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Full text of "The art of chess"

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THE 

ART OF CHESS. 

1 



flTC. 

By JAMES MASON. 



LONDON: 

HOEACE COX', 

WINDSOR HOUSE, BREAM'S BUILDINGS, E.G. 

1895. 



TO TIEV? YOTiK 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 

142503 A. 

ASTOR, LINOX AND 
1 TILDEN FOUNDATIONS 



LONDON : 

PRINTED BT HOBAOB OCX, WINDSOR HOUSE, 

BBBUC'S BUILDINGS, B.C. 



PRKFACK. 



In the course of the following pages the endeavour has 
been to so present the subject that it may reasonably 
satisfy the requirements of the many students and ad- 
vanced players who look for Chess in books. Any apology 
for the method pursued would be either needless or useless. 
It is identical with that employed in " Principles of 
Chess " — a work which has already received the cordial 
approval of the pubUc, including the leading exj)erts 
throughout the world. 

As to the matter. This is of the highest class. No 
effort has beeii spared to render it practical, probable, 
reliable, and recent. With the exception of some striking 
examples by Morphy, Anderssen, Kolisch, and other great 
masters, now no more, the whole of the section headed 
Combination is a selection from the best products of the 
present day and generation in the way of actual, authentic 
Chess. 

Even in the first section, which is truly little less than a 
comprehensive treatise on the End Game, the very first 
position occurred in the Master Tournament of the German 
Chess Association, Leipzig, September, 1894. And simi- 
larly in other instances. The stock illustrations of im- 
portant endings have been thoroughly overhauled. Those 
found faulty have been amended or dropped out — the 



iv. preface, 

grotesque being replaced by specimens more siiitable to the 
knowledge, purpose, and spirit of the times. 

With this much by way of introduction the reader is 
left to face the book. Excluding the last section — ^that 
dealing with the Opening — it may at first be very ad- 
vantageously perused without the chessboard. In the 
majority of cases the given lines of play are short enough 
to be run to an end from the diagrams. The board should, 
of course, be used for closer and more exhaustive examina- 
tion, when the positions come to be really studied. 

London, January, 1895. 



COKTKNTS. 



THE END GAME. 



Page 



Pawns v. Pawns — ^Vajying the move — Pawns 
opposed; two against one — Kings and fixed 
Pawns — Kings and free Pawns — Other 
cases depending upon the calculation of dis- 
tances and the reserve move . 1-16 

MiNOB Pieces, &c. — Bishops and Pawns — 
Knights and Pawns — The same in various 
opposition 17-38 

Rook v. Pawns 39-44 

EooK, Sole ob Suppobted, Against Vabious 
FoBCES — Rook V. Bishop and Pawns — 
Rook V. Knight and Pawns — Rook v. Rook 
and Bishop — Rook v. Rook and Knight, &c. 45-77 

Queen v. Vabioxts Fobces — Queen v. Bishop and 
Pawns — Queen v. Rook and Pawns — Queen 
V, Queen and Pawns — Queen and Bishop v. 
Rooks — Queen and Knight v. Rooks — 
Queen v. Queen and Bishop — Queen v. 
Queen and Knight, &c 78-94 



VI. 



(QontenW. 



n. 



THE MIDDLE GAME: 

Combination in General — Involving the Prin- 
ciple of the End Game or resulting in 
Forced Mate — Illustrations from Actual 
Play in Matches and International Tourna- 
ments by the Greatest Masters of the Art . 



Page 



95-250 



in. 

THE OPENING. 

Inteoduction 251 

King's Knight's Game — 

Ruy Lopez 252-259 

Giuoco Piano — Ponziani .... 259-264 

Evans Gumbit 264-270 

Scotch Game 270-273 

Two Knights' Defence .... 273-275 
Russian (Petroff) Defence .... 275-276 
Philidor's Defence 276-278 

Centre Game 278-279 

Danish (or Northern) Gambit . . . 279 

King's Gambits — 

King's Bishop's Gambit .... 279-282 
King's Knight's Gumbit — Muzio — Salvio— 

Kieseritzky— AUgaier, &c. . • . 282-290 



(QontentP. vii. 

Ptge 

King's Gambit Declined — 

Counter Gambit, Ac 290-292 

French Defence 292-295 

Centre Counter Game 295-296 

Sicilian Defence 296-297 

FlANCHETTO, &c .298-300 

Queen's Knight's Game — 

Steinitz Gambit, &c 301-304 

Queen Pawn Opening — 

Close Game— Hollandish— English, &c. . 304-309 

Appendix — The Problem Art . . . 310-311 



0:^0 



'^amn^ x>. ^avctns. 




BLAOK. 

To win here Black mnst, " lose a move," thus making . it his 
antagonist's tarn to play, in the existing position : — 1 . . . -. K — ^B 4 ; 
2 .K— Kt sq, K— Q 4 ; 3 K— B sq, K— Q 5 ! Now, anything ^nt 
K— B 2, and ... . K— Q 6 wins forthwith. 4 K— B 2, K— B 5 ; 5 
K— B sq, K— Kt 6; 6 K— Kt sq, KxP (B 6) ; 7 K— B 2, K— Kt 4 ; 
and will take the remaining Pawn, if necessary, winning. With the 
White Pawn at Q B 2, instead of B 3, the position would he an easy 
draw. 

B 



^rt of (Qhes£), , 



BLA.GK. 




White wins because he has the opposition on the enemy's gromid ; 
and power over it, in the variation of movement possible to his Pawns. 
If Black checks, then, after K — ^B 5 and advancing his Book Pawn, 
blocking, White will gain thd Pawn by playing to Kt 6 with King, or 
otherwise. Hence Black moves Pawn only when forced — 1 .... 
E— Etsq; 2 E— B 6, E— B sq. In this situation, White mnst 
arrange so as to reach Et 7 with a Pawn in an even number of moves 
— or so as not to give check when arriving there. Black King's 
alternate moves from B sq to Et sq will be odd ; therefore, to avoid 
checking at the seventh, the Pawn must go there in an even number 
of moves, inclusive of the first. The exchange at Et 6 (if any) does 
not affect the reckoning, and may be neglected. As it happens, the 
two Pawns move first to their fullest extent, and then press steadily 
onward, one of them arriving at Et 7 in reply to ... . E — Et Bq, and 
winning of course. 



^awns V. ^awn^. 




WHICT. 

A drawn game. White has no power in reserre over the move, 
snch as in the foregoing example ; or as he wonld have if either of his 
Pawns now held its original square, or if his Book Pawn were less 
advanced : — 

White. Black. 

1 K— B 2 ! 

2 K— E 6 K— Kt sq, and draws. 

White cannot vary his movements so as to arrive at the seventh 
without checking. But 1 . . . . K — Kt sq would lose for Black. 

If, in the diagram, 1 K— B 2 ! 2 K-B 4, K— Kt 2 ; 3 K— B 5, 

K — B 2 ; 4 P— -Kt 4, P— E 3 ! and White cannot win. His Pawns 
are in diagonal, with the foremost one blocked, and Black has the 
opposition. Otherwise he would lose. But, as it is, he can face his 
opponent, drawing. For if White King goes away, then .... K — B 3, 
and perhaps K — Kt 4, &c., and the Wliite Pawns can do nothing. 

b2 



J 



4 



^rt of (ghes£>. 



BLAOK. 




Here White wins by first limiting the action of the hostile King-, 
and then manoenyring so as to attaok the Pawn on its weaker side : — 

White. Black. White. Black. 

1 P— B 6! K— Q sq 5 K— Q 4 K— B 3 

2 K— Kt 4 ! K— B sq 6 K— K 5 K— Kt 3 

3 K— Kt 5 K— Kt sq 7 K— Q 5, and will reach Q 7, 
4 IC— B 5 K— E 2 gaining the Pawn. 

If 1 K— Kt sq, then either 2 K— Kt 4, or 2 K— Q 4, leads to 

a win ; but if 1 ... . K — Q sq, as above, White King should play to 
Kt 4, or on the opposite side. If Black had more room— as if all the 
Pieces stood on one of the two centre files — the gfame would be drawn, 
were White, for his second move, to play his King on the same file 
with his adversary. He could then be effectively opposed, and could 
not attack the Pavm. 



^awns V. ^awnP, 




WHITX. 

The rule is that two Pawns win against one, the single Pawn 
opiK>sed not being on the Book file; but, of conrse, there are 
exceptions, as where the united Pawns are formed in diagonal, with 
the foremost one blocked, and the King^ in strict opposition. In 
situations analogous to the aboTC, however, the stronger party wins, 
playing first or not— 1 .... K— B 8 ; 2 K— Kt sq, K— B 4; 3 
K— B 2, K— B 5; 4 K— K 2, K— K 5; 5 P— Kt 3, P— Kt 4; 6 
P— E 3, K— B 4 ; 7 K— Q 3, K— K 4; 8 K— K3, K— B4; 9 K— Q 4, 
K— B 3 ; 10 K— K 4, K— K 3 ; 11 P— Kt 4, Ac, White being able to 
cross and take the Payrn. 

Should Black Pawn refuse to adyance, White will be able to take 
the opposition at B 7, Black Eling being at B 2. Then, with one of 
bis Pawns at Kt 5, the other can go to B 6, and Queening will be an 
easy matter. 



^rt of (§hesf>. 




BLAOK. 

In this, and all cases similar to it, the player whose King is 
nearest the fixed Pawns, after the necessary exchange of the free 
ones, has the advantage. Black wins : — 

White. Black. White. Black. 

1 . • . . P— B 3 2 K— Q 4 P— B 4, Ac. 

If White moves first the result is the same ; he must lose. He is 
compelled, sooner or later, to take the Pawn. Black takes also, and 
is then able to reach the remaining ones, and Qneen, before his 
opponent can effectively arrive at the scene of action. In the present 
instance, however. White's doubled Pawns are comparatively strong ; 
so that it is important that he should not be allowed to take the free 
Pawn wherever he chooses. If, e.g., 1 . . . . P — B ^4 + , he could 
take it on his own side of the board, and still draw tiie gfame — 
2K— Q4! P--B5; 3K— K4,P— B6; 4 K x P, K x P j 5 K— K 3, 
and, with the help of his Pawn commanding B 4, he can hold Black 
at a drawing distance. 



^awns V. ^awnf>. 




From " Chess Studies and End Ckimes " (Horwitz and Kling), Prof. 
Wayte's edition, London, 1889 : — 



WHITS. 


BLACK. 


WHITE. 


BLACK. 


1. K— K 4 


K— Kt5 


9. P— Kt 5 


K— Kt2 


2. P— B 4 


K— E4 


10. P— Kt 6 


K— B3 


3. K— B 4 


K— E3 


11. K— Kt 4 


K— Kt2 


4. P— Kt 4 


K— Kt3 


12. K— Kt5! 


P— Q6 


5. P— B5 + 


K— E3 


13. P— B6 + 


K— Bsq 


6. K— K 4 


K— Kt4 


14. K— B 6 


P— Q7 


7. K— B 3 


K— E3 


15. K— B 7 


P— Q8=Q 


8. K— B 4 


K— B2 


16. P— Kt7 + 





An essentially similar position, from a tournament grame, may be 
fotmd in "Principles of Chess," p. 139. The method is evident. 
Opportunities for its application in every day play often occur, and are 
sometimes neglected. The next two positions are won in like maimer. 



8 



^rt of (ghes£>. 



VLA.CK. 




WHITB. 



White. Black. 

1 K— B 4 K— B 3 

2P— Kt5+ K— Kt2 

3 P— Kt 6 K— B 3 

4 K— Kt 4 K— Kt 2 

5 K— Kt 5 ! P— Q 6 

6 P— E 6 + K— Kt sq 

7 K— B 6 P— Q 7 

8 P— E 7+ K— Esq 

9 K — ^B 7, and mates in three moves. 



See positions immediately preceding and following, 
the mode of winning is essentially the same. 



In each oas^ 



^awns V. ^awnP, 



BIiACOE. 




White. 



Black. 



1 K— K2 


K--Kt2 


2 K— Q3 


K— Baq 


3 K— B4 


K— Kt2 


4 K— B 5 ! 


P— B6 


5 K— Q6 


P— B7 


6 P— B8 = Q + 


KxQ 



7 E — B 7) and mates in three more moves. 
That the player attempting to win in this way should be sure of 
his distances goes without saying, and it is obvious that he cannot 
succeed if his opponent's free Pawn goes to Queen on a Knight file, 
thus commanding Kt 3, or the square on which the mate is to be 
griven. 



lO 



^rt of iQhes£>. 




Given in Prof. Wayte's edition of " Chess Studies and End Games " 
(Horwitz and Kling). A position easily arising in actual play. At 
first sight, it looks as though Black should win. But the g^ame is 
drawn: — 



White. 


Black. 


White. 


Black. 


1 K— K4! 


KxP 


8 K— R8 


Q— K5 


2 K— Q5! 


K— Kt5 


9 K— B7 


Q-Q5 + 


3 K— B6 


P-R5 


10 K— R 8 


Q-Q4 


4 KxP 


P— R6 


11 K— R 7 


Q— B4 + 


5 K— R 7 ! 


P— K7 


12 K— R 8 


Q— B3 


6 P— Kt 6 


P— R8 = Q 


13 K— R 7 


Q— B2 


7 P— Kt 7 


Q-E2 


14 K— R 8, 


and Blacli 



unable to win in the usual way, by forcing the King to Kt 8, because 
of his own Pawn. Other lines of play lose for White. As,- for 
example, 2 K — B 3. And if 5 K x P p the Queen wins against the two 
Pawns of course. 



^awns V, (^awn^. 



1 1 




Wliite can do no more than draw. By going* for the Book Pawn 
he may Qneen ; but, then, so may his adversary, and of course there 
will be no win. Otherwise, he dare not attempt to attack the Bishop 
Pawn. If he does, he loses : — 

White. Black. White. Black. 

1 K— Q 4 ? K— E 3 3 K— K 6 K— Kt 5 ! 

2 K— K 5 K X P 4 K— Q 6 K— Kt 4, and 

gains the Pawn, winning 
After his second moye, Black has two points of attack on the Pawn, 
whereas White has only one. 3 K — K 6 similarises the relations of 
Kings to Pawns, bringing about a form of opposition in which the 
party having the move wins. He first attacks the Pawn diagonally, 
and then in rank ; and his adversary, being unable to defend against 
the second attack, the Pawn falls. Of course, if 3 K — Q 6, 
K — Kt 4 ! and we have the same thing a move sooner. 



12 



^rt of (Qhes£), 




A drawn game, whoever moyes first. Neither King can leave his own 
side of the board, and even the gain of a Pawn may come to nothing : 
White. Black. White. Black. 

1 P— B 3 3 K— K 4 P— R 4 

2P— K5 PxP+ 4 P—Kt 5, and wiU maintain 

« the opposition. 

Black cannot go ronnd and attack the Bishop Pawn with suocess, 
nor can he make effective nse of the opposition, after sacrificing his 

King Pawn. 4 K— Q 3; 5 K— K (Q) 3, P— K 5; 6 KxP, 

E— K 3 ; 7 E— B 4, &c., Black being easily kept out. It may be 
noted that White need not play 2 P — E 5., for 2 P — ^B 5 also draws. 
But 2 E moves would lose, as after 2 . . . . E — E 4, Black conld not 
be kept ont of Q 5 or B 5. Also 2 P — Et 4 would lose, of course. 
2 P— Et 4, PxP+ ; 3 PxP, PxP+ ; 4ExP, E— E4; 5ExP, 

ExP;6E— B6,E— Q5,&c. On the other hand, 1 P— Et4 + ?; 

2PxP, PxP+;3ExP, E—E 4 ; 5 E— B 6, Ac, and White wins. 



^awns V. i^awnP. 




This is drawn, whoever moveB first. K 1 P— -B 4, P x P ; 2 K x P, 
K — ^B 3 ; 3 P — Kt 5 + , K — K 3, it is clear the opposition is nseless 
to White — only in so far as it enables him to keep Black from winning. 
If 1 P — B 3, then 1 . . . . P — Et 4 draws, of course. So also does 
1 . . . . E— -Q 3 ; for, if White endeavonrs to win, he will lose — 
1 . . . . K— Q 3 ; 2 P— B 4?,PxP; 3KxP, K~B 4! ; 4 K— Kt 5. 
K — ^Kt 5 ; 5 K X P, K x P, and both will Queen ; Black, however, 
remaining with a Pawn to the good, in a winning position. In this, 
it may be noticed, defensive play, on Black's part, loses — 3 .... 
K— K3?; 4K— Kt 5, K— B 2 ; 5 K— E 6, K— B 3; 6 K— E 7, 
K— Kt 4; 7 K— Kt 7, KxP; 8 K x P, and will cross to the Queen 
side, winning. 

Black, having the move, draws by 1 . . . . K — Q 3. To play the 

Pawn would lose— 1 P— Kt 4 ; 2 P— B 3, K— Q 3; 3 K— B 5, 

&o.. White Queening in time to win easily. 



14 



^rt of (§hesP, 




BLACK. 



Black wins : 



White. 



K— Kt2 
K— B2 
PxP 



Black. 
P— K5! 
K— K4 
K— B5 

K X E P, and the White 
Pawns are defenceless. 
The temporary sacrifice enables King to take the fifth rank, whence 
he can attack one or other of the unsupported fixed Pawns, winning. 
Even if there were no Pawns on the Queen side the position would be 
lost for White. An unsupported Pawn, moved, and blocked by an 
enemy, cannot be maintained by its King, behind it, if the adverse 
King can reach the rank in which such Pawn stands. Here, when 
the support afforded by the Bishop Pawn is destroyed, the Knight 
Pawn becomea indefensible, and the game lost. 



^awns V. ^awn£>. 



'5 



VLkXSK. 




Black loses thns : — 

White. Black. White. Black. 

IKxP K— B7 4K— Kt4l KxP 

2 K— E 3 P—KtS? 5 P— E 4, and next P— B 5, if 

3 P— B 4 ! P— B 3 Black King moves, freeing 

Eook Pawn and winning. 

Also, 2 P— B4?; 3 P— B 4 ! P— Kt 3; 4K--E4! KxP; 

5K— Kt5,K— B6;6P--E4,K— Kt6;7KxP,KxBP;8P— E5, 
Ac, winning. If, in this, 4 P— Kt 3 ? then 4 . . . . K— Kt 8 draws. 

But the position ii drawn, on its merits. Black playing correctly — 
t.6., not so defensively. For instance, 1 K x P, K — ^B 7 ; 2 K — ^E 3, 
P— Kt 4!; 3 K— Kt 4,KxP;4KxP,KxEP;5 P— B 4, K— Kt 6 ; 
6 P— B 5, K— B 6 ; 7 P— B 6, K— ^K 5, and White cannot attack the 
Pawn without losing. 2 . . . . P — Kt 4 prevents the important 3 P — B 
4, and partially restricts the White King, thereby saving the game. 



i6 



i^rt of ,(§hes^. 



zj 




In this position White played P — K Kt 3 ? whereupon Black replied 
. P — B 6! and the game was drawn. But White should 



with 
win: — 



White. Black. 

1 K—Kt sq ! K X P 

2 K— B 2 K—K 3 

3 K— B 3 K X P 

4 P— KE4! 
Now, the Queen side Pawns balance. 

exhausted, Black King must plaj away. 

having power over the opposition, by reason of the reserve move of 
his Pawn, will be able to reach K 5 or Et 5, winning without difficulty. 
Otherwise, if Black goes E — Q 5 to attack the Pawns, with a view to 
himself Queening, White takes the Bishop Pawns, and immediately 
continues with P — Et 4, also winning easily. By first moving his 
Pawn White deprived himself of control of the opposition, and reduced 
the position to a draw. 



When their movements are 
If to E 3, White takes, and 



^inor pieces, 

WITH OB WITHOUT PAWNS. 



BLACK. 




WHITB. 

Brawn game : — 

White. Black. 

1 K~B 7 I P— B 7 

2 P— Q6 P— B8=Q 

3 P — Q 7, and we have a position in which the Qneen 
cannot win against Bishop and Pawn. A rare occurrence in actual 
play. 

C 



i I 



i8 



^rt of ^hesP, 




WHITB. 



White playB and draws. A well-known ending by the celebrated 
Britieih player and problemist, J. G. Campbell. Solution : — 1 B — Q 2, 
2 B — 'B 5, 3 P — Kt 4, stalemate. This would also be a draw, accord- 
ing to the law of check modified as suggested in ** Principles of 
Chess," Appendix, pp. 281 et seq. There (p. 282) it is said : *' If a player 
(it boing his turn to play, and his King not being attacked at the 
time) have no move other tiian one which would subject his King to 
attack from adverse King or Pawn, then the game shall be drawn. 
Otherwise the King would be permitted to endure attack like any 
other piece — ^but for a single move only ; and he could be taken like 
any other piece, and his being taken at any time would be an end to 
the game — ^mate. This would slightly increase the power of the 
Bishop, especially as compared with the Knight — which seems reason- 
able. Pawn play and the rest would not be directly or injuriously 
affected, but would remain substantially as at present," &o. 



^inor pieces, (Ac. 



19 



BLACK. 




White wins :— 




White. 


Black. 


1 P— E5 


B— B sq 


2 K— Q5 


B— E3 


3 P— Kt 5 + 


BxP 



White. Black. 

4 K— K 4 B— R 5 

5 K — B 3, and Bishop cannot 
be bi ought to bear on B 2 so 
as to stop the Pawn. 

The importance of first moving to Queen is evident. If King 
moves, or Pawn checks at the outset, the game is drawn ; in the one 
case the King can reach Kt 2 in time, and in the other the Pawn 
can be intercepted by the Bishop. The sacrifice at move 3 limits 
the action of this latter Piece, causing what may be termed ob^trucHott, 
and is necessary in order to win. A very similar position (though 
leos advanced) is given in " Principles of Chess," p. 29, in illustration 
of this subject. 

C2 



20 



^rt of (§hesf>. 



BliAOK. 




To win this position (Horwitz and Kling) the White Pawn must be 
transferred from the Book file. The mere gain of the opposing 
Pawns wonld not be enough, as White would be unable to Queen at 



K 8. Also, Black must not be allowed to play 
exchange the Pawn : — 



K— E 5 and 



White. 


Black. 


White. 


Black. 


1 B— Q2! 


K— Kt2 


7 K— B6 


K— E2 


2 K— Q6 


K—KtS 


8 B— Q8 


K— Esq 


3 B— Ksq 


K— Kt2 


9 K— Kt 6 


K— Kt sq 


4 B-B4 


K— Kt3 


10 B— B7 + 


K— Esq 


6 B— Q8 + 


K— Kt2 


11 B— Q 6, and 


wins. 


6 B— B7 


K—Esq 







Or, 1 ... . K— B 2 ; 2 B-Kt 5, K— Q 2 ; 3 K— B 5, K— B sq; 
4K— Kt6,K— Ktsq; 6 B— B 4 + , K— B sq ; 6B— Kt3,K— Q2; 
7 KxP, K— B sq; 8 K— Kt 6, K—Q sq; 9 K— Kt 7, K— Q 2; 10 
B — K sq, and wins. White would not take the Pawn as long as 
Black could reach Q E sq. In the first line of play, Black is com- 
pelled to advance his Pawn ; in the second, he avoids this, bat i» 
driven from the comer, and Eook Pawn wins. 



{Minor (pieces, i&c. 



21 



BLACK. 




Position from '* Chess Studies and End Games " (Horwitz and KUng). 
Black moving first could draw by ... . K — Kt 6, as White coidd 
not then exclude him from Q B sq and also gain the Pawn. But with 
the move White wins :— 1 B— B 4, K— Kt 7 ; 2 K— Kt 4, K— B 7 ; 
3 B—B sq, K— K 7 ; 4 K— B 4, K— Q 8 ; 5 B— K 3, K— B 7 ; 6 
K— K 5! K— Kt6; 7 B—B 5, K— B 5; % K— Q 6, K— Kt 4; 9 
K— Q 5, K— E 4 ; 10 K— B 6, K— R 3 ; 11 B—B 2, K— E 4 ; 12 
K— Kt 7, K— Kt 4 ; 13 B— Kt 6, K— B 5 ; 14 K— B 6, K— Kt 6 ; 15 
B—B 6, K— B 5 ; 16 B— Q 6, K— Kt 6 ; 17 K— Kt 5, K— B 6 ; 18 
K X P, K— B 5 ; 19 K— R 5, K— Q 4 ; 20 K— Kt 6, Ac, winning. 
Or, 4 ... . K— Q 6 ; 5 B— K 3, K— B 5 ; 6 K— K 5, K— Kt 6 ; 7 
B—B 5, K— B 5 ; 8 K— Q 6, K— Q 6 : 9 K— Q 5, K— B 6 ; 10 B— Q 
6, K— Q 6 ; 11 K— B 5, K— K 5 ; 12 K— Kt 6, K— Q 4 ; 13 B— Kt 3, 
&o., winning. And so for numerous other variations. With the 
move, White is just able to take the Pawn and keep the line clear for 
Queening. Black playing 1 . . . . K — Kt 6, could not be driven for- 
ward to the seventh rank and kept from the Book file, whence he 
would continually threaten to go around to Q B sq, if White King 
attempted to capture the Pawn. 



22 



^rt of (€lhes^. 



BLACK. 




WHITE. 

Three united Pawns, supported by the King, win against a minor 
Piece in the vast majority of cases, where they have ahready made any 
oonsiderable advance to Qneen. In the above position (by Horwitz) 
White wins easily : 



White. 


Black. 


White. 


Black. 


•1 P— B6 + 


K— B2 


6 K— Q6 


K— Bsq 


2 P— E6 


K— Kt sq 


7 P— Kt 5 


K— Ktsq 


3 K— B5 


B-~K2 + 


8 K— Q7 


B— E4 


4 K— B4 


B— Qsq 


9 P— B7 + 


Ac, winning. 


5 K— Q5 


B— Kt3 







K 7 . . . . K— K sq, either 8 P— R 7, B x P; 9 P— B 7 + , KB sq; 
lOK— B6, Ac, or8P— B7 + , BxP+; 9 K— B 6, B-Kt8q;10 
P — Kt 6, Ac, will leave Black without resource. Or 1 P — B 6 + , 
K— E 2; 2K— B 4, B— K 2; 3 P— Kt 5, B— Q sq; 4 P-R 6, 
K— Kt3; 5K— Q 5, B— B 2; 6 K— K 6, B— Kt 6; 7 K— Q 7; 
B— Kt sq ; 8 P— B 7, Ac, wins. 

Black can do no more than take two Pawns for his Bishop, and then 
the remaining one decides the game against him. 



'Minor pieces, (drc. 



^j 



23 



BLACK. 




Here the three Pawns, though not nnited, would win against the 
Bishop, but for the fact that the latter has a Pawn in assistance. On 
the other hand, if White's King were not so far off — ^if he were able 
to oatch the passed Pawn, ydthout disturbing the Bishop — ^Black 
would lose. As matters stand the game is drawn : — 

White. Black. 

1. B— Q 3 P— Kt 4 

2. B— K 2 K— B 2 

3. K— Kt 5 K— K 3 

4. K— B 4 K— K 4 

5. K— Q 3 K— B 5 

6. B— Q sq P— Kt 5 

7. B X P, and 8. K x P, drawing. 

2 P X P 6.J9. would lose, as then one or other Black Pawn would 
Queen. Hence if 1 . • . P — Kt 3, the answer should be also 2 B — K 2. 



24 



^rt of (§hesf>. 



BLACK. 




"WBXNL 



White. 



2 P— Kt 6 + ! and wins. 



Black. 
B— E4? 



If 2 Px P $ 3 E— Et 5 ! Then when the moves of the Eing 

side Pawns are exhausted, White must either gain the Bishop, or he 
must seoare two passed Pawns, winning in the position, notwithstand- 
ing Bishops of opposite oolonrs. Black should have played 1 . . . . 
B — E 8 ; he would then have had every chance- to draw the game. 



:^inor pieces, ^&c. 



25 



If;-"^ 



t 4^ 







k.;:.w:^^..- 



9^^M 



'M^i 



iSkkW 



Black. 
KxB? 
K--K2 
BxP! 
PxP 
K— Qsq 
K— B2 




Ending from a Gftuoco Viawi : — 
White. 

1 BxP! 

2 P— E5! 

3 P— Kt 6 

4 PxB 

5 K— B4 

6 P— Q5 

7 K — Kt 5, and wins. 

The King side Pawns will come to a block, and then Black must 
leave B 2. The sacrifice enables White to ¥rin easily what might 
otherwise be a fairly difficult game. 



26 



^rt of (GhesP. 




WHITE. 

Knight and Pawn win against the lone King in all but Tery 
exceptional positions, and these mostly confined to cases in whioh 
the Pawn is on a Book file. The Knight should support the 
Pawn behind, so that if both be attacked, and the Knight te^en, the 
Pawn may go to Qneen. In the above, though White cannot bring: 
his Knight to the rear in support of the Pawn, he can otherwise 
maintain the latter long enough to enable his King to come to the 
rescue, and so win :— 1 .... K—K 5 ; 2 Kt— B 5 + , K— Q 4 ; S 
Kt— E 4, K— B 5 ; 4 K— Kt 3, K— Kt 6 ; 5 K— B 3, K x Kt ; 6 
K — K 4, &c., winning. A similar position, a file to the left, would 
be drawn ; as the Knight could support only from a more forward 
direction, as at K 6 ; and, after . . . . K x Kt there, the Pawn could 
not be Queened. Except the Book Pawn, all Pawns bordering on 
Qneen win, however supported by the Knight. But a Book Pawn at 
the seventh only draws, unless supported by its King, and, also, 
unless the Knight commands, or can be immediately brought to com- 
mand, the Queening square. Another exception is where the King is 
confined at the eighth by his own Pawn and the adverse King. Then 
the result will depend upon the *' Knight's move," a subject discussed 
in " Principles of Chess," p. 30 et seq. 



:Minor pieces. 



t&c. 



27 



BLACK. 




WHITB. 

A good example of the power of the Knight in dealing with Pawns 
in a close position, and when he has a Pawn in assistance :- 



White. 


Black. 


White. 


Black, 


1 K— B6 


K— E4 


9 Kt— B2 


K— B4 


2 Kt— Kt 5 


P— B5 


10 Kt— Kt 4 


P— B7 


3 Kt— B3 


K— R3 


U KtxP 


K— E3 


4 K— B7 


K— B4 


12 Kt— Q 4 


P— Kt4 


6 K— Q6 


K— R3 


13 Kt— B 2 


K— R4 


r> K— B 6 


K— B4 


14 Kt— Kt 4 


P— E3 


7 Kt— Q6 


K— R3 


15 Kt— Q 5, 


and mate's next 


8 Kt— K3 


P— B6 


move. 





The general idea is to keep the King confined, while exhausting 
the movement of the free Pawns. Then, when Book and Knight 
Pawns are forced into motion, Black necessarily drifts into mate, 
from Knight, or P x P + . At the same time, of course .... P — Kt 4, 
and P — Kt 5 must not be allowed too soon ; and as the Knight can- 
not gain or lose a move, the opposition of the Kings must be duly 
considered — as when it is taken from Black by moves 4, 5, and 6. 
One of Mr. G. Beichelm's most instructive compositions. 



28 



^rt of i§hesf>. 




Prom Ponaiani (1769)- 



WHITB. 

-White wins : — 



White. 

1 Kt— Q5 + 

2 Kt— B4 
PxP 
Kt— Q3 
KtxBP 
K— Kt3 
Kt— Q3 

8 KxP 

9 P— E 5 + 



Black. 
K— B3 
P— E5 
K— Kt3 
K— E4 
P— B5 
P— B6 
K— E3 
K— Kt3 
K— E3 



White. 

10 K— E 4 

11 K— Kt 5 

12 P— E6 + 

13 K-E 5 

14 K— Kt 6 

15 Kt— B 5 

16 Kt— K 6 

17 Ktr-B 7 + , 



Black. 
K— R2 
K— Kt2 
K— E2 
K— Kt sq 
K— Esq 
P— B7 
P— B8=Q 
and Queens, 



with eventual mate at K 6. 



White must be careful not to take the King Bishop Pawn, when by 
so doing his Knight would be too far off to prevent .... P — ^B 5, 
exchanging Pawns. If in above, 2 . . . . K — Kt 3 ; 3 Kt — Q 3, 
P— B 5; 4 KtxQBP,P— B6; thenSKt— E4 + , with 6 K— Q 3, Ac, 
wins for White. But 5 Kt— Q 3 or 5 Kt— Q 4 would not be so good, 
«.^., 5 Kt— Q 3, K— E 3 ; 6 K— B 5 ? P— E 5 ! drawing. And so with 
5 Kt— K 4. To win, White would be obliged to play Kt— Q E 4 and 
take the Pawn with King. So the sooner the better. 



^inor pieces, t^c. 



29 



BUkOX. 




Black loses :— 








White. 


Black. 


White. 


Black. 


1 . . . . 


Kt— B2 


6 K— B7 


Kt— Kt4 + 


2 P— E6! 


Ki— Q3 + ! 


7 K— B6 


K— E5 


3 K— B6 


Kt— Bsq 


8 B— B6 


K— E4 


4. B— Kt6 


K— Kt6 


9 K— Kt 7 


K— E5 


6 K— Kt 7 


Kt— Q3 + 


10 K— Kt6,^ 





If 3 , . . . Kt— Kt 4, then 4. B— K 7, Kt— E 2+ ; 5 K— Kt 7r 
Kt — Kt 4 ; 6 K — Kt 6, &o. A good example of this sort of ending.. 
Care is necessary in playing the King to prevent attack npon the 
Pawn ; and the Bishop plays in restriction of both adyerse ^ng and 
Knight and to prevent too mnch checking. The Eook Pawn is a 
faronrable one, as defending King and Knight suffer from the 
limitary action of the side. Generally, when these forces can be 
brought together in the neighbourhood of the Pawn, the game is 
drawn. In the above, it is evident that if Black could play on a file 
to the left of the Pawn there would be no win. 



so 



^rt of (Chess \ 




In this position, hj Sam Loyd, White draws hj grounding his play 
on the fact of the invariability of the Knight's move. By the timely 
sacrifice of the Bishop, he brings abont a situation essentially similar 
to that of Salvio (" Principles/' p. 32) in which the lone King draws 
against Knight and Pawn : — 

White. Black. 

1 B— Q 7 P— E 7 

2B— B6+ K— Kt8 

8 B— E sq ! K x B 

4 K — B 2, and will hold Black King in the comer, 
drawing. The latter must take the Bishop at E sq some time to 
have even a chance of qneening. When he does so, White has 
simply to play K — B 2, or KB sq, according to the position of the 
Knight, to make a drawn game. 



Minor rpieces, Ac 



V^' 



3> 



■^if^f'^'^^'^''^ "■ ''"■//■^•^ 




An exoeptional position (Horwitz and EHing) in which the Bishop 
draws against Knight and two Pawns : — 

White, Black. White. Black. 

1 B— Kt 5 ! Kt—B 6 4 B— K 2 Kt— K 6 

2 B— Q 7 Kt— Q 5 5 B— Kt 5, Ac., drawing. 

3 B— Kt 4 Kt—B 4 

White mnst first play his Bishop, so as to be able to get to B sq, 
intercepting the Knight Pawn. Otherwise, 1 . . . . P — Kt 5 + , 
2 K X P, Kt — ^B 6 + , &o., Qneening. Of course, he oonld play 
1 B — R 5, preventing 1 . . . . P — Kt 5 + , Ac, but, then, 2 . . . 

Kt—B 6 would foUow; and if 3 B— Kt 4, then 3 Kt— Kt 8 + , 

with 4 .... K X B winning. For the rest, the Bishop should com- 
mand Kt 4, to prevent the Knight Pawn from effectively advancing, 

1 Kt— Kt 5; 2 B— Q 7, Kt—B 7+ ; 3 K—Kt 2, K— K 6; 

4B— K6,P— B6+ ; 5K— Kt3, Ac.; or, 4 P— Kt5; 6BxP, 

Kt X B ; 6 E— B 3, Ac., always drawing. 



32 



^rt of (§hesf>. 




BLACK. 

A simple ending which should probably have been drawn : — 

White. Black. White. Bhiok. 

IKt— Kt6+ K— K3 6K— B5 Kt— Q5 + 

2 P— B 4 P X P+ 7 K— B 4 K— Q sq 

3 K X P K— B 3 8 Kt— E 6 K— B sq 

4 Kt— Q 74 K— K 2 9 P— K 5 K— Kt 2 
5Kt— Kt8? Kt— K3+ lOPxP K x Kt, and wins, 

The extra Pawn is scarcely sufficient to win, if White properly 
looks after his Knight. But the move 5 Kt— Kt 8 is fatal, the 
Knight walking into a trap, from which he never gets out alive. 



^inor pieces, ^c. 



33 




An eaedly drawn position ; bnt Black miscaloolates, and loses : — 



White. 

ktxKt 
P— Kt 3 ! 
PxP 
K— Q2 
P— B4! 
PxP 



Black. 
Kt— K6? 
PxKt 
PxP 
P— K7 
K— Kt6 
PxP 
KxP 



White. 

8 P— B5 

9 ExQ 

10 P— B 6 

11 P— B 7 

12 P— B 8 (Q) 

13 Q— B8 + 



Black. 
P— K8(Q) + 
K— B7 
P— Kt5 
P— Kt6 
P— Kt7 
K— Kt6 



14 Q— K B 5, and wins. 



The force of 3 P — Kt 3 ! was not sufficiently considered. White 
rightly wastes no time attacking Pawn with King, bnt at once goes on 
to Qneen. Otherwise he might lose. For example, 3 K — Q 3P 
K— Kt 5; 4KxP, KxP; 6 P— Kt 3, PxP; 6 PxP, K— B 6; 
7 P— B 4, PxP + ; 8PxP, P— Kt 5,— and Black Queens first, 
winning. 

D 



34 



^rt of (Qhes^. 




The above was drawn thus :— 1 K— Q 5 ?, P— E 4 ! ; 2 K— K 4, 
EPxP.; 3BPxP, PxP; 4KtxP, K— Kt4; 5Kt— B3 + ,KxP; 
6Kt— K 6 + , K— Kt4; 7 Kt— Q7,B— K2; 8K— K5,K— Kt3; 
9 K— K 6, B— E 5; 10 Kt x P, B— B 7; 11 K— Q 5, K— B 2; 
12 Kt— K4, B— Kt 8, &c. White should have won somewhat as 
follows : — 

White. Black. 

1 P— B 4 ! P X B P 

2 K X P K— Kt 3 

3 K— K 5 P— E 4 

4 P X P + , or P — Kt 5, winnings easily, either way, on 

account of the restriction of the Bishop. 
If Black declines 1 . . . . P x B P, then White gets a passed Pawn, 

winning. K 2 K— K 3 ; 3 K— K 4, K— B 2 ( K— B 3, 4 

Kt X P !) ; 4 K — K 5, &o., winning as before. 



(^inor pieces, ^c. 



35 




BLACK. 



In this diffionlt position Black draws as follows : — 



White. 


Bhiok. 


White. 


Blaok. 


1 


BxP! 


7K— K3 


P— Kt7 


2PxB 


KxP 


8K— B2 


K— Q5 


3Kt— K3 


P— B5! 


9KtxP+ ! 


KxP 


4PxP + 


KxP 


10 Kt X P 


KxP 


5KtxP + 


K— K4! 


11 Kt— Kt 3 


K— B3 


6Kt— K7 


P— Kt6 


12 K X P 


P— Kt3! and 



the King will attaok and take 
the Book Pawn, drawing. 

If 4KtxP + ,then4 K— B4; 5 Kt— R 6, K— Kt 3 ! and by 

continually attacking the Knight ( . . . . K — ^B 2, B 4, or Kt 3, or 
. . . . P X P) the draw is easier. 

D 2 



36 



^rt of (§hesP, 



BLAO^ 




WHITB. 

White has to check — Kt— Kt 3 — in order to win. Hence he mnst 
loae a move, forcing the opposition npon his adversary, with himself at 
B 3. This he can do easily : — 

White. Black. White. Black. 

1 K— B 4. K— Kt 7 4 K— R 3 K— B 8 

2 K— Kt 4 K— B 8 5 Kt— Kt 3+ K— Kt sq 

3 K— Kt 3 K— Kt 8 6 Kt— B 3, mate. 

Black is restrained so that he cannot prevent his opponent from 
playing K — Kt 3 in answer to ... . K — ^B 8 ; which is all that is 
wanted to bring the mate in evidence. 1 K — Kt 4 would do equally 
well, of course ; the essential point being to force Black into strict 
opposition. 



<^inor pieces, (&c. 



37 



BLACK. 




WHITS. 

. From " Studies and End Cktmes " (Horwitz and Kling) : — 

1 Kt— K2, K— Kt4; 2 Kt— Q4 + , K— E5; 3 Kt— Kt 6 + , K 
— E 4 ; 4 Kt— Q 5,K— R 5 ; 5 K— Kt2, K— R 4 ; 6 K— B 2, K— R 
5; 7 K— B3,K— R4; 8 K— B 4, K— R 5 ; 9 Kt— B 6, K— R 6; 

10 K— B3,K— R5; 11 Kt— B 7, K— R 6 ; 12 Kt— K 5, K— R 7; 

13 Kt— B 4, K— Kt 8; 14 K— Q 2, P— R 4 ; 15 Kt— Kt 5, P— R 5 ; 

16 Kt— B 3 + , K— R 8; 17 K— B 2, P— R 6 ; 18 Kt— R 6 (Q 2), and 
mates next moye. 

Or, 2 K— R 4; 3 K— B 4, K— R 5 ; 4 Kt— Kt 6 + , K— R 4 

5 Kt— Q 5, K— R 5; 6 Ki^B 6, K— R 6; 7 K— B 3, K— R 7 
8 K— B 2, K— R 6 ; 9 Kt— Kt 6, P— R 4; 10 K— B 3, K— R 7 

11 Kt-R 4, K— Kt 8 ; 12 K— Q 2, K— R 8 ; 13 K— B sq. K— R 7 

14 K— B 2, K— R6; 15 Ki— B 3, P— R 5; 16 Kt— Kt5 + ,K— R7 

17 Kt— Kt 4 + , K— R 8 ; 18 Kt— Q 4, P— R 6 ; 19 Kt— Kt 3, mate. 
An exceptionally difficult example. Bnt the positions are relatiyely 
few in which the Knights cannot win against a Pawn, if the latter can 
be stopped before it approaches Queening near enough to preyent mate. 



38 



^rt of (Qhes£>. 



BLACK. 




WHITE. 



The opposition is here against White. If he had it, «.e., were Black 
already at K Kt 8, there would be mate in fiye moves. The King 
must be driven to another comer. The Knights win : — 

1 K— B2, K— E7; 2 Kt— Kt 4 + ,K— R6!; 3K— B3,K— E5; 
4 Kt— B2 K~Kt4; 5 K— K4, K— R5; 6K— B4,K— E4;7 Kt 
— K 4, K— R 5 ; 8 Ktr-Kt 5, K— B 4; 9 Kt— B 3, K— Kt 3; 10 K— 
K 5, K— B 4 ; 11 K— B 5, K— E 3 ; 12 Kt— K 6, K— R 4; 13 Kfr— 
Kt 6, K— R 3 ; 14 Ktr-B 4, K— Kt 2 ; 15 K— K 6, K— B sq ; 16 
Kt— E 5, K— K sq ; 17 Kt— Kt 7 + , K— B sq ; 18 K— B 6, K— Kt 
Bq; 19 Kt— K 6, K— E 2 ; 20 K— Kt 5, K— E sq; 21 K— E 6!, K 
— Kt sq ; 22 K— Kt 6, K— E sq ; 23 Kt— Q B 4, P— E 6 ; 24 Kt— K 5, 
P— E7j 25 Kt— B7 + ,K— Ktsq. 26 Kt— E 6 + , K— E sq ; 27 Kt 
— Kt 5, P— E 8=Q ; 28 Kt— B 7, mate. 

