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ART IN FLANDERS 



ARS UNA: SPECIES MILLE 
GENERAL HISTORY OF ART 



UNIFORM AVITH THIS VOLUME 

Already Published: — 

ART IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 

By Sir Walter Armstrong. 

ART IN NORTHERN ITALY. 

By Corrado Ricci. 

ART IN FRANCE. 

By Louis Hourticq, Agrege de I'Uni- 
versite. Inspector of fine arts in the 
city of Paris. 

ART IN EGYPT. 

By G. Maspero, Member of the Institut. 

ART IN SPAIN AND PORTUGAL. 

By M. Dieulafoy. Member ot the Institut. 

In Preparation: — 
BYZANTINE ART. 
ART IN INDIA. 
ART IN GERMANY. 
GREEK ART. 
ART IN HOLLAND. 
ART IN CHINA AND JAPAN. 
ART IN NORTH AMERICA. 
ROMAN ART. 
ART IN SOUTHERN ITALY. 



VAN DYCK 

Portrait of the Marquis Francisco de Moncada 

(The Louvre, Paris) 



ARS UNA: SPECIES MILLE 
GENERAL HISTORY OF ART 



ART IN FLANDERS 

BY 

MAX ROOSES 

Diiedor of the Plantin-Moretiis Musetun, Antwerp 




NEW YORK 

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 

MCMXIV 



m 



b 



9M 



2'/iis volume is published siniultaneotisly in 
America by CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SoNS, New 
York; in England by WiLLlAM Heinemann, 
London; also in French by HachetTE ET Cie., 
Paris; in German by JULIUS HOFFMANN, 
Sluitgari; in Italian by ;*/%<?] STITUTO iTALIANO 
D'Arti GrAFICHE, Bergamo ; in Spanish by the 

LiBRERiA Gutenberg de Jose Ruiz, Madrid. 



PRINTED IN GERMANY 



PREFACE 

Great indeed is the distinction conferred upon the author who 
is called on to write the art-history of his own country, to evoke 
the figures of the men who throughout the ages have gradually 
transformed rough and clumsy images into graceful and harmonious 
lines, creating groups instinct with beauty and amenity. His task 
is the more iftviting if, as was the case in Flanders, compact 
and brilliant generations of artists succeed each other in a terri- 
tory of limited extent. 

The productiveness of Flanders in this domain attracted attention 
at an early period, and many experts have undertaken to record 
all that was known of the lives of our painters. They found a 
valuable basis for their labours in the registers whidi the cor- 
porations of St. Luke kept of their apprentices and masters, and 
even in our own times these afford the most valuable evidences 
to art-historians. In the course of the nineteenth century emulation 
increased. The archives of states and cities, chronicles, and general 
literature were searched for the slightests details which threw light 
on the remoter periods. Facility of communication has multi- 
plied the sources of information, and writers no longer consult 
only written or printed documents; they examine the works left 
by successive generations, they study pictures, sculpture, and 
architecture. They compare the achievements of their own country 
with those of other nations, thus enabHng us to form a complete 

V 

.'127243 



PREFACE 

and reasoned idea of the contributions of each people to the 
collective artistic creation of humanity, and showing what each 
school borrowed from others. 

We know how large was the share of Flanders in the formation 
of this universal heritage, how glorious were the personalities 
which towered above the less famous mass of individuals, some- 
times at the same period, sometimes at greater or lesser intervals 
of time. I have been careful to insist upon the more illustrious 
of these. Carrying out my task by the accepted methods, I have, 
however, made one innovation; I have devoted an unusually large 
proportion of my space to an art generally neglected: that of 
illumination and miniature. This delicate and precious form of 
artistic expression has been much studied of late. Libraries and 
private collections have been examined; their masterpieces have 
been reproduced , and it has been shewn that Flemish artists 
excelled in this domain as in many others. To complete the 
History of Painting it seemed to me necessary to give a prelim- 
inary sketch of the branch of art which prepared the way for it. 
I have thus sought to trace the glorious history of Art in Flanders 
in all its manifestations. 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I 

ART IN FLANDERS FROM THE BEGINNING TO THE END OF THE 

ROMANESQUE PERIOD 1 



CHAPTER II 

FLEMISH ART TO THE BEGINNING OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY . . 17 

CHAPTER III 

THE ITALIAN INFLUENCE IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY .... 148 

CHAPTER IV 

ART IN THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES . . .197 

CHAPTER V 

BELGIAN ART IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 286 

INDEX 331 



COLOURED PLATES 

Portrait of the Marquis Francisco de Moncada. Van Dyck. (The Louvre, 

Paris) , Frontispiece 

Portrait of the Painter's Wife. Jan van Eyck. (Hospital of St. Jean, Bruges) To face p. 78 

Portrait of Martin van Nieuzvenhove. Hans Memlinc. (Hospital of St. Jean, 

Bruges) „ 168 

Helen Fourment and two of her Children. P. P. Rubens. (The Louvre, Paris) „ 224 



ERRATUM 

Pag-e 193, 1. 15, for "Hampton Court" read "Victoria and Albert Museum, 
South Kensington, London" 




FIG. 1.— GHENT. CHATEAU DES COMTES^^(ll8o) 
(General view after recent restoration). 



ART IN FLANDERS 
CHAPTER I 

ART IN FLANDERS FROM THE BEGINNING 
TO THE END OF THE ROMANESQUE PERIOD 
(TWELFTH CENTURY) 

General remarks on the Country, its Race and its History. First architectural Monuments. 
Sculpture. Miniature-painting to the end of the twelfth Century. 



IN speaking of Flemish art we use a time-honoured term indi- 
cating Belgian art; for this art is not only the art of the County 
of Flanders, the most important of the principalities that form 
the Belgium of to-day, but also the art of all these principalities, 
of Brabant as of Limburg, of Liege as of Hainault, of Namur as 
of western Luxembourg. In a word, we have to deal with the 
art of all the provinces which make up the Kingdom of Belgium. 
iOgether with the country now forming the Kingdom of the 

1 B 



''-'ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. '2. — SOIGNIES. COLLEGE ST. VINCENT. 
(Phot Nels.) 



Neche/-14n'd§,'.tKeSi?:pino>dn*ce$/ as part of the low-lying region where 
the Meuse, the Scheldt, and the Rhine, the great rivers of the 

North- West of the Euro- 
pean Continent, join the 
sea, have also been known 
from time immemorial as 
the Netherlands. They are 
situated at the frontiers 
of France and of Ger- 
many, and their popu- 
lation belongs in part to 
the Teutonic and in part 
to the Latin race. When 
in the sixteenth and in the 
nineteenth centuries the 
northern Netherlands were 
separated from the sou- 
thern, the Latin portion 
fell entirely to the share 
of Belgium, whilst the Germanic portion was divided between 
Belgium and Holland. Belgium is a geographical expression 
which in the course of the centuries has often changed its 
meaning. It is more to its art than to anything else that this 
country owes its real moral homogeneity. 

It was this modest cor- 
ner of the earth that wit- 
nessed the development 
of the artistic school, the 
glorious past of which we 
have undertaken to re- 
call. In the course of cen- 
turies, this country was 
continually losing more 
or less important pieces 
of its territory, sometimes 
on one side, sometimes 
on the other ; it was hand- 
ed over to distant king- 
doms or subjected to 
powerful neighbours; sub- 
jects revolted against their 
princes, the towns waged war with one another, the citizens 
fought against the artisans. And yet, notwithstanding its ever 

2 



^^^^ 










FIG. 3.— YPRES. CATHEDRAL. (Phot. Nels.J 



TO THE END OF THE ROMANESQUE PERIOD 




FIG. 4.— TOURNAI. CATHEDRAL. (Phot. Nels.J 



troubled and often threatened existence, this little country rose 
to occupy and to maintain a brilliant position in European 
civilisation. It preserved 
the autonomy of its art 
better than the integrity 
of its territory. To the 
south and the west ruled 
the formidable civilisa- 
tions of France and Ger- 
many, ever threatening 
to absorb their lowly 
neighbour, who, far from 
submitting to annexation, 
extended her influence 
and made her creations 
admired far beyond her 
frontiers. Whilst her com- 
merce and industry as- 
sured her rich resources, 
her art placed her more 

than once at the head of Europe: first in the fifteenth century 
under the rule of the Dukes of Burgundy, then again in the seven- 
teenth century, at the very hour of political and material disasters. 
Finally, after a century of com- 
plete decadence, Belgium, by dint 
of perseverence and energy, has 
recovered her economic prosper- 
ity, and is now reconquering her 
ancient artistic reputation. 

During the first ten centuries 
of our era, architecture produced 
nothing worth mentioning in Bel- 
gium. The vestiges left by the 
Romans of their sojourn in the 
country, belong to their art and 
not to that of Flanders. Nothing 
remains of the churches and monas- 
teries built under the Mero- 
vingians. The oldest Flemish 
buildings belong to the Roman- 
esque style, which flourished in 
Europe between 900 and 1150 

Ar\ 1 i.\. 1 1 1 • 1 FIGt. 5.— TRANSEPT OF CATHEDRAL 

. U. In the churches, which (Eleventh Century). (Phot 'Nels.J 

3 B 2 



liMiQaii i'lillin /. 



ART IN FLANDERS 




represent the most remarkable examples of this style, it is 
characterised by the use of the semi-circular arch for vaulting, 

windows, and arcades. The colon- 
nades of the ancient basilicas are 
replaced by piers or by clustered 
columns carrying arcades on their 
carved capitals and extending some- 
times to the very vault of the church. 
The two or three storeys of a build- 
ing are thus united by the extension 
of these shafts. Contrary to the 
Roman system of construction, the 
vertical line tends to predominate 
over the horizontal. Sparse light fil- 
ters through small arched windows 
introduced in the walls of the aisles 
and in the upper wall of the great 
nave. With their transepts, these 
buildings form a Latin cross. At the 
entrance, on the fagade, rise one or 
two towers, round, octagonal, or 
square, with pointed roofs. Some- 
times there are as many as four of 
ihese towers, two in front, and one at each end of the transept. 
In one solitary instance there are five of them. 

The Romanesque basi- 
licas which have come 
down to us are designed 
for holding a vast congre- 
gation of worshippers 
rather than for sumptu- 
ousness of effect. There 
are scarcely any that are 
altogether intact. In the 
course of centuries they 
have been enlarged, de- 
corated, and adapted to 
the taste of successive 
periods. The Romanes- 
que churches that deserve 
mention are the cathedral 
and the church of St. Quentin at Tournai, the church of St. Vin- 
cent at Soignies (965) (Fig. 2), Ste. Gertrude (beginning of the 

4 



FIG. 6.— CHURCH OF SAINTE- 
CROIX. (Phot. Degraeves.) 




FIG. 7.— TONGRES. ROMANESQUE CLOISTERS. 
(Phot Nels.) 



TO THE END OF THE RO.MANESQUE PERIOD 






FIG. 8.— TOURNAI. PORTE 
MANTILE. (Phot. Rousseau.) 



eleventh century) at Nivelles, St. 
Denis (987), the early parts of St. 
Jacques (1014),"St. Barthelemy (1015) 
and Sainte- Croix (1030) at Liege; 
the Cathedral at Ypres (Fig. 3), and 
the church of Harlebeke (1072). The 
earliest of these churches is St. Vin- 
cent of Soignies. The building was 
begun in 965, but was probably not 
completed until the eleventh century. 
The monument as a whole is an 
example of Romanesque art remark- 
able for the purity, the grandeur, 
and the regularity of its arrangement 
and style. 

Notre -Dame of Tournai (Fig. 4) 
contains Romanesque portions that 
date back to the eleventh century. 
The choir, Gothic m style, was not 
built till the thirteenth century. The 
main porch, which masks the primi- 
tive fagade, dates from the four- 
teenth. The body of the church, 
which is the oldest part, is Romanesque, and is divided into a 

nave and two aisles. The triforium 

is composed of arcades with semi- 
circular arches. The transepts are quite 
different in style, lighter and more 
fanciful. Here, in particular, the archi- 
tect was able to obtain a charming 
effect without loss of the solemn im- 
pression proper to a sacred place. 
Columns high or low, massive or slen- 
der, arches now stilted, now depress- 
ed, alternate with rectilinear archi- 
traves. The architect has multiplied 
and combined all these elements so 
as to produce the most harmonious 
ensemble. The church has five towers 
with windows where the round arch 
may be seen side by side with the 
pointed arch (Fig. 5). Liege has several 
churches originally built in the Roman- 




FIG. g.— BASTOGXE. FONT. 
(Phot. Rousseau.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 



esque [style, but so completely transformed in the course of 
time, that scarcely anything remains of the primitive construction. 

The most important of these 




i % J.AA^^^iX'JC^y^^mWi'^'i^^r^ I 



FIG. 10.— LETTER L. GOSPEL 

(Bibliotheque Royale, Brussels, 18383). 
(Phot. Van Damme.) 



Romanesque remnants is to be 
found in one of the two choirs 
and in the tower of the church 
of Sainte-Croix (Fig. 6). 

No Romanesque abbey has 
survived. Such buildings are re- 
presented only by some portions 
of cloisters: at St. Bavon, Ghent, 
at Nivelles, and at Tongres 
(Fig. 7). The last is the best 
preserved. 

The most remarkable of the 
extant secular buildings is the 
castle of the Counts of Ghent 
(Fig. 1) which dates from 1180, 
and on which the work of restor- 
ation has been proceeding for 
some years. The entrance gate, 
flanked by two massive octagonal 
towers, gives access to an espla- 
nade from which rises the formidable keep. Above this gate, 
the blind windows and the triple arcades which support the 

summits of the towers form a 
powerful ensemble of severe lines. 
Among the rare houses of this 
epoch which have survived the de- 
struction wrought by time and hu- 
man hands, must be mentioned the 
"Maison de I'etape" at Ghent, with 
its wide, plain fagade, the two 
lower storeys of which have round- 
arched windows divided into two 
by a small column. The gable is 
crow-stepped. At Tournai there are 
still two Romanesque houses, both 
in a very dilapidated state. 

During the time which elapsed 
between the fall of the Roman Em- 
pire and the Norman invasion, the 
churches were decorated with paint- 
6 




FIG. II.— LETTER E. 
ST. AUGUSTINE 

Biblioth. Royale, Brussels, 21842). 
(Phot. Van Damme.) 



TO THE END OF THE ROMANESQUE PERIOD 




FIG. 12.— LETTER M. 

ITINERARIUM SANCTI PETRl(Ant- 

werp, Plantin-Moretus Museum). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



ings and sculptures, of which, unfortunately, nothing has been 
preserved. The Scandinavian pirates destroyed everything. At 
the beginning of the tenth century 
the arts began to revive, and works 
of sculpture appeared immediately. 
About that time, a mausoleum, 
representing a sarcophagus upon 
which rests a recumbent figure, 
was constructed in the abbey of 
Liessies, in the ancient county of 
Hainault. The church porches were 
framed with bas-reliefs depicting 
scenes from Scripture. One of 
them, very well preserved, and dat- 
ing from the eleventh century, 
may be seen at the church of Ste. 
Gertrude of Nivelles. It depicts 
scenes from the life of Samson, 
in which the figures still belong 
to a rudimentary art, whilst the 
Romanesque ornamentation is ad- 
mirable. One of the porches of 

Tournai Cathedral, called the Porte Mantile (Fig. 8), some sculp- 
tured fragments of the Abbey of St. Bavon at Ghent, and the 
font of Bastogne (Fig. 9), — naive and half-obliterated works — 
prove that sculpture arose spontaneously on Flemish soil , and 
served at an early time for the decor- 
ation of Romanesque churches. 

But the oldest works of art that 
have come down to us are the minia- 
tures or illuminated manuscripts. This 
art came from abroad. Its history 
is an indispensable introduction to 
that of panel-painting. Without this 
apprenticeship of several centuries, 
the earliest painters, the admirable 
Flemish primitives, would be inexpli- 
cable. It is only by following the 
gradual progress of illumination, that 
one can understand the slow ex- 
pansion and the regular growth of 
painting. 

The art of miniature, older than 

7 




FIG. 13. — LETTER E. VULGATE 
(Lieg-e, Seminary). (Phot.Janssens.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 






FIG. 14. — ST. MATTHEW. 
GOSPEL (Maeseyck). 



Christianity, was utilised by the new 
religion; it spread from the East to 
the West through the sacred books 
illuminated by Byzantine monks. 
We do not know the history of this 
migration in detail, but it was no 
doubt the work of monks, who 
enriched the libraries of their abbeys 
with the treasures brought back from 
their pilgrimages. Great Britain and 
Ireland in particular seem to have 
welcomed and propagated this Ori- 
ental art. Monks passed from these 
islands to the continent to found 
abbeys where they introduced the 
art of illumination. At an early date 
powerful abbeys had been founded 
in Flanders: St. Martin at Tournai 
in the sixth century, St. Amand near 
Tournai in 638, St. Bertin at St. 
Omer in 654, Stavelot in 655, Lobbes in the Liege district in 638, 
St. Trond about 690, St. Pierre and Ste. Bavon at Ghent under 
Charlemagne. In 670 St. Gertrude of Nivelles had a number 
of precious manuscripts sent from Rome, from Great Britain, 

and from Ireland. The Liege 

district represented one of the 
oldest schools of miniaturists of 
the country; remarkable works 
of art were here executed, 
especially in the abbeys of Sta- 
velot, St. Hubert, and Floreffe. 
The earliest productions of 
the Flemish illuminators are Bi- 
bles, Gospels, and the writings 
of the Fathers of the Church 
and theveogians. The principal 
illustratiol motives in these works 
are the initial letters, and these 
may even be held to be the 
earliest testimony to the artistic 
vocation of the Flemings. They 
form a strikinof contrast to the 

FIG. 15.— ST. JOHN. GOSPEL , ,. * f f f i 

(Brussels, II, 175). (Phot. Van Damme.) representations ot tigurcs tound 

8 




TO THE END OF THE ROMANESQUE PERIOD 




FIG. I6.— CHRIST ON THE CROSS. 

GOSPEL (Brussels, 5573). 

(Phot. Van Damme.) 



in the same books. Whilst these 
figures continue to offend by clum- 
siness and barbaric design, the let- 
ters are models of taste and in- 
genuity. They seem to take the 
place of the figures condemned by 
the Eastern Church; and they recall 
the capricious grace of Mahomme- 
dan arabesques. 

One of the earliest manuscripts is a 
Latin Gospel of the eleventh century, 
from the Abbey of St. Laurent at 
Liege, and probably executed in that 
city. This relic, now the property 
of the Bibliotheque Royale in Brus- 
sels (No. 18383), shows in very mark- 
ed fashion the contrast between 
the coarsely treated figures of the 
Evangelists, and the few letters, 
which are already decorated with 
refined taste (Fig. 10). 

In the following century, the letters become much richer. Here 
is an E (Fig. 11) from a twelfth century manuscript of St. Au- 
gustine, formerly in the Abbey of 
St. Martin at Tournai, and now be- 
longing to the Bibliotheque Royale in 
Brussels (21842). Instead of the flat 
bands with floral extremities, the body 
of this letter presents a fanciful design 
of interlacing branches and leaves full 
of pretty details. 

The same taste will be found in 
the design of the letter M (Fig. 12) 
at the head of the twelfth century 
manuscript Itinerarium Sancti Petri, 
belonging to the Plantin-Moretus Mu- 
seum at Antwerp. Here the branches 
are more vigorous, the foliage denser, 
the interlacing closer. The exuberant 
vegetation overflows the flanks of the 
letter. 

More sober as regards ornament, 
but not less noble in taste, are the 

9 




FIG. 17. — ST. JOHN. GOSPEL 
(Antwerp, Plantin-Moretus Mu- 
seum). (Phot. Hermans.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. l8.— ABRAHAM AND MELCHI- 

SEDECH. PRUDENTIUS 
(Brussels, 10066). (Phot. Van Damme.) 



capitals of a Vulgate belonging to the library of the seminary 
at Liege, and executed in 1248 at the convent of the Freres de 

la Vie commune at Leau (Fig. 13). 
Certain letters represent ani- 
mals' heads or bodies; others 
are composed entirely of flowers. 
Most of them are of a reddish- 
brown colour against a blue 
background. The capital letters 
of a Bible belonging to the 
library of Liege University be- 
long to the same period. The 
increased freedom of arrange- 
ment and of the artist's fancy 
testify to a rejuvenation of 
decorative art. 

The earliest letters recall the 
sculptured ornamentation of Ro- 
manesque or Gothic capitals. 
Later, the 
Renais- 
sance in- 
troduced the figures of men and of animals 
among the foliage and flowers. 

Quite early, from the Gothic period, 
the letters often form frames round veri- 
table little pictures. At the beginning of 
the Renaissance the decorated letter was 
divorced from the miniature. The former 
became an exclusively alphabetic symbol, 
richly coloured and gilt; whilst the minia- 
ture developed into little scenes treated 
by more artistic hands. 

The earliest of the illuminated manu- 
scripts of Belgium is still preserved, though 
in a very poor condition; it is the work 
of the sisters Herlinde and Relinde, who 
came from Picardy in 730 to settle on 
the banks of the Meuse at Aldeneik, 
where they founded a convent. They 
copied manuscripts which they illustrated 
with miniatures. Their ninth century bio- 
grapher praises the magnificent works they 

10 




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FIG. ig.— SCENES FROM 

THE LIFE OF DAVID. 
BIBLE OF STAVELOT, 1097 

(Brit. Mus. Add., 28106). 



TO THE END OF THE ROMANESQUE PERIOD 




FJG. 20. — CHRIST ON THE CROSS. 

SACRAMENTARIUM (Brussels, 2034-5). 

(Phot. Van Damme.) 



produced. None have survived 
but a Gospel, belonging to the 
church of Maeseyck, ornamented 
in the Byzantine style with the 
figures of the Evangelists, and 
accompanied by the Canons in- 
dicating the concordant passages 
of the Gospels. Of the four 
Evangelists, only the figure of St. 
Matthew remains (Fig. 14). The co- 
lours consist of a few flat tones 
with a little black and white to in- 
dicate the lights. The accessories, 
the seat and the arcades are trea- 
ted with much naivete. Although 
rudimentary in drawing, this figure 
is not without a certain style, a 
heritage from the ancient models, 
the beauty of which was not en- 
tirely lost by the clumsy copyists. 
The Bibliotheque Royale in 
Brussels has a tenth century example (No. II, 175) in a book of 
the Gospels which was doubtless executed in Flanders; besides 
the Canons it contains five figures of Saints, including the four 
Evangelists. At first sight these appear still more barbaric than 
the eighth century ones 
(Fig. 15). The naivete of 
the design amounts to 
rudeness; yet there is 
more freedom of style 
than in the St. Matthew 
of Maeseyck. These gro- 
tesque figures are ani- 
mated, and their author 
was gifted with the deco- 
rative sense. The St. John 
from a Gospel at the 
Plantin-Moretus Museum, 
which belonged in 1115 
to the church of Notre- 
Dame at Bruges, is in 
closer touch with life 

/!?• ^'7\ T-I f • FIG^- 21.— CHRIST FORBIDDING HIS MOTHER TO 

(rig. 1/). Ihe tlgure is touch him (1050, Munich). (Bib. Codex, dm. 23 261.) 

11 




ART IN FLANDERS 



drawn with ink, the dress partly heightened with green: it is 
only a silhouette, but touched with a firm hand and not without 
elegance. 

Up to the ninth century, miniatures show us only isolated 
figures, most frequently the Evangelists or God the Father in 
glory. In the tenth century the miniaturists venture to attempt 
scriptural scenes. A Gospel of that period, of Liegeois origin, 
which comes from the abbey of Gembloux and now belongs to 

the Bibliotheque Royale 
at Brussels (No. 5573), 
contains , among other 
little pictures, besides 
the four Evangelists, a 
Christ on the Cross be- 
tween the Virgin and St. 
John (Fig. 16). The fi- 
gures are drawn with a 
pen, Christ in simple 
silhouette, the Virgin 
and the Saint with an 
indication of the folds 
of their garments. The 
attitudes of the figures 
are awkward and angu- 
lar, but the draperies 
are treated with a cer- 
tain freedom; the round- 
ness of the legs is 
apparent through the 
garments, and the fea- 
tures are not lacking in 
expression. 

Another specimen of this primitive art may be found in a 
Prudentius of the eleventh century. This, too, comes from Liege 
and belongs to the Bibliotheque Royale at Brussels (No. 10066). 
It represents the sacrifice of Abraham and Melchisedech (Fig. 18). 
The drawing is still more summary and the heads are still more 
awkwardly placed on the shoulders. This art is still very immature, 
but it reveals a desire for life and movement, of which perhaps 
the schools of the British Isles had set the example. An even 
more interesting work of the same type is the so-called "Bible 
of Stavelot" at the British Museum in London (Add. 28106). 
This Bible was composed in 1097 by Gordeanus and Ernesto in 

12 




FIG. 22. — THE ASCENSION OF CHRIST. 

BIBLE (Brit. Mus., 17738). 



TO THE END OF THE ROMANESQUE PERIOD 




FIG. 23.— ABRAHAM'S SACRIFICE. 
GOSPEL OF AVERBODE (Liege, Uni- 
versity, 363). (Phot. Janssens.) 



the abbey of Stavelot. We have 
taken a miniature from it repre- 
senting different scenes from the 
life of David (Fig. 19); they 
have a certain grip of life and 
movement, and are thus mani- 
festly opposed to the rigid hier- 
aticism of the Byzantines. The 
British Museum owns a tenth 
century missal, which also comes 
from the abbey of Stavelot, and 
contains letters of venerable anti- 
quity. 

But it is only in rare cases 
that the illuminator gives rein to 
his own inspiration. Generally, 
especially when he has to execute 
subjects for which there are sculp- 
tured models, he confines himself 
to minute and impersonal imi- 
tation, as in the Christ on the 
Cross in an eleventh century 

Sacramentarium (Fig. 20), executed in the abbey of Stavelot, 
and now in the Bibliotheque Royale 
at Brussels (2034—5). Christ, 
hanging on the Cross with legs 
and arms extended at right angles, 
stares with dilated but expres- 
sionless eyes. 

There is more life and pictures- 
queness in the two miniatures of 
a missal belonging to the Munich 
Library (Clm. 23 261). This book, 
executed at Liege, was given in 
1050 to the monastery of St. Andre 
at Freising, by its founder, Bishop 
Ellenhard. One of the vignettes 
represents the risen Christ, sign- 
ing to His mother not to touch 
Him (Fig. 21). The personages are 
depicted between two arches of 
Romano-Byzantine style. The fi- 
gures have still the stiff necks, 

13 




FIG. 24.— THE TRIALS OF JOB 

(Paris, Bibl. Nat., 15675). 

(Phot. Berthaud.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 



js^ms^'i ■■ ' -"-'^g— IK"""" " •'•-;'"^"'^^ 


IP-LJsdy^V y^nt^K^4sJ v^^ifUl 


/^£f^^3*8P!Hu^^^=^& 


s pf^^fe^y^^SOB t 




/ 1 ^MIVU^^BSIS^ 


fir 


1 if 


f \ 


tl! 


IL^,---^^:. -r^^ 



FIG. 25. —CHRIST ON THE CROSS. 
(London, Brit. Mus. Missal 16949.) 



the inarticulated hands, the garments 
with tubular folds of the first cen- 
turies; but the expression has become 
more natural. 

A striking progress is evident in a 
manuscript executed in the province 
of Namur in the eleventh century. 
This work, which is as remarkable 
for its colour as for its admirable 
initials and its superb calligraphy, is 
known as the Bible of Floreffe, and 
belongs to the British Museum 
(17738). The miniature here repro- 
duced represents the Ascension of 
Christ, accompanied by various alle- 
gorical allusions to the Evangelists 
(Fig. 22). The invention of the per- 
sons and symbolical groups is very 
happy, and the faces are eloquent. 
The miniatures of the Bible of Aver- 
bode, belonging to the Library of Liege University, are of the 

same character (Fig. 23). 

A Flemish work, the Trials of 
Job or Moralia in Job, belonging 
to the Bibliotheque Nationale in 
Paris (15675), is of the same style 
and period (Fig. 24). Here, again, 
the execution is fairly decorative, 
but the drawing is crudely incor- 
rect, and the conception simple to 
the verge of poverty. 

A missal belonging to the Bri- 
tish Museum (No. 16949), and 
executed for the church of St. 
Bavon at Ghent in the second 
half of the twelfth century, pro- 
vides a remarkable specimen of 
the art of the Flemish miniaturists. 
We have taken from it a Christ 
on the Cross (Fig. 25). The Sa- 
viour has breathed His last; Mary 
and St. John stand at the foot of 
the cross, above the arms of which 
14 




FIG. 26.— THE EARTHLY PARA- 
DISE. LIBER FLORIDUS (Ghent, 
Library, 16). (Phot. Sacre.J 



TO THE END OF THE ROMANESQUE PERIOD 



lUr-ol*. 


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31 




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FIG. 27. — CHARLES THE BALD. 

LIBER FLORIDUS 
(Ghent, Library, 16). (Phot. Sucre.) 



two angels are swinging censers. 
The composition is angular, but 
the piety is intense. 

From an early period, scientific 
works were also illustrated by col- 
oured vignettes. A strange work 
of this nature is the Liber Floridus, 
a kind of encyclopaedia, which was 
so much prized that there are no 
fewer than ten copies extant. The 
original is preserved in the Library 
of Ghent University. This work, 
which appeared about 1180, was 
composed, as is stated by the 
author, by a certain Lambert of 
St. Omer, with extracts culled from 
various writers. One of the two 
pictures which we have borrowed 
is the Earthly Paradise (Fig. 26). 
The second miniature depicts Char- 
les the Bald , seated on his 
throne , crown on head and sceptre in hand (Fig. 27). 

The illustrations for the Vieil Rentier d' Audenarde, belonging 
to the Bibliotheque Royale of Brussels (No. 1175), are not, strictly 
speaking, miniatures, but 
very modest drawings 
from nature, without any 
pretensions to science. 
Yet there is more art in 
these very rapid sketches 
than in the illustrations 
of the Liber Floridus, 
which precede them by 
about a century. The 
scribe of these accounts 
varied his arid labours 
with small scenes bor- 
rowed from the life of 
the fields (Fig. 28). The 
slight sketches by this 
municipal actuary are the 
first truly observed and rapidly executed drawings Flemish art 
can boast. The Feast of Herod, which we reproduce (Fig. 29), 

15 




1 d^. 



rrwnr .\iiiwV?um>4 Tkmt- br A.^rtlr Ami "a . 







FIG. 28. — SCENES OF RUSTIC LIFE. 

LE VIEIL RENTIER d'AUDENARDE (Brussels, 1175). 

(Phot. Van Damme.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 

in taken from the Bible in verse by J. Van Maerlant, executed 
about 1290, and now in the BibUotheque Royale, Brussels. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY TO CHAPTER I 

Bastard (Comte A. de), La Bible de Charles le Chauve, Paris, 1883; Peintures et Or- 
nements des Manuscrits , 1832-1869. — Beissel , Vatikanische Miniaturen , 1893. — ■ Bio- 
graphic nationale de Belgique (Brussels, 1866-1911). — Bradley (John W.), A Dictionary 
of Miniaturists (London, 1887). — Delisle,' Notice ^ sur un Manuscrit merovingien de la 
BibUotheque royale de Bruxelles. — Dumortier (B.), Etude sur les principaux Monuments 
de Tournai, 1862. — Eyck (van Zuylichem), Les, £'^//ses romanes du Royaume des Pays- Bas, 
1858. — Haseloff (Arthur), Miniatures de I'Epoque romane (Andre Michel , Histoire de 
I'Arf , 1858). — Kobell, Kunstvolle Miniaturen und Initialen aus Handschriften des 
IV.-XVI. Jahrhunderts , Munich , 1890. — Labitte (Alph.), Les Manuscrits et I'Art de les 
orner , Paris, 1893. — Laborde , Les Dues de Bourgogne {Miniatures et Manuscrits). — 
Lamprecht (D>- Karl), Initial-Ornamentik des VJIL bis XIIL Jahrh., Leipzig-, 1882. — Le 
Coy de la Marche, Les Miniaturistes et les Miniatures, Paris, 1884. — Renard (B.), Mono- 
graphic de Notre -Dame de Tournai, Tournai, 1852. — Ruelens (Ch.), Les Manuscrits, 
Brussels, J 890 (LArt ancien en Belgique). — Schaepkens, Tresor de I Art ancien en 
Belgique. — Schayes (A. G. B.), Histoire de I Architecture en Belgique {BibUotheque 
Nationale, Brussels). — Schill (Ad.), Architektonische Skizzen aus Belgien, 1870. — Schuer- 
mans. Bulletin des Commissions royales d'Art et d Archeologie, Xe, Xle, Xlle et XIXe an- 
nees. — Soil (E.-J.), La Cathedrale de Tournai Tournai. — Wauters {A\ph.),^L Architecture 
romane, Brussels, 1889. 




FIG. 29.— J. VAN MAERLANT. THE FEAST OF 
HEROD (Brussels, 15001). (Phot Van Damme.) 



16 




FIG. 30.— HANS MEMLINC. THE MADONNA OF THE DONNE FAMILY 
(Chatsworth, Duke of Devonshire). (Phot. Bruckmann.) 



CHAPTER II 

FLEMISH ART TO THE BEGINNING OF THE 
SIXTEENTH CENTURY 



Church Architecture — Civil Architecture: trade-halls, town-halls, domestic buildings — 
Sculpture: objects of worship, altar- screens, tombs — Miniatures — Painting in the 
fifteenth Century. 



Along term of transition intervenes between the period of 
the Romanesque style and that of pure Gothic. Among the 
most important monuments of this epoch we must first mention 
the delightful little church of Audenarde (Fig.31), built by Arnould 
de Binche, which, in spite of having been rapidly erected between 
1238 and 1242, nevertheless shows traces both of the earlier 
and the later style. With its varied lines, of a harmony at once 
sober and playful, with the little towers of the fagade, and 
the octagonal clock-tower above the transept, the building is 
one of the happiest examples of the transition style. To the 
same epoch belong the churches of St. Jacques and Ste. Madeleine 
at Tournai, St. Nicolas and St. Jacques at Ghent, St. Pierre at 
Ypres; St. Sauveur at Bruges (1127), the first church built in 
brick; the Chapel du Saint Sang at Bruges (1150); and the 

17 C 



ART IN FLANDERS 



abbey church of Villers (about 1197), one of the most beautiful 
monuments of the period, which survives only in ruins. 

Most of the ancient Belgian 






FIG.SI.-AUDENARDE. CHURCH OF NOTRE. 
DAME DE PAMELE. (Phot Bavernaege.) 



cathedrals belong to the Gothic 
style properly so called. This 
style passed through three pe- 
riods. During the first, it was 
sober and severe; the pillars are 
cylindrical, the capitals deco- 
rated with crockets, the win- 
dows have either plain or cusped 
mullions. During the second 
period the cylindrical pillars are 
finely grooved, and the windows 
have a richer and more com- 
plicated tracery. During the 
third period, the pillars are com- 
posed of clusters of slender 
columns which correspond with 
the ribs of the vaulting. The 
window tracery is still more capricious and more irregular, be- 
coming flamboyant in design. The towers grow higher and higher, 

not only to storm heaven, but to 
announce to town and country the 
supremacy of the house of God 
over all other dwellings. Nearly 
all the principal Belgian Gothic 
churches date from that last and 
comparatively recent epoch, when 
the style had become less noble 
and less pure. The arches expand 
more and more ; the decoration of 
piers, triforium, and porches be- 
comes trivial, and is lost in 
capricious fancies which announce 
the approaching decadence and 
the end of the style. 

The principal religious monu- 
ments of the first Gothic period 
are, above all, the choir of Tournai 
Cathedral; and the church of St. 
Martin at Ypres (Fig. 32), the nave 
of which is of the year 1254, and 
18 




FIG. 32. 

YPRES, CHURCH OF ST. MARTIN. 

LATERAL PORCH (Fourteenth Century). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 33.— LIEGE. CHURCH OF ST. PAUL. 
(Phot. Levy.) 



the lateral porch of the fourteenth century. The decorated pin- 
nacles, the arches of the fagade, the rose -windows and the 
buttresses present the 
richest compendium of the 
Gothic style in Belgium. 
Notre-Dame of Tongres 
(Fig. 34), begun in 1240, 
but not completed until 
two centuries later, is also, 
as far as its primitive 
parts are concerned, a fine 
example of the first point- 
ed style. The fagade is 
distinguished by a boldly 
projecting ground - floor, 
by an imposing central 
light, and by a profusion 
of pointed arches, niches, 
and turrets. St. Paul of 
Liege (Fig. 33), the choir 
of which was constructed 
in 1280, and the nave in 1528, is a vast and regular building, 
so generously lighted that it might be taken for a glass cage 
supported by a delicate network 
of stone. Notre-Dame of Huy is 
the most perfect of Belgian chur- 
ches in the second Gothic style. 
The foundations were laid in 1311, 
and the windows belong to a more 
recent period. The cylindrical pil- 
lars, which are provided with a 
little column in front, the archi- 
trave, the great windows of the 
choir, and the rose-windows above 
the main porch and in one of the 
aisles, contribute greatly to the 
magnificence of this church. Notre- 
Dame of Hal (Fig. 35), begun in 
1341 and finished in 1409, be- 
longs partly to the third Gothic 
style. St. Rombaut at Mechlin 

(Fig 36), begun in the middle of ^„ -^ '^.-^"tT.T.m.. 

the fourteenth century, is one of (Phot Hermans.) 

19 c2 




ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 35.— NOTRE-DAME OF HAL. (Phot. Nels.) 



the most majestic buildings of the country. The body of the 
church is Hghted by large windows with rich tracery, both in 

the nave and aisles. The 
tower, which was begun 
in 1452, and reached its 
present height at the be- 
ginning of the fifteenth 
century, would have close- 
ly resembled that of 
Notre-Dame of Antwerp 
had it been finished. The 
crenelated spire which was 
to have crowned it and 
was never completed, 
would have measured 
600 ft. in height. 

Ste. Gudule of Brussels 
(Fig. 37) belongs to seve- 
ral centuries. The primitive portion, the apse, goes back to 
about 1220, and dates from the transition period. The entrance 

to the choir is of later date; it 
was constructed in the second 
half of the thirteenth century. 
Three centuries elapsed before the 
church was altogether finished. 
Notwithstanding the modifications 
to which the style was subjected 
in the course of centuries, this 
building has a grand aspect and 
a beautiful unity of effect. The 
two towers flanking the great 
porch happily represent the third 
or flamboyant Gothic style. The 
church has three doors. The cen- 
tral one is surmounted by a large 
window above which is a capri- 
ciously wrought gable. Above 
the side entrances rise three sto- 
reys, the first of which is provided 
with single and the other two 
with double windows. The towers 
The fagade is very imposing, in 




FIG. 36.— MECHLIN. TOWER OF ST. 
ROMBAUT. (Phot Neurdein.) 



are covered with flat roofs, 
spite of the somewhat meagre ornamentation. 

20 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




Among the most beautiful churches of the third Gothic period 
we may also mention: Notre-Dame du Sablon at Brussels, of 
the second half of the fifteenth cen- 
tury (unfortunately incomplete); St. 
Jacques of Antwerp, 1491 to seven- 
teenth century; St. Jacques of Liege 
(Fig. 38), of which the Gothic part, 
the great nave and the choir, were 
built from 1513 to 1538, one of the 
most sumptuously decorated of the 
churches of Belgium. The choir, sur- 
rounded by arches, enclosed in a 
kind of sculptured lacework by 
pierced balustrades, and adorned with 
imposing statues erected between the 
windows upon richly wrought pedes- 
tals and under elegant canopies, 
make this one of the most wonderful 
church interiors imaginable. 

The choir of Notre-Dame of Ant- 
werp was begun in 1387 and fin- 
ished in 1411; the other parts were 
constructed in the course of the 
fifteenth century, and some as late as the first half of the six- 
teenth century. It is the largest Gothic church in Belgium, the 
only one that has seven 
aisles. The closely plant- 
ed piers without capitals 
expand under the lofty 
vaults like the branches 
of a densely wooded 
forest. The architecture 
is on the whole very 
sober, save for the rich 
buttresses which surround 
the apse, but are un- 
fortunately masked by 
old hovels. The spire is 
one of the highest, and fig. 38.- 
certainly the most slen- 
der, in Europe (Fig. 39). 
The tower does not quite follow the original plan: the first 
three storeys are square, the fourth is octagonal; as it rises, it 

21 



FIG. 37.— BRUSSELS. 

CATHEDRAL OF STE. GUDULE. 

(Phot. Neurdein.) 




-LIEGE. CHURCH OF ST. JACQUES. 
(Interior.) (Phot. Nels.J 



ART IN FLANDERS 




follows the transformations of the 
Gothic style, so that the spire belongs 
entirely to the dawn of the Renais- 
sance. 

On the whole, the mediaeval civic 
monuments of Belgium have far more 
originality than the churches, for they 
are the most important architectural 
manifestations of Flemish mediaeval 
civilisation. These monuments are 
generally Gothic in style, and belong 
to the school where this style deve- 
loped in the direction of Renaissance 
art. They are distinguished by the 
lavishness of their decoration, and by 
the taste that has been applied to 
the treatment of the slightest details. 
The most monumental of these build- 
ings were the cloth -halls built in 
the principal industrial cities of Flan- 
ders — Ypres, Bruges, Ghent — 
where the productions of the weavers 
were stored, checked, and sold. The 
grandest of all is the cloth -hall of Ypres (Fig. 40). The foun- 
dation stone was laid in 1200; but the building was not finished 
before 1304. It is the most imposing building of its kind in 
the whole world — rich in its simplicity, elegant in its symmetry. 

The ground floor is open, 
with rectangular entran- 
ces. The two upper sto- 
reys have Gothic win- 
dows; and the roof is 
crowned by a high crene- 
lated parapet. The angles 
of the fagade are adorned 
with octagonal "pepper- 
pot" turrets ; in the middle 
rises the massive square 
tower, the corners of 
which are furnished with 
octagonal turrets, whilst 
the top is crowned with 
a spire containing the 



FIG. 39.— ANTWERP. 

TOWER OF CATHEDRAL. 

(Phot. Neurdein.) 




FIG. 40.— YPRES. CLOTH-HALL, 
(Phot Draeger.) 



22 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 41.— BRUGES. BELFRY 
AND HALL. (Phot. Hermans.) 



bells. The ensemble is sturdy and 
massive: it lacks elevation, but it is 
free from heaviness. No more impres- 
sive testimony to the country's indus- 
trial prosperity in the middle ages 
could be imagined. 

Bruges possessed two trade-halls: 
the first, the so-called Halle d'Eau, 
dated from the fifteenth century; the 
other, which still exists (Fig. 41), was 
begun in 1284. It is smaller and of 
a simpler architectural design than the 
one at Ypres. The superb tower which 
rises from the middle of the fagade 
terminated formerly in a pyramidal 
spire flanked by four turrets. This was 
destroyed by fire. All these halls were 
drapers' halls; but certain cities had 
similar halls which served for meat- 
markets. Such halls still exist at Ypres 
and Antwerp. The ground -floor and 
the first floor of the former (Fig. 42), 
belong to the same style as the cloth 

hall, that is to say to the thirteenth century; the upper storeys 
are of brick and were built two 
centuries later. The meat market 
at Antwerp (1501—1503) (Fig. 43) 
is built of red brick alternating with 
white stone. The two lower storeys 
have pointed windows with tertiary 
Gothic traceries; the upper storeys, 
rectangular windows; the gables 
of the facades are stepped. Thanks 
to regularity of design, harmony 
of proportions and the pleasant 
colour of the materials employed, 
this butchers' hall is a very remark- 
able monument. 

The towers we have noticed in 
the centre of the facades of the 
halls at Ypres and Bruges were 
called belfries. In them were pre- 
served the charters of communal 

23 






HImi 



mWiwi 



Mail* 



ill 
ai 



FIG. 42. 

YPRES. BUTCHERS' HALL 

(Phot Nels.J 



ART IN FLANDERS 

freedom, and the bells also hung in them. The belfries of Ypres 
and of Bruges were the tallest and the most magnificent. That at 
Ghent is scarcely less imposing and dates from the thirteenth cen- 
tury. But it has undergone such alterations and mutilations that 
its artistic value can no longer be judged. At the present moment 
(1912), we are on the eve of its restoration to its original form. The 
carefully restored belfry of Tournai is a pleasing Gothic monument; 
those of Lierre, Nieuport, Alost and Mons are of minor importance. 
But the gems of Flemish Gothic architecture are the Belgian 








FIG. 43.— ANTWERP. 

OLD BUTCHERS' HALL. 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



FIG. 44.— BRUGES. 

TOWNi HALL. 

(Phot. Neurdein.) 



town -halls. Upon them the flourishing communes lavished most 
money and care. The earliest of them belong to the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries, that is, to the first Gothic periods. 
Such are the town -hall of Alost, now the meat -market, 
which was built in the thirteenth century, and the town -hall of 
Bruges (Fig. 44), the foundation-stone of which was laid in 1377. 
The forty niches of its fagade were occupied by statues of the 
Counts of Flanders. These statues disappeared in 1792, but 
they have since been replaced by new ones. With its high win- 
dows the building looks more like a church than a civic monu- 
ment; yet, in spite of an aspect which does not proclaim its 
real purpose, it remains none the less a delightful work of art. 

24 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 

The most original and most remarkable town-halls date from 
the fifteenth and from the first half of the sixteenth centuries. 
The Hotel -de- Ville of Brussels is the oldest, the most correct, 
and, on the whole the most successful of all (Fig. 45). The left 
wing and the tower were finished in 1455; the right wing was 
begun in 1444. Jacob Van Thienen was its first architect; Jan 
van Ruysbroeck completed the tower. The fagade is as regular 
in design as it is rich in ornament. Along the ground-floor runs 
a portico of seventeen arches supporting a platform from which 




nL 


^M^M^BL 


i;k-.l:.J-. -:•.•• 



FIG. 45.— BRUSSELS. TOWN 
HALL. (Phot. Neurdein.) 



FIG. 46.— AUDENARDE. TOWN 
HALL. (Phot. Remlingher.) 



rise two storeys with rectangular windows; the windows of the 
top floor have pointed arches. Above the cornice is a crene- 
lated parapet. Approximately from the middle of the facade 
rises a slender tower, square to the height of the fourth storey, 
and then octagonal to the summit. On every storey the corners 
of the tower are adorned with turrets. It is the most elegant 
and the most correct Gothic spire in Belgium. 

The town -hall of Audenarde (Fig. 46) — begun in 1527 and 
completed in 1530 under the direction of Henri van Pede, town- 
architect of Brussels — is of smaller dimensions. The abundance 
of ornament here becomes profusion , without, however, over- 
stepping the limits of good taste. In its total effect, this Hotel- 
de- Ville remains a marvel of refined luxury, which forms a strange 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 47.— LOUVAIN. TOWN HALL. 
(Phot. Neurdein.) 



contrast to surrounding buildings devoid of all artistic pretensions. 
As in the town-hall of Brussels, an open gallery runs along the 

ground floor; above it, two storeys; 
on a level with the eaves, a para- 
pet surmounted by large statues; 
in the centre, a tower which has 
none of the slender elegance of 
the one at Brussels; it terminates, 
like the spire of Notre -Dame at 
Antwerp, in the Renaissance style. 
The town hall of Louvain (Fig. 47) 
was begun in 1448 and inaugu- 
rated in 1463. Its architect was 
Mathias Layens. The exterior is 
remarkable for its unexampled rich- 
ness of workmanship. The design 
is regular and perfectly homogene- 
ous, but the main lines disappear 
under the sculptures and orna- 
ments. It is a masterpiece of car- 
ving rather than of architecture. 

To the same style and period 
belongs the Bourse at Antwerp, 
built in 1531 by Dominic de Waghemakere, and rebuilt in 1868 
from the plans of the architect Schadde, who borrowed from 
his predecessor the most characteristic parts of his work: the 
open galleries supported by columns, the shafts of which are 

profusely adorned with 
motives in the flam- 
boyant style. 

The same luxuriance 
of ornaimentation dis- 
tinguishes the palace 
of the Prince-Bishops of 
Liege (Fig. 48), consist- 
ing of two large inner 
courts or cloisters, each 
surrounded by colon- 
naded galleries. The 
shafts, bases and capi- 
tals of the columns are 
decorated with foliations 

5.— LIEGE. PALACE OF THE BISHOPS. <• , i rp, . 

(Phot. Levy.) of sobcr clegancc. i his 

26 




FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 



palace is the largest and most beautiful ever 
built for any Belgian prince, and one of the 
finest of mediaeval Europe. 

The small amount of Gothic sculpture that 
has survived proves that this art never attained 
the beauty of French statuary of the same 
period. Among the most important examples 
of this art we may cite the bas-relief surmount- 
ing the portal of the Hospital of St. Jean at 
Bruges, executed in the twelfth century, and 
the shield - bearer of the belfry of Ghent, 
carved in 1337 (Fig. 49). The religious figures, 
in conformity with the Christian ideal of 
Gothic art, insist less on physical beauty, than 
on the moral existence, the bliss of the chosen, 
or the fierce asceticism of the prophets and 
apostles. The gay and satirical spirit of the 
people is frequently given free play in the 
innumerable comic or licentious figures intro- 
duced in the decoration of buildings or church 
furniture. 

The masterpiece of Flemish primitive Gothic 
statuary is to be found on the facade of Tournai 

Cathedral. Figures 




FIG. 49. 

SHIELD-BEARER 

OF THE BELFRY, 

GHENT. 

(Phot. Neuckcns.) 




FIG. 50— PROPHETS, 
TOURNAI CATHEDRAL. 
(Phot. Hermans.) 



and groups of va- 
rious centuries follow each other 
in three superimposed series: the 
lowest series dates from the thirteenth 
century, and represents Prophets 
(Fig. 50), Fathers of the Church, and 
Adam and Eve. The barbaric char- 
acter has disappeared, the attitudes 
are natural and varied; the figures are 
draped with almost classic sobriety. 
Among the earliest sculptured 
works must be reckoned the ivories 
upon which, in remote times, were 
inscribed the names of the priests 
and neophytes, and which served later 
on as covers for the Gospels and 
other books for divine service. There 
is, for instance , a case belonging 
to Tournai Cathedral, representing 
27 



ART IN FLANDERS 




St. Nicosius with his deacon and his acolyte 
(Fig. 51). The ivory carving undoubtedly 
dates from the ninth century. The nobility 
and the imposing proportions of the princi- 
pal personage, surrounded by a charming 
ornamental motive in the Romanesque style, 
are truly admirable. 

The goldsmiths, too, supplied superb 
works to the churches and abbeys: caskets, 
shrines, and other reliquaries in enamel set 
with precious stones. The archives mention 
some of the ninth century; but none of this 
period have been preserved. The earliest 
and most remarkable goldsmith's work of 
the first centuries is the shrine of St. Ger- 
trude, belonging to the treasure of the 
collegiate church of Nivelles. It was exe- 
cuted from 1272 to 1298 (Fig. 52), and 
represents a Gothic church with bas-reliefs 
illustrating the Saint's life and miracles. 
These scenes are on the roof of the church. 
Along the walls of the nave runs a series 
of little figures of saints. On the shrine of 
St. Eleutherius (Fig. 53), executed in 1247, 
and belonging to Tournai Cathedral, the saintly bishop is 
represented holding in one hand a crozier, and in the other 
a model of the church. The composition of this work reveals 
an artist full of ingenuity, skill, and taste. 

The baptismal fonts, a 
large number of which 
have come down to us, 
rank among the most pre- 
cious specimens of Flem- 
ish primitive sculpture. 
Some are found dating 
from the eleventh cen- 
tury, but their number 
increases in the twelfth. 
The earliest are rudely 
carved in stone. Some, 
like that of Herenthals, 
are bare of all ornament, 

FIG. 52.— NIVELLES, SHRINE OF ST. GERTRUDE , |.| .i . e r" 

(Thirteenth Century). (Phot Theo. Coffin.) OthcrS, like that 01 UCn- 

28 



FIG. 51. 
ST. NICOSIUS WITH 

HIS DEACON AND 

ACOLYTE, TOURNAI 

CATHEDRAL. 

(Phot. Rousseau.) 




FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 53. — SHRINE OF ST. ELEU- 

THERIUS, TOURNAI CATHEDRAL. 

(Phot. Rousseau.) 



tines, are decorated with birds and 
foliage. The first figures that ap- 
pear are veritable caricatures, like 
those on the font of Zedlichem 
(Fig. 54); others, for instance at 
Goesen (Fig. 55), show heads of 
strangely Assyrian type. Both kinds 
represent the earliest relics of nation- 
al sculpture. The work is coarse 
and executed as with hatchet 
strokes. In the twelfth century, 
the figures assume a more human 
air, like those which decorate the 
font of Wilderen (Fig. 56). The 
most remarkable example is dated 
1113: it is the brass font of the 
church of St. Barthelemy at Liege 
(Fig. 57), executed by Renier de 
Huy for the church of Notre-Dame- 
aux-Fonts at Liege. Around the 
basin are scenes from the life of 

St. John the Baptist and other incidents connected with the 
history of baptism. The draped figures are well proportioned 
and almost graceful in attitude. 
Art has emerged from bar- 
barism and already begins to 
show us noble human forms. 

The very richly wrought font 
of Hal (Fig. 58) is more elegant 
and more modern. 

From its birth, sculpture serv- 
ed for the decoration of the 
tomb. The image of the de- 
funct was represented, reclining 
on the mausoleum. First, these 
figures were carved in stone, 
in bas-relief, as on the tomb of 
Henry I., Duke of Brabant, who 
died in 1235 and was buried 
in the church of St. Pierre, at 
Louvain. The image of Didier 
d'Houffalize (Fig. 59), of the 
thirteenth century, is that of a 




29 



FIG. 54- 

BAPTISMAL FONT, ZEDLICHEM. 

(Phot. Rousseau.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




young man of prepossessing mien, executed in a simple manner, 
but not without refinement in the rendering of hair and beard. 

Later on, the effigies become 
detached like statues, and the 
defunct seems to be sleeping 
on his sarcophagus as on a 
bed of state. This is the case 
with the sculptures of the 
fourteenth and fifteenth cen- 
turies: the tomb of Jean de 
Cromoy (Louvre) (Fig. 60) is 
a good example. 

The artists of the Middle 
Ages also engraved some re- 
markable memorial brasses. 
The plaques represented the 
figure of the defunct cut into 
the brass or copper in deep 
lines which were subsequently 
filled with black enamel. 
Among the masterpieces of 
this work are the memorial 
brasses of Gautier Coopman, 
who died in 1387 and was buried in the church of Saint-Sauveur 
at Bruges; and those of Willem Wenemaer (Fig. 61) who died 

in 1325, and of his wife 
who died in 1330, (Mu- 
seum of Antiquities at 
Ghent). 

Superb works , veri- 
table masterpieces by the 
brass-founders who flour- 
ished more particularly 
at Dinant, are to be found 
among the paschal cande- 
labra and lecterns in most 
of the churches. The 
Pelican lectern of the 
church of St. Germain at 
Tirlemont (Fig. 62); an- 
other of the fifteenth cen- 
tury at the Brussels Museum; and the Eagle of Freeren, of the 
same period, are the most perfect examples. 

30 



FIG. 55.— BAl'TISMAI. FONT, GOESEN. 
(Phot. Rousseau.) 




FIG. 56.— BAPTISMAL FONT, WILDEREN. 

(Phot. Rousseau.) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 57.— BAPTISMAL FONT, LIEGE 

(Church of St. Barthelemy). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



In the second part of the 
Middle Ages and during the 
Renaissance, sculptors excelled 
above all in the production of 
altarpieces. These were paint- 
ed or carved. Among the 
former are to be found the 
earliest master-pieces of Flemish 
painting; the sculptured rere- 
doses are frequently of even 
greater importance. At the 
outset, they were made of re- 
pousse gold or silver like the 
one at Stavelot; later, they were 
carved in stone like the one of 
the church at Gheel; later still, 
they were faced with alabaster 
like that at Hal (1533) (Fig. 63). 

But those of which the Flemish school is most justly proud, were 
carved in wood. Small examples were already produced towards 
the end of the thirteenth century. In the fourteenth century 
they grow in size; and in the sixteenth century there is a 
profusion of altar-pieces distinguished 
by the richness and the high finish 
of their workmanship. Then this art 
disappears. 

Generally these wooden altar-pieces 
have the shape of a triptych with the 
centre panel higher than the two 
wings. Each of these panels is again 
subdivided into various compartments 
which enclose small scenes. The 
figures are grouped in high reliefs, 
cut in the wood and framed in archi- 
tectural settings of Gothic style. Each 
group seems to be cut out of a 
single piece. In reality the figures 
are carved separately and fixed to- 
gether. In the earliest of these trip- 
tychs the framework is very compli- 
cated , but the design is regular. 
Later, this work degenerates more 
and more into the caprice of decadent 

31 




FIG. 58.— BAPTISMAL FONT, HAL. 
(Phot. Rousseau.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FICx. 59. 
DIDIER D'HOUFFALIZE 

(Brussels, Museum). 
(Phot. Rousseau.) 



Gothic. The earliest and most famous are 
the two altar-pieces ordered in 1390 from 
Jacob de Baerse, of Termonde, by Philip 
the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, for the Char- 
treuse of Champmol, near Dijon, and now 
to be seen in the museum of that city. 
The central panel of one of them has three 
subjects: Calvary, The Adoration of the 
Magi, and The Entombment; on each of the 
wings are five figures of saints. The other 
triptych shows in the centre The Beheading 
of St. John the Baptist, a Martyrdom, and 
The Temptation of St. Anthony, and again 
five figures of saints on each wing. The 
figures are of somewhat heavy proportions, 
a little awkward in carriage, and lost, as 
it were, in the multiple folds of their gar- 
ments. The reredos of Hakendover (Fig. 65), 
now in the Museum of Antiquities in Brus- 
sels, also dates from the fourteenth century. 
It consists of thirteen groups recording the 
erection of the village church. The Gothic 
framework with its 



niches and canopies is of quite extra- 
ordinary richness. Though lacking in 
refinement of form, the little figures 
are full of life, wrapped in ample but 
tastefully draped robes. Several other 
important fifteenth century altar-pieces 
have come down to us: first of all the 
one at Auderghem, from about the 
middle of that century; then the re- 
redos of the church of St. Martin at 
Tongres, executed in 1481 at Antwerp ; 
that of Pailhe and that of Hulst- 
hout; and finally the reredos of the 
church of St. Leonard at Leau, by 
Arnold Van Diest. 

Many altar-pieces of the first half 
of the fifteenth century are merely 
productions of industrial art, but in 
the closing years of the fifteenth and 
the first half of the sixteenth centuries 

32 




FIG. 60. 

MONUMENT OF^ JEAN DE 

CROMOY (Louvre). 

(Phot. Hachette.) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 



the style gains more and more in 
freedom and grace. The frame- 
work is always in the florid Gothic 
style: the figures always show the 
same conventional elegance; yet, oc- 
casionally we come across original 
works that proclaim the personality 
of a real artist. Such were Passchier 
Borremans, the author of the rere- 
dos of Notre -Dame of Lombeek, 
and Jan Borremans, the best 
sculptor of altar-pieces known 
to us. He executed in 1493 the 
reredos for Notre -Dame- hors-la- 
Ville at Louvain, now in the 
Brussels Museum. This admirable 
work comprises seven compart- 
ments: in the centre, St. George 
suspended by his feet above a 
brazier (Fig. 64) , 




FIG. 6l.— WILLEM WENEMAER 

AND HIS WIFE 

(Ghent, Museum of Antiquities). 

(Phot. Sacre.) 




FIG. 62.— LECTERN 

OF TIRLEMONT 
(Brussels, Museum). 
(Fhot. Rousseau.) 



and another 
martyrdom in 
each of the other panels. The figures are remark- 
able for correctness of form and dramatic ex- 
pression. In the same museum in Brussels, is 
a reredos rather earlier in execution. In the 
centre. Calvary with the two donors, Claude 
de Villa (Fig. 66) and Gentine Solaro; to the 
left, the Descent from the Cross and the 
Resurrection; on the right, Christ at the house 
of Simon the Pharisee and the Resurrection 
of Lazarus. Other works of the sixteenth 
century are: the reredos of Oplinter, executed 
at Antwerp in 1525; that of Loenhout; that 
of Herenthals (1510—1537), the work of Pas- 
schier Borremans; the reredos of Villiers-la- 
Ville (1538), and that of the church of St. 
Denis at Liege, one of the most exquisite 
of all, the little figures with their flesh, 
hair, and beards coloured and enamelled 
(1506 — 1538). The sculpture of reredoses had 
become a flourishing industry in Brabant 
during the second half of the fifteenth and 
the sixteenth centuries. Antwerp and Brussels 
33 D 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 63.— REREDOS OF HAL. 
(Phot. Neuckens.) 



supplied them to the whole country and 
even exported them in large quantities. 
Some are still to be found in France, 
in Northern Germany, and especially in 
Sweden. 

The wood -carving of reredoses is 
closely connected with the stone sculp- 
ture of rood-screens. These were placed 
between the nave and the choir of 
churches; they had generally three and 
often five arches. In the earliest ones, 
the architectural part was Gothic in 
style, and the gallery crowning the 
portico was covered with a veritable 
lacework of carved stone, in which were 
introduced niches for figures and groups 
in the taste of those of the reredoses. 
The most remarkable of these artistic 
gems are those of the church of St. Pierre 
at Louvain and of the principal churches 
of Aerschot, Dixmude, Tessenderloo and Lierre (Fig. 67). 

During the Burgundian rule, the dukes summoned Flemish 
sculptors as well as Flemish painters to 
their Court, and there were, no doubt, 
some Flemings and Limburgers among 
the artists who worked at Dijon with 
Nicolas Sluter (of Holland) and with 
his nephew, Nicolas de Werve, But, 
strangely enough, their powerfully natu- 
ralistic sculpture, which exercised such 
wide-spread influence, has left but slight 
traces in Belgium. We may, however, 
cite the tomb of Jehan de Melun (Fig. 
68) and of his two wives in the Chateau 
d'Antoing. 

We have already seen how, in the 
thirteenth century, miniature art had en- 
tered upon an entirely new path. The 
austere and venerable Romanesque style 
had given way to the lighter, more 
graceful, and more varied Gothic. Min- 
iature, likewise, emerged from the Ro- 
manesque-Byzantine tradition. It is true, 
34 




FIG. 64.— JEAN BORREMANS. 
REREDOS OF NOTRE-DAME- 

HORS-LA-VILLE, LOUVAIN 
(CentralPanel). (Phot.Neuckens.) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




the faces, drawn with the pen and indicated by a few strokes, 
still retain a somewhat frowning and wrinkled physiognomy, 
but the draperies are al- 
ready coloured with bril- 
liant, enamel -like tones. 
At that period the same 
art developed in the Bel- 
gian lands and the pro- 
vinces of Northern France. 
Paris was for miniature 
painting an artistic centre 
common to the two coun- 
tries. By and by, how- 
ever, Flanders separa- 
ted from France, to 
excel more and j more 
in this art. The minia- 
turists were now no 
longer clerks and monks, 
but laymen who worked 
for the princes and great 
script of this period which 
Bible executed in 1248 
in the convent of the 
Freres de la Vie com- 
mune at Lean. We have 
already reproduced a 
letter from it (Fig. 13). 
Another letter represents 
Job, his wife, and his 
friends (Fig. 69). The 
scene is very clearly in- 
dicated with a few 
strokes. The illuminations 
in a Psalter belonging 
to the Library at Brussels 
characterize the style of 
the period with precision. 
In an Adoration of the 
Magi (Fig. 70), the faces 
are indicated with a 
few clearly drawn lines. ^^^ 66.-reredos of claude de villa 

1 he framework contains (Brussels, Museum). (Phot. Neuckens,) 

35 D 2 



FIG. 65.— REREDOS OF HAKENDOVER 
(Brussels, Museum). (Phot. Neuckens.) 

nobles.3*The earliest dated manu- 
can be claimed by Belgium, is the 




ART IN FLANDERS 






delicious little figures and scenes taken from daily life. It is 
a real jewel impregnated with Flemish realism. We know the 

year and place of origin 
of the Antiphonary now 
belonging to Mr. Henry 
Yates Thompson. It bears 
this inscription : "Livre 
de TEglise de la Bienheur- 
euse Marie de Beaupre, 
lequel fut ecrit en Tan 
1290 apres la naissance 
du Christ". A decora- 
ted A (Fig. 71), divided 
into two parts, shows in 
the upper compartment 
the Resurrection of Christ, 

FIG. 67.— CHURCH OF LIERRE. ROOD SCREEN. aud iu thc loWCr OUC thc 

(Phot Nets.) H^ly Women at the Se- 

pulchre. On the margin 

are two portraits — perhaps the very first ever drawn from 

life for a work of this kind. 

The manuscripts destined for rich abbeys, for princes or for 

other great nobles are more care- 
fully written, and the miniatures 
are executed by more expert hands. 
Thus, in the History of Alexander, 
written about 1250, which belonged 
to Charles de Croy, Count of 
Chimay , and which is now in the 
Bibliotheque Royale in Brussels 
(11040), the miniaturist shows more 
spirit than style. Something of epic 
grandeur breathes from the scene 
in which Alexander the Great kills 
King Agis (Fig. 72). 

The same style continues during 
the best part of the fourteenth 
century, though it gains in refine- 
ment. In 1322, Henri of Saint-Omer 
and Guillaume of Saint - Quentin 
executed for the Abbey of St. Pierre, 
at Ghent, a Ceremonial with nume- 
rous miniatures, one of which, larger 
36 




FIG. 68.— TOMB OF JEHAN DE 

MELUN AND HIS TWO A¥IVES 

(Chateau d'Antoing-). 

(Phot. Neuckens.) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 

than the others, represents Christ on the Cross and the Holy 
Women at the Sepulchre. The expressions are admirably 
rendered (Fig. 73). 

In the course of the fourteenth century, historical and literary 
works increased in number. The Bibliotheque Royale in Brussels 
owns a great many. We have taken from a Golden Legend 
(No. 9225), executed for the Carthusians of Ziethem, near Diest, 
a double vignette of the life of St. Brandan (Fig. 74). The figures 
are drawn with the pen on a golden ground with a coloured diaper 





FIG. 69.— JOB, HIS WIFE AND 

FRIENDS. BIBLE (Liege, Seminary). 

(Phot. Janssens.) 



FIG. 70.— THE ADORATION OF 

THE MAGI. PSALTER (Brussels, 

10 607 ). (Phot Van Damme.) 



pattern ; they themselves are not coloured, whidi only accentuates 
the perfection of the drawing. Li Ars d^Amour, another work 
of the same period and in the same collection (No. 9548), was 
executed for Charles de Croy and contains realistic scenes. We 
reproduce a Falconer, with his dogs, riding through the country 
(Fig. 75). To the same collection (No. 13076) belongs, again, 
a chronicle of Gilles le Moysis, from the Abbey of St. Martin 
at Tournai. It was executed for the abbot Egidius, who died 
in 1352. One of the vignettes represents the Plague at Tournai 
in 1349 (Fig. 76). The scene is full of movement and is ad- 
mirable composed. 

It was at this time that the miniaturists of the Lieofe district 

37 



ART IN FLANDERS 



1 


^^■B -^^ 








■N.'. , •■ 1 HI 


fl 




M 


u 





FIG. 7l.— THE RESURRECTION OF CHRIST. 

ANTIPHONARY (H. Yates Thompson). 

(Phot. Van Damme.) 



and of the Walloon country 
in general produced their 
most remarkable works. 
During the second half of 
the fourteenth century, the 
Flemings also cultivated this 
art with success. The Meer- 
mano-Westreenianum Mu- 
seum at* the Hague pos- 
sesses a magnificent missal 
which bears the following 
inscription: "En Tan 1365, 
le samedi apres la Nativite 
de la Sainte Vierge Marie, 
ce livre fut acheve par Lau- 
rent, enlumineur, bourgeois 
d' Anvers , demeurant a 
Gand."*) The little draw- 
ings are altogether in the 
manner of those of the 
Franco -Flemish School of 
the same period. The borders are deliciously humorous and 
ingenious. Page 27 represents The Adoration of the Magi (Fig. 77), 
accompanied by the portraits of the amateur for whom the 

missal was exe- 
cuted, and of his 
wife. In the year 
1371 we come 
across the name of 
another Flemish 
illuminator. At 
that time Jean de 
Bruges, one of the 
earliest Flemish 
artists in the ser- 
vice of the kings 
of France, execut- 
ed a Bible be- 
longing to the 
same museum at the Hague. One of the miniatures in it repre- 
sents Jean de Vaudetar, the author of the manuscript, offering 

*) In the year 1365, on the Saturday after the Nativity of the Holy Virgin Mary, 
this book was finished by Laurent, illuminator, citizen of Antwerp, living at Ghent. 

38 




FIG. 72.— BATTLE OF HORSEMEN. HISTORY OF 

ALEXANDER (Brussels, 11040). (Phot. Van Damme.) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 



his work to Charles V., King 
of France (Fig. 78); it is one 
of the oldest portraits we pos- 
sess. This Bible bears the follow- 
ing inscription: "En Tan mille 
trois cent septante et un, cet 
ouvrage fut peint par ordre et 
en I'honneur de Charles, Roi de 
France, en sa trg^nte-cinquieme 
annee et en la huitieme annee 
de son regne, et Jean de Bruges, 
peintre du roi susnomme, exe- 
cuta ce portrait de sa propre 
main."*) The miniatures in 
this book rank among the best 
of the period. We reproduce 
Ezekiel and the Angel (Fig. 79). 
In 1368, Jean of Bruges must 
already have been for a long 
time in the service of Charles V., 
for, in that year, the king 
presented him with a house at 
St. Quentin, in consideration 
of the good and loyal services rendered by Jan van Bondolf, 
called Jean de Bruges. — A Flemish prayer-book, executed at 
Maestricht, and belonging 
to the University Library 
of Liege, dates from 1373. 
It is still closely attached to 
the Franco-Flemish style, 
which it shows in the 
most advantageous light. 
The miniature here repro- 
duced (Fig. 80) depicts 
figures with flowing locks, 
no longer drawn with a 
few strokes, but discreetly 




FIG. 73.— CHRIST ON THE CROSS. 
(Ghent, Library, 426). (Phot d'Hoy.) 



*) In the year 1371, this work 
was painted by order and in honour 
of Charles, King^ of France, in his 
thirty-fifth year and in the eighth 
year of his reig-n, and Jean of Bruges, 
painter to the said king, executed 
this portrait with his own hand. 




FIG. 74.— LIFE OF ST. BRANDAN. LEGENDS 
DOREE (Brussels, 9225). (Phot. Van Damme.) 

39 



ART IN FLANDERS 




heightened with colour. The red and blue garments fall in 
ample and elegant folds; the attitudes are a little affected, but 

the faces have a come- 
liness unknown to prece- 
ding periods. With the 
prayer-books, art reached 
the middle class, and the 
illuminators illustrated 
large numbers of Nether- 
landish, French, or Latin 
mass-books, destined for 
burghers and ecclesiastics 
as well as for the nobil- 
ity. The execution of 
these books became thus 
a veritable art-industry. 
The pages were enframed 

• FIG.75.-THE FALCONER. E'ARTD'AMOUR ^^ floWCrS, IcaVCS, birds, 

(Brussels, 9548). (Phot. Van Damme.) and iusccts. The minia- 

tures represented scrip- 
tural subjects or figures of saints. Rich colour and ingenious 
ornament constitute their principal charm. Two Flemish Books 
of Hours, belonging to the University Library of Liege and 
dating from the fifteenth century, may furnish examples of these 

illustrations. From 
the first (No. 27), 
we choose an An- 
nunciation (Fig. 
81), still archaic 
in style as far 
as the naive fig- 
ures are concern- 
ed , but richly 
coloured and fram- 
ed in a superb 
design of large 
birds. From the 
second (No. 8), 
we take a Christ 
on the Cross. The 
faces are unplea- 
sant, but the whole forms a little picture, the gradations of 
which, delicately blended, represent the transition from the 

40 




FIG. 76.— THE PLAGUE AT TOURNAI. CHRONIQUE DE GIL- 
LES LE MOYSIS (Brussels, 307617). (Phot. Van Damme.) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 



earlier enamel -like tones to the harmonious colours of a later 
period (Fig. 82). — The illuminators' art spread among the less 
exalted classes of society by means of more modest productions; 
but in the second half of the fourteenth century, it entered upon 
the period when it found high favour with princes and great nobles. 
At the head of these patrons figure the King of France, Charles V., 
his brothers, Duke Jean de Berri, and Philip the Bold, Duke of 
Burgundy. The last named, as well as his descendants, having 
become rulers of the Belgian provinces, devoted their wealth and 
that of the country to the 
promotion of luxury and of 
art. Philip the Bold, who 
ruled from 1384 to 1404, 
was the fourth son of King 
John II., and inherited from 
his father not only a love of 
beautiful books, but also 
some precious manuscripts 
from his library. One of the 
gems of the Bibliotheque 
Royale in Brussels, a Book 
of Hours (No. 10392) came 
to him thus. This manu- 
script is illustrated with cap- 
ital letters of dazzling bril- 
liancy: the foliage of the 
borders is like lace in fancy 
and richness; some minia- 
tures show entrancing fig- 
ures. One of the most im- 
portant manuscripts of that 
period was also undertaken for the same prince : the Bible historiee 
belonging to the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris (Fr. 166). It con- 
tains 2704 miniatures distributed over 169 leaves, one half of each 
illustration dealing with a scriptural incident, the other half with the 
moral to be drawn from it. Thus the page here reproduced shows 
this text: "Et la terre seche apparut et ainsi fut fait et appela 
Dieu cette seche terre et Tassemblement des eaux mer. Morali- 
sation. Par la seche terre est signifiee Sainte Eglise, seche, 
sans convoitise, qui demeure ferme contre toute persecution."*) 

*) And dry land appeared and it was so. And God called the dry land, earth; and 
the slathering together of the waters, he called sea. Moral. By the dry land is signified 
the Holy Church, dry, without covetousness, which stands firm against all persecution. 

41 




FIG. 77. — ADOHATiON OF THK MA(iI. 

MISSAL, BY LAURENT OF ANTWERP (The 

Hague, Meermano-Westreenianum Museum). 

(Phot. Steinmetz.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 78. 
JEAN DE VAUDETAR PRESENTING 
HIS WORK TO CHARLES V., BY JEAN 
DE BRUGES. BIBLE (The Hague, Meer- 
mano-Westr. Mus.). (Phot. Steinmetz.) 



The little figures are scarcely tint- 
ed; one might almost call them 
tiny grisailles; the accessories are 
a little more brilliant in colour; 
each scene is framed in a splen- 
didly decorative ornamental bor- 
der; the whole shows a rich 
imagination (Fig. 83). 

As is the case with many im- 
portant manuscripts, several artists 
have here collaborated. The first 
are the best. Only the illumi- 
nations of the first forty -eight 
pages, which are far superior to 
the others, are the work of Fle- 
mings. They are indeed attributed 
to the cleverest of all miniaturists, 
the two brothers of Limburg, who 
were known as Jean (Janneken) 
and Paul (Polleken, Polequin) 
Malouel or Maelwel. The two 
brothers were entrusted with the 
1403 by Philip the Bold. The 
interrupted their 



illustration of this book 

Duke's death , which occurred in 1404 , 

work, which was completed by other hands. 

One of Philip the Bold's bro- 
thers, Jean, Due de Berri (1340 
to 1416), third son of John II., 
was an enthusiastic collector of 
illuminated manuscripts, and the 
works executed for him are the 
most wonderful of all that are 
known to us. Thanks to a happy 
chance, a number of these manu- 
scripts have been preserved, and 
the names of the principal ar- 
tists to whom they are due are 
known to us. They were Flem- 
ings who worked at the court 
of the first Valois kings and who 
there perfected and refined their 
natural gifts. Among the most re- 
markable manuscripts illuminated 
42 




FIG. 79. 

EZEKIEL AND THE ANGEL. BIBLE 

(The Hagrue, Meerm.-Westr. Mus.). 

(Phot. Steinmetz.) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 80.— ST. CORNELIUS AND ST. 

CATHERINE. BOOK OF HOURS (Liege, 

University, 31). (Phot. Janssens.) 



for the Duke are the Books of 
Hours. The best part of one of 
them was destroyed in the fire 
that broke out in the Library of 
Turin on January 7, 1904. It was 
known as the Tres Belles Heures de 
Jean de France, Fortunately we 
have photographic reproductions 
of the burnt portions. Extant parts 
of this fine work belong to Baron 
Adolphe de Rothschild, of Paris, 
to the Louvre, and to Prince Tri- 
vulzio of Milan. The Book of 
Hours of Turin was executed be- 
tween 1404 and 1413. The minia- 
tures it contains are so strikingly 
like those executed later in Flan- 
ders for Philip the Good, that M. 
Georges Hulin and M. Paul Dur- 
rieu believe they emanated from 
the studio of the brothers Van 
Eyck. We reproduce three of them. 

The first, God the Father enthroned under a tent held by angels 
(Fig. 84); the second, William IV., Duke of Hainault, going to 
meet his daughter, Jacqueline of Bavaria (Fig. 85); the third, the 
Holy Virgins (Fig. 86). The first combines the august majesty of 
God with the winsome 
grace of the angels; the 
second presents a scene 
taken from actual life, full 
of movement and variety. 
The Tres Beau Livre 
d' Heures belonging to the 
Bibliotheque Royale of 
Brussels (11 060) is enter- 
ed in the inventory of 
the library of the Due de 
Berri drawn up in 1401. 
Soon after, that prince 
presented it to his brother 
Philip the Bold, and this 
gem was added to the 
Burgundian Library. It 




FIG. 8l.— THE ANNUNCIATION. 

BOOK OF HOURS (Lieg-e, University, 27). 

(Phot. Janssens.) 

43 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 82.— CHRIST ON THE CROSS. 

BOOK OF HOURS (Liege, 
University, 8). (Phot. Janssens.) 

paid by Philip 
the Bold for decorating a French and Latin 
Bible. Jacquemart de Hesdin worked for 
the Due de Berri from the year 1384. 
We have taken three illuminations from the 
Brussels Book of Hours. The first repre- 
sents Due Jean de Berri kneeling between 
St. John and St. Andrew. The Duke wears 
a white robe. St. John is seated ; he car- 
ries the Lamb on his right hand, and his 
head is encircled with a red and gold 
halo; an open book lies on his knees. 
Behind the Duke is St. Andrew, kneeling, 
holding his cross which rests on the ground 
before him. The heads, especially that of 
the Duke, are delicate and full of ex- 
pression (Fig. 93). The second, the Virgin 
giving the breast to the Infant, by Jac- 
quemart de Hesdin, is a transparent, deli- 
cate, velvety grisaille, set off by a back- 
ground of red studded with microscopic 
angels' heads. The execution of the 

44 



contains twenty large miniatures in 
water-colour, and every page is decor- 
ated with a border. It should be 
noted that the first two miniatures are 
unquestionably by a different hand 
from those which follow. As a result 
of researches made concerning the 
authors of these water-colours, it ap- 
pears that the first two are by Jacque- 
mart de Hesdin, and the others by 
Jacques Coene (of Bruges). Here, 
then , are two names allied to the 
masterpieces of Flemish miniature 
painting. Nor are these the only manu- 
scripts from the Due de Berri's col- 
lection that are the work of Flemish 
masters. Jacques Coene (of Bruges) 
lived in Paris 
in 1398; we 
know that in 
1404 he was 




FIG. 83. — GOD CREATING 

THE EARTH. BIBLE 

(Paris, Bibliotheque 

Nationale, F. 166). 

(Phot Berthaud.) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 84. —GOD THE FATHER ENTHRONED 

UNDER A TENT. TURIN BOOK OF HOURS. 

(Phot. Berthaud.) 



illumination is remarkable; the 
drawing is less perfect. The 
head of the Virgin is unduly 
large, and that of the Infant is 
not very pleasing (Fig. 87). The 
third by Jacques Coene, repre- 
sents Christ bearing the Cross. 
The procession passes along a 
path cut out of the rock, mark- 
ed by the anomaly of leading 
down instead of ascending to- 
wards Golgotha. A happy and 
typically Flemish invention is 
the group of children escorting 
and gambolling about the tragic 
cortege. The dark colours are 
still very opaque; the light 
tones have more delicacy and 
allow the forms to show through 
(Fig. 88). 

The French and Latin Psalter 
of the Due de Berri (Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, 13091) is a 
marvellous small quarto volume 
containing various miniatures: 
King David, the Apostles, the 
Prophets, and numerous Saints. 
We reproduce the first of these 
illustrations (Fig. 89). The hand 
that executed these vignettes is 
certainly the same that painted 
the first two in the Brussels 
Book of Hours, and therefore 
that of Jacquemart de Hesdin. 
Like the others, these illumi- 
nations are executed with in- 
finite delicacy; the figures look 
as if they were painted on 
porcelain; their attitudes betray 
a certain tender timidity; their 
garments , discreetly shaded, 
fall in ample folds; the chair 
with the Gothic back is colour- 
ed in pale transparent green. 




