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Full text of "Artists compared by age, sex, and earnings in 1970 and 1976"

Report #12 



Artists Compared by Age, Sex, 
and Earnings in 1970 and 1976 



National Endowment 
for the Arts 



Research Division 
January 1980 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries 



http://archive.org/details/artistscomparedbOOnati 



Artists Compared by Age, Sex, 
and Earnings in 1970 and 1976 



National Endowment for the Arts, Washington, D.C. 



This report is produced by the Publishing 
Center for Cultural Resources as part of 
a pilot project supported by the National 
Endowment for the Arts demonstrating econ- 
omy and efficiency in nonprofit publishing, 
The Publishing Center's planning, produc- 
tion, and distribution services are avail- 
able to all nonprofit cultural and educa- 
tional groups and organizations. For 
further information, write Publishing Cen- 
ter for Cultural Resources, 6 25 Broadway, 
New York City 10012 or telephone 
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Library of Congress Ca 


talogin 


g in P 


ublication Data 


National Endowmen 


t for 


the 


Arts. 


Research 


Division. 










Artists compar 


ad by 


age. 


sex, 


and earnings in 


1970 and 1976. 










(National Endowment 


for 


the Arts Research 


Division report ; 


12) 








1. Artists — United 


Stat 


es--£ 


ocio-economic 


status. 2. Arts 


, Mod 


srn — 


20th 


century — 


United States. I 


Ti 


tie. 


II. 


Series: National 


Endowment for the 


Arts 


Re 


searc 


h Division. 


Research Division 


repo 


rt ; 


12. 




NX504.N33 1980 




331.7 


'617' 


00973 80-12197 


ISBN 0-89062-077- 


5 









Printed in the United States of America 



CONTENTS 

PREFACE /page 2 
LIST OF TABLES /page 3 
LIST OF FIGURES /page 4 
INTRODUCTION /page 5 

CHAPTER I 

AGE COMPOSITION AND CHARACTERISTICS 1970 AND 1976 

Composition /page 7 

Earnings /page 9 

Employment /page 11 

Weeks worked /page 11 

Length of time in occupation /page 12 

Education /page 13 

Residence /page 14 

CHAPTER II 

SEX COMPOSITION AND CHARACTERISTICS 1970 AND 1976 

Composition /page 15 

Earnings /page 17 

Employment /page 19 

Weeks worked /page 19 

Length of time in occupation /page 20 

Education /page 21 

Residence /page 21 

CHAPTER II 

EARNINGS 1970 AND 1976 

Personal earnings /page 22 

Income variations /page 24 

Household earnings /page 40 

Role of the artist as a household provider /page 43 

REPORTS -IN THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS RESEARCH DIVISION SERIES /page 54 



PREFACE 



This study is the first in the Arts Endow- 
ment's research report series that makes 
comparisons between two periods, 1970 and 
1976, and illustrates the kind of trend 
data that will be developed when the 1980 
Census data become available for analysis. 
The data from the 1970 Census remains use- 
ful as a baseline for comparison, and no 
comparably detailed comparative analysis 
of the several artist occupations covering 
the important subjects of age, sex, and 
earnings is available. 

Data gathered by the Bureau of the Census 
from two sources and then processed by a 
research contractor for the National En- 
dowment for the Arts is the basis of this 
report: information from the 1970 Census 
Public Use Sample and the 1976 Survey of 
Income and Education (SIE) was condensed 
by Data Use and Access Laboratories 
(DUALabs) into two Artist Extract Files. 
These files contain comparative data on 
all professional, technical, and kindred 
workers (grouped in tabular material as 
all professional workers) as well as data 
on people in the artist occupations. As 
with all sample surveys, the Artist Extract 
Files are estimates subject to sampling 
variability. The analysis contained in 
this report is by Diane Ellis under the 
general direction of Jack Beresford, pres- 
ident of DUALabs, a nonprofit research 
organization specializing in the analysis 
of census data. Unless noted otherwise, 
this report is based on DUALabs' work. 

The 1970 Census provided reliable statis- 
tics for individual artist occupations. 
Because of the smaller sample size of the 
19 7 6 group, however, accurate information 
was not available to the same degree of 
detail. Material on earnings and number 
of weeks worked was collected in 1970 and 
1976 but is actually based on the years 
1969 and 1975 respectively. An important 
note for interpreting income data is that 
differences exist in various conceptual, 
collection, and processing procedures 
used by the Bureau of the Census for the 
1976 SIE and the 1970 Census. The 1976 
SIE had a more extensive battery of in- 
come questions, better trained interview- 
ers, data frequently collected by personal 
interviews, and new processing procedures 
to impute missing or incomplete income 
responses. For information more extensive 
than the summaries provided here, consult 
the following primary sources of tables, 
figures, and text: 

United States Bureau of the Census, Pub- 
lic Use Samples of Basic Records from the 



1970 Census: Description and Technical 
Documentation , Washington, D.C.: 1972 
and United States Bureau of the Census, 
Technical Documentation: 1976 Survey of 
Income and Education , Washington, D.C.: 
1977; United States Bureau of the Census, 
Census of the Population : 1970, Final 
Report PC (2)-8B; Occupational Character - 
istics , Final Report PC (2)-7A; Subject 
Report PC (2)-8A, Sources and Structure 
of Family Income , and Subject Report PC 
(2)-8B Earnings by Occupation and Educa - 
tion . 

Also used were less traditional and 
accessible source materials such as the 
complete set of 19 70 Census computer tapes 
It is intended that a similar set of in- 
formation on artists will be made from the 
1980 Census Public Use Sample. All this 
material is available for replication or 
study. Further information can be ob- 
tained from Thomas F. Bradshaw, National 
Endowment for the Arts, Research Division, 
2401 E Street, Washington, DC 20506, 
(202) 634-7103. 



Research Division 

National Endowment for the Arts 

January 1980 



LIST OF TABLES 

1 Median age of performing artists and all artists 1970 and 1976 /page 

2 Artists' occupations by age 1970 /page 7 

3 Male, female, and all artists by age and sex 1970 and 1976 /page 9 

4 Unemployment rates in artists' occupations by age 1970 /page 10 

5 Median earnings in artists' occupations by age 1970 /page 10 

6 Weeks worked by artists in 1969 by age /page 11 

7 Percent of artists working forty or more weeks by occupation 
and age 1970 /page 12 

8 Proportion of artists with same occupation in 1965 and 1970 /page 12 

9 Median school years completed in artists' occupations by age 1970 /page 13 

10 National distribution of artists by age 1970 /page 13 

11 Regional artist population by age 1970 /page 13 

12 Artists' occupations by sex 1970 /page 17 

13 Sex of artists and professional workers 1970 and 1976 /page 17 

14 Performing artists and all artists by sex 1970 and 1976 /page 18 

15 Median earnings of artists and all professional workers by sex 
1970 and 1976 /page 18 

16 Unemployment rates in artists' occupations by sex 197 /page 19 

17 Distribution of weeks worked by sex 1969 /page 19 

18 Proportion of artists working forty or more weeks by sex 1970 /page 19 

19 Proportion of artists with same occupation in 1965 and 1970 by sex /page 20 

20 Median school years completed in artists' occupations by sex 1970 /page 20 

21 Median earnings of performing artists and all artists 1970 and 1976 /page 23 

22 Median earnings in artists' occupations 1970 /page 23 

23 Earnings in artists' occupations 1970 /page 24 

24 Earnings of performing artists and all artists 1976 /page 26 

25 Proportion of performing artists, all artists, and all professionals who 
worked forty or more weeks 1970 and 1976 /page 28 

26 Median earnings of artists by weeks worked 1970 and 1976 /page 28 

27 Percentage increase of those who worked forty or more weeks in artists' 
occupations 1970 /page 29 

28 Artists* earnings by sex 1970 and 1976 '/page 30 

29 Median earnings in artists' occupations by age and sex 1970 /page 32 

30 Median earnings in artists' occupations by education and sex 1970 /page 34 



31 Proportion of artists age 25-64 with some college education by 
occupation 1970 /page 36 

32 Artists' earnings by race 1970 and 1976 /page 37 

33 Median earnings in artists' occupations by region 1970 /page 38 

34 Median earnings in artists' occupations in three largest Standard 
Metropolitan Statistical Areas 1970 /page 39 

35 Median household earnings of artists by sex and weeks worked 
1970 and 1976 /page 40 

36 Artists' heads of household earnings by sex 1970 /page 41 

37 Artists' heads of household earnings by sex 1976 /page 42 

38 Median household earnings in artists' occupations 1970 /page 43 

39 Artists' personal earnings as a proportion of median household earnings 
by sex and weeks worked 1970 and 1976 /page 44 

40 Chief household income recipients in artists' occupations by weeks 
worked 196 9 /page 4 6 

41 Chief family income recipients in artists' occupations by weeks 
worked 1969 /page 48 

42 Median earnings in artists' occupations of husband-wife families with 
artist as head by size of family and number of earners 1970 /page 50 

43 Husband-wife families in artists' occupations with artist as head and 
two or more earners 1970 /page 52 

44 1969 poverty status in artists' occupations of husband-wife families 
with artist as head 1970 /page 53 



LIST OF FIGURES 

I Age composition of male and female artists 1970 /page 8 

II Sex composition of artists' occupations 1970 /page 15 

III Median earnings of artists and all professional workers 
1970 and 1976 /page 22 

IV Median earnings of male and female artists 1970 and 1976 /page 28 

V Median personal earnings as a proportion of median household earnings 
in artists' occupations 1970 /page 45 



INTRODUCTION 



were worth less than $5,400 by 1970 
standards. 



Certain fundamental characteristics of a 
population can be studied to assess the 
occupational conditions of a particular 
group. Differences in social and economic 
status in a community, for example, can 
frequently be traced to a preponderance 
of males or females, or the very young or 
very old. The purpose of this report is 
to examine a population of artists in 
terms of age, sex, and earnings; and, 
toward that end, the same characteristics 
as recorded in 1970 and again in 1976 
have been compared. The resulting infor- 
mation tells a good deal about contempo- 
rary artists and their lives and can also 
be used to forecast the contribution of 
the artist population to the future labor 
supply and our national cultural life and 
for planning to meet artists' needs. The 
findings will also serve as benchmark data 
from which the 1980 Census can establish 
suggested trends. 

The term artist as used in this report 
derives from usage established by the 
Bureau of the Census of the United States 
Department of Commerce and includes 
people in the following categories: 
actors, architects, dancers, designers, 
musicians and composers, painters and 
sculptors, photographers, radio and tele- 
vision announcers and a residual category 
of artists, writers, and entertainers not 
elsewhere classified. The term performing 
artist encompasses actors, dancers, 
musicians and composers, and radio and 
television announcers. Artists are those 
people at least 16 years old in the United 
States experienced labor force; this 
includes persons employed or self-employed 
in any of the artist categories as well 
as unemployed artists seeking work. 

The aggregate of persons in the artist 
occupations examined in this report in- 
creased 50 percent during 1970-76, from 
600,000 to 900,000. In this period, how- 
ever there was virtually no increase in 
artists' median earnings — which remained 
at $7,900 in 1976, the same as in 1970. 
Women artists' median earnings were at 
about 36 percent of the median for male 
artists in 1970, and remained at 36 per- 
cent in 1976. The median for black art- 
ists' earnings in fact dropped to 60 per- 
cent in 1976. 

Median earnings for professionals rose 28 
percent to $11,300 between 1970 and 1976. 
Considering that the consumer price index 
rose 4 7 percent during this period, art- 
ists' median earnings were significantly 
worse in 1976 when earnings of $7,900 



The lack of increase in artists' earnings 
is partially explained by the fact that in 
1976, there were about 50 percent more 
artists than in 1970 while the number of 
persons in all professional occupations 
increased by only 23 percent. The in- 
crease in the artist population created 
an excess of artists to fill a limited 
number of jobs. Furthermore those who 
found jobs did so at the entry-level. 
Much of the addition to the artist popula- 
tion came from groups traditionally at the 
low end of the national income scale. The 
number of women in artist occupations in- 
creased by nearly 80 percent while the 
males in artists ' occupations increased 
at only about half that rate. 

In 1970 artists' personal earnings ac- 
counted for 62 percent of their household 
earnings, but by 1976 their contribution 
to their households dropped to 44 percent. 
Women artists were considerably more de- 
pendent on other household members than 
were male artists and accounted for only 
one-fourth of their total household in- 
come in both 1970 and 1976. In general, 
the data in this report suggest that while 
artists ' personal earnings are relatively 
low compared with those of all profession- 
al workers, artists tend to be members of 
households which compare closely with 
total household earnings of all profes- 
sional workers. Although artists' median 
personal earnings did not increase signi- 
ficantly between 1970 and 1976, their 
total household earnings rose by about 40 
percent during this period. 