Black conld have made his way to Q E sq, of coarse ; bnt the 
result would have been much the same. 



^OOfe D. ^aiDttS. 




WHITE. 

This and all analogous positions shonld be drawn : — 

White. Black. White. Black. 

1 B— Kt 5 K— B 3 3 R— Kt 6 + K— Kt 2, Ac, 

2 K— B 4> K— Kt 3 drawing. 
Black has to play only so that his rear Pawn cannot be taken with 

a check, as then the Book might be able to retnm in time to prevent 
snooessfnl Qneening. White cannot take the Pawn with King as 
long as Black can safely reply with .... P — ^B 7, because then, of 
course, the two Pawns would win against the Book. Other forma- 
tions of the Pawns generally lose. As for example, in the above, let 
the Book be at Q B 8, and Bishop Pawn advanced to B 6, then would 
White win easily, with or without moving first. Or, witii the Pawn 
at B 5, and White King at K B 2, then B— K B 8, forcing on the 
Pawn, and K — Kt 3, with the just mentioned winning position. 



40 



^rt of (§hesP, 



BLACK. 




WHITE. 

A difficult position (by Horwitz and Kling), in which White can 
draw by confining the opposing King, continually threatening mate if 
Pawn goes to Qneen : — 



White. 


Blaok. 


White. 


Black. 


1 E— QE6 


P— Kt6 


6 E— KE5 


K-Qsq 


2 K— B 6 ! 


K— Kt sq 


7 K— Q6 


K— Ksq 


3 R-E3! 


P— B5 


8 K--K6 


K— Bsq 


4 E— R5! 


P— Kt 7 


9 K— B6 


K—Ktsq 


6 E— Kt5 + 


K— Bsq 


10 E-Kt5 + , 


&c., drawing 



Black has no time to Qneen, as check or threat of mate on the move 
is always present. It makes no difference how he plays his Pawns — 
short of losing them. The dangerous situation of the King preoludea 
his winning. 



^ook V. ^awnP. 



41 




WJilTJi. 



From " Chess Studies and End Cktmes " — a draw : — 

White. Black. 

1 ExP! PxE 

2 K— Kt 2 K~Q 6 

3 E — ^B sq, and the Pawns cannot win. 

This, like the preyious position, is a typ^ of which varieties may be 
multiplied at will. If recessed a move or two in adyance, the draw 
can be generally avoided by the superior force, i.e., the Pawns ; which, 
as a rule, ought to win against the Book, when so near Queen. 



42 



^rt of (Qhes£>. 




WHITB. 

The Book can do no more than draw :- 
White. 

1 E— E3 + 

2 K— B4 

3 B— E2 + 

4 K— B3 

5 K— B2 

6 R— Esq 



Black. 
K— Kt 7 ! 
P— Kt6 
K— E3! 
P— Kt7 
K— E7 

P— E 6, and will draw by 
stalemate. 

If 3 K— Kt 4, K— E 7 ; 4 K X P, P— Kt 7 ; 5 E— E 2, K— E 8, the 
game is also drawn. Black most make for E 6 with his King, in order 
to bring in the element of stalemate, else he loses — 1 E — ^B 3 + , 
K— B7?; 2K— B4, P— Kt6; 3B— B2 + ,K— B8; 4 K— B 3, 
K— Kt 8; 5 E— K Kt 2, K— E 8; 6 E— Kt 4, P— Kt 7; 7 ExP + , 
K— Kt 8 ; 8 B— Q Kt 4, K E 8 ; 9 K— B 2, and wins. An every- 
day position of great utility. 



^ook V. ^a-wnf>. 



43 



BLACK. 




A common position — White 


wins: — 




White. 




Black. 


1 E— B7 + 




K— Kt sq 


2 E— Kt7 + 




K— Esq 


3 E— Kt 7 




P— E6 



4 K — Kt 6, and mates in two moves. 
The checks are necessary, as in driving the King to E sq time is 
gained in furtherance of the mate. If,l .... K — ^E sq or 1 . . . . K— E 3» 
the win by 2 E— Q Kt 7 or 2 E— B 2 is obvious. 



44 



^rt of (Qhes£>, 




White wins : — 

White. 

1 .... 

2 K— B 6 ! 

3 P— K6 

4 P— Ke 

5 P— K 7 

6 P— K 8=Q + 



Black. 
P— B6 
P— Q E 3 
P— B7 
P— Kt 7 
P— B(Kt)8=Q 
K— R2 



7 Q — K 3 + , and 8 Book matets. 
There was nothing better than 1 • . . . P— B 6. If 1 ... . K~Kt 2, 
then 2 B — K Kt sq, stopping the Fftwns. 



^ooli, 



SOLE OE SUPPOETED. AGAINST VAEIOUS FORCES. 



BL^OK. 




Agamst Bishop and two Pawns the Eook generally draws, his King- 
being in front of the Pawns, unless they are united and have reached 
the sixth rank, as for instance in the position here given. But thus 
far adyanoed, united, and supported, the Pawns, with the Bishop, win : 

1 K— Q sq; 2 K— B 4, E— B 8 + ; 3 K— Kt 5, E— Kt 8 + ; 

4 K — B 6, E— B 8 + ; 6 B—B 5, and must win. 

White cannot be prevented from taking up this position — King at 
B 6 and Bishop at B 5 — and when he attains it. Black is helpless. 



46 



^rt of (Qhesf^. 



^ 




WHITE. 

Ending by Steinitz — White wins : — 

White. Black. 

IP— R7+ K— Kt2 

2P— R8=Q+ KxQ 

3 K— B 7 R— B 8 + 

4 B— B6+ RxB + 

5 £xB, and the Pawn goes to Qneen. And so for 
other positions almost without exception, in which the Pawns are side 
by side on the sixth rank, with Bishop and King within supporting 
distance. But there are exceptions, as the very next position proves. 



^ook V, (^ishop and ^awnf>. 47 




This differs from both the foregoing in that the White King has 
less room for action ; as has also the Bishop with respect to the 
opposing King : — 

White. Black. 

1 K— Kt4 E— Kt8 + 

2 K—B 6 E— K R 8 ! 

Of course, 3 B — B 6 + and 4 P — E 7 + would be of no use, the 
Eook being g^ven up for the Pawns. 

3K-Kt4 E— Kt8 + 

4 B— Kt 3 E— K E 8 !, and White can 

make no progress. 
The Eook plays on the Eook file whenever check by Bishop is 
threatened, and so as to take the Pawn if it goes to E 7 ; or it 
attacks the Bishop, or pins it, when the King tries to reach B 7, and 
thus draws. 



48 



^rt of (§hesP. 




WHITE. 

When the Pawns are separated, the Book is more likely to draw in 
the generality of positions. In the above, however, from Lehrhuch 
des Schachapiels, the Pawns win easily, beins: so far advanced that 
an opportune sacrifice of the Bishop at once decides the issue : — 
White. Black. 

IK— R7 E— R8 + 

2K-~Kt6 B— KtS^- 

SK— B7! B— B8 + 

4 B — B 5 !, winning. 
For if 4 . . . . B X B + , the King plays to Kt 6, and when the 
Book goes away to check on the Knight file, the Pawns Queen one 
after the other— the Queen Knight Pawn first. If 4 ... . B— Kt 8, 
of course 5 B — Kt 6 follows. Let the Queen side Pawn be at Q B 6, 
and the Bishop at Q 7. Then White can win only by B — Kt 6, and 
with some little difficulty— 1 B— K 8, K— Q 3 ; 2 K— R 7, B— E 8 + ; 
3K— Kt6, B— Kt8 + ; 4KB6,Br-E8+ ; 5 B— E 5, B— K Kt 8 ; 
6 B— Kt 6, E— B 8 + , 7 K— Kt 5, E— Kt 8 + ; 8 K— B 6, E— B 8 + ; 
9 K — K 4, and Black cannot save the game. 



^ook V. ^ishop and i^awnP. 49 




Black won as follows : — 
White. 
1 

2 K— Q2 

3 B— Kt 4 P 

4 K-~B2 
6 B— K6 

6 B— Kt 4 

7 K— Q2 
If 5 K— B 3, then 6 . . 



Black. 
E— K4 + 
K— B 7 
• E— Q4 + 

K— Kt 7 ! 
B— K4 
R— K6 
E X P, Ac. 
. B— K Kt 4 ; 6 B moves, B— Kt 6 + , Ac, 
White should not have allowed his King to be driven to Queen Bishop 
file ; there he was too far away to draw when Black offered Book 
for Bishop and Pawn. The correct play was 3 K — Q 3 ! and (if 3 ... , 
B — Q 4 + ) 4 K — K 4 ! In snoh a position the King of the weaker 
party shoold always keep close to the Bishop file (next his Pawn), 
and as near to B 3 in that file as possible, in order to draw. 



50 



^rt of (§hes^. 



BLACK. 




WHITE. 

In this position, from Theorie und Prams der Endspiele (Prof. J. 
Berger), the Book draws : — 

White. Black. 

1 . . . . B— Q6 

2 E— K 7 K— B 5 

3 B— K 8, and if 3 ... . K— Q 5, of course 4 R x P, 
&o., drawing. Black King cannot get over to support his Eling Pawn 
without leaving both Pawns temporarily supported by the Bishop 
only ; and then the Book can be given up, securing the draw. Place 
the White King on Q B sq, and his Book on K B 2 ; Black Kine on 
Q Kt 6, Bishop on Q B 7, Pawns on Q 6 and Q B 6. In this position 
aJso the Book draws, chiefly owing to the poor situation of the 
Bishop. E.g., 1 . . . . B— Kt 8 ; 2 B— K B 2, B— B 7 ; 8 B— Q B 2, 
^., and Black can do nothing to win. The Bishop cannot be freed 
without lose ; and by keeping his Book on the second rank, playing 
for stalemate, or the usual sacrifice, White draws the game. 



(^ook V. ^ishop and (^awnP. 51 




Black won ; White shonld have drawn : — 



White. 


Black. 


1 


P— R4 


2 P— KK:t4? 


R— B6 


3 K— Kt 2 


E— K6 


4 K— E2 


E— K7 + 


5 K— Kt 3 


P— R5 + ! 


6 K— B3 


E — R 7, and wins 



The position was properly drawn— 2 P x P e.p., K— R 2 ; 3 P— K 
Kt 4 ! K X P ; 4 P— R 4, &c. Black King would be shut in, and the 
Rook could do nothing of itself. In the actual play, if 6 K x P, then 
6 . . . . R — Kt 7, breaking up White's Queen side, and winning of 
course. 

E 2 



52 



^rt of (§hesP. 




This oomes to an ending Queen v. Book, and is of course a win for 
White :— 



White. 


Black. 


White. Black. 


1 P— B7 


BxKt + 


4K— Kt3 B— K6 + 


2 K— Kt 5 


B— K4 + 


5 K— B 2, and the Pawn must 


8 K— Kt 4 


B-K5 + 


Queen. 



White retires along^ the Knight file until he can play to B 2, as 
the only way to prevent his opponent from attacking and taking 
the Pawn, either before or after Queening. 

If 1 E— B sq, then 2 Kt— B 7 + , K moves ; 3 Kt— K8, Ac. 

Shift all the forces a file to the righb, making the Pawn a Knight 
Pawn, and Black can draw. Position by E. Lasker. 



^ook V, (Hnight and ^awnP, 53 



BULOK. 




WHITB. 

The Book draws against Knight and two Pawns provided his King 
IB near enough, or can front the Pawns in any such position as the 
above. The general principle is to play the Book behind the Pawns, 
where he can check the opposing King safely, when expedient ; and 
where he can pin the Elnight, when necessary, or prevent his own 
King being checked, with successfal advance of one of the Pawns to 
Queen. For example, in the situation here griven, B — Q 8 is the only 
move to draw. If, for instance, 1 B — B 2, then 1 . . . Kt — B 5 ; 
2 R— B 2, P— K 7 + ; 3 K— Q 2, Kt— Kt 7 ; 4 B— B 4 +, K— K 4; 
5 B— B sq, K— K 5; 6 B— B 4 + , K— B 6 ; 7 B— B sq, P— K 8 (Q) + , 
8 R X Q, Kt X B, 9 K X Kt, K— K 6, Ac, winning. If 2 B— B 4, 
pinning the Knight, the King plays over, defending, and eventually to 
K — B 6, winning in a similar manner. 



54 



^rt of (§hesP. 




PositionB similar to this ooonr very frequently. White wins :- 



White. 

1 P— R 7 ! 

2 K— E6 

3 K— Kt 6 ! 

4 K-~B6 

5 K—Kt 4 

6 K— B3 

7 E— E8! 

8 E — E 7 4- , winning. 



Black. 
E— Kt8 + 
E— E8 + 
E— Kt8+ 
E— B8 + 
E— Kt8+ 
E-^E8 
ExP 



If, however. Black King stood on K Kt 2, or K E 2, this method of 
gaininjr the Eook would not be available ; the win would have to be 
effected in a different manner — 1 P — E 7 leading only to a draw. 



^ook V. ^oolt, (Ac. 



55 



BLACK. 




WHITS. 

With the moye, White wins ; Black playing first draws : — 
White. Black. 

IE— B6+ K— Q2 

2 E— B3 BxP + 

8 BxB+ K— Q3 

4 B— B 3, Ac. 
Or, 1 ... . K—K 4; 2 K x B, P— Q 7 ; 3 K— Kt 8, P— Q 8«Q; 
4 P — B 8 =Q ; winning as a matter of course. 

1 . . . . BxP + ! 

2 B X B E— E 4 ! 

3 K— Kt 6 K— K 5 

4 E—Et 5 P— Q 7 

5 B--Q 7 K— K 6, &o., the Book being 
unable to win against the Pawn. Black must play the King oq the 
second moye ; for if 2 ... . P — Q 7, then 3 E — B 8 ! and his game 
would be lost. 



56 



^rt of (§hesf>. 



BLACK. 




WHITS. 

That Book and two Pawns win against Book is a rule with very 
few exceptions. In the example above — an unusually difficult one, 
which occurred more than half a century ago between the celebrated 
masters, Labourdonnais and Macdonnell — the procedure is as follows : 
1 B— B 7 + , K— Kt sq ; 2 K— B 3, B— K B 5 ; 3 K— Q 3, B— K 
Kt 5 ; 4 K—K 3, B— K B 5 ; 5 K— B 3, B— Q Kt 5 ; 6 K— Kt 3, 
B— QB6; 7 B— QB7,B— B6+ ; 8 K— Kt4,B— B5+ ; 9 K— 
Kt 5, B— B 4 + ; 10 K— B 6, B— B sq; 11 B— B 5, B— Kt sq; 

12 K— Kt5, B— B sq; 13 P— B 6, B— Kt sq ; 14 P— B7 + , K— 
B sq; 15 K— B 6, winning. Or, 1 . . . . K— B 3; 2 K— B 3, 
B— Kt 8 ; 3 K— Q 4, B— Kt 4 ; 4 K— K 4, B— Kt 8 ; 5 K— Q 5, 
B— Q8 + ;6 K— B6, B-B8 + ; 7 K— Q 7, B— Q B 8 ; 8 B— B7 + , 
K— Kt 4 ; 9 P— Kt 7, B— B sq; 10 K— K 6 !, B— K Kt sq ; 11 B— 
K 7, K— B 3; 12 K— B 6, E— Q B sq ; 13 K— B 7, K— B 2; 
14 P— B 6, winning. If, in this latter, 12 ... . K— B 2, then 

13 P— B 6 ; and if 13 .... K x P, 14 B— K sq wins. On the next 
page is an exception, by Horwitz and Kling, where the stronger force 
can do no more than draw. 



^ook V. ^ook, (&c. 



57 



BZiiLaK. 




\^^ ^^ 



The Pawns are nnfayoiirably situated, being both attacked in front 
by adverse King. The latter cannot be driven from his point of 
vantage by a check in rank ; while through checking at Kt 8 White 
cannot exchange and remain with a winning Pawn ending : — 
White. Black. 

1 B-^ 4 B— Kt 3 

2 R— Q 8 E— Kt 5 + 

3 K— K 5 E— Kt 2 ! 

4 B— Kt 8 + K— B 2, Ac, drawing. 
Black has only to keep his Book on the third rank nntU threatened 

with check on the Knight file ; and then, after himself checkinsr King 
away from support of Pawn, to play his Book back on the second 
rank, in order to ensure the draw. Where the Pawns are peparated, 
the win is nearly always forced, as one may be sacrificed, and a winning 
position attained with the other. 



58 



^rt of (Qhes€>. 




BLACK. 



This was drawn :^ 
White. 

1 . . . . 

2 E— K 2 ! 

3 K— B6 

4 K— Kt 6 



Black. 
K— Kt sq ? 
E— Kt 8 + ' 
E— B8 + 
E— Kt 8 + , Ac. 



Black is obliged to draw by perpetual check ; otherwise he loses. 
But his 1 ... . K — Kt sq was an nnnecessary move, and a violation 
of the general principle governing play in which Queening is the 
question. Exceptions to this principle, admitting of delay in going to 
Queen, are extremely rare. In the present instance pushing on at 
once wins :— 1 .... P— E 7 ; 2 E— B 2 + , K— K 2 ; 3 E— K 2 + , 
K— Q2; 4 P— E 7, P— E 8 = Q ; 5 P— Kt 8 = Q, E-Kt 8+ ; 6 
K — B 4, Q — Q 5 + , &o., White being unable to escape mate. And so 
in other ways. It will be found that Black wins easily. 



^ook V. ^ook, (&c. 



59 




White wins : — 

White. 



Black. 

P— Q6 

K— E2 

P— Q7 

P— Q8=Q 



1 K— E2 

2 P— Kt7 + 

3 P— B7 

4 P— B8=.Q 

5 Q — ^B 5 + , and mates in few more moves. 
If 1 E X P, then 2 P— B 7, K— Kt 2; 3ExE + ,KxP; 

4E — Kt sq, and Black must lose. Let Black's Qneen Pawn be 
already at the sixth, and the position in other respects the same. 
Then 1 K — ^E 2 would lose for White ; as with the King so far off, 
the two Pawns would win against the Eook. In that case the winning 
move would be 1 K — B sq, and, on general principles, this move shonld 
have been preferred. Exceptions in which the King should go away 
from advancing Pawns are extremely rare. 



6o 



^rt of (§hes^. 



VUlOK* 




Black loses chiefly on account of the nnfortonate situation of his 
Bishop : — 

White. Black. 

1 B— E4+ ! P— Kt4 

2 B— K sq E— K 2 P 
3ExB! E(K2)xE 

4 B— B 3 P— K E 4 

5 ExE ExE 

6 K — B 3, and will eventuallygain the Eook. 

If 1 King moves, then 2 B — Kt 3, K — B 3 ; 3 P x P, Ac, or 

Black must lose the exchange. 2 . . . . E — K 2 intended 3 . . . . 
B — Q 3, of course, but there was no time. 2 . . . . E — B 4 would have 
been stronger, preventing loss as above ; but still White should win, 
the Pawn position being in his favour. 



^ook V. ^ook, (&c. 



6i 



BLACK. 




This position, by Frank Healey, was at first supposed to be a draw ; 
but, as shown by Bobt. Steel many years since, it is a win for White 
— ^Black of course playing first : — 

White. Black. White. Black. 

1 B— Kt7+ 6P— B6 K— B3 

2 K— B sq E— Kt 6 ! 7 K— Q 3 K— B 2 

3 P— B8=E! E— QE5 8 K— B 3 K— Kt 2 

4 E— Q E 8 K— Kt 5! 9 K— Kt 3, and White will play 

5 K— K 2 ! K— B 4 his King to the support 
of the Pawn, and Qneen without difficulty. He must not play P — ^E 7, 
unless Black ventures on the Queen file, nor when the latter can reply 
.... K — Kt (E) 2. Failing to confine his adversary, by taking the 
opposition (as e. g. if White were to push the Pawn at move 5, thus 

allowing 5 K— B 6) Black goes for K— Kt (E) 2 in order to 

draw, in case of too early P — E 7. He must he able to take one of 
these squares in reply to P — ^E 7 ; else this move, with following E 
checks, or E — ^E 8, wins directly. If 3 P Queens, 3 . . . . E— B 5 + 1 
draws. 



62 



^rt of (Qhes£>. 




A critical position (by E. Lasker) in which White, 


playing first. 


wins: — 








White. 


Black. 


White. 


Black. 


1 B— E6 + 


K— E4 


7E^E4 + 


K— E6 


2 K— Kt 7 


R-Kt7 + 


8 K— Kt 6 


E— Kt 7 + 


3 K--E7 


Er— QB7 


9 K— E5 


E— QB7 


4 R— E5 + 


K— E5 


10 E— E3 + 


K— E (Kt) 7 


5 K— Kt 7 


R— Kt7 + 


11 E X P, and wins. 




6 K— R6 


R— QB 7 







Black, except at the last, cannot play his King on the Knight file, 
on account of K — Kt 7, winning the Eook for Pawn. Black Pawn 
may be anywhere at the seventh rank, on the King side, with White 
Eook behind it, and White can win in a similar way. Bnt if the 
other forces are more towards the centre. Black Eook has more 
room for checking, and the game is drawn. 



^ook V. ^ook, (^c. 



63 




WHITE. 

In this situation Black lost as follows : — 

White. Black. 

1 ExP + ? 

2 K— Kt 6 K— Kt 2 

3 P— B 8 =»Q + , winning the Book. 

If 2 E (K5)— K B5, then 3 B— Esq + , and will mate in four 

moves at most, after taking both Books, and Qneening. 

By 1 ... . K — Kt 2 ! Black conld have easily drawn. A good 
example of the necessity of accurate play in this class of ending. 
The time White gains owing to the inadvertent capture of the Pawn 
is deoisiye. 



64 



^rt of (ghesf>. 




BLACK, 

This was actually drawn as follows : — 



White. 


Black. 


White. 


Black. 


1 


B— E5 


6 K— B 6 ! 


E— E4 


2 Er— E6 


B-B7 


7 P— B7 


ExP 


3 P— B5 


B— B4? 


8 P— B 8 (Q) ! 


BxQ 


4 P— B6 


B— KE8 


9 E X P, Ac. 




6 K— K5 


ExP 







Black misses the win by his 3 ... . B — B 4 P There wonld be 
always time for that move — ^if necessary. The correct play was to 
attack the Eook Pawn immediately. E.g., 3 . . . . E — K B 8; 
4 K—K 6, E X P ; 5 K—B 6, E— E 4 ; 6 P— B 6, E x P ; 7 P— B 7, 
E — Q B 4, &c., winning. Neither can White do better by going 
straight on with his Pawn. An interesting stndy. 



^ook V. ^ook, (&c. 



65 



WRITE. 




This was drawn as follows : — 



White. 


Black. 


White. 




Black. 


1 


E-B7P 


8 K— B3 




Kt— Kt2 


2 E— E 7 


P— E7 


9 K— K4 




E— K8q + 


3 P-E7 


E— Bsq 


10 K— B 3 




K— Kt 3 


4 ExP 


Kt— Q5 


11 K— Kt 3 




E— K B sq 


5 E— E7 


Kir-K3 


12 P— E8 = 


Q 


ExQ 


6 K— B3 


E— Ksq 


13 P— B 4 ! 


and the exohanare 


7 K— Kt 3 


E— KEsq 


of Pawns draws. 



Black missed his opportunity in not playing 1 . . . . E x P + ! as 
thatwoold have given him an easily winning grame. He wonld be 
able to gain the adverse Eook for his passed Pawn, return with his 
Knight in time to hold his remaining Pawn, securing the victory. 



66 



iArt of (QhesiK 




This was actually drawn : — 



White. 


Black. 


White. Black 


1 


K— Kt7 


6 E X P (B 6) K— Q 7 


2 E— B4 


Kt— K 6 ? 


7 E— Q 6 + K— K 7 


3 ExP 


Kt— Q8 


8 E— Q B 6 K— Q 6 


4 R— QB4 


K— B6 


9 E— Q 6 + , &c. 


5 K— Kt sq 


K— K 7 





Black feared perpetual check, or stalemate, in case of his playing^ 
1 . . . . Kt — Q 7. Bnt this fear was really groundless : 1 . . . . Kt — 
Q 7 wins — but with difficulty. So also does 1 . . . . P — Kt 4, followed 
by 2 ... . P — B 7, if White takes the Pawn. Again, in the actual 
play, 2 . . . . Kt X P instead of 2 . , . . Kt — K 6, wins easily. In the 
stress of conflict, even the simplest things may escape the anxious 
search of the greatest players. 



^ook V. (Hooky (^c. 



67 




Black draws : — 

White. 
1 

2 P— Kt8 = Q + 

3 ExE 

4 B— Kt sq 



Black. White. Black. 

E— Q Kt 4 5 E— K sq? Kt— B 6 + 

E X Q 6 K— B 2 Kt X E 

P— K 7 7 K X Kt K— Q 4 ! 

Kt— Q 7 8 K X P K— K 5, and 

the Pawn position is drawn. 
5 . . . . E — Q B sq (obvionsly, checking is useless) though better on 
the ground of mere abstract principle, would not avail ; as White's 
play from K sq, after the exchanges, is a matter of indifference, 
Black King always arriving at K 5 drawing. 

P 2 



68 



^rt of (Qhes€>. 




White wins : 



White. 

1 P— K 6 ! 

2 K— B4 

3 Er— Kt8 + 

4 K— K 5 ! 

5 R— K8 + 

6 PxB + 

7 PxP 

8 E— Kt8 + 

9 K— B 4 ! 



Black. 
R— Kt 8 + 
R— Kt2 
K— K2 
BxP! 
K— B2 
K— Kt3 
E— E2 
K--R3 
P— R7 



I 

L 



10 E — Kt 5 ! and Black cannot escape. 
His only chance was as above — to try and Queen ; the position was- 
a losing one, on its merits. 



^ook V. ^ishops, (&c. 



69 




The Bishops and Pawn win easily, though the Pawn is on a Book 
file. With Ejiights, instead of Bishops the g^ame would be drawn. 
The Knights can win onlj in special droumstanoes, as for example 
where they can shut out the Book, and at the same time make way 
for the Pawn to Queen. But, as said, the Bishops win without diffi- 
culty, somewhat as follows : — 

1 K— Kt 6, B— Kt 2 + ! ; 2 K— B 6!, B— B 2 + ; 3 K— Q 6, B— Q 
2 + !;4K— K6!,B— KKt2; 5Z-B6,B— Q2; 6 K— Kt 6, and wins. 

White has nothing to do but attack the Book until it is driven off 
the second rank, or forced in diagonal with the King, where it can be 
pinned and won for the Pawn. 



70 



^rt of (ghesf>. 




Two minor Pieces (other than two Knights) and Pawn win against 
a Book ; except when the Book can be given up for Bishop or Knight 
— reducing the position to one of those few in which the lone King 
draws against Piece and Pawn. In the above, from KanShuch, des 
SchachspieUj White wins as follows : — 

1 , B— B 4 ; 2 Kt-Q 4 + , K— Q 2 ; 3 B— B 4, B— B 5 ; 

4 P— B 6 + , K— B sq; 5 B-K 5, B— B 4 ; 6 K— Q 5, B-B 2 ; 7 Kt 
— Kt 5, B— K 2 ; 8 Kt-K 6 + , K— B 2 ! ; 9 Kt— B 4 + !, K— B aq ; 
10 Kt— Kt 6 + , and 11 B— B 6, winning. 

The Book can be always won for the Pawn, if not in some such way 
as here shown, but careful play is necessary. For instance, if 9 Kt — 
B 5 + , Black could take the Bishop, and draw. 



^ook V, ^ishop and ^Knight, (&c, 71 




A difficult example :— 1 K— K 5, K— R sq ! ; 2 K— Q 5, B— R 4 + ; 
3 B— B 5, K— Kt 8q; 4 K— B 4, R— R 5 + ; 5 B— Kt 4, K— R sq; 
6K— Kt 5, R— R2; 7B— B3 + ,K— Kt sq; 8 B— B 6, R— Q B 2 ; 
9 K— Kt 6, R— K Kt 2 ! ; 10 K— B 6, R— Q R 2 ; 11 K—Q 5, 
E— Q 2 + ; 12 K— K 5, R— Q Kt 2 ; 13 K— B 5, R— Q R 2; 14 K— 
Kt 6, R— Kt 2 + ; 15 K— R 5, R— R 2 ; 16 Kt— K 6, K— R 2 ; 17|B 
— Q 8, R— B 3 ; 18 Kt— Kt 5 + , K— R sq ; 19 B— B 7, R— R 2; 20 
B— K 6 + , K— Kt sq ; 21 B— B 6, R— Q Kt2 ; 22Kt— K6, K— R 2 ; 
23 B— Q 8, R— R 2 ; 24 B— B 7, R— Q Kt 2 ; 25 B— Q 6, R— R 2 ; 
26 B— Kt 4, R— Q Kt 2 ; 27 B— B 5, and wins. The Rook must be 

given up for the Pawn, = 27 , K— Kt sq ; 28 K— Kt 6, R— Q 2 ; 

29 B— B 8, R— K R 2 ; 30 B— Kt 7, &c. The square K Kt 6 is to be 
occupied by White King in order to win. Also, in the case of a Rook 
Pawn, it must Queen on the square commanded by the Bishop. Other- 
wise the Rook draws. '' Chess Studies and End Games.'' Prof. 
Wayte's edition, London, 1889. 



72 



(^rt of (§hes^. 




WHITE. 

In general, Eook and Bishop can do no more than draw against 
Book (" Principles of Chess," pp. 112 et seq.). Bnt where the King of 
the weaker party is at a side square^ directly opposed^ loss is very pro- 
bable ; if the oppo*ition is not on a Knight file, or on a rank corres- 
ponding — viz., the first or seventh. Where he is opposed diagonally, 
or at a Knight's distance, the role is that he can draw ; becanse then 
he can hardly be prevented from reaching a square in one of the short 
diagonals, where no win can be forced. In the above position (by 
LoUi) Black is already on one of the safe squares, and the play may 
go as follows :— 1 R— Q 8 + ,R— B sq ; 2 R— Q 7, R— B 7 ! ; 3 B— B 6, 
B—Kt 7 + ! ; 4 B— Kt 5, E— Q B 7 ; 5 E— K B 7, E— B 6 ; 6 B— E 4, 
E— B 8 ; 7 B— B 6, E— Kt 8 + ; 8 K— B 5, Er-Kt 7 ; 9 B^Q 5, E— 
K E 7 ; 10 E— Kt 7 + , K— B sq ; 11 E— K 7, K— Kt sq, Ac, and no 
win has yet been found for White against a strong defence. But, it 
must be admitted, the defence is extremely difficult. For one instance, 
of many, 3 . . . . K — B sq in lieu of <}hecking would speedily lose, = 

3 K— Bsq?; 4E— Q4!E— Kt7 + ; 5 B— Kt 5, E— Kt 8 ; 6E 

— Q2, E— Kt5(if 6 E— Kt6; 7 E— K 2 ! wins); 2E— B2 + , 

K moves ; 8 E — K 2, and wins. 



^ook V. pishop and ^ook. 73 



^ 




WHITE. 

The above (by Centorini) appears to be one of the exceptions to the 
mle that the Kings must be directly opposed in rank or file to enable 
the Book and Bishop to win : — 



White. 


Black. 


1 E— Q B 4 ! 


R-E3! 


2 E^KE4 


K— Bsq 


3 R— Q Kt 4 


E— E sq 


4 K— K 7 ! 


E— E2 + 


5 K— K8 


E— Esq 



6 E — Kt 6, and mates next moye. 
But this is very favourable to White, because of the threatened 
mate and the restricted action of the adverse Eook, which ought to be 
able to attack the King in file, in order to draw the game. 



74 



^rt of (€hesP. 




The ending Eook and Knight v. Rook is more easily drawn by the 
weaker party than that of Book and Bishop v. Book ; but ther-t are 
neyertheless many positions in which the lone Book loses — that on the 
diagram (Centurini) being one : — 



White. 


Black. 


White. 


Black. 


1 B— K 3 ! 


B— B7 


8 Kt-Kt 5 


B— B 5 + 


2 B— K sq ! 


B— B5 


9 K— Kt 6 


K— Kt sq 


3 B— Q B sq ! 


B-B 7 


10 Kt— K 6 


B— Kt 5 + 


4 Kt— K 4 


B— Kt 7 + ! 


11 K— B 6 


K— Bsq 


5 K-B6 


K— Bsq 


12 B-B 8 + 


B -Kt sq 


6 B— B3! 


B— Kt 8 


13 Kt-B8! 


and wins. 


7 B-B 2 ! 


B— Kt 5 







The nicety of play required to force the Black Book to the unfavour- 
able squares B 5 and Kt 5 is noteworthy. If 1 ... . B — B s^., then 
2 Kt— B 7, B— B sq ; 3 B— K 7, wi'h 4 Kt -B 6 + , &c. Compare 
position next following. 



i^ook V. (Knight and ^ook, 75 




wHin 
In this and all analogous positions the game is drawn. The King 
cannot be cornered, and no mating operation is possible ; with the 
defending Book ready to check, on occasion, without forfeiting its 
general liberty of action. In actual play the preliminary endings are 
very few in which the King cannot choose his square when being 
driven to the side, hence the general conclusion that Book and Knight 
Y. Book is no more than a draw. Positions are numerous in which the 
stronger force wins ; but these very rarely occur, unless the ante- 
cedent play of KiDg and Book has been weak. Compare foregoing 
situation, in which the stronger force wins. 



76 



^rt of (§hes^. 



BLACK. 




WHITE. 

White wins : — 

White. Black. 

1 Kt— Q 7 R— Kt 5 (best) 

2 KtxP+ K— B6 

3 B— Kt7+ K— Q7 
4B— E6+ K— B6 

5 K— K sq R— Kt sq 

6B— Kt7+ K~Kt5 

7 Kt — ^E 6 + , and wins. 
Black can get no more than a Knight for his Book ; and then of 
oonrse the mate with Bishop and Knight follows. If 4 ... . K — Q 8, 

then 5 Kt— Q 3, Ac. If 5 K— Kt 7, then 6 Kt— Q 3 + , 

K X Kt ; 7 B— B 8, &o. A remarkable ending. [By H. Otten.] 



^ook — (Opposition. 



77 



BLACK. 




An illustration of the opposition. White mates in eleven, moving 
his Book not more than once (KUng) : — 



White. 
K— E2 
K— Kt2 
K— B3! 
K— Kt 3 
K— E4! 
K— Kt4 



Black. 
K— Kt sq 
K— Esq 
K— Kt2 
K— R3 
K— Kt 3 
K— E3 



White. 

7 K— B 5 ! 

8 K— Kt 5 

9 K— B6 

10 K— Kt 6 

11 R— B 8, mate. 



Black. 
K— Kt2 
K— E2 
K— Kt sq 
K— Esq 



A mismove on White's' part wonld make the thing impossible — 
according to the conditions. He must be carefnl not to take the 
diagonal opposition — as for example by playing 5 K — B 4, instead of 

5 K— E 4, in the above. If 5 K— B 4, then 5 K— -E 4 ! and 

there is no solution. Evidently, if Black be allowed the opposition, 
in file, the solution also fails. 



^nccn V. Various glorccs. 



BLACK. 




WHITE. 

Position, by Sam Loyd, in which White mates in five mores as 

follows : — ^ 

White. Black. 

1 Q— B8+ K— K8 

2 Q— Q6 K— B8 

3 Q— B 4 + ^— K 8 

4 Q— Q 4 K— B 8 

5 Q — Kt sq, mate. 

This is the only way in which mate can be gri'^eiii without allowing 
the Pawn to Qneen, or taking it in the process. A glance shows that 
Q — Q 4 must be played when Black King is at his eighth, if mate at 
Kt sq is to be effected. 



^ueen v. ^ishop and ^awnP, 79 



mm 




WHITB. 

Ag^ainst two Pieces, other than Bishop and Knight, the rule is that 
the Queen can only draw. But Bishop and Knight, not working so 
well together in defence, usually lose, unless they can stalemate the 
opposing King in a comer, their own King being free to move about in 
the neighbourhood — i.e., not liable to be himself stalemated by the 
hostile Queen. But against a minor Piece and one or more Pawns the 
Queen wins. Take the above, where she is opposed to a Bishop and 
three Pawns (Horwitz and Kling) :— 1 Q— B 2 + , K— Kt 5 ; 2 Q— B 6, 
K— Kt 6 ; 3 Q— Kt 5 + , K— B 6; 4 Q— K 5, K— Kt 4; 5 K— B 2, 
and whatever Black moves he must bpgin to lose his Pawns. If 2 ... . 
K— R 4 ; 3 K— B 2, B— Kt 3 ; 4 Q— B 3 + , K— Kt 4; 5 Q— Q 5 + , 
&c., and he is no better off — ^his Pawns must soon fall. And similarly 
in other variations — White will take the King Rook Pawn, with a 
check, or win the Queen Rook Pawn when deprived of support by the 
Bishop. 



8o 



^rt of (Qhesf>, 




Queen v. Book and Pawn. The general statement respecting the 
opposition of these forces, g^iven in " Principles of Chess " (pp. 97 et seq.), 
is about as follows: — The Queen wins against Book and a centre 
Pawn when the Pawn has been moved, but not beyond the fourth rank ; 
but if the Pawn be a Bishop Pawn, or a Knight Pawn, she can only 
draw. The Queen wins against Book and Book Pawn, when the Pawn 
has not been moved, or is in the fourth or fifth rank, but in other cases 
she can only draw. In the above position, by B. v. Guretzky-Comitz, 
White wins:— 1 Q— Q 5, K— B 3; 2 Q— B 6 + , K— B 2; 3 K— Q 3, 
B— Kt 3; 4 Q— B 7 + , K— B 3; 5 Q— B 8 + , K— B 2 ; 6 K— B 4, 
B— Kt2; 7Q— Q8, K— B3; 8 Q— B 8 + , K— Kt3; 9 K— Kt 3, 
B— Q B 2 ; 10 Q— Kt 8 + , K— B 3 ; 11 K— B 4, and will gain the 
Pawn. White has only to attack Pawn with King and the Pawn must 
falL 



)ueen v. ^ook and ^avon. 



8i 




When the Book Pawn is unmoTed, the Queen wins verj easily : — 
White. Black. 

1 Q— Q5+ K— Ktsq 

2 Q— Q 7 K— E sq 

3 Q— B 8 + B— Kt sq 

4 Q— B6 + ,&o. 

If the Book goes away anywhere, it is soon lost through a divergent 
check. If the Pawn stood at B 3, however, defended and supported in 
a similar way. White could not win. His Queen would still have no 
effective play on the eighth rank; while the greater freedom of Black's 
King would enable him to avoid loss as above. 

Against Book and two or more united Pawns, the Queen can win 
very rarely — only when the position is exceptionally unfavourable to 
the weaker force. 



82 



^rt of (GhesP. 



BIiAOX. 




Although Black's Pawn has passed the rank, he loses ; becanse his 
forces are scattered, and cannot be brought to work well together : — 
White. Black. 

1 K— B 4 K— B 2 

2 K— B 5 E— K 2 

3 Q— Q 5+ K— Kt2 

4 Q— Q 6 K— B 2 

5 Q— Kt6+ K— B sq 

6 K— B 6 P—K 6 

7 Q — E 5, and wins. 

If the Pawn advances on the first move it is lost very shortly after 
2 K— B 5 attacking the Book. Neither does 1 . . . . E— K 2 nor 
1 . . . . K — Q 2 afford any better defence. But if the Pawn were only 
two squares from Queening there would be no win. 



^ueen v, ^ueen and ^awn. 83 




WHITE. 

Queen and Pawn generally win against Queen, if the Pawn is far 
advanced, and supported by its King. The mass of exceptions are 
where a centre Pawn is concerned ; for then the lone Queen is more 
powerful in attack upon the King ; and in the case of a Eook Pawn, 
which, as a rule, can do no more than draw. The difficulty of Queen- 
ing, is less with a Knight Pawn, next less with a Bishop Pawn, and at 
its maximum when the Pawn is on a Book file. This, supposing the 
King of the weaker party at a distance, or in such a situation that the 
exchange of Queens would lose him tiie game. The position above, 
from Lehrhuch des ScTiachspiela, by C. v. Bardeleben and J. Mioses, 
is won for White, thus;—! Q— Q 5, Q— Kt 3 + !; 2 K— B 4 + , K— 
E 7 ! ; 3 Q— K 5 !, Q— Q 6 ; 4 P— Kt 5, and wins easily, because 
owing to the unfavourable situation of Black's King, the exchange of 
Queens cannot be long avoided. 

Ifl QxP + ;2 K — B 3 ! and White will soon give mate ; whlJe 

if 2 . . . . K — Kt 8, the exchange is forced directly. 

G 2 



84 



^rt of (§hesP. 




White wins : — 

White. Black. 

1 Q— Kt 4 Q— Q 4 

2 Q— R4+ K— Kt3 

3 Q— Kt3+ QxQ 

4 P Queens + , and wins. 

If 1 Q—K B 6, similar play follows. 1 Q— Kt 7 ; a 

Q — ^B 8 + , K moves ; 3 Q — Kt 2 + , &o., winning in like manner. 

1 Q— B 8; 2 Q— B3 + , K— Kt 3 ; 3 Q— Kt 2 + , K— B 2; 

4 Q— B 2 + , Q X Q ; 5 P Queens + , &c., winning. 

If 3 K— B 3, then 4 Q— B 2 + , 5 Q— Kt sq + , Ac. If 

3 K— B 4, then 4 K— B 7, Q— B 2 ; 5 Q— Kt 6 + , with 

6 K— B 6, or 6 K— B 8, Ac. A very pretty study. By L. van Vliet. 



(Queen v. ^ueen and ^awn. 85 




WHITS. 

Here the Qneen draws agfainst Queen and a centre Pawn at the 
seventh. E.g, : — 



White. 

1 Q— B4 + 

2 Q— K B sq + 

3 Q— B3 + 

4 Q— E8q + 

5 Q— B6 + 

6 Q— Kt 6 + 

7 Q— K6 + 

8 Q— E 5 + 



Black. 
K— Q8 
Q— KB! 
Q— K7 
K— B7 
K— Q6 
K— K6 
K— B6 
K— B7 



White. 
9 Q— R 2 + 

10 Q— Kfcsq + 

11 Q— K3 + 

12 Q— Kt3 + 

13 Q— B4 + 

14 Q— E4 + 

15 Q— Rsq + 



Black. 
K— K8 
Q— B8 
K— Q8 
K— K 7 ! 
K— K8 
Q— B7 
K— K7 



16 Q — K 4 + , and so on, the check 



being perpetnal, if jndicionsly applied. Black King caimot shelter 
himself for a single move, and the game is drawn. When the Pawn is 
opposed by the hostile King, the chances of winning are small; 
lieoause then, in the vast majority of cases, if perpetual check fails, 
the Queens may be exchanged, and a drawn Pawn ending secured. 



86 



(Art of (§hesP. 



BLACK. 




