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Full text of "Artist employment and unemployment, 1971-1980"

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Artist Employment and Unemployment 
(971-1980 



National Endowment 
for the Arts 



Research Division 



4 

ill 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries 



http://archive.org/details/artistemployment1982nati 



Artist Employment and Unemployment 
1971-1980 



LIBRARY 



VTIONAL 

ENDOWMENT 

FOR THE 

National Endowment for the Arts. Washington. DC. * ^ 



This report is produced by the Publishing 
Center for Cultural Resources as part of a 
pilot project supported by the National En- 
dowment for the Arts demonstrating economy 
and efficiency in nonprofit publishing. 
The Publishing Center ' s planning, production, 
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Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data 

Artist employment and unemployment 1971-1980. 

(Reports in the National Endowment for the 
Arts Research Division series ; 16) 
Supt. of Docs, no.: NF 2.12:16 
1. Artists — Employment — United States. 
I. National Endowment for the Arts. II. Series: 
Research Division report (National Endowment for 
the Arts. Research Division) ; 16. 
NX504.E4 331.12'517'00973 82-600003 

ISBN 0-89062-135-7 AACR2 



Manufactured in the United States of America. 



CONTENTS 

PREFACE / 4 

LIST OF TABLES / 5 

LIST OF FIGURES / 5 

INTRODUCTION / 6 

1971-80 HIGHLIGHTS / 7 

GROWTH OF THE ARTIST LABOR FORCE / 9 

MALE-FEMALE COMPOSITION / 11 

UNEMPLOYMENT / 13 

OCCUPATIONAL OVERVIEWS / 13 

Actors 14 

Architects 16 

Authors 18 

Dancers 20 

Designers 22 

Musicians and composers 24 

Painters and sculptors 26 

Photographers 28 

Radio-TV announcers 30 

Teachers of art, drama, and music in higher education 32 



APPENDICES / 35 

APPENDIX A 

DETAILED TABLES / 36 

APPENDIX B 

RELIABILITY OF CURRENT POPULATION SURVEY (CPS) STATISTICS / 40 

CURRENT POPULATION SURVEY (CPS) AS A SOURCE OF ARTIST OCCUPATION DATA / 42 



REPORTS IN THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS RESEARCH DIVISION SERIES / 43 



PREFACE 



This report examines employment and unem- 
ployment in ten artist occupations during 
the decade of the 19 70s as reported in the 
Current Population Survey. The Current Pop- 
ulation Survey (CPS) is a nationwide month- 
ly sample of approximately 60,000 households 
conducted by the Bureau of the Census for 
the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Based on 
the responses to this survey, employment in 
over 4 00 detailed occupations, including a 
number of artist occupations, is reported 
annually. Since the entire sample is asked 
to respond to the same set of occupational 
questions, the CPS provides estimates of 
employment in artist occupations which are 
directly comparable to those for all other 
occupations . 

It must be noted that because the artist 
population makes up a small portion of the 
U.S. population only a small number of ar- 
tists are included in the CPS sample. This 
limits the statistical reliability, of 
course. The national census conducted once 
every ten years includes a much greater 
number of artists and therefore the statis- 
tical reliability is much better for the 
census years. Analysis of change in the 
artist labor force and employment based on 
the 1970 and 1980 census is planned by the 
Research Division when the 1980 census data 
become available (approximately 1983) . 
Meanwhile, the CPS figures tell a great 
deal about artists in the U.S. labor force 
if they are examined with an understanding 
of their limitations. 

Research Division Report #1, Employment and 
Unemployment of Artists: 1970-1975 also in- 
cluded CPS estimates of artist employment 
and unemployment; and, beginning in Febru- 
ary 1976, the Division presented annual ar- 
tist employment figures based on the CPS 
to the National Council on the Arts. Both 
Report #1 and the annual employment figures 
were accompanied by "standard error" esti- 
mates to indicate data reliability and the 
same information appears in Appendix B of 
this report. Wherever possible the CPS da- 
ta have been compared with relevant data 
from other sources to confirm or help ex- 
plain the tendencies that they show. 

Several persons provided technical assis- 
tance in the preparation of this report. 
Among them are Diane Ellis, a consultant 
to the Research Division, and Robert Bed- 
narzik and John Stinson of the Bureau of 
Labor Statistics. 

Research Division 

National Endowment for the Arts 

January 1982 



LIST OF TABLES 

1 Labor force levels in artist occupations by sex 1971 and 1980 /page 8 

2 Labor force levels in artist occupations by sex 1971-80 /page 36 

3 Labor force, employment, and unemployment in artist occupations 1971-80 /page 38 

4 Standard errors and confidence intervals for artist labor force, employment, 
and unemployment 19 80 /page 41 



LIST OF FIGURES 

I Women as a percentage of labor force in artist occupations 1971 and 1980 /page 10 

II Unemployment range in artist occupations 1971-80 /page 12 

III Actors: employment trends 1971-80 /page 14 

IV Actors: unemployment rate 1971-80 /page 15 

V Architects: employment trends 1971-80 /page 16 

VI Architects: unemployment rate 1971-80 /page 17 

VII Authors: employment trends 1971-80 /page 18 

VIII Authors: unemployment rate 1971-80 /page 19 

IX Dancers: employment trends 1971-80 /page 20 

X Designers: employment trends 1971-80 /page 22 

XI Designers: unemployment rate 1971-80 /page 23 

XII Musicians and composers: employment trends 1971-80 /page 24 

XIII Musicians and composers: unemployment rate 1971-80 /page 25 

XIV Painters and sculptors: employment trends 1971-80 /page 26 

XV Painters and sculptors: unemployment rate 1971-80 /page 27 

XVI Photographers: employment trends 1971-80 /page 28 

XVII Photographers: unemployment rate 1971-80 /page 29 

XVIII Radio-TV announcers: employment trends 1971-80 /page 30 

XIX Radio-TV announcers: unemployment rate 1971-80 /page 31 

XX Teachers of art, drama, and music in higher education: 
employment trends 1971-80 /page 32 

XXI Teachers of art, drama, and music in higher education: 
unemployment rate 1971-80 /page 33 



INTRODUCTION 



Changes in the employment and unemployment 
of artists from 1971 to 1980 is the topic 
of this report. Like people in other oc- 
cupations, artists depend on the overall 
health of the national economy in maintain- 
ing gainful employment. In times of reces- 
sion, unemployment in many types of artist 
occupations increases. The 1973-75 reces- 
sion caused a downturn in artist employ- 
ment, but when the decade of the 1970s end- 
ed employment levels were relatively high 
in most artist occupations. 

The term artist as used in this report in- 
cludes people in the following occupation- 
al categories as listed in the U.S. Bureau 
of the Census, 1970 Census of Population 
Classified Index of Industries and Occupa - 
tions: 



The unemployment rate is the number of art- 
ists unemployed as a percent of the artist 
labor force. These data do not include 
such people with artists' skills who are 
not in the labor force as retired persons, 
those not working while in school, those 
working without pay, and those not seeking 
work because of personal or job market 
factors. Unemployment rates for dancers 
could not be reliably calculated from CPS 
data because of the small number of persons 
in this occupation in the sample and are 
omitted from this report. 



