up to Rotter- 
dam. 

The night was mild and clear, and as 
we lay at anchor with the coast lights of 
the Province of Zeeland glimmering in 
the distance, all the mystery and charm 
of the Netherlands anew asserted them- 
selves. Truly we felt that, if we 
listened attentively, we might hear over 
the space of waters between us and the 
land, a song of welcome from some 
carillon, which, among dikes and dunes, 
looked down from its tower upon the red 
roofs of an ancient town. And the past 



seemed strangely linked with the 
present, for had not Tromp and De 
Ruyter been inspired by such music, 
had not Grotius felt its benediction, had 
not Vermeer and Rembrandt, and Van 
Dyck and Rubens, listened to it as they 
painted the life of their time? Travelers 
from other lands return again and again 
to the Low Countries, attracted by 
picturesque scenes of market-place and 
busy harbor, of civic hsll and church 
tower, of quiet canal and lush field, but 
only when the music of bells is heard 
over all does the charm become com- 
plete. 

Very early Saturday morning we were 
at the Rotterdam docks and, after the 
usual custom house delay and confus- 
ion, found ourselves by 1 1 o'clock ready 
again to explore a Netherlandish city. 

n 

De Amicis, the Italian traveler, 
reaching Rotterdam, climbed St. Law- 
rence's tower there and, looking out, 
discovered "ships scattered among 
houses and all about the city a vast 
green plain sprinkled with windmills, 
and villages hidden in masses of verdure 
showing only the tops of their steeples. ' ' 
And he says, "For the first time I felt 
that indefininable sentiment inspired by 
the Dutch landscape, which is neither 
pleasure nor sadness, but which holds 
one for a long time silent and motion- 
less." Then he heard strange music 
coming from he knew not where, and 
this he tells us, "was from a chime of 
bells ringing a lively air, the silvery 
notes now falling slowly one by one, and 
now coming in groups, in strange 
flourishes, in trills, in sonorous chords, 
a quaint dancing strain, somewhat 
primitive, like the many-colored city, 
on which its notes hovered like a flock 
of wild birds, or like the city's natural 



[53] 




Louvain: Church of St. Gertrude. 

This church with its Carillon of 46 bells still exists. St. Peter's Church with its Carillon of 40 bells 

was destroyed, 1914, in the Great War. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



voice, the echo of the antique hfe of her 
people, recalhng the sea, the soUtudes, 
the huts, and making one smile and 
sigh at the same moment. ' ' And finally 
he meditates: "Thus in Holland the 
passing hour sings, as if to distract the 
mind from sad thoughts of flying time, 
and its song is of country, faith and love 
floating in harmony above the sordid 
noises of the earth." 

Many travelers besides De Amicis 
have sought to comprehend the secret 
of the attractiveness of the Low Coun- 
tries. Complex and elusive that secret 
doubtless is, yet I believe a clue for the 
search will be found in knowledge of the 
distinctive music we are considering 
together. Surely the long-continued 
hold of this musfc upon the people of 
Holland and Belgium; its association 
with stirring events in their history ; its 
touch with prosaic duties; its demo- 
cratic spirit; its companionship with 
time; its seat in lofty towers, and its 
maintenance at the public charge; all 
give suggestions of racial temperament 
well worth thought. 

The towers themselves were indeed 
symbols of municipal freedom and 
represented to the eye and ear the idea 
of civic solidarity. Grant Allen, in 
"The European Tour," analyzing the 
character of the art of Belgium, re- 
marks : 

These Flemish belfries are in themselves very inter- 
esting relics, because they were the first symbols of 
corporate existence and municipal power which every 
town wished to erect in the Middle Ages. The use of 
the bell was to summon the citizens to arms in defence 
of their rights, or to counsel for their common liberties. 
Every Teutonic burgher community desired to wring 
the right of erecting such a belfry from its feudal lord; 
and those of Bruges and Ghent are still majestic 
memorials of the freedom-loving wool-staplers of the 
thirteenth century. By the side of the Belfry stands 
the Cloth Hall, representing the trade from which the 
town derived its wealth. 

The crown of every belfry was a 
carillon. The belfry and its carillon 
were the proud possession of every 

[55] 



prosperous community. And today, 
wherever the carillon may hang, its 
bells belong to the town and the bell- 
master is a municipal officer. 

My story is one of discovery and ex- 
ploration ; exploration leading often into 
fascinating fields, and discovery, for 
many Americans at least, of a new kind 
of music. Yet the land of which I 
speak is not far off and the music has 
long been heard. Winter and summer 
it sounds from that Fifteenth Century 
New Church at Delft, where William of 
Orange victorious but assassinated for- 
ever rests; and night and day it floats 
down from St. Catherine's tower at 
Brief, on the island of Voorne, where 
first "The Beggars of the Sea" rose up 
against the power of Spain. From the 
belfry of Ghent the bells ring in con- 
cord now as they did when the Treaty 
of 1 8 14 first was proclaimed, and from 
the belfry of Bruges yet come the songs, 
"Low at times and loud at times," 
which inspired Longfellow when he first 
journeyed through Flanders. 

vSo tower after tower might be named, 
each a part of this chain of melody. 
Assuredly no music joins more perfectly 
in celebration of days of national re- 
joicing; but, better stih, it sends out 
from aerial heights an influence which 
lightens routine and to happy occupa- 
tion adds enchanting accompaniment. 

HI 

"The secret — which is also the 
reward — of all study lies in the passion 
for the search," declares Sir Arthur 
Ouiller-Couch. To discover exactly 
what a carillon was, and its origin and 
development, was indeed my passion 
through several of the years just before 
the War, and its indulgence consumed 
many delightful hours. 

The tale in brief, as it gradually un- 
folded in my search, seems to be that in 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



Holland and Belgium in the distant 
years when clocks and watches were 
much more rare than now and the 
people were much more dependent 
upon the town clock for knowledge of 
the time of day, or night, it became the 
custom to precede the striking of the 
hour by a short automatic chiming on 
three or four small bells in the clock 
tcwer as a premonitory signal. 

As this town and that sought to 
surpass its neighbors, the bells were 
increased in number, and the musical 
scale of tones and half tones became 
complete. Brief melodies began to be 
heard at the hour and half hour, and 
with still more bells came, at these 
divisions, whole tunes. All this play- 
ing was automatic. 

Then came the point of greatest 
advance. The keyboard was just be- 
ginning to be used with stringed in- 
struments. What was more natural 
than that bells should have their key- 
board, or clavier, and so be made ready 
to respond to the art of the aspiring 
musician? Soon pedals were employed 
with the heavier bells. By these im- 
provements rapid and quite complicated 
playing was possible and almost any 
composition could be fairly interpreted 
by a skillful executant and so regular- 
carillon recitals or concerts came into 
being. 

Thus in the course of two or three 
centuries, was developed the carillon, a 
musical instrument of distinct char- 
acteristics and possessing wide possi- 
bilities for community service. Not 
only did the carillon have, by auto- 
matic play, constant companionship 
with time, but beyond this the master 
of its clavier could make the town 
council meeting hour enjoyable, and the 
market (ever a feature of the life of the 
Low Countries) additionally gay for 



young and old. For he could give, with 
expression, the folk songs and patriotic 
airs they loved to sing, and could play 
in accurate rythm the lively tunes to 
which they danced at the Kermess and 
on every other occasion of merry- 
making. And the mid-day and the 
summer evening concerts appealed par- 
ticularly to the Netherlander for they 
were something which he could frugally 
enjoy in the quiet of his own home or 
in the jovial companionship of neighbor 
and friends, many or few, assembled 
together in the Grande Place. 

Today as one wanders in some old 
town of the Low Countries, he may 
meet, as I did, a baker's boy carrying 
his tray, who without slackening his 
pace, had time to hear that quarter 
hour sheaf of notes from the bells high 
above him, and then reminded, whistled 
the local song of the traditional duty of 
the carillon to play, 

Saturday for the country folk 
And Monday for the city, 
Sunday for girls who charm the boys 
And make themselves so pretty. 

Saturday, there, through centuries, 
has been the market day; while on 
Monday, likewise, the city council has 
always met. And Sunday — well, Sun- 
day, as a courting day, is affectionately 
regarded even in regions distant from 
carillon clime! 

IV 

Elsewhere I have described in detail 
the gigantic musical instrument whose 
development has just been traced. 
Here it will suffice to repeat in con- 
densed form a few words about the 
bells themselves. These in Belgium 
are always hung in tiers while in 
Holland they are often arranged in 
circles. In a carillon of the first order, 
one having three or four octaves of 



[57] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



chromatically attuned bells, the deepest 
bass bells are very large, each bass bell 
weighing from four to eight tons, while 
the lightest bells in the highest octave of 
the same carillon will weigh not over 
twenty pounds each. To compare a 
carillon with a chime (the arrangement 
of bells best known to people outside of 
Belgium and Holland) it may be said, 
that a chime has perhaps eight or ten 
diatonically attuned bells and that all 
of these are fairly heavy, the biggest 
weighing two or three tons and the 
smallest 300 or 400 pounds. For in- 
stance in the Cornell University Chime 
at Ithaca the biggest bell weighs 4,830 
pounds and the smallest 310 pounds. 
At Mechlin the biggest bell of the Caril- 
lon, Salvator by name, weighs 17,768 
pounds while the smallest weighs about 
18 pounds. In the Mechlin carillon the 
biggest bell is thus in round numbers 
1,000 times the weight of the smallest 
while in the Ithaca chime the biggest 
bell is only about 16 times the weight of 
the smallest. A chime has been some- 
times described as a "slice" of about ten 
bells taken approximately from the 
middle of the range of a carillon but 
including only such bells as are neces- 
sary to form the diatonic scale upon 
which the chime is based. 

Where the bells of a chime are hung 
"fixed," or so as not to swing, the chime 
may be played by a small clavier or 
drum in manner similar to a carillon. 
English change ringing and pealing is 
done upon swinging bells few or many 
tuned to the diatonic scale. Each bell 
in such playing is operated by a rope 
assigned to a particular man— one man 
for each bell. The bells are rung in a 
more or less complete mathematical 
order or sequence. The result is a 
kaleidoscopic mosaic of sounds, rapidly 
and regularly continued sometimes for 
several hours before all the "changes" 

[59] 



are gone through with. Change ring- 
ing and pealing while interesting from 
certain points of view can hardly come 
within the definition of music as that 
word is generally understood. 

To reiterate; a carillon is played 
automatically by a revolving cvlinder 
in connection with a tower clock or by 
a carillonneur seated at a clavier. The 
automatic playing is what the traveler 
constantly hears as he wanders through 
old towns of Belgium and Holland. 
The clavier playing takes place at a 
fixed time on the market day, and on 
each Sunday, and in the greater cities 
on some regular week day evening in 
summer. The last mentioned playing 
is known as the carillon program con- 
cert. Recitals of this kind are an- 
nounced by widely distributed posters 
and the music to be given and the 
carillonneurs who are to play are 
announced, months in advance by 
means of quite elaborately printed and 
illustrated booklets. 

Nine carillons, — those of Audenarde, 
Dinant, Dixmude, Nieuport, Ostende, 
Roulers, Termonde, Ypres and (St. 
Peter's) Louvain, — out of the fifty-three 
I have listed elsewhere for Belgium 
were destioyed in the great war. But 
of those destroyed, only two, that of 
(St. Peter's) Louvain, and that of (the 
Cloth Hall) Ypres, were of the first 
importance. The four finest, those of 
Malines, Bruges, Antwerp and Ghent, 
are today more than ever perfect. 

V 

My story here does not concern 
itself with the tower music of Holland, 
though the carillons there are as many 
as those in Belgium. Yet before we 
leave Rotterdam something ought to be 
said about the carillon just installed in 
the new city hall there, a public spirited 
gift to the municipality from Mr. P. J. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



Van Ommercn. This is the largest 
completely chromatic carillon existing. 
Its bells are tuned to equal tempera- 
ment, being accurate to a single vibra- 
tion in a second. Thus it is considered 
the most accurately attuned of any 
carillon known, while in quality of tone 
its bells are believed to equal the best 
anywhere heretofore made. The Taylor 
bell foundry at Loughborough, Eng- 
land, produced this fine example of the 
perfected carillon. 

The bass bell at Rotterdam is A flat 
in pitch and weighs lo, loo pounds. The 
total weight of the 49 bells constituting 
the carillon there is 62,730 pounds, and 
the cost was a little over $53,000. The 
carillon of 25 bells such as that which it 
is just announced is soon to be possessed 
by the Church of Our Lady of Good 
Voyage at Gloucester, Massachusetts, 
will have a bass bell of about 2,240 
pounds, will weigh in total 1 4, 500 pounds 
and will cost in England something like 
$1 2,000 complete. The Gloucester car- 
illon is to be made at the Taylor foundry 
above mentioned and it will be the first 
accurately tuned carillon in America. 

Mr. Williaim Wooding Starmer, Fel- 
low of the Royal Academy of Music in 
London, who is a musician of genius 
with an amazingly accurate ear, will 
test the Gloucester carillon before it is 
shipped to the United vStates. Present 
practice in England requires that all 
bells should be thus carefully adjudged 
as to their compliance with specifica- 
tions and be approved by some com- 
petent musical authority before they are 
accepted for public use — a procedure 
wisely to be followed everywhere. 

Mr. Starmer who has specialized for 
many years on bells and bell music, has 
been the first to set forth a complete and 
consistent theory as to the musical 
possibilities of bells and the conditions 
which govern them. Thanks to him it 
is now possible to say how and why one 




In 



wtm 



('athedhal Spire at .-Vntwerp. 
tliis Spire is a great Carillon of 47 bells. 

[60] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



bell is better than another and often to 
remedy inaccuracy of tone. 

Mr. Starmer has also shown that 
ceteris paribus modern bells should be 
better than ancient ones because of the 
latter-day improvements in melting the 
alloy so as to secure a perfect admix- 
ture, in casting, and in the form of the 
bell. 

Notwithstanding Longfellow's "heart 
of iron" and Poe's "golden molten 
bells" and the "silver bells" of many 
other poets, the only metals used in 
founding bells of the most perfect 
timbre are copper and tin. The addi- 
tion of gold, silver, antimony, bismuth, 
or any other metal impairs the quality 
of tone. The proportion of tin used 
is from 21% to 25%. A recent chemi- 
cal analysis by Dr. Euwes of some of 
the Hemony bells in the Zuider Kerk at 
Amsterdam shows that the alloy used 
consists exclusively of copper and lin, 
but not in fixed proportions. 

At the present time bells can be 
tuned, a set of tuning forks, 1,500 in 
number being employed, with greater 
exactness than the piano. Principles, 
however, have had to be dealt with, all 
kinds of complicated ratios discovered, 
and machines invented to accomplish 
the very fine work necessary. 

In days gone by the highest tone of 
bells was the only one that any attempt 
was made to tune, and the other tones 
were left to fate, a conglomerate mass 
of noise! Poor bells ought to be a 
nuisance everywhere, but it is impos- 
sible for good bells to be a nuisance to 
anyone. But observe they murt be 
good bells. The u?es of bells must be 
understood and the difference between 
change ringing cr chiming or pealing, 
on the one hand, and music plaj^ed on a 
carillon keyboard on the other. In the 
former, there is an intense blow, but in 



carillon music the clapper strikes^the 
bells from a very small distance — one 
quarter to half an inch, and therefore 
there is no intense amount of sound at 
any time. Ther? is an element in 
carillon music to which, so far as I 
know, attention has never heretofore 
been called. That element is the varia- 
tion in expression which results from 
the influence that air currents, always 
present more or less in the open, have 
in curving and deflecting sound waves. 
By thus apparently varying the volume 
of the tones, nature conspires with man 
and makes clavier play additionally 
pleasing and likewise modifies agreeably 
the sometimes rigid effect of tunes given 
automatically. 

The carihon is indeed a very beautiful 
and majestic m.usical instrument. Only 
those who have heard Chopin's Funeral 
March on this instrument can conceive 
how impressive that music can be. The 
carillon can reach, and instruct and 
give joy to thousands assembled out of 
doors and in this it surpasses any other 
instrument. 

Says Van der Straeten, 

A good bell is not made by chance but is the result 
of a wise combination of qualities and thought, and a 
fine carillon is as precious as a violin by Stradivarius. 

When I first became interested in 
tower music, the Assistant Keeper of 
the British Museum wrote me, "I know 
of no work on carillons." His declara- 
tion was confirmed by my own careful 
search in libraries of the United vStates, 
and in those of Antwerp and Brussels, 
The Hague, Amsterdam, and the Bib- 
liotheque Nationale of Paris. How- 
ever, one curious book I found in the 
University Library at Amsterdam. It 
is by Picter Hemony, an octavo of but 
eight leaves in all, published at Delft 
in 1678, and has this imposing title: 
"De On-Noodsaakelijkheid van Cis en 



[61] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



Dis in de Bassen der Klokken. Ver- 
toont uyt verscheyde advysen van 
ervaren organisten ende klokken - 
speelders," — "The Uselessness of C 
sharp and D sharp in the Bass of 
Carillons. vShown by various opinions 
of skilful organists and carillonneurs." 
No copy is known, except the one at 
Amsterdam. Hemony treats his theme 
with vigour and decided partisanship, 
his decision being sustained and en- 
dorsed by the signatures of the city 
carillonneurs of Briel, Delft and Am- 
sterdam. The book ends with these 
lively verses by Dirck vScholl of Delft 
directed against Ouiryn van Blanken- 
burgh, official carillonneur of the Hague 
who, it appears, had strongly argued 
that C sharp, Flemish "Cis," and D 
sharp, Flemish "Dis," were necessary: 

Those bells Cis and Dis of old Gouda's big Chime, 
In truth were they bought to make melody fine? 
Quirinus says: Yes, that their music is rare. 
To us it were better they'd never hung there. 

For the city was cheated and wrongly induced 
To purchase what scarcely could ever be used. 
Each stroke of these bells costs a pound, so 'tis said; 
Pretending they're living, in fact they are dead! 

VI 

The historical Seventeen United Pro- 
vinces over which Charles V once ruled, 
had boundaries which coincide with 
those of Belgium and Holland and the 
part of France known as French Flan- 
ders as they exist today. The carillon 
region in general terms is substantially 
the territor^^ within these boundaries, 
except that no carillons are found in the 
extreme southeastern portion, that 
which constitutes the Province of Lux- 
emberg, the smallest of the nine prov- 
inces which now make up Belgium. 

On the eastern border of the region, 
carillons are few and scattered, but in 
the central and western portion are 
many. This area of many carillons 
covers approximately 15,000 square 




St. Rombold's Tower at Mechlin. 
In the Tower i.s a great Carillon of 45 bells. 

miles — not quite twice the size of New 
Jersey, which state it resembles in shape 
and in having the sea coast on its longer 
side. 

There are in Belgium about 30 caril- 
lons of importance and about 20 in 
Holland. If those of lesser consequence 
in both these countries and in French 
Flanders are included, the number is 
over 100. 

Here and there in other countries, 
carillons exist — Great Britain now has 
several fine ones and the number there 
is increasing — but until quite recently 
tower music was scarcely to be found 
outside the land where four centuries 
ago it had its birth. 

Paths leading into the literary field 
also invite those who would explore 
tower music. Ambassadors, and 

travelers, and poets have listened to the 



]62] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



carillon and in different centuries, in 
different languages, with charm, with 
pathos, with humor even, have ex- 
pressed the thoughts awakened by its 
melodies. The reflections of De Amicis 
and the vSonnet of Hardy have already 
been given. Verses from Rossetti and 
Victor Hugo will later appear. And the 
sentiments of not a few other well 
known authors will come also into the 
story. Particularly will the vision of 
Longfellow bring us into the atmos- 
phere of the land where the influence of 
this music has oftenest been felt. 

Many writers have spoken more or 
less incidentally of the carillon. Else- 
where I have referred to these at some 
length. Here there can be little more 
than the mention of their names. Such 
a list recalls the allusions of James 
Howell, 1622, in Familiar Letters; John 
Evelyn, 1641, in his Diary; Sir John 
Carr, 1806, in his Travels; Edward 
Dowden in his Southey; Hilaire Belloc 
in describing Delft's Tower; Dr. Chat- 
terton-Hall in reviewing the novels of 
Rodenbach; George Wharton Edwards 
in Old Flemish Towns; the Reverend 
William Harmon Van Allen in Travel 
vSketches; John Finley in The Road to 
Dieppe; and William De Morgan in a 
Visit to Louvain. 

To be remembered also are other 
authors as: J. P. A. Fischer, 1737, of 
Utrecht, who requires for a carillon- 
neur "good hands and good feet and no 
gout" ; A. Schaepkens, 1857, of Brussels, 
who discusses bell making contracts; 
the old Dutch versifier Poot; Marie 
Boddaert in the Middelburg Children's 
Song; G. van Dorslaer, W. P. H. 
Jansen, D. F. vScheurleer, F. A. Hoefer, 
J. W. Enschede, Prosper Verheyden 
and others in archeological annals; 
Georgio Georgi, 1626, Marcantonio 
Correr, Guiseppi Garampi, 1764, and 



Francesco Belli in Relazione Veneziane ; 
Maurice Donnay, the French dramatist 
in King Albert's Book; Jean Loredan 
who writes of the bells of Armen- 
tieres; and Dominque Bonnaud, the 
Parisian chansonnier, whose carillon 
song has been translated by Lord 
Curzon of Kedleston. 

In such a survey particularly to be 
recalled are the names of those 
authors who have made the carillon 
theme a feattire of considerable import 
in some of their writings, as Charles 
Burney, 1773, in that quaint book. 
Music of the Netherlands; the Rever- 
end H. R. Haweis, 1875, in Music and 
Morals (though statements therein 
about bells are at times fanciful) ; 
E. G. J. Gregoire, 1877, of Brussels, in 
the Library of Popular Music; Thack- 
eray in one of his Round-about- 
Papers ; Macdonald in Robert Falconer ; 
Robert Chambers in The Barbarians; 
and D. J. Van Der Ven and A. Loosjes 
of Amsterdam in quite recently pub- 
lished books about Holland's Towers. 
Specially should be mentioned William 
Wooding Starmer of Tunbridge Wells, 
England, whose extensive researches 
concerning Bells, Chimes, and Carillons, 
it is hoped are soon to be published. 

vn 

Appreciation of some phases of tower 
music come to us best as we read the 
very words of authors themselves. 
Almost three hundred years ago Am- 
sterdam's most famous carillon was 
celebrated in many joyous stanzas by 
Joost Van den Vondel. Therein is 
this tribute to the carillonneur Verbeek : 

His bell music surpasses 

The finest organ tones, 

He plays with bells as with cymbals 

Heaven's choirs are looking out. 

Well has a recent reviewer called 
this a bold yet true figure of speech. 



[63] 



1 




Antwerp: The Carillon Clavier or Ivey-board. 



recalling the painting of some Italian 
master with angels half concealed be- 
hind the clouds. A later stanza of 
Vondel's poem is devoted to Franz 
Hemony, perhaps the most distin- 
guished of ancient bell makers, and he 
is described as: 

One who so skillfully found his bells 
That their notes charm our ear. 
And make us wish to dance a bell-dance 
On the airy tower galleries! 

It was at Antwerp that Arethusa and 
Cigarette began their voyage, and in 
that delightful chapter The Oise in 
Flood, Stevenson tells us how a new 
sensation of sound revealed itself. I 
give but one sentence: 

There was something very sweet and taking in the air 
he played, and we thought we had never heard bells 
speak so intelligently or sing so melodiously as these. 

Arnold Bennett writing of Belgium 

[65] 



and finding almost beyond belief the 
appeal of its bell-music exclaims : 

Bruges was to me incredible in its lofty and mellow 
completness. It was a town in a story; its inhabitants 
were characters out of unread novels; its chimes were 
magic from the skies. 

Wicked was the destruction in 19 14 
of the carillon at Termonde and pa- 
thetic is the scene Grace Hazard Conk- 
ling gives: 

The bells that we have always known, 
War broke their hearts today, 

* * * * 

They used to call the morning 
Along the gilded street, 
And then their rhymes were laughter 
And all their notes were sweet. 
* * * * 

The Termonde bells are gone, are gone, 
And what is left to say ? 

And as war overwhelms all the land 
Henry Van Dyke in The Bells of Ma- 
lines declares in prophetic verse : 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



O brave bell-music of Malines 

In this dark hour how much you mean' 

The dreadful night of blood and tears 

Sweeps down on Belgium, but she hears 

Deep in her soul the melody 

Of songs she learned when she was free. 

She will not falter, faint, nor fail 

But fight until her rights prevail. 

And all her ancient belfries ring 

"The Flemish Lion," "God Save the King.' 



The lives of the great founders and 
their rivalries, the exactions of con- 
tracts, the public competitions and 
private quarrels of carrillonneurs, the 
holidays decreed and the elaborate 
ceremonies at the dedication and first 
official playing of a carillon, the tales 
of capture and ransom of carillons in 
war, and many other phases of the art 
are full of romance. These all appeal 
to the interest and the imagination, and 
those that ar? curious will find much to 
repay study therein. Nor is humor 
lacking from the story. 

John V, of Portugal, visited the Neth- 
erlands about 1730 and was so delighted 
with the bell music that he deter- 
mined to have a carillon for his sump- 
tuous palace then building. The price 
having been ascertained, the suggestion 
was guardedly made by his treasurer, 
the Marquis of Abrantes, that, in view 
of the financial burdens upon the King's 
purse, this was a large expenditure. 
The implied criticism is said to have so 
offended the self-esteem of the monarch 
that he replied: "Nao suppunha fosse 
tao barato; quero dois" — "I did not 
think it would be so cheap ; I wish two." 
And these he got, for two carillons, one 
of 47 bells in the south tow^er and one 
of 46 bells in the north tower, each 
played by clavier and clockwork still 
exist, so the Portugese Department of 
State informs me, in the twin towers of 
the convent, formerly the palace chapel 
at Mafra. 



VIII 

When we came to Antwerp and 
entered the great railway station, where 
trains were rolling in and out, and the 
high keyed little whistles of the engines 
were signaling sharply, and crowds of 
people were hurrying up and down the 
many platforms, we felt that this active 
city was just as we had left it seven 
years before. Outside the station, the 
same atmosphere continued. As we 
drove to the hotel we passed along the 
great avenue of shops and patisseries, 
and the crowds went their busy ways 
just as in 1913. 

Looking out over the trees of the 
Place Verte from the open windows of 
our rooms, we saw the cathedral, now- 
close enough to us to reveal the delicate 
details of its beauty and, above the con- 
fusion of the flower market and tram 
cars in the busy square below, we heard, 
before the great bell Karolus struck the 
hour, a lightly falling carillon melody. 

Every few minutes of the day — a 
background to the animated market 
scene — the rippling notes came floating 
down from the lace -like spire above ; and 
at night it was a delight to fall asleep 
listening to the soft, exquisite music. 

Full of poetic association are the 
nearby river banks, for it is "on the 
Scheldt near Antwerp" that the scene 
of Lohengrin is laid. And majestic is 
the sweep of space and time and the 
silence of night, with this music domi- 
nating aU, that Rossetti has conceived 
and embodied in his Antwerp and 
Biuges: 

In Antwerp harbour on the Scheldt 
I stood alone, a certain space 
Of night. The mist was near my face; 
Deep on, the flow was heard and felt. 
The carillon kept pause, and dwelt 
In music through the silent place. 

I went to the carillonneur's house to 
recaU myself to him after seven years' 



[66] 




The bells of the Cahillon' at Mechlix. 
This shows the bells hung in straight rows, and tiers, the best arrangement. 



absence, and he walked back with me 
to the hotel. As we sat in the small 
parlor looking out on the flower market, 
he told us in French oi the carillon's 
fate during the war. He said that 
when the city officials decided to let the 
Germans enter Antwerp, and thus save 
their splendid buildings from destnic- 
tion, the Burgomaster sent for him and 
told him to lock the outside door of the 
tower and to bring the great key to him. 
This command the carrillonneur, Mr. 
Brees, carried out. 

When the enemy later asked for the 
carillonneur, saying they wished to 

[67] 



have the carillon wound daily, and thus 
kept playing, the answer was always 
the same: "He has gone away." "But 
I really did not go away at all, except 
from the tower," said Mr. Brees, smil- 
ing; "I stayed in Antwerp all those 
years and, what is more, I played the 
organ in the Cathedral for all the chief 
services, for I am both organist and 
carillonneur. When the armistice was 
signed, the Burgomaster again sent for 
me, gave me back the great key and 
told me to unlock the tower door. Then, 
after four years, I again climbed the 
405 steps of the tower staircase, and 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



once more found myself in the little 
room among my bells. In a short time 
all was again in order, and with wild 
demonstrations from the crowd below 
in the Place Verte, who sang as I 
played, I gave La Brabanconne. It 
was a great moment!" 

IX 

At Ghent, where the bells hang in a 
separate structure. The Belfry, there is 
at present no city carillonneur, that 
official having grown too old to play. 
But an intelligent custodian took us up 
the tower in a modern electric lift. No 
where else is a carillon tower so equipped 
and to those who would gain the 
height and see for themselves, near at 
hand, the bells of a carillon of the first 
order, and its mechanism and the 
carillonneur 's cabin, and yet would 
avoid an arduous climb, Ghent is com- 
mended. 

The action of the Ghent clavier is 
easy and permission having been ob- 
tained, my wife who has been compan- 
ion and inspiration in all my carillon 
exploration, took her place on the caril- 
lonneur's seat and "Fair Harvard" 
sounded over the surprised town below. 
So may anyone of musical taste who is 
familiar with the piano or organ play 
acceptably the modem clavier, though 
to develop a fine technique of course 
requires faithful practice. INIr. Denyn's 
daughter Madelaine is able to play 
even Mechlin's carillon where the 
action is difficult and heavy — quite a 
feat for a woman to accomplish. 

\Mienever anything happens to 
Roland — the biggest and most fa- 
mous bell — it is an ill omen to "les 
Gantois. ' ' So, when in July 1914a great 
crack appeared in Roland, hundreds, 
day after day, came to look at the bell 
and to wonder what evil was to fall on 



their beloved countrx'. In less than a 
fortnight the Germans marched into 
Belgium, and the Great War began. 
The invaders soon occupied Ghent, 
and insisted that the clock work of the 
carillon should be regularly wound, 
so that the bells should continue to 
ring over the city. The custodian 
said that he was always accompanied on 
this round of work by a German soldier. 
The Carillon of Ghent rang out a 
century ago when, on December 24th, 
1 8 14, was completed there the treaty of 
peace between Great Britain and the 
United States. That Christmas Eve 
agreement was the work of J. O. 
Adams, Gallatin, Clay, Bayard, and 
Russell, representatives at Ghent on 
the part of the United States, aided by 
the wisdom of Madison and Monroe at 
home. On the part of England it was 
due to Castlereagh, Bathurst, Liver- 
pool, and Wellington, though none of 
these men were actually Peace Com- 
missioners. No accomplishment of the 
treaty was more important than that 
which provided for the arbitration of the 
boundary' between the United States 
and Canada; a line, with its subsequent 
extensions, running by land and water 
nearly 4,000 miles. Since the signing of 
the treaty, not a few irritating contro- 
versies have arisen between the two 
nations who were parties to it, and great 
populations active in trade rivalries 
have come to exist on either side of the 
dividing line, yet through all, that line 
has continued unfortified, unguarded, 
and unpatroUed. Both adjacent peoples 
have maintained their rights, both have 
advanced in prosperity and, as fixed by 
arbitration, that boundary has re- 
mained secure with neither forts, nor 
soldiers, nor ships of war upon it to 
keep a threatening or even a protective 
watch. 