Frequently it is essential to " lose a move/' as it is called, in order 
to make the most of the situation. In the above position, supposing 
White King to be fixed, the Queen can force mate only by twice 
losing a move in course of the eleven it will take her to effect it 
without the active exertion of her King : — 



White. 


Black. 


White. 


Black. 


1 Q— B2 + 


K— E8! 


7 Q-Q3 


K— R5 


2 Q— Q2! 


K— Kt8 


8 Q— K:t5 + 


K— E6 


3 Q— B3 


K— B7 


9 Q— Kt sq ! 


K— E5 


4Q-Bsq 


K— Kt6 


10 Q— Kt 2 


K— E4 


5 Q— Q 2 ! 


K— B6 


11 Q— Kt 5, mate. 




6 Q— K3 


K— Kt5 







In the first place, White QuABcn takes four squares while the King 
is limited to three, and so arrives at B sq a move late, as it were, 
making it Black's turn to play. Then Black goes out, but is again 
driven to Book file at move 7 ; when the Queen once more loses a 
move, by checking and going to Kt sq in two moves instead of ome ; 
being thus enabled to follow up the King at the distance of a Knight* a 
move until mate can be effected. 



(Various ^ueen ^ndingP. 87 




It often happens that when an attack is apparently on the verge of 
failure, it yet possesses sufficient vitality to avert defeat, if properly 
turned and applied at the critical moment. The value of position is 
apt to be under estimated in the reaction after the stress of conflict, 
when the defence has been made good against actual loss, and there 
seems nothing for it but that victory should ultimately declare for the 
stronger battalions. The above position by C. D. Locock is a case in 
point. White's attack — ^as a winning attack — has failed. But his 
game is by no means lost : — 

White. Black. 

1 K— Kt5! Q— E6 

2 Q— Kt8+ K— R2 

3 Q — B, 2 ! and draws. Black cannot avoid the stale- 
mate. If White first checks, instead of moving the King, he loses, — 
1 Q— Kt 8 + , K— E 2 ; 2 Q— Kt 2, Q— K B sq, &c., winning. 



88 



^rt of (Qhesf>. 



^ 




Queen and minor Piece win against two Books, as a rule, But there 
are exceptions. This and the next three examples, from "Chess 
Stadies and End Games," illustrate the salient points in the seyeral 
cases of this rare class of ending. 



Here the Books lose : — 
White. Black. 

1 B— Q 6 B— B sq 

2 Q— Kt 7+ K—Bsq 

3 Q— B sq + , Ac. 



White. Black. 

1 . . . . B~B 8 

2 Q~K 7 + K—B sq 

3 Q—Q 8 + B— B sq 

4 Q— B 5 + , Ac. 

Queen and Bishop generally win much easier than Queen and 
Eiiight. 



parlous ^Queen (Ending f^ . 



89 




Again, the Books lose : — 

1 Q— Q8 + ,K— Kt2; 2 Q— B 7 + , K— Kt sq ; 3Q— QKt7, B- 
B aq ; 4 Ki^Q 7, B— K sq; 5 Kt— B 5, B— K B sq ; 6 Kt— K 4, 
B— B 2; 7 Q— Q 5, K— Kt 2j 8 Q— K 5 + , K— Kt 3; 9 Kt— Kt 6, 
B— B 3; 10 Q— K 7, B— B sq ; 11 Q— K 4 + , K— Kt 2 ; 12 Q— K 6, 
K— Kt 3; 13 Kt— K 4, B (B3)— B sq ; 14 Q— K 6 + , K— Kt 2 ; 15 
K— Kt6,B— B8; 16 Q— K 5 + , K— Kt sq ; 17 Ki^B 6 + ,K— Kt 2; 
18 Kt— Q 7 + , and wins. 

Or,— 1 Q— Q8 + ,K— Kt 2; 2Q— B 7 + , K— Kt sq; 3 Q— Kt 7, 
B— B 3; 4 Q— B 7 + , K— B sq; 5 Q— B 8 + , K— B 2 ; 6 Kt— B 3, 
B— Q B 6 + ; 7 K— B 5, B— Q B 4 + ; 8 K— B 4, B— Q B 5 + ; 9 K— 
K 3, B(B 6)— B3; 10 Kt— Kt 5 + , K— Kt 3 ; 11 Kt— K 4, B- 
K B 6 + ; 12 K— B 4, B— B5 + ; 13K— B3,B-B3; 14 K— Kt 4, 
and mnst win. There are numerous variations, of course, but it 
appears that the Books may always be separated, and one of them 
taken in exchange for the Knight, if no direct mate is possible. 



90 



i^rt of (§hes^. 




WHITE. 

Wliite can do no more than diaw : - 
White. 

1 B— K2 

2 Q— B4 + 

3 Q— B5 

4 B— E5 



Black. 

E (Kt 6)— Kt 3 
K— K2 
R— R 2 + 

R (Kt 3)— K R 3, and 
draws. 

The White King cannot be got into good play. All Black has to do 

is to keep his Rooks on the Knight file, threatening mate from time to 

time, on occasion, and he is perfectly safe. When checked by Queen, 

he should take black squares for choice, so as to avoid check from 

Bishop and the possible accident of a mate, or a losing position. 



^arious 



)ueen (EndingP. 



91 



BLACK. 




WUITM. 

In this instance, also, the Books draw. Black King has more room. 
White King has less ; and the Knight cannot be brought into effective 
action on acoonnt of the " pin," from which there is no escape : — 

White. Black. 

1 Q— Q 4 K— Kt 2 

2 K— E3 B— R4 + 

3 K— Kt 2 B (R 4)— Kt 4 

4 K— B sq E— B 4 + 

5 Kt—B2 B(B4)— Kt4,anddrawB. 

White can do nothing if Black simply persists in moving his King. 



92 



^rt of ^hesP. 



9IiA.CK. 




The general case of Queen and Bishop v. Queen is a draw. Bat 
ihe weaker party may lose if threatened mate restricts the action of 
his Queen, or the Queen may be lost by check or pin by the Bishop : 
White. Black. White. Black. 

1 K~E 3 ! Q— Kt 2 4 Q— R 4 + K— Kt sq 

2 Q— Q 8 + Q— Kt Bq 5 B— B 4 + K—B sq 

3 Q— B 6 + Q— Kt 2 6 Q— Q 8, mate. 

If 1 ... . Q — B 2, then 2 Q — Q 4 + , and wins in like manner ; or 
by 3 B — B 4, pinning the Queen. 

Place the Bishop at K B 5, with Queen at K 7, and the only way 
to win will be as follows : 1 Q— K 5 + , Q— Kt 2 ; 2 Q— K 8 + , 
Q— Kt sq; 3 Q— E 5 + , K— Kt 2; 4 Q— Kt 6 + , K—B sq ; 
-5Q— Q6 + ,K--Kt2; 6 K— Kt 5, K— B sq + ; 7 B— Kt 6, Q— Kt 2 ; 
8 Q— Kt 8 + , Q— Kt sq ; 9 Q— E 2 + , and 10 mate. If 6 ... . 
i^ueen moves, she is lost, or mate follows easily. 



^arious (Queen (£nding£>. 



93 




WHITB. 

Queen and Knight frequently win against Queen when the inferior 
force is separated ; and in positions similar to the aboye, where the^ 
King is driyen to a side, the superior force haying the moye : — 



White. 


Black. 


1 Q— B8q + 


Q— B4 


2 Q— Bsq + 


K— E2 


3 Q— B2 + 


K— E3 


4 Q— K2 + 


K— R2 


5 Q— K3 + 


K— R3 


6 Q— Q3 + 


K— E2 


7 Q— Q4 + 


K— R3 



White. 


Black. 


8 Q— B4 + 


K— B2 


9 Kt— Kt5 + 


K— E3 


10 Q— B6 + 


Q— Kt3 


11 Kt— B7 + 


K— E4 


12 Q— B8 + 


K— Kt5 



13 Kt*-Q 5 + and wins. 

{Horwitz and KHng.y 



94 



(C^rt of (Qhes£^, 



BLACK. 




WHITTB 

Also bad for the weaker force. The King can be snrronnded and 

driven into mate, or to a square admitting of check, with resulting 
loss of Queen : — 

White. Black. 

1 Q— R 2 + K— Kt 4 

2 Q— Kt 3 + K— B 3 

3 Q— Q 5 + K— Kt 3 

4 Kt — B 4, and mate next move. 

or, 
2 K— B 4 

3 Q— B4+ K— Q3 

4 Q — R 6 + , winning the Queen. 

The White King is favourably placed, so that Black must either 
go into mate, or allow his Queen t j be brought in question, and lost 
by check of Queen or Knight. 



parlous ^ueen ^ndingP, 95 



BLACK. 




White wins : — 
White. 

1 Q— Kt5 + ! 

2 BPxQ 

3 Kt— K4 

4 K— Kt 3 

5 Kt— B6 

6 Kt— Q 7 



Black. 
QxQ 
B— B5 
B— B8 + 
B— B5! 
B— K4 
B— Q3 



White. 

7 K— E3 

8 Kt— B 8 

9 K— Kt 3 
10 Kt— Kt 6 
11 



Black. 
B— B5 
B— B8 + 
B— Kt4 
B— B3 



K — R 3, and the Knight 
will go to K 5 or K 7— 
mating at Q B 6. 

K 5 B— Kt 4, then 6 Kt— Kt 8, B— B 3 ; 7 Kt— E 6, B— Q eq ; 

8 Kt— B 7, B— B 2 ; 9 K— R 3, &c. By Horwitz and Kling. The 
exchange of Queen is fatal to Black, his Bishop being nnable to keep 
the Knight from mating at B 6 or Kt 7, because White is free to 
assist with his King the manceuyres ot the Knight against the 
Bishop. 



96 



^rt of (§hesf>. 




WHITE. 

Black can ayoid the ending Book t;. Qneen only by losing quickly : — 



White. 


Black. 


White. Black. 


1 K—R 5 ! 


Q—R4 + 


7 E— B aq + K— K 3 


2 K— Kt 6 I 


Q— R2 


8 B— B 6 + , and will check 


3 Q-Q8 + 


E— Ktsq 


alternately with Book and 


4Q-Q4 + 


Br-Kt2 


Queen until final Q— Q 2, 


5 Q— B 6 ! 


K— Kt aq 


mate. 


6Q--Q8 + 


K— B2 





The White King goes away where he cannot be attacked, and then 
winning is easy. Black having to moye in the position on the 
diagram (White King being out of the question) must lose. If 6 ... . 
K — Kt 3, there would be a mate in four — checking with Queen at 
Q 6, B 2, and Kt 2, and at B sq with Book. By Horwitz. 



>\ 



©owbination in general. 



WHITE. 




BLACK. 

White falls a viotiin to a device rather common to this class of 
position — Pawns v. Pawn and Bishop : — 

White. Black. 

1 P— Kt 5 

2 ExP? RxR 

3 B X E P— B 6 ! and a Black 

Pawn must Queen. 
But for the complication of the Eooks, this simple win for Black 
would hardly have escaped his adversary's notice. Better play would 
have been 2 E — K 3. Then, by bringing the King over within reach 
of the dangerous Pawns, White would retain very good chances of 
winning. 

H 



98 



^rt of (ghesf^. 



c:. 



BLACK. 






WHITB. 




White. 


Black. 


White. 


Blaok. 


IR— QB8 


B— Kt 2 


7KtxB 


KxP 


2 P— E 6 ! 


Br-B2 


8 B— B sq 


P— B4 


3E— B5 + 


K— Q5 


9Kt~Q6 


B— K2 


4B— KB5 


P— B6? 


10 P— B 7 


Br-K7 + 


5Kt— Kt6 + 


K— K5 


11 K—B Bq 


ExP 


6K1r-Q6+ 


K— B5 


12P—E8 = 


Q and wins. 



The first player should win of conrse, bnt the actual process is very 
pretty. Blaok might have done better than 4 . . . . P — B 6-^which 
of course lost him the Bishop. 



Combination. 



(& 



99 



BLACK. 




From a Queen Fawn Opening ;- 



White. 

1 P—Kt 5 ! 

2 KtxP + 

3 Kt— B 4 

4 P— Q5 

5 P—Q 6 ! 



Black. 
PxP 
K— Qsq 
R— Bsq 
R— B5 
RxKt 



White. 

6 R— R8 + 

7 P—K 6 ! 

8 P--Q7 

9 P X B (Q) + 



Black. 
B— Bsq 
R— B5 
P—Kt 5 
RxQ 



10 P—K 7 + , and wins. 



Black is badly off, because he cannot prevent the loss of a Pawn or 
two, however he plays. The Sling Pawn is very powerful, and 
when the Queen Pawn becomes free, the position is virtually won for 
White. The well-timed 1 P — Kt 5 breaks up the position favourably 
ix) him, and may be set down as the winning move. 

H 2 



14;^50:5A 



ICX) 



^rt of (§hesP. 




BLACK. 
From a Scotch Game ; Black won : — 

White. Black. White. Black. 

IR— K5 Kt— K6 6BxBP+ B— K 2 

2 P— Q 5 ? K— Kt sq ! 7 B— Q B sq P— B 4 

3 R— K sq E X P 8 E— B 2 B— Q 5 ! 

4 E— K 8 + K— B 2 9 B— Kt 8 P— Kt 3 

5 B X Kt K X E 10 K— Kt 2 P— K B 5 ! 

winning easily. 
The moTe 2 P — Q 5 ? was in the nature of a trap, as if 2 . • • . Kt x 
E, White would have mated in three, while 2 . . . . E x P would have 
lost the exchange. Properly, however, White should have played 
2 B X Kt, 3 E X (K) P, and 4 E— K 2, with a view to a likely draw in 
the ensuing Book and Pawn ending. If 4 B (K) x Kt, P x B •, 
5 ExE, PxB; Black wins by Pawn position i^ter forcing the 
exchange of Books. 



(Combination. 



lOI 



BLACK. 




WHITE. 



From a Ruy Lopez : — 



White. 

1 P— B 5 ! 

2 R— Q6! 

3 Q B— Q sq 

4 P— Kt 6 

5 BxP 



Black. White. 

P X P 6 Kt— B 6 

R— Kt sq 7 B X Kt 

R(R2)— Bsq 8 P— Kt7! 



Black. 
KtxKt 
Kt— Keq 
B— R2 



9 R— Q 8, and wins. 



P— R5 
K— Kt sq 

White makes the most of the perilous situation of his opponent's 
King ; at all eyents he does so np to moye 5, when it is possible 
B — B 4, still holding the King, would be even strongfer. Because, 
then, 6 P — Kt 7, gaining a Piece at least, would be threatened. 



I02 



^rt of (Qhesi^. 



W^^% 




WHITE. 



White wing : — 

White. 

1 E—K R sq 

2 ExP + 

3 B(Q)— KEaq 

4 E— B 7 ! 

5 E (E)— E6 + 



Black. 
KxP 
K— Kt 3 
Kt—Kt aq 
E—K 2 
KtxE 



6 E X E, winning a Piece and the game. 
The position was evidently much against Black ; yet the manner of 
its lo89 is remarkable. 



(Combination. 



103 



BLACK. 




WHITE. 

An Evans^ won by White : — 



White. 

1 BxP! 

2 E— Kt4! 

3 E— B 4 + 

4 Er— K7 + 



Black. 
B— B3 
KtxB? 
K— Kt2 
Kt— B2 



White. Black. 

6Kt— K7! E(Kt)— Kaq 

7E(B4)— B6+ K— Kt4 
8E— Kt6+ K— E5 

9 Kt— B 5 + K X P 

10 E (B 7)— Kt 7! and mates in 
fonr moyes. 
Black misses it in not proposing an exchange, 2 . . . . E — ^E 5, 
instead of accepting the Bishop. If 7 . . . . K x P, mate in two 
follows. 



5 E(K7)xKt+ K— B3 



I04 



^rt of (Qhesf>, 



BLAOK. 




The qnestion is as to the imprisoned Knight : — 



White. 

1 B— Qsq! 

2 E— Q6 

3 P— KKt4! 

4 P— E4 

5 P— E 5 1 

6 ExBP 



Black. 
P— Kt4 
B— B4 
B— E2 
B— B:t2 
Kir— B sq I 
BxKt 



White. 

7 ExKEP 

8 B— K3 

9 QExP 

10 E— E8 

11 ExB! 

12 ExKt + 



Black. 
E — ^E 2 
E-Q2 
K— Bsq 
E-QB2 
ExE 
and wins. 



Fine play on both sides, bnt the position was against Black. The 
Knight could not be surrounded and cut off with impunity — as the 
event proved. From a Ewy Lopez, 



(Combination. 



105 




WHITE. 

Win for White, notwithstanding ** Bishops of opposite colours.' 
An ending by Morphy : — 



White. 

1 B— K8 

2 K— B2 

3 K— K3 

4 K— Q3 

5 B— B6 

6 PxP 

7 K— B4 



Black. 
E— B sq 
P— Kt4 
P— KtS 
P— Kt4 
PxP 
E— Ktsq 
R— Bsq 



White. 

8 K— Kt 5 

9 K— R6 

10 K— Kt 7 

11 K— B 8 

12 BxB 



Black. 
R— Ktsq 
B— Bsq 
B— Ktsq 
B— Kt3 
KxB 



13 P— Q 8 = Q, Ac, winning. 



A simple, bnt instmctiye termination, Black can do nothing against 
the march of the King. He mnst lose his Bishop, and conseqnently 
the game. 



io6 



^rt of (QhesP, 




BIiA.C£. 



Black (Morphy) moves and wins :— 1 .... P— B 5 ! ; 2 K— B 2, 
P— B6; 3 K— K2, BxP; 4 Kt— B 6 + , B x Kt ; 5 P x B, P— B 7 ! 
6 K— Q 2, R— B 6 ! 7 K— B sq, R x B P ; 8 R— Kt 3, K— B 3 ; 9 
R— R3,P— Kt4; 10 P— Kt 3, R PxP; 11 R P x P, PxP; 12 Kt 
P X P, K— Kt 3 ; 13 R— R 5, R— B 4 ; 14 R— R 6, R— B 6 ; 15 
RxP + ,K— R4; 16 R— Q 2, K— Kt 5 ; 17 R— Kt 2 + , K— B 6; 18 
R— Kt 5, R— B 4 ; 19 R— R 5, K x P ; 20 R— R 4, K— B 6, Ac, 
winning easily. 

A splendid piece of play. The direct advance of the Pawn, with 
the surprising 6 . . . . R — B 6, renders this a model of its kind, un- 
surpassed in all the annals of Chess. [Match Morphy v. Harwitz, 
Paris, 1858.] 



(Combination. 



107 




BLACK 


. 




Black won — a French Defence : — 






White. Black. 


White. 


Black. 


1 P— K Kt 4 


6 P— Q R 3 


PxP! 


2 E(E)— Bsq P— K 7! 


7 PxE? 


R— B 8 + ! 


3 R— K sq B— B 6 


8 ExE 


PxP + ! 


4 E— B 3 B— Kt 5 


9 K— Kt 2 


PxR«Q+ 


5 R— Q 3 ! P X P ! 







White was intent on gaining the Rook. Instead of taking it, 
however, at move 7, he shonld have simply played R x Kt P, which 
would have saved the game ; 7 R x Kt P, R — Q 5 ; 8 R x P, &c. Or, 
7 PxP, R— B 8+; 8 R x R, PxR=Q+ : 9 K x Q, B— R6+ ; 
10 K— B 2, R— Kt 5 ; 11 Kt— K 8, Ac, would perhaps have beeu 
more advantageous. 



1 



io8 



^rt of (§hesf>. 



BI.A.OK. 




White wins :— 




White. 


Black. 


1 E— Kt6! 


Q— B2 + 


2 K— Kt 2 


P— B6+ 


3 K— B sq ! 


B— KKt2 


4 Q— K8 + 


Q-Kt gq 


5 B— R6 + 


B— B2 


6 ExB + 


KxB 


7 QxQ + 


KxQ 



8 P — ^B 4 and will Qaeen in a few piaves. 
A position difficult to win if not reduced to a Pawn ending. White 
checks, 5 B — B 6, in order to leave Black King at Kt sq after the 
exchanges, as being evidently less favourable to the latter than Kt 2. 
A single move might very well make all the difference between winning* 
and drawing the game. 



(Combination. 



109 




White wins : — 

White. 
1 

2 P— B3 

3 Q— B7 

4 QxP 

5 Q— K 8 + 

6 QxP 

7 Q— B3 

8 Q X Kt 



Black. 
K— Kt 3 ! 
P— K6? 
Kt— K3 
KtxP 
K— E3 
Q— Kt 4 ! 
KtxP 
Q— B8 + 



White. 
9 K— E2 

10 K— R aq 

11 Q— Kt sq 

12 Q— K 3 + ! 

13 KtxP + 

14 Kt X Q 



Black. 
Q— B5 + 
Q— B8 + 
QxP 
QxQ 
K— Kt4 
P— K5 



15 P— Kt 5 ! winning. 



Black's second move was donbtful) but it was made in the way of 
counter attack, as mere defence would probably fail, White having 
the dominant position. The Knight sacrifice hastened the end. Bat- 
then the steady progression of White's passed Pawn would have 
eventually settled the affair in his favour. 



I lO 



^rt of (§hes^. 




WHITI6. 



White wins, because his King cannot be kept out of K 5, with the 
•opposition, in the Pawn ending : — 



White. 


BUck. 


White. 


Black. 


1 B— Q6! 


K— Kt2 


8 K— K4 


K— B3 


2 R X Kt 


RxR 


9 P— Kt 3 


K— B2 


3 BxE + 


KxB 


10 K— K 5 


K— K2 


4 K— B2 


K— B2 


11 P— B 4 


PxP 


5 K— B3 


K— Kt3 


12 PxP 


K— Q2 


6 P— Kt 4 


PxP + 


13 K— B 6 


K— Q3 


7 PxP 


K— B2 


14 E X P, and 


wins. 



The Black Pawns are badly placed, three being held by one of the 
•enemy. This gives White several moves by which he is enabled to 
deprive Black of the opposition, when arriving before the King Pawn, 
-thus forcing a passage to victory. 



Combination, 



1 1 1 




• WHITE. 

The open files are against Black in a Vienna : — 



Black. 
P— R5 
Q— K6 

Br— Q2 

Q— K8 
K— B2 

K— Qsq 



White. Black. White. 

1 R— B 7 ! R— Q 2 8 P— K B 3 ! 

2 B (Kt)— K B sq R (E)— Q sq 9 K— R 2 
3Q— Kt5 PxP 10QxKP + 
4PxP RxR 11 R— B 3 ! 
5RxB QxP 12 Q— B 5 

6 B—B sq! Q— R 2 13 Q— B 2 + 

7 Q— K 7 Q— R 3 
5 .... QxP was a perilous attempt to maintain , the balance of 

forces. Otherwise the King side Pawns were at the mercy of White. 
That capture increased the positional advantage of the latter, so that 
after the excellent 6 R — B sq successful resistance was out of the 
question. Black could only play on in the hope of perpetual check, 
or some other accident ; and, nothing of the kind occurring, there 
could be but one result. It may be noted that if 8 or 9 ... . R — Q 2 
White could mate in two moves. 



14 Q — Q B 5, and wins. 



I 12 



^rt of (§hesP. 



BLACK, 




WHITB. 

In this ending very careful play is required to avoid a draw : — 

White. Black. 

1 Q— K 4 + K— Kt sq 

2 P— Kt5! Q— B2 + 

3 P— B 4 Q— Q sq 

4 P— E 5 P— E 4 

5 P— B 6 P— Kt 4 
6Q— K6+ K— E2 

7 Q— B 5 + K— Kt sq 

8 P— Kt 6 Q— K sq 

9 Q — B 7 + ! and wins. 

Black might possibly prolong the contest by checking, 2 . . . . 
Q — Kt, Ac. ; but he could hardly do better in the end. White King- 
would go forward with his Pawns, eventually threatening mate and 
forcing the game In some such way as actually occurred. 



Combination. 



113 




BLACK. 



From a French Defence ': — 
White. 

1 . . . . 

2 K— R 2 

3 Q— Q B sq ? 



Black. 
Q— B4 + 
B— Bsq 

B— Kt 8 + ! and wins. 



. As, if Q X B, the Qaeen must be interposed in answer to ... . 'R — B 
7 + , or mate in two follows. White's attack, which had been for some 
time maintained at material cost, was fully spent at this stage, and his 
prospect of averting ultimate defeat not enconraging. But the move 
of the Queen precipitates the catastrophe. Of course the idea was to 
prevent play of the Bishop, and .... B-— B 7, a process which, if 
safely carried out, must have directly reduced him to helplessness. 

I 



114 



^rt of (ChesP. 



3LA0Ki 




WHITE. 



A '* block" position, apparently, 
through : — 

White. Black. 

1 P— Kt4! EPxP 

2 P— E 5 E— Q Kt sq 

3 E— Q Kt 3 E— Q B 2 ? 

4 E— Kt gq ! E— Q 2 

5 E— E sq E (Kt)— Kt 2 
6PxP+ K— Ktsq 



But White finds a way to break 



White. 

7 E— E6 

8 ExBP 

9 E (B 5)— E 5 

10 P— B 5 

11 P— B 6 



Black. 
E— Q sq 
KtxEP 
K— Biq 
P— Kt6 
P— Kt 7, and 



White mates in two. 



Excellent play, though Black fails slightly in 3 . . . . E — Q B 2 ; 
because, in reply to 4 E — Kt sq !, he cannot continue 4 . . . . P x P 
without being mated, — ^the Eook at B 2 obstructing the King, and 
effectually precluding all escape. But at best the straggle could 
neither have been much prolonged nor its result altered. 



(Combination. 



U5 



BLACK. 







Black. 
Q— Bsq 
R— Ktsq 
R— Ksq 



From a French; White wins : — 
White. 

1 Kt X B P ! 

2 Kt— Q6 

3 Q— B7! 

4 Q X B, AiO. 

Black failed to consider the danger to his King from a possible 
check on the diagonal, snch as wonld threaten if 1 .... P x Kt ; 

2 P— K 6 ! After 3 Q— E 7 the Piece is lost ; for if 3 B— Q sq, 

then 4 Q — Q 7, Ac, the Knight's check being fatal. 

I 2 



ii6 



^rt of (Qhesf^. 




BLACK. 
A Ginoco Piano in which Black's attack is irresistible :- 



White. 

1 ExP 

2 B— Q4 

3 Q— B sq 

4 Q— B4 



Black. 
E— Bsq! 
QxP 
Q— R4 
P — Kt 6 ! and mast win^ 



Or course if 1 . . . . P x B, White wonld take the Book checking, 
with a good game. It is the move .... P — Kt 6 which is deadly for 
White ; and 4 Q — B 4 is necessary to prevent .... E — B 3. By 
refusing the Book, Black leaves his opponent without resource. His 
attack need only be maintained, with the aid of the Queen, to succeed. 
Evidently, if 5 Q x B + , K — ^B sq, and mate must follow shortly at 
the very best. 



(Combination. 



•7 




BLACK. 



From a Ruy Lopez (Kolisoh v, Neumami, Paris, 1867) : — 
White. Black. White. Black. 

1 P— B4! 4 KxB Q— R8 + 

2 P X P ? Q— E 7 + 5 K— K 2 Q— B 6 + 

3 K— Q gq B X Kt 6 K— K sq B— Q 6 ! and 

wins. 
The move 1 . . . . P — B 4 has for its first object the prevention of 
Q X B + , as the check would interfere badly with Black's designs 
abont the time he plays 3 . . . . B x Kt. White failed to divine this 
— and little wonder; else he would have refused the Pawn, and 
played 2 Q — K 3, drawing easily. A beautiful combination. One 
of the very finest ever made, even by Kolisch. 



ii8 



^rt of (§hesP. 




BL4L0K. 



Irregular — ^White errs in laying himself open to a sacrifice : — 
White. Black. 

1 Kt— B 2 ? B X P ! 

2 P X B P— B 6 

3 Q— K 2 B— B 5, and wins. 
Clearly, if 4 Q— B 2, then 4 . . . . Q— Kt 7, Ac. In every case the 

Black Pawn mnst Qneen. White oonld have drawn by bringing his 
King into play, and he ought not to have endeavoured to do more. 
The command of the board was with his opponent, but the latter 
oould have effected nothing against proper defensive measures. 



(Combination. 



119 



BLACK. 




WHITB. 

From a Ruy Lrpez : — 

White. Black. 

1 BxKt! PxB 

2 Kt— K7+ ! QxKt 

3 Q X E + Q— B sq 

4 QxQ+ KxQ 

5 K— Kt sq K— K 2 

6 K— B 2 P— Q 4 

7 P— K 5 K— K 3 

8 K— K 2 K X P 

9 K— Q 3, and wins. 

As may be notioed, 2 Q x B, winning a Piece, would lose the game, 
for the Black Pawn would Queen. The final position is worthy 
of examination. Though for the time being a Pawn to the good. 
Black cannot avert defeat. See, however, p. 15 for probable result 
from indifferent play by Whit'* leading to situation there given. 



I20 



^rt of (ChesP. 




Black won : 



BLACK. 



White. 



1 



Black. 
Kt— E6 

2 R-Kt3? QxP + ! 

3 R— Kt 2 Q— B 8 + 

4 B— Kt sq Q X B, mate. 

White was under pressure and generally his position was not good, 
chiefly becanse of Black's well posted Knight — well posted at B 5. 
But there was no necessity for such sudden failure. Of course if 2 

B X E, or 2 B— K B sq, then, equally, 2 Q x P + would lead to 

mate. His correct defence was 2 Q— Q 8 + . Then 2 K— B 2 ; 

3 Q— B 4 + ; B— B 3 ; 4 Q— Kt 4, with a game to play. Manifestly 
, 2 . . . . K — B 2 would be worse than useless for the purpose of win- 
xiiiig ; and, if Queen interposed, exchanging would at once raise the 
■lege. 



{)ombination. 



e- 



121 




WHIXB. 



Black, injudicionsly Castling Q B, has his position broken by the 
advance of the Qneen side Pawns, and White wins as follows : — 



White. 


Black. 


White. 


Black. 


1 B— R 3 + 


K— B2 


8 Q— Q6 + 


K— K5 


2 B— B4! 


RxE 


9 P— B 3 + 


K— B4! 


3 Q— K7 + 


K— Kt3 


10 P— Kt4 + 


K— Kt4 


4 BxB! 


Q— E8 + 


11 P— R4 + 


KxP 


5 B—B sq 


KxP 


12 B—Kt Sh- 


K— Kt4 


6 B— K5 


Q— B8 


is Q-K5 + 


K— Kt3 


7 Q— B 7 + 


K— Q4 


14 Q— B5 + , 


and 15 Q— B 5 



There was perhaps no better defence. If 9 . . . . K x P, the Queen 
would be lost very soon— in default of mate, — 10 Q — Q 6, K — Kt 4 ; 
11 P— R 3 + , Ac. 



122 



^rt of (§hesP. 



WHITE. 




BLAOX. 



Black wins : — 

White. 
1 

2 Q— Kt 7 

3 K— K sq 

4 Q X K Kt P 

5 K— Q2 



Black. 
B— QB6! 
PxP + 
P— Kt 7 ! 
B— B8 + 
B — Kt 4 + ,&c., winning. 



White had jnst placed P — K Kt 3, to stop the check, no doubt — or 
to win a Piece in case of . . . . B x P ; whereas he should have played 
Q — B 6, himself threatening mate, and neoessfirilj interposed Pawn« 
in reply to check from the Bishop. 



(Combination. 



123 




The oombined Books and Knight are more than a match for Queen 
and Book. From a French D^ence : — 

White. Black. White. Black. 

1 Kt— B 2 P— E 4? 5 Kt— B 5+ K— E sq 

2PxP! B— KBsq 6 B— K 7 B— Kt sq 

3 Kt— Kt 4 Q— Q sq 7 B— B 7, and doubling on the 

4 Kt— B 6 + K— Kt 2 seventh rank wins easily. 
Black's 1 . . . . P — B 4 was useless as an attempt to keep the 

Knight out from B 5 ; because even if the Pawn got to B 5, the 
£[night could still gain entrance over K 3. Black's great error was 
in previously playing .... P — K Kt 4. For with the Knight at B 5, 
and the absence of all counter attack, his Queen and Book are quite 
overborne by the opposing forces. In fact, restraint of the Queen 
reduces her value nearly to that of a Book. 



124 



^rt of (§hesP, 







WHITE. 

The first player wins : — 

White. Black. 

1 B— B 5 ! R— K 3 

2 Q— Kt 4 P— K Kt 3 

3 BxP PxB 

4 Q X P + K— R sq 

5 QxP+ K— Ktsq 

6 Q— Kt 6 + K— R gq 

7 R— B 5 R X K P 

8 R X R R— B 2 

9 R— R 5 + R— R 2 
10 P— B 7, Ac. 

If 1 Q— B 3, then 2 Q— Kt 4, P— Kt 3 ; 3 B x P, K— R sq ; 4 

B-K 4, R— K Kt sq; 5 Q— B 5, Ac. Or 2 P— K Kt 4; 3 Q— 

R 5, Ac, wins. 

White's is a winning attack in every case, the break up of Black 
King's position being ineritable and complete. 



^Combination. 



125 




Black wins :- 



BLACK. 



White. Black. 

1 B— E 3 ? E X R P 

2 E— Q 6 Q— B 2 

3 B— B sq Q X E + ! 

4 K X Q P— K 7 + 

5 K— K sq E— E 8 + 

6 B — B sq E X B + , and mates 

next move. 
The first player's position is weak owing to the obstructed action of 
his Bishop, and the dispersion of his Pawns. On the other hand, 
Black is strong, from his passed Pawn capable of being supported by 
his Bishop, if necessary, and the threatening attitude of his advanced 
Book. After 1 B — E 3, there was little chance, as the Bishop at once 
became indefensible— 2 E— E sq, P— K 7 ! 3 E— K sq, B x E, Ac. 
The abject 1 B — E sq was the only resource to seriously prolong the 
struggle. But then 1 . . . . B — K 5 would also prove decisive. 



126 



^rt of (Qhesi^, 



VLAXSm, 




White. 


Black. 


1 E— KKt8! 


QxB 


2 ExP + 


K— Kt3 


3 Q— B5 + 


K— Kt2 


4 QxE + 


K— Esq 


5 Q— B4 


Q— Q aq 


6 B— Q5 


E— QKt7 


7 Q X P, and wins. 




A fine combination — from a Oiuoco Piano. 


White coul 



vfon by 1 E— K E 8, threatening 2 E— B 6 or 2 E x Kt-I- , &c. 



.Combination. 



127 




BLACK. 



Black wins — a Two Knights Defence : — 

White. Black. 

1 BxP+ ! 

2PxB P— Kt6 + 

3 RxP Q X Q, with the equivalent of 

a Piece to the good 
Otherwise, though the advantage was with Black, on the chances 
of the position, he had by no means an easy game. 



128 



^rt of ^hesP. 




WHITB. 



Uuy Lopez : — 




White. 


Blaok. 


1 E-B4 


K— Ktsq 


2 Q-Q4 


P— KE4 


3 B— B 2 ! 


B— K3 


4 Q-K3 


E— QBsq 


5 E-K R 4 


P— B4 


6 Q— Kt 5 


K— Baq? 


7 B— Qsq! 


E— K Kt sq 


8 P— K Kt 4 ! 


PxP? 


9 Q— B 6 + 


K— Ksq 



10 Q— Kt 7 ! and wins the Book. For if 11 
mate in two follows. 



. R— B 8Q^ 



(Combination, 



129 




BliACK. 

An Irregula/r Opening, in which a rather sudden King side attack 

so surprises White that he makes a very poor defence : — 

White. Black. 

1 P— B 3 Q— Kt 4 ! 

2 K— E sq P E— B 3 

3 P— K 6 E— E 3 

4 P X P ? Q— Kt 6 ! winning. 

5 . . . . Q X K P + , with 6 Kt x B P, mate, impends. If 6 P— E 3, 

of course 5 . . . Kt x B P, &c., mating ; if 6 K — Kt sq, two or three 
Pieces, including the Queen, are lost forthwith. It was highly unsafe 
to play K — ^E sq, with the hostile Eook ready to arrive on the scene 
almost immediately. He should have reserved the option of escape 
to the Queen side, if and when the pressure became intolerable. 



I30 



^rt of ^hesP, 




WHXTB. 

A Ruy Lopez — White wins : — 

White. Black. 

1 P— B 5 ! Kt— Q 4 

2 P X B Kt— K 6 

3 P X P Q— B Bq 

4 Q— B sq Kt X R (Kt 5) 

5 Q— K B 4 Kt— K 6 

6 E— K Kt sq Q— B 3 

7 P— B 6 ! Kt— Kt 5 

8 B X Kt, and wins. 

The second player loses, because of the insecurity of his Knight — 
having perhaps underrated the force of the attack upon his Bishop. 

If 3 Q X B P, of course 4 Q— K sq; and if 5 R— K Kt sq ; 

6QxP, P— E 4; 7P— B6, Ac, winning. The move P— B 6, 
in conjunction with the threatened Queening, appears to be in every 
case fatal to Black. 



(Qombination. 



•31 



BLACK. 







White. 


Black. 


6 PxE 


Q— Ksq 


7 B— Qsq 


QxP 


8 Q + Kt 


QxQ 



WHITE. 

White's Bishop is in danger, Lut he escapes loss in this boldly 
ingenious manner : — 

White. Black. 

1 B— Kt 6 ! E— Kt sq 

2 E— K 4 Q— K B sq 

3 Q— B 7 E X B 

4 E (B)— K sq E— Kt sq 

5 E— K 7 E X E 
If 4 QxP, then natnrally 5 Q x Et. If 3 Kt x B, *hen 

4 Q X P, and the Pawns would have a fair chance against the Knight. 
Black^s whole defence is not to be easily improved. For example, if 

5 . . . . Kt — K 4, the answer would be 6 E (E) x Kt ! Ac. A situation 
rich in combinative possibilities. 

E 2 



9 E X Q, and the result was a 
draw. 



132 



^rt of (§hes^. 



^ 




¥^ 









* fi ^u 





Black won : 








White. 


Black. 


White. 


Black. 


1 


P— K E 4 ! 


6 R— Kt2 


BxP! 


2 E- K sq 


Q— B4 


7 E— K2 


B— E6 


3 R— K8 + 


K— E2 


8 Kt— K 4 ? 


Q— B8 + 


4 Q— Kt3? 


QxKtP 


9 E— Ktsq 


QxE + 


5 R— K Kt sq 


Q— B6 + 


10 KxQ 


E— B8,mate. 



White's Pawns were weak, of coxirse, and his attempt to shut in 
the opposing: Bishop (P — B 5, P — Kt 4) was not particularly good. 
But the great error was 4 Q — Kt 3. The Queen wis wanted at the 
scene of action, to prevent some such crushing attack as that which 
actually occurred. 



(Combination. 



•33 




BIJLCK. 



Black wins :— 
White. 
1 

2 B— Q6P 

3 QxP 

4 BxE 


Black. 
KtxP! 
Kt-Q4 
ExP! 
BxB + 


White. 
/ 6 K— Esq 

6 Kt— Kt 2 ? 

7 Q-B8 + 

8 E~K Kt sq 


Black. 
QxP 
Q— B71 
K~E2 
Q ~B 7, and 
wins. 



A Queen Pawn Opening. Wldte should have moved 2 Kt — Q 6, 
not 2 B — Q 6. Then a possible termination woald be, — 2 . . . . B x Kt ; 
3PxB, Kt— Q4; 4 QxP, Q— B 3?;5QxQ,ExQ; 6 P— Q 7 !— 
«nd the Pawn goes in. Aside from 4 . . . . Q— B 3 ? White would 
haye the adyantage. In the actual play he should haye continued 
6 H — Q B sq, subsequently returning with his Queen at the first oppor- 
tunity. The presence of the Black Queen on the seyenth rank is 
fatal on account of the threatened .... Kt — B 6 or ... . Kt — K 6, Ac. 



134 



^rt of (§hes^^. 



BLACK. 




WHITE. 



A Vienna Opening 


r — 








White. 


Black. 


White. 




Black. 


1 R— K Kt sq 


B— B6? 


10 B (B 2)- 


-Kt2 


KxKt 


2 P— Kt 5 ! 


BPxP 


11 Q— B 2 




QxQ 


3 PxP 


B— Baq 


12 BxQ + 




K-Kta 


4 Q— Kt 3 


B— B3? 


13 B— Kt 5 




P— Kt5 


5 PxP 


QxP + 


14 BxP 




K— B3 


a R— B2 


Q— B3 


15 K— B 2 




P— Kt4 


7 Kt— Kt 5 ! 


P— Kt3 


16 K— Kt 3 




K— Kt3 


8 Q— B 4 ! 


B— B2 


17 B— K7 




B— B4 


9 KtxR 


Q— B6 + 


18 P— K 5, ^ 


pvinning. Somethings 



mnst be given up or mate occnrs directly. 
Black loses principally in consequence of his move 1 . . . . B B 6 r, 
putting the Piece out of play ; and because he fails to meet the advance 
of White by 1 ... . P — K Kt 4 !, preventing the opening of the Knight 
file. Having made the mis-move of his Book, he should have recog- 
nised it, and returned .... B — Q B 2 at the first opportunity. The 
Book was wanted for defence. 



^Gomb nation. 



135 



BLACK. 



k 



11 ' i i' 




I 



fr'^ -jr^:^/ ' ww^^. 






^^??!5S!a<g 




The first player lost this game, an Evans Oamhit. He conld have 
won here thus : — 

White. Black. 

1 E— Bsq+ K— Kt4 

2 Q— Kt 3 + K— R 3 

3 I^-B 5 ! B X R 
4Q— R4+ K— Kt3 
5 R — Kt sq + , and mates in two moves. 

If 2 K— R 4, of course 3 R— K 4, and mate follows. 3 R— B 5 

is decisive, as stopping any possible escape through . . . . B x P + , 
gaining time for Black King to retreat behind his Pawns. 



136 



^rt of (§hesP. 




White won ; a QueeiVs Fianchetto : - 

White. Black. 

1 Q— R5+ K— Kt sq 

2 Kt— Kt6 QxP + 

8 K— E eq K R— K sq 

4 B^Q sq ! Q— B 6 

5P— K6! Ktr-B4 

6 B— Kt 5 Kt Q 6 

7 B— B ri ! Kt— B 7 + 

8 K — Kt sq, and Black resigrned. 

But this was rather premature, as it appears that 8 . . . . Kt — B 6 + 
would have given him a probable draw. The continual check of 
Qoeen along the Bishop file, with .... P — B 5 + in certain cases, 
could not be easily avoided. 



(Combination. 



■37 




From a Scotch Oame : — 

White. Black. 

1 P— Kt 5 P X P 

2 P X P Kt— E 2 

3 B— K 7 ! B-hQ 2 

4 Kt X B B X Kt 
5Q— E6! , KixP 

6 Q— Q 8 P—Kt 6 

7B— Kt4! B— K3 

8Q— K7+ Q— B2? 
9 B X B, and wins. 
The exchange was not to be sayed, as the Bishop could follow np 

the Book, B — Q 6 and B — B 7. When the Queen arrives at her 

eighth, the affair is yirtaally over. 



138 



^rt of (QhesP, 




WUITI; 

From a Four Knights* Oame ; White wins : — 



White. 

1 Q— Kt2 

2 K— K 7 ! 

3 E— Keq 

4 QxB . 

5 P— B6 

6 BxKt 

7 Q— Kt 2 



Blaok. 
Q— Q3 
Kt— KB 
QxR 
B— Ksq 
Q— R6 
Q— Kt 6 + 
QxQ + 



White. 