45 



FIG. 85. 

THE DUKE OF HAINAULT AND 

JACQUELINE OF BAVARIA. 

(Phot. Berthaud.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 86.— THE HOLY VIRGINS. Tl'RlN 

BOOK OF HOURS. (Phot. Berthaud.) 



This subtle art suggests the saint- 
liness of the personages by pale 
colours of spotless purity. 

The most famous of the Due 
de Berri's manuscripts is the 
Tres Riches Heures of the Conde 
Museum at Chantilly. Jean de 
Berri died in 1416 without seeing 
the completion of this master- 
piece. It was still in progress 
in 1485, when it belonged to 
Charles I., Duke of Savoy. Of 
the 125 miniatures which it con- 
tains, 39 large and 24 small ones 
were executed by the Limburg 
brothers, Polequin, Mannequin 
and Hermand Malouel. The 
most remarkable part of this 
artistic relic is the calendar 
with the pictures of the twelve 
months, in which scenes of country life and the occupations of 
the people are rendered with marvellous truth and charm. The 
month of December, characterised by the Chase (Fig. 90), shows 

us the moment when the boar, run 
down by the hounds, is about to be 
despatched by the huntsmen. The 
scene is a glade, the surrounding 
trees of which are rendered in masterly 
fashion. Above the branches, which 
are partially stripped of their foliage, 
rise the keep and the square towers 
of the castle of Vincennes. The way 
in which the hounds attack the ex- 
hausted beast is no less remarkable. 
How far we are here from the in- 
correct awkwardness with which ani- 
mals had been drawn before! The 
colour, too, is admirable. The hunts- 
men wear bright liveries which stand 
out against the dark subdued back- 
ground supplied by the russet tints 
of the late season. 

After the series of the months, come 
46 




FIG. 87.— MADONNA. BOOK OF 

HOURS OF THE DUG DE BERRI 

(Brussels, 11 060). (Phot. Van Damme.) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 

little pictures dealing with scriptural episodes and presenting an 
altogether different character; they combine the most delightful 
fancy with the most charming realism. This is the case with the 
Coronation of the Virgin (Fig. 91) — a vision of supreme charm and 
ineffable fervour. The art of miniature-painting has reached per- 
fection : its very essence imposed upon it this delicacy and finish. 
Jean de Berri was right in placing these books among his gems. His 
jewel-box contained nothing more precious than the illuminations 
executed by the miniaturists of Flanders and Northern France. 










FIG. 88. THE ROAD TO CALVARY. 

BOOK OF HOURS OF THE DUC DE 

BERRI. (Phot. Van Damme.) 



FIG. 89.— KING DAVID. 
FRENCH AND LATIN PSALTER (Biblioth. 
Nationale, 13091). (Phot. Berthaud.) 



The little Book of Hours of Jean de Berri (Paris, Bibl. Nation. 
18104) is beyond doubt by the hand of one of the collaborators 
of Andre Beaunepveu, who worked from 1362 as sculptor to King 
Charles V., and later at the court of Louis de Male. The represent- 
ation of the months in this work comprises, together with the signs 
of the Zodiac, a scene of country life and a biblical subject. At 
the head of the prayers we are shown the author of the manu- 
script presenting his work to the Due de Berri, who is in bed 
(Fig. 92). The faces are expressive, the colour generally in a very 
high key. In the branches which form a garland round the page a 
cloud of little birds of incomparable workmanship are nestling. 
The art of miniature-painting has produced nothing more precious. 

47 



ART IN FLANDERS 



The Dukes of Burgundy inherited from the founder of their 
dynasty his passionate taste for illuminated manuscripts. The 
Book of Hours at the British Museum (Harl. 2897) was executed 
for Jean sans Peur. Different artists collaborated on it, most 
of them Flemings. We have taken from it one page: David 
kneeling before God and threatened by Satan (Fig. 94). This is 
a work of unrivalled elegance; branches fine as hair and with 
little pointed leaves ramble along the margins; in the text, the 

initials sparkle like jewels set in 
gold. The figures of the miniatures 
are not very artistic; the painter 
was no creator, but a decorator 
of genius, who scattered pearls 
over his pages, and bordered them 
with gold threads. The British Mu- 
seum owns another, and equally 
admirable, Book of Hours made 
for Jean sans Peur (No. 35315). 
But the most ardent of these august 
collectors of illuminations was sure- 
ly Philip the Good, grandson of 
Philip the Bold, and grand-nephew 
of the Due de Berri, who ruled 
over the Belgian provinces from 
1419 to 1467. The Bibliotheque 
Royale of Brussels, the manuscript 
section of which is still called the 
"Library of Burgundy", possesses 
several remarkable works formerly 
owned by this prince. His bre- 
viary in two volumes (9026 — 9511) 
was executed in France probably by 
Flemish artists. We have taken from it a Descent of the Holy 
Ghost (Fig. 95), and an All-Saints Day (Fig. 96). The technique 
is as perfect in the one as in the other. The colours are brilliant 
and varied; the whole reveals the wish to please; everything 
shines and shimmers like enamel. In the Royal Library of the 
Hague is another Book of Hours executed for Philip the Good. 
The miniatures in it show the same taste as those in the Con- 
questes de Charlemagne of the Brussels Library, which are believed 
to be by Jean le Tavernier. We have taken from this Book of 
Hours an Adoration of the Magi, This grisaille, very slightly 
heightened with a little brown, is a delicious piece of work. 

48 




FIG.gO.— LES TRES RICHES HEURES. 
THE MONTH OF DECEMBER 
(ChantiUy). (Phot. Hachette.) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. gi.— LES TRES RICHES HEURES. 

THE CORONATION OF THE VIRGIN (Chantilly). 

(Phot. Berthaud.) 



The faces are insigni- 
ficant, but the scene is 
treated in an enchanting 
fashion (Fig. 97). Manu- 
scripts of an historical 
and literary character 
now increase rapidly. 
The earliest known of 
this kind is L'Histoire 
d'Helaine mere de Saint 
Martin, written in 1448 
by Jean Vauquelin (Fig. 
98), and now belonging 
to the Bibliotheque Roy- 
ale of Brussels (9967). 
Simon Norkart (of Mons, 
in Hainault) translated 
into French , for Philip 
the Good, the History 
of Hainault written in 
Latin by Jacques de Guise. This manuscript, which is preserved 
in the Bibliotheque Royale of 
Brussels (Nos. 9242,3,4), ranks 
among the most perfect produc- 
tions of the art of miniature. It 
is the work of several artists. 
Louis or Loyset Liedet (of Bru- 
ges) was one of them. He lived 
first at Hesdin, then at Bruges, 
where he was in 1468, when he 
worked on "L'Histoire des prin- 
ces de Haynnau", and where he 
died in 1478. Willem de Vre- 
lant or Wyelant, who in 1454 
already belonged to the painters' 
guild at Bruges , and who died 
at that city in 1481, collaborated 
with him. The figures of the first 
part are minute and the drawing 
is angular. Some of the sub- 

. y I - fill FIG. g2.— THE MINIATURIST PRESENT- 

jects borrowed trom fable show inghiswork. small book of hours 
those architectural accessories ,„ . ^IJ?^\P^^ ^^.^^f^\^,^,, 

1.1 I . .1 . . (Pans, Bibliotheque Nationale, 18104). 

Which were so dear to the pamters (Phot Berthaud.) 

49 E 




ART IN FLANDERS 





FIG. 93. — DUC JEAN DE BERKI 

WITH SS. JOHN AND ANDREW. 

LIVRE D'HEURES DU DUC DE 

BERRI (Brussels, 11 060). 

(Phot. Van Damme.) 



FIG. g4. 

DAVID IN ADORATION. 
BOOK OF HOURS OF JEAN 

SANS PEUR 
(Brit. Museum, 2897, Harl). 



of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. One of the scenes 
depicts Saturn devouring his children (Fig. 99). In another 
miniature, representing King Bavon embarking with the Trojans, 
the figures are drawn to perfection, but are still devoid of grace 

(Fig. 100). The second 
part (9243) contains a 
number of large minia- 
tures, among which are 
numerous battle - scenes. 
From the third part we 
reproduce a small com- 
position showing how the 
castle of Douai came, 
through a marriage, into 
thepossessionoftheCount 
of Flanders.The procession 
is received at the church 
door by the bishop and 
the magistrate, who are 
about to celebrate the 
marriage (Fig. 101). The 

FIG. 95.-WHITSUNTIDE. BREVIARY OF PHILIP ^^^^"^/.^ SiVOng thoUgh 

THE GOOD (Brussels, 9511). (Phot. Van Damme.) uot brilliant; the faccs are 

50 




FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 96.— ALL SAINTS DAY. BREVIARY OF PHILIP 
THE GOOD (Brussels, 9026). (Phot. Van Damme.) 



remarkably pleasing, the 
forms slender and without 
stiffness ; and the whole 
is alert in execution. This 
third part, composed in 
1449, is doubtless also the 
work of Louis Liedet. 

To the list of remarkable 
manuscripts executed for 
Philip the Good we must 
add: Les Chroniques et 
Conquestes de Charlemagne 
(Brussels, 9066), illustrated 
in 1460 by Jean le Taver- 
nier of Audenarde, who 
worked for the duke as 
early as 1454. Most of 
these miniatures represent 
battles; the others, scenes 
of feudal life. In the one 
here reproduced the illuminator is seen presenting his work to 
the duke. The technique of this piece is very original. The 
outlines are strongly accentuated. The whole scene is kept in 
a delicate grisaille tone 
heightened with a brown- 
ish tint (Fig. 102). 

The Traite des louanges 
de la Vierge (Brussels, 
9270) was offered in 1491 
to Philip the Good by 
Jean Mielot, canon of the 
Chapter of Lille. The work 
opens with a superb min- 
iature, the Annunciation 
of the Virgin (Fig. 103). 
The duke , kneeling at 
his prayer-desk, is present 
at the scene. The atti- 
tude and movement are 
particularly happy; the 
colour, though relieved 
by decorations and lines ^^^- 97-— the adoration of the magi, book 

f 1 1 . . I I of hours of PHILIP THE GOOD (The Haeue, 

Ot gold, IS nevertheless a Royal Library, A. A. 271). (Phot. Steinmctz.) 

51 E 2 




ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 98.— NAVAL BATTLE. 

HISTOIRE d'helaine (Brussels, 9%7). 

(Phot. Van Damme.) 



little heavy. In the following year, 1462, David Aubert of Hesdin 
offered the duke a manuscript: La Composition de VEcriture, 

which belongs now to 
the Bibliotheque Roy- 
ale of Brussels (9017). 
It contains only a few 
miniatures in a bluish- 
grey tint heightened 
with gold. Most of the 
figures are long and 
a little stiff, recalling 
those of Dierick Bouts ; 
in other compositions 
the thick - set , badly 
modelled figures be- 
tray another hand. But 
here again the work is 
absolutely marvellous. 
In a tournament scene 
(Fig. 104), the knights 
sit their horses well. If the artist has not yet contrived to 
render a drama in all its intensity, he at least takes every care 

to show the prelim- 
inaries and the 
accessories. The 
carpet in the back- 
ground is, as it 
were, embroidered 
with the brush. 

In the following 
year, 1463, a se- 
cond work was 
presented to the 
Duke by its author, 
David Aubert, in 
his city of Bruges. 
It is now in the 
Library of The Ha- 
gue. It is a very 
highly coloured 
manuscript with 
rich landscapes. We reproduce from it a St. Hubert saving the 
shipwrecked (Fig. 105). 

52 




FIG. QQ. — SATURN DEVOURING HIS CHILDREN. HISTOIRE 
DU HAINAUT (Brussels, 9242). (Phot. Van Damme.) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. loo. — KING BAVON EMBARKING WITH THE TROJANS. 
HISTOIRE DU HAINAUT (Brussels, 9242). (Phot. Van Damme.) 



Another work dedicated to Philip the Good by its copyist, Jean 
Mansel of Hesdin, is called La Fleur des Histoires, and served as 
reading book to 
the children of the 
prince's family 
(Brussels, 9231 to 
9233). It is divided 
into three parts, 
one of which (9232) 
contains superb 
miniatures, illumi- 
nated with rare 
taste and richness. 
They rank among 
the master -pieces 
of their kind. One 
of them represents 
a battle-field (Fig. 
106), in which the 

horses are treated to perfection; even more successful is the 
landscape on three sides of the scene of carnage, to which its 
smiling and peaceful aspect forms the most striking contrast. The 
Marriage of King Charles V. takes us into an altogether different 
scene. The bishop re- 
ceives the royal couple 
under the porch of the 
church. A radiant tona- 
lity envelops the land- 
scape. Only a little hesi- 
tation here and there 
betrays inexperience in 
this masterpiece of ele- 
gance and truth. 

In 1463—1465, David 
Aubert wrote the History 
of Charles Martel, which 
Liedet illustrated from 
1470—1478. Battlepieces 
abound here. We choose 
the one in which the 
Uuc de Mes demands yig. ioi.— how the count of flanders 

help from King Pepin acquired the castle of douai. 

/T7-* in'7\ TU HISTOIRE DU HAINAUT (Brussels, 9244). 

(hlg. 107). The manu- (ph^t. Van Damme.) 

53 



mmmmmkk.^Br^ii^m^ 


1 


n«'; 


" ^Hm 




sHp^V :t?I^^H^^^^ 


BllMr 


' ^gssg ''^-^~ ' } '^^^^ \ 


— W" wi. ii 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 102.— JEAN LE TAVERNIER DE- 
DICATING HIS WORK. LES CONQUESTES 
DE CHARLEMAGNE (Brussels, 9066). 
(Phot. Van Damme.) 



script is at Brussels (6 — 9). 
One of the most beautiful 
manuscripts that have come 
down to us was illuminated for 
Charles the Bold: Les Faits et 
Gestes d'Alexandre le Grand 
(Paris, Bibl. Nat., Fr. 22 547). 
At the end of this work we 
read: "Explicit le IX^ livre de 
Quinte-Curce Rufe des Histoi- 
res du grand Alexandre de 
Macedoine translate de latin en 
frangais au chateau de Nieppe 
ran mil IllWXIir' (read 1468). 
In 1470, Louis Liedet was paid, 
at the rate of 20 sous a piece, 
for 86 illuminations destined to 
illustrate a history of Alexander 
the Great. This is the exact 
number of miniatures included 
in our manuscript. We find 
ourselves here in the presence of real pictures, their colour 
astounding in its combination of harmony and brilliancy. The 
colour is heightened with gold. The figures are somewhat stiff 
in gesture and too uniformly sanctimonious in expression; yet 

they move freely in a wide 
space bathed in air and 
light. Fig. 108 shows "how 
the Moors were over- 
thrown and how Alexan- 
der came towards the la- 
dies, and the converse 
he held with the mother 
of King Darius". 

The possession of such 
great works was not, in 
the fifteenth century, the 
sole privilege of kings 
and princes; the great 
nobles and the higher 
clergy were equally eager 

FIG. 103.— THE ANNUNCIATION OF THE VIRGIN. fo orrlpr nrprioii*; vnliime*; 
LES LOUANGES DE LA VIERGE (Brussels, 9270). , ^,^ prCClOUS VOlUmCS 

(Phot. Van Damme.) trom the artists. Louis OI 

54 




FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 



Bruges, Lord of Gruuthuse (born about 1426, died in 1492), 
one of the most powerful nobles of Flanders, distinguished himself 
among these collectors. 
Some of his manuscripts, 
executed between 1480 
and 1492, have passed 
into the Bibliotheque 
Nationale of Paris. Let 
us consider two of these 
works. The first bears the 
title: Boethius de Conso- 
latione Philosophiae (M. S. 
Neerlandais I). Latin text 
with Netherlandish trans- 
lation. At the end of the 




FIG. 104.— A TOURNAMENT. COMPOSITION DE LA 

SAINTE-ECRITURE (Brussels, 9017). 

(Phot. Van Damme.) 



manuscript it is stated 
that Jan van Kriekenborch 
completed this work for 
the Lord of Gruuthuse on 
March 16, 1491 (1492 new style). Later, this manuscript became 
the property of the King of France, whose arms were substituted 
for those of the first owner, which figured in several places in 
the work. The miniatures represent different scenes in which 
Boethius teaches his philo- 
sophy. The example here 
reproduced shows him 
seated in his arm-chair, 
surrounded by three wo- 
men. This work of a 
mature art and of great 
wealth of imagination 
(Fig. 109) comprises the 
most perfect miniatures 
that have adorned any 
manuscript written in the 
Netherlandish tongue. The 
illuminator was Alexan- 
der Benning. 

Anotherimportantwork 
executed for Louis de 
Gruuthuse, is a Tourna- 
ment destined to commemorate the one which had been organi- 
sed by his father, Jean de Bruges, in 1392 (Bibl. Nat, Paris, 

55 




FIG. 105. 

ST. HUBERT SAVING THE SHIPWRECKED 

(The Hag-ue, Royal Library). (Phot. Sieinmetz.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 



Fr. 2692). It represents several jousting scenes in the lists, and 
also some customs connected with these festivities (Fig. 110). 

The author was no doubt 
the author of the Boe- 
thius, that is to say, Alex- 
ander Benning, the best 
of all Flemish miniaturists. 
Raphael deMarcatillier, 
bastard of Philip the 
Good, and Abbot of St. 
Bavon, Ghent, commis- 
sioned in the fifteenth 
century a quantity of ma- 
nuscripts, of which the 
Monotessaron (or Concor- 
dance of the four Gos- 
pels) belonging to the Uni- 
versity Library of Ghent, 
is the most important 
(No. 462). We have taken 
from it a Christ with the 
the colours are brilliant 




FIG. I06.— A BATTLE. LA FLEUR DES HISTOIRES 
(Brussels, 9232). (Phot. Van Damme.) 



Pharisees. The composition is sober, 

(Fig. 111). The Brussels Library possesses a History of the 

Golden Fleece (9028) executed for Guillaume de Fillastre, Bishop 

of Tournai. At the 
beginning is a min- 
iature represen- 
ting the Chapter of 
the Order held at 
Brussels in 1468 
under the presi- 
dency of Charles 
the Bold, in which 
Guillaume de Fil- 
lastre swears in 
the Knights. The 
work lacks the 
elegance, the de- 
licacy , and the 
pleasant realism 
which distinguish 

the great miniaturists of that period (Fig. 112). 

In the Bibliotheque Royale of Brussels, we may further admire 

56 




FIG. 107.— THE DUG DE MES DEMANDING HELP FROM 

KING PEPIN. HISTOIRE DE CHARLES MARTEL 

(Brussels, 6-9). (Phot. Van Damme.) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




FK;. I08.— ALKXAXnKH AND THK MOTHKR OK 
DARirS. FAITS ET CiESTES D'ALEXAXDKE (Bib- 
liotheque Nationale, Fr. 22547.) (Phot. Berthaud.) 



a Golden Legend (9282), 
ordered by Philip, Duke 
of Cleves, who lived from 
1459 to 1529. One of 
the best pieces in it is a 
Resurrection of Christ 
(Fig. 113). 

Another enchanting fif- 
teenth century manuscript 
is the Catholicon of St. 
Augustine, copied and 
illuminated from 1481 to 
1484 at the Chartreuse 
de la Vallee Royale. It 
is likewise among the 
treasures of the Brussels 
Library (9121—4). The 
series of illuminations begins with a little picture of a monk 
cutting a quill. The subdued illumination and the simple and 
elegant intimacy of the conception make this one of the finest 
examples of its kind (Fig. 114). In several places it bears the 
arms of the Van der 
Moere, a family of artists 
of Ghent, one of whom, 
Jan van der Moere, was 
received in 1485 as illu- 
minator in the guild of 
painters. He lived at 
Ghent until 1499, and to 
him the work in question 
is probably due. 

Miniature painting had 
passed through its first 
golden age at the end of 
the fourteenth century, 
under the patronage of 
Due Jean de Berri; a 
second period of pros- 
perity followed in the 
middle of the fifteenth 
century under Philip the 
Good; a final efflores- .fig. io9.-poethius and the vmGiNs 

• , e ' BOETHTtTs DE CONSOLATIOXE (Pans, Bibhotheque 

Cence was m store tor it Nationale, Fonds Neerlandais). (Phot. Berthaud.) 

57 




ART IN FLANDERS 



rl@^^ BpJMp^-wtr'^fc^^^w^^M^^MBBi 


5^y^Jta^ 9H93i^ fifm m^t^KBK ^^^^^1 


WmA 



FIG. 1 10. — THE DUKE OF BRITTANY BEFORE 

THE BOURBON KING-AT-ARMS. LE TOURNAI DE 

JEAN DE BRUGES (Paris, Bibl. Nat., Fr. 2692). 

(Phot. Berthaud.) 



at the beginning of the 
sixteenth century. Already 
at the time of the Due 
de Berri the miniaturists 
of Flanders had risen to 
superior rank in their art; 
they were to excel in it 
more and more, until, in 
the sixteenth century, they 
were practically left alone 
to cultivate this art with 
distinction in the North- 
West of Europe. The con- 
ditions under which they 
worked had undergone a 
profound change. The 
printed book had replaced 
the written book; the 
manuscript appealed only 
to the worshippers of the 
old form and of archaic taste; its doom was inevitably sealed; 
but before disappearing altogether, the dying flame was to 
shine once more with supreme brilliance. 

Among the illuminations 
of the sixteenth century 
we must mention first a 
Book of Hours belonging 
to the Vatican Library (No. 
3769), and bearing in se- 
veral places the arms of a 
Flemish gentleman, Jean 
de Pallant, and of his wife, 
Anne deCulenburgh, whom 
he married about 1500. 
It is a priceless gem, 
illuminated in the richest 
and most varied fashion. 
This Flemish work is due 
to several collaborators. 
The first of these minia- 
turists is distinguished by 
orreat delicacy, a refined 

FIG. III.— CHRIST AND THE PHARISEES. ^ i • J 1_ 'IT i. 

MONOTESSARON (Ghent, Library). (Phot, d' Hoy.) techniqUC , and brilliant 

58 







FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




Flti. 112. — THE CHAPTER OK THE GOL- 
DEN FLEECE. HISTOIRE DE LA TOISON 
D'OR (Brussels, 9028). (Phot. Van Damme.) 



colours heightened with gold; 
he illuminated the Psalms (Fig. 
116). Another, of somewhat 
ruder style, illustrated the life 
of Jesus; a third designed the 
vigorous and dramatic scenes 
for the calendar (Fig. 115); and 
a fourth illustrated the Gospels 
with a care almost overprecise. 

Among the marvels produ- 
ced by the art of the minia- 
turists of the closing period are 
several manuscripts belonging 
to the British Museum. One 
is a Breviary that once be- 
longed to Isabella, Queen of 
Spain (1504) and was offered to 
her by her very humble servant, 
Frangois de Royas. It was writ- 
ten by Spaniards, but illustrated 
by Flemings. Several hands have 

worked on it; the designer of the figures is the least skilful; but 
the flowers, birds, and insects, scattered over the gilded margins 
in the Flemish manner, are inimitably exquisite and brilliant in 
execution. The second is a 
BookofHours(No.l5677), 
including a calendar ad- 
orned with scenes of 
Flemish domestic life, and 
with margins, which in 
richness of ornamentation 
closely approach the prec- 
eding volume. 

A third manuscript be- 
longing to the same col- 
lection (No. 17280) is the 
one which was executed 
for Philip, son-in-law of 
Mary of Burgundy and 
of Maximilian of Austria 
(1478—1506). Its format 
is 16"^°, whilst the maior- 

£ 1.1- J.V J* EIG. 113.— THE RESURRECTION OF CHRIST. LA LE- 

Ity or the other codices gende d ore e (Brussels, 9282.) ("PAof. Kan />amme.; 

59 




ART IN FLANDERS 



^^S 


Ri 






Li^^^S 


^^B 




^k| 




E^Hj 




m% 




pwSS 




w^M 




^^G^ 




uH 



FIG. 114.— THE SCRIBE CUTTING HIS QUILL. 

CATHOLICON DE ST. AUGUSTIN (Brussels, 9121). 

(Phot. Van Damme.) 



are 4*0. The figures of the little compositions are remarkably 
correct. A fourth work at the British Museum (No. 12531) 
contains miniatures of very large dimensions, and at the same 

time of masterly exe- 
cution. This is the Ge- 
nealogy of the Kings of 
Portugal, and represents 
the kings and queens who 
have ruled over that 
country, and their al- 
liances with the dynasties 
of Spain, England, and 
Burgundy. The monumen- 
tal work is composed of 
eleven enormous vellum 
leaves; it is not entirely 
finished, and has suffered 
in certain parts ; but, such 
as it is, with its figures 
and decorative borders, 
it is a masterpiece of 
miniature painting, one 
of the last and one of the most sumptuous ever produced. It 
was executed by Flemish artists for Dom Fernando, third son of 
Joao III., king of Portugal, who lived from 1507 — 1534. Simon 

Benning has been sug- 
gested as its principal 
author, and the attri- 
bution seems plausible. 
A work of the greatest 
value is \\\QBook of Hours 
of Our Lady of Hen- 
nessi/y so called because 
it belonged to the Irish 
Hennessy family, from 
whom it was bought by 
the Bibliotheque Royale 
of Brussels. Experts 
agree that the twenty- 
nine miniatures of which 
it is composed were painted about 1530 by Simon Benning, son 
of Alexander, who was born at Ghent in the later part of the 
fifteenth century, and lived chiefly at Bruges, where he died 

60 




FIG. 115. — DECEMBER. BOOK OF HOURS, XVITII 

CENTURY (Rome, Vatican Library, 3769, Lat.). 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 



in 1561. Guicciardini proclaims his 
high merit as an illuminator. Whoever 
the author of the Hours of Hennessy 
may have been, he was certainly an 
artist of the first rank. The Labours 
of the Months (Fig. 117) and some 
biblical scenes will bear compa- 
rison with the finest panel paintings; 
they are extraordinarily graphic, and, 
in spite of their small dimensions, 
give an impression of spaciousness 
and of life. 

The most famous manuscript in the 
world is the Grimani Breviary. It is 
also the best known, thanks to the 
numerous reproductions that exist of it. 
It was probably executed between 1508 
and 1519. Marc-Antonio Michieli, an 
Italian writer of the sixteenth century, 
wrote at the beginning of this volume : 
"The famous breviary, which the lord 
Antonio Siciliano sold on October 9, 1520, for 500 ducats to 
Cardinal Grimani, who bequeathed it on August 26, 1523, to 




FIG . 1 16.— THE CORONATION OF 

KING DAVID. BOOK OF HOURS, 

XVITH CENTURY (Rome, 

Vatican Library, 3769, Lat.). 




1. -*- 






W/SSk n 


lf^^^"^H 





FIG. 117.— HAWKING. LES HEURES 

DE HENNESSY (Brussels, II, 158). 

(Phot. Van Damme.) 



61 



FIG. 118.— FEBRUARY. 

GRIMANI BREVIARY. 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 1 19. — ST. CATHERINK. 

HORTULUS ANIMAE (Vienna, Imperial 

Library, 2706). (Phot. Hermans.) 



the Library of St. Mark's in Ve- 
nice, was illuminated by divers 
masters. In it are to be seen minia- 
tures by the hand of Memlinc, 
a hundred and twenty -five by 
Gerard of Ghent, a hundred and 
twenty-five by Lievin of Antwerp." 
Memlinc cannot have worked on 
this breviary, which was executed 
after his death. Gerard of Ghent 
is probably Gerard Horenbout, a 
miniaturist mentioned by Guicciar- 
dini, no work by whom is known. 
Lievin of Antwerp is unquestion- 
ably Lievin van Lathem, of whose 
life we have no particulars. A very 
competent writer. Count Paul Dur- 
rieu, holds the view that Alexan- 
der Benning was one of the illu- 
minators. Besides the borders, this 
famous work contains twenty-four 
illustrations for the Calendar, dealing with rustic life and work; 
sixty others that refer to Bible history; and eighteen figures of 

saints. Some of them present a 
striking analogy to the Tres 
Riches Heures of the Due de 
Berri ; others are remarkably near 
the manner of the Book of Hours 
of Hennessy, The month of Fe- 
bruary sets before us the details 
of a rustic scene: the mother is 
spinning by the door, the father 
smoking his pipe, the little boy 
tucking up his dress, the pigeons 
are pecking the ground, the pig 
is looking for food, the peasant 
leading his donkey, and the shep- 
herdess stands near the stable. 
In the distance extends a wintry 
landscape, and the snow is so 
transparent that it seems to re- 
flect the blue of the sky. These 
pictures unite in the most har- 
62 




FIG. 120.— THE RESURRECTION OF 
CHRIST. MISSAL (Liege, Church of 
St. Jean I'Evang-eliste). (Phot.Janssens.) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 121.— HENRI BELLECHOSE. 
THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. DENIS (Louvre). 



monious fashion prose to poetry, reality to sentiment (Fig. 118). 
In the month of May we see a merry party on the way to the 
green woods. It is a cavalcade of magnificently dressed lords 
and ladies. The horsemen 
and their mounts are 
wreathed in young foli- 
age. In the background 
rise the bluish green forest 
and the towers of the 
town. The landscape is 
seen and treated by an 
artist of the most exqui- 
site sensibility. 

The art of miniature- 
painting had thus arrived 
at the end of its course, 
and had reached its apo- 
gee, passing beyond its 
real goal. From this mo- 
ment, illumination no 

longer supplies a want, but applies itself exclusively to flattering 
the eye and to procuring artistic enjoyment. This is the case 
with a manuscript which, owing to its style and perfection of 
technique, has with good reason been considered as closely 
related to the Grimani 
Breviary: the Hortulus 
Animae of the Imperial 
Library, Vienna (2706). 
It comprises eighty mi- 
niatures and forty bor- 
ders by Gerard Horen- 
bout and his followers. 
Some are absolutely 
identical with those of 
the Grimani Breviary. 
We reproduce a St. Ca- 
therine from it (Fig. 1 1 9). 
She appears as a young 
virgin fervently praying 
in front of her parents* 
castle. A proof of the competition which was to be waged 
between manuscripts and printed books in the last days of illu- 
mination is furnished by the fact that the Hortulus Animae is 

63 




FIG.I22.— MELCH10RBR0EDERI>AM. SHUTTERS OF 
AN ALTAR-PIECE (Dijon, Museum). (Fhot.Neurdein.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




literally copied from a book of the same title, printed at Stras- 
burg in 1510. 

Finally, an example of the confusion of the two crafts, and 
of the decadence that resulted from it in the art of illumination, 
is furnished by a very attractive missal belonging to the parish 
church of St. Jean I'Evangeliste at Liege, and dating from 
1564—1565. The letters are written or rather drawn with sur- 
prising faithfulness, after characters used by the printer. We repro- 
duce from this 
missal a Resur- 
rection of Jesus 
CAWs^ (Fig. 120), 
a little picture in 
miniature quite 
in the manner of 
the painters of 
this epoch, but 
executed with 
the delicacy char- 
acteristic of the 
old master-illu- 
minators. 

During the first 
quarter of the fif- 
teenth century, 
when the minia- 
ture was at its 
apogee, the panel 
painters contin- 
ued the artistic 
evolution begun 
by the illumina- 
tors of manuscripts. It is impossible to state the exact moment 
when their art was manifested for the first time. The oldest 
Flemish panel picture is a casket in which the relics of St. Odilia 
were supposed to have been collected in 1292. This work was 
executed for the Couvent des Croisiers, at Huy, and it is now 
preserved in the church of Kerniel, a village between Tongres 
and St. Trond, where the Croisiers formerly had a convent. It 
represents part of the legend of St. Ursula: how the saint was 
received by the Pope, how she was killed by the Pagan warriors, 
and how the relics of St. Odilia, one of the followers of St. Ursula, 
were transported by the brothers of the Order from Cologne to 

64 




FIG. 123.— HUBERT VAN 
EYCK. GOD THE FATHER 

(Ghent, St. Bavon). 

(Phot. G. Hermans.) 



FIG. 124.— HUBERT VAN 
EYCK. THE VIRGIN 
(Ghent, St. Bavon). 
(Phot G. Hermans.) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 



Huy. The technique is altogether primitive, and the art, infantile. 
The colours are crude and without gradations; the features of 
the faces and the folds of the garments are drawn with simple 
lines, but the action is clearly indicated, and the groups are 
simply, but naturally arranged. 

The second oldest panel picture belongs to the museum 
at Antwerp, but it was not executed in the Southern Nether- 
lands. It is a Crucifixion, with the Virgin, St. John and the 

donor, destined for 

the tomb of Hen- 

drik van Ryn, priest 

of the church at 

Utrecht, who died 

in 1363. The pro- 
gress is marked; 

the figures have 

richer gradations 

of colour, and the 

drawing is more 

natural. 

These two pieces 

are painted with 

white of egg. The 

first has nothing in 

common either 

with the miniatures, 

or with the oil- 
painting of the fif- 
teenth century; the 

second is nearer 

to that art, but 

still far removed 

from it. 
In the absence of works , there is no lack of documents- con- 
cerning the first painters who used oil-colours. At Ghent we 
find mentioned, among others, Jacques Compere, who painted 
in oils in 1328 — 1329; at Bruges, Jan van der Lye practised the 
same art in 1351 ; at Brussels, Jean the Painter worked in 1298, 
Berthold Sadeler in 1303, Hendrik van Pede in 1363, Jan van der 
Noot in 1367. In 1380, Jan de Woluwe painted a diptych for 
the oratory of the Duchess of Brabant. Jan van Hasselt was 
painter in ordinary to Louis de Male, Count of Flanders, from 
1365. 

65 F 





FIG. 125. 

HUBERT VAN EYCK. 

ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST 

(Ghent, St. Bavon). 

(Phot. G. Hermans.) 



FIG. 126.— HUBERT AND 

JAN VAN EYCK. 

ANGEL 31USICIANS 

(Berlin, Museum). 
(Phot. Hanfstaengl.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




Under the Burgun<Jian dukes, paint- 
ing became a real art, and even a 
great art. Philip the Bold engaged 
Jean Malouel of Guelders or of Lim- 
burg as Court painter and employed 
him from 1398 to 1402. Malouel 
painted five altarpieces for the famous 
Chartreuse of Champmol, near Dijon. 
At the same period he executed a 
triptych representing the Holy Virgin 
betwen St. Peter and St. Paul; in 
1415, he painted a portrait of Jean 
Sans Peur. Henri Bellechose, of Bra- 
bant, succeeded Jean Malouel as paint- 
er to the Dukes of Burgundy. To 
him are due, no doubt, the two altar- 
pieces from the convent of Champ- 
mol, the Martyrdom of St Denis and 
The Dead Christ supported by the 
Eternal Father"^), both of which are 
now in the Louvre (Nos. 906, 907). 
The Saviour on the Cross occupies 
the centre of the first picture; on one 
side, St. Denis is seen in prison, on the other, the executioner 
cutting off his head. The figures and the action are represented 

naively in tender 
colours on a gold 
background , and 
are not without 
dramatic feeling 
(Fig. 121). 

Melchior Broe- 
derlam is the first 
whose authorship 
of certain pictures 
has been definitely 
established. On 
May 13, 1384, he 
entered the ser- 
vice of Philip the 
Bold, as painter and 
chamberlain, at a 



FIG. 127.— HUBERT AND JAN 
VAN EYCK. ADAM AND EVE 

(Brussels, Museum). 

(Phot. G. Hermans.) 



L^^^^2^ 






w . 



FIG. 128.— HUBERT AND JAN VAN EYCK. 

THE ADORATION OF THE LAMB (Ghent, St. Bavon). 

(Phot. Sucre.) 



*) Attributed to Jean Malouel in the official catalogue (Tr.). 

66 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 



salary of 200 livres. His master entrusted to him the painting 
in oils of banners , standards, and other objects. He also exe- 
cuted several works for the city of Ypres, where he lived until 
1409 or 1410. In 1390—1392 Jacques Baerse of Termonde carved 
the two reredoses for the Chartreuse of Champmol, the burial 
place of the Dukes of Burgundy. Melchior Broederlam decorated 
the exterior wings of these with paintings which he completed 
in 1399. The two painted" shutters of one of these reredoses 
are now in the Museum of 
Dijon and show two compo- 
sitions each: on the left, 
The Annunciation and The 
Visit of Mary to Elizabeth; 
on the right. The Purifi- 
cation and the Flight into 
Egypt (Fig. 122). The re- 
lation to contemporary . 
miniature is obvious; the 
forms of the figures are 
graceful , the draperies 
supple; the landscape, and 
more particularly the archi- 
tecture, plays a very im- 
portant part in the compo- 
sition ; the work is delicately 
and gracefully handled, but 
it is also vital, and deeply 
felt 



■■■m^mniuMtM 


• if 1 ■ ' ^ 


■^ ^'|#'^' 



Ihese earliest artists still pj^ 129.— hubert and jan van eyck. 

employed the very old pro- the warriors of christ akd the just 
cesses of tempera painting. J^^^^^ ^^^'''^' ^"^^""^>- ^^^"'- ^-/^'«-^'-^ 
It was left to the brothers 

Van Eyck to demonstrate by their masterpieces the superiority 
of oil-painting. . We know but little of their life. Of Hubert 
we only know what we can gather from the inscription on the 
joint-masterpiece of the two brothers, and from that on his 
tomb. He began the altarpiece of the Adoration of the Lamb 
for Jodoc Vyt, at Ghent, and died before it was finished. 
According to their name, the two brothers were born at Maeseyck, 
in Limburg, Hubert between 1370 and 1380, Jan between 1380 
and 1390. The younger brother worked first for John of Bavaria, 
called "the Merciless", who commissioned him to decorate his 
palace at The Hague, from October 24, 1422, to September 11, 

67 F 2 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 130. 

HUBERT AND JAN VAN EYCK. 

JODOC VYT AND HIS WIFE 

(Berlin, Museum). 

(Phot. Berlin Phot. Gesellschaft.) 



1424. On May 19, 1425, he en- 
tered the service of Phihp the 
Good, who entrusted him with 
several missions; in 1428 he went 
to Portugal to paint the portrait 
of the Infanta Isabella, whom his 
prince had demanded in marriage. 
From the middle of 1426 to the 
middle of 1428, he sojourned at 
Lille at the expense of the Duke. 
On his return from Portugal he 
had bought a house at Bruges; 
he aquired the right of citizenship 
(Poortersrecht) in 1433, and died 
in 1441. 

The principal work of the bro- 
thers Van Eyck is The Adoration 
of the Lamb, in the church of St. 
Bavon, at Ghent. It was ordered 
about 1415 by Jodoc Vyt from 
the elder of the two brothers. Hu- 
bert having died on September 18, 
1426, the younger brother completed the work by himself. A 

Latin inscription on the 
frame of the polyptych tells 
us all the essentials we 
know of this masterpiece, 
and of the two brothers' 
share in it. From this in- 
scription, which seems to 
have been composed by Jan 
van Eyck, it appears that 
the commission was given 
to Hubert by Jodocus Vydt 
(Vyd or Vyt), that Hubert 
began the picture, that Jan 
finished it, and that it was 
inaugurated on May 8, 1432. 
The Adoration is the only 
work that can with cer- 
tainty be attributed to the 
FIG. 131.— JAN VAN EYCK. MADONNA OF eldcr of thc two brothcrs. 

CHANCELLOR ROLIN (Paris, Louvre). -ivr j .1 U i. *. 

(Phot. Neurdein.) Wc do uot kuow what part 

68 




FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 132.— JAX VAN EYCK. 

THE MAN WITH THE PINK 

(Berlin, Museum). 

[(Phot. Hanfstaengl) 



of it he executed himself, and what 
is by his brother's hand. It is al- 
most certain that the entire con- 
ception of the picture is due to 
Hubert, and that he painted the 
most important figures, God the 
Father, Mary, and St. John the 
Baptist. One may conjecture that 
the figures of Adam and Eve, which 
approach them very closely in style, 
proportions, and repose, are also 
by his hand. 

As regards the other portions of 
the work, it is hopeless to try 
and establish what belongs to the 
one, and what is due to the other. 
There is no noticeable difference 
in technique. The oldest documents 
refer to the whole picture as being 
the work of Hubert. As a matter 
of fact, it was not inaugurated until 
a good many years after his death; but since Jan had in the 
meantime paid only rare and short visits to Ghent, his collabo- 
ration cannot have been very important. Perhaps he only finished 
what his brother had designed and carried near to completion. 
This would explain the respect, nay veneration, for the elder 
brother, to which the in- 
scription bears witness, 
and the unanimity of the 
early documents in attri- 
buting to Hubert alone 
the paternity of the entire 
work. 

The subject of this 
grand work is borrowed 
from the Apocalypse (VII. 
9, 10), and especially from 
the text that is read on 
the feast of All Saints: 
"After this I beheld, and, 
lo, a great multitude, 
which no man could num- ^^^^- 133— jan van eyck. madonna of 

U«^ ^C 11 „4.-^ J CANON VAN DER PAELE (Bruges, Museum), 

ber, of all nations, and (Phot. Hanfstaengl) 

69 




ART IN FLANDERS 



kindreds, and people, and tongues, 
stood before the throne, and be- 
fore the Lamb, clothed with white 
robes, and palms in their hands: 
And cried with a loud voice, say- 
ing, Salvation to our God which 
sitteth upon the throne, and unto 
the Lamb." The author of this 
picture — a real Christian epopee 
— has conceived it as the apo- 
theosis of the Lamb of God des- 
cended upon earth to redeem man 
from original sin, as the glori- 
fication of the most sublime mys- 
tery upon which the Christian 
religion is based. In the upper 
zone of the panel are enthroned 
the three protagonists of the Re- 
demption: the Father, personi- 
fying Divinity; Mary, through 
whom the ineffable mystery was 

realized; and St. John the'jBaptist, who announced it to the world. 

God the Father is draped in a red mantle, the breast and border 




FIG. 134.— JAN VAN EYCK. 
ARNOLFINI AND HIS WIFE 
(London, National Gallery). 





FIG. 135.— JAN VAN EYCK. CARDINAL 

DE LA CROCE (Vienna, Imperial Museum). 

(Phot. Lowy.) 



70 



FIG.5136.— PETRUSCHRISTUS. POR- 
TRAIT OF A MAN (London, National 
Gallery). (Phot. Bmckmann.) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 137.— PETRLS CHRISTUS. 

THE LEGEND OF STE. GODEBERTE 

(America). (Phot. Briickmann.) 



of which are studded with 
precious stones. He is crowned 
with an equally resplendent 
white tiara; in His left hand 
He holds the sceptre, with His 
right He gives the benediction. 
The features are full of bene- 
volence and majesty. The back- 
ground is black heightened with 
green (Fig. 123). The Virgin 
wears a dark blue robe with 
a jewelled border, and a dia- 
dem enriched with gems and 
flowers; her face expresses an 
angelic sweetness. She holds 
in her hands a book which she 
is reading with devout compo- 
sure (Fig. 124). St. John has 
a green mantle thrown over his 
brown robe ; his features almost 
disappear under his ragged 

beard and hair (Fig. 125). Like the Virgin, he is set against a 
background of black and gold. The general aspect produces an 
impression of celestial glory; 
yet certain details attract 
special attention. In spite of 
the splendour which shines 
forth from the whole person- 
ality of God the Father, the 
tiara upon His head and the 
crown at His feet first dazzle 
one's eyes. In Mary we not 
only admire the most im- 
maculate of Virgins and the 
splendours of the Queen of 
Heaven, but also the details, 
for instance the simple green, 
gilt-edged book with the hang- 
ing cover, which she holds 
in her hand. 

To the right and to the left 
of the three principal person- 
ages in the QQntre, are two 




71 



FIG. 138.— PETRUS CHRISTUS. 

THE ANNUNCIATION (Berlin, Museum), 

(Phot Berlin Phot. Gesellschaft.j 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 139.— PETRUS CHRISTUS. 

BIRTH OF CHRIST (Berlin, Museum). 

(Phot. Berlin Phot. Gesellschaft.) 



the Fountain of Life; 



groups of angels, a guard of 
honour to Divinity; on one 
side they are playing various 
instruments, on the other they 
are singing the praise of the 
Lord (Fig. 126); and at their 
sides, are Adam and Eve, 
through whom sin came into 
the world (Fig. 127). The 
principal personages of the 
sublime mystery are thus as- 
sembled in seven panels in 
the upper portion. There are 
to be seen those through 
whom humanity fell, and those 
who made themselves the 
interpreters of terrestrial grati- 
tude. The lower row is com- 
posed of five panels; upon 
the central one springs forth 
back, upon an altar, stands the 





IP 


r 





FIG. 140.— ROBERT CAMPIN. 

VON WERL ALTARPIECE(Mad- 

rid, Prado). (Phot. Anderson.) 



further 

Lamb which gives 
its blood in ex- 
piation of the sin 
of the first man 
(Fig. 128). On the 
side panels are to 
be seen, on the 
left, the prophets, 
doctors, and philo- 
sophers; the war- 
riors of Christ and 
the Just Judges 
advance on horse- 
back (Fig. 129). 
On the right are 
grouped the Holy 
Women and the 
kneeling Apostles 
and Fathers of the 
Church. The her- 
mits and pilgrims 
advance in a body. 
72 




FIG. 141.— ROBERT CAMPIN. 
VON WERL ALTARPIECE (Mad- 
rid, Prado). (Phot Anderson.) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 142. -ROBERT CAMPIN. MERODE ALTARPIECE 
(Brussels). (Phot. Bruckmann.) 



In the background, a land- 
scape dominated by keeps 
and towers, such as may 
be seen in the works of 
the great fifteenth century 
miniaturists, extends to the 
horizon. On the reverse 
of the wings are represent- 
ed, in the lower row of 
the panels, St. John the 
Baptist and St. John the 
Evangelist, in grisaille, as 
well as Jodoc Vyt and his 
wife (Fig. 130); and in the 
upper row, the Annun- 
ciation of the Virgin. 

Heaven and earth, na- 
ture and symbol, blend in 
this grand work of many 
compartments; but the landscapes represent places upon which 

the painters had set their 

eyes. In the same way, 

they had known all the 

personages, and they 

depicted them as they 

had seen them. The 

angels and the blessed 

are terrestrial beings of 

very individual carriage 

and physiognomy; Adam 

is a robust young man 

of irreproachable anat- 
omy, evidently painted 

from life; the detail of 

the nude in Eve is less 

carefully studied, but the 

portraits of Jodoc Vyt 

and his wife, are, on 

the contrary, truth itself. 

A nobler and mightier 

spirit had come to give 

life to art; the crafts- 
manship had become 
73 




rm 



FIG. 143.— ROBERT CAM- 
PIN. THE HOLY TRINITY 

(Frankfort, Museum). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



FIG. 144.— ROBERT 

CAMPIN. ST. VERONICA 

(Frankfort, Museum). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 



Ik-^^ 


t "JMBaH 


f '^V , J| 


nHUP^ iHr^'^IBNTT^^H 


^^ 



FIG. 145.— ROBERT CAMPIN. 

THE IMPENITENT THIEF 

(Frankfort, Museum). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 

their colours still preserve 




FIG. 146.— ROBERT CAMPIN. 

PORTRAIT OF A MAN 

(Berlin, Museum). 

(Phot. Berlin Phot. Gesellschaft.) 



more vigorous and more perfect; 
but, nevertheless, a close relation- 
ship still existed between miniature 
painting and panel painting. Minia- 
ture had illustrated and given force 
to sacred or profane texts; panel- 
painting magnified the mysteries of 
religion and the deeds which it was 
important to place before the eyes 
and to bring to the consciousness 
of the faithful. 

The Van Eycks were mighty inno- 
vators. The inventions of their genius 
and the perfection of their crafts- 
manship are inexplicable. Their col- 
our has passages of caressing sweet- 
ness and is extraordinarily vigorous; 
they were able to juxtapose the most 
brilliant tones without prejudice to 
the most wonderful harmony. Five 
centuries after having been applied, 
their pristine brilliancy. It is certain 
that the preparation of these colours 
contributed much towards ensuring 
their imperishable beauty. Early wri- 
ters went so far as to attribute the 
secret of the Van Eycks' marvellous 
mastery solely to the material process. 
Jan van Eyck, it was said, was the 
inventor of the oil-medium, and, there- 
fore, of the art of oil painting. Vasari, 
the Italian art historian, having pro- 
claimed Giovanni of Bruges the in- 
ventor of oil colour, this remained 
for centuries an article of faith; but 
there is documentary evidence that 
oil-painting was practised long before 
1410. As far back as the tenth cen- 
tury the monk Euraclius notes the 
advantages of mixing oil with colours. 
All the Van Eycks had to do was, no 
doubt, to perfect the mixture. They 
proved, moreover, by a masterpiece, 
74 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 147.— JACgUES DARET. 
THE PURIFICATION (TuckCollection,Paris). 



the superiority of the new 
method. 

Further mention of the 
work of the Van Eycks will 
refer only to that of Jan. 
Apart from his share in The 
Adoration of the Lamb, his 
most important work is the 
Madonna of Canon Van der 
Paele (Fig. 133), which was 
painted for the high altar of 
Bruges Cathedral; it is now 
in the museum of that city. 
George van der Paele, Canon 
of St. Donatian, ordered this 
picture, in 1434, and it was 
finished in 1436. It represents 
the Virgin and Child between 
the bishop, St. Donatian, and 
St. George, with the donor 

kneeling to the right of the Virgin. The face of Mary expresses 
a mixture of dignity and placid sweetness. The Infant Jesus, 
drawn with somewhat dry 
precision, is unpleasing. But 
the Canon's face is so as- 
toundingly true to life that 
it is perhaps the most mar- 
vellous piece of painting 
that ever aspired to repro- 
duce a human physiognomy. 
This firm, fat painting ren- 
ders at once the cracks of 
the epidermis and the soft- 
ness of the flesh. Beside 
this head with its lovingly 
wrought furrows and wrin- 
kles gleam the dazzling 
white of the surplice with 
its greenish shimmer, the 
intense red of Mary's 
mantle, St. Donatian's flow- 
ered cope, and the me- 
tallic reflections of St. 









75 



FIG. 148.— JACQUES DARET. 

ADORATION OF THE MAGI 

(Berlin, Museum). 

(Phot. Berlin Phot GesellschaftJ 



ART IN FLANDERS 



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George's breastplate. These strong notes stand out from a 
transparent, luminous and spacious background- Everything is 

painted hair by hair, fibre 
by fibre, stroke by stroke, • 
and yet the execution re- 
mains solid. With the Van 
Eycks, painting became the 
arb par excellence of Eu- 
rope; they are clearly the 
creators of portraiture. 

Another Madonna with 
the donor, the Madonna of 
the Chancellor Rolin (Fig. 
131), also ranks among the 
universally known works of 
Jan van Eyck. This little 
panel — it measures barely 
27 in. by 25- in. — now 
in the Louvre, is a marvel 
of precious colour and tech- 
nique. The Virgin is seated 
with the Infant Jesus in an 
open hall. She wears an 
ample red mantle, the folds of which are strongly accentuated 
by the shadows. Her fair hair, laid closely around her forehead, 
flows in wavy locks upon her shoulders. She has the delicate 
features of a young girl; Rolin kneels at a prayer-desk covered 

with a blue carpet upon 
which lies an open book. 
His austere and melan- 
*choly face is turned to- 
wards theVirgin.Through 
the open arcades of the 
background may be seen 
a city with a river run- 
ning through it, and in 
the far distance of the 
landscape, a bluish chain 
of rocky mountains. 

Van Eyck's portraits 
rival his religious pic- 
tures in perfection. He 

FIG. 150.— ROGIER VAN DER WEYDEN. DESCENT |.j . f- U* U 

FROM THE CROSS (Escorial). (Phot.Hanfstaengl) did UOt COUtmC himSClt 

76 



FIG. 149.— JACQUES DARET. THE VISITATION 
(Berlin, Museum). (Phot. Berlin Phot. Gesellschaft.) 




FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 151.— ROGIER VAN DP:R WEYDEN. 

THE JUSTICE OF TRAJAN (Berne, Museum). 

(Phot. Drenckholm.) 



to painting the donors who 
accompany his Madonnas. 
The Man with the Pink, in 
the BerHn Museum (Fig. 132), 
is believed to be a portrait 
of his patron, John the Mer- 
ciless.*) The bareness of 
the sombre, deeply furrowed 
face is emphasized by the 
thick fur border of his cap. 
His eyes gaze out obliquely 
and distrustfully; his mouth 
is wide, his lips are fine 
and tightly drawn: the sour 
look of his face is not very 
sympathetic — it is a very 
marked personality which 
the painter has seized and 
rendered with life-like fide- 
lity. This portrait marks an 
important revolution in art; 
character gains the victory over ideal beauty. The portrait of 
Jan van Eyck's wife, which he 
painted, according to his own 
inscription, in 1439, when she 
was thirty- three years of age, 
is perhaps the most perfect, 
the most characteristic of all. 
A head-dress of a white at once 
very brilliant and very soft, the 
ends of which fall on her shoul- 
ders, and a red robe trimmed 
with grey fur, make the face 
stand out from between one 
strong and luminous colour note 
and another of greater softness 
and warmth. The very smooth 
skin has a slight swelling under 
the eyes, an almost impercep- 
tible line near the nose, fine 
dimples at the corners of the 

*) It represents a Squire of the Order 
of St. Anthony (Tr.). 




77 



FIG. 152. 

ROGIER VAN DER WEYDEN. 

HERKENBALD (Berne, Museum). 

(Phot. Drenckholm.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 



1^^ 


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mm 


w 

i. 

% 





FIG. 153. — ROGIER VAN DER 

WEYDEN. FRAGMENT OF THE 

^AST JUDGMENT (Beaune). 



mouth, and a wrinkle on the 
upper lip (PI. II). 

Other masterpieces are the por- 
traits of Cardinal della Croce or 
Albergati (Fig. 135), and of Jan 
de Leeuwe, in the Imperial Mu- 
seum at Vienna. The National 
Gallery of London owns three 
portraits by the hand of Jan van 
Eyck: one of a man, dated 1433, 
and signed with his motto: "Als 
ikh kan" (as I can); another, dated 
1432, and yet another, dated 1434 
and representing a man and a 
woman standing in a room, hand 
in hand (Fig. 134). These two 
figures, whose faces have little 
distinction and a sleepy expres- 
sion, are generally believed to be 
portraits of Jan Arnolfini, the 
representative at Bruges of the Florentine banking house of the 
Medici, and his wife; but they are more 
probably Jan van Eyck himself and his 
wife. They all breathe the somewhat 
austere serenity with which this artist in- 
vests his figures; but they are also the 
very incarnation of truth, without a vestige 
of flattery or embellishment. 

We know a direct heir, if not a pupil, 
of Jan van Eyck. He bore the name of 
Petrus Christus or Christi, and was born 
about 1410 at Baerle in Flanders, a 
hamlet of Tronchiennes. In 1444 he ac- 
quired citizen's rights at Bruges, where 
he worked until his death after 1472. He 
signed several of his pictures , among 
others a Portrait of a Man (1446) belong- 
ing to the Earl of Verulam, in London; 
the Legend of Ste. Godeberte (1449), which 
has passed from the collection of Baron 
Oppenheim, of Cologne, to America; 
the diptych in the Berlin Museum (1452), 
representing, on one of the panels, The 
78 




FIG. 154.— ROGIER VAN DER 

WEYDEN. FRAGMENT OF THE 

LAST JUDGMENT (Beaune). 



JAN VAN EYCK 

Portrait of the Painter's Wife 

(Hospital of Saint Jean, Bruges) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 



Last Judgment, and on the other, The Annunciation of the 
Virgin and The Birth of Christ; and a Madonna (1457), belonging 
to the Staedel Institute 
at Frankfort. 

The best known and 
the most remarkable of 
these pictures is the Le- 
gend of Ste. Godeberte 
(Fig. 137). It represents 
a scene from the life of 
St. Eligius who was, as 
is known, a clever gold- 
smith as well as a pious 
bishop. He was in his 
shop, when a young 
couple arrived to buy 
wedding-rings. The le- 
gend has it that St. Gode- 
berte's parents wished to 
force their daughter into 
a rich marriage, but that 
she preferred to enter a Fia.iss.-HOGiER van derweyden. the seven 

convent and COmmuni- sacraments (Antwerp, Mus.). (Phot. G.Hermans.) 

cated her wish to St. 

Eligius, who thereupon put the ring upon her finger, and thus 
dedicated her to the service of the Lord. The picture belonged 
originally to the 




goldsmiths' guild 
of Antwerp, and it 
had, no doubt, been 
painted as a scene 
connected with 
their profession. 
More than this, it 
is, to the best of 
our knowledge, the 
first pictorial inter- 
pretation of an epi- 
sode taken from 
real life. The fig- 
ures as well as the 
objects are rendered in lively and brilliant colours. Yet, we do 
not find in this picture the intense brilliance, the marvellous 

79 




FIG. 156.— ROGIER VAN DER WEYDEN. ST. JOHN ALTAR- 
PIECE (Berlin, Museum). (Phot. Berlin Phot. Gesellschaft.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 



reflections of Van Eyck's jewels and stuffs. — The same distance 
divides the two masters' portraits. Van Eyck's are individuals 
of strongly accentuated character, who think and feel more 
deeply than ordinary mortals; those of Petrus Christus are more 
superficially observed; they are virgin natures untried as yet by 
life. Such is the erect young man with a book in his hand, in 
the Salting Collection, London.*) A pleasing face, but not a 
very interesting personality (Fig. 136). The same remarks apply 

to the other works signed 
by our artist. The Berlin 
Annunciation (Fig. 138) 
shows a very graceful 
angel and a discreetly 
happy Virgin in a little 
interior of familiar in- 
timacy, which lacks only 
more sparkling and vi- 
brant colour. The Birth 
of Christ {F'igA39) takes 
place in the open air; 
Joseph, Mary, a servant 
and three little angels 
kneel before the new born 
babe. As in the minia- 
tures depicting rural life, 
the landscape background 
includes fields, woods, 
and castles. This is the 
earliest landscape known 
to us by a painter properly 
so-called; for the first time one of them places human beings 
of the simplest nature in their true setting. 

At the time when the brothers Van Eyck were at work 
upon their masterpieces, there flourished in the Walloon city 
of Tournai , in what is now Hainault, a school of a different 
origin. Here, architecture and sculpture had already produced a 
great number of remarkable works at a remote period. 

In the first half of the fourteenth century (1332), paintings 
on cloth were executed at Tournai. After the year 1400, what 
was known as "flat painting", destined for the decoration of 
funerary monuments was practised on panels. Some artists of 
Tournai are known to us, and one of them, Rogier van der 

*) Now, with the rest of the Salting- collection, in the National Gallery (Tr.). 

80 




FIG. 157.— ROGIER VAN DER WEYDEN. 
BLADELIN ALTARPIECE. THE NATIVITY 

(Berlin, Museum). (Phot. Berlin Phot Gesellschaft.) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




Weyden (de la Pasture), ranks as one of the most renowned 
masters of the Early Flemish School. Two others have only 
recently been admitted into the Pantheon of the Belgian masters: 
Robert Campin and Jacques Daret. 

Robert Campin settled at Tournai about 1406, at the age 
of twenty -eight; he worked thus contemporaneously with the 
brothers Van Eyck. In 1410 he acquired the right of citizen- 
ship and became 

painter in ordinary 

to the communal ad- 
ministration. From 

that year until his 

death in 1444 he 

delivered a large 

number of works to 

the churches and 

guilds and to the 

town-hall. Until quite 

recently, none of 

these workshad been 

attributed to him 

with absolute cer- 
tainty. About twenty- 
five years ago, an 

anonymous master 

of very personal style 

was noticed among 

the primitives; works 

from his hand were 

discovered in many 

museums , and he 

was found to be 
closely akin to the famous Rogier van der Weyden. He was first 
called the Master of the Merode altarpiece, after the name of 
the owner of his most important picture. Later, he was given 
the name of the Maitre de Flemalle (a village between Liege 
and Namur), whence come several of his works now preserved 
in the Frankfort Museum. Quite recently, M. Hulin has ex- 
pressed the opinion that the Maitre de Flemalle and Robert 
Campin were the same artist, and that this artist was the 
master of two other excellent painters of Tournai , Rogier van 
der Weyden and Jacques Daret. This view seems to me to be 
well founded, and it certainly has my support. Robert Campin 

81 G 




FIG 158.— ROGIER VAN 
DER WEYDEN. 

THE STAR APPEARING 
TO THE MAGI 

(Berlin, Museum). (Phot. 

Berlin Phot Gesellschaft.) 



FIG. 159.— ROGIER VAN 

DER WEYDEN. 

THE TIBURTINE 

SIBYL 

(Berlin , Museum). (Phot. 

Berlin Phot. Gesellschaft.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 

fared at Tournai much as the brothers Van Eyck had fared in 
Flanders. Before him, no illustrious artist had been known in 
the Walloon city. In his person arose a painter of the highest 
merit. We are well acquainted with two of his disciples, but 
we do not know the masters from whom he himself proceeded; 
and yet he , too , must have had a serious training. But whilst 
the Van Eycks have never been forgotten, centuries have passed 
without any evidence of interest in Robert Campin. It is 
only due to prolonged and persevering study on the part of 





FIG. l60.— ROGIER VAN DER 

WEYDEN. MADONNA 

(Frankfort, Museum). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



FIG. I6l.— ROGIER VAN DER 

WEYDEN. PORTRAIT OF A WOMAN 

(Berlin, Museum). 

(Phot. Berlin Phot. Gesellschaft.) 



the learned that it has become possible to give him the place 
which is his due in the history of art. 

Robert Campin is not lacking in characteristics to mark his 
personality. His most important work is, as we have already 
said, the altarpiece of the Merode family, in Brussels (Fig. 142). 
It is a triptych. The central panel shows the Annunciation of 
the Virgin y the right wing St. Joseph, the left wing the two 
kneeling donors. The central composition captivates by the atmo- 
sphere of bliss and serenity with which it is charged ; the Virgin 
is so absorbed in her reading that the Angel Gabriel hesitates 
to deliver the glad message; the interior contains an abundance 
of the furniture and utensils usual in a middle-class household. 

82 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




High up, in a stained glass window, 
figure the arms of two Flemish famiHes, 
the Van Ingelbrechts and the Van Cal- 
cums. The subject of the right hand 
shutter is very amusing: a very plainly 
dressed old man works with a gimlet 
on a mouse-trap. Other tools are laid 
out before him on a table. In the win- 
dow, a second mouse-trap is waiting for 
a purchaser. The street is seen through 
the open window. Everything is min- 
utely finished. The painter neglected 
neither a particle of wood, nor a bit of 
wire. The contour of the faces is very 
characteristic in the central panel — 
that of Mary, for instance. The rounded 
oval differs noticeably from that of the 
women of the other mediaeval painters, 
with whom the forehead is always 
broader and the face more elongated. 
^ The Madrid Museum possesses two of 
the master's most important works. 
They were no doubt parts of a triptych, 

the principal panel of which has disappeared. The one represents 
the donor with St. John 
the Baptist (Fig. 140), the 
other, St. Barbara (Fig. 
141). At the foot of the 
first is the inscription : 
"In the year fourteen 
hundred and thirty-eight. 
Master Heinrich vonWerl 
of Cologne had this por- 
trait done." Heinrich von 
Werl was born in a vil- 
lage of that name in West- 
phalia ; for thirty - two 
years he was the provin- 
cial of his order. On the 
other picture, St. Barbara 
is reading a book. She 



FIG. 162,— ROGIER VAX DER 

WEYDEN. THE PRESENTATION 

(Munich, Pinakothek). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 




wears 
mantle 



an olive - green 
over a yellow 



FIG. 163.— ROGIER VAN DER WEYDEN. 

ADORATION OF THE MAGI (Munich, Pinakothek). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 

83 g2 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 164.— DIERICK BOUTS. THE LAST 

SUPPER (Louvain, Church of St. Pierre). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



robe with red flowers. Her 
resemblance to the Virgin of 
the Merode altarpiece is strik- 
ing. Here, again, the furniture 
and the accessories are treated 
with extraordinary minuteness. 
But the Museum of Frank- 
fort is richer still as regards 
works by Robert Campin, and 
nowhere are the specific quali- 
ties of his art more clearly 
shown. There is first of all a 
Holy Trinity (Fig. 143). God 
the Father, wearing a crown 
and a heavy mantle, supports 
the drooping body of the dead 
Christ, upon whose shoulder 
the Holy Ghost has settled. 
The group is in a niche, and 
the painting imitates the colour 
of stone. The figures appeal 
strongly to the emotions. The Father, with His flowing beard, 
evokes remote legendary epochs; the Son, nothwithstanding His 

pitiful aspect, challenges admir- 
ation for the beautiful pro- 
portions of His body. This Holy 
Trinity forms the reverse of an 
altarpiece; the obverses of the 
two shutters of the same trip- 
tych are in the same museum. 
The one represents the Virgin 
giving the breast to the In- 
fant Jesus, an admirably drap- 
ed, sweet and touching figure. 
On the other shutter, Veronica 
is spreading out the veil upon 
which is the imprint of the suf- 
fering face of Christ (Fig. 144). 
She is an aged woman with a 
poignant expression, wearing a 
red dress with a jewelled border 
and green sleeves. A thick white 
kerchief is wound about her 
84 




FIG. 165.— DIERICK BOUTS. 

THE PASSOVER (Munich). 
(Phot Berlin Phot. Gesellschaft.) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. l66.— DIERICK BOUTS. THE PROPF. 
ELIJAH (Berlin). (Phot. Berlin Phot. Ges.) 



head. Like the Virgin , she 
stands on a green meadow stud- 
ded with flowers and against a 
woven hanging with a golden 
pattern. The Impenitent Thief is 
the most important of the 
Frankfort pictures (Fig. 145). 
The criminal is not nailed, but 
tied to the cross, with his arms 
pulled over the transverse beam. 
His rude, strong body is well 
proportioned, like that of the 
Christ of the Holy Trinity des- 
cribed above. Suffering is trac- 
ed upon his features in sober 
but vigorous lines. He is paint- 
ed against a gold background. 
At the foot of the cross are 
two men , a centurion and 
Longinus. This panel is a frag- 
ment of a great triptych, of which the Liverpool Gallery possesses a 
complete copy. Tfie original must have been painted before 1430. 
The Berlin Museum owns an admirable portrait painted by 
Campin. It perhaps represents 
the Florentine Niccolo Strozzi 
(Fig. 146). Among works as- 
cribed to Campin, or to his 
school, are the following pictures 
in the National Gallery, Lon- 
don : a Madonna in an in- 
terior (No. 2609), a portrait 
of a man and a portrait of a 
woman (No. 653), a Death of the 
Virgin (No. 658), and a Magdalen 
(No. 654). Of all these works 
only the last named seems to 
me to be rightly attributed to 
him. The features are vigor- 
ously drawn, with deep wrink- 
les and more darkly shaded 
furrows. The almost brutal 
enerofy of this face is surprisinof 

f, ^\r T? 1 » 1 •! J FIG. 167.— DIERICK BOUTS. ABRAHAM AND 

atter Van Lyck s placid and melchisedech (Munich). rPAo/.//a/i/s/ae/i^/.; 

85 




ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. I68.-DIERICK BOUTS. THEIN- 

JUvSTICE OF THE EMPEROR OTHO 

(Brussels). (Phot. Hanfstaengl.) 



almost sleepy heads. Elsewhere, too, 
Robert Campin's painting is not 
without harshness. Not only was his 
Holy Trinity painted from a sculptured 
group, but all his works in **flat pain- 
ting" are closely related to the school 
of sculpture which then flourished at 
Tournai. He is a colourist of the first 
rank. His interiors show marvellously 
treated furniture and accessories; out 
of doors his figures stand on flowery 
lawns and are set against rich tapes- 
tries and cloth of gold. He loves to 
clothe his figures in white draperies, 
and in red robes with resplendent 
jewelled borders. 

Jacques Daret, one of his two 
known pupils, belonged to a Tournai 
family of artists and was born about 
1404. In 1418 he entered the work- 
shop of Robert Campin; on April 12, 
1427, he obtained the title of ap- 
prentice, and on October 18, 1432, he became at once member 

and dean of the Guild of 
St. Luke. He lived alter- 
nately at Arras and at 
Tournai. From 1433 to 
1435 he worked at Arras 
for Jean de Clercq, abbot 
of St. Vaast, and executed 
for him an altarpiece, the 
shutters of which had five 
panels on the outside. 
Four of these, which form- 
ed the inner row, have 
fortunately been preser- 
ved. They are The Puri- 
fication (Fig. 147), now in 
the Tuck collection in 
Paris; the Nativity, in the 
collection of the later M. 
Pierpont Morgan , the 

FIG. 169.— DIERICK BOUTS. THE MARTYRDOM OF A j .' f ,r fl/f^^,* 

ST. ERASMUS (Louvain, Church of St. Pierre). AdortttlOn Of the Magi 

86 



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1 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 170.— DIERICK BOUTS. 

THE REHABILITATION 
CBrussels). (Phot. Hanfstaengl.) 



(Fig. 148) and the Visitation (Fig. 149), 
both in the BerHn Museum. Above 
these four panels was an Annunciation. 
In 1436, Daret returned to Tournai; 
but from 1446 to 1458 he Hved again 
at Arras. In 1454 he was one of the 
principal artists employed by Philip the 
Good for the decorations in connection 
with the fete given at Lille, and famous 
in history under the name of "Vceu 
du Faisan". In 1468, he was again 
called in, with his most famous fellow- 
artists, to add to the splendours of 
Charles the Bold's wedding at Bruges. 
From this it appears that Daret was 
one of the best employed artists of his 
time, and that he worked between 1427 
and 1468. Besides the works already 
mentioned, he executed yet another 
altarpiece for Jean de Clercq, depicting 
the Holy Ghost, and a design for tapes- 
try on the subject of the Resurrection. 

The known works of Jacques Daret prove the artist's kinship 
with Robert Campin. The pupil's personages seem to belong 
to the same family as the master's. The high priest of the Puri- 
ficationy with his long wavy^^beard, might almost be mistaken for 
the God the Father of the Holy Trinity; the features of the 
Virgin recall those of the 
same figure in the Merode 
altarpiece ; the head- 
dresses, blue turbans, and 
head-cloths of the women, 
and the pleated caps of 
the men come from the 
same wardrobe. But Da- 
ret is inferior to his 
master; he lacks original- 
ity, he contents himself 
with imitating Campin 
without showing much of 
the creative spirit. He 
is a colourist whose hues fig. i7i.-dierick bouts, christ in the house 

I , , f OF SIMON THE PHARISEE (Berlin, Museum). 

are more remarkable tor (Phot Berlin Phot. Geseiischaft.j 

87 




ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. T72.— DIERICK BOUTS. THE MARTYRDOM OP^ 

ST. HIPPOLYTUS (Bruges, Saint -Sauveur). 
(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



variety than for richness. 
He lacks his master's 
subtle shades and pre- 
cious tints; he is content 
to place his subjects in 
uniformly green land- 
scapes. 

Robert Campin's se- 
cond pupil is better known 
to us, and occupies a very 
different place in our ad- 
miration. He was called 
Roger de la Pasture, a 
Walloon name, which he 
changed when he took up 
his abode in Flanders, 
into Rogier van der Wey- 
den. It is under this 
second name that he be- 
came known and rose to 
fame. He was born in 
1399. We find him first mentioned in a Tournai document, 
stating that on November 17, 1426, he received eight measures 
oi wine from the Town Council. Then we read in the registers 
of the Tournai Guild of Painters that Robert Campin engaged 

him as apprentice on 
March 5, 1427. From a 
third document it appears 
that he was received as 
master-painter at Tournai 
on August 1, 1432. These 
data would agree perfectly 
with the rest of the mas- 
ter's biography, were it 
not established that Rogier 
van der Weyden lived 
from 1425 onwards in 
Brussels, where he had 
married, and where a son 
had been born to him. 
Some writers will not ad- 
mit that he could have 
been honoured as a famous 



it^ 1 "^ 


^^Jln^jiL 


4. W ■' :i 


i'lf^ 


^i^r.. \s^i^'^ 3 


|^>| 



FIG. 173.— HUGO VAN DER GOES. THE ADOR- 
ATION OF THE SHEPHERDS (Florence, Uffizi 
Gallery). (Phot. Anderson.) 

88 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 

painter by the Town Council of Tournai in 1426, before he had 
even passed through the apprenticeship of his craft; and as the 
oldest art - historians speak of a Rogier van der Weyden, at 
Bruges , and of another living in Brussels , some have arrived 
at the conclusion that there were two painters of that name, 
both natives of Tournai, the elder of whom betook himself to 
Brussels, whilst the younger settled in Bruges, both^ producing 
masterpieces of the highest merit. This distinction between two 





FIG. 174.— HUGO VAX DER GOES. 

PORTRAIT OF TOMMASO PORTI- 

NARI (Florence, Uffizi Gallery). 

(Phot. Anderson.) 



FIG. 175.— HUGO VAN DER GOES. 

PORTRAIT OF T. PORTIN'ARl'S 

WIFE (Florence, Uffizi Gallery). 

(Phot. Anderson.) 



homonymous painters in less probable than the theory of one 
sole Rcgier van der Weyden. The fact that he should have 
become famous before having been under a master's tuition, 
can be explained by the circumstance that the conditions of 
apprenticeship at Tournai were altogether different from those 
prevailing elsewhere. We have seen how Jacques Daret remained 
nine years in Robert Campin's workshop, before he could rise 
to the humble position of apprentice, and how he had to wait 
another five years before being passed as a master. So that it 
would have been quite possible for Van der Weyden to execute 
works of value, before having obtained the title of apprentice, 

89 



ART IN FLANDERS 



and he too, may have had to wait another five years to become 
"master". His biographers also tell us that in 1431 Pope 

Martin V. was in possession of an 
altarpiece from his brush — the 
triptych of Miraflores, now in the 
Berlin Museum; that in 1450 he 
set out for Italy, to celebrate the 
great jubilee in Rome; that he 
lived and worked at Brussels dur- 
ing the whole latter part of his 
life; and that he died at Brussels 
in 1464. The hypothesis of a Rogier 
van der Weyden at Bruges is thus 
simply due to a mistake on the 
part of the early art historians. 

The most famous picture by this 
great artist, and the only one the 
attribution of which is established 
by documentary evidence is the 
Descent from the Cross (Fig. 150), 
which he painted for the altar of 
the Archers' Company at Louvain. 
It is now in the Escorial. The 
Madrid Museum has two contem- 
porary copies of it; and a third copy is preserved in the church 
of St. Pierre at Louvain. The cross is raised in the middle of 
the picture in a panel which is higher than the two sides. The 
body of Christ has been lowered by three disciples. A tearful 




FIG. 176.— HUGO VAN DER GOES. 

PIETA (Vienna, Imperial Museum). 

{Phot. Lowy.) 




FIG. 177,— HUGO VAN DER GOES. THE ADORATION OF THE SHEPHERDS 
(Berlin). (Phot Berlin Phot. Gesellschaft) 

90 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




FIG, 178.— HUGO VAX DER GOES. 

ORIGINAL SIN (Vienna, Imperial 

Museum). (Phot. Lowy.) 



woman and a man holding a jar 

of ointment are placed on the right; 

on the left, the fainting Virgin is 

supported by St. John and a young 

woman. All the faces breathe poig- 
nant grief, and this affliction is 

the link which unites the otherwise 

scattered figures of the group. 

They show a devout solicitude in 

carrying the corpse which seems 

to have no weight, and the beauty 

of which has not been changed by 

the death agony. Those who hold 

the body seem to exhibit it to 

the spectators like a relic, and 

their grief is tempered by ador- 
ation. Van der Weyden's brush 

has magic power, like Van Eyck's; 

and it has more sensitiveness 

and tenderness than Robert Cam- 
pin's; nevertheless, the master's influence is to be found in 

many features of the pupil's work. 

A little after 1430, Van der 
Weyden painted for the Town 
Hall of Brussels four large 
compositions, which for cen- 
turies were famous as the 
most important pictures of the 
country. Two of them were 
devoted to Trajan, the just 
Emperor, One day, when that 
prince set out for war at the 
head of his troops, a widow 
threw herself at his feet and 
begged him to have the mur- 
derer of her son brought to 
justice. The emperor had the 
criminal beheaded (Fig. 151). 
The other picture of which the 
virtuous emperor is the hero, 
shows Pope Gregory obtaining 
from God the release of this 
irreproachable pagan from hell. 




FIG. 179. 

HUGO VAN DER GOES. THE DEATH 

OF THE VIRGIN (Bruges, Museum). 

\(Phot. Doled.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. l80. 

HUGO VAN DER GOES. 

PORTRAIT OF DONORS 

(Bruges, Church of 

St. Sauveur). 
(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



The other two compositions celebrated the 
Justice of Herkenbald. At a time when 
that just man was confined to his bed, his 
nephew was accused of having violated a 
young girl. The invalid had the guilty person 
brought to his bedside and cut off his head 
with his own hand. When, at the hour of 
death, the bishop, in consideration of the 
dying man's impenitence, refused him the 
sacrament, the Host placed itself unaided 
upon his lips (Fig. 152). These marvellous 
pictures were destroyed at the bombardment 
of Brussels in 1695, but they were repro- 
duced on the tapestries which the Swiss 
took with the rest of the loot captured at 
Grandson from Charles the Bold. They 
are still preserved in the Berne Museum. It 
is impossible to appreciate the merit of the 
originals from tapestries, but they enable us 
nevertheless to get some idea of the compo- 
sitions of these ancient historical paintings. 
In 1443, NicDlas Rolin, chancellor of Philip 
the Good, founded'a hospital, the picturesque 
architecture of 



which may be admired to this day 
at Beaune, a little town near Dijon. 
About the same time, Rolin com- 
missioned Rogier van der Weyden 
to paint for the chapel of this 
hospital an immense altarpiece, 
probably the master's most impor- 
tant work. It represents The Last 
Judgment. In the central panel, 
which is considerably higher than 
the wings , Christ is enthroned on 
a rainbow, as supreme Judge; be- 
low him descend four flying angels, 
who are sounding the trumpet to 
summon the dead to judgment; in 
their midst, St. Michael holds the 
scales on which he weighs the sins 
and the virtues (Fig. 154). On the 
right, the condemned are sent into 

92 




FIG. l8l.— MEMLINC. THE LAST JUDG- 
MENT (Dantzig-, Church of Our Lady). 
(Phot. Berlin Phot. Gesellschaft.) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 182.— MEMLINC. THE MYSTIC MARRIAGE OF 
ST. CATHERINE (Bruges, Hospital of St. Jean). 
. (Phot. Hanfstaengl.) 



the infernal abyss; on the 
left, the elect are led by 
a angel to the celestial 
paradise. Legions of the 
elect in adoration before 
Christ appear on either 
side of the principal group 
(Fig. 153). On the reverse 
of the shutters are por- 
traits of the donor and 
his second wife, Guigone 
de Salins. After the Van 
Eycks' Adoration of the 
Lamb, this Last Judgment 
is certainly the most im- 
portant work of the Flem- 
ish Gothic school. These 
two compositions more- 
over deal with the greatest 
themes of the Christian re- 
ligion: the Lamb of God 

descended upon earth to redeem original sin; and Christ appearing 
in the clouds to judge the use which humanity has made of 
this grace. In both works, the sub- 
ject matter is divided into several 
panels ; but the Van Eycks' compo- 
sition is much more homogeneous 
than Van der Weyden's, who never 
quite succeeded in rendering the 
movements of his figures naturally 
and with elegance : his heads are 
often placed crookedly and stiffly 
upon the shoulders. The Last Judg- 
ment lacks the majestic grandeur 
of the Adoration. Yet one cannot 
but admire the mixture of sternness 
and benevolence in the Sovereign 
Judge , the noble grace of the ar- 
changel Gabriel, the charm of Mary, 
the varied expressions of fervour 
in the apostles , the terror of the 
damned, and the happy proportions 
of the nude figures. 

93 




FIG. 183.— MEMLINX. MADONNA 

(Bruges). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 



The triptych of the 
Seven Sacraments in the 
Antwerp Gallery is also 
one of Rogier van der 
Weyden's most important 
compositions (Fig. 155). It 
was painted for Jean Chev- 
rot, Bishop of Tournai from 
1437 to 1460, and blends 
the daily life of the middle 
class with mystical ideas 
to'la" greater degree than 
the other works. On the 
central panel, a priest is 
saying mass in a vast basil- 
ica, the side chapels of 
which contain the various 
sacraments, the high altar 
being reserved for the Eucharist. In the centre of the nave, in 
the foreground, the 'painter has erected a crucifix. The Saviour 
has breathed his last and hangs lifeless upon the Cross. The 
fainting Virgin is supported by^St. John. The painter does not 



^^3 


SSgf ^'i ^.^ 


^f 





FIG. 184.— MEMLINC. THE ADORATION OF 

THE MAGI (Bruges, Hospital of St. Jean) 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 





FIG. 185. — MEMLINC. 

ST. URSULA LANDING AT 

COLOGNE (Bruges, Hospital of 

St. Jean). (Phot Hachette.) 