[68] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



vSurmounting the topmost spire of 
Ghent's belfry is the gilded copper 
dragon which has looked down upon 
many stirring scenes in Flemish history. 
There is a legend that the Crusaders 
brought this dragon from Constanti- 
nople to crown the belfry of Bruges and 
that there it remained until Artevelde, 
victorious, carried it a prized trophy to 
Ghent where it was again set high above 
bells. As we ascend to the upper levels 
of this ancient tower and meditate, and 
gaze upon the vast expanse below, does 
there not come vividly to mind that day 
when 'tis said Charles V, likewise be- 
holding the splendid panorama from 
this same great eminence, met Alva's 
cruel suggestion that the city should be 
destroyed, with the question " Combien 
faudrait-il de peaux d'Espagne pour 
faire un Gant de cette grandeur?" 



"O la plaisante ville aux carillons 
si doux," Paul Verlaine writes of 
Bruges. And Baudelaire as he listens 
to the carillon on a winter night finds 
sadness and joy mingled and he muses. 

II est amer et doux, 

pendent les nuits d'hivei, 
D'ecouter, pres du feu qui 

palpite et qui fume, 
Les souvenirs lointains 

lentement s'elever 
Au bruit des carillons qui 

chantent dans !a brume. 

(Bitter and sweet it is on winter nights, 
Before the fluttering, smouldering fire. 
Gently to dream of a long-distant past 
Led on by songs of mist-hid carillon.) 

Even deeper are the thoughts that 
Theophile Gautier brings to us in his 
Noel: 

Le ciel est noir, la terre est blanche, 
Cloches, carillonnez gaiment! 
Jesus est ne; la Vierge penche 
Sur lui son visage charmant. 

(The heavens are dark, the earth is white, 

O carillon ring gaily! 

Jesus is born; the Virgin bends 

O'er Him her face so lovely.) 



In C'etait I'Ete Camille Lemonier 
dwells peacefully in the atmosphere of 
this tower music while Georges Roden- 
bach seems to be constantly haunted 
and possessed by the carillon, for its 
appeal echoes through almost every- 
thing he writes. Both in Bruges-la- 
Alorte and in Le Carrillonneur, Bruges' 
Belfry is made a part of his story and in 
Le Miroir du Ciel Natal his verses em- 
body most delicate imagery: 

Les cloches ont de vastes hymnes. 

Si legeres dans I'aube. 

Qu'on les croirait en robes 

De mousseline; 

Robes des cloches balancees, 

Cloches en joie et qui epanchent 

Une musique blanche. 

Ne sont-ce pas des mariees 

Ou des Premieres Communiantes 

Qui chantent? 

(The bells are like majestic hymns, 

So light at break of day. 

That robed in sheerest lawn they seem 

Or clad in flowing sound 

Poured out from joyous bells 

In purest melody. 

Is it not blest married ones, in truth, who sing; 

Or white-robed first communicants?) 

But while all these writers and others 
that I have mentioned earlier or shall 
mention in later chapters here have 
more or less briefly touched upon the 
carillon it is an American poet who first 
makes it the subject of extended verse . 
Longfellow early came under the spell 
of be Us in the Low Countries and in the 
diary of his student-day wanderings in 
Europe we read : 

May 30, 1842. In the evening took the railway from 
Ghent to Bruges. Stopped at La Kleur de file, 
attracted by the name, and found it a good hotel. It 
was not yet night; and I strcUed through the fine old 
streets and felt myself a hundred years old. The 
chimes seemed to be ringing incessantly; and the air of 
repose and antiquity was delightful. 

May 31. Rose before five and climbed the high 
belfry. The carillon of forty-.seven bells; the little 
chamber in the tower; the machinery, with keys like a 
musical instrument for the carillonneur; the view from 
the tower; the singing of swallows with the chimes; the 
fresh morning air; the mist in the horizon; the red roofs 
far below; the canal, like a silver clasp, linking the city 
with the sea — how much to remember. 



[69] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



These impressions soon ripened into 
a poem of importance and wonderfully 
does the genius of Longfellow give the 
scene at night when silence perfects the 
sound of the bells. 

Thus dreamed I, as by night I lay 
In Bruges, at the Fleur de Ble, 
Listening with a wild delight I 
To the chimes that, through the night. 
Rang their changes from the belfry 
Of that quaint old Flemish city. 

As we read the second part of the 
Belfry of Bruges, its daytime images 
conceived as Longfellow stood on the 
lofty balcony near the carillon, his art 
leads us into his own mood, and living 
become the scenes and stirring events 
associated with bell-tower after bell- 
tower of the ancient Low Countries. 

Visions of the days departed, shadowy phantoms filled 

my brain; 
They who live in history only, seemed to walk the earth 

again; 

All the Foresters of Flanders, — mighty Baldwin Bras 

de Fer, 
Lyderick du Bucq and Cressy, Philip, Guy de Dam- 

pierre. 

I beheld the pageants splendid that adorned those days 

of old; 
Stately dames, like queens attended, knights who bore 

the Fleece of Gold. 

XI 

It was evening when we reached 
Bruges. As wa took a late supper we 
could hear at frequent intervals the 
agreeable jangling of distant bells and 
after finishing our meal we went out 
into the dusky street. Then the mys- 
tery and the music enticed us forth. 
As we wandered through the windings 
of the narrow echoing pavements, now 
a flourish, now an irregular snatch of 
song was wafted to us. The notes came 
so clear that at every moment we looked 
to see the belfry. Thus led by the 
broken melodies we at length found 
ourselves in a great moonlit square. 




Belfry of Bruges. 
From the Quai Verte. 

Here all was silent except for the steps 
of an infrequent passer and the hum of 
faint music and voices issuing from the 
estaminets that form the north side of 
the Groote Market. From somewhere 
came the plaintive notes of a zither, the 
only distinguishable sound. At the foot 
of the monument in the center of the 
square, we waited for the hour. Pres- 
ently there was a ripple and then a burst 
of tune, inaccurate of tone and Hme, 
but mysteriously beautiful, coming from 
the dark tower and floating into every 
nook of the silent city. The tune over, 
the deep bell struck eleven and we 
turned homeward. 

The morning following I ascended the 
tower, and saw and heard the sights and 
sounds of which Longfellow writes, — 
the coming of dawn over the great plain 



170] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



below, the canal like a silver clasp link- 
ing the city with the sea. 

Four men, two at a time, remain in 
the tower day and night and keep 
watch over the town. When I gained 
the carillonneur's cabin, after a climb of 
400 steps, one of these men was on 
duty as watchman, and the second was 
cobbling shoes. A cobbler's shop 250 
feet in the air ! 

Anton Nauwelaerts of Bruges, the 
most promising of the younger genera- 
tion of carillonneurs, was of age to serve 
in the army and, so, his wife and child 
having been sent to England, the caril- 
lon was left to its fate. When the war 
was ending, Nauwelaerts found himself 
near Bruges and asked permission to go 
and see how his home had fared. 
Finding all was well there, he ascended 
the tower and sought out his beloved 
bells. There he discovered the wires 
had been cut but quickly mending these 
he was able, when the King and Queen 
rode into the city a few hours later, to 
play upon the bells La Brabanqonne. 

XII 

Seven years ago, Ypres and its set- 
ting was one of the garden spots of 
Belgium. Now the city itself has been 
battered down, and the once superbly 
cultivated fields and propserous vil- 
lages about it exist only as shelltorn 
remnants. Long before its site is 
reached, the still majestic base of the 
tower of the destroyed magnificent 
Cloth Hall stands out in many shades 
of gray, pathetic and sublime. The 
carillon that hung in that towerf 
perished with it, and its carillonneur, i, 
not killed, has departed to make another 
home. 

At one end of the ruin stands a large 
framed tablet of white painted wood. 
On it, in black, are these words: 

This is Holy Ground. 

No stone of this fabric may be taken away. 

It is a heritage for all civilized people. 

[71] 



Nearby on another tablet, hung about 
when we were there with a fresh garland 
of laurel, is this inscription: 

To THE Vanguard, Ypres- 



1914. 



Oh Little Mighty Force That Stood For England. 



Oh little force that in your agony, 
Stood fast while England got her armour on. 
Held high our honour in your wounded hands, 
Carried our honour safe with bleeding feet, 
We have no glory great enough for you ! 

XIII 

Ralph Adams Cram, says of the old 
city and cathedral at Mechlin, often 
known as Malines, 

It is a town of old houses and still canals, a strangely 
poetic combination, a little Bruges with a finer church, 
vSt. Rombold's Cathedral, than any the perfect Flemish 
city could boast. The church itself is of a vigorous type 
of earliest 14th century architecture, but the great 
tower which was planned as the highest and most 
splendid spire in the world, though it completed only 
320 of its projected 550 feet, is 15th century, and as 
perfect an example of late Gothic as may be found any- 
where in the world. It is really indescribable in its 
combination of majesty, brilliancy in its combination 
of majesty, brilliancy of design and inconceivable 
intricacy of detail. The exuberance that makes the 
flamboyant art of France is here controlled and directed 
into most excellent channels, and if ever it had been 
completed it must have taken its place as the most 
beautiful tower in the world. As it is it ranks in its 
own way with the Southern Fleche of Chartres and 
Giotto's Tower in Florence, and more one cannot say. 

In this noble structure hangs the 
most renowned of carillons. Close by 
we found the carillonneur, our dear old 
friend Josef Denyn — Jef Denyn as he is 
affectionately called. He is again in his 
pleasant home, with his family about 
him, and is giving his beautiful Mon- 
day evening concerts, just as before 
the war. Except for its clavier, the 
carillon was little damaged, although 
the tower in which it hangs was scarred, 
and part of the cathedral itself, was 
demolished by shells. 

When the Germans approached, 
D?nyn being too old to enter the 
Belgian army, and having six young 
children to consider, decided to go with 
his family to England, and there they 
all lived until peace came. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



The invaders after bombarding 
Mechlin, entered it and marching im- 
mediately to the Cathedral, placed one 
of their men at the organ. Then moving 
the chairs from the nave, they danced to 
the organ's tunes. Then they demanded 
that the cariljonneur should appear and 
play. When they learned that he had 
departed, they broke the clavier and 
left the carillon unplayable and thus it 
remained as long as war continued. 

But the year 19 14 did not bring its 
first experience of war to Mechlin's 
ancient and famous carillon for more 
than a century before, at the time of the 
French Revolution in 1792, it had been 
in even greater danger. Then it was 
saved from destruction by the diplo- 
macy of Gerard Gommaire Haverals, 
the carillonneur at the time. The 
revolutionary council had decreed that 
all the Mechlin bells should be melted 
and made into cannon, when Haverals 
by his eloquence and cleverness per- 
suaded the French authorities that at 
least this carillon should be preserved. 
Otherwise, he asked, how properly could 
be celebrated "la gloire de la Re- 
pubUque?" A few years later the 
reaction came, and he was given a sharp 
reprimand by the town coimcil because 
of the republican songs he had played. 
His beloved bells, though, were safe, and 
so again he changed his tunes to suit 
changed times and endured patiently 
the municipal castigation. Happily 
his devotion and skill were so compell- 
ing that even political passions were 
subdued, and he continued as carillon- 
neur until he died in 1841, being on the 
verge of fcur-srcore years, and having 
played the bells in vS. Rombold's tower 
continuously since he was seventeen. 

We went twice to Mechlin, last 
August, for we did not feel that we 
could afford to miss either of the two 



Monday evening recitals that occurred 
during our nine days' stay in Belgium. 
The first Monday as Mr. Denyn 
climbed to his cabin, while crowds were 
gathering in the great square, we were 
sitting in a quiet courtyard of a convent 
school looking toward the majestic 
tower rising in the distance and listen- 
ing eagerly for the delicate notes of the 
opening prelude. 

XIV 

The second Monday, we heard the 
evening music as we sat with Cardinal 
Mercier in the garden of the Arch- 
Episcopal palace. The beauty of the 
scene with the stars gradually filling the 
sky, the sentiments awakened by 
thought of what Belgium had experi- 
enced since we were before within her 
borders, the presence of the great 
Cardinal, and the art of a master 
musician, made the evening one never 
to be forgotten. 

As the wide gates of the palace 
opened to admit us, the guardian 
sounded a bell, and we passed through 
an ample entrance hall, and found 
ourselves in a pathway of tall white 
flowers. Again the bell sounded, 
and then from out of the dusk in the 
distance, appeared the benign and im- 
pressive form of the cardinal himself, 
followed by a group of priests. He 
welcomed us in French and English, 
and led the way, in the deepening 
twilight, to seats far back in the 
mysterious depths of a tree-shaded 
lawn. There in perfect quiet, we 
listened to Denyn's prelude, to a 
vSonata by Pleyel, to Haendel's "O 
Lord Correct Me," and to old Flemish 
Folk songs — simple and exquisite, all 
of them ; given forth from the lofty and 
massive tower dominating the southern 
horizon. Here was a splendid master- 



[72] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



hand bringing out from his mighty 
instrument not alone grand and sub- 
hme effects, but also the tenderest 
shades of feeling, and awakening both 
memory and aspiration. Indeed, the 
tower seemed a living being, opening its 
lips in the mysterious night to pour out 
a great and noble message to all man- 
kind. 

As the hour passed, daylight died. 
If there was occasion to speak, we spoke 
in whispers. It seemed that if we 
moved or spoke aloud, the tower, the 
far away light, and the music might all 
vanish. Nothing we had ever experi- 
enced had been like this. vSometimes 
the sounds seemed to come from an 
infinite distance, so faint and delicate 
were they. Then at other times, great 
chords, in the volume of many organs, 
burst forth rapturously. 

As the night grew cooler, the Cardinal 
arose and walked slowly back and forth 
in the shadows. Just before the close of 
the playing, he came to each one of us in 
turn and said a few words of parting; 
words which in his voice spoke hope, 
bestowed a blessing, expressed farewell. 
Then as we continued listening to 
the carillon's majestic music but with 
our eyes fixed upon him, he took 
his way quietly down a path leading 
toward the palace. And, though his tall 
form soon to us was lost in the darkness, 
yet, his presence remained to our inner 
vision, radiantly alive. 

XV 

To Victor Hugo, awakened at night 
in Mechlin, a vision appeared which he 
put in verse exquisite in imagery and in 
native cadence. His poem in Les 



Rayons et les ombres, bears the legend. 
Ecrit siir la vitre d'une fcnetre flamande: 

J'aime le carillon dans tes cites antiques, 
O vieux pays gardien de tes moeurs domestiques. 
Noble Flandre, oil le nord se rechauffe engourdi 
Au sok'il de Castille et s'accouple au midi! 
Le carillon, c'est I'heure inattendue et foUe, 
Que I'oeil croit voir, vetue en danseuse espagnole, 
Apparaitre soudain par le trou vif et clair 
Que ferait en s'ouvrant une porte de I'air; 
Elle vient, secouant sur les toits lethargiques 
Son tablier d'argent plein de notes magiques, 
Reveillant sans pitie les dormeurs ennuyeux, 
Sautant a petits pas comme un oiseau joyeux, 
Vibrant, ainsi qu'un dard qui tremble dans la cible; 
Par un frele escalier de cristal invisible, 
Effaree et dansante. elle descend des cieux; 
Et I'esprit, ce veilleur fait d'oreilles et d'yeux 
Tandis qu'elle va, vient, monte et descend encore, 
Entend de marche en marche errer son pied sonore! 

Translation always is inadequate and 
yet I venture thus to end my story: 

I love the carillon in thine ancient towns, 

O Flanders, guardian of a noble race. 

Where the cold North, a glow of warmth has found. 

Reflected from the sun of bright Castile. 

The carillon with starry melodies 

Adorns the unawaited midnight hour. 

Till faint above, in shimmering azure fields. 

Imagination sees the mystic gleam 

Of form most like a Spanish dancing maid. 

In raiment music-filled and silvery. 

Which then, down-coming through the nearer air. 

Appears a being, radiant and gay. 

On glittering wing she sweeps o'er drowsy roofs. 

And strewing wide her magic rippling notes. 

Awakes without remorse earth's weary ones. 

Now rising, falling, as a joyous bird. 

Now quivering as a dart that strikes the targe. 

Now touching the transparent crystal stair 

That frail depends from heights Elysian, 

Behold this spirit quick, this soul of sound. 

This elf aerial from another sphere. 

Bold, glad, extravagant of motion, free! 

Anon she mounts, anon descends the skies. 
Then step by step, with tinklings delicate. 
In distance far, tlie vision fades away. 

A silent space. Then Time on deep-toned bell. 
With stroke on stroke, compelling, tranquil, slow. 
Anew to man declares mortality. 

/J5 Washington Avenue 
Albany. N. V. 



[73] 










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THE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE NASHVILLE 

PARTHENON 



By George Julian Zolnay, 

President of the Arts Club* 



WHEN Phidias, the sculptor, 
Ictinus, the architect, and 
Pericles, the statesman, con- 
ceived and built the Athenian Parthe- 
non they little thought that after a 
lapse of twenty-four hundred years a 
new people on a then undreamed of 
continent would, from the remnants of 
their creation, reconstruct that great 
masterpiece in a more enduring form 
than was theirs. But that is what takes 
place today at Nashville, Tenn., where 
the great temple of Athena is being 
rebuilt for the glory of art and the 
greater happiness of the people. 

The history of this reconstruction 
goes back twenty-four years when 
Tennessee celebrated its hundredth 
anniversary of statehood by an Inter- 
national Exposition. To house the art 
exhibit Major E. C. Lewis, Director of 
the Exposition conceived the idea to 
tangibly bear out Nashville's claim of 
being the "Athens of the South," 
and built in temporary form what 
remains even today the only exact-to- 
the-inch replica of the Parthenon in 
the world; the so-called Parthenon at 
Regensburg being merely an adaptation 
of the great Athenian temple. 

Although the measurements of the 
original Parthenon were strictly ad- 
hered to, the haste in which this tem- 
porary structure had to be built and 
the comparatively small amount of 
money available for the work, natu- 
rally left much to be desired in the 
execution of the delicate ornamentation 
and of the many of statues which had 
to be reconstructed from the in- 
adequate drawings then in existence. 



And yet the general effect of that 
cream colored staff structure with 
brilliant colors in the frieze and gables 
so over-shadowed all the other build- 
ings that when the Exposition was 
over the people demanded its preserva- 
tion and it became a shrine to the 
residents and visitors of Nashville. 

It was only a few years, however, 
until the exterior began to lose its 
brilliancy, the plaster statues to disin- 
tegrate and the necessity of demolish- 
ing the building became apparent. 

But the mysterious power of the 
masterpiece, even in its incomplete 
form, had cast its spell and the people 
demanded that it remain. 

At great expense the necessary re- 
pairs were made and the entire struc- 
ture was repainted which prolonged its 
life for the time being; but soon the 
ravages of time again threatened its 
existence and once more it had to be 
renovated. 

Three years ago, however, when the 
disintegration had progressed to the 
point where some of the large statues 
of the pediments began to fall down, the 
building had to be closed for public 
safety, and the Board of Park Com- 
missioners was at last confronted with 
the inevitable alternative of either 
dem.olishing or reconstructing it in 
permanent form. 

By mental association with the origi- 
nal the first thought naturally centered 
upon marble; when it was calculated, 
however, that such an undertaking 
would run into millions, marble had to 
be discarded, particularly because of 
carving the two hundred odd statues 



[75] 



"Illustrated lecture given at the Club Dinner in honor of President Zolnay upon his return from Nashville. Oct. 7, 1920. 




Present condition of the Nashville Parthenon. 



and ornamentation of the frieze and 
gable. 

Another draw-back which the use of 
marble presented was the color prob- 
lem, for it is definitely established that 
in its original form the Parthenon was 
polychrome. To apply pigments to the 
surface of marble as was done by the 
Greeks, would be as impermanent as it 
was twenty-four hundred years ago, 
in fact, in the more severe climate of 
Nashville, with the inevitable smoke 
and gases of a modern city, the coloring 
would have to be renewed every few 
years at a cost which the Park Com- 
missioners did not wish to saddle on the 
people in perpetuity. 

There remained, therefore, the in- 
expensive concrete used by the Romans 
which has stayed intact for two thous- 
and years, thus obviously considered 
the most durable as well as the least 
expensive material known. More- 
over, since concrete can be cast into 
moulds very successfully it also does 
away with the great cost of carving the 



statues and ornaments. But if con- 
crete possesses all these material vir- 
tues it also has a number of serious 
drawbacks. First of all there is what is 
technically known as "lifeless appear- 
ance" due to its opaque nature. Stone 
and marble are more or less translucent 
and therefore reflect a certain amount 
of light which is what gives life and 
charm to all stone and marble buildings. 
vStill, there being no other choice, con- 
crete was decided upon as the only 
available material and the Park Board 
commissioned Mr. Russell E. Hart, a 
New York architect living in Nashville 
to make the necessary drawings and 
study the problem from every angle. 
Mr. Hart, whose admirable training 
has made him an authority on classic 
architecture in general and the Parthe- 
non in particular, enthusiastically en- 
tered into this work and after exhaus- 
tive investigations of the most modern 
methods of concrete construction finally 
recommended the method known as 
"Mosaic vSurface" developed by John 



[76] 




Opening the Mould of the Capitals. 



Early of Washington, D. C, who was 
entrusted with that part of the work. 
The essential difference between ordi- 
nary concrete and the mosaic method is 
that in the former the surface is brought 
about by the combination of cement 
and sand whereas in the latter it is 
composed of stone fragments. The 
modus operandi consists, roughly 
speaking, in carefully selecting stone 
of the desired color and translucency, 
crushing and screening it to a uniform 
size varying from one eighth to a 
quarter of an inch in diameter. These 
stone fragments, called aggregate, are 
then mixed with Portland cement and 
water and poured into the forms or 
trowelled as the case may be. Then 
instead of allowing the aggregate to 
remain covered by the cement as is the 
case with ordinary concrete, that sur- 
plus cement is removed with acids and 
brush until the stone fragments arc 
exposed yet firmly cemented in the wall. 
This process at once gives the struc- 
ture four cardinal virtiies: it makes it 



practically non-absorbent, permanent 
in color, gives it a texture on which the 
play of light is far more beautiful than 
it is on a smooth surface and finally 
it gives sufficient translucency to com- 
pare favorably with stone. 

But even with this problem solved 
there still remained the great question 
of the red background of the metopes 
and gables, the blue of the triglyphs as 
agreed upon by the majority of authori- 
ties on Greek architecture. To merely 
apply pigments to the surface of these 
cement casts would have involved the 
same periodical expense of renewing 
the colors as it would have on marble. 
Thus once more the project seemed 
blocked. 

About that time the writer was ex- 
perimenting with the production of a 
durable material other than the costly 
stone and bronze, realizing that not 
until the sculptor's work can be suc- 
cessfully reproduced in less expensiv^e 
yet durable materials will sculpture 
become a trulv democratic art. 



[7/1 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



The result of these experiments was 
a synthetic stone, which not only 
"poured," but can be made of any 
color. And when through the columns 
of the press this matter came to the 
attention of the Nashville Park Com- 
missioners and their investigation 
proved that at last a satisfactory solu- 
tion of the problem had been found, 
the writer was commissioned to recon- 
struct the figures of the great temple 
and then reproduce them in this arti- 
ficial stone. The task of reconstructing 
these figures may well be approached 
with reverence ; not only because of its 
magnitude but also because of the re- 
sponsibility assumed by the sculptor 
in the translating to posterity a truth- 
ful representation of the creations of 
these masters of the past. Thanks 
to the camera, however, the present 
day facilities for a correct interpreta- 
tion of these works are infinitely bet- 
ter than they were twenty-three years 
ago when the only material at our dis- 
posal were unsatisfactory wood cuts 
made from the Elgin marbles in the 
British Museum. Now with photo- 
graphs of every fragment preserved in 
the great museums of the world and of 
what remains standing on the Acropolis 
these reconstructions are no longer a 
matter of guess work but one of logical 
deduction even in cases where the 
greater part of the figures has disap- 
peared. 

The original ninety-two metopes of 
the frieze in which the legendary bat- 
tles between the centaurs and lapithae 
are represented in high relief, have been 
so injured in the course of time that 
only about one third can be restored to 
their original form; of the other two 
thirds nothing remains but bare slabs 
with insufficient traces to even attempt 
reconstruction. It is very fortunate, 



however, that among the thirty-two 
remaining metopes about a dozen are 
so well preserved that they remain a 
perfect guide in the restoration of 
those even seriously damaged. 

It is the intention of the Park Board 
to preserve these reconstructed models 
for the benefit of those who wish to 
study them at close range, for it must 
be remembered that when set in place 
they will be fifty feet from the ground. 

The necessarily careful study of these 
remnants have convinced the writer 
that while Phidias did supervise the 
work in general, none of the exterior 
sculpture is his own individual work. 
Not only is the treatment and charac- 
ter of the metopes entirely different 
from that of the pediment groups repre- 
senting the contest between Athena 
and Poseidon over the fields of Attica, 
but also both are so unlike the Athenian 
frieze that they could not be the work 
of the same man. This frieze five hun- 
dred and twenty feet long by three 
feet four inches high, set on the exterior 
walk of the cella is unquestionably the 
highest example of that most difficult 
form of sculpture, the relief. It is 
indeed the work of a great genius such 
as Phidias must have been and the only 
sculpture of the Parthenon preserved in 
its entirety and almost intact. 

On the other hand some of the me- 
topes are veritable masterpieces 
whereas others are of rather inferior 
quality, which justifies the assumption 
that they are the work of several 
sculptors of varying degrees of ability. 

As for the pediment groups the uni- 
formity of treatment points to their 
being the work of one man of extra- 
ordinary ability. The nudes reveal an 
almost incomparable knowledge of the 
human body and the draperies, next to 
the famous Victory of Samothrace, are 



[78] 




Reproductions uV MukjI'i;.^ icK the Nasiuillu I'arthu.nu.x, 



George Julian Zolnaj', Sculptor. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 






perhaps the most perfect example of 
treatment and technique of all times. 
To what extent the Greek sculptor car- 
ried the execution of his work is well 
illustrated in these pediment groups 
where even the backs of the figures are 
carefully finished, even though they 
lean against the wall so that under no 
circumstances could these backs be 
seen. While such seemingly useless 
expenditure of time and energy appears 
utterly absurd to the modern mind, to 
the Greek who slighted nothing it was 
a matter of course and must have had 
its share in developing that astound- 
ing perfection found in the Greek work. 

While most of the theories and princi- 
ples established by architects and 
archaeologists find their confirmation 
in this work, there are some which 
must be discarded when ])ut to the acid 
test of actual reconstruction, and this 
sifting of accumulated hypotheses and 
speculations cannot fail to prove bene- 
ficial in the long run. 

That the architectural and artistic 
principles of the Parthenon were pri- 
marily an intellectual triumph of sym- 
metry, balance and mathematical inter- 
relation of parts is self-evident, but 
it might be profitably stated that 
while the unification of these principles 
was due to a sense of beauty such as no 
other race has displayed before or since, 
the emotional element was rather neg- 
ligible compared with the reasoning 
power of the Greek. 

If the long horizontal lines were 
curved upwards it was to prevent the 
appearance of "sagging" for the same 
optical reason that the columns were 
not equidistant, those near the corner 
being nearer together and inclined 
toward the center which gave the ap- 
pearance of greater strength. For simi- 
lar reasons outside mouldings were 



different from those in the diffused 
light of the interior, all of which can be 
summed up in what is so aptly ex- 
pressed by "fitness of things" which is 
the fundamental basis of all good art. 
The same superior qualities are evi- 
denced in their technical skill so 
well illustrated in the handling of the 
forty-six columns. These colossal sup- 
ports of the entablature measuring 
over six feet in diameter at the base 
and thirty-four feet high were built of 
nine superimposed sections technically 
called drums and were so closely fitted 
together that even today the joints are 
barely visible. 

The mooted question as to how the 
original roof might have been con- 
structed is entirelv eliminated in this 
work, since the demands which will 
eventuallv be made on this structure 
require a definite treatment of its 
covering. While the reconstruction of 
the interior is not included in the 
present plans, it is certain that the 
ultimate destination of the building 
will be that of housing the Art Museum 
which will eventually result from the 
efforts of the Nashville Art Associa- 
tion. Therefore the first consideration 
is that of having the best possible 
light which will be obtained by a flat 
sky-light following the slope of the roof, 
the ground glass ceiling below which 
will create an air chamber for the 
regulation of the temperature. The 
rest of the roof will be covered with 
light asbestos tiles to harmonize with 
the rest of the structure. 

Whether the original Parthenon had 
an open roof or whether there was 
some structural arrangement with side 
lights masked by the cornice has never 
been definitely established. Certain it 
is that unless the roof was open which 
is quite doubtful, there was not much 



[80] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



light in the interior which would be in 
perfect keeping with the fact that, like 
all pagan temples, the Parthenon was 
not designed to hold a congregation as 
does the Christian church, but was 
essentially the abode of the Deity, a 
mysterious shrine in front of which the 
people worshipped. 

At the rate at which the work has 
been progressing the exterior of the 
building will probably be completed 
in the fall of 1922 and will stand 
forth as a monument to man's innate 
craving for beauty which was the sole 
factor in this reconstruction. It will 
also be a demonstration of what ade- 
quate laws can do for a community. 

^^'hen the Tennessee legislature cre- 
ated a Nashville Park Commission a 
few years ago, it gave it a form which so 
stimulated the highest instincts of good 
citizenship that it at once enlisted the 
interest of the very best element of the 
city; it made the position of a Park 
Commissioner one of such honor that it 
obtained the free services of five of its 
most prominent citizens whose only 
desire it is to serve their fellow man. 
Being a self-perpetuating body en- 



tirely independent of politics, these 
men can fill such vacancies as occur 
from time to time with men of their 
own calibre and thus insure the best 
interests of the community against any 
possible deterioration of its personnel. 
The law assigns to the commission a 
certain per cent of the city's revenues 
for the maintenance, extension and 
improvement of the city parks over 
which it has complete and absolute 
jurisdiction with discretionary power 
to expend these funds as they deem 
best. 

No park commission differently con- 
stituted could have responded to the 
needs of the community as readily as 
it did when it decided to add to its 
former achievements this replica of 
man's highest creation in art; and, 
whatever the cost of this work will be 
it is money well spent for it is another 
step toward the realization of the fact 
that art is and must be part and parcel 
of our life, the most tangible expression 
of the human mind and cannot be 
separated from our intellectual exis- 
tence. 

Washington, D. C. 



THE NASHVILLE PARTHENON 
"A POSSESSION FOREVER." 

When we build, let us think that ice build forever. Let it not 
be for present delight nor for present use alone — let it be such work 
as our descendants will thank us for, and let us think as we lay stone 
on stone, that a time is to come when those stones will be held sacred 
because our hands have touched them, and that tnen will say as they 
look upon the labor and wrought substance of them: "See! This 
our fathers did for us!" — John Ruskin. 



[81] 



THE HOME OF THE ARTS CLUB OF 
WASHINGTOM 

By Susan Hunter Walker 



WHEREIN lies the charm of the 
Arts Club of Washington? Why 
is it its members are not as a 
whole enthusiastic when the question of 
removal to larger quarters is broached ? 
What alluring quality does the Club 
possess which makes its guests happy to 
receive repeated invitations to its af- 
fairs ? These are oft-repeated questions. 
The home of the Arts Club, situated 
as it is a bit too far west of the heart of 
the Capital to be wholly convenient , and 
too far south to claim connection with 
the region of fashion, and by no means 
adequate as to dimensions, yet holds a 
charm so irresistible to its members that 
they are loath to consider its relin- 
quishment and are more likely to follow 
the scheme which favors the extension 
of the building over its own ground 
space, thereby providing adequate room 
for its growing needs, than give up the 
club home of five years of happy 
occupancy. 