8 KxQ 

9 PxR 

10 PxP 

11 K— B3 

12 PxP 



Black. 
BxB 
P— B5 
PxP 
P— B6 
PxP 



13 K — K 3, and when the move- 
ments of Black's Pawns are 
exhansted he mast p^ay 
.... K — B sq, whereupon 
White mates in two. 
The nnfortonate position of the Black Books needs no pointing 
ont. 1 . . . . B — Q sq would lose the ezchanp^e. So Blaok is in a 
manner compelled to defend with Queen ; whereupon the excellent 
2 B — K 7 comes in, with virtually decisive effect. 



iCombination. 



■39- 




Black has a strongly attacking position, in an Irregular^ mainljr 
because of the excellent action of his Bishop, and the want of support 
to the White Book :— 

White. Black. White. Black. 

1 P— B 5 ! 10 R (K 4)— K 3 P x Kt 

2P— K4 PxP 11 PxP R— B3! 

3 Q X P R -Kt 3 12 Q— K 2 Q— R 5 

4 Ki^Kt 4 Q— R 4 13 Q— K Kt 2 R— B 7 ! 

5 P— R 3 B X P ! 14 R— K 8 + K— R 2 
6RxB Q— KB4 15Q— K4+ R— Kt 3 
7 Q— K sq P— K R 4 l« R— K R 3 Q x R 
8R— K5 Q— Bo! 17KxR Q x P, and 
9 R— K 4 Q— B 3 wins. 

The temporary sacrifice of the Piece, with the after play to make 
it good, is interesting. 11 . . . . RxP-i- would also win without 
difficulty. White makes a good defence. It may be noted that 
3 P X P would lose directly, on account of 3 .... R x Kt ! Ac. 



I40 



^rt of (ChesP. 




A Rwy Lopez in which the difference in development is of rather 
more worth than a Pawn : — 



White. 
1 

2 Kt— Kt 3 

3 QxB 

4 K— B gq 

5 ExKt 

6 P— B 4 ? 



Black. 
Kt— Q 6 ! 
BxKt! 
B— B4 + 
Kt— B 7 + 
BxE 
Q— Q 6 ! 



White. 

7 P— K E 3 

8 P— B3 

9 P— K E 4 

10 K— R 2 

11 B— K 3 



Black. 
B— Q sq ! 
P— KR4! 
QxKP 
Q— K8! 
QxB, winning. 



The tie up on the White Queen side is serious. If 3 P x B, 
B~B 4 + ; 4 K— B sq, Kt-B 7 + ; SExKt, BxE;6 Q— B sq, 
R X P, Ac., Black equally wins. The latter does not take Pawn with 
Book, because that would give time for B — Q 2 ; and Black's g&me 
is to prevent the Bishop being played until it can be safely captured. 
However, 5 Q — B 2, in order to play B — Q 2, would be much better 
than 5 P — B 4, and might very well lead to a draw. 



Combination, 



141 



•LACK. 




WHITI. 

From a Sicilian : — 

Black is in difficalties, not only because of the passed Pawns, but 
also because of the inefficiency of the Knights as opposed to Bishops 
in such an open position :— 



White. 


Black. 


White. Black. 


1 Q— Q6! 


K— R2 


4BxBP! Kt— K2 + 


2 B— Q5 


Kt— Kt 3 


5 B— K 4 Q X P 


3 B— K6 


Q— Kt2 


6 Q— Q 4 ! winning. 



For if ... . Kt — Kt sq, or anything like that, there follows B x Kt + ^ 
with overwhelming advantage. 



142 



^rt of (ChesP, 




WHITE. 



White wins : — 

White. Black. 

1 En-K sq ! Kt— B 3 

2 Q— Q 3 ! Q— Q aq 
3Q— B4+ Q— Q4 
4 B X P ! and wins. 

A strange termination to an E^<ms. Yet the play is all verj 
natural, as Black should endeayonr to maintain his centre Pawns, 
AS some compensation for his eyident disadvantage in position. 



J 



Combination. 



143 




From a Scotch Game : — 



White. 


Black. 


White. 


Black. 


1 


BxB! 


8 K— Kt sq 


P— Kt6! 


2 BxB 


B-Q6 


9 P— B3 


P— Kt6 


3 B— QB2 


R— QB sq 


10 K-^B 2 


Q-Q6 


4 R— Ktsq 


B (B 8q) X P 


11 B— Q B sq 


P— B3 


5 RxR 


Q— Q 5 + ! 


12 B— B3 


K— B2 


6 K— B sq 


BxB 


13 B— B7 


Q— B7 


7 Q— Kt 2 


Q— B5 + 


14 Q— E 3 


Q— Kt3! 






15 P— Kt 4 


Q~B 7 + , and 



mates in two moves. 
White loses owing to the impossibility of holding the weak Pawn — 
he conld not play 4 B— B 3, because of 4 . . . . P — Kt 5 ! The style 
in which Black presses his advantage is simply admirable. 



144 



(Art of (QhesP. 




From an Irregular Opening : — 



White. 

1 BxP 

2 P— R5 

3 B— K5 

4 QxP 

5 B— B4 

6 B— Kt2 



Black. 
Q— Q2! 
P— K Kt 4 
B— Kt 4 ! 
B— B3 
B— B sq 
Q— B3 



White. 

7 K— Qsq 

8 B— Q6 

9 Q~K5 

10 PxQ 

11 BxP 



Black. 
B— Q6! 
QxB 
QxQ 
BxKBP 
B (B sq) X P, 
and wins. 



White erred in allowing' his King to be cnt oflf from Castling, which 
was Black's object in his subtle I . . . . Q — Q 2. If 9 P x B, then 
9 . . . . Q — B 3, Ac. The contest was virtually decided by 7 ... . B — 
Q 6. At that moment all chance of escape for White vanished. 



(Combination. 



145 




BLACK. 

In this Bitaation, arising from a Petroff*8 Defence^ White stands 
best for the ending, because of the detachment of the Black Pawns, 
but he presses his advantage overmach, and loses : — 



White. 


Black. 


White. 


BhMk. 


1 Kt— Kt 5 


B— KBsq! 


6 Q— B8 + 


K— K2 


2 Q— B3 


BxB + 


7 Q-Kt7 + 


K— Ksq 


3 BxB 


Kt-B3 


8 QxP 


B— Q3 


4 B X Kt P 


PxB 


9 Kt— K4? 


QxKt! 


5 QxP + 


K— Bsq 


10 Q— B8 + 


K— B 2, and 
wins. 



After giving up the exchange he conld hardly do more than draw. 
The move 9 Kt — ^K 4 was simply a blunder of a kind often incidental 
to such positions. 

1- 



146 



^rt of ^hess^. 




BLACK. 


An easy win for Black : — 




White. 


Black. 


1 


Q— Q5I 


2 B— B7 


QxR! 


3 ExP + 


K— Kt sq 


4 E_Q7 + 


KxB 


5 BxB-i- 


KtxB 


6QxQ 


R— Q B 6 ! &c. 



White's sitnation is of coarse desi>erate, on acooont of the terrible 
passed Pawn ; bnt the manner of his winding up is altogether elegant. 



(Combination. 



H7 




An Evans Declined : — 



White. 


Black. 


1 P— B5! 


BxB 


2 PxKt 


Q-K6 + 


3 K—R aq 


BxP 


4 Q— R sq ! 


BxP + 


5 KxB 


Q— Kt4 + 


^MC^^sq 


BPxP 


7 Kt-^8+ ! 


Q— K4 


8 B— B 8, mate. 





There was no good defence. After 2 P x Kt, the Bishop had to be 
got oat of the way, and Q — B 5 provided against, hence 3 . . . . 
Q— K 6, Ac. Then 4 . . . . Q— R sq ! left him no escape. 

L 2 



148 



^rt of (§hes£>. 



^ 




An Evans Gambit, one of five simnltaneous and blindfold, won hy 
Morphy, New Orleans, 1868 : — 

White. 

1 Kt— K 2 : 

2 Kt— Kt 3 

3 ExPl 

4 £xB 
WHte mates in five movee- 

<^xQ; 11 Q— B3 + ,&c. 

If 5 K— Kt sq; 6 P— K 7, Q— B sq; 7 Q— K 6 + ! White 

wins just as easily. Black's 2 . . . . Q — Q B 2 invited this beautifnllj 
decisive combination ; bat then, with the Knif^ht coming in at B 5^ 
there was hardly any saving the game. 



Black. 


White. 


Bhick. 


Q— Kt2 


5 QxR + 


Q— Kt2 


Q— Q B 2 ? 


6 Q— Q 8 + 


Q-Ktaq 


BxE 


7 P— K 7 ! 


E— K4! 


RxE 


8 Kt— E 5 ! 


E x P (K 5) 



-9 P— K 8=Q, E— K 8 + ; lOQxE, 



(Combination. 



149 







WHITS. 

'From, a King's Gambit. White (Morphy) wins :- 



White. 


Blaok. 


White. 


Black. 


1 B— Kt6 + 


B— B3 


8 QxKt + 


K— R3 


2 Kt— B3! 


B— QSS 


9 Kt— Q 6 ! 


KB— Qaq 


3 RxB 


KB 2 


10 Q— Kt 7 + 


K— R4 


4 B— B4 + 


K— Kt2 


11 B— Q 2 + ! 


QxB 


6 Er-Q6 


Q— B4 


12 Kt-B4 + 


K— R5 


6 Kt— K4! 


QxP 


13 P— Kt 3, mate. 


7 ExB + 


KtxE 







Blaok might have prolonged his resistance by giving np the Queen, 
allowing the pin, Q B — Q sq ; bnt the excellent disposition of Morphy 's 
forces wonld still have practically assured him the victory. How the 
latter maintains his attack, playing for a mate and avoiding check to 
ids own King at the same time, is remarkable. The game was played 
-'blindfold," New York, 1857. 



ISO 



^rt of i^hess^. 



?JlA.OK. 






^y^^^^^'t 



?3?^ 



VjM^^ 






^Si/'/r'^y/^'' 



I 



^%^> 




6 i 1 






i« 




TTAXXV* 

Blaok has three Pawns for the missing Piece. White (Morphy) 
sacrifices, to utilise his advanced Pawn, and wins : — 



White. 




Black. 


1 Kt X P ! 




ExKt 


2 E (B 3)- 


-Q3 ! 


E (B sqi)-Q sq 


3 ExE 




ExE 


4 ExE 




PxE 


6 P— B7 




Q— K3 


6 QxQP 




QxQ 



7 P — B 8 = Q + , and mates next move. 

A simple bat beautiful combination, in which the awkward situation 
of the adverse Eooks is turned to the utmost profit. 



^Combination. 



•51 



BL4Ck^ 




White. 


Blaok. 


5 Q— E5 + 


K— Kt sq 


6 KtxB + 


K— Kt2 


7 Kt— B5 + 


K~Kt sq 



A FhiVidor'a Def&nce. White (Morphy) has a winning ad^anta^e : — 
White. Blaok. 

1 P— B4 B— K2 

2 R— B 5 Q— K sq 

3 P— B5! ExP 
4ExP + ! KxR 8 Kt X P, and wins. 

The idea was to get the Blaok Eook away from defending on the 
second rank, or to destroy the support of the Kinsr Pawn. For if 

3 R— Q2, then, 4 PxP, BxP; 5 KtxB, ExKt; 6ExP, &o., 

would be decisive. Dr. Max Lange, in his new " Morphy Book " 
(elsewhere referred to), gives this likely continuation — (6 ExP) Q — Q 
2; 7 E— K 8 + , Er-Kt sq; 8 Q— K 5 + , Q— Kt 2; 9 E— B 8! 
winning. (Match, Morphy v, Horwitz, Paris, 1858.) 



152 



^rt of ^hesP, 



BLAOX. 




WHITB. 

By Horwitz — founded on actual play :- 



White. 


Black. 


White. 


Black. 


1 QxE! 


ExQ 


9 K— Q4 


K— K2 


2 R— R3 + 


K— Kt2 


10 K— K 5 


K— Q2 


3 Er-Kt3 + 


K— Bsq 


11 K— Q5 


K— B2 


4 ExQ + 


KxE 


12 K— K 6 


K— Bsq 


5 B— Q5 + 


K— Kt2 


13 K— Q 6 


K— Kt2 


6 B— B4 


K— B3 


14 K— Q 7 


K— Kt sq 


7 K— K3 


K— K4 


15 K— B 6 


K— R2 


8 K— Q3 


K— Q3 


16 K— B 7, and 


wins. 



The exchanges, and imprisonment of the Rook, give the equivalent 
of a simple Pawn ending, easily won for White. He could not win 
by attacking the Eook. for example, at his tenth move, 10 K — B 3, 
R X B+ ! ; 11 P X E, K — K 3 ! And the game would be drawn— a 
typical position in which two Pawns cannot win against one. 



(Combination. 



'53 



BLAOK. 




A most ingenious draw :- 
White. 

1 . . . . 

2 PxP 

3 QxP + 

4 B— K41 

5 B— B6 + 



Black. 
P— Q5? 
BxP 
K— Esq 
QxB 
BxB 



6 Q X B + , and perpetual check resnlts. 
Black had a winning advantage, but hurried it, falling into a draw^ 
as above. Still, the notion of a perpetual suddenly emerging from 
such a position was not at all obvious. There is little enough to 
suggest such a thing, and it may have surprised White just as much 
as it did his adversary, though not so pleasantly. A Lopez, 



154 



^rt of (§hesP. 



WHITB. 




BLA.OX 

The open file in strong evidence : — 
White. 
1 

2 R— B5 

3 QxR 

4 K— B sq 

5 K— K2 

6 K— B sq 

2 K X E would be followed by 2 . 
From a Two Knights Defence.. 



Black. 
ExP! 
ExB! 
QxP + 
Q— E 6 + 
Q— Kt 5 + 
Q X E + , and wins. 
. Q— E 3 + , Ac, mate. 



^Combination. 



155 




BLACK. 



An Irregular Opening ; Black wins : — 



White. 


Black. 


White. 


Black. 


1 


Kt— B6 + ! 


5 K— Bsq 


Er-Kt8 + ! 


2 ExKt? 


PxE 


6 K— B2 


Q— Kt6 + 


3 Bx£ 


R— Q7! 


7 K-K3 


P— B 7 + , Ac, 


4 P— K4 


BxP + 




winning. 



White had jnst adyanoed the Book Pawn, not taking into account 
the brilliant offer of the Knight, which yields his opponent a decisive 
advantage, in every case. Otherwise, however, his prospects would 
still be inferior, chiefly because of the missing Pawn. To prevent 
.... Kt — Kt 5 he should have exchanged^ there was no other good 
way. 



156 



^rt of (Qhes£^. 



BLACK. 




WHITE. 

From an Evans Gambti, won by Morphy : — 

White. Black. 

6 QxB! Q— K2 

7 QxP + ! QxQ 

8 P— B 6 Q— B sq 

9 P— B 7 + Kt— K 4 
10 PxKt P— KE4,and 

-IIP— K6 + ,K— E2; 12B— Q3 + , 
K— R3; 13E^B6 + ,K— Kt4; 14 R— Kt6 + ,K— B5; 15 K— B 
2 ! P — B 5 ; 16 B — Kt 4, mate. Black escaped this mate by playing 
8 . . . . Q X P + and resigning shortly afterwards. One of six, 
*• blindfold and simnltaneons," played by Morphy at New Orleans 
in 1858. 



White. 


Black. 


1 B— B4 + 


K-R«q 


2 B— Kt 2 


Q— K2 


3 Q R— Q sq 


E^B3 


4 PxP 


Q-Bsq 


5 R— K 8 ! 


QxR 


White mates in a 


few moves 



(Combination. 



157 




White (Morphy) wins :- 



White. 

1 Q— R4! 

2 KtxKt 

3 R— B3 

4 R— Kt 3 

5 B— B6 

6 QxP 

7 KtxB 

8 Q— E6 



Blaok. 
Kt— B4 
Kt P X Kt 
B— Kt4 
R— B2 
P— B5 
Q— K B sq 
PxKt * 
K— Esq 



White. 
9 RxB 

10 K— B 2 ! 

11 QxR + 

12 BxQ 

13 P— K Kt 4 

14 P— K E 4 

15 K— K 3 



L 157 
Black. 
RxR 
K-Kt sq 
QxQ 
KxB 
P— Kt5 
P— Kt4 
P— Kt6 



16 P— E 3! winning. 



Blaok gives np the Pawn at move 5 in order to bring hia Bishop to 
the rescue vid Q 6, if his opponent plays Q — R 6 immediately after 
the capture. But the latter first takes the Bishop, so the device fails. 
10 K — B 2 gains an important move. If 16 P x P, then 16 . . . 
P — Kt 5 ! and the game might possibly be drawn ; though even in that 
case the extra Pawn should win. [Match, Morphy v, Anderssen, 
Paris, 1858.] 



158 



^rt of ^hesP 




WHITE. 



A Centre Covnter Gambit (1 P- 
»(Morphy) wins as follows : — 



K 4, P— Q 4, &c.), which White 



White. Black. 


White. Black. 


1 K E— K sq P-Q E 4 


5 E X B P Ktr-B 6 


2 Q— K 7 ! Q X Q 


6 Q E— K sq Kt x P 


3 R X Q Kt— Q 4 


7 E— B 4 ! E— E 3 


4 BxP+ K— Esq! 


8 B— Q 3, and wins. 



The simple exchange of Qneens gives White a decisive advantage. 
The offer could hardly be declined. For if 2 . . . . E — Q 2, there 
would be a mate in two moves ; and if 2 ... . B — Q 2, then 3 Q x P + 
and 4 Kt — K 6 would win the Queen. Afterwards, Black might have 
prolonged the contest somewhat by the sacrifice of a Pawn or two ; 
l)ut thu ending, though slower, would be no less surely against him. 
FFrom seventh game, match, Morphy v. Anderssen, Paris, 1868.] 



.Combination. 



'59 




A Four Knights Qame, won by Morphy (Black) : — 1 . . . . Q R — K 
sq! 2 Q— R 6, QxB! 3PxQ,B— Kt3 + ; 4 K— E sq, B— R 6 ; 5 
B— Q sq, B— Kt 7 + ; 6 K— Kt sq, QB x P + ; 7 K— B sq, B— Kt 7 + ; 
8 K— Kt sq, B— R 6 + ; 9 K— R sq, B x P ; 10 Q— B sq, B x Q ; 11 
B X B, R^K 7 ; 12 Q R^R sq, R— R 3 ; 13 P— Q 4, B— K 6 ; 14 
Besigns. 

1 Q R— K sq threatened 2 Q x R+ and 3 R— K 8, 

mate. White provided against this, bat overlooked the other danger, 

2 QxB! Then his game was lost. If 5 Q— Q 3, then 5 . . . . 

P — K B 4 ; 6 Q — B 4 + , K — ^B sq, Ac, wins. A shorter way was 
pointed out by Steinitz, abont twenty years later, 7 . . . . R — Kt 7 ! 8 
Q— Q3,RxP + ; 9K— Ktsq, R— Kt7 + ; 10 K moves, R mates. Of 
course, if 8 P— Q 4, then 8 . . . . R x R P, and mate next move. 



i6o 



^rt of ^hesP. 




An Evans Chmibit White (Morpliy) wins thus : — 







White. 




Black. 






1 ExQKtP! 




ExE 






2 BxP + 




K— B2 






3 BxP + 




K- Kt 3 






4 Q— B 8 ! 




Q-Q2 






5 BxE 




B— Qsq 






6 PxP 




BxP 






7 B— K4 + 




K— E4 






8 B— K3 




P— K E 3 






9 E— KtS 




B— Kt2 






10 Q— B7 + ! 




QxQ 






11 Br-E 3, mate. 








If 4 . 


. . . E— Kt sq, White 


aUo mates, 5 QxP + ! EtxQ; 6> 


B 


xP + 


K— E3; 7E^Kt4 + , 


K— E 4; 


8 B— B 7, mate. 



Combination. 



i6i 




WHm. 

"White wins a Two Knights Defence :- 



White. 

1 R— Q 7 + ! 

2 Q— Kt 6 + 

3 QxP + 

4 QxP + 

5 Q— B 5 + 

6 QxP + 

7 Q— Kt6 + 



Black. 
KtxS 
K— Esq 
K— Kt sq 
K— E2 
K— Kt2 
K— B3 
KxKt 



White. 

8 Q— Kt7 + 

9 Q— Kt3 + 

10 P— B4 + 

11 Q— Kt3 + 

12 E— Qsq + 

13 R— Q5 + 

14 Q— Kt 3, mate. 



"Black. 
E— B3 
K— Q4 
KxP 
K— Q6 
K— K4 
K— B5 



Interposingr BJiight would be an improvemeut — 8 • . . . Kt — B 3 ; 
9Q— Kt3 + ,K— Q4; lOP— B4 + ,KxP; 11 Q— Kt 3 + , K— Q 5 ; 
and there is no mate — ^the check at Q 5 failing. White can do no 
more than draw. 

M 



l62 



^rt of i€ihesP. 



^ZJ 



BLAOX. 




WHXTB. 

Black. 
Kt— K6 + 
RxB 
B— K8 + 
ExE 
P— QB4 
K— B2 
E— QKtsq 

8 B— E 6 ! E X E 

9 Q X P + , and mates in two more moTes. 

An instructiye endinfj^. After Black's gain of the exchange he is 
wholly at the mercy of his enemy. Far better woald be 1 . . . . 
B — E 2, reserring the check, relying for a draw upon the chapter 
of accidents and Bishops of different colonrs. 



a 8teinitz Oamhit : 


White. 


1 Q> 


.P! 


2 BxKt 


3 QxB! 


4 K- 


-B2 


5Q- 


-Q E 5 ! 


6 Q- 


-E8 + 


7 Q- 


-E7! 



^Combination. 



163 




Black wim : — 

White. Black. 

1 Kt— Q 5 ! 

2 Q— B 6 Q X Kt ! 

3 QxQ Kt-K7 + 

4 K— R eq R X P + 

5 K X R R — R sq + an J mates in 

two moves. 
Considering the proverbial danger of open lines bearing upon the 
Xing, White should have been aware of this very mate, by which he 
is now evidently surprised. A better defence was possible, but the 
Knight could not be saved. White's acquisition of the King side 
Pawns, in conjunction with CastlcH, was over-hazardous play. 

M 2 



164 



^rt of (ChesP. 




BLACK. 



Black wins : — 

White. 

1 PxKt 

2 B--Kt 4 

3 PxP + 

4 P— B5 

5 Kt—Q 6 

6 Kt—B? 

7 KtxB 

8 K— E2 

9 K— E3 



Black. 
BxKt 
E— Ksq 
K— P 
B— B2 
E— KEsq! 
E— Q5! 
ExP + 
P— K5 + 

P — K Kt 4, and mates 

in two moves. 

White could improve very little on this defence. The excellent 

action of the Black Eooks and Bishops was not to be succesafnlly 

resisted, the loss of another Pawn or two being, at the best, nnavoid- 

able. Eesnlting from an ill-jndged attack. 



iCombination. 



165 




Black wins: — 



White. 



1 

2 ExB 

3 ExE 

4 K-Esq 

5 Q—Ktsq 



Black. 
B ~E 7 + ! 
ExKt + 
Q-Kt6 + 
Q X E (K 8) + 
E—B 8, taking Queen 
and Bishop for Book. 

As, 6 R— Kt 2, Q— E 6 + ; 7 R— E 2, E x Q + , and 8 Q— K 

« + , Ac. If 6B— K 3, then 6 ExQ + ,BxE; 7, Q— K 5 + , 

B — Kt 2 ; 8 B — E 6, with mate folloTfing. But, aside from this, the 
^me is of course totally lost for White. The temporary obstruction 
of Book by Knight is fatal. 



1 66 



^rt of (ChesP, 




BLAOK. 

White is imder heavy attack, which he sustains well, 
position is too far gone to admit of any real remedy : — 



But hi» 



White. 


Black. 


White. 


Black. 


1 


B~K4! 


5 K— Ktsq 


R— B8 + ! 


2 B— B sq 


PxKtP 


6 KxR 


Q— R2 + 


3 PxP 


BxKt! 


7 K— Kt sq 


R— R Pq ! 


4 R X Kt ! 


ExP + 




and wins 



Black ignores the Rook and plays for a direct mate. This, in the- 
result, White can avoid, for a time, only by sacrificing his Qneen 
outright, 8 Q— K 6 + , QxQ; 9RxB, Q— R 3 ! ; and White must 
lose a Rook or the Bishop. Or, 8 Q— Kt 8 + ,RxQ; 9BxB. 
Q — ^R 6, Ac. A v^ry pretty termination. 



^Combination, 



167 




BLACK. 



Giuoco Picmo ; Black 


won : — 




White. 




Black. 


1 P— B3 




Kt— B5 


2 Q— B 2 ? 




P— Kt6 


3 PxP 




PxP 


4 B— Kt sq 




KtxBP 


5 B X P ? 




QxB! 


6 QxQ 




Kt— K 7, mate ! 



White seems to have been intent upon attacking the Qneen Bishop 
Pawn, else he would donbtless have taken the dangerous Knight. 
Perhaps he also desired Black to take the King Book Pawn, opening 
the file. A queer ending. 



1 68 



^rt of (§hesP. 



BliACK. 



*k '• i -* 




WHITX. 

White won : — 

White. Bl»<}k. 

1 Kt— K4 P— B3? 

2 Kt— Kt 5 ! P X Kt (Kt 4) 

3 ExE+ KxE 
4Er— B8q+ K K2 

5 R— B 7 + B X R 

6 QxB+ K— Q3 

7 Kt— B 4, mate. 

Black's 1 . . . . P — :B 3 was very bad. The better move would be 

1 Kt— Q 2, and if 2 Kt— Kt 5, then of course 2 P— K R 3. 

n this way his position, thoagh inferior, would be fairly defensible. 



(Combination, 



.69 




White wins :• 



White. 

1 BxEt! 

2 Er— K8 + 

3 R X Kt + 

4 Q— ■Q4 + 



Black. 
PxR 
Kt— B sq 
QxR 
Q— Kt2 



5 Q— Q 8 + , and 6 Q X Q, mate. 

Black has no material superiority, while his position is manifestly 
inferior, even leaving the above pretty forcing process out of acoonnt. 



170 



^rt of (§hesP, 




BLACK. 

From a Centre Oamhit ; Black wins ; — 
White 

1 QxP 

2 Q— Q 8 + 

3 B- Q 3 

4 BxB + 

5 Q— Q3 

6 Q— Q5 

7 R— B2 

8 R— Esq 



Black. 
RxP! 
K— R2 
E— K8! 
PxB 

R(K2)— K6! 
B— K4 
E (K 6)— K 7 
B— Q 5 !. and White 
can do nothing^. 

Aside from the g^eneral want of co-operation among White's forces, 
the necessity of endeavouring to maintain the King Pawn, to keep 
out the opposing Eooks and Bishop, was a great burden. Henoe 
1 Q X P, admitting the prett j offer of the Book. 



(Combination. 



171 






WHTTB. 




Ruy Lopez: — 








White. 


Black. 


White. 


Black. 


1 ExP! 


ExE 


9 PxKt 


Q— E2 


2 BxE + 


KxB 


10 Q— E6 + 


K— Kaq 


3 Q— E5 + 


P— Kt3 


11 P— B7 + 


K— Q2 


4 QxEP 


E-K3 


12 P— B8=Kt+ BxKt 


5 E— B gq + 


K-Ktaq 


13 QxB 


E-<K2 


6 B— B6! 


P— B5 + 


14 E-^B 7 


K— K3 


7 P— Q4 


KtxB 


15 ExE + 


QxE 


8 QxP + 


K— Baq 


16 QxQ + ,and 


v^ins. 



Black's position is inferior, to say nothing of the Pawn minus, bnt 
opponent's sacrifice, with the sequent play, is very fine. 



172 



^rt of (Qhes£>. 




Here, also, it is only a question of breaking in upon the King, with 
the aid of the Knight : — 

White. Black. 

1 Er-Kt 3 Q- K 2 

2 Q— K 3 K E -Q sq 

3 E— E 3 Q- B sq 

4 Kt— K 2 ! E— K sq 

5 Kt— B 4 E- K 2 

6 Kt— K 6 : E X Kt 

7 BxE E—Ksq 

8 E — Kt sq ! and Black is helpless. 

Supposes E— K2, then9ExP + , PxE; 10 P— Kt 7 + , Ac, 

mating very shortly. He could take the Bishop of coarse, but even 
in that case E x P + , Ac, would be deadly — ^if the double exchange 
were considered insufficient. 



.Goynbination . 



173 






BLACK. 


White. 


Black. 


1 


R-Qsq! 


2 B— K5 


P— Q6! 


3 BxP 


RxB! 


4 QxB 


Kt— Kt 5 


5 Q— K2 


KtxB 


6 QxKt 


Q-Q2 


7 R— K3 


B-QBsq 


8 Kt— Kt 5 


RxP 


9 Kt— B3 


Q-Q7! 


10 .R— K 2 


Q x B P, and wine. 



Of course the two Pawns plus are not to be withstood in the end njr. 
Strong and ing^enious play, which relieves Black in a position that 
might otherwise prove one of considerable perplexity. 



1 



^74 



^rt of (Qhesf^, 




WHTTB. 



Position from a French — White wins : — 



White. 
1 P— B 5 ! 
•2 BxP! 
3 Q— K3 
4, B--B4 

5 B— Q3 

6 Q— B3 

7 R— K B sq 
o R— ¥t4 



Black. 
KtPxP 
R— B5 
Q— R 5 
Q— Kt4 
R— B 2 
B--B3 
Q— Kt2 
Q— Bpq 



White. 
9 Q— B6 

10 R— Kt 7 

11 B— K Kt 6 ! 

12 QxKP + 

13 R (Kt 7) X P 

14 RxR 

15 Q— Q6 + 

16 R — B 8, mate, 



Black. 
P— KR4 
P— R5 
R— R 3 
K-Qsq 
RxR 
Q— Ksq 
Q-Q2 



A splendid example of attack and 
Bishops thronghout is remarkable, 
in Black's play wonld be much for 



defence. The influence of White's 
It is not probable that any change 
the better. 



Combination. 



175 




A King* 8 Knight* 8 Opening ; — 

White. Black. 

1 P— R 6 

2P— Kt3 Kt— Kt7? 

SQxEP KtxKt 

4 B— B 6 ! P X B 

5 Q— E6+ ! K—Kt sq 
7 B — B 7 + , and mate in three moyes. 

Black's error was in over-pressing his attack. He should have 
attended to his own safetj first. 



176 



^rt of (Qhess^ 




Black wins — King* 8 Bishop* 8 Optning : — 

White. Black. 

7 K— Kt sq B X P 

8 P— E 4 B— Kt 7 + 

9 K-Esq E (B)— B 7 

10 Q— B4 E— E7 + 

11 K— Kt aq E (B 7)— Kt 7 + 

12 K— B sq E— E 8, mate. 

If 2 K — Kt (E) sq, the Piece was lost ontright. The giving np of 
the Qneen for the Eooks settled the matter ; as Black at once gains 
the Knight — or does better. 



White. 


Bhick. 


1 . . . . 


Q— K4 + 


2 P— Kt 3 ! 


KtxB 


3 E~K3 


KtxE! 


4 ExQ 


ExE 


5 QxKt 


E— KBsq 


6 Q— Q 4 


E-K7 + 



(CfOmbination. 



177 






WHITS. 




White. 


Black. White. 


Blaok. 


1 P— B 5 ! 


Kt— K5 7 B— B8 + ! 


KxP 


2 BxEt 


PxB 8QxP+ 


K— Kt2 


3 PxKtP! 


B— B7 9BxP+ 


KxE 


4 PxP + 


K— Bsq lOB— Kt7 + ! 


K— Ktsq 


5 P— Q5 + 


P— K4 11 QxQ,and^ 


(nns. 


6 Q— Kt 4 ! 


E (B)— B 4. 





Blaok had a principal share in orig^ating this position, his object 
for sometime preyionsly being to plant a Book at the seventh. But 
it goes against him in extraordinarily brilliant fashion. If 6 ... . 
QxQ, then 7BxP + , K + P; 8 B— B 3 + , K— Kt 3 ; 9B— Kt3 + 
K— B2(or4); 10 B— B 7 (or 5) + ,K— B 3; 11 B— B 4 + , and Book 
mates. If 7 . . . . Q x B, then 8 BxP,+ KxP + ; 9 QxP + , &o., 
mating. 



178 



i^rt of (ghesf^. 




Black wins :- 



White. 
1 

2 E— Esq 

3 QxB 

4 K— Kt sq 

5 K— B sq 

6 BxKt 

7 K— K2 

8 BxB 

9 P— Kt 5 



Black. 
R— KE2! 
ExBP! 
Q— Q7 + 
B— B7+ 
Kt— Q5! 
QxE + 
ExE 
QxB 
% — B 8 + , and wins. 



A move or two before, White's play was E (Q) — Q B sq, a circum- 
stance which enabled his adversary to make the fine combination 

beginning 2 ExBP. Black's 1 E— K E 2 threatened, 2 

B— K 8, &c. Of course if 3 K x E, then 3 Q— B 5 + , &c., 

would be conclusive. 



{Combination. 



179 




WHITB. 

From this point in a French lJtijen>ce the play was : — 



White. 
1 

2 Q— B2 

3 Kt— E 6 + 1 

4 QxP + 

5 Q— Ben- 



Black. 
Q— K5 
Q— Kt 5 ? 
PxKt 
K— Esq 
Q— Kt2 



White. 

6 QxB 

7 QxEP 

8 E— B2 

9 B X Q, &o., 



Black. 
QE— Bsq 
ExP 
QxQ 
White winning 



through his extra pawn. 



In this case both parties are attacking. For Black to take the 
King Pawn, immediately, would be very dangerous, so he plays 1 . . . . 
Q — K 5, first ; as, in the event of an exchange of Queens, his gain of 
the Fawn would be a mere question of time. But 2 . . . . Q — Et 5 
was an error — though its object was the same as that of his preceding 
move, viz., to keep White Queen off the Knight file. The correct 
play would be 2 ... . E — K 3, guarding once for all against possible 
evil from Kt — E 6 + . 

N 2 



i8o 



^rt of (Qhesf>, 



BLACK. 




WHITB. 

The second player, in a Bm/^ Lopez, enters upon an ingenious oom- 
bination resulting in defeat of himself : — 

White. Black. 

7 B— Q 3 E— K sq 

8B— KKt5! Q— Q3 
9 Q— E 4 P— K B 3 

10 B— Kt 6 Kt— K 3 

11 Q— E8+ K— K2 

12 Q X E, mate. 
Black, it appears, depended upon 4 . . . . E — K 7 ! to regain the Piece, 

with the better game — but the attack upon his King was not suffi- 
ciently considered. Otherwise, however, he was in straits, more or 
less, his Eooks being badly posted, also his Queen ; with the open file 
and doubled Pawn against Um. The White Bishops are yery power- 
ful in this position. 



White. 


Black. 


1 


P— B5? 


2 P— K 5 ! 


PxP 


3 PxKt 


QPxP 


4 K B X P 


E— K7! 


5 Q— Kt 3 ! 


QxBP 


6 BxP + ! 


K— Bsq! 



^6o?nbination. 



i8i 




WHITS. 



From a King*8 Oamhit Deelinsd : — 



White. 



White. Black. 

7 RxQ B— QBsq 

8 E— B 7 R— B 2 

9 B(K)— KBsqE— Q2? 

10 Q— B 6 ! B— Kt sq 

11 K— B8+ BxB 

12 Q X B, mate, 
^e move should have been 1 . * . . 

B X P, indaoing exchange of the Knight, or otherwise keeping it oat of 
the game — its entrance vidB 4 being fatal. It is tme, White's com- 
mand of the board was great, his attack strong ; bnt without the 
aid of the second Knight, he might very well haye failed to make any 
serious impression. 



2 Kt— B4! 

3 Kt(B4)xP! 

4 Q— K6 + 

5 Kt— B 5 ! 

6 Kt— B6 + 



BUck. 
PxPP 
Q— B2 
KtxKt 
Kt— K2 
Q— Kt3 
QxKt 



> F X P P was a mistake. 



l82 



^rt of (ChesP, 



"WRTTIL, 




From a Ruy Lopez: — 

White. Black. White. Black. 

1 ExP! 6 K— K aq QxQBP + 

2 KxE? Q— Ktsq+ 7 E— Q 2 E— Ktsq! 

3 K— B sq BxB+ 8QxB E— Kt 8 + 
(best) 9 Kt— Q aq E x Kt + ! 

4 Kt— K 3 ! Q— Kt 8 + 10 K x E Q— E 8, mate. 

5 K— Q2 Q— B7 + 

White would do better to play 2 E x B, the reply being 2 . . . .. 
Q — Kt aq, wimiing at least the exchangre. If 4 Q x B, then 

4 Q— Kt8+ ; 5K— Q2, Q— B7 + ; 6 K— K 3, Q— K 7 + , with 

7 . . . . E X P + , &c. A sound sacrifice. 



(Combination. 



183 



WHITB. 




An Irregular Opening : — 



White. 


Black. 


Wliite. 


Black. 


1 ExB + 


ExE 


7 PxP 


KtxP + 


2 Kt— B5 


Q— Kt4 


8 K— Kt 2 


Kt— B5 + 


3 KtxB 


QxKt 


9 K— Kt sq 


P— Kt7 


4 E— Ksq 


Q— Kt 2 


10 E— K sq 


ExB! 


5 B— B6 


Q— Kt2 


11 PxE 


Q-Kt 6, 


6 E— K3 


P— E6! 




winning. 



4 . . . . P— E 6; 6 PxP, KtxP+ ; 6 K— Kt 2, Kt— B 5 + ; 
7K— KtBq,Q— E3; 8E— K2,KtxE + ; 9 Q x Kt, E— B 8 + , Ac, 
was another way. Black's attack was too strong to be withstood ; 
exchanging afforded no relief — contrary to the rule. 



1 84 



Art of (€,hesP. 



BLAOK. 




I 



WHITX. 

A Ruy Lopez : — 

White. Black. 

1 Q— B2» P— QKtSP 

2 K E— Kt sq Kt— E 3 
3KtPxP QxP 

4 B— Kt 4 Q— B 3 

5 Kt X Q P Q— Kt 2 

6 Kt X P Kt— B 4 

7 Kt X B K X Kt 

8 PxP+ PxP 

9 B— B 5 B— E 3 
10 B X P + , and White wins. 

Aft— 10 ExB; 11 ExE, QxE; 12 E— E 7 + !, K— B 3; 

13 Q X Q -I- , &o. Black*8 position was otherwise bad, bnt his attempt 
to Bare the Pawn hastened the catastrophe. 



Combination. 



>85 




BLACK 



A Two Knights Defence : — 



White. 
1 

2 KxR 

3 K— B sq 

4 Kt— B4 

5 Kt— K3 

6 Q— Kt4 



Black. 
BxP + ! 
B— Kt6 + 
Q— K4! 
Q— K5 
B— Q3 
Q— K4! 



White. 

7 B— B2 

8 K— Kt sq 

9 K— Bsq 

10 B— Kt 2 

11 Q— Q4 

12 P— K B 4 



Black. 
B— B3 + 
B— B7 + 
BxKt 
BxP 

Q— Kte 

B—B 7 ! and 



For .... B — ^B 5 will come next, whether White continues P — B 4 
or B— K Kt sq. In the latter case, 13 B— K Kt sq, B— B 5 ; 14 

B— B 3, Q X B+ ! and 15 B— B 7, mate, might happen. White 

oonld not check at move 11 and take the Knight, on account of 
12 ... . B — K 8 ! — leading to mate or the gain of Queen fcnr Book, 
winning without difficulty. 



1 86 



i^rt of (ChesP. 




From a Two Knights Defence : 
White. 
1 

2 E— K sq 

3 P— ESI 

4 B— Q2 
6 BxP + 

6 Q— K8 + 

7 QxE 

8 KxQ 



Black. 
B— K7! 
Kt— Kt 5 ! 
Q— B7 
B— B4 
ExB 
K— E2! 
QxP + ! 

B— B 6 + , and Bishop 
or Knight mates. 
Black wins in other "wrays, but not so prettily. E.g., 4 . . . . B — B 6 ; 

5 E— K Kt sq, Q— Kt 6, &o., mate. Or 4 Q— Kt 6 ; 5 P x Kt, 

Q— E 6 + , and 6 B — B 4 + , Ac, mating. 



(CfOmbination. 



187 



WHITB. 




From an Evans — Black won :- 
White. 
1 

2 Q— E 2 

3 BxB 

4 Kt X P ? 



Blaok. 
Q— Q B 4 ! 
B— K 3 ! 
PxB 
E X P ! and White mnst lose. 



The opening of the file, together with the attempt to gain the 
exchange, is absolutely and singularly disastrous. 



l88 



^rt of (Qhesf. 



km 



>^ 1 :^ 




White. 

1 B— K 7 ! 

2 Q E— K sq 

3 BxB 

4 E— K7 + 

5 Q— E6 

6 ExP 

7 Kt— B 4 

8 Kt— E 5 ! 

9 E X Kt, and wins. 



Blftok. 
E— B2 
Kt— Kt2 
KxE 
K— Kt 8q 
Q— Baq 
K— Esq 
Q— B3 
Q— K4 



From a Bu]/ 2x>2>6z, indifferently defended. Black's mores are 
virtaally forced — 6 ExP threatening 7 Kt — ^K 7 + , Ac., winning the 
Qneen. 



(Combination. 



189 




BLACK. 

Black. 
K— B2 
K— Kt 3 
KxP 
PxB 
K— E4 
K— Kt5 
K— B6 
K— Kt 7, &c., 
winning. 
White would have done better to defend by 2 R— K 3. The 

attempt to gain a Piece in such a position could hardly be fortunate. 

But the play on both sides is very fine, presenting a number of 

interesting points, well worthy of close examination. 



A Uwy Lopez — 


-Black wins : — 




White. 


Black. 


White. 


1 . . . . 


Kt— Kt4! 


9 QxB + 


2 P— KB4? Kt(B5)— B6 + 


10 <^B8 + 


3 K— B2 


KtxB 


11 Q— K8 + 


4 PxKt 


KtxP + ! 


12 BxP + 


5 BxKt! 


Q— B4 + 


13 Q— Kt8 + 


6 B— B3 


R— Q7 + 


14 Q~B7 + 


7 K— K sq 


Q-Q2I 


16 Q— Kt7 + 


8 B— Q 3 ! 


QxB 


16 QxP + 



190 



^rt of (Ghess^. 




Here Black is surprised, and loses as follows : — 

Wliite. Black. 

7Kt— Kt6+ K— Ktsq 

8 Kt— K 7 + K— R sq 

9 Kt— B 5 ! Q— B 2 

10 B— K 7 ! K— Kt sq 

11 QxB+ QxQ 

12 B (B 3) X Q, with mate in 

three moves. 
At first sight the defence appears to he adequate, hut the facility 
with which the Books hack up the attack soon shows it to he over- 
whelming. 



White. 


Black. 


1 BxP! 


PxB 


2 QxP + 


B— B2 


3 B-Q3 


B— Kt4 


4 Q— B5 


Q— B3 


6 B— KE3 


Q— Kt2 


6 E^K4 


P— B3 



/ 



(Combination. 



191 







WHXTB. 



