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Full text of "Art and industry in education. A book illustrative of the principles and problems of the courses in the fine and industrial arts at Teachers college, 1913"

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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2008 with funding from 

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http://www.archive.org/details/artindustryineduOOcolu 



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Charcoal Drawing, Grace Cornell 



TtRTanftlNDUSTRY 



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in eDUCHTlON 



?lbook illustrative of the princi- 
ples anS problerns of the conrses 
In Pine axxd Industrial Arts a't 
Teachers Colteg^e S'vvyyyl9l3 




Publi6he3 by tHei^rls anS 
Crafts Clnb of Tea c hers Col- 
lege, ColutnbiaXJniversily 
in the cityof Ne\xr^rh "-/y 



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Copyright May, 1913 

by 

Rajmiond Long, Pres. 

for 
Arts and Crafts Club. 





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PREFATORY NOTE 

We are very highly gratified to realise that there was sufficient 
demand for the first publication of "Art and Industry in Educa- 
tion' ' to warrant a second edition. This assurance of a demand for 
the magazine has made possible another publication this year, 
which has been compiled, similar in spirit to the initial number. 

It should be borne in mind, that while we have been able to 
publish only one number each year, the magazine is not to be 
confused with a year book, for it is our definite intention that when 
the work of compilation becomes better organized, it shall become 
a more frequent publication. 

Subject to the sponsorship of Professor Dow and Professor 
Bonser, heads of the departments of Fine Art and Industrial Art, 
we have attempted to make the magazine illustrative of principles 
and problems now being worked out in these departments at 
Teachers College. 

We very sincerely trust that some of the possibilities of good 
correlation have been illustrated in this book, with sufficient clear- 
ness to be of assistance to supervisors and instructors in the Fine 
and Industrial Arts. 

EDITORS. 




EDITORIAL COMMITTEE 



Anna M. Barringer, Chairman 

Belle Boas 

Nellie J. Apgar 

Helen N. Rhodes 

Malcolm Huff 

Charles R. Beeman 

Raymond V. Long 

Alanson H. Edgerton 

Olive S. De Luce 

James F. Walker 

Abbott L. Combes 




TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PAGE 

2 Frontispiece Grace Cornell 

10 Gospel of Art 

11 Industrial Arts Education Ethelwyn C. Bradish 

15 Art Principles in Writing Sallie B. Tannahill 

20 Blue and Sepia Printing Edna Florida 

24 The International Exhibit of Modem Art Olive S. De Luce 

31 Symbolism Helen N. Rhodes 

37 Field of Modem Photography Karl Struss 

41 A Problem in Fine and Industrial Arts 

Lucy H. Wiser and Lucia W. Dement 

47 What's In A Name? Dorothy C. Rowell 

51 Wood Block Printing E. Eleanor Gibbons 

55 Decorative Use of the Figure in Advertising Jean Corser 

58 Cement and Concrete Leon Loyal Winslow 

. 69 Paper Cutting Kate Franklin 

72 Design and Construction Edward Tratcher 

77 Use of Museums in School Work Malcolm Huflf 

81 Costume Design Theodora F. Demorest 

87 Good Fumiture La Mont A. Warner 

91 High School Annual Doris Patty Rosenthal 

94 Experimental Work in Industrial Arts Alanson H. Edgerton 

98 Decorations in a Restaurant Kate Barnard 

100 The Development of Personality in House Decoration. 

C. A. Osterholm 

101 Illustrations from Department of Industrial Arts 

104 Advertisements 




Charcoal Drawing — Senior Class. 



APPRECIATION 



We are indebted for many kindnesses to Dr. Frederick Henry 
Sykes, Director of Practical Arts at Teachers College, and Presi- 
dent-elect of the Woman's College of New London, Conn. In his 
many years at Teachers College he has given us much in inspiration 
and example. We have enjoyed without stint the breadth of his in- 
terest, the wisdom of his advice, and his keen appreciation of the 
possibilities of beauty in the serviceable elements of life. Therefore, 
before his departure for this new post, we take this opportunity of 
thanking our friend Dr. Sykes, an artist, a thinker, and a man of 
affairs. 

There are none of the present class in Fine Arts and few of 
our recent alumni who have not, as students, been associated with 
Miss Mary Bull Hanckel of Teachers College and Miss Lila Nourse 
of the Horace Mann School, and before they leave for further 
study abroad we wish to express our appreciation of all we have 
received from them, of their sympathy, their helpfulness, and 
their splendid ideal of work. 




THE GOSPEL 
OF/IRT 

tflork thou pr pleasure ; 
pQiJ2t or sing or carve oo 

The thirzg thou, lovest, 
though the bodq storva 
CUho ujorkd tor jlonjoo 
mi55es oft the 500L ; 

dUho ujorks tbr moneq 
coins his ven\ souL; 00 
((Jorktbr tii£ ujoii^s soke 

then, and it mm^ be 00 

That these things shnil 

be added unHothee^oo 

Keru)anDu 



10 




INDUSTRIAL ARTS EDUCATION AT THE DRESDEN 

CONGRESS 

Ethelwyn C. Bradish 

The subject of greatest interest to me at the Dresden Corgress 
was the extent to which the industrial arts work was included in 
the general elementary school in the foreign countries. In only 
a few instances in the general elementary schools did I see traces 
of a development of industrial design in connection with other 
subjects in the curriculum. In one place nature study was closely 
connected. A great many drawings of flowers, plants, and insects 
had been made. From these, designs were developed and used on 
different articles, such as textiles, pottery, wall-paper, book-covers, 
and end-papers for books. Designs were also worked out from 
geometric figures. This method, with which you have all been so 
long familiar, of developing design through nature motifs, seemed 
to me to be much less strong than that of using principles of space 
cutting where carefully chosen spaces are filled with tone and 
color. In the latter there is unlimited freedom as to motif and all 
kinds of design may be evolved. In Germany, France, Italy and 
Holland, there seem to be two systems of education, general and 
industrial. The minimum amount of elementary school training 
precedes the liberal and technical which nearly always are de- 
veloped in separate institutions. England, I believe, is an excep- 
tion in this respect; at least the two are more united there. 

One thing of particular significance was, that in almost every 
exhibit of industrial work which I saw, projects were taken up 
which involved only the industrial problems of that particular com- 
munity, rather than ones which emphasize industrial needs and 



11 



activities of present day world-conditions, whether they be in that 
especial locality or not. For example, in Switzerland, designs for 
damask and all sorts of woven linens prevailed; in Belgium, lace 
designs. An interesting project in the Hamburg elementary ex- 
hibit was a small theater made of wood with burlap curtains and 
cardboard figures, the scenery being of cut-paper and offering a 
splendid opportunity for originality in design. There were also 
some very interesting designs for gardens worked out in cut-paper. 
In Professor Czick's exhibit from Vienna which represents the 
work of a private school where there is unlimited freedom of ex- 
pression, there were some quaint costumes designed in connection 
with different periods in history. These ranged from about the 
fourth to the fifth grades. Designs carried out in woolen work 
helped to complete this vigorous exhibit. Technical excellence was 
one of the distinguishing features of all the industrial arts work 
of the foreign schools, showing that vocational work is one of the 
chief ends in this education rather than a general education for 
appreciation of industrial problems. 

Of course our ideals, social conditions, and industrial situations 
are fundamentally different from those of Europe, which make our 
problems of education different; so the two exhibits could not be 
judged from the same view-point. I felt that we were doing more 
for the elementary children than they by giving them an apprecia- 
tion of good design in industrial art. The European schools evi- 
dently rely upon their higher technical schools to do what is neces- 
sary to develop that side of the child's education. They have every 
opportunity to study fine design in industry with their splendid 
Industrial Arts Museums. Dresden is especially fortunate in this 
respect. The Industrial exhibit from the Bavarian Provinces which 
we saw in Munich showed the fine work which is done in German 
industrial, technical and trade schools. Is it any wonder that we 
are tempted to buy the foreign products, where an excellence in 
design and workmanship so clearly show the influence of the fine 
training which the workers have had? 

Two quotations from papers read at the Congress may be of 



12 



interest and serve to show that the view-point of foreign educators 
is changing, in favor of a combination of general and technical edu- 
cation under one institution. Mr. Leon Monfort of Brussels said, 
"Manual work is also needful for young girls to prepare them to be 
good future mothers and first educators of their children; to become 
perfect managers and housekeepers, liking their home, as their 
home, where will be reigning order, economy and beauty. There- 
fore I pray the assembly to accept the following wish; considering 
that manual work constitutes an important element of general edu- 
cation, and efficacious counterpoise for scientific and literary stud- 
ies, and that it is a great help for drawing, teaching and other 
branches, the assembly presents the wish that manual work be 
introduced in all classes of primary and secondary schools." This 
interested me much as we, at Speyer School, have felt the need of 
a course on "The Home" with our seventh and eighth grade girls. 
Such a course has been started and proved a great success. 

In a paper entitled "Cultivation of Taste through Manual 
Work," by von M. E. Beyrer of Munich, are some ideas which will 
apeal to those interested in having industrial education a vital part 
of the general school curriculum. He says: "The pupil is in the 
center of education. Also in art education, we have to ask, 'Whom 
have we to teach and to what end?' Educational ways and meth- 
ods are conditioned by these two questions. ' ' 

"Our first aim is not to turn individual talents into artists, but 
to educate the public to a more refined taste. Every branch of art 
is based upon manual work. Therefore we should at first teach this 
ground-work in order to have a sound footing for the further de- 
velopment of the appreciation of artistic production. These ideas 
cannot be transferred by teaching, they must be achieved by per- 
sonal labor and experience since they are based upon craftsmanship 
and knowledge, gained by experience, and must needs have a field 
of action in the technique of manual work. To this end all move- 
ment towards the introduction of manual art at schools of general 
teaching should be supported and furthered. ' ' 

From these quotations, it may readily be seen that the tendency 
is to combine general and technical training. 

13 







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Pen formed designs 
A, B, C, show the same design made with flat and round nibbed pen. 



14 




ART PRINCIPLES IN WRITING AND LETTERING 
Sallie B. Tannahill 
N examining the Egyptian hieroglyphic, did you ever 
consider that the same kind of lines and shapes are 
seen as in the painting and sculpture of the coun- 
try? Did you ever compare the Greek letters with 
the simple, restrained lines in Greek art? In like 
manner the Chinese and Japanese use the same brush 
strokes in the formation of their characters that they 
employ in their painting. They may indeed, even speak of ** writ- 
ing a picture" or "painting a character," so closely allied are these 
arts among the Chinese and Japanese. If, then, writing is so closely 
related to Fine Art in these countries, would it not be of benefit for 
us to consider how art principles apply in this, the most used of all 
branches of art? A letter, as well as a picture, a piece of furniture, 
or a costume, may be beautiful or commonplace. The result is di- 
rectly dependent upon the choice of shape and color: the picture 
may have excellent technique and draughtsmanship, the piece of 
furniture may show careful handicraft, and the gown may be made 
of exquisite material and neatly put together, but if the choice of 
shape and color is poor, the result, in every case, is not an example 
of Fine Art. 

In the art of writing and lettering, one of the first things to be 
considered is the choice of line. There must be good proportion in 
the line itself and also in the relation between lines, as in the arm 
and stem of a letter. A beautifully executed letter may be spoiled by 
poor proportions. Much depends, also, on the quality of line, that 
subtle something that gives power, strength, vigor, and life to the 
line. The Chinese and Japanese express this in their writing to 
such an extent that lines which do not express life are worthless. 
In our writing and lettering the great need is for more of this vital 
quality, more freedom and less tight, exact copying. When lines of 
letters are grouped to form words, there must be a rhythmic or 
musical flow of line. If the words themselves lack unity, how can 
we expect a paragraph or a page to result in harmony? The repeti- 

15 





Japanese brush drawing of turtles. The word turtle in 

Japanese 
and Chinese writing. 



tion of word after word over the page is coincident with this prin- 
ciple of repetition in design (see figure 1). The tone produced 
on the page by repeating words is a most important point in this 
art and one often neglected. The depth of tone, of course, de 
pends upon the size of the individual leters, the space between let- 
ters and the space between lines. Often, in the planning of a page, 
a difference of tone is desired. Figure 2 might be considered an 
exercise in values. 

The spacing of the mass of writing on the page is not to be 
overlooked, for all the beauty and quality of line and tone is prac- 
tically lost if the mass of writing does not space well on the page. 
Mr. Edward Johnson's book, "Writing, Illuminating and Letter- 
ing," is a complete and delightful text book on this subject, and if 
carefully studied, with practice one may become a good letter 
craftsman. This practice in writing with a broad-nibbed pen 
(examples) as outlined in Mr. Johnston's book, will have a strong 
influence for good on our individual handwriting. Why not write 
with ease and yet legibly and artistically? Surely, it gives us much 
pleasure to receive a well written letter, beautifully spaced. Why 
not send one? 



16 



OIIOIIOIIOII 
IIOIIOIIOIIO 
OIIOIIOIIOII 
IIOIIOIIOIIO 




lOIIOIipilOU 

.-jjipiionoiio 

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iOllOllOIIOII 
3II0IIOIIOIIO 
IOllOllOIIOII 
OIIOIIOIIOIIO 
IIOIIOIIOHOII 



REPEHTTON 
REPOlTiON 
REPETITION 
REPETITION 

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REPETITION 
REPETiTiQH 

RepEnrmoN 

REPCTTiOM 
gEPETmON 
REPETjDON 
REPETITION 



Figure 1. 

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REPETITION 
REPETITION 
REPETITION 
REPETITION 
REPETITION 



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Figure 2. 
Exercise in Values. 



17 



With a better and fuller education in this art of writing, our 
advertisements, cards of announcement, signs, labels and letter- 
heads, would be beautiful and attractive; our bill-boards, street 
cars and sub-way stations would be galleries of Fine Art. 








18 




studies in Oil — Senior Class, Fine Arts Department. 

19 






BLUE AND SEPIA PRINTING AS AN AID IN ART 

TEACHING 

Edna Flarida 

We hear much at the present time about "Art in Photog- 
raphy" and every one agrees that there are perhaps wonderful 
possibilities, as yet undiscovered, in this fascinating line of art, 
but to the majority the field is so vast and the required technical 
knowledge apparently so great, that we hesitate to trust ourselves 
to try to produce anything of real value. 