Actors 

Architects 

Authors 

Dancers 

Designers 

Musicians and composers 

Painters and sculptors 

Photographers 

Radio and television announcers 

Teachers of art, drama, and music in 

higher education 
Otner artists not elsewhere classified 



This differs from the broader Bureau of 
the Census classification of "writers, ar- 
tists, and entertainers" used in Research 
Report #1, Employment and Unemployment of 
Artists, 1970-1975. The latter classifi- 



cation included such occupations as ath- 
letes, reporters, editors, and publicity 
writers, all of which are excluded from 
consideration in this report. 



The labor force of artists comprises those 
people at least sixteen years old who were 
employed in any of the above artist occupa- 
tions and those persons previously employed 
in artist occupations and currently seeking 
work . 

Employed artists are those who worked for 
pay any time during the monthly survey 
week, including the self-employed. A per- 
son working at more than one job is count- 
ed as an artist only if the artistic work 
is the job at which he or she worked the 
greatest number of hours. 

Unemployed artists are those who did not 
work during the survey week but were avail- 
able for work and had looked for work with- 
in the preceding four weeks. 



1971-80 HIGHLIGHTS 



• There are now over a million persons in 
the artist labor force. Figures for 1980 
show that 1,020,000 people identified them- 
selves as employed or unemployed actors; 
architects; authors; dancers; designers; 
musicians/composers ; painters/sculptors ; 
photographers; radio-TV announcers; teach- 
ers of art, drama, and music in higher 
education; and other artists not else- 
where classified. 

• The artist labor force grew steadily 
from 1971 to 1980 and increased by 323,000 
persons or 46%. This is a higher rate of 
increase than the rate for all profession- 
al and technical workers, which was 40% in 
the same period. 

• Authors increased their numbers at a high- 
er rate than any other artist occupation. 
They grew from 33,000 to about 71,000. 
This is an increase of 115%. Radio-TV an- 
nouncers were the only artists whose num- 
ber declined. 

• Painters/sculptors and designers are now 
the largest artist occupation groups, with 
nearly 200,000 members each. Although mu- 
sicians/composers was the second largest 
artist group in 1971, this occupation 
dropped to third place by 1980, with 153,000 
members reflecting a comparatively modest 
growth over the decade of 21%. 

• The artist labor force is now about one- 
third female and two-thirds male as a re- 
sult of women entering artist occupations 
at twice the rate of men during the decade 
of the 1970s. There are now two artist oc- 
cupations which have a majority of females: 
dancers and painters/sculptors. In 1971, 
this was only the case for dancers. 

• Unemployment rates for artists were gen- 
erally lower at the end of the decade than 
at the beginning. Unemployment was great- 
est during the year 1975. 

• Unemployment rates were higher among ar- 
tists than among all professional and tech- 
nical workers — the broad labor force group 
with training levels most comparable to 
tists. In 1980, artists averaged 4.1% un- 
employment compared with 2.5% for all pro- 
fessional and technical workers. 

• The most chronic artist unemployment G 
isted among actors, with rates during the 
decade ranging between 31% and 48%. As 
many as 10,000 actors were out of work in 
1979. Their unemployment rate is about 
nine times greater than the a e for 
the other artist occupations. 



Table 1 



Labor force levels in artist occupations 
by sex 1971 and 1980 



1 


Occupation 


Labor force 




Percentage 

change 

1971-80 




1971 


1980 




All professional and 
technical workers 
Male 
Female 


11,416,000 
6,933,000 
4,483,000 


16,008,000 
8,869,000 
7,137,000 


+ 40% 
+ 28% 
+ 59% 


Actors 

Male 

Female 

Architects 

Male 

Female 

Authors 

Male 

Female 

Dancers 

Male 

Female 

Designers 

Male 

Female 

Musicians/composers 

Male 

Female 

Painters/ sculp tors 

Male 

Female 

Photographers 

Male 

Female 

Radio-TV announcers 

Male 

Female 

Teachers (higher ed. ) ** 

Male 

Female 

Other artists 

Male 

Female 


19,000 

11,000 

8,000 


23,000 

14,000 

9,000 


+ 21% 

+ 27% 

* 


70,000 

67,000 

3,000 


92,000 

86,000 

6,000 


+ 31% 
+ 28% 

* 


33,000 
21,000 
12,000 


71,000 
41,000 
31,000 


+ 115% 
+ 95% 
+ 158% 


10,000 
1,000 
9,000 


12,000 

2,000 

10,000 


+ 20% 

* 
* 


106,000 
78,000 
28,000 


198,000 

139,000 

60,000 


+ 87% 
+ 78% 
+ 114% 


126,000 
82,000 
45,000 


153,000 

108,000 

44,000 


+ 21% 
+ 32% 
- 2% 


130,000 
82,000 
48,000 


199,000 

97,000 

101,000 


+ 53% 
+ 18% 
+110% 


81,000 
67,000 
13,000 


114,000 
90,000 
24,000 


+ 41% 
+ 34% 
+ 85% 


28,000 

27,000 

1,000 


19,000 

14,000 

5,000 


- 32% 

- 48% 

* 


29,000 

20,000 

9,000 


37,000 
19,000 
18,000 


+ 28% 
- 5% 
+100% 


65,000 
48,000 
16,000 


102,000 
68,000 
34,000 


+ 57% 
+ 42% 
+113% 


All artists 

Male 

Female 


697,000 
504,000 
192,000 


1,020,000 
678,000 
342,000 


+ 46% 
+ 35% 
+ 78% 



Note: Male plus female labor force may not equal occupation 
total due to rounding. 

* Category has labor force under 10,000; data base is 
too small for estimate. 

** Art, drama, and music. 



GROWTH OF THE ARTIST LABOR FORCE 



During the 1970s decade the artist labor 
force in the United States increased by 
about 323,000 persons. In 19 71 there were 
697,000 persons in the occupations of ac- 
tors; architects; authors; dancers; design- 
ers; musicians/composers; painters/sculp- 
tors; photographers; radio-TV announcers; 
teachers of arts, drama, and music in high- 
er education; and other artist occupations 
not elsewhere classified. By 1980, this 
number increased to about 1,020,000. This 
is a 46% increase between 1971 and 1980. 
The growth of the labor force for all pro- 
fessional and technical workers was 40% in 
the same period. 

The number of authors led the 1970s artist 
labor force increase in percentage terms; 
it more than doubled, rising from 33,000 
in 1971 to 71,000 in 1980. Other artist 
occupations which increased more than the 
average were designers and painters/sculp- 
tors, which grew by 92,000 and 69,000 re- 
spectively. By 1980, they were also the 
two largest artist occupations, with about 
200,000 workers each. 