As for composition of the population stu- 
died by age and sex, it is made up of 
relatively young people and it is pre- 
dominantly male. From 1970 to 1976, it 
became younger and the proportion of women 
artists increased appreciably. 



Beyond these observati 
to note that the end o 
period was marked by a 
which the rate of arti 
creased more than that 
workers. The differen 
reflects the increased 
young persons, women, 
ist occupations becaus 
from other studies of 
that unemployment rate 
higher for these group 



ons it is important 
f the mid-decade 

major recession in 
st unemployment in- 

of all professional 
tial undoubtedly 

proportion of 
and blacks in art- 
e it is well known 
the labor force 
s are generally 
s . 



Table 1 



Median age of performing artists 
and all artists 1970 and 1976 



Median 
age 



Age 
16-29 



Age 
30-59 



60 and 
over 



Total 



1970 


















Performing artists 


30.6 


-68,111 


49% 


60,717 


43% 


11,069 


8% 


139,897 


All artists 


37.0 


198,980 


33% 


355,731 


59% 


48,777 


8% 


603,488 


1976 


Performing artists 


27.2 


151,965 


61% 


33,204 


34% 


12,258 


5% 


247,427 


All artists 


33.9 


342,575 


38% 


488,136 


54% 


71,945 


8% 


902,656 



CHAPTER I 



AGE COMPOSITION AND CHARACTERISTICS 
1970 AND 1976 



Composition 

In 1976, the median age of artists was 34. 
This is 3 years younger than in 1970, 
when the median age was 37 (see Table 1 
and Table 2) . The trend toward a younger 
age composition also exists in the gener- 
al United States labor force. Among all 
professional workers, the median age 
dropped from 38 years in 1970 to 35.5 
years in 1976. The 1976 labor force is 
relatively young because of the large num- 
ber of workers aged about 30 who make up 
the post-war baby boom generation. As 
this group grows older, the median age of 
artists and other workers is likely to 
rise once again. 

The proportion of artists under age 30 in- 



creased from 33 percent in 1970 to 38 per- 
cent in 1976. The proportion of older 
artists, those 60 years of age and over, 
remained the same between 1970 and 1976, 
at about 8 percent. This was similar to 
the proportion of older people in all 
professional occupations. 

Certain artist occupations are relatively 
youthful in comparison with other artist 
occupations that tend to have a higher 
proportion of older members. In general, 
the performing arts have younger members 
than other artist occupations. In 1976, 
performing artists had a median age of 27 
compared with a median age of 34 for all 
artist occupations. Furthermore, about 
61 percent of performing artists were 
under the age of 30 in 1976 compared with 
only 38 percent of all artists. 

Data for 1970 show a similar age differ- 
ence between performing artists and all 
artists. For 1970 age data for specific 
artist occupations are available, and 
(as shown in Table 1) the median age 



Table 2 



Artists'occupations 
by age 1970 



Occupation 



Median Age 
age 16-29 



Age 
30-59 



60 and 
over 



Total 



Actors 




35.0 


5,317 


38% 


7,649 


54% 


1,174 


8% 


14,140 


Architects 




40.6 


11,093 


19% 


40,415 


71% 


5,573 


10% 


57,081 


Authors 




41.5 


5,195 


20% 


17,965 


69% 


2,844 


11% 


26,004 


Dancers 




24.7 


5,432 


78% 


1,410 


20% 


82 


1% 


6,924 


Designers 




37.2 


32,867 


29% 


71,838 


64% 


7,620 


7% 


112,325 


Musicians/composers 


31.8 


45,019 


47% 


42,264 


44% 


9,254 


10% 


96,537 


Painters/sculptors 


38.0 


33,798 


31% 


65,051 


61% 


8,627 


8% 


107,476 


Photographers 


39.4 


19,788 


30% 


40,564 


61% 


5,608 


9% 


65,960 


Radio-TV announcers 


28.9 


12,343 


55% 


9,394 


42% 


559 


3% 


22,296 



Teachers of art, drama, 
and music (higher edu- 
cation) 



8,360 27% 



19,967 65% 



2,327 8 s 



30,654 



Other artists not else- 
where classified 



37.5 



19,768 31% 39,214 61% 5,109 8 ! 



64,091 



All artists 



37.0 



198,980 33% 355,731 59% 48,777 



8% 



603,488 



Figure I 



Age composition of 
male and female artists 
1970 



Males 


















Age 


















Females 


1.6% 




70+ 




2.4% 


2.0% 






65-69 






2.7% 


4.1% 






60-64 






4.1% 


6.0% 






55-59 






5.7% 


7.6% 






50-54 






7.5% 


10.2% 






45-49 






9.3% 


11.8% 






40-44 




11.4% 


11.9% 






35-39 








9.6% 


13.3% 






30-34 






10.4% 


15.0% 




25-29 






13.5% 


12.3% 






20-24 




17.7% 


4.3% 










16-19 






5.7% 



Table 3 Male, female, and 

all artists by age and sex 
1970 and 1976 



1970 Median Age Age 60 and Total 

age 16-29 30-59 over 



Male 


37.2 


140,011 


32% 


269,796 


61% 


34,059 


8% 


443,866 


Female 


36.4 


58,969 


37% 


85,935 


54% 


14,718 


9% 


159,622 


All artists 


37.0 


198,980 


33% 


355,731 


59% 


48,777 


8% 


603,488 



1976 




Male 


34.0 


230,413 


37% 


338,205 


55% 


50,694 


8% 


619,312 


Female 


33.7 


112,162 


40% 


149,931 


53% 


21,251 


7% 


283,344 


All artists 


33.9 


342,575 


38% 


488,136 


54% 


71,945 


8% 


902,656 



for artists is lower in all performing 
artist occupations than it is in any of 
the other artist occupations. Authors 
tend to be older than any other type of 
artist, averaging more than 41 years. 
In the occupations of dancer and radio- 
television announcer, more workers are 
under the age of 30 than over 30. Dancers 
are the youngest of all artists, with a 
median age just under 25. 

In 1976 as well as in 1970 median ages of 
female artists tend to be a few months 
younger than male artists (see Table 3) . 
In examining five-year age intervals for 
197 0, women were most likely to be in the 
age 20-24 group, while men were most 
likely to be in the age 25-29 group. As 
illustrated in the age pyramid in Figure I 
women artists also show a decline in 
numbers in the age 3 0-39 group and an in- 
crease in number at ages 40-44. One may 
hypothesize that this is a result of 
women artists leaving the labor force to 
bear and raise children and subsequently 
reentering the labor force. 



Earnings 



The effects of age on earnings varied 
somewhat by artist occupation. In 1970, 



Table 4 



Unemployment rates in 
artists' occupations 
by age 1970 



Table 5 



Median earnings in 
artists' occupations 
by age 1970 



Occupation 



Age 
16-29 



30 and 
over 



Occupation 



Age 
16-29 



30 and 
over 



Actors 


28.8% 


33.7% 


Architects 


2.5% 


1.0% 


Authors 


4.0% 


4.0% 


Dancers 


12.2% 


21.4% 


Designers 


3.8% 


3.0% 


Musicians/composers 


7.5% 


5.4% 


Painters/sculptors 


5.1-% 


3.0% 


Photographers 


4.9% 


1.8% 


Radio-TV announcers 


3.1% 


1.6% 



Teachers of art, drama, 
and music (higher edu- 
cation) 



Other artists not else- 
where classified 



All artists 



1.6% 



6.1 ! 



5.9% 



/ ^ 



5.0 ! 



3.8% 



Actors 



Architects 



Authors 



Dancers 



Designers 



Photographers 



Radio-TV announcers 



$2,900 $ 7,300 
$8,500 $14,100 



All artists 



$5,900 $ 9,900 



$2,900 $ 5,700 



$7,400 $10,900 



Musicians/composers 


$1,800 


$ 4,900 


Painters/sculptors 


$4,700 


$ 8,600 



$5,200 $ 9,100 
$4,300 $10,300 



Teachers of art, drama, $4,500 $10,600 
and music (higher edu- 
cation) 



Other artists not else- $4,700 $ 9,300 
where classified 



$4,400 $ 9,800 



10 



young artists could expect to find earn- 
ings more comparable to the "30 and over" 
artist group if they had occupations as 
designers, authors, or architects. But 
even in these occupations, earnings for 
people under 30 were only about two-thirds 
of earnings for those 30 and over. Young 
artists could find the lowest comparable 
earnings if they were musicians and com- 
posers, or actors, for all of whom 1970 
earnings were extremely low. 

Artists who are under the age of 3 are 
likley to earn less than artists age 30 
and over. As shown in Table 5, artists 
under age 30 earned less than half the 
median earnings of artists age 30 and 
over in 1970. 



Table 6 



Weeks worked by artists 
in 1969 by age 



Weeks worked 



Age 
16-29 



30 and 
over 



13 or 


less 


14.4% 


4.7% 


14-39 




23.0% 


10.4% 


40-49 




17.0% 


15.2% 


50-52 




45.6% 


69.7% 



Employment 

Artists under age 30 were more likely to 
be unemployed in 1970 than artists age 30 
and over (see Table 4) . At nearly 6 
percent, artists under age 3 had an unem- 
ployment rate one and one-half times the 
rate of artists 30 and over. Photograph- 
ers, architects, and higher education 
teachers of art, drama, and music who 
were under 30 had unemployment rates that 
were more than double the rates of persons 
30 and over in these occupations. 

For actors and dancers these findings are 
reversed. Actors and dancers were less 
likely to be unemployed if they were under 
30 than if they were 30 or over. For 
both age groups, actors and dancers had 
much higher unemployment rates than other 
artist occupations. Among older actors 
and dancers, however, unemployment was 
more severe than it was for the younger 
ones. In the case of dancers, their 
careers are coming to an end or often 
ended at age 30 because of the physical 
demands of their occupation. As noted 
earlier, their median age is less than 25. 



Weeks worked 



The data tabula 
that artists un 
weeks per year 
The table shows 
artists under a 
less in 1969 an 
worked 40 weeks 
year, 85 percen 
over worked at 



ted in Table 6 demonstrate 
der age 30 worked fewer 
than artists 30 and over. 

that nearly 15 percent of 
ge 30 worked 13 weeks or 
d only about two-thirds 

or more. During the same 
t of artists age 30 and 
least 40 weeks. 



11 



Table 7 



Percent of artists working 
forty or more weeks by 
occupation and age 1970 



Table 8 



Proportion of artists with 
same occupation in 
1965 and 1970 



Occupation 



Age 
16-29 



30 and 
over 



Occupation 



Age 
16-29 



30 and 
over 





Actors 


35% 


43% 


Architects 


74% 


95% 


Authors 


65% 


85% 


Dancers 


42% 


60% 


Designers 


79% 


92% 


Musicians/composers 


44% 


71% 


Painters/sculptors 


68% 


85% 


Photographers 


72% 


91% 


Radio-TV announcers 


72% 


92% 



Teachers of art, drama, 
and music (higher edu- 
cation) 



59% 



Other artists not else- 
where classified 



63% 



All artists 



63% 



76% 



82% 



85% 



Actors 


16.0% 


62.7% 


Architects 


17.0% 


75.1% 


Authors 


6.7% 


53.9% 


Dancers 


8.9% 


42.8% 


Designers 


18.6% 


62.5% 


Musicians/composers 


20.2% 


67.3% 


Painters/sculptors 


. 18.0% 


69.0% 


Photographers 


20.1% 


73.0% 


Radio-TV announcers 


22 .6% 


68.4% 



Teachers of art, drama, 
and music (higher edu- 
cation) 



8.5 s . 



Other artists not else- 
where classified 



14.4% 



44.1% 



46.2% 



All artists 



17.7% 



63.8% 



Work levels vary con 
occupation, but in e 
artists consistently 
year than do artists 
1970, architects who 
weeks had the highes 
percent, but only 74 
under age 30 worked 
for other artist occ 
Table 7. 



siderably by artist 
ach occupation young 
work fewer weeks per 
age 30 and over. In 
worked 40 or more 
t percentage at 91 

percent of architects 
at that level. Data 
upations are shown in 



Length of time in occupation 

The 1970 Census obtained some information 
on occupation five years earlier as well 
as on current occupation. Among artists, 
about half indicated they had the same 
occupation in both 1965 and 1970. This 
provides a rough measure of an artist's 
experience and establishment in the occu- 
pation, which can be equated with such 



other status measures as employment and 
earnings. 

Age of the artist is an important variable 
in determining length of time in an occu- 
pation. Census data show that older 
artists are most likely to be in the same 
occupation over a five-year period. For 
artists age 30 and over, 64 percent had 
the same occupation in 1965 and 1970 (see 
Table 8) . For artists under age 30, only 
18 percent had the same occupation (how- 
ever, most artists are entering their 
occupation at this age) . 