94 



IFIG. 186.— MEMLINC. ST. URSULA 
RECEIVED "BY THE POPE 

(Bruges, Hospital of St. Jean). 
(Phot. Hermans.) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




confine himself to a simple representation of the scenes proper 
to his subject. He indulges in variations on the chosen theme. 
At the patient's bedside he has 
placed a nurse reading a book. 
Three children who have just been 
confirmed, retire, impressed by the 
religious solemnity, but this does 
not prevent them from casting in- 
quisitive glances at the baptismal 
chapel. The painter has not attemp- 
ted to fuse these divers episodes 
into a whole; but, as is his wont, 
he has managed to analyse emotions 
and to express them clearly. The 
general tonality is brilliantly lumi- 
nous; this Gothic church, into which 
the sun -light generally filters in 
broken rays, is inundated by a vic- 
torious radiance. 

The so-called altarpiece of St. John 
in the Kaiser Friedrich - Museum at 
Berlin is one of the earliest altar- 
pieces of small size (Fig. 156). In 
the central panel is The Baptism of 

Christ; on the left, The Nativity; on the right. The Beheading 
of St. John the Baptist. The drawing is looser and the colour 
duller than in the later works. In the Beheading the executioner 
is not set properly on his 
legs. But, with all its 
faults, this minor work is 
very beautiful. The Blade- 
lin Altarpiece, another pic- 
ture in the same gallery, 
was commissioned from 
the painter shortly after 
1450 by Peter Bladelin 
for the church of Middel- 
burg in Zeeland. The 
central panel represents 
The Nativity (Fig. 157); 
the left panel, the Tibur- 

tine Sybil (Fig. 159); that ^^^ iSS.-memlinc. st. Christopher 

on the right, J he Otar (Bruges, Museum). (Phot. Han fstaensl) 

95 



FIG. 187.— MEMLINC. 

THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. URSULA 

(Bruges, Hospital of St. Jean). 

(Phot. Levy.) 




ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 189.— MEMLINC. 

WILLEM MOREEL, HIS 

SONS AND HIS PATRON 

(Bru§-es, Museum). 

(Phot. Baled.) 



a fresh pink 
very delicately 



appearing to 
the Magi (Fig. 
158). The same 
Museum has 
recently acquir- 
ed a Portrait 
of a Woman 
(Fig. 161), one 
of the very rare 
portraits attri- 
buted to Ro- 
gier; the attri- 
bution appears 
to be justi- 
fiable. It shows 
a young wo- 
man in a white 
hood and a 
purplish - grey 
robe , with a 
pretty face, an 
amiable ex- 
pression, and 
complexion. Another 
touched, with a 




FIG. 190.— MEMLINC. 

BARBARA DE VLAENDER- 

BERGHE, HER DAUGHTERS 

AND HER PATRONESS 
(Bruges, Mus.). (Phot. Baled.) 




FIG. 191.— MEMLINC. 

THE JACQUES FLOREINS MADONNA 

(Paris, Louvre). (Phot. Hachette.) 

96 



portrait of a woman, 
clear complexion, is in 
the National Gallery in 
London. Van der Wey- 
den is represented in the 
Frankfort Museum by a 
Madonna between four 
Saints: SS. Peter, John 
the Baptist, Cosmo and 
Damian. The picture 
was probably executed 
in Italy for a member of 
the Medici family (Fig. 
160). The face of Mary 
is less pleasing than the 
very vivacious heads of 
the Saints. 

The MunichPinakothek 
owns a work of our 
artist's full maturity: a 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 



large triptych, the central panel of which shows the Adoration 
of the Magi (Fig. 163), the one on the right, The Annunciation; 
and the one on the left. The Presentation in the Temple (Fig. 162) 
subjects that have been very frequently treated, but never with 
more delicacy of feeling or with more artistic refinement. The 
Magi bring their offerings to the newly-born Saviour in a ruined 
stable. On the left, the donor kneels behind St. Joseph. The 
master does not reserve the splendour of his brush for the Eastern 
kings alone ; all his personages, Mary and Joseph as well as the 



f ■ ■ ■ 


1^ 


1 & \m 

1* '; 




11^ 




FIG. 192.— MEMLINC. VIRGIN 

AND DONOR (Vienna, Imperial 

Museum). (Phot. Lowy.) 



FIG. 193.— MEMLINC THE TWO 

ST. JOHNS (Vienna, Imperial 

Museum). (Phot. Lowy.) 



retinue of the Magi, are treated with a loving care that endows 
them with moral and physical distinction. If the painter idealises 
his figures, he renders their surroundings with the greatest 
attention to truth. In order to interpret these figures, which are 
as decorative as they are refined, he resorts to the rarest colours 
of his palette, which he applies with his most caressing touch. 
They are illuminated by a tender light, such as becomes 
work of worship. 

Not only the name of Rogier de la Pasture, but his whole 
manner of painting, had taken on the Flemish accent. True, his 
figures still retain the manner of Tournai in that clearness of 
relief which makes them detach themselves so strongly from their 

97 H 



ART IN FLANDERS 




background; but he has further mastered the natural attitudes, 
the brilliant colouring, the luminosity and the marvellously deli- 
cate technique which are the character- 
istics of Flemish art. 

By his removal to Brussels, Rogier 
van der Weyden closed the flourishing 
period of the school of Tournai, and 
established, so to speak, the unity of 
the Flemish school by extending its 
activity as far as Brabant. 

Rogier Van der Weyden had settled 
in Brussels; the next great artist we 
meet with took up his abode at Louvain, 
the second town of the duchy. Dierick 
Bouts was born about 1410 at Haar- 
lem in Holland; he is therefore fre- 
quently called Thierry of Haarlem. Hav- 
ing emigrated to Louvain, he married 
in that city about 1450. In 1464 he 
worked there on a polyptych for which 
he was paid between 1466 and 1468. 
The principal panel represents The Last 
Supper, and is now in the church of St. 
Pierre, at Louvain; two of the shutters, 
The Prophet Elijah in the Desert and Passover in a Jewish Family 
belong to the Berlin Museum; two others, Abraham and Melchi- 

sedech and The Manna 
in the Desert to the 
Munich Gallery. About 
1465, he painted the 
Martyrdom of St. Eras- 
mus for the chapel of 
that saint in the church 
of St. Pierre at Louvain, 
where this picture is still 
to be seen. In 1468, 
Dierick Bouts was ap- 
pointed painter to the city 
of Louvain, and was at 
once commissioned to 
paint two important 

FIG. 195.— MEMLINC. THE NATIVITY. FRAGMENT COmDOSitioUS I A Lust 

OF THE SEVEN JOYS. (Munich, Pinakothek). t J ± U'U Ur, 

(Phot Bruckmann.) Judgment, which has 

98 



FIG. 194.— MEMLINC. 

ADAM AND EVE 

(Vienna, Imperial Museum). 

(Phot. Lowy.) 




FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 196.— MEMLINC. OUR LORD'S PASSION 
(Turin, Museum). (Phot. Alinari.) 



disappeared, and the Unjust Judgment of the Emperor Otho, 
which comprised no fewer than four episodes. Only two of 
these four were painted 
by our artist between 1470 
and 1475, in which latter 
year he died. Besides 
these very famous pic- 
tures we know a few 
others. 

Dierick Bouts is the first 
and also the most indi- 
vidual of the primitives 
who came to Flanders 
from Holland. In more 
ways than one he resem- 
bles Rogier van der Wey- 
den, but he also differs 
from him in other respects. Both have a predilection for dramatic 
subjects. But with Rogier van der Weyden the emotion is deeper. 
Bouts* personages retain an air 
of imperturbable calm; his lines 
are rigid, his attitudes con- 
strained; with both the colour 
is lively and clear, but it is 
more harmonious with Van der 
Weyden, richer and more bril- 
liant with Bouts. 

The best of all existing pic- 
tures by Bouts is the Last Supper 
(Fig. 164) of Louvain. For the 
subjects borrowed from Bible 
history, mediaeval artists were 
wont to adopt the mise-en-scene 
of the Mystery Plays. Dierick 
Bouts placed the Saviour and 
the Apostles just as he had seen 
them seated in the spectacles 
given by the Rhetoricians. Christ, 
occupying the middle of the 
table and facing the spectator, 
holds in His left hand the Host, 

which He blesses with his right. He looks straight before him, 
without emotion, and as if unmindful of his surroundings; the 

99 h2 




FIG. 197.— MEMLINC. OUR LORD'S 

PASSION (Turin, Museum). 

(Phot. Anderson.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




Apostles are placid and pensive people, without expression, 
except Judas, whose physiognomy breathes evil. This assembly 

of saints is rather one of mystic 
dreamers than of militant preach- 
ers whose doctrine is to shake 
the world. Their attitudes lack 
ease, but the execution is remark- 
ably skilful. The flesh-tones are 
clear to the verge of trans- 
parency; every hair on the heads 
is painted separately; the feet 
and hands are ascetically lean; 
the garments and the table-cloth 
fall in angular folds, yet the 
shadows they form are soft and 
velvety; the colour is brilliant, 
the dominant tones being vari- 
ations of red. Taken as a whole, 
it is a masterpiece of exquisite 
craftsmanship and of ennobled 
truth. The shutters, two of 
which are at Berlin and two at 
Munich, are worthy of the central 
panel. The Jewish Passover (Fig. 165) approaches it most nearly. 
A Jewish family of six persons are standing round a table to 
commemorate the exodus from Egypt. The bearded, dreamy- 
faced men, the clear and 
unobtrusive tone of the 
paved floor, the shim- 
mering whiteness of the 
table-cloth, the frank col- 
our of the figures sil- 
houetted against the 
neutral background, have 
the same characteristics 
as the Last Supper. The 
Prophet Elijah (Fig. 166) 
— likewise in the Berlin 
Museum — is also remark- 
able. The prophet lies 
asleep on the ground; he 
wears a sfreen mantle 

FIG. 199.— MEMLINC. CHRIST AND ANGELS. FRAG- j. • i-U 

MENT (Antwerp, Museum). (Phot G. Hermans.) OVCr a grCCU tUUlC; the 

100 



FIG. 198.— MEMLINC. CALVARY. THE 
CASTING OF LOTS (Lubedc, Cathedral). 




FLEMISH ART TO THE SWTRENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 200.— MEMLINC. CHRIST AND ANGELS. FRAG- 
MENT (Antwerp, Museum). (Phot. G. Hermans.) 



angel who is awakening him is draped in a white robe with 
blue reflections. The background consists of a rocky landscape 
with a verdant distance. 
Here again the lively 
enamel-like colours are 
superb. The two other 
wings, The Meeting of 
Abraham and Melchi- 
sedech (Fig. 167) and 
The Israelites gathering 
the Manna y both in 
Munich , bring together 
similar groups , whose 
placidity almost amounts 
to torpor, and whose life 
seems to be concentrated 
in the rich colour of their 
costumes. The Martyrdom 
of St. Erasmus (Fig. 169) 
is a peculiarly gruesome drama: the martyr is extended on his 
bed of torture stark naked but for a white cloth round his 
loins; through a narrow incision in his stomach, his intestines 
are reeled off like a strand of wool or the silk of a cocoon. 
Two executioners carry out 
this horrible operation. Be- 
hind this group stands a high 
dignitary, dressed in a richly 
embroidered robe and with 
a fur cap on his head. Be- 
side him are two judges and 
an attendant. The background 
is enclosed by hills. Here 
again the participants are 
disconcerting in their imper- 
turbability; the judges look 
calmly and rigidly upon the 
scene of suffering. The tor- 
ture does not induce even a 
slight grimace on the quietly 
distressed face of the suf- 
ferer. The executioners are 
more disturbed than he. As 

1 1 .1 . . . 11 FIG.20I. — GHEERAERT DAVID. CAMBYSES 

a Whole, the picture is colder and SISAMNES (Bruges, Mus.). (Phot.Daled.) 

101 




ART IN FLANDERS 




in tone than the Last Supper y and it also lacks the play of 
lights and shadows that enriches this work. 

The large compositions by 
Dierick Bouts in the Brussels 
Museum, The Injustice of 
the Emperor Otho and The 
Rehabilitation (Fig. 168, 170), 
are the most important histori- 
cal pictures bequeathed to us 
by the Early Flemish School. 
The figures are distinguished 
by their elongated bodies and 
faces; most of them wear a 
high plain cap without a rim, 
which makes them look still 
taller and more slender. Here 
again, the personages seem 
to be all of the same rank 
and condition. The execution- 
er, in a yellow doublet 
and blue hose, is round and 
smooth, without any accidents 
of relief or folds in his gar- 
ments. He is as impassible 
as the woman who holds the head of the executed person. 
Nevertheless, these pictures have great merits. Certain heads are 
marvellous in execution. The backgrounds are treated as care- 
fully as those of the early miniatures. The painter sought to 

represent a historical fact, 
and he has accomplished 
his task with the precision 
of a chronicler. The em- 
peror's wife conceived an 
illicit passion for one of 
the lords of the court. 
Having vainly tried to se- 
duce him, she accused him 
to her husband of having 
tried to rob her of her 
honour. The monarch had 
the noble's head cut off. 
Such is the double sub- 

FIG. 203. — GHEERAERT DAVID. THE MYSTIC MAR- • . ■ j. J • j-U f I- 

RIAGE OF ST. CATHERINE (London, Nat. Gallery). JCCt treated m tlie tirSt 

102 



FIG. 202.— GHEERAERT DAVID. THE 

PUNISHMENT OF THE CORRUPT JUDGE 

(Bruges, Museum). (Phot. Baled.) 




FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 



picture. The second shows us the victim's widow, holding her 
husband's head, and kneeling before the emperor to demand 
vengeance. She passes vic- 
toriously through the ordeal 
by red-hot iron, and Otho 
gives judgment in her favour, 
and condemns the guilty em- 
press to be burnt alive. 

The Christ in the House 
of Simon the Pharisee y be- 
longing to the Berlin Museum 
(Fig. 171)ijsalsoone^fDierick 
Bouts' chief works. The Sa- - 
viour at table with two dis- 
ciples recalls the Christ of 
the Last Supper; on the left 
is the kneeling donor, a 
Carmelite; on the right, the 
Magdalen is seen washing the 
feet of Christ. As is always 
the case with Bouts, the at- 
titudes are a little stiff, but 
the painting itself is ad- 
mirable. Another precious 
St. Peter and St. PauU in 




FIG. 204.— GHEERAERT DAVID. DONOR 
AND SAINTS (London, National Gallery). 



work is the Madonna between 
the National Gallery in London. 
The Virgin places her hand upon a book held open by St. 
Paul, while St. Peter presents a flower to the Divine Child. 

The Martyrdom, of St. 
Hippolytus (Fig. 172), in 
the church of St. Sauveur, 
at Bruges, is generally 
attributed to Bouts. If 
this work is not by him, 
this certainly due to one 
of his pupils, perhaps even 
to his son, so closely 
does it resemble the 
master's manner. 

It was Hugo van der 
Goes who led the Flemish 
school to a new path which 
it was to follow for a long period, namely, that of realism. 
We know but little of this artist's youth, but we have an account 

103 




FIG. 205.— GHEERAERT DAVID. MADONNA AND 
SAINTS (Rouen, Museum). (Phot. Leneipt) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 206.— GHEERAERT DAVID. JEWISH 
JUDGES (Antwerp, Museum). (Phot. G. Hermans.) 



of his closing years which 
makes him better known to us 
than any other great artist of 
the Middle Ages in Flanders. 
He was born probably in 1440 
at Goes, in Zeeland. In 1467 
he was admitted to the guild 
of painters at Ghent. In 1476, 
at the moment when he was 
on the point of finishing, or 
had just finished, the triptych 
painted for Tommaso Porti- 
nari, the agent of the Medici 
family at Bruges, he took the 
extraordinary resolution of 
retiring to the Convent of the 
Rouge -Cloitre, near Bruges. 
A chronicle of this convent 
gives us ample information 
upon this resolution and its 
consequences. Some years later, he was seized by madness; he 
believed himself eternally damned, and never ceased to proclaim 

it. Attempts were made to 
calm him by playing the zither 
to him, but they were of no 
avail; the illness followed its 
course; the disorder became 
worse, and the unfortunate 
artist died in 1482. 

His chief work, and the 
only one attributed to him 
unhesitatingly to within the 
last few years, is The Ador- 
ation of the Shepherds (Fig. 
173), which he painted for 
Tommaso Portinari, and which 
is now in the Uffizi Gallery 
in Florence. The conception 
of the subject is original, and 
differs entirely from that of 
the numerous artists who had 
treated it before. The angels 
dressed in mantles as richly 




FIG. 207. — GHEERAERT DAVID. 
THE HOLY WOMEN 
(Antwerp, Museum). 
(Phot. G. Hermans.) 



104 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 208.— JEAN PREVOST. 

THE LAST JUDGMENT (Bruges, Museum). 

(Phot. Daled.) 



decorated as chasubles, who adore the Infant Jesus, are creations 
due to the mysticism of the early Primitives. Their naive 
and miraculous interven- 
tion is an interesting 
evidence of religious 
fervour. With the shep- 
herds, surprise and curio- 
sity get the better of 
adoration. They are real 
peasants — human beings 
as rude in physique as in 
intelligence. This juxta- 
position of the angels with 
the shepherds is a daring 
invention. The painting 
itself is still executed with 
the same minuteness; the 
drawing is emphatic, the 
colour brilliant and light. 
The wings represent Tom- 
maso Portinari and his 
wife with their children and their patrons, St. Thomas and 
St. Anthony, St. Margaret and the Magdalen (Figs. 174, 175). 
The winter landscape in the back- 
ground is rendered with incompar- 
able delicacy. 

A second Adoration of the She- 
pherds (Fig. 177), which came from 
Spain and has belonged since 1903 
to the Kaiser Friedrich-Museum in 
Berlin, has been attributed to Hugo 
van der Goes on sufficient grounds. 
Here, again, Mary, Joseph, the angels 
and the shepherds kneel around the 
newly -born Infant, Who is lying 
naked in His crib. Mary and the 
angels are charming and radiant fig- 
ures; in the two shepherds, one of 
whom is kneeling and the other press- 
ing forward, the painter has been 
anxious to show us real children of 
nature, rude and rough. Not only 
are their faces ugly, but their gestures 

105 




FIG. 20Q.— JT:AN PREVOST. 
DONOR AND HIS PATRON SAINT 
(Brug-es, Museum). (Phot. Daled.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 

are constrained and unpleasant. The picture is more harmonious 
in colour than the altarpiece at Florence. The two gorgeous 
prophets with their expressive faces give a note of fancy and 
splendour to a historical scene that is strongly permeated with 
Van der Goes' chief characteristic, the realism of daily life, not- 
withstanding the angelic choir that happens to take part in it. 
Among the other works attributed to Hugo van der Goes, 
two at least appear to be by his hand. First the little diptych 
of the Imperial Museum at Vienna, a Pietd and Original Sin, 





FIG. 2IO.— JEAN PREVOST. 
THE DONOR'S WIFE 

(Brug-es, Museum). 
(Phot Daled.) 



FIG. 211.— AMBROSIUS BENSON. 

DEIPARA VIRGO 

(Antwerp, Museum). 

(Phot. G. Hermans.) 



The Pietd (Fig. 176) may be described as a "miniaturised" 
picture, characterised alike by Van der Goes' usual unpleasant 
faces, and by his fine and luminous colour. In the Original 
Sin (Fig. 178) we have two deliciously modelled nude figures 
in an enchanting landscape. 

The Death of the Virgin of the Bruges Museum is another 
remarkable picture (Fig. 179). God the Son extends His arms 
from on high towards His mother to receive her, whilst she, 
from her death-bed, contemplates Christ with an expression of 
hope and love. The Apostles, stricken with grief, surround the 
dying woman. The flesh- tones are remarkable for their strange 
ashen whiteness; the dresses form large masses of colour with 

106 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 212.— UNKNOWN. 

ARCHERS' FETE AT ANTWERP 

(Antwerp, Museum). 

(Phot G. Hermans.) 



softly toned reflections ; the faces 
are intelligent and visibly affect- 
ed; the eyes in particular are 
full of anguish; everything is 
more reticent, more subdued 
than in Van der Goes' ordinary 
work. To explain the difference 
between this and his other pic- 
tures, it has been suggested that 
his mind was already clouded 
when he painted this panel. 

On one of the shutters of the 
Martyrdom of St. Hippolytus, 
attributed to Dierick Bouts, the 
portraits of the donors are paint- 
ed (Fig. 180). These differ so 
considerably from the other parts 
of the work that they have been 
attributed to an artist other 
than Bouts, namely, to Van 
der Goes. The painting is so 
masterly, the little figures are so expressive, that this attribution 
seems very reasonable. 

During the second half of the fifteenth century, Flemish painting 
entered upon a kind of renais- 
sance with Hans Memlinc, who 
was, after the Van Eycks, the 
greatest of fifteenth century 
Flemish masters. He divests the 
personages of his predecessors 
of all their lingering stiffness and 
rudeness. He gives an almost 
feminine elegance to the Apostle 
St. John and to the holy hermits. 
His personages are no longer 
people of action, but dreamers, 
who know not suffering and 
death, who live in the seclusion 
of a mystical existence, and 
whose whole life is passed in 
peaceful contemplation; his fa- 
vourite models are happy child- 
ren, tender mothers, chaste 

107 




FIG. 213.— QUENTIN MASSYS. 

THE VEIL OF VERONICA (Antwerp, 

Museum). (Phot. G. Hermans.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 

virgins — all that the world accounts sweetest and most lovable. 
His colour is not so strong as that of his predecessors, but it 
is more seductive; his technique is polished; his light, as caress- 
ing as that of a spring morning He is the master par excellence 
of celestial grace and of angelic joy. 

We have no more information concerning his childhood and 
artistic education than we have of those the majority of the 
Flemish primitives. A happy chance has recently led to the 
discovery, in an old manuscript, of a note according to which 





FIG. 215. 

QUENTIN MASSYS. MADONNA 

(Antwerp, Museum). 

(Phot. G. Hermans.) 



FIG. 214. 

QUENTIN MASSYS. THE HOLY FACE 

(Antwerp, Museum). 

(Phot. G. Hermans.) 



he was born at Mayence, perhaps not in the town itself, but in 
the surrounding Rhineland district; and since that district is 
traversed by a tributary called Memling, and one of its villages 
bears the name Memlingen, there is good reason for believing 
that he first saw the light in that locality. For the year of 
his birth, we are reduced to mere conjecture. It should, no 
doubt, be placed between 1430 and 1435. In 1467, or a little 
earlier, he settled at Bruges, in which city he lived from that 
year until the day of his death, August 11, 1494. 

One of his earliest known works was painted in 1467 or 1468. 
It is the little altar-piece executed for Sir John Donne of Kid- 
welly, now in the collection of the Duke of Devonshire, at 

108 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 2l6.— gUENTIX MASSYS. 

MADONNA (Berlin). 
(Phot. Berlin Phot. Gesellschaft.) 



Chatsworth (Fig. 30). On the central 
panel the Virgin is seated with the 
Infant under a canopy; she is flanked 
by two angel-musicians, one of whom 
offers an apple to the baby, who is 
seizing it. In the foreground are the 
kneeling figures of the donor. Sir 
John Donne, and his wife, Elizabeth 
Hastings, with their daughter; be- 
hind them, St. Barbara and St. 
Catherine. On the shutters, St. John 
the Evangelist and St. John the Bap- 
tist. Memlinc never tired of paint- 
ing the Madonna, the two angels, 
and these four saints. Again and 
again one finds in his pictures the 
Virgin with her waving locks falling 
upon her shoulders, Catherine and 
Barbara, both of almost ethereal 
delicacy, the little angel who plays 
so gracefully with the Infant Saviour, 
and the Apostle John, with a lock of hair falling over his forehead. 

One of Memlinc's impor- 
tant works is preserved at 
Dantzig. It was painted for 
Jacopo Tani and sent in 1473 
by sea to Florence. In the 
course of the voyage the ship 
was captured by a pirate, 
who presented the altarpiece 
to the church of Our Lady 
at Dantzig. The opened pan- 
els represent The Last Judg- 
ment (Fig. 181). In the 
centre, Christ is seen en- 
throned on the rainbow ; St. 
Michael holds the scales. On 
the shutters, the blessed 
mount the steps leading to 
Paradise, and the damned 
are hurled into hell. The 
subject of this composition 
is unique in Memlinc's work. 




109 



FIG. 217.— QUENTIN MASSYS. 

THE GENEALOGY OF THE VIRGIN 

(Brussels). 

(Phot. Hanfstaengl.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 



The balance of the parts, and the perfection of the nude bodies 
prove that the artist had made considerable progress since his 
first productions. 

A number of the master's best works are to be seen at the 
small museum of the Hospital of St. Jean, at Bruges. The most 
important of them is the Marriage of St Catherine (Fig. 182), 
which was painted in 1479 for the two monks, Anthony Seghers 
and Jacob de Cueninc, and for the two nuns, Agnes Casembrood 
and Clara van Hulsen. There is a great analogy between this 

picture and the one exe- 
cuted by Memlinc for 
Sir John Donne. The 
protagonists are the 
same, but they are shown 
without the donors, and 
they are disposed more 
symmetrically and with 
even deeper feeling. So 
many immaculate bodies 
and stainless souls ! The 
handling is broader and 
mellower; the tones have 
become more shimmer- 
ing. Wherever the light 
sheds its rays, it enhan- 
ces the brilliance and 
increases the solidity of 
the colour. On the right 
shutter is St. Johii on 
the isle of Patmos; on 
the left, the beheading of St. John the Baptist. 

Another much smaller altarpiece, also belonging to the Hospital 
of St. Jean, represents The Adoration of the Magi (Fig. 184). 
It is dated 1479 and was presented by Jan Floreins; it is a 
little masterpiece of sumptuous colour, marvellously brilliant. 
^^In 1487 Martin van Nieuwenhove, who was burgomaster of 
Bruges, presented to the Hospital of St. Jean, of which he was 
director, a diptych with his portrait on one panel (PI. Ill) and 
the Madonna on the other (Fig. 183). The Mary is of the same 
type as all Memlinc's Virgins: the forehead well-developed, the 
fine nose projecting little, but rather elongated, the mouth small, 
the chin pointed. The Child lacks charm. The costume, the back- 
ground, and the accessories are lively and brilliant in colour. 

110 




FIG. 2l8.— QUENTIN MASSYS. THE ENTOMBMENT 
■^ , (Antwerp, Museum). (Phot. G. Hermans.) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 



The portrait of Martin van Nieuwenhove is one of Memlinc's 
masterpieces. The painter has here succeeded in creating the 
illusion of life. The donor is not a mystic ; he is not even devout, 
although his hands are joined in prayer. He faces the future 
with more curiosity than exaltation , and shows a young man's 
ambition to play a part in the world. The locks of his hair fall 
upon his shoulders, his lips quiver, his eyes flash fire. Contrary 
to Jan van Eyck's method, the background is filled with rich 

accessories, and 

from this light and 

varied ground, 

the figure stands 

out with youthful 

energy. 

The most fam- 
ous work in the 

possession of the 

Hospital of St. 

Jean is the shrine 

of St. Ursula; a 

reliquary in the 

form of a Gothic 

chapel, measuring 

2 ft. 10 in. in 

height and 3 ft. in 

length, the panels 

of which are paint- 
ed and gilded all 

over. On October 

21, 1489, the re- 
lics of the holy 

martyr were en- 
closed in this casket by the bishop of Sarepta; the work must 
therefore have been completed about this time. One of the facades 
of the graceful chapel shows the Virgin with two angels in 
adoration; the other represents Ursula protecting some of her 
companions under the folds of her mantle; on each side -wall 
the history of the saint is unfolded in three little panels: how 
she went from England to the Continent, and the martyrdom 
which awaited her on her return to Cologne (Fig. 185, 186, 187). 
The roof of the chapel is decorated with six medallions, those 
of the saint and her companions with angel-musicians in heaven. 
The handling in these panels is less delicate and the colour less 

111 









A ^^ --* 






























FIG. 219.— QUENTIN 

MASSYS. HEROD'S 

FEAST (Antwerp). 

(Phot. G. Hermans.) 



FIG. 220.— QUENTIN 
MASSYS. ST. JOHN IN THE 
BOILING OIL (Antwerp). 

(Phot. G. Hermans.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 221.— QUENTIN MASSYS. THE BANKER 

AND HIS WIFE (Louvre, Paris). 

(Phot. Neurdein.) 



mellow than in Memlinc's 
other works. The artist seems 
to have been less intent on 
perfection of detail for each 
isolated figure, than on the 
marvellous poly chromy of the 
whole. And the shrine cer- 
tainly gives the impression 
of an inestimable jewel, a 
masterpiece of the gold- 
smith's art, compact of gold 
and precious stones. 

Bruges possesses yet an- 
other masterpiece by Mem- 
line: the triptych which he 
painted in 1484 for the chan- 
try of the church of St. Jac- 
ques, now in the municipal 
gallery. The central panel 
represents St. Christopher 
wading through a river and carrying the Infant Christ upon his 
shoulders (Fig. 188). On the left stands St. Maurus reading; 

on the right, St. Giles, holding a 
closed book and caressing a fawn. 
On the left shutter, Willem Moreel 
is seen kneeling with his five sons 
under the protection of his patron 
(Fig. 189); on the right shutter he 
is faced by Barbara de Vlaender- 
berghe, his wife, with her eleven 
daughters, and St. Barbara (Fig. 
190). The three saints of the cen- 
tral panel seem isolated, each lost 
in his own beatitude, and uncon- 
nected with the others by any 
mutual action or sentiment. The 
portraits of the donors, especially 
that of the father, rank among 
Memlinc's best productions. 

Other masterpieces by Memlinc 

are dispersed in foreign countries. 

The Louvre owns a Madonna (Fig. 

191) adored by Jacques Floreins, 

112 




FIG. 222.— QUENTIN MASSYS. 

PORTRAIT OF JOSSE VAN CLEEF 

(Florence, Uffizi Gallery). 

(Phot. Alinari.) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 223. — QUEXTIN MASSYS. 

THE COURTESAN (Paris, Comtesse de Pourtales). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.J 



his wife, and their children. This picture dates from the last 
years of the life of the donor, who died in 1489 or 1490. 
Memlinc shows here his 
usual qualities, but does 
not wholly escape the 
reproach of monotony. 
Another work of the same 
kind, but smaller in size, 
is the Madonna with the 
Donor at Vienna (Fig. 
192), one of the pictures 
in which the master is 
most seductive and shows 
great tenderness of reli- 
gious feeling. On the in- 
side of the shutters are 
figures of St. John the 
Baptist and St. John the 
Evangelist (Fig. 193), on 
the outside Adam and Eve (Fig. 194). — Certain pictures are 
more varied and more complicated in composition. The Munich 
Pinakothek possesses one with a variety of subjects, known as 
The Seven Joys of the Virgin 
(Fig. 195). This work was paint- 
ed in 1480 for Pieter Bultinc, 
member of the guild of tanners, 
who presented it to his corpor- 
ation for the decoration of their 
altar in the church of Notre-Dame 
at Bruges. It depicts events in 
the life of the Virgin, the setting 
of which is a mountainous site 
near Jerusalem, with the holy 
city in the background. From this 
romantic landscape the minute 
figures stand out in brilliant and 
delicate gradations of colours. 
There is an analogous picture 
in the Turin Gallery. It was paint- 
ed by Memlinc for Willem 

Vrelant, the Bruges miniaturist, fig. 224.— quentin massys. 

who presented it in 1478 to the portrait of a canon 

G'lJ fCCTi 1T1 r (Vienna, Liechtenstein Gallery), 

uild of bS. John and Luke for (Phot. Bmckmann.) 

113 I 




ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 225. — gUENTIN MASSYS. 
HEAD OF AN OLD MAN 

(Paris, Mad, Andre's Collection). 
(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



the altar of their chapel in the 
church of St. Barthelemy. Scenes 
from the Passion of Christ (Figs. 
196, 197) are set forth upon it, 
in a background of streets and 
squares that represents Jerusalem. 
The figures are very highly fin- 
ished; they exceed in minuteness 
even those of the shrine of St. 
Ursula. There are no fewer than 
two hundred of them. This is 
Memlinc's most delicate work. In 
no other has the painter combined 
such beauty of technique and 
sumptuousness of colour with such 
spirited and dramatic action. 

Finally, we must mention two 
pictures of vast proportions. First, 
the Passion of Liibeck, an altar- 
piece ordered by Heinrich Greve- 
rade and his brother Adolphe, a 
Canon who had long lived in Flanders. It was painted in 1491, and 

placed in 1493 in the cathedral 
which it adorns to this day. It must 
thus have been one of Memlinc's 
last works. This picture, which 
represents scenes from the Passion, 
is no longer carried out with the 
same care and delicacy as his ear- 
lier works ; the master had enlisted 
collaborators. Yet, the emotions 
of the personages are rendered 
in very vivid fashion, for instance 
in the group of soldiers throwing 
dice — a keenly observed and 
finely executed scene (Fig. 198). 
Another important picture ol 
vast dimensions represents Christ 
and some angel - musicians (Figs. 
199, 200). It was executed 
for the decoration of an organ- 
case in the church of Najera in 
Spain, whence it came to the 
114 




FIG. 226.— JOSSE VAN CLEEF. 

HOLY FAMILY (Vienna, Imperial 

Museum). (Phot. Lozvy.) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 227.— MARINUS VAN ROYMERSWAEL. 
ST. JEROME (Madrid). (Phot. Anderson.) 



Antwerp Museum. In the middle is God the Father between two 
groups of singing angels. On each shutter are five angel 
musicians. The figures, 
which are over life-size, 
stand out in light, soft 
tones against a gold back- 
ground sprinkled below 
and above with dark 
clouds. The handling is 
broad and yet careful. 
Compared with Van Eyck's 
singers and celestial mu- 
sicians, the faces are cal- 
mer, and their expression 
less solemn: in this celes- 
tial concert , everything 
breathes joy. 

Memlinc's pupil and suc- 
cessor, Gheeraert David, 

is the last great painter of the old school of Bruges. The com- 
merce and the prosperity of the Flemish capital were already 
undergoing a marked decadence which was bound to react upon 
its art. Like many of his predecessors, David had come from 
the other side of the Scheldt, 
from Oudewater, where he was 
born about 1460. In 1483 we 
find him in his new residence; 
the Guild of St. Luke received 
him as master in 1484; he died 
in 1523. During his life, he was 
the most renowned and most 
sought-after of painters, but his 
fame was eclipsed in the course 
of the centuries to such a degree 
that fifty years ago not a single 
work was any longer attributed 
to him; he and his pictures have 
only been recognized as a result 
of discoveries made in the ar- 
chives. We know now that the 
town council of Bruges commis- 
sioned him to decorate the hall ^ig. 228.-marinus van roymers- 

£ . ,. f .1 TT'-. 1 1 \T'^^ WAEL. THE MONEY-CHANGER (Lon- 

Ot justice of the Hotel-de-Vllle don, Nat. Gallery). rPAo^/Zan/staeng/.; 

115 I 2 




ART IN FLANDERS 



with two large compositions representing famous instances of 
equity. They are preserved in the Museum of Bruges. The first 
tells us how Cambyses, king of Persia, had the disloyal judge 
Sisamnes arrested (Fig. 201); the second, how he had him flayed 
alive so that his skin should be used for covering the chair 
upon which the judge's son, as his father's successor, was called 
upon to sit (Fig. 202). David's calm and peaceful art is concerned 
to represent the personages in dignified and reserved attitudes 
rather than with agitated gestures or in impetuous action. The 

courtiers are ranged be- 
hind the king, who ac- 
cuses the culprit, and 
behind the executioners, 
who are flaying the con- 
demned man. The anguish 
which contracts the bad 
judge's brows alone re- 
veals the drama which is 
being enacted; the tor- 
tured man is grimacing 
rather than suffering; the 
executioners apply them- 
selves correctly and me- 
thodically to their atro- 
cious business , like 
prudent surgeons. The 
execution of this work 
seems inferior to that of 
the earlier masters; the 
brushwork is not so clean, 
the hues less brilliant, though the painter has lost none of the 
rich colours of Flanders; the tints are rich and velvety, the tech- 
nique delicate. The ornament of the architecture betrays the 
advent of Italian taste in Flemish art, for one of the walls is 
adorned with little garland -bearing putti. One of the pictures 
bears the date 1498. 

About 1501 Gheeraert David painted a Marriage of St. Catherine 
for Richard de Visch-Van der Capellen, who presented it to the 
church of St. Donatien, at Bruges (Fig. 203). This picture is 
now in the National Gallery in London. On the left, St. Catherine 
kneels with the donor. On the right are St. Barbara and St. Mary 
Magdalen seated. The influence of Memlinc is manifest. The 
Virgin in ecstasy, the delicately treated jewels, the rich costumes,. 

116 




FIG. 229.— JOACHIM DE PATINIR. THE BAPTISM 

OF CHRIST (Vienna, Imperial Museum). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 230.— JOACHIM DE PATINIR. 

PARADISE AND HELL (Madrid). 

(Phot Anderson.) 



the magnificent buildings in the background, are unchanged; but 
real life and material existence have made good their claims; 
the Canon's face is flesh and blood; the Holy Women, with 
their blooming complexi- 
ons, are full of health and 
vigour: these dwellers in 
heaven have not renounc- 
ed the good things of 
this world. 

In 1501 Gheeraert 
David painted a triptych 
for the altar of St. John 
the Baptist and St. Mary 
Magdalene in the churdi 
of St. Donatien at Bruges, 
at the cost of another 
Canon of that church, 
Bernardino de Salviati, 
the illegitimate son of a 
Florentine merchant, trading or domiciled in Flanders. The left 
wing has disappeared; the right wing is now in the National 
Gallery, London (Fig. 204). This panel, one of David's finest 
pictures, represents the donor kneeling in a wooded hilly land- 
scape, attended by his 
patron saints, Donatian, 
Bernardino of Siena, and 
Martin. On a road to 
the left a beggar is seen 
advancing on crutches 
to solicit alms from the 
richly dressed person- 
ages of the group. It 
is a superb work in which 
truth to life is combined 
with intense religious 
fervour, and in which the 
artist's powers have reach- 
ed their full maturity. 

Between the years 1502 
and 1508 the master exe- 
cuted for Jean des Trompes, Treasurer of the city of Bruges, 
a triptych, the principal motive of which. The Baptism of Christ, 
is surrounded by donors and their patron saints. The treasurer's 

117 




FIG. 231.— JOACHIM DE PATINIR. REST ON THE 
FLIGHT TO EGYPT (Madrid). (Phot Anderson.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 



heirs presented this altar-piece to the clerks of the tribunal, for 
their altar in the church of St. Basil, whence it was transferred 
to the Museum of Bruges. The conception is original. Jesus is 
standing in the river, with the water reaching half-way up his 
legs. The Precursor, kneeling on the river bank, pours the lustral 
water over the head of the Saviour. On the other bank an angel 
guards the garments of the divine recipient of the rite. In the 
distance is the city of Zion. The Saviour with His esctatic face, 
and the angel with his deliciously child-like expression and richly 

embroidered cope, are crea- 
tions of the old school, but the 
carefully rendered and an- 
atomically irreproachable nude 
figure of the Saviour, the St. 
John with his graceful, natural 
movement and with the em- 
aciated face of the desert- 
dweller, bear witness to a 
freer and more personal inter- 
pretation of reality. The fresh- 
ness of the grass and of the 
flowers, the elegance and 
grandeur of the trees, the 
picturesque charm of the 
rocks, reveal a deep love of 
nature; everything proclaims 
that art has entered upon a new 
path. Henceforth, the aesthetic 
sense will draw its inspiration 
from terrestrial beauty rather 
than from the mystic ideal. 
Gheeraert David's masterpiece is an altarpiece which he offered 
in 1509 to the church of the Carmelites at Bruges, where it 
adorned the altar of the Holy Sacrament. It is now in the 
Museum of Rouen (Fig. 205). In the centre of the picture, the 
Virgin holds on her knees the Infant Jesus, who is playing with 
a bunch of grapes. On each side are an angel - musician and a 
female saint. To the Virgin's left, are four Saints and the 
painter himself; to her right, four saints and Dame Lambyn. 
The religious emotion expressed by these figures is tempered 
by an air of robust health. The artist has ceased to aim 
exclusively at the representation of celestial bliss; but he 
preserves an exquisite harmony between moral beauty and 

118 




FIG. 232. — HENDRIK BLES. 

THE ADORATION OF THE MAGI (Munich). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.J 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 



physical perfection. The execution is masterly. Gheeraert David's 
earHest picture is believed to be a triptych, the centre panel 
of which belonged to the late Lady Layard in Venice, whilst 
the two shutters, the one representing some Jewish Judges 
and Roman Soldiers (Fig. 206), and the other, St John 
and the Holy Women (Fig. 207) are in the Museum of Ant- 
werp. The heads of the personages on these shutters are 
on both sides on the same level in a straight line, and 
are set against an horizon of uniform blue. The work has 
a freedom in its brilliance 
of colour that is quite 
modern. 

We know enough of Gheer- 
aert David's personality to 
define it clearly. But many 
contemporary painters remain 
obscure in spite of their merit ; 
many unidentified works have 
come down to us. A Birth 
of Christ in the Imperial 
Museum in Vienna is re- 
markable for an effect of 
chiaroscuro. The light eman- 
ates from the body of the 
Infant around whom are Mary 
and three angels in adoration. 
The "grotesque" motives of 
the background remind us 
that we have arrived at the 
age of the Renaissance. 

A disciple of Gheeraert Da- 
vid, Adriaen Ysenbrant, came from Haarlem to Bruges, where 
he worked from 1509 to 1551. Not a single work can be attri- 
buted to him with absolute certainty, but he is probably the 
author of the Virgin of the Seven Sorrows, in the church of Notre- 
Dame at Bruges. The Mater Dolorosa is surrounded by seven 
medallions of brilliant colour and miniature -like finish. She is 
distinguished by the delicacy of her features and hands. Albert 
Cornelis, another Bruges painter, must also be mentioned as the 
author of the triptych in the church of St. Jacques, at Bruges. 
Jean Prevost, born in 1462 at Mons, died in 1529, and painted 
in 1525, at Bruges, a Last Judgment y which is still to be seen 
at the Museum of that city (Fig. 208). Jesus is enthroned in 

119 




FIG. 233.— HENDRIK BLES. 

THE HOLY FAMILY (Basle, Museum). 

(Phot. Hdflinger.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 234. — HENDRIK BLES. THE PILGRIMS OF 
EMMAUS (Vienna, Imper. Mus.). (Phot. Lbwy.) 



glory, on a rainbow, supported by Mary and the saints; below, 
angels blow their trumpets; on earth, the dead rise from their 

tombs to appear before 
the Judge. The painting 
of the nude is not lacking 
in elegance; the general 
effect is dull in colour, 
but it is relieved by vigor- 
ous shadows. Among 
many works attributed to 
Prevost are two shutters 
from an altarpiece, which 
are also in the Bruges 
Museum (Fig. 209, 210). 
Ambrosius Benson was 
a native of Lombardy who 
had settled at Bruges, 
where he rose to the rank 
of master-painter in 1519, 
and died between 1547 and 1550. His name cannot with cer- 
tainty be attached to any work, but it is permissible to attribute 
to him various pictures signed with the initials A. B., such as a 
picture in the Antwerp Museum, the Madonna, or the Deipara 
Virgo, with prophets and sibyls (Fig. 211). The Virgin appears 

in glory, surrounded by 
angels. Below her feet are 
two prophets and three 
sibyls carrying streamers, 
upon which are sacred 
texts referring to the Mo- 
ther of the Saviour. 

With these painters the 
School of Bruges comes 
to an end. For the com- 
pletion of this great pe- 
riod of primitive Flemish 
painting, we have to turn 
to another district, and 
to another town, namely, 
to Antwerp, in Brabant. 
Ambrosius Benson had 
already passed part of his life at Antwerp ; Gheeraert David had 
sojourned in the city. At the beginning of the sixteenth century 

120 






.^^ 



FIG. 235. —JAN VAN HEMISSEM. THE CALLING OF 
ST. MATTHEW (Munich, Pinak.). (Phot. Bruckmann.) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 



Antwerp was to become the home of artistic life in Flanders. 
The earliest specimen of Antwerp art that has come down to 
us is a Fete of the Archers 




FIG. 236.— JAN VAN HEMISSEM. 

MERRY COMPANY (Carlsruhe, Museum). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



of the Guild of St. Sebas- 
tian (Fig. 212) belonging 
to the Museum of Ant- 
werp. Before the Dean of 
the Guild are two buffoons 
performing their farcical 
antics; archers and their 
wives amuse themselves 
in the garden, whilst in- 
quisitive folk look through 
the railing; in the back- 
ground rises the house of 
the guild. It is a work of 
an already advanced art, 
correct in drawing, strong 
in colour, and capable of 
rendering the aspects of 
the life of the people with movement and humour. Formerly, 
this picture bore an inscription according to which it had been 
presented by Peter de Gammarele 
in 1493. We know of no early master 
with whom the author of this picture 
can be connected. Among the later 
painters, Pieter Aertsen resembles 
him most. 

The great Antwerp master of this 
distant period, one of the greatest 
names in the history of Flemish art, 
is Quentin Massys or Matsys. For 
a long time the question of his 
birthplace — Louvain or Antwerp — 
was in dispute; it was finally settled 
in favour of Louvain. He was born 
probably in 1466. His father was 
a blacksmith; he himself is said to 
have worked first at the anvil. He 
probably passed his apprenticeship 
as a painter with the son of Dierick 
Bouts. In 1491 he was received as 
master by the guild of St. Luke 

121 




FIG. 237.— PIETER AERTSEN. 

THE COOK 

(Brussels, Museum). 

(Phot. Neurdein.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 






at Antwerp, to which he belonged until 1530, the year of 
his death. 

Quentin Massys' art is very varied and complex; he begins 
with figures of Christ and the Virgin, admirable in their celestial 

serenity or their tender 
reverie ; later, he trans- 
lates the deepest hu- 
man emotions , daily 
occupations and cares, 
and the joys of the 
humble, or he paints 
solemn portraits of 
sober citizens. Heruns 
through the whole ga- 
mut of human feelings 
and passions. He is the 
first complete painter, 
the first absolute artist 
whom we meet with in his art. His technique, though quite per- 
sonal, brings him near his contemporary, Gerard David, and his 
predecessor, Dierick Bouts. He has traits in common with the last 
representatives of the preceding school, and with the first of the 
school that follows, but he remains a primitive. He is a superb 

colourist, but he under- 
stands colour in a way 
different from that of his 
predecessors. He uses col- 
our like a virtuoso; he 
introduces caprice and life 
into it. This transition 



FIG. 238.— PIETER AERTSEN. 
THE KITCHEN (Copenhagen, Museum). 




artist serves as a con- 
necting link between two 
schools. 

Among the works of his 
first period is the Veil of 
Veronica (Fig. 213), the 
livid face of the Man of 
Sorrows, mixing His tears 
with the drops of blood 
that trickle over His face; then the Head of the Virgin (Fig. 
214) and the Face of Jesus (Fig. 215). The face of Jesus, solemn, 
drawn with vigour but without hardness, with fixed and yet 
living eyes, recalls the Saviour of Bouts* Last Supper. Mary 

122 



FIG. 239.— PIETER AERTSEN. JESUS WITH MAR- 
THA AND MARY (Brussels, Museum). (Phot. Neurdein.) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




is more tenderly conceived; her eyes are clearer, her features 
softer. These three pictures belong to the Museum of Antwerp. 
The Madonna of the Ber- 
lin Museum (Fig. 216) is 
no doubt of the same 
period; but here the paint- 
ing is in closer touch 
with nature. The Virgin 
seems to be unconscious 
of her miraculous vo- 
cation and of the divine 
nature of her son ; she 
is merely a mother caress- 
ing her child; every 
vestige of mystic con- 
templation has disap- 
peared. Her garments are 
a marvel of brilliancy. 
Over a white shift, she 
wears a blue robe with 
purple sleeves that show 
bluish reflections; she has 
of a fiery red: but these 
itable softness. 

The oldest dated pic- 
ture by Quentin Massys 
is the Legend of St. Anne, 
which he finished in 1509 
for the confraternity of 
St. Anne at Louvain, and 
which is now in the Brus- 
sels Museum (Fig. 217). 
On the central panel, the 
Virgin, with the Infant 
Jesus in her lap, is seated 
beside St. Anne; grouped 
around them are Mary 
Salome, Mary Cleophas, 
their husbands, and their 
children. The shutter on 
the right shows the death 
of St. Anne, and that on 
news of the birth of Mary 



FIG. 240.— JOACHIM DE BEUCKKLAER. THE 

GAME-DEALER (Vienna, Imperial Museum). 

(Phot. Lowy.) 



thrown over her shoulders a mantle 
rich tones mix and blend with inim- 






FIG. 241.— JOACHIM DE BEUCKELAER. 

THE PRODIGAL SON (Antwerp). 

(Phot. G. Hermans.) 



the left, St. Joachim receiving the 
The central panel is very clearly 



123 



ART IN FLANDERS 



distinguished from the others by its mystic feeling. The nine 
principal figures are arranged in three clearly marked triangles; 
the mothers look lovingly upon their children, the men with 
veneration upon their wives. The composition is severe and 
harmonious in arrangement; but the colour has lost its bloom 
as a result of restoration. 

Quentin Massys* masterpiece is the Entombment (Fig. 218), 
ordered from him in 1508 by the Antwerp joiners* guild for 
the decoration of their altar in the church of Notre-Dame, fin- 
ished in 1511, and now 
in the museum of the 
city. The dead Christ, 
the chief figure in the 
central panel, is laid out 
in the foreground ; around 
Him press those who were 
most dear to Him; they 
express the same grief 
with different gestures. 
The systematic arrange- 
ment of the figures, and 
their balanced attitudes 
connect this scene with 
the archaic Legend of St. 
Anne, but in other re- 
spects the art of Massys 
manifests a new freedom. 
His dead Christ is a mar- 
vel of correct drawing 
and colour; the other 
figures are dressed in 
festive garments of a dazzling splendour, somewhat out of place 
in this scene of mourning. The tenderest gradations of tone 
blend harmoniously with the most rare and brilliant colours. The 
breadth of the brushwork is astounding; the features of the 
face are no longer drawn, but carefully modelled, and here and 
there a little blurred. The painter has rencirunced the method 
of the primitives, whose painting competed with enamelling; he 
accentuates his brushmarks, he amuses himself by mixing and 
fusing his colours; he delights in making them shimmer and 
sparkle; but he also cunningly opposes the brilliance of varie- 
gated colour to the cold pallor of the corpse, and this powerful 
livid passage is made to dominate the effervescent confusion of 

124 




FIG. 242.— PETER HUYS. THE BAGPIPER 

(Berlin, Museum). 

(Phot Berlin Phot. Gesellsckaft.) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 243.— JEROME BOSCH. 
THE ADORATION OF THE MAGI 
(Madrid,Museum). (Phot. Anderson.) 



tones. Finally, in his backgrounds, 
where nature and life are treated as 
minutely as among the most skilful 
of his forerunners, he proves that he 
can paint with as much delicacy as 
the miniaturists of the past. 

The shutters bear witness to the 
same subtlety and the same mastery 
of colour. Before and behind the 
white table-cloth in Herod*s Banquet 
(Fig. 219) gleam the red garment of 
the little page and Salome's richly 
embroidered robe. The shutter on 
the right, St. John in the boiling Oil 
(Fig. 220), is remarkable above all 
for the realistic interpretation of the 
executioners who are feeding the fire. 
The whole of Flemish art boasts no 
figures of greater energy; the solemn 
impassibility of the judges is vio- 
lently opposed to St. John's mystic 
exaltation. 

Massys did not confine himself to the introduction of certain 

realistic scenes in his 

historical compositions; 
he devoted whole pictures 
to the interpretation of 
contemporary life. For 
instance, the Banker and 
hisWife {¥'ig.22\\ at the 
Louvre in Paris, which is 
dated 1514; and the 
Courtesan and the Gal- 
lant (Fig. 223). The first 
of these represents a 
banker beside his wife, 
weighing his gold; the 
other ridicules an old gal- 
lant; both are admirable 
in observation, execution, 
and colour. 

Massys approaches his ^^^- 244— jerome bosch. 

_^ 4. •/ V.fr .1 THE MOCKING OF CHRIST (Escorial). 

portraits with the same (Phot Anderson.) ^ ^ 

125 




ART IN FLANDERS 



truth of observation and the same probity of handling. His 
heads are struck off like so many medals. The portrait of a 
Canon in the Liechtenstein Gallery (Fig. 224); the unattractive 
old man (Fig. 225) painted in 1513, and now in the collection 
of Mme. Andre in Paris; and the Uffizi portrait, which passes 
as his own, but which probably records the features of Josse 
van Cleef (Fig. 222), are among his best. 

It is certain that a number of works by Quentin Massys have 
been lost or have remained unrecognized. Karl Justi discovered 

recently at Valladolid a 
large altarpiece represent- 
ing, on the inside. The 
Nativity and The Adora- 
tion of the Magi, and on 
the outside. The Mass of 
St. Gregory. Our painter 
probably furnished car- 
toons to the tapestry- 
weavers, though we have 
no definite knowledge 
regarding this point. 

The last portrait men- 
tioned above would ap- 
pear to represent the 
master who was most un- 
der his influence, and 
who has been called the 
''Master of the Death of 
Mary", because two pic- 
tures dealing with that 
subject are attributed to him, one in the Cologne Museum, the 
other in the Munich Pinakothek. His genuine merits claim our 
attention. Some students believe him to be identical with the 
famous artist, Josse van Cleef, who was received in 1511 as 
master in the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp, and who died there 
in 1540. Besides the two versions of the Death of Mary, he is 
credited with a number of other pictures treated more or less 
in the same style. One of the best, which belongs to the Im- 
perial Museum in Vienna, is a triptych (Fig. 226), the principal 
panel of which represents Mary, Joseph, the Infant Jesus and 
an angel. This Josse van Cleef appears as an heir of the great 
primitives, who knew Quentin Massys, and who rejuvenated his 
style, and made it more supple. 

126 



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I^^B 


i 


' ^^^^StS^HH|^^^H 



FIGt. 245.— JEROME BOSCH. CHRIST 

CARRYING THE CROSS (Ghent, Museum). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 



In the last years of his career, Quentin had carried reahsm 
sufficiently far. He had shown the artistic interest that may 
lie in the trivial or vulgar reality of 
every day life, and all the beauty 
that may be extracted from ugliness. 
A number of painters shared his 
tendencies. The one who is nearest 
to Quentin, and who actually exag- 
gerated his manner, was Marinus van 
Roymerswael, or Martin the Zeelan- 
der. From Zeeland he had come to 
settle at Antwerp, where in 1509 he 
entered the workshop of a glass 
painter. He painted for choice old 
men of repulsive aspect, with thin 
and deeply wrinkled features, knotty 
arms, and bony hands. For acces- 
sories, he preferred objects of high 
colour and strong relief. The Museum 
of Madrid is rich in works by this 
Fleming. One of them, painted in 
1521, represents St. Jerome medita- 
ting upon death and the Last Judg- 
ment (Fig. 227). Deep wrinkles 
score his parchment -like skin. His 
and the colour of the accessories 




FIG. 246.— JEROME BOSCH. THE 
LAST JUDGMENT (Bruges, Mu- 
seum). (Phot. Doled.) 



robe is of a brilliant red, 
IS not less vivid. The rich 
colour and the delicate handling of the first primitives are found 
again with Martin the 
Zeelander, but his exag- 
gerated taste for brutal 
truth has seduced him 
into artificiality. He 
painted various replicas 
of the Money-changers 
in the style of Quentin 
Massys' Banker, The 
National Gallery owns 
one of them (Fig. 228). 
The grimacing head of 
a rapacious usurer with 
crooked fingers, facing 
a more mature human fig. 247.— pieter breughel the elder. 

1, . 1 the pilgrims of molenbeek 

vulture; m a word — (Vienna, Albertina). (Phot L5wy.) 

127 




ART IN FLANDERS 



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'^- ':^:j:~y^ 


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rM.. 


:-—. 




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U^ 


■it.. 




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A '■ 


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FIG. 248.— PIETER BREUGHEL THE ELDER. 
THE FARM (London, British Museum). 



humanity in its least pleasant aspect. Several other painters of 
the Antwerp school persevered in this ultra -realistic direction. 
We shall come across them later. 

We must now mention two artists who were remarkable for 

their altogether original 
style." They are Joachim de 
Patinir and Hendrik Bles, 
both born between 1480 
and 1485 in the province 
of Namur, on the banks of 
the Meuse, the one at Di- 
nant, the other at Bou- 
vignes on the opposite side 
of the river. Their bio- 
graphy is of the scantiest. 
Patinir was received in 
1513 in the Guild of St. 
Luke, at Antwerp, at the 
same time as Gheeraert David, which allows one to suppose that 
he was his pupil. Albrecht Diirer met him at Antwerp in 1521 
and painted his portrait. He died in that city in 1524. Infor- 
mation about Hendrik Bles is even more scanty. In the sixteenth 
century, Lampsonius, who wrote an epigraph in Latin verse upon 

his portrait, confirms 
the facts that he was 
born atBouvignes, that 
he was alive about 
1550, and that he was 
a landscape - painter. 
These two Walloon ar- 
tists made their name 
above all in landscape, 
although they also dis- 
tinguished themselves 
as figure-painters. It 
seems that, charmed 
by the picturesqueness 
of their native country, 
they applied them- 
selves to rendering its hills and rocks and rivers. What with the 
Van Eycks and their followers had been mere accessories, became 
frequently the principal objects for Patinir and Bles. Carried 
away by their example, the Flemish landscape-painters, these 

128 




FIG. 249.— PIETER BREUGHEL THE ELDER. 
THE VILLAGE FAIR (London, British Museum). 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 250.— PIETER BREUGHEL THE ELDER. 
THE APIARISTS (London, British Museum). 



inhabitants of the plain, painted views of mountain chains and 
highlands for a whole century. 

Unfortunately there are very few pictures that can with cer- 
tainty be attributed to 
these two masters — four 
only to Patinir. One of 
these, the Baptism of Christ 
(Fig. 229), of the Imperial 
Museum in Vienna, recalls 
in surprising fashion an 
analogous composition by 
Gheeraert David, but is 
vastly inferior to it. The 
figures are rather coarse, the 
colour dull and unpleasant. 
Here the personages play 
the leading part, and the 
landscape is fantastic in 

the highest degree. The Paradise and Hell (Fig. 230), at Madrid, 
and the Rest in Egypt (Fig. 231), of the same Museum (1519) 
are altogether different. Although the figures predominate, the 
landscape nevertheless assumes great importance. It is true, 
fancy still enters largely into this interpretation of nature, but 
the grass and the woods 
are painted by the lover 
of a beautiful flora, who 
spares no pains in trans- 
lating it. 

Hendrik Bles must be 
given a higher place, both 
for his fertile invention 
and for the sublety and 
delicacy of his brush- 
work and of his colour. 
The Adoration of the 
Magi (Fig. 232), which 
may be seen in Munich, 
and which bears his sig- 
nature, is composed with 
much spirit. The scene 
takes place among the ruins of a palace in the Renaissance style; 
the slender elegance of the figures recalls Dierick Bouts; the 
landscape is treated with a miniature-painter's delicacy; yet 

129 K 




FIG. 251.— PIETER BREUGHEL THE ELDER. 

THE MASSACRE OF THE INNOCENTS (Vienna, 

Imperial Museum). (Phot. Bruckmann.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 



there is a new freshness in form and feeling. His figures in the 
Holy Family of Basle (Fig. 233) are equally seductive, but of a 
more secular character; they are placed in a truly enchanting 
setting; the perspective is bordered by dense woods clinging to 
rocky cliffs, and merging into a delicious tender green. The 
figures are coloured with bright and enamel-like tints. The Pil- 
grims of Emmdus (Fig. 234), of the Imperial Museum in Vienna, 
furnishes us with another beautiful specimen of his manner of 
treating romantic rocks, and shows a number of picturesque 
details with caressing mellow tones of delicious transparency. 
Martin de Roymerswael, like Quentin Massys, had a whole 

retinue of followers, a 
legion of interpreters of 
actual life, heirs of the 
primitives in their con- 
scientious observation of 
their models, and in the 
delight they experienced 
in representing their 
contemporaries in their 
every-day aspect, without 
any heroic or romantic 
intention , and adorned 
only with the marvels of 
colour. 

The first of the band 
is Jan Sanders, called Jan 
van Hemissem after his 
native village near Antwerp, where he first saw the light about 
1504. He died at Haarlem after 1555. The Calling of St Matthew 
(Fig. 235), of the Munich Pinakothek, a subject which he treated 
on several occasions, dates from 1536. The Imperial Museum 
in Vienna owns no fewer than three versions. This picture was 
evidently inspired by Massys' Banker or Martin's Money -changer. 
If the background figures seem to have escaped from a thieves' 
kitchen, those in the foreground are full of nobility. St. Mat- 
thew is neither beautiful nor ugly. He has a heavy and con- 
tracted face, with a bristly beard and hair. The artist seems 
to have been at great pains to furnish his composition amply; 
the accessories are carried farther even than the figures. In 
1556 he painted the Prodigal Son of the Brussels Museum. Like 
the preceding picture, it presents a mixture of coarse and bestial 
figures and of pleasing, shapely personages. The background, 

130 




FIG. 252.— PIETER BREUGHEL THE ELDER. 

THE FALL OF SAUL (Vienna, Imperial Museum). 

(Phot. Lowy.) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 



which is kept in a light key, shows various episodes in the life 
of the Prodigal. The painter's predilection for caricature is 
perceptible in this work. The foreground colouring is rich but 
strange ; brown tones predominate. 

A master who may be identical with Jan van Hemissem is 
known under the name of the Monogrammist of Brunswick, 
because of a picture. The Banquet of the Poory which presents a 
combination of the letters H,M, I,S,V. To be precise, this com- 
position, which contains no fewer than a hundred small figures 
set against a very light background, does not immediately recall 
Van Hemissem's manner; but other pictures attributed to the 
unknown master present 
so striking an analogy with 
the Antwerp painter's 
works, that they may well 
be from his brush. Among 
them is the Merry Com- 
pany (Fig. 236) of the 
Carlsruhe Museum. 

On the whole, Van 
Hemissem was ever hesit- 
ating between a vulgar 
realism and an already 
conventional and academic 
idealism, without finding 
the mean between these 
extremes. Pieter Aertsen, 
called**Long Peter"(Lange 
Peer), who was born at 

Amsterdam in 1507 or 1508, proved himself better advised, at 
least in part of his work. At the age of seventeen or eighteen, 
he went to Antwerp, where he was received in 1535 as master 
by the Guild of St. Luke. In the next year he returned to Am- 
sterdam, where he died in 1575. He painted numerous altar- 
pieces which were highly esteemed in his day, but which leave 
us cold, owing to their total lack of originality. On the other 
hand, his genre pictures assure him a more honourable po- 
sition. He stands apart from the majority of his contemporaries 
through what he has in common with the early school: penetrating 
observation, sincere sympathy with the healthy and rude nature 
of the labourer in pursuit of his daily occupations, and delight 
in the beautiful carnations, the healthy complexions and buxom 
forms of Flentish and Dutch womenfolk. The two cooks of the 

131 k2 




FIG. 253.— PIETER BREUGHEL THE ELDER. 

THE ROAD TO CALVARY (Vienna, Imperial 

Museum). (Phot Bruckmann.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 



Brussels Museum are busy by their stoves; the one, adorned 
with the traditional white headdress and immaculate apron, car- 
ries a white cabbage under her arm; the other brandishes the 
spit with its string of chickens. Both enjoy an energetic and 
unchecked authority in their realm, and the brightness of their 
colouring is in complete accord with their vigorous personality 
(Fig. 237). We may connect with these two pictures such scenes 
of popular life as the Flirtation of the Antwerp Museum, 
the Kitchen of Copenhagen (Fig. 238), a Market at Aix-la- 
Chapelle, another in Vienna, a Drink-Shop, also in Vienna and 
dated 1550, and the Egg Dance of Amsterdam — all of them 

works that delight by a 



■IBm 



1 



FIG. 254.— PIETER BREUGHEL. THE VILLAGE 

WEDDING (Vienna, Imperial Museum). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



profusion of richly painted 
accessories. He deals with 
Scriptural subjects in the 
same manner, as, for in- 
stance with that episode 
which is so dear to all 
good Flemish painters of 
interiors : Christ with 
Martha and Mary (Fig. 
239), in the Brussels Mu- 
seum. Christ has seated 
Himself at table between 
the two sisters, one of 
whom continues to attend 
to the requirements of the 
household, whilst the 
other has sat down beside their guest. The same eminently 
familiar and realistic conception characterises the Christ bearing 
the Cross, at Berlin, in which the Saviour ascends Mount Calvary, 
accompanied by a large concourse of people. 

Artistic as well as family links connect Joachim de Beuckelaer 
with Pieter Aertsen who was his master, and who married his 
pupil's aunt. De Beuckelaer was born at Antwerp about 1530, 
became master in 1560, and died in 1573. He treated the same 
subjects as his master, that is to say, he devoted himself above 
all to contemporary life: A Game -Dealer, painted in 1567, 
and now in Vienna (Fig. 240); a Fish-monger's Stall, dated 1568; 
a Market of 1561, both in Munich; a Game Market, at Stock- 
holm; and a number of other scenes of the same kind. Like 
Aertsen, he is attracted by the things and people of the kitchen. 
If Flemish gluttony has become proverbial, the fault lies 

132 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 



largely with the Flemish painters. De Beuckelaer painted also 
some Biblical scenes, giving preference to those which sup- 
plied subjects of feasting, for instance The Prodigal Son (Fig. 241), 
whose return is celebrated by the killing of the fatted calf. 
There are two versions of it, one at Antwerp, the other in 
Vienna. Van Hemissem never tired of painting the Calling of 
St. Matthew; De Beuckelaer painted a number of Ecce Homo 
which serve as pretext for showing the market with its vegetable 
stalls and swarms of small cultivators. The Stockholm Museum 
alone owns three of these pictures. To the same group also 
belongs Peter Huys, who is represented at Berlin (Fig. 
242) and at Tournai. 
He treated for choice 
comic scenes of a trivial 
nature, the flippant ten- 
dency of which he accent- 
uated still further by 
rhymed inscriptions. 

Before dying out with 
this group of realists, the 
primitive school produced 
two other artists of the 
first rank: Jerome Bosch 
and Pieter Breughel. Both 
were born in Holland. 
The first, whose real name 
was Hieronymus van 
Aken, changed this name 
for that of his native town, Bois-le-Duc, which is in Flemish 
Hertogenbosch or Bosch. He was born there about 1460, and 
spent the greater part of his life in the city, dying there in 1516. 
But it is very probable that Bosch lived in his youth in the 
Southern Netherlands. His art is very distinct from that of his 
realist contemporaries, who sought truth in the wholesale inter- 
pretation of nature as they found her, pleasant or repulsive, 
coarse or distinguished. He did not confine himself to imitation; 
he invented. His fancy was inexhaustible, audacious, and dis- 
orderly. In his scenes of real life he heightened the most com- 
monplace truth by amusing details, or mingled with it fiction 
of the wildest invention. In his evocations of hell, he created 
nightmare creatures that seem to be the issue of the monstrous 
pairing of men with wild beasts. In order to represent Evil and 
Sin, he invented chimerical beings, personifying shameful or 

133 




FIG. 255.— PIETER BREUGHEL. 

THE HUNTERS (Vienna, Imperial Museum). 

(Phot. Lowy.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 



grotesque weaknesses. But the painter was extremely skilful. He 
carried the play of colours and tones so far and attained to such 
subtlety of the finest gradations, that he compels admiration as 
one of the most perfect colour magicians. 

His masterpiece is the Adoration of the Magi of the Museum 
at Madrid (Fig. 243). The mystery of the Nativity is treated 
as seriously as could be desired, but his burlesque fancy enters 
into the manner in which the rustics participate in the action. 
Some have climbed on to the roof of the barn ; others spy 
upon the scene from behind the corner of the building; the 
boldest of them pass their heads through the gaps in the wall. In 
the Mocking of Christ (Fig. 244) of the Escorial, debauchery and 
blackguardism are depicted with a kind of voluptuousness on the 

faces of the henchmen and 
judges. Bosch succeeds 
in emphasising this still 
further in his Christ bear- 
ing His Cross (Fig. 245) 
of the Museum at Ghent: 
here the vileness and ig- 
nominy border upon bes- 
tiality. But it is in the 
Last Judgment (Fig. 246) 
of the Bruges Museum 
that the frenzy of these 
grotesque metamorpho- 
ses verges on paroxysm; 
the forms and actions of the men, the silhouettes and movements 
of the animals, the most incompatible objects, are brought 
together in wild confusion, without the least logic, without a 
shadow of reason, solely, it would appear, to give us a glimpse 
into the domain of nightmares and hallucinations. From whom 
can this man of North Brabant have borrowed this spirit of 
exasperated satire and this genius for the most outrageous 
caricature? 

This master of horrors and of witches' sabbaths, who was at 
the same time a magician of the brush, was the artistic father 
of one of the greatest artists of the Flemish school: Pieter 
Breughel. He, too, had come from the Netherlands, from the 
village of Breughel, where he was born about 1525. At an 
early age he left for the Southern Netherlands. In 1551 he 
travelled in Italy; in 1553 we find him again at Antwerp; in 
1563 he was at Brussels, where he died in 1569. He was a 

134 




FIG. 256.— PIETER BREUGHEL. THE BLIND 
BEGGARS (Naples, Museum). (Phot. Brogi.) 



rLrLlVllDri /\Ki ikj inn oiyvinniNin ^^niNiur^i 



faithful interpreter of nature. An attentive observer, he pene- 
trated the character of men as well as their physical appearance; 
he drew them in vivid and precise strokes, and painted them 
with vigorous and tender gradations of colour. He never shrank 
from the sincere representation of all that was repulsive or 
deformed in his models, but at least he did not deliberately 
seek out ugliness. He, too, deals with scenes from the life of 
the people, and, following the example of the writers of his 
time, his satirical genius found its material in the vices and 
foibles of humanity. We are thus dealing with an artist alto- 
gether different from his predecessors; with him, the painter is 
combined with the mor- 
alist; and he appeals as 
much to the intellect as 
to the eye. But the painter 
always predominates over 
the moralist and the folk- 
lorist — a painter extreme- 
ly sensitive to luminous 
light, and to the superb 
patches of colour which 
some stuff, some derelict 
building, some tree offers 
to his eyes. He did not 
confine himself to paint- 
ing; he left whole bundles 
of drawings, not only 
studies from nature in 
which he fixes with ^a 

sharp pen the appearance of men and objects, but also designs 
which were reproduced by the engravers who distributed his 
innumerable series of landscapes and seascapes, of proverbs, 
parables and allegories among the public. One of his most 
important drawings, belonging to the Albertina in Vienna, shows 
us how on Midsummer's Day, at Molenbeek, near Brussels, pilgrims 
perform a continuous dance until, having crossed a certain 
bridge, always dancing and jumping, they are ensured against 
epilepsy for a whole year (Fig. 247). Another drawing, belonging 
like the next to the British Museum, is a study of rustics 
dancing under the trees in front of a village inn (Fig. 249); a 
third recalls the original way in which apiarists protect themselves 
against the stings of bees (Fig. 250) ; a fourth drawing is the simple 
rendering of a landscape, such as may be seen anywhere in 




FIG. 257.— PIETER BREUGHEL. THE RETURN 

OF THE HERDS (Vienna, Imperial Museum.) 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 



Belgium (Fig. 248). The people adored this humorist; they enjoyed 
his pranks and his chaff, and delighted in seeing themselves 
represented quite frankly, with all their foibles and faults, by 
so cordial and witty an artist. The good folk had even dubbed 
him "the Droll" {Viezen Breughel), and he is still known by this 
nickname far beyond the frontiers of his country. The majority 
of his pictures and the best of them are at the Imperial Museum 
in Vienna. According to the testimony of his son Jan, the Emperor 
Rudolph II. wanted to procure all his pictures, and was willing 
to pay their weight in gold for them. 

Like Jerome Bosch, Pieter Breughel painted episodes from 

Scripture, which he trans- 
ported to his own country 
and set among his com- 
patriots. Thus, the Mas- 
sacre of the Innocents 
(Fig. 251), takes place in 
mid-winter in a Flemish 
village; the sky is evenly 
shrouded with a light 
greenish grey veil ; the 
ground and the roofs are 
covered with snow, not 
biting and harsh, but soft 
as a fleece. The houses 
of the place where the 
drama is being enacted 
are brownish red or deep 
yellow; the figures stand out against this white ground and 
against the sparkling whiteness of the roofs; and so do the 
trees that have shed their leaves. The massacre is less striking 
for its ferocity than for the calmness of the groups who per- 
petrate or suffer murderous attacks without the slightest agitation. 
One might almost discover a touch of the burlesque in the 
gestures of these supplicating and tearful little folks. But 
what wonderful colouring! What indescribable softness in the 
strange tonality of the sky and in the caressing tints of the 
little houses! 

The Road to Calvary (Fig. 253) shows us a motley crowd ascend- 
ing the slope of a grey -blue mountain, verdant in parts and 
planted here and there with a few slender trees: the crowd is 
scattered and suggests a kermesse rather than a march to exe- 
cution. But the little figures of brilliant red or yellow or bluish 

136 




FIG. 258.— PIETER BREUGHEL. THE LAND OF 

COCKAYNE (Berlin, von Kaufmann). 

(Phot Bruckmann.) 



hLLMlbH AKl lU 1 HL blA 1 LhlN 1 H ChlN 1 UKY 



white supply many lively notes, resplendent against the brown 
and green harmony of the ground. 

The Fall of Saul (Fig. 252) takes place in a rocky landscape 
planted with dark green pines; here we find all the emotion 
experienced by Hendrik Bles before the beauties of nature in a 
work on a much larger scale. There is something truly wonderful 
in the poetry of colour and in the happy mixture of truth and 
fancy. Popular scenes like the Village Wedding of the Imperial 
Museum in Vienna (Fig. 254) gained for our artist the nickname 
of "Peasant Breughel". The proverbial appetite and the gluttony 
of the Flemings served 
this painter as a pretext 
for displaying all his 
splendours of colour; the 
red caps of some half 
dozen rustics, the white 
coifs of their womenfolk, 
the large spots of colour 
furnished by the servants 
and musicians, the ap- 
petising yellow of the 
omelettes — all combine 
into a brilliant harmony. 
With Breughel the sweet 
melody of Bles' shepherds 
is changed into the tri- 
umphant blast of trum- 
pets. 

The Village Fair of the 
same museum is akin to 
the preceding picture. A bagpiper, dancing villagers and children; 
in the background the inn and the village. The chestnut-brown 
of old buildings and the red flag of the inn supply Breughel 
with his favourite colours, which he dispenses here in their 
strongest shades. 

Landscape proper represents the noblest part of the master's 
work. Two pictures at the Imperial Museum may be mentioned 
as examples. The Hunters and The Return of the Herds. The 
first of these takes us into a snow-covered country (Fig. 255). 
In the foreground, we see the white mellow plain with the hunters 
and black dogs ; further back the frozen ponds with young people 
skating. In the background, the ground rises and terminates in 
pointed rocks. The Return of the Herds (Fig. 257) shows us the 

137 




FIG. 259.— PIETER BREUGHEL. THE BIRD'J 

NESTER (Vienna, Imperial Museum). 

(Phot. Hanfstaengl) 



ART IN FLANDERS 



end of autumn ; the herdsmen descend from the heights and drive 
the cattle before them. The dark tonality of the foreground, 
which is just heightened with a few spots of brilliant white, 
produces a soothing impression. In the background, a silvery 
landscape bathed in gentle light rises like a prayer towards a 
dreamy sky. Breughel is a landscape painter who is sensitive 
to all aspects of nature, rendering its most subtle gradations with 
an ever alert sympathy. 

It is not only in his drawings intended for the engraver, but 
also in his pictures, that he deals in "moralities". To this 
phase of his art belongs The Blind Beggars (Fig. 256), one of his 

two pictures at the Mu- 
seum of Naples, both of 
which are peculiar in so 
far as Breughel painted 
them in tempera, a 
medium to which he re- 
sorted only on rare oc- 
casions. It is an illus- 
tration of the proverb: 
"When the blind lead 
the blind, both fall into 
the ditch." Breughel has 
actually painted six blind 
men. Their leader is 
already wading in water; 
the second is on the point 
of joining him ; the others 
are groping their way down the slope. They are pitiable human 
wrecks of lamentable and grotesque appearance, never to be 
forgotten if once seen. The healthy and peaceful landscape 
through which these phantoms drag themselves along makes their 
infirmities the more deplorable. The colour of this picture is 
delicious, and very light : yellow, blue and green, the background 
greyish, the whole softer in tone than his oil paintings. The 
work was painted in 1568, a year before the artist's death. 

Another illustration of a proverb is The Bird's Nester of the 
Vienna Museum (Fig. 259). An urchin, perched on a tree, seizes 
a bird's nest. A peasant who passes by points at it with his 
finger. It is a passably clear commentary on the Flemish proverb : 
"He who knows the nest, knows it; he who takes it, keeps it." 
But what a radiant tonality overspreads this whole landscape! 
In the Land of Cockayne (Fig. 258), belonging to Herr von 

138 




FIG. 260.— PIETER BREUGHEL THE YOUNGER. 

WINTER|landscape (Vienna, Imperial Museum). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 



Kaufmann, in Berlin, Breughel has illustrated a popular story. 
It is a picture of the country where the roasted pigs, at the 
call of hunger, come running towards you, bringing you, stuck in 
their sides, the knife which will serve to carve them. The four 
fat epicures sprawling on the lawn are eminently suggestive; 
another gourmand is still busy devouring strings of sausages 
seven miles long. And the colour is superb, brilliant, mellow, 
no longer applied in full and compact masses, but fluid and fat, 
the different tones melting into each other. This picture, of 
the year 1567, bears witness to the steady progress of the great 
painter's talent and craftsmanship. — Pieter Breughel had a 
son, Pieter Breughel the 
Younger (1564—1639), 
who is also known as "Hell 
Breughel", because he 
painted several pictures in 
which the flames of hell 
or of some conflagration 
were represented. He 
spent the greater part of 
his life in imitating or 
copying his father's works ; 
and he did this with un- 
deniable skill and talent. 
Moreover, he did not 
always confine himself to 
slavish imitation : he often 
merely adopted his father's 

manner. One of his best pictures in this style is the Winter 
Landscape (Fig. 260) of the Imperial Museum in Vienna. 

Breughel the Elder had another disciple in Pieter Balten, a 
native of Antwerp, who worked between 1540 and the end of 
the century. He painted mainly kermesse scenes. One of them 
is in the Museum of Antwerp and represents St. Martins Day 
(Fig. 261). It is a free imitation of the subject treated by his 
master, and shows analogous realistic figures in lively colours 
against the brown earth, with a landscape in the background. 

These painters of purely Flemish technique and inspiration 
take us far into the sixteenth century. But for a long time 
past, other painters had already gone to Italy to assimilate 
the principles that were to become the foundations of a new 
Flemish style. ^ ^ 




FIG. 261.— PIETER BALTEN. 

ST. martin's day (Antwerp, Museum). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



139 



ART IN FLANDERS 



At the same period that witnessed the production of the first 
known oil-paintings — which were masterpieces — the engravers 
were executing their first plates. In the second half of the four- 
teenth century, wood-blocks were cut for the printing of fabrics. 
About 1400 begins the publication of popular books with text 
and illustrations cut in wood — the precursors of volumes set 
with movable type. These xylographic books, the Bible of the 
PooVy the Canticles, and others, were executed in Holland and 
in Belgium. The earliest known engraved sheets belong to the 
end of the fourteenth century; the first 
that bear a date are of the first quarter 
of the fifteenth century: The Mystic 
Marriage of the Virgin, of 1418, is in 
the Bibliotheque Royale in Brussels, 
and a St. Christopher , dated 1423, 
belongs to Lord Spencer. The first in 
its faded lines betrays in a striking 
manner the style of the Van Eycks. 
Engraving on copper appears later; the 
earliest date, 1446, is met with on the 
pieces of a Passion of Christ, a coarse- 
ly executed French engraving. Twenty 
years must be allowed to pass before 
we meet with a really artistic work — 
a sheet representing the arms of the 
Duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, 
which was produced in Flanders in 1466 
or 1467, and now belongs to the Bib- 
liotheque Royale in Brussels (Fig. 262). 
On it are the arms of the Duke sur- 
rounded by the escutcheons of his various principalities, and the 
patrons of the Golden Fleece, St. George and St. Andrew. As 
engraving, the work is remarkable: the cleanness and the strength 
of the line prove that the art has reached its maturity. The style 
is entirely Gothic; the invention and the composition are irre- 
proachable in taste. The early date upon the Mystic Marriage 
of the Virgin, and the period to which the arms of Charles the 
Bold belong, prove that engraving on wood as well as on copper 
were practised, and reached a high degree of perfection, in 
Flanders sooner than in any other country of Europe. 