A Fiam/cKeUo, — ^Won by Louis Paulsen, London, 1862 : — 
White. Black. 

1 PxP! BxE 

2 ExB Q— K2 

3 BxB QxB? 

4 P— K 6 ! Q— K 2 
6 P X P Kt— K 4 

6 B— E 3 ! P— K Kt 4 

7 Q X P P— Kt 5 

8 P— Q8=Q+ QxQ 

9 Q— Kt 7, mate. 

If 5 .... Q X Q P, or 5 ... . Q— B 4 + , there would be a Piece 
lost soon from P — K 5. Black's attack upon the Book ( . . . . B 
(Kt 2) — B 3) was ill judged ; but, as the position stood, he had no 
very good move, the superiority being evidently with his opponent. 
? 3 . . . . K X E. 



I 



192 



^rt of (Ghesf^, 



BLACK. 







Queen Pavm Opening, — ^White has a strong attaok, and pursues it 
to the best advantage : — 



White. 


Black. 


White. 




Black. 


1 QE— Ksq! 


E (B)— K sq 


6 ExR 




PxE 


2 Q— Kt 3 


P— B3 


7 BxP + 




K— Ktsq 


3 B— B4 + 


K— Kt2 


8 PxP 




P— KB3 


4 B— K6! 


Kt— Q2 


9 Q— B4 




B— Q4 


5 BxKt 


QxB 


10 Q— B 6, 


and 


wins. 



To take the exchange would be to prolong the contest considerably, 
with some chance of a draw at the end. The course chosen 
maintains the attack in the best style, and proves a short road to 
victory. Ifl....ExE;2ExE, Q— Q sq (to prevent Q— Kt 5) ; 
8 PxP, EPxP; 4 E—K 3, Black could not long survive. 



(Combination. 



193 




BLACK. 

From a game played at the British Chess Club. Black (L. Hoffer) 
won thoB : — 

White. Black. 

1 . . . , B— Kt 2 

2 E— B 7 ? B X Kt ! 

3 P X B, and Black mates in four moves. 

By 3 ... . Q— R 5, Ac. The actual play was 3 . . . . Q x R ! 
prettier, bat not so conolusiye. White, it seems, should have proposed 
an exchange, 2 Q — ^Kt 4, gaining a little time to look around and see 
what was best to do with the troublesome Knights so closely pressing 
on his King. The Book's move was fatal. For if 3 Q R— K B sq, 
Q— Q 3 ! ; 4 Q R— B 4, Kt x R ; 5 R x Kt, R— K B sq ! Ac. Black 
should win easily* 

O 



194 



^rt of (§hesP, 



WHITS. 




BLACK. 

A Two Knights Defence j in which White's attack was ineffectual ; so 
Black has here mqch the freer and better game : — 

White. Black. 

1 R— K sq Q— K 2 ! 

2 QxP? ExB + 

3 Kt X E E— Q sq 
4Q— B4 QxKt+! 

5 K X Q E— Q 8, mate. 

It is doubtful whether White could have succeeded in extricating 
himself from his difficulties. At any rate he should have hesitated 
long and earnestly before picking up that particular Pawn. 



Combination. 



'95 



BLACK. 




A Ponziomi — bad for Black, who cannot well get rid of the danger- 
0U8 " pinning " of his Knight : — 

White. Black. 

1 Q— Q 3 ! P— Kt 3 

2 KtxKt+ KtxKt 

3 E— K 6 ! P— Kt 6 

4 B X Kt, and wins without diflScnlty. 

The gain of the Piece results very naturally, as Black could do no 
better than provide against the mate (threatened from 2 Kt )i Kt -I- ) 
by advancing his Pawn. 

o 2 






1 95 



^rt of (€hesP. 




A Buy Lopez : — 
White. 

1 Kt— K4 

2 BxP 

3 Q— B 3 ! 

4 PxB 

5 Q E— Q sq ! 

6 PxKt 

7 P— B6 + ! 



Black. 
Q— Q2? 
Kt-B4 
BxKt? 
BxB 
Q— Bsq 
K— Kt 2 ? 
K— E2 



White. 

8 R-Q7r 

9 Q— Kt 4 

10 B— K 4 

11 R— K7! 

12 Q— R 4 



Black. 
Q— Keq 
K— Esq 
R— Qeq 
Q— Kt4 
K— R2 



13 Q— R 5 ! and Black can delay 
the mate in three only by 
the sacrifice of his Qneen 
and Rooks. 
The defence should have played 1 . . . . B x Kt. Perhaps his 
thongfat was of winning a Piece in case White took the Pawn ; bnt, 
with his Queen unsupported, he found this infeasible. 11 ... . 
Q — ^Et 4 was best — elsewhere the Qneen would have soon been lost, 
through 12 Q — R 4, &c. An interesting finish. 



(Combination. 



197 




ienna Opening — White 


wins : — 




White. 




Black. 


1 BxP + 




KxB 


2 KlH-Kt5 + 




BxKt 


3 QxB + 




B— R3 


4 BxB 




PxB 



5 B — B 6, and Black has no resource* 

The first player has the advantage, even not reckoning this surprise 
attack, which happens to be 'decisive. Black shooldi of course refuse 
the Bishop. 



198 



^rt of (GhesP. 




WHITE. 

A Qt(«en'8 Qamhit Decliiied, and strayed from the normal lines : — 

White. Black, 

1 K--K sq ! B— K 3 

2 ExB! PxE 

3 Q— E6+ K— B2 
4Kt— Kt5+ K— K2 
5Q--Kt7+ K— Q3 
6 Kt (B 6)— K 4, mate. 

Black's sitnation is desperate, bnt the prettiness of the termina* 
tion is well worthy of regard. 



(Combination. 



199 




A Ruy Lopez : — 






White. 


Black. 


White. 


1 


P— B3! 


8 KtxB 


2 PxP? 


KtxP 


9 K B-K sq ? 


8 Kt— Q2 


B— Q3 


10 B X Kt 


4 P— QB4 


Kt— R4 


11 PxB 


5 P— B5 


B— K4 


12 K— E sq 


6 B— K2 


Kt— B5 


13 BxB 


7 Kt— B 3 


Q— B3 


wineb 



Black. 
QxKt 
BxP» 
QxB 
QxP + 
E— B6! 
Q X Q, and 
snperior force. 
Black seems cramped, but the move .... P — B 3 well opens out 
his position. It is usually a most important manoBuvre in situations 
analogous to the aboye. Wliite ought not to take ; but should 
support, 2 P — K B 4. His g^eat error, however, consists in 9 K B—^ 
K sq P leaving his King Bishop Pawn at the mercy of such accident 
as afterwards occurs. 



200 



^rt of ((^hes^. 




WHITE. 

A Scotch Oamhit in which BiacK Bought to hold the Pawn, bat at 
too much lack in deyelopment : — 
White. Black. 

1 B X Q P ! Q X Kt 

2 B X Kt K— B 2 ! 

3 B— K 4 B— B sq 

4 E (Kt)— B sq B— Q 2 

5 B— Q 3 B— B 3 

6 BxB PxB 
7B— Q2 B— B4? 
8B— B3 Q— B2? 

7 .... Q B — B sq and 8 . . . . Q — K 3 would have been better than 

7 B~B 4 and 8 Q— B 2, respectively. 10 . . . . Q x B P 

would be useless, on account of 11 ... . B — Kt 3 + , Ac. Black 
should have played to get his King to Q B sq, there was little safe^ 
for him anywhere else. 



White. 


Black. 


9 B— K5 + 


K— Kt2 


10 B (B)— Q sq ! 


Q— B5 


11 B~B 3 


Q-Kt4 


12 B— Kt 3 


B— Kt5 


13 B-^Q7 + 


K— Kt3 


14 B— B7 + 


K— B3 


15 BxB, and wing 


. 



(Combination. 



20I 




WHITE. 

Black wrongly seeks material gain at the expense of development in 
a QuwAiit Refused : — 



White. 


Black. 


White. 


Black. 


1 


K— Q5? 


6 Q X Kt P 


K— Q2 


2 Q— Kt 3 ! 


KtxP + 


7 RxKt 


K— Bsq 


3 K— Qsq 


KtxB 


8 RxP 


B— Q3 


4 PxP 


PxP 


9 B— K Kt 5 


Q-Ksq 


5 B— Bsq 


Kt— B3 


10 Kt— Q 5 


R— KKtsq,and 






White mates in three moves. 


The position was in fayonr of White, bnt 1 . . . 


Kt— Q 5 gave him 


an opportunity of still further increasing his advantage. After that. 


Black's game was 


not to be saved. 







202 



^rt of (§hesf^. 




ELA.CE. 



wins : — 




White. 


Black. 


1 


Kt X P! 


2 R X P 


K— Ktsq 


3 Kt— K 5 


Q— Kt4 


4 Kt— Q B 3 


BxP! 


5 B— Kt 2 


Kt— Kt5+I 


6 K— Bsq 


QxKt! and White 




hopeless. 



: Eztraordiiiarily biilliaiit play in an extraordinary position. The 
obvious 4 . . . . QxP would lose the game. E.g., 4 . . . . QxP; 
i Kt— B6 + ,K— Bsq; 6E— E8 + ,K— Q2; 7 RxE + , KxKt; 
8 ExB + , PxE (best); 9 Q— K 4 + , White coming out a 
Piece ahead, at least. A masterly combination in every respeot. 



(Combination. 



203 




T i ■'* m i ^'i 





A Steinitz Oambit, which White should have won : — 

White. Black. White. Black. 

1 Kt— Q5! KtxKt 7KxP Q— Kt2 + ! 

2 P X Kt Kt— Kt 5+ 8 K— E 4 ! Q— Q 2 + 

3 K— B 4 ! P— Q B 4 9 K— R 3 Q— Kt 4 
4PxP PxP 10 Q— K 8q+ K— Q 2 
5BxP! P— Kt4+ IIQ— K7+ K— B sq 

6 K X Kt P— E 4+ 12 P— Kt 3 ? B— B 6! and 

White cannot avoid mate because of the impending .... Q — Kt 5 + • 
If P— Kt 4, of course .... P x P + , and Eook mates. Either 12 
E — Q Kt sq, or 12 P — B 3, would have won for White. As may be 
noticed, 8 K — B4? would lose, on the merits of the position. 
8 K— B 4?, Q— E 3 + ; 9 K— Kt 3, Q— Kt 4 + , and mates in two 
moves. 



204 



^rt of (Chesi^. 




BLACK. 

In this position, from a Lopez, White underrates the force of the 
attack, and at the same time wrongly meets it :- 



White. 


Black. 


White. 


Black. 


1 B— B7 


Kt— Kt 6 


8 Kt— R 5 ? 


P— B6! 


2 R-^B3? 


Kt— K7 + ! 


9 PxP 


BxKt 


3 K— B2 


B— R5 


10 PxP 


BxB 


4 QxS 


PxQ 


11 KxB 


PxP 


5 KxKt 


Q— K2 


12 PxP 


Q— Kt5 + 


6 B— Kte? 


P— Q4! 


13 K— Q 3 


B— Kt4+! 


7 R-^B4 


P— B5 




and wins. 



WTiite*8 first move of the Bishop merely helped on his opponent's 
game, and his placing it at Kt 6 allowed the important .... P — Q 4. 
When attacked by Knight the Book shoold have left the file, to make 
way for the Queen, and also for the King to come out at B 2 in case 
of necessity — because Black threatened to double on the Book file, 
and push on ... . P — Kt 5. Finally, 8 Kt — B 5 in reality put a 
Piece en prise, and left him with a surely losing game. 



(Combination. 



205 



WHITE. 




Rwy Lopez ; — 








White. 


Black. 


White. 


Black. 


1 Q— K 2 ? 


B— B4 + 


7 B— B5 


QE— Qsq! 


2 K— R aq 


Q— E5 


8 BxB 


ExB 


3 P— K Kt 3 


Q— R6? 


9 P— KB3? 


E~Q 8 ! 


4 Kt— K 4 


B— Kt3 


10 B— K3 


ExQE 


5 Kt— Kt 5 


Q— R4 


11 ExE 


BxB 


6 BxP + 


K— Bsq 


12 K— Kt 2 


QxKt, 



winning a Piece and the game. 
White erred in not playing 1 Q — K sq, preventing 2 . . . . Q — E 5 ; 
and Black should have gone 3 . . . . Q — E 4, so as not to lose the Pawn. 
After graining the Pawn and exchanging Bishops, 9 B — B 4 wonld have 
been a good and safe move; bat White overlooked the extremely 
ingenious 9 . . . . E — Q 8 { which left him without any practical 
resource ; as if then Q (or E) x E, the Knight's check would be of 
course decisive. 



2o6 



(Art of (Ghes^, 








J^^^^. 



^^: 



mky/^^^. 




BLACK. 

A ^encTi Defence, which Blaik wins by availing himself of the 
confined and unsupported condition of his opponent's Book : — 
White. Black. 

1 KtxQP! 

2 Q— Q 2 Kt— B 3 

3 Kt— B 3 B— B 4 

4 B^B 2 E— Kt 2 

5 B— Kt sq Q— E 4 

6 Kt X P P X Kt 

7 QxP+ R— Q2! 

8 Q X P B— B 2 

9 Q— K 2 Q X B P 

10 B— Kt 2 Q— B 5 

11 B X P . Q X B P !, and wins. 

6 Kt X P was of course a desperate attempt to divert the attack. 
If 2 P X Kt ; 3 Q X P, &c., the loss in material would also be ruinous. 



^Combination. 



207 




1:^ i 



"^/yz/z/A-y///'' 




i i 



White. 



Black. 



White. 



Black. 



1 


Q— Bsq! 


8 K-B3 


Q— E6 + 


2 KB— Qaq? 


B— R3 


9 K— K4 


B^Kt2 + 


3 Q— B4 


Kt-Kt 4 ! 


10 K— Q4 


Kt— K3 + 


4 KtxP! 


PxKt 


11 K— B4 


R-B5 + 


5 K-^Q7 


PxP! 


12 Kt— Q 4 


KtxB 


6 RxB 


Kt— E6 + 


13 K X Kt 


Q^B4 + 


7 KxP 


Kt— B5 + 


14 K— B 4 


BxKt + , and 
wins the Queen. 



A fine finish to a Uuy Lopez, White should have i>layed 2 K E — 
K sq, but the attack npon his King was yery strong. Examination 
shows 6 B X B to be no better than the move made, as after checking 
with Knight at B 6, the Queen would come in with deadly effect at 
Kt2. 



208 



^rt of (€thesP. 




Black makes a losing oombination in a Euy Lopez :- 



White. 
1 

2 PxP! 

3 PxB 

4 K— B sq 
6 PxR 

6 K— K2 

7 P— Kt 5 

8 BxP + ! 



Black. 
R— Kt5? 
B— Kt5 
Q— R7 + 
RxKt 
Q— R8 + 
QxR 
Kt— Q2 
KxB 



White. 
9 Q— B 5 + 

10 Q X Kt 

11 P— Kt6! 

12 QxP + 

13 Q— B 5 

14 R— B sq 

15 R— B 4 ! 



Black. 
K— Kt sq 
R— Ktsq 
Q— R8 
K— Rsq 
B— Q3 
Q— R7! 
R— KBsq 



16 Q— Kt 5, and R— R 4, &o., 
presently, must win. 



Black's whole scheme was bad in every way ; as, in the result of it^ 
both force and position came against him. 



.Combination, 



209 




BLACK. 

Attack and counter attack in a Sicilian :- 



White. 


Black. 


White. 


Black. 


1 Kt— Kt6 + 


K— E2 


8 E— E3? 


BxB! 


2 Castles? 


P— Q4 


9 ExB 


KE— Bsq 


3 PxQP 


PxQP 


10 E— Q 3 


Q— Kt4! 


4 B— B sq 


Q— E5! 


11 K— Kt sq 


ExP 


5 KtxB + 


RxKt 


12 QxE 


KtxQ 


6 P— Kt 3 


Q— B3 


13 K X Kt 


E— B sq + and 


7 P— Kt 6 + 


K— Esq 




wins. 



Here White's attack is not so real as it looks at first sight, while 
his difficnlties as to Castling, and from the hostile Knight, are sub- 
stantial enough. Perhaps he should have got rid of that Knight, 
even at the cost of a Pawn and the exchange, in order to post his 
Bishop at K B 5, thus playing for attack at all hazards. The tempo- 
rising 2 Castles had no good in it; and 8 E — E 3 ?, instead of 8 B — 
K 3, was somewhat misjudged. 

P 



2IO 



^rt of (ChesP. 






WHITB. 




A Sicilian : — 








White. 


Black. 


White. 


Black. 


1 P— K Kt 4, 


Q— Kt 3 ? 


7 P— B6 


PxP 


2 Q R— Q sq ! 


QxP 


8 PxP 


E— KKt sq 


3 P— Kt 5 


Kt— K sq 


9 Q— E4 


B— Bsq 


4 Q— Kt 3 


E— B sq 


10 Kt— B 3 ! 


P— E3 


5 P— B5 


K— Esq 


11 Kt— B 4 


QxEP 


6 B— E 3 ! 


Kt-B2 


12 KtxP,and 


wins. 



Black is bo tied np as to be qnite helpless. He has no good means 
of preventing Kt x P + , Ac, with mate or decisive loss of material 
following. It was a great error to play for a Pawn in snch a position, 
leaving his Bishops unsupported, and in full view of the formidable 
advance against his King. 1 . . . . P — K 4 would have been much 
better, though even with that he would have had the inferior game. 



(Combination. 



BLACK. 




WHITE. 



White. 



Black. 



1 ExB! 


KxE 


2 B— Kt 5 + 


K— Kt2 


3 K1^B4 


B— Q2 


4 E— Ksq 


Kt— B3 


5 Kt— K6 + 


BxKt 


6 BxKt+ ! 


KxB 


7 QxB + 


K— Kt2 


8 Q— B 7 + 


K— E3 


9 P— Kt 7, winning. 





There is no delaying the mate beyond two or three moves. A 
French — in which the defence should have fared better ; a previous 
sacrifice on White's part being hardly sonnd. 

p 2 



212 



^rt of (§hes^. 







i i ■ i' i 



/,//fi/yi'''.'/- 



^^^ 




li^M^iM 



P'^B 



"^ 



i 










i^^HS 



sU£<' 



WHITE. 

From a badly defended Evans — White wins : — 

White. Black. 

1 B— Kt 5 + KI^K 2 

2 Kt X P B X Kt 
3BxKt+ K— Q2 
4 ExB + ! PxR 
5Q— Kt5+ K— B2 

6 E— B sq + K — Kt sq 

7 B X P, mate. 

Black's position was quite untenable. A brilliant though simple 
combination. 



(Combination. 



213 




White has the advantage, in a French^ from the greater safety of 
his King, and the lack in development of adverse force : — 
White. Black. 

1 E— K R sq ! B— Q 2 

2 Kt X B P ! Kt X P 
3BxB QxB 

4 Kt X P + ! K— B 3 

5 B— K E sq Q— K Kt sq 

6 R~R 6 + K— K 2 ! 
7Q-Kt4+ B— Q3 

8 Kt X P + ! and wins. 
If 7 ... K moves, then 8 Kt (B 4) x K P, with or without check, 
winning by superior force and position. Black could hardly do better, 
other ways leading to decisive loss of material, or actnal mate. 



214 



iArt of (Cihes^. 




Four Knights Oame, in which White sacrifices a Pawn for attack 
which is unsound : — 

White. Black. White. Black. 

1 P— B 3 ? Kt X P ! 6 Q— K Kt 4 Q— Q 2 

2 Kt X Kt B X Kt + 7 P— K E 3 Q R— K sq 
3QxB BxB 8 P— Kt 3 K— E sq 

4 B— E 6 P— K B 3 ! 9 B— B sq ? B— K 5 

5 E— Kt 3 R— K 2 10 Q— B 3 E— K 8 + 

11 K— E2 E— B 8! and 

will double on the eighth rank, winning without trouble. 

At first, probablj, White thought he could play 6 Q x B P, not 
seeing, for the moment, that that would lose through 6 . . . . 
E — K 8 + , &c. Thip, apparently, was the fallacy involved in giving 
up the Pawn. 



(Combination. 



215 




WHITB. 

Black, in a Queen Pawn Opening^ has an uncomfortably crowded 
position, is rather too much on the defensive. White must win, pro- 
vided he can break up the game : — 



White. 




Black. 


White. 


Black. 


1 E (B 3)- 


E3! 


Kt— E2 


7BxKt 


PxB 


2B— Q2 




B— Q3 


8ExP! 


K— E2 


3B— K3 




Q— K2 


9 Kt— Kt 6 


BxKt 


4 Kt— Q 2 ! 




E (K)— K B sq 


lOExB 


E— Qsq 


5Kt— B3 




B— Ksq 


11 Q— E 5 


Q-Bsq 


6 Kt— R 4 ! 




Kt— Kt 4 


12 P— B 6 ! 
resource. 


and Black has no 



The concentration of the White forces, especially the oncoming of 
the Knight, is exemplary in the highest degree. 



2l6 



^rt of (Chess^. 




From a Queen Pawn Opening ; Black won : — 



White. 



B— B5 
BxQ 
BxQE 
E— K sq 

6 BxKt 

7 BxP 



Black. 
P— K4! 
KtxKt 
KtxQ 
ExB 
KtxBP 
PxP 
Kt— Q2 



White. 

8 B— Q 6 

9 E— E4 

10 K— E3 

11 E— E 3 

12 B— Kt 4 

13 E— B 3 ? 



Black. 
PxP 
E— B7 + 
P— Q Kt 4 
Kt— Kt 3 
Kt— B5 
E— Q Kt 7 and 

wins. 



White, being a Pawn behind, could hardly do better than try for 
the exchange, which Black offered in anticipation of the threatened 
attack upon his King. Also, White had to be careful, else the Knight 
at K 7 would have escaped, through 6 . . . . P — Q 5, &c. The Bishop 
could not retreat at move 8, except to Q 4, obstructing the Eook. At 
the last move or so, perhaps, he might have done better ; but by that 
time Black had too many Pawns. 



(Combination. 



217 




Prom a French Defence : — 



White. 



Black. 
R— K Kt sq ! 
Kt— B 5 ! 
B— K Kt 5 
QxKt 
Kt— E 6 + 
Q — B 5 ! winning. 
Clearly, to P— K Kt 3 or Kt— B 3, the reply . . . . Kt x P + or 
. . . . Q X Kt ! is decisive. The open file, with the excellent action 
of his Bishops, was much in favour of Black ; still, had White not 
been as it were unconscious of his danger, he would hardly have 
ventured upon the feeble 2 P — K R 4, which left him almost without 
possibility of a remedy. 2 B — B 5 would have been considerably 
stronger. 



P— K E 4 ? 
B— Bsq 
KtxB 
Kt— E2 
K— Esq 



2l8 



^rt of (ChesP. 



BLACK. 




Celebrated position from an Evans Grambit (Anderssen v. Dufresne) 
Won by the first named player as follows : — 

White. Black. 

1 Q R— Q sq ! Q x Kt 

2 ExKt + ! KtxE 

3 QxP + ! KxQ 
4B— B5 + ! K— Ksq! 

5 B— Q 7 + K moves 

6 B X Kt, mate. 

In this case, analysis fully proves that White's game is a winning 
one, and certainly the beauty of his play is very striking ; especially 
that of the move Q B — Q sq, to which all the subsequent movement, 
however brilliant, is subordinate. For example, if 2 ... . K — Q sq, 
then 3 R X P + ! K— B sq ; 4 E— Q 8 + ! Kt x R ; 5 Q— Q 7 + ! 
K X Q; 6 B — B 5 + ! and 7 Bishop mates. All turns upon the 
discovered check ; or Black may lose by losing his Queen. 



(Combination. 



219 




From a PhiUdor*8 Defence indifferently opened by Black (the Duke 
of Brunswick and Count Isouard consulting). White (Morphy) brought 
the contest to a close in this extraordinarily brilliant fashion : — 



White. 


Black. 


1 KtxP! 


PxKt 


2 BxKtP + 


Q Kt— Q 2 


3 Castles Q E 


R— Qsq 


4 B X Kt ! 


ExE 


5 B~Q sq 


Q— K3 


6 BxR + 


KtxB 


7 Q— Kt8 + ! 


KtxQ 


8 E— Q 8, mate ! 





Played in the Duke's box, during the performance of *' The Barber 
of Seville," at the Italian Opera House, Paris, 1858. 



220 



(Art of (Chesf^. 




An Evans, in which Black has just castled. White (Morphy) wins 
thus : — 



White. Black. 

1 B— R 6 ! Kt— E 4 ? 

2 K R-Q B sq B— B 3 

3 Q X Kt P X B 

4 QxE P+ K— Q2 

5 E X B ! Q— B 4 



White. 

6 RxP + 

7 Q— B 6 + 

8 R— Kt 8 ! 

9 R— K 7 + 



Black. 
K— Ksq 
Q-Q2 
QxQ 
K— B sq 



10 R X R + , and mates next 
move. 
Black should have taken the Bishop immediately. Then 2 Q — Kt 3, 
B — Kt 5, &c., would not be nearly so bad. 

Dr. Lange remarks upon the exceeding richness, in more or less 
brilliant terminations, of Morphy's games, as compared with those of 
any other master. 



Combination. 



221 




Uussian Defence. — White (Morphy) wins : — 

White. Black. White. Black. 

1 P— K B 4 ! P X P ? 7 P— K 5 ! B x P 

2 B— Q 4 + K— Kt sq 8BxB QxB 

3 Kt— B 5! R— K sq 9 R— Q 7 ! Q— Kt 2 

4 Kt— E 6+ K— B sq 10 Q— B4 R— K 2 

5 Castles BxKt llRxR KxR 

6 P X B Q—K 2 12 R— K sq + Resigns. 

A beautifnl termination. Instead of 1 . . . . P x P ? Black should 
perhaps have played 1 . . . . B x Kt. Afterwards he could take 
neither of the Knights without losing forthwith. But 9 . . . . Q — 
Kt 2 rendered his position hopeless. The best move then was 
9 .... Kt X P. Then, if we suppose 10 R x Kt, Q— B 3 ; 11 Q x P ! 
P~B6! 12 BxKt P! PxR; 13 Q— Q 5, R— K 8 + ; 14 K— Q 2, 
Q — B 5 + ! Ac, Black might win. 



222 



iArt of ^hesP. 




k k 



\jf/yjr/.f/M.vyy^ 



1 




i i i 



'//jv:v/^iV/'''f' 




White has made a premature attack, in a Scotch Gambit, and Black 
(Morphy) wins as follows : — 

1 Q— Q5!; 2B— K3, Q— Kt5; 3 B x B,Q x Kt P!; 4 Castles, 

QxKt; 5BxR,RxB; 6 Q E -B sq, Q— Kt 7 ; 7 B— B 4, Kt— B 5 ! ; 
8Q— Qsq,KtxP+ ; 9 K— Kt 2, Kt— B 5 + ; 10 K— R sq, Q— Kt 3 ; 
11 P X P, B X B ; 12 P— R 7 + , K x P ; 13 Q~Kt 4, Q— R 3 + ; 14 K— 
Ktsq, BxR; 15 RxB, R— Qsq; 16 P— R 4, R— Q 3 ; 17 P— B 3, 
R — K Kt 3 ; 18 K — B 2, and Black mates in three moves. 

Perhaps White shonld have Castled Q R, instead of going for the 
exchange ; as afterwards .... Kt— B 5 proves deadly. If 8 Q — R 4, 

then 8 P x P ; 9 Q— Kt 3, B x B, threatening Kt— K 7 + , Ac. 

In every case the position seems to be lost for White. 



(Combination. 



223 




From a Centre Counter Oamhit (1 P— K 4, P— Q 4, &c.) :- 



White. 
Kt— B5 
KtxB+ ! 
P— B4 
BxKt 
Q— K4 
P— Q Kt 4 
Q— K3 



8 K R— Q sq 



Black. 
Castles Q E 
QxKt 
Kt— B5 
QxB 
Q-Q3 
Kt— B3 
KR— Bsq 
P— KKt4 



White. 
9 Kt— K5 

10 P— Q 5 ! 

11 PxP 

12 PxP! 

13 QxQ 

14 PxP + 



Black. 
Kt— B 4 ? 
KPxP 
KR— Ksq 
QxKt 
RxQ 
KxP 



15 R X R, and White won. 



Black's 9 . . . . Kt — R 4 ? was an error ; he ought to have played 
9 . . . . Kt — Q 2. Then the attack npon his Rook Pawn, incident to 
P— Q 5, would be infeasible or ineffective. If 11 .... Q R— K Bq ; 
12 Kt— B 4 ! Q— Kt sq ; 13 Q— K B 3, Kt— B 5 ; 14 P x P, &c., White 
would also have a winning game. 



224 



(Art of i€hess\ 




WHITE. 

This was a Sicilian Defence, won by White as follows : — 
1 Kt— Kt 5, P— B 3; 2 P X K P, P X Kt; 3 P X Q P, Q— Kt 3; 4 Q— 
Q 5, Castles; 5 P— Q Kt 4, Kt— B 3 ; 6 QxP + , QxQ; 7 P x Q, 
PxP?; 8 P— K5! Kt-Kt 5+ ; 9K-E sq, B— Q B 3 ; 10 BxB, 
P X B ; 11 E— B 7 ! R— Q 2 , 12 R x R, K x R ; 13 R— Kt 7 + , K— 
K3; 14 RxB, R— QKtsq; 15 R— K 7 + , K— B 4; 16 P— Q 7 ! 
PxP; 17 R— K 8, R— Kt 7 ; 18 Kt— K 2 ! P— Kt 7+ ; 19 K— Kt sq, 
R— Kt 8 + ; 20KxP, KtxP+ ; 21 K— B 3, and wins. 

Black plays a little too confidently after taking the Piece, the sacri- 
fice of which is hardly sound. The attack on the Queen Knight Pawn 
should have been warded off by 7 ... . B — Q B 3. Then the chances 
of winning would be largely in favour of the superior force. 



(Combination. 



225 




A Ruuian Defence^ in which White has the advantage, but misses 
it and draws : — 



White. 


Black. 


White. 


Black. 


1 KtxP! 


QxKt 


8 K— R2 


P— Kt 4 ! 


a B X Kt 


KtxB 


9 R— Kt sq 


Q R— Kt sq 


3 QxKt 


QxQ 


10 P— Q6 + 


K— Q2 


4. BxQ 


BxP 


11 PxP 


PxP 


5 P— K 5 ! 


K— K2 


12 BxP + 


B— B 3, and 


6 R— B6 


R— Kt4 


White can 


do no more 


7 ExRP? 


B— Kt7 + 


than draw. 





After the exchange of Bishops, the advanced Pawns cannot be 
maintained ; and, though he may eventually remain a Pawn ahead, it 
will not be enough to win. The failure was in 7 RxRP? 7RxKt 
P would have given him a winning game. 



226 



^rt of (GhesP. 




Black, in a French, has just played B— Kt 2 (a weak move 


in comparison with .... P- 


~K B 3 or . . . . B— B 3) and loses 


thus:— 






White. Black. 


White. 


Black. 


1 P— K 5 B— K 2 


8 Q— Kt 4 ! 


RxR + 


2 BxP + ! KxB 


9 K— Q2 


PxP 


3 Kt— Kt5+ K— Kt3 


10 Q— Kt6 + 


K— K2 


4 Kt— K 2 ! B X Kt 


11 Q— Kt7 + 


K— Ksq 


5 P X B ' P— K B 4 


12 Q— Kt8 + 


K— K2 


6 Kt P X P e.p. R— E sq 


13 QxP + 


K— Bsq 


7Kt— B4+ K— B2 


14 BxB 


B— Bsq 




White mates in four 



moves. 
All very beantifnl and perfectly sound. Close examination will 
show Black to have a lost game however his play may be varied from 
that in the text. 



(Combination. 



227 




From a French Defence. Black wins .— 



White. 



Black. 



White. Black. 

8 P— Kt 4 P X Kt 

9 PxB PxE=Q + 

10 K X Q E— Q 6 

11 Q— Kt8+ Q— Ktsq 

12 E X P E— Q sq 

13 Q— E 2 Q— Kt 5, &c. 
winning. 

White conld not get his King into safety, nor does it appear that he 
had any better defence. 1 . . . . E — Q sq menaced his Qneen, and 
when that danger had passed his King's position was beyond remedy. 
Black might also have won by 10 . . . . Q Kt 8 + and II . . . . Q x E, 
perpetnal check being ont of the question. 

<42 



1 . . . . 


E— Qsq! 


2 KtxE 


PxKt 


3 Q— B sq ! 


B— B4 


4 P— B5 


Q— Kt2 


5 Q— B4 


Kt— K4 


6 E— K B sq 


Kt— Q6 + 


7 BxKt 


PxB 



228 



^rt of (§hesP. 



WHITI. 




BLACK. 



From a Ruy Lopez ;— 






White. 


Blaok. 


White. 


Black. 


1 P— QKtS? 


B— B3! 


9 Q— B2 


B— Kt3 


2 B— Kt2 


B— Q5 


10 P— Q Kt 4 


KB— Ksq 


3 Q— Q3 


Q— B3 


11 Q— B2 


B— Kt2 


4 K— E sq 


P— QKt4! 


12 Q— Kt 3 


Q— B2 


5 Q R— Kt sq 


B— R3 


13 R— B3 


BxP 


6 QKt— Qsq 


QB— Ksq! 


14 B— Q 2 


QB— K2 


7 B— Bsq 


E^K5 


15 KtxB 


QxKt 


8 P— B3 


P— B5 


16 B— K 3 


Q— Q 6, and 


White has no means of avoiding 


disastrous loss. 


WllU}. 

His move, P -Q 



Kt 3, was an error of jadgment in the strict sense of the expression. 
The style in which Black takes advantage of it is extremely fine. A 
model of powerful and ingenious play from beginning to end. 



(Combination. 



229 



BLACK. 




A Qiuoco Piano : 


— 






White. 


Black. 


White. 


Black. 


1 P— QE4 


Q— B2? 


9 Kt— E6 + 


K— Bsq 


2 Q E— B sq ! 


Kt— B5 


10 Q— Kt8 + 


K— K2 


3 Kt— Kt 5 


Kt(K2)-Kt3 


11 B X Kt ! 


PxB 


4 E— K8! 


ExE? 


12 QxP + 


K— Qsq 


5 BxP + 


K— Esq 


13 Q— B8 + 


K— Q2 


6 BxE 


Kt— K7 + ? 


14 Kt— K 4 ! 


Q-Qaq 


7 K— E sq 


KtxE 


15 Q— Q6 + 


K— Ksq 


8 Kt-B7 + 


K— Kt sq 


16 Ktr-B6-r, 


and wins. 



Black shonld have moved 1 . . , 
the Eook was a surprise. It should, perhaps, have been declined, at 
the loss of a Pawn, by 4 ... . B — K 3. Bat the capture of the 
second Eook was fatal. 6 . . . . P — K E 3, relieving the King, was 
imperative. 



230 



^rt of (GhesP. 








if 



An Irregular. Black's Qneen is badly placed ; and, with the open 
file and a Pawn against him, he loses speedily : — 



White. Black. 

1 KB— Ktsq! P— K Kt 3 



2 B— E6 

3 B— Kt3 

4 K B— K sq 

5 B— KB4 

6 P— Q E 3 

7 B— Kt5 



P— Q Kt 4 
Kt— Kt3 
K— Q2 
E— QBsq 
Q— E4 
Kt— Kt sq 



White. 

8 BxB 

9 Kt— K4 

10 Kt— B6 + 

11 ExKt! 

12 QxP + 



13 Q X Q, and wins. 



Black. 

KtxB 

E— Q Kt sq ? 

K— Qsq 

KxE 

Kt— Q2 



Castling would hardly do, of oonrse, so there was nothing for it but 
to try to get the King away, per " wriggle." This failing, there was 
no remedy. But 9 . . . . E— Q Kt sq rather hastened the catastrophe. 
If,however,9 .... KtxP; lOBxKt, KtxB, then 11 Kt— B 5 + , 
&c., winning the Qneen. 



(Combination, 



231 



BLACK. 




A French Defence, in which White (Morphy) has the advantage : 



White. 

1 KtxKtP! 

2 PxP + 

3 PxP + 

4 P— B 5 + 

5 Q— E4+ ! 

6 P— B6 



Black. 
KxKt 
K— B2 
KxP 
K— K2 
K— Ksq 
BxP 



White. 

7 PxB 

8 ExE 

9 B— Kt6 + 

10 B— B5 + 

11 BxP 

12 E— Kt 7 



Bla«k. 
ExE 
KtxBP 
K— Q2 
K— Ksq 
Q— Esq 
Kt— K Kt sq 



White mates in three 



The temporary sacrifice of the Piece completely shatters Black's 
defence. The faulty disposition of his forces is very evident, three of 
his Pieces on the Queen side being useless for repelling the attack 
upon his Kinif . 



232 



^rt of (Qhesi^. 



BLACK. 




From a Ko^^iati DeJ'v^nce :- 



White. 


Black. 


White. 


Black. 


1 BxP! 


BxKt? 


7 Kt— Kt 5 


B— B5 


2 KtxB 


PxB 


8 R— K3! 


BxR 


3 Q— Kt6 + 


K— Esq 


9 PxB 


Q— R4 


4 QxP + 


K— Kt sq 


10 B— R 7 + 


K— Rsq 


5 Q R— K aq 


Kt-Kt3 


11 R X Kt and 


wins. 


6 B— Q3 


QKt— Q4 






The move 1 . . . 


. B X Kt loses ; 


it would be much better to 



the Bishop immediately. E.g., 1 



P X B ; 2 Q— Kt 6 + , K— R sq ; 



3 Q X P + , K — Kt sq ; and if White will not draw by checking . 
B — K B 4 will come in strong for defence. If 8 . . . . Kt x E ; 
9PxKt, BxKP + ; lOK— Rsq, QxP; 11 B— R 7 + , Ac, Black is 
likewise lost. The Bishop at Q 3 being unsupported for the moment 
(Black had just played hU Queen Knight) makes the attack sound. 



(Combination. 



233 




A Counter Oamhit : — 
White. 
1 

2 PxE 

3 PxB 

4 K— B2 



Black. 
BxB! 
B— Kt6 + ! 
Q— Q8 + 
Kt — Kt 5 + , and wins. 



White had played for a Pawn, at the expense of development. 
However, instead of P — Q 3, on his last preceding move, he onght to 
have brought oat his Qneen EInight, when no such brilliancy would 
have been possible. As it is, he does not get enough for the Queen, 
and should lose. 



234 



<^rt of (§hesP, 




From a Sicilian^ won by Morphy : — 

IKt— Q2! B— Qsq!; 2KtxBP, Q— R3; 3 R— K Ktsq, B x Kt; 
4 PxB, Kt— K sq; 5 B— B 4, KtxP; 6QxKt! QxB;7 QxB + , 
RxQ;8PxQ,RxP; 9 Q R— Q B sq, R x B P ; lOR— B8 + ,Kt— 
Ktsq; llKt— K5, R— Kt 2 ; 12KtxP + , K— R2; ISKt— B8 + , 
K— R3; 14 KtxQP!, RxKt; 15 R (B 8) x Kt, RxBP; 16 B x P, 
R — K 2. White mates in four moves. 

nearly, if 1 Q x Kt (Q 7), 2 Q x Kt P would be decisive. Black 

conld hardly make any better defence, the cramped and scattered con- 
dition of his forces being greatly against him. But the easy and 
natural way in which White breaks up the position, winning a Piece in 
the process, and finishing with a forced mate, is characteristic, and in 
the highest style of Chess. 



(Combination. 



235 



W ulTB. 




1 •# i 







BIi^OK. 




A Falkbeer Counter Gambit ; 


— 




White. 


Black. 


White. 


Black. 


1 P— Q3 


PxP 


9 P— B 6 ! 


R— K6! 


2 BxP 


Q KtxP 


10 B— Kt 3 


ExKB 


3 Kt X :]^t 


QxKt 


11 PxR 


KtxR 


4 P— B5 


B— Q 3 


12 R X Kt 


QxQP 


5 Q— E4 


B— Q2 


13 Q— Kt 4 


Q— Kt3 


6 B— K Kt 5 


B— B3! 


14 QxQ 


RPxQ 


7 Q— R3 


Kt— K5! 


15 BxB 


P x B, and 


8 B— B4 


Kt— Q7 


Black won 


by his extra Pawn. 



The fortune of war was against White, as it is very difficult to see 
where he could have done better, if 5 Q — "B 3, defending the weak 
point Kt 2, would be no improvement. If 10 Q — Kt 4, the Queen 
would be lost for a Book through 10 ... . E — Kt 6 ! As a result 
of all these critical operations Black merely gains a Pawn, but that 
Pawn is enough to assure the winning of the game. 



236 



^rt of (Chesi^, 



BLAOK. 




A Buy LopeZf in which Black has given a Piece for two Pawns and 
an attack which, however, is unsonnd :— 



White. 

1 Kt X K P ! 

2 QxB 

3 BxP 

4 Q— B4 

5 Kt— Kt 4 

6 Kt—Q 5 

7 R— B sq 



Black. 
KtxB! 
KtxE 
Q— Bsq 
Q-K3 
KtxP 
R— Bsq 
Kt—Q 5 



8 Kt X P + , &c., with a winning game. 
The simple device 1 Kt x K P ! was overlooked by White, who 
played otherwise, and speedily lost. Obviously, if 1 . . . . B x Q, 
mate in two follows. 



(Combination. 



237 



BLACK. 




Prom an Irregular Opening : — 




White. 


Black. 


1 E— K Kt sq ! 


BxB 


2 BxP! 


BxKt 


3 BxP + 


K— Raq 


4 BxKt 


BxE 


5 B— Kt sq ! 


E— B4 



6 Q — Kt 6, and mate in three moyes. 

Black had just played B (K 2)— Kt 5. Instead of that he 

should have strengthened his King*s position by ... . E — Q B 2. 
But his game was inferior, the pressure of force in the direction of 
his King being something abnormal at such an early stage. 4 Q — ^E 3 
would also win speedily for White. 



238 



^rt of (Qhes^. 




A King's KnighVs Opening : — 
White. Black. 

1 Q— Kt 3 P— Kt 5 ? 

2 P— B 5 P X P 
3KtxP KtxKt + 
4 B X Kt Kt— Kt 5 
6 Q— B 4 K— Kt Bq 

6 Q— K 4 ! Q Er-K sq 

7 P— Q 6 B— Q B 3 

8 Q— Q 4 B X B 

The move 1 . . . . P — Kt 5 is qnestionable, as leaving the Bishop 
Pawn nnsnpported, and in the result it causes loss. But hardly 
necessarily, for 12 . . . . P x Kt seems the really fatal mistake. £.(/., 
12 . . . . P X B ; 13 Q X Kt (13 E x Q, P— K 7 !), B— Q sq, and 
White has not got it all his own way. From a game by H. v. der Lasa. 



White. 


Black. 


9 ExB 


B— Kt4 


10 Kt— Kt 5 


P— B3 


11 P— Q 7 


E— K3! 


12 B— Kt 3 ! 


PxKt? 


13 BxP + 


Kt— K4 


14 BxKt + 


ExB 



15 Q X E + , and wins. 



(Combination. 



239 



a'*-^ d 




A OiiLOCo Piamo. 


White (Morphy) 


won: — 


White. 


Black. 


White. Black. 