However, one very simple phase of photography, that of blue- 
printing, is open to any one who is willing to spend a little time and 
very little money. The field is large, and the results most satis- 
factory for a great many school purposes. 

I have in mind a second grade, where the teacher made use 
of these prints and taught the children to make prints for them- 
selves from flowers and leaves. The boys and girls were en- 
couraged to bring the flowers as they appeared, and during the 
morning exercises the child who brought a new one was allowed to 
choose the most beautiful part of the plant, subject to the criticism 
of the teacher and the other pupils. He then arranged the plant 
or flower or leaves on the glass of an ordinary printing frame in as 
nice a way as he could, and the paper on which it was to be printed 
placed with the sensitized surface next the plant. The paper should 
be prepared beforehand in a dark room, and the group should be 
carefully arranged so that the paper can be placed in the frame 
quickly without exposing it unnecessarily to the light. 

After the group was arranged, the child placed the frame 
in the sunlight for a few minutes, the time varying from one to 



20 



three minutes, depending entirely upon the condition of the paper 
and the directness of the sun's rays. When the exposed spaces 
seemed dark enough, the back of the frame was removed and the 
paper taken out. It was then immediately immersed in clean run- 
ning water and washed until the unexposed parts were white and 
the background a clear blue, then spread on a blotting paper or 
cloth to dry. The blue-print was then trimmed to the right size 
to make the relation of masses as beautiful as could be, and used 
to decorate a calendar, showing the date on which the flower was 
found. Very charming compositions were sometimes made in this 
way, and used afterwards by pupils of the upper grades. 

Some care must be exercised in choosing the plant, for a large 
flower with a bulky calyx cannot be pressed closely enough to 
the glass to keep out all the light from behind the petals, and will 
make an indistinct print. It is sometimes well to trim away part 
of the plant with sharp scissors. Sometimes, in the more delicate 
plants, as the nasturtium or sweet peas, even the veining is clearly 
shown, and here the art of blue-printing enters the realm of the 
science teachers' interests and adds a hint for note-book illustra- 
tion. 

Other uses for this interesting art make it helpful for almost 
any teacher at some time. There may be beautiful pictures, de- 
signs, examples of good printing, science illustrations, or views 
connected with history, geography or literature, that we should 
like to have the children see or keep. If we have not the means 
to purchase a sufficient number of these or an example large enough 
for all the room to see, and can secure a good plate or film of the 
picture or object, it is an easy matter to duplicate any number 
at little expense. Beautiful copies of Japanese stencils may be 
made by laying the stencil on the glass of a printing frame and the 
sensitized surface of the blue-print paper next the stencil. Expose 
the paper to the sunlight until the background has reached the 
desired color. The artist must learn by experience just when 
the exposed portions are dark enough to remove from the frame. 
It should then be washed until the print is clear. 

In the study of printing, the blue-print may be employed as 

21 



a saving of time to both teacher and pupils, if copies of individual 
letters, alphabets or paragraphs are made and given to each pupil 
to work from. These copies can be prepared by making simple 
line drawings on thin Japanese paper and printing by the same 
method as before. 

A wide-awake teacher of art is able to bring to her pupils bits 
of rare pottery, beautiful architecture or fine metal design, textiles, 
Japanese stencils, etc., which she may gather from magazines or 
her trips abroad, if she is able to take the pictures herself or secure 
the plates for after use. 

Blue-prints of masterpieces may be made if a good print is 
available from which to make a negative, and these in turn be- 
come more valuable to the child if he is allowed to make his own 
blue-prints to illustrate a written article on the life of the artist 
and his pictures. Another use is for book-plates. These can be 
printed from a clear ink-drawing on transparent paper. 

Perhaps the teacher of manual training will find the greatest 
use for blue-prints, in making copies of pattern drawings, work- 
ing drawings, alphabets, bits of ornament, etc. 

Thus far we have spoken only of blue-printing, but if one 
prefers it, there is a sepia paper which is used in the same way. 
This gives a very pleasing brown and white composition instead 
of blue and white. The blue- or sepia-print paper may be bought 
from the local photographer or any photography supply house. 
It cannot be kept long, however, unless the greatest care is taken 
to exclude all light and air. It is well for this reason to keep the 
paper under a heavy iron or stone weight when not wanted. 

With a little practice, one can make his own blue-print paper 
by using the following formula: Soluble iron citrate, 14 oz., red 
prussiate of potash, l^ oz. Place both these in a mortar and grind 
to a fine powder. Pour over this 2V2 ounces of water and let the 
crystals dissolve. This should be done in a dark room, for day- 
light quickly changes the solution and makes it useless. Now with 
a sponge, quite dry, or a brush, cover one surface of the paper to 
be used. Paper for this purpose should have a firm calendared 



99 



surface for best results. But in large masses interesting effects 
can be secured with water-color paper of rougher texture. After 
covering the surface evenly, either hang or lay it away to dry. 
The prepared paper may be bought either by the roll, by the 
yard, or by the package cut any desired size. Some idea of the 
slight cost may be had from the fact that one of the most reliable 
firms of New York City furnishes blue-print paper in ten-yard 
rolls, twenty-four inches wide, for ninety-five cents a roll. 




Print made from Japanese Stencil. 



23 




THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBIT OF MODERN ART 

Olive S. DeLuce 

The recent exhibit of contemporary art held by the Association 
of American Painters and Sculptors, in New York, February 17 to 
March 15, 1913, has caused widespread comment and discussion. 
It has as its acknowledged aim the presentation of ' * new influences 
at work in other countries in an art way ... so that the intelli- 
gent might judge for themselves." To accomplish this purpose 
more than a thousand canvases, American and European, as well 
as many pieces of sculpture, were placed on view, showing in 
chronological sequence the starting points and influences out of 
which modem art has evolved, that art which finds expression to- 
day in post-impressionism. 

The Association did not stand sponsor for the paintings in any 
controversial sense, but desired merely to give the American public 
the opportunity of viewing the different phases of contemporary 
art. In the fore-word of the catalogue issued, Frederick James! 
Gregg thus briefly and succinctly sums up the attitude of the As- 
sociation: 

"Art is a sign of life. There can be no life without 
change. To be afraid of what is different or unfamiliar 
is to be afraid of life. And to be afraid of life is to be 
afraid of truth, and to be a champion of superstition." 



24 



To appreciate the position of the ultra-modems, as repre- 
sented, for example, in the work of the post-impressionist Matisse, 
or the cubist Picabia, it is necessary to review somewhat their 
artistic ancestry. 

Classic painting, as exemplified by the Old Masters, represents 
the result of continuous study and reflection; it is not the fleeting 
impression of a scene, the emotion produced by the moment, but 
the permanent impression produced by long observation. This 
phase of art persisted until towards the close of the eighteenth 
century, when we find the classicists departing from it and tending 
towards formalism. 

The inevitable reaction to this, a closer study of nature, is 
typified by Ingres, Delacroix, and Courbet, who represent respec- 
tively the classic, romantic, and realistic divisions of art. From this 
trilogy has sprung art as we see it to-day. The Impressionists fol- 
low closely on this detailed study of nature. Manet shows the vir- 
tue of pure color applied in bold, direct fashion, expressing the im- 
mediate vision. He works primarily for relative values, and it is 
not until the time of Monet that we find impressionism carried to 
its extreme with the introduction of the painting of absolute values, 
showing vibration of color under the light of the open air (the 
Luminists). In his train follow Pissaro, Renoir, Sisley, Degas, and 
Signac, Signac belonging to the neo-impressionistic school which 
worked out scientific color juxtaposition. With the coming of these 
men the imaginative element which enters into composition is 
slowly lost, and technique becomes an end in itself. 

Gradually we find painting becoming less realistic. The colors 
are more intense and brilliant, and the way is prepared for the 
abstract, subjective, and individualistic painting of the post-im- 
pressionists. This school represents the effort to express the emo- 
tion aroused upon seeing an object, rather than the object itself. 
It is essentially a subjective art, largely characterized by symbol- 
ism combined with the use of violent colors. With them expres- 
sion, not beauty, is the aim of art. At the head of the movement 
stand Cezanne, Gauguin and Van Gogh. 



25 



The first of the trio, Cezanne, uses the technique of the lumin- 
ists to get a feeling of solidity and mass, but simplifies it so that 
the decorative element is not over-ridden by the technique. He 
upholds the classic tradition combined with an almost too realistic 
relationship to life. In the present exhibit his study, "Woman with 
a Rosary" and the "Portrait Head" of himself are wonderful char- 
acter studies. Van Gogh seeks to express strength by archaic sim- 
plicity, adopting harsh color contrasts to typify his idea of primi- 
tive life. Paul Gauguin depicts life under the burning sun of the 
tropics, expressing, too, the underlying forces of nature, and the 
conditions which produce the subject, as well as the subject itself. 
The "Atelier" and the "Faa Iheihe" are perhaps the most inter- 
esting of the twelve canvases shown at the exhibit. 

Matisse, the best-known exponent to-day of post-impression- 
ism in France, is the follower of Gauguin, and in the pupil as in 
the master the decorative element is very marked. His color is 
strong and vivid. His aim of abstract harmony of line, of sub- 
ordinating all details to the main impression, often nulifies the 
objective drawing, as can be seen in "Les Capucines" and "The 
Portrait of a Woman. ' ' He paints his sensations with surety and 
they act as an exciting stimulus to the senses. In England, Au- 
gustus John carries on the movement's tradition. His feeling for 
line and color is very fine and he brings to his work a delightful 
aesthetic element derived from Puvis de Chevannes. Max Weber 
is perhaps the best known of the Americans. An example of ex- 
treme post-impressionism was shown at the exhibit in Kandinsky's 
' ' Improvisation. ' ' 

The Cubist pictures, which represent the most striking depar- 
ture from the formal art of tradition and which for this reason 
provoked perhaps the greatest amount of comment at the exhibit, 
seek to express, besides emotion, weight and solidity — the funda- 
mentals underlying form, stripping nature of the non-essentials and 
representing her by geometric planes. They get the feeling of 
depth by picturing the third dimension, instead of by the conven- 
tion of perspective, often adding to their work decorative coloring. 



26 



Historically, they are an outgrowth of neo and post-impressionism. 

The most conservative of the cubists is Ferdinand Leger, who 
retains in his street scenes traces of objective drawing. Picasso and 
Braque both show highly subjective work in sepia, "La Femme au 
Pot de Moutarde," of the former, and "The Violin" of the latter 
requiring close study for appreciation. Du Champ also paints in 
monochrome. His "Nude descending the Stairs" adds the element 
of motion to the already complicated schemes of Picasso and 
Braque. The picture appears to the lay mind to be superimposed 
repetitions of a cubed mannikin, changing to the different positions 
the body would assume in descending a stairway. It is in truth 
a representation of the mood produced in the painter's mind by the 
memory of the occurrence. 

Picabia shows much vision in his two large canvases. "La 
Danse a la Source, ' ' and ' ' La Procession, Seville. ' ' The low-toned 
harmony of color of the religious pageant is in striking contrast to 
the flaring reds of the dance. 

The Futurists, unfortunately, were not represented at the ex- 
hibit. They claim to go a step beyond the cubists, seeking to repre- 
sent the beauty of strife and energy and glorifying war — indeed 
emphasizing everything which creates motion. The Italians, Boc- 
cioni and Severini, stand foremost in the cult. 

In the sculpture shown at the exhibit, Archipenko represents 
the cubist movement. His "Repose" and the "Family Group" are 
archaic and rough hewn, yet clearly indicate the underlying geom- 
etric forms. Brancusi endeavors to represent in his egg-shaped 
heads the subjective personality of the sitter with as little objec- 
tive likeness as possible. Lehmbruck in the elongated "Kneeling 
One" and Jo Davidson in a bas relief emphasize the decorative 
line. 

Turning from the very positive art of the ultra-moderns, we 
find a room devoted to the highly decorative and imaginative 
work of Redon, the line drawings of Puvis de Chevannes, a study in 
gray-blue by Whistler, and, among our own painters, the delicate 
toned work of Dabo. Davies and Bellows hold their own well with 



the forei^ painters. There is also a number of delightful decora- 
tive panels of animals by Robert Chandler. The works of Ryder, 
Glackens, Weir, Childe Hassam and Prendergast, Jo Yeats, Jonas 
Lie and others represented, are too well known to require descrip- 
tion here. 

To sum up, if the exhibition has done nothing more, it has, as 
its founders desired it to do. stimulated discussion. It has brought 
us face to face with our own products and urged us to self-criti- 
cism. Is American art mediocre, is it lost in contemplation of it- 
self, is it mastered by technique and unable or incapable of ex- 
pressing a spiritual vision — accusations which Europe makes 
against us. At least America has produced a body of men who 
invite comparison and who are not afraid of criticism. 




28 




Painting in oil. Tone from standpoint of color impressions. Senior Class, 
Fine Arts Department. 



29 






Designs from symbolic motifs, Senior Class — Art Department. 



30 




SYMBOLISM IN TEACHING ART 
Helen N. Rhodes 

"For the earth he drew a straight line; 
For the sky. a bow above it; 
While the space between the day time, 
Filled with little stars for night time. 
On the left, a point for sunrise, 
On the top, a point for moonrise, 
And for rain and cloudy weather, 
Wavy lines descending from it." — Longfellow. 

A study of the best design that has been handed down to us 
reveals the fact that from the earliest primitive decoration to the 
productive period of the Gothic, art has had incentive partly, 
at least, outside of the instinctive desire to express beauty. One of 
the well-known authorities on Indian art g^ives his opinion that no 
such thing as ornamentation for decorative purposes existed among- 
primitive people, and though we may consider this statement 
rather broad, we know that through all the periods of great artis- 
tic production, art has been a picture-story-telling, expressing the 
thought of the people, and especially their religious ideas, through 
S5''mbolic forms. To the primitive man, whose religion is based 
largely upon nature-worship, what more natural than that he 
should turn to nature for a picture-sign through which to utter 
a permanent prayer for rain or a petition for a bountiful harvest? 
The development of his artistic sense followed in a natural se- 
quence; for, as with spontaneous joyous activity he repeated over 



31 



and over his first crude representations of the earth, the sky and 
the rivers, his sense of beauty took shape in a desire to make his 
sign-pictures or symbols fill the necessary place on the jar, or fit 
into a border for the rug so that they might please his eye. 

