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Full text of "Art in Los Angeles : seventeen artists in the sixties : [catalog of exhibition] : Los Angeles County Museum of Art"

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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2009 with funding from 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art 



http://www.archive.org/details/artinlosangelesOOtuch 



Art in Los Angeles Seventeen Artists in the Sixties 



This exhibition was made possible by a grant from The James Irvine Foundation. 



Los Angeles County Museum of Art Maurice Tuehman 



Art in Los Angeles 

Seventeen Artists in the Sixties 



Library of Congress 
Cataloging in Publication Data 

Art in Los Angeles. 

Includes bibliographies. 

1. Art, American — California— Los Angeles — 
Exhibitions. 2. Art, Modern — 20th century- 
California— Los Angeles— Exhibitions. L T\ichman, 
Maurice. 11. Los Angeles County Museum of Art. 
N6535.L6A7 709'.794'94074019493 81-6003 

ISBN 0-87587-lOM AACR2 



Published by the 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art 

5905 Wilshire Boulevard 

Los Angeles, California 90036 

Copyright ©1981 by 

Museum Associates of the 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art 

All rights reserved 
Printed in the USA 

Curatorial liaison for the publication; 
Stella Paul 

Edited by Jeanne D'Andrea. 
Stephen West, and Aleida Rodriguez 

Designed in Los Angeles 
by Louis Danziger 

Text set in Century Schoolbook typefaces 
by RSTypographics. Los Angeles 

Printed in an edition of 11,000 on 
Lustro Offset Enamel Book and Warren's 
No, 66 Antique Bulking papers by 
George Rice & Sons, Los Angeles 



Exhibition Itinerary 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art 
July 21-October 4. 1981 

San Antonio Museum of Art 
November 20, 1981-January 31, 1982 



Contents 



7 Foreword by Earl A. Powell III 

7 Acknowledgments 

6 Lenders to the Exhibition 

8 Introduction by Maurice Tbchman 

11 Berman and Kienholz; Progenitors of Los Angeles 
Assemblage by Anne Bartlett Ayres 

19 Los Angeles Painting in the Sixties: 

A Tradition in Transition by Susan C. Larsen 

25 The Word Made Flesh: L.A. Pop Redefined 
by Christopher Knight 

29 Visually Haptic Space: The Twentieth-Century Luminism 
of Irwin and Bell by Michele D. De Angelus 

37 Color Plates 

53 Catalog 

101 Exhibition Histories and Bibliographies 

126 Chronology of Exhibitions: 1959- 70 by Stella Paul 

162 Trustees and Supervisors 



Lenders to the Exhibition 



Artist Studio. Venice, California 

Betty Asher 

Asher/Faure Gallery, Los Angeles 

Larry Bell 

Mrs. Kathleen Bleiweiss 

The Brooklyn Museum, New York 

Dartmouth College Museum and Galleries, Hanover, New Hampshire 

Ronald Davis 

Betty and Monte Factor Family Collection 

Lynn Factor, Brentwood, California 

Sir John Foster 

Sam Francis 

Mr and Mrs. Philip Gersh 

Gilman Paper Company Collection 

Dr and Mrs. Merle S. Glick 

Hal Glicksman 

Milly and Arnold Glimcher, New York 

Dr and Mrs. Charles Hendrickson 

Walter Hopps, Washington, D.C. 

Robert Irwin 

Judge Kurtz Kauffman 

Vivian Kauffman 

Lyn Kienholz 

Mr and Mrs. Gilbert H. Kinney 

La Jolla Museum of Contemporary Art, California 

Collection of Frances and Norman Lear 

Sydney and Frances Lewis Collection 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art 

Milwaukee Art Center, Wisconsin 

Edward Moses 

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 

The Oakland Museum, California 

Mr and Mrs. Richard Jerome O'Neill 

Giuseppe Panza di Biumo, Milan 

Mr and Mrs. Morris S. Pynoos 

Mr and Mrs. Jack Quinn 

Hanna Renneker 

Robert Rowan 

Edward Ruscha 

Santa Barbara Museum of Art, California 

Mr and Mrs. Henry Shapiro, Chicago 

Mr. and Mrs. Stanley K. Sheinbaum 

Becky and Peter Smith 

Dean Stockwell 

The Times Mirror Company, Los Angeles 

Dr Leopold S. Tuchman 

University Art Museum, University of California, Berkeley 

Whitney Museum of American Art, New York 

Laura-Lee and Bob Woods 

Edward and Melinda Wortz 

Anonymous lenders 



Foreword 



Acknowledgments 



This year marks almost two decades since Los 
Angeles began to emerge as a major center of contempo- 
rary art. It also marks the Los Angeles Bicentennial, an 
occasion that prompts the Museum to present this two- 
part exhibition: Art in Los Angeles — Seventeen Artists in 
the Sixties and The Museum as Site: Sixteen Projects. The 
first is a fresh approach to group shows that reveals the 
extraordinary achievement of seventeen recognized paint- 
ers and sculptors who worked in Los Angeles in the six- 
ties. For the second exhibition, sixteen Los Angeles artists 
who have achieved recognition in the last decade were 
invited to create works specifically for this Museum's 
sites — both conventional and nonconventional. 

During the sixties an unprecedented number of art- 
ists began to mature in Los Angeles, bringing to the city 
a creative impulse that has permanently defined the 
community's cultural stance. The exhibition Seventeen 
Artists in the Sixties calls attention to the rich diversity 
of artistic activity that characterized this period. The oc- 
casion of the city's bicentennial, with two decades of per- 
spective on this fertile period, is an especially appropriate 
time to present a selected retrospective of some of Los 
Angeles' major artistic talents. 

To date, this most fascinating period in our history 
remains inadequately documented. With the exhibition 
and its accompanying catalog, the Museum attempts to 
address this need. The Museum has collaborated with the 
West Coast Area Center of the Archives of American 
Art in commissioning a number of interviews with artists 
and other members of the art community as part of the 
Archives' California Oral History Project. These docu- 
ments constitute an invaluable resource for both scholars 
and the general public. The Archives' role in collecting 
and microfilming artists' papers is certain to become in- 
creasingly important to students of art on the West Coast. 

This exhibition could never have occurred without the 
generosity and support of the lenders. We wish to thank 
the fifty-two individuals, museums, corporations, and gal- 
leries who have contributed to the realization of the show. 
As always, the Museum's Modern and Contemporary Art 
Council has supported this project from its inception. 

We are especially pleased that the San Antonio 
Museum of Art is participating in this exhibition, and 
are appreciative of the enthusiasm and support of its new 
director, Kevin Consey. 

For the commitment shown by the James Irvine 
Foundation, which has made this exhibition possible as a 
centerpiece of the bicentennial year, we are especially 
grateful. 

Earl A. Powell iii 
Director 



Several people who were active in the Los Angeles 
art community during the late fifties and sixties gener- 
ously shared their experiences with me. Discussions with 
Betty Asher, Irving Blum, James Elliott, and Nicholas 
Wilder were especially valuable. Christopher Knight's 
comments about this project were also an asset in the 
planning stage. 

I would like to thank those people in the Museum 
who were exceptionally involved with this project. Cura- 
torial Assistant Stella Paul was my principal assistant, 
coordinating all matters of organization of the exhibition 
and catalog, displaying initiative and exceptional effi- 
ciency. Stephanie Barron, Curator of Modern Art, was 
always available for consultation. Katherine Hart, 
Assistant Curator, helped us with the myriad details 
involved with the final stages of the project. Donna Wong, 
secretary, performed diligently and tactfully. Museum 
Service Council volunteer Grace Spencer was again 
indispensable to us in providing archival research 
materials. I would like also to cite the Photography 
Department, under the direction of Larry Reynolds, for its 
special resourcefulness. I am also grateful to Lucille 
Epstein, docent, for helping us assemble a research 
library for this project. Laura Revness, Deanna de Mayo, 
and Robert Pincus gave generously of their time. 

Museum Director Earl A. Powell iii has been a con- 
stant enthusiast and supporter of this project. 

I am personally grateful to the Modern and Contem- 
porary Art Council for the unfailing support they have 
provided the Department of Modern Art once again in 
the course of organizing this exhibition. 

Maurice TXichman 



Maurice Tuchman 



Introduction 



Although numerous exhibitions have surveyed the 
new art that emerged in Los Angeles in the late fifties, 
beginning with the Whitney Museum's Fifty California 
Artists of 1962, this presentation is the first to highlight 
what actually did occur rather than what seemed to be 
developing. 

Given a necessarily restricted gallery space, two 
basic procedures were possible: an exhibition of, say, one 
hundred works by the same number of artists — or by 
fifty, or thirty — as an attempt to document diverse 
statements; or a show that would focus on the fewer, out- 
standing figures of the decade, exhibiting their work in 
depth. I have chosen the second method. Further, I have 
emphasized the individuality of the selection by showing 
work that falls for the most part into a single, specific 
phase of each artist's development in the sixties. By 
bringing together, for example, a group of sprayed paint- 
ings by Billy Al Bengston or the "two-lined" abstract 
paintings of Robert Irwin, greater insight into the singu- 
lar achievement of each artist may be afforded than 
would be possible by a scattered view of their diverse 
modes throughout the sixties. Such a method of organiza- 
tion allows the viewer, in walking through the exhibition, 
to encounter singly, in roughly chronological order, artists 
such as John McLaughlin, Peter Voulkos, and Wallace 
Berman at the outset of the decade, through a dozen art- 
ists of the mid-sixties, to Richard Diebenkorn and Bruce 
Nauman at the end of the decade. A sense of progression 
and change is implied. Although there is, of course, 
nothing magical about the sixties as a discrete entity, it is 
nevertheless demonstrably true that the late fifties in 
Los Angeles witnessed a surge of artistic vigor which led 
some artists who matured in the sixties to attain world- 
class stature. Although these artists continued to create 
at a high and distinctive level in the seventies, the gen- 
eral parameters of their work were established by 1970. It 
is always difficult to omit serious artists of real value 
from any group exhibition, and certainly the exclusion of 
perhaps thirty artists whose achievements have already 
been cited by the Museum with solo shows and acquisi- 
tions is particularly felt on this occasion. Such omissions 
can only be justified by the successful organization of an 
exhibition of exceptional strength, by inclusion of artists 
whose work will have enduring interest and importance 
in art history. 

All of the artists, or their representatives, partici- 
pated in the selection process, often interceding with 
owners of their work to secure loans. The late Wallace 
Berman is represented by all his early extant collages 
and by the issues ofSemina he produced from 1955 to 
1964; these much admired collages fused the mystical and 
the topical and placed Berman, as Anne Ayres points 
out in her essay in this catalog, at one end of California's 
assemblage polarity, with Edward Kienholz at the oppo- 
site end. By the late fifties John McLaughlin's pristine 
canvases took on individual force and commanded respect, 
but at the turn of the decade a distinct fulsomeness 
and serene authority, reflected in the use of fewer and 
more symmetric forms and in a more frequent deploy- 



ment of black and white alone, became the hallmarks 
of his style. Peter Voulkos, who influenced most of the 
artists in the Ferus group, both as sculptor and teacher, 
created ceramic sculpture of a monumentality and vigor 
almost unprecedented in the medium; indeed, even today 
the "crafts" connotation of the clay medium unfairly 
serves to diminish the importance of these works. 

In this catalog, interpretation and appreciation of the 
work of Voulkos and of the younger ceramic sculptor 
Ken Price is insufficiently presented largely for the same 
reason. Although in 1978 I wrote on Price's monumental 
effort of the seventies, the series called Happy's Curios 
(Ken Price: Happy's Curios, exhibition catalog, Los 
Angeles County Museum of Art), I could not secure an 
independent art historical essay for the present catalog 
on the 1960s work of Voulkos and Price. I hope the inter- 
est generated by this exhibition will result in much- 
needed studies of these artists. Meanwhile, the reader's 
notice is called to John Coplan's 1966 catalog essay for 
Abstract Expressionist Ceramics at the Art Gallery of the 
University of California at Irvine. 

Of the artists associated with the Ferus Gallery, 
Irwin, Price, Bengston, Moses, Kauffman, and Kienholz 
are each represented by a number of their early works. 
(They are also seen, as are the other participating artists 
who resided in Los Angeles in the late fifties, in the intro- 
ductory section of this exhibition, represented by signi- 
ficant works made just prior to their maturity.) Kienholz 
developed the environmental sculpture format he titled 
"tableau" with the powerful recreation of a brothel called 
Roxys. The space built for each installation accommo- 
dates the furniture, props, and individual sculptures 
that comprise the work; later the artist would create 
a container-like space with immovable parts, as in The 
Beanery where we witness the baroque culmination of 
the assemblage movement. Although neither Roxys nor 
The Beanery could be brought to Los Angeles for this 
occasion, Kienholz is well represented by the notorious 
The Back Seat Dodge '38 and The Illegal Operation, per- 
haps the strongest work the artist has made. Sculptor 
Ken Price has almost nothing in common with Kienholz, 
except for a shared wizardry of technique and masterly 
craftsmanship. It is this stylistic disparity that has suc- 
cessfully defeated efforts to label these artists. Price's egg- 
shaped sculptures of about 1962 appear as miraculously 
"right," vulnerable yet strong, cheerfully accessible 
as images yet uncannily mysterious. These are sculptor's 
sculptures, appropriately prized by artists and by cogno- 
scenti. Robert Irwin's exquisite, cerebral, abstract paint- 
ing is seen here in the series of "two-line" canvases of 
1962, works that challenge the viewer's ability to see an 
entire field whole. Their creation led Irwin to undertake 
still more difficult artistic tasks later in the sixties and 
seventies. These paintings — justly celebrated now — an- 
ticipate Irwin's pioneering efforts in recent years to trans- 
form public spaces by seemingly simple alterations of the 
total field (whether by tapes, scrim, wire, or elementary 
structural additions). Bengston's early sprayed paintings 
announced a veritably new aesthetic. The chevron that 



instantly became famous and was for years the artist's 
trademark was both as unemotional as an industrial 
technique and as idiosyncratic as a personal symbol. This 
fusion of tough-minded artmaking with unabashed aes- 
theticism holds for all the members of the Ferus Gallery 
group, including Craig Kauffman. From the outset one of 
the most virtuoso of the group, Kauffman is here repre- 
sented by works made later in the decade, the Bubble 
series of 1966-67, in which plastic is made to appear color- 
fully lush and sensuous, with the forms hinting at an 
odd biological origin. Ed Moses, in a dazzling series of 
large floral drawings made in 1963, reflects his fellow art- 
ists' extraordinary commitment to craftsmanship, but in 
the most traditional of techniques — graphite on paper. 

Larry Bell and Ed Ruscha came to the Ferus group in 
the early sixties. Bell was influenced by Irwin (and later 
affected Irwin's development) in his ready acceptance 
of total-field, geometric concerns, and in the making of 
sculptures — such as the seven cubes in this exhibition — 
that welcome pleasing illusions and reflections without 
abandoning a grave mien. Ruscha, along with his 
friend Joe Goode, struck a new note in the developing 
Los Angeles scene with works referring to the new urban 
idiom of commercial design. Ruscha redesigns, as it 
were, the styles and packages of a consumer society, 
filtering them through his ironic, bemused gaze. Joe 
Goode's work was more stark and emotional in the early 
sixties than Ruscha's, but equally object-oriented; later in 
the decade Goode's work such as the Vandalism series, 
or in this exhibition the Unmade Bed series, reveals an 
increasing interest in the devices of picture-making (torn 
canvases, the incorporation of glass and frame into the 
image) as well as in psychological implications that go 
beyond Pop art's usual parameters. 

English artist David Hockney first came to Los 
Angeles in 1964, and it has frequently been his residence 
since that time. Los Angeles had a direct impact upon 
Hockney's works, as evident in the brilliant portraits and 
domestic scenes in this exhibition. In his essay on Los 
Angeles' version of Pop art, Christopher Knight points 
out that "things" in L.A. took hold of Hockney's imagina- 
tion immediately after he arrived here; interestingly, 
Hockney's recent Los Angeles paintings may be seen as 
an effort to contend with the glaring light that has been 
so difficult for painters of nature. The quality of light 
in Southern California also played an important role in 
inducing Richard Diebenkorn to move to Los Angeles 
in 1966. His justly renowned Ocean Park series, named 
after a neighborhood in Santa Monica where his studios 
are located (an area that also provided subject matter for 
earlier artists, such as John Altoon and Robert Irwin), 
intently and lyrically addresses the particular color, 
humidity, temperature, air currents, and evanescent light 
conditions of the area. Sam Francis, like Diebenkorn, 
moved to Los Angeles as an established artist in 1967, 
thereby further contributing to the city's artistic vitality 
in the second half of the decade. Francis' "open" series of 
paintings, among the most adventurous abstract works 
created in the sixties, exhibited in a one-man show at 



this museum, is also a direct response to the West Los 
Angeles ambience. In this exhibition a less well-known 
series of Sam Francis from the late sixties is presented, 
characterized, as Susan Larsen writes, by "a heavier. 
firmer structure alive with fluid, glowing pigment." 

Moving south to Los Angeles from San Francisco in 
the sixties were two exceptional, dissimilar talents: 
Ronald Davis and Bruce Nauman. Davis would inject 
new vitality into the tradition of painting per se by trans- 
lating the neglected powers of perspective with new 
materials and techniques; Nauman would radically extend 
elements of body and performance art, videotape, and 
environmental concerns into a personal and influential 
artistic style and way of thinking. Davis is represented 
here by works from one outstanding series of the several 
he created in the sixties, the fiberglass Dodecagons. The ex- 
hibition concludes with Nauman's Video Corridor: Live 
and Taped (1969). As the sixties in Los Angeles began with 
a polar contrast — the painting of McLaughlin and the 
assemblage of Berman — it concluded with the reaffirma- 
tion of painting by Diebenkorn and Davis and the ex- 
ploratory environments of Nauman. 

The New York art world, stimulated each season 
beginning about 1960 by aesthetic upheavals, sought to 
locate a common denominator in the style of new artists 
emerging on the opposite coast. Within a few years the 
term "L.A. Look" came to be applied to the artists iden- 
tified with the Ferus Gallery and later to artists who 
worked with glass and plastic materials integral to the 
impeccably crafted Los Angeles art works. Curiously, this 
interest in California developments on the part of New 
Yorkers did not include any great sympathy for the 
artists themselves. Simultaneously, however, European 
museums and collectors displayed an unprecedented 
interest in Los Angeles artists, clearly evident from ex- 
hibitions in London, Brussels, Eindhoven, and Amsterdam, 
and from collections such as that of Count Panza in 
Varese, near Milan. 

To date, the most significant art writing on this 
period has been contributed by Los Angeles critics. These 
writers have been, as may be expected, involved with the 
artists in many personal ways, whether as friends, deal- 
ers, or spouses. Now, however, a new generation of art his- 
torians, professionally intrigued but personally detached 
from these artists, has begun to address basic issues 
of style and substance in a less biased manner. In this 
catalog Susan Larsen and Anne Ayres, dealing with 
abstract painting and assemblage art respectively, seek to 
characterize the salient qualities of each artist and the 
roots of his expression. Michele De Angelus and Chris- 
topher Knight each points to the connections between 
Los Angeles' "perceptualism" and its Pop art, and the 
nineteenth-century American Luminist movement; De 
Angelus and Knight are eager to dispel the "finish fetish" 
appellation applied to much Los Angeles work. Finally, 
Stella Paul has compiled a photographic chronology of the 
1960s Los Angeles art world. 

The Museum as Site: Sixteen Projects, to open July 21, 
1981, is an exhibition that draws upon the talents of 



many artists who developed in the 1970s. Sixteen of these 
artists were approached by the organizer of this show. 
Curator of Modem Art Stephanie Barron, to create site- 
specific works throughout the Museum — interior gallery 
areas, the B. G. Cantor Sculpture Garden, the Frances 
and Armand Hammer Wing and Ahmanson Gallery 
building facades, the Atrium, and stairwells. I have no 
doubt this exhibition will reveal that the generation 
that emerged in Los Angeles during the seventies is one 
the city can be deeply proud of as it celebrates its two- 
hundredth birthday. 

To the exhibiting artists, all of whom cooperated 
fully, to the catalog essayists, and to the generous 
lenders to the exhibition, who are listed individually, 
I am deeply grateful. 



10 



Anne Bartlett Ayres 



Berman and Kienholz: Progenitors of Los Angeles Assemblage 



That's one of the reasons I like Los Angeles, because Los 
Angeles throws away an incredible amount of value every 
day. I mean, it's just discarded, shitcanned. From au- 
tomobiles to desks, to clothes, to paint, to — you know, half- 
bags of concrete that are hardened up. I mean, whatever it 
is, there is an incredible waste in the city of Los Angeles, 
and if you're living on the edge of the economy like that, all 
the waste filters through your awareness and you take what 
you want. — Edward Kienholz' 

It has been twenty years since the art of constructing 
objects from the preformed "stuff" of the actual world 
was baptized assemblage and given an official history 
grounded in twentieth-century modernism.- By the early 
sixties, artists of this alternative medium claimed a 
mixed heritage that included reality/illusion queries and 
anti-art gestures. Modernism's emphasis on the thing- 
as-such favored the found object; at the same time, its 
search for the "reality" beneath the gloss of civilization 
encouraged the incongruous juxtapositions of Surrealism. 
Assemblage was on the cutting edge of advanced art. But, 
always an ambiguous medium, it also was given legiti- 
macy by modernism's embrace of the "primitive." Assem- 
blage is an activity congenial to tribal and folk-art 
conventions, as well as to the art of autodidacts, children, 
and disintegrated personalities — to those, that is, who 
have not erected rigid boundaries between subject and ob- 
ject, reality and fantasy, life and art, plastic and literary 
means. Assemblage traditionally attracts the aestheti- 
cally rebellious, but also the academically untutored and 
the artist in pursuit of idiosyncratic vision. 

In early American modernism, the investigation of 
mixed media that emerged from Duchamp-influenced 
New York Dada was cold by about 1920. Assemblage of 
the next two decades — in the work of its most noteworthy 
practitioners, Arthur Dove and Joseph Cornell — indeed 
appears idiosyncratic. Dove's work is a good example 
of assemblage's knotty history. Confined to the twenties, 
his assembled "things" reflect the influence of Dada shock 
as well as primitivistic aspects of modernism; they are 
related to usages of nineteenth-century folk art, the legacy 
of American pragmatism, and a peculiarly American 
nature mysticism. Cornell's "shadow boxes," introduced in 
the thirties, combine a nineteenth-century romantic 
and poetic sensibility with the discoveries of Surrealism; 
although plastic in means, they emphasize literary 
content and arcane associations. By the post-1945 period, 
however, mixed media experienced a resurgence within 
the mainstream of advanced art in New York. A suscepti- 
bility to junk ingratiated itself into Abstract Expression- 
ism's play with "non-art" scraps (de Kooning, Pollock); 
it exploded in the next generation's freestanding junk 
constructions (Stankiewicz, Chamberlain, di Suvero) 
and breakdown of painting/sculpture boundaries 
(Rauschenberg, Johns, Kaprow, Dine). In San Francisco, 
the anti- "fine arts" Beatnik mystique joined gestural 
expressionism with a Surrealist sense of the magically 
banal (Lobdell, DeFeo, Hedrick, Conner). With the 
"affluent society" providing a bottomless wastebin fed by 
throw-away consumerism and mass-media overload, it 
was Los Angeles especially that made the art of assem- 
blage a heaven-sent metaphor for Wallace Berman's 
"city of degenerate angels."^ 

Los Angeles in the late fifties and sixties had no 
monopoly on refuse, detritus, junk; it was, however, 
already the city of the smoggy future, the archetypal con- 
sumer society gagging on the boom of planned obsoles- 
cence and unplanned urban sprawl. Vulgar, extroverted, 
spontaneous, energetic, proudly unsophisticated — Los 



Angeles discouraged a civilized sense of art historical 
continuities. As Edward Kienholz had it, "Los Angeles 
was more of a virgin. When I first came to Los Angeles, it 
was virgin so far as art was concerned, as far as I could 
sense and feel it."'' 

Assemblage developed as a shadow side to the 
famous "L.A. Look" characterized by the cool, the elegant, 
and the highly crafted. As an idiosyncratic (and often 
autodidactic) alternative to the newfound professionalism, 
assemblage evolved as a complex medium for social 
protest and personal expression. It could be accessible 
in genre-like narrative content or exclusive in occult 
reference. The West Coast assemblage phenomenon took 
off from a Symbolist/Surrealist heritage that had a closer 
kinship to Beat poetry and underground films than to an 
understood history of Cubist innovation. Counterculture 
rebellion saw society as violent, repressive, hypocritical — 
and individual works of assemblage appeared to preach 
to the multitudes or speak in undertones to the initiates. 
Out of the San Francisco/Los Angeles nexus, assemblage 
developed as a vehicle compatible with the fashions of the 
period from occult mysticisms and non-Western thought 
systems to cosmologies of love and human-potential 
psychologies. The expanded consciousness of drug visions 
focused upon the isolated object, disconnected from famil- 
iar, identifying environments: the support system of 
comfortable associations disintegrated and novel relation- 
ships were suggested. Long and close attention paid to 
the formal qualities of the discarded, the banal, and the 
conventionally ugly revealed odd beauties and intense 
significances. Assemblage evolved as a language of sub- 
jectivity and absolutes, its artists seen as poet-visionaries 
or social critics. Los Angeles produced many serious as- 
semblage artists.-'^ Of these, Wallace Berman and Edward 
Kienholz represent, both formally and expressively, 
highly diverse approaches to the medium. 

What is this, an art show? Where is the art? 

— arresting officer at Berman's Ferus show" 

1 found the scene in the automobile and the house of pros- 
titution repugnant. This kind of expression is not art in any 
sense as far as I am concerned. — Warren Dorn'' 



I'm a romantic. I preach. 



-Edward Kienholz^ 



Until recently, the art of Wallace Berman has been 
something of an underground phenomenon and local 
affair Edward Kienholz, on the other hand, achieved an 
international reputation by the end of the sixties and 
is often considered the West Coast artist. Yet both occupy 
seminal positions. Berman traditionally is cited as the 
progenitor of Los Angeles assemblage and as a conduit of 
occult sources and private reveries. Tragically, Berman 
died in a car accident in 1976 at the age of fifty; although 
retrospectives followed, during his lifetime he had avoided 
the limelight of regular gallery shows and the pragmatic 
"moves" of art-as-career. Edward Kienholz is the tower- 
ing figure — the artist of public engagement and baroque 



Fig.l 

Wallace Berman 

Veritas Panel (closed), 
1949-57 (destroyed) 
Mixed media 

Fig. 2 

Wallace Berman 
Veritas Panel (open), 
1949-57 (destroyed) 
Mixed media 



1 


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drama. He was a moving force on the Los Angeles 
vanguard art scene as founder of the Now Gallery 
(1963) and co-founder of the galvanizing Ferus Gallery 
(1957). Kienholz left Los Angeles in 1975 and now divides 
his time between Berlin, West Germany, and the Amer- 
ican Northwest (Hope, Idaho) of his upbringing. 

In the powder-keg environment of the sixties, both 
Berman and Kienholz experienced the fallout of outraged 
sensibilities. Although most postwar artists denied that 
shock was the intent, the medium of assemblage re- 
mained a magnet for controversy and was associated with 
neo-Dada menace. At the same time, with its stress on 
actuality and its sympathy for narrative associations, as- 
semblage can be highly accessible to the viewer. Because 
it sheds high-art intimidation, assemblage frees the 
viewer to participate on his own terms and, in the proc- 
ess, invites untutored certainties. When — as in the cases 
of Berman and Kienholz — the subject matter is believed 
offensive, assemblage by its very form works to deny 
redeeming value. Berman's arrest in June 1957 at his first 
and only Ferus Gallery exhibition was precipitated by 
unidentified complaints concerning a sexually explicit 
image included in an assemblage. The arrest was an 
unobtrusive event generating no newspaper response and 
no art-community demonstration. The artist and the 
gallery were not well known; more nearly unknown in 
1957 was the art of media exploitation and counterculture 
organization. Fined $150, Berman quietly moved to San 
Francisco and then to Marin County, returning to Los 
Angeles in 1961. In March 1962 an exhibition called 
Edward Kienholz Presents a Tableau at the Ferus intro- 
duced Roxys, a three-dimensional environment that recre- 
ated a house of prostitution. Roxys combined mannequin 
and doll fragments with other found objects in a realistic 
setting that included music and aromas. It was Kienholz's 
first tableau; his reinvention in stridently modernist 
terms of the traditional nineteenth-century genre scene 
fused nostalgia and nightmare. Roxys was a succes 
d'estime at the vanguard Ferus, but four years later it 
became a succes de scandal at the respectable Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art. Roxys and The Back Seat Dodge 
'38, (cat. no. 76) created a county-wide debate on such 
emotional issues as art versus pornography, government 
interference versus museum responsibility, and county 
stewardship of public morality versus professional art 
expertise.** 

Fifteen years after Los Angeles County Museum's 
exhibition, several tableaux, including The Back Seat 
Dodge '38, return to Los Angeles as part of a civic cele- 
bration — their historic and aesthetic significance are be- 
yond dispute. Less clamorous, however, is the sense of Wal- 
lace Berman's distinction within the Los Angeles art 
scene of the sixties. His large freestanding assemblages of 
the 1957 Ferus exhibition — Veritas Panel, Temple, Fac- 
tum Fidei (or Cross) — are known only from photographs 
and memories. Berman is represented in the present ex- 
hibition by five of the twelve untitled "parchment" paint- 
ings (cat. nos. 32-36) that formed an important part of 
the original Ferus show, and by a complete set ofSemina 



— nine small unbound albums of drawings, poetry, photo- 
graphs, and collages produced on a hand press by Berman 
from 1955 to 1964 (cat. nos. 23-31). Thus, an understand- 
ing of Berman's importance as progenitor of a Los 
Angeles assemblage movement is best served by a discus- 
sion of the destroyed assemblages from the early Ferus 
exhibition. Although his mature oeuvre investigated 
numerous media,'" its consistent symbolic resonance was 
established in the 1957 show. These assemblages did not 
form a tableau in the unified and narrative mode of 
Kienholz; nevertheless, the installation as a whole 
suggested a cohesive — if elusive and multivalent — 
thematic organization. 

I'm letting it come through from dead Poets. 

— Wallace Berman^^ 

Berman's earliest extant sculpture, a work in wood 
titled Homage to Hesse (1949-54), exhibits a feel for the 
spaces and forms of Giacometti and Arp and for the 
textural sensuousness of Brancusi. Keyed by the title, 
its formal harmonies suggest a physical evocation of the 
magical activity and formula called the "Bead Game" 
that occupies the philosophical center of Herman Hesse's 
masterpiece Magister Ludi}~ Ti-anslations of Hesse's 
work provided Berman — as it did for a later generation 
of youth in the sixties — with inspiration and a workable 
integration of Eastern and Western thought. The later 
editions otSemina included poetry by Berman, by his 
friends in Los Angeles, and by poets associated with the 
San Francisco renaissance. In the early editions, Ber- 
man's sense of a unifying stream of consciousness and of 
a magical confraternity was attracted to the French 
Symbolist and Surrealist tradition and to the visionary 
poetry of Blake, Tagore, and Yeats." The existence of a 
secret brotherhood of minds stretching backward and 
forward in time is essential to Hesse's novels in which 
spiritual journeys of discovery parallel the mundane pas- 
sage from birth to death. This brotherhood is deeply felt 
in Hesse's poem "The Bead Game," (included by Berman 
in Semina 2 (1957): 

Music of the spheres, music of the masters 
We venerate and gladly harken to. 
To glorify with taintless celebration 
The spirits of the great of long ago 

And none of us can fall from out their courses 
If not toward the holy colophon. 

Berman's personal colophon, his printer's mark, was an- 
nounced in Semina 2 by the motto "art is love is god." 
Although the tenet was made Berman's own, it is 
explicit in the work of Hesse. Included in the first edition 
of Semina (1955), Hesse's "To a Toccata by Bach" presents 
a grand equation: "And further the great creative urge 
swings back toward Ciod . . . / It is drive, it is spirit, it 
is struggle and joy./ It is love."'"' The quintessence of 
Berman's Ferus exhibition is this conscious cultivation 
of the sacred. 




Fig. 3 

Wallace Berman 
Temple. 1957 (destroyed) 
Mixed media 




Fig. 4 

Wallace Berman 
Factum Fidei. 1956 
Mixed media 



Accompanying Homage to Hesse at the Ferus exhibi- 
tion were three large, freestanding assemblages that in- 
corporated disparate fragments from the worlds of nature 
and manufacture and from Herman's wholly personal 
repertoire of drawings, calligraphy, poetry, and photo- 
graphs: Veritas Panel (apparently worked on from 1949 to 
1957), Te7nple (1957), and Factum Fidei, (1956). Veritas 
Panel (fig. 1) is a container for highly subjective relics 
which, keying associations with ancient mystical 
paths, reveal the artist as a carrier of truth. The assem- 
blage is dominated by Berman's photograph of his wife, 
Shirley Berman. Compassionate, accusatory, enigmatic, 
the large eyes evoke an iconic madonna, the High Priest- 
ess of the Tarot — or even an allusion to the Cabalist 
concept oibina, feminine understanding. The title of this 
"truth panel" derives from the inscription f Veritas) 
that is painted on the photograph. It is scrawled with 
Latin-sounding neologisms suggesting mysteries of 
truth, confirmation, being, existence, ecstasy, and descent 
into watery depths in quest of rebirth; images of a free 
flying bird (panel closed) and of sunlight and human 
buoyancy (panel open) echo the calligraphy (fig. 2). Using 
letters and numbers, Berman alludes to ancient wisdoms 
— a kind of Judeo-Christian eclecticism that hints at pos- 
sibilities but does not spell out certainties. The number 
12, revealed only when the panel is open, may refer to the 
twelve "parchment" paintings (disciples or witnesses) 
that comprised an integral part of the Ferus exhibition. 
Painted with black ink, the chance configuration of He- 
brew letters is made timeworn by being torn in eccentric 
patches from a larger sheet of paper, itself artificially 
aged by woodstain. Affixed to canvas, they create the al- 
lure of an archaeological conservation of venerable and 
incomprehensible teaching. Originally twenty-two pieces 
were planned'^ — perhaps related to the twenty-two 
letters of the Hebrew alphabet and the twenty-two major 
arcana of the Tarot deck. Veritas Panel's elusive refer- 
ences are concentrated by the probing gaze of Shirley 
Berman; she challenges the viewer to the introspection 
offered by the mirror behind a small door'" This mirror 
is confronted only after passing through a scrap of 
Berman's handwriting. The implication is that the 
"characters" of a personal script create a parallel system 
to the "character" that is an individual's private truth. 
Such correspondence is consistent with Berman's method 
of symbolic linkages. The High Priestess, for instance, 
is signified in the Tarot by beth, the second letter of the 
Hebrew alphabet and the force that begins the creation of 
the world. Behind beth stands aleph, the source of the let- 
ters of the alphabet and of all sound — that which makes 
possible language and understanding. In the system of 
the Tarot, aleph expresses the unity of the Creator; mov- 
ing through levels of being, it becomes the unity of the 
divine and the demonic, and the collective unity of man- 
kind. It is the letter-sign of the Tarot's first arcanum, and 
its image is the Juggler. If Berman took aleph as his 
"soul-letter," he did so in partnership with beth, the High 
Priestess and mediator o{ Veritas Panel. His identity with 
mankind is expressed in the act of artmaking. He be- 



comes the Juggler with his magician's wand who deals in 
images and letters and numbers and who manipulates 
the shapes and textures of the world in order to create a 
reliquary of mysteries." Unlike Edward Kienholz, who 
feels that "art should be an easier experience" for the 
viewer, Berman is brother to Mallarme — "Everything 
sacred, and which wishes to remain sacred, is enveloped 
in mystery. Religions shelter behind arcana unveiled only 
before initiates. Art too has its mysteries."'^ 

Temple and Factum Fidei enlarge the theme. Liter- 
ally a container. Temple (fig. 3) is a vertically upended, 
cratelike construction that is open on one side. It is the 
sanctum of a priestly contemplation. An apparition 
within the temple recalls the figural conventions of 
medieval art; it appears to float in an otherworldly space 
and is without corporality beneath hooded drapery. A 
large key hung about the figure's neck holds forth the 
promise of mysteries unlocked. On the walls of the temple 
a photograph of mentor Herman Hesse mediates be- 
tween ancient and contemporary rituals in the forms of 
Berman's "parchment" painting and his photograph of a 
Rachel Rosenthal "Instant Theater" event.'-' On the floor 
of the assemblage the cover of the first edition ofSeniina 
reveals Berman's eerie photograph of the Los Angeles 
poet Cameron, an inspired sorceress within Bei'man's cir- 
cle of like-spirited friends. Placed on an object that is 
both prayer stool and footlocker, she functions as guard- 
ian and transmitter of the secrets. Ultimately Temple is 
inspirited by the loose pages oiSemina which, "seeded" 
randomly on the floor, form a germinant network of "dead 
poets" and living singers. This brotherhood is focused by 
the third assemblage, Factum Fidei (fig. 4). It presents a 
rough-hewn wooden cross firmly set upon a wooden crate 
or altar; from the transverse bar, attached by an iron 
chain, hangs a close-up photograph of sexual intercourse 
inscribed with the phrase "factum fidei." The assemblage 
is an icon; it expresses the "act of faith" of a prototypal 
heterodoxy. A correspondence is set up that unites the 
Christian resurrection theme with the creative forces of 
human sexuality. Formally, the sexual image echoes the 
composition of the cross; this correspondence is deepened, 
however, by visual and symbolic suggestions of a rose — 
perhaps an allusion to the rose of Rosicrucianism, an 
esoteric knowledge itself infiuenced by the Cabala. An 
explicit sexuality replaces the rose as the flower of Love 
and the center of Wisdom. In Factum Fidei. the rational, 
geometric, and synthetic structure of the cross is com- 
pleted by the rose of sexuality — intuitive, organic, and 
god-animated. In Cabalistic terms, the act of intercourse 
structures the universe by uniting masculine and femi- 
nine principles, wisdom (chochman) and understanding 
(bina). In contemporary terms, the assemblage implies 
a surrender of the ego-centered self to dualism-destroy- 
ing powers. Berman's assemblages obviously invite 
multiple interpretations that, in Cabala-like manipula- 
tion, pile association upon association to convey hidden 
levels of meaning. One starting point would see the 
Ferus Gallery installation as a coherent whole in which 
Factum Fidei evokes an icon of a unifying absolute, 




Fig. 5 

Wallace Berman 

Bouquet, 1964 

Verifax collage 

28 X 29% in. 

(71.1x74.6 cm.) 

Los Angeles County 

Museum of Art, Los Angeles 

County Funds 

65.20 



Fig. 6 (cat. no. 73) 
Edward Kienholz 
Untitled. 1958 
Mixed media 
49'/4 X 30'/8 in. 
(125.1 X 76.8 cm.) 
Lyn Kienholz 




Temple a community of belief and a seedbed of revelatory 
possibilities, and Veritas Panel the veiled autobiography 
of an individual initiate and spiritual traveler. In con- 
junction with the "parchment" paintings, this threefold 
unity turns the entire gallery into a temple and the act 
of artmaking into a sacred rite.^" 

As containers for spiritual accumulations, Berman's 
large three-dimensional assemblages^' were superseded 
in his later Verifax collages by a flat grid format. In the 
Verifax collages (fig. 5), isolated "found" pictures are 
centered on the constant image of a small hand-held tran- 
sistor radio. These individual units, mechanically repro- 
duced on an old Verifax machine, are mounted on sup- 
ports of varying sizes. The radio "ground" of the collage is 
a receiver of divinities and demons, a transmitter of 
talismans and secret codes: Hebrew letters, crosses of all 
types, locks and keys and doors; fragments of Greek and 
oriental sculpture, and newspaper photographs of contem- 
porary religious leaders; female nudes, body parts, and 
star clusters; guns and snakes and birds and roses and 
mushrooms; press celebrities — the "angelheadedhip- 
sters" — and, as George Herms put it, "the passing parade 
of angels in human disguise."-^ Throughout the series 
the same images are often repeated. Like a cinematic 
technique, their impact vibrates according to placement 
within a montage sequence. Equally, the images are 
a "deck" of symbols to be dealt out in the manner of 
a fortune-telling grid. A medieval sensibility takes the 
objects of the world as signs of Revelation. A process 
prefigured in the three-dimensional assemblages, each 
image of a Verifax collage functions as a starting point 
for breaking into a circle of mystery.-^ 

In Berman's art, reality is not caught in an intellec- 
tually constructed net of order; rather, it is invited to 
reveal itself through random configurations and trial- 
and-error arrangements. Although the inventions of Sur- 
realism remain crucial to Berman's art, they were less 
relevant to the ambience of the sixties than was the per- 
vasive allure of arcane metaphors — the Tarot, astrology, 
white and black magic, palmistry — as well as the I 
Ching, Cabalistic and Christian esoteric lore, American 
Indian rituals. In popular psychology, too, Jungian 
thought suggested that, "All divinatory practices, from 
looking at tea-leaves to the complicated oracular methods 
of the I Ching, are based on the idea that random events 
are minor mysteries which can be used as pointers to 
the one central mystery."^'' Fascination with occult belief 
systems and with hallucinogenic drug experiences 
coalesced — on the West Coast especially — with earlier 
Beat sympathies for Symbolism and Surrealism. Fur- 
ther, counterculture withdrawal from the violence and 
hypocrisy of the "establishment" paralleled a spiritual 
tradition of anonymity. From this mix was created the 
underground artist-poet-seer; and the art of assemblage 
yielded the compatible medium.^^ Berman's assemblages of 
the 1957 Ferus exhibition presaged the Los Angeles 
assemblage explosion of the sixties, but it was his par- 
ticular genius to fuse underground preoccupations with 
compelling images and inventive forms. An act of sur- 



render to the Cabalist doctrine that heaven and earth 
mirror each other, Berman's revelatory art brought 
enigmatic messages for surviving in the world.^'' 

I would like my work to be understood for just exactly what 
it is: one man's attempt to understand himself better. 

— Edward Kienholz^'' 

They're fantasies. They're fantasies that are worked out in 3-D. 

— Edward Kienholz^^ 

Edward Kienholz's rural and Protestant upbringing 
was often solitary within the context of a tight family unit. 
Born near the Idaho-Washington border, he absorbed 
from childhood the continuities of farming life — an 
intimacy with births and deaths and the rhythms of 
the seasons, a respect for nature's power and caprices and 
for the necessary competencies of man's survival. Physi- 
cally strong and early trained in manual skills, Kienholz 
would channel into his art a satisfaction for working with 
his hands and a feel for efficient rather than abstruse 
solutions. With a variety of make-do jobs and some erratic 
college experience behind him, Kienholz was living in 
Los Angeles by 1953. The poet David Meltzer described 
the camaraderie that pervaded the artist's working space 
on Santa Monica Boulevard behind a fiberglass car-body 
shop: 

Kienholz, from the Northwest, expansive, gregarious, 

goateed, energized The door was always open and, 

whether Ed was working or not, there were usually people 
hanging out, talking, drinking. Kids in the neighborhood 
would sometimes come around to watch Ed hammer together 
his early constructions. An open house. It was my first intro- 
duction to working artists and some of the most interesting on 
the scene passed through Ed's: John Altoon, George Herms, 

John Kelly Reed, Craig Kauffman, Billy Al Bengston 

At Kienholz's studio I met Robert Alexander and 
Wallace Herman.^' 

Kienholz's early abstract "paintings" are low-relief 
constructions of scraps of wood nailed and glued to a 
panel support (fig. 6); they were painted densely and 
rapidly, usually with a house broom and "pouring" tech- 
nique. Pragmatically, he fused his poverty situation with 
modernism's permission to exploit "non-art" materials. 
Independently of New York and San Francisco, he de- 
aestheticized the art object while stressing the emotional 
force of abstraction and tactile body identification. These 
works gave way in about 1957 to painting constructions 
with centralized imagery, photo-figuration, and social 
commentary — works that increasingly invaded the 
viewer's space. By 1960 the wall-bound constructions of 
wood fragments, paint, and the occasional preformed 
"found" object were joined by fully three-dimensional 
"off-the-wall" assemblage.^" Jo/in Doe and Jane Doe in- 
fused new life into the broken doll and mannequin imag- 
ery explored by Surrealist art of the thirties; at the same 
time they announced sixties sympathy for the representa- 
tional object.^' These companion pieces — "proto-tableaux" 




Fig. 7 

Edward Kienholz 

Roxys, 1961 

Furniture, bric-a-brac, live 

goldfish, disinfectant, perfume, 

juke box, clothing, etc. 

Collection Reinhard Onnasch, 

Berlin, West Germany 




— continue to shock by the violation of the human figure, 
but they also ingratiate by a straightforward theme. 
Modern men and women are alienated from their emo- 
tions and body truths; behind the pretense of maturity 
lie psychological fragmentation and sexual anxiety. 

Although Roxys (fig. 7) is Kienholz's first tableau, it 
was preceded by other assemblages from 1960 that use 
detached parts of mannequins to propose deperson- 
alized, mechanized sexuality — an unapologetic focus 
upon women as sex objects. The impact of, for instance, 
American Lady and A/nerican Girl is disconcerting be- 
cause the message is mixed. The artist's exploitation of 
the female image exists simultaneously with a felt sym- 
pathy for damaged, incomplete human beings. As sexual 
emblems, the trapped fragments are mindless (decapi- 
tated) and ineffectual (armless and legless); they are both 
victims and arousers of fantasy. In Roxys the subject mat- 
ter of a house of prostitution forces home the tension. The 
doll as helpless plaything/sacrifice merges with the erotic 
challenge of sleek mannequin legs, only to be further 
cursed by images of inner decay and stupor. The squirrel 
gnawing through the chest of Five Dollar Billy (fig. 8) and 
the mindless grin — trapped under a burlap bag — of 
Dianna Poole, Miss Universal give only two examples 
from a nightmare of brilliantly shocking inventions. The 
prostitutes of Roxys were grounded in the artist's own 
innocence and apprehensions, but they remain icons 
of the violation of the human spirit. By laying out his 
personal fantasies, Kienholz unmasks shared cultural 
assumptions and makes confrontation unavoidable.^^ 

"My work," Kienholz has commented, "is devised to 
show life stripped of sham and hypocrisy."^^ His tableaux 
of the sixties discredit heroics and expose the banality 
attendent upon social malignancies {The Illegal Opera- 
tion, 1962 [cat. no. 75]; Five Car Stud. 1972), institution- 
alized brutalities (The Birthday, 1964; The State Hospital, 
1966), adolescent alienation and lonely aging (The Back 
Seat Dodge '38, 1964; The Wait, 1964-65), time's 
wastage (The Beanery, 1965), and the insanities of a 
doomsday world (The Portable War Memorial, 1968). In 
these and other tableaux the viewer is disoriented by the 
contrast between big-concept absolutes and extreme 
specificity. Crucial to this tension is Kienholz's manipula- 
tion of space and time. His use of a rational stage space 
and correct "historical" detail sets up expectations of a 
safe world; dreamlike fragmentation and metamorphosis 
of objects then subvert that world. The impact of objects 
once handled by real, if anonymous, people is at odds with 
the distancing of art. Equally, the seductions of sentiment 
are jarred by sympathy with the timelessness of human 
pain. Thus, if Kienholz's art is an "easier experience" in- 
tellectually, it is all the more emotionally disconcerting. 
The sport of viewer participation is mocked by the act of 
public voyeurism, and storytelling accessibility deepens 
conflict — compassion and fear rival disgust and denial. 

Kienholz's empathy for suffering speaks to a smash- 
ing of childhood promises and a sadness for an admired 
American value system gone awry. It suggests a secular 
Puritanism concerned not with flawed souls but with 



Fig. 8 

Edward Kienholz 

Five Dollar Billy 

(from Roxys). 1961 

Paints and fiberglass, sewing 

machine, mannequin parts, 

squirrel, nuts 

40 X 45 X 22'/4 in. 

(101.6 X 114.3 X 56.5 cm.) 

Collection Reinhard Onnasch, 

Berlin, West Germany 

neurosis and distorted social conditioning. The impulse to 
expose sham reveals an idealism consistent with the dis- 
tress and moral challenges of the sixties. In a powerful 
mix characteristic of assemblage's history, Kienholz 
serves moral commentary by linking modernism's anti- 
aestheticism with the accessibility of nineteenth-century 
genre sculpture. 

But all my work has to do with living and dying, our human 
fear of death. — Edward Kienholz"'' 



ART IS LOVE IS GOD. 



-Wallace Berman 



Whether its history was modernist venture or idio- 
syncratic usage, assemblage in the sixties appears in 
retrospect as something of a period style and a response 
to the period's social turbulence. It was during the coun- 
terculture revolutions that the need to break down rigid 
polarities of thought struck a chord with great numbers 
of people. Artists turned to assemblage as a way of 
returning spiritual value to the objects of the world; to 
combat, that is, what Robert Duncan has called the 
"trashing of the world-mind."^^ With the malignant pro- 
liferation of waste comes a deeply felt, if not precisely 
understood, withdrawal of meaning from life. Writing 
persuasively on the "normal" state of schizophrenia in 
twentieth-century culture, John Vernon has commented 
that, "Waste is created by the structure Western thought 
gives to objects, for waste is possible only when objects 
whose full meaning is "use" have become useless. Schizo- 
phrenics. . . are fascinated by waste, by their own waste 
deposits and the waste deposits of the object world, that 
is, by junk."^^ 

The assemblage artist, rather than simply hoarding 
junk, reformulates and develops new contexts for the 
detritus of the world. Assemblage can make manifest the 
body-self split inherent in Western dualist thought and 
intensified by a civilization honoring materialism. When 
objects have only "use" value, human beings are them- 
selves reified. They become fragmented and interchange- 
able objects — brothers and sisters to the horrific figures 
of Kienholz's tableaux. Another possibility of assemblage 
is the re-inspiriting of forgotten objects: in the process, 
the mysterious continuity of human beings and their 
world is affirmed — as in the meditative assemblages of 
Wallace Berman. 

In Southern California, where social eruptions and 
esoteric interests seem magnified, the art of Berman and 



Notes 



Kienholz had an idiosyncratic look, sidestepping as it did 
the aesthetic issues dominating assemblage in New York. 
Instead, the potency of their art as revelation and sermon 
developed in two opposing directions reaching back to 
earlier American traditions. Barbara Novak has distin- 
guished two tendencies of religious experience: "On the 
one hand, the traditional projection of the self into an an- 
thropomorphic baroque ecstasy; a form of appropriating 
the world. On the other, a serene, almost Oriental absorp- 
tion of the self into the cosmos, an annihilation of the 
ggjf "37 These tendencies, traced through nineteenth- and 
early twentieth-century art, again present themselves in 
the secular morality of Kienholz's Roxys and the hermetic 
spiritualism of Berman's 1957 Ferus exhibition. For 
Kienholz, the artist projects his fantasies into reality; for 
Berman, the artist is the meditative center through 
which the cosmos flows. In the sixties in Los Angeles, the 
baroque opera of Kienholz and the arcane doxology of 
Berman represent polar aspects of the city's extensive 
assemblage activity. 



^Los Angeles Art Community Group Portrait: Edward Kienholz, 
interviewed by Lawrence Weschler, 1977, Oral History Program, 
University of California, Los Angeles, vol. 1, p. 109. Quotations 
from the UCLA transcript occasionally have been corrected by 
the artist for the purposes of this essay. 

^William C. Seitz, The Art of Assemblage, The Museum of 
Modem Art, New York. 1961. 

^Wallace Berman, Semina 2. 1957, back cover. 

"Kienholz interview, vol. 1, p. 133. Kienholz is comparing Los 
Angeles with San Francisco. 

'In the late fifties and sixties artists as distinct in character as 
Wallace Berman, Bruce Conner, George Herms, and Edward 
Kienholz spearheaded an assemblage "movement" in Los 
Angeles. Although Bruce Conner is a San Francisco artist, his 
one-man show at the Ferus Gallery in 1962 and his inclusion in 
major group exhibitions at the Pasadena Art Museum, the U.C. 
Irvine Art Gallery, and the Los Angeles County Museum of 
Art made him an influential force in Los Angeles. Assemblage 
attracted many first and second generation practitioners, and a 
partial list spanning the sixties would include Tony Berlant, 
Sabato Fiorello, Llyn Foulkes, Dennis Hopper, Sandra Jackson, 
Fred Mason, Richard Pettibone, John Reed, Betye Saar, Dean 
Stockwell, John Schroeder, Ben Talbert, Edmund Teske, and 
Gordon Wagner Emerging to exhibit in the seventies were, 
among others, Simone Gad, Bruce Houston, Phil Orlando, and 
Nancy Yodelman. 

^Quoted in "An Interview with Walter Hopps," Wallace Berman 
Retrospective, ed. Hal Glicksman, Otis Art Institute Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1978, p. 9. 



'Letter from Warren M. Dom, Los Angeles County Supervisor, to 
Edward W. Carter, President of the Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art Board of Trustees, March 17, 1966, quoted in Gerald D. 
Silk, "Ed Kienholz's 'Back Seat Dodge '38,'" Arte Magazine, vol. 
52, no. 5, January 1978, p. 117, n. 1; also see "Kienholz Scrapbooks," 
Los Angeles County Museum of Art Library or the Archives 
of American Art, San Francisco, microfilm roll 1042, 1-209. 

'Alfred Frankenstein, "Kienholz Stirs Up a Storm," San Fran- 
cisco Chronicle, April 3, 1966, p. 23; quoted in Silk, "Back Seat 
Dodge," p. 114. 

^The offending item in the Berman exhibition was presumed to 
be the close-up photograph of sexual intercourse forming part 
of the assemblage Facto m Fidei. In a comedy of errors, it was 
overlooked by the arresting officers who seized instead upon a 
relatively inoffensive drawing. Brief discussions of the arrest are 
provided in Merril Greene, "Wallace Berman: Portrait of the 
Artist as Underground yian'.' Artforum, vol. 16, no. 6, February 
1978, pp. 56-57; Betty Tlirnbull, The Last Time I Saw Ferus 
1957-1966, Nevirport Harbor Art Museum, Newport Beach, Cali- 
fornia, 1976, n.p.; Berman, p. 9. In Kienholz's exhibition at the 
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the prostitute Five Dollar 
Billy of the Roxys tableau proved particularly objectionable; 
the figure lay on her back on a sewing machine treadle that 
could be activated by the viewer; a four-letter obscene word was 
carved into the assemblage. Compromise was reached when 
Kienholz agreed to enlarge the platform upon which Five Dollar 
Billy rests, thus slightly distancing the viewer The sexually en- 



16 



gaged couple within The Back Seat Dodge '38 was revealed only 
to groups touring with museum docents. Those under eighteen 
years of age were not admitted to the exhibition unless accom- 
panied by responsible adults. For Kienholz's extensive comments 
on the ruckus, see Kienholz interview, vol. 2, pp. 376-99; see 
also "Kienholz Scrapbooks," for a compilation of newspaper and 
magazine coverage. 