The radio- TV announcer occupation was the 
only one to decrease in overall labor force 
size. There were 32% fewer announcers in 
1980 than there were in 1971. Table 1 
shows the changes in labor force size for 
all artist occupations between 1971 and 
1980. 



Figure I 



Women as a percentage of labor force in artist occupations 
1971 and 1980 




1 



All professional and 














qi 










y 




technical workers 












4 






























42 \ 

















39% 


j 




«*«. 


4%L 
~7%] 


) 


























36%|. 














44% 




















Dancers 


















90 


83%P 






















Designers 








26%|J__ 










30%| 
































Musicians/composers 








36 [J 










29% P 


















Painters/sculptors 










37%l 














51% 


I) 




















Photographers 




16%L 








21? 






3L 








Radio-TV announcers 








26%P 




















Teachers of art, 

drama, and music 

in higher education 








31% | 














49% | 




















( 
1 


> 

Percent 


1 
15 


1 
30 






1 
45 




i 
60 


1 I 
75 90 



10 



MALE-FEMALE COMPOSITION 



The 1970s also brought changes in the male- 
female composition of the artist labor 
force. As in most professions, the propor- 
tion of females increased. In 1971, women 
accounted for 28% of the artist labor force; 
by 1980 they represented 34%, making the 
composition about one-third female and two- 
thirds male. Women are not as well repre- 
sented in the artist occupations, however, 
as they are in the total professional popu- 
lation, which is now 45% female. The danc- 
er occupation continues to have the high- 
est proportion of women (83%) and the ar- 
chitect occupation continues to have the 
lowest (7%). Figure I illustrates the 
change in the percentage of female artists 
in each artist occupation between 1971 and 
1980. 

The greatest change in male- female composi- 
tion occurred among painters/sculptors and 
teachers of art, drama, and music in high- 
er education. In 1980 the number of female 
painters/sculptors surpassed the number of 
men for the first time, having grown pro- 
portionately from 37% to 51% in 1980. The 
proportion of women also increased substan- 
tially among teachers of art, drama, and 
music, who now include about equal numbers 
of males and females. 

The proportion of women declined among com- 
posers and marginally (not to a statisti- 
cally significant degree) among dancers 
and actors. The decrease in the percent- 
age of women musician/composers is probably 
a result of economic conditions during the 
1970s, when their high unemployment rate 
coupled with slow growth in the musicians/ 
composers labor force made it especially 
difficult for people entering this occupa- 
tion . 

Overall, there was a closer balance between 
the number of males and females in artist 
occupations in 1980 than in 1971. 



11 



Figure II 



Unemployment range in artist occupations 1971-80 



Highest| 
Average 



Lowest I P 





3.2%l 












All professional and 


2.7%p 






2.2%f 








Actors 








39.8%P 










30.5%P 


1 1 
35 40 






.4 [ 






A 




Architects 


2.8, J 






J. 6% 






6.0%P 




Authors 


2.3%| 








■ l.4% 






7.6 




Designers 


3.6%| 








■ l.8% 






9.1% 


J 




Musicians/composers 


6.9%| 






3.9%| 














, 






'•- ( 




Painters/sculptors 


3.9% P 








2. > [J 












6.7% 




Photographers 


4.1%P 








J 1.7% 












9.8% 




Radio-TV announcers 


5.9% 


J 








P. 2% 








/ 






Teachers of art. 


_ . 




drama, and music 


2,>| 






in higher education 


• ■»* 




1 


1 

) 5 

'ercent 




1 


V 1 
30 


1 1 
45 50 



12 



UNEMPLOYMENT 



During the 1971-80 decade, artists had high- 
er rates of unemployment than the total of 
all professional and technical workers, 
among whom unemployment averaged 2.7%. Un- 
employment was particularly severe for ac- 
tors. Of approximately 23,000 actors re- 
ported in the 1980 labor force about 8,000 
were without jobs, representing an unemploy- 
ment rate of 35%. No other artist occupa- 
tion had an unemployment rate approaching 
this figure, and the average for artists 
in occupations other than acting in 1980 
was 3.4%. Because of wide variations in 
labor force size and employment levels, it 
is important to examine each artist occupa- 
tion separately. In general, however, ar- 
tist unemployment rates were highest in 1975 
and 1976, lowest in the 1972-73 period and 
again in 1978-79. This corresponds to the 
recession-recovery cycle for the general 
economy during the decade. However, unem- 
ployment rates for artists fluctuated more 
from year to year than the rates for all 
professional and technical workers , suggest- 
ing that employment may be more volatile in 
artist occupations. The range of artist 
employment is shown in Figure II. 



OCCUPATIONAL OVERVIEWS 



Employment figures for the total artist pop- 
ulation obscure the many variations among 
the individual artist occupations. Al- 
though most of the artist groups experienced 
growth of labor force in 1971-80 and most 
had higher than average unemployment during 
recession, considerable variation existed. 
Growth and employment levels in some artist 
occupations, particularly in the performing 
arts, were more seriously affected by na- 
tional economic reverses than other artist 
occupations. The trend for each artist oc- 
cupation between 1971 and 1980 is present- 
ed in Figures III-XXIon the following pages . 



13 



Figure III 



Actors: employment trends 1971-80 




14 



The employment situation was bleak for ac- 
tors throughout the 1970s. At the begin- 
ning of the decade, nearly half of all ac- 
tors were out of work. While unemployment 
dropped to 31% by 1976, it rose again to over 
35% by 1979-80. Poor employment prospects 
probably contributed to the slow growth in 
the actor labor force over the decade. The 
actor labor force, which peaked in 1978 at 
30,000, declined to about 23,000 by 1980. 



Figure IV 



Actors: unemployment rate 1971-80 




15 



Figure V 



Architects: employment trends 1971-80 



- 80,000 



- 70,000 



- 60,000 




1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 ' 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 



- 50,000 



- 40,000 



- 30,000 



- 20,000 



- 10,000 



16 



The architect occupation tends to be sensi- 
tive to the ups and downs of the general 
economy. Unemployment peaked at 5.4% at the 
height of the 1974-75 recession. A sharp 
decline in the number of architects working 
or seeking work followed, so that there 
were fewer persons in the architect labor 
force in 1977 than in 1971. However, more 
than 30,000 persons (representing a 50% 
increase in the labor force) entered or 
reentered architect occupations between 
1977 and 1980, and notwithstanding this 
growth, at the end of the decade the un- 
employment rate of 1.7% was one of the 
lowest for artists. 