During the Mediaeval period, we find the Christian world us- 
ing the symbols of its faith in all of its art productions, until the 
time of the Renaissance, when symbolism and design were both lost 
sight of, in the desire for exact representation. The invention of 
type, coming also at this period, made writing the popular medium 
of expression. 

There was, no doubt, a spontaneous art in those printless, 
bookless days behind us, the spirit of which we cannot emulate, 
even if we would. Thus the question naturally arises with the 
teacher, as to what place symbolism can play in the teaching of 
art to-day. 

Perhaps its most obvious use is as an avenue of approach to the 
great art of the past, for we can understand these great creations 
better by knowing something of the spirit in which the artist or 
craftman worked. The legendary side, even with older people, 
has its focusing value, and younger pupils always have a keener 
interest in studying those things of which they know the historic 
atmosphere. This interest, we believe, will open a way to more 
artistic appreciation. We are told that there is no Persian rug 
without its story. In the most beautiful examples, the weaver 
had made every unit play a symbolic part, even the colors them- 
selves have a significance. An illustration of an Oriental rug, with 
its connecting story, will make it easier to interest the pupil in the 
wonderful scheme of color, and in the way in which the Oriental 
combines these colors to produce harmony. 

When we begin the study of the art of China and Japan, we 
are impressed with the many ways in which the dragon is used as 
a motif. Would they have made such lovely harmonies from this 
idea, if the dragon had been to them, merely a dragon by the sea 
and nothing more? Upon inquiry, we find that the dragon, painted 
and carved by these people has meant to them a veritable force, 

32 



and a ma^ic power is attached to his appearance in various handi- 
crafts. One Japanese dragon loves dangerous places and is, there- 
fore, always found upon high roofs and angles of temples. An- 
other is fond of sound and so the craftsman carves him upon bells 
and musical instruments. Many of the Japanese prints with which 
we are familiar have a symbolic meaning. As understood by the 
Japanese youth, the familiar prints which represent the fish swim- 
ming up a water-fall signify the overcoming of difficulties by per- 
sistence. 

The Egyptian lotus, used as a symbol, is one of the greatest 
pattern makers, for there are few wall decorations or textiles of 
that country where some form of this flower may not be found. 
To the Egyptian artist, it had a vital significance, for it was a sign 
of immortality, and in ever varying spacing and with ever vary- 
ing curve, he drew and chiseled and carved it upon temple and 
tomb and mummy case. The attention of the pupil may be called 
to the unlimited number of ways in which this one motif was used. 
The fresh and naive spirit of the Egyptian worker may bring a 
lesson to all, for surely, as Americans, we have an unlimited fund 
of materials, and is it not because we do not use our artistic facul- 
ties in simple, creative ways, that we have such meagre results? 
And finally, in considering the design of the American Indian, 
we find he has employed both poetic symbolism and artistic sense 
of good arrangement in his decorated pottery, textiles, and baskets. 
From the triangular pattern on the skin of the rattlesnake, and 
the lacy interweaving of the spider-web, he has made a petition to 
the Great Spirit for rain, and with a conventional unit, signifying 
corn, a thanksgiving for bountiful harvests. The familiar Swas- 
tika, found in Oriental as well as in Indian art, has a story that 
is as beautiful as the design. The work of the Huichel Indians, 
in their textiles, is especially good to show classes as an illustra- 
tion of symbols used with a splendid sense of dark and light 
relations. 

Symbolism has its chief interest to the art teacher, however,, 
as a practical way of varying the lessons in design. Because the 



33 



subject of the rug-, the border, or the all-over pattern is to be a 
symbol, the pupils' thought is detached from the purely representa- 
tive and led to a more universal conception. In many of the subjects 
open to choice for symbolic design, the temptation to be merely 
literal or realistic in rendering, is entirely removed, as, for instance, 
when the pupil must study to imagine an idea that will stand for the 
air, or for fire, and to think of an interesting- unit of line and 
color, into which he may transpose his thought. An exercise of 
this kind demands an individual conception from each pupil. It 
helps to cultivate a poetic imagery for things or elements or quali- 
ties. May it not also help in developing that child-like uncon- 
sciousness and frankness of thought which is the best attitude of 
mind for artistic production? Some of the most original work 
done in the art department of Teachers College this year has been 
that which was called forth by an assigned symbolic motif. 

Most pleasing results may also be obtained from children's 
classes if the subject given has some vital significance for the 
child. In the Horace Mann School, such problems have been 
assigned to first year students of the high school where they have 
chosen as a subject the most pleasant or significant features of 
some summer outing or vacation trip. Each pupil had a story of 
his own to tell which was thought out in symbolic form, and with 
special attention given to spacing, was made into a design for a rug. 

There is one point which must never be lost sight of when 
arousing interest in a lesson in design through symbolism — that 
it is an avenue only, merely one of the means of approach to a 
desired end. This ultimate goal, which must be kept uppermost 
in the thought of both teacher and pupil, is to produce or appre 
ciate beauty. In the enthusiasm that may be aroused through, 
the illumination of the historic symbol, or through the interest 
in the poetic side of our own design, we must take care that we 
do not crowd out the artistic sense we would seek to cultivate in 
ourselves or others. We must remember that a symbol will not 
make a design without the artistic perception that makes the sym- 
bol into a design, and it is immaterial how poetic our idea for air 



34 



or water may be if we cannot transpose it into a good disposition 
of line and mass and color. 



Tfmtsuqp^r-i^oiimimK--"- 





Designs for rugs made from symbolic motifs, at Horace Mann School. 



'Ab 




student work from Department of Art Photography. 



36 



THE FIELD OF MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY. 

Karl Struss 

In the commercial, scientific, professional, and art worlds of 
to-day, an understanding of the fundamentals of photography is an 
essential requirement toward successfully solving the problems 
which are continually before us. In this, we may now include as 
fundamental, the use and application of color motion photography. 

Photography, as an educational means alone, is of prime im- 
portance. It gives us knowledge at a glance and a few moments' 
study, that formerly required pages of description and hours of 
memorizing. It is a well-known fact that the memory of pictures 
is more vivid than any other means of association. The mental 
picture once formed holds practically for life in the mind's eye. 
In this modern age, wherein commerce influences the tendencies of 
the times, we find a continuous effort towards reducing the costs 
of production by increasing the efficiency of the laborer. This 
has in many instances been brought about through the employ- 
ment of the motion picture machine. Formerly, in a large manu- 
facturing plant, it took an employee thirty-five minutes to assemble 
a certain machine, but since the advent of motion photographic 
study, illustrating the desired process and thus reducing the lost 
motions to a minimum, it has been made possible to assemble the 
same machine in eight minutes; a saving surely worth while in any 
field of endeavor. In other words, we gain a maximum of output 
with a minimum of effort. 

In another instance the science of astronomy could never have 
made such remarkable developments and advances, towards more 
definite conclusions regarding the celestial world, were it not for 
photography. The modern astronomer does not stay awake nights 
star-gazing, but has photographic plates made, which he examines 
leisurely and alertly under the microscope the next day. The dis- 
covery of photography by invisible light has made it possible to 



37 



■z^-\^-^ 



even tell of what substances the moon is composed. This only 
begins to reveal the possibilities that photography presents to the 
research worker. 

In the medical world, some of the best dental and surgical 
clinics are having" their rarest and most difficult operations, which 
are usually witnessed by only a few students, now recorded by 
motion photography, and these films are sent to colleges through- 
out the country. Used in connection with lectures, it is possible 
in this manner to acquaint a greater number of students with the 
most recent advances of science. 

It seems almost unnecessary to speak of the advantages that 
will accrue to the architect or the interior decorator, who, with a 
pictorial photographic training will be able to interpret his finished 
work in the spirit conceived, instead of having to leave it to the 
average commercial photographer, with a purely mechanical point 
of view. 

But it is in the field of art that photography takes it place as 
an individual, fluent and personal medium of Art Expression, 
which reflects not only this scientific era, but also the mastery of 
the mind over the subservient tool, point, chisel or lens. 



38 




students work from Art Photography Department. 

39 




Designs for plates — fourth grade. 




Finished plates. 



40 



A PROBLEM IN FINE AND INDUSTRIAL ARTS. 

Lucy H. Wiser and Lucia W. Dement. 

One interested in seeing the work for the little people become a 
well-rounded unified whole can readily understand the advantage of 
the departments of Fine and Industrial Arts working together upon 
problems which have a definite interest for both. Much time can be 
saved by each department doing its part, and if each department 
keeps in close touch with the workings of the other, the instructors 
can develop methods which will greatly add to the successful out- 
come of the problems. 

Among the many interests at the Horace Mann School in which 
the fine and industrial arts combine, the making of plates in the 
Fourth Grade has been particularly satisfactory. The special 
phase of the pottery industry, as studied in the Fourth Grade, 
is the making of china dishes. Plates were chosen for the manipu- 
lative problem in connection with the study, as being representa- 
tive and illustrative of a typical method of working in clay, and the 
industrial processes were approached as nearly as possible in the 
work. 

A lump of rather stiff clay was well kneaded and ham- 
mered out with a wooden mallet into a thin layer, a little 
larger than was needed to cover the mould. Up to the present 
time we have used plates for moulds, but we have recently made 
moulds of plaster which will be used in the future. The layer 
of clay was then placed on the top of the plate mould and pressed 
gently to it. A knife or clay tool was used to trim the edge 
even with that of the mould. The clay plate thus shaped was next 
taken carefully from the mould and the rim braced, if necessary, 
by placing a coil of clay under it until it had stiffened. No at- 
tempt was made to shape the bottom of the plate. This much 
of the work was accomplished in one lesson. In the next lesson 
the edge was rounded, any unevennesses removed, and the whole 
sponged and placed away to dry. When thoroughly dried the 
diameters of the center and rim were measured and concentric cir- 



41 



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IBS ■■■ 
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Designs for tiles and mosaic, third and fifth grades. 




Finished mosaics and tiles. 



42 



cles of the respective sizes drawn on a paper to be taken to the 
art class for the designs. 

At this point a trip was made to the Metropolitan Museum 
in company with the Industrial, the Fine Arts, and the room 
teacher. Here a study was made of good plate patterns, which was 
supplemented in the class room with a collection of photographs 
of fine plates in foreign museums. In studying the plates, the aim 
was to impress the fact that any subject desired could be used for 
a pattern unit, the point being to adapt it in a fine way to the spaces 
of the plate. 

Each child made several units indicating his own preference. 
The instructor added a mark for her preference and one was chosen. 
First it was repeated to form a center pattern and then a border 
for the rim of the plate. Both were used, or one was rejected as 
best suited the case. 

Next a tracing was made on transparent tracing paper to take 
to the Industrial Art Class, and another made upon a good shade 
of blue grey paper to be carried out in Fine Arts as a plate-pattern 
in Dark and Light. Each child decided whether his plate should 
be a dark pattern on a light ground or a light pattern on a dark 
ground, and carried out the same on the gray-blue paper with 
dark-blue crayola. 

In Industrial Art the patterns were transferred to the plates 
by blackening the lines of the design, then placing the paper on the 
plate with the blackened lines next it and tracing them over from 
the opposite side. The paper was cut so that the designs for 
center and rim were in separate pieces for transferring. 

The plates were then colored according to the scheme of Dark 
and Light made in the Fine Arts Class. The natural color of the 
clay was used for the light in the design and blue, green, or red 
underglaze color for the dark. After this they were coated with 
a colorless glaze and fired. 

These plates have been made by the combined efforts of the 
two departments for three years and each year brings new methods 
and better success. Other problems satisfactorily worked out in 



43 



the first five grades by the co-operation of these two departments 
are rugs, vases, bowls, picture-frames, tiles, and mosaics. 

The blue and white tiles in the third grade are made in con- 
nection with a historical study of the Dutch people. In this prob- 
lem the children select objects in which they are interested for the 
subject of their patterns — just as the Dutch chose boats, wind- 
mills, etc., for their patterns. 

The Fifth Grade mosaic is correlated with the geographical 
study of Italy and Venice. The mosaics of Italy are compared! 
with those at the Cathedral of St. John and the mosaic floors in 

the school buildings, and traced through the buildings of India 
to the Orient. 

The children make their designs from squares of cut paper 
which they paste on a squared paper foundation. The best are 
selected by class-vote and taken to the Industrial Arts Class where 
the mosaics are made in clay, glazed, fired, and cemented together. 
We hope to use them for decoration in the cement wall of the school 
on the roof. 




44 





Charcoal studies, Senior Class, Fine Arts Department. 



45 







Flower Compositions made in Design Class 



46 



WHAT'S IN A NAME? 
Dorothy C. Rowell 

"What is manual training, and why did you give me 'poor' on 
my report card?" The indignant questioner was a dreamy-eyed 
Italian girl who had been transferred in mid-term from the un- 
graded room to the fourth-year class. Never before had she shown 
interest in the school work, much less such excitement as at pres- 
ent. "We didn't have any manual training," she insisted, in 
stormy protest. 

"Manual training's sewing." The teacher tried to explain to 
the girl how the making of note-book covers might come under the 
same head, and wondered, meanwhile, why she should be teaching 
manual training at all. 

Manual training, hand training — . Do we then, in certain hours 
of the elementary school week, attempt to teach manual skill, apart 
from the controlling thought-stuff of life, or even to put the em- 
phasis on such skill? Why should we single out this wheel of the 
human machine, to turn it alone? Modem thought asks us rather 
to see that the child functions as a total human being. It may be 
well, in the course of building a machine of iron and steel, to turn 
and test one wheel at a time, but the child's personality grows, not 
as an accumulation of parts, but through the gradual development 
within itself of related ideas, and powers, and habits. Until such 
relation is wrought out, these can never be a vital part of his being. 
Hand and ear, and eye, and tongue, and brain, must work in living 
harmony, or the education of these parts is of no avail. Why should 
teachers be asked to train isolated hands? 

Of course it is necessary that the hand gain skill, both to ex- 
press ideas and to receive impressions. But the question still re- 
mains: why have assigned periods for training the hand, any more 
than for training the eye, the ear, or the organs of speech? We in- 
sist that these skills shall be gained through subject-matter which 
is justifiable in itself, worthy of a name. Certain phases of sense 
training are involved in literature, language study and music. We 

47 



concern ourselves largely with the thought to be gained, believing 
that interest in this, with well graded material and through abund- 
ant practice, will give eye, and ear, and voice, the training they 
need. We keep in mind our purpose of developing normal use of the 
powers, and we study the conditions and methods of normal activ- 
ity, which in actual life demand thought-control of the senses as 
tools. Economy requires that habits be formed as they are to be 
used. DrUl must be made purposeful and related to the solving of 
real problems. New ideas must make the mechanical processes 
worth gaining. The school problem is to provide, under limiting 
conditions, opportunity for use, suitable to the age and grade of 
the children. 