^"Berman's mature work is comprised of three-dimensional 
"junk" assemblages (c. 1949-57), untitled "parchment" paintings 
(1956-57), Sem/na (vols. 1-9, 1955-64), cover designs for small 
press publications, and a body of photography. He is perhaps best 
known for an extensive group of collages made with an old 
Verifax copying machine; and for assemblages of small stones, 
as well as ;>; situ boulders and walls, inscribed with Hebrew 
characters. 

"Quoted in "Hopps," Serman, p. 9. 

'^As interpreted by Hesse's hero Joseph Knecht, "The Game en- 
compasses the player at the conclusion of his meditation in the 
same way as the surface of a sphere encloses its center, and 
leaves him with the feeling of having resolved the fortuitous and 
chaotic world into one that is symmetrical and harmonious." 
Herman Hesse, Magister Ludi. trans. Mervyn Savill, New York, 
1949, p. 10. Parallels between the Bead Game and the Cabala are 
drawn by Herbert Weiner in SVa Mystics: The Kabbala Today, 
New York, 1969, pp. 118-19. 

'^Kirby Doyle, Allen Ginsberg, Philip Lamatia, Michael 
McClure, and David Meltzer are among the poets included in 
Semina associated with the San Francisco renaissance. The 
French tradition was represented by Antonin Artaud, Charles 
Baudelaire, Jean Cocteau. Paul Eluard, and Paul Valery. Drug 
allusions and "stoned" thought processes are pervasive in the 
Semina series. 

"Hesse, Magister Ludi, p. 390-91; Semina, 1955; Semina 2. 
1957. For personal reminiscences and a discussion of Berman's 
literary influences, see Robert Duncan, "Wallace Berman: The 
Fashioning Spirit," Berman, pp. 19-24. 

'^Greene, "Underground Man," p. 56. 

'^Because Berman's work offers itself to open-ended interpreta- 
tion, his symbolism is enriched by a reference from the "Acts of 
John" in the New Testament Apocrypha: "The twelfth number/ 
dances on high. Amen ... I am a mirror to you/ who know me. 
Amen./ 1 am a door to you/ who knock on me. Amen./ 1 am the 
way to you/ the traveler Amen." Quoted in Elaine H. Pagels, "To 
the Universe Belongs the Danger; The Jesus Round Dance in 
the Acts of John," Parabola, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 6-9. 

"David Meltzer's illuminating essay on the Jewish mystical tra- 
dition of the Cabala discusses the creation of the universe from 
the Hebrew alphabet. Meltzer writes that "One of the central 
sources of mystery and contemplation in the Kabbalah is the 
Hebrew alphabet. It is believed that God created the universe by 
means of the Hebrew alphabet. The twenty-two letters of the 
alphabet are twenty-two realms, twenty-two states of conscious- 
ness. Each container embodies an essence of existence. It is a 
four-dimensional alphabet. Each letter represents a literal self, a 
number, a symbol, and an idea. They are hard to classify because 
they include all the qualities they designate, and when a letter 



is placed together with other letters to form words, the meanings 
within the meanings interact and multiply in infinite combina- 
tions. See Meltzer, "Door to Heaven," Berman. p. 92. See also 
Gershom G. Scholem, On the Kabbalah and its Symbolism, trans. 
R. Manheim, New York, 1965; and Papus, The Tarot of the Bohe- 
mians, trans. A. P. Morton, third ed.. rev., preface by Arthur E. 
Waite, North Hollywood, California, 1978, pp. 105-14. See also 
the three issues (1942-44) of the New York published Surrealist 
Journal VVV (edited by David Hare, with Andre Breton, Max 
Ernst, and — later — Marcel Duchamp as advisers), of which Ber- 
man was aware. Of particular interest for Berman research is 
issue no. 2-3, which reproduced a Surrealist card deck: Love, 
Revolution, Dream, and Knowledge replace the conventional 
suits, and historical and fictional figures valued by Surrealists 
reign as face cards. 

'^'Kienholz interview, vol. 2, p. 361; Stephane Mallarme, "Art for 
All," (1862), quoted in Roland N. Stromberg, ed.. Realism, Natu- 
ralism, and Symbolism: Modes of Thought and Expression in 
Europe, 1848-1914, New York, 1968, p. 200. 

'"Conversation with Charles Brittin, October 14, 1980; conversa- 
tion with Rachel Rosenthal, November 26, 1980. The photograph 
collaged to Veritas Panel (open) also records a Rosenthal dance 
event; both photographs are turned on their sides. 

^"George Herms remembers that Berman's Ferus exhibition gave 
him his first sense of the art gallery as a sacred space. Con- 
versation with the artist, October 9, 1980. 

■''Formally, Berman's use of a panel structure with collages, 
photographs, letters, numbers, etc., is similar to contemporary de- 
velopments in New York — for instance, Allan Kaprow's Grand- 
ma's Boy (1957). But unlike Kaprow and Rauschenberg — e.g., 
the freestanding "combines" Monogram (1955-59) and Odalisque 
(1955-58), Berman's Ferus assemblages deemphasize painter- 
liness and gestural expressionism. They are directed toward 
outside referents rather than toward self-referential aesthetic 
queries; and they are insistently "junky" rather than self- 
consciously "jokey." Surrealism lurks in the background of the 
entire assemblage movement, but West Coast artists tended to 
stress the magical and associational power of objects and to play 
down the object as a formal substitute for conventional media. 
For example, Bruce Conner connects his assemblages with the- 
ater experience, and he feels that, "Rauschenberg was a painter 
and these were paintings that he was doing, that rather than 
being a paint stroke it is a piece of cloth." Bruce Conner, inter- 
view with Paul Karlstrom, 1974, Archives of American Art, 
Washington, D.C. 

^^George Herms, "Wallace Berman Exhibition," gallery notes, 
Timothea Stewart Gallery, Los Angeles, July-August 1977. 

^^An extended discussion of the Verifax collages is beyond the 
scope of this essay; so too is an analysis of Berman's late work, 
primarily composed of the outdoor walls and boulders and the 
small mixed-media assemblages of stones inscribed with random 
associations of Hebrew letters. Counterpoised with the frenetic 
compilation of the Verifax collages, the stones return to the 
meditative stillness of the early Homage to Hesse sculpture. On a 
more serious level than the "stoned" puns and perceptions of the 
sixties, the stone as symbol and actuality becomes the quintes- 
sential image in Berman's work, as it similarly functioned for 
Hesse in his best-known novel, Siddhartha. For Berman, the 



stone appears as the void made manifest^the ground for a seed- 
ing of Hebrew letters and a Cabalistic meditation on the eter- 
nally present moment. 

^■•Carl Jung, quoted in Arthur Koestler, The Roots of Coincidence , 
New York, 1972, p. 108. Although Herman's processes were not 
influenced directly by John Cage, they suggest similar inves- 
tigations. Cage's interests, which saw popular currency in the 
sixties, channeled distrust of the structured intellect into highly 
sophisticated concepts of indeterminacy. Chance operations are 
seen as revealing "the world of nature, where gradually or sud- 
denly one sees that humanity and nature, not separate, are in 
this world together." John Cage, Silence: Lectures and Writings, 
Cambridge. Massachusetts, 1967, p. 8. 

'"By the end of the sixties, John Coplans characterized the 
California mode of assemblage as a "covert" activity; he com- 
mented that the style "belongs to a small, arcane group of under- 
ground artists who draw upon a common source of literary, 
symbolic, and visual metaphors which derive from a shared am- 
bience." John Coplans, Assemblage in California: Works from the 
Late 50's and Early 60's, Art Gallery, University of California, 
Irvine, 1968, p. 5. 

'-''Berman's upbringing as a street-wise youth of Los Angeles' 
Jewish ghettos serves as background to his enigmatic art. Urban 
survival brings complex strategies to quotidian encounters. 
Cultural heterogeneity and overpopulated spaces both enrich 
and threaten. Keeping one's own counsel becomes an art of self- 
protection, as do the permissions received from shifting per- 
sonae. There is a necessary sympathy for in-group exclusiveness 
and the safety of jargons. Drugs, too, provide escape from the 
reality of poverty and boredom, but they also stimulate vivid 
fantasies, ease passage into separate realities, and urge acquain- 
tance with recesses of the censored mind. Herman appears to 
have been temperamentally at one with the drug mystique of 
the sixties and with the decade's yearning for esoteric solutions 
to existential discontents. Compare the perceptive analysis of 
the matter by Merril Greene in "Underground Man," the pioneer- 
ing article for Berman research. See also, Merril Greene, Art as 
a Muscular Principle, John and Norah Warbeke Gallery, Mount 
Holyoke College, South Hadley, Massachusetts, 1975. 



the seventies by, for instance, Phil Orlando and Bruce Houston. 
The Hollywood celebrity icon in a small stage-box presentation 
is the special province of Sabato Fiorello. 

^^"When I decided to make a whorehouse, it was just a funny 
gesture or a funny idea. I wanted to make it as good as possible. 
So I went back in memory to going to Kellogg. Idaho, to whore- 
houses when I was a kid, and just being sort of appalled by the 
whole situation — not being able to perform because it was a 
really crummy, bad experience, a bunch of old women with sag- 
ging breasts that were supposed to turn you on, and like I say, it 
just didn't work right. So I took those feelings and the name 
from Las Vegas of a whorehouse that was there, a very famous 

one, which I'd never been in But later, when I decided to name 

my whorehouse Roxys, then I was really sorry that I hadn't 
been inside the original, I hadn't seen what the decor was like, 
what the ambience was like. So my Roxys is a combination of 
eighteen-year-old rememberings, blue movies, imagination, and 
whatever." Los Angeles Art Community Group Portrait: Edward 
Kienholz, interviewed by Lawrence Weschler, Oral History 
Program, University of California, Los Angeles. 1977. pp. 231-33. 

^^Kienholz. quoted in Silk. "Back Seat Dodge '38," p. 118. n. 15. 

^••Kienholz interview, vol. 2, p. 342. 

^^Duncan, "Wallace Berman," Berman, p. 23. 

^^ohn 'Vernon, The Garden and the Map: Schizophrenia in 
Twentieth-Century Literature and Culture, Urbana, Illinois, 
1973, p. 25. 

^'Barbara Novak, American Painting in the Nineteenth Century: 
Realism , Idealism , and the American Experience, New York, 
1969, p. 219. 



^'Kienholz interview, vol. 2, p. 345. 

28Ibid., p. 351. 

^'Meltzer, "Door to Heaven," Berman, p. 99. In contrast, Meltzer 
described Berman as "soft-spoken, wry, inward, uneasy about 
committing himself to big concept words. . ,he gave the illusion 
that all of his work came about accidentally, a random happen- 
ing." Ibid., p. 99. Berman's storefront studio on Sawtelle Boule- 
vard (where he co-founded "Stone Brothers Printing" with Bob 
Alexander) was also a center of random art activities attracting 
artists, poets, dancers, filmmakers. 

^Critical writing has discussed at length Kienholz's formal 
progression toward his tableaux of the sixties. See especially 
Maurice T\ichman,Edward Kienholz, Los Angeles County 
Museumof Art, 1966. 



^^The evocative power of doll fragments had a particularly strong 
attraction for Los Angeles assemblage artists; it was used to 
advantage by George Herms and Fred Mason in the late fifties 
and early sixties, and it continued to be minded throughout 



Susan C. Larsen 



Los Angeles Painting in the Sixties: 
A Tradition in Transition 



The decade of the 1960s was the significant moment 
for painting in Los Angeles. The city had always looked 
promising as Stanton Macdonald-Wright, Morgan Russell, 
the Arensbergs, Frank Lloyd Wright, Man Ray, and a 
host of others observed with affection and enthusiasm. It 
was a place to come from, a place to visit, a place linked 
to older more cultivated cities. They described it as a city 
of great vitality holding the promise of things to come. In 
the sixties the era of the cultivated visitor ended, and the 
era of the dynamic, unabashed, plain-speaking native 
began. At long last, the promises started to come true. 

In abstract art the groundwork had been laid as 
early as the thirties in the highly personal, innovative 
work of Oskar Fischinger and Peter Krasnow. By the 
early fifties, painters such as Lorser Feitelson and John 
McLaughlin had established a tradition of abstraction 
that combined modernist reductivism with idiosyncratic 
but rigorous interpretations of the means and purposes 
of abstract art. 

The impact of San Francisco in the fifties was impor- 
tant, too, especially the Abstract Expressionism practiced 
by Bay Area artists as diverse in style as Richard Dieben- 
korn. Jay DeFeo, Sonia Gechtoff, Frank Lobdell, David 
Park, Hassel Smith, and others. These artists had been 
exposed to the tradition of Abstract Expressionism as 
early as 1930, when Hans Hofmann accepted his first 
American teaching position at Berkeley. A decade later 
this involvement with abstract painting was further 
encouraged by Clyfford Still, Mark Rothko, and Ad 
Reinhardt, each of whom taught at the California School 
of Fine Arts for a brief period of time. 

By the late fifties a great number of the gifted young 
Los Angeles painters were adapting the loose, calligi'aphic 
forms of Abstract Expressionism to their own puiposes. 
The early work of John Altoon, Robert Irwin, Craig 
Kauffman, Ed Moses, and Paul Sarkisian, although 
diverse in many ways, shares this basic structure. Many 
of these artists had studied and worked in San Francisco 
and most had also spent time in New York, where they 
came into contact with the work of the second generation 
of New York Abstract Expressionists. There they discov- 
ered their own restlessness mirrored in the attitudes 
of young New York artists who shared a growing deter- 
mination to break through to a newer, fresher situation 
more completely their own. 

When the Ferus Gallery opened in March 1957, this 
generation of younger California artists came into focus 
for a broader public. The first Ferus exhibition included 
some of the more prominent Bay Area expressionists: 
Richard Diebenkorn, Sonia Gechtoff, Hassel Smith, and 
Clyfford Still. Soon, however, the undeniable energy 
of Southern Californians such as John Altoon, Billy Al 
Bengston, Wallace Berman, Craig Kauffman, Ed Kienholz, 
and Ed Moses asserted itself and became the central 
force of the Ferus scene. Founders of the gallery — Walter 
Hopps and Ed Kienholz — and, later, director Irving Blum, 
projected an aura of professionalism and reached 
beyond the boundaries of Los Angeles to make Ferus part 
of a national scene. For the first time the art of Southern 



California commanded the attention and respect of 
a national audience. As Bengston observed, "that was 
the time when we all decided to go professional."' The 
ambitiousness and verve of the Ferus environment drew 
artists such as Larry Bell, Robert Irwin, Ken Price, Ed 
Ruscha, and others to itself within a short time. 

In abstract painting the critical breakthroughs of the 
Ferus artists during the late fifties were subtle, based 
more upon nuances of sensibility than their brash public 
images might indicate. John Altoon's softened, tactile 
forms and open, light-filled fields projected a vibrant sex- 
uality laced with irony. His imagery spoke of tangible 
experiences — the wisdom of the body, not the grander, 
more cerebral metaphysics associated with the later 
phases of New York Abstract Expressionism. If Abstract 
Expressionism had become an academy, Altoon played 
truant with such high spirits and obvious gifts that his 
irreverence could only be viewed with delight and a mea- 
sure of relief. Important, too, was the lightness of his 
palette, the transparency of his color, the throbbing sen- 
suality he projected upon even the most mundane and 
everyday objects and events. This stood in contrast to the 
studied seriousness of much of the painting admired dur- 
ing this period, such as the late work of Still, Newman, 
and Rothko. Altoon was one of several Southern Califor- 
nia artists who turned the language of expressionism into 
a living thing of the city streets, immediate and direct, 
without philosophical or literary pretentions. 

The work of Ed Moses and Craig Kauffman during 
the late fifties shares some of these stylistic qualities — 
the open forms, the frank eroticism, the sureness and ele- 
gance of tactile, calligraphic passages (cat. nos. 82 and 
66). Moses' drawing of the late fifties exhibits a great in- 
tensity of focus and touch as individual areas are confi- 
dently delineated, then warmed and enriched by soft 
tonal areas and the physical interaction of overlapping 
forms. Moses had uncovered the possibility of working 
across the entire plane, shifting the placement of his im- 
agery to suggest a space with multiple points of visual 
access. His floral and phallic images suggest an up-front 
eroticism while the casual sureness, indeed virtuosity, of 
his line gives evidence of a fine-tuned aesthetic sensibility. 

After an almost two-year stay in New York, from 
1958 to 1960, Moses returned to Los Angeles. In De- 
cember 1961, at Ferus, he showed a number of large-scale 
drawings. These were fields of floral and leaf forms placed 
at regular intervals across a highly textured, subtly 
modulated field of soft gi'aphite. Moses transformed the 
rose pattern of an ordinai'y piece of Mexican oilcloth into 
a highly structured planar field. Dealing with a basically 
graphic form derived from a printed source — not a real 
rose but a picture of a rose — he exposed its true identity 
by barely outlining it and fiattening the form, then giv- 
ing it thi'ee dimensions by pushing the graphite to near- 
black, then allowing the rose to flatten once more and 
fade into the soft gray of his modulated background. 
This work gave evidence of his awareness of the issues of 

'Conversation with the artist, September 1980. 



modernist painting of the early sixties. It was a self- 
confident, personal exploration of the issues of graphic 
imagery, something which was at the same time occupy- 
ing the thoughts of Johns, Rauschenberg, and others in 
New York in more direct and obvious ways. This work 
also revealed Moses' basic modernist sensibility, the aes- 
theticism which would remain the hallmark of his career, 
handled at this point with a warmth that was immediate 
and physical, full of the traces of the artist's own character. 

The following year Moses pushed this format further, 
achieving an even more impressive level of intensity in 
his drawing. In a large format, some forty by sixty inches, 
he shifted the figure-ground balance of his imagery to 
place major emphasis upon the ground (cat. nos. 83-89). 
Covering the plane with acute gestural passages, he em- 
bedded the by now almost unreadable roses within a 
dense graphite structure. Light is trapped and partially 
reflected by the soft layer of graphite, sending a shimmer 
of metallic gray across the surface of the work. One is 
acutely conscious of the presence of the medium on the 
paper, recalling certain Japanese printmakers' use of 
mica to achieve a state of absolute physical density on 
the surface of their prints. Moses' drawing of this period 
stands as a technical tour de force, achieving a studied 
awareness of the medium by redefining it, using it not as 
a tool for delineation but as a means of establishing a 
material presence on the plane of the paper. 

By all accounts, one of the most gifted and precocious 
of the Ferus artists was Craig Kauffman. Confident and 
accomplished beyond his years, Kauffman was only 
twenty-five when he took part in the Ferus opening ex- 
hibit of 1957; even more surprising, he had already had a 
one-man show at the prestigious Felix Landau Gallery 
in 1953. Kauffman's paintings of this period are high in 
color and his line is buoyant; his imagery playfully erotic, 
with vast bright fields of open space suggestive of the 
physical and emotional landscape of Southern California. 

Another of Kauffman's strengths was his cos- 
mopolitanism, also unusual in so young an artist. He 
spent time in San Francisco from 1959 to 1960, he had 
already been to Europe in 1956, and would go again in 
1960-61. His knowledge of New York art included a grasp 
of the concepts involved in color-field painting. Most im- 
portant of all, Kauffman had the ability to transpose this 
wealth of information and observation into his own key, 
one which seemed so appropriate to the time that it im- 
mediately established a stylistic base for a host of other 
California artists. 

One who acknowledged the importance of Kauffman's 
spatial and coloristic vision was Billy Al Bengston, 
a perceptive iconoclast with unusual resources of his 
own. Bengston came to Los Angeles as a teenager and 
enrolled at Manual Arts High School in 1948. After a 
somewhat troubled but productive period as an art stu- 
dent he found employment as a beach attendant during 
the summer of 1953. There he discovered a life-style 
uniquely suited to his needs at the time, a life of swim- 
ming and surfing and making art which he shared with 
his friend Ken Price, whom he met at the beach during 



that summer of 1953. Bengston and Price also shared an 
intense involvement in ceramics. For Bengston, the op- 
portunity to study with Peter Voulkos at the Otis Art In- 
stitute was especially significant. Bengston also pursued 
his own study of Japanese ceramics, which led him to the 
decorative and refined aesthetic of Oribe and Shino ware 
as well as the more widely known and much-admired 
Raku ware. 

The rich diversity of Bengston's life, especially his 
serious pursuit of motorcycle racing and his knowledge of 
techniques involved in their maintenance and repair, 
made him expert in the use of sprayed enamels and lac- 
quers and the action of such paint upon metal surfaces. 
Unencumbered by academic biases concerning high and 
low art forms, Bengston was capable of a remarkable syn- 
thesis. He went about making a painting with the cool 
confidence of someone constructing a well-tooled object. 
Bengston's centered images can and should be compared 
to Johns' targets and flags, which the younger Cali- 
fornian saw at the Venice Biennale in 1958. But with the 
loose parallel of a centered format the similarity ends. 
Bengston's work of the early sixties is all gleam and 
gloss and shiny hard, achieved by applying the devices of 
layering and spraying he had learned so thoroughly 
while working on the smooth surfaces of motorcycles. 
Choosing Masonite instead of canvas, he found a hard 
surface that would receive the pigment without absorb- 
ing it and altering its physical qualities. 

Bengston's paintings of this time also exhibit the am- 
bitiousness of scale that was so typical of this moment in 
American art. His magnified, large-scale chevrons (cat. 
nos. 10-13) and irises and concentric circles challenge the 
viewer to place them in a new lexicon of graphic imagery. 
Suggestive of the emblems on uniforms, of floral imagery 
on decorative screens, or of a host of other contexts, they 
are none of these. In order to serve as signifiers in the 
usual sense, they would require a human — that is to say, 
an intellectual — context, a world of related imagery in 
which to reveal their identity. Within Bengston's paint- 
ings such images can only discover their physical 
location. Even their physical situation has been so neu- 
tralized, plunged so completely into a controlled world of 
evenly modulated pigment, of graded light and symmetry, 
that the image may be said to be engaged in a solo flight 
within an enclosed environment. If there is anything 
metaphysical about these emblems, it is more likely to be 
revealed by their physical situation within the painting 
than in the meanings of the symbols themselves. 

Bengston's decision to work within a symmetrical, 
centered format is part of a desire, very common among 
his generation, to evade or destroy the issue of composi- 
tion, particularly Cubist-derived concepts of dynamic 
asymmetry. Johns' targets, Stella's symmetrical stripes 
and chevrons, Noland's concentric circles, and many other 
examples might be cited as contemporary parallels. When 
questioned about this, however, Bengston's motives seem 
to differ significantly from theirs: he speaks of eliminat- 
ing or "locking in" the aspect of composition to get on 
with the job of making a painting, freeing himself to ad- 



dress the compelling issues of surface, imagery, and phys- 
ical structure. For whatever reason he has adopted it, 
Bengston's symmetry is anything but calming and cere- 
bral; it creates something of a confrontation between 
viewer and image, between the viewer and that object 
which is the painting. Like so many of his contemporaries 
in Los Angeles, Bengston sought to eradicate the possi- 
bility of seeing the painting as a window or even as a 
metaphor Relentlessly, Bengston made the painting so 
completely a physical presence that it could not possibly 
be mistaken for anything else. 

The power of these paintings to affect the viewer is 
all the more surprising in view of their cool factuality, not 
unlike that cool outward posture masking controlled 
tension which was so carefully cultivated in the social 
sphere of the sixties. Bengston chooses to show us the 
result, not the process; he offers a finished object, a state 
of being sufficient unto itself His paintings are as real 
and unromanticized as the bare facts of contemporary life: 
they repel sentimentality and iconographic interpre- 
tation. Now, twenty years later, this may seem a cool and 
unrelieved attitude, but it is one which requires a good 
deal of discipline and clearness of vision, qualities that 
are perhaps still to be admired. 

During the early sixties in Los Angeles, New York, 
and elsewhere, long-held assumptions concerning the 
basic physical structure of a painting were being torn 
apart and redefined. During the era of Minimalism, 
paintings were frankly acknowledged to be objects, a spe- 
cial class of objects, perhaps, but ones that existed in the 
real world of tangible physical space. In New York, Frank 
Stella's shaped canvases required the viewer to become 
aware of the outward contours of the painting, to see and 
acknowledge the shape and thickness of the stretcher 
bars and the visible grain of the canvas itself. Ellsworth 
Kelly's painted metal planes functioned in much the 
same way: they were vivid, assertive, based upon the 
primacy of shape and a merging of color and physical 
contour In the work of these artists and many others of 
this time, the boundaries between painting and sculpture 
broke down, the variety of media available to the artist 
expanded, and the old world of canvas, easel, and brush 
was abandoned, if only temporarily, in favor of a brave 
new world of contemporary technological form. 

By the early 1960s a particular aesthetic began to be 
identified with Los Angeles. It was lean, cool, well- 
crafted; it involved unusual materials such as metal, new 
plastics, glass, resins, and industrial pigments. The "L.A. 
Look" was never completely defined but found its most 
typical expression in certain works by Larry Bell, Billy 
Al Bengston, Robert Irwin, Craig Kauffman, John 
McCracken, and Ed Ruscha. As the careers of these art- 
ists have unfolded, we may now see more differences than 
similarities in their work. It is likely that these differ- 
ences were there all along. 

The softened, painterly forms of Craig Kauffman's 
paintings of the late fifties had depended upon their clear 
if uneven contour lines for physical definition. During the 
early sixties, Kauffman invested his buoyant, playfully 



suggestive forms with a new clarity and rigor. He began 
working with Plexiglas, employing crisp, flat shapes with 
beautifully rounded contours and intense areas of color. 
They had the sleek good looks of a well-made machine, 
animated by strong sexual overtones. As such, they are 
late twentieth-century counterparts to the mechano- 
erotic visions of Duchamp and Picabia. 

Kauffman's ability to employ complex technology 
developed along with the deepening clarity of his imagery. 
By 1968, two years after the end of the Ferus era in Los 
Angeles, Kauffman produced a group of large, vacuum- 
formed Plexiglas works which seemed to place color and 
light into a state of pure physical suspension (cat. nos. 
67-72). In these works, colored air is made to hover in 
space. We look through and into the form, never discover- 
ing its source of support, so diffuse and subtle is 
Kauffman's handling of the layers of material from sur- 
face to ground. He has exchanged the earlier erotic imag- 
ery of his art for a direct embodiment of an exquisitely 
controlled but powerfully sensuous form. At its best, the 
hard gleam of the "L.A. Look" is able to produce precisely 
this paradox, a cool, fine-tooled form exhibiting a refined 
but seductive sensuality. Departing from the somewhat 
more conceptualized form of New York Minimalism, ex- 
ponents of the "L.A. Look" celebrated the lush physicality 
of their art, pushing their imagery and material to new 
heights of tactile, coloristic, and technical complexity. 

In 1965 Ron Davis moved to Pasadena from San 
Francisco, where he had been studying and working. At 
the time, Davis was making enormous shaped canvases 
in separate panels positioned to form interlocking geo- 
metric configurations. His was ambitious work, even if 
it was somewhat more involved with the abstract formal 
issues of painting than that of many of his contem- 
poraries in Los Angeles. Within little more than a year, 
Davis had changed the physical structure of his work and 
modified his imagery to allow the interplay of a radically 
altered form of perspective. The paintings were now made 
of polyester resin and fiberglass. They were large, in- 
tensely colored, strong geometric forms with translucent 
interior depths capable of trapping light within the 
layers of their material. 

Davis, moreover, achieved a daring, unexpected 
equivalence of literal and depicted form. He had created 
the graphic image of a three-dimensional geometric 
object that appeared to exist in real space, cut free from 
the confining edge of the rectangle. During a decade that 
prided itself upon a frank admission of the literal flatness 
of the painted plane, Davis' powerful illusionistic forms 
appeared to overturn cherished norms of the period. In a 
1966 Artforum essay, "Shape as Form: Frank Stella's 
New Paintings," New York critic Michael Fried had 
argued for "the primacy of literal over depicted shape."^ 
Davis, on the other hand, had just achieved a congruence 
of literal and depicted shape. 

In the same essay, however. Fried went on to suggest 

^Michael Fried, "Shape as Form: Frank Stella's New Paintings," 
Artforum, vol. 5, no. 3, November 1966, p. 19. 



that the advent of Minimalist painting had opened the 
door to a reconsideration of purely fictive, optical imagery. 
Quoting Greenberg, he found support for his own intui- 
tion: "The heightened sensitivity of the picture plane may 
no longer permit sculptural illusion, or trompe I'oeil, but 
it does and must permit optical illusion — Only now it 
is strictly pictorial, strictly optical third dimension."^ It 
is just this distinction between trompe Voeil and pictorial 
illusionism that marks the critical boundaries in Davis' 
art. Davis does not show us a slice of the visible world but 
uses the pictorial convention of perspective to propose a 
reality of his own making, to convince us of the reality of 
a powerful illusion sharing our own space. Not only did 
Davis' hovering forms appear to exist in the rooms they 
inhabited, their acute two-point perspective expanded 
these rooms as if the interior perspective of the painting 
were connected to a space more grand and expansive 
than the real contours of the room itself. 

In 1967 it was Fried who recognized the important 
step Davis had taken. Reviewing Davis' one-man show at 
the Tibor de Nagy Gallery in New York, Fried expressed 
his enthusiasm for the young Californian's work: "What 
incites amazement is that ambition could be realized in 
this way that, for example, after a lapse of at least a cen- 
tury, rigorous perspective could again become a medium 
of painting."'' If Davis' particular accomplishment was 
unusual for his time and for Los Angeles, so were his 
sources which involved a reconsideration of long-standing 
traditions. Davis was an avid admirer of the Renaissance 
painter and mathematician Paolo Uccello, who opened up 
grand vistas in his painting through the use of the new 
art of perspective. Also important to Davis was the then 
neglected art of Patrick Henry Bruce, the early twentieth- 
century American whose clear, conceptualized still-life 
compositions have a compelling beauty prophetic of 
Davis' own ambitions for his work. 

Davis' dodecagons of 1968 and 1969, measuring 
slightly more than eleven feet in width, are notable for 
their complex color, massive scale, and aura of complete- 
ness (cat. nos. 37-42). As Davis worked on this group of 
paintings, internal divisions of space shifted and clear 
tonal planes gave way to complex, densely painted areas 
of color During Davis' progress from Dodecagon (63) to 
the later Zorf/ac (96), we see a change in his conception 
of this stable geometric form, seen first as an open, trans- 
lucent configuration in which each segment is known, 
then as a heavier, nearly opaque structure in which each 
painted segment introduces another mood and direction, 
like the contradictory but interrelated phases of a com- 
plex cycle. Davis liked to observe these paintings on a 
large black wall in his studio, where they must have 
appeared as extraordinary phenomena, beautifully 
articulated visions cast within believable geometric 
forms. If there is a significant link between Davis' work 
of this time and that of Bell, Bengston, Kauffman, and 

■nbid. 

''Michael Fried, "Ronald Davis: Surface and Illusion," Art/brum, 
vol. 5, no. 8, April 1967, p. 37. 



others employing unusual media, it is perhaps in the 
phenomenological aspect of their work, the way it is able 
to convince one of the beauty and believability of a world 
perceived and understood by the senses. 

At the same time in Southern California another 
remarkable painter, John McLaughlin, pursued quite a 
different path in order to "liberate the viewer from the 
tyranny of the object."^ Although McLaughlin was born 
in 1898 and was much older than any artist of the Ferus 
generation, we are still in the process of understanding 
and discovering his art. McLaughlin was known in this 
area as early as the 1950s and had numerous shows at 
the Felix Landau Gallery in Los Angeles. But it was not 
until the late sixties and seventies that his work had its 
greatest impact upon the younger painters of Southern 
California. In one sense, McLaughlin was the oldest 
painter in this area; he had patiently absorbed and eval- 
uated the traditions of European abstract art, of Malevich 
and Mondrian, while also penetrating the aesthetics and 
philosophies of the Far East. McLaughlin's art involved a 
well-reasoned rejection of the aesthetics of late twentieth- 
century formalism, a distrust of technical virtuosity 
as an end in itself, and a desire to achieve a state of 
unfettei'ed clarity in his life and art. By freeing himself 
of dogma, symbolism, beautiful design, and even of his 
own willfulness, McLaughlin distinguished himself from 
his peers and remained the youngest and least time-bound 
of them all. 

Born in Sharon, Massachusetts, McLaughlin had 
been a dealer in Japanese prints, a translator during 
World War II in Japan, Burma, and China, as well as a 
serious part-time painter. When he and his wife settled in 
Dana Point, California, in 1946, forty-eight-year-old 
McLaughlin made a decision to devote himself completely 
to his painting. His work matured during the fifties as he 
practiced a rigorous discipline, reducing the number of 
elements in his canvases, eliminating niceties of design, 
eventually producing paintings that were able to con- 
vince both the artist and the viewer of what McLaughlin 
termed "the power of withholding."^ 

Even a cursory examination of McLaughlin's work 
cannot fail to disclose his early influences: he admired 
Mondrian for taking the crucial step beyond Cubism and 
emulated the large, powerful, non-objective forms of 
Malevich. McLaughlin could not, however, accept many 
of the basic concepts motivating the work of these two 
modern masters and eventually came to regard their 
achievements as incomplete. For example, McLaughlin 
observed that, "Mondrian's greatness rests in his prodi- 
gious effort to bridge the gap between factual and the es- 
sential qualities of nature."' But McLaughlin ultimately 
rejected the art of Mondrian because, to his mind, the 
Dutch artist had reduced his grasp of nature to a single 
concept, that of dynamic equilibrium. 

■^Archives of American Art, "John McLaughlin Papers," Smith- 
sonian Institution, Washington, D.C., West Coast Area Center, 
San Francisco. 



•ilbid. 



'Ibid. 



In my mind there may be some reason to think 
that he failed in this because his was a "concept" 
and in a sense a disciphne involved to some degi'ee 
with morality. To him the real content in art was 
"the expression of pure vitality which reality 
reveals through the manifestation of dynamic move- 
ment." In this concept lies the paralyzing element 
of aggressive logic. ^ 

McLaughlin applied the same kind of penetrating 
analysis to his study of Malevich. He particularly admired 
Malevich's painting White on White. Speaking of Malevich 
he offered high praise and some strong objections: 

Here we witness the act of annihilation, the de- 
struction of one void by the superimposition of 
another void. Malevich stated that his black square 
on a white ground "was by no means an empty space 
but the feeling of the absence of an object." While 
these paintings are singularly devoid of intellec- 
tualization, or of any other means that we regard 
as reasonable means of communication, they are 
in their simplicity, extraordinarily compelling 
because of their lack of a guiding principle. In other 
words, all resistance to the fullest possible participa- 
tion was removed." 
These things he admired and we see them reflected in 
McLaughlin's art, but even so he voiced significant reser- 
vations about the physical qualities of Malevich's art 
and suggested an alternate stance, one which he was to 
pursue in his own work: "It is my own opinion that im- 
plementation of this profound aesthetic suffered in that 
the destruction of form takes on the appearance of a 
physical act. This is in contrast to the more effective 
means of destruction by implication.""' 

Some of the most difficult qualities to understand 
and accept in McLaughlin's mature painting are its 
quietude, its devotion to a peculiar form of symmetry, its 
plain craftsmanship, and the strange power that derives 
from McLaughlin's grasp of understatement (cat. nos. 
77-81). He said that he wanted his forms to be neutral 
and that his desire for them was that they "destroy them- 
selves by implication." Clearly, for McLaughlin, it was 
unworthy of an artist to strive for physical beauty in a 
painting; even less to be admired was the urge for self- 
expression. He viewed it as "presumptuous of me, or even 
narcissistic to present to the viewer my own feelings."" 
He was not trying to solve any problems or achieve some 
new style. What McLaughlin appeared to seek was a 
state of silence in his art, a type of focus in which the 
viewer would be encouraged to confront himself and con- 
template his own relationship to nature. 

In McLaughlin's art this is not to be accomplished by 
simply telling the viewer to do so, but by removing all 
specifics, all subjects, all theories, all forms which engage 
the mind and prevent it from seeing things whole. This, 
then, is the crucial difference between McLaughlin's ap- 
proach to abstraction and that of most other abstract art 
of the twentieth century. His painting was not created to 



embody some spiritual truth but to attain that state of 
quietude in which the viewer might approach wisdom on 
his own terms. As McLaughlin observed, "Quite naturally 
our objective is to attain a state of palpable wisdom. 
The real danger here is in believing that this has been 
achieved."'^ 

If, as it is often said, Los Angeles has experienced a 
talent drain of its younger painters who have moved to 
New York and elsewhere, it has also been extremely for- 
tunate to welcome other painters of great stature and 
vitality. One such artist is Sam Francis, a native Califor- 
nian who was born in San Mateo and lived in virtually 
every part of the world before settling in Santa Monica in 
1962. Francis' gi-asp of color and space is truly inimitable. 
No other painter in our time has even attempted to 
achieve the wonderful openness Francis can give to a 
canvas on any scale. His work redeems the very notion of 
beauty by giving bone and sinew to his complex passages 
of color, lending them dignity and articulation. 

Crucial changes had occurred in Sam Francis' art 
just prior to his move to Santa Monica. The interiors of 
his paintings had opened and lightened, and a new vocab- 
ulary of forms now moved with buoyant grace within 
a breath-filled atmosphere. Assessing Francis' achieve- 
ments of the early sixties, one thinks particularly of his 
brilliant Blue Balls series of 1960-62, paintings filled 
with an unusual and potent dynamism. Images in paint- 
ings have traditionally moved across the plane, from left 
to right or vice-versa. The Italian Futurists traced 
straight linear movements in vectors indicating speed. 
The photographs of Muybridge, the experiences of the 
motion picture, and centuries of Western painting (except 
perhaps in the Baroque era) have reinforced our pictorial 
conventions for movement in space. In Francis' Blue 
Balls, however, we witness movement as it typically oc- 
curs in nature. One form revolves around its own axis, 
another slides through space on a subtly curved path, 
other forms hover like microscopic particles in air or tiny 
organisms alive in a pool of water. His forms are as awk- 
wardly beautiful as the legitimate creations of nature, 
no doubt finding their authenticity in the artist's own 
understanding of the biological world. 

In Los Angeles during 1963, Francis spent a pro- 
ductive period at the Tamarind Lithography Workshop. 
Throughout the sixties his color brightened and intensi- 
fied as raw, unmixed pigments were juxtaposed and even 
overlapped to create brash new combmations allowing 
the penetration of light. By the end of the decade, Francis' 
work projected a heightened sense of drama bordering 
on severity. He pushed his vivid areas of color to the edge 
of his compositions, laying open a large white field that 
Francis has likened to the white sails of a great ship. Not 
only did his interior space gain in importance, but the 
paintings attained a state of tension and compression. 

The intensity of this time can best be seen in the em- 
phatic Berlin Red of 1968-70, created for the National- 
galerie in Berlin. Powerfully articulated islands of dense 



sjbid. «Ibid. 



"Ibid. "Ibid. 



^Ibid. 



color stand face to face across an open field of space. Lush 
color turns sober and dramatic as dark malachite, blood 
red, bright orange, blues, and greens collide and sub- 
merge each other. Working on a vast scale, some twenty- 
six by forty feet, Francis achieved in Berlin Red an 
emotionally charged, deeply evocative image of human 
confrontation. 

Berkeley of 1970 (cat. no. 52), in the collection of the 
University Art Museum at Berkeley, is characterized by a 
similar, strongly asymmetrical space with dense, rough- 
hewn passages of pigment. Here Francis' color is bright 
and transparent, dominated by clear reds and red- 
purples. We experience these forms as constellations in a 
vast field, but they press toward each other across a 
highly charged irregular ground. In Looking Through 
(cat. no. 53) of the same year a new structure appears, 
one that ties edge to edge through a framework of strong 
diagonals. With this and other related canvases, Francis 
made a major move toward a heavier, firmer structure, 
alive with fluid, glowing pigment. 

During almost two decades as a working artist in Los 
Angeles, Francis has lent his sophistication, deep social 
conviction, and lively wit to the artistic community of 
this area. More than any other artist in the city, Francis 
is a citizen of the world; his outlook as an artist, like his 
painting, removes and erases boundaries, embraces many 
cultures and makes them his own. His achievements 
have given the younger members of the community 
something to measure themselves against, not something 
to imitate but a generous attitude to take note of and 
comprehend. 

In 1966 Richard Diebenkorn moved to Santa Monica 
from the Bay Area. A much-admired painter of major 
stature who had exhibited in Southern California many 
times and had already played a part in the artistic life of 
the area, Diebenkorn set up his studio in the Ocean Park 
section of Santa Monica and accepted a teaching post at 
UCLA. During the next year, 1967, he embarked upon a 
new group of paintings, shifting his direction from a rich, 
evocative, abstract form of figuration to a new, expansive 
abstraction in the paintings he now entitled Ocean Park 
(cat. nos. 43-47). 

Among the enduring qualities of Diebenkom's Ocean 
Park period has been his ability to offer the viewer an 
intense experience of space, light, and depth within an 
abstract format. Long vertical and horizontal lines span 
his compositions from edge to edge, measuring then 
declaring their dimensions, teaching the eye to move 
quickly, to traverse long distances with assurance. The 
work is powerful and clean though modified by complex 
tonal passages and remnants of the artist's handwriting. 
Diebenkorn 's approach to the canvas is assertive, his 
process is reflective. The effect of scale is not always 
determined by size. Drawings in the Ocean Park gi'oup 
are often massive and spacious, while some of the larger 
canvases are quite intimate and tangible. The final 
measurement is one of the eye and the mind, based 
upon perceived equivalence as well as absolute and 
measurable scale. 



Diebenkorn's Ocean Park paintings present an expe- 
rience of space and light that is similar to experiences 
in nature but intensified, rendered more vivid and acces- 
sible. The high horizon lines of these paintings are un- 
bounded and far-reaching, the space beneath is deep and 
limitless, the edges of the paintings open rather than 
enclose interior space. Diagonal cuts provide a dramatic 
counten,veight to his horizontals and verticals, seeming to 
move easily beyond one plane and through another. 
Sensations of vastness, rapid passage through planes, the 
strength of large wedges of color — all involve physical 
experiences beyond the actual dimensions of the painting, 
suggesting an encounter with real space that might 
be found in soaring, in aerial mapping, or in the special 
qualities of the landscape of the western United States. 
But in the Ocean Park paintings such space is not distant 
and reduced; it is luminous, immediate, near to us, and 
wedged into a stable structure. 

Responding to a question which suggested this rela- 
tionship of pictured space to perceived scale, Diebenkorn 
replied, "I think it is something of the same kind of thing 
that — who was it. Fry or Bell? — who said, 'significant 
form.' ... I think with space the same thing can be ap- 
plied. You don't really think much of that area of two- 
dimensional space until it is related in such a way that it 
becomes, their word, 'significant,' not mine."^^ 

The Ocean Park paintings of Richard Diebenkorn, 
begun in the late sixties and continuing to the present, 
are a profound achievement, a powerful synthesis which 
reflects the maturity of a lifetime of painting. They can- 
not be placed securely within any decade, being the prod- 
uct of a painter's patient, thoughtful cultivation of a 
refined and vital form. Within the artistic community of 
Los Angeles, Diebenkorn has made multiple contribu- 
tions, most significantly of course as an artist of great 
breadth and vision, as a man of exceptional dignity and 
humor, and as one who shares his experience of the work- 
ing process, its pleasures and pains, with fellow artists 
as both teacher and friend. 

The presence of artists of major stature is important 
to the cultural vitality of any city, as artistic achieve- 
ments give character and form to historical periods, show 
us ourselves, and become the living record of our time. 
The splendid natural climate of Southern California has 
attracted and sustained many gifted individuals, and it is 
hoped that the next two hundred years will witness a 
flowering of the cultural climate to rival the one nature 
has so generously provided. 

^^Conversation with the artist, July 1977. 



Christopher Knight 



The Word Made Flesh: L.A. Pop Redefined 



It is by now well known that much of what was 
swept up into the dizzying international movement called 
Pop art in the 1960s shares only the most superficial of 
characteristics. If one can identify a "pure Pop" surely it 
is the work of Warhol, Lichtenstein, and Rosenquist, in 
which the ubiquitous symbols of mass culture are ren- 
dered with techniques derived from mass communica- 
tions. Yet artists as disparate as George Segal and 
Marisol, Richard Artschwager and George Brecht, R. B. 
Kitaj and Larry Rivers were, at one time or another, seen 
through the lens of Pop. 

Among the artists at work in Los Angeles in the 
early and mid-sixties, Billy Al Bengston, Joe Gk)ode, Ed 
Ruscha, and David Hockney were similarly perceived.' 
The first three were included in such exhibitions as 
Walter Hopps' New Painting of Common Objects at the 
Pasadena Art Museum (September 1962); Six More, Law- 
rence Alloway's addendum to Six Painters and the Object 
at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (July 1963); 
and John Coplans' Pop Art, USA at the Oakland Museum 
(September 1963). Hockney, who first came to Los Angeles 
at the beginning of 1964, had quickly acquired the curi- 
ous appellation of "the British Andy Warhol." While it is 
true that those artists identified with Pop shared certain 
interests in topical subject matter, the work of these 
four artists is vastly different from that of Warhol, Lich- 
tenstein, and Rosenquist. Indeed, topicality itself — the 
particularity of a locale or place at a certain time — may 
account for the unique point of view evident in the art 
produced in Los Angeles. Bengston's pristine, sprayed 
lacquer paintings of chevrons and irises trapped in a lumi- 
nous space; Goode's paintings of the sky, torn in layers 
or captured in the frame of an actual window; Ruscha's 
hard-edged manipulations of graphic iconography; and 
Hockney 's suburban landscapes with their harsh, planar 
clarity — these are not literally images of mass culture 
rendered by techniques of mass communication, al- 
though they draw on the shared experiences of popular 
culture. It has been suggested that the reason for this 
is that Los Angeles itself is as close as one can get to 
a "pure Pop" environment;^ if this is so, it is reasonable to 
assume that, as an expansionist aesthetic, as a way of 
relating art to the environment. Pop art in Los Angeles 
would be at variance with work produced elsewhere. 

"Pop art is neither abstract nor realistic," Lawrence 
Alloway has written, "though it has contacts in both di- 
rections."^ Abstract knowledge (the conceptual or ideal) is 
wedded to the real (material presence or the depiction of 
objects). A unique relationship of object to idea, of the 
real and the ideal, characterizes much American art from 

'Anthony Berlant, Llyn Foulke.s, Phillip Hefferton, Robert 
O'Dowd, and Richard Pettibone, among others, have also been 
seen in this context. 

-Peter Plagens, Sunshine Muse: Contemporary Art on the West 
Coast, New York, 1974, p. 139; and Nancy Marmer, Pop Art, New 
York, 1966, p. 140. 

'Lawrence Alloway, A mencan Pop Art, Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York, 1974, p. 3. 



the late eighteenth century to the present. The separate 
traditions of the real and the ideal have, at various times, 
become so perfectly overlaid on one another as to pro- 
duce what has been termed a "conceptual realism," a pre- 
occupation with things amplified by concerns with light, 
space, and time that serves to make the real somehow 
more than real.'* This magical union of idea and object 
takes its place beside the late Gothic tradition of concep- 
tual realism embodied in the work of Jan van Eyck. In a 
sense, the secularization of Christianity transposed tra- 
ditional symbols until, by the mid-nineteenth century, 
they were firmly lodged in landscape motifs. The convinc- 
ing means of expressing religious experience that had 
been channeled into the themes of Christian art were 
now called into service for the revelation of divinity in 
nature. For instance, van Eyck's God the Father from the 
Ghent altarpiece is rendered, with the new medium of oil 
paint, in a shimmering splendor of color The radiance 
of gems, the brittle luster of pearls, and the tactility of 
brocade suggest a magical scrutiny of the microcosm as a 
vehicle for the revelation of a divine macrocosm personi- 
fied by the figure of God.^ 

The translation of the sacred into the secular in 
nineteenth-century landscape painting finds its apogee in 
Luminism, the most indigenous of American styles (fig. 1). 
The hard, precise light, the linear clarity of rocks, trees, 
and surfaces of water, the unbroken integrity of ob- 
jects raised nature to a higher coefficient of reality. The 
raw, untouched land, sea, and sky of the American conti- 
nent (the real) was perceived as the New Eden (the ideal). 

In our own century the popular mythology of the 
earthly paradise was embodied in the landscape of South- 
ern California. The reality of the horizontal expanse, 
the limitless sky, and the shimmering Pacific, all infused 
with an amorphous, sun-bleached light, held for the 
twentieth century consciousness the possibility of becom- 
ing the ideal. If nineteenth-century Americans had no 
cultural traditions of their own, no ideal past, then at 
least they had their ancient trees. And if the semi-arid 
desert of Los Angeles had no cultural traditions, at least 
there was the technologically inspired dream of the ideal 
future. The nineteenth-century natural Garden exists in 
Los Angeles as an invented Garden. Primeval forests 
were planted as clusters of imported palms. Virgin lakes 
were dug and contained as concrete swimming pools (fig. 2). 
Majestic waterfalls were trapped by pipes from the Owens 
Valley and reemerged in front yard lawn sprinklers. 
Nature became a vernacular invention, constructed 
by the language of technology. Nature and culture were 
so exactly superimposed as to obscure one another 
The invented "real" fused with the natural "ideal" in 
a sun-drenched luminescence. 

"Barbara Novak, America;! Painting of the Nineteenth Century, 
New York, 1969; Novak discusses the nature of conceptualism 
and the object in nineteenth-century American painting and 
suggests provocative relationships to contemporary art. 

^Robert Rosenblum, Modern Painting and the Northern Roman- 
tic Tradition: Friednch to Rothlio, New York, 1975, p. 16. 




Fig. 1 

Anonymous American 

Meditation by the Sea, 

c. 1850-60 

Oil on canvas 

13 Va X 19'/2 in. (34.3 x 49.5 cm.) 

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 

M. and M. Karolik Collection 



Fig. 2 - 

David Hockney 

Portrait of an Artist (Pool with 

Tivo Figures), 1971 

Acrylic on canvas 

84x120 in. (214x275 cm.) 

© David Hockney 

Courtesy Petersburg Press 



The Los Angeles landscape consists of the conflicts 
an(i confusions between nature an(i culture. "California is 
two separate things," John Baldessari has said, "the real- 
ity and the state of mind." This landscape was the subject 
of much art of the sixties and seventies. In Los Angeles, 
the tradition of the visual arts is the tradition of movies 
and television, of billboards and advertising (fig. 3).*^ 
These traditional visual arts take the shape of a vernacu- 
lar narrative: the word (the Hollywood sign) is superim- 
posed on nature (the hills). 

In the static art of painting, this flow of narrative 
visualization becomes the frozen absolute of the sign, the 
symbol, and the common object. Time stops, becoming 
timeless and contained, and the narrative is embodied in 
the transcendent object, in actionless existentialism. The 
word is made flesh, the jump from word to idea is made 
by way of the thing.'' 

An orientation to the "thing" pervades the work of 
Bengston, Goode, Ruscha, and Hockney. The physical work 
of art as both object and image is restated in Bengston's 
choice of subject matter, typified by the chevron. His 
endless layers of highly polished spray lacquer give his 
paintings of the early sixties (cat. nos. 10-22) an undeni- 
able corporeality that becomes even more evident in 
the later "dentos" (fig. 4), painted sheets of aluminum 
pounded and gouged with a hammer The central image 
of a chevron also hovers between the abstract quality of a 
symbol and the physical reality of a military badge. The 
material bent of Bengston's work may in part be traced to 
the influence of Richard Diebenkorn, with whom he 
studied in 1955 ("Diebenkorn showed me how I might 
physically approach a painting");^ to his friendship with 
Ken Price and study of ceramics with Peter Voulkos 
at the Otis Art Institute in 1956; and to his admiration 
for the similarly ambiguous "physical images" of 
Jasper Johns. 

Joe Goode also acknowledges his interest in the work 

•^Kim Levin, "Narrative Landscape on the Continental Shelf: 
Notes on Southern California," Arts Magazine, vol. 51, no. 2, 
October 1976, pp. 94-97 

'''Novak, American Painting, p. 22. 

'James Monte, Billy A! Bengston, Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, 1968, n. p. 



of Johns.^ Goode, whose art has been compared to that of 
the nineteenth-century trompe I'oeil painters John Peto 
and William Harnett (fig. 5), progressively incorporated 
common objects into his paintings until the paintings 
themselves became objects."' The early milk bottle paint- 
ings (fig. 6) included a real but hand-painted glass bottle 
standing before a loosely brushed, painterly canvas. On 
occasion, the canvas carried a painted "ghost image" of 
the bottle. In his 1963 series of house paintings, the image 
was traced from photographic reproductions in the real- 
estate section of newspapers and transferred to tactile 
fields of brushy paint. Goode's "cloud triptychs" and "un- 
made bed" paintings (cat. nos. 55-57) extended this object 
orientation to encompass the entire painting. Images of 
the sky were encased in mullions and set behind Plexiglas, 
making the ephemeral sky a concrete object seen from 
a concrete window. The "ghost image" reappears in these 
works in the form of twisted or torn drawings of unmade 
beds or Polaroids of the sky, distressed images that un- 
derscore their material quality. The conundrum is stated 
in reverse in two series of staircases constructed in 1964 
and 1971. The staircases, aligned against walls or in cor- 
ners in the manner of relief sculpture, are too narrow and 
constricted to be walked on and physically experienced. 
Rather, they are things that must be visually perceived 
and conceptually experienced." 

Ed Ruscha, who grew up and went to school with 
Goode in Oklahoma City, almost literally approaches the 
notion that the jump from word to idea is made via the 
thing, a notion first stated by the eighteenth-century 
New England theologian Jonathan Edwards. Ruscha's 
hard-edged word paintings, begun while he was a student 
at Chouinard in 1961-62, incorporated word environ- 
ments: the logo of 20th Century-Fox and gas stations 
dominated by trademarks. Like Johns' use of the word as 
object in paintings such as Tennyson, Ruscha's words are 
divorced from contextual meaning; they are rendered 
either in imitation of physical substance (maple syrup, 
water) as in Steel (fig. 7) or by the use of actual physical 
substance (gunpowder). Henry Hopkins has noted that, 
given Ruscha's commercial art training and his sense of 
composition and design, it may at first seem peculiar that 
he chose to deal with figurative subject matter rather 
than abstract formalism: "Perhaps the reason is quite 
simple. Things mean something to Ruscha — things to be 



^Goode, according to Henry Hopkins, saw and wanted to buy 
a Jasper Johns lithograph, Coathanger, which was shown at the 
Everett Ellin Gallery. Unable to afford the $75 purchase price, 
Goode made his own print of a screwdriver "in the manner 
of Johns." See Henry T. Hopkins, Joe Goode: Work until Now, 
Fort Worth Art Center Museum, Texas, 1972. 