It is not alone the history of more 
than ordinary intrinsic interest adher- 
ing to the picturesque home of the Arts 
Club of Washington which holds the 
allegiance of its members, nor can it 
truthfully be said to be its entire con- 
venience, for the latter is at times con- 
spicuous by its absence. But there is a 
charm which holds the club where it is, 
and which most of its members fear that 
any change of residence might break. 
It is the atmosphere of the Arts Club 
which endears it to its members — the 
invisible, intangible spirit of goodwill, 
of gracious fellowship, of stimulus to the 
spirit through the high and fine things 
expressed there thathave fed the mind 

[83] 



and soul, with the not-to-be-forgotten 
flow of philosophy and humor that has 
coursed freely round its well-spread 
tables. These are some of the things 
which have become a part of its atmos- 
phere and bind it with bonds of firmest 
loyalty to its members. 

The tall, handsome Georgian house 
at 2017 I Street, which is the home of 
the Arts Club of Washington, has the 
good fortune to be a genuine home of 
the spacious and gracious type of 
Colonial days. Its lunette-topped, 
knockered, blue-green door offers its 
first pleasing note, while the wide 
entrance hall with fluted arch relieving 
the bare length and the mahogany- 
railed staircase carr'>' on the favorable 
impression. The reception room and 
the dining room on the right, these also 
divided by a wide arch, continue the 
idea of old-time dignity accompanied 
by hospitality, the cheerful open fire- 
place in both, the well-chosen pictures, 
the old English mahogany, the flowers 
always in evidence, further enhancing 
the atmosphere of leisurely dignity. 

These main first floor rooms are for 
the reception of members and guests, for 
the regular formal dinners given every 
Thursday for members and their guests, 
when the two rooms thrown into one are 
filled to overflowing and when an an- 
nounced program is always part of the 
function; for the less formal Tuesday 
and Saturday dinners with their ac- 
companiment of spontaneous wit and 
wisdom; for the comfortable little 
Sunday suppers that may be ordered a 
few hours ahead ; for luncheons and for 
afternoon teas of large and small 




A Summer Evening in the Garden 



dimensions of any and every day. 
Back of these dignified first floor rooms 
is the Arts Club grill room, with a high, 
pipe-flanked chimneypiece, a big crafts 
table with benches on either side, 
curiously decorated walls, all suggestive 
of intimacy, good cheer and much 
tobacco smoke. 

Two large communicating rooms oc- 
cupy most of the space of the second 
floor of the home of the Arts Club of 
Washington. It is in these that the 
club's many art exhibitions are pre- 
sented and in which are given its 
musicales and other set forms of enter- 
tainment; its famous talks on every 
variety of subject touching art in any 
form, and where on days of especial 
festivity the club members hold high 
carnival. Studios available to artists, 
and other rooms, fill the third floor, and 
the fourth floor rooms are occupied by 
part of the resident staff. 



One of the chief prides of the Arts 
Club of Washington is its garden. This 
garden contains a long stretch of grass 
bordered on one side by a vine-covered 
pergola and on the other by a high 
green-draped fence, with shrubs, roses, 
old-fashioned flowers and ferns planted 
wherever carefully tending hands might 
place them, but so that they do not 
interfere with the groups of tables and 
chairs which must be set there through- 
out the summer, for the garden is used 
for dinners, teas and other forms of 
entertainment on every possible oc- 
casion. These grounds are lighted at 
night by a clear, electric moon which 
shines down from the top of the house, 
and is so fitted that it can be made to 
throw adjusted lights on the movable 
stage, which is a part of its equipment. 

The history of the Arts Club house is 
notable. Among its early owners and 
tenants were many famous men, among 

[84] 




Music Room of the Arts Club 



them, James Maccubin Lingan, a revo- 
lutionary officer and friend of George 
Washington; General Uriah Forrest, 
aide to General Washington; Benjamin 
Stoddert, first Secretary of the Navy; 
Robert Morris, financier of the Revo- 
lution; and, most distinguished of all, 
James Monroe, who owned and occupied 
the mansion while Secretary of State 
and who also bequeathed to it further 
distinction by using it as the Executive 
Mansion between the time of his 
inauguration in March, 1817, and his 
departure on a tour of the then United 
States in June of the same year, while 
the White House was in the hands of 
workmen. 



A still later distinguished line of 
tenants included : the Right Honorable 
Stratford Canning, Envoy Extraordi- 
nary and Minister Plenipotentiary from 
Great Britain; Baron de Mareschal, 
Envoy Extraordinary- and Minister 
Plenipotentiary from Austria; United 
States Senator Charles Francis Adams, 
of Massachusetts, son of John Ouincy 
Adams and father of Henry Adams, the 
historian; General Silas Casey; Virgil 
Maxcy, Solicitor of the Treasury, and 
Professor Cleveland Abbe, founder of 
the United States Weather Bureau, 
from whose heirs the Arts Club of 
Washington purchased the property 
which is now its home. 



[85] 



ACTIVITIES OF THE ARTS CLUB OF 
WASHINGTON 

Prologue. 

The Arts Club of Washington was organized April 7, 1916, at a meeting of Washington artists 
held in the studio of Mr. H. K. Bush-Brown, 1736 G Street N. W. The Constitution and By- 
Laws were adopted and officers and a board of governors were elected for the ensuing year, as 
published in the Arts Club Booklet of 1916-17. It was voted to secure, if possible, a colonial 
house for the home of the Club. For this purpose the President named a special committee, who 
were so fortunate as to secure the old Monroe residence on I Street, just described. 

From the proceeds of a sale of pictures, statuary and books generously donated by members and 
friends, the house was renovated and furnished so that it became a most congenial home for the 
Club. Also the neglected back yard was transformed into an attractive garden. Owing to the 
attractiveness of its new home and the interesting features provided for its gatherings, the Club 
grew within the course of the first year from less than fifty to more than four hundred members. 
The work of the Club is now well under way, its activities guided by competent committees, its 
bulletins and announcements telling their own story. Mr. Henry K. Bush-Brown, the first Presi- 
dent, was reelected annually until April, 1920, when he was succeeded by Mr. George Julian 
Zolnay, who is now ser\-ing his second term. 

The art of right living is the one great fine art. The application of what is finest and best in 
art to our daily life is an essential element of culture. Human happiness depends not on bread 
alone, but on the satisfaction of spiritual hunger by the pursuit of arts and letters. These con- 
tribute both to the right enjoyment of business and the true employment of leisure. All the arts 
which pertain to humanity have a certain common bond, and are held together by an intimate 
relationship. 

Such ideals have inspired the Arts Club in the four years of its history. It has presented to its 
members and guests the work of architects, sculptors, painters, musicians, dramatists, poets and 
writers. By these activities it has sought to demonstrate that art is not for the few but for the 
many; not for the pleasure of the moment, but for the joy of every-day life; not merely for 
recreation, but also for one's daily pursuits. 

One great advantage which the Arts Club offers is the promotion of intercourse between artists, 
art lovers and laymen, the effect of which is the cultivation of the aesthetic sense and the enhance- 
ment of the joy of li\-ing. Another advantage is the furnishing of a forum where each may con- 
tribute the best in himself for the welfare of others. It strives to fill the waste places of life wich 
joy and mutual helpfulness, that more people may direct their pursuit of happiness to its best 
fulfillment. The Club is in fact the true home of art where a welcome awaits kindred spirits who 
seek association with their fellows in the pursuit of the True and the Beautiful. 

The Club attains these ends by frequent gatherings in its halls and in its garden, through the 
medium of exhibitions and lectures and concerts, and in receptions to distinguished guests. It 
offers its facilities to all organizations which seek to promote the arts and the humanities, and 
aspires to become the national center for the development of the Nation's Capital, and the higher 
Hfe of the country. 

Mitchell Carroll. 

Ideals of the Arts Club. 

The ideals of the Arts Club may, perhaps, be fairly summarized as follows: 

1 . To secure a constant inflow of fruitful entertainment, of specialized knowledge, and of artistic 
inspiration from without the Club; 

2. To stimulate all worthy forms of art-expression and productivity within it; 

3. To encourage good-fellowship, and to promote a spirit of friendly cooperation and generous 
rivalry among its members, and, 

4. To extend a sympathetic, helpful and energizing influence wherever and whenever such seems 
needed for the public good. 

[86] 




Board of Governors © Underwood if Underwood. 

From left to right: Neuhauser, Treasurer; Deming, Chairman House Committee; Carroll, Vice-President; 
Dawson, Recording Secretary; Zolnay, President; Safford, Corresponding Secretary; Bush-Brown, former 
President; Akers, Mahoney. Absent: Mrs. Charles Fairfax and E. W. Donn. 

These ideals have been largely realized. But, it having become evident that they could not be 
achieved in their entirety save through a broader extension, a nicer adjustment, and a more 
zealous and widespread participation in the Club's activities, certain changes, especially designed 
to attain these ends, have recently been introduced therein. 

Amongst these may be mentioned a new committee, called, for lack of a better name, the 
Committee on Hospitahty and Cooperation. Its minor purpose is to be a social one; its major 
and essential function is the making of a sur\-ey of the club-membership, and wherever the willing- 
ness and capacity to serve the Club in any way are discovered, to provide outlet and opportunity 
therefor. Its work will be intensive in character — to invigorate the whole organization by causing 
each member to become as interested, as active and as useful a unit therein as is possible. 

The field to be tilled by the newly-created Civic Committee, lies not within, but without the 
Club. Its membership includes representatives of all the arts, and it is intended that it shall 
concern itself with every phase of art that touches the life of the citizen, primarily of Washington, 
and secondly of the nation. It has already obtained decisive results in matters of this kind; and 
it is expected that as a leader among other organizations interested generally in civic welfare, it 
will become a power in the community, and will thus be enabled to create and sway a large and 
influential body of public opinion, with an ultimate improvement in public taste and enhance- 
ment of civic beauty. Some twelve or fifteen members of this Committee, accustomed to public 
speaking, constitute a Free Lecture Bureau, which is prepared to supply local organizations with 
addresses, illustrated by slides, upon various subjects of art interest. 

Lastly, the Art Forums, inaugurated in February 1921, have for their principal object, like the 
Committee on Cooperation, developmental work within the club-membership. They have been 
held weekly for the free discussion of selected subjects dealing with varied forms of art-expression. 
Their success has been unqualified; attendance upon them has steadily increased, and, what is of 
even greater importance, the number of active participants in the discussions carried on has grown 
appreciably larger. A list of some of the questions mooted may not be out of place here. These 
were: What is beauty? The psychology of the aesthetic judgment. The spirit of revolt in 
modem literature. The American school of art. How to judge architecture. Wliy is music? 
How to appreciate classic sculpture. What is the viewpoint of modem art? How to build and 
judge a play. Etc. 

[87] 




HKNKY K. BUSH-BROWN IN HIS STUDIO COHarris Ewing 

First President of the Arts Club (1916-1920) 
Studied art at National Academy of Design, pupil of Henry Kirke Brown; studied art in Paris and Italy. 
1886-9. Prominent works: Equestrian statues Gen. G. G. Meade and Gen. John F. Reynolds, Gettysburg. 
Pa.; statues Justinian, Appellate Court, New York; Indian Buffalo Hunt, Chicago Exposition, 1893; group 
representing Truth. Buffalo Exposition, 1901; memorial tablet Relief, Union League Club. Philadelphia; 
decorative figures. Hall of Records, New York; equestrian statue Gen. Antony Wayne for Valley Forge. Pa.; 
memorial arch. Stony Point. N. Y.. memorial fountain, Hudson, N. Y.. Gray reserve statue, Union League 
Club, Philadelphia; Mary Jemison statue, Letchworth Park. N. Y.; the Spirit of "61. Philadelphia; the Lincoln 
Memorial. Gettysburg; Union Soldiers Monument. Charlestown, West \'irginia; equestrian statue. Gen. 

John Sedgwick, Gettysburg, etc. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

This brief sur\'ey of the ideals and more recent activities of the Arts Club of Washington is 
published here in the hope that it may contain suggestions helpful to kindred organizations 
elsewhere, and may elicit from them suggestions likely to be of aid to us. 

George W. Johnston. 

Exhibitions at the Arts Club. 

With a record of fifty-five Exhibitions, in addition to several hundred concerts, recitals, 
lectures, dramatic performances, etc., all within the five years of its existence, the Arts Club of 
Washington may well be reckoned as one of the most active art associations in the countrs-. 

This large number of exhibitions was made possible by eliminating the large annual and periodi- 
cal shows in favor of small, specialized exhibits of about one month duration and following each 
other at a few days interval. It is this new exhibition policy which has enabled the Club to give 
Washington an extraordinary variety of carefully selected works of virtually every branch of 
Art, in keeping with the principles on which the Club was founded and will be made the center 
and rallying point of every art manifestation, be it painting, sculpture, architecture, music, 
drama, literature and the arts and crafts in every form. 

Of these 55 exhibitions, nine were oils, largely one-man shows in which the tendency and 
temperament of the individual artist is always brought out more forcibly than it is possible with 
mixed exhibitions. Among the group displays the lithographs of the Sennefelder Club of London, 
England, the wood block prints by the Provincetown Artists and a series of drawings by the 
Handicraft Guild were of particular interest, not only because of their very high quality but 
because they gave a most comprehensive view of the range and possibilities of these special 
mediums. These exhibitions were arranged by the Art Committee, Miss Perrie, Chairman. 

A retrospective exhibition of works by the late Hopkinson Smith proved that the art of that 
versatile veteran has lost nothing of its appeal to the general public as well as to the discriminating 
connoisseur; the Club was fortunate enough to acquire for its permanent collection one of his 
choicest works in black and white. 

A large collection of Cartoons, and exhibition of textiles and batiks, one of American and one 
of foreign war posters, a group exhibit by ten Sculptors of Baltimore, one by ten Washington 
Architects, etc, show the wide range covered by these Arts Club exhibitions and as it has been 
made a fixed policy to give every school and tendency an equal opportunity, provided the works 
come up to a recognized standard of excellence, it can legitimately be assumed that the Arts Club 
of Washington will soon be a recognized center of our national art expression. 

George Julian Zolnay. 

Tuesdays and Thursdays at the Arts Club. 

In the history of the Arts Club of Washington, Thursday defied the calendar and preceded 
Tuesday, for the first established function was the Thursday dinner. No Thesaurus affords a 
word that adequately describes this particular feature of the Arts Club life. It has maintained 
its popularity with the growth of the membership, and, since the walls of the dining rooms, despite 
the ingenuity of the House Committee, refuse to become elastic, every week many members are 
unable to secure coveted places. As Carlyle said of Bums's poetry, there must be some rare 
excellence to account for this popularity. What is that excellence? 

It may be explained in part by the setting. Although even the most partial soul admits the 
need of new wall-coverings and paint, its charm is felt by everyone. From the little brass 
knocker on the wide entrance door, with its fan-light above radiating hospitality, to the tiniest 
fireplace in the topmost dormer room, the spell of the old house is upon us. 

This may lend a glamor to the food, which the mundane mind inevitably associates with the 
word "dinner." All that need be said on this score is that it is always abundant, cooked to the 
taste, and served at just the right tempo to make possible pleasant and stimulating conversation 
with the worthwhile people who are sure to be found at every one of the small, compactly placed 
tables, as well as among the guests of honor at the larger table. Here the host and hostess of the 
evening preside and a greater degree of formality is observable in the matter of dress. At other 
tables the visitor may note a wide diversity in the dress of the women, and the dress of the men is 
equally in accordance with individual preference. Whether this is to be considered one of the 

[89] 




GEORGE JULIAN ZOLNAY IN HIS STUDIO ^.Harris Ewing 

President of the Arts Club (1920- ) 
Honor graduate Royal Art Institute. Bucliarest and Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, Vienna, 1890; 
lived in New York 1902-03; removed to St. Louis, 1903, in charge of sculpture. Art Department, World's 
Fair, and instructor St. Louis School of Fine Arts, Washington University, (1903-1909); has lived in 
Washington since 1910. Principal works abroad: Vienna. St. Poelten. Bucharest and Budapest; in 
America: E. A. Poe and Tympanum. University of Virginia; Jefferson Davis. Hayes and Winnie Davis 
memorials. Richmond; Gen. McLaws and Gen. Barton monuments. Savannah; Duncan Jacobs 
memorial, Louisville; groups in U. S. Courthouse. San Francisco; Pierre Laclede monument. Colossal 
Lions. University City Gates and Confederate monument. St. Louis; Sam Davis and Confederate 
Soldiers monuments. Nashville; Education, frieze on new Central High School. Washington; statue of 
Sequoya. Statuary Hall. etc. Portrait Busts: Francis Joseph. Victor Hugo. Stonewall Jackson. Fitz 
Hugh Lee. etc. In charge reconstruction Parthenon Sculptures. Nashville Parthenon. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

special virtues of our club life or not is a question of personal judgment, but certain it is that this 
liberty of choice leaves the mind of a guest unburdened by the eternal problem of clothes. In 
this as in other respects, simplicity is the keynote of all Arts Club functions. 

The real significance of the Thursday dinners, however, is to be found neither in the setting nor 
in the lack of uncomfortable formality, but in the program offered for the evening. In the early 
days of the club, it began with the coffee and cigars, and the talks were more in the nature of 
after-dinner speeches. But this custom was discontinued during the War when the ser\'ant 
question became acute, and now we adjourn to the music room and the adjoining library for the 
program. 

A survey of the Bulletins for the past year will disclose a great variety in the character of these 
popular evenings. They range from dignified occasions graced by the presence of a prince and 
princess, members of the diplomatic corps and other foreigners of distinction, public officials, 
army officers, and representatives of practically all the arts, to now-and-then merry-makings that 
suggest the nonsensical refrain of an Elizabethan song. 

A few concrete illustrations of the themes and speakers for the year beginning in April 1920 may 
not be amiss. Some of the most interesting were the following: Artistic Photography by Dr. 
William Radford of the British Embassy; The Experience in London of a U. S. Scientific Attache, 
by Henry A. Bumstead, Chairman of the National Research Council; The City of the Violet Crown, 
by Dr. Mitchell Carroll; The Lure of the South Seas by Dr. L. A. Bauer of the Carnegie Institution; 
Child Welfare Work in Paris by Dr. William J. French; Modern English Poetry by Dr. Charles 
Edward Russell; France in Town and Country by Mr. Frederick E. Partington; The Arts of China 
by Dr. Paul Reinsch; The American Army on the Rhine by Colonel Irving S. Hunt; a sparkling 
after-dinner speech by the Princess Bibesco, formerly Miss Asquith, wife of Prince Bibesco, the 
new Roumanian Minister. Such a fragmentary list does not do justice to the excellent work of 
the Entertainment Committee, Dr. Mitchell Carroll, Chairman, nor to the speakers themselves, 
for mere names, even when a list is complete, lack the vital essence of personality. 

Two of the Thursday evening frolics deser\'e more than a passing word. One of these was 
marked by the appearance, in counterfeit presentment, of the Prince of Monaco, Einstein, and 
IMadame Curie, their hair, masks, and costumes beggaring description. The actors were dis- 
tinguished for their supreme display of self-sacrifice, as the masks necessitated total abstinence 
from food during the entire dinner. 

In the late spring and summer the Thursday dinners, in fact most of the club functions, are held 
in the garden, when the weather-man is kindly disposed. The first out-of-door affair this year 
was in May, a beach-combers' dinner. The tables were arranged in the shape of a ship's prow. 
Appropriate costumes, lanterns, and candles set in cork floats lent a rough picturesqueness to the 
scene. The dinner was of the variety familiarly known as a shore-dinner. A ship's bell heralded 
the speakers. This was one of the merriest and most unique of the season's events. 

But there is no more charming feature of club life than the garden dinners when the carnival 
spirit is in abeyance and the members and guests, in quieter mood, enjoy the beauty of the little 
garden and the old walls, illumined by the ready-to-serve moon, an electric substitute for the genuine 
article, perched so high that the illusion is very satisfying. 

The Tuesday Fortnightly Salon has become almost as famous as the Thursday dinner. The 
talks by eminent men and women during the past year have been many. It was on one of these 
Tuesday evenings in I^Iarch that the club was presented by the Japanese Embassy with a valuable 
set of books containing Japanese prints. An attache of the embassy, acting for the Japanese 
Ambassador, made the presentation speech, following an illustrated lecture on "The Arts of 
Japan" by Dr. W. E. Safford. Another evening was devoted to the Arts of Bohemia, when 
the Czecho-Slovak Minister, Mr. Stepanek, gave us moving pictures of Prague and other cities, and 
delighted us with the rendition of many Czecho-Slovak folk-songs. 

Within the year the Entertainment Committee has provided interesting programs for the 
remaining Tuesdays of each month. Music, the drama, poetry, the short-story, and subjects of 
national and international appeal have furnished material for the discussions. 

The Tuesday dinners were instituted last autumn for the accommodation of members and 
their guests who wished to attend the evening's entertainment. These are not so largely patron- 
ized as the Thursday dinners, but some of those who have formed the Tuesday habit find them even 
more delightful. 

[91] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

The Arts Club of Washington is not a rich club — far from it. Our guest rooms lack elegance 
and perhaps certain necessary comforts, but out-of-town guests and non-resident members 
accustomed to more luxurious clubs and more elaborate feasts than our Thursday dirmers are 
usually enthusiastic in their praise, and depart reluctantly. Such unbiased commendation should 
convince anv who need convincing that the Arts Club has an atmosphere all its own : 

We feel it as we enter at the door, 
And tread the wide boards of the ancient floor, 
And add our footsteps to the peopled stair — 
Above, below, we breathe it everywhere. 

Clem Irwin Orr. 
The Arts Club Players. 

From the beginning the Arts Club has been interested in and its home has been the scene of 
dramatic performances, by members of the Club. Regarding the drama as one of the fine arts, 
it has been sought to cultivate expression on this plane, by readings and staged plays, with increas- 
ino- success. At first only occasional short plays were given, in the parlors and when the season 
was suitable in the garden of the Club. A committee was placed in charge of such efi"orts and 
during the Club year 1918-19 several excellent renditions were achieved. It was not imtil the 
season of 1919-20, however, that the development reached the point of systematic dramatic 
productions. A group of talented performers, most of them members of the Ck:b, was organized 
into a company known as the "Arts Club Players" and under the direction of C. W. O'Connor 
and Dr. George W. Johnston, several artistic productions were given, mainly in the little theater 
in the Post Office Department building, and also in some of the public schools. 

It was finally concluded that the Arts Club should present its dramatic productions within 
the Club premises, similarly to its art exhibits, its lectures, its musicales and its other activities. 
The practical obstacles to such a procedure were difficult, inasmuch as the Club has no auditorium 
and it was necessary to use the parlors as the setting for the plays. To adjust to this condition 
plays were chosen that could be given in such circumstances, at first without scenery or back- 
ground, and on the same level as the audience. With no curtain, no wings for entrances and 
exits, no accessories for proper lighting, a series of programs was produced during the season of 
1920-21 that proved to be interesting to the members, who on these occasions, with their guests, 
completely filled the rooms. 

It is the hope of the Dramatic Committee to foster interest in the literary drama, to arouse a 
cooperative spirit on the part of the writer members to provide original plays, and to develop the 
latent dramatic talents of members so that "Arts Club plays" may eventually be wholly of Club 
production, in every particular. Plans are in contemplation for the development of a small 
practical stage in the parlors, which will permit a more effective presentation of the dramatic 
offerings. If in the course of time the Club equips itself with an auditorium, its dramatic pro- 
ductions may be given an adequate setting that will fully express the artistic talents of members, 
in the provision of scener\' and stage equipment. 

In the choice of plays care has been exercised to present representative drama, not of any 
particular school, but calculated to arouse the interest of all members, however variant their 
tastes. But many attractive plays have of necessity been rejected because of the limitations of 
space and the lack of scenic settings. In their offerings the "players" have been greatly aided 
by the sympathetic adjustment of the audiences to the conditions. When asked to consider the 
comer of the Club parlor as a bit of woods in Maine, for one of two plays on a double bill, and 
half an hour later to regard the same comer as a modem apartment, for the succeeding play, the 
members of the Club and their friends have readily accepted the suggestion. The intimacy of 
the performances, furthermore, has aided in the establishment of a cordial spirit of cooperation, 
which is one of the vital necessities of successful dramatic rendition. 

It is felt that in this way the Arts Club is helping to keep alight a flame that has at times during 
the past few years of American stage decadence seemed to be flickering into extinguishment. The 
ideal of the "little theater" in which dramatic experiments can be tried with freedom and with 
abundant talent and proper setting inspires those who are working in the present difficulties to 
maintain the drama as one of the arts which the Club fosters. 

G. A. Lyon. 

[921 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

Musical Evenings at the Arts Club. 

There was a'time when the statement that Washington was not a musical city, and thatTher 
citizens had httle or no appreciation of, or love for really good music carried with it some bit of 
truth. 

That time, however, has passed and if one is to judge by the audiences that pack to the doors 
the largest of our theatres and concert halls at all the many high grade musical affairs during 
the season, including the series of concerts by three or four of the country's greatest orchestras, 
then Washington stands at the very head of the list in its appreciation of good music. 

Certainly there is no other city of its size in this country where as many high grade musical 
affairs are given each season to capacity audiences as here in Washington. Visitors to the city 
invariably comment on this fact and especially the novelty of the time of day they are generally 
given, for probably 95*/c of these musical events begin at 4.45 in the afternoon, a time which give^ 
the music loving government employees a chance to attend just after the close of office hours. 
Doubtless much of the change in musical appreciation has come through the presence in the city 
of the 80 or 90 thousand government employees permanently located here who are of an unusually 
high grade in their artistic likings. Their subscriptions to the many series of concerts year after 
year at high prices guarantees to the managers of such entertainments a very substantial backing. 

As befitting its location in the nation's capital the Arts Club of Washington must continue to 
be in the future as it has been in the past, the very fountain head of things musical, not only of 
the city but of the nation as a whole. 

As such, it offers to the musical and artistic people of this country a most attractive place in 
which to meet others with similar interests who, more and more are finding in the Capital City 
a most congenial and inspiring artistic environment. 

Perhaps no single feature of the many attractions the Arts Club has offered during the past 
year, has given as much pleasure to the members and their invited guests as the series of concerts 
held in the club parlors everj^ Sunday evening beginning November 7th, 1920 and ending May 
29th, 1 92 1. 

During this period 30 recitals were presented by the Chairman of the Music Committee, Mrs. 
Charles W. Fairfax, whose wide acquaintance among musicians not only of Washington but 
throughout the entire East made it possible to offer programs of wide diversity as to their character 
as well as of unusually high grade. 

One of the most interesting features of these Sunday evening musicales has been the fine oppor- 
tunity it has given a number of ambitious young musicians from other cities to be heard by the 
very pick of Washington's musical circles. To this end the Music Committee of the Arts Club 
makes most sincere and earnest effort to discover and bring before its members these young 
musicians who through this splendid medium are thus enabled to get into close touch with musical 
people from all over the country. 

Will C. Barnes. 

The Arts Club in Lighter Vein. 

It must not be inferred from these pages that the Arts Club is given only to serious pursuits, 
and cultivates only the more conserv^ative arts. In fact we know how to turn with amazing 
agility from grand opera to jazz, from .Shakespeare to Amy Lowell, from Michael Angelo to 
Gauguin, especially in these hot summer months when the garden and the great out-doors beckon 
us. Thus the Club celebrated its lifth anniversary last April with a Carnival when the rooms 
were decorated to resemble the Latin quarter of Paris, and the members appeared in variegated 
costumes to celebrate in true carnival spirit the remarkable growth of a few short years. 

Also the Arts Club Follies have become an annual event of the summer months, following a 
moonlight supper, on the hospitable lawn of Dr. and Mrs. Farrington in Chevy Chase. 

Likewise the Summer Amusement Committee, Mrs. William James Monro, Chairman, has 
provided a series of Tuesday evening entertainments in the Garden, replete with dancing, song 
a*id jollity, with wit, wisdom and wickedness. Who can forget the pageant, "A Tribute to 
Beauty," with its rhythmic dances, the "Evening in a Persian Garden," the moving picture 
rehearsals, the shadowgraph shows, and other "Midsummer Night's Screams" that have added 
to the joy of life? 

[93] 






ERECTION OF A NATIONAL PEACE CARILLON 

promoted by 
The Carillon Committee of the Arts Club. 

An announcement of great interest to the city of Washington and to the country at large has 
just been made. The General Federation of Women's Clubs at its June meeting in Salt Lake 
City, unanimously and enthusiastically endorsed the report of a special committee approving 
the National Peace Carillon proposed by the Arts Club of Washington, and authorized the 
representatives of the Federation to join in the incorporation of the association to bring about the 
erection of the memorial. 

This announcement means that the forty-seven thousand clubs and the two million five 
hundred thousand members of the General Federation of Women's Clubs will be active in the 
Carillon movement and that the Carillon will take on the character of a national woman's 
memorial to the valor of those who died defending the cause of liberty in the late war. 

The Carillon Project had its inception at a meeting of the Arts Club of Washington nearly two 
years ago, when J- Marion ShuU, the artist, read a paper on the subject. So much enthusiasm 
was aroused that it was immediately voted that the Arts Club undertake to bring about the erec- 
tion of a Carillon in Washington. 

The board of governors approved the plans and a special committee consisting of W. B. West- 
lake, Chairman, H. K. Bush-Brown, Capt. W. I. Chambers, U. S. N., E. H. Droop, Miss Marv 
A. Crs'der, Miss Dick Root, Mrs. L. MacD. Sleeth, Col. J. F. Reynolds Landis, J. Marion Shull, 
Secretary, and Dr. Erwin F. Smith, Treasurer, was appointed to devise ways and means to carry 
out the plans. 

The committee began a systematic propaganda to create interest throughout the United States. 
The Governors of all the states were communicated with and the majority of them expressed 
hearty approval. Through newspapers, magazines and music publications, wide publicity was 
secured. The National Music Dealers Association took up the question and approved the 
project. Many local organizations throughout the United States have had the matter presented 
to them and have also approved it. 

Under the direction of the committee several lectures have been given in Washington by William 
Gorham Rice, an eminent writer and authority on the subject, and the entire board of directors of 
the Federation of Women's Clubs was the guest of the Arts Club at a dinner last October, at which 
the plan was proposed and discussed A special committee of the Federation was appointed, 
which has since investigated the plans of the Arts Club thoroughly and has communicated with 
most of the state organizations of Women's Clubs and the proposal has been enthusiastically 
approved. 

Immediate steps will be taken to make the necessary legal incorporation and the active work of 
preparing for the erection of memorial will be carried on vigorously. 

Paul Cret, the eminent architect who designed the Pan American Building, has made the pre- 
liminarv' sketches for the tower and the finished design, which will soon be completed, is expected 
to be the most distinctive in the United States and one of the finest in the world. It will rise to a 
height exceeding three hundred feet and in its upper chambers will carry fifty -four bells with a 
combined weight of 154,000 pounds. These bells will be tuned chromatically so that music can 
be played upon them in any key and practically any composition that can be rendered upon the 
piano or organ can be played on the bells. Recent developments have perfected the tuning of 
bells scientifically to the fineness of a single vibration, so that the bells will be more harmoniously 
tuned than the strings of a piano. 

Bell makers say the National Peace Carillon will be one of tlie wonders of the world; that the 
music will have a grandeur never before heard and that music lovers from all over the world will 
travel to Washington to hear the Carillon concerts just as in Europe it is common for thirty or 
forty thousand people to travel to Mechlin to hear Joseph Denyn, the world's greatest carillon- 
neur, play upon his beloved bells in Saint Rombold's tower. 