There are some major differences among 
younger and older artists for the propor- 
tion that remain in their individual oc- 
cupations at least five years. For 
example, young radio-TV announcers under 
age 30 are more than three times as likely 
as authors in the same age group to have 
the same occupation. Among older artists, 



12 



Table 9 



Median school years completed 
in artists' occupations by age 
1970 



Table 10 



National distribution 
of artists by age 
1970 



Occupation 



Years of school 



Age 
16-29 



Teachers of art, drama, 
and music (higher edu- 
cation) 



17.7 



30 and 
over 



Actors 


14.5 


14.1 


Architects 


17.3 


17.0 


Authors 


16.2 


16.0 


Dancers 


12.4 


12.4 


Designers 


14.7 


14.0 


Musicians/composers 


13.0 


13.0 


Painters/sculptors 


14.3 


13.5 


Photographers 


12.9 


12.6 


Radio-TV announcers 


13.6 


14.1 



18.2 



Other artists not else- 
where classified 


13.5 


14.0 


All artists 


14.0 


14.2 



Region 


Age 
16-29 


30 and 
over 


Northeast 


18% 


33% 


North Central 


17% 


21% 


West 


47% 


24% 


South 


18% 


22% 



Table 11 



Regional artist 
population by age 1970 



Region 


Age 
16-29 


3 and 
over 


Northeast • 


22% 


78% 


North Central 


30% 


70% 


South 


30% 


70% 


West 


51% 


49% 


United States 


33% 


67% 



architects are the most likely to have 
been in the same occupation in 1965 as 
1970 and dancers are the least likely. 



Education 

There is little difference in educational 
attainment for artists of different age 
groups. Table 9 shows that in 1970 art- 
ists under age 30 had completed an average 
of 14 years of schooling. This is equiva- 
lent to the completion of high school plus 



2 years of college. For artists age 30 
and over, educational attainment was near- 
ly the same, at 14.2 years. 

In certain occupations, educational attain- 
ment is greater for young artists than it 
is for artists 30 and over. The 1970 data 
show that differences in educational at- 
tainment were greatest in the occupations 
of painter/sculptor and designer, where 
younger artists had more years of educa- 
tion than artists 30 and over. The per- 
centage of artists who attended college 
is about the same for artists under 30 and 
for those 30 and over, at about 60 percent, 



13 



Residence 

The 1970 data show a marked tendency for 
young artists to live in the western 
region of the United States. This area 
includes the states of California, Oregon, 
Washington, Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, 
Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexi- 
co, Alaska, and Hawaii. As shown in Table 
10 nearly half (47 percent) of all artists 
under the age of 30 lived in the West 
compared with 24 percent of artists age 
30 and over who lived there. 

Artists over the age of 30 were more even- 
ly distributed around the country in 1970 
than were artists under 30. Among artists 
age 30 and over, more lived in New York, 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, 
Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, 
Vermont, and Maine than in any other re- 
gion. One-third of artists age 30 and 
over lived in the Northeast in 19 70 com- 
pared with only 18 percent of younger 
artists . 

The South and North Central regions had 
similar proportions of artists under and 
over 30, at about 20 percent for each 
group in each region. 

Artists under the age of 30 made up 3 3 
percent of all United States artists in 
1970. This proportion varies in the 
different regions of the country as shown 
in Table 11. The Northeast region had the 
smallest proportion of artists under age 
30 with only 22 percent of artists in this 
age group. In contrast, in the West the 
artist population is almost equally 
divided between those under age 3 and 
those over age 30. The South and North 
Central regions are close to the national 
average, with 30 percent of their artists 
under age 30. 



14 



CHAPTER II 



SEX COMPOSITION AND CHARACTERISTICS 
1970 AND 1976 



proportion of women in the arts has only 
grown from 26 percent of the 600,000 
artists in 1970 to 31 percent of the 
900,000 artists 1976 whereas women con- 
stitute 43 percent of all professional 
workers in 1976. 



Composition 

Although there is considerable variation 
in the relative representation of men and 
women in the different artist occupations 
(see Table 12) , the proportion of men is 
much higher in the total of artist occupa- 
tions than it is among all professional 
occupations (see Table 13). In 1976, the 
artist occupations were 69 percent male 
compared with 5 7 percent male in all pro- 
fessional occupations. Between 19 70 and 
1976 the number of women artists increased 
by over 75 percent while the number of 
male artists increased by 40 percent. 
However, the proportion of women artists 
remains relatively low when compared with 
women in all professional occupations. 
Despite their numerical increase, the 



In 1970 there were large differences in 
the sex composition of specific artist 
occupations . Dance was the only occupa- 
tion in which there were more women (82 
percent) than men. In contrast, women 
made up only 4 percent of the architect 
labor force and 6 percent of radio-TV 
announcers. This means that for every fe- 
male architect, there were 25 male archi- 
tects; for every female announcer, there 
were 14 male announcers; and for every 
female photographer, there were 6 male 
photographers. Figure II compares the 
sex composition of all artist occupations 
in 1970. Minorities and Women in the 
Arts; 1970 , National Endowment for the 
Arts, Research Division Report #7 (see 
list at the back of this report) , pro- 
vides more detailed information. 



Figure II 



Sex composition of 
artists' occupations 1970 



Females Males 


Dancers 
Actors 

Painters/sculptors 

Teachers of art, drama 
and music (higher 
education) 

Musicians/composers 

Authors 

Designers 

Photographers 

Radio-TV announcers 

Architects 










82% 








18% 


42% 
37% 










58% 








63% 

65% 


35% 
34% 

31% 












66% 






69% 


24% 










76% 


14% 










86% 


6% 
4% 








94% 




96% 















15 



Table 12 



Artists' occupations 
by sex 1970 



Occupation 



Male 



Female 



Total 



Actors 




8,213 


58% 


5,927 


42% 


14,140 


Architects 




54,948 


96% 


2,133 


4% 


57,081 


Authors 




18,069 


69% 


7,935 


31% 


26,004 


Dancers 




1,271 


18% 


5,653 


82% 


6,924 


Designers 




85,243 


76% 


27,082 


24% 


112,325 


Musicians/c 


:omposers 


63,677 


66% 


32,860 


34% 


96,537 


Painters/sculptors 


67,917 


63% 


39,559 


37% 


107,476 


Photographers 


56,526 


86% 


9,434 


14% 


65,960 


Radio-TV announcers 


20,873 


94% 


1,423 


6% 


22,296 



Teachers of art, drama, 
and music (higher edu- 
cation) 



19,992 



65% 



10,662 



35'- 



30,654 



Other artists not else- 
where classified 


47,137 


74% 


16,954 


26% 


64,091 


All artists 


443,866 


' 74% 


159,622 


26% 


603,488 



Table 13 



Sex of artists and 
professional workers 
1970 and 1976 



Occupation 



1970 

Number 



Percent 
male 



Percent 
female 



1976 

Number 



Percent Percent 
male female 



All artists 


603,000 


74% 


26% 


903,000 


69% 


31% 




All professional 
workers 


11,667,000 


60% 


40% 


14,356,000 


57% 


43% 





16 



(Statistics in Report #7 differ for a fig- 
ure similar to Figure II because the labor 
reserve as well as the labor force was 
included. ) 

Increases in the proportion of women art- 
ists between 1970 and 1976 seem to be 
concentrated in the nonperf orming artist 
occupations. In the performing arts, the 
proportion of women declined from 3 3 per- 
cent in 1970 to 29 percent in 1976 (see 
Table 14.) Estimates for 1976 indicate 
that the occupations in which women have 
increased their participation include 
painter and sculptor, author, and teacher 
of art, drama, and music in higher educa- 
tion. The data indicate a decline in the 
proportion of women for the other artist 
occupations. 

In 1970, there was little variation in 
the sex composition of artists in differ- 
ent age groups. (There is, of course, con- 
siderable variation in the sex composition 
within the individual artist occupations.) 
About two-thirds of each age group were 
male and one-third female in 1970. Art- 
ists under age 30 were about 3 3 percent 
female, compared with 31 percent female 
among artists age 30 and over. 



Earnings 

In 1970, female artists had median earn- 
ings of $3,400 per year while male artists 
had median earnings of $9,500 per year. 
This means that female artists as a group 
earned only 36 percent of the earnings of 
male artists. The 1976 earnings data show 
an increase in median earnings to $4,000 
for women and $10,900 for men. This rep- 
resents virtually no change over the six- 
year period in the proportional earnings 
gap between male and female artists. 

Low median earnings for women are not 
unique to the artist occupations (see 
Table 15) . Data for all professional 
workers in 1970 show that women profes- 
sionals had median earnings that were 57 
percent of the median earnings of male 
professionals. Like the artist popula- 
tion, no significant reduction in the 
male-female proportional earnings gap 
occurred among all professional workers 
from 1970 to 1976. 

Lower earnings for women are partially 
explained by higher unemployment rates 
and less time worked during the year than 
men. These differences are explained in 
the following sections. 



17 



Table 14 



Performing artists 
and all artists by sex 
1970 and 1976 





Male 




Female 




Total 


1970 


Performing artists 


94,034 


67% 


45,863 


33% 


139,897 


All artists 


443,866 


74% 


159,622 


26% 


603,488 


1976 


Performing artists 


175,069 


71% 


72,358 


29% 


247,427 


All artists 


619,312 


69% 


283,344 


31% 


902,656 



Table 15 



Median earnings of artists 
and all professional workers 
by sex 1970 and 1976 





1970 




1976 






Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


All artists 


$ 9,500 


$3,400 


$10,900 


$4,000 


All professional 
workers 


$10,600 


$6,000 


$14,500 


$8,400 



18 



Table 16 



Unemployment rates in 
artists' occupations 
by sex 1970 



Table 18 



Proportion of artists 
working forty or more 
weeks by sex 1970 



Occupation 




Male 


Female 


Actors 




32.2% 


35.0% 


Architects 




1.4% 


2.0% 


Authors 




4.1% 


4.1% 


Dancers 




20.9% 


13.3% 


Designers 




2.4% 


5.5% 


Musicians/c 


omposers 


8.1% 


4.2% 


Painters/sculptors 


2.9% 


5.3% 


Photographe 


rs 


2.4% 


6.7% 


Radio-TV announcers 


2.5% 


5.6% 



Teachers of art, drama, 
and music (higher edu- 



7% 



1.3% 



cation) 






Other artists not else- 
where classified 


4.7% 


6.5% 


All artists 


4.0% 


6.3% 



Occupation 


Male 


Female 


Actors 


45% 


34% 


Architects 


91% 


88% 


Authors 


86% 


70% 


Dancers 


59% 


43% 


Designers 


93% 


72% 


Musicians/composers 


61% 


54% 


Painters/sculptors 


88% 


66% 


Photographers 


88% 


68% 


Radio-TV announcers 


82% 


67% 



Teachers of art, drama, 
and music, (higher edu- 
cation) 



80% 



55% 



Other artists not else- 
where classified.. 


82% 


62% 


All artists 


83% 


62% 



Table 17 



Distribution of 
weeks worked 
by sex 1969 



Weeks 


worked 


Male 


Female 


13 or 


less 


5.4% 


14.8% 


14-39 




11.3% 


23.4% 


40-49 




14.8% 


18.8% 


50-52 




68.6% 


43.1% 


Total 




100.1% 


100.1% 



Employment 

Women artists have more difficulty finding 
employment than male artists (see Table 
16) . In 19 70, the unemployment rate for 
female artists was 6 . 3 percent compared 
with 4 percent for male artists. 

Unemployment rates for women were higher 
than the rates for men in most artist 
occupations. The exceptions were the oc- 
cupations of musicians/composers and dan- 
cers, where men had higher unemployment 
rates. Among authors, unemployment rates 
were the same for both sexes. 



Weeks worked 

Women artists tend to average fewer work 
weeks during the year than male artists. 
In 1970, 62 percent of female artists 
worked 40 or more weeks compared with 83 
percent of male artists. Less than half 
of all women artists worked the full year 
(50-52 weeks), as shown in Table 17, while 
more than two-thirds of male artists 
worked this amount. 