Figure VI 



Architects: unemployment rate 1971-80 




17 



Figure VII 



Authors: employment trends 1971-80 



80,000 



I- 70,000 



- 60,000 




- 50,000 



- 40,000 



- 30,000 



- 20,000 



- 10,000 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 ' 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 



18 



The author labor force grew faster than any 
other artist occupation during the 1970s — 
increasing its number by 115%. Although 
the unemployment rate was relatively high, 
6% in 1971, it dropped gradually to less 
than 2% at the end of the decade. The 
1974-75 recession had only moderate effect 
on work prospects — with unemployment in- 
creasing to only 3.6% in 1975. This was 
lower than the recession unemployment rate 
for most other artist occupations, probably 
reflecting the high frequency of self-employ- 
ment among authors. 



Figure VIII 



Authors: unemployment rate 1971-80 




19 



Figure IX 



Dancers: employment trends 1971-80 




15,000 



10,000 



- 5,000 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 



20 



The number of dancers in the labor force 
fluctuated considerably throughout the 
decade (reflecting in part the higher 
degree of error associated with the small 
number of dancers in the sample) but moved 
up steadily in the latter half and reached 
12,000 by 1980. Unemployment rates are 
not available through the use of the CPS 
data because the total number of dancers 
is so small. Too few dancers are repre- 
sented in the survey sample to permit de- 
pendable unemployment estimates. 



21 



Figure X 



Designers: employment trends 1971-80 



-140,000 



120,000 




-100,000 



- 80,000 



- 60,000 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 



40,000 



- 20,000 



22 



Designers had steady labor force gains ev- 
ery year from 1971 to 1980, increasing their 
numbers by a substantial 87% over the dec- 
ade. By 1980 there were about 200, 000 de- 
signers in the labor force. Unemployment 
was relatively low during most of the peri- 
od but, like most other professions, de- 
signers were affected by the 1974-75 re- 
cession which caused a tripling of their 
unemployment rate to 7.6% in 1975. Design- 
ers' employment, however, bounced back in 
1976 and by 1980 only 2.6% of designers 
were out of work. 



Figure XI 



Designers: unemployment rate 1971-80 




23 



Figure XII 



Musicians and composers: employment trends 1971-80 



160,000 



-140,000 



Employed + Unemployed = Labor force 



-120,000 




-100,000 



- 80,000 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 



- 60,000 



- 40,000 



- 20,000 



24 



Employment prospects seemed good for musi- 
cians and composers in the early 1970s. 
Despite substantial growth in the labor 
force, unemployment was less than 4% in 
1974. The recession affected this picture 
dramatically, however, and musicians and 
composers have never really recovered from 
its impact. The unemployment rate, which 
exceeded 9% in 1976, remained a high 6.2% 
in 1980. The decreased unemployment rate 
reflected a smaller number of job-seekers 
rather than growth of those employed. The 
number of employed musicians and composers, 
which declined by 11,000 between 1977 and 
1980, suggests that many abandoned the 
field. 



Figure XIII 



Musicians and composers : unemployment rate 1971-80 




25 



Figure XIV 



Painters and sculptors: employment trends 1971-80 



Employed + Unemployed = Labor force 



180,000 



-160,000 



-140,000 



-120,000 




-100,000 



- 80,000 



60,000 



h- 40,000 



1971 ' 1972 ' 1973 1974 ' 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 



- 20,000 



26 



Painters and sculptors are the largest ar- 
tist occupation group, with about 200,000 
members in 1980 reflecting steady labor 
force gains throughout the decade. Painters 
and sculptors suffered only moderate em- 
ployment setbacks from the mid-decade re- 
cession, possibly because of relatively 
high self-employment. The number of em- 
ployed painters and sculptors decreased 
by 3,000 in 1975 and the rate of unemploy- 
ment reached 6.5% the following year, but 
they recovered these losses in 1977 and 
subsequently grew through the end of the 
decade. 



Figure XV 



Painters and sculptors: unemployment rate 1971-80 




27 



Figure XVI 



Photographers: employment trends 1971-80 




- 60,000 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 



40,000 



- 20,000 



28 



Photographer employment and labor force lev- 
els fluctuated throughout most of the dec- 
ade. The photographer labor force dropped 
between 1971 and 1973, then rose through 
1976, dropped in 1977, and then made sub- 
stantial gains. The 1974-75 recession un- 
doubtedly played an important role in this 
fluctuation; unemployment, which peaked at 
about 6.6% in 1975-76, could have discour- 
aged prospective entrants into the field. 
At the end of the 1970s, photographer em- 
ployment is healthy, with 33,000 more pho- 
tographers than in 1971 and an unemploy- 
ment rate of only 2.8%. 



Figure XVII 



Photographers: unemployment rate 1971-80 




29 



Figure XVIII 



Radio-TV announcers : employment trends 1971-80 




-15,000 



-10,000 



- 5,000 



1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 



1980* 



30 



This was the only artist labor force that 
decreased during the 1970s, with 28,000 
members dropping to about 19,000 by 1980 
(a net loss of 32%) . There was some fluc- 
tuation in numbers — loss in the early part 
of the decade, growth in the middle, and 
renewed loss from 1976 to 1980. Because 
many radio-TV announcers apparently aban- 
doned the field, the unemployment rate for 
this occupation was low toward the end of 
the decade — amounting to less than 1% in 
1980 in contrast with the 9.8% unemployment 
rate of 1971. 



Figure XIX 



Radio-TV announcers: unemployment rate 1971-80 




31 



Figure XX 



Teachers of art, drama, and music in higher education : employment trends 1971-80 




1978 



1979 1980 



-10,000 



- 5,000 



32 



The labor force for this occupation group 
made only a moderate gain of 28% during the 
1970s. The labor force grew substantially 
during the 1971-78 period, numbering as 
many as 45,000 in 1978, but dropped to a- 
bout 37,000 between 1978 and 1980, probably 
as the result of general decline in enroll- 
ments at colleges and universities. Most 
of the 8,000 former teachers found work in 
other occupations or dropped out of the 
labor force entirely because they fail to 
figure in teacher unemployment totals. In 
general, employment was high for this group 
during the decade, with unemployment peak- 
ing at slightly more than 5% in 1977 (prob- 
ably reflecting an oversupply that presaged 
the declines of 1978-80) and down to 2.5% 
by 1980. 



Figure XXI 



Teachers of art, drama, and music in higher education : unemployment rate 1971-80 



•Not plotted because unemployment level below 500 persons. 