The site for the Carillon was selected by John Taylor of the great bell founders' firm of Taylor 
Bros., Loughborough, England, who recently visited Washington for that purpose. Preliminary 
steps to obtain the site have already been taken. It will require two years to make and tune the 
bells and it is hoped that the plan may be carried to completion as quickly as the actual work can 
be done. W. B. Westlake. 

[94] 



INVESTIGATIONS 

— AT — 

AS505 

Drawings and Photographs of the Buildings 

and Objects Discovered During the 

Excavations of 1881, 1882, 1883 

BY — 

Joseph T. Clarke 
Francis H. Bacon 
Robert Koldewey 
Edited with explanatory notes, by 
Francis H. Bacon 
Published for The Arcliaeological Insti- 
tute of America 
By a Committee originally consisting of 
Charles Eliot Norton 
John Williams White 
Francis H. Bacon 
William Fenwick Harris 

table of contents 

History of Assos. 

Account of the Expedition. 

Agora. 

Mosaics Below Agora. 

Theatre Photographs and Plans. 

Greek Bridge. 

Roman Atrium. 

Acropolis — Plan. 

Turkish Mosque. 

Gymnasium. 

Byzantine Church. 

Fortification Walls. 

Street of Tombs — General Plan. 

Doc Inscription from Mytilene. 

Inscription from Pashakieui. 

Coins from Assos. 

The magnificent volume is now ready in 
a portfolio, the five parts together. 

Five hundred and twenty-five copies have 
been printed. Subscriptions for the remain- 
ing two hundred and forty copies will be re- 
ceived at 

FORTY DOLLARS EACH. 

The rate to original subscribers remains 
twenty-five dollars. The book will not be 
reprinted. Cheques should be sent to 

WILLIAM FENWICK HARRIS, 

8 Mercer Circle, 
CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS. 




THE BISHOPS LODGE 

Santa Fe. New Mexico 



SITUATED three miles north of the city, this unique 
resort offers its hospitality both to the leisure-loving 
tourist, and to the archaeological investigator. 

Readily accessible are all of the points comprised 
within what has been called, "The most interesting 50- 
mile circle in America." 

Because of 60-guest capacity. The Lodge necessarily 
caters to a limited clientele. It appeals especially to 
those who appreciate the good things of life, and is 
totally unlike any "hotel." 

Open the year around. To insure accommodations 
reservations should be made well in advance. 

Rates and other information upon request. 



FINE PRINTS 

For the collector 
For wall decoration 




(rColor wood block by Charles W. Bartlett, 
"The Hawaiian Fisherman," published in 
limited edition. Each proof signed, price 
$25.00. Portfolios sent for inspection. 

Brown-Robertson Gallery 

415 Madison Avenue, New York. 



[95] 



Kindly Mention Art and Archaeology. 










.\r- 



1 



XFORD books and Oxford 
scholarship are synony- 
mous. All bookmen know 
this and unhesitatingly recom- 
mend them, confident that the 
reader will be pleased. 

cA selection of those recently issued. 

HELLENISTIC SCULPTURE 

"By Guy Dickins f^et ^8.00 

A scholarly monograph, beautifully illust- 
rated, for the art lover and student. 

MEDALS OF THE RENAISSANCE 
■By G. F. Hill "^t ^25.00 

Covers the entire field of medallic art in 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, valu- 
able alike as a reference work and for its 
fine illustrations which figure for the most 
part pieces not previously illustrated. 

MOSLEM ARCHITECTURE 

-By G. T. RiVOIRA "^t ^21.00 

A pioneer work describing the develop- 
ment of the Mosque in Syria, Egypt, 
Armenia and Spain from its birth down 
to the twelfth century. 158 plates. 

HISTORICAL PORTRAITS 
1400-1850 

■By C. R. Fletcher 4 vols. ^22.60 

A splendid collection of 491 portraits by 
mastersof all periods selected by Mr. Emery 
Walker, with an interesting biographical 
sketch of each subject. 

RAJPUT PAINTING 

By Ananda Coomaraswamy 

2 vols, "^et^] 26. 00 

Probably the greatest work on the subject, 
with a large number of exceptionally fine 
plates many of which are in color 

INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH 
CHURCH ARCHITECTURE 

■By Francis Bond 2 vols. TSlet ^25.00 

A standard work covering the subject 
from the eleventh to the sixteenth centuries 
with upwards of 1400 illustrations. 

A HISTORY OF FINE ART IN 
INDIA AND CEYLON 

•By V. A. Smith ^38.00 ^ 

The result of a lifetime of study both 
from the archaeological as well as the art 
point of view with nearly 400 illustrations. 

c/il all booksellers or from the publishers. 

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

American Branch 
35 WEST 32nd STREET, HEW YORK 



DO YOU TIRE of the superfi= 
cial things you read about 
the theatre? Do you want 
something better, something more 
entertaining, yet something that 
instructs? Then read 

THE DRAMA 

A monthly revieiv of the 
allied arts of the threatre, 
beautifully illustrated. 

Here is a magazine that is not packed with 
press-agent puffs or back-stair gossip about 
vamps and scandals. 

The Drama is edited for people who like to 
think, for folks whose brains haven't yet lost 
their nimbleness. For eleven years it has 
pioneered, bringing to its audience the best 
from all lands. 

It has talks about and talks by some of the 
foremost actors, play-wrights, and scenic 
revolutionists; yet it never hesitates to give 
space to the brilliant articles of unknown 
authors. 

Each issue contains one or two plays in 
reading form. They're more fascinating 
than short stories because they retain the 
dramatic punch. 

No magazine can compare with The Drama. 
It occupies a unique position in the world of 
the theatre. Once you begin to read it, 
you'll become one of its devoted admirers. 
You'll enjoy its stimulating contents. You'll 
keep each issue on file, for each is like a 
valuable book. 

To introduce The Drama to new readers, 
we make a special offer. Send only $1 and 
The Drama will come to you for Five 
Months. You will also receive your mem- 
bership card in The Drama League of 
America. 

$1 is so little for so much. So why not tear 
out the coupon below NOW? Pin a dollar 
bill to it and mail it today. 



TRIAL SUBSCRIPTION FOR $1 

The Drama Corporation 

59 East Van Buren Street Chicago 

Attached herewith is $1 for which send me The 
Drama for Five Months. 



'^j^:r:^w.'^:,^^^^f 



Name 

Street 

City 

Kindly Mention Art and Archaeology 



State-. 



[96] 



11. 



DOUBLE NUMBER 



i.OO THE YEAR 



Sl.OO THE COPY 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 

An Illustrated Monthly Magazine 
Published by THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF WASHINGTON, AFFILIATED WITH THE 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY PRESS, Inc. 

SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER, 1921 



Volume XII 



NUMBEI^S 3^ 



ART EDITOR _a^SS^te6» DIRECTOR AND EDITOR 

WILLIAM H HOLMES VJJJji^SFi^^^^u MITCHELL CARROLL 

EDITORIAL STAFF ^^^"^^^^^^^^^^^ BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

Virgil Barker iS^/I^^'^ri^ i^'^t ^' Townsend Russeul, President 

Peyton Boswell W^^/ J^^jjafumT'^i, FRank Springer, Vice-President 

Howard Crosby Butler W?, ' ll^^^^^isi \\3Wn 

Charles Upson Clark U^' vI^F' J^MFM ' ol Mitchell Carroll, S«««iry 

Albert T. Clay W, ' i^'^-^^T^ * fu ^""^ ^' ^*'''"'''' Treasurer 

Charles T. Currelly toO ^^^HTPRtO "^ M James C. Egbert 

H. R. Fairclough ^.*^ ^^^KiRVM -^jS Ex-officio as President of the Institute 

Edgar L. Hkwett ^<b-\ ""^^^ > -^M Robert Woods Bliss 

FisKE Kimball ^^JS^'IT^r.^v^'^^^ Mrs. B. H. Warder 

David M. Robinson ^%^^;M«0R>^^^ 

Helen Wright ^**^o,*,^^>-*^ H B. F. Macfarland. Counsel 

CONTENTS 

CHICAGO AS AN ART CENTER. 

Introduction George William Eggers 99 

The Plan of Chicago — Irs Purpose and Development Charles H. Wacker loi 

Six Illustrations 

Architecture in Chicago Thomas E. Tallmadge 1 1 1 

Eight Illustrations 

The Monuments OF Chicago Lorado Tafi 121 

Seven Illustrations 

Chicago Painters. Past and Present Ralph Clarkson 129 

Ten Illustrations 

The Art Institute of Chicago Clarence A. Hough 145 

Nine Illustrations 

Some Collectors of Paintings Lena M. McCauley 155 

Fifteen Illustrations 

Friends OF American Art Lena M. McCauley 173 

Four Illustrations 

Field-Museum of Natural History Fay-Cooper Cole 179 

One Illustration 

Art AT THE University OF Chicago David A. Robertson 181 

Two Illustrations 

Art AT Northwestern University Stella Skinner 187 

One Illustration 

Municipal Art League of Chicago . , Everett L. Millard 189 

Terms: $5.00 a year in advance: single numbers, so cents. Instructions for renewal, discontinuance, or change of address should be 
sent two weeks before the date they are to go into effect. 

AH correspondence should be addressed and remittance? made to .\rT and ,\rch.\BOl,ogy. the Octagon, Washingtoa. D. C- AUo 
manuscripts, photographs, material for notes anj news, books for review, and exchanges, should be sent to this address. 

Advertisements should be sent to S. W. Frankel. Advertising Manager. 7S6 Sixth Ave,, New York. N. Y., the New York Office of 
Art and Archaeology. 

Entered at the Post Office at Washington. D. C, as second-class mail matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage 

provided for in section 1103. Act of October 3 1Q17, authorized September 7. 1918. 

Copyright, 192 1, by the Art and ArchaBology Press. 




Abraham Lincoln by Augustus Saint-Gaudens, in Lincoln lark, CliKayo. 



ART micl 

ARCHAEOLOGY 

The Arts Throughout the Ages 



Volume XII 



SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER, 1921 



Numbers 3^ 



CHICAGO AS AM ART CENTER 

INTRODUCTION, — hy GEORGE WiLLIAM EggERS, 

Director 0} the Art Institute. 



THE STORY of mankind is a story 
of migrations — some gradual and 
deliberate, some swift and violent; 
unopposed invasions and stern col- 
lisions, enterprises and escapes. The 
little crossed swords on a map of Europe 
show how men have clashed century 
after century on the same old battle- 
fields — and the grass grows greener in 
many a place because these mountains, 
those rivers, these valleys, those defiles 
have forced the travels of the human 
race into the same old pathways on the 
long road to the millennium. 

The history of Chicago is the history 
of the world in miniature — it is a meet- 
ing place of Odysseys. Its earliest great 
figure is the prodigious traveler LaSalle, 
who is at once a myth with seven- 
league boots, a local hero, and an 
historic fact. The city's location is at 
the crossing of transcontinental trails 
by land and by water; it marked an 
important portage and was early a 

[99] 



thriving station for supplies, where 
packs were shifted from one shoulder 
to the other, so to speak, intelligence 
exchanged as to the outward trails, and 
a place of shelter found when war 
clouds came too low upon the land- 
scape. This was — and this is — Chicago. 
In the outward aspect the Chicago 
of today is simply an enlargement of 
the Chicago of the beginning of the 
nineteenth century. Its high walls 
still suggest the stockade of its old fort 
upon the flat broad plain. Its parks 
reiterate the unbroken levels of lake 
and prairie which surround it. Its 
grandeur is fundamentally the grandeur 
of horizontals. Its people are still 
peculiarly addicted to the habit of 
travel, and peculiarly free from pro- 
vinciality. The trails of other days 
have been made smooth and straighter, 
and they have been shod with iron, but 
they bring in the explorers as of yore 
and lead forth the pioneers to the still 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



romantic, still not wholly tamed, 
"Great West." Chicago's past is 
vivid in its present. 

And the city's past is richly pic- 
turesque both as history and as legend. 
It is a matter of historic record that on 
the day that its ill fated garrison passed 
from the fort to perish in Chicago's 
first great tragedy, it moved out to the 
music of the Dead March from Saul. 

Chicago has its local genius as New 
York has Father Knickerbocker — but 
"Dad Dearborn" w^as an actual 
personage, and his portrait may be 
seen today in the Art Institute, painted 
by Gilbert Stuart. Almost on the very 
day that these words are before the 
reader's eyes Chicago will be celebrating 
the fiftieth anniversary of the Great 
Fire, and even this has its legend in the 
story of Mrs. O'Leary's cow that kicked 
over the lamp, now so much a part of 
Chicago's folk-lore that it deserves to 
be marked by a monument commemo- 
rating the site and episode The World's 
Fair of 1 893 seemed to have achieved a 
climax of beauty in its creation, but it 
was destined to have a final moment 
even more spectacular — for on a winter 
night soon after its close, its classic mass 
went up like ancient Troy "in one red 
roaring coal." 

Thus runs the city's histor\-, sil- 
houetted against a background of flame 
and quest. The art which it has thus 
far produced is chiefly lyrical and 
narrative, but with the passing of time 
such material as this will have its epic, 
rubricated in the colors of fire and the 
blood of striving men. 

Chicago has recieved the benefit of 
two cultural streams, one from New 
England on the route along the Great 
Lakes, the other by the Cumberland 
Trail, Braddock's old line of march, 
from Virginia. These two streams first 
mingled in Indiana and left in the 
history of American letters an illus- 



trious group of names. Chicago was 
the nearest metropolis and here was 
found an objective and here was built 
up a literary and esthetic life whose 
impulse is still felt. 

The city's outstanding esthetic 
achievement is the Chicago plan. To 
its twenty-five odd projects contem- 
plated fifteen years ago when the plan 
was first made public, and which, it was 
vaguely said, "would require a century 
or so" for realization, this community 
has addressed itself with such energy 
that approximately half are completed. 

The city's art life, and that of a great 
part of the countr}' round, focuses in the 
Art Institute, where collections, ex- 
hibitions, schools, libraries, lecture 
courses, and meeting places for societies 
of artists and lovers of art, are under one 
ample rambling roof. From here too, 
is projected the extension work which 
carries the Art Institute into towns and 
cities everywhere on this continent. In 
general the tendency of art in Chicago 
has been one of health. Art has been 
seen in its relation to the life of the 
people. Its most characteristic works 
have been public works: its parks, its 
playgrounds, its recently established 
girdle of forest lands. Its first and 
largest beauty is democratic in its 
impulse. 

vSuch, then, is the huge adolescent 
city, careless for the moment of its own 
ugliness but even in the midst of this, 
scheming, and indeed creating, a future 
of true splendor; unregardful today of 
the safety of its people, but developing 
beautiful forested spaces for the welfare 
of its unborn children ; still with its face 
to the West, and clinging to the title 
"mid-western city," but slipping in- 
evitably, for better or for worse, into 
the habits and manners of the East — as 
the slow invasion of cosmopolitanism, 
moving as the sun, overtakes it and 
envelopes it. 

[100] 



THE PLAN OF CHICAGO-ITS PURPOSE 
AND DEVELOPMENT 

By Charles H. \\\\ckER, Chairman Chicago Phui Commission. 



THE Plan of Chicago is set forth in 
a book under that title, which was 
presented by The Commercial 
Club of Chicago to the City in 1909. 
This book is recognized as the best and 
most comprehensive book on City 
Planning ever published in the United 
States. 

It was prepared by a corps of the 
best experts obtainable, under the 
direction of the late, lamented Daniel 
H. Burnham and Edward H. Bennett, 
the present City Planning expert, 
after a most thorough study of the 
physical conditions in Chicago and 
environs. 

It is the basis of all the improvements 
contemplated in the City of Chicago in 
connection with the Chicago Plan. 
When this book was presented the Club 
requested that a Plan Commission be 
created by the City Council, which was 
done in 1909. 

The goal which the creators of the 
Chicago Plan ever kept in mind is com- 
prehensively set forth in the Plan book 
as follows : 

"In creating the ideal arrangement, 
everyone who lives here is better 
accommodated in his business and his 
social activities. In bringing about 
better freight and passenger facilities, 
every merchant and manufacturer is 
helped. In establishing a complete 
park and parkway system, the life of 
the wage earner and of his family is 
made healthier and pleasanter; while 
the greater attractiveness thus pro- 
duced keeps at home the people of 
means and taste, and acts as a magnet 



to draw those who seek to live amid 
pleasing surroundings. The very 

beauty that attracts him who has 
money makes pleasant the life of those 
among whom he lives, while anchoring 
him and his wealth to the city. The 
prosperity aimed at is for all Chicago." 

The Commercial Club of Chicago, a 
group of one hundred hard-headed suc- 
cessful business men, realized from the 
beginning that our city was an entity 
and that whatever was done would 
have to be done skilfully and com- . 
pletely and that the Plan of Chicago 
must stand for the improvement of 
living conditions on a large scale, for 
the reclaiming of our lake front for the 
use of the people, for increasing our 
park areas and public playgrounds, for 
creating additional bathing beaches and 
pleasure piers, for acquiring forest pre- 
serves, and for a scientific development 
of railway terminals, harbors, and water- 
ways, and for the adequate develop- 
ment of street facilities connecting the 
different sections of the city. 

The first necessary step for success 
in City Planning had been taken in 
presenting the Plan of Chicago to the 
City in definite form, carefully and 
scientifically worked out, covering the 
whole City and its environs as fully and 
as completely as the skill of the engin- 
eer and the architect could make it. 
The Plan was made definite with posi- 
tive qualities; it became our ideal and 
we dared to recognize it and work for 
it. There is no question in the minds 
of the people of Chicago in regard to 
the sanity, wisdom, and ultimate sue- 



[101] 




Michigan Avenue Improvemt-nt. 

This new north-and-south connection across the Chicago River gives Chicago a continuous boulevard drive 
extending for forty miles along the shore of Lake Michigan. 




New Union Station under construction at Canal Street and Jackson Boulevard just west of Chicago River. The 

low building on the right is the present Chicago & Northwestern Depot and the central building occupies the 

recommended two block site for Chicago's new post office 



cess of the Plan. Indefiniteness and 
incompleteness are the causes leading 
to the failure of City Planning in many 
cities in this country. Having estab- 
lished a right plan what was the next 
step? 

The next step was the promotion of 
the Plan. In our country public opin- 
ion rules. Therefore, the promotional 
work is very important. How did we 
go about this? First of all, we enlisted 
the cooperation of the city government 
and then we began to sell the Plan to 
the City of Chicago. We inaugurated 
an educational and promotional cam- 
paign along the most scientific lines. 
We proved to our people that the Plan 
of Chicago is basically sound, that it is 
in the interest of the commercial and 
industrial future of our city and that 
its adoption and completion v ould 
benefit every citizen. 

For the purpose of enlisting and 
establishing the interest of the citizens 
of tomorrow, we introduced in the 



schools the City Planning Manual 
which is being used as a text by 30,000 
Chicago school children every year. 
This also has a reflex influence upon the 
parents of these school children, who 
carry their enthusiasm and inspiration 
home with them. 

Through a course of stereopticon lec- 
tures we have been able to r^ach every 
civic, commercial, improvement, fra- 
ternal, and religious organization in 
Chicago. These lectures have been so 
popular that it has kept us busy to 
meet all the requests which have come 
to us to speak on the Chicago Plan. 

We have maintained from the begin- 
ning that the people must become en- 
thusiastically devoted to their Plan; 
and that in doing so, doubt, suspicion, 
pessimism, and unjust criticism must 
be eliminated. Selfishness, always pres- 
ent and unavoidable, when public 
improvements are undertaken, must be 
routed. No private interest must be 
allowed to stand in the way of what is 



[103] 



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Proposed new Illinois Central Terminal, Chicago, fronting upon Grant Park at Roosevelt Road, alongside 
New Field Museum and Stadium at entrance to new five mile park along the shore of Lake Michigan. 



for the good of all the people. We al- 
ways try to remember that the health, 
happiness, and general prosperity of 
the people are of far greater importance 
than the petty whims and bickerings of 
any class or the selfishness of any in- 
dividual. 

We maintain that public spirit is a 
fundamental, and that Chicago possesses 
that public spirit to a very marked 
degree, which the history of Chicago 
shows in clearly defined epochs prior 
to the establishment of the Chicago 
Plan. 

To arouse this public spirit we ap- 
pealed to the press of Chicago. Our 
success in this direction has been 
phenomenal and I dare say that the 
unprecedented support continuously 
given to the Chicago Plan Commission 
and its efforts during the past eleven 
years has never been equaled in any 
other city of the world. We are also 
greatly indebted for our success to 
magazines, trade journals, the publica- 
tions of numerous important societies, 
and the large business houses, banks. 



etc., which in the most public-spirited 
manner have used our material through 
their advertising mediums. 

The result of this and many other 
promotional methods adopted which I 
cannot here enumerate, has been that 
every Chicago Plan bond issue pre- 
sented to the people has been passed by 
increasing majorities. 

In all of our work we have cooperated 
closely with our city officials. Every 
plan recommended so far has had the 
unanimous approval of the Board of 
Local Improvements and its technical 
staff and of the Chicago Plan Commis- 
sion and its engineers and architects. 
The administrations of Mayor Busse, 
Mayor Harrison, and Mayor Thomp- 
son, have been in sympathetic accord 
with the Chicago Plan Commission and 
have been composed of men big enough 
and broad enough to understand the 
vital importance of City Planning. 
These administrations have given us 
continuous support, without which we 
could not have been successful. We 
have placed trust in public officials and 

[104] 




CHICAGO PLAN COMMLSSION 

PEOPQSED IMPROVEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT 

OF 

30UTH WATER JTEEET 

VTEW LOOKIr-'C JOUTH VvTJT 



South Water Street Improvement. 

The upper and lower streets connect with the two levels of Michigan Avenue and the improvement marks the 
first step towards making the banks of the Chicago River attractive as well as useful. 



found that we could secure their full 
cooperation by laying our cards upon 
the table, convincing them that we are 
non-partisan, non-sectional, and that 
we have no axes to grind nor private 
interests to serve. 

In these few words I have attempted 
to show how the Chicago Plan came 
into existence, how the Commission 
was created and how it operates. Now 
comes the natural question, "What has 
been accomplished?" 

Today twelve basic features have 
been provided for by bond issues where 
necessary, and are either under con- 
struction or advanced in procedure in 
the Board of Local Improvements or in 
the courts. Projects in the making 
embrace : 

Quadrangle: The creation of a cir- 
cuit of wide streets around the heart of 
the city to relieve traffic congestion and 
allow the central business district to 
expand normally. This quadrangle is 
composed of Michigan Avenue on the 
east, Roosevelt Road on the south, 

[105] 



Canal Street on the west, and South 
\^'ater Street on the north. 

Michigan Avenue: The last details 
of this great improvement will be com- 
pleated early in 192 1. With the lower 
level now in use for heax'y' traffic, the 
old Rush vStreet bridge has been re- 
moved. 

Roosevelt Road: Construction of 
the viaduct will be continued as rapidly 
as possible, and it is hoped that the 
new bridge will be under construction 
before the end of the year. 

West Side Terminal Develop- 
ment : Notable progress should be made 
this year in building the new Union 
station on Canal street and Jackson 
Boulevard; in widening Canal street, 
and in connecting it with Orleans 
street via the two-level Kinzie street 
bridge. Many features of the terminal 
ordinance are now completed. 

Lake Front Park Development: 
This project should progress rapidly, 
now that $20,000,000 of bonds have 
been voted. The bond issue will enable 




Stadium, Soldiers Memorial, and New Field Museum of Natural Histor>, a part of the Great Lake Front 

Development. 



the South Park commissioners to start 
constructing the park lands between 
Sixteenth and Thirty-ninth streets, to 
build the stadium, and to widen South 
Park avenue in order to extend Grand 
Boulevard from Thirty-fifth street north 
to Randolph street. This development 
will add 1,138 acres of parklands along 
the city's waterfront, containing a 
lagoon 600 feet wide and five miles long. 
There will be nine large bathing beaches 
and ample provision for all sorts of out- 
door sports, such as baseball, tennis, 
golf and the like. 

Outer Connection Between 
Grant and Lincoln Parks: The Lin- 
coln and vSouth Park boards have 
agreed to a plan for an outer drive 
between Grant and Lincoln parks, 
which will greatly relieve loop conges- 
tion. 

Harbor and Waterway Develop- 
ment: The Chicago Plan Commission 
from its inception has realized the in- 
adequacy of our industrial harbor de- 
velopment and has fully understood 
the necessity for creating adequate har- 



bor facilities. The City Council has 
passed the necessary ordinance for an 
industrial harbor in the Calumet dis- 
trict, where still can be had adequate 
land at reasonable prices, and where 
water, rail and industries can be brought 
together, which is essential for economi- 
cal operation. In addition a mammoth 
transfer harbor, called Illiana, along 
the shore of Lake Michigan, partly in 
Illinois and partly in Indiana, as sug- 
gested by Col. W. V. Judson, U. S. A., 
is being considered by both states. 
Facilities bring business. Chicago 
must offer the best or lose its trade to 
competing cities which are today mak- 
ing improvements on a very large scale 
for the purpose of improving their com- 
mercial and industrial conditions. 

Illinois Central Plans: This ter- 
minal development, including the elec- 
trification of that system, was made 
possible by an extremely impoitant 
city ordinance, accepted by the rail- 
road company and the South Paik 
Commissioners. 

South Water Street: The widen- 

[106] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



ing ordinance has already been passed 
by the City Council, and the Board of 
Local Improvements is now preparing 
the ordinance for a two-level street. 
The importance of this improvement is 
not yet fully appreciated. It will re- 
claim an east-and-west artery, now 
absorbed by private interests, and will 
open north-and-south arteries now con- 
gested by produce market trafHc. It 
will connect the freight terminals on 
the lake front with those on the west 
side, via INIarket street, with a lower 
level street, uninterrupted by cross 
traffic. The upper street will facilitate 
traffic between the north, west and 
south sides and will remove fully six- 
teen per cent of the present traffic con- 
gestion in the loop. The yearly savirig 
to the merchants and consumers will 
amount to almost as much as the total 
cost of the improvement. 

West Side PostofficE: The Plan 
Commission has started anew to insist 
upon the acquisition of the two-block 
site on Canal street for a new post- 
office, so imperatively necessary to pro- 
tect the future business interests not 
only of Chicago and its tributary terri- 
tory, but also of the entire nation. 
Postal conditions in Chicago are daily 
growing worse, and if the postoffice is 
to continue to function at all, adequate 
postal facilities must be created. 

Straightening of the Chicago 
River: The Illinois State Legislature 
has just recently passed the necessary 
enactments to enable the City of Chi- 
cago to straighten the Chicago river 
between Polk and vSixteenth vStreets. 
The value of this improvement cannot 
be overestimated. It will permit Wells, 
Market, Franklin, LaSalle and Dear- 
born streets to be opened through the 
now closed terminal area and connected 
with the great southwest diagonal 
Archer avenue. Already progress has 

[107] 



been made, and negotiations are now 
pending between the city and the rail- 
road companies tending to the accom- 
plishment of this imperatively needed 
development. 

Area Between Polk, State and 
Sixteenth Streets and the Chicago 
River: The conditions in this "pocket" 
are deplorable and most harmful to the 
business interests of the city. This 
problem must be solved in an accept- 
able manner. The widening of Polk 
vStreet from State to Clark Streets, now 
being done, is a part of the plan to im- 
prove conditions. 

West Side vStreETs : Western avenue 
is now being widened. The Board of 
Local Improvements has taken all neces- 
sary action and the City Council has 
passed a number of ordinances neces- 
sary for the widening, opening and 
extension of Ogden and Ashland ave- 
nues. Court proceedings will soon be 
started. Much progress should be 
made in opening and widening these 
highly important arteries — two of them 
extending from city limits to city 
limits — during the year. Robey street, 
offering many difficult problems, is now 
being studied, and will soon be ready 
for consideration by the Board of 
Local Improvements. 

Pershing Road (39th street) : The 
technical staff of the Plan Commission 
is now making a careful study of Persh- 
ing Road, which will connect Lake 
Michigan with the McCormick zoo- 
logical gardens, and will give Chicago 
another very greatly needed east-and- 
west through artery. 

Outer Circuit: The City Council 
has already passed an ordinance for 
the widening and opening of Peterson 
avenue. This is part of an important 
encircling highway which will extend 
from Lake Michigan on the east along 



NEW GArwm 




The Michigan Avenue and South Water Street two-level improvements and the new Wrigley Building at the 

new gateway of the greater Chicago. 



Peterson and Rogers avenues to the 
Desplaines river on the west, thence 
south through forest preserves return- 
ing again to the lake on the south near 
134th street. 

Forest Preserves: The Board of 
Forest Preserve Commissioners of Cook 
county has already purchased over 
20,000 acres of forests, more than 
one-half of the total acreage available 



in the county. The recommendation 
of this Board to purchase over 2,000 
acres in the Skokie valley undoubtedly 
will be consummated during the year. 
The necessary preliminaries to the 
establishment of the McCormick zoo- 
logical garden, which is to be patterned 
after the best zoological garden in the 
world, are already under way. These 
forest preserves are to be connected 

[108] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



with one another by good roads, and 
when completed will produce the finest 
natural park system in the world. 

Housing : Better housing is an inter- 
national problem. People are no longer 
satisfied to live in slums. Better hous- 
ing facilities are necessary to maintain 
the virility and strength of our people. 

Zoning : It has been well said by 
Edward H. Bennett, our consultant: 
"Zoning is fundamentally connected 
with all other features of city planning. 
Coordination in the various features of 
city planning results in work of the 
highest value. Zoning, if well schemed, 
more than any other agency, will give 
quality to the growth of a city. It will 
bind all ether plans in a harmonious 
whole." 

Civic Center: A concentration of 
public buildings would mean a great 
convenience to the public and a tre- 
mendous saving of time, so important 
in the economical transaction of busi- 
ness. In the words of the Chicago 
Plan book: "The city has a dignity to 
be maintained, and good order is 
essential to material advancement. 
Consequently the Plan provides for 
impressive grouping of public buildings 
and reciprocal relations among such 
groups." 

All these improvements should b^ 
completed within the next five years, 
excepting the entire electrification of 
the Illinois Central Railroad and the 
completion of the Lake Front Park 
plans south of Thirty-ninth vStreet to 
Jackson Park. 

There are numerous items as to the 
cost of Plan projects, the increase in 
property values, city revenue increase, 
and the result and benefit of improve- 
ments which I have not space to 
mention. 

While the Chicago Plan is a practical 
and commercial one, there is another 



and deeper motive in planning for the 
future greatness of our city than its 
splendid material upbuilding. This is 
the social, intellectual, and moral up- 
building of the people. City building 
means man building. 

Who is there among us who is not 
lifted above mere sordid industrial 
existence into the realm of the beautiful 
and ennobling things of life by attrac- 
tive surroundings? Beautiful parks, 
fine monuments, well laid out streets, 
relief from noise, dirt, and confusion — 
all these things, and many others con- 
templated in the Plan of Chicago, are 
agencies that make not only for the 
future greatness of the city but the 
happiness and prosperity of its people. 

Fully realizing the importance of 
object lessons, we are now undertaking 
to make the four bridge houses on the 
Michigan avenue bridge between the 
two plazas as attractive, as archi- 
tecturally correct, and as historically 
significant, as it is possible to make 
them. The location of the plazas 
lends itself to such treatment, the north 
plaza being the site of John Kinzie's 
house, the first white man's dwelling 
built in Chicago, and the south plaza 
being the site of old Fort Dearborn. 
To make this possible, Wm. Wrigley, 
Jr., and the Ferguson Fund Trustees 
each gave $50,000 to be used in em- 
bellishing the bridge houses. 