19 



Table 19 



Proportion of artists with 
same occupation in 
1965 and 1970 by sex 



Table 20 



Median school years 
completed in artists' 
occupations by sex 1970 



Occupation 



Male 



Female Occupation 



Years of school 
completed 



Male 



Female 



Actors 


47.5% 


42.0% 


Architects 


64.4% 


54.8% 


Authors 


46.5% 


41.6% 


Dancers 


20.5% 


15.2% 


Designers 


52.5% 


42.0% 


Musicians/composers 


45.3% 


45.8% 


Painters/sculptors 


62.3% 


38.7% 


Photographers 


59.2% 


41.4% 


Radio-TV announcers 


44.0% 


43.5% 



Teachers of art, drama, 
and music (higher edu- 
cation) 



36.7% 



Other artists not else- 
where classified 



39.0% 



All artists 



52.4% 



30.2% 



29.1% 



39.0% 



Actors 


1.4.5 i 


13.8 


Architects 


17.0 


17.0 


Authors 


15.9 


16.2 


Dancers 


12.9 


12.3 


Designers 


14.1 


13.7 


Musicians/composers 


12.9 


13.6 


Painters/sculptors 


13.7 


13.9 


Photographers 


12.7 


12.6 


Radio-TV announcers 


13.8 


13.4 



Teachers of art, drama, 
and music (higher edu- 
cation) 



Other artists not else- 
where classified 



All artists 



17 + 



14.0 



14.2 



17 + 



13.5 



14.0 



In all artist occupations, a higher pro- 
portion of males than females worked 40 
or more weeks during the year. Among 
architects, women averaged more weeks 
worked in 1970 than in any other artist 
occupation. As a result, architects had 
the smallest difference in male-female 
work levels. In 1970, 91 percent of male 
architects worked 4 or more weeks com- 
pared with 88 percent of female archi- 
tects. Table 18 shows the percentage of 
artists in each occupation who worked 40 
or more weeks. 



Length of time in occupation 

Although nearly half of all artists indi- 
cated they were in the same occupation in 
both 1965 and 1970 the proportion for men 

was higher than women with 52 percent 

of males as compared with 39 percent of 



20 



females reporting the same occupation in 
both years (see Table 19) . 

The occupations of painter/sculptor and 
photographer showed the largest differ- 
ences between males and females in the 
proportion who reported being in those 
occupations for both time periods — 6 2 per- 
cent of male painters and sculptors com- 
pared with 39 percent of female painters 
and sculptors. Among photographers, 59 
percent of males and 41 percent of females 
reported being in the same occupation in 
1965 and 1970. The occupations of musi- 
cian/composer and radio-TV announcer were 
the only ones in which the same proportion 
of men and women reported the same occupa- 
tions in 1965 and 1970. 



Education 

The level of educational attainment is 
very similar for male and female artists. 
In 1970, male artists averaged 14.2 years 
of completed schooling, and female artists 
averaged 14.0 years. This is equivalent 
to the completion of high school plus two 
years of college. As shown in Table 20, 
male and female artists had similar lev- 
els of education in all of the artist oc- 
cupations . 



Residence 

Data on artists employed in 1970 showed 
no differences in geographic distribution 
of male and female artists in the four 
major regions of the United States. About 
31 percent of each sex reside in the North- 
east; 24 percent in the North Central; 2 3 
percent in the South; and 22 percent in 
the West. For a detailed discussion of 
the geographic distribution of the United 
States artist population, see Where Art- 
ists Live; 1970 , National Endowment for 
the Arts, Research Division Report #5 
(see list at the back of this report) . 



21 



CHAPTER III 



EARNINGS 1970 AND 1976 



Personal earnings 

Comparing income statistics in the artist 
population shows differences in earnings 
among artists of various occupations, 
ages, educational backgrounds, and re- 
gions, as well as between males and fe- 
males and blacks and whites. Household 
earnings for artists are also examined 
because these data are useful in under- 
standing the extent of financial depend- 
ence of artists on other members of their 
households . 

Earnings data used in this report were 
collected in 1970 and 1976. The 1976 data 
provide some understanding of earning 
trends, the most important of which is 
that earnings for artists are not in- 
creasing as much as earnings for the rest 
of the American workforce. The earnings 
picture for artists in 1976 appears rela- 
tively worse than that of 1970. Compari- 
sons of income estimates from the 1976 SIE 
and the 1970 Census are contained through- 
out this report. When comparing earnings 



data from these two sources, it should be 
remembered that some differences exist in 
conceptual, collection, and processing 
procedures used by the Bureau of the 
Census for the 1970 Census and the SIE. 
Most important, the 1976 SIE had a more 
extensive battery of income questions, 
better trained interviewers, nearly all 
data were obtained by personal interviews, 
and new processing procedures were used 
to impute missing or incomplete income 
responses. The numbers of artists in 1970 
as shown in the tables in this chapter 
were derived from the 1970 Census Public 
Use Sample and vary slightly from the 
estimates shown in Chapters I and II which 
are based on Occupational Characteristics, 
Census of Population: 1970 Final Report 
PC(2)-7A. 

Artists' earnings in 1970 and 1976 were 
relatively low among all professional 
workers. In 1970, median earnings were 
$7,900 (see Table 21). This compares with 
$8,800 for all professional workers (from 
the 1970 Census) . 

From 1970 to 1976 there was no increase 
in artists' median earnings, which re- 
mained at $7,900 in 1976. (Median earnings 
figures are rounded to the nearest hundred 
dollars. A more precise measure of change 
in median earnings between 1970 and 1976 



Figure 



Median earnings of artists and 
all professional workers 
1970 and 1976 



Artists 



All professionals 



1970 



1976 



1970 



1976 



$7,900 



$7,900 



$8,800 



$11,300 





22 



Table 21 



Median earnings of performing 
artists and all artists 
1970 and 1976 





1970 




1976 








Median 
earnings 




Median 
earnings 


Performing artists 


138,057 


$3,700 


247,427 


$3,700 


All artists 


599,394 


$7,900 


902,656 


$7,900 



is not presented because the figures are 
estimates subject to sampling variability) . 
In comparison to the unchanged figure for 
artists, median earnings for all profes- 
sional workers rose to $11,300 — a 28 per- 
cent increase. Figure III illustrates 
this comparison. Considering that the 
consumer price index rose by 47 percent 
during this period, as reported by the 
U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor 
Statitistics , the artist population's 
median earnings were significantly worse 
in 1976 than in 1970. Artists' median 
1976 earnings of $7,900 were worth less 
than $5,400 by 1970 standards. 

The data indicate artists are not high 
earners. Fifty-eight percent of artists 
earned less than $10,000 in 1976, compared 
with 42 percent of all professional 
workers. Only about 6 percent of all art- 
ists earned $25,000 or more. 



Table 22 



The absence 
earnings be 
plained by 
depressed s 
nomy during 
ists ' earni 
during 1970 
earning dec 
the economy 



of change in artists' median 
tween 197 and 197 6 may be ex- 
several factors. One is the 
tate of the United States eco- 

1973-75. Any gains in art- 
ngs which may have taken place 
-7 3 may have been offset by 
reases which were evident in 

during the 1973-75 recession. 



Lack of growth in artists' earnings is 
also due to the changing composition of 
the artist population during 1970-76. 
Particularly significant is the dramatic 
increase in the total number of persons 
with occupations in the arts (see Table 
1) . In 19 76 there were about 50 percent 
more artists than in 1970, increasing 
from about 600,000 to more than 900,000. 



Median earnings in 
artists' occupations 

1970 



Teachers of art, drama, 
and music (higher edu- 
cation) 



Actors 


$ 5,900 


Architects 


$12,800 


Authors 


$ 8,900 


Dancers 


$ 3,300 


Designers 


$10,100 


Musicians/composers 


$ 3,000 


Painters/sculptors 


$ 7,000 


Photographers 


$ 7,800 


Radio-TV announcers 


$ 7,100 



$ 9,100 



Other artists not else- 
where classified 


$ 7,700 


All artists 


$ 7,900 



23 



During this period, the number of persons 
in all types of professional occupations 
increased by only 23 percent. Further- 
more, the rate of increase for artists 
was greater among women than men. The 
number of women in artist occupations in- 
creased by nearly 80 percent, while the 
number of male artists increased at half 
that rate. The number of black artists 
more than doubled during this period. 
The performing artist occupations grew at 
a faster rate than other artist occupa- 
tions, increasing by nearly 80 percent. 

This overall increase in the size of the 
artist population created greater numbers 
of artists to fill a limited number of 
jobs and a greater proportion who filled 
low-paying, entry level jobs. The 
large increases in the number of female 



and black artists further deflated over- 
all earnings because of the low wages 
received by these groups. 



Income variations 

There is a wide range of actual earnings 
in the different artist occupations (see 
Table 22) . Certain artists have more 
difficulty than others in finding employ- 
ment and maintaining an adequate income 
level. Such factors as age and experience 
and whether the artist is male or female 
all influence the earning level, and the 
type of occupation is naturally a major 
differentiating item. The reasons for 



Table 23 



Earnings in artists' 
occupations 1970 



Earnings 


Architects 


Teachers of 


Actors 


Authors 


Dancers 


Designers 






art , drama , 
















and music 
















(higher ed- 














* 


ucation) 












Loss 


399 








234 







4 32 


$0-1,999 


2,498 


4,001 


3,262 


4,709 


2 


,373 


8,513 


$2,000-2,999 


1,264 


1,165 


1,200 


1,137 




698 


3,567 


$3,000-3,999 


1,340 


1,435 


961 


897 




700 


4,169 


$4,000-4,999 


1,371 


997 


666 


900 




502 


4,064 


$5,000-5,999 


1,500 


1,269 


867 


1,199 




566 


5,696 


$6,000-6,999 


1,569 


1,439 


1,173 


96 8 




535 


4,528 


$7,000-7,999 


1,637 


1,873 


898 


1,497 




264 


7,160 


$8,000-8,999 


2,828 


2,265 


567 


1,899 




166 


7,872 


$9,000-9,999 


2,802 


1,934 


367 


1,135 




202 


8,067 


$10,000-10,999 


4,200 


3,098 


536 


2,331 




168 


12,072 


$11,000-11,999 


3,202 


1,929 


302 


1,669 




167 


7,049 


$12,000-12,999 


4,630 


1,865 


569 


1,425 




33 


7,941 


$13,000-13,999 


3,298 


1,366 


167 


967 




67 


4,987 


$14,000-14,999 


3,003 


1,297 


167 


734 




33 


4,705 


$15,000-15,999 


3,302 


867 


500 


665 







4,872 


$16,000-16,999 


1,731 


568 


67 


670 







2,433 


$17,000-24,999. 


8,804 


2,328 


700 


1,967 




133 


8,831 


$25, 000 or more 


7,621 


.332 


832 


1,403 







3,697 


Total 


56,639 


30,628 


13,801 


26,406 


6 


,607 


110,565 


Median earnings 


$12,800 


$ 9,140 


$ 5,936 


$ 8,875 


$3 


,332 


$10,100 



24 



income differences among artists are 
numerous and interrelated, but some pat- 
terns emerge. This section examines in- 
come variations among artists and the 
reasons for these differences. 



Occupation 

Occupation is a major factor determining 
how much an artist earns. In general, 
performing artists earn considerably less 
than other artists. Performing artists 
in each of the actor, dancer, musician/ 
composer, and radio-TV announcer occupa- 
tions earned below the median income for 
all artists in 1970. As a group, perform- 
ing artists had median earnings of only 
$3,700 in 1970. Six years later, in 1976, 



their median earnings remained the same. 

In specific artist occupations, 1970 data 
show architects as the highest earners 
with median incomes of $12,800 per year 
(see Table 23) . Other artist occupations 
with median earnings better than the 
average were designers, teachers of art, 
drama, and music in higher education, and 
authors. Artists with the lowest earnings 
were musicians/composers and dancers. 