- 8« 



lOt 









I 



— I 



~l 



— I 



- 1 



T 






— I — 



— I — 









1 9 M 






33 



APPENDICES 

APPENDIX A 
DETAILED TABLES 

APPENDIX B 

RELIABILITY OF CURRENT POPULATION SURVEY (CPS) 
STATISTICS 

CURRENT POPULATION SURVEY (CPS) AS A SOURCE 
OF ARTIST OCCUPATION DATA 



35 



APPENDIX A 



DETAILED TABLES (2 AND 3) 



Table 2 



Labor force levels in artist occupations by sex 1971-80 



■■■■■■■■■■■■ 


Occupation 


1971 


1972 


1973 


1974 


1975 


1976 


All professional and 
technical workers 
Male 
Female 


11,416,000 
6,933,000 
4,483,000 


11,741,000 
7,110,000 
4,631,000 


12,037,000 
7,186,000 
4,852,000 


12,623,000 
7,482,000 
5,142,000 


13,173,000 
7,700,000 
5,474,000 


13,769,000 
7,933,000 
5,836,000 


Actors 

Male 

Female 

Architects 

Male 

Female 

Authors 

Male 

Female 

Dancers 

Male 

Female 

Designers 

Male 

Female 

Musicians/composers 

Male 

Female 

Painters/sculptors 

Male 

Female 

Photographers 

Male 

Female 

Radio-TV announcers 

Male 

Female 

Teachers (higher ed.)* 

Male 

Female 

Other artists 

Male 

Female 


19,000 

11,000 

8,000 


18,000 

13,000 

5,000 


16,000 
7,000 
8,000 


19,000 

11,000 

8,000 


20,000 

13,000 

7,000 


23,000 

13,000 

9,000 


70,000 

67,000 

3,000 


68,000 

66,000 

2,000 


74,000 

72,000 

2,000 


73,000 

71,000 

2,000 


74,000 

71,000 

3,000 


64,000 

62,000 

2,000 


33,000 
21,000 
12,000 


31,000 
18,000 
13,000 


39,000 
18,000 
20,000 


47,000 
27,000 
21,000 


47,000 
26,000 
20,000 


49,000 
25,000 
24,000 


10,000 
1,000 
9,000 


6,000 
1,000 
5,000 


10,000 
3,000 
7,000 


7,000 
1,000 
5,000 


8,000 
3,000 
5,000 


7,000 
2,000 
5,000 


106,000 
78,000 
28,000 


113,000 
91,000 
21,000 


125,000 
98,000 
27,000 


132,000 
99,000 
33,000 


135,000 

103,000 

34,000 


147,000 

112,000 

35,000 


126,000 
82,000 
45,000 


130,000 
92,000 
39,000 


129,000 
88,000 
41,000 


146,000 

102,000 

44,000 


151,000 

104,000 

47,000 


165,000 

113,000 

52,000 


130,000 
82,000 
48,000 


137,000 
78,000 
60,000 


141,000 
80,000 
60,000 


154,000 
89,000 
65,000 


155,000 
84,000 
72,000 


164,000 
89,000 
75,000 


81,000 
67,000 
13,000 


80,000 
67,000 
13,000 


76,000 
63,000 
13,000 


79,000 
67,000 
13,000 


81,000 
67,000 
14,000 


93,000 
79,000 
14,000 


28,000 

25,000 

1,000 


24,000 

22,000 

1,000 


19,000 

18,000 

1,000 


21,000 

19,000 

2,000 


24,000 

22,000 

2,000 


28,000 

27,000 

1,000 


29,000 

20,000 

9,000 


30,000 

21,000 

9,000 


34,000 
22,000 
11,000 


35-, 000 
21,000 
14,000 


39,000 
22,000 
17,000 


41,000 
25,000 
15,000 


65,000 
48,000 
16,000 


69,000 
46,000 
23,000 


74,000 
47,000 
27,000 


73,000 
46,000 
26,000 


89,000 
58,000 
30,000 


85,000 
53,000 
32,000 


All artists 

Male 

Female 


697,000 
504,000 
192,000 


706,000 
515,000 
191,000 


737,000 
516,000 
217,000 


786,000 
553,000 
233,000 


823,000 
573,000 
251,000 


866,000 
600,000 
264,000 



Note: Male plus female labor force may not equal occupation total due to rounding. 
* Art, drama, and music. 