Thus the bridge houses will give an 
artistic setting to the junction of the 
upper level of South Water Street with 
the south Michigan Avenue plaza. 
When these plazas and the bridge are 
developed in this way, no public author- 
ity hereafter will think of permitting 
anything to be attached to them of an 
inferior nature. An artistic character 
will become impressed upon the Michi- 
gan Avenue improvement, which will 
undoubtedly elevate to a very marked 



[109] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



degree the character of future improve- 
ments, and will be of incalculable aid 
in embellishing South Water street 
from the bridge to Market Street, a 
distance of about a mile, with appro- 
priate decorative features, and in mak- 
ing of the Chicago River an attractive 
water-course, similar to European 
water-courses. Michigan Avenue, and 
South Water Street in the City of 
Chicago should then become as import- 
ant and widely known as are the Place 
de la Concorde in Paris, Trafalgar 
Square and Hyde Park in London, 
Ringstrasse in Vienna, and Unter den 
Linden in Berlin. The nature of the 
improvement will have a very decisive 
elevating influence on the character of 
the buildings that will be erected along 
Michigan avenue from Randolph Street 
to Chicago Avenue, as well as along the 
entire north side of the River, and 
eventually throughout the city. 

From the Reconstruction Platform of 
the Chicago Plan Commission, ad- 
dressed to his Honor the Mayor and 
the City Council of Chicago, I quote 
the following paragraph : 

"There is eloquence in stone and 
steel; there is inspiration in good archi- 
tecture; there is character-building in 
artistic and good surroundings. Our 
city as our larger home does much to 
mould our character. Unknown and 
unrealized by us the silent forces of 
our environement are working upon us 



and upon each of our fellows. Chicago 
has a good citizenry — a patriotic citi- 
zenry — it is proud of its citizens and its 
citizens are proud of their city. They 
know that attractive development and 
good citizenship go hand in hand and 
they want to see their city made the 
best it can be made." 

Not only should our art museums 
receive the widest possible support, 
both public and private, but art should 
become a part of our daily life, which 
could be accomplished by adorning our 
parks and public places and buildings 
with originals and copies of the master- 
pieces of sculpture of all times. Thus 
could be created an atmosphere, now 
lacking, which would stimulate an 
interest in art, inspire latent genius, 
and ultimately bring out the best 
there is in the spiritual forces of our 
nation. 

To maintain the strength and virility 
of the people, it has become imperative 
the world over immediately to in- 
augurate and speedily carry out hy- 
gienic, economic, and humanitarian 
projects. We could afford to spend 
Ijillions for war: why not millions for 
peace and contentment? The war 
taught us many lessons, but nons was 
greater than the result obtained by 
unity of action. Nation-wide unity of 
action in upbuilding our great country 
will lead to a patriotic devotion to it 
that will make of us a people both 
prosperous and happy. 



[Oh account of lack of space the articles by Jens Jensen and Dwight H. 
Perkins on the Parks, Playgrounds and Forest Preserves, of Chicago, 
and of Cook County, have been reserved for a later number, when Mr. 
Jensen will discuss Landscape Art in its relation to the Park System.] 



UlOl 



ARCHITECTURE IN CHICAGO 

By Thomas E. Tallmadge, A. I. A. 



WHEN a history of Architecture 
in the United States shall have 
been written, it will be found 
that Chicago, synonymous in many 
minds with materialism, has been more 
potent in the development of architec- 
ture in this country than any other 
City. 

First: She was the mother of the 
skyscraper, whose steel skeletons and 
cliflf-like forms have filled our urban 
scenery with canyons and mountain 
ranges. 

Second: She furnished the site and 
her sons directed the great World's 
Columbian Exposition, an artistic ex- 
pression which, in our architectural 
history, ended one epoch and began 
another. 

Third : She alone has had the courage 
to offer to a suspicious and highly 
skeptical world an American style. 

Architectural history in Chicago did 
not begin until long after that fair 
flower which we call the Colonial Style 
had been laid away and for the time 
forgotten. When Chicago was fight- 
ing for her life in the black mud bogs 
of the Thirties, the style known as 
the Greek Revival was in high favor. 
The columns of the Parthenon and of 
the Erectheon were resurrected to 
express the ideals of a new democracy, 
and the acanthus bloomed again on the 
prairies of Illinois and on the shores of 
Lake Michigan. These buildings, for 
the most part of wood, with their 
Greek porticoes and Roman domes, 
have almost all disappeared, chiefly in 
the great conflagration of 1872. 

The Classic Revival, dignified if 
somewhat pompous and illogical, in its 
turn fell a victim to the caprice of 

[111] 



fashion, and just before the Civil War 
appeared a new mode. This curious 
mixture of mansard roofs, of wax 
flowers, of hoop skirts, of Dundreary 
whiskers, of English Gothic tracery, of 
cast iron deer, I am calling here for the 
first time the Parvenue Style. 

The plague continued in Chicago for 
thirty years or more, and the Phoenix 
that rose from its ashes in '72 was the 
same ugly bird it was before. There 
are many examples of this Parvenue 
Style still standing in decayed splendor, 
the Palmer House, for instance, and 
the Board of Trade, while the most out- 
standing examples were the old County 
Building and the City Hall, destroyed 
some fourteen years ago. 

William Morris in England and H. 
H. Richardson in the United States 
were the knights that overthrew this 
dragon of bad taste. Richardson's 
Romanesque Revival spread over the 
entire country in the '8o's. We have 
many noble examples from Richard- 
son's own hand, such as the Field 
Wholesale Building, the Chicago Club, 
the MacVeagh house. By some ot his 
brilliant young disciples were the Rook- 
ery,' the Woman's Temple, the Monad- 
nock Block, all by Burnham & Root. 
The Auditorium by Adler & Sullivan, 
and the Higgenbotham House by 
Henry Whitehouse. 

In the midst of the Romanesque 
Revival came the invention of the high 
speed passenger elevator and the skele- 
ton steel frame. The Tacoma Build- 
ing on La vSalle and Madison Streets by 
Holabird & Roche is the first skeleton 
steel frame building in the world, and 
consequently is one of the most im- 
portant architectural monuments in 




Transportation Building, East Entrance, Wdrld's Columbian Exposition. The great work of Louis H. Sullivan. 
Critics, especially those from abroad, saw in these rainbow arches the promise of an American Style 



this country. It revolutionized the 
building of many storied structures. 
Its ornament, you might note, is in the 
Romanesque style. 

In 1893 came the World's Fair. Its 
classic peristyks and measured beauty 
gave the coupe de grace to the already 
tottering Romantic movement inaug- 
urated by Richardson. Its overwhelm- 
ing beauty turned a nation's eyes 
back to Greece, Rome and the Renais- 
sance, and it officially opened the 
architectural epoch in which we now 
live, an epoch of Artistic Eclecticism. 

The Fine Arts Building from the 
magic hand of Charles Atwood, was 
the most beautiful building of the 
Exposition, and Daniel Burnham has 



said the most beautiful building in the 
world. It stands now beautiful in its 
ruin, which is the final test of beauty. 
A Damoclean pick and shovel hang 
over its exquisite head, and a year from 
now unless Chicago raises the money 
to restore and maintain it, we will stare 
at an ugly wound in the earth, and 
curse the day that we allowed our 
loveliest flower of architecture to be 
uprooted and destroyed. 

The "World's Fair" is still with us 
in the presence of its offspring. Its 
larger, healthier and vastly more popu- 
lar child is our present Architectural 
Eclecticism. In this frame of mind our 
buildings may be of any style, though 
some adaptation of the Italian Renais- 



[113] 




The Tacoma Building. A Milestone in American architecture. The first building in the world of skeleton 

steel construction 
Holahird and Roche, Architects. 






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Auditorium Hotel. 
The "Palazzo Vecchio" of Chicago — Designed by Louis H. Sullivan in the Romanesque style. 



sance is the favorite. Most of the 
great buildings since the World's Fair 
express this new found right to choose 
and ability to execute in any style. 
The Gas Building, The Art Institute, 
The Field Museum, The Continental 
and Commercial Bank, The Wrigley 
Building, are classic in style. The 
University Club, the Harper Memorial, 
the Fourth Presbyterian Church, are 
Gothic. The Monroe Building and 
the Crerar Library are Italian Roman- 
esque. However much such an eclec- 
ticism may lack conviction and unity 
of purpose, it certainly adds variety and 
piquancy to our architectural ensemble, 
and technically it reaches a high level 
of excellence in its individual expres- 
sion. 

The other child of the World's Fair, 



wan and feeble as yet, is our creative 
movement, sometimes called the 
Chicago School; a direct attempt to 
found an American vStyle by an ex- 
pression in architecture of the rela- 
tions of form and function, a recogni- 
tion of materials employed and the use 
of indigenous forms for ornament. It 
owes its existence to the genius of Louis 
Sullivan, whose Transportation Build- 
ing at the World's Fair marks its first 
appearance, and whose Gage Building 
is the most logical expression that the 
skeleton steel frame building has ever 
received. 

Chicago's interesting past is but the 
period of her youth and tutelage. She 
stands on the threshold of a glorious 
maturity. The completion of her boule- 
vard link will bring in its train a series 



1117] 



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IE. 



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n 



EC^ 



a^xt-tr era g-i£j pg i 



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The Pcoi^lcs uas 
interesting texture 

Graham 



Gas Building — a brilliant example of modern eclecticism. The Roman detail forms ; 
sture. The first story granite columns are a solecism — they support nothing but themselv 



Anderson, Probst and White, Architects. 



detail forms an 
-es. 




University Club and Monroe Building, the former Gothic in style, the latter Italian Romanesque. 



of magnificent buildings of which the 
Wrigley, nearing completion, is the 
first; the consummation of the Grant 
Park and South Park outer boulevard 
plans will give her the most beautiful 



approach and setting in the world, and 
the next generation will see the City 
stretch in an almost unbroken line 
along the shore of Lake Michigan from 
Indiana to Wisconsin. 




[119] 



THE MONUMENTS OF CHICAGO 



B\ LoRADO Taft. 



CHICAGO'vS sculptured memorials 
are comparatively few but are 
already sufficient to mark the 
changing tastes of a primitive, sturdy 
people. Something like the waves of 
our great inland sea which build and 
destroy, the incessant surge of the years 
has begxin to leave upon Lake Michi- 
gan's sandy shores its records of western 
enthusiasms. 

Such records are of profound sig- 
nificance. Sculpture is a difficult and 
expensive craft; monuments are not 
erected by a community without good 
and sufficient reason. How unfailingly 
expressive they are of their time — how 
unerringly they mark the average of 
culture ! It cannot be said as ot 
Grecian art that our sculpture and 
architecture embody the ideals of the 
people, for on these lines we have as yet 
no ideals at all ; it is their absence which 
is vividly suggested by our early 
monuments. 

Nothing for instance could be more 
representative of the fashion of its day 
than the Douglas monument at the 
lake end of 39th Street. When in 1861 
Stephen A. Douglas died in Chicago, 
his fellow citizens promptly undertook 
the erection of a suitable memorial. 
The result, the work of the pioneer 
sculptor Leonard Volk, marks the 
location of the Douglas home. The 
passengers of the Illinois Central ex- 
press trains catch a glimpse of a high 
shaft from the top of which the in- 
credibly short and yet more fore- 
shortened "Little Giant" looks down 
upon the metropolis which he helped to 
create. Four low-seated bronze women 
of non-committal aspect occupy the 



corners of the pedestal. Who they are 
no one asks. 

Remote as is this work of another 
century, one pauses to thank its creator 
for reminding our fathers that there was 
such a thing as sculpture. His was not 
an easy task but it had its reward. His 
bust of the living Lincoln is of inesti- 
mable value. His statue of Lincoln in 
tlie capital at vSpringfield may have 
furnished the motif for our great 
"Lincoln," standing before the chair 
of state. 

I shall not attempt to trace our prog- 
ress through the years. A chronological 
catalogue of our sculpture would be of 
little public interest. To those un- 
privileged to live in our modest town 
the subject "Monuments of Chicago" 
connotes just one work and to this I 
gladly turn. 

It was in 1887 that Augustus vSaint- 
Gaiidens' "Lincoln" came to dwell 
among us.* Its welcome was enthusias- 
tic although we did not at first realize 
how precious a treasure was ours. 
Then we began to hear it proclaimed 
the finest portrait statue in America. 
So the critics have told us — and we like 
to think it so today. The standard of 
the nation's monuments has been vastly 
raised in these thirty-four years but 
this figure is yet to be surpassed. It 
was a labor of reverent love upon which 
the master expended much time and 
study. As in many of his greatest 
achievements he enjoyed in this case 
the collaboration of Stanford White, 
with the result that the setting is in 
perfect taste and perfect harmony with 
its surroundings. It is well placed. 
The monument is no "accident" in the 



•See Frontispiece. 



[120] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



park; its location was carefully con- 
sidered and broad roads converge to it. 
The wide platform and long, low granite 
steps, flanked with bronze globes, are in 
themselves impressive. The curving 
walls have a generous sweep of sixty 
feet and bear, in the perfection of Saint- 
Gaudens' lettering, these two utter- 
ances of the martyred president: "With 
malice toward none, with charity for 
all, with firmness in the right as God 
gives us to know the right, let us strive 
on," and "Let us have faith that right 
makes might, and in that faith let us 
to the end dare to do our duty as we 
understand it." 

The massive block on which the 
figure stands is raised so little above the 
height of the wall that at a distance the 
various members work together for a 
solidity of effect, one might almost say 
an inevitableness of structure, which is 
rare indeed in the monumental archi- 
tecture of this country. From the side 
the bold separation of figure and chair 
may appear at first odd and even un- 
pleasant, but one soon becomes ac- 
customed to it. From the front, the 
cooperation of the mass and lines of the 
chair is very grateful to the eye, espe- 
cially at a distance where the silhouette 
o^ the slender unaided statue would be 
meagre. It gives the volume and the 
"color" which the old-time sculptors 
sought to gain by hanging cloaks on 
their figures and by piling improbable 
accessories about them. Upon nearer 
approach the chair fades out of focus; 
the magnificent head holds the entire 
attention. 

How fine this work is my poor pen 
could never tell you ; I turn with grati- 
tude to Mrs. Van Rensselaer who years 
ago expressed her admiration in the 
following eloquent words: "The pose is 
simple, natural, individually character- 
istic — as far removed from the con- 




"George Washington" (front view) by Daniel C. 
French and Edward R. Potter. Presented to 
France by D. A. R. Copy in Washington Park, 
Chicago. 

ventionally dramatic or ' sculpturesque ' 
as from the baldly commonplace. 
Neither physical facts nor facts 
of costume are palliated or adorned 
. and the figure is idealized 
only by refinement and breadth and 
vigor in treatment. . . . This 
'Lincoln,' with his firmly planted feet, 
his erect body, and his squared 
shoulders, stands as a man accustomed 
to face the people and sway them at his 
will, while the slightly drooped head 
and the quiet, yet not passive, hands 
express the meditativeness, the self- 
control, the conscientiousness of the 
philosopher who reflected well before he 



[1211 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 




Abraham Linculn, "The Rail Splitter" l.\ Charles 
J. Mulligan, in Garfield Park. 



spoke, of the moralist who realized to 
the full the responsibilities of utter- 
ance. The dignity of the man and his 
simplicity; his strength, his inflexi- 
bility and his tenderness; his goodness 
and his courage; his intellectual con- 
fidence and his humility of soul; the 
poetic cast of his thought, the homely 
rigor of his manner, and the underlying 
sadness of his spirit, — all these may be 
read in the wonderfully real yet ideal 
portrait which the sculptor has created." 

I feel strongly today, as I have 
written in the past, that the value of so 
high an example of the monumental 
art can scarcely be overestimated. Its 
workmanship will be a canon and a 
guide for generations of sculptors to 
come; the serene dignity of the con- 
ception has already had its marked in- 
fluence on the side of gravity and dis- 
tinction in public works. Strange, is it 
not, that this quiet figure which lifts 
not a hand nor even looks at you, should 
have within it a power to thrill which 
is denied the most dramatic works 
planned expressly for emotional appeal ! 

Already a generation of men have 
lived and departed since that statue was 
erected in Lincoln Park. Continue to 
come and go they will, like the surf 
which curls about a mighty cliff". He 
remains unchanged. Wonderful the 
genius which so charged with emotion 
this bronze that it gives forth today of a 
potency undiminished by the years — 
enhanced, rather, by accumulating asso- 
ciations! Of it might one well say as 
did Lowell at Chartres: "Be reverent, 
ye who flit and are forgot, of faith so 
nobly realized as this." 

Besides the "Lincoln" which wel- 
comes to the park and is so grandly and 
overpoweringly the genius of the place, 
there are two or three other admirable 
works most fittingly bestowed — ap- 
paritions which one does not resent 

[122] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



amid the shrubbery and trees. "The 
Signal of Peace" by Cyrus DalHn, was, 
if I remember right, the earUest of that 
impressive series of quiet Indian figures 
upon patient horses which has culmi- 
nated in the masterly "Appeal to the 
Great Spirit" of Boston. Rodin used 
to tell us that his task was " to find the 
latent heroic in everyday actions" ; Mr. 
Dallin finds it without difficulty in his 
favorite subjects and our cities are 
enriched through his sympathetic in- 
terpretations. Another echo of primi- 
tive life we find in the group called 
"The Alarm." My old-time friend 
John J. Boyle, while still a student in 
Paris received from the late Martin 
Ryerson an order for a memorial to the 
Ottawa Indians; the result was the 
massive and thoroughly admirable com- 
position which we illustrate, a work 
which the eager sculptor never sur- 
passed in his too-brief career. 

Related likewise to the story of other 
days and happily placed in the edge of 
the park, at the head of La Salle Ave- 
nue, is the statue of the intrepid vSieur 
de La Salle, one of the earliest of our 
distinguished visitors. This work by 
Jacques Lalaine, a Belgian sculptor, is 
suavely modeled and in spite of the 
elevation of the right foot upon a high 
stone, with resultant square angles in 
the silhouette, is a sufficiently dignified 
presentment. 

Our equestrian statue of General 
Grant by Louis Rebisso is perched upon 
a nondescript pile of masonry which 
rests in turn upon a bridge. The 
sculpture harmonizes with the archi- 
tecture in its complete absence of artis- 
tic distinction. However, despite the 
fact that we look in vain for felicities of 
modeling and that never in the world 
would this bronze "make the heart leap 
as to a war chant," the figure is without 
question that of the silent hero of the 

[123] 




Statue of the Republic, erected in Jackson Park, 
Chicago. By Daniel Chester French. 

Appomattox. General Fred Grant 
once told me that it was to his mind the 
miost satisfactory portrait of his father 
in existence. 

In Leonard Crunelle's "Governor 
Oglesby" we have a statue worthy to 
be in the same park with Saint Gaudens' 
"Lincoln." The sincerity and power of 
this work are instantly apparent. The 
physical adequacy of the fine old leader, 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 




Miner and Child, By Charles J. MulHgan, 
Humboldt Park, Chicago. 

his bonhomie and his homely grace are 
completely realized in a figure which is 
sculptural by first intention. Gutzon 
Borglum in his statue of Gov'ernor 
Altgeld — another public man of marked 
individuality — has followed an opposite 
method, summarizing his theme in a 
sketchy mass which however pleasingly 
facile in treatment lacks the qualities 
of incisive characterization. The un- 
mistakable features and picturesque 
garb of Benjamin Franklin mark a com- 
petent work by Richard M. Parke. 
Its silhouette is not an unpleasant one 
against the sky. 

A seated "Shakespeare " is one of the 
best achievements of that: cultiv^ated 
sculptor, William Ordway Partridge, 



and receives annual homage from the 
school children of Chicago. Here, too, 
is a bust of Beethoven by John Gelert 
and a statue of Hans Christian Ander- 
sen from the same conscientious artist. 
To most people it is a surprise to learn 
what manner of man was the great 
story-teller. Gelert shows him seated 
in formal, long-tailed coat amid his 
swans, ascetic and dreary in face and 
form. Gherardi's "Garibaldi" has 
always been a little uncertain as to his 
center of gravity, but is a thoughtful 
and sincere characterization. 

Of this statue as of most of these 
effigies, foreigners and governors alike, 
and particularly of the dentist glorified 
by Frederick Hibbard, one asks in 
perplexity, \Miy are they here? The 
one spot on the North side where one 
hopes to find a glimpse of nature, the 
joy of flowers and trees, is encumbered 
with metal coats and trou.sers. Every 
eligible site and vista culminates in 
something which you do not wish to see. 
The impulse to erect memorials is 
worthy and indeed irrepressible, but 
why not put the formal bronzes in 
formal places, along avenues and against 
buildings — anywhere but here where 
greensward and sky-line are so in- 
finitely precious? 

The same mistake has been made in 
our West side parks. Instead of works 
of imagination and themes harmonious 
with sylvan beauty we find there 
another petrified congress of nations, a 
sculptural card-index of the peoples 
represented in Chicago's mighty melt- 
ing pot. From his pedestal Alexander 
von Humboldt beams upon Kosciusko's 
prancing steed, the while Leif Ericson 
and stodgy Fritz Reuter exchange the 
time of day. Robert Burns — in the form 
of the stock figure to be seen in Mil- 
waukee, Denver and way-stations — 
waves distant greetings to Bohemia's 



[124] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



vehement representative, Karel Hav- 
licek, whose uphfted arm is usually 
adorned with a series of wreaths. They 
are all very much at home; all are 
welcome in Chicago, but the parks 
would be better without them and their 
own dignity would be enhanced by a 
more formal setting. That was a true 
word spoken by the Municipal Art Com- 
mission of New York: "Most of our 
monuments look as if they had been 
carried about by some giant and drop- 
ped wherever he happened to be when 
he became fatigued." The casual way 
in which memorials are planted in our 
parks is a fault to be corrected; it will 
be when they are not permitted there 
at all. 

Very appropriate on the other hand 
are Crunelle's four youthful figures at 
the corners of the Rose Garden pool in 
Humboldt Park, and the small bronzes 
by French and Potter The last named 
were made from the working models of 
certain admirable groups of the Colum- 
bian Exposition and while hardly large 
enough to satisfy the eye in their pres- 
ent location are among the finest of our 
possession. 

I quite forgot in my enthusiasm to tell 
you who did all of these brave works. 
The "Chicago City Manual", con- 
veniently at hand, is rich in misin- 
formation. Perhaps we can straighten 
some of it out. "Humboldt" is attri- 
buted, we hope correctly, to F. Garling, 
of somewhere, who may however, have 
been the bronze founder. "Kosciusko" 
was modeled in Chicago by the Polish 
sculptor, Casimir Chodinski. "Eric- 
son," the book tells us, was made by 
"Asbor Jornson;" which is a neat 
camouflage for our Chicago sculptor, 
Sigvald Asbjornsen. I like best what 
we are told about honest "Fritz 
Renter:" "Franz Renter, bronze, by 
Gegossen von Ch. Lens, Nurnberg!" 




The Alarm, by John J. Boyle, Lincoln Park, Chicago. 

How is that for an official publication of 
"the sixth largest German city"? If 
your German is rusty just ask some 
scholarly friend who "Gegossen" was! 

"Burns" is by the clever Edinburgh 
sculptor, W. Grant Stevenson; and the 
strenuous "Havlicek," a really admir- 
able piece of modeling, is by Joseph 
Strachovsky of Prague. 

Charles J. Mulligan, an enthusiastic 
and inost likable young Irishman, de- 
voted himself with untiring zeal to the 
adornment of the great West side. 
Its park system offers a series of works 
from his untiring hand. He never was 
adequately paid and most of these 
monuments bear unhappy evidence of 
the haste in which they were conceived 



[1251 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



and executed. At the time of his death 
Mr. Mulhgan had orders which would 
have enabled him to demonstrate the 
talent which he possessed, but his 
hand was suddenly stayed. It does 
not seem quite fair. Among his pro- 
ductions may be mentioned the " Presi- 
dent McKinley" in McKinley Park; 
"Fourth of July Fountain," Inde- 
pendence Square; Colonel Finerty Me- 
morial and "The Rail-splitter" (Lin- 
coln) in Garfield Park ; " The Miner and 
Child" in Humboldt Park. 

A monument on the west side which 
is not to be overlooked is the Illinois 
Centennial Memorial, a stately column 
designed by Henrv' Bacon and happily 
decorated by Evelyn Longman. The 
reliefs at the base and the conventional 
eagle which crowns this chaste tribute, 
are exquisitely carved in mellow Ten- 
nessee marble. 

In Union Park, we are told by our 
invaluable "Manual," we shall find 
"Carter H. Harrison, stone, by W. 
Grant Stephenson" which to the in- 
formed means that the portrait of our 
picturesque World's Fair mayor is in 
bronze and by Frederick K. Hibbard of 
Chicago. It is one of Hibbard's early 
works but remains one of his best, a 
simple dignified figure. The next item 
in our guide is "Policeman's Monu- 
ment, bronze by J. Gilbert, erected 
after the Haymarket riot, with the 
legend, 'In tlae name of the People I 
command Peace,' " which is all right 
excepting the fact that this inexorable 
representative of the law was made by 
our old-time friend John Gelert. 

The Park Commissioners of the vSouth 
Side have from the first held a different 
view regarding portrait statues in their 
domain. All wistful candidates have 
been shown the door and with this 
tradition well established it is as easy 
now to keep them out as it is easy for 



them to crowd into the other parks of 
the city. Perhaps it was the weird 
"Drexel" at the head of Drexel Ave- 
nue which saved the day. This Un- 
known, perched on his queer fountain, 
was an inheritance from a forgotten 
past; having tried him they will have 
no other. vSculpture is not entirely 
banished however; Washington Park 
is made significant by a copy of that fine 
equestrian "Washington" which the 
Daughters of the Revolution presented 
to France, the work of those two 
masters, Daniel C. French and Edward 
C. Potter. Wrote Wm. A. Coffin of it : 
"Washington, in Mr. French's statue, 
is represented as taking command of the 
army at Cambridge, dedicating his 
sword to the service of his country, and 
appealing to Heaven for the justice of 
his cause. With the head thrown 
slightly backward, the figure holds with 
the left hand and arm the military hat 
and the bridle reins, and, the other arm 
being extended perpendicularly, the 
right hand holds the sword exactly 
upright. The pose is heroic and dra- 
matic. The spirit of the motive is 
admirably expressed in the action of the 
figure, and the head is noble and com- 
manding in aspect." It may be said 
that the Father of His Country looks 
just as noble at the entrance of Wash- 
ington Park as he does in the Parisian 
"Place." 

Another appropriate work, to be 
found in Jackson Park, is the one 
sculptural record of the Columbian 
Exposition. Dominant among the ivory 
palaces of the White City stood the 
majestic golden figure of the "Re- 
public." I admired greatly that monu- 
mental creation and wrote my enjoy- 
ment of it in a book, but here is no space 
to quote. The original was some sixty 
feet high; we now have in permanent 
material a reduction twenty-four feet 



[126] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



high, a tiny descendent of the one we 
loved. It is upon a fine pedestal not too 
far removed from the vanished Court of 
Honor and serves to recall past glories. 

Returning city-ward one passes at 
the foot of 1 8th vStreet a strange com- 
position which from the train is a mere 
tangle of bronze figures. It is Carl 
Rohl-Smith's Indian group commemo- 
rating the Fort Dearborn massacre and 
its great significance lies in the fact that 
it marks the very spot where the ill- 
fated caravan met its doom. A con- 
scientious and skilful work, its realism 
is enjoyed by many. 

Back to the "Lake Front" once 
more. We observe upon a considerable 
artificial elevation the restless silhouette 
of Saint-Gaudens' "General Logan." 
The hero is shown bareheaded, grasping 
a flag which he has seized from a falling 
color bearer. All is excitement and ten- 
sion. It is the most agitated of all of 
Saint-Gaudens' works and is to me the 
least satisfactory. However, it has the 
beauty of modeling which never failed 
our greatest master and Grant Park 
would be poorer without it. 

Some fifteen years ago it was found 
that Benjamin F. Ferguson, a lumber- 
man of Chicago, had left in his will a 
large sum as a trust fund, the in- 
come of which was to be devoted to the 
embellishment of the city with statues, 
fountains and other forms of memorials 
in commemoration of individuals and 
historic events. The money carefully 
invested soon reached the desired 
amount of one million dollars and its 
income became available in 1907. The 
first of these purchases was the writer's 
" Fountain of the Great Lakes, " agroup 
of five figures erected in Grant Park, at 
the south end of the Art Institute, and 
dedicated to the memory of Mr. Fergu- 
son himself. The second was a grace- 
ful if not robust presentment of Alex- 

[127] 



ander Hamilton by the late Bela L. 
Pratt of Boston. This bronze stands in 
Grant Park near Monroe vStreet and is 
admirably backed by an architectural 
setting designed by Charles A. Coolidge 
of Boston. 

The third purchase was the Illinois 
Centennial Column already referred to. 
Others promised are a memorial to 
Marquette to be placed upon a historic 
site near the Chicago River on the West 
side; and an elaborate monument to 
Theodore Thomas, our great musical 
leader. This work, in exedra form, is 
already far advanced under the skil- 
ful hands of Albin Polasek of this city, 
and will be one of our most valued 
possessions. A recent experiment in 
location on the Michigan Avenue border 
of Grant Park, opposite Orchestra Hall, 
was very successful; "Music" personi- 
fied by a large female figure of unusual 
beauty was shown standing before an 
architectural mass of dark granite upon 
which in almost Egyptian simplicity 
are to be outlined the forms of Theodore 
Thomas and his players. To those who 
have watched the development of the 
work and who know what those compo- 
board silhouettes represented the 
promise was great. 

From month to month we hear of 
other projects: fountains, decorations 
of bridges, etc., are being considered. 
The Ferguson Fund works all the time ; 
its beneficient returns have but begun 
to appear. Imagine what twenty years 
will give us — a hundred! In regard to 
our monuments as well as other things, 
we reveal Chicago's usual irritating 
optimism which in spite of disorder and 
obvious deficiencies persists in pro- 
claiming: " Our Chicago is not what you 
see, but the city that is to be, the city of 
destiny !" We bahold her wreathed with 
flowers and begirt with monumental 
jewels of wonderful artistry. 




G. P. A. Healy, Self-portrait. Collection of the Art Institute. 



CHICAGO PAINTERS, PAST AND PRESENT 



By Ralph Clarkson. 



TO understand and appreciate the 
artistic growth of the individual 
one must place him against the 
background of the economic, political 
and social life of his time. A great 
artist like Michael Angelo becomes 
more real when we know the conditions 
that surrounded him during his best 
creative period, the reign of Juhus II. 
He produced his masterpieces, torn by 
internal struggles, willing to relinquish 
his work many times, yet urged on by 
his patron. He finally completed the 
Sistine Chapel, convinced that "the 
times were not in sympathy with art 
production." How like today! One 
wonders whether his development was 
entirely from within, uninfluenced by 
precedent, or was the culmination of 
tradition and example. However, Mich- 
ael Angelo did have before him some of 
the most beautiful statues of ancient 
times, as several were uncovered during 
this period of his sojourn in Rome and 
he was big enough to profit by their 
proximity. 

Velasquez developed his incompar- 
able art amid political and social dis- 
tractions. He had duties that would 
have overwhelmed a weaker spirit, but 
he was in constant contact with the 
best examples of the Renaissance which 
gave him a background and standard 
that none but a great talent could have 
surpassed. I am reverting to these 
artists to call attention to the truth 
that the work of these geniuses culmin- 
ated after a long period of growth 
that had established high standards of 
craftsmanship and individuality of ex- 
pression. And now I wish to construct 
a simple background against which I 

11291 



can place the work and influence of the 
painters of the past three score years. 