There may be many reasons why earnings 
differ from one artist occupation to the 
next. The employment market for artists 
is a factor not examined here. Each occu- 
pation is examined by age, sex, race, and 
educational background as well as the 
geographic distribution of the occupation. 
These factors are summarized in the para- 
graphs which follow for each artist 
occupation. Only 1970 data and figures 
are considered in this occupational 



Musicians/ 
composers 



Painters/ 
sculptors 



Photo- 
graphers 



Radio-TV 
announcers 



Other art- 
ists not 
elsewhere 
classified 



Total 



168 


1,065 


469 





268 


3,035 


39,858 


19,367 


8,978 


4,501 


11,718 


110,378 


8,091 


5,938 


2,404 


1,233 


3,143 


29,840 


7,456 


6,781 


3,597 


1,167 


2,965 


31,468 


4,905 


6,531 


3,303 


1,038 


3,535 


27,812 


5,296 


7,035 


4,665 


1,597 


4,078 


33,768 


5,111 


6,940 


5,263 


1,397 


3,530 


32,453 



4,171 
3,756 
2,231 
3,294 
1,405 
1,536 
730 



95,548 
$ 2,958 



6,655 


5,599 


1,767 


3,630 


35,151 


7,134 


5,218 


1,402 


4,208 


37,315 


6,032 


5,300 


1,201 


4,311 


33,582 


7,171 


4,871 


1,565 


4,890 


44,196 


3,393 


3,035 


830 


2,998 


25,979 


4,802 


3,492 


697 


3,066 


30,056 


2,829 


1,866 


700 


1,704 


18,591 



732 


2,099 


998 


199 


1,605 


15,572 


1,065 


2,967 


1,832 


498 


1,465 


18,033 


467 


1,304 


434 


401 


798 


8,873 


2,770 


6,059 


2,701 


1,070, 


3,165 


38,528 


2,506 


3,162 


2,003 


838 


2,730 


24,764 



107,264 
$ 6,996 



66,028 
$ 7,774 



22,101 
$ 7,067 



63,807 
$ 7,735 



599,394 
$ ;7,880 



25 



Table 24 



Earnings of 
performing artists 
and all artists 
1976 



Earnings 



Performing 
artists 



All 
artists 



Loss 


907 


13,431 


$0-1,999 


78,998 


183,309 


$2,000-2,999 


33,989 


72,568 


$3,000-3,999 


13,765 


40,450 


$4,000-4,999 


17,666 


37,415 



$5,000-5,999 


10,722 


30,611 


$6,000-6,999 


16,780 


43,411 


$7,000-7,999 


5,729 


32,187 


$8,000-8,999 


11,721 


43,030 


$9,000-9,999 


2,870 


27,874 


$10,000-10,999 


5,422 


34,827 


$11,000-11,999 


2,748 


29,945 


$12,000-12,999 


6,911 


38,792 


$13,000-13,999 


3,697 


33,168 


$14,000-14,999 


4,335 


24,045 


$15,000-15,999 


12,034 


38,286 


$16,000-16,999 


1,179 


24,946 


$17,000-17,999 


5,685 


24,611 


$18,000-18,999 


373 


11,207 


$19,000-19,999 


437 


10,094 


$20,000-24,999 


1,863 


53,209 


$25,000+ 


9,596 


55,240 


Total 


247,427 


902,656 


Median earnings 


$3,713 


$7,936 



summary because data on individual occu- 
pations are not available from the SIE 
survey. For comparison of performing 
artists ' earnings to the total artist 
population in 1976, see Table 24. 

Ac tors , with median annual earnings of 
$5,900 in 1970, earned less than most other 
artists. Their low earnings are due in 
part to their average work level of only 
34 weeks per year--fewer weeks worked a 
year than artists in any other occupation. 
Actors who worked 40 or more weeks a year 
increased their median earnings by nearly 
half, to $8,700. The disparity in income 
between male and female artists was less 
among actors than most other artists; fe- 
male actors earned 74 percent of the earn- 
ings of male actors. As with other artists, 
median earnings for actors peaked in the 
35-54 age group. Actors living in the 
western United States had higher median 
earnings than those living in other regions 
of the United States. 

Architects had the highest median earnings 
of any artist occupation, at $12,800 in 
1970. Those who worked 40 or more weeks 
per year earned $13,400. Architects are 
amonq the best educated of all artists. 
Earnings were highest in the 35-54 age 
group. Like other artist occupations, 
female architects earned about half as 
much as male architects. Earnings of 
architects tend to be uniform across the 
regions of the nation. However, there 
are differences for cities; the average 
New York City architect earned about 
$1,300 more than architects in Los 
Angeles or Chicago in 1970. 

Teachers of art, drama, and music in high- 
er education earned $9,100, which is high- 
er than the median earnings for most other 
artist occupations. Only architects and 
designers earned more. Because of the 
nine-month academic year, teachers of art, 
drama, and music in higher education 
worked fewer weeks per year than most 
other types of artists. Their education 
is greater than that of other artist occu- 
pational groups. Women in the occupation 
earned only half as much as men. Unlike 
other artist occupations, median earnings 
for higher education teachers were highest 
in the oldest age group, 55-64. They 
earned more in the West and Northeast re- 
gions of the country than in the South or 
Central regions. In Los Angeles, they 
earned $2,00 more per year than in New 
York City or Chicago. 



26 



Authors earn more than the average artist 
and have relatively high work levels. 
Their median earnings were $8,900 per year, 
and increased to $10,200 for those work- 
ing 4 or more weeks during the year. 
Women authors earned half of what male 
authors earned. Authors tend to be older 
than other types of artists and better 
educated than most. There is little dif- 
ference in authors ' median earnings from 
one region of the country to another 
although authors in the southern United 
States earned slightly more than those 
elsewhere, and Los Angeles had slightly 
better paid authors than New York or 
Chicago. 

Dancers are among the lowest paid of all 
artists--only musicians earned less in 
19 70. Median earnings for dancers were 
$3,300. Their low earnings correlate with 
their low work levels (averaging 38 weeks 
per year) and the predominance of women 
in the occupation. It is the only artist 
occupation which has a majority of women 
(82 percent) . It is also the artist oc- 
cupation with the smallest gap in median 
earnings between men and women. However, 
female dancers still earn 12 percent less 
than male dancers. Also correlating with 
low median earnings are low educational 
levels (only 22 percent of dancers at- 
tended college) and youth (median age is 
25) . Median earnings for dancers are 
uniformly low across the country, but 
lower in the South than elsewhere. New 
York City dancers have higher median earn- 
ings than those in Los Angeles or Chicago. 

Designers are among the best paid of all 
types of artists, with median earnings of 
$10,100. Only architects earned more in 
1970. Designers have high work levels, 
averaging more than 5 weeks per year. 
Their educational level is about average 
for artists. Like other artist occupa- 
tions, their median earnings peak in the 
35-54 age group, and women in the occupa- 
tion earn exactly half what male designers 
earn. Earnings are highest in the north- 
ern regions of the United States, and are 
similar among the metropolitan centers of 
New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles. 

Musicians/ composers had the lowest median 
earnings of any artist occupation, aver- 
aging about $3,000 per year. Musicians 
who worked 4 or more weeks per year 
were able to increase their median earn- 
ings to $5,200. Like other performing 
artists, musicians have relatively low 
work levels, averaging 45 weeks. Their 
earnings tend to rise with age and edu- 
cation, but both are relatively low. 
Women musicians have extremely low medi- 
an earnings, less than one-third of male 
musicians' median earnings. Earnings for 
musicians are low throughout the country 



but are slightly higher in the West and 
East than in the central or southern 
parts of the country. 

Painters/sculptors follow a typical earn- 
ing pattern for artists. They had median 
earnings of $7,000 a year, but increased 
their earnings to $8,400 for those work- 
ing 40 or more weeks a year. Their earn- 
ings tend to increase with education and 
peak in the 35-54 age group. Women in 
the occupation earn only 4 2 percent of 
men in the occupation. Median earnings 
for painters and sculptors are higher in 
the northern regions than in the South or 
West. New York City and Chicago provide 
better earnings than Los Angeles. 

Photographers ' median earnings were 
$7,800, which is average for the artist 
occupations. Their work levels are rela- 
tively high. The occupation is predomi- 
nantly male, with women earning less than 
half of male photographers. Although 
their educational level is relatively low 
(only 36 percent had any college) , it does 
not seem to affect their earnings. Photo- 
graphers tend to earn about the same, re- 
gardless of educational attainment. Earn- 
ings are highest in the 35-54 age group. 
Across the major regions of the country 
(see Table 34), photographers' median 
earnings are very uniform, although they 
earned slightly more in Chicago than in 
New York or Los Angeles. 

Radio-TV announcers had median earnings 
of $7,100, which was about average for 
artists. Their work levels are relatively 
high. The occupation is overwhelmingly 
male (94 percent) and women in the occu- 
pation earn only 42 percent of males. 
Radio-TV announcers are relatively young 
(median age is 29) . As in other artist 
occupations, their earnings peak in the 
35-54 age group. Educational attainment 
is about average for these artists (63 per- 
cent attended college) , and earnings in the 
occupation tend to correlate with educa- 
tion. The Northeast region of the coun- 
try provides better median earnings for 
radio-TV announcers than any other region; 
the South provides the lowest. Los 
Angeles has considerably better earnings 
for this occupation than either Chicago 
or New York. 



Weeks worked 

The amount of time artists spend on in- 
come-producing work is an important factor 
in determining their earning level. For 
example, in the performing arts occupa- 
tions , where employment periods are fre- 
quently short, earnings were less than 
one-half for all artists. In 1970 and 
1976, only about 60 percent of performing 



27 



Table 25 



Proportion of performing 
artists, all artists, and all 
professionals who worked 
forty or more weeks 
1970 and 1976 



1970 



Performing artists 



62% 



All artists 



79% 



All professional workers 



80% 



1976 



59% 



74% 



80% 



Table 26 



Median earnings of artists 
by weeks worked 
1970 and 1976 



artists worked at least 40 weeks a year 
(see Table 25) . 

The effects of longer work periods on 
artists' earnings are shown in Table 26. 
Artists who reported working 40 or more 
weeks in 1970 earned 19 percent more than 
the general group of artists, and those 
who reported working 4 or more weeks in 
19 76 earned about a third more than all 
artists . 

In specific artist occupations, 1970 
data show that actors, dancers, and musi- 
cians/composers averaged fewer weeks 
worked a year than other artists. Median 
weeks worked for actors were about 34, 
for dancers the period was 38, and for 
musicians/composers it was 45. All other 
artist occupations averaged 46 or more 
weeks per year. This lesser amount of 
time worked by actors, dancers, and musi- 
cians/composers is reflected in their 
annual earnings. In 19 70, median earnings 
for these occupations is greater by 50 to 
70 percent when we consider only persons 
in these occupations who worked 40 or more 
weeks (see Table 27) . 



Median Median for 
for all artists who 
artists worked 4 or 
more weeks 



Percentage 
increase 



1970 


$7,900 


$ 9,400 


19% 


1976 


$7,900 


$10,700 


35% 



Sex 



Female artists make only about 36 percent 
of the median earnings of male artists--a 
situation which did not change from 19 70 
to 1976. In 1970, female artists had me- 
dian earnings of $3,400 per year, while 
male artists had median earnings of $9,500 
per year (see Figure IV) . By 1976 median 
earnings increased to $4,00 for women 



Figure IV 



Median earnings of male and female artists 1970 and 1976 



Female artists 


Male artists 




1970 


1976 1970 


1976 


$3,400 


$4,000 $9,500 


$10,900 













































28 



Table 27 



Percentage increase of those 
who worked forty or more weeks 
in artists' occupations 1970 



Occupation 



Median 



Median for artists 
who worked 4 or 
more weeks 



Percent 
increase 



Actors 


$ 


5,900 


$ 8,700 


73% 




Architects 


$12,800 


$13,400 


5% 




Authors 


$ 


8,900 


$10,200 


15% 




Dancers 


$ 


3,300 


$ 5,700 


73% 




Designers 


$10,100 


$10,600 


5% 




Musicians/composers 


$ 


3,000 


$ 5,200 


73% 




Painters/sculptors 


$ 


7,000 


$8,400 


20% 




Photographers 


$ 


7,800 


$ 8,500 


9% 




Radio -TV announcers 


$ 


7,100 


$ 8,100 


14% 




Teachers of art, drama, 
and music (higher edu- 
cation) 


$ 


9,100 


$10,400 


14% 




Other artists not else- 
where classified 


$ 


7,700 


$ 9,200 


19% 





29 



Table 28 



Artists' earnings by sex 
1970 and 1976 



1970 



Males 



Females 



Total 



Earnings 



Number 



Cumulative Number 



Cumulative Number 



Cumulative 



Loss 


1,773 


.4% 


1,262 


.8% 


3,035 


.5% 


$0-1,999 


51,712 


12.1% 


58,666 


37.9% 


110,378 


18.9% 


$2,000-2,999 


15,805 


15.7% 


14,035 


46.7% 


29,840 


23.9% 


$3,000-3,999 


17,659 


19.7% 


13,809 


55.5% 


31,468 


29.1% 


$4,000-4,999 


17,169 


23.6% 


10,643 


62.2% 


27,812 


33.8% 


$5,000-5,999 


21,478 


28.5% 


12,290 


70.0% 


33,768 


39,4% 



$6,000-6,999 


22,684 


33.6% 


9,769 


76.1% 


32,453 


44.8% 


$7,000-7,999 


26,856 


39.7% 


8,295 


81.4% 


35,151 


50.7% 


$8,000-8,999 


30,045 


46.5% 


7,270 


86.0% 


37,315 


56.9% 


$9,000-9,999 


28,516 


53.0% 


5,066 


89.2% 


33,582 


62.5% 


$10,000-10,999 


38,957 


61.8% 


5,239 


92.5% 


44,196 


69.9% 


$11,000-11,999 


23,677 


67.2% 


2,302 


93.9% 


25,979 


74.2% 


$12,000-12,999 


27,531 


73.4% 


2,525 


95.5% 


30,056 


79.3% 


$13,000-13,999 


17,295 


77.3% 


1,296 


96.4% 


18,591 


82.4% 


$14,000-14,999 


14,642 


80.6% 


930 


96.9% 


15,572 


85.0% 


$15,000-15,999 


16,837 


84.5% 


1,196 


97.7% 


18,033 


88.0% 


$16,000-16,999 


8,340 


86.4% 


533 


98.0% 


8,873 


89.4% 


$17,000-24,999 


36,595 


94.7% 


1,933 


99.3% 


38,528 


94.9% 


$25,000 or more 


23,594 


100.0% 


1,170 


100.0% 


24,764 


100.0% 



Total 


441,165 





158,229 





599,394 





Median earnings 


$9,540 





$3,373 





$7,880 






30 



and $10,900 for men (see Table 28). 