Most branches of engraving have for their object merely the 
reproduction of the design created by a painter. Considered 
from this point of view, engraving is a secondary art which achieves 

140 




FIG. 262.— ARMS 
OF CHARLES THE BOLD 

(Brussels, Library). 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 



success as much by exactness of imitation as by originality of 
expression. And so it is with tapestry. The two methods of 
reproducing the designs differ above all in that the one inter- 
prets its subject in black and white, whilst the other reproduces 
the colours as well. At different periods the Flemings have 
distinguished themselves as engravers; but to a much higher 
degree, they have gained a brilliant reputation as tapestry- 
workers. One might say that they are born with a taste for 
colour, with a fine sense of delicate shades, and with an 
instinct for harmony. Not ony artists of the brush who produced 
and created designs, 
but a whole population 
of artisans and workmen 
were occupied in repro- 
ducing these works of art. 
In the first third of the 
sixteenth century, the craft 
of the weavers in Brus- 
sels counted 103 masters 
and from 1400 to 1500 
workmen; in the second 
third of the same century, 
Audenarde, a town of 
the importance of a large 
village, counted a popu- 
lation of from 12000 to 
14000 inhabitants, who 
gained their livelihood in 
the tapestry industry. For 

more than two centuries, foreign nations came to learn the craft 
or to borrow workers from the Flemish towns; during a still 
longer period the Flemish factories supplied their artistic tissues 
to the greater part of Europe. 

It was upon a city belonging to the domains of the Duke of 
Burgundy, that the art of tapestry first shed lustre: Ar- 
ras, near the borders of Flanders proper, had the distinction 
of supplying the Italians with the name of the much admired 
product (arrazzi). The Countess Mahaut of Artois (1302 — 1327) 
contributed largely, through the generous commissions she be- 
stowed upon her subjects, towards the prosperous growth of the 
most artistic craft of the world in an unimportant city that had 
not produced a single artist of fame. The luxurious taste of 
the fourteenth century caused palaces, castles, and churches to 

141 




FIG. 263. —DAVID CONTEMPLATING BATHSHEBA 
(Madrid, Royal Palace). (Phot. Mauser y Menet.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 



be decorated with these splendid tissues manufactured of wool, 
and of gold and silver and silk. Arras maintained this envied 
position for about two centuries, and only lost it when, in 1477, 
Louis XI. seized the town and dispersed the inhabitants. 

A swarm of workmen and masters had issued from Arras to 
teach their industry in more prosperous cities. Tournai, Enghien, 
Audenarde, and particularly Brussels were the true successors 
of Arras. Tournai was her favoured rival and preceded Brussels ; 
but the latter city manufactured large figured hangings as far 
back as in the fourteenth century. In 1430 a corporation of 

tapestry - weavers was 
created in that city. In 
1466, the Dukes of 
Burgundy bought some 
tapestries there for the 
first time, and thus Brus- 
sels definitively usurped 
the rank of Arras. 

The oldest Brussels ta- 
pestries known date from 
the second half of the 
fifteenth century. Thanks 
to a lucky chance, we 
know the painter of two 
of these works of the 




FIG. 264.— EPISODES FROM THE LIFE OF 

THE VIRGIN (Madrid, Royal Palace). 

(Phot. Hauser y Menet.) 



earliest period. As we 
have already mentioned, 
it was no less important 
an artist than Rogier van 
der Weyden, who chose for his subjects the Justice of Trajan 
and the Communion of Herkenbald. Attempts have been made 
to connect the names of certain great primitive masters with 
other important tapestries, for instance that of Quentin Massys 
with the tapestries of Aix Cathedral. They have not succeeded. 
But the entire art of that period was permeated with the same 
spirit as the art of painting: careful execution, extreme delicacy 
of workmanship, and brilliance of colour. The tapestry-workers 
of the early times certainly refined their design and colour as 
much as possible, but they could not rival the painters in beauty 
of execution; their work remains comparatively rude, and their 
colours, as far as we can now judge, were pallid. It must be 
admitted that, generally, the designers of cartoons for tapestry 
were painters of the second rank and of special qualifications. 

142 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 

As a matter of fact, from a very early period, tapestry subjects 
were quite different from the subjects of easel-pictures. The latter 
are confined to a limited range of ideas, which they represent 
in a traditional manner. The tapestry-designers treat all manner 
of subjects, but with a marked preference for extensive and 
complicated themes: sacred and profane history, mythology, 
allegory, and morals. At the beginning, in the fifteenth century, 
their composition has not the unity and harmony which it was 
to attain later on; the story is partitioned into several compart- 
ments; the figures are isolated; the artist's creative genius does 
not seem equal to welding the various episodes into a homo- 
geneous whole; but the execution is careful and recalls that of 
the primitive painters (Figs. 263 — 265). 

Engraving, tapestry, goldsmith's work, typography — all that is 
comprised in the term "the minor arts" — flourished in what 
are now the Belgian provinces, and more especially in the Flemish 
districts, which had an industrious population who applied 
themselves to the crafts, ennobling them by their artistic taste. 
Flemish fabrics were famed the whole world over for their rich 
colours, as was Flemish lace for its happy design and fine work- 
manship. The distinction between the artist and the workman 
was negligible: every artisan rose above the status of a simple 
workman by the development of his intelligence and the refine- 
ment of his touch; whilst the artist remained a workman by his 
capacity to execute his conceptions with his own hands. 




FIG. 265.— CHRIST FAINTING 

UNDER THE CROSS (Vatican). 

(Phot. Alinari.) 

143 



ART IN FLANDERS 
BIBLIOGRAPHY TO CHAPTER II 

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g^en , Hettner und Lamprecht , Leipzig, 1889. — Alvin (L.), Les grandes armoiries de 
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1905); Gerard David, Brussels, 1899. — Bast (De), Notice sur Thierry Bouts (Messager 
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t. VIII). — Bock (Franz), Memling-Studien, Dusseldorf, 1900. — Bode (D'- W.), Die An- 
hetung der Hirten von H. van der Goes {Jahrb. der K. Pr. Kunsts., 1903) ; Zu Hugo van 
der Goes, Berlin, 1903 {Jahrb. P. K. XXIV, p. 90). - Bodenhausen (Eberhard Freiherr 
von), Gerard David und seine Schule, Munich, 1905. — Bouchot (H.), Hypotheses sur les 
van Eyck {Primitifs Frangais , 1904). — Boudrot (J.-B.) , Le Jugement Dernier a Beaune 
de R. van der Weyden, 1875. — Branden (F. J. Van den), Geschiedenis der Antw. Schilder- 
school. Antw., 1878-1883. - Bruyn, Thierry Bouts {Art moderne, Brussels, 1908). — Bur- 
bure (L. de), Toestand der beeldende Kunsten te Antwerpen in 7454; Notice sur I'eglise 
Notre-Dame dAnvers. — Carton, Note sur Memling (Bulletin de VAcad. royale de Belgi- 
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ques Recherches sur les anciennes Manufactures de Tapisseries a Audenarde {Annales de 
i Academic dArcheologie de Belgique, Antwerp, 1856). — Cavalcaselle (and Crowe), Les 
anciens Peintres flamands, annotes par A. Pinchart et Ch. Ruelens , Brussels, 1872. — 
Champiaux, Travaux d'art executes pour Jean de France, due de Berry. — Chmelarz (Ed.), 
Ein Verwandter des Breviariums Grimani in der K. K. Hofbibliothek. Hortulus Animoe 
(Jahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Samml. des allerh. Kaiserhauses, IX, 429) ; Das dltere Ge- 
betbuch des Kaisers Maximilian {Ibid., IX, 429). — Cloquet (Louis) et de la Grange (A.), 
Etude sur I'art a Tournai 1887-1888 {Memoires de la Societe litteraire de Tournai). — 
Cohen (Dr Walter), Martinus van Roymerswaele {Arts anciens de Flandre, II, 153) ; Studien 
zu Quinten Matsys, Bonn, 1904. — CoUinet (in Loran), Verzameling der overblyfsels onzer 
nationale Kunst, Brussels, 1873. — Crowe (See Cavalcaselle). — Dalbon, Les Procedes des 
Primitifs, Paris, 1904. — Darcel, LArt dans les Flandres avant le XV^ siecle {Gazette des 
Beaux-Arts, 1887). — David {Gerard), Kleinmann, Haarlem. — De Bosschere (J.), Quinten 
Matsys, Brussels, 1907. — De Bruyn (H.), Archeologie religieuse appliquee a nos Monuments 
nationaux, 1869. — De Bruyn (H.), L'Art religieux en Belgique depuis la Renaissance 
jusqu'a nos jours. — Delepierre (Oct.), Galerie d'artistes brugeois, Bruges 1840; La Chdsse 
de Sainte Ursule, Bruges, 1841. — Delisle (Leop.), Les Livres d'heures du Due de Berry 
(Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 1884); Melanges de Paleographie et de Bibliographic, Paris, 1880; 
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1888; Le Cabinet des manuscrits de la Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, 1868-1881. — De 
Mont (Pol), Le Musee des enlumineurs avec notice, Kleinmann, Haarlem; Les Chefs- 
d'CEuvre d'Art ancien a VExposition de la Toison d'or, 1908. — Destree (Jos.), Les Heures 
de Notre-Dame dites de Hennessy (Bruxelles, Bibliotheque Royale), Brussels, 1895; L'lndu- 
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attribuee a Hugo van der Goes (L'Art Flamand et Hollandais, 1907). — Destree (Jos.) et 
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1910; Les Musees Royaux du Cinquantenaire et de la Porte de Halle, Brussels; Tapis- 
series et Sculptures Bruxelloises a VExposition de I'Art ancien a Bruxelles ; La Sculpture 
au Moyen Age (Annales de la Societe d'Archeologie, 1894, 1895, 1899); Documents (Les) 
iconographiques de la Bibliotheque royale de Bruxelles par C. Ruelens, H. Hymans, S. Petit, 
Edouard Fetis. — Dollmayr (H.), Hieronymus Bosch (Jahrb. der kunsth. Samml. des 
allerh. Kaiserh., 1898). — Dujardyn (J.-B.), Het tydvak der van Eycks, Bruges , 1904. — 
Diilberg (Fr.), Die Friihholldnder, Kleinmann, Haarlem. — Duplessis (Georges), Histoire 
de la Gravure, Paris, 1880. — Durand-Greville (E.), Hubert van Eyck, Anciens Arts de 
Flandre, Bruges, 1905. — Durrieu (Comte Paul), A. Bening et les Peintres du Breviaire 
Grimani (Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 1891); Heures de Turin, Reproduction en phototypie, 
Paris, 1891; Heures de Turin, Paris, 1902; Les Debuts des Van Eyck, (Gazette des Beaux- 
Arts, 1903) ; Les Tres Riches Heures de Jean de France, Due de Berry, a Chantilly, Paris, 
Hon, 1904; Les Belles Heures du Due de Berry, Paris, 1906; Jacq. Coene de Bruges, 

144 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 

Brussels, 1906 {Arts anciens de Flandre, II, 5). — Dvorak, Das Rdtsel der Kunst der 
Briider van Eyck {Gazette d&s Beaux- Arts, 1903); Die Illuminatoren des Johannes von Neu- 
markt {Jahrb. der Kunstsamml. des allerh. Kaiserhauses. Bd. XXII). — Even (E. van), 
Thierry Bouts, Brussels, 1861 ; Six Lettres de M. Alphonse Wauters, Louvain, 1864 ; Notice 
sur Quinten Matsys, Louvain, 1849; Qifinten Matsys {Biographic nationale) ; L'ancienne 
Ecole de peinture a Louvain, 1870. — Everaerts (Adolphe), Monographic de I'Hotel de 
Ville de Louvain, Louvain, 1872. — Ewerbeck (Franz), Die Renaissance in Belgien 
und Holland, Leipzig- 1891. — Fetis (Edouard) , Les Artistes beiges a I'Etranger, 
Brussels, 1857-1865. — Fickaert (Franchoys), Metamorphosis ofte wonderbare veranderingh 
ende Leven van den vermaarden M^' Quinten Matsys, Antwerp, 1648. — Fierens-Gevaert, 
Breviarium Grimani {Journal de Bruxelles, 9 novembre 1908); Les Primitifs Flamands, 1908; 
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plaats en de familie van Quinten Matsys, 1870. — Fornenbergh (Alex, van). Den Antwerpschen 
Protheus {Quinten Matsys), Antwerp, 1658. — Forster (Ernest), Gerard David {Journal des 
Beaux-Arts, 1869). — Friedlander (Max), Die Leihausstellung der New Gallery in London 
{Repertorium, 1900); Meisterwerke der Niederl. Malerei auf d. Ausstellg. zu Briigge, 1902, 
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van der Goes {Jahrb. der kon. preuss. Kunsts., 1904). — Fromentin, Les Maitres d'autrefois, 
Paris, 1877. — Gaedertz (Th.), Hans Memling und dessen Altarschrein irn Dom zu Liibeck, 
Leipzig- 1889. — Genard (Pet.), Quinten Matsys {De Vlaamsche School), 1868. — Germain 
(Alph.), Les Neerlandais en Bourgogne, Brussels, 1909. — Gheyn (J. van den), Catalogue 
des manuscrits de la Bibliotheque Royale de Belgique, 1901 ; Notes sur quelques Manu- 
scrits a Miniatures de I'Ecole flamande conservees dans les Bibliotheques d Espagne {An- 
nales de i Academic Royale de Belgique, 1907) ; Chroniques et Conquestes de Charlemagne, 
Brussels, 1909; L'Antiphonaire de I'Abbaye de Beaupre, Audenarde, 1909; Notes sur quel- 
ques scribes et enlumineurs de la Cour de Bourgogne {Bulletin de I Academic royale 
d'archeologie de Belgique, 1909, p. 89); Histoire de Charles Martcl {Reproduction des 102 
miniatures, Brussels, 1910); Un Livre d'heures^du Due Jean de Berry {Le Musee des En- 
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a Cracovie {Arts anciens de Flandre, III, 109). — (jielen (Joseph), L'Evangeliairc dEyck 
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Goffin (Arnold), Thierry Bouts, Brussels, 1907 ; Gossart {H.),Jeronimus Bosch, Lille, 1907. — 
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1887-1838) ; Memoire de la Societe historique et litteraire de Tournai, t. XX et XX). — Grimani, 
Breviarium Grimani reproduit (Ong^ania , Venise 1903, in-8"); Breviarium Grimani publie 
par Z)r S. G. De Vrics. Leiden 1904. — Guiffrey (Jules), E, Muntz, A. Pinchart {Histoire 
generale de la Tapisserie , III, Tapisseries flamandes , Paris, 1879-1884); Histoire de la 
Tapisserie, Tours, 1886 ; La Tapisserie in Andre Michel {Histoire des Arts. vol. Ill, p. 343, 
Paris, 1607). — Haeg^hen (V. Van der), Memoire sur les Documents faux relatifs aux anciens 
Peintres, Brussels, 1898; La Corporation des Peintres et des Sculpteurs de Gand, Brussels, 
1906; L'Humaniste-imprimcur Robert de Key sere et sa sceur Clara la Miniaturiste (Annales 
de la Societe d'Histoire et d'Archeologic, Ghent, 1908. — Haghe (Louis), Monuments 
anciens recueillis en belgique et en Allemagnc, Brussels, 1841. — Haisne (De), Histoire 
de I'Art dans les Flandres^, TArtois, le Hainaut avant le XV^' sieclc , Lille, 1886; Les 
CEuvrcs des Maitres de I'Ecole flamande de peinture conservees en Italic, Paris 1891; 
Documents inedits conccrnant Jean le Tavernier et Louis Liedet , miniaturistes des 
Dues de Bourgogne {Bulletin des Commissions royalcs d'Art et d'Archeologic, XXI, 
1882, p. 23). — Hastloff (Arth.), Catalogue des manuscrits de la Bibliotheque des Dues 
de Bourgogne, Brussels, 1842. — Hasse (C.), Roger von Briigge. der Meister von Flemalle, 
Strasburg:, 1904; Roger van der Wcyden und Roger von Briigge. Strasburg, 1905. — 
Hedicke (Rob.), Der Meister des Lombceker Altars {Repertorium fiir Kunstw.. XXX, 3). — 
Hedouin (H.), Memling {Annales archeolog. , Paris, 1847). — Heiland (Paul), Dirk Bouts 
und die Hauptwerke seiner Schule , Strasburg, 1902. — Helbig, Le Triptyque de Najera 
{Revue de I'Art chretien, Bruges, 1890) ; Histoire de la Sculpture au Pays de Liege, Bruges, 
1890; Histoire de la Peinture au Pays de Liege, Liege, 1873-1903. — Heris , Histoire de 
I'Ecole flamande de peinture du XV'- sieclc (Academic royale de Belgique, Memoires, 1856). 

— Hirz, Das jiingste Gericht in der Sankt Marienkirche in Danzig, Danzig, 1859. — 
Houbraken, De groote schouwburg der Nederlandsche kunstschilders, Amsterdam, 1718-1721. 

— Hourticq (Louis), La Peinture des origines au XVF sieclc. Paris, 1908. — Houtard 
(Maurice), Jacq. Daret, Peintre tournaisien du XV^ sieclc, Tournai, 1907. — Huland (Paul), 
Dirk Bouts und die Hauptwerke seiner Schule. — Hulin (Georg.), Catalogue critique de 
V Exposition de Bruges, Ghent, 1902; Quelques Peintres liegeois de la premiere moitie du 
XVF sieclc, par Prevost, 1902; Les Tres Riches Heures de Jean de France, Due de Berry, 
Ghent, 1903 {Bulletin de la Societe dHistoire et d'Archeologic de Gand). — Hulin et Van 

145 L 



ART IN FLANDERS 

Bastelaer, Peter Breughel VAncien, Brussels, 1907; An authentic Work by Jacq. Daret, 
1434 {The Burlington Magazine, July, 1909). — Hymans (H.), Les Images populaires fla- 
mandes au XVh siecle , Lieg-e, 1869; Le Livre des Peintres. Traduction de van^ Mander 
avec notes, Paris, 1884; Quinten Matsys {Gazette des Beaux- Arts, 1888); Les Ecoles du 
Nord au Musee de Madrid {Gaz. des Beaux -Arts, 1893); L' Exposition des Primitifs fla- 
mands a Bruges {Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 1902). — Immerzeel, De Levens en werken der 
Hollandsche en Vlaamsche Kunstschilders, Amsterdam , 1842-1843. — Jacobsen , Quelques 
Maitres des vieilles ecoles neerlandaises et allemandes {Gazette des Beaux- Arts , 1906). — 
Jardin (Du) (Jules), L'Art Flamand, Brussels, 1896. — Justi (K.), Altflandrische Bilder in 
Spanien {Zeitschr. f. bild. K., XXI -XXII); Die Werke des Hieronymus Bosch in Spanien 
{Jahrb. K. P. Kunsts., Berlin, 1889). — Kaemmerer (L.), Memling {Kiinstler-Monographien 
Knackfuss), Bielefeld, 1899; Hubert und Jan van Eyck, Bielefeld, 1898. — Kinkel (G.), 
Rogier van der Weyden {Die Briisseler Rathausbilder, Bern, 1867). — Koch (F.), Un eleve 
du maitre de Flemalle {Repertorium fiir Kunstw., vol. XXIV). — Krumm, De Levens en 
werken der Hollandsche en Vlaamsche Kunstschilders, Amsterdam, 1857. — Labarte (Jules), 
Histoire des Arts industriels au Moyen Age et a I'epoque de la Renaissance, Paris, 1873 ; 
Histoire des Arts au Moyen Age et a I'epoque de la Renaissance, vol. Ill, 1865. — Laborde 
(Leon comte de), Les Dues de Bourgogne, Paris, 1849-1852. — Lafenestre, Les Primitifs a 
Bruges et a Paris, Paris, 1904. — Lang-erock (P.), Anciennes Constructions en Flandre, 
Ghent, 1887. — Ledeboer (Von), Das jiingste Gericht zu Danzig, Berlin, 1859. — Lemon- 
nier (Camille), Histoire des Beaux-Arts en Belgique (1887). — Lerius (Th. van) en Rom- 
bouts (Ph.), De Liggeren der Antw.-Lucasgilde, 1864-1876. — Linder (Van), Dirk Bouts en 
zyne School, Vlaamsche School, 1891. — Lokeren (Van), Histoire de VAbbaye de Saint- 
Bavon, Ghent. — Loo (Georg-e H. de) (Voir Hulin). — Loran (in Collinet), Verzameling 
der overblyfpels onzer nationale kunst, Brussels, 1873. — Maeterlinck (L.), Le Maitre de 
Flemalle identifie {Chronique des Arts, 1901); Le Genre satyrique dans la Peinture flamande, 
Brussels, 1901; Roger van der Weyden Sculpteur {Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 1901); L'Ori- 
gine flamande de Van der Weyden {Societe Historique Gand , 1902). — Mander (Carel 
van), Het Schilderboeck 1604 {French translation by H. Hymans, Paris, 1884; German 
translation by Hans Floerke, Leipzig-, 1906), — Marchal (M.), Notice sur un Livre d'Heures 
qui appartenait a Jean de Berry {Bulletin de V Academic royale de Belgique, t. XI, l^e partie, 
1844, p. 407-424). Marchal (Edm. Chevalier), La Sculpture et les Chefs -d'CEuvre de 
I'Orfevrerie, Brussels, 1895. — Mely (Fr. de), Le Retable de Beaune {Gazette des Beaux- 
Arts, 1906). — Micha (Alfr.), Les Maitres tombiers-sculpteurs et statuaires liegeois, Lieg-e, 
1909. — Michel (E.), Le Triptyque de Hugo van der Goes {Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 1896). 

— Michiels (Alfr.), Histoire de la Peinture flamande , Paris, 1865-1876; LArt flamand 
dans TEst de la France, Paris, 1877; Memlinc et ses Ouvrages, Verviers, 1881. — Mig-eon 
(Gaston), Les Arts du Tissu, Paris, 1909. — Nag-ler, Neues allgemeines Kiinstler-Lexikon, 
Munich, 1838. — Neeffs (Emmanuel), Histoire de la Peinture et de la Sculpture a Malines, 
1876; Histoire de la Peinture de Malines, 1856. — Nivelles (Guide de la Collegiale), 
Sainte Gertrude patronne de Nivelles, Nivelles, 1893. — Pauw (Nap. de), Les premiers 
Peintres et Sculpteurs Gantois , Ghent, 1899. — Pierron (Sander), Hugues van der Goes 
miniaturiste {Art moderne, 1905). — Piles (De), Abrege de la Vie des Peintres, Paris, 1715. 

— Pinchart (Alexandre), Documents antiques relatifs aux freres van Eyck et a Roger van 
der Weyden et ses descendants, Brussels, 1863; Miniaturistes, Enlumineurs et Calligraphes 
employes par Philippe le Bon et Charles le Temeraire, Brussels, 1865; Documents sur Rogier 
(Bulletins des Commissions royales, 1864, 1867; Medailles, Tapisseries, Dinanderie {Patria 
Belgica , Brussels , 1875) ; Roger de la Pasture , dit van der Weyden , Brussels , 1876. — 
Archives des Arts, Sciences et Lettres, Ghent, 1860 - 1881 ; Roger van der Weyden et les 
Tapisseries de Berne {Bulletin de l Academic royale de Belgique, 1882) ; Quelques Artistes 
et quelques Artisans de Tournai du XIV^, XV^ et XVI^ siecles {Bulletin de Belgique, 1882) ; 
Robert Campin de Tournai {Bulletin de TAcademie royale de Belgique , 1882). — Praes 
(Van), Recherches sur Louis de Bruges, Seigneur de la Gruthuuse, Paris, 1831. — Reusent, 
Elements d'Archeologie chretienne. — Revillon, Recherches sur Memlinck, Saint-Omer, 1895. 

— Ricci (Seymour de), Un Groupe d'CEuvres de Roger van der Weyden {Gazette des 
Beaux-Arts. 1907). — Rieg-el, Beitrdge zur niederl. Kunstgeschichte, Berlin, 1882. — Rom- 
bouts (Ph.) in Van Lerius (Th.), De Liggeren der Antwerpsche Lucasgilde (Antw. 1864-1876). 

— Romdahl (L,), Breughel der Aeltere und sein Kunstschaffen { Jahrbiicher der Kunsthist. 
Samml. des allerh. Kaiserhauses , XXV). — Rooses (Max), Geschiedenis der Antwerpsche 
Schilderschool, Ghent, 1889. — Roosval (Dr Johenny), Schnitz-Altdre in schwedischen Kirchen 
und Museen aus der Werkstatt des Jan Borman, Strasburg-, 1903. — Rousseau (Jean), La 
Sculpture flamande {Bulletin des Commissions royales d'Art et dArcheologie, 13, 14, 15, 
16, 1874-1877); Les Peintres flamands en Espagne {Bulletins des Commissions d'Art et 
d'Archeologie, II et VI). — Ruelens (C.), La Legende de Saint Servais, Brussels, 1873. — 

146 



FLEMISH ART TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 

Schayes, Documents inedits sur Thierry Stuerbout, dit Thierry de Harlem {Bull, de I'Acad. 
royale de Belgique , vol. XIII, p. 334). — Scheibler, Hugo van der Goes (Repertorium f. 
Kunstw., VII, p. 31). — Schnaase, Niederldndische Briefe, 1834. — Schniitgen, Petrus Christus 
(Zeitschrift fiir Christl. Kunst, 1899). — Schonherr (Ritter von), Geschichte des Grabmals 
Kaiser Maximilians (Jahrbuch der kunsth. Samml. des all. Kaiserhauses , Vienna, XI, 
140-212). — Servieres (G.), Le Polyptique de Hans Memlinc a la Cathedrale de Lubeck 
(Gazette des Beaux- Arts , 1902). — Soil, Les Tapisseries de Tournai, Tournai, 1892. — 
Stockmans (J.-B.), Gozewyn van der Weyden {Bulletin de I'Academie royale dArcheologie 
Antwerp, 1908). — Stroobant (F.), Le Brabant et les Flandres {Monuments dArchitecture 
et de Sculpture), — Tarlier (F.), Les Raines de lAbbaye de Villers , 1857 — Tschudi 
(Hugo von), Les sept etudes de A. J. Wauters {Rep. f. K., Berlin, 1894) ; Der Meister von 
Flemalle {Jahrb. der kon. preuss. Kunsts., XIX-8,89, Berlin, 1898); Jean van Eyck, Christus 
am Kreuz {Ibid., XIX, 202) ; Die Ausstellung altniederl. Gemdlde in Burlington Fine Arts Club 
{Repert. fiir Kunst, 1893); Die altniederldndische Schule {Galeriewerk der K. Mus., Berlin, 
1898). — Velde (Arthur van de), De Oude Brugsche Bouwtrant, Bruges, 1901. — Verhaegen 
(A.), Monographie de I'eglise de Saint- Sauveur, Bruges. — Verlant, Roger van der Weyden 
{Legons donnees aux cours d'art et d'archeologie). — Verschelde (Charles), Les anciennes 
Maisons de Bruges, Bruges, 1875. — Vigne (Felix de), Geschiedenes der middeleeuwsche 
Bouwkunst, Ghent, 1845. — Vitzthum (Georges Count), Die Pariser Miniaturmalerei von 
der Zeit des hi. Ludwig bis zu Philipp von Valois, Leipzig, 1907, in-8. — Vogelsang, Hoi- 
Idndische Miniaturen des spdteren Mittelalters , Strasburg, 1899. — VoU (K.), Die Werke 
des Jan van Eyck, Strasburg, 1900; Die altniederldndische Malerei von Jan van Eyck bis 
Memlinck, Leipzig, 1906. — Waagen, Treasures of Art in Great Britain, London 1854; Hand- 
buch der deutschen und niederl. Malerschule , Stuttgart, 1862. — Wauters (Alph.), Notice 
sur Rogier van der Weyden {Messager des Sciences historiques, Ghent, 1846); LAncienne^Ab- 
baye de Villers, 1856; Thierry Bouts et ses Fils, Brussels, 1863; Histoire de notre premiere Ecole 
de peinture {Bulletin Academic royale, 2e serie, 1865) ; Hugues van der Goes, Brussels, 1872 ; 
Hugues van der Goes. Sa vie et ses oeuvres, Brussels 1872; Les Tapisseries Bruxelloises, 
Brussels 1878; Art ancien en Belgique, 1880; La Tapisserie ; Note sur Thierry Bouts {Echo 
du Parlement, 31 mai 1882); Recherches sur THistoire de V Ecole Flamande de peinture 
pendant la seconde moitie du XV^ siecle {Bulletin de TAcademie royale de Belgique, 
1882-1884); Les Commencements de I'ancienne ecole flamande de Peinture anterieurement 
a Van Eyck {Bulletin de TAcademie royale de Belgique, 1883, p. 317-387; Thierry Bouts 
et Albert Bouts {Biographic nationale); Le Testament de Thierry Bouts {Bulletin de TAca- 
demie royale de Belgique, 2e serie, XXIII; Hugues van der Goes {Histoire des peintres, 
par Charl. Blanc); La famille Breughel {Societe dArcheologie, Brussels). — Wauters (A. J.), 
La Peinture flamande, Paris, 1890; Sept etudes pour servir a THistoire de Hans Memling, 
Brussels, 1893; Le Missel Grimani {Societe dArcheologie, Brussels, 1904); Jacob Cornelisz 
le maitre du Triptyque d'Oultremont, Brussels, 1899; L' Ecole de Tournai {Rev. de Belgique, 
1907); Rogier van der Weyden. Un nouveau Document {Federation artistique, 1907); 
Hubert van Eyck, le maitre du retable de TAgneau mystique, Brussels, 1909. — Weale 
(W. H. James), Les Enlumineurs de Bruges {Le Beffroi, IV, 238) ; Notes sur Jan van Eyck, 
Brussels; Documents authentiques concernant Memlinc {Journal des Beaux- Arts, Brussels, 
1861); Hans Memlinc, London, 1865, Bruges, 1871, Amsterdam, 1874, London, 1901, Bruges, 
1901; Gerard David {Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 1866); Le Beffroi, 1865-1876; Gerard David, 
London, 1895; Hubert Van Eyck {Zeitschr. fiir bild. K, 1900; Gazette des Beaux- Arts, 1901); 
Catalogue de F Exposition des Primitifs flamands, 1902 ; Les anciens Peintres de la Neer- 
lande {Burlington Mag., 1903) ; Van Eyck {Revue de I'Art chretien, 1900-1902); Zeitschrift 
fur bildende Kunst. 1900; Gazette des Beaux -Arts, 1901; Athenceum, 1902; Burlington 
Magaz., 1903). — Wiebeling, Analyse descriptive et historique des Monuments en Belgique. — 
Woermann und Woltmann, Geschichte der Malerei, Leipzig, 1878. — Woermann, Geschichte 
der Kunst, 1900. — Woestyne (Karel van de), De Vlaamsche primitieven te Brugge, Ghent, 
1892. — Woltmann (Alf.), Aus vier Jahrhunderten, Berlin, 1878. — Wurzbach (Dr Alfred), 
Niederl. Kiinstler - Lexikon , Leipzig- Vienna, 1904-1910. — Ysendyck (Van), Documents 
classes de I'Art dans les Pays-Bas, Antwerp, 1880-1889. 



147 l2 




FIG. 266.— CORNELIS FLORIS. TOWN HALL, ANTWERP. (Phot. Hermans.) 



CHAPTER III 

THE ITALIAN 
INFLUENCE IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 

Architecture. — Sculpture. — Painting. 



At the time of the Van Eycks, Flemish painting was certainly 
superior to Italian. But in the course of the sixteenth 
century, Italian art rose in a sublime flight and exercised a 
supreme influence upon Flemish artists. It began with a scarcely 
perceptible infiltration ; this grew in strength ; and finally it became 
an irresistible current which carried away the whole school. The 
Italians had made it their aim to revive Graeco-Roman archi- 
tecture, and they studied the beauties of the human body, the 
graceful movements and harmonious proportions of which they 
never tired of representing. The Flemings who had gone to 
study the transalpine masters, adopted their style. 

The Italian influence is felt in the architecture of the period. 
The last Gothic monuments have not the purity of style of the 

148 



ITALIAN INFLUENCE IN THE XVITH CENTURY 



earlier buildings. They are not less 
original or beautiful, but pristine sobriety 
has given way to a superabundantly 
fanciful decoration. The abandonment 
of the Pointed Style was not, however, 
due to a reaction against this degener- 
ation. Architects repudiated the style 
of the preceding ages as too barbaric, 
whence the term "Gothic" ; and they 
adopted with enthusiasm the style of the 
Renaissance, born in Italy in the course 
of the fifteenth century. In the middle 
of the following century it took root in 
Flanders. From 1546 to 1553, Pieter 
Coecke published at Antwerp a trans- 
lation of Sebastian Serlio's Architecture, 
to initiate his Flemish fellow -workers 
into the mysteries of the art which the 
Italians had learnt from Vitruvius. In 
1551, Hans Bloem published, also at 
Antwerp, through Hans Liefrinck, the 
r Architecture. Vredeman de Vries 
(Leeuwaarden , 1527 — Antwerp, 
1604) published seven volumes of 
admirable models of caryatides, 
tombs, and ornaments in the new 
style. Henceforth, the monuments 
of ancient Rome were to become 
the highest and even the only models 
of architecture ; the columns of the 
five classic orders become the funda- 
mental motives; the horizontality 
of the Greek and Roman entab- 
lature replaces the aspiring tend- 
ency of pointed design. No more 
broken or twisted lines, no more 
fancy in the distribution of surfaces 
— an implacable symmetric regular- 
ity! Furthermore, in ornamentation, 
the customary motives of the mediae- 
val style, the pointed and cusped 
arches, were replaced by capricious 
"grotesques" in the Italian manner. 

149 




KlCi. 267.— BRlCiKS. 
LAW COURTS. (Phot Nels.) 

Cinq Coulomnes de 




VUi. 268.— ANTWERP. DRAPERS' 

AND TANNERS' HALLS. 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




Among the buildings belonging to the first 
period of the Renaissance, the most impor- 
tant is the Town Hall of Antwerp (Fig. 266) 
(1561 — 1565) by Cornelis Floris, a vast three- 
storeyed building, the lower storey with 
round-arched windows, the two others with 
rectangular openings; a loggia under the 
roof, and Roman pilasters between the win- 
dows. The most interesting part is the pro- 
jecting centre which stands forth boldly from 
the rest of the fagade, and narrowing by 
degrees, rises well above the level of the 
long roof. The elegant slenderness of the 
central portion contrasts happily with the 
two wings of this somewhat massive con- 
struction and tends to make this town hall 
the most interesting work of the period, just 
as the old law courts of Bruges (1537) (Fig. 
267) are the most playful. This first Renais- 
sance was not of long duration. No sooner 
had it appeared, than the country passed 
through troubled times which made it impos- 
sible to construct sumptuous monuments. 
Some houses, especially those of the guilds 
or corporations, are among the most remarkable specimens of 
the style, and commend themselves by their tasteful ornament, 

their regular proportions, 
and their pleasing lines: 
witness the Drapers' Hall 
and Tanners' Hall (Fig. 
268) in the Grand' Place at 
Antwerp (1541), and the 
Fishmongers' Hall (the 
"Salmon") at Mechlin 
(1530) (Fig. 269). This lat- 
ter building, in spite of the 
deplorable restorations or 
degradations which it 
underwent in the course 
of centuries, still remains 
the most graceful building 
of the early Renaissance 

FIG. 270.— FIREPLACE IN THE COUNCIL ROOM , A . li U 

OF THE FRANC DE BRUGES. (Phot. Hermans.) StylC. At the bCgmumg 

150 



FIG. 269.— MECHLIN. 

FISHMONGERS' HALL 

(Phot. Hermans.) 




ITALIAN INFLUENCE IN THE XVITH CENTURY 





99 


^^^^^^H V.-'- '^ " 


1 



FIG. 271.— JAN DE BACKERE. TOMB OF MARY 

OF BURGUNDY IN THE CHURCH OF NOTRE- 

DAME AT BRUGES. (Phot. Hermans.) 



of the sixteenth century, when the influence of the Italian school 
made itself felt in the Flemish school of painting, more than 
one sculptor also passed 
across the Alps. Like 
the painters, they brought 
back new conceptions and 
new forms from Italy. 
After some transition 
works, such as the sculp- 
tures of the churches of 
Brou , in which some 
Flemish artists collabor- 
ated, the art of statuary 
definitively abandoned the 
Gothic tradition. 

The most famous sculp- 
tured work of the first 
half of the sixteenth cen- 
tury is the fireplace in the 
Council Room of the Franc 
de Bruges (Fig. 270). Designed by the painter Lancelot Blondeel, 
and executed by Guyot de Beaugrand and three other sculptors, it 
was installed in 1529. The frame- 
work of the hearth is of black 
marble and alabaster. A monu- 
mental frieze of carved wood 
contains life-size figures of Charles 
v., of Maximilian I. and his first 
wife, Mary of Burgundy, of Ferdi- 
nand of Aragon, and of Isabella 
of Castille, surrounded by putti, 
escutcheons, and other decorative 
motives. The Renaissance style has 
triumphed definitively. The princely 
figures have an easy carriage, large- 
ness of gesture, and costumes 
well adapted to their movements. 
The putti are exquisitely fanciful 
and roguish. The church of Notre- 
Dame at Bruges also contains two 
famous works: the tomb of Mary 

of Burgundy (Fig. 271), executed in 1495 by Jan de Backere (of 
Brussels), and that of Charles the Bold, executed in 1558 by 

151 




FIG. 272. — MONS. CHURCH OF 
ST. WAUDRU. ALTAR BY JAC- 
QUES DU BROEUCQ. 
(Phot. Neuckens.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




Jac. Jonghelinck (of Antwerp). We do not 
know whether Blondeel and his collabor- 
ators had visited Italy, but we know that 
Jacques du Broeucq (born at Mons between 
1500 and 1510, died in 1548) went to 
Rome to complete his studies there, and 
that he came back in 1535, full of ent- 
husiasm for Italian and ancient art. He 
worked much for the diurches of his native 
town, made a rood-screen, some choir- 
stalls, and an altar for the church of St. 
Waudru (Figs. 272, 273), and choir -stalls 
for the church of St. Germain. He bor- 
rowed from the Italian masters the art of 
grouping figures naturally and harmoniously, 
and emphasizing the beauty and elegance 
of the human body. He had not, however, 
quite lost the Northern accent; his figures 
have meagre forms, con- 
strained attitudes, and 
exaggerated gestures. 
They are full of a fresh 
and healthy vitality, but 
they are due to the con- 
ception of an academic artist, rather than to 

the faithful observation of nature. Nevertheless, 

du Broeucq was an original master, a renovator 

of art. Unfortunately the majority of his works 

have been destroyed or mutilated. 

Another Romanist sculptor and admirer af 

the Italian Renaissance was Cornelis de Vriendt 

or Floris (born at Antwerp in 1518, died in 

the same city in 1575). He assimilated Italian 

art to such a degree that nothing of the earlier 

style is left in his works. The most famous 

of these is the Tabernacle of Leau (Fig. 274). 

It is an octagonal stone tower, a hundred feet 

high, of ten storeys, the faces of which are 

adorned with bas-reliefs, and the angles with 

small figures and garlands. This superb work 

was executed in 1551. Other masterpieces by 

Floris are the Tabernacle of Zuerbempde (Fig. 

275), the rood-screen of Tournai Cathedral, 

152 



FUi. 273. 

JACQUES DU KROP:ucg. 
DETAIL OF THE ALTAR 
OF THE CHURCH OF ST. 

WAUDRU, MONS. 

(Phot. Neuckens.) 




FIG. 274. 

CORNELIS DE 

VRIENDT. 

TABERNACLE OF 

LEAU. 
(Phot. Hermann.) 



ITALIAN INFLUENCE IN THE XVITH CENTURY 



and the tomb of Christian, King of Den- 
mark, at Roeskilde. Cornelis de Vriendt's 
work is marked by charm, pleasing fancy, 
and great richness of decorative accessories. 
He chose elegant figures and draped them 
with taste. He had neither Broeucq's solid 
and even somewhat austere conception, nor 
his artistic power; he worked easily and 
produced without fatigue; he pleases us 
always, but never moves us. 

The railing which surrounds the tabernacle 
is a marvel of the Renaissance style. Not 
less characteristic and charming is the 
railing, signed Jan Veldener (1568), which 
encloses the tabernacle in the church of St. 
Jacques at Louvain. 

About the middle of the sixteenth century 
there was a veritable efflorescence of sculp- 
tors in the manner of Floris. The best of 
them were: Pieter Coecke of Alost (1507 

to 1550), the 





FIG. 275. 

CORNELIS DE VRIENDT. 

TABERNACLE OF 

ZUERBEMPDE. 
(Phot. Neuckens.) 



FIG. 276. 

PIETER COECKE OF ALOST. 

FIREPLACE OF THE BI'RGO- 

MASTER'S ROOM 

(Antwerp, Hotel de Villa). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



sculptor of the 
fireplace in the 
burgomaster's 

room in the town hall of Ant- 
werp (Fig. 276), and the unknown 
sculptor of the tomb of Jean de 
Merode (d. 1559) in the church of 
St. Dymphne, at Gheel (Fig. 277), 
the purest in style, the most marvel- 
lous in execution among all the tombs 
of that period. Alexander Colin or 
Colyns also deserves to be men- 
tioned. Born at Mechlin in 1529, 
he was called in 1562 to Innspriick 
by the Emperor Ferdinand, to work 
at the mausoleum of the Emperor 
Maximilian I. in the cathedral of that 
city. He executed the twenty-four 
bas-reliefs which adorn the sepulchre, 
and represent scenes from the life of 
the Emperor; four allegorical statues 
evoking the virtues of the august 
153 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 277.— I'NKNOWX. TOMB OF JEAN DE 

MERODE (Gheel, Church of St. Dymphne.) 

(Phot. Neuckens.) 



defunct; several statues of children, and the effigy of the Emperor 
kneeling on the sarcophagus. He worked from 1562 at this 

grand monument, which 
is carried out entirely in 
bronze. The twenty-eight 
statues of princes and 
heroes of the house of 
Hapsburg. surrounding 
the tomb are due to other 
masters. For the same 
church, Colyns executed 
the tomb of the Archduke 
Ferdinand and his wife; 
for the castle of Heidel- 
berg, thirty-two statues 
and a quantity of deco- 
rative accessories; for the 
Cathedral of St. Vitus, 
at Prague, the tomb of 
the Queen of Bohemia (1589). He died at Innspriick in 1622. 
The tomb of Maximilian (Fig. 278) is the most important and the 
most perfect work of its kind produced 
at that period, and Colyns himself is 
responsible for the most admirable parts 
of it. His figures are distinguished by 
robust forms, free movements, and 
dramatic action. 

In the sixteenth century, and more 
especially in the first half, a playful 
fancy invaded architectural ornament 
and woodwork, the creations of which 
recall the Roman "grotesques". The 
imagination of artists was inexhaustible; 
they played with delicious motives and 
invented infinite combinations of angels 
or loves, trophies, masks, birds, inter- 
laced scrolls and garlands of flowers 
or foliage. The most famous work of 
this kind is the inner portal of the 
hall of the aldermen, at the Town- 
hall of Audenarde, carved by Paul 
van der Schelde in 1531. Twenty- 
eight little panels with an angel sur- 
154 




FIG. 278.— COLYNS. TOMB 

OF MAXIMILIAN I. AT INNS 

PRUCK (Phot Hanfstaengl.) 



ITALIAN INFLUENCE IN THE XVITH CENTURY 



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rounded by foliage interspersed with animal and human heads, 
sea-horses, birds and flowers, all executed with incomparable 
care, taste^ and fancy, render 
this piece of still -life the 
most living work of art. 

But it is especially in 
painting that we shall best 
see the consequences of the 
Romanist influence in Flan- 
ders. Van Mander tells us 
that Jan Schoreel was the 
first Netherlander who visited 
Italy. He calls him the 
standard-bearer and pioneer 
of his art in Flanders. But 
it is known that before this 
painter crossed the Alps 
about 1525, more than one 
Fleming had already under- 
taken the journey. Thus 
Rogier van der Weyden 
visited Rome in 1450; Josse or Justus of Ghent had painted 
in Italy in 1468. In that year he was invited to Urbino by Duke 
Federigo da Montefeltro, and painted 
for the Brotherhood of the Corpus 
Christi a Last Supper (Fig. 279) 
which may still be seen in the Mu- 
seum of Urbino. In addition, he 
executed several works for the Duke : 
a series of portraits of philosophers 
and men of letters, numbering twenty- 
eight, half of which are in Rome in 
the Barberini Palace (Fig. 280), whilst 
the others belong to the Louvre;*) 
then, a series of allegories of the 
seven sciences, two of which are in 
the Berlin Museum and two in the 
National Gallery. The Barberini 
Gallery also possesses the portrait 



FIG. 279. — JUSTUS OF GHENT. THE 

LAST SUPPER (Urbino, Museum). 

(Phot. Alinari.) 



*) Many modern critics believe that part of 
this series, and the portrait of Federig-o da Monte- 
feltro and his son , were painted by Melozzo da 
Forli. (Tr.) 

155 




FIG. 280.— JUSTUS OF GHENT. 

MOSES (Rome, Barberini Palace.) 

(Phot. Anderson.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




HG. 281. 

GOSSAERT OR MABUSE. 

ST. LUKE PAINTING THE VIRGIN 

MARY (Vienna, Imperial Museum.) 

(Phot. Ldwy.) 



group of Federigo da Montefeltro 
and his son Guidobaldo. The por- 
trait of these famous personages is 
distinguished by soft and harmonious 
colour and by a nobility of form more 
Italian than Flemish, from which it 
would appear that this Northerner 
called to the South in virtue of his 
superiority over the native painters, 
must have repudiated the style of his 
native land to follow that of his 
adopted country.*) The portraits of 
the Duke of Urbino and his son are 
nevertheless rendered faithfully from 
life, without any attempt to improve 
upon nature, and with a thoroughly 
Flemish conscientiousness , though 
with a decorative breadth more 
characteristic of Italian art. 

In chronological order, the second 
Italianizer whom we meet with is Jan Gossaert, better known 
as Mabuse (Maubeuge), the name of the town where he was 
born about 1472. Van Mander notes that he was "one of the first 
to bring back from Italy the true manner of arranging and 
composing 'histories', full of nude figures 
and of all manner of poetry, which was 
not practised in our lands before his 
time." 

From the Italians he borrowed their 
predilection for the beauty of the human 
body; he was lavish in the use of their 
Renaissance architectural motives in the 
decoration of his panels. But he retained 
the gravity and the intimate sentiment, 
together with the robust and brilliant 
colour, of the Flemish primitives. He is 
unquestionably the most remarkable re- 
presentative of this transition period. 
Van Mander mentions several of his works, 
among others, a Descent from the Cross 
painted for the high altar of the abbey 
church of Middelburg. This picture, 




FIG. 2?52. — GOSSAERT OR 

MABUSE. ADAM AND EVP: 

(Brussels, Museum). 

(Phot. Levy.) 



*) See note p. 155. (Tr.) 

156 



ITALIAN INFLUENCE IN THE XVITH CENTURY 



s 



FIG. 283.— GOSSAERT OR MABUSE. 

DANAE RECEIVING THE GOLDEN 

RAIN (Munich, Pinakothek). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



which was considered the painter's 
masterpiece; was burnt with the 
abbey church in 1568. Besides 
other compositions that have 
disappeared, Van Mander also 
mentions an Adam and Eve (Fig. 
282) of which two different ver- 
sions are in existence, one — 
the better one — in Hampton 
Court Palace near London, the 
other in the Brussels Museum. 
It is a study of the nude in the 
taste adopted by the Flemish 
Italianizers. But the drawing of 
the figures, their somewhat heavy 
naturalism, as well as the smooth 
colours with their transparent 
shadows, recall the primitive style, 
and afford proof that the Flemish 
painters were as yet half-hearted 

in their application of the principles of the Italian School. Among 
Mabuse's authenticated pictures we must mention the St Luke 
painting the Virgin Mary, completed in 1515 for the altar of the 
Guild of St. Luke, at Mechlin. It is now in the Prague Museum, 

and is distinguished by a profusion 

of architectural ornament. A rep- 
lica of the same subject is in the 
Imperial Museum in Vienna (Fig. 
281). This is the most attractive 
picture by the master that we 
possess. The work is of a very 
composite character. Whilst the 
little angels with their charming 
curly heads, the elegant Renais- 
sance architecture, certain liquid 
and caressing tints, especially a 
soft, tender green, obviously pro- 
ceed from the new art, in other 
parts the more brilliant, robust, 
and scintillating colour still be- 
longs to the Gothic Flemish school. 
Two works in the Munich Pina- 
kothek date from the year 1527. 

157 




FIG. 284.— GOSSAERT OR MABUSE. 

MADONNA (Munich, Pinakothek). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 





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FIG. 285.— VAN ORLEY. THE TRIALS 

OF JOB (Brussels, Museum). 

(Phot. Hermans,) 



The first is Danae receiving the golden Rain (Fig. 283). A young 
woman of sculpturesque forms, with a somewhat silly expression, 

and the round cheeks so dear 

to Gossaert, receives the 
precious shower. In the other 
picture, a Madonna (Fig. 284) 
is seated in a niche. She 
holds with both hands the 
Infant, who is struggling to 
escape. The mysticism of the 
olden days has disappeared. 
The very angels and saints 
have assumed profane forms 
and adopted worldly manners. 
Jan Gossaert was still em- 
ployed by the Dukes of Bur- 
gundy ; those who came after 
him placed their brushes at 
the service of Charles V. 
Bernard van Orley is the first 
of the series of artists of the 
new reign. He was born at Brussels in 1493 of a noble family 
to which the world owes several painters. He is believed to 

have twice crossed the 
Alps: the first time be- 
tween 1509 and 1515, and 
the second time after 
1527. Van Orley was the 
accredited painter of two 
regents of the Nether- 
lands, Margaret of Aus- 
tria and Mary of Hung- 
ary. He died in 1542. 
He had, no doubt, come 
in contact with Raphael 
in Rome, and it is easy 
to imagine with what 
veneration the young 
Fleming would have re- 
garded this prince of the 
painters of his time. The 
Madonnas, of which Van Orley painted a large number in his 
youth — that is to say, from 1515 to about 1522 — bear visible 

158 




FIG. 286.— VAN ORLEY. THE APOSTLES 

THOMAS AND MATTHEW (Vienna, Imperial 

Museum). (Phot. Lowy.) 



ITALIAN INFLUENCE IN THE XVITH CENTURY 




FIG. 287.— VAN ORLEY. THE LAST 

JUDGMENT (Antwerp, Museum). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



traces of Raphael's influence. He 
shares with Gossaert the privilege 
of being credited with numerous 
works of his time, if not by his 
own hand. He painted with infinite 
care, and whenever we examine 
the history of one of his large 
altarpieces, we find that he had 
worked at it for four or five years. 
He owes as much to Michelangelo 
as to Raphael. He applied himself 
particularly to the drawing of 
beautiful figures, which he invest- 
ed with more elegance, slender- 
ness and dramatic movement than 
Gossaert. Like Gossaert, he indulg- 
ed overmuch in architectural orna- 
ment. But his full unbroken colour 
tends towards a darker tonality. 

One of his masterpieces is The Last Judgment and the Seven 
Works of Charity (Fig. 287), of the Antwerp Museum, commis- 
sioned from him by the Almoners of that city. It is a triptych. 
In the centre, we are shown the burial of the dead; on one of 
the shutters, three of the Good 
Works; and three more on the 
other shutter. Van Orley had 
the curious idea of painting the 
first of the Good Works, "the 
burial of the dead", in the valley 
of Jehosaphat, just as Rogier Van 
der Weyden had made the foot 
of the Cross the scene of the 
consummation of one of the Sacra- 
ments. Later on, he gave the 
heads of Luther and Melanchthon 
to two of the persons in the Last 
Judgment. 

The Trials of Job (Fig. 285), 
another of the master's principal 
works, was commissioned by 
Margaret of Austria for Count 
Antoine de Lalaing. It is now at 
the Royal Museum in Brussels. 

159 




FIG. 288.— VAN ORLEY. 

PORTRAIT OF DR. ZELLE 

(Brussels, Museum). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 



Numerous reminiscences of 
Italian works, tortured move- 
ments and audacious attitudes, 
show some exaggeration in 
their over deliberate effects — 
such is the criticism that may 
be levelled against the princi- 
pal panel. The colour, too, 
is a little artificial, but tech- 
nically the picture is a marvel 
in its rich fusion of opulent 
tints. 

Yet another of his principal 
pictures is a scene from the 
lives of the Apostles Thomas 
and Matthew at the Imperial 
Museum in Vienna (Fig. 286). 
Although it represents several 
episodes, it has more unity 
than the majority of the 
master's pictures; the brilliant 

is touched with somewhat capricious reflections. 

Orley painted numerous portraits, including those of 




FIG. 289.— VAN CONINXLOO. 

THE LEGEND OF MARY MAGDALEN 

(Brussels, Museum). 

(Phot. Levy.) 



colour 
Van 
several princes. In 1515 he painted portraits of the six children 
of Philippe le Beau, which were presented to the king of Den- 
mark. All his portraits appear to have been lost, with the solitary 

exception of that of Doc- 
tor Zelle, which he painted 
in 1519, and which now 
belongs to the Brussels 
Museum (Fig. 288). 

Van Orley supplied the 
sovereigns of the Nether- 
lands with many tapestry- 
cartoons. He also furn- 
ished some cartoons for 
stained glass. Some of 
these windows are in the 
Church of Ste. Gudule in 
Brussels and represent 
Charles V. and his wife, 
FIG. 290.-VAN CONINXLOO ig^bel of Portuffal, Louis 

THE GENEALOGY OF THE VIRGIN (Brussels). -. , , i i • T 

(Phot Neurdein.) of Hungary and his wite, 

160 






1 m-^' ""^ 



ITALIAN INFLUENCE IN THE XVITH CENTURY 




FIG. 291.— LANCELOT BLONDEEL. 

SCENES FROM THE LIFE OF SS. COSMO 

AND DAMIAN (Bruges, Church of 

St. Jacques). (Phot. Baled.) 



and their four patron saints. 
These two windows were exe- 
cuted towards the end of the 
painter's life, one in 1537, the 
other in 1538. 

Another Brussels painter, Cor- 
nelis Schernier, called Van 
Coninxloo, is much less known, 
but belongs to the same time and 
to the same style. It is known 
that he worked from 1529 to 
1558; he was born probably 
about 1500. The Brussels Museum 
owns two pictures by him, a 
large one and a small one. The 
first is a triptych. The Legend 
of Mary Magdalen (Fig. 289). 
It was painted in 1537 for Jan 
Teughel, abbot of Dilighem. It 
was long attributed to Jan Gos- 
saert, and indeed reveals a dis- 
tinct kinship with his works: the Christ at table with Simon the 
Pharisee still belongs to the school 
of Dierick Bouts, whilst the robust 
red-haired Pharisee in the fore- 
ground is a reminiscence of Ra- 
phael. The colour is sumptuous, the 
lighting excellent. There is an ob- 
vious inclination to embellish figures 
and attitudes. The profusion of 
architectural ornament is scarcely 
less than with Gossaert and Van 
Orley. 

In the little picture known as 
The Genealogy of Mary (Fig. 290), 
Joachim and Anne, who are seated 
on a bench, are united by the roots 
of a plant which carries Mary as 
its flower. In the background and 
at the sides is a perfect orgy of 

architectural ornaments , among fig. 292.— Lancelot blondeel. 
which two episodes from the life of «t- luke painting the virgin 

I , r. . , *^ . . . 1 1 (Bruges, Museum). 

the Virgm s parents are mtroduced. (Phot Daied.) 

161 M 




ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 293.— LANCELOT BLONDEEL. 

THE LEGEND OF ST. GEORGE (Bruges, Museum). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



The sumptuously coloured painting looks like the work of a 
miniaturist; the ornaments are treated in grisaille. 

The last painters 
of Bruges particip- 
ated in the great 
Italianist movement. 
First among them is 
Lancelot Blondeel 
(1496-1561). He 
combined the avoc- 
ations of painter and 
architect, but he was 
above all a designer. 
He furnished car- 
toons for the tapestry 
works, and he exe- 
cuted all the designs 
for his masterpiece: 
the fireplace of the 
Franc de Bruges. In 
his love of architectural motives as ornament he went even 
further than Gossaert, Van Orley, and Van Coninxloo. He 
divided his pictures into compartments enframed by sumptu- 
ously adorned arches and porticoes. So great was this wealth 

of decoration and framework, 
that his historical scenes became 
mere accessories. All these 
architectonic caprices running 
riot on gold grounds were of 
the most graceful and spon- 
taneous style, and led up to that 
debauch of restless , crowded, 
inexhaustibly fanciful decor- 
ation in which the Flemish 
Renaissance was to indulge. 
Blondeel drew the motives with 
which he filled the back- 
grounds of his pictures some- 
times by means of a brown 
varnish, sometimes with pen and 
ink. He painted the figures only 
in oils. Most of his works are 
at Bruges ; the most important 




FIG. 294.— VAN COXCYEN. 

MARTYRDOM OF ST. SEBASTIAN 

(Antwerp, Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 



162 



ITALIAN INFLUENCE IN THE XVITH CENTURY 



are the Scenes from the Life of 
SS. Cosmo and Damian, in the 
church of St. Jacques, painted in 
1523 (Fig. 291); St Luke painting 
the Virgin, dated 1545 (Fig. 292); 
The Legend of St. George (Fig. 293), 
at the Museum; and The Patron 
Saints of the Painters' Guild, in the 
Church of St. Sauveur, also dated 
1545. 

Meanwhile, the plagiarists of the 
Italian style lost more and more the 
Flemish qualities which were still 
admired in the first Romanist 
painters, Gossaert and Van Orley. 
To be called "the Flemish Raphael", 
a title only too generously bestowed, 
was the height of their ambition. The 
Italians of the decadence were almost 
exclusively chosen for imitation. 
For a long time we shall only meet 




FlCi. 2g5.— LAMBERT LOMBART. 

THE SACRIFICE OF THE PASCHAL, 

LAMB (Liegfe, Museum). 

(Phot. Levy.) 




FIG. 296.— CAMPANA. THE DE- 
SCENT FROM THE CROSS (Seville, 
Cathedral). (Phot. Lacoste.) 



with the pupils of these second-rate 
painters. It was the period of vast 
altarpieces with numerous figures in 
tumultuous movement. As a result 
of excessive devotion to design and 
composition, colour was held cheap. 
Erudition and academic cleverness 
took the place of invention and 
genuine creative emotion. The school 
and the studio did duty for obser- 
vation, and stereotyped forms for 
renderings of life. 

The middle of the sixteenth cen- 
tury supplies us with a whole series 
of Romanists: Michael van Coxcyen, 
born at Mechlin in 1499, is the first 
of whom it is known with certainty, 
that at the end of his apprenticeship 
he went to Italy to perfect himself 
in his art. Later, he lived at Mechlin, 
at Brussels, at Ghent, and at Antwerp. 
He was a man of great reputation, 

163 M2 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 297. 

PIETER POURBUS THE ELDER. 

THE LAST JUDGMENT 

(Brussels, Museum). (Phot. Doled.) 



a favourite of Charles V. who 
took four of his pictures with 
him to the monastery of St. Just, 
and also of Philip II. He lived 
to the age of ninety -two, and 
all the pictures we have from his 
brush were painted in his old 
age. Thus, The Martyrdom of 
St Sebastian (Fig. 294) of the 
Antwerp Museum, one of the 
earliest of those that are known 
to us, was painted when he had 
already reached the age of 
seventy-six. His work is an imit- 
ation of the Italians — not of 
any of them in particular, but 
of various masters whose styles 
he combines. He devotes him- 
self especially to the nude; his 
principal figures are ingeniously 
disposed in the foreground; the 
others are reduced to excess as they recede. His colour reveals 

much fancy and is made pleasant 
by faint reflections. 

Lambert Lombard (of Liege) was 
no less famous (1505 — 1566). He 
gained a great reputation in the 
contemporary world of letters. He 
was a learned painter, and his pro- 
found knowledge of Roman anti- 
quities contributed much to the 
success of his lessons. We scarcely 
know his work. The Sacrifice of the 
Paschal Lamb (Fig. 295) of the Liege 
Museum is one of the rare pictures 
attributed to him with some cer- 
tainty. It is a correct and rather 
cold work. 

With the extension of the empire 
of the Flemish sovereigns, the Flem- 
ish school, too, became more cos- 
mopolitan. The best proof of this 
is furnished by Pieter de Kempenaer, 
164 




FIG. 298.— PIETER POURBUS. 

PORTRAIT OF JAN VAN DER 

GHEENSTE (Brussels, Museum). 

(Phot Levy.) 



ITALIAN INFLUENCE IN THE XVITH CENTURY 

better known by the name of Pedro Campana, who was born 
at Brussels in 1503, spent several years in Italy, and a still 
longer time in Spain, whence he returned to Brussels in 1560. 
Most of his pictures are in Seville. The cathedral of that city 
owns an important Descent from the Cross (Fig. 296). The 
exaggeration of attitudes and emotion, as well as the violent 
contrasts of livid flesh and dark shadows, clearly show the 
influence of Spanish art. 

Pieter Pourbus the Elder was the head of a line that main- 





FIG. 299-— JAN MASSYS. 

HALF LENGTH OF A WOMAN 

(Pacully Collection). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



FIG. 300.— PIETER POURBUS. 

ADRIENNE DE BUCK 

(Bruges, Museum). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



tained the ancient renown of Bruges in the sixteenth century. 
He was born at Gouda about 1510, and went about 1538 to 
Bruges, where he died in 1584. If he himself did not undertake 
the journey to Italy, he at least walked in the footsteps of those 
who had formed their style in the transalpine school. His work 
comprises scriptural subjects and portraits. The Last Judgment 
(Fig. 297) of the Bruges Museum is one of his most famous 
compositions. It recalls the same subject treated by Frans 
Floris , a painter much younger than Pourbus , but whom the 
latter imitated none the less. The manner of Pourbus still pre- 
serves a touch of primitive delicacy, although the painter also 
shows himself an admirer of academic elegance. It is especially 

165 



ART IN FLANDERS 




as a portrait-painter that he is still to a great extent the 
descendant of the fifteenth century masters. The minutely 

finished portrait of Jan van der 
Gheenste (Fig. 298) of the Brussels 
Museum , whose complexion has 
the transparence of alabaster, and 
the portrait of Adrienne de Buck 
(Fig. 300) of the Bruges Museum, 
are among the masterpieces of 
their kind. 

It is not a little surprising to 
find among the devotees of Italian 
art, Jan Massys, Quentin's own son 
and pupil (Antwerp, 1509—1575). 
All the pictures we have from his 
brush date from the years after 
his return from Italy. He prob- 
ably began by imitating his father, 
and more than one usurer or 
amorous old man attributed to 
Quentin, is possibly by the hand 
of Jan. Later, he loved to paint 
pretty young women , half or alto- 
gether nude, and the question arises 
whether Jan Massys was not identical with the so-called "Master 
of the Female Half-Lengths" (Fig. 299). His women, though 
ostensibly inspired by the Bible — the chaste Susannah, the 
daughters of Lot, Bathsheba — have all simpering, berouged 

faces , almond - shaped 
eyes, pretty little mouths, 
and a mincing smile. 
Sometimes the bright 
eyes have a little cast, 
and the carriage is oc- 
casionally stiff. Finally, 
the colour is pale and 
unnatural. In a word, this 
hybrid artist is a renegade. 
He has fallen into affect- 
ation. Nevertheless, his 
playful drawing, and even 

FIG. 302.-JAN MASSYS ELIJAH AND THE ^Jg ^^Ut of skill aud his 

WIDOW OF SAREPTA (Carlsruhe , Museum). ,. , i., .1 . 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) Sentimentality, prove that 

166 



FIG. 301.— JAN MASSYS. JUDITH 
(M. Dannat, Paris). 
(Phot. Bruckmann.) 




ITALIAN INFLUENCE IN THE XVITH CENTURY 




FIG. 303.— JAN MASSYS. LOT AND HIS 
DAUGHTERS (Brussels, Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 



he had not entirely shaken off his father's influence. The Judith 
in the collection of M. Dannat in Paris is the most] remarkable 
of these smoothly col- 
oured but solidly painted 
female figures (Fig. 301). 
The delicious, miniature- 
like panorama of a town 
in the Elijah and the 
Widow of Sarepta (Fig. 
302), of the Carlsruhe 
Gallery, recalls the early 
school. In Lot and his 
Daughters (Fig. 303) of 
the Brussels Museum, 
the daughter is a pale 
and lackadaisical blonde, 
with alluring eyes, who 
displays her full and ir- 
reproachable forms very 
freely. To the end of his life, he also followed his father in his 
disposition to make fun of amorous old men. One of these decrepit 
voluptuaries is to be seen at the Stockholm Gallery. 

Frans Floris closes the series of the first Italianizers — of the 
artists who, having worked in 
Rome, called themselves "Roman- 
ists". He was a disciple of Michel- 
angelo, repudiating colour in favour 
of design and the study of anatomy. 
He enjoyed an immense prestige 
during his life and even long after 
his death : young painters crowded 
into his studio from all parts. He 
produced cartoons for tapestries, 
drawings for engravings, altarpieces, 
mythological compositions , and a 
large number of portraits, and 
definitively made Antwerp the 
centre of the Flemish School. He 
was born in that city about 1516, 
frequented the studio of Lambert 
Lombard at Liege, went afterwards 
to Italy, and returned in 1547 to 
Antwerp, where he died in 1570. 

167 




FIG. 304.— FRANS FLORIS. THE 

FALL OF THE ANGELS (Antwerp, 

Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 



ART, IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 305.— FRANS FLORIS. 

ADORATION OF THE SHEPHERDS 

(Munich, Pinakothek). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



The Fall of the Angels, dating 
from 1554, in the Antwerp 
Museum (Fig. 304) is his 
masterpiece in the religious 
genre. It is a study of nude 
figures arranged in the most 
daring attitudes, with a 
strong insistence on muscular 
development. This pastiche 
of Michelangelo lacks the 
dramatic power of the great 
Florentine; it is, on the 
whole, a work of academic 
correctness rather than an 
inspired creation. The colour 
is unpleasant, and seems to 
have no function but to em- 
phasize the forms. Some 
other works that deal with 
Biblical subjects go even further in their contempt of colour. 
The Adoration of the Shepherds (Fig. 305), at Munich and at 
Antwerp, is concerned only with elegant attitudes. The same 

may be said of the Mars and 
Venus at Berlin and at Brunswick. 
His best works are his por- 
traits, although these were less 
admired by his contemporaries. 
The one of a Falconer (Fig. 306) 
in the Brunswick Gallery, dated 
1558 ; a portrait of a woman, 
of the same year, at Caen; and 
a portrait of a man, of 1555, 
at Madrid, are first-rate. Here 
nature has made him forget 
schools. His Falconer is a model 
of healthy simplicity and sober 
strength. 

When art had fallen into artifice 
and affectation, portraiture alone 
remained natural and true. A 
good many painters unknown to 
us, no doubt, left us portraits 
of considerable merit. Among 
168 




FIG. 306.— FRANS FLORIS. 

PORTRAIT OF A FALCONER 

(Brunswick, Gallery). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



HANS MEMLINC 

Portrait of Martin van Nieuwenhove 

(Hospital of Saint Jean, Bruges) 



ITALIAN INFLUENCE IN THE^XVITH CENTURY 



those whom we know, Willem 
Key is one of the most re- 
markable. He was born at Breda 
about 1515, was received as 
master in the Guild of St. 
Luke at Antwerp in 1542, and 
died at Antwerp in 1568. The 
portrait of Gilles Mostaert 
(Fig. 307) at the Imperial 
Museum in Vienna, is admir- 
able in its expression of strong 
will and suspicious pride. 
AdriaenKey (1558—1589), a 
nephew of Willem, was also 
a portrait painter. His por- 
traits of Gilles de Smidt with 
his seven sons (Fig. 308), and 
of his wife, Marie de Decker, 
with one of her daughters 
(Fig. 309), now in the Ant- 
werp Museum, are distin- 
guished by their clearly defined features and their natural attitudes. 
The colour is rather dull, but the handling is lively and vigorous. 




FIG. 307.— WILLEM KEY. 

PORTRAIT OF GILLES MOSTAERT 

(Vienna, Imperial Museum). 

(Phot. Lowy.) 





FIG. 308. FIG. 309. 

ADRIAEN KEY. THE SMIDT FAMILY (Antwerp, Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 

169 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 310.— JOSSE VAN CLEEF, 
PORTRAIT (Windsor Castle). 



Josse van Cleef, called the Mad, 
the second of his name, and 
a member of a large family of 
artists, some of whom are only 
known by their names, is also 
distinguished as a portrait- 
painter. He was born at Ant- 
werp about 1518 and worked 
in London in 1554. Most of 
his works are to be found at 
Windsor Castle, and in other 
palaces and castles of England. 
They are even so highly prized 
that there is a tendency to take 
them from him and attribute 
them to Moro or to Holbein 
(Fig. 310). The Berlin Museum 
possesses his Portrait of a Young 
Man (Fig. 311) with a black 
cap, of which Rubens made a 
copy. The model, who is richly painted, with warm, mellow 
carnations, stands out in vigorous relief against a dark, trans- 
parent background. The name 
of Nicolas Neufchatel or Lucidel 
(of Mons) deserves to be re- 
membered for some portraits now 
at Munich (Fig. 312). But we 
are anxious to pass on to the 
most illustrious of the portrait- 
painters of the middle of the 
sixteenth century : Antonio Moro. 
He was born about 1519 at 
Utrecht, where he also began 
his career. In 1547 he was 
received into the Antwerp Guild 
of St. Luke. Afterwards , we 
meet with him in Brussels (1549), 
in Rome (1550-1551), in Madrid 
(1551), in Portugal (1552), and 
in London (1553) ; then he returns 
to Utrecht, whence he departs 
again in 1559 to accompany 
Philip II. to Spain. At Brussels, 




FIG. 311.— JOSSE VAN CLEEF. 
PORTRAIT OF A YOUNG MAN 

(Berlin, Museum). 
(Phot. Berlin Phot Gesellschaft.) 



170 



ITALIAN INFLUENCE IN THE XVITH CENTURY 




FIG. 312.— NICOLAS NKl'FCHATEL. 

PORTRAITS (Munich, Pinakothek). 

(Phot. Hanfstaengl.) 



we find him working in 1568 
for the Duke of Alva. He died 
at Antwerp in 1576. He was the 
accredited painter of princes 
and grandees; and the majority 
of his portraits are stately 
works, carefully treated in their 
slightest details, though this 
minuteness does not detract in 
the least from the truth of 
expression, the natural ease of 
the attitudes, or even the quiver 
of life we seem to divine in 
the sitter. The historical models 
have their characters graven in 
striking fashion upon their faces. 
Thus in Mary Tudor (Fig. 315), 
at the Prado in Madrid, we 
recognise the implacable fanatic, 

the homicide dressed in silk and adorned with jewels; in the 
Duke of Alva (Fig. 313) (a copy) of Brussels, the perfidious and 
ferocious oppressor; in the master's own portrait in Florence 
(Fig. 314), the thoughtful and penetrating artist; in the Canons, 
of Berlin, men of austere doctrine 
but of rather epicurean life (Fig. 
316) ; in the Emperor Maximilian II., 
at Madrid, an embodiment of 
aristocratic distinction. But he 
did not only render, in all their 
originality, the mighty ones of 
earth and the privileged of society; 
he also knew how to seize the 
character of the despised and the 
grotesque. Thus the buffoon of 
Cardinal Granvelle, at the Louvre, 
and Pereson, the buffoon of the 
King of Spain, at the Prado (Fig. 
317), are among his masterpieces. 
The latter holds a pack of cards 
in one hand, whilst the other rests 
on the hilt of his sword. This 
type of ugliness has been laid upon 
the canvas with unrivalled force 

171 




FIG. 313.— ANTONIO MORO. 

THE DUKE OF ALVA (Brussels). 

(Phot. Hanfstaengl.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 





f-^Yrii^^ ' 



FIG. 314.— ANTONIO MORO. 

PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST (Florence, 

Uffizi Gallery). (Phot. Brogi.J 



FIG. 315.— ANTONIO MORO. 

MARY TUDOR (Madrid, Prado). 

(Phot. Anderson.) 



and intensity, and yet without the slightest coarseness. Generally 
speaking, notwithstanding their solidity, these portraits never err 
on the side of stiffness. They represent the transition between 
the somewhat formal portraits of the preceding period, and the 

figures which Rubens and 
Van Dyck were about to 
invest with overflowing 
vitality. 

In the course of the 
sixteenth century we shall 
meet with another portrait 
painter , Gilles Congnet 
(1538—1599). He painted 
Pierson La Hues, the 
drummer of the Guild of 
St. Luke, at Antwerp (Fig. 
318), an amiable worthy 
who greets us at the Ant- 
werp Museum with a noble 
gesture and an air at once 
cordial and dignified. Abraham de Rycker (Antwerp, 1566 — 1599) 
was an estimable painter, to judge from his two portraits in the 

172 



p 


^r^^ 




I? 


2i. V 





FIG. 316.— ANTONIO MORO. CANONS (Berlin, 
Museum). (Phot. Berlin Phot. Gesellschaft.) 



ITALIAN INFLUENCE IN THE XVITH CENTURY 



church of St. Jacques, at Antwerp. The 
same may be said of Frans Pourbus, son 
of Pieter, born at Bruges in 1545, died 
at Antwerp in 1581. One of his most 
important works is the altar-piece of the 
tomb-chapel of Viglius, in the Church of 
St. Bavon at Ghent, the Christ among the 
Doctors, a pallid, academic composition. 
The Man with the Glass (Fig. 319) of the 
Brunswick Gallery is much better. It 
bears the date of 1575, and recalls both 
Moro and Floris' Falconer. It is, however, 
less solid and highly finished than this 
work. The drinker, a sturdy fellow, has 
a somewhat vacant look, as though the 
glass, which he holds rather awkwardly, 
were not his first that day. 

Frans Pourbus II. , the son of the 
elder Frans Pourbus, was an eminent 
portrait painter. He was born at Ant- 
werp in 1569 and died in Paris in 1622. 
In 1599, Vincenzo Gonzaga, Duke of 




FIG. 317. 
ANTONIO MORO. PERES- 
SON , BUFFOON OF THE 
KING OF SPAIN (Madrid, 
Prado). (Phot. Anderson.) 




FIG. 318. 

GILLES CONGNET. PIERSON LA 

HUES, DRUMMER OF THE GUILD 

OF ST. LUKE (Antwerp, Museum). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



Mantua, engaged him as court- 
painter, when he had already 
painted some portraits for the 
archdukes at Brussels. He remained 
in Italy until 1610, in which year 
he painted in Paris the portraits 
of Henry IV. and Marie de' Medici, 
soon after which he became painter- 
in-ordinary to the Queen. He thus 
spent the best part of his life in 
portraying crowned heads, and was 
indeed a true court painter. His 
portraits breathe aristocratic dis- 
tinction; the expression is proud, 
the carriage haughty. Generally 
they are a little hard in tone. 
Marie de' Medici, at the Louvre 
(Fig. 320), is somewhat cold in 
colour, but commands respect. Her 
son, Louis XIII., as a child, at the 
Uffizi Gallery in Florence (Fig. 321), 
173 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 319.— FRANS POURBUS. 

THE MAN WITH THE GLASS 

(Brunswick, Gallery). 

(Phot Bruckmann.) 



is a gem of grace and natural 
childishness, recalling the rich hand- 
ling of Frans' grandfather, Pieter 
Pourbus. The same Gallery owns 
the portrait of a painter (Fig. 322), 
which bears the name of Frans 
Pourbus, but does not represent 
him, whatever may be said to 
the contrary, for the model was 
forty in 1591, when Pourbus was 
barely twenty years of age. It is 
one of his first works, but a 
piece of the highest merit. This 
artist finally executed a few re- 
ligious pictures. The Last Supper 
of the Louvre is painted in strong, 
warm tones, but not without hard- 
ness. Whilst Pourbus had settled 
down in France, another portrait 
painter, Paul van Somer (of Ant- 
werp), went to work and die in 
London, where he became the favoured painter of princes and peers. 
Landscape, like portrait -painting, delivered the Flemings at 
times from the Italian influence. If 
the landscape-painters travelled across 
the Alps, it was not in search of 
masters, but of picturesque scenery. 
Throughout this century, in fact, land- 
scape painters in general depicted 
mountainous and rocky scenes. Pieter 
Breughel the Elder seems to have had 
no other object in exploring Italy, 
and when the brothers Bril took up 
their abode in Rome, it was not to 
take lessons, but to give them. Land- 
scape thus remains in the sixteenth 
century what it had been with Patinir 
and Hendrik Bles: an expression of 
Flemish painting. The first who rose 
to distinction, Lucas Cassel (born in 
1510, died in 1560) and Jacob Grim- 
mer (Antwerp, 1526—1590), painted 
lofty crags and picturesque castles 
174 




FIG. 320.— FRANS POURBUS II. 
MARIE DE' MEDICI (Paris, Louvre), 



ITALIAN INFLUENCE IN THE XVITH CENTURY 

with great charm, but were less successful with the little figures, 
the execution of which they sometimes left to a collaborator 
(Fig. 323, 324). 

Hans Bol (Mechlin, 1534— Amsterdam, 1593) distinguished 
himself by his marvellous drawings and by pictures which are 
very sober in colour, but exceed in 'miniaturesque' delicacy all 
that has been done by the most famous artists in this genre 
(Fig. 325). 

Gilles van Coninxloo (Antwerp, 1544 — Amsterdam, 1607) 



1 


^ 






^^m 


i 




J 


I 


' 




w 




r 

4 


1 ^ ..r 




FIG. ?2I.— FRANS POURBUS II. 

LOUIS XIII. AS A CHILD 

(Florence, Uffizi Gallery). 

(Phot Anderson.) 



FIG. 322. -FRANS POURBUS II. 

PORTRAIT OF A PAINTER 

(Florence, Uffizi Gallery). 

(Phot Brogi.) 



was also accounted one of the best landscape-painters of his 
time; and, indeed, whatever we possess from his brush bears 
witness to an intense feeling for nature. The dense foliage of 
his trees is painted by an artist who really loved them and 
did not use them merely as accessories (Fig. 326). 

At this period, whole families devoted themselves to painting, 
and more especially to landscape-painting. This is notably the 
case with the Van Coninxloos, and also with the Van Valcken- 
burghs, the De Mompers and the Brils. Two brothers Van 
Coninxloo were landscape painters. Both were born at Mechlin, 
Lucas, the elder, about 1540; Martin, the younger, in 1542. 
Being Protestants, both went into voluntary exile in Germany, 

175 



ART IN FLANDERS 



where they lived for 
many years. The Van 
Valckenburghs have 
more in common with 
the old national school 
than with the Italian- 
izers. Lucas continued 
to paint high rocks 
of capricious and 
fantastic shapes, with 
delicious distances 
melting delicately into 
the sky, in the style 
of Patinir and Hendrik Bles. As a painter of contemporary life, 
Lucas follows in the footsteps of Breughel the Droll, but he has 
more respect for convention and less quality. Certain pictures, 

like the Winter Land- 




FIG. 323.— LUCAS CASSEL. LANDSCAPE 
(Brussels, Museum). (Phot. Alexandre.) 



scape with the p laying 
children (Fig. 328) of 
the Vienna Museum 
(No. 736) are clearly 
inspired by Pieter 
Breughel , but the 
painting is dry and 
the composition ped- 
antic, compared with 
the manner of his great 
predecessor. The Vil- 
lage Inn of 1598 
(Fig. 327), is almost 
a caricature of Breughel's picture. The Months (Fig. 329) by 
Martin van Valckenburgh are pleasant works, in which the 
landscapes are charming and the figures insignificant. The 




FIG. 324.— JACOB GRIMMER. LANDSCAPE (Vienna, 
Imperial Museum). (Phot. Bruckmann.) 




FIG. 325.— HANS BOL. LANDSCAPE (Dresden, Gallery). 
(Phot. Bruckmann.) 

176 



ITALIAN INFLUENCE IN THE XVITH CENTURY 



Vienna Imperial Museum owns three pictures by Frederic van 
Valckenburgh (Mechlin, 1573 — Nuremberg, 1623), a son of Lucas. 
They are painted in his father's manner, but are of less artistic value. 