The Art history' of Chicago up to the 
time when G. P. A. Healy was enticed 
from painting noted personages of 
Europe in 1855 is practically negligible, 
but her citizens were then traveling 
abroad and coming in contact with the 
cultural influences of art, and they 
showed sound judgment in inducing a 
native painter of such talent and suc- 
cess to make a "frontier town," as 
Chicago was then rated, his temporary 
home. That they asked him to portray 
them instead of importing some foreign 
artist is greatly to their credit. His 
visit lasted some two years, but it was 
cut short by the business depression of 
1857. He returned from Europe from 
time to time to paint noted Americans 
in public life, and eminent Chicagoans, 
finally coming back with his family, 
members of which still live here, to pass 
his remaining years. He died in 1892. 

It may be said that the traditions of 
the art of the City were more or less 
founded upon the ideals of a mind 
saturated with the ideas of the early 
American painters, and it seems most 
fortunate that its great men during the 
most critical period of the nation's 
life should have been portrayed by one 
thoroughly American in spirit and 
adequate technically. 

Healy, though not native to the 
State, was given freedom of practice 
through the patronage of its citizens 
and he has bequeathed to the country 
an invaluable heritage of characteriza- 
tions of many of its greatest statesmen 
and citizens. It has been the fashion 
to speak of his work as "overmodeled 




La Vacherie, By Chas. Francis Browne 



and photographic," yet his best work 
will stand in the first rank with his 
contemporaries. 

No progress was made in the civil 
war period, and the foundation for all 
that the present day holds may be said 
to have been laid in 1866, when a group 
of earnest artists founded the Academy 
of Design. 

The year previous the Crosby Opera 
House, intended to be the home of the 
arts, and planned to surpass anything 
in the West in architectural beauty, was 
opened at the end of the week on which 
Lincoln was assassinated, but from the 
first it was a financial failure. Soon 
after the "Crosby Art Association" was 
formed and an arrangement was made 
to dispose of the Art treasures, and the 
Opera House itself, by lotterv'. 

This article is not especially con- 



cerned with this venture, except as it 
was the first home of the Arts, the place 
where the Academy of Design held its 
exhibitions and where, in the lottery, 
a number of important pictures were 
drawn, "including the masterpiece of 
the collection, The Yosemite Valley," 
by Bierstadt. This building was re- 
decorated in time to be opened on 
October 9, 1871, only to be destroyed 
by the great fire. 

I understand also that it was here 
that the first classes in drawing and 
painting were held in 1866 under the 
auspices of the Academy of Design. 
Chicago was the third city in the coun- 
try. New York and Philadelphia being 
the others, to give such instruction. 

At this time it was a place of 250,000 
inhabitants, and there were those among 
her citizens who had the audacity to 

[130] 




Geese, By Jesse Arms Botke. Collection of the Art Institute. 



predict that "some time in the distant 
future it would number a miUion souls." 
It is almost incredible that there are 
many who have seen her reach nearly 
three times that number and who have 
lived, as mature men, through her 
entire artistic life. 

During the period from the organiza- 
tion of the Academy of Design to the 
fire of 1 87 1, the success and influence 
of the society were unusual. The lead- 
ing American painters exhibited at its 
shows, and among its members were 
men already well known and others 
destined to be among our foremost 
artists. Leonard Volk was its first 
president and H. C. Ford, a landscape 
painter, its vice-president. On the 
Council was Walter Shirlaw, a vScotch- 
man, who was a copper-plate engraver 
for the American Bank Note Company, 



and who, after studying in Germany, 
returned to New York, where he be- 
came one of the most important of our 
painters. His work was imaginative, 
decorative and suave. Associated with 
him was J. F. Gookins, a thorough 
American, who made a deep impression 
upon his students and who was a cap- 
able painter, both in landscape and 
figure. Probably the best known at 
this time was Heniy W. Elkins, who 
showed in his landscapes, a daring, both 
in importance of subject and bigness of 
canvas. His popularity was emphasized 
by the fact that he looked the typical 
artist with his long hair and other 
expected signs of his profession. 

D. F. Bigelow painted a most able 
landscape and remained for many years 
the highly esteemed dean of his craft, 
and Theo. Pine executed some import- 



[131] 




Mrs. Charles L. Hutchinson, By Oliver Dennett Grover 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



ant portrait groups which show both 
abiHty and knowledge. The produc- 
tion in various fields of A. J. Pickering 
was well known and bought. Frederick 
S. Church, among the early associates, 
who afterwards settled in New York, 
has given to our art a charming, fanci- 
ful and decorative note through many 
years of endeavor, and C. G. Dyer, who, 
after these early days, lived mostly in 
Munich, Venice and Paris, has left some 
worthy pictures. It is interesting to 
note that a beautiful small portrait of 
Mrs. Dyer, by Sargent, painted in 
Venice in 1882, is owned by the Art 
Institute. 

Probably the best portrait painter of 
his time resident here was Henry 
Peterson, and J. Antrobus painted an 
excellent portrait in the Holbein man- 
ner. As I look over the namas of 
the members of the Academy of Design 
of 1868, I notice only one whose begin- 
nings go back to that far-off time and 
who is still actively at work. C. 
Pebbles, a portrait painter, has sus- 
tained a meritorious reputation during 
half a century. Joining this group, 
after service in the Civil War, came 
Alden F. Brooks, who painted praise- 
worthy figures and portraits and whose 
activities still continue. Frank Bromly, 
a pupil of Elkins, achieved great facility, 
but died before his talent had matured. 
The still life of C. P. Ream has been 
favorably known through many years. 

In the exhibitions of the Academy, 
one recognizes the names of practically 
all of the leading Americans of the 
period and can well understand that 
these early shows aroused an enthusi- 
asm and a patronage that has not been 
surpassed until quite recently. Of 
course the fire of 1871 and the panic of 
1873 nearly extinguished the art life. 
The Academy of Design was the out- 
growth of a group that worked to- 

[133] 



gether from life and had been managed 
and controlled entirely by artists. It 
possessed a valuable charter and had a 
bright future before it, but the fire 
swept all hopes away — the calamity 
proved too great. After an attempt 
at a revival, lack of funds and want of 
interest caused bankruptcy. The school 
continued, except for the interruption 
caused by the fire, after which it was 
transferred to the site now occupied by 
the Chicago Club, where it finally 
expired. In 1878 a number of wealthy 
citizens interested in Art matters in- 
corporated the Academy of Fine Arts, 
and all its possessions, except its char- 
ter, passed into their hands. When the 
Academy of Fine Arts was formed it 
was located for three years at the cor- 
ner of State and Monroe Streets, where 
a school was maintained and occasional 
exhibitions were given. Then, for a 
while, it functioned in the old Exposi- 
tion Building, finally locating on Van 
Buren Street, and there it remained 
until the Art Institute was organized 
and the building at the corner of Michi- 
gan Avenue and Van Buren Street con- 
structed in 1882-3. 

While this is not the story of the Art 
Institute, enough must be known of it 
to show the conditions under which our 
artists were educated. This new locale 
on Van Buren Street was really the 
home of the influences that were to 
shape the careers of our future artists, 
and it was fortunate that, at the begin- 
ning, there were devoted and superior 
craftsmen to guide them. 

H. F. Spread, was the leading in- 
structor, well grounded in his art, an 
indefatigable worker, in every instinct 
and feeling an educator and an artist, 
and interested in public aff'airs. He 
brought to his students enthusiasm and 
the application needed for their work. 
By birth and education he was eminent- 




The Blue Rafter, by Frederic Clay Bartlett. Collection of Art Institute 



ly English. In portraiture, he painted 
some admirable heads, and in land- 
scapes, in depicting certain phases of 
nature, he was true and sympathetic. 
His fine influence and advice formed 
the careers of the men who were not 
only to achieve prominence as artists, 
but to occupy leading places as teachers. 
Through his enthusiasm and eflfort was 
formed the first Chicago Society of 
Artists in 1888, which held its weekly 
meetings in his studio and aided in ' 'the 
advancement and cultivation of social 
relations among its members." L. C. 
Earle was among these early teachers 



and for many years, until he moved to 
the East, was prominent in the Art life 
of the city, where he left many can- 
vases that show marked ability. 

At this period, the early eighties, we 
begin to have a new state of affairs. 
The former students are either return- 
ing from abroad to take up their pro- 
fession, or settling in New York, some 
remaining in Europe. This coming 
home to America to gain one's living 
has always been the most trying epoch 
in an artist's life. He has probably had 
wonderful years abroad, surroimded by 
beauty and bohemian freedom, un- 



[134] 



r 




Indians of Taos, New Mexico, By Victor Higgins. 



mindful of earning money, and his re- 
turn to the bald realities of necessity 
amid an unattractive environment has 
always been a deep discouragement. 
The truth about most successful Ameri- 
can artists is that they found, on their 
return, that they must either teach or 
illustrate, for the demand for their out- 
put was limited. So we have the situa- 
tion of our young men going into fields 
where the demand for their product 
was greater. Thus many have sought 
New York, not to live by painting 
alone, but by some form of art practice. 
In this way we have lost many a 
talented one, the complete list of which 

[135] 



it would be difficult to compile, but 
among whom may be named: Douglas 
Volk, Walter Shirlaw, Carroll Beck- 
with, Walter Blackman, C. G. Dyer, 
L. C. Earle, Albert Sterner, George 
Hitchcock, Robert McCameron, Henry 
S. Hubbell, Lawrence Mazzanovich, 
Karl Anderson, Gustave Bauman, Louis 
Betts, Alson Skinner Clark, Arthur S. 
Covey, Dean Comwell, Arthur B. 
Davies, Helena Dunlap, Will H. Foote, 
Frederick C. Frieseke, Jules Guerin, 
Oliver Herford, John C. Johansen, Troy 
Kinney, Margaret West Kinney, Mabel 
Key, F. X. and J. C. Leyendecker, Orson 
Lowell, Fred Dana Marsh, Jean Mc- 




Provincetown, Mass., By Pauline Palmer. 



Lane (Johansen) , Meysa McMein, Ross 
E. Moflfett, Lawton S. Parker, Jane 
Peterson, Bertha Menzler Peyton, 
Grace Ravlin, Frederick Richardson, 
Ralph Holmes, Hovsep T. Pushman, 
Harriet Blackstone, Frank Werner, Will 
Howe Foote, Wm. P. Henderson, Chas. 
Abel Corwin, E. A. Burbank, Mrs. Mar- 
shall Clark, Walter Goldbeck, Henry 
Hutt, Abram Poole, Edgar Payne, Dud- 
ley Crafts Watson, W. D. Stevens, Louis 
Ritman, Chauncey F. Ryder, Gardner 
Symons, Harry Townsend, Harry Solo- 
mon, S. B. Linder, Ruth Townsend, 
Thos. Wood Stevens, Walter Ufer, 
William Wendt, J. Laurie Wallace, J. 
Francis Murphy, Wilson Irvine, Hard- 
esty G. Maratta, Walter Burridge, 
Frank Green and Alexander Schilling. 
It is only sufficient to read this list to 



realize that the students of our schools 
are among the most honored in the larger 
world of art. Of course Chicago could 
not keep them, even America has not 
been, early in their careers, appreciative 
enough to hold and give them their 
maximum development, yet many still 
depend upon this city for their patron- 
age. 

Among the very first to return from 
study abroad, an Illinoisian by birth 
and one whose art instruction began in 
the Academy of Design, was Oliver 
Dennett Grover. At this time, 1884, 
he had already studied in Munich and, 
fresh from Duveneck's class in Florence, 
and the JuHan Academy in Paris, im- 
pressed himself quickly upon the stu- 
dents of the Art Institute by his 
vigorous handling of the head and the 

[136] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



human figure. A portrait of his grand- 
mother, painted about this time, at- 
tracted much attention, combining as 
it did strength with great dehcacy and 
refinement. His work as chief instruc- 
tor of the Art Institute did much to 
raise the character of that schooL 
Even his interest in civic work and 
enthusiasm in building up the art life 
of a city added to the necessity of 
earning a livelihood, neither stunted 
him nor prevented his developing 
into the high artistic position that he 
now occupies. Well grounded, as a 
young man in the fundamentals of his 
art, he shows what superior craftsman- 
ship can accomplish, for his successes 
have been nearly equal in the realm of 
decoration, landscape, scenes of Venice 
and the Italian lakes and portraiture. 
Although he has lived much abroad, he 
has never stayed away long enough to 
detach himself from the life of the city, 
but has brought back with him each 
time, beautiful canvases, new ideas, 
greater development in his art and an 
intense desire to be of service. 

Numbered among the returning stu- 
dents of the Academy, whose foreign 
experience had been entirely French 
was John H. Vanderpoel, who was 
destined to bring a new note to the 
school, the emphasis on draftsmanship, 
and through whose hands were to pass 
most of the students who have made 
their fame as artists during the past 
forty years. He loved form and its 
analysis and insisted on its careful 
study, combined with appreciation for 
the beauty of outline. 

The lasting impression that he has 
left upon those who were fortunate 
enough to study under him was that 
of thoroughness, and this of course, 
implies industry, two things essential 
to the life and success of the individual 
as well as of the school. Undoubt- 

[137] 



edly his high standard of achievement 
and earnest endeavor were inheritances 
from his Dutch ancestry, and we are 
fortunate indeed to have had at the 
beginning of our instructive and con- 
structive period an influence so neces- 
sary in laying a firm foundation and so 
helpful as a tradition. 

The next Chicagoan to return and 
place his talent at the disposal of the 
Art Institute school was Frederick W. 
Freer, who at the early age of 17, in 
1866, had gone abroad to study in 
Munich and Paris and who, on his 
return, had settled in New York, where 
he won honors in both watercolors and 
oils, making a decided impression in 
his paintings of figure and landscape. 
His admiration for color was great, and 
he was a thoroughly trained draftsman, 
who loved the actual use of paint, enjoy- 
ing both the process and the result and 
whose stimulus in this direction at this 
time was most valuable. For more 
than fifteen years his influence was 
important in the school, not by aggres- 
sive means, but by his helpful profes- 
sional and personal qualifications. 

During this same period an English- 
man, Charles E. Boutwood, a student 
of the Royal Academy in London and 
later a pupil of Bouguereau and Fleury, 
one of the organizers of the Chicago 
Society of Artists in 1888, a fine drafts- 
man, a painter of excellent portraits 
and genre pictures, was a member of 
the teaching staff of the Art Insti- 
tute. 

During the period up to the time of 
the World's Fair, the city was continu- 
ally exerting an artistic influence that 
brought forth movements which made 
possible the success of the Art Institute, 
the triumph of the Fair and the forma- 
tion of the "Friends of American Art." 
The advance of Chicago toward a com- 
manding position in shaping the art of 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



the country has been powerful and per- 
sistent. 

When Chicago was designated as the 
place in which to hold the celebration 
commemorating the discovery of Amer- 
ica, it was felt by many that it might be 
a success from a business standpoint, 
but that it would fail in its large artistic 
conception. Yet those who doubted 
that anything epoch-making could 
come out of the West lived to see a 
standard set for international exposi- 
tions that had never been achieved 
before. Those citizens in control of 
its destiny were farsighted enough to 
call to their aid the best talent of the 
city and placed at the head, men whose 
visions were worldwide, whose ideals 
led into the realm of the imagination, 
and whose power for organization was 
great enough to make practical their 
plans for a "Dream City." 

For a long time the annual exhibition 
of works of art had drawn to the Windy 
City the best and highest things pro- 
duced by American and foreign painters. 
During many years agents had selected 
from studios and salons abroad and in 
the East the best things to be found, 
and were so liberal in forwarding and 
returning the objects solicited that, even 
in the early days, the exhibitions con- 
ained works of the highest quality. 
It is recalled that Whistler's portrait of 
his mother and Sargent's Carmencita, 
now masterpieces of the Luxembourg 
gallery, were brought here. This big 
generous policy has continued and has 
not been stultified by the personal likes 
or dislikes of any individual. On the 
contrary, the aim has been to place 
before the public the many phases, 
"styles" and movements that during 
the past fifty years the art world has 
given forth. 

In the summer of 1914, we visited 
the principal countries of Europe, seek- 



ing new ideas in the realm of art expres- 
sion. At the end of the trip, it could 
truthfully be said that during previous 
years there had been displayed on the 
walls of the Art Institute all the achieve- 
ments and experiments of the various 
branches of the art of the world. Thus 
examples of the best and latest had been 
for years before the eyes of those who 
could see and appreciate, creating a 
background against which it was more 
or less easy to build a venture like the 
Columbian exposition. 

The architectural director, practi- 
cal in his idealism, surrounded himself 
with men who could materialize their 
visions. One does not feel that it is 
too much to assert that Chicago was 
the inspiration and impetus needed for 
the development of decorative painting 
in America. Of the twelve men known 
as the "domists," the greater number 
were awaiting the opportunity that 
came at this moment, and they made 
good. Their accomplishment here led 
to their employment in many national 
and state buildings and established on 
a firm basis the perception of beauty 
that comes from co-operation of painter 
and architect. 

It was the same with sculpture. 
These far-sighted men, realizing how 
much external features were enhanced 
by groups, fountains, bas-reliefs, and 
symbolic figures, called to their aid 
many of our sculptors, giving them an 
opportunity, which made the exterior 
ensemble a thing of enchantment. The 
people of this country and the world 
were given an example of artistic unity 
that had hardly existed before, a prod- 
uct of the idealism of a distinctly 
material city. 

The reaction from the World's Fair 
was in appearance distinctly retrograde ; 
yet this was not true, for the level of 
public interest was much higher and 

[138] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



soon movements took place that showed 
how deeply rooted had become the 
desire to possess art knowledge. Many 
societies were formed to promote all 
kinds of artistic endeavor too numerous 
to write about here. These gave pres- 
sure and influence in the right direc- 
tion. Finally the most important 
Society of the past quarter of a century 
came into being, the "Friends of 
American Art." 

From the earliest days of the Acad- 
emy and the Art Institute schools there 
have always been women students of 
exceptional talent. Some, like Annie 
C. Shaw and Alice Kellogg, were cut 
off by death when nearing the goal of 
notable careers. Annie Shaw was 
greatly influenced by the Barbizon 
school, which was very much in vogue 
at that moment, but she gave promise 
of the development of a strong personal 
point of view. Her landscapes had 
freedom of execution and beauty of 
color. Alice Kellogg possessed an ap- 
preciation of character backed by solid 
technical training that was surpassed 
by few of the men. She had, added to 
her schooling here, the advantages 
of Paris and undoubtedly would have 
continued to be one of the leaders 
in our local art circle. Marie Koupal 
(Lusk), endowed with keen intelligence, 
talent and application, gave promise 
of a future second to none of her sex, 
and Pauline Dohn (Rudolph) had 
achieved an enviable position in her 
art when they entered a matrimonial 
career. Although one may feel in these 
cases that fine talent has been denied 
complete expression, yet the power of 
such individuals may have had its great 
influence in guiding the taste of many 
into art channels. 

Miss Caroline D. Wade's life has been 
devoted to the cause of teaching and 
her pupils have had inculcated in them 

[139J 



the basic principles of art practice, and 
yet she has, from time to time, shown 
interesting pictures. Like Alice Kel- 
logg, Martha Baker was taken away at 
the height of her achievement wheu 
she had won general recognition in 
painting easel pictures and miniatures. 
In this latter art few have excelled 
Virginia Reynolds in breadth of treat- 
ment and beauty of color. We have 
been dealing with women, up to now, 
who for one reason or another have 
ceased to produce but have held fore- 
most positions in our art world. Had 
I space I would like to write of those 
of whose fame we are proud, like M. 
Jane McLane (Johansen), and whose 
successes we applaud; but the number 
of active workers still remaining here 
is ver>^ considerable. Pauline Pal- 
mer, whose effervescent personality 
pervades and enlivens all wherever 
she appears, expresses herself in 
spontaneous canvases, be it figure 
or landscape. The signal honor of 
being twice made president of the 
Chicago vSociety of Artists has been 
hers. Entirely a product of the School, 
Anna L. Stacey paints attractive figures 
and portraits that are in constant 
demand and show a high degree of 
technical ability. To develop an in- 
dividual style is the aim of all painters 
and its recognition brings added joy 
to the beholder. This accomplishment 
is denied the many but not to Jessie 
Arms Botke whose decorative inter- 
pretations possess a charm of detail that 
does not detract from but rather adds 
interest to her artistic expression. It is 
probably fortunate for her many pupils 
that Ethel Coe devotes so much time 
to teaching, but we should be much 
richer artistically if her talent were 
allowed free rein. Lucie Hartrath paints 
excellent Sunny landscapes and Eugenie 
F. Glaman depicts faithfully the "home 





a 
o 



o 

o 



V 

n 

•3 
o 
►J 
>. 

M 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



life" of sheep and cows. Cecil Clark 
Davis has gained an enviable reputa- 
tion in portraits of eminent people from 
Paris to Buenos Aires. Delightful mini- 
atures have come from the hand of 
Mary Hess Buehr, and Marie Gelon 
Cameron, an adopted daughter from 
France, has painted many creditable 
portraits and genre subjects. The ap- 
peal of maternity is found in the well 
done pictures of Ada Schultz, and Jessie 
Benton Evans loosely interprets inter- 
esting Western wastes. Flora I. Schoen- 
feld adequately interprets what she 
considers the modern point of view. 
The studio of Elizabeth K. Peyraud 
produces too few canvases when one 
realizes her ability, and Caroline D. 
Tyler's miniatures are sympathetic in- 
terpretations. 

This list of our women painters is by 
no means complete, containing as it does 
only some of the names of those seen 
regularly in our exhibitions, yet it 
shows how important they are in our 
art life in numbers and quality. There 
are a few, like Bertha E. Jaques, who, 
with distinction and charm in her work, 
and unusual executive ability, has been 
the leader in making the Chicago 
Society of Etchers a pronounced suc- 
cess. Hazel Frazee has designed charm- 
ing book-covers and decorative illus- 
trations, and there are numerous others 
who are doing excellent work in different 
fields of artistic endeavor. The Bohe- 
mian Club, in the eighties, and the 
Palette Club, later, were strong women's 
organizations. They are now but 
memories. 

The Chicago Society of Artists, 
formed in 1888, after the Art League 
and the Western Art Association had 
outlived their usefulness, eventually 
subsided into inefTectiveness. It was 
weakened by members who seceded to 
organize the Cosmopolitan Club whose 

[141] 



life was neither long nor brilliant and 
which eventually ran out. A little over 
twenty years ago a new Chicago 
Society of Artists came into existence 
which has continued to grow until its 
influence has become one of the greatest 
in the city. Contemporary with it were 
the Art Association and Municipal Art 
League, the latter finally absorbing the 
former. The League has leavened and 
related large groups of people with art 
activities and has had a hand in initiat- 
ing many of the civic beauty move- 
ments. Closely related to it in its 
functions is the Chicago Public School 
Art Society. It possesses a fine col- 
lection of paintings and prints which are 
loaned in rotation to the various schools 
and which help to elevate and direct 
the taste of the thousands of pupils. 
And there are various Women's Clubs 
which have their art committees and 
which hold exhibitions and receptions 
to give their members contact with 
what is taking place in the art world. 
During this period of formative art 
life we have been fortunate in some of 
our writers who have shown sympathy 
and appreciation of our efforts. A lay- 
man, J. Spencer Dickerson, wrote for a 
long time discriminating and entertain- 
ing reviews for various periodicals and 
he undoubtedly had much influence in 
guiding the taste of many people. Prob- 
ably James William Pattison, who was 
for years the vSecretary' of the Municipal 
Art League, helped materially by his 
kindly and effective criticism. He was 
an artist of ability and a fluent writer 
and talker. While sympathetic with all 
ideas his convictions were grounded in 
belief in highest craftsmanship. Isabel 
McDougall of the Post appreciated and 
upheld local accomplishment and Lena 
McCauley of the same journal has 
shown a keen understanding of our work 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



and the province of the newspaper in 
art criticism. Harriet Monroe, the 
editor of "Poetry," for a long period 
wrote interestingly for various journals 
and stirred us up with "rough electric 
shocks." 

Some ten years ago Kenyon Cox 
wrote of another important factor as fol- 
lows in the New York EveningPost, May 
3rd, 191 1 : "The hearty cooperation of 
all those in any way interested in art is 
generally facilitated by the existence of 
another institution, the Cliff Dwellers. 
Perched upon the top of the Orchestra 
building, overlooking the lake and 
almost opposite the Institute, is this 
artistic and literary Club * * * 
where, apparently, almost every one 
who is any one in Chicago may be met 
on any day but Sunday between twelve 
and two o'clock. There come the 
painters, the sculptors, and the archi- 
tects, the writers and the musicians, 
and there also come the bankers and 
the officials of the Institute; there, over 
the coffee-cups, many a scheme is dis- 
cussed, and those schemes that survive 
such discussion are finally launched. 
If such a club existed in New York it 
would not be such weary work trying to 
procure adequate exhibition facilities for 
the National Academy of Design and 
the other artistic societies centered in 
that city. Because such a club exists 
in Chicago they have the 'Friends of 
American Art.' " 

I have written of those men who 
were active in the early days before the 
Columbian Exposition and of whom 
some have carried on to the present 
time, and of the women painters before 
and since, but there are still a number 
that should be adequately characterized 
and whose participation in our field 
of art is important. There is a large 
body of teachers who have sacrified 
something in accepting the vocation 



and one finds in them a group that has 
made their impress not only in the 
modeling of young art life but in our 
exhibitions. Charles Francis Browne, 
a Massachusetts man, came here in 
1892, entering into the art life of the 
city whole heartedly and into compan- 
ionship with its workers. During the 
period of his activities he taught in the 
school, lectured, wrote, and produced 
landscapes of a high order. The Bos- 
ton and Philadelphia art schools gave 
him a basis of craftsmanship to which 
was added the influence of various 
trips abroad. Many well designed, 
tender and richly toned pictures came 
from his brush. An annual exhibitor 
in the National Academy of Design, 
Adam E. Albright, has contributed to 
the joy of those who love real children 
at play, sunny and pleasing in their 
presentation. Karl Buehr, bom in 
Germany, but owing more in his art to 
France, shows much clever invention, 
pleasing color, and fine drawing in his 
figure arrangements, both in and out 
of doors. 

Psychology is not often depicted, yet 
Wellington J. Reynolds has displayed a 
number of canvases that exhibit a 
thorough technique and well illustrate 
his ideas. Sunlight, with strong con- 
trasts of warm and cold color, appeals 
to Frederick F. Fursman and F. De- 
Forrest Schook is happy with delicate, 
luminous effects, while John W. Norton 
makes beautiful somber decorations. 
Albert H. Krchbiel has painted some 
scholarly decorations and refined land- 
scapes. Walter M. Clute taught and 
painted well, dying with expectation 
of greater accomplishments. Men- 
tion should be made of Leon Roec- 
ker, Walter Sargent, Cornelius Botke, 
Adolph R.Shultz, Antonin Sterba.A. H. 
Schmidt, Albert H. Ullrich, Dr. G. E. 
Colburn, Wm. Clusman, J. Jeffrey 

[142] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



Grant, L. O. Griffith, Oscar Gross, 
Beatrice Levy, E. Martin Hennings, 
Edward J. Holslag, Alfred Juergens, 
Arvid Ny'holm, Fred V. Poole and Allan 
E. Philbrick, as constant contributors 
and upholders of our exhibitions. 

A native son, Frederic Clay Bartlett, 
has gone far in developing a distinctly 
personal expression of artistic beauty 
and Frederic M. Grant has opened up 
a delightful field of decorative imagin- 
ings. Frank V. Dudley makes the pic- 
turesqueness of the Dunes sympathe- 
tically alluring in its various seasons. 
Etching and painting are equally suc- 
cessful in the handling of Charles W. 
Dahlgreen, and Carl R. Kraft is achiev- 
ing reputation through landscapes of a 
highly meritorious quality. Rudolph 
Ingerle depicts with appreciative in- 
sight the hills and dales of the Ozarks. 
It is through the doors of the Palette 
and Chisel Club that many of these men 
have come out into larger fields and it 
should be counted one of the big in- 
fluences in assisting and shaping the 
careers of our artists. 

For years Edgar S. Cameron has con- 
tributed pictures of undoubted merit 
to our exhibitions and has painted a 
number of successful decorations. That 
John F. Stacey teaches more than he 
paints is our loss, for he knows his craft. 
Victor Higgins' art has developed into 
a synthetic rendering in lovely color 
arrangements of New Mexico subjects. 
Between illustrating and teaching Allan 
vSt. John finds time to execute some 
clever canvases. 

The art impetus is so strong that 
several of our business men have 
achieved prominence enough to be 
made professional members of our art 
societies and are among the regular 
exhibitors. They are Edward B. But- 
ler, Charles H. Dewey and Wallace 
DeWolf. Recently the Business Men's 



Art Club has been organized with some 
fifty members where regular students' 
work goes on. 

The Commission for the Encourage- 
ment of Local Art to purchase works of 
art to be placed in the City Hall, the 
public schools and other public build- 
ings of the city was the creation of 
Mayor Harrison who has always been a 
sympathetic and knowing friend in 
aesthetic matters. The Arts Club, 
during the social season, holds frequent 
and varied exhibitions. 

In this article I have not attempted 
to give even the names of many that 
might well be included nor have I 
written about those who no longer con- 
sider Chicago their home. Some of 
these return from time to time to 
exhibit or execute commissions. In 
most cases the mere mention of their 
names whould be enough to recall their 
successes. I think I have shown how 
alive we are and that we have been most 
vital in the development and life of 
American art. I believe that the ad- 
vancement of today would not exist 
upon the high plane that it does had 
it not been for the deep-rooted idealism 
of the West that nurtured Lincoln. 
Our art schools are founded upon 
ideas that seek to promote the develop- 
ment of craftsmanship and individual- 
ity and they are largely attended. 
That of the Art Institute alone numbers 
some 3,000 students each year, who 
come from all parts of the world. 
Chicago wishes to stand solidly for the 
encouragement, development and pa- 
tronage of American art. As in 1855, 
when her citizens asked Healy to make 
this city his home, so today she wants 
the best that our own art can create. 
That this hope will eventually be ful- 
filled there is no doubt since the organ- 
ization of the Friends of American 
Art, whose function is to that end. 



[1431 




Overlooking the Grand Staircase, Art Institute of Chicago. 




West Front Art Institute of Chicago. 



THE ART INSTITUTE OF CHICAGO 



By Clarence A. Hough 



THE Art Institute of Chicago was 
incorporated on May 24, 1879, 
"for the founding and mainte- 
nance of schools of art and design, the 
formation and exhibition of art col- 
lections" and, with the still wider 
purpose of cultivating and extending 
knowledge and appreciation of the fine 
arts. 

While the Institute was, in a measure, 
the outgrowth of previous art im- 
pulses or associations in Chicago yet it 
possessed an immediate individuality 
that distinguished it at once from all 
former organizations. For several years 
following its incorporation in '79, its 
possessions, visitors and art school were 
cared for in modest rented quarters in 
the business heart of the city. Interest 
in the institution grew with remarkable 
rapidity and a corresponding expansion 



followed quickly. In less than four 
years the Institute opened its own 
building on Van Buren Street and with- 
in the next half decade erected an ad- 
dition and then added the adjoining 
fine four-story stone Romanesque build- 
ing on Michigan Boulevard at the 
corner of Van Buren Street, the present 
home of the Chicago Club. 

The next event of consequence, and 
the one which first gave the Art In- 
stitute international importance, was 
the purchase in 1890 of fifteen of the 
choicest Old Dutch Masters from the 
famous collection of the Princess Demi- 
doff of Florence. These paintings, with 
other important canvasses of their 
school, now hang in the Charles Law- 
rence Hutchinson Gallery of Old 
Masters. This gallery has been named 
in honor of Mr. Hutchinson, who has 



[145] 



^ ■ 
\ 




> *^^ 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



been the president of the Institute for 
nearly forty years. Rembrandt, 

Rubens, Van Dyck, Hals, Hobbema, 
Van Ostade, Ter Borch, Jan Steen, 
Teniers, Ruysdael, Van de Velde and 
other masters are finely represented in 
this gallery. 