Shall we then leave out the manual training periods? No, for 
reasons given below, but the work should be put on a more defensi- 
ble basis. Hand training is an excellent thing, but isolated, it means 
little. It does not fairly represent what we are trying to do. The 
advantage of the term, manual training, has been that it boldly 
defended the use of hands, in the course of school education, as a 
legitimate avenue of approach to the brain. Formerly, such use, 
either for gaining or expressing ideas, was unthinkable. 

Hand work came into American schools partly through the 
Swedish sloyd influence, and partly through the growing belief in 
education for practical life among some dreamers of a few decades 
ago. The vitality of each idea lay in its close relationship to the 
social and industrial life of the times. Begun as an experiment in 
schools like Pratt Institute, hand work in education has proved its 
value beyond doubt. But just wherein does that value lie? Surely, 
not in the unthinking use of tools, but in the new thoughts associ- 
ated with new activities, in the new power of gaining ideas for one's 
s^lf. 

While teaching hand work we have stumbled on a rich mine 
of human thought, a wealth of subject matter of basal significance 
to all classes of modern society. Perhaps we have not felt the value 
of it keenly enough. The story of man's progress through the ages, 
from earliest savagery and barbarism to modem civilization, has 



48 



been one of his gradual and successful conquest of his successful 
conquering of environment. Man has bent the materials and forces 
of nature to serve his needs as they arose. Progress to-day depends 
on the same conditions. As that progress goes on, more rapidly than 
ever before, and more subtly hidden from common view, we need to 
understand these materials and forces, and the processes by which 
they are brought to serve our needs. How shall we otherwise appre- 
ciate values, distinguish what is appropriate, live wisely in a world 
grown suddenly so complex? The world of industry surrounds us 
on every side, it serves us at every turn, it permeates every other 
social relationship. Our politics, our laws, our literature, our art^ 
our science, are all involved. The problems of industry are the 
greatest before our people. If the prime object of elementary school 
education is that children should learn to live well in the commun- 
ity, what is more important to them than understanding the basis 
of our community life? 

Why not admit that the hand, like the eye or the ear, is a tool, 
to be used, like the work-shop chisel, wherever that particular tool 
best suits the purpose of the workman? If hand work, in the form 
of map-making, gives a child geographical ideas most economically, 
by all means let us use it, and call the work geography. If he uses 
a pencil, or crayons, or a brush, to communicate graphically, and if 
such hand-work develops chiefly the appreciation of form and ap- 
pearance, call the process the study of art. But if the content gives 
an appreciation of modem manufactures and the structure of mod- 
ern industrial society, by all means indicate the point of view in the 
name. Let us give the boys and girls something worth naming for 
every hour of the school time. And let the name, for the sake of 
teachers and children alike, be an inspiration rather than a clog or 
hindrance to a clear view of the situation. If a more significant 
name can bring a wealth of new ideas and associations into con- 
sciousness, is not the change worth while? 



49 




Wood Block — Printing for textiles. 

50 



WOOD BLOCK-PRINTING— A FASCINATING FIELD FOR 
EXPERIMENTATION 

M. Eleanor Gibbons 

It is thought the Egyptians knew the Oriental art of wood 
block-printing several thousand years B. C; the Chinese printed 
their books in this way as soon as paper was invented; the Hawai- 
ians stamped cloth with rude implements; the East Indians decor- 
ated their dyed fabrics by means of simple blocks; Durer in Ger- 
many developed the art in wood and copper plate. Beginning with 
the eighteenth century the Japanese developed block-printing into 
an art of their own, making it represent their national life. At 
first, they used only black and white, adding color by hand; then 
came the discovery of printing the colors from a second block, and 
after this the number of blocks was increased. Their printing be- 
came famous all over the world, but modem commercialism and 
lack of masters caused its decline. 

The easier forms of block-printing may be used very success- 
fully in school work, and the following mode of procedure is sug- 
gested. For the printing block, choose soft wood, close-grained and 
without knots, such as pine, gumwood, boxwood or holly. The size 
is optional, but should be at least % in. thick and 1 in. square, as a 
block smaller than this is not easily managed by young children. 
Next make simple designs on paper of desired size, using black and 
white masses with few details. Have forethought as to the effect if 
repeated in pattern. Now make a tracing on Japanese paper with 
brush and ink to insure clearly defined shapes, and paste this face 
downward on the block. Incise the outline of the design with a 
sloyd knife to the depth of Vs iii-> and remove the background 



51 



with a gouge. Finally remove the remaining design paper and the 
block is ready to be used. Glue some felt to a piece of glass and 
you have a pad on which to charge the block. Saturate the pad 
with thick water-color or ink to which mucilage may be added. 
Use a padded drawing-board and any paper that will take water- 
color well, and you are ready for the fun of printing the block. It 
it done by charging the block on the ink pad and pressing it to the 
paper or cloth to be printed somewhat as post-office clerks stamp 
letters. When the block does not print well, the trouble may be 
that the design is not cut deep enough, that the paint is too thin, 
or that more pressure is needed in stamping. It is interesting, after 
securing a good print, to make some experiments, such as stamping 
on dampened paper or cloth. The latter is satisfactory, for it ab- 
sorbs paint well, but after drying it must be pressed to remove the 
wrinkles. Another experiment is to stamp the design in ink and, 
when it is dry, fill in with strong colors. Oil paints (mixed with 
turpentine) may be used by applying it with a bristle brush di- 
rectly to the wood block. Sometimes several blocks are made for 
the same design, each block stamping a different tone as is done in 
printing landscapes on soft rice paper. Only advanced students 
should attempt picture-printing with many blocks, as it necessi- 
tates over-lapping transparent colors to produce new effects. 
Simple problems, such as the decoration of note-book covers, post- 
ers, calendars, programs and pillow designs, are useful for individ- 
ual work, while stamping curtains may serve as a group-exercise. 
Crash, cotton crepe, coarse linen, denim, monk's cloth, art cheese- 
cloth, scrim, grass linen, pongee and silk may be used successfully, 
but a smooth glared surface does not receive the print well. In 
washing any of these materials, lukewarm water and pure soap 
are necessary as well as quick drying. Oil colors wash well; dyes 
are not so reliable; water-color mixed with mucilage must be 
pressed before washing. Fading sometimes occurs, but it is not 
always a disadvantage, as the brilliant colors are sometimes ren- 
dered less striking. 

Block-printing is useful in the school, as it teaches line-har- 



52 



mony and space-vaxiation, both of which are essential to good 
composition. It is essential to a study of color-harmony, which 
requires balance of intensities of brig-ht and dull tones, and a 
thoughtful arrangement of lights and darks. It is a quick means of 
teaching rhythmic repetition by arranging a unit so as to produce 
harmony of spacing in borders ajid in surface patterns. It gives the 
child not only the artistic, but the industrial side of printing, since 
it combines manual skill with art appreciation. It teaches a few of 
the principles of printing newspapers, magazines, books and cloth, 
and goes far toward applying another modem theory of education, 
that of bringing the pupil into touch with the industrial world. 




Charcoal Composition, Senior Class. 



53 



SPRIHGCOTTOHS 




v/\ 



.1 



A|i;/\| P^ ^i^^vui? 



'M. 



Design by Noemi Pernessin. 



54 




THE DECORATIVE USE OF THE FIGURE IN ADVERTISING 

Jean Corser 

In all the field of design there is no motif of more effective 
character than the human figure, and for this reason the advertis- 
ing designer's use of it may be his strongest appeal. With the 
very rapid growth in late years of intelligence about art has come 
a demand for more than a merely pictorial use of the figure. As a 
direct outgrowth of this broader desire, we have the brilliantly 
suggestive work of many gifted men. 

Certainly the sincere designer is obliged less and less to fight 
fake ideals when he wishes to affect large audiences. There is 
every year more recognition of the principle that that which is 
refined and true to art ideals is most lasting in its interest and 
influence. With this revival of the spirit of less confused times 
there has come into advertising art an entirely new motive, a 
desire for the very direct and the suggestive. The over-realistic 
treatment of nature, which is not truly realistic at all, is at last 
losing its hold and its day will probably not be long. 

It is the school, more than any other one influence, that will in 
the near future direct this new demand. Indeed, it is not assuming 



55 



too much to say that it is already in a small way contributing to- 
ward the demand for necessary talent as well as supplying it. 

Figure-study in the elementary and secondary schools has not 
realized its full possibilities of fascination for growing children, 
largely because there has been a lack of clear discrimination of 
motive. Children are expected to see an adult and abstract end in 
their drawing. It is as though we were to explain words with fine 
shades of meaning and then require a sophisticated use of them 
before there is mental development enough to understand them. 
The very vital subject of advertising, which fascinates young 
Americans more than they can possibly guess, gives a definite mo- 
tive for the use of the figure, and it does not demand more knowl- 
edge than a child may have in order to gain an effective result. 
With the great wealth of illustration that reproduction makes 
possible, can be furnished inexhaustible inspiration. 

Boutet de Monvel and Aubrey Beardsley, though not adver- 
tisers, furnish examples of all that is fine and at the same time 
direct in the treatment of the figure. De Monvel, with his charm 
and simplicity and strength, can be as easily appreciated by a 
child as by those who are capable of understanding the extreme 
subtlety of his drawing and composition. The work of Beardsley 
is a vivid illustration of an art which has utterly disregarded con- 
ventional drawing and created thereby an absolutely unique ex- 
pression. This is not a dangerous idea to expose to children if 
kept in its proper relation to the truths. The pen and ink drawings 
of Walter Crane and Howard Pyle are suggestive of uses to which 
their originators never put them. A possible application in adver- 
tising of something of their quality of quaintness might help ta 
give breadth to the field of illustration. Edward Penfield and Will 
Bradley are individual masters who have given us tjrpes of great 
value in beautiful and practical advertising. 

Among the later men who have given themselves particularly 
to advertising are Wildhack and Louis Fancher. Both are tremend- 
ously popular because of the directness of their appeal, and both 
justly so because of their secure sense of design. Some equally 



56 



strong work and much that is fine, but not so widely recognized, is 
being published almost daily, and it should not be difficult for 
teachers to find ample material for illustration in this Une. 

The message from the Japanese use of the figure as an em- 
bodiment of unified form and color, rather than a less subtle expres- 
sion of life and activity, is being studied by thoughtful designers. 
Would it be too much to hope that this spirit of eastern refinement 
may some day be appreciated by the general public, and are there 
not already in some popular forms of art the beginnings of an 
appeal to this kind of imagination? 

If children can be made to see the fiat way in which these men 
have chosen to work, and the evident use of the figure as a mere 
incident in the whole effect, with an appreciation of even the most 
obvious marks of individuality of conception in design, they have 
reached a very desirable plane of imagination. In this one vital line 
of connection with the outer world, which is gained through inter- 
est in advertising, teachers can hope for a real application of art 
principles. 

The comparative youth of this line of thought makes its future 
a fascinating one, and with suggestions from the work of great 
individuals it is likely to be a broad and brilliant field of activity. 
Surely the indications make one hopeful of a strong development 
in this particular subject and especially of a promising growth of 
race imagination. 




D/ 



CEMENT AND CONCRETE 

An Industrial Unit for the Eighth Grade 
Leon Loyal Winslow 

Heretofore too much has been attempted in the 
eighth grade. It is none the less true that little has 
been accomplished. Under the present organization 
of our school system the first year in high school has 
often meant a repetition of a large part of the pre- 
ceding year's work. These conditions have been 
greatly improved in some instances where a conser- 
vation in time and in effort has brought about the 
elimination from the eighth grade curriculum of all 
units which, psychologically, are too difficult, and 
which thus demand a repetition in the high school. 

In the majority of our eighth grades it has been 
customary, in the past, to teach shopwork; and this 

■ K\\\JJ shopwork has meant wood-working exclusively. The 
XTVgj technical aspect has too often been over emphasized, 

and the success or failure of the course has been de- 
termined at the yearly exhibition of pupils' work. 
This state of affairs has been dangerous to the best 
interests of eighth grade boys, in that it has per- 
=F^=v=^= mitted development along but one general line where 

■ — HJ ^Yie endpoint has been a finished product, through the 
making of which, skill in the use of a few hand tools 
has been attained. The system has been wasteful in 
that it has devoted too much time to a single phase of 
industry in a place where specialization should have 
been only suggested. 

When our eighth grade becomes broad and liberal, and op- 
posed to all narrowness and specialization, it will reach out into 
many fields of industry, that its pupils may be better able to make a 
choice. Industrial investigation will succeed manual training and 
the school shop will become its laboratory. The shop teacher will 




PORJABue (JJ^^VlT>; Al/ttR- 



58 



assume a greater burden, but one which unquestionably has the 
compensation of being worth while. 

An investigation of cement and concrete was recently under- 
taken by an eighth grade in New Rochelle, N. Y. The class was 
interested in this industry from the start. After the field had been 
surveyed in a general way, it was found that the material might 
be organized to advantage under some twenty sub-heads, each 
member of the class making a special effort to find out all that he 
could about one of these. Through the helpful co-operation of the 
principal of the school and the two eighth grade teachers, the boys 
were encouraged to write down the results of their investigation in 
the form of compositions which were graded by their English 
teachers. The composition in each case was to contain the sources 
of information. Several books bearing upon the subject in hand 
were collected by the teacher and the boys. These were placed upon 
the shop book-shelf. They could be referred to at any time and 
might be kept out over night. 

Two weeks' time was allowed for the preparation of these 
papers, although the subject had been discussed in the shop for 
sometime previous. At each recitation period all progress made 
during the preceding week was reported by each boy. After all the 
information had been collected, the papers were written. The fol- 
lowing sentence, which appeared in a recent number of Printer's 
Ink was offered as being helpful in the writing of a composition: 
"It is a fine thing to be thoroughly familiar with a subject before 
talking about it, because then it isn't necessary to talk so much." 