The De Mompers re- 
present another numerous 
and very confused artistic 
dynasty, in which we 
distinguish with some dif- 
ficulty a Josse de Momper 
(about 1564—1635) and 
a Frans de Momper (1607 
to 1660); whilst others 
are mentioned in the 
archives. The works are, 
like the painters, of the 
same family; yet they have 
differences which betray 
distinct brushes. The 
earliest of the lineage 
paint abruptly rising rocks scattered over the desert, which form 
large, harsh, grey and brown patches across the landscape. 
Other landscapes, more pleasing and truer to nature, are on good 
grounds attributed to Josse de Momper the Younger. A picture 
in Vienna (Fig. 330) furnishes us with a specimen of his fantastic 
landscapes. Josse de Momper the Younger inaugurated a manner 
of landscape-painting 




FIG. 326.— GII.LES VAN CONINXLOO. LANDSCAPE 
(Vienna, Lieditenstein Gallery). (Phot. Lowy.) 



which remained long 
in favour with the 
school. He introduced 
violent contrasts of 
light and shade be- 
tween the foreground 
and the distance, and 
also between the left 
and the right of the 
picture. He fills the 
distance with delicate 
gradations of blue. On 
the other hand, in 
other pictures like 
The Four Seasons at Brunswick (Fig. 331), he suppresses all 
research, every element of a too deliberate picturesqueness ; the 
landscape is more simple and natural, the tonality brilliant and 

177 N 




FIG. 327.— LUCAS VAN VALCKENBURGH. THE 

VILLAGE INN (Vienna, Imperial Museum). 

(Phot. Lowy.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 328.— LUCAS VAN VALCKENBURGH. 

WINTER LANDSCAPE 

(Vienna, Imperial Museum). 

(Phot. Lowy.) 



sparkling. These four pictures were probably among his 
earliest efforts. 

But the most famous family of Antwerp landscape-painters is 

that of the Brils. They 
were two brothers. Paul, 
the better known and 
more highly gifted (1556 
to 1626), started in his 
twentieth year for Rome, 
where his elder brother, 
Matthias (1550 — 1584) 
was already settled. We 
know numerous pictures 
by Paul Bril. They differ 
in kind. First come the 
little works painted on 
copper, which, in tech- 
nique as in the choice of 
subject, are akin to those 
of Bles ; such , for instance , is the Christ healing the Demoniac 
(Fig. 332) of the Pinakothek in Munich, which bears the date 
1601. Others are of larger dimensions and broader handling, like 
the Hilly Landscape of Dresden (Fig. 333), painted in 1608. 

Finally the master painted 

— often in water-colour 

— still larger composi- 
tions for the decoration 
of palaces and churches. 
Some of these latter are 
to be found in the 
Rospigliosi Palace in 
Rome, in the baths of 
the House of St. Cecilia, 
in the Vatican (Fig. 
334) and at Sta. Maria 
Maggiore. They are very 
decorative and blend 
harmoniously with the 
sumptuous panelling 
which enframes them. The 

Ambrosiana in Milan also owns many works by Paul Bril: little 
landscapes of miniature-like delicacy, or vast, broadly handled 
compositions. Paul Bril was and remained a painter of pure 

178 




FIG. 329.— MARTIN VAN VALCKENBURGH. THE 

MONTH OF JANUARY (Vienna, Museum). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



ITALIAN INFLUENCE IN THE XVITH CENTURY 



Flemish blood, who treated landscape with the fancy, the quality, 
and the conscientious craftsmanship of his compatriots, but who, 
under Italian influence, adopted a larger and more decorative 
style. He does not select 
a bit of nature, or fix 
upon some definite scene, 
but he combines and ar- 
ranges imposing or at- 
tractive motives which he 
borrows from the Alpine 
regions. He inaugurated 
thus the monumental 
landscape which continued 
to flourish for centuries, 
in Italy as well as north 
of the Alps. 

During the second half 
of the sixteenth century, 
the school of the Italian- 
izers underwent a trans- 
formation , or rather a 

series of transformations, which detached it still further from 
the old Flemish School, but also separated it from the Italian 
School , and ensured its real originality. Colour resumed its 
important function. It was artificial colour, no doubt, but richer 
colour than that of 




FIG. 330.— JOSSE DE MOMPER. LANDSCAPE 

(Vienna, Imperial Museum). 

(Phot L6wy.) 



the first Italianizers. 
A large number of 
historical painters 
arose, all very clever 
in the manipulation 
of the brush, but void 
of genuine artistic 
temperament, prolix 
narrators of biblical 
episodes or the le- 
gends of saints, lack- 
ing dramatic power 
and feeling. 

Their leader is 
Martin de Vos of Antwerp (1531 — 1613), who visited Italy, and 
knew Tintoretto in Venice. He was in the full maturity of his 
talent, when the Iconoclast fury destroyed all the altarpieces in 

179 n2 




FIG. 331.— JOSSE DE MOMPER. SPRING 

(Brunswick, Gallery). (Phot. Bruckmann.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 332.— PAUL BRIL. CHRIST HEALING 

THE DEMONIAC (Munich, Pinakothek). 
(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



the churches of Antwerp. The country having been pacified, 
and worship re-estabUshed, the guilds and confraternities hastened 
to rebuild their altars; and from this period date the innumerable 

religious pictures treated 
in the emphatic and 
declamatory manner of 
the Bolognese and Ven- 
etian Schools. De Vos 
was an extraordinarily 
prolific artist, who pro- 
duced composition upon 
composition with amazing 
verve and facility. He 
had benefited in Italy by 
the teaching of one of 
the most astounding of 
all improvisatori of paint- 
ing, from whom he 
unfortunately borrowed 
only his ease and fertility. 
Tintoretto is the most 
impetuous of painters; Martin de Vos, on the contrary, is cautious 
to the verge of timidity in the conception as well as in the 
disposition of his motives; his colour is not without variety and 
brilliance, but it is wholly lacking in strength; his personages 

seem to be "oiled and 
curled". Of all Flemish 
painters he is the one 
whose manner is the most 
distressing in its hard, 
vitreous effect. The In- 
credulity of St. Thomas 
(Fig. 335) , which was 
painted for the altar of 
the Skinners in the Cathe- 
dral of Antwerp (1574), 
is an example of these 
wearisome pictures , in 
which passionless figures 
pose in symmetrical at- 
titudes. The same applies to his Tribute Money (Fig. 336), 
painted in 1601 for the altar of St. Eloi in the church of 
St. Andre, one of his last works, now in the Museum of Antwerp. 

180 




FIG. 333.— PAUL BRIL. HILLY LANDSCAPE 
(Dresden, Gallery). (Phot. Bruckmann.) 



ITALIAN INFLUENCE IN THE XVITH CENTURY 




FIG. 334.— PAUL BRIL. LANDSCAPE 

(Vatican Library). (Phot. Moscloni.) 



Martin de Vos' best picture is the Triumph of Christ (Fig. 339), 
of the Antwerp Museum, a triptych composed for the Vieux 
Serment de TArbelete. 
Here we find real lof- 
tiness of feeling, and 
can believe that Martin 
de Vos was carried away 
by his subject and worked 
as much with his heart 
as with his head. Never- 
theless, in his case as 
in that of Frans Floris, 
the portraitist is superior 
to the historical painter. 
In proof of this assertion 
we may cite the group 
of the Anselmo Family 
(Fig. 337), at the Brus- 
sels Museum (1577); that of Gilles Hoffman and his Wife (1570), 
in the Amsterdam Museum (Fig. 338); and finally the portrait 
of an unknown lady, in Madrid. In all these portraits, the glassy 
appearance, which is so unpleasant in De Vos' painting, is much 
less pronounced and be- 
comes an impasto of solid 
enamel; the models are 
robust Flemish types, truth- 
fully and conscientiously 
rendered. 

Frans Floris's principal pu- 
pil was Ambrosius Francken 
of Antwerp (1544—1618), 
the son of a painter, and 
the youngest of three bro- 
thers who were also paint- 
ers. The museum and the 
churches of Antwerp pos- 
sess a number of his pic- 
tures. The Miracle of the 
Loaves, which he painted 
in 1598 for the altar of the 
millers and bakers in Ant- 
werp cathedral , is the fig. 335.-martin de vos. 

1 / f ,, I . , rp.| THE INCREDULITY OF ST. THOMAS 

Dest or all his works. 1 he (Antwerp, Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 

181 




ART IN FLANDERS 




gravest fault of this artist and of all his group is the loss of 
the colour -sense which distinguishes their predecessors. They 

strove to produce an effect 
by rare tones, and evolved 
only artificial and unpleasant 
ones. In the Martyrdom of 
St. Crispin and St. Crispian 
(Fig. 340), executed for the 
altar of the shoe -makers in 
the cathedral, the painter has 
attempted a drama, but the 
personages who interpret it 
are the executioners and not 
the martyrs; these only fur- 
nished him with a pretext for 
painting the nude; but the 
carnations are woolly and 
lustreless. In vain do his 
personages ape excitement; 
not one of them betrays real 
passion. In the Antwerp 
Museum there is a triptych 
from the altar of the black- 
smiths in the cathedral. It 
bears a monogram composed of the letters GLMB and the 
date 1588 inscribed on a tomb. The picture is evidently of this 
period, but it cannot be attributed to any of the known masters. 
It has some kinship with the works of Ambrosius Francken, 

but the faces are more 
life-like than his, more 
of the nature of portraits; 
the drawing is more re- 
strained, the whole more 
natural. It may even be 
s id that the work is 
superior to most pictures 
of the period. 

Another artist con- 
nected with this group is 
Lucas de Heere of Ghent 
(1534— 1584). He was the 

FIG. 337— MARTIN DE VOS. PORTRAIT GROUP j^q^^ Culturcd , but alsO 

OF TPE ANSELMO FAMILY (Brussels, Museum). ,, . i • £ . i. 

(Phot Ddoeui) the most academic of the 

182 



FIG. 336.— MARTIN DE VOS. THE 

TRIBUTE MONEY (Antwerp, Museum). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 




ITALIAN INFLUENCE IN THE XVITH CENTURY 



artists of his time. In 
the church of St. Bavon 
at Ghent, there is a 
Solomon receiving the 
Queen of Sheba by him, 
dated 1559; and at the 
Copenhagen Gallery, 
The Wise and the Foolish 
Virgins (Fig. 341 ) — both 
coldly correct works. To 
this list we may finally 
add Josse van Winghe, 
of Brussels (1544 — 
Frankfort, 1603); the 
Imperial Museum of 
Vienna possesses among 
other examples an Apel- 
les painting the Mistress 
of Alexander the Great 
(Fig. 342), pale and dull in tone. — The most famous and most 




FIG. 338.— MARTIN DE VOS. GILLES HOFFMAN 

AND HIS WIFE (Amsterdam, Museum). 

(Phot. BruckmannJ 



remarkable of the Flemings 
Calvaert or Dionysio Fiamingo. 
1540, and went when about 
twenty years of age to Bologna, 
at the moment of the founding 
of the Bolognese school, the 
last efflorescence of Italian 
painting. The Italians are the 
first to admit that, through his 
robust colouring, Calvaert con- 
tributed largely to the deve- 
lopment of the new school, and 
that some of his numerous 
pupils, to mention only Guido 
and Albani, composed their 
palettes on the model of his. 
The type of his personages is 
marked by a joyous vitality that 
exercised a fruitful influence 
upon the transalpine schools. 
On his part, he borrowed from 
his Italian brother -artists; his 
figures assumed a passionate 



established abroad, was Denis 
He was born at Antwerp, about 




FIG. 339.— MARTIN DE VOS. THE 
TRIUMPH OF CHRIST (Antwerp, Museum). 



183 



(Phot. Hermans-) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 340.— AMBROSIUS FRANCKEN. 

THE MARTYRDOM OF SS. CRISPIN AND 

CRISPIAN (Antwerp, Museum). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



expression, a depth of feeling 
unknown to the artists of the 
North. His St. Francis and 
St. Dominic (Fig. 344) of the 
Dresden Gallery, to whom the 
Virgin Mary has appeared, are 
exalted to heavenly rapture by 
the sight. It is the picture of 
an inspired visionary. His 
Danae, of the Lucca Gallery, 
is, on the contrary, a volup- 
tuous dream, an evocation of 
earthly pleasures. Finally, his 
Annunciation (Fig. 343), in 
the Church of S. Domenico in 
Bologna breathes a charm and 
freshness unknown to most 
of the religious pictures ot 
Flanders. This painter, who 
served as a link between North 
and South, was really an origi- 
nal , sympathetic , and very 
spontaneous artist. Bartholomeus Spranger (1546 — 1627?) went 
early in his life to France, then to Rome, and then to Prague, 
whither he was called by the Emperor Rudolph II., and here he 
worked until his death. He was a product of the Italian School, 

and he introduced Southern 
dexterity and academic cor- 
rectness into Austria. His 
Christ with the Children 
(Fig. 345) of the Antwerp 
Museum is a bouquet of 
charming figures. The artist 
possesses to a supreme 
degree all the qualities that 
can be assimilated through 
school-training. 

At the end of the six- 
teenth and the beginning 
of the seventeenth cent- 
uries, the Italianizing Flem- 
FiG. 341— LUCAS DE HEERE. jng-s, followinff thc cxamplc 

THE WISE AND THE FOOLISH VIRGINS r.l r> 1 J 1 J 

(Copenhagen, Gallery). of thcBolognese, dcvelopcd 

184 




ITALIAN INFLUENCE IN THE XVITH CENTURY 



a taste for a more naturalistic art. — The first and most meri- 
torious of these innovators was Otto Venius (Van Veen), born 
at Leyden, in 1558, of a noble family. In 1573 he frequented 
the studio of Lampsonius , the cultured artist of Liege , and 
three years afterwards that of Federigo Zuccaro in Rome. In 
1581 he returned to his fatherland, and lived successively at 
Liege, Leyden, Antwerp and Brussels. In Brussels he acted as 
a comptroller of the Mint from 1612. He died there in 1629. 
After having been painter- 
in-ordinary to Alexander 
Farnese, he was given the 
same post by the Archduke 
Albert and the Archduchess 
Isabella. We owe him in- 
numerable pictures. Four 
of them , at the Antwerp 
Museum, which were form- 
erly in the house of the 
Guild of Mercers, show 
him to great advantage. 
Two represent episodes 
from the Gospel : The Call- 
ing of St. Matthew (Fig. 
347) and Zacchaeus in the 
Fig-tree; the two others, 
scenes from the life of 
St. Nicholas: the Saint 
throwing a purse into the 
room of a poor family at 
night (Fig. 348), and the 
Saint protecting the town 
of Myra. The painting is mellow and rich, the colour warm, 
the light soft and transparent, but the whole lacks vigour. The 
variegated colour of Martin de Vos has disappeared; the figures 
have recovered their health and their joy of life. Much is still 
sacrificed to academic correctness, but it is achieved by simpler 
means. If the artist does not display great creative power, he 
has at least avoided bad taste. One of his best pictures is the 
Christ with the Four Penitent Sinners (Fig. 346) of the Mayence 
Museum. Otto Venius also painted a number of portraits. That 
of Miraeus, Bishop of Antwerp (Fig. 349) is characteristic of his 
manner : it shows sound painting without any remarkable power. 
Our painter was a very learned nnd cultured man; he wrote 

185 




FIG. 342.— JOSSE VAN WINGHE. APELLES 

PAINTING THE MISTRESS OF ALEXANDER 

THE GREAT (Vienna, Imperial Museum). 

(Phot Lowy.J 



ART IN FLANDERS 





FIG. 343.— DENIS CALVAERT. 

THE ANNUNCIATION (Bologna, 

Church of S. Domenico). 

(Phot. Al'mari.) 



FIG. 344.— DENIS CALVAERT. 

ST. FRANCIS AND ST. DOMINIC 

(Dresden, Gallery). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



numerous books of a moralistic tendency — essays which he 
illustrated with prints in the taste of the period. He also treated 
similar subjects in some series of pictures, such as the Life of 
Mary in fifteen pictures, and the Triumph of the Catholic Church 
in six pictures, all in the Museum of Schleissheim. He exercised 

a considerable influence 
over his illustrious pupil 
Rubens, who, following 
his example, was both 
artist and man of letters. 
Martin Pepyn (Ant- 
werp, 1575—1634) was 
younger in years, but 
more archaic in style. 
He remained much more 
faithful than Otto Venius 
to the school of the earlier 
Romanists, retaining their 
cold colour, dull lighting, 
and timid drawing. The 

FIG. 345.— BARTHOLOMEUS SPRANGER. CHRIST MuSCUm of AutWCrp 

AND THE CHILDREN (Antwerp, Museum). 1^„^«. «,,rY^U^»- /-.f 

(PhQt G, Hermans) own§ a large number ot 

186 




ITALIAN INFLUENCE IN THE XVITH CENTURY 





FIG. 346 OTTO VENIUS. CHRIST AND 

THE FOUR PENITENT SINNERS (Mayence, 
Museum). (Phot. Bruckmann.) 



FIG. 347.— OTTO VENIUS. THE 
CALLING OF ST. MATTHEW (Ant- 
werp, Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 



his pictures. One of them, The Baptism of St. Augustine, is dated 

1626 (Fig. 350). It proves that its 

author had remained wholly untouched 

by the influence of Rubens, and that 

he continued to paint suavely in the 

traditional manner when the entire 

school had been borne along by the 

formidable revolutionary towards a 

more passionate and powerful art. 

It was in Abraham Janssens (Ant- 
werp , 1575—1632) that the first 
symptoms of this revolution became 
manifest. The Museum of Antwerp 
possesses two deplorable religious 
pictures by him, and there are many 
others of a similar type in existence. 
But, as a set-off, the same Museum 
owns a Scheldt (Scaldis) with the 
Maid of Antwerp (Fig. 351), in which 
the figure of the river is already one 
of Rubens' gods as regards muscular 
development and transparent shadows. 

187 




FIG. 348. — OTTO VENIUS. THE 
CHARITY OF ST. NICHOLAS (Ant- 
werp, Museum). (Phot Hermans.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 349.— OTTO VENIUS. PORTRAIT OF 

MYRAEUS, BISHOP OF ANTWERP 

(Antwerp, Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 



The Maid of Antwerp is 
worthy of this heroic figure. 
If one remembers that Jans- 
sens painted this picture in 
1610 for the Salle des Etats 
in the town-hall of Antwerp, 
and that , at the same time 
and for the same hall, Rubens 
executed his first Adoration 
of the Magi, we understand 
the origin of this revolution, 
and need not hesitate to 
consider the Scaldis, if not 
a work of Rubens' own hand, 
at least a figure created under 
his direct influence. This pic- 
ture is not the only one 
whose peculiarities suggest 
Rubens. The Berlin Museum 
owns a Vertumnus and Po- 
mona and a Meleager and 
Atalanta (Fig. 352) by Janssens, with animals by Snyders. These 

pictures are closely akin to the 
Maid of Antwerp. The figures 
are solidly built up and painted 
with great energy. The hardness 
and opaqueness of the colour 
bear the imprint of the old style, 
but many other signs demon- 
strate that the revolution has 
begun. 

During the sixteenth century, 
engraving followed the same 
movement as painting. It begins 
with reproducing upon wood the 
immortal designs which Albrecht 
Diirer, Hans Burgkmair, and 
Hans Springinklee executed for 
the Emperor Maximilian. Cor- 
nelis Liefrinck, of Antwerp, 
worked at Augsburg in 1510 on 
the Genealogy of Maximilian; in 
1516 and 1517 he produced nine 
188 




FIG. 350.— MARTIN PEPYN. THE 
BAPTISM OF ST. AUGUSTINE (Ant- 
werp, Museum). (Phot, Hermans.) 



ITALIAN INFLUENCE IN THE XVITH CENTURY 



of the woodcuts of Albrecht Diirer's Triumphal Procession of 
Maximilian; in 1516 — 1518, twelve pieces of the Saints of 
Austria ; and some 
other blocks. Willem 
Liefrinck , who was 
probably Cornelis' 
brother, was busy 
from 1516—1518 on 
the same famous 
works. In 1528 he was 
back at Antwerp, 
where he lived until 
1538. His pupil, Jan 
JVIolyns or Lyns, fol- 
lowed in his master's 
footsteps. His portrait 
of the Doge of Venice, 
Francesco Donato , 
engraved and published by him in 1554, has still the broad 
and strong technique of the preceding period (Fig. 353). A series 
of nine plates engraved on wood, belonging to the same school, 




FIG. 351.— ABRAHAM JANSSENS. THE SCHELDT 

(SCALDIS) WITH THE MAID OF ANTWERP 

(Antwerp, Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 





FIG. 352.— ABRAHAM JANSSENS. 

MELEAGER AND ATALANTA 

(Berlin, Museum). 

(Phot. Berlin Phot. Gesellschaft.) 



189 



FIG. 353-— JAN MOLYNS. THE 

DOGE FRANCESCO DONATO 

(Plantin-Moretus Museum). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 

represent some fighting cavaliers in a very vigorous manner: 
Godfrey of Bouillon, Hector of Troy, and others. One of these 
pieces bears the date 1510 and the monogram M. C. ; another has 
been preserved, with the initials R. H. The Bibliotheque Royale 
in Brussels has copies of the two editions, one of which, with 
the names of the brave knights in Flemish, belongs to the same 
school of broad and strong technique (Fig. 354). The next 
generation lost much of this strength and adopted a thin and 
meagre manner, not without elegance upon occasion, as in the 




»BSN \ 




FIG. 354. — ONE OF THE NINE CHAMPIONS 

(PREUX) (Brussels, Bibliotheque Royale). 

(Phot. Van Damme.) 



FIG. 355.— FRANS HUYS. 

ERASMUS (Brussels, Library). 

(Phot. Van Damme.) 



portrait of Queen Elizabeth by Jan Liefrinck, a son of Willem. 
The same manner was adopted by Pieter Coeck, the author of 
the series of Customs of the Turks, in ten plates designed by 
himself (Fig. 356, 357.) This was also the style followed 
by the pleiad of book -illustrators who worked for the Plantin 
press: Arnold Nicolai, Anton van Leest, Gerard Jansen, Cornells 
Muller, who engraved from designs by Pieter van der Borcht, 
and many others. 

The number of copper-plate engravers in the second half of 
the sixteenth century was very much greater. Antwerp then 
became the great market for prints, which were frequently 
published in parts consisting of several sheets. Among the famous 

190 



ITALIAN INFLUENCE IN THE XVITH CENTURY 



painters of that city were some who sup- 
plied the copper-plate engravers with in- 
numerable designs : Frans Floris, Martin de 
Vos, whose works of this kind are to be 
counted by the hundred; Stradanus of 
Bruges, and Pieter Breughel. The en- 
gravers after these originals were more 
numerous than the designers. There were 
first of all the simple reproducers of 
designs in copper, who multiplied the 
composition without adding anything of 
their own to it. Such were the engravers 
of the religious subjects, of the moral 
precepts , of the allegories , of the his- 
torical or professional works generally 
published in quarto , and executed by 
Hieronymus Cock (Antwerp, 1510 — 1570), 
Gerard de Jode (Nymuegen, 1517 — Ant- 
werp, 1591), Frans Huys, painter -graver 
(1522—1562) (Fig. 355), Pieter van der 
Heyde (1530 to 





FIG. 356.— PIETER COECK. 

JOHN III., 

KING OF PORTUGAL 

(St. Petersburg, Hermitag-e). 



FIG. 357. PIETER COECK. 

CUSTOMS OF THE TURKS 

(Brussels, Library). 

(Phot. Van Damme.) 



1576), and Philip 
Galle (Haarlem, 
1537 — Antwerp, 

1612). Another group of Antwerp en- 
gravers were distinguished by a more 
careful, delicate and brilliant manner; they 
are the miniaturists of their art, but they 
have more brilliance than warmth, more 
refinement than flexibility. They take their 
place in history by whole families: two 
De Jodes, four Galles, four Collaerts (Fig. 
358), two De Passes, two Mallerys, and 
three Wiericxes. The first three groups 
practised sometimes the tight, and some- 
times the freer manner; the last four 
groups vie with each other in the brilliant 
use of the burin. The three brothers 
Wiericx: Jan (1549?), Hieronymus (1553 
to 1619) and Anton (1559—1624), surpass 
all the others in subtlety of line and 
delicacy of effect. One group of masters 
who went to work in Germany, the three 
191 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 358.— ADRIAN COLLAERT. FIRE 

(Antwerp, Plantin-Moretus Museum). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



Sadelers (Fig. 359) and Barth. Spranger, distinguished themselves 
by some more important and very brilliant plates, in which, 

however, they were too 
eager for effect, and fell 
into mannerism. 

It was in the sixteenth 
century that the art of 
tapestry-weaving centred 
in two Flemish cities: 
Brussels and Audenarde. 
Brussels reproduced great 
historical pieces and works 
of the highest importance; 
Audenarde, simpler sub- 
jects, rustic scenes, land- 
scapes or verdures. Brus- 
sels worked generally for 
princes and great lords; 
Audenarde for people of 
more modest rank. It is astonishing to what an extent the 
royal house of Spain, to which the rulers of Flanders belonged, 
accumulated these treasures. At the palace in Madrid there are 

still a hundred and twenty-two 
Flemish tapestries. Many pieces 
that formerly belonged to the 
kings of Spain have been des- 
troyed by fire; others have been 
worn out by long and frequent 
use. For these tapestries did 
not remain in a fixed place: 
they were hung in halls and 
apartments on festive occasions; 
they were taken down and 
rolled up when they had done 
service; they were used on 
journeys to furnish the lodgings 
en route; they were packed 
with the campaign - baggage 
to garnish the tents; they 
decorated the jousting lists, 
and the streets and squares 
when the sovereigns made their 
entries. 




FIG. 35g.— EG. DE SADELER. 

PORTRAIT OF MARTIN DE VOS 

(Plantin-Moretus Museum). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



192 



ITALIAN INFLUENCE IN THE XVITH CENTURY 




FIG.36O.— ANT.WIERICX. THE INFANTA 

ISABELLA (Plantin-Moretus Museum). 

(Phot Hermans.) 



From every quarter commis- 
sions poured into Brussels. The 
Emperor Charles V., his father 
and his mother, his son Philip II., 
and the princes of their house 
were the most generous custom- 
ers of the Flemish ateliers, 
and the most insatiable col- 
lectors of their products. Other 
sovereigns gave them notable 
commissions. In 1518 the Acts 
of the Apostles were finished. 
The cartoons of these, executed 
by Raphael for Leo X., are 
preserved at Hampton Court, 
and the first woven set adorns 
the Sistine Chapel of the Vatican. 
In 1531 , the Etats Generaux 
at Brussels presented to Char- 
les V. a tapestry of The Battle 
of Pavia, which showed the 

capture of Francis I. At the same time, the same Emperor 
presented Cardinal Wolsey with the tapestry of The Story of 
Abraham, executed at Brussels. The Life of Scipio after Giulio 
Romano was also woven in Brussels for Francis I. , and for his 
son Henry II., The Tri- 
umphs of Scipio after 
the same artist were 
executed. The Emperor 
Maximilian gave an order 
for a series of Grand 
Hunts, the cartoons of 
which by Bernard van 
Orley are in the Louvre. 
Charles V. entrusted Wil- 
lem de Pannemaker, the 
most famous of the 
master-weavers, with the 
execution of twelve 
pieces of The Conquest 

of lunis, after designs fig. 361.— jan vermeyen. the conquest of 
by Ian Vermeven The tunis by charles v. the emperor's depart- 

•^ . -^ £ li ' ^'RE (tapestry) (Madrid, Royal Palace). 

cartoons of these are (Phot Hauser y Menet) 

193 o 




ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 362.— JAN VERMEYEN. THE 

CONQUEST OF TUNIS. LANDING OF 

CHARLES V. (tapestry CARTOON) 

(Vienna, Imperial Museum). 

(Phot. Lowy.) 



preserved at the Imperial Museum 
in Vienna and the tapestries at 
the Royal Palace in Madrid (Fig. 
361, 362). The Duke of Alva or- 
dered from the same tapestry- 
maker three pieces woven in 
wool, and gold and silver silk, 
representing the victories he had 
gained in the Netherlands. The 
artists who supplied the designs 
for tapestries during this period 
are better known to us than those 
of the preceding period. We may 
pass over the foreign masters, two 
of whom we have just mentioned. 
The Flemish artists who disting- 
uished themselves in this field 
are of greater interest here. We 
have mentioned Jan Vermeyen, 
whom Charles V. took with him 
when he crossed the Mediter- 
ranean to destroy the lair of the 
Sultan of Tunis. The painter faithfully reproduced the topo- 
graphy of the country where the army landed, and animated 

sea and coast with ships 
and groups of warriors. 
Bernard van Orley drew 
the scenes he witnessed 
on Maximilian's hunting 
expeditions. The painter 
Stradanus and certainly 
many others also sup- 
plied designs. But we 
have better knowledge 
of the master-weavers, 
who sometimes carried 
on the management of 
the workshops for gene- 
rations, from father to 
son. The most famous 
FIG. 363. were the Leyniers , the 

ROMULUS GIVING LAWS TO THE PEOPLE Panncmakcrs , and the 

(tapestry) (Madrid, Royal Palace). r, /f^ Q^Q\ 

(Phot. Mauser y Menet.) KaCS (tig, 5b6), 

194 




ITALIAN INFLUENCE IN THE XVITH CENTURY 

Artists and artisans collaborated in the production of works 
that were highly prized by their contemporaries, and have re- 
mained famous to this day. Those of the sixteenth century are 
distinguished more especially by their composition, where the 
general effect is admirable, the figures, sometimes very nume- 
rous, are cleverly disposed and participate in a common action. 
The painters were full of invention; they made their figures 
move and live. They set forth, without any sign of exhaustion, 
stories of ten, twenty, or even thirty episodes; they take their 
subjects from current events and antiquity, from the Bible and 
from Livv; they preach morality, or they amuse, and above all, 
they please. They invite us to admire beautiful persons, or 
robust warriors; they enhance the charm of the scenes where 
the action takes place, by means of deUcious landscapes, or 
those admirable Renaissance buildings in which Van Orley and 
Gossaert delighted. They were entrusted with the decoration 
of palaces, and they proved themselves gifted with all the 
qualities needed for this delicate mission. 




FIG. 364.— THE DESCENT FROM THE CROSS. 

(tapestry) (Brussels, Musee du Cinquantenaire). 

(Phot. Neuckens.) 



195 



o2 



ART IN FLANDERS 



BIBLIOGRAPHY TO CHAPTER III 

Baes (Edg-ar), Jean Gossaert et le Groupe wallon de son Epoque, Brussels, 1880. — 
Baldinucci, Notizie di professori del designo, Florence, 1681. — Baschet (Armand), Frangois 
Pourbus {Gazette des Beaux-Arts , 1868). — Bautier (Pierre), Lancelot Blondeel, Brussels, 
1910. — Bertolotti (A.), Artisti Belgi ed olandesi in Roma, Florence, 1880. — Blommaert 
(Filips), Levenschets van Lucas d'Heere, 1853. — Bode (D^" W.), Justus de Gand {Gazette 
des Beaux-Arts, 1887). — Conforti (D.), La Bataille de Pavie, Tapisserie du Musee national 
de Naples (B. V. Orley), Les Arts anciens en Flandre, III, 188. — De Bosschere (Jean), 
La Sculpture anversoise aux XV*^' et XVI^ siecles. — De Ceuleneer, Justus de Gand 1910 
{Verslagen en mededeelingen der Kon. Vlaamsche Academie, et Arts anciens des Flandres, 
V. V). — Engfert (Ed. Ritter von), Jan Vermeyen {Jahrbuch der kunsth. Samml. des allerh. 
Kalserh., Vienna, II, 145-421, IX). — Even (Van), Louvain monumental, Louvain, 1860. — 
F. C, Etude sur Lambert Lombard, Pierre Coeck. — Foutart, Les Peintures de Martin de 
Vos a Valenciennes, Paris, 1893. — Friedlander (Max), Bernard van Orley {Jahrb. der 
kon. Preuss. Kunstsamml. , XXIX , XXX) ; Meisterwerke der Nied. Malerei des XV. und 
XVI. Jahrh. — Gilliodts (van Severen), Lancelot Blondeel {Annates de la Societe dEmu- 
lation. Brug-es), 1894. — Gliick (G.), Beitrdge zur Geschichte der Antzverpener Malerei im 
XVL Jahrhundert. Dirk Villert {Jahrb. der kunsthist. Samml. des Allerh. Kaiserh., XXII). 

— Goffin (Arnold), Les Tapisseries. Les Arts anciens en Flandre, III, 72 (Vermeyen). — 
Gossaert (Maurice), ,/ea/i Gossaert de Maubeuge, Lille, 1902. — Haisnes (De), Les CEuvres 
des Maitres de I'Ecole flamande conservees en Italic, Paris, 1891. — Hedicke (Rob.), 
Jacques Dubroeucq von Mons, Strasburg", 1904. — Helbig-, Lambert Lombard {Bulletin de 
I'Academie royale d'Art et d'Archeologie, 1892, 351). — Hofstede de Groot, Arnold Hou- 
braken. The Hag-ue, 1893. — Hondoy (J.), Lille, 1873, La Tapisserie representant la 
Conquete du Royaame de Tunis (Vermeyen). — Hulin (G.), Juste de Gand {Bulletin de 
I'Academie d'Archeologie de Gand, VIII, 64). — Hymans (H.), Antonio Mora, Brussels, 
1910. — Justi (C.), Der Fall Cleve {Jahrbuch kon. Preuss. Kunstsamml, XVI, 13). — 
Kervyn de Volkaersbeke , Les Pourbus. 1870. — Mesnil (Jac. de). Over de Betrekkingen 
tusschen de Italiaansche en de Nederlandsche Schilderkunst ten tijde der Renaissance 
{Onze Kunst, 1902-1904). — Sandrart (J. von), Teutsche Academie, 1675. — Schlie, Das 
Altarwerk der beiden Briisseler Jan Bormann und Bernaert van Orley in der Pfarrkirche 
zu Giistrow 1853 {Zeitschr. fiir bild. Kunst, 1884). — Schoy (Ad.), Histoire de I'lnfluence de 
I' Architecture italienne sur V Architecture dans les Pays-Bas , Brussels, 1879; L'Art archi- 
tectural decoratlf industriel et somptuaire de I'epoque Louis XIIL — Sievers, Pieter Aertsen, 
Berlin , 1906. — VoU (Karl) , Josse van Gent und die Idealportraits {Repertorium, 
XXIV-54). — Wauters (Alph.), Pierre de Kempeneer {Bulletin Academie royale, vol. XXIV, 
XXXIII); Bernard V2n Orley, Brussels, 1881, Les Coxie et Theodore van Loon 
{Bulletin Acadimle royale, 1884). — Wauters (A. J.), Jean Gossaert et Antoine de Bour- 
gogne 1903; Corneille van Coninxloo {Revue de Belgique, Brussels, 1909); Van Orley, le 
Retable de Sainte Walburge, Brussels, 1909). — Weale (H. J. W.), Lanceloot Blondeel 
{Annates de la Societe d'Emulation, Brug-es, 1908). — Wickhoff (Franz.), Die Bilder weib- 
licher Halbfiguren {Jahrbuch der kunsthist. Samml. des Allerh. Kaiserhauses, Bd. XXII). 

— Wussmann (A. W.), Lambertus van Noort {Elsevlers Tydschrift, Amsterda-n, 1909). 



196 




FIG. 365.— RUBENS. CHILDREN CARRYING A GARLAND OF FRUIT 

(Munich, Pinakothek). (Phot. Bruckmann.) 



CHAPTER IV 

ART IN THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH 
CENTURIES 

Architecture. Sculpture. Rubens and his School. 

At the beginning of the eighteenth century, under the govern- 
ment of Albert and Isabella, innumerable churches were 
built in all the towns of the country. Jacob Francquaert, of 
Brussels, furnished the plans for the Jesuit Church of that city 
(1617) and of the Church of the Beguinage at Mechlin; Wenceslas 
Coberger, those for the churches of the Augustinians and the 
Carmelites in Brussels and for Notre-Dame of Montaigu; Fran- 
gois Aiguillon designed the Jesuit Church at Antwerp, which 
was executed by Peter Huyssens (1614 — 1621). Huyssens also 
built some churches at Bruges (1619 — 1642) and at Namur 
(1621 — 1645), as well as the abbey church of St. Peter at Ghent 
(1621). Willem Hessius built the Jesuit Church at Louvain, 
now known as St. Michel (1650—1671) (Fig. 366). All these 
and a good many others of the same style are distinguished by 
a wide, flat fagade, adorned with two superimposed orders, 
broadly enframed porches and windows, and a very ornate 

197 



ART IN FLANDERS 

pediment. The elegant freedom of the early Renaissance and 
its delicious ornamental caprices have altogether disappeared; 
the forms have become more massive, heavier, and yet poorer; 
all they have preserved is a respect for symmetry. The Jesuit 
church at Antwerp is the most remarkable monument of this 
style. The main fagade (Fig. 367) has an enormous flat surface 
which in no way suggests the constructions it masks. This fa- 
cade consists of a comparatively sober ground-floor, an equally 
wide, but more liberally decorated first storey, a narrower second 





FIG. 366.— LOUVAIN. FA9ADE OF 

THE CHURCH OF ST. MICHEL. 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



FIG. 367.— ANTWERP. 
JESUIT CHURCH. 
(Phot. Hermans.) 



storey, and a pediment framed with sculptures. The massive, 
sumptuous decoration gives an impression of robust, but exces- 
sive luxury. The tower of the same church (Fig. 368) is the 
happiest monument of this second Renaissance. As is the case 
in most Jesuit churches, the interior has a nave supported by 
two rows of superimposed columns, and on either side a low 
aisle with flat ceilings, above which runs an open gallery — all 
features reminiscent of antique Roman architecture. The original 
building was resplendent with rare marbles, gilding, and paintings 
by Rubens. In 1718 nearly the whole of the interior was des- 
troyed by fire. The superb marble columns and arcades were 
replaced by columns of white and blue stone. The disaster 

198 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 




spared only the choir and the lateral chapels, 
which still retain their sumptuous facings of 
precious materials. 

There is some reason for the appellation 
"Jesuit Style", for although it was the style 
of almost all the churches of the eighteenth 
century, it was the Jesuits who established 
and spread it. It has also been called the 
"Rubens Style", on the pretext that the Jesuit 
church at Antwerp was built to a large extent 
from the illustrious painter's plans, but this 
was not the case. 

Rubens designed no architectural plan ex- 
cept the one for his own house. In this, his 
love of the antique is reconciled with his 
creative originality. He succeeded in com- 
bining the decorative beauty of the Italian, 
and more particularly the Genoese palaces 
with the exigencies of the Northern climate; 
and the result was his admirable mansion 
at Antwerp (Fig. 369). This luxuriant style 
of the late Renaissance was also used for a 
number of guild-halls, the most elegant of 
which is that of the Tanners (1644), on the 
Grand' Place at Antwerp acquired in 1755 by the Joiners' com- 
pany. In the larger towns, and more especially at Antwerp, there 
are some mansions designed in this style. Their principal orna- 
ment is the porte-cochere, 
handsomely framed in 
free-stone, provided with 
solid iron mounts and 
decorated with capricious 
volutes. Their general 
aspect is comfortable 
though imposing. In the 
most remarkable works of 
that period, license and 
oddity of invention are 
carried to extremes, as 
witness the houses around 
the Grand' Place in 
Brussels. In 1695, when 

.- Ill ir-ii ,1 FIG. 369.— RUBENS' HOUSE AT ANTWERP. 

Marshal de ViUeroy, the (Phot. Hermans.) 

199 



FIG. 368.— ANTWERP. 

TOWER OF THE JESUIT 

CHURCH 

(Phot. Hermans.) 




ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 370.— BRUSSELS. HOUSES IN THE 
GRAND 'PLACE. (Phot. Nels.) 



commander of the French army, bombarded Brussels, a large 
portion of the town, and nearly all the guild-halls on the Grand* 

Place, were burnt. The 
Hotel de Ville and one 
of the guild halls alone 
remained intact ; the 
Maison du Roi (Brood- 
huis), an exquisite gem 
of tertiary Gothic, was 
spared in part. The com- 
munal administration is- 
sued an order to the 
guilds to rebuild their 
halls immediately, and 
this was done in a few 
years, from 1696 to 
1699. With the Hotel 
de Ville and the Maison 
du Roi, they transform 
the Grand' Place of 
Brussels into a forum which, for beauty, originality, and pictures- 
queness, has no rival but the Piazza San Marco in Venice. All 
these houses vie with each other in richness and fancy. The 

pointed gables, here as every- 
where else, have disappeared, 
and are replaced by pedi- 
ments of varying shape, tri- 
angular or rounded, adorned 
with windows, mouldings and 
sculptures , and frequently 
surmounted by statues, vases, 
or allegorical figures; the 
fagades are decorated with 
columns, cartouches, balus- 
trades, figures and garlands. 
Everything was done to in- 
troduce life and movement 
into the cold and rigid walls. 
Architects tried to make their 
buildings speak and sing, 
and this object was eventu- 
ally reaHsed without a lapse 
into vulgar luxuriance. One 




FIG. 371.— ANTWERP. THE KING'S 
PALACE. (Phot Hermans.) 



200 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 



of these houses, the Maison des 
Bateliers, is crowned with a gable 
exactly copied from the stern of a ship 
(Fig. 370). 

The eighteenth century did not 
produce any buildings of great character 
or real artistic value. Sumptuous 
middle-class houses continued to be 
built, it is true, but the spontaneous 
originality of Flemish architecture had 
gradually died out, and the imitation 
of the French style became more and 
more general. But in adopting the 
Rococo style, Flemish architects ma- 
naged to keep within the bounds of 
good taste. The most charming monu- 
ment of this period and kind is the 
present Palais du Roi at Antwerp (Fig. 
371), built in 1745, for Jan Alexander 
van Susteren, 





FIG. 373-— ARTUS gUEL- 

LIN THE YOUNGER. 

ST. ROSA (Antwerp, 

Church of St. Paul). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



FIG. 372.— ARTUS Ql'ELLIX. 

CARYATID (Amsterdam, Town 

Hall). (Phot. Hermans.) 

from the plans 

of the architect Baurscheit. It is an 
honest and straight -forward application 
of the Rococo style, not over -ornate, 
playful and gay in appearance; the 
material is grey Bentheim stone. After- 
wards, a more severe and academic man- 
ner was adopted, the most interesting 
example of which is furnished by the 
series of monumental private houses in 
the Place Royale at Brussels. 

After the terrible outbreak of the 
Iconoclasts (1566), when it became neces- 
sary to replace the destroyed sculptures, 
the decorative style had been trans- 
formed under the influence of Bernini 
and Rubens; bodies were given more 
pronounced muscles, movements more 
energy, draperies more suppleness and 
fulness. There is no lack of information 
concerning the sculptors of that period, 
but they are so numerous and on the 
whole so much lacking in individuality, 
201 



ART IN FLANDERS 



that we may confine ourselves to 
the most important among them. 
They are grouped in families. 
The Nole dynasty excelled in the 
construction of altars and other 
church-furniture. Jan and Robert 
de Nole or Colyns de Nole were 
natives of Utrecht, but acquired 
in 1593 the poorterrecht (right of 
citizenship) at Antwerp. They 
carved the tombs and the figures 
of saints in various churches of 
Brussels, Antwerp, and Ghent. 
Another lineage of more famous 
sculptors is that of the Quellins. 
Their ancestor, Artus Quellin, who 
was received in 1606 as sculptor 
in the Guild of St. Luke, worked 
much with Jan van Mildert and 
with his own son Artus (1609 to 

1668), who was the most highly gifted member of the family. 

He adorned the Town Hall at Amsterdam", built between 1648 




FIG. 374.— FRAN<^OIS DU QUESNOY. 

ST. ANDREW (Rome, St. Peter's). 

(Phot Alinari.) 





FIG. 375.— THEODORE VER- 

HAEGEN. THE GOOD SHEPHERD 

(Mechlin, Church of St. Jean). 

(Phot. Neurdein.) 



202 



FIG. 376.— H. F. VERBRUGGEN. 

ADAM AND EVE EXPELLED FROM 

THE EARTHLY PARADISE (Pulpit, 

Ste. Gudule,Brussels). (Phot. Neurdein.) 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 

and 1655, with a profusion of sculpture: statues, bas-reliefs, 
caryatides (Fig. 372). For the fagade he executed a^/!grand 




FIG. 377-— JEAX DELCOUR. THE DEAD CHRIST (Hasselt, Church of the 
Recollets). (Phot. Neuckens.) 



pediment, well designed and charmingly decorated. Artus Quellin 
had as a pupil his nephew Artus Quellin the Younger (1625 to 
1700), who assisted him in his work on the town-hall of Amster- 
dam and, like his uncle, executed a large number of statues for 

the churches 
of various 
other towns. 
The best of 
his statues, 
the St. Rosa 
(Fig. 373), of 
the church of 
St. Paul at 
Antwerp, is a 
master - piece 
of meditative 
grace. 

The Du 
Quesnoys re- 
present an- 
other noted fa- 
mily of sculp- 
tors. Their 
head, Jerome 
du Quesnoy, 
practised his 
art in Brussels 
203 





FIG. 378.— JAC. BERGER. 

BRUSSELS. THE FONTAINE 

DU GRAND SABLON. 

(Phot Hermans.) 



FIG. 37g.— GODECHARLE. 

THE CHILLY WOMAN 

(Brussels, Museum). 

(Phot. Berlin Phot. Gesellsch.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 380.— THE FOUR PHILOSOPHERS. 

(Florence, Palazzo Pilti). (Phot. Anderson.) 



from the beginning of the eighteenth century until 1641. His 
son Francois, born at Brussels in 1594, went to Italy in 1618, 

where he remained and worked 
until his death in 1642. Popes 
and Cardinals gave him numer- 
ous commissions. Thus, in 1630, 
Urban VIII. ordered the statue 
of St. Andrew (Fig. 374), one 
of the four colossi placed 
against the four piers that sup- 
port the cupola of St. Peter's 
in Rome. This gigantic statue 
is remarkable for the large 
gesture of the arms and the 
powerful structure of the pec- 
toral muscles. The pain ex- 
pressed in the face is in 
harmony with the violent at- 
titude, but in this tumultuous 
pathos there is a good deal of 
Bernini's theatrical emphasis. 
Belgium possesses no work by 
Francois du Quesnoy except the tomb of the Bishop of Trieste 
in St. Bavon at Ghent; and even this monument was completed 
by his brother, Jerome the Younger (1602 — 1654). Among the 

most famous sculptors of this 
period we may also mention 
Jean Delcour (Liege, 1627 to 
1707), the author of the Dead 
Christ in the Church of the 
Recollets at Hasselt (Fig. 377). 
Among the sculptors who 
were more or less subject to 
the influence of Rubens, the 
best known is Lucas Fayd'- 
herbe, of Mechlin (1617 to 
1697), who worked with him 
and carved some ivories after 
his drawings or pictures. Many 
sculptors of the second rank 
decorated the piers and altars 
of the churches with a pro- 
fusion of sculpture, executing 
204 




FIG. 381.— RUBENS. ROMULUS AND 

REMUS (Rome, Capitoline Museum). 

(Phot. Anderson.) 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 




FIG. 382.— THE ADORATION OF THETmAGI 
(Madrid, Prado). (Phot. Anderson.) 



magnificent mausoleums for the tombs of the great, and furnishing 
the naves with carved confessionals and statues. It was upon 
the pulpits that all these 
artists expended the best 
efforts of their imagi- 
nation. The eighteenth 
century witnessed the 
creation of many magni- 
ficent examples. There 
was not a church that 
did not possess one 
of these marvels. They 
vied with each other for 
the possession of the 
most wonderful. Des- 
camps was right to 
interpolate engravings 
of Flemish pulpits in 
the description of his 
journey, as being the most curious works of art of his'i time. 
Sometimes the subjects that were^ chosen for these structures 
and the forms given to them, were strange enough. The 
subjects most frequently treated 
were taken from the Bible or 
the Gospels: witness the Good 
Shepherd (Fig. 375) of the Church 
of St. Jean at Mechlin, executed 
by Theodore Verhaeren in 1741. 
Sometimes the group is placed 
in a landscape, like the Adam 
and Eve expelled from the Earthly 
Paradise (Fig. 376) surrounded by 
the trees and animals of the 
garden of Eden. This pulpit, now 
at Ste. Gudule in Brussels, was 
executed by H. F. Verbruggen for 
the Church of the Jesuits at Lou- 
vain. The railings were added 
in 1780 by Theodore Verhaeren. 
But the statues of saints against 
the piers of the churches were 
not as restrained as this; gesture 
had become declamatory, and 

205 




FIG. 383. 

THE RAISING OF THE CROSS. 

(Antwerp, Cathedral). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 384.— RUBENS. THE BATTLE 

OF THE AMAZONS (Munich, Pinakothek). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



muscles swollen ; the draperies seemed to clothe actors. The salva- 
tion of sculpture demanded a reaction against the Baroque style. 

The first signs of this 
reaction appeared as 
early as the middle of 
the eighteenth century ; 
it was stimulated by the 
archaeological movement 
to which impetus had 
just been given by the 
discoveries of Hercul- 
aneum (1737) and Pom- 
peii (1738); it was 
strengthened and scienti- 
fically pursued by 
Winckelmann (1717 to 
1768). One of the first 
monuments inspired by 
this neo-antique style was 
the fountain raised by 
Jacob Berger at Lord Bruce's expense in the Place du Grand 
Sablon, at Brussels (Fig. 378). Lambert Godecharle (Brussels, 

1750—1835) (Fig. 379), the first 
of the artists of merit who had 
entered upon this new path, 
finished his studies in Paris and 
in Rome. In 1780 he was back 
in Brussels where he executed 
a number of works: the pediment 
of the Parliament house, the bas- 
reliefs and the sculptures of the 
Chateau of Laeken, and some 
statues for the churches of Brus- 
sels. He did not assimilate the 
nobility of the classic style, and 
modelled his figures with a 
sentimentalism that verges on 
languor. 

But it was once more through 
her school of painting in parti- 
cular that Flanders covered herself 
with glory in the seventeenth 
century. With Rubens a new 
206 




FIG. 385.— RUBENS. 

THE ARTIST AND HIS WIFE 

(Munich, Pinakothek). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 




FIG. 386.— RUBENS. DIANA RETURNING FROM 

THE CHASE (Dresden, Gallery). 

(Phot. Hanfstaengl) 



golden age begins. He was born on June 28, 1577 at Siegen, 
a small village in Westphalia, where his family lived in exile. 
After his father's death, 
his mother returned with 
her children to Antwerp, 
where young Peter Paul 
frequented the Latin 
school until he had at- 
tained his fifteenth year, 
when he was apprenticed 
to Tobias Verhaecht, an 
insignificant painter of 
landscapes in the taste 
of Josse de Momper. 
Afterwards, he became 
the pupil of Adam van 
Noort (1557— 1641), no 
authentic picture by 
whom is known, and 
who, to judge by his 

drawings, or engravings after his pictures, was but a mediocre 
and insipid imitator of the Italianizers. The third and the only 
real master of Rubens was Otto 
Venius , whose influence is manifest 
in all his earliest works. In 1600, 
at the age of twenty-three, Rubens set 
out for Italy, the land of his dreams. 
He remained there for eight years, 
carried away by his enthusiasm for 
the masterpieces of the great artists 
of the fifteenth and sixteenth cen- 
turies, and studying also with pas- 
sionate admiration the remains of 
antique architecture and sculpture. 
He was the court painter of Vincenzo 
Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, for whom 
he executed a number of works, 
among others The Holy Trinity y with 
the Duke's parents in adoration, and 
with The Baptism and Transfiguration 
of Christ. On the occasion of a 
mission to Spain, with which he was 
charged by the Duke of Mantua in 

207 




FIG. 387.— RUBENS. THE LAST 

COMMUNION OF ST. FRANCIS 

(Antwerp, Museum). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 



1603, he executed several pictures for Philip III. Later he 
painted a large number of works in Italy. Among those which 
have come down to us are: the picture called The Four Philo- 
sophers (Fig. 380), which represents Rubens himself, his brother 
Philip, his friend Jan Woverius, and Justus Lipsius, the professor 
of the two last named; Romulus and Remus (Fig. 381), at the 

Capitoline Museum in 
Rome; the Two Satyrs, 
of the Munich Pinakothek, 
and others. The last 
picture he executed in Italy 
was a St. Gregory with 
other Saints, which he 
brought back to Antwerp 
on his return, and which 
is now in the Museum of 
Grenoble. He painted for 
the Chiesa Nuova, in 
Rome, three pictures deal- 
ing with the same sub- 
ject. In October 1608 he 
returned to Antwerp. He 
was then in full posses- 
sion of his artistic per- 
sonality, gifted with a 
ready and bold imagi- 
nation and with a hand 
capable of interpreting all 
that he saw or dreamed. 
At that time there was 
not a single artist of great 
powers living in Flanders: 
the old Flemish vigour was 
flagging, and isolated efforts to revive the spent fires of art had 
failed. Then Rubens arrived, bringing with him a new force, and 
the country beheld the fervent naturalism of old Flanders elevated 
by the prodigious imagination of the Italian masters, and ampli- 
fied by a creative force, the marvels of which have never been 
repeated. This wonderful gift of invention was wedded in him to 
an absolute command of colour and light — a command which 
in course of time became more scientific and refined, but which 
from the outset had proved itself all-powerful. He had scarcely 
settled at Antwerp, when the Archduke and Archduchess enlisted 

208 




FIG. 388.— RUBENS. THE DESCENT FROM 

THE CROSS (Antwerp, Cathedral). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 



his services as court-painter, and commissions flowed into his 
studio. In 1609, the town council of Antwerp ordered from 
him an Adoration of the Magi (Fig. 382) destined to adorn a 
hall in the H6tel-de-ville , a picture which is now at the Prado 
in Madrid. For the church of St. Walburge he painted in 1610 
a Raising of the Cross, at present in the church of Notre-Dame 
at Antwerp; from 1612 to 
1614 he executed the 
famous Descent from the 
Cross, in the same church 
for the guild of the Cross- 
bowmen. 

The Raising of the Cross 
(Fig. 383) ranks among the 
masterpieces of the pain- 
ter. And yet this picture 
still belongs to his first 
manner which he had 
brought back with him 
from Italy — a glow of 
colour which suggests the 
flame smouldering under 
the ashes ; impetuous com- 
position ; figures of athletes 
with their muscles in full 
tension. The executioners 
strain at the cross with 
all their might and raise 
it with superhuman ef- 
forts. Christ turns His 
eyes towards His heavenly 
rather with a mingled 
expression of poignant 
anguish and confidence. An admirable contrast of moral elevation 
at its most sublime, and physical violence at its most brutal! 
Tintoretto had already treated this subject in an analogous 
manner, but Rubens has far surpassed his Venetian predecessor. 

Henceforth, one cannot keep count of the masterpieces: the 
Battle of the Amazons (Fig. 384), painted from 1610 to 1612, 
is one of the most stupendous expressions of Rubens's dramatic 
genius: a terrifying melee of warriors, rearing horses, and dead 
and living bodies hurled into the river. The furious combat 
goes on even under the bridge and in the plain, by the light 

209 p 




FIG. 389.— RUBENS. THE CRUCIFIXION ('LE 

COUP DE LANCE') (Antwerp, Museum). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 390.— RUBENS. THE SMALL 

LAST JUDGMENT (Munich, Pina- 

kothek). (Phot. Bruckmann.) 



around Him to give Him 




FIG. 391.— RUBENS. CASTOR AND POLLUX 
SEIZING THE DAUGHTERS OF LEUCIPPUS 

(Munich , Pinakothek). (Phot. Hanfstaengl.) 

210 



of conflagrations. The composition 
recalls that of the Battle of Cadore 
by Titian in the Doge's Palace in 
Venice. 

Between times, Rubens painted 
numerous portraits. Among the 
earliest, we must note the one in the 
Munich Pinacothek, where he is 
represented with his young wife, 
Isabella Brant : he, looking with con- 
fidence upon his smiling future; she, 
full of pride in her beloved and already 
famous husband, both with hearts 
overflowing with happiness in the 
midst of blossoming Spring (Fig. 385). 
The Descent from the Cross (Fig. 
388) is one of Rubens's most famous 
masterpieces. It is a poem of tender- 
ness which is the antithesis to the 
Raising of the Cross. The friends 
and followers of Christ are gathered 
a supreme proof of their affection. 
Some have mounted to 
the arms of the Cross; 
others are on the ladders, 
others still crowd around 
the foot of the Cross; all 
extend their hands to- 
wards the body of the divine 
sufferer and enfold it in 
their gestures of devotion. 
The kneehng Magdalen 
bathes the feet of the 
Saviour with her tears. 
Mary sinks fainting into 
the arms of the Apostle 
John, and in the midst of 
these transports of grief, 
the divinely beautiful body 
of Christ glides gently 
towards the ground. The 
dead is nobler than all the 
living, and his pale nudity 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 




is more radiant, more resplendent than all their magnificent 
garments. The drawing and colour have undergone a great 
change since the Raising 
of the Cross. Rubens has 
become a Flemish painter 
again. The colours are 
blond, the light serene, the 
bodies less athletic, the 
gestures more peaceful; for 
this scene of charity he has 
chosen tenderer forms and 
colours. He was to retain 
this modified style which 
represents what we call his 
second manner until about 
1625. The Descent from 
the Cross definitely estab- 
lished the fame of Rubens 
in his own country, and he 
had scarcely finished this 
masterpiece , when other 
pictures of the same subject 
were ordered from him 
Valenciennes , and other 
second period are in- 
numerable. Of religious 
pictures, the most fam- 
ous are: The Adoration 
of the Magi of the church 
of St. Jean at Mechlin, 
one of his favourite sub- 
jects , which afforded 
him an opportunity for 
rendering at once the 
splendour of the Eastern 
kings and their humility 
before the divine Child; 
the Assumption, another 
of his favourite subjects, 
which he painted for the 
barefooted Carmelites 
of Brussels, and which is now in the Museum of that city; the 
Last Communion of St. Francis of Assisi (Fig. 387), of the 

211 p 2 



FIG. 302.— RUBENS. THE TRIUMPH OF 

SILENUS (Munich, Pinakothek). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



for the churches of Lierre, Arras, 
cities. The notable works of this 




Fia. 303.— RUBENS. 

THE LION HUNT (Munich, Pinakothek). 
(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 









fj 1 >" 


m^:^'*^ - 


tS ■ 


W\ 


H '^''^^K ^ 1 


i 


H 







FIG. 394.— RUBENS. 



THE CORONATION OF MARIE DE' MEDICI 
(Paris, Louvre). 



Museum at Antwerp, a work rendered profoundly touching by the 
Saint's fervent faith and the affectionate grief of the spectators; 
and the Calvary (Fig. 389), known as the "Coup de Lance", of 

the same Museum — another of 
those episodes of the Passion so 
frequently treated by Rubens. The 
calm majesty, the sublime beauty, 
the triumphant death of the divine 
Victim are contrasted with the 
violence of the two thieves. 
Among the most important re- 
ligious compositions of this period 
we must also mention the Last 
Judgment and the Fall of the 
Rebel Angels. In unity of effect, 
boldness of movement, and plastic 
beauty, the small Last Judgment 
of Munich (Fig. 390) rivals the 
Battle of the Amazons of the 
same gallery. 

Mythology inspired Rubens with 

as many masterpieces as the Bible. 

He treats numerous episodes with 

the brilliant colour, the animated 

212 




FIG. 395.— RUBENS. THE MIRACLES 

OF ST. IGNATIUS (Vienna, Imperial 

Museum). (Phot. Lowy.) 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 




FIG. 396.— RUBENS. PORTRAIT OF 

THE ARTIST (Windsor Castle). 

(Phdt Anderson.) 



ordonnance, and the plastic 
rhythm that are his own, and 
also with the beauty of form 
which he had admired in the 
antique. Diana returning from 
the Chase (Fig. 386) is as 
lovely as a Greek bas-relief; 
Castor and Pollux seizing the 
Daughters of Leucippus (Fig. 
391) is a marvel of stormy 
action and harmonious mus- 
cular effort. The Triumph of 
Silenus (Fig. 392), which he 
painted about 1618, is the most 
original of the pictures for 
which he drew his inspiration 
from antiquity. There are 
several versions of it. The 
Fleming had found in this sub- 
ject an opportunity for depict- 
ing in mythological language 

the occasionally brutal manners of the people of his own country. 
He has made Silenus a symbol 
of unbridled sensuality. The 
Hunting Scenes he painted 
between 1616 and 1621 (Fig. 
393) are remarkable for the 
boldness of their dramatic 
movement. Wild beasts are 
represented not in their calm 
majesty, but defending their life 
against man, and mingled with 
horses and huntsmen in terrible 
melees. 

Rubens was the impetuous 
interpreter of heroic or brutal 
strength. In the lives of the 
saints he preferred the scenes 
of martyrdom ; when he evoked 
heaven, it was to hurl from it 
the rebel angels , or to show 
the legions of the faithful fight- 
ing victoriously against the 

213 




FIG. 397. —RUBENS. PORTRAIT OF 

MARIE DE' MEDICI (Madrid, Prado). 

(Phot. Anderson.) 



JART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 398.— RUBENS. PORTRAIT 

OF HIS SONS, ALBERT AND 

NICOLAS (Liechtenstein Gallery). 

■ (Phot. Lowy.) 

some 
very extensive works. In 1618 he 
painted for the Genoese nobles The 
History of Decius Mas, intended to 
serve as cartoons for tapestries. 
The paintings are now in Vienna, 
in Prince Liechtenstein's gallery. 
The thirty-nine compositions for the 
ceiling of the Jesuit Church at Ant- 
werp rank among his most important 
works. He painted them about 
1620. The subjects were, apart 
from numerous saints, the principal 
concordances of the Old Testament 
with the Gospels. In the same years 
and for the same church Rubens 
executed the Miracles of St. Ignatius 
(Fig. 395) and those of St. Francis 
Xaviery which are now at the Im- 
perial Museum in Vienna. But the 
most important of the great works 

214 



partisans of Satan. In the life of ani- 
mals, he depicted above all their 
struggle against man; in the history 
of the nations, he celebrated battles 
and massacres; in mythology, he saw 
the atrocities engendered by hatred 
and revenge. But he could also strike 
the chord of tenderness or of vol- 
uptuousness. He portrayed with equal 
poetry the beauty of women who 
seduce men by the opulence of their 
forms and the freshness of their flesh, 
and the dimpled bodies of children 
blooming with health and innocence. 
His Madonnas and his Angels belong 
to these delightful works, the hap- 
piest of which are the Children car- 
rying a Garland of Fruit (Fig. 365) and 
the Madonna surrounded by Angels, 
both in the Pinakothek at Munich. 
At that period Rubens also under- 
took 




FIG. 399.— RUBENS. 

SUZANNE FOURMENT 

(le CHAPEAU DE PAILLE) 

(London, National Gallery). 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 




FIG. 400.— RUBENS. THE TRIUMPHS AND 

TYPES OF THE EUCHARIST (SKETCH) 

(Madrid, Prado). (Phot. Anderson.) 



undertaken by the master at this period, the most splendid, if 
not the most lofty in inspiration, is the series he executed for 
Marie de' Medici (Fig. 
394) between the years 
1621 and 1625. It then 
adorned the Luxembourg 
Palace, but, in 1900, 
France provided for it 
the most sumptuous gal- 
lery which harbours any 
work of art in the world. 
The series is composed 
of twenty - three large 
paintings, two of which 
are portraits , whilst 
twenty -one depict epi- 
sodes in the life of the 
Queen. The subject was 
an intractable one, but 
the painter ennobled it 
by mingling mythology with history. He perpetrated this daring 
anachronism with an authority and a magic which make it the 
masterpiece of decorative art. 
The luxury of the court of 
France is fused with the splen- 
dours of Olympus; historical 
truth and poetic fiction are 
associated to make this cycle a 
decoration unique of its kind. 
Among the best portraits 
painted at the same period are : 
that of Marie de' Medici (Fig. 
397), now in the Prado at 
Madrid; the portrait of the 
painter himself (Fig. 396) at 
Windsor Castle, which shows 
an elegant Rubens, with a wide- 
brimmed hat, regular features, 
and a long, well-kept moustache 
— a portrait which reveals in 
the quiet assurance of the face 
the mastery of the artist and ^i^- 4oi.-rubens helen fourment 

, .1 . f .1 .1 AS A BRIDE (Munich, Pinakothek). 

the authority ot the man ; the rphot. Bmckmann.) 

215 




ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 402.— RUBENS. HELEN 

FOURMENT (Vienna, Imperial 

Museum). (Phot. Lowy.) 



portraits of his two elder sons, Albert 
and Nicolas (Fig. 398) in the Liechten- 
stein Gallery, and that of Suzanne 
Fourment (Fig. 399) (Le Chapeau de 
Faille), his favourite model after his 
second wife, in the National Gallery. 
The Medici gallery may be considered 
the last work of Rubens' second man- 
ner. He had inaugurated this manner 
gloriously with the Descent from the 
Cross; in this masterpiece and in his 
works from 1612 to 1615 he had drawn 
closer to the style of Otto Venius. 
With his various Last Judgments he 
returned to his creative daring and to 
his robust colour; and, until 1625, he 
continued to advance in elegance of 
design and splendour of colour. In 
1625, his art underwent a complete 
metamorphosis; he brought more free- 
dom and refinement into his choice of 



colours and tones, multiplying 
their combinations and studying 
their effect upon each other; his 
light becomes more luminous and 
is divided into more subtle 
reflections; he asserts himself 
more and more as the unrivalled 
colourist, as he was already the 
greatest dramatic painter. The 
first important work of his third 
period is the Adoration of the 
Magi, a creation of dazzling 
splendour, completed in 1625 
for the abbey church of St. Michel 
at Antwerp, and now one of the 
treasures of the Museum of that 
city. In the following year he 
painted the Assumption for Ant- 
werp Cathedral. The most im- 
portant work of these years is 
The Triumph and the Types of 
the Eucharist (Fig. 400), which 




FIG. 403.— RUBENS. 

RUBENS, HELEN FOURMENT, 

AND THEIR CHILD 

(Alphonse de Rothschild Collection; 
Pari?). (Phot ^raun.J 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 




FIG. 404.— RUBENS. THE MIRACLE OF ST. ILDEFONSO 
(Vienna, Imperial Museum). (Phot. Lowy.) 



he executed in 1627 — 1628 for the Infanta Isabella, and which 
was intended to serve as a cartoon for tapestry. In wealth of 
invention and im- 
petuous elegance of 
movement , these 
triumphal composi- 
tions rank among his 
masterpieces. 

At this moment, 
Rubens* artistic career 
was interrupted for 
several years. From 
1623, he assisted the 
Infanta Isabella and 
the Marquis Am- 
brogio Spinola in the 
government of the 
Netherlands , and 
played a prepondera- 
ting part until 1628. He suffered from the deplorable situation in 
which his country was languishing, and he did his utmost to 
terminate the war between Spain and England, which' shook the 
whole of Europe. He brought 
about his own appointment by 
the Infanta Isabella as confid- 
ential agent to Madrid to King 
Philip IV., and was sent by 
him to Charles I. in London to 
lay the foundations for peace 
(1628—1630). He succeeded 
in his efforts. These years 
were not altogether lost to his 
art. At Madrid he painted a 
large number of portraits, 
among others those of members 
of the royal family. He also 
copied many of Titian's works. 
In London he worked less, but 
nevertheless produced some 
works, the most important of 
which is the Minerva defending 
Peace of the National Gallery. f^^- 405.-rubens. portrait of the 

11 /-c\r- 1 1 11 . 1 . r. . INFANTA ISABELLA (Brussels, Museum). 

n 1626 he had lost his first (Phot Hermans.) 

217 




ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 406. — RUBENS. LANDSCAPE WITH COWS 

AND MILKMAID (Munich, Pinakothek). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



wife. Soon after his return from his diplomatic journeys, he 
married, on December 6, 1620, Helen Fourment, then barely 

sixteen years of age, 
whom Cardinal Ferdinand, 
Governor of the Nether- 
lands, considered the most 
beautiful woman in the 
land; and history has it 
that this exalted person- 
age spoke with authority. 
Rubens was passionately 
in love with his young 
wife; he painted her at 
least a dozen times. The 
Pinakothek in Munich 
owns no fewer than five 
of these portraits. One 
of them shows her walk- 
ing in her garden by her 
husband's side ; another 
represents her decked in 
her magnificent wedding finery (Fig. 401) ; in a third one she is 
more simply dressed. It occurred to Rubens, notably in the 
masterpiece which may be seen in Vienna, to paint her in her 
dazzling nudity, with no covering but a fur drawn round her 

shoulders and hips (Fig. 
402). Elsewhere, the young 
woman is accompanied 
by one or more of her 
children (Munich, Louvre) 
(PI. IV) or by her hus- 
band and their eldest 
child (Fig. 403) (Alphonse 
de Rothschild Collection). 
Each of these portraits 
is a wonderful achieve- 
ment which translates the 
intimate happiness of the 
man and the mastery of 
the artist as it grows with 
the years. For him the 
springtime of life was continued to his very death. 

The last years of his life were particularly fruitful as regards 

218 




FIG. 407.— RUBENS. THE RETURN FROM THE 

FIELDS (Florence, Pitti Palace). (Phot. Anderson.) 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 




the production of masterpieces. One of the most remarkable 
of all is The Miracle of St Ildefonso (Fig. 404), painted in 
1630—1632 for the Church 
of St. Jacques-sur-Coudenberg 
at Brussels, and now in the 
Imperial Museum in Vienna. 
Other masterly works of this 
period are the Sacrifice to 
Venus, of the Imperial Museum 
in Vienna, a veritable apothe- 
osis of love and voluptuous- 
ness, inspired by the sensuous 
intoxication which carried away 
the great artist ; Thorny ris and 
Cyrus, a canvas at the Louvre, 
in which, as is often the case 
with Rubens, the splendour 
of the colour cloaks or mitig- 
ates the atrocities of the drama. 
At this time he also under- 
took more works on a vast 
scale. When Marie de' Medici 
had charged him with the 
painting of her history, it was 
understood that he was to illustrate the life of King Henry IV. 
in a similar fashion. Rubens had looked forward to the inter- 
pretation of this brilliant career of a hero as the text for a 
series of superb works; 
but the differences that 
had arisen between the 
queen-mother and her son 
Louis XIII. prevented the 
realisation of these great 
plans. The Henry IV. 
gallery was destined to 
remain only a project. 
The utmost the master 
did with it was to 
sketch out some of the 
scenes after 1630. Two 
of them, which are now 
at the Uffizi Gallery in 

T^l rrii rt 1 r FIG. 409.— RUBENS. RUDOLPH I. AND THE 

rlorence, I he Battle of priest (Madrid, Prado).- (Phot Anderson.) 

219 



FIG. 408. —RUBENS. THE THREE GRACES 
(Madrid, Prado). (Phot. Anderson.) 




ART IN FLANDERS 





^''4'' i '^' ' 




fic. -'- ^ "*^ ji^ 



FIG. 410.— RUBENS. 



THE JUDGMENT OF PARIS (London, National Gallery). 
(Phot. Anderson.) 



Ivry and The Entry into Paris, prove that this series, had it been 
finished, would have been the most marvellous of this sublime 
artist's masterpieces. For Charles I. of England he executed some 
allegorical paintings for the Banqueting Hall at Whitehall Palace; 

and for the king of 
Spain , another eight 
tapestry cartoons illus- 
trating the Story of 
Achilles. He only fur- 
nished the sketches, 
which were enlarged and 
transferred to canvas 
by his pupils. Among 
his most important 
works were the trium- 
phal arches erected on 
the occasion of the 
Joyous Entry into Ant- 
werp of the Cardinal- 
Infante Ferdinand, bro- 
ther of King Philip IV., 
which took place on April 17, 1635. He enlisted the help of 
all the painters and sculptors of repute then at Antwerp. He 
himself sketched the designs of four triumphal arches, four stage 

220 




FIG. 411.— RUBENS. THE GARDEN OF LOVE 
(Madrid, Prado). (Phot Anderson.) 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 




scenes, and a colonnade, and thus created a triumphal way of 
such magnificence as no prince had ever passed through. Of 
these decorations executed under 
the direction of Rubens, a few 
motives entirely by his own hand 
have been preserved , among 
others the very beautiful por- 
traits of the Infanta Isabella (Fig. 
405) and of the Archduke Al- 
bert, now in the Brussels 
Museum. 

In the same year 1635, Rubens 
bought the estate of Steen, at 
Elewyt, between Mechlin and 
Brussels, where he passed the 
summer months of the last years 
of his life and where he painted 
the majority of his landscapes. 
Ever since his sojourn in Italy, 
he had delighted in rendering 
certain aspects of nature. But 
from the moment he began to 
live in the country, he showed 
an ever-growing predilection for 

this branch of painting. His landscapes number some fifty, which 
are distributed among many museums and private collections. 
Rubens painted the fields, the woods, the mountains and the 
meadows as he saw 
them around him, 
with the peasants at 
work , the grazing 
herds and flocks (Figs. 
406, 407); dawn with 
the hunter lying in 
wait, the fullness of 
day with the sun 
shining on the plain, 
evening with the 
shepherd returning 
with his flock, and 
night with the horse 

Ipff in tVip monnlit fig. 413.— rubens. the massacre of the 

leri m me mooniu innocents (Munich, Pinakothek). 

meadow, rascmated (Phot Bruckmann.) 

221 



FIG. 412.— RUBENS. JAN YAN 

GHINDERTAELEN (Berlin , Museum). 

(Phot. Berlin Phot. Gesellschaft) 




ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 414. RUBENS. THE HOLY FAMILY (Ant- 
werp, Church of St. Jacques). (Phot. G.Hermans.) 



by the beauty of his own land, 
he has painted landscapes 
which delight us by a 
reflection of true rural life 
and the serene poetry of the 
fields. 

Meanwhile the King of Spain, 
through the agency of the 
Governor of the Netherlands, 
his brother the Cardinal -In- 
fante, overwhelmed the great 
painter with orders: in 1636, 
the Metamorphoses of Ovid in 
56 pictures, destined for the 
hunting-lodge of the Torre de 
la Parada, near Madrid; in 
1638, a new series of paintings 
which Rubens was to execute 
with the assistance of Frans 
Snyders; and finally, four huge pictures which were to be by 
his own hand, but the last two of which death prevented him 
from finishing. Among the works commissioned or bought by 

Philip IV., Dianas Nymphs sur- 
prized by Satyrs, Diana and Cal- 
listOy and the Three Graces (Fig. 
408) are masterpieces in which 
the female nude is treated in all 
its splendour and with pagan 
sensuality; Rudolph of Hapsburg 
and the Priest (Fig. 409) is the 
only picture in which the master 
has introduced a humorous note; 
in The Garden of Love (Fig. 411) 
or the Conversation Galante we 
admire an aristocratic elegance 
which the painter borrowed from 
his surroundings. 

Besides these numerous pictures 
executed for the King, Rubens 
completed in the last years of 
his life more than one master- 
piece: the Evils of War, com- 
missioned by Sustermans for the 
222 




FIG. 415.— A. VAN DYCK. 

THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. SEBASTIAN 

(Munich, Pinakothek). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 




Grand Duke of Tuscany, and now at the Pitti Palace in Flo- 
rence; The Rape of the Sabines, The Brazen Serpent and The 
Judgment of Paris, in the 
National Gallery, London (Fig. 
410); the Virgin surrounded by 
Saints, which adorns the altar 
of his mortuary chapel in the 
church of St. Jacques at Ant- 
werp; a Shepherd wooing a 
Shepherdess, at Munich; and 
finally the famous Kermesse 
of the Louvre, not to mention 
the portraits of Helen Four- 
ment , of the Cardinal-Infante 
(Pierpont Morgan Collection), 
of his father-in-law, Jan Brant 
(Munich), and of Jan van 
Ghindertaelen (Fig. 412) in the 
Berlin Museum. All these can- 
vases commend themselves by 
the qualities which characterize 
his last manner: marvellous 
colour that presents delightful 

and capricious combinations of tones, and absolute command 
of the world of form and colour. His dramatic power is un- 
diminished — witness his Massacre of the Innocents (Fig. 413) 
at Munich. The Kermesse 
is a masterpiece that 
stands alone in Rubens' 
work. The unbridled 
gluttony and brutal sen- 
suality of the rustics rise 
here to the heroic. But 
the picture which decor- 
ates his mausoleum (Fig. 
414) is perhaps the most 
radiant and the most fairy- 
like of all. It is the 
"bouquet" of the dazzling 
fireworks with which he 
astounded the v/orld. 

WVif^n Vi^ ViuA finUVl^rl FIG- 417— A. VAN DYCK. FRANS SNYDERS 

When he had tmished y^.^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^,^ Gallery), 

this sublime canvas, the (Phot Hanfstaengi) 

223 



FIG. 416.— A. VAN DYCK. 

ST. MARTIN DIVIDING HIS CLOAK 

(Church of Saventhem). 

(Phot. G. Hermans.) 




ART IN FLANDERS 

colour-magician laid down his brushes. He died on May 30, 
1640, at the age of sixty -three. His whole career had been a 
victorious progress which was cut short at its apogee. Wonder- 
fully gifted by nature, perfected by study, favoured by fate, he 
was really a child of fortune. Destined to the highest artistic 
supremacy and always worthy of his prodigious good fortune, 
he transformed the art of his time and that of the future. His 
productiveness verged upon the miraculous. True, he did not 





FIG. 418.— A. VAN DYCK. FIG. 419.— A. VAN DYCK. 

PORTRAIT OF GERONIMA PORTRAIT OF THE MARQUIS 

BRIGNOLE-SALE. BRIGNOLE-SALE. 

(Genoa, Palazzo Rosso.) (Phot. Brogi.J 



work single-handed on the hundreds of pictures that bear his 
imprimatur ; pupils painted under his direction , but he com- 
municated the breath of his genius to all around him. 

Among his pupils, Anthony van Dyck was the most highly 
gifted. He was born at Antwerp on March 22, 1599, and in 
his eleventh year entered the studio of Van Balen , whence he 
passed into that of Rubens. In 1613 he painted the portrait of 
an old man , upon which he inscribed his name , his age , and 
the year; in 1617 he executed a Christ bearing the Cross, which 
is far from being a masterpiece, but in the following year he 
was already painting pictures which Rubens sold under his own 
name after having retouched them, and shortly afterwards portraits 

224 



RUBENS 

Helen Fourment and two of her Children 

(The Louvre, Paris) 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 



which cannot always be easily 
distinguished from his master's. 
An English connoisseur has stat- 
ed that at the age of twenty-one 
Van Dyck was already almost 
as highly esteemed as Rubens. 
At the end of 1620, he departed 
for London, whither James I. 
had invited him to become court- 
painter. Three months later, 
he obtained eight months leave 
to visit Italy. We cannot exactly 
fix the dates of his departure 
and return. He probably cross- 
ed the Alps at the beginning 
of 1621. We know that he 
returned to Antwerp in 1622, 
and we find him in December 
of the same year at his father's 
death-bed. In 1623 he started 
once more for Italy, where he 
remained until 1627, after which 
time in his native town. But, 
at the end of 1632, he set out 
once more for London, where 
he worked as painter-in-ordinary 
to Charles I. until the day of 
his death, December 9, 1641. 
He only paid two other short 
visits to the Continent, in 1634 
and in 1641. 

What strikes us first with 
Van Dyck is the incredible 
precocity as to which we have 
already quoted evidence. Like 
Rubens, he constantly perfected 
and renewed his manner; he 
had studied at Antwerp; he 
also studied in Italy; his career 
was a continuous transformation 
and ascension. He began by 
imitating his glorious master, 
assimilating, and in his first 




FIG. 420.— A. VAN DYCK. PORTRAIT 

OF CARDINAL BENTIVOGLIO 

(Florence, Pitti Palace). (Phot. Anderson.) 



he returned to work for some 




FIG. 421.— A. VAN DYCK. PORTRAIT OF 
CORNELIS VAN DER GEEST (London, 
National Gallery). (Phot. Hanfstaengl.) 

225 Q 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 422.— A. VAN DYCK. THE 

MADONNA OF THE ROSARY 

(Palermo, Chapel of the Rosary), 

(Phot Brogi.) 



works even exaggerating, his man- 
ner. Rubens' daring became aud- 
acity with the young Van Dyck, 
and his strength brutality. But the 
two natures were radically different, 
as Van Dyck's later works proved. 
His dreamy and tender genius 
reveals itself in religious themes; 
he loved the poignant melancholy 
of the Passion, and painted Christ 
in agony, with his supplicating 
eyes raised heavenwards , the 
Saints in lamentation at the foot 
of the Cross, and Mary and the 
Angels weeping over the Saviour. 
Early in his life, he became pri- 
marily a portrait-painter, and he 
ended by devoting himself ex- 
clusively to this branch of art. 
His innate refinement and nobility 
impelled him to bring out moral 
grandeur and physical distinction 
in his models; but he idealized them only to an extent com- 
patible with truth. The his- 
torical compositions anterior 
to what may be properly call- 
ed his Italian period are of 
two kinds. In the one group, 
which is derived from Rubens, 
are the Christ crowned with 
Thorns and the two Saints 
John of the Berlin Museum, 
the Christ crowned with Thorns 
and the Brazen Serpent of 
Madrid, the St. Martin of 
Windsor Castle, the Heads of 
the Apostles in the Munich 
Pinakothek, and several others. 
One of the pictures of the 
period when he still worked 
with Rubens is the Martyrdom 
of St. Sebastian at Munich 
(No. 823). The flesh-tones are 




FIG. 423.— A. VAN DYCK. PORTRAIT OF 

HENRI, COUNT DE BERGH 

(Madrid, Prado). (Phot. Anderson.) 