'"Philip Leider, "Joe Goode and the Common Object," Ar//"or!/m, 
vol. 4, no. 7 March 1966, pp. 24-27 

"Michele D. De Angelus, "Isolated Imagery: Joe Goode," Los 
Angeles Institute of Contemporary Art Journal, no. 20, October 
1978, pp. 34-35. 



26 



Fig. 3 

Edward Ruscha 

Hollywood. 1968 

Silkscreen 

17'/2 X 44'/2 in. 

(44.5x113.1 cm.) 

Collection Douglas Cramer 



Fig. 4 

Billy Al Bengston 

John. 1966 

Polyurethane, lacquer, 

aluminum 

34x31 in. (86.3 x 78.8 cm.) 

Sterling Holloway Collection 





.5 

Uiam Harnett 

? Old Cupboard Door. 1889 

on canvas 

4 X 41in. (154.9 X 104.2 cm.) 
aves Art Gallery, Sheffield, 
gland 




Fig. 6 
Joe Goode 

Milk Bottle Painting (Happy 
Birthday), 1961-62 
Oil on canvas with object 
67 X 67 in. (170.2 x 170.2 cm.) 
Janss Foundation, Thousand 
Oaks, California 




Fig. 7 

Edward Ruscha 

Steel. 1960s 

Oil on canvas 

60x54 in (152.4x137.2 cm.) 

Collection Walker Art Center, 

Minneapolis. 

Purchased with the aid of 

funds from The Clinton and 

Delia Walker Accessions Fund 

and the National Endowment 

for the Arts 



recorded and collected through time."'- This interest is 
clearly seen in his books such as Every Building on the 
Sunset Strip, Twentysix Gasoline Stations, Thirtyfour 
Parking Lots in Los Angeles, and Royal Road Test (all 
1966-67) (cat. nos. 107-110). The photographs in these 
books are "dumb," uncomposed snapshots, cropped to sup- 
port the layout of the book rather than to manipulate 
the content of the image. Attention is focused on layout, 
typography, scale, sequence — in short, on the physical 
properties of the object. "They are simply a collection of 
'facts,'" he has said. "One of the purposes of my books has 
to do with making a mass-produced object."'^ Royal Road 
Test, which records the event of hurling a typewriter from 
the window of a speeding car, is of particular interest. 
The "words" of the narrative are photographs (signifi- 
cantly, photographs of a typewriter) that are objectified 
in the book in much the same manner that the word 
"Steel" is written in a painted illusion of liquid in a late 
1960s painting. 

This interest in real things also occurs in David 
Hockney's choice of subject matter. "The one thing that 
had happened in Los Angeles," the artist has stated, "was 
that I had begun to paint the real things that I had seen: 
all the paintings before that were either ideas or things 
I'd seen in a book and made something from."''* This new 
attraction to real things as the subject of his art devel- 
oped between 1964 and 1966, and can be seen in the shift 
from the pure invention of forms in California Art 
Collector to the specific portraiture and landscape of 
Beverly Hills Housewife (cat. no. 58) and Portrait of Nick 
Wilder. While speculation on why Hockney's arrival in 
Los Angeles occasioned this shift in focus is risky, it may 
not be presumptuous to suggest that popular mythology 
about the place, disseminated through the channels of 
popular culture (and in Hockney's case, specifically 
through magazines like Physique Pictorial), turned out to 
be less fiction than fact. Los Angeles, Hockney has noted, 
was "just how I imagined it would be."''^ 

The physical materials with which Hockney was 
working at the time changed as well, from oils to the 
clear, intense colors of acrylic paint. The hard-edged, 
usually unmodulated areas of color reinforce the frontal, 
planar organization of space in these paintings. In a 
nearly classicist manner, foreground, middle ground, and 
background are delineated in brittle planes. A similarly 
frontal and planar organization of space dominates the 
work of Bengston, Goode, and Ruscha, and combines with 
a clear spatial organization of depicted (or actual) objects. 

'-Henry T Hopkins, Joe Goode and Edward Ru.-icha. The Fine 
Arts Patrons of Newport Harbor, Balboa Pavilion Gallery, Cali- 
fornia, 1968, n.p. 

'■'John Coplans, "Concerning "Various Small Fires': Edward 
Ruscha Discusses His Perplexing Publications," Ar//bru/», vol. 3, 
no. 5, February 1965, pp. 24-25, 

'"Nikos Stangos, ed., David Hockney by David Hockney. New 
York, 1977, p. 104. 

■nbid., p. 97. 



Through this hierarchy of placement, matter becomes an 
extension of mind. 

Many of these paintings also evince the selection of a 
moment and its elevation to an Emersonian "concen- 
trated eternity.""' We see our reflections pass by in the 
window panes of Goode's sky paintings, but the sky is 
immobilized. Hockney's three paintings of the moment of 
a splash in a swimming pool, inspired by a photograph in 
a book, are frozen in time. Bengston's iris shape derives, 
according to James Monte, from the animation form used 
by Hollywood technicians to depict the moment of trans- 
formation from bat to human in the film Dracula}'' The 
frozen moment and the palpable object, the precisionist 
and anonymous surface fill these paintings with a re- 
markable silence, a silence quite unlike the aggressive 
shriek of psychedelic Pop. Even Ruscha's trumpeting 
typography of the word "noise" in Noise, Pencil, Broken 
Pencil, Cheap Western (1966) (cat. no. 102) is reduced to 
the snap of a cracking pencil, and the hard, lacquered 
sheen of Bengston's Busier (1962) (cat. no. 11) is a glaze 
that captures, like a fly in amber, softly glowing, lumi- 
nous orbs of color. A decidedly lyrical quality pervades 
much of this work. 

Critically misperceived according to formalist canons 
is the high degree of surface finish that cuts right across 
style in Los Angeles art of the 1960s.'* The so-called "L.A. 
Look," to use Peter Plagens' definition, "refers generically 
to cool, semi-technological, industrially pretty art made 
in and around Los Angeles in the sixties by Larry Bell, 
Craig Kauffman, Ed Ruscha, Billy Al Bengston, Kenneth 
Price, John McCracken, Peter Alexander, DeWain Valen- 
tine, Robert Irwin, and Joe Goode, among others."''' This 
definition, however, belies the quiet lyricism of much of 
the work, a lyricism that could be described as an almost 
transcendent approach toward the perfection of the 
object. This obsessively perfectionist approach, however, 
does not mean that materials and techniques are the sub- 
ject of the art. Rather, it reveals an attitude toward mak- 
ing art that is charged with an idealism concerning the 
object. As James Jackson Jarvis said of the methods of 
the Hudson River painters: "With singular inconsistency 
of mind they idealize in composition and materialize in 
execution."^" 

'"Alfred Kazin and Daniel Aaron, eds.,Emerson: A Modern 
Anthology. Boston. 1958, p. 122. 

"Monte. Bengston, n.p. It is tempting to assume that this story is 
apocryphal. However, many of Bengston's paintings from 1960- 
65 are titled with names of movie actors: Big Duke, Aua. Ingrid 
(all 19601; Tyrone a^^lV, Boris. Humphrey (both X^&'i); Alfalfa 
(1964); Chaney (1965). Also, the central curved-lozenge form sur- 
rounded by glowing circles in such 1963 paintings as Beta and 
Busby is similar to a movie marquee and is currently in use in 
"Coming Attractions" film trailers. 

'sjohn Coplans, West Coast 1945-69. Pasadena Art Museum, 
California, 1969. n.p. 

'^Plagens, Sunshine Muse. p. 120. 

^"Novak, American Painting, p. 82. 



It is interesting to note that the exploration of new 
painting materials, of acrylic and plastic and automobile 
lacquers, corresponds to similar experimentation at ear- 
lier periods of interest in conceptual realism. It is well 
known that van Eyck exploited the glowing color possible 
in glazes of the then newly rediscovered medium of oil 
paint (so much so that he was long credited with having 
"invented" the technique j.^' Perhaps less well known is 
the invention of a host of new chemically based paints, in 
addition to the traditional earth and vegetable pigments, 
that emerged in the 1850s and accompanied the develop- 
ment of a Luminist mode.^^ 

Equally significant is the fact that, in the generation 
of the mid-nineteenth century, American painting was 
truly a popular art. Its diverse interests were those of its 
public, and its style, as E. P. Richardson has noted, "was 
simple, transparent, and easily grasped. The aesthetic 
problems that interested painters led toward heightening 
and deepening the common consciousness rather than 
breaking away from it."^^ Likewise, Pop art in the 1960s 
found strength in the shared experiences of the culture 
at large. But despite points of congruence, the work of 
Bengston, Goode, Ruscha, and Hockney differs substan- 
tially from that of Warhol, Lichtenstein, and Rosenquist, 
largely through the former's adherence to a unique 
relationship of object to idea, of the real and the ideal. 

Conceptual realism, the Eyckian notion of a magical 
scrutiny of the microcosm as a vehicle for the revelation 
of the macrocosm, persisted in the nineteenth-century 
Luminist landscape. By the 1930s, that sharp-focused, 
planar, frontal, smooth-surfaced, anonymous, timeless, un- 
broken integrity of natural objects in the landscape had 
been transposed to the man-made objects of the industrial 
landscape. The machines and factories of Precisionist 
paintings were rendered with the clear silence of a tran- 
scendentalist vision. In the 1960s, that magical scrutiny 
still persisted in the sharp-focused, planar, frontal, 
smooth-surfaced, anonymous, timeless, unbroken integ- 
rity of the narrative landscape, the transcendentalism 
of the vernacular language of the sign, the symbol, and 
the common object. Pop art in Los Angeles is heir to the 
tradition of conceptual realism. 



'-'Fidel Danieli has discussed Bengston's spray technique in this 
light: "One is reminded of the ancient Western tradition, 
moribund for a century, of endless gradations of oil and varnish 
fully exploited by the primitive Flemish." See Fidel A. Danieli, 
"Billy Al Bengston's 'Dentos,'" Art/'ori/m, vol. 5, no. 9, May 1967, 
pp. 24-27. 

^^E. P. Richardson, A Short History of Painting in America: The 
Story of 450 Years, New York, 1963, pp. 157-59. 

"Ibid., p. 159. 



Michele D. De Angelus 



Visually Haptic Space: 

The Twentieth Centviry Luminism 

of Ir\vin and Bell 



As legend would have it, Los Angeles is a borderless 
urban sprawl transversed by a tangle of freeways, a city 
without a fulcrum, oozing toward its confining mountains 
and beyond, beneath smoggy or painfully light-saturated 
skies. It is Lotusland, where the catharsis of group en- 
counters, Rolfing, and est come together with the pleasures 
of hot tubs, Malibu Beach, and the Sunset Strip. Home 
of Disneyland, Hollywood, and the aerospace industry, 
where the climate and luxuriant sensuality of the Mediter- 
ranean have been sanitized and packaged by the film 
industry as the American Dream, Los Angeles is the 
heartland of the future. 

The city particularly sustains this role in the popular 
imagination as the edge where all that is zany, danger- 
ous, offbeat, and experimental comes to rest after shaking 
loose or being forcibly extradited elsewhere. In Los 
Angeles, so the cultural mythology would have it, these 
things take root and thrive. In the American mind, 
Southern California is the frontier 

Within this ambience grew up an art predicated on 
the Southern California environment — the sea, desert, 
and sky. An art of light, space, and color, its aim and 
preoccupation, like that of Narcissus, was alleged to be 
transparency and reflection. Supposedly born of a union 
of the new aeronautical technology and eastern religious 
philosophies, it was purportedly midwifed by the daz- 
zlingly clear, intense light and atmospheric haze of L.A.'s 
urban sprawl and freeway snarl. Since this new art showed 
a predilection for difficult, sophisticated techniques 
and for shiny space-age materials of glass, plastic, and 
metal, its mentors were assumed to be NASA and the 
automotive body shop. It was portrayed in contemporary 
criticism as a latter-day Impressionism, flourishing in 
the capital of the Me Generation, fed on hedonism and 
health food. 

It is this art — the so-called "plastic presences" of 
Alexander, Kauffman, and Valentine, the illusive glass 
tonnage of Bell, the ephemera of Irwin, Orr, Nordman, 
Asher, Turrell, and others — that, more than any other 
art, has come to embody the myths of West Coast culture 
in the national and international art world. 

Although "Transparency, Reflection, Light, Space"' 
have occupied many significant Southern California art- 
ists working with plastics or "situational" installations, 
this does not imply a coherent aesthetic movement or 
language. The real issues are to be found in something 
other than the common use of certain materials, tools, or 
methods of presentation.^ Even within the seemingly 
homogeneous intangibles made by Robert Irwin, Michael 
Asher, James Tbrrell, Maria Nordman, and Eric Orr, 

'Title of an exhibition and catalog presented by the UCLA Art 
Galleries, January 11- February 14, 1971, which included the work 
of Peter Alexander, Larry Bell, Robert Irwin, and Craig Kauffman. 
(Catalog foreword by Frederick S. Wight; artist interviews.) 

^Among the first to make valuable distinctions about Southern 
California art in the sixties was Jane Livingston in "Two 
Generations in Los Angeles," Art in America, vol. 57, January- 
February 1969, p. 94. 



the intentions, meaning, and success of the work vary 
significantly between artists' oeuvres. 

Historically as well as tangibly, this is an elusive 
art. When collectively discussing these works, particularly 
those of Irwin and others, the historian, confined to the 
symbolic generalizations of the written language, strives 
futilely to reconstruct what is already legendary. Though 
made only within the last decade, most of these works 
are as nonexistent and as mythical as ancient Greek 
painting. Beyond the specifics of their time and place of 
creation, they are perpetuated through memory and oral 
myths. Shreds of the works' essences are caught in the 
critical writings like the skeletal remains of a caged bird. 
The life of this art persistently evades the photograph 
and the printed word. 

Though different in its avowed intent and apparent 
illusionism, this evasive character is equally true for the 
multi-ton plate-glass sculptures of Larry Bell and the 
"situations" conjured by Robert Irwin from a handful of 
black string or a few yards of nylon scrim. Bell's works 
and those constituting the researches of Irwin have given 
impetus to an art of the phenomenological, grounded on 
the idea that the aesthetic act is best consummated on a 
prelinguistic level of pure sensation and perception. 
The progress of their work appears the most consistently 
influential for artists of that inclination in Los Angeles 
and elsewhere. 

Paradoxically, this strain of California work had its 
origins in the decade of the sixties, at a time when the 
strength of art defined as discrete consumable object was 
at its apogee. The primacy of the object during that era 
was such that its physical qualities were critically read 
as the imperative for the formative process, art's subject 
and its content. Formalism reigned supreme. Perhaps not 
surprisingly, with this uncompromising emphasis on 
the formal qualities of a work of art came the necessity to 
expand the dimensions and formal possibilities of paint- 
ings.-'' The easel painting of Pollock, Newman, and Still 
had already become wall-sized canvases; with Stella, 
Flavin, Bladen, Artschwager, and others, painting became 
sculpture; sculpture was subsumed by architecture and 
engineering for Smithson and Heizer Against this prevail- 
ing formalist tide, Robert Irwin and Larry Bell wrestled 
their way toward their mature concerns of the seventies. 

During the 1960s Robert Irwin and Larry Bell num- 
bered among the irascible, independent, sometimes phys- 
ically violent group of artists for whom the Ferus Gallery 
and Barney's Beanery served as social nuclei. Los Angeles 
in that decade offered only the most anemic of art envi- 
ronments. Eccentric and highly personal art works 
emerged without benefit of — and perhaps due to the 
lack of — cultural density, historicity, or a substantial 
critical or stylistic dialectic. The dialogue between artists 
had little to do with art: "We didn't talk the art out. If we 
sat around the Beanery, we talked about who was a good 

^Lucy R. Lippard, "As Painting Is to Sculpture: A Changing Ratio," 
American Sculpture of the Sixties, ed. Maurice Tuchman, Los 
Angeles County Museum of Art, 1967, p. 32. 




Fig.l 

Larry Bell 

Little Blank Riding Hood, 1962 

Oil on canvas 

65 X 65 in. (165.1 x 165.1 cm.) 

Sterling Holloway Collection 



fuck and where we were going to get the six dollars so we 
could buy gas for a car to go to, you know, the Valley and 
get drunk. It was a whole different thing."'' Art maga- 
zines were a more visually informative resource than art 
museums or galleries. In the face of an indifferent if not 
hostile milieu, the necessity to develop and project a 
tough, distinctive, coherent persona was common to all in 
the Ferus group. Bell and Irwin were not exceptions. 

In a city with few artistic institutions and role models, 
the company of ones peers was of extreme importance 
in shaping professional direction and ambition. The rules 
were few but rigorous, tinged with a kind of moral 
imperative that has characterized West Coast artmaking 
in talents as diverse as Clyfford Still and Bruce Nauman. 
Irving Blum describes the Ferus group as "very, very 
isolated to begin, and at the same time very critical of 
each other . . . You have to remember that they were the 

only audience they had They kind of relied on each 

other, and they were extremely positive, one to the next; 
they were critical, yet supportive at the same time.'"^ 

Irwin cites Billy Al Bengston, Ed Moses, Craig Kauff- 
man, and later Ken Price as contributing significantly 
to his artistic sophistication. As he recalls, "those two or 
three people had, in a sense, more to do with my education 
than any school that I went to or any activity that I 
had."^ For Bell, too, certain individuals of the Ferus group 
were primary influences, instrumental in shaping and 
reinforcing his personal ambitions. 

Local academicism and a mannered but tenacious 
Abstract Expressionism held sway in Los Angeles art of 
the late 1950s when Robert Irwin, teaching at the 
Chouinard Art Institute from 1957 to 1958, encountered 
Larry Bell as a student. Irwin's enormous pedagogical 
influence begins in these years. His obvious talent and 
commitment were impressive to his students at 
Chouinard; his emerging belief in the power and integ- 
rity of artistic inquiry was already in evidence. Irwin's 
relationship with Bell has been ongoing, subtle, and per- 
vasive. Recognizing Bell's "extraordinary possibility," 
Irwin devoted considerable amounts of time and atten- 
tion to him.'' At a certain point, he encouraged the 

•■Interview with Edward Kienholz conducted by Lawrence 
Weschler between June 1, 1975, and March 31, 1977, part of the 
series Los Angeles Art Community: Group Portrait, produced 
under the auspices of the UCLA Oral History Program, transcript 
no. 300/152, Department of Special Collections, UCLA Research 
Library, p. 208. 

'Interview with Irving Blum conducted by Joanna Phillips and 
Lawrence Weschler between December 27, 1976, and January 3, 
1979, Los Angeles Art Community: Group Portrait. UCLA Oral 
History Program, transcript as yet unnumbered. Department of 
Special Collections, UCLA Research Library, p. 55. 

''Interview with Robert Irwin conducted by Frederick S. Wight 
between July 1, 1975, and March 31, 1977. Los Angeles Art Com- 
munity: Group Portrait, UCLA Oral History Program, transcript 
no. 300/152, Department of Special Collections, UCLA Research 
Library, p. 13. 

■'Blum interview, p. 133. 



younger artist to leave school to work as a professional on 
his own, and Irwin was later instrumental in bringing 
him into the Ferus Gallery in the early sixties. 

Earlier, in 1957, when associated with the Felix 
Landau Gallery, Irwin had exhibited competently painted 
beach scenes and landscapes remembered by dealer 
Irving Blum as being of notably "curious organization."^ 
Surprisingly, Irwin recalls that at that time he had little 
or no awareness of the work of Pollock or the achieve- 
ments of the New York School.^ Two years later, in 1959, 
Irwin had switched over to the Ferus Gallery with a one- 
man show of large gestural abstract paintings. Like Bell's 
works of that year, these heavily impastoed canvases 
are remarkable only for a rich and intimate intensity. 

In the early 1960s Los Angeles art began to attract 
national attention, and a sluggish but bona fide art mar- 
ket began to simmer. The art of Irwin and Bell swung 
into its stride during these same years. The objects made 
by both men in the opening years of the decade employed 
the current formalist vernacular of flatness, mono- 
chromism, taciturn and pristine hard-edged geometric 
forms, and were consequently counted as part of the 
reductivist impulse called Minimalism. But in the works 
of these years — Irwin's line- and dot paintings, and Bell's 
monochrome canvases and the mirrored and glazed boxes 
— both artists began to divert the prevailing vernacular 
so as to break the normal identity of the formalist object 
as cool, impassive, and self-contained. Their works, with 
increasing aggression, acknowledged their environment 
as an operative part of the artwork. 

Only in the line paintings was Irwin composing his 
pictures in a deductivist mode in order to eliminate the 
Abstract Expressionist baggage acquired in the late 
1950s Ferus milieu. Thereafter, his was an additive proc- 
ess, an intuitive progression toward a felt goal. In the 
earliest line paintings, dating from 1961-62, a web of 
lines congregate at the center of the canvas. In the later 
line paintings of 1962-65 (cat. nos. 62-65), Irwin care- 
fully adjusted the placement of several straight horizon- 
tal lines within and in relation to the confining limits of a 
single-colored canvas. The lines were placed in such a 
way, however, that the eye could not read them simulta- 
neously, nor could it pursue the movement of a relational 
composition. The lines were no longer the point of focus. 
Irwin recognizes these works as his first attempt "not to 
paint a painting.""' It is interesting to note that, despite 
the pared-down look of these paintings. Irwin felt it 
critical to lay in each line "not crudely, but by hand,"" 
rather than with a rule, as though already conscious that 
his direction was toward an art of such refinement that 
small distinctions could effect enormous visual resonance. 

Larry Bell's work of 1961-62 was also moving toward 
an emphasis on the extra-formal, straining at the con- 
fining perimeters of the concrete object. In his first one- 
man show at the Ferus Gallery in March- April 1962, 
Bell showed shaped canvases of a lozenge configuration 
achieved by truncating two of the opposing corners of 

^Ibid., p. 117. ^Irwin interview, p. 12, "'Ibid., p. 26. "Ibid., p. 21. 




Fig. 2 

Larry Bell 

Untitled, c. 1964 

Mixed media painting 

36V2 X 361/2 X 3 in. (92,7 x 92.7 

X 7.6 cm.) 

Los Angeles County Museum 

of Art 

Gift of Dr and Mrs. Sanders 

Goodman 

M.67.24 



a rectangle. Each was painted in a single warm hue, leav- 
ing areas of blond raw canvas. Exercises in a kind of 
geometric shadow play, such as Little Blank Riding Hood 
of 1962 (fig. 1), are rife with the tension of their spatial 
ambiguities. The exterior shape of such canvases is at 
fu-st glance echoed and compounded by the noncommittal 
geometry of its interior figure. Almost immediately, 
however, the internal configuration torques into depth, 
twisting the forms into a three-dimensional illusion 
and complicating the paintings' apparently simplistic 
composition. 

Critically, the flatness and deadpan geometry of 
these pictures admitted them to the then-august company 
of hard-edged, "post-painterly" abstraction. Vasarely 
was invoked to explain their disloyal flirtation with an 
illusion of optically forged depth. The paintings them- 
selves, however, subtly denied these allegiances. 

In the works that followed in 1962-64, Bell expanded 
the two-dimensional illusion of a geometric form into 
actual space: his canvases became thick panels with the 
addition of clear and opaque, black and white glass and 
mirrors; his axonometrically projected solids now pre- 
sented in relief grew into shallow boxes and then cubes 
(cat. nos. 2 and 3). Ellipses, squares, or projected solids of 
clear or mirrored glass broke open the centers of a cube's 
six sides or the mid-parts of such panels as Conrad Hawk , 
1962, Ghost Box, 1964 or Untitled, c. 1964 (fig. 2), to 
expose an infinitely shifting and recessive space. Such 
works are but distant kin to Minimalist abstraction and 
its "all-over" compositional directives. Breaking the grip 
of formalism with a magician's sleight-of-hand (its power 
only hinted at in the earlier pieces), these works conjure 
fantastical worlds; their space, existing only in the vision 
of the viewer, is a melange of the real and the illusory. '^ 
Their mirrored checkerboard patterns or diagonally twist- 
ing ellipses confound and undermine the space perceived 
as does a circus hall of mirrors. 

With a perceptible quieting, the cubes of 1966-69 be- 
came simultaneously larger and more evanescent (cat. 
nos. 7-8). Up to two feet square on a side, the glass panels 
were held in place by a colored metal framework which, 
being narrower, was less obstrusive than the shiny struc- 
tural elements of the earlier cubes. Like planar soap 
bubbles, the glass sheets were of unnameable, iridescent 
hues, modulating imperceptibly in color, tone, and density 
as the viewer navigated around them. In their incessant 
and diffuse transitions, these more closely resemble hala- 
tions of the breath than still and solid objects. The viewer 
extrapolates, from their atmospheric clouds and shifting, 
breathy color, a whole world of spatial relationships. The 
qualities of the space in Bell's cubes, though visually 

'^Curiously similar in their intent to create self-defined worlds 
within intimate, box-like objects were a series of rarely seen small 
paintings done by Robert Irwin much earlier, about 1959. Thickly 
encrusted tactile works, perhaps no more than a foot square, these 
paintings were framed, at Irwin's instructions, in handsome, deep, 
walnut boxes. They were intended to be held and scrutinized close 
up, or to be set on a table, or to be hung. Each constitutes a dark, 
roily world of paint. 



perceived, are kinesthetically sensed. They are significant 
not only in their transposition of the realm of painterly 
concerns to three dimensions, but in their impulse toward 
a new sculptural arena, that of visually haptic space, in 
which the artwork is the phenomenological event. 

Perhaps more conscious of and verbally better able to 
formulate this as his direction than could Bell, Robert 
Irwin arrived at a similarly inclusive stance toward 
artmaking in his dot paintings of 1964-66." These works 
firmly establish Irwin's direction toward an art that was 
without mark, image, or boundary. The dot paintings, 
consisting of large, square canvases stretched over 
slightly bowed, hardwood frames, were carefully painted 
with spaced red and green dots. The interaction of color 
and the convex curve of each painting effects the illusion 
of a centered cloud of colorless energy which hangs, danc- 
ing formlessly, in front of the painting's surface. Para- 
doxical objects, these are works whose total effect is more 
than the sum of their material parts. 

In his disc paintings of 1966-69, Irwin further erased 
the distinction between optic and haptic that had tra- 
ditionally segregated painting and sculpture.^* These 
works embody an effort to abolish a way of perceiving art 
that had to do with hierarchies of vision and experience. 
To do this, Irwin did away with the delimiting rectan- 
gular edge, tacit signifier of the exclusive aesthetic 
terrain. In these aluminum and acrylic "paintings," sub- 
tly sprayed convex discs were lit with low-intensity spots 
to dematerialize their edges. Free-floating apparitions 
without visible support, the discs fuse with their back- 
ground and the surrounding ambience. The viewer con- 
templates an indefinite, misty, glowing composite of light 
and shadow and abstract presence, more appropriately 
called a concentration or coalescence of pure energy than 
a form or an image. 

Much was made in the art journals at this time of a 
California obsession with materials and techniques. The 
meticulous craftsmanship and concentrated attention 

■■■'Though both artists came to this position in their respective 
oeuvres about mid-decade, Irwin's ideas have been the more 
widely known and discussed due to his enormous verbal abilities 
to formulate and disseminate them through teaching and exten- 
sive travel and lecturing. Bell, however, though less overtly verbal 
and intellectualizing, has acknowledged the applicability of many 
of Irwin's dicta in regard to his own work: "I was so in awe of 
his ability to talk, when I just found myself not able to talk at all, 
about things in my mind. I didn't have to. if he was talking. He 
said all kinds of stuff I felt so I didn't have to say it; I could repeat 
what he said, if I could remember it." (Interview with Larry Bell 
by the author, conducted under the auspices of the California Oral 
History Project of the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian 
Institution, between May 25 and June 2, 1980, p. 78. 

Irwin, Bell's senior and former teacher, has been enormously 
influential on the younger man. Never mentioned and yet to be 
explored is the possibility that the influence may also have flowed 
in the other direction, with an observant teacher learning from a 
gifted and innovative student. 

'"John Coplans,"The New Sculpture and Technology," Amehcan 
Sculpture of the Sixties, p. 23. 




Fig. 3 
Larry Bell 

The Iceberg and lis Shadow, 
1975 

Iconel and silicon dioxide on 
plate glass 

Varying heights x 60 x % in. 
(152.4x10 cm.) 
Permanent Collection, Mas- 
sachusetts Institute of 
Technology. Gift of Albert and 
Vera List Family Collection 



to detail of Irwin and Bell earmarked their work as part 
of this allegedly localized preoccupation called "finish 
fetish." Irwin, for example, was known to have spent a 
year fabricating the hardwood stretchers for his dot paint- 
ings, strutting the curve like an airplane wing and then 
laying on a thin veneer of wood. Bell's working process, 
after he acquired his own vacuum-coating equipment 
in 1966, was an expensive and painstaking procedure, 
demanding rigorous attention to detail.'^ The glass sheets 
as well as the machine had to be meticulously cleaned 
and maintained to achieve the remarkable consistency 
of his immaculate surfaces. The onanistic taint of the 
finely wrought consumer object, intuited from West Coast 
car culture and Beverly Hills values, was adhered like 
a decal to their artworks. 

The severe insistence by these artists on artistic in- 
tegrity was mistaken for an obsessive involvement with 
surfaces and perfection. They believed that uncompromis- 
ing attention to detail would result in an indescribable 
but perceptible wholeness unattainable otherwise. "Any 
gesture or any act that you're involved in should read 
all the way,"^'^ counseled Irwin; he explained his impetus 
in the dot paintings as proceeding from "the feeling 
that somehow if all those things were consistent., .every- 
thing was consistent . . . that the sum total would be 
greater, even though it would not be definable in some 
causal, connected way.''' In an art involving slight dis- 
tinctions and close viewer scrutiny, "Being a craftsman is 
directly in relation to what you want to accomplish."'* 

The attention to presentation that characterizes the 
work of Bell, Irwin, and others such as Price and 
Bengston, who came to maturity in L.A. in the sixties, 
arises out of similar concerns. Ken Price's explanation 
could apply equally to all their work: 

People call it perfectionism, but it's not really, it's 
kind of. . . you want to have the thing resolved to a 
level where it actually really functions like it's sup- 
posed to. You can't tell me an Albers is still okay 

with a great big Crayola mark over on the side 

But people think of things that way. You know, 
it's like, "let's pretend we don't see this over here," 
when in fact, there it is. You know what I mean?'^ 
By the early 1970s, both Irwin and Bell were working 
on a much-expanded scale on works that melded the tra- 
ditionally distinct optic and haptic modes. To encompass 
and more totally affect the viewer, room-sized pieces were 
designed and installed to relate specifically to a particu- 

'^For a detailed description of Bell's technique, see Fidel A. 
Danieli, "Bell's Progress," Artforum. vol, 5, no 10, June 1967, 
pp. 68-71. 

"'Irwin interview, p. 46. 

"Ibid., p. 47 

^^Transparency, Reflection, Light, Space, p. 69. 

'^Interview with Kenneth Price by the author, conducted under 
the auspices of the California Oral History Project of the Archives 
of American Art, Smithsonian Institution between May 30 and 
June 2. 1980, p. 18. 



lar space. These works incorporated into their appearance 
and their subject much that the viewer had formerly been 
conditioned to consider as extraneous: the action of light 
on an object, the effect of viewer movement in relation to 
a space or objects, the space around objects, and the tran- 
sitions between them. These artists were making works 
whose physical materials were catalysts for a dialectical, 
perceptual process. Their sculptures functioned as stimuli 
to perception, as "instruments for seeing.''^" 

Acquiring a much larger, expensive vacuum-coating 
machine in 1969, Bell was able to apply thin quartz and 
metallic film to glass sheets of unprecedented dimensions, 
a possibility he had first considered one year earlier: 
I had this feeling always that. . .the answer to what 
to do next was always in the last work you did, but 
you had to look at it very carefully to find it. And 
then I realized that in the last cubes that I was doing 
I was making the coatings fade off at the corners. So 
what I decided was to get rid of the cube format and 
just work with the corners, just right-angle relation- 
ships. Basically it was just a series of right angles. 
And so then I decided if I did that, then I could make 
them bigger Because if I just used the corner, I could 
stand it on the floor, and it could be big and encom- 
pass your peripheral vision.^' 
Noticing that the junctures of the cube's glass sheets 
tended to collect the cloudy coalescense of tone, Bell en- 
larged the sheets so that they became room-sized pieces 
which actually enclose the viewer However massive or 
numerous, the rectangular or triangular glass plates 
stand effortlessly in angled configurations, belying both 
their weight and fragility. Designed for close viewer 
scrutiny and interaction, they are scaled to human height 
and arm's breadth. They therefore maintain a kind 
of intimacy and conversational relationship, however 
extensively they proliferate, as in The Iceberg and Its 
Shadow of 1975 (fig. 3), which is made up of fifty-six 
%-inch-thick plates. 

Constantly renewed by light changes and different 
angles of vision, their transitory hues and illusive sur- 
faces undermine a sense of objectness. The surfaces, made 
mysterious by their thin, vacuum-applied coatings, sub- 
sume the viewer and his surroundings in spaces of in- 
determinate depth and kaleidoscopic color. Forms surface 
from these depths unexpectedly, and their reflection and 
refraction play on and subvert our spatial expectations 
learned from mirrors and store windows. Disorienting 
and surprising the viewer, these works initiate a percep- 
tual and kinesthetic dialogue. 

Here, Bell is sculpting translucency, shadow, reflec- 
tion, and refraction. Glass and the metallic inconeP^ and 
quartz that coat it in these works are but the sculptor's 
tools, not medium or subject. His true medium is light; 

^"Michael Kirby, The Art of Time: Essays on the Avant Garde, 
New York, 1969, p. 20. 

^'Bell interview, p. 36. 

-^An alloy consisting of a specific combination of nickel, chrome, 
manganese, cobalt, and iron. 




Fig. 4 

Robert Irwin 

Untitled, 1971 

Fluorescent light and scrim 

Size variable 

Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, 

Minnesota 

Gift of the artist 



the sculptures give it shape and substance. The thin 
films, unlike pigment, are without inherent color. They 
are in themselves, structures that shape and fracture 
light and form, as do the configurations of the glass sheets. 
What appears as mutable color is in fact an "interference 
layer." As Bell has explained, "the coatings interfere 
with the light, with the wave length of light that is 
equivalent to the thickness of the coating."^^ Essentially 
clear, like quartz, they function as does a prism to bend 
and refract the light as one moves about them, causing 
light in its different wave lengths to create changing 
colors. They are like gasoline on water, an analogy 
frequently invoked by Bell to explain these mysterious 
colorations; "The phenomena [sic] is the same. The 
different thicknesses of gasoline determine the colors 
that you see."^^ 

Robert Irwin, prior to the execution of the disc paint- 
ings, also realized that his medium was indeed light, not 
aluminum or acrylic: "I had been working with a lot of 
light systems prior to doing these paintings, using every 
kind of rented light I could get my hands on, laser beams, 
collimated light systems, and everything else. I'd never 
exhibited any of those things. But I did a lot of things 
with just pure light."^^ 

Like an apprentice learning the tools of a trade, Irwin 
experimented with various lighting situations trying to 
discern the language and vocabulary of his medium. 
The goal that emerged was to separate the "light from 
its source . . . the phenomena of light from the light 
bulb," to achieve a situation that was "rich in terms of 
the phenomena, the energy . . . the light itself, the colors 
and the ambience without definable source."^'' 

Even less materially substantial than the discs were 
Irwin's acrylic columns of 1969-70. Immaculately ma- 
chined, with a clarity .06 percent better than that of 
glass,^' the columns were situated vertically below a sky- 
light or in relation to a natural light source. There they 
would dematerialize as concrete object, acting instead like 
an invisible optical instrument to transmit and focus 
light and color. Transient volumes, they appeared as light 
flashes or as briefly glimpsed black or white edges of light. 

In striving toward an unfettered artmaking process, 
Irwin arrived at the position that working regularly in a 
studio — the same studio, of a given size and shape and 
in the same place — could only serve to circumscribe his 
choices. It would, of necessity, elicit and reinforce certain 
limited and similar solutions. Giving up his studio left 
Irwin, an eminently tactile person who has avowed his 
pleasure in the perceptual manipulation of material, be- 
reft of a tactile, and with only a mental way of thinking.-" 

An answer to this dilemma was presented in the per- 
son of Dr Ed Wortz, whom Irwin met through the auspices 
of the Art and Technology program of the Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art. Wortz, a perceptual psychologist 
of wide-ranging intellect, headed an open research 

23Bell interview, p. 104. -■'Ibid., p. 108. 

"Irwin interview, pp. 70-71. 

26Ibid., p. 71. "Ibid, 109. ^sfbidpp ii7_i8. 



facility at the Garrett aerospace corporation. In Wortz 
Irwin found a companion and mentor for his researches 
into philosophic and artistic attitudes and questions 
of perception. Together, as similarly perceiving, sensate 
beings, they set up and explored a series of perceptual 
situations, sharing their ideas and impressions. 

By 1970 Irwin was using the information and proc- 
esses garnered through this collaboration in creating 
"situations" or "installations," "responses" to specific 
places such as a service stairwell at UCLA in 1971 or to a 
room in The Museum of Modern Art in New York, his first 
scrim installation done one year earlier. Subtly, often 
imperceptibly, Irwin doctored each space to heighten the 
viewer's perception of the nature of that space, calling at- 
tention to some integral but formerly unnoticed character 
or aspect. Evocative volumetric spaces, as perceptibly real 
as they were physically intangible, were called into be- 
ing and defined by nylon scrim at the Walker Art Center 
in Minneapolis in 1971 (fig. 4), or by a few yards of dark 
string at the Fort Worth Art Museum in 1975-76, or by a 
roll of black tape at the Museum of Contemporary Art in 
Chicago in 1975. 

As vehicles for perceptual experience, these works, 
like those by Larry Bell, have three aspects: (a) the tan- 
gible identity of the physical materials constituting the 
piece. Whether string or scrim, light or glass sheets, these 
are the physical triggering devices for (b) the intangible 
product — the perceptible illusion, which is this art's sub- 
ject. Constituted of illusory visual or haptic phenomena, 
these perceptible illusions are often qualifiable, for exam- 
ple, in Bell's work as reflections or refracted images, 
or in Irwin's installations as "halations," "imageless pres- 
ence," "volumetric moistness." The point of this work, its 
goal and content, is (c) the psychological, perceptual 
experience that is initiated in the viewer. This temporal 
synesthetic complex is constituted of states of being or 
modes of consciousness, variously experienced and 
described by viewer/participants as "displacement," "dis- 
orientation," meditative or alpha states, and other terms. 

The preponderance of critical writing about works 
such as these has relied heavily on descriptions of their 
first two aspects. It is no doubt irksome to deal collec- 
tively and verbally with what is so clearly individual and 
experiential. In an age in which the art world still relies 
heavily on the imprimatur of art publications, an art 
that eludes literal description and defies photographic 
isolation is given limited currency.-^ 

Impressionism has been the historical antecedent 
most usually cited for a Southern California art of light 
and space.^" Rather more analogous to this work in both 

-"For a discussion of the ideology that effects this rejection, see 
Germano Celant, "Bonds between Art and Architecture," Andre 
Buren Irwin Nordman: Space as Support, trans. Camilla Sbrissa, 
ed. Mark Rosenthal, University Art Museum, University of 
California, Berkeley, 1979, p. 12. 

™For one such comparison, see Melinda Wortz's essay in Califor- 
nia Perceptions: Light and Space, Selections from the Wortz Col- 
lection, The Art Gallery, California State University, Fullerton, 
1979, p. 10 



subject and content is an American nineteenth-century 
manifestation called Luminism. With Impressionism, the 
immediacy of perception offered a pseudoscientific way of 
seeing, an analytic technique by which objects and vistas 
could be translated into a shimmering, atmospheric 
dissolve of light cum paint. Luminism was a lyric rather 
than an analytic approach to painting:^^ "If we can say 
that Impressionism is the objective response to the 
visual sensation of light, then perhaps we can say that 
luminism is the poetic response to the felt sensation."^^ In 
Luminist painting, as with this contemporary work, the 
art object is an instrument or catalyst that initiates a 
transcendent experience in the viewer. The works them- 
selves are but points of entry for the viewer, channels 
of access to the perceptual and spiritual engagement 
that is the work's content. For the Luminists, as with 
Irwin and Bell, light was the vehicle chosen to effect this 
transubstantiation. 

Not only an attitude toward light, Luminism was a 
way of seeing that proceeded from the artists' ideas of the 
world and their relation to it,^^ ideas surprisingly like 
those of many current artists; "The American nineteenth 
century in particular ... tended to define in terms of 
process rather than product, to emphasize the view and 
the vision, a way of seeing, rather than to judge the 
thing seen as a work independent. . .of the perception of 
the viewer."'*'' 

The role of these nineteenth-century American art- 
ists was that of an anonymous "clarifying lens"^ which 
unobtrusively facilitated a perceptual communion. As 
tenets of a secular priesthood of sorts, their aesthetic 
philosophies were thick with didactic moral overtones 
regarding the culturally renovating role of art. These are 
remarkably close in tenor to Robert Irwin's philosoph- 
ical conversations. Irwin's realization that "if light is a 
medium, then in a sense the universe is a medium"^^ is 
also strikingly consonant with the Emersonian ideas 
of the Luminists. 

In both nineteenth-century Luminist paintings and 
works by Irwin and Bell, light, the most impalpable of 
substances, is medium and subject. Luminist paintings 
paradoxically combine idealized, illusionistic compo- 
sitions depicting landscape vistas with meticulously ren- 
dered details of flora and fauna. Their linear clarity of 
form is nevertheless combined with a tonal handling that 
impregnates the whole with a charged and radiant light. 
This emanant light, though all-pervasive, is without 
visible source. The immaculate, vitrescent surfaces of 

^Barbara Novak, American Painting of the Nineteenth Centura; 
New York, 1969, p. 85. 

=2Ibid., p. 91. 

3^Ibid., p. 95. 

^"Roger B. Stein. The View and the Vision: Landscape Painting in 
Nineteenth-Centun America, The Henry Galler>-, University of 
Washington, Seattle. 1968, p. 5. 

^Novak, Amen'can Painting, p. 97. 

^'^Transparency; Reflection, Light, Space, p. 98. 



these pictures reveal no trace of the artist's hand through 
brush stroke, allowing the viewer's direct engagement 
with the work. 

Equally light-filled and illusionistic, the work of Bell 
and Irwin is formally similar in their effect. Pristine sur- 
faces are meticulously crafted and highly finished. In the 
viewer's perception these works evoke formless ambient 
light and atmosphere, and become the agents of a per- 
ceptual (some would say spiritual) drama. Whether one 
comes nose up against the nylon scrim of an IiTvin in- 
stallation or the sleek trompe I'oeil surfaces of a Luminist 
work, the revelation of means in no way diminishes the 
intimacy and mystery of their effect. 

Integral to nineteenth-century Luminist art was the 
assumption that spiritual awareness could be initiated 
and heightened by the contemplation of the American 
landscape, and of natural light as an attribute of divinity. 
In the nineteenth century there was an "American faith 
that the land itself was a sufficient source to nourish both 
American forms and American feelings, whether in- 
tellectual, sensuous, spiritual or aesthetic in character."''''' 
Underlying the Luminist work was a cultural myth that 
identified the American land as the New Eden. Without 
the ruins of decayed and corrupt civilizations, it was a 
tabula rasa, mankind's second chance. 

The work of Irwin and others, such as James Turrell 
or Maria Nordman, has also been enriched by the artists' 
immersion in the landscape experience of the American 
West. Their works evoke an energy through the manip- 
ulation of impalpable light which, though experientially 
real, is without concrete identity. Such works recreate 
a charged "presence" that Irwin, for one, has observed in 
particular locations of the Southwestern desert: 

It's a place where you go along for a while, and there 
seems to be nothing happening . . . it's all just flat 
desert, you know, no particular events, no mountains 
or trees or what have you. And then all of a sudden 
it just takes on this sort of — I mean it's hard to ex- 
plain, but it takes on almost a magical quality. It just 
suddenly stands up and almost hums, it becomes so 
beautiful . . . incredibly, the presence is so strong. 
Then in twenty minutes it will simply stop. And I 
began to try and wonder why — what those events 
were really about — because they were so close to my 
interest, the quality of the phenomena.^* 
This formally intangible art, concerned with the tran- 
scendent perceptual event, has been portrayed as arising 
from the specifics of California light and landscapes. 
However much it may be a distillation of "cross-sections 
of sky, chunks of smog, panes of atmosphere, and radiant 
space,"® it is as much a product of the idea of the place 
as of its reality. 

If California does appeal to the popular imagination 

^'Stein, The View and the Vision, p. 8. 

^*Irwin interview, pp. 139-40. 

'^Kim Levin, "Narrative Landscape on the Continental Shelf: 
Notes on Southern California," Arfs Magazine, vol. 51, no. 2, 
October 1976, p. 94. 



as the playground of material spiritualism described at the 
beginning of this essay, one must recognize that it has also 
represented to the American mind the New Eden, em- 
bodied in an urbanized frontier To the thousands of people 
who journeyed from the East, the South, or the Midwest, 
California was the land of orange groves and opportunity, 
swathed in a continuously temperate environment. A fan- 
tastic albeit man-made paradise, California embodied a 
new spiritual and economic beginning where everyone had 
an equal chance to strike oil or be discovered at Schwabs. 
Here, everyone is without a past; there is only the ever- 
present golden now and the hoped-for tomorrow. 

This future-oriented optimism permeates the writings 
and expressions of many of these artists. The underlying 
hope implicit in these works is that they will purify and 
renew human perception, resensitizing the viewer to the 
aesthetic experiences that lie, not only within the confines 
of the museum or gallery, but in the world beyond. The 
perfectibility of man through aesthetic experience and 
fresh perception has been one of Robert Irwin's messages 
in his peripatetic lecturing. Perhaps the most articulate 
artist in phrasing this ambition, Irwin claims a culturally 
transforming role for his art; if perception is a paradigm 
of culture, then the art experience is a tool for cultural 
change. If art, he reasons, can modify attitudes of conscious- 
ness, then the configuration of our culture's boundaries 
will change as do the limits of perception.""' Perhaps, 
then, this work is most significant in its attempts not 
merely at a transformation of the object, but in its con- 
version of art's content.''^ 

Despite such hopeful ambitions, however, the "situa- 
tions" of Irwin, Nordman, Turrell, and Asher and the 
polished sculptures of Bell, Valentine, Kauffman, and 
Alexander are isolated in their impact on contemporary 
life and culture. These streamlined environments and 
artworks of nylon, plastic, and glass, pristine and mys- 
teriously light-transfused, exist like period room settings, 
although of limited tenure, within the museum context; 
they stand as testaments to a 1930s vision of the twen- 
tieth century. The "space-age" technology used in their 
fabrication is more moderne than modern, as the artists 
themselves are quick to acknowledge. (Bell's vacuum- 
coating process, Orr's ionizers, and Irwin's light systems 
have been available and industrially or commercially 
used for the last forty years.) Their materials — glass, 
chrome, and stainless steel — are no more modern than 
the Bakelite plastic or Monel metal used by American 
industrial designers in the 1930s in their self-conscious 
effort to create a technological Utopia. Impelled by the 
bleak economics of the Depression era, those designers 
envisioned a coherent, machine-made environment in 
which life would be clean, efficient, and harmonious. Em- 
bodied in interiors, commercial packaging, automobiles, 
motion pictures, and so forth, this conception fast per- 
meated the American consciousness at a time when the 

'"'Transparency, Reflection, Light, Space, pp. 71-99. 
""Celant, "Bonds between Art and Architecture," p. 18. 



common people looked to the future for the solution to 
their problems."*^ 

The streamlined, expressionistic style of that time, 
its technology and concomitant vision of a bright, seam- 
less, sanitary, better world, is not so far removed from the 
California art of the 1960s discussed above. Like movie- 
made images of futuristic environments, these contempo- 
rary machined forms and ambient mists remind us of a 
1930s belief in indu.strial design and modern technology, 
of an optimistic futurism that has gone unrealized with 
the decay and pollution of a petroleum-based civilization. 

•■-For an excellent study of the role and impact of industrial design 
in America, on which these remarks were based, see Jeffrey L. 
Meikle, Twentieth Century Limited: Industrial Design in America, 
1925-1939. Philadelphia, 1979. 



6 Larrv Bel 



Untitled. 1964-65 



Coated glass (engraved) 

14 X 14 X 14 in. (35.6 x 35.6 x 35.6 cm. 

Lent by the artist 




12 Billy Al Bengston 



Boris, 1963 



Polymer and lacquer on Masonite 

62'/2 X 4814 in. (158.8 x 123.2 cm.) 

Artist Studio, Venice, California, and Mr. and Mrs. Jack Quinn 




II Ronald Davis 



Roto, 1968 




I'olyester resin and fiberglass 

01/2 X 136 in. (153.7 x 345.4 cm.) 

,os Angeles County Museum of Art 

luseum Purchase, Contemporary Art Council Funds 

169.8 



39 



45 Richard Diebenkorn 



Ocean Park #14. 1968 



Oil on canvas 

93 X 80 in. (236.2 x 203.2 cm. 

Mr. and Mrs. Philip Gersh 




40 



52 Sam Francis 



Berkeley. 1970 



Acrylic on canvas 

168 X 108 in. (426.7 x 274.3 cm.) 

University Art Museum, University of California, Berkeley 

Purchased with the aid of funds from the Janss Foundation 

and the National Endowment for the Arts 












55 Joe Goode 



Unmade Bed Triptych, 1968 




Oil on canvas with Plexiglas 

3 panels, each 60 x 60 in. (152.4 x 152.4 cm.) 

Lent anonymously 



I 



42 



;8 David Hockney 



Beverly Hills Housewife, 1966 



Acrylic on canvas (diptych) 
72 X 144 in. (182.9 x 365.8 cm.) 
Private collection, Los Angeles 




62 Robert Irwin 



Untitled, 1962 



Oil on canvas 

82''2 X 84V2 in. (209.5 x 214.6 cm.) 

Collection of the La Jolla Museum of Contemporary Art, California 




44 



67 Craig Kauffman 



Untitled Wall Relief, 1967 




Sprayed acrylic lacquer on vacuum-formed Plexiglas 

50 X 72 X 15 in. (127 x 182.9 x 38.1 cm.) 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art 

Gift of the Kleiner Foundation 

M.73.38.10 



76 Edward Kienholz 



The Back Seat Dodge '38. 19( 



Materials include paints, fiberglass, and flock, 1938 Dodge, 
chicken wire, beer bottles, artificial grass, cast plaster figure 
66 X 240 X 144 in. (168 x 610 x 356 cm.) 
Lyn Kienholz 




46 



80 John McLaughlin 



Oil on canvas 

42 X 60 in. (106.7 x 152.4 cm.) 

Mr. and Mrs. Morris S. Pynoos 



#9. 1962 



86 Edward Moses 



Rose #4, 1963 



Silver paint and graphite on paper 
60x40 in. (152.4x101.6 cm.) 
Lent by the artist 




48 



91 Bruce Nauman 



My Last Name Exaggerated 14 Times Vertically, 1967 



Pale purple neon tubing 

63x33 in. (160x83.8 cm.) 

1981 reconstruction by Los Angeles County Museum of Art 

Courtesy Giuseppe Panza di Biumo, Milan, Italy 

and the artist 




98 Kenneth Price 



Pink Egg, 1964 



Fired and painted clay 

6 X 5V2 X 5'/2 in. (15.2 x 14 x 14 cm.) 

h. with stand: 70 in. (177.8 cm.) 

Betty and Monte Factor Family Collection 




100 Edward Ruscha 



Actual Size, 1962 



Oil on canvas 

72 X 67 in. (182.9 x 170.2 cm.) 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art 

Anonymous gift through the Contemporary Art Council 

M.63.14 




115 Peter Voulkos 



Rondena, 1958 



Stoneware 

h: 64 in. 1162.5 cm.) 

Mr and Mrs. Stanley K. Sheinbaum 




Catalog 



54 Larry Bell 

57 Billy Al Bengston 

60 Wallace Herman 

63 Ronald Davis 

66 Richard Diebenkorn 

69 Sam Francis 

71 Joe Goode 

73 David Hockney 

76 Robert Irwin 

77 Craig Kauffman 
80 Edward Kienholz 
83 John McLaughlin 
86 Edward Moses 
89 Bruce Nauman 
92 Kenneth Price 
95 Edward Ruscha 
98 Peter Voulkos 



Larry Bell 



1. Untitled. 1958 

Oil on paper mounted on 

canvas 

43 X 43 in. (109.2 X 

109.2 cm.) 

Hal Glicksman 

2. Larry Bell's House, Part II 
1962-63 

Glass construction 

25 X 25x25 in. (63.5x63.5 

X 63.5 cm.) 

Lent by the artist 

3. Betfe and the Giant 
Jewfish. 1963 
Glass and mirror 

16 X 16 X 16 in. (40.6 x 40.6 
X 40.6 cm.) 
Betty Asher 

4. Untitled. 1964-65 
Coated glass 

15 X 15x15 in. (38.1x38.1 

X 38.1cm.) 

Lent by the artist 



5. Untitled, 1964-65 
Coated glass 

12 X 12x12 in. (30.5x30.5 

X 30.5 cm.) 

Lent by the artist 

6. Untitled. 1964-65 
Coated glass (engraved) 
14 X 14 X 14 in. (35.6 x 35.6 
X 35.6 cm.) 

Lent by the artist 

7. Untitled. 1966 
Coated glass 

20 X 20x20 in. (50.8x50.8 

X 50.8 cm.) 

Lent by the artist 

8. Untitled. 1968-69 
Coated glass 

36 X 36x36 in. (91.4x91.4 

X 91.4 cm.) 

Dr and Mrs. Charles 

Hendrickson 





} 



54 




^ 



Billy Al Bengston 





9. Grace, 1960 
Oil on canvas 
49% X 42 '/4 in. 
(126.4x107.3 cm.) 
Betty Asher 

10. Red Ryder. 1961 
Lacquer and polymer on 
Masonite 

48 X 48 in. 
(121.9x121.9 cm.) 
Artist Studio, Venice, 
California 

11. Buster. 1962 

Oil and sprayed lacquer 

on Masonite 

60 x 60 in. 

(152.4 x 152.4 cm.) 

Collection of the La Jolla 

Museum of Contemporary 

Art, California 

12. Boris. 1963 

Polymer and lacquer on 

Masonite 

62y2 x48'/2 in. (158.8 X 

123.2 cm.) 

Artist Studio. Venice, 

California, and Mr. and 

Mrs. Jack Quinn 

13. Busby, 1963 

Oil, polymer, and lacquer 
on Masonite 
80 X 60 in. 
(203.2x152.4 cm.) 
Artist Studio, Venice, 
California 

14. Untitled, 1961 
Lacquer on Masonite 
4 in. diameter octagon 
(10.2 cm.) 

Artist Studio, Venice, 
California 

15. Untitled. 1961 

Oil and lacquer on 

Masonite 

5x5 in. (12.7 X 12,7 cm.) 