After the compositions had been handed in, a committee con- 
sisting of the principal, the two eighth grade teachers and the shop 
teacher judged them, as best they could. The six boys handing in 
the best papers were chosen as editors of the large paper. The 
duties of these editors included the re-arrangement of material, and 
the writing of an introduction to the paper and of connecting para- 
graphs and sentences. The names of the editors appeared in the 
^order of their efficiency as displayed in carrying out this work. 
Before proceeding with the class paper it may be of interest to 

59 



know that the boys at present have the work of construction well 
under way. Several barrels of material were bought from local 
dealers. The delivery slips and bills were made a part of the gen- 
eral instruction. All forms will be ready for the concrete within a 
few more weeks at most. The objects to be made include pedestali, 
flower pots, window boxes, etc. Two members of the class are mak- 
ing garden benches, and one is making a dog's house, similar to the 
one described by Miss Rowell in the last issue of Art and in- 
dustry in Education. 

A STUDY OF CONCRETE 

Eight A. Class of Winyah Avenue School 

EDITORIAL STAFF 

Robert Merkle, Editor in Chief Leonard Grosso 

Sidney Lidz Edward Gockeler 

Walter Lantz Leon Creato 

A person does not walk far to-day without seeing some object 
constructed of concrete. The strength and endurance of this ma- 
terial have made it popular for the construction of things which 
must weather much. 

Present day uses, by I* " ^^^ general usc for sidcwalks, curbs 

William Berwick, aud gutters. For curbs and gutters combined, 

James Attlsanl. -^ • i ^ • , • , 

Ref. Mason Builder. it IS uscd extcnsivcly in parks and resi- 
const'ruction.'""'""'' ^^^^6 streets. Thcse streets are not only 
Concrete In Railway durable but cleau, uoiseless and pleasing to 

Construction. ., _ . • i i « 

ride over. Concrete is also used for sewers. A 

few years ago all sewerpipes were made of stone 

and of vitrified clap or cast-iron. Concrete is more durable for this 

purpose. It is not liable to leak with heavy loads of water; it is 

smooth and cannot leak. 

Culverts for highway bridges are made partly or wholly of 
concrete. Other important uses are for dams, houses, statues, walls, 
chimneys, fence posts, boat piers and the treating of the decayed 
parts of trees. 



60 



Historic Information, 
by Sam Bersohn. 
Ref., Mason Builder. 



What Concrete Is — 
Its Advantages, by 
Leon Create, 
Ref. Concrete in 
Railroad Construction, 
Concrete Construction 



In the olden days concrete was used much as 
now. The Romaois made many of their buildings 
of it. Their concrete was much the same as ours, 
but it was made differently. A good proof of the 
durability of concrete is shown in some of these 
ancient buildings which are standing to-day, as the Roman Panth- 
eon. They used volcanic ash in place of our sand, and perhaps that 
has made a difference. They must have taken great pains, as their 
buildings are still standing. Other nations which used concrete are 
the ancient Chinese and Egyptians. The Chinese made a great wall 
on their northern boundary to keep out the enemy. It was built 
about the year 214 B. C. and is still standing. 

In order to prove why concrete has been used 
so long and is still being used, we ought to know 
what it is composed of. To-day it is made of 
Portland cement, sand, and broken stone or 
gravel. The stone and sand are called the ag- 
gregate. The cement is called the matrix. Con- 
crete is used so much because it is cheap, and the older it grows, 
the stronger it gets, while steel and wood rust and decay. In addi- 
tion to this it is proof against tornadoes, floods, fire, and earth- 
quakes. For instance, in San Francisco many concrete buildings 
stood the shock while those of wood and brick fell. 

The kind of cement used most to-day is Port- 
land cement. It was named Portland, be- 
cause it looks like Portland (England) stone. 
The process of making Portland cement to-day 
differs greatly from that of former times. They 
used to make Portland cement differently then 
The raw material for cement is often found 
to-day in rock called cement rock. This rock is 
drilled and broken into big pieces. These pieces 
are then put in cars and taken to the crusher. 
Then they are ground and taken to the drier and 
dried. After it is dried, all moisture is out, and 



Old Method of 
Making Cement, by 
Rocco Daiessandro. 
Ref., Encyclopedia 
Brittanica, 
Manual Training 
Magazine, 
Popular Mecanics 
Magazine. 



61 



it is taken to the weigh-house and weighed. After it is weighed 
and mixed with lime, it is brought to the rotary kiln. 

But cement is made of mud to day, just as it used to be made 
in England. The mud is taken from the bottom of rivers and dried. 
Lime is dried with the mud, and then they are burned in the rotary 
kiln. The drier is a tube which is slanted. The material gradually 
goes through it while it turns around. 

Rotary Kiln, by '^^^ rotary kllu Is a huge machine for chang- 

George Faneiii. lug cemeut rock aud Hmc, or rivcr mud aud lime, 

Trading^ "Magazine, iuto cemeut cliuker. It is a tube, usually about 

Edison Portland ^^QO ft. loug aud 12 ft. lu diameter. It is made 

Cement Co. ° 

of steel, lined with fire brick. 
In about the center of this tube is a driving 
gear turned by a motor while the burning is going on. At each 
end of the tube is a riding ring and two rollers, which help to re- 
volve the tube. The tube is revolved in a slanting position, the 
lower end being heated. At the upper end, the materials are put in 
by means of a funnel. Then coal dust is blown in at the heated end. 
Thus the coal burns and causes the change of cement material into 
cement clinker. 

ggii ,^.|| ^^y The machine which comes next into use to 

Thomas Faso. make cement is the ball mill. It is used in grind- 

w^orks. " "^ ing cement clinker into Portland cement. The 

ball mill grinds lump rock into dust. All ma- 
terial that leaves the mill is a finished product. 
The material to be reduced is fed to the mill from an overhead bin. 
There is a feeder which makes the amount of material, entering the 
mill, uniform. The grinding is done by four steel balls which roll 
in a horizontal grinding ring. These balls are rolled around by 
four pushers attached to a central shaft. The fine powder is drawn 
out by a fan. 

Experiment with Sand. Thc kiud of saud used iu coucrcte work is im- 
by Sidney Lidz. portaut. If Vegetable matter is in sand, it is unfit 

Ref., Ma«on Builder. - ^ , . , ta^ i 

for use. Coarse sand is also necessary. It has 
been demonstrated that coarse sand gives a stronger mortar. For 

62 



work that is unimportant, fine sand may be used if free from vege- 
table matter. 

The sand which we have in the manual training room is fine. 
I made the following experiment to find how much vegetable matter 
or loam was in it. I found the experiment given in the Mason 
Builder. I took a quart fruit jar and filled it with sand till it was 
4 ins. deep. Then I added water until the jar was filled to within 
3 ins. of the top. I screwed the cap on and shook the can for a few 
minutes. I then let it settle for a few hours, until the water on top 
was clear. The sand sank to the bottom, while the fine material 
formed a layer of darker color above it. The layer of fine material 
or loam was but 1-16 in. thick. The Mason Builder says that 
if the layer of loam is V2 in. thick the sand is unfit for use. Our 
sand is good. 

^3^g^ j,y If sand is not clean it must be washed in a 

Arthuro Fink. trough, because washing with a hose sends the 

structioT^" °" dirt down. Dirty stones or gravel should not be 

used. The water used must not be drawn from a 
pond in which manure and waste matter are 
dumped. 

One night I went down to the manual training room and got 
some cement, some sand, and some gravel. I made five different 
mixtures. The first two mixtures I made without color and the 
rest I made with color. 

The neat mixture I made by using cement and water only. 
When I had the cement and water thoroughly mixed I put it into 
a form like a cube. 

, , .,^ The rich mixture I made by using one part 

Experiment with '' ^ '■ 

Concrete Mixtures, of cemeut to two parts of saud to three parts of 
Ref.':'cement°con°" gravel (1:2:3). The cement and sand I mixed 
''*••"<=*"'"■ dry first, then with water. The gravel I mixed 

wet, with the other mixture, and, when they were 
thoroughly mixed, I put them into the form. 

The standard mixture I made by using 1:2:4. The sand and 



63 



cement, after being mixed dry with coloring material, were then 
mixed with water. Then I put the gravel which I had wetted in, 
and after mixing them thoroughly I put them into a form. The 
medium mixture I made by using l:2y2:3; the lean mixture, by us- 
ing 1:3:6. The sand and cement were first mixed dry, then the 
color was put in dry. Then they were mixed with water, and the 
wet gravel was mixed in. After they were mixed thoroughly they 
were put into the forms. 

The neat mixture is used where it has the most to do. The rich 
mixture is used for columns and high stresses, and where water- 
tightness is wanted. The standard mixture is used for arches, for 
re-inforcing floor beams, for engine and machine foundations, and 
for tanks and sewers. The medium mixture is used for piers, thin 
foundation walls, sidewalks, and sewers with heavy walls. The lean 
mixture is used for walls, foundations, and for unimportant work. 

n . .f r.^onf I asked my father and he said that Portland 

Cost of Cement, '^ 

Sand, and Gravel, by cemeut costs $1.90 per barrel. 

Paul Haggerty. While I was Walking along Pelham Road I 

Ref., Father and a ^eut iuto a slde strcet which led to a sand pit, 

Workman. •*• 

Concrete Construction named the Pelham Saud Pit. I asked the work- 
about the Home and j^ian the price of a load of sand and he said, 
°" *'" ''"'■'"• "$1.50, drawn." Gravel costs the same. 

There have been many fires and fire tests that 
have demonstrated that reinforced concrete will 
stand a very great heat. This is a valuable thing 
to all concrete structures. 

After concrete has been placed, it must be 
taken care of very strictly because if it is cold, 
the concrete will spoil. This is sometimes pro- 
tected by putting tar paper around the concrete 
and by using steam pipes running around it. 

If there are any electric wires around the concrete, there must 
be care taken, if the concrete is reinforced, for the electricity will 
cause the iron or steel to rot away. 



64 



Mixing Concrete by ^ ^^^* Water-tight platform makes a good base 

H3"''' by to mix concrete on. Ten feet square is a con- 

George Lahn. • . - 

Ref., Concrete vcnient sizc, and the boards should be fitted to- 

fnrlTir'E^Jc'a"' aether. They should be planed off on top, so 
t'O"' 1912. as to make shoveling easier. First a layer of 

sand is spread upon the platform. Upon this the 
dry cement is placed. These are then mixed thoroughly, which may 
be seen by the equal color. Wet stone is then thrown into the mix- 
ture and the whole mass is turned over three times. The water is 
poured in while the mass is being turned. 

The Concrete Form, ^ow that I havc fiuished telling you about 

by Robert Merkie and mixers, I will tell you about the concrete form. 

Marion Sklllen. n i -, • n 

Ref., Concrete Pottery Oue of the chief uecessities of good concrete is 
i:lZTcJruTo:: the concrete form. Some work requires two 
forms, an outside and an inside one. Green tim- 
ber is always desirable, and white pine is best. 
To prevent the concrete from sticking- to the 
form, the inside must be oiled with soap, oils, or crude oil. If a 
smooth surface is required, the planks should be planed and their 
edges beveled or grooved. The nails should not be driven all the 
way home, but have their heads out, to be easily pulled by a ham- 
mer. The less hammering the better. 

The length of time the forms are to be kept on varies. On 
small work two or three hours is sufficient, while on large walls 
two or three days is required. 

Where forms are to be used a number of times, metal is usu- 
ally employed, galvanized iron being the most popular. 

As my brother works in the business, I asked him for informa- 
tion about the forms for a concrete foundation. He said that the 
wood generally used was spruce. The wood used for the walls is 
Ys in. and % iii-. and 4 in. x 4 in. is used for posts, which are set 
every 2 ft. apart. You first build one side of the form the required 
length and height. Then you brace it and plumb to a line. Then 
you are ready to build the other side. Cut some boards the same 
length as the width of the desired wall. These boards are to be used 
as spreaders, at the top and at the bottom of the form. Either bolts 

65 



or wire may be used for yoking up the form. At the top of the 
water table is a triangular-shaped piece of wood to make the cham- 
fer. It is called a 45 degree. 

Experiment of "^^^ coucrcte must be carefully placed in the 

Reinforcing Concrete forms. It should be filled in, lu layers from 6 to 
Ref.. concrete Con- 12 lus. deep. It should be tapped lightly with a 
^*''"^^'°"- rammer until it flushes to the top. The method 

of obtaining a smooth face is as follows: Place 
a spade or thin paddle between the concrete and 
the form, moving the handle to and fro, up and down. This forces 
the broken stone in the concrete away and brings a coating of 
mortar next to the form. 

Reinforced concrete is ordinary concrete in which iron or steel 
rods or wire have been imbedded. Reinforcement is required when- 
ever the concrete is liable to be bent or twisted. It is very brittle 
unless it is reinforced. 

I tried an experiment with a bar of concrete placed across the 
top of the jaws of my bench vise. Across the jaws, underneath, I 
placed a piece of steel bar. I then placed a heavy iron clamp across 
the concrete bar and the bar of steel. I turned the clamp screw un- 
til the concrete broke in two. By this I proved that concrete needs 
to be reinforced where pressure is placed upon it. As the under 
side of the bar gave way first, it is necessary to place the re-inforce- 
ment near the underside when the pressure is above. 
Artificial coloring, by ^or coloriug coucrete, the amount of coloring 
William Emrich. matter should be about 50 per cent as great as 

nics Ma°g''a"i^n'e. ^"^ ^ that of thc coucrete. This amount of certain 
colors such as yellow, which differs little from 
that of cement, does not produce much of a 
change. Lampblack is best for darkening, and 
white cement for lightening. The coloring con- 
stituent can be used dry or in a paste, but it is 
more convenient in mixing to use the dry form. 

Some good colors for cement are lampblack, ultramarine blue, 
burnt umber, yellow ochre, Venetian red, and deep chrome green. 
These colors are bought at the hardware store. 

66 








» ' ^^^^^z.«^' ^^H 









H 


'"^;z\%T^"'rv^ 


!^^^ 


P 


""^^ 




^S 




Tiles and Border, illustrating Tables. Class in Design. 



67 




Cut-Paper Compositions. 



68 




PAPER-CUTTING 

Kate Franklin 

[ANY people think that art is art only when brush and 
paint, stone or marble and the sculptor's tools are 
used to execute it. There are, however, many other 
mediums which may be used for artistic expression. 
The medium itself is not so important as is the way 
in which it is used, and materials, whether simple 
or complex, are not of so much consequence as are 
the fine choices and creative thought which give the product art 
quality. Cut paper, used with an effort for well-chosen color and 
arrangement, offers many opportunities for experiences in com- 
position and design. Wee kindergarten children use it with the 
utmost freedom and evolve small bits of art which look quite 
marvellous to the uninitiated eye. 