■HHHH 


1977 


1978 




1980 


14,118,000 
3,044,000 
6,074,000 


14,626,000 
8,326,000 
6, 300,000 


15,422,000 
8,692,000 
6,740,000 


16,008,000 
8,869,000 
7,137,000 


21,000 
12,000 
10,000 


30,000 
17,000 
12,000 


28,000 
16,000 
12,000 


23,000 

14,000 

9,000 


60,000 

58,000 

3,000 


71,000 

66,000 

4,000 


85,000 

79,000 

5,000 


92,000 

86,000 

6,000 


49,000 
31,000 
19,000 


54,000 
33,000 
21,000 


56,000 
30,000 
26,000 


71,000 
41,000 
31,000 


9,000 
3,000 
5,000 


9,000 
3,000 
7,000 


10,000 
2,000 
8,000 


12,000 

2,000 

10,000 


151,000 

115,000 

37,000 


166,000 

120,000 

.0 00 


184,000 

131,000 

53,000 


198,000 

139,000 

60,000 


167,000 

117,000 

50,000 


0,000 

112,000 

48,000 


154,000 

101,000 

53,000 


153,000 

108,000 

44,000 


183,000 

101,000 

83,000 


191,000 

103,000 

87,000 


193,000 

105,000 

89,000 


199,000 

000 

101,000 


86,000 

. 100 

1 1,000 


100 

000 

14,000 


.000 

86,000 

100 


114,000 

.000 

24,000 


. 000 

. 000 

100 


000 
100 
'00 


18,000 

.000 

100 


19,000 

14.000 

000 


4 1,000 

28,000 

000 


45,000 

100 

16,000 


'.000 

000 

14,000 


1 .000 

000 

18,000 


8 1,000 

.000 

10,000 


ooo 

000 
31 ,000 


000 
. 000 
.000 


,000 

.000 

000 


878,000 



934,000 
643,000 
289,000 


.000 

.000 

320,000 


1,020,000 
.000 
.000 



37 



Table 3 



Labor force, employment, and unemployment in artist occupations 1971-80 



^■■■i 


Occupation 




1971 


1972 


1973 


1974 


1975 


1976 


All professional and 
technical workers 
Employed 
Unemployed 


11,416,000 

11,085,000 

331,000 


11,741,000 

11,459,000 

282,000 


12,037,000 

11,777,000 

260,000 


12,623,000 

12,338,000 

285,000 


13,173,000 

12,748,000 

425,000 


13,769,000 

13,329,000 

440,000 


Unemployment 


rate 


2.9% 


2.4% 


2.2% 


2.3% 


3.2% 


3.2% 


Actors 

Employed 

Unemployed 




19,000 

10,000 

9,000 


18,000 

10,000 

8,000 


16,000 
9,000 
7,000 


19,000 

10,000 

9,000 


20,000 

13,000 

7,000 


23,000 
16,000 

7,000 


Unemployment 

Architects 

Employed 

Unemployed 


rate 


47.5% 


44.0% 


45.1% 


47.7% 


34.8% 


31.1% 


70,000 

69,000 

1,000 


68,000 

66,000 

2,000 


74,000 

73,000 

1,000 


73,000 

71,000 

2,000 


74,000 

70,000 

4,000 


64,000 

63,000 

1,000 


Unemployment 

Authors 

Employed 

Unemployed 


rate 


1.0% 


3.3% 


1.9% 


2.7% 


5.4% 


2. 3% 


33,000 

31,000 

2,000 


31,000 

30,000 

1,000 


39,000 

38,000 

1,000 


47,000 

46,000 

1,000 


47,000 

45,000 

2,000 


49,000 

48,000 

1,000 


Unemployment 

Dancers 

Employed 

Unemployed 


rate 


6.0% 


2.5% 


1.7% 


2.9% 


3.6% 


2.1% 


10,000 
7,000 
3,000 


6,000 
5,000 
1,000 


10,000 
8,000 
2,000 


7,000 
5,000 
2,000 


8,000 
6,000 
2,000 


7,000 
3,000 
4,000 


Unemployment 

Designers 

Employed 

Unemployed 


rate 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 


106,000 

99,000 

7,000 


113,000 

110,000 

3,000 


125,000 

123,000 

2,000 


132,000 

129,000 

3,000 


135,000 

125,000 

10,000 


147,000 

142,000 

5,000 


Unemployment rate 

Musicians/composers 

Employed 

Unemployed 


6.2% 


2.5% 


1.8% 


2.3% 


7.6% 


3.6% 


126,000 

116,000 

10,000 


130,000 

121,000 

9,000 


129,000 

120,000 

9,000 


146,000 

140,000 

6,000 


151,000 

139,000 

12,000 


165,000 
150,000 

15,000 


Unemployment rate 

Painters/ sculptors 

Employed 

Unemployed 


7.7% 


6.9% 


7.2% 


3.9% 


7.7% 


9.1% 


130,000 

125,000 

5,000 


137,000 

129,000 

8,000 


141,000 

136,000 

5,000 


154,000 

149,000 

5,000 


155,000 

146,000 

9,000 


164,000 

153,000 

11,000 


Unemployment rate 

Photographers 

Employed 

Unemployed 


3.7% 


5.9% 


3.5% 


3.1% 


5.9% 


6.5% 


81,000 

77,000 

4,000 


80,000 

77,000 

3,000 


76,000 

75,000 

1,000 


79,000 

78,000 

1,000 


81,000 

76,000 

5,000 


93,000 

87,000 

6,000 


Unemployment rate 

Radio-TV announcers 

Employed 

Unemployed 


4.4% 


4.1% 


1.7% 


1.9% 


6.5% 


6.7% 


28,000 

25,000 

3,000 


24,000 

22,000 

2,000 


19,000 

18,000 

1,000 


21,000 

20,000 

1,000 


24,000 

22,000 

2,000 


28,000 

26,000 

2,000 


Unemployment 

Teachers (high 

Employed 

Unemployed 


rate 

er ed. ) ** 


9.8% 


7.3% 


5.7% 


6.0% 


8. 7% 


8.3% 


29,000 

29,000 

* 


30,000 

30,000 

* 


34,000 

34,000 

* 


35,000 

35,000 

* 


39,u00 

38,000 

1,000 


41,000 

39,000 

2,000 


Unemployment rate 

Other artists 

Employed 

Unemployed 


* 


* 


* 


* 


2.9% 


4.6% 


65,000 

60,000 

5,000 


69,000 

66,000 

3,000 


74,000 

72,000 

2,000 


73,000 

70,000 

3,000 


89,000 

84,000 

5,000 


85,000 

79,000 

6,000 


Unemployment 


rate 


7.4% 


4.4% 


2.9% 


3.5% 


5.2% 


6.5% 


All artists 

Employed 

Unemployed 




697,000 

648,000 

49,000 


706,000 

666,000 

40,000 


737,000 

706,000 

31,000 


786,000 

753,000 

33,000 


823,000 

764,000 

59,000 


866,000 

807,000 

59,000 


Unemployment 


rate 


7.0% 


5.7% 


4.4% 


4.2% 


7.2% 


6.8% 



Note: Employed plus unemployed may not equal occupation total due to rounding. Unemployment rates are 
computed based on unrounded estimates of the unemployment and labor force levels. 

* Data base is too small to provide a meaningful estimate (labor force of 10,000 or less; 
unemployment level below 500). 

** Art, drama, and music. 



^■■■■■H 


1977 


1978 


1979 


1980 


14,118,000 


14,626,000 


15,422,000 


16,008,000 


13,692,000 


14,245,000 


15,049,000 


15,613,000 


426,000 


381,000 


373,000 


395,000 


3.0% 


2.6% 


2.4% 


2.5% 


21,000 


30,000 


28,000 


23,000 


13,000 


21,000 


18,000 


15,000 


8,000 


9,000 


10,000 


8,000 


38.5% 


30.5% 


35.8% 


35.4% 


60,000 


71,000 


85,000 


92,000 


58,000 


69,000 


84,000 


90,000 


2,000 


2,000 


1,000 


2,000 


3.6% 


2.6% 


.6% 


1.7% 


49,000 


54,000 


56,000 


71,000 


47,000 


53,000 


55,000 


70,000 


2,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


3.5% 


1.4% 


2.6% 


1.9% 


9,000 


9,000 


10,000 


12,000 


8,000 


8,000 


9,000 


10,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


2,000 


* 


* 


* 


14.2% 


151,000 


166,000 


184,000 


198,000 


146,000 


161,000 


179,000 


193,000 


5,000 


5,000 


5,000 


5,000 


}. 


3.3% 


2.6% 


.6% 


167,000 


160,000 


154,000 


153,000 


154,000 


149,000 


145,000 


143,000 


13,000 


11,000 


9,000 


10,000 


7.8% 


6.6% 


6.1% 


6.2% 


183,000 


191,000 


193,000 


199,000 


177,000 


186,000 


189,000 


195,000 


6,000 


5,000 


4,000 


4,000 


. 


2.7% 


2.0% 


. 2% 


86,000 


97,000 


111,000 


114,000 


81,000 


93,000 


107,000 


111,000 


5,000 


4,000 


4,000 


3,000 


5.' 


4.2% 


3. 


9% 


.100 


22,000 


19,000 


">00 


25,000 


21,000 


18,000 


19,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


• 


4.6% 


4.0% 


4.2% 


« 


43,000 


45,000 




.000 


41,000 


44,000 


38,000 


36,000 


2,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


5.1* 


1.8% 


3.0% 


5% 


.100 


89,000 


90,000 


102,000 


78,000 


84,000 


86,000 


100 


5,000 


5,000 


4,000 


6,000 


6.6% 


5.9% 


4. 


. 0% 


878,000 


4,000 


969,000 


1,020,000 


3,000 


889,000 


928,000 


8,000 


50,000 


45,000 


41,000 


100 


5.7% 


4.8% 


4. 