Artist Studio, Venice, 

California 



16. Untitled, 1961 

Oil and lacquer on 

Masonite 

5x5in. (12.7x12.7 cm.) 

Artist Studio, Venice, 

California 

17. Untitled. 1961 
Acrylic and lacquer on 
Masonite 

5 in. diameter octagon 

(12.7 cm.) 

Artist Studio. Venice, 

California 

18. Untitled. 1962 
Acrylic and lacquer on 
Masonite 

4x4in. (10.2x10.2 cm.) 
Artist Studio, Venice, 
California 

19. Untitled. 1962 

Oil and lacquer on 

Masonite 

4'/2 x 4V> in. 

(11.4 x 11.4 cm.) 

Artist Studio, Venice, 

California 

20. Untitled. 1962 
Lacquer on Masonite 

5 X 5 in. (12.7 x 12,7 cm.) 
Artist Studio, Venice, 
California 

21. Untitled, 1963 
Acrylic and lacquer on 
Masonite 

4x4in. (10.2x 10.2 cm.) 
Artist Studio, Venice, 
California 

22. Untitled, 1963 
Lacquer on Masonite 
5x5 in. (12. 7x12. 7 cm.) 
Artist Studio, Venice, 
California 



11 



10 




58 



13 



















Wallace Berman 



23. Seminal. 1955 
Printed papers and 
photographs 

7% X 4 in. (19.7 X 10.2 cm.') 
Hal Glicksman 

24. Semina 2. 1957 
Printed papers 

8'/2x5y2 in. (21.6x14 cm.) 
Hal GHcksman 

25. Semina 3. 1958 
Printed papers 

11x9 in. (279x22.9 cm.) 
Hal Glicksman 

26. Semina 4, 1959 
Printed papers 

9y4 X 7% in. (23.5 x 

19.7 cm.) 

Hal Glicksman 

27. Semina 5. 1959 
Printed papers 
7%x4% in. (18.8 X 
12.4 cm.) 

Hal Glicksman 

28. Semina 6. 1960 
Printed papers 

8V2X 6 in. (21.6x15.2 cm.) 
Hal Glicksman 

29. Semina 7, 1961 
Printed papers 

7% x 51/2 in. (19.7x14 cm.) 
Hal Glicksman 

30. Semina 8. 1963 
Printed papers and 
photographs 

7x 5'/2 in. (17.7 x 14 cm.) 
Hal Glicksman 



31. Semina 9, 1964 
Printed papers and 
photograph 

5'/2x3'/8 in. (14x 8 cm.) 
Hal Glicksman 

32. Untitled, 1956-57 
Woodstain and ink on 
parchment on canvas 
19'/2 X 19'/2 in. (49.5 x 
49.5 cm.) 

Mrs. Kathleen Bleiweiss 

33. Untitled. 1956-57 
Woodstain and ink on 
parchment on canvas 
19V2 X 19'/2 in. (49.5 x 
49.5 cm.) 

Dean Stockwell 

34. Untitled. 1956-57 
Woodstain and ink on 
parchment on canvas 
191/2 X 19'/2 in. (49.5 x 
49.5 cm.) 

Lynn Factor, Brentwood, 
California 

35. Untitled. 1956-57 
Woodstain and ink on 
parchment on canvas 
19'/2 X 19V2 in. (49.5 x 
49.5 cm.) 

Hal Glicksman 

36. Untitled. 1956-57 
Woodstain and ink on 
parchment on canvas 
19'/2 X 191/2 in. (49.5 x 
49.5 cm.) 

Walter Hopps, 
Washington, D.C. 





Herman's arrest at Ferus 
Gallery. 1957 



60 




34 



-■^, «S 




23-31 



36 








62 



Ronald Davis 



37. Dodecagon, 1968 
Polyester resin and 
fiberglass 

60y2 X 136 in. (153.7 X 

345.4 cm.) 

Lent by the artist 

38. Backup. 1968 
Polyester resin and 
fiberglass 

60y2 X 136 in. (153.7 X 

345.4 cm.) 

Lent by the artist 

39. Roto. 1968 
Polyester resin and 
fiberglass 

eOVa X 136 in. (153.7 X 
345.4 cm.) 
Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art 
Museum Purchase, 
Contemporary Art 
Council Funds 
M.69.8 

40. Zodiac, 1969 
Polyester resin and 
fiberglass 

601/2 X 136 in. (153.7 X 

345.4 cm.) 

Lent by the artist 

41. Black Tear. 1969 
Polyester resin and 
fiberglass 

60'/2 X 136 in. (153.7 X 
345.4 cm.) 
Robert Rowan 

42. Dual Level, 1969 
Polyester resin and 
fiberglass 

6OV2 X 136 in. (153.7 x 

345.4 cm.) 

Lent by the artist 








41 




64 



38 
37 





Richard Diebenkorn 



43. Ocean Park #7. 1968 
Oil on canvas 

93 X 80 in. (236.2 X 

203.2 cm.) 

Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert H. 

Kinney 

44. Ocean Park #9, 1968 
Oil on canvas 

82 X 78 in. (208.3 x 

198.1 cm.) 

The Times Mirror 
Company, Los Angeles 

45. Ocean Park #14. 1968 
Oil on canvas 

93 X 80 in. (236.2 x 

203.2 cm.) 

Mr. and Mrs. Philip Gersh 

46. Ocean Park #16, 1968 
Oil on canvas 
92%x76in. (235.3 X 
193 cm.) 

Milwaukee Art Center 
Collection, Wisconsin 
Gift of Jane Bradley Pettit 

47. Ocean Park #27,1970 
Oil on canvas 

lOO'/a X 81% in. (255.2 x 

207.3 cm. I 

The Brooklyn Museum, 
New York. Gift of the 
Roebling Society, Mr and 
Mrs. Charles H. Blatt, and 
Mr and Mrs. William K. 
Jacobs, Jr. 




66 



44 




43 



47 




r- 




68 



Sam Francis 



53 



48. Untitled. 1968 
Acrylic on paper 
41 X 27 in. (104.2 X 
68.6 cm.) 

Lent by the artist 

49. Untitled. 1968 
Acrylic on paper 
41 X 27 in. (104.2 X 
68.6 cm.) 

Lent by the artist 

50. Untitled. 1968 
Acrylic on paper 
27 X 41 in. (68.6 X 
104.2 cm.) 

Lent by the artist 

51. Untitled. 1968-69 
Acrylic on paper 
48x63 in. (121.9x160 cm. 
Lent bv the artist 




52. Berkeley. 1970 
Acrylic on canvas 
168 x 108 in. (426.7 X 
274.3 cm.) 

University Art Museum, 
University of California, 
Berkeley. Purchased with 
the aid of funds from the 
Janss Foundation and the 
National Endowment for 
the Arts 

53. Looking Through. 1970 
Acrylic on canvas 

96 X 120 in. (243.8 X 

304.8 cm.) 

Lent by the artist 

54. Untitled. 1970 
Acrylic on canvas 
108 X 80 in. (274.3 X 
203.2 cm.) 

Lent by the artist 




54 






I 

I 



!*, 



70 





^ 



Joe Goode 



56 



55. Unmade Bed Triptych. 1968 
Oil on canvas with 
Plexiglas 

3 panels, each 60 x 60 in. 
(152.4x152.4 cm.) 
Lent anonymously 

56. Unmade Bed. 1968 
Oil on canvas with 
Plexiglas 

60 X 60 in. (152.4 X 

152.4 cm.) 

Lent anonymously 



At I'iMt 



57. Unmade Bed. 1968 
Oil on canvas with 
Plexiglas 

60 X 60 in. (152.4 X 
152.4 cm.) 
Laura-Lee and Bob Woods 



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57 




72 



David Hockney 




58. Beverly Hilh Housewife, 
1966 

Acrylic on canvas (diptych) 
72 X 144 in. (182.9 X 
365.8 cm.) 
Private collection, 
Los Angeles 

59. A Lawn Being Sprinkled, 
1967 

Acrylic on canvas 

60 X 60 in. (152.4 X 

152.4 cm.) 

Collection of Frances and 

Norman Lear 



60. Christopher Isherwood 
and Don Bachardy, 1968 
Acrylic on canvas 
SSMiX 1191/2 in. (212.1 X 
303.5 cm.) 
Sir John Foster 



59 







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60 





i 














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Robert Irwin 



61. Untitled, c. 1959 
Oil on canvas 

65 X 66 in. (165.1 X 

167.6 cm.) 

Lent by the artist 

62. Untitled. 1962 
Oil on canvas 

82'/2 x84V2 in. (209.5 X 
214.6 cm.) 

Collection of the La Jolla 
Museum of Contemporary 
Art, California 

63. Untitled, 1963-64 
Oil on canvas 
82V2X84V2 in. (209.5 X 
214.6cm.) 

Milly and Arnold 
Glimcher, New York 

64. Untitled, 1963-65 
Oil on canvas 
82'/2x84V2 in. (209.5 X 
214.6 cm.) 

Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York 
Gift of Fredric Mueller, 
1977. 77.108 

65. Untitled, 1963-65 
Oil on canvas 

82'/2 X 841/2 in. (209.5 x 

214.6 cm.) 

Edward and Melinda 

Wortz 




76 



Craig Kauffman 



66. Sttil Life with Electric Fan 
and Respirator. 1958 

Oil on canvas 

48 X 60 in. (121.9 X 

152.4 cm.) 

Artist Studio, Venice, 

California 

67. Untitled Wall Relief. 1967 
Sprayed acrylic lacquer on 
vacuum-formed Plexiglas 
50 X 72 X 15 in. (127 X 
182.9x38.1 cm.) 

Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art 
Gift of the Kleiner 
Foundation 
M.73.38.10 

68. Untitled. 1968 

Sprayed acrylic lacquer on 
vacuum-formed Plexiglas 
44 X 89 X 17 in. ( 111.8 X 
226.1x43.2 cm.) 
Asher/Faure Gallery, Los 
Angeles 



69. Untitled. 1968 

Sprayed acrylic lacquer on 
vacuum-formed Plexiglas 
34% X 56'/4 X 8'/4 in. (873 x 
142.9 X 21 cm.) 
Asher/Faure Gallery, Los 
Angeles 

70. Untitled. 1968 

Sprayed acrylic lacquer on 
vacuum-formed Plexiglas 
19 x 55'/2 X 10 in. (48.3 x 
141 x 25.4 cm.) 
Judge Kurtz Kauffman 

71. Untitled. 1968 

Sprayed acrylic lacquer on 
vacuum-formed Plexiglas 
24x52x 17 in. (61x132.1 
X 43.2 cm.) 
Vivian Kauffman 

72. Untitled. 1968 

Sprayed acrylic lacquer on 
vacuum-formed Plexiglas 
42 X 92 X 15 in. (1067 X 
233.7x38.1 cm.) 
Edward and Melinda 
Wortz 




70 






■•''agj»iwi!sywBi<j;iiMS W>J 'l l>>!«W *W'''SWj^^ 



69 



68 





Edward Kienholz 



73. Untitled. 1958 
Mixed media 

49'A X 30'/s in. (125.1 X 
76.8 cm.) 
Lyn Kienholz 

74. Hope for '36. 1959 
Mixed media 

37'/2 X 181/2 in. (95.3 x 

47 cm.) 

Lyn Kienholz 

75. The Illegal Operation, 
1962 

Materials include 
fiberglassed shopping cart, 
furniture, concrete, 
medical implements 
59 X 48 x 54 in. 
(149.9x121.9x137.2 cm.) 
Betty and Monte Factor 
Family Collection 



76. 



The Back Seat Dodge '38, 

1964 

Materials include paints, 

fiberglass and flock. 1938 

Dodge, chicken wire, beer 

bottles, artificial grass, 

cast plaster figure 

66 x 240 X 144 in. (168 X 

610 x356 cm.) 

Lyn Kienholz 



80 




76 




75 




John McLaughlin 



77. *20. 1960 
Oil on canvas 

48x36 in. (121.9x91.4 cm.) 
Private collection. 
New York 

78. #34. 1960 
Oil on canvas 

36 X 48 in. (91.4 X 
121.9 cm.) 
Private collection, 
New York 

79. Untitled, 1961 
Oil on canvas 

48 X 60 in. (121.9 X 
152.4 cm.) 
Robert Rowan 

80. #9. 1962 

Oil on canvas 

42 X 60 in. (106.7 X 

152.4 cm.) 

Mr and Mrs. Morris S. 

Pynoos 

81. #5. 1963 

Oil on canvas 

48 X 60 in. (121.9 X 

152.4 cm.) 

Lent anonymously 




77 




78 
79 





Edward Moses 



82. Rafe Bone, 1958 
Oil on canvas 

72 X 64 in. (182.9 X 

162.5 cm.) 
Hanna Renneker 

83. Rose #1. 1961 
Graphite on paper 
60x40 in. (152.4 X 

101.6 cm.) 

Lent by the artist 

84. Rose #2, 1963 
Graphite on paper 
60 X 40 in. (152.4 x 
101.6 cm.) 

Mr and Mrs. Henry 
Shapiro. Chicago 

85. RoKe #3. 1963 
Graphite on paper 
60x40 in. (152.4 X 
101.6 cm.) 

Laura-Lee and Bob Woods 

86. Rose #4, 1963 

Silver paint and graphite 

on paper 

60 X 40 in. (152.4 X 

101.6 cm.) 

Lent by the artist 



87. Rose #5, 1963 
Graphite on paper 

60 X 40 in. (152.4 X 

101.6 cm.) 

Lent by the artist 

88. Rose #6, 1963 
Graphite on paper 
60 X 40 in. (152.4 x 
101.6 cm.) 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard 
Jerome O'Neill 

89. /fose Screen, 1963 
Graphite on paper 

4 panels, each 59% x 21 M: 
in. (152.1x54.6 cm.) 
Mr. and Mrs. Richard 
Jerome O'Neill 



-^n 





86 



83 



85 







89 




88 



Bruce Nauman 




90. My Last Name Extended 
Vertically 14 Times, 1967 
Graphite and pastel on 
paper 

81% X 34 in. (207.7 x 
86.4 cm.) 

Oilman Paper Company 
Collection 



91. 



My Last Name 
Exaggerated 14 Times 
Vertically, 1967 
Pale purple neon tubing 
63 X 33 in. (160 x 83.8 cm. 
1981 reconstruction by 
Los Angelas County 
Museum of Art 
Courtesy of Giuseppe 
Panza di Biumo, Milan, 
Italy, and the artist 



92. Video Corridor: Live and 
Taped, 1969 

Two walls separated by 20 
in. (50.8 cm.), two TV 
monitors, one TV camera, 
one play-back machine 
1981 reconstruction by 
Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art 
Courtesy of Giuseppe 
Panza di Biumo, Milan, 
Italy, and the artist 



92 



90 





{ 



90 




Kenneth Price 




93. Untitled. 1959 
Earthenware 

h: 21 in. (53.3 cm.); w. at 
base: 20 in. (50.8 cm.) 
Artist stuciio, Venice, 
California 

94. M. Green, 1961 

Fired and painted clay 

10 X 13 XIIV2 in. 125.4x33 

X 29.2 cm. 1 

with pedestal: 59'''2 x 26 x 

12 in. (151.2 x66x 

30.5 cm.) 

Bettv Asher 



96. B. T Blue. 1963 
Fired and painted clay 
10x6V2in. I25.4x 
16.5 cm.) 

Becky and Peter Smith 

97. S. L. Green. 1963 
Fired and painted clay 
9% X IOV2 X IOV2 in. (24.4 x 
26.7 X 267 cm.) 
Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York 
Gift of the Howard and 
Jean Lipman Foundation, 
Inc., 1966. 66.35 



95. Blue Egg. 1962 

Fired and painted clay 
7x5x5 in. (178 X 127 x 
127 cm.) 
Dr and Mrs. Merle S. Glick 



98. Pink Egg. 1964 

Fired and painted clay 

6 X 5''2 X 5'/2 in. (15.2 x 14 

X 14 cm.) 

h. with stand: 70 in. 

(1778 cm.) 

Betty and Monte Factor 

Family Collection 



92 



95 







98 



94 



i* 




Edward Ruscha 



99. Boss. 1961 
Oil on canvas 

71 X 66 in. (180.3 x 
167.6 cm.) 

Dr. Leopold S. Tuchman 

100. Actual Size, 1962 
Oil on canvas 

72 x67 in. (182.9 X 
170.2 cm.) 

Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art 
Anonymous gift through 
the Contemporary 
Art Council 
M.63.14 

101. Annie, 1962 
Oil on canvas 

71 X 66V2 in. (180.3 X 
168.9 cm.) 
Betty Asher 

102. Noise, Pencil, Broken 
Pencil, Cheap Western. 
1963 

Oil on canvas 

71 X 67 in. (180.3 X 

170.2 cm.) 

Sydney and Frances 

Lewis Collection 



103. Standard Station 
Amarillo, Texas, 1963 
Oil on canvas 

65 xl24 in. (165.1 X 
315 cm.) 

Dartmouth College 
Museum and Galleries, 
Hanover, New Hampshire 
Gift of James J. Meeker, 
Dartmouth College Class 
of 1958 

104. Won't. 1964 
Oil on canvas 

72 x67 in. (182.9 X 

170.2 cm.) 

Lent anonymously 








Books 

105. Varions Small Fires and 
Mill;, 1964 

Self-published in Los 
Angeles 

First edition (1964): 

400 signed 

Second edition (1970): 

3,000 unsigned, 

unnumbered, 

48 pp.; soft cover, sewn 

binding, glassine 

dust jacket 

16 photographs 

7 X 5V2 in. (17.8x14 cm.) 

Los Angeles County 

Museum of Art 

106. Some Los Angeles 
Apartments, 1965 
Self-published in Los 
Angeles 

First edition (1965): 700 

Second edition (1970): 

3,000 unsigned, 

unnumbered, 

44 pp.; soft cover, sewn 

binding, glassine 

dust jacket 

36 photographs 

7x5'/= m.(17.8x 14 cm.) 

Los Angeles County 

Museum of Art 



107. Every Building on the 
Sunset Strip, 1966 
Self-published in Los 
Angeles 
First edition (1966): 1,000 

Second edition (1970): 
5,000 unsigned, 
unnumbered, 
one continuous 38 ft. 4% 
in. (11.70 m.) 
accordion-folded sheet, 
two strips of photographs 
(top and bottom), 
softcover. Mylar slipcase 
7 x9'/2 in. (178 X 24 cm.) 
Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art 



108. Twentysi.x Gasoline 
Stations, 1962 
Self-published in Los 
Angeles 

First edition (1962); 400 

unsigned, numbered 

Second edition (1967): 

500 unsigned, 

unnumbered 

Third edition (1969): 3,000 

unsigned, unnumbered, 

48 pp.; offset, softcover, 

perfect binding, glassine 

dust jacket 

26 photographs 

7 x5'/2 in. (17.8 X 14 cm.) 

Los Angeles County 

Museum of Art 

109. Royal Road Test, 1967 
(by Edward Ruscha, 
Mason Williams, and 
Patrick Blackwell) 
Self-published in Los 
Angeles 

First edition (1967): 1,000 

Second edition (1969): 

1,000 

Third edition (1971): 2,000 

unsigned, unnumbered 

Fourth edition (1980): 

1,500 unsigned, 

unnumbered, 

56 pp.; softcover, 

spiral binding 

35 photographs 

91/2 X 61/4 in. (24.1 X 

15.9 cm.) 

Los Angeles County 

Museum of Art 



102 



103 




110. Thirtyfour Parking Lots 
in Los Angeles, 1967 
Self-published in Los 
Angeles 

First edition (1967): 2,413 
unsigned, unnumbered 
Second edition (1974): 
2,000 unsigned, 
unnumbered, 
48 pp.; softcover, 
perfect binding 
31 photographs 
by Art Alanis 
10x8 in. (25.4x20.3 cm.) 
Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art 

111. Nine Swiritming Pools 
and a Broken Glass, 1968 
Self-published in Los 
Angeles 

First edition (1968): 2,400 
Second edition (1976): 
2,000 unsigned, 
unnumbered 

64 pp.; softcover, sewn bind- 
ing, glassine dust jacket 
7'/8 x5'/2 in. (18x 14 cm.) 
Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art 



112. Stains, 1969 
Self-published in 
Hollywood, California; 
Heavy Industry 
Publications 
Edition of 70 signed, 
numbered (1-70) 

78 loose sheets 

interleaved with tissue, 

contained in black 

leather box lined with 

white silk 

11% X 10% in. (30 X 

27.6 cm.) 

Lent by the artist 

113. Business Cards. 1968 
8% X 5% in. (22.2 X 
14.3 cm.) 
Self-published in 
Hollywood, California, 
with Billy Al Bengston 
Courtesy of Heavy 
Industry Publications 



101 





Peter Voulkos 



114. 5,000 Feet, 1958 
Fired clay 

Including base: 45 '/a x 
21'%6 X 13 in. (115.6 x 
55.9x33 cm.) 

Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art 
Purchase Award, Annual 
Exhibition of Los 
Angeles and Vicinity 
M. 59.16 

115. Rondena. 1958 
Stoneware 

h: 64 in. (162.5 cm.) 
Mr and Mrs. Stanley K. 
Sheinbaum 

116. Camelback Mountain, 
1959 

Fired clay 

45 '/2 X 19 '/2 X 20 '/4 in. 

(115.6x49.5x51.4 cm.) 

Museum of Fine Arts, 

Boston. Gift of Mr and 

Mrs. Stephen D. Paine, 

1978.690 




117. Little Big Horn. 1959 
Stoneware 

59% X 40 X 33 in. (151.7 x 
101.6x83.8 cm.) 
Collection of The Oakland 
Museum, California 
Gift of the Art Guild of 
the Oakland Museum 
Association 

118. Sitting Bull. 1959 
Fired clay 

69x37x37 in. (175.3 x 
94 x94cm.) 
Collection of the Santa 
Barbara Museum of Art, 
California. Bequest of 
Hans G, M. De Schulthess 



98 



117 



118 




114 



100 




Exhibition Histories and Bibliographies 



Larry Bell 

Born in Chicago, 1939; resi- 
dent of Los Angeles, 1945-73; 
lives in Taos, New Mexico. 
Attended Chouinard Art Insti- 
tute, Los Angeles, 1957-59. 

Selected One-Man 
Exhibitions 

Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles, 
1962, 1963, 1965. 

Pace Gallery, New York, 1965, 
1967, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973. 

Galerie Ileana Sonnabend, 
Paris, 1967. 

Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 
1967. 

Riko Mizuno Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1969, 1971. 

Ace Gallery, Los Angeles, 
1970, 1971. 

Galerie Rudolf Zwirner, 
Cologne, West Germany, 1970. 

Helman Gallery, St. Louis, 
Missouri, 1971. 

Wilmaro Gallery, Denver, 
Colorado, 1972. 

Felicity Samuel Gallery, 
London, 1972. 

Pasadena Art Museum, 
California, 1972. 

Bonython Gallery, Sydney, 
Australia, 1973. 

The Oakland Museum, 
California, 1973. 

Marlborough Galleria d'Arte, 
Rome, 1974. 

Fort Worth Art Museum, 
Texas, 1975. 

Tally Richards Gallery of 
Contemporary Art, Taos, New 
Mexico, 1975, 1978, 1979, 1980. 

The Santa Barbara Museum of 
Art, California, 1976. 

Art Museum of South Texas, 
Corpus Christi, 1976. 

Hayden Gallery, Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, 
Cambridge, 1977. 

University of Massachusetts, 
Amherst, 1977. 

Texas Gallery, Houston, 1978. 

Erica Williams/Anne Johnson 
Gallery. Seattle, Washington, 
1978. 



University of New Mexico, 
Albuquerque, 1978. 

Roswell Museum and Art Cen- 
ter, New Mexico, 1978. 

Multiples Gallery, New York, 
1979. 

Sebastian-Moore Gallery, 
Denver, Colorado, 1979, 1980. 

Hill's Gallery of Contemporary 
Art, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 
1979, 1980. 

Hansen Fuller Gallery, San 
Francisco, 1979. 

Janus Gallery, Venice, 
California, 1979. 

Marian Goodman Gallery, 
New York, 1979, 1981. 

The Hudson River Museum, 
Yonkers, New York, 1981. 

Selected Group Exhibitions 

War Babies, Huysman Gallery, 
Los Angeles, 1961. 

California Hard-Edge Painting, 
The Fine Arts Patrons of 
Newport Harbor, Balboa Pavil- 
ion Gallery, California, 1964. 

Boxes, Dwan Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1964. 

5 at Pace, Pace Gallery, New 
York, 1965. 

Shape and Structure, Tibor de 
Nagy Gallery, New York, 1965. 

The Responsive Eye, The 
Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, 1965. 

Vm Bienal de Sao Paulo, 
Brazil, 1965. 

Five Los Angeles Sculptors and 
Sculptors' Drawings, Univer- 
sity of California, Irvine, 1966. 

Primary Structures, The Jewish 
Museum, New York, 1966. 

11?;! from Los Angeles, Seattle 
Art Museum, Washington, 
1966, 

Los A ngeles Now, Robert 
Fra.ser Gallery, London, 1966. 

American Sculpture of the 
Sixties. Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art, 1967. 

A New Aesthetic, Washington 
Gallery of Modern Art, 
Washington, D.C., 1967. 



Los Angeles 6, Vancouver Art 
Gallery, British Columbia, 
1968. 

6 Artists: 6 Exhibitions, 
Walker Art Center, Minne- 
apolis, Minnesota, 1968. 

Documenta 4. Kassel, West 
Germany, 1968. 

Serial Imagery, Pasadena Art 
Museum, California, 1968. 

14 Sculptors: The Industrial 
Edge. Walker Art Center, 
Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1969. 

Kompas 4: West Coast USA. 
Stedelijk van Abbemuseum, 
Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 
1969. 

Spaces. The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, 1969. 

Three from Los Angeles: Irwin, 
Bell.Kauffman. Dunkleman 
Gallery, Montreal, 1969. 

Larry Bell, Robert Irwin, Doug 
Wheeler, The Tate Gallery, 
London, 1970. 

American Art since 1960, 
Princeton University, New 
Jersey, 1970. 

Transparency. Reflection. Light, 
Space: Four Artists, The UCLA 
Art Galleries, University of 
California, Los Angeles, 1971. 

Works for New Spaces, Walker 
Art Center, Minneapolis, 
Minnesota, 1971. 

11 Los Angeles Artists, Hay- 
ward Gallery, London, 1971 
(traveled to Musees Royaux 
des Beaux-Arts, Brussels; 
Akademie der Kiinste, Berlin, 
West Germany). 

USA West Coast, Kunstverein, 
Hamburg, West Germany. 
1972 (traveled to Kunstverein, 
Hannover; Kolnischer Kunst- 
verein, Cologne; Wiirttemberg- 
isher Kunstverein, Stuttgart). 

Art in Space, The Detroit 
Instituteof Arts, 1973. 

Illuminations and Reflections, 
Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New York, 1974. 

The Condition of Sculpture, 
Hayward Gallery, London, 
1975. 

Sculpture: American Directions, 
1945-1975, National Collec- 
tion of Fine Arts, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D.C., 
1975. 

The Last Time I Saw Ferus. 
1957-1966. Newport Harbor 
Art Museum, Newport Beach. 
California, 1976. 

200 Years of American 
Sculpture, Whitney Museum 
of American Art, New York, 
1976. 

Venice Biennale, Italy, 1976. 



Painting and Sculpture in 
California: The Modern Era, 
San Francisco Museum of 
Modern Art, 1976 (traveled to 
National Collection of Fine 
Arts, Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D.C.). 

Seasons of the Fountain, Larry 
Bell and Eric Orr, Multiples 
Gallery, New York, 1978. 

Reflections of Realism, 
Albuquerque Museum, New 
Mexico, 1979. 

California Perceptions: Light 
and Space, California State 
University, Fullerton, 1979. 

Beyond Object, Aspen Center 
for the Visual Arts, Colorado, 
1980. 

Here and Now: 35 Artists in 
New Mexico, Albuquerque 
Museum, New Mexico, 1980. 

Selected Bibliography 

Jules Langsner, "America's 
Second Art City," Art in 
America, vol. 51, no. 2, March- 
April 1963, pp. 127-31. 

John Coplans, "Three Los 
Angeles Artists," Artforum, 
vol. 1, no. 10, April 1963, 
pp. 29-31. 

John Coplans, "Formal Art," 
Artforum, vol. 2, no. 12, summer 

1964, pp. 42-46. 

Philip Leider. "The Cool 
School," Artforum, vol. 2, no. 
12, summer 1964, pp. 47-52. 

Philip Leider, "Saint Andy," 
Artforum, vol. 3, no. 5, Feb- 
ruary 1965, pp. 26-28 (with 
statement by Bell on Warhol), 

Dore Ashton, "New Sculpture 
Fresh in Old Techniques," 
Studio International, vol. 169, 
no. 866, June 1965, p. 263. 

John Coplans, "Larry Bell," 
Artforum. vol. 3, no. 9, June 

1965, pp. 27-29. 

Donald Judd, "Specific 
Objects," Arts Yearbook, vol. 8, 
1965, pp. 74-82. 

Walter Hopps, Exhibition of 
the United States of America: 
Vni Bienal de Sao Paulo, 
Brazil, 1965. 

Mel Bochner, "In the Galleries; 
Larry Bell," Arts Magazine, 
vol. 40, no. 3, January 1966, 
pp. 54-55. 

John Coplans, "Los Angeles: 
Object Lesson," Art News, vol. 
64, no. 9, January 1966, p. 40. 

Barbara Rose, "Los Angeles, 
The Second City," Art in 
America, vol. 54, no. 1, 
January-February 1966, 
pp. 110-15. 

Lucy R. Lippard, "New York 
Letter: Recent Sculpture 
E.scape," Art International, 
vol. 10, no. 2, February 1966, 
pp. 52-53. 



Robert Smithson, "Entropy and 
New Monuments," Art forum, 
vol. 4, no. 10, June 1966, 
pp. 26-31. 

Peter Plagens, "Present-Day 
Styles and Ready-Made 
Criticism," Art forum, vol. 5, 
no. 4, December 1966, pp. 36-39. 

John Coplans, Ten from Los 
Angeles, Seattle Art Museum, 
Washington, 1966. 

Fidel Danieli, "Bell's Progress," 
Artforum, vol. 5, no. 10, sum- 
mer 1967, pp. 68-71. 

Robert Morris, "Notes on 
Sculpture, Part 3, Notes and 
Nonsequiturs," Artforum, 
vol. 5, no. 10, summer 1967, 
pp. 24-29. 

Barbara Rose, A New Aesthetic, 
Washington Gallery of Modern 
Art, Washington, D.C., 1967 
(with statement by Bell). 

Barbara Rose, American Art 
since 1900, New York, 1967. 

Raphael Sorin and Annette 
Michelson, Larrv Be//, Galerie 
Ileana Sonnabend, Paris, 1967. 

Michael Kirby, "Sculpture as 
Visual Instrument," Art Inter- 
national, vol. 12, no. 8, October 
1968, pp. 35-37. 

John Coplans, Serial Imagery, 
Pasadena Art Museum, 
California, 1968. 

John Coplans, Los Angeles 6, 
Vancouver Art Gallery, British 
Columbia, 1968 (with Bell 
interview). 

Barbara Rose, Christopher 
Finch, and Martin Friedman, 
14 Sculptors: The Industrial 
Edge, Walker Art Center, 
Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1969. 

Michael Compton, "Controlled 
Environment," Art and Artists, 
vol. 5, no. 2, May 1970, p. 45. 

Phyllis Tuchman, "American 
Art in Germany: The History 
of a Phenomenon," Artforum, 
vol. 9, no. 3, November 1970, 
pp. 58-69. 

Michael Compton and Norman 
Reid, Larry Bell, Robert Irwin, 
Doug Wheeler, The Tate Gal- 
lery, London, 1970. 

Maurice Tuchman, A Report 
on the Art and Technology 
Program of the Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art, Los 
Angeles, 1971. 

Frederick S. Wight, Transpar- 
ency, Reflection, Light, Space: 
Four Artists, The UCLA Art 
Galleries, University of 
California, Los Angeles, 1971. 

Alistair Mackintosh, "Larry 
Bell," Art and Artists, vol. 6, 
no. 70, January 1972, pp. 39-41. 

Peter Plagens, "Larry Bell 
Reassesses," Artforum, vol. 11, 
no. 2, October 1972, pp. 71-73. 



Barbara Haskell, Larry Bell, 
Pasadena Art Museum, 
California, 1972. 

Helmut Heissenbiitte! and 
Helena Winer, USA West 
Coast, Kunstverein, Hamburg, 
West Germany, 1972. 

Germain Viatte, "Rever la 
Defen.se, ' L'Oeil, October 1974, 
p. 6. 

Norman Laliberte and Alex 
Mogelon, Art in Boxes, New 
York, 1974. 

Peter Plagens, Sunshine Muse: 
Contemporary Art on the West 
Coast, New York, 1974. 

H. H. Arnason, History of 
Modern Art, New York, 1975. 

Barbara Rose, ed., Readings in 
Amerwan Art. 1900-1975, New 
York, 1975. 

William Tucker, The Condition 
of Sculpture, Hayward Gallery. 
London, 1975. 

Janet Kutner, "Larry Bell's 
Iceberg," Arts Magazine, 
vol. 50, no. 5, January 1976, 
pp. 62-66. 

Gerrit Henry, "Larry Bell and 
Eric Orr," Art News, vol. 77, 
no. 4, April 1978, pp. 152-63. 

Jan Butterfield, "Larry Bell: 
Transparent Motif" (inter- 
view). Art in America, vol. 66, 
no. 5, September-October 
1978, pp. 95-99, 

"Larry Bell," interview by 
Michele D. De Angelus, 
Archives of American Art, 
Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D.C., May 1980. 

Robert Creeley, Richard 

Koshalek, Melinda Wortz, and 
Larry BeW, Larry Bell: New 
Work, The Hudson River 
Museum, New York, 1981. 



Billy Al Bengston 

Born in Dodge City, Kansas, 
1934; moved to Los Angeles, 
1949; lives in Santa Monica, 
California. 

Attended Los Angeles City 
College, 1952; California Col- 
lege of Arts and Crafts, Oak- 
land, 1955; Otis Art Institute, 
Los Angeles, 1956. 

Selected One-Man 
Exhibitions 

Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles, 
1958, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963. 

Martha Jackson Gallery, New 
York, 1962. 

Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, 1968 (retrospective). 

San Francisco Museum of Art, 
1968. 

Pasadena Art Museum, 
California, 1969. 

Utah Museum of Fine Arts, 
Salt Lake City, 1969. 

The Santa Barbara Museum of 
Art, California, 1970. 

Riko Mizuno Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1970. 

Galerie Neuendorf, Hamburg, 
West Germany, 1970, 1972. 

Margo Leavin Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1971. 

La Jolla Museum of Art, 
California, 1971. 

Galerie Neuendorf, Cologne, 
West Germany, 1971. 

Felicity Samuel Gallery, 
London, 1972. 

Nicholas Wilder Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1973, 1974. 

Contemporary Arts Museum, 
Houston, Texas, 1973. 

Pollock Gallery, Southern 
Methodist University, Dallas, 
Texas, 1973. 

Texas Gallery, Houston, 1973, 
1974, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979. 

John Berggruen Gallery, San 
Francisco, 1974, 1978. 

Jared Sable Gallery, Toronto, 
1974. 

Tortue Gallery, Santa Monica, 
California, 1975. 

Portland Center for the Visual 
Arts, Oregon, 1976. 

University of Montana, 
Missoula, 1977. 

James Corcoran Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1977, 1978, 1980. 

Security Pacific Bank, Los 
Angeles, 1978. 

University of Houston, Texas, 
1978. 

Conejo Valley Art Museum, 
Thousand Oaks, California, 
1979. 



Acquavella Contemporary Art 
Gallery, New York, 1979, 1981. 

Malibu Art and Design, 
California, 1980. 

Honolulu Academy of Arts, 
Hawaii, 1980. 

Selected Group Exhibitions 

Fifty California Artists, 
Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New York, 1962. 

66th American Exhibition of 
Painting and Sculpture, The 
Art Institute of Chicago, 1963; 
70th American Exhibition, 
1972. 

Six More, Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art, 1963. 

Pop Art USA, Oakland Art 
Museum, California, 1963. 

Pop Art and the American 
Tradition. Milwaukee Art 
Center, Wisconsin, 1965. 

VIII Bienal de Sao Paulo, 
Brazil. 1965. 

Ten from Los Angeles, Seattle 
Art Museum, Washington, 
1966. 

1967 Annual Exhibition of 
Contemporary American 
Painting, Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York; 1979 
Annual Exhibition. 

Transparency! Reflection , 
California State College, 
Fullerton, 1968. 

Late Fifties at the Ferus, Los 
Angeles County Museum 
of Art, 1968. 

New Media: Neiu Methods, 
The Museum of Modern Art, 
New York, 1969. 

Graphics: Six West Coast Art- 
ists. Galleria Milano, Italy, 
1969. 

Three Modern Masters: Billy Al 
Bengston, Edward Ruscha, 
Frank Lloyd Wright, Gallery 
Reese Palley, San Francisco, 
1969. 

Superlimited: Books, Boxes, 
and Things, The Jewish 
Museum, New York, 1969. 

Kompas 4: West Coast USA, 
Stedelijk van Abbemuseum, 
Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 
1969. 

West Coast 1945-1969, 
Pasadena Art Museum. 
California, 1969 (traveled to 
City Art Museum of St. Louis, 
Missouri; Art Gallery of 
Ontario, Toronto; Fort Worth 
Art Center Museum, Texas). 

The Highivay, Institute of 
Contemporary Art of the 
University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, 1970. 



102 



Three California Friends: 
Billy Al Bengston,Joe Goode, 
Ed Ruscha, Contemporary 
Arts Foundation, Oklahoma 
City, Oklahoma, 1970. 

Looking West 1970, Joslyn Art 
Museum, Omaha, Nebraska. 

A Decade of California Color. 
Pace Gallery, New York, 1970. 

USA West Coast, Kunstverein, 
Hamburg, West Germany, 
1972 (traveled to Kunstverein, 
Hannover; Kblnischer Kunst- 
verein, Cologne; Wiirttember- 
gisher Kunstverein, Stuttgart). 

The State of California Paint- 
ing, Govett-Brewster Art 
Gallery, New Plymouth, New 
Zealand, 1972. 

Contemporary American Art: 
Los Angeles. Fort Worth Art 
Center Museum, Texas, 1972. 

Four Artists: Ruscha, Bengston, 
Alexander, Moses, Akron Art 
Institute, Ohio, 1972. 

Working in California. 
Albright-Knox Art Gallery, 
Buffalo, New York, 1972. 

33rd Biennial Exhibition of 
Contemporary American 
Painting, Corcoran Gallery of 
Art, Washington, D.C., 1973. 

American Pop Art, Whitney 
Museum of American Art, 
New York, 1974. 

4 from the Eastl4 from the 
West, Art Galleries, University 
of California, Santa Barbara, 
1975. 

Collage and Assemblage, Los 
Angeles Institute of Contem- 
porary Art, 1975. 

The Last Time I Saw Ferus, 
1957-1966, Newport Harbor 
Art Museum, Newport Beach, 
California, 1976. 

Painting and Sculpture in 
California: The Modern Era, 
San Francisco Museum of 
Modern Art, 1976 (traveled to 
National Collection of Fine 
Arts, Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D.C.). 

Billy Al Bengston and Alan 
Shields, Art Gallery, Georgia 
State University, Atlanta, 
1979. 

Selected Bibliography 

Lawrence Alloway, Six More. 
Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, 1963. 

John Coplans, Pop Art USA, 
Oakland Art Museum, 
California, 1963. 

John Coplans, "Billy Al 
Bengston," Artforum, vol. 3, 
no. 9, June 1965, pp. 36-38. 

Lucy R. Lippard, Pop Art, New 
York, 1966. 



Fidel Danieli, "Billy Al 
Bengston's 'Dentos,' " 
Artforum. vol. 5, no. 9, May 
1967, pp. 24-27. 

James Monte, "Bengston in 
Los Angeles," Artforum. vol. 8, 
no. 3, November 1968, 
pp. 36-40. 

Kurt von Meier, Transparencyl 
Reflection, California State 
College, Fullerton, 1968. 

James Monte, Billy Al 
Bengston. Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art, 1968. 

Jean Leering, Kompas 4: West 
Coast USA, Stedelijk van 
Abbemuseum, Eindhoven, The 
Netherlands, 1969. 

Carol Lynsley, Three Modern 
Masters: Billy Al Bengston, 
Edward Ruscha, Frank Lloyd 
Wright, Gallery Reese Palley, 
San Francisco, 1969. 

Billy Al Bengston, "Los 
Angeles Artists' Studios," Art 
in America, vol. 58, no. 6, 
November- December 1970, 
pp. 100-109. 

Helmut Heissenbiittel and 
Helene Winer, USA West 
Coast. Kunstverein, Hamburg, 
West Germany, 1972. 

Al Radloff, Four Artists: 
Ruscha, Bengston, Alexander, 
Moses, Akron Art Institute, 
Ohio, 1972. 

Michael Walls, The State of 
California Painting, Govett- 
Brewster Art Gallery, New 
Plymouth, New Zealand, 1972. 

William A. Robinson, Perry 
Walker, and Henry T. Hopkins, 
"Bengston, Grieger, Goode: 3 
Interviews," Art in America, 
vol. 61, no. 2, March- April, 
1973, pp. 48-53. 

Lawrence Alloway, Amencan 
Pop Art, Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York, 1974. 

Peter Plagens, Sunshine 
Muse: Contemporary Art on 
the West Coast, New York, 1974. 

Peter Plagens, "Billy Al 
Bengston's New Paintings," 
Artforum, vol. 13, no. 7, March 
1975, pp. 34-35. 

Fredericka Hunter, Billy Al 
Bengston: Paintings of the 
Seventies, Security Pacific 
Bank, Los Angeles, 1978. 

Ruth Bass, "Billy Al Bengston," 
Art News, vol. 78, no. 9, 
November 1979, p. 196. 

Jeff Perrone, "The Decorative 
Impulse," Artforum, vol. 18, no. 
3, November 1979, pp. 80-81. 

Susie Kalil, "Billy Al Bengston: 
Sensuality and Structure," 
Artweek, vol. 10, no. 43, 
December 1979, p. 3. 

"Billy Al Bengston," interview 
by Susan C. Larsen, Archives 
of American Art, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D.C., 
September 1980. 



Wallace Berman 

Born on Staten Island, New 
York, 1926; died in Topanga, 
California, 1976. 
Attended Chouinard Art 
Institute, Los Angeles, 1944; 
Jepson Art School, Los 
Angeles, 1944. 

Selected One-Man 
Exhibitions 

Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles, 
1957. 

Studio Exhibition (Beverly 
Glen), Los Angeles, 1965. 

Topanga Community House, 
Topanga, California, 1967 
(one-day exhibition). 

Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, 1968 (traveled to The 
Jewish Museum, New York), 

The Mermaid Tavern, Topanga, 
California, 1973 (one-day 
exhibition). 

Gemini G.E.L., Los Angeles, 
1974. 

Timothea Stewart Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1977. 

Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New York, 1978. 

Otis Art Institute, Los Angeles, 
1978 (retrospective; traveled 
to Fort Worth Art Museum, 
Texas; University Art Museum, 
Berkeley, California; Seattle Art 
Museum, Washington). 

L.A. Louver, 'Venice, Califor- 
nia, 1979. 

Selected Group Exhibitions 

Los Angeles Now, Robert 
Eraser Gallery, London, 1966. 

Assemblage in California, 
University of California, 
Irvine, 1968. 

West Coast 194.5-1969, 
Pasadena Art Museum, 
California, 1969 (traveled to 
City Art Museum of St. Louis, 
Missouri; Art Gallery of 
Ontario, Toronto; Fort Worth 
Art Center Museum, Texas). 

Pop Art Redefined, Hayward 
Gallery, London, 1969. 

Poets of the Cities! New York 
and San Francisco, 19.50-1965, 
Dallas Museum of Fine Arts, 
Texas, 1974. 

Collage and Assemblage, Los 
Angeles Institute of Contem- 
porary Art, 1975. 

Environment and the New Art 
1960-1975. University of 
California, Davis, 1975. 

Art as a Muscular Principle. 
John and Norah Warbeke Gal- 
lery, Mount Holyoke College, 
South Hadley, Massachusetts, 
1975. 



The Last Time I Saw Ferus. 
1957-1966. Newport Harbor 
Art Museum. Newport Beach, 
California, 1976. 

Painting and Sculpture in 
California: The Modern Era, 
San Francisco Museum of 
Modern Art, 1976 (traveled to 
National Collection of Fine 
Arts, Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, DC. )- 

Selected Bibliography 

John Coplans, "Art Is Love Is 
God," Artforum, vol. 2, no. 9, 
March 1964, pp. 26-27. 

John Coplans, "Circle of Styles 
on the West Coast," Art in 
America, vol. 52, no. 3, June 
1964, p. 36. 

John Coplans, "Los Angeles: 
Object Lesson," Art News, vol. 
64, no. 9, January 1966, p. 67. 

Gail R. Scott and Jack 
Hirschman, Wallace Berman, 
Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, 1968. 

James Monte, "Wallace 
Berman and Collage 'Verite," 
Wallace Berman: Verifax 
Collages, The Jewish Museum, 
New York, 1968. 

Jane Livingston, "Two 
Generations in L.A.," Art in 
America, vol. 57, no. 1, 
January 1969, p. 92. 

Merril Greene, "Wallace 
Berman," Art as a Muscular 
Principle, John and Norah 
Warbeke Gallery, Mount 
Holyoke College, South 
Hadley, Massachusetts, 1975. 

Melinda Wortz, "Los Angeles," 
Art News. vol. 76, no. 9, 
November 1977, pp. 202, 204. 

George Herms, Wallace 
Berman. Timothea Stewart 
Gallery, Los Angeles, 1977. 

Merril Greene, "Wallace 
Berman: Portrait of the Artist 
as Underground Man," Art- 
forum, vol. 16, no. 6, February 
1978, pp. 53-61. 

Hal Glicksman, Robert Dun- 
can, David Meltzer, and Wal- 
ter Hopps (interview), Wallace 
Berman Retrospective, Otis Art 
Institute, Los Angeles, 1978. 



Ronald Davis 

Born in Santa Monica, Califor- 
nia, 1937; lives in Malibu, 
California. 

Attended San Francisco Art 
Institute, 1960-64. 

Selected One-Man 
Exhibitions 

Nicholas Wilder Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1965, 1967, 1969, 
1973, 1977, 1979. 

Tibor de Nagj' Gallery, New 
York, 1966. 

Leo Castelli Gallery, New 
York, 1968, 1969, 1971, 1974, 
1975. 

Kasmin Gallery, London, 1968, 
1971. 

Norman Mackenzie Art Gal- 
lery, University of Saskatche- 
wan, Regina, Canada, 1969. 

Joseph Helman Gallery, St. 
Louis, Missouri, 1971, 1972. 

Pasadena Art Museum, 
California, 1971. 

David Mirvish Gallery, 
Toronto, 1971, 1975. 

Galleria dell'Ariete, Milan, 
Italy, 1972. 

John Berggruen Gallery, San 
Francisco, 1973, 1975, 1978, 
1980. 

Gemini G.E.L., Los Angeles, 
1974, 1981. 

Western Galleries, Cheyenne, 
Wyoming, 1974. 

Boise State University, Idaho, 
1975. 

The Greenberg Gallery, St. 
Louis, Missouri, 1975, 1979. 

Aspen Gallery of Art, Colo- 
rado, 1976. 

Seder/Creigh Gallery, 
Coronado, California, 1976. 

The Oakland Museum, 
California, 1976. 

University of Nevada, Reno, 
1977. 

Seaver College, Pepperdine 
University, Malibu, California, 
1979. 

Blum-Helman Gallery, New 
York, 1979. 

San Diego State University, 
California, 1980. 

Middendorf/Lane Gallery, 
Washington, D.C.. 1980. 



Some Continuing Directions, 
The Fine Arts Patrons of 
Newport Harbor, Balboa 
Pavilion Gallery, California, 
1966. 

A \ew Aesthetic, Washington 
Gallery of Modern Art, 
Washington, D.C.. 1967. 

1967 Annual Exhibition of 
Contemporary Painting, Whit- 
ney Museum of American Art, 
New York; 1969 Annual 
Exh ibition . 

Plastics: Painting and 
Sculpture from Los Angeles, 
California State College, Los 
Angeles, 1968. 

Los Angeles 6. Vancouver Art 
Museum, British Columbia, 
1968. 

Documenta 4, Kassel, West 
Germany, 1968. 

31st Biennial Exhibition of 
Contemporary American 
Painting, Corcoran Gallery of 
Art, Washington, D.C., 1969; 
34th Biennial, 1975. 

Plastics: New Art, Institute of 
Contemporary Art of the 
University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, 1969. 

West Coast 1945-1969, 
Pasadena Art Museum, 
California, 1969 (traveled to 
City Art Museum of St. Louis, 
Missouri; Art Gallery of 
Ontario, Toronto; Fort Worth 
Art Center Museum, Texas). 

Permutation: Light and Color. 
Museum of Contemporary 
Art, Chicago, 1970. 

69th American Exhibition of 
Painting and Sculpture, The 
Art Institute of Chicago, 1970: 
71st American Exhibition, 1974. 

Color, The UCLA Art 
Galleries, University of Cali- 
fornia, Los Angeles, 1970. 

Six Painters, Albright-Knox 
Art Gallery, Buffalo, New 
York, 1971. 

USA West Coast, Kunstverein, 
Hamburg, West Germany, 
1972 (traveled to Kunstverein, 
Hannover; Kblnischer Kunst- 
verein, Cologne; Wiirttem- 
bergisher Kunstverein, 
Stuttgart). 

Painting: New Options, 
Walker Art Center, 
Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1972. 

Masters of the Sixties, The 
Edmonton Art Gallery, 
Alberta, Canada, 1972. 



Selected Group Exhibitions Venice Biennale. Italy, 1972. 



Hard-Edge, Rolf Nelson 
Gallery, Los Angeles, 1964. 

New Modes in California 
Painting and Sculpture, 
La Jolla Museum of Art, 
California, 1966. 



The State of California Paint- 
ing, Govett-Brewster Art 
Gallery, New Plymouth, New 
Zealand, 1972. 

Art in Space: Some Turning 
Points. The Detroit Institute of 
Arts, 1973. 



11 Artistes Americains, Musee 
d'Art Contemporain, 
Montreal, 1973. 

15 Abstract Artists, The Santa 
Barbara Museum of Art, 
California, 1974. 

Zeichnungen 3, USA, Stad- 
tisches Museum, Leverkusen, 
West Germany, 1975. 

Current Concerns, Part /, Los 
Angeles Institute of Contem- 
porary Art, 1975. 

Color, The Museum of Modern 
Art, New York, 1975 (traveled 
to Museo de Arte Moderno, 
Bogota, Columbia). 

Ron Davis/Tom Holland: 
Works from the Collection of 
Mr and Mrs. Robert A. Rowan, 
Los Angeles Municipal Art 
Gallery, Barnsdall Park, 1975. 

Painting and Sculpture in 
California: The Modern Era, 
San Francisco Museum of 
Modern Art, 1976 (traveled to 
National Collection of Fine 
Arts, Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D.C.). 

American Abstract Art since 
1945, The Solomon R. 
Guggenheim Museum, New 
York, 1977. 

California: 3 by 8 Twice, 
Honolulu Academy of Arts, 
Hawaii, 1978. 

American Painting of the 
1970s. Albright-Knox Art Gal- 
lery, Buffalo, New York, 1980. 

Selected Bibliography 

Knute Stiles, "Thing, Act, 
Place," Artforum, vol. 3, no. 4, 
January 1965, pp. 37-40. 

John Coplans, "The New 
Abstraction on the West Coast 
U.S.A.," Studio International, 
vol. 169, no. 865, May 1965. 
pp. 192-99. 

Donald Factor, "Ron Davis: 
Nicholas Wilder Gallery Ex- 
hibition," Artforum, vol. 4, no. 
4, December 1965, p. 15. 

Barbara Rose, "Los Angeles: 
The Second City," Art in 
America, vol. 54, no. 1, 
January-February 1966, 
pp. 110-13. 

Lucy R. Lippard, "Perverse 
Perspectives," Art Interna- 
tional, vol. 6, no. 3, March 
1967, pp. 28-33. 

Michael Fried, "Ronald Davis: 
Surface and Illusion," 
Artforum, vol. 5, no. 8, April 
1967, pp. 37-41. 

Barbara Rose, A New Aes- 
thetic, Washington Gallery of 
Modern Art, Washington, 
D.C.,1967. 

Jane Livingston, "Ron Davis," 
Artforum. vol. 6, no. 5, 
January 1968, pp. 60-61. 



Kurt von Meier, "Painting to 
Sculpture: One Tradition in a 
Radical Approach to the His- 
tory of Twentieth-Century 
Art," Art International, vol. 12, 
no. 3, March 1968, pp. 37-39. 

Annette Michelson, "Ron 
Davis: Leo Castelli Gallery 
Exhibition," Artforum, vol. 6, 
no. 10, summer 1968, pp. 56-57. 

Robert Hughes, "Ron Davis at 
Kasmin," Studio International, 
vol. 176, no. 906, December 
1968, pp. 264-65. 

John Coplans and Barbara 
Rose, Los Angeles 6, Van- 
couver Art Gallery, British 
Columbia, 1968. 

Rosalind Krauss, "Leo Castelli 
Exhibition," Artforum, vol. 8, 
no. 4, December 1969, 
pp. 69-70. 

Terry Fenton, Ron Davis: 
Eight Paintings, Norman 
Mackenzie Art Gallery, Uni- 
veristy of Saskatchewan, 
Regina, Canada, 1969. 

Walter Darby Bannard, "Notes 
on American Painting of the 
Sixties," Artforum, vol. 8, no. 
5, January 1970, pp. 40-45. 

Charles Kessler, Color, The 
UCLA Art Galleries, Univer- 
sity of California, Los Angeles, 
1970. 

John Elderfield, "New Paint- 
ings by Ron Davis," Artforum, 
vol. 9, no. 7, March 1971, 
pp. 32-34. 

Elizabeth C. Baker, "Los 
Angeles, 1971," Art News, vol. 
70, no. 5, September 1971, 
pp. 27-39. 

Helene Winer, "How L.A. 
Looks Today," Studio Inter- 
national, vol. 183, no. 937, 
October 1971, pp. 127-31. 

James N. Wood, Six Painters, 
Albright-Knox Art Gallery, 
Buffalo, New York, 1971. 

Helmut Heissenbiittel and 
Helene Winer, USA West 
Coast, Kunstverein, Hamburg, 
West Germany, 1972. 