Low earnings for women are not unique to 
the arts. Data for all professional 
workers in 1976 show that women profes- 
sionals had median incomes that were 58 
percent of the median incomes of male pro- 
fessionals. Differences in male and 
female earnings are, however, greater in 
the artist occupations than they are 
among all professional workers. 

An earlier National Endowment for the Arts 
Research Division Report, Minorities and 
Women in the Arts: 1970 , dealt with 
earnings of "established" artists who were 
at least 30 years old, had worked in the 
same occupation in 1965 and 1970, and 
had worked 4 weeks or more during the 
year. These earnings statistics were con- 
trolled for the effects of job inexperi- 
ence and low work levels and showed that 
established women artists had median 



earnings that were less than half the 
median earnings of comparably established 
male artists: $5,500 for females as 
opposed to $12,000 for males. Large 
income differences between the sexes 
existed in all artist occupations. 

Census data provide little additional 
information on reasons for inequality in 
pay. However, much has been written on 
this topic, suggesting such factors as 
delays in career development of women due 
to marriage, childrearing, lack of job 
training, less time available for income- 
producing work, occupational segregation, 
and discriminatory practices in employ- 
ment and appraisals of work. Census data 
do show that women artists spend less time 
working for pay. In 19 70 the proportion 
of male artists working 50 to 52 weeks 
per year and 30 hours or more per week was 
nearly double the proportion of female 
artists working at this level. 



1976 




Cumulative 



Females 
Number 



Cumulative 



Total 



Number 



Cumulative 



6,708 


1.1% 


6,723 


2.4% 


13,341 


1.5% 


93,980 


16.3% 


89,329 


33.9% 


183,309 


21.8% 


43,962 


23.4% 


28,606 


44.0% 


72,568 


29.8% 


23,317 


27.1% 


17,133 


50.0% 


40,450 


34.3% 


22,288 


30.7% 


15,127 


55.4% 


37,415 


3 8 . 5 -6 


14,539 


33.1% 


16,072 


61.1% 


30,611 


41.8% 


29,284 


37.8% 


14,127 


66.0% 


43,411 


46.7% 


16,158 


40.4% 


16,029 


71.7% 


32,187 


50.2% 


21,988 


44.0% 


21,042 


79.1% 


43,030 


55.0% 


17,139 


46.7% 


10,735 


82.9% 


27,874 


58.1% 


22,312 


50.3% 


12,515 


87.3% 


34,827 


61.9% 


21,048 


53.7% 


8,897 


90.5% 


29,945 


65.2% 


31,085 


58.7% 


7,707 


93.2% 


38,792 


69.5% ' 


29,950 


63.6% 


3,218 


94.3% 


33,168 


73.2% 


22,856 


67.2% 


1,189 


94.7% 


24,045 


75.9% 


33,431 


72.7% 


4,855 


96.5% 


38,286 


80.1% 


22,285- 


76.3% 


2,661 


97.4% 


24,946 


82.9% 


93,801 


91.4% 


5,320 


99.3% 


99,121 


93.9% 


53^181 


100.0% 


2,059 


100.0% 


55,240 


100.0% 


619,312 





283,344 





902,656 





$10,910 





$3,933 





$7,936 






31 



Table 29 



Median earnings 

in artists' occupations 

by age and sex 1970 





Age 18-24 




Age 25-34 




Occupation 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Actors 


$1,900 


$1,900 


$ 


7,500 


$5,800 


Architects 


$4,600 


$3,500 


$10,900 


$8,000 


Authors 


$3,600 


$3,000 


$10,200 


$5,100 


Dancers 


$3,200 


$2,900 


$ 


5,500 


$4,100 


Designers 


$6,300 


$3,500 


$10,400 


$6,000 


Musicians/composers 


$1,900 


$1,300 


$ 


6,500 


$1,700 


Painters/sculptors 


$3,800 


$3,100 


$ 

*■ 


8,600 


$4,700 


Photographers 


$4,000 


$1,900 


$ 


8,400 


$4,100 


Radio- TV announcers 


$2,800 


$3,300 


$ 


7,900 


$3,800 


Teachers of art, drama, 
and music (higher edu- 
cation) 


$1,900 


$1,450 


$ 


8,000 


$4,800 


Other artists not else- 
where classified 


$2,900 


$2,600 


$ 


8,800 


$4,800 


All artists 


$3,100 


$2,300 


$ 


9,100 


$4,400 


All professional, 
technical, and kindred 
workers 


$4,400 


$3,900 


$ 


9,700 


$6,200 



*Denotes too few cases for reliable estimates. 
Cases included in median earnings for "All artists." 

32 



Age 

Age of the artist is an important factor 
in earnings for all artist occupations . 
In 1970, artists between the ages of 18 
and 2 4 were very low earners, averaging 
about $3,000 per year. Earnings rose with 
age and peaked in the 34-54 age group, 
declining slightly after age 55. 

There were some interesting exceptions. 
Among teachers and musicians/composers, 
median earnings did not decline after age 
55. Among women, the earning peak occurred 
at a younger age, between 25 and 34, de- 
clining slightly after age 35 and then re- 
maining stable (see Table 29) . 



The effects of age on earnings are general- 
ly similar for artists and all profession- 
al workers, but if earnings of women are 
isolated, it can be seen that median earn- 
ings of all female professionals continue 
to rise with age all the way into the 
55-64 age group while median earnings of 
female artists tend to decline after 34. 
In all age groups, earnings of women art- 
ists and other women professional con- 
tinue to be considerably lower than 
earnings of men. These data also confirm 
athat in all age groups both male and fe- 
male artists earn less than all profes- 
sional workers at equivalent ages. 



Age 35-54 




Age 55-64 




Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


$10,000 


$6,000 


$ 8,500 


$3,100 


$15,300 


$7,500 


$15,100 


$3,500 


$12,200 


$3,900 


$10,300 


$5,800 


$12,500 


$6,000 


. * 


m * 


$12,500 


$5,800 


$12,000 


$7,600 


$ 8,400 


$1,700 


$ 8,500 


$1,700 


$11,100 


$3,900 


$10,200 


$4,000 


$ 9,900 


$4,000 


$ 9,400 


$5,600 


$11,700 


$3,000 


$ 9,800 


... * 



$12,700 



$6,600 



$13,700 



$9,600 



$11,200 


$4,600 


$10,400" 


$3,000 


$12,000 


$4,000 


$10,800 


$4,000 


$13,100 


$6,500 


$12,500 


$7,300 



33 



Table 30 



Median earnings 

in artists' occupations 

by education and sex 1970 



Less than 
four years 
high school 



Four years 
high school 



Occupation 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 


Actors 


$ 8,200 


$4,500 


$ 6,900 


$3,400 


Architects 


$ 9,000 


m * 


$13,400 


$6,300 


Authors 


$11,000 


... * 


$11,000 


$2,800 


Dancers 


... * 


$2,000 


$ 9,000 


$5,000 


Designers 


$10,400 


$5,200 


$11,000 


$5,400 


Musicians/composers 


$ 6,000 


$1,600 


$ 7,600 


$1,800 


Painters/sculptors 


$10,200 


$3,400 


$ 9,600 


$3,900 


Photographers 


$ 9,200 


$3,700 


$ 9,500 


$4,500 


Radio-TV announcers 


$ 9,200 


:*■#■■.■# 


$ 8,500 


$2,500 


Teachers of art, drama, 
and music (higher edu- 
cation) 


$ 7,800 


. * 


$10,200 


$6,200 


Other artists not else- 
where classified 


$ 7,600 


$3,600 


$10,000 


$4,600 


All artists 


$ 8,900 


$3,400 


$10,100 


$3,800 


All professional, 
technical, and kindred 
workers 


$ 9,100 


$4,400 


$10,400 


$5,400 



*Denotes too few cases for reliable estimates. 
Cases included in median earnings for "All artists." 

34 



Education 

Education correlates positively with art- 
ist earnings. As educational attainment 
rises, earnings increase. The artist pop- 
ulation has a relatively high level of 
education. In 1970, 89 percent of artists 
aged 25-64 had completed high school and 
38 percent had four years or more of col- 
lege. 

Median earnings of Male artists ages 25-64 
with at least four years of college were 
$12,000 in 1970 (see Table 30). Male art- 
ists in the same age group earned $10,000 
if they had only a high school education, 
and $8,900 if high school had not been 
completed. 

Among female artists, education is also 
important and has its greatest effect on 
earnings for the college-educated. Al- 
though female artists with a college edu- 



cation had median earnings of only $5,200 
in 1970, this represents a 37 percent in- 
crease in earnings over the same age group 
of women artists with only a high school 
education. In comparison, median earnings 
of college-educated male artists rose only 
19 percent above those with a high school 
education. 

On all educational levels, artists' earn- 
ings in 1970 were lower than earnings of 
all professional workers. These differ- 
ences were greater among women than men. 

Educational attainment is greater in some 
artist occupations than it is in others. 
In 1970 the highest educated artist occu- 
pation was teachers of art, drama and 
music in higher education — 95 percent of 
who had attended college. This was fol- 
lowed by architects (86 percent) and 
authors (78 percent) . The occupations 
with the lowest educational levels in 1970 



One-three years 
college 



Four or more 
years college 



Males 



Females 



Males 



Females 



$ 7,600 


$8,200 


$ 8,600 


$5,100 


$12,700 


. * 


$13,800 


$8,500 


$10,600 


$6,200 


$12,300 


$5,200 


. * 


$3,000 


$ 5,500 


. * 


$11,300 


$6,500 


$12,500 ' 


$6,900 


$ 8,000 


$1,700 


$ 8,800 


$1,800 


$10,300 


$4,000 


$ 1,800 


$5,500 


$ 9,200 


$2,800 


$ 9,500 


$5,000 


$ 9,900 


$4,500 


$10,800 


$7,500 


$ 9,300 


$3,300 


$11,000 


$6,800 


$10,400 


$5,100 


$11,2#6 


$5,000 


$10,400 


$3,900 


$12,000 


$5,200 


$10,800 


$5,500 


$13,000 


$7,600 



35 



Table 31 



Proportion of 
artists age 25-64 
with some college 
education by 
occupation 1970 



Actors 


62% 


Architects 


86% 


Authors 


78% 


Dancers 


22% 


Designers 


62% 


Musicians/composers 


52% 


Painters/sculptors 


60% 


Photographers 


36% 


Radio-TV announcers 


63% 



Teachers of art, drama 
and music (higher edu- 
cation) 



95% 



Other artists not else- 
where classified 



55% 



All artists 



62% 



were dancers and photographers. Only 22 
percent of dancers and 36 percent of 
photographers had attended college (see 
Table 31) . 

These educational differences correlate 
positively with the earnings achieved in 
each occupation. In particular, archi- 
tects and authors have high earnings, 
while earnings of dancers and photograph- 
ers are relatively low. 



Race 

As previously described, median earnings 
for all artists did not change from 1970 
to 1976. For black artists during this 
six-year period, median earnings actually 
declined from $5,800 in 1970 to about 
$4,900 in 1976 (see Table 32). As a group, 
black artists earned about 70 percent of 
median earnings of the white artist popu- 
lation in 1970. By 1976, their relative 
earnings dropped to about 60 percent. 



The effects of race on earning 
be greater among artists than 
professional workers. For all 
als, blacks had median earning 
in 1976. This represented 85 
the $11,500 in median earnings 
professionals. For additional 
refer to National Endowment fo 
Research Division Report #7 (s 
the back of this report) . 



s appear to 
among all 

profession- 
s of $9,800 
percent of 

of white 

detail , 
r the Arts, 
ee list at 



36 



Table 32 



Artists' earnings 

by race 1970 and 1976 



1970 

Earnings 



Blacks 

Number 



Cumulative 



Whites 
Number 



Cumulative 



$0-1,999 

$2,000-2,999 

$3,000-3,999 

$4,000-4,999 

$5,000-5,999 

$6,000-6,999 



3,530 
1,465 
1,789 
1,572 
1,855 
1,552 



17.9% 
25.4% 
34.4% 
42.4% 
51.8% 
59.7% 



96,720 
29,421 
30,619 
26,075 
32,187 
31,131 



17.0% 

27.5% 
32.1% 
37.8% 
43.3% 



$7,000-7,999 

$8,000-9,999 

$10,000-11,999 

$12,000-14,999 

$15,000-24,999 

$25,000 or more 



1,374 
2,066 
1,868 
1,524 
870 
236 



66.7% 
77.2% 
86.7% 
94.4% 
98.8% 
100.0% 



33,837 
69,234 
68,248 
62,453 
64,937 
24,140 



49, 
61. 