1 QKt— K4! 


PxKt 


8 P X P K— B 3 


2 Q— B7 + 


K— Q2 


9 P— Q Kt 4 B— K 3 


3 Q— K 6 + 


K~B 2? 


10 K R— K sq B— Kt sq 


4 QxKP + 


Q-Q3 


11 B— Kt2+ K— Kt4 


5 QxQ + 


KxQ 


12Br-K5+ K— E3 


6 Kt— B 7 + 


K— K3 


13B— B8q+ P— Kt4 


7 KtxE 


PxP 


14 B X P, and wins. 



Black should have played for a draw, by 3 ... . K — K sq. Bnt 
he thought to come off best by eventnally taking the second Knight, 
and in this he was in error. 

The above and other combinations by Morphy are from Dr. Max 
Lange's recently issned volume, "Paul Morphy. < Sein Leben und 
Schaffen." (Yeit and Co., Leipzig, 1894) — a noble and fitting monn- 
ment to that chess genius, who was not for an age, but for all time. 
The game from which this is taken was played in 1850, when Morphy 
had bnt just turned his thirteenth year. 



240 



^rt of (§hesf>. 




strongly assailed, White misjndgingly invites a sacrifice which 
renders his position quite nntenable : — 



White. 


Black. 


White. 


Black. 


1 P— Kt 3 ? 


Kt X Kt P ! 


6 QxB 


P— B6 


2 PxKt 


QxP + 


7 QR-KBsq 


Kt-Kt 3 ! 


3 Kt— Kt 2 


B— K5 


8 P— B5 


Kt— E5 


4 Br-B2 


P— E5! 


9 R— Q2 


P X Kt, and 


5 B— Q3 


BxB 




wins. 



Certainly, defence would be difBcult in any case. White having lost 
much time on the Queen side, while such a serious attack was taking 
head against his King. Perhaps B — Q 3, Q — K 2, &c., to drive off 
the hostile Queen, eventually, by Q — K B 2, would enable him to 
make a struggle. Irregular Opening. 



(Combination. 



241 




White. 


Black. 


White. 


1 BxKt 


E— Kt Bq 


7 P— K Kt 3 


2 QxEP? 


PxB 


8 Kt— B 4 


3 Kt— Kt5 


B— Q4 


9 BxB 


4 Q— E 5 


Kt— B3 


10 P— K E 4 


5 Q— B3 


P— E3 


11 PxE 


6 Kt— K E 3 


Kt— Kt5 


12 P— B 3 



BLACK. 

A Russian {Petroff) Defence i — 

Black. 
Q— K sq 
BxKt 
Q— E4 
ExB! 
P— K6 
QxEP, and 
Black wins. 

White would do better not to take the Eook Pawn, but to play 
2 Q — E 6. Afterwards she could retreat to E 4, and with Kt — Q B 3, 
soon, he would have a good gfame. The capture gpives Black time to 
mature his attack upon the King, because, after 3 . . . . B — Q 4, 
White cannot bring out his Queen Knight, the Queen herself being in 
great danger. In the very end, if 13 Q — B 2, the Eook goes round, 
md Kt 3, destroying all resistance. 

B 



242 



^rt of (Qhes^, 




WHITE. 

Black is a move behind in a Lopez, having moved the Bishop Pawn 
unnecessarily, instead of bringing ont his King Bishop : — 
White. Black. 

1 Kt— K Kt 5 ! P— Q 4 

2 PxP P— KE3 

3 Kt(Kt5)— K4 PxP 

4 Kt X P Kt X Kt (Q 4) 

5 BxKt BxP? 
The loss of a Pawn was inevitable, and the attempt to recover it 

through 5 .... B X P made matters worse. Of course 8 . . . . K — ^E 2 
was a blunder ; but, then, White's superiority was manifestly a 
winning one. 



White. 


Black. 


6 BxP + ! 


KxB 


7 Q— B3 + 


K— Kt sq 


8 QxB 


K— B2? 


9 Kt— Kt5 + ! 


, and mate next 




move. 



(Combination. 



243 




WHITE. 

Bishop's Oamhit, Anderssen v. Eieaeritzky, London, 1851, commonly 
known among chess players as the Immortal G^me : — 



White. 


Black. 


White. 


Black. 


1 Kt— R4 


Q— Kt4 


9 Kt— B 3 


B— B4 


2 Kt— B5 


P— QB3 


10 Kt— Q 5 ! 


QxP 


3 P— K Kt 4 1 


Kt— B3 


11 B— Q 6 ! 


BxE 


4 E— Ktsq! 


PxB 


12 P— K 5 ! 


QxB + 


5 P— K B 4 


Q— Kt3 


13 K— K 2 


Kt— QE3 


6 P— B5 


Q— Kt4 


14 KtxP + 


K-Qsq 


7 Q— B 3 ! 


Kt— Ktsq 


15 Q— B6+ ! 


and mates next 


8 BxP 


Q— B3 


move. 





Analysis goes far to prove that White (Anderssen) must win after 
the triple sacrifice ; and when his opponent once began to take, it is 
difficolt to see where the line could have been drawn with advantage. 
But 13 ... . B — B 3 would have been better than the move of the 
Knight. The fault was in the peculiar line of defence taken by 
Kieseritzky at the outset. It too much endangered his Queen. 

B 2 



244 



^rt of (Qhesf^. 



WHITE. 




18 






^? 



A Kieseritzky Oamhitj the great German master, Anderssen, playing 
Black :— 



White. 


Black. 


White. 


Black. 


1 B— Kt5+ ? 


P— B3! 


8 Kt— B3 


B— K8q + 


2 PxP 


PxP 


9 K— B2 


Q— Kt3 


3 Kt X Q B P 


KtxKt 


10 Kt— R 4 


Q— E3 


4 BxKt + 


K— Bsq 


11 Kt— B 3 


B— K4! 


5 BxR 


Kt— Kt6 


12 P— B 4 


Q— B8+! 


6 E— R2 


B— KB4 


13 QxQ 


BxP + 


7 B— Q5 


K— Kt 2 ! 


14 B— K 3 


E X B ! and 



mates next move. 
White should have Castled, instead of checking with the Bishop- 
Then might have followed 1 . . . . Q x P ; 2 Q— K sq !, Q x Q ; 3 E x 
Q, Castles ; 4 B — Q 3, &c., with about an equal game. ^ One of 
Anderssen's most celebrated endings. 



(Combination. 



245 




WHITE. 

A King's Qambit Declined. — Won by Anderssen : — 

White. Black. 

1 . . . . BxKt? 

2 P X B Q— Q 5 

3 Q— K 2 Q X K P 

4 P— Q 4 ! Q X Q P 

5 Kt— B 3 Kt— K B 3 

6 B— K 8 Q— Q sq 

7 Castles P— K E 3 

8 B— B 5 ! Q Kt— Q 2 ? 

9 Q X P + !, winning. 

Black makes the double error of playing for material gain, and 
persisting in holding all he takes, to the total neglect of development. 
Much better would be 1 ... . Kt— K E 3. Then might follow : 
2 Q— K2,B— KB4; 3 P— Q3,PxP; 4 KtxP + ,Q— K 2; with 
equal gr^uue. 



246 



^rt of (§hes^. 




An Evans. — Won by Morphy. 

Black. 
Q— Kt3 
R— Qsq 
QKt-^5! 
Kt— Kt6! 
Q Kt— K 7, 
mate. 

If 9 B — Q sq, then 9 . . . . Kt^-K 6 !, winning Qneen or mating. 
Or9 Q— R4,P— Kt4; 10 QxB,Kt— K7 + ; 11 K— Esq.KtxB; 
12 R— Kt sq (12 P— Kt 3, Q— B 3 + ; 13 P— B 3, QxP + !, Ac), 
K — Q 8 !, winning. All this hinges upon the sacrifice of the exchange, 
and is quite as pretty as it is effective. 



White. 


Black. 


White. 


1 . . . . 


B— B4!! 


6 B— Bsq 


2 BxB 


KtxB 


7 B— B4 


3 B— E3 


Q— Kt 8 


8 Q— B2 


4 BxE 


QxKt 


9 Q— K4 


5 B— R3 


PxP! 


10 QxQ 



(Combination. 



247 




The balance of advantage inclines to White, whose attack is excep- 
tionally strong for such an early stage of the game — a Scotch Oambit : — 
White. Black. 

1 . . . . Kt~K 4 ? 

2 Kt X Kt P X Kt 

3 Q X P + B— K 3 

4 B— E 3 Q— Q 2 ? 

5 Q E— Q sq ! Q— B sq 

6 QxKt! and wins. 

Black should have abandoned the Pawn by 1 ... . Kt — Kt 5, 
rather than as in the text. The Knight at Q 5, and the opening of 
the Queen file and the diagonal, were things to be avoided. 



248 



^rt of (€hes£>. 



>k 



1 [W# 



>k 




A King's Oambitf in which an unsound attack succeeds against a 
weak defence : — 



White. 

1 PxP 

2 ExB 

3 Kt— K5? 

4 Q— E5 

5 PxP 

6 P— K 6 ! 
If 11 . . . 



White. 

7 PxP + 

8 BxP! 

9 BxP! 
10 P— K 5 ! 



Black. 
K— B sq ? 
K— K2 
Kt— Q2 
KtxP 



11 Kt — K 4, and should win. 



Black. 

PxP 

BxR 

PxKt! 

Q— B3 

Q— Kt2 

Kt— B3 
-Kt3, then 12 P— B 8 (Q) + , 13 Q xB + , &c. If 11 

B— Kt 5; 12 Q— E2! Neither is 11 Kt— Kt 5 (or Q 2) 

of much use, as White's Castling gives him an overpowering advantage 
in position. Black's loss of time in 7 ... . K — B sq P, putting himsdf 
in mating danger, from a diagonal check, seems to be fatal. The cor- 
rect play is 7 ... . K — K 2 !, forcing the retreat of the Queen, with 
subsequent .... B — K Kt 5, . . . . Q Kt — Q 2, «&o., when the extra 
Piece wins. 



(Combination. 



249 




BLACK. 

The first player has none the best of this, a Lopez ; and, from an 
ill-judged attempt to prevent .... P — B 4, opening the file, loses 
speedily : — 

1 P— K Kt 4 ? P— K E 4 ! 2 Kt— R 2, P— Q 4;3PxQP?QxP; 
4 B— Kt 3, Q— Q sq; 5 P— Q B 3, B— Q 3 ; 6 Kt— Kt 3, Q— E 5! 
7 K— Kt 2, P X P ; 8 Kt X P ? K— E sq ; 9 P— K B 4, P— B 4 ; 10 
Kt X K P, Kt X Kt ; 11 P X Kt, P— B 5 ! 12 B x P, B x P + ; 13 K— B 2, 
Q X B + , and wins. 

White had unnecessarily advanced P — K E 3, but his play of the 
Knight Pawn was still more compromising. Then, finding himself 
in difficulties, his after play suffered to such an extent as to 
bring about collapse. 3 P x P was bad, as permitting the very 
move he had just riskily provided against. 8 Kt x P was bad, as 
depriving him of all chance of counter measures which might come 
from .... E — E sq on the open file. Then his game was gone. 



\ 



250 



^rt of (§hesf>. 



lAA^^'Jii^I 




WHITE. 

Origfinal position. 
Recently developed by Mr. Wordsworth Donisthorpe (White) and a 
distingroished member of the British Chess Club (London) in style and 
manner following, that is to say : — 



White. 


Black. 


White. 


Black. 


1 P— K4 


P— K4 


9 KtxKt + 


PxKt 


2 Kt— K B 3 


Kt— QB3 


10 P— K B 3 


B-Q2? 


3 Kt— B3 


P— Q3 


11 Kt— R 4 


Kt— Kt3 


4 P— Q4 


B— Kt5 


12 B— Q 3 ! 


Kt X Kt ? 


5 B— K3 


P— B4 


13 Q— B5 + 


Kt— Kt3 


6 P— Q5 


PxP 


14 BxKt + 


K— K2? 


7 Q Kt X P 


QKt— K2 


White mates 


in two moves ! 


8 P— B4 


Kt— KB3 






Brevity and brilliancy with a vengeance. Altogether worthy of the 


>od old times. 




v^:■^-, 


' niUc^ 






^^^' i>^ K;?.- 


^ ■-. ,..-.^ 



-tvV^% 



■^^c Opening. 



While it is tlie reverse of expedient for tlie beginner to 
enter upon any extended study of tlie various methods of 
opening, this is an exercise calculated to be of much 
benefit to the advanced or improving player, if rightly 
pursued and kept within due bounds. All true knowledge 
of the game in this respect is inseparable from use ; and 
can be derived only from power of sound combination, 
founded on judgment of position. 

The numerous lines of play set out or suggested in the 
following pages are not proposed as absolute models, but 
only as exhibiting, in some degree, the best usage at the 
present time. And in this matter usage goes far. It in a 
manner gives the law, until displaced by other usage ; and 
so on indefinitely, with now and then a revival of the 
obsolete and forgotten. 

Hence it is to be hoped the student will not fall into the 
error of labouring his memory while engaged on this part 
of the book. Occasionally a position may arise in the 
course of opening play — a characteristic position, from 
which the future of the game may be more or less fore- 
cast. Such should, if possible, be committed to memory : 
the memory of princvple, independent of any particular 
series of moves whatever. Associated in the mind with 
similar positions, to be found, perhaps, in some other part 
of the book, or otherwise in experience, it may become 
valuable material for that just imagination which is at the 
very basis of all good Chess. The particular series of 
moves may perchance never find expression in actual play ; 
but the idea of the position may recur in a thousand 
forms, to be realised in a thousand different ways. 



252 ^rt of (Qhesf>, 

Practically the game is always begun in movement of 
one of the four centre Pawns on either side. Of the 
sixty-four ways of opening thus possible, one^ namely, 
1 P — K 4, P — K 4, takes precedence of all the others 
together; a reason for this being that it liberates the 
greatest quantity of force — ^takes greater command of the 
board than can be attained by any other first move. 
With this beginning, the more usual lines of play are 
as follows : — 

KING'S KNIGHT'S GAME. 

This method of opening (1 P— K 4, P— K 4; 2 Kt—KB 
3) is a stem of many branches, and appears to admit of 
more diverse treatment, within the limits of soundness, than 
any other known. Starting off from 2 Kt — ^K B 3, the 
characteristic move, we have the Euy Lopez, Giuoco Piano, 
Philidor's Defence, Scotch Game, Eussian Defence, Evans 
Gambit, Two Knights Defence, <fec., with modifications 
innumerable, as one or other player varies his procedure, 
all within a very few moves. Of these several lines of 
play, the Lopez, as in many respects the most important, 
may be touched upon first. 

Euy Lopez,— \ P— K 4, P— K 4; 2 Kt— K B 3, K1>- 
Q B 3; 3 B — Kt 5. In this game Black defends his 
attacked Pawn with Knight, and White again attacks the 
Pawn, this time indirectly, still keeping has adversary on 
the defensive. It was formerly thought (and many now 
think) that this attack yields White a certain advantage 
in position, and that, therefore. Black should evade it by 
counter attack, or defending in some other manner. The 
drift of modem theory is, however, not wholly towards 
this conclusion, even if practical results are not against it. 
For it is a question whether in actual play the defence is 
not really the more successful. What may be called the 
stimulus of difficulty appears to so work in its favour that 
every attack is well met ; and the hope of ultimate reward 
or compensation has a sustaining effect upon the player in 



(Kings (Knight's (Game, 253 

his early tribulations. The Lopez is an irksome game, and 
j^^nerally means very serious Chess. 



White. Black. 

1 P— K 4 P— K 4 

2 Kt— K B 3 Kt— Q B 3 

3 B— Kt 5 P— Q E 3 ! 

Opinion is pretty fairly divided between the system of defenoe 
indicated by this move and that based upon 3 . . . . Kt — B 3. Pro- 
bably the latter is slightly inferior. 

4B— E4! Kt— B3! 

It is easy to see White can do no good by 4 B x Kf, Q P x B ; 
5 Kt X P, Q— Q 5 ! And Black best plays oat his Knight. If 4 ... . 
P~QKt4; 5 B— Kt 3, B— Kt 2; 6 P— Q 4!, PxP; 7 Castles, 
B— B 4 : 8 P— B 3, with (if .... PxP) ; 9 BxP+ Ac, White will 
have a fine game. 

5 Castles KtxP 

There are several other good moves for White besides 5 Castles. 
He may continue 5 Kt— B 3, 5 P— Q 3, 5 P— Q 4, or 5 Q— K 2. If 
Black moves 5 B — K 2, instead of taking the Pawn, then 6 Kt — B 3 
compels the reply 6 . . . . P— Q 3 or 6 ... . P— Q Kt 4, with what 
is considered a strategic weakness, at this particular stage of the pro- 
ceedings. A great object of the attack is to force an unfavourable 
advance or dislocation of the Black Queen side Pawns, and this, of 
course, the defence avoids where possible. 

6 P— Q 4 P— Q Kt 4 

The advance of the Pawn is justifiable now to free the Knight, and 
because White has given up his King Pawn. It would hardly be safe 
to play 6 . . . . P X P, or 6 . . . . Kt X Q P, because of subsequent 
R — K sq, with some trouble as regards Knight or King, or both. 

7 B— Kt 3 P— Q 4 
8 PxP B— K3 

9 P— B 3 B— Q B 4 

10 B— B 2 Castles 

11 Q— K 2 B— B 4 

About even. 
Variations at White's fifth move in the foregoing. 



254 ^^^ ^f (§h^^^' 

First he plays out his Knight, inducing the strategic 
weakness already mentioned. 

5 Kt— B 3 P— Q Kt 4 

If 5 ... . B— K 2 ; 6 Castlea ! P— Q Kt 4 ; 7 B— Kt 3, P— Q 3 ; 
8P— QE4! E— Q Kt sq; 9 PxP, PxP; 10 Q— K 2, White will 
have an appreciable advantage. 

6 B— Kt 3 B— K 2 

7 P— Q 3 P— Q 3 

Or 7 Castles, with a view to play as in the foregoing 
note. 

8 P— Q E 4 P— Kt 5 

9 Kt— Q 5 B— K 3 

10 B— Q 2 P— E 4 

11 P— B 3 E— Q Kt sq 

Black has a fairly good position. This move 5 Kt — B 3 is liable to 
occasion the second player much trouble, in the main line of defence 
springing from 3 . . . . P — Q B 3, and requires to be opposed with 
great care and judgment. 

Secondly, 

5 P— Q 3 B— B 4 

6 Castles P— Q Kt 4 

7 B— Kt 3 P— Q 3 

8 B — K 3 ! forcing an exchange unfavour- 
able to the adversary, with sHghtly the better game. 
Hence, 5 P — Q 3 is supposed to be better turned somewhat 
as follows. 

5 . . . . P— Q 3 

6 P— B 3 B— K 2 

7 P— K E 3 P— Q Kt 4 

8 B— B 2 P— Q 4 

Or, 

6 BxKt+ PxB 

7 P— K E 3 P— Kt 3 

8 Kt— B 3 B— K Kt 2 

9 B— K 3 E— Q Kt sq 
10 P— Q Kt 3 P— B 4 



(fCing's (Knight's (Game. 255 

Or, 

6 Kt— B 3 P— K Kt 3 

7 P— K E 3 B— Kt 2 

8 B— K 3 P— K E 3 

9 Q— Q 2 B— Q 2, &c., with about 
equality. Generally speaking, however, this .... P — Kt 3 
and .... B — Kt 2 formation should be avoided. But to 
return to White's fifth move, or 



Thirdly, 

5 P— Q4 PxP 

If5....KtxKP;6 Q— K 2, P— B 4 ; 7 P— Q 5, Kt— K 2 ; 
8 Kt X P, Kt— B 4 ; 9 B— Kt 3, Kt x B ; 10 E P x Kt, P— Q 3 ; 

11 K1r-K B 3, P— K Kt 3 ; 12 Castles, B— Kt 2 ; 13 B— K sq, with 
advantage to White. Lshrhuch (y. Bardeleben and Mieses). Evidently 
in this Black cannot play 6 . . . . P — Q 4, because of 7 Kt x P, and 
subsequent P — K B 3, Ac. 

6 Castles B— K 2 

7 P— K 5 Kt— K 5 

8 KtxP Kt— B4 

9 BxKt QPxB 

10 B — K 3 Castles, and there is 

not much to choose either way. But, instead of taking the 
Knight, White may continue 9 Kt — B 5, a formidable 
move. Black can defend by 9 ... . Castles, or 9 ... . 
Kt — K 3, but he will have a hard game of it, at least for 
a time. Or he may risk something like this : 9 . . . . 
KtxB; 10KtxP4-,K— B sq ; 11 B— E 6, K— Kt sq; 

12 Q— Kt 4, Kt X P ; 13 Q X Kt, P— Q 3, &c., which does 
not look very inviting at first sight. Or he may exchange 
8 .... Kt X Kt, and then play .... Kt — B 4 ; but this 
gives White very great command of the board. Finally, 
in reply to 5 P — Q 4, Black may attack the Bishop, 
5 . . . . P — Q Kt 4, and come ofE eventually with a fair 
working position. 



256 ^rt of (§hesf>. 



Fourthly, 

5 Q— K 2 P— Q Kt 4 

6 B— Kt 3 B— Kt 2 

7 P— Q 3 B— B 4 

To attack the Bishop Pawn would he worse than useless for White : 
7 Kt— Kt 5, Kt— Q 6 ! ; 8BxP + ,K— K2; 9 Q— Q sq, P— E 3, &c., 
or 8 Kt X P, Q X K 2, winning a Piece. 

8 P— B 3 Castles 

9 B— Kt 5 P— E 3 
10 B— K E 4 B— K 2 

Equal game, or very nearly so. The foregoing are a few 
of the probabilities when the main line of defence arising 
from 3 . . . . P— Q E 3 is adopted. 

The other great line of play in the Lopez, drawn from 
3 . . . . Kt — B 3, proceeds on the principle that the 
Pawns should be disturbed as little as possible ; that there 
is loss of time, with a general weakening efEect upon the 
resources of the defence, in advancing upon the Bishop. 
Nevertheless, both in practice and theory, the two lines are 
often confused, and run, if not identically, at least with 
differences so small that they may be quite safely neglected. 
And this is of course a strong argument in support of 
.... P— Q E 3, as against .... Kt— B 3, for Black's 
third move. The advance of Eook Pawn does no harm. 
Or if it does any, the resulting power of counter attack is 
an equivalent. 

IL 

1 P— K 4 P— K 4 

2 Kt— K B 3 Kt— Q B 3 

3 B— Kt 5 Kt— B 3 

White has four strong moves to select from in continuatioE— 
Castles, P— Q 4, P— Q 3, and Kt— B 3. Firstly, 

4 Castles KtxP 

5 P— Q 4 B— K 2 

It would he had to take the Pawn on account of danger to the 
Knight. 

6 Q— K 2 Kt— Q 3 

7 BxKt KtPxB 



(King's (Knight's (Game, 257 

8 PxP Kt— Kt2 

9 Kt— B 3; Castles 

10 Kt— Q 4 Kt— B 4 

11 E— Q sq Q— K sq 

12 Kt— B 5 P— B 3 

13 Q— Kt 4 Kt— K 3 

14 B— E 6 E— B 2 

15 B— K 3 K— E sq 

16 KtxB QxKt 

17 PxP QxP 

18 Q — Q E 4, and, it is said, White is to be 
preferred. Still, Black has resources, and, having survived 
so fierce an onslaught, ought not now to lose the game. 
As for White's answer to 5 ... . B — K 2, the play of the 
Queen seems best; other likely looking moves, such as 

6 P — Q 5 and 6 E— K sq, leading more easily to equality. 
But the defence may advantageously substitute 5 . . . . 
P— Q E 3, for 5 ... . B— K 2. Then, if 6 B— E 4, the 
game will be the same as if the Pawn had been advanced 
at move 3 (see p 253). Or, 

5 . . . . P— Q E 3 

6 B— Q 3 P— Q 4 

7 p_B 4 B— K Kt 5 
8PxQP QxP 

9 E— K sq Kt— B 3 

10 Kt— B 3 Q— Q sq ! 

11 PxP Kt— Q 4, and there is 
not much difference. White, however, may play 6 
B X Kt 4- , instead of retreating, and then follow with 

7 Q — K 2, with a slight superiority. So, if the second 
player does not like the kind of game ensuing on 5 ... . 
B — K 2 in this line of defence, he had better exclude it by 
3 . . . . P— Q E 3. 

Secondly, 
4P— Q4 PxP 

5 P— K 5 Kt— K 5 



258 ^rt of (§hes^, 

6 Castles B— K 2 

7 E— K sq Kt— B 4 

8 KtxP KtxKt, &c., with a 
fair position. If 4 . . . . KtxK P, White can Castle, 
bringing about the variation just noticed. 

Thirdly, 

4 P— Q 3 P— Q 3 

This makes a very solid sort of game. Black may also play 4 . . . . 
B — B 4. Then, the following would be likely : 5 P — ^B 3, Castles ; 
6 B X Kt, Kt P X B ; 7 Kt x P, P— Q 4 ; 8 Castles, P x P ; 9 P— Q 4, 
B — Q 3 ; 10 P — K B 4, with equality. White does well not to take the 
momentarily unsupported Pawn, either at move 8 or later. For 
example : 10 Kt x Q B P, Q— K sq ; 11 Kt— E 5 (trying to hold the 
Pawn), Q— Kt 4 ; 12 Kt— Kt 3, B— K Kt 5 ; 13 Q— Q 2, B x P+ ; 
14 K X B, Q X B, &c. 

5 P— B 3 P— K Kt 3 
Or 5 Kt— B 3, B— Q 2 ; 6 B— K 3, B— K 2 ; 7 Castles, Ac, 

6 P— Q 4 B— Q 2 

7 Q Kt— Q 2 B— Kt 2 

8 PxP Q KtxP, even game. 

Fourthly, 

4 Ktr-B 3 B— Kt 5 

The '^ double Lopez" version of the formidable "Four Knights 
Game.'* This reply of Black's is the simplest ; but it is not so good 
after he has driven the Bishop by 3 ... . P— Q R 3. 

5 Kt— Q5 KtxKt 

6 PxKt Kt— Q5 

Because now, if the White Bishop stood at B 4, this would have no 
force ; and the best move open to Black would be ... . P — K 5. 

7 KtxKt PxKt 

8 Q— Kt 4 Q— B 3, and there is 
not much in it. White can retreat his Bishop at move 7, but in no 
way does he secure any appreciable advantage. 



(Kings (Knight's (Game, 259 





Or, 




5 Castles 




Castles 


6 P Q3 




BxKt 


7 PxB 




P— Q3 


8 BxKt 




PxB 


Equal ga.Tne. 



Other lines of defence originating at the third move are 
considered less favourable. Among these are the defences 
starting from 3 . . . . P— Q 3, 3 ... . P— K Kt 3, 
3 . . . . Kt— Q 5, and 3 ... . P— B 4. Concerning 
these moves, the first appears to be a needless anticipation, 
depriving Black of the option of playing the Pawn two 
squares at once, a matter of importence in some cases. 
For the rest, it does not seem to possess any advantage 
over 3 . . . . P — Q E 3, and leads to a very similar game. 
The second, 3 . . . . P — K Kt 3, is open to the objection 
that it creates unnecessary Pawn weakness, and at best it 
gives White too much command of the board. There may 
be occasion for .... P — K Kt 3 later on, in view of 
certain phases of attack ; but, at the outset, it is a manoeuvre 
having little in its favour. The latter two, 3 . . . . Kt — 
Q 5 and 3 . . . . P — B 4, are considered as compromising, 
on general principles, or in the long run, though certainly, 
for a time, they appear to enable the defence to evade the 
bulk of its difl&culties. For this reason, probably, they 
are often resorted to by very good players ; and then very 
good play is of course necessary, if their insuf&ciency is to 
be proved. They are, in reality, strong bids for counter 
attack, and require to be treated judgmatically and 
respectfully, else the principles may very likely refuse to 
declare against them. Moreover, there are 3 . . . . K Kt 
— K 2 and 3 . . . . B — B 4. But these are almost 
demonstrably inferior and very rarely used. 

Giuoco Piano. — Less immediately aggressive than the 
Lopez, the Q-iuoco lends itself to more extensive develop- 
ment prior to any specific attack, and is, therefore, during 

s 2 



26o i^rt of (§hesP, 

its earlier stages, a comparatively easier game. There is, 
as it were, a preliminary contest for position, a struggle 
for strategic advantage before any definite advance is made 
upon the enemy's works. Masterly inactivity is a character- 
istic of play in the Q-inoco when proceeding on its normal 
lines. Who combines last combines best, the party first 
compelled to make a decisive movement having the balance 
of chances against him. Hence Castling is usually a most 
important manoeuvre. It is not seldom a great object to 
reduce the adversary to a declaration of intentions on this 
point. When he Castles, or when he foregoes the privilege, 
well — ^there he is; and the general policy of attack or 
defence, the main direction of future play in the game, 
may be ordered accordingly. 

I, 

1 P— K 4 P— K 4 

2 Kt— K B 3 Kt— Q B 3 

3 B— B 4 , B— B 4 

Black may play 3 . . . . B— K 2. Then 4 P— Q 4, P— Q 3? 
5 Castles, Kt— B 3 ; 6 P— Q 5, Kt— Kt sq ; 7 Kt-~B 3, Castles, &o., 
with a safe game. 

4 Castles Kt— B 3 

Other moves for White are 4 P — Q 3 and 4 P — B 3, to say nothing- 
of 4 Kt— B 3, 4 P— Q 4, and 4 P— Q Kt 4 (Evans). In the present 
instance he Castles forthwith, having already determined upon his 
plan of action, in which Castling holds a necessary place. Black's 
reply, 4 . . . . Kt — B 3, is considered his best. 

5 P— Q4 ' BxP 

This 5 P — Q 4 was first prominently advocated by Dr. Max Lange. 
It yields a strong though passing attack, with eventually settling into 
an even game — as nearly as possible. 



6 KtxB 


KtxKt 


7 P— B4 


P— Q3 


8 PxP 


PxP 


9 B— K Kt 5 


Q— K2 



icings ^night's (Game. 261 

10 K— E sq B— K 3 

11 B— Q 3 Castles Q E 

12 Q— K sq P— K E 3 

About even. Black cannot hold the Pawn. 

If 5 .... P X P (instead of 5 . . . . B x P above), then 6 P— K 5, 
P— Q 4!; 7 PxKt, PxB; 8 E— K 8q + , B— K 3; 9 Kt— Kt 5, 
Q— Q4!; 10 Kt— Q B 3, Q— B 4; 11 Q Kt— K 4, B— Kt 3; 12 
P— K Kt 4, Q— Kt 3 ; 13 P— B 4, Castles Q E ; 14 P— B 5, «fcc., and 
it is a question who has the upper hand. Probably the Pawns, together 
with prospects of attack on the White King, are of more worth than 
the]Piece, and Black is to be preferred. 

Eeverting to White's fourth move. If 4 P — Q 3, the 

reply may be 4 Kt— B 3. Then 5 Kt— B 3, P— Q 3 ; 

and the positions are similar. In effect, White has still to 
begin the game. He may keep to his own ground, continuing 
6 B— K 3 (to which the reply may be 6 ... . B— Kt 3) ; 
or he may play 6 B — Kt 5, which is perhaps not so 
advisable. But if he Castles before his opponent does so, 
as a mere move to go on with, he may soon find himself 
defending. His King will be " located," so to say, and the 
adversary can advance his Pawns in attack against him, 
with many chances of sutcess — himself Castling, if 
necessary, on the contrary side. 

II. 



1 P— K4 


P-K4 


2 Kt— K B 3 


Kt— QB3 


3 B— B4 


B— B4 


4 P— Q B 3 


Kt— B3 


5 P— Q4 


PxP 


6 PxP 


B— Kt5 + 


7 B— Q2 


BxB+ 


8 QKtxB 


P Q4 


9 PxP 


KtxP 


10 Q— Kt 3 


QKt— K2 


11 Castles 


Castles 


12 K E^K sq 


P— QB3 


Equal 


game. 



262 ^rt of (Qhes£>. 

Or, Black may continue 7 . . . . Kt x EI P, cansing affairs to take 
this turn— 8 B x B, Kt x B ; 9 BxP + , KxB; 10 Q— Kt 3 + , 
P— Q 4 ; 11 Q X Kt, R— K sq ; 12 Castles, P— B 3, Ac. White may 
check, 10 Kt — K 5 + , before taking the Knight. Black then replies 
10 ... . K— K3,orl0 .... K B 3, with subsequent .... P— B4, 
without any inferiority. 

Although, taken all in all, the move 4 . . . . Kt — ^B 8 
is considered best in reply to 4 P — B 3, Black may play 
4 . . . . P — Q 3 without incurring any appreciable dis- 
advantage. The fact appears to be that this form of the 
Q-iuoco, in which White plays 4 P — B 3, is not the 
strongest, and that 4 P — Q 3 gives him, if a duller, a more 
reliable game. This, of course, aside from tricks, and 
traps, and catches, in which the opening abounds when 
deprived of its Piano character, and which may easily 
surprise the unwary or unready player. 

By playing P — B 3 at the third move, instead of B — B 4, 
White scarcely betters his prospects ; because then, also, 
.... Kt — B 3 is an effective reply, and some of the 
strongest attacks in the regular Q-iuoco are wanting. In 
fact, if enterprising enough, Black may himself bid for 
attack by means of the Counter Q-ambit, 3 . . . . P — B 4, 
advocated by Ponziani as far back as 1782. But this is 
not strictly advisable, at least according to present theory ; 
nor does the best practice of the day afford it much 
countenance. 

I. 

1 P— K 4 P— K 4 

2 Kt— K B 3 Kt— Q B 3 

3 P— B 3 Kt— B 3 

If 3 ... . B— B 4, then 4 B— Kt 5— a kind of Lopez good for 
White ; or, 4 P— Q Kt 4, with 5 P— Kt 5, and 6 Kt x P, Ac, aUo 
good for White. 

4P— Q4 KtxKP 

Or, 4 Q — R 4 ; or 4 B — Kt 5 — an even Lopez, very likely. 
5 P— Q 5 Kt— Kt sq 



(f{ings (Knight's (Game, 263 

IfSPxP, B— B 4; 6 Q— Q 5, BxP + ; 7 K— K 2, P— B 4; 8 
QKt— Q 2, KtxKt; 9 B x Kt, and with R— K sq, K— Q sq, &o., 
^White will have a good attacking position, though a Pawn short. A 
safer reply to 5 P x P wonld be 5 ... . P — Q 4. 



6 B— Q3 


K1^B4 


7 KtxP 


KtxB+ 


8 KtxKt 


P— Q3 


9 Castles 


B— K2 


10 Q— B3 


Castles 


11 Kt— Q2 


Kt— Q2 


12 Er-K sq 


Kt— B3 


About 


even. 



On the whole, however, White seems to have the prefer- 
able game. 

II. 

1 P— K 4 P— K 4 

2 Kt— K B 3 Kt— Q B 3 

3 P— B 3 P— Q 4 

Less simple than 3 . . . . Kt — B 3, this 3 . . . . P — Q 4 is now 
the favoured move. It makes a more dangerous game for both parties 
than 3 Kt— B 3. 

4 Q— E 4 P— B 3 

If 4 . . . . P X P ; 5 Kt X P, Q— Q 4 ; 6 Kt X Kt, P X Kt ; 7 B— B 4 
Ac, the chances rather favour White. 4 . . . . P — B 3, Ac, is by 
Steinitz, and seems a sound though involved system of defence. 



6 B— Kt5 


Kt— K2 


6 PxP 


QxP 


7 Castles 


B— Q2 


8 P— Q4 


PxP 


9 PxP 


Kt— Q4 



This 9 . . . . Kt — Q 4, introduced some years since by the Eussian 
player Tschigorin, is to force exchangees — the right line of action. 

10 BxB+ QxB 

If 10 Kt— B 3 ? Kt X Kt + ; 11 P x Kt, Q— K B 4, &c., White can 
make no real impression, and the ending will be against him on 
account of his broken Pawns. A likely continuation (by Dr. J. W. 



264 (£4r^ of ^hes^, 

1 

Hnnt, London)— 12 P— Q 5, P— Q R 3 ; 13 B— K B 4, P x B ! 14 
Q X R + , K— B 2 ; 15 Kt— K 2 (if B moves, then . . . . Q x B P, and 
.... B— E 6), Kt— Kt 3, Ac, winning. If 16 B moves, Black will 
first take the Bishop Pawn, forcing Kt — Q 4. Then will follow .... 
Q X Q P, . . . . B— E 6, and ... . B— Q B4, and White is altogether 
lost. 

11 Q—KtS KtxKt-i- 

12 Q X Kt Kt— Q 4 

Even game. 

in. 

1 P— K 4 P— K 4 

2 Kt— K B 3 Kt— Q B 3 

3 P— B 3 P— B 4 
4PxP P— Q3 

It is best for White to accept the Gambit. If 4 P — Q 4, P — Q 3 ,• 
5PxKP, BPxP; 6 Kt— Kt 5,'Kt x P, «fcc., the game is even. 

5B— Kt5 BxP 

6 Castles Kt— B 3 

7P— Q4 PxP 

8 BxKt+ PxB 

9 KtxP B— Q2 

10 E— K sq+ B— K 2 

11 Q— K 2, &c. 

White has the advantage. His Pawn position is 
superior, and something may come of attack incident to 
his opponent's difficulty as to Castling. 

mam' Gamut— 1 P— K 4, P— K 4; 2 Kt— K B 3, 
Ki^Q B 3; 3 B— B 4, B— B 4; 4 P—QKt^,BxF. 

Though far behind the Lopez in serious popularity, this 
beautiful gambit, amazing in its variety of ingenious and 
persistent attack, is even yet a favourite with the vast 
majority of Chess players. Theoretically, as in all true 
gambits, the defence ottgM to win. Practically, however, 
this is apt to prove a duty difficult of performance, a debt 
frequently if not duly unpaid. Perhaps 75 per cent, of the 
printed games at this opening are won by the first player. 



(Kings (Knight's (Game, 265 

But this is of course no criterion. The success of the 
attack in every Gambit is far more likely to present salient, 
pleasing features — " pictures," and what not — than is its 
failure; this latter being usually brought on slowly, 
laboriously, even stupidly (according to the " picture " 
artist), by the prevalence of the " odd Pawn '* in the 
ending. Games won by the attack are shorter, simpler, 
more interesting to the generality of players ; and by all 
this are so much more worthy of type and consequent 
public attention. One thing, however, must be admitted 
with regard to the Evans — the defence is extremely 
difficult. Another thing, which may be admitted without 
much fear of error, is, a player, desiring to win, not fairly 
familiar with its intricacies, had better decline it altogether, 
by 4 ... . B — Kt 3. A perfectly safe way to meet the 
attack is by means of this simple evasion. 



I. 

1 P— K 4 


P— K4 


2 Kt— K B 3 


Kt QB3 


3B— B4 


B— B4 


4 P— Q Kt 4 


BxP 


5P— B3 


B— E4 



The move 5 . . . . B — B 4 leads to qiiite a different kind of game, 
unless the Bishop is presently retreated from S 4 to Kt 3. The 
retreat to £ 4 affords greater liberty of action in defence by avoiding 
the attack upon the Bishop from P — Q 4 later on, and is therefore 
preferred. 5 . . . . B — Q 3, advocated by Kieseritzky in the early 
days of the Evans, is imfavourable. 

6P— Q4 PxP 

Many good players continue 6 Castles, or 6 P — Q 4 indifferently. 
But, changing the terms, the argument for 6 P — Q 4 is exactly similar 
to that for 5 . . . . B — E. 4, and equally convincing. It affords 
greater scope for attack. Castling loses none of its efficacy in being 
for a time deferred ; but when P — Q 4 (a necessary move) is delayed, 
its force is much diminished. Then, to a certain extent, the adversary 
may ignore it, having meanwhile made a developing move, thereby 
greatly increasing the resources of his defence. As for the reply, 
Black may play 6 . . . . P — Q 3 and hold his own. But only that, 
for he will have no Gambit Pawn. E.gf., 6 . . . . P— Q 3 ; 7 PxP, 



266 ^rt of (Qhesi^. 

Q— K 2; 8 B— Q Kt 6, B— Q 2 ; 9 Q— E 4, B— Kt 3 ; 10 PxP, 
PxP; 11 B— E 3, Kt— B 3; 12 Q Kt— Q 2, Castles; Ac, with 
equality. 

7 Castles PxP 

Ejiown as the " Compromised Defence," perhaps because Black is 
supposed to commit himself, somehow, in capturing the third Pawn. 
Another move at this point is ... . P — Q 6, but with that White 
g^ts the best of it. 7 . . . . P — Q 3 is also considered unfavourable ; 
for then 8 Q— Kt 3, Q— B 3 ; 9 P— K 6, P x K P ; 10 E— K sq, Kt 
— E 6; 11 B— K Kt 5, Q— B 4; 12 Q— E 3, with an exceedingly 
strong attack. Yet another move is 7 ... . Kt — B 3. This also 
invites complications which may easily take an unfortunate turn, or 
result directly in the forced surrender of the Pawn. 'E.q.^ 7 . . . . 
Kt— B 3 ; 8 B— E 3, P— Q 3 ; 9 P— K 5, Kt— K Kt 5; 10 P x Q P, 
B PxP; 11 KtxP, Castles; 12 KtxKt, P x Kt ; 13 BxP, B— 
K sq ; 14 Q — B 8, Ac, v. Bardeleben and Mieses preferring White. 

8 Q— Kt 3 Q— B 3 

If 8 ... . Q— K 2 ; 9 Kt X P, B X Kt ; 10 Q X B, Kt— B 3 : 11 B 
— E 3, P— Q 8 ; 12 P— K 5, Kt— K 5 ; 13 Q— Kt 2, &c., White wiU 
have a strong game. Nor, in this, is 9 ... . Q — Kt 5, forcing the 
exchange of Queens, any better. 9 . . . . Q — Kt 5 ; 10 B x P + , K— 
Qsq; 11 B— Kt5 + ,K Kt— K 2 ; 12 QE^Bsq, QxQ; 13 BxQ, 
and, though still a Pawn ahead. Black will have all he can do to draw, 
the chances even for that being against him. This follows from the 
difficulty he must necessarily experience in getting his unmoved 
Pieces into play, in face of the powerful action of the opposing Books 
and Bishops. White's general command of the field is more than 
compensation for the Pawn, and whether Black further exchanges, 
13 .... B X Kt, or not, his defence must be very precarious. 

9 P— K 5 Q— Kt 3 

10 KtxP KKt— K2 

The Bishop is best at E 4 during the early stages of the contest. 
Exchanging, 10 . . . . B x Kt, with 11 Q x B, K Kt— K 2 ; 12 Kt 
— Kt 5 ; Kt — Q sq ; 13 E — K sq, does not lessen the force of the 
attack. 

11 B— E 3 Castles 

12 Q E— Q sq P— Q Kt 4 

If 12 Kt — Q 5, Black takes, offering the exchange, for the sake of 
counter attack, through 13 ... . Kt — ^B 5, Ac. The Pawn is given 
up, 12 ... . P — Q Kt 4, in order to gain time in development ; and 
to provide for the safety of the Queen, seriously endangered from 
B— Q 3, Ac. 