4.1% 



39 



APPENDIX B 



RELIABILITY OF CURRENT POPULATION 
SURVEY (CPS) STATISTICS 



The data in this report are based on respon- 
ses obtained from the Current Population 
Survey which collects information from a 
representative sample rather than from ev- 
ery person in the nation. The statistics 
are therefore subject to sampling error, or 
sampling variability as it is also known. 
Precise measure of sampling error calls for 
comparison of the figure obtained from a 
complete count or census with one arrived 
at from a sample. Since this is not possi- 
ble, a "standard error" representing the 
average deviation of all possible samples 
is generally used as indication of how well 
an estimate from a sample approximates a 
complete count. The Bureau of Labor Sta- 
tistics publishes standard error tables 
from which figures relevant to the artist 
occupation samples can be extracted. 

Sampling variability occurs in both direc- 
tions, plus and minus, and small errors oc- 
cur more often than larger errors, so that 
about 68% of the time, variability will be 
less than the standard error. About 90% 
of the time, the figure based on a complete 
count would be in the range of plus or mi- 
nus 1.6 times the standard error of the 
estimate. The term "confidence interval" 
is used to designate such levels of prob- 
ability. The range from the standard er- 
ror below the estimate to the standard 
error above it is called the 68% confidence 
interval. The range from 1.6 times the 
standard error below the estimate to 1.6 
times the standard error above it is called 
the 90% confidence interval. 



treme , the standard error for 199,000 es- 
timated painters/sculptors is 13,000 or 
almost 7%. Because these sampling errors 
are so large relative to the standard er- 
ror of less than 1% for all professional 
and technical workers, this report focuses 
on the differing labor force sizes among 
the occupations and the long term (over- 
the-decade) trends. This analytic approach 
is considered to be the best when using da- 
ta with relatively high sampling errors. 
Bureau of the Census Technical Paper 32, 
Standards for Discussion and Presentation 
of Errors in Data , states that ". . .estimates 
that are subject to large relative sampling 
errors frequently are small and the fact 
that the estimate is small is often suffi- 
cient information to be meaningful." Sim- 
ilarly, "The Analysis of Labor Statistics, " 
available from the Branch of International 
Training, Bureau of Labor Statistics (mim- 
eographed, revised 1979), notes that the 
analyst who observes consistent decline 
in successive months "may discern that 
there is an overall trend developing, even 
though the change from month to month is 
not significant (greater than the standard 
error) . " 



Table 4 provides the standard error and 68% 
and 90% confidence intervals for labor 
force, employment, and unemployment esti- 
mates for each of the artist occupations in 
1980. Designers, for example, had an esti- 
mated labor force of 198,000 in 1980. The 
standard error for this estimate was 13, 000. 
Thus, the actual number in the designer la- 
bor force has a 68% probability of being 
somewhere between 185,000 and 211,000. 
There is a 90% probability that the number 
is somewhere between 177,000 and 219,000 
(198,000 plus and minus 1.6 times 13,000) . 

Many of the estimates for artist occupa- 
tions shown in Table 4 have large standard 
errors relative to the size of the estimate. 
The small 12,000 labor force estimate for 
dancers has a 3,000 standard error — or 25% 
of the estimate; and even at the other ex- 



40 



Table 4 



Standard errors and confidence intervals for artist labor force, 
employment, and unemployment 1980 











Standard 


68% confidence 


90% confidence 






Estimates 


error 


interval 


interval 


Occupations 




for 1980 


(+ or -) 


(range) 


(range) 


All professional and 












technical workers 


16,008,000 


121,000 


15,887,000-16,129,000 


15 


814,000-16,202,000 


Employed 




15,613,000 


119,000 


15,494,000-15,732,000 


15 


423,000-15,803,000 


Unemployed 




395,000 


19,000 


376,000-414,000 




365,000-415,000 


Unemployment 


rate 


2.5"* 


.1% 


2.4-2.6% 




2.3-2.7% 


Actors 




23,000 


5,000 


18,000-28,000 




15,000-31,000 


Employed 




15,000 


4,000 


11,000-19,000 




9,000-21,000 


Unemployed 




8,000 


3,000 


5,000-11,000 


3,000-13,000 


Unemployment 
Architects 


rate 


35.4% 


9.8% 


25.6-4 




19.7-5. 


92,000 


9,000 


83,000-101,000 




78,000-106,000 


Employed 




90,000 


9,000 


81,000-99,000 




76,000-104,000 


Unemployed 




2,000 


1,000 


1,000-3,000 




0-4,000 


Unemployment 
Authors 


rate 


1.7% 


1.3% 


.0% 




0-3.8% 


71,000 


8,000 


63,000-79,000 




58,000-84,000 


Employed 




70,000 


8,000 


62,000-78,000 




57,000-83,000 


Unemployed 




1,000 


1,000 


0-2,000 




0-3,000 


Unemployment 
Dancers 


rate 


1.9% 


1.6% 


.3-3.5% 




0-4.5% 


12,000 


3,000 


9,000-15,000 




7,000-17,000 


Employed 




10,000 


3,000 


7,000-13,000 




5,000-15,000 


Unemployed 




2,000 


2,000 


0-3,000 




0-5.000 


Unemployment 
Designers 


rate 


14.2% 


9.8% 


4.4-24.0% 




0-29.9% 


198,000 


13,000 


185,000-211,000 




177,000-219,000 


Employed 




193,000 


13,000 


180,000-196,000 




172,000-214,000 


Unemployed 




5,000 


2,000 


3,000-7,000 




2,000-8,000 


Unemployment rate 
Musicians/composers 


2.6% 


1.3% 


1.3-3.9% 


.5-4.7% 


153,000 


12,000 


141,000-165,000 




134,000-172,000 


Employed 




143,000 


11,000 


132,000-154,000 




125,000-161.000 


Unemployed 




10,000 


3,000 


7,000-13,000 




5,000-15,000 


Unemployment rate 
Pa inters/ sculp tors 


6.2% 


2.1% 


4 • A ™ o • J* 




2.8-9. 


199,000 


13,000 


186,000-212,000 




178,000-220,000 


Employed 




195,000 


13,000 


182,000-208,000 




174,000-216,000 


Unemployed 




4,000 


2,000 


2,000-6,000 




1,000-7,000 


Unemployment 
Photographers 


rate 


2.2% 


1.2% 


1.0-3.4% 




-4.1% 


114,000 


10,000 


104,000-124,000 




98,000-130,000 


Employed 




111,000 


10,000 


101,000-121,000 




95,000-127,000 


Unemployed 




3,000 


2,000 


1,000-5,000 




0-6,000 


Unemployment rate 
Radio-TV announcers 


2.8% 


1.5% 


1. 3-4.1% 




.4 


19,000 


4,000 


15,000-23,000 




100-25, 000 


Employed 




19,000 


4,000 


15,000-23,000 




13,000-25,000 


iployed 




» 