226 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 




FIG. 424.— A. VAN DYCK. THE VIRGIN 
AND DONORS (Paris, Louvre). 



juxtaposed in violent contrast and 
lack warmth (Fig. 415). The 
executioners and the mounted 
centurion are of the fierce family 
to which belong the executioners 
of his Christ crowned with Thorns 
and the soldiers in Rubens' Decius. 
The St. Sebastian is Van Dyck 
himself, with his dreamy physiog- 
nomy and features of feminine 
regularity and softness. One of 
Van Dyck's most famous works 
is the St, Martin dividing his 
Cloak (Fig. 416), in the church of 
Saventhem. This picture, exe- 
cuted a little later than the St. 
Sebastian^ but still before his 
second sojourn in Italy, betrays 
numerous influences; the beg- 
gar crouching on the road is 

altogether in the manner of Rubens; another, on his knees and 
with a piece of linen tied round his^head, is a souvenir of 
Raphael; the delightful figure 
of the Saint himself is inspired 
by one of Titian's pictures, 
which Van Dyck copied and 
which we find in his sketch- 
book belonging to the Duke of 
Devonshire. This last coinci- 
dence proves that the picture 
was executed after Van Dyck's 
first journey to Italy. The whole 
work is distinguished by a 
youthful and, so to speak, 
flowery freshness, very different 
from the sombre colour and 
opaque tonality of other pic- 
tures painted between the two 
journeys. To this interval we 
must refer a number of por- 
traits, among them that of Frans fig. 425.-A. van dyck. herman 
Snyders and his Wife (Fig-. Joseph receiving a ring from the 

/Ii4\ 1. r* 1 T"!-' • \ hand of our lady (Vienna, Imperial 

417) at CaSSel. This picture Museum). (Phot L6wy.) 

227 Q 2 




ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 426.— A. VAN DYCK. PIETA 
(Antwerp, Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 



is SO perfect, that one would never take it to be a work of his 
youth, were it not proved to be such by the age of the sitters. 

During his second so- 
journ in Italy, Van Dyck's 
manner underwent a 
complete transformation. 
He lived for several 
years at Genoa, where 
he enjoyed an extraor- 
dinary vogue among the 
aristocratic society of 
that city. There had 
never yet been a painter 
whose art was sufficiently 
elegant to suggest the dis- 
tinction of the illustrious 
families of Balbi, Pal- 
lavicini, Spinola, and Cataneo. For this latter family he painted 
no fewer than nine portraits, which were removed from Italy a 

short time ago, two of them being 
acquired by the National Gallery 
of London. The artist and his 
sitters suited each other admirably. 
The noble ladies, Paola Adorna, 
Geronima Brignole-Sale (Fig. 418), 
the Marchesa Balbi, and others, 
with their charming faces, their lace, 
silk and velvet dresses, and their 
haughty elegance, are characteristic 
of the style he adopted in the 
South. The Marquis Brignole-Sale 
(Fig. 419), mounted on his white 
horse and advancing towards the 
spectator whom he salutes, raising 
his plumed hat with a noble gesture, 
is superb in chivalric elegance and 
aristocratic pride. In Italy this son 
of Antwerp became a real southern 
painter, with warm colour and 
strong shadows. Titian, the master- 
painter of Venice, the superb 
portraitist, attracted him with his tawny tints and his glowing 
skies; yet the Fleming preserved his native refinement, and 

228 




FIG. 427.— A. VAN DYCK. 

THE VIRGIN AND CHILD 

(Munidi, Pinakothek). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 



the burning notes of the South 
did not make him lose his 
freshness. 

He did not settle exclusively 
in Genoa. In 1624, we find him 
in Rome, where he painted the 
portrait of Cardinal Bentivoglio 
(Fig. 420), whose face and pose 
reveal superior intelligence and 
irreproachable distinction. In the 
same year Van Dyck went to 
Palermo, where he painted the 
portrait of the Viceroy, and 
where the Brotherhood of the 
Holy Rosary commissioned him 
to paint an altarpiece (Fig. 422), 
which is the most magnificent 
composition and the most mov- 
ing conception inspired by the 
master's sojourn in Italy. The 
style and the colour are more 
Flemish than Italian, and mark 
works to those which he produced 
on his native soil after his return. 

In 1627 he was back at Ant- 
werp. In his numerous portraits 
of this period we recognise a 
modification of his style. The 
colours still retain their warmth, 
but the glowing fire which burns 
in his Italian works has given 
way to the more tempered tones 
of a summer sunset. In the most 
beautiful portraits of this series, 
this tonality has shadows of 
delicious transparency. The ex- 
pression is always distinguished, 
the gesture always elegant, both 
with the born patricians and 
the representatives of the intel- 
lectual elite. Among these por- 
traits may be mentioned those 
of Pieter Stevens and of Anne 

229 




FIG. 428.— A. VAN DYCK. PIETA 

(Berlin, Museum). 

(Phot. Berlin Phot Gesellschaft) 



a transition from his Genoese 




FIG. 429.— A. VAX DYtK. 

CHARLES I. 

("LE ROI A LA CHASSE") 

(Paris, Louvre). 



ART IN FLANDERS 



Wake at the Hague; of Cornells van der Geesty Rubens* great 
friend, in the National Gallery (Fig. 421) ; and of Henri, Count 
de Bergh, in the Prado (Fig. 423); the general of the armies of 
the Spanish Netherlands, confronts us in a commanding attitude, 
his figure encased in glittering armour. The portrait of Mon- 
cada. Generalissimo of the Spanish troops in the Netherlands 
(1586^ — 1635), painted about 1632, is perhaps the finest of the 
master's equestrian portraits (PL I). 

Van Dyck's religious paintings had as many admirers as his 
portraits. Among his altarpieces, which he painted in profusion, 
and even to excess, we may mention the Virgin with the Donors 

(Fig. 424) of the Louvre: 
Van Hamme and his wife 
kneeling before the Ma- 
donna. It is impossible to 
imagine anything more 
graceful or touching than 
the gesture of the Infant 
Christ seated in His mo- 
ther's lap and turning 
round to stroke the donor's 
cheek. The most profound 
fervour permeates the St. 
Augustine, which he paint- 
ed in 1628 for the 
church dedicated to this 
saint in Antwerp. In 1629, 
Van Dyck painted for the 
altar of the Confraternity 
of Celibates in the house 
of the Jesuits at Antwerp, 
a St. Rosalie receiving a 
crown from the hands of the Infant Jesus, and, in 1630, the 
Blessed Herman Joseph receiving a ring from the hands of Our 
Lady, two masterpieces now in the Imperial Museum at Vienna 
(Fig. 425). The first of these is notable for its radiant brightness 
and richness of colour; the second, for delicacy and grace of 
sentiment. Rubens was the painter of the Saviour; Van Dyck, 
of the Virgin. The most adorable of these Virgin Mothers 
is the one in the Munich picture, where she is seen holding 
the Infant Christ on a pedestal (Fig. 427). When Van Dyck 
deals with episodes in the life of Christ, he prefers scenes 
of pain and grief. The most perfect and the most touching of 

230 




FIG. 430.— A. VAN DYCK. THE CHILDREN 

OF CHARLES I. (Turin, Museum). 

(Phot. Anderson.) 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 



these interpretations is the 
Pietd (No. 404) of the Ant- 
werp Museum (Fig. 426). The 
mother's despairing gesture 
testifies to heaven and earth 
that no sorrow is like her 
sorrow. The picture breathes 
a poignant fervour unforget- 
table in its pathos. The 
master treated the same sub- 
ject, but in an altogether 
different manner, in the Pieta 
of the Berlin Museum (Fig. 
428), which he painted shortly 
after his return from Italy. 
The tonality of the Antwerp 
picture is pale and cold; in 
the Berlin picture, the last 
light of evening still gilds the 
clouds; heaven and earth 
seem to share the grief of humanity, 
for the second time to England in 
1632, he worked for the king and 
for the English nobility. A new 
transformation took place in his style. 
For many of his portraits he adopted 
a subdued grey key, and he often 
brushed them in broadly, with great 
freedom and feverish haste. But his 
art had not deteriorated ; on the 
contrary, it had become loftier and 
more refined. Many of these portraits 
of his English period count among the 
masterpieces of painting, as, for in- 
stance, his Charles I. (''Le Roi a la 
Chasse") (Fig. 429) of the Louvre, 
painted about 1635, a very character- 
istic rendering of the elegant and 
ill-fated monarch. The great artist 
painted several times The Children 
of Charles I. (Fig. 430), and always 
so happily that it is difficult to decide 
which group we should prefer. The 

231 




FIG. 431.— A. VAN DYCK. PORTRAIT OF 

THOMAS OF SAVOY (Berlin, Museum). 

(Phot. Berlin Phot. Gesellschaft.) 



When Van Dyck came 




FIG. 432.— A. VAN DYCK. 

LORDS JOHN AND BERNARD 

STUART 

(Sir Ernest Cassel, London). 



ART IN FLANDERS 



most famous, however, is the one in the Turin Gallery, painted 
in 1636. It is an adorable group; the august children are full 
of dignity and frankness; they wear their superb silk, velvet 
and silver dresses, with the easy grace of habit, and notwith- 
standing their royal blood, they are above all real children. The 
number of portraits he painted for the English aristocracy is 
incalculable. Every year reveals some that had remained un- 
known. Quite recently, Lord Lucas exhibited at the London 

National Gallery, nine of these 
portraits, the existence of which 
had been entirely forgotten. 
From the marvellous series of 
portraits of the great nobility 
we select that of Thomas of 
i5ai;o^ (Fig. 431), painted inl634 
at Brussels, and now in the 
Berlin Museum : a person over- 
flowing with life and youth, 
treated in a warm bluish key 
with brilliant reflections on the 
cuirass; and that of Lords John 
and Bernard Stuart (Fig. 432), 
two brothers, and cousins of 
King Charles I., painted in 1638 
— two young men of matchless 
elegance and distinction. And 
yet Van Dyck arrived, at the 
end of his career, at a stage of 
even more subtle refinement, 
when he adorned his charming 
sitters with a supreme aureole 
of grace and chivalry. This 
purity of taste and delicacy of feeling find their most touching 
incarnation in the portrait of William II., Prince of Orange, and 
his Young Betrothed (Fig. 433), in the Ryksmuseum at Amsterdam. 
Van Dyck was also an unrivalled draughtsman; the sketches 
for his pictures are mere notes, but his more elaborate drawings 
are masterpieces of spirit and daintiness; and his etchings, though 
generally unfinished, are admirable in their grace and spontaneity. 
Rubens* other pupils, less gifted than Van Dyck, failed to 
preserve their originality as he did. We will begin with the 
historical painters. First in chronological order as in merit is 
Gerard Zeghers (Antwerp, 1591 — 1651). On his return from 

232 




FIG. 433.— A. VAN DYCK. 

WILLIAM II. , PRINCE OF ORANGE, 

AND HIS YOUNG BRIDE 

(Amsterdam , Ryksmuseum). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



SEVENTEENTH AND ElGTHEENTH CENTURIES 




FIG. 434.— GERARD ZEGHERS. 

THE DREAM OF ST. JOSEPH 

(Ghent, Museum). 



Italy, in 1620, his youthful works 
showed the influence of the Italian 
Naturalists of the seventeenth cen- 
tury: witness The Dream of St. 
Joseph (Fig. 434), at the Ghent 
Museum, and Mary and the Infant 
Jesus (Fig. 435), in the Imperial 
Museum at Vienna; but in a few 
years he abandoned the southern 
style for that of Rubens. In 1645, 
he even told Sandrart, the German 
painter and historian, that the art 
of Rubens and Van Dyck enjoyed 
so great a vogue, that it was im- 
possible to please without imitating 
them. Accordingly, he followed to 
the end of his life the manner of the 
greater of these masters. The works 
carried out under his domination 
are solid , well - considered and 
equal. The best of them is The 

Marriage of the Virgin in the Antwerp Museum. The figures are 
grave and serene, and their 
faces and attitudes are not 
without distinction. It is painted 
in a harmonious scale of rich 
colours. Many churches contain 
works of this kind. 

I believe I am right in at- 
tributing to Zeghers an Ador- 
ation of the Shepherds (Fig. 436) 
in the Cassel Gallery. The work 
is obviously by a master of the 
Rubens period and school: 
Zeghers appears to me to have 
the best title to it. The mix- 
ture of unvarnished truth and 
natural charm, the suppleness 
of movement, the richness and 
harmony of the colour, are 
merits which we often find in his 
work, but here they are present 
in an unusually high degree. 




233 



FIG. 435.— GERARD ZEGHERS. 

MARY AND THE INFANT CHRIST 

(Vienna, Museum). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 



The works of Cornelius Schut (Antwerp, 1597 — 1655) are 
directly derived from Rubens. He seems to have visited Italy : 
his nickname figures among those given to Flemish painters in 
Rome. At Antwerp he enjoyed the high esteem of his circle, 
so much so that Rubens selected him in 1635 to execute the 
central panel for the ''Joyous Entry of the Cardinal-Infante", of 
which he himself painted the two lateral compositions. Schut 
was also entrusted with the execution of one of four pictures 
for the high altar of the Jesuit Church, of which Gerard Zeghers 
painted the second and Rubens the two others. The Invocation 

of the Virgin is one of 
his masterpieces ; The 
Martyrdom of St. George 
(Fig. 437), in the Antwerp 
Museum, is another. It 
forms a violent contrast 
to the Marriage of the 
Virgin, by Zeghers, near 
which it is placed. Whilst 
Zeghers* work is serene 
and full of fervour, Schut's 
is agitated and theatrical, 
and aims at effects of 
colour and light. In spite 
of his incoherent com- 
position and not very 
harmonious colour , his 
Triumph of Time (Fig. 
438), in the Imperial 
Museum of Vienna, is a 
very decorative canvas. — Theodore Van Thulden (Bois-le-Duc, 
1606 — 1676) was in closer touch with Rubens than the two 
preceding artists. He went to work in Paris, and then col- 
laborated on the decorations executed for the "Entry of the 
Cardinal-Infante at Antwerp" and for the "House in the Wood" 
near the Hague. Van Thulden assimilated Rubens' decorative 
style. He borrowed the master's ample draperies, the vigorous 
elegance of his nudes, and above all, the velvety flesh of his 
female bodies; but he had not the secret of Rubens' robustness 
of limbs, and for their solid muscular structure he substituted 
weak and flabby forms. It was about the middle of the century 
that he gave proof of more originality. His pictures for the 
Orange Hall, one of which is dated 1651; those of the Imperial 

234 




FIG. 436.— GERARD ZEGHERS. THE ADORATION 

OF THE SHEPHERDS (Cassel, Gallery). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 




FIG. 437. — CORN'. SCHUT. 
THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. GEORGE 
(Antwerp, Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 



Museum in Vienna, one of which, 
The Netherlands rendering Hom- 
age to Mary (Fig. 439) bears the 
date 1654; another. The Return 
of Peace, that of 1655; and the 
windows of the Chapel of the 
Virgin at Ste. Gudule in Brussels, 
designed by him and painted on 
glass by Jean de la Barre, rank 
among his best works. 

Abraham van Diepenbeeke, 
who was also born at Bois-le- 
Duc in 1596, came to Antwerp 
in 1623, and died there in 1675. 
He was an artist of taste and 
merit, but without much inspir- 
ation or real creative power. 
In his mythological compositions, 
he travels very far from his 
religious works and appears as 
an ardent, sensual and even 
pagan interpreter of feminine beauty; witness, his Neptune and 
Venus at Dresden (Fig. 440), Cloelias Flight in Berlin and at the 
Louvre, and Diana with Nymphs and Satyrs at Stockholm. He 
was also in request as a portrait painter. — Erasmus Quellin is 
another of Rubens' dis- 
ciples and collaborators 
(Antwerp, 1607—1678). 
He was his assistant and 
up to a certain point his 
servant. When Rubens 
ceased, in 1637, to design 
for the Plantin Press, 
Quellin undertook this 
task, first under his 
master's direction, then 
on his own initiative. 
After Rubens' death he 
took his place as painter 
of the triumphal arches 
erected for the fetes of 
the city of Antwerp. He '^^ ^^^,^, 

I I 111 1 Ml J.1- i ^^^^^- 43'^-— CORN. SCHUT. THE TRmMPH OF TIME 

had all the skill that may (V.enna, imperial Museum). (Phot. Lowy.) 

235 




ART IN FLANDERS 



be acquired in a good school, but he had neither the superior 
gifts of a creative artist, nor even those of an original painter. 
Many of his altarpieces are to be found in the churches of 
France and Belgium. Among the pupils of Rubens* atelier we 
also find Justus Van Egmont (Leyden, 1611 — Antwerp, 1674), 
who assisted his master in his work for the Marie de' Medici 
Gallery, and who lived for a long time in Paris. He painted 
many portraits, some of which are very fine. Peter van Mol 
also lived in Paris (Antwerp, 1599 — Paris 1650). His Descent 

from the Cross, in the Louvre, 
affirms the influence of Rubens 
by its robust figures, warm 
colour, and happy arrange- 
ment. Frans Wouters (1612 
to 1659) excelled as a land- 
scape painter and enlivened 
his pictures with little figiires 
that recall his first master, 
Pieter van Avont. The Imperial 
Museum of Vienna possesses 
several pictures by Wouters, 
which were formerly attributed 
to Gerard Zeghers, among 
others a Diana in the Wood 
(Fig. 441), with the date 1636. 
Victor Wolf voet (Antwerp , 
1612 — 1652) is represented in 
the church of St. Jacques at 
Antwerp by a Visitation, of 
sterling merit. Pieter van Lint 
(Antwerp, 1609—1690) treated 
sacred and profane subjects in pictures of every size. He shows 
to best advantage in a work of small dimensions. The Fool of 
Bethesda (Fig. 442), at the Imperial Museum in Vienna. Jan van 
Bockhorst (Munster, 1605 — Antwerp, 1668), the painter of several 
insignificant church pictures, is also represented in Vienna by a 
charming mythological subject, Herse proceeding to the Temple 
of Minerva (Fig. 443). Thomas Willibrod Bosschaert (Antwerp, 
1614 — 1654), worked much for Prince Frederick Henry of Nassau, 
and in Holland met with a success scarcely justified by his pictures. 
As Van Dyck's fame extended, Flemish painters were attracted 
more and more by the charm and elegance of his art. The 
first in whom this predilection is to be noted, is Jan van den 

236 




FIG. 439.— THEOD. VAN THULDEN. THE 

NETHERLANDS RENDERING HOMAGE TO 

MARY (Vienna, Imperial Museum). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 




FIG. 440.— ABRAHAM VAN DIEPENBEEKE. 

NEPTUNE AND VENUS (Dresden, GalleryV 

(Phot Bruckmann.} 



Hoeck (born at Antwerp in 1611). He executed many tapestry 
designs for Archduke Leopold, among others a series of six 
compositions represent- 
ing The Twelve Months; 
also allegorical scenes 
and portraits. He too 
had worked with Rubens, 
whose influence is still 
perceptible at times in 
his works, but with him 
the master's vigour is 
inclined to become showy 
and even trivial. The 
allegorical paintings of 
Day (Fig. 444) andFmilti/, 
in the Imperial Museum 
in Vienna were executed 
by PieterThys after Jan 
van den Hoeck's designs. 
In the case of Thys (Ant- 
werp, 1624 — 1678), Van Dyck's influence is manifest. A St. Se- 
bastian (Fig. 445) crowned by Angels, in the Museum of Ghent, 
combines the principal qual- 
ities of this artist, who was 
the painter par excellence 
of tender and melancholy 
charm. 

The artist who submitted 
most completely and with 
the happiest results to Van 
Dyck's influence, was Theo- 
dore Boeyermans (Antwerp 
1620—1678). The Museum 
of Antwerp owns his two 
best pictures; The Pool of 
Bethesda (Fig. 446) and The 
Visitation. 

With the second gener- 
ation of Rubens* pupils, 
talent becomes scarcer. Jan 
Erasmus Quellin (1634 to 
1715), who visited Rome, became painter in ordinary to the 
Emperor of Germany, and painted fifteen ceilings for the palace 

237 




FIG. 441.— FRANS WOUTERS. [ DIANA IN THE 
WOOD (Vienna, Imperial Mus.). (Phot. Bruckmann.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 442.— PIETER VAN LINT. 

THE POOL OF BETHESDA (Vienna, Imperial Museum). 

(Phot. Lowy.) 



in Vienna, is facile princeps. The Museum of the Austrian capital 
owns his Coronation of Charles V. (Fig. 447); the Museum of 

Antwerp, a Pool of 
Bethesda of unusual 
proportions — 33 feet 
high by 251/2 feet 
wide. Both are fine 
decorative concep- 
tions, marred by af- 
fectation in treatment. 
Unhappily , Rubens' 
radiant light and his 
brilliant colour have 
completely vanished. 
The black manner im- 
ported from Italy had 
cast its shadow over 
Flemish art. 

With Godfrey Maes 
(1647—1700), the seventeenth century and the series of Rubens' 
more or less direct pupils alike close. Fortunately, this end is 
not without attraction. In the Martyrdom of St. George (Fig. 448) 
by Godfrey Maes, painted in 1684, the composition is solid; the 

gesture of the Saint 
has grandeur, and his 
ecstatic expression is 
deeply felt. There is 
much movement in 
this canvas , which 
may even be said to 
suffer, like Schut's, 
from too many con- 
tortions. 

A special place 
must be given to some 
historical painters 
who were contem- 
poraries of Rubens. 
Although they did 
not entirely escape 
his influence , they 
did not altogether merge their manner in his. 

The first in order of date is Gaspard de Grayer (Antwerp, 

238 




FIG. 443.— JAN VAN BOCKHORST. HERSE ON HER 

WAY TO THE TEMPLE OF MINERVA (Vienna, Imperial 

Museum). (Phot. Lowy.) 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 

1585 — Ghent, 1669). His pictures in the churches of Brussels 
and its neighbourhood, and all over Flanders, are very numerous. 
He painted more than two hundred, most of which are still 
in situ, whilst others are dispersed in Belgian and foreign galle- 
ries. In my opinion his best works are the Madonna with Saints 
of the Church of Alost, The Four Crowned of the Museum at 
Lille, the St. Teresa receiving a necklace from the hands of 
the Virgin (Fig. 449) of the Imperial Museum in Vienna, 
and the Virgin with Saints of the Museum at Antwerp. De 





FIG. 444.— JAN VAN DEN HOECK. 

DAY 

(Vienna, Imperial Museum). 

(Phot. Lowy.) 



FIG. 445.— THYS. ST. SEBASTIAN, 

THE MARTYR , COMFORTED BY 

ANGELS (Ghent, Museum). 

(Phot. Levy.) 



Grayer is distinguished by his extraordinary facility; his works 
cost him but little effort; he filled his frames as though he 
were playing. The pose, action, and grouping of his figures are 
correct and spontaneous. De Grayer owes much to the great 
Peter Paul, but he has neither his robust health, nor the dignity 
of his bold lines, nor the subtleties and rich gradations of his 
colour. All his qualities are frankly average : he is too much 
addicted to inflated cheeks, bulging eyes, open mouths, and 
ecstatic faces. 

Gornelius de Vos (Hulst, 1585 — Antwerp, 1651) is an artist 
of far greater merit and originality than De Grayer. He painted 
several historical pictures, the chief of which are St. Norhert 

239 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 446.— THEODORE BOEYERMANS. THE POOL 

OF BETHESDA (Antwerp, Museum). 

(Phot. G. Hermans.) 



receiving the Holy Wafers (Fig. 450), which is dated 1630 and 
is in the Antwerp Museum ; The Anointing of Solomon of the 

Imperial Museum in 
Vienna, and a full-size 
replica of this last- 
mentioned picture, made 
for the decoration of a 
chimney-piece, which he 
presented to his brother- 
in-law Frans Snyders, and 
which is now in the pos- 
session of the author of 
this book. He was above 
all a portrait - painter, 
and it was as such that 
he was most esteemed. 
When Rubens found him- 
self overwhelmed with 
commissions for portraits, 
he referred his clients to 
Cornelis de Vos, telling them that they would be equally well 
served. The great painter exaggerated, it must be admitted. 

Generally speaking, De Vos' por- 
traits are cold and glassy in colour. 
The two best examples that we 
possess are that of Abraham 
Grapheus, beadle of the Guild of 
St. Luke (Fig. 451), in the Museum 
of Antwerp, painted in 1620; and 
the portrait of himself with his wife 
and their two children (Fig. 452), 
in the Brussels Museum. These 
figures, a picture of perfect conjugal 
bliss, differ noticeably from his 
other portraits. The key is brown, 
the light subdued. The Grapheus 
is an original figure — somewhat 
comical, in fact with all the gold- 
smith's work displayed upon his 
breast. Cornelis de Vos' portraits 
as well as his historical compositions 
reveal, together with personal 
qualities, certain reminiscences of 
240 




FIG. 447.— ERASMUS QUELLIN. 

THE CORONATION OF CHARLES V. 

(Vienna, Imperial Museum). 

(Phot. Lowy.J 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 



the preceding school. The greatest Flemish master of the seven- 
teenth century, after Rubens and Van Dyck, is Jacob Jordaens. 
If Rubens was the painter of heroes, of the inhabitants of Heaven 
and of Olympus, and Van Dyck the interpreter of princes, of 
the hereditary aristocracy and of the intellectual elite, Jordaens 
was the laureate of the middle -classes and of the people. He 
sympathised with the persons of his own class by whom he was 
surrounded; their manners and their ways were dear to him. 
He preferred the real to the ideal; and with him observation 





FIG. 448.— GOD. MAES. 

THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. 

GEORGE (Antwerp, Mus.). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



FIG. 449.— DE GRAYER. ST. TERESA 

RECEIVING A NECKLACE FROM THE 

HANDS OF THE VIRGIN (Vienna, 

Imperial Museum). (Phot. Lozvy.J 



came before fancy. He relished material beauty and full forms; 
insatiable drinkers and eaters; merry boon - companions of all 
ages, their mouths open for laughter or song. He took part in 
the gaiety around him; he delighted in the interpretation of 
proverbs. Moreover, he adored above all frank Flemish colour 
and dazzling light ; he made them shine and sparkle in all his 
works. He had begun with a solid, enamel-like impasto which 
he owed to nobody, and least of all to his master, Adam van 
Noort. He had already produced some superb works when he 
experienced the irresistible magnetism of Rubens. True, he subse- 
quently preserved his originality, but he conformed his style to 
the taste of the day, as Gerard Zeghers had done before him. 

241 R 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 450.— CORN. DE VOS. ST. NORBERT 

RECEIVING THE HOLY WAFERS 

3(Antwerp, Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 



) 



Jacob Jordaens was born at Antwerp in 1593. He never 
went to Italy, and remained the most Flemish of all the Flemish 

painters of his time. 
He had, no doubt, 
begun by painting in 
water - colours , for, 
when he was received 
in 1615 into the Guild 
of St. Luke, he was 
inscribed as a water- 
colour painter (water- 
schilder). His earliest 
works were probably 
canvases akin to those 
tapestries of woven 
flax with which the 
walls of rooms were 
hung at that time. 
The earliest picture 
"of his we ,know is the Christ on the Cross of the church of 
St. Paul at Antwerp, painted probably in 1617, if not before. 
Jordaens had not yet found his manner, and his technique was 

not yet assured. His style is 
first clearly marked in the 
Adoration of the Shepherds 
(Fig. 453) of the Stockholm 
Museum, dated 1618. In this 
picture, the supernatural ele- 
ment does not intervene. 
Mary and the little Jesus are 
simple mortals. She is only 
a mother delighted to show 
her newly-born babe to some 
peasants of the neighbourhood. 
The colour is applied in a full 
impasto ; the opposition of 
light and shade is very pro- 
nounced : it is a work of rude 
strength and unvarnished truth. 
The Adoration of the Shep- 
herds belongs to a class of 
subjects that is common to 
all painters. But Jordaens was 
242 




FIG. 451.— CORN. DE VOS. 

THE BEADLE OF THE GUILD OF 

ST. LUKE (Antwerp, Museum). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 




FIG. 452. — CORN. DE VOS. 

THE PAINTER'S FAMILY (Brussels, 

Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 



the first to treat scenes of 
popular life in his character- 
istic manner. There is first 
his Satyr and Peasant (Fig. 
454), the fable of the goat- 
footed denizen of the woods, 
who seated at the peasant's 
table, is surprised at seeing him 
blow indiscriminately hot and 
cold. It is a work of con- 
centrated realism : the rustic 
in the act of eating his broth 
is a perfectly natural being, 
and the members of the family 
are real villagers. The colour 
has a rich quality and is ap- 
plied to the canvas with a 
free and fluent brush: bril- 
liant red, intense white, and 
here and there accessories 
vibrating in other sonorous 

tones. These are no longer the peasants of Pieter Breughel ; 
they are life-size ; Jordaens gives them the stature of epic heroes. 
He repeated this subject several 
times; M. Alphonse Cels (of 
Brussels) owns the earliest version 
— that which was engraved by 
Lucas Vorsterman. The Museums 
of Munich, Budapest, and Cassel 
possess other versions of this first 
period. Others, of later date, 
are to be found elsewhere. 

Among the best works of his 
first period we must include the 
Four Evangelists of the Louvre, 
in which the colours are a little 
softened and more fused, but just 
as solid. Here, as in most of his 
masterpieces , Jordaens proves 
himself a close observer and real 
psychologist. These four Evangel- 
ists are all g-rave and thoughtful fig. 453 -jordaens. 

1 . ^ , . I ^1 THE ADORATION OF THE SHEPHERDS 

bemgs, sometime workmen who (Stockholm, Gallery). 

243 r2 



^^^^^H 


B3 




^^ 


K|HpT^^^^ . 


^>« 


^^^I^^^H^^-4 


"^^^^^1 



ART IN FLANDERS 



rise to the dignity of their parts, each in accordance with his 
own nature. A large number of altarpieces also belong to this 
period: The Martyrdom of St. Apollonia , in the church of 
St. Augustine at Antwerp (1628); St. Martin healing a Demo- 
niac, of the monastery of St. Martin at Tournai (1630), now 
transferred to the Brussels Museum; some allegorical compo- 
sitions, such as the Fecundity of the same Museum, and a different 
version of the same subject, in the Wallace Collection in 

London; portraits like those 
of Van Surpele and his wife, 
belonging to the Duke of 
Devonshire, and the Family 
Group (Fig. 455) of the Prado 
in Madrid. Even in his church 
pictures Jordaens remains an 
uncompromising realist, a lover 
of exaggerated movements and 
of knotty, accentuated muscles. 
He is certainly not a painter 
of Saints ; he lacks repose. But 
he makes up for this in his 
allegorical scenes, in which he 
expresses his love of splendid 
nudity. The large nymph in 
his Fecundity at Brussels is 
rather stiff in attitude, but 
the play of light upon the 
flesh is as brilliant and wonder- 
ful as the firm and consistent 
colour in which this scene is 
painted. 
After 1630 Jordaens modified his manner and joined the 
ranks of those who ranged themselves under the banner of 
Rubens. His colour became more transparent and mellow. He 
took up old subjects to treat them in his new manner: The 
Man eating in the Cassel Museum , The Satyr and the Peasant 
(Fig. 456) of the Brussels Museum. All hardness of line and 
colour has disappeared in this last-named picture. The light is 
soft, fused, and transparent ; the figures retain their solidity, but 
they have lost their rudeness. Jordaens, his wife and his 
children, may be recognised in this gathering of happy people. 
Here is another of his favourite subjects: The King drinks 
(Fig. 458), or the Twelfth Night Feast, a rich scene of Flemish 

244 




FIG. 454-— JORDAENS. 

THE SATYR AND THE PEASANT 

(M. A. Cels Collection, Brussels). 

(Phot Becker.) 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 




FIG. 455.— JORDAENS. FAMILY GROUP 
(Madrid, Prado). (Phot. Anderson.) 



popular life. Some parts of this picture err in their lack of 
restraint, but how inviting and engaging are all the rest! 
Everybody exults in the joy 
of life: the burly revellers 
with their shouts and songs, 
the pretty girls with their 
smiles and oglings , the 
drunkards with their hic- 
cups! With what joy Jor- 
daens painted this feast or 
orgy! The Brussels Museum 
owns two versions of the 
subject. Another is at Cas- 
sel, another in Vienna, yet 
another at the Louvre, and 
another, finally, in the Duke 
of Devonshire's collection; 
they vie with each other in 
joviality and artistic merit. 
A subject no less dear to 
Jordaens is the proverb: 
The Youngsters pipe as the 

Old Folk sing (Fig. 457). The earliest and best picture illus- 
trating this dictum is that in the Antwerp Museum, dated 1638. 
A party of comfortable citizens are gathered round a copiously 
spread table; grandfather and grandmother are bleating an old 
refrain, the father is 
playing the bagpipes. 
The children are whist- 
ling on their reed-pipes; 
they represent the pip- 
ing youngsters ! A 
radiant light is mingled 
with the shadows and 
the chiaroscuro. The 
brilliant colour is vel- 
vety and enamel-like in 
turn. Among his mytho- 
logical pictures we may 
mention : Jupiter and 
the Goat Amalthea, of 
which there is a version 

I T 1 FIG. 456.— JORDAENS. THE SATYR AND THE 

m the Louvre ana two peasant (Brussels, Museum). (Phot Hermans.) 

245 




ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG, 457.— JORDAENS. "THE YOUNGSTERS PIPE 

AS THE OLD FOLK SING" 

(Antwerp, Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 



at Cassel ; the Triumph of Bacchus, also in the Cassel Gallery, 
which is rich in paintings by the master; The Prodigal Son and 

Diogenes in search of an 
honest Man (Fig. 459), 
both at Dresden, and King 
CandauluSy in the Stock- 
holm Gallery. 

The most famous and 
most successful of Jor- 
daens' works is that which 
he executed in 1652 for 
the Orange Hall of the 
''House in the Wood", 
near the Hague: two 
compositions forming part 
of the grand sum of 
paintings by various ar- 
tists which decorate the 
hall. Jordaens's pictures are : The Triumph of Frederick Henry 
and Time mowing down Vice, In the first picture, the larger 
one of the two, the composition is a little restless, but the 
execution is splendid and illuminates the hall to the point of 
eclipsing all the rest. In the Young Bacchus (Fig. 460), in the 

author's collection , 
upon whose beaming 
face we note the first 
signs of drunkenness, 
we recognise the page 
who drives the trium- 
phal car in the canvas 
of which we have just 
spoken. 

But Jordaens took 
more delight in his 
scenes of the life of 
the people, the prov- 
erbs or more or less 
witty jests which had 
made him laugh; and 
these he treated with 
greater originality and 
richness. Groups like his Fool (Porges Collection, Paris), the 
Serenade (Fig. 461) (Leblon, Antwerp), Popular Lovemaking 

246 



€ . >>^. %k '■ 


5=1 







FIG. 458. — JORDAENS. THE KING DRINKS 

(Brussels, Museum). (Phot. G. Hermans.) 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 




FIG. 459.— JORDAENS. 

DIOGENES IN SEARCH OF AN HONEST MAN 

(Dresden, Gallery). (Phot. Bruckmann.) 



(Goldschmidt Collection, Frankfort), the Fruit-seller (Fig. 462) 
(Glasgow Gallery) , are marvellous specimens at once of his 
pleasant humour and of 
his brilliant colour. To 
the end of his life, he 
painted important altar- 
pieces: the Adoration of 
the Magi (1644) at Dix- 
muden; Christ and the 
Moneylenders , in the 
Louvre ; the Presentation 
in the Temple (Fig. 463) 
at Dresden ; the Last 
Supper, in the Antwerp 
Museum; the Calvary in 
the cathedral of Bord- 
eaux, are among the most 
remarkable. They differ 
in style as much as in 

merit; the later examples are darker than the early ones, but 
all are rich in colour, shrewdly observed, and full of spirit and 
movement. He furnished a large number of designs for tapestries, 
and the water-colour painter of the early days executed later many 
drawings, mostly in coloured chalk 
or tempera. We give an example 
in The Milkmaid, belonging to 
M. Delacre, of Ghent (Fig. 464). 

About 1655, Jordaens was 
converted to Protestantism, which 
did not prevent him from painting 
altarpieces for the Catholic 
churches to the time of his death 
(October 13, 1678). But this 
change of religion was the cause 
of his not being buried in his 
native town. His remains were 
transferred to Putte, a Dutch 
frontier village, where they rest 
in the Protestant cemetery. 

It may be imagined that his 
original manner attracted many 
collaborators and disciples; yet 
he hc^d no pupils in the more 

247 




FIG. 460.— JORDAENS. THE YOUNG 

BACCHUS (Max Rooses Collection). 

(Phot Hermans.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 461.— JORDAENS. THE SERENADE 
(Leblon Collection, Antwerp). (Phot. Alexandre.) 



restricted sense of the word, unless Jan Cossiers (Antwerp, 
1600 — 1671) who carries realism to the point of triviality, be 

considered as such. Cos- 
siers painted many pic- 
tures characterised by 
their opaque and sombre 
tonality. The Beguinage 
church at Mechlin has 
no fewer than eight large 
canvases by this artist. 
The Museum at Antwerp 
owns a Gentleman light- 
ing his Pipe (Fig. 465), 
the only work of this 
type by him that we 
know. It enables us to 
recognise an admirer of 
Caravaggio. 

The artist who appears to be the most direct Flemish heir of 
the Italian masters of the early seventeenth century — that is, 
the interpreters of life in tavern and guard-room — is Theodore 
Rombouts (Antwerp, 1597 — 1637). He painted church-pictures 
and allegorical scenes, but what fascinated him above all seems to 

have been Lansquenets 
playing cards (Fig. 466). 
The Museum at Ghent 
possesses a number of 
his paintings, among 
them the allegory /us^zce 
echevinale des Parchons 
and The Five Senses. 
The churches of the 
same town also con- 
tain several of his re- 
ligious pictures. This 
painter is distinguished 
by his bright and varie- 
gated but cold colour, 
his heavy and opaque 
shadows, the emphatic 
movement of his figures, 
and also the care with which he observes and interprets their 
character. He is Flemish in his realism of colour, and Italian, 

248 




FIG. 462.— JORDAENS. THE FRUITSELLER 

(Glasg-ow, Gallery). (Phot. P. Becker.) 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 




FIG. 463.— JORDAEXS. 
THE PRESENTATION IN THE TEMPLE 
(Dresden, Gallery). (Phot Bruckmann.) 



or at least "Romanist", in the 
elegance and liveliness of the 
attitudes which he gives to his 
merrymakers at the tavern. 

A famous portrait - painter, 
Justus Suttermans or Suster- 
mans, was born at Antwerp in 
the same year as Rombouts 
(1597). For two years he was 
the pupil of Frans Pourbus the 
Younger, in Paris, and settled 
afterwards in Italy, where he 
died in 1681. He was held in 
the greatest favour by the Grand 
Dukes of Tuscany, who even 
gave him quarters in their palace. 
The Emperor Ferdinand II., Pope 
Urban VIII., and all the great 
personages of Italy were painted 
by this excellent portraitist. 
His style had something of the 
meticulous execution of his master Pourbus, but perhaps more still 
of Van Dyck's elegance and even of*Rubens' robust health and 
colour. The galleries of Florence 
contain a number of his portraits, 
the finest being that of the young 
prince Christian of Denmark (Fig. 467), 
at the Pitti Palace, — a delicious 
face enframed by long wavy curls, 
the blue and white scarf tied across 
a richly damascened cuirass, the whole 
treated in a scale of warm, strong 
tones. 

Another portrait - painter , Jacob 
Ferdinand Voet, born at Antwerp in 
1639, derives his style manifestly 
from Sustermans, whom he had met 
beyond the Alps. His portrait of 
Cardinal Ludovici at Budapest and 
that of Dezio Azzolini (Fig. 468) at 
Berlin are worthy of his predecessor. 
Frans Denys (Antwerp, 1610? — 1657) 
was likewise a portrait painter of 

249 




FIG. 464.— JORDAENS. THE 

MILKMAID (Delacre Collection, 

Ghent). (Phot. Becker.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 



merit; the Imperial Museum of Vienna owns his portrait of a 
Canon, dated 1640, which is treated in a very peculiar style, 
very opaque shadows being contrasted with equally strong lights. 
Victor Bouquet (Ypres, 1619 — 1677) also deserves praise, if only 
for the superb and easy portrait of the standard-bearer, in the 
Louvre (Fig. 469). Jacob Van Oost (Bruges, 1600—1671), Pieter 
Franchoys (Mechlin, 1606-1654), Pieter Meert (Brussels, 1614-1669) 
and Philippe de Champaigne (Brussels, 1602 — Paris, 1674) painted 
portraits and altarpieces. The Berlin Museum has the head of 

a man by Van Oost, dated 1623, 
and remarkable for its delicate 
impasto and its warm brown 
tone relieved against a very light 
background; the intense vitality 
revealed in the face with its 
widely-opened eyes is startling 
(Fig. 470). The Museum at 
Frankfort has an excellent por- 
trait by Pieter Franchoys, elegant 
as a personage by Van Dyck 
(Fig. 471). Pieter Meert is a 
portrait-painter of severe expres- 
sion, warm brownish colour, and 
masculine solidity (Fig. 472). 
Philippe de Champaigne spent 
the greater part of his life in 
Paris, where he worked first with 
Poussin, assimilating much of the 
cold perfection of the academic 
style which ruled in France at 
that time. His portraits are in- 
finitely more original and true than his numerous altarpieces. 
He painted many of the recluses of Port-Royal, and also their 
redoubtable enemy, Richelieu (Fig. 473). He treated without 
much originality, scriptural scenes like the Presentation in the 
Temple y of the Brussels Museum (Fig. 474). Nicolas de Liemaeckere 
(Ghent, 1575 — 1646) is a historical painter not lacking in indi- 
viduality, but who repeats himself too often. His favourite 
subject is the Virgin Mary, whom he represents as radiantly 
beautiful, adorned with bright colours, floating in golden light, 
with her hair flowing over her shoulders, as in the Triumph oj 
the Virgin (Fig. 475) of the Ghent Museum. 

It was not only as an historical painter that Rubens created 

250 




FIG. 465.— J. COSSIERS. 

GENTLEMAN LIGHTING HIS PIPE 

(Antwerp, Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEE|NTH CENTURIES 




FIG. 466. — T. ROMBOUTS. 

LANSQUENETS PLAYING CARDS 

(Antwerp, Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 



a school : he also had pupils and collaborators in other branches. 
At their head we find Jan Breughel the Elder, called "Velvet 
Breughel", son of Pieter 
Breughel, or "Peasant 
Breughel". He was 
wholly different from his 
father, the realist par 
excellence. The son led 
the procession of little 
masters who chose their 
subjects in a pleasantly 
seductive world. He 
reproduced all that is 
most enchanting in na- 
ture, flowers and plants; 
all that is most adorable 
on earth and in heaven 
— Madonnas, goddesses, 
women ; and when he 
represented animals , it 

was to bring out their pleasing forms and rich colours. From 
the school that preceded him, he inherited his over-polished, 
enamel-like style. He was in- 
timate with Rubens, and col- 
laborated with him in a number 
of his works. When he hap- 
pened to paint some pleasing 
accessories on the master's 
canvases, his colour is more 
mellow and has more warmth 
than usual. He was born in 
1568 in Brussels, where his 
father lived, but he came early 
in life to Antwerp, where he 
learned the rudiments of his 
craft, and where he died in 
1625. After a sojourn in Italy, 
he returned in 1596 to Ant- 
werp, and soon became painter- 
in-ordinary to the Archduke 
Albert and Isabella. Some of the 
works he executed in Italy and 
at Antwerp for the Archbishop 




251 



FIG. 467.— SUSTERMANS. CHRISTIAN OF 

DENMARK (Florence, Pitti Palace). 

(Phot. Anderson.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 



of Milan, Federigo Borromeo, are still in the Ambrosian Library; 
several of these are miniatures, obviously inspired by Paul Bril, 
whose acquaintance he had made in Italy. The pictures ordered 
by Albert and Isabella, some fifty in number, are at the Prado 
in Madrid. They are his masterpieces, among others being two 
versions of the Five Senses (Fig. 476) and two of the Four 
Elements (Fig. 477). Besides some landscapes with very light 
and brilliant foregrounds the bright tones of which melt into a 
vaporous and bluish distance, he painted, from 1608 onwards, 

bouquets and garlands of flow- 
ers, very rich in colour, but 
rather hard in texture (Fig. 478). 
He treated animals and other 
accessories with the same 
precision and the same some- 
what glassy brilliance. Only 
on one occasion did he attempt 
a subject akin to his father's 
"devil-pictures": in The Temp- 
tation of St. Anthony (at the 
Carlsruhe Gallery) (Fig. 479). 
His son, Jan Breughel II. (Ant- 
werp, 1601 — 1678) worked in 
his manner, without attaining 
to his dainty and spontaneous 
execution. Abraham Goovaerts 
(1589 — 1626) and Antonis 
Miron (1570—1633) copied him 
with more fidelity than talent. 
Hendrik van Balen (Antwerp, 
1575—1632) painted small 
figures in the landscapes of Jan Breughel II., whose style he 
had adopted. His large altarpieces and other religious compo- 
sitions are of scarcely any value, but his cabinet pictures are 
delightful. The Imperial Museum in Vienna owns one of the 
best, The Rape of Europa^ with landscape and flowers by Jan 
Breughel. The little figures are exquisite, treated in warm 
enamelled tints, and drawn with great energy — in short, 
the work is a gem (Fig. 480). A striking analogy with Jan 
Breughel I. is to be found in Roelandt Savery (born at Courtrai 
in 1576, died at Utrecht in 1639), who imitated Velvet 
Breughel, but with less consistency and harmony. Orpheus 
charming the Animals (Fig. 481) , of the Hague Museum, may 

252 




FIG. 468.— VOET. 
PORTRAIT OF DEZIO AZZOLINI 

(Berlin, Museum). 
(Phot. Berlin Phot. Gesellschaft.) 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 




FIG. 46g.— VICTOR BOUQUET. 

STANDARD-BEARER 

(Paris, Louvre). 

(Phot. Hachette.J 



be quoted as a characteristic example 
of his manner. 

With all these pictures devoted to 
the glorification of pretty things and 
elegant beings, we naturally associate 
the scenes from the life of the well- 
to-do classes, in the castles and houses 
of the rich and great. A whole world 
of luxury is evoked by the pictures 
of this period. This is the case in 
the work of David Vinckeboons (Mech- 
lin, 1578 [?]— Amsterdam, 1629), who 
painted for choice landscapes with 
popular festivals. The Museum at 
Antwerp possesses a Village Kermesse 
(Fig. 482) by him. 

Two members of the Francken family 
belong to this group. The history of 
this family is rather obscure. There 
are no fewer than three or four of 
its members who bear the Christian 
name of Frans: the first is Frans Francken the Elder (1542 — 1616); 
the second, Frans the Younger, son of the preceding (1581 — 1642); 
the third, Frans "theRubensesque", 
sonof Frans II. (1607— 1667). The 
second Frans of the lineage signs 
some of his productions "Frans 
the Younger", and others, for in- 
stance, The Prodigal Son of 
Carlsruhe, "Frans the Elder"; 
Frans "the Rubensesque" did the 
like, so that when he signed "the 
Elder" it was to distinguish himself 
from his son. Frans I. was an 
estimable painter; Frans II. created 
large religious paintings and little 
panels of various kinds; Frans "the 
Rubensesque" painted only pictures 
of small dimensions. It is difficult 
to distinguish the works of Frans II. 
from those of Frans "the Rubens- 
esque". They both show the same 
lively but somewhat hard colour. 

253 




FIG. 470.— VAN OOST. PORTRAIT 

(Berlin, Museum). 

(Phot Berlin Phot. Gesellschaft.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 471.— PIETER FRANCHOYS. 

PORTRAIT (Frankfort, Museum). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



In fine, the dates inscribed on 
the pictures alone make it pos- 
sible to establish with absolute 
certainty, which of them belong 
to the one rather than to the 
other. The Imperial Museum in 
Vienna owns a Witches* Sab- 
bath of 1607; the Hamburg 
Museum, a Passage of the Red 
5eaofl621; the Prado in Mad- 
rid, an Ecce Homo of 1623; 
the Berlin Museum, a View of a 
Church of 1624, all of which 
may be attributed to Frans II. 
The Christ on the Cross of 1654, 
in the Augsburg Museum, is 
the work of the "Rubensesque" 
Frans. 

Sebastian Vranckx (1573 to 
1647) is likewise a member of 
this group, although he is a 
little earlier than the other artists, and his style is a little 
antiquated, that is to say, harder and more brilliant in colour. 

He worked in Rome from 1597 
to 1600, and then returned to 
Antwerp. He painted interiors, 
kermesse scenes, and landscapes 
with figures , all of which are 
inventions pleasing to behold, 
and remarkable for their careful 
finish, their shimmering cqlour, 
and the interest of their subjects 
(Fig. 483). One of his pupils, 
Pieter Snayers (Antwerp 1592 — 
Brussels 1667) was the greatest 
Flemish battle-painter. He was 
painter in ordinary to the rulers 
of Flanders, Philip IV., the Car- 
dinal Infante, and the Archduke 
Leopold WiUiam; and in this 
capacity he had to illustrate their 
campaigns. He painted battles 

FIG.472.— PIETER MEERT. PORTRAIT .^. ^ aq a\ > ^ J 1 

(Baron Janssens Collection , Brussels). (^ Ig. 4o4) , SlCgCS , and alSO 

254 




SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 



hunting - scenes. He told his stories with much spirit, and 
was skilful in concentrating his swarming masses; he adorned 
his picturesque Httle figures with the most sparkHng colours, 
and rendered the various planes of the perspective with re- 
markable accuracy. To the group of battle-painters belong: 
the Antwerp artists, Cornelis de Wael (1592—1662), Pieter 
Meulener (1602—1654), and Robert Van Hoecke (1629—1668); 
and the Brussels painter Frans van der Meulen (1632 — Paris, 
1690). The last-named was the 



youngest and the best of them 
all. He was a pupil of Pieter 
Snayers; he had his master's 
liveliness of colour and animated 
figures; and he even surpassed 
him in brilliance. In 1665, 
Louis XIV. summoned him to 
his court. He successfuly de- 
picted the king in his campaigns 
or at the chase (Fig. 485). 

There were other specialists 
among the Flemish little masters. 
Some went to Italy, where they 
settled , devoting themselves 
especially to the study of land- 
scape and of popular life. This 
was the case with Willem van 
Nieulant (Antwerp, 1584 — 
Amsterdam, 1635), who was 
prodigal with his rather medi- 
ocre views of Italian towns. 
Jan Miel (1599—1664) did the 
like, but with more talent and 
facility. His combinations were more attractive, and his work 
had more quality. He also painted figures for the landscapes 
of Claude Lorrain and Jan Both. Anton Goubau (Antwerp, 
1616 — 1698) reproduced Roman views, pleasant in colour and 
enlivened with innumerable animated figures. Pieter van Bloemen 
(Antwerp, 1651 — 1720), Hke Miel, lost his Flemish colour in Italy. 
His palette became dull and dark. He was the most Italian of 
these emigrants, but none the better for this. 

Other painters applied themselves to the representation of 
the fashionable world: Christopher Jacob van der Laenen (Ant- 
werp, about 1615 — 1658), his pupil Jerome Janssens (1614 to 




FIG. 473.— PHILIPPE DE CHAMPAIGNE. 

PORTRAIT OF RICHELIEU 

(Paris, Louvre). 

(Phot. Hachette.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 474.— PH. DE CHAMPAIGNE. 

THE PRESENTATION IN THE TEMPLE 

(Brussels, Museum). 



1693) and Balthasar van den 
Bosche (1681—1713). 

Gonzales Coques (1618 — 1684) 
may also be considered one of 
the interpreters of this world; 
but instead of presenting it in 
gala gatherings, he painted people 
of quality in the simplicity of 
their family life. His graceful 
figures make us think of greater 
masters. The framework around 
them recalls their aristocratic 
condition. The chateau or garden 
to be seen in the background is 
surely their own, and not simply 
a decorative setting. There is 
nothing affected or factitious in 
this elegance. It is that of nature 
itself. And thus Gonzales Coques 
enjoyed high favour with princes 
and great nobles. We owe him some allegorical compositions, 
such as the Five Senses. He also reproduced interiors and picture 

galleries. But his family portraits 
remain his most original works. 
They are to be met with in 
many museums. One of the most 
remarkable is that in the Wallace 
Collection, in London (Fig. 486), 
which is treated in a superb scale 
of tones, of such warmth that 
they seem impregnated with silver 
and gold. The Dresden Gallery 
owns another of his masterpieces 
(Fig. 487). These young folks of 
Coques, sons of good family, 
make one think of Van Dyck's 
young lords. It is thus not with- 
out good reason that he was 
called the lesser Van Dyck. 

After these historiographers of 

the upper classes, there are 

finally the recorders of rustic 

life, and of the lowly. These 

256 




FIG. 475.— DE LIEMAECKERE. 
THE TRIUMPH OF THE VIRGIN 
(Ghent, Museum). (Phot. Levy.) 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 




FIG. 476.— JAN BREUGHEL THEJeLDER. HEARING 
(Madrid, Prado). (Phot Anderson.) 



humble folks with their hard and precarious life, and their worn 
and patched garments, supplied the painters with rich and in- 
exhaustible sub- 
jects; and some of 
those who depicted 
these scenes from 
the life of the peo- 
ple far surpassed 
the fashionable art- 
ists. The first to 
mention is Adriaen 
Brouwer, one of the 
most marvellously 
gifted of all Flemish 
artists. He appears 
to have been born 
at Audenarde in 
Flanders, in 1606; 
he went to Holland 

early in life, and, if he did not actually study under Frans Hals, 
he at least borrowed from him his alert handling and his spark- 
ling colour. In 1632 he returned to his native country and 
settled at Antwerp, where he died in 1638. He was thus only 
thirty-two years of age, which did 
not prevent him from leaving 
hundreds of masterpieces. No doubt 
they are of small dimensions , and 
rapidly executed, but it is just the 
spontaneity of their execution, to 
which they mainly owe their prestige. 
It seems as though Brouwer's con- 
tempt of the genre adopted by his 
brother painters of the Southern 
Netherlands amounted to a direct 
challenge; never has any artist 
shown us less presentable boors. 
True, they are rustics ; but they are 
anything but healthy and robust 
rural natures, strengthened by work, 
tanned by the sun , simply but 
cleanly dressed in blue smock or 

red doublet, following their rough ^i<^'- 477— jan breughel the 
work in the fields, or throwing them- fM^Td', Prdoj.'rPW.Tr.^ 

257 s 




ART IN FLANDERS 



selves turbulently into the turmoil of the kermesse. No; Brouwer's 
peasants are heavy - featured monkeys, thick-set and bull-necked, 
with short crooked legs, clothed in rags in which it is impossible to 
discern either cut or colour. We discover them drinking, smoking, 
or pummelling each other in hovels as sordid as stables; they are 
dull, brutal, foolish, and only wake up to shout and to fight like 
people possessed or epileptics. They are ignoble, no doubt! But 
their rags hang so capriciously, their rimless hats are so boldly set 

upon their heads ; and, above 
all, these rustics are bathed in 
such marvellous light, brushed 
in with such freedom and ele- 
gance, and vibrate in so deli- 
cate a tone, that they become 
glorified, and in the end appear 
to us like grotesque gnomes 
seen through a veil of occult 
enchantment. Such is the im- 
pression made by the Village 
Inn (Fig. 488) at the Amster- 
dam Museum, in which a 
company of drunkards are dis- 
covered howling and amusing 
themselves in their fashion; 
and The Brawl (Fig. 489), at 
Dresden, in which, harmony 
having ceased to reign, the 
louts are about to use their 
knives and to brain each other 
with their chairs. What frenzy 
in that upraised arm, what 
blood-thirstiness in those murderous looks ! How the contraction 
of the lips is observed! A whole drama is expressed in this 
world of grotesque beings. Brouwer is half Dutch, half Flemish. 
The art-historian even hesitates to place him. He was born in 
Flanders and carried on the tradition of the great naturalists 
who were ever lovers of sunlight and of harmonious colour; 
he learnt his craft in Holland; he saw in Hals* art to what 
triumphant daring the brush may rise, and also how the fat 
pigment may be vitalised and rendered fluid and transparent, 
by trituration. 

Brouwer's pupil, Josse van Craesbeeck, learnt much from his 
master. More than once he found his heroes among the habitual 

258 




FIG. 478.— JAN BREUGHEL THE ELDER. 

THE VIRGIN IN A GARLAND OF 

FLOWERS (Madrid, Prado). 

(Phot. Anderson.) 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 




FIG. 479.— JAN BREUGHEL THE ELDER. 

THE TEMPTATION OF ST. ANTHONY 
(Carlsruhe, Gallery). (Phot. Bruckmann.) 



frequenters of the tavern, or before the market-women's stalls. 
But his composition is more complex. His figures present a 
baroque mixture of dis- 
tinction and triviality ; 
his handling is more 
hesitating than Brouwer's ; 
his colour has a rare and 
often dazzling richness ; 
and his light is so lively 
that it seems to emanate 
from the figures. This 
is the case, for instance, 
in the Village Inn (Fig. 
490) of the Imperial 
Museum in Vienna. Some- 
times it happens that the 
opposition of light and 
shade is exaggerated, as 
in the Oyster-Seller of the 
Antwerp Museum ; but the artist always commands a rich palette 
and a subtle brush, and light that is brilliant, even if sometimes 
too white. Brouwer is an inventor, Craesbeeck an imitator, 
though not a slavish one: he was able to retain his originality. 
The Louvre owns a very well balanced picture by him, in which 
he has depicted himself 
in his studio, painting a 
portrait. Another picture 
treating the same subject 
belongs to the Due 
d'Aremberg in Brussels 
(Fig. 491). 

The most famous among 
the painters of peasant- 
life is David Teniers the 
Younger. He was born 
at Antwerp in 1610. His 
grandfather Julian was a 
genre-painter; his father, 
David Teniers the Elder 
(1582—1649), a painter 
too, devoted himself to 
religious subjects and to those village scenes which became the 
speciality of the son, who settled at Brussels in 1650, summoned 

259 s 2 




FIG. 480.— HENDRIK VAN BALEN. 

THE RAPE OF EUROPA 

(Vienna, Imperial Museum). (Phot Lowy.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 481.- 



-ROELANDT SAVERY. ORPHEUS CHARMING THE ANIMALS 
(The Hag-ue, Museum). (Phot. Brackmann.) 



thither by the Archduke Leopold William, governor of the Spanish 
Netherlands. He was also painter-in-ordinary to the next governor. 
He died in 1690. Teniers was a prolific painter; his works are 
in all the museums of the world, sometimes in very large numbers. 
He painted a vast variety of subjects: the Gallery of Their 
Highnesses, the festivities honoured by the presence of these 

princes, the Temptation of 
St. Anthony, religious and 
allegorical compositions, 
and yet other themes; 
but his favourite genre 
was always country life, 
the village inn , and 
peasants' feasts and fairs. 
His rustics are conceived 
very differently from 
Brouwer's , although he 
had learnt much from the 
latter. He saw them en- 
joying themselves, seated 
at the table by the door 
of the inn (Fig. 492), 
dancing before an inn 
(Fig. 493), at archery practice, playing bowls, making love to 
their womenfolk, smoking their pipes, giving way without 
restraint to the promptings of their rude but healthy natures. 

260 




FIG. 482.— DAVID VINCKEBOONS. 

VILLAGE KERMESSE (Antwerp, Museum). 
(Phot. Hermans.) 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 




FIG. 483.— SEBASTIAN VRAXCKX. LANDSCAPE (Munich, Pinakotheli)- 
(Phot. Bruckmann). 

For they are essentially healthy, men and women alike, corpulent, 
and warmly clothed in particoloured woollen garments. Teniers 
took from Brouwer his luminous iridescent hues, his spirited 
and sparkling touch; but his handling is tighter, more reticent, 
and less audacious, although his brush is always supple and his 
touch delicate and fine. He loves his peasants and does not 
show them either as 
maniacs or beasts, either 
stunned in a brawl or 
overcome by drink. They 
remain respectable; but 
the boldness with which 
the shiny cap is planted 
on the head, the garments 
with their full folds, and 
above all, the capricious 
play of light and colour, 
recall Adriaen Brouwer. 
Teniers was also a des- 
cendant of Rubens, to 
whom he owes his white 
light, his vigorous exe- 
cution, and his natural 

and animated arrangement. Nor was he uninfluenced by Pieter 
Breughel; and the Temptation of St. Anthony (Fig. 494), with its 
fantastic figures, was in fact one of his favourite themes. He 

261 




FIG. 484.— PIETER SNAYERS. BATTLE 

(Dresden, Gallery). (Phot. Bruckmann.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 485,— FRANS VAN DER MEULEN. 

KING LOUIS XIV. AT VINCENNES 
(Dresden, Gallery). (Phot. Bruckmann.) 



proved himself a friend of the peasants, but he interpreted them 
as a man of refinement, and, in spite of Louis XIV.'s contempt 

for his ''monkeys", he 
was a court painter. In 
many of his Village Ker- 
messesy for instance in 
the one at Brussels (Fig. 
495), the lord of the 
manor and his family 
come to take part in their 
peasants' rejoicings, and 
in his official compo- 
sitions, like the Shooting 
at the Popinjay at 
Brussels (Fig. 496), the 
Archduke and an impos- 
ing gathering of courtiers 
assist at the festival. He 
is also sensitive to the 
charm of landscape. The 
country, which he paints with hearty enjoyment and facility, is 
as gay as the inhabitants. His brush seems to caress the inns 
and farmhouses, upon which he bestows tones of a chestnut 
brown not as strong as those of Pieter Breughel, but more 

joyous , lighter , and 
sunnier. 

Gilles Van Tilborch 
(Brussels 1626?— 1678?) 
was a pupil of Teniers. 
He recalls his master by 
his choice of subjects as 
well as by his manner 
of treating them, though 
he recalls him but dis- 
tantly. Nevertheless, his 
great picture at Dresden, 
a Flemish Wedding (Fig. 
497) is scarcely inferior 
to a Teniers. Other large 
pictures, the Village Fete 
at Lille, The Geographer, 
or better still. The Five Senses at Dijon (1658) and The Feast 
at The Hague, are among his principal works. 

262 




FIG. 486.— GONZALES CGQUES. 

FAMILY GROUP (Wallace Collection, London). 

(Phot. Mansell) 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 




FIG. 487. — G.:COQUES. FAMILY GROUP 
(Dresden, Gallery). (Phot. Bruckmann). 



A better pupil and imitator of Teniers was David Ryckaert 
(1612 — 1661), the son of a painter. But he depicted village 
scenes only occasionally. 
The Inn (Fig. 498) of 
Dresden (1638) is one 
of his earliest pictures 
and, in fact, the only 
one of its kind he paint- 
ed. It recalls Brouwer 
rather than Teniers. He 
also chose some subjects 
dear to Jordaens: The 
Youngsters pipe as the 
old Folk sing, and The 
King drinks. The Temp- 
tation of St. Anthony, 
proverbs, and allegories. 
But his scenes from the 
life of the people pre- 
ponderate. He prefers 

the artisan at work in his house, with his wife and children 
(Fig. 499), he represents neither brutal scenes nor wanton epis- 
odes: he is a sedate man, a calm, decent, and well-balanced 
artist. His models neither 
laugh nor amuse them- 
selves; there is nothing 
elegant nor affable about 
them; their heavy heads 
seem to weigh down 
their thick - set bodies ; 
they have the wan, pale 
complexion of indoor 
workers. As with Teniers, 
the painting of the ac- 
cessories is beautiful in 
quality. But landscape is 
of no interest to Ryckaert. 
He paints the middle 
class, that is to say the 
least picturesque of all 
classes of society. Jor- 
daens had already done the like, but whereas that great lyricist 
glorified these people with his splendid craftsmanship, Ryckaert 

263 




FIG.488.— ADRIAEN BROUWER. VILLAGE INN 
(Amsterdam, Museum). (Phot. Bruckmann.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 489.— ADRIAEN BROUWER. THE BR VWL 
(Dresden, Gallery). (Phot. Bruckmann.) 



represents them in their everyday aspect and at their daily labours. 
He heralds the dry and placid pictures of the eighteenth century; 

he is wholly lacking in 
fancy, and even in charm. 
Rubens did not found 
historical and genre paint- 
ing only; he also created 
a school of landscape 
and animal painters. 
Among the first, his col- 
laborators were Lucas 
van Uden (Antwerp, 
1595—1672/3) and Jan 
Wildens (Antwerp, 1586 
to 1653). Rubens had 
reformed landscape paint- 
ing: he had made it the 
broad, true representation 
of nature, now in its 
heroic, now in its intimate 
aspect. When Van Uden worked with him, which he frequently 
did, he developed such impulsive energy and such vigour that 

it is difficult to dis- 
tinguish between the 
work of the two collabor- 
ators. Still, Van Uden's 
share may be recognised 
by his predilection for 
long, slender, twisted 
tree -trunks, and by a 
pale light that is less 
generous than his illus- 
trious precursor's. In the 
little pictures which he 
painted alone, his minia- 
ture-like manner con- 
nects him with Velvet 
Breughel (Fig. 500). Jan 
Wildens was another as- 
siduous collaborator of 
Rubens, and seems even 
to have been among his table-companions. He painted not only 
landscapes, but accessories and still-Hfe in profusion. So much 

264 




FIG. 490.— JOSSE VAN CRAESBEECK. 

A VILLAGE INN (Vienna, Imperial Museum). 
(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 




FIG. 491.— JOSSE VAN CRAESBEECK. 

A painter's studio 

(Brussels, D'Aremberg- Collection). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



does he appear to have confined himself to this flattering col- 
laboration, that there are only very few complete pictures which 
may be attributed to him 
with certainty. Besides 
some country-scenes, he 
painted certain views of 
towns, and also animal 
pictures and hunting 
scenes. Generally speak- 
ing, Wildens' pictures 
are grey and dull in tone. 
One might describe them 
as lucid and flowing 
prose. A country view 
on a large scale, recently 
acquired by the Imperial 
Museum in Vienna, is 
fully signed (Fig. 501). 
In the golden light of 
the setting sun is a sheet 
of water, on the banks 

of which are grouped shepherds and huntsmen; on both sides are 
a few tall trees in a warm light — a superb composition which 
proves that its author was worthy to collaborate with Rubens 
in his proudest landscapes. — Innumerable are the landscape 
painters who follow 
each other down to 
the end of the eigh- 
teenth century , but 
they are generally of 
mediocre personality. 
They all possess a 
certain skill and paint 
pleasing vistas of 
wooded and hilly 
scenery in the deco- 
rative style; but they 
appear insensible to 
the beauties of nature 
which they aspire to 
interpret. Neverthe- 
less, some of them were in great request abroad, and in the 
countries where the painting of nature did not find many 

265 




FIG. 492.— TENIERS. INN BY A RIVER 
(Paris, Louvre). (Phot. Neurdein.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 493.— TENIERS. KERMKSSE 
(Munich, Pinakothek). (Phot. Hanfstaengl.) 



distinguished adepts. 
Gilles Neyts (Antwerp, 
1617-1687), Pieter 
Gysels (Antwerp, 1621 
to 1690), and Cornelis 
Huysmans (Antwerp, 
1648 — Mechlin 1727) 
(Fig. 502) are the best 
known among them. 
Alexander Kerricx 
worked for many years 
in England (Fig. 503); 
Van Plattenberg in 
France, where he was 
called Plate-Montagne ; 
Jacques Foucquier, 
Caspar de Witte, and 
Abraham Genoels, in 
France and in Italy. Pieter Spierincx and Jan Frans van Bloemen, 
in Italy; Renier Megan in Vienna. The best of them all was 
Jan Siberechts (Antwerp, 1627 — 1703), an artist of real talent 
(Fig. 504). He painted landscapes with figures and excelled as 

much in the general effect as 
in the details of his pictures. 
His colour inclines a little 
towards blackness, but the can- 
vas seems to be steeped in the 
freshness of the air, of the 
lakes, and of the foliage. The 
impression is altogether dif- 
ferent from that aimed at by 
the lovers of the torrid atmos- 
phere of the South, who prefer 
a rock to a tree, and the dull 
grey skin of an Italian donkey 
to the dappled coat of a Flem- 
ish cow. Siberechts felt the 
beauty of his native landscape; 
he enjoyed its healthy freshness, 
and was able to communicate 
his feeling to us in a wonderful 

FIG. 494.— TENIERS". THE TEMPTATION fashloU 

OF ST. ANTHONY (Paris, Louvre). t"! * • • . 

(Phot. Neurdein) 1 he manuc pamters are 

266 




SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 




FIG. 495.— TENIERS. VILLAGE KERMESSE 
(Brussels, Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 



closely related to the landscape-painters. They are neither 
numerous nor brilliant. In fact, it is strange that Antwerp, 
which was for two or three centuries the home of Flemish painting, 
did not produce more 
interpreters of the aspects 
of the Scheldt and ob- 
servers of the life of sailors. 
Willaerts (Antwerp, 1557 
to after 1665) and Van 
Eertvelt (Antwerp, 1590 
to 1652) painted the sea 
proper, with its storms 
and shipwrecks (Fig. 505). 
Bonnecroy, (Antwerp, 
1618 —?) and the brothers 
Peeters, Bonaventura(Ant- 
werp, 1614—1652) and 
Jan (1624-1 677), depicted 
sometimes the ocean coast, 
and sometimes the banks of the Scheldt and of other rivers. 
The best of this whole group was Bonaventura Peeters (Fig. 506), 
a facile, pleasing, lively painter, without much power. 

The animal, still-life, and flower painters who had worked 
with Rubens, or who at 
least belonged to his 
school, were more highly 
gifted than the landscape- 
painters of that period. 
From the earliest times, 
the Flemings distinguished 
themselves by the beauty 
of their craftsmanship, 
surpassing the animal and 
fruit painters of all other 
schools in this respect. 
Frans Snyders takes a 
high position among them 
(Antwerp, 1579—1657). 
When he returned from 
Italy, he began to col- 
laborate with Rubens. Thus, in such of the master's works 
as the Faun of the Schoenborn collection (about 1612) and the 
Progress of Silenus (about 1618), at Berlin, he is responsible 

267 




FIG. 496.— TENIERS. SHOOTING AT THE 

POPINJAY (Vienna, Imperial Museum). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




VKi. 4g7. — GILLES VAN TILBORCH. 

A FLEMISH WEDDING (Dresden, Gallery). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



for the painting of the fruit. In Diana returning from the Chase, 
at the Dresden Gallery, the game, the hounds, cind the fruit are 

due to him. At the Torre 
della Parada, near Mad- 
rid , his compositions 
decorate a part of the 
walls, the other part of 
which is occupied by 
mythological scenes from 
the brush of Rubens. 
There were many affinities 
between the inspired arti&t 
and his very clever col- 
laborator. Community 
of work brought them 
still closer. Jan Breughel 
had to modify his man- 
ner to harmonise it with 
that of Rubens. Snyders, on the contrary, whose touch was 
mellow and whose colour was fresh, easily assimilated the 
master's style. In the works which Snyders painted himself — 
and there are many of these — his manner is one of supreme 
delicacy and of gently lustrous colour. The furry coats of his 
animals suggest silvery velvet shimmering in the light, just 

as the sparkling 
plumage of his birds 
suggests dazzling 
precious stones. But 
his painting is always 
remarkably true to 
life and exquisitely 
limpid. Leaving noth- 
ing to chance, and 
sacrificing nothing to 
fancy , he contents 
himself with render- 
ing the charm of the' 
marvels of nature. 
Among his master- , 
pieces we may men- 
tion The Larder (Fig. 
507) of the Munich Pinakothek: a full light falls with the same 
degree of intensity upon the deer, the hound, the hare, the 

268 




FIG. 498.— DAVID RYCKAERT. THE INN 

(Dresden, Gallery). (Phot. Bruckmann.) 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 




FIG. 49Q — RYCKAERT. THE ALCHEMIST 
(Brussels, Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 



partridges and the pheasants, investing them all with the same 
brilliance. Another masterpiece, the Fruit (Fig. 508) of the 
Copenhagen Museum, is 
kept in a light, radiant, 
and delicate tone, which 
is contrasted with a 
darker background. The 
arrangement could not 
be more pleasingly de- 
corative. And , again, 
what truth there is in 
this lyrical painting! 

Another animal-painter 
who frequently collabor- 
ated with Rubens, is 
Paul deVos(Hulst, 1590 
— Antwerp 1678). He 
painted more especially 
living animals and hunt- 
ing scenes (Fig. 509). 
His subjects and his predilections marked him out even more 
than Snyders for collaboration with the impetuously dramatic 
master. But De Vos also differs considerably from Snyders in 
his technique. He has neither his brilliance of colour, nor his 
purity and probity of 
drawing. He treats his 
pictures of fighting ani- 
mals or hunting scenes 
in a grey tone, and is 
more concerned with 
the general effect than 
with details. A great 
deal of his work is still 
attributed to Snyders. 

There are other 
animal-painters of me- 
rit, who did not work 
with Rubens, but who 
nevertheless belong to 
his school. The best 
of them, Jan Fyt (Ant- 
werp, 1611 — 1661), a pupil of Snyders, surpassed his master and 
all other animal or still -life painters. He adopted successively 

269 



L 


.. 




-^ 





FIG. 500.— LUCAS VAN UDEN. LANDSCAPE 
(Munich, Pinakothek). (Phot. Bruckmann.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 



^ 

-^^M 



%» 



4 



FIG. 501.— WILDENS. LANDSCAPE 

(Vienna, Imperial Museum). (Phot. Lowy.) 



two different manners. In the first, he copied the style of 
Snyders fairly faithfully: strong colour, soft light, and velvety 

and polished execution. 
In the second manner, he 
heightens the tone of his 
palette, his impasto be- 
comes more granulated, 
his touch more fiery and 
original. His painting as- 
sumes a rasping quality; 
inky black tones are laid 
upon pale light colours. 
But with all the boldness 
of his technique and the 
heaviness of some of his 
colour-scales , his brush 
preserves its assurance, 
and the general effect is 
always so excellent that 
one might well believe it to be the result of minute labour and 
perseverance. Until about 1647 he remained faithful to the Snyders 

style. Some pictures of the 
Liechtenstein Gallery, and of 
the St. Petersburg, Frankfort, 
and Dessau Museums belong 
to this period. Later, he 
adopted his second manner. 
To this second period we 
must refer certain pictures 
of the Liechtenstein Gallery, 
and others, in Vienna and 
elsewhere. The Berlin Mu- 
seum owns several master- 
pieces by Jan Fyt. First, a 
Still Life showing a table 
covered with a blue velvet 
cloth; upon it, some large 
fish on a chased dish; above, 
two garlands of fruit and 
foliage. Nothing could be 
better and more enchantingly 
rendered. An analogous picture at the same museum represents 
a Deer (Fig. 510) with hares, partridges and small game, guarded 

270 




FIG. 502.— CORNELIS HUYSMANS . 

LANDSCAPE (Vienna, Imperial Museum). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 




FIG. 503.— ALEXANDER KERRICX. LANDSCAPE 
(Brunswick, Gallery). (Phot. Bruckmann.) 



by two hounds. The hounds present that contrast of pallid white 
and inky black, of which we have already spoken; the deer is 
superb, of an incompar- 
able warmth of colour; 
the sun sheds his generous 
rays upon the landscape: 
it is sunshine incarnate. 
The Eagles (Fig. 511) of 
the Antwerp Museum are 
an example of the master's 
dramatic note; they tes- 
tify to the vitality this 
master of still-life could 
impart to his animals. 

To these great masters 
we may add a few others, 
who cultivated the same 
branch of art: Alexander 
Adriaensens (Antwerp, 1587 — 1661), who painted more parti- 
cularly fishes, but also flowers and birds; Adriaen van Utrecht 
(Fig. 512) (Antwerp, 1599 — 1652), who treated large game, 
kitchen utensils, and also cock-fights; Nicasius Beernaerts (Ant- 
werp, 1620— Paris, 1678), a 
pupil of Frans Snyders; David 
de Coninck (Brussels, 1636 — 
1700); Jan Roos (Antwerp, 
1591 — Genoa, 1638), another 
pupil of Snyders; Pieter Boel 
(Antwerp, 1622— Paris, 1674); 
Jacob van Es (1596—1666); 
Isaac Wigans (Antwerp, 1615 — 
1662/3); Willem Gabron (Fig. 
514) (Antwerp, 1619—1678), 
the last two exclusively painters 
of still-life. 

During the eighteenth cen- 
tury, the great nobles of the 
country had their dining-rooms 
decorated with large canvases 
representing dead or living 
animals. The rich and grandiose 
paintings of Adriaen van Utrecht, 
David de Coninck, Pieter Boel, 

271 




FIG. 504.— JAN SIBERECHTS. 

landscape! (Munich, Pinakothek). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 505.— ANDREAS VAN EERTVELT. 

SEASCAPE (Vienna, Imperial Museum). 

(Phot. Lowy.) 



(Fig. 513), and Jacob van Es were particularly in request. The 
other still-life painters produced small pictures with golden and 

ruddy fruits, crystal, and 
silver plate, pictures of 
pleasant colour, ingeni- 
ous composition, and 
excellent technique. 

How many names 
claim attention among 
these painters of splendid 
or precious objects ! We 
must content ourselves 
with the mention of 
Cornelis Mahu (1613 to 
1689), Ambrosius Breug- 
hel, son of Velvet Breug- 
hel (1617—1673), Jan 
Paul Gillemans (1618 to 
1675) and Jan Paul II. (1651—1704), George van Son (1623 to 
1667), and Jan Frans van Son (1658—1718). The best of all 
was Jan Davidszoon de Heem (Utrecht, 1605— Antwerp, 1683/4), 
whose life was spent between Holland and Belgium. He was 
the most dexterous painter of all that is most fairy-like in nature, 

and most refined in 
human industry. 
Flowers and fruits of 
appetising colour ; 
flies or beetles spark- 
ling like precious 
jewels , plumage, 
lace, crystal, jewels, 
gems set by fairy 
fingers — everything 
that dazzles and flat- 
ters the eye was 
rendered by his 
brush in such a way 
that his painting is 
a magic mirror en- 
hancing the magni- 
ficence and the 
splendour of reality (Fig. 515). His son, Cornelis de Heem 
(1631—1695) treated the same subjects with talent, but with a 

272 




FIG. 506.— BONAVENTURA PEETERS. 

MARINE SUBJECT (Brunswick, Gallery). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 




FIG. 507.— FRANS SNYDERS. 

THE LARDER (Munich, Pinakothek). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



more timid and subdued palette. The flower-painters are some- 
what unreasonably counted among the still-life painters. The 
most enthusiastic among 
them, however, took 
care not to show their 
bouquets and leaves 
and garlands by the side 
of other products of 
nature. The most famous 
of them all is Daniel 
Seghers (Antwerp, 1590 
to 1661). He was a pupil 
of Velvet Breughel and 
surpassed his master in 
the branch of painting 
which he had adopted. 
He joined the Society 
of Jesus, which did not 
prevent him from paint- 
ing throughout his whole 

life. His art was, moreover, a devotional exercise. He delighted 
in laying his most delicious flowers around medallions of the 
Virgin and of Saints. No painter has found fresher and truer 
colours for his shimmering blossoms (Fig. 516). 

Seghers had as pupils 
or imitators : Jan Philip 
van Thielen (Mechlin, 
1618— 1667) and Nico- 
las van Verendael (Ant- 
werp , 1640 — 1691), 
who followed him faith- 
fully, but whose work 
has less quality. There 
are others still, who 
are less directly con- 
nected with him, like 
Frans Ykens (Antwerp, 
1601—1693); Jan An- 
tonis van den Baren, 
who in 1656 accom- 
panied the Archduke 

Leopold William to Vienna; Jan van den Hecke (1620 — 1684), 
Christian Luckx (1623 — ?) and a good many others. 

273 T 




FIG, 508.— FRANS SNYDERS. FRUIT 
(Copenhagen, Museum). 



ART IN FLANDERS 



Finally, mention must be made of the painters of architectural 
subjects, some of whom rose to great renown in the eighteenth 
century. Chief among them are Pieter Neefs, of Antwerp (1578 
to 1660), and his son. He adopted the manner of Hendrik van 
Steenwyck. Father and son, the former the more talented, 
painted for choice little pictures representing the interiors of 
churches. It is difficult to distinguish the works of the one 
from those of the other. They are to be found in almost all 
the galleries of Europe. They generally took Notre-Dame of 
Antwerp as a model, but they never painted it as it really is. 
It served them rather as a theme for variations. They sought 
to render the play of the light that floods the aisles and is 

dispersed between 
the columns. Their 
pictures are gener- 
ally enlivened with 
little figures exe- 
cuted by other ar- 
tists (Fig. 517). 

The episcopal 
principality of Liege 
gave eighteenth cen- 
tury Belgium some 
artists of renown, 
who separated them- 
selves from the 
Flemish school and 
came under the in- 
fluence of the South. 
Gerard Douffet (1594 — 1660) who, it is said, worked with 
Rubens, was the master of Bartholet Flemalle (1614 — 1675). 
The latter visited Italy and, on his return to Liege, had a pupil, 
Gerard de Lairesse (1641 — 1711), who settled at Amsterdam 
and there, by his writings as much as by his paintings, set forth 
the academic style which the reign of Louis XIV. seemed to 
have definitively established in France (Fig. 518). 