It has been my experience that many children see things first 
in mass, and I have found that cut paper serves to show their 
masses in a large and simple way. They are interested in masses 
of sky, sea or river, grass or trees, houses or boats, and other 
objects which enter into their daily lives. Even little children in 
the poorest districts of the city, after a typical experience has 
been given them, such as a day in the country, a morning by the 
sea, a trip around the great city, will come back and express in 
simple but fine ways, with scissors and paper, their individual ex- 
periences. Choices as to light and dark color, size, shape, placing, 
and arrangement are left to their creative minds. The children, 
even at this early age, begin to show right feeling for these funda- 
mentals of fine art. 

In the kindergarten and lower grades there are many ways of 
using cut paper. It comes in hundreds of lovely tones and varied 
textures which suggest possibilities for allover patterns, rhythmic 
borders, fiower designs and quaint landscapes. It is quite inex- 
pensive. Wholesale paper houses and kindergarten supply stores 
will furnish the means, which, if used by a creative mind and an 
appreciation of fine things in art, will accomplish good results. 

69 



It is often said of this cut paper work that it looks very much 
like Japanese art. This is probably because of its simplicity and 
the flat tones of the paper. The masters of Japanese art leave 
one to fill out the picture with one's own imagination, and so it is 
with cut paper, especially if the subject happens to be a landscape. 
The dominating thought is presented and the details are merely 
suggested. 

In starting to make a cut paper composition like the initial 
letter in the illustration, think first of the shape in which you in- 
tend to place it. This time it will be a square. Then choose a color- 
scheme. It might be a green-blue sky, dark blue-green trees, yel- 
low-green grass, a dull white house with orange-red roof and chim- 
neys and blue-green window shutters. This, with dull yellow for 
the road and touches of the orange-red for flowers by the road side, 
darker notes in the tree trunks, and the white of the house repeated 
in the initial letter would complete the color scheme. 

The composition, if simple, may be cut free hand, as little chil- 
dren always do, or, if more complex, it may be first sketched light- 
ly with pencil on the background. It is easier as a rule, to cut the 
sky or foreground the size of the entire picture and then arrange 
your shapes on this. Cut the principal masses first, then the 
subordinate ones, and move them about until the composition is 
good. This moving about of the cut out shapes is most interesting 
because so many changes and varied arrangements can be made 
in a short time. When you have made the best possible grouping, 
it is time to paste, using a pointed stick for the purpose and a 
heavy flat iron to insure a perfectly flat surface. 

Besides the work with the children, cut paper may be used in 
many other ways. It furnishes a splendid means for designing 
posters, festival cards, transparencies, covers for portfolios, and 
the like. It is charming when combined with cardboard construc- 
tion work. Boxes, baskets, desk sets, and other things may be 
designed with patterns, rhythmic borders, or flower designs. 

After experimenting a little with this delightful material we 
begin to see more of its possibilities, but it is well to remember that 
the thing which changes its use from a mere activity to an artistic 
experience, is the intent to create a harmony by means of good 
shapes, good dark and light, and good color. 



70 




Paper cutting Project from Second Grade — Horace Mann School. 



71 



DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 

Edward Thatcher 

That there is a special sort of design needed for wood, another 
for metal, another for textiles, and another for pottery, is coming 
to be recognized by many teachers of design in schools of indus- 
trial art. Fortunate the school that possesses a teacher of design 
who has actually worked in all the materials whose design he 
teaches! Only by working in the materials may design suitable 
for them be understood. 

Wood is worked with certain tools, and the grain and texture 
of it demand attention. Metals may be worked hot or cold, and 
wrought or cast into moulds. Cloth is woven on a loom capable 
of reproducing certain designs only, or the plain cloth once woven 
may be stenciled with colors, printed with a wooden or metal 
block, embroidered with colored threads, or bits of colored cloth 
applied to it. Pottery is turned into shape on a wheel, or cast in 
moulds of plaster. It is only by knowing how these different mate- 
rials are best worked into the shape desired, so that the design is 
always a part of the construction that the teacher is adequately 
equipped to design successfully for them. The wonderful ease in 
working all materials, which our modern technical life now offers, 
tempts the worker to force them from their natural tendencies; 
copper, iron, silver, and gold all show this. Metal is so ductile 
when annealed that it may be forced into all manner of forms 
having no meaning in this material, as is only too evident in the 
grill work and elevator housings of some great hotels. A knob of 
iron may be formed on the end of a bar or rod and then flattened out 
on the anvil into a sort of leaf, a flower shape that comes naturally 
from the hammering. But why should this be filled with veins 
that rival a natural leaf? Why not leave it as it is, the natural 
growth of a process and not an imitation of nature, flower of iron 
not an iron flower? Iron roses, the delight of many a misguided 
smith who mistakes skill for art, are seen intertwined in trellises 
of iron, as much metal used in the piece as would serve to support 
or protect the space enclosed a hundred times. Iron is not a deli- 



4.. 



cate metal. It should not be used to imitate a flower that sways 
naturally with every breath of air. It is a sturdy metal, bars of 
which when heated red, bend or flatten out under the hammer in 
graceful curves possible only to this material. Grill work done by 
the early Florentine and Spanish smiths are splendid examples 
of this. But it is only too evident in the designs made for wrought 
iron nowadays that the designers know little of how to attain 
beauty at the least cost of material and labor. 

Of course, not all who design are able to work in all materials, 
but nothing should prevent an intelligent study of such work as 
is carried out. The power of observation needs to be constantly 
developed by the sight of work done in the shop itself, not on the 
draughting board only. Great opportunities are passed by in 
hurrying from one thing to another, when the intent is only on the 
matter in hand, and the mind absolutely closed to the operations 
in the shops. It should not be so, and the few students who ob- 
serve processes are the best students always. 

The time has gone by when an accumulation of facts, names, 
and dates, and an armful of books, may be said to constitute an 
art education. Experience is demanded, and we cannot obtain 
that combination of beauty and usefulness without a knowledge of 
the process and the technical difficulties. 

In times not long past, as we still see the results at every hand, 
design was considered a thing applied after the usefulness of the 
thing was well established. All manner of pieces of turning and 
fretwork were glued or screwed on furniture, mere excrescences 
without use, without purpose. Fortunately nowadays the fact is 
recognized that these atrocious things add neither comfort or 
beauty, but that the construction is decoration. 

Nowhere is this better illustrated than in the iron work of 
the new Pennsylvania Station at Thirty-third Street. Here in the 
train sheds, the roof supports are frankly constructed of iron 
riveted together so that they form supports of beauty and at the 
same time of great strength. 

The keynote of our rapid modern life has to be simplicity, but 

73 



not the simplicity of ugliness so apparent in some of the early 
mission furniture. Heavily constructed furniture may have been 
suitable for the old stone buildings of the missions, but in a modern 
apartment where every foot of space has to count it is entirely 
out of place. We are building our furniture not of great squared 
timbers, nor of spindle pieces delicately gilded, but of suitable 
strength, carefully designed, drawing on the best models of the 
past and designing new ones to meet our modern conditions. A 
chair leg need not be square its entire length, but simple turn- 
ings may be introduced, taking away the monotonous square 
solidity much in vogue a few years ago. 

Rows of chocolate colored "brownstone fronts" still darken 
many of the streets of older New York, their windows small, 
heavily framed, their doorways, steps, and window-ledges packed 
full of meaningless carvings. Contrast these with the newer apart- 
ment buildings of gray brick and white stone, with terracotta 
facings, the windows of large size and the lines of the doorways 
and the window openings forming an agreeable ensemble, so that 
years from now we need not be ashamed. Very little applied 
decoration is on the best of them. This construction beautifully 
illustrates that construction is the design. The great skyscrapers 
are well worthy of study in this respect. The dignified lines of the 
most excellent of them, the Woolworth building, is most worthy of 
attention. Contrast the lines of strength that form the principal 
decoration of this building with the fussiness of many of the 
earlier ones. Students in design and industrial arts must consider 
their materials that the design may be a part of the thing, not a 
thing apart. In many of our schools a sort of formula is used, a 
certain smug fitting together of shapes, each one following the out- 
line of the others. The mentally lazy seek a sort of ready-made 
formula for design. Wide-awake observation of all materials and a 
suitable design natural to each is the only receipt. Art appreciation 
is not a thing of two years or of four, it is of a lifetime. 



74 




Charcoal Compositions. 

75 






A. A M. ^ 







Copies and Designs from Museum Motifs. 



76 






THE USE OF MUSEUMS IN SCHOOL WORK 

Malcolm Huff 

New York is rich in museums, generously open to the public, 
their managers anxious to co-operate with schools in an effort 
to bring such collections to the use of the people. The collections, 
representing the art of all peoples, and all ages, are of infinite value 
to the student. These sources are constantly drawn upon by the 
students of Teachers College, not merely for the purpose of using 
their art objects as models, or of memorizing the different periods 
of historic ornament, so as to proudly boast that they can distin- 
guish and reproduce any building or piece of furniture from early 
Egyptian to late Victorian, but rather are they used as examples 
of harmony and fine spacing which may develop judgment and 
appreciation of these qualities whenever seen. To this is added the 
hope that when attempting original designs the work of our stu- 
dents may be as simple, spontaneous, and enthusiastic an expres- 
sion of our time as the work of other ages was of the period in 
which they were produced. 

With this idea in mind the junior class at Teachers College 
designed a series of bowls and baskets, using the motifs of the 
primitive peoples. As the work of such peoples is naive and un- 
aifected, qualities valuable to the student, this pottery was chosen 
as a subject to help develop their recognition of such charac- 
teristics and power to express them in their own work. The stu- 
dents made freehand brush and ink studies of the Indian pottery 
and baskets, keeping in mind the proportion and spacing and the 



77 



fact that the design on these was not "applied" but appeared to 
be a vital part of the basket itself. In the studio these designs were 
varied in their dark and light and original arrangements made by 
each student. 

Another lesson given was to the production of borders with 
one of Aesop's Fables as subject. For a preliminary step toward 
designing these borders, the Coptic and Peruvian textiles, always 
suggestive in their rhythm, tone and color quality, were studied. 
Freehand studies were made of these just as had been done with 
the Indian pottery, in an effort to catch the spirit of these early 
craftsmen. After this the original borders, with the fable motif, 
were designed in two and three tones and lastly executed in color. 

Another important advantage of the museum is the opportu- 
nity it offers for the study of the fine examples of Greek, Gothic 
and Renaissance sculpture and architecture. In this we have the 
harmony of the whole, the unity and fine spacing of the parts, and 
the contrasts in the particulars. All of these qualities must be 
appreciated by the art student. One way of bringing this about 
is by means of modeling. Gothic figures from the Rheims and 
Amiens cathedrals were copied in clay from photographs. These 
studies were then corrected from the sketches made from the full- 
sized models now in the museums. These clay studies endeavor 
to express the proportion, the fine structural line and architectural 
qualities of the originals, and appreciation of high relief is obtained 
in this way which would be impossible to gain without the aid of 
the museums. 

Fine spacing and powerful line are not the product of one 
age but of all ages. The ability to recognize, value, and compose 
these should be the aim of all art students. One lesson given to the 
elementary class, as a step toward the realization of this was the 
problem of designing a piece of furniture with curved lines. The 
class visited the museum and made pencil sketches of Gothic and 
Greek sculpture and Colonial furniture with special attention to 
the proportion, dignity and grace of line. From these sketches re- 
inforced by the appreciation gained by working from the original. 



78 



were evolved the students' original designs. Another practical ap- 
plication, for exercising the knowledge of the composition of 
curves, was in the designing of vase forms in the pottery classes. 
Designing alphabets and initial letters was another use of the 
curved line. In this work the Metropolitan and Hispanic Museums 
and the Avery Library were often visited for the purpose of exam- 
ining their wonderful old manuscripts. The collection of Spanish 
books is especially good in color and freedom of handling and is 
a source of stimulus to any one who aspires to do fine lettering. 

Appreciation of tone quality, as well as of fine line is necessary. 
As the old Spanish, Persian, and Italian brocades are excellent 
examples of this, studies were made from these, first freehand, and 
later varied in two and three tones and color. 

Attractive tone compositions were developed by the senior 
class from sketches of animals and birds made at the Natural His- 
tory Museum. Numerous careful pencil sketches were made from 
the animal selected and from all of these, the large composition 
was developed in the studio. This work is a valuable preliminary 
exercise to sketching from life. 

The Japanese brush is recognized as one of the most facile 
and convenient tools for free expression. As an exercise in the use 
of the brush, as well as to gain appreciation of the fineness of the 
dark and light pattern, Mexican pottery was copied. To keep the 
brush stroke as direct and the pattern as vigorous as the original 
required power and clear, direct thinking, which is, after all, the 
important point to gain, regardless of the source of inspiration. 

Thousands of experiments might be carried out from the sug- 
gestions found in the museums. But the few lessons here described 
illustrate how the students gained experience in studjring the best 
examples of design from the originals, in making varied arrange- 
ments and finally in working out their own ideas. In this way they 
developed their individuality, invention, and imagination, and, by 
comparing their work with the originals, gained a better sense of 
art values and a good historic perspective. 



79 





Composition and border from museum sketches. 



80 



uiL 




COSTUME DESIGN IN THE SEVENTH AND EIGHTH 

GRADES OF SPEYER SCHOOL 

Theodora F. Demorest 

From time immemorial one of the most interesting ques- 
tions of femininity has been how to appear most attractive. 
Thought and study form the basis for the decisions on most of 
the questions of to-day. Why not apply the same methods when 
dealing with the question of dress? How few really well-dressed 
people one sees! Not that they do not spend time and thought on 
the subject, but because they do not know what to select for their 
particular needs and adornment. 

The aim of the course in Costume Design at Speyer School was 
to teach the girls how to choose that which best suited them. The 
course was prefaced by three talks on general hygiene, clothing 
and textiles. 