73.4% 

84.3% 

95.8% 

100.0% 



Total 



19,701 



569,002 



Median earnings 



$5,800 



$8,200 



1976 
Earnings 



Blacks 
Number 



Cumulative 



Whites 
Number 



Cumulative 



$0-1,999 

$2,000-2,999 

$3,000-3,999 

$4,000-4,999 

$5,000-5,999 

$6,000-7,999 



10,518 
6,938 
2,329 
4,449 
2,374 
4,800 



22.3% 
37.0% 
41.9% 
51.3% 
56.3% 
66.5% 



182,434 
63,110 
36,246 
31,500 
27,993 
36,853 



21. 


,9% 


29. 


.5% 


33. 


Q9- 


37. 


, 6 % 


41. 


.0% 


45. 


.4% 


49. 


,0% 


56. 


. 8 •s 


64. 




75. 


9S- 

. Z. o 


93. 


. 8 -6 


100. 


.0% 



$7,000-7,999 

$8,000-9,999 

$10,000-11,999 

$12,000-14,999 

$15,000-24,999 

$25,000 or more 



2,544 
4,197 
1,355 
2,213 
3,456 
2,060 



71.9% 
80.0% 
83.6% 
88.3% 
95.6% 
100.0% 



29,254 
64,937 
62,904 
90,851 
154,648 
51,454 



Total 



47,233 



832,131 



Median earnings 



$4,861 



$8,228 



37 



Table 33 Median earnings 

in artists' occupations 
by region 1970 



Occupation 


Northeast 


North Central 


South 


West 


Actors 


$ 5,700 


$ 


2,900 


$ 


5,100 


$ 


6,400 


Architects 


$12,800 


$13,200 


$12,600 


$12,700 


Authors 


$ 9,400 


$ 


8,800 


$10,000 


$ 


8,600 


Dancers 


$ 3,900 


$ 


4,000 


$ 


2,300 


$ 


3,700 


Designers 


$10,500 


$10,500 . 


$ 


8,900 


$ 


9,400 


Musicians/composers 


$ 3,600 


$ 


2,000 


$ 


2,700 


$ 


3,600 


Painters/sculptors 


$ 7,400 


$ 


7,900 


$ 


5,700 


$ 


6,600 


Pho togr apher s 


$ 8,200 


$ 


7,700 


$ 


7,100 


$ 


7,800 


Radio-TV announcers 


$ 8,100 


$ 


6,900 


$ 


5,900 


$ 


7,200 


Teachers of art, drama, 
music (higher education) 


$10,200 


$ 


8,500 


$ 


8,400 


$10,200 


Other artists not else- 
where classified 


$ 8,400 


$ 


8,100 


$ 


6,800 


$ 


7,600 


All artists 


$ 8,600 


$ 


8,200 


$ 


6,800 


$ 


7,700 



38 



Residence 

Artists living in different geographic 
regions of the country had some differ- 
ences in earnings. In 1970, artists in 
the Northeast had median earnings of 
$8,600 compared with $8,200 in the North 
Central region, $7,700 in the West, and 
$6,800 in the South (see Table 33). 
Within specific artist occupations there 
is some variation in 1970 median earnings 
from one region to another. The actor 
occupation has the greatest range. In 
197 0, actors reported very low median 
earnings (less than $3,000) in the North 
Central region, but averaged $6,400 in the 
West. Architects had the most uniform 
earnings across the four regions in 1970. 

In the metropolitan areas of New York, 
Chicago, and Los Angeles, median earnings 
of artists were very similar in 1970. 
Chicago's artists reported median earnings 
of $9,500, New York artists $9,300, and 



Los Angeles artists $8,500. In the indi- 
vidual occupations, the greatest variabi- 
lity in earnings was for musicians/ compo- 
sers, photographers, teachers, and radio- 
TV announcers. Musicians/composers earned 
most in New York and Los Angeles, photo- 
graphers earned most in Chicago, and 
teachers earned most in Los Angeles (see 
Table 34) . 



Table 34 



Median earnings in artists' occupations 
in three largest Standard Metropolitan 
Statistical Areas 1970 



Occupation 


New York 


Los Angeles 


Chicago 


Actors 


$ 


5,100 


$ 6,200 


$ 


5,000 


Architects 


$15,100 


$13,800 


$13,800 


Authors 


$ 


7,800 


$ 8,400 


$ 


6,500 


Dancers 


$ 


5,700 


$ 4,000 


$ 


4,000 


Designers 


$10,300 


$10,200 


$11,100 


Musicians/composers 


$ 


6,500 


$ 6,500 


$ 


3,800 


Painters/sculptors 


$ 


9,200 


$ 7,400 


$ 


9,100 


Photographers 


$ 


9,000 


$ 7,300 


$ 


9,600 


Radio- TV announcers 




* 


* 

::■'■-.'..»*'■-■». ■ ■ 




* 


Teachers of art, drama, 
music (higher education) 


$ 


9,100 


$11,300 


$ 


9,300 


Other artists not else- 
where classified 


$ 


9,400 


$ 8,900 


$ 


8,800 


All artists 


$ 


9,300 


$ 8,500 


$ 


9,500 



♦Denotes too few cases for reliable estimates. 
Cases included in median earnings for "All artists." 

39 



Household earnings 

Earnings of other members of artists' 
households tend to offset the relatively 
low personal earnings of certain artists. 
The data show that household-level median 
earnings tended to remain constant at 
about $13,000 in 1970 (see Table 36) and 
$18,000 in 1976 (see Table 37), regard- 
less of the amount of time the artist in 
the household worked during the year or 
the sex of the artist (see Table 35) . 
Data in 1970 also show that artist occu- 
pational differences diminish when house- 
hold-level earnings are considered (see 
Table 38) . This suggests that many art- 
ist with low personal earnings are depen- 
dent on other household earners to main- 
tain the household income at a satisfac- 
tory level. 

Household earnings for artists are also 
closer to household earnings for all pro- 
fessional workers than was the case with 
personal earnings. In 1976, median house- 
hold earnings for artists were about 
$17,900 compared with $20,400 in median 
household earnings for professional work- 
ers. These data suggest that, while art- 
ists' personal earnings are relatively 
low, artists tend to be members of house- 
holds with professional-level earnings. 
Although artists' personal earnings did 
not increase significantly between 1970 
and 1976, their total household earnings 
rose considerably during the period, by 
about 40 percent. 



Table 35 



Median household earnings of artists 
by sex and weeks worked 
1970 and 1976 



All 

artist 

households 



Male 

artist 

households 



Female 
artist 
households 



Artists who worked 
40 or more weeks 
households 



1970 


$12,800 


$12,900 


$12,400 


$13,300 


1976 


$17,900 


$18,200 


$17,500 


$19,000 



40 



Table 36 



Artists' heads of 
household earnings 
by sex 1970 and 1976 





Male head 


s of 


Female heads of 


Total 






household 


s 


household; 


3 






Earnings 


Number 


Cumulative 


Number 


Cumulative 


Number 


Cumulative 


LOSS 


501 


.1% 


167 


.1% 


668 


.1% 


$0-1,999 


12,801 


3.1% 


7,306 


4.9% 


20,107 


3.5% 


$2,000-2,999 


8,286 


5.0% 


4,276 


7.6% 


12,562 


5.7% 


$3,000-3,999 


9,230 


7.1% 


4,886 


10.8% 


14,11-6 


8.1% 


$4,000-4,999 


12,000 


9.9% 


5,169 


14.2% 


17,169 


11.0% 


$5,000-5,999 


13,871 


13.1% 


6,940 


18.7% 


20,811 


14.5% 


$6,000-6,999 


15,237 


16.6% 


6,833 


23.1% 


22,070 


18.3% 


$7,000-7,999 


17,878 


20.7% 


7,799 


2. • 2. "6 


25,677 


22.7% 


$8,000-8,999 


23,877 


26.2% 


8,508 


33.8% 


32,385 


28 • 2-6 


$9,000-9,999 


23,930 


31.7% 


7,339 


38.5% 


31,269 


33.5% 


$10,000-10,999 


30,986 


38.8% 


9,037 


44.4% 


40,023 


40.3% 


$11,000-11,999 


25,688 


44.7% 


7,190 


49.1% 


32,878 


45.9% 


$12,000-12,999 


28,777 


51.4% 


9,203 


55.1% 


37,980 


52.3% 


$13,000-13,999 


24,803 


57.1% 


7,003 


59.6% 


31,806 


57.8% 


$14,000-14,999 


21,181 


62.0% 


6,662 


64.0% 


27,843 


62.5% 


$15,000-15,999 


22,455 


67.1% 


5,774 


67.7% 


28,229 


67.3% 


$16,000-16,999 


16,838 


71.0% 


5,734 


71.5% 


22,572 


71.1% 


$17,000-24,999 


80,265 


89.5% 


27,118 


89.1% 


107,383 


89.4% 


$25,000 or more 


45,596 


100.0% 


16,749 


100.0% 


62,345 


100.0% r 


Total 


441,165 





158,229 





599,394 





Median earnings . 


$ 12,914 





$ 12,398 




$ 12,789 






41 



Table 37 



Artists' heads of household 
earnings by sex 1976 



Male heads of 
households 



Female heads of 
households 



Total 



Earnings 



Number Cumulative Number 



Cumulative 



Number 



Cumulative 



$0-1,999 


11,547 


1.9% 


6,002 


J. • 4- '6 


17,549 


2.0% 


$2,000-2,999 


7,831 


3.2% 


4,584 


3.9% 


12,415 


3.4% 


$3,000-3,999 


11,114 


5.1% 


7,570 


6.7% 


18,684 


5.6% 


$4,000-4,999 


6,654 


6.2% 


5,105 


8.6% 


11,759 


6.9% 


$5,00.0-5,999 


13,137 


8.4% 


10,759 


12.6% 


23,895 


9.7% 


$6,000-6,999 


14,483 


10.8% 


10,654 


16.5% 


25,137 


12.6% 


$7,000-7,999 


12,772 


12.9% 


6,626 


18.9% 


19,398 


14.8% 


$8,000-8,999 


13,961 


15.3% 


7,190 


21.6% 


21,151 


17.2% 



$9,000-9,999 

$10,000-10,999 

$11,000-11,999 

$12,000-12,999 

$13,000-13,999 

$14,000-14,999 

$15,000-15,999 



16,773 
19,194 
22,060 
17,794 
29,110 
19,170 
41,915 



18.0% 
21.2% 
24.9% 
27.9% 
32.7% 
35.9% 
42.9% 



10,514 
13,047 
10,572 
7,233 
7,729 
8,571 
7,228 



25.5% 
30.3% 
34.2% 
36.9% 



39, 
42, 



45.6% 



27,288 
32,241 
32,632 
25,027 
36,840 
27,741 
49,143 



20.4% 
24.1% 
27.8% 
30.7% 
34.9% 
38.1% 
43.7% 



$16,000-16,999 
$17,000-17,999 
$18,000-18,999 
$19,000-19,999 
$20,000-24,999 
$25,000 or more 



22,329 
26,008 
19,224 
27,840 
95,136 



46.6% 
51.0% 
54.2% 
58.8% 
74.7% 



151,828 100.0% 



11,050 
14,558 
11,522 
5,269 
28,941 
76,149 



49.6% 
55.0% 
59.3% 
61.2% 
71.9% 
100.0% 



33,379 
40,566 
30,746 
33,109 
124,077 
227,977 



47.6% 

55.8% 

59.6% 

73.8% 

100.0% 



Total 



619,307 



283,346 



902,656 



Median earnings 



$ 18,198 



$ 17,497 



$ 17,913 



42 



Architect households continued to have 
the highest median earnings of any artist 
occupation, and dancer households remained 
at the low end of the earnings scale. 
The low household-level earnings of dan- 
cers may be attributed to the high pro- 
portion of dancers who are female heads 
of household. Selected Characteristics 
of Artists: 1970 , National Endowment for 
the Arts, Research Division Report #10 
examines this subject in detail (see 
list at the back of this report) . 



Table 38 



Role of the artist as a household provider 

Like other workers in the United States, 
artists help provide for the economic 
needs of their families. Many artists 
are heads of families and chief income 
recipients in their families. Census and 
SIE data are used here to examine the re- 
lationship of artists' earnings to their 
household and family earnings. 