The eighteenth century was a period of profound decadence 
and of long lethargy for the Flemish school of painting. All 
it has bequeathed us are some pale altarpieces, without inven- 
tion and without colour, signed by Willem Ignatius Kerricx 
(Antwerp, 1682— 1745), Jacob van Helmont (Brussels, 1683—1726), 
and Robert van Audenaerde (Ghent, 1663 — 1743), or some 
domestic scenes of a sentimental realism, painted by one Pieter 

274 




FIG. 509.— PAUL DE VOS. STAG-HUNTING 

(Brussels, Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 




FIG. 5T0.— JAN FYT. 

DEER AND HARES (Berlin, Museum). 

(Phot Berlin Phot. Gesellschaft.) 



Jacob Horemans (Antwerp, 1700—1776) (Fig. 519). A few 
portraits by almost unknown painters are the least commonplace 
works of the time. 

Towards the end of 
the century, a kind of 
awakening took place in 
the art world. Andreas 
Cornelis Lens (Antwerp, 
1739 — Brussels, 1822) 
had studied in Rome and, 
on his return , consti- 
tuted himself the cham- 
pion of artistic liberty, 
demanding that artists 
should henceforth be 
released from the obli- 
gation of membership in 
the Guild of St. Luke. 
He gained his cause; but 
nevertheless, art did not 

revive, because Lens used his name and influence to follow the 
example of his master Balthazar Beschey, and to implant in 
Flanders the pseudo- classic style which* held despotic sway in 
France (Fig. 520). Willem 
Jacob Herreyns (Ant- 
werp, 1743—1827) re- 
mained more faithful to 
the old traditions (Fig. 
521), as did Pieter Ver- 
haegen (Louvain, 1728 
to 1811), who, endowed 
with a more solid talent, 
returned resolutely to 
the style of Rubens and 
opposed his robust and 
vivid painting to the 
pseudo-classic composi- 
tions of Lens (Fig. 522). 
But he preached in the 
desert, and it was not 
from him that the re- 
generating movement was to emanate. Nor was the impulse 
given by another painter, who gained great fame, and who even 

275 T 2 




FIG. 511.— JAN FYT. 

THE EAGLES' REPAST (Antwerp, Museum). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 



proved himself an artist of great merit, both in invention and 
technically: Balthazar Ommeganck (Antwerp, 1755 — 1826). Om- 

meganck followed the ex- 
ample of Hendrik Joseph 
Antonissen (Antwerp, 
1737—1794), but he sur- 
passed him considerably. 
He painted landscapes 
with sheep and other 
animals with great charm, 
enveloping them in mel- 
low light (Fig. 523). 
Jean Louis de Marne 
(Brussels, 1744 — Paris, 
1829), a contemporary of 
Ommeganck , cultivated 
an art manifestly related 
to that of the famous 
painter of sheep. He 
views of towns, village fairs. 
Like all the decorative painters 




FIG. 512.— ADRIAEN VAN UTRECHT. 

FRUIT (Stockholm, Museum). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



painted landscapes with animals, 
and many episodes of daily life. 

of his time, he bore Teniers in mind, but he recalls him with 
much more warmth and vigour than the other artists, in tones 

as warm and luminous as 
Ommeganck's and with 
a humour that foreshad- 
ows Madou. 

The influence of 
Rubens, powerful in all 
the arts, was especially 
potent in that of engra- 
ving. When he returned 
from Italy, he found in 
his native country a very 
active school which man- 
aged the burin with 
unrivalled dexterity, but 
in a manner entirely 
opposed to the art of 
engraving as Rubens 
conceived it. He did not 
employ any of these brilliant but minor masters, except one of 
the members of the Galle family, Cornells the father (1575 — 1650), 

276 




FIG. 513.— PIETER BOEL. 

THE EAGLES' EYRIE (Frankfort, Museum). 

(Ph o t."- Bruckm ann.) 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 



who was allowed to engrave 
(1615 — 1678) shared this honour 
and their school; he 
directed their labours. 
About the year 1620, he 
instructed Van Dyck to 
make some drawings after 
his pictures, to serve as 
models for his engravers ; 
and often he himself exe- 
cuted the drawings or 
sketches which his en- 
gravers had to interpret. 
For those who worked 
in his radius or for him, 
as some did, he examined 
proofs and retouched 
them until he found them 
satisfactory. As the men 
he wanted were not to 
be found at Antwerp, 
he searched for them in 
him without leaving their 



for him. His son 
Rubens formed his 



Cornelis 
engravers 




FIG. 514.— WILLEM GABRON. 

STILL-LIFE (Brunswick, Gallery). 

(Phot.'Bruckmann.) 



Holland. Some of them worked for 
native country. Willem Swanenberg, 

Jacob Matham, and Jan Muller 

remained in Holland, where 

they engraved Rubens' works 

from 1611—1615. PieterSout- 

man was the first to come to 

Antwerp and to work under 

the master's direction. Lucas 

Vorsterman (Bommel, 1595 — 

Antwerp, 1675) joined Rubens 

£lbout 1620, and worked with 

him until 1623. He is the 

eldest of the great en- 
gravers of the school. Boe- 

tius a Bolswert (Bolswert 

about 1580— Brussels, 1633) 

and his brother Scheltius a 

Bolswert were the last two 

Dutchmen who came to 

Belgium to engrave for 

rj if rp, 1 r> 1 FIG. 515.— JAN DE HEEM. STILL-LIFE 

KubenS. Ihey and raul (Dresden, Museum). (Phot. Bruckmann.) 

277 




ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 516.— DANIEL SEGHERS. 

ST. IGNATIUS (Antwerp, Museum). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



Pontius, Hans Witdoeck, Pieter 
de Jode the Younger, Con- 
rad Lauwers, Cornells van Cauk- 
ercke, and Nicolas Ryckmans were 
the chief interpreters of Rubens 
and of his school, especially of 
Anthony van Dyck and Jacob 
Jordaens. They all worked under 
the master's direction and in their 
strong and harmonious plates, 
splendid in the lights and grandiose 
in the shadows, they reproduced 
the broad design and gorgeous 
colour of the sovereign painter. 
The most illustrious amongst 
Flemish wood engravers, Chris- 
topher Jegher (Antwerp, 1596 to 
1652/3) was also inspired by 
Rubens and worked largely for him 
(Fig. 525). Some etchers repro- 
duced his works. Chief among 
them are Willem Panneels and 
Theodore van Thulden, both of whom were painters. Among the 
painters of the school of Rubens, some also distinguished 
themselves as etchers. Van Dyck, the incomparable portrait- 
etcher (Fig. 524) ; the ruder Jordaens ; the more sentimental 

CornelisSchut; the lands- 
cape-painter, Lucas van 
Uden, the animal painters 
Pieter Boel and Jan Fyt, 
and others. 

When Antwerp had 
ceased to be predominant 
in the art world, the 
pupils and descendants of 
these mighty masters, 
Gerard Edelinck , Nico- 
las Pitau, Van Schuppen, 
Cornells Vermeulen, and 
Pieter van Schuppen 
emigrated to Paris and 
there founded the 

French school of en- 




FIG. 517.— PIETER NEEFS. 

INTERIOR OF A GOTHIC CHURCH 

(Madrid, Prado). 

(Phot. Anderson.) 



278 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 




graving, which gave birth to modern engraving. For more than 
half a century, the Rubens school had led the way in the world 
of engraving, and Antwerp 
had sent forth the masterpieces 
of its productions throughout 
the world. During this period 
the art of tapestry was like- 
wise dominated by Rubens. 
At the end of the sixteenth 
century, and in the course of 
the terrible war which raged 
for more than twenty years, 
and had such deplorable conse- 
quences, this art and industry, 
like all others, suffered cruelly. 
They revived with the return 
of peace to the land, and 
when the Archduke Albert and 
Isabella enjoyed a relatively 
sovereign power. At Brussels 
the looms were set going 
again, although, to tell the 
undisputed sway 
in Spain, and in 
active work was 
at Brussels, and the export 
was considerable. The future 
of tapestry - making had to 
depend on the more or less 
flourishing state of the country. 
Rubens , overwhelmed with 
commissions and indefatigable 
as a worker, supplied the 
Brussels workshops with four 
great series: The History of 
Decius Mus , destined for 
some Genoese merchants; The 
Triumphs and Types of the 
Eucharist, ordered by the In- 
fanta Isabella for the Convent 
of the Clares at Madrid (Fig. 
528); The History of the Em- 
peror Constantine , executed 



FIG. 518, 

GERARD^ DE LAIRESSE. JUDITH 

(Liege,. Museum). (Phot. Levi/.) 



truth, that town no longer held 
in Europe. Everywhere , in Paris , at Lille, 
Italy, workshops had been founded; but, still, 
carried on 




279 



FIG. 519.— P. J. HOREMANS. 

DOMESTIC SCENE (Brunswidc, Gallery). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 520.— A. C. LENS. ARIADNE 
(Brussels, Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 



for Louis XIII. ; and The History 
of Achilles for Charles I. (Fig. 
527). Each of these series was 
reproduced several times. 

Rubens brought new life into 
tapestry manufacture, as he did 
into every branch of art to which 
he devoted himself. The models 
which he supplied were no 
longer compositions the author 
of which it would be impos- 
sible to determine. They are 
grandiose poems bearing the 
unmistakable imprint of the 
vast genius by whom they were 
produced. The Triumphs and 
Types of the Eucharist are the 
most powerful allegories ever 
created to glorify the mysteries 
of the Catholic religion; in the 
History of Decius Mus Rubens expressed his enthusiastic ad- 
miration for the noble character of the republicans of ancient 
Rome, giving themjthe aspect, the arms and costumes, the type 

and form adopted by the 
centuries as most character- 
istic of the heroic people. 
The History of Achilles and 
The History of Constantine 
are two other heroic epics 
of the kind that Rubens 
alone could create. He left 
the paths followed in the 
preceding century; he re- 
placed elegance by dramatic 
interest, facility by exuberant 
power, and abundance by 
unity of general effect. 

He was not the only one 
of his time and school to 
furnish cartoons for tapes- 
try-weavers. Jacob Jordaens 
designed some : a series of 
proverbs borrowed from his 




FIG. 521.— HERREYNS. 
IT IS FINISHED 

(Antwerp, Museum). 
(Phot. Hermans.) 



280 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 




pictures, a marriage of Louis XIII.; some scenes of rustic life, 
in collaboration with Jan Fyt; the Sacrifice of Abraham, the 
Month of March, a con- 
cert, and some others. In 
these works, the artist 
remains the painter of 
the middle classes, of the 
people. He lacks the 
high distinction which is 
always the characteristic 
of Rubens. Deprived of 
their brilliancy of colour, 
as the tapestries now ap- 
pear, they lack the charm 
of the master's pictures. 
Other pupils of Rubens 
— Schut, Sallaert, Van ^ 
Uden — also worked for 
the tapestry weavers. The 
artist who became most 
popular among them at 
the end of the seventeenth 
was David Teniers. 

He did not himself design for tapestries, but the manufac- 
turers borrowed his subjects. The heroic attitude had ceased 
to arouse enthusiasm; rustic doings, the life of the peasant and 
more particularly the 
pleasures of village life 
charmed the rich bour- 
geoisie and the owners 
of sumptuous town man- 
sions. They delighted 
to see upon their walls 
the merry-making boors, 
whose faces and gestures 
express their hearty en- 
joyment, as they dis- 
port themselves under 
the trees or in front of 
the inns that form the 
background for all this 

luStV life ^^^- 523.— OMMEGANCK. 

J' 1' ..n 11 LANDSCAPE WiTHiiCATTLE (Brunswick, Gallery). 

tSrUSSels still worked (PhoU Bruckmann.J 

281 



FIG. 522.— PIETER VERHAEGEN. 

THE PRESENTATION IN THE TEMPLE 

(Ghent, Museum). (Phot. Levy.) 



and in the eighteenth century, 




ART IN FLANDERS 

after cartoons by Rubens; Audenarde, which made a speciaHty 
of verdure (foHage tapestry), wove after Teniers (Fig. 526). 







r:^"^ 




FIG. 524.— VAN DYCK. PORTRAIT OF 
JUSTUS SUSTERMANS (Etching). 



FIG. 525. — CHRISTOPHER JEGHER. 
THE MARCH OF SILENUS (After Rubens). 



The subjects produced in the little town were more modest, 
and intended to adorn the less sumptuous dwelling-houses. 

As the country did not rally from its decline, the art of 
tapestry- making fell lower and lower, until it died out towards 

the end of the eigh- 
teenth century. In the 
second half of that cen- 
tury, tapestries were 
replaced by canvases 
painted with oil-colours, 
which covered the walls 
of the apartments and 
represented scenes of 
peasant life. Later still 
came a general invasion 
of wall-paper. In our 
own days, a firm at 
Tournai , the Brothers 
FIG. 526.— TENIERS. Braqucnie, tried to re- 

BRINGING IN THE HARVEST (Tapestry). • i.U IJ *- ^ J 

(Brussels, Musee du Cinquantenai.e.) VlVC the oM art, and 

282 




SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 

established a manufactory at Mechlin, where a beautiful series, 
Les Serments et les Metiers de Bruxelles, were woven from the 
designs of the painter Willem Geefs , for the town - hall of 
the capital. 




FIG. 527.— THE DEATH OF ACHILLES 

(Tapestry after Rubens). (Brussels, Musec du 

Cinquantenaire.) , 



283 



ART IN FLANDERS 



BIBLIOGRAPHY TO CHAPTER IV 

Bachet (Armand), Pierre- Paul Rubens peintre de Vincent I de Conzague, Due de Man- 
tone Gazette des Beaux- Arts , 1876—1868, vol. XX, XXII, XXIV). — Bag-Hone (Geo), 
Vita di Pietro Paolo Rubens (dans Le Vite de Pittori Scultori, etc., Naples, 1733). — Bak- 
huizen van den Brinck, Het huwelijk van Willem van Oranje, Amsterdam, 1853 ; Les Rubens 
a Siegen, The Hague 1861. — Bellori (G. P.), Le Vite, Rome, 1672. — Bie (Corn. De), 
Het gulden Cabinet van de edele vrye Schilder Const, Antw, 1662. — Blomme (A.), Deux 
Tableaux d'Ant. Van Dyck, Antwerp , 1899. — Bode (D^ W.), A. Brouwer {Graphische 
Kiinste, VI), Vienna 1884; Die Fiirstlich Liechtensteinsche Galerie, Vienna, 1896; Die Ge- 
mdlde-Galerie der konigUchen Museen zu Berlin. — Bouchot (Henri), La Gravure et 
I'Estampe in Andre Michel (Histoire de I'Art, III, p. 326). — Branden (F. Jos. van den), 
Frans Wauters, Antwerp, 1872 ; Willem van Nieuweland, Ghent, 1875 ; Adriaan de Bruwer 
en Joos van Craesbeeck, Antw,, 1882. — Braun (Joseph), Die belgischen Jesuitenkirchen, 
Freiburg 1907. — Burckhardt (Jakob), Erinnerungen aus Rubens, Basle, 1898. — Buschmann 
(Paul), Jac. Jordaens, Antwerp, 1905. — Busscher (De), Les Duquesnoy, Laurent Delvaux, 
Jan Robert Calloigne (Ann. de la Societe royale des Beaux-Arts et Litter., Ghent, 1873 to 
1877). — Carpenter (W. H.), Pictorial Notices consisting of a memoir of Sir A. van Dyck, 
London, 1844. — Castan (Aug.), Les Origines et la Date du Saint Ildefonse de Rubens, 
Besan^on, 1884 ; Une Visite au Saint Ildefonse de Rubens, 1885 ; Opinions des erudits de 
I'Autriche sur les Origines et la Date du Saint Ildefonse de Rubens (Ibid., 1887). — Celis 
(Gal.), Niklaas dc Liemacker (Roose), Ghent, 1910. — Crivelli (Giovanni), Giovanni Breughel 
(Milan, 1868). — Cust (Lionel), Van Dyck, London, 1806. — Descamps, La vie des Peintres 
flamands, allemands et hollandais, Rotterdam, 1752. — Dillon (Edw.), Rubens, London, 
1909. — Donnet (Fern.), Van Dyck inconnu, Antwerp, 1899. — Dumortier (B. C), Recherches 
sur le lieu de naissance de P.-P. Rubens, Brussels, 1861 ; Nouvelles Recherches sur le lieu 
de naissance de P.-P. Rubens, Brussels, 1862. — Ennen (Di" L.), Ueber den Geburtsort des 
Peter Paul Rubens, Cologne, 1861. — Fierens-Gevaert, Jacques Jordaens, Paris. — Fievet 
(Edmond), Laurent Delvaux, 1880. — Gachard, Particularites et Documents inedits sur 
Rubens (Tresor nat, vol. I. p. 160) ; Histoire politique et diplomatique de P.-P. Rubens, Brussels, 
1877. — Gachet (Emile), Lettres inedites de Pierre-Paul Rubens, Brussels, 1840. — Galesloot. 
Un Proces pour une vente de Tableaux attribues a Van Dyck, Brussels, 1868. — Gelder 
(E. van). La GrandPlace de Bruxelles, 1899. — Genard (P.), De Nalatenschap van P.-P. 
Rubens {Bulletin des Archives d'Anvers, vol. II. p. 69) ; Intrede van den Prins Cardinaal Fer- 
dinand van Spanje te Antwerpen op 77. April 7635 (Ibid., vol. VI. p. 400; t. XIII, p, 215) ; Het 
Testament der moeder van Rubens {Ibid., vol. II, p. 294) ; P.-P. Rubens, aanteekeningen over 
den grooten meester en zyne afstammelingen, Antwerp, 1877. — Gliick (G.), Aus Rubens 
Zeit und Schule: Geeraerd Segers, Frans Wauters, Andreas Benedetti, Jan van Dalen, Jan 
van den Hecke, die beiden Quellins (Jahrbuch der Kunsts. des K. K. Houses, Vienna Bd. 
XXIV). — Goeler von Ravensburg (F. Freiherr), Rubens und die Antike, Jena, 1882; 
P.-P. Rubens als Gelehrter , Diplomat, Kiinstler und Mensch, Heidelberg, 1883. — Gool 
(Jan van), De nieuve Schouwburgh's Gravenhage 1750-1751. — Guiffrey (Jules), Ant. Van 
Dyck, Sa vie et son ceuvre, Paris, 1882. — Hasselt (Andre van), Histoire de Rubens, 
Brussels, 1840. — Hymans (Henri), La Gravure dans TEcole de Rubens, Brussels, 1879; 
Histoire de la Gravure dans IE cole de Rubens, Brussels, 1879; Lucas Vorsterman, 
Brussels, 1893; Quelques Notes sur Ant. van Dyck, Antwerp, 1899; Henri van 
Paesschen et I'ancienne Bourse de Londres {Bulletin de I'Academie royale d'Archeo- 
logie, Antwerp, 1908). — Knackfuss (H.), A. van Dyck, Bielefeld, 1902. — Michel (Emile), 
Rubens, sa Vie, son CEuvre et son Temps, Paris, 1900. — Michel (J.-F.-M.) , Histoire 
de la Vie de P.-P. Rubens, Brussels, ,1771. — Michiels (Alfred), Rubens et I'Ecole d'An- 
vers, Paris, 1855; Van Dyck et ses Eleves, Paris, 1881. — Meli (Giuseppe,) Documento 
relativo al quadro dell' Altare della Compagnia del Rosario di S. Domenico (Archivio 
Storico Sic liano, Palermo, 1878). — Mols (Frangois), Notes manuscrites sur Rubens (Bib- 
liotheque royale de Bruxelles). — O'K de G., Documents historiques sur la famille de 
Rubens {Le Heraut d'armes, vol. I, p. 1), Brussels, 1869. — Pauw (Nap., de), David Teniers 
le Jeune {Bulletin de la Commission royale d'Histoire), Brussels , 1909. — Piles (M. de). 
La Vie de Rubens {dans ses Conversations sur la peinture). — Reiffenberg (Baron 
de) , Nouvelles Recherches sur Rubens (Bulletin de I'Academie royale de Belgique, 
vol. XI). — Riegel (Herman) , Petrus Paulus Rubens {Beitrdge zur niederldndischen 
Kunstgeschichte , Berlin, 1882). — Rooses (Max) and Ch. Ruelens, Correspondance 
de Rubens , Antwerp, 1887-1908; Petrus Paulus Rubens et Balthasar Moretus, Ant- 
werp, 1884; Rubens Leven en Werken, Antwerp, 1903; L'CEuvre de Rubens, Antwerp, 
1886-1892; Jacques Jordaens, Amsterdam, 1905; Vyftig meesterstukken van Ant. van Dyck 

284 



SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 

Amsterdam, 1899. — Rosenberg (Adolf.), Rubensbriefe, Leipzig-, 1881; Die Rubensstecher, 
Vienna, 1893. — Rubens Bulletyn , {Bulletin Rubens), Antwerp, 1882-1900, 5 volumes. — 
Ruelens (Ch.) and Max Rooses, Correspondance de Rubens, Antwerp, 1887-1908; Pierre Paul 
Rubens, documents et lettres publies et annates, Brussels, 1877. — Sainsbury' (W. Noel), 
Original unpublished papers illustrating of the life of Sir Peter Paul Rubens, London, 1859. 
— Schaeffer (Em.), Van Dyck (Klassiker der Kunst). — Schmidt-Deg-ener (F.), Adriaan 
Brouwer, Amsterdam, 1908. — Schoy (Aug-.), La Grand'Place de Bruxelles , 1878. — 
Smith (John), Catalogue raisonne, London, 1836. — Soprani (R.), Le Vite de'pittori, Genoa, 
1674. — Spiesz (Aug-uste), Eine Episode aus dem Leben der Eltern von Peter Paul Rubens 
(Dillenburg, 1873); Mitteilungen iiber die Familie Rubens. — Verachter (Frederic) Genia- 
logie de P.-P. Rubens, Antwerp, 1840? — Verme (Alex, de). Van Dyck peintre de portraits 
des Princes de Lorraine, Turin, 1885. — Vermoelen (Jean) Teniers le Jeune (Antwerp, 
1865; Notes historiques sur David Teniers et sa familie, Paris, 1870. — Villaamil (Cruzada), 
Rubens Diplomatico espaiiol, Madrid, 1874. — Voorhelm-Schneevoog-t (C. G.), Catalogue 
des Estampes gravies d'apres Rubens, Haarlem, 1873. — Waag^en (Dr G. F.), Ueber den 
Maler Petrus Paulus Rubens (Historisches Taschenbuch) , Leipzig, 1833. — Walpole (Hor.), 
Anecdotes of Painting, London 1872. — Wauters (Alph.), David Teniers et son fils, 
Brussels, 1897. — Weyerman (Campo), De Levensbeschryvingen der Nederlandsche konst- 
schilder. The Hague, 1729. 




528.— THE FALL OF PAGANISM 

(Tapestry Cartoon). 
(After Rubens.) 



285 




FIG. 52g.— JOSEPH POELAERT. BRUSSELS, PALAIS DE JUSTICE. 
(Phot. Neurdein.) 



CHAPTER V 
BELGIAN ART IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 

Architecture. Engraving. Sculpture. Painting. 



The end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth 
centuries were black days for Belgium. The country was 
conquered by the armies of the Republic and held by France 
until 1815. It not only lost such autonomy as it had retained 
under Austrian rule, but the comparative prosperity which it 
still enjoyed was completely destroyed during the troubled 
years of the Republic and under Napoleon's despotic govern- 
ment. It was hardly the time to think of building public monu- 
ments; and private persons suffered too severely to indulge in 
unnecessary expenditure. When^ from 1815 to 1830, the country 
was united with Holland, it recovered to a certain extent from 
the evils it had undergone, but not sufficiently to rise again to 
the degree of prosperity necessary for the building of sumptuous 
edifices. The rare monuments of that period are the outcome 
of the academic style which the Empire had brought into favour. 

286 



BELGIAN ART IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 530.— HENRI BEYAERT. FAC^ADE OF THE 

NATIONAL BANK AT ANTWERP, 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



The economic progress which followed the Revolution of 1830 
had its influence upon architecture. From the moment that 
peace and affluence re- 
turned, the work of 
building mansions and 
churches was resumed. In 
all these buildings there 
was scarcely a question 
of national style in the 
proper sense of the word. 
The picturesque style of 
the Grand* Place of 
Brussels had been for- 
gotten long since. The 
Rococo style of the eigh- 
teenth century had had its 
turn. Architects contin- 
ued to plagiarise the 
rather inferior produc- 
tions of nineteenth cen- 
tury France. The Flemish genius was only slightly in evidence 
in some timid imitations of the national architecture of past ages. 
Thus, red brick houses, after the models of the old Flemish 
Renaissance, arose in every part of the country. For the churches, 
the Romanesque and Gothic styles were evoked. At first these 
imitations were rather 
clumsy, and there are 
many unsuccessful works 
among these pastiches. 
But, as time passed on, 
the assimilation became 
more harmonious , and 
the more recent buildings 
bear witness to a deeper 
study of mediaeval art 
and to a happier appli- 
cation of its principles. 
This is the case with the 
Romanesque churches of 
Notre -Dame at Schaer- 
beek by Louis van Over- 
straeten, and of St. Amand at Antwerp, by Louis Baeckelmans, 
the Gothic church of St. Georges at Antwerp by Leon Suys, 

287 




FIG. 531.— LEON SUYS, JUNIOR. 
BRUSSELS, THE BOURSE. (Phot. Nels.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 

and some others. At the same time there was a revival of interest 
in the monuments of past centuries, which were restored and 
reconstructed at great cost, and also with more respect and know- 
ledge. Among the most successful of these restorations we may 
mention the guild-halls of the Grand* Place at Brussels by Victor 
Jamaer (Brussels, 1825 — 1902), the palace of Margaret of Austria 
at Mechlin by Leon Blomme, and the Bourse at Antwerp, rebuilt with 
a double row of galleries by Joseph Schadde (Antwerp, 1818 — 1894). 
In recent years, Belgian architects have shown greater initia- 





i 




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l^^^f 


f 














fHCHf • 


m ' ^ 






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K IjI^ 


koM 


SSf 1 


srJ--m^ 


SiliBg 


pm|iW| 


'i 51^' mi 


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FIG. 532.— LKON AND HENRI 
BLOMME. MUNICIPAL BUILDING 

AT BORGERHOUT. (Phot. Hermans.) 



FIG. 533.— J. J. VAN YSENDYCK. 

MUNICIPAL BUILDING AT SCHAERBECK. 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



tive in these fusions or adaptations of ancient styles. Indeed, 
artists of great merit have acquired well-deserved fame. Alphonse 
Balat (Cochenee, 1818 — Brussels, 1895), who designed the sober 
but noble classic palace of the Fine Arts at Brussels (1880); 
Henri Beyaert (Courtrai, 1823 — Brussels, 1894), who in his National 
Bank of Antwerp (Fig. 530) combined a French sixteenth century 
palace with Flemish turrets of various periods, in a superb 
ensemble; Leon Suys junior (Brussels, 1824 — 1867), who built 
the Bourse at Brussels (Fig. 531) in a neo- Greek style with 
majestic columns and a fine array of sculptures; the brothers 
Blomme, Leon (Antwerp, 1840) and Henri (Antwerp, 1845) — 
the authors of the charming municipal building in the Flemish 

288 



BELGIAN ART IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 534.— HENRI VAN DE VELDE. 
MODERN VILLA. (Phot. Held.) 



Renaissance style at Borgerhout, near Antwerp (Fig. 532); and 
J. J. van Ysendyck (Paris, 1836 — Brussels, 1901), who adopted 
the same style, but on 
a larger scale , in the 
beautiful municipal build- 
ing at Schaerbeek, near 
Brussels (Fig. 533). Rail- 
way stations necessitated 
the invention of a new 
style. Beyaert at Tournai 
and De la Censerie at 
Antwerp responded to 
the new requirements. 
Before them , Schadde 
had tried a very curious 
adaptation of the Gothic 
style for his station at 
Bruges. But the most 
colossal modern monu- 
ment of Belgium, and 

perhaps of the whole world, is the Palais de Justice at Brussels 
(1868—1883), a creation of Joseph Polaert (Brussels, 1817—1879), 
which recalls the gigantic proportions of the Assyrian palaces, 
with its formidable pil- 
lars and columns, its mas- 
sive cornices and its huge 
cupola (Fig. 529). By a 
fusion of forms, borrowed 
from many periods and 
styles, but combined and 
welded with an astonish- 
ing power and the pic- 
turesque audacity proper 
to the Flemish genius, 
this monument has the 
authority of a national 
manifestation. With this 
building Belgium has 
symbolized her entrance 
into a new life of bene- 
ficent civilization and 

fruitful artistic production. In spite of all this progress, in Belgium 
as, indeed, elsewhere, a new and original style was slow in coming. 

289 u 




FIG. 535.— HENRI VAN DE VELDE. 
MODERN INTERIOR. (Phot. Held.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 

The Romanesque, Gothic, and Renaissance work was imitative ; and 
no new architectural forms were created. Certain artists became 
impatient of this impotence; they aspired to overcome it, and 
threw themselves ardently into the task. They began by declaring 
war upon the slavish imitation of the earlier styles: no more 
Greek and Roman orders , no more Romanesque columns , no 
more material disguised under lying stucco ! The building should 
reveal, at the first glance, its real purpose, the stones their true 
nature : the end aimed at should be directly and simply pursued. 





FIG, 536.— VICTOR HORTA. DFTAIL 
OF THE FACADE OF THE HOTEL 
AUBECQ (550, Avenue Louise, Brussels). 



FIG. 537-— J- HOFMAN. 
MODERN HOUSES 

(Avenue Gogels, Antwerp). 



This was the death of tradition and of pretence; it was also 
the merciless condemnation of fancy, of personal invention, and 
consequently, of all style and, one may say, of all art. Yet 
this radical simplification did not exclude all beauty. There 
may be elegance in the disposition of the interesting and novel 
lines that respond to structural exigencies; and there may be 
a more or less happy taste in the choice of the logical forms 
of a building. The natural materials may form a more or less 
harmonious whole; and sober ornamentation has never been 
repudiated by the reformers. From the beginning, they had 
recourse to symbolic lines, breaking the monotony of their cold, 
plain surfaces by dreamy curves. Personal taste and freedom 

290 



BELGIAN ART IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 




of invention came necessarily into play, without constituting a 
definite style adopted by a whole school. The British had set the 
example, but had scarcely suc- 
ceeded; the Germans were no 
happier. The Belgians tried in 
their turn with better results. 
They did not go to the extreme 
of uncompromising revolution, 
but stopped short at moderate 
reform, retaining the old forms 
which were justified by nature 
and reason, and avoiding all that 
was trite and unmeaning. Henri 
van de Velde (born at Antwerp 
in 1863), who began as a painter, 
then became an architect, and is 
now director of the arts and 
crafts school at Weimar, was one 
of the most influential apostles 
of the new tendency, both by his 
writings and his artistic work (Fig. 
534). He extended the rational 
reform to furniture and household 
utensils, rejecting traditional forms 

and ornaments, and replacing them by a supple ensemble and 
lines of detail corresponding to the use for which the objects 
are intended (Fig. 535). 
The late M. Hankar and 
his pupil M. Horta, two 
Brussels architects, dis- 
tinguished themselves 
among the adepts of the 
reform and erected in 
the capital many buildings 
remarkable alike for ori- 
ginality and elegance(Figs. 
536, 538). Some Ant- 
werp architects , among 
others M. J. Hofman, 
followed on the same 
path (Fig. 537). It cannot 
be said that a new style 

liQc koA>> ^».^o4-^J ^^^^^- 539— CJUILLAUME GEEFS. ''LOVE, WHEN 

iidb oeen createa on thou holdest us!" (Phot. Deloeut.) 

291 U2 



FIG. 538. — VICTOR HORTA. DINING- 
ROOM IN M. ARMAND SOLVAY'S 

HOUSE (244, Avenue Louise, Brussels). 




ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 540.— JACQUES DUCAJU. THE 

FALL OF BABYLON (Brussels, Museum). 

(Phot. Deloeul.) 



clearly determined lines, and 
accepted by the majority; but 
a school has been formed, and 
is still spreading, which has swept 
away the abuses of a former age, 
and cleared the way for reforms 
by which the future will benefit. 
The creation of an independent 
Belgium inaugurated an excep- 
tionally flourishing era for sculp- 
ture. This era comprises two 
periods: the first extends from 
1830—1880; whilst the second 
comprises the last twenty years 
of the nineteenth century. At 
the beginning of the first, the 
brothers Geef s greatly distinguish- 
ed themselves. There were no 
fewer than six of them, all sculp- 
tors. The most gifted was the 
eldest brother, Guillaume Geefs (Fig. 539), born at Antwerp in 
1805, died at Brussels in 1883. He had settled in Brussels in 
1833; in 1836 he produced one of his 
masterpieces, the statue of General Beliard. 
In the following year he carved the tomb 
of Count Frederic de Merode for Ste. 
Gudule. He afterwards executed many 
of the statues with which the new king- 
dom adorned its public squares in honour 
of the great men of the fatherland : Rubens, 
at Antwerp; Gretry, at Liege; Leopold I. 
on the column of the Congress at Brussels. 
Besides these, he has left tombs for 
churches and cemeteries, pulpits, groups, 
and innumerable statues and busts. He 
tempered academic stiffness by his flexi- 
bility; without being over -bold, he pro- 
duced natural movement. Yet, he remains, 
like all the artists of this group, a classi- 
cist. These sculptors knew their craft; 
they had a taste for beautiful forms, but 
their art was ingenious rather than deeply 
felt. His brother Joseph Geefs (Antwerp, 
292 




FIG. 541.— PAUL DE 

VIGNE. IMMORTALITY 

(Brussels, Museum). 

(Phot. Deloeul.) 



BELGIAN ART IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 



1808 — 1885), though less original, was 
nevertheless a strong, conscientious, and 
prolific artist: his works are to be 
reckoned by hundreds. The most remark- 
able of all is the monument of Leopold I. 
at Antwerp. Louis - Eugene Simonis 
(Liege, 1810— Brussels, 1882), the author 
of the equestrian statue of Godfrey de 
Bouillon (Fig. 542) at Brussels (1848) and 
of many other meritorious works, has a 
large and dramatic style, and his handling 
is energetic. Pierre de Vigne (Ghent, 
1812 — 1877), to whom we owe the Jacob 
van Artevelde monument in the Marche 
du Vendredi at Ghent; Charles Auguste 
Fraikin (Herenthals, 1817— Brussels, 1893), 
the sculptor of the tomb of Queen Marie- 
Louise at Ostend, and of the group of 
Counts Egmont and Hoorn at Brussels; 
and Joseph Jacques Ducaju (Antwerp, 
1823—1891), the 





FIG. 542. -LOUIS EUGENE 

SIMONIS. EQUESTRIAN 

STATUE OF GODFREY 

DE BOUILLON 

(Brussels). 

(Phot. Nels.) 



FIG. 543- 

CH. VAN DER STAPPEN. 

THE MAN WITH THE 

SWORD 

(Brussels, Museum). 

(Phot. Deloeul.) 



creator of the Fall 
of Babylon (Fig. 
540) at the Brussels 

Museum, and of the Leys monument at 
Antwerp, take rank among the most im- 
portant masters of the sculpture of this 
period. 

The new Belgian school of sculpture 
rises far above the old school. Without 
breaking with the past, it has shown 
youthful vigour and has introduced in- 
novations with successful boldness. Gener- 
ally speaking, it is composed of per- 
sonalities who have a high conception of 
art, who have studied it fervently and 
conscientiously, and who have endea- 
voured to rise to a personal conviction. 
The result is, as is the case with painting, 
a great variety of talents, tendencies, and 
manifestations. But what all these recent 
sculptors have in common, is a deeper 
knowledge of human nature, a more 
293 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 544.— JULIEN DILLENS. JUSTICE 

(Palais de Justice, Brussels). (Phot. Deloeul.) 



intimate and at the same time more intense sense of life, now 
tender, now virile, now emotional and dreamy, and now frank 

and passionate. 

At the head of those 
who put most poetry into 
their art, we must place 
Paul de Vigne (Ghent, 
1843— Brussels , 1901). 
He studied for many 
years in Italy, where he 
was especially influenced 
by the works of Dona- 
tello ; but he was no 
less impressed by the 
modern French school. 
He was a gentle charac- 
ter, fascinated by the elegant lines of the human body; an 
interpreter of noble and exquisite emotions, who gave irre- 
proachable forms to his harmonious 
creations, and adorned them with a 
purity and moral grace difficult to ex- 
plain in words. But this tenderness did 
not prevent him from being carried 
away at times by an epic fervour. His 
Poverella of the Brussels Museum ex- 
presses his dreamy tenderness; his Im- 
mortality of the same Museum (Fig. 541) 
translates his love of rhythmic lines; 
his Triumph of Art on the fagade of 
the Palace of Fine Arts at Brussels 
testifies to his noble idealistic faith, 
and his Breydel and De Coninck in the 
Grand Marche at Bruges to his dramatic 
heroism. 

Charles van der Stappen (Brussels, 
1843—1910) devoted himself likewise 
to the rendering of the various aspects 
of nature and of human feelings, and 
skilfully adapted his style to the char- 
acter of his subjects. The Man with 
the Sword (Fig. 543) of the Brussels 
Museum shows faultless forms and an attitude worthy of Greek 
art, with more vigour, more muscularity, and more original 

294 




FIG. 545. — GUILLAUME DE 

GROOT. LABOUR 

(Brussels, Museum). 

(Phot. Deloeul.) 



BELGIAN ART IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 




daring than De Vigne commands. His Death of Ompdrail- 
les awakens strong emotion by the display of superhuman 
strength and is full of tragic eloquence. 

Julien Dillens (Antwerp, 1849 — Brus- 
sels, 1904) belongs to the same group. 
Sometimes he remains under the spell of 
Italian statuary; at other times, especially 
in his funerary figures, he translates sweet 
emotions in caressing lines; occasionally 
he tries his skill in a loftier flight, in 
monumental groups, as in his Justice (Fig. 
544) of the Palais de Justice at Brussels. 

The realists, or rather the glorifiers 
of manual labour, form another group of 
sculptors. Cathier (Charleville, 1830 — 
Brussels, 1892) had already personified 
Labour in a group of workmen at the 
foot of the Cockerill monument at Brus- 
sels (1872). Guillaume de Groot (Brus- 
sels, 1839) also symbolised manual toil 
in a truly powerful figure in the Brussels 
Museum (Fig. 545). Here the rude worker, 
the humble journeyman, is raised to the 
proportions of an epic figure: the Fourth 
Estate, which is about to gain so formid- 
able a social influence, is henceforth to 
occupy a dominating position in art. Constantin Meunier was 
the oldest of the sculp- 
tors of this young school 
(Brussels, 1831—1904); 
he was also the most 
original and the most 
vigorous. We have men- 
tioned him after DeGroot, 
because , after having 
made his debut as a sculp- 
tor he devoted himself 
entirely to painting, and 
only returned to sculp- 
ture after a defection of 
twenty-five years. It was 

not until 1885 that he ^i^'- 547 —constantin meunip:r. 

again took up his chisel ^"'^ ^"'r^^lf S:!;/,""^'"""*- 

295 



FIG. 546.— CONSTANTIN 
MEUNIER. THE SOWER 
(Botanical Gardens, Brus- 
sels). (Phot Deloeul.) 




ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 548.— JEF LAMBEAUX. THE KISS 

(Antwerp, Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 



and his modelling tools. But 
this tardy return was marvel- 
lously fruitful and glorious. In 
a short time Meunier rose far 
above all others. He was par 
excellence the sculptor of the 
workman; first of the Hainault 
coal-miner, then of the worker 
of all trades and countries. He 
felt and expressed the beauty 
of laborious and useful toil, 
that of the peasant sowing seed 
(Fig. 546) and that of the smith 
hammering iron (Fig. 547). He 
finally arrived at investing his 
models with truly classic beauty. 
They became the heroes of a 
grand drama, now commanding 
the flames of tall furnaces and measuring their strength with the 
most terrible of the elements, now cutting the corn and tying 

it in sheaves, defying the almost 
equally murderous heat of the sun. 
And such is Meunier's conviction 
and mastery, that a statuette by 
him is as moving as a monumental 
group. 

Another member of this group 
of realists is Jef Lambeaux (Ant- 
werp, 1859-~Brussels, 1908). He 
does not sing the praise of work; 
he is the panegyrist of the violent 
passions, of athletic deeds, of 
frenzied pleasure, of the fruitful 
woman. Having freed himself from 
all classic and academic rules, he 
seems to be heir to the great 
Jordaens' plastic sensuality. He is 
a colourist in sculpture, as the other 
was in painting; but he far sur- 
passes his ancestor in versatility, in 
impetuousness of movement, and 
even, improbable though it may 
appear, in sensuousness of form. 
296 




FIG. 54Q- 

JEF LAMBEAUX. 
THE FONTAINE DE BRABON. 

(Grand' Place, Antwerp). 
(Phot. Hermans.) 



BELGIAN ART IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 550.— THOMAS VINgOTTE. PEDIMENT OF 
THE ROYAL PALACE (Brussels). 



The Kiss (Fig. 548) of the Antwerp Museum is his most delicate 
creation; his Wrestlers of the Brussels Museum, one of his most 
impetuous and inspired 
groups; the Fontaine de 
Brabon (Fig. 549), in the 
Grand* Place of Antwerp, 
the most perfect of his 
works; his Human Pas- 
sions, in the Pare du 
Cinquantenaire at Brus- 
sels, is a daring, original, 
but unequal and disput- 
able work. For the rest, 
Lambeaux is not inferior 
to Meunier; but in order 
to obtain energy of move- 
ment and power, he sacri- 
ficed the qualities of 
balance and simplicity more ruthlessly. — Thomas Vingotte (Ant- 
werp, 1850) must be admired for the intense and penetrating 
truth which he puts into his work. His Giotto , a work of his 
youth (Brussels Museum), expresses the grace of adolescence in 
all its touching tenderness; his 
monumental works — The Tamer 
(Avenue Emile de Mot, Brussels), 
the pediments of the Brussels and 
Antwerp Museums, and that of the 
Royal Palace at Brussels (Fig. 550) 
— produce an impression of power 
subordinated to the exigencies of 
a strong and refined technique. 
His sculpture creates an illusion 
of healthy and serene life; he 
renounces the compact or massive 
forms of his predecessors ; he seems 
to knead the marble until it be- 
comes fluid. His portraits are 
among his best works; that of Leo- 
pold II. (Fig. 551), among others, 
bears witness to the breadth and 
flexibility of his technique. 

Count Jacques de Lalaing, who 
gained recognition as a vigorous 

297 




FIG. 551— THOMAS VINgOTTE. 

BUST OF LEOPOLD II. 

(Brussels, Museum). 

(Phot. Becker.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 



painter, has also made himself known as a great sculptor: his 
monument to the British officers. who fell at Waterloo, and his 

Fighting Horsemen (Fig. 552) 




FIG. 552. — COUNT JACgUES DE 

LALAING. FIGHTING HORSEMEN 

(Avenue Louise, Brussels). 

(Phot. Deloeul.) 



(Avenue Louise, Brussels), are 
works of real dramatic power. 
A good many sculptors of 
the second half of last century 
acquired a well-deserved repu- 
tation, notably: Desenfans (Ge- 
nappe, 1845), Isidore de Rudder 
(Brussels, 1855) (Fig. 553), Pierre 
Braecke (Nieuport, 1859) (Fig. 
555), and Jules Lagae (Roulers, 
1862) (Fig. 554). 

Many of the recent Belgian 
artists are remarkable animal- 
sculptors. Vingotte and de La- 
laing delight in representing 
powerful chargers. Leon Mig- 
non (Liege, 1847 — Brussels, 
1898) prefers the horse and the 
ox used for work in the fields. 
One of the most recent sculptors, 
Josue Dupon (Ichteghem, 1864) models animals for their own 
sake, as, for instance, in his groups for the Zoological Gardens 
at Antwerp. An important political event exercised a very 
real influence upon Belgian sculpture. The annexation of the 

Congo has made Antwerp one 
of the chief ivory markets of 
Europe. The importation of 
the precious material led many 
artists to use it for the carving 
of exquisite statuettes. Julien 
Dillens, Charles Samuel, Charles 
van der Stappen, Josue Dupon 
(Fig. 556), Alphonse van Beur- 
den (Antwerp, 1854) have dis- 
tinguished themselves in this 
speciality. 

At the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century , Louis David, 
the head of the youngr school 

FIG. 553.— DE RUDDER. THE NEST <. ... •' • J .1 

(Antwerp, Museum). (PhoL Hermans.) Ot pamtmg , SOOU gamed the 

298 




BELGIAN ART IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 



admiration of Flanders and cast 
his spell over the country. Joseph 
Suvee (Brussels , 1743 — Rome, 
1807) hurried to Paris to enlist 
in the new Roman legion. Ma- 
thieu van Bree (Antwerp, 1773— 
1839) also went to Paris in 1796 
in order to study his craft with 
Vincent. Returning to Antwerp 
in 1800, he professed and pro- 
pagated David's principles. He 
became professor (1804), and 
afterwards director (1827), of the 
Academy of his native town. In 
other Belgian cities, his example 
was followed by Odevaere 
(Bruges, 1878— Brussels, 1830), 
Van Hanselaere (Ghent, 1786 — 
1862), and Francois Joseph Navez 

(Charleroi, 1787 — Brussels, 1869), all of whom were pupils of 
David. This pseudo - classic style gave the death-blow to the 
old Flemish School. The prosaic realism of the eighteenth 




FIti. 554.— JULES LAGAE. MOTHER 

AND CHILD (Brussels, Museum). 

(Phot. Deloeul.) 





FIG. 555.— P. BRAECKE. 
FORGIVEN (Brussels, Mus.). 
(Phot. Berlin Phot. Gesellsch.) 



299 



FIG. 556.— JOSUE DUPON. 

THE PEARL (IVORY). 

(Max Rooses Collection). 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 557.— F. J. NAVEZ. 

THE MADONNA (Antwerp, Museum). 

(Phot. Deloeul.) 



century, was superseded by the 
cult of Greek and Roman heroes. 
The revolution was radical and 
universal, but it was the work of 
the foreigner. The Belgian ar- 
tist's ambition now was to draw 
from classic models, to devote 
vast canvases to the glorification 
of great patriotic deeds, or to 
fall back upon mythology for 
charming compositions. Drawing 
was the primary consideration; 
colour became an accessory; 
living truth and unvarnished 
reality were sacrificed to beauty 
of form. It was in this spirit 
that Van Bree painted large can- 
vases such as The Arrival of Na- 
poleon I. at Antwerp, a work of 
unquestionable grandeur. 

The most deserving of David's 
pupils was Navez. He had studied in Paris under that dictator 

of painting ; and The Dream 
of Athaliah (1830), in the 
Brussels Museum, bears wit- 
ness to the devotion with 
which he had assimilated his 
master's style. His Madonna 
(1848), of the Museum at Ant- 
werp (Fig. 557), further reveals 
the influence of the famous 
Italian masters. The Virgin's 
eyes , dreamy and full of 
tenderness, and the beauti- 
fully rounded forms of the 
Infant Christ, recall Raphael's 
masterpieces. Navez is at his 
best as a portrait-painter. His 
portrait of himself (1826) and 
the Hemptinne family group 
FIG. 558.— F. J. NAVEZ. (1816), both iu the Brussels 

PORTRAIT GROUP OF THE HEMPTINNE Muscum (Fiff. 558), arc works 

FAMILY (Brussels, Museum). , . , . ^ * ., ' V , . 

(Phot. Hermans.) which , m spitc ot a ccrtam 

300 




BELGIAN ART IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 559.— GUSTAVE WAPPERS. 

THE SEPTEMBER DAYS OF 183O IN THE GRAND* 

PLACE AT BRUSSELS (Brussels, Museum). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



coldness, are irreproachable in style. Navez was not the only 
painter for whom Paris was not all-sufficient, and who undertook 
journeys to the South. 
At the age of forty-eight, 
Van Bree had made the 
pilgrimage to Rome ; 
Paelinck (Ghent, 1781— 
Brussels, 1839) had visit- 
ed the eternal city in 
his youth; Maes Canini 
(Ghent, 1798— Rome, 
1856) spent the best part 
of his life beyond the 
Alps. 

After David's death 
at Brussels in 1825, his 
influence upon the Bel- 
gian school soon began 
to diminish, and indeed, 
to disappear. Towards 

1830, everybody had wearied of his petrified neo -classicism. 
There was a general striving for greater freedom, for greater 
truth in the interpretation of life. In France, Romanticism 
revolutionised painting 
as well as literature. 
It responded to new 
needs. Belgium was 
eager to join the new 
movement. Here , as 
in France, the flames 
of a political revolution 
which broke out in 1830 
were smouldering. Gus- 
tave Wappers (Ant- 
werp, 1803-Paris, 1874) 
was the standard-bearer 
of the artistic revo- 
lution. In 1830 he ex- 
hibited a historical 
picture , The Sacrifice 
of the Burgomaster of 

Ley den, in which the new tendency was clearly and vigorously 
proclaimed. In 1833 he painted his vast composition. The 

301 




FIG. 560.— ERNEST SLINGENEYER. THE BATTLE 
OF LEPANTO (Brussels, Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 561. — DE KEYSER. KILL FIGHT (bRAVO 

TORO) (Antwerp, Museum), (Phot. Hermans.) 



September Days of 1830 in the Grand Place of Brussels (Fig. 559), 
an apotheosis of the Belgian revolution. The canvas does not 

represent any specific 
episode ; it combines 
some half a dozen, cen- 
tred in one place and 
inspired by the same 
spirit : an enthusiastic 
love for the new father- 
land. True, there is a 
certain exaggeration in 
all these manifestations; 
the groups are somewhat 
theatrical, but the bodies 
quiver and the souls are 
aflame; the colour is 
still cold, but it is bril- 
liant and vibrating. A 
fresh life has passed into 
art; the work not only 
glorifies a political revo- 
lution, but inaugurates an artistic revolution. Pupils streamed into 
Wappers' studio , and soon the romantic school had conquered 
the whole country. It was the golden age for vast patriotic 

compositions. In 1837 
Henri de Caisne (Brus- 
sels, 1799—1852) com- 
pleted his Belgium 
crowning her famous 
Children (Brussels Mu- 
seum). In 1841 Louis 
Gallait(Tournai,1810- 
Brussels, 1887) execut- 
ed his Abdication of 
Charles V. (Brussels Mu- 
seum), a composition 
of more obvious signi- 
ficance. In 1838, Nicaise 
de Keyser (Santvliet, 
1813-Antwerp, 1887) 
had painted The Battle 
of Woeringen (Brussels Museum), one of the finest feats of arms 
in Flemish history, but here the belligerents gaze sentimentally 

302 




FIG. 562. — GALLAIT. THE DECAPITATED 

(Antwerp and Tournai Museums). (Phot. Hermans.) 



BELGIAN ART IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 




heavenwards, and the soft and greasy technique is quite in 
harmony with the conception. In 1848, Ernest Slingeneyer 
(Loochristy, 1820 — Brussels, 
1894), the youngest of this 
legion of historical painters, 
had depicted The Battle of 
Lepanto (Fig. 560; Brussels 
Museum), one of the most 
praiseworthy of these enorm- 
ous canvases. 

Apart from these patriotic 
compositions, some painters of 
1830 gained a more solid 
reputation with less ambitious 
works. De Keyser, who had 
succeeded Wappers as director 
of the Antwerp Academy, re- 
mained all his life a painter 
of sensitive souls and languish- 
ing forms. His Bull Fight 
(Fig. 561; 1881, Antwerp 
Museum), a picture of his last 
years, is among his more solid 
works. His somewhat senti- 
mental art made it inevitable that he should become the favourite 
portrait-painter of soc- 
iety women. Gallait far 
surpassed him. He was 
a Romanticist in search 
of pathetic episodes 
borrowed from history 
or from ordinary life; 
moreover, he had a 
strong sense of theatrical 
effect, as is proved by 
The Decapitated (Fig. 
562) of the Antwerp 
and Tournai Museums. 
He was also a remark- 
able portrait painter 
(Fig. 563). 

A contemporary of these artists, Antoine Wiertz (Dinant, 1806 
— Brussels, 1865), was bent upon surpassing them and struck 

303 



FIG. 563.— LOUIS GALLAIT. PORTRAIT 

OF MME. GALLAIT (Brussels, Museum). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 




Fk;. 564.— ANT. WIERTZ. PATROCLUS (Brussels, 
Wiertz Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 565.— MADOU. 

INTERIOR WITH FIGURES (Brussels, Museum). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



of Rubens. Afterwards he wandered 
of philosophical lucubrations, worked 
subtlety; and his former fame soon 
for eccentricity and charlatanism. 



out a new path: he 
treated showy actions 
in the heroic manner, 
and, moreover, he was 
deeply interested in the 
social problems with 
which his period was al- 
ready concerned. From 
the moment of his ap- 
pearance, he was hailed 
as a genius by the mass- 
es; and he himself took 
no less exalted a view 
of his own importance. 
He began with Homeric 
subjects, such as his 
Patroclus (Fig. 564), 
composed in the manner 
away into all manner 
out with laboured 
became a reputation 




FIG. 566.— DYCKMANS. 

THE BLIND MAN (Antwerp, Museum). 
(Phot. Hermans.) 



304 



After this formidable out- 
burst of epic passion, and, 
indeed, at the height of this 
debauch of "high art", the 
old Flemish heartiness strove 
to assert itself anew. A belated 
descendant of the old "little 
masters" happened to attempt 
some scenes of everyday life. 
Ferdinand de Braekeleer (Ant- 
werp, 1792—1883) had also 
in his youth attacked large 
historical compositions ; but 
he felt more and more at- 
tracted by the amusing pictures 
which he remembered to have 
seen in his school -days and 
during his childhood in his 
father's house. This phase 
of his work at one time en- 
joyed a great vogue, although 



BELGIAN ART IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 567.— JAN VAN BEERS. SARAH 

BERNHARDT (Brussels, Museum). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



the life it renders is as factitious, 
inflated, and colourless as his 
pictures of ambitious subjects. 
Far above him, and, indeed, 
above all the genre-painters of his 
time, was Jean Baptiste Madou 
(Brussels, 1796—1877). He lav- 
ished a fund of reckless wit on 
the invention of piquant anec- 
dotes, and, what is more, this 
liveliness is expressed in the qual- 
ity of his painting (Fig. 565). 
Subsequently, the Belgian paint- 
ers became more refined in their 
manner, approximating to the 
Dutch "little masters" ; but the 
drawing of their figures became 
slighter and slighter, whilst their 
painting rivalled enamel and por- 
celain in smoothness. Joseph 
Dyckmans* (Lierre, 1811 — Ant- 
werp, 1888) Blind Man (Antwerp Museum; Victoria and Albert 
Museum, London; Fig. 566) 
is one of the most famous 
examples of this subtilised art, 
which shows an irritating ten- 
dency to substitute the me- 
thods of the miniaturist for 
those of the painter. Other 
artists were attracted by the 
elegance and modernity of 
Paris, whither they went to 
settle permanently , making 
themselves the interpreters of 
all the refinements of cosmo- 
politan life. Such are Jan van 
Beers (Antwerp 1 852 ; Fig. 567) 
and Alfred Stevens (Brussels, 
1823— Paris, 1906) who was 
unquestionably the greatest of 
these virtuosi. He could seize 
feminine charm and interpret ^. JlZ-.f^'-MI^W stevens. 

... r . MATERNAL BLISS (Brussels, Museum). 

it with the most exquisite (Phot. Hermans.) 

305 V 




ART IN FLANDERS 




sensitiveness. This accredited herald of Parisian elegance not 
only understood how to evoke the somewhat perverse coquetry 

of his seductive models ; he could 
paint the society woman as mo- 
ther, and show her giving the 
breast to her child (Fig. 568). 
But his predilections led him back 
to the eternal feminine, to the 
"Parisian Sphinx", as he has call- 
ed one of his masterly canvases. 
And he interprets all this luxury 
and the secret suffering hidden 
beneath it (Fig. 569) with a rich- 
ness of colour, a breadth of hand- 
ling, a wealth of tones, of light, 
and of gradations, that make this 
voluntary exile a far more gen- 
uinely Flemish painter than the 
manufacturers of cumbersome 
patriotic scenes of the preceding 
generation. 

About 1850 the academic school 
was already in its decline, but its 
tradition has been upheld down 
to our own days by such artists as Joseph Stallaert (1825 — 1903; 
Fig. 570) and Eugene Smits (1826). 

An artist of genius appeared in time to save "high art" from 
degenerating into mediocre repetitions. Henri Leys (Antwerp, 

1815—1869) followed 
first in the footsteps of 
his master, Ferdinand 
de Braekeleer. But his 
second manner (1845 — 
1853) reveals an artist 
impressed by the radiant 
splendour and the dazz- 
ling colour of Rembrandt 
and of the Dutch "little 
masters". He freshened 
and heightened his pa- 
lette, and flooded his 
canvases with glowing 

FIG. 570.— J. STALLAERT. DEATH OF DIDO !• i. TT* D s LJ' L 

(Brussels, Museum). (Phot Hermans.) light. HlS Re-estabLlsh- 

306 



FIG. 569.— ALFRED STEVENS. 

DESPAIR (Antwerp, Museum). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 




BELGIAN ART IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 571 -—HENRI LEYS. MARGARET OF 
PARMA GIVING BACK TO THE MAGIS- 
TRATES THE KEYS OF THE CITY OF 
ANTWERP (Brussels, Museum). 
(Phot. Hermans.) 



merit of Catholic Worship in 
the sixteenth Century (1845), 
in the Brussels Museum, may 
be quoted as an example. 
Leys had always felt drawn 
towards the important events 
of Belgian national history, 
and especially towards those 
of the sixteenth century. He 
began by treating them in 
the romantic style of his im- 
mediate predecessors , but 
subsequently adopted an en- 
tirely different manner. After 
having studied the German 
masters of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. Leys once more modified 
his manner. Both in tempera- 
ment and in tone he became 
more sedate; his colour was 
smoother, and his illumination 
quieter. He brought out the 
poetry in an infinite variety 
of beings and objects. He observed his personages in their 
slightest traits; he placed them in the atmosphere and in the 
setting of their times, between decaying walls, on pavements 
worn by the footsteps of many generations. He returned to 
the conscientiousness of 
the primitives, and the 
pure and mellow colours 
of the elder Breughel. 
In this spirit and in this 
manner , he decorated, 
towards the end of his 
life, the walls of his own 
dining-room , and those 
of the great reception 
room in the Antwerp 
town-hall, with frescoes. 
These last compositions, 
which he also executed 
on a smaller scale in oils ^^^- 572.-henri leys 

/o 1 A/r \ the bird-catcher (Antwerp, Museum). 

(brussels Museum) , are (phot. Hermans.) 

307 V 2 




ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 573.— JOSEPH LIES. 

THE ENEMY APPROACHES (Antwerp, Museum). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



masterpieces. They illustrate the charters and the privileges 
enjoyed in olden days by his native city. Brilliant and triumphant 

on canvas, and of a more 
peaceful and reposeful 
majesty on the walls, 
these compositions are 
monumental creations 
by a great master of 
the art of painting (Figs. 
571, 572). 

Leys trained some pu- 
pils, the first of whom 
was Joseph Lies (Ant- 
werp, 1831—1865) who 
worked with him, but 
who differs noticeably 
from his master. He 
was a highly cultured 
philosophic spirit, whose 
conceptions and imita- 
tions are frequently reflected in his works (Fig. 573). In style 
and technique, Henri de Braekeleer (Antwerp, 1840 — 1888), 
another pupil of Leys, is much nearer to his master. He eschews 
philosophy and erudition. He is a painter pure and simple, but 
an excellent painter who knows how to render everything he sees. 
He makes no distinction between noble and common motives 

in nature; and he dis- 
covers wonderful effects 
where others would 
see nothing of interest. 
Take his Wine-shop. (Fig. 
574) in the Antwerp 
Museum: the most pro- 
saic interior, ordinary 
walls , common furni- 
ture. And with such 
material our artist cre- 
ates a charming work. 
He uses the rays of the 
sun to harmonise and 
to glorify the dingy 
colours and to Ofive an 

FIG. 574.— H. DE BRAEKELEER. THE WINE-SHOP . . . . => ,, 

(Antwerp, Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) adorablC patma tO all 

308 




BELGIAN ART IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 



objects. De Braekeleer painted the workman at his task (Fig. 575), 

an old man in his ancient room, or even an empty room, just 

for love of the stamped 

leather with which it is 

hung, or admiration of 

the utensils with which 

the table is furnished; 

or simply, like Peter de 

Hooghe, because the sun 

was touching it all with 

its magic. 

A whole phalanx of 
young artists, who had 
not had Leys as master, 
marched in his footsteps, 
finding in conscientious 
historical reconstructions 
their opportunity for pla- 
cing characteristic figures, 
for draping or crumpling 
precious stuffs, and for 
making picturesque accessories glitter in the light. But, though 
they may claim descent from Leys, they are much nearer to 
Gallait and De Keyser, whose timid and pleasing art they found 
it easier to assimilate. All these painters show great skill of 
hand and cultured minds ; they tell their stories with taste and 
elegance, and without affectation, but they lack the creative 




FIG. 575.— H. DE BRAEKELEER. 

THE PRINTER OF ENGRAVINGS 

(Antwerp, Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 







-r^K^I^^^ 


^ 1 k 




te^^^^- 


' 



FIG, 576.— JUL. DE VRIENDT. THE CHRISTMAS CAROL 
(Brussels, Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 

309 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 577.— ALB. DE VRIENDT. 

THE EXCOMMUNICATION OF BOUCHARD 

D'AVESNES (Brussels, Museum). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



power of their illustrious predecessor. Among these epigoni 
we find: Ferdinand Pauwels (Antwerp, 1830— Dresden, 1904), 

Pierre van der Ouderaa 
(Antwerp, 1841), Julien 
deVriendt (Ghent, 1842) 
and Albert de Vriendt, 
brothers in art as in 
blood ; Charles Ooms 
(1845—1900), Willem 
Geets (Mechlin. 1834), 
Pierre Verhaert (Ant- 
werp, 1852—1907), and 
Gustave van Aise (Ghent, 
1854— Brussels, 1902). 
Several of the artists 
of the Antwerp School 
visited the Holy Land 
and brought back from 
their travels studies 
which enabled them to paint scriptural subjects with appropriate 
types and costumes, under a sky and in a setting of truly Oriental 
character. This was done by the brothers de Vriendt, by Van 
der Ouderaa, and by Ooms (Figs. 576, 577, 578 and 579). 

Another Antwerp mas- 
ter of great merit, 
Charles Verlat (Ant- 
werp,1825— 1890) lived 
in the Holy Land for 
two years. He painted 
subjects from the Bible : 
Vox Populi (The Tri- 
umph of Barabbas), 
Vox Dei (Fig. 581 ; The 
Triumph of Christ), and 
also pictures of the 
daily life of Syria. 
In his interpretations 
of the New Testament, 
as in his comments on 
modern life, he shows 
men and women as he 
had seen them and in the setting in which he had come in con- 
tact with them. Like all the preceding historical painters, Verlat 

310 




FIG. 578.— PIERRE VAN DER OUDERAA. 
THE RETURN OF THE HOLY WOMEN 
(Antwerp, Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 



BELGIAN ART IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 



did not confine himself to one 
kind of subject: his production 
was more varied and more 
prolific than theirs. He painted 
pictures of everyday life, por- 
traits — in a word, everything 
that he was asked to paint, 
but above all, animals. The 
Defence of the Herd (Fig. 582) 
in the Antwerp Museum is his 
masterpiece (1878). The fury 
with which the buffalo crushes 
the lion under his weight, and 
the lion's despairing effort to 
free himself, are rendered with 
striking grandeur and power. 

In all that Antwerp has given 
us, there is a manifest reverence 
for the glorious past of the city. 
After 1830, Brussels competed 
for predominance with the chief 
centre of Flemish art. Brussels 
continuous relation with Paris: 
manifest, and the intellect of 
the capital proved itself more 
lively and impressionable. One 
of the first to show this dis- 
position was Jean Portaels (Vil- 
vorde, 1818— Brussels, 1895). 
His frequent travels and so- 
journs abroad made him a 
cosmopolitan painter, who was 
sensitive to exotic curiosities 
and attracted by feminine 
charm , but a dull and com- 
monplace colourist, as may be 
noted in his Box at the Opera 
in Budapest (Fig. 583). 

We have still to speak of 
the young school ; but it is 
difficult, nay impossible, at 
this juncture to formulate a 
general judgment upon its 




FIG. 579.— CH. OOMS. THE FORBIDDEN 

BOOK (Brussels, Museum). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



was in more direct and more 
the French influence was more 




311 



FIG. 580.— CLUYSENAER. 

THE EMPEROR HENRY IV. AT CANOSSA 

(Brussels, Museum). (Phot. Levy.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 581. — CHARLES VERLAT. 

VOX DEI (Antwerp, Museum). 
(Phot. Hermans.) 



tendencies, for what distinguish- 
es it is just the absence of 
any common programme. Every 
artist, beginning with Portaels' 
pupils, follows his own bent, 
and there are as many different 
tendencies as there are artists 
of merit. Their master thus 
contributed towards the devel- 
opment of that modern indivi- 
dualism which is favourable to 
originality, but at the same time 
fosters anarchy. Will Time bring 
the balance and calm necessary 
to allow us to fix the general 
character of contemporary art? 
It is possible. For the moment, 
the generally adopted principle 
is to follow nobody, and to ex- 
press in paint images of reality 
rather than dreams or ideas, 
(i^ Among the protagonists of the young generation, the fore- 
most was Alfred Cluysenaer (Brussels 1837 — 1902), an artist of 
temperament and lofty vision, who invests history with real ma- 
jesty in his Emperor Henry IV. at Canossa (Fig. 580) , in the 

Brussels Museum (1878). 
Emile Wauters (Brussels, 
1846) is another fine ar- 
tist. He is distinguished 
by the richness of his 
invention and by a thrill- 
ing interpretation of 
life, as for instance in 
his Madness of Hugo 
van der Goes (Fig. 584), 
in the Brussels Museum 
(1872), one of the 
masterpieces of the mo- 
dern Belgian school. He 
has proved himself a per- 
fect draughtsman in the 
sketches he brought back from the East. He is one of the 
most famous portrait-painters in Europe, combining a penetrating 

312 




FIG. 582.— VERLAT. 
THE DEFENCE OF THE HERD (Antwerp, 

Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 



BELGIAN ART IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 583.— PORTAELS. 
A BOX AT THE OPERA IN BUDAPEST 
(Brussels, Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 



power of observation with a masterly technique. Indeed, portrait- 
painters abound in these days. We have already mentioned Navez, 
Gallait, Nicaise de Key- 
ser, and Jan van Beers, 
whose portraits are 
wrought like jewels. To 
this list we now add 
Charles Ooms, a pupil 
of De Keyser; Count 
Jacques de Lalaing (Fig. 
585) who, in his Pre- 
historic Hunter (Brus- 
sels Museum) also com- 
mands respect as a 
painter of heroic figures 
and of gigantic animals 
full of savage grandeur. 
The most admirable of 
them all was Lievin de 

Winne (Ghent, 1821 — Brussels, 1880). In his chief works he is 
a worthy descendant, we might even say the direct heir, of the 
famous seventeenth century masters, although he does not imitate 
them in any way. His noble simplicity, his rich and supple 
technique, and his touch, the rare elegance of which is to be 
noted, for instance, in 
his portrait of Leopold I. 
at the Brussels Museum 
(Fig. 586), give his work 
a character of impec- 
cable maturity. 

The painters of daily 
life, who are still more 
numerous, are frequently 
represented in the Bel- 
gian museums in the 
most creditable fashion. 
They are : Alexandre 
Marckelbach (Antwerp, 
1824— Brussels, 1906), 
whom the customs of 
the old Rhetoricians in- 
spired in a group akin to a picture by Jan Steen ; Andre Henne- 
bicq (Tournai, 1836 — Brussels, 1904), who brought back from the 

313 




FIG. 584.— EMILE WAUTERS, 
THE MADNESS OF HUGO VAN DER GOES 
(Brussels, Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) ^ 



ART IN FLANDERS 




Roman Campagna a souvenir of such grand simplicity, that 
it is perhaps the finest work suggested to a Flemish painter 
by transalpine countries; and Charles Hermans (Brussels, 
1839), who invests an anecdote with the dignity of grand paint- 
ing in his famous canvas At Dawn (Fig. 587) in the Brussels 
Museum. 

Among the artists who were particulary, and even exclusively 
preoccupied with painting for painting's sake, we must notice 

Louis Dubois (Brussels, 1830—1881), 
who treated still life and animate 
nature — animals, portraits and land- 
scape — with the same strong im- 
pasto, and Edouard Agneessens 
(Brussels, 1842—1885), whose tech- 
nique was as solid as that of Dubois, 
and who painted among other things, 
some portraits remarkable for their 
powerful colour. 

During the first fifty years that 
followed the revival of the Flemish 
school, religious painting was a little 
neglected. Yet, we must record the 
attempt made by Guffens (Hasselt, 
1823— Brussels, 1901) and Sweerts 
(Antwerp, 1820 -Prague, 1879) to 
introduce in Belgium the mural paint- 
ing which the Nazarene had restored 
to honour among the Germans. Their 
works are meritorious pastiches, but 
pictures without life. Nevertheless, 
mural painting re-appeared in Bel- 
gium, thanks to their initiative. The 
State and the towns encouraged it as far as their resources 
would permit. Victor Lagye was commissioned to decorate the 
Salle du Mariage in the Town Hall of Antwerp ; De Keyser, the 
vestibule of the Museum; Charles Ooms and Pierre van der 
Ouderaa, the Palais de Justice ; Ferdinand Pauwels and Delbeke 
(1828—1891), theHalles atYpres; and the brothers de Vriendt, 
the Salle des Fetes of the Hotel de Ville at Bruges. At Ant- 
werp, on the initiative of Francois van Kuyck, the alderman in 
charge of the Fine Arts department, Edgar Farasyn (Antwerp, 
1858), Pierre Verhaert (Antwerp, 1852—1908), De Jans (Saint- 
Andre-les-Bruges, 1855), Charles Boom (Hoogstraten, 1858) and 

314 



FIG. 585. 

COUNT JACQUES DE LALAING 

PORTRAIT OF A PRIEST. 



BELGIAN ART IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 



H. Houben (Antwerp, 1858), were entrusted with the decoration 
of the town hall; Charles Mertens (Antwerp, 1865) received the 
commission for the ceiling of the grand hall of the Flemish Opera 
house ; and a number of schools were decorated by young artists. 

Two of the primitive branches of Flemish art bore more pre- 
cious and more significant fruit. We have already mentioned 
the animal-painter, Charles Verlat. After 1830, Eugene Ver- 
boeckhoven (Warneton, 1799 — Brussels, 1881) painted wild beasts, 
birds, herds in the Campagna (Fig. 588), 
and Flemish rural scenes with a minu- 
teness and precision that recall Navez 
and give his animals an academic air. 
Louis Robbe (Courtrai, 1806 — Brussels, 
1887; Fig. 589) adopted to a great 
extent Verboeckhoven's smooth and 
laboured manner, but he renders the 
caprices of sunlight very agreeably, 
and has a commendably broad touch. 
Alfred Verwee (Brussels, 1838—1895) 
is more essentially a cattle-painter than 
were his predecessors (Fig. 590); and 
he was an artist of far greater im- 
portance. He is devoted to his beautiful 
country, to the rich Flemish meadows 
with their luxuriant grass and their 
generous cows and powerful bulls whose 
sleek coats reflect the light. His paint- 
ing is broad and strong; the light 
plays upon palpitating flesh and qui- 
vering skin. 

Joseph Stevens (Brussels, 1819 — 
1892) paints dogs and their friends 
(Fig. 591), with an even and polished brush and exquisite colour 
in which the tones and reflections intermingle and the shimmer 
of the light flickers and dies down. This masterly painting 
sometimes gives a kind of tragic life to his animals. They are 
certainly resigned to their fate ; but how sad and pitiful is their 
destiny compared with that of Verwee's ruminants ! Jean Stob- 
baerts (Antwerp, 1838 ; Fig. 592), in painting his cows, splashes 
their coats with dirt and mud, in the chiaroscuro of the stable 
filled with rotting straw; and he extracts precious colours from 
the light that dies in the fetid atmosphere. 

In Belgium, as everywhere else, our epoch has been the golden 

315 




FIG. 586.— LIEVIN DE WINNE. 

PORTRAIT OF LEOPOLD I. 

(Brussels, Museum). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 587.— CH. HP.RMANS. 

AT DAWN (Brussels, Modern Museum). 

(Phot. Hermans ) 



age of landscape-painting. With the exception of a few masters 
Hke the elder Breughel and Rubens, landscape-painting had not 

been practised by great 
artists. At the beginning 
of the nineteenth cen- 
tury an art of landscape- 
painting was born and 
developed in France and 
England that appeals to 
the heart as much as to 
the eye, a kind of pain- 
ting that interprets the 
impression produced by 
the aspects of nature. 
Thenceforth, the soul of 
the landscape was to be 
revealed. Before enumer- 
ating the most remark- 
able landscape-painters 
of the Belgian school, 
we must mention the 
two most famous marine painters:^ Clays (Bruges, 1819 — Brussels, 
1899), who is distinguished for the stormy movement of his 
waves (Fig. 593) 'and the warm tone of his skies; and Louis 

Artan (The Hague, 1837 
— Nieuport, 1896), who 
renders the poetry of the 
sea in masterly fashion. 
Fourmois (Presles, 
1814 -Brussels, 1871) is 
the first of the long suc- 
cession of landscape- 
painters proper. He 
paints like an admirer of 
Hobbema, but like an 
even more ardent admirer 
and observer of nature — 
a strong colourist with a 
predilection for richly 
clothed landscapes and 
brilliant effects of light. 
Francois Lamoriniere (Antwerp, 1828 — 1911) was the most scrupu- 
lous interpreter of the exterior aspect of landscape — one might 

316 




FIG. 588.— EUGENE VERBOECKHOVEN . 
SOUVENIR. OF THE ROMAN CAMPAGNA 

(Brussels, Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 



BELGIAN ART IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 




FIG, 589.— LOUIS ROBBE, CATTLE 
(Brussels, Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 



say , a lucid eye at the service of an ardent soul , detailing in 
all their minutiae the bark and the twigs of a tree; or at the 
service of a poet who 
grows enthusiastic or sad 
at the smiling or melan- 
choly spectacles presen- 
ted to him by his be- 
loved moors (Fig. 594). 
Edmond de Schamphe- 
leer (Brussels, 1824 — 
1899) who gives himself 
whole-heartedly to the 
joy exhaled by the coun- 
try (Fig. 595) ; Alfred de 
Knyff (Bruges, 1819— 
Paris, 1886), more sober 
in technique, loves vast 
spaces and the limitless 
plain (Fig. 596). Less 
reticent, and less simple 

in impression as well as in execution, are Joseph Coosemans 
(Brussels, 1828—1904) and Marie Collart (Brussels, 1852). They 
paint nature in the hot season, with a suggestion of threatening 
storm that gives a vel- 
vety effect to the light. 
A prematurely deceased 
painter of the true stock 
was Hippolyte Boulenger 
(Tournai, 1837 — Brussels, 
1874; Fig. 597). His work 
has quite a peculiar charm. 
He is always sunny, al- 
ways dazzling; whether, 
as in his View of Dinant, 
he raises a high mountain 
like a block of granite 
on the bank of a river of 
liquid silver, and scatters 
the houses and meadows 
like so many rubies and 
emeralds along the banks ; 
or whether he flashes the golden rays of the sun among the 
clouds and the slender trees that bend towards the soil. 

317 




FIG. 590.— ALFRED VERWEE. 
CATTLE ON THE BANKS OF A RIVER 
(Brussels, Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 591.— JOSEPH STEVENS. 

DOG-MARKET IN PARIS (Brussels, Museum). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



Antwerp witnessed the development of a school of painters 
working in light tones, which was inaugurated by Jacques Ros- 

seels (1828) and counts 
among other adherents: 
Florent Crabeels (1835— 
1896), Isidore Meyers 
(1836), and Adrien Hey- 
mans (1839), The last- 
named, in particular, gain- 
ed recognition. There 
are other notable land- 
scape-painters who should 
be recorded: but their 
name is legion. We must 
be content to mention 
Henri van der Hecht 
(Brussels, 1841—1891), 
Alphonse Asselberghs 
(Brussels, 1839), and the 
youngest and one of the 
most powerful of them 
all, Victor Gilsoul (Brussels, 1867). — Other painters depict the 
peasant and his cattle. Theodore Verstraete (Ghent, 1851 — 

Antwerp, 1907) is the 
poet of rural life as he 
noted it in the polder 
and on the heath. He 
had come into personal 
touch with the humble: 
he was familiar with their 
manners and customs ; 
he shared their sadness 
and their joys, and com- 
municates them to us 
by means of his naive 
art and his sympathetic 
emotion (Fig. 598). Emile 
Claus (Vive- Saint -Eloi, 
1849) does not describe 
either the rough and 
ignorant peasant nor the 
arid heath, but rather a fairyland of light in the Flemish country 
watered by the Lys, with its verdant banks, where dappled cows 

318 



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im 4' 


.^=S /-^2~-i_>v|( 


;^1*< 


■*. ...: J„,,i|4f^^ ' 


, it 
1^ 


mm4f :':m^ 



FIG. 5g2.— J. STOBBAERTS. 

CATTLE LEAVING THE STABLE (Brussels, 

Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 



BELGIAN ART IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 593.— CLAYS. THE COAST OF OSTENI 
(Brussels, Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 



feed on the lush grass of the meadows or plunge into the flowing 
river (Fig. 601). He shows a growing tendency to break up his 
colour and filter his light; but however much he may diffuse 
his rays in little spots , the illumination of his pictures forms 
none the less warm show- 
ers of sunlight. Frans 
Courtens (Termonde, 
1854) is the painter /?ar 
excellence of luxuriant 
groves and magic sun- 
light (Fig. 600). He 
calls one of his pictures 
The Rain of Gold, re- 
ferring to the falling of 
the yellow autumn 
leaves; but the picture 
would better deserve 
its title, were it applied 

to the sunbeams filternig through the dense foliage of the glade. 
He also shows us peasants walking down a sunny road after 
leaving church, one of his earliest masterpieces; and he inter- 
prets many a picturesque subject with the same perfection and 
the same poetic feeling. Beside him stand Hendrik Luyten 
(Ruremonde, 1859), who depicts workmen in revolt or resigned to 
their fate in their peace- 
ful homes (Fig. 599) ; and 
Frans van Leemputten 
(Werchter, 1850), who 
has watched villagers in 
the shade of their church 
steeple, or returning from 
their daily labour, and 
who in his bright and 
kindly art records the 
simplicity of their man- 
ners and the pictures- 
queness of their costumes 
(Fig. 602). 

Courbet's realism found 
some followers in Belgium. The most remarkable of these was 
Charles de Groux (Commines, 1825 — Brussels, 1870). Although 
he was akin to the great French master, he had his own style 
and vision, and he was a creator in the full sense of the word. 

319 




FIG. 594.— LAMORINIERE. POND AT PUTTE 
(Brussels, Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 505.— E. DE SCHAMPHELEER. 

THE OLD RHINE, NEAR GOUDA (Antwerp, 

Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 



He took his subjects from the life of the humble; he depicts 
the distress and the suffering of the poor, the resignation of 

the lowly, with truly 
pathetic accents ; his 
palette discovers the 
colours appropriate to 
their rags, and he invests 
them with a curiously 
poignant spell, enhanc- 
ing emotion by his 
method of illumination. 
Another great realist, 
Alexandre Struys (The 
Hague, 1852), seems to 
be the guest of the 
dwellers in poor homes, 
haunted by cares and 
privations, and wretch- 
edly ventilated and lighted. The sparse light caresses indigent 
figures and poor furniture; and if the sun penetrates freely 
through the door or window of the hovel, all its ugliness is 
transformed into radiant and vibrating colour (Fig. 603). Leon 
Frederic (Brussels, 1856) is yet another interpreter of the life of 
the poor (Fig. 604). He, too, extracts poetry and picturesqueness 
from the peasant chained to the clod, the weaver bound to his 

loom, and children wan- 
dering on the pavement 
of the great town. When 
his first works made their 
appearance, public and 
critics were indignant : 
this intrusion of bare feet 
and chattering teeth dis- 
turbed them in their 
accustomed security. To- 
day , the painter's inti- 
mate sense of truth is 
applauded ; his very per- 
sonal palette and his no- 
vel and at times rather 
acrid colour -notes are 
admired. His Chalk-Vendors is a contribution to the epic of 
the people. Its colour is as noble as its form is grand. Eugene 

320 



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1, jM > 


m. 


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FIG. 596.— DE KNYFF. THE BLACK FENCE 

(Lieg-e, Museum of Fine Arts). (Phot. Levy). 