The lessons were based on the following outlines: 

1. Suitability to;— 2. Durability. 

A. Wearer. A. Utility. 

B. Occasion. B. Style. 

3. Cost. 



81 



The first problem was the designing of a coat. In the first 
lesson the coat was taken up as a design in line. In their art work 
the children had learned the principles of design, subordination, 
rhythm and repetition. The coat outline or silhoutte was the 
space to be filled. The collar, cuffs, belt and trimmings were to 
form the design within it. Vertical lines, such as stripes, carry the 
eye up and down giving the impression of height. Horizontal lines, 
as a belt and cuffs, carry the eye across the figure, giving the im- 
pression of breadth. In designing a costume, these principles must 
be taken into consideration. 

Three large models of coats, drawn in charcoal, were criticised. 
Suggestions and changes were made by the children by erasing and 
re-drawing the lines. The children applied their knowledge by 
designing coats for themselves, each tracing the silhouette of a 
coat, from a fashion book, on Japanese paper, and modifying it in 
three different ways suitable for themselves. 

The second lesson dealt with the coat as a dark and light 
problem. A good design must have balance of dark and light 
masses. From the standpoint of utility a dark coat is best, the 
trimming giving the opportunity for contrast. Since these coats 
are for ordinary use the best plan is to have the trimming a medium 
tone. The three large models modified in lesson 1 were worked 
out in variations of dark and light. The class criticised these on the 
basis of suitability, durability, and utility. On the line drawings 
made in the last lesson different combinations of dark and light 
were made by the class applying these principles. 

The second problem, designing a school dress, covered the 
next two lessons. Simplicity is one key-note to good design in 
clothes. Anyone can buy things in the latest fashion, but the really 
well-dressed people are those who choose costumes that suit them- 
selves. On this basis three models of dresses were criticised. 

Since the children were not experienced in figure drawing a 
stencil was cut from the outline of the models. A tracing of this 
was made for each girl. The class problem was to make a good 
design of a dress suitable for each individual. The class were 



82 



given opportunity to express their ideas by criticising the designs 
that were made. 

Lesson 4 took up the school dress as a color problem. The 
color theory of hue or color; value or dark and light; intensity or 
brightness, greyness; and the harmonious combinations of these 
were known by the class through former Art lessons. The suita- 
bility of color to the individual with regard to hair, eyes and skin 
was discussed. The hair-ribbon is just as much a part of the cos- 
tume as anything else and it should emphasize or harmonize with 
the color scheme. 

They criticised three large models, made from the stencil, 
worked out in color, illustrating differences of Hue, Value, and 
Intensity. 

These ideas were applied by the class in selecting materials of 
which they wanted to make their dresses. The study of textiles in 
their Domestic Art lessons helped them in judgment and selection. 
These materials were represented with water-colors on the line 
dra%vings made in the last lesson. 

The designing of a hat to be worn with the coat and the dress 
was the third problem. Since the hat is a covering for the head, it 
should suggest the lines of the head. It could be large or small 
depending on its suitability to the wearer and to the occasion. Tall 
thin people look best in broad flat hats because the lines of it carry 
the eyes across the figure giving the effects of breadth, while peo- 
ple that are inclined to be stout look best in hats that carry the 
eyes up and down. Hence the silhouette of a figure or its line effect 
can be changed and developed by the style and place of the trim- 
ming. The color of the costume can be "echoed" in the hat or a 
neutral color or black might be used for harmony or accent. 

The Model Hats, as in the case of the dresses, were criticised. 
Six different stencils of hats were made to fit the heads of the 
figures just designed. The children chose the shape they thought 
best suited themselves. They then modified and trimmed this so 
that it would be harmonious with both the coat and the dress. The 



83 



costumes were finished by using crayon pencils for the outlines 
and shading. 

The last problem was the party dress. In the first lesson the 
aim, to look as girlish as possible, was emphasized by simple white 
dresses with a touch of color on sash or belt; or dresses of a dainty 
flowered material. These are most becoming and appropriate party 
dresses for girls. They wisely decided to leave chiffons and satins 
for older people. 

The hair must be considered as an important part of the cos- 
tume; it should be dressed simply with no ornament save a dainty 
hair ribbon. Another important part of the costume are the shoes 
and stockings. White and patent-leather shoes were decided 
against from the standpoint of usefulness and wearing qualities. 
The dull black shoes were almost unanimously chosen for use for 
all occasions. 



r -( 








I 


1 




\ 
J 

t 1 

_- __ _ . -J 



84 






Tiles made in Modeling Class. 



85 




86 




GOOD FURNITURE 
LaMont A. Warner 

Cabinet making is one of the fine arts and is by no means to be 
placed among the lesser ones. Among the things most treasured 
by the nations and holding prominent places in the world's 
museums will ever be found specimens of the art of the cabinet 
maker. 

In making or choosing a piece of furniture, the first require- 
ments are that it be thoroughly practical, well suited to its use, 
and of suitable, durable material. Then it must be fine in propor- 
tion, with its various members well spaced and of proper size and 
thickness; not over heavy so as to be immovable, nor over light 
so as to be fragile; strong enough to stand the use for which it is 
required and no stronger. Then it must be fine in line, both in its 
outline and in the lines which may be added as decoration. Clever- 
ness and artistic skill are needed to insure beauty of outline. A 
study of curves proves that the long, subtle line which swings 
abruptly into a short and decided ending is usually fine. Any 
variable curve is more interesting than the circle or a shape line 
drawn with a compass. In addition to this, a freehand line ex- 
presses the individuality of the artist. In carving, the work done 
by machine is dead and lifeless, while that which shows the tool 



87 



marks of the carver, with their slight irregularities, is always alive 
with the personality of the artist. 

A piece of furniture must be good in value, both in itself and 
in relation to its surroundings, not too dark if used in a light room, 
nor too light when used in a dark room. The middle values are 
always best. The use of natural colored leather on a very dark 
oak piece is also poor, as the value contrast is too great. Use 
similar values to make a harmonious scheme. 

The color of a piece also depends somewhat on its surround- 
ings. It may match the other wood-work in the room or it may be 
in contrast. If it is the latter, to be harmonious it should not be 
too strong in color, and should be about the same value as the 
wood-work. 

The prized furniture of other days is often not the furniture 
which suits our day. Living conditions have changed, perhaps we 
are living more simply than those in former times; if so, our furni- 
ture will express that simplicity in which we are honestly trying 
to live. 

The Georgian period in England expressed in line, form, and 
color the simplicity of a people whose national ideals were akin 
to ours of to-day. Therefore, we may quite properly use or adapt 
their vigorous but simple styles of furniture in our present homes. 



^^. 



'-a 4^-N\\\»< imi m> m' i»i i— ■»> '»' '«' '« ' ",','', 'r- 






^iilit^^^lv;-^^^ 



I 



Ewbroiclftry e)t6.iic( 



-J^''-r>->'-tX"^ 



The ideal way to start in designing a piece of furniture is to 
consider carefully the requirements of the piece: how high, how 
wide, and how deep it needs to be in each of its parts in order to 

be best suited to its use. Then decide 
its forms, the weight of materials, and 
the joints needed for strength. When 
this is done, if you have not been hamp- 
ered by convention, it may result in 
something unusual and individual. Then 
study to make its spacing excellent, and 
last of all work out the refinements of 
curved outline, carving, or inlay; it may 
be much better if these last are not 
added at all. 

The accompanying drawings are all, 
excepting two, original designs from 
the work of students in the furniture - 
design class at Teachers College, and 
have been specially drawn for this arti- 
cle. The first one is from an Egyptian 
queen's sewing cabinet, three thousand 
years old. It is a masterpiece in space division. Each line and 
moulding has been judiciously placed in relation to all the others. 




Pe5i(Jr!«d by Evelyn T2or ton- 




M«t(.Ucl fr-^ lll< cr,^:.>l .. TU Ku^ol rTuxvn-- I9ru»<lc 



89 



but its g^reatest charm lies in the rhythmic repetition in the painted 
or inlaid decoration. 

The chair designs are practical pieces in simple lines. Fine 
proportions, good spacing and refined relations in the thickness of 
the various parts go to make a series of original and most satis- 
factory chairs. 

The tables are also unusual and charming, full of originality 
and in all ways desirable. The fire screen has unusual refinement 
of line and subtlety of curve. The last drawing is an Egyptian 
stool sketched from the original in the Royal Museum in Brussels, 
its extreme simplicity of construction and beauty of form are its 
commendations. 

All of these pieces are so unpretentious in design and so simple 
in motif that they might be used in almost any room, no matter 
what style the other furnishings happened to be. The only require- 
ment would be that the color of the wood and upholstery be in 
harmony with the other furnishings. 




]k^m((i-bj CP^Osl'rrhofRx- 



90 



Nr.lL.'^F.^ 



THE HIGH SCHOOL ANNUAL AS A PROBLEM IN ART. 

Doris Patty Rosenthal. 
HE high school teacher is sooner or later confronted 
with the problem, the school publication. To what 
extent should the art instructor be interested in 
the magazine? Should she not plan as carefully 
as does the English department, which criticizes 




■ !ir,iu.-vH'.i 



and organizes all the literary efforts? The book goes forth into 
the community indicative of the activities of the school. How 
some art teachers can still look the world in the face after the issu- 
ance of some of these magazines is as puzzling a question as was 
the riddle of the Sphinx. The magazine is primarily the students' 
activity, but a tactful teacher can co-operate with, but should 
not dominate the students. I believe a great deal of interest could 
be created, hand in hand with good work, if the art teacher would 
consider the problem of the school publication an integral part of 
her term's work. 

The first factor to be considered is one of capital and expense. 
The business manager knows how much is available for the cause. 
When that is compared with the engraver's figures, it can be esti- 
mated how many full page decorations can be used, how many head 
and tail pieces, how elaborate a cover, how beautiful in texture 
and color the paper and printer's ink may be, and whether or 
not there may be end pages. The art editor will decide on the 
subjects of the full pages and headings. 

The books that treat of reproduction should be read. Among 
the best are "Decorative Illustration," by Walter Crane; "Modem 
Illustration," by Joseph Pennell; "Practical Designing," by Glea- 
son White; "The Illustration of Books," by Joseph Pennell, and 
the chapters that treat of book covers, title pages and lettering in 
"Composition," by Arthur W. Dow. All the work for this repro- 
duction should be made larger in proportion than the completed 
product. Primarily the book is to be ornamented, not illustrated. 
It should be more than a mere collection of accidental, weak-lined, 
cross-hatched sketches. The book should have unity, and should 

91 



be simple, beautiful, and harmonious throughout. The naive dec- 
orations of the children are to be preferred to attempted profes- 
sionalism. 

The cover is a problem in rectangular arrangement divided 
into beautiful proportions, and should indicate the nature of the 
publication. The lettering which is an important part of the design, 
should be simple, straightforward, and legible. The pupils should 
make two designs, one in black and white, the other in color. Good 
reference books on lettering are "Alphabets" by Strange, 
Browne's "Book on lettering" and Johnston's "Writing, Illuminat- 
ing and Lettering." There are also examples in the 1912 issue of 
"Art and Industry in Education" for book covers designed by 
students of Teachers College. 

The end pages, or lining of the book, are often covered with a 
design of a small repeating pattern in one or more colors, using 
wood block or carbon paper method. This may suggest the char- 
acter of the book, but it should not compete with the decorations 
proper. "It is a fore-court, a grass plot before the door. One does 
not know the whole secret of the book until one is stopped at the 
double doors of the full title. Even here the whole secret of the 
book should not be out, but rather played with in a symbolic way. ' ' 

The arrangement of the photographs of the class and faculty 
is a vital one. Clearness of perception is of primary importance, 
and to gain this, all cuts should be vertically placed, not tipped to 
the center as if the heads were being knocked together. It is also 
necessary to separate the dark and light photographs into groups. 
Then, too, there should not be too much contrast between the back- 
ground and tone of the cut. If there is to be any decoration, it 
must be simple and unobtrusive. This is an excellent problem in 
subordination. 

The spacing of the printing on the page, that is, the relation of 
the margin to the gray matter of printing and the relation of the 
capital letter to the page as a whole are very interesting projects. 
It is well to carry out the same character treatment and size of let- 
tering throughout the book, especially with the ornamented initials. 



92 



This would still leave plenty of room for variety and invention in 
the details. 

Then there is the question of full page decorations suggested 
by the art editor for such subjects as Faculty, Senior Class, Society, 
Literary, Athletics and Jokes. Here must be considered the use of 
wash, charcoal, or clay designs which means halftones with the 
expensive copper cut, or pen, brush and ink decorations with the 
zinc plate. The idea is one of space filling, of a pattern of dark and 
light, not of mere illustration. It should be treated in a broad, 
simple, dignified way. I think it well to have a blank page before 
the design. 

In the headings, even if limited to pen and ink, there should 
be at least three tones. There are a number of ways of gaining an 
intermediate tone. In all work, every line should tell, every line 
should be strong enough, so that if it were left out its loss would 
be felt. Printers hate cross-hatching and thin, bow-legged lines 
crawling over one another. It may be well to carry the heading 
clear across two pages, giving the effect of a frieze. The relation 
of the size of the heading to the printing on the page, and to the 
initial letter must be considered carefully. 

"Then we come to the space at the end of the book, the tail 
piece. The blank, the silence seems too dead; one would be glad of 
some lingering echo, and here is the opportunity. It is a tight 
place, like the person expected to say the exactly fit thing at the 
right moment, neither too much nor too little. It should correspond 
to the style of the rest of the decorations in the book. There 
is what I should call the mouse-tail termination, formed on a grad- 
ual diminishing line, starting the width of the type, and ending in 
a point. Then there is the plan of boldly shutting the gate by carry- 
ing a panel of design right across, or of filling the whole remaining 
page. Or there is the inverted triangular plan, the garland sprig, 
leaf, or pen flourish glorified into an arabesque. One principle in 
designing isolated ornaments is useful; arrange the subject so that 
its edges shall touch a graceful enclosing shape." 



93 



EXPERIMENTAL WORK IN INDUSTRIAL ARTS AS A 

MEANS OF EFFICIENCY 

Alanson H. Edgerton 

The progressive teacher who undertakes to make the wood- 
working shop more typical of real industrial conditions, by giving 
the boy enough freedom so that he may find out the "How" and the 
"Why" of the things he sees in everyday life, is confronted by no 
small problem. If the teacher is fortunate enough to have the 
opportunity of organizing his own courses, he will have many fac- 
tors to consider from the very beginning. As the success of the 
work, to a large extent, depends upon the child's immediate inter- 
est, it should be chosen to that end and presented in such a manner 
that it will appeal to him as being worth while. On the other hand, 
the experienced teacher well knows that there are many pitfalls in 
the path of the beginner. It is first essential for him to master cer- 
tain processes and difficulties before he is allowed much choice in 
his undertakings. 