Contribution to household earnings 

The contribution by artists to household- 
level earnings is an indicator of the ex- 



Median household earnings 
in artists' occupations 1970 



Actors 


$12,500 


Architects 


$15,800 


Authors 


' $13,700 


Dancers 


$ 8,000 


Designers 


$13,500 


Musicians/composers 


$11,300 


Painters/sculptors 


$12,400 


Photographers 


$11,800 


Radio-TV announcers 


$12,000 



Teachers of art, drama, 
and music (higher edu- 
cation) 



Other artists not else- 
where classified 



All artists 



$13,800 



$12,500 



$12,800 



fr 



43 



Table 39 



Artists' personal earnings as a 
proportion of median household 
earnings by sex and weeks worked 
1970 and 1976 



All 
artists 



Male 



Female 



Worked 4 or more 
weeks 



1970 



62% 



74% 



27% 



71% 



1976 



44% 



60% 



23 ! 



57 ! 



tent of financial dependence of artists 
on other household earners. This was 
examined by calculating the proportion of 
median household earnings that are ac- 
counted for by median personal earnings 
of artists. In 1970, artists' median 
personal earnings accounted for well over 
half (62 percent) of their median house- 
hold earnings, but by 1976 their contri- 
bution dropped to below half (about 44 
percent) . Artists who worked 40 or more 
weeks during the year contributed a great- 
er share to household earnings — 71 percent 
in 1970 and about 57 percent in 1976 (see- 
Table 39) . 

Female artists were considerably more 
dependent on earnings of other household 
members than were male artists. In 1970 
and 1976, their median earnings accounted 
for only about one-fourth of their median 
household income. 

The extent of artists' contributions to 
household earnings varied by occupation 
in 1970. As might be expected, artists 
in the highest-earning occupations (archi- 
tects; designers; teachers of art, drama, 
and music in higher education; and authors) 
contributed most to their household in- 
comes, while artists in the lowest-earning 
occupations (musicians and dancers) con- 
tributed least. As shown in Figure V, 
artists in high-earning occupations pro- 
vided about three-fourths of their house- 
hold earnings, while in low-earning occu- 
pations artists were able to provide less 
than half, making them more dependent on 
other household earners. 



44 



Figure V 



Median personal earnings as a proportion of median 
household earnings in artists' occupations 1970 



Architects 



Designers 



Teachers of art, drama 
and music (higher 
education) 

Photographers 



Authors 



Radio-TV announcers 



Painters/sculptors 



Actors 



Dancers 



Musicians/composer 



82% 



7 5? 



66% 



66% 



65 ! 



59< 



56'- 



47% 



41? 



27% 



45 



Table 40 



Chief household income recipients 
in artists' occupations 
by weeks worked 1969 



Worked in 1969 



Worked 40 or more 
weeks in 1969 



Occupation 



Number of 
chief income 
recipients 



Percent of 
total in 
households 



Number of 
chief income 
recipients 



Percent of 
total in 
households 



Actors 


9,498 


69% 


4,637 


76% 


Architects 


52,636 


93% 


49,403 


95% 


Authors 


20,591 


78% 18,223 


83% 


Dancers 


4,038 


61% 


2,371 


68% 


Designers 


90,585 


82% 


84,428 


86% 


Musicians/composers 


53,363 


56% 


37,305 


64% 


Painters/sculptors 


73,551 


69% 


65,550 


75% 


Photographers 


52,069 


79% 


47,171 


83% 


Radio-TV announcers 


17,061 


77%' 


14,929 


82% 


Teachers of art, drama, 
and music (higher edu- 
cation) 


24,354 


80% 


19,125 


85% 


Other artists not else- 
where classified 


47,345 


74% 


40,340 


80% 


All artists 


445,091 


74% 


383,482 


80% 



46 



Chief income recipients in households 

The 197 Census asked persons whether 
they were the family member with the 
largest income. Nearly three-fourths of 
artists, including those not living in 
families, said they were the chief income 
recipient (see Table 40) . Artists who 
worked less than 40 weeks during the year 
have income-producing responsibilities to 
their households, with exactly half being 
the chief income recipient. 

The proportion of artists who were chief 
income recipients in their households 
varied by artist occupation. As might be 
expected, artists in the highest-earning 
occupations (architects; designers; and 
teachers of art, drama, and music in high- 
er education) were most likely to be chief 
income recipients for their households, 
while artists in the low-earning occupa- 
tions (musicians and dancers) were least 
likely to be chief income recipients. 
Nevertheless, even in the dancer occupa- 
tion, 61 percent were chief income reci- 
pients. 



Worked less than 
40 weeks in 1969 



Number of 
chief income 
recipients 



Percent of 
total in 
households 



4,861 


63% 


3,233 


68% 


2,368 


53% 


1,667 


54% 


6,157 


52% 


16,058 


44% 


8,001 


41% 


4,898 


54% 


2,132 


55% 



5,229 



64% 



7,005 



52% 



61,609 



50 ! 



47 



Table 41 



Chief family income recipients 
in artists' occupations 
by weeks worked 1969 



Worked in 1969 



Worked 4 or more weeks 
in 1969 



Occupation 



Number of 
chief income 
recipients 



Percent of 
total in 
households 



Number of 
chief income 
recipients 



Percent of 
total in 
households 



Actors 


4,342 


50% 


2,407 


62% 




Architects 


45,992 


92% 


43,963 


95% 




Authors 


15,028 


72% 


13,791 


79% 




Dancers 


1,702 


40% 


1,202 


51% 




Designers 


73,548 


79% 


70,748 


83% 




Musicians/composers 


32,571 


44% 


25,767 


57% 




Painters/sculptors 


53,912 


62% 


49,813 


69% 




Photographers 


42,994 


75% 


40,532 


80% 




Radio-TV announcers 


12,399 


71% 


11,730 


78% 




Teachers of art, 
drama, and music 
(higher education) 


16,917 


73% 


14,018 


81% 




Other artists not 
elsewhere classified 


35,071 


68% 31,769 


76% 


-"'."' 


All artists 


334,476 


68% 


305,740 


77% 





48 



Artists who lived with family members were 
less likely to be chief income recipients 
in 1970 than the general group of artists 
in all types of living arrangements (see 
Table 41) . In particular, family living 
arrangements allowed artists who worked 
less than 40 weeks during the year to be 
more dependent on other family members. 
Among artists living in families and work- 
ing less than 4 weeks, only one-third 
were chief income recipients. This com- 
pares with half who were chief income 
recipients among all artists working less 
than 40 weeks. 



Worked less than 40 weeks 
in 1969 



Number of Percent of 
chief income total in 
recipients households 



1,935 


41% 




2,029 


57% 




1,237 


15% 




500 


26% 




2,800 


33% 




6,804 


25% 




4,099 


26% 




2,462 


37% 




669 


28% 





2,899 49% 

3,302 34% 

28,736 32% 



49 



Artists as family heads 

In the 1970 Census, the head of household 
for husband-wife families is always con- 
sidered to be the husband for purposes 
of simplifying data tabulations. There- 
fore, these data cover only male artists. 
They are useful for comparative purposes 
with all professional workers. Among 
husband-wife families which had an artist 
as their head, 1970 median earnings were 
generally lower than median earnings among 
husband-wife families with all types of 
professional workers as their head (see 
Table 42). Architects and authors were 
an exception; their families generally 
had higher earnings than families of all 
professional workers. (The Bureau of the 
Census is planning to gradually eliminate 
the concept of household "head" in data 



Table 42 



Median earnings in artists'occupations 
of husband-wife families with artist as head 
by size of family and number of earners 1970 



Occupation of family head 



Two-person families 

One earner Two earners 



Three/four-person families 



One earner 



Two or more 
earners 



Actors 


$ 9,200 


$ 8,800 


$13,700 


$14,800 


Architects 


$16,900 


$15,500 


$14,900 


$17,400 


Authors 


$16,000 


$13,500 


$12,800 


$16,200 


Dancers 


. * 


. * 


. * 


* 


Designers 


$12,400 


$14,300 


$12,800 


$14,500 


Musicians/composers 


$ 8,700 


$ 9,700 


$10,500 


$11,200 


Painters/sculptors 


$10,900 


$13,400 


$12,300 


$14,300 


Photographers 


$10,200 


$12,600 


$11,000 


$13,300 


Radio -TV announcers 


$16,200 


$11,300 


$10,400 


$11,400 


Teachers of art, drama, 
music (higher education) 


$13,500 


$14,100 


$11,900 


$15,900 


Other artists not else- 
where classified 


$12,000 


$13,400 


$11,700 


$14,300 


All professional, 
technical, and kindred 
workers 


$13,500 


$13,900 


$12,700 


$14,900 



*Denotes too few fases for reliable estimates. 
Cases included in median earnings for "All artists." 



enumeration and tabulation.) 

Family size seemed to make little differ- 
ence in total family income. Family 
incomes increased only slightly as family 
size increased. These trends existed for 
both artists and for all professional 
workers who were family heads. 

Families with more than one earner gener- 
ally had higher incomes than families 
with single earners. However, their in- 
comes averaged only about $1,500 more in 
1970 than incomes of single-earner fami- 
lies. In two-person families of archi- 
tects, actors, authors, and radio-TV 
announcers, incomes averaged higher in 
families where only the household head 
was an earner than in families where both 
husband and wife worked. 



Five-or-more person families 

One earner Two or more 
earners 



* 

*■'*-,* 


* 

• * • 




$16,500 


$19,600 




$13,600 


$14,000 




... * 


m * 




$13,500 


$15,500 




$10,200 


$13,300 




$13,000 


$15,400 




$12,200 


$12,800 




$12,600 


$14,100 





$14,100 $16,300 
$12,700 $14,600 
$14,000 $16,800 



51 



Table 43 



Husband-wife families in artists' occupations 
with artist as head and two or more earners 
1970 



Occupation of family head 



Total 

husband- wife 
families 



Families with two 
or more earners 

Number 



Percent 



Actors 


4,567 


2,867 


63% 


Architects 


46,412 


20,309 


44% 


Authors 


14,325 


7,299 


50% 


Dancers 


463 


198 


43% 


Designers 


68,422 


34,327 


50% 


Musicians/ composers 


33,009 


19,874 


60% 


Painters/sculptors 


49,257 


26,154 


53% 


Photographers 


44,543 


24,928 


56% 


Radio-TV announcers 


12,260 


7,695 


63% 


Teachers of art, drama, music 
(higher education) 


16,112 


10,312 


64% 



Other artists not elsewhere 
classified 



33,914 



17,712 



52' 



All artists 



323,284 



171,605 



53* 



All professional, 
technical, and kindred 
workers 



5,643,951 



3,273,180 



58% 



52 



Table 44 



1969 poverty status in artists' 
occupations of husband-wife families 
with artist as head 1970 



Occupation of family head 



Income below poverty level 

Number of Percent 
families 



Actors 


268 


5.9% 


Architects 


1,235 


2.7% 


Authors 


334 


2.3% 


Dancers 


* 


_ * 


Designers 


1,066 


1.6% 


Musicians/composers 


2,495 


7.6% 


Painters/sculptors 


1,538 


3.1% 


Photographers 


1,333 


3.0% 


Radio-TV announcers 


569 


4.6% 


Teachers of art, drama, 
music (higher education) 


596 


3.7% 


Other artists not elsewhere 
classified 


1.199 


3.5% 


All artists 


10,666 


3.3% 


All professional, 
technical and kind-red 
workers 


96,097 


1.7% 


All workers 


2,251,252 


5.5% 



*Denotes too few cases for reliable estimates, 



Among all husband-wife families which had 
an artist as their head, about half of the 
families had more than one earner (see Ta- 
ble 43) . This was slightly lower than the 
average for all families with a profession- 
al worker at their head. The proportion of 
families which had more than one earner 
varied little by artist occupation. 



Poverty status in artist families 

Data on poverty status were developed 
using the Census Bureau's coding of pov- 
erty-level family income. This defini- 
tion takes account of such factors as 
family size, number of children, and farm 
and nonfarm residence, as well as money 



income. In 1970, the average poverty 
threshold for a nonfarm family of four 
headed by a male was about $3,750. 



The 1970 Census 
artist families 
poverty level. 
with an artist 
cent had income 
(see Table 44) . 
1.6 percent for 
for musicians a 
lies were more 
status than fam 
workers, but ar 
likely to be in 
lies of the gen 
States workers. 



data show that very few 
had incomes below the 
Among husband-wife families 
as the head, only 3.3 per- 
s below the poverty level 
This figure ranged from 
designers to 7.6 percent 
nd composers. Artist f ami- 
likely to be in poverty 
ilies of all professional 
tist families were less 

poverty status than fami- 
eral population of United 



53 



REPORTS IN THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE 
ARTS RESEARCH DIVISION SERIES 



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