Barbara Rose, Ron Davis, 
Galleria dell'Ariete, Milan, 
Italy, 1972. 

Kenworth Moffett, "Kenneth 
Noland"s New Paintings and 
the Issue of the Shaped Can- 
vas," Art International, vol. 20, 
nos. 4-5, April/May 1976, 
pp. 8-15. 

Gordon Hazlitt, with state- 
ment by Ron Davis, "An In- 
credibly Beautiful Quandary," 
Art News, vol. 75, no. 5, May 
1976, pp. 36-38. 

Fred Martin, "Ron Davis: 
Cycle of Work," Artweek, vol. 
7, no. 26, July 1976, p. 1. 



104 



Charles Kessler, "Ronald 
Davis, Paintings, 1962-1976," 
Journal. Los Angeles Institute 
of Contemporary Art, no. 12, 
October- November 1976, 
pp. 20-23. 

Thomas Albright, "Ron Davis, 
Then and Now," Art News. vol. 
75, no. 9, November 1976, 
pp, 100-102. 

Nancy Marmer, "Ron Davis: 
Beyond Flatness," Artforum. 
vol. 15, no. 3, November 1976, 
pp. 34-37. 

Charles Kessler, Ronald Davis 
Paintings. 1962-1976, The 
Oakland Museum, California, 
1976. 



Richard Diebenkorn 

Born in Portland, Oregon, 
1922; moved to Los Angeles, 
1966; lives in Santa Monica, 
California. 

B.A., Stanford University, 
1949; M.A., University of New 
Mexico, Albuquerque, 1952. 

Selected One-Man 
Exhibitions 

California Palace of the Legion 
of Honor, San Francisco, 
1948, 1960. 

Paul Kantor Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1952, 1954, 1965. 

San Francisco Museum of Art, 
1954, 1972. 

Allan Frumkin Gallery, 
Chicago, 1954. 

Poindexter Gallery, New York, 
1956, 1958, 1961, 1963, 1965, 
1966,1968,1969,1971. 

Oakland Art Museum, 
California, 1956. 

Pasadena Art Museum, 
California, 1960. 

The Phillips Collection, 
Washington, D.C., 1961. 

National Institute of Arts and 
Letters, New York, 1962, 1967 

M. H. de Young Memorial 
Museum, San Francisco, 1963. 

Stanford University Museum 
and Art Gallery, Palo Alto, 
California, 1964, 1967. 

Waddington Galleries, Lon- 
don, 1964, 1967. 

Washington Gallery of Modern 
Art, Washington, DC, 1964. 

Nelson Gallery-Atkins 
Museum, Kansas City, Mis- 
souri, 1968. 

Peale House, Pennsylvania 
Academy of Fine Arts, 
Philadelphia, 1968. 

Richmond Art Center, Califor- 
nia, 1968. 

Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, 1969. 

Irving Blum Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1971. 

Marlborough Gallery, New 
York, 1971, 1975. 

Smith Andersen Gallery, Palo 
Alto, California, 1971. 

Gerard John Hayes Gallery, 
Los Angeles, 1972. 

Marlborough Fine Art, Lon- 
don, 1973. 

Marlborough Galerie A.G., 
Zurich, Switzerland, 1973. 

Mary Porter Sesnon Gallery, 
University of California, 
Santa Cruz, 1974. 

John Berggruen Gallery, San 
Francisco, 1975. 



James Corcoran Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1975. 

The Frederick S. Wight Art 
Gallery, University of Califor- 
nia, Los Angeles, 1976. 

Albright-Knox Art Gallery, 
Buffalo, New York, 1976 (retro- 
spective; traveled to Cincinnati 
Art Museum, Ohio; Corcoran 
Gallery of Art, Washington, 
D.C.; Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York; 
Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art; The Oakland Museum, 
California). 

M. Knoedler and Company, 
New York, 1977, 1978, 1979, 
1980. 

Selected Group Exhibitions 

Younger American Painters, 
The Solomon R. Guggenheim 
Museum, New York, 1954. 

Three Young Americans: 
Glasco, McCuUough, Dieben- 
korn, Allen Memorial Art 
Museum, Oberlin College, 
Ohio, 1955 

24th Biennial Exhibition of 
Contemporary American 
Painting. Corcoran Gallery of 
Art, Washington, D.C., 1955; 
26th Biennial, 1959; 27th 
Biennial, 1961; 28th Biennial. 
1963; 33rd Biennial, 1973; 
34th Biennial, 1975:37th 
Biennial. 1981. 

/// Bienal de Sao Paulo, 
Brazil, 1955; VI Bienal, 1961. 

1955 Annual Exhibition of 
Contemporary A merican 
Painting, Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York; 1958 
Annual Exhibition; 1963 An- 
nual Exhibition: 1965 Annual 
Exhibition: 1967 Annual Ex- 
hibition: 1969 Annual Exhibi- 
tion: 1972 Annual Exhibition: 
1981 Biennial Exhibition. 

62nd American Exhibition of 
Painting and Sculpture, The 
Art Institute of Chicago, 1959; 
70th American Exhibition, 1972. 

New Imagery in American 
Painting, Indiana University 
Art Museum, Bloomington, 
1959 

New Images of Man. The 
Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, 1959 

Aspects of Representation in 
Contemporary Art, Nelson 
Gallery-Atkins Museum, 
Kansas City, Missouri, 1959. 

American Art, 1910-1960: 
Selections from the Collection 
of Mr and Mrs. Roy R. 
Neuberger. M. Knoedler and 
Company, New York, 1960. 

Elmer Bischoff Richard 
Diebenkorn, David Park, 
Staempfli Gallery, New York, 
1960. 



The Figure in Contemporary 
American Painting. American 
Federation of Arts, New York, 
1961. 

The Artist's Environment: 
West Coast. Amon Carter 
Museum of Western Art, Fort 
Worth, Texas, 1962 (traveled to 
The UCLA Art Galleries, 
University of California, Los 
Angeles). 

Six Americans, Arkansas Arts 
Center, Little Rock, 1964. 

American Drawings. The Solo- 
mon R. Guggenheim Museum, 
New York, 1964. 

Seven California Painters. 
Staempfli Gallery, New York, 
1964. 

Painting and Sculpture of a 
Decade. The Tate Gallery, 
London, 1964. 

Tivo American Painters, 
Abstract and Figurative: Sam 
Francis, Richard Diebenkorn. 
Scottish National Gallery of 
Modern Art, Edinburgh, 1965. 

Selections from the Work of 
California Artists. Witte 
Memorial Museum, San 
Antonio, Texas, 1965. 

Art of the United States 
1670-1960. Whitney Mu.seum 
of American Art, New York, 
1966. 

Late Fifties at the Ferus. Los 
Angeles County Museum of 
Art, 1968. 

Painting as Painting, Univer- 
sity Art Museum, Au,stin, 
Texas, 1968. 

Venice Biennale, Italy, 1968; 
Venice Biennale, 1978. 

West Coast 1945-1969, 
Pasadena Art Museum, 
California, 1969 (traveled to 
City Art Museum of St. Louis, 
Missouri; Art Gallery of 
Ontario, Toronto; Fort Worth 
Art Center Museum, Texas). 

Kompas 4: West Coast USA, 
Stedelijk van Abbemuseum, 
Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 
1969. 

LArl Vivant aux Etats-Unis, 
Fondation Maeght, St. Paul 
de Vence, France, 1970. 

Looking West 1970, Joslyn Art 
Museum, Omaha, Nebraska, 
1970. 

Made in California. Grunwald 
Center for the Graphic Arts, 
University of California, Los 
Angeles, 1971. 

11 Los Angeles Artists, Hay- 
ward Gallery, London, 1971 
(traveled to Musees Royaux 
des Beaux-Arts, Brussels; 
Akademie der Kiinste, Berlin, 
West Germany). 



Two Directions in American 
Painting. Purdue University, 
Lafayette, Indiana, 1971. 

A Decade in the West, Stanford 
University Museum and Art 
Gallery, Palo Alto, California, 
1971. 

Abstract Painting in the '70s: 
A Selection, Museum of Fine 
Arts, Boston, 1972. 

15 Abstract Artists, The Santa 
Barbara Museum of Art, 
California, 1974. 

Twelve American Painters, 
Virginia Museum of Fine 
Arts, Richmond, 1974. 

The Martha Jackson Collec- 
tion at the Albright-Knox Art 
Gallery. Buffalo. New York, 
1975. 

California Landscape: A 
Metaview. The Oakland 
Museum, California, 1975. 

Painting and Sculpture in 
California: The Modern Era, 
San Francisco Museum of 
Modern Art, 1976 (traveled to 
National Collection of Fine 
Arts, Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D.C.). 

Three Generations of Ameri- 
can Painting: Motherwell, 
Diebenkorn, Edlich, Gruene- 
baum Gallery, New York, 1976. 

American Paintings of the 
1970s, Albright-Knox Art Gal- 
lery, Buffalo, New York, 1978. 

Selected Bibliography 

Peter Selz, New Images of 
Man, The Museum of Modern 
Art, New York, 1959. 

Thomas W. Leavitt, Richard 
Diebenkorn, Pasadena Art 
Museum, California, 1960. 

Howard Ross Smith, Recent 
Paintings by Richard Dieben- 
korn, California Palace of 
the Legion of Honor, San 
Francisco, 1960. 

Gifford Phillips, Richard 
Diebenkorn, The Phillips 
Collection, Washington, 
D.C., 1961. 

Lawrence Alloway, Seven 
California Painters. Staempfii 
Gallery, New York, 1964. 

Gerald Nordland, Richard 
Diebenkorn. Washington 
Gallery of Modern Art, 
Washington, D.C., 1964. 

Lorenz Eitner, Drawings by 
Richard Diebenkorn. Palo Alto, 
California, 1965. 

Norman A. Geske, The Figu- 
rative Tradition in Recent 
American Art.WeniceBiennale, 
Italy, 1968. 

Donald Goodall, Painting as 
Painting, University Art 
Museum, Austin, Texas, 1968. 



Gail Scott, New Paintings of 
Richard Diebenkorn, Los 
Angeles County Museum of 
Art, 1969. 

Gerald Nordland, The Ocean 
Park Series: Recent Work, 
Marlborough Gallery, New 
York, 1971, 

Maurice Tuchman and Jane 
Livingston, 11 Los Angeles 
Artists, Hay ward Gallery, 
London, 1971. 

Kenworth Moffett, Afi.s^rac^ 
Painting in the '70s: A Selec- 
tion, Museum of Fine Arts, 
Boston, 1972. 

John Russell, Richard Dieben- 
korn, The Ocean Park Series: 
Recent Work, Marlborough 
Fine Art, London, 1973. 

Philip Brookman and Walker 
Mellon, Richard Diebenkorn: 
Drawings, 1944-1973, Mary 
Porter Sesnon Gallery, 
University of California, Santa 
Cruz, 1974. 

Linda L. Cathcart, The 
Martha Jackson Collection at 
the Albright-Knox Art Gallery, 
Buffalo, New York, 1975. 

Robert T. Buck, Jr., Linda L. 
Cathcart, Gerald Nordland. 
and Maurice Tuchman, Richard 
Diebenkorn: Paintings and 
Drawings, 1943-1976, 
Albright-Knox Art Gallery, 
Buffalo, New York, 1976. 

Jeffrey Hoffeld, Three Genera- 
tions of American Painting: 
Motherwell, Diebenkorn. 
Edlich, Gruenebaum Gallery, 
New York, 1976. 

Gerald Nordland, Richard 
Diebenkorn: Monotypes, The 
Frederick S. Wight Art 
Gallery, University of Cali- 
fornia, Los Angeles, 1976. 

Budd Hopkins, "Diebenkorn 
Reconsidered," Artforum, 
vol. 15, no. 7, March 1977, 
pp. 37-41. 

Nancy Marmer, "Richard Die- 
benkorn: Pacific Extensions," 
Art in America, vol. 66, no. 1, 
January- February 1978, 
pp. 95-99. 

Robert T Buck, "Richard 
Diebenkorn: The Ocean Park 
Paintings," Art International, 
vol. 22, nos. 5-6, summer 1978, 
pp. 29-34, 60. 

Tom E. Hinson, "Recent Paint- 
ings by Richard Diebenkorn 
and Jack Tworkov," The Bulle- 
tin of the Cleveland Museum 
of Art, vol. 48, no. 2, February 
1980, pp. 31-40. 



Sam Francis 

Born in San Mateo, California, 

1923; lives in Santa Monica, 

California. 

B.A., University of California, 

Berkeley, 1949; M.A., 1950. 

Selected One-Man 
Exhibitions 

Galerie du Dragon, Paris, 1952. 

Galerie Rive Droite, Paris, 
1955, 1956. 

Martha Jackson Gallery, New 
York, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959. 
1963,1964,1968,1970. 

Gimpel Fils, London, 1957, 
1974. 

Kornfeld und Klipstein, Bern, 
Switzerland, 1957, 1959, 1961, 

1963. 1965. 1966. 1968. 1973, 
1975, 1976. 

Galerie Alfred Schmela. 
Diisseldorf. West Germany, 
1958, 1961. 

Pasadena Art Museum, Califor- 
nia, 1959 (traveled to San Fran- 
cisco Museum of Art; Seattle 
Art Museum, Washington). 

Kunsthalle Bern, Switzerland. 
1960 (traveled to Moderna 
Museet, Stockholm). 

Galerie Jacques Dubourg, 
Paris, 1961. 

Galerie de Seine, Paris, 1961. 

Minami Gallery, Tokyo. 1961. 

1964. 1966. 1968. 1970. 1974, 
1977, 1979. 

David Anderson Gallery, New 
York, 1960, 1961. 

Esther Bear Gallery, Santa 
Barbara, California, 1962. 

Kestner-Gesellschafl, Han- 
nover, West Germany 1963. 

Arthur Tooth & Sons, London, 
1965. 

Auslander Gallery, New York, 
1965. 

Museum of Fine Arts, Hous- 
ton, 1967 (traveled to Univer- 
sity Art Museum, University 
of California, Berkeley). 

Pierre Matisse Gallery, New 
York. 1967. 

The UCLA Art Galleries, Los 
Angeles, 1967. 

Kunsthalle Basel, Switzer- 
land, 1968. 

Stedelijk Museum, Amster- 
dam, 1968. 

Centre National d'Art Con- 
temporain, Paris, 1968. 

Badischer Kunstverein, 
Karlsruhe, West Germany, 
1968. 

Andre Emmerich Gallery, 
New York, 1969, 1971, 1973, 
1975,1976,1979. 



Felix Landau Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1969. 

Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, 1970,1980. 

Nicholas Wilder Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1970, 1973, 1975, 
1978. 

Stanford University Museum 
and Art Gallery, Palo Alto, 
California, 1972. 

Albright-Knox Art Gallery, 
Buffalo, New York, 1972 (retro- 
spective; traveled to Corcoran 
Gallery of Art. Washington. 
D.C.; Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York; 
Dallas Museum of Fine Arts, 
Texas; The Oakland Museum, 
California). 

Smith Andersen Gallery, Palo 
Alto, California, 1972, 1973, 
1975, 1978, 1980. 

Galerie Jean Fournier, Paris, 
1973, 1975, 1976, 1979. 

Idemitsu Art Gallery, Tokyo, 
1974. 

Nantenshi Gallery, Osaka, 
1974. 

Margo Leavin Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1974. 

Portland Center for the Visual 
Arts, Oregon, 1974. 

Fundacion Eugenie Mendoza, 
Caracas, Venezuela, 1974. 

Robert Elkon Gallery, New 
York, 1974. 

Louisiana Museum, Humle- 
baek, Denmark, 1977. 

Honolulu Academy of Arts, 
Hawaii, 1977. 

Centre National d'Art et de 
Culture Georges Pompidou, 
Paris, 1978. 

Otis Art Institute, Los 
Angeles, 1978. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, 
Boston, 1979 (retrospective). 

Cantor/Lemberg Gallery, 
Birmingham, Michigan, 1979. 

Abbaye de Senanque, Lourdes, 
France, 1980. 

James Corcoran Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1980. 

Riko Mizuno Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1980. 

Ace Gallery, Venice, Califor- 
nia, 1981. 

Selected Group Exhibitions 

66th Annual Exhibition of the 
San Francisco Art Association, 
Museum of Fine Arts, San 
Francisco, 1946. 

VI'' Salon de Mai, Musee d'Art 
Moderne de la Ville de Paris, 
1950; XVIT- Salon de Mai, 1961. 

Opposing Forces, Institute 
of Contemporary Arts, 
London, 1953. 



106 



American Painting, The Art 
Institute of Chicago, 1954. 

Tendances actuelles 3, Kunst- 
halle Bern, Switzerland, 1955. 

Art in the 20th Century. San 
Francisco Museum of Art, 
1955. 

12 Americans, The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, 1956. 

Expressionism 1900-1955. 
Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, 
Minnesota, 1956. 

New Trends in Painting, Arts 
Council of Great Britain, 
Cambridge, 1956 (traveled to 
City Art Gallery, York; Walker 
Art Gallery, Liverpool; Hatton 
Gallery, Newcastle). 

50 Ans d'Art Moderne, Musees 
Royaux des Beaux-Arts, 
Brussels, 1957. 

Sam Francis, Kimber Smith, 
and Shirley Jaffe, Centre Cul- 
tural Americain, Paris, 1958. 

Jong Amerika Schilderi, 
Stedelijk Museum, Amster- 
dam, 1958. 

The New American Painting. 
The Museum of Modern Art, 
New York, 1958-59 (traveled 
to Kunsthalle, Basel, Switzer- 
land; Galleria Civica d'Arte 
Modema, Milan, Italy; 
Museo Nacional de Arte Con- 
temporanea, Madrid; Hoch- 
schule fiir bildende Kiinste, 
Berlin, West Germany; Stedelijk 
Museum, Amsterdam; Musees 
Royaux des Beaux-Arts, 
Brussels; Musee d'Art Moderne 
de la Ville de Paris; The 
Tate Gallery, London). 

Documenta 2, Kassel, West 
Germany, 1959; Documenta 3, 
1964. 

Annual Exhibition of Contem- 
porary American Painting, 
Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New York, 1959, 1961, 
1962, 1963, 1964. 

60 American Painters 1960. 
Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, 
Minnesota, 1960. 

Images at Mid-Century, Uni- 
versity of Michigan Museum 
of Art, Ann Arbor, 1960. 

64th American Exhibition of 
Painting and Sculpture, 
The Art Institute of Chicago, 
1961; 65th American Exhibi- 
tion, 1962. 

American Abstract Expression- 
ists and Imagists, The Solomon 
R. Guggenheim Museum, 
New York, 1961. 

The Logic of Modern Art, 
William Rockhill Nelson Gal- 
lery of Art, Kansas City, 
Missouri, 1961. 

Kompas, Schilders uit Parijis 
1945-1961, Stedelijk van 
Abbemuseum, Eindhoven, 
The Netherlands, 1961-62. 



Abstrakte Amerikanische 
Materei, Hessisehes Lands- 
museum, Darmstadt, West 
Germany, 1962. 

Kunst des 20 Jahrhunderts: 
Developments in Painting V, 
Haus der Stadt, Kunstsamm- 
lung, Bonn, West Germany, 1962. 

KunsI von 1900 bis heute. 
Museum des 20 Jahrhunderts, 
Vienna, 1962. 

Realites Nouuelles. Musee 
d'Art Moderne de la Ville de 
Paris. 1963. 

Gesammell im Ruhrgebiet. 
Kunsthalle Recklinghausen, 
West Germany, 1963. 

Private Views, The Tate Gal- 
lery, London, 1963. 

Painting and Sculpture of a 
Decade 1954-1964. The Tate 
Gallery, London, 1964. 

Post Painterly Abstraction, Los 
Angeles County Museum of 
Art, 1964. 

International Painting since 
1950. Kunsthalle Basel, 
Switzerland, 1964. 

American Drawings, The 
Solomon R. Guggenheim 
Museum, New York, 1964. 

Venice Biennale, Italy, 1964. 

Two American Painters, 
Abstract and Figurative: Sam 
Francis, Richard Diebenkorn, 
Scottish National Gallery of 
Modern Art, Edinburgh, 1965. 

Seven Americans, Arkansas 
Arts Center, Little Rock, 1965. 

Inner and Outer Space, 
Moderna Museet, Stockholm, 
1965. 

Two Decades of American 
Painting, The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, 1966. 

Contemporary Painters and 
Sculptors as Printmakers, The 
Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, 1966. 

Licht Bewegung Farbe, Kunst- 
halle Niirnberg, West Germany, 
1967. 

Vom Bauhaus bis zur Gegen- 
wart, Kunstverein, Hamburg, 
West Germany, 1967 (traveled 
to Frankfurter Kunstverein, 
Frankfurt; Kblnischer 
Kunstverein, Cologne). 

Neuerwerbungen 1962-1967, 
Stadtische Kunstmuseum, 
Bonn, West Germany, 1967. 

Kleine Dokumenta (Kunst 
nach 1950). Overbeck-Gesell- 
schaft, Liibeck, West Germany, 
1968. 

West Coast 1945-1969. 
Pasadena Art Museum, 
California, 1969 (traveled to 
City Art Museum of St. Louis, 
Missouri; Art Gallery of 
Ontario, Toronto; Fort Worth 
Art Center Museum, Texas). 



Color and Field. Albright- 
Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, 
New York, 1970 (traveled 
to Dayton Art Institute, 
Ohio; Cleveland Museum of 
Art, Ohio). 

Francis. Kanemitsu. Moses. 
Wayne. Downey Museum of 
Art, California, 1970, 

32nd Biennial Exhibition of 
Contemporary American 
Painting, Corcoran Gallery of 
Art, Washington, D.C., 1971. 

Abstract Expressionism: The 
First and Second Generations 
in the Albright-Knox Art Gal- 
lery, Buffalo, New York, 1972. 

Fresh Air School: Sam Francis, 
Joan Mitchell, and Walasse 
Ting, Museum of Art, Carnegie 
Institute, Pittsburgh, Penn- 
sylvania, 1972. 

Twelve American Painters, 
Virginia Museum, Richmond, 
1974. 

15 Abstract Artists, Santa 
Barbara Museum of Art, 
California, 1974. 

Painting and Sculpture in 
California: The Modern Era, 
San Francisco Museum of 
Modern Art, California, 1976 
(traveled to National Collec- 
tion of Fine Arts, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D.C.). 

Paris-New York, Centre Na- 
tional d'Art et de Culture 
Georges Pompidou, Paris, 1977. 

Selected Bibliography 

Herbert Read, "An Art of 
Internal Necessity," Quadrum, 
no. 1, May 1956, pp. 7-22. 

K. G. Pontus Hulten, Brion 
Gysiu, Sinclair Belles, and 
Yoshiaki Tono, Sam Francis, 
Moderna Museet, Stockholm, 
1960. 

Franz Meyer, Sam Francis, 
Kunsthalle Bern, Switzerland, 
1960. 

Franz Meyer, "Sam Francis," 
Quadrum, no. 10, 1961, 
pp. 119-30. 

Makoto Ooka, Yoshiaki Tono, 
and Shuzo Takiguchi, Sam 
Francis: Blue Balls. Minami 
Gallery, Tokyo, 1961. 

Priscilla Colt, "The Painting 
of Sam Francis," The Art Jour- 
nal, vol. 22, no. 1, fall 1962, 
pp. 2-7. 

Manuel Gasser, "Sam Francis/ 
Lithographs by an Action 
Painter," Graphis, vol. 18, no. 
104, November- December 
1962, pp. 570-73. 

Yoshiaki Tono, Sam Francis, 
Tokyo, 1964. 

Anneliese Hoyer, Sam Francis 
Drawings and Lithographs, 
San Francisco Museum of Art, 
1966. 



James Johnson Sweeney, Sam 
Francis, Museum of Fine Arts, 
Houston, Texas; University 
Art Museum, University of 
California, Berkeley, 1966. 

Wieland Schmied, Sam Fran- 
cis, and Arnold Rudlinger, 
Sam Francis, Kunsthalle 
Basel, Switzerland, 1968. 

J. J. Leveque, "Sam Francis, 
The Spirit of Vertigo," Cimaise, 
vol, 16. no. 90, 1969, pp. 49-61. 

Pierre Schneider, Philipe 
Hosaisson, Georges Duthuit, 
Herbert Read, Franz Meyer, 
and James Johnson Sweeney, 
Sam Francis, Centre National 
d'Art Contemporain, Paris, 
1969. 

Gail Scott, Sam Francis: 
Recent Paintings, Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art, 1970. 

Pierre Schneider, Louvre 
Dialogues, New York, 1971. 

Robert T. Buck, Jr, Franz 
Meyer, Wieland Schmied, and 
Katherine Kline, Sam Francis, 
Albright-Knox Art Gallery, 
Buffalo, New York, 1972. 

Peter Selz, "Sam Francis: The 
Recent Work," Art Interna- 
tional, vol. 17, no. 1, January 
1973, pp. 14-17. 

Carl Betz, "Fitting Sam 
Francis into History," Art in 
America, vol. 61, no. 1, January- 
February 1973, pp. 40-45. 

Lawrence Alloway, "Sam 
Francis: From Field to Ara- 
besque, "A W/'orum, vol. 11, no. 6, 
February 1973, pp. 37-41. 

Shuzo Takiguchi, Makoto Ooka, 
and Yoshiaki Tono, Paintings 
of Sam Francis in the Idemitsu 
Collection, Minami Gallery, 
Tokyo, 1974. 

Peter Selz, Sam Francis, New 
York, 1975. 

Sara Giesen, "Sam Francis: 
His Kaleidoscopic Unfolding," 
Arts Magazine, vol. 50, no. 10, 
June 1976, pp. 66-69. 

Alfred Pacquement, Sam 
Francis: Peintures Recentes 
197611978, Centre National 
d'Art et de Culture Georges 
Pompidou, Paris, 1978. 

Jan Butterfield, San! Francis: 
Works on Paper, A Survey, 
1948-1979, In.stitute of Con- 
temporary Art, Boston, 1979. 

Jan Butterfield, "Time Has an 
Infinite Number of Faces," 
Sam Francis, Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art, 1980. 



Joe Goode 

Born in Oklahoma City. Okla- 
homa, 1937; resident of Los 
Angeles, 1959-78; lives in 
Springville, California. 
Attended Chouinard Art Insti- 
tute, Los Angeles, 1959-61. 

Selected One-Man 
Exhibitions 

Dilexi Gallery, Los Angeles, 
1962. 

Rolf Nelson Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1963. 

Nicholas Wilder Gallery, Los 
Angeles. 1966, 1969, 1970, 
1972, 1974, 1975, 1978, 1979. 

Rowan Gallery, London, 1967. 

Kornblee Gallery, New York, 
1968. 

Galerie Neuendorf, Cologne, 
West Germany, 1970, 1972. 

Galerie Neuendorf, Hamburg, 
West Germany, 1970, 1973, 
1975. 

Pomona College Art Gallery, 
California, 1971. 

Galleria Milano, Italy, 1971. 

La Jolla Museum of Contem- 
porary Art, California, 1971. 

Mueller Gallery, Diisseldorf, 
West Germany, 1971. 

Minneapolis Institute of Art, 
Minnesota, 1972. 

Corcoran and Corcoran Gal- 
lery, Miami, Florida, 1972. 

Margo Leavin Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1972, 1973. 

Felicity Samuel Gallery, 
London, 1972, 1973, 1975. 

Contract Graphics, Houston, 
Texas, 1972, 1973, 1975. 

Fort Worth Art Center 
Museum, Texas, 1972. 

Contemporary Arts Museum, 
Houston, Texas, 1973. 

Cirrus Gallery, Los Angeles, 
1973, 1974. 

California State College, 
Northndge, 1974. 

Seder/Creigh Gallery, 
Coronado, California, 1975. 

James Corcoran Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1976. 

Washington University, St. 
Louis, Missouri, 1976. 

Mount St. Mary's College Art 
Gallery, Los Angeles, 1977. 

Texas Gallery, Houston, 1979. 

Charles Cowles Gallery, New 
York, 1980. 



Selected Group Exhibitions 

War Babies, Huysman Gallery, 
Los Angeles, 1961. 

New Painting of Common 
Objects, Pasadena Art Museum, 
California, 1962. 

Pop Art USA. Oakland Art 
Museum, California, 1963. 

Six More, Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art, 1963. 

Ten from Los Angeles, Seattle 
Art Museum, Washington, 
1966. 

1966 Annual Exhibition of 
Contemporary American 
Painting. Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York; 

1967 Annual Exhibition: 1969 
Annual Exhibition . 

Pittsburgh International 
Exhibition. Carnegie Institute, 
Pennsylvania, 1967. 

West Coast Now. Portland Art 
Museum, Oregon, 1968. 

Ed Ruscha-Joe Goode. The 
Fine Arts Patrons of Newport 
Harbor, Balboa Pavilion 
Gallery, California, 1968. 

Contemporary American 
Drawings, Fort Worth Art 
Center Museum, Texas, 1969. 

Pop Art Redefined, Hayward 
Gallery, London, 1969. 

California Drawings, Ithaca 
College Art Museum, New 
York, 1969. 

Graphics: Six West Coast 
Artists. Galleria Milano, 
Italy, 1969. 

West Coast 1945-1969, 
Pasadena Art Museum, 
California, 1969 (traveled to 
City Art Museum of St. Louis, 
Missouri; Art Gallery of 
Ontario, Toronto; Fort Worth 
Art Center Museum, Texas). 

Drawings. The Santa Barbara 
Museum of Art, California, 
1970. 

Nine Portfolios, The Museum 
of Modern Art, New York, 1970. 

Looking West 1970, Joslyn Art 
Museum, Omaha, Nebraska, 
1970. 

Continuing Surrealism. La 
Jolla Museum of Contempo- 
rary Art, California, 1971. 

West Coo.s/, The Denver Art 
Museum, Colorado, 1971. 

Oversize Prints, Whitney 
Museum of American Art, 
New York, 1971. 

Made in California, Grunwald 
Center for the Graphic Arts, 
University of California, Los 
Angeles, 1971. 

32nd Biennial Exhibition of 
Contemporary American 
Paintings, Corcoran Gallery of 
Art, Washington, D.C., 1971. 



American Pop Art, Whitney 
Museum of American Art, 
New York, 1974. 

Eight from California, Na- 
tional Collection of Fine Arts, 
Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D.C., 1974. 

Robert Rowan Collection , 
Mount St. Mary's College Art 
Gallery, Los Angeles, 1974. 

4 Los Angeles Artists, School 
of Visual Arts, New York, 1975. 

Current Concerns: Part /, Los 
Angeles Institute of Contem- 
porary Art, 1975. 

Painting and Sculpture in 
California: The Modern Era. 
San Francisco Museum of 
Modern Art, 1976 (traveled to 
National Collection of Fine 
Arts, Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D.C.). 

Ed Ruscha, Joe GoodelNew 
Drawings, Laguna Gloria Art 
Museum, Austin, Texas, 197T. 

Black and White Are Colors: 
Paintings of the 1950s-1970s, 
Lang Art Gallery, Scripps 
College, Claremont, California, 
1978. 

American Painting in the 
Seventies, Albright-Knox Art 
Gallery, Buffalo, New York, 
1978. 

Aspects of Abstract, Crocker 
Art Museum, Sacramento, 
California, 1978. 

Selected Bibliography 

John Coplans, "New Painting 
of Common Objects," Artforum, 
vol. 1, no. 6, November 1962, 
pp. 26-29. 

Lawrence Alloway, Six More, 
Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, 1963. 

Claire Wolf, "Los Angeles; Joe 
Goode, Rolf Nelson Gallery," 
Artforum, vol. 2, no. 11, May 
1964, pp. 11-12. 

Philip Leider, "The Cool 
School," Artforum, vol. 2, no. 12, 
summer 1964, pp. 47-52. 

Philip Leider, "Joe Goode and 
the Common Object," Artforum, 
vol. 4, no. 7, March 1966, 
pp. 24-27. 

Fidel Danieli, "Gemini Ltd.: 
New Lithography Workshop in 
Los Angeles," Artforum. vol. 4, 
no. 8, April 1966, pp. 20-22. 

John Coplans, "Exhibition at 
Nick Wilder Gallery," A/-/ 
News. vol. 65, no. 57, summer 
1966, p. 57. 

John Coplans. Ten from Los 
Angeles, Seattle Art Museum, 
Washington, 1966. 

Lucy R. Lippard, Pop Art. New 
York, 1966. 



Edward Lucie-Smith, "London: 
Show at Rowan Gallery," 
Studio International, vol. 173, 
no. 890, June 1967, p. 312. 

Jane Livingston, "Los 
Angeles," Artforum, vol. 6, 
no. 3, November 1967, p. 67, 

Robert Pincus-Witten, 
"Kornblee Gallery, New York," 
Artforum, vol, 6, no. 7, March 
1968, p. 59. 

William Wilson, "Four Defec- 
tors to L.A.," Art in America, 
vol. 56, no. 2, March 1968, 
pp. 100-104. 

Melinda Terbell, "West Coast 
Shows," Arts Magazine, vol. 42, 
no. 7, May 1968, p. 61. 

Henry T Hopkins. Joe Goode 
and Ed Ruscha, The Fine Arts 
Patrons of Newport Harbor, 
Balboa Pavilion Gallery, 
California, 1968. 

Jane Livingston, "Los 
Angeles," Artforum, vol. 7, 
no. 5, January 1969, p. 69. 

Andrew Rabeneck, "Form Fol- 
lows Fiction," Design Quarterly, 
no. 73, 1969, p. 31. 

John Russell and Suzi Gablik, 
Pop Art Redefined, London, 
1969. 

Peter Plagens, "Los Angeles: 
Joe Goode, Nicholas Wilder 
Gallery," Artforum, vol. 9, no. 
6, February 1971, p. 91. 

Melinda Terbell, "Los Angeles," 
Arts Magazine, vol. 45, no. 4, 
February 1971, p. 45. 

Helene Winer, Wall Reliefs, 
Pomona College Art Gallery, 
California, 1971. 

Bernard Denvir, "London Let- 
ter," Art International, vol. 16, 
no. 8, October 1972, p. 46. 

Peter Fuller, "Joe Goode," Arts 
Review, vol. 24, no. 20, October 
1972, p. 612. 

Henry T Hopkins, Joe Goode: 
Work Until Now, Fort Worth 
Art Center Museum, Texas, 
1972. 

William A. Robinson, Perry 
Walker, and Henry T Hopkins, 
"Bengston, Grieger, Goode; 
Three Interviews," Art in 
America, vol. 61, no. 2, March- 
April 1973, pp. 48-53. 

Nancy Marmer, "Joe Goode," 
Art in America, vol. 62, no. 4, 
July- August 1974, p. 96. 

Lawrence Alloway, American 
Pop Art. Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York, 1974. 

Peter Plagens, Sunshine Muse: 
Contemporary Art on the 
West Coast, New York, 1974. 

M. Shepherd, "Joe Goode," 
Arts Review, vol. 27, no.. 15, 
July 1975, p. 424. 



108 



Peter Winter, "Joe Goode," 
Kunstwerk, vol. 28, no. 4, July 
1975, p. 72. 

Michele D. De Angelus, "Iso- 
lated Imagery: Joe Goode," Los 
Angeles Institute of Contem- 
porary Art Journal, no. 20, 
Octoberl978, pp. 34-35. 

Ann Schoenfeld, "Paintings 
under Control: Joe Goode," 
Artweek, vol. 10, no. 20, May 
19, 1979. p. 7. 

M. Shepherd, "American 
Painting in the 1970's," Arts 
Review, vol. 31, no. 15, August 
1979. p. 399. 



David Hockney 

Born in Bradford, England, 
1937; currently lives in Los 
Angeles and London. 
Attended Bradford College of 
Art, 1953-57: The Royal Col- 
lege of Art. London, 1959-62. 

Selected One-Man 
Exhibitions 

Editions Alecto Gallery. The 
Print Centre, London, 1963. 

Kasmin Gallery, London, 1963, 
1965, 1966, 1968, 1969, 1970, 
1972. 

Alan Gallery, New York, 1964. 

The Museum of Modern Art, 
New York, 1964, 1968, 1979. 

Stedelijk Museum, Amster- 
dam, 1966. 

Galleria dell'Ariete, Milan, 
Italy, 1966. 

Studio Marconi, Milan. Italy, 
1966. 

Musees Royaux des Beaux- 
Arts, Brussels, 1966. 

Landau-Alan Gallery, New 
York, 1967. 

Galerie Mikro, Berlin. West 
Germany, 1968. 

Whitworth Art Gallery, Man- 
cheater, England, 1969. 

Andre Emmerich Gallery, New 
York. 1969, 1970, 1971. 1972, 
1973, 1977, 1979. 1980, 1981. 

Galerie Springer, Berlin, West 
Germany, 1970. 

Kestner-Gesellschaft. Han- 
nover, West Germany, 1970. 

Whitechapel Art Gallery. 
London, 1970 (retrospective; 
traveled to Hannover. West 
Germany; Rotterdam, The 
Netherlands; Belgrade. Yugo- 
slavia). 

Lane Gallery. Bradford, 
England, 1970. 

Kunsthalle Bielefeld, West 
Germany, 1971. 

Victoria and Albert Museum, 
London. 1972. 

Holburne Museum, Bath, 
England, 1973. 

M. Knoedler and Company, 
New York, 1973, 1974, 1980. 

Michael Walls Gallery. New 
York. 1974. 

Kinsman Morrison Gallery. 
London, 1974. 

D. M. Gallery, London, 1974. 

Musee des Arts Decoratifs, 
Paris, 1974 (retrospective). 

Galerie d'Eendt. Amsterdam, 
1974. 

La Medusa Graphica, Rome, 
1974. 

Dayton's Gallery 12, Min- 
neapolis, Minnesota, 1974. 



Margo Leavin Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1975. 

European Gallery, San Fran- 
cisco, 1975. 

Galerie Claude-Bernard, 
Paris, 1975. 

Nishimura Gallery, Tokyo. 
1975. 

City Art Gallery. Manchester. 
England. 1975. 

City Art Gallery, Bristol, 
England, 1975. 

Dorothy Rosenthal Gallery, 
Chicago. 1975, 1977. 

Nicholas Wilder Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1976. 

Waddington Graphics, London, 
1976. 

Robert Self Gallery, London, 
1976. 

Laing Art Gallery, Newcastle 
upon Tyne. England, 1976. 

Sonnabend Gallery, New York, 
1976. 

Gallery One. San Jose State 
University Art Department. 
California, 1977. 

Galerie Andre Emmerich, 
Zurich, Switzerland, 1977. 

Galerie Neuendorf, Hamburg, 
West Germany, 1977. 

Gemini G.E.L., Los Angeles, 
1977, 1979. 

Gallery at 24, Miami, Florida, 
1978. 

Waddington Galleries, Toronto, 
1978. 

Graphische Sammlung Alber- 
tina, Vienna, 1978 (traveled to 
Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdi- 
nandeum, Innsbruck, Austria; 
Galerie Bloch, Innsbruck; 
Kulturhaus de Stadt, Graz, 
Austria; Kiinstlerhaus Salz- 
burg, Austria). 

L.A. Louver, Venice. California, 
1978. 

Yale Center for British Art. 
New Haven, Connecticut, 1978 
(traveled to Minneapolis 
Institute of Arts, Minnesota; 
Cranbrook Academy of Art, 
Bloomfield Hills, Michigan; 
Nelson Gallery-Atkins Museum. 
Kansas City, Missouri; Hirsh- 
horn Museum and Sculpture 
Garden, Washington, D.C.; 
Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto; 
Toledo Museum of Art, Ohio; 
The Fine Arts Museums of San 
Francisco; The Denver Art 
Museum, Colorado; Grey Art 
Gallery and Study Center, 
New York; The Tate Gallery, 
London). 

M. H. de Young Memorial 
Museum, San Francisco, 1979. 

Foster Goldstrom Fine Arts, 
San Francisco, 1979. 

Frances Aronson Gallery, Ltd., 
Atlanta, Georgia, 1979. 



City Art Gallery and Museum, 
Bradford, England, 1979. 

Petersburg Press, New York, 
1980. 

Getler/Pall Gallery, New York, 
1980. 

Selected Group Exhibitions 

New Pointing 1958-61. The 
Arts Council of Great Britain, 
London, 1961 (traveled 
throughout Great Britain). 

Second Paris Biennale of 
Young Artists. Musee d'Art 
Moderne de la Ville de Paris, 
1961; Third Pans Biennale. 
1963. 

Third International Biennale 
of Prints, National Museum of 
Art, Tokyo, 1962. 

British Painting in the Sixties, 
Whitechapel Art Gallery, Lon- 
don, 1963. 

Screen Prints, Institute of Con- 
temporary Arts, London, 1964. 

Contemporary Painters and 
Sculptors as Printmakers, The 
Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, 1966. 

Young British Painters. 1955- 
1960. Art Gallery of New South 
Wales, Sydney, Australia. 1964. 

Six Young Painters, The Arts 
Council of Great Britain, Lon- 
don, 1964 (traveled throughout 
Great Britain). 

Pop, etc , Museum des 20 

Jahrhunderts, Vienna, 1964. 

Pick of the Pops, National 
Museum of Wales, Cardiff, 
1964. 

Painting and Sculpture of a 
Decade 1954^1964, The 
Calouste Gulbenkian Founda- 
tion, The Tate Gallery, London, 
1964. 

Nieuwe Realisten, Gemeente 
Museum, The Hague, The 
Netherlands, 1964. 

London Group Jubilee Exhi- 
bition 1914-1964, The Tate 
Gallery, London, 1964. 

British Painters of Today, 
Kunsthalle Diisseldorf, West 
Germany, 1964. 

London: The New Scene, 
Walker Art Center, Min- 
neapolis, Minnesota. 1965. 

Pop Art, Nouveau Realisme, 
etc., Musees Royaux des 
Beaux-Arts. Brussels. 1965. 

IX Bienal de Sao Paulo, 
Brazil. 1967. 

Drawing Towards Painting, 
The Arts Council of Great 
Britain, London, 1967. 

European Painters of Today, 
Musee des Arts Decoratifs, 
Paris, 1967. 

Painting in Britain. Rhode 
Island School of Design, Provi- 
dence, 1967. 



Documenta 4, Kassel, West 
Germany, 1968. 

Venice Biennale, Italy, 1968. 

Young Generation: Great 
Britain, Akademie der Kiinste, 
Berlin, West Germany, 1968. 

Pop Art Redefined, Hayward 
Gallery, London, 1969. 

Image/Design: Animation. Re- 
cherche. Confrontation. Musee 
d'Art Moderne de la Ville de 
Paris, 1970, 

British Painting and Sculpture, 
1960-1970, National Gallery 
of Art, Washington, D.C., 1971. 

Snap, National Portrait Gal- 
lery, London, 1971. 

La Peinture Anglaise Aujourd'- 
hui, Musee d'Art Moderne de 
la Ville de Paris, 1972. 

Henry Moore to Gilbert and 
George: Modern British Art 
from The Tate Gallery. Musees 
Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brus- 
sels, 1973. 

European Painting in the '70s, 
Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art. 1975. 

Drawings of Five British Art- 
ists, Museum Boymans-van 
Beuningen, Rotterdam, The 
Netherlands, 1976. 

Art Around 1970, The Ludwig 
Collection at Aachen, Kiinst- 
lerhaus, Vienna, 1977 

Kunstlerphotographien im XX 
Jahrhundert, Kestner- 
Gesellschaft, Hannover, West 
Germany, 1977. 

Printed Art: A View of Two 
Decades, The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, 1980. 

Selected Bibliography 

Guy Brett, "David Hockney: A 
Note in Progress," The London 
Magazine, vol. 3, no. 1, April 
1963. 

David Yiockney, David Hockney: 
A Rake's Progress and Other 
Etchings, London, December 

1963. 

G. S. Whittet, "David Hockney: 
His Life and Good Times," 
The Studio, vol. 166, no. 848, 
December 1963, pp. 252-53. 

Gene Baro, "The British Scene," 
Arts Magazine, vol. 38, no. 9, 
May-June 1964, pp. 94-101. 

Larry Rivers and David 
Hockney, "Beautiful or Inter- 
esting," Art and Literature, 
no. 5, summer 1965, pp. 94-117. 

Robert Hughes, "Blake and 
Hockney," The London Maga- 
zine, vol. 5, no. 10, January 
1966, pp. 68-73. 

Gene Baro, "Hockney 's Ubu," 
Art and Artists, vol. 1, no. 2, 
May 1966, pp. 8-13. 



110 



Gene Baro, "David Hockney 's 
Drawings," Studio Interna- 
tional, vol. 171, no. 877, May 
1966, pp. 184-86. 

Gene Baro, David Hockney, 
Stedelijk Museum, Amster- 
dam, 1966. 

Lucy R. Lippard, Pop Art, New 
York, 1966. 

Patrick Procktor, David 
Hockney, Galleria dell'Ariete, 
Milan, Italy, 1966. 

Wibke von Benin, David 
Hockney 1968, Galerie Mikro, 
Berlin, West Germany, 1968. 

David Shapiro, "David 
Hockney Paints a Portrait," 
Art News, vol. 68, no. 3, May 
1969, pp. 28-31, 64-66. 

Wibke von Benin, "Germany: 
Hockney 's Graphic Art," Arts 
Magazine, vol. 43, no. 8, sum- 
mer 1969, pp. 52-53. 

Frank Bowling, "A Shift in 
Perspective," Arts Magazine, 
vol. 43, no. 8, summer 1969, 
pp. 24-27 

Mario Amaya, David Hockney, 
Whitworth Art Gallery, Man- 
chester University, England, 
1969. 

Christopher Finch, Images as 
Language: Aspects of British 
Art 1950-1968, London, 1969. 

T A. Heinrich, Graphics by 
David Hockney, Rodman Hall 
Arts Centre, St. Catharines, 
Ontario, Canada, 1969. 

Edward Lucie-Smith, Late 
Modern, New York, 1969. 

John Russell and Suzi Gablick, 
Pop Art Redefined, London, 
1969. 

John Christopher Battye, 
"Interview with David 
Hockney," Art and Artists, vol. 
5, no. 1, April 1970, pp. 50-53. 

Edward Lucie-Smith, "The 
Real David Hockney," Nova 
(London), April 1970. 

Mark Glazebrook, David 
Hockney. Kestner-Gesellschaft, 
Hannover, West Germany, 1970. 

Mark Glazebrook, David 
Hockney: Paintings. Prints, 
and Drawings, 1960-1970, 
Whitechapel Art Gallery, 
London, 1970. 

John Loring, "David Hockney 
Drawings," Arts Magazine, 
vol. 49, no. 3, November 1974, 
pp. 66-67 

John Rothenstein, Modern 
British Painters: Wood to 
Hockney, vol. 3, London, 1974. 

Ellen Lubell, "David 
Hockney," Arts Magazine, vol. 
49, no. 6, February 1975, p. 11. 

Sarah Fox-Pitt, "David Hockney 
und The Rake's Progress," 
DU (Zurich), vol. 35, no. 413, 
July 1975, pp. 71-81. 



Marc Fumaroli, David Hockney: 
dessins et gravures, Galerie 
Claude Bernard, Paris, 1975. 

Petra Kipphoff, "Verse in Far- 
ben von David Hockney (Line 
in Color by David Hockney)." 
Zeitmagazin, vol. 1, no. 15, 
April 1977, pp. 58-65. 

Carter Ratcliff, "The Photo- 
graphs of David Hockney," 
Arts Magazine, vol. 51, no. 8, 
April 1977, pp. 96-97. 

Nigel Gosling, "Things Exactly 
as They Are," Horizon, vol. 
20, no. 11, November 1977, 
pp. 46-51. 

Barnaby Conrad, "Mr Geld- 
zahler Looks at Mr Hockney," 
Art World, vol. 1, no. 3, No- 
vember-December 1977. 

David Deitcher, "David 
Hockney: The Recent Work," 
Arts Magazine, vol. 52, no. 4, 
December 1977, pp. 129-133. 

Peter Fuller, "An Interview 
with David Hockney," Art 
Monthly, December/January 
1978, pp. 5-10. 

David Hockney, David Hockney 
by David Hockney, ed. Nikos 
Stangos, intro. by Henry Geld- 
zahler. New York, 1977. 

David Conrad, "A Candidate 
in Search of a Fall," Times 
Literary Supplement, March 
10, 1978. 

Roy Bongartz. "David Hockney: 
Reaching the Top with Appar- 
ently No Great Effort," Art 
News, vol. 77, no. 3, March 1978, 
pp. 44-47. 

Gene Baro, David Hockney: 
Prints and Drawings, Interna- 
tional Exhibitions Foundation, 
Washington, D.C., 1978. 

Edmund Pillsbury, David 
Hockney: Travels with Pen, 
Pencil, and Ink, New York, 
1978. 

Peter Weiermair, Drawings 
and Prints, Graphische Samm- 
lung Albertina, Vienna, 1978. 

Eric Gibson, "David Hockney," 
Art International, vol. 23, no. 
10, March 1979, pp. 48-49. 

Anthony Bailey, "Profiles: 
David Hockney," The New 
Yorker, July 30, 1979, pp. 
35-69. 

Jan Butterfield, "David 
Hockney: Blue Hedonistic 
Pools," Print Collector's News- 
letter, vol. 10, no. 3, July- 
August 1979, pp. 73-76. 

Stephen Bann, "Where the 
English Draw the Line," 
Artforum, vol. 28, no. 1, Sep- 
tember 1979, pp. 70-72. 

Nikos Stangos, Pictures by 
David Hockney, London, 1979. 

Henry Geldzahler, "Hockney 
Abroad: A Slide Show," Art in 
America, vol. 69, no. 2, Feb- 
ruary 1981, pp. 126-41. 



Robert Irwin 

Born in Long Beach, Califor- 
nia, 1928; lives in Los Angeles. 
Attended Otis Art Institute, 
Los Angeles, 1948-50; Jepson 
Art Institute, Los Angeles, 
1951; Chouinard Art Institute, 
Los Angeles, 1952-54. 

Selected One-Man 
Exhibitions 

Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles, 
1959, 1960. 1962, 1964. 

Pasadena Art Museum, 
California, 1960, 1968. 

Pace Gallery, New York, 1966 
1968, 1969, 1971, 1973, 1974. 

Museum of Art, Rhode Island 
School of Design, Providence, 
1969. 

La Jolla Museum of Art, 
California, 1969. 

Artist's Studio, Venice, 
California, 1970. 

The Museum of Modern Art, 
New York, 1971. 

Ace Gallery, Los Angeles, 1971. 

Fogg Art Museum. Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, 1972. 

Galerie Ileana Sonnabend, 
Paris, 1972. 

Riko Mizuno Gallery, Los 
Angeles. 1972. 1974, 1976. 

University Art Galleries, 
Wright State University, Day- 
ton, Ohio, 1974. 

Art Galleries, University of 
California, Santa Barbara, 
1974. 

Fort Worth Art Museum, 
Texas, 1975. 

Museum of Contemporary Art, 
Chicago, 1975. 

Walker Art Center, Min- 
neapolis, Minnesota, 1976. 

Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New York, 1977. 

San Diego State University 
Art Gallery, California, 1979. 

Selected Group Exhibitions 

50 Paintings by 37 Painters of 
the Los Angeles Area, The 
UCLA Art Galleries, Univer- 
sity of California, Los Angeles, 
1960. 

Pacific Profile of Young West 
Coast Painters, Pasadena Art 
Museum, California, 1962. 

Fifty California Artists. Whit- 
ney Museum of American Art, 
New York, 1962. 

Seven New Artists, Sidney 
Janis Gallery, New York, 1964. 

Some New Art from Los 
Angeles, San Francisco Art 
Institute, 1964. 



The Responsive Eye, The 
Museum of Modern Art, New 
York. 1965 (traveled to Pasa- 
dena Art Museum). 

VIIIBienal de Sao Paulo. 
Brazil, 1965. 

Robert IrwinlKenneth Price, 
Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, 1966. 

Gene Davis, Robert Irwin, 
Richard Smith. The Jewish 
Museum, New York, 1968. 

Los Angeles 6, Vancouver Art 
Gallery, British Columbia, 1968. 

Faculty '68, Art Gallery, Uni- 
versity of California, Irvine, 1968. 

6 Artists, 6 Exhibitions, Walker 
Art Center, Minneapolis, 
Minnesota, 1968. 

Documenta 4, Kassel, West 
Germany, 1968. 

Late Fifties at the Ferus, Los 
Angeles County Museum of 
Art, 1968. 

Robert Irwin/Doug Wheeler, 
Fort Worth Art Center 
Museum, Texas, 1969 (traveled 
to Corcoran Gallery of Art, 
Washington, D.C.; Stedelijk 
Museum, Amsterdam). 

Kompas 4: West Coast USA. 
Stedelijk van Abbemuseum, 
Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 
1969 (traveled to Pasadena 
Art Museum, California; City 
Art Museum of St. Louis, Mis- 
souri; Art Gallery of Ontario, 
Toronto; Fort Worth Art Cen- 
ter Museum, Texas). 

West Coast 1945-1969, 
Pasadena Art Museum, 
California, 1969 (traveled to 
City Art Museum of St. Louis, 
Missouri; Art Gallery of 
Ontario, Toronto; Fort Worth 
Art Center Museum. Texas). 

BellllrwinlWheeler, The Tate 
Gallery, London, 1970. 

Permutations: Light and Color. 
Museum of Contemporary Art, 
Chicago, 1970. 

Transparency. Reflection, Light, 
Space: Four Artists, The UCLA 
Art Galleries, University of 
California, Los Angeles, 1971. 

Art and Technology, Los 
Angeles County Museum of 
Art, 1971. 

Works for New Spaces, Walker 
Art Center, Minneapolis, 
Minnesota, 1971. 

11 Los Angeles Artists, Hay- 
ward Gallery, London, 1971 
(traveled to Musees Royaux des 
Beaux-Arts, Brussels; 
Akademie der Kiinste, Berlin. 
West Germany). 

USA West Coast, Kunstverein, 
Hamburg, West Germany, 
1972 (traveled to Kunstverein, 
Hannover; Kolnischer Kunst- 
verein, Cologne; Wiirttem- 
bergisher Kunstverein, 
Stuttgart). 



Works in Spaces. San Fran- 
cisco Museum of Art, 1973. 

Art in Space: Some Turning 
Points. The Detroit Institute of 
Arts, Michigan, 1973. 

Illumination and Reflection. 
Downtown Branch, Whitney 
Mu.seum of American Art, 
New York, 1974. 

Art Now 74, John F Kennedy 
Center for the Performing 
Arts, Washington, D.C., 1974. 

Some Recent American Art. 
The Museum of Modern Art, 
New York, 1974. 

A View Through. Art Galleries, 
California State University, 
Long Beach, 1975. 

University of California, Irvine: 
1965-75. La Jolla Museum of 
Contemporary Art, California, 
1975, 

The Last Time I Saw Ferus: 
1957-1966. Newport Harbor 
Art Museum, Newport Beach, 
California, 1976. 