The next step of importance in the 
history of the Institute followed soon 
and was closely connected with the 
Chicago World's Fair of 1893. There 
was a general sentiment in Chicago that 
some permanent building should be 
erected in connection with the Fair 
which should remain as a memorial of 
the great exposition. This sentiment 
soon crystallized into the proposition 
that there should be an art temple on 
the Lake Front, and that this structure, 
at the close of the Fair, should become 
the permanent home of the Art Insti- 
tute. By a three party agreement be- 
tween the City of Chicago, the direc- 
tors of theWorld'sFair and the Trustees 
of the Art Institute, the city granted the 
use of 400 feet of frontage on Michigan 
Boulevard at the foot of Adams Street 
on which a building should be erected 
at the expense of the Art Institute and 
the World's Fair, the former to bear the 
greater part of the cost, the latter to 
have the use of the building for the 
World's Congresses, and the Institute 
to have permanent possession and 
occupancy after the termination of the 
Fair. The principal condition of oc- 
cupancy by the Art Institute, as de- 
fined in the agreement, was that the 
museum should be free to the public 
on Wednesdays, Saturdays, Sundays 
and public holidays. Immediately fol- 
lowing the close of the exposition the 
museum collections were installed, and 
on December 8, 1893, the permanent 
home of the Institute was formerly 
opened to the public and its doors have 
never since been closed for a single day. 

[149] 



In later years the Ryerson Library, 
FuUerton Hall and the large East Wing 
were added to the main building, giving 
a total floor space of 120,000 square feet, 
devoted to about 150 galleries, school- 
rooms, studios and offices. The Ryer- 
son Library contains 14,000 volumes 
and is one of the few libraries in the 
world devoted exclusively to art. Im- 
mediately adjoining the Ryerson is the 
Burnham Library with 2,500 volumes 
on architectural subjects. Fullerton 
Hall is an auditorium seating 500 
people. Here are held most of the im- 
portant lectures and entertainments of 
the Institute. 

The museum possesses more than 750 
paintings ; i ,000 pieces of sculpture, in- 
cludingcasts, originals and antique frag- 
ments; thousands of prints, etchings, 
engravings and lithographs; 1,500 tex- 
tiles of ancient and modern times, in- 
cluding Egyptian and Peruvian ex- 
amples to the 1 8th century; collections 
of china, potteries, porcelains, etc., 
among them the Blanxius collection of 
English potteries and porcelains, one of 
the most complete extant. Among the 
well known collections, in addition to 
the Old Masters mentioned above, are 
the Henry Field, A. A. Munger and 
Nickerson memorial collections which 
include canvasses by painters of the 
Barbizon school and early American 
landscape and figure painters. Modem 
art is well represented by a group of 
nearly 100 paintings presented to the 
Institute by the Friends of American 
Art, an association organized ten years 
ago for the purpose of purchasing and 
presenting to the Institute works by 
American artists. One gallery in the 
Institute is occupied entirely by paint- 
ings by George Inness, the gift of Ed- 
ward B. Butler of Chicago. The col- 
lection of paintings in the museum has 
been greatly enriched within late 




Rembrandt's portrait of "Young Girl at Half Open Door." One ul l1i^ iii.ai\ lrca:,uicN ol tliu Art In-,Uuite 

of Chicago. 




'The Song of the Lark," By Jules Breton. The most popular painting in the Art Institute of Chicago. 



\ Ti 




Assumption of the Virgin, By EI Greco. Art Institute of Chicago. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



months by the addition of the im- 
portant Kimball and Palmer bequests. 
These two collections contain important 
examples of the work of some of the 
world's greatest painters. Among the 
painters represented are Rembrandt, 
Turner, Reynolds, Gainsborough, 
Romney, Millet, Delacroix, Corot, 
Renoir, Zorn, Monet, Degas and Puvis 
de Chavannes. 

The museum contains a large number 
of interesting and important art objects 
of antiquity, many of which have been 
presented by The Antiquarian vSociety 
of the Art Institute. 

The permanent collections of the 
Institute are of great value to the stu- 
dent and the general pubHc but they 
constitute only a part of what is offered 
to both. Each year there are about 
sixty temporary exhibitions of paint- 
ings, sculpture, architecture and apphed 
arts consisting of group collections, 
"one man shows" and loans from pri- 
vate collections. A number of these 
exhibitions are conducted under the 
auspices of art societies and organiza- 
tions. At the close of each school year 
there is a large and interesting exhibi- 
tion of the work of the students. There 
are literally hundreds of other passing 
attractions during the year in the form 
of lectures, association meetings, con- 
certs, pageants and other entertain- 
ments in Fullerton Hall and the Club 
Room. These affairs are of vital im- 
portance to the Institute in its mission 
of carrying art to the people. The 
patrons, visitors and students are thus 
kept constantly informed of current 
achievement and thought in the art 
world and the increasing thousands of 
citizens who constantly are drawn to 
the exhibits during the year, are evi- 
dence of what the Institute is doing for 
art among the people. vSince the open- 
ing of the present home of the Institute 
twenty million people have visited the 

[153] 



galleries, libraries, school and audi- 
torium; the annual attendance has 
usually passed the million mark and at 
the present writing the Institute's 
membership stands at about 13,000. 

Three years ago the Institute, in con- 
formity with its purpose to spread the 
knowledge and appreciation of art, 
widened its field of endeavor through 
the mediimi of an extension department 
which carries the message of art in the 
home to cities and towns far and near. 
This intimate and rather specific propa- 
ganda is called "The Better Homes 
Institute." A lecturer with an elabo- 
rate equipment, consisting of oil paint- 
ings, a collapsible room, movable fire- 
place, windows and doors, draperies, 
house and garden plans, photographs, 
etc., conducts a five day series of lec- 
tures and practical demonstrations on 
how to build, decorate and furnish the 
home. 

The school of the Art Institute is 
cosmopolitan. It draws a patronage of 
3,000 students a year from many states 
and nations. Many of the graduates 
and former students of the school have 
won fame and success in the art world. 
The faculty of the school is composed of 
about forty instructors and teachers. 
Eminent painters from the world over 
are from time to time secured as tem- 
porary instructors— among them have 
been such men as vSoroUa, Mucha, 
Chase, Hawthorne, Melchers, Carlsen 
and Bellows. 

The ever increasing support of the 
people, the constant vigilance and care 
of officers and trustees, and the be- 
quests from philantliropic citizens have 
combined to make The Art Institute of 
Chicago what it is today — an educator 
of professional artists and art instruc- 
tors, and an active, militant and effec- 
tive agent in disseminating the appre- 
ciation of art among all classes of people. 




Portrait of George Washington, By Gilbert Stewart. Collection of Arthur Meeker. 




The Sacred Grove, Bv Pierre Puvis de Chavaiiiies. Collection of Mrs. Potter Palmer. 



SOME COLLECTORS OF PAINTINGS 

By Lena M. McCaulEy. 



LEvSvS than a century since its 
settlement, and but half a cen- 
tury rising Phoenix-like from the 
flames of the Great Fire of 1871 that 
burned out its heart and veiled in 
gloom the ambitions of its founders, 
Chicago in these short years has estab- 
lished itself as a stronghold of the fine 
arts in America with an enthusiastic 
spirit of enterprise that is stimulating 
to the energies of producers and col- 
lectors alike. 

Among the pioneer city fathers were 
men of vision who inherited culture 
from their homes in older cities. In 
the early thirties the village was named 
the "Garden City" because of the 
tasteful home grounds and the subur- 
l)an groves of native oaks, willows, 
dogwoods and wealth of prairie flora at 
the head of Lake Michigan, a condition 
of natural beauty which in later years 
gave a park system and the Forest 
Preserves to the metropolis. In look- 



ing backward, it is believed that the 
unusual number of painters of land- 
scape of the middle west and Lake 
Alichigan region, and the preponder- 
ance of paintings of landscape in private 
collections may in some measure be 
due to the influence of the woodlands 
of the Desplaines and Chicago Rivers 
and the Dunes of Lake Michigan with 
prairie lands and their sunset skies 
between. 

With a background of nature and un- 
limited opportunity for expansion and 
business advantage, the democratic 
social leaders of Chicago accepted an 
artistic illumination in ways peculiarly 
their own. The owners of stately 
homes on the North vSide, on Michigan 
Avenue south of the river, and on the 
west side of the stream — tliree colonies 
of individuality, had their own house- 
hold gods in ancestral portraits, some 
of the schools of Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
Sir Thomas Lawrence, Romney, Hop- 



;i5S] 




The Sea, By William Ritschel. Collection of Paul Schulze. 



ner and Raebum and others proud of 
Colonial inheritance from Stuart and 
Copley. That collectors of the ear'y 
time had public spirit appears in the 
catalogue of the "First Exhibition of 
Statuary, Paintings, etc." which opened 
at Burch's Building, Wabash avenue 
and Lake Street May 9, 1959. Lieut. 
Col. James D. Graham U. S. A. was 
chairman of the committee and Leonard 
W. Volk the Curator. Mr. Volk 
executed five pieces of the fifteen 
pieces of sculpture, one of these being 
a life size statue of Stephen A. Douglas. 
G. P. A. Healy, the portrait painter, in- 
vited west to execute commissions 



(1855) had seventeen portraits in a col- 
lection of 305 canvases of European 
origin. Col. Graham loaned paintings 
by Da Vinci, Van Ostade, Salvator 
Rosa and Titian, and thus is among the 
first private collectors of Chicago. In 
the meantime Martin O'Brien had come 
from New York to sell prints to col- 
lectors and in 1855 opened the first Art 
Dealers' Gallery. When the Academy 
of Design was organized in 1866 by 
L. W. Volk, Walter Shirlaw and F. S. 
Church, Martin O'Brien was a Fellow 
and John La Farge, G. P. A. Healy and 
Elkins, the landscape painter, ex- 
hibitors. 

[156] 









■■-..- *^; 




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if ■ " V 




£ ■'i.-^^m^^^'"^ '^:<' . . 


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Interior of Forest, By Diaz. Collection of C. Bai Lihme. 



The influence of G. P. A. Healy, 
painting 575 portraits of eminent men 
and women of Illinois in the years be- 
tween 1855 and 1867, laid the founda- 
tions for a general interest in portrait- 
ure. Mr. Healy's presentments of 
statesmen of the Civil War period and 
prominent citizens are highly regarded 
today. The devastating Great Fire of 
1 87 1 which wiped out the handsome 
homes on the north side destroyed 
many portraits by Mr. Healy. At his 
death not long ago he bequeathed his 
own private collection of portraits to 
the Newberry Library where they hang 
today. The Historical vSociety and the 

[157] 



Art Institute possess examples of the 
original collection owned by the artist. 

While the Great Fire of 1871 had 
wiped out homes, art galleries in the 
making, the public library and what- 
ever art treasure the city had acquired, 
in less than eight years on May 24, 1 879, 
the Art Institute was incorporated, the 
school opened and in 1883 the first ex- 
hibition held in the Art Institute 
Galleries. Like the initial display of 
1859, it was a loan collection, and is 
evidence that lovers of the fine arts 
had begun to acquire works of art. 

The World's Columbian Exposition 
of 1893 gave the greatest impetus of all 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 




Beata Beatrix, By Dante Gabriel Rossetti. 
lection of Chas. L. Hutchinson. 



Col- 



to a curiosity concerning the arts of 
diflferent lands and the opportunity to 
purchase paintings. Artists came from 
abroad. Anders Zorn of vSweden, Blom- 
mers of Holland and his companions, 
painters from France and England 
directly contributed to the Chicago 
collectors. 

Many private collections of paintings 
date their beginnings to the artistic 
awakening of the World's Fair. With 
that era Chicago became more cosmo- 
politan, its wealth growing rapidly, and 
great fortunes were accumulated in the 
"Golden Age" preceding the "World 
War" just at an end. The Art Insti- 



tute museum testifies to the private 
collectors of that era, the Henry Field 
Memorial Room, the Elizabeth Ham- 
mond Stickney Room, the A. A. Mun- 
ger and the Nickerson Collections of 
paintings, prints and oriental anti- 
ciuities. It was the private collector 
who laid the stones of the institution 
that today welcomes over 1,000,000 of 
visitors annually to its galleries. 

To Charles L. Hutchinson the presi- 
dent, and to Martin A. Ryerson, vice- 
president, of the Art Institute, Chicago 
and the present generation of private 
collectors in particular, owes a debt of 
gratitude. They have added treasure 
generously and have persuaded others 
to give to the exhibits. The hospitality 
of the institution leads to educational 
influences among citizens at large, and 
there is not a collector to be named who 
does not feel responsive to the purposes 
of the museum and who does not realize 
the power it has to elevate taste and to 
satisfy a hunger for the solace of art 
among the people. Hence, Chicago's 
private collectors do not stand apart, 
but are bound up with the civic inter- 
ests in art matters. 

Mr. Alartin A. Ryerson, vice-presi- 
dent of the Art Institute, is first in 
honors as a private collector. Mr. 
Ryerson is a persistent traveler, a stu- 
dent of art and a keen observer of the 
changing fashions in technique and the 
conditions that rule the periods of art 
production. His taste has a liberal 
range from the early Primitives of 
Italy to the transitional styles of today. 
While his purchase of the "Old Masters" 
of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, 
Perugino, Hans Memlinc, Ghirlandajo, 
Maitre de Moulins, School of the 
Amienois, Arentino vSpinello, Jacopo 
del Sellaio, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, 
Allegretto Nuzi, Neroccio di Bartolom- 
meo, Alessandro Magnasco, Giovanni 

[158] 




Rembrandt with a Steel Gurgct, By Rembrandt. Collection of Frank G. Logan. 



I T'? 




Landscape, By Cuiot. Collection of Charles L. Hutchinson. 



di Paolo, and Colijn de Coter and 
Bartholomeus de Bruyn and their kin- 
dred, might lead the viewer to believe 
that Mr. Ryerson preferred to choose 
among these and the Flemish and Dutch 
of this and later periods — Gheraerd 
David, Gerard Ter Borch, Jan Breughel 
the Younger, Joos van der Beke, Jan 
van Goyen, Pieter de Hooch, Adriaen 
van Ostade, Casper Netscher, Jacob 
van Ruisdael, David Teniers the 
Younger, Rogier van der Weyden and 
Lucas van Leyden, together with the 
Spaniards, Lucientes y Goya, and 
"Spanish Artist Unknown," the Vene- 
tian Guardi, the Genoese Alessandro 
Magnasco, the German Sebastian Scheel, 
one has but to turn from the doorway 
of the gallery in which he houses a 



"Loan Collection" at the Art Institute 
to discover that he has made recent 
additions to his collections of modem 
French and secured unusual examples 
of American art. 

In time, the collection of canvases 
which Mr. Ryerson is gathering from 
the studios as well as the markets of 
modern French painters, will be monu- 
mental of the era ushered in by Claude 
Monet and Pierre August Renoir. His 
French Impressionists galler>' contains 
paintings of Monet's "Garden at Ar- 
genteul," "Poplars at Givemy," "The 
Coast Guard," "vSea and Cliffs," "Chff 
Road," "Misty Morning" executed in 
different years, his Venice "L'Eglise 
San Gorgio" and from Monet's English 
tour the paintings of "Waterloo" and 

[160] 




Dutch Fishing Boats, By J. M. W. Turner Collection of Mrs. W. W. Kimball. 



"Westminster" — and in yet another 
mood a study in color of an arrange- 
ment of fruit. Thus there is a compre- 
hensive representation of phases of the 
life work of the great Frenchman. 

The canvases by Renoir hanging in 
the same gallery, illustrate his in- 
dividuality beside the productions of 
his brother artist. Mr. Ryerson's Re- 
noirs including the figure paintings of a 
"Child in a White Dress" and "The 
Sisters" with happy arrangements of 
fruit and flowers suggest the growth of 
a particular collection with a definite 
purpose. Contributing to the larger 
general collection of French painting 
since Monet and of the present are 
nearly one hundred canvases each 

[1611 



chosen with care as speaking for its 
master who is working overseas today. 
Mr. Ryerson's twenty-two water- 
colors by Winslow Homer belong to the 
years of the noblest powers of this 
celebrated American. Such a group of 
drawings is convincing of the direct 
methods of a great painter in which 
technique and poetry are equally bal- 
anced. The catalogue includes studies 
from Winslow Homer's excursion to the 
Bahamas, his months in England and 
his fruitful period at the Atlantic 
Coast. Among the subjects from the 
Bahamas are "The Gulf Stream," 
"Stowing vSail" and "After the Tor- 
nado" — themes that developed into 
great compositions later. From over 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 




Altar Piecu, ii\ Gii)\aiiiii HaUisla Tit'iiulu. Collection 
of Martin A. Ryerson. 



seas came "Scarboro, England," "The 
Watcher," "The Return," "Tyne- 
mouth Priory" and "Flamboro Head." 
Adventures in the Adirondacks resulted 
in "Northwoods Club," "The Rapids- 
Hudson River," "End of the Day," 
"Camp Fire," "The Lone Boat" and 
"The Guide," and at his favorite 
studio on the Atlantic coast he painted 
"Breaking vStorm — Coast of Maine," 
" Marblehead, ' ' " Sunshine and Shade — 



Prout's Neck," "Breakers," "Evening 
Calm" and "Breaking Wave — Prout's 
Neck." 

Mr. Ryerson is an insatiable col- 
lector of the arts of all time, but as yet 
chiefly of the painters of Europe. His 
example as a discriminating collector 
has inspired his associates, and should 
the day ever come when his private 
collections will be displayed in their 
entirety, the feast and all its surprises 
will be for the public and Chicago 
greatly benefit thereby. 

The Mrs. W. W. Kimball Collection 
of paintings assembled year after year 
under the most exacting scrutiny of 
every canvas and its history, gave her 
home, 1 80 1 Prairie avenue, the quality 
of a small art gallery of the noblest 
order. Mrs. Kimball had traveled and 
acquainted herself with art collections 
of the first rank and when she decided 
to acquire for herself, she had the 
wisdom to ask the service of con- 
scientious art dealers with knowledge 
of the paintings on the market and the 
means of obtaining them. Her draw- 
ing room and library adorned with 
bronzes and art objects, each with its 
romance, the walls hung with paintings 
rare in the world's history of two 
centuries, was a Mecca to which only 
the few could make pilgrimages, al- 
though the doors were thrown open to 
the American Federation of Arts in 
Convention in Chicago some ten years 
ago. 

At the death of Mrs. Kimball, June 
1 92 1, her will bequeathed the paintings, 
about twenty in all, valued at $1,- 
000,000 to the Art Institute, in which 
thc}^ are hanging today. Her last 
acquisition was "The Keeper of the 
Herd" by Jean Francois Millet, the 
finest example of the Barbizon master's 
work in the west. The portrait of Rem- 
brandt's father, "Harmen Gerritz van 



[162] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



Rijn" painted in 1631 and signed in 
monogram by Rembrandt, is a valued 
canvas. The Sir Joshua Reynolds 
portrait "Lady Sarah Bunbury sacri- 
ficing to the Graces" is famous in its 
school, and "Dutch Fishing Boats" by 
J. M. W. Turner commands regard as a 
thrilling example of the spectacular 
compositions by this eminent English- 
man. 

"vStoke-by-Nayland" (Suffolk) a 
richly liued luxuriant landscape by 
John Constable (1776-1837) ; the por- 
trait of the Countess of Bristol and a 
landscape by Thomas Gainsborough 
(172 7-1 788), portrait of Mrs. Wolff 
(18 15) by Sir Thomas Lawrence, por- 
trait Lady Francis Russell (Anne Ker- 
shaw) painted by George Romney 
( 1 785-1 787) and an Italian Landscape 
with white cliff and castle by Richard 
Wilson of the same period, constitute a 
worthy representation of the British 
painters of the eighteenth century of 
which the Lady Sarah Bunbury of Sir 
Joshua Reynolds is the brightest star in 
the galaxy of the arts assembled. 

In addition to the lovely canvas, "The 
Keeper of the Herd", by Millet, Mrs. 
Kimball's group of French masters in- 
cludes, "Bathing Nymphs and Child", 
(landscape) by Corot, "Pond in the 
Woods," by Diaz, Landscape by Jules 
Dupre, and of the modern impression- 
istic painters the compositions, " Woods ; 
Village Church in Background, "by 
Georges d'Espagnat (1870); "Nym- 
phaea," Waterscape (1907), Bordighera 
(1884) and "A Field of Flowers in 
France," by Claude Monet (1840-); 
"Banks of River" (1877) by Camille 
Pisarro; "The Stout Poplar" (1891) 
by Alfred Sisley and "Cattle in a Hilly 
Country" by Emile Van Marcke (1827- 
185 1). Of the Dutch School there is a 
"Wooded Landscape with Cottage and 




Madonna with Angels, By Colyn de Coter. Collec- 
tion of Martin A. Ryerson. 

Horseman" by Hobbema (i 638-1 709) 
and a "Waterfall near a Castle" by 
Jacob van Ruisdael, strikingly char- 
acteristic of the masters. All canvases 
in this collection bear the signatures of 
the artists. 

The private collection of paintings 
by French masters of the nineteenth 
century made by the late Mrs. Potter 
Palmer and long housed in a gallery 
built for them adjoining her residence on 
the Lake vShore Drive stands alone in its 
importance. Mrs. Palmer traveled ex- 
tensively, visiting artists in their studios 



[163] 




Landscape, By George Inness. Collection of Cyrus H. McCormick. 




Lady Bunbury, By Sir Joshua Reynolds, Kimball Collection. 



Its' 




Clouds ami Miiishine, By A. H 



Cresmer. 



and acquainting herself with the arriv- 
ing styles and the younger painters 
making themselves famous in and near 
Paris. Her private gallery to which 
she made additions until the time of her 
death a few years ago, was open to the 
public and a knowledge of the cele- 
brated group of men of the Barbizon 
School and those after them, Monet, 
A-Ianet, Renoir, Sisley, Pissaro, Raf- 
faelli and Puvis de Chavannes was 
brought into the educational field of 
art in the western city. By a generous 
agreement of her heirs, the Art Insti- 
tute has the privilege of selection of the 
most desirable paintings without limit- 
ing their choice to the $100,000, named 
in the bequest. 

Mrs. Potter Palmer's gallery includes 
"The Sacred Grove" by Puvis de Cha- 
vannes, a composition that embodies 
the peculiar characteristics of this poetic 
Frenchman whose special gifts were 



exercised in mural paintings of greater 
size. The eight examples of Jean 
Charles Cazin are illuminating of the 
breadth of vision of this master. Here 
is the "Adam and Eve Driven from 
Eden," "Magdalen in the Desert," 
"Judith Leaving the Walls of Bethuha," 
"Bathers' Breakfast," "Harvest Field" 
and "Cafe de la Paix" and a "Night 
Scene." 

From Camille Corot, there is a 
variety of compositions to surprise the 
average viewer building his knowledge 
on the typical museum landscapes 
known to all. The six Corots present 
"Amalfi Italy," "Evening Landscape," 
"Ville d'Avray," "Fisherwoman of Zuy- 
decote-op-Zee," "Interrupted Reading" 
and the notable "Orpheus Saluting the 
Light." The four canvases by Jean 
Francois Millet maintain the popular 
ideal in "Hilltop, Shepherdess and 
Sheep," "Little Shepherdess," "The 



fl66] 




Morning, By Blakelock. Collection of Ralph L. Cudney. 



vSheep Shearers," and "Rail vSplitter." 
There is a "Wood Interior," by Diaz, 
"Lion Hunt," by Delacroix, "Reverie," 
by Bastien-Lepage, two paintings of 
women by Besnard, and a "Cattle 
Scene" by Troy on. 

By means of the striking figure paint- 
ings, "The Dancer," "The Morning 
Bath" and "On the Stage," Mrs. Palmer 
introduced Edgar Degas to the art 
public of Chicago. Claude Monet's 
four typical canvases, as many by 
Camille Pissarro, "Horse Racing and 
Regattas on the Mediterranean," by 
Edouard Manet, a trio of studies of 
Paris by Jean Francois RaffacUi, and 
four canvases by August Renoir, "Cat- 
tle Scene," by Troyon, "Le Bretonne," 
by Dagnan-Bouveret, "Village Street 
Moret,"bySisley ."Twilight , "by Lerolle , 
two water color sketches by Anton 
Mauve and a "Harbor Scene at Sunset," 
by Jongkind, both from Holland — are 
exceptional works. W'ith these is an 
effective selection from American paint- 
ers — George De Forest Brush, Mary 
Cassatt, Eastman Johnson, George 



Hitchcock, Gari Melchers and the well 
known "SouthamptonWater," by James 
McNeill Whistler. To these must be 
added the distinguished portrait of Mrs. 
Palmer by Anders Zorn. 

As President of the Art Institute 
longer than three decades, the first 
interest of Mr. Charles L. Hutchinson 
in the matter of collecting, is not for 
himself but for the museum and its 
galleries. Mr. Hutchinson has an inde- 
pendent taste cultivated by travel 
which has led to an intimacy with the 
famous collections abroad and in Amer- 
ica, and the producing artists of the 
present. His liberal point of view ac- 
cepts the worthy expressions of the day, 
while the private gathering of paintings 
that he loans to the Art Institute from 
time to time, indicates that he has 
bought the pictures of all periods be- 
cause he liked them for one reason or 
another, the gallery being a museum 
exposition of periods and masters on a 
small scale. 

"Beata Beatrix," by Dante Gabriel 
Rossetti of the Pre-Raphaelites, is the 



[167] 



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Maj. Andr6, Attributed to Sir Thomas Lawrence. Collection of Charles F. Gunther, now at the Chicago 

Historical Society. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



brilliant canvas of this collection. The 
portrait of Joachim by George Freder- 
ick Watts is notable. There are repre- 
sentative works by Corot, Daubigny, 
Dupre, Diaz and Fromentin. "The 
Laughing Boy" by Hals, "Skaters" by 
Van der Neer, small paintings by 
Teniers, Baron de Leys, Thomas de 
Keyser, Netscher, Palamedes, and mod- 
ern canvases by Ranger and Henri, 
with examples of the Early Italian and 
a number of unsigned works, make a 
pleasing exhibition rather for the sake 
of what pictures ofTer than from the 
point of view of the specialist collector. 

Mr. Frank G. Logan's home has 
congenial wall spaces for the enshrining 
of his portrait of " Rembrandt Wearing 
a Steel Gorget," by the immortal 
Dutchman. In association with it are 
"Seamen" and "Peasant Interior," 
by Josef Israels, superior landscapes by 
Weissenbruch, De Bock and Mauve, 
" Cattle, " by Troyon, " Landscape with 
Figures," by Corot, and choice com- 
positions from Dupre, Diaz, Jacque and 
Rousseau, and by way of variation in a 
somewhat extensive gathering admir- 
able portraits by Hoppner and Opie of 
the English school of over a century ago. 

William O. Goodman, associated with 
Mr. Logan as trustee of the Art Insti- 
tute, is first of all interested in the larger 
collections of the Friends of American 
Art. In his home is the result of many 
years intimate interest in the contem- 
porary art of Europe with work of 
Americans who have arrived at dis- 
tinction. Mr. Goodman's refined selec- 
tion is shown in his assembly of the 
paintings by Cazin (3), Jacque, Diaz, 
Van Marcke, Harpignies, L'Sidaner, 
Israels (2),Blommers, Mauve, Schreyer, 
Bouguereau, and the Americans Keith, 
Inness, Dewing, Murphy, Tryon and 
Benson and J. Francis Murphy, with 
a liberal choice of as many more from 

[169] 



the studios of the nineteenth century 
and after. 

The Edward B. Butler Collection of 
paintings by George Inness, one of the 
most valued galleries at the Art In- 
stitute, was the outcome of that gentle- 
man's increasing devotion to the ac- 
complishments of this masterly artist 
who had the appreciation of Europe and 
Great Britain as well as the praise of his 
own countrymen. Mr. Butler's twenty 
canvases by George Inness were pur- 
chased for a sum approaching $150,000. 
Mr. Inness' periods are represented in 
pictures from the Catskills dated 1867 
and 1870, a season in Italy, and France 
and that most fruitful period in the 
nineties when the "Sunset in the 
Valley," "Moonrise," "The Home of 
the Heron," "Early Morning Tarpon 
Springs," "Threatening" and "The 
Afterglow" were painted with other 
memorable canvases of the gallery 

As might be expected, in the interest- 
ing collection at Mr, Butler's home 
there is a "Silver Morning" by Inness. 
And characteristic of the American col- 
lector who rarely specializes on century 
old canvases but who is alive to his 
generation, Mr. Butler has acquired 
fine examples of the Dutch masters at 
the height of their powers not so long 
ago — Israels, Weissenbruch and Mauve, 
of Thaulow, eminent in his time, and 
Le Sidaner of France. He owns a 
dramatic western landscape by William 
Wendt, a marine by Paul Dougherty, 
and "In the Firelight" by Frank 
Benson of Boston with other works of 
interest. 

Mr. C. Bai Lihme's less than a 
dozen paintings familiar to the public 
includes "Sunrise in the Orchard," by 
George Inness (1892), a composition of 
the first rank. This and the land- 
scapes by Corot, Rousseau and Diaz 
and an A. H. Wyant, constitute one of 




Dr. Welsh Tennent, By Sir Henry Raeburn. Collection of the Art Institute, formerly of 
the R. Hall McCormick Collection. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



the most carefully selected of the per- 
sonal collections known in the city. All 
the canvases are of goodly size, all of 
exquisite charm in spirit and the magic 
of color. 

The Mrs. Francis Nielson gallery of 
twenty seven canvases is extraordinary 
because of the distinguished portraits of 
beautiful women of the family — that of 
JMrs. Neilson painted by J. J- vShannon 
and of Isabel and Alarion Neilson and 
of Ruth Morris, painted by Ruth von 
SchoUey, together with the portraits of 
Mrs. Veitsch and Jane Nesbit by Sir 
Henry Raeburn, Captain Porter by 
Sir Joshua Re3'nolds, "Master Tucker" 
and "Lady Bernard as Psyche," by 
Sir William Beechy. It is one of those 
galleries in which attention has been 
given to attractive subject material. 
Great names are represented from the 
Dutch, French and English Schools, 
while the eye at once recognizes that 
exceptional care was exercised in the 
choice. Among the paintings are "Old 
Age" and "A Labor of Love" by 
Israels, "The Harvest Wagon," by 
Gainsborough, "The vSeiners" and a 
landscape by Corot, landscapes by 
Daubigny, Dupre, Diaz and Richard 
Park Bonington, a "Golden Sunset" by 
Inness and representative canvases by 
Monet, Wyant and Alillais. 

Mr. and Mrs. Cyrus Hall McCor- 
mick's paintings illustrate the interest 
of art lovers at the beginning of the 
twentieth century. The enthusiasm for 
George Inness finds expression in five 
landscapes of the best period of the 
great American. A. H. Wyant, his con- 
temporary, is represented by "Keene 
Valley. ' ' The English School appears in 
the works of Sir Thomas Lawrence, 
John Constable, Old Crom2, Gains- 
borogh, Nasmyth and Hogarth. From 
the continent came a fine Bouguereau, 
and the works of Schreyer, Israels, Ziem, 



Diaz, Dupre, Harpignies, Corot, Jacque, 
Rousseau, Troyon, Van Marcke, Dau- 
chez Henner, Sanchez Penier,and more 
artists, the limited space at command 
in this article forbidding the descrip- 
tion and details that the subject well 
deserves. 