(Kings (Knight's (Game, 267 

13 KtxP E— Ktsq 

14 B— Q 3 Q—E 4 

15 Q — E 4, and White has a fine position. 
Or, he may play 14 Q — E 4 or 14 Q — K 3, instead of 
attacking the Queen, with every prospect of advantage. 
The right opinion seems to be that the Pawn is not worth 
anything lifie all this trouble ; and that the best defence to 
the Evans is to decline it — or return the Pawn, betimes, in 
consideration of peace and quietness — ^with at least an 
even game. 



II. 




IP— K4 


P— K4 


2 Kt^Z B 3 


Zt— QB3 


3B— B4 


B— B4 


4 P— Q Kt 4 


BxP 


5P— B3 


B— E4 


6 Castles 


P— Q3 



Here, it may be remarked, White halts for the moment in his 
attack, giving his opponent time to widen and strengthen his defence. 
Besides 6 . . . . P— Q 3, Black may play 6 . . . . Kt— B 3 ; neither 
of which moves are so good against the more energetic 6 P — Q 4. 
For example : 6 Castles, Kt— B 3 ; 7 P— Q 4, Castles ; 8 P x P, Kt x K P ; 
9B— Q5, Kt— B4; 10 Kt— Kt 5, P— K E 3; 11 KtxP, ExKt; 
12BxE + ,KxB; 13Q— Q5 + ,Kt— K3; 14 P— K B 4, Q— B sq, 
and the two Pieces onght to win against the Eook. Of course there 
is much attack to be got over, and on the whole the game is no easy 
one to play. Black's 9 . . . . Kt — B 4 is best. He cannot take 
the Pawn with either Bishop or Knight without being worsted ; as 
the attack on his King will succeed, or the Piece be lost in course of 
defending. If White plays 8 Kt x P, a somewhat similar game 
ensues : 6 Castles, Kt— B 3 ; 7 P— Q 4, Castles ; 8 Kt x P, Kt x K P ; 
»KtxBP, ExKt; 10 BxE + , KxB; 11 P— Q 5, Kt— K 2, &c., 
with advantage to Black. In this, of course. White need not 
sacrifice. His best is probably as follows :— 9 B— E 3, P— Q 3 ; 
10 Kt X Kt,P X Kt ; 11 Q— E4,B x P ; 12 Kt x B, Kt x Kt ; 13 Q x BP, 
B — Q 2 ; 14 B X P + , Ac, recovering the Pawn — or 14 Q— B 3, keep- 
ing up his attack, for what it may be worth. 

7 p_Q 4 B— K Kt 5 

Or 7 ... . B — Q 2, but the text move seems stronger. It stood 



268 ^rt of (QhesP, 

the test of experience in the Tschig^orin-Steinitz Match, 1892. On 
that occasion the Bnssian player invariably Castled at move 6, and 
Steinits defended in the manner here shown — with success as far as 
the opening was concerned. However, Mr. C. E. Banken and other 
well known British analysts have devoted much attention to 7 . . . • 
B — Q 2 ; and it is said that M. Tschigorin himself has recently pio- 
nonnced in its favour. 

8Q— E4 PxP 

If 8 B— Q Kt 5, then 8....PxP;9PxP, B— Q 2, &c. 
9 PxP P— QR3 

10 B— Q 5 B— Kt 3 

llBxKt+ PxB 

12QxP+ B— Q2 

Black has a safe and good position. The advantage of 
7 . . . . B— K Kt 5 over 7 . . . . B— Q 2 is that it 
compels White to pursue his attack to exhaustion on one 
of a few narrow lines; on each of which, as far as at 
present known, he can be satisfactorily met and fought to 
equality — at the very least. 

III. 



1 P— K4 


P— K4 


2 Ki^K B 3 


Kt— QB3 


3 B— B4 


B— B4 


4 P— Q Kt 4 


BxP 


5 P— B3 


B— B4 


6 Castles 


P— Q3 


7 P— Q4 


PxP 


8 PxP 


B— Kt3 



The so-called normal position, the moves on each side being for a 
long time looked upon as best for each party respectively. For many 
years, however, this system of defence has been practically obsolete, 
the defence based upon 5 . . . . B — E 4 having gained and main- 
tained the respect of all classes of players. A question at this point 
is — what is the best move for White ? Two stand out prominently, 
viz., 9 P— Q 6 and 9 Kt— B 3. Of these two the latter is probably 
the stronger, as bringing a Piece into play, and keeping the diagonal 
open to the Bishop a^ long as possible. On the other hand, 9 P — Q 5 
is more immediately pressing, and has often been preferred by some 
of the greatest masters of attack in the Evans. First, as to this last, 



(ffings (Knight's (Game. 269 

9 P— Q 5 Kt— E 4 

10 B— Kt 2 Kt— K 2 

11 B— Q 3 Castles 

White cannot play 11 B x P, opening the file on his King, without 
losing. 

12 Kt— B 3 Kt— Kt 3 

Best, as commanding K Kt 4 and preventing P — K 5, often the 
prelnde to a winning attack. 

13 Kt— K 2 P— Q B 4 

Black's hopes are bound up in the adyanoe of his Queen side 
Pawns, as they must ultimately turn the tide in his favour ; always 
provided he can hold his ground on the other side as reg^ards the 
safety of his King. 

14 Q— Q 2 P— B 3 

15 K— R sq B— B 2 

14 ... . P— B 3 provides against Kt— Kt 3, B x P, and (if ... . 
K X B) Kt — E 5 + , with Q — E 6, Ac. — a winning combination which 
may occur if the Bishop is not shut off as in the text. White moves 
his King in order to advance P — B 4, on occasion, without fear of the 
adverse Bishop ; and Black moves the latter, since it no longer bears 
upon the King, and to make way for his Pawn. If, for example, 
15 ... . Kt— K4, then 16 KtxKt,BPxKt; 17 P— B 4, and the 
utility oi 15 K — E sq is at once apparent. 

16 Q R— B sq R— Kt sq 

17 Kt— Kt 3 P— Kt 4 

And it is a fair game. White has his attack, but if it 
fails, i.e.y does not win, he is almost certainly lost, owing 
to the great strength of the adverse Queen side Pawns. 

Secondly, 

9 Kt— B 3 Kt— R 4 

Black can venture out with King Knight only at the risk of com- 
plications in the main unfavourable. For instance, 9 . . . . Kt — B 
3; 10 P— K 5, P X P ; 11 B— E 3, B x P ; 12 Q— Kt 3, &c. 

10 B— K Kt 5 P— K B 3 

11 B— B4 KtxB 
12Q— R4+ Q— Q2 



270 ^rt of (§hesP, 

13 QxKt Q— B2 

14 Kt— Q 5 B— K 3 

15 Q— E 4+ B— Q 2 

16 Q — E 3, and Black is in difficulty as to 
Oastling — whence the attack should win. 

Or, 
9 Kt— B 3 B— Kt 5 

10 B— Q Kt 5 B— Q 2 

The alternative is 10 ... . K — B sq, but it is hardly any better. 

11 P— K6 PxP 

12 E^K sq K Kt— K 2 

13 P— Q 6 Kt— Q 5 

14 BxB+ QxB 

15 KtxP Q— B4 

16 Kt — Q 3, and again Black has difficulty as 
to Castling and the inferior game. 

The weak point in the Evans attack is that it can be 
declined by 4 ... . B — Kt 3 ; when White will have to 
be content to proceed on regular Giuoco Piano lines — and 
those not the most favourable to him. I^ot that he neces- 
sarily gets the worst of it, but that the advance of the 
Pawn goes for nothing as an attacking move, and is apt to 
prove a source of weakness in the end. The Counter 
Gambit, 4 . . . . P — Q 4, is not advisable. \ 

Scotch Game. — The attack in the Scotch is strong while 
it lasts, but it is not persistent, and in every case of it there 
is a valid defence. Interesting, even brilliant, complications 
easily arise, only to pass away without creating any lasting 
impression, and the reaction is not unlikely to prove in- 
jurious to White. There appears to be at least a tacit 
agreement of the best opinion that more should be made 
out of " the move " than is possible in the Scotch ; so that 
in important contests of late years games at this opening 
have been comparatively few and far between. As a 
Gambit, when White plays 4 B— Q B 4 instead of 4 Kt x P, 



(Kings ^night's (Game, 271 

it is justly condemned, and that phase of it has fallen 
into almost absolute disuse. 

L 

1 P— K 4 P— K 4 

2 Kt^K B 3 Kt— Q B 3 
3P— Q4 PxP 

4 KtxP B— B4 

4 . . . . KtxKt; 5 QxKt, Kt— K 2; 6 B— Q B 4, Kt— B 3; 
7 Q— Q 5, &o., is favourable to the first player, his command of the 
board being so great. Bnt 4 . . . . Kt — B 3 is a safe and sound 
move. 4 . . . . Q — B 5 risks too mnch for the sake of a Pawn, and 
is now hardly ever played. 

5 B— K 3 Q— B 3 

6 P— Q B 3 K Kt^K 2 

White is willing to have his Knight taken at Q 4, to form a centre ; 
wherefore Black declines to take, and tries to preserve the iiaiuB qtw 
— at least nntil he can advance his Qneen Pawn effectively. 

7 Q— Q 2 P— Q 4 

other probable continuations— 7 B— K 2, P— Q 4 ; 8 B— B 3, B x Kt 
9PxB, PxP; 10 BxP, Castles— White having an isolated Pawn. 
7 B— Q Kt 5, Castles ; 8 Castles, P— Q 3 ; 9 Kt x Kt, P x Kt 
10 B X B, P X B, Ac, with equaUty. 7 P— B 4, Q— Kt 3 ; 8 Q— B 3 
Kt X Kt ; 9 P X Kt, B— Kt 6 + ; 10 Kt— B 3, P— Q 4, Ac, with advan 
tage to Black. 7 B — B 4 loses time, because of ... . Kt — K 4 
somewhat later ; and if 7 Kt— B 2, BxB; 8 KtxB, Q— K 4, &c.. 
Black will stand well. 

8 Kt— Kt 5 BxB 

9 QxB Castles, 

If 9 P X B (inconsequential as regards the Queen's move), the reply 
is also 10 .... Castles; then, perhaps, 11 KtxB P, P x P ! 
12 Kt X B, R — Q sq, Ac, with a probably winning game for Black. 

10 KtxBP Er~Ktsq 
Better 10 Kt — Q 2. It is dangerous to take the Pawn. 

11 KtxP KtxKt 

12 PxKt Kt— Kt5! 

If, now, 13PxKt,QxKtP; 14 Q--QB3,Er~Ksq+ ; 
15 K — Q sq, Q X B P ; and White will have hard work to 



272 i^rt of (§hesP, 

escape. Or, 13 Kt— E 3, B— Kt 5 ; 14 B— Kt 6, Kt x Q P ; 
15Q— K4, KtxP; 16 QxB,KtxB, &c. ; or, 13 Q— Q2, 
KtxQ P; 14 QxKt, Er— K 8q+ ; 15 B— K 2, B— Kt 5; 

16 P — B 3, Q R — Q sq, &c., and again White's defence is 
difficult. However, these latter variations are more useful 
in showing the resources of Black's game than otherwise. 
To demonstrate a certain win for him would transcend the 
limits of opening analyses. 

II. 

1 P— K 4 P— K 4 

2 Kt— K B 3 Kt— Q B 3 
3P— Q4 PxP 

4 KtxP Kt— B 3 
A safe and simple defence springs from this move. 

5 KtxKt KtPxKt 

6 B— Q 3 P— Q 4 

There is nothing gained by attacking the Knight, — 6 P — K 5, 
Q— K 2; 7 Q— K 2 ; Kt— Q 4 ; 8 P— Q B 4, Kt— Kt 3, &o. 

7 Q— K2 PxP 

Again— 7 P— K 5. Kt— Kt 6; 8 B— K B 4, B— B 4; 9 Castles, 
P— Kt 4 ; 10 B— Kt 3, P— K E 4, Ac, White being on the defence. 

8 BxP KtxB 

9 QxKt+ Q— K2 

Even game; the freedom of Black's Bishops compen- 
sating for the disarrangement of his Pawns. 

As said, the defence beginning 4 . . . . Q — ^R 5 is con- 
sidered too hazardous, and is therefore little favoured in 
practice. Black wins a Pawn at the outset, it is true ; but 
on the other hand he foregoes the privilege of Castling; 
and is for a long time restricted to a purely defensive game. 
The following is perhaps one of the best continuations, 
— 4 . . . . Q— R 5; 5 Kt— Kt 5, QxP+ ; 6 B— K 2, 
B— Kt 5+; 7 B— Q 2, K— Q sq; 8 Castles, BxB; 
9 Kt X B, Q— K B 5 ; 10 P— Q B 4, &c., and the attack 
seems worth the Pawn. White may also play 6 Kt — K B 3, 
but this is scarcely as strong as 5 Kt — Kt 5, given above. 



(Kings (Knight's (Game, 273 

K White offers the Gambit by 4 B— Q B 4 (in lieu of 
4 KtxP) Black may decline to retain the Pawn, 
—4 B— Q B 4, B— B 4 ; 5 P— B 3, Kt— B 3, &c., reducing 
the position to a well-known one in the Griuoco Piano, in 
which he has nothing to fear. The plausible 5 Kt — Kt 5, 
&c., is a false attack and need cause little trouble, 
—4 B— Q B 4, B— B 4 ; 5 Kt— Kt 5, Kt— E 3 ; 6 Kt 
xBP,KtxKt;7BxKt4-,KxB;8Q— E54-, P— Kt 3 ; 
9QxB,P— Q4; 10QxP + ,QxQ;llPxQ,E^K8q+; 
12 K — Q sq, Kt — Kt 5, &c., with advantage to Black. 
Or, in this, 10 PxP, E— K sq4- ; 11 K— Q sq, E— K 4, 
&c., and Black has a still greater advantage. Farther 
back, at the sixth move — 6 Q — E 5, Q — K 2 ; 7 Castles, 
P— Q 3 ; 8 P— K E 3, B-Q 2 ; 9 P— K B 4, Castles 
QE; lOBxP, Kt— K Kt sq; 11 B— Q 5, E— B sq— 
and with subsequent .... P— K E 3 . . . . Kt— B 3, 
&c., White's attack will be broken and turned against 
himseK. 

Two KnigUs' Defence.— I P— K 4, P— K 4; 2 Kt— 
K B 3, Kt— Q B 3 ; 3 B— B 4, Kt—B 3. White may 
treat this as a form of the Griuoco Piano, by continuing 
4 P — Q 3, or he may compel Black to a Gambit, by 4 Kt 
— Kt 5, but this last is rather dubious policy. Because, 
in nine cases out of ten, this is just what the second player 
wants ; to have the attack, a durable attack, even at the 
cost of a Pawn. In fact, it is a question whether White's 
manoeuvres to gain the Pawn should not be considered 
premature. In return he is at once called upon to face a 
dangerous assault in a position so poorly developed that 
error may easily occur, and may easily prove fatal. 

1 P— K 4 P— K 4 

2 Kt— K B 3 Kt— Q B 3 

3 B— B 4 Kt—B 3 

4 Kt— Kt 6 P— Q 4 

It may be remarked, 4 P — Q 3 is a safe and strong move. Bnt 
4 Kt — ^B 3 is hardly so good. To that the reply may be 4 ... . 
Kt X P. Then whether Kt x Kt immediately, or 5 B x P + , the timely 

T 



274 ^^^ of (ghesf>. 

Advance .... P — Q 4 will give Black a fair game. A similar thing 
may happen in the Petroff or Bnssian Defence. Bnt, as a reply to 
4 Kt — Kt 5, it may be observed that 4 . . . . Kt x P is inferior. 
White can then take the Pawn, checking, and follow with 6 P — Q 4, 
with advantage. 

5 P X P Kt— Q E 4 

Here Black enters on the Crambit, his best course. If 5 ... . 
KtxP, then 6KtxBP, KxKt; 7Q— B3 + ,K— K 3; 8 Kir— B 3, 
Kt— K 2 ; 9 P— Q 4, P— B 3 ; 10 B— K Kt 5, P— K E 3 ; 11 B xKt, 
B X B ; 12 Castles Q B, and the chances are decidedly with White. 
Oonntless attempts have been made to prove that the superior force 
should win (after 6 Kt x B P) ; but, up to the present, they have all 
come to nothing. The position of Black's King seems to be too much 
against him. Even if he manages to survive the direct attack, there 
is a drain of force (in the shape of Pawns) which almost does away 
with the advantage of the Piece, reducing him to practical equality in 
this respect, with i^osititm still persisting in favour of his opponent. 

6 B— Kt 5+ P— B 3 

Or, 6 P— Q 3, P— K E 3 ; 7 Kt— K B 3, P— K 5 ; 8 Q— K 2, Ktx 
B ; 9 P X Kt, B— Q B 4 ; 10 P— K E 3, Castles ; 11 Kt— E 2, P- 
Q Kt 4 ; 12 Kt— Q B 3, &c. In the result White cannot hold the 
Pawn. 

7 PxP PxP 

8 B—K 2 P— K E 3 

It is best to retreat the Bishop as above. Both 8 . . . . B— E 4 
and 8 Q — B 3 are inferior, because the comparative insecurity of the 
Bishop adds to the dangers of the attack which has now to be met in 
return for the Pawn. 

9 Kt— K B 3 P— K 5 
10 Kt— K 5 Q— B 2 

Or, 10 ... . B— Q3. But 10 .... Q—Q 5, though more formid- 
able in appearance, is not really so strong — ^time being lost subse- 
quently in forced movement of the Queen. 



11 P— K B 4 


B— Q3 


12 P— Q 4 


Castles 


13 P— Q B 3 


P— B4 


14 Ki^E 


P— E3 



If there is advantage, either way, Wliite lias it. The 



(King's (Knight's (Game. 275 

chances are that by giving up the Pawn at the proper time 
he can either reverse the attack or come out with the better 
ending. 

Other lines of play, varying at move 4, are : 1 P — K 4, 
P— K 4; 2 Kt— K B 3, Kt— Q B 3 ; 3 B— B 4, Kt— B 3 ; 
4P— Q4,PxP; 5P— K5,P— Q4; 6B— QKt5,Kt— 
■B: 5 ; 7 Kt X P, B— Q 2 ; 8 B X Kt, &c., even game. 
1 P— K 4, P— K 4; 2 Kt— K B 3, Kt— Q B 3 ; 3 B— B 4, 
Kt— B 3 ; 4 Castles, Kt X P ; 5 P— Q 4 (or 5 B-Q 5), 
P— Q 4; 6 Q— K 2, B— K Kt 6; 7 P X P, Kt X K P; 
8 Kt — ^B 3, &c., but this is scarcely good for White. 

Bussian (Petroff) Defence, — Black defends his Pawn 
indirectly by attackmg that of his opponent. The Petroff 
makes a hard game, in which White, at best, can do 
little more than hold his original advantage of the move. 
In many respects it closely resembles the French. But it 
is easier to play, and does not afford so good a future, 
when the defence is established. If White gains nothing 
by his initial attack, he need have little fear in the ending ; 
his Pawn position not being in the least compromised, if 
that attack is prudently conducted. 



1 P— K 4 P— K 4 

2 Kt— K B 3 Kt— K B 3 

3 KtxP P— Q3 

It is bad for Blaok to take the Pawn immediately. 8 . . . . Kt x P ; 
4 Q~K 2, Q— K 2 ; 6 Q X Kt, P— Q 3 ; 6 P— Q 4, P— K B 3 ; 7 P— 
K B 4, Kt— Q 2; 8 Kt— Q B 3, B P— Kt ; 9 B P x P, PxP; 
10 Kt— Q 5, Kt— B 3; 11 B— Kt 5 + , P— B 3; 12 KtxKt + , &c., 
with adyantage. About the least evil that should happen to Black is 
the loss of a Pawn. 

4Kt— KB3 KtxP 

The sacrifice, 4 Kt x B P is unsound. Though White gets three 
Pawns for the Piece, the resulting position is such that they are not 
sufficient. 

5 P— Q 4 P— Q 4 

T 2 



276 ^rt of (§hesf>. 



K 5 P — Q 3, Kt — K B 3, &o., the game runs into a French— ^Bld 
equality. 

6 B— Q 3 B— K 2 

Superior to 6 ... . B— Q 3. But 6 . . . . Kt— Q B 3 is a very 
good move. 

7 Castles Castles 

8 R— K sq Kt— K B 3 

If 8 P— B 4, then likewise 8 . . . . Kt— K B 3, and in the resnlt 
the White Queen Pawn may be isolated. Black cannot well back np the 
Knight by ... . P— K B 4, leaving a hole at K 4. 

9 B— K B 4 Kt— B 3 

10 Q Kt— Q 2, and WMte has a good 
position. 

II. 

1 P— K 4 P— K 4 

2 Kt— K B 3 Kt— K B 3 

3 KtxP Q— K2 

4 P— Q 4 P— Q 3 
5Kt-KB3 QxP+ 

6 B— K 2 B— B 4 

7 P— B 4 B— K 2 

8 Castles Castles 

9 Kt— B 3 Q— B 7, &c. 

Even game. 
Or, 3 Kt— B 3, B— Kt 5 ; 4KtxP, BxKt; 6 QPxB, 
P— Q 3; 6 Kt— B 3, KtxP; 7 B— Q 3, Kt— K B 3; 
8 Castles, Castles, &c., even game. If, in reply to 3 Kt — ^B 3, 
Black plays 3 . . . . Kt — B 3, we have the four Knights, 
with possible Double Lopez, &c., games possessing no 
striking characteristics apailj from others elsewhere noticed. 

A Philidor's Defence.— 1 P— K 4, P— K 4 ; 2 Kt— K B 3, 
P — Q 3. M. Amous de Eiviere, in his Traite-Manuel dut 
Jeu dee Hchecs, Paris, 1892, says : " M. Mason a ecrit ici la 
note suivante : * Cette defense, durant un temps populaire, 
et la favorite du grand Philidor, est maintenant presque 
d^aissee. Manquant de hardiesse eUe pr^sente peu de 
ressources pour la contre-attaque et eUe impose certaines 



(Kings (Knight's (Game, 277 

autres prescriptions dont les effets se font sentir bien apres 
que les coups dn debut sont acheves et passes/ 

** Cette appreciation est juste, mais avec un peu trop de 
severite; nous croyons que la defense PhUidor est au 
moins egale a la Sicilienne et aux defenses irregulieres, 
mais nous lui pref erons assurement les defenses classiques.'* 
(p. 87). 

The note quoted was written some years ago, and it is 
satisfactory to find that, in substance, it meets with the 
approbation of such an eminent authority as M. de Eiviere. 
'The specific objection to the defence associated with the 
memory of his great compatriot is that it obstructs the 
action of the King Bishop; with the consequence that 
Black's command of the board is inferior during the early 
part of the game. It is true, in the French Defence there 
is similar obstruction as regards the Queen Bishop, but 
this is not so serious a matter ; that Piece being naturally 
much less concerned in aU King Pawn Openings than is its 
companion, especially as an attacking force. This goes far 
to account for neglect of the Philidor in contests between 
strong and equally matched players. The following are 
fair specimens of this defence : (a) 1 P — K 4, P — K 4 ; 
2Kt— K B 3, P— Q 3; 3 P— Q 4, PxP; 4QxP, B— 
Q 2; 5 B— K 3, Kt— Q B 3; 6 Q— Q 2, Kt— B 3 ; 7 Kt— 
B 3, B— K 2 ; 8 Castles, Castles ; 9 Kt— K sq, Kt— K 4 ; 
10 P— B 3, or 10 P— B 4, and if anything White is to be 
preferred. 

If 4 ... . Kt— Q B 3, White pins, 5 B— Q Kt 6, with advantage ; 
but 4 . . . . Kt — K B 3 is safe enough — about equivalent to 4 ... . 
B--Q2. 

(h) 1 P— K4, P— K4; 2 Kt— KB 3, 3 P— Q 3; P 
— Q 4,PxP; 4 KtxP, Kt— KB3; 5 Kt— Q B 3, B— 
K 2 ; 6 B— Q 3, Castles ; 7 Castles, B— Q 2 ; 8 B— 
KB 4, Kt— B3; 9 KtxKt, BxKt; 10 Q— K 2, Kt— 
Q2; 11 Kt— Q sq, Kt— K 4; 12 Kt— K 3, and the 
game may be considered even. 

For his third move, White may play B — B 4 or Kt — B 3, 



278 ^rt of (ghesf>. 

but 3 P — Q 4 is generally allowed to be more forcible. 
At bis fourth move, Q x P is usually preferred to Kt x P. 
The Knight is just as well at B 3, while the Queen goes 
into fairly good play, expediting Castles Q E, should that 
manoeuvre be deemed advisable. 

(c) 1 P— K 4, P— K 4; 2 Kt— K B 3, P— Q 3; 3 P 
— Q4, P— KB4; 4 PxKP, B PxP; 5 Kt— Kt 5, P 
— Q 4; 6 P— K 6, Kt— K E 3; 7 Kt— Q B 3, P— B 3; 
8 KtxEP, BxP; 9 KtxB, KxKt; 10 KtxKP, &c., 
with advantage to White. Or, in this, 6 . . . . B — ^B 4 ; 
7 Kt— QB3, Q— B3; 8 K KtxK P, PxKt; 9 Q- 
E 5 + , &c., with advantage to White. And similarly in 
other variations. This Counter Gambit, formerly thought 
fairly playable, is almost demonstrably unsound. 



THE CEl^TEE GAME. 

1 P— K4 P— K4 

2 P— Q 4 PxP 

3 Q X P Kt— Q B 3 

4 Q— K 3 Kt— B 3 

The idea is to get out the Qneen's Pieces quickly, so that by Castles 
Q R something may soon be made of the open file. The Queen is best 
posted at K 3, for the moment ; 4 Q— R 4, 4 Q— B 4, and 4 Q— Q 3 
or Q sq are inferior. Black may well play 4 . . . . B — K 2, but other 
moves are less good. 

5 B— Q 2 P— K Kt 3 

6 Kt— Q B 3 B— Kt 2 

7 Castles P— Q 3 

8 Kt— Q 5 B— K 3 

Even game. It is a question, however, whether Black's 
wing development, 5 . . . . P — K Kt 3, &e., is best. 
Eetuming to the fourth move, 

4 . . . . BK2 

5 B— Q 3 Kt— B 3 

If 5 Q— K Kt 3, Kt— B 3 ; 6 Q x Kt P ? R— K Kt sq ; 7 Q— E 6, 
R—Kt 3 ; 8 Q— K 3, Kt x P ! and Black will stand well. 



^he (ffings (Gambits, 279 

6 Q— Kt 3 Castles 

7 B— K E 6 ? Kt— K sq 

8 B— Q 2 P— Q 3 

9 Kt^Q B 3 P— B 4, &c, 

The attack in the Centre G-ame is not of an enduring^ 
character ("Principles," p. 215). It is sometimes varied 
into what is called the 

Danish (or Northern) Gambit, running thus : — 

1 P— K 4 P— K 4 

2 P— Q 4 P X P 

3 P— Q B 3 P X P 

4 B— Q B 4 Kt— K B 3 

There is much hazard in taking the third Pawn, but it may be done. 
The defence may also be shaped differently by 4 ... . P — B 7, a good 
move. 

5 P— K 5 P— Q 4 

6 B— Kt 5 + B— Q 2 

7 BxB+ KKt X B 

8 Q X P Kt— Q B3, andif there 

is advantage either way, Black has it. 

Versions of the Centre Game turning on 3 B — Q B 4 
and 3 Kt — K B 3 are closely allied to certain forms of the 
Giuoco Piano or the Scotch game, not the strongest for 
White. 



THE KING'S GAMBITS. 

Aside from other Pawn moves— 2 P— Q 3, 2 P— Q B 3, 
2 P — K Kt 3, &c., all safe enough for the first player, 
there is 2 P — K B 4, origin of the various King's Gambits, 
which may be briefly dealt with here. In the main, these 
Gambits are regarded as unsound, and in consequence they 
occupy no very conspicuous place in present day play. In 
what is probably the strongest of them, the Bishop's 
Gambit, there are many defences speedily establishmg 
equality ; and there is always the danger of coimter attack 



28o ^rt of (QhesP. 

upon the Gambit player's King, weakened in position by 
the sacrifice of one of his naturally protecting Pawns. 

King's Bishop's GamUt.—l P— K4, P— K 4; 2 P— K B 4, 
PxP; 3 B— B 4. First we take the old "classical 
defence," which is hardly sufficient. 

I. 

3 . . . . Q— E5 + 

4 K— B sq P— K Kt 4 

5 Kt— QB 3 B— Kt 2 

6 P— Q 4 Kt— K 2 

7 P— KKt3 PxP 

8 K— Kt 2 P— Kt 5 

9 PxP Q— B3 
lOQxP P— Q4 

If 10 Q X P, then probably 11 B x P + , Ac, with a formidable 

attack. 

IIP— K6 BxQ 

12 PxQ BxP 

13 KtxP KtxKt 

14 BxKt P— B3 

15 B— B 3 B— B 4 

16 P — B 3, and White is to be preferred. 

His BOTenth and eighth moyes directly and indirectly threatemng 
the Queen are attributed to Dr. Max Lange, and are best met as above, 
according to Lehrbibch des Schachapiels (Herren von Bardeleben and 
Mieses), Leipzig, Viet & Co., 1894. To save the Queen, both 8 . . . . 
P — Q 3 and 8 . . . . Q — E 3 are less favourable, and result in per- 
ceptible advantage to White. 

The next is a fair working defence : — 

n. 

3 . . . . Kt— K B 3 

4 P— Q 3 ! P— Q 4 
6 P X P Kt X P 

6 Q— K 2 + B— K 3 

7 B X Kt Q X B 

8 B X P B— B 4 

9 Kt— K B 3 P— Q B 3 



^he (King's (GambiW, 281 



If 9 B X P ? then 9 . . . . B x Kt 


; 10 B X Kt, B— Q 5 ; 11 P— 


B 3, B X B ; 12 P X B, Q X Q P, Ac 




10 Kt — B 3, and White has, perhaps, the adTsntage. 


Or, 




3 


Kt.-KB3 


4 Kt-Q B 3 


Kt^B 3 ! 


6 K<>-B3 


B— KtS 


6 P— K5 


P— Q4 


7 B— K:t5 


Kt^KS 


8 Castles 


Castles 


9 Kt^K2 


B— KtS 


10 P— Q 3 


B— B4 + 


11 P— Q 4 


B— Kt3 


12 Bx P 


P— B3 


13 P— B 3 


P X P 


14 B X Kt 


KtP X B 


16 Kt X P 


B X Kt 


16 Q X B 


P— B4 


Even enoTigh. But the following, in which the Pawn is 


surrendered, has of late years 


come to be regarded as a 


still more forcible line of play 


for Black. Its immediate 


effect is to reverse the attack. 


though with what certain 


result (if any) yet remains to be 


1 proved. 


m. 




1 P— K4 


P— K4 


2 P— K B 4 


PxP 


3 B— B4 


P— Q4 


4 BxP 


Q— BS + 



If 4 P X P, Q— B 5 + ; 5 K— B sq, B— Q 3 ; 6 P— Q 4, Kt— K 2 ; 
7 B— Kt 3, P— K Kt 4 ; 8P— B 4,P— Kt 3 ; 9 K<h-QB3, B-K B 4, 
&c., Black genemlly gets the best of it. The latter may play 4 . . . . 
Kt— E B 3, instead of checking, also a good defence. 

5 K— B sq P— K Kt 4 

6 Kt— Q B 3 B— Kt 2 

It is better to reserve the attack on the Qneen by Kt — K B 8. But 
here Q— B 3 is often played. E.g., 6 Q— B 3, P— Q B 3 ; 7 Q— B 3, 



282 ^rt of (ghesf>. 

P— B 3 ; 8 P—Q 4, Kt— K 2, Ac, with about equal grame. If White 
takes the Pawn, 8 BxKt, BxB; 9 QxK B P, then 9 . . . . 
B — K Et 5, and things are apt to go against him, the advance .... 
P — B 6, after driving the Queen off the file, being very strong. 

7 p__Q 4 Kt— K 2 

8 Kt— B 3 Q— E 4 

The attack P — K Kt 3 (see I., p. 280) anywhere here is not go od. 
Black having moved his Queen Pawn, his Queen Bishop is availa ble 
for counter attack, rendering the position of White King too inseca re. 

9 P— K E 4 P— K E 3 

10 P— K 5 Castles 

11 B— K 4 P—Q B 4 

12 Kt— K 2 Q Kt— B 3 

Equal game. 

Another line of defence which may be adopted with no 
disadvantage starts from 3 . . . . P — K B 4. Then there 
is 3 ... . P — Q Kt 4. In fact, the second player's choice 
of good defences is pretty wide. But that he has any one 
which may in every case be relied upon for a probably- 
winning game has not yet been shown. As for White, his 
range of attack is, of course, correspondingly great. In 
most cases its dual nature must be carefully considered ; 
for he has attack upon King and Queen, when the game is 
fairly under way after .... Q — E 5 -f . 

King^s Knighfs Gambit. — ^In this Black may well content 
himself with purely defensive measures at the outset, or he 
may go in for counter attack if an early forward policy be 
deemed expedient. By playing his Knight at the tibird 
move, White allows the Pawn to be effectually supported, 
3 . . . . P — ^K Kt 4 ; a proceeding not admissible in the 
Bishop's Gambit, on account of 4 P — K E 4, if Black is 
to secure the superior game. Then (3 Kt — B 3) he may 
either confine himself to properly maintaining the Pawn, 
or he may push on ... . P — Kt 5 ; leading to variations 
called the Muzio, Allgaier, Kieseritzljy, Salvio, &c., Gambits, 
according to the resultant tendency of the play on both 
sides. 



^he (King's (GambiW, 283, 



I. 

1 P— K4 


P— K4 


2 P— K B 4 


PxP 


3 KI^K B 3 


P— K Kt 4 


3 . . . . B— K 2 ; 4 Kt— K B 3, 


B— E 5 + ; 5 K— B Bq, 4c., is not. 


eood for Black. 




4B-B4 


B— Kt2 


5 Castles 


P— Q3 


6P— Q4 


P— KE3 


7 P— B3 


Q— K2 


8 Kt— E3 


P— R3 


9 Kt— B2 


B— K3 


10 B— Q3 


KKt-B3 


11 P— Q Kt 3 


QKt-Q2 


12 P— K E 3 


Kt— Kt3 



Black should easily inaintain the Pawn. White, it 
seems, can make little out of this form of the game, how- 
ever he may vary it. Fob instance, 8 P — K Kt 3, P — 
Kt 5; 9 BXP, PxKt; 10 QxP, Kt—Q B 3; 11 Kt— 
Q 2,B— Q2; 12 Q R— K sq, Castles, &c., and he has. 
nothing to show for his missing Piece. Usually, however, 
he tries to break up the chain of Pawns by P — K R 4, and 
this gives rise to complications. Or Black may himself 
take the initiative, by 4 . . . . P — Kt 5, forcing the 
Muzio, or some other of the variations above mentioned. 
Each of these is also complicated, but all are considered, 
more or less unfavourable to White. 





n. 




1 P— K4 




P— K4 


2 P— K B 4 




PxP 


3 Kt^K B 3 




P— K Kt 4 


4B— B4 




P— Kt5 


6 Castles 




PxKt 



This is called the Muzio Gamhit ; bnt it has been traced back to< 
Polerio (1690) or thereabouts. White may give up the Bishop instead 
of theKnight,5BxP + ,KxB; 6 Kt— K 5 + , K— Ksq; 7 Q x P^ 
Kt— K B 3 ; 8 Q X B P, P— Q 3 ;. 9 Kt—K B 3, R—Kt sq ; 10 Castles,. 



284 ^f't of (§hesP. 



B— Kt 5 ; 11 Q— K 3, E x P ; 12 Q— Kt 5, B— K 3. Ac, Black 
wiimiiig. If he refuses to part with Bishop or Knight, then the latter 
must go to K 5, as best ; bnt this is not much better for him than the 
8aorifioe by 5 Castles, or otherwise — splaying for attack at all costs. 

6 QXP Q— B3 

7 P— Q 3 P— Q 4 

Or, 7 P— K 5, Q X P ; 8 P— Q 3, B— E 3 ; 9 Kt— B 3, Kt K 2 ; 

10 B— Q 2, Q Kt— B 3 ; 11 Q E— K sq, Q— K B 4, Ac. This lino of 
play has been pretty fully dealt with in " Principles of Chess." Slack 
wins. The move 11 ... . Q— K B 4, substituted by L. Faulsexi for 
the older 11 ... . Q — B 4 + , has caused this attack to be thorongrhlj 
discredited. 

8BxP P— B3 

9 B— Kt 3 B— K 3 

And Black will be able to get away on the Queen side 
with a winning superiority. 

m. 



1 P— K4 


p— k;4 


2 P— KB4 


PxP 


3 KI^K B 8 


P— K Kt 


4 B-B4 


P— KtS 


5 P— Q4 


PxKt 


6 QxP 


P— Q4 



This .... P — Q 4 is the key to the defence against a mnltitnde 
of attacks upon the King, and, as a rule, should be used at the very 
fest opportunity. 

7 BxQP Kt~K B3 

8 Castles P— B 3 

9 BxP+ KxB 

A desperate sacrifice ; but retreat would evidently be little improve- 
ment. 

10 QxP B— Kt2 

11 P— K 5 Er— B sq 

12 PxKt K— Ktsq 

And the attack is really over. 



^he (King's (Gambit^, 285 

IV. 

1 P— K 4 P— K 4 

2P— KB4 PxP 

3 Ki— K B 3 P— K Kt 4 

4 B— B 4 P— Kt 5 
5Kt— B3 PxKt 
6QxP P--Q4 

7 BxP P— QB3 

8 BxP+ KxB 

9 P— Q 4 Ki— K B 3 

10 P— K 5 B— Kt 2 

11 BxP E^Ksq 

Again, by the timely .... P — Q 4, aaid the return of 
one of the Pieces, Black comes out with the better game. 

If White will not sacrifice, in defiance of 4 ... . P — 
Kt 5, the attack passes to Black, as a matter of course ; or, 
better put, there is attack and counter attack for a time, 
until the latter prevails. The following are examples : — 

Salvio OarMt—l P— K 4, P— K 4; 2 P— K B 4,. 
P xP; 3 Kt— K B 3, P— K Kt 4; 4 B— B 4,P— Kt 5. 



5 Kt— K5 Q— R5 + 

6 K— B sq P— B 6 

Other moves for Black are 6 ... . Kt — Q B 3 (a very good one), 
6 . . . . Kt— K E 3 (also good), and 6 ... . Kt— K B 3, this latter 
leading only to equality. 

7P— KKt3 Q— E6 + 

Or, 7PxP, Kt-KB3; 8 BxP + ,K— K 2; 9 B— B 4, P— Q 3 ,- 
10 Kt— Q 3, PxP; 11 Kt-B 2, B— R 6 + ; 12 K— K sq, B— Kt 7, &o. 

8 K— B 2 Kt— K B 3 

9 BxP+ K— K2 

10 B— Kt 3 Q— Kt 7+ 

11 K— K3 B— E3 + 

12 K— Q 3 E— B sq 

With advantage to Black. 



386 ^rt of (ghesf> 



n. 

5 Kt— K5 

6 K— B sq 

7 P Q4 

8 Kt— QB8 


Q— R5 + 
Kt— K E 8 
P— B6 
P-Q8 


White's move of the Knight here is considered best, both 8 B — ^B 4 
«nd 8 P — E Et 3 more decidedly faTonring the sdrersary. It is 
attributed to Steinitz. 


9 Kt— Q3 

10 KxP 

11 Kt— B 4 

12 B— K3 


PxP+ 
B— Kt2 
Kt— B3 

Castles 


Black for choice. 



m. 

5 Kt— K5 Q— R5 + 

6 K— B sq Kt— K B 3 

7 Q— Ksq! QxQ + 
8KxQ P— Q3 

If 8 ... . KtxP; 9 BxP + , K— K 2; 10 B— E 5, P— Kt 6. 
11 P — K B 3, &c., Black will be worse off. 



9 KtxBP 


P— Q4 


10 BxP 


KtxB 


11 KtxE 


Kt— KB3 


12 P— Q3 


B-Kt2 



White will have a couple of Pawns and the exchange 
for his lost Piece, which seems ample compensation. 

As a consequence of the conclusion generally implied in 
the foregoing results, representative of numberless others, 
iihe Gambit player now usually avoids any further sacrifice, 
as well as its alternative .... Q — E 5 +, <fec., by an 
immediate and, as it were, subordinate attack upon the 
Gambit Pawn, through 4 P — K E 4. It is quite obvious 
that this essentially changes the whole business. Black 
cannot maintain his line of Pawns (as in I., p. 283). 
Neither can he take, or allow his adversary to take, without 
-opening the file to the hostile Eook. Therefore he must 



^he Ring's (Gambit^. 287 

push on, as best. But he can have no such easy game as 
in the Mnzio, nor any Salvio, though the general resem- 
blance to this latter is pretty well preserved. 

I. 

1 P— K 4 P— K 4 

2 P— KB4 PXP 

3 Kt— K B 3 P— K Kt 4 

4 P— K E 4 P— Kt 5 

5 Kt— K 5 B— Kt 2 

In what is known as the Kieseritzky Qamhit the Knight goes to 
K 5 ; in the Allgaier, not considered so strong as the alternative, he 
goes to Kt 5. This involves his sacrifice ; as, when attacked, he has 
no escape. The reply 5 . . . . B — Kt 2 is Black's simplest and 
strongest; thongh 5 . . . . Kt — B 3 very often comes to the same 
thing. Others are 5 ... . Q— K 2, 5 ... . P— Q 3, 5 ... . P— 
Q 4. Bnt neither 5 . . . . Kt— Q B 3, nor 5 ... . P— K R 4 
(formerly in vog^ue), is now looked npon as adequate. 

6 P— Q 4 Kt— K B 3 

If 6 Kt X Kt P, P— Q 4 ! ; 7 Kt— B 2, Kt— K 2, Ac, Black soon gets 
the best of it. In this, if 7 P x P ? then 7 . . . . Q— K 2 + , with 
8 . . . . B — Q 5 + , Ac, wins off hand. 

7 Ki^Q B 3 P— Q 3 

Or, 7 Kt X Kt P, Kt X P ; 8 B— Q 3, P— Q 4 ; 9 B x Kt, P x B ; 
10 B X P, Q X Q P; 11 Q X Q, B X Q ; 12 P— B 3, B x Kt, &c. Black 
eventually Castles on the Queen side with good effect. Also, 7 B — B 4, 
P— Q 4; 8 PxP, Kt— B 4; 9 KtxKt P, Kt— Kt 6, Ac, is un- 
favourable to White. 

8 Kt— Q 3 Kt— R 4 

9 KtxP Kt— Kt6 

10 R— E 2 Castles 

11 B— B4 KtxP! 

12 KtxKt Er— Ksq 

Black has the better game. 

The foregoing, tuming on 5 ... . B — Kt 2, is Paulsen's 
Defence. 



288 ^rt of (§hes^, 

II. 

1 P— K 4 P— K 4 

2P— KB4 PxP 

3 Kt— K B 3 P— K Kt 4 

4 P— K E 4 P— Kt 5 

5 Ki— K 5 Kt— K B 3 

In some respects this laoks the force of Paulsen's move 5 . . . . 
B — Kt 2, bnt, for all that, it is quite sufficient. 