200 Years of American Sculp- 
ture. Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York, 1976. 

Critical Perspectives in Ameri- 
can Art, Fine Arts Center 
Gallery, University of Mas- 
sachusetts, Amherst, 1976. 

Projects for PC A, Philadelphia 
Collegeof Art, 1976. 

Venice Biennale, Italy, 1976. 

Painting and Sculpture in 
California: The Modern Era, 
San Francisco Museum of 
Modern Art, 1976 (traveled to 
National Collection of Fine 
Arts, Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D.C.). 

American Artists: A New Dec- 
ade, Fort Worth Art Museum. 
Texas. 1976. 

Andre, Buren, Irwin, Nordman: 
Space as Support, University 
Art Museum, University 
of California, Berkeley, 1979. 

Contemporary Art in Southern 
California, The High Museum 
of Art, Atlanta, Georgia, 1980. 

Selected Bibliography 

Lloyd Goodrich and George 
Culler. Fifty California Artists, 
Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New York, 1962. 

Constance Perkins, Pacific 
Profile of Young West Coast 
Painters, Pasadena Art 
Museum, California, 1962, 

Jan van der Marck, "The Cali- 
fornians," Art International, 
vol. 7, no. 5, May 1963, pp. 28-31. 

John Coplans, "Circle of Styles 
on the West Coast," Art in 
America, vol. 52, no. 4, June 
1964, pp. 24-41. 

John Coplans, "Formal Art," 
Artforum, vol. 2, no. 12, sum- 
mer 1964, pp. 42-46. 



Henry T Hopkins, "Abstract 
Expressionism," Artforum, 
vol. 2, no. 12, summer 1964, 
pp. 59-63. 

Philip Leider, "The Cool 
School," Artforum, vol. 2, no. 
12, summer 1964, pp. 47-52, 

John Coplans, "Los Angeles: 
The Scene." Art News, vol, 64, 
no. 6, March 1965, pp. 29, 
56-58. 

John Coplans, "The New 
Abstraction on the West Coast 
USA," Studio International. 
vol. 169, no. 865, May 1965, 
pp. 192-99 

Robert Irwin, "Statement," 
Artforum. vol. 3, no. 9, June 
1965, p. 23. 

William C. Seitz, The Respon- 
sive Eye, The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, 1965. 

Barbara Rose, "Los Angeles: 
The Second City," Art in 
America, vol. 54, no. 1, 
January- February 1966, 
pp. 110-15, 

Philip Leider, Robert IrwinI 
Kenneth Price. Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art, 1966. 

Robert Irwin, "Letter to 
Editor," Artforum. vol. 6, no. 6, 
February 1968, p. 4. 

Emily Wasserman, "Robert 
Irwin. Gene Davis, Richard 
Smith," Artforum. vol. 6. no. 9, 
May 1968, pp. 47-49. 

Corrine Robins, "The Circle in 
Orbit," Art in America, vol. 56, 
no. 6, November- December 
1968, p. 65, 

John Coplans. Robert Irwin, 
Pasadena Art Museum, 
California, 1968, 

John Coplans, Gene Davis, 
Robert Irwin, Richard Smith. 
The Jewish Museum, New 
York, 1968, 

Jane Livingston, Robert IrwinI 
Doug Wheeler, Fort Worth Art 
Center Museum, Texas, 1969, 

Melinda Terbell, "Los Angeles," 
Arts Magazine, vol, 45, no. 2, 
November 1970, p. 53. 

Peter Plagens, "Robert Irwin, 
the Artist's Premises," Art- 
forum. vol. 9, no. 4, December 
1970, pp. 88-89. 

Michael Compton. BellllrwinI 
Wheeler The Tate Gallery, 
London, 1970. 

Elizabeth Baker, "Los Angeles, 
1971," Art News, vol. 70, no. 5. 
September 1971, pp. 30-31. 

Maurice Tuchman and Jane 
Livingston, 11 Los Angeles 
Artists, Hayward Gallery, 
London, 1971. 

Maurice Tuchman, A Report 
on the Art and Technology 
Program of the Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art. Los 
Angeles, 1971. 



Frederick S. Wight, Transpar- 
ency. Reflection, Light, Space: 
Four Artists, The UCLA Art 
Galleries, University of 
California, Los Angeles, 1971. 

Alistair Mackintosh, "Robert 
Irwin: An Interview with 
Alistair Mackintosh," Art and 
Artists, vol. 6, no. 12, March 
1972, pp. 24-27. 

Jan Butterfield, "Part I. The 
State of the Real: Robert Irwin 
Discusses the Art of an Ex- 
tended Consciousness," Arts 
Magazine, vol. 46, no. 8, sum- 
mer 1972. pp. 47-49. 

Sam Hunter, American Art of 
the Twentieth Century, New 
York, 1973. 

Jan Butterfield, "An Uncom- 
promising Other Way," Arts 
Magazine, vol. 48, no. 9, June 

1974, pp. 52-55. 

Peter Plagens, Sunshine Muse: 
Contemporary Art on the 
West Coast, New York, 1974. 

Larry Rosing, "Robert Irwin at 
Pace," Art in America, vol. 63, 
no. 2, March 1975, p. 87. 

Robert Irwin, "Twenty Ques- 
tions," Vision, no. 1, September 

1975, pp. 38-39. 

Ira Licht, Robert Irwin, 
Museum of Contemporary Art, 
Chicago, 1975. 

Barbara Rose, American Art 
since 1900, New York, 1975. 

Jan Butterfield, "Robert Irwin: 
On the Periphery of Knowing," 
Arts Magazine, vol. 50, no. 6, 
February 1976, pp. 72-77 

Edward Levine, "Robert Irwin: 
World Without Frame," Arts 
Magazine, vol. 50, no. 6, 
February 1976, pp. 72-77 

Janet Kardon, Projects for 
PCA, Philadelphia College of 
Art, 1976. 

Edward Levine, "Robert Ir- 
win's Recent Work," Artforum, 
vol. 16, no. 4, December 1977, 
pp. 24-29. 

Frederick S. Wight, Los 
Angeles Art Community Group 
Portrait: Robert Irwin, Oral 
History Program, University 
of California, Los Angeles, 
1977. 

"The Image of Nature," Art 
Actuel. Skira Annuel, Switzer- 
land, vol. 4, 1978, pp. 92-127. 

Peter Plagens, "Irwin's Bar 
Paintings," Artforum, vol. 17, 
no. 7. March 1979, pp. 41-43. 

Robert Atkins, "Irwin Trips 
the Light Fantastic: Univer- 
sity Art Museum, Berkeley, 
CA," Artweek, vol. 10, no. 15, 
April 14, 1979, pp. 1, 16. 

Clark V. Poling, Contemporary 
Art in Southern California. 
The High Museum of Art. 
Atlanta, Georgia, 1980. 



Craig Kauffman 

Born in Los Angeles, 1932: 

lives in Los Angeles and New 

York. 

B.A.. University of California, 

Los Angeles, 1955; M.A., 1956. 

Selected One-Man 
Exhibitions 

Felix Landau Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1953. 

Dilexi Gallery, San Francisco, 
1958, 1960. 

Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles, 
1958, 1963, 1965, 1967. 

Pace Gallery, New York, 1967. 
1969,1970,1973. 

Irving Blum Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1969, 1972. 

Pasadena Art Museum, 
California, 1970. 

University of California, 
Irvine, 1970. 

Galerie Darthea Speyer, Paris, 
1973, 1976. 

Riko Mizuno Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1975. 

Robert Elkon Gallery, New 
York, 1976. 

Comsky Gallery, Los Angeles, 
1976. 

Arco Center for Visual Art, 
Los Angeles, 1978. 

Blum-Helman Gallery, New 
York, 1979. 

Janus Gallery, Los Angeles, 
1979. 

Grapestake Gallery, San Fran- 
cisco, 1979. 

La Jolla Museum of Contem- 
porary Art, California, 1981 
(traveling retrospective). 

Selected Group Exhibitions 

50 Paintings by 37 Painters of 
the Los Angeles Area, The 
UCLA Art Galleries, Univer- 
sity of California, Los Angeles, 
1960. 

5 at Pace, Pace Gallery, New 
York, 1965. 

Multiples, The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, 1965. 

Los Angeles Now, Robert 
Fraser Gallery, London, 1966. 

Ten from Los Angeles, Seattle 
Art Museum, Washington, 
1966. 

Form. Color. Image, The 
Detroit Institute of Arts, 1967 

A New Aesthetic, Washington 
Gallery of Modern Art. 
Washington, D.C., 1967. 

The 1960s, The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, 1967. 



112 



The United States of America: 
V Paris Biennale, 1967 (orga- 
nized by Pasadena Art 
Museum, California). 

Contemporary American 
Painting and Sculpture, Kran- 
nert Art Museum, Univer- 
sity of Illinois, Urbana, 1967. 

California, Janie C. Lee Gal- 
lery, Dallas, Texas, 1968. 

Painting: Out from the Wall. 
Des Moines Art Center, Iowa, 
1968. - 

Made of Plastic. Flint Institute 
of Arts. Michigan, 1968. 

Los Angeles 6, Vancouver Art 
Gallery, British Columbia, 1968. 

1968 Annual Exhibition: 
Sculpture, Whitney Museum 
of American Art, New York; 
1979 Biennial Exhibition. 

Late Fifties at the Ferus, Los 
Angeles County Museum of 
Art, 1968. 

Three from Los Angeles: Irwin, 
Bell. Kauffman, Dunkelman 
Gallery, Montreal, 1969. 

14 Sculptors: The Industrial 
Edge, Walker Art Center, 
Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1969. 

Plastic New Art, Institute of 
Contemporary Art of the 
University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia. 1969. 

Plastic Presence, Milwaukee 
Art Center. Wisconsin, 1969. 

Contemporary American Mas- 
ter Works, La Jolla Museum of 
Art, California, 1969. 

Kompas 4: West Coast USA, 
Stedelijk van Abbemuseum, 
Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 
1969. 

A Los Angeles Aesthetic. Uni- 
versity of California, Irvine, 
1969. 

A Decade of California Color. 
Pace Gallery, New York, 1970. 

Transparency, Reflection, 
Light, Space: Four Artists, The 
UCLA Art Galleries. Univer- 
sity of California, Los Angeles, 
1971. 

The State of California Paint- 
ing, Govett-Brewster Art 
Gallery, New Plymouth, New 
Zealand, 1972. 

Spray. The Santa Barbara 
Museum of Art, California, 
1971. 

Contemporary American Art: 
Los Angeles, Fort Worth Art 
Center Museum, Texas, 1972. 

33rd Biennial Exhibition of 
Contemporary American 
Painting, Corcoran Gallery of 
Art, Washington, D.C., 1973. 

71st American Exhibition of 
Painting and Sculpture, The 
Art Institute of Chicago, 1974. 

Illuminations and Reflections, 
Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New York, 1974. 



Modern and Contemporary 
Sculpture, Newport Harbor 
Art Museum, Newport Beach, 
California, 1974. 

Current Concerns, Part I, Los 
Angeles Institute of Contem- 
porary Art, 1975. 

University of California, Irvine: 
1965-75, La Jolla Museum of 
Contemporary Art, California, 
1975. 

The Last Time I Saw Ferus, 
1957-1966, Newport Harbor 
Art Museum, Newport Beach, 
California, 1976. 

Painting and Sculpture in 
California: The Modern Era, 
San Francisco Museum of 
Modern Art, 1976 (traveled to 
National Collection of Fine 
Arts, Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D.C.). 

California Abstraction, 
Sacramento Museum of Art, 
California, 1979. 

Selected Bibliography 

John Coplans, "Circle of Styles 
on the West Coast," Art in 
America, vol. 52, no. 3, June 
1964, p. 24. 

Clair Wolfe, "Art West," Arts 
and Architecture, vol. 81, no. 7, 
July 1964. pp. 6, 44. 

John Coplans, "Formal Art," 
Artforum, vol. 2, no. 12, sum- 
mer 1964, pp. 42-46. 

Henry T. Hopkins, "Abstract 
Expressionism," Artforum, vol. 
2, no. 12, summer 1964, 
pp. 59-63. 

Philip Leider, "The Cool 
School," Artforum, vol. 2, no. 
12, summer 1964, pp. 47-52. 

Clair Wolfe, "Notes on Craig 
Kauffman," Artforum, vol. 3, 
no. 5, February 1965, pp. 20-21. 

John Coplans, "Los Angeles; 
The Scene," Art News, vol. 64, 
no. 1, March 1965, p. 28. 

John Coplans, "The New 
Abstraction on the West Coast 
USA," Studio International, 
vol. 169, no. 865, May 1965, 
pp. 192-99. 

Barbara Rose, "Los Angeles; 
The Second City," Art in 
America, vol. 54, no. 1, 
January/February 1966, 
pp. 110-15. 

Robert Smithson, "Entropy 
and the New Movements," 
Artforum. vol. 4, no. 10. June 
1966, pp. 26-31. 

Larry Aldrich, "New Talent 
USA," Art in America, vol. 54, 
no. 4, July/ August 1966, p. 22. 

Henry T. Hopkins, "West Coast 
Style," Art Voices, vol. 5, no. 4, 
fall 1966, pp. 60-72. 

John Coplans, Los Angeles 
Now, Robert Fraser Gallery, 
London, 1966. 



John Coplans, Ten from Los 
Angeles, Seattle Art Museum, 
Washington, 1966. 

Barbara Rose, A New Aes- 
thetic, Washington Gallery of 
Modern Art, Washington, 
D.C., 1967 (with statement by 
Kauffman). 

Douglas M. Davis, "Art and 
Technology," Art in America, 
vol. 56, no. 1, January/ 
February 1968, p. 28. 

Jane Livingston, "Recent 
Works by Craig Kauffman: A 
New Non-Pictorial Set of 
Terms," Artforum. vol. 6, no. 6, 
February 1968, pp. 36-39. 

Martin Friedman, Barbara 
Rose, and Christopher Finch, 
14 Sculptors: The Industrial 
Edge, Walker Art Center, 
Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1969. 

Barbara Rose, American 
Painting, Cleveland, Ohio, 
1970. 

Craig Kauffman and Robert 
Morris, Using Walls, The 
Jewish Museum, New York, 
1970. 

Frederick S. Wight, Transpar- 
ency, Reflection, Light, Space: 
Four Artists, The UCLA Art 
Galleries, University of 
California, Los Angeles, 1971 
(interview with Kauffman). 

Sam Hunter, American Art of 
the Twentieth Century, New 
York, 1972. 

Peter Plagens, Sunshine 
Muse: Contemporary Art on 
the West Coast, New York, 
1974. 

Jan Butterfield, "Craig 
Kauffman Interviewed by Jan 
Butterfield," Art in America, 
vol. 64, no. 4, July 1974, 
pp. 81-82. 

Melinda Wortz, "Craig 
Kauffman's Interiors," 
Artweek, vol. 9, no. 19, May 
1978, p. 3. 

Peter Frank, "Unslick in L.A.," 
Art in America, vol. 66, no. 5, 
September/October 1978, 
pp. 84-91. 

Melinda Wortz, Craig 
Kauffman, Arco Center for 
Visual Art, Los Angeles, 1978. 

Robert McDonald, Craig 
Kauffman: A Comprehensive 
Exhibition 1957-1980, La Jolla 
Museum of Contemporary Art, 
California, 1981. 



Edward Kienholz 

Born in Fairfield, Washington, 
1927; resident, of Los Angeles, 
1953-73; lives in Hope, Idaho, 
and Berlin, West Germany. 
Attended Washington State 
College. 1945. 

Selected One-Man 
Exhibitions 

Cafe Galeria, Los Angeles, 
1955. 

Coronet Louvre, Los Angeles, 
1955. 

Syndell Studios, Los Angeles, 
1956. 

Exodus Gallery, San Pedro, 
California, 1958. 

Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles, 
1959,1960,1961,1963. 

Pasadena Art Museum, 
California, 1961. 

Alexander lolas Gallery, New 
York, 1963. 

Dwan Gallery, Los Angeles, 
1963, 1964, 1965. 

Dwan Gallery, New York, 
1965, 1967. 

Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, 1966 (traveled to Insti- 
tute of Contemporary Art, 
Boston). 

University of Saskatchewan, 
Regina, Canada, 1966. 

Washington Gallery of Modern 
Art, Washington, DC, 1967. 

Boise Art Museum, Idaho, 
1968. 

Gallery 669, Los Angeles, 
1968. 

Eugenia Butler Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1969. 

Ateneumin Taidemuseo, 
Helsinki, Finland. 1969. 

Wide White Space Gallery, 
Antwerp, Belgium, 1970, 1971, 
1972. 

Gallery Michael Werner, 
Cologne, West Germany, 1970. 

Onnasch Gallery, Cologne, 
West Germany, 1970, 1973. 

Moderna Museet, Stockholm, 
1970 (retrospective of tableaux; 
traveled to Stedelijk Museum, 
Amsterdam; Stadtische 
Kunsthalle Diisseldorf, West 
Germany; Kunsthaus Zurich, 
Switzerland; The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York; Centre 
National d'Art Contemporain, 
Paris; Institute of Contem- 
porary Arts, London). 

Gemini G.E.L., Los Angeles, 
1972, 1980. 

Akademie der Kiinste, Berlin, 
West Germany, 1973. 

Stadtische Kunsthalle Diissel- 
dorf, West Germany, 1973. 



Galerie Christel, Helsinki, 
Finland, 1974. 

Galleria Bocchi, Milan, Italy, 
1974. 

Nationalgalerie, Berlin, West 
Germany, 1977 (traveled to 
Galerie Maeghl, Zurich, 
Switzerland). 

Galleria d'Arte II Gabbiano, 
Rome, 1977. 

Centre National d'Art et de 
Culture Georges Pompidou, 
Paris, 1977. 

Stadtische Kunsthalle Diissel- 
dorf, West Germany, 1977. 

Galerie Apollon Die Insel, 
Munich, West Germany, 1977. 

Akademie der Kiinste, Berlin, 
West Germany, 1978. 

Galerie Maeght, Paris, 1979. 

Louisiana Museum, Hum- 
lebaek, Denmark, 1979. 

Henry Art Gallery, University 
of Washington, Seattle, 1979. 

University Art Museum, Uni- 
versity of California, Berkeley, 
1979. 

The Douglas Hyde Gallery, 
Ti-inity College, Dublin, 1981. 

Galerie Maeght, Zurich. 
Switzerland. 1981. 

Selected Group Exhibitions 

The Art of Assemblage, The 
Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, 1961. 

Fifty California Artists, Whit- 
ney Museum of American Art, 
New York, 1962, 

My Country 'Tis of Thee. Dwan 
Gallery, Los Angeles, 1962. 

Contemporary California 
Sculpture, Oakland Art 
Museum, California, 1963. 

Contemporary American 
Sculpture, Whitney Museum 
of American Art, New York, 
1964. 

Boxes, Dwan Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1964. 

Contemporary Sculpture and 
Prints, Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York, 
1966. 

68th American Exhibition of 
Painting and Sculpture, The 
Art Institute of Chicago, 1966. 

American Sculpture of the 
Sixties, Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art, 1967. 

Protest and Hope, New School 
Art Center, New York, 1967. 

Dada, Surrealism and Their 
Heritage, The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, 1968. 

Los Angeles 6, Vancouver Art 
Gallery, British Columbia, 
1968. 

The Machine, The Museum of 
Modern Art. New York, 1968. 



Assemblage in California, 
University of California, Irvine, 
1968. 

Documenta 4, Kassel, West 
Germany, 1968; Documenta 5. 
1972. 

Late Fifties at the Ferus, Los 
Angeles County Museum of 
Art, 1968. 

When Art Becomes Form, 
Kunsthalle Bern, Switzerland, 
1968. 

Kunst der Sechziger Jahre. 
Sammlung Ludwig, Wallraf- 
Richartz Museum, Cologne, 
West Germany, 1969. 

Human Concern I Personal 
Torment: The Grotesque in 
American Art, Whitney 
Museum of American Art, 
New York, 1969. 

Pop Art Redefined, Hayward 
Gallery, London, 1969, 

Kompas 4: West Coast USA, 
Stedelijk van Abbemuseum, 
Eindhoven. The Netherlands. 
1969. 

Das Ding als Objekt, 
Kunsthalle Niirnberg. West 
Germany, 1970, 

Continuing Surrealism, La 
Jolla Museum of Contempo- 
rary Art, California, 1971, 

Metamorphose van het object, 
Musees Royaux des Beaux- 
Arts, Brussels, 1971. 

Looking West 1970, Joslyn Art 
Museum, Omaha, Nebraska, 
1970. 

Ars 74, Ateneumin 
Taidemuseo, Helsinki, Finland, 
1974. 

Word Works, Mt. San Antonio 
College. Walnut. California. 
1974. 

8 from Berlin: Erben. Erber, 
Gosewitz, Hodicke, Kienholz, 
KoberUng, Lakner, Schonebeck, 
Fruit Market Gallery, Scottish 
Arts Council, Edinburgh, 1975. 

Painting and Sculpture in 
California: The Modern Era, 
San Francisco Museum of 
Modern Art. 1976 (traveled to 
National Collection of Fine 
Arts, Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D.C) 

Venice Biennale, Italy, 1977, 

Aspekte der 60er Jahre: Aus 
der Sammlung Reinhard On- 
nasch, Nationalgalerie, Berlin, 
West Germany. 1978, 

Ecouter par les yeux, Musee 
d'Art Moderne de la 'Ville de 
Paris, 1980, 

1981 Biennial Exhibition, 
Whitney Maseum of American 
Art, New York, 1981, 



Selected Bibliography 

William C, Seitz, The Art of 
Assemblage, The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, 1961. 

Donald Factor, "Assemblage," 
FM and Fine Arts (Beverly 
Hills), vol, 3, no. 9, September 
1962, pp. 6-9. 

Arthur Secunda, "John Bern- 
hardt, Charles Frazier, Ed- 
ward Kienholz,". 4 r//br!/7;;, 
vol. 1, no. 5, November 1962, 
pp. 30-34, 

Donald Judd. "Review: Exhibi- 
tion at Alexander lolas Gal- 
lery,"Ar(,s Magazine, vol. 37, 
no, 6. March 1963. pp, 63-64. 

Philip Leider, "West Coast Art: 
Three Images," Ar^/bri//?). vol. 
1, no. 12, June 1963, pp. 21-23. 

John Coplans, "Sculpture in 
California," Art/brum, vol. 2, 
no. 11, August 1963, pp. .3-6. 

Donald Factor, "A Portfolio of 
California Sculptors: Edward 
Kienholz," Art/"ori/m, vol. 2, 
no. 2, August 1963, pp. 15-59. 

Dore Ashton, Edward Kienholz, 
Alexander lolas Gallery. 
New York, 1963. 

John Coplans, "Circle of Styles 
on the West Coast," Art in 
America, vol. 52, no. 3, June 
1964, pp. 24-41. 

John Reuschel, "Los Angeles: 
Edward Kienholz, Three Tab- 
leaux," Art/'on/m, vol. 3, no. 1, 
September 1964, p, 14, 

Philip Leider,"Kienholz,"FTOn- 
tier, vol, 16, no, 1, November 

1964, p. 25. 

Walter Hopps, Boxes, Dwan 
Gallery. Los Angeles. 1964, 

Barbara Rose. "Looking at 
American Sculpture," A rZ/bn/m, 
vol, 3, no. 5, February 1965, 
pp. 29-36. 

John Coplans. "Los Angeles: 
The Scene," Art News, vol. 64, 
no. 1, March 1965, pp. 28-29, 
56-58. 

John Coplans, "Assemblage: 
the Savage Eye of Edward 
Kienholz," Studio International, 
vol. 170, no. 869, September 

1965, pp. 112-15. 

Suzi Gablik, "Crossing the 
Bar," Art News, vol. 64, no. 6, 
October 1965, pp. 22-25. 

Henry T Hopkins, "Edward 
Kienholz." Art in America, vol. 
53, no. 5, October- November 
1965, p. 73. 

Barbara Rose, "Los Angeles: 
The Second City," Art in 
America, vol. 54, no. 1, January/ 
February 1966, pp. 110-15. 

Annette Michelson, "Review: 
Exhibition at Dwan Gallery," 
Art International, vol. 10, no. 2, 
February 1966, pp. 60-61. 



Michael Blankfort, "Edward 
Kienholz: A Very Private 
Report" Los Angeles Magazine, 
April 1966, pp. 48-51. 

Sidney Tillim, "The Under- 
ground Pre-Raphaelites of Ed- 
ward Kienholz," Art/brum, vol. 
4, no. 8, April 1966, pp. 38-40. 

Maurice Tuchman. "A Decade 
of Edward Kienholz," Art/brum, 
vol. 4, no. 8, April 1966, 
pp. 41-45. 

Lucy R. Lippard, Pop Art. New 
York, 1966. 

Maurice Tuchman, Edward 
Kienholz, Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art, 1966. 

Walter Hopps, Works from the 
1960s by Edward Kienholz, 
Washington Gallery of Modern 
Art, Washington, D.C., 1967. 

Jo Baer, "Edward Kienholz: A 
Sentimental Journeyman." Art 
International, vol. 12, no, 4, 
April 1968, pp. 45-49. 

John Coplans, Walter Hopps, 
Philip Leider. and Hal Glicks- 
man. Assemblage in California: 
Works from the late 50's and 
early 60's, Art Gallery, Univer- 
sity of California, Irvine, 1968. 

John Coplans, Barbara Rose, 
Jane Livingston, and Maurice 
Tuchman, Los Angeles 6, 
Vancouver Art Gallery, British 
Columbia, 1968. 

K. G. Pontus Hulten, The Ma- 
chine. The Museum of Modern 
Art, New York, 1968. 

Dore Ashton, "Crisis/Violence/ 
Reform: Response to Crisis 
in American Art," Art in 
America, vol, 57, no. 1, January/ 
February 1969, pp. 24-35. 

Charlotte Willard, "Crisis/ 
Violence/Reform: Violence 
and Art," Art in America, vol. 
57, no. 1, January/ February 

1969, pp. 36-43. 

Dore Ashton, "A Planned 
Coincidence," Art in America, 
vol. 57, no. 5, September/ 
Octoberl969, pp. 36-47. 

Robert Doty, Human Concernt 
Personal Torment: The 
Grotesque in American Art, 
Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New York, 1969. 

John Russell and Suzi Gablik. 
Pop Art Redefined, London, 
1969 

Gilbert Brownstone and Jean 
Clair, "Edward et Lyn Kienholz" 
(interview), Chroniques de 
I'Art Vivant. no, 14. October 

1970, p. 6. 

Art Seidenbaum, "Goodbye Ed 
Kienholz," Los Angeles Times 
West Magazine, November 22, 
1970, pp. 9-13. 

Alain Jouffroy. "Edward Kien- 
holz." Opus International, no. 21, 
December 1970, pp. 21-25. 

114 



LeRoy Butler, Looking West 

1970, Joslyn Art Museum, 
Omaha, Nebraska, 1970. 

K. G. Pontus Huhen, Edward 
Kienholz: 11 + 11 Tableaux, 
Moderna Museet, Stockholm, 
1970. 

Jiirgen Harten and K. G. Pon- 
tus Hulten, Edward Kienholz, 
1960-1970, Stiidtische 
Kunsthalle Diisseldorf, West 
Germany, 1970. 

Margit Staber, "Geofrorene 
Scheinheiligkeiten," Die 
Weltwoche, no. 29, January 

1971, p. 37. 

Jbrg Steiner, "Landschaffen 
Februar bis Marz 1971," 
Tagesanzeiger Magazine, vol. 7, 
no. 20, February 1971, pp. 8-12. 

K. G. Pontus Hulten, "Edward 
Kienholz," Art and Artists, vol. 
6, no, 3, June 1971, pp. 14-19, 

Heine Bastian, Edward 
Kienholz. 10 Objekte von 1960 
bis 1964, Onnasch Galerie, 
Cologne, West Germany, 1971, 

Dieter Ronte, "Le 'Monument 
aux Morts Transportable' 
d'Edward Kienholz," Oeil, no. 
216, December 1972. pp. 22-29. 

Joan Mondale, Po/i/jcs in Art, 
Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1972. 

Willy Rotzler, Objekt-Kunst: 
Von Duchamp bis Kienholz, 
Cologne, West Germany, 1972. 

G. Metken, "Moralische 'Tab- 
leau': zum Werk von Edward 
Kienholz." Pan/Aeon. vol. 31, 
no. 1, January-March 1973, 
pp. 75-89. 

Barbara Catoir, "Interview mit 
Edward Kienholz" Kunstwerk, 
vol. 26, no. 2, March 1973, 
pp. 49-50. 

John Anthony Thwaites, 
"Kienholz and Realism," Ar? 
and Artists, vol. 8, no. 6, 
September 1973, pp. 22-27. 

Salme Savajas-Korte, Ars 74, 
Ateneumin Taidemuseo, 
Helsinki, Finland, 1974, 

Edward Kienholz, Galleria 
Bocchi, Milan, Italy, 1974, 

K. G. Pontus Hulten and F 
Minervino, "Che ve ne sembra 
dell'America?" Bollaffiarte, 
vol. 6, no. 46, January- February 

1975, pp. 28-33. 

Wayne Andersen, American 
Sculpture in Process: 19301 
1970, Boston, 1975. 

Edward Kienholz, "Ed Kienholz 
Tableaux Concepts," Opus 
International, no. 60, July 

1976, pp. 18-19, 

K. Ruhberg, "Mein Thema ist, 
dass wir hier sind," Magazin 
ifunsi, vol. 16, no. 3, 1976, 
pp. 40-49. 

Paul von Blum, The Art of 
Social Conscience, New York, 
1976. 



Cynthia Golomb Dettelbach, 
In the Driver's Seat: the Auto- 
mobile in American Literature 
and Popular Culture, Westport, 
Connecticut. 1976. 

K, G, Pontus Hulten, The Art 
Show, 1963-77: Edward 
Kienholz, Centre National 
d'Art et de Culture Georges 
Pompidou, Paris, 1977. 

Jorn Merkert, Edward 
Kienholz: Volksempfdngers, 
Nationalgalerie. Berlin. West 
Germany. 1977, 

Willy Rotzler. Roland H, 
Wiegenstein. and Jorn Mer- 
kert. Edward Kienholz: "Volk- 
sempfdngers," Galleria d'Arte 
II Gabbiano, Rome, 1977 

Lawrence Weschler, Los 
Angeles Art Community Group 
Portrait: Edward Kienholz, 
Oral History Program, Univer- 
sity of California, Los Angeles, 
1977. 

Gerald D, Silk, "Ed Kienholz's 
'Back Seat Dodge '38,'" Arts 
Magazine, vol. 52, no. 5, 
January 1978, pp. 112-18. 

Dieter Honisch, Aspects of the 
1960's: From the Collection of 
Reinhard Onnasch, National- 
galerie, Berlin, West Germany, 
1978, 

Knud W, Jensen, Willy Rotzler, 
Jorn Merkert, and Karl Ruhr- 
berg, "Kienholz pS Louisiana," 
Louisiana-Revy, vol, 19, no, 3, 
February 1979, pp. 2-25 

Ron Glowen, "Kienholz's New 
Formalism: Sculpture 1976-79," 
Artweek. vol. 10, no. 40, Decem- 
ber 1, 1979. p. 7. 

Alain Macaire, "Edward Kien- 
holz: Proces de I'lnavouable," 
Canal, no. 34, December 1979, 
p. 6. 

Michael Auping, Edward Kien - 
holz: The Back Seat Dodge '38, 
University Art Museum, 
University of California, 
Berkeley, 1979. 

Jean Pierre Faye and Jorn 
Merkert, "Kienholz," Derriere 
le Miroir, Galerie Maeght, 
Paris, 1979. 

Suzanne Page, Frank Popper, 
Rene Block, and Helmut Dan- 
niger, Ecouter par les yeux, 
Musee National d'Art Modeme 
de la Ville de Paris, 1980. 

David Scott, Edward Kienholz 
Tableaux, 1961-1979, Douglas 
Hyde Gallery, Trinity College, 
Dublin, 1981. 



John McLaughlin 

Born in Sharon, Massachusetts, 
1898; moved to Dana Point, 
California, 1946; died in 1976. 
Self-taught. 

Selected One-Man 
Exhibitions 

Felix Landau Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1953, 1958, 1962, 1966. 

Pasadena Art Museum, Cali- 
fornia, 1963 (retrospective). 

Corcoran Gallery of Art, 
Washington, D.C., 1969 
(retrospective). 

University of California, 
Irvine, 1971. 

Nicholas Wilder Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1972, 1979. 

La Jolla Museum of Contem- 
porary Art. California, 1973. 

Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New York, 1974. 

Andre Emmerich Gallery, New 
York, 1974, 1979. 

Felicity Samuel Gallery, 
London, 1975. 

Galerie Andre Emmerich, 
Zurich, Switzerland, 1976, 1981. 

University of California, Santa 
Barbara, 1978. 

Annely Juda Fine Art, London, 
1981. 

Selected Group Exhibitions 

III Bienal de Sao Paulo, 
Brazil, 1955. 

Four Abstract Classicists, Los 
Angeles County Museum of 
History, Science and Art, 1959. 

Geometrical Abstraction in 
America. Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York, 
1962. 

The Artist's Environment: 
West Coast, Amon Carter 
Museum, Fort Worth. Texas, 
1962 (traveled to UCLA Art 
Galleries, University of Cali- 
fornia, Los Angeles). 

Fifty California Artists, Whit- 
ney Museum of American Art, 
New York, 1962. 

California Hard-Edge Paint- 
ing, The Fine Arts Patrons of 
Newport Harbor, Balboa Pavil- 
ion Gallery, California, 1964. 

The Responsive Eye, The 
Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, 1955 (traveled to Pasa- 
dena Art Museum). 

Looking West 1970, Joslyn Art 
Museum, Omaha, Nebraska, 
1970. 

11 Los Angeles Artists, Hay- 
ward Gallery, London, 1971 
(traveled toMuseesRoyauxdes 
Beaux-Arts, Brussels; 
Akademie der Kiinste, Berlin, 
West Germany). 



Painting and Sculpture in 
California: The Modern Era, 
San Francisco Museum of 
Modern Art, 1976 (traveled to 
National Collection of Fine 
Arts, Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D.C.). 

California: 5 Footnotes to 
Modern Art History. Los 
Angeles County Museum of 
Art, 1977. 

Selected Bibliography 

Gerald Nordland, "Art," Fron- 
tier, vol. 11, no. 2, December 
1959. p. 23. 

Jules Langsner, Four Abstract 
Classicists, Los Angeles 
County Museum of History, 
Science and Art, 1959. 

Lawrence Alio way, "Classicism 
or Hard-Edge?" Art Interna- 
tional, vol. 4, no. 2, February- 
March 1960, pp. 60-63, 71. 

George D. Culler, "California 
Artists," Art in America, vol. 
50, no. 3, fall 1962, pp. 84-89. 

Philip Leider, "West Coast Art: 
Three Images" Artforum. 
vol. 1, no. 12, June 1963, p. 21. 

John McLaughlin (statement), 
John McLaughlin: A Retro- 
spective Exhibition, Pasadena 
Art Museum, California, 1963. 

John Coplans, "John McLaugh- 
lin, Hard-Edge and American 
Painting," Art/brum, vol. 2, 
no. 7, January 1964, p. 28. 

Gerald Nordland, "McLaughlin 
and the Totally Abstract," 
Frontier, vol. 15, no. 3, January 
1964, p. 22. 

Don Factor, "Southern 
California Original Hard-Edge 
Painters," Artforum, vol. 3, 
no. 9, June 1965, p. 12 

John McLaughlin (statement), 
"Artists on Their Art," Art In- 
ternational, vol. 12, no. 5, May 
15, 1968, pp. 47-55. 

James Harithas, John 
McLaughlin: Retrospective 
Exhibition 1946-1967, Corcoran 
Gallery of Art, Washington, 
DC, 1969. 

Maurice Tuchman and Jane 
Livingston, 11 Los Angeles 
Artists, Hayward Gallery, 
London, 1971. 

"John McLaughlin," interview 
by Paul Karlstrom, Archives 
of American Art, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D.C., 
July 1974. 

Susan C. Larsen, "John 
McLaughlin," and Donald F. 
McCallum, "The John 
McLaughlin Papers in the 
Archives of American Art," 
California: 5 Footnotes to 
Modern Art History, Los 
Angeles County Museum of 
Art, 1977. 



Susan C. Larsen, "John 
McLaughlin," Art Interna- 
tional, vol. 22, no. 1, January 
1978, p. 8. 

Dore Ashton, "Painting Tbward: 
The Art of John McLaughlin," 
Art.s- Magazine, vol. 54, no. 3, 
November 1979, pp. 120-21. 

Carter Ratcliff, "John 
McLaughlin's Abstinent 
Abstraction," Art in America, 
vol. 67, no. 8, December 1979, 
pp. 100-101. 

Sheldon Figoten, "An Appreci- 
ation of John McLaughlin," 
The Archives of American Art 
Journal, vol. 20, no. 4, 1980. 



Edward Moses 

Born in Long Beach, Califor- 
nia, 1926; lives in Venice, 
California. 

B.A., University of California, 
Los Angeles, 1955; M.A., 1958. 

Selected One-Man 
Exhibitions 

Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles, 
1958, 1959, 1961, 1963, 1964 

Dilexi Gallery, San Francisco, 
1958, 1959, 1960, 1961. 

Area Gallery, New York, 1959. 

Alan Gallery, New York, 1962, 
1965. 

Everett Ellin Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1965. 

Riko Mizuno Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1969, 1970, 1980. 

Hansen-Fuller Gallery, San 
Francisco, 1971, 1975. 

Ronald Feldman Fine Arts, 
New York, 1971, 1973. 

Pomona College Gallery, 
Claremont, California, 1971 

Felicity Samuel Gallery, 
London, 1972, 1975. 

Dayton's Gallery 12, Minne- 
apolis, Minnesota, 1972, 1973. 

Portland Center for the Visual 
Arts, Oregon, 1973. 

Nicholas Wilder Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1973, 1976. 

Art in Progress, Zurich, Swit- 
zerland, 1973. 

Art in Progress, Munich, West 
Germany, 1974. 

Andre Emmerich Gallery, New 
York, 1974, 1975. 

The Frederick S. Wight Gal- 
lery, University of California, 
Los Angeles, 1976. 

Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, 1976. 

Margo Leavin Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1977, 1978. 

Daniel Weinberg Gallery, San 
Francisco, 1977. 

Dorothy Rosenthal Gallery, 
Chicago, 1977. 

Municipal Art Gallery, 
Davenport, Iowa, 1978. 

Dorothy Gates Gallery, Kan- 
sas City, Missouri, 1978. 

Smith Andersen Gallery, Palo 
Alto, California, 1978. 

Texas Gallery, Houston, 1978, 
1979. 

James Corcoran Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1979, 1980. 

Sidney Janis Gallery, New 
York, 1979. 



Selected Group Exhibitions 

Objects on the Landscape 
Demanding of the Eye, Ferus 
Gallery, Los Angeles, 1957. 

Fifty California Artists, Whit- 
ney Museum of American Art, 
New York, 1962. 

Late Fifties at the Ferus, Los 
Angeles County Museum of 
Art, 1968. 

West Coast 1945-1969, 
Pasadena Art Museum, 
California, 1969 (traveled to 
City Art Museum of St. Louis, 
Missouri; Art Gallery of 
Ontario, Toronto; Fort Worth 
Art Center Museum, Texas). 

Graphics: Six West Coast Art- 
ists, Galleria Milano, Italy, 
1969. 

A Decade of California Color, 
Pace Gallery, New York, 1970. 

32nd Biennial Exhibition of 
Contemporary A merican 
Painting, Corcoran Gallery of 
Art, Washington, DC, 1971; 
34th Biennial, 1975. 

Documenta 5, Kassel, West 
Germany, 1972. 

70th American Exhibition of 
Painting and Sculpture, The 
Art Institute of Chicago, 1973. 

Art Now 74, The John F Ken- 
nedy Center for the Perform- 
ing Arts, Washington, D.C., 
1974. 

The Last Time I Saw Ferus: 
1957-1966, Newport Harbor 
Art Museum, Newport Beach, 
California, 1976. 

Painting and Sculpture in 
California: The Modern Era, 
San Francisco Museum of 
Modern Art, 1976 (traveled to 
National Collection of Fine 
Arts, Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D.C.). 

Selections from the Frederick 
R. Weisman Company Col- 
lection of California Art, 
Corcoran Gallery of Art, 
Washington, D.C., 1979. 

A Painting Installation, Baxter 
Art Gallery, California Insti- 
tute of Technology, Pasadena, 
1979. 

Contemporary Art in Southern 
California, The High Museum 
of Art, Atlanta, Georgia, 1980. 

Selected Bibliography 

Jules Langsner, "Los Angeles: 
Moses in Abstraction," Art 
News, vol. 58, no. 4, summer 
1959, p. 59. 

Regina Bogat, "Fifty California 
Artists," Art/'oriim, vol. 1, no. 7, 
November 1962, pp. 23-26. 

Lloyd Goodrich and George 
Culler, Fifty California Artists, 
Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New York, 1962. 



Donald Factor, "Assemblage." 
Artforum, vol. 2, no. 12, sum- 
mer 1964, pp. 38-41. 

Fidel A. Danieli, "Los Angeles," 
Artforum, vol. 3, no. 1, Sep- 
tember 1964, pp. 16-18. 

Henry T. Hopkins, "West Coast 
Style: Ed Moses," Art Voices, 
vol. 5, no. 4, fall 1966, p. 69. 

James Monte, Late Fifties at 
the Ferus, Los Angeles County 
Museumof Art, 1968. 

Jane Livingston, "Two Genera- 
tions in Los Angeles," Art in 
America, vol. 57, no. I.January 
1969, pp. 92-97. 

Thomas Carver, "Los Angeles: 
Mizuno," Artforum, vol. 7, 
no. 10, summer 1969, p. 67. 

Peter Plagens, "Los Angeles: 
Edward Moses, Mizuno 
Gallery," A r//brum. vol. 9, no. 
1, September 1970, p. 82. 

Melinda Terbell, "Los Angeles: 
Mizuno Gallery," Arts, vol. 45, 
no. 2, November 1970, p. 53. 

Peter Plagens, "West Coast 
Blues," Ar^/brum, vol. 9, no. 6, 
February 1971, pp. 52-57. 

Melinda Terbell, "Edward 
Moses: Mizuno Gallery, Los 
Angeles," Arts, vol. 45, no. 4, 
February 1971, p. 45. 

Helene Winer, Ed Moses: Some 
Early Work, Some Recent Work 
and Some Work in Progress, 
Pomona College Gallery, 
Claremont, California, 1971. 

Peter Plagens, "Ed Moses: The 
Problem of Regionalism," 
Artforum. vol. 10, no. 7, March 

1972, pp. 83-85. 

Peter Plagens, "From School 
Painting to a School of Paint- 
ing in Los Angeles," Art in 
America, vol. 61, no. 2, March/ 
April 1973, pp. 36-41, 

Paul Stitelman, "Notes on the 
Absorption of the Avant-Garde 
into the Culture," Arts Maga- 
zine, vol. 47, no. 7, May/June 

1973, p. 55. 

John Loring, "Print as Sur- 
face," Arts Magazine, vol. 48, 
no. 1, September- October 
1973, p. 48. 

Jeremy Gilbert-Rolfe,"Ed 
Moses, Andre Emmerich 
Gallery Uptown," Art/bn/m, 
vol. 12, no. 9, May 1974, p. 69. 

Peter Plagens, Sunshine Muse: 
Contemporary Art on the West 
Coast, New York, 1974. 

Joseph Masheck,"Ed Moses 
and the Problem of 'Western' 
Tradition," Arts Magazine, 
vol. 50, no. 4, December 1975, 
pp. 56-61. 

Melinda Wortz, "Field Flowers, 
Plexiglas Horizons," Art News, 
vol. 75, no. 8, October 1976, 
p. 94. 



Nancy Marmer, "Ed Moses' 
Absolutist Abstractions," Art 
in America, vol. 64, no. 6, 
November- December 1976, 
pp. 94-95. 

Stephanie Barron, Ed Moses: 
New Paintings, Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art, 1976. 

Henry T. Hopkins, Painting 
and Sculpture in California: 
The Modern Era, San Fran- 
cisco Museum of Modern Art, 
1976. 

Joseph Masheck, Ed Moses: 
Drawings 1958-1976, The 
Frederick S. Wight Art Gal- 
lery, University of California, 
Los Angeles, 1976. 

Betty Turnbull, The Last Time 
I Saw Ferus: 1957-1966, New- 
port Harbor Art Museum, 
Newport Beach, California, 
1976. 

Susan C. Larsen, "Los Angeles 
— Inside Jobs," Art News, vol. 
77, no. 1, January 1978, p. 110. 

David S. Rubin, "Ed Moses," 
Arts Magazine, vol. 52, no. 5, 
January 1978, p. 12. 

Jeff Perrone, "Ed Moses at 
Sidney Janis,"Art/"or!/m, vol.17, 
no. 10, summer 1979, p. 70. 

"Edward Moses," interview by 
Sheldon Figoten, Archives of 
American Art, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D.C., 
July 1980 (restricted access). 

Clark "V. Poling, Contemporary 
Art in Southern California, 
The High Museum of Art, 
Atlanta, Georgia, 1980. 



Bruce Nauman 

Born in Fort Wayne, Indiana, 
1941; resident of Pasadena, 
1969-78; lives in Pecos, New 
Mexico. 

B.S., University of Wisconsin, 
Madison, 1960-64; M.A., Uni- 
versity of California, Davis, 
1964-66. 

Selected One-Man 
Exhibitions 

Nicholas Wilder Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1966, 1969, 1970, 
1973, 1977. 

Leo Castelli Gallery, New 
York, 1968,1969, 1971, 1973, 
1975,1976,1978,1980. 

Galerie Konrad Fischer, Diis- 
seldorf. West Germany, 1968, 
1970. 1971, 1974, 1975, 1978. 

Art Gallery, Sacramento State 
College, California. 1968. 

Galerie Ileana Sonnabend, 
Paris, 1969, 1971, 

20-20 Gallery, London, Ontario, 
Canada, 1969. 

Galleria Sperone. Turin. Italy. 
1970. 

Art Gallery, San Jose State 
College. California. 1970. 

Galerie Ricke. Cologne, West 
Germany, 1970. 

Gallery Reese Palley, San 
Francisco, 1970. 

Galerie Bischofberger, Zurich, 
Switzerland, 1971. 

Helman Gallery, St. Louis, 
Missouri, 1971. 

Betty Gold Fine Modern 
Prints, Los Angeles, 1971. 

Ace Gallery, 'Vancouver, 
British Columbia, 1971. 1974, 
1976. 

Galleria Frangoise Lambert, 
Milan, Italy, 1971. 

Projection Gallery, Cologne, 
West Germany, 1972. 

Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, 1972-73 (retrospective; 
traveled to Whitney Museum 
of American Art, New York; 
Kunsthalle Bern, Switzerland; 
Stadtische Kunsthalle Diissel- 
dorf West Germany; Stedelijk 
van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven, 
The Netherlands; Palazzo 
Reale, Milan, Italy; Contempo- 
rary Arts Museum, Houston, 
Texas; San Francisco Museum 
of Art). 

Fine Arts Gallery, University 
of California, Irvine, 1973. 

Cirrus Gallery, Los Angeles, 
1974. 

Art in Progress, Munich, West 
Germany, 1974. 

Wide White Space Gallery, 
Antwerp, Belgium, 1974. 



Santa Ana College Art Gallery. 
California. 1974. 

Gemini G.E.L., Los Angeles. 
1975. 

Albright-Knox Art Gallery, 
Buffalo. New York, 1975. 

Art Gallery, University of 
Nevada, Las Vegas, 1976. 

Ace Gallery, Los Angeles, 1976. 

Sperone Westwater Fischer, 
New York, 1976. 

Sonnabend Gallery, New York, 
1976. 

Bruna Soletti, Milan, Italy, 
1977. 

Minneapolis College of Art 
and Design, Minnesota, 1978. 

InK, Zurich, Switzerland, 1978. 

Art Gallery, California State 
University, San Diego, 1978. 

Galerie Schmela, Diisseldorf, 
West Germany, 1979. 

Marianne Deson Gallery, 
Chicago, 1979. 

Portland Center for the 'Visual 
Arts, Oregon, 1979. 

Hester van Royen Gallery, 
London, 1979. 

Hill's Gallery of Contemporary 
Art, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 
1980. 

Selected Group Exhibitions 

New Directions, San Francisco 
Museum of Art, California, 
1966. 

American Sculpture of the 
Sixties, Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art. 1967. 

Documenta 4, Kassel, West 
Germany, 1968. 

Three Young Americans, Allen 
Memorial Art Museum, Ober- 
lin, Ohio, 1968. 

31st Annual Exhibition of Con- 
temporary American Painting, 
Corcoran Gallery of Art, 
Washington, D.C., 1969. 

Square Pegs in Round Holes, 
Stedelijk Museum. Amster- 
dam. 1969. 

When Attitude Becomes Form, 
Kunsthalle Bern, Switzerland, 
1969. 

Anti-Illusion: ProceduresI 
Materials. Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York, 
1969. 

Nine Young Artists, Theodoron 
Awards, The Solomon R. 
Guggenheim Museum, New 
York, 1969. 

Kompas 4: West Coast USA. 
Stedelijk van Abbemuseum, 
Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 
1969. 

Art by Telephone, Museum of 
Contemporary Art, Chicago, 
1969. 



116 



Contemporary American 
Drawings, Fort Worth Art 
Center Museum, Texas, 1969. 

Conceptual Art and Conceptual 
Aspects, New York Cultural 
Center, 1970. 

N Dimensional Space. Finch 
College Art Museum, New 
York, 1970. 

American Art since 1960, 
Princeton University Art 
Museum, New Jersey, 1970. 

Information. The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, 1970. 

Holograms and Lasers, 
Museum of Contemporary Art, 
Chicago, 1970. 

Against Order: Chance and 
Art, Institute of Contemporary 
Art of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, Philadelphia, 1970. 

1970 Annual Exhibition: 
Sculpture, Whitney Museum 
of American Art, New York; 
1977 Biennial Exhibition. 

Body, New York University, 
1971. 

Projected Art: Artists at Work, 
Finch College Museum of Art, 
New York, 1971. 

Air, Stedelijk Museum, 
Amsterdam, 1971. 

Prospect 71, Stadtische 
Kunsthalle Diisseldorf, West 
Germany, 1971. 

11 Los Angeles Artists, Hay- 
ward Gallery, London, 1971 
(traveled to Musees Royaux 
des Beaux-Arts, Brussels; 
Akademie der Kiinste, Berlin, 
West Germany). 

Modern Painting. Drawing, 
and Sculpture Collected by 
Louise and Joseph Pulitzer, 
Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, 1971. 

Diagrams and Drawings, 
Kroller-Muller, Otterloo, The 
Netherlands, 1972. 

USA West Coast. Kunstverein, 
Hamburg, West Germany, 1972 
(traveled to Kunstverein, Han- 
nover; Kolnischer Kunstverein, 
Cologne; Wiirttembergisher 
Kunstverein, Stuttgart). 

American Art-Third Quarter 
Century, The Seattle Art 
Museum, Washington, 1973. 

Idea and Image in Recent Art, 
The Art Institute of Chicago, 
1974. 

Art Now 74, The John F. Ken- 
nedy Center for the Perform- 
ing Arts, Washington, D.C., 
1974. 

Painting and Sculpture Today: 
1974, Indianapolis Museum of 
Art, Indiana (traveled to The 
Contemporary Art Center, The 
Taft Museum, Cincinnati, 
Ohio). 



Prints from Gemini GEL., 
Walker Art Center, Min- 
neapolis, Minnesota, 1974. 

Art i Voir. Centre National 
d'Art Contemporain, Paris, 
1974. 

Lightl Sculpture, William 
Hayes Ackland Memorial Art 
Center, University of North 
Carolina. Chapel Hill, 1975. 

Menace, Museum of Contem- 
porary Art, Chicago, 1975. 

Zeichnungen 3. USA. Stad- 
tiches Museum Leverkusen, 
West Germany, 1975. 

Language and Structure in 
North America. Kensington 
Art Association Gallery, 
Toronto, 1975. 

Body Works, Museum of Con- 
temporary Art, Chicago, 1975. 

Sculpture, American Directions 
1945-1975. National Collection 
of Fine Arts, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D.C., 
1975. 

Drawing Now. The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, 1975. 

Autogeography. Downtown 
Branch, Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York, 1976. 

72nd American Exhibition of 
Painting and Sculpture. The 
Art Institute of Chicago, 1976; 
7,3rd American Exhibition. 
1979. 

200 Years of American Sculp- 
ture. Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York, 1976. 

Rooms P.S. 1, P.S. 1, Long 
Island City, New York, 1976. 

American Artists: A New Dec- 
ade. The Detroit Institute of 
Arts, Michigan, 1976. 

The Artist and the Photograph. 
Israel Museum, Jerusalem, 
1976. 

Words at Liberty, Museum of 
Contemporary Art, Chicago, 
1977 

Painting and Sculpture in 
California: The Modern Era, 
San Francisco Museum of 
Modern Art, 1976 (traveled to 
National Collection of Fine 
Arts, Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, DC). 

A View of a Decade, Museum of 
Contemporary Art, Chicago, 
1977 

Drawings for Outdoor Sculp- 
ture: 1946-1977. John Weber 
Gallery, New York, 1977 

Made by Sculptors, Stedelijk 
Museum, Amsterdam, 1978. 

The Broadening of the Concept 
of Reality in the Art of the '60s 
and '70s. Museum Haus Lange, 
Krefeld, West Germany, 1979. 

Great Big Drawing Show. 
Institute for Art and Urban 
Resources, P.S. 1, Long Island 
City, New York, 1979. 



Artists and Books: The Literal 
Use of Time. Ulrich Museum 
of Art, Wichita State Univer- 
sity, Kansas, 1979. 

The Netv American Filmmakers 
Series, Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York, 1980. 

Contemporary Art in Southern 
California, The High Museum 
of Art, Atlanta, Georgia, 1980. 

Selected Bibliography 

Lucy R. Lippard, "Eccentric 
Abstraction," Art Interna- 
tional, vol. 10. no. 9, November 
1966, pp. 28, 34-40. 

Fidel A. Danieli, "The Art of 
Bruce Nauman," Artforum. 
vol. 6, no. 4, December 1967, 
pp. 15-19. 

Maurice Tuchman, /I mencan 
Sculpture of the Sixties, Los 
Angeles County Museum of 
Art, 1967. 

John Perreault, "Art," The Vil- 
lage Voice, February 8, 1968. 

Robert Pincus-Witten, "New 
York," Artforum, vol. 6, no. 8, 
April 1968, pp. 63-65. 

Rachel Griffin and Henry T 
Hopkins, The West Coast Now, 
Portland Art Museum, Oregon, 
1968. 

Ellen H. Johnson and Athena 
T Spear, Three Young Ameri- 
cans, Allen Memorial Art 
Museum, Oberlin. Ohio, 1968. 