English portraiture of the eighteenth 
century has won the attention of Mrs. 
Arthur J. Meeker, whose choice of three 
portraits by vStuart, two by Peele, and 
others by Inman, Trumbull and Copley, 
comprise an exceptional gallery. 

The late James Viles collected paint- 
ings by Claude Monet at the height of 
the brilliant career of the French Im- 
pressionist. This group of rare beauty 
hangs in the family residence at Lake 
Forest. Mr. Arthur Aldis has a small 
but interesting collection in its begin- 
nings in modern art in his home at 
Lake Forest. 

Paul Schulze's gallery of American 
paintings has reached an importance 
entitling it to particular regard. Mr. 
Schulze's home in Kenilworth, Illinois, 
was a veritable museum of paintings 
and sketches by contemporary painters. 
He has become a selective collector 
rejecting many canvases that formerly 
interested him, to found a gallery in 
which only the best of Ben Foster, 
Gardner Symons, Redfield, Henri, Oct- 
man, Bruce Crane, William Ritschel 
and contemporaries appear in large, 
striking canvases. 

The late Dr. F. W. Gunsaulus was 
not only a collector of paintings and 
art objects but one whose enthusiasm 
stimulated others to acquire in special 
directions. 

Among active collectors Ralph Cud- 
ney is known for a keen discrimination 
in his purchase of canvases for a private 
gallery, jealously guarded from the 
public. He enjoys the elusive and 
poetic. The landscapes painted by 



[171] 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



Blakelock, Wyant, J. Francis Murphy 
and a rare figure painting by Fuller 
have histories in the records of dealers 
and museums. They hang on his 
walls with companion pictures of a 
kindred aristocracy. 

William T. Ciesmer is a leader among 
the younger collectors constructing in- 
dependent group? of the best works of 
American painters. Unlike the first 
Chicago collectors who went to Euro- 
pean art centers eagerly, Mr. Cudney, 
Mr. Cresmer, and Mr. Valentine show 
faith in the standards of American art. 
The six most important canvases in Mr. 
Cresmer's home where forty well chosen 
pictures are the foundations of a larger 
gallery, are "The Winding Path" by 
J. H. Twatchman (one of the very best 
Twachtmans)," Clouds and Sunshine," 
by Alexander H. Wyant, "Morning 
Englewood," by George Inness, "To the 
Rescue," by Winslow Homer, "Aloon- 
light-Enchanted Pool," by R. A. Blake- 
lock, and "Edge of the Swamp," by J. 
Francis Murphy. 

Mr. and Mrs. L. L. Valentine's 
private gallery possesses a number of 
small jewel like canvases including 
Blakelocks as well as a score of paint- 
ings by contemporary Americans. Mr. 
Valentine is an eager collector and his 
gallery is on the way to importance. 

Charles W. Dilworth gives his atten- 
tion to a collection of American painters 
owning compositions of his personal 
choice painted by J. Francis Murphy, 
H. O. Tanner, Ralph Blakelock,William 
Wendt, William Ritschel and Paul 
Dougherty and others of the period. 

Unique to the west is the practice of 
women's clubs and social organizations 
in establishing art galleries of the works 
of local painters. The Municipal Art 
League has a growing collection of 
paintings by artists of Chicago, one 



canvas being purchased every year. 
The Chicago Woman's Club, the Arche 
Club, the Chicago Woman's Aid and 
half a dozen more organizations af- 
filiated with the Municipal Art League, 
have private collections housed in their 
meeting rooms and estimated as worthy 
in art and of considerable value. 

An extensive survey of the field 
recalls notable collections that left 
their impression on artistic tastes in the 
west, and galleries of paintings in their 
beginnings in private homes which have 
taken root and promise much for the 
future. In view of the place of the 
family in our social life, it is permissible 
to speak of the R. Hall McCormick col- 
lection of paintings, principally of the 
English School , which was recently dis- 
persed on the death of Mr. McCormick 
but of which there remains the Sir 
Henry Raeburn portrait of "Dr. Welsh 
Tennent of Tennent House, Fife" a fine, 
well preserved example of the art of the 
English master. 

The Gunther Collection, made by 
Charles Gunther, a man of varied in- 
terests in a life time included much 
Americana in books, manuscripts, 
prints, antiquities and curious articles 
of historical value as well as paintings. 
The portrait of Maj. John Andre by Sir 
Thomas Lawrence, chosen from a vast 
number of canvases of British and 
American origin, hangs in the rooms of 
the Chicago Historical Society which is 
slowly but surely assembling an interest- 
ing gallery. The Newberry Library in- 
herited paintings by G. P. A. Healy. 
The Chicago Club has its collection of 
portraits of its officers and eminent 
members by equally great painters. 
Anders Zorn is represented here by one 
of his best portraits. The Union League 
Club owns over 200 well chosen can- 
vases by living American painters. 



[172] 



FRIENDS OF AMERICAN ART 

By Lena M. AIcCauley 



THE ORGANIZATION of the 
society, "The Friends of American 
Art," came from an inspiration of 
a Chicago artist, who beheved that the 
hour had arrived for a practical recog- 
nition of the achievements of our 
national painters and sculptors, by 
means of the acquisition of examples of 
their works worthy to be preserved in 
the Art Institute. Thus it happened 
that about 1909, some 150 members of 
the Art Institute and art patrons, 
united in a society agreeing each to 
pay $200 annually, creating a fund of 
^30.000 for the purchase of works of 
art deemed suitable for the gallery. Mr. 
William O. Goodman, a trustee of the 
Art Institute, was elected president and 
a board of directors including con- 
noisseurs and artists, controlled the 
activities. As a result, The Friends of 
American Art have purchased nearly 
100 canvases, pieces of sculpture and 
engravings, constituting a collection 
that in a measure surveys the field of 
production by American artists from 
colonial days through the 120 years of 
the republic, and redounds to the honors 
of our national art. Not least, the 
example of the Friends of American 
Art has been followed by museum 
associates east and west and has given 
an impetus to the formation of similar 
collections 

Since the enlargement of the Museum 
by the opening of the new East Wing, 
the Art Institute has been able to keep 
the Friends of American Art collection 
on exhibition continuously. As in all 
human affairs, the list of subscribers 
changes, but the interest continues 
unabated, new friends taking the place 
of those who have been obliged to sever 
connections, while the gift of the Good- 

[173] 



man Fund of $50,000 provides an in- 
come which when added to the annual 
revenue of the organization insures its 
continued purchasing power. 

The stranger unaware of the progress 
of American painting is amazed at the 
beauty, individuality and strength of 
the canvases hung in the exhibitions. 
It is possible to study the best periods, 
although the Colonial and the work of 
the last twenty years in contemporary 
painting and sculpture are more con- 
spicuous. The chief aim of the society 
has been to acquire, so far as its re- 
sources allow, a collection of modern 
American works of art representative 
of the best that is now being done and 
also of the present standard of art and 
taste. In addition to owning works by 
artists of established reputation, it 
seeks to encourage younger artists — 
to recognize them early by purchasing 
their works. This has had a whole- 
some effect on the production of the 
year, painters executing more import- 
ant and larger canvases with the hope 
of their being purchased for the collec- 
tion. Although the majority of pur- 
chases are made in Chicago, there is no 
rule to prevent other buying. 

While the whole spirit of the Friends 
of American Art is the encouragement 
of the contemporary painter, sculptor 
and engraver, it is believed that the 
assembly of the best of early American 
portrait painters will add value to the 
collection. Thus far there have been 
acquired attractive canvases — Thomas 
Sully's "Mrs. Lingen," Gilbert Stuart's 
"Maj. Gen. Henry Dearborn," John 
Singleton Copley's "Thomas Vawdrey," 
Henry Inman's "William Inman," and 
Benjamin West's "Portrait of a Man." 
"Psyche" and "Examination for Wit- 




Thomas William Vawdrey, By Juiin Singleton Copley. 




Mrs. Charles Clifford Dyer, by John Singer Sargent. 



17 r 




"He Who Is Without Sin," By Benjamin West. 




nn 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



nesses in a Trial for Witchcraft" by 
George Fuller are desirable reminders 
of the early nineteenth century. 

In the majority of modern pictures, 
the names of the National Academi- 
cians and standard bearers of ideals are 
affixed to the canvases. The gracious 
figure painting," Sunlight," by John W. 
Alexander contributes distinction to the 
gallery. Ralph Clarkson's "A Daughter 
of Armenia" is a stately piece of por- 
traiture. Louis Betts' "Milady" is 
notable in graciousness with a record of 
prize winning honors at the National 
Academy. And the signatures of J. 
McNeill Whistler, Winslow Homer and 
John Singer Sargent on their com- 
positions have an unquestioned value 
to the seeker for important names in 
the catalogues. 

To name pictures would not convey 
the vision of the walls of this brilliant 
collection. The committee acknowl- 
edges that it has made mistakes in 
purchases, errors of judgment possible 
to any collector, as every work of art is 
dependent upon the test of time and the 
rivalry of its environment. Yet as a 
whole the Friends of American art have 
succeeded in their altruistic aims of 
encouragement and assembled a dis- 
play of works reflecting the progress of 
the times, and good to look upon. 

Purchases are made from the annual 
exhibition of American Oils of every 
autumn, the Chicago Artists Exhibition 
and special shows during the year. 
Among the painters represented are 
Frank W. Benson, W. Elmer Schofield, 
John H. Twachtman, J. Alden Weir, 
Robert Spencer, Ben Foster, George 
Elmer Browne, William Ritschel, J. 
Francis Murphy, Oliver Dennett 
Grover, Daniel Garber, Childe Has- 
sam, Charles W. Hawthorne, Richard 
Miller, Carl F. Frieseke, Emil Carlsen, 
Gifford Beal, William Keith, Leon 



KroU, William M. Chase, Frank Duve- 
neck, Robert Henri, John C. Johansen, 
Katherine Dudley, Frank C. Peyraud, 
T. W. Dewing, Jonas Lie, Lawrence 
Mazzonovich, Grace Ravkin, George 
Bellows, Elliot Torrey, William Wendt, 
Frederick J. Waugh, L. H. Meakin, M. 
Jean McLane, Elihu Vedder, Everett 
L. Warner, Lawton Parker, Gardner 
Symons, W. Elmer Schofield, Randall 
Davey, Arthur B. Davies, Mary Foote, 
William P. Henderson, James R. Hop- 
kins, Guy C. Wiggins, Wilson Irvine, 
Howard Giles, W^alter Ufer, Edgar Cam- 
eron, Abram Poole, Elizabeth vSpar- 
hawk Jones, Henry Golden Dearth, 
and others, making a truly catholic 
gathering. 

"The Solitude of the Soul," an im- 
pressive marble group of larger than life 
figures by Lorado Taft, was the first 
purchase in sculpture by The Friends. 
" The Sower, " a gigantic male figure in 
bronze, startling in its superb quality, 
by Albin Polasek, is an important 
acquisition. " FightingBoys, " a bronze 
fountain by Janet Scudder, "Dancing 
Girl and Fauns" and "Indian and 
Pronghorn Antelope , " by Paul Manship , 
(bronze) and "Eleanor" (marble) by 
Chester Beach are in the class of the well 
chosen. 

American painters, sculptors and 
artists in various media have sub- 
stantial encouragement continually be- 
fore them in the many collections under 
the auspicies of the different societies 
on the plan of the Friends of American 
Art which had its beginnings at the Art 
Institute of Chicago. StiU animated 
by enthusiasm, the original Friends are 
adding to a gallery which is historical 
of national progress, and which is one 
of the most inviting as well as the 
proudest possessions of the art 
museum. 

[178] 



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FIELD HUStUU OFNATUPA 



■tfrrr.tl 



THE FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



Bv Fay-Cooper Cole. 



WITH the opening of the new 
building of Field Museum of 
Natural History another great 
step was taken toward justifying Chi- 
cago's claim to being a center of art. 
The building itself, a massive marble 
structure of Greek Ionic type, rises 
eighty feet above the park and is sur- 
rounded by a forty foot terrace of 
similar material. It has been pro- 
nounced a master-piece of architecture 
but it is more than that for it represents 
a distinct advance in construction and 
lighting of exhibition halls, of work 
rooms and laboratories. From the 
Museum broad boulevards will lead 
through Grant Park on the north, and to 
the outer drive on the south ; Roosevelt 
Road, when completed, will pass 
directly in front, while on the east is 
the lake, so that an unrivaled setting is 
assured. 

As one ascends the broad steps lead- 
ing to the portico, with its flanking bays, 
he is at once impressed with the 
strength and beauty of the car^-atid 
figures, four monumental sculptures, 
similar yet absolutely individual. These 
are duplicated on the south side of the 
building, while above each caryatid 
porch is a horizontal panel, in low 
relief, representing one of the four main 
departments of the Museum. 

[179] 



Inside the bronze portals one enters 
the Stanley Field Hall with its great 
white arches and simple but effective 
decorations. It is an immense hall, 
seventy feet wide, three hundred long, 
and is lighted from the roof seventy- 
five feet above the floor. Entrance 
from north or south is through an arch 
on either side of which is a tall column 
supporting a symbolic figure suggest- 
ing some activity of the institution; 
Natural vScience and the Dissemination 
of Knowledge appear at one archway, 
Research and Record at the other. 

Another notable group, not yet 
finished in the marble, is to appear 
against the attic of the portico. Above 
the four columns are colossal figures 
representing Fire, Earth, Air, and 
Water, while flanking them are an equal 
number typifying the points of the 
compass. Here the sculptor has had 
greater freedom in the characterization 
of his subjects and has, perhaps, 
achieved his greatest success, yet each 
figure and the whole group fits perfectly 
into the decorative scheme. Seldom, 
in this country, has the opportunity 
been presented to create a group of 
architectural sculptures of such magni- 
tude, and seldom has such a task been 
entrusted to a single man. To the 
American artist, Henry Hering, must 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



be given the credit of having produced 
one of the most important contributions 
to the sculpture of our land. 

As the visitor enters the east ex- 
hibition halls, which extend at right 
angles to Stanley Field Hall, he dis- 
covers at once that the claims of the 
student of art have not been neglected. 
The first objects here displayed are 
from the Eskimo and the Indians of the 
Northwest Coast of America, and, as an 
introduction, there are shown three 
cases describing the artistic ideas and 
accomplishments of these primitive 
folk. One case shows typical features 
of Eskimo art, ranging from the rather 
simple forms of Hudson Bay and Smith 
Sound to the elaborately carved and 
etched utensils of Alaska. The pattern 
boards and utensils used in the pro- 
duction of the totemic art of the Tlingit, 
Haida, and neighboring tribes, are fully 
demonstrated, and then follow cases 
showing how this art is adapted to 
various forms and types of objects. 
The basket ornamentation of the 
Tlingit is given in drawings and in the 
basketry itself, while the story of the 
Chilkat blanket is made plain even to 
the child. 

In the more advanced cultures of 
classical times, of Mexico, ancient Peru, 
China, and India the decorative motifs 
on pottery and fabric, in stone and 
wood carvings, and in ceremonial para- 
phernalia are at once an inspiration and 
a textbook. The collections of Egyp- 
tian and classical archaeology are the 
first of this class to receive attention. 
Here are offered pottery, bronzes, marble 
and alabaster vases, figures in bronze 
and stone, portrait tablets, charms and 
jewehy as well a collection of mum- 
mies and coffins ranging from the pre- 
dynastic to the Roman periods. 

In the Chinese exhibits is shown the 
transition of the art of China from the 



formalism and geometric symbolism of 
the early archaic period, to the idealis- 
tic productions which characterize the 
Han. From the graves of the T'ang 
dynasty comes a large series of clay 
figures representing the warriors, acro- 
bats, and other classes of that era; an 
invaluable series for the enthnologist 
but equally of value to the sculp- 
tor, as an evidence of the high devel- 
opment of the modeler's art of that 
period. 

Adjoining the main exhibit is a room 
devoted to the pictorial art of China, in 
which are to be found rubbings from 
stone engravings of the 12th century; 
paintings from the Sung period done on 
long rolls of silk and depicting such sub- 
jects as the games of a hundred boys at 
play, or a journey up the river in spring. 
Here too are silk tapestries and a screen 
of twelve panels done in feathers and 
carving, which brings us up to the i8th 
century. It might seem, at first glance, 
that the Museum of Natural History is 
encroaching on the field of the Art 
Institute, but a closer study shows that 
these are veritable textbooks, depicting 
the life of town and country in the China 
of bye gone ages. 

A similar hall, devoted, to Japanese 
art, displays a painted screen of the 
Tosa school, and a selection of prints, 
principally Surimono, cards of greeting. 

From China and Japan the visitor is 
led into collections from Tibet, India, 
Java, and Africa; past cases devoted to 
textiles, to clothing on costumed figures, 
to jewelr>^ to images, paintings, musical 
instruments, and finally to the wonder- 
ful carvings on ivory and the metal 
castings from the ancient city of Benin. 

The Field INIuseum is first of all a 
museum of Natural History; but as 
such it is offering its rich collections 
toward giving Chicago its rightful 
place as an art center. 

[180] 



ART AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 

By David Allan Robertson. 

Dean of the Colleges 0} Arts, Literature and Science and President of the Renaissance Society. 



THE architecture of the University 
of Chicago has been of interest ever 
since the far-sighted trustees of the 
new foundation decreed that there 
must be a well considered building plan 
and engaged Heiuy Ives Cobb to 
draught a sketch for a complete in- 
stitution to occupy the four city blocks 
which in 1892 comprised the original 
site. The trustees decided to have a 
late form of English Gothic expressed in 
Bedford limestone and tile roof. It was 
Mr. Cobb who designed the earUest 
structures, the residence halls for men 
and women, the principal recitation 
building, Cobb Hall, Kent Chemical 
Laboratory and Kent Theater, Walker 
Museum, and Ryerson Physical Labora- 
tory. In 1897 he planned the four Hull 
Biological Laboratories which, with a 
graceful iron entrance and an im- 
pressive stone gateway, enclose Hull 
Court. The Decennial Celebration of 
1 90 1 was marked by the laying of 
cornerstones of structures, for which 
Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge were archi- 
tects. These buildings and the later 
designs by this firm have been marked 
by a delicate adherence to the traditions 
of English collegiate Gothic. Hutch- 
inson Hall was erected after careful 
measurement of Christ Church Hall, 
Oxford ; the Mitchell Tower was studied 
from the tower of Magdalen, differing 
only two feet in height — a difference 
chiefly due to the absence of the pointed 
finials of the original; and the Uni- 
versity Avenue side of the Reynolds 
Club is a shortened form of the garden 
front of another Oxford college — St. 
John's. Even the stark Bartlett Gym- 
nasium is in its entrance reminiscent of 

[181] 



the gates of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
and the east tower of the Harper Li- 
brary is like the tower above the stair- 
case leading to Christ Church Hall. 
The same care for tradition is dis- 
coverable within these buildings, es- 
pecially in Hutchinson Hall and the 
Reynolds Club. Greater freedom, but 
the same attention to tradition is to be 
noted in the Classics Building, Ida 
Noyes Hall, the Harper Library, and 
Leon Mandel Assembly Hall. This 
last was an especially interesting prob- 
lem, inasmuch as there is of course no 
precedent for an English Gothic theater. 
The richness of architectural detail in 
all of the buildings by vShepley, Rutan 
& Coolidge and by Coolidge & Hodg- 
don merits study such as the Uni- 
versity Guide Book affords. The same 
richness of accurate detail marks the 
plans for the Theological Building, the 
Bond Chapel, the cloister connecting 
these two, and the bridge connecting 
Haskell with the Theology Building. 
The same firm has made the drawings 
for the Billings Memorial Hospital and 
Epstein Dispensary. Another build- 
ing begun in 1901 was Charles Hitch- 
cock Hall by Dwight H. Perkins. Ad- 
hering to the general plan for the Uni- 
versity, Mr. Perkins yet gave to this 
restful lines and used Illinois plant 
forms in place of the usual gargoyles 
and other decorations. Because Charles 
Hitchcock was so closely associated 
with the early history of Illinois, 
Indian corn and other familiar forms 
may be noted as a meander above the 
main door and in the low stucco en- 
richment of the library. A French 
touch has been given to Emmons 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



Blaine Hall and the other buildings of 
the vSchool of Education by James 
Gamble Rogers. Holabird & Roche, 
the designers of Julius Rosenwald Hall, 
have expressed the purpose of the build- 
ing, not only structurally, but in the 
stone carvings of eminent men repre- 
senting aspects of the earth sciences and 
in the representations of fossils and the 
use of restorations of Limnoscelis and 
Lepidosauriel as gargoyles. The new 
Quadrangle Club will be a domestic 
Tudor brick structure, designed by 
Howard Van Doren Shaw. The crown- 
ing architectural feature of the Univer- 
sity is to be the chapel with its auxiliary 
structures occupying an entire block at 
Woodlawn Avenue and the Midway. 
The chapel has been entrusted to 
Bertram Goodhue of New York, whose 
preliminary sketch shows an imposing 
masculine church with an impressive 
tower at the crossing, a tower 216 feet 
high. The spirit of Gothic rather 
than meticulous devotion to tra- 
ditional measurements is to be found 
in Mr. Goodhue's designs — notably in 
theglorious tower and windows. Itmust 
be obvious, then, that the University of 
Chicago, in preparing a general building 
scheme and determining on a general 
type of architecture has yet been able 
to secure unity with variety — one of the 
few American Universities to use the 
foresight which Thomas Jefferson ex- 
hibited when he projected the design of 
the University of Virginia. 

Within the buildings of the Uni- 
versity are opportunities to study the 
arts allied to architecture. The most 
notable glass is in Bartlett Gymnasium, 
designed by Edward D. Sperry, of 
New York, and executed in 15,000 
pieces by the American Church Glass & 
Decorating Company — the crowning 
of Ivanhoe by Rowena after the 
tournament at Ashby. There is a 

[1S3] 



Tiffany window in Leon Mandel As- 
sembly Hall and in Hutchinson Hall 
and the Reynolds Club are some 
heraldic medallions. The walls in the 
Reynolds Club were painted by Fred- 
eric Bartlett, who is the painter also of 
very rich presentations of medieval 
sports in the main entrance to Bartlett 
Gymnasium, the memorial to the paint- 
er's brother. Many of the ornaments 
are in gesso and gilded in antique gold 
leaf after the manner of early English 
and Italian decorations. Air. Bartlett 
designed also the curtain in the Reynolds 
Club Theater — a fete in a medieval town. 
In the theater of Ida Noyes Hall the 
mural paintings — a record of the Mas- 
que of Youth, performed by the women 
of the University when the Hall '.vas 
dedicated — were painted by Jessie Arms 
Botke. This hall contains also a col- 
lection of rare oriental rugs and other 
furnishings deserving study. 

In addition to the very large amount 
of architectural carving there are sever- 
al works of sculpture. Lorado Taft is 
represented by a dedicatory tablet in 
Kent Chemical Laboratory, the Stephen 
A. Douglas memorial tablet, and the 
memorial to Belfield in Belfield Hall. 
Silas B. Cobb in Cobb Hall, George 
Washington Northup in Haskell, 
Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin in Rosen- 
wald are also by Mr. Taft. Daniel 
Chester French did the memorial to 
Alice Freeman Palmer in the Mitchell 
Tower. The bust of John D. Rocke- 
feller above the south fireplace in 
Hutchinson Hall is by William Couper 
of New York. Paul Fjelde of New York 
designed the bas-relief of Joseph Rey- 
nolds in the Reynolds Club. The bust 
of Francis W. Parker in the main en- 
trance of Emmons Blaine Hall is by 
Charles J. Mulligan. 

Portrait painters are represented in 
several buildings, but chiefly in Hutch- 




The Mitchell Tower, University of Chicago. 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



inson Hall. In this beautiful room 
are placed the portraits of trustees and 
members of the faculties. The founder 
of the University, Mr. John D. Rocke- 
feller, by Eastman Johnson, occupies 
the principal place. Gari Melchers' 
portrait of President Harper hangs to 
the left of the Founder's picture. Law- 
ton Parker is represented by portraits of 
Martin A. Ryerson, the president of the 
Board of Trustees and by one of Presi- 
dent Harry Pratt Judson ; Ralph Clark- 
son by A. C. Bartlett, E. B. WiUiams, 
H. N. WiUiams, S. B. Cobb, Leon 
Mandel, Professor T. C. Chamberlin 
(in Rosenwald Hall) and Dean R. D. 
Salisbury (in Rosenwald Hall.) Louis 
Betts painted the portraits of Dr. T. W. 
Goodspeed, Dean George E. Vincent, 
Dr. F. W. Gunsaulus, Charles L. 
Hutchinson, LaVeme Noyes, and the 
portraits in Ida Noyes Hall of LaVerne 
Noyes and Ida Noyes. The portrait of 
Professor Von Hoist is by John C. 
Johanson. There is another in the 
Harper Library by Karl Marr of 
Munich. The picture of Galusha An- 
derson is by Frederic P. Vinton of 
Boston and that of Dean Marion 
Talbot by Walter D. Goldbeck. In the 
library of Hitchcock Hall the portrait 
of Mr. Hitchcock is by Wellington J. 
Reynolds, and Mrs. Hitchcock's por- 
trait is by Henry 55. Hubbell. In the 
trophy room of Bartlett Gymnasium is 
a portrait of A. A. Stagg, Director of 
Physical Culture and Athletics, by 
Oskar Gross. The portrait of Mrs. 
Nancy Foster in Foster Hall is by Anna 
Klumpke, and in the same hall is a 
portrait of the head of the house, Pro- 
fessor Myra Reynolds, by William M. 
Chase. In the President's office is 
placed temporarily a copy of John S. 
Sargent's painting of John D. Rocke- 
feller. 

Of prints the most interesting col- 

[185] 



lection is that of the lithographic 
portraits of English and French men 
of letters, arts, and statesmen by Will 
Rothenstein. The collection includes 
one of the twenty-five copies of the 
famous "Oxford Portraits" — the only 
copy sent to the United vStates. This 
collection of about one hundred prints 
was selected by the artist for a dis- 
tinguished American collector, and 
makes an interesting display of litho- 
graphic art, as well as a series of 
portraits as important for the 1890's 
and the early years of the present 
century as George Frederick Watts' 
paintings are for the Browning- 
Tennyson period. 

The museums of the University are 
primarily for teaching purposes. This 
is true not only of the extremely im- 
portant paleontological collections in 
Walker Museum, but also of those in 
Classics, Harper, and Haskell. The 
Classics museum contains the Lowen- 
stein collection of Greek and Roman 
coins, some terra cotta, glass, and 
marble fragments. In Harper Library 
the Erskine M. Phelps collection of 
Napoleonana contains portraits, busts, 
medals, orders and personal relics of 
Napoleon. In Haskell Oriental Mu- 
seum is the Babylonian-Assyrian col- 
lection, and a very important Egyp- 
tian collection of over 14,000 original 
monuments from all the great ejochs 
of Egyptian history — many of them of 
great artistic importance. These have 
been collected by Professor James H. 
Breasted, Director of the Haskell Ori- 
ental Museum and of the Oriental 
Institute of the University of Chicago. 

The Department of the History of 
Art was organized by Frank Bigelow 
Tarbell, who for years was professor 
of Classical archaeology. Professor 
Tarbell died in 1920. Courses have 
been given in former years by Pro- 



ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



fessor Tarbell, George Breed Zug, now 
of Dartmouth, Richard Offner, and 
professors from other institutions who 
conducted courses during the summer 
quarter. Lorado Taft is professorial 
lecturer on art. Since Professor Tar- 
bell's death there has been no instruction 
in the department. An administrative 
committee comprising Professors Henry 
W. Prescott, W. Sargent, Gordon J. 
Laing, Ernest H. Wilkins and David A. 
Robertson has formulated a plan for a 
balanced and fully developed depart- 
ment. The purpose of this department 
definitely includes cooperation, rather 
than rivalry, with the Art Institute of 
Chicago — an understanding which has 
strengthened both institutions. 

There is another department of art in 
the School of Education with Professor 
Walter Sargent at the head of the work. 
In addition to Mr. Sargent's classes, 
courses are conducted by Antoinette 
HoUister, a pupil of Rodin, and by Ethel 
Coe, a pupil of SoroUa. The works of 
Mr. Sargent, Miss Coe, and Miss 
HoUister are to be found in the national 
exhibitions. 

Until a full development of the 
Department of the History of Art is 
possible the work of a society or- 
ganized in 19 16 will be especially im- 
portant. The Renaissance Society of 
the University of Chicago was formed 
to foster an interest in the arts among 
members of the University community, 
especially among students. In 1916, in 
connection with the Quarter centennial 
Celebration the Society arranged for an 
exhibition of French impressionistic 
paintings. From the collections of 
M. A. Ryerson, A. J. Eddy, Mrs. C. T- 
Blair, Mrs. W. W. Kimball, Dr. F. W. 



Gunsaulus and the Art Institute of 
Chicago came choice specimens of 
Degas, Forain, Monet, Renoir, Picasso, 
Cazin, Pissaro, Sisley, Le vSidaner, 
Andre and others. An exhibition of the 
works of Albin Polasek was opened by a 
lecture given by the sculptor. Alfeo 
Faggi's works were exhibited in 1920 
and presented in an opening lecture by 
Richard Offner. The members of the 
vSociety have been guests at special ex- 
hibitions in the Art Institute, in the 
homes and studios of art collectors and 
artists. Lectures at the University have 
been given by Frank Jewett Mather, Jay 
Hambidge, Ananda K. Coomaraswamy 
and other critics and artists. vSuch ex- 
hibitions and lectures have enlisted the 
sympathetic interest of numerous pro- 
fessors and students and have won an 
important place for the Renaissance 
vSociety in the life of the University 
of Chicago. 

This compilation of the art influences 
at the University of Chicago emphasizes 
the great power for good taste exerted 
during the life of the institution by two 
connoisseurs, who, as trustees from the 
beginning, have given freely of their 
ability and energy: Martin A. Ryerson 
and Charles L. Hutchinson. The record 
of positive good, it must be remem- 
bered, implies also a record of evaded 
evil. The coat-of-arms of the Univer- 
sity of Chicago, for instance, is a posi- 
tively good heraldic device ; the heraldry 
avoided can be guessed at by considera- 
tion of the seals of many American col- 
leges. For the choice of good and the 
avoidance of bad the University, like 
the City of Chicago which they have 
likewise served, must always be grateful 
to these men of taste. 



[186) 




Gymnasium of Northwestern University, Geo. W. Maner, Architect. 



ART AT NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



Bv Stella Skinner. 



NATURE has been gracious to 
Northwestern. Her campus, 
lying in a natural grove of oaks, 
maples, and elms, borders on the 
shores of Lake Michigan for nearly a 
mile in extent. An ever varying pan- 
orama of sky, water, ahd trees is 
spread out before the student as he 
passes to and from classes. A walk 
at early twilight through the campus 
or under the arching elms of Sheridan 
Road bordering it on the west, with 
glimpses of the moon between the tree 
tops, has much of the solemnity and 
beauty of a cathedral service. 

Seventy years of history are bound 
up in the buildings on Northwestem's 
Evanston campus, each of them typical 
of some epoch in the University's 
growth. At the center of the group 
stands University Hall in gray stone, a 
modern adaptation of Early English in 
style. Some would have preferred this 
type carried out in subsequent build- 
ings; but, while unity of expression 



would have been gained, certain in- 
dividual and local flavor would have 
been sacrificed. Furthermore, the 
buildings are so arranged that each is 
more or less isolated in its own grouping 
of trees, and thereby somewhat inde- 
pendent of the others. As it is, a very 
catholic expression prevails, ranging 
through the fine Romanesque of Gar- 
rett Biblical Institute, the Venetian 
Gothic of the School of