When the work has been selected and organized to meet these 
general difficulties, the teacher has accomplished much, in that he 
is prepared to start his classes, yet he still has a special problem 
before him. One of the large problems is to avoid the misrepresen- 
tation of industrial conditions as they actually exist outside of the 
school. It is not enough that the workshop should merely increase 
the difficulty of the projects, so that the boy may master the prin- 
ciples of procedure and the correct uses of the tools. These are im- 
portant, but he must also be made to realize that in the industries, 
it is not only necessary to do a good piece of work, but that it must 
be made in a short time and with little waste in materials. Until 
the boy is given an insight into the productive side of industry, and 
can really appreciate that unnecessary slowness and excessive 
waste are considered as losing factors in our modem industries, he 
is not working under actual industrial conditions. 

In most of our upper grade curricula, the time allowed for in- 
formation and shop practice is limited to one and one-half hours of 



94 



each week. Owing to this fact, many of our teachers are satisfied 
to teach shop practice only. Others are aiming to make the boy an 
intelligent, thoughtful worker, rather than a mere follower of direc- 
tions, regardless of the time element. If the teacher of the latter 
type is to gain the greatest degree of efficiency under our present 
system of education, more successful experiments must be con- 
tributed along the lines of economy of time and economy in method. 

Feeling that there had always been an unnecessary loss in time 
whenever a new process, such as block-planing, boring, or chiseling 
was introduced in our wood- working classes, I began experimenting 
with the hope of finding some way by which we might get more 
satisfactory results at the very beginning. Previous to this time, 
we had always demonstrated in the usual way, explaining and 
actually making the piece of work before the class. Correctness in 
the using of the tools was thus given especial emphasis, and the 
difficulties that would arise from their improper usage were also 
explained. This method had little effect and seemingly resulted in 
the boys trying out my caution to see if the undesirable would 
actually happen. We therefore felt the need of a method which 
would help the boys in using their limited time to a better advant- 
age. 

Judging from these results, it seemed that the greatest weak- 
ness in our method of demonstrating was due to the fact that the 
piece was made before the class, giving them a vivid image of the 
results when the tools were properly used, but, on the other hand, 
merely words had been used to explain the difficulties arising from 
their incorrect usage. It was quite evident that a vivid mental pic- 
ture of these difficulties was lacking, since many of the processes 
were proving as stumbling blocks for a large part of each class. 

As we were reorganizing the shop work in the upper grades, an 
opportunity was offered to try out these inferences upon boys who 
were beginning in woodwork. When the boys came to the shop 
for their first lesson, we talked over the tie rack, which had been 
chosen for them, and decided that each boy had a particular use 
for one. The boys also agreed that they needed a drawing to work 



95 



from, so each one made a sketch, including all of the dimensions 
necessary. The importance of measuring and squaring lines was 
then demonstrated to the boys, after which they marked out their 
work on the pieces of wood furnished them. 

The next time the boys reported, they were ready to start plan- 
ing their pieces, so after giving them a general idea of the smooth- 
ing plane, I showed them the correct use of it in planing the edges 
of their pieces. Before starting them on the block in planing of the 
ends, I divided the class into two groups, each group being com- 
posed of boys of equal ability, as nearly as I could judge. To the 
seven boys in the first group, I demonstrated the process of block 
planing in the usual way, showing them the correct use of the block- 
plane and explaining that if they did not plane from either edge 
of the piece, as I had done, the grain would be split off on the other 
edge. In demonstrating to the other seven, I not only showed thsm 
the proper way to blockplane, but also planed across the end in 
the improper manner, splitting and spoiling the piece which I had 
taken particular care to finish well. It was quite evident by the ex- 
pressions on the boys' faces, that the later part of this demonstra- 
tion had had the desired effect. 

In comparing the pieces of each group, it was very noticeable 
that the group of boys who had the undesirable demonstrated to 
them, did more accurate block planing than the other group. Four 
of the seven boys in the first group had split their pieces in planing 
them, while only one of the second group had split his. The second 
group also occupied much less time in making their pieces. I kept 
an account of the time which each spent upon his piece. The seven 
boys in the first group made their respective pieces in 868 minutes, 
while the other group completed theirs in 679 minutes. This made 
an average difference of 27 minutes for each boy. 

The outcome of this experiment was so satisfactory, I per- 
formed a similar one with another class, in which boring and chisel- 
ing were being introduced. Each group was made up of eight boys. 
As before, the first group was shown the correct uses of the tools in 
boring and chiseling; while the second group again observed the 



96 



extreme effects, resulting from the improper use of the tools. In 
demonstrating their incorrect usage to the second group, I bored 
and chiseled straight through the respective pieces, again splitting 
the wood badly on the opposite side. The results were much the 
same as the previous experiment, excepting the difference between 
the groups was naturally not so evident, since neither of these 
operations is as difficult as the blockplaning. 

Since each experiment was performed with groups of boys 
having practically the same ability, I conclude that the boy, who 
had the undesirable results of using tools demonstrated to him, was 
given a vivid mental picture which never once left him until his 
work was finished. The boy, who had the matter explained to him 
verbally, lacked that same vivid image and consequently made no 
special effort to overcome those particular difficulties in his work. 
In summarizing the results of these experiments I might well use 
the words of Dr. Thorndike from his "Principles of Teaching," 
where he states, "Words and figures lack the vividness and em- 
phasis of pictures, models, and other material construction. They 
do not so easily stir the emotions or so strongly reinforce the 
original experience of the object." 




97 




DECORATIONS IN A RESTAURANT 
Josephine W. Barnard 

A few years ago the lower dining hall of Statler's Cafe, in the 
Ellicott Square Building, Buffalo, was redecorated. The upstairs 
dining room of the restaurant was elaborate and ornate, in keep- 
ing with the higher prices on its menu. After careful study of a 
German exhibit at the St. Louis Exposition, it was decided to 
decorate the lower room, at a considerable expense, for the benefit 
of the more humble patrons. 

An architect seeing some of my work soon after I had studied 
a course in art structure, asked that I make the landscape pictures 
for mural decorations in this restaurant. It was a pleasure to one 
who had been awakened to an appreciation by an art training that 
led to desire for fine form, harmonious tone and color, in all that 
surrounds life, to have an opportunity to extend these principles 
in a simple way to others. 

I painted all the decorations in oil color in very flat tones on 
canvasses. When the wall was prepared they were cut from the 
stretchers and cemented into sunken spaces. The surrounding 
woodwork formed pleasing frames. The subjects were chosen 
from pencil sketches or photographs. For each picture I made in 
horizontal rectangles, four inches by six and one-half inches, sev- 
eral compositions of the same subject in outline only, then chose 



98 



the one finest in its divisions of spaces. Next, by placing a thin 
paper over this drawing, a number of dark and light arrangements 
in several values were studied, using washes of ink only. Again 
making a choice of the one strongest in its massing, I put that into 
color. For some, from a Japanese print, I substituted colors of 
the same value as the different masses, and for others, harmonious 
color schemes from varied sources. Thus I had small plans ready 
to be enlarged. 

Over each of the sixteen serving tables was placed a low-toned 
landscape, the color in keeping with the soft, warm, gray marble 
and woodwork of the room. These pictures all measured thirty- 
two by nineteen inches. They were painted with no experience 
as a landscape artist, but were developed merely as designs that 
might awaken a memory or bring a pleasing thought to the mind 
of the beholder. 

In subject they carried one far away from the noise and tur- 
moil of the life beyond the doors, the crowded street and the people, 
for no human being appeared upon the canvases. It was pleasing 
to the designer that the country people, in town for a day's shop- 
ping, chose this place for the noonday meal because they "liked 
the new pictures on the wall." Summer and winter, spring and 
fall, night and day, transposed into line and tone harmonies, formed 
the motifs of the various pictures. 

Over the fireplace was one canvas measuring six feet in length. 
This was called "Early Morning." It was a row of tall poplars 
and their rhythmical trunks threw long shadows across a slightly 
sloping hill. At the other end of the room, over two doorways 
were more long panels, merely an arrangement of mandrake leaves 
on a background of gold, that notes of color might fill a given space. 

Many of the problems already created by the students of 
Teachers College in their study could serve the same purpose. Later 
on older pupils could produce a similar work that might adorn 
the rest room of the school house or decorate the chimney piece 
of country homes, expressing by simplicity of treatment, refine- 
ment, beauty and good taste. 



99 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONALITY IN HOUSE 

DECORATION 

C. A. Osterholm 

Within the last twenty years, people have become more critical 
and more exacting- in the furnishing of their houses. Formerly the 
most commonplace interior, furnished with whitened ceilings, cheap 
wood graining or painting, and wall paper usually bad in design 
and color, satisfied an undiscriminating taste. The study of sur- 
roundings was not as general then as it is now, and the personality 
of the people was reflected in their houses. 

With the acquisition of artistic knowledge and more general 
culture, popular taste has improved. To a certain extent everyone 
has taste, but the artistic sense naturally varies with the person- 
ality and circumstances of each individual. 

To express this beautifully is the art of the decorator. In this 
personality of the owner lies the individuality of the home. Yet, 
the consideration of this individuality imposes awkward condi- 
tions upon the deocrator. It is his object to create certain artistic 
arrangements, but he is at the same time constantly bound by the 
uncertain tastes and ideals of his clients. Often he has to handle 
unsightly pieces of furniture and reconcile opposing colors. In 
every room he will find different objects which have been pur- 
chased on the impulse of the moment, because they were individ- 
ually attractive, but which are quite at variance with each other. 
The decorator has to consider, assort, and reconcile all these and 
try to unite them in one harmonious whole. It would be unwise 
for him to insist on one particular period, or suggest too freely 
his own opinion. It should be his duty to make the interior as ar- 
tistic as possible under the circumstances, to educate by example. 
Frequently we find that the successful decorator is not the one 
who is original, but rather the one who can make the ordinary 
things good. His work should come from his heart, a desire to 
serve and to beautify. Rules of taste must exist, but how can the 
heart give forth its utterance, if the decorator be reduced to spe- 
cific rules and theories? 

A sincere decorator will bring out the personality of his client 
in a truly beautiful way. The client will in turn be guided by his 
surroundings to a better appreciation of the decorator's art. Thus, 
the next time the decorator is called he should find his work com- 
paratively easy, and be able to approximate his ideal more closely. 



100 



B. F. Drakenfeld & Co. 

Importers and Manufacturers 

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Oxides and Chemicals 

ROMAN GOLD, BRIGHT GOLD, BRUSHES, ETC. 
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106 



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Change of Address 

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107 



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G. A. VEECK, Inc. 

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Cutters and Importers of all Gem Stones for Arts and 
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Sample selections and prices sent to responsible parties. 



108 



The Teacher and Her Text Books 

THE teacher of Art and the Supervisor of Drawing need text books Just as 
much as the teacher of History or Geography. The child learning to 

draw and studying the fundamental principles that underlie all Art re- 
quires drawing books and text books as much as the child studying Penman- 
ship or Reading. 

The lack of "efficiency" which has so often characterized the teaching of 
Art is partly due to a lack of a definite, progressive and organized course in 
the hands of the teacher and the lack of simple, practical and concrete ma- 
terial, such as drawing books and text books In the hands of children. The 
teacher of Reading has a series of "basal readers" which she supplements. 
The teacher of Art needs a series of "basal drawing books" around which she 
can develop her own course of study. 

For more than half a century The Prang Company has been specializing 
In this field. The Prang "Text Books of Art Education" have had a sale of 
more than one million copies and is the only series of graded text books on 
Art ever issued In this country. Prang "Progressive Drawing Books" are 
undergoing continual revision to keep them the most practical drawing books 
available. If you are a teacher of Drawing, you should see the latest revised 
edition. The Prang Water Colors are the most widely used school colors in 
this country. They were the first In the field and are still the standard. Cor- 
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invited. 



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postage 6 cts. Sample copy 






PAPOMA, a new medium for Oil Painting. 


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109 



Gold and Silver Supplies 
for Art Craftsmen 



Fine and Sterling Silver Sheet and Wire, 
Silver Solder, Karat Gold. 



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When in need of tools and supplies for 
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WILLIAM DIXON, Inc. 

Manufacturers and Importers 

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Send for 672 page catalog. 



110 



FIVE PRACTICAL BOOKS 

For Art Workers 

COMPOSITION 

BY PROF. ARTHUR WESLEY DOW 

An authoritative presentation of the lyn- 
thetlc method of teaching art — the approach 
through design. It considers art as some- 
thing built up of synthetic line, light and 
dark and color. Illustrated In color. Nst, 
$4.00. 

THE CONCEPTION OF ART 

BY HENRY R. POORE. A. N. A. 
Aims to mal(e art comprehensible to the 
majority of manl(ind by explaining the funda- 
mental ideas of the subject and the concep- 
tions of different people and schools. Special 
chapters to Post. — Impressionism, Cubism, 
Futurism. Many illustrations. Net, $2.00. 

PICTORIAL COMPOSITION 

and the CRITICAL JUDGMENT OF PICTURES 

BY HENRY R. POORE, A. N. A 

The most authoritative presentation of the 
principles of composition as applied by the 
great masters of painting. It Is a volume for 
the layman who wishes an Intelligent appre- 
ciation of art, as well as for the photographer 
and artist. Illustrated. Net, $2.00. 

ONE HUNDREO MASTERPIECES 

BY JOHN LA FARGE 

A tour by Mr. La Farge through ■ collte- 
tlon of famous paintings, in which he dis- 
cusses the significance of each In relation to 
other treatments of the same subject without 
reference to schools and other arbitrary sub- 
divisions. Illustrated. Net, $5.00. 

THE APPRECIATION OF 
PICTURES 

BY RUSSEL STURGI8 

A popular historical treatise of the world's 
best paintings. The critical comment on the 
work of the great artists and the comparison 
of their style and standards are of the high- 
est value, both to the layman and to the stu- 
dent of art. Illustrated. Net, $1.50. 

DOUBLEOAY, PAGE & CO. 
Garden City New York 



111 



Engravings in this Book were made 

By 

THE ELECTRIC CITY 
ENGRAVING COMPANY 

New York Buffalo 

8073-5 Metropolitan Bldg. 569 Washington St. 



112 



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This book is DUE on the last date stamped below 

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