David Whitney, Bruce Nauman , 
Leo Castelli Gallery, New 
York, 1968. 

Max Kozloff, "9 in a Ware- 
house," Artforum. vol. 7, no. 6. 
February 1969, pp. 38-42. 

Scott Burton, "Time on Their 
Hands," Art News, vol. 68, 
no. 4, summer 1969, pp. 40-43. 

James Harithas, 31st Biennial 
Exhibition of Contemporary 
American Painting, Corcoran 
Gallery of Art, Washington, 
DC. 1969. 

Jean Leering, Kompas 4: West 
Coast USA, Stedelijk van 
Abbemuseum, Eindhoven, The 
Netherlands, 1969. 

Thomas M. Messer and Diane 
Waldman, Nine Young Artists. 
The Solomon R. Guggenheim 
Museum, New York, 1969. 

James Monte and Marcia 
Tucker, Anti-Illusion: Materialst 
Procedures. Whitney Museum 
of American Art, New York, 
1969 

Peter Plagens, Contemporary 
American Drawings. Fort 
Worth Art Center Museum, 
Texas, 1969. 

Harold Szeeman, Scott Burton, 
Gregoire MuUer, and Tommaso 
Trini, Attitude Becomes Form. 
Kunsthalle Bern, Switzerland, 
1969. 



Germane Celant, "Bruce 
Nauman," Casabella 345. vol. 
34, February 1970. pp. 38-41. 

Willoughby Sharp, "Body 
Works," Avalanche, no. 1, fall 

1970, pp. 14-17. 

Marcia Tucker, "PheNAUMAN- 
ology." Artforum, vol. 9, no. 4, 
December 1970, pp. 38-44. 

Donald Karshan, Conceptual 
Art and Conceptual Aspects, 
New York Cultural Center, 
New York, 1970. 

Kynaston L. McShine, Informa- 
tion, The Museum of Modern 
Art, New York, 1970. 

Robert Pincus-Witten, A^aHj.sV 
Order: Chance and Art, Insti- 
tute of Contemporary Art of 
the University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, 1970. 

Elayne H. Varian, N Dimen- 
sional Space. Finch College Art 
Museum, New York, 1970. 

Cindy Nemser, "Subject-Object 
Body Art," Arts Magazine, vol. 
46, no. 1, September-October 

1971, p. 38. 

Emily S. Rauh, "Bruce 
Nauman," Modern Painting. 
Drawing, and Sculpture Col- 
lected by Louise and Joseph 
Pulitzer. Fogg Art Museum, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
1971. 

Maurice Tuchman and Jane 
Livingston, 11 Los Angeles 
Artists. Hayward Gallery, 
London, 1971. 

Robert Pincus-Witten, "Bruce 
Nauman: Another Kind of 
Rea.soning," Artforum, vol. 10, 
no. 6, February 1972. pp. 30-37. 

Bruce Kurtz. "Interview with 
Giuseppe Panza di Biumo," 
Arts Magazine, vol. 46, no. 5, 
March 1972, pp. 40-43. 

Carter Ratcliff, "Adversary 
Spaces," Artforum, vol. 11, no. 
2, October 1972, pp. 40-44. 

Jane Livingston and Marcia 
Tucker, Bruce Nauman: Work 
from 1965 to 1972, Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art, 1972. 

Helmut Heissenbuttel and 
Helene Winer, USA West 
Coast, Kunstverein, Hamburg, 
West Germany, 1972. 

Peter Plagens, "Roughly Or- 
dered Thoughts on the Occa- 
sion of the Bruce Nauman 
Retrospective in Los Angeles," 
Artforum, vol. 11, no. 7, March 
1973, pp. 57-59. 

Paul Stitelman, "Bruce Nauman 
at the Whitney Museum." Arts 
Magazine, vol. 47, no. 7, May 
1973, pp. 54-55. 

Kim Levin. "Bruce Nauman: 
Stretching the Truth," Opus 
International, no. 46, September 
1973, pp. 44-46. 



Hein Reedijk, "Bruce Nauman: 
Kunst voor navelstaarders?" 
Museumjournal. vol. 18, 
no. 4, September 1973, 
pp. 154-59. 

Jiirgen Harten, "T for Technics, 
B for Body," Art and Artists, 
vol. 8, no. 8, November 1973, 
pp. 28-33. 

Barbara Catoir, "Uber den 
subjektivismus bei Bruce 
Nauman," Kunslwerk. vol. 26, 
no. 6, November 1973, 
pp. 3-12. 

Jean Marc Poinsot, "Bruce 
Nauman: La problematique du 
nonsens," Art Press, no. 10, 
March-April 1974, pp. 12-15. 

Philip Larson, "Words in Print," 
Print Collector's Newsletter, 
vol. 5, no. 3, July- August 

1974, pp. 53-56. 

M. Schneckenburger, 
"Wahrnehmung, Dingfest 
Gemacht: ein Problemkreis 
urn Chuck Close und Bruce 
Nauman in der Ausstellung 
"Projekt 74," " Museen in Koln, 
vol. 13, no. 8, August 1974, 
pp. 262-63. 

Philip Larson, Prints from 
Gemini GEL.: Johns, Kelly, 
Lichtenstein, Motherwell, 
Nauman. Rauschenberg, Serra, 
Stella. Walker Art Center, 
Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1974. 

Frangois Pluchart, "L'art cor- 
porel," Artitudes International, 
vol. 18, no. 20, January- March 

1975, pp. 49-96. 

Jan Butterfield, "Bruce Nauman: 
the Center of Yourself," Arts, 
vol. 49, no. 6, February 1975, 
pp. 53-55. 

Tom Marioni, "Out Front," 
Vision, no. 1, September 1975, 
pp. 8-11. 

Bruce Nauman, "False 
Silences," Vision, no. 1, Sep- 
tember 1975, pp. 44-45. 

R. Goldberg, "Space as Praxis," 
Studio International, vol. 190, 
no. 977, September- October 

1975, pp. 130-35. 

N. Calas, Mirrors of the Mind, 
Multiples, Inc., Castelli 
Graphics, 1975. 

Trudy Zandee, "Kunstkritiek 
en de veelzijde lijfelijkheid 
van Body Art," Museumjour- 
nal, vol. 21, no. 1, February 

1976, pp. 97-106. 

Carter RatclifT, "Notes on 
Small Sculpture," Artforum, 
vol. 14, no, 8, April 1976, 
pp. 35-42. 

\. Wiegand, "Video Shock," 
Print, vol. 30, no. 4, July- 
August 1976, pp. 63-69. 

A. Mclntyre, "L'Art corporel 
(Body Art)," Art and Australia, 
voL 14, no. 1, July- September 
1976, pp. 74-78. 

118 



M. Bloem, "La photographie, 
lieu d'une experience artis- 
tique nouvelle," Art Actuel: 
Skira Annuel, vo\. 2,1976, 
pp. 147-A. 

Germane Celant, Senza titolo 
1974, Rome, 1976. 

Jeff Perrone, "Reviews," Art- 
forum, vol. 15, no. 5, January 
1977, pp. 58-62. 

Jeff Perrone, "Words: When 
Art Takes a Rest," Artforum, 
vol. 15, no. 10, summer 1977, 
p. 37. 

Robert Pincus-Witten, Pos(- 
minimalism. New York, 1977. 

Marc Treib, "Architecture 
Versus Architecture: Is an 
Image a Reality?" Architec- 
tural Association Quarterly, 
vol. 9, no. 4, 1977, pp. 3-14. 

Eric Cameron, "On Painting 
and Video (Upside Down)," 
Parachute, summer 1978, 
pp. 14-17. 

Jiirgen Schilling, "Zur Entwick- 
lungsgeschichte der Perfor- 
mance," Heute Kunst, no. 25, 
March- April 1979, pp. 22-23. 

"Bruce Nauman," interview 
by Michelle D. De Angelus, 
Archives of American Art, 
Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D.C., May 1980. 



Kenneth Price 

Born in Los Angeles, 1935; 
moved to Taos, New Mexico, 
1971; lives in Taos. 

Studied at Chouinard Art In- 
stitute, Los Angeles, 1956; Los 
Angeles City College, 1956; 
B.F.A., University of Southern 
California, 1956; M.F.A., State 
University of New York, 
Alfred, 1959. 

Selected One-Man 
Exhibitions 

Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles, 
1960, 1961, 1964. 

Kasmin Gallery, London, 1968, 
1970. 

Riko Mizuno Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1969, 1971. 

Whitney Museum of American 
Art. New York, 1969. 

Gemini GEL., Los Angeles, 
1970,1972. 

David Whitney Gallery, New 
York, 1971. 

Galerie Neuendorf, Cologne, 
West Germany, 1971. 

Galerie Neuendorf, Hamburg. 
West Germany, 1973. 

Nicholas Wilder Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1973. 

Felicity Samuel Gallery, 
London, 1974. 

Willard Gallery, New York, 
1974, 1979. 

Ronald Greenberg Gallery, 
St. Louis, Missouri, 1976. 

James Corcoran Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1976, 1980. 

Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, 1978. 

Gallery of Contemporary Art, 
Taos, New Mexico, 1978. 

Texas Gallery, Houston, 1979, 
1980. 

Hansen Fuller Goldeen Gal- 
lery, San Francisco, 1979. 

Contemporary Arts Museum, 
Houston, Texas, 1980. 

Visual Arts Museum, New 
York, 1980. 

Selected Group Exhibitions 

Fifty California Artists, Whit- 
ney Museum of American Art, 
New York, 1962. 

Sculpture of California, Oak- 
land Art Museum, California, 
1963. 

Boxes, Dwan Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1964. 

New American Sculpture, 
Pasadena Art Museum, 
California, 1964. 

Robert Irwin I Kenneth Price, 
Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, 1966. 



Ten from Los Angeles, Seattle 
Art Museum, Washington, 1966. 

Five Los Angeles Sculptors 
and Sculptors' Drawings, Uni- 
versity of California, Irvine, 
1966. 

Abstract Expressionist 
Ceramics, University of 
California, Irvine, 1966. 

American Sculpture of the 
Sixties, Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art, 1967. 

Late Fifties at the Ferus, Los 
Angeles County Museum of 
Art, 1968. 

Kompas 4: West Coast USA, 
Stedelijk van Abbemuseum, 
Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 
1969. 

Contemporary American ^ 

Drawings, Fort Worth Art 
Center Museum, Texas, 1969. 

West Coast 1945-1969, 
Pasadena Art Museum, 
California, 1969 (traveled to 
City Art Museum of St. Louis, 
Missouri; Art Gallery of 
Ontario, Toronto; Fort Worth 
Art Center Museum, Texas). 

Graphics: Six West Coast 
Artists, Galleria Milano, 
Italy, 1969. 

BengstonI Price, Janie C. Lee 
Gallery, Dallas, Texas, 1970. 

Contemporary American 
Sculpture, Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York, 1970. 

A Decade of California Color, 
Pace Gallery, New York, 1970. 

Contemporary Ceramic Art, 
National Museum of Modern 
Art, Kyoto, Japan, 1971. 

11 Los Angeles Artists, Hay- 
ward Gallery, London. 1971 
(traveled to Musees Royaux 
des Beaux-Arts, Brussels; 
Akademie der Kiinste, Berlin, 
West Germany). 

USA West Coast, Kunstverein, 
Hamburg, West Germany, 
1972 (traveled to Kunstverein, 
Hannover; Kblnischer Kunst- 
verein, Cologne; Wiirttem- 
bergisher Kunstverein, 
Stuttgart). 

Contemporary American Art: 
Los Angeles, Fort Worth Art 
Center Museum, Texas, 1972. 

Joe Goode, Kenneth Price, 
Edward Ruscha, Museum 
Boymans-van Beuningen, 
Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 
1972. 

Clay, Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York, 1974. 

Sculpture: American Directions, 
2945-7975, National Collection 
of Fine Arts, Smithsonian Inst., 
Washington, D.C., 1975. 

200 Years of American Sculp- 
ture, Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York, 1976. 



Painting and Sculpture in 
California: The Modern Era, 
San Francisco Museum of 
Modern Art, 1976 (traveled to 
National Collection of Fine 
Arts, Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D.C.). 

The Last Time I Saw Ferus: 
1957-1966, Newport Harbor 
Art Museum, Newport Beach, 
California, 1976. 

Nine West Coast Clay Sculptors, 
Everson Museum of Art, 
Syracuse, New York, 1978. 

One Hundred Years of American 
Ceramics, Everson Museum of 
Art, Syracuse, New York, 1979. 

Contemporary Sculpture, The 
Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, 1979. 

Directions, Hirshhorn Museum 
and Sculpture Garden, 
Washington, D.C., 1979. 

West Coast Clay, Stedelijk 
Museum, Amsterdam, 1979. 

One SpacelThree Visions, 
Albuquerque Museum, New 
Mexico, 1979, 

The Vessel, Delahunty Gallery, 
Dallas, Texas, 1980. 

1981 Biennial Exhibition, 
Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New York. 

Selected Bibliography 

Jules Langsner, "Painting and 
Sculpture: the Los Angeles 
Season," Craft Horizons, vol. 
22, no. 41, July/ August 1962, 
pp. 40-41. 

John Coplans, "Los Angeles: 
The Scene," Art News, vol. 64, 
no. 57, March 1965, p. 28. 

John Coplans, Ten from Los 
Angeles, Seattle Art Museum, 
Washington, 1966. 

JohnCoplans, Abstract Expres- 
sionist Ceramics, University 
of California, Irvine. 1966. 

Lucy R. Lippard, Robert Irwin I 
Kenneth Price, Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art, 1966. 

David Thompson, "London 
Commentary: Kenneth Price 
at Kasmin," Studio Interna- 
tional, vol. 175, no. 899, April 

1968, pp. 199-200. 

Jane Livingston, "Two Gener- 
ations in Los Angeles," Art in 
America, vol. 57, no. 1, January/ 
February 1969, pp. 92-97 

Dore Ashton, "New York Com- 
mentary" Studio International, 
vol. 178, no. 177. November 

1969, pp. 176-77. 

Jean Leering, Konipas 4: West 
Coast USA, Stedelijk van 
Abbemuseum, Eindhoven, The 
Netherlands, 1969. 

Maurice Tuchman and Jane 
Livingston, 11 Los Angeles 
Artists, Hayward Gallery, 
London, 1971. 



Carter Ratcliff, "Notes on 
Small Sculpture," Artforum, 
vol. 14, no. 38, April 1976, 
pp. 35-42. 

Sandy Ballatore, "California 
Clay Rush," Art in America, 
vol. 64, no. 84, July/August 
1976. pp. 84-88. 

Betty Turnbull, The Last Time 
I Saw Ferus: 1957-1966, New- 
port Harbor Art Museum, 
Newport Beach, California, 
1976. 

Maurice Tuchman, ifen Price: 
Happy's Curios, Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art, 1978. 

Addison Parks, "Ken Price," 

Arts Magazine, vol. 54, no. 5, 
January 1980, p. 40. 

Joan Simon, "An Interview 
with Ken Price" Art in America, 
vol. 68, no. 1, January 1980, 
pp. 98-104. 

"Kenneth Price," interview by 
Michele D. De Angelus, 
Archives of American Art, 
Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D.C., May 1980. 



Edward Ruscha 

Born in Omaha, Nebraska, 
1937; moved to Los Angeles, 
1956; lives in Los Angeles. 
Attended Chouinard Art Insti- 
tute, Los Angeles, 1956-60. 

Selected One-Man 
Exhibitions 

Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles, 
1963, 1964, 1965. 

Alexander lolas Gallery, New 
York, 1967, 1970. 

Irving Blum Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1968, 1969. 

Rudolf Zwirner, Cologne, 
West Germany, 1968. 

Alexander lolas Gallery, Paris, 
1970. 

Heiner Friedrich, Munich, 
West Germany, 1970. 

Nigel Greenwood, London, 
1970, 1973. 

University of California, Santa 
Cruz, 1972. 

Janie C. Lee Gallery, Dallas, 
Texas, 1972. 

Corcoran & Corcoran Gallery, 
Miami, Florida, 1972. 

Minneapolis Institute of Arts, 
Minnesota, 1972. 

Leo Castelli Gallery, New 
York, 1973, 1974, 1980. 

University of California, San 
Diego, 1973. 

Galleria Frangoise Lambert, 
Milan, Italy, 1973, 1974. 

John Berggruen Gallery, San 
Francisco, 1973. 

Ace Gallery, Los Angeles, 1973, 
1975, 1977. 

The Texas Gallery, Houston, 
1974, 1979. 

H. Peter Findlay/Works of Art, 
New York, 1974. 

Galerie Ricke, Cologne, West 
Germany, 1975. 1978. 

Sable-Castelli Gallery Ltd.. 
Tbronto, 1975, 1976. 

University of North Dakota, 
Grand Forks, 1975. 

The Arts Council of Great 
Britain (traveled throughout 
Great Britain), 1975-76. 

Ace Gallery, Vancouver, British 
Columbia, 1976. 

Los Angeles Institute of 
Contemporary Art, 1976. 

Wadsworth Athenaeum, 
Hartford, Connecticut, 1976. 

Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 
1976. 

Albright-Knox Art Gallery, 
Buffalo, New York, 1976. 

Institute of Contemporary Art, 
London, 1976. 



University of Lethbridge, 
Alberta, Saskatchewan, 1977 

Fort Worth Art Mu.seum, 
Texas, 1977 

MTL Gallery, Brussels, 1978. 

Rudiger Schottle, Munich, 
West Germany, 1978. 

University of Redlands, 
California, 1978. 

Auckland City Art Gallery, 
New Zealand, 1978. 

Getler/Pall, New York, 1978. 

Richard Hines Gallery, 
Seattle, Washington, 1979. 

InK, Zurich, Switzerland, 
1979. 

Portland Center for the Visual 
Arts, Oregon, 1980. 

Arco Center for Visual Art, 
Los Angeles, 1981. 

Selected Group Exhibitions 

New Painting of Common 
Objects, Pasadena Art 
Museum, California, 1962. 

Six More, Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art, 1963. 

Pop Art (7SA, Oakland Art 
Museum, California, 1963. 

Word and Image, The 
Solomon R. Guggenheim 
Museum, New York, 1965. 

Pop Art and the American 
Tradition, Milwaukee Art 
Center, Wisconsin, 1965. 

5 nt Pace, Pace Gallery, New 
York, 1965. 

Ten from Los Angeles, Seattle 
Art Museum, Washington, 
1966. 

Los Angeles Now, Robert 
Fra.ser Gallery, London, 1966. 

IX Bienal de Sao Paulo, Brazil, 
1967. 

V Paris Biennale, Musee d'Art 
Moderne de la Ville de Paris, 
1967. 

Ed Ruscha-Joe Goode, The 
Fine Arts Patrons of Newport 
Harbor, Balboa Pavilion Gal- 
lery. California, 1968. 

40 Now California Painters, 
Tampa Bay Art Center, Tampa, 
Florida, 1968. 

West Coast Now, Portland Art 
Mu.seum, Oregon, 1968. 

Three Modern Masters: Billy 
Al Bengston, Edward Ruscha, 
Frank Lloyd Wright, Gallery 
Reese Palley, San Francisco, 
1969 

Kompas 4: West Coast USA , 
Stedelijk van Abbemuseum, 
Eindhoven, The Netherlands. 
1969. 

Pop Art Redefined, Hayward 
Gallery, London, 1969. 



West Coast 1945-1969. 
Pasadena Art Museum, 
California, 1969 (traveled to 
City Art Museum of St. Louis, 
Missouri; Art Gallery of 
Ontario, Toronto; Fort Worth 
Art Center Museum, Texas). 

Graphics: She West Coast Art- 
ists, Galleria Milano, Italy, 
1969. 

Superlimited: Books, Boxes, 
and Things, The Jewish 
Museum, New York, 1969. 

The Highway, Institute of 
Contemporary Art of the 
University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, 1970. 

The Word as- 1 mage, The Jewish 
Museum, New York, 1970. 

Information, The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, 1970. 

Venice Biennale, Italy, 1970. 

Looking West i970, Joslyn Art 
Museum, Omaha, Nebraska, 
1970. 

A Decade of California Color. 
Pace Gallery, New York, 1970. 

32nd Biennial Exhibition of 
Contemporary American 
Painting, Corcoran Gallery of 
Art, Washington, D.C., 1971. 

Made in California, Grunwald 
Center for the Graphic Arts, 
University of California, Los 
Angeles, 1971. 

Continuing Surrealism, La 
Jolla Museum of Contempo- 
rary Art, California, 1971. 

II Los Angeles Artists, Hay- 
ward Gallery, London, 1971 
(traveled to Musees Royaux 
des Beaux-Arts, Brussels; 
Akademie der Kiinste, Berlin, 
West Germany). 

Joe Goode, Kenneth Price en 
Edward Ruscha: Grafiek en 
Boeken, Museum Boymans- 
van Beuningen, Rotterdam, 
The Netherlands, 1972. 

Artists' Books, Moore College 
of Art, Philadelphia, 1973. 

American Drawing, 1970- 
1973, Yale University Art Gal- 
lery, New Haven, Connecticut. 
1973. 

American Pop Art, Whitney 
Museum of American Art, 
New York, 1974. 

California Images, Whitney 
Museum of American Art, 
New York, 1976. 

The Last Time I Saw Ferus, 
1957-1966, Newport Harbor 
Art Museum, Newport Beach, 
California, 1976. 

The Artist and the Photo- 
graph, Israel Museum, 
Jerusalem, 1976. 



120 



Painting and Sculpture in 
California: The Modern Era, 
San Francisco Museum of 
Modern Art, San Francisco, 
1976 (traveled to National 
Collection of Fine Arts, 
Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D.C.). 

Thirty Years of American 
Printmaking, The Brooklyn 
Museum, New York, 1976. 

Ed Ruscha, Joe GoodelNew 
Drawings, Laguna Gloria Art 
Museum, Austin, Texas, 1977. 

The Dadat Surrealist Heritage, 
Sterling and Francine Clark 
Art Institute, Williamstown, 
Massachusetts, 1977. 

Bookworks, The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, 1977 

Words Words, Museum 
Bochum, West Germany, 1978. 

Mirrors and Windows: Ameri- 
can Photography since 1960, 
The Museum of Modern Art, 
New York, 1978. 

American Painting of the 
1970s, Albright-Knox Art Gal- 
lery, Buffalo, New York, 1978. 

Graphicstudio U.S. F., The 
Brooklyn Museum, New York, 
1978. 

73rd American Exhibition of 
Painting and Sculpture, The 
Art Institute of Chicago. 1979. 

The Decade in Review: Selec- 
tions from the 1970s, Whitney 
Museum of American Art, 
New York, 1979. 

Reflections of Realism, 
Albuquerque Museum, 
New Mexico, 1979. 

Artists and Books: The Literal 
Use of Time, Edwin A. Ulrich 
Museum of Art, Wichita State 
University, Kansas, 1979. 

Contemporary Art in Southern 
California, The High Museum 
of Art, Atlanta, Georgia, 1980. 



Selected Bibliography 

John Coplans, "The New 
Painting of Common Objects," 
Artforum, vol. 1, no. 6, Decem- 
ber 1962, pp. 26-29. 

Lawrence Alloway, Si.v More, 
Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, 1963. 

John Coplans. Pop Art USA, 
Oakland Art Museum, 
California, 1963. 

Philip Leider, "Revealing 
Juxtapositions," Frontier, 
vol. 16, no. 2, December 1964, 
pp. 25-26. 

John Coplans, "An Interview 
with Edward Ruscha," 
Artforum, vol. 3, no. 5, Feb- 
ruary 1965, pp. 24-25. 

John Coplans, Ten from Los 
Angeles, Seattle Art Museum, 
Washington, 1966. 



Lucy R. Lippard, Pop Art, New 
York, 1966. 

Christopher Finch, "Scanning 
the Strip," Art and Artists, vol. 
1, no. 10, January 1967, p. 67 

Lawrence Alloway, "Hi- Way 
Culture: Man at the Wheel," 
Arts Magazine, vol. 41, no. 1, 
February 1967, pp. 28-33. 

Henry T Hopkins. Joe Goode 
and Edward Ruscha. The Fine 
Arts Patrons of Newport Har- 
bor, Balboa Pavilion Gallery, 
California, 1968. 

Carol Lynsley, Three Modern 
Masters: Edward Ruscha, 
Billy Al Bengston , Frank 
Lloyd Wright, Gallery Reese 
Palley, San Francisco, 1969. 

John Russell and Suzi Gablik, 
Pop Art Redefined , London, 
1969. 

Christopher Fox, "Ed Ruscha 
Discusses His Latest Work 
with Christopher Fox," Studio 
International, vol. 180, no. 923, 
May-June 1970, p. 281, 287 

Robert Venturi and Denise 
Scott Brown, The Highway, 
Institute of Contemporary Art 
of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, Philadelphia, 1970. 

David Bourdon. "A Heap of 
Words about Ed Ruscha." Art 
International, vol. 15, no. 9, 
November 1971, p. 25. 

Robert Colaciello, "Art: Inter- 
view with Ed Ruscha," Inter- 
view, no. 20, March 1972, p. 42. 

David Bourdon, "Ruscha as 
Publisher (or All Booked Up)," 
Art News, vol. 71, no. 2, April 

1972, pp. 32-36. 

Ursula Meyer, Conceptual Art. 
New York, 1972. 

Eleanor Antin, "Reading 
Ruscha," Art in America, vol. 
61, no. 6, November- December 

1973, pp. 64-71. 

Carl R. Baldwin, "On the Na- 
ture of Pop," Artforum, vol. 12, 
no. 10, June 1974, pp. 34-37. 

Lawrence Alloway, A ;ner;can 
Pop Art, Whitney Museum of 
American Art, 1974. 

Reyner Banham, Edward 
Ruscha Prints and Publications 
1962-1974, The Arts Council 
of Great Britain, 1975-76. 

Nancy Foote, "The Anti- 
Photographers," Artforum, vol. 
15, no. 1, September 1976, 
pp. 46-54. 

Linda L. Cathcart, Paintings, 
Drawings, and Other Work by 
Edward Ruscha, Albright- 
Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, 
New York, 1976. 

Hugh M. Davies, Critical Per- 
spectives in American Art, 
University of Massachusetts, 
Amherst, 1976. 



Howardena PindeW, Edward 
Ruscha (interview), Stedelijk 
Museum, Amsterdam. 1976. 

Diane Spodarek, "Feature 
Interview: Edward Ruscha," 
Detroit Artists Monthly, vol. 2, 
no. 4, April 1977, pp. 1-5. 

Jeff Perrone, "'Words': When 
Art Takes a Rest," Artforum, 
vol. 15, no. 10, summer 1977, 
p. 36. 

Sam Hunter. The DadalSur- 
realist Heritage, Sterling and 
Francine Clark Art Institute, 
Williamstown, Massachusetts, 
1977. 

Jonathan Crary. "Edward 
Ruscha's 'Real Estate Oppor- 
tunities,' " Arts Magazine, 
vol. 52, no. 5, January 1978, 
pp. 119-21. 

Gene Baro, Graphicstudio 
U.S.F., The Brooklyn Museum, 
New York, 1978. 

Andrew Bogle, Graphic Works 
by Edward Ruscha. Auckland 
City Art Gallery, New Zea- 
land, 1978. 

Trina Mitchum, "A Conver- 
sation with Ed Ruscha," Jour- 
nal, Los Angeles Institute of 
Contemporary Art. no. 21, 
January- February 1979, 
pp. 21-24. 

Susan B. Laufer. "Ruscha's 
Books and Seriality," 
L=A=N = G = U=A=G=E, 
no. 7, March 1979. 

Judith L. Dunham, "Ed 
Ruscha's Paintings," Artweek, 
vol. 10, no. 16, April 1979, p. 4. 

Edward Ruscha, Guacamole 
Airlines and Other Drawings, 
New York, 1980. 

"Ed Ruscha on V-'Various 
S-Subjects" (interview). Stuff 
Magazine, no. 24, June 1980, 
pp. 20-21. 

"Edward Ruscha," interview by 
Paul Karlstrom, Archives of 
American Art, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D.C., 
October 1980. 



Peter Voulkos 

Born in Bozeman, Montana, 
1924; resident of Los Angeles, 
1954-59; lives in Berkeley, 
California. 

B.S., Montana State College. 
Bozeman, 1951; M.F.A., 
California College of Arts and 
Crafts, Oakland, 1952. 

Selected One-Man 
Exhibitions 

America House, New York, 
1952. 

Gump's Gallery, San Francisco, 
1952,1954. 

University of Florida, Gaines- 
ville, 1953. 

Oregon Ceramic Studio, 
Portland, 1953. 

Scripps College, Claremont, 
California, 1954. 

Felix Landau Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1956, 1958, 1959. 

University of Southern 
California, Los Angeles, 1957. 

Bonniers, New York, 1957. 

The Art Institute of Chicago, 
1957. 

Pasadena Art Museum, 
California, 1958. 

Penthouse Gallery, The 
Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, 1960. 

Primus-Stuart Galleries, Los 
Angeles, 1961. 

Art Unlimited Gallery, Los 
Angeles, 1964. 

Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, 1965. 

David Stuart Galleries, Los 
Angeles, 1967 

Quay Gallery, San Francisco, 
1968, 1974. 

San Francisco Museum of Art, 
1972. 

Pasadena City College, 
California, 1973. 

Kemper Gallery, Kansas City 
Art Institute, Missouri, 1975. 

Helen Drutt Gallery, Philadel- 
phia, 1975. 

Fendrick Gallery, Washington, 
D.C.,1975. 

Braunstein/Quay Gallery, 
New York, 1975. 

Yaw Gallery, Birmingham, 
Michigan, 1976. 

Exhibit A Gallery of American 
Ceramics, Evanston, Illinois, 
1976, 1979. 

Contemporary Crafts Associa- 
tion, Portland, Oregon, 1977. 

Braunstein/Quay Gallery, San 
Francisco, 1978. 



The Museum of Contemporary 
Crafts of the American Crafts 
Council, New York, 1978 (retro- 
spective; traveled to San Fran- 
cisco Museum of Modern Art; 
Contemporary Arts Museum, 
Houston, Texas; Milwaukee 
Art Center, Wisconsin). 

Foster/White Gallery, Seattle, 

Washington, 1979. 

Hill's Gallery of Contemporary 

Art, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 

1979. 

Okun-Thomas Gallery, St. 

Louis, Missouri, 1980. 

Morgan Gallery, Kansas City, 
Missouri, 1980. 

Charles Cowles Gallery, New 
York, 1981. 

Selected Group Exhibitions 

Exposition Universelle et In- 
ternationale de Bruxelles, 
Brussels, 1958. 

Amerikanische Keramik 19601 
1962. Third International 
Ceramic Exhibition, Prague, 
1962. 

Molten Image: 7 Sculptors, 
San Francisco Museum of Art, 
1962. 

Creative Casting. Museum of 
Contemporary Crafts. New 
York, 1963. 

International Exhibition of 
Contemporary Ceramic Art, 
National Museum of Modern 
Art, Tokyo, 1964. 

Abstract Expressionist 
Ceramics, Art Gallery, Uni- 
versity of California, Irvine, 
1966. 

American Sculpture of the 
Sixties, Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art, 1967 

Kompas 4: We.<;t Coast USA, 
Stedelijk van Abbemuseum, 
Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 
1969. 

Expo 70, San Francisco Pavil- 
ion, Osaka, Japan, 1970. 

A Decade of Ceramic Art, 
1962-1972, from the Collection 
of Professor and Mrs. R. 
Joseph Monsen, San Francisco 
Museum of Art, 1972. 

Painting and Sculpture in 
California: The Modern Era, 
San Francisco Museum of 
Modern Art, 1976 (traveled to 
National Collection of Fine 
Arts, Smith.sonian Institution, 
Washington, D.C.). 

200 Years of American 
Sculpture, Whitney Museum 
of American Art, New York, 
1976. 

Turner/Voulkos, Illinois State 
University, Normal, 1978. 



Selected Bibliography 

Conrad Brown, "Peter Voulkos, 
Southern California's Top 
Potter," Craft Horizons, vol. 16, 
no. 5, September/October 1956, 
pp. 12-18. 

Dore Ashton, "New Talent 
Exhibition at The Museum of 
Modern Art," Craft Horizons, 
vol. 20, no. 2, March/April 

1960, p. 42. 

Rose Slivka, "The New Ceramic 
Presence," Craft Horizons. 
vol. 21, no. 4. July/August 

1961, p. 31. 

Jules Langsner, "Abstract 
Sculptures at the Primus- 
Stuart Galleries in Los 
Angeles," Ci'aft Horizons, vol 
22, no. 1, January/February 

1962, pp. 39-40." 

Philip Leider, "West Coast Art: 
Three Images^' Art forum, vol. 

1, no. 12, June 1963, pp. 21-25. 

John Coplans, "Sculpture in 
California," Artforum, vol. 2, 
no. 2. Augu.st 1963, pp. .3-6. 

Joanna Magloff "Peter Voul- 
kos," Artforum, vol. 2, no. 2, 
August 1963, p. 29. 

John Coplans, "Out of Clay: 
West Coast Ceramic Sculpture 
Emerges as a Strong Regional 
Trend," Art in America, vol. 51, 
no. 6, December 1963, p. 40. 

Bernard Pyron, "The Tao and 
Dada of Recent American 
Ceramic Art," Artforum, vol. 

2, no. 9. March 1964. pp. 41-42. 

John Coplans, "Circle of Styles 
on the West Coast," Art in 
America, vol. 52. no. 3. June 
1964, p. 24. 

Thomas B. Hess, "The Disre- 
spectful Handmaiden," Aw 
News, vol. 63, no. 9, January 
1965,pp. 38-39, 57-58. 

Nancy Marmer, "Peter Voul- 
kos," Artforum, vol. 3, no. 9, 
June 1965, pp. 9-11. 

John Coplans, "Voulkos: Re- 
demption through Ceramics," 
Art News, vol. 64, no. 4, sum- 
mer 1965, pp. 33-39, 64-65. 

Maurice Tuchman and L. 
Clarice Davis, Peter Voulkos, 
Sculpture, Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art, 1965. 

Peter Voulkos and Paul Sold- 
ner, "West Coast Ceramics," 
Craft Horizons, vol. 26, no. 3, 
June/ July 1966, pp. 25-28. 

John Coplans, Abstract Expres- 
sionist Ceramics, University 
of California, Irvine, 1966. 

James Melchert,"Peter Voulkos: 
a Return to Pottery," Craft 
Horizons, vol. 28, no. 5, Septem- 
ber/October 1968, p. 20. 

Peter Selz and Brenda Richard- 
son, "California Ceramics," 
Art in America, vol. 57, no. 3, 
May /June 1969, pp. 104-105. 



Suzanne Foley. A Decade of 
Ceranuc Art, 1962-1972, from 
the Collection of Professor and 
Mrs. R.Joseph Monsen, San 
Francisco Museum of Art, 1972. 

Gerald Nordland, Peter Voul- 
hos. Bronze Sculpture. San 
Francisco Museum of Art, 1972. 

Joseph Pugliese, "The Decade: 
Ceramics," Craft Horizons, 
vol. 33, no. 1, January/February 
1973. p. 50. 

Sandy Ballatore, "The Califor- 
nia Clay Rush," Ar/ in America, 
vol. 64, no. 4, July- August 
1976, p. 84. 

Hal Fischer, "The Art of Peter 
Voulkos," Artforum, vol. 17, no 
3, November 1978, pp. 41-47. 

Rose Slivka, Peter Voulkos: A 
Dialogue with Clay, New York, 
1978. 



Stella Paul 



Chronology of Exhibitions: 1959-70 



1959 



Exhibitions in Los Angeles 

California Painters and 
Sculptors, Thirty-Five 
and Under 
UCLA Art Galleries 
January 19- February 22 
Catalog with introduction by 
Jules Langsner 

Billy Al Bengston and 
Edward Kienholz 
Ferus Gallery 
February 17- March 14 

Sam Francis 
Pasadena Art Museum 
March 3- April 10 
Traveled to San Francisco 
Museum of Art; Seattle Art 
Museum, Washington. 

Robert Irwin 
Ferus Gallery 
March 23- April 18 

Prints and Drawings 

by June Wayne 

Los Angeles County Museum 

of History, Science and Art 

April 1-May 17 

Catalog with text 

by Ebria Feinblatt 

Edward Branca Moses 
Ferus Gallery 
April 27- May 23 

Adolph Gottlieb 
Paul Kantor Gallery 
April 27- May 23 



ADOLPH 

GOTTLIEB 



APRIL 27-MA Y 23. 19 5 9 



PAUL KANTOR GALLERY 



Peter Voulkos 

Felix Landau Gallery 

May 4-23 



Arthur Dove Retrospective 

UCLA Art Galleries 

May-June 

Catalog with text by 

Frederick S. Wight 

Joan Mird 

Los Angeles County Museum 

of History, Science and Art 

June 10-July 21 

Organized in cooperation with 

The Museum of Modern Art, 

New York 

Annual Exhibition of Artists 

of Los Angeles and Vicinity 

(juried by Elmer Bischoff, 

Kenneth Sawyer, David 

Smith) 

Los Angeles County Museum 

of History, Science and Art 

August 4-September 6 

Catalog 

Yearly exhibitions; entries 

limited to 125-mile radius; 

began 1920, ended 1962 



LAICA Journal 



122 




VqUlKOS 




Four Abstract Classicists (Karl 
Benjamin, Lorser Feitelson, 
Frederick Hammersley, John 
McLaughlin) 

Los Angeles County Museum 
of History, Science and Art 
September 16- October 18 
Catalog with foreword 
by James Elliott, 
text by Jules Langsner 
Jointly organized by Los 
Angeles County Museum of 
History, Science and Art and 
San Francisco Museum of Art. 
Traveled to Institute of 
Contemporary Art, London 





Lee Mullican 
UCLA Art Galleries 
October 5- November 1 

Helen Lundeberg 
Paul Rivas Gallery 
October 5-30 



Hassel Smith 
Ferus Gallery 
October 12-November 7 

Aristide Maillol 
Los Angeles County Museum 
of History, Science and Art 
November 4- December 20 
Organized by The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York 



1959 



19 



60 



European Art Today (35 artists) 
Los Angeles County Museum 
of History, Science and Art 
November 11- December 20 
Catalog edited by Sam 
Hunter; essays by Lawrence 
Alloway, Umbro Appollonio, 
Friedrich Bayl, Juan-Edwardo 
Cirlot, James Fitzsimmons 
Organized by The Minneapolis 
Institute of Arts, Minnesota; 
traveled to San Francisco 
Museum of Art; North 
Carolina Museum of Art, 
Raleigh; The National Gallery 
of Canada, Ottawa; French & 
Company, Inc., New York; The 
Baltimore Museum of Art, 
Maryland 



Exhibitions outside 
of Los Angeles 

Edward Branco Moses 
(first New York one-man show) 
Area Gallery, New York 
January 2-23 




Exhibitions in Los Angeles 

Fourteen New York Artists 
(Brooks, de Kooning, Gorky, 
Guston, Hofmann, Kline, 
Mitchell, Motherwell, 
Nevelson, Newman, Pollock, 
Resnick, Rothko, Tworkov) 
Ferus Gallery 
January 18- February 13 




James Jarvaise (Hudson River 

Series) 

Felix Landau Gallery 

January 25- February 13 

Brochure with introduction by 

Gerald Nordland 

Mark Tobey Retrospective 
Pasadena Art Museum 
February 7- March 9 




50 Paintings by 37 Artists of 
the Los Angeles Area (includes 
Bengston, Irwin, Kauffman, 
Kienholz, Moses, McLaughlin, 
Voulkos) 

UCLA Art Galleries 
March 20- April 10 
Catalog with text by 
Henry T Hopkins 



60 PAiSTlSCS BV 37 PAINTERS 
op TOE ua AHOEiea ua* 




PltE^lEW MARCH X. IHO 



J. DeFeo 
Ferus Gallery 
March 21-Apri! 16 

Sculpture in Our Time- 
Hirshhorn Collection 
Los Angeles County Museum 
of History, Science and Art 
April 12-May 15 
Catalog with text by E. P. 
Richardson, Abram Lerner, 
Addison Franklin Page 
Organized by The Detroit 
Institute of Arts 



DEFE 



PAINTINGS 



FERUS GALLERY' 



OOIjOK -^ DUAWISGS 



EDWAItD BR-VNCO StOSKS 



FRIDAY. JANUARY i TO JANUARY 1) 
RECEPTION JAN. 2, AT S r.M. 




Billy Al Bengston 
Ferus Gallery 
February 15- March 12 

East-West (Lester Johnson, 
Leland Bell, Robert DeNiro, 
William Brim, John Paul 
Jones, Paul Wonner) 
Felix Landau Gallery 
February 15-March 15 

David Smith 

Paul Kantor Gallery 

February 



I960 



19, 



60 




Connor Everts 
Pasadena Art Museum 
April 13-May 18 
Catalog with text by 
Gerald Nordland 

Georges Braque 
Pasadena Art Museum 
April 20-June 5 
Catalog with introduction 
by Thomas W. Leavitt 

Kenneth Price 
Ferus Gallery 
May 16-June 11 



John Mason 
Pasadena Art Museum 
May 31-July 6 

Man Ray: Drawings and 

Watercolors 

Esther Robles Gallery 

June 27-July 16 

Robert Irwin 
Pasadena Art Museum 
July 12-August 31 

Jasper Johns and Kurt 
Schwitters 
Ferus Gallery 
September 6-30 




JASPER JOHNS 



FERUS 



KURT SCHWITTERS 




Richard Diebenkorn 
Pasadena Art Museum 
September 6- October 5 
Catalog with text by Thomas 
W. Leavitt 

15 of New York (Bluhm, Brach, 
Goodnough, Guston, Hartigan, 
Jenkins, Kanemitsu, Kline, 
de Kooning, Parker, Pollock, 
Richenburg, Rivers, Twar- 
dovicz, Yunkers) 
Dwan Gallery 
October 10- 




JOSKF ALUKKS 



KtKus GALtenY 




Seymour Rosen 



Josef Albers 

Ferus Gallery 

October 10-November 5 



Thirty California Artists 
Pasadena Art Museum 
November 

Hudson River School 
Pasadena Art Museum 
November 30- June 4 



Bob Bucknam 



124 



1^60 



1^61 



Exhibitions in Los Angeles 



1^/ b ^ 



EDWARD KIENHOLZ 



PER US GALLERY 




Larry Aldrich Collection 
Los Angeles Municipal Art 
Gallery, Barnsdall Park 
January 5-29 

German Expressionist Paint- 
ings from the Morton D. May 
Collection 

UCLA Art Galleries 
January 8- February 19 

John Altoon 
Ferus Gallery 
January 9- February 11 

Larry Rivers 
Dwan Gallery 
February 6- March 4 




Edward Kienholz 
Ferus Gallery 
December 5-31 

David Smith and Joan Jacobs 
Everett Ellin Gallery 
Winter 

Exhibitions outside 
of Los Angeles 

Peter Voulkos 

The Museum of Modern Art, 
New York 
-March 13 



19 



61 



1^61 



Seymour Rosen 




A COMPREHENSIVb 
SURVEY OF THE 
EAR I. V WORK 
OF HASSEL SMITH 
SELECTED TO 
BE SHOWN 
CONCURRENT WITH 
A SELECTION OF 
PAINTINGS SINCE 19J0 AT 
THE PASADENA MUSEUM 
OPENING RECEPTION 
MONDAY, .\L\RCH U S-IUPAl 
Fl^RUS GALLERY 
711 NO LA OENEGA BLVD 
LOS ANGELES 46, CALIF 




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Hassel Smith 
Pasadena Art Museum 
March 13- April 16 
Catalog with text by 
Walter Hopps 

Cross Section, 1961: Los 
Angeles-San Francisco 
Los Angeles Municipal Art 
Gallery, Barnsdall Park 
March 14- April 9 
Works from Northern Califor- 
nia selected by San Francisco 
Museum of Art 

Helen Frankenthaler 
Everett Ellin Gallery 
March 20- April 15 

Emerson Woelffer 
Primus-Stuart Galleries 
April 2-29 

Willem de Kooning 
Paul Kantor Gallery 
April 3-29 

Brochure with text by 
Clifford Odets 

Philip Guston, Franz Kline 
Dwan Gallery 
April 3-29 

John Mason 
Ferus Gallery 
May 15-June 24 




Edward Kienholz 
Pasadena Art Museum 
May 16-June 21 

War Babies 
Huysman Gallery 
May 29-June 17 

Llyn Foulkes 
Ferus Gallery 
July 31-August 26 




126 




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"WAR BABIES 



19 



61 



19 



61 






Billy Al Bengston 

Ferus Gallery 

November 13- December 2 

Lee Mullican 
Pasadena Art Museum 
November 21- December 27 






J>. 



F E% i|i,s V G '/^l'^l^ lyy 

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Edward Moses 
Ferus Gallery 
December 4-30 



Exhibitions outside of 
Los Angeles 

Richard Diebenkorn 
The Phillips Collection, 
Washington, DC. 
May 19-June 26 

The Art of Assemblage 

The Museum of Modern Art, 

New York 

October 4- November 12 

Catalog with text by 

William C. Seitz 

Traveled to Dallas Museum of 

Contemporary Arts, Texas; 

San Francisco Museum of Art 



Kenneth Price 
Ferus Gallery 
October 16-November 4 
Peter Voulkos 
Primus-Stuart Galleries 
October 16-November 11 




The Museum of Modern Art, NY. 



1962 



19, 



62 



Exhibitions in Los Angeles 

Tamarind Lithographs 
UCLA Art Galleries 
January 7- February 11 
Catalog with introduction by 
Frederick S, Wight 

Futurism 

Los Angeles County Museum 

of Art 

January 14-February 19 

Catalog with text by 

Joshua C. Taylor 

Organized by The Museum of 

Modern Art, New York 

John McLaughlin 
Felix Landau Gallery 
January 29- February 17 

Ad Reinhardt 
Dwan Gallery 
February 5- March 3 

Robert Motherwell Retro- 
spective (first American 
retrospective) 
Pasadena Art Museum 
February 18- March 11 




Jean Tinguely and 
Nikide St.Phalle 
Everett Ellin Gallery 
March 3-4 

Robert Rauschenberg 
Dwan Gallery 
March 4-31 



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Seymour Rosen 







RICKEY 




George Rickey 
Primus-Stuart Galleries 
March 5-31 

Edward Kienhoh Presents a 
Tableau at the Ferus Gallery 
Ferus Gallery 
March 6-24 



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19 



62 



LARRY BELL 
FERUS GALLERY 



Larry Bell (first one-man show) 
Ferus Gallery 
March 27- April 14 

Arshile Gorky 
Everett Ellin Gallery 
April 2-28 

Frank Lobdell 
Ferus Gallery 
April 16-May 5 

Charles Frazier 
Everett Ellin Gallery 
May 1-26 




FRANK LOBDELL 

V n R U S G A L L H R ■!" 




Robert Irwin 
Ferus Gallery 
May 8-26 

John Altoon 
Pasadena Art Museum 
May 15-June 20 

Reuben Nakian (first Ameri- 
can retrospective) 
Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art 

May 16-June 24 
Catalog with text by 
Robert W. Goldwater 
Organized for the VI Bienal de 
Sao Paulo, Brazil; circulated 
by The Museum of Modern 
Art. New York 




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llEVIIF.'i ,\:IA/I V SI'.VI.I'rVRIi i- DH.iniM.S 




Simon Radio's Towers in 

Watts: Photographs by 

Seymour Rosen 

Los Angeles County Museum 

of Art 

May 16-June 24 

Catalog with foreword by 

William Osmun, text by 

Paul Laporte 

Bruce Conner 
Ferus Gallery 
June 4- 

A Pacific Profile of Young West 
Coast Painters 
Pasadena Art Museum 
June U-July 19 
Catalog with text by 
Constance Perkins 

Directions in Collage 
Pasadena Art Museum 
June 19-July 20 





Kurt Schwitters: A Retrospec- 
tive Exhibition 
Pasadena Art Museum 
June 20-July 17 
Catalog with text by 
William C. Seitz 
Organized by The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York; 
traveled to the Currier Gal- 
lery of Art, Manchester, New 
Hampshire; The Phillips Col- 
lection, Washington, D.C.; 
University of Minnesota, Min- 
neapolis; Busch-Reisinger 
Museum, Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Some Hard-Edge Painters 
Los Angeles Art Association 
June 

Louise Nevelson 

Los Angeles County Museum 

of Art 

June-July 



19 



62 



19 



62 



Andy Warhol 

(first commercial show) 

Ferus Gallery 

July 9- August 4 



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ANDY WARHOL 
F h K U S GALLERY 



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Jean Dubuffet 

Los Angeles County Museum 

of Art 

July 11- August 12 

Catalog with text by Peter 

Selz, and statement by 

the artist 

Organized by The Museum of 

Modern Art, New York 



130 



The Mr. and Mrs. Ben Heller 

Collection of 20th-century 

Paintings 

Los Angeles County Museum 

of Art 

August 15-September 30 

Catalog with text by Alfred H. 

Barr, Jr; Ben Heller; William 

C. Seitz 

Organized by The Museum of 

Modern Art, New York 

Return to the Figure (Carillo, 
Chavez, Garabedian, Lunetta) 
Ceeje Gallery 
Fall 



Norman Zammitt (first one- 
man show) 

Felix Landau Gallery 
September 17- October 6 




Norman Zammitt 



^9 ^9 ^9 

LLYN FOULKES 

StPTEFilBtR 1B THROUGH OCIOBtH li. 196: 
RECEPTION SEPTEMBER 13, 8 TO 10 P M 




46 NO LDS FtOeiES AVENUE PlSADENl CAIIF 

THE PASADENA ART MUSEUM 



Llyn Foulkes 
Pasadena Art Museum 
September 18- October 24 



PASADENA ARI MUSEUM 
46 N. LOS RUBLES 

PAINTING 



NEK 



or 



DINE-DOWD-GOODE 

HEFFERTON-LICHTENSTEIN 

RUSCHA-THIEBAUD 

WARHOL 

SEPT. 25-OCT. 19. 1962 

New Painting of Common 
Objects (Dine, Dowd, Goode, 
Hefferton, Lichtenstein, 
Ruscha, Thiebaud, Warhol) 
Pasadena Art Museum 
September 25-October 19 

20th-century Sculpture 
Pasadena Art Museum 
September 26-October 30 

U.S. Abstract Expressionism 
Pasadena Art Museum 
September 26-October 19 

Lorser Feitelson 
Ankrum Gallery 
October 15-November 3 

Emerson Woelffer: Work from 
1946 to 1962 
Pasadena Art Museum 
October 24-November 18 
Catalog with text by 
Gerald Nordland 




w'.^V^ 



19 



62 



19 



62 



The Gifford and Joann 
Phillips Collection 
UCLA Art Galleries 
November 4- December 9 
Catalog with introduction by 
Frederick S. Wight 

Billy Al Bengston 
Ferus Gallery 
November 12- December 9 

My Country 'Tis of Thee 

Dwan Gallery 

November 18- December 15 



Willi:,,,, riaxto 




Jasper Johns 
Everett Ellin Gallery 
November 19- December 15 





f "■'■i^i-" 





l-FRUS 



Exhibitions outside of 
Los Angeles 

Edward Moses 

Alan Gallery, New York 

March 

Billy Al Bengston (first New 

York show) 

Martha Jackson Gallery, 

New York 

May 1-26 

Fifty California Artists 
Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New York 
October 23- December 2 
Catalog with text by Lloyd 
Goodrich, George D. Culler 
Jointly organized by San 
Francisco Museum of Art; Los 
Angeles County Museum of 
Art; Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York 



Sam Francis 

Esther Bear Gallery, Santa 

Barbara 

November 25- December 31 

Craig Kauffman 
Ferus Gallery 
December 2- 

Joseph Cornell 
Ferus Gallery 
December 10-January 5 

Claire Falkenstein 
Esther Robles Gallery 
December 17-January 7 




leiLLY AL l(BKGSTO\ 



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Exhibitions in Los Angeles 

Martial Raysse 
Dwan Gallery 
January 6-28 

The Artist's Environment: 
The West Coast 
UCLA Art Galleries 
January 7- February 10 
Catalog with introduction by 
Frederick S. Wight 
Organized by Amon Carter 
Museum of Western Art, Fort 
Worth, Texas; traveled to Oak- 
land Art Museum, California 

Charles Garabedian 

Ceeje Gallery 

January 28- February 23 




Franz Kline 
Dwan Gallery 
March 3-30 

Joe Goode 

Rolf Nelson Gallery 

March 8-30 

John Mason 
Ferus Gallery 
March 11-30 



Dealer's Choice 
Dwan Gallery 
February 10- 

Frank Stella 
Ferus Gallery 
February 18- March 31 



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Antoni Tapies 
Pasadena Art Museum 
March 20- April 25 
Catalog with text by 
Lawrence AUoway 
Organized by Museo de Bellas 
Artes, Caracas, Venezuela; 
traveled to Phoenix Art Cen- 
ter, Arizona; Felix Landau 
Gallery, Los Angeles 



Sevmour Rosen 






\ 





Roy Lichtenstein 
Ferus Gallery 
April 1-27 



1^63 



1^63 



Larry Rivers 
Dwan Gallery 
April 15- May 11 

Anthony Berlant 
David Stuart Galleries 
April 27- May 25 

Edward Moses 
Ferus Gallery 
April 29- May 18 



H. C. Westermann 
Dilexi Gallery 
Spring 

Jean Tinguely 
Dwan Gallery 
May 13- 

Edward Ruscha 
Ferus Gallery 
May 20-June 15 

Philip Guston 

Los Angeles County Museum 

of Art 

May 22-June 30 

Catalog with text by 

H. H. Arnason 

Organized by The Solomon 

R. Guggenheim Museum, 

New York 

NikideSt.Phalle 
Dwan Gallery 
May 25-June 22 




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DAVID STUAf«", GALLERIES 

a07 N LA ClENlieA ■ LOS ANsfe^fepO - OL 2-7-2.: 

Emerson Woelffer 
David Stuart Galleries 
May 27-June 22 



19i 



63 



19, 



63 



Altoon, Bell. Bengston, DeFeo, 
Irwin, Kauffman , Lobdetl, Mason, 
Moses, Price, Ruben, Ruscha 
Ferus Gallery 
June 17- 

Six Painters and the Object 

(Jim Dine, Jasper Johns, Roy 

Lichtenstein, Robert Rauschenberg, 

James Rosenquist, Andy Warhol) 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art 

July 24- August 25 

Catalog with text by 

Lawrence Alloway 

Organized by The Solomon 

R. Guggenheim Museum, New York 





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Andy Warhol 
Ferus Gallery 
September 30- October 26 




Marcel Duchamp Retrospective 
Pasadena Art Museum 
October 8- November 3 
Catalog with introduction by 
Walter Hopps 



Claes Oldenburg 
Dwan Gallery 
October 



Six More (Billy Al Bengston, 

Joe Goode, Philip Hefferton, 

Mel Ramos, Edward Ruscha, 

Wayne Thiebaud) 

Los Angeles County Museum 

of Art 

July 24- August 25 

Catalog with foreword by 

James Elliott, text by 

Lawrence Alloway 

(Shown simultaneously with 

Six Painters and the Object) 





134 



1963 



19i 



63 








Larry Belt 
Ferus Gallery 
November 4- 



John McLaughlin 
(retrospective) 
Pasadena Art Museum 
November 12-December 12 
Catalog with foreword by 
Walter Hopps, and statement 
by the artist 



Monday night art walk. 