6 B— B 4 P— Q 4 

Or, 6KtxKt P, KtxP; 7 P— Q 3, Kt— Kt 6; 8 B x P, KtxB; 
9Q-"K2 + ,Q— K2; 10 Kt— B 6 + ,K— Q sq.; 11 B xP + , K xB ; 
12Kt^-Q5 + ,K— Q sq.; 13KtxQ, BxKt; 14 Q— Kt 4, P— Q 3 ; 
15 Q — K B 4, B — Kt sq., &c., Black having enough for his Queen. 
Or (in this)9B— Kt5,B— K2; 10 Q— K 2,P— KE4: llKt— B6 + , 
K— B sq. ; 12 Q— K 5, Kt— B 3, and the attack is broken. 

7 PxP B— Kt2 

If 7BxP?then7 .... KtxB; 8PxKt,B— K2; 9KtxKtP, 
E— Kt sq. ; 10 Kt— B 2, Q x Q P, Ac. 

8B— Kt5+ P— B3 

Or,8P— Q 6, PxP; 9 KtxB P,Q— K2 + ; lOQ— K2,QxQ+; 
11 KxQ, P— Q4; 12 Kt— Q 6 + , K— Q 2; 13 Kt— B6,PxB; 14 
Kt X B, K— K 2 ; 15 P— B 5, P— K E 3, and wins. 

Or, 8 Castles, Castles; 9 Kt— Q B 3, Kt— E4; 10 KtxKt P, 
B— Q 5 ; 11 Kt— B 2, Q x E P ; 12 Kt— K 2, B— Kt 5, Ac. 

9 PxP Castles 

10 PxP BXP 

IIP— Q4 BxP 

12 E— Kt sq P— B 6 

Advantage to Black. 

Other defences, including that based upon 5 . . . . P — 
K E 4, are not considered so trustworthy. The idea of the 
latter was to maintain the Pawns unbroken, but it fails to 
otherwise properly deal with the attack upon the King, and 
has been found practically unfavourable. 



^he (King's (Gambit^, 289 



ni. 

1 P— K 4 P-K 4 

2P— KB4 PxP 

3 Kt— K B 3 P— K Kt 4 

4 P— K E 4 P— Kt 5 

6 Kt— Kt 5 P—K R 3 

This gives us the Allgaier Ckimbit, in which White plays for attack 
at the expense of his Knight. 

6 KtxB P KxKt 

7 P— Q 4 P— Q 4 

White may continne 7 Q x P, or 7 B — B 4 + , but the above is his 
strongest. 

8 BxP Kt--KB3 

9 Ki— B 3 B— Kt 2 

10 Q— Q 2 Kt-B 3 

11 Castles KtxKP 

12 KtxKt PxKt 

13 B— B4+ K— Kt3 

Black will have to be wary, but the Piece should win. 
Going back to White's seventh move : — 

7 QxP Kt-KB3 

8 B— B 4+ P— Q 4 

Or, 8 Q X B P, B— Q 3 ; 9 B— B 4 + , K— Kt 2 ; 10 Q— B 5, B— 
Kt 6 + ; 11 K — B sq, R — B sq, Ac, winning. 

9 QxP B— Q3 

10 BxP+ K— Kt2 

11 Q— B3 KtxB 

12 PxKt Q— Ksq+ 

Black wins. 



Or. 




7 B— B4+ 


P— Q4 


8 BxP+ 


Z— Kt 2 ! 


9 P— Q4 


Kt— ZB3 


10 BxBP 


KtxB 


11 PxKt 


B— Q3 


12 BxB 


QxB 


Black wins. 


V 





290 i^rt of (Qhes^. 

In playing these Gambits, mucli depends upon the 
readiness of the player — ^his easy familiarity with the 
various proved lines of attack and defence. The King 
being so directly concerned, a single ill-timed move may 
ruin all, and the game be lost before fairly begun, or 
before the greater part of the forces on either side can be 
brought into action. 

KING'S GAMBIT DECLINED. 
Counter Oamhit, — A bold way of declining the King's 
Gambit is by 2 ... . P— Q 4. Then if 3 PxQ P, 
PxP; 4 Kt— K B 3, B— Q 3; the second player will 
have a fairly attacking position, as a set-o£^ to his oppo- 
nent's strength in Pawns on the Queen side for the ending. 
[If 3 Kt— KB3, PxK P; 4 KtxP, B— Q 3 ; 5 Kt— 
QB 3, Kt— K B 3; 6 B— B 4, BxKt; 7 PxB, Kt— 
Kt 5 ; 8 Kt X P, Kt X P ; the game will be tolerably even.] 
Or, he may himself indiilge in a Gambit, the Falkbeer, by 
following on 3 ... . P — K 6 ; with an attack strongly 
resemblmg that obtained in the Two Knights* Defence, & 
White is too eager to hold the Pawn. 

I. 

1 P— K 4 P— K 4 

2 P— K B 4 P— Q 4 
3PxQP P— K5 
4B— Kt5+ P— B3 

White of course need not oheck. 4 P — Q 8 and 4 Kt — Q B 3 are 
safer moves. 

5 PxP KtxP 

Better than 5 . . . . P x P, to which the answer might be 6 B — B 4, 
with advantage, the reply 6 , . , . B — Q B 4 not being admissible, on 
account of 7 B x P + , &c. 

6 BxKt+ PxB 

7 P— Q 4 B— E 3 

8 Kt— Q B 3 B— Kt 5 

9 K Ki— K 2 Kt— B 3 

10 Castles Castles 



(Hings (Gambit Reclined. 291 

White has a very uncomfortable position, and will 
probably be forced to give up the Pawn. 

Another refusal of &e Ghimbit may be as imder : — 



n. 




1 P— K4 


P— K4 


2 P— Z B 4 


Kt— K B 3 


3 PxP 


KtxP 


If 3 Kt— Q B 3, then 3 . . . . P— Q 4, numing into a form of the 


Vienna. 




4 Kt— Z B 3 


Kt— Kt4 


5 P— Q4 


KtxKt+ 


6 QxKt 


Q— R5 + 


7 Q— B2 


QxQ+ 


8 KxQ 


P— Q3 


About even. 



Both the foregoing methods of evasion are less favoured 
in practice than the following ; probably because, of the 
three, this leads to by far the richer or more complex game. 

m, 

1 P— K 4 P— K 4 

2 P— K B 4 B— B 4 

3 Ki^K B 3 P— Q 3 

If 3 ... . P— Q4; 4 KtxP, PxP; 5Q— E5, QK2; 6 KtxP, 
P— K Kt 3 ; 7 Q— K 5, &c., Black will be at a disadyantagre. In this 
White cannot, of course, play 5 Kt x P, becaase of the reply 5 . . . . 
Q — Q5; noroanBlackattaokthe Queen, 6 .... Kt — KB 3, because 
of 7 Kt— Q 6, Ac. 

4 P— B 3 Kt— K B 3 

Or 4 ... . B— K Kt 5 ; 5 B— K 2, B x Kt ; 6 B x B, Kt— Q B 3, 
&c. 4 . . . . Kt — Q B 3 is also often played. 

5P— Q4 PxQP 

6 PxP B-^Kt3 

If 6 ... . B— Kt 5 + , then, naturally 7 B— Q 2, and White main- 
tains his centre. * 

7 Kt— -B 3 Castles 

8 B— Q3 Kt— B3 

9 B — K 3, with what certainly looks a very 

TT 2 



292 ^rt of (QhesP, 

fine game. The following continuation is given in Lehrbuch 
des Schachspiels as resulting in equality — 9 .... Kt — ^K 
Kt5; 10 B— K Kt sq, P— B 4; 11 P— K 6, PxP; 12 
B— B 4+, K— E sq; 13 Q PxP, QxQ+; 14 KtxQ, 
B X B ; 15 E X B, B--Q 2. Strictly, however, White must 
be conceded the preference, owing to his passed Pawn. 

White may well vary his fourth move by playing the 
Bishop : — 

IV. 

1 P— K 4 P— K 4 

2 P— K B 4 B— B 4 

3 Ki— K B 3 P— Q 3 

4 B— B 4 Ki— Q B 3 

Or 4 ... . Kt— K B 3. But 4 ... . B— K Kt 5 would be bad 
on account of 6 P x P and (if 5 . . . . P x P) 6 B x P + , &c. 

6 P— Q 3 B— K Kt 5 

6 P— B3 Ki— B3 

6 Kt— B 3, Kt— B 3, 7 P K E 3, B X Kt ; 8 Q X B, Kt— Q 5 ; 9 
Q— Q sq, or 9 Q — Kt 3, works rajiier for Black. 

7P— KE3 BxKt 

8 QxB Q— K2 

About even. 

What the defence has to fear in this method of declining 
the Gambit is that his adversary may be able to establish 
a strong centre ; or, failing in this, liiat he will be able to 
secure the benefit of the open file, seasonably, in conse- 
quence of his Gambit move. Moreover, there is the binding 
effect of P — B 5 to be considered. In certain contingencies 
it may be the prelude to dangerous attack from advance of 
Knight and Eook Pawns against the Castled King. 



THE FEENCH DEFENCE. 

The French Defence is often adopted in anticipation of 
the eternal Lopez, and may be considered one of the best 
methods of eluding that wearisome game. But it has its 



(I^he ^rench ^efence, 293 

own difficulties, which are neither few nor small. The first 
player's control of the board is predominant in the earlier 
stages of the contest, and decisive attacks upon the King's 
position are constant possibilities in his plan of campaign. 
On the other hand, as the struggle wears on, the second 
player's prospects improve, and the probabilities of a 
fortunate finish are apt to declare in his favour. 

I. 

1 P— K 4 P— K 3 

2 P— Q 4 • P— Q 4 

3 Kt^Q B 3 Kt—K B 3 

IfSPxP, PxP;4 Kt-K B 3, Kt—K B 3 ; 6 B— Q 3, B— Q 3 ; 
6 CastleB, Castles ; 7 Kt— B 3, Kt— B 3, or 7 ... . P— B 3, &c., 
White retains the advantage of the move, but gains nothing by his 
opening, 'per se. If in reply to 3 Kt — Q B 3 Black plays 3 . . . . B — 
Kt 5, White can exchange Pawns and oontinne his development, 
5 Kt--B 3, &c., Black cannot favourably exchange Bishop for Knight, 
and eventually will have to retire tiie Bishop from the exposed post 
Kt 5, with loss of time, which may prove serious or not, as it happens. 



4 B— K Kt 5 


B-K2 


5 BxKt 


BxB 


6 P— K5 


B-K2 


7 Q— Kt 4 


Castles 


8 B— Q3 


P— KB4 


9 Q— E3 


P— QKt3 


10 P— B 4 


P— B4 



About even. White may get up a dangerous attack in 
course of time, but it will be dangerous for himself as well 
as for his adversary ; because, if brought to a halt, there 
will be counter attack on the Queen side, where Black is in 
the ascendant. 

Or, 



6 Kt— B3 


Castles 


7 Q— Q2 


P— B4 


8 PxQP 


BPxP 


9 KtxP 


PxP 


10 Castles 


Kt— B3 


Even 


game. 



294 (2^^^ ^f (§hes^. 



Or, 

5 P— K 5 K Kt^-Q 2 

6 BxB QxB 

7 Kt—Kt 5 Q— Q sq, or . . . . Kt 
— B sq, and there is not very much difference. If, how- 
ever, 7 . . . . Kt — Kt 3, instead of to B sq or moving the 
Queen, White pushes on the Queen Rook Pawn with 
probable advantage. 

IL 

1 P— K 4 P— K 3 

2 P— Q 4 P— Q 4 

3 Kt— Q B 3 Kt— K Bi 3 

4 P— K 5 K Kt— Q 2 

While 3 P — K 5 is generally oondemned as premature, this 
immediate adyanoe upon the Knight is much favoured, and ma.kes a 
most diffioult game. 

5 p_B 4 P— Q B 4 

6 PxP Kt-QB3 
7Kt— B3 BxP 

8 B— Q 3 P— Q R 3 

9 P— Q R 3 P— Q Kt 4 
10 P— Q Kt 4 B— R 2 

White's attack on the King side will be strong, but 
Black should survive it, if in no hurry to Castle. The 
latter may take the Pawn at once : — 

6 . . . . KtxP 

7 B— K 3 Kt— B 3 

8 B— Kt 5 P— Q R 3 

9 BxKt+ PxB, &c., and there 
wiU be no great harm done. He, however, does not take 
it with Bishop, on account of possible trouble from 
Q — Kt 4 ; but, as already observed, this game is very diffi- 
cult, and requires great knowledge of position to play it 
well. 

Another line of attack runs as follows : — 



(Qentre (Qounter (Game. 295 





iir. 




1 P— K4 




P— K3 


2 P— Q4 




P— Q4 


3 B— K3 




PxP 



Or Black may play 3 . . . . Kt — K B 3 without inconremence. 
4 Q Kt— Q 2 Kt— K B 3 

If now P— Q B 3, to attack Pawn by Q— B 2, there 
seems to be no objection to ... . P — Q Kt 3, intending 
.... B — Kt 2, in further defence. In the result White 
would no doubt recover the Pawn, but Black would have 
an easier time of it than usual. And there is little to urge 
against 4 . . . . P — K B 4, holding on to the Pawn 
gambitwise, except that that would not be a very safe line 
of play ; but Pawns are not to be got for nothing. This 
3 B — K 3, like 3 Q Kt — Q 2, adopted on recent occasions 
by Dr. Tarrasch, does not appear to add anything to the 
force of the attack in the French, but rather the contrary. 
They are both comparative novelties. Whether much more 
can be said for either of them future experience must 
decide. 

CENTEE COUNTEE GAME. 

Avoiding all the dangers of the Gambits, the King's 
Knight's Game, the Vienna, the French, &c., yet strangely 
enough the Centre Counter Game finds scant encourage- 
ment in practice, even among the strongest players. This 
may be at least in part accoimted for by its comparative 
poverty in winning resources for the defence. There is a 
certain dryness about it forbidding complication, so that 
the second player has a difiiculty in naturally taking up 
the attack, when declined by his adversary. In this 
respect it is a game without a future. When the defence 
is established, it can do no more, and the very probable 
result is a draw. The evident objection is that the Queen 
is brought into play too soon, causing some loss of time ; 
but against this is to be set the open file, and the general 
safety of the position, so far as decisive attack is concerned , 



296 ^rt of (Qhes£>, 



1 P— K4 P— Q4 

2 PxP QxP 

3 Kt— Q B 3 Q— Q sq 

Or 3 ... . Q— Q E 4, or 3 ... . Q— K 4 + . But the retreat of 
the Qneen keeping^ command of the file is probably best. 

4 P— Q 4 P— Q B 3 
6 Kt—K B 3 B— B 4 

An important point in the defence is to get this Bishop out before 
advancing the King Pawn. 

6 B— Q 3 B— Kt 3 

7 B— K B 4 Kt— B 3, or P— K 3, &c. 

White has the advantage, but it is not very impressive. 

Or, 

3 . . . . Q— Q R 4 

4 P— Q 4 P— Q B 3 

5 Kt— B 3 B— B 4, or P— K Kt 3, 

&c. 
Again White's advantage in development is not available, 
and should gradually pass away. 

Or, 

3 . . . . Q— K4+ 

4 B— K 2 P— Q B 3 
Here .... B — Kt 5 is also a good move. 

5 Kt— B 3 Q— B 2 

6 P— Q 4 P— K 3 

Black is not so well off, considering the lock in of his 
Bishop. K, in this case, 6 . . . . B— B 4, then 7 P— Q 6 
would be rather forcible, giving White the probably better 
game. 

SICILIAN DEFENCE. 

Fairly tried and found wanting, the Sicilian has now 
scarcely any standing as a first-class defence. In this 
respect its fate much resembles that of the Philidor; 
though, of the two, the advantage is greatly with the 
latter. The Sicilian is too defensive. There are too 



^he (Sicilian ^efence. 297 

many holes created in the Pawn line. Command of the 
field, especially in the centre, is too readily given over to 
the invading force. These are theoretical objections. But 
then they have been amply borne out by experience. 
Therefore, imtil something more can be shown in its favour, 
the Sicilian must take secondary rank. 

The strongest form of the defence is that in which the 
King Pawn is left immoved for some time, and is really a 
King's Fianchetto— 1 P— K 4, P— Q B 4 ; 2 Kin-Q B 3, 
P— K Kt 3; 3 Kt— B 3, B— Kt 2; 4 P— Q 4, PxP; 5 
KtxP, Kt— Q B 3; 6 B— K 3, Kt— B 3; 7 B— K 2, 
Castles; 8 Q— Q 2, P— Q 3; 9 P— K R 3, B— Q 2; 10 
Castles, with the better development. 

1 P— K 4, P— Q B 4; 2 Kt— Q B 3, Kt— Q B 3; 3 
Ki^B3, P— K3; 4P— Q4, PxP; 5 KtxP, Kt— B3; 
6 P— Q E 3, P— Q E 3; 7 B— Q B 4, P— Q 4; 8 PxP, 
PxP; 9 B— Kt 3, B— K 2; 10 Castles, and Black's 
isolated Pawn places him at a disadvantage. Or, 5 . . . . 
P— Q E 3; 6 B— K 2, Kt— B 3; 7 Castles, B— Kt 5; 8 
KtxKt, KtPxKt; 9P— K5, BxKt; 10 PxB, Kt^Q 
4 ; 11 (^-Q 4, Castles ; 12 B— E 3, E— K sq, and White 
has the superior position. 

White may himself play a Fianchetto, and secure a good 
game— 1 P— K 4, P— Q B 4; 2 Kt— Q B 3, Kt— Q B 3; 
3 P— K Kt 3, Kt— B 3; 4 B— Kt 2, P— K 3; 6 KKt— K 
2, P— Q R 3; 6 P— Q 4, PxP; 7 KtxP, P— Q 3; 8 
Castles, B — K 2 ; 9 K — R sq, &c. Or, Black varying, 

3 P— KKt3; 4 B— Kt2,B— Kt2; 5KKt— K2, 

P— K 3; 6 P— Q 3, K Kt— K 2; 7 B— K 3, Kt— Q 5;. 
8 Castles, Castles ; 9 R— Kt sq, K Kt— B 3 ; 10 Q— Q 2, 
P— Q R 3 ; 11 Kt^B 4, P— Q 3 ; 12 Kt— Q sq, &c. 

Often White plays 2 Kt— K B 3, instead of 2 Kt— Q B 3, 
and goes on 3 P — Q 4. This is also a good method of 
attack. All he has to do is to not over do it. Because, 
after all, the Sicilian is a game of resources, if its initial 
drawbacks are not fairly brought into account. 



298 ^rt of (ChesP. 



THE FIANCHETTO, &c. 

Other replies to 1 P— K 4are 1 P— K Kt 3, 1 

P— Q Kt 3, 1 . . . . P— Q 3, and 1 ... . P— Q B 3. 
Even 1 . . . . P — K B 3 has not been quite neglected. 
The Pianchetto, whether King's or Queen's, gives awaj 
too much ground at the outset; while the others also 
have this fault, with a tendency to run into inferior 
lines of the Philidor, French, Sicilian, &c., aU of which is 
of course no great recommendation. 



1 P— K4 


P— K Kt 3 


2 P— K B 4 


B— Kt2 


3 K<H-K B 3 


P— Kt3 


4 P— Q4 


B— Kt2 


5 B— Q3 


P— Q3 


6 P— B3 


Z1^Q2 


7 Castles 


P— K3 


8 Kt^R3 


Kt^K 2 


9 Q— Ksq 


Castles 



The foregoing is an example of the Double Pianchetto, 
Blackbume v. Paulsen, in which White is to be preferred. 
He is strong in the centre, with greater freedom ; and can 
direct the mass of his forces readily, as circumstances may 
warrant. On the other hand, Black's formation is 
eccentric; there are weak ^ints in his lines, viz., those 
over which Pawn control has been abandoned, concerted 
action in mass is difficult, <fcc. In the absence of anything 
more specific, these are the sort of considerations on which 
the judgment rests in all such cases. Otherwise there is 
nothing to determine it — ^nothing to choose on any tangible 
grounds. The defence is perfectly good for the time 
being, and, with f ortime or stronger play in its favour, it 
would probably continue so to the end. It results from 
this view that the Double Pianchetto is less reliable than if 
one wing ovlj is developed in this manner, as, for example, 
in the following : — 



^he ^ianchetto, (&c. 



299 



n. 




1 p— k:4 


P— K Kt 3 


2 P Q4 


B— Kt2 


3 P QB3 


P— K4 


4 PxP 


BxP 


5 P— K B 4 


B— Kt2 


6 Kt— B3 


P— Q3 


7 B— Q3 


Kt— K2 


8 Castles 


Castles 


9 B— K3 


QKt— B3 


10 B— B2 


B— Kt5 


11 B— Kt 3 


K— R sq 


Black has a good game, ■ as . 


. . . P— K B 4 should 


soon prove an effective move. 




ill. 




1 P— K4 


P— Q Kt 3 


2 P— Q4 


B— Kt2 


3 B— Q3 


P— K3 


A move often good is P — Q 5, when the Pawn oan be maintained. 


Here .... P— K B 4 would be bad; 3 


.... P— KB4: 4 PxP!, 


BxP; 6 Q— E5 + ,P— Kt3; 6 P x P, B— K Kt 2 ; 7 PxP + ,K— 


Bsq; 8 PxKt=Q + ,KxQ; 9 Q— Kt4,BxE; 10 P— K E 4, Ac, 


with advantage. 




4 Kl^-K2 


P— QB4 


5 P— QB3 


Kt^K2 


6 B— K3 


KtH-Kt3 


7 Castles 


B— K2 


8 P— K B 4, Ac. 


From Lehrlmch des 



Schachspiels, which very justly assigns the superiority to 
White. Of course the first player may begin with the 
Fianchetto, or anyway he likes for that matter, the worst 
that should happen to him then being that he should 
derive no, or the smallest possible, advantage from the 
move. 



1 P— K4 

2 P— Q4 



IV. 



P— Q3 
P— KB4 



3cx> ^rt of (§hes^. 



3 PxP BxP 
4B— Q3 BxB 

5 QxB Kt— KB3 

Blaek shonld provide against the check and the loss of a Pa'wn. 
Even thns early it is clear he has no easy game. 

6Q— Kt5+ Kt— B3 

7 P— Q 5 P— Q E 3 

SQxKtP Ki^Q5 

9 Kt — Q R 3, and should win. 

Other ways of following np 1 . . . . P — Q 3 almost necessarily 
lead to a Fianchetto, or a Fhilidor, so that on tiie whole that move is 
not favourable. 

V, 

1 P— K 4 P— Q B 3 

2 P— Q 4 P— Q 4 
3K1^QB3 PxP 

White may advance, 3 F — K 5, with a likely turning into a French, 
in which he will be a move to the good, as ... . F — K 3 can hardly 
be delayed. 

4 KtxP B— B4 

5 Kt— Kt 3 B— Kt 3 

6 P— K E 4 P— K R 3 

7 Ki^B 3 P— K 3 

8 B— Q 3 BxB 

9 Q X B, with the better game. 

And so for other iinusiial first moves on the part of the 
second player. Whether any .... P — R 3 (or 4), or 
any .... Kt — B 3 (or R 3), ground is likely to be lost 
which may never be regained. As stated in " Principles " 
(p. 214) : " A thoroughly practical defence must not be 
too defensive. Force must oppose force, directly or in- 
directly. Ability to exchange or counter-attack is always 
a valid test." Tried by this rule, the defences just noticed 
are insufficient. Hence they are not often adopted, save 
by way of variety, or againsjb a supposed weaker opponent; 
or from some occult or ulterior motive, whim, or fancy, 
present in the mind of the player at the time. 



(Queen's (Knight* s (Game, 301 

QUEEN'S KNIGHT'S GAME. 

The QaeerCs Knight* s or Vienna Game may be solid or 
brilliant, a Gumbit or not, as it may be continued in one 
of two widely different ways. In playing his Queen 
Knight at the second move, White shuts himself out from 
many variations of the Q-iuoco Piano, including the 
Evans ; but many others are still open, and, by way of 
compensation, his power over the King's Q-ambit, to a 
considerable extent, remains. 

I. 

1 P— K 4 P— K 4 

2 Kt— Q B 3 Ki^K B 3 

This is the simplest defence. Others in order of efifectiyeness are 

2 . . . . Kir-Q B 3, 2 . . . . B— B 4, and 2 ... . B— Kt 5. Black 
wants to play .... P — Q 4 very soon. 

3 P— B 4 P— Q 4 

If 3 Kt — ^B 3, then a Ginoco development, Three Knights, Four 
Knights, Double Lopez, or what not, may be agreed upon. Or, 

3 P— K Kt 3, P— Q 4;4PxP, KtxP; 5K Kt— K 2, B— Q B 4 ; 

6 B— Kt 2, P— Q B 3 ; 7 Castles, Castles ; 8 P— Q 3, &o., with 
equality. 

4BPxP KtxP 

Or, 4 P— Q 3, P— Q 5 ; 5 Q Kt— K 2, P x P ; 6 B x P, B— K 2 ; 

7 Kt— K B 3, P— B 4 ; 8 Kt— Kt 3, Castles, &c., with slight advan- 
tage to Black. Or, 4 P— Q 4, PxQP;5QxP, PxP;6 B— K 3, 
B— K 2 ; 7 Castles, Q x Q ; 8 B x Q, B— K B 4, &c. But 4 P x Q P, 
P X P ; 5 Kt — ^B 3, Kt X P, &c., makes equal game. 

5 Q— B 3 P— K B 4 

The following is probably better for White : 5 Kt— B 3, B— Q Kt 5 ; 
6 Q— K 2, B X Kt ; 7 Q P x B, Castles ; 8 B— K 3, &c., with slight, if 
any, inferiority. As for Black, he backs up his Kiight and plays for 
counter attack^ in preference to acting strictly on the defensive. 

6 K Kt— K a Kt— Q B 3 

7 p_Q 4 Kt-Kt 5 

8 K— Q sq P— B 4 

9 P— Q E 3 Kt— Q B 3 
10 B— K 3 P— K Kt 3 



302 ^rt of (§hesf^. 



Black has the advantage B — Kt 2 and .... 

Castles will give him a fine game. 

II. 

1 P— K 4 P— K 4 

2 Kt— Q B 3 Kt— Q B 3 
3P— B4 PxP 
4P— Q4 Q— E5 + 

8teinitz Oambit. — Black should be careful at this game not to be 
too eager. His Qaeen is not very well placed after checking, nor is 
White King in any real danger, however it may appear. 

5 K— K 2 P— K Kt 4 

The line of attack introduced by Zukertort more than twenty years 
ago, involying the sacrifice of a piece, is doubtful, to say the least : 
5 . . . . P— Q 4; 6 P X P, B— Kt 5 + ; 7 Kt— B 3, Castles; 8 P x Kt, 
B — Q B 4 ; 9 Q — K sq ! Obviously, Black can do no good by ex- 
changing Queens. Then 9 . . . . E— K sq + ; 10 K— Q 2, Q— Q sq ; 
11 P X P + , with 12 Q— B 2, and B — Q 3 soon, should win eventually 
for White. Or 9 ... . BxKt+ ; 10 P x B, E— K sq+ ; 11 Kt— 
K 4, &c., with a like result. And so in various other ways. The 
attack seems to just fall short in every case. 



the preference. 



6 Kt-<5 5 


K— Qsq 


7 Kt K B 3 


Q— E4 


8 P— K E 4 


B— R3 


9 K— B2 


P— Kt5 


10 Klr-Kt sq. 


P— Kt 6+ 


11 K— K sq 


QxQ+ 


12 KxQ 


KtxP 


13 BxP 


BxB 


14 KtxB 


P— Q3 


Y recover his Pawn, 
!e. 


but Black wiU 


m. 




1 P— K4 


P— K4 


2 e:i^-qb3 


K1^-QB3 


3 P— B4 


PxP 


4 Kt^B3 


P— K Kt 4 



(Queen's (Knight's (Game. 303 

If 4 ... . B— B 4; 5 P— Q4, KtxP; 6 KtxKt, Q— E 5 + ; 7 
K— K2,P— Q4; 8 KtxP, B— Kt6 + ; 9 Kt—B 3, Ac, the attack is 
hardly worth the Piece, and White comes oif somewhat best. 

5 p_Q 4 P-^Kt 5 

Better than 5 . . . . P— Q 3, or 5 ... . B— Kt 2. Black hayin^r 
moved his Qoeen Knight cannot so advantageonsly defend the Gkunbit 
Pawn as in I., p. 283. White most give up the attacked Knight, as in 
the Mnzio. He cannot stand 6 . . . . Q — B 5 + . 

6B— B4 PxKt 

7 Castles P— Q 4 

8 PxP B— KKt5 

Or,8KtxP,B— K Kt 5; 9 PxP, B— K E 6 ; 9 B x P, E— B sq, 
Ac, and Black should win. 

9 E— K sq+ K Kt— K 2 
lOKt— K4! B— Kt2 

11 PxP Ki^R4 

White can hardly do better than take the Pawn. The object of 
8 . . . . B — K Kt 5 was to force him to do this, closing the file to the 
Book. The same thing happens in the Mnzio, brought about by a 
diiferent. series of moves. 

12 B— B sq B— E 4 

13 P— B 4 Er—K Kt sq 

If 13 P— Kt 4, of course 13 . . . . QxP, threatening 
the Eook. As it is the attack passes away from White, 
and he should lose. 

IV. 

1 P— K 4 P— K 4 

2 Kt— Q B 3 KiH-Q B 3 
3P— B4 PxP 

4 Kt-B 3 P-^K Kt 4 

5 P— K E 4 P— Kt 5 

6 Kt-Kt 5 P— K E 3 

7 KtxP KxKt 

8 P— Q 4 P— Q 4 

If 8B— B4+ thenal8o8 .... P—Q 4, with following .... K— 



304 ^T't of (§hes^. 

Kt 2, OP perhaps .... Kt — ^K 4. See ordinary AUgaier. The 
difference here is only that the Gambit is a move later, each party 
haying played his Queen Knight. Black should win. 

V. 

1 P— K 4 P— K 4 

2Ki^-QB3 B— B4 

This is scarcely as good for Black as either Kt — B 3. It makes a 
Gambit Declined, at best ; as it is not good to accept the Pawn after 
playing out the Bishop. 

3 P— B 4 P— Q 3 

If3....BxKt;4ExB, PxP;5 P— Q 4, Q— E 5+ ; 6 P— 
Kt 3, P X P ; 7 P X P, Q— E 7 : 8 E— Kt 2, Q— E 8 ; 9 Kt— Q 5, 
Kt— E 3 ; 10 B— B 4, P— Q 3 ; 11 K— B 2 (threatening to win the 
Queen), White will have the advantage. 

4 Kt— B 3 B— K Kt 5 

5 Kt— Q E 4 B— Kt 3 

6 KtxB EPxKt 
7B— B4 PxP 
8P— Q3 KKt— B3 

9 B X P, and Wliite has a good game. 
The non-gambit phases of the Queen's Knight's Open- 
ing need not be here taken into account, it being essenti- 
ally identical with games previously considered. 



QUEEN PAWN OPENING, &c. 

When the game begins with any move other than 1 
P — K 4 it is apt to be what' is called " close ; " and of the 
close game that, proceeding from 1 P — Q 4, may be con- 
veniently taken as the type. With it, however, must be 
linked the English Opening (1 P — Q B 4), the game from 
1 P — K 3, that from 1 P — K B 4 (in certain of its phases), 
together with sundry others, such as the Centre Counter 
Gambit, the Pianchetto, &c. The characteristic of the 
close game is that neither King is in any way but remotely 
concerned during the period of development; with the 
consequence that during this period it presents none of the 



(Queen i^awn (Opening, (&c. 305 

capital hazards of the open game, particularly as regards 
the Gambit forms of the latter. Giere are few or no very 
salient points about the close game, and the differences of 
position upon which analytical verdicts rest are obscure 
•even to the verge of practical non-existence. 

1 P— Q 4 P— Q 4 

2 p_Q B 4 P— K 3 

For what ia called the Qaeen's Grambit see HI. next following. It 
is thought beet to decline to immediately take the Pawn, leaving the 
adversary to take if he likes, or to, perhaps, lose a move with his 
Bishop. 

3 Kt— Q B 3 Kt— K B 3 

4 Kt— B 3 Q Kt— Q 2 

5 B— B 4 P— B 3 

The move F — ^B 3, on either side, is doubtful, as a rule, in this sort 
of game. At all events, it is liable to sooner or later afford a good 
point of attack to the enemy, and it hinders effective action of the 
Bishop from Q Kt 2. 

6 P— K 3 B— K 2 
7P— KE3 PxP 

8 BxP Kt— Kt3 

The gain of a move in this way is of no consequence. If Q 4 were 
a permanent post for the Knight it might be otherwise. But here it 
is evident that in due course he may be driven off by the Pawn. 

9 B— Q 3 Q Kt— Q 4 

10 B— E 2 Q— E 4 

11 Q— Kt3! Castles 

12 Castles KtxKt 

13 PxKt Q— E4 

White has the better position. The open Knight file 
and^the superior range of his Bishops are in his favour. 

n. 

1 P— Q 4 P— Q 4 

2 P— K-3 Kt— K B 3 

Naturally, either 2 Kt— K B 3 or 2 B— B 4 is also good for 
White. 



3o6 ^rt of (Qhes^. 



3 P— QB4 


P— K3 


4 Kt-K B 3 


B— K2 


5 B— K2 


Castles 


6 Castles 


P— B4 


7 Kt— B3 


Kt— B3 


8 BPxP 


KPxP 


9 PxP 


BxP 


10 P Q R 8 


B— K3 


11 P— Q Kt 4 


B— K2 


12 B— Kt 2 


R— Bsq 


13 Q— Q3 


Q— B2 


14 Q E^B sq, Ac. 


Black's isolated Pawn is 


i weakness which might have been easily avoided. 


m. 




1 P— Q4 


P— Q4 


2 P— QB4 


PxP 


3 Ki^K B 3 


P— QB4 



There would be danger in supportinpr the Pawn by 3 ... . P — Q 
Ai, 4. Still, it might be ventored, though, of conrse, in reply to 

3 P— K 3 or 3 P— K 4 it would be bad, on account of 4 P— Q E 4, &c. 
The object of 3 Kt— K B 3 is to prevent 3 . . . . P— K 4 ; which 
may be the reply to 3 P — K 3, looking to equality. 

4P— K3 PxP 

5 BxP! P— K3 

6 PxP Kt— KB3 

7 Castles B— K 2 

8 Kt— B 3 Castles 

9 B— B 4 Kt— B 3 
10 E— B sq B— Q 2 

Wliite's freer position compensates for the isolation of 
his Pawn. He can hardly be prevented from getting rid 
of this weakness by P—Q 5 ; but then there will be 
exchanges, with every probability of an equal game. 

To 1 P—Q 4 the reply may be 1 ... . P— K B 4. 
This was a favourite witJi Morphy. ^.^., 1 P — Q 4, P — 
K B 4; 2 P—Q B 4, P— K 3; 3 Kt— Q B 3, Kt— KB3; 

4 B— B 4, P— B 3; 6 P— K 3, P—Q 4; 6 Kt— B 3, 



(Queen ^awn (Qpening, (&c. 307 

B— Q 3 ; 7 B— Kt 3, Castles ; 8 B— Q 3, &c., Wliite 
being slightly preferable. In Germany this is known as 
the Hollandish Q-ame. 

But more modem theory is averse to moving the King 
Bishop Pawn early in the opening, whether for Black or 
for White. For example, if the latter begins 1 P — K B 4 
he may be forced into accepting a Q-ambit (Prom's), or 
into himself offering one of the King's Q-ambits by 
continuing 2 P — K 4. The following is a specimen of the 
From Q-ambit, from which it will be seen the first player 
derives no particular advantage : 1 P — K B 4, P — K 4 ; 
2 PxP, P— Q 3; 3 PxP, BxP; 4 Ktr-K B 3, P— 
K Kt 4 ! (recently introduced by E. Lasker) ; 5 P— Q 4, 
P— Kt5; 6 Kt— K5, BxKt; 7 PxB, QxQ+; 8 Kx 
Q, Kt — Q B 3, &c. In this of course White might return 
the Pawn— 3 Kt— K B 3, P x P ; 4 P— K 4, B— Q B 4 ; 

5 B— B 4, Ktr-K B 3 ; 6 P— Q 3, P— K E 3, &c. ; but 
even then he would have no cheerful prospect. Perhaps 
4 Kt— K B 3, P x P ; 5 Kt x P, and (if 5 . . . . B— Q 3) 

6 Kt — Q B 3, &c., would be better. The alternative would 
be 2 P — K 4, leaving Black to accept the Grambit or not, 
thus keeping the lead in the matter of early attack, though 
this could hardly be the intention in playing 1 P — K B 4. 

When White begins 1 P— K 3, or 1 Kt— K B 3, in most 
cases P — Q 4 soon follows ; and sometimes P — K B 4 is 
worked in later, making a heavy, difficult kind of game. In 
short, the play may be varied greatly within the first four 
moves, with no immediate ill results if there is no loss 
of force. The safety of the Kings being only remotely 
in question, defective strategy may pass unvisited until the 
late middle game or ending. But, thsn, it is extremely 
likely to be brought into account with decisive effect. 

English Opening, — A perfectly safe and sound com 
mencement, this ordinarily leads to a game similar to tha" 
consequent upon 1 P — Q 4. It is apt, however, to be — ^if 
anything — a little ** closer," as exchanges may be more 
naturally deferred to a later stage. Possessed of no striking 



3o8 ^rt of (§hesP, 

characteristics, a liigh level of skiU is requisite to its due 
appreciation ; and it is seldom resorted to unless a deter- 
mined and protracted struggle is expected. The best replies 
are probably 1 . . . . P— K 3 and 1 ... . P— Q B 4. 
The move 1 . . . . P — K B 4 is hardly so good, and 1 . . . . 
P — K 4 is condemned as yielding only a sort of reversed 
Sicilian, in which the second player assumes the responsi- 
bilities of attack with the move against him. 

I. 



1 P— Q B 4 


P— K3 


2 Ki^Q B 3 


Kt— KB3 


3 Ktr-B3 


P— Q4 


4 P— KS 


P— Q Kt 3 


6 P— Q4 


B-^3 


6 B Q3 


B— Kt2 


7 Castles 


Castles 


8 P— Q Zt 3 


QKt— Q2 


9 B— Zt2 


P— B4 


10 Kt-QKt5? 


B— K2 


11 I^-B sq 

12 Kl^-B 3 


P— QE3 


R— Bsq 


13 Q— K 2 


Klr-K5 


And Black stands very well. 


The Fianchetto brought in 


by his opponent at moves 8 and 9 might be dispensed with. 


the Knight lessening the effect of it by obstructing the 


long diagonal action of the Bishop. Advanta^ is often 


gained by the early posting of 
order to this the Bishop should 


a Knight at K 5, and in 


have free action, as in the 


case of Black in this instance. 




n. 




1 P— QB4 


P— QB4 


2 P— KS 


P— K3 


3 Kt— K B 3 


P— Q4 


4 P— Q4 


Kt— KB3 


5 Kt^B3 


Kt-B3 


6 PxQP 


KKtxP 


7 B— Kt5 


KtxKt 



(Queen ^awn (Opening, (&c. 309 



8 PxKt 


B-Q2 


9 Castles 


B— K2 


10 B-Q2 


Castles 


11 Q— K 2 


Q— B2 


12 B— Q3 


P— QR3 


White is weaker on the Queen 


side, but has some com- 


pensation in proBpective attack on 


the King. 


m. 




1 P— Q B 4 


P— KB4 


2 P— K3 


P— K3 


3 Kt— Q B 3 


Kt— KB3 


4 P— Q4 


P QKt3 


5 KI^BS 


B— Kt2 


6 P— K Kt 3 


B— Kt5 


7 B— Kt2 


Castles 


8 Castles 


BxQKt 


9 PxB 


P— Q4 


10 Ktr-K 5 


QKt— Q2 


11 P— B 4 


P— B4 


12 PxQP 


KtxP 


White IS to be preferred. Both 


Bishops wiU be in good 


play, and the Enight cannot be taken without letting in a 


troublesome Pawn at K 5. 




rv. 




1 P— Q B 4 


P— KB4 


2 P— K3 


Kt^KB3 


3 K:t^-QB3 


P— K3 


4 P Q4 


B— K2 


5 B— Q3 


P— Q Kt 3 


6 Kt^E3 


B— Kt2 


7 Castles 


Castles 


8 P— B3 


Kt— B3? 


9 P— R3 


K— Esq 


10 P— Q Kt 4 


Q— Ksq 


11 E— R2 


P— QE4 


12 P— Kt 5 


Kt— Qsq 


13 P — ^K 4, with the better game. 



^ppenbix. 



THE PROBLEM ART. 

My dear Mason, 

There is so much that I heartily appreciate in your 
" Principles of Chess," that I am sure you wUl allow me to call 
your attention to yom* treatment of one branch of the royal 
game, in which I take very special interest, and to ask you to 
reconsider yom* estimate of tne poor problems, whose case you 
dismiss in a short paragraph which " damns them with faint 
praise," and speaks of ttieir construction as an imnatural art, 
and a waste of laborious ingenuity. My own experience quite 
contradicts this view. Living where no opponent for a friendly 
game was to be met with, I found much intellectual amusement 
and refreshment in the company of my chess board and men, 
and, both by solving and by composing problems, I gained 
fresh knowledge of the positions, combinations, and possibilities 
of the game itself, which has certainly been of service to me in 
actual play. 

This branch of chess does hot, I know, commend itself to all 
enthusiasts, but it has a charm of its own for many, and is not 
to be despised because the fight in full array is finer, any more 
than light or quaint music, poems, or pictures are to be dis- 
regarded because there are grander works of art. Problems 
are distinct from end-games. They are puzzles with chess 
pieces, subject to the rmes and laws of chess. Many of us who 
have a turn for puzzles would but waste time on analysis of 
positions that may arise in games, and the large body of 
solvers would be deprived of wholesome mental gymnastics if 
no problems of the sort they look for were produced. I had a 
touching instance recently of their value. A poor fellow, 
whom I did not know personally, wrote to me from a bed of 
long continued sickness and suJCering, to thank me for the 
plea8tu*e and relief from pain that my problems had afforded 



appendix, 3 1 1 



c;? 



him, and to ask me where he could get a copy of my little 
book ; you can imagine how gladly I sent a copy to him by the 
:Bext post. 

There are many masters of my favourite art who could 
better uphold its claims, but you will, I know, accept my pro- 
test for what it is worth, and in the friendly spirit which is 
natural to you. 

I am always 

Very sincerely yours, 
A. Cyeiii Pbaeson. 
Springfield Rectory, 
jRw. 28, 1894. 

[It affords me genuine pleasure to be able to i-equest the 
reader's best attention to the above letter from an old friend, 
printed here with his full and free permission. Other friends 
have written before, in the Press, on the same subject, in a 
similar strain, but stronger. Much, very much, may readily 
be urged in favour of problems. A book as large again as 
" Principles of Chess " might be filled with their just praise, 
and more remain behind. But " Principles " was designed 
wholly in the interest of the beginner and the young pla/yer. 
The object was to furnish such as these with solid material for 
a swift and sure foundation in chess. Only this and nothing 
more. "In ev'ry work regard the writer's end, since none 
can compass more than they intend," to adapt the poet's 
words to the situation. In the estimate of problems to 
which Mr. Pearson refers, I said the worst of them, as far as I 
knew how. This, I imagined, could really hurt nobody. In 
the circumstances it was a duty. A painful duty — a risky 
duty ; but a duty that could not be shirked. — Jas. Mason.] 



y-A V