BELGIAN ART IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 597.— BOULENGER. 

VIEW OF DINAXT (Brussels, Museum). 

(Phot Hermans.) 



Laermans (Brussels, 1864) probes perhaps even more profoundly 
the depth of human misery and affliction. His models are in- 
variably awkward and ill- 
shaped beings, deformed 
by drudgery, whom he 
shows dragging their 
weary bodies along the 
high ways; he cuts them 
out into large and brilliant 
patches of colour, just 
as Pieter Breughel did 
with his blind men. Before 
modelling the labourers 
of the **Black Country", 
Constantin Meunier paint- 
ed them in sombre co- 
lours. Within the last 
few years, Ghent has wit- 
nessed the rise of an ori- 
ginal group of painters who show us the houses and canals with 
their typical population: the crumbling hovels, the quays, the 
water, the people all combine to produce an impression of 
decay, of great age, of misery and stagnation, glorified and 
transformed by the magic of art. At the head of this group 
are Albert Baertsoen (1866), Georges Buysse (1864), and Fer- 
dinand Willaert (1861). 
As a contrast to these 
painters of suffering and 
ragged humanity , we 
have the painters of open 
air, light, health and 
gaiety, such as Jean Ver- 
has (Termonde, 1834 — 
Brussels, 1896), who de- 
lighted in painting chil- 
dren playing in the square 
or parading with a co- 
quettish air of importance 
before the Palace at Brus- 
sels, on the occasion of 
a school procession — a 

composition in white, in which the girls' muslins, gauzes, and 
ribbons enhance the freshness of their complexions and the 

321 w 




FIG. 598.— J. THEOD. VERSTRAETE. 

THE VISIT TO THE HOUSE OF MOURNING 

(Antwerp, Museum). (Phot. Hermans.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 599.— LUYTEN. REVERIE (Liege, Museum). 
(Phot. Levy.) 



brightness of their smiles. — In j his meditative retreat, far from 
the clamour of the world, Fernand Khnopff (Grimbergen, 1858) 

appears before us with 
his images of ethereal 
purity, plunged in a na- 
tural ecstasy, with hearts 
closed against every earth- 
ly feeling (Fig. 605). Xa- 
vier Mellery (Brussels, 
1845) had preceded him 
in this transcendental 
world, before returning 
to academic forms and 
to ideal allegories in grey 
and blue tones (Fig. 606). 
And among these inno- 
vators, these restless spir- 
its, we must class the 
sometimes disconcerting 
technical revolutionaries : 
the "plein-airists", "luminists", "pointillists", and "impressionists"; 
those who have isolated themselves in a very special manner: 
Jacob Smits (Rotterdam, 1856), who applies his colours in solid, 
flat masses; Theo van Rysselberghe (Ghent, 1862), who divides 
it into an infinity of particles; James Ensor (Ostend, 1860), who 

juxtaposes and intermingles full 
masses and subtle colours ; 
J. Leempoels (Brussels, 1867), 
who polishes his impasto and 
heightens his key to get the 
effect of enamels. 

With the general revival of 
the fine arts after 1830, engraving 
which, in the eighteenth century, 
had passed through a period 
of lethargy, awoke to new life. 
This re-birth was not sponta- 
neous: it was taught and learnt 
at school. Its professors were 
its principal artists. The healthy 
impulse came from France. De 
Meulemeester (Bruges, 1771 — 
Paris, 1830), who had studied 




FIG. 600.— FRANS COURTENS. 

SUNBEAMS (Brussels, Museum). 

(Phot. Hermans.) 



322 



BELGIAN ART IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 60I.— EMILE CLAUS. 

THE OLD GARDENER (Lieg-e, 

Museum of Fine Arts). 

{Phot. Levy.) 



in Paris and in Rome, had conceived 
a fervent and almost exclusive pas- 
sion for the Loggie of Raphael, which 
he began to engrave, but never fin- 
ished. He was invited to give a 
course of engraving at the Academy 
of Antwerp. He had several pupils 
of distinction, chief of whom was 
Erin Corr (Brussels, 1803 — Antwerp, 
1862). The latter succeeded De 
Meulemeester. He set himself the 
noble task of interpreting the two 
masterpieces of Rubens, The Raising 
of the Cross and The Descent from 
the Cross, which work was completed 
by his pupils, J. B. Michiels and 
Franck. J. B. Michiels succeed- 
ed Erin Corr as professor. He 
produced a large number of works, 
of which The Blind Man after 
Dyckmans is the most important: 

a masterpiece of elaboration and colour. Gustave Biot (Brus- 
sels, 1833 — Antwerp) took the place of Michiels. He was an 
even more careful worker than his predecessor, and never 
tired of carrying his plates to perfection. Frangois Lauwers 
(Antwerp, 1854) follow- 
ed Biot, and at the 
present moment still oc- 
cupies his post honour- 
ably. 

In Brussels, it was Luigi 
Calamatta who, in 1836, 
was appointed professor 
and held his post until 
his death in 1892, when 
the course was suppress- 
ed. He worked with a 
light hand , producing 
etchings, mezzotints and 
lithographs, and training 
some pupils of repute: 
J. B. Meunier (Brussels, 1821), Jos. Franck (Brussels, 1825—1883), 
Demannez (1826), and Biot. All these engravers are artists who 

323 w 2 




FIG. 602.— FRANS VAN LEEMPUTTEN. 

THE MARKET (Berlin, Private Collection). 

(Phot. Bruckmann.) 



ART IN FLANDERS 




FIG. 603.— STRUYS. 

DESPAIR (Ghent, Museum). 

(Phot. Levy.) 



respect form, and use the burin with 
precision and clarity. The most 
recent of them have become freer and 
more modern : Frangois Lauwers, who 
treats ancient and modern art; Lenain, 
who devotes himself more particularly 
to the interpretation of Rubens ; Danse, 
a prolific engraver (Brussels, 1829) 
and professor at the Academy of 
Mons; and Vekemans (Antwerp), an 
engraver of excellent style. The art, 
which flourished for a time, has de- 
clined owing to the progress of the 
mechanical processes of reproduction. 
Among the painters there are se- 
veral artists who produced etchings 
of great merit: Leys, Verlat, Verhaert, 
Linnig, Henri de Braeckeleer, Fr. van 
Kuyck, Alfred Elsen and Geets. 

A branch of the art of engraving 
which was born and rose to a con- 
siderable height in the nineteenth cen- 
tury, is the art of lithography. In 1817, Charles Senefelder, 
the brother of the inventor, had settled in Brussels, where he 
started a course of instruction in the new art. The enthusiasm 
with which this was taken up in Belgium was really surprising. 

As far back as 1816, the 
Ghent painter, Odevaere, 
had drawn his own por- 
trait, a masterpiece. In 
1819, Mathieu van Bree, 
the Antwerp painter, be- 
gan to publish a series 
of a hundred large plates 
of drawing exercises. 
Wappers published, soon 
after, the reproduction 
of his Prix de Rome pic- 
ture, Coriolanus. — All 
the men who had gained 
a reputation with their 
FIG. 604.-LEON FREDERIC picturcs , appHcd them- 

THE CHALK-VENDORS (Brussels, Museum). *^ i ^ rr 

(Phot Hermans.) SclvCS CagCrly tO the 

324 




BELGIAN ART IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 




FIG. 605.— FERNAND KHNOPFF. 
MEMORIES (Brussels, Museum). 



translation of their im- 
pressions in the beautiful 
black medium with its 
rich touches and varied 
gradations. Madou, the 
jovial story-teller, furnish- 
ed several albums of 
diverse subjects : views 
of the country, scenes of 
popular life, compositions 
borrowed from various 
artists ; Verboeckhoven 
drew animals; Fourmois, 
glimpses of that fertile 

nature which he loved. Gallait was one of the first to fix the 
features of his friends with his lithographic chalk ; Lauters under- 
took the reproduction of Rubens' work. Simonis made a great 
reputation by reproductions of the monuments of Europe ; Baugniet, 
Schubert, Legrand and Stroobant distinguished themselves as 
portraitists. Alas! this beautiful art was but 
short-lived: the course of half a century wit- 
nessed its birth and its decline before the 
successful rivalry of photography. 

Among Belgium's original , as opposed to 
reproductive, engravers, the one whose re- 
putation is most widespread and brilliant, was 
unquestionably Felicien Rops (Namur, 1833 — 
Paris, 1897), who spent part of his life in 
France. He began his career as a lithographer, 
but continued as a draughtsman and etcher. 
He was the most mordant satirist art has ever 
known. He scourged woman as the most un- 
clean and Satanic being in creation, ruthlessly 
exposing her moral infamy and physical nudity 
(Fig. 607). Like some other Belgians, he is the 
chronicler par excellence of the most modern 
Parisianism. He delights in depicting lubricity 
whilst scourging it with a most cruel lash. 
Nor is this the only vice which he flagellates: 
he is as pitiless to other excesses. But some- 
times he depicts the traits of simple manners 
and of decent women good-naturedly enough 
(Fig. 608). His technique is very varied, 

325 




FIG. 606. 
XAVIER MELLERY. 

ALLEGORY 
(Brussels, Museum). 



ART IN FLANDERS 



sometimes light and fluid, sometimes sombre and powerful, but 
always full of life and movement. 

Rops was not the only artist who engraved his own designs, 
A number of other men of talent drew and engraved book 

illustrations: Armand Rassenfosse, 
a pupil of Rops, who practises all 
processes, — lithography, etching, 
colour-engraving, and dry point; 
Amedee Lynen, Charles Doudelet, 
and Edouard van Offel. 

We have turned the last page 
of the secular story of Flemish art. 
We rejoice to have been able to 
prove that this last period is no 
less brilliant than the preceding 
centuries, and that Belgium has 
been able, from the moment that 
fate smiled upon her, to rise glo- 
riously from a decadence that too 
long overshadowed her. A small 
country, wedged in between power- 
ful nations, Belgium has preserved 
her originality. It is evident that 
during the last hundred years she 
has in many directions come under 
the influence of her great neighbour in the South; but she has 
been able to extricate herself from this pressure and to regain 
her independence. During the last half-century every considerable 
Belgian artist has been an independent creator, and Belgium has 
a right not only to be proud of her past, but to look forward 
with confidence to her future. 




FIG. 607.— FELICIEN ROPS. 
THE ABSINTHE-DRINKER. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY TO CHAPTER V 



Alvin (M.-L), Leonard Jehotte (Annuaire de I'Academie royale, 1862); E. Verbroeckhoven 
(Annuaire de lAcademie royale, 1883) ; Fr.-J. Navez, Brussels, 1876. — Bartholyns (Eloi), 
Guill. Geefs, Brussels, 1910. — Beyaert (Henri), Travaux d' Architecture, Brussels, 1868 to 
1892. — Bordiaux (G.), Alph. Balat (Annuaire de lAcademie royale, 1903). — Broerman 
(Eug.), Celebrites Nationales de Belgique, Antwerp. 1894. — Brunfaut (Jules), Henri Beyaert 
(Annuaire de lAcademie Royale, 1908). — Bubeck (W.), Die neuesten Erscheinungen auf 
dem Gebiete der Architektur in Belgien (Zeitschrift fiir bildende Kunst, XII, 1877). — Buls, 
L' Architecture beige (Patria Belgica, \\\). — Castermans, Parallele des maisons de Bruxelles 
et des principales Villes de la Belgique construites depuis 1830 (Lieg-e-Paris, 1852-1867). — 
De Molder (Eug-.), Trois Contemporains, Henri de Braekeleer, Constantin Meunier, Felicien 
Rops: Id. Constantin Meunier, Brussels, 1910. — Pol. De Mont. De Vlaamche Schilders 
der XIX^ euw. Id. Koppen en Bus/e/i (Bruss. 1903) Id. A.-J . Heymans- Id. Vlaamsche Schilders 

326 



BELGIAN ART IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 

(Vlaamsche Gids) Id. Hendrik Luyten (Elsevier, 1911) Id. D e graphischen Kiinste im heutigen 
Belgien {Die graphischen Kiinste) (Vienna 1900-1901). — Destree (O. G.), The Renaissance 
of Sculpture in Belgium, London, 1906. — De Trey (Edm. L.), Les Artistes beiges contempo- 
rains. — Dodd (G.-J.), Histoire de la Sculpture (Patria Belgica, III, 643, Brussels 1875). — 
Essling- (Bruno), La Sculpture beige contemporaine, Berlin, 1903. — Fetis (Ed.), Henri Leys 
(Annuaire de I Academic royale, 1872). — Gerrits (Lod.), Levensbeschryving van M. Van 
Brie, Antwerp, 1852. — Hasselt (A. van), Notice sur T. F. Suys {Annuaire de I'Academie 
royale, 1861). — Hessling (Eg-on), La sculpture beige contemporaine, Berlin, 1903. — Hymans 
(Henri), Die belgische Kunst des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts, Leipzig-, 1906; Id. Die verviel- 
fdltigende Kunst in Belgien, Vienna; Der Kupferstich, Die Radierung, die Lithographic, der 
Holzschnitt. Id. Alexandre Robert {Annuaire de I'Academie royale, 1895) ; Id. Ferd. De 
Braekeleer (Annuaire de I'Academie royale, 1885). — Lefevre (Emile), Joseph Lies, Antwerp, 
1888. — Lemonnier (Camille), Histoire des Beaux-Arts en Belgique {Cinquante Ans de 
liberte, v. Ill, Brussels 1881); Id. L'Ecole beige de Peinture, Brussels, 1906; Emile Claus, 
Brussels, 1908; Id. Jos. Steveris. — Marchal (Ch.-Edm.), Guill. Geefs {Ibid., 1886; Id. L.- 
Eug. Simonis {Annuaire de I'Academie royale, 1887); Jos. Geefs {Ibid., 1888); Id. Charles- 
Aug. Franken {Ibid., 1900); Id. Eg. God. Guff ens {Ibid., 1902); Id. Ant. Jos. Bourlard {Ibid., 
1903); Id. Joseph Schadde {Ibid., 1906; Id. Jean.-Jos. Jaquet {Ibid., 1910). — Muther 
(Richard). Die belgische Malerei, Berlin, 1904. — Riegel (Henn.), Geschichte der Wand- 
malerei in Belgien seit 1856. Berlin, 1882. — Rooses (Max), Levensschets van Michiel Karel 
Verlat {Annuaire de I'Academie royale de Belgique, 1894); Levensschets van Jos. Dyck- 
mans {Ibid., 1908); Id. Jos. Jac. Ducaju {Ibid., 1909). — Ryssens (de Lauw), L' Architecture 
en Belgique, Lieg-e, 1878. — Solvay (Lucien), Jean Alf. Cluysenaer {Annuaire de I'Aca- 
demie royale de Belgique, 1906; Jean-Frangois Portaels {Ibid., 1903); Paul-Jean Clays 
{Ibid., 1906). — Stallaert (J.), Theod. Jos. Canned {Annuaire de I'Academie royale de 
Belgique, 1894). — Stappaerts (F.), J.-B. Madou {Ibid., 1879). — Symons (Fernand), La 
Sculpture beige contemporaine (Berlin, 1903). K. van de Woestyne, Emile Claus {Elsevier, 




FIG. 6o8. FELICIEN ROPS. SCANDAL. 



327 



INDEX 



INDEX 



References to Illustrations are indicated by an*. 



Adorna, Paola, 228 
Adriaensen, Alex., 271 
Aerschot, rood-screen at, 34 
Aertsen, Pieter (Lange Peer), 
121, 131, 132; The Cook, 
121*, 132 ; The Drink-shop, 
132; The Egg-dance, 132; 
Flirtation, 132; The Kit- 
chen, 122*, 132; Jesus with 
Martha and Mary, 122*, 
132; A Market, 132 
Ag-neessens, Edouard, 314 
Aig-uillon, Francois, 197 
Aise, G. van, 310 
Aix, tapestries in the cathe- 
dral of, 142 
Aken, Jerome van, see Bosch 
Albano, 183 
Albert, Arch-Duke, 185, 197, 

251, 252, 279 
Aldeneik, Convent of, 10 
Alexander the Great, His- 
tory of (MS.), 36, 38* 
Alexandre le Grand, Faits 

et Gestes de (MS.), 54 
Alexander and the Mother 

of Darius, 57* 
Alost, belfry, 24; town-hall, 

24 
Alva, Duke of, 171, 194 
Amsterdam, town -hall of, 

202, 203 
Andre, Madame, 126 
Antoing-, Chateau d', 34 
Antonissen, H. J., 276 
Antwerp, Bank, 287*, 288; 
Bourse, 26; Cathedral of 
Notre -Dame, 21, 22*; 



Church of St. Jacques, 21 ; 
Church of the Jesuits, 198, 
198*, 199*; Drapers' Hall, 
149*, 150; King's Palace, 
200*, 201; Meat Market, 
23, 24*; Rubens' House, 
199, 199*; Tanners' Hall, 
149*,150;Town.hall,148*, 
150 

Archers' Company, 90 

Aremberg, Due d', 259 

Arnolfini, Jan, 78 

Artan, Louis, 316 

Asselberghs, Alph., 318 

Aubert, David, 53 

Audenarde, Robert van, 274 

Audenarde, town-hall of, 23, 
23*; door of hall of al- 
dermen, 154 

Audenarde, Vieil Rentier d', 
15, 15* 

Auderghem, wooden reredos 
of, 32 

Augustine, MS. of St., 9: 
Letter E, 8* 

Averbode, Bible of, 13*, 14 

Avont, Pieter van, 236 



B 

Backere, Jan de, 151 
Baeckelmans, L., 287 
Baerse, Jacob de, 32, 67 
Baertson, Albert, 321 
Balat, Alphonse, 288 
Balbi family, 228 
Balen, Hendrik van, 224, 

252 
Balten, Pieter, 139 



Baren, J. A. van den, 273 
Bastogne, font at, 5*, 7 
Baugniet (engraver), 325 
Baurscheit (architect), 201 
Beaugrand, Guyot de, 151 
Beaune, Hospital of, 92 
Beaunepveu, Andre, 47 
Beernaerts, N., 271 
Beers, Jan van, 305 ; Portrait 

of Sarah Bernardt, 305* 
Beguinage church , Mechlin, 

197, 248 
Bellechose, Henri, 66; Mar- 
tyrdom of St. Denis, 63* 
Benning, Alex., 55, 56, 60, 62 
Benning, Simon, 60 
Benson, Ambrosius, 120; 

Deipara Virgo, 106* 
Berger, Jacob, 206; Fontaine 

du Grand Sablon, 203* 
Bernini, 201, 204 
Berri, Due de, 41—48, 57; 
Books of Hours of, 43, 44, 
46, 47: God the Father 
enthroned, 45*; Duke of 
Hainault and Jacqueline of 
Bavaria, 45*; Month of 
December, 48* ; Coronation 
of the Virgin, 91*; Mi- 
niaturist presenting his 
work, 49* 
Beschey, Balthazar, 275 
Beuckelaer, J. de, 132, 133; 
Fishmonger's Stall, 132; 
Game-Dealer, 132*; Game 
Market, 132; Prodigal Son, 
133 
Beurden, Alphonse van, 298 
Beyaert, Henry, 288 ; National 
Bank, Antwerp, 287* 



331 



INDEX 



Bible, 8 ; see under Averbode, 
Burgundy , (Duke of), 
Charles V., Floreffe, Maer- 
lant, Stavelot 
Binche, Arnould de, 17 
Biot, Gustave, 323 
Bladelin, Pieter, 95; Bladelin 

Altarpiece, 95, 80*, 81* 
Bles, Hendrik, 128-130, 137, 
174, 176, 178; Adoration 
of the Magi, 118*, 130; 
Holy Family, 118*, 130; 
Pilgrims of Emmdus, 120*, 
130 
Bloem, Hans, 149 
Bloemen, J. F. van, 266 
Blomme, Henri and Leon, 
288; Municipal building at 
Borgerhout, 288* 
Blondeel, Lancelot, 151, 152, 
162; Legend of St. George, 
162*, 163; St. Luke pain- 
ting the Virgin, 161*, 163; 
Saints of the Painters 
Guild, 163; Scene from 
the Life of SS. Cosmo and 
Damian, 160*, 163 
Bockhorst, Jan van, 236; 
Herse on her way to the 
Temple of Minerva, 236, 
238* 
Boel, P., 271 
Boethius de Consolatione, 

55, 57* 
Boeyermans, Theodore, 237 ; 
The Pool of Bethesda, 237, 
240*; Visitation, 237 
Bohemia, Tomb of Queen of, 

154 
Bol, Hans, 175; Landscape, 

176* 
Bolswert, Boethius a, 277 
Bolswert, Scheltius a, 277 
Bondolf, Jan van, see Bruges, 

Jean de 
Bonnecroy, 267 
Book of Hours, 15*'' century, 
40: Annunciation, 40, 43*; 
Christ on the Cross, 40, 
44* 
Book of Hours, 16*^^ century, 
58: Coronation of David, 
61*; see also under Berri, 
Burgundy, Hennessy 
Boom, Charles, 314 
Borcht, Pieter v. d., 190 
Bordeaux, Cathedral of, 247 
Borgerhout,see underBlomme 
Borremans, J., 33; Reredos 
of Notre -Dame hors-la- 
Ville, Louvain, 33, 34* 
Borremans, Passchier, 33 
Borromeo, Federigo, 252 
Bosch, Jerome, 133, 134, 136; 



Adoration of the Magi, 
125*, 134; Christ bearing 
his Cross, 126*, 134; Last 
Judgment. 127*, 134; 
Mocking of Christ. 125*, 
134 

Bosschaert, J. W., 236 

Bossche, Balthazar van den, 
256 

Both, Jan, 255 

Boulenger, Hippolyte, 317; 
View of Dinant. 321* 

Bouquet, Victor, 250; Stan- 
dard-Bearer. 250, 253* 

Bouts, Dierick, 52, 98—103, 
107, 122, 161; Christ in 
the House of Simon the 
Pharisee. 87*, 103; The 
Injustice of the Emperor 
Otho. 86*, 102; Israelites 
gathering Manna , 101 ; 
Last Judgment, 98; Last 
Supper, 84*, 98-100, 103; 
Madonna with Saints, 103 ; 
Martyrdom of St. Erasmus. 
86*, 98, 101; Martyrdom 
of St. Hippolytus. 88*, 103, 
107 ; Meeting of Abraham 
and Melchizedech. 95*, 98; 
Passover in a Jewish Fami- 
ly, 84*, 98, 100; Prophet 
Elijah. 85*, 98, 100; Re- 
habilitation, 87*, 102 

Brabant, Duchess of, 65 

Braecke, P., 298; Forgiven, 
299 

Braekeleer, Ferdinand de, 
304, 306 

Braekeleer, Henri de, 308, 
309, 324; The Printer of 
Engravings , 309* ; The 
Wine-Shop. 308* 

Braquenie, Brothers, 282 

Bree, M. van, 299, 300, 324 

Breughel, Ambrosius, 272 

Breughel, Jan, the Elder, 
called "Velvet Breughel", 
136,251,252,264,268,272, 
273 ; 77ie Five Senses. 252, 
257*; The Four Elements. 
252, 257*; The Temptation 
of St. Anthony, 252, 259*; 
Virgin in a Garland of 
Flowers, 258 

Breughel, Jan, the Younger, 
252 

Breughel, Pieter, the Elder, 
called "Peasant Breughel" 
and "Breughel the Droll", 
134-139, 174, 176, 191, 
251, 262, 312, 321, 326; 
Apiarists, 129*, 135 ; Bird's 
Nester, 137*, 138; Blind 
Beggars, 134*, 138; The 

332 



Farm. 128*; Fall of Saul. 
130*, 137; Land of Cock- 
ayne. 136*, 138; Massacre 
of the Innocents, 129*, 136 ; 
Pilgrims of Molenbeek. 
127*, 137; Return of the 
Herds, 135*, 137 ; Road to 
Calvary, 131*, 136; Vil- 
lage Fair (B. M.), 128*, 
135 ; Village Fair (Vienna), 
137 ; Village Wedding, 
132*, 131 
Breughel, Pieter, theYounger, 
called "Hell Breughel", 
139; Winter Landscape, 
138*, 139 
Bril, Matthias, 174, 175, 178 
Bril. Paul. 174, 175, 178, 179, 
252; Christ healing the 
Demoniac, 178, 180*; 
Landscape (Dresden), 178, 
180* ; Landscape (Vatican), 
178, 181* 
British Museum, 12, 14, 48, 

59, 60 
Broederlam, Melchior, 67; 
Shutters of an Altar-piece, 
63*, 67 
Broeucq, J. du, 152; Altar 
of St.Waudru, Mons, 151*, 
152* 
Brou, sculptures at, 151 
Brouwer, Adriaen, 257, 270; 
The Brawl, 258, 264*; 
Village Inn, 258, 263* 
Bruce, Lord, 206 
Bruges, belfry, 23, 23*, 24; 
church of Notre-Dame, 11 ; 
cloth- hall, 22, 23, 23*; 
law-courts, 149*, 150; 
railway station, 289 ; tombs 
of Mary of Burgundy and 
Charles the Bold, 151*, 
151 ; town-hall, 24, 24* 
Bruges, Jean de, 38, 39 
Brussels,BibliothequeRoyale, 
9, 11—13, 15, 16, 35—37, 
43, 49, 51, 52, 53, 54, 60, 
140; Bourse, 287*, 288; 
Cathedral, see Ste. Gudule ; 
Broodhuis or King's House, 
200; Fountain in the Place 
du Grand Sablon , 203*, 
206; houses in the Grand' 
Place, 200, 200*; Halls of 
the Guilds, 200, 288 ; Palace 
of Fine Arts, 288; Palais 
de Justice, 286,289*; Par- 
liament House, 206; Town- 
hall, 25, 25* 
Bultinc, Pieter, 113 
Burgkmair, Hans, 188 
Burgundy, Duke of, 41—43; 
Bible of, 41 ; God creating 



INDEX 



the Earth, 44*; Book of 
Hours of, 48; Breviary of 

Burgundy, Jean sans Peur, 
Duke of, 48; Book of 
Hours of, 48 

Burgundy, Philip the Bold, 
Duke of, 41—43; Bible of, 
41 : God creating the Earth, 
44* 

Burgundy, Philip the Good, 
Duke of, 48; Breviary of, 
48: Descent of the Holy 
Ghost, 48, 50*; All Saints 
Day. 48, 51 

Buysse, G., 321 



Caisne, Henri de, 302 

Calamatta, Luigi, 323 

Calvaert, Denis, 183, 184; 
Annunciation, 184, 186*; 
Danae, 184; SS. Francis 
and Dominic, 184, 186* 

Campana, Pedro, 164, 165; 
Descent from the Cross, 
163*, 165 

Campin, Robert, 81-89, 91 ; 
Death of the Virgin, 85; 
Holy Trinity. 73*, 84; 
Impenitent Thief 74*, 85; 
Madonna, 85 ; Magdalen. 
85 ; M erode Altar piece, 
73*, 82 ; Portrait of a Man, 
74*, 85 ; St. Veronica. 73*, 
84; Von Werl Altarpiece. 
72*, 83 

Canini, Maes, 301 

Capellen, R. de Visch — Van 
der, 116 

Caravaggio, 248 

Carmelites, Church of the, 
Brussels, 197 

Casembrod, Agnes, 110 

Cassel, Lucas, 174; Land- 
scape. 176* 

Cataneo family, 228 

Cathier (sculptor), 295 

Catholicon of St. Augustine, 
57 : Scribe cutting his Quill, 
60* ^ 

Caukercke, Cornelis van, 278 

Cels, M. Alph., 243 

Censerie, De la, 289 

Champaigne, Philippe de, 
250; Portrait of Cardinal 
Richelieu, 250, 255*; Pre- 
sentation in the Temple, 
250, 256* 

Champmol, Chartreuse of, 
near Dijon, 32; reredoses, 
32; altar-pieces, 66, 67 

Chantilly (Musee Conde), 46 



Charlemagne, 8 

Charlemagne, Chroniques et 
Conquetes de (MS.), 48, 
51 : Jean le Tavernier dedi- 
cating his work, 54* 

Charles I. of England, 217, 
225, 231, 232, 280 

Charles I., Duke of Savoy, 46 

Charles V., Emperor, 158, 
164, 193, 194 

Charles V. of France, 39, 41, 
47; Bible of, 38. 39: Jean 
de Vaudetar presenting his 
work, 42* 

Charles the Bold, Duke of 
Burgundy, 54, 56, 87, 92, 
140; Arms of Charles the 
Bold. 140*; his tomb in 
the church of Notre-Dame, 
Bruges, 151 

Charles Martel. Histoire de. 
53: The Due de Mes de- 
manding help from King 
Pepin. 53, 56* 

Chevrot, Jean, Bishop of 
Tournai, 94 

Chiesa Nuova, Rome, 208 

Christian of Denmark, 249; 
Portrait of, 249, 251*; his 
tomb at Roeskilde, 153 

Christus Petrus, 78—80; 
Annunciation. 71*, 79, 80; 
Birth of Christ. 72*, 79, 
80; Last Judgment. 79; 
Legend of Ste. Godeberte, 
n*,18, 79; Madonna, 19; 
Portrait of a Man, 78; 
Portrait of a Young Man. 
70*, 80 

Claus, Emile, 318; The old 
Gardener. 323* 

Clays (painter), 316; Coast 
of Ostend. 319 

Cleef, Josse van (Master of 
the Death of the Virgin?), 
126; Holy Family, lU*, 126 

Cleef , Josse van (Zotte 
Cleef), 170; Portrait of a 
Young Man. 170* 

Clercq, Jean de. Abbot of 
St. Vaast, 86 

Cluysenaer, Alfred, 312; 
Henry IV. at Canossa. 
311 *, 312 

Coberger, Wenceslas, 197 

Cock, Hieronymus, 191 

Coeck, Pieter, 190; Customs 
of the Turks, 191 ; John III., 
King of Portugal. 191 * 

Coecke, Pieter, 149, 153; 
Fireplace, 153* 

Colin, see Colyns 

Collaerts, the four, 191 ; Fire. 
192* 

333 



Collart, Marie, 317 ' 

Colyns, Alex., 153, 154; 
Tomb of Maximilian. 154* ; 
see also Nole 

Compere, J., 65 

Composition de TEcriture. 
52; A Tournament. 55* 

Congnet, Gilles, 172; Por- 
trait of Pier son la Hue. 
173* 

Coninck, David de, 271 

Coninxloo , C S. van, 161, 
162 ; Legend of Mary Mag- 
dalen, 160; Genealogy of 
the Virgin. 160* 

Coopman, Gautier, 30 

Coosemans, Joseph, 317 

Coques , Gonzalez , 256 ; 
Family Group (Wallace 
Collection), 256, 262*; 
Family Group (Dresden 
Gallery), 256, 263 

Cornelis, Albert, 119 

Corr, Erin, 323 

Cossiers, Jean, 248 ; Gentle- 
man lighting his Pipe, 248, 
250 

Courbet, 319 

Courtens, Frans, 319; Sun- 
beams. 322* 

Coxcyen, Michel van, 163, 
164; Martyrdom of St. 
Sebastian. 162* 

Crabeels, Florent, 318 

Crayer, Caspar de, 238, 239 ; 
Four Crowned. 239; Ma- 
donna, 239; St. Teresa, 
239, 241* 

Croisiers, Couvent des, Huy, 
64 

Cromoy, Tomb of Jean de, 
30, 32* 

Croy, Charles de, 36 

Cueninc, J. de, 110 

Culenburgh, Anne de, 85 



Dannat, M., 167 

Danse, 324 

Daret, Jacques, 81, 86—88, 
89; Adoration of the Mag , 
75*, 86; Annunciation, 87; 
Nativity, 86; Purification, 
75*, 86, 87; Visitation, 76*, 
87 

David, Gheeraert, 115—120, 
128, 129; Baptism of 
Christ, 117, 118; Cambyses 
and Sisamnes, 101*, 102*, 
116; Donor and Saints, 
103*, 117; Holy Women, 
The. 104*, 119; Jewish 



INDEX 



Judges, 104, 119; Mystic 
Marriage of St. Catherine, 
102*, 118; Virgin and 
Saints, 103*, 118 

David, Louis, 298, 299, 301 

Delacre Collection, 247 

Delbeke, 314 

Delcour, Jean, 204; Dead 
Christ, 203*, 204 

Demannez, 323 

Denys, Francis, 249 

Descamps, 205 

Desenfans, 298 

Devonshire, Duke of, 108, 
227, 245 

Diepenbeeke, Abr. van, 235; 
Neptune and Venus, 235, 
237* 

Diest, Arnold van, 32 

DiUens, Julien, 295, 293; 
Justice, 294*, 295 

Dinant, metal-workers of, 30 

Dixmude, rood-screen at, 34 

Donatello, 294 

Donne, Sir John, 108, 109 

Doudelet, Charles, 326 

Douffet, Gerard, 274 

Dubois, Louis, 314 

Ducaju, J. J., 293; Fall of 
Babylon, 292*, 293; Leys 
Monument, 293 

Dupon, Josue, 298; The 
Pearl, 299* 

Diirer, Albrecht, 128, 188, 
189 

Durrieu, Comte Paul, 43,62 

Dyck, Anthony van, 172, 
224—233, 237, 241, 249, 
250, 256, 277, 288; The 
Blessed Herman Joseph 
receiving a ring from our 
Lady, 227*, 230; Children 
of Charles I., 230*, 231; 
Christ bearing his Cross, 
224; Christ crowned with 
Thorns (Berlin), 226; Christ 
crowned with Thorns (Mad- 
rid) , 226, 227; Lords 
John and Bernard Stuart, 
231*, 232; Martyrdom of 
St. Sebastian, 222*, 226; 
Pieta (Antwerp), 228*, 231 ; 
Pieta (Berlin), 229*, 231; 
Portrait of Cardinal Ben- 
tlvoglio, 225*, 229.; Portrait 
of Henry, Comte deBergh, 
226*, 230; Portrait of the 
Marquis Brignole - Sale, 
224*, 228; Portrait of 
Geronima Brignole - Sale, 
224*, 228; Portrait of 
Charles L, 229*, 231 ; Por- 
trait of Cornelis van der 
Geest, 225*, 230; Portrait 



of General Moncada PI. I, 
230; Portrait of Frans 
Snyders and his Wife, 
223*, 227 ; Portrait of Pieter 
Stevens, 229; Portrait of 
Thomas of Savoy, 231*, 
232 ; Portrait of Anne Wake, 
229 ; Saint Martin dividing 
his Cloak, 223*, 227; St. 
Rosalie, 230; Virgin and 
Child, 228*, 230; Virgin 
with Donors, 227*, 230; 
Virgin of the Rosary, 226, 
229 
Dyckmans, Joseph, 305, 323; 
Blind Man, 304*, 305, 323 



Edelinck, Gerard, 278 
Eertvelt, A. van , 267 ; Sea- 
scape, 272* 
Egidius, Abbot, 37 
Eg-mont, Justus van, 236 
Ellenhard, Bishop, 13 
Elsen, Alfred, 324 
Engraving-, 140, 141, 188-191, 

276-279, 322-326 
Ensor, James, 322 
Ernesto (illuminator), 12 
Es, Jacob van, 271, 272 
I'Etape, Maison de, Ghent, 6 
Euraclius (monk), 74 
Eyck, Hubert and Jan, 43, 
67-75, 80, 82, 93, 107, 
128, 140, 148; The Ador- 
ation of the Lamb, 67 — 73 ; 
66*, 67*, 68* 
Eyck, Jan, 67-78, 80, 91, 
111, 115; Arnolfini and 
his Wife, 70*, 78; Cardinal 
della Croce, 70*, 78; Ma- 
donna of Chancellor Rolin, 
68*, 76; Male Portraits, 
78; Man with the Pink, 
69*, 77; Portrait of the 
Artist's Wife PI. II, 77 



Farasyn, Edgar, 314 
Farnese, Alexander, 185 
Fayd'herbe, L , 204 
Ferdinand, Cardinal-Infante, 

218, 220 
Ferdinand, Arch -Duke, his 

tomb at Innspriick, 154 
Ferdinand, Emperor, 153, 

249 
Fernando, Dom, 60 
Fiaming-o , Dionysio , see 

Calvaert 



Fillastre, Bishop of Tournai, 
56 

Flanders, Count of, 50, 65 

Flemalle, Bartholet, 274 

Flemalle, the Master of, see 
Campin 

Fleur des Histoires, 53: A 
Battle, 56* 

Floreffe, Abbey of, 8; Bible 
of, 14; Bible of Floreffe: 
Ascension, 12* 

Floreins, Jacques, 112 

Floris, Cornelis, 150, 148* 

Floris, Frans, 165, 167, 168, 
173, 181, 191; Adoration 
of the Shepherds, 168*; 
Fall of the Angels, 167*, 
168; Mars and Venus, 168 

Foucquier, Jacques, 266 

Fourment, Helen, 218 

Fourmois, 316, 325 

Fraikin , Charles Auguste, 
293 

Franc de Brug-es, Fireplace 
in, 150*, 151 

Franchoys, Pieter, 250; Por- 
trait of a Man, 254* 

Franck, Jos., 323 

Francken, Ambrosius, 181, 
182; Martyrdom of SS. 
Crispin and Crispian, 182, 
184* ; Miracle of the Loaves, 
181 

Frandcen, Frans (I., II., III.), 
253, 254 

Francis I., 193 

Francquaert, J., 197 

Frederic, Leon, 320; Chalk- 
vendors, 324* 

Frederick Henry, Prince, 236 

Freeren, lectern of, 30 

Freres de la Vie commune, 
10, 35 

Fyt, Jan, 269-271, 278, 281 ; 
Deer and Hares, 270, 275*; 
Eagles, 271, 275* 



Gabron, WiUem, 271; Still- 
life, 277* 
Gallait, Louis, 302, 303; The 
Decapitated, 302*; Por- 
trait of Madame Gallait, 
303* 
Galle, Cornelis, the elder, 

276; the young-er, 277 
Galle family (engravers), 191 
Galle, Philip, 191 
Gamarele, P. de, 121 
Geefs, the brothers, 292 
Geefs, Joseph, 292, 293 
Geefs, Guillaume, 283, 292; 



334 



INDEX 



"Love, when thou holdest 
us", 291* 

Geets, W., 310, 324 

Gembloux, Gospel of: Christ 
on the Cross, 9*, 12 

Genealogy of Maximilian,188 

Genealogy of the Kings of 
Portugal, 60 

Genoels, Abraham, 266 

Gentines, Font of, 28 

Gheel, reredos of, 31 

Ghent, Chateau des Comtes, 
1*, 6; Belfry, 24; Shield- 
bearer of the Belfry, 27*; 
Cloth-hall, 22; University 
Library, 15, 36, 56 

Ghent, Gerard of, see Horen- 
bout 

Gillemans, J. P., the elder 
and the young-er, 272 

Gilsoul, Victor, 318 

Godecharle, Lambert , 206 ; 
The chilly Woman, 203* 

Goes, Hugo van der, 103-107 ; 
Adoration of the Shepherds 
(Berlin), 90*, 104; Ador- 
ation of the Shepherds 
(Florence), 88*, 104; Death 
of the Virgin, 91*, 106; 
Donors, 92*, 107 ; Original 
Sin, 91*, 106; Pieta, 90*, 
106 ; Portraits of Tommaso 
Portinari and Wife, 89*, 
105 

Goesen, Font at, 29, 30* 

Golden Fleece, History of 
the, 56, 59* 

Golden Legend, 37; St. 
Brandan, 37, 39* 

Goldschmidt Collection, 247 

Gonzag-a, Vincenzo, 173, 207 

Goovaerts, Abraham, 252 

Gordeamus (illuminator), 12 

Gospel of the 11"^ century, 
9: Letter L., 6* 

Gospels of W^ and 12'»^ 
centuries, 11 ; St, John, 8*, 
9* 

Gossaert or Mabuse, Jan, 
156-159,161,195; Adam 
and Eve, 156*, 157; Dande, 
157*, 158; Descent from 
the Cross, 156; Madonna, 
157*, 158; St. Luke paint- 
ing the Virgin, 156*, 157 

Gothic Style, 17—30 

Goubau, A., 255 

Greverade, the brothers, 114 

Grimani Breviary, 61 — 63; 
February, 61* 

Grimmer, Jacob, 174; Land- 
scape, 176* 

Groot, Guillaume de, 295; 
Labour. 294*, 295 



Groux, Charles de, 319 
Gruuthuse, Sire de (Louis de 

Bruges), 55 
Guffens, 314 
Guicciardini, 61, 62 
Guido, 183 
Gysels, P., 266 



H 

Hag-ue, The, Royal Library, 

48. 52 
Hainault, History of, Latin 
MS., 49-51; Saturn de- 
vouring his Children, 52*; 
King Bavon embarking 
with the Trojans , 53* ; 
How the Count of Flanders 
acquired the Castle of 
Douai, 53* 
Hakendover, reredos of, 32, 

35* 
Hal : Church of Notre-Dame, 
19, 20*; font, 29, 31*; 
reredos, 31, 34* 
Hals, Frans, 257, 258 
Hankar (architect), 291 
Hanselaere, Van, 299 
Harlebeke, Church of, 5 
Hasselt, Jan van, 65 
Hecht, H. van der, 318 
Hecke, Jan van den, 273 
Heem, Cornelis de, 272 
Heem, Jan Davidszoon de, 

272; Still-life, 277* 
Heere, Lucas de, 182, 183; 
The wise and the foolish 
Virgins, 183, 184* 
Heidelberg- Castle, 154 
dHelaine, Histoire (MS.), 49 ; 

Naval Battle, 52* 
Helmont, J. van, 274 
Hemissem, J. van, 130, 131, 
133; Calling of St. Mat- 
^/lew, 120M 30, 133; Merr^ 
Company, 121*, 131; The 
Prodigal Son, 130 
Hennebicq, Andre, 313 
Hennessy, Book of Hours of 
Our Lady of 60, 61 ; Hawk- 
ing, 61* 
Henry L, Duke of Brabant, 

his tomb, 29 
Henry IV. of France, 219 
Herculaneum, 206 
Herenthals, Font of, 28; 

reredos, 33 
Herlinde (illuminator), 10, 11, 
Hermans, Charles, 314; At 

Dawn, 314, 316* 
Herreyns, W. J., 275; It is 

finished, 280* 
Hesdin, Jacquemart de, 44, 

335 



45; Due Jean de Berri 
between SS. John and An- 
drew, 44, 50*; Madonna, 
44, 46* 
Hessins, Willem, 197 
Heyde, Pieter van der, 191 
Heymans, A., 318 
Hobbema, 316 
Hoeck , Jan van den , 237 ; 

Day, 237, 239* 
Hoedce, Robert van, 255 
Hofman, J., 291 ; Houses at 

Antwerp, 290* 
Hooghe, Pieter de, 309 
Horemans, P. J., 275; Dom- 
estic Scene, 279* 
Horenbout, Gerard, 62, 63 
Horta(architect),291; Facade 
of the Hotel Aubecq, 290* ; 
Dining-room of M. Armand 
Solvay, 291* 
Houben, H., 315 
Houffalize, Didier, 29, 32* 
Hulin, Georges, 43, 81 
Hulsen, Clara van, 110 
Hulsthout, reredos of, 32 
Huy, Church of Notre-Dame, 

19 
Huy, Renier de, 29 
Huys, Frans, 191 ; Erasmus, 

190* 
Huys, Pieter, 133; The Bag- 
piper, 124* 
Huysmans, Cornelis, 266; 

Landscape, 270* 
Huyssens, Pieter, 197 



I 

Innspriick, Cathedral, 153 
Isabella, Infanta, 185, 197, 

217, 251, 279 
Isabella, Queen of Spain, 59 
Itinerarium Sancti Petri 

(MS.): Letter M., 7*, 9 



Jacqueline of Bavaria, 43 

Jamaer, Victor, 288 

James L of England, 225 

Jans, De, 314 

Janssens , Abraham , 187, 
188; Meleager and Ata- 
lanta, 188, 189*; The 
Scheldt with the Maid of 
Antwerp, 187, 188, 189*; 
Vertumnus and Pomona, 
188 

Janssens, Jerome, 255 

Jean de Berri, see Bern, 
Due de 



INDEX 



Jean de Brug-es, 55 ; Tournai 
de, 56, 85* 

Jean the Painter, 65 

Jean sans Peur, see Bur- 
gundy, Duke of 

Jegher, Christopher, 278; 
March of Silenus, 282* 

Jesuit Style, 199 

Jesuit Church, at Antwerp, 
197— 199; at Brussels, 197; 
at Louvain, 197, 205 

Job, the Trials of , or Mor- 
alia in, 13*, 14 

Jode, Gerard de, 191 

Jong-helinck, Jae., 152 

Jordaens, Jacob, 241—247, 
263, 278, 296; Adoration 
of the Magi, 247; Ador- 
ation of the Shepherds, 
242, 243*; Allegory of 
Fecundity , 244 ; Calvary, 
247; Christ on the Cross, 
242 ; Christ and the Money- 
lenders, 247; Diogenes, 
246, 247*; Family Group, 
244, 245*; Fool, 246; 
Fruitseller, 247, 248*; 
Jupiter and the Goat Amal- 
thea, 245 ; King Candaulus, 
246; The King drinks, 244, 
246*; Last Supper, 247; 
Milkmaid, 247, 249*; Mar- 
tyrdom of St. Apollonia, 
244; Popular Love-making, 
246 ; Presentation , 247, 
249*; St. Martin healing 
a Demoniac, 244; Satyr 
and Peasant (Brussels), 
244, 245*; Satyr and Pea- 
sant (Cels Coll.), 243, 
244*; Serenade, 246, 248*; 
Time mowing down Vice, 
246 ; Triumph of Frederick 
Henry, 246; Young Bac- 
chus, 246, 247 ; The Young- 
sters pipe as the old Folks 
sing, 245, 246* 

Josse (Justus) of Ghent, 155, 
156; Last Supper, 155*; 
Moses, 155* 

Justi, Karl, 126 

Justus see Josse 



K 

Kaufmann Collection, 139 
Kempenaer, see Campana 
Kerniel, Church of, 64 
Kerricx, Alex., 266; Land- 
scape, 271* 
Kerricx, Willem Ig-natius, 274 
Key, Adriaen, 169; Portraits 
of the Smidt Family. 169* 



Key, Willem, 169; Portrait 

of Gilles Mostaert, 169* 
Keyser, Nicaise de, 302, 303, 

319; Bull Fight, 302*, 303 
Khnopff, Fernand, 322; 

Memories, 325* 
Knyff, Alfred de, 317; The 

Black Fence, 320* 
Kriekenborch, Jan van, 55 
Kuyck, J. van, 314 



Laeken, Chateau de, 206 
Laenen, C. J. van der, 255 
Laermans, Eug-ene, 321 
Lagae, Jules, 298; Mother 

and Child. 299* 
Lagye, Victor, 314 
Lairesse , Gerard de , 274 ; 

Judith. 279* 
Lalaing, Comte Jacques de, 
297, 298, 313; Fighting 
Horsemen , 298* ; Monu- 
ment to British Officers at 
Waterloo, 298; Portrait of 
a Priest. 314; Prehistoric 
Hunter. 313 
Lambeaux, Jef, 296, 297; 
Fontaine de Brabon, 296*, 
297; The Kiss. 296, 297 
Lamoriniere, Francois, 316; 

Pond at Putte. 319* 
Lampsonius, 128, 185 
Lang-e Peer, see Aertsen 
Lathem, Lievin van, 62 
Laurent (illuminator), 38 
Lauters (engraver), 325 
Lauwers, Conrad, 278 
Lauwers, Francois, 323, 324 
Layens, M., 26 
Leau, 10; Tabernacle of, 

152* 
Leblon Collection, 246 
Leempoels, J., 322 
Leemputten, Frans van, 319; 

The Market. 323* 
Leest, A. van, 190 
Legrand (engraver), 325 
Lenain (engraver), 324 
Lens, A. C, 275 ; Ariadne. 280 
Leo X., 193 
Leopold L of Belgium, 292, 

293 
Leopold II. of Belgium, 297 
Leopold William, Arch-Duke, 

237, 254, 262, 266, 273 
Leyniers, the, 194 
Leys, Henri, 293, 306—309, 
324; The Bird-catcher. 
307* ; Margaret of Parma 
giving back the Keys of 
Antwerp, 307* 



Li Ars d' Amour (MS.), 37: 
The Falconer, 40* 

Liber Floridus , 15: Charles 
the Bold, 15*; The Earthly 
Paradise, 14* 

Liedet, Louis or Loyset, 49, 
51, 53, 54 

Liefrinck, Cornelis, 188, 184 

Liefrinck, Hans, 149 

Liefrinck, Jan, 190 

Liefrinck, Willem, 189, 190 

Liege, 5, 8, 9, 13,19,21,33; 
Palace of the Prince- 
Bishops , 26* ; Seminary 
Library, 10; University 
Library, 10, 39, 40 

Liemaeckere, N. de, 250; The 
Triumph of the Virgin, 
256* 

Lierre, belfry, 24; rood-screen 
in church, 34, 36* 

Lies, Joseph, 308 ; The Ene- 
my approaches, 308* 

Liessies, Abbey of, 7 

Limburg, the Brothers of, see 
Malouel 

Linnig, Guillaume, 324 

Lint, Pieter van, 236; Pool 
of Bethesda, 236, 238* 

Lobbes, Abbey of, 8 

Loenhout, reredos of, 33 

Lombart, Lambert, 164, 167; 
Sacrifice of the Paschal 
Lamb, 163*, 164 

Lombeek, reredos of, 33 

Lorrain, Claude, 255 

Louis XIII., 219, 280 

Louis XIV., 255, 262 

Louis de Bruges, see Gruut- 
huse 

Louvain, 26, 33, 121 ; town- 
hall, 26* 

Liibeck, Cathedral, 114 

Lucas, Lord, 232 

Lucidel, see Neufchatel 

Luckx, Christian, 273 

Luyten, Hendrick , 319; 
Reverie, 322* 

Lye, Jan van der, 65 

Lynen, Amedee, 326 

Lyns see Molyns 



M 

Mabuse see Gossaert 

Madou, Jean Baptiste, 276, 
305, 325; Interior with 
Figures, 304* 

Maerlant, Bible of J. van, 
16; Feast of Herod, 16* 

Maes, Godfrey, 238; Mar- 
tyrdom of St. George, 238, 
241* 



336 



INDEX 



Maeseyck, Gospel of (MS.), 
11; St. Matthew, 8*, 11 

Mahaut of Artois, 141 

Mahu, Cornelis, 272 

Male, Louis de, 47, 65 

Mallerys (engravers), 191 

Malouel or Maelwel , the 
brothers, miniaturists, 42, 
46 

Malouel, Jean, 66 

Mander, Van, 155, 156, 157 

Mansel, Jean, 53 

Manuscripts , illuminated, 
7—16, 34-64 

Marcatillier, Raphael de, 56 

Marckelbach, Alex., 313 

Marg-aret of Austria, 158, 
159: her Palace at Mech- 
lin, 288 

Marne, Jean Louis de, 276 

Martin the Zeelander see 
Roymerswael 

Martin V., Pope, 90 

Mary of Burg-undy, 151 

Mary of Hungary, 158 

Massys or Matsys, Quentin, 
121-127, 142,166; Ador- 
ation of the Magi, 126; 
Banker and his Wife, 112*, 
125, 127; Courtesan and 
Gallant, 113*, 125; En- 
tombment, 110*, 124; Face 
of Jesus, 108*, 122; Head 
of the Virgin, 108*, 122; 
Herod's Feast, 111, 125; 
Legend of St. Anne. 109*, 
123; Madonna, 109*, 123; 
Mass of St. Gregory, 126; 
Nativity, 126; Portrait of 
a Canon, 113*, 126; Por- 
trait of Josse van Cleef, 
112*, 126; Portrait of an 
old Man, 114*, 126; St. 
John in the boiling Oil, 
111*, 125 

Massys, Jan, 166, 167; Eli- 
jah and the Widow of 
Sarepta, 166*, 167; Judith, 
166*, 167; Lot and his 
Daughters, 167* 

Master of the Death of the 
Virgin, see Cleef, Josse 
van 

Master of the Female Half- 
lengths, see Massys, Jan 

Meermano - Westreenianum 
Museum, 38 

Meert, Pieter, 250; Male 
Portrait, 254* 

Megan, R., 266 

Mellery, Xavier, 322 

Melun, Jean de, 34; tomb of 
36* 

Memlinc, Hans, 62, 107— 116 ; 



Adoration of the Magi, 
94*, 110; Christ with Angel 
Musicians. 100*, 101*, 114, 
115; Last Judgment, 92*, 
109; Madonna, 93*, 110; 
Madonna of the Donne 
Family. 17*, 108, 109; 
Madonna with Donor. 97*, 
98*, 113; Madonna of 
Jacques Floreins. 96*, 112; 
Marriage of St. Catherine. 
93*, 110; Passion of Christ 
(Turin Gallery), 99*, 113, 
114; Passion of Christ 
(Liibeck Cathedral), 100*, 
114; Portrait of Martin 
Nieuwenhove, 110, 111, 
PL III; Seven Joys of the 
Virgin. 98*, 113; Shrine 
of St. Ursula, panels of, 
94*, 95*, 112; St. Christ- 
opher triptych, 95*, 96*, 
112 

Merode, the Master of the 
Altar of, see Campin 

Merode, Tomb of Jean de, 
153, 154* 

Merode, Tomb of Count 
Frederic de, 292 

Mertens, Charles, 315 

Meulemeester, De, 323 

Meulen, Frans van der, 255 ; 
King Louis XIV. at Vin- 
cennes. 262* 

Meulener, Pieter, 255 

Meunier, Constantin , 295— 
297, 321; The Smith, 295*; 
The Sower, 295* 

Meyers, Isidore, 318 

Michelangelo, 159, 167, 168 

Michiels, J. B., 323 

Middelburg, Abbey Church, 
156 

Miel, Jan, 255 

Mielot, Jean, 51 

Mignon, Leon, 298 

Mildert, Jan van, 202 

Miniature , the art of , see 
Manuscripts, illuminated 

Miraflores, triptych of, 90 

Miron, Antonis, 252 

Missal of the 12'*' century, 
14: Christ on the Cross, 
14* 

Moere, Jan van der, 57 

Mol, Pieter van, 236 

Molyns or Lyns, Jan, 189; 
The Doge Francesco Don- 
ato, 189* 

Momper, Frans de, 175, 177 

Momper, Josse de, the elder, 
175, 177 

Momper , Josse de , the 
younger, 175, 177, 207; 

337 



Landscape. 179*; Springy 
179* 

Monotessaron . 56 : Christ 
and the Pharisees. 58* 

Mons, belfry of, 24 

Montefeltro , Federigo da, 
155, 156 

Moreel, Willem, 112 

Morgan, Pierpont, 86 

Moro, Antonio, 170—172; 
Duke of Alva. 171*; Can- 
ons, 171,172*; Mary Tudor, 
171, 172*; Maximilian IL. 
171 ; Pereson, Buffoon of 
the King of Spain. 171, 
173*; Portrait of Himself 
171, 172* 

Moysis, Chronicle of Gilles 
le, 37; The Plague at 
Tournai. 37, 40* 

Muller, Cornelis, 190 

Munich, Missal at, 13; Christ 
forbidding his Mother to 
touch Him, 11*, 13 



N 

Najera, Spain, 114 

Navez, Francois Joseph, 299, 
300, 301, 313,315; Dream 
of Athaliah, 300; Ma- 
donna , 300* ; Portrait of 
Himself 300; Portrait of 
the Hemptinne Family, 300* 

Neefs, Pieter, the elder and 
the younger, 274, 278 

Neufchatel, Nicolas, or Luc- 
idel, 170; Portraits, 171* 

Neyts, Gilles, 266 

NicolaY, Arnold, 190 

Nieulant, Willem van, 255 

Nieuport, belfry of, 24 

Nieuwenhove , Martin van, 
110, 111 

Nivelles, Romanesque clois- 
ters at, 6; Shrine of St. 
Gertrude, 28* 

Nole family (sculptors), 202 

Noort, Adam van, 207 

Norkart, Simon, 49 

Notre - Dame , Antwerp, 

Church of, 124 

Notre-Dame aux Fonts, Liege, 
Church of, 29 

Notre - Dame , Montaigu, 
Church of, 197 

Notre - Dame de Pamele, 
Audenarde, Church of, 17, 
18* 

Notre - Dame , Schaerbeek, 
Church of, 287 

Notre-Dame hors-la-Ville, 
Louvain, 33 

X 



INDEX 



Odevaere, 299, 324 
Offel, Edouard van, 326 
Ommeg-anck, Balthazar, 276; 
Landscape with Cattle, 
281* 
Ooms, Charles, 310; The 

forbidden Book, 311* 
Oost, Jacob van, 250; Male 

Portrait, 250, 253* 
Oplinter, reredos at, 33 
Oppenheim, Baron, 78 
Orley, Bernard van, 158—163, 
193—195; The Apostles 
Thomas and Matthew, 158*, 
160 ; Cartoons for glass, 
and tapestry, 160, 161; 
Last Judgment, 159*; Ma- 
donnas, 158; Trials of Job, 
158*, 159; Portrait of Dr. 
Zelle, 159*, 160; Portraits, 
160 
Ouderaa, P. van der, 310, 
314; The Return of the 
Holy Women, 310* 
Overs! raeten, L. van, 287 



Paele, Canon van der, 75 
Paelinck, 301 
Pail he, reredos of, 32 
Pallant, Jan de, 58: Book of 

Hours of, 58, 59 
Pallavicini family, 228 
Pamele , see Notre - Dame 

de Pamele 
Panneels, Willem, 278 
Pannemakers, the, 193, 194 
Paris, BibliothequeNationale, 

14, 41, 45, 47, 55 
Passes, the two De, 191 
Pasture, Roger de la, see 

Weyden, Van der 
Patinir, Joachim, 128, 129, 

174, 176; Baptism of 

Christ, 116*, 129; Paradise 

and Hell, 117*, 129; Rest 

in Egypt, 117*, 129 
Pauwels, Ferdinand, 310, 314 
Pede, H. van, 25, 65 
Peeters , Bonaventura , 267 ; 

Marine Subject, 272* 
Peeters, Jan, 267 
Pepyn, Martin, 186; Baptism 

of St Augustine, 187, 188* 
Philip II. of Spain, 164, 193 
Philip III. of Spain, 208 
Philip IV. of Spain, 217, 220, 

222, 254 
Philip, Duke of Cleves, 57 
Philip the Good, Duke of 



Burgundy, 43, 48, 49, 51, 
53, 57, 68, 87 

Philip the Bold, Duke of 
Burgundy, 32, 41—44, 48, 
66 

Pitau, Nicolas, 278 

Plantin-Moretus Museum, 11 ; 
St. John from Gospel in, 
9*, 11 

Plantin Press, 235 

Pialtenberg, Van, 266 

Poelaert, Joseph, 289 ; Palais 
de Justice, Brussels, 286*, 
289 

Pompei, 206 

Pontius, Paul, 278 

Porges Collection, 246 

Portaels, Jean, 311; Box at 
the Opera in Budapest, 
311, 313* 

Portinari, Tommaso, 104, 105 

Pourbus, Frans, the Elder, 
173; Christ among the 
Doctors, 173*; The Man 
with the Glass, 173, 
174* 

Pourbus, Frans, the Younger, 
173, 174; Last Supper, 
174; Louis XIII. as a Child, 
173, 175*; Marie de' Me- 
dici, 173, 174*; Portrait of 
a Painter, 173, 174* 

Pourbus, Pieter, 165, 166; 
Last Judgment, 165; Por- 
trait of Adriaen de Buck, 
165*, 166; Portrait of Jan 
van der Gheenste, 164*, 166 

Poussin, Nicolas, 250 

Prevost, Jean, 119, 120; 
Donor and his Wife, 105*, 
106*; Last Judgment, 105* 

Prudentius, 12: Abraham 
and Melchisedech , 10*, 12 

Psalter, 13='' century, 35, 37* 

Pulpits, carved, 205 



Quellin, Artus I., 202 
Quellin , Artus, the elder, 

202, 203; Caryatid, 201*; 

St. Rosa, 201*, 203 
Quellin, Artus, the younger, 

202, 203 
Quellin , Erasmus , 235, 236 
Quellin , Jan Erasmus , 237 ; 

Coronation of Charles V., 

238, 240*; Pool of Be- 

thesda, 238 
Quesnoy, Fran9ois du , 203, 

204; St Andrew, 202*, 

204; Tomb of the Bishop 

of Trieste, 204 



Quesnoy, Jerome du , the 

elder, 203 
Quesnoy, Jerome du, the 

younger, 207 



Raes, the, 194 

Raphael, 158, 161, 198, 227. 
300 

Rassenfosse, Armand, 326 

Recollets, Church of the, 
Hasselt, 204 

Relinde (illuminator), 10, 11 

Rembrandt, 306 

Renaissance Style, 148 et seq. 

Robbe, Louis, 315; Animals, 
317 

Rolin, Chancellor, 76, 92 

Romanesque Style, 3 et seq. 

"Romanists" or Italianizers, 
155 et seq. 

Rombouts, Theodore, 248; 
Lansquenets playing Cards, 
248, 251 

Roos, Jan, 271 

Rops, Felicien, 325, 326; 
The Absinthe - drinker, 
326*; Scandal, 327* 

Rospigliosi Palace, Rome, 
178 

Rossels, Jacques, 318 

Rothschild, Baron Ad., 43 

Rouge - Cloitre , Monastery, 
101 

Roymerswael, Marinus van, 
127, 130; The Money- 
changers, 115*, 127; St 
Jerome, 115*, 127 

Rubens, Peter Paul, 170, 172, 
187, 188, 198, 199, 201, 
204, 206-227, 230, 232- 
238, 240, 241, 249, 250, 
261, 264, 265, 267—269, 
274-282, 304, 316, 323- 
325; Adoration of the Magi 
(Madrid), 205*, 209; Ado- 
ration of the Magi (Ant- 
werp), 216; Adoration of 
the Magi (Mechlin), 211"; 
-(4sswm/?f/on (Brussels), 211; 
Assumption (Antwerp), 
216 ; Battle of the Amazons, 
206*, 209; Calvary (Le 
Coup de Lance), 209*, 
212; Castor and Pollux 
seizing the Daughters of 
Leucippus, 210*, 213; 
Children carrying a Gar- 
land of Fruit, 197*, 214; 
Coronation of Marie de' 
Medici, 212*; Descent from 
the Cross, 208*, 210, 211 ; 



338 



INDEX 



Diana returning from the 
Chase, 207*, 213 ; The Four 
Philosophers, 204*, 208; 
The Garden of Love, 220*, 
222 ; Helen Fourment as 
a Bride, 215, 118; Helen 
Fourment in a Fur Cape, 
216*, 218; Helen Fourment 
with her Husband and 
Children. 216*, 218; Helen 
Fourment with two of her 
Children, PI. IV, 218; Holy 
Family, 222*, 223; Ker- 
messe, 223 ; Landscapes, 
218*, 221 ; Last Communion 
of St. Francis of Assisi, 
207*, 211; Last Judgment, 
210*, 212; Lion Hunt, 
211*, 213; Madonna, 214; 
Massacre of the Innocents, 
221*, 223; Medici Gallery, 
215, 216, 219; Miracle of 
St. Francis Xavier, 214; 
Miracle of St. Ildefonso, 
217*, 219; Miracle of St. 
Ignatius, 212*, 214; Por- 
trait of Himself, 213*, 
215; Portrait of the In- 
fanta Isabella. 217*, 221; 
Portrait of Jan van Ghin- 
dertaelen, 221*, 223; Por- 
trait of Marie de' Medici, 
213*, 215; Portrait of 
Rubens' two Sons, 214*, 
216; Portrait of Suzanne 
Fourment (Le Chapeau de 
Paille), 214, 216*; The 
Raising of the Cross, 105*, 
209; Rubens and his first 
Wife, 206*, 210; Rudolph L 
and the Priest, 219*, 222; 
The Three Graces, 219*, 
222; Triumph of Silenus, 
211*, 213; Triumphs and 
Types of the Eucharist, 
215*, 216 
Rudder, Isidore de, 298; The 

Nest, 298* 
Rudolph II., 136, 184 
Ruysbroeck, Jan van, 25 
Rykaert, David, 263, 264; 
The Alchemist, 269*; The 
Inn, 268* 
Rycker, Abraham de, 172 
Ryckmans, Nicolas, 278 
Ryn, Hendrik van, 65 
Rysselberghe, Theo van, 322 



Sacramentarium , see under 

Stavelot 
Sadeler, Berthold, 65 



Sadeler, Eg-., Portrait of 

Martin de Vos. 192* 
Sadelers, the three, 192 
Saint Amend , Antwerp, 

Church of, 287 
Saint Andre , Antwerp, 

Church of, 180 
Saint Andre, Freising", Con- 
vent of, 13 
Saint Aug-ustin , Antwerp, 

Church of, 244 
Saint Aug-ustine, MS. 9: 

Letter E, 6* 
Saint Barthelemy , Bruges, 

Church of, 114 
Saint Barthelemy, Liege, 5; 

Font, 29, 31* 
Saint Basil, Bruges, Church 

of, 118 
Saint Bavon, Ghent: Abbey, 

7; Church, 14; Romanesque 

Cloister, 6; tomb of the 

Bishop of Trieste, 205 
Saint Bertin, St. Omer, Ab- 
bey of, 8 
Saint Denis, Liege, Church 

of, 5; reredos, 33 
Saint Donatien , Bruges, 

Church of, 116, 117 
Saint Eleuthere , Tournai, 

Shrine of, 28, 29* 
Saint Georges , Antwerp, 

Church of, 287 
Saint Germain, Mons, Church 

of, choir-stalls in, 152 
Saint Germain, Tirlemont, 

Church of: Pelican lectern 

in, 30, 33* 
Sainte Gertrude, Shrine of, 

Nivelles, 28* 
Saint Hubert, Abbey of, 

near Liege, 8 
Saint Jacques , Antwerp, 

Church of, 21, 223 
Saint Jacques, Bruges, 

Church of, 112, 119, 

163 
Saint Jacques, Ghent, Church 

of, 17 
Saint Jacques, Liege, Church 

of, 5, 21 ; interior, 21* 
Saint Jacques , Louvain, 

Church of, 153 
Saint Jacques , Tournai, 

Church of, 17 
Saint Jean I'Evangeliste, 

Liege, Church of: Missal 

belonging to, 64 
Saint Jean, Mechlin, Church 

of: pulpit, 202*, 205 
Saint Jean, Utrecht, Church 

of, 65 
Saint Jean, Bruges, Hospital 

of: bas-relief over the door, 

339 



27; works of Memlinc at, 

110, 111 
Saint Just, monastery of, 164 
Saint Laurent, Liege, Abbey 

of: Gospel from, 9 
Saint Leonard, Leau, Church 

of: reredos, 32 
Saint Martin , Tournai , Ab- 
bey of, 8; MS. St. Augu- 
stine of, 9 
SaintMartin,Tongres, Church 

of: reredos in, 32 
Saint Martin, Ypres, Church 

of, 18* 
Saint Michel, Antwerp, Ab- 
bey Church of, 216 
Saint Michel, Louvain, Church 

of, 197, 198* 
Saint Nicolas, Ghent, Church 

of, 17 
Saint Nicosius, ivory, 27, 28* 
Saint Omer, Henri de, 36 
Saint Paul, Antwerp, Church 

of, 203 
Saint Paul, Liege, Church 

of, 19* 
Saint Peter's, Rome, 204 
Saint Pierre, Ghent, Abbey 

of, 36 
Saint Pierre, Louvain, Church 

of: rood-screen in, 34 
Saint Pierre, Ypres, Church 

of, 17 
Saint Quentin , Tournai, 

Church of, 4 
Saint Quentin , Guillaume 

de, 36 
Saint Rombaut , Mechlin, 

Church of, 19, 20* 
Saint Sang, Bruges , Chapel 

of the, 17 
Saint Sauveur , Bruges, 

Church of, 17, 103, 163 
Saint Trond, Ghent, Abbey 

of, 8 
Saint Vincent , Soignies, 

Church of, 4, 5; College 

of, 2* 
Saint Vitus, Prague, Cathe- 
dral of, 154 
Sainte Anne, Confraternity 

of, 123 
Sainte Croix, Liege, Church 

of, 4*, 5, 6 
Sainte Dymphne , Gheel, 

Church of, 153 
Sainte Gertrude , Nivelles, 

Church of, 4, 7, 8; Shrine 

of, 28* 
Sainte Gudule , Brussels, 

Church of, 20; glass, 160, 

235; pulpit, 202*, 205 
Sainte Madeleine, Tournai, 

Church of, 17 

X 2 



INDEX 



Sainte Odile, Casket with 

relics of, 64 
Sainte Walpurg-e, Antwerp, 

Church of, 209 
Sainte Waudru, Mens, Church 
of, 152; altar, 151*, 152* 
Saints of Austria (engrav- 
ings), 189 
Sallaert, 281 
Salting Collection, 80 
Salviati, Bernardino, 117 
Samuel, Charles, 298 
Sanders, Jan, see Hemissem 
San Domenico, Eologna, 

Church of, 184 
San Marco, Piazza, Venice, 

200 
Sandrart, 233 
Sarepta, Bishop of, 233 
Savery, Roelandt, 252; Or- 
pheus charming the ani- 
mals, 252, 260 
Schadde, Joseph, 26, 288, 289 
Schaerbeek, Municipal build- 
ings at, 288* 
Schampheleer, Edmond de, 
317; The old Rhine, near 
Gouda, 320* 
Schelde, Paul van der, 154 
Schernier , Cornells , see 

Coninxloo 
Schoreel, Jan, 155 
Schubert, 325 
Schuppen, P. van, 278 
Schut, Cornells, 234, 238, 
278, 281; Martyrdom of 
St. George, 234, 235*; 
Triumph of Time, 234, 235* 
Seghers, Antonis, 110 
Seghers, Daniel, 273; St. 

Ignatius, 278* 
Senefelder, Charles, 324 
Serlio, Sebastian, 149 
Siberechts, Jan, 266; Lands- 
cape, 271* 
Siciliano, Antonio, 61 
Simonis, L. E., 293, 325; 
Equestrian Statue of God- 
frey de Bouillon, 293* 
Slingeneyer , Ernest , 303 ; 

Battle of Lepanto, 301* 
Sluter, Claes, 34 
Smits, Eugene, 306 
Smits, Jacob, 322 
Snayers, Pieter, 254, 255, 261 
Snyders, Frans, 188, 222, 240, 
267-270, 271 ; Fruit, 269, 
273* ; The Larder, 268, 273* 
Sdlaro, Gentine, 33 
Soh^er, Paul van, 174 
Son, George van, 272 
Son, Jan Frans van, 272, 277 
Spencer, Lord, 140 
Spierincx, Pieter, 266 



Spinola, Ambrogio, 217 

Spinola family, 228 

Spranger. Bartholomeus, 184, 
192 ; Christ with the Chil- 
dren, 184, 186* 

Springingklee, Hans, 188 

Stallaert, Joseph, 306* ; Death 
of Dido, 306* 

Stappen, Charles van der, 
294, 295; Death of Omp- 
drailles, 295; Man with 
the Sword, 293*, 294 

Stavelot, Abbey of, 8, 13; 
Bible of, 12, 13: Scene 
from the Life of David, 
10*, 13; Missal of, 13; 
Sacramentarium of, 13; 
Christ on the Cross, 11*, 
13; reredos of, 31 

Steen, Jan, 313 

Steen, manor of, 221 

Steenwyk, H. van, 274 

Stevens, Alfred, 305, 306; 
Despair , 306* ; Maternal 
Bliss, 305* 

Stevens, Joseph, 315; Dog- 
Market in Paris, 318* 

Stobbaerts, Jan, 315, 318* 

Stradanus of Bruges, 191 

Stroobant, 325 

Struys, Alex., 320, 324* 

Susteren, J. A. van, 201 

Sustermans or Suttermans, 
Justus, 222, 249, 251* 

Suvee, Joseph, 299 

Suys, Leon, 287 

Suys, Leon, junior, 288; The 
Bourse, Brussels, 287 

Swanenburgh, Willem, 277 

Sweerts, 314 



Tani, Jacopo, 1C9 
Tapestry, 141-143, 192-195, 
279—283; Bringing in the 
Harvest, 282* ; Christ un- 
der the Cross, 143*; Con- 
quest of Tunis, 193*, 194*; 
David and Bathsheba, 141*; 
Death of Achilles, 280, 
283*; Descent from the 
Cross, 195*; Episodes in 
the Life of the Virgin, 142* ; 
Fall of Paganism, 285*; 
Romulus giving Laws to 
the People, 194* 
Tavernier, Jean le, 43, 51 
Teniers, David, the elder, 259 
Teniers, David, the younger, 
259—262; Inn by a River, 
265*; Kermesse, 266*; 
Shooting at the Popinjay, 



262, 267*; Village Ker- 
messe, 262, 267* 
Teniers, Julian, 259 
Tessenderloo, rood-screen, 34 
Teughel, Abbot Jan, 161 
Thielen, Jan Philip van, 273 
Thienen, Jacob van, 25 
Thierry of Haarlem , see 

Bouts 
Thompson, H. Yates, Anti- 
phonary belonging to, 36: 
Resurrection, 38* 
Thulden, Theodore van, 234, 
235, 278; The Netherlands 
rendering Homage to Mary, 
235, 236* ; Return of Peace, 
235 
Thys, Pieter, 237; St. Se- 
bastian, 237, 239* 
Tilborch, Gilles van, 262; 
A Flemish Wedding, 262, 
268* 
Tintoretto, 180, 209 
Titian, 210, 217, 227, 228 
Tongres, Church, 19*; Ro- 
manesque cloisters at, 4, 6 
Torre de la Parada, Madrid, 

222 
Tournai, Abbey of St. Mar- 
tin, 8; belfry, 24; Ro- 
manesque houses at, 6 
Tournai, Cathedral, 3*, 4, 5, 
27, 28; choir, 18; ivory 
case, 27, 28*; Porte Man- 
tile, 5*, 7; sculptures of 
facade, 27*; Shrine of St. 
Eleutherius, 28, 29* 
Transition Style, 17 
Tres beau Livre d'Heures, 
see under Berri , Due de; 
Tres belles Heures , see 
under Jean de France 
Trieste, Bishop of, 204 
Trivulzio, Prince of, 43 
Trompes, Jean des, 117 
Tuck Collection, 86 
Turin, Library, 43 



U 

Uden, Lucas van, 264, 278, 

281; Landscape, 269* 
Urban VIII., 204, 249 
Utrecht, Adriaen van, 271; 
Fruit, 276* 



Valckenburgh, Frederic van, 

177 
Valckenburgh , Lucas van 

176, 177 ; Village Inn, 176 



340 



INDEX 



177*; Winter Landscape, 
176, 178* 

Valckenburgh , Martin van, 
176; The Months, 176; 
Month of January, 178 

Vallee Royale, Chartreuse de 
la, 57 

Vasari, 74 

Vatican Library, 58 

Vaudetar, Jean de (scribe), 38 

Vauquelin, Jean, 49 

Vekemans (eng-raver), 324 

Velde, Henri van de, 291; 
Villa, 289*; interior, 289* 

Veldemer, Jan, 153 

Venius, Otto (Van Veen), 
185, 186; The Calling of 
St. Matthew, 185, 187*; 
The Charity of St. Nicholas, 
185, 187* ; Christ with the 
Four penitent Sinners, 185, 
187*; Portrait of Miraeus, 
Bishop of Antwerp, 185, 
188* ; Zacchaeus in the 
Fig-tree, 185 

Verboeckhoven, Eugene, 315, 
325; Souvenir of the Ro- 
man Campagna, 316* 

Verbrugg-en, H. J., 205; 
Pulpit in Ste. Gudule, 
Brussels, 202, 205* 

Verendael, Nicolas van, 273 

Verhaecht, Tobias, 207 

Verhaegen, Pieter, 275; The 
Presentation in the Temple, 
281* 

Verhaegen, Theodore, 205; 
Pulpit in St. Jean, Mechlin, 
202, 205* 

Verhaert, Pierre, 310, 314,324 

Verhas, Jean, 321 

Verlat, Charles, 310, 311, 
315; The Defence of the 
Herd, 311,312*; Vox Dei, 
310, 312 

Vermeulen, Cornelis, 278 

Vermeyen, Jan, 193, 194: Con- 
quest of Tunis, 193*, 194* 

Verstraete, Theodore , 318 ; 
Visit to the House of 
Mourning, 321* 

Verulam, Lord, 78 

Verwee, Alfred, 315; Cattle 
on the Banks ofaRiver,3\l* 

Vieil Rentier d'Audenarde, 
see under Audenarde 

Vienna, Imperial Library, 63 

Vigne, Paul de, 294; Im- 
mortality, 292*, 294 

Vigne, Pierre de, 293 

Villa, Claude de, 33 ; reredos 
of, 33, 35* 

Villeroy, Marshal de, 199 

Villers, Abbey-church of, 18 



VilHers-la-Ville, reredos of, 33 

Vincent, 299 

Vinckeboons, David, 253; 
Village Kermesse, 253, 260* 

Vineotte, Thomas, 297, 298 ; 
Bust of Leopold IL, 297* ; 
Pediment of Royal Palace, 
Brussels, 297* 

Vitruvius, 149 

Vlaenderberghe, Barbara de, 
112 

Voet, J. F., 249; Portrait of 
Dezio Azzolini, 249, 252* 

Vorsterman, Lucas, 243, 277 

Vos, Cornelis de, 239, 240; 
The Painter's Family, 240, 
243*; Portrait of the Bea- 
dle of the Guild of St. 
Luke, 240, 242*; St. Nor- 
bert receiving the holy 
Wafers, 240, 242* 

Vos, Martin de, 179, 180, 
181, 191; Incredulity of 
St. Thomas, 180, 181*; 
Portrait of the Anselmo 
Family, 181, 182*; Portrait 
of Gilles Hoffman and his 
Wife, 181, 183*; Tribute 
Money, 181, 182*; Tri- 
umph of Christ, 181, 183* 

Vos, Paul de, 269; Stag- 
hunting, TIA* 

Vranckx, Sebastian, 254; 
Landscape, 261* 

Vrelandt or Wyelant, Wil- 
lem, 49, 113 

Vriendt, Albert de, 310, 314; 
The Excommunication of 
Bouchard dAvesi<es, 310* 

Vriendt, Cornelis de, see 
Floris 

Vriendt, Julien de, 310, 314 
The Christmas Carol, 309* 

Vries, Vredeman de, 149 

Vydt or Vyt, Jodoc, 68, 73 

W 

Wael, Cornelis de, 255 
Waghemakere, Dominic de,26 
Wappers, Gustave, 301, 302; 

The September Days of 

1830, 301*, 302 
Wauters, Emile, 312; The 

Madness of Hugo van der 

Goes, 312, 313* 
Wenemaer, Willem, 30; his 

memorial brass, 30, 33* 
Werl, Heinrich von, 83 
Werwe, Nicolas de, 34 
Weyden, Rogier van der, 81, 

88-99, 142, 155, 159; 

Altarpiece of St. John, 79*, 

341 



95 ; Bladelin Altarpiece, 
80*, 81*, 95; Descent from 
the Cross, 76*, 90, 91; 
Justice of Herkenbald, 77*, 
92 ; Justice of Trajan, 77*, 
91; Last Judgment, 78*, 
92, 93; Madonna and 
Saints, 82*, 96; Seven 
Sacraments, 79*, 94, 95; 
Triptych at Munich, 83*, 
96, 97 

Wiericx , the brothers , 191 ; 
The Infanta Isabella, 193* 

Wiertz, Antoine , 303, 304; 
Patroclus, 303, 304 

Wigans, Isaac, 271 

Wildens, Jan, 264, 265; 
Landscape, 265, 270* 

Wilderen, font at, 29, 30* 

Willaert, Ferdinand, 321 

Willaerts, 267 

Winckelmann, 206 

Winghe, Josse van, 183; 
Apelles painting the Mis- 
tress of Alexander the 
Great, 183, 185* 

Winne, Lievin de, 313; Por- 
trait of Leopold I., 313, 
315* 

Witdoeck, Hans, 278 

Witte, Caspar de, 266 

Wolfvoet, Victor, 236 

Wolsey, Cardinal, 193 

Woluwe, Jan de, 65 

Wouters, Frans, 236 ; Diana 
in the Wood, 236, 237* 

Wyelant see Vrelant 



Ykens, Frans, 273 

Ypres: belfry, 23; cathedral, 

2*, 5; cloth-hall, 22*, 23; 

Meat-market, 23* 
Ysenbrant, Adriaen, 119 
Ysendyck, J. J. van, 289; 

Municipal building, 288*, 

289 



Zedlichem, font at, 29* 
Zeghers , Gerard , 232 , 233, 

234, 236; Adoration of 

the Shepherds, 233, 234*; 

Dream of St. Joseph, 233* ; 

Marriage of the Virgin, 

233; Virgin and Child, 

233* 
Ziethem, 37 
Zuccaro, Federigo, 185 
Zuerbempde, Tabernacle of, 

152 



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