Exhibitions outside of 
Los Angeles 

Edward Kienholz 
Alexander lolas Gallery, 
New York 
February 5-23 

California Sculpture 
Kaiser Center, Oakland, 
California 

August 4- September 15 
Jointly organized by Oakland 
Art Museum, California; 
Pasadena Art Museum, 
California; Artforum 

Open Air (includes Voulkos) 
Battersea Park, London 
August- September 
Catalog 

Pop Art USA 
Oakland Art Museum and 
California College of Arts & 
Crafts, California 
September 7-29 
Organized by John Coplans 

Richard Diebenkorn 
M. H. de Young Museum, 
San Francisco 
September 7-October 13 




Frank J Thomas 



Peter Voulkos 

David Stuart Galleries 

November 11- December 7 



Ad Reinhardt 
Dwan Gallery 
November 24-January 4 




George Herms — Nativity '63 
Rolf Nelson Gallery 
December 3-28 

Craig Kauffman 
Ferus Gallery 
December 




35 



19 



64 



19 



64 



Exhibitions in Los Angeles 

Hasse! Smith 

David Stuart Galleries 

January 6- February 1 

Philip Hefferton 
Rolf Nelson Gallery 
January 7-Februai-y 1 

Boxes (Brecht, Cornell, 

Frazier, Samaras, Schwitters, 

Warhol) 

Dwan Gallery 

February 2-29 

Catalog with text by 

Walter Hopps 




Kenneth Price 
Ferus Gallery 
March 3 

Lloyd Hamrol 
Rolf Nelson Gallery 
April 6-May 2 



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Martial Raysse 
Dwan Gallery 
May 4-30 

Jack Tworkou 
Pasadena Art Museum 
July 14- August 16 




Robert Irwin 
Ferus Gallery 
April 7- 

Post Painterly Abstraction 
Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art 

April 23-June 7 
Catalog with foreword by 
James Elliott, text by 
Clement Greenberg 
Traveled to Walker Art Cen- 
ter, Minneapolis, Minnesota; 
The Art Gallery of Toronto 

Arakawa 
Dwan Gallery 
April 



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MARTIAL RAYSSE 


DWAN GALIERY 



Sterling Holloway Collection 
UCLA Art Galleries 
September 20- October 25 
Catalog with introduction by 
Henri Dorra 






Edward Kienholz (tableaux, 
including The Back Seat 
Dodge '38) 
Dwan Gallery 
September 29- October 24 




136 



James Rosenquist 

Dwan Gallery 

October 27- November 24 



19, 



64 



19 



64 




Roy Lichtenstein 
Ferus Gallery 
November 24- 




PSRE'S'EiNfS 



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AS A PU61IC SEBTKE 



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THE 




MOSES 



IRWIN ♦ PRICE 



BEWGSTOW 



Exhibitions outside of 
Los Angeles 

Seven New Artists (includes 

Bell, Irwin) 

Sidney Janis Gallery, 

New York 

May 5-29 

Catalog 

Richard Diebenkorn 
(retrospective) 

Washington Gallery of Modern 
Art, Washington, D.C. 
November 6- December 31 
Catalog with text by 
Gerald Nordland 
Ti'aveled to The Jewish 
Museum, New York; The Fine 
Arts Patrons of Newport Har- 
bor, Balboa Pavilion Gallery, 
California 




The Studs: Moses, Irwi. 
Price. Bengston 
Ferus Gallery 
November 

Lucas Samaras 
Dwan Gallery 
December 



1^65 



19 



65 




Exhibitions in Los Angeles 

Philip Rich 
Ferus Gallery 
January 1-25 

The Arena of Love 
Dwan Gallery 
January 5-February 1 

Piet Mondrian Retrospective 
(from American collections) 
Santa Barbara Museum of Art 
January 12-February 21 

Frank Stella 

Ferus Gallery 

January 26-February 22 



Ellsworth Kelly 
Ferus Gallery 
March 9- 

Kurt Schwitters (retrospective) 

UCLA Art Galleries 

March 21- April 25 

Catalog with introduction by 

Werner Schmalenbach, text by 

Kate Steinitz, and statements 

by the artist 

Jointly organized by UCLA 

and Marlborough-Gerson 

Gallery 




[EEll^^ GALLEK 



Cm ig Ka uffm a n 
Ferus Gallery 
March 30- 

Edward Avedisian 
Nicholas Wilder Gallery 
April 5-30 



EDWARD AVEDISIAN 



NICHOllS WtlDII GAIURT 






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■Jasper Johns 
Pasadena Art Museum 
January 26-February 28 



Robert Rauschenberg 
Dwan Gallery 
April 13-May 8 



138 



1^65 



19 



65 



Peter Voulkos 

Los Angeles County Museum 

of Art 

April 14-June 20 

Catalog 

Charles Frazier 
Dwan Gallery 
May 11-June 5 

Lee Mullican 

Silvan Simone Gallery 

June 7-26 



The First Generation 





LEE MULLICAN 



New York School: The First 
Generation-Paintings of the 
1940s and 1950s (Baziotes, de 
Kooning, Gorky, Gottlieb, 
Guston, Hofmann, Kline, 
Motherwell, Newman, Pollock, 
Pousette-Dart, Reinhardt, 
Rothko, Still, Tomlin) 
Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art 

June 18- August 1 
Catalog edited by Maurice 
Tuchman, texts by Lawrence 
Alloway, Robert Goldwater, 
Clement Greenberg, Harold 
Rosenberg, William S. Rubin, 
Meyer Schapiro, and state- 
ments by each artist 




Three American Painters: 
Kenneth Noland, Frank Stella, 
Jules Olitski 
Pasadena Art Museum 
July 7- August 1 
Catalog with text by 
Michael Fried 
Organized by Fogg Art 
Museum, Cambridge, 
Massachusetts 

Larry Rivers 
Pasadena Art Museum 
August 10-September 5 
Catalog with text by Sam 
Hunter, Frank O'Hara 
Organized by Rose Art 
Museum, Brandeis University, 
Waltham, Massachusetts, in 
collaboration with The Detroit 
Institute of Arts; The Jewish 
Museum, New York; Minneapolis 
Institute of Arts, Minnesota; 
Pasadena Art Museum, 
California 

R. B. Kitaj: Paintings 

and Prints 

Los Angeles County Museum 

of Art 

August 11-September 12 

Catalog with text by 

Maurice Tuchman 





1965 



1^65 



Virginia Dwan Collection 
UCLA Art Galleries 
September 27-October 24 
Catalog with introduction by 
Frederick S. Wight 

The Responsive Eye 
Pasadena Art Museum 
September 28-November 7 
Catalog with text by 
William C. Seitz 
Organized by The Museum 
of Modern Art, New York; 
traveled to City Art Museum 
of St. Louis, Missouri; Seattle 
Art Museum, Washington; 
Baltimore Museum of Art, 
Maryland 




MEL 




DAVID STUART GALLERIES 



L-iCNSGi - LOS ANGE' 



Mel Ramos 

David Stuart Galleries 

October 12- November 6 

Larry Poons 

Ferus Gallery 

October 15- November 15 

Ronald Davis 
(first one-man show) 
Nicholas Wilder Gallery 
October 16-November 13 



IMM 



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Frank J Thomas 



Bridget Riley 
Feigen/Palmer Gallery 
September 28- October 25 

Mark di Suvero 

Dwan Gallery 

September 29-November 2 

Barnett Newman: XVIII Cantos 
Nicholas Wilder Gallery 
September 



140 




19 



65 



19 



65 



Larry Bell 
Ferus Gallery 
October 26- 

Stuart Davis Memorial 

Exhibition 

UCLA Art Galleries 

November 1-28 

Catalog with foreword by 

David W. Scott and introduction 

by H. H, Arnason 

Tiuentieth Century Sculpture 
(Archipenko, Arp. Brancusi, 
Braque, Calder, Cornell, 
De Rivera, Duchamp, Ernst, 
Giacometti.Gonzalez.Lachaise, 
Lehmbruck, Lipchitz, Matisse, 
Miro, Moore, Pevsner, Picasso, 
David Smith) 
Art Gallery, University of 
California, Irvine 
October- November 

Stanton Macdonald-Wright, 
Herbert Bayer 
Esther Robles Gallery 
November 15- December 3 



Edward Ruscha 
Ferus Gallery 
November 16- 

5 Younger L.A. Artists (recip- 
ients of the New Talent Pur- 
chase Award: Melvin Edwards, 
Anthony Berlant, Lloyd Hamrol, 
Llyn Foulkes, Philip Rich) 
Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art 

November 26- December 26 
Catalog with foreword by 
Maurice Tuchman 



Frank J. Tliomas 



Frank J. Thomas 




Maxwell Hendler 

Ceeje Galleries 

November 29- December 18 

David Smith 

Los Angeles County Museum 

of Art 

November .30-January 30 

Catalog with text by Hilton 

Kramer 

Non-Art Objects 
Dwan Gallery 
December 1-January 4 

Agnes Martin 

Nicholas Wilder Gallery 

December U-January 8 



1^65 



19 



66 



Exhibitions in Los Angeles 



Exhibitions outside 
of Los Angeles 

Pop Art and the American 

Tradition (includes Bengston, 

Ruscha) 

Milwaukee Art Center, 

Wisconsin 

April 9- May 9 

Catalog 



si"~ "— ;' 



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Sat Pace (Bell,DeLap, 
Kauffman, Reynolds, Ruscha) 
Pace Gallery, New York 
July-September 
Catalog with text by 
John Coplans 

Exhibition of the United States 
of America VIII Bienal de Sao 
Paulo, Brazil (Bell, Bengston, 
Irwin, Judd, Newman, Poons, 
Stella) 

Museu de Arte Moderna 
September 4- November 28 
Catalog with text by 
Walter Hopps 

Organized by Pasadena Art 
Museum for the United States 
Information Agency 
Traveled to Pasadena Art 
Museum, California; National 
Collection of Fine Arts, 
Washington, D.C. 

Selections from the Work of 

California Artists 

Witte Memorial Museum, San 

Antonio, Texas 

October 10-November 14 



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COENTIES SLIP WEST 



i 

OUNGf 



BKMMH 



Word and Image (de Kooning, 
Dine, Frankenthaler, Indiana, 
Johns, Lichtenstein, 
Motherwell, Ruscha, Trova) 
The Solomon R. Guggenheim 
Museum, New York 
December 

Brochure with essay by 
Lawrence Alloway 

Larry Bell 

Pace Gallery, New York 

Winter 




Norman Zanimitt 
Felix Landau Gallery 
January 3-29 

Henri Matisse Retrospective 
UCLA Art Galleries 
January 4-March 28 
Catalog with text by Jean 
Leymarie, Herbert Read, 
William S. Lieberman 
Traveled to The Art Institute 
of Chicago; Museum of Fine 
Arts, Boston 

Five Los Angeles Sculptors 
and Sculptors' Drawings 
(Bell, DeLap, Gray, McCracken, 
Price) 

Art Gallery, University of 
California, Irvine 
January 7- February 6 
Catalog with introduction by 
John Coplans 



Alberto Giacometti Retrospective 

Los Angeles County Museum 

of Art 

January 14- February 20 

Catalog with introduction by 

Peter Selz, and statement by 

the artist 

Organized by The Museum of 

Modern Art, New York 




Judith Gerowitz 
Rolf Nelson Gallery 
January 

Robert Graham 
Nicholas Wilder Gallery 
February 5- March 5 

John Marin 

La Jolla Museum of Art 

February 12-March 27 




WE DISSENT: 



OUR fOREIGN POKDES IN VIET NAM AND 
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC ARE AGGRESSIVE 
AND DANGEROUS WE HEREBY COMMIT 
OURSELVES TO A FOREIGN POLICY WHICH 
WILL REMOVE OUR TROOPS FROM VIET NAM 
AND DOMINICAN REPUBLIC NOA 

THESE ARE THE REALITIES 
1. ThmuKhoul the world nationi «re in tf tml- 
bofi ind tu'moil. we csnnol tlop Iha pro- 

Z. Our Republic came into being la in ei- 
preiiionol popular demand by Revolulrtm. 
We luppoM Ihfl ume righl toi all people. 

3. We helped lo create (he United Nations 
and Organ liat ion ol American States to 
settle dispules and keep Ihe peace. By our 
atltofl we are deinojing these itry ocgan- 



142 



be discharged ihrtMjgh 


hTunitM'S 


al^ 


«' i 


and make hypocntica 
ingD lie Insepaoble. 


u abroad weaken IZ 
out ilr\igg>e lor S 
a and Sanla Dom ^ 


Illegal a betrayal ol 


e».l, irnnm 
ourownlde 


U. 


"* s 


THE ARTISTS PROTEST COMMITTEE 







1966 



1966 



Seymour Rosen 




Artists Protest Tower 
(Mark di Suvero) 
Corner of La Cienega and 
Sunset Boulevards 
Dedication February 26 




Vija Celmins 

David Stuart Galleries 

February 28-March 26 

John McLaughlin 
Felix Landau Gallery 
March 1-26 

Jawlensky and the Serial 
Image 

Art Gallery, University of 
California, Irvine 
March 4- April 5 
Catalog with text by Shirley 
Hopps, John Coplans 
Ti-aveled to Art Gallery, Uni- 
versity of California, Riverside 

Robert Morris 
Dwan Gallery 
March 8- April 2 





ULLS^ORTH KELLV 
PF.Rl'S CAILERV 



Ellsworth Kelly 
Ferus Gallery 
March 15- 

Joe Goode 

Nicholas Wilder Gallery 

March 15- April 8 

Frank Lobdell 
Pasadena Art Museum 
March 15-April 10 
Catalog with text by 
Walter Hopps 

Traveled to Stanford Univer- 
sity Museum and Art Gallery 





Frank J Thomas 



1966 




Los Angeles Times* 



!Io;$ Attgele^si ^xxatB 



SIX PARTS-P*JtT ONE 



WEDNESDAY V.ORMNG. -MARCH 23. 1966 




President Cautions 



Johnson Backs 

Wider Conlacis p. n ■ ■ 

With Red China Premature Raise ir 



HC ATT CAUSED A K)W_£ 



Supervisors Urge Removal of 
Modern Exhibit at Museum 

Assail Art Worts by Ed»'ard Kienholi ss 'Pomocraphic' 
bur EiecuHve Commirtee of Instihite Rejects Appeal 

BY R KKRX TICDtBORN' 

Assembly OKs Tax 
for Transit Study 

Sfcfure Gets B>11 Otfenng 
Coufit> Alremarrve Leries 

BT JI3XT r^LLAM 
SACTHVUVj-O— Lctriiluiaa «-- 



But He Imposes Condition 
TTiat Peking Must Soften 
Its Attitude Toward West 

BI RtCR.\RO RESTOX 

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nis: Caia J Feisae «C1 saf^n in 
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AN AIOLOGT— Jsries v, Roc^e. njh.i c.-e4.,aer:; c' Ge™«-e! Vc^nn. 
Rcov ex^reisea' f*5''cTi :^•e^ crti- Ke-ngi-<c- - i ?* sjto ct-c Raip'r Naotr 

GM President Apologizes for 
Any Harassment of Car Critic 

But OervtK T)ur Compatn't Use of Pnrjte Detectives 
to Investigate Aatiwr Involved Girls is Sex Lorei 

BT BOXALD J. OSTBOW 

W,\SH!NGTDN — Gervnl Mr.:tL-» rvfsier.: Jaraw M TLxtn ipojiv 
^zei Toesiiy id b ^"-"'^ saScocindiU* tar try btrznskK; a & CN- 
spcmKired sivfytipaTJm (^ an eou saJer; ^r^'a^ and ibes tiouis liic 
repetUii int ps&iic s;»3k^- :o the cr.uc 

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f^-der- 



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iarrac muBeaa; Cffwioe lit. Kari- 

Knab'.;; Foaa:ji4a3 la Fnrt WotJl 

Iters fiK-lt-M ihe exli!!«iM «aa 

ncBKiei y>- BiTpa'3 af "ncrJEiirjrtwc." 

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for. *i«iT*lb r>mLLbi>c. vebe m em-V 
OKBptf tiie rhiTf!* aaj IbE ajlos*- 

it»»Ti •.lis 7>* TraiM fran: Fi 



Four New Quakes 
Rock North China 

aft "■;je5dk.- ajiptiwsUT net l*r 
n ibe city ol Sw^nai. ilTTsfh- hit 
i br iwn winh ibcr^ Ibis 



qaatet ia JymcT- 

Tbf Rbnct w:*Te» rcUni anr^b- 
^TiTti t» Pfiaai; eeadEnc jwople fl»*- 
3i£ :na -.be ccrefA JtTitaest carre- 

(-T-oEidera 1= Utt SfJ Cuacse cii?«J 



Alnci. 7ie» ear-i sbw^ t5 t= 

net! Uk oa;T »rrw> road l^ CaiST»- 
la. !br espial. An car^b^uske 5;a- 

F;i» Btrciler earibqclkn r_-ufl; 
a?f>iS3 TsCoOna t Bo^-ias cspii«] 



ijj' VbEiai 
Naa«- ir : 



uruiETlv err. 
OaMairfi 

ji^emineai 
;et. irrcj-Jd 
r*9or» ■R'cri 
vjsbsOici? 

EUIsaer.l H 

■■■sfttts ^K■ 

Femoral 5i:r. 

iber Imatsf 
Za "Jiw V 



Wilson Hit in Eye 
at Campaign Rally 



LACMA 

Edward Kienholz 
Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art 

March 30-May 15 
Catalog with text by Maurice 
Tuchman 

Ti-aveled to Institute of Con- 
temporary' Art, Boston 



© 1966 Los Angeles Times* 




""il'i «vJol' Oute tit Aoai'. 



"Reprinted with permission 



144 




19, 



66 



19, 



66 



John Baldessari 

La Jolla Museum of Art 

March 30-April 24 

Arakawa 
Dwan Gallery 
April 12-May 7 




Bruce Nauman 
(first one-man show) 
Nicholas Wilder Gallery 
Mav 10-June 2 





MAY 10 -JUNE 2 AT THE 
NICHOLAS WILDER GALLERY 
LOS ANGELES CALIFORNIA 



Five Europeans: Bacon, 

Baltkus, Dubuffet, Giacometti, 

and Morandi 

Art Gallery, University of 

California, Irvine 

May 17-June 12 

Catalog with text by 

John Coplans 

Jules Olitski 

Nicholas Wilder Gallery 

June 2- July 1 

Self Service, A Happening by 
Allan Kaprow 
Pasadena Art Museum 
June- September 

Robert Irwin, Kenneth Price 
Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art 

July 7- September 4 
Catalog with texts by Philip 
Leider, Lucy R. Lippard 



/ 




Man Ray Retrospective 
Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art 

October 25-January 1 
Catalog with foreword by 
Jules Langsner, statements by 
the artist and by Paul Eluard. 
Marcel Duchamp, Andre Bre- 
ton, Rrose Selavy, Tristan Tiara, 
Hans Richter, Carl I. Belz 




Rene Magritte 
Pasadena Art Museum 
August 1- September 4 

Anthony Magar, Forrest Myers 

Dwan Gallery 

October 4-29 . , 




145 



Frank Stella 
Pasadena Art Museum 
October 17- November 20 

Josef Albers: White Line 
Squares (two lithographic 
series) 

Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art 

October 26-January 29 
Catalog with foreword by 
Kenneth E. Tyler, text by 
Henry T. Hopkins, and state- 
ment by the artist 




Abstract Expressionist 

Ceramics iBengston, Frimkess, 

Mason, McClain, Melchert, 

Nagle, Neri, Price, Takemoto, 

Voulkosi 

Art Gallery, University of 

California, Irvine 

October 28- November 27 

Catalog with text by 

John Coplans 

Gifford Phillips: Some 
Continuing Trends 
The Fine Arts Patrons of 
Newport Harbor. Balboa 
Pavilion Gallery 
November 6- December 4 

John Mason 

Los Angeles County Museum 

of Art 

November 16- February 1 

Catalog with text by 

John Coplans 




1^66 



1^66 






Frank J Thomas 



Dan Flavin (first West 
Coast show) 

Nicholas Wilder Gallery 
November 20- December 9 

Kenneth Noland 
Nicholas Wilder Gallery 
November 

John Altoon 

David Stuart Galleries 

December 6- 

Jerry McMillen 
Pasadena Art Museum 
December 13- January 15 

Joseph Cornell (retrospective) 
Pasadena Art Museum 
December 27- February 11 
Catalog with text by 
Fairfield Porter 



ALTOON 




DAVID STUART GALLERIES 

e07 N LA ClENEe^ ■ LOS ANGCLES Oft ■ OL 2-7d22 



Frank J Thomas 





Exhibitions outside of 
Los Angeles 

Los Angeles Now (Bell, Berman, 
Collins, Conner, Foulkes, 
Hopper, Kauffman, Ruscha) 
Robert Eraser Gallery, London 
January 31- February 19 
Catalog with text by 
John Coplans 

Primary Structures 
(includes Bell) 

The Jewish Museum, New York 
April 27- June 12 

Ten from Los Angeles (Bell, 

Bengston, DeLap, Gray, Goode, 

Kauffman, Mattox, McCracken, 

Price, Ruscha) 

Seattle Art Museum, 

Washington 

July 15- September 5 

William Geis and 

Bruce Nauman 

San Francisco Art Institute 

September 26- October 22 



Ronald Davis 
Tibor de Nagy Gallery, 
New York 
October 11-29 

Robert Irwin 

Pace Gallery, New York 

November 12- December 10 




146 



19 



67 



Exhibitions in Los Angeles 

Tom Holland 

Nicholas Wilder Gallery 

January 3-21 

John Battenberg 
Esther Robles Gallery 
January 9-27 

Kenneth Snelson 
Dwan Gallery 
January lO-February 4 



E _ 




Robert Graham 
Nicholas Wilder Gallery 
January 24- February 11 

Craig Kauffman 
Ferus/Pace Gallery 
January 

Drawings by Frank Stella 
Art Gallery, University of 
California, Irvine 
January- February 




Morris Louis 

Los Angeles County Museum 

of Art 

February 15- March 26 

Catalog with text by 

Michael Fried 

Organized by Museum of Fine 

Arts, Boston 



Paul Klee Retrospective 
Pasadena Art Museum 
February 20-April 2 
Catalog with text by 
Will Grohmann 

Roy Lichtenstein 
Ferus/Pace Gallery 
February 

Carl Andre 
Dwan Gallery 
March 8-April 1 



Donald Jiidd 
Ferus/Pace Gallery 
March 

Helen Frankenthaler, 
John McCracken 
Nicholas Wilder Gallery 
March 

Sol LeWitt 
Dwan Gallery 
April 4-29 



Sol. L-e K-iTT dwa'-' Ci.M.t.eR>f uss /tW&ci-ei i^PiQiL 19*7 



Tit t»wifrwi«*/ 







MS aJU<i<*JuU^, , 






'1*7 



c,jrs/D£ ty-rt/' a/T^oeii\sriv ours/e^ si'itffi'^Si' 
Pr*r/«r wvwiraf- ©J-"^'^ ^'t^^^"£S> ■r-t'j-*^ «-),i("xur' 







i?o,y Lichtenstein 
Pasadena Art Museum 
April 18-May 28 
Catalog with introduction by 
John Coplans, interview with 
Lichtenstein 

Traveled to Walker Art Cen- 
ter, Minneapolis, Minnesota 



American Sculpture of the Six- 
ties (165 works by 80 artists) 
Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art 
April 28-June 25 



Catalog with introduction by 
Maurice Tuchman, texts by 
Lawrence Alloway, Wayne 
Andersen, Dore Ashton, John 
Coplans, Clement Greenberg, 
Max Kozloff, Lucy R. Lippard, 
James Monte, Barbara Rose, 
Irving Sandler 



19| 



67 



1967 



Ten (Andre, Baer, Flavin, 
Judd, LeWitt, Martin, Morris, 
Reinhardt, Smithson, Steiner) 
Dwan Gallery 
May 2-27 

Dennis Oppenheim 
Comara Gallery 
May 

Robert Rauschenberg 
Gemini G.E.L. 
May 

Vasa 

Herbert Palmer Gallery 

May 





MEL RAMOS 



Mel Ramos 

David Stuart Galleries 

October 10-November 4 



Agnes Martin 

Nicholas Wilder Gallery 

October 17-November 3 



Frank J. Thomas 

Peter Voulkos 

David Stuart Galleries 

May 

Selections from the Charles 
Cowles Collection 
Pasadena Art Museum 
June 20-July 16 

Jackson Pollock Retrospective 
Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art 

July 18-September 3 
Catalog -with text by 
Francis V. O'Conner 
Organized by The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York 

Jules Olitski 
Pasadena Art Museum 
July 25-August 27 
Catalog with text by 
Michael Fried 

Joe Goode, Edward Ruscha 
Nicholas Wilder Gallery 
August 8-September 2 

Mason Williams Bus 
Pasadena Art Museum 
August 29-September 7 




Jackson 
Pollock 



& 



Allan Kaprow 
Pasadena Art Museum 
September 15- October 22 
Catalog with introduction by 
James Demetrion, text by 
Allan Kaprow, Kaprow inter- 
view by Barbara Herman 
Traveled to Washington Uni- 
versity, St. Louis, Missouri; 
University of Texas, Austin 

Robert Hudson: Recent 

Sculpture 

Nicholas Wilder Gallery 

September 26- October 14 





148 



James Turrell 
Pasadena Art Museum 
September 9-October 9 
Catalog with text by 
John Coplans 



1967 



19, 



67 



Sam Francis 
UCLA Art Galleries 
October 30- December 17 
Catalog with introduction by 
Anneliese Hoyer 
Organized by San Francisco 
Museum of Art 




Exhibitions outside of 
Los Angeles 

Ninety-Four Works from the 
Collection of Sterling Holloway 
Portland Art Museum, Oregon 
January 24-February 12 

Edward Kienholz 
Dwan Gallery, New York 
January 

Craig Kauffman 

Pace Gallery, New York 

February 18- March 18 

The West — 80 Contemporaries 
The University of Arizona Art 
Gallery, Tucson 
March 19- April 30 

Funk (includes Price, Voulkos; 
26 artists, most from Northern 
California) 

University Art Museum, Uni- 
versity of California, Berkeley 
April 18- May 29 
Catalog with text by Peter Selz 




Ronald Davis 

Nicholas Wilder Gallery 

November 4-25 

Dry Ice (environment created 
by Eric Orr, Lloyd Hamrol, 
Judy Chicago) 
Century City 
December 14-16 




-^ 



Seymour Rosen 




Larry Bell 

Pace Gallery, New York 

April 22-May 20 



A New Aesthetic (Bell, Davis, 

Flavin, Judd, Kauffman, 

McCracken) 

Washington Gallery of Modern 

Art, Washington, D.C. 

May 6-June 25 

Catalog with text by 

Barbara Rose 

Joe Goode 

Rowan Gallery, London 

Summer 

United States of America V 

Paris Biennale (Llyn Foulkes, 

Craig Kauffman, John 

McCracken, Edward Ruscha) 

Musee d'Art Moderne de la 

Ville de Paris 

September 30- November 5 

Catalog 

Organized by and traveled to 

Pasadena Art Museum 

Sam Francis 

Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, 

Texas 

October 12- December 3 

Traveled to University Art 

Museum, University of 

California, Berkeley 

Edward Ruscha (first New 
York one-man show) 
Alexander lolas Gallery, 
New York 
December 12-January 13 




149 



1968 



1968 



Exhibitions in Los Angeles 




Bruce Nauman 
Nicholas Wilder Gallery 
March 17-April 17 

Ed Ruscha-Joe Goode 
The Fine Arts Patrons of 
Newport Harbor, Balboa 
Pavilion Gallery 
March 27- April 21 
Catalog with text by Henry 
T. Hopkins 

Walter de Maria 
Nicholas Wilder Gallery 
April 9-26 



Wallace Berman 




New British Painting 
and Sculpture 
UCLA Art Galleries 
January 8- February 11 
Catalog with texts by Sir Her- 
bert Read, Bryan Robertson, 
Ian Dunlop, David Thompson, 
Robert Hughes, Frederick 
S. Wight 

Organized by Whitechapel Art 
Gallery, London 

John Altoon 
Pasadena Art Museum 
January 9- February 4 
Catalog with text by 
Gerald Nordland 
Organized by San Francisco 
Museum of Art; traveled 
to Art Gallerj', University of 
California, San Diego 

Robert Irwin: New Paintings 
Pasadena Art Museum 
January 16- February 18 
Catalog with text by John 
Coplans 

Chaim Soutine, 1893-1943, 

Retrospective 

Los Angeles County Museum 

of Art 

February 20- April 14 

Catalog with text by Maurice 

Tuchman 

Dennis Hopper: Bomb Drop 
Pasadena Art Museum 
February 24-March 17 




FRANK STKl.LA 





T 




1R\I.\(, lil.lM GALLKKV 



Edward Ruscha 
Irving Blum Gallery 
February 

Frank Stella 
Irving Blum Gallery 
March 12- 



Watlace Berman 

Los Angeles County Museum 

of Art 

April 30-June 2 

Brochure with text by 

Gail Scott, statement by 

Jack Hirschman 

Traveled to The Jewish 

Museum, New York; separate 

publication with text 

by James Monte 

Donald Judd 
Irving Blum Gallery 
May 7-26 



DOXAUn JIDD 





ED RUSCHA -JOE GOODE 



Niwport Harbor i 



e^tmi Panlio» «Jia Main Slni' 
;h £7 1° Ai.nl ZI 1368 I la 5 Bin 



IR\ING HLl'M GALLERY 



1968 



19( 



68 



Douglas Wheeler 
Pasadena Art Museum 
May 28-June 30 
Catalog with text by 
John Coplans 

Claes Oldenburg 
Irving Blum Gallery 
June 4- 

Fi-ank ,1 Thnnia 




PURE BEAUTY 



news MOST USEFUL IN DISCRIBINC CRFATIVl WORKS Of ART: 



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ELAGftANCE 






JOHN BALDESSARI AT MOLLY BARNES 

GALLERY- OCT. 6-28, 1968. OPENING: OCT. 6, 

8-10 PM. 631 N. LA CIENEGA BLVD. 

LOS ANGELES. 



Assemblage in California 
(Berman, Kienholz, Herms, 
Conner, F. Mason, Talbert) 
Art Gallery, University of 
California, Irvine 
October 15- November 24 
Catalog with texts by John 
Coplans, Walter Hopps, Philip 
Leider, Hal Glicksman 




c:i..\i;s oLDiixiii i!(; 




UiB 



IliVINt, BE.IM G.\I.I.EI(V 



Dada, Surrealism, and Their 

Heritage 

Los Angeles County Museum 

of Art 

July 16- September 8 

Catalog with text by William 

S. Rubin 

Organized by The Museum of 

Modern Art, New York; 

traveled to The Art Institute 

of Chicago 

David Hockney and 
William Pettet 
Nicholas Wilder Gallery 
July 



Serial Imagery 
Pasadena Art Museum 
September 17- October 27 
Catalog with text by 
John Coplans 

Traveled to Henry Art Gallery, 
University of Washington, 
Seattle; Santa Barbara 
Museum of Art, California 

John Baldessari 
Molly Barnes Gallery 
October 6-28 








mmmmm 



Transparency t Reflection 

California State College, 

Fullerton 

October 18- November 17 



19 



68 



19| 



68 



Late Fifties at the Ferus 




Late Fifties at the Ferus 

(19 artists) 

Los Angeles County Museum 

of Art 

November 12- December 17 

Catalog with text by 

James Monte 




Sol LeWitt 

Ace Gallery 

December 2-January 11 

Carl Andre 

Irving Blum Gallery 

December 3- 



Exhibitions outside of 
Los Angeles 

David Hockney 

Kasmin Limited, London 

January 19- 

Edward Ruscha 
Alexander lolas Gallery, 
New York 
January 

The West Coast Now (62 artists) 
Portland Art Museum, Oregon 
February 9- March 6 
Catalog with foreword by 
Rachel Griffin, texts by Henry 
T. Hopkins, Gerald Nordland 
Traveled to Seattle Art 
Museum, Washington; M. H. 
de Young Memorial Museum, 
San Francisco: Los Angeles 
Municipal Art Gallery, 
Barnsdall Park 




David Hockney : 



H. C. Westermann 

Los Angeles County Museum 

of Art 

November 23-January 12 

Catalog with text by 

James Monte 



Billy AlBengston (retrospective) 

Los Angeles County Museum 

of Art 

November 26-January 12 

Catalog with text by 

James Monte 

IVaveled to Corcoran Gallery 

of Art, Washington, D.C.; 

Vancouver Art Gallery, British 

Columbia 




i^i^^r^fji^- 



152 




19, 



68 



1^68 



Larry Bell 

Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam 

February 

Joe Goode 

Kornblee Gallery, New York 

February 

Kenneth Price 

Kasmin Gallery, London 

March 1- 

Robert Irwin 

Pace Gallery, New York 

March 15- April 11 

Gene Davis, Robert Irwin, 

Richard Smith 

The Jewish Museum, New York 

March 20- May 12 

Separate catalogs for 

each artist 

Los Angeles 6 (Bell, Davis, 
Irwin, Kauffman, Kienholz, 
McCracken) 

The Vancouver Art Gallery. 
British Columbia 
March 31-May 5 
Catalog with text by 
John Coplans 




Bruce Nauman 

Leo Castelli Gallery, New York 

March 



40 Now California Painters 

The Tampa Bay Art Center, 

Florida 

April 8- May 14 

Catalog with text by Henry T. 

Hopkins, Jan von Adlmann, 

Karl M. Nickel 



Archives of American Art 

LOS ANGELES 




RtWAlD DAVB MARCH 23.1968 LEO CASnU] ^ EAST 7' NEW YORK. N.V. 10021 




Ronald Davis 

Leo Castelli Gallery, New York 

March 23- 

Documenta 4 (includes Bell, 
Davis, Hockney, Irwin, 
Kienholz, Nauman) 
Kassel, West Germany 
June 27- October 6 

Bruce Nauman 
Konrad Fischer Gallery, 
Diisseldorf, West Germany 
July 10-August 8 



Billy Al Bengston: Motel 

Dracula 

San Francisco Museum of Art 

September 1- November 2 

California 

Janie C. Lee Gallery, Dallas, 

Texas 

October 15- November 15 

David Hockney, Oeuvre 

Katalog-Graph ik 

Galerie Mikro, Berlin, West 

Germany 

October 

Catalog 

John McLaughlin Retrospective 
Exhibition 1946-1967 
Corcoran Gallery of Art, 
Washington, D.C. 
November 16-January 5 

Works from the 1960's by 
Edward Kienhoh 
Washington Gallery of 
Modern Art, Washington, D.C. 
November 22-January 7 

Sam Francis 

Centre National d'Art Con- 
temporain, Paris 
December 10-January 12 



1^69 



1969 



Exhibitions in Los Angeles 

Bruce Nauman 
Nicholas Wilder Gallery 
January 28- February 15 

Joe Goode 

Nicholas Wilder Gallery 

January 



Dan Flavin 

Irving Blum Gallery 

April 1- 

1 





New Paindngs by RicHard Diebenkom 




Georges Brecht — Sculpture 
Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art 

April 15- May 18 
Catalog with introduction by 
Jane Livingston, and state- 
ments by the artist 

Ronald Davis 

Nicholas Wilder Gallery 

April 15-May 3 

Judy Gerowitz 
Pasadena Art Museum 
April 28-June 1 

Kenneth Price 

Riko Mizuno Gallery 

April 



New Paintings by Richard 

Diebenkorn 

Los Angeles County Museum 

of Art 

June 3-July 27 

Brochure with text by 

Gail R. Scott 

Richard Tuttle 
Nicholas Wilder Gallery 
June 

RON DAVIS 



Erotic Art '69 

David Stuart Galleries 

February 7- March 4 

Cy Twombley 

Nicholas Wilder Gallery 

March 4-22 

Craig Kauffman 
Irving Blum Gallery 
March 11- 

George Herms 
Molly Barnes Gallery 
March 17-April 11 



CKAIU KAl KKMAN 





New York: The Second Break- 
through. 1959-1964 (Dine, 
Johns, Lichtenstein, Louis, 
Noland, Oldenburg, Rauschen- 
berg, Rosenquist, Stella, Warhol) 
Art Gallery, University of 
California, Irvine 
March- April 
Catalog with text by 
Alan Solomon 



The Appearingl 
Disappearing Object (Asher, 
Ruppersberg, Edge, Cooper, 
Baldessari, LeVa, Rudnick) 
Newport Harbor Art Museum 
May 5-June 28 

Douglas Huebler 
Eugenia Butler Gallery 
Spring 



1^69 



19 



69 




LACMA 

Wiilem de Kooning (retrospec- 
tive) 

Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art 

July 29-September 14 
Catalog with text by Thomas 
B. Hess 

Organized by The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York 



Edward Kienholz 
Eugenia Butler Gallery 
Summer 

Ron Cooper 
Ace Gallery 
Summer 

Al Ruppersberg 
Eugenia Butler Gallery 
Summer 

Edward Moses 
Riko Mizuno Gallery 
Summer 




Les Levine 

Molly Barnes Gallery 

October 14- November 14 



Frank J Thom, 




P 

± 



m 
m 





Mel Bochner 
Ace Gallery 
September 2-October 6 



Lee Mullican 
UCLA Art Galleries 
September 15- October 19 
Catalog with introduction by 
Gordon Onslow-Ford 

Lloyd Hamrol 

Pomona College Art Gallery 

Fall 



Fin 


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Stephan von Huene: The 

Rosebud Annunciator 

Los Angeles County Museum 

of Art 

August 21- September 21 

Brochure with text by 

Hal Glicksman 

Recent Work by Robert Irwin 
La Jolla Museum of Art 
August 28-September 28 







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Fifty Tantric Mystical 

Diagrams 

Los Angeles County Museum 

of Art 

October 21- November 23 

Brochure with text by Maurice 

Tuchman, Gail R. Scott, 

Pratapaditya Pal 

Traveled to The Jewish 

Museum, New York 

Tantric Works 
Eugenia Butler Gallery 
October 28- November 15 



19| 



69 



19, 



69 



Frank Stella 
Irving Blum Gallery 
November 4- 

Michael Asher 

La Jolla Art Museum 

November 7- December 31 




Exhibitions outside 
of Los Angeles 

Three Modern Masters: Billy 
Al Bengston, Edward Ruscha, 
Frank Lloyd Wright 
Gallery Reese Palley, 
San Francisco 
March 24-April 19 






— 


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1 




i- 







Maxwell Hendler 
Eugenia Butler Gallery 
November 18-December 6 



West Coast 1945-1969 
Pasadena Art Museum 
November 24-January 18 
Catalog with introduction by 
John Coplans 

Inaugural exhibition in new 
building; traveled to City Art 
Museum of St. Louis, Missouri; 
Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto; 
Fort Worth Art Center 
Museum, Texas 





Eric Orr — Sound Tunnel 
Junior Arts Center, 
Barnsdall Park 
No vember- May 

Sam Francis: Paintings 
and Gouaches 
Felix Landau Gallery 
December 1-January 3 

William T. Wiley: Monument 
to Black Ball Violence 
Eugenia Butler Gallery 
December 9-31 

Vija Celmins 

Riko Mizuno Gallery 

December 



Frank J- Thomas 



Painting in New York 

1944-1969 

Pasadena Art Museum 

November 24-January 11 

Catalog with text by 

Alan Solomon 




llmis 



iUIlengslon 
Eduard Itiist-tiu 
Franli Llo)iI VVrighl 

When Attitude Becomes Form 

(50 artists, includes Kienholz, 

Nauman) 

Kunsthalle Bern, Switzerland 

Spring 

Robert Irwin — Douglas Wheeler 
Fort Worth Art Center 
Museum, Texas 
April 1-28 

Catalog with foreword by 
Henry T. Hopkins, text by 
Jane Livingston 
Organized by Fort Worth Art 
Center Museum in cooperation 
with Corcoran Gallery of Art, 
Washington, D.C.; Stedelijk 
Museum, Amsterdam 

David Hockney 

Andre Emmerich Gallery, 

New York 

April 26-May 18 

Anti-Illusion: Procedure! 
Materials (includes Nauman) 
Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New York 
May 19-June 22 

Bruce Nauman 

Leo Castelli Gallery, New York 

May 24-June 14 



156 



19( 



69 



19 



70 



Nine Young Artists, Theodoron 
Awards (includes Nauman) 
The Solomon R. Guggenheim 
Museum, New York 
May 24-June 29 

14 Sculptors: The Industrial 

Edge (14 artists; includes 

Alexander, Bell, Kauffman, 

Valentine) 

Organized by Walker Art 

Center, presented at Dayton's 

Auditorium, Minneapolis, 

Minnesota 

May 29-June 21 

Catalog with text by Barbara 

Rose, Christopher Finch, 

Martin Friedman 

Pop Art Redefined (includes 
Herman, Goode, Hockney, 
Kienholz, Ruscha) 
Hayward Gallery, London 
July 3-September 3 
Book by John Russell, Suzi 
Gablik; published by Thames 
and Hudson, London 

22 California Artists 

Phillis Kind Gallery, Chicago 

Summer 

Ronald Davis: Eight Paintings 

Norman Mackenzie Art Gallery, 

University of Saskatchewan, 

Regina 

September 12- October 19 

Catalog with text by 

Terry Fenton 

Kenneth Price Cups 
Whitney Museum of American 
Art, New York 
September 19-October 26 

Human Concern /Personal 

Torment: The Grotesque in 

American Art (includes 

Kienholz) 

Whitney Museum of American 

Art, New York 

October 14-November 30 

Catalog with text by 

Robert Doty 

Three California Artists: 
Bengston, Moses, Ruscha 
Multiples Gallery, New York 
October 

Richard Diebenkorn 
Poindexter Gallery, New York 
November 1-29 

Billy Al Bengston 
Utah Museum of Fine Arts, 
Salt Lake City 
November 9- December 7 



Kompas 4: West Coast USA 
Stedelijk van Abbemuseum, 
Eindhoven, The Netherlands 
November 21-January 4 
Catalog with text by 
Jean Leering 

Graphics: Six West Coast 
Artists (Bengston, Goode, 
Graham, Moses, Price, Ruscha) 
Galleria Milano, Italy 
December 10-January 7 
By arrangement with 
Edizioni O 



Exhibitions in Los Angeles 








teL- 



Frank J Thomas 



Douglas Wheeler 
Ace Gallery 
January 2-31 

John Cage 

Pasadena Art Museum 

January 25-March 1 



Craig Kauffman 
Pasadena Art Museum 
January 27-March 1 
Catalog with statement 
by the artist 





ilinni 
]Uiis('H*l'rii-('*ltut;rliii 



Spaces (includes Bell) 

The Museum of Modern Art, 

New York 

December 30-March 1 

Bruce Nouman 

Galerie Ileana Sonnabend, 

Paris 

Winter 



Richard Serra 
Pasadena Art Museum 
January 26-March 1 
Catalog 



.ing kong jeiio X-ray |ello used jello sup 

-Tsonic jello get it on jello disposable 

;o modern jello free (ello stoned jello 

an jello mouse jetto am-lm jello forn- 

■llor;.' ■ ;• ■ T- li ve jello monday jello 

:i r I craig kauHman jello bubble gu 

iL.l' ilo jazz jello spoon jel 

pasadena art museum lello five-star j 

;o oome [Gilo piogpong jello muffin jell 

loud jello tiny rub jello 27|anuary-1 m 

arch 1970 Jetio cuddle jello lish jello dirt 

to steel wool jello bug jello upstairs je 

drop dead jello mean jello dance ' 

9 8 jello holy cats jello picture me jell 

though jello ddl jello lonesome jello (or 

. ca jello blatent jello western jello hop 

rig jello undone jello button-down jello 

i.iher jello homeless jello starlet jelio ) 

iHier Jello oh you kid jello cralg kauHm 

an tello one up jello empty jello sitting je 

^^ iv jello Vietnam Jello asphalt jello april 

ilo ghetto jeflo unlit jello oh jello unlvers 

lly of California, Irvine jetio burn baby bu 

1 j^llo ac/dc jello dig jello innoceni jello 

'-. uch me Jello 10 march — 6 aprin970 je 

J love me jello lace jello giggling jello 

y lelio endless jello sleeping jello brea 

. lollo finger jello tooth jello fertile jello 




Frank J Thomas 



1970 



19 



70 



Joseph Kosuth: Art as Ideal 
Idea as Art 

Pasadena Art Museum 
January 27- March 1 

Agnes Martin 

Nicholas Wilder Gallery 

January 



Sam Francis 

Los Angeles County Museum 

of Art 

February 10- March 22 

Brochure with text by Gail R. 

Scott 



Sam Francis 

Rct-vnl Painlings 




John Baldessari 
Eugenia Butler Gallery 
February 17- March 7 

Michael Todd 

UCLA Art Galleries 

March 9-April 5 

Catalog with text by Thomas 

H. Garver, and statement by 

the artist 



Edward Moses 
Riko Mizuno Gallery 
Spring 



Edward Moses 



i 



Frank J. Thomas 



Color (Ronald Davis, 
Ellsworth Kelly, Morris Louis, 
Kenneth Noland, Jules 
Olitski. Frank Stella) 
UCLA Art Galleries 
February 16-March 22 
Catalog with acknowledge- 
ments by Frederick S. Wight, 
texts by Charles Kessler. 
Jan Burland, Melinda 
Terbell, Richard N. Janick, 
Sue Ginsburg, Andrea Levin, 
Lynn Bailess, Carol Donnell, 
Sister Catherine Bock, Mary 
Ann Richardson 




Frank J. Thomas 





'] 




Bruce Nauman 
Nicholas Wilder Gallery 
March 

Robert Morris 
Irving Blum Gallery 
Spring 

Richard Artschwager 
Eugenia Butler Gallery- 
Spring 




DeWain Valentine 
Pasadena Art Museum 
May 11-July 5 
Catalog with interview by 
John Coplans 

Andy Warhol 

Pasadena Art Museum 

May 12-June 21 

Catalog with text by John 

Coplans, Jonas Mekas, Calvin 

Tomkins 

Traveled to Museum of 

Contemporary Art, Chicago 

Dieter Rot: Staple Cheese 

(A Race) 

Eugenia Butler Gallery 

May 



1970 



19 



70 



JUDY GEROWITZ 

hereby divests herself of 
all names imposed upon 
her through male social 
dominance and freely 
chooses her own name 

JUDY CHICAGO 



Robert Rauschenberg 
Pasadena Art Museum 
July 7-September 6 

Barnett Newman 
Pasadena Art Museum 
July 30-August 30 



David Hockney 
Nicholas Wilder Gallery 
September 

Max Cole 
Comara Gallery 
October 5-24 









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DY CHICAGO Eihibilion. Cal State Fullerton, Oct 23 - 1 
Pfe*iew 6 - a PM. Oct. 23. Faculty Club. Cal Slate Fullertiin 



Judy Chicago 

California State University, 

Fullerton 

October 23- November 25 

Keith Sonnier 
Ace Gallery 
Fall 

Richard Jackson 
Eugenia Butler Gallery 
Fall 

Joe Goode 

Nicholas Wilder Gallery 

November 17- December 5 




Frank J Thomas 




Sol LeWitt 

Pasadena Art Museum 

November 17-January 3 

Catalog 

The Cubist Epoch 

Los Angeles County Museum 

of Art 

December 17- February 21 

Catalog with text by Douglas 

Cooper 

Ti'aveled to The Metropolitan 

Museum of Art, New York 



19 



70 



19 



70 



Exhibitions outside 
of Los Angeles 

11 + 11 Tableaux (Kienholz) 
Moderna Museet, Stockholm 
January 17- March 1 
Catalog with comments from 
interviews with K. G. Pontus 
Hulten 

Traveled to Stedelijk Museum, 
Amsterdam; Stadtische Kunst- 
halle, Diisseldorf; Musee d'Art 
Moderne, Paris; Kunsthaus 
Zurich, Switzerland; Institute 
of Contemporary Arts, London 



EDWARD KIENHOLZ 



IMl TABLEAUX 



MODERNA MUSEET 



y 



Pace Gallerv, X Y 



Looking West 1970 (74 artists) 

Joslyn Art Museum, Omaha, 

Nebraska 

October 18- November 29 

Catalog with introduction by 

LeRoy Butler 



1 



^ 



Robert Irwin 

The Museum of Modern Art, 

New York 

October 24- February 16 

A Decade of California Color 

(13 artists) 

Pace Gallery, New York 

November 7- December 2 

Brochure 



In addition to the photogra- 
phers whose images are cred- 
ited, many individuals and 
institutions lent me visual 
materials for the chronology. I 
am grateful for the coopera- 
tion of Irving Blum, Virginia 
Dwan, The Frederick S. Wight 
Art Gallery of UCLA, Otis 
Art Institute of Parsons School 
of Design, Norton Simon 
Museum, Pomona College Art 
GaWeries, Artforum, and 
many of the artists cited, who 
generously shared their re- 
sources. The Museum's Pho- 
tography Department was 
responsible for photographing 
all of the posters and gallery 

announcements. 

S.P. 



Craig Kauffman 

Pace Gallery, New York 

March 21- April 8 

Joe Goode 

Galerie Neuendorf, Hamburg, 

West Germany 

-April 20 

Belli IrwinI Wheeler 
Tate Gallery, London 
May 5-31 

David Hockney, Katalog 31 
1970 

Kestner-Gesellschaft, Han- 
nover, 

West Germany 
May 22-June 21 






Edward Ruscha 

Nigel Greenwood, London 

Winter 



160 



Jerry McMillen 



Photographic Credits 

Archives of American Art: 
p. 83 (lower). 

Art in America: p. 32. 

Larry Bell: p. 54 (upper and lower). 

Billy Al Bengston: pp. 57 (left), 
76. 86 (upper). 

Charles Brittin: pp. 12 (left and 
right), 13 (left and right), 60. 

The Brooklyn Museum, New York: 
p. 68 (lower). 

Rudolph Burckhardt: p. 90. 
Giorgio Colombo Fotografo: p. 49. 

Ralph Crane, Life Magazine, © 
1966 Time Inc.: p. 80 (lower). 

Prudence Cummg Associates 
Ltd.: p. 26 (right), 75. 

Dartmouth College Museum and 
Galleries, Hanover, New Hamp- 
shire: p. 96 (right). 

Michael Denny: p. 58 (left). 

Susan Einstein: p. 78. 

Pat Faure: p. 77. 

Sam Francis: pp. 69 (upper), 70. 

Betty Freeman: p. 73 (lower left). 

Gilman Paper Company: p. 91. 

Joe Goode: p. 71 (lower). 

Gianfranco Gorgont: p. 89 (left). 

Richard M. Grant: p. 66 (lower). 

Graves Art Gallery, Sheffield, 
England: p. 27 (middle left). 
Dennis Hopper: pp. 57 (right), 63 
(middle), 95 (upper). 
Janss Foundation: p. 27 
(middle right). 

Robert Jaye: p. 63 (upper and lower). 
John Kasmin: p. 73 (upper left). 
Edward Kienholz: p. 80(upper). 

Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert H. Kinney: 

p. 68 (upper). 

M. Knoedler & Co. Ltd., London: p. 43. 

Los Angeles County Museum of 

Art: pp. 14 (left and right), 15 

(right), 27 (upper left and right), 

31, 37, 38, 39. 40, 42, 45, 47, 48, 

50, 51, 55 (right), 56, 58 (right), 

59. 61, 62 (upper and lower), 67, 

72, 73 (upper and lower right), 

74, 75 (lower), 79 (upper and 

lower), 81. 82, 84, 85 (upper), 87 

(left and right), 93. 94 (left and 

right), 97, 100. 

Margo Leavin Gallery, Los 

Angeles: p. 44. 

Frances and Sydney Lewis: 
p. 96 (left I. 

Colin McRae: p. 41. 

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston: 
p. 26 (left). 

The Museum of Modern Art. New 
York: p. 46. 

The Oakland Museum, California: 
p. 99 (left). 
Kenneth Price: p. 92. 
Robert Rowan: p. 85 (lower). 
Edward Ruscha: p. 95 (lower). 

The Santa Barbara Museum of 
Art, California: p. 99 (right). 

EricSchaal: p. 15 (left). 
David Stuart Galleries. Los 
Angeles: p. 98. 

Frank J. Thomas: pp. 30, 52, 55 
(left), 64, 65 (upper and lower), 
69 (lower). 88, 89 (right). 

John Waggaman: pp. 66 (upper), 
83 (upper), 86 (upper). 

Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, 
Minnesota: pp. 27 (lower), 33. 



Board of Supervisors, County of Los Angeles, 1981 

Edmund D. Edelman, Chairman 

Michael D. Antonovich 

Deane Dana 

Kenneth Hahn 

Peter F. Schabarum 

Harry L. Hufford, Chief Administrative Officer 



Los Angeles County Museum of Art 



Board of Trustees, Fiscal 1980-81 

Richard E. Sherwood, Chairman 
Mrs. F. Daniel Frost, President 
Charles E. Ducommun, Vice President 
Hoyt B. Leisure, Vice President 
Daniel H. Ridder, Treasurer 
Mrs. Anna Bing Arnold, Secretary 
Donald Spuehler, Counsel 



Mrs. Howard Ahmanson 

William H. Ahmanson 

Robert O. Anderson 

R. Stanton Avery 

Norman Barker, Jr 

Daniel N. Belin 

Mrs. Lionel Bell 

Michael Blankfort 

Sidney F. Brody 

B. Gerald Cantor 

Edward W. Carter 

Herbert R. Cole 

Justin Dart 

Joseph P. Downer 

Richard J. Flamson III 

Julian Ganz, Jr. 

Arthur Gilbert 

Dr. Armand Hammer 

Christian Humann 

Felix Juda 

Earl A. Powell III, Director 

Kenneth Donahue, Director Emeritus 

Morton J. Golden, Deputy Director-Administrator 



Harry Lenart 

Eric Lidow 

Dr Franklin D. Murphy 

Mrs. Edwin W. Pauley 

Henry C. Rogers 

Ray Stark 

Hal B. Wallis 

Mrs. Herman Weiner 

Frederick R. Weisman 

Mrs. Harry W. Wetzel 

Dr Charles Z. Wilson, Jr 

Robert Wilson 

Honorary Life Trustees 
Mrs. Freeman Gates 
Mrs. Alice Heeramaneck 
Joseph B. Koepfli 
Mrs. Rudolph Liebig 
Mrs. Lucille Ellis Simon 
John Walker 



162 






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