• 


* 




♦ 


Unemployment 
Teachers (high 


er ad.)** 


♦ 


* 




• 


37,000 


6,000 


31,000-43,000 




000 


Employed 




too 


6,000 


30,000-42,000 




100-46,000 


Unemployed 




1 ,000 


1,000 
2.5% 


0-2,000 




0-3,000 


Unemployment rate 
Other artists 




0-5.0% 




0-f 


102,000 


10,000 


92,000-112,000 




86,000-118,000 


Employed 




96,000 


9,000 


87,000-105,000 




82,000-110,000 


Unemployed 




6,000 


2,000 


00-8,000 




100-9,000 


Unemployment 















lemployment rates and leve. lot shovi 

** Art, drama, and music. 



oloyme- i be belc* 



41 



CURRENT POPULATION SURVEY (CPS) AS A 
SOURCE OF ARTIST OCCUPATION DATA 



The Current Population Survey is a 60,000- 
household general population survey that 
is conducted monthly by the Bureau of the 
Census for the Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Its primary function is to provide the 
information necessary to compute national 
employment and unemployment statistics. 
Because comparatively specific questions a- 
bout the respondent's occupation are includ- 
ed in the survey, it is possible to derive 
employment and unemployment statistics for 
each occupation coded by the Census Bureau. 
Information about the major occupation 
groupings is published monthly by the Bu- 
reau of Labor Statistics, while data on 
smaller, more closely defined, occupation- 
al categories are issued annually. The an- 
nual figures for 19 71 through 19 80 are used 
in this report. 

The two major advantages CPS offers as a 
source of information about artists are: 

1. National estimates for several char- 
acteristics of artist occupations which 
are directly comparable to the estimates 
for other occupations (because the survey, 
which uses a nationally representative 
sample, asks similar questions of all re- 
spondents) . 

2. Regular periodic collection of data 
which may be used for trend analysis. 

The decennial census offers similar advan- 
tages in terms of comparability and regular 
intervals of collection but the intervals 
are full decades. On the other hand, the 
vastly larger size of the decennial census 
makes for greater data reliability. Clear- 
ly, both sources can and should be used, 
with the decennial censuses serving as 
benchmarks for the CPS. 

A third source of data on artist occupa- 
tions derived from a general population sur- 
vey using the same questions to determine 
the occupation of the respondents as the 
CPS and decennial censuses is the 1976 Sur- 
vey of Income and Education. This was a 
nationally representative sample survey of 
approximately 150,000 households. Because 
the sample size is larger than the CPS and, 
hence, offered statistics of greater reli- 
ability, Research Division Report #12 used 
this survey as a "mid-decade" benchmark and 
compared it with 1970 census results. 

While these three sources have the advantage 
of providing comparable national occupation- 
al statistics, they share several important 
limitations insofar as artists are concern- 
ed. The survey questions identify only the 
respondent's "primary occupation" (one in 
which the most hours are worked) rather 



than all jobs held. Other studies indi- 
cate that many artists work simultaneously 
in other occupations; these individuals 
would not be counted as artists unless 
more time was devoted to the art occupa- 
tion than to a second job. Another limi- 
tation derives from the fact that the oc- 
cupational classification system used by 
the Census Bureau during the 1970s did not 
specifically provide for some artist oc- 
cupations. Because no single occupational 
code explicitly included craft artists , for 
example, no estimate for this population 
can be extracted. (The 1980 census includes 
such artists under an expanded painters 
and sculptors code.) 

Other data collection methods have been 
used by the Research Division to gain per- 
spectives en the artist population which 
are not possible through the general pop- 
ulation surveys. For example, in studying 
the American craft artist population, the 
Division contacted all known craft member- 
ship organizations to determine number of 
members and in what media they worked. 
(See Research Division Report #13, Craft 
Artist Membership Organizations 1978 . ) 
A representative sample of craft artists 
was selected and surveyed on the basis of 
resulting information. Concurrently, a 
sample of craft artists was selected from 
exhibitors at galleries and fairs and craft 
publication subscribers to learn about 
affiliation (or nonaf filiation) with craft 
membership organizations and to compare 
member and nonmember characteristics. 
These studies provide a basis for esti- 
mating size and characteristics of the 
craft artist population which would not be 
possible from general population surveys. 



42 



REPORTS IN THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR 
THE ARTS RESEARCH DIVISION SERIES 



Since 1976 the Research Division of the 
National Endowment for the Arts has been 
studying matters of interest to the arts 
community and issuing reports based on its 
findings. Copies of the reports may be or- 
dered from the Publishing Center for Cul- 
tural Resources, 625 Broadway, New York 
City 10012 at the prices noted below. 

Checks should be made payable to "Publish- 
ing Center. " Prices include postage and 
handling; no state or local sales tax is 
applicable . 



#1 Employment and Unemployment of Artists : 
1970-1975. 32 pages. April 1976. $2.50 

#2 To Survey American Crafts: A Planning 
Study. 32 pages. July 1977. $2.50 

#3 Understanding the Employment of Actors. 
36 pages. September 1977. $2.00 

#4 Arts and Cultural Programs on Radio and 
Television. 92 pages. September 1977. $3.50 

#5 Where Artists Live: 1970. 80 pages. 
October 1977. $3.00 

#6 Economic Impact of Arts and Cultural 
Institutions: A Model for Assessment and 
a Case Study in Baltimore. 96 pages. 
November 1977. $3.50 



#14 Audience Development: An Examination 
of Selected Analysis and Prediction Tech- 
niques Applied to Symphony and Theatre At- 
tendance in Four Southern Cities. 4 8 
pages. January 1981. ISBN 0-89062-097-0 
$2.50 

#15 Economic Impact of Arts and Cultural 
Institutions: Case Studies in Columbus, 
Minneapolis/St. Paul, St. Louis, Salt Lake 
City, San Antonio, and Springfield. 102 
pages. January 1981. ISBN 0-89062-106-3 
$3.50 



#16 Artist Employment 
1971-1980. 44 pages. 
ISBN 0-89062-135-7 $3. 



and Unemployment 

January 1982. 
00 



#7 Minorities and Women in the Arts 
32 pages. January 1978. $2.50 



1970 



#8 The State Arts Agencies in 1974: 
Present and Accounted For. 160 pages 
April 1978. $4.50 



All 



#9 Audience Studies of the Performing Arts 
and Museums: A Critical Review. 106 pages. 
November 1978. $3.00 

#10 Self-Employment, Migration, and House- 
hold and Family Characteristics of Artists: 
1970. 32 pages. November 1978. $2.00 

#11 Conditions and Needs of the Profes- 
sional American Theatre. 120 pages. Jan- 
uary 1980. ISBN 0-89062-076-8 $4.50 

#12 Artists Compared by Age, Sex, and 
Earnings in 1970 and 1976. 54 pages. 
January 1980. ISBN 0-89062-0 77-6 $2.50 

#13 Craft Artist Membership Organizations 
1978. 48 pages. January 1981. ISBN 
0-89062-089-X $2.50 



LI 






43 







Produced and distributed by Publishing Center tor Cultural Resources, 625 Broadway, New York City 10012. Price (incl. postage): $3.